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Me. Collier, in Ms Annals of the Stage,* published in 
1831, gives an account of a Diary, in which he found 
recorded a performance of Shakspeare's Twelfth Night. 
" This Diary," he says, " I was fortunate enough to 
meet with among the Harleian MSS. in the Museum. 
It was kept by an individual, whose name is nowhere 
given, but who seems to have been a barrister, and 
consequently a member of one of the Inns of Court. 
The dates, which are inserted with much particu- 
larity, extend from January, 1600-1, to April, 1603 : 
and when I state, that it includes original and un- 
published anecdotes of Shakspeare, Spenser, Tarleton, 
Ben Jonson, Marston, Sir John Davis, Sir Walter 
Ealeigh, and others, it will not be disputed that it is 
a very valuable and remarkable source of informa- 

" The period when Shakspeare wrote his Twelfth 
Night, or What you Will, has been much disputed 
among the commentators. Tyrwhitt was inclined 
to fix it in 1614, and Malone was for some years 

* Vol. i., pages 327, 328. 


of the same opinion : but he afterwards changed the 
date he had adopted to 1607. Chalmers thought he 
found circumstances in the play to justify him in 
naming 1613 ; but what I am about to state affords a 
striking, and, at the same time, a rarely occurring and 
convincing proof, how little these conjectures merit 
confidence. That comedy was unquestionably written 
before 1602, for in February of that year it was an 
established play, and so much liked, that it was 
chosen for performance, at the Header's Feast on 
Candlemas day, at the Inn of Court to which the 
author of this Diary belonged — most likely the 
Middle Temple, which, at that date, v/as famous 
for its costly entertainments. After reading the 
following quotation, it is utterly impoj^sible, al- 
though the name of the poet be not mentioned, to 
feel a moment's doubt as to the identity of the play 
there described and the production of Shakspeare : — 

" 'Feb. 2, 1601-2. 

" ' At our feast we had a play called Twelve Night, 
or What 3-ou Will, much like the Comedy of Errors, 
or Menechmi in Plautus, but most like and neere to 
that in Italian called Inganni. A good practice in it, 
to make the steward believe his lady widdowe * was 
in love with him, by counterfayting a letter, as from 
his lady, in general termes, telling him what she 
liked best in him, and prescribing his gestures, in- 
scribing his apparaile, &c., and then, when he came 
to practise, making him believe they took him to be 

" Should the Italian comedy, called Inganni, turn 

* Olivia is not a widow ; but the misprision is of no moment. 


up, we shall probably find in it the actual original of 
Twelfth Isight, which it has been hitherto supposed 
was founded upon the story of Apollonius and Silla, 
in Barnabe Eiche's Farewell to Military Profession, 
twice printed, viz. : in 1583 and 1606." 

Eiche's Farewell was reprinted by the Shakspeare 
Society in 1846. The editor, after alluding to Ban- 
dello's tale of Nicuola and Lattantio, and Belle- 
forest's French version of that tale, saj^s : " It seems 
more likely that Eiche resorted to Bandello ; but it 
is possible that this novel was one of those which 
had been dramatized before Eiche wrote, and if this 
were the case, it would establish the new and im- 
portant fact, that a play on the same story as Twelfth 
Night, had been produced before 1581. 

" Two Italian comedies, upon very similar inci- 
dents, one called Inganni, and the other Ingannati, 
were certainly then in existence, and may have 
formed the groundwork of a drama, anterior to 
Shakspeare, in our own language. The names given 
by Eiche to the various personages are not those 
which occur in Bandello, Belleforest, or the Italian 
comedies r neither are they the same as any used by 
Shakspeare. Eiche perhaps obtained them from the 
old English drama." 

If a play on the same subject as Twelfth Night had 
been produced before 1581, it could scarcely have es- 
caped the notice of the writer of the Diary. As to the 
two comedies, GV Ingaimi and GV Ingannati, the latter 
was first in time, and claims to be strictly original. 

The Ingannati was performed in Siena in 1531 ; the 
Inganni at Milan in 1547.* The first has most re- 

* GV Inganni, Comedia del Signor N. S. [>Sec/a], recitata in 


semblance to Twelfth Night, and was probably in the 
mind of the author of the Diary, though he called it 
Inganni. That he could make a slight mistake as to 
what was before him, is evident from his calling 
Olivia a widow. 

I first became acquainted with the Inganni in the 
French version of Pierre de Larivey, under the title 
of Les Tromperies, 1611. This French comedy had 
become very scarce ; but it has been republished in 
the Ancien Theatre Frangais of the Bihliotheque Elze- 
virienne.^ I have since read the original in the 
British Museum. 

The scene of the Inganni was laid in Italy. Lari- 
vey transferred it to France. I give the Italian 

Anselmo, a merchant of Genoa, who traded with 
the Levant, went on a voyage to Syria, taking with 
him his wife and his twin children, Fortunato and 
Grinevra, aged four years, whom, for the convenience 

Milano V anno 1547, dinanzi alia Maesta del Be Filippo. In 
Fiorenza, appresso i Giunti, 1562* 

Charles V., before leaving Spain in 1543, had given the title 
of king of Spain to his son Philip (Philip II.) 

* The comedies of Larivey, nine in nnmber, all taken from 
the Italian, are all reprinted in this collection. Les Tromperies 
is the ninth. The editor, M. Viollet Le Due, says : "Les six 
premieres comedies de Larivey obtinrent mi grand sncces, con- 
state par plusieurs e'ditions. Les trois dernieres n'ont ete im- 
primees qu'une fois, ce qui s'explique par la mort de I'auteur, 
et surtoat par cette circonstance, que ces trois pieces n'avoient 
pas, comme les premieres, I'attrait de la nouveaute. Ce volume 
n'ayant eu qu'une seule edition, est devenue tres rare, et se paie 
au poids de For dans les ventes publiques." — Tome v. p. xx. 

* This is the oldest edition I have seen referred to. There are editions in 
the British Museum of 1566, 1582, 1587, 1602, 1615. 


of the sea passage, he dressed precisely alike, so that 
the girl passed for a boy. On the voyage, they were 
captured by Corsairs. Anselmo was taken into Na- 
tolia, where he remained in slavery fourteen years. 
Fortunato was several times sold, but ultimately in 
Naples, where the scene is laid, and where he is 
sei'ving Dorotea, a lady no better than she should 
be. The mother and Ginevra, after various adven- 
tures, were purchased, also in Naples, by Messer 
Massimo Caraccioli. The mother had deemed it 
prudent to continue the male apparel of her daughter, 
and through her the brother and sister had been 
made known to each other. The mother had died 
six years previously to the opening of the comedy. 
Ginevra had taken the name of Koberto. Massimo 
has a son named Gostanzo, and a daughter named 
Portia. Portia is in love with the supposed Eoberto, 
and Gostanzo with Dorotea, who returns his attach- 
ment, but her mother, Gilletta, a rapacious and 
tj^rannical woman, forbids him the house, after she 
has extorted from him all the money he could dis- 
pose of. Ginevra, persecuted by the love of Portia, 
smuggles her brother Fortunato into the house, and, 
when occasion serves, substitutes him for herself. 
At the opening of the play, Portia is on the point 
of increasing the population of >^ aples. Ginevra is 
in double grief, fearing the anger of Massimo, and 
suffering under her own love for Gostanzo, seeing 
his love for Dorotea. In despair, she discovers her- 
self to Gostanzo, who transfers his love to her, and 
Anselmo arrives, abundantly rich, in time to appease 
the wrath of Massimo, and unite Gostanzo to Ginevra, 
and Fortunato to Portia. 


In all this, what little there is of resemblance 
to Twelfth Night, is taken, as will be presently 
seen, and not changed for the better, from the In- 

Much of this comedy is borrowed, in parts closely 
translated, from the Asinaria of Plautus. Cleaereta, 
the mother ; Philenium, the daughter ; Argyrippns, 
the lover ; are reproduced in Gilletta, Dorotea, and 
Gostanzo. So are the old jjhysician and his wife 
reproductions of the old man Demaenetus, and his 
wife Artemona. The scenes of the Asinaria, between 
Cleaereta and Argyrippus, Act i., Scene 3 ; Cleaereta 
and Philenium, Act iii., Scene 1 ; the portion of Act 
iii., Scene 3, which is between Argyrippus and Phi- 
lenium ; the concluding scene, in which Artemona 
carries off Demaenetus from the house of Cleaereta, 
Act v.. Scene 2 ; are copied in the Inganni, in the 
scenes between Gostanzo and Gilletta, Act i., Scene 1 ; 
between Gilletta and Dorotea, Act ii.^ Scene 2; between 
Gostanzo and Dorotea, Act ii'., Sceiie 6 ; and in the 
concluding scene, in which the physician's wife 
carries off her husband from the house of Gilletta, 
Act v.. Scene 10. 

There is also a captain of the Bobadii order, who 
is imposed on and fleeced by Gilletta and Dorotea, 
and afterwards, finding the house barred against 
him, besieges it, as Terence's Thraso does the house 
of Thais,* and is as easily repulsed. There are 

* Thraso. Hanciiie ego ut contumeliam tam insignem in me 
accipiam, Gnatlio ? 
Mori me satius est. SimaHo, Donax, Syrisce, sequimini. 
Primum aedeis expugnabo. — Eunuchus, Actus iv., Scena 7. 

Le Cajjitaine. Ha ciel ! qu'il me faille endurer un tel affront ! 
Allons cliercher le eapitaine Tailbras, le capitaine 


other gatherings from the Latin drama. The 
comedy, in short, though very entertaining, has no 

It seems strange that the Ingaiud should have re- 
mained undiscovered by Shakspearian critics : but 
the cause which concealed the Ingannati from their 
researches, is somewhat curious. It appears with 
the title Comedia del Sacrificio degli Intronati. The 
Sacrifido is a series of songs to music, in which various 
characters, who have suffered from " the pangs of 
despised love," renounce love, and each in succession 
sacrifices on an altar some gift or memorial of his un- 
kind or faithless mistress. This prelude, which has 
no relation whatever to the comedy, being concluded, 
the comedy follows, with its own proper title GV In- 

There are many editions of this comedy. The 
earliest of which I have yet found a record, is of 
1537. It is not probable that this was the first. 
There were others of 1538, 1550, 1554, 1562, 1563, 
1569, 1585. Four of these are in the British 
Museum ; and one, In Venetia, without date. And 
it was included in collections ; one, containing all 
the comedies of the Intronati, 1611 ; another, with 
four other comedies and notes by Euscelli, which I 
find mentioned without the date. The title of an 
edition in my possession, is, Comedia del Sacrificio de 
gli Intronati, Celehrato ne i giuochi d' tin Carnovale in 

Brisecuisse, Brafort, Cachemaille, Piii9argent, Grippetout, et 
mes autres amis ; puis retoiirnons faire bravade a ces poltronnes. 
— Les Tromperies, Acts i\., Scene 2. This version is better 
than the corresponding Italian. 


Siena, I'Anno MDXXXI. Sotto il Sodo,* dignissimo 
Arcliintronato. Di nuovo corretta e ristampata. In 
Venetia, appresso Francesco Eampazetto, MDLXII.f 
GV Intronati, the Thunder-stricken, was an Academy in 
Siena, whicli distinguished itself at that period by 
dramatic productions. The Italian Academies gave 
themselves fantastical names, / Caliginosi, I Dubbiosi, 
I Chimerici : The Dark, the Doubtful, the Chimerical, and 
so forth. Their members assumed conformable 
appellations. V Amor Costante, a comedy performed 
at Siena, before the Emperor Charles V., in 1536,{ 
is given in the title as by Signer Stordito,^ Jntronato : 
Master Stunned of the Thunder-stricken. This comedy 
is introduced by a dialogue, between the Prologue 
and a Spaniard, in the course of which the Spaniard 
inquires — 

Who is the author of the comedy? Is it the most divine 
Pietro Aretiao ? \\ 

Prologue. The author is a member of an academy, which has 
been in Siena many years. 

Spaniard. What is the name of this academy ? 

Prologue. The academy of the Intronati. 

Spaniard. The Intronati'^ The fame of this academy has 

* Marcantonio Piccolomini. 

t There was a French translation of GV Ingannati, under the 
title of Les Ahusez, by Charles Estienne ; of which there appear 
to have been three editions : Lyon, 1543 ; Paris, 1549 and 1558. 

I In a Venetian reprint before me, the date of the first per- 
formance is given as 1531 ; but the play has many historical 
indications which determine the time. One will suffice. The 
action passes in the pontificate of Paul III., and two years after 
the death of Clement VII., who died in 1534. 

§ Alessandro Piccolomini. 

II Pietro Aretino had produced two of his five comedies before 


spread through all parts of Spain ; and its name has gone so far, 
that it has reached the ears of the emperor. How rejoiced 
should I be if I could belong to this academy ! And if you 
would have me bound to you for the whole time of my life, 
place me among you. 

Prologue. If you are disposed to observe our rules, I will 
gladly exert myself on your behalf. 

Spaniard. What are the rules ? 

Prologue. Few and simple. To seek knowledge and wisdom : 
to take the world as it comes : to be the affectionate and devoted 
slave of these ladies :* and, for the love of them, to make now 
and then a comedy, or some other work, to show our implicit 

Spaniard. These rules are greatly to my mind ; and if I can 
obtain the favour of being placed in the academy, I will most 
faithfully observe them all. 

EenoTiard, in tlie BibliotMque d'un Amateur {Paris, 
1819, tome Hi,, pp. 109 — 119), gives a list of ItaKan 
dramas in Ms possession, which he introduces with 
the following notice : — 

" Le XYP siecle produisit une multitude innom- 
brable de pieces dramatiques italiennes, qui actuelle- 
ment se lisentpeu : beaucoup d'entre elles continuent 
cependant a etre recherchees des Italiens, soit pour 
la p arete du style, qualite par laquelle beaucoup se 
distinguent, soit meme pour leur bizarrerie, et 

* The Intronati were especially devoted to the service of the 
ladies. The Prologue of the Ingannati addresses the ladies 
only. lo vi veggio fin di qua, nobilissime donne, meravigliare 
di vedermivi cosi dinanzi, in questo hdbito, ed insieme di questo 
appareccMo, come se noi Jiavessimo a fare qualche comedia. 

I see you, even from hence, most koble ladies, wonder at 
seeing me thus hefore you, in this dress, and also at these prepara- 
tions, as if we were about to produce some comedy. 

The prologues of other comedies of the period address the 
spectators generally. 


souvent ponr la seule rarete des exemplaires. Ne 
voulant point ici faire collection de ce geni-e de 
pieces, on a seulement choisi parmi celles que Ton a 
crues recommandables par aucune de ces diverses 
causes, et Ton n'a admis aucun exemplaire qui ne soit 
de parfaite conservation." 

The list of dramas includes twenty comedies of the 
sixteenth century ; two of which are the Ingannati 
and Tiiganni, the former with the usual title page, 
Comedia del Sacrijicio, without date. The Inganni is 
given as nuovamente ristampata. In Fiorenza, 1568. 

To return to the Ingannati. The Prologue says: 
" The fable is new : never before seen nor read : nor 
drawn from any other source than the industrious 
brains of the Academicians of the IntronatV 

This, therefore, we may fairly assume to be the 
original source, from which all other versions of the 
elements of the story are drawn ; the elements being 
these : 

A girl assumes male apparel, and enters as a page 
into the service of a man, with whom she either pre- 
viously is, or subsequently becomes, in love. He em- 
ploys her as a messenger to a lady, who will not listen 
to his suit. The lady falls in love with the supposed 
page, and, under the influence of a mistake, marries 
the girl's twin brother. The lover transfers his affec- 
tion to the damsel, who has served him in disguise. 

I propose to translate the scenes in which these 
four characters are principally concerned, and to 
give a connecting outline of the rest. 

The original has no stage directions, and the 
scenes have no indication of place. I have inserted 
some stage directions, and have indicated the places 


of the action, on what appeared to me probable 

The house of Virginio is too far from the house of 
Gherardo, to be shown in the same street. This is 
apparent from several passages, especially from 
Act iv., Scene 7, where Virginio asks Gherardo to 
take in his supposed daughter, because he cannot 
take her to his own house without her being seen in 
male apparel by all the city. 

The house of Gherardo is near the hotels. 

The house of Flaminio is in a distinct locality 
from both. It is clearly not under observation from 

I have, therefore, marked three changes of scene : 

A street, with two hotels, and the house ol 

A street, with the house of Flaminio. 

A street, with the house of Virginio. 



Gheeakdo Foiani, an old man, father of Isabella. 

ViRGnsrio Bellenzini, an old man, fatlier of Lelia and Fahrizio. 

Flamestio de' Carandhsti, in love with Isabella. 

Fabeizio, son of Vtrginio. 

Messer Piero, a pedant, tutor of Fabrizio. 

FRUE^L^r' } ^^'^^^^'''^^^■^^'P^^'- 

GiGLio, a Spaniard. 
Spela, servant of Glierardo. 
ScATizzA, servant of Virginio. 
Crivello, servant of Flaminio. 
Stragualcia, servant of Fahrizio. 

Lelia, daughter of Virginio, disguised as a page, under the name 

Isabella, daughter of Gherardo. 
Clementia, nurse of Lelia. 
Pasql'ella, housekeeper to Gherardo. 
CiTTiNA, a girl, daughter of dementia. 

The Scene is in Modena. 



SCENE I.— .4 Street, with the house of Virginio. 

YiRGiNio and Gherardo. 

Virginio is an old merchant, who has two children, 
a son and a daughter, Fabrizio and Lelia. He has 
lost his property and his son in the sack of Eome, 
May 1527, when his daughter had just finished her 
thirteenth year. The comedy being performed in 
the Carnival of 1531, the girl is in her seventeenth 
year. Another old man, Gherardo, who is wealthy, 
wishes to marry her, and the father assents, pro- 
vided the maiden is willing. Gherardo thinks 
that the father's will ought to be sufficient, and 
that it only rests with him to make his daughter 
do as he pleases. 


Virginio and Clementia. 

Virginio, having shortly before gone on business 
to Bologna, in company with a Messer Buonaparte 
and others, had left Lelia in a convent with her 
Aunt Camilla, and now, in the intention of her 


18 THE DECEIVED. [act i. 

marriage, desires Lelia's nurse, Clementia, to go to 
the convent to bring her home. Clementia must 
first go to mass. 

SCENE III.— A Street, with the house of Flaminio. 
Lelia, afterwards Clementia. 

Lelia (in male apparel). It is a great boldness in me, 
that, knowing the licentious customs of these wild 
youths of Modena, I should venture abroad alone at 
this early hour. What would become of me, if any one 
of them should suspect my sex ? But the cause is my 
■ love for the cruel and ungrateful Flaminio. Oh, what 
a fate is mine ! I love one who hates me. I serve 
one who does not know me : and, for more bitter 
grief, I aid him in his love for another, without any 
other hope than that of satiating my eyes with his 
sight. Thus far all has gone well : but now, how 
can I do ? My father has returned. Flaminio has 
come to live in the town. I can scarcely hope to 
continue here without being discovered : and if it 
should be so, my reputation wdll be blighted for 
ever, and I shall become the fable of the city. 
Therefore I have come forth at this hour to consult 
my nurse, whom, from the window, I have seen 
coming this way. But I will first see if she knows 
me in this dress. (^Clementia enters.) 

Clementia. In good faith, Flaminio must be returned 
to Modena : for I see his door open. Oh ! if Lelia 
knew it, it would appear to her a thousand years till 
she came back to her father's house. But who is 
this young coxcomb that keeps crossing before me, 
backward and forward ? What do you mean by it ? 


Take yourself off, or I will show you how I like 
such chaps. 

Lelia. Good morning, good mother. 

Clementia. I seem to know this boy. Tell me, 
where can I have seen you ? 

Lelia. You pretend not to know me, eh ? Come a 
little nearer : nearer still : on this side. Now ? 

Clementia. Is it possible ? Can you be Lelia ? Oh, 
misery of my life ! What can this mean, my child ? 

Lelia. Oh ! if you cry out in this way, I must go. 

Clementia. Is this the honour you do to your father, 
to your house, to yourself, to me, who have brought 
you up? Come in instantly. You shall not be seen 
in this dress. 

Lelia. Pray have a little patience. 

Clementia. Are you not ashamed to be seen so ? 

Lelia. Am I the first? I have seen women in 
Eome go in this way by hundreds. 

Clementia. They must be no better than they 
should be. 

Lelia. By no means. 

Clementia. YVhy do you go so ? Why have you left 
the convent ? Oh ! if your father knew it, he would 
kill you. 

Lelia. He would end my affliction. Do you think 
I value life ? 

Clementia. But why do you go so ? Tell me. 

Lelia. Listen, and you shall hear. You will then 
know how great is my affliction, why I have left the 
convent, why I go thus attired, and what I wish you 
to do in the matter. But step more aside, lest any 
one should pass who may recognize me, seeing me 
talking with you. 

20 THE DECEIVED. [act i. 

dementia. You destroy me with impatience. 
Lelia. You know that after the miserable sack of 
Eome, my father, having lost everything, and with 
his property my brother Fabrizio, in order not to be 
alone in his house, took me from the service of the 
Signora Marchesana, with whom he had placed me, 
and, constrained by necessity, we returned to our 
house in Modena to live on the little that remained 
to us here. You know, also, that my father, having 
been considered a friend of the Count Guido Eangon,* 
was not well looked on by many. 

dementia. Why do you tell me what I know better 
than you? I know, too, for what reason you left 
the city, to live at our farm of Pontanile, and that I 
went with you. 

Lelia. You know, also, how bitter were my feel- 
ings at that time : not only remote from all thoughts 
of love, but almost from all human thought, con- 
sidering that, having been a captive among soldiers, 
I could not, however purely and becomingly I might 
live, escape malicious observations. And you know 
how often you scolded me for my melancholy, and 
exhorted me to lead a more cheerful life. 

dementia. If I know it, why do you tell it me? 
Go on. 

Lelia. Because it is necessary to remind you of all 
this, that you may understand what follows. It 
happened at this time that Flaminio Carandini, from 
having been attached to the same party as ourselves, 
formed an intimate friendship with my father, came 
daily to our house, began to admire me secretly, 

* This count makes a conspicuous figure in Guieciardini's 


then took to sighing and casting down his eyes. By- 
degrees I took increasing pleasure in his manners 
and conversation, not, however, even dreaming of 
love. But his continuous visits, and sighs, and signs 
of admiration at last made me aware that he was not 
a little taken with me, and I, who had never felt 
love before, deeming him worthy of my dearest 
thoughts, became in love with him so strongly that 
T had no longer any delight but in seeing him. 

Clementia. Much of this I also knew. 

Lelia. You know, too, that when the Spanish 
soldiers left Eome my father went there, to see 
if any of our property remained, but, still more, to 
see if he could learn any news of my brother. He 
sent me to Mirandola, to stay, till his return, with 
my Aunt Giovanna. With what grief I separated 
myself from my dear Flaminio you may well say, 
who so often dried my tears. I remained a year at 
Mirandola, and on my father's return I came back to 
Modena, more than ever enamoured of him who was 
my first love, and thinking still that he loved me as 

Clementia. Oh, insanity ! How many Modenese 
have you found constant in the love of one for a 
3^ear ? One month to one, another month to another, 
is the extent of their devotion. 

Lelia. I met him, and he scarcely remembered me, 
more than if he had never seen me. But the worst 
of it is, that he has set his heart on Isabella, the 
daughter of Gherardo Foiani, who is not only very 
beautiful, but the only child of her father, if the 
crazy old fellow does not marry again. 

Clementia. He thinks himself certain of having you. 

22 THE DECEIVED. [act i, 

and says, that your father has promised you to him. 
But all this does not explain to me why you have 
left the convent, and go about in male apparel. 

Lelia. The old fellow certainly shall not have me. 
But my father, after his return from Eome, having 
business at Bologna, placed me, as I would not return 
to Mirandola, in the convent with my cousin Amabile 
de' Cortesi. I found, that among these reverend 
mothers and sisters, love was the principal subject of 
conversation. I therefore felt emboldened to open my 
heart to Amabile. She pitied me, and found means to 
bring Flaminio, who was then living out of the town, 
in a palazzo near the convent, several times to speak 
with her and with others, where I, concealed behind 
curtains, might feast m}^ eyes with seeing him, and 
my ears with hearing him. One day, I heard him la- 
menting the death of a page, whose good service he 
highly praised, saying how glad he should be if he 
could find such another. It immediately occurred to 
me, that I would try to suppl}^ the vacant place, and 
consulting with Sister Amabile, she encouraged me, 
instructed me how to proceed, and fitted me with some 
new clothes, which she had had made, in order that 
she might, as others do, go out in disguise about her 
own affairs. So one morning early, I left the convent 
in this attire, and went to Flaminio's palazzo. There 
I waited till Flaminio came out: and Fortune be 
praised, he no sooner saw me, than he asked me most 
courteously, what I wanted, and whence I came. 

Clementia. Is it possible that you did not fall dead 
with shame ? 

Lelia. Far from it, indeed. Love bore me up. I 
answered frankly, that I was from Eome, and that 


being poor, I was seeking service. He examined me 
several times from liead to foot so earnestly, that I 
was almost afraid lie would know me. He then said, 
that if I pleased to stay with him, he would receive 
me willingly and treat me well ; and I answered, that 
I would gladly do so. 

Clementia. And what good do you expect from this 
mad proceeding ? 

Lelia. The good of seeing him, hearing him, talking 
with him, learning his secrets, seeing his com- 
panions, and being sure that if he is not mine, he is 
not another's. 

Clementia. In what way do you serve him ? 

Lelia, As his page, in all honesty. And in this 
fortnight that I have served him, I have become so 
much in favour, that I almost think appearing in my 
true dress would revive his love. 

Clementia. What will people say when this shall be 
known ? 

Lelia. Who will know it, if you do not tell it? 
Now what I want you to do is this : that, as my 
father returned yesterday, and may perhaps send for 
me, you would prevent his doing so for four or five 
days, and at the end of that time I will return. You 
may say, that I have gone to Eoverino wdth Sister 

Clementia. And why all this ? 

Lelia. Flaminio, as I have already told you, is 
enamoured of Isabella Foiani ; and he often sends me 
to her with letters and messages. She, taking me for 
a young man, has fallen madly in love with me, and 
makes me the most passionate advances. I pretend 
that I will not love her, unless she can so manage as 

24 THE DECEIVED. [act i. 

to bring Flaminio's pursuit of her to an end : and I 
hope that in three or four days he will be brought to 
give her up. 

Clementia. Your father has sent me for you, and I 
insist on your coming to my house, and I will send 
for your clothes. If you do not come with me, I will 
tell your father all about you. 

Lelia. Then 1 will go where neither you nor he 
shall ever see me again. I can say no more now, for 
I hear Flaminio call me. Expect me at your house 
in an hour. Eemember, that I call myself Fabio 
degl' Alberini. I come, Signer. Adieu, Clementia. 

Clementia (alotie). In good faith, she has seen Ghe- 
rardo coming, and has run away. I must not tell her 
father for the present, and she must not remain where 
she is. I will wait till I see her again. 


Gherardo, Spela, and Clementia. 

In this scene, Clementia makes sport of the old 
lover, treating him as a sprightly youth. He swal- 
lows the flattery, and echoes it in rapturous speeches, 
while his servant, Spela, in a series of asides, ex- 
hausts on his folly the whole vocabulary of anger and 


Spela and Scatizza. 

Spela, at first alone, soliloquizes in ridicule of his 
master. Scatizza, the servant of Yirginio, who had 
been to fetch Lelia from the convent, enters in great 
wrath, having been laughed at by the nuns, who told 


him all sorts of contradictory stories respecting her ; 
by which he is so bewildered, that he does not know 
what to say to Yirginio. 


ScEXE I. — The Street, with the house of Flaminio. 
Lelia {as Fabio) and Flaminio. 

Flaminio. It is a strange thing, Fabio, that I have 
not yet been able to extract a kind answer from this 
cruel, this ungrateful Isabella, and yet her always 
receiving yon graciously, and giving you willing 
audience, makes me think that she does not altogether 
hate me. Assuredly, I never did anything, that I 
know, to displease her ; and you may judge, from her 
conversation, if she has any cause to complain of me. 
Eepeat to me what she said yesterday, when you 
went to her with that letter. 

Lelia. I have repeated it to 3^ou twenty times. 

Flaminio. Oh repeat it to me once more. What can 
it matter to you ? 

Lelia. It matters to me this, that it is disagreeable 
to you, and is, therefore, painful to me, as your ser- 
vant, who seek only to please you ; and perhaps these 
answers may give you ill-will towards me. 

Flaminio. No, my dear Fabio ; I love you as a 
brother : I know you wish well to me, and I will 
never be wanting to you, as time shall show. But 
repeat to me what she said. 

26 THE DECEIVED. [act n. 

Lelia. Have I not told you? Tliat the greatest 
pleasure you can do her is to let her alone ; to think 
no more of her, because she has fixed her heart else- 
where : that she has no eyes to look on you ; that you 
lose your time in following her, and will find yourself 
at last with your hands full of wind. 

Flaminio. And does it appear to you, Fabio, that she 
says these things from her heart, or, rather, that she 
has taken some offence with me ? For at one time 
she showed me favour, and I cannot believe that she 
wishes me ill, while she accepts my letters and my 
messages. I am disposed to follow her till death. 
Do you not think me in the right, Fabio ? 

Lelia. No, signer. 

Flaminio. Why? 

Lelia. Because, if I were in your place, I should 
expect her to receive my service as a grace and an 
honour. To a young man like you, noble, virtuous, 
elegant, handsome, can ladies worthy of you be 
wanting ? Do as I would do, sir : leave her ; and 
attach yourself to some one who will love you as you 
deserve. Such will be easily found, and perhaps as 
handsome as she is. Have you never yet found one 
in this country who loved you ? 

Flaminio. Indeed I have, and especially one, who 
is named Lelia, and of whom, I have often thought, 
I see a striking likeness in jou : the most beautiful, 
the most accomplished, the most courteous young 
person in this town : who would think herself happy, 
if I would show her even a little favour : rich, and 
well received at court. We were lovers nearly a 
year, and she showed me a thousand favours : but 
she went to Mirandola, and my fate made me 

SCENE l] the deceived. 27 

enamoured of Isabella, wlio has been as cruel to me 
as Lelia was gracious. 

Lelia. Master, you deserve to suffer. If you do 
not value one who loves you, it is fitting that one 
you love should not value you. 

Flaminio. What do you mean ? 

Lelia. If you first loved this poor girl, and if she 
loved and still loves you, why have you abandoned 
her to follow another ? Ah, Signer Flaminio ! you 
do a great wrong, a greater than I know if God can 

Flaminio. You are a child, Fabio. You do not 
know the force of love. I cannot help myself. I 
must love and adore Isabella. I cannot, may not, 
will not think of any but her. Therefore, go to her 
again : speak with her : and try to draw dextrously 
from her, what is the cause that she will not see me. 

Lelia. You will lose your time. 

Flaminio. It pleases me so to lose it. 

Lelia. You will do nothing. 

Flaminio. Patience. 

Lelia. Pray let her go. 

Flaminio. I cannot. Go, as I bid you. 

Lelia. I will go, but — 

Flaminio. Eeturn with the answer immediately. 
Meanwhile I will go in. 

Lelia. When time serves, I will not fail. 

Flaminio. Do this, and it will be well for you. 

28 THE DECEIVED. [act ii. 

Lelia and Pasquella. 

Lelia. He has gone in good time, for here is Pas- 
quella coming to look for me. [Lelia retires. 

Pasquella. 1 do not think there is in the world a 
greater trouble, or a greater annoj^ance, than to serve 
a young woman like my mistress, who has neither 
mother nor sisters to look after her, and who has 
fallen all at once into such a passion of love, that she 
has no rest night or day, but runs about the house, 
now up stairs, now down, now to one window, now 
to another, as if she had quicksilver in her feet. 
Oh ! I have been young, and I have been in love : 
but I gave myself some repose. At least, if she had 
fallen in love with a man of note, and of fitting 
years : but she has takeu to doting on a boy, who, 
I think, could scarcely tie the points of his doublet, 
if he had not some one to help him : and every day, 
and all day, she sends me to look for him, as if I had 
nothing to do at home. But here he is, happily. 
Good day to you, Fabio. I was seeking you, my 

Lelia. And a thousand crowns to you, Pasquella. 
How does your fair mistress ? 

Pasquella. And how can you suppose she does ? 
Wastes away in tears and lamentations, that all this 
morning you have not been to her house. 

Lelia. She would not have me there before day- 
break. T have something to do at home. I have a 
master to serve. 

Pasquella. Your master always wishes you to go 


there : and my mistress entreats you to come, for her 
father is not at home, and she has something of con- 
sequence to tell you. 

Lelia. Tell her she must get rid of Flaminio, or I 
shall ruin myself by obeying her. 

Fasquella. Come, and tell her so yourself 

Lelia. I have something else to do, I tell you. 

Pasquella. It is but to go, and return as soon as 
you please. 

Lelia. I will not come. Go, and tell her so. 

Pasquella. You will not ? 

Lelia. No, I say. Do you not hear ? No. No. No. 

Pasquella. In good faith, in good truth, Fabio, 
Fabio, you are too proud : you are young : you do 
not know your own good : this favour will not 
last always ; you will not always have such rosy 
cheeks, such mby lips : when your beard grows, you 
will not be the pretty pet you are now. Then you 
will repent your folly. How many are there in this 
city, that would think the love of Isabella the 
choicest gift of heaven ! 

Lelia. Then let her give it to them : and leave 
alone me, who do not care for it. 

Pasquella. Oh, heaven ! how true is it, that boys 
have no brains. Oh, dear, dear Fabio, pray come, 
and come soon, or she will send me for you again, 
and will not believe that I have delivered her 

Lelia. Well, Pasquella, go home. I did but jest. 
I will come. 

Pasquella. When, my jewel ? 
Lelia. Soon. 
Pasquella. How soon ? 

30 THE DECEIVED. [act n. 

Lelia. Immediately: go. 
Pasquella. I shall expect you at the door. 
Lelia. Yes, yes. 

Pasquella. If you do not come, I shall be very 

SCENE III. — A Street, with two hotels and the house of 

GiGLio (a Spaniard) and Pasquella. 

GiGLio, who is in love with Isabella, and longs for 
an opportunity of speaking to her without witnesses, 
tries to cajole Pasquella into admitting him to the 
house,* and promises her a rosary, wdth which he is 
to return in the evening. She does not intend to 
admit him, but thinks to trick him out of the rosary. 
He does not intend to give her the rosary, but thinks 
to delude her by the promise of it. 

SCENE IV. — The Street, with the house of Flaminio. 
Flaminio, Crivello, and Scatizza. 

Flaminio. You have not been to look for Fabio, and 
he does not come. I do not know what to think of 
his delay. 

Crivello. I was going, and you called me back. 
How am I to blame ? 

Flaminio. Go now, and if he is still in the house of 
Isabella, wait till he comes out, and send him home 

* Por mia vida, que esta es la Vieia biene avventurada, que 
tiene la mas liermosa moza d" esta tierra per sua ama. O se le 

puodiesse io ablar dos parablas sin testiges Quiero veer 

se puode con alguna lisenia, pararme tal con esta vieia ellacca 
ob alcatieta que me aga al canzar alge con ella. 


Crivello. How shall I know if he is there or not ? 
You would not have me knock and inquire ? 

Flaminio. I have not a servant worth his salt, but 
Fabio. Heaven grant me favour to reward him. 
What are you muttering, blockhead ? Is it not true ? 

Crivello. What would you have me say ? Of course 
I say, yes. Fabio is good : Fabio is handsome : 
Fabio serves well : Fabio with you : Fabio with 
your lady : Fabio does everything : Fabio is every- 
thing. But — • 

Flaminio. What do you mean by but ? 

Crivello. He is too much trusted : he is a stranger, 
and one day he may disappear, with something worth 

Flaminio. I wish you others were as trustworthy. 
Yonder is Scatizza. Ask him if he has seen Fabio : 
and come to me at the bank of the Porini. 

The scene terminates with a few words between 
Crivello and Scatizza. 

SCENE v.— Spela soliloquizes on the folly of 
Gherardo, who had sent him to buy a bottle of per- 
fume; and some young men in the shop, under- 
standing for whom it was wanted, had told him 
he had better buy a bottle of assafoetida. 

SCENE VI. — The street with the hotels and the house of 

Crivello, Scatizza, Lelia, and Isabella. 

Crivello and Scatizza are talking of keeping Car- 
nival at the expense of their masters, when Gherardo's 
door opens, and they stand back. Lelia and Isabella 
enter from the house of Gherardo. 

32 THE DECEIVED. [act n. 

Lelia. Eemember what you have promised me. 

Isabella. And do you remember to return to me. 
One word more. 

Lelia. What more ? 

Isabella. Listen. 

Lelia. I attend. 

Isabella. No one is here. 

Lelia. Not a living soul. 

Isabella. Come nearer. T wish 

Lelia. What do you wish ? 

Isabella. I wish that you would return after dinner, 
when my father will be out. 

Lelia. I will; but if my master passes this way, 
close the window, and retire. 

Isabella. If I do not, may you never love me. 

Lelia. Adieu. Now return into the house. 

Isabella. I would have a favour from you. 

Lelia. What? 

Isabella. Come a little within. 

Lelia. We shall be seen. 

Scatizza {apart). She has kissed him. 

Crivello (apart). I had rather have lost an hundred 
crowns than not have seen this kiss. What will my 
master do when he knows it ? 

Scatizza (apart). Oh, the devil ! You won't tell 

Isabella. Pardon me. Your too great beauty, and 
the too great love I bear you, have impelled me 
to this. You will think it scarcely becoming the 
modesty of a maid ; but God knows, I could not 

Lelia. I need no excuses, signora. I know too 
well what extreme love has led me to. 


Isabella. To what ? 

Lelia. To deceiving my master, whicli is not well. 

Isabella. Ill fortune come to him. 

Lelia. It is late. I must go home. Eemain in 

Isabella. I give myself to 3^ou. 

Lelia. I am yours. (^Isabella goes in.) I am sorry 
for her, and wish T were well out of this intrigue. 
I will consult my nurse, Clementia ; but here comes 

GriveUo (apart). Scatizza, my master told me to go 
to him at the bank of the Porini. I will carry him 
this good news. If he does not believe me, I shall 
call you to witness. 

Scatizza. 1 will not fail you ; but if yon will take 
my advice, you will keep quiet, and yon will always 
have this rod in pickle for Fabio, to make him do as 
yon please. 

Crivello. I tell yon I hate him. He has mined 

Scatizza. Take your own way. 

SCENE Yll.— The Street, with the house of Flaminio. 
Flaminio and Lelia. 

Flaminio. Is it possible that I can be so far out of 
myself, have so little self-esteem, as to love, in her 
own despite, one who hates me, despises me, will not 
even condescend to look at me ? Am I so vile, of so 
little account, that I cannot free myself from this 
shame, this torment? But here is Fabio. Well, 
what have you done ? 

Lelia. Nothing. 

34 THE DECEIVED. [act ii. 

Flaminio. Wliy have you been so long away ? 

Lelia. I have delayed, because I waited to speak 
with Isabella. 

Flaminio. And why have you not spoken to her ? 

Lelia. She would not listen to me ; and if you would 
act in my waj^, you would take another course ; for 
by all that I can so far understand, she is most ob- 
stinately resolved to do nothing to please you. 

Flaminio. Why, even now, as I passed her house, 
she rose and disappeared from the window, with as 
much anger and fury as if she had seen some hideous 
and horrible thing. 

Lelia. Let her go, I tell you. Is it possible that, 
in all this city, there is no other who merits your 
love as much as she does ? 

Flaminio. I would it were not so. I fear this 
has been the cause of all my misfortune ; for I 
loved very warmly that Lelia Bellenzini, of whom 
I have spoken ; and I fear Isabella thinks this love 
still lasts, and on that account will not see me ; but 
I will give Isabella to understand, that I love Lelia 
no longer ; rather that I hate her, and cannot bear to 
hear her named, and will pledge my faith never to go 
where she may be. Tell Isabella this as strongly as 
you can. 

Lelia. Oh, me ! 

Flaminio. What has come over you ? What do you 

Lelia. Oh, me ! 

Flaminio. Lean on me. Have you any pain? 

Lelia. Suddenly. In the heart. 

Flaminio. Go in. Apply warm cloths to your side. 
I will follow immediately, and, if necessary, will 


send for a doctor to feel your pulse and prescribe a 
remedy. Give me your arm. Yon are pale and cold. 
Lean on me. Gently — gently. {Leads her into the 
house, and returns.) To what are we subject ! I would 
not, for all I am worth, that anything should happen 
to him, for there never was in the world a more dili- 
gent and well-mannered servant, nor one more cor- 
dially attached to his master. (Flaminio goes off, and 
Lelia returns.') 

Lelia. Oh, wretched Lelia ! Now you have heard 
from the mouth of this ungrateful Flaminio, how well 
he loves you. Why do jou lose your time in follow- 
ing one so false and so cruel ? All your former love, 
your favours, and your prayers, were thrown away. 
Now your stratagems are unavailing. Oh, me, un- 
happy ! Eefused, rejected, spurned, hated ! Why 
do L serve him, who repels me ? Why do I ask him, 
who denies me ? Why do I follow him, who flies 
me? Why do I love him, who hates me? Ah, 
Flaminio! Nothing pleases him but Isabella. He 
desires nothing but Isabella. Let him have her. 
Let him hold her. I must leave him, or I shall die. 
I will serve him no longer in this dress. I will 
never again come in his way since he holds me in 
such deadly hatred. I will go to Clementia, who 
expects me, and with her I will determine on the 
course of my future life. 


Flaminio and Cluvello. 

Crivello. And if it is not so, cut out my tongue, and 
hang me up by the neck. 

36 THE DECEIVED. [act ii. 

Flaminio. How long since ? 

CriveUo. When you sent me to look for him. 

Flaminio. Tell me again how it was, for he denies 
having been able to speak with her. 

CriveUo. You will do well to make him confess it. 
I tell you, that, watching about the house to see if he 
were there, I saw him come out ; and as he was 
going away, Isabella called him back into the door- 
way. They looked round, to see if any one were 
near, and not seeing any one, they kissed together. 

Flaminio. How was it that they did not see you ? 

CriveUo. I was ensconced in the opposite portico. 

Flaminio, How then did you see them ? 

Crivello. By peeping in the nick of time, when they 
saw nothing but each other. 

Flaminio. And he kissed her ? 

Crivello. I do not know whether he kissed her, or 
she kissed him ; but I am sure that one kissed the 

Flaminio. Be sure that you saw clearly, and do not 
come by-and-by to say that it seemed so ; for this is 
a great matter that you tell me of. How did you 
see it? 

Crivello. Yv^atching with open eyes, and having 
nothing to do but to see. 

Flaminio. If this be true, you have killed me. 

Crivello. This is true. She called him back, she 
went up to him : she embraced him ; she kissed him. 
If this is to kill you, you are dead. 

Flaminio. It is no wonder that the traitor denied 
having been there. I know now, why he counselled 
me to give her up : that he might have her himself. 
If I do not take such vengeance, as shall be a warn- 


ing to all traitorous servants, may I never be 
esteemed a man. But I will not believe you, with- 
out better evidence. You are ill-disposed to Fabio, 
and wish to get rid of him ; but by the eternal 
heaven, I will make you tell the truth, or I will kill 
you. You saw them kissing ? 

Crivello. I did. 

Flaminio. He kissed her ? 

Crivello. Or she him. Or both. 

Flaminio. How often ? 

Crivello. Twice. 

Flaminio. Where ? 

Crivello. In the entry of her house. 

Flaminio. You lie in your throat. You said in the 

Crivello. Just inside the doorway. 

Flaminio. Tell the truth. 

Crivello. I am very sorry to have told it. 

Flaminio. It was true ? 

Crivello. Yes ; and I have a witness. 

Flaminio. Who ? 

Crivello. Yirginio's man, Scatizza. 

Flaminio. Did he see it ? • 

Crivello. As I did. 

Flaminio. And if he does not confess it ? 

Crivello. Kill me. 

Flaminio. I will. 

Crivello. And if he does confess it ? 

Flaminio. I will kill both. 

Crivello. Oh the devil ! What for ? 

Flaminio. Kot j^ou. Isabella and Fabio. 

Crivello. And burn down the house, with Pasquella 
and every one in it. 

38 THE DECEIVED. [act hi. 

Flaminio, Let us look for Scatizza. I will pay 
them. I will take such, revenge, as all this land shall 
ring of. 


SCENE I. — The Street, with the hotels and the house of 

Messer Piero, Eabrizio, and Stragualcia. 

Messer Piero, who had been before in Modena, 
points out some of its remarkable places to Fabrizio, 
who had been taken from it too young to remember 
it. Stragualcia is a hungry fellow, who is clamorous 
for his dinner. 

L' Agiato, Feuella, Piero, Fabrizio, and Stragualcia. 

L' Agiato and Fruella, two rival hotel-keepers, 
dispute the favour of the new comers. 

L' Agiato. Oh, Signers, this is the hotel ; lodge at 
the Looking-glass — at the Looking-glass. 

Fruella. Welcome, Signers : I have lodged you 
before. Do you not remember your Fruella ? The 
only hotel for gentlemen of your degree. 

U Agiato. You shall have good apartments, a good 
fire, excellent beds, white crisp sheets ; everything 
you can ask for. 

Fruella. I will give you the best wine of Lombardy : 
partridges, home-made sausages, pigeons, pullets ; 
and whatever else you may desire. 


L'Agiato. I will give you veal sweetbreads, Bo- 
logna sausages, Mountain wine, all sorts of delicate 

Fruella. I will give you fewer delicacies, and more 
substantials. You will live at a fixed rate. At the 
Looking- Glass, you will be charged even for candles. 

Stragualcia. Master, let us put up here. This 
seems best. 

VAgiato. If you wish to live well, lodge at the 
Looking-Glass. You would not have it said that you 
lodged at the Fool.* 

Fruella. My Fool is a hundred thousand times 
better than your Looking-Glass. 

Messer Piero. Speculum prudentiam significat, juxta 
illud nostri Catonis, Nosce teipsum.^ You understand, 

Fabrizio. I understand. 

Fruella. See who has most guests, you or I. 

VAgiato. See who has most men of note. 

Fruella. See where they are best treated. 

L'Agiato. See where there are most delicacies. 

Stragualcia. Delicacies, delicacies, delicacies ! Give 
me substance. Delicacies are for the Florentines. 

VAgiato. All these lodge with me. 

Fruella. They did ; but for the last three years they 
have come to me. 

L'Agiato. My man, give me the trunk, it seems to 
gall your shoulder. 

Stragualcia. Never mind my shoulder, I want to 
fill my stomach. 

* 111 the sense offou, not of sot 

t The looking-glass signifies prudence, according to the saying 
of our Oato : " Know yourself." 

40 THE DECEIVED. [act hi. 

Fruella. Here is a couple of capons, just ready. 
These are for you. 

Stragualcia. They will do for a first course. 

L'Agiato. Look at this ham. 

Messer Fiero. Kot bad. 

Fruella. Who understands wine ? 

Stragualcia. I do ; better than the French, 

Fruella. See if this pleases you. If not, you may 
try ten other sorts. 

Stragualcia. Fruella, you are the prince of hosts. 
Taste this, master. This is good. Carry in the 

Messer Piero. Wait a little. What have you to 

L'Agiato. I say, that gentlemen do not care for 
heavy meats, but for what is light, good, and 

Stragualcia. This would be an excellent provedore 
for a hospital. 

Messer Fiero. Do not be uncivil. What will you 
give us ? 

L'Agiato. You have only to command. 

Fruella. Where there is plenty, a man may eat 
little or much as he pleases ; but where there is 
little, and the appetite grows with eating, he can 
only finish his dinner with bread. 

Stragualcia. You are wiser than the statutes. I 
have never seen a landlord so much to my mind. 

Fruella. Go into the kitchen, brother; there you 
will see. 

Messer Piero. Omnis repletio mala^ panis autem pessima."^ 

All repletiou is bad, but that of bread is the worst. 


Stragualcia (aside). Paltry pedant ! One of these 
days I must crack his skull. 

UAgiato. Come in, gentlemen. It is not good to 
stand in the cold. 

FahriziG. We are not so chilly. 

Frmlla. You must know, gentlemen, this hotel of 
the Looking-Glass used to be the best hotel in 
Lombardy ; but since I have opened this of the Fool, 
it does not lodge ten persons in a year, and my sign 
has a greater reputation throughout the world than 
any other hostelry whatever. The French come 
here in flocks, and all the Germans, that pass this 

L^Agiato. That is not true. The Germans go to 
the Pig. 

Fruella. The Milanese come here ; the Parmesans, 
the Placentians. 

L'Agiato. The Venetians come to me, the Genoese, 
the Florentines. 

Messer Fiero. ^Vhere do the Neapolitans lodge ? 

Fruella. With me. 

L'Agiato. The greater part of them lodge at the 

Fruella. Many with me. 

Fahrizio. AA'here does the Duke of Malfi ? 

Fruella. Sometimes at my house, sometimes at his, 
sometimes at the Sword, sometimes at the Cupid ; 
accordingly as he finds most room for his suite. 

Messer Fiero. Where do the Eomans lodge, as we 
are from Eome ? 

L'Agiato. With me. 

Fruella. It is not true. He does not lodge a Eoman 
in a year, except two or three old cardinals, who 

42 THE DECEIVED. [act hi. 

keep to him from habit. All the rest come to the 

Stragualcia. I would not go from hence, without 
being dragged away. Master, there are so many- 
pots and pipkins about the fire, so many soups, so 
many sauces, so many spits, turning with partridges 
and capons, such an odour of stews and ragouts, such 
a display of pies and tarts, that, if the whole court of 
Eome were coming here to keep carnival, there 
would be enough, and to spare. 

Fabrizio. Have you been drinking ? 

Stragualcia. Oh !. and such wine. 

Messer Piero. Vaporum ciborum commistio pessimam 
gene rat digestionem.* 

Stragualcia. Bus asinorum, buorum castronorum pecoroni- 
hus t — the devil take all pedants. Let us go in here, 

Fahrizio. Where do the Spaniards lodge ? 

Fruella. I do not trouble myself about them. They 
go to the Hook. But what need more ? No person 
of note arrives in Modena, but comes to lodge with 
me, except the Sienese, who, being all one with the 
Modenese, no sooner set foot in the city, but they 
find an hundred friends, who take them to their 
houses : otherwise great lords and good companions, 
gentle and simple, all come to the Fool. 

L'Agiato. I say that great doctors, learned brothers, 
academicians, virtuosi, all come to the Looking- 

Fruella. And I say, that no one, who takes up his 

* The mixture of various foods causes the worst possible 

t Mock Latin. 


quarters at the Looking-Glass, has been there many 
days, before he walks out and comes to me. 

Fahrizio. Messer Piero, what shall we do ? 

Messer Piero. Etiam atque etiam cogitandum* 

Stragualcia (aside). I can scarcely keep my hands 
off him. 

Messer Piero. I think, Fabrizio, we have not mnch 

Stragualcia. Master, I have just seen the host's 
daughter, as beautiful as an angel. 

Messer Piero. Well, let us fix here. Your father, 
if we find him, will pay the reckoning. 

Stragualcia. I will go into the kitchen, taste what 
is there, drink two or three cups of wine, fall asleep 
by a good fire, and the devil take economy. 

L'Agiato. Eemember, Fruella. You have played 
me too many tricks. One day we must try which 
head is the hardest. 

Fruella. "Whenever you please. I am ready to crack 
your skull. 

SCENE III. — The Street, vMh the house of Virginio. 

ViRGiNio and Clementia. 
Virginio. These are the customs which you have 
taught her. This is the honour which she does me. 
Have I for this escaped so many misfortunes, to see 
my property without an heir, my house broken up, 
my daughter dishonoured : to become the fable of 
the city : not to dare to lift up my head : to be 
pointed at by boys ; to be laughed at by old men, 
to be put into a comedy by the Intronati, to be made 
an example in novels, to be an eternal scandal in 
* It is to be thought of again and again. 

44 THE DECEIVED. [act hi. 

the moTitlis of tlie ladies of this land ? For if one 
knows it, in three hours all the city knows it. Dis- 
graced, unhappy, miserable father! I have lived 
too long. What can I think of? What can I do? 

Clementia. You will do well to make as little noise 
as you can, and to take the quietest steps you can to 
bring your daughter home, before the town is aware 
of the matter. But I wish that Sister Novell ante 
Ciancini had as much breath in her body, as I have 
faith in my mind that Lelia goes dressed as a man. 
Do not encourage their evil speaking. They wish her 
to be a nun, that they may inherit your property. 

Virginio. Sister Novellante has spoken truth. She 
has told me, moreover, that Lelia is living as a page 
with a gentleman of this city, and that he does not 
know that she is not a boy. 

Clementia. I do not believe it, 

Virginio. Neither do I, that he does not know that 
she is not a boy. 

Clementia. That is not what I mean. 

Virginio. It is what I mean. But what could T 
expect, when I intrusted her bringing up to you ? 

Clementia. Eather, what could you expect, when 
you wanted to marry her to a man old enough to be 
her grandfather ? 

Virginio. If I find her, I will drag her home by the 

Clementia. You will take your disgrace from your 
bosom, to display it on your head. 

Virginio. I have a description of her dress : I shall 
find her : let that suffice. 

Clementia. Take your own way. I will lose no 
more time in washing a coal. 


SCENE TV.— The Street, with the hotels and the house of 

Fabrizio and Ekuella. 

^ Fabrizio. Wliile my two servants are sleeping, I 
will walk about to see the city. When they rise, 
tell them to come towards the piazza. 

Fruella. Assuredly, young gentleman, if I had not 
seen you put on these clothes, I should have taken 
you for the page of a gentleman in this town, who 
dresses like you, in white,* and is so like you that 
he appears yourself. 

Fabrizio. Perhaps I may have a brother. 

Fruella. It may be so. 

Fabrizio. Tell my tutor to inquire for he knows 

Fruella. Trust to me. 


Fabrizio and Pasquella. 

Pasquella. In good faith, there he is. I was afraid 
of having to search the city before I should find you. 
My mistress says you must come to her as soon as 
you can, for a matter of great importance to both of 

* Viola, in assuming male apparel, copies the dress of her 
brother : — 

" He named Sebastian : I my brother know 
Yet living in my glass : even such and so 
In favour was my brother ; and he went 
Still in this fashion, colour, ornament ; 
For him I imitate." — TivelfiJt Night, Act iii., Scene 4. 

46 THE DECEIVED. [act hi. 

Fahrizio. Who is your mistress? 

Pasquella. As if 3'ou did not know. 

Fabrizio. I do not know either her or you. 

Pasquella. Oh, my Fabio. 

Fahrizio, That is not my name. You are under 
some mistake. 

Pasquella. Oh, no, Fabio. You know, there are 
few girls in this country so rich and so beautiful, and 
I wish you would come to conclusions with her : for 
going backwards and forwards day after day, taking 
words and giving words only, sets folks talking, 
with no profit to you, and little honour to her. 

Fahrizio (aside). What can this mean? Either 
the woman is mad, or she takes me for somebody 
else. But I will see what will come of it. Let us 
go, then. 

Pasquella. Oh ! I think I hear people in the house. 
Stop a moment. I will see if Isabella is alone, and 
will make a sign to you if the coast is clear. 

Fahrizio. I will see the end of this mystery. Per- 
haps it is a scheme to get money of me : but I am, 
as it were, a pupil of the Spaniards, and am more 
likely to get a crown from them, than they are to 
get a carlin from me. I will stand aside a little, to 
see who goes into or out of the house, and judge 
what sort of lady she may be. 


Gheeardo, ViRGiNio, and Pasquella. 

Gherardo. Pardon me. If this is so, I renounce 
her. If Lelia has done this, it must be, not merely 


because she will not have me, but because she has 
taken somebody else. 

Virginio. Do not believe it, Gherardo. I pray you, 
do not spoil what has been done. 

Gherardo. And I jDray you to say no more about it. 

Virginio. Surely you will not be wanting to your 

Gherardo. Yes, where there has been a wanting in 
deed. Besides, you do not know if you can recover 
her. You are selling the bird in the bush. I heard 
your talk with Clementia. 

Virginio. If I do not recover her, I cannot give her 
to you. But if I do recover her, will you not have 
her ? And that immediately ? 

Gherardo. Yirginio, I had the most honourable 
wife in Modena. And I have a daughter who is a 
dove. How can I bring into my house one who has 
run away from her father, and gone heaven knows 
where, in masculine apparel ? Whom should I find 
to marry my daughter ? 

Virginio. After a few days nothing will be thought 
of it. And I do not think any one knows it, except 

Gherardo. The whole town will be full of it, 

Virginio. No, no. 

Gherardo. How long is it since she ran away ? 

Virginio. Yesterday, or this morning. 

Gherardo. Who knows that she is still in Modena ? 

Virginio. I know it. 

Gherardo. Find her, and we will talk it over again. 

Virginio. Do you promise to take her ? 

Gherardo. I will see. 

Virginio. Say, yes. 

48 THE DECEIVED. [act in. 

Gherardo. I will not say yes : but — 

Virginio. Come, say it freely. 

Gherardo. Softly. What are you doing here, Pas- 
quella ? What is Isabella about ? 

Pasquella. Kneeling before her altar. 

Gherardo. Blessings on her. A daughter who is 
always at her devotions, is something to be proud of. 

Pasquella. Ay, indeed. She fasts on all fast-days, 
and says the prayers of the day like a little saint. 

Gherardo. She resembles that blessed soul of her 

Virginio. Oh, Gherardo ! Gherardo ! this is she, of 
whom we have been speaking. She seems to be 
hiding or running away, for having seen me. Let us 
go up to her. 

Gherardo. Take care not to mistake. Perhaps it is 
not she ? 

Virginio. Who would not know her ? And have I 
not all the signs which Sister Kovellante gave me ? 

Pasquella. Things are going ill. I will take myself 



YiEGiNio, Gherardo, and Fabrizio. 

Virginio. So, my fine miss, do you think this a be- 
fitting dress for you ? This is the honour which you 
do to my house. This is the content you give to a 
poor old man. Would I had been dead before you 
were born, for you were only bom to disgrace me : 
to bury me alive. And you, Gherardo, what say you 
of your betrothed ? Is she not a credit to you ? 

Gherardo. She is no betrothed of mine. 

Virginio. Impudent minx ! W'hat would become 
of you, if this good man should reject you for a wife ? 


But lie overlooks your follies, and is willing to take 

Gherardo. Softly, softly. 
Virginio. Go indoors, hussy. 

Fahrizio. Old man, have you no sons, friends, or 
relations in this city, whose duty it is to take care of 

Virginio. What an answer ! Why do you ask 

Fahrizio. Because I wonder that, having so much 
need of a doctor, you are allowed to go about, when 
you ought to be locked up, and in a strait-waistcoat. 
Virginio. You ought to be locked up, and shall be, 
if I do not kill you on the spot, as I have a mind 
to do. 

Fahrizio. You insult me, because, perhaps, you 
think me a foreigner ; but I am a Modenese, and of 
as good a family as you. 

Virginio {taMng Ghei^ardo aside). Gherardo, take her 
inta your house. Do not let her be seen in this 

Gherardo. No, no ; take her home. 
Virginio. Listen a little, and keep an eye on her, 
that she does not run away. ( They talk apart.) 

Fahrizio. I have seen madmen before now, but such 
a madman as this old fellow I never saw going at 
large. What a comical insanity, to fancy that young 
men are girls ! I would not for a thousand crowns 
have missed this drollery, to make a story for even- 
ings in carnival. They are coming this way. I will 
humour their foolery, and see what will come of it. 
Virginio. Come here. 
Fahrizio. What do you want ? 


50 THE DECEIVED. [act hi. 

Virgimo. You are a sad liussy. 

Fdbrizio. Do not be abusive : for I shall not stand it. 

Virgimo. Brazen face. 

Fabrizio. Ho ! bo ! bo ! 

Gherardo. Let bim speak. Do you not see tbat be 
is angry ? Do as be bids. 

Fabrizio. Wbat is bis anger to me ? Wbat is be to 
me, or you eitber ? 

Virgimo. You will kill me before my time. 

Fabrizio. It is bigb time to die, wben you bave 
fallen into dotage. You bave lived too long already. 

Gherardo. Do not speak so, dear daugbter, dear 

Fdbrizio. Here is a pretty pair of doves ! botb crazy 
witb one conceit. Ha ! ba ! ba ! ba ! 

Virginio. Do you laugb at me, impudence ? 

Fdbrizio. How can I belp laugbing at you, brain- 
less old goose ? 

Gherardo. I am afraid tbis poor girl bas lost ber wits. 

Virginio. I tbougbt so at first, wben I saw witb 
bow little patience sbe received me. Pray take ber 
into your bouse. I cannot take ber to my own, 
witbout making myself tbe sigbt of tbe city. 

Fabrizio. About wbat are tbese brotbers of Mel- 
cbisedecb laying together tbe beads of tbeir second 
babjT^bood ? 

Virgimo. Let us coax ber indoors ; and as soon as 
sbe is witbin, lock ber up in a chamber witb your 

Gherardo. Be it so. 

Virgimo. Come, my girl, I will not longer be angry 
with you. I pardon everything. Only behave well 
for tbe future. 


Fabriziq. Thank you. 

Gherardo. Beliave as good daughters do. 

Fabrizio. The other chimes in with the same tnne. 

Gherardo. Go in, then, like a good girl. 

Virginio. Go in, my daughter. 

Gherardo. This house is your own. You are to be 
my wife. 

Fahrizio. Your wife and his daughter ? Ha ! ha ! 

Gherardo. My daughter will be glad of your com- 

Fabrizio. Your daughter, eh? Very good. I will 
go in. 

Virginio. Gherardo, now that we have her safe, lock 
her up with your daughter, while I send for her 

Gherardo. Pasquella, call Isabella, and bring the 
key of her room. 

ACT lY. 

SCENE I. — Scene continues. 
Messer Piero and Stragualcia. 

Messer Piero. You ought to have fifty bastinadoes, 
to teach you to keep him company when he goes out, 
and not to get drunk and sleep, as you have done, 
and let him go about alone. 

Stragualcia. And you ought to be loaded with birch 
and broom, sulphur, pitch, and gunpowder, and set 
on fire, to teach you not to be what you are. 

Messer Piero. Sot, sot. 

52 THE DECEIVED. [act iv. 

Stmgualcia. Pedant, pedant. 

Messer Piero. Let me find your master. 

Stragualcia. Let me find his father. 

Messer Piero. What can 3^ou say of me to his 
father ? 

Stragualcia. And what can you say of me ? 

Messer Piero. That you are a knave, a rogue, a 
rascal, a sluggard, a coward, a drunkard. That is 
what I can say. 

Stragualcia. And I can say that you are a thief, a 
gambler, a slanderer, a cheat, a sharper, a boaster, a 
blockhead, an impostor, an ignoramus, a traitor, a 
profligate. That is what I can say. 

Messer Piero. Well, we are both known. 

Stragualcia. True. 

Messer Piero. No more words. I will not place 
myself on a footing with you. 

Stragualcia. Oh ! to be sure ; you have all the 
nobility of the Maremma. I am better born than 
you. What are you, but the son of a muleteer^ 
This upstart, because he can say cujus masculini, thinks 
he may set his foot on every man's neck. 

Messer Piero. Naked and poor go'st thou. Philoso- 
phy.* To what have poor letters come ? Into the 
mouth of an ass. 

Stragualcia. You will be the ass presently. I will 
lay a load of wood on your shoulders. 

Messer Piero. Furor fit Icesa scepius sapientia.'\ Eor 
the sake of your own shoulders, let me alone, base 
groom, poltroon, arch-poltroon. 

Stragualcia. Pedant, pedant, arch-pedant. What 

* Povera e uuda vai, Eilosofia. — Petrarca, p. 1. s. 7. 
t Wisdom frequently injured becomes fury. 


can be said worse than pedant? Can tliere be a 
viler, baser, more rubbisby race? Tbey go about 
puffed up like bladders because tbey are called 
Messer This, Maestro That. . . . {Stragualcia ends with 
several terms of untranslatable abuse.) 

Messer Piero. Tractant fabrilia fabrij^ You speak 
like what you are. Either you shall leave this 
service, or I will. 

Stragualcia. Who would have you in his house, and 
at his table, except my young master, who is better 
than bread ? 

Messer Piero. Many would be glad of me. No more 
words. Go to the hotel, take care of your master's 
property. By-and-b}^ we will have a reckoning. 

Stragualcia. Yes, we will have a reckoning, and 
you shall pay it. 

Messer Piero. Fruella told me Eabrizio was gone 
towards the Piazza. I will follow him. \^Exit. 

Stragualcia. If I did not now and then make head 
against this fellow, there would be no living with 
him. He has no more valour than a rabbit. When 
I brave him, he is soon silenced : but if I were once 
to knock under to him, he would lead me the life of 
a gallej^-slave. 

Gherardo, Yirginio, and Messer Piero. 

Gherardo. I will endow her as you desire ; and if 
you do not find your son, 3^ou will add a thousand 
golden florins. 

Virginio. Be it so. 

* Workmen speak according to their art. 

54 THE DECEIVED. [act iv. 

Messer Piero. I am inucli deceived, or I have seen 
this gentleman before. 

Virginio. What are you looking at, good sir ? 

Messer Piero. Certainly, this is my old master. Do 
you know in this town one Signor Vincenzio Bellen- 

Virginio. I know him well. He has no better 
friend than I am. 

Messer Piero. Assuredly, jom are he. Salve, patro- 
norum optime.^ 

Virginio. Are you Messer Pietro de' Pagliaricci, my 
son's tutor ? 

Messer Piero. I am, indeed. 

Virginio. Oh, my son ! Woe is me ! What news 
do you bring me of him ? Where did you leave 
him ^ Where did he die ? For dead he must be, or 
I should not have been so long without hearing from 
him. Those traitors murdered him — those Jews, 
those dogs. Oh, my son ! my greatest blessing in the 
world ! Tell me of him, dear master. 

Messer Piero. Do not weep, sir, for heaven's sake. 
Your son is alive and well. 

Gherardo. If this is true, I lose the thousand florins. 
Take care, Yirginio, that this man is not a cheat. 

Messer Piero. Parcius ista viris tamen ohjicienda me- 
mento. '\ 

Virginio. Tell me something, master. 

Messer Piero. Your son, in the sack of Eome, was a 
prisoner of one Captain Orteca. 

Gherardo. So he begins his fable. 

* Hail ! best of masters. 

t Remember, that such things must be more sparingly ob- 
jected to men. 


Messer Piero. And because the captain had two 
comrades, who might claim their share, he sent ns 
secretly to Siena : then, fearing that the Sienese, who 
are great friends of right and justice, and most affec- 
tionately attached to this city, might take him and 
set him at liberty, he took us to a castle of the Signer 
di Piombino, set our ransom at a thousand ducats, and 
made us write for that amount. 

Virginio. AVas my son ill-treated ? 

Messey^ Piero. No, certainly ; they treated him like a 
gentleman. We received no answers to our letters. 

Virginio. Go on. 

Messer Piero. Xow, being conducted with the Spa- 
nish camp to Corregia, this captain was killed, and the 
Court took his property, and set us at liberty. 

Virginio. And w^here is my son ? 

Messer Piero. Nearer than you suppose. 

Virginio. In Modena. 

Messer Piero. At the hotel of the Fool. 

Gherardo. The thousand florins are gone ; but it 
suffices to have her. I am rich enough without 

Virginio. I die with impatience to embrace him. 
Come, master. 

Messer Piero. But what of Lelia ? 
Virginio. She has grown into a fine young woman . 
Has my son advanced in learning ? 

Messer Piero. He has not lost his time, ut licuit per 
tot casus, per tot discrimina rerum.* 

Virginio. Call him out. Say nothing to him. Let 
me see if he will know me. 

* As far as it was available, through so many accidents and 
disastrous chances. 

56 THE DECEIVED. [act iv, 

Messer Piero. He went out a little while since. I 
will see if he has returned. 


ViKGiNio, Ghei:ardo, Messer Piero, o^ul Speagualcia, 
afterwards Fruella. 

Messer Piero. Stragualcia, oh ! Stragualcia, has Fa- 
brizio returned ? 

Stragualcia. Kot yet. 

Messer Piero. Come here. Speak to your old master. 
This is Signer Yirginio. 

Stragualcia. Has your anger passed away ? 

Messer Piero. You know I am never long angry with 

Stragualcia, All's well, then. Is this our master's 

Messer Pietro. It is. 

Stragualcia. Oh ! worthy master. You are just found 
in time to pay our bill at the Fool. 

Messer Piero. This has been a good servant to your 

Stragualcia. Has been only ? 

Messer Piero. And still is. 

Virginio. I shall take care of all who have been 
faithful companions to my son. 

Stragualcia. You can take care of me with little 

Virginio. Demand. 

Stragualcia. Settle me as a waiter with this host, 
who is the best companion in the world, the best pro- 
vided, the most knowing, one that better understands 


tlie necessities of a foreign guest than any host I 
have ever seen. For my part, I do not think there is 
any other paradise on earth. 

Gherardo. He has a reputation for treating well. 
Virginio. Have you breakfasted ? 

Stragualcia. A little. 
Virginio. What have you eaten ? 

Stragualcia. A brace of partiidges, six tlirnshes, a 
capon, a little veal, with only two jugs of wine.* 

Virginio. Fruella, give him whatever he wants, and 
leave the payment to me. 

Stragualcia. Fruella, first bring a little wine for 
these gentlemen. 

Messer Piero. They do not need it. 

Stragualcia. They will not refuse. You must drink 
too, Master. 

Messer Piero. To make peace with you, I am content. 

Stragualcia. Signer Virginio, you have reason to 
thank the Master, who loves your son better than his 
own eyes. 

Virginio. Heaven be bountiful to him. 

Stragualcia. It concerns you first, and heaven after. 
Drink, gentleman. 

Gherardo. Kot now. 

Stragualcia. Pray then, go in, till Fabrizio returns. 
And let us sup here this evening. 

* The reader may be reminded of Massinger's Justice 
Greedy : — 

" Overreach. Hungry again ! Did you not devour this morning 
A shield of brawn and a barrel of Colchester oysters ? 

" Greedy. Why, that was, sir, only to scour my stomach — 
A kind of a preparative." 

New Way to Pay Old Belts, Act iv., Scene 1. 

58 THE DECEIVED. [act it. 

Gherardo. I must leave you for a while. I have 
some business at home. 

Virginio. Take care that Lelia does not get away. 

Gherardo. That is what I am going for. 

Virginio. She is yours. I give her to you. Arrange 
the matter to your mind. 

SCENE lY.— The Street, with the house of Virginio. 
Gherardo, Lelia, and CLEME>fTiA. 

Gherardo. One cannot have all things one's own 
way. Patience. But how is this? Here is Lelia. 
That careless Pasquella has let her escape. 

Lelia. Does it not appear to you, Clementia, that 
Fortune makes me her sport ? 

Clementia. Be of good cheer. I will find some means 
to content you. But come in, and change your dress. 
You must not be seen so. 

Gherardo. I will salute her, however, and under- 
stand how she has -got out. Good day to you, Lelia, 
my sweet spouse. Who opened the door to you ? 
Pasquella, eh? I am glad you have gone to your 
nurse's house ; but your being seen in this dress does 
little honour to you or to me. 

Lelia. To whom are you speaking ? What Lelia ? 
I am not Lelia. 

Gherardo. Oh ! a little while ago, when your father 
and I locked you up with my daughter Isabella, did 
you not confess that you were Lelia ? And now, you 
think I do not know you. Go, my dear wife, and 
change your dress. 

Lelia. God send you as much of a wife, as I have 
fancy for you as a husband. (^Goes in.) 


Clementia. Go liome, Gherardo. All women have 
their child's pla}^,* some in one way, some in another. 
This is a very innocent one. Still these little amnse- 
ments are not to be talked of. 

Gherardo. No one shall know it from me. Bnt how 
did she escape from my house, where I had locked 
her up with Isabella ? 

Clementia. Locked up whom ? ' 

Gherardo. Lelia; this Lelia. 

Clementia. You are mistaken. She has not parted 
from me to-day ; and for pastime she put on these 
clothes, as girls will do, and asked me if she did not 
look well in them ? 

Gherardo. You want to make me see double. I tell 
you I locked her up with Isabella. 

Clementia. Whence come you now ? 

Gherardo. From the hotel of the Fool. 

Clementia. Did you drink ? 

Gherardo. A little. 

Clementia. Xow go to bed, and sleep it off. 

Gherardo. Let me see Lelia for a moment before I 
go, that I may giVe her a piece of good news. 

Clementia. AVhat news? 

Gherardo. Her brother has returned safe and sound, 
and her father is waiting for him at the hotel. 

Clementia. Fabrizio ? 

Gherardo. Fabrizio. 

Clementia. I hasten to tell her. 

Gherardo. And I to blow up Pasquella, for letting 
her escape. 

* CiUolezze ( zitellezze), equivalent to fanciullaggini. 

60 THE DECEIVED. [act iv. 

SCENE V. — The Street, with the hotels and the house of 

Pasquella, alone. 

Pasquella, wlio had onl}^ known Lelia as Fabio, 
and did not know what tlie two old men had meant, 
by callmg the supposed Lelia, whom they had de- 
livered to her charge, a girl, has nevertheless obeyed 
orders, in locking up Eabrizio with Isabella, and now 
in an untranslatable soliloquy, narrates, that the two 
captives had contracted matrimony by their own 

Pasquella and Giglio. 

Pasquella, seeing Giglio coming, retires within the 
court-yard, through the grated door of which the 
dialogue is carried on. Giglio wishes to obtain ad- 
mission to Gherardo's house, without giving Pas- 
quella the rosary he had promised her. He shows 
it to her, and withholds giving it, on pretence that it 
wants repairs. She, on the other hand, wishes to get 
the rosary, and give him nothing in return. She 
pretends to doubt if it is a true rosa.ry, and prevails 
on him to let her count the beads. She then cries 
out, that the fowls are loose, and that she cannot open 
the door till she has got them in. Giglio declares 
that he sees no fowls ; that she is imposing on 
him. She laughs at him : he expostulates, implores, 
threatens to break down the door, to set fire to the 
house, to bu]'n everything in it, herself included. In 
the midst of his wrath, he sees Gherardo approaching, 
and runs away. 


Pasquella and Gherardo. 

Gherardo. What were you doing at the gate, with 
that Spaniard ? 

Pasquella. He was making a great noise ahout a 
rosary. I could not make out what he wanted. 

Gherardo. Oh ! you have executed your trust well. 
I could find in my heart to break your hones. 

Pasquella. For what ? 

Gherardo. Because you have let Lelia escape. I 
told you to keep her locked in. 

Pasquella. She is locked in. 

Gherardo. I admire your impudence. She is not. 

Pasquella. I say she is. 

Gherardo. I have just left her with her nurse de- 

Pasquella. And I have just left her, where you 
ordered her to be kept. 

Gherardo. Perhaps she came back before me. 

Pasquella. She never went away. The chamber 
has been kept locked. 

Gherardo. Where is the key ? 

Pasquella. Here it is. 

Gherardo. Give it me. If she is not there you 
shall pay for it. 

Pasquella. And if she is there will you pay for it ? 

Gherardo. I will. You shall have a handsome 

62 THE DECEIVED. . [act iv. 

Pasquella, Flamixio ; afterwards Gherardo. 

Flamimio. Pasquella, how long is it since my Fabio 
was here ? 

Pasquella. Why ? 

Flamviio. Because he is a traitor, and I will punish 
him ; and because Isabella has left me for him. Fine 
honour to a lady of her position, to fall in love with a 

Pasquella. Oh, do not say so. All the favours she 
has shown him are only for love of you. 

Flaminio. Tell her she will repent ; and as for him, 
I carry this dagger for him. 

Pasquella. While the dog barks, the wolf feeds. 

Flaminio. You will see. [Eocit. 

Gherardo. Oh me ! to what have I come ! oh traitor, 
Yirginio ! oh heaven ! what shall I do ? 

Pasquella. What is the matter, master? 

Gherardo. What is he that is with my daughter ? 

Pasquella. He? Why you told me, it was Yir- 
ginio' s daughter. 

G-HERARDO has discovered the clandestine mar- 
riage, and gives vent to his rage in untranslatable 


Gherardo, Yirginio, and Messer Piero. 

Messer Piero. I wonder he has not returned to the 
hotel. I do not know what to think of it. 

Gherardo. Ho ! ho ! Yirginio ! this is a pretty 
outrage that you have put on me. Do you think 
I shall submit to it ? 


Virginio. What are you roaring about ? 

Gherardo. Do you take me for a sheep, you cheat, 
you thief, you traitor ? But the governor shall hear 
of it. 

Virginio. Have you lost your senses ? Or, what is 
the matter ? 

Gherardo. Eobber. 

Virginio. I have too much patience. 

Gherardo. Liar. 

Virginio. You lie in your own throat. 

Gherardo. Forger. 

Messer Piero. Ah, gentlemen ! what madness is 

Gherardo. Let me come at him. 

Messer Piero. What is between this gentleman and 

Virginio. He wanted to marry my daughter, and I 
left her in his charge. 1 am afraid he has abused 
my confidence, and invents a pretext for breaking 

Gherardo. The villain has ruined me. I will cut 
him to pieces. - [ Virginio goes off.* 

Messer Piero. Pray let us understand the case. 

Gherardo. The miscreant has run away. Come in 
with me, and you shall know the whole affair. 

Messer Piero. I go in with you, on your faith ? 

Gherardo. On my faith, solemnly. 

* To retrn-n with arins and followers. 

04 THE DECEIVED. [act v. 

ACT y. 

SCENE I. — Scene continues. 

ViRGiNio, Stragualcia, Scatizza ; afterwards at inter- 
vals, Messer Piero, Gherardo, and Fabrizio. 

Virginio. Follow me, all ; and you, Stragualcia. 

Stragualcia. With or without arms ? I have no 

Virginio. Take in the hotel something that will 
serve. I fear this madman may have killed my poor 

Stragualcia. This spit is a good weapon. I will run 
him through and all his followers, like so many 

Scatizza. What ai'e these flasks for ? 

Stragualcia. To refresh the soldiers, if they should 
fall back in the first skirmish. 

Virginio. The door opens. They have laid some 

Messer Piero. Leave me to settle the matter, Signer 

Stralgualcia. See, master, the tutor has rebelled, 
and sides with the enemy. There is no faith in this 
class of fellows. Shall I spit him first, and count 

Messer Piero. Why these arms, my master ? 

Virginio. What has become of my daughter ? 

Messer Piero. I have found Fabrizio. 

Virginio. Where? 

Messer Piero. Here, within. And he has taken a 
beautiful wife. 


Virginio. A wife ? And wlio ? 

Messer Piero. The daughter of Gherardo. 

Virginio. Gherardo ! It was but now he wanted to 
kill me. 

Messer Piero. Rem omnem a principio audies.* Come 
forth, Signor Gherardo. 

Gherardo. Lay down these arms, and come in. It 
is matter for laughter. 

Virginio. Can I do it safely ? 

Messer Piero. Safely, on my assurance. 

Virginio. Then do you all go home, and lay down 
your arms. 

Messer Piero. Fabrizio, come to your father. 

Virginio. Is not this Lelia ? 

Messer Piero. No, this is Fabrizio. 

Virginio. Oh, my son, how much I have mourned 
for you ? 

Fabrizio. Oh, dear father, so long desired ! 

Gherardo. Come in, and you shall know all. I can 
further tell you, that your daughter is in the house of 
her nurse, Clementia. 

Virginio. How thankful I am to Heaven. 

SCENE II. — The Street^ with the houses of Virginio and 

Flaminio and Crivello ; afterwards Clementia. 

CriveUo. I have seen him in the house of Clementia 
with these eyes, and heard him with these ears. 
Flaminio. Are you sure it was Fabio ? 
Crivello. Do you think I do not know him ? 
Flaminio, Let us go in, and if I find him 

* You sliall l;ear the whole affair from the beginning. 


66 THE DECEIVED. [act v. 

Crivello. You will spoil all. Have patience, till lie 
comes out. 

Flaminio. Not heaven itself could make me have 
patience. {Knocks at the door.) 

Clementia. Who is there ? 

Flaminio. A friend. Come down for a while. 

Clementia. Oh, Signor Flaminio, whsCt do you want 
with me ? 

Flaminio. Open, and I will tell you. 

Clementia. Wait till I come down. 

Flaminio. As soon as she opens the door, go in, and 
if you find him, call me. 

Crivello. Leave it to me. 

Clementia. Now what have you to say, Signor Fla- 
minio ? 

Flaminio. What are you doing in your house with 
my page ? 

Clementia. What page ? How ? Are you going 
into my house by force ? ( Pushing hack Crivello.) 

Flaminio. Clementia, by the body of Bacchus ! if 
you do not restore him 

Clementia. Whom? 

Flaminio. My boy, who has fled into your house. 

Clementia. There is no boy in my house. 

Flaminio. Clementia, you have always been friendly 
to me, and 1 to you; but this is a matter of too 
great moment 

Cle7nentia. What fury is this ? Pause a little, 
Flaminio. Give time for your anger to pass away. 

Flaminio. I say, restore me Fabio. 

Clementia. Oh ! not so much rage. By my faith, if 
I were a young woman, and pleased you, I would 
have nothing to say to you. What of Isabella ? 


Flaminio. I wish she were quartered. 
Clementia, Oh, that cannot be true. 

Flaminio. If that is not true, she has made me see 
what is true. 

Clementia. You young men deserve all the ill that 
can befall you. You are the most ungrateful crea- 
tures on earth. 

Flaminio. This cannot be said of me. Ko man more 
abhors ingratitude than I do. 

Clementia. I do not say it for j^ou ; but there is in 
this city a young woman, who, thinking herself be- 
loved by a cavalier of your condition, became so much 
in love with him, that she seemed to see nothing in 
the world but him. 

Flaminio. He was a happy man to inspire such a 

Clementia. It so happened that her father sent this 
poor girl away from Modena, and most bitterly she 
wept on her departure, fearing that he would soon 
forget her, and turn to another ; which he did imme- 

Flaminio. This could not be a cavalier. He was a 

Clementia. Listen. Worse follows. The poor girl, 
returning after a few months, and finding that her 
lover loved another, and that this other did not 
return his love, abandoned her home, placed her 
honour in peril, and, in masculine attire, engaged 
herself to her false lover as a servant. 

Flaminio. Did this happen in Modena ? I had rather 
be this fortunate lover than lord of Milan. 

Clementia. And this lover, not knowing her, -em- 

68 THE DECEIVED. [act v. 

plo^^ed her as a messenger to liis new flame, and she, 
to please him, submitted to this painful duty. 

Flaminio. Oh ! virtuous damsel ; oh ! firm love : a 
thing truly to be put in example to all coming time. 
Oh ! that such a chance had happened to me. 

Clementia. You would not leave Isabella ! 

Flaminio. I would leave her, or any one thing else, 
for such a blessing. Tell me, who is she ? 

Clementia. Tell me, first, what would you do, if the 
case were your own ? 

Flaminio. I swear to you, by the light of heaven, 
may I never more hold up my head among honour- 
able men, if I would not lalher take her for a wife, 
even if she had no beauty, nor wealth, nor birth, than 
the daughter of the Duke of Ferrara. 

Clementia. This you swear. 

Flaminio. This I swear, and this I would do. 

Clementia. You are witness. 

Crivello. I am. 

Clementia. Fabio, come down. 


Clementia, Flaminjo, Crivello, Lelia in female dress, 
afterwards Pasquella. 

Clementia. This, Signer Flaminio, is your Fabio; 
and this, at the same time, is the constant, loving girl 
of whom I told you. Do you recognize him ? Do you 
recognize her ? Do you now see the worth of the love 
which yon rejected ? 

Flaminio. There cannot be on earth a more charming 


deceit than this. Is it possible, that I can have been 
so blind as not to have known her ? 

Pasqaella. Clementia, Virginio desires that you will 
come to onr house. He has given a wife to his son 
Fabrizio, who has just returned, and you are wanted 
to put everything in order. 

Clementia. A wife ? and whom ? 

Pasquella. Isabella, the daughter of my master 

Flaminio. The daughter of Gherardo Foiani ? 

Pasquella. The same. I saw the ring put on the 
bride's finger. 

Flaminio. When was this ? 

Pasquella. Just now. And I was sent off imme- 
diately to call Clementia. 

Clementia. Say, I will come almost directly. 

Lelia. Oh, heaven ! all this together is enough to 
make me die of joy, 

Pasquella. And I was to ask, if Lelia is here. Ghe- 
rardo has said she is. 

Clementia. Yes ; and they want to marry her to the 
old phantom of your master, who ought to be ashamed 
of himself. 

Flaminio. Marry her to Gherardo ! 

Clementia. See, if the poor girl is unfortunate. 

Flaminio. May he have as much of life as he will 
have of her. I think, Clementia, this is certainly the 
will of heaven, which has had pity no less on this 
virtuous girl than on me ; and therefore, Lelia, I 
desire no other wife than you, and I vow to you most 
solemnly, that if I have not you, I will never have any. 

Lelia. Flaminio, you are my lord. I have shown 
my heart in w^hat I have dune. 

70 THE DECEIVED. [act v. 

Flaminio. Yoii have, indeed, shown it well. And 
forgive me if I have caused you affliction ; for I am 
most repentant, and aware of my error. 

Lelia, Your j^leasure, Flaminio, has alwaj^s been 
mine. I should have found my own happiness in 
promoting youi's. 

Flaminio. Clement ia, I dread some accident. I 
would not lose time, but marry her instantly, if she is 

Lelia. Most content. 

Clementia. Marry, then, and return here. In the 
mean time, I will inform Virginio, and wish bad night 
to Gherardo. 

SCENE lY. — The Street, loitli the hotels and the house 
of Gherardo. 

Pasquella and Giglio. 

Tasquella again befools the Spaniard, who goes oif, 
vowing that this is the last time she shall impose on 

SCENE Y. — The Street, loith the houses of Virginio and 

Flaminio and Lelia have been married, and have 
returned to dementia's house. Cittina comes out 
from it, and delivers an untranslatable soliloquy. 


SCENE VI. — The Street, with the hotels and the house of 

Isabella and Fabrizio, afterwards Clementia. 

Isabella. I most certainly thouglit that you were the 
page of a gentleman of this city. He resembles you 
so much, that he must surely be your brother. 

Fabrizio. I have been mistaken for another more 
than once to-day. 

Isabella. Here is your nurse, Clementia. 

Clementia. This must be he who is so like Lelia. 
Oh ! my dear child, Fabrizio, how is it with you ? 

Fabrizio. All well, my dear nurse. And how is it 
with Lelia ? 

Clementia. Well, well ; but come in. I have much 
to say to you all. 

YiRGiNio and Clementia. 

Virginio. I am so delighted to have recovered my 
son, that I am content with everything. 

Clementia. It was the will of heaven that she should 
not be married to that withered old stick, Gherardo. 
But let us go into the hotel,* and complete our 
preparations. ( They go into the hotel?) 

Spectators, do not expect that any of these cha- 
racters will reappear. If you will come to supper 

* It would seem that the nuptial feast is to be held at the 
Fool, Stragualcia had previously said, " Let us sup here this 
evening." — Act iv., Scene 3. 

72 THE DECEIVED. [act v. 

with us, I will expect you at the Fool ; but bring 
money, for there entertainment is not gratis. If you 
will not come (and you seem to say ' No !'), show us 
that you have been satisfied here ; and you, Intronati, 
give signs of rejoicing. 




Many learned men liave offered explanations of this 
aenigma. None of these explanations have been 
found satisfactory. If that which I have to offer 
should meet with acceptance, it will appear that my 
erudite predecessors have overlooked the obvious in 
seeking for the recondite. 

About two hundred years ago, a marble was found 
near Bologna, with the following inscription : — 

D. M. 



















Aelia Laelia Crispis, 

Not man, nor woman, nor liermaphrodite : 

Not girl, nor youth, nor old woman : 

Not chaste, nor unchaste, nor modest : 

But all : 

Carried off. 

Not by hunger, nor by sword, nor by poison : 

But by all : 


Not in air, not in earth, not in the waters : 

But everywhere. 

Lucius Agatho Prisons, 

Not her husband, nor her lover, nor her friend : 

Not sorrowing, nor rejoicing, nor weeping : 


This, not a stone-pile, nor a pyramid. 

Nor a sepulchre : 

But all : 

Knows, and knows not. 

To whom he erects it. 

I believe this aenigma to consist entirely in the 
contrast, between the general and particular con- 
sideration of the human body, and its accidents of 
death and burial. Abstracting from it all but what 
is common to all human bodies, it has neither age 
nor sex ; it has no morals, good or bad : it dies from 
no specific cause : lies in no specific place : is the 
subject of neither joy nor grief to the survivor, who 
superintends its funeral : has no specific monument 
erected over it; is, in short, the abstraction con- 
templated in the one formula : " Man that is born of 
a woman ;" which the priest pronounces equally over 
the new-born babe, the mature man or woman, and 
the oldest of the old. 


But considered in particular, that is, distinctively 
and individually, we see, in succession, man and 
woman, young and old, good and bad ; we see some 
buried in eartli, some in sea, some in polar ice, some 
in mountain snow. We see a funeral superintended, 
here by one wbo rejoices, there by one who mourns ; 
we see tombs of every variety of form. The abstract 
superintendent of a funeral, abstractedly interring an 
abstract bod}^ does not know to whom he raises the 
abstract monument, nor what is its form ; but the 
particular superintendent of a particular funeral 
knows what the particular monument is, and to 
whose memory it is raised. 

So far the inscription on the marble found at 
Bologna. Another copy, in an ancient MS. at 
Milan, adds three lines, which do not appear to me 
to belong to the original inscription : — 

Hoc est sepulchrum, cadaver intus nonhabens : 
Hoc est cadaver, sepulchrum extra non habens : 
Sad idem cadaver est et sepulchrum sibi. 

This is a sepulchre, not having a corpse within : 
This is a corpse, not having a sepulchre without : 
But the same is to itself both corpse and sepulchre. 

These lines are the translation of a Greek epigram 
on Niobe : to whom they are strictly appropriate, 
and to whom I am contented to leave them : — 

'O TVfxfioQ OVTOg EvdoV OVK £^£t VEKpOP ' 

'AXA.' avTog aiirov vsKpog scttl kol Ta(poc, 

— Anthohgia Palatina, vii., 311. 

There is another consideration, which makes the 
Milanese manuscript of more questionable authority 


than the Bolognese marble. Tlie marble has the 
superscription, D.M. Diis Manibus: To the Gods of 
the Dead : which is suitable to the dead in all points 
of view, general and particular. The MS. has Am. 
P. P. D., Amicus Propria Pecunid Dicavit: A friend has 
dedicated this monument at his own expense : which is 
suitable only to a particular tomb, and a definite 
relation between the dead and the living. 






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