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Full text of "Glimpses of the world; a portfolio of photographs of the marvelous works of God and man"

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Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2012 



littp://arcliive.org/details/glimpsesofworldpOOstod 



Glimpses of the World 

A PORTFOLIO 

OF PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE MARVELOUS WORKS OF GOD AND MAN 

PREPARED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE DISTINGUISHED LECTURER AND TRAVELER 

John L. Stoddard 

CONTAINING A RARE AND ELABORATE COLLECTION OF PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEWS 

OF THE ENTIRE WORLD OF NATURE AND ART 



PRESENTING AND DESCRIBING THE CHOICEST TREASURES OF 



Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, North and South America 



THE OLD world AND THE NEW 



SoiaD onlaY by Subscription 



Photo Publishing Company, 

1892. 




Copyright 1892 by the R. S. Peale Company 



...All Rights Reserved... 




INTRODUCTION 






^^ 



^OME YEARS AGO in the heart of the Rocky Mountains, a gentleman encountered a French priest, his locks 

I completely white with age, traveling apparently for pleasure. Astonished at the sight, he ventured to inquire 

Hi. -^^i^' what had induced him at his time of life to go so far from home. " Tis very easily explained," replied the priest; 

^ "six months ago I was apparently about to die. One night 1 dreamed that I was already in God's presence and 

that he spoke to me these words: 'My child, how did you like the beautiful world I gave you to dwell in?' 1 

answered nothing. In fact, I was too mortified to answer. For think of it ! I who had preached for fifty years 

continually of a 'better world,' had never examined this at all. Awaking from my dream, I made a vow to God, 

that if He gave me back my health, I would devote some months at least to seeing and admiring His works. So 



here I am, making a tour of the world!" 

All of us cannot, it is true, pursue the plan of this French priest in actually traveling around the globe; but, thanks to modern art, 
even those whom circumstances keep at home may make that tour in imagination. 

"The world is mine!" cried Monte Cristo on emerging from his dungeon. "The world is mine!" may now exclaim each man, 
woman and child who holds this volume in his hands in a far truer sense than any of their ancestors could possibly have used those words 
even fifty years ago. Then men could only read descriptions of the marvels of the world in nature, architecture, painting, sculptures or 
imposing ruins, but had no means of looking on their counterparts save in some rare and frequently inaccurate paintings or engravings. 
To-day, how changed the scene! In order to make real advancement, "Hitch your wagon to a star," was the advice of Emerson. In other 
words. Join forces with the mighty powers of the universe and progress is assured. And man has followed the advice of that Philosopher 
of Concord. Some daring spirits made OUR "Star" (the sun) their willing slave, and lo! by the assistance of that subtle alchemist the 



6 



wonders of the Earth are printed with infallible accuracy, and multiplied so easily that even the remotest village in Australia or America 
may hold within itself sun-tinted reproductions of rare scenes, to which even language does imperfect justice, just as the little wayside 
pool may treasure in its shallow depths the glorious reflection of a cloudless sky. 

Between the covers of this volume is an admirable series of such solar portraits selected from a multitude which hang within the 
picture-gallery of the traveler's memory. They cover almost every country on the globe, from the North Cape, which rises like a mighty 
sentinel to guard the coast of northern Europe from the Arctic storms, to where the ruined shrines of India and Egypt raise their sublime 
but mutilated forms in silent protest at the ravages of Time and Man, fanned meanwhile by the perfumed breath of tropic vegetation or 
shaded by the drooping fringes of the palm. Or, if we trace the progress of these pictures as they indicate the East and West, they show 
to us the strange peculiarities of race and clime, from the unique and fascinating civilization of Japan to the barbaric splendor of the 
Russian Kremlin or the enchanting beauty of the Bosphorus. Such faithful delineations of the works of God and man are not designed to 
merely please the eye. To those who have not traveled they stimulate their longing for a visit either to the Old World or the New, and 
possibly lead them to decide to start at once and make their life-dream a reality. 

To those who have been fortunate enough to see their grand originals these pictures serve as charming souvenirs, recalling pleasmg 
incidents which might have otherwise faded gradually from their recollection. Moreover, to those who are fond of narrating to their 
friends the beauty of some celebrated view or the magnificence of some famous building, these pictures deftly supplement their eloquence, 
and render still more vivid and attractive their descriptions. Nor is this ali. Such "Glimpses of the World" as lie before us here, impart 
an added charm to books of travel and of history. To read a printed page of Prescott's graphic story of the Conquest of Mexico gives 
certainly pleasure in itself; but how that pleasure is increased for us if we can turn from time to time and see portrayed in beauty and with 
perfect accuracy in a book like this the City of the Montezumas or the imposing form of the sublime volcano. Popocatapetl, which at the 
coming of the Spaniards was still, as its old Aztec name denotes, 'The Smoking Mountain", and which the Indians looked upon as the abode 
of tortured spirits, whose writhings in their fiery prison-house produced the great convulsions which had marked its history ! Even in 
reference to modern times, to merely read of Valparaiso and Chilians conveys a very limited idea of either the city or its inhabitants, 
compared with that acquired by the views of those identical localities. Again, and perhaps most important of all, who can sufficiently 
praise the influence of faithful illustrations IN stimulating study and investigation ? 



7 



Pictures are keys which unlock for us many libraries. Without their charm our minds too often would not be led on to explore 
the FACTS of which the illustrations are the SYMBOLS. Thus pictures of the Courts of the Alhambra inspire one to learn the history of the 
accomplished, fascinating race, which made that Moorish citadel a peerless specimen of Arab art and Oriental splendor. 

A view of Scott's delightful home at Abbotsford, or of fair "Ellen's Isle" floating like a medallion on the bosom of Loch Katrine, 

awakens a desire to read the "Lady of the Lake" and other works by the same gifted author; while by beholding in reality or on the illumined 

page the stately Trossachs or romantic Melrose Abbey hallowed by Scott's genius, we realize as never before the debt of gratitude the world 

still owes to that enchanting "Wizard of the North." To one, therefore, who looks aright through these attractive pages the graceful forms 

depicted here are eloquent in their suggestiveness. A hundred different works of poetry, art, history and fiction by the best writers of the 

world are quickly called to mind by one who sees- beneath the surface of these lights and shadows. Is it on scenes in France or Germany 

that we are gazing? What histories of the French Revolution, of Napoleon and of Frederick the Great, do not at once present themselves as 

pleasurable subjects for a winter's reading? Are we beholding views of Florence? Instinctively we wish to read, among the many books 

associated with that city of the Renaissance, George Eliot's "Romola," and Grimm's "Life of Michael Angelo." Are we enjoying Roman 

pictures? Here truly the amount of ecclesiastical, historical, poetical and classic literature thus suggested is too immense to be enumerated. 

While hardly can a single portraiture of art or scenery in Italy, Switzerland, Greece, o- on the castle-bordered Rhine, be spread before us, 

without evoking memories of that incomparable volume of the traveler's library. Lord Byron's masterpiece, "Childe Harold," whose thrilling 

stanzas one by one were left by him like a long line of detached pearls to mark the poet's pilgrimage from land to land. For let us not 

deceive ourselves. The benefit of travel comes not from the distance traversed nor from the scenes reflected on the 

RETINA, BUT FROM THE INTELLECTUAL STIMULUS THUS AWAKENED, AND THE AMOUNT OF THOUGHT AND READING WHICH RESULT 
therefrom, just as a man is nourished not by the quantity of food which he may EAT, but by the amount which he ASSIMILATES AND 
MAKES HIS OWN. Thus properly followed up and utilized, this volume of selections from the world's great treasure-house may prove 
more beneficial to the thoughtful reader and observer than actual travel round the globe would be to one who did not wake to the signifi- 
cance of what he saw. "That stick. Sir, has been round the world," exclaimed a man one day to Sidney Smith, as he held out to him a 
valued cane. "Dear me! " was the reply, "and yet it is only a stick after all. " When Italy, Greece, Egypt, India, and other lands, have 
become permanent and intelligible possessions of our minds, then we have really and in the best sense visited them. Yet one 



may do this by reading and the aid of illustrations even at his fireside, while some one else, apparently more fortunate, may see those 
countries with his own eyes and yet know next to nothing of the part which they have played upon the stage of history. 

An ancient proverb says that the world is a kind of book, of which we have read merely the first page, when we have seen only our 
own country, it is true. Goethe has justly said: "Wem Gott will rechte Kunst erweisen, Den schickt Er in die Weite Welt" ("Him 
whom the Gods true art would teach, They send out in the mighty world"). Whether this "sending out" into the world be interpreted 
literally, or as referring to the mind awakened to activity through the printed and the pictured page, the truth is still the same. Expansion, 
growth, broader experience and wider charity, these are the fruits of that REAL travel which is of the MIND. 

it may be said that these two hundred and sixty illustrations here are not harmonious, because collected in so many and such 
different lands. They do present a great variety, it is true, yet the same solar Artist sketched them all, as one by one the globe of which 
they form a part rolled its successive groups of Nature and Humanity within its brilliant grasp! To represent them all would be impossible. 
This volume therefore may be likened to one of those mosaic tables which we occasionally see in some of the grand palaces of Florence, 
whose polished surface is composed of precious stones, each worthy of minute inspection, yet forming with the rest a combination of 
artistic excellence all the more pleasing from its wonderful variety. And if you ask what rule the lapidary has followed in his grouping 
of the greater part of the mosaics represented in this work, he can reply that his chief motive in selecting them has been like that of the 
Duke of Buckingham, when in the place where Anne of Austria had whispered that she loved him he purposely let fall a precious gem, 
desiring that by finding it another might be happy where he himself had been. 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 



(Instantaneous) 
(Instantaneous) 
(Instantaneous) 



EUROPE 

FRANCE 

Paris 

Panorama of Paris 

Place de la Concorde 

Boulevard Madeleine 

Rue de Rivoli 

Eiffel Tower 

Vendome Column 

Column July 

Hotel de Ville 

Tomb of Napoleon 

The Bourse 

Trocadero 

Grand Opera House. Exterior 

Grand Opera House, Interior 

Arch of Triumph 

Madeleine • . . . 

Louvre . . . . , 

Louvre Gallery 

Venus de Milo, Statuary, Unknown 

Immaculate Conception, Painting, Murillo . 
Luxembourg Gallery 

Napoleon III at Solferino. Painting, Meissonier 



(Instantaneous) 

(Instantaneous) 

(Instantaneous) 
(Instantaneous) 



15 

17 

19 

21 

2} 

25 

27 

29 

31 

?? 

3? 

37 

39 

41 

43 

4? 

47 

49 

?1 



PAGE 

Si 

?? 

S7 
59 



Versailles 

Royal Palace - . , . 

Napoleon's Carriage 

Boudoir of Marie Antoinette, Trianon 

Gallery of Battles 
Versailles Gallery 

Battle of Rivoli, Painting, Philippoteaux . 61 

• Last Days Napoleon at St. Helena, Statuary, Vela 63 

FONTAINEBLEAU 

Royal Palace . . . , .6? 

Gallery of Henry II, Royal Palace . . 67 
SOUTHERN FRANCE 

Promenade, Nice - . . . . 69 

Casino, Monte Carlo - - . 71 
ENGLAND 

Windsor Castle • - ... 7? 

Haddon Hall . . . _ . 7S 

Kenilworth Castle • ... 77 

Shakespeare's House, Stratford-on-Avon . . 79 

Ann Hathaway 's Cottage, Stratford-on-Avon . 8I 
Churchyard of Stoke-Pogis . . .8? 

Liverpool, Lime Street and Station . (Instantaneous) 8? 
London 

Thames Embankment and Obelisk (Instantaneous) 87 



10 



Trafalgar Square 

London Bridge 

Bank of England 

Houses of Parliament 

St. Paul's Cathedral 

Tower of London 

Westminster Abbey 

Poet's Corner, Westminster Abbey 

Albert Memorial 

Old Curiosity Shop 

Throne Room, Buckingham Palace 
IRELAND 

Muckross Abbey 

Blarney Castle 

Dublin 

Custom House 
Sackville Street . • 

SCOTLAND 

Edinburg 

Abbotsford 

Bahnoral Castle 

Holyrood Palace 

Melrose Abbey 

The Trossachs 

Ellen's Isle, Loch Katrine 

Fingal's Cave, Island of Staffa 

Burn's Cottage 
NORWAY 

North Cape 

Group of Lapps 

Borgund Church 

Naerodal Pass 
SWEDEN 

Stockholm 

Panorama of Stockholm 
Royal Palace 



(Instantaneous) 
(Instantaneous) 
(Instantaneous) 



(Instantaneous) 

(Instantaneous) 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

89 

91 

93 

9? 

97 

99 
101 
10? 
10? 
107 
109 



111 
11? 

11? 
117 

119 
121 
12? 
12? 
127 
129 
1?1 
1?? 
1?? 

1?7 
1?9 
141 
14? 



14? 
147 



DENMARK 

Copenhagen 

Street and Canals .... 

Rosenberg Palace 
GERMANY 

Hamburg Harbor • . . . 

Frankfort •••'... 

Gutenburg Monument, Frankfort (Instantaneous) 

The Rhine and Cologne 

Heidelberg Castle • • . . . 

Coblentz on the Rhine 

The Rhine, Gutenfels and the Pfalz 

Oberammergau, Passion Play 

Berlin 

. Emperor's Palace .... 

Prince Bismarck's Residence 

Brandenburg Gate .... 

Royal Museum 

Unter den Linden .... 

Comedy Theatre, Schiller Platz 

Mausoleum at Charlottenburg 
Dresden Gallery 

The Holy Night, Painting, Correggio 

Madonna di San Sisto, Painting, Raphael 
Munich Gallery 

Building the Pyramids, Painting, Richter 
HOLLAND 

The Beach, Scheveningen .... 

Dutch Windmills, Zaandam 

Rotterdam ...... 

BELGIUM 

The Quays of Antwerp 
Brussels 

The Bourse ..... 

Royal Palace ..... 

Boulevard Anspach (Instantaneous) 



PAGE 

149 
1?1 

1?? 
1?? 
1?7 
1?9 
161 
16? 
16? 
167 

169 
171 
17? 
17? 
177 
179 
181 

18? 
18? 

187 

189 
191 
19? 

19? 

197 
199 
201 



CONTENTS. 



(Instantaneous) 



SWITEZRLAND 

Panorama Lucerne 
Panorama Geneva 
Thun and Bernese Alps 
Mer de Glace . 
Mont Blanc 

St. Gotthard Pass and Bridge . 
AUSTRIA 
Vienna 

Maximilian Platz 

Volksgarten and Theseum 

Houses of Parliament 

Hofburg Theatre . . . . . 

Museums and Statue Maria Theresa . 
ITALY '^^^ G^^ben . . (Instantaneous) 

Rome 

St. Peter's ... 

Vatican Library 

Sistine Chapel, Vatican . 

Colosseum, Exterior . 

Colosseum, Interior 

The Forum 

Appian Way 

Castle San Angelo and River Tiber 

The Capitol 

Dying Gaul, Capitol, Statuary, Unknown 
Vatican Gallery 

Old Father Nile. Statuary, Unknown . 

Transfiguration, Painting, Raphael 
Florence 

Panorama of Florence 

Palazzo Vecchio .... 

Ponte Vecchio 

Hall of Saturn, Pitti Palace 

Loggia de Lanzi 



PAGE 

20? 
20? 
207 
209 
211 
213 



215 
217 
219 
221 
22? 
22? 



227 

229 

2?1 

2?? 

23S 

237 

239 

241 

24? 

24? 

247 
249 

2?1 
2S3 

2?? 
2?7 
2?9 



Seizure of Polyxena, Loggia de Lanzi, Statuary, 
David, Statuary, M. Angelo . 
Venice 

Grand Canal . 

* • • 

The Piazzetta , . , , 

The Rialto . . . , 

St. Mark's Church 

Bridge of Sighs .... 

Courtyard, Ducal Palace, 

Naples 

Panorama Naples, Bay and Mount Vesuvius 
Santa Lucia . ... 

POMPEH 

Civil Forum . 

• • • 

Sorrento . 

Milan 

Cathedral 

• • • 

Statue, Leonardo da Vinci 

Pisa 

Leaning Tower 
Genoa 

Statue of Columbus . 
Turin 

Piazza Carlo Alberto . 
Lake Maggiore 

Isola Bella 
Sicily 

Palermo, Monte Pellegrino 
Island of Capri 

Marina Grande 
SPAIN 

Madrid 

Puerta del Sol 
Granada 

Alhambra from Generaliffe 

Court of Myrtles, Alhambra 



11 

PAGE 

Fedi 261 
26? 

265 
. 267 

269 
. 271 

27? 
. 275 

. 277 
279 

281 
. 28? 

. 285 
287 

289 
291 
293 

295 
297 
299 

. ?01 

. ?0? 

?05 



12 


CONTENTS. 




Seville 


PAGE 




Alexandria 


Salon of Maria de Padilla, Alcazar 


. 307 




Harbor 


View from the Giralda 


?09 




Pompey's Pillar 


Cordova 






Palace and Harem 


Court of Oranges and Mosque 


Ml 




Mahmudiyeh Canal . 


Gibraltar 






Ghizeh 


Fortifications .... 


31? 




Pyramids and Sphinx 


PORTUGAL 






Climbing the Great Pyramid 


Lisbon .... 


HS 




Thebes 


Panorama Oporto 


. 317 




Avenue of Sphinxes, Karnak 


RUSSIA 






Ruins of Temple 


St. Petersburg 






Dahabeeahs, or Nile Boats 


Winter Palace 


?19 




Algeria 


Moscow 






Group of Moorish Women . 


Palace of Petrowski . 


321 




Morocco 


Cathedral of St. Basil 


. 323 




Cape Spartel, Tangiers 


Kremlin .... 


32? 




Sahara Desert 


The Great Bell .... 


. 327 




Camp of a Caravan . 


TURKEY 






South Africa 


Constantinople 






Cape Town from Harbor 


Panorama from Bosphorus 


329 






Imperial Palace of Beylerbey 


. 331 






Mosque of Achmet 
GREECE 


333 


ASIA 
SYRIA 


Athens 






Damascus .... 


Modern Athens 


33? 




Acropolis Baalbek 


Parthenon .... 


■ ^ ^ J 

. 337 


PALESTINE 


Pirseus, Port of Athens 


339 




Jerusalem 

Jerusalem from Mount of Olives 






^ 


Garden of Gethsemane 


AFRICA 






Mosque of Omar 


EGYPT 






Church of Holy Sepulchre 


Cairo 






Bethlehem 


View Towards Citadel . 


. 341 




Panorama View 


Citadel 


343 




Rachel's Tomb 


Street Scene, The Ezbekiyeh 


. 34? 




Nazareth 



PAGE 

. 347 
349 

. 3?1 
3?3 

35? 
. 3?7 

. 3?9 
361 

. 363 

36? 
367 
369 
371 



373 
37? 



377 
379 
381 
383 

38? 
387 
389 



Capernaum, Galilee . 

River Jordan 

Station, Ramleh 
INDIA 

Vale of Cashmere 

Gateway to Lucknow 

Bridge of Shops. Srinagar 

Himalaya Mountains, from Darjeeling 

Burning Ghat, Benares 

The Pearl Mosque, Agra . 

Nassick 

Delhi 

Jumma Musjid . 
Calcutta 

Government House 

Native Village 

Clive Street 
CHINA 

Temple of Five Hundred Gods. Canton 
JAPAN 

Panorama Yokohama and Harbor . 

Great Bronze Buddha, Kamakura 

Hectagonal Temple, Kioto 

Street in Tokio 

Yezo Men ... 
AUSTRALIA 

Tovv-n Hall, Sydney 

Natives of Queensland 
NEW ZEALAND 

Harbor of Auckland . 
SANDWICH ISLANDS 

Royal Palace and Family, Honlulu 

;.^^^^ SOUTH AMERICA 

CHILI 

Valparaiso and Harbor 



(Instantaneous) 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

?9? 

3% 



^97 
399 
401 
40? 
40? 
407 
409 

411 

413 

41? 
417 

419 

421 
42? 
42? 
427 
429 

4?1 

4?? 
437 



439 



National Congress Building, Santiago 
Upspailata Pass, Andes Mountains 
ECUADOR 

Mount Chimborazo 
BRAZIL 

Rio De Janeiro 

Harbor . . _ 

Botanical Gardens and Mt. Corcovado 
VENZUELA 
La Guaira . 



CUBA 
Havana 



WEST INDIES 



MEXICO '°"™ '^"E'^'C* 

City of Mexico 

Panorama from Cathedral 

Cathedral 

■ ■ • 

Panorama Guanajuato 
Straw Cottages, Salamanca . 
The Aqueduct near Queretaro 
CANADA 

Houses of Parliament, Ottawa 
Montreal and Mt. Royal 
Thousand Islands, St. Lawrence River 
The Three Sisters, Canmore . 
ALASKA 

Muir Glacier 

• ' • • 

The Bear, Totem Poles 
UNITED STATES 

Washington, D. C. 
The Capitol 

The White House .... 
Pennsylvania Avenue . (Instantaneous) 



1? 

PAGE 

441 
44? 



44? 



447 
449 

451 



4J? 



4?? 
4J7 
4?9 
461 
46J 

46? 
467 
469 
471 

473 

47? 



477 
479 
481 



14 

VIRGINIA 

Washington's House, Mt. Vernon . 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Independence Hall, Philadelphia . 

NEW JERSEY 

The Beach, Atlantic City . . (Instantaneous) 

NEW YORK 

Panorama New York City and Brooklyn Bridge 

Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor 

Up the Hudson from West Point 

Niagara Falls , . . . . 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Boston Common . . . , . 

Bunker Hill Monument . . . . 

Longfellow's House, Cambridge . 
The Washington Elm, Cambridge 

ILLINOIS 

Masonic Temple, Chicago . . . • 

FLORIDA 

St. Augustine 

Old City Gate . . . . . 

Panorama from Ponce de Leon 

On Indian River . . . . . 

NEW MEXICO 

Adobe Houses ...... 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

48? 

487 

489 
491 
49? 
495 

497 
499 

501 
505 



507 

509 

511 
51? 



(Instantaneous 



COLORADO 

Caiion De Las Animas 

Windy Point, Pike's Peak 

Mountain of the Holy Cross . 

The Royal Gorge 
ARIZONA 

Cliff Dwellings, Mancos Caiion, Arizona . 
YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK 

Crand Canon of the Yellowstone . 

Crater of the Giant Geyser . 

Mammoth Hot Springs 
UTAH 

Mormon Temple and Park, Salt Lake City 
IDAHO 

Shoshone Falls .... 
OREGON 

Mount Hood . . 

CALIFORNIA 

China Town, San Francisco . (Instantaneous) 

Cliff House and Seal Rocks, Golden Gate 

YosEMiTE Valley 

View from Artists' Point 
El Capitan ..... 
Glacier Point . . . . . 

"Wawona," Big Tree .... 
Mission of San Juan .... 



PAGE 

515 
517 
519 
521 

52? 

525 
527 
529 

5?l 
5?? 

5?5 

5?7 
5?9 

541 
54? 
545 
547 
549 




PANORAMA OF PARIS. — Paris is the city ot the Present, as Rome is of the Past. Others may imitate it, but no metropolis of modern times can really be compared to the French capital for its 
elegance of decoration, the refined gaiety of its manners, and the superb arrangement of its streets and boulevards, together with the magnificence of its architectural triumphs. If Switzerland is "the 
play-ground of Europe," Paris is its favorite place of amusement. Hither come yearly hundreds of thousands of pleasure-seekers from every quarter of our globe. There is everything in Paris to 
please, instruct and charm. Almost every window is an exhibition of art. Each prominent street is frequently the centre of some Carnival. The river Seine which divides Paris into two very nearly 
equal sections shoots arrow-Hke beneath twenty-eight bridges, many of which are eloquent of history. This French metropolis has a population of nearly two and a half millions, but is exceedingly 
compact on account of the French custom of living in apartments rather than in separate houses. It is a beautifully clean city. The care bestowed upon its thoroughfares is something which 
excites the admiration of all tourists, and is in painful contrast to the way in which the streets of many of our great American cities are neglected. Perhaps this is one out of many reasons why 
"Good Americans, when they die, go to Paris." 

15 




ritr <5in. n CONCORDE PARIS.-Th.s .s the most magnificent public square in the world. On one side the Rue Royale extends to the majestic Church of La Madeleine Opposite to that is the 
e/te. th H ;f "'^^;'"^':^■ ^f.™^ ^ere behold it, is the Garden of the Tuilleries, and on the left the famous promenade of the Champs Elysees. In the cente rises the Eeypta^Obelk 

erected there durmg the re.gn o, Lou.s Ph.hppe. It is 76 feet high, and was brought hither from Luxor, a suburb of ..ancient, hundred-gated Thebes'' where it hid b en and ng more than 3 000 
iT\ p «rJu' 7'' "°"°'''''"'™P°''"'^'°""'"'"^'""'''™""'' ''"Square we discern eight colossal seated statues, representing he principal cities of FraTct Li^^^^^ 

Nantes, Rouen Brest, Marseilles, Lyons and Strasbourg. Since the Franco-Prussian war the statue of Strasbourg has been constantly draped in mourninrorsu rounded b™th^ of' flowers ^ 
avnri'teX f affection sfl felt by the French for that city, taken from them by the Germans. The history of this Place de la Concorde is as sombre as he Square itseU s g y Uwas t'h 

LoTxv th °' """''°" """"^ '\l ''^'^" °f T^'-™^ '" ''•"'-'■ UP°" 'he spot which that Egyptian obelisk now darkens with its shadow stood then the fatal guillotine whh beh laded the K ng 
Lou.sXyi, the Queen Mar,eAntometk, the Guondisls, Charlotte Corday, Madame Roland, and at last Danton, Robespierre and the original leaders of the Revolution Chateaubriand we 1 said i^ 
view of the thousands who had perished there, that all the water in the world would not suffice to wash away the blood which had there been shed. '^"°'""°"- Lhateaubnand well said, m 

j7 




BOULEVARD DE LA MADELEINE, PARIS.— Beyinmni; at the noblechurch of the Madeleine, which so forcibly resembles a Greek Temple, there extends for nearly three miles to the Placede la Bastille 
a series of beautiful thoroughfares known as the original Paris Boulevards par excellence. There are eleven of these streets, succeeding one another like links in a golden chain. The first is the one 
outlined in this representation, and is called (from the building at its commencement) the Boulevard de la Madeleine There is a charm about these Boulevards which no other streets in the world 
seem to possess. They are a recognized rendezvous for fashionable idlers and pleasure-seekers. Throngs of elegant vehicles pass and repass here every afternoon in bewildering succession. On their 
broad sidewalks there are not simply thousands of promenaders, but hundreds of men and women seated at little tables in front of glittering cafes, sipping cof!ee or eau sucr^e, or eating an ice-cream, 
as an excuse to have the privilege of occupying, as it were, an orchestra chair or proscenium box at this attractive spectacle of life and gaiety, of which the Boulevard itself is the stage. And if this 
be true of the Boulevards in the afternoon, still more brilliant and animated do these sidewalks become on pleasant evenings, when every cafe is radiant with lights repeated in innumerable mirrors, 
and when every jeweler's windows look like the entrance to Aladdin's fabled caverni Two features of Parisian Boulevards will be recalled by every traveler. They are the tall circular structures called 
"Kiosques," some of which are merely covered with theatrical advertisements, while others serve as newspaper stands, or little bars for the sale of unintoxicating drinks. 



19 




RUE DE RIVOLI, PARIS. — Few of the many beautiful thoroughfares in Paris are more interesting or t^etter known to the traveler than the Rue de Rivoli. On one side for a long distance it is bordered 
by the Garden of the Tuilleries, the former site of the Tuilleries itself (destroyed by the Communists in 1871), and the magnificent Museum of the Louvre. A little further, on the same side, rises 
the handsome Gothic monument called the Tour St. Jacques. The northern portion of the Rue de Rivoli is scarcely less interesting. There are the famous Palais Royal and the Theatre Francais, as 
well as the great Magasin du Louvre, and such well-known hotels as the Continental, the Meurice and the Windsor. The great peculiarity of this street is the line of arcades extending for a long 
distance on its northern side. These are formed by a projection of the second story of each building over the sidewalk, thus furnishing a promenade completely sheltered from the sun and rain. 
Here are innumerable shops of jewelry, photographs and fancy articles, and foreigners are continually gathering around the attractive windows, like moths about a brilliant flame. In these arcades 
one often hears more English spoken than French. This street has been the scene of many thrilling episodes in history. Some of its arches have beheld the tumbrils rolling on to the red-posted 
Guillotine during the Reign of Terror. Robespierre himself, like the hundreds who had preceded him, was led along this thoroughfare to the gory knife. It also saw the humiliating return of Louis 
XVI and Marie Antoinette after their attempted escape; and besides having witnessed many of the dazzling receptions given to Napoleon, its name commemorates one of his most brilliant victories 
over the Austrians in Italy, the famous battle of Rivoli. 

•31 



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edifice are also lavishly decorated with paintings and statues. One cannot look upon this modem structure without recalling the old Hotel de Ville which was its predecessor. It played a most 
important part in the great Revolution of 1789. Thither the destroyers of the Bastille were led in triumph. There the ill-fated Louis XVI assumed the tricoloured cockade before the maddened 
populace. Withm its walls, after his arrest, Robespierre attempted suicide; and from its steps in 1848 Louis Blanc proclaimed the establishment of the French Republic. It seems increa.bie that 
hrenchmen could have been found capable of destroying that historic structure. But on the 20th of May, i87l. the Communists placed barrels of gunpowder and petroleum in its noble halls, and, 




.. . . -o- -.. ..-- " .- ..>w,,...^,>,. city ever can possess. 

itiat Detween a young recruit arrayed in bright new uniform and weapons never used save on parade, and some old warrior of a hundred battles, whose body bears the scars of conflict and on whose 
blunted sword are stains of blood. 



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fo 




THE BOURSE (OR EXCHANGE), PARIS.— A handsome structure is this edifice where fortunes are so easily made and lost. Surrounded by sixty-six Corinthian columns this building is not unlike tht 

model of a Temple in the Roman Forum. When the traveler has seen the stock exchange of New York or the Board of Trade in Chicago, there is nothing especially new or strange in the transactions 

of this Paris Bourse. Nevertheless the tumult and incessant uproar which wake the echoes of these walls from twelve o'clock to three are well worth noting, as an indication of the feverish 

excitement of the "Bulls and Bears," whose characteristics do not differ materially, whether the arena where their combats take place be in Wall Street or by Lake Michigan, in the vicinity of the 

Thames or here in Paris. To stand in the gallery of this Bourse and watch the pandemonium below or merely, as one lingers on these steps, to scrutinize the faces of successful or unfortunate 

speculators as they leave the building, affords an admirable chance to study interesting phases of human experience. This square, or "Place de la Bourse," is a great point of arrival and departure ot the 

Parisian omnibuses, the demand for which is usually greater than the supply. But no such crowding is possible here as in our public vehicles in America. Each passenger is entitled to a seat, which 

he secures by applying for a "number." at the office in the square. The rule of "first come, first served," is rigidly enforced, and when the seats in the coach are filled, it rolls away, displaying over 

its door the word "Complet" (full). Who does not recollect the story of the disappointed tourist who exclaimed that the only place in Paris he d<d not go to was one called "Complet." "Whenever 

I see an omnibus going there," he cried, " it will never stop for me!" 

33 




THE TROCADERO, PARIS.— Every public building in Paris is not only beautifully situated, but beautiful in itself. This is emphatically true of the Trocadero Palace, an edifice erected for the great 
Paris Exhibition of 1878. The place which it occupies was long known as one of the most unsightly spots near Paris, having been the site of several stone quarries. But like so many other points 
in and about the city, it was transformed into a beautiful locality by order of Napoleon III, to whom, with all his faults, Paris is much indebted. The Trocadero itself, with its extensive wings or 
galleries, occupies a space on the top of a hill l300 feet long. It is an immense circular structure crowned by a colossal statue of Fame and flanked on each side by a graceful tower 290 feet high. 
In front of the whole building is an arcade forming from end to end an unbroken promenade. Below this is a lovely garden, adorned not merely with flower-beds, summer-houses and grottos, but 
with fountains, of which the finest is a grand cascade 196 feet in diameter, which when illumined, as it sometimes is at night by electricity, forms an enchanting spectacle. The Trocadero contains a 
grand concert hall capable of seating seven thousand people, and its organ is one of the largest in the world. Here are also several museums of great value, among them one portraying different 
styles of architecture in France, and representing by plaster casts the beautiful portals of the old French cathedrals, the staircases of the French chateaux and the sculptured ornaments of the various 
Hotels de Ville in French cities. The name of this handsome edifice is derived from one of the forts of Cadiz, Spain, captured by the French in 1823- 



3S 




GRAND OPERA HOUSE, PARIS.— This is not merely one of the most magnificent structures of the French metropolis, but is the largest theatre in the world; not strictly so in regard its seatlug 
capacity, which accommodates about 2200 people, but in the area of three acres which it occupies in the very heart of the city. The first view of it as one approaches it along the Bouleva^rds can never 
be forgotten. Broad marble steps lead up to a facade adorned with groups of statuary representing Lyric Poetry, Idyllic Poetry, Music, Declamation, Song and Dance. Above these are medallions 
of four great composers, and over these extends along the full width of the structure a Loggia or gallery emhellished with beautiful Corinthian monolithic columns and a marble parapet. Above the 
windows of this Loggia the eye beholds with pleasure medallion busts, in gilded bronze, of Mozart, Beethoven, Auber, Rossini, Meyerbeer and Halevy, whose noble works are heard so frequently 
within the Temple of Music which they thus adorn. To right and left upon the roof colossal groups in gilded bronze stand radiantly forth against the sky, portraying the divinities of Poetry and 
Music with the muses in their train. While to complete the charm of this extraordinary building, there rises in the center a majestic dome above the crown of which we see, triumphant over all, the 
statue of Apollo holding aloft a golden lyre, which still reflects the splendor of the setting sun long after evening has begun to spread its shadows over the adjacent streets, which soon will burst 
forth from that temporary twilight into a blaze of artificial brilliancy almost as light as day, which »nakes the place of the Grand Opera seem like the diamond-clasp in that long belt of gaiety, display 
and fashion known as the Parisian Boulevards. 

37 




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ARCH OF TRIUMPH, PARIS.— One has to deal with superlatives In Paris. To say that this is the finest triumphal arch in the world is a strong statement, but it is literally true. It was be^-un 
by Napoleon I to commemorate his marvelous victories in ISOS and 1806. Built after the style of the old Roman arches of triumph, it nevertheless surpasses them both in its grand dimensions and 
in the magnificent effect which it produces. Something of this is due to its unrivaled situation. It stands upon an elevation from which radiate, in perfect symmetry, twelve of the finest avenues 
in existence. The grandest of these is the world-renowned Champs Elysees. Numerous marble reliefs upon this arch commemorate the achievements of the French. Around the summit are 
marble medallions in the form of shields bearing the names of various brilliant victories. Within the arch are the names of 656 generals of the Republic and Empire. On each of its four immense 
pilasters is a colossal group of statuary in relief, of which the ones presented in this illustration portray Napoleon crowned by Victory, and France summoning her children to take up arms in her 
defense. One can form some idea of the grandeur of this structure when he reflects that it is l60 feet in height and 146 in breadth. 

41 



i 




THE MADELEINE, PARIS.— This noble building transports Greece to Paris. It is a splendid reproduction of a Greek Temple, the decorations of which are nevertheless decidedly Christian in their 
character. It is in reality the "Church of Mary Magdalene," begun by Louis XV in 1764, and in the tympanum of the facade, in an immense relief portraying the Last Judgment, Mary Magdalene is 
represented as interceding with Christ for the condemned. As this building was still unfinished at the time of the French Revolution, Napoleon changed its design and transformed it into a "Temple 
of Glory," where he intended that eulogies should be pronounced over the heroes of the Nation, and many of the grand deeds of the first Empire should be appropriately celebrated. But after the Man 
of Destiny had passed away from the stage of France, the original idea of this edifice was again adopted, and the magnificent structure is now a Christian church. It is a most imposing building, no 
less than 354 feet in length and 100 feet in height. Stately Corinthian columns with elaborate capitals entirely surround it like a faithful body guard; eighteen of them on either side, while sixteen 
constitute the lofty portico which fronts upon the Rue Royale and commencement of the Boulevards. There are no windows in this church, which is constructed exclusively of stone and receives 
its light through skylights in the roof. What wonder that so vast and beautiful a building should have cost more than two and a half millions of dollars! 



43 





THE LOUVRE, PARIS. — This splendid edifice, standing in the very heart of Pahs, appeals to us in at least three ways. Its architecture is of the highest excellence and satislies the eye from every 
point; its history is also full of interest; and finally, as a noble Treasure-house of Art, it becomes one of the most important buildings in the world. The foundation of the Louvre is of great 
antiquity, dating from the year 1200. It was used as a royal residence down to the time of Louis XIV, who removed the Court to the magnificent Palace of Versailles. Here was solemnized in 1572 
the marriage between Henry IV, "the gallant Henry of Navarre," and the fair Margaret of Valois; and five days later, on the night of the 24th of August, the signal was here given for the massacre of the 
Huguenots on the eve of "St. Bartholomew " The window is shown where Charles IX fired that night on the crowd of fugitives. The two Napoleons greatly enlarged and embellished the Louvre, 
and formed the two long .arms which finally united it with the palace of the Tuilleries. The Louvre collections of antiquities, gems, statuary and paintings, are of incalculable value, yet are 
opened freely to the public. Volumes are required merely to briefly catalogue the treasures here contained, the possession of which gives to Paris a transcendent importance for all students and 
lovers of art. Incredible as it would seem, in iS7l the communists tried to destroy this entire building with its priceless contents. It was a piece of vandalism which disgraces the nineteenth 
century. The Imoerial Library of 90,000 volumes was thus destroyed, but happily the government troops arrived in time to prevent further losses. 



45 



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NAPOLEON III, AT SOLFERINO, LUXEMBOURG GALLERY, PARIS.— Amon}^ the military paintings m the splendid picture gallery of the Luxembourg, in Paris, is this by the famous artist Meis- 
sonier, which represents Napoleon III, at Solferino, that little village of Northern Italy, which on the 24th of June, lS59, inscribed its name in letters of blood upon the page of history. The com- 
batants were Austria on one side and France and Sardinia on the other; their respective leaders being Franz Joseph, Louis Napoleon and Victor Emanuel. It was a desperate battle lasting sixteen 
hours. The Austrian troops as usual fought well, but were as usual defeated. There seems to be a strange fatality in Austrian campaigns. Is it due to the incapacity of Austrian generals.^ Two 
weeks later Napoleon III met the defeated Austrian Emperor at Villafrance and there agreed to preliminaries of peace, which seemed a little tame after this victory of Solferino, and were a crushing blow 
to those whose hopes had been aroused by Napoleon's famous words, " Italy must be free from the Alps to the Adriatic." For Venice and a part of Lombardy were still left to Austria. Nevertheless, 
when Napoleon III sat, as this painting represents him, surveying the victory at Solferino, his star was really at its zenith. Could he have then forseen the future, he would have sought death on the 
battlefield; for that was the time for him to die. He would have thus been spared the shame of Mexico, the horrible humiliation of Sedan, and the melancholy death in exile at Chiseihurst. But destiny 
stood behind him smiling sarcastically even in this hour of triumph. The ancients were right when they said that one of man's greatest misfortunes is that he does not know the right time for him 
to leave the worldl 

51 




PALACE OF VERSAILLES, FRANCE.— This wonderful building with its extensive park was the home of Louis XIV, who caused it to be erected here at a cost of two hundred millions of dollars. 
The stories of the number of men and horses employed in its construction border on the fabulous. Voltaire called it "The Abyss of Expenses." Here the "Grand Monarch," Louis XIV, died, to be 
succeeded by the dissolute Louis XV, who also died here, deserted alike by friends and courtiers, as his disease was a malignant form of small-pox. Then for a few years it formed the abode of the 
ill-fated Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, and here at the outbreak of the French Revolution occurred some fearful scenes of violence. Within the great courtyard in the foreground gathered the mob 
of starving men and women who finally burst into the palace, attempted to kill the Queen, and fmally forced the royal family to go back with them to Paris, under the names of "The Baker, the 
Baker's wife and the Baker's boy." Since that period it has remained practically uninhabited. It is now really a National Museum, containing many interesting historic relics and superb galleries 
of paintings. At the time of the siege of Paris by the Germans in the Franco-Prussian war. this palace was the headquarters of the Prussian King, and here, on the iSth of January, 1871, he was 
saluted as Emperor of Germany. 



.S^ 




NAPOLEON'S CARRIAGE. VERSAILLES. — Among the relics of royalty and of the empire displayed at Versailles is this magnificent vehicle, the woodwork o( which is one mass of gilding, while the interior 
decorations are of the most elegant description. This is said to be the carriage in which the Emperor Napoleon I went with the Empress Marie Louise to solemnize their marriage in the Cathedral of Notre 
Dame. All Paris was in the greatest excitement, and Napoleon's future seemed then brilliant beyond all precedent in modern history. Yet in reality these gilded wheels were swiftly bearing him to 
what Napoleon himself subsequently called, "an abyss covered with flowers." And such indeed proved to be this fatal marriage following his divorce from Josephine. No doubt Napoleon's pride was 
gratified, as in this gorgeous vehicle he sat beside his Austrian bride, but it was certainly impossible for him to ever love her as he had once loved Josephine. The latter, slightly older than himself, 
had been his life-long confidant and friend. She had at first contributed much to his success. Her intuitions made her a most useful counsellor. But what was Marie Louise? A simple, inexperienced 
girl, with whom the Emperor always wore a mask, lest his designs should through her reach the court of Austrial The one possessed a character as weak and vacillating as her face would indicate. 
The other proved herself a heroine by sacrificing to the interests of France not only the most enviable throne in Europe, but also the most famous of earth's sovereigns, and the man she loved. "It 
will not bring him fortune." said the common people when the divorce had been proclaimed, and they were right. 

55 




BOUDOIR OF MARIE ANTOINETTE, TRIANON, VERSAILLES. — At one extremity of the Park of Versailles is the lovely little palace of Trianon, the favorite residence of poor Marie Antoinette. Her 
tastefully decorated boudoir is here given just as when occupied by her. This palace was originally given by Louis XV to Madame du Barry, and the royal villa is still visible. But the especial charm 
of Trianon lies in the garden around this royal villa abounding in shaded walks, beautiful trees, an artificial lake, and, above all, in the modest structures used by Maria Antoinette and the ladies of her 
Court when they came here to play the role of peasants. Weary of frivolity, the Queen would often turn gladly to the opposite extreme. Dressed in white muslin and a plain straw hat she would 
stroll along the paths, feeding chickens, chasing butterflies or joining in games of blind-man's buff and fox and geese. In one little building here, called her "Diary," she and her friends would make 
butter on marble tables and laugh with glee at their moderate success. Another structure here is called the "Mill," where she insisted that her husband, Louis XVI, should play the part of miller, 
while she and her Court-ladies assumed the character and the dress of shepherdesses or simple peasant girls. It is pathetic to wander through these deserted, though carefully kept grounds, and to 
think of the tragic fate of Marie Antoinette, who probably had no idea that Kings and Queens were created for any other object than to live in luxury. But in 1789 the clouds were rapidly gathering, 
and the storm was to burst upon "Little Trianon" with fearful violence. When the young Queen left this Park, and at the demand of the famished populace returned to Paris, she was destined to 

never see it again. It was her first step towards the guillotine. * 

57 




GALLERY OF BAT TLES, VERSAILLES.— One of the most imposing and interesting of all the splendid apartments in the palace of Versailles is what is called the "Gallery of Battles." It has a leng:fn 
of about four hundred feet, and is lighted rrom the roof, which is made of iron. It is, as the name denotes, a gallery dedicated to the glorification of the God of War. Around the walls are eighty 
marble busts commemorating famous generals of France, and above these are some of the finest paintings of battle-scenes that Art has yet produced. Naturally they all portray the glories of the 
armies of France in early and in recent times, from Charlemagne to Napoleon. The Napoleonic paintings are particularly fine, and represent in startling force and vividness such victories as 
Austerlitz, Jena, Friedland, Rivoli and Wagram. This and the many other picture-galleries at Versailles are therefore not mere exhibitions of art, they are illumined tablets of history, calculated to 
awaken patriotism and stimulate the youth of France to acquire a knowledge of their country's history and to emulate the heroic deeds immortalized here upon the glowing canvas. Like all the 
other National Museums of France, this Palace of Versailles is freely open to the public and can be enjoyed and utilized by the humblest peasant. It is greatly to the credit of the Germans, when 
they occupied this palace during the siege of Paris in 1S71, that they carefully covered these paintings and preserved them from injury, although many of them represented humiliating defeats which 
their fathers suffered under the iron hand of the first Napoleon. 

59 




BATTLE OF RIVOLl, GALLERY OF BATTLES, VERSAILLES.— One of the finest paintings in this Martial gallery is that entitled the Battle of Rivoli. It is the work of the celebrated artist, Phillipoteaux 
It represents the young Napoleon at one of the proudest moments in his eventful life, as he conducted that memorable struggle amid the Alps in 1797, when he so signally defeated the Austrians. 
The Portrait of Bonaparte is admirable. He seems inspired. Genius is visible in every line of that thin, pale face. In fact nowhere was his stupendous military genius more discernible than on 
the plains of Lombardy and in the gorges of the Italian Alps, where the " Little Corsican " with but a handful of ill-fed, ragged troops again and again defeated the proudest armies of Austria and 
her most experienced generals. " Do experienced generd^h oppose me?" cried the young commander; "So much the better! I will soon make them burn their books on tactics and know not 
what to do." In fact his wonderful rapidity and power of instantaneous decision gave him the speed and spring of a lion. " The French do not w/arc/i, " exclaimed an Austrian officer, "they 
Jly/'* The story of Bonaparte's victories in Italy, of which this of Rivoli was one of the most brilliant, reads like a romance. It was never equalled even by himself, save possibly in I8l3 when 
the Emperor, ruined by the Russian campaign, was struggling single-handed against united Europe. But in Italy in 1797 Fortune was with him. In France in l8l3 he had tempted the fickle goddess 
too far. and his star was waning, to sink at last behind the wave-washed rock of St. Helena. 

6i 




a ±: o .= o 




PALACE OF FONTAINEBLEAU, FRANCE— This is one of the most interesting as well as the most elegantly decorated of all the Chateaux of France. Situated about forty miles from Paris, it was 
the favorite residence of Francis 1 (died 1547), of Henry IV (died l6lO), and particularly of the first Napoleon. Here for some months he kept Pope Pius VII his prisoner. Here after the long and 
deadly duel between France and Europe he signed his abdication in l8l4; and one may see the room in which in his despair he attempted then to commit suicide by taking poison prepared for him 
during the Russian campaign. The Palace courtyard has associated with itself some most pathetic souvenirs. It is called the " Court of the Adieux," because it was here that Napoleon on the 20th 
of April, 1814, after his abdication, said farewell to his Old Guard. It was at the hour of noon that a solitary figure appeared at the head of the main staircase and descended its steps to meet his 
faithful grenadiers. It was the figure of Napoleon about to depart into exile. Embracing one or two of the officers, and pressing the " Eagle " of France repeatedly to his lips, he uttered to his Old 
Guard those impressive words of farewell with which every reader of French history is familiar. Then amid the sobs of his old soldiers, who were faithful to him in adversity as in prosperity, 
unhke so many whom the Emperor had enriched with honors, titles and estates, Napoleon (once more apparently their " Little Corporal "), entered a carriage and was driven away from this palace 
where he had been so recently the most powerful sovereign in the world. 

65 




GALLERY OF HENRI 11, PALACE OF FONTAINEBLEAU, FRANCE.— The interior of the Palace of Fontainebleau is of great magnificence, and the Gallery of Henry Second, outlined in this illustration, 
is one of the richest of all its historic halls. It was begun by Francis 1, embellished by Henry II, and restored by Louis Philippe. This was the great reception room of Fontainebleau, and at mtervals 
in the decorations of the walls and ceiUngs we see the letters H. and D., the initials of Henry II and the beautiful Diana of Poitiers. The chimney-piece in this apartment is one of the most elegant in 
Europe. In connection with the exterior of this palace allusion has been made to some of its Napoleonic souvenirs, but many other associations give to it historical importance. Here m 1685 Louis 
XIV signed the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, by which nearly a century before Henry IV had granted toleration to the Protestants. Here the beautiful and ill-fated Marie Antoinette at times 
resided. Here, while a guest at the French Court in 1657, Queen Christiana of Sweden caused her former favorite, Count Monaldeschi, to be put to death. Here also Louis XV was married, and the 
subsequent Napoleon 111 was baptized; and one may see the room within this palace where the sentence of divorce was pronounced against the Empress Josephine in lS09. Fromihe wmdows of this 
splendid apartment one looks out over a pretty park toward the famous Forest of Fontainebleau, threaded with charming walks and drives, and covering an area about fifty miles in circumference. 

67 




PROMENADE, NICE, FRANCE.— Nice is the Winter Paradise for invalids and a lovely pleasure-resort for the robust. With a full exposure to the south, and with an amphitheatre of mountains 
behind to shelter it from the northern winds, we can easily understand the mildness of its climate. In fact its delightful situation led Greek colonists more than 2,000 years ago to choose this for a 
residence; and from the victory gained here by them overits barbarian defenders, the place was called Nikaia, from which is derived the modern name, Nice. Here many fine hotels, charming villas, 
and a great number of "Pensions," which in the summer time are dark and utterly deserted, become in winter radiant with gas and crowded with humanity. Before the promenade gay parties of 
excursionists are constantly sailing out in pleasure-boats upon the mirror-like expanse. It is perhaps from the number and the beauty of these fair mariners that this Gulf of Nice is called the "Bay 
of Angels!" Here also the gay world of fashion displays its brilliant panorama, each winter more bewildering than the last; for while northern climes are shivering in snow and ice, Nice forms a 
favorite rendezvous not merely for the delicate who come hereto beg of Death the respite of a few more months, but also for pleasure-seekers from all portions of the world, especially for subjects 
of the Czar, who, when they can, are glad to escape the rigor of their northern winters. One of the quays of Nice is named after Napoleon's famous marshal, Massena, who was born here. Here 
also the immortal patriot, Garibaldi, first saw the light; here the world-renowned violinist, Pagaini, breathed his last, and now upon a sunny hillside just above the town is the grave of the illustrious 

French leader, Gambetta. 

69 



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k^M& 




CASINO, MONTE CARLO, ITALY.— One of the loveliest places on the curving shore of the Mediterranean is the famous gambling resort of Monte Carlo. It is laid out in cultivated terraces, 

which overhang the pretty bay, where a multitude of pleasure boats are always moored. So far as outward attractiveness is concerned, Nature and Art have here combined to make this spot a 

veritable bit of paradise. Before it is the boundless sea; as smooth as glass and many colored as a prism; while in the rear are lovely olive-colored mountains which at sunset invariably fold about 

their dimpled shoulders mantles of royal purple. Around this Casino aloes and orange trees are growing in luxuriance, and here and there a tufted palm outlines its graceful form against the cloudless 

sky. Monte Carlo owes much of its attractiveness to the late M. Blanc, who founded here this handsome gaming house. At present the establishment is in the hands of a French Company, and 

constantly entices weak humanity thither by its glittering promises of wealth. Within this Casino, apart from the gaming halls, there are well-furnished reading-rooms, and a richly decorated 

theatre where one can often hear delightful music. Russians are said to squander the most money here, but France furnishes the greatest number of players. Germans also are quite numerous, but 

usually play with caution. England and America too are represented here, but chiefly by spectators rather than participants in the alluring game. From twelve to fifteen suicides occur here nearly 

every month. 

7J 




WINDSOR CASTLE, ENGLAND.— An. hour's ride by rail from London is this mag:nificent abode of royalty, the history of which dates from the time of William tHe Conqueror, nine hundred years 
ago. It is an intensely interesting place to visit because so many different sovereigns have added something to its architecture and left to it still more imperishable souvenirs connected with their 
reigns. Such are the Gateway of Henry Vlll, the Tower of Henry 111, and St. George's Chapel, built by Edward IV. It is in this Chapel that takes place at intervals the installations of the Knights of 
the Garter, that order which includes among its members so many Kings, Emperors, Princes and distinguished leaders of the race. The most conspicuous feature of old Windsor Castle is its immense 
'* Round Tower," the view from which is beautiful and remarkably extensive. This tower is no less than 302 feet in circumference and 230 feet high. Whenever the flag floats over it, the public 
knows that the Queen is in the Castle, as is frequently the case. Like most mediaeval strongholds, this royal abode is haunted by some gloomy memories. Captives have often languished here in 
misery. In the Round Tower, for example, the Prince who afterwards became James 1 of Scotland, was immured for eighteen years. In the Royal Vaults of Windsor are buried several of England's 
sovereigns, including Henry VIII and his Queen. Lady Jane Seymour, the unfortunate Charles 1, and the Princess Charlotte (only child of King George IV), whose funeral monument is a magnificent 
work of art. 

73 




HADDON HALL, ENGLAND.— Almost in the centre of England stands this ideal specimen of an old baronial mansion, known as Haddon Hall. In the twelfth century it came into the possession of 
the Vernon family, who occupied it for 400 years. Then when the beautiful young heroine of this castle, Dorothy Vernon, eloped with the son of the Earl of Rutland, the Estate passed into the 
hands of the Rutlands, who still own it, although it is now uninhabited save by its custodians. It well repays a visit, if only for the revelations it affords of the style and decoration of these ancient 
princely homes of England. The Drawing Room, for instance, now contains no furniture, yet is a grand memorial of ancient splendor. The entire floor is of solid oak, made from a single tree which 
grew in the neighboring park. The walls and ceiling are of the same material, their numerous panels beautifully carved with knightly crests and coats of arms. While the huge fire-place with its 
antique andirons seems waiting to be filled again with blazing logs. In such a place we half expect to see some of the former occupants of Haddon Hall, arrayed in velvet, silk and jewels, discussing 
in exciting tones the loss of Armada or the escape of Mary Queen of Scots. One also views with interest here the staircase down which on her sister's wedding-night fair Mistress Dorothy ran with 
slippered feet to meet her suitor, and the place where mounting the horses waiting for them the lovers rode away through the summer night and next morning in Leicestershire were pronounced man 



and wife. 



75 




KENiLWORTH CASTLE, ENGLAND.— Few ruins in all Engimici are more interesting than those of this grand old baronial castle, originally founded by Geoffrey de Clinton about 1120. Queen 
Elizabeth finally gave it to her favorite, the Earl of Leicester, and he spent enormous sums of money in enlarging and improving it. Sir Walter Scott's novel, "Kenilworth," gives us an idea of the 
magnificent style in which Leicester entertained the Queen here in 1575. Unfortunately in the time of Cromwell this, like so many other noble structures in England, suffered much mutilation. The 
clinging ivy, however, makes portions of these ruined walls more beautiful than they could have been even when perfect and entire. The material of this castle is old red sand-stone, and hence when 
illumined by the sunset light, its walls and towers glow like shafts of jasper or porphyry, or the volcanic cliffs on the Island of Capri. It must have once been a most splendid residence, well worthy 
of the abode of him who even dared to hope for the hand of Queen Bess, as well as for her favor. Its outer wall enclosed a space of seven acres, and ten thousand soldiers were required to guard 
it. The historic memories of this place appear to us more powerfully than those of any other castle in England. Instinctively the words of Tennyson here recur to us: 

*'The splendor falls on castle walls, 

And snowy summits old in story 

The long light shakes across the lakes 

And the wild cataract leaps in glory." 



77 




SHAKESPEARE'S HOUSE, STRATFORD-ON-AVON, ENGLAND.— The little town of Stratford-on-Avon is famous only as the birthplace of tne immortal Shakespeare. Fortunately the house in 
which the poet was born on the 23d of April, 1564, is now national property and is most carefully protected. Hither come every year about 14,000 visitors, most of them Americans. The building 
has undergone some changes since Shakespeare's time, but the old timbered framework is the same. On the first floor a little room facing the street is pointed out as the one in which the Bard of 
Stratford first saw the light. The walls are literally covered with inscriptions, written or carved in every tongue, and indicating thus an endless throng of pilgrims of all ranks, from prince to 
peasant Elsewhere these names would be an outrage ; but here, in memory of this universal genius, they seem a proof of the spontaneous, world wide homage of mankind. Among them are the 
names of Byron, Sir Walter Scott, Thackeray, Dickens, Tom Moore, Washington Irving, and the Duke of Wellington. In other rooms are exhibited many interesting relics of Shakespeare, including 
his portraits, his school-desk, several early editions of his works, and his signet-ring. Not far from this house is the lovely church in which all that was mortal of this sublime genius was laid 
away to rest beneath that weird and well-known epitaph: " Good Friend, for Jesus' sake forbear— To dig the dust enclosed here. Blest be the man who spares these stones, And curst be he who 
moves my bones ! " 

79 




ANN HATHAWAY'S COTTAGE, STRATFORD-ON-AVON, ENGLAND.— This charming little cottage sfill stands in substantially the san^e condition as when Shakespeare came here to whisper to his 
future wife, Ann Hathaway, the story of his love. It is still occupied by a descendant of the Hathaway family. There can be little doubt that the man who has given to the world that most adorable 
of lovers, Romeo, must have himself been an incomparable suitor. For whatever may be said about great Geniuses making poor husbands, there can be little question of their fascination in those 
delightful moments of uncertainty and novelty commonly known as courtship and the honeymoon. Standing here listening to the nightingales and thrushes, one recalls with pleasure these lines 
attributed to Shakespeare: 

"Would ye be taught, ye feathered throng. To melt the sad, make blithe the gay, 

With love's sweet notes to frame your song? To charm all hearts, Ann hath-a-way; 

To pierce my heart with thrilling lay, She hath-a-way, 

UstentomyAnn Hathawayl Ann Hathaway, 

She hath-a-way to sing so clear. To breathe delight, Ann hath-a-wayl" 

Phoebus might, wondering, stoop to hear; 

8i 




i 



CHURCHYARD OF STOKE-POGIS, ENGLAND.— To this lovely churchyard the matchless "Elegy" by Gray has given an immortal charm. The place has altered little since the poet's time, save thai 
"yon ivy-mantled tower," which he described, is now surmounted by a modern spire. It seems unsuited to the place, and the ivy, (while clinging lovingly to the old wall), avoids the spire as if it were 
a strange intruder. But this aside, the place is as it was when the Poet lingered here at sunset, as " The curfew tolled the knell of parting dayl " Beneath its oriel window rich with ivy is the poefs 
grave. What an ideal resting-place for one who has identified his name forever with its peaceful beauty I Standing here what added significance and pathos are given to his lines, — 

"Beneath those rugged elms, that yew-tree's shade "Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid "Full many a gem of purest ray serene, 

Where heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap, Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire. The dark, unfathomed caves of ocean bear; 

Each in his narrow cell forever laid. Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed, Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, 

The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep." Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre." And waste its sweetness on the desert air.** 

83 




LIVERPOOL, LIME STREET, ENGLAND.— Nine-tenths of all the Americans who land in Liverpool stay there as little time as possible. Their memories of the place are chiefly those of a hurried struggle 
to get from the steamer to the railroad station, or from the railroad station to the steamer. The principal building, therefore, which they recollect in Liverpool is the one outhned in this illustration, 
namely, the London and Northwestern Hotel, upon the other side of which the trains of the London and Northwestern railroad start for London. As a matter of fact, however, Liverpool deserves 
more attention than is usually paid to it. It is the principal seaport of England and its second city. It contains more than 700,000 inhabitants. Its situation on the river Mersey is magnificent. 
Moreover, its famous Docks, which flank the river for seven miles, have a total water area of 370 acres and 24 miles of quays! Nor are its architectural featues of a low order. St. George's Hall, for 
example, directly opposite this hotel, must always command the admiration of even the most hasty traveler, for it is in the form of an immense Greek temple 600 feet long and 170 feet wide, adorned 
with Corinthian columns and many sculptures. Around this also are equestrian statues of Queen Victoria, the Prince Consort and the Earl of Beaconsileld. Some literary associations also make 
Liverpool interesting to intelligent tourists. It is the birthplace of the "Grand Old Man," Hon. W. E. Gladstone; and the house in which in 1809 he first saw the light (No. 62 Rodney street), is still visible. 
Here too in No. 32 Duke street was born the poetess, Mrs. Hemans; while Americans should not forget that in Liverpool from 1853 to 1857 the United States Consul was their gifted novelist, Nathaniel 
Hawthorne 

85 





THAMES EMBANKMENT AND OBELISK. LONDON.— One of the gieatest recent improvements in the World's Metropolis is its embankment along the Thames. The wall next the river Is of granite 
and is backed with solid masonry eight feet thick and forty feet high. This makes a handsome driveway 100 feet in width, lighted by gas, planted with trees, and having several landing-piers for the 
river steamers. One of the most remarkable relics of antiquity which the world possesses stands now upon this river-thoroughfare. It is the Egyptian Obelisk, popularly known as " Cleopatra's 
Needle," which was, however, hewn from the primitive volcanic granite l500 years before that " Siren of the Nile" ever ensnared by her beauty Ciesar and Marc Antony. To convey this from 
Alexandria to England, as was done in 1877, proved a very expensive and difficult undertaking. Even after it had been successfully embarked at Alexandria, the little iron vessel which had been 
specially prepared for it was shipwrecked and temporarily abandoned in the Bay of Biscay. A passing steamer rescued it and towed it into the harbor of Ferrol on the Spanish coast. Thence it was 
conveyed to the Thames, and finally was erected here where it now stands in triumph. Yet one can hardly look upon this symbol of the sun's bright rays.here in this city of fogs and smoke, without 
regarding this ancient monolith as an exile from a land where through the entire year the sky is rarely darkened by a cloud. Nevertheless, like many illustrious exiles, its sojourn on the Thames 
embankment will no doubt be of use to those who gaze upon its stately form, by reminding them of the power and glory of Ancient Egypt, beside whose awful ruins London seems the creation 
of yesterday- 

87 




TRAFALGAR SQUARE, LONDON. — This handsome square is so centrally located that it may be said to form the nucleus or heart of London. Around it are the National Gallery of Paintings, the 
celebrated St. Martin's Church, and such hotels as "Morley's" and the "Metropole," while in the center rises a majestic column known as the Nelson monument, surmounted at a height of 154 feet, 
by a statue of the immortal hero who died victorious at Trafalgar in 1805. Upon the pedestal are inscribed Nelson's well-known words, "England expects that every man will do his duty." Flanking 
this granite monument are the four colossal lions of Sir Edwin Landseer, which are not only magnificent specimens of art, but are thoroughly in keeping with the majestic severity of the shaft which 
they adorn as well as with the leonine character of the great admiral beneath whose statue they thus crouch submissively. This London Square has little of the charm and beauty of the Place de la 
Concorde in Paris, yet it is thoroughly characteristic of the city in which it stands. The qualities which attract us in London are quite different from those which please us on the other side of the 
channel; but when one has at last become accustomed to its smoky atmosphere, its melancholy fogs and sombre architecture, there is so much in London to appeal to the students of history, art, 
archaeology, science and human nature (to say nothing of the interest awakened in us by associations with the English novelists and poets, who have often made this great metropolis their theme), 
that one can agree with Dr. Johnson when he said "The happiness of London cannot be conceived except by those who have beheld it." 




LONDON BRIDGE, LONDON. — Of all the bridges which cross the Thames within the city hmits none is so famous as this which characteristically bears the name of " London." It was opened to 
traffic by King William IV in l83l. It is of granite and its cost was about eight millions of dollars. The lamp-posts on its sides are said to have been cast from cannon captured from the French 
during the Spanish war. It has the distinction of being the last bridge on the Thames, or the one nearest to the sea, which is about sixty miles away. The restless tide of human life ebbing and 
flowing across this granite thoroughfare is a suggestive sight. Dickens was fond of studying here day by day and night those widely differing phases of humanity, which can be seen in this world- 
metropolis better than anywhere else on earth. This bridge is never deserted, and during twenty-four hours it is estimated that 20,000 vehicles and 120,000 pedestrians cross here from one side of 
London to the other. The roadways are so arranged that those who desire to drive rapidly follow one course, and those whose wishes or whose horsesare moderate must take the other. Standing 
on this connecting link between the two great sections of the World's Metropolis, one realizes the immensity of London. Nearly five millions of people live within its mighty circuit. Twenty-five 
hundred are born and about two thousand die here every week. One hundred million gallons of water are used here every day, in spite of the multitude of the " Great unwashed." If the people of 
London were placed in single file, eighteen inches apart, they would extend 1200 miles, or further than from Boston to Chicago. There are in London more Roman Catholics than in Rome, more 
Scotchmen than m Edinburgh, more Irishmen than in Dublin. The poverty and wretchedness in certain quarters of the city are as extreme in one direction as the magnificent display and wealth of 
the West End are in the other. Yet no great city in the world is better paved or better governed. 

91 




THE BANK OF ENGLAND, LONDON. — In the very heart of the city of London stands a low-browed, massive structure, streaked with soot and without even a window in its outer walls. It is the 
Bank of England. This absence of windows is supposed to give greater security to its valuable contents, the light within being received from interior courts and skylights. The structure looks 
therefore like a gigantic strong-box, covering four acres of territoryl This establishment, though a national institution, is itself a private corporation. Its capital is about seventy-five million 
dollars, and its bullion alone is supposed to be at least one hundred and twenty-five million dollars in value. Its affairs are managed by a governor, a deputy governor, twenty-four directors and nine 
hundred clerks. Below the surface of the ground there are more rooms in this structure than on the ground floor. One looks with almost a feeling of awe upon this building. Architecturally it has 
nothing to attract us, but we feel that it stands as a representative of the wealthiest and most influential empire on our globe. It has a lifeblood of its own which regulates the pulse of the financial 
world. Whatever is done within those massive walls will be felt in the Antipodes. One can hardly estimate the shock which the entire world would experience if public confidence in this institution 
were shaken. Almost the same thing can be said of it that was once affirmed of the Roman Colosseum: "While stands the Bank of England, England stands; When falls the Bank of England, England 
falls; When England falls— the world." 

93 




HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT, LONDON. — These nobie buildings are worthy of their tame. 1 he tinest view of them is obtained thus Irom the river, aiony the embankment of which they extend tor 
940 feet. Built in elaborate Gothic style, their ornamentations including graceful towers, pinnacles, fluted columns, interesting statues, and a bewildering amount of tine stone carving relieve the 
enormous structure of monotony. This edifice covers an area of eight acres. The rooms ft'hich it contains are numbered by hundreds and its corridors can be reckoned by miles. The grand 
"Victoria Tower" at the southern end of the building reaches the imposing height of 340 feet, and is more than seventy feet square. Through this the Queen enters when she opens Parliament, on 
which occasion the flag of England is always displayed above the Tower. The Clock Tower at the northern end of these Imperial legislative halls, is only twenty feet lower than its rival. Each of its 
four great dials measure ninety-two feet in circumference. The minute hand is a bar of steel more than twelve feet in length! It is said that five hours are required to wind it up. Every one who has 
spent a night in London must have heard the great bell of this tower proclaim the flight of time in deep and solemn tones, which are to those of other bells like the voice of an organ to the sound ot 
a piano. This bell, which weighs no less than thirteen tons, is known as "Big Ben," and for years had no rival. But now it is surpassed by the new monster recently placed in St. Paul's Cathedral. 
Still they are far enough apart to make no interference with each other. The kingdom of "Big Ben" has simply been curtailed. Over this part of gigantic London he still reigns supreme. 

95 




ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, LONDON. — The crowning feature of London is the Dome of St. Paul's Cathedral. It is sublime and noble in appearance, althoutrh so black with soot that a Frenchman 
suggested that it must have been built by chimney-sweeps! In fact, chimneys innumerable have offered up to this for years their grimy incense, till now it has a sooty grandeur which some think 
gives it added dignity. Hawthorne, for instance, said that it is much better so than staring white, and that it would not be one-half so grand without its drapery of black The whole cost of St. 
Paul's was defrayed by a tax on every ton of coal brought to the port of London; so that after all, no building in the world has a better claim than this to have a sooty exterior. At all events 
the mighty Dome is like a temple in the air, 365 feet above the street and l80 feet in diameterl It is so lofty that, unlike most other structures, it seems quite unaffected by its environment. It is 
perhaps the more -mpressive from standing here in the great throbbing heart of London. Despite the roar and tumult of the waves of life surging around its base, nothing disturbs its grand repose. 
It soars above it all, as Mt. Blanc rises above Chamounix. Within the vaults of this Cathedral lie the remains of the Duke of Wellington, Admiral Nelson, and the architect of the edifice, Sir Christopher 
Wren, whose funeral inscription is brief but eloquent: "If you seek his monument, look around you!" 

97 




^ 







THE TOWER OF LONDON.— No buildin.L; in this ^'''^^t'^st city of the world is historically so impressive as old "London Towcrr Its gloomy battlements watch grimly o'er the Thames, as they have 
done for centuries. Some of its deep foundations are said to be as old as the time of Julius C^sar. At present, its most conspicuous feature is the massive structure in the foreground, with four 
pinnacles called the White Tower, built early in the reign of William the Conqueror, about the year 1079. The White Tower! A strange name truly for any portion of this buildingi For not only 
are its walls most dark and gloomy in appearance, tut behind them have transpired some of the blackest deeds of English history! How many noble men and women have been imprisoned here 
whose names not only stand transfigured on the pages of history, but have been carved in tears upon their dungeon walls. Among them brave Sir Walter Raleigh, who languished here for thirteen 
years, part of the time in a small room but ten feet long and eight feet wide! Here all the distinguished prisoners of the Scottish wars were held in close captivity, and hence the noble Wallace was 
led forth to brutal death and mutilation! Here also was beheaded the noble and innocent Lady Jane Gray; here Anne Boleyn walked calmly to the block, praying with her last breath for her brutal 
husband; till as the fatal axe cleft through her fair white neck, the report of a gun rang out from yonder walls so that the lecherous Henry VIII might be informed that he was rid of her. But enoughl 
These and a score of similar memories sicken us, and make the very air within the Tower's precincts taste of blood! Thank God that though the tower stands, such deeds are now impossible! For 
the sovereign of England is no longer the tyrant, but the admmistrator; yes, the intelligent servant of the people! 

99 




WESTMINSTER ABBEY, LONDON.— If only one object in London could be selected for inspection by American tourists, it would doubtless be Westminster Abbey. The original church was erected 




beside Elizabeth's in England's noblest shrine; and not a day goes by. or has gone by for centuries, but pilgrims to Westminster stand beside their graves and sigh in pity for the one. and blame the 
conduct of the other! 




THE POET'S CORNER, WESTMINSTER ABBEY. LONDON.— Beautiful as Westminster Abbey is as a specimen of architecture, its distinctive glory is not found in Gothic arches, dim religious 
light, fluted columns craven works of art. But that which thrills us as we tread the pavement of this ancient Shrine is the assemblage here of the illustrious dead of many centuries, lis old gray 
walls are Hned with, tablets, busts and monuments commemorating names which are like house-hold words. But the most interesting part of this historic Pantheon is what is called " T/ie Poefs 
Corner." Here every English-speaking visitor at least stands with uncovered head and bated breath, feeling himself surrounded by the Master-spirits of his race. Here, for example, he sees a 
marble bust beneath which are the words "0 rare Ben Jonson." Close by it is that of the poet Milton, and beneath this is the medallion portrait of Gi^ay, whose masterpiece, the " Elegy m a Country 
Churchyard," is one of the most exquisite classics of our tongue. Space fails to enumerate the names of those whose " storied urn or animated bust " here " invokes the passing tribute of a sigh.'' 
But Spencer. Dryden. Southey, Campbell. Thompson. Macaulay, Thackeray, Garrick. Grote, Sheridan and (last but not least) the dearly-loved Charles Dickens, all these and many more form here 
a galaxy of genius which makes the pilgrim from America forget all minor national distinctions, and glory in the fact that he too speaks the language of the men whose dust makes old Westminster 
haunted, holy ground. 



lo^ 




THE ALBERT MEMORIAL, LONDON.— One of the most magnificent monuments in tlie world is tiie structure outlined in tliis illustration. It is the "Albert Memorial," erected to the memory of 
the Prince Consort (husband of Queen Victoria), partly by the Government and partly by voluntary contributions at a cost ot $600,000. The very foundation of this monument alone repays an hour's 
close examination. Broad granite steps lead up on every side to a spacious platform, at the four corners of which are fine colossal groups of statuary, representing the four great divisions of our 
globe, Europe, Asia, Africa and America. The pedestal itself is nothing less than wonderful in its elaborate display of marble statues in relief encircling the entire monument. There are 169 of these 
figures, representing the world's greatest artists since the dawn of history, including Painters, Musicians, Poets, Architects, Sculptors, Heroes and Reformers. In one place, for example. Homer, the 
Father of Poetry, is portrayed, holding the lyre, while near to him in attitudes of reverent attention are Virgil, Dante, Shakespeare, Cervantes, Milton and Boccaccio. In another section are grouped 
Michael Angelo, Donatello, John of Bologna, Benvenuto Cellini, and other sculptors of the Renaissance. At last above all this rises to the height of 175 feet a gorgeously decorated Gothic canopy, 
beneath which is seated a colossal statue of the Prince Consort, fifteen feet iu height and made of gilded bronze. The excessive amount of ornamentation in mosaic and gilding on this canopy may 
be criticised, but there is no doubt of the grand and imposing effect produced by the lower portion of this superb memorial. The question naturally arises, however, whether it is an appropriate 
structure to commemorate Prince Albert. He was unquestionably a worthy man, a patron of art, an upright Prince, and the husband of the Queen; but when a man is honored thus by one of the 
finest structures on the globe, we look for other qualities than these. Such a memorial as this, beneath which stand as ministers the master-spirits of the world, and to whom four great continents do 
reverence, is worthy of being an offering of the whole Anglo Saxon race to Shakespeare, or better still, a universal tribute to the Leaders of Humanity in its slow upward march toward light and truth. 

105 




instruct or ?nerLnuT;ut.r.^^^ realm of f.ct.on, has given to t.I,e Enghsh-reading world a host of veritable /„>„rf.. The heroes or most other novehsts amuse, 

with th.^ ™'f^>n "5. but qu.ckly ade mto obl.von, hke chance acquaintances. But to the genuine lover of Dickens his characters are not fictitious-they are real. We laugh with them, we cry 
w, h them, we love the.r virtues we forg.ve the.r fra.lfes, till they are sealed to us as life-long friends. Nor is this all; for Dickens' characters are usually linked to certain */«L which he sleeted 

Thich h^oTond Thus ™' t;™"''^^'"' ^'^l ■' '^ '" '% "f ^'V." "^"'"'"^ "'^'"^ '""'^^'■"" '^»* '^='^" ■' ^ ^°'"'"-' P"^-"- '° '"" '- --k^ '" that gr afZld s Met oS s, 

sorts o? odd In^.r.; ,t K I " • Tl . """ :""'.", '°' ""' 'P'"" P"'P°''' '"" ''^ "^^ ^'^ °f '""^ ''' ""'y ^P™" ^-^y^ '" London itself, to say nothing of rural England, noting all 

ortsof odd locahfes, streets, houses, mns and churches, such as the quaint sign which suggested to Dickens his idea of Little Nell's •■Old Curiosity Shop "to the house where Mr. T.lkinghorn 

rom thM-rr f ''^''''J'-y''^ sate, bes.de wh.ch lay the h eless body of poor Lady Dedlock. "Charles Dickens' London, " therefore, and •• Through England with Dickens," should never be omtted 

from the library of any European tourist who loves th,i creator of " David Copperfield, " " Little Dorrit, " and the immortal " Pickwick." 

107 




THRONE-ROOM. BUCKINGHAM PALACE, LONDON.-"A throne." said Napoleon, "is only a collection of boards covered with velvet." Nevertheless, it symbolizes so much of wealth, rank and 
povyer, that one approaches it with at least respectful interest. The Throne-Room of Buckingham Palace, the usual London residence of Queen Victoria and her household, is a magnificent apartment 
Its length IS sixty-four feet. Its walls are covered with crimson satin. The royal chair itself stands on a slightly elevated platform beneath a velvet canopy. This is, however, by no means the only 
room withm this palace which repays the traveler's inspection. The Ball Room, the Banquet Hall, and Picture Gallery, the various Reception Rooms and above all the splendid staircase of the palace, 
which together with its elegant Corinthian columns is of pure white marble, all these are what we might expect in this abode of English Royalty. The interior of Buckingham Palace is, however, 
much more attractive than its exterior, although adjoining it is the extensive palace-garden which contains sixty acres and is very beautifully kept, and possesses a pretty summer house, frescoed by 
such distinguished artists as Maclise and Landseer. This little villa has been used by her Majesty when she has been obliged to spend any of the summer season in the city. Near this palace are the 
Koyal stables, where are kept the state-carriages and the horses of the Queen. 

109 



I 




I 



MUCKROSS ABBEY, LAKES OF KILLARNEY. IRELAND.-,-The Lakes of KiUarney are exquisitely beautiful features of Ireland, about SO miles north of Cork and ISO miles south of Dublin Each 
summer sees a multitude of American travelers visit them as one of their first experiences in the European tour which they begin by landing- at Queenstown. After an ocean voyage almost any 
cultivated land appears attractive. How much more, then, a conspicuously lovely region like that of Southern Ireland! Nor are the Killarney lakes merely beautiful. They have the charm which 
the Old World imparts to almost every portion of its natural scenery, namely, that of historic association. They are studded with finely wooded islands on which are the ruins of castles, convents 
and abbeys, around which cluster souvenirs of many centuries. On one island, for example, is Ross Castle, an old fortress of the O'Donoghues; another has the picturesque ruins of the "Sweet 
Innisfallen" of Tom Moore; while not far from this is Muckross Abbey, built by the Franciscans in 1440. Other abbeys there are in Scotland and England and on the Continent more beautiful than 
this, but by an American, who has just landed here and to whom this is the first ruin he has seen, it will never be forgotten. The subtle sense of antiquity, which is lacking in his own country, 
steals insensibly over him, and the accumulated influences of years of reading and anticipation at once assert themselves, and thrill him with the joyful realization that this is but a foretaste of all 
that now awaits him, outlined before him in a long and beautiful perspective. Yet no matter how much more he may enjoy, the memory of the sentiments awakened in the ivy-mantled walls of 
Muckross Abbey will abide with him forever as an inspiration. 



Ill 



r 



^ 




BLARNEY CASTLE, IRELAND.— The "Emerald l^le" abounds in lovely bits of scenery, of which some ivy-mantled abbey or historic castle forms a charmmg teature. One of the most renowned of 
these Old Irish ruins is Blarney Castle, not far from Cork. On the highest point of the northeast angle of the tower is a stone bearing the date of 1703, and held in position by two iron bars. In 1S25 
Sir Walter Scott, while on a tour through Ireland, kissed this "Blarney Stone," as thousands of tourists do every year. The effect which this act has upon the eloquence of any one who thus salutes 

it is thus told in verse: 

"There is a stone there To a lady's chamber To be left alone. 

That whoever kisses Or become a member Don't hope to hinder him, 

Oh! he never misses Of Parliament. Or to bewilder hihi; 

To grow eloquent. A clever spouter Sure's, he's a pilgrim 

'Tis he may clamber He'll sure turn out, or From the Blarney Stone." 

An out-and-outer 

11.^ 




CUSTOMHOUSE DUEL NrRELAND.-Dublm has several nob^ Standing on the north 

side of the river L.ftey, which flows directly through the city. ,t ,s seen on three sides to admirable advantage. From the center rises a dome 125 feet high and surmounted by a statue symbolical of an 
■nvanable characteristic of the Insh. HOPE. Notwithstandmg this handsome structure; DubHn has not so much business activity as we should expect to find in so large and important a city, and 
Belfast issa.d to transact a larger general trade. The docks m the river have been improved, the river itself has been deepened, and new wharves have been constructed, but the custom dues have 
for many years remained almost stationary. Dubhn produces little for exportation now save whiskey and porter. It has now but few manufactures and these are of trifling value. The public 
buildings in Dublin which rival this Custom House in elegance of architecture are the Bank of Ireland (formerly the House of Parliament), St. Patrick's Cathedral, and above all, Trinity College which 
IS an honor not only to Ireland, but to Great Britain. But in striking contrast to these and other evidences of wealth in Dublin, there is a vast amount of poverty in the city, and street af^ter street 
of wretched tenements produce a painful impression on the traveler's mind. Still the happy buoyant disposition of the Irish is visible despite rags and tatters, as an April sun shines through the 
clouds and rain, and sadness is not a characteristic of the capital of the Emerald Isle. 

"5 




SACKVILLE STREET, DUBLIN.— The Irish are exceedingly proud of their capital, and well they may be. 
its public buildings command the traveler's admiration. Its principal thoroughfare, Sackville Street, has te 



Its situation on the river Liffey near its entrance into Dublin Bay is beautiful, and many oi 
few superiors in Europe. In the centre, and dividing it into Upper and Lower Sackville Street, 
IS a fluted Done column 134 feet m height, crowned by the statue of Nelson, and reared to commemorate the hero of Trafalgar. The cost of the monument was about $33,000, which was raised by 
popular subscription. On every anniversary of Nelson's greatest victories the Union Jack is displayed from the top of the column. But the Nelson Monument is only one of the many striking features 
of Sackville Street. Here, for example, is the General Post Office, presenting a long and handsome facade adorned with statuary. Here also are several statues of distinguished Irish patriots, and 
many of the finest business blocks and hotels of the city. Moreover, this is the great promenade of Dublin, and it has been often stated that nowhere can there be seen more beautiful women than 
one may meet here on a pleasant afternoon. For if a -real old Irish gentleman" is one of the most agreeable of acquaintances and one of the truest and warmest of friends, so Irish ladies are not 
only charming in form and feature, but remarkably attractive from the rare combination they e.xhibit of high breeding and dignity together with a quick sympathy and warm-hearted impulsiveness, 
which no mere covering of conventionality can ever quite conceal. 

117 




EDINBURGH, AND SCOTT'S MONUMENT. — Not another capital in Europe save Athens, which it somewhat resembles, compares with Edinburgh in situation, and the Scotch have made the place 
well worthy of its fine position. On one side is Carlton Hill, rising three hundred feet above the town, and opposite this about a mile away is the old historic Castle. Between them extends the 
beautiful avenue called Princes' Street, bordered by handsome buildings, parks and monuments. Among the many attractive sights in this old Scottish city, and rising in the center of this picture, is the 
elegant memorial of Sir Walter Scott, who was born in Edinburgh on the iSth of August, l77l. The statues in its various niches represent characters taken from his works, such as Meg Merrilies, 
the Last Minstrel, and the Lady of the Lake. In the center, open on all sides to inspection, is a colossal marble statue of Sir Walter, and at the feet of one so fond of dogs is appropriately placed 
the figure of his favorite hound, Bevis. This monument is certainly one of the finest ever reared to a man of genius. Its graceful arches recall in minature the groined roofs of Melrose Abbey. AI\ 
parts of it are beautifully carved. A stairway of about 280 steps leads to the top. The cost of this great work was about |80,000, and its design was furnished by a young architect of Edinburgh, 
who did not live to see the monument completed. It is a touching proof of the love which Scotland felt for Sir Walter, that subscriptions for this grand memorial poured in from all classes and 
conditions of his countrymen. It was the gift of a Nation ; and while on the subscription list may be seen " 100 Pounds from her Majesty the Queen," we may likewise read, "Three pounds, seveO' 
shillings from the poor people of the Cow Gate." 

119 



» 




ABBOTbFORD. bCOTLAND.-This home of the great novefist ana poet, Sir Walter Scott, is an intensely interesting object to visit. It was his own creation. He even planted many of the noble 
trees m its adjommg Park. Its very ground was dear to him, for it had formerly belonged to the Abbots of Melrose, and was near Melrose Abbey, whose beauty inspired Scott to write some of his 
most beautiful stanzas. Yet this was not merely a poet's home. It was a veritable battlefield, where one of the noblest sons of Genius took arms against a sea of troubles which would have 
paralyzed a braver heart than his. The failure of the publishing house with which he was connected threatened him with ruin, and to save this dearly loved estate yet pay to the utmost every 
creditor, became the one great object of his life. Payment was deemed impossible. But Scott knew no such word, and actually assumed the entire debt of about j?600,000, asking only for time In 
four years he had realized for his creditors nearly $400,000; working ten. twelve and often fourteen hours out of the twenty-four. Never, before or since was such a sum thus earned. It was Sir Walter's 
custom to do a vast amount of literary work early in the morning before his numerous guests had thought of stirring, and when everyone supposed him to be still asleep It was this habit of early 
toil which enabled Scott to preserve for so long a time his incognito as the author of the Waverly Novels. Here on September 2lst, 1S32, the noble-hearted Scotchman passed away from earth 
while the members of his family knelt around his bed. and his eldest son kissed and closed his eyes. No sculptor ever modeled a more majestic image of repose. 



121 



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/ 




BALMORAL CASTLE, SCOTLAND.— This Highland home ot Queen Victoria is beautitully situated beside tne river Dee some tifty miles ironi Aberdeen. In her Majesty's absence, the castle is shown 
to visitors only on the presentation of a written order. The property consists of about 10,000 acres, which belonged formerly to the Earl of Fife, but which in 1852 became the property of the Crown 
by the payment of $160,000. The castle itself, which is of light Scotch granite, was erected by the Prince Consort at his own expense. Near by is the Crathie Church, where the Queen attends 
divine service; and a mile and a half away is the Abergeldie Castle, a favorite "Shooting-box" and summer residence of the Prince of Wales. The adjoining country is of great beauty, and the Castle 




delightful views. The neighbc .. 

abounds in opportunities not merely for hunting, but for enjoyable excursions among the Highlands, particularly to that grand old mountain Lochnagar, 3800 feet high, celebrated by the poetry 
Lord Byron, and called by the Queen her "Mountain Jewel." From its summit fully one-half of Scotland is outspread before the vision of the enraptured traveler. 



of 



123 




HOLYROOD PALACE, EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND.— At the other extremity of Edinburgh from that which holds its famous Castle is Holyrood PaLice, the residence of Mary, Queen of Scots. It is 
a gloomy building in appearance, whose cold gray walls seem to have Httie in harmony with the fair Queen who once resided there. Her memory so completely haunts the place that, though this 
edifice has stood here for nearly 400 years, and though many Kings and Queens have lived within its wails, the apartments of Queen Mary are ail that the traveler usually cares to see. Their contents 
are, however, slowly crumbling into dust, for the frail memorials of that unhappy lady have stood thus for 300 years. There are not many portraits of Mary here; but wherever they are hung they 
attract the attention of even the most careless tourist. Of all the thousands who have for centuries passed before them, probably not one has failed to pause and think with pity of the lovely 
woman whom they represent. Here also we may see the room in which Mary's secretary, the Italian Rizzio, was murdered by her jealous husband, Darnley; and certain stains are still pointed out 
as having been made by his blood. The ruined structure on the left of the palace is old Holyrood Chapel, where Rizzio was buried, and the imposing mountain rising in the background is called 
"Arthur's Seat." 

125 




MELROSE ABBEY, SCOTLAND.— The charm of this celebrated structure is proverbial and it well deserves its reputation Its noble columns, windows and arches are of exquisite beauty ana 
delicate carving, and justify this poetical yet accurate description of Sir Walter: "Thou wouldst have thought some fairy's hand, Twixt poplars straight, an osier wand, In many a freakish knot 
had twined ; Then framed a spell when the work was done, And changed the willow wreaths to stone." This magnificent Abbey was built by King David I in the twelfth century, and many of the 
monarchs of Scotland were buried here. Here is also deposited the heart of Robert Bruce. So durable is the red sandstone in which they are cliiseled that the most delicately-sculptured capitals 
and flowers are still perfect, save where the hand of man has injured them. Yes, the " hand of manr for the mere lapse of time would not have caused such overthrow as this. Alas I it has been 
almost universally the fact that man himself has shattered the most exquisite and wonderful structures which human genius has been able to create. So was it here. Again and again contending 
armies plundered it, and fmally the Scotch Reformers did even more injury to its remaining statues and carving than had been effected by the ravages of war I The sight of this ruined pile at 
moonhght can never be forgotten and imparts forevermore a new charm to the well-known lines of Scott : " If thou wouldst view fair Melrose aright, Go visit it by the pale moonlight. When 
buttress and buttress alternately Seemed framed of ebony and ivory ; And home returning, soothly swear. Was never scene so sad and fair." 



127 




THE TROSSACHS, SCOTLAND— The romantic lake-region of Scotland is one of the most attractive parts of Europe, not only from its natural beauty but because of the charm which Sir Waltei 
Scott's poems and "Waverly" novels have given there to mountains, lochs, rivers and castles. The scenery is not Alpine in his grandeur, nor like that of Norway in sublimity; but it is exceedingly 
picturesque and beautiful, while its variety of rugged mountains, limpid lakes, soft sylvan scenery and wooded islands render a tour through this country one of rare delight. Moreover, the region 
is of limited extent. If pressed for time, the tourist may go from Glasgow to Edinburgh and see the most conspicuous features of the Trossachs in a single day. If the weather be fine, the pictures 
which unfold themselves at every turn in this poetic and historic country will hang forever in the gallery of the traveler's memory; for everywhere he there beholds, "Crags, knolls and mounds 
confusedly hurled, The fragments of an earlier world," and "Mountains that like giants stand, To sentinel enchanted landl" Yet frequently, to ofTset this grandeur, we see a tranquil stream or ivied 
bridge, a peaceful valley or a ruined castle, which give to this delightful scenery an added charm. Moreover, the greater part of this district of the Scottish lakes (so sparsely is it populated) seems 
like a pleasure-park reserved for tourists. For the old Highland Chiefs have long since disappeared, and the few wealthy land-owners spend often only three or four weeks here on their vast estates 
to entertain their guests, or shoot the game upon their hills. 

129 




ELLEN'S ISLE, LOCH KATRINE, SCOTLAND. — One of the loveliest features in the Trossachs is the little sheet of water known as Loch Katrine. It is diminutive, but so incomparably situated 

that its small size makes it the more enchanting, since not a single charm escapes us. What can be more attractive than the combination here of light and shade, when its fair surface is flecked by 

touches of the sun and clouds ? Around it mountains rear their massive forms like giant guardians of the peaceful lake, within which they again appear like an inverted world, until we can with 

difficulty tell which is the real and which the counterfeit presentment ! Moreover, its heathery banks and limpid waves, so long as they endure, will be fondly associated with memories of Sir 

Walter Scott and his fairest creation, the " Lady of the Lake." In fact the pretty island in the center is still known as "Ellen's Isle." for, according to Scott's fancy, this wave-encircled sylvan 

retreat was the home of that fair Lady of the Lake, "Her head thrown back, her lips apart. Like Monument of Grecian art." Scott is the especial genius of this place, and here one fairly revels in 

the scenes portrayed with absolute perfection by his magic pen. Each point recalls some stanza or some well-known line, so accurate are his poetical descriptions. Never was a writer more 

particular in this respect than Scott. For example, while writing the " Lady of the Lake," he once galloped the entire distance from Loch Achary to Stirling to prove to himself that his hero could 

Jiave ridden it in a certain time 1 * 

131 




FINGAL'S CAVE, SCOTLAND. — Off the western cost of Scotland, and easily reached now by excursion steamers. Nature has placed one of her greatest marvels, namely, the island of Statfa, rising 
in barren grandeur from the ocean and looking like an enormous table supported by innumerable columns, which rest upon a floor of lapis-lazuli. It is only about a mile in circumference, yet its 
perpendicular cliffs present a grand appearance, reaching at certain points an elevation of 140 feet, and honeycombed with wave-worn caverns lined with innumerable fluted columns, which in some 
instances curve outward, as though to more successfully oppose their breasts to the tremendous surges of the sea. The largest of these openings is Fingal's Cave. It is an awe-inspiring place to 
visit, though when the sea is rough it is impossible to enter it. Its curving roof is nearly lOO feet above the waves, and in calm weather travelers may go in boats far into the heart of the cliff along 
that pillared vestibule 230 feet in length. At the extreme end of this magnificent cavern is a kind of natural throne, imposing enough to suggest the kingly seat of Neptune himself, and from this the 
view outward through this avenue of colums, whose pavement is the sea, is beautiful beyond description. When a storm is raging on this coast the scene at Fingal's Cave is said to be sublime. The 
force of the stupendous billows hurled against these cliffs is then appalling, and the incessant roar emerging from this mighty cavern can be heard for miles. This is indeed a solemn Minster of the 
sea, wrought ages since by Nature's architect, and Ocean's anthems have resounded here in majesty long before Egypt reared her pyramids or ever huma*^ eyes beheld its grand proportions and listened 
to its awful symphonies. 

X33 




BURNS' COTTAGE, SCOTLAND.— Ayrshire, the "Land of Burns," is one of the most interesting feaiures not merely of Scotland, but of Europe, to those who love to visit places hallowed by the genius of 
illustrious men. The little town of Ayr abounds in memorials of the poet, one of which is this humble cottage in which Robert Burns was born in 1759. The little bedstead in which he slept was once 
bought lor a mere trifle by a stable-boy, who afterwards sold it for twenty pounds. Everything in the vicmity reminds us of his poems. Not far away, for example, is "Auld Alloway's wit-^h- haunted Kirk," 
the scene of Tam O'Shanter's ludicrous adventure on that night when Burns tells us ^'Even ? child might understand the Devil had business on his hand." Near here also are the "Banks and Braes of 
Bonnie Doon," that lovely stream of which the poet has so sweetly sung. It was while pacing up and down the banks of this river one winter's afternoon in t790 that Burn's composed his poem of 
Tam O'Shanter; and one may see now the very bridge o'er which the terrified Tam rode from the witches for dear life on his gray mare, Maggie! It was also, while standing beside this stream that 
Burns and his "Highland Mary" held a little Bible between them (still preserved in the Burns Museum at Ayr), and pledged to each other eternal faithfulness. Between the faded leaves of that Bible 
now rests a little tress of her hair, and who can forget the sad lines of her lover, as after her death he wrote that poem commencing, "Ye banks and brays of Bonnie Doon, How can ye bloom sae 
fresh and fair? How can ye chant, ye little birds, And I sae weary and full o'care?" The name of Burns is a household word in Scotland, and he is immortally enshrined in the affections of his 
countrymen. More than 30,000 strangers visit this birthplace of Burns every yearl 

135 




NORTH CAPE. NORWAY.-Travel in Norway naturally divides itself in three sections; lirst, the drive through its mountainous interior; second, the exploration of its erand Fiords- and third th, 

ITZ^ZJrTr ? "' ""r''^"''] ""'" T^^^ T ''^ '"' ^"""'°" ^'^^^"^ *"'^'^ '"" '^° °^ '^^^ *™" ^ -^^ "--^ "- -^me/months occ pi l l V^a to t e^;^^^^^^^^ ', 

s a cnarmmg exped.t.on for only in few places need rough weather be feared, since for almost the entire distance the steamer glides along in smooth water between the coast of Norwav anS' the 
ong fnnge of .slands wh.ch serve for more than ,,000 miles as a break-water to protect the Norwegian shore from the billows of the North Atlantic. The No h C pe ■" mos impos^rp omontory 

be or r^ dn IhT^Lw Jk '''f^, "r^T"""' "f ""' ^^^■•'^°™^- On the summit a small granite monument has been erected to commemorate King Oscar's visit to the Cape in ,873 Ju^ 
stand ^nn ?h? ^f u . , i'' '"'"'"■ '" "'™ '""' "''''"«'" '' "''^ "^^" •'"" "'™^e'ves on the mountain to be on their guard. It ,s a never-to-be-forgotten moment when on 

O'clock the t a r, Tu Z k "'' '° "'VV '° '" '^"^ "^^ "°^"' ''°'^- '^"'^ " '^ ' ""'^"^ ='"" ^«^ '"^"'"""'^ "P"-"" when, as the hands of h s watch pon to tweW 

from Mav ,th f„ TZuTrTu / ^""'"! ^^""'" «' '^e globe, and sees tt. ^Z.,/,,/^/,/ Su„.' This wonderful phenomenon of an endless day, with a brilliant sun at midnight i° Ws ble 
from May ,1th to July 30th; but practically for a much longer time in northern Norway there is no perceptible dilTerence between night and day. 

137 




GROUP OF LAPPS. NORWAY. — Near the North Cape, on the Northwestern coast of Norway, are settlements of Laplanders, frequently visited by travelers in their tour through the "Land of the 
Midnight Sun." One visit usually satisfies the tourist's curiosity. The Lapps are by no means beautiful, attractive or cleanly. They are short in stature, the men being about five feet high, and the 
women four. They usually have high cheek bones, wizened faces, flat noses, and small almond-shaped eyes. They wear garments made of reindeer skin with the pelt turned outwards. These 
garments last indetinitely and are handed down from parents to children. The lower limbs of the Lapps are usually covered with bands of worsted wound about the ankles, and leggings of whale 
skin, which fit their forms almost as tightly as if they were their own skin. The Lapps live in miserable huts made of wood, turf and straw, and lined with reindeer hide. One of these will often contain 
two or three families. They sell to tourists bone knives, fur purses and other objects of their own manufacture. They are tough and hardy like most dwarf s, and Dickens could have found among 
them many models for his character of Quilp. They are great smokers, and, as their huts are also filled with smoke, they apparently become at last thoroughly smoke-dried within and without. 
This creates an ardent thirst, and they are in conquence very fond of intoxicating liquors. When a Norwegian wishes to remonstrate with a friend for drinking to excess, he will say to him: "Don't 
make a Lapp of yourself." 

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NAERODAL PASS, NORWAY.— The " Naerodal " is a magnificent mountain-gorge extending inland and upward from the equally sublime " Naerof jord." It is characteristic of the wonaertul coast ol 
Norway that long arms of the sea, called " Fjords," wind inland from the Atlantic for nearly one hundred miles, bordered by gigantic, gloomy, almost perpendicular clilts, which approach each 
other at times so closely that the spray from their countless cascades may be blown over the deck of the steamer as it glides along at their base. At the extremity of almost every such fjord the 
grooved formation of the coast still continues towards the interior, and no doubt such wild ravines as the Naerodal once contained water; the gradual elevation of the shore having caused the ocean 
to retire. Ages ago, therefore, human beings, if any had then existed here, could have sailed through this Naerodal. where travelers now drive or walk. It is a place of great sublimity. On either 
hand tower dark and almost perpendicular mountains, without a scrap of vegetation on their barren sides, though down their savage, wrinkled faces stream numberless waterfalls. One of these 
mountains, called the Jordalsnut, has the form of an enormous thimble, and, as its composition is silvery feldspar, it presents a most brilliant and beautiful appearance, especially at sunset or 
under the refulgence of the mooa. 

143 




PANORAMA OF STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN.-Stockholm is one of the most beautifully located cities in tiie world. It has been called the Venice of the North. It is founded on six islands and 
through It sweeps a glorious flood of deep green water, which is the overflow of the beautiful Lake Malar, a half a mile away, makim; its tumultuous exit to the Baltic. How fascinating is that mass 
of emerald water rushmg mipetuously through the city with half the uproar of a cataract! Upon its fair expanse, a stone's throw only from the Grand Hotel, are usually half a dozen steamers 
bound to various places on the Swedish coast, while through their midst, from point to point, dart back and forth a multitude of little st^am launches, about the size of tug-boats. These are the 
ferry-boats of Stockholm, and take the place of horse-cars in our cities. On some of the islands of Stockholm, and at many points in its vicinity, are lovely gardens and places of amusement, which 
make the Swedish capital a charming place of residence in summer. The people then spend as much time as possible in the open air. There is then in that northern latitude almost no darkness, 
and the long summer evenings, marked by a silvery light that never wanes, but merely brightens into dawn, are even more enchanting than the days. The cordial hospitality, sunny dispositions and 
exqusite politeness of the Swedes are additional reasons why the traveler remembers Stockholm with great pleasure. 

145 




ROYAL PALACE, STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN.— On one of the islands ot the charminj,' capital of Sweden stands an enormous buildintr. conspicuous from almost every part of the city. It is the Royal 
Palace. Its vast proportions make it certainly imposing, but beautiful it cannot be called, especially on close approach; for its huge walls are covered with stucco, for which the keen frosts of a northern 
wmter have evidently no respect. The interior of the building, although not elegantly furnished, is very attractive from the home-like air of comfort and simplicity which there prevails. One room 
of special interest is the Council Chamber, a handsome hall adorned with fine oak-carvings and old Gobelin tapestries. There every Friday morning King Oscar II holds a conference with his ministers; 
and whatever may be the abilities of those who then assemble there, it is safe to say that the King himself is their superior. Oscar II is no ordinary man. His court, though unpretending, is one of the 
most refined in Europe. No other sovereign equals him in respect to scholarly attainments, unless it be Pope Leo XIll. He speaks all the prominent European languages', and can at any time address 
the students of the Universities in an impromptu speech of purest Latin. He long ago acquired for himself a place in Swedish literature, not as a King, but as a private individual; and he is known as 
a poet, as writer of military works, a contributor to reviews, and a translator from Spanish and German writers. The Swedes have reason to be proud of their King. 

147 




p™.'';^:fjr.nr'™s^ni°:X::ns;^':Sr'f^^ -'T'"''- ""'''-' ^'^"^^'^" "-*'^""^- ''^ '-, „oweve.stn, .,„.„: The, «,ve us 

one frequently prefers a plain but kind /4c to , at of a d s i„ " ^.J^V "^^ arcl.tecturally Most of its streets are narrow and old-fashioned, and yet one likes old Copenhagen well, Just as 

the usual American thoroughfares. In them one see no o^rn I H.t ,'' ^^°^TT T' """f""' '^""■^^'"*^""' '^'^='""""^ ='"'» cheerfulness. Its streets would put to shame 

in a populace than here. Of course the DanLZe 1 tie t^^hriou ea^ tv ^1 rh ^ ,"°, "TT'''' -^ "'""' "'"'"' ''°'"'''' "' '"' ^""^f"'""^' °"' "^^'^ «"''^ ""^^ g^"^™' ?°°<f humor 
Cheerfulness seems with them a universaHrai nol tene. 1 m ' ^ ^ ™ ' ' ^^aractenzes the Neapolitans. They seem by contrast s.rene/y happy. Their faces beam with calm contentment, 

birthplace of the gr a culpto T orwa d en and one of th '.t'..^"' °" '"'"'' """'''' "'"^'°^'=' ^^ "^^ "melancholy Dane," must have been a national exception. Copenhagen is the 

surrounded by the masterpieces' of hTgents TCrawl iL' bu^eT "' " "'' '" "' '^"'™'" "'''' '" '°"'"" ""''"''' °' '"'''' °' "" "'^ "°"'^- '" '"= ^""''y"" °' that Museum. 

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HARBOR OF HAMBURG, GERMANY.— Hamburg is located on the river Elbe at the mouth of one the tributaries of that stream,— the Alster. Its harbor is a very extensive one, but, as it now exists, 
it is a modern creation. At lirst this city was at some distance from the main branch of the Elbe, and the mouth of the Alster served as its port; but, owing to vast engineering enterprises, the 
principal current was diverted to its present course. The quays of Hamburg now cover a distance of about three miles, and beside some ot them are pleasant promenades planted with trees. 
Vessels drawing fourteen feet of water come up to the city itself, and their cargoes are distributed by means of barges to the warehouses, which line the numerous canals which intersect the town, 
and make more than sixty bridges a necessity. This harbor of Hamburg presents, as the illustration before us makes evident, a very animated scene. The river is always covered with a multitude 
of ships and steamers, some of them close to the shore. There is said to be room here for 400 ocean vessels, and for twice that number of river craft. We can hardly be surprised, therefore, to 
learn that Hamburg ranks first of all the seats of commerce on the Continent, sending its ships and steamers out to every portion ot the world. Hamburg is a very ancient city, having been 
founded probably by Charlemagne in the year 809. In its vicinity are many pretty villages, beautiful promenades and charming villas. 

153 





FRANKFORT, GERMANY.— Frankfort-on-the-Main is one of those cities which combine the characteristics of medieval and modern Germany. Some of its streets are as winding and narrow as they 
were six centuries ago, and others bear the stamp of the New Empire, broad, well paved and adorned with handsome structures. It has many interesting relics of the past. Here is the Council- 
House where the German Emperors were elected and entertained in the Kaisersaal, the walls of which are covered with their portraits. In its cathedral, whose spire rises far above the town, the 
German Emperors were crowned. Here may be seen the house in which originated the famous family of the Rothschilds. Its highest literary distinction is the fact that here the poet Goethe was 
born in 1749, at No. 23 Hirschgraben. In 1863 the house was purchased for 56,000 florins, by a German society designed to promote art, science and general culture. Thus Goethe's birthplace was 
made forever the common property of all German people. Its various rooms are kept as little museums of Goethe literature and art. Near this river Main is a spot known as "Goethe's Rest," 
because he is said to have there admired the situation and beauty of his native city. One square of Frankfort is also called Goethe Platz, and is adorned with a fine bronze statue of the illustrious 
author of "Faust." This is a city of immense wealth, and offers a good market for American securities. Its name is said to be derived from an episode in the life of Charlemagne, when he, together 
with his army of Franks, found here a ford across the river. 

155 



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THE RHINE AND COLOGNE, GERMANY.— Of all the cities un the Rhine, Culogne is the wealthiest and most renowned. It has played quite a role even in Roman history. Here Trajan received 
the summons to assume the Imperial purple. Here Vitellus and Silvanus were proclaimed Emperors; and here the latter was murdered by his cohorts. Here also, in the camp of Germanicus. was 
Dorn Agnppina, the mother of Nero; and she, retaining an affection for her birthplace, sent here in after years a colony of Roman veterans, and gave it her name, Colonia Agrippina, whence comes 
the modern name Cologne. A multitude of churches greets the eye as one surveys this city from the Rhine, but of course its crowning feature is its glorious cathedral in the foreground. Those who 
beheld that building fifteen years ago would hardly recognize it now. Massive indeed it was and vast, but. looking somewhat like the hull of an enormous ship without its masts, since its great 
towers lacked completion. But now it has a glory and a majesty which lift it heavenward above all other churches in the world. It is unquestionably the most magnificent Gothic edifice upon the 
surface of our globe. Begun in 1248, it was not completed till 1883. The last stone was placed in its position, amid impressive ceremonies, in the presence of the old Emperor William and nearly all 
the Princes of Germany. Its towers reach an altitude of 5ll feetl The nave is 145 feet high from floor to roof! It is impossible to gaze on certain parts of either the exterior or interior of this 
stupendous structure without feeling well-nigh crushed by an overpowering realization of the sublime. 



159 




HEIDELBERG CASTLE, GERMANY.— One of the most charming features of the Old World is Heidelberg Castle towering above the river Necsar, which rolls beneath it like a flood of silver to the 
Rhme not many miles away. Its situation is glorious. From the " Castle Hotel," just above the rum itself, one gazes with increasing pleasure upon the shadow-darkened river and the great forest all 
about him, like a magnificent rug of deepest green, from which the castle rises in its grandeur. The forest itself is threaded with countless paths completely sheltered from the sun, in early spring-time 
Imed with violets and spanned at frequent intervals by half-ruined arches, crowned with luxuriant wild flowers and caressed by the clinging fingers of a hundred vines. A great variety of architecture 
IS here displayed. Each portion of the building differs in style and tinish from its neighbor. The roofs possess no similarity. The great round tower is unique. But after a moment's thought this 
difference in style is understood. For Heidelberg Castle was not, after all, the work of any one great architect, or even one age, but rather is a series of old palaces erected here by various princes 
through 300 years. A wonderfully fascinating place is the old court of Heidelberg either just after sunset, or better still when the full moon is threading its deserted courts with silver sandals. In 
that mysterious light its sculptured kings and warriors seem like living beings gatliered here to speak of the old times when these grand halls were filled with valiant kniglits, fair ladies and sweet- 
voiced minstrels. 

i6i 




COBLENTZ ON THE RHINE, GERMANY.— One ot the most important ot Rhenish cities is-Cobicntz, winch lies ;it the meeting point ot the Rhine and the Mosel The waters ot these streams do 
not at once assimilate. The Mosel preserves for a long time its emerald color quite distinctly, as though unwilling to mmgle its French waters with the waves ot German}'. The historic souvemt^ 
of this town are extremely interesting. The Romans founded here, ISOO years ago, a city known as "Contluentia." Hither, after the death of Charlmagne, came his grandsons to divide between them 
his gigantic empire. In recent times it was a favorite residence of the Empress Augusta of Germany, wife of old Kaiser William. A bridge of boats connects this city with the opposite bank, where 
on a lofty hill, 400 feet in height, rises the celebrated fortress of Ehrenbreitstein, appropriately called the "Gibraltar of the Rhine.'* It is a stone Colossus effectively protecting this most important 
confluence of the two streams, and capable of instantly transforming the peaceful romance of the river into a tragedy ot blood and iron. It is sate to say, therefore, that Coblentz will never pass 
out of the possession of the Germans; for the "Broad stone of Honor" which thus guards it is held to be impregnable, and day and night in massive majesty maintains its perpetual "Watch on the 
Rhine." 

163 



L 




foam ani mu™L th h , .. ' ^'^'^^'^^^.-The interest which we take in the rivers of our globe mcreases in proportion to the historic souvenirs which seem to mingle with their 

rem their m^rLlr' T" h,' . '""' °"' "'f T' '°''"'°'' °' "^' "'"^"'^ ^'•^'" "'''' " "'' "°^'^ '''''"^- ^""'^ i"ustration reveals to us one of the many ruined castles which 

enh, e. 7""'="" ^'^"'^'°°\f ^ '" T" "' '' '" '"' "°"*^' ""="■ """'"' *"" '"'^ ivy-covered battlements telling us of some famous deeds of chivalry or romance through a line of 

n thk H„,tL = °R Gutenfels owes its t.tle to a lovely maiden named Guta, who was wooed and married by a brave English knight under romantic circumstances which cannot be enumerated 

oil , "!"• f ""' '" "" """"' °' "'' ^^''"' ' *°*"' ^"°'''" »' '"' Pf^'^- ""^' " '^ ^^"l' '°" i^ ^*"l P»id '° 'he Duke of Nassau by all vessels navigating the river, the 

sh rmT"^ '" °! ,^.""',"°" '"''°'" ""'""" ^SO in many places on its banks. This tower also has its poetic legend. A certain Count Palatine used this as a prison for his daughter, lest 

all nhl , ""7 '^""1'"' '^'" "''= ^"° °' ^" '°^'=- But all in vain. The Romeo of the Rhine at last secured admission here disguised as a pilgrim, and the lovers were united in marri.ige despite 

Obstacles, It was at this pomt that the Prussian army under Blucher crossed the Rhine in 1S14, to advance on Paris in company with the allied European forces to crush the first Napoleon. 

i65 




SCENE OF THE CRUCIFIXION. PASSION PLAY, OBERAMMERGAU-— The village of Gherammergau, hidden away in the Tyrolese Alps of Bavaria, lies for nine years lifeless and forgotten. 
Then every tenth year it suddenly emerges from its obscurity, and, like a comet at its periodic visitation, comes once more into the vision of mankind. The cause of this celebrity at the recurrence 
of each decade is the performance there of its wonderful Passion Play. Two hundred and fifty years ago a plague was raging in Bavaria. In Oberammergau alone one hundred persons had thus 
perished. The terrified survivors made a vow to God that if He would thereafter spare their lives, they would thenceforth perform every ten years a drama of Christ's life and sufferings. The plague 
abated, and every since those villagers have deemed themselves compelled to carry out the vow of their forefathers, bequeathing it from generation to generation as a sacred and important legacy. 
Elsewhere the Passion Play would seem offensive. Like a wild mountain-flower, it would not bear transplanting to another soil. In Oberammergau, however, it is appropriate and natural. The 
piety, sincerity and intelligence of these villagers, who profit by centuries of stage-tradition and are filled with enthusiasm and religious fervor, reconcile even the most sensitive to this remarkable 
production. The play is performed every Sunday {and sometimes oftener) through the months of June, July, August and September. It lasts from eight in the morning till six in the evening, with 
the intermission of an hour and a half at noon. It has eighteen acts and twenty-five tableaux. Sometimes five hundred people are on the stage at once. Joseph Maier, who for three decades has 
enacted the part of Christ, is a man of noble character, majestic figure and positive genius in his refined conception of his role. The scene of the Crucifixion is the most thrilling in the drama. 
Maier hangs upon the cross for twenty-two minutes, and all the details narrated in the Gospels are faithfully carried out. To see these various incidents thus solemnly and beautifully represented 
under the open sky, as if in actual life, is a unique experience, repaying almost any sacrifice. Forever after it lingers in the memory like a benediction. 

167 




EMPEROR'S PALACE, BERLIN.— In a prominent position on the Unter den Linden, and in close proximity to tlie Imperial Armoury and tiie magnificent statue of Frederick the Great, stands tliis 
residence of the German Emperor. The traveler is invariably surprised to find this edifice so unpretending. Compared to other palaces in Europe, it seems an insignificant abode for royalty, 
remarkable for neither decoration nor material; a plain, substantial house of stuccoed brick. A stranger might walk by and fancy it the home of some rich private individual, unless indeed the 
sentries at the door did not betray the presence of the sovereign. The corner windows of this building are those of the Emperor's study, and every day at noon, when the attendant regiment marched 
by to take its station at the guard house, at one of these windows could be seen the aged Kaiser and his great-grandchild, returning the salutations of the guard and populace. This custom the 
old Emperor maintained to the last days of his life; yet never did he thus present himself, save in full, soldier-like attire. In fact when dressed he never was without his uniform. True, in the 
privacy of his study, he would occasionally loosen and throw back his coat ; but at the sound of fife or drum he always buttoned it again, and stood thus till the troops had passed. On being 
asked why he took such pains to fasten every button, he replied, " ! wish to set a suitable example; for let me tell you, it is the one clasp left unbuttoned that is the ruin of an army." 

i6q 



i 




PRINCE BISMARCK'S RESIDENCE, BERLIN.— There was a time, previous to the enforced retirement of the Great Chancellor of Germany, when this plain, unostentatious house almost rivaled in 
interest and importance the abode of Royalty. A crowd of people often waited here before it in hope of seeing him, for notwithstanding Bismarck's occasional arrogance, no one could doubt his 
popularity with the German people. When, for example, he appeared in public at the reception given in Berlin to the King of Italy, the streets were crowded with humanity, and the cry of "Bismarckl" 
was much louder here than that which greeted either King or Emperor. In fact, when Bismarck's carriage turned into the Linden, the roar of acclamations became deafening. It was not merely 
Bismarck as an individual whom they thus saluted. He was continually to the Germans a reminder of their natioii's glory! The sight of him, for example, instantly recalled a hundred scenes, 
such as his hour of triumph at Versailles, when he declared his terms to the dismayed and hopeless diplomats, Jules Favre and Thiers; demanding unrelentingly the Provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, 
and an indemnity of five thousand million francs! In memory then of all that he has done, it is not strange that Germany has admired Bismarck even while it may have feared him. Like most great 
men, he shows to better advantage on a pedestal than under close inspection. But he is, nevertheless, a grand historic figure— almost the last of the great founders of united Germany. 

171 




BRANDENBURG GATE, BERLIN. — This fine historic portal of Berlin forms the commencement of its most famous street, the "Unter den Linden," or "Under the Lime Trees." Its situation thus is 
admirable, for the avenue which it adorns is straight as an arrow and a mile in length. Accordingly, this Gate is visible at a great distance. It is decidedly imposing, being about 70 feet in height and 
200 in breadth. It is perforated by five different passageways, the central one being reserved for carriages of royalty. Upon the summit is a bronze car of Victory drawn by four horses. It has 
had a remarkable history. In i806when Napoleon passed beneath this gate as conqueror of Prussia, he ordered that this triumphal chariot should be sent to Paris to adorn one of his own arches 
of triumph there. But after Napoleon's downfall the Prussians brought it back with shouts of rejoicing, restored the Goddess of Victory to her throne on the Brandenburg gate, and named the 
square on which she looks exultingly "The Place of Paris." In iS7l beneath this arch a large portion of the German army, together with the Emperor, Crown Prince and Bismarck, re-entered Berlin 
amid the wildest enthusiasm after the war with France. Beyond this gateway is the famous park of Berlin, the Thiergarten, and every afternoon tins portal is the nucleus of much of the display of 
Berlin's gay and fashionable life, as handsome carriages roll outward to the pleasure-grounds or inward toward the city. 



17.^ 




glacier within thirty miles 
len the great Frederick began 

^ ^„„., ,.._ ,„...^ J „. .„. .__...__^^ ^^.^ ^ ..„_ ^ „. carefully made that no lover of art can afford to miss the Museum 

of Berlin. This Royal Museum was founded by Frederick William III in 1824. To this has been added a "New Museum," especially rich in Egyptian relics, and casts of ancient, mediaeval and modern 
sculpture. Its most attractive feature, however, to the traveler is probably the series of magnificent frescoes, designed by Kaulbach, on the staircase of the New Museum. Though modern works, 
Michael Angelo would doubtless have admired them. They illustrate the history and development of the human race, from such great events as the overthrow of the Tower of Babel, the heroic Age 
of Homer and the Destruction of Jerusalem, to the exploits of the C.'usaders, and the Age of the Reformation. These frescoes alone are enough to give to Berlin a unique position in the realm of 
the fine arts. 

175 




k 



UNTER DEN LINDEN, BERLIN —From the great Brandenburg gate, wliich another illustration in this volume has revealed, extends through me heart ot the city, the most famous thoroughtare of 
the Prussian capital, the "Unter den Linden," or "Under the Lime Trees." The name is somewhat inappropriate at present, for there are few trees now in this busy street, and these are not in a very 
flourishing condition. Nevertheless, it is a highway of which the Berlinese are justly proud, straight as an arrow, more than a mile in length, and ornamented by many handsome buildings, such as 
the Arsenal and the palaces of Old Kaiser Wilhelm and the Crown Prince. Like most large German cities Berlin is admirably paved, and its streets are well kept and clean. Many of them are covered 
with asphalt, and in the early morning they are thoroughly washed, while a number of boys always follow up the watering-force with mops and sponges to remove the superfluous moisture. No one 
can visit Berlin to-day without feeling that it has arisen to be not only chief of Prussian cities, but the political centre of the German Empire. The increase in its population has been unparalleled 
among the world's great capitals. It is indeed to-day the brain and arm of that gigantic body known as United Germany; and it is Berlin (through her Rulers. Generals and Statesmen) which has in the 
last few decades transformed the Germany of poetry, legend and romantic ruins into the greatest military power upon earth — the Germany ot blood and iron, of cannon and of conquest— of Bismarck 
and Von Moltke. 

177 




COMEDY THEATRE, SCHILLER PLATZ, BERLIN.— The Germans are the most sensible people in the world in regard to their attendance of the Opera or Theatre. Recognizing the educational benefit 
to be derived from good music and fine dramatic performances, the officers of the Prussian army are obliged to go a certain number of times every month to carefully selected places of amusement. 
The best theatres are financially assisted by the Government, so that a high standard of dramatic excellence and a reasonable scale of prices can be maintained. As for the citizens themselves, they 
are so fond of the Opera and Drama that they wish to attend more frequently than they could possibly do it late hours were thus always necessary. Accordingly, even in Berlin, the hour for begmning 
is often half-past six or seven, so that by ten o'clock the opera is over. Moreover, contrary to the system in England, Italy and France, ladies are allowed in the parquet, and {blessed rule!) all 
hats and bonnets are removed. The result of this is an audience which does not spend much thought on dress, but rather has assembled for the enjoyment of the piece performed. The attention 
therefore is remarkable and no applause is heard until an act is finished. Some other rules pertaining to dramatic performances here are also excellent. Thus, should you take a cab to the theatre 
outlined in this view, the driver would halt somewhere near the statue of Schiller, or at all events a little distance from the building, and collect his fare, so that, when in the crowd about the entrance, 
there shall be no delay. 

179 




MAUSOLEUM OF CHARLOTTENBURG, BERLIN, GERMANY.— The park adjoining the Palace of Chaiiottenburg, a tew miles from Berlin, contains a beautiful marble Mausoleum, the interior ot which 
is represented in this illustration. It is the burial place of the Prussian King, Frederick William HI, and his wife, the idolized "Queen Louisa." The tombs of Royalty are numerous in Europe, but 
few can be compared with this for beauty and solemnity. The walls and floor are all of polished marble, upon which falls a delicately-colored light from stained glass windows in the roof; while 
in the center upon marble couches are these recumbent figures of the King and Queen. There is a beautiful repose about these statues. With their folded hands, they seem to lie, not in death, but 
like one who wraps the drapery of his couch about him and lies down to pleasant dreams. Hither, as to a hallowed shrine, each year upon the anniversary of the Queen's decease, the members 
of the Royal Family come to lay some floral tribute on her grave. And there are few events in the life of the old Emperor William more touching than the visits which he made to this, his mother's 
tomb, before and after the late war with France; the first as it were, to invoke her blessing on the coming conflict; the last (when flushed with victory) to lay his laurels at her feetl 

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BEACH OF SCHEVENINGEN, HOLLAND. — Only a few miles distant from tiie Ha^ue is tiiis m6st fashionable of Holland watering-places. Between the city and this beach horse-cars and omnibuses 
are in constant motion. On warm summer days the entire population of the capital seems to have assembled on these sands. There is, however, a very different kind of life led on this beach during 
the greater part of the year. The pleasure-seekers depart with the first cold autumnal storm, but the quaint fishing people of Scheveningen remain, permanent features of the landscape. Living withtn 
three miles of the capital, and every summer invaded by the crowds of fashion, they nevertheless preserve unchanged the primitive habits and dress of their forefathers. Their costumes are exceedingly 
odd and amusing. Their faces appear old and anxious. Nor is this strange. For what a toilsome, cheerless life they lead during a greater part of the year, when only the old men, women and 
children are left to watch and wait, and keep the hearth-stone bright, while all the stalwart men of the village are at sea! But when the fleet comes back, then is there joy indeed, and great excitement 
attends the landing and public sale of fish upon the shore. As one walks upon this beach, watching its angry waves, and realizing that large portions of Holland are below the ocean level, he thinks 
with admiration of the courage and eternal vigilance of this sturdy nation, which holds the sea at bay, and whose very existence is a splendid proof of man's superiority over Nature. 

J 89 




DUTCH WINDMILLS, HOLLAND.— Two characteristic features of Holland constantly present themselves, canals and windmills. The latter really seem innumerable. The country often appears to 
be ahve with these revolving monsters, which, when in motion look like giants turning hand-springs on the horizon, and when at rest, resemble light-houses above the sea. But "rest" with them is 



DC auve wun inese revoivmg monsiers, wnicii, wneii iii iiioiiun iuuk. iik-c gidiii^ lunung nauu-si-Miiigi uu mc iiuiiz.uii, auu wucu «* icji, icjtmL'it iigm. m<^uj«.j «.^i.-t». ^..^ ^^^, ^^^ .-.^ — — 

rare! They are employed for almost every kind of manufacture. They grind corn, they saw wood, they cut tobacco into snuff, they pulverize rocks, and (most important of all), they pump out 
from the marshes into the canals the water which would otherwise submerge the entire land. The largest ones will, it is claimed, in a fair wind, lift 10.000 gallons of water per minute to the height 
of four feet! One can but admire the wisdom of the persevering Hollanders, who have thus yoked the inconstant wind and forced it not alone to work for them, but also to contend with their 
great enemy, Water! It is a realization of the rough but wholesome words of Emerson, when he says: "Borrow the strength of the elements. Hitch your wagon to a star, and sees the chores done 
by the Gods themselves." A Hollander's wealth is often estimated, not by his bonds or mortgages, but by his windmills. "How rich is such a man?" you may ask. "Oh, he is worth ten or twelve 

v^'indmills " is the reply! 

^91 




ROTTERDAM, HOLLAND.— This famous centre of Dutch commerce lies fourteen miles from the North Sea, at the union or two rivers, one of which gives to the town its name. For this stream is 
called the Rotter, and a great dike or dam erected here bestows upon the place the title of Rotter-damI This is indeed a clew by which to comprehend all similar Dutch names. Thus Amsterdam 
signifies the dam upon the Amstel; and so it is with Schiedam, Zaandam. Edam, Durgerdam, Volendam and all the other dams. But since every public square in Holland is also called a Dam; and 
Since the horse-car signs are always telling us of this Dam or that Dam; and since in the construction of their dikes the Dutch have constantly to use the coffer-dam; if any country in the world 
may be said without profanity to be effectually "dammed," Holland is the one. In Rotterdam one always sees a multitude of bridges. From almost any point you can count eight or ten; and since 
most of them are draw-bridges, they keep rising and falling like parts of an immense machine. Some of the boats which we see on the canals of Rotterdam are actually employed in bringing water 
to the city I This seems like taking coals to Newcastle, but, notwithstanding its aqueous surroundings, Rotterdam, like most Holland cities, has no abundance of good drinking water. Perhaps it is 
not strange therefore that not far away is a thriving town whose 300 distilleries produce the world-renowned Holland gin, which is familiarly known as "Schnapps." 

193 




THE QUAYS OF ANTWERP, BELGIUM. — The name Antwerp is said to be derived from tiie Fleniisii words meaning "On tiie Wharf;" and that indeed is the place where Antwerp's prosperity can be 
best estimated. It is a place of wonderful activity, and these its splendid quays — built by Napoleon I when Antwerp formed a part of his colossal empire — are crowded now with ships and steamers. 
Yet busy as it is to-day, it gives us but a hint of what its commerce was 300 years ago! Then thousands of vessels floated in the river, and more than 500 were arriving and departing every day. 
Merchants came hither from all parts of Europe, and, in addition to her own commercial houses, more than 1,000 foreign firms contended here in friendly rivalry. Antwerp, however, has had much 
to contend with since that time. Again and again this region has been the "cock-pit of Europe," and for years Antwerp's wealth and prosperity declined. But now she is rapidly recovering from her 
disasters. Give her but half a century more of peace under as good a government as that of her liberal King Leopold, and she will take long strides to re-assume the place which she once occupied, 
that of the leading maritine city of the world. 

195 




THE BOURSE, BRUSSELS.— Everyone tnows that Brussels is called a "minature Paris," but few can realize how remarkable the likeness is until they see it. No actual fac-similes of course exist in 
edifices or in streets; but in the first place the same language is employed in Paris as in Brussels; the same signs greet us everywhere; the color of the buildings is the same light hue which makes the 
French metropolis so charming; while even the shops, cafes and covered galleries in Brussels are quite Parisian in appearance. The elegant structure displayed in this illustration will at least call to 
mind the Paris Opera House. It is, however, merely the Bourse. But what a magnificent building for a Stock Exchange! Yet it is characteristic of the city. Brussels is wealthy. Belgium is progressive. 
It cannot boast of an extensive territory, but it resolves to make the little which it does possess not only prosperous but beautiful. In fact on some accounts, is not a small, well-governed European 
monarchy like this much better off, as the world goes, than one which must maintain an enormous standing army and is continually fearing war? So it would seem at least with Belgium, whose policy 
appears to bet "Let others shake the tree. I will pick up the fruit." This beautiful Exchange was completed in t874 at a cost of $2,000,000. But its expense will surprise no one who examines its 
elegant sculptures, columns and statues, which ar-^ even more conspicuous and imposing within than on its exterior. 

197 




».-'^ 




THE ROYAL PALACE, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM.— Close by the pretty park of Brussels stands this residence of Belgium's royal family. Its exterior is not very handsome but it is furnished with great 

elegance. Leopold II is much respected and beloved by his subjects. He is an intelligent, refined and accomplished gentleman and a wise sovereign. It would be difficult to find in Europe a nation 

better governed, a constitution more implicitly obeyed, a King more liberal and progressive, and a people happier and more prosperous than in Belgium. One might select worse places for a European 

residence than this bright capital of the Belgians. Why English and Americans who wish to live abroad, sometimes to study French, should almost always go to Paris, where the great foreign 

colony and the incessant whirl of gaiety make study almost an impossibility, is not quite easy to explain. The French of Brussels is remarkable for its purity, and certainly the life there is much 

more agreeable than in the smaller towns of France, like Tours. Bordeaux and Orleans, so much frequented by American and English families. The expense of living here is also moderate, and the 

Belgians themselves are an extremely courteous and attractive people. 

199 



i 




BOULEVARD ANSPACH, BRUSSELS. BELGIUM.— Brussels is a bright, cheertul city, as Belgium, of which it is the capital, is a pretty, richly cu\avated and interesting land. Of all the countries of 
Europe, none equals Belgium in the average of population to the area, there being about 400 here to the square mile. So thickly covered is it with cities and villages that Phillip 1! said of it that it 
was only one large town. Each of its cities has some interesting features, historic souvenirs or works of art; but Brussels naturally surpasses them all. Some of its streets, like this displayed in the 
illustration, are thoroughly modern and Parisian in their appearance; but there are others lined with quaint and picturesque mediaeval buildings, reminding us of former scenes of gaiety and splendor, 
tragedy and woe. At one turn we may see some stately structure of the present, like the Bourse or Palace of Justice, and at the next behold the Hotel de Ville, within which was being celebrated the 
ball on the eve of the battle of Waterloo, immortalized by Byron in Childe Harold. Waterloo is in fact only ten miles from Brussels, and the tourist who strolls idly along this handsome boulevard 
can, if he will, go thence in an hour to that fatal field where the Man of Destiny received his death-blow, and from which he began the mournful path to St. Helena. As an illustration of the way in 
which the modern and the ancient mingle here in Brussels, it may be remembered that now in its most fashionable square rises the statue of the old hero, Godfrey de Bouillion, to commemorate the 
place where he summoned the populace to join him in the grand Crusade to recover the Holy Sepulchre. 




LUCERNE, SWITZERLAND.— One of the best known gateways into Switzerland is Lucerne, which greets us ever with a smile, peacefully resting by its lovely lake. How many travelers will 

testify to the charm and beauty of this place, where one stands full of expectation, on the threshold of the land of mountains. It is a curious old town. Its pretty river is crossed by ancient 

bridges, adorned with quaint old paintings, and guarded still by mediaeval towers, which seem a trifle out of place within a land whose natural ramparts have been reared by the Almighty, and rise 

to such immensity that man's poor battlements look in comparison like children's toys. One of these sentinels, which almost casts its shadow on the town itself, is ML Pilate, 7,000 feet in height. 

harsh, cold and uninviting in appearance, yet in reality containing thirty "Alps " or mountain meadows, upon which graze four or five thousand head of sheep and cattle. Upon this mountain 

Pontius Pilate is said to have committed suicide in his remorse for his condemnation of Jesus. But Mt. Pilate has a dangerous rival here; for on the other side of the old town is that most 

fashionable Alpine peak, the Right. Both of them now are easy to ascend, for enterprise has girded their steep sides with iron rails, drawn paths of steel through their biack-bearded forests, 

and finally has placed upon their crests a number of hotels. Moreover, in front of Lucerne is its enchanting lake, 22 miles in length, along which steamers glide continuously, their shaded decks 

containing hundreds of delighted tourists. 

203 




GENEVA, SWITZERLAND.— The most beautiful and the most populous of Swiss cities is Geneva. Its situation is delightful. Lying at the southern end of its incomparably colored lake tifty-five 

miles in length, it commands also a charming view of the snow-clad chain of Mt. Blanc, and is within a few hours' drive of Chamounix. The old part of the town, though clean, is not especially 

attractive; but all the new portion of the city bordering the lake is enchanting. Handsome bridges cross from one shore to the other above the arrowy waters of the river Rhone, which here emerges 

irom Lake Geneva with crystaline clearnesss. In the centre of the stream and reached by one of these bridges is the sharply pointed "Island of Rousseau." containing a bronze statue of that famous 

novelist and philosopher, who has made the region of this lake so well known in his romance of the " Nouvelle Heloise." The quays of Geneva are ornamented with stately hotels and elegant jewelry 

shops, which make of this part of the town a minature edition of a Parisian boulevard. The excursions which can be made from Geneva to Ve vay, Montreux, the Castle of Chillon, Lausanne (the 

home of Gibbon), and Ferney (the abode of Voltaire), all close beside the lake, render this city a charming place of sojourn. The historic souvenirs of Geneva are also full of interest. Its prominent 

position at the time of the Reformation is of course well known. Geneva was the home of Calvin himself. In or near it also have lived many illustrious literary geniuses like Gibbon and Madame 

de Stael, to whom the world is forever indebted. 

20i; 





THUN AND THE BERNESE ALPS, SWITZERLAND.— In tlie heart of Switzerland are two lovely bodies of water, Lake Thun and Lake Brienze. Between these lakes, as its name denotes, '\% Inter taken, 
one of the most delightful places of sojourn in the whole circuit of the Alps. Which of the lakes which lie to either side of it is the more beautiful is hard to say. The one presented here is 
possibly the more attractive. At all events the steamboat journey of ten miles over its deep blue surface affords a series of enchanting views, and finally brings one to this picturesque town of Thun 
itself, situated just where the River Aar emerges from the lake, and for a moment slackens here its pace, as if reluctant to depart; conscious perhaps that now it is about to leave the Alpine region 
of its birth, and turning towards the level countries and the sea, become apprenticed to the Rhine, and with that mightier master lead a life of labor and care. All the great world of travel passes 
through Thun and over its mountain-bordered lake to Interlaken almost of necessity. No other spot in Switzerland is quite so central for excursions; none is more easy of approach. From 60,000 
to 80,000 people come to this region ever summer. The glorious Bernese Alps are just beyond, conspicuous among which is the queenly Jungfrau, which forms a dazzling object of attraction, a 
radiant centre-piece of ice and snow nearly 14,000 feet in height. 

207 







THE MER DE GLACE, SWITZERLAND.— One of the most renowned of all the Alpine glaciers is the Mer de Glace. At a distance the vastness of this " Sea of Ice" is but partially disclosed. Still 
we can see upon its sides miles upon miles of pulverized rocks ground off from the adjacent clifTs. Among them, too, are boulders twenty or thirty feet square, now tossed about like nut-shells, 
the rocky debris of ages. Between these tracts of earth and stone is an area comparatively white and pure, and (as its name, the "Sea of Ice," would indicate), this looks as if the billows of the sea 
had suddenly been turned to ice, the crested waves having beeh instantaneously frozen while in their wildest act of tossing. At times these waves assume gigantic shape. For as the glacier pushes 
downward towards the valley, the various obstructions which it meets distort it into monstrous forms. Some of these glittering waves are larger than any cathedral man has ever reared, and among 
them it is quite impossible to move without the aid of ropes and ladders. There is here a strange contrast between the forces of Life and Death. This frozen mass steals down between the pastures, 
tossing its glacial waves close to the trees and havfields of the meadow and one may swing a scythe and gather flowers, while perchance only a hundred yards away, his neighbor by a careless step 
may be perishing in a deep crevasse. 

209 




MT. BLANC. SWITZERLAND.— No visit to Switzerland is complete without a trip to Ciiamounix, that little village above which rises the sovereign of the entire Alps, the tirst of all upon whose 
brow at sunrise rests a crown of gold, viz: Mt. Blanc. It is called thus the ''white mountain,'' par excellence, from the glittering mantle of eternal snow in which it stands enveloped to the height oi 
15,781 feet. It is this peak more than any other of the Alps which has enchanted us from childhood, and even before our eyes have rested upon it, we have sung: "Mt. Blanc is the monarch ot 
mountains. They crowned him long ago. On a throne of rocks, in a robe of clouds, With a diadem of snow!" Ever since 17S6, when the guide Balmat (after incredible difficulty) gained the summit, 
thousands have been ambitious of following in his footsteps. Yet in the years which have elapsed since its conquest, only about 1200 foreigners have reached its crest. And these have been the 
fortunate ones; while those who failed, or have been frozen, injured or killed outright, have far exceeded them in number. Yet, notwithstanding a long catalogue of disasters, we need not be 
apprehensive here. For the science ot the ascent has now been reduced to a system; and with fair weather, good guides and suitable precautions, there is no very serious danger. Moreover thr 
"uides of Chamounix are far too much alive to the profits of their business, to bring discredit on either the mountain or themselves by incurring undue risks. 

211 




ST. GOTTHARD PASS AND BRIDGE, SWITZERLAND.— The king of Alpine routes from Switzerland to Italy is tlie St. Gotthard. It is impossible to speak too highly of this noble road. Scaling 
the loftiest cliffs, spanning the wildest torrents, and winding through the deepest gorges, it seems like a gigantic chain, which man, the Victor, has imposed upon the vanquished Alps; the first end 
guarded by the Lion of Lucerne, the last sunk deep in the Italian lakes, but all the intervening links kept gilded brightly by the hand of tradel It is a splendid instance of the way in which these 
roads are made to thwart at every turn the sudden fury of the avalanche or mountain torrent. For where experience proves a place to be unusually exposed.a solid roof extends to break the fall 
of rocks and ice. Still, in these days of steam and telegraph, even this mode of travel in the Alps appears too slow for those who journey here for business purposes, and one of the most important 
works of this or any age is the tunnel of the St. Gotthard. This perforates yonder chain of mountains for a distance of nine and a half miles, yet is sufficiently wide for two railway trains to run 
abreast. What labor must have been expended here by myriads of men, who most of the time were thousands of feet beneath the mountains, yet who at last, by the perfection of engineering skill, 
met and shook hands through the narrow aperture which they had pierced from the opposite sides of Switzerland and Italy I 

213 




MAXIMILIAN PLATZ, VIENNA. — This handsome square is only one of many features of Vienna which reminds us ol Paris. No other European capitals are so ahke in architecture, character 
and customs. Both are pre-eminently beautiful and brilHant, and both have points in history which possess a strong resemblance. Both, for example, were originally Roman settlements. In each 
a Caesar has resided. The Emperor Julian living in the one ; Marcus Aurelius dying in the other. In modern times the most ill-fated of French Queens was the unhappy daughter of Maria Theresa, 
Marie Antoinette ; while from .Vienna also comes Napoleon's second wife, whose son, born heir to an inheritance on which the boldest gazed with bated breath, died in obscurity within the palace of 
an Austrian Emperor. On one side of this square we see the exquisitely sculptured spires of a Gothic church, erected to commemorate the present Emperor's escape from assassination. For, 
notwithstanding his great popularity, a miscreant was found some years ago desirous of killing him. This he attempted to accomplish by aiming at his throat with a dagger; the gilt upon the Emperor's 
military collar, however, turned the point of the weapon, and his life was saved. As for the church, it is so beautiful as to make one almost glad that the assassination was attempted 1 There is no 
part of it that does not call for admiration ; but especially delicate and graceful are these pointed towers embellished with a multitude of statues and rising to the iofty height of 345 feet. Through 
that open fret-work the stars are visible at night, as through the interlacing branches of the trees. 




yOLKSGARTEN AND THESEUM, VIENNA.— Closely adjoining the Viennese boulevards and not far even from the Imperial palace, is the celebrated Volksgarten, or People's Park, of the city. Vienna 
IS famous for its popular pleasure resorts, and this is one of the most attractive. Its flower-beds, shady walks and pretty fountains are thoroughly bright and tasteful in appearance, and hence most 
characteristic of Vienna. There, too, surrounded by a multitude of tables, is the music stand, that invariable feature of all Viennese parks. For in no city in the world can one hear so often and so 
universally that style of music which stirs the pulse and makes one feel good-natured with the world. Here on summer afternoons and evenings may be seen well-dressed civilians, handsome 
officers, pretty Viennese ladies, all, apparently, without a shade of care or sadness; the scene is one of Southern merriment and vivacity, and we no longer wonder that the Viennese enthusiastically 
>lng of their loved capitol: "Es giebt nur eine Kaiserstadt. Es giebt nur ein WienI " The little marble structure in this park is called the "Theseum," because until quite recently it contained the 
noble group in marble by the sculptor Canova, representing the conflict between Theseus and the Centaur. But this has now been removed to the new Imperial Museum. 



217 




HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT, VIENNA. — The visitor to Vienna twenty-five years ago would hardly recognize the city now. It has been wonderfully embellished and improved by the completion of the 
■'Ring Strassen," namely, a series of Boulevards two miles in length enclosing old Vienna lilce a ring or belt. The original city of the Hapsburgs was formerly surrounded by a moat and fortified wall; 
but gradually the expansive force within the town overleaped those barriers, and finally, in 1858 those ramparts were blown up and levelled; the moat was filled; and on the curving terrace thus 
created this line of boulevards was made, dividing old and new Vienna, and thus resembling a girdle of surpassing beauty. Moreover, the traveler now beholds with admiration and astonishment, (lik^ 
precious jewels in this splendid girdle), a constant series of imposing structures, all of them handsome, most of them majestic and ranking certainly among the finest edifices in the world. Among 
them are these New Houses of Parliament, recently completed at a cost of several millions. Their general plan is not unlike that of the American legislative halls at Washington. The Senate House 
is on the right; the Chamber of Deputies upon the left; each one an independent building, richly adorned with marble statues, and beautiful reliefs, and on the various corners with colossal chariots 

of Victory in bronze. 

219 




HOF-BURG THEATRE, VIENNA.— Everyone has heard of the magnificent Opera House of Vienna, which for years has had the reputation ot being, all things considered, the world's best Temple 
of Music. But that edifice has now a dangerous rival in the new Imperial Theatre represented in this illustration. It is another ot those architectural jewels which sparkle in the glittering girdle 
that now divides in two concentric parts the Austrian capital, and which in another illustration has been described as the "Ring Strassen," or Circular Boulevards. This beautiful structure is the 
favored home of the Drama, as the Opera House is the abode of Music in Vienna, and no city in the world can boast of two such structures devoted to this purpose. Paris alone can claim a richer 
Opera House, but even Paris has no theatre comparable to this which rises thus in stately grandeur on the Ring Strassen. Everything here is managed with perfect order and good taste. Before and 
after the performance polite uniformed officials stand on the steps to assist the inmates to alight. Once past the marble corridor, one finds a number of ticket offices to obviate all crowding. The 
cloak rooms, too, are large, with numerous attendants to prevent delay; while courteous ushers lead the way into a most richly decorated auditorium. This theatre is of course subsidized by the 
Government, and only dramas of the highest order are here given, while the style in which they are produced is well worthy of the magnificent structure itself. 



221 



I 
I 




MUSEUMS AND STATUE OF MARIA THtRESA. VIENNA.— Just otf the handsome curving boulevards vi Vienna caHed the "Ring Strassen" are two imposing structures ahnost the exact counterparts 
of each other in form, decorations and dimensions. They are the new Imperial Museums just completed at a cost of some millions of dollars. One is to contain the famous Belvedere picture 
gallery and other great collections scattered through the city; while its companion edifice will be devoted to ARCHAEOLOGY and NATURAL HISTORY— forming together thus one of the finest collections 
of Art and Science in the world. Within the centre of this square, between these New Museums, is an elaborate monument in bronze erected recently to the memory of the Empress Maria Theresa. It 
is designed to commemorate her entire reign. Below the statue of the Empress are reliefs portraying prominent events connected with her history; beneath these are fine statues of her ablest 
statesmen; while on the corners are equestrian figures of her leading generals. V/ell may Austria honor thus the most illustrious sovereign that ever occupied her throne. It would be hard to find 
in history a woman who had more imperial qualities and sterling character than Maria Theresa. For she was brave as well as beautiful, and dauntless as she was devout. It was for her that her 
chivalric Hungarian nobles with drawn swords exclaimed as with one voice, "Let us die for our KING, Maria Theresa." 

223 




THE GRABEN, VIENNA. — One of the oldest and most interesting streets in Vienna is that which we may now in imagination enter, called the Graben. It derives its name from the tact that this was the 
ancient Grab, or moat surrounded by the fortified wall, which rose where now are yonder buildings containing some of the most luxurious and expensive retail shops in Vienna. One would hardly 
expect to find within this busy street the solitary survivor of the famous Wiener Wald, the ancient forest bordering the Danube! Yet at one corner of it is a most extraordinary looking object, 
protected partly by the wall of the building, and partly by some bands of iron. It is the famous Stock itn Risen., or the Iron stick. It is well named, for its appearance is precisely that of an iron 
club. Investigation, however, proves it to be a mass of wood, literally covered with nails, to some of which coins are attached. One of these has the date of 1575- This ancient tree — (which 
apparently could not crumble now if it should try to) — was -for some cause, now unknown, esteemed especially sacred; and every one who drove a nail into its precious wood, received a spiritual 
shield against the devil. How odd it seems to see this strange reminder of the past, standing thus grimly in the very center of the city's life! Just as some superstition, like a dread of Friday or of 
thirteen at a table, still exists amid the common sense and science of the nineteenth century. 

225 




1**^ 




^C--^;fc:fc*^'--g^!:aj.^>?sfafcfU 



ST PETER'S, ROME.-The approach to this notlest temple of Christianity is worthy of the shrine itself. The grandeur of the intervening space, the curving colonnades on either side, the lofty 
obelisk in the centre, the sparkling fountains on the right and left, and finally the breadth of the gigantic edifice itself, surmounted by the glorious dome-all these leave an impression on the mind 
never to be eflfaced. The obelisk perhaps appears at first a singular decoration for the entrance of a Christian church, hut in reality it is most appropriate. For this majestic relic of old Egypt once 
stood where now St. Peter's stands, within the Circus of Nero, a place of Christian martyrdom. What could have been more fining, therefore, than that this ancient monolith, after beholding so many 
scenes of suffering, when it gave place at last to this grand temple of the persecuted, should here uphold before its door the Cross of Christ, which has replaced (to some extent at least) throughout 
the world, the mighty swo^d of ancient Rome. On the right of the church is the enormous Papal palace of the Vatican, which with its galleries of sculpture and paintmg makes of this part of Rome a 
place of pilgrimage for all admirers of the most wonderful of Christian churches and of unrivaled souvenirs of ancient art. 

2?7 











THE VATICAN LIBRARY, ROME.— The world owes mucn co the enUghtened and art-loving Popes who have made the Vatican not merely the abode of the Pontiff of the Catholic Church, but a 
wonderful treasure-house of art, where are preserved many of the grandest statues of antiquity and some of the tinest paintings of the Renaissance. Moreover, its library is one of the most valuable 
in the world, and makes upon the traveler's mind a profound impression. The Grand Hall is no less than 240 feet in length and 52 in breadth. The pavement is of marble mosaic, the ceilings are 
resplendent with elaborate frescoes, and everywhere we see magnitlcent presents given by royal admirers to various Popes. Among these are vases of porphyry, urns of malachite, gold crosses, 
and solid silver candelabra. But these are merely external decorations for the hidden treasures of this library. Here are about 24,000 manuscripts of inestimable value, some of them being the 
earliest copies which we have of the Gospels. Besides these there are more than 50.000 printed books. The manuscripts and rarer volumes are not often exposed to view, but are contained 
within beautifully decorated cases. Among the scholars of the world who have often consulted the archives of this Vatican Library is Pope Leo XIII, whose accomplishments and tastes are highly 
literary. His letters and addresses are framed in most elegant and polished Latin, while verses which he writes from time to time in Latin or Italian, have earned for him the title of a poet. 

229 




SISTINE CHAPEL, VATICAN. ROME.-One of the most celebrated and important apartments in the Vatican is the Sistine Chapel, called thus from Pope Sixtus IV, who caused it to be built in 1473. 
It is a lofty hall about 150 feet in length, with a gallery on three sides. The upper part of its walls is ornamented with fresco, painted by famous artists of the fifteenth century, and also with 
many portraits of the Popes, twenty-eight of which are by the celebrated Botticelli. But that which gives to this chapel its greatest artistic value are the works of Michael Angelo which it contains. 
These are seen first upon the ceiling, which is covered with his magnificent pictorial representations of Old Testament scenes, such as the creation of Adam and Eve. the Expulsion from Paradise, and the 
Deluge. Here also are portrayed in majestic proportions twelve seated figures of Prophets and Sibyls, which are among the most remarkable creations that Art has ever produced. At the end of 
the chapel, opposite the entrance, is Michael Angelo's enormous frescoe of the Last Judgment. This was designed by the great artist when sixty years old, and was completed by h.m in l54i after a 
labor of nearly eight years. In order to show him his appreciation of the work, the Pope himself went to Michael Angelo's house, accompanied by ten cardinals; which according to Court etiquette 
must rank as a greater honor than that offered to Titian by Charles V. when the latter picked up the artist's pencil; although the real sovereign in both cases was the man of gemus. This Sistinc 

Chapel is used for important Papal ceremonies, especially during Holy Week. 

231 




'exterior of the COLOSSEUM, KuMt.— AiUicip.Ue wlul yuu will, tlu^ eailice will not disuppoint you. All things considered, nothing in Rome can eq^ual it in grandeur. Its walls are more than 
200 feet in height. It is said to have been built by 60,000 captive Jews after tiie conquest of Jerusalem by Titus. Close by it is a ruined fountain at which the gladiators washed after the combat, 
surrounded no doubt by a gaping crowd, and petted and admired by effeminate patricians, who with their soft white hands patted the brawny muscles of the athletes and offered wagers on their next 
success. The corridors of the Colosseum reveal to us huge blocks of stone, placed there apparently by the hands of giants, yet fastened with no cement. There was no danger here of panic, fire. 
or collapse, in fact, woe to the man who trifled with the public in those days! One architect, Attitius by name, did try it once, and made a flimsily constructed wooden edifice, which fell, occasioning 
great loss of life. Tacitus tells of the catastrophe, and then relates the builder's punishment in three short words, which ought to be inscribed above the door of every wretchedly built theatre m 
the world; they are these: "Attitius was burned!'^ For more than 400 years this was the scene of sanguinary gladiatorial combats, and frequently of Christian martyrdom. The arena of this 
ampitheatre has therefore long been looked on by the Christian church as consecrated ground. 



233 




INTERIOR OF THE COLOSSEUM, ROME. — This is indeed the King ol Ruins. Around it are eighty mighty arches leading to this interior. The 87,000 people who were often seated here could find 
abundant means of entrance and of exit. One might suppose that all the pictures he had seen of the interior of the Colosseum would leave no room for astonishment. But neither word nor 
photograph quite prepares one for the grand reality. These rows of ruined arches, rising in a gigantic circle towards the sky, are overpowering in their immensity. The countless doorways seem like 
caverns in a mountain side, from which wild beasts might even now emerge. Those who beheld this twenty years ago would hardly recognize the interior of the Colosseum as it now appears. 
Around the sides were formerly little chapels dedicated to the memory of Christian Martyrs who had here found death. Here every Friday afternoon a sermon would be preached, teaching how 
much the Christian faith once cost, yet how that faith has lived and triumphed over Caesarian Rome. But now the greater part of the arena has been opened to the light. One sees the subterranean 
cages for the animals, the corridors through which they rushed to the arena, and the apartments where the gladiators waited till called to duty, probably to death. Gigantic as it is, almost as much 
of the Colosseum seems to have disappeared as still remains. In the fourteenth century it was looked upon as a legitimate quarry from which to extract building material. Fourthousand workmen 
were at one time employed in tearing down its walls, and some of the largest palaces of Rome were thus constructed. 

235 




THE FORUM, ROME.— It is a thrilling moment when one looks upon this square, which constituted once the centre of civilization and the brain of the immense Roman world. This was the point 
from which the roads led out to the extremest lir.its of that mighty empire subject to the Caesars, and in this very area stood the golden milestone from which such distances were measured. It is a 
difficult thing for one to trace with accuracy now the ancient glories of this Forum. We see at various points arches and columns, pedestals and crumbling walls; but what is left is nothing to 
what once existed here. Eight stately columns tell us of the Temple of Saturn, erected here 490 years before the birth of Christ. Three others rise as relics of the Temple of Vespasian. The Arch 
of Septimus Severus also is still well preserved. Upon the polished surfaces of some of these the hands of Scipio or of Cssar may have rested! Pillars are standing here which may have echoed to 
the voice of Cicero! The memories of this place are therefore such as render it a spot to visit and revisit, not with a throng of thoughtless tourists, but meditatively, with some congenial friend or 
else alone. One often smiles to see this Forum passed by with a hasty glance by those who little realize that here the famous Roman laws were framed while savages were hunting on the site of Paris, 
and Britain was an almost unknown region of Barbarians 

237 




THE APPIAN WAY, ROME.— Southward from the Eternal City stretches across the Roman Campagna one of the most interesting thoroughfares in the world, it is the Appian Way. Tne Romans 
were marvelous road-builders, and this great military highway to the South was admirably constructed two hundred and twelve years before Christ. It is a most impressive hour that one spends 
in driving on this Appian Way. This desolate Campagna was once so thickly covered with suburbs and villages that it was difficult to tell where Rome ended and its environs began. But now 
beneath this almost uninhabited plain there seems to sleep a vanished world. On either side for miles we see the vestiges of ruined tombs, for this Via-Appia was the fashionable burial place of 
ancient Rome. The Romans were not fond of quiet cemeteries. They preferred that their bodies should be laid away near some great artery of human activity, where their funeral monuments 
might still recall them to their passing friends. Some of these tombs were very large ; some were undoubtedly extremely elegant. The historic souvenirs of this ancient highway make of the 
Appian Way one of the most suggestive portions of Italy. Along this road, for example, and between many of these very tombs which we behold to-day came the magnificent funeral procession of 
the Emperor Augustus, bringing his lifeless body back to Rome for burial. By this route also was conveyed to Rome the beautiful captive, 2enobia. Queen of Palmyra; and from this Appian Way 
St. Paul first saw the Eternal City as he ^ame to preach there a religion which was to supersede the faith which then prevailed, and ultimately make of Rome the central city of Christianity. 

239 



i 




H .u I- . t^^^^^,^^^ ^^^^^' RO^^t-0"'^ °^ the most beautitui and impressive views of Rome is that represented in this illustration, embracing the Tiber, the Castle of San Angelo 
and m he distance the majestic dome of St. Peter's. For amid all the changes which have swept over Rome, one thing at least remains comparatively unchanged. It is this yellow, legend-laden Tiber 
still rolling on with tawny waves beneath its arches towards the setting sun, and guarding deeply in its breast some of the mightiest memories of the world. How many lives for example it has 
remorselessly engulfed-from those of brave defenders of the city to countless victims of Imperial or Papal tyranny! And. oh! what treasures no doubt lurk within its sands! The Castle'of San 




"/ere ultimately successful and threw with brutal laughter to the Tiber's waves the ashes of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Hadriau himself. 



241 




THE CAPITOL. ROME.— In the very heart of the Eternal City is a majestic flight of steps crowned at the summit by colossal statues ot old Koman Gods found in the baths of Diocletian. It was 
down the steps which these have now replaced that Rienzi, "last of the Roman Tribunes." fled in his last moments, to fall at their base, bleeding from twenty wounds; while from a window in their 
palace burning on the hill, his beautiful young wife looked down and saw his tragic death. In the square at the summit of this staircase is the place where Brutus harangued the unwilling populace 
after the murder of Caesar. There stands to-day the famous bronze equestrian statue of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, the only perfect equestrian figure which has come down to us of all that 
once adorned Imperial Rome. Hawthorne, as all will recollect, describes this beautifully in his romance of the "Marble Faun." That statue, (the Faun of Praxitiles), is one of the treasures of the Art 
Museum of the Capitol, which contains also the "Dying Gladiator," the "Capitoline Venus," and many other celebrated statues of antiquity. There too are many busts and statues of the Roman 
Emperors and their families; and perhaps no part ot Rome is better adapted to contain the portrait-gallery of its ancient rulers than this Capitoline hill, the scene of many of its earliest glories and 

its latest crimes. 

243 




"THE DYING GAUL," CAPITOL, ROME. — One of the best known and most justly admired statues which have come aown to us trom antiquity is this pathetic figure popularly called the "Dying 
Gladiator," but probably representing a dying Gaul. In any case no words which have ever been written in regard to it are so appropriate and eloquent as the immortal lines of Byron: 



"I see before me the Gladiator lie; 

He leans upon his hand — his manly brow, 
Consents to death, but conquers agony, 

And his droop'd head sinks gradually low — 

And through his side the last drops, ebbing slow 
From the red gash, fall heavy, one by one, 

Like the first of a thunder-shower; and now 
The Arena swims around him— he is gone. 

Ere ceased the inhuman shout which hailed the wretch who won. 



"He heard it, but he heeeded not — his eyes 
Were with his heart, and that was far away; 

He reck'd not of the life he lost nor prize. 
But where his rude hut by the Danube lay, 
There were his young barbarians all at play. 

There was their Dacian mother — he, their sire, 
Butcher'd to make'a Roman holiday — 

All this rush'd with his blood — Shall he expire? 

And unavenged? Arise! ye Goths, and glut your irel" 



245 



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"OLD FATHER NILE," VATICAN, ROME.— Beneath the arches of the Vatican rechnes in Oriental calm this mighty statue ol antiquity, portraymg the Egyptian river-god. It was discovered about 
300 years ago buried in that wondrous soil of old Rome, within which no doubt lurk even now so many other masterpieces of the past. The work is full of truthful and suggestive symbols. The 
figure leans against a Sphinx just as the river in reality flows calmly on before that monster's steady gaze. One hand maintains a cornucopia, a most appropriate emblem of the fertility caused by the 
river's annual overflow. Over its huge limbs and shoulders play sixteen pygmies representing the sixteen cubits of the yearly rise of the Nile. One of these figures stands erect in the cornucopia with 
folded arms, as if he symbolized the last or sixteenth cubit, and stood in the midst of agricultural abundance complacently surveying the result. It is not strange that the ancients deified the Nile, 
for without the alluvial deposit of its fruitful overflow the whole country would be a desert. Egypt is really the gift of Old Father Nile. Just as far as its beneficent waters advance in their annual 
uprising, just so far extends fertility. Beyond that line is the pitiless desert, between which and the Nile a ceaseless conflict has waged since history began. Ordinarily the inundations of a st earn 
occasion calamity, but those of the mysterious Nile are hailed with thanksgiving and its advancing waves are looked upon as prophesies of peace and plenty. 

247 




PANORAMA OF FLORENCE, ITALY.— To one who visits the Old World with a keen appreciation of its History, Biograpny and Art, perTiaps no European city proves more attractive than that whicn 
greets us here, in beauty, where— "On the bright enchanting plain. Fair Florence 'neath the sunshine hes. And towering high o'er roof and fane, Her Duomo soars into the skiesi" "What a priceless 
debt of gratitude we owe to this fair Tuscan Athens 1 A debt so vast that we are quite unable to express its magnitude. After the appalling gloom of the Dark Ages, which, on the downfall of 
Imperial Rome, folded entire Europe in its shroud, the first pale streaks of light, announcing the approaching dawn of a new age, appeared above these walls of Florence! 'Tis true, the glory 
which succeeded that bright dawn did not last long. Its splendor scarce outlived two centuries. But in that time Italian art and literature reached their zenith, and Florence ever since has been a 
treasure-house for those who prize inspiring memories and forms which live again on canvas or in marble. What wonder, then, that this fair city of the Renaissance, girt by its amphitheatre of 
vine-clad hills, cleft by the current of the smiling Arno, and guarded by the Tuscan Appenines, is not alone a beacon-light in the world's history, but one of the most enchanting spots upon the 

surface of our globe 1 

251 







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THE PONTE VECCHIO, FLORENCE, ITALY.— The most picturesque, as well as the mosi ancient, Florentine bridge which crosses the river Arno is the Ponte Vecchio, or "Old Bridge." Old indeed 
it is, having been built more than 500 years ago. In the centre of it is a pretty portico with three arches, atTording delightful views up and down the stream. For centuries the sides of this bridge 
have had some shops of jewelers and goldsmiths. cHnging to it, like barnacles to the sides of a ship. Above these the line of small windows indicates a passage way. formerly called the Gallery of the 
Grand Duke. It was built to connect the Palace of the UfTizzi on one side of the Arno with the Pitti Palace on the other. Now that both of these splendid palaces are art museums open to the world, 
this corridor is freely used by tourists; for as is plainly seen in this illustration, the Ponte Vecchio is continued, after it reaches each bank, by this covered corridor uniting one building with the other. 
The sight of this old bridge is sufficient to recall more or less vividly all the great events of Florentine history. Almost every famous citizen of Florence, from Michael Angelo to Benvenuto Celhni 
has often crossed that bridge and leaned upon the parapet of its Loggia. Nor has fiction failed to impart to this fine old structure a veil of romance. In George Elliot's matchless novel, "Romola." 
it was from the arches of this Ponte Vecchio that Tito, to escape the mob. leaped downward through the darkness into the river, there to swim onward into the open country, where, as he landed m 
exhaustion, he met the fate that he deserved— t/^a/A, by the feeble hands of the old man he had betrayed. 

255 




HALL OF SATURN, PITTl PALACE, FLORENCE, ITALY.— The Pitti Palace at Florence is still used as the residence of the King and Queen when they visit Florence, but it possesses for mankind an 
inlmitely greater value than that arising from its being an abode of royalty. It is a marvelous treasure-house of art, containing probably a greater number of fine paintings than any other buildmg 
in the world. If Europe should lose every other gallery of art save this, it would still be rich. To copy some of its rare works an artist must make application five years m advance, so many are 
there who desire the privilege. Moreover, the decorations of the halls containing these pictures are worthy receptacles for the works themselves. The lofty ceilmgs themselves are coverea witn 
paintings framed in gilded and statue-laden cornices. Beneath are exquisitely inlaid floors. Put out your hand, and it may touch a table of mosaic, malachite, or lapis-lazuli. ^^e cost of which 
was probably $100,000. Sit down to rest, and you perceive that you are in a chair of satin, silk brocade or velvet. Look round you in bewilderment, and you behold elaborately decora ed walls on 
which from gorgeous roof to sculptured marble dado hang the world's great masterpieces! While even the doors through which we pass have frames of variegated '"7^^- .^ne 7/ ^ ""^ ^ 
make o.e visit here before he can appreciate a single picture. Close by the door leading into another of these gorgeous apartm.ats one sees in th>s illustration that sweetest and most tender of 

Raphael's paintings, the "Madonna of the Chair." 

237 




THE LOGGIA, FLORENCE.-Close by the grand Palazzo Vecchio and on another side of the Square of the Senate is a marble portico of vast proportions. It ,s the celebrated Loggia or Portico of 
the Lancers, so called from the Dukes' spearmen formerly stationed here beside the Palace. How simple yet beautiful is this arcade of lofty arches curvmg m perfect sy™"e M For more than 
five eventful centuries it has remained here thus, dehghting every visitor to Florence from the most casual observer to the skilled »«'"'^^'-.^When Lorenzo d, ^kd■c, begged M.hae^^^^^^^ 
for him another splendid ornament lor this Piazza, the sculptor answered: "Carry that Loggia entirely around it. Nothing tmer can poss.bly be mvented J'^^f "";^^°:7";;'"^^^^^^ 
expense of the undertaking. No lancers are stationed here to-d.ay. For centuries it has had a noble use, since it now forms a most n,rposmg canopy o she ter for "^^;™;^; ° f ' j' ™ "l"',^^ 
Florence literally ovcrjlow from her great sculpture galleries into the streets themselvesl Here for example is the masterpiece in bronzeot Benvenuto Celhn,, 'y^^^^.'^^/f/,^ '|"^"' J °''^ "^^^^^^^ 
head of the monster Medusa," and near that is the marble group by John of Bologna, entitled the "Rape of the Sabines." This Logg.a theretore displays an e.xh.b.t.on of sculpture such as we never 
see on tips side of the Atlantic, exposed freely and continually to the admiration and inspiration of every passer-by. 

259 




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GRAND CANAL, VENICE.— ^ew experiences in life are more enjoyable than the traveler's first sail on the canals of Venice, that city which perhaps more than any other has towered up m the horizon 
of our imagination since childhood, and whose very name, so soon as it is pronounced, serves as a spell to stimulate our fancy and enthusiasm. The Grand Canal is the princely avenue of Venn cc. 
It Winds through the city in a graceful curve, bordered for miles on either side by marble palaces and churches, some of which, though crumbling to decay. stiU attest the magnificence of by-gone 
days. One can hardly imagine anything more unreal yet beautiful, more like a vision in some happy dream than these grand stately buildings of the past glittering in the moonlight and floatmg thus 
in splendor on the sea. Late though the hour be, in some of these palaces lights are sure to be gleaming through the casement; and. if we bid our gondolier halt a moment beneath the magic lights 
and shadows of their balconies, we may often hear within the tinkling sound of the guitar, or the voice of some unseen musician. From time to time our boatman will impart to some of these an 
added interest by pausing in his measured stroke to whisper in his soft Venetian dialect some well-known name, some story or some tragic memory which haunt their massive walls. Thus we have 
pointed out to us the palace in which the poet Byron lived; the house of the Doge Dandolo, Conqueror of Constantinople, and the palace of Marino Faliero, decapitated for his crimes. 

265 




THE PI AZZETTA, VENICE.-Extending at right angles to the Piazza of San Marco, which is the great square of Venice and the Forum of Venetian life and history, is th.s smaller esplanade knovvn by 
the pretty diminutive, " Piazzetta" Atone extremity of it glitter the blue waters of the Grand Canal, fringed with a row of gondolas ("dusky spirits of the canal ), wh.ch float there ,n 'I'e sunshine 
tempting the tourist to glide out on a fascinating voyage of exploration in this most poetic and romantic of cities. Two noble granite columns cut the.r outhnes here agamst the eastern sky They 
were brought hither from one of the Greek Islands as trophies of Venetian conquest in 1.27. There were originally three of these colossal shafts, but one fell mto the sea as it was bemg landed and 
could not be recovered. One of the two erected here is surmounted by the characteristic symbol of Venice, the winged Lion of St. Mark; the other by a statue o St. Theodore who was the patron 
saint of the Republic before St. Mark's body was brought hither from Egypt in 827. The Doge of Venice having promised to fulfill •■ any fair request ••made by ^''^ '™";;^^°J^°"'^/^f '^^ '^"^ .^"f, 
erect these columns here, the successful architect demanded that gambling, elsewhere prohibited, should be permitted between them. The P"™'^'^^";^ /^'''^f" '>'.^'^P*X^" '°/j"^7; .fp"° P^ 
use, it was ordered that all public executions should take place there. This made the spot so " unlucky " in the eyes of gamesters that they deserted ,t voluntanly. On the left of th,s P.azza >s the 

magnificent Palace of the Doges, elsewhere described. 

267 



t 




THE RIALTO, VENICE. — That which stirs the pulse more than all else upon this Grand Canal is the famous bridge of the Rialto; built entirely of white marble and consisting of a single arch one hundred 
and fifty-eight feet in length. It is worth a month of ordinary life to have the privilege of bidding our gondolier halt beneath this bridge, thronged with the memories of three hundred years, and 
floating there to let the tide of historic associations sweep over us. For environed as we are by all that make these memories real, we think of Shylock and Othello and of the old Doges who ruled 
here in magnificence for one thousand years! We think of the time when, just as this bridge unites the eastern and the western banks of this canal, so Venice itself was the connecting link between 
Europe and Asia, and held for years in her controlling hands the commerce of the civilized world. Moreover, almost in the shadow of this marble arch appeared the first bank of deposit which the 
world had known; in Venice also was published the first book ever printed in Italy; while on this very bridge was sold the first newspaper ever published in the world, which (bartered for a coin called 
Gazetta) has given a name to many of our modern journals. Nor can we here forget how Venice, in her glorious career of conquest, once caused her standard to roll out its purple folds over some 

of the richest islands in the Mediterranean and Adriatic. 

269 



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THE CHURCH OF ST. MARK, VENlCt.— The Cluirch of St. Mark has stood here for nearly eight hundred years as a splendid proof of the ancient magniticence ot Venice. Its architecture is most 
extraordinary. With its bulbous domes and minaret-like belfries, its glittering mosaics, and cupolas sparkling with gold, it seems more like a Mohammedan than a Christian shrine. One might also 
call it a Christian mosquel The Venetians brought back with them from their Eastern wars ideas of Oriental architecture which pleased them, but in attempting to repeat them they made a singular 
medley of the whole. Yet no expense was spared to make it magnificent. For, to say nothing of its splendid columns and rich carving, the mosaics on its exterioj' alone cover an area of 45,790 
square feet, and are still gorgeous in their golden and purple colors. And when we think that this is nothing to the vast expanse of mosaic 7vilhiH, we are no longer surprised that this sanctuary has 
been proudly called "La bhiesa Aurea." or the Church of Gold, and compared to a cavern hung with stalactites of precious stones ! During more than tlve centuries, the first question addressed to 
generals and captains returning from the Eastern wars was this: "What new and splendid offering bring you for San Marco?" Above the doorway of this famous church are four enormous horses 
made of gilded bronze. They\vere originally in Rome, and adorned Nero's golden chariot of the Sun. From Rome they were taken by Constantine to Constantinople. Thence they were brought by 
the conquering Doges to Venice. Napoleon I also took them to Paris; but after Waterloo they were restored by the aUies to the Queen of the Adriatic. 

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THE BAY OF NAPLES, ITALY.— It is a never-to-be-torgotten moment when one looks for the first time on this unrivalled bay, which holds within its glorious curve Pompeii and Sorrento, forever 
guarded by the giant form of fire-scathed Vesuvius. Incomparably fair is the environment of Naples; its winding shores, its sparkHng bay, its bold cliffs ravaged by the sea, its threatening lava cone 
and buried city of Pompeii, all these combine to render it a veritable Mecca for lovers of the beautiful. To drive along the northern shore of this Neapolitan Bay is to explore the hallowed ground of 
classical Italy. At every turn the souvenirs of ancient times seem waiting to receive us, clad in the pleasing garb of legend or tradition, while in every breath that blows upon us from this classic sea, 
we hear a murmer of ancient yet familiar names. For, once these slopes were covered with the splendid villas of distinguished Romans; and therefore history and fable blend now their dark and 
golden threads to weave a net-work of enchantment round the place. Thus it is well known that Virgil had a villa on this shore, in which he lived for years, composing some of his finest works; 
and when he died, the Emperor caused his friend's last wish to be fulfilled, and had his body brought here for interment, beside the same unchanging sea and on the very slope where he had written his 
immortal poems. 

277 




SANTA LUCIA, NAPLES. — Naples is the noisiest city in the world, and the quay ot Santa Lucia is the place where the Neapolitan uproar asserts itself most loudly. Wheels are clattering, whips are 
cracking, donkies are braying, minstrels are singing, and men, women and children are screaming, shouting and quarreling, as if all Bedlam had broken loose. Sound sleep is here impossible. The 
arms of Morpheus refuse to embrace the ever-noisy Santa Lucia. Crowds listen with delight to men who are often clad in rags, but who repeat whole cantos of Italian poetry with that passionate 
fervor which makes the Italian a natural actor. Public letter-writers pursue their avocation here for the benefit of those who cannot themselves write. Toilettes are also here performed alfresco, 
and hair dressing is an invariable feature of most of the doorways. Naples has been truly described as a "Paradise inhabited by devils;" but they are such amusing merry devils that one does not 
altogether object to the pandemonium which its streets present. " Santa Lucial Santa Lucial" — These are the dulcet words which echo in our ears from dawn to dusk and dusk to dawn. For the 
name of this wave-washed quay has become the burden of the most popular song in Italy, and "Santa Lucia" floats ever on the air of Naples. How a photographer ever contrived to represent this 
itreet as tranquil and deserted as it here appears, is difficult to imagine, unless he chose for the experiment the noontide hour of a broiling summer day. 

279 




THE FORUM POMPEII -Notwithstanding all that we may have read about Pompeii, to walk among its excavated streets and temples is an unique and never-to-be-forgotten "P^";""' ^";« 
IlfoneNanUciDations For heT beneath the awful mount, which still holds high its smoking torch, lies an ancient Roman city, partially ruined, it is true, hut so protected from the Go hs and Vandab 

of ash:; Tnd red hot imice stones to a depth of twenty feet. Much more of the city still remams to be excavated. The Government allows J.2,000 a year for the work to go on. 

281 




SORRENTO, ITALY.— On the southern shore of the enchanting and incomparable Bay of Naples hes the village of Sorrento. To reach it from Naples one rides along a winding road cut in the 
brow of cliffs 200 or 300 feet in height, which constitute a glorious frame for that lovely mirror which holds reflected in itself visions of surpassing beautyl These wave-washed bluffs are covered 
with villas, convents, groves and gardens which become especially numerous and attractive on and about the wooded point projecting from the shore and called Sorrento. It is no exaggeration to 
say that in spring and autumn this is a perfect paradise of beauty; for it is surrounded with orange and lemon groves gleaming with shining leaves and fruit of gold. As one inhales here the soft 
air laden with the breath of blossoms and hears the choirs of nightingales which chant here through the spring, he realizes that his youthful dreams have been fulfilled, and that at last ITALY seems 
all that he fondly fancied it in childhood! The hotels of Sorrento line the cliff which overhangs the sea, and behind them are luxuriant gardens and orange groves. The population of the place is quite 
prosperous, being chiefly engaged in straw-plaiting, lace-making or oHve wood carving, in which they are proficient. It was in Sorrento that the poet Tasso was born, in a house now used as a hotel, 
from which the view over the Bay towards Naples and the islands of Capri and Ischia is indescribably beautiful 

283 



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THE MILAN CATHEDRAL, ITALY. — No matter how weary one may have become from visiting numberless cathedrals through the length and breadth of Europe, here is one before which he feels inclined 
to kneel in admiration. It is one of the most majestic, and at the same time beautiful and elaboraie, structures in the world. It reveals Gothic architecture carried to its most exquisite limits. Its 
material is white marble. There are times, especially by moonlight, when it seems like a mountain of alabaster peopled with thousands of graceful figures. This is hardly an exaggeration, for there 
are actually more than 4800 marble statues on the exterior of this marvelous structure. Nor are these figures roughly finished on account of their elevation from the street. If we ascend to the 
roof and examine some of them, we shall find each one an admirable work of art. Some of them are the products of Canova's genius. To walk over the roof of this "eighth wonder of the world** 
is to wander through aerial sculpture-galleries, surrounded by myriads of columns, towers, pinnacles, buttresses and arches, all tenanted by snow-white angels, warriors, saints, kings or cherubs 
outlined at times like frosted silver on the sky. It should be also remembered that the interior of this marble Duomo is worthy of the exterior in the grandeur of its dimensions, its gigantic fluted 
columns, and its magnificent stained glass windows, through which the rays of sunlight fall on the vast mosaic pavement like the ruby and golden hues of autumnal leaves. 

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STATUE O. COLUMBUS, GBKOA, .TALV.-Cenoa, ,a Supe..a^ weU dese.es ''^'^^ J-'--^^---:;-,^;: X:! jli: -:r;j:^^^ 

n,agn,f,cent. The hUtory of this city is br.mant and eventful and one ever-memorable featueot.^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^„^ ^3 ^^.^^ this handsome monument 

the orincipal Genoese railway station. It greets the traveler, therefore, on arr.v.ng '^ ^'L^enrtlTav Len n 43 th birthplace of that immortal discoverer. What though it has been proved 

s,gnifies, viz: the gift of a grateful country to Christopher Columbus. For ,t .s the S'"?^ °.f ^^"°^ "'f/^ f,th and perseverance are not less sublime. Whatever Northern Vikings may have done, 

that hardy Norsemen crossed the North Atlantic centuries before Columbus sa.led from Spam? " ;™. f ' !f„ ^^ " '"rthe civilized world and revolutionized the ideas, hopes and destm.es 

America was still in 1492 virtually a terra incognita, and it was the illustr.ous son of Genoa fl" .^J °"^ ''/ '° ^^f„^'"j°';^f ^;° "'^^ Lerica. Below him we discern, encircling the shaft, a line of 

Of mankind. ^^ -s.n of this monument is^ -'n"r crrs'orthT ;;:^rar::r;t'u:rr:p^ert:nV s:i:;ce! Rel,g,on, courage and Geography, and betweem them scenes of h.s 

naval ornaments symbolic ot the aiscoverer s miic ncci. v^u 

adventurous career. 291 




PIAZZA CARLO ALBERTO TURIN ITALY.-One of the brightest and most cheerful of Italian cities is Turin, which from 1859 to 1865 was the capital of Italy and the residence of the King. Its 
lac'ous^quares, broad st;eets, numerous gardens and fine public buildings make it a very agreeable town to visit, although it cannot boast of so many P""'"-o-en,rs o ar - h- -^ - ' 
sfster cities of It ly possess. Nevertheless, Turin is ancient, for it was founded by the Emperor Augustus .900 years ago; and ,t was m recent fmes the pr.napa ""'^ ° '''"^^^^^ "^^ f/^^^^^^^^^ 
which resulted in the unification of Italy. It is the birth-place of the illustrious statesman, Cavour, and a magnificent monument has been erected here m h,s honor Here also was born Kmg Victor 
Emanuewhos statues and m^ also decorate the city. The building seen in the illustration is the Palazzo Carignano, which was the Sardinian Chamber of Deputies fll .860, ^n"^"" that 

foTf^ve ve rsTs I Ha rof'LTa ian Parliament. The bronze equestrian statue in front of it is thar of King Carlo Alberto, for whom the square is named. The pedes al,s approached by four 
step of ScTttrsh g anUe af the c^^^^^^^ stand as a faithful body-guard four colossal statues of Sardinian soldiers; and above are four female figures representing Freedom, Justice Independence and 
PatrotsmTmongte objects of int^^r offers to the traveler are the Royal ^™...o'. containing many valuable relics of various celebrated soldiers from Charts V down to 

Napdeon ,, TZ^LXZe Gallery, and the National Museun., which is the loftiest structure in Europe with the exception of the Eiffel Tower in Pans,.ts height being 538 feet. 

293 




LAKE MAGGIORE ISOLA BELLA ITALY —The Italian lakes. Como anct Maggiore, resemble precious stones which differ in form and color, but are of equal value in the eyes of the lover of Nature. 
Lake Maggiore as its name denotes! is the larger body of water, being thirty-seven miles in length and four and one-half in width. Moreover, much of the frame-work of this crystal mirror is grander 
than the one which forms the setting of Lake Como. One of its most attractive features is the Isola Bella, that far-famed island which we here behold, floating like a medallion on the bosom of ,he 
lake Two hundred years ago this was a barren rock; but Count Bonomeo caused to be transported thither a great mass of earth, and converted it. as if by magic, into a series o beautiful gardens 
rising on terraces 100 feet above the waves. Now, therefore, it is like a fragment of the orient which has by chance drifted hither; for lemon trees, magnolias, laurels, magmficen oleanders and other 
features of the south now flourish there in profusion. Who can wonder at the praises which have been lavished on Lake Maggiore? For, in addition to this island, the shores "'^^^^ 
constant series of darkly purple hills flecked here and there with white-walled castles and convents; while on the shore in every sheltered nook some picturesque Italian village glitters in the sun or 
else innumerable villas line each bank in beautiful succession, gleaming like jewels in the dark setting of the trees. 



295 




PAUBMO »ND mOMTE PELUECRINO PALIRBO, SICILV -Th. IO..d M Sitlly is . porllo. ot o.r ».tl. .li.h !.» '"".""a "« »<>»>•• .11 m.n Iran, H, «"'°' "»""!'' »"'°"", 
.loi, a.u..». B .i™n ..ri..lM i. ,h, .o,M t., b..ul, li '.I.™.- f» «" .™' '''" "'", ""''',",£' 'p., ,1" , ■ ™l.X.d" 1 1 , , pr.S'h.. his. For «' ,.™.d,., -.», 

Since been the patron saint of Palermo, and her name has been given to the Cathedral itself. 

^ 297 




THE MARINA CAPRI —The Island of Capri in the Bay of Naples when gilded by the dawn, mantled in purple by the sunset light, or turned to massive silver by the moon, must always be sublimely 
beautiful It is a huge volcanic rock, three and one-half miles lomj. crouching on the "water like a monstrous Sphinx, whose head and shoulders rise 2,000 feet above the waves in such colossal mag- 
nitude that one might deem it sculptured here in grandeur by the Gods themselves ! The landing place is surrounded by huge boulders towering above the waves, like mighty piers to which tnis 
siren-haunted island has been moored, lest it should float away to gladden other coasts. Thither the Emperor Tiberius came thirty years after Christ, and has bequeathed to this enchanting island 
the souvenirs of tragedy and shameless vice. For on this rock, guarded by vessels night and day. he thought himself secure at least from poison and the dagger. He built here twelve imperial 
palaces, which rivaled in their size and splendor some of the proudest buildings of the Eternal City. Now nothing is left of these upon the land save dreary vaults and arches; but m the sea, below 
a single one of them, tons upon tons of white and colored marble have been found, with many fine columns and mosaic pavements. Standing on this island, and lookmg out on the unrivaled beauty 
there disclosed, one appreciates as never before the lines: 

"Mv soul today is far away Under the walls of Paradisel Calm Capri waits, 

SintMhe blue Ves^^^^ Here Ischia smiles o'er the liquid miles; Her sapphire gates 

My spirit lies with wS And yonder bluest of the isles, Beguiling to her bright estatesl" 

299 




PUERTA DEL SOL, MADRID, SPAIN. — Tnis "Portal of the Sun" was tormerly the eastern gateway of Madrid, and hence the first to be greeted by the dawn, but now it marks the centre of the capital. 
Although not beautiful, it is nevertheless justly famous, for it is the nucleus of the city's life, the heart of Madrid, throbbing with tireless activity. Through this the restless life-blood of the town 
is every moment flowing. Most of the lower stories of its houses and hotels are cafes, from which at night music and light stream forth, amid a clatter of glasses, a babbling of tongues and the 
cries of waiters, as though this Spanish capital had banished sleep forever. Sun-burnt peasants and ragged beggars are always idling about in this Puerta, gaining fresh coats of tan by steepintr 
themselves in the sun. One can always perceive here Spanish priests, dressed in their great three-corned hats and long black robes, amid a mass of gaily-decorated mules with tinkling bells, bul' 
fighters in their gorgeous costumes, musicians with guitars, and proud Castilians wrapped in their deftly-folded cloaks and wearing on their head those huge sombreros which strikingly resemble 
gigantic chocolate creams. If you are in the mood for it. this whirl of life is thoroughly amusing. If not, it renders you more sad than would the desert. For in that motley throng there is not one 
who knows your name, or cares for your existence. One may find cause for sadness, therefore, even in this brilliant Gateway of the Sun. 

^01 



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conflict between Moor and Christian. Around it are many mountains, only a few of which are vs.ble on the s.de represented by tlm ' us'r .on^ c "naVa t^e hillTh ch con ti^u" 
pierce the azure at a height of 11,000 feet and are crowned with everlasting snow. With such an env.ronment there r.ses abruptly above the <^'*y °^<^'^^"^'';'''/,^'.';;;''V°"^^^^^^^ fill 

o Ith Moorish Caliphs It is sheltered from the arrows of the sun by magnificent elms a hundred feet in height. Nightingales are smgmg .n the.r abundant foliage. Roses ^"'' "T^;. '' °"°'"\;" 
°he r wHh perfurlr La ly and Wefly^ here in this bower of Oriental delights, and resembling a Queen upon a lofty throne, is the most exquisite palace man has ever "u 't, the umque, the 

worlLInowC^JL^r.!! This, as all the world knows, was the most treasured residence of the Moorish sovereigns, a veritable earthly paradise, where hfe passed away l,ke a happy dream. 




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SAl^NOrMARU DE PADI^LA, ALCAZAR, SEVILLE, SPA,.._T.e A.caza. (a „..e derive, f™. A> ^-^he Hc^e of C^s^a Moo^^ 

1181 It was however, largely rebuilt bv the Christian sovereign, Pedro the Cruel, and most of its gorgeous apart nents are haunted byth« memory oth.s trag c .^b^equently forced into 

Jor so fair a place. Th'e room' portrayed in this illustration is the boudoir of Maria de Padi.^ the beaut.ful ay whom ^e^™ -; ZTlTZ^^ ", ^ "e' w^c; el'ly persecuted, imprisoned 

a political marriage with the French Princess, Blanche de Bourbon. Three days after, he left the w.fe he '"'^''./°^ '' ™/" ' '^^^^^^^^ „„e of the worst of which was the murder 

several years, and finally put to death. Maria de Padilla seems to have been unable to restram Pedro from ™'"'^'f";^.J°'"'^,'^™.;^; ;'*';" ^ one ofCe marble pavements. Six years later Pedro 
o, his illegitimate brother, whom he caused to be struck down by the maces of ''■^ -";'-,^; -''^;:^^° ^^^^t A al ev trMoor'h o namen at on "as suife'red less from the ravages of Time 

h,mself was stabbed to the heart. The Alcazar of Seville is in some respects more beaut.fu than the f ''"'"';", .^\f''/^'"'!;'^\^'^^^^^^ °', .^ out by Charles V, and abounding in Myrtle 

307 




PANORAMA OF SEVILLE FROM THE GIRALDA, SPAIN.— From the Summit of the old Moorish spire, the Giralcl;i, the view of Seville is one of exquisite beauty. Clasping it in beauty, like a silver girdle, is 
that stately river, whose Moorish name, (the Guadalquiver), sounds, even when pronounced in English, Hke a strain of music. It is a very ancient city, famous for distinguished men, lovely women, palm- 
trees and orange-groves, charming courtyards, tine churches, and many rare paintings by Murillo and Velasquez. From Seville two of the most celebrated and admirable Roman Emperors, Hadrian 
and Trajan, went forth to wear the imperial purple of the world. Here the gifted Moors reigned for many centuries in splendor. The promenade of Seville discloses a multitude of bewitching Senoras 
and Senoritas. who wrap around their handsome tresses lace mantillas, which, when adorned with a red rose or a pink, are certainly the most becoming and coquettish head-dresses in the world. 
Each house in Seville, however plain its exterior may be, will have its pretty courtyard paved with marble and enclosed by walls enameled with glazed tiles. In these charming patios occur in the soft 
delightful evenings of Seville the little informal social parties, which render a residence here agreeable. A few modern squares are to be found here, but it is often unpleasant to cross their broad 
expanse of fiery sunlight, and the narrow, Moorish streets, into which the sun only fully enters for an hour at noon, seem better suited to its climate. 

309 




rnnRTOF ORANPFS and MOSOUE CORDOVA SPAIN.-The Mosque of C ,.dova is one of the most splendid relics of the Muois which ..m he lound in Sp.un. The very approach to it h 
bltiful one st'ps fn fhrouTaMoonMan^ finds himself at f.rst'inthis fine old courtyard, containing cedars, cypresses, orange-tress three centuries old a,,d P^'" *«;^° -^"°;:"^"'Xi^ 
A e ec wave p r fume g:e'etsol as he'enters it, like that which meets, him when he enters a conservatory. In the center is an ancient fountain, at w'-^ birds stop to ^-''---, ° « J - 
pit'chers, and "Children of the Sun" to iie within its shadow and iive apparently on the juice of - °-"^^ ^^^J^/ '^^ttl 1" st fsee"; m re t. anT " o^ t ^cotls of^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
Christian church, but nothing can conceal the special character given ,t by the Moors, namely, that of <z marUforst. ^" f ;^^°^, . f '/J ^^'^^^ J""^^^ ,„ t„e days of Abdurrahman the 

porphyry or pure alabaster, forming a truly bewildering multitude of glitter.ng paths of softened '^^'^^ ^^l''^^^} ^:^'^^^^^^ 600,000 manuscript volumes, and 

Great. Then (about 1,000 years ago) there were within the walls of this city 600 mosques, So hospitals, 900 public baths, 600 mns, 800 schools, ana ^ "^"^y " 
hundreds of students went here daily to the Moslem schools, where Music, Medicine, Philosophy and Mathematics were then taught, as nowhere else ,n the world. 

SIX 




GIBRALTAR -The ancients bel.eved this cliff to have been planted by the Gods at the western limit of the civilized world, beyond which even the boldest never dared to sa,l No s.ngle illustration 
it can reveal its many haracteristics. It rises on one side almost perpendicularly from the waves to the height of 1300 feet. It is three miles long and about half a mile wide. From ome 
positions t res mbles a gigantic lion crouching by the sea and guarding thus the entrance to the Mediterranean. Just opposite this on the African coast ,s a mountain very simi ar in situation and 
p e ranc to GTbral ar In 1 mbing over this extraordinary fortress the traveler sees a great number of half-natural, half-arti,lcial caverns or galleries, designed to serve as places of protection ur ng 
a bomb idmenr Some vegetation covers this apparently barren rock, and frequently the mouth of a cannon grimly protrudes from abed of flowers. Gibraltar is probably impregnable. It ha o 
man V r b n ii, e posses ion of he English! and has resisted every effort made to capture it or silence its tremendous batteries, The fortress is continually provisioned, and so perfect are 
the arrangemen for a wa" upply tha at a lev hour's notice it can be put into a condition to withstand a year's siege. Although this cliff is almost paved with British cannon and surmount d 
by the En^iriaru is still a" lo!i^^ of the Moors. The nam'e "Gibraltar" is a corruption of Arabic words meaning "The Mountain o, Tarek," leader of the Moors when they landed 

in Spain. For more than 700 vears it was held by them, till on the fall of Granada in 1492, they were expelled to Atrica . 




LISBON PORTUGAL -Lisbon has been well called the "Sultana of the West," for its situation almost rivals that of Constantinople. For from the broad and glittering Tagus it either rises on 
series of' high hills or lies in indolent repose for six miles on the water's edge. If close inspection only confirmed the picture which Lisbon presents at a distance. Don Luis would possess the most 
magnificent^of European capitals. Phillip 11 made a great mistake in not establishing the capital of his empire at Lisbon. If he had done that, Spain and Portugal would probably be to-day a 
prosperous and united realm. Lisbon would then be the natural sea-port of tiie whole Spanish peninsula, for the mighty river Tagus. which has its outlet here, actually extends mland for hundreds 
of miles into the very heart of Spain, Hke a great arm to gather up its wealth and bring it to the Atlantic, to be thence carried out to Europe. India, the United States or Brazil. There are some hand- 
some streets and squares in Lisbon, particularly prominent among them being the Place of Commerce, which is surrounded by the Exchange, the Custom House, the Treasury and other public 
buildings, together with a line of open arcades, where merchants gather in great numbers. On one side this great square looks out upon the river Tagus. The commerce of Lisbon has fallen off 
greatly since Portugal lost Brazil, the brightest iewe! in her crown, but there may come a time, if the Spanish peninsula ever is united and well governed, when its prosperity will again be worthy of 
its once splendid promise and temporary fulfillment. 



! 



B 




itself. It is beautifully located on high bluffs along the River 0°"™^ wh.ch h"e ro ^ow ward ke a flood ^^^^ ^J^^^J^^^^ ,„, oporto is the emporium of the rich ..Port" wine to which 
sideare terraced vineyards glistening in the sun, rem.ndmg °"^ °.f *'''^^^°f;; ^"'^^^f ^ ";• ° "d for gne s T idin« here speak in high terms of its agreeable qualities. Many English hrms are 
the city gives its name. Although its streets are very steep, .t ,s a clean ^."d_attract,ve^place,^and^tomg^^^^^^^^^ ^^^_^P ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^.^^ ^^^ ^^^_^^_ ^_^^ ,^^^._^^ .^ ,,^ ,,^,^„^^ ,,,, , 



property!" 



.-^17 




facmg an enormous square adorned wUh a lofty monolithic shaft, known as the Alexander Con^mn.^^^^^^^^^^^^ Nevertheless, its vast size and admirable situation make ,t 

Springtime, when St. Petersburg is emerging from the Winter's frosts '^'S Imper.al re ,dence o,t p en a ^^^f^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ,„,,„,„ „, „„,o,,y escaped death by the blowing up of 
exceedingly impressive, and many of its halls and rooms are furn.shed wth great "»?"«"""■ ;!" '" '^ L expired having been brought hither from the neighboring street in which the bombs 
the imperial dining-room, just before he entered it; and here ,t was, ."less than a year after that f[l"'l\l''ll'l\'^^^^^ „ ,, ,hout admiring the indomitable will and courage of Peter 

capital should bear the name of its creator. ^^^ 




THE PETROWSKl PALACE, MOSCOW, RUSSIA. A little outside ot the city limits is tiiis famous Palace, built by the Empress Elizabeth moie than a century ago, but nowu-ed freely as a pleasure-resort 

by many of the Muscovites, who come herein crowds to attend the little summer theatre in the garden, to drink tea in the open air, and to amuse themselves socially in the long lovely summer evenings, 
which are so characteristic of those Northern lands, and which in some degree atone for their lack of daylight in the winters. This Palace is historically interesting from the fact that Napoleon took 
refuge here in 1812 from the flames and fire-brands of burning Moscow. One seems to see here, therefore, now at every turn the face of the amazed and disappointed Emperor, already half 
anticipating his disastrous retreat, and seeing in that lurid glare of Russia's burning capital an obscuration of his Star of Destiny. To the Russians the great disasters of the French in 1812 seem the 
result of a direct intervention of Providence in their behalf, and the must magnificent church in Moscow, the Cathedral of the Savior, was erected in gratitude for those events. But at present the 
Russians who assemble in the grounds or the Petrowski Palace cherish no hard feelings against the French, and certainly the French cheer and admire everything that is Russian. Bye-gones have 
become bye-gones, and the two nations are apparently united in a lasting friendship. 

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THB KREMLIN, MOSCOW.-The Ho„ Cit. c, Russia Hes in t„e ,on. o, ^o c.c,es^„e wUHin Uje^tH.. E.JH ^ ^^^^ jj--^ ^ ^l;^':-- ^-r;:;:^;^^^^: t^ T:e^::S^h: 
Moscow's growth. The inner circle, or core, of the Czar's cap.tal ,s the ^^\-'''-''^,^^'-"''''?^^^^^ enhanced by the vivid colors of the.r roo,., cupolas and 

Arsenal and many of the most revered and ancient temples in the Emp.re. The,r lofty sp.res ^"l^f^'tf^lTrT^^^^^ by stout walls of oak, and in the centre of this 

all foop holed for the discharge of weapons .t the advancing foe, and with its watch-towers r.s.ng thus at frequent intervals. 

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CONSTANTINOPLE AND THE BOSPHORUS, TURKEV.-» '-^e .e one c., in U,e wo., w.ose s.e co,„b..s .^ 

holds the most enviable location on the globe, it is b.yond a doubt ^-"'"f "'"f ■ ^^ l"" f t^e ^ih m sp eds tha o a cu e t called the Bosphorus, which sweeps along in majesty for 
How matchless is its situationl Here Europe and Asia advance and gaze mto each other s eyes. Between ' ^^ " P;™';'"* '^;"; ^ „, j„ the navies of the world, and lies here like a bridge of 
fifteen miles, connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora. It is the most secure and capacous '^b- '"' "" rounded promo orytle extremity of which is known as "Seraglio Point." 
lapis-lazuli uniting thus the Orient and the Occident. The oldest part of Constantn,ople, called Stambouls ^J^;/""^ ^'^"''f^'^P °™";'™ divides two continents, so does the Golden Horn 
On one side of this, and at right angles to the Bosphorus, is a glittering arm of the sea bearmg %^^^f^°^'^;f°'%^^^^^^^^ the Sultan is one of the most remarkable and 

^^Z'i:T:T:^^1:::Zn::1^)r^^ rU^u^rfmarvelous perspLlve of ma„y-colored houses, marble Mos.es and 

palaces, besides numerous graceful minarets which cut their outlines on the clear, blue sky. like columns of pohshed ivory. 

329 




IMPERIAL PALACE OF BEYLERBEY ON THE BOSPHORUS, TURKEY.-It is diflicuit to imagine anything more charming than the scenery along the Bosphorus, wliere the orrosite banks of Europe 
and Asia for fifteen miles coquettishly advance towards each other and then retreat, in a delightful series of undulating, wooded hills. These headlands of the two great contments are at tmies so 
n art each o he t u a person standing on one side of the Bosphorus can make himself heard by anyone on the opposite bank. Moreover these wind.ng shores are hned w.th a constant sttccess.on 
o vi 1,2 pav ion ~^ pala es, embosomed often in luxuriant foliage. From almost any of these places the views of the other shore and of the Bosphorus ttself studded w,th snowy 

s ails S g' a oveurer HerTlo are several charming pleasure-resorts for the people of Constantinople, among which are the "Sweet Waters" of Europe and As,a. On one promn,ent promon cry 
s tt dm rab e AmeZn'scho^ Robert College, which gives a thorough education to more than 200 students. There are several palaces and v.llas of the Sultan alongthe Bosphorus, one of wl , h 
reorelrnted in^W I u tr tion This palace of Beylerbey is used chiefly as a summer-residence, or as an elegantly furnished dwelling to be placed at the disposal of any royal guests of the Turk.sh 
Sove'r g„ T tt le town al^o t it w s u d the Byzantine Emperors distinguished by the size and splendor of its edifices. For every portion of both sides of the Bosphorus ,s h.stor.c ground, and 
uTs stmemphatically true that "Earth hath no fairer sight to show. Than this blue stra.t, whose waters flow. Bordered with vineyards, summer bowers, Wh.te palaces and .v,ed towers 

331 




MOSQUE OF SULTAN ACHMET, CONSTANTINOPLE, TURKEY.— One of the grandest Mousqes in Constantinople is this, erected about I6l5 A. D. by Sultan Achmet. It is the only Mosque in the 
world which has six minarets, all others having usually two or four.' These minarets are of great beauty, being entirely composed of pure white marble, and encircled with several fmely sculptured 
balconies which appear to the fancy at a distance like jeweled rings betrothing earth and heaven. These minarets are not intended merely for ornament. They are continually used. Five times a 
day, punctual as a figure moved by clock-work, on every such minaret in the city appears the Muezzin, or Mohammedan caller to prayer. He chants out upon the air the sacred formula of islam: 
"God is great. There is but one God. Mahomet is the Prophet of God. Come to prayer." Towards the four points of the compass are these words directed; then all is still, save the echo of 
some more distant voice. This Mosque is the scene of the grandest ceremonies of Islam, and also of many of the Court processions. The Sultan often comes here on State occasions attended by his 
entire suite, particularly at the festival of the Prophet's birth. Then the Sultan and all the members of his Court appear in great splendor. The interior of this Mosque is magnificently decorated 
with lofty columns, exquisite mosaics and a handsome marble pulpit. On one side ot this sacred edifice is a balcony, where all the Sultan's decrees ("Firmans") are read aloud. All Mosques in 
Stamboul have some remarkable attractions, peculiar to themselves, but none is on the whole more interesting than this Imperial gift of Sultan Achmet 

333 




MODE^ ATHENS, cReECB.-T.e .n. wh.h nations ..veac,... in ..o. ,s not --^^ -^---,^-;:^:-r'":;:;;;:i ^^^^x ^^ii^ es ^i^^:::" ^::::u^:^^"n: 

intluence exerted by a few Athenians in the days o, Pijidias Cl-a's tour un^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^.^^^^^ ^^^^^^„,^„ ^„, „„„,3, ,,,,„ ,, sou. today with the 

■n particular is beyond computation. Her language, her literature, he temples^htr ^'''""'f ^'"^^ *''"'' ^^^^ Demosthenes, Phidias and Xenophon. If most of her art-treasures had not been 

inspiration of true genius, immortally associated with such names as bocrates, Plato, ''"''-'''■' "'''[^'J^^^^^^^^^ vis.ted by thousands instead of hundreds. Nevertheless, ,ts 

carried away from Greece, ilrst to embellish Rome, and finally to 1,11 ''-J-"- "^ X3i° and Wsto i'cin est T le m deTn" d the'ancient pa'rts of the city are in Cose proximity, and therefore 

::::rC::- t :^2:^r:'ZX':^'^^^^^ - 'Z;°1:^ll^th^X::-:r2^r^fI. n;mes upon 't. comers are traced .n the same characters wh.ch Socrates 
pronounced and Plato wrote. ^^^ 




THE PARTHENON, ATHENS. — The glory of Athens was the hil! called the Acropolis, which rose four hundred feet above the town, covered with wonderful temples and statues; and the especial 
glory of the Acropolis was the Parthenon. To this a marble stairway ascended from the city sixty-two feet in breadth, entirely composed of marble and adorned with statues, the mutilated remains 
of which we revere to-day in the art galleries of Europe. The Parthenon itself is a matchless edifice even in its ruin. No photographic view can do it justice, for its marble columns are somewhat 
weather-stained and look in the illustration as if they were dingy and dark like the soot-covered buildings of London. But this is not so. The discolorations are so light as to be hardly blemishes; 
while the general appearance of the building is one of snowy whiteness. This temple stood here comparatively unchanged in its unrivalled beauty, until two centuries ago. But in 1670, during a 
bombardment of the city, a shell exploded in this shrine, where had been rashly stored a quantity of powder, and instantly with one wild roar, as though nature itself were shrieking at the sacrilege, 
the Parthenon was ruined! Columns on either side were blown to atoms, severing the front of the temple from the rear, and covering the whole plateau with marble fragments— mute witnesses of 
countless forms of beauty, forever lost to us. Happily, however, enough of this Parthenon remains to show the \\itx^\ perfection of its masonry, with curves so delicatr "S ^0 be hardly perceptible 
to the eye, yet true to the l-lOOth part of an inch, and showing alike the splendid genius of the architect and the wonderful skill of the workmen. 

■\37 




,v strange it seems, on landing here, to read upon the shops ana corners ot uie sueei^ wuno ui uiuoc um vj.ccr. ^..........o »..-v.. »v ,. v« ^ 

city fades from view, and in its place the traveler sees the school-room with its rows of well-worn desks. He feels again upon his cheek the summer breeze, 
n window and lured him from his Greek lexicon to the fair fields. At last Xenophon's graphic style and Homer's matchless verse seem based upon rea ity. 



THE PIRAEUS ATHENS GREECE.-No traveler who has the least admiration for classical associations can gaze upon this port of Athens without profounU emotion, it still retains its ancient name 

of the Pira~eus and on these waves, which are as blue to-day as when they charmed the eyes of Socrates or Xenophon, Athenian ships once rode at anc-.,or and many a ^l^^^^J^'^^i;;:^^^^ 

Aegean for sime glorious victory. How strange it seems, on landing here, to read upon the shops and corners of the streets words .n those old Greek 'jharacterswhich^we learnedjr^hoyhoo^ 

It all sweeps back upon us. The modern 

as it came in temotingly through the oper 

Six miles from tne Piraeus 

and Lycabettus. Interestir 

capital itself, thronged with 

the threshold of one of the 

and lastly in the calmer but perpetual pleasure of its retrospection. 

S.39 





CAIRO, LOOKING TOWARDS THE CITADEL.— Measured by the vast antiquity possessed by many Egyptian monuments and cities, Cairo is comparatively modern, although it has been the capital 
of Egypt more than 1000 years. When the foundations of its walls were bein^ laid, the planet Mars, which the Arabs call Kahir, or "the Victorious," crossed the meridian of the new city. Accordingly 
the Caliph called it "Kahira," from which the word Cairo is derived. In 1166 the Citadel (visible in this illustration and elsewhere described), was built by the famous warrior. Saiadin. During the 
reigns of this Caliph and many of his successors, Cairo was beautifully adorned with mosques, palaces and tombs, which even in their partial ruin at the present time are striking proofs ot tne 
delicacy and grace of Saracenic architecture. Napoleon 1 left here some traces of his path of conquest, for in 1798, after the Battle of the Pyramids, the future Emperor of the French established his 
headquarters at Cairo. Cairo is the largest city in Africa, and the second city in the whole Turkish empire. Its population is about 400,000. No other Oriental city offers so much to entertain and 
instruct the traveler. Not only do its street scenes afford an endless fund of amusement by interpreting in actual life the stories of the "Arabian Nights," but close beside this charming capital are the 
oldest relics of human workmanship upon the surface of our globe. Thus within a few miles of Cairo are the Pyramids; the Sphinx, and the sites of some of the oldest cities in the world, Memphis 
and Heliopolis. Beyond the Nile, and in full view from the platform of the Citadel, is the vast Desert of Sahara, extending for hundreds of miles to the westward; and in the city itself is a marvelous 
collection of souvenirs of the days of the Pharohs. Cairo is also, of course, the starting point of the delightful journey up the Nile in steamers or in private boats. 

341 




THE CITADEL CAIRO. EGYPT.-Far above most of the mosques and dwellings ot Egypt's fascinating capital is a massive fonress built in 1166 on a hill commandinL; a magnificent view not only of 
the entire city, but of the Nile, the Desert, the Pyramids and the Sphinx. It was largely constructed out of stones taken from some of the Pyramids. Close by it is the -Alabaster Mosoue" of Ma- 
homet Ah, the founder of the present Egyptian dynasty. Its well-proportioned domes rest hghtly one upon another, like beautifullv rounded clouds, while its slender marble minarets rise into the 
blue air, looking, when tinged with the glow of sunrise or of sunset, lik^ silver lances tipped with points of gold. Gloomv memories haunt that Cairene citadel. There in iSll occurred the mas- 
sacre of the Mamelukes by order of Mahomet Ali, who wished to be rid of these political enemies. He invited them to a banquet in that fortress, and they came, magnificently attired to the number 
of 470 men. Hardly had they entered the courtyard of the citadel when the gates were closed behind them, and a murderous fire was opened on them by the Viceroy's troops, who suddenly appeared 
upon the walls. Unable alike to defend themselves or to escape, they fell in one red, writhing mass, with the exception of one man. who, spurring his horse over the weltering bodies of his com- 
rades, forced him to leap on and over the parapet to the plain below. It was a fearful distance. One moment he was in mid-air; the next he was freeing himself from his mangled steed amid a 
shower of bullets. Yet he escaped, as if by miracle, into the adjacent desert, the only one preserved of all that brilliant band. 

343 




THE EZBHKIYEH AND STREET SCENE, CAIRO, EGYPT.-The Ezbekiyeh is an enormous square in Cairo, named a.tu : brave Egyptian general wl,o served lender one of the last of the '"'1^PJ"1^M 
Mameluke sovereigns of Egypt in the last part of the fifteenth century. In the centre of this open space are beautiful pleasure grounds covermg an area of twenty acres, and aboundmg .n luxur ant 
semi-tropical vegetation. Around these are'some of the finest modern edifices .n Cairo, including hotels, cafes, theatres, handsome shops and residences ^'^''^^I'^J.^J^^^^^^^^ 

Egyptian band plays in this square for three hours every afternoon. On Sunday and Friday evenings (the Christian and the Moslem Sabbaths) the ^"''^"^ ]> " .^/^ ""™"^'f J'^^ ^^^/^ "'„^ °2l 
fights and the effect is charming. Formerly only Europeans seemed to frequent the park of the Ezbekiyeh, but of late years the Arabs are begmnmg to end the.r v,v s a, d daugh r 1 re of co se 
suitably veiledl to enioy the music and the flowers. This garden is another proof of how the recent Khedives of Egypt have made of Cauo a delightful winter-resort. The streets in the to eign 

uart'^ a™ btad sroti!^ and clean. They are also lighted by gas, and the hotels in Cairo are wel, kept and comfortable. Vet within five '"^^"^.%:«^f ^'^''^^^^y^l^^^^^^^^^ 
into square miles of Arabic mosques, dwelhngs and bazars, where he is apparently 1,000 miles removed from all that would suggest European civilization ^^ ''L^^°"^^^ "\' "" °/^^'^\%°^^^^ 
Occident; this blending of modern comforts with the stupendous souvenirs of an almost inconceivably remote antiquity, make Egypt at once the most mysterious and fascinating country on our globe. 

345 



i 




HARBOR OF ALEXANDRIA EGYPT -The coast of Egypt is not particularly striking as one approaches it. No hills or mountains rise above its sandy shore. The lisht-house at Alexandria seems in 
TsZo^e u^u uany?ofty; and recalls to us the ancienTpharos of this porl. which was reckoned as one of the seven wonders of the world and from the top of wl.ch the .re ^Pt b^nmg c s n^ 
at night could be seen miles away at sea. This harbor is usually tilled with a multitude of ships and steamers, since this is not merely the great seaport of Egypt, out an mportant c ty in .t elf, 

ro which Eg ptian exports Ld their principal outlet. Of these, the most important are cotton and cotton-seed, wheat, coffee, elephants' ^^^^^-^^^^^^^^^^^ 
steamboat services and two telegraphic cables connect Alexandria with Europe, while railroads and the telegraph place it in close communication with the whole of Egypt. Somethmg of themant.me 
"of th^^^^^^^^^^^ the opening the Suez Canal and the prominence given to Port Said at its junction with the Mediterranean; but Alexandna even now contains a populat.on of 

200,000, and 50,000 European residents here prove the commercial value of this portal of the country of the Nile. 

347 




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of its ancient glory is now visible. Even its Obelisks, popularly known as Cleopatra ^ Need • have w^hm If^fj^^J^^i; walls and latticed windows hint of the beauty which may there be 
from various parts of the world still make Alexandria their home, and °"='^7^''>' ^^ " "^^^^ ! ^^^"^^ ^J^.^ff p;,^" ^ and named after himself by Alexander the Great, 332 B. C, it became the 
concealed. Few cities in the world, however, have occupied so conspicuous a place m h.story ^'l"''"'^'"" the Gospel, and finally a prominent stronghold of Christ.an.ty, It 

greatest centre of commerce on the Mediterranean, the principal seat of Grecan learnmg ''- P - -^^ ^ t ^"^ '^ /™ f™,,^ ,^<,,, ,P,;,,,ble that has ever existed. Among its scholars were 
is also the half-way house to India, the door-way of Egypt, and the gate of the f^^'' ^ ' J \^^^'''^^^^^\';;';/t\^';„ ; „,tician. Us famous library, when it was burned in Cesar's t.me, numbered 



351 




^^^^^^^■B^BiSSm ■I^IMIIllllll'l M il ' • III! I '"^'- ""r- — — '-- -^^^^^i^^W^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^B^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^=^== ■ ' 

THE MAHMUDIYAH CANAL, EGYPT.-This great work was constructed by the famous Viceroy of Egypt, Mohan,™ed Ali in ,8t9. His ]^^"^°;.J^'^^;^27fslZ 'of Urf peasanlroTEg^^'to 
Cairo and the Delta of the Nile, and at the same time to supply the former city with Nile water He succeeded ^^^^^^^^'^[ifJJZZ^^^^^^^^^^ f, iL doiiars'^'xhis 

work here like galley-slaves, and 20,000 of them are said to have perished from exposure and nrhuman treatment. Tl e "^^ °' ''^^""'^ ^;™^, J ~ ^ Us bank are lined with solid brick masonry, 
artificial river is wide and deep enough to be traversed by barges and small steamers, and where ,t rece.ves its supply of wa er from a branch of hNUe, ''^ ^ "''^ ^^ ^^„^^ |,^„^„( t„ 

There are also four engines, of .00 horse-power each, which give an impetus to the water so as to make ,t flow , "-"''^^^'"-f ^.^.j^;^ De t^-^ e D^ e Th rea occupation of the people, 
Egypt. Wherever the waters of the Nile are carried, there can he found life and fertihty. Beyond the reach of ,ts 7^"^^"'; ;^^;;7;^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ ,3°","',, ^^ L Nile wiU make it glow with 
therefore, is now, as it was thousands of years ago, irri^a/wn. Only bring the water to the land m the seasons, '■'''l'"'^\^^^^^^^^^ their wUhering grasp the two long strips of 

beauty and fertility. What a marvelous river, therefore, is thisi Hemmed in on the east and west by scorchmg deserts, .t ne^ertheless rescues w.n e g g p 

territory on either bank, which formed the marvelous Egypt of antiquity, and constitute the Egypt of to-day. 



353 




THE PYRAMIDS AND SPHINX, EGYPT.-No photosrarh.c v,ew does Justice to .he E,.vpt,an Pyramids. Nothing else of ^^-^^l" ^''^'''"^'f'^'l^l' l^^^^^^^ 

stone The height of the ereat nyra.nid, Cheops, shown in ilk.stration. is 4S2 feet, or 12 feet higher than the cross which sparkles on the dome of St. Pete s at Rome. If, the efore, 'h=tt Pyj-am d 
wrhonowi^ead of be^S almost entirely solid, the whole cathedral of St. Peter., (dome, cross and all,, could he contained within it, like an ornament ,n a s;----^; Xntt- ' 
thirteen acre , though it has been reduced to eleven acres by the spoilation which went on here for centuries. Each of ,ts four s.des measured a he bse '« ' "' T „ k o' s ™ ^^ ^ .^f ,° 
solid masonry piled here together in one pyramid alone with such accuracy that astronomical calculations '>''« ^een based on ,ts angles d ludows, V U 

surpassing them in antiquity is the Sphinx, a monster cut out of a natural cliff on the edge of the descent, and part.a ly t,ur,ed m shmmg dr.fts of ""f '^^^.f ^ •■ '^J"' 1' f j '°^^^ "it- 

Egyptian antiquity stands solemn and silent in the presence of the awful desert, symbol of eternity. If those mighty hps could speak they ™K.''' f ' ' '^;'; I" ^^l.^^ f^" ^^^ ZL 

There it disputes with Time, the empire of the past; forever ga.ing on and on into a future which will still be distant, when we, hke all the m.lhons who preceded us and gazed upon face, 

lived our little lives and disappeared. 

355 




U ;= X) : C*. ^ E S 




AVENUE OF SPHINXES KARNAK, EGYPT. Karnak is the most stupendous temple ever reared by man. and is to-day one of the most amazing ruins which the sun beholds in all its course. Even 

this approach to it must have been overwhelming in its grandeur. It was an avenue nearly two miles long, and sixty-three feet wide, bordered by hundreds of colossal Sphinxes, the fragments of 
which still remain. Nor was this the only such approach to Karnak. Ten others, almost as imposing, have been tracedl Four thousand years ago this avenue and the temple to which it led were 
in their glory. The archaeologist, Champoliion. has truly said: "The imagination sinks abashed at the foot of Karnak." Such a temple as this is in its way almost as marvelous and awe-inspiring 
as the Pyramids themselves. It transcends all our previous ideas of what had been either probable or possible. The ruins of Karnak seem today more like those of a city than a temple, thrown 
into terrible confusion by a succession of earthquake shocks. It thrills one to survey this chaos of upright or overturned columns, walls, gates and obelisks, and to realize that as long ago as the time 
oi Joseph, magnificent processions of Kings, priests and worshippers made their way between these very Sphinxes, now headless and disfigured, awed by the grandeur of this unrivalled Vestibule. 

359 





'"^■- l1lll1«1l«^MMMi^,-. 




R-niN<; THFRFS FGYPT -Four thousand vears ago there lay upon a plain, 600 miles inland from the Mediterranean and cut by the Nile mto twounequa, part., a e.ty wln.h was to the anuent 
RUINS. THEBES, EGYPT F°"; ' ^""^'""^y" ^ Eirvptian capital of Thebes. It so abounded in magnificent palaces, statues and temples, that their very rums form to-day the marvel of the 
world what Rome was n the days of Hadra n, the E^ t'^" TZm, its wonderful features still in a measure "preserved, are the two colossi, one of which was the famous "Vocal Memnon" of 
world and attract travelers '™r -^J ^^^^'^ °//, \ °,\\,n^^^ „an, one solid block of beautifully polished stone weighing 900 tons, In Thebes also was 

ant,qu.ty; and >he over urned statue of ^^"^f" "' j'^'';;"', "^ ,,,^„\ obelisks of great size and beauty. Homer called this city "Hundred gated Thebes," but investigation has established the 
he stupendous temple o Karnak unsurpa s d '" 8 -^- ■ f ^^ T hereto re supposed to have been'the splendid entrances to the many temples of the place, some of which are still standing, 

fact that Thebes was not surrounded ''/JJ^^J^; J^^^^^^^^^ of th's once magnificent Egyptian capital. One marvels at the works constructed here and half believes that the 

There .s somethmg ■"descr.ba y '™"J " ^■^"J'^^^ f ^ ° ,^^ mountains of stone at the mere stroke of the enchanter's wand. But the glory of Egypt has departed. Race after 

Arabs are r.gh m saymg 'h^' '^e o d Egyp .ans we e w zard^^^ p ^^ civilization, has led the way, but none of its successors will leave such vast materia 

race follows the -"- '^''^^'^^'''^'^ "Jj™ ^^^ on the threshold of pre-historic times, it nevertheless reveals to us a people marvelously skilled in astronomical 

:Sio°L:'::r:nd :''::; and th:r::ircot immortality': Ot an tife countries of Anticuity, therefore, Egypt most charms us by the irresistible attraction of undymg fame, 

361 




the master of a tloating castle, and if his Dragoman be a reliable one, and his subordinates honest and obedient, it is ahnc 
.en months than on the surface of this majestic river, in the most dehcious of climates, untroubled by ^^l^op oj^ram. anc 
.tern World is left behind and almost forgotten, as 
memory and imagination to the great dawn of human history. 



for the time 
weeks and eve 



d surrounded by the grandest ruins of antiquity, 
exciting Western World is left behind and almost forgotten, as we glide'day after day along this old historic avenue of Egypt, which leads us back amid stupendous temples through the mirage of 

363 




[ \ I , . , .--„ ,^ ,,h,„,, eeventv miies This Strait ot Gibraltar, like the cliannel between France and England, is almost 

CAPE SPARTEL, TANGIER, AER.CA.-The .1,s.ance fro,. G, r a U. -/-^^^V^ .^ Hse in Africa as well as ,n Spain. At one point near Tangier a 

always rough; but the scenery along the two confront.ng coasts o. E"rope nd A r a n ost P t. light-house and tower of observation. From this the view ot the ocean ,s 

promontory, called Cape Spartel, advances boldly into the waves. Upon f'""'^^^'^^ lie , btfil tl Alhambra at Granada and ruled in Spain for seven centuries. Its streets are merely 
magn.ficent': Tangier itself is a most melancholy P-" °';;- ^f ";";;^,^^ here between Spain and Morrocco proves an insurnrountable barrier to the advent 

narrow, dirty alleys. There are few, if any, ^^eeled v h.c^s h e ^PP^'^;"' J '/f^^ / ^^,^ ,„ ,„, „„,e unlocked the doors of Moorish houses in Granada, and therefore held by th 
of European civilization. Yet in the Governor's Palace n Tangier there "/ ^7^" '"J i^ / _ ^ ,^^^ „,„,, f,^,^ ti,e city on a high plateau are the residences ot the American Minister, various 

descendants of the exiles of four hundred years ago ^^^'^^l^;:::^^°l^ZZ:f^^^sms from Cape Spartel, and is not only beautiful, but thronged with those historic memories which 
foreign Consuls and a few wealthy European merchants, i ne vicvn 
make the classic Mediterranean the most interesting sheet of water on the globe. 



367 




CAMP OV A CARAVAN ON THE SAHARA DESERT. — Few travelers in the east venture out upon the Desert, and yet it is neither ditticult nor dangerous to do so within a reasonable distance of either 
Algeria, Egypt or Palestine. In any case the experience is unique and can never be forgotten. You are there at once transported back to the days of the Patriarchs. You are a nomad, a Bedouin, 
a voyager on a petrified ocean which with its rolling waves of sand seems to have been suddenly changed from a state of activity to one of eternal rest. By day a journey on the desert means a 
perpetual struggle with the sun, whose heat reflected from the yellow sand seems almost unendurable. But at night the fascination of the desert's silence, solitude and awful sense of isolation 
'neath the sparkling stars is something which can hardly be imagined until actually experienced. A veritable ocean the mighty desert is. It has the same succession of limitless horizons, the same 
dreary monotony. Caravans glide over its surface like gigantic fleets. When a party of Bedoueen once came to the Mediterranean, they inquired, "What is this desert of water?" There is a wonderful 
amount of romance about the desert, which explains the charm which it possesses for the sons of Ishmael. The colors of its drifts of sand are glorious in the glow of morning and of evening. Its 
wonderful mirage presents to view from time to time such regions of delight as may have suggested to the Prophet his vision of the Moslem's Paradise. While ever and anon this tremulous horizon- 
picture becomes a reality, and we behold the beautiful, mysterious oasis, a place of palms and fountains, a miracle renewed continually and justifying the exclamation of the grateful Arab, "God is 
greati God is merciful!" 

369 




CAPE TOWN SOUTH AFRICA -This Capital of tlie British possessions in South Africa, lies at the foot of Table Mountain on the shore of Table Bay. It was founded by the Dutch in '650, but 
in 1795 waluken tleet^irwith the olo ,y, by the English. At the peace of Amiens it was restored to the Dutch, but in .806 it was once more taken by the English and as s.nce rema.ned ,n the.r 
po session The lownquU regularly bui t; the houses are of good size and are mostly of brick or stone, generally haying a verandah in front. The town ,s exposed o great heat, facing he 
nZZ sun and backed by nked mountains. The Castle is on the right side of the town and commands the anchorage of Table Bay. Many of the pubhc offices of the Cmony are wth.n he 
fortress and it's walls aho con" fn barr cks holding l.OOO men. Table Bay is capable of containing a great number of ships, but it is exposed to a very heavy swell durmg the preva^nce of the 
we terlv wind irjlne July aCAugut though at other times it affords safe anchorage. An observatory has been built about two miles north of the town and large iron bu.Umgs have been erected 
TsCts for coal trsupply'steamers touching'at Cape Town en route to Australia. Table Mountain at the height of 900 feet is a solid mass of granite, but after ascend.ng 900 feet more ,t changes 
to red sand stone. Us entire height is 3567 feet above the sea. 




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once the most remarkable of Eastern shrmes, bu.lt P^^^abl^ ^ '^^ ^^^^. 'mournfully down upon this plain, so eloquent in its pathetic silence The ye ow sh stone otw 

these few remaining -lumns see. U^^^^^ rnd^h^m ^'mt^si^^nar mon^ohthic sha^fts. Near by is a ^^^l^l^^^^^^^^^^^ irX'o^ i^^^^J^y -ovin, 

makes them particularly beautiful m ^^e sunse hght destroyed much of the exquisite sculpture of these ^"'^'i'"^^' '"/^,^^"' ""''^^^^^^^^ for a vLt (usually made on returning 

comment is it on human nature that modern Turks and Arabs na '^^^ ^heml Nevertheless, enough remains of Baalbek to well reward the traveler 

the iron bands which, though /-"^^.^^^J^^" "^";,';a, linge evermor'e within his memory. 

(rom Damascus), and its graceful and imposmg rums wm img ^^^ 




■pp„>;a, pm FPnM MnilNT OF OLIVES PALESTINE -The first glimpse of the Holy City from any point can never be forgotten. No spot on earth appeals at once so powerfully to the memory 
JERUSALEM FROM fJ^^NT OF 0L1\ ES PALEST,^^t^^ Abraham, of David, of Solomon, of JesusI The city also of Titus and the Crusadersl In one great flood of emot.on the old rehg.ous 

and the .magmat.on, the mtellect ^"''/he emot ons Th cty of Ah , ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ understand the feelings of the early pilgrims and Crusaders, 

memories of early years come sweepmg o er the '™«'.^;; ""''' ™;' '"" ° „*'„ the dust and every scarred and careworn cheek was wet with tears. Jerusalem is emphatically a "city set upon a 
when they first saw the City of the C™ss, as every ma, d knee sank embmgm ^ 7, ? ^ tould have rendered Jerusalem a peninsula. If it had had a corresponding gorge on the 

h,ll." On three s.des .t looks down on deep rav n s wh.ch tak^ '^^ P'^^ ° ™° ' ^„, 3„,„, j,,„,,„„ ^as always been defended by a massive belt of masonry, 

fourth remaining side it would have been pract ally ™P^^S"f ^^^^^ the deser An hour's firing from modern guns would make them fall as prostrate as the walls of Jericho. Nevertheless they give 
fo\:- l^tnTcS^ I'alkf an^r :r Conspicuou^ rn the foreground is the Moslem "Mos^ue of Omar," elsewhere illustrated and described. 

377 



I 




THE GARDEN OF GETHSEMANE PALESTINE.— At the base of the Mount of Olives is a small enclosure surrounded by a whitewashed wall. It is the reputed Garden of Gethsemane. The Franciscan 
monks possess it and admit all visitors to it with courtesy. There are now seven venerable Olive trees in the enclosure, whose gnarled and aged trunks give proof of their great antiquity. They are 
indeed said to be the very ones under which Jesus knelt in spiritual anguish. This can hardly be the case, for the Romans are said to have cut down all the trees about Jerusalem, and the Crusaders 
stated that the valley was destitute of wood. Nevertheless, since it is a fact that the olive tree springs repeatedly from the same root, there is a possibility that these trees are the descendants of those 
which sheltered the Manof Sorrows Around the Garden are several shrines for prayer, and the e.xact places are pointed out where Jesus was arrested, where Judas gave to his Master the fatal kiss, 
and where Peter James and John slept while their Saviour prayed. The earliest account of this Garden dates trom the fourth century. There is no doubt that its situation corresponds closely to 
that which the nature ot the ground makes evidently necessary. But whether it be iht precise locality is questionable. The Greeks have their Garden of Gethsemane at a litlle distance from this, 
and they maintain that theirs^s the only genuine one. Certain it is, however, that somewhere in a very limited area here the scenes of the Agony, Betrayal and Arrest must have occurred. 

379 




MOSOUE OF OMAR, JERUSALEM.— Jerusalem, the sacred city of the Jews, and the holy city of the Christians, is also now a place of pilgrimage to the followers of Mahomet. For more than 1,000 
years it has been in the possession of the Moslems, and this magnificent Mosque of Omar is to them a place second in sanctity only to Mecca itself. This Mosque is built in the form of an octagon, 
each side being sixty-six feet long. The lower part is of white marble, the upper part is covered with porcelain tiles, whose colors intersect each other in beautiful designs. Passages from the Koran 
are also interwoven with this decoration. Unlike most Mosques, no tapering minarets rise from this towards heaven. Its elegantly proportioned dome was thought to be sufficient. In fact, it is so 
light and graceful that from a distance one could easily expect to see it float away in the blue air, like a balloon of silk. This structure covers the sight of Solomon's Temple, and beneath the dome is 
the "Sacred Rock " the natural summit of Mt. Moriah, and probably the foundation for the sacrificial altar of the Jews in their splendid shrine. The Moslems greatly revere this rock, for Mahomet is 
believed to have there knelt in prayer, and to have ascended thence to Heaven. He derived most of his religious ideas from the Jews, and venerated this part of Jerusalem, as having been hallowed 
by the prayers of Hebrew patriarchs.' Few places in the world, therefore, are more revered than the eminence on which this Mosque now stands, and few historic shrines are so deserving of respectful 

interest. o 

381 




beauty such towns 
ebrew signifies 



BETHLEHEM, PALEST,NE,_,„ .oo.>„, at any c.y .n the Holy Ua„. one always ^s ^^^^^ ^^^J^l^^^ ^^^ ;:^t ::,r ;;::"n:;^tir t ^h":::: "^ 

possess is to be found in their natural surroundings, not m the structures 'hemselves^ BeUlehem s s. uated '" ^ ^*'^3" ^\ ^ ^ ,, ^^^^ ^.^^^^^^ „f ,,, beautiful story of Ruth, and as the 

..the place of food." Every reader of these lines of course knows * - P^-nt p «^' J ^^ °- , -^•";^^^,^ Z^ll the resort of millions of pilgrims who have conre century after century 

residence of the family of Davd ■«wasespec,ally revered by Hebwproplets^^^ J ^^ ^^^^^ .^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^.^^ ^^^ .^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^.^^ ^ 

in undiminished numbers to worship at the shrme of ^hr-st s nat.v.ty^ The chur n^ P t ^^_^^^ ^.^ ^^ Jerusalem. The tomb of Saint Jerome .s also shown at 

For more than 1500 years at least the site has never been ch nged^ "?,°"^h 'sided here fTm ny yearrdyin, A. U. 420. Here he learned Hebrew of the Jews, and translated the whole Bible from 

^:t^::^l illr "t^:":;:" :::e::r r tjr^— r ;:::^"^ l:e^^,^he Sla^hl^r of the mnocenfs, and most . the events connected with the birth of Christ. 



385 




that this is Rachel's tomb base *he."kept,c sm or^the^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^_^ ^^^,^ ^^^ , been at th.s pomt. 

of Benjamin, and it is argued that the """"^^^yj^^^^^^/^^f „, localities connected with the B.ble. 
to Bethlehem itself, one of the most sacred and mterestmg 38^ 




N A7ARFTH PAl FSTINE Few Oriental towns are so attractive to look upon as Nazareth, especially in March and April, for then the combination it presents of wh.te-walled houses and bright geen 
NAZARETH P^^^^^'J^^^-J^.^^*/^^^^^^^ engaged in farming, and their costumes are very showy and elaborate. On festal days the women wear gay, embroidered jackets, and have 

foliage IS charming. Most of its inhabitants ^^.^ P^°^P^^°^_7 t Ivii r can see in Nazareth the reputed sites of all the events recorded in the Bible as having taken place there. There, for example, is 

no question. It .s a '^°P""l'^"f.''J^^^^^ ,„i,d jesu. must often have resorted thither in much the same way that Syrian mothers and their children vs,t the place to-day. Jerusalem 

Ts^oTctr'^rt^hr^^ere ::int r/rnTer'r i^t^ hX und bu{ no Christian traveler wil, omit, if possible, this Httle town of Nazareth, where Jesus passed his childhood and early manhood, as ..ne 
increased in wisdom and stature and in favor with God and man." 




ITT ^r,lil..i, still as blue and beautiful beneath the Synan sun as when the Savior wallced beside its shores or sailed upon .ts surface. But its 

CAPERNAUM, GALILEE, PALESTINE.-The Sea °f ^ 1 lee .s stm '>^ blu^ ^^^'l Capernaum is such a ruin that doubts are entertained as to its site, There ,s no trace here 

surroundings are now desolate. The cty o T'ber.as s a n os --" «"^ ' ^^'^.„^ ^, ^ '^^ old building made of white limestone resembling marble. It must have once been an .mpos.ng ed.flce 
now of any quay or harbor; but in the m.dst of ^g^"' ^;" ° X,;;;Va te c pitals. This, it is thought must have been the Synagogue of Capernaum. 11 so, within .ts walls the vo.ce of Jesus 
for scattered there in great confusion are many j---.^ ^ "';- %ftTo, "' prophecy of its humiliation, which certainly is startlingly verified to-day. How little did the peop e of Capernaum 
was frequently heard. The Gospels tell us of h,s v .t to th. P';^'-^;"^ ^^^^ ^P^.^, ^ J ^,^^ ^,„,„ ,„„, ,,,,„ even the situation of their city would be a matter of d.spute, and ,f an object of 
imagine, as they disdained the utterances of the Nazar ne a d h^-nib^e follow ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^_^^^ ,^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^.^^^ ^^^^ .^ ^^^ ^^.^ ,^^^^ 3, „, ,,, 

interest at all, that it would be so, merely because 'l^;' ^^ '^i^^^^/ J';;;„ the gaze of Jesus rested on them, and when He uttered on their graceful slopes words wh.ch have revolutionized the world, 
bordered by undulating hills, whose rounded forms are jusi 

3DI 




globe. Most r,vers cast themselves ^ ^!' "P""'^ ^"^ j ^/.^^ ,,, ,i,i„ity o, that strange body of water that the Jordan 



at last upon the ocean, which see,r,s a fitting termination or the.r ^^;^" "™" "^'^ is h Id sp cially sacred. There is supposed to be the place where th^ 
from distant lands. Many pilgrims fill bottles and jars wun wa 



Whose mode of death is nevertheless envied by his comrades. 



393 




,..„nH p,„,Uh w .Lnrkahlv fertile. The vegetat.on is luxuriant. Olive *>-"S ^''°"™' .,^_^ ,.,u;.k h,= „..,Hv advanced beyond Ramleh and will eventually connect Jaffa with Jerusalem, thirty 



mportant place, aim wa^ .a. 5.. ^^ ^ ^^(j g„(,g tormed part ot an ciiurinui.^ ...v^^u.. . ..>. ^— .. .^ 

■avelers are lodged and fed with comparative -i^^fj'- .'^ '°^'^'' '°;" ^„^^^^^^^^^^^ f.e.ds in this part of Palestine could produce crops of which any country 

around Ramleh is r'emarkably fertile. The vegetation is luxuriant^ ^.^^X^tSCtZo:^^^^^ beyond Ramleh and will eventually connect Jaffa with Jerusalem thn^y- 

■ ■ nding innovation here in rec times has been .- ^. ^^^^ ^^,^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^,^ ^^„, ^,„ ,^ ,.,,,,,,,. , '°-"°''«;:' ' '""^ ° ° » 1 



around Ramleh is remarkably fertile. The vegerauo,, .. —■;■■■; ,.;■„-, „,,een the railroad, which has already advanced beyond Ramleh and will eventually conuc. .a... "■;";;;:;;;•"' ■•'''■'^: 
might be proud. The most astounding innovation here m recen times has b ^^^^ ^^^^ y ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^._^ ^^ ^.^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^,„ "rR^m'eh r dence o 

three miles awayl Within a short time, therefore, the old -e'ho"^"',;"™ ^^ * "ZL stones for his conflict with Goliath; and the conductor may call out to passengers "Ramleh, -S'<1 " e ° 
the plain of Sh^^on; a railroad bridge will span the b-ok -here Da id chosejh^^smo^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^_^ ^,^_ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ locomotive's whistle wake the echoes of Mount Zion. Here it is 
Joseph of Anmathea. Five minutes for "freshmen s On th ? ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ 

old which interests us, not the new ; and steam-cars seem unsu.tea ^^^ 




■hequiet glassy river meanderingthroughitssludowy groves wet ,kf^^^^ th^ "Z flows the rWerJhe.um. 'it is abou't ,20 miles in length and its greatest width is about 75 n,iles, 

an enclosed and elevated valley in the »"^''X<ZT^^^'"°^^^^^^^^ shooting has been carried to such an extent that game is only found in the most sec uded rav.nes and on 

The valley has, in modern times, been a resort 'o E"Kl^^h ^P^^^^^^";^;^' ^;' ^^ ^J, ,,,,, ,,,rt goat, brown and black bear and leopard. The convolutions of th,s r.ver wmd.ng through m,l s 
up;rmTles™^:u\tiv^edfle,ds^:rh' rt^bir t^^ undoubtedly suggested the general designs of the beautifu. Indian shawls producea here w.th such labor and h.hl, 

prized throughout the world. 3.-7 




^^^^^^^^^^ ■ , n , ™n.t imnort-int cities of India It has a population of 300.000. and abounds in beautiful specimens of Oriental architecture, m looking on Us 

GATE TO LUCKNOW, INDIA.-Lucknow is one of the most ''"P°'' ™/ °' '"^^^^ ^l,,\^ , .it, of „,eat wealth, and the works of its goldsmiths are famed throughout the world. The 

gates, domes and minarets one is continually rem nded of scenes n ^-0 ^^ f ^"^^ ' ,; ° 'o^lh tecture or the art of jewelers. This was in 1857-58 the scene of the awful British 

name " Lucknow," however, recalls to all English-speakmg P»P ve ^ •"" '"^I^IJ^^^^ ,b„„t ^^oo persons of whom over 500 were women and children. Six hundred of 

massacre, the thrilling story of which can hard y be surpassed - ^ °7; '" f The tt ling force n^^^^ „en. Most of the English there were doomed, but sold their lives as dearly as 

them were English soldiers. The rest were natives who h.ad ■'^"^'"'^^ f J"'^ mdian summerl At last the hnve General Havelock reached Lucknow and rescued those who survived. The atroct.es 
possible, and actually held out for three months durmgM,^app urn e^^^^^^^ slaughtered the Sepoys with savage fury. The street represented in the 

which the Indians had perpetrated ,n k, i,ng ^if^fj^^M^^^^^^^^ to' the Residency. The great mutiny was put down, but its memory remains, as the lurid glare of a distant conflagration 

illustration is the one along which HavelocK lougni ms v^^y & 

lights up the sky with the red tint of blood. • ^^^ 




V fh. ^.nit.I Of Cashmere that valley in the Himalaya mountains so famous for its beauty, and which is represented in an adjoining illustration. 
BRIDGE OF SHOPS. SRINAGAR. >ND1A.-Sr>nagar .s the ca^ a of C^f^^^^^^^^^ ^/^^^^ ^,^^,^^^ J^.^^ ,^^^ .^^ p,,,j, 3,,,,, ,,,h a breadth of about 300 feet. This river is crossed by many 
It has a population of 135.000 people, and 'S built for ^^^/J" *" ^ ^^^^ ^f ^h;,!, ,,e adorned with balconies and lattice windows. Some have their upper stories propped up by poles, 

wooden bridges, lined with decayed and weather-beaten st\°P^an ' .^^^^^^ -Pl,, town is also intersected with innumerable canals, and from this fact and from its beautiful situation, 

and look decidedy insecure, as they overhang either the "^"^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ V^„,ti,„ Doges turn in their gravesl For this Indian city is really too filthy and dilapidated to be seriously 

Srinagar has been called the Venice of Asia. T^l^'l'^^^^^^ temples and an enormous mosque, in which it is said that 60,000 people can worship at once. There was a time, however, 

compared to the Queen of the Adriatic. Yet it P^^^"^" '^"^^'^ a favorite resort of the old Mogul emperors, many of whose palaces are still standing in its vicinity. One of these Moore selected 
when this capital of Cashmere was of great '"1P°''\^""' commercial prominence, for it is the centre of the shawl manufacture of Cashmere, 

for his closing scene of Lalla Rookh. Even now Srinagar has some commer f 

401 




THE HIMALAYAS FROM DARJEELING. INDIA.— Nearly 8,000 feet above the plams ol India is the town of Darjeerhng, whither the Europeans go in summer to escape the terrible heat of the 
low country Thither all tourists in India also make their way to obtain one of the most remarkable and beautiful views in the world, namely, the glow of sunrise or of sunset on the Himalayas. 
Sometimes they have to wait several days before the celestial vision is revealed to them, for Darjeerling itself is (as its name signifies), "Up to the Clouds," while still more exposed to concealment 
by clouds are the marvelous peaks themselves, twenty thousand feet higher than this place of observation. Very often one sees the summits of the Himalayas above some lower strata of clouds, 
and hence he almost doubts if those resplendent figures in the sky really belong to earth. In reality, however, the visitor to Darjeerling beholds the loftiest range of mountains on our planet. The 
lowest of them is more than 20,000 feet high, and the most elevated has an altitude of 28.756 feet. This peak, called Kinchinjunga, wears a mantle of everlasting snow 11,000 feet in lengthl Even 
this is surpassed in height by Mt. Everest, but the latter is rarely visible at Darjeerling. On the other side of this stupendous barrier of the Himalayas, {whose appropriate name in Sanscrit, signifies 
"The Halls oi Snow,") lies Thibet, an almost unexplored and savage country, well nigh inaccessible from the side of India. Passes exist indeed among these Himalayas eighteen thousand feet above 
the level of the sea.' but it is actually at the risk of life that one attempts to cross them. Nature has in these awful citadels of ice and snow no use for Man. 

403 




RllRNiNr THAT RFNARFS INDIA -Benares is the Holy City of India. What Rome is to the Catholic. Jerusalem to m.lUons ot Christians, and Mecca to the Moslems, that Benares is tu the Hindoos. 
BUKNlNU UHAi, btiNAKc^, u • ^^^^ hallowed waters Buddha taught hundreds of years before the founder of Christianity was born. Hither come handreds of thousands of pilgrims 

It hes beside ^^^'^^.^'^ ^';';' "^J" is suDoosed to purify them from all sin. From the temples and dwellings on the banks of the Ganges certain "ghats." or flights of stone steps lead downward 

every year to bathe in ^h' f ^^^;^' ^^^^^ 'burning Ghat." since here cremation is continually going on! It is a shocking sight. Rough piles of wood about four feet high are here constructed and 
to the waves. One of hese is called V^^ ^"^^ ^^^ ^^ i3 ^..^ t^e nearest male relative of t.ie deceased applies to it a lighted brand. The angry flames leap heavenward at once and 

on these funeral pyres the ^.^^'''^^^^^^^^ incredible that friends and relatives can gaze upoi; such a sight, which is beyond description ghastly and revolting. At last, however, a 

TJlstlsM^^^^ thes^ are thrown upon the river's breast and roll on toward the sea. symbol of that Eternity towards which the dead man's soul has winged its flight. 

It L't deaSt lish of the pious Hindoo that he may die on the banks of the Ganges, and be at last committed to its soft embrace. 

405 




THE PEARL MOSOUE AGRA INDIA -No city in India equals Agra in respect to fine and wonderful architecture. Here, for example, ,s that marvelous tomb, the Ta, Mahal which .s a mos 
THE PEARL ^O^QUE, AGRA INUIA. JNo y M .^ ^^^ enormous Citadel of Agra, about two miles in circuit, and surrounded by a moat 30 feet w,de and 35 feet 

umversally ^^"''"^ f ^ f '"^ /"^ "° w thin thi fort f.ed enclosure that most of the famous structures, built by the Moguls at Agra, are located. Among them is the "Pearl Mosque," which is 
deep and by walls '°^'''"'^'f^^^^^ ever reared by man. It was begun in ,648 and finished in .655. The exterior is of red sandstone, but its courtyard, which is no 

unquestionably one of th "^° W "u, marb Irom its pavement to the summit of its snow-white domes. In the center is a marble basin, 38 feet square, designed for ablutions. Around ,t 
less than 55 fee squa.e, ■ sent ely hned ^^'^^ is an inscription consisting of letters of black marble inlaid into the white It declares that this charming mosque may be likened to a precous 
Z:^:^:e'^o:^^\j'^^n:^^:Z^tt:L ,..Je. B^UovneL said of this mosque, •■ This spotless sanctuary, showing such a pure spirit of adoration, made me, a Chnst.an, feel 
Tur^bled when fconsidered fhat no architect of our religion ha<' ^ver been able to produce anything equal to this temple of Allah." 

407 




H .f Hin.mn towns Thirteen hundred famUies of Brahmin priests are estabHshed here and form a population by themselves. Through this 
NASSICK, INDIA.-Nassick is one of the most ^^^ ^ °' ""fj°;°^"^,3 ;{' f ^U noble Hindoo families keep special "family priests" here to perform devotions for the household and to represent 
city flows the sacred river, Godavan, second m sanctity on y to th^O^^^^^ one displayed in this illustration, and in their vicinity maybe sometimes seen Irundreds of men 

them, as it were, continually at the sacred shrines. The river is lined « '" ™">' " P temples are little booths, where idols are sold. One cannot travel anywhere in India without 

women and children bathing in the hallowed waters of he Godavar . '" f !,P °"™ ^^"JJ^'^'t ™ idols shrines, pilgrims, sacred streams, religious festivals attended by hundreds of 

perceiving the tremenduous influence which its -™d - ^^^ ;- J^ ^ " \° ^i^ Some t::l:'the°e' are actuaUy'sacred to animals, for in the eyes of the Hindoos all life is sacred 
thousands of people, all these '-P«^V7t'ror to kiirlenrects and reptiles. There is, not far from Nassick, a Hospital for Animals, where sick or wounded dogs, cajs, rabbits -on^fys and 
and it seemsto many of them a crinrie to '"-'; ' "V^ '^^^^ "f it be superstition which prompts such treatment of those poor, dumb creatures, a little of it m the Occident would do no 

birds are protected and even carefully nursed until tney rcLuvci u 
harm. 409 




.. ,. ■ , .i„„ -itv It h-is been seven times destroyed and seven times rebuilt, and its colossal ruins cover an enormous 

JUMMA MUSJID. DELHI, INDiA.-Delhi is called the Rome of Ind.a. It ,s a very anc nt ^^^^^^^l^eT^Ll^^^^^^^ and temples, and telling us of war and conquest through a l.ne of 

are! Around tl,; city of to-day there lies a plain --"^ "f !" -^ l^rsoon tc^r hfcTp'i 1 of hrl Ji Empire. Though not one-tenth as large as ancient Delhi, the present cty has more 
centuries. In 1525 it came into the possession of the '^"f ' ''''"^^'J;;"/!""" „ "J/^,„ ,i,ies No less than forty mosques within its limits display to the astonished traveler the.r tap rmg marb e 
than 160,000 inhabitants. U is still one of the most '-P- -'/;•, ^^^^^^^ din trs t'at.on, viz: the Jumma Musjid. It stands upon a lofty terrace approached by stately «'8S of marble 
minaretsand domes of gold. One of the most magmfcent °< J^^^^ ^^^^ ~ ,,,„ , ^.^ble fountain for ablution and surrounded by cloisters. Th,s Mosque was bu.lt m '658, and .t 




GOVERNMENT HOUSE CALCUTTA INDIA —Calcutta is the capital of British India, and the Government house, the residence of the Queen's Viceroy there, is a most imposing structure. It is ot 
great size and is built around a spacious and beautiful garden. But its massive walls remind us that it could be utilized as a fortress, did necessity require. From this Government building an 
immense esplanade called the Maidan, extends for two or three miles along the river, forming not merely a grand parade-ground for military displays, but a delightful promenade for all foreign 
residents in the cool of the evening when the sun. the tyrant of the day. has disappeared, and its terrific heat has been succeeded by comparative coolness. The climate of Calcutta is sotrymg that 
for nearly half the year the Viceroy and as many of his officials as can escape. leave this Government house and flee to the first range of the Himalayas, twelve hundred miles awayl For m the hot 
season in Calcutta the mercury sometimes rises to 120 degrees in the shade, and to 170 degrees in the sunl Most English residents in India have to send their children home when they are five or six 
years old as bv that time they usually begin to droop and pine away. Even removing them to the mountains then has no efl^ect. Nothing but a return to England will save them. This city of nearly 
a million inhabitants presents of coui.e the widest extremes of wealth and poverty; for nowhere is such a difference more marked than in half-civihzed lands. It is not merely the Enghsh. with their 
brilliant uniforms and carriages, who stand in striking contrast here to the wretched natives, but Indian Princes themselves still live in something of their former extravagance, which hints to us still 
of Oriental luxury. 




NATivP vii I APF NFAR CALCUTTA INDIA —How many people in America realize that India is l600 miles wide, and lias 240,000.000 inhabitants, who speak thirty different lan^ua^es. which vary 
r h VfhpHiffPrPnt tongues of Europe^ Life for most of these natives is reduced to its lowest terms. Three yards of cotton cloth furnish their dress, a little rice their food, and fifty cents a 
as mucn as me umere g ,,,nnort a familyl It would seem as if Nature invented means to cut down this enormous population. Occasionally famines sweep away thousands at a time, 

week the.r probable mcome on ^^.ch to sup^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ y^^^^^^^ ,^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ snake-bites have been recorded in India. One tiger in India was known to have killed no 

t^holeraand other P"^*'"""' 'r^^^^ life increases rather than decreases there, notwithstanding these appalling scourges. These natives are not black like Africans, nor red like the American Indians. 
persons before it was shot! twt ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ dwellings are better off than thousands of their fellows; for in many places men, women and children may be seen sleeping 

They are pure ^f ^i" of a dark bo " ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^_^_^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^_^^ ^^ ^^^ population of India is disheartening. 

m the streets and on the '''''''I'y '^^^^^^^^^^ the subject. There is no doubt of the ancient grandeur and civilization of India, and of the vast debt we owe her for her noble Sanscrit language, 

415 




CLIVE STREET CALCUTTA —This street in India's ereat oolitical and commercial capital is named after Lord Clive. who played such a prominent part in the subjuj^ation of India and m the 
establishment here of English power. Thanks to such men as Clive. backed by the boundless wealth of England and her gallant army. Her Majesty, Victoria, as the "Empress of India," now rules 
this gigantic land from sea to sea Whatever the world may think of her right to do so. it must acknowledge that she does it well, and that the present condition of India is vastly better than when 
under the domination of the old native tyrants of the country. For European civilization is immeasurably to be preferred to Asiatic despotism, relieved as the latter was m India by some attractive 
features This broad and shadeless street seems unsuited to a climate so unbearably hot, and to a sun so deadly, as those of Calcutta. But at least the heads of most of the people are protected t>y 
white turbans their bodies even are robed in white, and the tops of the carriages are painted white in order not to attract any more than is necessary the fierce solar rays. Some buildings thoroughly 
European in appearance are seen in almost every prominent street in Calcutta, but the influence of Hindooism makes itself felt here despite all these English surroundings, and bodies are cremated 
and thrown into the river at Calcutta almost as freely as at Benares, and temples here are visited by troops of pilgrims. One of the deities worshipped in this city is the Goddess Kali, who has in 
fact given her name to the place itself; for Calcutta is only an English pronunciation of Kali-ghat. 

417 




TEMPLE OF THE 500 GODS, CANTON. CHINA.— One of the most celebrated of all the hundreds of temples and pagodas in the city of Canton is that which contains 500 gilded statues of deified 
warriors, heroes, sages and apostles of the Buddhist faith. It looks more like a gallery of sculpture than a place of worship, with these long lines of solemn looking figures staring each other out of 
countenance century after centuryl They certainly are not praiseworthy as works ot art, yet incense is burnt constantly before some of them, and the air is heavy with that pungent perfume. China 
is a land of shrines and prayers. Even the shops of Canton have little altars at their doors dedicated to the God of Wealth, that deity who is in one way or another universally worshipped in all 
countries! In America it goes under the name of the Almighty Dollar. The Chinese deities, it would seem, are largely composed of departed and distinguished ancestors. Reverence for parents is 
one of the important precepts in China, and the result is that lilial reverence and obedience are characteristic traits of the Chinese. These sentiments extend even beyond the grave, so that when 
parents die, prayers are addressed to them as to guardian spirits. Benevolent societies are therefore numerous in Chinese cities, so that poor or suffering relatives may be tenderly cared for. Thus 
orphan asylums, homes for the aged and infirm, and public hospitals exist here, not as copies of European institutions, but having been maintained in China for many centuries. Some good features 
can be found in almost every race and every religion, however widely they may differ from our own. 

419 




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HECTAGONAL TEMPLE KIOTO JAPAN.-Kioto is called the City of Temples, and it well deserves the name. The traveler sees so many, that it ,s ever after d.fficul for h,m to recall theni 
separately They aVe of various hapes and sizes. One of them alone contains 30,000 idols, most of which are rude images carved out of solid blocks of wood and heav.ly g.lded. They are about 
l^e feet hil and ome posse s many arms and hands, symbols of power and plenty. In many of these temples priests are continually writing on shps of paper the prayers of worsh.ppers, who 
three fee h th, and .°™^ P°""' ";;"; sanctuary. In manv Jananese shrines there are gongs, which are beaten vigorously by any one who comes to pray, to arouse the attention 

request tha these pet.tc^as be pmned or paste^^ . ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ seen there, and they are rung at stated intervals by the priests, with a 

sTr ng\,y beautifu eff°ecf So ha to 'day' a population of more than 300,000 ; but it 'no longer Ls the proud position it once occupied, when it wasthe capital of Japan and the sole residence of 
rmikLos Mprfs^^^^^^ transferred to Tokio, and there is now the palace ot the Japanese Emperor. Perhaps no country in the world otTers so much to mterest 

he M.kados f' P"""' """\° ^ Intelligent, progressive, assimilating with wonderful rapidity the ideas, customs and inventions of European and American civ.hzat.on, the Japanese 

are nev"erthdess a rt: ha'vlng a National rLord an " a regular succession of Mikados for more than 2,000 years. In them the past and present strangely meet and blend. The interesting question is, 

out of this union what future is to be evolved? 

425 




it has made up for lost time by assuming many European ^ ""f ^ ' dec ones no on^ x i e w^^^^^^^^^^ here T am^cars and omnibuses may be also seen, although the vehicle most used is the 
the hair have also been very extensively adopted. Electr.c hg Its and telephones no ""f^ "f^ J""^^ ,^^ ^^^^^ ,„d plays the part of a horse for as many hours and for as long a distance 

Jinrikisha. specimens of which are visible at the left "'/^.s .llustrat.on. In ' ^^ "^ , ^^^^j^^^f^^'^^^^^^^^^^ and a half millions. The ■■sights" of such a city, as may 

as the traveler can bear to be drawn by him. The s.ze of Tok.o ,s ™°""°"^'^ "°;;;^^"'"^^ Pa.ace, the imperial University, the Arsenal, the famous Ueno Park, the 

be easily imagined, cannot be exhausted so soon as ''^\-i'^'-^\:^^^;^J^ZT.Tl^^^^^ 'urnish material for many days of constant pleasure and employment 

admirable Museum of Japanese Antiquities, these together w.th '^^f^-'lint without daneerbv foot passengers and vehicles. Every omnibus and coaches of all descriptions carry horns. 
There are few Sidewalks in Tokio, the streets the™^ ^-?,::^,Vc::lf;graLrfrCntly tr;ia?e h^^^^^ are n^ade of wood. Earthquakes are of common occurrence, 

which the drivers blow to warn people to clear ine way. 
and have occasioned at times enormous loss of life. ^27 




mention of Yezo is made in the early l>istor,cal ''''''''' "[^"l''^^'"-; ; , ,^i„, ^^■„,^,^ especially in the amount of hair which grows on the bod.es o t„ese awe . ,...,. —-■■•: 

Of primeval forests, rarely penetrated except bv ' "^^^ " f/,"^ °Ve :een c r"ain points of Yezo and the Main Island of Japan. This northern reg.on -- -'^-™ "xhe 1y zl M en" in the 

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into a higher order of humanity. But like tne ino 

soon be peopled only by their conquerors. 433 




f.,a port tombed .1 t,!lom.r.<oi"I I'"" ""T';'; " S, h, «o.. .l.«, til, of 70,000 inl.:.Hl.iit!. -itl ItospiHI.. p.Uit litt.ti.s, in.Komt, tl.ltt. , °» " ™" ■""°" „;, a„„o„m,»l. 

..t, „. h.,d„ „.,i... .i..t.i.t;. »»».«>■.; •; - , ", to , "r S. oi' ».. z,.,.„4 i, ».*<t to t.,t„,..kB, .".'i """""f ;" ™' X£ o .<".." ." Sn*:" ,.», o! „..> 

=rr:s;xroo:;'";t,,.oi.™ 

which sometimes has a f ^^J^^° ['""" ^^^'^ -^^ extensive seaboard, therefore. U closely resembles the mother country, 
to that of England, Scotland and Irelana. rroni 

435 




always a multitude of steamers, iron-clads. sailing f 'P^ ^^J™ ^^^J ' ^ 'riorsweep o iuays is termed about the /urving shore by an immense sea-waii. Near the M°le are he extens.ve 
with excellent hydraulic machmery for unloadmg sh.ps '™"; ^°^^^'^,;;;^'';;,^'' J°;^,„^17i„,,„'d up the hills, terrace above terrace. Valparaiso is considered to be ,u,te an Enfsl, town A tall 
buildings of the Custom-house and bonded warehouses From '^ '^^ ^°^, ;;,^'^/^;,i„^,„ „p„„ ^,, ,t,eets. A number of its inns have such emphatically Br.fsh names as The 0"""^ A^"« 
events English ships are always floating ir .ts bay The English tongue '!, ^ ^"^ ™"; ^ ^ , „^^ ^een so lavishly invested in Ch,li,that European agents must come here to look alter 

and the "Red Lion." German influence is also felt very strongly here The t r ut h s that E" "Pe^" ^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ Foreigners, 

it. Busy with the development of our own enormously productive ^"""'^^^ h coa t o a^^^^^ ca" be To id colonies of English and Germans, managing great business enterprises and accumulating 
howeve^, have long since discovered ^^:^^:-J^::::^C^:X^::i:Z:l^'sZL Some of them have made enormous fortunes in mining, but as a rule they are content with 
r::s7l.f"^f 'p~; a^TatCf^eign ^a^i^^^^^^ enterprise to open up and utUi.e the natural riches of their country. 



A 




^;;;;:^;; ;;;,;;;;d-e;^g;nt theatre which has a regular opera seasc^ 

T:::irT::!^:y ^l^'^Z ':J^^^^ rr^J':::!:^^^^^ .. .... ., .o,.. .o. . .. ... .. o„e senator .r ever.three .eput.es. The .,.c.a> power . 

vested in magistrates appointed by the President. ^^^ 




PASS OP USP.L.ATA, ANo.s MouNTA.Ks^souTH AM.^cA.^ c^ss - ^^ ^-° ^ /^^r :::a:^.:;::^ ^n;:::::.!^ ^:';;^'^r^:^^r:i" r w^ ^:: 

rocks rise on every side and reflect tl,e sun w.th -.^f,;^ .*;'"=,^J°;;3 ° ,^,f ^^ „^ '"".Z' J° c iff s succeed ch other mile after mile in dreary monotony. From time to time one comes upon a 
the throat and inflames the eyes untfl one suffers mtensely. Scanty shrubs cactus ana senie ^""y""" eneineering skill. To these camps everything has to be carriea on mule-hack, 

camp of engineers engaged in surveying a route for the ra.lway, * -' '^ ^ ^^P ^f^^*^ "^^j "^^^^^ „to Chili, passing the summit of the Andes in underground cables, 

even the fodder for the animals themselves. Over this fearful route, however, the telegraph wre goes * °7'_^\3™"' ^"^^^^^^ ' .^ j, breathing, owing to the rarefaction of the air. Persons 

At the highest part of the pass, nearly ,3,000 ^"t above th^= level o the se^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^of^inf r'ev^^l herr^at min an/mules have been blown down precipices 

;:rt?ron°"Bvra?^roo: t;rwi:Tbt::s^::t\Te:r:i:^^ ::re:er:rirsafer to cro. th^ crest^n the ear, mommg. But to compensate one for these hardsh.ps the scenery 

is frequent grand beyond description, and the descent into the valleys of Chili is enchantingiy beautiful. 

443 




.^,,.r^,-,u .n,,TH AMFRICA -TIns most famous of all the mountain peaks of the Andes, 21,400 teet in height, was for many years supposed to be, not only the highest umm.t 
MT. CHIMBORAZO, ECUADOR, iOUTH A/'ER'"./';''°f^™° ',,,,, ,,„el and more accurate measurements, it is now found to rank only as the sixth in height. The Nevado de Sorata, now 
of the Andes, but the highest m the world. B"t aft" years of "dv^tu-^i^ ^^^^ ,,^^^^^_^^ ^^^^ , ,,^^ j,^„ „3 „„„ ,,„„,, ^j,,,. Mt. Chimborazo .s surrounded 

acknowledged to be the ^°^^-^\'^.^"'^''^l^^^\°2^^^^ enormous altitude can'on.y be fully realized when viewed from a great distance. Humboldt and his party o 

by high table lands, above which it nses only ^.OOOJ^^ ;^ ° f ^^'"P , j,^,^ ^^j,, ,„ t„,i, ,t,,„„„,3 exertions they only succeeded in reaching a point about 2,000 feet short o its 

explorers made most extraordinary efforts n '^"^ '° J^^^J \;;^°*;i ° ^^ „{ ",„,„ „,,„ altitudes, breathing with difiiculty and the blood bursting from their eyes and lips. They found themselves 
summit. The whole party suffered '"^^^f ° "^^'^ ^^^'^ " °;; ^t^ 1 They made unusual efforts to gain a still higher point, but found themselves entirely blocked by an utterly impassable 
surrounded by thick fogs and in an atmosphere f '''^™°f\ '"' f' ^°^^ t„ reluctantly commence the descent. In 1831 an attempt was made by another traveler, Bonsmgault, to reach 

chasm, and in this vast field of unfathomed -^^ """^^^^^^^^^ Zf 2 „ fee M e han Humboldt had done, viz: an altitude of .9,689 feet, but its snow-crowned summit still defies the 

the summit, but he also failed, although he ^" ^^'^f; ^^^ "^, 3' peak from the Pacific coast is peculiarly grand, and although 200 miles distant, it is distinctly defined against the blue sky. 
efforts of man and remains unconquered. l ne appear^nLc u h. 

445 




HARPi.R uh kU) lANElKO BRAZIL -Who hus not heard of the glorious harbor of Rio Janeiro, the principal sea-port of South America? No matter how experienced the traveler may he who 
enters^iscor^modiousnd 'lovely sheet of water, he at once acknowledges that it is unsurpassed by any harbor in the world. The entrance to it is between two steep hills, each more than 1,000 
eetrhght The space be ween them is only .,700 yards wide, and at the base of each hill is a fort. Beyond that narrow portal, however, there are fifty square nules of anchorage^ Th,s bay 
feet m height. 1 he space Duve „„„ .^d extends inland from the ocean for sixteen miles. Its coast line, without counting minor irregularities, measures sixty miles. Moreover, all 

has a width "J'"^ J™"^ '*° J Picturesque mountains and beautifully rounded hills of varied forms, largely covered with luxuriant vegetation. Upon the bosom of this bay of Rio are many 
around this '^"'^■'"f f, '""^^"^ "^^^ "J'^,^;' ; "„i,es long and have a population of 2500 people, down to little islets having only a few dwellings. Near the city itself there are extensive dock- 
islands, varying m ^ " J™- °™^ rusers»vt-el built. Here, too, is the Naval Arsenal of the country. As might be supposed, the coasting and foreign trading here is enormous, and the harbor 
orR;;:iwi;s7resents a very timated^^^^^^ pleasing appearance, for merchant vessels, steamers and war-ships from all the quarters of the globe are often congregated here in great numbers. 

447 




^a^rv:;:^H^t o^op^a. fruit abounds, and flowers of rare ^^f^ tm t^^r w.. a a^^^^^^ numerous fountains of the city by 

reifat;:::i sprin/of Clear coM water T.is is ^^^^^J^:^^^ Z^::^n:L::t^Z:on two\.eat tiers oLrc.es. If a citizen of Rio were as.ed which he considered 
means of an aqueduct, built more than a century ago ^^ '^ uxhe view of our incomparable Bay, and our magnificent Botanical Gardens." 

the two most charming features of his city, he would protiaoiy re, y. 

449 




principal export of La Guaira is coffee, and in respect to gua? y ^^^ 





. . H , . .Hnn hlpwd with a chirminir climate and delii;htful scenery. But, as in many other portions of the world, man has tou 
HAVANA, CUBA.-Cuba ,s naturally a wonderfully *"'' ""^, ^J^^^'^ ; ;^'7;j ,,,„„s, revolutions, and conflicts with Spanish soldiery have ruined many miles of territory once covered with large 
frequently undone and spoiled all that indulgent Nature has ^"'^'^^ ''"';„;";„,,,,.,;,„; ,nder more favorable conditions can be easily imagined, when we consider ,ts own beautiful situation and 
estates of sugar, coffee and tobacco. What the c.ty of f^J^ "f ™"^^ 3,„t ^j^amers now bring the traveler from New York in four days to this lovely bay on which H,avana ,s located, 
the marvelously rich country behind it, of which .t .s the natur 1 g ew y bxcellent ^„„^i^,\,, ^n,„ crowded with foreigners. The view across the harbor from some of the upper 

So popular has this trip become that good hotels have been ^^f'^^^^^l^^^^^^^ rstoms. language and amusements. Bull Fights are as much the delight of the Habaneros as of the 

rooms of these hotels is of great beauty. Of course "-^"f ';;;;;f;; 'f„^P's"t to w n new laurels in C^ba, as European Opera Singers cross the Atlantic to New York. As ■swell known.mCuba 
inhabitants of Madrid and Seville; and famous Matador come over here *™";Spam to ^^^^^^^^__ ,^ ^^^^^^ ^_^_ ^^.^^^ ^^ ^^^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^_.^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ,.,^^^^^„, „,,^ ,. 

are produced the finest specimens of the tobacco plant which the word Knowb, inu s 




•====^ ^ , ^ . .^ .. c,thedr-x\ towers is beautiful. You then percene af once the situation of this Capital of the Montezumas It lies almost 

PANORAMA OF THE CITY OF MEXICO.-The vie^v-f Mex,- om h ^^f f^^ '"-^^ ;^^„,,, j^ , ,„, „f ,,, ,/kes, which have often been a source of peril to the city on account of d.sas trou 
in the centre of a valley encircled by mountains. In the *^f ""'^f;™^ ''',, ' he city, which was 400 years ago an open space in front of the Aztec temple. On one s.de of th,s ex ends he 
inundations. Immediately below the towers is the P''-]^;y^''^'llZl^^^^^^^ Since Ihat time it has been the headquarters of the various governments, w,th w .ch P°°;«;';'"> f^'."^ 

enormous National Palace, built by the Spaniards .™° 'l'^" '*° ^"f;^^ il„'\nd Carlotta, ill-fated victims of Napoleon's dream of empire in this western world; there rus.den D'^^ has h, 
blessed or cursed There lived, for example, during their b^ff reign, Max miUan ana ^ enormous structure occupies rose formerly the Imperial residence o 

offic a?rooms to day' and within its large enclosure are the National «"/ " "f '-^j;;," thf me when Cortez captured and destroyed it, it was a kind of Venice. The Indians, for purposes of 
theTzterSovereigns. In looking down thus on the CJ^V ° J^^se e by" " s Zose liquid streets so charmingly described by Prescott in his story of the ^^"^^^f-'^^ll^l^^^^^^^^^^ 
defense, had chosen a lake for their abode, and M"'<^°/ ^^e ^t '" d led up and disappeared. On a clear day from the Cathedral towers the grand volcanoes, Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl, are 
filled up most of the canals, and in process of time 'he lake us 
distinctly visible, rising like cones of frosted silver on the sky. ^^^ 




THE CATHEDRAL CITY OF MEXICO.— The Mexican Cathedral is the most imposing structure in the city. Its corner stone was laid in 1573. and the building covers the site of the great Aztec 

._ _!. J i.i.„ ,^^■.^^^ ^f *-Uj Art .-..-ifjiii line in iOi Tlno jnti)-ki r-r\st nf Hi is i-iHiAHt-nl wrA^ riHniit t^wn millinn flnll^r<;. 

temt 



• CATHEDRAL CITY OF MEXICO. The Mexican Catnearai is ine mosi imposing ^trutiure m tiic t.iiy. iii Lunier muuc wa^ laiu m u/j. ^uu iwt Lun^ms •-w-.-.j w.^ ^..^ w. ...v. f,.^^. ..^.v.^ 

Die destroyed by the Spaniards when they captured the capital of the Montezumas in I52i. The entire cost of this cathedral was about two million dollars. The great bell, nineteen feet high, in 
one of its towers alone cost ten thousand dollars. It is built of stone and its dimensions are impressive, the length of the editice being nearly four hundred feet and the towers two hundred and 
three feet in altitude The interior though grand from its magnitude, is somewhat disappointing. Its wooden floor is hardly worthy of so prominent a shrine as this, and the decorations are 
neither tisteful nor comparable to those of the notable European cathedrals. An enormous amount of money, however, has been expended here. Its high altar is said to have once been the richest 
in the world but has been repeatedly plundered of its treasures. A balustrade of great value still surrounds the choir. Some of its chapels have fine paintings, but one can hardly appreciate them 
n he Zli^ht which only partially reverls their beauty. Here are buried many of the old Spanish Viceroys, as well as the first Emperor of Mexico, Augustin Iturbide. In front of this cathedral is 
the Plaza Mayor, th. great square of the city, which always presents a very animated appearance, and quite near the sacred edifice is the attractive flower-markets where Indian women offer superb 
bouquets of flowers for a mere trifle. 




GUANAJUATO, MEXICO- Guanajuato is a capital of a State ot the same name, 238 miles north of the City of Mexico. Its name is said to have been derived from an Indian word meaning "The 

Hill of the Frog," and was so called because a huge stone in the shape of a frog was once worshiped here. At present the divinity most worshiped at Guanajuato is the Almighty Dollar, though 
it must be said that Guanajuato is not unique in this particular! It is a marvelously productive mining town. One of its mines is said to have produced $800,000,000! Its annual silver product now 
is about $6,000,000. It is built in a deep and narrow ravine, along the sides of which the buildings cling in such odd positions that an earthquake shock would apparently send them all tumbling down 
in great confusion. Silver was discovered here in iS48, and since then the tawny, desolate mountains which enclose this town have proved a treasure-house of wealth. One sees, however, few 
indications of such riches in the town itself. The streets are narrow, roughly paved and filled with disagreeable odors. The buildings, with the exception of a few houses in the upper part of the 
city, are as plain as though the adjacent hills were mounds of sand, instead of silver, and the poor Indians look as usual ragged and wretched. Great floods sometimes occur here occasioning loss of 
life and property. Some handsome cliurches, the Citadel, the Mint, and the Silver Mills, reward the traveler's visit to this place, aside from the picturesque and medieval features of the town itself. 

459 




STRAW COTTAGES, SALAMANCA. MEXICO.- 

sorts of refuse, such as discarded railroad ties, 

A blanket, usually of a brilliant color, is ^^ ^-^^Z':^^^^^^^ .^^^r^^^^^ night comes he will change his position ^^ f^|-;'-';^;;;;;,;;V";;d;:e; H^e that of a well-meaning 

cotton, he leans against a wall for hours. »ook,ng 1 ke ^^oM ^^^^^ J^^^.^^^ ,, ,^ ,,,^ ,f their condition. Many of them certa n y ^^/^ ^^^ ^P^^^, ,^\^^,,^ by thousands and seized upon their 

capacity ol the natives under favorable cond.t.ons, .t should ^^^ 




the ground. The water supply of the cty .s ^^"'ly'f"'^^ ^^feet above the level of the sea. It was here that the shor -hved ^^ "J' W"™''2;ro„ nd Mehia. Upon that hill are now 

towns, containing nearly 50,000 ^n^abitan s and ,t ate about^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ government together w,h -;;;°f Xronl^ "eyears before, had brought him and his 

a little eminence near the town, on the l9th »' J""= ' " ,'' Maximilian's body was subsequently sent back to Europe m *" ^'^'PJ^" ^ j/jg^g (^e treaty of peace between Mex.co and 

three columns marking the places where the '^"^l^T^nTrLVt^eMk and with high hopes of founding here a new and glonous dynasty. Here also 

beautiful young wife, "Poor Carlotta, out to Mex.co, m p 

the United states was ratified. 463 




Hn„^P. np PAP, .AMFNT OTTAWA CANADA -In 1^58 Oueen Victoria selected Ottawa as the seat of the Canadian Government, and it is consequently the capital of the Dominion of Canada. It 

Ottawa River. Covering an area of nearly four acres, *' 7^;°f Jf ^ °J,™'f;,^^°^^ '^l,™ /nd rch s of tl,e lejslative chambers are of marble. The roofs are rendered attractive by means of 
is ■ta.ian-Gothic^ The arc>,es o f^^ °- ^^^ -;'^''- "^^^^^ : t^ ^ 't 1 swoJk.'" The Interior recora.i^ns of this edifice are also very rich and tasteful, including the Viceregal canopy and 
variously colored slates, and the towers and P'^m^^s are ^°°™' „kenesses of George 111 and Oueen Charlotte by Sir Joshua-Reynolds. The Library of the Government is a very handsome and 
throne a ""^^'"-^^/^tu:: re'^^nd^orainTm re n'l,o"of I mer^OttawT hfs 1" a^ddi.t t"o Le HoJs of Parliament! a fine Cathedral with lofty spires and an imposing Catholic 
valuable portion of this f "'^'"'^'^' ""^ /°"f "" " t,emitv of the town are the famous Chaudiere Falls, in which the Ottawa River plungesover a rough precipice 40 feet high and 200 feet wide. The 
"r^'rerf :: I'^ZnTi JLknLrdrp\r?.™ding ime has not found bottom even with a length of 300 feet It may perhaps be added that down the Ottawa River, which is the 
chief tributary of tie St Lawrence, a steamboat makes a daily trip to Montreal (lOl miles away) in about ten hours, a pleasant rehef from railroad travel. 

465 




Mo^TRBA. ANo MOUNT Kov.u cA..u._Mo...auHe ^7"-^-"--- ----:;::- -^-re;^::.;:^^ ^ '^ o:t^:^ ^le ^i^^s^^^T;^:::; "I 

Quebec. Its population is about K.,000, ot whom 78,000 are ot French descent. O™ '^ F ^n ^ ' ^^ ,^^ ,^„,. ,, ,^, „„3,i,e and frequently imposing, and ,ts streets are hnely 

Roman Catholics. The city is built upon a series of terraces wh.ch ^f'fliy°^'J.^lf^['^^^^^^^^ Since then, though its history has been comparatively uneventtu , ,t has made 

paved. It was not until 1750 that the French power m Canada w,.s tmally '^';''°''f^^'''^l'^"'^^^^^^^^ the variety here of different races, languages and religions g.ves to the p ace a 

great material progress in all directions. Still it is not by any means a '-^"'''^"^"I'fj.^^l^^^^ On 'of fh principal features of Montreal is a long wooded ridge behind the cty, Sofeet 

1$ a lake of wonderful clearness, which supplies holy water tor the citys catholic churches. ^^^ 



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..THF THniKANn ISLANDS" ST LAWRENCE RIVER, CANADA.-Usually a name like mat of "The Thousand Islands ■' is more poetical than truthful, and we smilingly agree to pardon the poetic 
iJense of exaemation But'in this portion of the St. Lawrence River the number of islands actually is nearer 1500 than 1000.- Their nearness, beauty and variety amaze the traveler. Commencmff 
wirwolf island about 30 miles in length, they gradually increase in number, although diminishing in size, forming innumerable combmations, floating apparently at hmes m groups or else as 
r„dWirals and caning thus ™e surface of the stream into a maze of intricate channels, which to a tourist appear bewildering. It is a charming day that the traveler spends m sa.hng m and out 
»lon. these ^auid labyr nths Some of the •• thousand isles " are uninhabited, others are owned by private individvals and hold embosomed in delightful fohage expensive and P.cturesque v> las, 
Those LLfspeld he weeks and months in summer. The names bestowed upon these fair retreats indicate the opimons entertained of them by their enthusiastic occupants. Thus he three 
inlands viable in'hisillustrltion are respectively called " Nobby," " Castle Rest " and " Welcome," Hotels are also found at frequent points. Boating and fishing are the principal amusements of the 
" Islanders," and these are always close at hand. 




THE THREE SISTERS CANMORE, CANADIAN PACIFIC R. R.— The scenery along the Canadian Pacilic R. R. is, at certain points, magnificent. Snow-covered mountains, deep ravines, sparkhng 
cascades and lovely valleys succeed each other, mile after mile and hour after hour, in the neighborhood of the Rocky Mountains. At Canmore an observation car is attached to every train to permit 
the passengers to enjoy an unbroken view of the varied and imposing panorama visible on either side. A prominent feature of it is that group of mountains known as the Three Sisters, beyond 
which other peaks arise like suitors, to attend them. It is impossible for photographic art to give any adequate idea of the scenery on this splendid route to the Paciilc. Sometimes so narrow is 
the gorge that no possible outlet is discernible ; but in a momeni more an unexpected turn or gloomy tunnel transports the long-drawn, swiftly moving retinue of human lives into some new and 
still more glorious surroundings From valleys beautifully fresh and green rise countless mountains 9,000 or tO.OOO feet in height, their sides and summits silver-white with snow, roUing away, one 
Deak bevond another to meet the sky, as crested waves might look to occupants of a little boat tossed in the hollows of a stormy sea. The forms of these wild mountains also offer infinite variety; 
being at times pyramidal, at other times resembling castles with projecting towers, or huge cathedrals with their flying buttresses and slender spires; while glittering glaciers, too, occasionally reveal 

themselves like jeweled highways of the Gods. 

471 




MUIR GLACIER ALASK4.-There is probably no natural featurein the world more awe-inspiring and sublime than the stupendous Muir Glacier in Glacier Bay, Alaska in the rear o nt aremountnms 
Ts OOO^nd S ooi (eet high. Into the bay itseU advances w,th a glittering front 300 feet high and over a mile in length a frozen r.ver. moving steadily and res.stlessly at the rate o. fo|tHour a a d y 
duZ the summer monthsl Further inland it has a width of three miles, and is fed by fifteen minor glaciersL Excursion steamers approach ,t as closely as safety perm, s. and "ere flll^ w.tb 
emZn too pro ound for words, one gazes on this slowly moving, solidified Niagara, from which huge icebergs fall at frequent intervals with explosions resembhng the discharges of a cannon Th. 
n^so these falling monsters is well-nigh incessant, and interspersed w.th these reports one hears wierd sounds within the glacier itself caused by the terrible grindmg and compression of m,ll ons 
"rtons of "e be weLthfm^hty cliffs through which this frozen torrent moves out towards the sea. In front of it is always a large fleet of icebergs, born that day trom the P;-"'--;- -/ - - 
ouUn snlendor 'neath a brilliant sun or else in sullen majesty beneath the clouds, to float thenceforth upon the ocean, till they lose themselves forever m .ts warm embrace Mo over, th s glac.e 
extend o on y3rieeti^^"l« above.^. waves, but 400 feet belo^u them! Think of the awful power represented here, forever pushing outward from the mountamous mter.or t'-J'S-'-^^dg' 
No words can painMhe glories of this wall of ice when it is illumined by the radiance of the setting sun. It then appears the birthplace of innumerable rambows or a mountam of pr.sms. Th. 
name of this great marvel of the world was bestowed upon it in honor ot Professor Muir, the State Geologist of California. 

473 




TOTEM POLBS, ALASKA._,„ front of t.e .u.e cab.s of A.as.a ,nd.ns Hse frequent,, .aU, "'^-^ ^^^^'X t ll^lh^v^^'y J^ X^^'^t^ ^S^^ ^rt ■:^'c2r::r^"r 
are usually carved into grotesque resemblances to human faces or else to forms of bears wolves b.rds and «^f ' ^ J"^' ^^'^^ ^'^^^^^^^^^^^ ' heVamily or tribe to which the dead may have belonged, 
deeds in the lives of those beside whose homes or graves they are erected. ^f^^^^'^^Jlf^^^^^ t evoked o"e shot a bear, and probably under some peculiar 

One totem pole, for example, may represent a bear and a gun, rude symbols doubtless of the fjict that the ™" !' "'^ 7™°^^^^ ^jt,i„ ,„ „ti,ude of sixty, eighty and even one hundred 

circumstances deemed worthy of commemoration. Most of them are three or four feet m d'ameter and about '^ ''/_,^ ^ « ; j ""f^^-^^^^^a deg e that they refuse to part with them at any price, 
feet. The height of the pole is supposed to have denoted the rank of the deceased. Some of the nafve ^f '"? J"^ ^"/f^";/^';" ^,'° ",'„t,d /^.eat deal of time and labor for the native sculptor. 

i:=:r:T.::::j^ "^i :-:ir ;t;^e^:^;ci::re^:r :^:^^:z^. ^^:::i^^J:^rZ^:. o,l..s ..o.., ..o... . .,, a„ expenditure o. 

several hundred dollars. 




.H.C^PnOUW^SH,.C^^^?r^^^^^^An,e.an .s reason, .ep^^n^o....^..^ --- --- ^ i;:^:;::^^^ 



cornerstone oi u\c LcuLiai t-^.^ v^ - j -- - ,„„rthw nf th? Nitinn which it s des ffiiea to serve, me view irum mc uai.-wii.^o v^. ...- — ^' — - - ,„',.. 

H,. an. .eft o. t.e ™a..«cent -^e ,vean ,^<. ^ X^ .r::^:" ^J^ra^ -«:t:! the MHs ^ V.,n,a, On t„e lawn in .ont >s a.enou,.s cCossa. statue o< Was.nn^on. 
Tpon" the%:^es;:roT :Mcra;r the wen4:::wn aid truthful words, " First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of h.s countrymen.. 



477 




THE WHITE HOUSE WASHINGTON, D. C.-The real name of this building is the Executive Mansion, but it is almost universally called the White House It is a plain but somewhat ■mposms 
THE WHITE HOUSE WAbMmumiN u l. ^^__ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^.^ ^^l^^^^^_, ^^^^.^j^ ^ j,^^ ,^jjy p^^.^^^^ ^j j,,^ ^,,„„ entrance. The llrst 

ed,hcebudt of frees one p,„t«l "^^^ .^^;^';,°:^^J,*73,;'°"^i^„^t ^i as been the abode of every Chief Magistrate of the Repubhc. The grounds adjoining and belonging to the Wh,te House 
Executive vvho occupied ''' ^;^^\7"'^\™' ^'^^^ .^^0^.6. as the private garden of the President, The latter are not, however, sufficiently walled off to afford the Executive or h.s family any 

comprise ^^out seventy-flv cres, tvem o^^^ P g^^^ _^^^^ _^^^^^ „ ^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^^ ,^_,^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^.^^ ^,,,3 ,^ ^,„,„^ „p,„ ,„„ public da, y 

real privacy within '^-ji its Tl e P"nc, al ^P^rtme ^^^_^^ ^_^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^.^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^_ ^^^ ^.^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ „, , 

hiTorv of t"ie country so fir "the latter hL been affected by the distinguished men who have occupied in turn the Presidential chair, and no American can regard without emotion this stately 
'houeh unostentatious building, beneath whose roof have lived Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant. 

479 




has a width of 160 feet. If the ^'™^ "^.^^f. f /;™ ;,P°;\,„telUshment of American cities, and while a certam amount f. 7' ^/^/'^/^^f;,,™ ty rises, lilce a snow-covered mountain, the 
^^860 itfpClation ^ in 1^890 it was 230,392. 



481 




WASH-NGTOWSHOMB, MX. VERNON, V.HG,N,A.-A .eH.MuU.c^s.n to .e ™a.e ^^t^CH, of Was.n,^^^ '^^^^^^rtJ^ri-l r:::;::!!" "r >" ^^ U bS,:::;;:^ 
the home and the burial-place of Washington. The "Father oth.s Country came '"'° '^^ ^" °" °' f '^ " "^^^ the bH "ant orator, Edward Everett, this home of Washington together with six 
view of the river from the house is charming. Thanks to the "Lad.es' Mount Vernon As so -a o„^ , " " ', ^ "^ f, f^.^'.^^^'for um^^^ The house, which is of wood, contains some objects 

acres of adjacent territory is now the property o '^e na.on av.ng been pure d n « ^ '- ^^ ' ^/^^^ ^^^ ,,, „*„ ,,,^, ,,, ,,, ,, .hat stronghold of tyranny in France the 

^:^:n:;:"r:;fih^^^^^^^::i;::::';:::ent:^:^:s^^ 

itsTlLItrious Leader and Founder, and to remind all coming generations that this lovely hill-side of Virginia is consecrated ground. 

483 




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NEW YORK AND THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE. — "On sefait a tout avec le temps," ("One gets accustomed to everything in time,") is a true proverb. No doubt the old Egyptians hardly glanced at trietr 
gigantic Pyramids after a dozen years of familiarity with their stupendous forms. So now the people of New York and Brooklyn find nothing specially extraordinary in this great arch of steel and 
iron which unites their cities, simply because they have at last become accustomed to beholding it. It is, however, one of the marvels of the world. Each of its mighty towers rests upon a caisson 
constructed of yellow pine timber, which on the Brooklyn side is forty-five feet, and on the New York side seventy-eight feet below the surface of the water. The towers erected on these enormous 
foundations are one hundred and forty feet m height and fifty feet in width at the water line. The bridge itself is suspended from four cables of steel wire, each about sixteen inchesindiameterand 
having a deflection of one hundred and twenty-eight feet. The central span across the East River from tower to tower is i,59S feet long. The entire length of the structure is 5,989 feet. It is eighty-five 
feet wide, and contains a central promenade for foot passengers, two railroad tracks, along which trains of cable cars are run every three minutes, and two roadways for carriages. The height of the 
floor of the bridge in the centre to high-water mark is one hundred and thirty-five feet, so that navigation is not impeded. The construction of this noble specimen of engineering skill was begun in 
January i870, and was completed in May, 1883. Its cost was about fifteen millions of dollars. The fare across by car is three cents, and for foot-passengers one cent. About 125,000 people cross 

" "^"y-' ' 489 




can oe louna upon uiis LUMimti.i. .^ '^ — t,-c .^ - .- t^ > ^„ inHart^nHpnt mippnlv and even threaten nK aspect, u sianub on dcuiuc ^ i:>iaML.. a^w^. ..... 

This noble work of the French sculptor, Bartholdi, is fortunate ,n ,ts pos.t.on, "'-''/^"'"^^'^^^^"Xarm pre^^ ablet osly to her breast, the other holds aloft a blading torch. Its great 
from the city. It is made of repousse copper, and represents a female f^^gure crowned wth a d.adem. 0"/ J™ P " \'\ ^J^^^ „ ,,„ b, easily accommodated at one time. At n.ght 

height is intensified by the huge granite pedestal which is itseh .55 fee '"S '• ^ ^ a>™ ^^ ^^ °tim X o lectl^^ i^e-Lpirin effect ^ by that Titanic figure rising through the gloom 

this colossal figure seems even more imposing than by day^ Whoever has sa 1 d n ar ^ ^^1^ ^ '^ ;' ^^ ° ^^; ,,, ^^en we view it through a telescope. A few statistics may well be ment.oned 
its vast dimensions magnified by a sombre background wh.le the upl.f ed '^^l', ^ " " w th ele.tnc^t)^^ ^rk s 'oeTeet. The fore-finger of its right hand is seven feet long and over four mches 

;::- c::;:^n:::uh:=^;r 'Vi:i:h:rrt::t;r ;::::::d r ::::r :':;hr;:::«cK»,, which was p^d tor by popular subscriptions . ..... 

491 




U. THE HUDSON FROM WEST POINT, NEW VORK.-Pifty-one .Has north of New Vo^Jc City sta:K. ^e ^^^^:Z::TZ^^:'::^^^:::^':^^or:L ::;:! "u ■"« X 
founders that an exquisitely beautiful and peaceful 'ocat.on should be --re "^ h.' n° ^ "^ ^p- w c >" ' ns h re :e Hudson, winding shores, towhich history, poetry and legend give 
for warriors has been placed. The scenery on every s.de .s charming. Glor ous ndeed are the ^''^J" *"''" °";«^^ .^^^ i, ^ ,„„5t„t so„,e of pleasure and fascination. Paths of ideal 

undying interest. Blue in the sun, flecked with ligh shadows from the passing ^ °"f; ° /"^^;;,^/;;;^^/;3'j^"J^^^ d Rhenish castles, it is true, do not remind us here of feudal 

beauty wind about these hillsides, sun-sheltered by the trees ''"^ -"f "^ ^^ „7''Ze,l/paiotDurng"hewroth Revolution West Point was one of our most important military posts, 

Tr T irr r:r^irbe dLtrdt; tLTd-o: ^of /nSr:ltirthe^"a::i,11cr n-;; rept' "h^ l^d:n.l,s to-day, sha„ have commmgled With the ocean, shall have 
bLn^^ol'd to m^st'to fan a/aiLln Showers on fhe Adirondack Mountains, and once more, possibly ages hence, shall roll in splendor to the open sea, 

493 




r,:ir:r,vr:rsr ..J-......;5»;- 
rr;„:::,:neraT;:l. rtSr.^TnrcTora'-r.e .pos/.e pa..ots, .o.„ Ha„coc. an. Sa.ue, Aaa^s. 

497 




BUNKBK H,L. MONUMONT, NHAR BOSTON. -SS -e su^. . Bos.n .„own . C.,,.^ 

Tver Sine associated with the battle which took place here on the '/''l ° /""';, O";'^;^';':,:;:^;,^^" 'f^^.Zt s mm t', whe cTa 1^ ntlcent view is obtained o, Boston, its harbor and 
of this granite monument, which is thirty feet square at ,ts base and 22, feet h,gh. A \P'"' "^ ' "' f ^ f^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ Cabinet. It was on that occasion that the great orator of Massachusetts, 

its suburbs This shaft was dedicated on the l7th of June, 1843, m the presence of President Tyler and all the m<^'"berso h.s ^^bme, monument is a statue of General 

^:r Webster, pronounced the dedi.tc.y o^^^;^:^^--:^-:^;: :^,r ^"C ^t,;:?::::;^^ ^^ t" ^::cfr ^la.l, th,s locality to a country visitor. ..This is the 
rp:;:""heta°d;;\er: wlrnTen^^ "tookinr:; aTr— ^a^d measuring its hei.ht. the countryman repheo. ..Gracious, no wonder that ,t ..lled him... 

4Q9 




whole English speaking world. ^^^ 







WASHINfiTON ELM AND MEMORIAL STONE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS.-Tlie suburbs of Boston are remarkabiy beautiful To drive through them almost an>where within twenty miles of the city is 
like ridine throueh a park adorned with villas and rural palaces. One of the suburbs, Cambridge, is attractive not merely from its shaded streets and elegant residences; it wears the classic air of a 
University town since here is located "Fair Harvard." whose various edifices, embowered in the shadows of majestic elms, possess remarkable architectural beauty Almost w.thm a stone s throw 
of the niversitv in the centre of a broad, old-fashioned street, is an aged tree, before which stands a granite tablet. On this in gilded letters is an inscription telling us that beneath this tree Washmgton 
^ook command of the American army on July 3d. 1775, at the commencement of that struggle of the colonies for independence which at last was so gloriously obtained We are still a young nat.on. 
but tie P St century has been so wonderfully eventful that it seems much longer than 1 17 years since this old tree spread its broad canopy of shade above that ni.morable scene Long may , hve on 
as a shrine where national patriotism may be awakened and consecrated! And when it falls, may its Titanic form be here replaced by a memorial which shall be worthy of the great event that it 
beheld, and ages hence sha!! thrill the heart of every loyal son of the Republic. 







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brought the Pilgrims into Plymouth Harbor, left many traces of f^" ^^^f'^^ J^^ ,^„'^;^^";„^^^^^^^^^^ One fragment of it still remains, however. It is this "City Gate," situated now a 

on the north. The greater part of this has long smce crumbled to de.ay, or been ^'"°"^ f, ™ f;"^P"'„7'"„,iJ^^ ^J tl,o„ghts are inevitably carried back to the time when th.s, the o de t 

507 




THF AirA7AR AND CORDOVA PONCE DE LEON, SAINT AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA.-St. Augustine is probably the oldest European settlement in the Umted States More than fifty years before the 
plrims hnded on the "tern and rock-bound coast" of Massachusetts, the Spaniards had talcen possession of the place. It was even ceded by England back to Spam ,n 1783 and only came mo the 
™orof the Ur^ed States in °8I9 Quiet enough in summer, in winter it becomes a very popular and fashionable resort, receiving usually about .0,000 v.s.tors durmg "he season." To 
possession of he Umted states in isy V" ^ constructed here. This illustration shows two of them, the "Alcazar" and the "Cordova" as they appear to one lookmg from the 

accommodate th.s ™— ° j^^f;; r marb.e in ma y" ay The Ponce de Leon hotel covers four acres of ground and is a half-mile in circuit, Not only has .t spacious dining-rooms, an 
mmense rotunda and th like but' tcoITusb 1 rd rooms for ladies, an enormous play-room for children and even studios for artists. The Hotel Cordova has a "sun parlor" '0 JeeUong and 
nZd with iles The archit cture of St. Augustine is a charming mixture of old Spanish residences with hangmg balconies along their second stories, and beaut.ful Amer.can v.llas of the kmd wh h 
paved w.th ties. ^^^^'^ f'^ ;^°;f ^.J ,t„,t, „, St. Augustine are extremely narrow, frequently only ten or fifteen feet in breadth. This gives to the town a pleasant flavor of the Onent, for m 
,^nd o the Sun n'ar ow shdedstreels are a uxury always to be appreciated Most of the Spanish houses, as well as the old Spanish Fort of San Marco near by, are made o a conglomerate o 
Sens and sand There are charlg drives about'st. Augustine, and a dehghtful promenade a mile in length extends along the great "Sea Wall." The chmate here m wmter ,s m,ld yet not 
enervating, and oranges, lemons, bananas, figs, palms and all sorts of tropical plants grow here m profusion. 

509 




ON INDIAN RIVER FLORIDA -One of the greatest charms of Florida is the opportunity it affords of sailing through trop.cal scenery. Several of its . ,ve.s are nav.gable for small steamers and a 
ON INDIAN R'^^R;/^^^.^^^^^^^^^ exoerience can hardly be imagined than that of gliding hour after hour between majestic cypress trees, magnolias, palmettos and palms, as through the palm-g,rt. 

banks of this stream are several prosperous towns. 




ADOBE HOUSES NEW MEXICO —In "New" Mexico and in "Old" Mexico there is a peculiar style of architecture which is both primitive, natural and economical— it is the ADOBE method of building, 
Large flat cakes of sun-dried clay, called "Adobe bricks," are used to-day and have been used for ages in these countries. In fact, we find the same thingto have been done in Ej^ypt and the Holy Land, 
and many a town in Mexico presents a decidedly Oriental appearance on account of its thousands of flat-roofed houses of adobe. It cannot be said of this material that it is at all beautiful. The color 
of such houses is far from cheerful, being frequently a sort of compromise between a loaf of brown-bread and a strong cigar. There are rarely any windows in these huts and almost never does a 
chimney rob them of their flatness and monotony. But as a rule in New Mexico, as in the country south of the Rio Grande, no fires are needed either for warmth or cookmg, save such as can be made 
in a pan, or at best, in small brick ovens, heated with charcoal. One half the world, it is said, does not know how the other half lives. To see these dwellers in adobe huts is quite a revelation to 
most travelers; but who knows whether their inhabitants are not in reality as happy as the wealthy inmates of a sumptuous palace? 

513 




CANYON DE 

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WINDY POINT PIKE'S PEAK, COLORADO.-One by one the great ™ountai„s whose snow-white su,.™its on.. 

rnnuLr Mt Blanc the Jungfrau, and even the Matterhorn have now been chmbed so frequently that l^f .'''"'^^™.„'"^^^^^^^^^^ t^em as accessible to tourists as a caged lion of the desert ,s to 

conqueror '^'■;''";;'"' ^ ^^„ i^,,^ ,,t^,„ fitters have been placed, and cog-wheel railways scale the.r jagged '"'^'^^'^f '''';' '''!" " ,j ,,,5 , ,,eigi,t of 14,300 feet. Its cliffs are wild and 
vXTto ™ na i. Ontoftl"ese vanquished mountains thus enchained is Pl.e's Peak In Colorado J' -/ -J-^^ ^^J .^^ ^f^ '^./l^a half.'and the "Great Snow Mountain." as Major 

I" g appearance. Its summit is perpetually white with snow. Yet -w -a -y ^^^^^^^^^^^^^Z"-''' '""'"''"'' ™'^""' '"' ''''' '"' '''f' '" ' '"e ^M'tlt^u": 
Pike called it in 1806, can now be ascended and descended m a few hoursi Across th s Wmdy Point ™ J''™ ;'"/^^,t,,„.si , Bureau, which is occupied winter and summer. Eight thousand 

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CLIFF DWELLINGS MANGOS CANON, ARIZONA.-From time immemorial m^n iiave chosen theii places ot residence from a desire to defend themselves from invasion. Actuated by such motives, 
the Dre-historic Lake Dwellers of Switzerland built their huts on piles driven into the bed of Lake Lucerne. The Aztecs chose the site of Mexico for similar reasons. Almost all the great cit.es of 
antinuitv from Jerusalem to Toledo, were founded in localities which could be easily defended. This same instinct of self-defense is seen among the Aborigines ot America, and particularly m the 
straLe ClifT Dwellings which we find in Arizona, Colorado and New Mexico. In some instances the cliffs at a height of forty or fifty feet above a river have been worn by flood or tempests into 
grooves crevices or shelves, usually from four to six feet wide. On these rude structures have been built. The.r walls are sometimes eight or ten inches thick, the stones being laid m mortar. One 
ProuD of such dwellings is 800 feet above the river. The only way of reaching some of these houses, even when one has climbed to the rocky shelf, is to go through the foremost structures Those 
in the rear were therefore impregnable, even if the others should be taken. To reach some apartments in these Cliff Dwellings, a man would have to enter an aperture only twenty-two mches high 
and thirty wide, and crawl throug.li a tube-like passage twenty feet in length! Some can be reached on.y by ladders to the second story, the lower story being solid without any opening. The forn^ier 
Chff Dwellers were probably related to the Pueblo Indians, Some of these structures were still inhabited when the Spaniards invaded this region. Chff dwelhngs are known to have existed also 

in Central America three centuries ago. 

523 




THE GRAND CANON, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.— Of all the marvels of the Yellowstone National Park, the most sublime is the Grand Canon. Through this the Yellowstone River, 
which is a tributary of tiie Missouri, flows in one place for twenty continuous miles between perpendicular cliffs only about 200 yards apart and from 1200 to 1500 feet in height! At the entrance 
to this part of the Canon the whole river makes a stupendous leap of 360 feet, in what are known as the "Lower Falls." The sides of this gigantic chasm have literally almost all the colors of the 
rainbow displayed upon their vertical sufaces. Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet and white tints are constantly succeeding one another here in wonderful variety, thus lighting up with glory 
countless architectural forms, which Nature it would seem, had fashioned here to make the proudest works of man appear diminutive and tame. These colors doubtless have been formed by the 
percolating through the cliffs of the hot mineral waters from the neighboring springs. Distinguished painters have sadly declared that any adequate representation of these brilliant, variegated 
hues is utterly beyond the power of human art. What an unrivaled combination is there, therefore, in this Canon, of awe-inspiring grandeur and enchanting beauty! And what a magnificent 
pathway has been given to the Yellowstone Riverl Leaving the famous Yellowstone Lake enclosed by snow-clad mountains, it passed through a series of rapids and a fall of 140 feet before it even 
reaches the Grand Canon, and just beyond this it receives a tributary which in its haste to join it makes a leap of 156 feetl Thus cradled in sublimity, the Yellowstone River must be called in some 
respects the most extraordinary stream upon our continent. 

525 




orange ', proport.on'.o its entire mass. Beyond a certain depti, the "ff '-^P^rf" m ol oioltley err, ot s i s^ea^^ That wonderful region now wisely reserved by our 

Specially thin or weak, a portion of o- P'--''^ P-' "P J""^'" '^""' f''^ '" 'Vof^s G v e "^ V^^^^^^^^^^ evidently held high carnival in pre-historic ages of the past and 

rnvernment as a "National Park" is particularly remarkable lor the number and s.ze of .ts Geyseis. volcanic aci ^^^ ^._, ^^^^^^ ^^^ bowlders as well as 

fem ntTo i furios outbursts are'still seen in the almost innumerable masses of steam and water e,eced ro™ ' - om o 'h- ^^^^^^^^ „q,^ p^,,^,^, „ ^^^^.^ ,,^„„,, every hour 

war t e 1 tter rising sometimes to a height of 200 feet. The temperature of the -'- ■^. "™^ ^^.^^Vv m nls A othe ,™i tains'its immense uplifted volume of boiling water for twenty 

ThTs been knownirsprcontinuousf/for three and a hah hours, its height vary.ng from 90 to 200 feet. 




MAMMOTH 7nT <;PRlNrs YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.-This is the northern entrance to that most wonderful section of the United States, which Congress has very properly "dedicated 

sky! like a bbe river Sed by granite banks. The varied colors in the stone composing this great chasm produce a combination here unsurpassed m the world 

529 




with many handsome buildings. Business is active there. It ,5 m many ways a c y of the world, hke "'1°^^"^''^^'''°^^^^^^ , " .^ t,,^ „„tt„ „Hoiiness to the Lord," and we learn that the 
rehgion, which founded here in 1847 this "City of Saints," and still exerts upon .ts he so powerful an mfluence 0;;;"^° ,f '^,\;''°P ^'^ 7„73^^^^^^ "° f On each side of the principal streets 
Church regulates those merchants' prices and receives from them a percentage on a 1 sales. A''""^'^"^, •>;"/; ^^..f ' '"^e ^ttlabe n" k of ^^h^^^^^^^^^^ dome, vast auditorium and wonderful 

oTthirimp^^^^ structure was laid in 1853. but the Temple is not yet completed. It has already cost two and a half milhons of dollars. 

531 




onts cataracts, and forms, in its descent, a beautiful curve, resembl.ng a Moor.sh a ch^ Age a o Na ure as ft ^^^.^^^^^ .^^^^^ ^^^_^ ^^^ ^^^^^.^^ ^^p^,^ ,^,„^, ,„,, eat mounds of 

533 




MOUNT HOOD OREGON -Amon? the snow-crowned monarchs of the "New Northwest" one of the most imposing is Mt. Hood. Its height is 11,570 feet, but it appears even greater because o. 
"s fine conical form, piercing the azure in the hlceness of a pyramid of silver. Around its base are miles of gloomy forests, from which this mountain rises heavenward m .ts robe of punty, as some 
celestial V siormirit withdraw from the dark evil passions of mankind. As these trees reach the flanks of the great mountain, they strikingly resemble the advance-guard o a m.ghty army wh.ch 
an go no furthrr?owards scaling the gigantic fortress above them, apparently half granite and half crystal. There has evidently been a conflict here between the forces of L.fe and of Dea h , nd 
the snow-L comes in sight Death creates fearful havoc in the ranks of the invaders. Many of these trees are twisted and broken by wind and avalanche, and every where we see the bleached and 
mould rinl forms oTthos tho have succumbed to winter's cold. Mount Hood is beautiful at any time, but never is it so wonderfully impressive as when the full-orbed moon r.ses above h,s sea of 
^arpil to pou.an added flood of silver over its mantle of eternal snow. At such a time, when Mount Hood cuts its dazzling silhouette against the dark blue sky, one can unagme .t a m.ghty 

iceberg drifting in crystal splendor from the Polar sea. 

535 




CHINATOWN SAN FRANC1SC0.--.4 trip to Chinatown" is an essential feature of a visit to the Pacific coast, and a memorabie experience It often proves to be W.tli.n a l.m.ted area ,n San 
Francfslofn which 3,000 Americans would be cramped for room, are always living at least 20,000 Chinamen, whose one idea seems to be to hoard up all the money they can possibly obta.n.n order 
to return in a few ye;rs to their native land. It is a most repulsive and apparently dangerous quarter of the city, although crimes are sa.d to be of rarer occurence there than elsewhere^ Moreover 
whatever may blsa d of them in other repects, drunkenness is hardly known among the Chinese. They frequently stup'efy themselves with opium, but not w,th rum. The shops m Chmatown ar 
mo erot"que with their (to us) unintelligible decorations and letterings, recalling memories of the fantastic characters displayed on tea-caddies and bunches of fire-crackers. The var.ety o 
mer handise in t^e e shops its comical arrangement, together with the mysterious dark rooms in the rear, presumably the sleeping apartment of some Wee Lung Chm and fam.ly, are all mo t novel 
^nd amusin. The names oth Merchants here have that curious combination of monotonous monosyllables which causes them to slip from the memory hke drops of water from a duck s back^ 
^nflsTrsTd with he sTops and tenement Irouses are several Joss-Houses, or Chinese Temples. Here, too, are Chinese Theatres, where the entire audience smokes, and the performance goes on 
Imirr hideo:f Latmg oflrums and^^^^^^^^ Gambling Dens and Opium Cellars in Chinatown should be visited in company with a policeman. They are filthy places where e.ther gambhng ,s 

carried on by a mass of repulsive Chinese, or opium is being smoked by men dozing m a half-drunken sleep. 

537 




CUPPH-OUSBANOSel .OCKS, OO.DBN GAT. CAL,POHWU.-On tHe -ut;- -e^H..^... e„t.. ,- - 

„an,e indicates, it is located on a clW rising abruptly from ''-,-»' -''^'^^'^^'r^f^t™^ ,' f^l^Is o set- ion may be continually olLrved climbing up their steep sides, plunging into the waves, 
weary. At a iitt.e distance from the bote, are ^ /- ^dge. ca ed h a R^^ H I^l^u"" :;! These anin^is are protected here by the law of the State, and hence are perfectly ear.ss 



tractionb iureituy mciiiiuiicu, lu . ^o...... «... — 

ciple that "m.giu maKes ni;iu. . ..^ ^..u w^u.. .. « .„.....-.,..— ----- - - . admitted free of charge. Moreover, the drive of six miles hither from the city is one of great beauty. 

"^:;;"'t::::; 'Ztr:o::^^:^ll ^'^ ::::^:':^:^^^^^^-^^^'^ - . ..^. .awns, «ower-beds and d^veways. . .. charms, par. is a mus.c-stand, ,n 

rront of which stands a fine statue of Francis Scott Key, the author of "The Star Spangled Banner." 



539 



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VOSEM.TE VALLBV FROM ARTISTS' PONT, CAL>PORN,A.-One neve. weaHes o. tMs i,.„,ita.,e ^a-^^, ----;-;:;^j'^— -" Z:^::::!^^:^ rul-es::;.^;:;'^;^.!": 
landscape glorious with its stern savage cliffs, its barren orecipices, its tlower-strewn carpet of r>ch ''^S^"t'°"'.»"f '' ^ "f ^'';;„' rndst without a human eye to gaze upon their charms. Then 
indifference to Man's appreciation. Nature displayed these wondrous beauties daily to the ^^^-;i';';;;il"'fj^^^^^^^^ awakening little more appreciation in their 

followed other centuries when to the savages who visited this place .ts '^^'^^'°-\^^'—';^^^^^^^^ thousands annually come to worship the Eternal Power 

minds than could be roused in the wild beasts which made ,ts caves the.r homes. But "°« '^^ S"nd Yo^^^^^^^^ ^ innumerable suns and systems. So may one also characterize 

which has thus revealed itself. "The undevout astronomer .s mad," exclanried the poet '^^ 8"^^ "P™ nlre ^f" « ''"''"''^''' "'"' '°" '"''"' ^°" "'"' "" "' "'"'"""'"''^ '" ""' 

the man who treads this mountain-girdled valley of Yosem,te and does not ■•7^">''^,.^° ^aW ^af noTbeen fo d me Nor does familiarity with its glories lessen their effect. Truer words were 
Yosemite. In the words of the Queen of Sheba, the astonished traveler here exclaum. "The half has "° °^f " ° '' "' .^^';„^ „f „„, t|,e vision of this glorious ravine will linger like an insp.rat.oD 
never written than those of Lowell, "A thing of beauty is a joy forever;" and whatever e se -ay ^ '-^ ' es aclsfd on t rtimte to behold the infmit. 

with the traveler who has stood between its peerless walls, t.ll memory shall have lost its power and till his eyes nave ciose v 

541 




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MILTON OF SAN IIIAN CALIFORNIA -Ever since the command was ?iven, "Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel to every creature," there have never been wanting faithful and heroic 

f^ ow°rs of Christ who have 'eft^o^ kindred Tuxurt and com^ have rLed their lives unhesitatingly for the salvation of their fellow-men. The history of Catholic Miss.ons among the 

^d°an of Ca^fo nia is a very inte esUng one. I properly described, it would prove as exciting as a romance. The theme has been occasionally touched upon n, llct.on and never --^S "'""> 

n^efFecHve V than the nove^ cal d "Ramona " by"H H " One of these Californian Mission Stations is that of San Juan, outlined in this illustrafon. It was founded m 1776 m a lovely spot. 

destroyed by an earthvquake in 1812, when many Indians were buried in its fall.