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12, 18, k 14, LONG ACRE, W.C. 



The Glossary is the outcome of a series of notes taken 
during a long course of close geographical reading extending 
over some ten years, and almost entirely restricted to works 
dealing with extra -European countries. When, however, 
the collection of terms began to assume fairly large propor- 
tions, it was thought advisable to add similar terms for the 
European languages. This is, in brief, the history of the 
Glossary the compilation of which has involved a very con- 
siderable amount of labour, apart altogether from the collec- 
tion of the raw materials. 

In a pioneer work of this kind small errors will inevitably 
creep in, however great care may be taken to exclude them ; 
errors of judgment, too, may possibly in time be brought to 
light ; the insertion of some few terms may eventually prove 
to have been superfluous, while the exclusion of some others 
may be thought to lessen the value of the whole. Time 
alone can tell. 

Though in no way responsible for the Glossary, or for 
any such errors, Dr. A. H. Keane has not only very kindly 
read the proofs, but has allowed the author to draw, without 
stint, on his vast fund of knowledge and experience, and has, 
moreover, by his criticism, both constructive and destructive, 
added largely to the value of the work ; and, as a matter 


of fact, the paragraphs in this introduction which deal with 
the law of interchange of consonants in the Indo-European 
family of languages are from his pen. 

The spelling of the terms has been made to conform, as 
far as possible, with the spirit of the system or code recom- 
mended by the Eoyal Geographical Society for the spelling 
of place-names. This code, though capable of considerable 
improvement, has, in its present form, been in use for some 
years, and Continental Geographical Societies have formu- 
lated similar codes on the same lines but with modifications 
to suit the language in each instance. In the case of 
languages written in Eoman character the spelling of the 
terms, as recommended for place-names, undergoes no 
change; the terms remain as spelled in those languages. 
But where any language is written otherwise than in Boman 
character, or is not written at all, an approximation to the 
sounds intended to be conveyed is arrived at by the use of 
English consonants and Italian vowels. 

According to this code or convention a is pronounced as 
in father ; e and ei have the force of a in place, crater, Le, 
they are equivalent roughly to the French i, i, e; i is pro- 
nounced as in ravine, and replaces the English ee (as in 
deep) which is discarded ; o is pronounced as in the final o 
in volcano, or as in pole ; i^ as in true, flute ; y is always a 
consonant, never a vowel ; qu as in quarry is replaced by 
kWf otherwise by k ; the sound of ou (as in mountain) and 
ow (as in tower) is replaced by au or ao ; the simple o is 
used for the sound ow (as in meadow) ; and thus t^ is a con- 
sonant except in the combination aw ; i (as in mine) is 
replaced by ai, Ch is always pronounced as in church ; ph 


is never used to represent the sound of /; ^ is always hard, 
the soft g being replaced by j, which always has the force of 
that letter in jetty ; the r is always rolled ; the sound s in 
measure is given by zh ; A;A is a hard guttural as in loch ; 
gh another guttural something Uke the Northumbrian r or the 
Parisian r ; c is not used, the soft c being represented by s 
and the hard by k. Every letter is sounded and no super- 
fluous letters are used. Finally no diacritical marks are 
allowed except the accent (') to denote stress, and the 
ordinary short mark to suit one particular instance. These 
are the main features of the code of the Boyal Geographical 
Society, which, so far as African words are concerned, has 
been rigidly adhered to in the Glossary, the final h being 
retained only in some Arabic words in the combination ah, 
when it is actually sounded. 

In transliterating terms from foreign works, the following 
modifications have been adopted : — 

1. German : ch has been replaced by kh\ sch by sh, tsch 
by ch and dsch by j ; ai has been used for the German ei, 
and oi for eu. 

2. French : ou before a vowel has been replaced by w, 
and otherwise by u : thus the French Ouagadougou would be 
written Wagadugu ; ai, ay, and ey have been transformed 
into ei or the simple e, dj has been represented by j, ch by 
sh, tch by ch. The French eu has been allowed to stand, as 
the code does not provide for the sound. 

3. Italian : c before e or i has been replaced by ch, else- 
where hy k ; g before e and i by j ; gli by lyi ; sch by sk ; 
8C before e and i hy sh\ gu before a, e, i has been repre- 
sented by gw ; where ci, gi, sci are followed by another vowel, 


the i has been omitted ; thus the Italian Scioa would be 
represented by Shoa, and Ooggiam by Oojam. 

Similar changes have been made in words derived from 
Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, and Scandinavian authors, so 
as to represent in all cases the actual sound as near as may 
be. Thus, the Span, Hoqui, CMquito, Quechua, become Hoki, 
Chikito, Eechua, the Dch. Soenda becomes Sunda and so on. 

In Kafir terms, c, g, and x have been used to represent 
respectively the dental, palatal, and lateral clicks which are 
alluded to below. 

It has been thought advisable, in certain cases, to depart 
from the strict letter of the code, and to retain the customary 
diacritical marks, and in some cases the final h — notably in 
words of Sanscrit, Persian, and Hindi origin, and also in 
Malay words — where the terms are not actually place-names. 
When, however, the terms are used in the examples either 
as place-names or as constituent elements in place-names 
the diacritical marks have been withheld and the final h 
withdrawn in accordance with the spirit of the code. The 
reason for this departure from the conventional rules is 
threefold and may be best explained by examples. Firstly, 
the final h has been retained in some cases, as in dih, deh, 
the Pers. for * village,' inasmuch as the h is an integral and 
important factor in the root diha from which dih, deh is 
drawn ; and, were the h omitted, the derivation would be 
obscured ; but in Charde (* The Four Villages '), since it is a 
place-name, the h is omitted and the derivation given. 
Secondly, the use of diacritical marks is necessary to dif- 
ferentiate between terms which have different meanings, 
but, without the marks, would have precisely the same form. 


For instance mandal is the Hind, for * a port ' or ' harbour,' 
but manual in the same language means ' a district ' : 
ab-guz&r is the Pers, for * a watercourse,' but ab-gnz&r for ' a 
ford,' and so on ; but as with the final h, so with the diacritical 
marks, when the terms become elements in place-names 
these marks have been dropped, thus hamtin the Pers. for 
' a desert,' but Hamun-i-Sistan without the mark ; batu the 
Malay for ' rock ' and Batn-tnjo without the mark, but b&tu- 
titi, ' a mile-post,' with the mark, not being a place-name. 
Thirdly — and this is a point not without importance — those 
who have some acquaintance with these languages and 
their subtle niceties cannot only appreciate the exact pro- 
nunciation, but can also immediately re-transcribe the terms 
in the original characters. 

The Glossary being intended as an aid to the reading of 
maps and geographical works, many words, taken from 
standard books and maps, have been included the spelling 
of which does not accord with more recent ideas on the 
subject, the object being to assist the reader, without assum- 
ing that he already possesses sufficient knowledge to enable 
him to recognise a term disguised in what would now be 
thought an uncanny garb. Thus the forms itam and etam, 
hwang and hoang, are both given in the Glossary, and in 
some cases as many as three forms or more occur, as telnk, 
telok, tnllok, but in such circumstances the misspellings 
are referred to the correct term. Where two or more 
forms are actually in use, where one term is simply a variant 
of another, in such cases of dialectic difference all the forms 
are given ; thus balad, bilad, and bled all appear, and so too 
gram, garam, and giram, kru, kmm, konun, and krom, mong. 


meng, and meung, du, dhu, and dhnb will all be found. 
Again, with regard to Chinese words, the spelling depends 
to a large extent on whether the language is that of the 
North, of the Mandarins, of the capital — Pekingese in fact — 
or whether it is the language of the South, of the rest of 
China, or Nankingese, and the spelling will then further 
depend on whether the words found were transcribed accord- 
ing to the system adopted by Wade, or some modification of 
it, or whether they were rendered into Eoman character in 
accordance with the system formulated by Von Eichthofen. 
Thus the chou of Pekingese and Wade becomes chau in 
Nankingese, according to Von Bichthofen's rendering; 
similarly the chiaxLg of the North corresponds with the kiang 
of the South. In such circumstances, where both forms 
have been found, both have been inserted, and, in some 
instances, more than two forms are given, e,g, pe, peh, 
and pei. 

Dealing, as it does, with words selected from many 
languages and from various dialects, scattered over the 
face of the globe, the Glossary seems to need some kind of 
binding or cementing material, to join or link together, if 
not all, at least as many as possible of these languages and 
tribal or local dialects into groups, since they cannot, from 
the nature of the case, be brought into closer relationship 
and so form one homogeneous whole. In a certain limited 
measure this linking has been accomplished by means of 
references to cognate terms ; and with the same end in view 
the paragraphs which immediately follow are devoted to the 
various changes, principally consonantal changes, which 
words undergo as they pass from one of a group or family of 


languages or dialects to another; and at the same time 
a few of the marked peculiarities of some of the languages 
are indicated. 

Peculiar to the Teutonic branch of the Aryan linguistic 
family is a general tendency to strengthen the mutes (ex- 
plosives), and this tendency, acting from remote times, has 
set up a normal permutation of consonants the law of which, 
discovered by Erasmus Bask, developed by Jacob Grimm, 
and completed by Karl Verner, is commonly known as 
Grimm's Law of Lautverschiebung ( * sound-shifting ' ). By 
it are primarily affected the organic Aryan soft sonants, b, g, 
d, which become the hard surds, p, k, t, while the organic 
surds, p, k, t, become everywhere the hard fricatives, f, h, th. 
Here the rotation is arrested in the first instance, because 
these fricatives are incapable of further strengthening. 
These first shifts were already completed in the prehistoric 
period, as seen in the consonantal system of Gothic, the 
oldest known Teutonic language, whose written records date 
from the fourth century of the new era. 

But these first prehistoric shifts were not uniform and 
their vagaries were a cause of much trouble to philologists 
till the true explanation was discovered by Vemer and 
announced in 1877 (in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xxiii. p. 97), 
as under : 

' Aryan k, t, p, first shifted everywhere to h, th, f ; the 
fricatives thus generated, as well as the surd (voiceless) 
fricative s inherited from Aryan, then became themselves 
sonant (voiced) when medial and in sonant company, but 
remained unchanged immediately after accented vowels,* 

It is the clause here italicised that constitutes the essence 


of Verner's discovery, which for the first time takes into 
account the important part played by accent in this phonetic 
system. In general, mutes preceding the accent, being 
under less control, have double shifting, the voiceless stops 
passing first to voiceless fricatives, and then to voiced 
fricatives. But mutes following the accent have only 
one shift — voiceless stops to voiceless fricatives, except in 
weak syllables, where the second shift takes place after as 
well as before the accent. Hence it is that in Teutonic 
organic k, t, p appear as h, th, f, or as g, d, b, according 
as they occur after or before the accent, while organic s 
(voiceless) remains unchanged or arrested after the accent, 
but becomes voiced (z) before the accent, and it is this 
voiced 8 that later becomes r in German, - Anglo-Saxon^ 
and especially Norse. Thus Scr. kniBX9L=sGoth. &nthar=: 
A.S,6iher (for 6niher) =Eng, other, with simple shift only 
(t to th), because the accent precedes. But Scr. antfir=Go^A. 
undar=^.S'. and Eng. under, with double shift (t through 
th to d), because the accent follows. So Goth, hausjan for 
hauqan=^.S. heran=En(7. to hear, voiceless s through voiced 
8 (z) to r. 

These prehistoric shifts are carried further, but mainly in 
German and Dutch, in the historic period beginning about 
the seventh century a.d. Here the voiceless fricatives pass 
through the voiced fricatives to the voiced explosives : f 
through V to b ; hard h (oh) through soft h to g ; voiceless 
th through voiced th to d. Thus Goth, tha (voiceless th) = 
Eng, the (voiced th)s=Ger. der, Dutch de. 

Here the shift is carried one step forward in Eng, ; and 
two in Ger. and Dutch, which thus complete the rotation. 


But A.S. and Eng, in many cases stand at the prehistoric 
(Goth.) level, as in thorp (voiceless th)=:(}er, dorf; Goth. 
thaiimu8=^./Sf. and Eng. thorn (voiceless th) = Ger. dom 
= Dutch, doom ; and always when th is followed by r or w, 
as in three =G6r. drei; thwart, thwack, &c. In Ger. k of the 
Gothic period passes through aspiration (oh for kh) to the 
aspirate (h) ; t through z (written U) to ss for voiceless n, 
and voiceless s often to voiced* s. Thus Pliny's Amisia 
(voiceless s) becomes the modem river Ems (voiced s), while 
the Catti of Tacitus pass through the forms Chatti, Hatsi, 
to the modem Hessen (Hessians). 

With these remarks the subjoined table of the more 
general permutations will become intelligible. And the 
confusion caused by our present somewhat exuberant phonetic 
terminology may be obviated by remembering that mutes, 
explosives, and stops are synonymous terms, having reference 
to those non-continuous consonants that form a complete 
vocal stop. These are the labials or lip-letters, p, b; the 
gutturals or throat-letters, k, g ; and the dentals or teeth- 
letters, t, d. These again with the sibilant s may be either 
voiceless, surd, hard, tenues, or thin (all practically synony- 
mous terms) ; or else voiced, sonant, soft, flat, lenes, mediae, 
or smooth (also synonymous terms) ; the former being p, k, 
t, 8, the latter b, g, d, z. Thus the mute, explosive, or stop 
p is a voiceless, surd, hard, or thin labial; b, a voiced, 
sonant, soft, flat, or smooth labial, and so on. Corresponding 
to these explosives are the fricatives and aspirates p'h, f, v ; 
k*h, h ; t'h, th, which in Teutonic grow out of the voiceless 
explosives p, k, t. With other categories, such as palatals 
and cerebrals, we are not here concerned. 





Organic Aryan Bonanto, 
Bunls and Frloatlve* and 

Labials . 


Dentals . 


















0* t 




0, qu, g 


« (d. b) 

First (pro- 









H. g (') 


th, d 


B, z, r 




Old High 
Qer. Dutch 


« (P. V) 







High Ger. 



b, p 

k, oh, ck 
h, oh 


z, tz 


Boh, r 

New High 


k, oh, ck 
h, oh 

z, tz, ts 



sch, r 

The Arabs, essentially nomad herdsmen, dwelling in 
tents, have exerted a wide influence on the languages of the 
Old World. Arabic forms, with Sanscrit and Persian, a 
large constituent in Hindustani, and multitudes employ the 
Arabic script in writing their Persian, Turki, or Malay; 
while relics of the language are found in the furthermost 
parts of Western Europe, in the Iberian peninsula, e,g, 
Ouadalquivir, which is the Arabic Wad el Eebir or ' the Great 
Biver,' and Aloazar, so frequently found in Spanish place- 
names, which is the Arabic el Kair or ' the town,' ' small city,' 
or * citadel.' The whole of the North of Africa has been and 
is subject to Arabic influences, many even of the Hamitic 
Berbers having become, so to speak, Semitised, while the 
Arabs have imposed their language on the whole Semitic 
group, with the exception of the Abyssinian section. The 
same Arabic influences are experienced in North Central 
Africa as far south as Foweira and Fajao on the Nile, these 


names being evidently the Arabic forms of the old Bantu 
names Paweira, and Pajao, the Arabs always substituting f 
for p, which does not exist in their language. In Eastern 
Equatorial Africa the coastal place-names, such as Dar es 
Salam, point clearly to the presence of the Arab traders, 
while the Ki-Swahili, the language of the Swahili or ' coast- 
people ' (from Arab, sahel, ' coast region ') which is the lingua 
franca of these equatorial regions, though Bantu at the 
base, is very strongly tinged with Arabic, e.g. gharika, * flood/ 
* inundation,* from Arab, ghark ; hnfim, ' a fort,' from Arab. 
hum ; and so forth. Arabs are found everywhere in the Sudan 
— ^Darfur, Wadai, the Chad Basin, the Hausa states, and in 
the extreme west in the coastal regions beyond Adrar and 
to the south of Marocco. 

The most important consonantal changes in Arabic as 
it is spoken in various parts of the world may be briefly 
stated as follows. In Cairo and the neighbourhood the k is 
frequently lost altogether or is rendered by an interruption 
of the voice, as in El 'Ahirali for El Kahira (' Cairo,' ' the 
victorious '). Suggested by this example, a fact with regard 
to pronunciation may here be stated, namely, that the 
Arabic final h in ah is only sounded when the h forms part 
of the root as in Allah, Timsah, Kalh, whereas in the greater 
number of cases where the final h occurs it is merely the 
feminine termination and is not sounded. In Marocco the 
t is lisped into ts ; in Tunis, as well as in the Lebanon, the 
j (as in jetty) becomes zh (the French j), and in Upper Egypt 
and in Algeria the k (q) is rendered by g, thus kolea, ' a small 
castle or fort,' becomes golea as in Bl Oolea. The d frequently 
finds a substitute in th and sometimes in dh. Thus the 




word Kadi (properly QaTi) becomes, in the Cairo dialect, 
Adi, and in Upper ISgypt Gadi, while in other regions it is 
pronounced Kathi, &athi, and Oadhi. In Egypt the g is used 
for j as in gebel for jebel, the th (as in thin) is there also 
replaced by t, while the Turks and Persians and Moslems 
of the Farther East pronounce it as s. The th (as in thy) is 
in Egypt and Syria replaced by d, ds, and even z. 
I Among the vowel sounds a becomes e in Algeria and 
Marocco, thus wadi, wad, 'valley or river bed,' of other 
regions is rendered wed, and similarly we find Tiled in the 
same regions for Ulad, 'a tribal name or district/ The 
reverse, however, happens in some instances ; for example, 
in Fez and Heknez we find that these towns are frequently 
called Faz and Heknaz. As to the accentuation of Arabic 
geographical names one general rule may be given. When 
a vowel is followed by two consonants, that vowel carries 
the accent with it, thus A'tbara, Ddngola, Farfifra, whereas 
in Persian and Turkish names the accent is generally on the 
last syllable, thus : Bakhtegfin, Bendamir, Eerman, Tehr&n, not 

The great Berber race of North Africa is spread over 
a very large area, tribes of this family being found, roughly 
speaking, from the 28th meridian of east longitude west- 
wards to the ocean, and north of 15° north latitude. Con- 
sidering the vastness of this area, it is not surprising that 
Berber dialects differ considerably according to locality ; 
indeed, separated as these tribes are, and many being, more- 
over, unlike the Arabs, highland husbandmen, with settled 
permanent abodes, it is marvellous to find the close resem- 
blances which exist between the various dialects, much closer, 



for instance, than between Norse and English. An 
examination of the tribal consonantal changes in a large 
number of words has shown that a general law of inter- 
change may be traced ; and in accordance with this law the 
dialects may be grouped together in three sets, correspond- 
ing roughly with North, Midland, and South, which may be 
called the strong dialects, the intermediate, and the weak, as 
certain consonants become softened in passing from one 
group to another. To the strong class belong the dialects 
of the Northern Berbers (Kabile), the Zwawa, the Shelha or 
Shlu, as well as the dialects of Ghadames and of South 
Oran ; in the second or intermediate group are the Zenatia, 
the Mzabi, the Kelowi, the dialects spoken in the neigh- 
bom'hood of Wad Bhir, and, notwithstanding their geo- 
graphical position, the Eiffs ; while in the third, the weak 
or soft group, are included the Awelimmiden and the 
Zenaga, from whom the Senegal takes its name. In these 
three groups the consonants d, 1, s, g, and z become gradually 
softened as follows : 

d 1 1 s g z 

Thus, ergez {* a man '), of the first group, becomes ariazin 
the second, and eryez in the third; and the plural irgezin 
(' men,' ' people ') develops into iriezin and iryezin, and in some 
dialects into irzezin. So too ales (' a man ') of the first group 
becomes ariaz as mentioned above. In addition to these 
characteristic relations which distinguish the groups, there 
are many other intertribal changes of consonants, to some of 
which it will be well to draw attention. The b of Zwawa 




becomes fin Ghadames, and u, w in Mzabi, Biff, &c., and g 
in yet other dialects, thus thabburtli, *a gate'=tufart= 
twiirt=thawurth=thawort=:ihaggurth. The Tuaregs inter- 
change z, sh, h, and j, according to tribe, the Kabile and 
Biffs, and some other tribes prefer the soft th to t, and dh to 
d, and others frequently lisp the t into ts, but there is no 
ts in Mzabi, and, in the remaining Tuareg dialects, in Mzabi 
and in South Oran the soft th is never found. The n of the 
Biffs becomes the m of Zwawia, and the Kabile use dh for 
zh (French j). The following table gives all the important 
consonantal interchanges, including the group shifts already 
mentioned : 













































Many of these changes may be traced in the following 
examples, in which the various tribal renderings of the same 
words are shown : 


A House 

Mau (sing.) 

Men, People (j>l.) 













• Taddert 



















AHUl Month, Moon Night ^B^mS^' 

Tedrak Aggnr It Iref 

Bddahereth Unr Idh Ikhf 

TTdherer Ainr Sdlii 

Urir Ajur Eii 

Ighil Sdi 

The equivalents for ' sheep ' and * dog * are also good illus- 
trative exsimples, namely thikhsi, tirsi, tekshi, and akjnn, 
arzim, akzin. 

One cannot but be struck by the extremely peculiar forms 
assumed by some of these Berber words, more especially 
those which are the equivalents of ' a gate/ * a house/ and ' a 
village ' ; and on the map of Africa, in the Berber area, will 
be found a very large number of place-names, which appear 
to bear, in formation, a very close resemblance to those 
mentioned above, such as Tafilelt, Tidikelt, Tuggurt, and so 
forth, and this peculiarity seems to call for some explanation. 
Now, most masculine substantives, in the Berber language, 
begin with a, e, i, or u, and the feminine is formed from the 
masculine by prefixing and postfixing th ; thus amrar, ' an old 
man,' thamrarth, ' an old woman.' This final th may become 
t if preceded by n. In some dialects the initial th becomes 
h, or is entirely dropped, e.g. thit, * an eye, source, spring,' 
becomes hit ; and in most of the Tuareg (Saharan) dialects 
the th, as has already been pointed out, is changed into t or 
even U. Thus a very large proportion of the Berbers call 
themselves Amazirgh, i.e. * noble,' and their language 
Tamazirght. Feminine nouns which are not formed from 
the masculine have no final th, for example thizi, 'a col.' 
There is also another source from which nouns having the 
initial and final th are derived, for diminutives are formed 



in precisely the same manner as feminines ; thus iger, ' a 
field/ thigerth, ' a little field/ igran, ' fields, ' thigrathin, ' little 
fields * ; so also azekka, ' a tomb/ thazekkauth, ' a little tomb/ 
The final th in diminutives becomes sht in some dialects, e,g. 
amdnn, 'a reservoir/ thamdoslit, 'a little reservoir.' It should 
be noted that the n, as in the examples given for ' fields ' 
and * people/ is essentially the Berber plural termination ; 
some nouns, however, especially those beginning with a, 
take an initial w for the plural, thus aiif, * a river,' waiif, 
'rivers.' We have here, then, the explanation of the 
peculiar forms assumed by so many place-names in the 
Berber country; they are mostly feminine words, with 
some diminutives, while TemaMinin, and similar place-names 
ending in n, are most of them plurals. In some cases the 
Berber terms or place-names have been derived from Arab 
sources. For instance, the tribe which the Arabs call 
Kinta&h (h feminine) has been Berberised by the Shelha or 
Shlu into Takinteft, and similarly Tafllelt, Tarudant, and many 
other place-names are merely Arabic words made Berber by 
the addition of the initial and final t to make them feminine 
(possibly to agree with the Arab. Medina, * town ') ; thus Arab, 
Filal, Berber Tafllelt, and so on. In some Berber dialects the 
Arabic t becomes th, as in Sok et Tlata, * market of the third 
day,' i.e, the place where a market is held on the third day 
of the week, where many Berbers change Tlata into Thlatha. 
In the Abyssinian region the principal intertribal con- 
sonantal changes are the following : 

b g k B t 

w j g »h 1 




The most interesting of these interchanges are those in 
which w pkuA h play a part. The former in some dialects, 
Sidamo for instance, is equivalent to the Galla and Amharic 
b, and thus it is found that Abbaba, as in Addis Abbaba, 
the present capital of Abyssinia, is by many pronounced as 
if the three bs were replaced by ws, and even in the capital 
itself it is thus rendered by some, the lips scarcely closing to 
form the b sound. The h frequently replaces both k and g, 
as in eager, * a tribe,' which in some localities is pronounced 
askir, and in others ashir. Again, both w and li are not 
infrequently inserted or dropped, as the case may be, and 
thus Aksum is in some districts called Akwesum and Waha=: 
Wlia=Wa=Elia=Aka=Ak. The name of the province 
Oondaris, in different districts, rendered Ouendar and Owendar ; 
and the name of the lake Abassi is by some tribes called 
Awatsi, and by others Hawassi (just as the Italian gets his 
oggi (* to-day ') from the Latin hodie), which becomes further 
north Hawash, the ' riotous ' river. It has already been 
pointed out how g replaces k, and it is also found to be inter- 
changeable with j ; thus both the renderings Harjesa and 
Hargeisa are found, and so too Jildessa and Oildessa. The t 
is sometimes softened into 1 ; thus Abbata, ' a lake,' becomes 
Abbala, and this 1 is still further softened (in the same way as 
the Italian gets iisfiume from the Jjektin flumen) into i and y, 
and thus we find Abbaia and Abbaya; similarly the hata, 
' water,* of the Walamo, becomes the aijra of the Shankala. 
The intertribal vowel changes may be exemplified by the 
various forms found for Begameder, ' the land or country of 
the Bega,' namely, Begamder, Bigameder, Begemeder, Bagemeder, 
Bagemder, and so also gibe, ' a palace,' is by some tribes called 


In the Somali subdivision of this area a large number 
of words will be found ending in i — and sometimes also in 
a or u— preceded by one of the consonants k, g, h, t, d or by 
sh ; and this peculiarity, which seems to call for some com- 
ment, arises from the fact that the vowel is the definite 
article, postfixed and connected with the word which it 
qualifies by one of the consonantal links, which are employed 
as follows: for masculine words, k is used after any con- 
sonant except g, k ; g after g, k, i ; h after vowels, except i ; 
for feminine words, t is used after consonants, except d; 
d after vowels and after d ; when the combination Id or It 
occurs, it is changed to sh. Thus we have miyi, * jungle,* 
miyigi, * the jungle * ; tol, * tribe,' toUd, ' the tribe ' ; biyn, 
* water,' biyaha, bijrahi, biyahu, * the water ' ; so also mel, 
'place,' melsha, mesha (for melta), 'the place'; similarly we 
have rerki, ' the village ' ; burti, ' the mountain ' ; oddi, ' the 
zeriba' or 'the kraal.' This article termination occurs in 
many place-names, e,g. Has Oodki, ' hillock of the cave,' Oadki 
Goble, * the headland where the gob trees grow,' &c. 

When we come to the Bilad-es- Sudan, * the land of the 
blacks,' Nigritia or Negroland, it is found that some tribes 
lack the r and replace it by 1. There is, for example, a branch 
of the A-Zande who call themselves A-Vungura, but the 
Mangbattu, who cannot sound the r, use the form Ma-Vungula. 
This l=r shift is, in fact, one of the most common throughout 
Africa. It has already been pointed out as occurring among 
the Berber tribes ; here we have it among the Sudanese, and, 
as we shall presently find, it occurs among the Bantu tribes. 
In the far east, too, the same peculiarity is noticed, the con- 
formation of the vocal organs in many peoples precluding 


the pronunciation of the r ; thus the Chinaman's struggles 
to pronounce and transcribe the Mongol khure, an * encamp- 
ment/ result in no nearer an approximation than knlien or 

Again, just as the Arabs replace p by f, so in North-Central 
African regions, b is replaced by the same letter and Eobkob 
becomes Euf kaf, while further west, among the Fula tribes, the 
p and f are interchangeable, and the Faro River (a tributary 
of the Benue River) becomes Paro. In the Western Sudan 
t is found to replace d, in the Hausa region, as in kataruka, 
kadamka, a bridge ; and n, 1, and d are interchangeable ; thus 
the Soninke dnndu, ' a hill,' is equivalent to the Bambara and 
Malinke tiindu, to the Fula tulde, the Wolof tunda and the 
Hausa tuddu. Again, 1 is sometimes replaced by t and thus 
Fata Jalon and Futa Toro are merely the Fula district Jalon, 
and the Fula district Toro. The Wolof kh becomes g in 
Serer, while the d of the former is represented sometimes by 
m in the latter ; thus degh, < a river,' becomes mag, which is 
softened to mayo, mao, in Fula. This kh is also replaced by 
t as in khol, ' a garden ' = tol = toll in Bambara. The d, r 
change may be exemplified by misidi, ' a mosque,' in Soninke, 
and mnsire in Bambara and Malinke ; and the h, f change 
by hore, ' a freeman,' of the former and foro of the latter 
tribes, which becomes horr in Hassania ; diude, ' a ford,' of 
the Fula is the equivalent of the Mande diube, where there 
is a d, b change; the kh is sometimes replaced by r, or, 
perhaps, more properly the r is softened into kh and thus ' a 
market ' is suknro in Bambara and Malinke, but sakha in 
Soninke ; the 1 of the Fon (Dahome) is the ny of the Hausa, 
alii, ' a path,' of the former becoming hanya in the latter. 


Further, d and f and also kh and f sometimes change places, 
e.g, (n)dokh, the Wolof for * water/ is fof in Serer, and the 
Bambara badala, ' a marsh/ is the equivalent of the Malinke 
bafala ; d» b, and z are also interchangeable, thus dugu * place/ 
* house/ * country ' = bugu = bongo =s zongo = zonko, where a 
g, k change may be noticed in the last pair of equivalents. 
The d, t, g change is well represented in the various 
equivalents for 'a wall/ namely din, gwin, dan-dan, tata, 
tagaye ; and as an example of the shift from h to v we have 
in Ibo (Nigeria) ibe ahun=ibe avun, * that place/ ' there,' ibe 
meaning * place/ The above and other Sudanese inter- 
changes may be represented synoptically thus : 

b b d d h I ni p 

f ff I g V n ' b k 

z r z d d 


In most of the Western Sudanese languages there is a 
nasal sound not unlike that of the French n, which has 
apparently not been appreciated by the ears of many 
travellers, especially those of more recent times. Thus the 
older travellers wrote Bussang, Bnsian (a town on the Niger 
liiver), which to-day is represented byBussa, and many other 
examples of a similar kind might be given. This nasal of 
many tribes will be noticed in some of the examples which 
liave already been given in connection with the consonantal 
changes ; for instance, in the shift from tata to dandan, from 
tuddn to tundu, and from bugu to bungu. A similar nasal is 
traceable in many other parts of the world, notably in Poly- 
nesia, where what is sometimes written Toga is pronounced 


















Tonga, and Hadroga, Haduri are pronounced Handronga, Han- 
duri. The clipping or shortening of words is also a marked 
peculiarity of the Western Sudan, where, for example, badala, 
' a lake,' in some districts becomes badla, and in others dla, 
the ba being omitted and dala contracted to dla. The slurring 
over the consonants is another form of this process, as in 
Karelahun, or, with the nasal, Kanrelahun, in Sierra Leone, 
which is pronounced locally Kailaun by many natives. 
Similar contraction is also noticeable in the Hausa region, 
where Oiddan Serkin Pawa, for example, is used for Oiddan 
Serikin Pawa (* the town of the chief Pawa *) or more properly 
Oidda^n-Seriki-ii-Pawa, the n being the sign of the possessive 
in Hausa, in which respect this language has a point in com- 
mon with Berber, and so also Kadanika=Kaderku, ' a bridge/ 

In the region of the Niger Delta a very large proportion 
of the place-names will be foxmd to begin with a vowel or 
with m or n, a peculiarity which arises from the fact that, 
in the Ibo language, the substantives are formed from verbal 
roots by prefixing either a vowel or an m or n ; thus we 
have oke, ' a boundary or limit,' from ke, ' to bind,' ibe, * a 
place,' from bi, ' to be, to dwell ' ; ulo, * a house, establishment/ 
from lo, ' to marry ' ; and similar formation accounts for such 
words as uxo, ' a street, road,' ikpere, ' coast, bank,' nga, ' a 
place,' ohan, ' a nation,' ohia, ' a desert, wilderness,' and so 

The name Bantu, originally suggested by Dr. Bleek, is 
now by common consent applied collectively to all those 
idioms spoken by the agricultural black races found in all 
the well-watered regions from Keiskamma Biver, in Cape 
Colony, in the south, to and beyond the equator on the 


north, and from Walfisch Bay to Old Kalabar, from 
Angola to Mozambique and from Natal to Fernando 
Po. This large area may be said to comprise Africa south 
of the equator, except that in the extreme north-west it 
extends to 4° or 5° north latitude, and in the north-east 
equatorial lake region to about 2** N. The reason for the 
choice of this name for all these idioms is that in most 
of them some variant of the word Ba-ntn means 'people,' 
and is applied by these tribes to themselves as distinguished 
from white people. These Bantu languages are essentially 
languages of prefixes. Not only is concord established by 
means of prefixes (a point which, however, is here immaterial, 
as only words, and not phrases or sentences, are dealt with 
in the Glossary), but the actual words themselves are built 
up from stems by the employment of such prefixes. In the 
most highly developed of these Bantu languages no less than 
eighteen of these prefixes have been recognised, some of 
them generally implying a plural, others a singular meaning; 
and the same stem, by assuming diflferent prefixes, obtains 
various meanings, though not necessarily kindred meanings ; 
thus mn-Tonga is ' a Tonga man,' ba-Tonga ' the Tonga 
people,' being the plural of mu-Tonga, and bu-Tonga is ' the 
Tonga country,' and chi-Tonga * the language of the Tonga 
people * ; again, m-Hyamwezi is ' a Nyamwezi man,* wa-Nyam- 
wezi * the Nyamwezi people,' u-Njramwezi * the country of 
Nyamwezi,' ki-Hyamwezi * the language of the wa-Nyam- 
wezi ' ; similarly mn-Oanda, ba-Oanda, bn-Oanda, and In-Oanda 
have respectively corresponding meanings, but here what is 
properly Buganda in the Lu-Ganda language has become, 
through Swahili influence, Uganda, the u prefix in ki-Swahili 


(* the language of the Swahih *) corresponding with the u of 
the Nyamwezi and the bn of the Tonga. 

A. single example will suffice to show how the Bantu 
words are gradually built up from a stem by means of 
prefixes. The stem izi, nzi, or ezi, as in Zambezi, Chambezi, 
conveys an idea of production or fecundity, and by most 
Bantu tribes the moon and water are considered to be the 
great fertilising powers in the world, hence mw-ezi is * the 
moon ' ; by adding another prefix (nya), we have nya-mwezi, 
* the mountains of the moon,' and, as indicated above, by 
adding yet another prefix, wa-nyamwezi, * the people who 
inhabit the mountains of the moon.* These elements may 
be arranged synoptically thus : 

ezi . . . fecundity 

mw'ezi . . . moon 

nya mwezi . . mountains of the moon 

wa nyamwezi . . people of the mountains of the moon 

The consonantal changes which are the main source of 
the differences between the various Bantu languages may be 
traced to the different conformation of lips and nose, to 
the tribal artificial disfigurements of teeth and the wearing 
of various ornaments in the lips and nose, &c. There being 
no less than one hundred and twenty-eight recognised Bantu 
languages or dialects, the number of interchanges of the 
consonants is, as might have been expected, correspondingly 
large. Taking Tonga, the language spoken between the 
Victoria Falls of the Zambezi and Lake Bangweulu, as a 
standard with which to compare other languages, a few of the 
more prominent features of some of the better-known of these 


Bantu languages will now be mentioned. The most marked 
characteristics of Tonga are the sibilants s and z, which are 
more common in this than in any others of the group, and 
the entire absence of the p sound, which is repla.ced by w. 
In Yao, which is spoken on the plateau between Nyasa and 
the coast, the z, v, and f either become mere aspirations or 
are omitted (c/. the k in Cairo Arabic). In Nyamwezi, 
after n, y completely disappears, and t, k, and d in similar 
circumstances are softened to h ; p of other languages is also 
softened to b, and v to b, while the Tonga f is replaced by g. 
In Taita, the language of the hill country between Mombasa 
and KiUma Njaro, k is softened to g, and y hardened to f. 
South-eastwards from Kenia towards Mombasa, in the Kamba 
language and also in Swahili, 1 is dropped or becomes j, and 
in the former b, z, and j are all either weakened or omitted. 
Nika, spoken inland from Mombasa, has h for t, and dz or 
ds for z. The Senna language is spoken in the regions round 
Senna and Tete and on the lower Shire, and has some 
peculisirities in common with Karanga or Kalaka, the chief 
language of the present southern Bhodesia, which also 
includes the dialects of the neighbourhood of Lake Ngami 
and Zuga Biver, as well as that of Mashonaland, shona 
being merely the Karanga pronimciation of Senna. The 
most noticeable of these common characteristics is the 
softening of sharp sounds, y to b, z to dz, and f to pf, while 
the latter language is distinguished from almost all the othe^ 
Bantu dialects by its use of zh (French j), and sh instead of 
z and 8. The insertion of a g or a b between vowels 
differentiates Ganda, the language spoken north of the Victoria 
Nyanza, from most others ; while the distinguishing 


peculiarity of the Kafir group, including the languages of 
the Amaxosa, the Amazulu, and the Matabele, is the use of 
clicks and of the combinations hi, dl, tl. In the Botse of the 
Upper Zambezi z is changed to t, d, or y, and s to d, sh, or 
j, while in Lunda, or Eunda, which is closely connected with 
Botse, and is the language of the Upper Kasai Biver, zi is 
replaced by ji or oM. In Angola and the riegions of the Lower 
Congo Biver z followed by i becomes zh, and p is often repre- 
sented by b or h. The interchange of r and t characterises the 
languages of very widely separated areas, namely, the lan- 
guages of Mozambique or Kua of the Makua, mcluding 
Masasi and Kilimane, the Chwana of Bechuanaland, and the 
Mpongwe, spoken in the regions of the Lower Ogowe Biver. 
Chwana is also distinguished by the change from s to tlh, and 
Mpongwe by the replacement of z by I. In Dualla of 
Eamerun 1 takes the place of the Tonga t and d that of z ; 
in Fan of the Ogowe basin I also replaces t, the Tonga 
f becomes k and g takes the place of y ; while in Fernandian 
z of the Tonga is changed to t. 

The stability of the vowel sounds is one of the marked 
peculiarities of the Bantu languages, the changes, where 
such exist, consisting chiefly of the reduction of two con- 
secutive vowel sounds to one. The following, however, 
deserve attention : the u of other dialects is changed in 
Chwana and Mpongwe to o, and i to e; in Fan a corresponds 
to the Tonga a or u, o to u, and e to o or a. In Tonga and 
many other dialects the e (accented) becomes i (unaccented) 
at the end of a word, thus mu-8^, earth, but a-n-si, on the 
ground, a-fai, near, but a-fue-fai, very near. 



fl 00 eg 
00 C (^ 00 

N ^ 1^ na r^ no 

^ ■*» > >* 

S ^ Q4 u oi a 

.-H H 

P^ M P4 


>> ^ pi< 'p4 N 

_rt "73 if N 



^ S S 

n bpq 
^ a 


o 5 P 
fa "^ <5 



CR O 'O «M f^ 00 

^< .-^ -** 63 

■*a ^a 00 

C3^ a fl N 

^ fl 

-- a a 

-*» N ^1 

^"S^ 50^ fl^'5*'S^5^> ^ 

"-tfA ^ M 









2 - ^ ^ rC 

fl ^ ^ 'S ;=3 CO 



'G ''C M^ M ej p p^oQ 


«*H e>D,i3 ^ ft'S*'« 

T3 ^ 


tJ ^^ 5 OD 


r ^ 



.p^ a a &< ^ 



It would be impossible, even it were desirable, to illus- 
trate the whole of this great number of interchanges by 
examples bearing directly or indirectly on geography or 
topography, but many of the more important and more 
common changes will be found in the following list of 
equivalents for ' a path,* * water,' and * grass * in various 
Bantu languages. 

A Path 

inZUa (Tonga) 
inZira (Bisa) 

nJira (Gogo) 

nOUa (Sagara) 
SUa (Boondei) 

nJia (SwahiU) 
inBlhela (Zulu) 
onDyira (Herero) 
onJila (Bihe) 

nOela (Mhunda) 

nBela (Botte) 
IHla (Kilimwne) 

iPiro (Mozambique) 
Tiela (Chwana) 
mPono (Mpongwe) 

nCKa (Dualla) 

nTele (Fema^diwn) 

nJUa (Kongo) 


maVsi (Tonga) 

Xenxi (Bisa) 
maRenga (Oogo) 

Xeji (Sahara) 
maZi (Shamhala) 
minxi (Nyanyembe) 
xnaDsi (Nika) 

oXdra (Herero) 
OTaVa (Bihe) 

Xenya (Mhunda) 
me I (Botse) 
maJi (Swahili) 

Xenia (Angola) 
maZa (Lower Congo) 

Xeai (Yao) 
maQi (KiUmane) 
ma Shi (Mozambique) 

Xetoe (Chwana) 
aVingo (Mpongwe) 
maDiba (Dualla) 
ma Chi (Fan) 
bo Opi (Femandian) 


bal2TL (Tonga) 
maNyari (Sagara) 

mAni (Boondei) 
maVyasi (Taita) 
maSwa (Nyanyembe) 
maJani (Swahili) 

widii (Pokomo) 
wuKhna (Karanga) 
bnSo (Oanda) 
n-tyAni (Zulu) 
o-wOnga (Bihe) 
boAmbo (Mbunda) 
Xopo (Rotse) 

TLlra (Angola) 
ma Vyaihi (Mozambique) 
bo Jang (Chwana) 
biUla (Dualla) 

but (Fan) 

f Uta (Kongo) 

There also occur in the Glossary other examples of these 
changes, not found in the above Ust, but illustrating the 
interchange table on page xxx, such as mwiru, mwitu, 'a 
forest ' ; mwago, mwako,- 'a mountain ' ; inohi, inti, ' a country ' ; 
makazi, makani, ' a dwelling ' ; diko, liko, ' a landing-place ' ; 


mahali, pahali, ' a place ' ; kilila, kirira, kidila, ' an island ' ; and 
many others. 

Among the Kafir peoples, i.e. that section or group of 
Bantu-speaking tribes which includes the Amaxosa, the 
Amazulu, and the Matabele, certain sounds, called clicks, 
are in use, which have been traced to an admixture of 
Hottentot, the roots of the words, in which these clicks 
occur, not being found in any other Bantu languages. 
These clicks, which are produced rather by drawing in than 
by expressing sound, are six in number, and may be divided 
into three sets, so far as their use in Bantu is concerned, 
each set consisting of a hard and a corresponding soft click, 
and known as the dental, palatal, and lateral clicks respec- 
tively, according to the process by which the sounds are 
formed. In Hottentot there is also a seventh click known 
as the cerebral, but this does not occur in the Kafir lan- 

It is quite impossible, even with the most complicated 
system of diacritical marks, to represent Chinese words in 
such a manner as to give the correct sounds to European 
ears, and this difficulty is aggravated by the existence in the 
Chinese language of what are called the tones, of which there 
are four in the mandarin or court language, though six, 
eight, or even twelve are found in southern dialects. We can 
only arrive at a very rough approximation, especially when 
we discard the diacritical signs ; thus the word which we 
represent by ma, when pronounced in one tone, is the 
world-wide term for ' mother,' but when another tone is 
employed it signifies ' a horse,' and in yet another tone it is 
a terrible oath ; similarly we have ku ' a pass,' ka ' old,' ku 


' a valley, canal, streamlet/ and ku 'a dam, dike.' Again in 
the south of China is the province Kwang Tnng or ' Broad 
province east,' as distinguished from Kwang Si or 'Broad 
Province west,' and here Kwang means * broad,* Tung ' east,' 
and Si ' west ' ; but in the north there is another Kwang 
Tnng, and this Kwang does not mean ' broad ' nor does this 
Tnng signify ' east,' the meaning of this KWang Tnng being 
*The Viceroy's Sword.' Further, we find that the word 
which we represent by li means 'inner,' 'hamlet,' and a 
standard measure of length (about two-thirds of a mile) 
according to the tone employed. To Chinese ears these 
sounds are as different as ' hall,' ' house,' and ' hut ' to ours, 
but the ordinary European ear does not discriminate between 
them, so that there is no course left open to us but to repre- 
sent the different forms by precisely the same spelling. 

Allusion has already been made to the Chinese of the 
mandarins as spelled by Wade, and the language of the rest 
of the Chinese as spelled according to the system formulated 
by Von Eichthofen. A few of the more common differences 
will now be mentioned, as words are variously pronounced 
in different parts of the country or variously represented by 
some of the principal authors who have devoted their atten- 
tion to China. The ch of the mandarin pronunciation, when 
followed by i, is generally replaced by k, as in ohiang, kiang, 
•a river,' ohiao, kiao, *a bridge,' though sometimes we find 
h, 8, or ts instead of k, thus ching, hing, sing, ' a well ' or 
' the capital of a state,' and Ta tsien In instead of Ta ohien 
In, which has also been rendered Tathsianln. When the 
ch is followed by any other vowel, it generally remains 



unchanged, except in some instances where it is replaced by 
t, as in oheng, teng, ' a town/ ' a village/ and this t is 
variously represented by ts, th, thus tim=t8im=t86n=thim=: 
tienasa village. The hs, which is a sound approximating to 
the Spanish c as in Centa, or to the ti in the termination -tion 
of Parisian French, is variously represented by h, ts, ah, and 
8 (especially when followed by i), e,g. hnen, Men, a 'district 
city,' Hsiniiig or Sining, a town to the east of Eoko-nor, 
hda, hia, 'lower,' An-hson or An-shon in the south-west 
of Kwei-chau, Hson-ohau or Tson-chau on the Si-kiang. The 
letters j and n are sometimes interchanged, as in Jn-chen or 
Nu-chen, the language of the Chin or Gold Dynasty; and Jipen 
for Nipen, whence Marco Polo's Zipangn ( Japan). ^ Another 
marked peculiarity in the writing of Chinese place-names is 
the insertion or rejection of ng by various authorities, e.g. 
ChiaiisKi-iigan in Kiang-si, and Ifgan-lo=An-lo in Hupe. 
The representation of such word-elements as the first in 
Sn-mao and Se-chaan appears to point to a considerable 
divergence of authoritative opinion. In the first case the 
authorities give Su-mao, Ssu-mao, Semao, and in the second 
no less than eight forms will be found in works and on maps, 
all of which carry considerable weight, viz. Se, Si, 8u, Ss, 
Sse, Ssu, Sz, Sze. 

The principal differences in vowel sounds occur in con- 
nection with the ou of Wade, which is represented by au 

* This curious substitution of j for n took place during the Ten or Mongol 
Dynasty (1260-1366 a.d.) when the mandarin or court language was greatly 
influenced by the Mongol phonetic system. The change did not spread to 
Japan, which consequently still retains the n, as in Nip-pon from the original 
Chinese Nit-pon=i\i^ 'Bising Sun/ the Orient. 


in some cases, and by u in others ; thus Von Bichthofen and 
others write ohau for Wade's ohon, as in Kiao-chon, Xiao-chau ; 
and kon, ' a pass/ becomes ku. A minor difference is the 
substitution of e for Wade's a in such word-elements as 
yuan, ynen, tsuan, tsnen, hsuan, hsnen. 

In the various Polynesian languages certain consonantal 
interchanges, which are widespread, may here, in conclusion, 
be mentioned. The b, f, h, p, and v are frequently found 
replacing one another, thus baii=:vau, ' a stone,' and banua 
=f6niia=lianiia=pa]iiia=va]ina, 'a village.' The r is some- 
times replaced by n and vice versa, thus niina=niima, 
' house ' ; and d, 1, and r appear frequently to replace one 
another, thus legi^itgi, * grass,* and diibu=liibii=ruvii, 
* the deep sea.' The aspirate sometimes gives place to t and 
sometimes to w, thus lLano=tano=wa]io, ' earth.' On the 
other hand, the aspirate has ousted s everywhere in Poly- 
nesia except in the Samoan and Ellis groups. Thus the 
Samoan island of Savaii (for Savaiki) takes the form of 
ii in the Sandwich Archipelago ; Havaii in Tahiti ; 
iki in the Marquesas ; and in the Maori traditions 
Hawaiki was the land whence came the first inhabitants of 
New Zealand. Lastly the interchange of k and t ranges 
over the Pacific Ocean, and explains such forms as kanaka 
= 'men,' 'natives' (in Hawaii), and tagata (in Samoa, 
where, however, the t is now reverting to k). Subjoined is 
a table of the chief sound-shiftings in Polynesia : 





































p, b 























r, * 




(Jambier ' Samoa 





t, k 




The Glossary is arranged so that after the Geographical 
or Topographical term follows the language or dialect to 
which it belongs, or the locality where it is used, or the 
name of the tribe in whose vocabulary it is found to be 
included ; and, in some cases, both the tribe or dialect and 
the locality are stated when this has been thought advisable. 
When any tenn is found in two or more languages, both are 
given. This portion of the information is printed in italics 
and enclosed within brackets. Then follows the meaning of 
the term. If there be an abbreviation for any term oflScially 
recognised in connection with any of the Great Topo- 
graphical Surveys, this will be found, within brackets, 
immediately after the meaning ; and several terms, which 
would not otherwise have found a place in the Glossary 
have been inserted for the express purpose of indicating that 
such abbreviations are recognised for these terms ; for 
example, Begione, which is dignified by an abbreviation by 
the Italians (whereas the corresponding equivalents in the 
other Latin languages are not similarly honoured), Abbaye, 
Biviere, &c. Then follow, in many cases, examples and 



references to cognate terms, or to words of similar meaning 
or the reverse. The Bantu terms, where possible, have been 
referred to their stems or roots, the prefixes being outset in 
the margin. 

Most of the italicised portions of the entries need no 
explanation, but the following list, showing the geo- 
graphical situation of some of the less-known tribes, dialects, 
or localities, may be of use : 

Language, Tribe, or District 

Abbadi . . . . 
Agni .... 

Attie .... 
A-Zande {* Niam-Niam *) . 

Bafo .... 
Bagirmi .... 

Bali .... 

BaloDg .... 
Bambara .... 
Bangala .... 







Bonghlj coneBpondlng geographical dtoatioa 

Upper Egypt, east of Nile 

Ivory Coast, between the rivers Bandama 
and Eomoe 

Ivory Coast, west of Komoe B. 

Between the Ubangi B., the tipper Bahr el 

Ghazal and the upper Shari B. 
Kamerun, on npper Mungo B. 
On Shari B., south of Lake Chad 
North Kamerun, south of Anglo-German 


Kamerun, on upper Mungo B. 
Western Sudan, upper Niger basin 

(a) Angola, on Ambaka R. and neighbouring 
Congo region 

(b) The district round Nouvelle Anvers, 
Middle Congo 

Kamerun, west of the upper Mungo B. 

North of the great Congo bend 

Western Sudan, the hinterland of the Gold 

Coast and Togo 
Benue B. region, Adamawa 
Central district of the French Ivory Coast 

Eastern Sudan, Darfur 
Angola, on upper Kwanza B. 
On the mainland of Eastern Africa opposite 

Pemba Island 
South and west of L. Chad 



Langoacrc, Tribe, or 

District Boaghly oorrespondlng geographical situation 

Chauiba . 

. Western Sudan 

Chinbok . 

North Arakan, Chin Hills 

Chinbon . 

. Ditto 

Chong Chia-tse 

. South China, Yunnan 

Chung-kia • 

. Shan States 

Chwana . 

. Bechuanaland 

Danakil . 

. South-western Bed Sea littoral 


. Upper Egypt, east of Nile 

Fan . 

. French Congo, on upper Ogowe R. 


. Gold Coast 

Fon . 

. Dahome 


. West and Central Sudan 


. The region between Abyssinia, Lake Rudolf, 

and the Tana B. 

Giryama . 

. East Africa, near Mombasa 


. In Ugogo, central G erman East Africa 

Gonja (Gonya) 

. Northern Gold Coast, on White Volta B. 


. French Sudan, north of the Dahome and 

Togo protectorates 


. Laos, Siam 


. South China, Timnan 


. West central Sudan, between the Niger and 



. South China, Yunnan 


. North Algeria and North Marocco 


. British East Africa, from Mount Kenia to 

Kilima Njaro 

Kanem . 

. North-east of L. Chad 


. Bornu, west and south-west of L. Chad 

Karanga . 

. Mat^beleland, Mashonaland, and regions of 

L. Ngami and the middle Zambezi R. 


. Eastern Uganda 

Khas Chos 

. Laos, Siam 

Kikuyu . 

. Eastern Uganda, south of Mt. Kenia 

Kirghiz . 

. North and west of the Caspian Sea, West 

Siberia, and Pamir uplands 

Kossova . 

. Eastern Uganda 

Kotoko . 

. Southern Bornu (q^v.) 

Kwenaiu . 

. North Arakan 



Liingiuige, Tribe, or Diatrlct 

Lomwe . 








Man Sung 



Miao-tse . 

Min-kia . 











Pai . 



Bua . 







Boughly corresponding geographical titaatlon 

Lake Shirwa and Mozambique 

Eastern Uganda, Nzoia River basin 

North of the great Congo bend 

German and Portuguese East Africa 


Southern Bomu (^.v.) 

Western Sudan, upper Niger and region to 

the south 
Upper Welle B. 

Lao-kai, northern Tonking and Yunnan 
Eastern equatorial Africa 
Group of islands off S.W. Sumatra coast 
Kwei-chau, South China 
South China, Yunnan 
Upper Nile 

North of the great Congo bend 

French Sudan, within the Niger bend 
French Congo, on Lower Ogowe and 

Gabun Bs. 
Eastern Uganda, south of Mt. Elgon 
Northern Tonking, Yunnan 
Eastern equatorial Africa, near Mombasa 
Shan States, Laos 
Lao-kai, Yunnan 
Shan States 
South China, Yunnan 
Upper Amu Dana (Oxus), south of the Mur- 

gab, Pamir region 
On the middle Lualaba (Congo) 
In Usagara, east-central German East Africa 
Districts of Senna, SofieJa, Tete, Zumbo, 

Nyasa, and on the Bufiji and Shire Bs. 
Senegal coast, and about Cape Verde 
Between the Blue Nile and Sobat Bs. 
Upper Amu-Daria (Oxus), north of Wakhan 

B., Pamir region 
Upper Nile and Sobat B. 
Horn of Africa 



RoDghly oorreipondixig geognphloal slttutlon 

Songhai . 


Western Sudan, Middle Niger from Tim- 
buktu to Say 

Soninke . 

On Senegal R. 


Between Kilima Njaro and the Ndara Hills 

Tamul . 

Deccan, Coromandel Coast and North Ceylon 

Tangut . 

Begion about Koko-nor 


North Arakan 


Shan States, Tiaos 

Tho .... 

Lao-kai, Yunnan 


Between the Victoria Falls (Zambezi) and 
L. Bangweulu 

Usagara . 

See Sagara 

Welanng . 

North Arakan 

Wolof . 

Senegal coast between Senegal B. and Serer 

Yambo . 

Upper Sobat B. 

Yao . . . . 

On the tableland between Nyasa and the 


> * 

South China, Yunnan 

Yindu Chin 

Chin HiUs 



Between Dahome and the Lower Niger 


Deria-i-Zir, Central Kurdistan 








{Africa, Welle-Makua region. North of the Equa- 
tor), a plural personal prefix, people, found in many 
dialects in this region, e,g. A-Zande, A-Barmbo, 
A-Bangba, A-Kadi, Le. * the Zande people,' ' the 
Barmbo people,* &c. ; equivalent to the Bantu 
(South of the Equator) Wa, Ba, Ama, Ova (q.v,) 
Cf the postfixed -bu, -bi, -be (q\v.) 

{Africa, Bantu, South of the Equator), a plural 
personal prefix, people, e.g. A-Kikuyn, ' the people 
of Kikuyu,* the sing, of which is Knkiknyu, ' a 
Kikuyu man ' ; A-Kamba, ' the Kamba people ' of 
the country Ukamba ; Hkamba, ' a Kamba ' ; A- 
Nyika, ' the Nyika people ' or ' people of the desert ' ; 
Kunyika, ' a man of the desert.' The more usual 
forms of the Bantu plural personal prefix are Wa, 
Ba, Ama, Ova {q.v.), as in Wanyamwezi, Basnto, 
Amaznln, Ovampo, Ovaherero. 



A {Sw,) 

Aa (Da.y Dch.) 

A rivulet, e.g. Tornea, Oroote Aa, Aiaa. 
Cf. E, Aoh, Av. 

Aaohen {Ger.), same word as Aiz (q.v,), and Aize ; hence 
Aachen = Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Aaoho (Shimasha, Abyssinia), water. 

Aadad, pi. of Id or Ed {Egyptian Sudan), wells, espe- 
cially in a desert. 

Aan (Dch.), at, on, near, e.g. Egmond aan Zee. 

Aapu (Kabadi, New Guinea), a mountain. 

Abm, Ab (Nor., Da.), the ridge of a hill. Cf. As. 

Ab, Abu (Arab.), father; as a geographical term signi- 
fies producing, abounding in, large, and is of very 
frequent occurrence. Cf. Abbas. 

Ab (Hottentot). See Ep. 

Ab (Jaalin, Nubia), a patronymic termination, e.g. 
Kaliab, Sadab. 

Ab (Pers., E. Turk.), water, river; e.g. Punjab, 'the 
land of the five rivers * ; panj=five. Cf. Doab. 

Abad, Abadan (Pers.), cultivated (lands), populous, in- 
habited ; in India this is used as signifying ' abode,' 
' city,' e.g. Allahabad. See Allah. 

Abaia] (Abyssinia), a large mass of water ; a lake. See 

Abalaj also Abba, &c. 

Ab-amber (Pers.), a cistern; lit. a 'store of water.' 
See Ab (Pers.) Cf. Ambar. 

JLhBJi,pl. Meban (Fan, French Congo). See Ban. 

Aban (Gold Coast), a house built of stone, a palace. 

Aban-kese (Gold Coast), a fort, castle. 

Abankor (Sahara), wells in the bed of a river, filled by fil- 
tration ; or wells in depressions filled by rain-water. 

. variants of Abaia {above). 


Abarraka (Tuareg, Berber), a road. 

Abata (Yoruba)j a marsh in a plain, a pool. 

Ab&ta (Yoruba), a park. 

-Abatu (Congo), a suffix signifying ' direct ' (of roads or 

Abbas (Per 8.), father, e.g, Abbasabad, * paternal town or 

abode.' Cf. Ab. See Abad. 
Abbaye (Fr.), abbey (Abb«). 
Abbazia (It), abbey (Abb-^). 
Abdachung (Ger,\ slope, declivity. Cf, Abhang. 
Abe (laiboy New Guinea), a path. 
Aben, ^Z. Meben (Fan, French Congo), See Ben. 
Abeng (Ttcareg, Berber), a temporary lake, a pond. 
Aber (Wales and Scotland), the confluence of two 

rivers, or of a river and the sea, at the mouth of a 

river, e.g. Abergavenny, Abergeldie, Aberdeen. See 

Abetu (Yoruba), a brook, rivulet. 
Abge (Bomu), a lake of natron. See Sirge. 
Ab-gus&r (Pers.), a watercourse, conduit; channel. 
Ab-gnzar (Pers.), ford, ferry. 
Abhang (Ger.), slope, declivity. Cf. Abdachung. 
Abiad (Arab., N. Africa), the proper form of Abiodh, 

white, e.g. Bahr-el-abiad, ' the white river,* i.e. the 

White Nile. 
Abiar. See Borj. 

B 2 


Abiodh {Arab., N. Africa), white ; fern. Beida. See Abiad. 

AbiBh-khnr (Pers.), a reservoir. See Ab-khana. 

Ab-jo {Pers,), a rivulet. See Ab. 

Ab-kliana (Pers.), a reservoir. See Abiah-khnr. 

Aboe (Gold Coast), a confluence of two streams. 

Abolij^Z. Meboli {Fan, French Congo). See Boli. 

Abom {Gold Coast), stony ground. 

Abomma {Gold Coast), tributary, affluent, branch of a 

Aboiiy^Z. Mebon {Fan, French Congo). See Bon. 
Abonse {Gold Coast), the bottom of a valley. 
AboBam {Gold Coast), cliff, crag. 
Abra {Port.), bay, creek, roadstead, 
Abrah {Pers.), conduit, canal, watercourse. 
Abrevadero {Sp.), a watering-place for cattle (Abro). 
Abrid {Eabile), a road. 
Abriz {E. Turk.), basin, ditch, depression in which water 

collects and remains. 
Absal {Pers.), vineyard, garden. 
Abshar {Pers.)^ waterfall, cascade, cataract. 
Abu {Arab.) See Ab. 
Abaano {Kerepunu, New Guinea), east. See next entry 

and Avurigo. 
Abnrigo {Kerepunu, New Guinea), south. See above 

Abnsaa-ku {Gold Coast), family, tribe, clan. 
Abyad {Arab.) See Abiad. 
Abyar,^Z. of Bir {Arab., N. Africa), wells. 
•Ao {Celtic), a suffix, sometimes patronymic, sometimes 

possessive, e.g. Langeac. 


Aoeqoia (Sp.), a canal. 

Aoh, Aohe (Alps), a river, e.g. Salzach. 

Aoli {Gaelic). See Ooh. 

Aohan {E, Turk.), a place where a gorge opens out into 

a plain. 
Achik {E. Turk.), salt, bitter, e.g. Achik Bulak, 'bitter- 
spring * ; open, e.g. Achik-yilga, * open valley.' 
Acqnitrino (It.), percolating water, ooze, swamp, bog. 
Acre {Anglo-Saxon Meet), a field, e,g. Long Acre. 
Ad {Indian, U.S.A.), deer, e.g. Adosia, ' fair-deerland.* 
Ad, Ado {Somali), white, e.g. Biyo Ado, ' white water,' 

Burady ' white hill.' See Biyo, Bur. 
Ada, Ata {Turk.), an island. 
Adad {Somali), trees, e.g. Adadle, ' the place where trees 

grow.* See -Le. 
Ada-do (Yoruba), an island. 
Adar {Temashight, Berber), a mountain, mountain 

spur, lit. a leg. 
Adar-n-Eghirr'du {Sahara), an arm {lit. a leg) of a river, 

a creek, used to include both the Arab, terms Eejl 

or Kra and Bot-ko {q.v.) See also Eghirr'dn. 
Adar-udar {Hind.), a ditch, or mound of earth thrown 

up from it to form a boundary. 
Addi {Eritrea), green; e.g. Bilemmi Island, properly 

Addi-lem, ' green spot.' 
Addifl {Abyssinia), new, e.g. Addis Abbaba, Addis Harar. 
Adeb {Arab., N. Africa), a gently sloping hill. 
Adek {Chinbon), small, applied to a hamlet, as a small 

Adel {Ger.), noble, e.g. Adelsheim, ' noble's home.' 


Adi (N. Chin hills), small, as of a stream, a small 

Adi (Basari), See Ondi. 
Adler (Ger.), eagle, e.g. Adlerberg. 
Ado {Danakil and Somaliland), white See Ad. 
Adosase {Gold Coast), arable land. 
Adrar {Sahara), a mountain. 
Aduana {Sp,), a custom house. 
moAdya {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a house. 

Af {Somali), an opening, ravine, valley, lit a mouth, 

e.g. Afinadn, see Mado. 
Afae {Gold Coast), a pass, defile. 
Afiam {Gold Coast) ^ district, region. 
Afan, pi. Mefan {Fan, French Congo). See Fan. 
Afanin {Arab.), paths, ways. 
Afelle {Tuareg, Berber), desert, lit. north, i.e. the 

Sahara. Cf. Agns. 
AS {Gaelic), water. 
AflBuent {Fr.), tributary stream. 
Afri {Kabile), a grotto. 

Ag {Indian, U.S.A.), water*s edge, brink, bank, shore. 
Aga {Galla), rock. 
Agach {Turkestan), wood, tree. 
Agadir {Berber), escarpment, rampart, fortification ; pi. 

Agahar {Berber), a river. Cf. Akarka. 
Agbaiye (Yoruba), the world. 
Agba-ra (Yoruba), a wooden fortification. 
Agh {Ireland), a field, from Irish aohadh, e.g. Ardagh, 

* the field on the height.' See Ard. 


Aghelad (W. Sahara), a defile. 

Aghil (JS?. Turk.), an enclosure for flocks. 

Aghma (Arab,), a desert. Cf. Ama. 

Aghz (Turk.), an entrance. 

Agi (Eerepunu, New Guinea), wind. 

Agib {Marocco)j farm, as Agib Sherif, 'royal farm.' 

Agi08,a,on {Greek), holy, sacred, saint. See HagioB. 

Agman& (Hindi), the east. For other points see XJttar. 

Agolmin (Berber), pool, pond. 

Ag08 (Tagala, Philippine Archipelago), current of a 

river ; a watercourse. 
Agn^ar (Deccan), a village or quarter of a town occupied 

by Brahmins. 
Agrish (Kabile), stone, rock. 
Agna (Port, Sp.), water, e.g. Agnas Calientes, 'warm 

Agnala (Spanish S. America), watering-station, a place 

where the water is drinkable, water-lock. 
Agula (Yamho, Upper Sobat B.), marsh land. 
Agofl (Tuareg, Berber), south wind, south, the Northern 

Tuareg name for the Sahara. Cf. Afelle, Ego. 
Agy (Hung.), top, summit, peak. 
Aha (Indian, U.S.A.), water. Cf. Ha. 
Ababan (Gold Coast), bush, wood, forest. 
Ahandu (Lu-Wan^a of Awa-Bimi group, Uganda). See 

Abathluo (Indian, U.S.A.), sea. 
Abawag (Sahara), a plain. 
Abawin (Gold Coast), grass. 
Abe (Gold Coast), place, locality, situation. 


Ahea (Fanti), sand. 

Ahel, AU (Arab,), people, e.g. Ahel es-Saliel, ^coast- 
people.' Cf, Ba, -Ba, Wa, Kel, A. See El, Sahel. 


- . [ {Gold Coast), a kingdom. 

Ahidaina (Maiva, New Guinea), south. For other 

points see Tototaina. 
AUen {Ghinbok, E, of Mon B.), red. 
Ahmar (Arab.), red, e.g. Tel el Ahmar, * red hill ' ; fern. 

Hamara. See Hamar. 
Ah na ku il (Indian, U.S.A.), town, village. 
Ahoro (Yoruba), ruins. 
Ahtatalki voarat (Fin.), a mountain. 
Ahwan (N. Arakan), a village. 
AY (China), a col, saddle between hills. 
Aiara (Maiva, New Guinea), a village. 
kiAiek (Uganda), a ferry. 
Aigak (Aleut), great, big; e.g. Aigagin, volcano. 
Aiguille (Fr.), a spire, steeple, peak (Aig*'),^.^'. Aiguille 

Aikh, Aik (Arab.), a hard bank. 
Aikak (Indian, Alaska), a passage between islands, 

between an island and the mainland, or into a river. 
Aimak (E. Turk.), a division of a tribe; means also 

(in Mongolia) an administrative district, and (in 

Afghanistan) a group of Turki or Mongol tribes, 

e.g. Char Aimak, the 'Four Tribes,' about the 

Herat district west of the Hazara. 
Ain, En (Arab.), a fountain, spring, source, e.g. Ain 

Sefra, £ng6di. 
Ainet (Nandi and Eldorobo, Uganda), a river. 


Aird {Gaelic Airde), high, height, e.g. Airdrie. See Bie. 
Cf. Ard. 

Airilioli, Airilghan {E. Turk.), a place where a stream 
divides into several branches. 

AYssn {Danakil and Somaliland), grass. 

Al't (Berber), a tribal prefix corresponding to Ben, Mac, 
&c., e.g. AVt-Ijer ; Alt-Sedrat. See Aiyal. 

Al't {Kahile), a resident, inhabitant. 
. Aiz, Aixe (from Lat. aquas, of aqua, most French 
nouns derived from Latin being formed from the 
accusative case), waters, e.g. Aiz-les-BainB, also Aix- 
la-Chapelle, Aixheim, Aixe-sur-Vienne. Gf. Ger. 
Aaohen, really the same word. 

Aiya (Shankali, Abyssinia), water. 

Aiyal (Arab.), a tribal prefix. Cf. Al't. 

Aiyari (Hausa), caravan. 

Ai yaw (Yindu Chin, W. of Mon B.), small. 

Ajelmam (N. Sahara), a lake. 

Aju (Mi^u) (German E. Africa), house, e.g. Hyak^ju, 
* a village in Nyaka.' See Ju. 

Ak (Korea), peak, mountain, e.g. An-ak, Chai-ak, Pi-ak. 

Ak (Tt^rft.), white, e.g. Ak Bu=* White Water 'driver 
ohAka (Giryama), the dry season. 
dzAka (Nika), a forest. 

Aka (Japan), red, e.g. Akasaki, 'red cape.' See Saki. 

Akaba (Arab.), a col or saddle between two hills ; a 
hill or steep way ; any uninhabited place, wilder- 

Akakio (Uganda, dialect of Bantu). See Kio. 

Akalin (Arab.), countries, zones. 


Akame (Congo, dialect of Bantu), See Me. 
mwAkani (Giryama), south. See Mutswerero. 

Akanifca, pL of Tunika (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). 

Akar (Sansc), mine, quarry, spring, source. 
Akarka (Basque), a river. Cf Agahar. 
Akau (Hawaii), north. For other points see Knknlu 

Hema, Hikina, Komohana. 
Akaya (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kaya. 
Akba (Arab., N. Africa), ascent, height, elevation. 
Akbasha (Abbadi, Etbai), slate- coloured, applied to the 

rocks of the neighbourhood. 
Ake (Hu-Ni, China), water. 
Ake-ja-onna (Yoruba), a cross street, lane. 
Akena (Kabadi, New Guinea), river. 
Akere, Aki (Alfur), water. Cf. Wai. 
Akhal (Somali), house. 
Akhal (Arab., N. Africa), black, e.g. Akhalkalaki ; few. 

Akkdar (Arab., N. Africa), green, covered with verdure ; 

fern. Khadara. 
Aki. See Akere. 
Aki (Japan), autumn. 

Akim a (Pimo Indian, U.S.A. ; Mexico), a river. 
Akin (E. Turk.), the pouring forth or gushing out of 

Akipi (Elgumi, Uganda), water. 
Akja (Turk.), white. Cf. Ak. 
Ak-klut (Eskimo), provisions, ammunition ; e.g. Aklut 

' the village where provisions may be obtained.' 


Akla {Indian U,S,A,)y deep water. 
xnwAko (Cent Africa, dialect of Bantu), a mountain. Cf. 

Ako-ban (Gold Coast), a defensive wall, fence, rampart. 

Akogha, pi, Bekogha (Fan, French Congo) . See Kogha. 

Akropolis (Greek), citadel, fortress. 

Akroterion (Greek), cape, promontory. 

Aku (Indian, U,S,A.), a plain. 

Aku (Maiva, New Guinea), sea. 

A knm na (Indian, U.S.A.), bog, marsh. 

Akupaka (Maiva, New Guinea), the deep sea. 

Akwampo (Gold Coast), a desolate, bad, impassable 

Akwo (Yambo, Upper Sobat B.), sand. 

Akyn (E. Turk.) See Akin. 

Al (Arab.), family, race. 

Al, Alb, Alp (Aryan languages), high, hill, e.g. Shiffiial, 
Albania, Alps (cognate with Latin albns, white). 

Al (Wolof),a. forest. 
dzAl (Fan, French Congo), a village. For pi. see Dzal. 

Ala (Madagascar), forest wood, thus anala=the place 
where the forest is, e.g. Analasora, 'at the wood 
where the hedgehogs are found.* See An. 

Ala (Arab.) upper. Cf Pokani. 

Ala (Turk.), variegated, e.g. Alatan, 'variegated moun- 
tain,' because of the stripes and patches of dark rock 
alternating with snow. 

Ala (Yoruba), a boundary. 

[. (Loango, Bantu), a village. For pi. see Buala. 


luAla {Bantu), a clifif. 
Alaohuk (Persia), the bee-hive movable dwellings of the 

Yomut Turkomans, with a wooden framework, 

usually about 16 feet in diameter, and covered with 

Alafo (Yoruba), valley, ravine. 
Alambrado {Spanish S, America), wire fencing fastened 

to posts. Cf. Alambre, copper wire. 
Alamu {Nika), wide, broad (river). 
Alaya {Sansc), abode, e.g. Himalayas: the abode of 

snow. See Him. 
Alb. See Al. 
Albardon {Spanish S, America), rising ground on the 

coast or amongst lagoons. 
Aid {Gaelic AUt), a stream, e,g, Aldoambus, ' the stream 

of the bay.' See Cambus. 
Aldea {Port., Sp.), a village, hamlet, used also in Anglo- 
Indian for a villa. 
Ale {Sara, Chad L.), a mountain. 
Aleb {Arab., N. Africa), a shelving hill. 
Aleff {W. Sahara), a lake. 
Alan {N, Chin hills, Taungtha), largo, great. 
Alfa {Arab., N. Africa), a name common to several 

species of grass ; sometimes Haifa, e.g. Wadi Haifa, 

* the valley with the esparto grass.* 
Alfandega {Port.), custom house. 
Algas {Ilausa), green, as of a forest in leaf. Cf. 

Ali,pL Meli {Fan, French Congo). See Li. 
Alifia (Bagirmi), chief, e.g. Alifa Bass chief of the river. 


Alin {China) y a mountain, range. 

Alizfo, Vents- (Fr.), trade winds. 

Alkabe {Songhai), a fortified place. 

Allah {Arab,)y God, e.g. Allahabad, 'the town of God.' 

See Abad. 
Alle (Wolof), a desert, a forest. 
Allt (Gaelic), a stream or brook, e.g. Allt Anavig, near 

the Kyle of Lochalsh. Cf. Aid. 
ohAlo {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country, district. 
nmwAlo {Ltc-Wanga, Uganda), a field or plantation. 
•Alonga. See Hini. 
Alor {Malay), a drain, dike; 6.^. Alor Saina, Alor Pongsu 

in Bagan Serai. 
Alp, See Al. 
Alqueria {Sp.), grange, farmhouse ; generally a farm 

with a house at a distance from neighbours. 
Alfld {Hung.), under, lower, e.g. Also Alpar. 
Alt {Ger.), old, e.g. Altenbnrg. 

Alt, Allt (Welsh), a steep place, e.g. Altcar, Alltmawr. 
Alta (Indian, U.S.A.), swift, running water. 
Alta,o (It., Sp., Port.), high, e.g. Tierra Alta (Sp.), 

' high land.* See entries under Alto-. 
Altin (E. Turk.), lower, e.g. Altin Tagh. See Astin. 
Altopiano (It.), an elevated tableland. 
Altozano (Sp.), a height or little hill. 
Altnn, Altyn (E. Turk.), gold, e.g. Altyn Kiopm. 
chiAlu (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country, district. 
Alngh, pi. Melngh (Fan, French Congo), the portion of 

a river between two dams, which is emptied in 

order to catch the fish. See Lngh. 


Alnj (Marocco), conyerts, e,g, IHad el Aluj, ^ the sons 

of the converts,' as the inhabitants of Agurai are 

called, being of Spanish gipsy origin. 
Alnn-alnn (Java), a grassy public square surrounded by 

trees, which is found in the centre of all towns in 

Alvenaria (Port), rough, unhewn stone (building). 
Alyen (Chinbon), large, e.g. Mlet Alyen, * the big stream.* 
Alzata (It.) J an embankment. 
Am (Madagascar). See An. 
Am (Welsh), by, near, e.g. Amlwch, Henllan-am-Ooed, 

* the old church by the wood.* See Hen, Llan, Coed. 
Ama (Arab.), a desert. Cf. Aghma. 
Ama- (Bantu), plur. prefix signifying * people,' e.g. 

Amaznln. This is really the article a, followed by 

the prefix ma. See A. 
Amagamba, Igamba (dialects of Bantu). See Oamba. 
Amigi (dialect of Bantu). See Mansi. 
Amak (Aleut), blood, a name given to islands where 

walruses are found and -killed. 
Amala (Arab., N. Africa), a province. 
Aman (N. Chin hills), black, e.g. Aman Var, 'black 

Aman (Marocco), water. 
Amantifl (Gold Coast), the upper part of the country ; 

the high country. 
Amanzi (Zulu, Kafir), water. See Nzi. 
Amapiri (dialect of Bantu). See Piri. 
Amara, Amr (India), immortal, e.g. Amarapora, * town 

of the immortals,' Amritsar, * lake of immortality.* 


-Amatadi {Congo), suffix meaning rocky. See Tadi 
Amasagh, Amashagh, Amezdhagh, Emizdegh {dialects of 

Berber), a village. 0/. Ntamazirt. 
Amazi {dialect of Bantu), See Manfli. 
Amb {New Guinea), a house. 
Amba {Abyssinia), an elevated mountain plateau. 
imiAmba, mw Amba {Swahili), rock. 
kiAmba {Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), a mountain. 
Ambar {E, Turk.), a granary. Cf, Ab-amber. 
Ame {Japan), rain. 

Amensi {dialect of Bantu). See Maiud. 
Amera {Fr.), landmarks, natural or artificial, on the 

Amezdhagh {Tuareg, Berber). See Amazagh. 
-Amiongo {Congo), suffix meaning ' hilly.' See Ongo. 
Amma-wa {Logon, Chad L, region), the current of a 

Amont (Fr.), up-stream. See Aval. 
Ampang {Malay), a dam, and to dam. 
-Ampwena {Congo), suffix meaning ^ great.' 
Amt {Nor,), a county. 
Amtik {Kabile), a passage. 
Amud {Soniali), earth. 
A man hive {Indian, U.S.A.), an island. 
klAmvu {Congo, dialect of Bantu), bridge, pier. 
Amwene {dialect of Bantu). See Mwene. 
An {China), border, shore. 
An, And, Ant, Am {Madagascar), all modified forms of 

Ani, the place where one finds something, or where 

something is, at, on, in, near, e.g. Ankazobe, ' at 


the big trees,' * the place where the forest is ' ; 

Andranomami, *the place where the sweet water 

is ' ; Antnahakeli, ' at the little brook ' ; Antananarivo, 

' at the town of thousands or of a thousand 

dwellings.' See Kazo, Be, Bana, Saha, Keli, Tana, 

An {China J Cochinchina), signifies rest, tranquillity, and 

occurs in a large number of place-names ; e.g. 

An-Dien, ' the peaceful rice-field.' Of. Friedenan. 
An (China), a saddle ; e.g, An-Shan, * saddle hill.' 
Ana {HatUf China), black. 
kiAna (Congo, dialect of Bantu), farm, garden. 
mwAna (Upper Congo, dialect of Bantu), an affluent. 

Anak-^yer (Malay), tributary of a river, lit. ' child of 

the river,' e.g. Anak-ayer Kaohing. See Ayer. 
Anamghnr (Sahara), a watering-place. 
dzAnohe (Nika), a place cleared of wood for cultivation. 
Ancoradonro (Port.), anchorage. 
Ancoraggio (It.), a roadstead, anchorage. 
Anorage (Fr.), an anchorage. 
And (Madagascar). See An. 
luAnda (Nika), an open tract of land. 
IwAnda (Giryama), prairie, veld. 
Andar (Armenian), a forest. 
ulwAndle (Kafir). See Lwandle. 

Andrefana (Madagascar), west. For other points see 

Andriana (Madagascar), lord, chief, great man, noble, 

e.g. Ankaranandriana, ' at the lord's rock.' See An, 




Ane {Gold Coast), west, westward. See Boka. 

Anemomnlos {Neo-Greek), a windmill. 

-Anene (Congo), suffix meaning * great.' Cf, Nene. 

Ang (Kwenam), a stream. 

Aiig*are (Brit E. Africa), water, e.g. the river Ang'ares 

Ange {Kanuri, Chad L.), equivalent to Firki (q.v.) See 

also Ohadir. 
Anghi {Tttareg, Berber), torrent, rivulet. 
Angin {Malay), wind ; Angin-Dfirat, land-breeze ; Angin- 
laut, sea-breeze. 
mwAngo {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a mountain. 

Cf Ako. 
paAngo {Swahili), a cave. 

Angostnra {Sp.), a narrow pass. 
Angrenzend {Ger.), adjacent, contiguous. 
Angri {Marocco), a well. 
Angnm {N. Arakan), a valley. 
Ang vai {Yindu Chin, W. of Mon B.), large. 
Anhar {Arab.), rivers, streamlets {pi. o/Nahr, stream). 

ohiAni ■ {Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), grass. 

Aningo {Mpoiigwe^ Bantu). See Ningo. 
luAiga {Bantu), the sea. 

nyAiga {Cent. Africa, Bantu), lake, water either of a 
river or lake. Cf. Anza, Asa. 
uAiga {Swahili), an enclosure. 
Ankap&hia {Fin.), a roadstead. 
Ankergrund {Ger.), anchorage. 

c • 



Ankik (Kabile), gorge, col, defile. 

Anna {Upper Nile), bush, high grass. 

Annexe {Fr.), a parochial chapel. 

Ano {Gold Coast), bank, shore. 

Ansa {It.), a creek, bay. 

Anse {Fr.), a creek, bay. 

Ant {Madagascar). See An. 

Ant {Tibet), end, extremity, e.g. Bhot-Ant, corrupted into 

Bhutan. See Bhot. 
Antia {Loinwe, Mozambique), lake, swamp. 
Antsinanana {Madagascar), east. For other points see 

Antu {Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Htu. 
isAntwenka {Zulu, Kafir), a deep reach of water. 
Ann {Gold Coast), near, alongside of, e.g. Apuanu, near 

the sea, sea-side, coast. See Apu. 
Ann {Tuareg, Berber), a deep well. 
mwAnya {Giryama), a gap. 
luAnza {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country, town. 
nyAnza {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a broad water, 

lake. See Nyanza, Mnanza, Anja, Asa, &c. 
Ao {Annam), lake, marsh, pond, pool. 
Ao {Hainan), a mountain. 
Ao, Awo {Japan), green. See Awo. 
Ao {China, Siam), bay, creek. 
Ap {Hotte7itot) . See Ep. 
Ap {Sarisc), water. 

Apa {Gold Coast), borders, frontiers ; region, district. 
Apa {Indian, U.S.A.), abounding in cliffs. 
Apara klippo {Fin.), cliff. 


Apatoa {Tahiti), north. See next entry. 

Apatoerau (Tahiti), south. See preceding entry. 

Apeliotes (Neo-Greek), east. See Boreas. 

Apere (Gold Coast ), a plan ior defence, entrenchment. 

Api (Malay), fire, e,g. Ounong Api=fire mountain, or 

volcano. See Ounong. 
Approdo (J^.), a landing-place. 
Apro (Hung.), little. 
Apu (Gold Coast), the sea ; Apu Ann, ' the sea-side ' ; Apu 

Insu, ' sea-water.' See Ann, Insn. 
Aqnilon (Fr.), the north wind. 
Ar, Am (Tamul), a river. 
Ar- (Welsh), 'upon,' e.g. Uanarmon. See Llan. 
Ara (E. Turk.), middle. 
Ara (Indian, U.S. A.), a path at a gorge. 
Ara (Barotonga, Polynesia), house. 
Aragari. See Oyari. 
Aragib (Arab., N. Africa). See Argnb. 
Araha (Kerepunu, New Guinea), garden, plantation. 
Arak, pi. Arkan (Arab.), cavern or cliff. 
Aral (E. Turk.), an island. 
Aralcha (E. Turk.), small island. 
Ahura, Kar^ (Hind.), high steep banks. 
Araras (Marocco), road, path. 
Arare (Marovo, Solomon Is.), wind. 
Arazi (Arab.), lands. 
Alba (Abyssinia), elephant, e.g. Tula Arba, 'elephant 

range ' ; Oara Arba, * elephant peak.' 
Arbre (Fr.), a tree (Arb.) 
Area de Agua (Sp.), reservoir. 

c 2 



Ard {Celtic), a height, high, e,g, Ardrossao, Ardnamnrclian, 

'the height of the great headland.' See Mor, 

Chan. Gf. Aird. 
Ardhun (Arab.), earth. 
Area, Areia (Port), sand ; from Lat arena. 
Areg, sing. Erg, Arga, dim. Arigat (Arab.), a mass of 

dunes. See Armath. 
Arena (It., Sp.), sand. 
Arenal (Sp.), sandy ground, beach. 
Arete (Fr.), a sharp rocky crest. 
Arga, pi. Areg (Arab., N. Africa), a large dune. See 

Areg, Erg. 
Argile (Fr.) 
AigRh,pl. Aragib (Arab., N. Africa), branch of a chain 

of mountains ; spur. 
Ariawa (Hausa), north. For other points see Kudu, 

Euddus, Oabbaz. 
Arigat (Arab., N, Africa), a small dune. See Areg, Erg. 
Arik (Turkestan), a small canal, an irrigation canal. 
Arima (Aroina, New Guinea), earth. 
AriBh (Arab., N, Africa), vegetation on top of a dune ; 

sometimes the dune itself. 
Arisha (Arab.), sandy tracts of small extent on the 

borders of a plateau. 
Arka (E, Turk.), the back, behind, e.g. Arka Tagh, 

Arkan (Arab.), caverns or cliffs. 
Arkh (Caucasus), canal. 
Arkit (Tuareg, Berber), wilderness. 

a rivulet, brook (A.) 


Arl (Ger.), eagle, e.g. Arlberg. 

Armath {Arab., N, Africa), a group of low dunes, or a 

single dune of small relief. See Areg. 
Aro (Mongol), behind, north. For other points see 

Barong, Jung, 
ch Aro {Nika), caravan. 

Ar6k (Hung,), ditch, trench, valley ; equivalent to 

German Oraben (q.v.) 
Arrabalde (Port), suburb, environs. 
Arre. See Ere. 
Arrecife (Sp,), a reef. 
Arroio (Port.) 
Arroyo (Sp.) 

f, (U.S.A.), the channel of an intermittent stream 

cut in loose earth. 
Arsh (Arab., N. Africa), a tribe. 
Art (E. Turk.), a col wii;h long ascent almost in a 

straight line. 
Am (Tamul): See Ar. 
Am (Amis, Formosa), river. 
chAm (Cent. Africa, Bantu), coxmiTy, district. 
Arnabu (S. Cape, New Guinea), south-east wind. 
Ami (Welaung), a hill. 
Ams (Malay), current of a stream. ^ 
Arvoredo (Port.), a grove. 
Aryk (E. Turk.) See Arik. 
Arz (Arab.), the earth, land. 
As (Sw.), ridge of a hill, chain of hills. Cf Aas. 
nyAsa (Cent. Africa, Bantu), lake, water either of a river 

or lake. Cf. Anja, Anza. 


AsHga (Turk.), lower. 

Asai (Japan), shallow. 

Asarim, EsaUm {Tuareg, Berber), bank of a river. 

Aselli {Hammer Koki, Abyssinia), a hill. 

Asfol {Arab,), lower, e.g. Zab-el-As&l. C/. Tahtani. 

Asfar {Arab.), yelloW, e.g. Jebel es Safra, ' the Yellow 

Mount.' See Safra, El. 
Ashagha {Turk.), lower. Another form of Asaga. 
Ashiret {Turkey in Asia), a clan. 
Aflhkin {Pers.), lands flooded only temporarily, e.g. 

Ashkinak around Chakansur on Hamun-i-Sistan. 

See Hamfin. 
Ashokan {Indian, U.S.A.), rapids. Cf. Eoho. 
kiAri {Gent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass. 
Asi {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. See Si. 
Asiaona {Kabadi, New Guinea), south. 
Asif {Marocco), a river ; the form Assif is also found. 
Asighele osu {Fan, French Congo), current of a river. 
Asmak {Turk.), still water. 

AMOgh,pl. Mesogh {Fan, French Congo). See Sogh. 
Aspro (Neo-Greek), white. 

^ , .TV I red, e.g. Dabass, Daarass, ' red clay.' 
AaaSL {Danakit),] ' "^ ' ^ 

Asnse {Fr.), stratum. 

Astillero {Sp.), a dockyard. 

Astin {E. Turk.), lower. Cf. Altin. 

Asto {Indian, U.S.A.), a defile. 

Astyn {E. Turk.) See Astin. 

Asuad {Arab.), black (sometimes written Aswad). 

Asu-bonten {Gold Coast), river, stream. 


Asn-kon (Gold Coast), bank of a river. Cf. Nsu-ano. 

Asirn afo (Gold Coast), down stream. 

Asu roki {Gold Coast), the bar of a river. 

Aswad. See Asuad. 

Afwanek {Senegal), subject, opp. to Melli, Hell, free, e.g. 
Helinke, ' the free people.' ^ 

Asya-bad {Pers.), a windmill, lit, 'mill-wind.' 

At {Indian, U.S. A,), channel, current. 

Ata {Turk.), an island. 

Atak {Mongol), low, down, lower, e.g. Atak Habsere, 
* lower Habsere.' See Eurban. 

Atala (Fin.), mud. 

Atalaya {Sp.), an elevated place from which a consider- 
able view may be obtained ; a watch-tower. 

Atarp&l {Sansc), land that is left uncultivated. 


Atas {Malay), above, top, summit, surface. 

Ate {Maiva, New Guinea), a river. 

Atea {Indian, U.S.A.), a valley, landscape. 

Atem nu {Chinbok, E. of Mon B.), large. Cf. Im nn. 

Atete-ba {Yoruha), a frontier, boundary. 

Ath {Irish), a ford, e.g. Athlone. 

Athmana {Sansc.), the west. 

Athmas {Sansc.), land constantly under cultivation. 

Atle (Indian, Mexico), water, from Atl, which is Aztec 

for ' water.' Cf Atte. 
Atrnnr (Egyptian Sudan), a desert route. 
Ato (Venezuela), farmhouse, farm, estate. 
Atoe-fam (Gold Coast), the west side. 
Atoll (Maldive anglicised), one or any greater number 

For another derivation see under -Ke 


of coral islands of little height above the sea, 

situated on a strip or ring of coral surrounding a 

central lagoon. 
Atollon {Fr.), an atoll. 

,, (English), a small atoll on the margin of a larger 

Atraf {Arab.), environs, suburbs. 
Atsimo (Madagascar), south. For other points see 

Att (E, Turk.), horse, e.g. Att-bash, 'horse-head peak.' 
Atte (Indian, Mexico), water, cf, Atle. 
Au (Cambodia), a stream, torrent. 
An, Aue (Ger.), a meadow, e.g. Beichenan, 'rich 

meadow,' Ooldene Aue, ' golden meadow.' 
Au (New Guinea), a tree, also in Mekeo dialect 'the 

Au (Siam), a bay. 

Au (Tibet), snows, e.g. Tsangau, * the snows of Tsang.' 
Auch (Scotland), a field, e.g. Auchinleck. 
AuohteT(Gaelic XTachdar), upland, upper land, e.g. Auchter- 

gaven, * the upland of the yearling cattle,' Auchter- 

muchty, * the upper land of the wild sow ' (Muc= 

Auen (Nissan I., New Guinea), a bank, beach. 
Auj (Arab.), summit, top. 
Aul (Kirghiz), tent-village, camp. 
Aurir (Kabile), a mountain. 
Aurung (Anglo-India^i), a term applied to the old East 

India Company's factories, from the Pers. anrang, 

' a place where goods are manufactured ' ; ' a dep6t 

for such goods.' 


AnflM (Sahara), tribe, clan, e.g. AnsM n AstafiEidet. 

An rtremot (Cambodia), a bay. 

Antel (Tuareg, Berber), an island. 

Av (Gaelic), water, e.g, Avoch, ' the field of water.' Cf. 

Avon. See Och. 
Ava (Madagascar), grotto, cave, cavern, e.g, Andavadolo, 

* the place where the grotto of the dead is ' ; * at 

the tomb ' ; Andavakombi, ' at the cavern of the 

oxen.' See Aii. 
Ava (Slav. ; Kurdish), water, river, e.g. Horava ; Av-i-spi, 

' white water.' 
Aval (Fr.), down stream. See Amont. 
Avala (Ker^mnu, New Guinea), north-west wind. 
Avalaison (Fr.), a flood, torrent. 
Avara (Motumotu, New Guinea), north-west wind. 
Avaratra Qdadagascar), north. For other points see 

Aiidrefana, Antsinanana, Atrimo. 
Avon. See Avon. 

Avivina (Kabadi, New Guinea), wind. 
Avok (Yindu Chin, W. of Mon B.), white (of snow or a 

foaming torrent). 
Avon (Celtic), a river, applied to a large number of 

British streams. Cognate with Lat. amnis. Cf. Av. 
Avras (E. Turk.), basin, ditch, depression in which 

water collects and remains. 
Avnrigo (Kerepunu, New Guinea), west. For other 

points see Abnrigo. 
Awa- (Bantu Kavirondo, Uganda, Nyasaland), a prefix 

signifying clan or tribe, e.g. Awawanga, the tribe 

speaking Lnwanga, inhabiting Wanga, one of whom 


is called Mwanga, i.e, an inhabitant of Wanga ; 

similarly Awankonde, Awamwamba. See Wa, -Wa, A. 
Awari. See Oyari. 
Awhea (Gold Coast), sand. 

Awo, Ao {Japan), green, e.g. Awo Shima, ' green island/ 
Awoa {Gold Coast), high, lofty. 

Aworo {Gold Coast), cataract ; the swell of the sea ; surf. 
Aworo-so {Gold Coast), rapids in a river. 
Axe. See WjBg, Esk. 
Ay, pi. Aire {Teutonic), an island (Saxon Ea), e.g, 

Colonsay. Cf, Ey, Oe. 
AjtL,pL Meya {Fan, French Congo), See Ta. 
Ayag {E. Turkestan), under, lower. 
Ayaw, Tha {Chinbok, E. of Mon R,), small. 
Ayer {Malay), water, stream; fresh water; river; 

district on a river ; e.g. Ayer Hati, on the Perak E. 
Ayer dras {Malay), a rapid over sand or pebbles. 


Ayer masin (Malay), salt water. 

Aymak {E, Turk.) See Aimak. 

Ayua, pL Meyua (Fa7i, French Congo). See Tua. 

Ayun, ^Z. of Ain {Arab.), sources. Cf. Oyun. [state. 

Azel {Arab., N. Africa), landed property reserved by the 

Azenka {Port.), a water mill, 

Azhebik {Indian, U.S. A.), rock. 

Azib (Kabile, Marocco), country house, farm. 

Azrak, Azrek {Arab.), blue; e.g. Bahr el Azrek, 'the 

Blue Eiver,* i.e. * the Blue Nile.' 
isAznlu {Zulu, Kafir), a locality which is the centre of a 

Azzu {Kabile), rock. 



Ba (A'Zande), place. 

Ba (Arab., N, Africa), a form of Bu=father. It enters 

into many names, e,g» Xnad-ba-Hammu. See XTlad. 
Ba- (S. Gent. Africa, Barotseland), prefix meaning a 

single individual, e.g. Ba-rot^e. Gf. English-man. 
Ba- (Gent, Africa, Bantu), prefix meaning a people, 

e.g. Bap-ntu, the people; Mu-ntu, the individual; 

i,e. sing. Mn-, pL Ba^. Gf. Bu, Wa, Kel, Im, Abel. 
Ba {Sara, Chad L.), water, a river; e,g, Bamingi; Ba 

Bai, another name for the Logon B. Gf Mane. 

The Ba of the Mandingo or Mande, in the Western 

Sudan, has the same meaning. 
Ba (Togo), a road. 

Baae (Nor.), a sunken rock or shoal. 
Baqa (Arab., N. Africa), land full of pools. 
Baak (Dch.), a beacon. 
Baak, Baake (Da.), a beacon. 
Bab (Arab.), pi. Biban, Buwab (lit. a door or gate), a 

passage between dunes ; a narrow strait or gut ; 

e.g. Bab el Mandeb, ' gate of tears.' 
Baba (Hausa), great. 

Baba (Turk.), father, e.g.. Babadagh= father mountain. 
Babohu (Tibet), a small river. 
Babord (Fr.), port side, i.e. the left side, when one 

faces the bows of a vessel, or larboard. 
Bach (Oer.), a brook, rivulet, small rapid stream (B.) 
Bach (Welsh), small, e.g. Eglwysbachss little church. See 


{Arab.) a desert. 


Baohe {E. Africa), river, stream. 

Baoino (It.), dock, dry dock, basin (of a river). 

Bllok (Sw.), a brook, rivulet, small rapid stream. 

Bad (Ger.), bath, e,g. Baden, CarUbad. 

Bad {Pers.), wind. 

Bad {Somali), tank, e.g, Badwein, < big tank.' See 

Badala {Mande). See Badla. 
Badftr (Hind.) , a large house, a granary raised on piles ; 

Badftr being a cloud. 
Badara (Mande), on the bank, riverside. 
Badi (A'Zande), a river. 

Badla, Badala, Bafala (Mande), lake, marsh, swamp. 
BflBk (Nor., Da.), a brook, rivulet, or small rapid stream. 

Cf. English Beck. 
BflBt (Icelandic), a farm, village. 
Bafara (Mande), Another form of Badla (q,v.) 
Bag (E. Turk,), a village. 
Baga (Mongol). See Bagha. 
Bllgan (Malay), lit. a quay or landing-place, hence a 

ferry ; sometimes (e.g. in Wellesley Province) a 

district ; e.g. Bagan Nior, Bagan Ointmg, both on 

Bernam B. Gf. Ox-ford. 
Bagftr (Hind.), pasture grounds. 
Bagare (Mossi, French Sudan), a garden. 
Baggara (E. Sudan), a name given to all cattle-owning 

nomad Arabs, cowherds. 
Bagh (Pers.), garden, orchard, grove ; e.g. Baghdad. 


Bagha, Baga {Mongol), small; e.g. Baga XTchunuchiii. 

See Ikhe. Cf. Bak {Hung.), Baka. 
BagUBtan {Hind.), garden ground, vineyard. 
Bagiriwa {Aroma, New Guinea), west. For other points 

see Walau. 
Bagirio {Tagala, Philippines), a cyclone or hurricane. 
Baha (Hind.), a watercourse, channel. 
Baha {Tagala, Philippines), a flood. 
Bahandin, Bahai {Philippines), a house. 
Bahar (Darfur), north. Gf. Sbah. 
Bahar {Arab.), lake, sea. Gf. Bahr. 
Bahari {Swahili), sea. From the Arab. Bahar, Bahr. 
Bahat {Abbadi, Etbai), a mine. 

Baheira {Arab.), a lake ; the sanae word as Bahira {q.v.) 
Bahia {Port., Sp.), a bay; e.g. Bahia de Todos os Santos, 

' bay of all saints.' 
Bahira {Arab., N. Africa), lake, marshy spot, dim. of 

Bahnhof {Oer.), railway station (Bhf.) 
Bahr {Arab.), sea, water, river ; e.g. Bahr el Ohazal. See 

Boheira, Bahar. 
Baibna {New Guinea), peace, e.g. Jean Baibua, or Yeku 

Ngangau, 'the Peace of Jesus,' generally called 

Yeku {Jesus), where the Inawaia and Eboa tribes 

were reconciled. 
Baida {Arab.), a desert, e.g. Bar el Baida. See Bar 
Bale {Fr.), bay, gulf. 

{Scotland), the jurisdiction of a sheriff. 
{A'Zande), river; from Ba (father) and Ime 



Bain (Deccan), a large well. 

Baiflka {Punjab), grazing ground. 

Bait {Arab.), a house. 

Baital {Cent. Asia), a mare; e.g. Ak-Baital, 'white mare/ 

a northerly confluent of the Ak-Su. See Ak. 
Baiva {laibo, New Guinea), beach. 
Baizo {Port), a shoal. 
Baja {It.), a bay, roadstead. 
Bbjbx {Punjab), street, market-place. 
Bajio {Sp.), a shoal. 
Bak {Hung.), little. Gf. Bagha, Baka. 
B&k {Sw.), a beacon, lighthouse. Cf. Bake. 
Bak {Tibet), west. For other points see Lho. 
Baka (Mongol), little. Cf. Bagha, Bak. 
Bakan {Buss.), a lake. 
Bake {Ger.), a beacon. Cf. B&k. 
Baken {Buss.), beacon or buoy. 
Bakere {A-Zande), great. 

Bakhbakha {Arab., N. Africa), soft spongy ground. 
Baki-iL-Oalbi {Hausa), on the bank, gnlbi meaning 

* river ' ; a name frequently given to riverside 

villages or towns. Baki=bank, side, mouth. 
Baki-n-Bua {Hausa), bank of a river. See Bua. 
Bakka {Mossi, French Sudan), marsh, pond. 
Bakke, Bakki {Da., Icel), a hill, e.g. Eyrarbakki. 
Baklan {Buss.), a cormorant, whence Baklanets or Bak- 

luish, small islands frequented by cormorants. 
Bako {Mossi), a river. 
Bal {Gaelic Baile), a town, e.g. Baldemock, 'the town of 

the stream at the knoll ' ; Der±=DTir {q.v.), Nock 


{Gaelic Cnoc), a hill, knoll ; Balcarres, ' the town of 

the contest.* 
Bal, Bally, Balla (Irish) , an abode, town, e.g, Balbriggan, 

eBala (Congo, dialect of Bantu). For meaning see Ebala. 
Bala (Madagascar), enclosure, field, farm, thus aiiLbala= 

the place where the field is, e.g. Ambalanondr, ' at the 

sheep field,' Ambalanosi, ' at the goat field.' See An. 
Bala (Pers.), upper, top, summit, e.g, Bala Murghab. 

See PaYn. 
Bala (Welsh), the effluence of a river from a lake. 
Balad (Arab.), a town, village, country, land. See Beled, 

Bilad, Bled, for other forms. 
Balagan (Kamchatka), a wooden hut raised on piles to 

a height of about 10 feet above the ground. 
Balai (Tagala, Philippines), house. 
Balchik (Turk.), clay. 
Bald (U.S.A.), a high rounded knob or mountain top, 

bare of forest. 
Bale (Sumatra), the men's house in Batak villages, as 

distinguished from Lotsung, the general meeting- 
place of the women. The men's house is also 

called Sopo. Cf. Bnmah, Ingot Bage. 
Balgarson (Mongol), a wall of fortification. 
Balgas (Mongol), town, large village, e.g. Khara Balgas, 

' black town,' Chagan Balgas, ' white city.' 
mBali (Upper Congo, dialect of Bantu), people of the west. 
Balik (Mongol), si. town; in E. Turk, a fortification, 

Baliae (Fr.), a beacon. 


Balka {Buss,), a ravine, valley, dell. 

Balkan {Turk.), a mountain range. 

Balla. See Bal. 

Ballewo {Fula), black, e,g, Hayo Ballewo, 'Black Biver.' 

Ballooh {Gaelic Bealaoh), a pass, an opening, e,g, Ballooh, 

Balloohmyle, ' bare opening.' 
Ballut {Arab.), oak, e.g. Deir Ballatin Palestine. See Deir. 
Bally. See Bal. 

Balm {Celtic), an overhanging wall of rock, a cave. 
Balsa {Spathish America), raft, timber float, also a 

pool of stagnant water. 
Balta {NechGreek), a marsh. 
Balu {Hind.), sand, gravel. 
Balu*danda {Hiiid.), shoal, sandbank. 
Balza {It.), rock, cUfif, precipice. 
BSm {Pers.), roof, top, story, e.g. Bam-i-Dunya, 'the roof 

of the world,' applied by the Persians to the 

BamassHama {Japan), beach, shore. 
Bamba (Hind.), a well, fount, pump {cf. Port, pompa). 
Bamba {W. Africa, between the Niger and the Atlantic), 

crocodile, e.g. Bambara, * the people whose idol or 

fetish is the crocodile.' Cf. Mali, Sa. Hence 
Baiiibara(>F. Africa,between the Niger and the Atlantic), 

infidel, Kafir, a term wrongly applied to the Bam- 

mana, who are Mohammadans. The Bambara of 

our maps should be Bammana. 
mBambi {Congo, dialect of Bantu), boundary, frontier. 
Ban {Gaelic), white, e.g. Bannookbom, 'the stream of 

the white knoll.' See Hook, Bom. 


Ban (Malay), a village ; used also in Laos. 

Ban (Siam), a house or farm place. 

Ban, Bun (Somali), an open plain, e.g. Ban-Yero, Ban-Ado 

See Ter, Ado. 
Baiiado (Spanish 8. America), marshy land, flooded land, 

a Ban (Fan, French Congo), a garden; ion pi. see Aban. 
Banc (Fr.), bank, sandbank. See Bank. 
Banohe (Fr.), clay and sand bank under water. 
Banco (Port, and Sp.), a sand-bank in a stream. 
Band (Pers.), a dam. Cf. Bond. 
Band (Serer), a stream. 
Banda (Songhai), beyond, e.g. Hari Banda = beyond the 

river (the Aribinda of the maps). 
Bandar (Pers.), landing-place, sheltered anchorage, 

harbour, e.g. Bandar Abbas. 
Bandara (Deccan), shore, coast. 
Bander (Malay), a town, same word as Bandar (q.v.) 
Bane (Lax)s), a village. 
Bang (Siam), a village. 
Banga (Songhai), a hippopotamus, e.g. Bang^nngu, an 

island in the Niger Kiver. See Gungn. 
Bangar (Hind.), high ground, uplands, tableland. 
Banglata (Danahil), tent, house. 
Bangu (Songhai), lake, wells. 
BanhOB (Port.), baths. 
Bani (Sansc), a small forest, wood. 
Bania (Bulgaria), hot springs. 
Banjnng (Nepal), a mountain without snow, i.e. of less 

elevation than a Langar (q.v.) 



Bank (Eng,), as a minor form of sub-oceanic relief, a 
single elevation or submarine mountain rising to 
within 200 mfetres of the surface, but not so far as 
within 11 metres, e.g. Porcupine Bank. Equivalent 
to Ger. Bank, Fr. Banc. 

Banka (Buss.), a shoal. 

Banlieue {Fr.), outskirts of a town. 

Banqoise (Fr.), an iceberg. 

Banteai. See Pandai. 

Banti (Hammer Koki, Abyssinia) , a nullah. 

Banna {Aroma, New Guinea)^ a village. Cf. Fenna. 

Ban&wa (Malay). See Ben4a. 

Banya (Hung.), a mine, e.g. Banya-Nagi •= great mine. 
mBanza (Congo, dialect of Bantu), chief town, city. 
iBanzana (Kafir), narrow, of a stream or path. 

Banzi (Kafir), broad, of a stream. 

Bao (Cochinchina), to guard, keep, preserve; e.g. Boa-Hoa, 
'to keep the covenant,' Boa-Thanh, 'to remain 
flourishing,' districts in Cambodia. 

Bao (Hainan), a village. 

Bar (Arab.), territory or country, the land, dry land, 
e.g, Halabar, Zanzibar. See Zang. 

Bar (Gaelic). See Barr. 

Bar (Buss.), the bar of a river. 

Bara (E. Africa), thorny scrub. 

Bara (Nika), land, the mainland. 

Barabido (Mossi), pond, pool. 

Bara gam (Hind.), a town. 

Barahi (Hind.), land. 

Barak (Buss.), barracks. 


Barangai (Philippines), a group of from forty to fifty 

families into several of which a village is divided 

for purposes of taxation. 
Barani {Punjab), land dependent on the rainfall only, 

and not irrigated. 
Baraqne {Ft,), hut, shed, barrack (B^"*). 
Bsirat {Malay), west, Bbat-dfUa, S.W., B&rat-lant, N.W. 
Baratha {Hind.), land situated in the midst of a jungle; 

land on which sugar-cane has been grown, hence 

impoverished. The variant Baetha also occurs. 
Baraza {Zanzibar), a verandah or outer audience hall. 
Barca (Sp.), a ferry (Bca.) 
Barda {Hind), sandy or light soil. 
Barka {Barbary States), a rocky place ( = Hamada) ; 

excellent, fertile ( = Beni) ; storm. 
Barkhan {Ce7it. Asia), a sandhill. 
Baro {Hind.), high jungle grass. 
Barong (Mongol), left, east. For other points see Aro. 
Barony {Ireland), a subdivision of a county. 
Barr {Arab.), dry land. See Bar. 
Barr, Bar, Var {Gaelic), point, upper part, summit, e.g. 

Barra (Barray), island, Barrhead, which is merely 

Barr with its English rendering, head, suffixed ; 

Dnnbar, * the fort on the point * ; Craigievar, * rocky 

point.' See Dun, Craig* 

(a bar at the mouth of a river, bank of 
sand. In Brazil Barra is used for the 
mouth of a stream, e.g, Tres Barras, 
' three mouths,' on Paraguay R. 



Barrabara {E. Siberia) an Aleut native house, sometimes 
partly underground. 

BarrsrBarra (E. Africa), a road three or four yards wide 
cut through woods, bramble, grass, &c. 

Barrabkie {E, Siberia), a hut. 

Barranca {Sp.), a deep break or hole made by mountain 

Barranca {Mexico and U,S,A.), a rock- walled and im- 
passable canon. 

Barrancas (Venezuela), shelving sandbanks. 

Barranoo (Port.), a ravine, precipice. 

Barre (Fr.), a bar. 

Barreira (Port,), ] 

« /o V ra bar, barrier, a turnpike. 

Barri (Sierra Leone), a hall of audience, meeting-place. 

Barri (Somaliland), east. Cf. Oalbed. 

Barriere (Fr,), gate (B^), 

Barrier reef (English), a reef fronting a coast line or 

encircling an island or group of islands, leaving a 

deep channel between it and the shore. Cf. 

Fringing reef. 
Barrio (Sp.), a suburb, district of a town. 
Barro (Hi7id.), a name given to the uplands on the 

right bank of the Jumna Eiver. 
Barrow=Beorh (Anglo-Saxon), hill, earthwork, fortified 

town, sepulchral mound. See Berg, Berk. 
Barth (Albanian), white. 
Barzan (Pers.), street, lane. 
Basat (Arab., N. Africa), any broad plain, an open 




Bas-bas, Basobas {Hind,), a house, dwelling. 

Basg^t (Hind,), a homestead, residence. 

Bash {Turk.), head, chief. 

Bash {E. Turk.), head, source of a river, e.g. Bash Kala, 
* the Castle at the Head of the Waters.' 

Bashnya {Buss,), a tower. 

Basin {Eng.), used, in sub-oceanic relief, for a depression 
of approximately round form, in which the hori- 
zontal diameters are about equal. Equivalent to 
the Ger. Beoken ; Fr. Bassin. 

Basob&s {Hind.) See Bas-bas. 

Bassah {Arab.), a marsh. 

Bassar {Caucasus), river basin. 

Basse {Fr.), shoal. 

Bassin {Fr.), basin, dock (B*"). As a form of sub- 
oceanic relief see Basin. 

Basso {Puma, L. Budolf), water, e.g. Basso Nyiro. 

Bastide (-Fr.), small country house (B**^''), chiefly in 

Bastita, Bastia {It.), rampart, fortress. 

Basu {Songhai), wells. 

Bat {Hind.), road, highway. 
eBata {Congo, dialect of Bantu), summit, top, ridge of a 

Batang ^yer {Malay), a river; Batang = a tree stem, 
see Ayer ; water flowing between trees, hence ' river.* 

Batch {England), a small stream, e.g. Coldbatch. 

Baton {Arab.), gentle slope (of mountain, hill, or dune). 

Batemotn {Tibet), mosquito, e.g. Baternoto Gol, ' Mosquito 
K.' (the Patagonto of the maps), a very appropriate 


name, mosquitos being a great pest in the Tsaidam. 
See GoL 

Bat-ha (Wadai), a river. 

Batha (Hind,), running water. 

Bathan (Hind.), pasture grounds. 

Bafika (Sansc. and Hind,), a villa. 

Bato (Gurma), ruler of a province. 

Bato (Madagascar), a modified form of vato, used in 
composition, rock, thus ambato = the place where 
the rock is found, e,g. Ambatomena, 'the place 
where the red rock is.' See An, Hena. Cf. Kara. 

B&tu {Malay), a stone or rock, e.g. B&tu-titi, * a mile- 
post ' ;Batu4pi=* fire-stone' (flint). Seekpi, Also 
a mountain, e.g. Batu Tnjo, Batn Lawing. 

BsLtn-brlni (Malay), loadstone. 

Ban (Aroma, New Guinea), stone. 

Bau (Ger.), a building. PL Bauten. 

Baum (Ger.), tree. 

Baomsohale (Ger.), a nursery, plantation. 

Baw (Siam), pit, shaft, mine. 
isiBaxa (Zulu, Kafir), a tributary of a river. 

Bayan (Mongol), rich, prosperous, e.g. Bayan Gol, * rich 
stream.' See Gol. Cf. Wayen. 

Bayan (Tagala, Philippines), to\9n,yi]lB,ge; also county. 

Baygall (U.S.A.), a swamp covered with growth of 

Bayou (U.S.A.), a lake or intermittent stream formed in 
an abandoned channel of a river ; one of the half- 
closed channels of a river delta. 

B&zar (Pers.), a market ; whence the European bazaar. 


Bda (Indian, U.S. A.), a river. 

Be, Bi (Batta, Benue B. region), water, e.g. Benue, 

* Mother of Water,' nue or nuwe being * mother.' 
-Be {Chad L. region). See Bu. 
Be {Gold Coast) y a mountain., e.g. A-be*tifi. 
Be {Madagascar), large, great, many, e.g. Hosi Be, *big 

Be {Sara, Chad L.), house made of stone or mud. 

Cf. Handa. 
Bealach {Gaelic), a pass, gorge, e.g. Bealaoh a Ooaoh 

(W. coast of Scotland). 
Bear, Beer, Bere {Eng.from Scandinavian). An abode, 

farm, village, e.g. Shebbear, Kentisbeer. 
Beam mamara {Kerepunu, New Guinea), north wind. 
Beau, Bel (Fr.), beautiful, 6.{^. Beaulieu, 'beautiful place,' 

Belmont, ' beautiful mountain.' 
Bebe {Kamerun), near. 
BebJ (Yoruba), the brink of a precipice. 
Bee {Normandy) , a small stream, e.g. Caudebec. Cf. Beck. 
Beoa {Piedmo7it), beak, pike, e.g. Beca di N'ona 
Bechi {Hammer Koki, Abyssinia), water. 
Beck {England), a brook, rivulet, small rapid stream, 

e.g. Hillbeck. 
Becken {Ger.), a basin. For use as a form of sub-oceanic 

relief see Basin. 
Bedd {Welsh), a grave, e.g. Beddgelert. 
Bedw {Welsh), birch trees, e.g. Llanbedw, * birch 

church.' See Uan. 
Bedzi {Fan, French Congo), the bank of a river. 
Bee {Indian » U.S. A.), water. 


Beek (Dch.), a small rapid stream, rivulet, e,g, Loobeek, 

Beer (Eng,) ' See Bear. 

Beer (Hebreto), a well (= Bir), e,g, Beersheba. 
Beg {Irish ; Highlands), little, e.g. Bally Begg. See Bally. 
Begaa {Arab,, N, Africa), a maorshy depression. 
Beglik, Beklik (Cent. Asia), an administrative division 

under a Beg. 
BegraaQtlaats (Dch.), burial-ground. 
Bebar {Hind.) See Bihar. 
maBehe {Gent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a forest. 
Bel {Ger.), near to, e.g. Meidling-bei-Wien. 
Bei {Hainan), a village. 

Beida, Beidha {Arab.), white; fern. o/Abiad, Abiodh. 
Beit {Arab.), a house ; Beit Esh-Shaar, tent. 
Beiyat {Arab.) a shoal dry at low water. 
Bek {Eldorobo, Uganda), water. 
Bekkr {Icelandic), a brook, small rapid stream. 
Bekleme {Turk.), a guard-post. 
Bel, Bele {Berta, E. Sudan), rock. 
Bel {Celtic), a ford, e.g. Belfast. 
Bel {Turk.), a col. Cf Gedik. 
Bela {Punjab), highlands only subject to inundation by 

very high floods ; cf Eachcha ; also applied to 

islands in a river channel. 
Belaa {Arab., N, Africa), quagmire, marsh. 
Belad, Beldah {Arab.) See Balad. 
Belbel {Adamawa), a square in a town. 
Bele. See Bel. 


Bele {Bambara, Malinke), iron, e.g. Beledugu, 'ferrugi- 
nous country.' See Jhtgu.. 

Beled (Arab.), a form of Balad (q.v.) 

Beles {Cent. Asia). See Bills. 

Beli (S. Slavonic), white, e.g. Belgrad. See Orad. 

Bella {Sahara), a village for captives ; another form of 
Billa {q.v.) 

Belo {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Lo. 

Bemasen {Mongolia), a place of commerce, e.g. the 
Chinese quarter of Urga, called Bemasen by the 

Ben {Gaelic), a mountain {Scotland), e.g. Ben Nevis ; a 
hill {Ireland), e.g. Bengower ; a rocky promontory 
{Ireland), e.g. Bengore. Cf. Pen, Bin, from the 
same Celtic root cen, cean, head, top, summit. 
aBen {Fan, French Congo), a dwelling made of trunks of 
trees placed horizontally, set apart as a guard- 
house ; for pi. see Aben. 

Bench {U.S.A.), a strip of plain, along a valley slope. 

Bendang {Malay), padi field. 

Bendar {E. Equatorial Africa), harbour. See Bandar, 
of which this is a variant. 

Bender {Arab,), a market town. See Bandar, from which 
this is borrowed. 

Bender {Malay), port for trade. See Bandar, from which 
this is borrowed. 

Beni {Arab.), sons of; a common prefix to names of 
villages, e.g. Beni Hassan; signifies excellence, 
fertility. See Ibn, Barka. 
oBe nkol {Fan, French Congo), a hill ; for pZ, see Obe nkol. 

Jf if 


Ben na (Indian, U.S.A.) , an island. 

Ben4a, Ban^wa (Malay), land, country, region ; hence 
Orang Benua, ' aborigines/ and thus Benna is ap- 
plied in Anglo- Indian to the wilder tribes of the 
Malay Peninsula. 

(Philippines), village. 
(Polynesia), land, earth. 

Benue (Batta), a river, lit. * Mother of Water.' See Be. 

Bepo (Gold Coast), mountain, hill. 

Ber (Songhai), big, great, e.g. Tondi Ber mountain, lit. 

* big stone.* 

Bera (Soninke), a plain. 

B6rcz (Hung.), a mountain. 

Bere (Mande), a mountain. 

Bere (Eng.) See Bear. 

Bereg (Buss.), the coast. 

Berg (Anglo-Saxon, Dch., Ger., Da., Nor., Sw.), moun- 
tain, hill (Ger. B., Nor. Bg.) See Berk. The 
usual A.'S. forms are beorg, beorh, whence barrow 
(q.v.) Gf. Bjflerg, Bjerg. 

Bergerie (Fr.), a sheepfold (B*«). 

Bergspitze (Ger.), peak of a mountain, summit. 

Beri (ChadL. region),. Si, large hamlet, e.g. Beri Shuwabe, 

* the village of the Shuwa people.' See Be, Bu. Also 
used for an encampment or smaller village. 

Berk, Berg (Anglo-Saxofi), a barrow, e.g. Berkhampstead. 

See Berg. 
Berkemi (Sara, Chad L.), north. 
Berry (Anglo-Saxon), a hill, fortified place, e.g. Dolberry ; 

corrupted from Barrow (q.v.) See Del. 


Besar (Malay), large, e,g. Chnko Besar, ' great Chuko.' 
Besh {E. Turkestan), five; e.g. Besh-arik, Besh-bek, 

Besh-kent. See Arik, Kend. 
Beth {Hebrew), a house, e.g. Bethany. 
Beth (Hind.), sandy unproductive ground. 
Betha {Arab., N. Africa), a depression. 
Beting {Malay), a sandbank, a shoal. 
Bett {Ger.), the bed (of a river). 
Bettws {Welsh), dv^elling, village, town, e.g. BettW8-y- 

coed. See Coed, T. 
Ben {Lolo, China), a mountain. 
Beubeu {S. Gape, New Guinea), the north wind. 
Benl=Peul=I)enl=Tenl {Korea), a plain, e.g. Hnn-benl, 

Nan-denl, Nak-tenl. Cf. Phyong, Phyeng. 
Bevaarbaar (Dch.), navigable. 
mBewe {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a chief. 
Beyaz {Turk.), white. 

Bha(-Bwrwa), new ; e.g. Bhamo (Bha-maw),' New Market.' 
Bhandar {Punjab), a storehouse. 
Bhanwar {Hind.), a whirlpool, eddy, revolution. 
Bharu {Malay), new, frequently applied to villages ; 

there is also Kampong Bham in Singapore. 
Bhathiyal {Hind.), with the current, i.e. down stream, 

down the river. 
Bheira {Arab.), a lake. Cf. Birke. 
Bhil {Anglo-Indian), a marsh or lagoon ; especially used 

in E. Bengal. See Jhil. 
Bhot {Tibet), land ; e.g. Bhot-ant (corrupted into Bhutan), 

'Land's End,' i.e. the extremity of Tibet. 
Bhuda {Hind.), light sandy soil. 


Bhui (Gaelic), See Bui. 

Bhum {Cambodia), a hamlet. 

Bhum {Hind.), laud, country, e.g. Birbhum, Mand of 

heroes.' Cf. Bfim. 
-Bi (Gurma). See -Bu. 
Biar (Arab.), wells. See Bir. 
BibBSiypl. of Bab {Arab.), gates, defiles. 
Bid {Deccan), street, lane. 
Bi da me {Indian, U.S.A.), a river. 
Bidrnng {Balrich), saddle, col. 
Bief, Biez {Fr.), a reach of a river ; a mill-race. 
Bielki {Siberia), snowy summits. 
Bihar {Hind.), rugged land full of ravines. 
Bi iri {Mossi, French Sudan), sand. 
Bikar-yilga {Cent. Asia), a cul-de-sac. 
Bilad {Arab.), the land, country ; e.g. Bilad eft>SudanB= 

* Land of the Blacks * = Negroland = Nigritia 

= Sudan; is a variant of Balad {q.v.) See EI, 

Bilene {Gazaland), plain country, occurring in the 

river valleys, with a rich covering of humus, 

and well provided with water. 
BiUs {Ceyit. Asia), a pass, e.g. Kara-Bills, 'black pass.' 

See Kara. 
Billa {Bornu), a town, e.g. Billa Kabtharibe, 'the town 

of the Kabshari people ' ; see Be, Bu {suffix). 

Hence Billama, * the man of the town,' ' the mayor ' ; 

see Ma {suffix). Also used as signifying the 

inhabitants, or, generally, people, e.g. Billangare, 

Billa Hgare, * the Ngare people.' 
Bily {Bohemia), white (BI.) 


Bimbali {Upper Congo). See Hbali. 

Bina (A-Zande), a field. 

Binh (Cochinchina) lit. to equal, found in many place- 
names; e.g. Binh-Tien, 'eqaal in purity.' 

Binin (Gold Coast), bog, marsh, swamp. 

Binnen {Dch.), within, inside, e.g. Eemnes Binnen, to dis- 
tinguish it from Eenmes Buiten (^.t;.) 

Biod. See Abiodh. 

Bir {Arab.)y a well, e.g. Bir Hamam, 'Pigeon's Well,' 
places being frequently named after living creatures. 

Bira {Tibet), a river. 
luBira {Victoria Nyanza region, dialect of Bantu), the 

king's enclosure in a native town. 
mBira {Giryama), a tomb. 

Bire {A-Zande), a forest. 

Biringa {Mande), country, forest, brushwood, camp. 

Birke (Arab.), a lake. Cf. Bheira. 

Birket, pi. Burkak {Arab.), an artificial pool or tank. 

Bime {Arab.), a pool. 

Bind {Hausa), town, a capital, e.g. Bind n Kebi. Cf. Oari. 

Birsa, Bursa {Mande), bush, wood, grass. 

BiAcbof {Ger.), bishop, e.g. Bisohofsheim. See Helm. 

Bise {Fr.), north wind, especially the dry north-easter. 

Biflha, Beaha {Pers.), a forest, desert, wilderness. 

Biflham (Galla), water. 

Birigjra {Mossi, French Sudan), an encampment. 

BiBsani {Galla), water. 
uBityi {Zulu, Kafir), a bog, a quagmire. 

Biy&bfin {Pers.), a desert, wilderness. 

Biyo, Biya {Somali), water, e.g. Biyo-foga, 'distant water,' 


Biya-ha^Oodle, 'water of the place of caves.' See 

Ood, Le. 
BJBBrg, Bjerg (Nor,, Da.), a mountain (Bg.) Of. Berg. 
Blad {Arab., N. Africa), country, a form of Balad. Other 

forms are Bilad, Beled, Bled (q.v,) 
Blair (Gaelic), a plain clear of wood, e.g. Blair Athol. 
Blano, Blanche {Fr,), white, e.g. Blanc Hez, ' white naze.* 

Dent Blanche, 'white tooth (peak).' See Nez, Dent. 
Blanco (Sp.), white, e.g. Cabo Blanco. See Cabo. 
Blato {S. Slav.), a marsh. 
Bled {Arab., N. Africa), town, country, a form of 

Balad {q.v.) See also Bilad, Beled, Blad. 
Blida {Arab., N. Africa), a small town, dim. of Balad. 
Blizhni {Buss.), near, e.g. Blizhni I., the nearest to the 

mainland of the New Siberia Islands. 
Blod {Friesland), a house. 
Blnif {U.S.A.), a bluff, as distinguished from a hill, is 

the escarpment formed by a river running 

through a tableland. 
Bo {Nor.), an estate. 

Boala {Kiriwina, New Ouinea), a house. 
Bobrovia {E. Siberia), an otter island. 
Bobrovi Kameni {Buss.), sea-otter rocks. 
Boca {Port., Sp.), ' 
Bocca {It.), 

Bod {Cymric), a house, e.g. Bodmin, Bedwrog. 
Bod {Nor., Da.), a warehouse. 
Bode {Yoruba), custom house. 
Bodi,pZ. Bodar {Icel), rocks upon which the sea breaks. 

a mouth or entrance. 


Bodi (Madagascar) y a modified form of vodi, used in 
composition, foot, bottom, base ; thus ambodi (for 
ani vodi)=:at the foot of, e.g. Ambodiala, 'at the 
base of the forest,' Ambodivohitra, ' at the foot of 
the mountain.' See Ala, Vohitra, An. 

Boe (Hainan), a village. 

BoDuf (Normandy), an abode, e.g. ElboDnf. 

Bogen (Ger.), a bend in a river. 

Bogha (Gaelic), a sunken rock. 

Boghaz (Turk.), defile, channel, strait, estuary. 

Bohangin (Tagala, Philippines), sand. 

Boheira, dim. of Bahr (q.v.) 

BoM (Madagascar), a modified form of vohitra, used in 
composition, a mountain; also a village, thus 
ambolii=:the place where the mountain or village 
is, e.g. AmboMbe, ' on the great mountain,' Ambohi- 
malaza, ' at the celebrated village,' Ambohipanja, 
* the place where the marshy village is.' See An, Be. 

Bois (Fr.), a wood (B.), e.g. Bois de Boulogne. 

Boivi (laibo, New Guinea), island, mountain. 

Bok (Ebon, Polynesia), sand. 

Bok (Somaliland, Nogal district), a well. 

Boka (Egyptian Sudan), capital town. 

Boka (Gold Coast), east, eastward, leeward. See Ane. 
mBoka (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a town. 
Boko (Songhai), a gorge. 

Bold (Anglo-Saxon, Norse), a house. 

aBoli (Fa/n, French Congo), source, ravine ; see Aboli. 
Bolis (Neo^Greek), a town ; from Anc. Gr. iroTus 
BoUta (Kiriwina, New Guinea), salt water, sea. 


nmBolompo {Kafir), a deep ravine ; a passage between 

high banks. 
Boloto (Buss.)y marsh, swamp ; Bolotina, marshy place. 
Bolshoi (Buss.), great, e.g, Bohhayar, flowing into Gulf 

of Anadyr ; Bolslioi Hoszoenioa, on Oslika B., trib. of 

Bolson {U.S.A,, Mexico) y a basin ; a depression or 

valley having no outlet, e.g. Bolson de Hapimi. 
Boma (Bantu), a palisade of poles, stones, &c., serving 

as a fortification, equivalent to the Kraal (q.v,) of 

the South, a native chief's village or capital ; 

applied now also to Government stations. Cf, 

Boma on the Congo B. estuary. 
Boma {Pula, China), a mountain. 
Bombordo {Port ), port side, i.e. the left side or larboard, 

when one faces the bows of a ship. 
a Bon {Fan, French Congo), bridge; for^Z. see Abon. 
eBon {Fan, French Congo), a lodging-place, whereat to 

sleep when on a journey ; for^Z. see Ebon. 
Bon {Siam), upper. 
Bona {Kamerun), people, rf.ce, family, e.g. Bona Basem, 

Bonde {Fr.), a sluice. 

Bondog, Bondok {Tagala, Philippines), a mountain. 
Bongo {Bornu), a hut with circular mud walls, thatched 

with straw. Cf. Kusi. 
Bongo {Songhai), a cape. 
li Bongo {Congo, dialect of Bantu), market. 
ohi Bongo (Bantu), a small lake. 

Bool {Somali), ditch or torrent, e,g. Bool Bashiro, near 



Boomgaard (Dch,), an orchard. 

Bopo (Nika), a hollow. 

Boquete (Sp.), a narrow entrance, pass. 

Bor (Slavonic), a forest, e,g. Bohrau. 

Bora {Italian origin), a violent north wind common in 
the upper parts of the Adriatic Sea. 

Boran (Somali), a trench=Hatakh (q.v.) 

Borau (A-Zande), people, the same word as Bore. 

Bord (Fr.), shore, bank, strand. 

Borde (Provincial, Fr,), a small farm (B^'^'). 

Bore (Songhai), people, the same word as Borau. See 
also Boroyo. 

Boreas, Borras (Greek), north. For other points seelApB, 
Hoses, Skiron, Enros, Apeliotes. 

Borg (Arab.) See Borj. 

Borg (Da., Sw,), a castle, e.g. Aalborg, 'eel castle.' 

Borgata (It.), borough, market town ; suburb. 

Borghetto (It.), a large village or small town. 

Borga (Nigeria), grazing land, grass lands, a name given 
to several districts, as well as to the territory known 
by the name. 

Bori (Songhai), fertile lands. 

Borj (Arab.), a fortified building, a town ranking be- 
tween Medina (city) and Karie or Beled (village). 
See Borg. 

Boij, pi. Biar, Abiar (Arab.), wells. 

Bom (Hesse) a stream, e.g. Hachbom. Cf. Bourne. 

Borne (Fr.), landmark, boundary. 

Boromma (Gold Coast), narrow street, lane. 

Borori (E. Africa), a cattle track, any path or track. 


Borough (England), from Anglo-Saxon burg (an earth- 
work), a fortified town. Cf, Bury, Brongh. 

Borough (Anglo-Saxon) = beorh, a hill, e.g. Ingleborongh. 
Of. Berg, Berk, Barrow. 

Boroyo (Songhai), people. See Bore, Borau. 

Borras (Neo-Greek), See Boreas. 

Borro, Borrone (It.), a large ravine. 

Bos (Cymric), a house, e.g. Bosoawen. 

Bos (jB. Turkestan), grey, e.g, Bos-kul, Bos-yilga. See 
Kul, Tilga. 

Boscaglia (7^.), woods, underwood. 

Bosch (Dch.), wood, forest, e.g. Braambosoh (Holland), 
Stellenbosch (Cape). 

Boschveld (Dch.), open plain covered with low bush. 

Bosco (It.), wood, forest (B.) 

Bosogha (E. Turk.), gate, entrance. 

Bosonopo, Bosoropo (^Gold Coast), the great sea, ocean. 

Bosque (Sp.), a tract of land planted with trees and 
brushwood, a forest. In the Philippines this is 
used for any wild, uncultivated land. 

Bosquet (Fr.), grove, thicket. 

Bostan (E. Turk.), kitchen garden. 

Bot-ho (Arab.), a creek of water less open than a Bejlor 
Kra (q.v.) 

Botogo (Songhai), a marsh. 

Bottle (Anglo-Saxmi, Norse), a house, e.g. Newbottle. 

Bottom (AnglO'Saxonhotm), a dale, a hollow, low ground. 
„ (U.S.A.), Biver Bottom or Flat Bottom, the low 
land, covered with wood, lying between a river and 
the hills which enclose its valley. 


iBotwe (Amaxosa), the metropolis, seat of government. 

Bouche {Fr.), mouth of a river (B*'^'*). 

Boufie {Fr.)y buoy, beacon. 

Bounon (Neo-Crreek), mountain, hill. 

Bourd {Gaelic Bhuird), flat, e.g. Benabourd, 'table-moun- 
tain,' one of the Cairngorms. See Ben. 

Beurg (Fr.), town. 

Bourne {Anglo- Sdxon), a stream, rivulet, e.g. Eastbourne. 
Cf. Bom, Bnm. 

Bonwland {Dch.), arable land. 

Boven {Dch.), upper, above, e.g. Bovenkerk. 

Bowal {Fr. Guinea) , a rocky plain. 

Box CaiLon {U.S.A.), a canon having practically vertical 

rock sides. 
Boyon {Tibet), an isthmus, e.g. Kara Boyon, 'black 
isthmus.' See Kara. Cf. Buyan. 

Boynk (Turk.), great, e.g. Boynk Derbend, in both 

Bumelia and Eastern Bumelia. 
Boz {E. Turkestan). See Bos. 
Brachos {Neo-Greek), a cliff. 
BrsB {Nar.), glacier, e.g. JostedalsbrsB. 
Brae {Scotch), slope of a hill. 
Brag {Tibet), rock, a rocky mountain. 
Braneo, a {Port.), white, e.g. Bio Branco, Serra Branca, 
Brang, Brang-sa {Tibet), station, camp. 
Brasa {Slavonic) y birch, e.g. Braslaf. 
Brazo (Sp.), an arm of a river. 
Brdo {S. Slav.), a mountain. 
Bre {Celtic), a promontory, e.g. Bredon. 



Break {Icelandic brekka, a declivity), a hollow among 
hills ; (Scotch) a division of land in a farm. 

Breite (Ger.)^ latitude. 

Bridal veil-Fall {U.S. A,), a cataract of great height and 
such small volume that the falling water is dissi- 
pated in spray before reaching the lower stream- 

Brig (North of Eng.), bridge, e.g. Briggate, Brighoase. 

Brija (Arab,, N. Africa), a small fortified house ; dim. 
of Boij. 

Briqueterie (Fr.), a brick kiln (Briq*'^). 

Brisies (Fr., Mauritius), shooting paths cut in the jungle. 

Bro (Celtic), a district. 

Bro (Harem, Indo-China), forest. 

Bro (Nor,, Da,, Sw,), a bridge. 

Brod (S, Slav.), a ford. 

Bron (Dch., Ger.), source of a stream, e,g, Heilbronn, 
' holy source,' * holy well.* 

Bronu (Gold Coast), a street, lane. 

Brough (England), from Anglo-Saxon burk or burg 
(an earthwork), a fortified town. Cf. Burg, Bury, 

Brousse (Fr.), forest, bush. 

Brtlcke (Ger.), a bridge. 

Brug (Dch,), a bridge, e.g. Burgerbrug, Nieuwebrug. 

Brugkiera (It., Milanese dialect), heath. 

Brunnen (Ger.), well, stream. 

Brunnr (Icelandic), a fountain, spring. 

Bryn (Welsh), a brow, ridge, slope of a hill, e.g. 


Ba (Arab., Algeria), Added to names of animals, 
plants, &c., it denotes the place where they abound. 
In composition it .signifies resemblance. Joined 
to adjectives it means river, e.g, Ba-Herzug=the 
fertilising river. 

Ba (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), prefix generally 
employed to indicate abstract nouns, e.g. Ma-ntu 
= a man, Bu-ntu= humanity ; also land, country, 
e.g. Buganda, Bunyoro. See Ba. 
-Ba, -Bo (Chad L. region), a postfix signifying 'people,' 
e.g. Kanembu, the people of Kanem ; Fulbe (usually 
written Fula) ; Tibu. Corresponds to the Bantu 
prefix Ba, Wa, as in Basuto, Waganda. See also 
Kel, Im, Ahel. The singular is -ma, e.g. Kanema, 
Kanem-ma, ' a man of Kanem,' Billama, ' the man of 
the town, mayor,' Billa meaning * town' ; ITgurubu, 
pi. ot Nguruma, people and person of Hgnru. Further 
west, in Gurma,. -bi is found, e.g. Onnnabi, * the 
people of Gurma.' 

Bu (Tibet), middle, between. 

Boala, Bwala,^Z. Mala (Loango). See Ala. 

Baoht (Ger.), bay, bight, cove. For use as a form of 
sub-oceanic relief see Embayment. 

Buda (Slavo7iic), a hut, e.g. Buda, Budkowitz. 

Budh (Punjab), old, e.g. old dry beds of branches of 
the Chenab. 

Badi (Congo), a papyrus swamp. 

Budo, Bade, Bada (Yoruba), a camp, e.g. Bude-Eku, Buda- 
£gba. See Egba. 

Budu (Mossi, French Sudan), nation. 


Bueno, a {Sp.)y good, e.g. Baenos Aires, ' fine airs/ Buena 

Vista, * good view.' 
Buff {Galloppa, Abyssinia, and Lohub, L. Budolf), 

Bug (Tibet), cavity, recess ; end. 
Bugt (Da,, Nor., 8w.), bight, bay. Cf. Bucht. 
Bugu (Mande), an inhabited place of less importance 

than a capital ; house, cottage. Cf, Dugu. 
Buhaira {Arab.), a small sea, a lake. 
Buhne (Ger.), a wharf, quay; a dam to turn the course 

of a river. 
Bui, Bhui {Gaelic), yellow, e.g. Ru Bui, * Yellow Point,* 

in Loch Alsh. 
Buira {Arab., N. Africa). See Bwira. 
Buisson {Fr.), bush, thicket. 
Buiten {Dch.), outside, without, e.g. Buitenveldert. 
Buitenplaats {Dch.), a country seat. 
Buitenverblijf {Dch.), a country house. 
Bujoko {Yoruba), a dwelling. 
Buk {Hang Chek, Indo-China), great. 
Buka {Arab.), a valley between two mountain ranges ; 

a low-lying tract of land ; burial-place of a saint. 
imBukha {Lu-Wanga, Uganda), cave. 
Bukhta {Buss.), bay, creek. 

Biikit {Malay), a hill, e.g. Bukit Hulu Bena. See Hulu. 
Bukoba. See Wakoba, Koba. 
Buksem {Cent. Asia), close tangled wood. 
uBuku {Kafir), a bog, a quagmire. 
Bui {Chad L. region), white, e.g. Hki Bui, * white water,* 
a portion of Chad L. 


Bulak {Turk,) J spring, source, e.g. Suj-Bnlak. 

Bnlakan {Philippines) ^ a country or district where 

cotton is grown. 
mBolangiana {Congo ^ dialect of Bantu), confluence, 

junction of two streams. 
BuUi {Somali), a low place where water collects. 
Bolli Haredle {Somali), a rain-water pool. Hared= 

rain-water. See Le. 
BuUhaia {Alaska), great mountain. 
Bulu {Mande), arm, branch, e,g, Babula, * river arm.' 

See Ba. 
laBTilu {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a small torrent-bed, 

Bum {Pers.), a country, land, soil, cognate with Sansc, 

bhtimi. See Bhum. 
Bnluga {Mossi, French Sudan), See Kuluga. 
Bnmanda (Benue B, region), a ford or place of em- 

Bun {Irish), mouth of a river, e,g. Bundoran. 
Bun {IndO'China), a village. 
Bun (Mande), house, cottage. 
Bun {Somali). See Ban. 
Bunar {Turk.), the source of a river. 
Bund {Pers.), a dam. Cf. Band. 
Bundari {E. Africa), harbour, a form of Bandar 
Bunder {Pers.), a harbour, a form of Bandar. 
Bundu {Fula), wells, spring, source. 
Bunga {Galla), an uninhabited desert. Cf Halla. 
Bungalow {Anglo-Indian), a corruption of the Hind. 

Bangla (contrac. from Bangfila), the most usual 


class of house occupied by Europeans in the 

interior of India, being of one story and covered 

by a pyramidal thatch roof, though a tile roof is 

sometimes used. 
Bungo (Barotseland), See Yungo. 
Bungu (Ja-LuOy Uganda), forest. 
Bunguntani {Madagascar) ^ a little round hill. 
Bunik (Nandi^ Uganda), country. 
Buntu (Celebes),. jnountBin, e,g, Buntu Bila. 
Bnr {Somali), a mountain, e.g, Bnr-Mado, Bur-Dap, Onm- 

bur. See Hado. 
Bur {Ja-Luo, Uganda), a well. 

Burak {Arah.)y artificial pools or tanks {pL of Birket). 
Buran {Geni. Asia), a snowstorm. 
Btiren (Ger,), an abode, e.g. Amelsbtiren (in Westphalia). 

The Dch. form is Buren. 
Burg (Dch.), castle, town, e.g. Doomenburg, Bozenburg. 
Burg, Burgh (England), an earthwork, a fortified town. 

Cf. Brough, Bury. 
Burgo (Port), a town or castle on a hill ; suburb. 
Burgos {Bendili, East Africa), white-necked, e.g. Donyo 

Burgos, * the white-necked mountain,' the Bendili 

name for Mt. Kenia. 
Burl {Danakil), land, dry land; e.g. Buri peninsula in 

Buri (Siam\ a city. 
Burj (Arab.), a tower. 
Bum (Anglo-Saxon), a bourn, stream, rivulet, e.g. 

Blackburn. Of. Bourne, Born. 


Bnma, Bunm {Turk,), cape, the French Hez; point, 

promontory. See Bunm. 
Buron (Fr.), hut, cottage (B°°), from Old Ger. bAr, house. 
Bnrrook (from Anglo-Saxon beorg), a small weir or dam 

in a river. 
Bnrrone (It), a precipice, ravine. 
Bursa (Mande). See Birsa. 
Bunm (Songhai), king. 
Burtin {Turk), naze, lit. a nose, e,g, Iqebtinm. See 

'BxaY {England), from Anglo-Saxon barb, burg; an 
earthwork, fortified town. Cf, Brongh, Burg, Borough. 
Bus {Slavonic), a dwelling, e,g, Trebus. 
Buscione {It.), bush, jungle. 
Buso {Yoruba), a resting-place, inn. 
umBuso {Zulu, Kafir), a kingdom. 

Bostiui {Pers.), a garden, especially a flower-garden, from 

bu, bo, fragrance, and stdn, place. 
Busu {Yoruba), loose sandy ground. 
umButiso {Zulu, Kafir). For meanings s€e XTnibutiRO. 
Butte {Fr.), a knoll. 

„ {U.S. A.), a lone hill rising with precipitous cliffs 
or steep slopes ; a small isolated Mesa {q.v.) 
Btittel {Ger.), a house, lit. bailiff, e.g. Wolfenbtittel. Cf. 

Buurt {Dch.), a hamlet, e.g. Bovenbuurt, Geldersche Buurt. 
Buwab^Z. of Bab {Arab.), gates. 
Buyan {E. Turk.), saddle, neck, col. Cf. Boyou. 
Buyan {Buss.), wharf , landing-place {in masculine). 
Buyuk (Turk.), great, e.g. Buyukdere, on the Bosporus. 


Busnk (E. Turk.), rained, in ruins. 
eBwila (Congo, dialect of Bantu), mouth of a river, con- 

Bwira, Buira (Arab., N. Africa), little wells. 
-Bwo, -Bwe (Upper Sassandra B. region), a sufl&x, 
meaning village, settlement ; e.g. Oogibwo, * Gogi's 
village,' Oozrobwe, *Gozro's village.' 

By (Da., Nor., Sw.), town, an abode, e.g. Derby, Whitby. 

Byang (Tibet), north. For other points see Lho. 

Byeli (Buss.), white, e.g. Byeloye More, * the White Sea.' 

Bye-ma (Tibet), sand. 

Caapau (Spanish 8. America), a collection of trees; also 

a small mound far from a river or spring ; has 

same meaning as Ida. 
Cabana (Fr.), a cottage (C***). 
Cabaret (Fr.), a tavern (Cab**). Cf. XhsAirit. 
Cabe90 (Port.\ the top of a hill, summit. 
Cabo (Port., Sp.), cape, promontory, headland. 
Cacbeo, Caohfto (Port.), lit. the bubbles on water, so 

bubbling water, a torrential river, e.g. Cacheo Eiver. 
Caohimba (Spanish S. America), a shallow well, a 

Caohoeira (Port.), waterfall, rapids. 
Caer (Welsh), a fortress ; e.g. Caermarthen. 
Cafiiere (Fr.), a coffee plantation. 
Caillooh (Gaelic oailleaoh), a nun, e.g. Inohoaillooh, 'the 

island of the nuns.' See Inch. 


Cairn (Celtic), a stony hill, e.g. Cairngorm. See Oorm. 
Cait, Caith {Cymric Caeth), narrow, e.g'. Pencaitland (Pen- 

Caeth-Uan), * head of the narrow enclosure.* See 

Pen, Llan. 
Cajon {U.S.A,), a box-caiion {q.v.) 
Cal, Calat (Sp.), a corruption of the Arabic Ealat, ' a 

castle on a rock,' e.g. Caltabalotta, Calatamisetta. 
Cala {It)f a bay. 
Cala (Sp.), a creek or small bay. 
Calat {Sp.) See CaL 
Calata {It.),Sk slope or declivity. 
Calcosa (It), a beaten path, a road. 
Caldeira {Fr. Port.) See Caldron. 
Calder {Celtic), a woodland stream. 
Caldron {Eng.), as a minor form of sub-oceanic relief, 

a more or less steep depression (q.v.) of relatively 

small extent, e.g. the Monaco Caldron on the 

Azores Plateau. Equivalent to Ger. Kessel, Fr. 

Caldeira. Cf. Furrow. 
Cale de Ferata {Bumania), railway. 
Caleta (Sp.), a cove. 
Calle (It), a way, road, path. 

Calo {It.)y fall, current of a river ; declivity of a hill 
Calzada (Sp.), a highway. 
Cam {Welsh, Gaelic), crooked, e.g. Cam E. 
Cama (U.S. A.), a small upland prairie. 
Cama {Port., Sp.), a bed, stratum. 
Camber {Eng. from Old French), a small dock in a 

royal yard for unloading timber ; a harbour. 


Cambufl (Celtic), a bay, bend, e,g. Cambaskennetli ; Ald- 

oambus, * the stream of the bay.' See Aid. 
Caminho (Port), a municipal or county road, cf. Estrada. 
Caininho de Perro (Port), railway. 
Camino (Sp.), a road (C.) 
Camino de Hierro (Sp,), railway. 

country, open country, country fields. 

Campagna {It.), 
Campagne (Fr,), 
Campanario (^Sp.),) 

CampanUe {It), I "' '*®^P^^' *°''^''' ^^^"^^ 

Campos abertos {Brazil), ' open plains,' where little is to 
be seen except herbaceous or scrubby growth. 

Campos agrestes {Brazil), * rough plains/ where coarse 
tufty herbage of greyish colour prevails. 

Campos cerrados {Brazil), * closed plains,' having nume- 
rous small groves, woods, and thickets. 

Campos geraes {Brazil), 'general plains'; the intermi- 
nable level or slightly rolling tracts, under short 
coarse growth, where the landscape is monotonous 
and seldom relieved by any conspicuous object. 

Campos mimosos {Brazil), ' tender campos,' under soft, 
fresh, bright green pasturage, suitable for cattle- 

Campos veros {Brazil), * true plains,' grassy, treeless, and 
waterless plateaux. 

Camus {Gaelic), a bay or creek, e.g. Camus Orasay, in the 

Cafiada {U.S.A.), a very small canon. In Argentina 
this is used for any small depression. 


Canoha {Spanish S. America), a spacious flat or open 

Candelas (U./S.-^.), agroupof candle-like rocky pinnacles. 
Cangrejal {Spanish S. America), low marshy ground, 

full of ruts and holes, impassable and difficult of 

Canon {Spanish America), a mountain gorge. 
Cantera (Sp.), a quarry. 
Cantiere {It.), a dockyard. 
Canton {Low Latin Cantonum, a district, province, Fr. 

Canton, a collection of parishes), a small portion or 

division of land, a small district constituting a 

distinct government. Hence Cantonment, quarters 

for soldiers ; the Swiss Cantons. 
Caolas {Gaelic), firth, strait, e.g. Caolas na Aird. 
Cap {Fr., Ger.), cape, headland (C.) 
Ctipel {Welsh), a chapel, e.g. Capelourig. 
Capella (Por^.), 
Capelle {Ger.), ■ a chapel. 
CapiUa {Sp.), J 
Capo {It.), a cape (C.) 
Capooroce {It.), cross-roads. 
Capoeira {Brazil), 'aftergrowths,' the jungle that springs 

up rapidly in abandoned clearings. 
Capdes {Brazil), * thickets,' patches of low growth, 

especially palms, in the damp parts of the grassy 

Campos {q»v.) 
Car {Wales), a city, town, e.g. Cardift. 
Car {Scotland), a fortified place, e.g. Carstairs. 
Carabineros {Sp.), a post of military coastguards. 


Carriga (It.), a cartway. 

Carrasoos {Brazil), scrub, brashwood. See Capdes, Ser- 
radSes, Catingas. 

Carrefour (Fr,), a cross-road (CarrefO- 

Carretera {Sp.), a high-road. 

Carriok, Carrig {Ireland), a rock, crag, from the Gaelic 
oarraig, e.g. Oarrickfergos, Carrig o Ouimel. 

Oarriere (Fr.), a quarry (Carr®). 

Oarse {Scotland), low and fertile land adjacent to a 
river, e.g. Oarse of Oowrie. 

Oartha {Phcenician) , an enclosed place, a city, e.g. 

Casa {It, Port, Buman., Sp.), a house. 

Casar {Sp.), a village (Gas.) 

Casoigo {Sp.), gravel. 

Casoina {It), pasture-ground, dairy farm (C"^). 

Caserne {Fr.), barracks. 

Caaeta {Sp.), a small house. 

Caaino {It), a country seat (Cas^). 

Casotto {It.), a small house, sentry-box (Ct°). 

Cassine {Fr.), a little country house, box. 

Castagneto {It.) Castanhaes {Brazil), a forest abounding 
in chestnut trees. 

Caster {Anglian), from Latin castra, camp, e.g. Don- 
caster. Cf. Cester, Chester. 

Catena {It.), a chain (of mountains). 

Catingas {Brazil), extensive open woodlands of small 
growth and with much underwood, affording cover 
to all kinds of animals. See Campos, Capoes. 

Cavata {It), a ditch, moat. 


Cay, Key (U.S.A., W. Iwdm), a comparatively small and 
low coastal island of sand or coral, from Sp, cayo, 
e.g. Key West. 

Cayo {Sp.), rock, shoal, islet. 

Ceann (Gaelic), head, promontory, e.g. Ceann More, W. 
coast of Scotland. See More. 

Oefii (Cymric), a back, ridge, e.g. Ceyexmes, Oefiillys. 

Ceja (Sp.), the summit of a mountain. 
„ (U.S.A.), the cliflf of a Mesa (q.v.) ridge, an escarp- 

Celt (Welsh), a covert. 

Cementerio, Cimenterio (Sp.), a cemetery, burial-ground. 
inCenoesha (Amaxosa, Kafir), a rivulet. 

Ceim (Gaelic), a head, a mountain (pronounced ken), 
e.g. Kenmore. See More. 

Cense (Fr.), a small farm (C"^. 

Ceroania (Sp.), neighbourhood; in pi. environs. 

Cemy (Bohemian), black (Cr.) Cf. Chemi, Tzemi. 

Cerrig (Welsh), a crag, e.g. Cerrig-y-Dmidion. Cf. Carriok. 

Cerro (Sp.), a hill or highland which is in general craggy. 
„ (U.S.A.), a single eminence intermediate between 
hill and mountain. 

Cester (Mercian), from Latin castra, camp, e.g. Leicester. 
Cf. Caster, Chester. 

Cha, Sha (Indian, U.S.A.), great, e.g. Sliawangank= 
great wall : Chatemuc= great rocks. 

Cha (Indian, California), town, village, house. 

Cha (China), sand, e.g. Kin Cha Kiang, ' the river of 
golden sand,' i.e. the Upper Yangtse ; also a post- 
house. Cf. Taijam. See Kin, Kiang. 


Cha (Kurdish), a mountain. 

Cha (Tibet), signifies extent, see Cha Lam; also a post- 
house, resting-place, e,g, Shangoha. 

Chabet, Chaaba (Algeria), a system of sinuous ravines. 
See the more usual forms Shabet, Shaaba. 

Chaora (Spanish S. America), a farm building. 

Chad. See Tsadhe. 

Chadir (Cent. Asia), house, e,g, Chadir Tash, 'stone 

Chagan (Mongol), white, e.g. Chagan Tologai, ' white 

Chaget (Indian, Alaska), a river mouth, e.g. Kosohaget, 
* the mouth of the Kosna,' na being river. In the 
lower Yukon district the ch is hardened into k. 
See Kaget, Kakat. 

Chah (China), a barrier. 

Chah (Pers.), well, pit, e.g. Oha-Shirin. 

Chahi (Punjab.), land irrigated from wells, whether 
assisted by canals or river-floods or not. Cf. 

Chai (China), fortified military place, camp. 

Chai (Shan States), a village, e.g. Tao Kuan Chai. 

Chai (Turk.), a river, e.g. UIti Chai. See Ulu. 

Chaine (Fr.), a chain of hills (Ch"«). 

Chair (Turk.), a meadow. 

Chak (Pers.), hole, mine. 

Chak (Indian, California), earth, land. 

Chaka (Giryania). See Aka. 

Chaka (Tibet), a lake, e.g. Lima Bingmo Chaka. 

Chakerem (Cefit. Asia), shout-distance. 


Cha Lam (Tibet), a ' large road/ high rdad. See Cha, Lam. 

Chalet (Fr.), house, Swiss cottage (Ch***). 

Chalo, Cham, Chiala (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). 

See Alo, Aro, Alu. 
Chamama (W. Sahara), inundated banks of rivers. 
Chaman (Pers.), pasture, orchard. 
Chamine (Port), a chimney, steeple. 
Chamnr (Turk.), mud. 
Chan (China), resting-stages for the night. 
Chan (Gaelic), a headland, e.g. Ardnamurohan, ' the 

height of the great headland.' See Ard, Mor. 
Chandifl (Java), the ancient temples of Central and 

Eastern Java. 
Chang (China), village, borough, market ; middle. 
Chang (China), long (either time or distance), e^. Chang 

Chiang, ' long river.' 
Chang (Pers.). See under Hamfin. 
Chang (Tibet), north, e.g. Chang Fa, 'the men of the 

north,' a nomad tribe of Tartars called Tagh Lik, or 

* mountaineers^ in E. Turk. See Fa, Tagh, Lik. 
Changkat (Malay), a hill or rising ground, a small hill, 

e.g. Changat Jening, Changat Tepns. 
Chanh (Cochinchina), honest, upright ; e.g. Binh-Chanh, 

' equal in probity,' a district in Cambodia. See Binh. 
Chaai (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kiani. 
Chanwa (Hau^a), green, of a wood in leaf. Cf Algos. 
Chap (E. Turk.), a very enclosed ravine. 
Chapadas (Brazil), 'high ground,' appUed vaguely to 

elevated plateaux, low ridges or serras traversing 

the Campos (q.v*) See also Taboleirai, Sertoes. 



Chapelle {Fr.), a chapel (Ch"«). 

Char (Bengal), a sandbank, also new alluvium brought 
down by a river ; in Anglo-Indian Churr. 

Char {Marocco), a village built of houses, not tents. 

Charde {Pers.), a group of four villages, from ohar, ' fpur,' 
and deh, ' village.* Cf. Char-su. 

Charneca (Brazil), 'heath,' applied to scrubby open 
tracts forming a transition from Carraaooes to the 
SertSes (q.v,) 

Charo (Nika). See Aro. 

Char-8U (Pers.), four roads meeting, a market. Cf. 
Charde, Chanraha. 

Chart (England), a forest, e.g. Seal Chart. 

Cham (Cent Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Chalo. 

Chaie (England), an unenclosed hunting-ground, e.g. 
Cannook Chase. 

Chashma (Pers.), a fountain, source, e.g. Chasma Qauhir. 

Chat (E. Turkish), angle, junction of two water- 

Chat ta ua (Indian, U.S.A.), a hill. 

Chilteau (Fr.), a castle (Ch»"). 

Chfltel (Fr.), a castle, e.g. ireuohiMol. 

Chatemnk (Indian, U.S.A.), great rocks. 

Chatir (Cent. Asia), another form of Chadir (q.v,) 

Chau, Chon (China), department, the division of a 
province ranking . above a district and below a 
sub-prefecture, usually called San Chou ; district 
city. Of. Hien, Fu. Also means islet. 

Ch4u (Cambodia), everywhere, altogether, e.g. Chau-Pha, 
* everywhere rich/ in Bao-Lok. 


Chanfour (Fr,), a limekiln. 

Chau kong fo (Miao-tse, Kwei-chou), a brook. 

Chanmine, Chauiniere (Fr.), a small cottage. 

Channg {Burma), stream, creek. 

Chaur (Hind,), a large open space in a forest, an ex- 
tensive tract of low land. 

Chanraha {Hind., Pers.), a cross road, the junction of four 
roads. Cf. Char-su, Chaur being a variant of Char. 

Chaussje {Fr.), a main road (Ch''^). 

Chawng {Siam), a strait. 

Che (China), a dam. 

Cheaou {China), a bridge. Cf, CMao, Kiao. 

Cheap. See Chipping. 

Chebiri {Hausa), an island. 

Chede {Nika). See Ede. 

Chekil {E. Turk,), a steep rock. 

Chekmeje {Turk,), a bridge. 

Chel {E. Turk,), a desert. 

Cheltang {Hang Chek, Indo-China), road. 

Chema {Tibet), sand. 

Chemin {Fr,), a road (Ch»"). 

Chemin de fer {Fr,), railway. 

Cheminfie {Fr,), chinmey (Ch**^). 

Chenal {Fr,), a channel (of harbours, &c.), a track. For 
use as a form of sub-oceanic relief see Oully. 

Cheng {China), a city wall, a city ; a walled village or 
town; a stage in a journey. Cf, Fa, Tun, Tson, 
Chwang. Sometimes written Chen, e,g, Fei-ku^ 
ohen, * north pass borough.' See Fei, Ku. 

Cheng (Yindu Chin, W, of Mon B,), a valley. 

F 2 


mChenga {Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), sand. 

Chengo (Oiryama), a camp. 

ChenUfpL Chelu (Telegu), a field. 

Chep. See Chipping. 

Chergi (W. Sahara), east. 

Cherni {Buss,), black, e.g. Chemoe More, ' the Black 
Sea ' ; Chemagora, ' Black Mountain/ i,e, Monte- 
negro. Cf. Cemy. 

Chenoneaiu (Greek), a peninsula. 

Chethme (Pers,), source, fountain. 

Chester {Saxon), from Latin Castra, camp, e.g, Win- 
ohester. Cf. Caster, Cester. 

Cheau (Songhai), the bank of a river. 

Ohete {Oiryama), See Ete. 

Cheul (Turk.), a desert. 

Chevalis (Fr.), a ford when the water is low, a passage 
made with boats when a river is low. 

Chi {Cent. Africa), a prefix signifying ' big,' e.g. Chiromo 
=big lip. 

Chi=Hyeiig=Nyeng=Byeng {Korea), a pass, e.g. Ko- 
imiOhi, umuChi {Kossova, Uganda), a town, 
ma Chi {Fa7i, French Congo), water. 

Chi {Batta, Benue 22. region), a suffix meaning lan- 
guage, e.g. Faparohi^ ' the language of the Papar 
people.* Cf. Hchi. 
in Chi {Swahili), country. 

Chia {China), a house, home, family; also a cape. 

Chia (Kurdish), a mountain. 

Chialu {Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), See Ohalo. 


CMang {China), a river, never used for a small stream, 
though Ho may be applied to a large one. See Kiang. 

CMao (China), a bridge ; also a sect, e.g. Choi Chiao, 
* abstinence sect,' applied to Mussulmans. 

Chibla (Songhai), earth. 

Chibongo (Bantu). See Bongo. 

Chico (Sp»), small, e.g. CMcoB. There are several rivers 
of this name in South America. 

CMdunfta (Senna, Bantu). See Donda. 

Chie (China), a street. 

Chien (China), a thousand ; e.g. Ohien Shan, ' the thou- 
sand peaks.' 

Chien (China), shallow. 

CMoDg (Laos), a city. 

CMe-ye (Miao-tse, Kwei-chau), a plain. 

Chiflik (Turk.), a farm. 

dug (Indian, U.S.A.), shore. 

Chigogo (QermanEast Africa, dialect of Bantu), a kind 
of banana, e.g. ITgogo, a river rising in or flowing 
through a banana plantation. See Oogo. 

Chigtmda (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kirnmba. 

Chikowa (Hausa), flood. 

Chila (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). For meaning 
see Maohila. 

Chileso, pi. Vilezo (Swahili). See Lezo. 

Clii-li (China), metropolitan. 

((China), independent department, i.e. 
independent of a prefecture; indepen- 
dent departmental city or city of the 
second order. Cf. Chau. 


muChili (Barotseland, Bantu), a clan, e,g, Muohili Kaohi- 
hombo, ' the clan of fishers.' For^Z. see Muchili. 

Chi-li-ting {China), independent sub-prefecture; a di- 
vision of a province ranking immediately after a 
prefecture, and dependent directly on a circuit. 

Chilundi (Tonga, Bantu), See Lnndi. 

Chilwa {Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), See Kirwa. 

Chima {Pula, China), a wood, forest. 

Chimen (E. Turk), prairie. 

Chimpolo (Loango), a ravine. 

Chin (China), a town, lit, a tent ; e,g. Maimachin, ' trade 
town ' near Kiakhta. 

Chin (China), gold, e.g. Chin Chuan, ' gold stream.' 

Chin {Hind.) See Jin. Chin {Korea). See Jin, 

China (It.), a declivity, slope. 

Chine {Anglo-Saxon Cinu), a rift, chink; ravine; e.g. 
Blackgang Chine. 

Chiny {China), a well. 

Ching {China), the capital of a state. 
liChinga {Mavia, Mozambique), a small hill. 

Chinggo {Marovo, Solomon Is,), plantation, garden. 

Chini {Swahili), depth. 

Chiniak {Aleut), a rocky, impassable, wretched sea ; e.g. 
Chiitlak bay, cape, and island. 

Chin-toil {Hang Chek, Indo-China), a forest. 
liChinya (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), an island. 

Chiopak {Mentawei), a stream. 

Chipanas (Java), hot springs. 

Chipping, Cheap, Chep {Eng. from old Teutonic root, 
meaning 'trade,' * barter'), market-place, e.g. Chip- 
ping Norton, Cheapside, Chepstow. See EOping. 


Chir (Gaelic ohiar), dark brown, e.g. Aberchirder (Aber* 
ofaiar-dur), 'the coufluence of the dark-brown 
water.' See Aber, Dnr. 
Chirumba (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Bnmba. 
Chirwa {Cent Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Xirwa. 
Chiiai (Japan), little, small. 

Chud, Dzisi (Ce7it. Africa, dialects of Baaitu). See Si. 
Chidwa (Gent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Ziwa. 
Chisna (Bantu). See Sua. 
Chit (E. Turk), limit, boundary. 
Chito (Bantu). See To. 

Chitnmbi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Litnmbi. 
Ohinng (China), border waste land. 
Chlum (Slavonic), an isolated hill. 
Cho (Armam), a market. Cf. Sho. 
Cho (Tibet), a lake, e.g. Am Cho ; Oaring Cho^ Another 
form is Tso. 
mCho (East Africa, dialect of Bantu). For meaning see 
Chog (Tibet), a country, region. 
Chokel (Hausa), branch of a river; backwater. Cf. 

Chokka (N. Nigeria), rocky, e.g. Chokku-Chokku, in 
Kabba district, meaning 'rocky-rocky,* i.e. very 
-Choke (Cent. Africa), a suffix meaning Mittle.' 
Choi (Cent. Asia), a desolate plain. 
Choi (Punjab), a small hollow. Cf. Chura. 
Choi (Yambo, Upper Sobat B.), black. 
Chom (Zirian). See Chum. 
Chom (Kurdish), a stream. 


Chombo (Swahili)f a dhow. 

Chon (Hainan), a village. Also in Korea. 
iChonde (Cent Africa, dialect of Bantu), a forest. 

Chong (Siam), a strait. 

Chong {E. Turk.), great. 

Chong (Tibet). See Chung. 

Cho pol ^Indian, California), a lake. 

Chor (Marocco), a fixed Berber village. 

Chorak (Turk,), a marsh. 
Chorion (Greek), a village. 
Chot (Wakhan, Pamirs), a lake. 

Chota (Hind,), small ; properly Chhota mas., Chhoti,fem., 
e.g. Chota Kagpur; Chhoti Kadi, a rivulet ('small 
river '). See next entry. 
Chota gam {Hind), a small village. 
Chou (China), a department ; the capital of a depart- 
ment. See Chau. 
Chou (China), a place surromided by water, island. See 

Chu (China), stream, river. 
^ Chu (Tibet), water, river. 
Chuan (China), stream, river, e.g. Chin Chuan, ' Gold 

Stream.' Cf. Chuen. 
Chuang (China), borough; village. 
Chubar (Tibet), an isthmus. 
Chu-dog-po (Tibet), a torrent. 
Chu-dong (Tibet), wells. 
Chuen (China), a channel, river. Cf. Chuan. 
Chu henn (hon, hemm) (Laos), a garden. 
Chukur (JE?. Turk.), deep. 


Chnl {Per 8., Afghan), desert. 

Chnla (Ja-Ltco, Uganda), an enclosure. 

Chu lu (Indian, California), hill, mountain. 

Chum, Chom (Zirian), summer hut ; hence Chumbi, suburb. 

Chu-mig (Tibet), source. 

Chu-mta {Tibet), bank, shore. 

Chan (China), an old variable designation correspond- 
ing with the present prefecture. Cf Chau, Chi-li- 
CbBXL, Hien, Fu. 

Chung (Chin Hills), hill, peak. Cf Tung. 

Chung, Chong (Tibet), small, e,g. Chong La, ' small pass.' 

Chung Yuen (China), mainland, ohung meaning ' centre,' 
e.g. Chung Chiang, ' centre river.' 

Chura (Punjab), a wide hollow. Cf ChoL 

Churang (Malay), a creek. Cf Jurang. 

Churr. See Char. 

Chuia, Chiya (Tibet), a source of hot springs, e.g. 
Kaisum Chusa. 

Chusquea (Chili), reeds. 

Chute (Fr.), waterfall, cataract. 

Chu-tram (Tibet), river bank. 

Chu-wo (Tibet), river. 

Chu-zar (Tibet), a cascade. 

Chwang (China), a village (agricultural). Cf Fu, Tun, 
Tsun, Cheng. 

Chwang (Chong Chia-tse, Yunnan), a cave. 
iChweba {Amaxosa, Kafir), a lagoon of still clear water. 

Chwen (China), a river =Chyen (Korea). 

Cidade (Port.), a city, town, e.g. Cidade do Recife, * city 
of the reef.' 


Cienaga (8p.), a marsli, moor. 

y, (U.S.A,), an elevated or hillside marsh con- 
taining streams. 

Cima {It, Sp,), summit of a mountain (C°^), e.g. Cima 
ITove, ' new peak.' 

Cime {Fr,), top, summit (of a mountain). 

Cimetiere (Fr.), cemetery (Cim'*). 

Oiottolato (It.), highway, paved road. 

Cirque (U.S.A.), a glacial amphitheatre or basin. 

Citadelle (Fr.), a citadel (Cit'*»). 

Cittii (It), a city, town, e.g. Cittk di Castello, 'town of 
the castle.' 

Ciudad (Sp.), a city, town, e.g. Ciudad Real, * royal city.' 

Civita (It.), state, town, in composition, e.g. Civita 
Vecchia, * Old Town.' 

Qjafe (Albanian), mountain top. 

Clachan (Gaelic), stones, sing, olaoh; usually applied to 
a hamlet or small cluster of houses, probably from 
the existence of Druidical remains on the site, e.g. 
Claohantiompan. Cf. Clough. 

Clairiire (Fr.), a glade. 

Clangh (Irish). See Clough. 

Clawdd (Welsh), a ditch, fence, e.g. Caron Isolawdd. See Is. 

Clelt (Gaelic), a rugged eminence, e.g. Oleit Hianish. 

Clere (Anglo-Norman), a royal or episcopal residence on 
a lofty hill, e.g. Highclere. 

Clocher (Fr.), a belfry, clock-tower. 

Clogh (Irish). See Clough, 

Clon (Ireland), a plain surrounded by bog or water, 
from Irish duain, e.g. ClonmeL 


Close {Old Fr. elos, Lat, olauBus, shut in, enclosed), an 
enclosure, courtyard, the precinct of a cathedral. 

Cldtnre (Fr.), enclosure, fence. 

Cloud, elude {Anglo-Saxon clfid, a rock, a hill), a clifif, 
rock, precipice, e.g. Thorpe Cloud. 

Clough, Claugh, Clogh (Irish), a stone, e.g. Cloghan, 
Claughton, Cloughton. Cf. Clachan. 

Clove (U.S.A.)y a gorge, ravine. 

Coch (Welsh), red. See Ctoeh. 

Coches (Upper Amazon region), small sluggish channels, 
leading to the lateral lakes which fringe a river 
in low swampy country. 

Coed (Welsh), a wood, e.g. Bettws-y-coed, ' dwelling 
across the wood.' See Bettws, Y. 

Cohonk (Indian, U.8.A), grey goose, e.g. Cohonksou = 
place of wild geese. 

Ceill (Irish), a wood. 

Col (Fr., Eng.), a neck, an elevated pass. 

Collado (Sp.), a hill. 

CoUe (It), a hill (C^% 

CoUine (Fr.), a hill. 

CoUo (It), the top, summit (of a mountain.) 

Coin (Latin, Colonia), a colony, e.g. Lineoln, Cologne. 

Colto (It.), ploughed land. 

Colwyn (Welsh coUwyn), a hazel grove. 

Comba (Sp.), a valley. 

Combe (Celto-Saxon ; Cymric, cwm; A.S., oomb, oumb), 
a hollow between two hills, valley, dingle ; a bowl- 
shaped valley, e.g. Wycombe. 

Combe (Fr.), a small valley. 


Commime (Fr.), parish, township. 

Condate {Old Celtic), a confluence of two rivers. 

Confine (It.), boundary. 

Contea (It), a county. 

ContomoB (Port), environs, suburbs. 

Contre-digue (Fr.), embankment, dike. 

Oonvento (It), a convent (Conv*®), 

Oop (Celtic), a hollow, cup, e.g. Warcop. 

Cop (Saxon), a head, the top of a ridge, crest, e.g. Maloop. 

Coquilles (Fr.), shells. 

a chain or ridge of mountains, a 
long elevated and straight tract 
of land. 
(U.S.A.), a group of mountain ranges, in- 
cluding the valleys, plains, rivers, lakes, &c. ; its 
composite ranges may have various trends, but the 
Cordillera will have one general direction. 
„ „ (5. America), a chain of mountains with dis- 
tinct summits, but closely connected like the links 
of a chain or the strands of a rope. 

Como (It.), an arm (of a river), peak of a mountain. 

Corral (Sp.), a court ; in America this is used to denote 
a cattle-pen, like the Fort. Curral ; in Ceylon the 
term is applied to an enclosure for the capture of 
wild elephants. 

Corrego (Brazil), a stream, small river, e.g. Corrego Agna- 

Cordilhera (Port.), 
Cordillera (Sp.), 

if fi 

Corrente (It), current, stream. 

Corao (It.), a long broad street, a thoroughfare, e.g. 
U Corso (Rome). 


Cort\jo {Sp.y, farmhouse, grange, country house (Cort.) 

Cortinal (Sp.), a piece of ground near a village or farm- 
house, which is generally sown every year. 

Cos (Indian f U.S.A.) , grass. 

Costa (It., Sp.), coast (C^), e.g. Costa Bica, ' rich coast.' 

Cote, pi. Cotan (Anglo-Saxon), a mud cottage, e.g. 
Fossoot, Coton. 

Cote (Fr.), coast. 

Cotean (Fr.), a small hill or declivity. 

„ (U.S.A.), an elevated pitted plain of rough 

Cotiere (Fr.), a range of coast, seaboard. 

Coto (provincial Sp.), territory, district. 

Coulee (U.S.A.), a cooled and hardened stream of lava; 
they occur as ridges of varying length and breadth, 
but rarely of great height ; a wash or arroyo 
(q.v.) through which water flows intermittently. 

Conrant (Fr.), current, stream. 

Cours (-Fr.), course, stream, current. 

Convent (Fr.), convent (Couv*). 

Cova (Port), a ditch. 

Coxsackie (Indian, U.S.A.), high hills. Cf. Quassaick. 

Cozzo (It), a spur of a mountain (C'''). 

Craig (Cymric), a rock or crag, e.g. Craigmigh. Cf. Oarrig. 

Cran (Savoy), a rock, crag. 

Creofda (Sp.), the flooding of rivers, in consequence of 
heavy falls of rain. 

Crete (Fr.), the crest of a mountain. For use as a form 
of sub*»oceanic relief see Sidge. 

Crick, Craig (England), a rock, crag, e.g. Crioklade. 


Orina (It)^ the crest of a mountain. 

Criqne (Fr,), a cove, creek. 

Cmi (S. Slavonic), black. See Cherni. 

Croei, Crwyi (Welsh), a cross, e.g. Croesgooh, ' red cross.' 

Croft {Anglo-Saxon), a close, or piece of enclosed ground 

adjoining a house ; a small farm. 
Croix (Fr,), a cross (Cr^), e.g. Bainte Croix, ' the holy cross.' 
Crombie (Gaelic), curved, crooked, e.g. Aberorombie, 'the 

curved confluence.* See Aber. 
Cromlech (Welsh), a flat stone placed upon two upright 

stones in the form of a table, set up as a tomb. 
Cmo (Fr.), a freshet or flood. 
Croin (Gaelic), round, e.g. Inohoruin, 'round island.' 

See Inch. 
Cms (Port., Sp.) a cross ; e.g. Vera Cras, ' the true cross.' 
Orwyi (Welsh). See Croei. 
Cifoda (Hung.), an inn (Cs.) 
Ciatoma (Hung.), a canal (Cstn.) 
Ciiri (Hung.), little. 

Cifici (Hung.), top, summit of a mountain (Cs.) 
Ciun (Tangut), little. 
Csap (Hung.), a mountain peak. 
Oiurtia (Tangut), a tower. 

Caadra (Spanish S. America), a side of Mansana (q.v.) 
CachiUias (Port,, Brazil), long low ridges crossing the 

plains in all directions ; lit. knives. Cf. CuohiUas. 
CuohiUas (Cu&a), an upland plain cut into numerous 

canons and salients. Cf. Cuchilhas. 
CuohiUas (Spanish S. America), a chain of mountainsi 
Cuesta (Sp,), rising ground, eminence. 


Caesta (U.S.A.), an ascending slope, a tilted plain or 
Mesa (q.v.) top. , 

Caeva (8p.), a cave. 

Cnik (Cymric o6g), a cuckoo, e.g. Penionik, < the hill of 
the cuckoos.' See Pen. 

Col, CuU (Gaelic), back, neck, e.g. Cnlloden, ' the back- 
lying coast ridge ' ; Cnlross 'the back or neck of the 
peninsula.' See Bos. 

Culebra (Sp.), a snake, e.g. Culebra islands in the West 
Indies, Culebra B. (Cent. America), Culebra (Peru). 

Cum (Latin), with ; occurs chiefly when one parish has 
been added to another, e.g. WUtton-cum-Thurlston. 

Cumbre (Sp.), top, summit, mountain peak, e.g. Cumbres 
Alias, ' the high peaks.' 

Cwm (Welsh), a bowl-shaped valley, e.g. Cwm Bechan. 

Czema, Czemy. See Cmi, Chemi, Tzemi. 

Da (Danakit), stone. 

Da (Tibet)^ the lower part of a lateral valley. 
umDa (Amaxosa, Kafir), a boundary. 

Daal (Dutch), a valley, dale, e.g. Rozendaal. See Dal. 

Daaa (Tagala, Philippines), a road. 

Daba (Somali), foot-hills, e.g. Daba-Ado, 'white hills.' 

See Ado. 
Daban (Mongol), col, pass, e.g. DalinDaban, 'the seventy 

Ittbar (Hind.), a marsh, pool, pond, tank. 
Dabas (Lokub, L. Rudolf), a tree. 


Dabba (Egyptian Sudan), small dry portions of land 

rising out of a marsh. 
Dabdaba (Arab.), rocky gypseous soil. 
Pabra (Hind.) See P&bar. 
Dad (Serer), grass, bush. 
Dad (Somaliland) , people = Bag ; forest = Hedd, e.g. 

Dadliba, Mion forest.' 
uDada (Kafir), a thicket, a jungle. 
Dadi (Fanti), ground, earth, e.g. Dadiad. 
Dadipa (Gold Coast), arable. 
Dadze (Gold Coast) ^ ground, shore. 
Dag (Mongol, E. Turk.), rock, a rocky mountain, moun- 
tain range. Cf. the other forms, Dagh, Tag, TagH, 

Daga (Sara, Chad L.), a lake. 
Daga, Dagah (Galla, Somali), stone, rock, e.g. Dagaha- 

Dayer, ' monkey rock,' Dagabnr. See Bar. 
Dagat (Tagala, Philippines), sea. 
Dagh (Mongol., E. Turk.), a mountain. Cf. the other 

forms. Dag, Tag, Tagh, Tan. 
Dago (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a pool. 

Dahar (Arab.), an almost impracticable mountain tract. 
Dai=Tai=0=sOki (Japan), large, great. 
Dai'a=Dhaya (Arab., N. Africa), small depressions, 

generally with vegetation. 
Daia, Dea (Hassania), a lake. 
Daibo (Japan), a fort. 
Daina (Indian, U.S. A.), a town. 
Dair (Arab.), monastery, tavern, e.g. Dair Musa, ' the 

Moses convent' Cf. Deir. 


Daira (hidia), a village, travellers' rest-house. 

Dttirat, DUirali (Malay), a canton, province, territory. 

Dak (Indo-China), a river. 

Dak-chemat {Harem, Indo-China), sea. 

Dake, Daka (eT'opa^i), peak, ridge, summit, 6.9. Hodakayama, 

* the mountain of the standing ears of corn,' from 

the appearance presented by its granite towers. 

Another form is Take (q.v.) 
Dakha (Soninke), camp, bivouac. 
Dakhla (Arab.), the entrance to a gorge or defile. 
Dakhla (Hassania), a stream. 
Dakhlet (Arab,), country free from sand and surrounded 

by dunes. 
Dakhni (Hind.), south. Cf. Jnnabi. For other points 

see TTttar. 
nDako (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a house. 
Dal (Dch.), a valley, e.g. Berg en Dal in Limburg, Haas- 

daL See Daal. 
Dal, Dol (Celtic), a plain, dale, meadow, e.g. Dalarosaie, 

' the field at the point,' Dalmahoy, * the field to the 

north.' See Eos. 
Dal (Sever, Wolof), camp, bivouac. 
Dala, Dla (Mande), lake, marsh, swamp. See Badla. 
Dala (Ja-Luo, Uganda), town, village. 
nDala (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the fall of a river after a 

Dale (Eng.), a valley, e.g. Kirkdale, Lonsdale. Cf. Dell, 

Thai, Daal. 
Dalem (Java), the dwelling of the regent. 
Dalin (Mongol). See under Daban. 



Dalle (U.S.A.), a rapid. 

Dallol (Niger region, Songhai), large valley which serves 

for the collection of the rain, and forms a stream, 

but is usually dry for eight or nine months in the 

year, e.g. Dallol Mauri, Dallol Fogha. 
Dalni (Bu88.), back, distant (of country), like German 

Einter, e.g. Dalni, near Port Arthur. 
Dalr (Icel), a valley, e.g. Fnjjikadalr. 
Dam (Laos, Siam), black. 
Dam (Teutonic), an embankment, e.g. Botterdam, *the 

dam of Botte.' 
Dam (Tibet), a marsh. 
Dama (Hottentot), conquered, e.g. Damara, mistranslated 

* the people who were conquered,' i.e. by the 

Namakwa. Damara is fern, dual ^ two Dama 

women, and is quite wrongly applied to the 

people, who should be called Damakwa (masc. pi.) 
Damana (Hausa). See Damana. 
Damana (Pers.), the foot of a mountain. The more 

usual form is Daman, e.g. Daman-i-Koh, ' skirt of the 

mountain.* See Koh. 
Dambo (Cent. Africa), an open patch in a wood or forest ; 

flat treeless swamp dry in the hot season ; malarial 

Dambok (Cambodia), a hill. 
nDambu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), bank (of a river), shore, 

coast, beach. 
Dam-bn (Tibet)^ reeds. 
Damele (Jibu, Netv Guinea) ^fiooA. 
Damka (Hind.), a hillock, eminence. 


Bamm {Ger.), embankment, dam. 
Damuna, Damana (Hausa), wet season. 
I>an (Siam), Siamese police or customs station. 
knDana (Nika), a path or way branching out of another. 
DUnaa (Malay), a lake. Cf. Tasek. 
Dan-dan (Banibara, Malinke), a mud wall surrounding 

a town or an enclosure. Cf. Din. 
muDandando (Nika), a rude bridge. 
Dane (Japan), a valley. 

Dang (Hind.), a hill, precipice, summit of a mountain. 
Dang (Tibet), cold, e.g. Dang Cho, ' cold lake.' See Cho. 
Dang, Dang-aa (Tibet), station, camp. 
Danga (Hausa), a garden. 
Dangi (Hausa), a tribe. 
Dang-po (Tibet), right, direct (of a road). 
Dankari (Mande), a ford. 
Da no (Indian, U.S.A.), hill, mountain. 
D|ar (Arab), a large house, an abode, a country, a 

subdivision of a province, e.g. Darfur ; Dar Dief, * a 

house for strangers.' Cf. Khot, Fan. 
„ (Hassania), encampment, town, village, really the 

same word as the above. 
Dar (E. Equatorial Africa), harbour, contracted from 

Bandar, e.g. Dar-es-Balam. 
Dar. See Der. 
Dara (Pers.), a valley or pass between two mountains ; 

Darada (Danakit), a river. 
Darassi (Caucasus), mountain top. 
Dibrat (Malay), coast (dry land). Cf. Tepilaat. 

o 2 


Darb (Arab.), a village. 

Dar-band (Pers,), a difficult pass, literally a * door-bar/ 

a barrier, hence Derbend, the barrier between the 

foot of the Caucasus and the Caspian to bar the 

nomad Turks from entering Persia. 
Darbar (Punjab), a Sikh temple, e.g. Darbar Sahib, at 

Darela (Deccan), a waterfall. 

Daria, Darya (Pars.), a river, water, sea, e.g. Amu-Daria. 
Darsena (Sp.), a dock or basin. 
DarvsbM (Cent Asia), a gate ; from next word. 
Darw^ (Pers.), door. 
Darya (Pers.) See Daria. 
Dash, TtjUi (Turk.), stone, rock, e.g. Tashknrgaii. 
Dashera (Hassania), a village. Cf. Deshera. 
Dasht (Pers.), steppe, plain, desert, e.g. Dasht-i-Kavir, 

* the Great Plain.' See Kavir. 
Dat (Serer), a road. 
Daung (Burma), a town. 
Davan (E. Turk.) , a steep col, pass ; the same word as 

Daban (q.v.) ; e.g. Davan-Knm, i.e. sand with a pass 

running through it. 
Davara (Motu, New Guinea), sea. 
Dawng (Siam), a deep forest. 
ixiDawo (Kafir), a place, locality. 
Dayr. See Dair. 
Dazh (Pers.), a quicksand. 

Dazhi (Hausa), a wilderness (not barren), a forest. 
Dbus (Tibet), middle, between. 
De (Tibef), country, district, e.g. Jamaata de, north of 

Namcho ; De Namm. See Bde. 


Dea. See Daia. 

Daalu (Bunumian)^ a mountain (D.) 

Deas {Gaelic), south, e.g, Deas Point, Mull of Cantyre. 

Sebba, J7Z. Dibab (Egyptian Svdan), a small stony hilL 

Debbabia {Ardb.)y a misty or foggy place. 

Debdeba {Arab.), ground which resounds under the tread. 

Debe {Soninke), a village. 
iDebi {Arriaxosa, Kafir), a shallow in a river. 

Deohie, Detsie {Gold Coast), mud, e.g. Dechiesu, ' on the 
mud.' See Ba. 

Dteouvert {Fr.), an open (coimtry). 

Seep {Eng.), in sub-oceanic relief, the deepest part of 
a Depression {q.v.), e.g. the Nero Deep; opp. to 
Height {q*v.) Equivalent to Ger. Tief, Fr. Fosse. 

Diflriehement {Fr.), a clearing in a forest. 

Deg (Wolof), marsh, bog, lake. 

Dega {Abyssinia), highland. Cf. Kwalla, Nejd. 

Dega {Indian, U.S.A.), a plain. 

Degirmen, Dei'rmen, Dermen {Turk.), a mill. 

Deh, Dih {Pers.), a village. 

Dehess {Arab.), marshy ground. 

Deioh {Ger.), a dike. 

Deir {Arab.), a house, monastery, a convent, sometimes 
in ruins, a variant of Dair. 

Deiimen (Turk.) See Dagirmen. 

De jos {Rumanian), lower (d.j.), generally placed after 
the name ; e.g. Sucin de jos, ' Lower Sucin,' to dis- 
tinguish it from Suoin de sns, ' Upper Saoin,' both on 
a tributary of Lapos B., south of Maramaros. Cf. 
De mqloo. 


Dek (Cambodia) f iron. 

Dek (Indian f Alaska), a creek, used chiefly in the Copper 

B. region ; e.g. Tatondek, ' Taton creek.* 
Dekame (Dahome), a garden, appUed by the natives to 

the eastern shore of L. Aheme, from its extreme 

Dekh (Wohf), a river. 
Dekhla (Arab., N. Africa), a pass, gorge ; a variant of 

Dakhla (q.v.) 
Dekke (Wolqf), town, village. 
nDela (Barotseland), a road, path. Cf. Zila, Zira, Jila, 

Oila, Tsela 
Delaa (Arab.), a long mountain ridge. 
De le ba ron (Indian, California), an island. 
Dell (Southumbrian), a valley, e.g, Arundel. Cf. Dale, 

Delta (Greek), the triangular space occasionally enclosed 

between the diverging mouths of a river and the 

sea-coast; so called from its resemblance to the 

fourth letter of the Greek alphabet (A). 
Dem (Upper Nile), an Arab factory, town, village, e.g. 

Dem Ziber, ' Ziber's town.' 
Dema (Chad L. region), large, great, e.g. Kabe Dema. 
nDema (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country. 
De mijloc (Bumanian), middle. Cf De jos, De sas, 
Demir (Turk.), iron. 
Demir-Yeri (Turk.), an anchorage. 
Den (Armam), black. 
Den, Dene (Cello-Saxon), a deep wooded valley, e.g. 



Dendron (Greek), a tree. 

Deng (Siam), red, e.g. Sala Deng near Bangkok. 

Denis, Dengiz (Turk.), sea ; a large lake. 

Denkeie (Gold Coast), bush, bushy. 

Denkmal (Ger.), a monument. 

Denkwan (Galla), a tent. 

Denkye (Gold Coast), bog, fen, moor. 

Dent (Fr.), a tooth, peak, e.g. Dent da Midi. 

Dea (Annam), a col. 

Deodhunga (Hind.), God's seat or hill; a name given to 

any sacred hill. 
Depression (Eng.), in sub-oceanic relief is enclosed on all 

sides by elevations of the sea-bed. Equivalent to 

Ger. Vertiefong. 
Der, Dar (Gaelic dur, Welsh dwr), water, e.g. Darent, 

' clear water,' Dart. 
Der (Somali), long, tall, deep, e.g. Tng Der. See Tng. 
Dera (Arab.), crest, ridge. 
Dera (India), house, encampment, e.g. Dera Dan. 
Dera (Japan), temple (Buddha). 
nDera (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), road. Cf. Dzira, 

Derb (Arab.), a road. 
Derbend (Pers.) See Darband. 
Dere (A-Zande), a wall, e.g. Ngaondere. 
Dere, Derin (Somali), a valley, ravine, e.g. Dere Godle, 

* the ravine of the cave place.' See Ood, Le. 
Dere (Turk.), a valley. 
Deren (Marocco), a mountain. 


Derevnya (Bms.), a village. 

Derevo (Buss.), a tree. 

Derigh (Somali), a road = Hilin. 

Dermen. See Degirmen. 

Derrent (Turk.), pass, defile ; a variant of Darband {q,v,) 

Deaa (Malay), the country, as distinguished from the 

town or seat of government ; frequently used for 

Desaguadero (Sp.), an emissary from a lake. 
Deioubridero (Sp,), an eminence or rising ground from 

which the adjacent country can be overlooked. 
Detembaroadero (Sp.), landing-place; quay. 
D^flhabit^ (Fr.), uninhabited, deserted. 
Dediek (Somali), a lake, e.g. Deihek Wama. 
Deshera (Kabile), a village. Cf. Daahera. 
Desht (Per 8.), a plain. Cf. Dasht 
De 8U8 (Rumanian), upper. See De jos. 
Dete (Giryama), a chasm. 
Detsie (Oold Coast). See Deohie. 
Deyirme (Turk.), a windmill. 
Dhahr, Dhahret (Arab.), a back, ridge. In Abbadi 

(Etbai) this signifies ' west,' i.e. of the water-parting. 
Bhaika (Abbadi, Etbai), a narrow pass. 
Dhal (Hind.), a declivity, slope. 
Dharmsala (Nepal, Tibet), a rest-house. 
Bhaya^DaYa (Arab.), a small depression, generally with 

vegetation ; a dried-up pond. 
kiBhidha (Giryama), a bog. 
Bhiga (Arab.), a gorge. 


Dhioliba (Upper Niger), wsAer, river; corrupted into 
Joliba. *Lenfant says that Joliba means ' the river 
of songs/ 
Dhmirat (Arab,, North Africa), a moderate-sized dmie. 
Dhromo (Smyrna Greek), a road. See Dromoi. 
Dhn. See Da. 
Di (A'Zande), water, e,g, Pangwadi, 'the water's edge/ 

* bank ' ; Wilidi, ' water's son/ stream. 
Di (SomaK), a valley, e,g, Di-Wiyile, * rhinoceros valley ' ; 
another form is De. 
maDi (Bafo, Kamerun), water. See Mansi, Mann. 
muDi (Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), village. 
Diaman (Songhai), north. See J^'i, Wene Kame. 
Diamane (Soninke), comitry. 
maDiba (Kamerun, dialect of Bantu), sea, stream, river ; 
opp, to MnudL 
Dibab, pi. of Debba (Egyptian Sudan), small stony hills. 
inDibonga (Amaxosa, Kafir), boggy misound gromid. 
Didi (Harem, indo-China), small. 
Die. See Da. 

Die (Wolof), market, equivalent to the Arab, Sok, Bok. 
Dien (Cambodia), a rice field, e.g. An-dien, 'tranquil rice 

plantation,' in Bao-an. See An. 
Difiidi (Gurma), the dry season. 
Diga (It.), a dyke, embankment, mole. 
Digae (Fr,), a dyke (Dig.) 
Dih (Pers,), a village ; another form is Deh. 
Dihat (Pers.), the country. 
Diho (Motu, New Guinea), south ; lit, south wind. 

* ' Le Niger,' by Len£ant, Paris, 1903, p. 48. 


Diho {Motumotu, New Guinea), west. 

Diho (Sokotra), water, e.g, Dia Dimax, properly Diho 

D^'k (Dck.), a dam, e.g. Dijkshoek, Oanxedijk. 

Dik (Cambodia), water. 

Diko, Liko (Swahili). See Ko. 

Dil (Turk.), isthmus, point, spit of sand. 
kiDila (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), island. 
iiiDiliya {Amaxosa, Kafir), a vineyard, garden. 
umDiliya (Amaxosa, Kafir), a vineyard, garden. 

Dilla (Indian, U.S.A.), a little field. 

Dille (Central Sudan), watercourse, river ; the Marghi 
equivalent of the Kanuri Komadagu (q.v.) 
nDima (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country. 
nDimba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a valley, glen. 

Dimbadimba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a little valley; 
dim. of Ndimba and Dimbila, a valley. 

Dimbila (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a valley. 

Dimda (Elder obo, Uganda), a forest. 

Din (Barnbara, Mande), the wall of an enclosure, 
usually made of mud. Cf. Dan-dan. 

Din (Celtic), an elevated post, e.g. London (Londiniom) ; 
other authorities say this is the Long-don, ' ship- 
fort ' of the Cymric Celts. See Dun. 

Dinas (Welsh), a fortress, e.g. Dinas Dinnle, a huge pre- 
historic mound overlooking the sea, near Carnarvon. 

Ding (Tibet), depression, col. See Sdings. 

Dinh (Indo'China) , town of the second order, or pro- 
vincial capital. 

Din niau (Siam), clay. 


Din si fong (Siam), chalk. 

Dintomi (It), environs. 

Dinyasi, Hanyaai, Manasi, Maladii, Linyasi (Cent. 

Africa, dialects of Bantu), See Yasi, Nyad, Nasi, 

Dior (Wolof), a plain. 

Dioryx {Neo-Greek), a canal ; from Anc. Gr, Stopvyi]. 
Dip (Hind.), an island. See Lanka, Jingira. 
Dique (Sp.), a dock ; a dam with retaining wall. 
Dirride (Kanuri, Bomu), light forest, with open pasture 

grounds. Cf Karaga tselim. 
Diserto (It.), a desert. 
Dish (Abbadi, Etbai), low scattered hills. 
Distretto (It.), a district. 
Din, Diva, Dylp (Hind.), island, e.g. Maldives, ' the 

thousand isles ' ; Lakhadives, * the hundred thousand 

Diube (Soninke). See Jabe. 
Diade (Fula). See Jude. 
Diwa (Sever), sea. 
Diyar (Arab.), a country, region, e.g. Diyar-Bakr 

(Diarbekr), * the land of the Bekr,' an Arab tribe, 

who conquered it in the 7th century. 
Diz (Per 8.), a castle. Cf. Kala. 
iDiza (Amaxosa, Kafir), a field of stubble. 
Ijup (Sw.), a deep. 
Dla (Mande), See Dala. 
iDlambi (Zulu, Kafir), a wave. 
inDlandlatu (Zulu, Kafir), a narrow ridge between two 



inDlela (Kafir), a path, way. 

DUimi (Bliss.), long, e.g. Dliimolieakoe Fort in Caucasia. 
inDlu (Kafir), a house, building. 
Do (Songhai), sand. 

Do (Nissan I., New Guinea), wood, forest. 
Do = To = Syem (Korea), island, e.g. Chin-do, Ko-je-do. 
Do (Tibet), stone; bottom of a valley; a confluence. 
Do. See Du. 
Do, Lo, Bo, Ku (Cent. Africa), an old root meaning ' to 

flow,' e.g. Domasi (q.v.), a river, masi meaning ' water.' 
nDo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a camp, sleeping-place on 

a journey, house. 
Doab (Punjab, Central India), the natural divisions of 

the Punjab, formed by the five rivers; lit. two 

waters ; applied to any country between two rivers, 

e.g. the Doab between the Ganges and Jumna. 

Cf the Greek Mesopotamia. See Ab. Cf. Punjab. 
Dobang (Tibet), a religious wayside monument. Cf 

iDobela (Zulu, Kafir), the tide. 
Dobnr, Tubber, Tober (Gaelic Tobar), source, well, stream, 

e.g. Tobermore or Tubbermore. See More. 
Doca (Port.), a dock. 

Do Chemnt (Khas Chos, Indo-China), sea. 
Dodd (Cymric), a mountain with a round summit, e.g. 

Great Dodd in Cumberland. 
Doenyo (East Africa), mountain, e.g. Doenyo Kgai. 

This is also found as Donyo, Eldonyo. 
Dog (Tibet), ravine, torrent. 
Dogana (It.), a custom house. 


Dohar (Hind.), the old bed of a river. 

Doi {Laos, Siam), a mountain. 

Dokori (Songhai), sand. 

Dol (Celtic), a plain, e.g. Dolberry, ' the hill on the plain.' 

See Berry. 
Dol (Slavonic), a valley. 
Dolgi (Btiss.), long, e.g. Dolgaya Bay in Novaya 

Dolina (8. Slav.), a valley (Dol.) 
Dolni (Bohemia), under, lower (DL), e.g. Dolni Tmavo, 

on Morava B. 
Dolok (Burma), mountain. 

Dolon (Mongol), seven, e.g. Dolon Hor, * the seven lakes.' 
Dom (Btis8.)y a house. 
Dom (Upper Nile). See Dum. 
Domandavo (Bakunda, Kamerun), a house. 
Domasi (Cent. Africa), a river, from Man and do, lo, ro, ru, 

&c., an old root meaning to flow, as in Lo-mami, 

Ku-sizi, &c. 
Domb (Hung.), hill, knoll. 
nDomba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a market. 
Dome (Eng.), as a minor form of sub-oceanic relief, a 

single elevation or submarine mountain of small 

area, but rising with a steep angle to a depth more 

than 200 metres from the surface. Equivalent to 

Ger. Kuppe, Fr. Ddme. 
Domgha (Arab., N. Africa), a large dune standing out 

above others. 
Dome (Nika), a jutting out of land into the sea, or of a 

mountain into a plain. 


Don (Caucasus) f a river. 

Don (Celto- Saxon). See Don. 

Don (Siam), an island. 
kiDonda {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a mountain. 

Dong (Cambodia), east ; e.g. An-Binh-Dong, An meaning 
tranquillity, and Binh conveying an idea of equality. 
Cf Tai. 

Dong (j^. Turk.), hill, mountain, or rounded summit. 

Dong (Tibet), a deep hollow, gulf, whirlpool. 

Donnon (Gold Coast), a bend, bay, bight, 

-Dono (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), suffix meaning 
' little.' 

Donyo. See Doenyo. 

Doom (Dch.), thorn, thornbush, e.g. Bnkledoom. 

Do Phui (Khas Chos, Indo-China), a river. 

Dor (Tibet), a rock, e.g. Dorkia Luga Dong, ' the monastery 
built on a rock looking something like a sheep's 
head,' luga being a ' sheep ' and Dong a * face.' 

Dorf (Ger.), a village (df.), see Dorp. 

Dorina (Hausa), a hippopotamus, e.g. Buwa n Dorina, 
* the water, pool, of the hippopotamus,' a wide- 
spread name given by Hausa travellers to any water 
they may find in the wilderness. Cf Kgumtuwa. 

Doro (Japan), mud. 

Doro (Jibu, New Guinea), mountain, summit. 

Doroga (Buss.), a road ; Bolshaya doroga, high road. 

Dorok, Torok (Turk.), a peak. 

Dorp (Dch., Cape Dch.), a village, e.g. Zeedorp, Villiers- 
dorp, pronounced Fi^'isdorp. Cf. Eng. Thorp, and 
Da. Torp. 


Donane (Fr.), a custom-house (D"*). 

Dowi (Siam), a mountain. 

Down {Old Eng.), hill, mound ; long naked tract of hilly 
land ; sand ridge. Cf. Dun {Celtic)^ cognate with 
tnn (town, hill, fort, enclosure) ; Gemum Zanng. 

Doze {Nigeria), rocky hills. 

Dra, Draa {Arab., N. Africa), a chain of hills or dunes ; 
also a single rounded hill or mamelon, e,g. Wad 
Draa, * the Wad between the hills/ 

Dra {Arab.), pasturage in a region of dunes. 

Draefh {Welsh), an estuary, e.g. Trefdraeth. Cf. Traeth. 

Drangr, j7Z. Drangar {IceL), a pointed rock standing alone. 

Dren {Ebon, Polynesia), water. 
n Dried {French Congo, dialect of Bantu), men of the 

Drift {Cape Dutch), a ford, e.g. Borke*8 Drift ; in Dutch 
it means * current.* 

Dromos {Constantinople Greek), a road. See Dhromo. 

Drowo {Slavonic), a wood, e.g. Drewitz. 

Drug {India), huge rocky pile rising often to an alti- 
tude of 1,500 feet, sometimes solitary, sometimes 
in clusters, and generally fortified, e.g. Chitaldrug, 

Drum, Drom {Ireland and Scotland), a back or ridge, 
from the Irish druim, e.g. Dromore, Dundrum ; from 
the Gaelic droma, e.g. Tyndrum. See Dun, Ty. 

Dnunlin {U.S.A.), a smooth oval or elongated hill or 
ridge, composed chiefly of glacial detritus. 

DrumoB {Greek), a wood. 

DrymB {Londonderry). See under Misks. 


Dry Wash (U.S.A.), a wash, arroyo (g.t?), or coulee in 

the bed of which there is no water. 
Dsor (Armenia), a valley. 
uDflTii (Fan, French Congo), a river. 
Bu, Dhu, Bubh, Die, Do (Cornwall, Scotland, Ireland), 

black, e.g. Poldu, 'black pool,* Dnblin, 'black pool,* 

Olenkiadie, ' valley of the black head,' Knookando, 

' black hill.' See Pol, Liii, Kin, Knock. 
Du (Songhai), sand. 
Dnar (India), a pass. 
Dnar, Dwar (Berber), village ; a tent village as opposed 

to a built village (Karia, Char). 
Dub (Slavonic), an oak, e.g. Dubran. 
Dubu (Motti and S. Cape, New Guinea), a sacred house 

or platform. 
Duchi (Benue B. and Sokoto region) ,a moun tain,hill ; rocks. 
Dud (Somali), a forest, e.g. Dnd-dore, Dud Jer; a ridge, 

e.g. Dud Snb]u3rn. 
Due, Dwe (A-Zande), a ditch. 
Du£eui (Somali), grease or food left round the mouth 

after eating, e.g. Durie-Dufan. See Durie. 
Dug (Tibet), uncultivated land, pasturage. 
Dugu (Mande), country, locality, e.g. Wagadugu ; Koma- 

dugu, *the place where water is found,' river. 

Also town, village. 
Dubat (Arab.), a bay. 
Duinen (Dch.), dunes, e.g. Loosduinen. 
Duk (Cambodia), virtue, courage; e.g. Vinh-Duk-Tai, 

' Much virtue West,' in Bao-An, as distinguished 

from Vinh-Duk-Dong, ' Much virtue East.' 


Duk (TFbZo/), a village. 

Dam (Lokub, L. Budolf), a camp. 

Dnm (Upper Nile), a species of palm-tree, sometimes 

written Dom. 
Dombe {Bambara, Malinke), a bend or curve, e.g, 

Badumbe, 'river bend.' See Ba. 
Dumi (Songhai), nation, tribe. 
Dnn, Don (Celto-Saxon), a hill, mound, fort, e,g. London, 

Dnn (India), a valley, e.g. Dera Dnn. See Dora. 
cbiDonda (Senna, Bantu), a detached hill or mountain. 
Dnnde (SoninJce), a mountain. 
Dondu (Soninke), a hill. 
Dllne (Ger,), bank or hill of sand, dune. 
Dong (Tibet), a hill. 
Dur (Arab., N. Africa), change in orientation of a cliff 

or plateau ; the plateau itself, 
Dnr (Welsh and Scotch). See Dwr. 
Dur (Somali), long stiff grass. Cf. Oeda. 
Dnrch (Ger.), through. See next entry. 
Dnrchstich (Ger.), a cutting for a railway. 
Dnrdnr (Somali), a perennial spring. 
Dnrie (Somali), dirt, a dirty place. 
Doflin (Malay), a small village, variant of Dnsun (q.v.) 
DoflB (Somali), a pass. 
DosTin (Malay), a village, country as distinguished from 

town; also an orchard, e.g. DuBtin Kepar, DnsTin 

Lada. Cf. Desa. 
Dutto (It.), a canal, passage. 
Prize (Nigeria), a rocky hill. 


Dvor {Bus8.)f court, courtyard. 

Dwar (Berber), See Duar. 

Dwera, Dwira (Arab.), a small house. 

Dwfr (Welsh), water, stream. Cf. Dyfr. 

Dwr, Dnr (Welsh and Gaelic), water, e.g, Olasdnr, Dnrra, 

Dyb (Da,f Nor,), a deep. 
nDyela (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a road. 
Dyfr (Welsh), water, stream; e,g. Dyfrdwy=tlie river 
Dee. Cf, Dwfr. 
nDyia (Maginza, Congo), a road. Cf, Zila, Zira. 
nDyila (Bangala, Congo), a road. Cf, Zila, Zira. 
Dyke (Eng,from A, 8, die), a ditch, e,g, Wansdyke. 
Dyne (Da.), a down. 
Dyner (Sw,), downs. 
Dza (Tibet), clay. 
Dzaka (Nika), See Aka. 
kaDzaka (Nika). See Kadzaka for meaning. 
Dzal, jpZ. Mai (Fan, French Congo), village. 
Dzamba (Upper Nile), forest, wood. 
Dzanche (Nika). See Anche. 
nDzea (Mobali, Congo), a road. 
IDzendze (dialect of Bantu), a river. 
Dzeri (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Eri. 
Dzi (Nika), earth, land, country, continent. 
maDzi (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), water. 
muDzi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a town, village, 

hamlet. Cf Musi. 
kaDzidzi (Nika), a small creek. 
luDzidzi (Nika), a creek or cove. 


Dzigha, pi. Migha (FaUy French Congo), confluence. 
• Tx •!_ • (dialects of Bantu). See Iko. 

(Cent Africa, dialect of Bantu), road. Of Zila, 
dsi (dialect of Bam,tu). See Chiai. 
Dzitso (Giryama), source, spring. 
Dzong (Tibet), fortress, chief town of a prefecture. 
uDzu (dialect of Bantu), grass. See Vdzu. 
kaDznho (Giryama, Nika), small river, rivulet 
kiDznho (Giryama), affluent, small river, brook. 


. o 

E (Saxon), river, stream. Cf A, Aa, Aeh, Av, le. 

Eanna (S. Cape, New Guinea), a village. Cf Fenna. 

Eapala (Aroma, New Guinea), the north-west wind. 

Eavana (S, Cape, New Guinea), west. 

Eb (Hottentot). See Ep. 

Ebado (Yoruba), sea-side, river-side, sand, beach. 

Ebala (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a little clearing made in 
a place where two roads meet, where a tree has 
been planted as a shelter or halting-place. See Bala. 

Ebata (Congo). See Bata. 

Ebe (Banjan, Kamerun), a wood, forest. 

Ebe (Yoruba), a hillock. 

-Ebene (Congo), a suffix meaning great, large. 

Ebene (Ger.), a plain. 

Ebon,^Z. Mibon (Fan, French Congo). See Bon. 

Ebor (Masai, E. Africa), white, e.g. Owasp na Ebor, 'the 

White River/ : : - • 


B 2 


Ebun {Gold Coast), an abyss, depth of the sea. 

Ebute (Yoruba), a landing-place, wharf. 

Ebwetn (Lomwe, L. Shirwa), sand. 

Ebwila {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Bwila. 

Eoeles {Scotland, from Ekkletia [g.v.]), church, e.g. Eooles- 
machan, ' the church of St. Machan/ Cf. Sglwys. 

Eeoleua. See Ekkletia. 

Eohelle {Fr.), the scale of a map. 

Eohelle de Marte ('^^•)> tide gauge. 

Echori {Elgumi, Uganda), a water-hole. 

Eclose {Ft.), a lock of a canal or basin, sluice (E°*^). 

Ecneil {Fr), a reef, rock. 

Ecurie {Fr.), a stable (Ec*«). 

Ed {Egyptian Sudan). See Id. 

Eddahereth (Jibali, Berber), a hill. Cf TTdherer, TTrir. 
ohEde {Nika), a market. 

Edge {Anglo-Saxon eog), a sharp point, a narrow part 
rising from a broader; the highest part of a 
moorish and elevated tract of ground of con- 
siderable extent, generally that which lies between 
the streams, e.g. Axe Edge, Ipstones Edge, Clayerton- 

Edogh {Fan, French Congo), deep. 

Efagh, j?Z. Bifagh {Fan, French Congo). See Fagh. 

Efun {Yoruba), chalk, lime. 

Egan (Yoruba), a dense forest. 

Egan-Oshudia {Yoruba), thorny, prickly forest. 

Egba, lyba (Yoruba), people, e.g, Buda Egba, 'the 
people's camp.' See Bndo, 

Egbc^ (&7^(i^&(i^)t S^ Vgabe. 


Egb^m. See Mgbenn. 

Eghaaher, Eghser {Tuareg, Berber), a valley with a 

SghirriSu {Tuareg, Berber, amdHausa), a river, the river, 

the Niger. See Iia. 

tigUse {Fr), 


Eglwys (Welsh), 

a church (Eg*^). 

a church, from iKKXria-ia, ecclesia. 
Cf. Eccles. 

Ego, Sgoi {Basque), south wind ; south ; cf, Agos. 
Egri {Turk.), crooked (of a stream or road). 
Egna {Gold Coasf), a market-place. 
Eil {Soniali), a deep well» e,g, Eil Sheikh. Cf. El. 
Eilean {Gaelic), an island, e.g. Eilean Ihin, in Ardencaple 

Ein&hrt {Ger.), the entrance to a river or harbour. 
Eiflen {Ger.), iron, e.g. EiBenberg, ' iron mountain.' See 

next entry. 
Eisenbahn {Ger.) a railway. 

ji {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a rapid or cataract. 
lytdi {Kamerun), the bush ; wood, forest. 
lyinga {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a pool left after the 

fall of a river ; a hole in the bed of a river. See 

lyman {Ebon, Polynesia), stone, 
lyondi, Eyondi, I|jimdi {Kamerun, dialects of Bantu). 

See Jondi. 
Eka {Indian, U.S.A.), earth. 
Ekam {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Kam. 
Ekanda {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Kanda. 
Ekanga {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Kanga. 


Ekare (Elgumi, Uganda) , a lake. 

Ekasa {Fan, French Congo). See Kaza. 

Ekedi (Cent Africa, dialect of Bantu) . See Kedi. 

Eke& {Mongol), higher; summit; e,g. Eken Habsere, 
< upper Habsere.' See Surban. 

Eket {Banjan, Kamerun), house, dwelling. 

Ekklena, Eooleaia {Greek), a church. See Eooles, Eglwys. 

Eko {Gold Coast), lake, pond, pool. 

Ekobi {Lomwe, L, Shirwa), chalk. 

Ekogn^ {Lomwe, L. Shirwa), a ravine. 

Ekohlo {Amaxosa, Kafir), the left-hand side. 

Ekolo {Gold Coast), a hill. 

EkserserpladB {Nor.), drill-ground. 

Ekumn {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Kmnn. 

Eknndce {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Knndze. 

Ekrmene {Amaxosa, Kafir), the right-hand side. 

Ekutilu {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Kitnlu. 

Ekwae {Gold Coast), a forest, wood, thicket. 

El {Arab.), the; when EI precedes any dental, liquid 
except m, or sibilant, i.e. any of the ' solar ' letters, 
it is assimilated with it for the sake of euphony, 
though in Arabic writing the EI is retained. Thus 
we have Beled-es-Sndan, Eah-Shark, Hofra-en-Kahas, 
Vm-er-Bbia, &c. The solar letters are t, t {z=th in 
thin), d, dh {=Irish th in thy), r, z, s, sh, 9 
(= JFr. 9), d (hard palatal), J; (hard palatal), z (= th 
in this), 1, n. 

EI {East Africa), a plural prelSx corresponding with 

Wa {q.v.), e.g. EI Oonyi. 
El {Buss.), a fir tree ; adj.; Elevi, Elovi 


El (Somali), a well, e.g. El Dap. Cf. Eil^ really the same 

ElabO) Elapo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Labo, 

Elamo (Motumotu, New Guinea), a sacred house or 

El boka (Egyptian Sudan), a capital town. 
Eldonyo (East Africa). See Doenyo. 
Eleko (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Leko. 
ElelenBhi (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Lelenshi. 
Elenga (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Lenga. 
Eleut (Turk., Mongol). See II. 
EleYation (Eng.) As a form of sub-oceanic relief this 

is either entirely surrounded by depressions or is a 

prolongation of the continental border. Equivalent 

to the Ger. Erhebung. See Shelf, Sue, Eidge, Plateau. 
Elf (Sw.), a river, e.g. Dal-elf, 'the river of the dale.* 

Cf. Elv. 
Eli, pi. Bill (Fan, French Congo). See Li. 
Eliwa (French Congo Coast). See Liwa. 
Elian (Scotland), island, e.g. Elian More, ' Great Island,' 

see More ; Elian nan Bon, ' Seal Island.' 
Ellap (Ebon, Polynes'ia), great. 
Elogh, pi. Bilogh (Fan, French Congo). See Logh. 
Elondo (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Londo. 
Elrin (Mongol), sand. 
Elu, Em (Cent. Africa), a root meaning ' open water,' 

e.g. Mweru. 
Elu (Ibo, Nigeria), top, summit, e.g. Elu Ugu, * top of 

the mountain.' 


Elv {Da., Nor.), a river. Cf. Elf. 

Em (Ebon, Polynesia), land. 

Emba (Lomwe, Mozambique), a house. 

Emba (Upper Nile), water. 

Embareaddre (Fr.), landing-stage, terminus (Emb'' ). 

Embareadero (Sp.), quay, wharf; port, harbour. 

Embayment (Eng.), used, in sub-oceanic relief, for a 
wide and rounded or triangular extension of a 
Trough (q,v,), or Basin (q,v,), which penetrates the 
land or a submarine elevation either with a 
uniform or gradually diminishing depth or which 
is bounded on the one side by land and on the 
other by a submarine elevation. Equivalent to 
Ger. Bucht, Fr. Oolfe ; cf. Gully. 

Embouchure (Fr.), estuary, mouth of a river or affluent 

Emelga (Sp), a large furrow to serve as a landmark. 

Emi {Sahara), mountain, rock. 

Emizdegh (Wargla, Berber), a village. Cf. Amazagh. 

Empito (Lomwe, Mozambique), a road. 

Emu (Gold Coast), the interior of a country. 

Emuk (Eskimo), sea, cf. Muk, Kanimuk. 

Emumba (Makua, Mozambique), a house. 

En (Berber), See In. 

En (from Gaelic Aan), a river, e.g. Kathen, ' the fort on 

the river.' See Eath. 

Encalladero (Sp.), shoal, sandbank. 

Enca&ado (Sp.), a conduit. 

Enceinte (Fr.), precincts. 

Encerradura (Sp.), enclosure. 


Enehente (Port), a flood. 

Enclave (Fr.), an isolated settlement within the territory 

of another country, e.g. the French enclave in our 

Niger territory and the Belgian enclave on the 

Upper Nile. 
Enorucyada (Sp.), cross way, cross roads. 
liEnga (Lu-Wangaf Uganda), a lake. 
luEnga {Gogo, Bantu), a river. 
Eagabimet (Nandi, Uganda), a cave. 
Engan (Fan, French Congo), deep, especially of a river. 
Enge {Ger.), a strait. 
Engpass (Ger.) , pass, defile. 
Enguololo {Elgumi, Uganda), a river. 
Eninina (Kossova, Uganda), See Hinma. 
Eigira, Chiiyira (Kossova, Uganda). See Bjira. 
Enjorai (Ma^ai). See Jorai. 
Enknla. See Hkulu. 
mw Ene \ 

amw Ene I (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a chief. 

Ennene (N. New Guinea), water. 

Enneri (N. Africa), a ravine, river-bed. 

Ennifl (Ireland), an island, e.g. Enniwlrillen. Cf Luub, 

Enseada (Port.), a bay. 
Ensenada (Sp.), a bay ; also creek. 
Endiir (Kabile), a mass of ruins. 
EntoTirft (Fr.), environs. 
Entree (Fr.), entrance ; mouth of a river. 
Entre-voie (Fr.), the six-foot way (of railways). 


Enna (Polynesia). See Fenna. 

Enyangha, pi. Binyangha {Fan^ French Congo). See 

Enyi, jpi. Binyi {Fan, French Congo). See Hyi. 

Enyin {Fan, French Congo). See ir3rin. 

Eomaka {Kabadi, New Guinea), tide (flowing). 

Ep {Hottentot), water, river, e.g. Oari-Ep, * the great 
river,' i.e. the Orange Eiver. There Aire also the 
variants Ab, Ap, Eb, Ob, Op, lb, Ip, ITp, e.g. Swakop, 
Vgab, Koisip, Hoanib, Elioneb, &c. rivers, and also 

Ep {Korea). See Enp. 

Epano {Greek), upper, e.g. Epanomeria in Thira. 

Eparawe {Lomwe, Mozambique), a waterfall. 

Epiro {Makua, Mozambique), a road. 

Equipate {Mexico), the light showers which fall in the 
mountain districts early in the year. 

Erara {Tuareg, Berber), a large valley. 

Erazer, Erhazar, "Et^k {Sahara), vegetation; wooded; 
lit. the valley. 

Erdo {Hu7ig.), wood, forest (E.) 

Ere, Arre {Musgu, Chad L. region), a river. 

Ere {Elgumi, Uganda), a village. 

Ereknsu {Yoruba), an island. 

Erern {Makua, German East Africa), sand. 

Erg {Arab.), a dune, a land of dunes. See Areg, Arga. 

Erhazar {Sahara). See Erazer. 

Erhebong {Ger.), as a form of sub-oceanic relief, is equi- 
valent to Elevation {q.v.) 
dzEri {Zanibezia, dialect of Bantu), left (hand). 

a hermitage, sanctuary. 


Erial (Sp.), uncaltivated ground. 

Erife {Sahara)^ a strong north-east wind. 

Eriga {Makua, German East Africa), a stockade, an 

Erk {Abbadiy Etbai), a crevasse. 

Ennida (Port), 

Ennita (Sp.), 

Emik (Buss.), brushwood, underwood. 

Ero (Yoruba), a caravan. 

Erobi (Masai, East Africa), cold, e.g. Hgari na Erobi, 
' cold water.' 

Erod (Hung.), a fort. 

Eroto (Elgumi, Uganda), a road. 

Erre (Yomba)^ a marsh, bog. 

Errek (Ebon, Polynesia), small. 

Erto (J^.), steep, ascent. 

Em, Elu (Cent. Africa). See Elu. 
luEm (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), lake. 
wEm (E. Africa, Giryama), prairie, veld. 

Eron (Yoruba), the dry season. 

Erythros (Greek), led, whence Eritrea, the Italian colony 
on the Bed Sea. 

Esalim (Tuareg, Berber). See Aflarlm. 

Esau (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Sau. 

Escarpe (Fr.), a bluff. 

EsoluBa (Sp.), lock, sluice. 

Escob, Escop (Welsh, Cornish), bishop, e.g. Tyreicob, 
* bishop's house.' See Tyr. 

EsooUo (Sp.), a rock, reef, shoal. 

Eseke (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Seke. 


Esenge {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Senge. 

Esep {Fan, French Congo). See Isep. 

Eserva {Tangut), rain. 

-Eshe {Zambezia, Congo), a termination signifying 

' river/ e.g, Lnkolethe. 
Esher (U.S.A.), a long winding ridge of sand or gravel ; 

the deposit from a stream flowing beneath a 

EsM {Turk.), old. See Edd. 
Eshimu {Congo, dialect of Bantu), beach, shore, coast ; 

bank of a river (generally spoken of the opposite 

side). See Shimu. 
Eshi-nshi {Congo), the inhabitants of a country; sing. 

MubM; Eshi-Kongo, the inhabitants of the old 

Kongo kingdom. See Shi. 
Esika {Congo, dialect of Bantu) . See Sika. 
Esk, Eze {from Celtic uiflge, wysg), water, stream, 

e.g. Esk, Ezmouth, ITsk. 
Edd {Turk.), old, e.g. Eski Zagra (the Buss. Stara 

Zagora), as distinguished from Yeni Zagra or ' new 

E85 {Hung.), rain. 
EsopnB {Indian, U.S.A.), steep coast, or high-walled 

Espigfto (Por^.), a sharp point of land without trees. 
EBpigon {Sp.), a kind of wharf or pier. 
Esse {Yoruba), footpath, track, trail. 
Estaoada {Sp.), palisading on an embankment. 
Estaoion {Sp.), a railway station. 
Estanoia {Argentina), a cattle farm. 


Estero (Sp.), a small creek ; a lagoon. 

ff {Spanish S. America), low, marshy, inundated 

land covered with herbs and aquatic plants. 
Estrada (Port), a high-road. 
Ertreoho (Sp.), | 
Ertreito (Port.)'] ^ '*"''*• 
Eioka (Tangut), a river. 
Esniuni {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Suum. 
Etakao {Makua, German East Africa), chalk, lime. 
Etakwa {Mahia, German East Africa), a forest, 
titale {Fr,), slack (of tide) ; settled (of wind), light 

Etam. See Itam, of which it is a misspelling. 
^tang {Fr.), lagoon, lake, pond (Et^, e.g. £taiig de Berre. 
Etapa {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Tapa. 
£tape {Fr.), halting-place, stage. 
Etaras {Tuareg, Berber), a plain, 
^t {Fr.), a state. 
ohEte {Giryama), a market. 
EtelH {Fin.), south. For other points see Pohia. 
Etenta {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Tenta. 
Eti {Galloppa, Abyssinia), grass, 
iteage {Fr.) , the low-water mark of a river. 
£tier {Fr.), a creek which can receive small vessels; a 

conduit by which salt water enters a lake to be 

transformed into salt. 
Etiet {Nandi, Uganda), a bridge. 
Eti-Odo {Yoruba), beach, waterside. 
Eto {Indian, U.S.A.), a forest. 
Etoj^ {Banjan, Kamerun), a village. 


^ile (Fr.), crossroads (Et*®), lit, a star. 

Btombwelo {CongOf dialect of Bantu), See Tombwelo. 

Etoro {Lomioe, L, Shirwa), a desert. 

Etta {Turkestan), a town. 

Etokulu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Tukuln. 

Eukit (Malay), a hill. 

Eung (IndO'China), a mountain. 

Eung (Ebon, Polynesia), north. See Bear, Eabelung. 

Eup, Ep (Korea), a magisterial town=:Ennmai=Ko6l. 

Enren (Turk.), a ruin. 

Enro8 (Greek), south-east. For other points see Boreas. 

Euynk (Turk.), a hillock. 

Ev (Turk.), a house. 

Eyambu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Vambn. 

Eranga (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Vanga. 

Evata (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Vata. 

Everglade (Florida, U.S. A.), a tract of swampy land 
covered mostly with tall grass. 

Evia (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Via. 

Eywangi (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Vwangi. 

Ewaso (British East Africa, Bantu), water, river, e.g. 
Was Hgishu, * cattle water/ a name given to a salt- 
lick (q.v.), near Tigrik Eiver, Ewas-os-Soit, * river of 
the stone.' See Waso. 
isEweri (Ketosh, Uganda), a water-hole, well. 

Ewo-enm (Yoruba), the dry season. 

Ewo-ojo (Yoruba), the rainy season. 

Ewnkwe (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), east. Cf Mbo. 

Ewumba (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Wiunba. 

Eze. See Esk. 


-Ey, dim. Eyot, Ait (Teutonic), an island, e.g. Slieppey. 
Eya (Yoruba), a tribe, or division. 
Eyalet. See Vilayet. 
. Eyanga (Cofigo, dialect of Bantu). See Yanga. 
Eyendelo (Congo^ dialect of Bantu). See Tendelo. 
Eyenga (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Tenga. 
Eyi (Teda, Sahara), water, equivalent to the Terauye 

Mi, and the Arab. Ma. ' 
Eyondi (Kamerun, dialect of Bantu). See Ijjondi. 
Eyot, Ait. See -Ey. 

Eyrr, Eyrar (Icel.), a narrow low tongue of land. 
Ezandn (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Zandu. 
Ezbah (Egypt), a village or hamlet. 
muEzi (dialect of Bantu), a pool of water. 

a factory (Fca.) 

Fa (Annam, Black R.), a forest. 
Fa, Fana (Berta, E. Sudan), a mountain. 
Faa (Polynesia), a valley, e.g. Faa-Hui, * great valley.' 
Fdbrica (Sp.), | 
Fabriea (Port.), 
Fab (Welsh), son. 
Fabrik (Ger.), a factory (Fabr.) 
Fabrique (Fr.), a manufactory (Fab®). 
Faob (Welsh), little, e.g. Uandewyfaoh. See Llan. 
Fad (Gaelic), long, e.g. EUan Fada, ' long island.' 
Fada (Bausd), residence of the king, e.g. Fada n 


Faddama (Hausa), an arm of a river, creek, a valley ; 
equivalent to Adar-n-EghirrSu of the Sahara, and 
includes both the Arab, terms Rejl or Kra and 
Bot-ho {q,v.) 

Fadi, Mai&di (Hausa), broad. 

Fae, Fale, Fare, Vale (Polynesia) , a house. 

Fo8tniiLg (Da.f Nor.), a fort. 
eFagh (Fom, French Congo), a field, plantation; for^Z. 
see Efitgh. 

Fahavaratra (Madagascar), the rainy season, summer. 

Fahre (Ger.), a furrow. 

Fiilure (Ger.), a ferry. 

Ffthrte (Ger.), a track, trail. Cf. Vaart. 

Falls (Arab., N. Africa), a field. 

Faidh (Arab.y N. Africa). See Feidh. 

FaXja (Arab.), a col. 

Fair (Gaelic Farr), a sheep, e.g. Fair Isle, * Sheep Isle ' 

Fair (Welsh), the Virgin Mary, e.g. LlanfEdrfeohan. See 
Uan, Fechan. 

Faire (Sahara), a barren naked plain. See Falat. 

Fatte (Fr.), top, summit, ridge ; Lipie de Faite, * water- 

Faka (Gold Coast), a bay, gulf. 

Fakai, Fakhi (Sierra Leone), a farm village, as opposed 
to a permanent village. 

Fal, Falu (Hung.), a town. 

Fala (Bambara, Malinke). See Fara. 

Falaise (Fr.), a cliff. 

Falat (Arab.), a bare desert. See Faire, 


Fale (Polynesia). See Fae. 
mFalme (Swahili), chief, king. 
Falu (Hung,), village. 

Fama (Gurma), ruler of a province. See next entry. 
Fama-dugu (Mande), a capital town. See Dngn, cf. 

Fan (Upper Nile), a village, land, country, e.g. Kordofan, 

'the land of the Kordo,' equivalent to Arab. 

Dar (q.v.) 
Fan (U.S.A.)y a mountain delta; a conical talus of 

detrital material, 
a Fan (Fan, French Congo), country, applied only to a 

vast extent, and then not to the country in which 

one actually is ; for pi. see A&,n ; used also for 

Fana (Berta, E. Sudan), a mountain. See Fa« 
Fanal (Fr.), \ 

Fanal (Sp., Port), V «• lighthouse. 

Fanar (Turk), ] 

Fang (China), hamlet, house. 

Fange (Soninke), a river. 

Fango (Sp.), mud. 

Fankhane (Soninke), shore, beach. 

Fantsakana (Madagascar), well, spring. 

Fanua (Polynesia). See Fenua. 

Fanza (China), a house. 

Fara (Oonya, Gold Coast), torrents; low-lying land 

filled with water. 
Fara, Fala (Bambara, Malinke), a stream. 
Faraba (Bamhara), a valley. 



Faraka {Mande)^ bifurcation (of roads or rivers). 
Fararano (Madagascar), autumn. See Fahavaratra. 
Fare (Polynesia), See Fae. 
Farellon (Sp.), point, cape, headland; rock or cliflf in 

the sea. 
Fari (Songhai), field, country. 
Farihi {Madagascar), a lake. 
Fari-tani (Madagascar), region. 
Faro (It, J Sp,), a lighthouse. 
Farol, Pharol (Port), a lighthouse. 
Farvater (Buss,), a channel. 
Fadit (Arab.), a reef of rocks. 
Fasika, Fasi (Madagascar), sand, e,g. IfaBimena or Fasi- 

mena, ' the red sand.' Cf, Pasi. See I, Mena. 
Fastingi (Fin,), a fort. 
Fatta (J^), dung, track in the bush made by 

Fatto (Bornu)f a house. 

Fatu (Manahiki and Fakaofu, Polynesia), stone. 
Faubourg (Fr,), outskirts, suburb (F^«). 
Fauci (It.) , a strait, mouth, of a river. Cf. Fooe. 
Fau-fa (China), a buoy. 
Fauns (from Gaelic Fan), a slope, declivity, e,g. Kinfauns, 

' the head of the slope.* See Kin. 
Fau-tau (China), roadstead. 
Fave (Motumotu, New Guinea)^ stone. 
Feohan (Welsh), little, e.g. Llanfidrfeohan. See Llan, Fair. 
Fedehan (Sokotra), a mountain. 
Fedi (Nepal), the low ground at the foot of a 



Fegagir, pi. of Foggara {q,v.) 

Feh6r (Hung.) white (Fh.) ; e,g. Fehervag, a stream 

flowing from the Central Carpathians. 
Feidh, Faidh {Arab., N. Africa), a ravine which becomes 

a watercourse daring the rains. Cf. Sahan, Selat. 
Fey {Arab., N. Africa), a valley between dmies. 
Fek (Hung.), camp. 
Fekete {Hung.), black (Fk.), e.g. Fekete Ardo in the 

Ugocsa district on the Theiss B. 
Feld {Ger.), plain open country. Cf. Veld. 
Feldweg {Ger.) a field road. 
Fell^Ijeld {Norse), a hillside, e.g. Ooatfell (Arran), 

Skaptafell. Cf. Fjeld. 
Fels {Ger.), rock, e.g. Draohenfeb, ' dragon rock.' 
Feliabhang {Ger.), declivity or slope of rock. 
FeUen {Ger.), cliffs, rocks ; also in sing, rock. 
Felso (Hung.), upper (F.), e.g. Felsd Eaibin, to N. of 

Waag B. 
Feng {China), the peak of a hill. 
Fenmu {China), a tomb. 
Fenua, Eanua, Enua, Honua, Fanua, Fonna, Vanua, Vanuga, 

Hanua {Polynesia), land, town, village. Cf Wanaa. 
iFenya {Bantu) ; for meaning see Ifenya. 
Ferik {Arab.), village. In E. Sudan * temporary village/ 
Ferka {Arab.), a division of a tribe. 
Ferma {Buss.), a farm. 
Ferme {Fr.), a farm (F"«). 
Femer {Ger.), further (Fr.) 
Ferroearril {Sp.), railway. 
Ferrovia (J^.), railway. 



Feitong {Gef-,), fort, fortress. Cf. Vert, Verting. 

Peudo {It), a fief (F^«). 

Fiafl {Arab.)f solitary wastes. 

Fial {Arab.), a current of water. 

Fidh {Arab,), a ravine. Cf. Feidh. 

Field {England), a forest clearing, where the trees 
have been feUed, e.g. Sheffield. From A.S. Feld, * 
cognate with Dch. Veld, Ger. Feld. 

Fii {Yambo, Upper Sobat B.), water. 

Fil {Arab.), elephant, e.g. Bas el Fil, ' elephant's head ' ; 
Sin el Fil, ' elephant's tusk.' 
mFinda {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a forest or wood. 

Fing {Mande), black, e.g. Bafing, * black river.' See Ba. 
Cf. Khwa, Ulcl. 

Firld {Kanuri), a shallow hollow, where the water 
collects in the rainy season and drying up gradually 
leaves a fertile argillaceous soil. See Ange. 

Fim {Switz., from Ger. flme, ' last year's '), coarse, half- 
solidified snow. Cf. Il6v6. 

Firth, Frith {Scotch), estuary. Cf third, three for r shift. 

Fittri {Kuka, Chad L. region), water, river. See Isa. 

Finmara {It.), a river which overflows. 

Fiome {It.), a river (F.) 

Ijall, Fjall {Sw., Icel,), mountain, e.g. BlfiQall. 

Ij&rd {Sw.), frith or long narrow inlet, bay. Cf Fjord. 

Ijeld, Fjaeld {Nor.), mountain, e.g. Dovre^eld. Cf Fell, 

Ijord {Da., Nar.), frith or long narrow inlet. Cf, 
Fj&rd, Fjordr. 

FjOrdr {Icel), fiord. 

Flak (Da.), a fiat, plain ; a shoal. 


Flash (Old Fr. Flasque, Flache), a pool, pond. 

Fldche (Fr.)f a spire ; a sharp peak (lit. an arrow). 

Flecken {Ger.)^ market-place, borough, country town. 

Fleet (England), a creek, inlet, arm of the sea ; lake, 
lagoon; e.g. Wainfleet. From A.S. fleet, a bay, 
lit. a place where ships float. Cf. Vliet. 

Flenr (Normandy), a flowing stream, e.g. Harfleur. 

Fleuve (Fr.), a large river (Fl.) Cf. Biviire, Buisseau. 

Fliegende Ffthre (Ger.), boat ferry, or flying bridge (Fl. F.) 

F|j6t (Icel.), a stream, e.g. Hverflsfljdt. 

Floresta (Sp.), forest, thicket. 

Flot (Fr.), flooS. 

Flnr (Ger.), field, meadow, plain. 

Flurstein (Ger.), a boundary stone. 

Fluss (Ger.), a river (Fl.) Cf. Strom. 

Flut (Ger.), flood, inundation. 

Fo (Thai), a mountain. 

Foa (Gold Coast), on a river, riverside, e.g. Ada-Foa, 
* riverside Ada,' on Volta Eiver. Cf. 8u. 

Fobolo (Congo), a ruin. 

Foce (It.), the mouth of a river. Cf. Fauoi. 

Fed (Hung.) See F6ld. 

Fodflti (Da., Nor.), footpath. 

Fof (Serer) , water. 

Fogara (Upper Nile), nomad prieste. 

Foggara (Arab., N. Africa), a succession of wells 
hollowed out on a slope and joined by a subter- 
ranean passage ; pi. Fegagir. 

Fokani (Arab.), upper. Cf Ala. See Fnkani, really the 
same word. 


Foko {Madagascar), a tribe. 

F51d, Fod {Hung), earth, land. 

Folverok {Buss.), a small farm. 

Folyo {Hungry a river (Fl.) 

Fon {China), wind. Cf. Typhoon. In Siam Fon is .used 

for a squall or rain wind. See Lorn. 
Fond {Ft,), bottom, ground. 
Fonda {Sp), an inn, tavern. 
Fondak {Marocco), a caravansary. Found frequently as 

Fondnk. See Fnnduk. 
Fond d'un bois {Fr,), the heart of a wood. 
Fondeadero {Sp), anchorage. 
Fonderie {Fr,), a foundry (F****). 
Fondo {Songhai), road, path. 
Fondak {Marocco). See Fondak. 
Fontaine {Fr.), spring, source (F"®). See next words. 
Fontana {It.), spring, source (Font"). Cf. Hontana, 

Fonte {Port.), well, spring. Cf. Fontaine, Fuente. 
Fontein {Dch.), a spring. Cf. Fontaine. 
Fonua {Polynesia). See Fenna. 
Force {Northumbrian), a waterfall, e.g. Airey Force. Cf 

Norse Fobs, Fors. 
Ford {England), a stream, a shallow part where the 

stream may be crossed, e.g. Oxford. 
Fordani, Forodani, Forothani {Nika), custom house. 
Forde {Hanover), a ford, e.g. Lemforde. 
Foresta {It.), forest, wood, wilderness. 
Foret {Fr.), a forest (F*). 
Forge {Fr.), a forge (F**). 


Fork (Anglo- American) y a large afiSnent, e.g. North 


Forme de radoub (Fr.), dry dock. 

Fomaoe {It), a kiln (Fom°*). 

Forodani ) 

«i x^ .. • (Nika). See Fordani. 


Fors (Sw.), a waterfall, e.g. HeLungfors. 

Forst (Ger.)y forest, wood. 

Fort (Fr.), fort, fortress (Ft.) 

Forte {It.)y fort, fortress (F.) Cf. Fuerte. 

Fortha (Swahili), custom house. 

Fortiere {It.), a rocky place full of seaweed. 

Fortin {Sp.), a small fort ; field or temporary fortifica- 

Fortiiio {It), a redoubt (Fort°^). 

Fo8 {Nor., Da.), a waterfall. 

Foflca {Sp.), a thick wood or grove. 

F080 {Sp.), a ditch. 

Fobs {Icel.), a waterfall, e.g. Skogar Fobs. 

Fosse {Fr.), a ditch. For use as a form of sub-oceanic 
relief see Deep. 

F088O {It), a ditch (F«>). 

Fotoi {Chinese, E. Turk.), a measure of length equal to 
about 3 versts or 2 miles. 

Fou, Fu {China), a mound. 

Fdv&iy {Czec), sand. 

Foz {Port), the mouth of a river. 

Fregnezia {Port), a parish, district. 

Frei {Ger.), free, e.g. Freiburg. 

Free, Freu {Sp.), a strait. 


Friede (Ger.), peace, e.g. Friedland. See next entry. 

Friedhof {Ger.), a burial-ground, cemetery. See Friede. 

Fringing Beef (English), a coral reef extending from the 
shore, seldom for a long distance, having little 
water on it, and no ship-passage between it and the 
land. Cf, Barrier Reef. 

Frontidre (Fr.), frontier, limit. 

Fa (China), a prefecture, the largest subdivision of the 
modem province; town of the second order, or 
district capital, e,g. Tnn-nan-fa ; head, e.g. Ping Tu, 
'level heads,' Chien Fu, ' pointed heads,' applied to 
certain Akka tribes in the Shan States, from the 
head-dresses of the women. Cf. Chan, Hien, Xing, 
Ting. See Phu. 

Fu (Songhai), a house. 

Fnente (Sp.), a fountain or spring (Fte). Cf. Fonte. 

Fuerte (Sp.) a fort, fortress. Cf. Forte. 

Fofu (Nika), a thicket. 

Fohrt, Fnrt (Ger.), a ford, e.g. Frankfort. 

Fokai (Japan), deep ; low, e.g. Fakaye island. 

Fokani (Arab.), upper, e.g. Mogher Fnkani, in Algeria, 
to distinguish it from Mogher Tatani, < Lower 
Mogher.' Another form is Fokani. 

Fnla (Mande), two, e.g. Bafolabe, lit 'two streams,' 
confluence. Be=to be; cf. Saba. See Ba. 

Fnla (Ghazal region). See Meha. 
umFula (Kafir), a deep valley, a ravine. 
luFnlo (Nika), a ditch. 

Fom (Arab., Tripoli), a defile; mouth, e.g. Fom Doga, 
i.e. the mouth of the Wadi Doga. 


Ftmiarole (U.8.A.), a spring or geyser, which emits steam 
or gaseous vapours, is the Fr. fdmaroUe, ftuneroUe, 
from Loto Lat, fiimarloluin (root famus, smoke). 

• IS {Congo and Central Africa, dialects of Bantu), 

unFnmii}- , . - , . 

mPnmti| ''^'^^' '""S" 


IdFumyu {Taita, Bantu), a detached hill or mountain. 

C/. Lima. 

Fnndeadonro (Port), anchorage. 

Fimdiik (Tripoli), a warehouse. Cf Fondak. 

Fime {Japan), a boat. 

Fonga {Mekeo, New Guinea), flood -tide, 
urn Fungi {Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a bridge. 

Fnnga {S. and E. Africa), a bank or sandy reef. 

Fnra {Mashonaland), a river bed ; originally ' a hole,* 
then 'water-hole,' and finally a river bed where 
holes are dug for water ; a mine. This word has 
been wrongly equated with the Biblical Ophir. 

Furche {Ger.), a Furrow (q.v.) 

Furo {Brazil), a natural narrow channel connecting two 
lakes or two rivers, e,g. Faro Tajapnro, one of the 
network of Euros connecting the Para with the 

Furrow {Eng.)y as a minor depretdon (q.v,), in sub- 
oceanic relief, a valley or channel-like hollow in 
the continental border {see Shelf), and more or less 
at right angles to it, e.g. the InduB Furrow, the 
Ganges Furrow. Equivalent to 6er. Furche, Fr. 
Sillon. Cf. Caldron. 


Pilnrt; (Ger.)y prince, e,g, Ftirstenwalde, * prince's wood. 

Pnrt {Ger,)y a ford. See Fuhrt. 

Pnru, Fnto-Fnra (Mande), field, garden. 

Fusa (Albania)^ a plain. 

Fnso (Kafir) f fallow ground. 

Fnssweg (Ger,), a footpath. 

r4t (Hung.), the course of a river, current. 

Fnta (Co7igo)f grass, herbage, especially wild ; jungle, 

Fntalenfti (Araucanian, Patagonia), a large river, the 

large river, i.e. the Upper Eio Yelcho. Fnta= 

Pute {Kanem)y west, western, e,g. Beri Pute, ' western 

Beri,' to distinguish it from Beri Kara, or ' Great 

Futo-Fnm (Mande), See Pum. 
liPuwukho (Lu'Wangaf Uganda), a ferry. 
Fuyu (Japan), winter. 
Pynnon (Welsh), a well, e.g. Pynnon-Asa, ^ St. Asaph's 

Pyr-Baki (Fin.),B, lighthouse, lit. * beacon-fire.' 


Ga (Japan), the indefinite term, * a,' * any.' 
kaGa (French Congo, dialect of Bantu), a mountain, hill, 
e.g. Kaga Mbale. 
Gaard, G&rd (Da., Nor.), a farm, farmstead, estate (G*'). 
Gab (Da., Nor.), an opien bay ; chasm. 
Gaba (Galla), market-place. 
Gabai (laibo, New Guinea), ditch. 


Oabbaz (Hausa), east. For other points see Ariawa. 

Oabbi (W. Australia), water. 

Oabet iNor.)^ gap, inlet, passage. 

Oabogabo {S, Cape, New Guinea), sea. 

Oabotomn (S. Cape, New Guinea), the deep sea. 

Oabristan {Cent, Asia), burial-ground. See Stan. 

Oabuano (Aroma, New Guinea), north wind. 

Oabnngji (Togo), large river. 

Oabnrigo {Aroma, New Guinea), south. For other 

points see Walan. 
Oaohun (Tibet), a stage in the desert. Cf. Chan. 
Oad (Hind.) , a boundary mark, landmark. 
Gad (Serer), an encampment. 
Oad (Somali), a headland, bluff, e.g, Oadki Ooble, ' the 

headland where the gob grows.' Ki being the 

definite article i, with the connecting letter k. 

See Le. The gob is a tall thomless tree with smal 

red edible fruit. 
Oada (Arab., N, Africa), an elevated plateau, with steep 

sides, only accessible at certain points. 
Oadde (Wolof), camp, encampment. 
Oade (Ba., Nor.), a street. 
Oadh (Sansc), a fortress, castle. 
Oadir (Phoenician), an enclosure, e.g. Cadiz. 
Oado (Tsarisen, Formosa), a mountain. 
Oadobada (Motu, New Guinea), the deep sea. 
Oadong (Malay), a house. 
Gad-pa (Tibet), a cliff. 
Oadn (Paiwan, Formosa), a mountain. 
Oagara (Hausa). See Kagara. 
Oahoste (Indian, U.S.A.), a plain. 


Oahri (Hind.), low swampy ground. 

Oahnen (Arab., North Africa), several little rocky hills 

in the midst of which is a moist depression with 

Oai (Polish), grove, small wood. 
Oail, Oayal (Hind.), a road, path. 
Oair (Gaelic Oearr), short, e.g. Oairlooh, * short loch.' 
nOaita (Eldoroho, Uganda), a village. 
Oajjar (Hind.), swampy ground. 
GhQce (Japan), a cliff. 
Gal (Tibet), a ford. 
Oala, pi. Oalat (Egyptian Sudan), fort on a hill. See 

Kala, really the same word. 
Oala (Galla), below, e.g., Oaladede. 
Oala (Singalese), mountain, hill. 
Oalana {Galla), a river, e.g. Oalana Sagan. 
Galbed (Somaliland), west. Cf. Barri. 
Oaleb, Oleb, 0ar6t,^Z. Our. Oniret (Arab.), rocky mounds 

with hard calcareous summits. 

Oalit (Burma), communication. 

Oaliyara (Hind.), lane, street ; abode. 

Oalle (Ger.), quagmire, pool. 

Oalo (Mande), town, village. 

Oalt (Egypt), reservoir. 

Gam (Hind.), a village, 

Gamat (Sansc), a road, path. 


• ^f^ 1. ■ (C^^^^- Africa, dialects of Bantu), mountain. 

Gamle (Ba., Nor.), old (G*«), e.g. Gamle Carhberg. The 

Sw. form is Oamla. 


Oan (Indian, U.S.A.), a lake. 

Oana (Bomu), small, e.g. Oana Woshem, flowing into 
Chad L. ; Oana Gulfei,' * little Gulfei/ on the Shari B. 

Oanda {Galla), village. 

Oanda (Songhai), country, 
n Oanda (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a town. Cf. Oanzn. 

Oang (Sansc), a river, stream, e.g. Oanges. See Oanga. 

Chuig (Tibet), ice ; spur of a mountain. See Sgang. 

Oanga (Ceylon, India), a river, e.g. Oanga Pura, ' river 
town.' See Oang. 

Oangala (Sansc), land subject to inundation by the 

Oangara, Oangala (A-Zande), hill, dam, dike, e.g. Oangara 
na Bojo, ' the hill of the chief Bojo.' 

Oang-barar (Sansc, Pers.), alluvial land recovered from 
a river. 

Oangri (Tibet), a snow-capped mountain. 

Oa^J (Bengal), a market- town, market, storehouse, 
whence the Anglo-Indian Onnge. 

Oaigi (Songhai), uncultivated land, forest, desert. 

Oanon, Oaon, Oanw (Sansc, Hind.), village, town, dis- 

Oanua, Oanwa (Hausa), a ditch. 

Oanw (Sansc) See Oanon. 
nOanzn (Congo, dialect of Bayitu), outskirts, the imme- 
diate vicinity of a town. Cf. Oandu. 

Oaon (Sansc.) See Oanon. 

Oar (Tibet), camp, permanent camp. The form Sgar 
also occurs. 

Oar (Arab.) See Ohar* 


Gara {Walanw and Galla, Abyssinia), a mountain 

range, a hill, e.g, Gara Arba, ' elephant range.' 
„ {dialect near Lugh), a hill. 
. Gara, pi. Gur {Arab,, N, Africa), a rocky peak. 
Gara {Sansc), a ditch, pit, cavern ; also low land on 

which water does not lie long. 
Garam {Sansc) See Gram. 
Garan {Hind,), a swamp, morass. 
Gard. See Tard. 
Gare {Fr,), wet dock ; terminus or platform, station 

Garet {Arab,) See Galeb. 

Ghkrganta {Sp.), mountain torrent ; a narrow pass be- 
tween mountains. 
Garb {Hind,), castle, hill, fort, e.g. Fatbgarb (Futigarb), 

* fort of victory ' ; &tb {Arab.) = victory. 
Gari {Hausa), land, country, town ; e,g. Sabo-n-Gari, 
* Sabo's town,* Serki-Gari, * chief town.' See Serki, 

Seriki. Cf. Birni. 
Garie {Somaliland), a group of zeribas; a village of 

nomadic shepherds. See Chtrya. 
Garika, Gerka {Hausa), a garden. 
Garita {Sp,), a look-out house. 
Garmsir {Pers,), winter pasture grounds, hot lands ; 

from garm, hot, warm. 
Garra {Irish, Scotch, Manx), a plantation, e,g, Garrane- 

kiimefeake, ' Kenefec's plantation.' 
Gars {Arab,), a plantation. 
Gartb {England), an enclosed place, croft, garden, from 

Icel. gardbr, an enclosure, e,g, Applegarth. See Tard. 


Garw (Welsh), Oarbh (Gaelic) , rough, torrent, e.g. 

Hantgarw, Tare, ' the rough stream.' 
Oarya (Ober, Sonialiland). See Oarie. 
Oasba (Hassania), fort. Cf, Kasba, of which it is a 

Gasse (Ger.), street, lane, road. 
Oaasi (Arab., N. Africa), stream between dunes ; hard 

rocky ground covered with flints. 
GasthanB (Ger.), inn, tavern. 
Chit, Oatti (Deccan), bank of a river. 
Gat (Hung.), dam, dike. 
Gat (Da., Nor.), gap, narrow inlet, passage. 
Gata (Japan), a lake near the coast ; harbour. 
Gata (Sw.), a way, street, lane. 
Gate (England), a. ^B,, road, street, from A.-S. geat, 

an opening, gap, e.g. Beigate. 
Chitti (Deccan). See Gat 
nGau (Zulu, Kafir) ; for meaning see TTgau. 
Gan (China), a harbour. 
Chin (Teut.), a. district, e.g. Breisgan. See Gay. 
Ganbu (Aroma, New Guinea), a tree. 
Gau Gan (Min-Kia, Yunnan), sea. 
Ganhani (Hind.), lands situated close round a village ; 

Gaimtiya (Hind.), a small hamlet. 
Gavan (Buss.), a harbour. 
Gawa (Japan), a river, e.g. Sakada Gawa. 
Gawi (Chad L. region), firm hard ground, especially 

such localities in the Lower Shire E. marshes 

where villages can be built, e.g. the village Gawi. 


Gay, Oan (Teutonic), a district, e,g. Spengay. See Oan. 

Oayal (Hind.) See QbH 

Oaz (Cent. Asia), a goose, e.g. Oas Kul, ' goose lake/ 

applied by the Kirghiz to all the Pamir lakes. 

See KuL 
GasoYi (Servian), a ford. 
Gdir (Arab.), a gulf, whirlpool. 
Ge, Geya (Singdlese), a house. See Geh. 
Gebel (Arab.), a mountain, e.g. Gibraltar. See Jebel. 
Gebele, El- (W. Sahara), south. See Gharb, Gebli, 

Bhergi, Safel. 
Geber (Arab.) See Kebir. 
Gebi (Abyssinia). See Gibe. 
Gebiet jfier.), territory, district, province. 
Gebirge (Ger.), mountain range (Geb.) e.g. Biesengebirge, 

' giant mountains.' 
Gebli (Arab., N. Africa), south, a variant of Gebele. 

See SafeL 
GebfLsoh (Ger.), copse, thicket. 
Ged (Somali), Bb tree, bush, e.g. Ged-wein, GedGalol. 

Geda (Somali), grass, pasture. Cf. Dnr. 
Gedal (Arab.), a meadow. 
Gede (Soninke), spring, fountain, well. 
Gedenkteeken (Dch.), a monument. 
Gedik (Turk.), a col. Cf. Bel. 
Gedong (Malay), storehouse, e.g. Oedong Singilta, 'an 

arsenal ' ; whence Anglo-Ind. Godown, warehouse &c. 
Geh (Hind.), a house, mansion. 
Gehucht (Dch.), a hamlet. 


Geil (Icelandic), defile, narrow glen, a ravine. 

Gej (Wolof), sea. 

Geji (Lokubf L. Rudolf), a village. 

Oelah {Arab,), watch towers. Found also as Gelaa in 

Gelli (Welsh), hazel-grove, e.g. Dolgelly. See Dol. 
Gelman (Kabile), a ravine. 
Gelta (Kabile), a pond, pool. See Gaelta. 
Oemaa (Arab,), a knoll. 
Geneza (S. and E. Africa), castle. 
Geimar (Arab.), a peak. 
Gentra (Arab,, N. Africa), See Guentra. 
Geo (Shetlands), a rocky creek with precipitous sides, 

e,g, Klebergeo, as distinguished from Toe, a fiord, 

and Wiok, a broad open bay. 
Geok (Turk,), blue, e,g. Geok Tepe, * blue hill.' 
Gephyri (Neo-Greek), a bridge; from Anc. Ger. yiil>vpa. 
Gera (Algeria), a lake. 
GeraYr, pi, of Gnrara (q,v.) 
Gerant (Harem, Indo-China), tree. 
Gerara (Arab,), a plot of ground. 
Gerara (Arab,, N. Africa), See Gnrara. 
Gereza (Swahili), a fort. 
Gerhash (Abbadi, Etbai), rotten schist. 
Geri (Galloppa, Abyssinia), a road. 
Oeri (Masai), striped, e,g, Donyo Geri, ' striped mountain, 

a Masai name for Mount Kenia. See Lorgenai. 
Gem (Arab,, N. Africa), a peak. 
Germa (Arab,), a bare summit or peak. 
Gesaa (Arab,), a small embanked plain. 



Gesh (Upper Nile), bush, tall grass. 

Oestade (Ger.), shore, bank. 

Geta (Danakit), a road. 

Gettar (Arab.), a well from which water trickles. 

Geul, Ghol, Gol (Turk.), a lake. 

Geya (Singalese). See Ge. 

Ghaba {Arab., Marocco), scrub, low bush. 

Ghadir (Arab.), a pool, pond ; in N. Africa equivalent 

to Firki (q.v.) 
Ghana {Bomu), little, e.g. Marte Ghana. 
Ghangakhsn, Ghangeng (Eskimo, Smith Sound), a cape. 
Ghangerdlnakhsn (Eskimo, Smith Sound), a little fiord. 
Ghangerdlnkhsoa {Eskimo, Smith Sound), a large fiord. 
Ghar, Gar, pL Ghiran (Arab.), a grotto, cavern, e.g. 

Ghar (Hind.), house, dwelling ; also clay soil. 
Gharb, El- (Egyptian Sudan), left bank of the Nile, 

from the Arab. Gharb, west. Cf. Maghrabi, Maghreb ; 

see Said, Matla. 
Ghari (Hind.), valley, ravine. 
Gharika (Swahili), flood, inundation. From Arab. 

Ghark, see next entry. 
Ghark-ab (Arab.), deep water. See Ab. 
Ghat, Ghaut (India), a mountain pass ; range of moun- 
tains ; a flight of steps for the convenience of 

bathers ; a passage, road, street. 
Ghati (Hind.), a strait ; pass; a slope, gentle incline. 
Ghaut (India). See Ghat. 
Ghe (Harem, Indo-China), great. 
Ghede (Java), great. 


Ohedir (Arab.^ N, Afii^a), a small natural reservoir. 
Oheghertaklisoa, Gheghertaklisu, Oheghertarong, Ohegherten 

{Eskimo, Smith Sound), island. 
Ohelli {Kurdish, Kermanji district), narrow defile., 

narrow place in a road. 
Gheo la {Miao-tse, Yunnan), a forest. 
Gher {Mongol), the Mongol circular felt tent. 
Gheridat, dim. of Ghnrd {Arab,, N. Africa), a small 

Ghiariccio {It), the gravelly bed of a river, from Ghiaja, 

Ghiem {Marocco), tents, hence a camp. 
Ghi ta he {Min-Kia, Yunnan), desert. 
Ghoo {Hainan), a river, 
Ghol {Turk.) See Genl. 
GhorrafEk {Arab., N. Africa), a large deep hollow 

running from dune to dune. 
Ghubba {Swahili), a bay. 
Ghokhfloa {Eskimo, Smith Sound), a river. 
Ohnmbnr {Somali), a hill ; found also as Gnmbur {q.v.) 

See Bnr. 
Ghnnt {Hind), rent-free lands assigned as endowments 

of religious establishments. 
Ghnrd, pL Oghmd {Arab,, N. Africa), a large dune. See 

-Gi {Nupe, Nigeria). See -Ji. 
Gi {Kanarese, W. coast of Hindustan), north. For 

other points see Snli, Mntli, Kabli. 
Gibe {Abyssinia), palace ; sometimes spelled Gebi. 
Gibi {Hausa), precipice, ravine. 



Gibi {Turkanay L. Budolf), water. 

Gibla (Hussania), south. Cf, Gebli. 

Gibya {Abba, N. W.o/L, Budolf). See Gibi {Turkana), 
' (Hatcsa), a dwelling-house, dwelling place, town, 
■ e.g. Giddan Serikin Fawa, the n being the sign of 
,the possessive, * the town of the chief Pawa.' 

Gierbrug (Dch.), a flying bridge. 

Gihat, El- (Egyptian Sudan), direction. 

Gil (Icelandic), a deep narrow glen. 

Gil (Pers.), clay. 
nGila (Sagara, Bantu), a path. Cf. Zila, Jira, Jila, 
Dlela, Tsela, Sila. 

Gilef (Abbadi, Etbai), sandstone. 

Gilia {It.), clay soil. 

Gill (Lake District), a ravine, e.g. Aygill. 

Gilli {W. Australia), a creek. 

Gimi (Hausa), a village. Cf, TTngwa. 

Gin (Japan), silver. 

Ginie (Soninke), cultivated land. 

Ginna (Abbadi, Etbai), cushion-shaped or mamillated 

Ginting {Malay Pen.), the saddle of a hill. 

Giogaja {It), a ridge of mountains. 

Gipfel {Ger.), crest, summit of a mountain. 

Giram {Sansc.) See Gram. 

Gird (Pers.), environs. 

Girewa (Sansc), a low hill ; ravine ; steep pass. 

Giri {Hind,), mountain, hill, e.g. Hilgiri, 'blue moun- 
tain.' Cf. Par, Pahar. 

Girima {Hausa), great. Cf. Baba. 


Giriwar dSansc), a mountain, hill. See Oirewar. 
Oimngu (Fr, Congo), * great water,' large stream. See 

Qisr (Arab.), a dike. 

Oiunoaja (It,), a place full of reeds and rushes. 
Gizan, pL of Goz (Egyptian Sudan), small sandy hills. 
mGizi (Lusinga and Chula, Uganda), a village. 
Glaa (Celtic), green, grey, blue, e,g, Glaacoed, see Coed ; 

Glenfinglas, 'grey- white valley' (fin from Gaelic 

fionn, white) ; Glassalt, ' grey stream.' See Allt. 
Gleb (Arab.) See Galeb. 
Gleicher (Ger.), the equator. 

Glen (Gaelic), a narrow valley, e.g. Glencoe. Cf. Glyn. 
GletBcher (Ger.), a glacier. 
Glina (Buss.), clay. 
Gling (Tibet), regiom, district. 

Glabold (Btcss.), deep, e.g. Glubokoi in Vilna, S.W. Bussia. 
Glyn (Ireland, Wales), a glen, narrow valley, e.g. 

Glynneath. Cf. Glen. 
Gnai' (Laos), great, large. 
Onater (Arab., N. Africa), rocky ridges between 

depressions. Cf Hodh. 
Go (Tibet), head, source of a river. 
-Go (Japan), sufl&x equivalent to the German Hinter, 

e.g. Bigo. 
Gob (Gaelic), the bill or beak of a bird, e.g. Gob na 

Croifl, Gob na Hoe. 
Gk)b (Somalilayid), a tall thomless tree with small red 

edible fruit, e.g. Goble, * the place where the gob 

trees grow.' See Le. 


Gobiye (Galla), market. 

Ooch ( Welsh) , red, e,g. Llanbedrgooh. Cf. Cooh. See Han. 

God (Per 8,), lake, e.g. Ood-i-Zirra. 

Ood {Somaliland), a hole, e.g. Oodlebile; Oodwein, 'great 

cave.' See Wein, Le. 
nGk>dla (Congo, dialect of Bantu) , an abyss. 
Godo {Congo), a town. 

Oodown (MaZay), storehouse ; corruption of Gtedong; (q.v.) 
Oodut (Somaliland) , red, e.g. Hell Oodat, 'the red well.* 

See Hell. 
Goed (Welsh). See Coed. 

Ooend, Gwend, Owainda (Hind.), suburb; homestead. 
Qott (Somaliland), dry, e.g. Webi Goflf, 'the dry river,' a 

watercourse whioh is dry except in the rainy 

season. See Webi. 
Gog (Tibet), ruins. 

Gogeti (Galla), a dry stream bed. Cf. Wadi. 
ohiGogo (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 

Chigogo for meaning. 
kiOogo (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. 
Goila (S. Cape, New Guinea), water. 
Gok (E. Turk.), green, e.g. Gok Tepe, * green hill.' See 

Tepe, Geok. 
nGoka (Giryama), shore, water's edge, bank. 
Gokje (Turk.), blue. Cf Geok, Gok. 
Gol (Mongol), streamlet, small river, river, e.g. Khara-gol. 
Gol, Gkol, Geul (Turk.), a lake, e.g. Ak-Gol, ' white lake.' 
Gola (Slavonic), a wood, e.g. Gk>llwitz. 
Gola, Gol (Somali), a peak, e.g. Gola Daga=the rocky 

peak. See Daga. 


Gk)la (I^.)» ^ defile, narrow gorge; lit, 'throat/ 

Oolea, Kolea {Arab.)^ a small castle, e.g. El Oolea. 

Oolets (Rtiss,), a bare rock. 

Gk)lf (Ger.), gulf, bay. 

Golfe (Fr.), gulf, bay. For use as a form of sub-oceanic 

relief see Embayment. 
Gk)lfo {It, Port, Sp.), gulf, bay (G.) 
Gk)li, Goloi {Buss,)f bare (of a rocky mountain, or arid 
desert). There are no less than ten islands of this 
name in Alaskan waters alone. 
Gelo (Aroma, New Guinea), mountain. Cf. Olo, Oro oro. 
Golomyanni {Buss,), a sea breeze. 
Gome {Nika), See Me. 
nGk>in6 {Congo, dialect of Bantu), water. 
nGome {Swahili), a fort or castle. 
Oomito {It,), a creek, an arm of the sea ; lit elbow. 
Gk)n {India/n, U,S.A.), clay-land. 

Oona, pL Gonaki {Hausa), a farm, e.g. Gona-n-Berda, 
* Berda's estate,' n being the sign of the possessive. 
Gonaki {Sudan), garden-fields. See Gona. 
Gonda {Hind.), a suburb ; field near a village. 
Gong {India), a village, e.g. Chittagong, 'the four 
villages.' Cf, Charde. 
kiGongo {Gogo, Bantu), a detached hill or mountain ; also 
in Nyanyembe and Sukuma, 
Gonia {Greek), angle, comer. 
nGk>no {Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), little. 
Oonpa {Tibet), a monastery, lit. solitude, e.g. Tnlnng 

Chnbn Gonpa. 
Gop-mahal {Arab.), pasture grounds. 


Gk)r {Hammer KoJciy Abyssinia), a road. 

Oora {It,), aqueduct, mill-dam. 

Oora '{Slav.), hill, mountain, e.g, Czemagora, 'black 

mountain '= Montenegro. See Czemi. 
Goram {Cent, Asia), stony ground. 
Oordo, a {Sp.), broad ; e.g, Ponta Oorda, ' broad point.' 
Gore {A'Zande), left (hand side). 
Gore {Scminke), encampment. 
Gk>rgo {It,), gorge, whirlpool, abyss. 
Gorha {Hind.), fields near a village, homestead. 
Gk>ria (Somali), tree stumps, e.g, Goriale, 'place of tree 

stumps.' See Le. 
Gonn (Gaelic), blue, e.g, Bengonn. See Ben. 
Gomia {Neo-Greek), upper; a Slav loan-word. 
Gornoi {Buss,), mountainous, e,g, Gomoi island in Sitka 

Sound, Alaska. 
Oorny ] {Polish, S, Slav,) upper (Gm.) ; e.g. Oomy 
Oomjri j Toponioa on Morava E. 

Goro {Hung.), great, high. 
Gorod (i?i^5S.),aburgh, town, e.g. Novgorod, *new town.' 

Cf, Grad, Grod. 
-Gorongo {Cent. Africa), a suffix meaning 'great.' 
Gorra {Galloppa, Abyssinia), tree. 
Goru {Songhai), channel, bed of a river. 
Got {Ja-Luo, Uganda), hill, mountain. 
Gotara {Hind.), rich lands immediately adjacent to a 

Goalet {Fr,), a narrow entrance. 
Gowa {Kiwai, New Guinea), a passage in a reef. 
Oowt, Gote {Low Gerinan G6te, Ger, Gosse), sluice in 


a sea-embankment for letting out the land- water 

when the tide is out and preventing the ingress of 

sea-water, e.g. Winthorpe Oowt. 
Oos, pi. Oizan {Egyptian Sudan), a small sandy hill, a 

village built in a sandy plain, e.g. Ooz Begeb. 
iriOquma (Zulu, Kafir) , a knoll, hillock. 
isiOqimyana {Zulu, Kafir), a small hillock. 
Oraba {Marocco), a wood. 
Oraben {Ger.), a ditch, canal ; a term now generally 

applied to the * rift * valleys. For use as a form of 

sub-oceanic relief see Trench. 
Orad {Slav.), town, e.g. Belgn^td. Cf. Oorod, Ghrod. See Bel. 
OrsBndse {Da., Nor.), boundary. Cf. Orlins, Orens, Orenze. 
Oram {Tibet), a marsh. 

Oram, Oaram, Oiram {Sansc, Hind.), a village. 
Oran {Nissan I., New Guinea), a lofty bank. 
Orand, e {Fr.), great, e.g. Orande-Chartreuse. 
Orande {Sp.), great, e.g. Bio Orande. 
Orange {Fr.), a bam (G«*). 
Oranitsa {Servian), a boundary. Cf. Orenze. 
Oraiqa {Sp.), a country house (Gr.) 
Orfins {Sw.), a boundary. Cf. Orsendse, Orens, Orenze. 
Orat {Ger.), ridge, the edge of a mountain. 
Oratz {Slavonic), a town, e.g. Koniggrfttz. 
Oravier {Fr.), gravel. 
Oreda {Sp.), chalk. 

Oreh {Sansc), house, mansion, abode. 
Orens {Dch.), a boundary. Cf OrsBndse, Orfinz, Orenze. 
Orenze {Ger.), a boundary. Cf. Orondse, Or&ns, Orens, 



Grod (Polish), a burgh. Cf. Oorod, Grad. 

Grog {Tibet), ravine, torrent. 

Gron-ba (Tibet), stream. 

Grong (Tibet), a town. 

Groot (Dch.), great, e.g. Groote Eylandt. 

Groppa (It,), a hill-top. 

Gross (Ger.), great (Gr.), e.g. Grosswardein. 

Grube (Ger.), quarry, mine. 

Gruda (Buss.), a cairn, a pile. 

Grue (A'Zande), a road. 

Grun, pi. of Gem (q.v.) 

Gnmd (Da., Nor., Sw.), ground, shallow bank, shoal. 

Gnind (Ger.), for use as a form of sub-oceanic relief see 

Gninn (Icel.), shallow ground, shoal. 
Gms (Arab.), plantations. 
Gryaz (Buss.), mud. 
Gu (A'Zande), the ; pi. To, Ba, or He ; e.g. Gungara, 

* the water of the bamboos.' See Ngn. 
Gu (New Guinea), water, river; other dialects have 

Ku, U, thus Gn-pa, Ku-pa, U-pa, ' rain-water.' 
Gua (Mandara), a river. 
Goad (Spain), ravine, valley, river, from Arabic Wad, e.g. 

Guadalquivir =: Wad el Kebir=' great river.' 
Gnadal (Spanish S. America), a knoll of sand, a dune. 
GuaMO (Gtiarani, S. America), great ; e.g. I-giiasso. 
Guba (Galla), above. 
Guba (Buss.), a bay, gulf. 
Gubat (Tagala, Philippines), a forest, wood. 
Gubemiya (Bu^s.), a government, province. 


Onchi {Japan), a mouth; used in compounds for 
Kuchi (q.v.) 

Ondar (Pers.), a pass. 

Onddi, pZ. Bididi {Chamba), house, dwelling. 

QudifpL Adi (Basari), house, dwelling. 

Qui (Ft.), a ford. 

Onedi {LoTcuh, L. Rudolf), a road. 

Ouelta (Arab,, N. Africa), a hole or basin in the bed of 
a river. Another and more correct form is Oelta. 

Guentra, pi. Onater (Arab,, N. Africa), a rocky ridge 
between depressions. Another and more correct 
form is Oentra. Cf Hodl). 

Gufeet (Fr,), land ploughed but not sown. 

Gug^e {Bagirmi, Chad L, region), a shallow water- 

Guha {Sansc), a cave, cavern. 

Oniang (Yayo, China), a wood, thicket. 

Gniret (Arab.) See Galeb. 

Gniret, dim. of Oara {Arab.), a small rocky peak. 

Gnjeta {Lokub, L. Budolf), grass. 

Gul, Gnr (Tibet), tent ; slope of a mountain. 

Gulbi (Hausa), ocean, sea, stream, e,g. Gulbi n Kebi. 

Gulbo (Galloppa, Abyssinia), a nullah. 

Golly (Eng.), used, in sub-oceanic relief, for a long and 
narrow extension of a Trough (q.v.) or BaBin (q,v.) 
which penetrates the land or a submarine eleva- 
tion, either with a uniform or a gradually 
diminishing depth, or which is bounded on the 
one side by land and on the other by a* submarine 
elevation, e.g. the Faroe Gully, the Norwegian 


Oolly. Equivalent to Ger. Einne, Fr. Chenal. Cf. 

Gum (Abyssinia), mountain. 
Oninbaz {Cent. Asia), b^ tomb, e.g. Oninbaz-i-Bozai, 'the 

tomb of Bozai.* 
Omnbnr (Somali), a hillock, e.g. Onmbur-ta-Jifto, 'the 

sloping hillock.' Another form of Ohmnbnr. See 

Oninbed (Pers.), cupola, tomb of Mohammedan saint. 
Onine (Songhai), port, wharf. 
Onmmat, Oamti (Hind.), a tower. 
Oun (Japan), a division of the country. 
Gnn (Songhai), a gulf. 
Onn. See Oynn. 
Oona (Chad L. region), little, e.g. Bedigona, 'little 

Oond (Kurdish), a village. 
chiOnnda (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), island. 
mOanda (Swahili, Yao), field, cultivated land. 
Gune (Soninke), a desert. 
Onnga (Tibet), an egg, e.g. Ounga Nor, ' egg lake,' see 

Oungu (Hausa, Songhai), an island, e.g. Baagagnngn, 

* hippopotamus island,' in the Niger E. 
nGungula (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the current of a 

Ouni (Hausa), a little village. 
Oimne (Soninke), a forest. 
Onnong,. Oonon, Onnung (Malay), mountain, e.g. Onnong 

Bongsu, Ganong Ledang. 


Onnong Api {Malay), a volcano. See Api. 

Onnta {Deccan), a tank, pool. 

Gut {Albanian), stone. 

Our {Arab,, N. Africa), rocky peaks. 

Gur {Cent. Asia), a grave, e.g. Ak-Gur, 'white tomb.' 
See Ak. 

Gur {Tibet). See Gul. 

Onrara {Arab., N. Africa), a depression in the form of a 
basin, where rain-water remains for a consider- 
able period and induces vegetation ; larger than 
DaYa {q.v.) 

Gure {Scmghai), hill, dune. 

Gnrgi {Somali), huts. 

Gnri {Somali), a hut made of herios or mats. 

Gnma {Arab.), a mountain promontory. 

Gurwl {Deccan), cottage, hut. 

Gnsong {Malay), shoal. 

Gusa {Songhai), cave, ditch. 

Gnt {England), a passage, channel. 

Gutai {Japan), an outlet. 
nGutu {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a town. 

Gozar {Pers.), a passage, a ferry. 

Gwainda {Hind.) See Goend. 

Gwaao {E. Cent. Africa), stream, water, lake, e.g. Gwaso 
Nyarok, Gwaso Masa. 

Gwend {Hind.) See Goend. 

Gwin {Bambara, Malinke), a mud wall surrounding an 
enclosure. Cf Din. 
nGwongomoka {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a landslip. 

Gwy {Welsh), water, stream,. Wye, Wey, Medway. 


inOxangzad (Amazosa, Kafir) , a rapid in a river ; a small 

inOzoboza {Amaxosa, Kafir)^ a bog, marsh. 
umOxoboza (Amaxosay Kafir), swampy ground. 

Gya, Oyan, Gyi (Tibet, Burma), signifies * extent,' great, 
e.g. Oyantw, S.W. of Lhasa, Myitgyi, in Upper 
Burma. See Myit. 
Qj6i, KyOi (Korea), stream, creek, e,g. Kyoi-San, ' moun- 
tain stream.' 
Oyun (Burma), an island. Cf. Kynng. 
Oyun (Tibet), a stream. 
Ozia (Upper Nile), grass. 

Ha (Indian, California), water. Cf. Aha. 

Habe (Indian, U.S.A.), hill, mountain. 

Habe (Fula). See Kado. 

Habilat (Arab., N. Africa), a chain of small dunes. 

Habr (Somali), a tribal prefix, e.g. Habr Oerh^ji 

Haoienda (Sp.), an estate (Hda). 

Hada (China), mountain, range. 

Hadd (Arab,), a spit of sand, or low sandy point. 

„ (Arab,), a limit, a boundary. 
Hadi (Madagascar), ditch, trench ; modified to Kadi 

(q.v.) in composition. 
Hadilanana (Madagascar), col, saddle. 
Haf (Sw.), sea, ocean. 

Hafen (Ger.), a port, e.g. Bremenhafen, ' port of Bremen.' 
Hafen (Nor.), a wharf. 


Haflr (Arab.), an excavation, ditch. 

Hagaba (Upper Nile), small cleared arable spots in 

the midst of wooded or grass land. 
Hagar (Arab.), a stone, e.g. Dair el Hagar. See Dair. 
Hage (Da., Nor., 8w.), an enclosure, enclosed pasture. 
Hagen 3= Hag (Ger.), a hedge, a place surrounded by a 

hedge ; park, e.g. Hagendom. 
Haghier (Sokotra), white rocks. 
Hagios, a, on (Greek), holy, saint, e.g. Hagios Vlans on 

Mount Olonos. Found also as Agios. 
Hagna, Hanya (Arab.), an eddy in a river. See Hania. 
Ha gnrh (Min-Kia, Kwei-chau), house. 
Hahake (Tonga, Polynesia), east. For other points see 

Hai (China), sea, sometimes lake, e.g. Wei-Hai-Wei ; 

Hwang-Hai, ' yellow sea.' 
Hale (Fr.), a hedge. See next entry. 
Haigh (England), a place surroimded by a hedge; a 

park. Cf. Hay, Haie. Hecke. 
Hai-kau (China), bight, creek, lit. sea-mouth. See Hai, 

Hai-kio, Hai-ko (China), a cape, lit. sea-point. See Hai, 

Kio, Ko. 
Hai-mnn (China), an estuary, lit. sea-gate. See Mnn. 
Hain (Ger.), grove, wood. 

Hainya, Hanya (Hausa), road, path. Cf. Tnmba. 
Haithat (Arab.^ N. Africa), sandy hillocks, covered with 

Halt (Arab.), a wall. 
Ha i tan (Indian, California), town, village. 


Hai-tao (China), an island. Lit. 'sea mountain/ see 

Tao, Hai. 
Haiti {Santo Domingo and Haiti), mountains. 
Hai wan (China), a bay. See Hai, Wan. 
Hai-yan (China), a gulf. Cf. Hai Wan. 
Hajar (Arab.), stone, rock, e.g, Hajar Shwaf, 'Mirror 

Stone,' S. of Chad L., from the polished appear- 
ance of the rock. 
muHaka (Giryama), boundary. 

Halat (Arab,), a sandbank dry at low water. 

Halbinsel (Ger,), a peninsula. 

Haifa. See Alfa. 

Hali (Anglo-Saxon), holy, e,g, Halifax, * holy tress,* i.e. 

of the Virgin Mary's hair. 
Halita (Haiisa), a dwelling-place. 
Hall (England), a stone house, from A.S. heall, e.g. 

Halla (ShangaUa, Abyssinia), an uninhabited desert. 

Cf. Bunga. 
Hallal (Egyptian Sudan), a village. 
Hallier (Fr.), a thicket. 
Halom (Hung.), a hill. 

Hals (Da., Nor., Sw.), a strip or neck of land. 
HalteBtelle (Ger.), halting-place (H. St.) 
Ha Luong (Khas Chos, Indo-China), a tree. 
-Ham (England), suffix meaning house, village, home, 

farm, e.g. Buckingham. 
Ham (Bintukwa Indian, U.S. of Colombia), rock. 
Ham (Cambodia), the jaw; e.g. Ham-Luong, 'Dragon's 

Jaw,' in Bao-Duk. See Lnong. 


Hama, Bama {Japan), sand ; low-lying coast, beach 
shore, e.g. Tokohama. 

Hamfida {Arab., N. Africa), plateau with rocky soil ; 
calcareous waterless plateau. 

Hamar, Ahmar, pi. Homer {Arab., N. Africa), red, e.g. 
Jebel Hamar, ' red mountain.' Cf Homra. 

Hameau {Fr.), hamlet (H*»). 

Hamis, Hamse {Chad L. region), stagnant water, e.g. 
Hamis bay in S. of Chad L., after which Hager el 
Hamis, or Mount Hamis, is named. 

Hamma {Arab.), hot springs. 

Hammerwerk {Ger.), a foundry. 

Hamn {Sw.), harbour, haven, e.g. Carlshamn. ' Charles's 

Hamraye {Sahara), a bleak open district. See Nega. 

Hamuli {Pers.), a desert ; plain, level ground ; a lake with 
swampy edges, having a large expanse of water 
free from reeds, e.g. Hamnn-i-Sistan, Hamnn-i-Fara, 
Ashkin being applied to lands only temporarily 
flooded, Chung, Chang, to water too deep for reeds to 
grow in, and Naizar to shallows and reed beds. 

Han {Japan), a clan, tribe. 

Han {Turk.), grass. 

Hana {Japan), cape, point. Also means * flowers,' e.g. 
Hana Batake, ' the great flower-fleld.' 

Handaki {Swahili), ditch, trench. 
aHandn {Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a place. 

Handu, pi. Knndn {Kikuyu, Bantu) . See Ndu. 

Hang {China), dry, e.g. Hang ho = dry river ; Hang 
kong pe= desert. In Korea a neck of a hill. 



Han-hai (Mongol) j a sea of sand. See Hai. 

Hania (Arab.), a bend formed by a river, eddy. See 

Hano (Maiva, New Guinea)^ earth. 
Hantsana {Madagascar) , a precipice. 
Hanua {Motu, New Guinea), a village. For other 

dialect forms see Fenua. 
Hanya (Arab.) See Hagna, Hania, the same word. 
Hao {China), ditch, trench. 
Haoz, Hauz {Pers.), tank, reservoir, from the Arabic 

Hand. See Hauz. 
Hapotrahana {Madagascar), falls in a river, rapids. 
Hara {Danakit), a tree. 
Hara {Japan), moorland. 
H^rad {Sw.), a canton, coimty, district. 
Haram {Arab.), a sacred place. 
Hara {Mongol), prefix meaning black. Cf, Kara. 
Harana {Madagascar), rock, e,g, Haranandriana, 'the 

noble's rock.' See Andriana. The modified form 

Kara {q.v,) is also used. 
Hari {Kurdish), mud. 
Hari {Songhai), water, river, lake, sea. 
Harifa {Hassania), field, garden. 
Harimo {Songhai), source, fountain. See Hari. 
Harmattan (i^V/i^i)> a hot wind blowing from the interior 

of Africa to the Atlantic between Capes Verde and 

Harmina {Fin.), harbour. 
Hart {Ger.), a forest, e.g. Hunliart. From Harz, a wooded 

mountain, e.g. Harzgebirge. 
Hashaknt {Indian, U.S.A.), a lake. 


Hashi (Japan), a bridge. 

Hashiet (Hassania), shore, beach. 

Hashish (Arab.), grass. 

Hashm (Arab,), a snout, and so a hill in the shape of a 
snout, e.g. Hashm el Agl, ' calf's snout/ Hashm el 
Dib, * wolf's snout,' places being frequently named 
after living creatures. 

Hasi (Hassania), spring, fountain, wells ; a variant of 
Hassi (q.v,) 

Hassadan (Somali), a euphorbia tree, e.g. Hassadanle, 
* the place where the euphorbias grow.' See Le. 

Hassar (Arab.), a rock. 

Hasse (Indian, U.S. A.), a river. 

Hassi (Arab., N. Africa), wells of little depth without 
masonry ; holes channelled out in the sand at the 
bottom of which one finds water. In Oran the 
name is appUed to all wells, with and without 

Hat (Siam), a rapid over sand or pebbles; sandbank. 

Hata (Walamo, Abyssinia), water. 

Hata (Japan), arable land. 

Hatakh (Somali), a trench =:Boraii. 

Ha tats (Indian, U.S.A.), sea. 

Hatch (England), a hitch-gBite, e.g. Westhatch. 

Hate (Mongol), stone, stony. 

Hatoba (Japan), wharf, landing-place. 

Hatsai (Siam), sandbank. 

Hatt (Hind.), a market, market-place. 

Hattia (Sahara), a level valley with vegetation, waste 
land overgrown with scrub and brushwood. 

L 2 


Hand (Arab.), a reservoir, tank, cistern; the Persian 
forms are Haoz, Hauz. 

Haugh (England) f (1) from the Norse haogr (a mound), 
a mound, cf, Hei, How ; (2) from the Anglo-Saxon 
haga (lit. hedge, then hedged ground, field) ; low- 
lying rich lands which are occasionally flooded 

Haugr (Nor.), a mound. Cf. Hei. 

Haul (Vonum, Formosa), a river. 

Hanma (Arab.), a district, quarter of a town. 

Hauptftadt (Ger.), chief city, capital. 

Ham (Ger.), house (Hs.), e.g. Sohaffhausen. 

Haush (Arab.), a farm. 

Hant (Fr.), height, top, summit; upper, e.g. Haute 
Loire. For use as a form of sub-oceanic relief see 

Hauteur (Fr.), rising ground, an eminence. 

Haut-foud (Fr.), a shoal (q.v.) 

Hau2, Hao2 (Pers.), tank, reservoir ; borrowed from 
Arab. Haud; e.g. Hauz Kalan, 'great pool.' See 

Hav (Da., Nor.), sea, ocean. 

Haveli (K. Turk.), a homestead. 

Havn (Da., Nor.), haven, harbour, e.g. Thorshavn; 
^obenhavn, 'merchants' haven * (Copenhagon). 

Havod, Hafod (Welsh), a summer hut, a shealing, e.g. 

Havuana (Madagascar), a hill. 

Hawaii (Arab.), environs. 

Hawili (Arab.), house, dwelling. 


Hawita {Arab., N, Africa), an enclosure ; a station 
marked by a tree or by a pile of stones. 

Hay (England), a place surrounded by a hedge ; a park, 
e.g. Bonndhay. Cf. Haigh, Haie, Hecke, Hegge. 

Hayasi (Japan), a forest, wood. 

Haz (Hung.), a house, dwelling. 

Hazo (Madagascar), tree. The modified form Kazo 
(q.v.) is also used. 

Hazor- (Semitic), an enclosure for cattle in the desert, 
e.g. Hazar-aman. 

Hbabchu (Tibet), a small river. 

Hbrog (Tibet), uncultivated land, pasturage. 

Hdam (Tibet), a marsh, bog, swamp. 

Hdam-bn (Tibet), reeds. 

He, ^Z. of Gu (A'Zande), the. See Gu. 

Hebn (Songhai), a market. 

Hecha (Marovo, Solomon Is.), north-east wind. 

Hecke (Ger.), hedge, enclosure. Cf. Hegge,Hay, Haigh, 
Haie, Hangh. 

Hedd (Somali), a forest, e.g. HeddGodir, * Koodoo forest.* 
See Dad. 

Hedr (Arab., Etbai), a slope. 

Heferbe, pZ. Kefero (Fula), infidel, e.g. Lafare Heferbe, 
* Pagan La£are,' to distinguish it from the neigh- 
bouring village, La£Eure Fnlfiilda, * the Fulbe (Fula) 
Lafare.' Is an Arab, loan word ; see Kafir. 

Hegge (Dch.), a hedge. Cf. Hecke. 

Hegy (Hung.), mountain, peak (H.), e.g. Hegy-AUya. 

Hei, He (China), black, e.g. Hei Lung Kiang, 'Black 
Dragon river/ See Lung, Kiang. 


Hei {Nor,), hill or height, hummock. Cf, Hoi, Hbide, 

Hangh, Haugr. 
Held {Arab,), a mount. 
Heide {Dch., Ger.), a heath, e,g. Korteheide. 
Height {Eng,), in suh-oceanic relief, the highest part of 

a Bise, Bidge, or Plateau {q,v,) if it does not belong 

to the base of an island ; e.g, the Valdivia Height 

on the Walfisch Kidge; opp, to Deep {q,v.) 

Equivalent to Ger, HOhe, Fr, Haut. 
Heilig {Ger,), holy, saint, e,g, Heiligenberg, in Baden. 
Heim {Ger,), a house, e,g, Hochheim. See Hoch. 
Heir {Arab,), a pearl bank. 
Hei tu {China) , black loam. See Hei, Tn. 
Hel {E, Turk,), damp, moist. 

Heli {Welsh), salt, e,g. Pwllheli = salt pool. See PwU. 
Hell {Somaliland), a well, e,g. Hell Berdale, the 'well 

where the Perda plant grows,' see Le; Hell 

Oodut, ' the red well.' Cf, Hil. Found also as Hel. 
Hellet {Upper Nile), a village. 
Hen {Picardy), a home. 
Hen {Welsh), old, e.g, Heneglwys, 'old church'; see 

Hena {Ceylon), corrupted to ohena, high jungle ground' 

cultivated every 5 to 14 years, e.g. Kotahena, 

* timber chena.' 
Hendnra {Arab.), a slope, declivity. 
Hendere {Kanem), a valley. 
liHenga {Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a pool, pond. 
HenBhir {Tripoli), a fenced enclosure. 
Hepaithlao {Indian, U,S,A,), town, village. 
Herdade {Port,), a mansiou or large manor-bouse. 


Her era (Nika), a plain. 

Herzogthum, Herzogtum {Ger,)^ a duchy ; lit. duJce-dom, 

from Herzog=duke, and tum=dom. 
Heuvel {Dch.), a hill, Langenhenvel, Eaatsheuvel. 
He wi {Indian, California) , hill, mountain. 
Hey. See Hay. 
Hia {China), a prefix signifying 'lower/ ' smaller,* e,g, 

Hia Kotn, near Chang Chai in Kwei Cbau. 
Hia {Indian, U.S.A.), a meadow. 
Hia-kau {China), a strait. See Hia, Kau. 
Hiang-tsun {China), a village. 
muHichi {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 
Hien {China), a district city. Cf. Chau, Fu, Hsien. 
Higashi, Higasi, To {Japan), east. For other points 

see Hoku. 
Hihidi {A-Zande), great. 
Hiki Shiwo {Japan), ebb tide. See Shiwo. 
Hiktfa {Tonga, Polynesia), west. For other points see 

Hikina {Hawaii), east. For other points see Akau. 
Hikui {Japan), low, e.g. Hiku Shima. See Shima. 
Hil {Hind.), mud, ooze. 
Hil {Bahanwin, Somaliland), an eye; source of spring 

water, the same as the Arab. Ain and the Somali 

Hilin {Somali), a road = Derigh. 
Hilla, ^Z. Hallal {Egyptian Sudan), a village. 
Hima, Him {Sansc), snow, ice, cold, e.g. Himalaya, ' the 

abode of snow.' 
Hin {Siam), rock, stone. 


-Hina, -Hini (Indian, N, America), a suflSx meaning 

' river ' ; e.g. Klehini, Krotahini. 
Hinigala (Kusage, Solomon Is.), plantation, garden. 
Hinter (Ger,), hinder, lying behind. See next entry. 
Hinterland (Ger,), the region inland from the coast; 

equivalent to the French * arrilre-pays * ; back 

Hippo (Phoenician), a walled town ; occurs in the ancient 

names of many towns in N. Africa, e.g. Hippo 

Regius, the present Bone. 
Hira {Japan), a plain. 
Hirhash (Abbadi, Ethai), mica. 
Hiroi {Japan), wide (of a stream or valley). 
Hishan (Egyptian Sudan), enclosures. See Hitah. 
HisBar {Turk), castle, fort, e.g. Kara-Hissar. See Kara. 

Is a loan word in Arab, and Pers. 
Hitah {Arab.), an enclosure. See Hishan. 
Hithe {England), a wharf ; a small haven or port, from 

A.S. h^dh, a haven, e.g. Queenhithe. 
Hito {Sp), a landmark, guide-post. 
Hittunk {Indian, U.S. A), a tree. 
mHitn {German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), wood, 

bush, forest. 
Hiu {China), a cliflf. 
Hiu (China), a market. 
Hjcm {Da., Nor), home, homestead, village, e.g. 

Throndhjem, * throne home,* the place of coronation 

of Norwegian kings. Cf Helm, Ham. 
nmHlaba {Kafir), the earth, the world; ground, soil. 
IHlabati {Amaxosa, Kafir), the earth. 


Tim Hlambo (Kafir), a valley. 

iHlane {Zulu, Kafir), an uninhabited country or district. 
mnHlanhlo {Amaxosa, Kafir), a garden made in the bush. 
iHlati (Kafir), a forest, jungle. 
inHlaznka {Zulu, Kafir), a landslip. 
iHlobo {Kafir), the summer season. 
Hlong Ku {Chinbon), a valley. 
Ho {Annam), lake, marsh, pond, pool. 
muHo {Giryama), a river ; there is also the same word in 
H6 {Hung,), snow. 

Ho {China), a river, e.g. Hwang-Ho. Cf. Kiang, Chiang. 
Ho may be applied to any river, Kiang only to a 
large one. 
Ho, Hoe (Hainan), a river; from the above. 
Hoa {Cambodia), alliance, friendship; e.g. Bao-Hoa, 

* preserve the alliance,* a district in Cambodia. 
Hoa (Laos), a boat. 
Hoai {Burma, Siam), stream. 
Hoang {China), savages. 
Hoang {China). See Hwang. 

Hoblis {Mysore), the subdivision of a Taluk. Cf. Thanas. 
Ho bune {Japan), sailing vessel. 
Hoch {Ger.), high, e.g. Hochkirch, * high church.' See 

next entry. 
Hochebene {Ger.), tableland, plateau. See Hoch. 
Hbdde {Faroese), a promontory. Cf. Hofdi 
Hodh {W. Sahara), a depression between rocky ridges. 

Cf. Qnater. 
Hoe {England), see Hoo ; Hoe {Hainan), see Ho. 


Ho 6 est (Indian^ U.S.A.)^ a hill. 

Hoek {Cape Dch,), a ravine, pass, e,g, Braakhoek. In 

Dutch, cape, headland. 
Hoeve (Dch.), a farm. 
Hof (Ger,), a court-yard; farm, country house, e.g. 

Hofal'rt. Dim. of Hofira (q.v.) 
HOfdi (Icel.), promontory or mountain ridge, e.g. 

HjOrlei&hOfdi. Cf. H5dde. 
Hofii {Icel.), a haven. Cf. Havn. 
Hofra (Arab., N. Africa), ditch, trench; depression 

among large dunes, e.g. Hofira en Nahas. 
Hogback {Eng. and U.S.A.), a steep-sided ridge or long 

H5he (Ger.), height. For use as a form of sub-oceanic 

relief see Height. 
Hohlweg {Ger.), a hollow excavated way ; narrow pass, 

Hohu {Hu-Ni, China), a wood, forest. 
Hoi {Da.y Nor.), hill or height. Cf. Hei, Heide, Hoide. 
Hoide {Nor.), hill, hummock. Cf. Hei, Heide, Hoi. 
Hoil (Khas Chos, Indo-China), a stream, small river. 
Hoka {Shinasha, Abyssinia), a river. 
Hoku, Eita {Japan), north. For other points see Hishi, 

Sal, Higasi, To, Han, Minami. 
Hoi {Dch.), hollow (road), cave. 
H6U {Icel), a hillock. 

Hoi lo ma {Indian, California), hill, mountain. 
Hollow {Anglo-Saxon holh, holg), used in the same 

sense as Bottom {q.v.), e.g. Danebower Hollow. 


Holm (Da., Nor.), island, e,g, Tindholm, ' tooth-island/ 
Bornholm ; this and the four following entries are 
all really the same word, derived from an old Teu- 
tonic root cognate perhaps with Lat. collifl, 

Holm (Ger.), little hill, especially an elevation above the 
surface of inland waters ; islet. See above. 

Holm, Holme {Anglo-Saxon), an island in a river, flat 
ground along the side of a river. See above. 

Holma {Fin.), an island. See under Holm. 

Holme {Sw.), an island. See under Holm. 

Helper {Ger.), a hillock. 

Holt {Anglo-Saxo7i), a copse, e.g. Sparsholt- Cf. Holz. 

Holz {Ger.), a copse. Of. Holt. 

Homer {Arab., N. Africa). See Hamar. 

Homowak {Indian, U.S.A.), water flowing out, spring, 

Homra {Arab., N. Africa), red, e.g. El Homra Hamada. 
Cf. Hamar, Ahmar. 

Hon {Annam), hill ; island. 

Hondo, a (Sp.), deep or shallow (really means bottom) ; 
shoals ; e.g. Hondnras. Of. Lat. fundns. 

Hondu {Songhai), a dune. 

Hontana {Sp.), fountain, spring. Cf. Fontana. 

Honua {Polynesia). See Fenua. 

Hoo {England), a tongue of higher land running out 
into a plain, e.g. Hoo End. 

Hoog {Dch.), high, e.g. Hoogveld. 

Hoogte {Dch.), hill, eminence, rising ground ; e.g. 


Hook {U.S.A,), a low sandy peninsula forming the end 

of a bay ; e.g. Sandy Hook. 
Hoom {Dch.), horn, a peaked peninsula, e.g, TTithoom, 

Hoowi {Siam)f tributary of a river. Found in early 

writers for Hu8 (q.v.) 
Hor {Shan States), a stream, river. 
Hora (Abyssinia), lake, e,g, Hora Shale, Hora Korre. 
Hora (Bohemia), a mountain (Ha.) 
Horami, Korremi (Hausa), valley. 
Horn (Ger.), a peak, e,g, Hatterhom, 'peak of the 

meadows,* i.e. rising from the meadows. 
Homi (Bohemia), upper (Hr.), e.g. Homi Micina on 

the Hungarian Erzgebirge. 
Horqueta (Spanish S. America), an acute angle formed 

by a river or brook together with the land included 

by the stream. 
Horst (Ger.), a thick wood. Cf. Hurst. 
Hosere (Hausa), a rocky hill, e.g. Hosere ChoUe, * bird 

rock.' Of. Hossere. 
Hosh, pi. Hishan (Egyptian Sudan), an enclosure. 
Hoshun (Mongol). See Khoskun. 
Hosn (Arab.), a fortress ; a variant of Husn (q.v.) 
H080 (Japan), narrow, e.g. Hososhima. See Shima. 
Hossere (Fula), mountain. Cf. Hosere. 
Hosya (Tso-o, Formosa), a village. Cf. Noheu. 
Hot (Harem, Indo-China), a river. 
Hota (Mongol), town, e.g. Chagan Hota, * white town 
Hote (Hu'Ni, China), a mountain. 
Hdtel (Fr.), mansion, large house, hotel. 
Hotk (Botuma, Polynesia), stone, rock. 


Ho-to {China), town, large village. 

Ho-tim {China) f lighthouse. Cf. Kwang-lau. 

Houdli (Aral)., N. Africa). See Hodh. Cf. Gnater. 

Hout (Dch.), wood, wooden, Oosterhout, Houtdorp. 

Hoved (Da., Nor,), head, cape, point. 

Hovedvej (Da., Nor,), main road. 

How (Cumbria), mound, e.g. Fox How. Cf Haugh. 

Howe (English), a hollow. 

Hrad (Bohemia), a castle. 

Hrad (Sansc), pond, lake. 

Hraun (Icel.), a tract of lava, e.g. Odadahraun, Sjalliraiin. 

Hsi (China), a marsh, bog, swamp. 

Hsia (China), lower, e.g. Haia Pu, 'lower citadel.* Cf. 

Hsiang (China), a small street, alley ; village ; region. 
Hsiao (Shan States), small, e.g. Hsiao Wei Si, 'little 

Wei Si.* 
Hsien (China), district; capital of a district =Hien. 
Hsi Fang (China), the western region, often used for 

Tibet ; has also an ethnical meaning, being applied 

collectively to the aborigines of the uplands along 

W. frontier of China (Anglice Si Fans). 
Hsue (China), a cave in the side of a hill. 
Hta (Siam), landing-place, quay. 
Htoong (Siam), field, plain. 
Hn (China), a lake. Cf. Po. 
Hu (China), a gorge, e.g. Shi Hu, ' stone gorge.' 
Hu (Songhai), a house. 
Hua (China, Manchuria), flower ; e.g. Sung-Hua-Chiang, 

'pineflower river,* i.e. the Sungari. See Sung, 



Huala (Madagascar) f a bay. 

Huana {Marovo, Solomon Is.), road. 

Huang (China). See Hwang. 

Huang tu (China), clay. 

Hu'd (Laos, Siam), a mountain stream, tributary. 

Huerfano (U.S. A.), a solitary hill or oerro (q^v.); the 

Spanish word means ' orphan.' 
Hugab, pi. Haguban (Arab,, Etbai), a boulder. 
Hiigel (Ger.), a hill. 

Hu il (Khas Chos, Indo-China), a village. 
Huis (Dch.), a house, e.g, Druggenhuis, Hijenhuis. 
Huk (Da., Nor,, Sw.), angle, point, hook of land. 
Hulu (Malay), river source ; up-stream, up-country, the 

Huma (Arab.), a district, quarter. 
Humedal (Sp.), humid soil, marsh. 
Hunahuna (Madagascar), a marsh. 
Hundred (English), a division of a county, supposed to 

be named from originally containing 100 freemen 

or families. 
Hunk (Indian, U.S.A.), a fall or rapid in a stream. Cf. 

Hunnebed (Dch.), a tumulus. 
Huntha (Indian, California), town, village. 
Huolo (China), a village formerly enjoying autonomy. 
Hurst (England), a thick wood, e.g. Penshurst. Cf, 

Hurst (Sw.), a shrub, a thicket. 
Hurubbe (Arab.), tank or cistern. 
Hus, Huus (Da., Nor., Sw.), a house (H*). 


Hnsn (Arab,), a fortified dwelling. See Hosn. 

Husun {Swahili), a fort, from the above. 

Hutan (Malay), a wood ; never aspirated in * High 

Malay,' See TTtan. 
Htltte (Ger.), cottage, hut. 
Hutnng (Ger,), pasture-ground. 
Huns. See Ens. 
Huyen {Annam), town of the fourth order or capital of 

a sub-district. 
Hvita {Icel.), white, e.g. Hvita river. 
Hwang (China), yellow, frequently misspelled Hoang 

Huang, e.g. Hwang-ho, * yellow river.' See Ho. 
Hwe (Shan States), a stream. 
Hydor (Greek), water. 

Hyen Gyina^Bea (Gold Coast), harbour, roadstead. 
Hyma (Icel.), peak or summit of a mountain. 

I (China), barbarian, savage. See Jin. 

I (Madagascar), an article used only with proper names 

e.g. Ivohibe, ' the great mountain.' See Vohi, Be. 
I (Nung, LaO'kai), little, small. 
la (IndO'China), stream, torrent. 
I&ki (Fin.) J a river. 
lar, ler (Gaelic), west, e.g. Ardersier (Ard-Kos-Ier), ' the 

high western promontory.' See Ard, Kos. 
larvi (Fin.), a lake. 
lavn (Pula, China), water. 
lb (Hottentot). See Ep. 


Ibanzana {Kafir), See Banzana. 

Ibe (Ibo, Nigeria), a place, e.g. Ibe Ahun or Ibe Aynn, 

* that place/ * there/ equivalent to Hga. 
Ibn, pi. Beni {Arab.), son; as a geographical term it 

signifies producing, containing, &c., e.g. Ibn Ibrak, 

near Jaffa. See Beni. 
Ibotwe {Zulu, Kafir), the metropolis, the seat of 

government. See Botwe. 
Ibu {Galla, Abyssinia), a valley. 
Ich {Gaelic). See Och. 
Ich, Ichere {Turk.), inner. 

Ichinga {Gent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Hga. 
Ichipiri {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Piri. 
lohonde {Gent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Chonde. 
Ichweba {Kafir). See Chweba. 
Iciba {Kafir), a pool. 
Id, pi. Aadad {Egyptian Sudan), a well (especially in a 

desert). Another form is Ed. 
Ida {Marocco), tribe, district. 
Idala {Ja-Luo, Uganda). See Dala. 
Idebi {Kafir). See Debi. 
Ide-yu {Japan), warm spring. 
Idiza {Kafir). See Diza. 
Idlambi {Zulu, Kafir). See Dlambi. 
Idobela {Zulu, Kafir). See Dobela. 
Idzendze {Gent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Dzendze. 
Idziko {Gent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Ziko. 
le {Saxon), river, stream. Gf. E. 
lehaf {Arab.), a small mountain group. 
lelit {Wolof), governor. 


leto {Nandif Uganda), a place. 

Ifenya {Zulu, Kafir), a narrow piece of land at the foot 

of a mountain suitable for cultivation. See Fenya. 
IM (Berber), a grotto, cave, e.g. Jebel Ifren or Tefren, 

' the range of the cave-dwellers/ latinised Afer 

(Tunis), whence Africa. 
Ifiuo {Kafir), fallow ground. See Fubo. 
Igamba, Amagamba {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 

Igapo {Brazil). See under Igarape. 
Igarape {Brazil), a small river; brook; lit. in Tupi 

language a * boat way.' Applied especially to the 

affluents or feeders of Fnros (q.v.) and rising in the 

Igapos, or marshy tracts of forest. 
Igboro (Yoruba), a street. 
Ighazeng, Ighazekhsoa {Eskimo, Smith Sound), strait, 

Ighil {Kabile), a hill. 
Ighir {Shilluh, Marocco), a fort, castle, or fortified 

place, e.g. Agadhir-Ighir. 
Ighnman {Kabile), reeds. 
Igidi {Marocco), sand. 
Igiz {E. Turk.), lofty, elevated. 
Iglema {Eskimo, Smith Sound), terrace. 
Iglesia {Sp.), church, from i<K\f)<ria (ecclesia). 
Iglu (Eskimo), a house ; e.g. Iglu creek. 
Igreja (Port.), church. See Iglesia for derivation. 
Igzer (Kabile), a stream. 
Ihlabati (Zulu, Kafir). See Hlabati* 
Ihlane (Zulu, Kafir). See Hlane. 



Ihlati, dim. Ihlatana (Kafir). See Hlati. 
Ihlobo (Kafir). See Hlobo. 
li (Lolo, China), water, 
flara (Arab.), a farm, 
malje (Kilimane, Bantu), water, 
mw^jo (Giryama) ; for meaning see Mwijo. 
^jojo (Amaxosa, Kafir). See Jojo. 
Ijs (Dch.)y ice. 

Iju (Yoruba), wilderness, desert, ocean. 
Ikamat (Arab.), house, dwelling. 
Ikari (Japan), anchor, anchorage. 
-Ike (Cent Africa), suffix signifying * little.* 
Ike (Japan), pond, pool. 
Ike (Tibet), east. For other points see Lho. 
Ikhf (Kabile), cape, promontory. 
Iki, Ike, Ikhe (Mongol), great, large, e.g. Ike TTssu or Ulan 

Hoshu in Dolon-nor district. See Yike, Bagha. 
Iki (Polynesia), See Iti. 

Ikiflu (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kisu. 
dziko (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country. For 

other dialects see Ziko. 
Ikomkulu (Zulu, Kafir). See Komkulu. 
Ikot (Efih, Old Calabar, Nigeria), a landing-place, 

beach, e.g. Ikotaba, Ikot TTmian. Cf. Ikpa, Ikpere. 
Ikpa (Yoruba), track, way, path; in Efih, Old Calabar, 

means * beach/ e.g. Ama-Ikpa. Cf. Ikot, Ikpere. 
Ikpakpa (Yoruba), pasture ground. 
Ikpasse (Yoruba), track, footpath. 
Ikpere (Ibo, Nigeria), coast, bank. Cf. Ikot, Ikpa. 
Iku (MekeOjNew Guinea), mountain, peak, headland, cape. 


II (Basque) f new, e,g, Illiberis, * new town/ 

n, pi, Ilat (Turk.y Mongol), a tribe, especially nomad. 
Obher forms are Ilyat, Eleut, Oliut, the last two 
being applied collectively to all W. Mongols and 
their languages, while Ilyat comprises all sorts of 
tribes — Arab, Persian, Turki, Mongol — in Persia 
and Afghanistan. 

n {Bu8s.)y mud. 
mwlla (CongOf dialect of Bantu) , a small afSuent, a creek. 

lie (Fr.), an island, isle (I.) 

nha {Port.)y an island. 

Dhota {Port.)y an islet. 

Ilije (Turk.), hot springs. 

nindle (Zulu, Kafir), See Ndle. 

lUntle (Zulu, Kafir), See Htle. 

niwa {Zulu, Kafir), See Liwa. 

nizwa {Kafi r) . See Z wa. 

niagnl (Fula), an inlet or backwater, creek. 

niakei (Tamul), a fortress. 

lUe {Yoruba), earth, land, ground; a town. Cf. Illu. 

nie-babba (Yor^ia), fatherland. 

nie-ero (Yoruba), an inn. 

nie-iflho (Yoruba), a watch-tower. 

nie-obba (Yoruba), a kingdom, territory. 

lUeto (Yoruba), a town or village. 

Ulu (Yoruba), nation, country, people, town, village. 

lUu-keje (Yoruba), a small village, hamlet. 

niu-nla (Yoruba), a capital city. 

Hog (Tagala, PhiUppines), a river. 

Ilogan (Tagala, Philijypines), the mouth of a river. 

M 2 


noha (Kerepunu, New Guinea), cloud. 

Hot (JPr.), an islet. 

Hand! {dialect of Bantu), See Lnndi. 

Ilyat {Turk,, Mongol), See II. 

Im {Chin Hills), an affix meaning village, lit, a house, 

e.g, Mkwi Im, Kakh Im, villages near Pushum-tung, 

S. of Myittha B. See Im nu. 
Im (Ebon, Polynesia), a house. 
Im, Em (Sahara), people of, inhabitants, e.g, Imasro- 

dangh; Emegedesen, 'the inhabitants of Agades.' 

Cf. Tel, Ahel. 
kilma (Kamba, Bantu), a detached hill or mountain. 

Cf, Lima. 
Imbnkha {Lu-Wanga of the Awa-Bimi group, Uganda), 

See Bnkha. 
Ime {A'Zande), water. 
Imfomu, Mfamu, Mufamu, Fomu, pi, Afomu {Gent Africa, 

dialects of Bantu), See Fomu. 
Imiamba {Swahili). See Amba. 
Imichi, TTmuohi {Kossova, Uganda). See Chi. 
Imim {Marocco), the mouth of a ravine. Cf, Pum. 
Imitantato {Zulu, Kafir). See Tantato. 
Im nu {Chin Hills), an affix meaning * large village,' 

lit. many houses, e.g. Tai Im Hu, * the large village 

on the Tai E.* See Im. 
Impanga {Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), See 

Impiri {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Firi. 
In, fern. Tin {Berber) . This is the demonstrative pronoun 

followed by n ; it is found in many place-names 


e.g. In Hammu, Tin Erknk. The forms En, Wan, 

Wen, Ten, Tan are also found. 
In (Burma), lake. 
In {Wakhan, Pamirs), a pass. 
mwlnano {Makua, German East Africa), a boundary. 
Inaran {Tsarisen, Formosa), a village. 
Inayan {Puyuma, Formosa), a river. 
Inoenoeaha (Zulu, Kafir), SeeCenceshA. 
lacli {Scotch and Irish), aji island, a corruption of Gaelic 

Innis, e.g. Inohiqnin. 
Inchi (Swahili). See Chi. 
Inohike {Cent. Asia), narrow. 
Indatataknohaak {Indian, U.S.A.), valley. 
Indawo {Kafir). See Dawo. 
Indibonga {Zulu, Kafir). See Dibonga. 
Indimnalahik {Indian, U.S.A.), lake. 
Indlandlatn {Zulu, Kafir). See Dlandlatu. 
Indlela, dim. Indlelanda {Kafir), See Dlela. 
Indlu {Kafir). See Dlu. 
Indre {Da., Nor.), inner. Cf. Yder, Inre. 
Indso {Da., Nor.), a lake. Cf. Insjd. 
-Indu, -Hdo, -Handi {Cent. Africa), little (suflBx). 
Inengea {MeJceo, New Guinea), a path. Cf. Keanga. 
-Ing {Anglo-Saxon), suffix meaning 'meadow,* e.g. 

Wapping ; used also otherwise than as a suffix, e.g. 

Sloothby Ings, i.e. * Sloothby meadows ' ; also a 

patronymic suffix, ' sons of,' e.g. Beading. Cf. Ingen. 
•Ing {Indian, U.S.A.), an inflexion signifying in, on, at. 
Ingebftude {Ger.), a building within an enclosure or 



Ingen (Ger.), sons of, e,g, TtLbingen. Of. -Ing {Anglo- 

Ingone, dim, Ingonono {Zulu, Kafir), See Ngone. 
Ingot Bage {Sumatra), the rice-stores in the Batak 

villages. Of. Bale, Knmah. 
Ingnna {Bintukwa Indians, U.S, of Colombia), road, 

Ingzangzaii {Zulu, Kafir).. See GFxangxasi. 
Ingzoboza {Zulu, Kafir), See Gkoboza. 
Inhlazuka {Zulu, Kafir). See Hlaznka. 
Inja {Maslio^ialand), a prefix meaning 'place of/ e.g, 

Iiga ka Fura, * water place,* river. See Fura. 
Iiye {Turk,), narrow, e,g, Injc Bumn, * narrow cape,' on 

the north coast of Asia Minor. See Buron. 
Injira {Lu-Wanga of the Awa-Bimi group, Uganda). 

See Jira. 
Inkalo {Zulu, Kafir). See Kalo. 
Inkaya {Bantu). See Kaya. 
Inknndla {Zulu, Kafir), See Kundla. 
Innis {Gaelic), an island, e.g. Innismore, ' great island * ; 

Innis Beg, ' little island.' Cf Ennis. See More, Beg. 
Innqaba {Kafir). See Nqaba. 
Inqnbu {Zulu, Kafir). See Nqaba. 
Inre {Sw ), inner. Cf, Indre. 
Insel {Ger.), an island. 
Insi {dialect of Bantu), See Inzi. 
Insila {dialect of Bantu), See Zila. 
Insimi {Zulu, Kafir). See Simi. 
Insirem {Gold Coast), a camp. 
InBJo (Sw.), a lake. Cf Iiidsd. 


Inmi (Gold Coast), water, e.g.A^n Insa, ' sea water/ the 

sea. See Apn. 
LiBimg^ (Kafir). See Snngiizi. 
Intatyana (Kafir). See Tatyana. 
Intendeleko (Zulu, Kafir). See Tendeleko. 
Interfleuve (U.S.A.) the upland separating two streams 

having approximately parallel courses. 
Intile (Zulu, Kafir), a flat strip of country, or a small 

valley running parallel with a river, and suitable 

for cultivation. 
Intir&n (Tamul), east ; for other points see Tadakku. 
Intla (Zulu, Kafir). See Ntla. 
Intumi (Zulu, Kafir). See Tsimi. 
Inuma (Rubiana, Solomon Is.), plantation, garden. 
Inver- (Gaelic), a prefix meaning the confluence of two 

rivers, or of a river and the sea, e.g. Invemess; 

occurs only in Scotland and Ireland, never in 

Wales, while the equivalent Aber (q,v.) occurs only 

in Wales and Scotland, never in Ireland. 
Invemada (Spanish S. America), good pasture-land 

especially fitted for fattening cattle. 
Inwijk (Dch.)y creek, inlet, bay. 
TnygnTftri (Zulu, Kafir). See Hxaaxasi. 
Inziwa (Zulu, Kafir). See Nxiwa. 
Inxuluma (Zulu, Kafir). See Nxuluma. 
Inyanza (Lu-Wanga of the Awa-Rimi group, Uganda). 

See Nyanza. 
Inyatoko (Zulu, Kafir). See Nyatnko. 
Inzella (Marocco), the outbuildings of a Easba (q.v.), for 

the accommodation of travellers. 


TTiri, InsL, Nzio (Gent Africa^ dialects of Bantu). See 
Nzi, Nsi. 
minei (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water ; for other 
forms see Maiud. 

Inzila (Bantu), See Zila; cf Zira. 

Inzira (Bantu). See Zira ; cf Zila. 

Inzn (Lu'Wanga, Uganda). See Nzu. 

loki (Fin.), a river. 

Ion (Wolof), a road, path, track. 

Ip (Hottentot). See Ep. 

Ipiro (Mozambique). See Piro. 

Ira (Yoruba), morass, bog, fen. 

Iri (Mossi), an inhabited place of less importance than 
a capital. 

Iril (Kabile), a hill. 

Iriso (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Isote. 

Iriwa (Zulu, Kafir). See Siwa. 

Irmak (Turk.), a river, e.g. Kiadl Irmak, 'red river.' 
See Kizil. 
mwlm (Gent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a forest, bush. 

Irzir (Berber), a ravine, dim. Thirzarth. 

Is (Welsh), lower, e.g. Isooed. See Coed. Gf Isaf, Issa. 

Isa (Songhai), a river, the river, i.e. the Niger. The 
Songhai Isa, the Yoruba Kwara, the Temashight 
and Hausa Eghirr'du (all applied to the Niger), the 
Kuka Fittri, the Kotoko Shari, Sari, and also Tsad 
(Chad) or rather Tsadhe, which is only another 
pronunciation of Saghe, Bare, all mean ' water/ 
* river.' 

Isa Ber, Isa Haribi, Isa Homo (Songhai), the sea. 


Luif {Welsh), lowest, e.g. Boad Isaf, in Bamsey Island. 

Isaka (dialect of Bantu). See Saka. 

Isantwenka (Zulu, Kafir). See Antwenka. 

Isaznza (Zulu, Kafi,r). See Aznlu. 

lwf,pL Bisep (Fan, French Congo). See Sep. 

Iseweri (Ketosh, Uganda). See Eweri. 

Iflh (N. Africa), a peak. 

Iflhan-omi (Yoruha), tide, current. 

Ishi (Japan), stone, rock. 

Iribaza (Zulu, Kafir). See Baza. 

Isidiliya (Zulu, Kafir). See Diliya. 

Isigqama (Zulu, Kafir). See Gqnma. 

Isigqimyana (Zulu, Kafir). See Oqnnyana. 

Ifikaulo (Kafir). See Kaulo. 

Iflikoba (Kafir). See Koba. 

Inkumbu (Zulu, Kafir). See Knmbn. 

Itikimga (Zulu, Kafir). See Kungn. 

Iflinene (Zulu, Kafir). See Nene. 

Isinga (Kafir). See Nga. 

Inipalnko, dim. Isipaliikana (Zulu, Kafir). See Palnko. 

Iripambusa (Kafir). See Pambusa. 

Ifliqiti (Kafir). See Qiti. 

Ifliqwato (Zulu, Kafir). See Owato. 

Isiroqoba (Zulu, Kafir). See Boqoba. 

Ifliteleti (Zi/Zi^, Kafir). See Teleti. 

Iflitn (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Situ. 

Ldtya (Zulu, Kafir). See Tya. 

Isixa (Zulu, Kafir). See Xa. 

Isixeko (Zulu, Kafir). See Xeko. 

Isizeba (Kafir). See Zeba. 


Iflizwe (Kafir). See Zwe. 

Iflkele (Turk,), a Ianding-plaK3e. 

Isla (Sp,), an island. 

Isla {Spanish S. America)^ same meaning as Caapan 

Uleo (Sp.)i an island formed by rocks. 
Isleta (Sp.), an islet. 

Iso {Fin,), great, e.g. Isojoki in Vasa. See Joki. 
Iso {Yoruba), quarter, station. 
Isoa, Masoa, XTswa {Cent. Africa^ dialects of Bantu). 

See Soa, Swa. 
Isoba {Zulu, Kafir). See Oba. 
Isoko {Yoruba), moorage. 
Isola {It.)t an island (I.) 

Isore {Cent. Africa , dialect of Bantu). See Sore. 
Isote, Isore, Iriso {Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), 

grass. See Sote, Sore Biso. 
Issa {Songhai, Timbuktu), south, lit. the river, the 

Niger, another form. of Isa {q.v.) 
Issa, Isaf {Welsh), lowest, e.g. Cwnnws Issa. CJ. Is. 
Issa hoimo {Songhai), sea. 
Is sha {Indian, California), water. 
Issi {Turk.), warm. See next entry. 
Issik {Turkestan), warmer, e.g. Issik-kiil= warmer lake. 

See Knl. 
Istmo {It., Sp.), an isthmus. 
Isua {Fanti), a strait. 
It {Polynesia). See Iti. 

Itahan {Fin.), eastern. For other points see Pohia. 
Itale {Bantu). See Tale. 


Itam (Malay), black ; often aspirated, Hitam ; e,g, 

Mt. Itam in the south of the Malay Peninsula. 
Itametta (Yoruba), a place where three ways meet. 
Itedo {Yoruba)f an encampment. 
ItegvL {ZulUy Kafir). See Tegu. 

Iterlekhfloa, Iterleng (Eskimo, Smith Sound), bay, gulf. 
Iti, It, Hgiti, Itiiti, Iki (Polynesia), small, e.g. Maiao-Iti, 

' little Maiao.' 
Itifa (Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), See Tifa. 
Itiiti (Polynesia). See Iti. 
Itillema (Soninke), bush, wood, grass. 
Itsiel (Yambo, Upper Sobat B.), house, hut. 
Itu (Maiva, New Guinea), house. 
Ivakavaka (Zulu, Kafir), See Takavaka. 
Ivando (Fin,), an estuary. 

Ivavao (Kuvaratcan, Pei-po, Formosa), a mountain. 
Iwa (Burma), a village. 
Iwa (Japan), rock, rock in the sea. 
Iwanda (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), See Wanda. 
Ixandeka (Zulu, Kafir), See Xandeka. 
lye (Japan), a house. 
lyo (Ja-Luo, Uganda), path, road. 
Izba (Bv^s,), a hut. 
mlii (Karanga, Bantu), a river, 
nrnizi (Gent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 
Iziboko (Kafir), See Zibnko. 
Izira (Gent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), See Zira. 
Iziwa (Lusinga and Ghula, Uganda), See Ziwa. 
Izwe (Kafir). See Zwe. 


Jo- {Nilotic Kavirondo, Uganda)^ a prefix signifying 
clan or tribe, e.g. Ja-luo. Cf, Ka, Taka. 

Ja {Per 8.)^ a place. 

Ja {Tihet)y signifies extent. 

Jada {Per8.)y a road, pathway. 

Jadid {Arab), new, e.g. Trik el Jadid, 'the new road.' 
Cf. Jedid. See Trik. 

Jaga {Punjab), a place, a spot. 

Jaghfar {Arab.), a river, either large or small. 

Jakon {Malay), wild tribes ; applied vaguely both to 
the Negrito aborigines and to the Malay wild 
tribes of the Malay Peninsula. 

Jala {Sansc), a mass of water, a lake. 

Jalan {Malay), road. 

Jali {Arab., N. Africa), palms left without cultivation. 

Jam {Bintukwa Indiana, U.S. of Colombia), snow, 

Jam {Arab.), Jami {Turk.), Jamia {Arab., Palestine), 
mosque. The Turkish is borrowed from the 
Arabic, in which language Jam*, Jam'a, properly 
means collection, then assembly, congregation, 
mosque. This occurs as Jama in Hassania. 

Jamana {Soninke), country. 

Jan {Manchuria), a station, post. 

Jana {Pali), people. 

Jangal {Sansc, Hind.), forest, wood ; corrupted into 


maJani (Swahili), grass. 

Jarita (Hind.), brushwood, undergrowth. 

JfimTig (Sw,), railway. 

Jarur (Arab.), a river, stream. 

Jarvi (Fin,), lake. Cf, Jaur. 

Jasor (Slavonic), a marsh, bog. 

Jatar (Punjab), cultivated land. 

Jaime (Fr,), yellow, e.g. Fleuve Jaime, i.e. Hwang Ho (q.v.) 

Jaur (Fin.), a lake. Cf. Jarvi. 

Jay (E. Turk.), place, spot. 

Jaza (Slavonic), a house, e.g. Jasohen. 

Jazar (Arab.), islands. 

Jazirah (Arab.) See Jezira. 

Jebel, pi. Jebal (Arab.), a mountain, e.g. Jebel Ahmar, 

' Bed Mt.' Cf. Oebel. 
Jedar, Jedir (Arab.), a look-out place on a road, generally 

made of stones ; the wall of an enclosure ; rampart, 

Jedid (Arab.) See Jadid. 
Jeel (Anglo-Indian), a corruption of the Hind. Jhil, a 

stagnant sheet of water, mere, lagoon. In East 

Bengal the form Bheel (q.v.) is used. 
Jelal (Somali), the dry season. 
Jelyezo (Buss.), iron. See next entry and Zhelyezo. 
Jelyeznaya Doroga (Buss.), a railway. Lit. 'iron road.' 
Jembatan (Malay), jetty, mole, bridge. 
Jenan, Jenien (Arab., N. Africa), a garden, e.g. Jenien 

Jeni. See Teni, which is the proper English spellings 
Jenien (Arab.^ N. Africa). See Jenan. 


Jei^jub {Turk.), southerly. 

Jei^jiui {Manchuria), general-in-chief of a large district, 

viceroy with both civil and military jurisdiction. 
n Jera {Cent Africa, Bantu), a road. Cf. Zila, Dzira. 
Jeram {Malay Peninsula), a rapid in a river, e.g, Jeram 

Batu Oendang on Perak E. See Batu. 
Jerf {Arab.), quay, wharf. 
3ett{Arah., N. Africa). See Jorf. 
Jembane {Da., Nor.), a railway. 
JetSe {Fr.), a jetty, pier (J**). 
Jetwela {Congo), the horizon, from Jeta, to revolve, to 

Jewun {Indian, U.S. A.), a stream. 
Jezero {Servian), a lake, e.g. Malo Jezero. {Pol.) Jezioro. 
Jezira, Zira, ^Z. Jezair, Zair {Arab.), an island,'peninsula, 

e.g. Algbziras, El Jezire (Mesopotaviia). 
Jhalars {Punjab), wells. 
Jhil {Hind.) See Jeel. 
-Ji, -gi, -zhi {Nupe, Nigeria), a termination signifying 

* town,' * village,* e.g. Kaboji, Ettungfi. 
Ji, Jini {Soninke, Bambara), water. 
maJi {Cent. Africa, Bantu), water. See Mansi. 
muJi {Cent. Africa, Bantu), a town. Cf. Musi, 
n Jia {Bantu), a road, path. Cf Zira, Sila, Jila. 
Jibal {Arab.), mountains. See Jebel, of the pi. of which 

this is a variant. 
Jih {China), a post station. 
Jiji {Songhai), north. See Diaman, Wene Kame. 
ki Jiji {Swahili), a village, e.g. XTjiji, on Tanganyika ; for 

pi. see Kijiji. 


{Bantu), a road, path. C/. Zira, Jia, Sila. 


Jilgba {E, Turk.), a deep straight valley. 
. Jima (Japan), an island, e.g. Awa Jima ; used in com- 
pounds for Sima (q.v.) See also Shima. 
Jin {China), men, people, whence * China,' the Hind. 
* Chin,* and the Arabo-Pers. * Sin,* which gives 
the classical * Sinse * and our * Sinsean,* * Sinology.' 
I-Jin, * barbarians,' * barbarian people,' a term ap- 
plied to all foreigners, now forbidden, by treaty, 
to be used in ofl&cial documents. See I. 
Jin = Chin =Naru= Komi {Korea), a ferry, e.g. XTl-jin. 
Jinde {Sanghai), a tributary of a stream ; confluence ; 

col, gorge. 
e Jinga {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ejinga. 
kinJingela {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a whirlpool, from 
Jinga, to coil or curl, hence * an eddy.' 
Jingere-Ber {Songhai), a mosque. 
Jingira {Hind.), an island. See Dip, Lanka. 
Jini {Soninke). See Ji. 
Jinna {Yoruba), far distant. 
Jiojia {Mentawei), water. 
Jir {Shignaii), a mountain. 
inJira) {Lu-Wanga, Uganda), path, road; for other 
nJira) Bantu forms see Zila, Zira. 

Jiar {Arab.), a bridge. 
kiJito {Swahili), brook, small stream ; tor pi. see Kijito. 
Joch {Switzerland), a pass, ridge (J.) 
iJojo {Zulu, Kafir), a sour-grass country ; a moist, damp 
climate or locality. 


Joki (Fin,), a river. 

Joki sen (Japan), a steamer. 

Joki Bha {Japan), a railway. 

JOkuU {Icelandic), an ice-covered mountain or plateau, 
e,g, Myrdalsjokull, TatnajokuU. 

Joliba. See Dhinliba. 

Jombo {Swahili), a very large dhow. 
e Jondi (Kamerun), an island. 

Jong {Tibet), a broad valley ; also a fort, e.g. Tinkijong, 
• the fort of the Tinki district.' 
en Jora {Masai, E. Africa), mimosa, pi. Njora, applied to 
a swamp where these trees grow. 

Jorf, Jerf {Arab., N. Africa), an escarpment. 

Joro {Fula), a residence, e.g. Joro Kabdn, ' the residence 
of the chief Kabdn.' 

Jozo {Madagascar), a junk, e.g. Anjozobe, ' at the place 
where there are many junks.' See An, Be. 

Jn (Korea). See Jyn. 

Jn, Jo {Pers.), a stream, brook ; from Old Pers. Gni. 
aJn {German East Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Aja. 

Jnbb {Arab.), a well, pit. 

Jnbe {Mande), a ford, e.g. Jnbeba, 'river ford.' Cf. Ox- 
ford. See Ba, Jnde. 

Jnde {Fula), a ford. See Jnbe. 

Jndetzi {Bumania), districts. 

Jng {Tibet), below ; an embouchure. 

Jni-bar {Pers.), a large river receiving many streams. 

Jnma {Serer, Wolof), a mosque. Cf Jam. 

Jnmba {Swahili), a palace. 
eJnndi {Kamerun). See Jondi. 


Jnng (Malay), a large trading vessel ; anglicised Junk ; 

from the Chinese Chwan. 
Jung (Mongol), right, west. For other points see Aro. 
Jnngle. See Jaagal. 
Junk. See Jnng. 
Jnnnbi {Hind,), south. (7/ Dakhni. For other points 

see Xrttar. 
Jnr {Armenia), water. 
Jnrang {Malay), a creek. Cf, Chnrang. 
Jnrdide {Adamawa), a mosque. 
Jyn, Jn (Korea), a magisterial town of the first class ; 

occurs also as Chyn, Chn. 

Ka (Arab.), a plain. 

Ka (Congo), small (river), e.g. Ka Bnnda, Kabiboko. Cf, Ln. 

Ka (Congo), an abbreviation of Kazembe, great chief, 

prince ; e.g. Ka-Tanga, Prince Tanga, now applied to 

the territory of the chief, in this case situated in 

S.E. of Congo Free State. 
Ka (Indian, U.S.A.), a forest. 
Ka- (Mashonaland), prefix meaning 'great,* e.g. Kafnrass 

great Fnra. See Fura. 
Ka (Min-Kia, Yunnan), high, lofty (of a mountain). 
Ka (Nilotic Kavirondo, Uganda), a prefix meaning ' clan ' 

or ' tribe.' Cf. Ja, Taka. 
Ka (Shan States), hill people, equivalent to the Moi of 

Ka (Soninke), house, dwelling. 



Ka (Tibet), snow; also the mouth, banks of a river. 

Cf. Kaba. 
Kaa (Arab.), earth, land. 
Eaai (Dch.), wharf, mole, quay. 
Kaap (Dch.)y a cape. 
Kaar (Ger.), a little valley encircled by mountains like 

an amphitheatre. 
Kaba (Togo), house, dwelling. 
Kaba (Tibet), snow. Cf. Ka. 
Kaba-knm (Turk.), gravel. 
Kabba (N. Nigeria), stone, rock, hence the name of the 

province (Kabba), one of the most striking features 

of which is the large number of isolated peaks ; 

e.g. the stone of leri, the stone of Semarika. 
Kabbehtroom (Dch.), stream, rivulet, brook. 
Kabelang (Ebon, Polynesia), west. For other points 

see Eung. 
Kabike (New Guinea), a house. 
Kabila (Arab., Shahpur, Punjab), a family, being a 

subdivision of the Mnhi, or clan, the Arabic word 

meaning * race,' * tribe.' 
„ (Swahili), any community of people ; borrowed 

from Arab. 
„ (Marocco, Algeria), tribe; applied collectively 

to the Berbers of the coast, and now to their 

territory in Algeria (Kairile, Kabilia, dec.) 
Kabli (Kanarese, W. coast of Rmdustan), west. For 

other points see Gi. 
Kablunak (Eskimo), white people. 
Kabr (Soniali), graves, e.g. Kabr Ogaden, *Ogaden 



Kabulula {Kiriwina, New Guinea), a point of land. 
Kaoboha [Punjab) y land annually inundated by the 

ordinary floods. Of. Bela. 
Ka Chia {Miao-tse, Kwei-chau), a cave. 
Kaohor (Mongol), detour, bend, gulf. 
Kad (Arab.), a shoal. 

Kadamka, Katarnka (Hausa), a bridge. See Kaderlm. 
Kadda (Danakil), great, large, e.g. Kaddas Mt. 
Kadda (New Guinea), a house. 
Kade (Dch.), quay or dam. 
Kade (Gonja), an inhabited place of less importance 

than a capital. 
Kaderku (Haicsa), a bridge. See Kadaraka. 

li (Madagascar), a modified form of hadi, used in 

composition, ditch, trench, thus ankadisr' the place 

where the ditch is,' at the ditch, e.g. Ankadivori, ' at 

the circular trench,' Hadivor, * the circular trench.' 

See An. 

(Arab.), old, e.g. Bind Kadim, ' the old capital,' 

i.e. of Bomu. See Bimi. 
Kadis (Turk.), saint, holy ; from Arab, quds, qudsi, pure, 

Kad-Jak (Alaska). See Eikhtak. 
Kado, pi. Hade (Fula), blacks ; autonomous race ; 

strangers, e.g. Oaro-n-Kado. 
Kadgaka (Nika), a small forest. See Dzaka. 
TCadzidri (Nika). See Dzidzi. 
Kadznko (Giryama, Nika). See Dzuho. 
Kaeaona (Kabadi, Neiv Guinea)^ east. 
Kaf (Arab.), escarpment. Cf. Kef. 


Kafir (Arab.), infidel, pL Kufra (q.v,), e.g. Kafiriftan. 
Kafr (Arab,) (Hebrew, Caphar), a village, e,g. Kafr 6t Tin, 

' fig village ' ; also a saline swamp. 
KaMd (Nika). See Fnfa. 
Kaga {French Congo, dialect of Bantu), See Ga. 
Kaga (Sara, L. Chad), a forest. Cf. Mbnnga. 
Kagara, Oagara (Hausa), a fortification, barracks. 
Slaget, Kakat (Alaska, Lower Yukon region), equivalent 

to Chaget (q,v.) 
Kahala (Arab., N. Africa). See Aklial. 
Kahf (Arab.), cave, large cavern. 
Kah mu ke (Pimo Indian), a town. 
Kahn (Arab.), a market. 
K«.hnfAhre (Ger.), ferry by wherry. 
Ka ho ku ska ma (Indian, Calif omiay, valley, ravine. 
KaY (China, Shan States, Hainan), market, bazaar, e.g. 

Sin-Kai, ' new market,' the Chinese name for 

Bhamo. See Sin, Bha, Maw. 
KaV (Sahara), the mouth or junction of a stream. 
Kai (Japan), sea. 
Kai (Polynesia). See Tai. 

Ka^'a (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kaya. 
Kaikara (Motumotu, New Guinea), the deep sea. 
Kaimakam (Turk.), sub-governor of a Kaza (q.v.) The 

proper form is Kaimakan for Kaimaikin. 
Kaimen (Nandi, Uganda), west. Cf. Murot. 
Kaiser (Ger.), emperor, e.g. Kaiserstadt. 
Kaita (Nandi, Uganda), a town. 

(Cambodia), Buddhist pyramid, 
(Fin.), a rivulet. 
Kajmn (Bomu), grass. 


Eakat (Alaska, Lower Yukon region), a river; e.g. 

Allenkakat, Daklikakat. See Kaget, Chaget, Ha. 
Kakh (Pers.), a palace, villa. 
Kakir {E. Turk), dry hard ground. 
Kakkar {Punjab), snow. 
nKaku (Congo, dialect of Bantu). For meaning see 

Kala, Kalat, pi Kila, ILalajat (Arab., Pers.), village, 

fortress, castle, e.g. Basb-ILala. Cf. Kasr, Gktla, 

Kale. The proper Arab, form is qala't. 
ILala (Caucasus), cliff, bluff. 
Kala (Hind.), black, e.g. Kalabagh on the Indus. 
luKala (Ketosh and Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a village. 
Kalajvik (Turk.), a little castle. See Kala. 
-Kalamba, -Kununba (Cent. Africa), suffix signifying 

' great.' 
Kalan (Pers.), great, e.g. Mir Kalan, ' big mountain,' 

Pamir-i-Kalan, ' Great Pamir.' 
nKalango (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a forest, 

Kale (Turk.), castle, e.g. Teni Kale, * new castle.' See 

Kala, really the same word. 
Kaledets (Buss.), a well. 
Kali (Malay), a river. 

ii (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), bitter. 

See under Makali. 
Kalkofen (Ger.), a limekihi (E.O.) 
Kallar, Kalri (Punjab), land impregnated with salt. 
Kallar Shor (Shahpur, Punjab), the efflorescence which 

appears on the surface under the influence of 


evaporation and capillary attraction whenever 

there is much salt in the soil. 
Kalle (Fula), house, cottage. 
Kallu (Tamut), a rock, cliff. 
Kalmelo {Songhai), a gorge. 
inKalo {Zulu, Kafir), a neck or opening in a mountain 

Kalri (Punjab). See Eallar. 
Kalt (Ger,), cold, e,g. Kaltbad. See Bad. 
Kalv {Da,, Nor.), a detached islet, a small rock or islet 

alongside a larger one. Cf, The Calf of Man. 
Kalwa (Deccan), river, watercourse. 
Kam {Annam), a village. 
Kam {Dch.), a ridge (of hills). 
Kam, Kham {Tibet), region, e.g. Tang Kham in Eastern 

6 Kam {Congo, dialect of Bantu), water. 
Kamalig {Tagala, Philippines), a storehouse. 
Kamana {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Mana. 
Kamane {Bagirmi, Chad L. region), a shallow water- 
nKambalalu {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a pass between 

Kame (?7.S.^.),asmall hill of gravel or sand made by a 

Kamechi {Ketosh, Uganda). See Mechi. 
Kamen {Buss.), stone, rock, e.g. Kamenitd point, island, 

and bay. See next entry. 
Kamen {S. Slavonic), a stone, boundary (Km.) See 



Kami {Japan), upper, lit. chief, e,g. Kami-tsu-Ke supper 

Kamidi, Kamush {Cent, Asia), reeds. 
Kanun {Ger.), a crest, ridge. 
Kamoro {Ja-Luo, Uganda), a place, site. 
Kamp (Dch.)j a camp, eg, Maleskamp. 
Kampong {Malay), an en closure ; collection of houses, 

village, e,g, Kampong Bantau. See Bantau. 
Kamush {Cent, Asia), See Kamish. 
Kan {India), a quarry, mine. 
Kana, ^Z. Kanat {Arab.), channel, aqueduct. 
Kanaal {Dch.), a canal. 
Kanal {Ger., Buss.), a channel. 
Kanal {Da., Nor,, Sw.), a canal. 
Kanali {Fin.), a channel. 
Kanan {Arab.), ridge or spur. 
Kanan {Sansc), forest, desert. 
Kanat {Pers, from Arab.), underground conduits. See 

Kand {Pers.) See Kend. 
Kanda {Bavibara, Sudan), a country, district. 
eKanda {Congo, dialect of Bantu), clan, family. 
Kanda-hela {Singalese), mountain, hill. 
Kandald {Hausa), a house. 
Kane {Japan), metal ; makes Gane in compounds, as 

Aki Oane, red metal, copper. 
Kang {China), a mountain ridge ; village. Cf. Keng. 
Kang {Shahpur, Punjab), a sudden high flood of a 

Kang {Tibet), a house. 


eKanga {Congo^ dialect of Bantu) y wilderness, barren soil. 
Kangka {Malay Pen.), Chinese village. 
Kaiigo, pL Akango {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a 

chief. See Ngo. 
Kang-sar {Tibet), new house, village. 
Kani, Keai {Kurdish), a spring. 
maKani {Swahili), a village, dwelling. For other forms 

see Makao. 
Ka ni kwi ni ka {Hudson Bay region), long island. 
Kanisa {Pers,, Swahili), a church. 
Kanka {Congo, dialect of Bayitu), See Nka. 
Kanona {Kabadi, New Guinea), earth. 
Kant {Dch,), side, edge, brink. 
Kantara,^!. Knater {Arab,), a bridge. 
Kao {China), high, lofty. 
Kao {Siam), hill. 
ma Kao {Swahili), a village. For other forms see Makao. 
Kapa {E, Turk,), cottage, hut. 
Kapal {Malay), a ship. Kapal-api, 'fire-ship,' i.e. 

steamer ; k&pal-layer, ' sailing-ship ' (layer = sail), 

k&pal-prang, ' battleship ' (prang = battle, war). 

See Api. 
Ka pe {India7i, California), a river. 
Kapel {Dch.), \ ^^ 
Kapelliya {Rus8.),\ ^ 
Kapelle {Ger.), chapel (Kpl.) 
Kapn {Turk.), gate, pass. 
Kar {Beja, Nubia), a well, e.g. Tokar, * The Well,' to 

being the fe7n. article ; also ravine, valley. 
Kar {E. Turk.), snow, e.g. Chnm-kar-kashka glacier. 


Kar {Tibet), strong castle, citadel. 

Kara {Turk,, Cent Asia), black, e.g. Kara-hiBsar, Kara- 
deniz. See Deniz, Hissar. 

Kara (Hatisa), reeds. 

Kara (Galla), a road. 

Kara (Madagascar), a modified form of harana, rock, 
used in composition, thus ankara=the place where 
the rock is, e.g, Ankaramalaza, ' at the famous rock,' 
Ankaranandriana, 'at the nobleman's rock.' Cf* 
Bato. See An, Andriana. 

Karaga (Bornu), a wilderness, forest, e,g. Sak el karaga, 
'the market in the wilderness,' an Arab hybrid 
name for Doka; Karaga tselim, 'dark forest,' 
'dense forest.' See Dirride, Suk, Tselim. 

Karahi, Karhat (Punjab), cultivated land embanked to 
catch the drainage ofif higher ground. 

Karaja (Turk.), black, e.g, Karaja dagh. Cf. Kara. See 

Karan (Ataiyal, Formosa), a village. 

Karang (Malay), coral reef ; any reef or shoal. 

Kar&ra (Hind.) See Ardra. 

Karatd (Turk.), guard-post ; watch-house. 

Karazana (Madagascar), race, tribe. 

Kare (Upper Nile), a river. 

Kare (Mossi, French Sudan), forest, wood, bush. 

Kclrez (Pers,, Afghanistan), a subterranean canal. Cf. 
Kana, Kanat. 

Karhat (Punjab). See Karahi. 

Kari (Fin.), rock, islet. 
i (Hind.), a river. 


Karia (Somali) , a village. See below, 

Karia (Arab.), a built village as opposed to a tent 

village (Daar). Cf. Beled. 
Kariba {ZambeziUf dialect of Bantu), Cf, Kariva. See 

Karifl, Karfi (Hausa), iron, e.g. Koto-n-karft, ' iron district/ 

n being the sign of the possessive. See Koto. 
Earikara {Motumotu, New Guinea) , a village. 
Karin (Somali), a pass, e,g. Karin daga, 'rocky pass.' 

See Daga. 
Kariva (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), See Eiva; cf. 

Karkarpa (Tibet), rain. 
Kam (Arab.), a peaked hill. 
Karnak (Chad L. region), a capital town, e.g. Kamak 

Kar-po (Tibet), white, e.g. Lo kar-po in South-eastern 

Tibet. Cf Nag-po. 
Karra (Galla), road, path. 
Karra (Songhai), a gorge. 
Karri (Araucanian, Patagonia), green, e.g. Karrilenfa, 

* green river.' 

Karroo (Gape Dch.), from a Hottentot word meaning 

* dry place * ; now a geographical term indicating 
certain districts ; frequently spelled Karoo. 

Karta (Fin.), cape, point. 

Karu (Hind.), a point. 

Karuba (Kabile), a quarter in a village. 

Kasa (Fiji.), a beacon. 

Kaaa, pi. Kasaslii (Hausa), earth, land. 


Kasab (Arab,), town, large village. 
Ka sa ghie (Miao-tsey Kwei-chau), sand. 
Kasba (Arab.), town^ small city ; pi. Ksabi. 
„ {Arab,f Algeria) , a citadel. 
„ {Punjab), a small town. 
Kash {E, Turk,), bank, shore, border. 
Ka sho {Indian, California), a lake. 
Kasliim {Mongol), brackish, e,g. Kashnn Nor, ' brackish 

lake.' See Nor. 
Ka sit cha {Indian, U.S.A.), a bog, marsh. 
Kaar {Arab.), a castle, a palace, e.g. Kasr el amad, 'the 

castle of pillars.' Gf. Kala. 
Kassaba {Turk.), town, ranking between city and 

village, i.e. between Sheher (Shehr) and Kioi. 
Kassar {Arab.), a rock either above or below water. 
Kaflteel {Dch.), a castle, ^from Lat. castellnm, for oas- 
Kastelli {Neo-Greek), a^teraluin=a small fort, from 

castle. (oastmm. 

Kastro, Kastron {Neo-Greek), castle, fortress, e.g. Neo- 

kastro, ' new castle.* 
Kasuka {Chad L. region), a market, e.g. Uje kasnkula. 
Kasolo {Upper Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Sulo. 
Kata {China), places where there were boundaries. 
Kata {Japa7i), a lake near the coast. 
Katah, Katat {Arab.), a patch of rocks. 
Katai {Beni Avier, Suakin), a pass. 
Katama {Abyssinia), town, village. 
Katamka {Hausa). See Kadamka. 
Kather {Mongol), land, territory, place. 
Katilish {E. Turk.), confluence. 


Kato {Greek), lower, e.g. Sato Kotamia in Elis. 

Katome {Indian^ California), sea. 

Eatsa (Indian f California), grass. 

Katsi {Nigeria), farming, e.g. Bafam Katae = the district 

of Bafiim where farming is chiefly carried on. 
Eatta {Cent. Asia), large, e.g. Katta Korghan. See 

Kattik {E. Turk.), hard, firm (ground). 
Kau {China), mouth of a river. 
Kaudi {Bornu), a yard set apart for weaving cotton. 
Kau iho {Hawaii), a place. 
Kaoit {Tagala and Bisayan, Philippines), a creek, 

bend, or hook ; frequently used to name a point. 
Kan le {Min-Kia, Yunnan), stream. Cf. Kurh, Churh. 
isiKanlo {Kafir), a boundary. 

Kama, Kom {Punjab), a people, race, tribe, family, or 

Kauponki {Fin.), a town. 

Kaoritape {Motumotu, New Guinea), east. Cf. Seipi. 
Kaus (^ra&.), the winter south-east winds of the Persian 

Gulf. Cf. Sharki. 
Kavara {Kabadi, New Guinea), sea. 
Kavarapakana {Kabadi, New Guinea), the deep sea. 
Kavir {Pers. from Arab. Kebir, q.v.), great, e.g. Pasht-i- 

Kavir, the ' Great (Salt) Desert.' 
Kavo {NeO'Greek), cape, promontory ; loan word from 

Ital. Capo. 
Kavum {Motumotu, New Guinea), grass. 
Kaw {Malay), an island. 
Kawa {Tibet), snow. 


Eawa (Japan), stream, river, e.g. ShirarKawa. Cf. Ko 
gawa. See Ko. 

Eawala (Malay), mouth of a river. 

Kaya, maKaya, in Kay a, aKaya, Kajja, Tuaija {Cent. 
Africa, Bantu dialects), a town. 

Kaya (Hausa), thorn, thorn bush. 

Kaya (Nika), a village fortified with jangle. 

Kaya (Turk.), bluflf, cliff; rocky (Kayalik). 

Kaza (Turk,), a sub-district forming part of a Saqak, 

and itself sometimes composed of several Nahi^s. 
eKaza (Fan, French Congo), market. 

Kazarma (Buss.), barracks ; is the Fr. caserne, from Ital. 

Kaze (Japan), wind. 

Kazeme (Dch.), barracks. See Kazarma. 
maKazi (Swahili), a village ; for other forms see Makao. 

Kazo (Madagascar), a modified form of hazo, used in 
composition, a tree, thus ankazossthe place where 
the tree is, at the tree, e.g. Ankazobe, * at the many 
trees,' * the place where the forest is.' See An, Be. 

Kbab (Arab., N. Africa). See Kubba. 

Khev, pi. Kobor (Arab.), a tomb. 

Ke (Tibet), neck, gorge. 

-Ke, -Hke (West Africa, Upper Niger B. region), people, 
e.g. Mandinke, ' the people of Hande ' ; Halinke, the 
people whose fetish or idol is Mali, the hippopotamus.^ 

Kea (Marquesas), stone. 

Keao (Hainan), a bridge. 

Keanga (Mekeo, New Guinea), a path. Cf. Inengea. 

* For another derivation see under Aswanek. 


Kear {Breton)^ house, village, town (K.) C/. Ker. 

Keber, Oeber {Arab., N. Africa), a tomb. 

Keblr (Arab.), great, e,g. Tel el Kebir, Onadalqaivir 

(Wad el Kebir). See Tel, Onad, Wad. 
Keohil (Malay), little, e.g. the river Spatang Keohil, ' little 

Spatang,' a tributary of Spatang B. 
Ked {Armenian), a river. 
Keda {Kiriurina, Neto Guinea), a path, Eadaveako, ' wide 

path,' Kadakikita, ' narrow path.* See under Talu, 

for similar use of veako, kikita. 
Kedar {Sa7t8C.), a field ; mountain. 

. {Ceiit. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a river. 

Kediat {Senegamhia), a mountain. 

Keei {Ger.), a glacier. 

'Ktt,pL Kifane {Arab., N. Africa), peak, rock ; a rocky 

steep escarpment. 
Keffl {Sahara), a stockade, which is placed round many 

Kefir {Arab.), a village. Another form of Kafir {q.v.) 
Kei {DcIl), stone, flint. 
Kei {Formosa), a river. 
Keiweg {Dch.), a pebbled road. 
Kekur {A laska and K. Siberia), a pinnacle rock, any high 

isolated rock or island. The word is supposed to 

be of Kamchatkan origin. 
Kei {Berber, Sahara), people, inhabitants; people settled 

in a place, as opposed to nomadic tribes ; e.g. Kei 

Tidik, ' the people of Tidik,' Kel-owi, &c. Cf Ba, 

-Bn, Im, Wa, Abel. 


Kelang {Malay), a mill. 

Keleipua {Mekeo, New Guinea), an island. 

Kelet (Hung.), the east. 

Keli (Madagascar) J little, applied frequently to place- 
names, e.g. Fampolrakeli on E. coast. See Saha. 

Kell (England), a place where water flows forth. 
" Kella (S.W. Abyssinia), a guarded gate in fortifica- 

Keluba (Sahara), See Ktdeba. 

Kem (Mongol), a river. 

Kemtsa (Polish), lowland ; a small island. 

Ken (Japan), a governmental district, prefecture. 

Ken (Gaelic). See Cenn. 

Kend, Kent {Pers,), a village, e.g, Tashkend, Besh-Kent. 
See Tash, Besh. Found also as Kand. 

Kendik (E, Turk,), a hillock. 

Keng (Burma), a city. 

Keng (China), ditch, stream. 

Keng (Siam), a rapid over rocks. 

Keni (Kurdish), See Kani. 

Kenia, Kenya (a corruption of a Masai word), mist, 
applied to the mountain, from the mist in which 
it is frequently enveloped. 

Kenie, Kenye (Bamhara), sand, e.g. Kenieba, ' the river 
with the sandy bottom,' Keniekho, meaning the 
same. See Ba, Kho. 

Kenise (Arab,), a church, from Hebrew Keneseth, 

Kenkenu (Benue B, region), a shallow hollow or 
depression, where water is obtainable. 


Kent. See Kend. Kent is Buss, in which Pers. d shifts 

to t. Cf, Tash-Kent. 
Kenye (Bambara). See Kenie. 
Keo {Hainan), a bridge. 
Kepaana {Kabadi, New Guinea), beach, shore. 
Ker (Breton), a fortress (K.) Cf. Kear, Caer. 
Ker (Senegal), a village. 
Kerabeb. See Kerbub. 
Kerbub, j?Z. Kerabeb (Arab,, N. Africa), a place where 

one finds spherical water-worn stones of all sizes. 
Kerekere (S. Cape, New Guinea), beach, shore. 
Kereksnr (Mongol), a barrow mound. 
Kererut (Nandi, Uganda), a valley. 
Kerim (Mongol), village. Cf. Khoto, Kore. 
Keringet (Nandi, Uganda), a wall. 
Kerk (Dch,), a church, e.g. Kerkbof, Giekerk. Cf. Kirk. 
Ker nor (Harem, Indo-China), a house. 
Kerspel (Dch.), parish, diocese. 
Kessel (Ger.), a basin ; lit. kettle ; for use as a minor 

form of sab-oceanic relief see Caldron. 
Kesflur (Sahara), a desert village. See Ksar, Ksor. 
Keten (Dch.), a chain, range (of mountains). 
Ketit (Nandi, Uganda), a tree. 
uKeto (Swahili), depth (of a stream or lake). 
Ketsil (Malay Pen.) See Keohil, of which Ketsil is a 

Kette (Ger.), a chain (of mountains). 
Kettingbrng (Dch.), a suspension bridge. 
Kettle Hole (U.S.A.), a long-sided depression in sand 

or gravel ; a hole in the bed of a stream. 


Keugh {Armenian), a village. 

Keur {Senegal), See Ker. 

Kenrfaz {Turk,), a gulf. C/. Kinrfez. 

Kevnni {Tamul), a fortified place. 

Key {U,S.A., T^. Indies). See Cay. 

K'ha {Indian, California), water. Cf. Ha, Aha. 

SSia {Ghin Hills), a river, e.g. Mali Kha, the Myitgyi 

of the Burmese. Cf, Khe. See Mali, M3rit, Qji. 
KiiAhirit {Pers,), a tavern ; whence Fr. Cabaret. > 
Khadar {Hind,), low lands fit for rice-growing. 
Khadara {Arab,, N. Africa), See Akhdar. 
Khal {Bengali), a creek. 
Khalanga {Sansc), a park. 
SSialga {Mongol), a gate, hence Kalgan. 
Khalij {Arab,, N. Africa), a confined, contracted ravine. 
SSiallett {Arab,), ravine or dell. 
Kham {Laos), gold, e,g. Ban Vang Kham. See Ban. 
Kham {Tibet), See Kam. 
Khamal {Cent, Asia), wind. 
Khampa {Tibet), a corruption ot Kyampo, nomad, applied 

by civilised Tibetans to the wilder races that exist 

along the northern part of the tableland abreast 

of Nari and XJtsang. 
TniftniKin {Arab.), a hot southerly wind in Egjrpt which 

lasts from April to June. The term means fifty, 

in reference to the fifty days that this wind generally 

Khan {Arab., Perso-TurJc,), inn, tavern. See Khani. 
Khan {Sansc), a mine. 
Khan {Tangut), snow. 



Kli&na {Turk,), a house. 

Khand {India), country, e,g. Baghelkhandsthe coantry 

of the Baghelas. 
Khandak {Arab,), trench, ditch. 
Khandal {Deccan), an open plain. 
Khane {Pers,), a house, e,g, Oan-Khane, * the abode of 

cows,' a name given to a tract of jungle on the 

Khanga, Khanget, pL Kheneg {Arab,), a gorge. 
Khangah {Punjab), the tomb of a holy man or saint 

(Fakir or Pir). 
Khani {Neo-Greek), inn, hotel ; from Perso-Turk, Kh&n, 

Zhko .{Siam) , a mountain, hill. 
Khar {Tibet), a fort, e.g. Dingri Khar. 
Khara {Mongol), black, e.g. Khara-Usu, * black water.' 

See Chagan, Hsu. 
Kharaqa {Hind.), a pavement. 
Khare {Soninke), marsh, bog ; lake. 
Kharfd {Wolof), west. See Ngelendn. 
Khargosh {Gent. Asia), a hare, e.g. Khargosh Pamir, < hare 

Khari {E. Africa), a creek. 
Kharif {Sudan), the rainy season. See Kherif. 
Khatal {Hind.), springtide. 
Khaor {Arab.) See Khor. 
Khe {Annam), river, stream ; torrent. Cf. Kha. 
Khele {Hassania), a desert. 
Khelwa {Arab., N. Africa), hermitage, a place of 

retreat; cavern. 


Kheneg (Arab,) See Khanga. 

Khera {Hind.), a village ; the land immediately adjacent 

to a village. 
Kherif {Sudan), rainy season, generally £rom Jane to 

Kheshem {Arab.), point, lit. nose; rocky promontory. 
Khet {Cambodia), province, district. 
Khet {Sansc), a field ; a field of battle ; a holy place. 
Khets {Shignan and Boshnan), a river. 
Khevi {Caucasus), a dell. 
KM {China), streamlet, small river. 
Khiao {China), a bridge, frequently written Kiao. 
Khittat {Arab.), country, region. 
Khlon {Siam), mud. 
Khlong {Siam), canal, creek. 
Khnak {Marocco), a pass. 
Kho {Cambodia), an island. 
Kho {Kwenam), a village. 
Kho {Senegal), a stream ; variant Ko. 
Kho {Nhan, Lao-kai), great, large. 
Khoar {Tangut), a town. 
Khohe {Soninke), a fort. 
Khoh {Hind.), a cavern, abyss. 
Khoi {Hottentot), men, e.g. Khoikhoin, ' men of men,' i.e. 

the Hottentots. As a suffix it takes the form of 

Kwa, e.g. Nama-Kwa (Namaqua)=the Nama people. 
Khol {Serer), a field, garden. 
Kholan {Serer), a plain. 
Kholle, Khole, dim. Kale {Mande), a stream, branch of a 


o 2 


Khollelleme {Soninke), a stream, branch of a river. 

Kholm {Bu88.)j a hill. 

Khop {lUnd,)f a cave, fissure. 

Khor, Xhaur, pL Kheran (Arab,), a creek or narrow inlet 

of the sea ; a strait ; also a deep channel between 

„ (E, Africa), a tidal salt-water inlet. 
ft {Egyptian Sudan), a stream bed, e.g. Xhor er 

Eamle, ' Sandy Xhor/ See Bamla. 
Xhora (Neo-Grcek), a small town. (7/. Xhorio. 
Kho Eal {Wclaung), a valley. 
Khorbet, pi. Khrub {Arab.), a river. Cf» Khor. 
Xbord {UaHHania), a plain. 
Khori {Hind.), a narrow way, an alley. 
Khorio {Neo-Oreck), a village, small town; from Old 

Greek x^P^^* x^P^^^' ^f* ^ora. 

Xboi {Vers.) See Khni. 

Xboihun, Koihong, Eoshon (Mongol), flag or tribe, being 
a subdivision of an Aimak or principahty. Cf. the 
Tonking division into flags or tribes. Since the 
seventeenth century all the Mongols subject to 
China are constituted in 41 Aimaks and 220 

Khot (Sudan), a district or subdivision of a Dar (q.v.) 

Khotat (Welaung), a village. 

Kho tien (Kwenam), a valley. 

-Khoto (Mande), old or put on one side, applied to a 
settlement or village which has been deserted. 

Khoto (Mongol), town, village. Cf. Kerim, Kure. 

Khottun Bulak (Mognol), hot spring. See Bulak. 


Khou (China), mouth of a river or of a pass, often used 
to designate a place situated at the mouth of a 
river or pass, and frequently written Kow, Eau 
iq.v.) See Kou. 

Khmb (Arab.) See Khorbet. 


(Arab,), gulf, embouchure. 

Khorab (Arab.), ruins, jpZ. of Kharbe. 

Khnre (Mongol), an encampment, e.g, Ikhe Khnre, 

* great encampment.' 
Khus, Khos (Pers.), sweet, e.g. the well Khusab, ' sweet 

water ' ; pronounced, in Sarhaddi, Khwash. See Ab. 
Khusnkei (Wolof), a ford. 
Khntor (Buss.), a farm. 
Khuwar. See Khor. 
Khwa (Mande), white, e.g. Bakhwa (on French maps 

Bakhoy), * white river.' See Ba. Cf. Ping, Ule. 
Khwash. See Khns. 
Ki- (Congo, Nika), a diminutive prefix, e.g. the station 

in the Congo Free-State Kilonga; loiiga=a small 

-Ki (China), dam, dike ; market. 
Ki (Japan), tree, forest. 
Ki- (E. Central Africa, Bantu), a prefix signifying 

kind of, sort of ; language, e.g. Ki-Swahili, the 

language of the Wa-Swahili (' coast people '). 
-Ki (Songhai), a suffix meaning language. Cf. If chi, Chi. 
Kia (China), hamlet, house. 
Kiai (China), frontier, boundary. 
Kiaiek (Uganda). See Aiek. 


Kia-kio {Hainan), a bridge. Cf. Kiao. 

Kia-lan {Hainan), a market. 

Kiamba {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Amba. 

Kiamvu {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Amvu. 

Kiana {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ana. 

{Shan States), a city; the equivalent of the 

Burmese Keng and the Siamese Chieng. 
{China), a great river. Cf Ho, Chiang (note). 
Kiang {E. Turh), large, broad. 
Kiani, Chani, Yiani {Cent. Africa, Bantu dialects). See 

Kiao {China, Hainan), a bridge. Cf. Kia-Kio, Khiao. 
Kiasi. See Tasi. 
Kibali {Manghattu), river, stream. 
Kibitka {Qcnt, Asia), a tent. 
Kibogo {Upper Nile), a mountain. 
Zibri {Arab., Upper Nile), forest, wood. 
Kibula {Swahili), north. See Suheli, Kntini for other 

Kichik {E. Turk.), small ; a ford. 
KicBi {Hung.), little. 
Kidhidha {Giryama). See Dhidha. 
Kidila {Ce7it. Africa, dialect of Bantu), See Dila. 
Kidonda {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Donda. 
Kidzuho {Giryama), brook. See Dznho. 
Kie {China), street, road. 
Kleji {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See IJji. 
KioB {Ger.) gravel, e.g. Kiesenbaoh in Saxe- Weimar. 
Kieutigne {Tibet), a religious monument, superior to 

the Dobang {q.v.) 


Kiezel (Dch,), gravel. Cf. Kies. 

Kifar (Arab.), an extensive desert. 

Kifomvu {Taita, Bantu). See Fnmvu. 

'Kighisk (Alaska), See Xifchtak. 

Kigogo {German East Africa j dialect of Bantu). See 

Kigongo (Gogo, Bantu). See Oongo. Cf. Lima, Bima. 
Kiham (Borneo), a rapid in a river. 
'KibiUuwi (Indian, U.S.A.), sea. 
Kiima (Kamha, Bantu). See Ima. 
K\jiiji, pi. Vijiji (Swahili) . See Jy i. 
K^ito, pL Vijito (Swahili) . See Jito. 
Kik (Indian, California), water. 
Kikhtak, Kightak (Inuit, Alaska), an island. This has 

been corrupted into Ead-Jak, Kodiak, Kndiak. 
Kiko (Giryama), See Zo. 

Kikulue (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kalue. 
Kil (Celtic), a cell, shrine, church, burying-place, e.g. 

Kilkenny, Columbkille ; is the Lat. oella. 

Kil (Dch.), a channel. 

Kil (Sw.), Kile (Nor., Da.), a creek, a cove. 

Kila ) 

(Arab., Pers.), castle, fortress. Cf. Kala. 

Kilela, Kirira, Kidila (Cerit. Africa, Bantu dialects), an 
island. Cf. Ziwa. See Lela, Bira, Dila. 

Kilele (Swahili). SeeLehi. 

Kilian (Malay), a mine, e.g. Kilian Bham, Kilian Uln 
Temelong, *the mine at Temelong source.* See 

Kilima (Swahili). See Lima ; cf. Bima. 


Kilisa, Kilisse {Levant ^ Nubia), a church, from iKKKr^aia 
(ecclesia), affording an argument in favour of the 
former existence of Christianity in the Mohamma- 
dan places where it is found in use. 

Kill (U.SA), a creek. 

Xille {Songhai), race, tribe. 

KiUe {8oninke)y a road, path, track. 

Xilwa (Cent. Africa), a lake. 

Kima {E. Turk,), ferry boat. 

Kimpambwila (Congo, dialect of Bantu), division, branch- 
ing of a river ; confluent. See Mpambwila. 

Kin (Celtic), head, upper part, e,g, Kinsale, Kinlooh. Cf, 
Ben, Pen, Ken. Sale=brine, i.e. tide. 

Kin (China), gold, e,g. Kin Oha Kiang, ' the river with 
golden sand ' (Yangtse). See Cha, Kiang. 

Kin (Tangut), snow. 

Kinara (Pers.), beach, shore. 

Kinasat (Arab,), shoal, sandbank. Cf Ni^wah. 

King (China), capital city, e.g. Peking, Nanking. See Pe, 
Nan. Cf. Chau, Hien, Fa. 

Kinga (Sara, Chad L.), a palisade. 

King-ohi-ohau (China), a peninsula. 
uKingo (Swahili), the edge (of a precipice). 

Kiniaf^ingo (Nika). See Niafungu. 

Kinjingela (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Jingela. 

Kinkhenna (Soninke), west. Cf. Sindom. 

Kintombo (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ntombo. 

Kio (China), cape, point. 

Kio (Hainan), a bridge. Cf, Kiao. 

Kio, Kyo (Japan), a town, capital, e.g. Tokio. See To. 


akaKio {Uganda^ dialect of Bantu), cross- ways. 
Kioi (Turk,), village, hamlet. 
Zir {E, Turk.y Kirghiz), a place where two plains meet ; 

a hill, peak. 
Kir (Shilluk), a river. 

Kirche {Ger,), a church, e.g. Kirohdorf, * church village.' 
Kirohhof (Ger.), a churchyard (Khf.) See Hof. 
Kirh {Indian, California), earth, land. 
Kirima (Nika). SeeBimsi; cf Kilima, Oongo. 
Kirira {dialect of Bantu). See Sira. 
Zir i vi ra {Indian, California), town, village. 
Kirk {Northumbrian and Lowland Scotch), church, e.g. 

Kirkcudbright. Cf Kirke, Kirche. 
Kirk {E. Turkestan), forty, e.g. Kirk-gas, Kirk-saj. 
Kirke {Da., Nor.), a church (K®). Cf Kirohe, Kerk, Kirk. 
Kirkko {Fin.), a church. Cf. Kirohe, Kerk, Kirk. 
Kirmzi {Turk.), red. Cf. Kizil. 
Kirnmba, Chiminba, Chignnda {Cent. Africa, dialects of 

Bantu). See Bunba, Ounda. 
Kirwa, Chirwa, Ohilwa {Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), 

an island. 
Kis {Hung.), little, e.g. Kis-Barath, Kis-Ber. 
Kishlak {Cent. Asia), a winter village ; winter pasture. 
Kisia, Kizia {Nika). See Sia, Zia. 
Kisima {Sicahili). See Sima. 
Ki8iwa,^Z. Visiwa {Sivahili). See Siwa. 
iKisu {Cent. Africa, Bantu), a country. 
Kita {A-Zande), winter. 
Kita (=Hoku) {Japan), north. For other points see 



Kitalu, pL Vitaln {Swahili), See Tain. 

Kit oha wan (Indian, U.S.A,)^ a large flowing stream. 

Kiti {Masai, East Africa), little, e,g, Ngari Kiti. 

Zitir {Tagalaf Philippines), a street. 

Kitsnln (Giryama). See Tinln. 

Kittnnn (Indian, U.S.A.), a river. 

Kitnntn (German E. Africa). See Tnntn. 

Kinrfez (Turk), a bay. Cf. Kenrfitf. 

Kivosho (Giryama). See Vosho. 

Zivnko, pZ. Vivnko (Swahili). See Vnko. 

Kizil (Turk.), red, e.g. Kizil Knm, ' red sand/ the plain 

E. of Aral Sea. 
!^ed (Armenian), a river. 
Kladbishohe (Buss.), a cemetery. 
Kladovaya (Buss.), a storehouse, magazine. 
Kla kan (Indian, California), grass. 
Klana (Malay), a title implying jurisdiction on the 

Kiel (Dch.), clay, marl. 
Klein (Dch., Ger.), small (Kl.), applied to numerous 

Klemme (Ger.), a narrow pass. 
Kletter (Icel), rock. 

Klich n (Indiayi, California), earth, land. 
Klinse (Ger.), cleft, gap. 
Klip (Dch.), clifif, rock, reef. 
Klippe (Ger.), bluff, cliff. 

Klippoia (Fi7i.), rocks ; a loan word from Sw, klippa. 
Klong, Klawng (Malay, Siam), stream, torrent; creek ; 




Klong {Thai), a tidal stream. 

Kloof {Cape DchJ)j a ravine, valley, gap. Cf, Klnft. 

Klooster {Dch.), convent, monastery, e.g. Oerkesklooster. 

Cf. cloister. 
Klnft {Dch.)y a crevice ; parish, ward ; e.g. Kalekluft, 

Klnft (Ger.), a ravine. 
Klnpu {Fin.), rock, shoal. 
Knater {Arab.) See Kantara. 
Knock {Gaelic), a hill, e.g. Knockdnff. See Ifock. 
Knoll, Knol, Knowl {Anglo-Saxon cnol), the top of a hill, 

hillock, a small elevation, used both by itself and 

in compounds, e.g. Anchorsknoll, Dryknowl. 
Knott {England), a small round hill, e.g. Ling Knott. 
Knowl. See Knoll. 

Knnde {Da., Nor.), a blufif, steep bank. 
Ko {China), a belvedere. 
Ko {China), a cape, point. Cf. Kio. 
ohiKo {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), ferry, ford. See 

dlKo {Swahili), a landing-place. See liKo. 
klKo {Giryama), a market for ivory and cattle. 
11 Ko {Swahili), a landing-place. See diKo. 
rlKo {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), ferry, ford. See 

Ko (Dahome), marsh, mud, e.g. the wooded depression 

north of Allada; Ko river =* mud river.' Cf. 

Modder B. See Lama. 
Ko- {Japan), a prefix signifying * little,* * small.* See Ko 

Ofawa, the dim. of Kawa. 


Kd=KoBai {Japan)^ a freshwater lake. 

Ko {Khas ChoSt IndO'China)^ a mountain peak. 

Eo (Senegal). See Kho. 

Kob (Sever), desert ; forest. 
isiKoba (Kafir), a forest of yellow- wood trees. 

Kobsun (Mongol), reeds. 

Kobnlo (Malinke), a stream. 

Koda, Kodda (Mittu), a river, stream. 

Kodiak (Alaska). See Kikhtak. 

Kodolo (Congo), a town, village. 

Kodra (Albania), a hill. 

Koel (Korea), a magisterial town. See Eup. 

Koe-Bi (Hainan), a market. 

Ko-gawa (Japan), stream. Lit. * small river.' Cf. Eawa. 

Kogel (Ger.), hill-top, hill, kopje. 

aKogha (Fan, French Congo), tall grass; for pi. see 

'Kogi,pL Kogana (Hausa), brook; also lake, river. 

Kogo, J9Z. Kogtina (Hausa), a cave. Cf. Kami. 

Koh (Persia), mountain, e.g. Koh-i-sian. Cf. Kuh. 
See Stan. Cf. Koliinoor=: mountain of light. 

Koh (China), rocky peak, headland. 

Koh (Siam, Cambodia), an island. 

Koho (Indian, U.S.A.), waterfall, cascade, e.g. * The 
Cohoes * on the Hudson R. It is noticeable that 
a cascade near Spa (Li^ge) is called by this name, 
though, of course, a mere coincidence. Cf. 

K6i, Keui (Turk.), a village. 

Koia (Kiriwina, New Guinea), a mountain. 


Koira (Songkai), a town. 

Kok (Siam), open jungle, generally of small hardwood 

trees. In Korea a valley. See Kol. 
Koka (Congo) J path, highway. 
Kokai (Korea), a pass. 
Kokany (Hung,), monntainous. 

Koko (Gold Coast), hill, mountain. Cf, Pampa, Pempe. 
Koko (Tibet), blue, e.g. Koko nor, ' blue lake,' Koko kutul, 

' blue pass.' Another form is Knkn. See Kntul, If or. 
nKoko (Congo, dialect of Bantu); river, stream, brook. ^ 
Kokoohela (Lomwe, L, Shirwa), sterile ground. 
Kol (E. Turk.), valley, ravine; a hill connecting a 

mountain with a plain. Valley, village iii Korea. 
Ko le (Indian, California), grass. 
Kolea (Arab.) See Oolea. 
Kolk (Dch.), abyss, whirlpool. 
Koll (Cent. Asia), reservoir =Kiil, lake. 
Kolo, Makolo (Cent. Africa), a chief, king. 
luKolo (Giryama), tribe, clan. 
Kolo (Mande) old or put on one side. See Koro. 
Kolo (Marovo, Solomon Is.), ocean. 
Kolo, Kolon, Kolongo (Bamhara, Malinke), wells, spring, 

luKolonga (Boondei, Bantu), a river. 
Kolpos (Greek), a gulf. 

Kom (Mossi, French Sudan), water. Cf. Komadngn. 
Kom (Punjab, Shahpur), a tribe, divided into Mnhi or 

clans. Cf. Zat. See Kanm. 
Kom (Tripoli), a hillock, mound, e.g. Kom en Ifgiu. 



Komadugu {K anuria Bornu), lit, ' water-place/ a mass 
of water, either a river or a lake. The real name 
of the ' Komadugu/ shown on the maps as flowing 
oast to L. Chad, is Waube. * Xomaduga Waabe ' 
means simply 'river Waabe'; similarly Komadugu 
Ngalass river Ngala. Cf, Dugu, Kom. 

Xomatagui {Motu, New Guinea), tide (flowing). 

Komb {Sever), a market. 

Komi (Korea), a ferry. See Jin. 

Kome {Greek), a village. 

IKomknlu {Amaxosa, Kafir), a kingdom, dominion. 

Komohana {Hawaii), west. For other points see Akau. 

Kompe {Smiinhe), house, cottage. 

Kompong {Cambodia), a village; the same word as 
Kampong (g.v.) 

Kon {Indole hina), a village. 

Kon {Sierra Leone), head, top, summit. 
muKondo {Nika), a track, narrow path, trail. 

Kone {Motu, Nev) Guinea), beach, shore. 

Kong {Chi7ia), a temple, palace. 

Kong {Hainan), a river. 

Kong {Hainan), a road, path. 

Kong {Indo-China), a mountain. 


{Cent, Africa, dialects of Bantu), a river, 

Kongerige {Nor,, Da,), kingdom. 
Kong-ka {Tibet), sunmnt of a hill. 
Kongo {Mande), country ; forest, brushwood ; mountain, 
Kbnig {Ger.), king, e,g, Kttnlgsberg. 
Konke, KonkiU {Mande), a mountain. 


Konko {Niger id) y a club- (house) used as a toll-bar. 

Konkosu {Mande)y a village, place of cultivation. 

Konnyi brod {Buss.)^ a horse ford. 

Konton {Gold Coast) y bay, bight, gulf. 

Koogi {Hausa), stream, river, e.g. Koogi n Tagelafl. 

Koonde, ^2. Makoonde {8wahili)y field, cultivated land. 

Kop {Dch.)y head, hill, e.g. Oerverskop, Tekkop. Cf. Kopi. 

Kopeo {Bohemian) y a mountain (Kpc.) 

Kopf {Ger.)y head, top, peak, summit (K.), e.g. Schnee- 
kopf, * snow head.' Cf. Kop, Kopje. 

Kbping {Sw.), trading-place, market, borough, e.g. 
IforrkOping, Soderkdping (Northern and Southern 
Mart). See Chipping. 

Kopje {Cape Dutch), a small mountain, hill. Cf. Kop. 

Koppi, Koppe {Gold Coast) y a village. 

Kopm, Kiopm {Turk.)y a bridge, e.g. Altin Kiopm. 

Kor {Hammer Koki, Abyssinia) y a tree. 

Kora {Bomu)y great. 

Koram {Ce7it. Asia), stony ground ; the moraine of a 

Korami {Hausa), a dale, valley. 

Koramma {Hausa), a river, stream. 

Koroluna {Buss.), a tavern, inn. 

Kore {Pers.), a channel. 

Kori {Japan), a department or subdivision of a pro- 
vince. Cf. Knni. 

Korit {Nandiy Uganda), a village. 

-Koro {Mande), suffix signifying old, put on one side, 
e.g. Sikoro, ' old village,' Kulikoro. Cf. Kolo. 

Komin, Krum {Togo), a town. See Km. 


Ko0a {Bttss.), a sand-spit. 

Kosh {E. Turk.), two, doable, e.g. Kosh-arik, Koshkul. 

Kosh {E, Turk.), stage, place where a caravan camps. 

Koshlasli {E. Turk.), a confluence. See Kosh. 

Koshnng (Mongol), See Khoshun. 

Ko siwo, Ko shiwo {Japan), neap tide. 

Kosogo {Mossi, French Sudan), a rapid in a river. 

Kosorho (Mossi, French Sudan), a valley. 

Kososobe {Hausa), precipice ; valley. 

Kossabulugn {Mossi, French Sudan), sea. 

KosnisKo {Japan), a freshwater lake. 

Kosun {Mongol), a desert. 

Kot {India), a fort, e.g. Ifoakot, ' new fort.' See Kote. 

Kot {Korea), promontory, e.g. Chyu-rang-kotinPhyeng-an. 

Kot {Nandi, Uganda), a house. 

Kota {Malay), a fort or stockade. Also found in Tagala 

{Philippines) as Kotta, * the walls of a fort.' 
Kote {India), a fort, e.g. Sealkote. See Kot. 
Kotel, Kotal {Pers.), a col or pass, e.g. Lnndi Kotal. 
Koti {Gold Coast), large, rank, luxuriant. 
Kotl {Slavonic), a kettle or combe. 
Koto {Bambara), old, e.g. Tukoto, *old bush.' 
Koto {Hav^a), a region, district, e.g. Koto-n-karfl. See 

Koto-jigonron {Yoruha), deep valley, ravine. 
Kotok {Swahili), a spring, lit. bubbling water. 
Koto-oke {Yoruha), a valley. 
Kottek {Cent. Asia), dead forest. 

Kou {China), a mountain pass, e.g. Nan-kou, 'south 
pass.' See Ifan, Khon, Kn. 


Kovna {E. Turkestan), old, e,0, Kovna-daria, Kovna- 

shahr. See Daria, Shahr. 
Kow, Kaa (China), mouth (of a river), e,g, Hankow, 

properly Han-kau. 
Koyan {Turk.), bight, cove. 
Koye {Turk.), a well. 
Kdzip {Hung.), middle (Kp.) ; e.g. Kozep Apso, on Theiss 

E. Found also misspelled as Kosep. 
Kpakpa {Yoruha), grass field ; a plain newly burnt ; 

pasture land. 
Zpo {Cambodia), high, lofty, upper. 
Kpotokpoto {Yoruha), a bog, marsh. 
Era {Arah.), an open creek of water. Cf. Eejl, Bot-ho. 
Kraal {Cape Dch.), a cattle fold, a collection of native 

huts, a chief's capital. Cf, Boma, Zehba. 
Krantz {Cape Dutch), cliflF, precipice. 
KnuBni {Buss.), red, e.g. Krasnovodsk. See Sk, Voda. 
Eraton {Java), a palace. 

Kreb (S. Tunis), sandy hills covered with vegetation. 
Kreek {Dch.), bay, cove, creek. 
Kreide {Ger.), chalk. Cf. Krijt. 
KreiB {Ger.), a district or circle. 
Kreita {Dch.), a district or circle. 
Krepost {Buss.), castle, fort, fortress. 
Krenzbaiun {Ger.), a turnpike. 
Krijt {Dch.), chalk. Cf. Kreide. 
Krits {Dch.), summit, top. 
Krocht {Dch.), hill, hillock. 
Kroft {Dch.), a hillock. 
Kroj (Albanian), source, spring. See Sxaa< 


Krom (Tibet) J market, bazaar. 

Krom. See Em. 

Krom (Dch.), crooked, e.g. Kromvoort; with many bends 

(of a river or road). 
Kron-ba (Tibet), stream, river. 
Krong (IndO'China), a river. 
Km, Emm, Krom, Korom, Kum {Togo, Ashanti, Agni), 

tov^n ; an inhabited place of less importance than 

a capital, e.g. Attakru, Kokokmm, Odukrom. 
Krua (Albanian), source, spring. See Kroj. 
Kmgli (Bliss.), round, e.g. Kmglolieskoe. 
Kmin (Dch.), summit, top. 
Kruis (Dch.), a cross, e.g. Kmisdorp. See Dorp. 
Krutojsi (Buss.), steep bai.ks, from Kmtoi, steep; e.g. 

Kmtoi island, point, and cape. 
Ksar, pi. Ksur (Arab., N. Africa), village, fortified or 

surrounded with walls, in the Sahara oases. 
„ (Hassania), a village. 
Ksetra (Cambodia), a province. 
Ksob, Kseb (Arab.), reeds. 
Ksur (Arab., N. Africa). See Ksar. 
Ku- (Bantu), a prefix applied generally but not exclu- 
♦ sively to such rivers as may be considered * arms ' 

of others, e.g. Kubango, Kuanza, Konene. 
Ku (China), valley, canal, streamlet, small river. 
Ku (China), a dam, dike. 
Ku (China), a pass, e.g. Ku pel ku, ' old north pass.' See 

Kou, Pel, and Ku (below). 
Ku (China), old. See above. 
Ku (New Guinea). See Gu. 


Ku {Per 8.) J broad street, square, market-place. 

Kna {Gold Coast), plantation, farm. 

KuaMni {Hawaii), mountain, hill. 

Koala {Malay). See Kwala. 

Kuan {China), an official, e.g. Ta-Kuan-Chiang, ' Great 

Official river.' See Ta, Chiang. 
Kuan {China), fortified military place, camp. 
Kubba, Kuba, j^Z. Kbab {Arab., N, Africa), a cupola; 

chapel or shrine surmounted by a cupola in honour 

of a saint ; generally brilliantly white and visible 

at a great distance. 
Kubbat {Arab.), a deep-water bay or inlet. 
Kubbe, Kubbet {Arab.), dome ; the same word as 

Kubba, e.g, Kubbe-i-subs, ' green dome.' 
Knbi {Korea), a bend, curve, e.g. Kubini. 
Kuhi, pi. Kubnr {Arab.), a tomb. 
Knbn {Malay), a stockade, fort. 
Kubn {Songhai), a wood, bush, forest. 
Knoher {Asia Minor), nomad (tribes). 
Euohi {Japan), mouth; makes Ouohi in composition, 

as Kawa Ouohi, ' the river's mouth.' See Kawa. 
Knohuk {Turk.), little, e.g. Knohuk Derbend. See Derbend. 
Kuda {Tamut), bay. See Kuddawa. 
Kudana {Nika). See Dana. 
Kuddawa {Singalese), bay. See Kuda, .which is really 

the same word. 
Kuddufl, Kudu {Hausa), south. For other points see 

Kudia, Kndiat {Arab.), a hill, generally a small hill. 
Kndiak {Alaska). See Kikhtak. 

p 2 


Kudil (Tarmil), a hut. 

Kuduk (J57. Turk., Mongol), wells, e.g. TTlan Eadak. See 

Eadulungfu {Congo), an elevated plateau. 

Eadunia (Hausa), a hill. Cf. Tuda, Tsauni. 

Kue (China), promontory, cape. 

Eufra (Arab.), pi. of Kafir (q.v.), e.g. the oasis of Kufra, 
and other oases, so named from their pagan in- 
habitants, the Tibus. 

Kufriat {Egyptian Sudan), old ruins. 

Kuguli, Kuguri {Mossi, French Sudan), stone. See next 

Enguri zugu {Mossi), mountain-top, summit. 

Eah {Pers.), mountain, cf. Koh, one form being more 
usual in the east, and the other in the west ; is 
from Zend root kup, to swell, hence anything 
huge, bulky, e.g. Eah-i-chasma-o-chali-slLirin, 'the 
hill of fresh-water wells and springs.* See 
Chasma, Chah. 

Euh-sar {Pers.), a mountainous country. See Bar, Zar. 

Ku il {Khas Chos, Indo-Chhia), little, small. 

Kuitahuun {Indian, U.S.A.), a hill. 

Euka, Eokawa, Eokwa {Bornu), baobab trees, e.g. Euka 
on Chad L. 
mEuka {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 

En-kou {China), a gorge, a narrow pass. 
nEoku {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a torrent, stream, 

Kukulu hema {Hawaii), south. For other points see 


Eukwa (Bornu), See Euka. 

Eul {E, Turk, and Mongol) ^ a lake, e.g, Kara Eul. See 

Knlah {Arab.)^ a castle. Cf. Knlle. 

Kulao {Annam), an island. 

Knle (Mande), See KhoUe. 

Knleba, Keluba (Sahara), a high mountain- top, equiva- 
lent to the Thniye, Tnie of other districts. 

Kuli {Ahhadi, Ethai), low hills. 
niKuli {Mozambique), a waterfall. 

Kuliba {Turk,), hut, cottage. 

Kulichkof (Bv^s,), snipe. Applied to several islands in 
Alaskan waters. 

Knliliak {Aleut), sorrow, anguish ; e.g, Knliliak bay. 

Kaliugiak {Alaska), rocky and round ; applied usually to 

Knlla {Arab,), top, summit (of a mountain). 

Kulle {Turk.), a tower. Cf. Kulah. 

Kulo {Ja-Luo, East Uganda), a river. 

Kulu {Bambara, Malinke). See Knru. 

-Knlu, -Kuru, -Hlnini {dialects of Bantu), a suffix mean- 
ing ' great,' e.g. Kiboknlu. 
luKnluf {Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a mountain. 
nKnla [ Cf. Lima. 

Kulu chenga {Mossi, French Sudan), a river, great river. 
kiKulue {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), the sanl-clouds 
of the Kikwa valley. 

Kuluga, Buluga {Mossi, French Sudan), wells. 

Kulugu {Chad L. region), a place where water is found ; 
a lake, marsh, swamp, dead river. Cf. TebkL 


Enlokira (Nika). See Lukira. 

-Enlnngnro, -Eunmgu {Cent Africa, dialects of Bantu) ^ 
a suffix meaning ' great.' 
nEuluntu (Loango), a chief; toipl. see Hkuliiiita. 

Enm {Turk,), sand, e.g. Kinl Eum. See Xizil. 

Euma {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ha. 
isiEumbu {Zulu, Kafir), a hollow place between hills, a 

Eumclii {Hausa), impenetrable forest, thicket. 
uEiunkani {Amaxosa, Kafir), a king, chief. 

Emnmene {New Guinea), water. 

Enmo {Japan), clouds. 

Eiunsal {Buss.), a bank of sand. 
eEumu {Congo, dialect of Bantu), the bank of a river, 
coast, shore. 

Eumur {E. Turk.), coal. 

Eumush {E. Turk.), silver. 

Eon {Korea), a prefecture, a subdivision of a Pu (county 
or department), e.g. Eim-Byu, *a district magis- 

Eund {India), a province, e.g. Bundelkund. 

Eand {Sansc.)^ an abyss, pool, spring. 

Eunda {Gambia), a town, e.g. Baja Eirnda. 

Eunda {Sierra Leone). See Eando. 
inEimdla {Zulu, Kafir), the area of a kraal {q.v.) 

Eundo, Eunda {Sierra Leone), head, source, e.g. Tembe- 
kunda, • the source of the Tembe River/ 

Eundu {Kikuyu, Bantu). See Haiidu, Ifda. 

Eimdabiila {Congo), a small hill. 
eEundze {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a mountain. 


isiEunpa (Amaxosa, Kafir), a place of assembly. 

Kani (Japan), province, lit, country. Cf. Kori. 

Euni {Cent. Africay dialect of Bantu), a forest, wood. 

Kimy-ho (Hung.), a hut. 

Kuo (Annam), mouth, estuary. 

Eao (China), a nation, state ; government. 

Ku-on (Hainan), a path. 

Ea-pa (Siam), savages. See I. 

Ea pau (MiaO'tse, Kwei-chau), a mountain. 

Euperan (Tamul), north. See Yadakku. 

Euppe (Ger.), tojp, summit, peak, ridge. For use as a 
form of sub-oceanic relief see Dome. 

Eupmk (E. Turk.), a bridge. Cf. Eopru. 

Eur (Wokf), house, dwelling. 

Eura (Harem, Indo-China), road, path. 

Eura (Kanem), great, e.g. Beri Enra, * large village.' 
See Beri. 

Enrban {Mongol), three, e.g. Eurban Habsere, 'the three 
Habsere,' i.e, the three Habsere mountain peaks, 
called respectively Atak Habsere, ' lower Habsere,* 
Eken Habsere, ' upper Habsere,' and Tumta Habsere, 
' middle Habsere ' ; Eurban Tara, ' the three days 

Eurdudnffi (Hausa), a pond, pool, small lake. 

Eure (Mongol), a village. Cf. Ehoto, Eerim, Ehure. 

Euret (dialect near Lugh, Somaliland)y a hill. 

Enrgan (Buss.), a tumulus, barrow. 

Enrghan (E. Turk.), a fort, e.g. lash Enrghan. See Tash. 

Enrh (Min-Kia, Yunnan), a river. 

Eorm, pi. Euram (Arab), a vineyard. 

Euroi ^ 


Kurmi, Kurimi (Hausa), forest, wood, bush, e,g, Kurmin 
Kaduna, 'the forest on the Kaduna Biver/ the 
final n being the sign of the possessive. 

Kum {Arab.), a horn or peak. 

Euro {Gold Coast), town, village. Of, Kru. 

(Japan), black, e.g. Euro Siwo, * black stream,' 
answering in the Pacific to the Gulf 
Stream of the Atlantic; Eurodake, 'dark 
peat.* See Siwo, Dake. 

Euro-kese {Gold Coast), a large town, city, capital. 

Enrpi {Turk.), a bridge. Cf, Eopm. 

Eurremi {Ilausa). See Horami. 

Euru, Eala {Bamharay Malinke), a mountain. 

Earn {Togo, Ashanti, Agni). See Eru. 

-Eum {dialect of Bantu), See -Eulu. 

Euruk {Mongol), dry, e.g. Euruk Tagh. See Tagh. 

Enram {Arab.), vineyards, j^Z. of Eurm. 

-Eoramba {Ccjit. Africa). See -Ealamba. 

•Eomngu {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 

Eurye, Earyet {Arab.), a village. 

Eash {Cent. Asia), killer, e.g. Hindokush, so called from 
the frequent deaths of the Hindu merchants at- 
tempting to cross its passes. 

Eusi {Bornu), a hut built entirely of stone. Cf. 

Eusini {Swahili), south. See Sukeli, Eibola. 

Eu80 {Songhai), fine dusty soil. 

Eusr {Arab.), house, tower. 

Eu8t {Dch.), coast, shore. See EttstOi Eytt. 


Ktiste (Ger.)y coast. See Kust, Eyst. 

Kut (Hung.), a stream. 

Kit (Buss.), the head of a gulf. 

Kut (dialect near Lugh, Somaliland), clayey ground. 

Kut (Ja-Luo, East Uganda), island. 

Eata, Eota (Malay), a fortress. 

Eatale (Bambara), new, e,g. Snkutale, ' Newtown.' See 

Su. Cf. Koro. 
Eutel (E. Turk.), a col, a saddle. 
Eutemba (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), to 

ascend, e.g. Butembo, a village which is situated on 

the top of a hill. See Temba. 
eKutilu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a place of assembly. 
Eutsai^o (Giryama). See Tsano. 
Eutsi (Japan), an outlet. 
Eutul (Tibet), corrupted from Pers, Eotal (q.v.), a pass, 

e,g. Eoko Eutul, ' blue pass.' See Eoko. 
Eutun (Mongol), a town, e.g. Ifomoron Eutun, ' the town 

on the river Nomoron.' 
Euva (Nika), a fence, stockade. 
Euyu (Turk.), wells. 
Euzu (Sara, Chad L.), a village. 
Ewa (Modunga, Congo), a road, path. 
Ewa (E. Cent. Africa), a village, town, e.g. Ewa Htesa, 

' Mtesa's town.' 
Ewa (Hainan), a sub-prefecture. 
Ewa (Hottentot), a postfix meaning * people,' e.g. 

Eorakwa, Ifamakwa, Orikwa ; is really the mas. plur., 

written also qua, e.g. Ifamaqua-land. 
Ewa (N. Chin hills), a village. 


Ewala, Ewalla (Malay), the embouchure of a river ; the 
place of junction between two rivers ; a river, river 
mouth, e.g. Ewala Bemam, Ewala Onla. 

Ewalla {Abyssinia), lowland, opp, to Dega. 

Ewan {China), custom house, mountain pass, a forti- 
fication, garrison village. 

Ewa-nam (Hainan), a river. 

Ewang {China), broad, e.g, Ewang 8i, 'broad (province) 
west,* or western broad (province) ; similarly Ewang 
Tung = 'broad province east.* 

Ewang {Pai, China), a mountain. 

Ewang-lau {China), a lighthouse. Cf. Ho-tim. 

Ewara (Yoruha) , a river, water, the river, i.6. the Niger, fre- 
quently written Qnarra and Quorra in error. See Isa. 

Ewenda {Swahili), depth (of a river or the sea). 

Ewikk {Eskimo), a river, dual Ewik, j}2. Ewit. 

Ewilniru {German East Africa), a chief town. 

Ewiya {Hausa), a ridge (of hills). 

Ewonu {Gurma), a river. 

Ewori {Hausa), furrows, boundaries. 

Ewurmi,^Z. of Enrmi {q.v,) 

Eyanu {Tibet), house, castle. 

Eyla {Fin.), a village. 

Eyog {Tibet), bend, d6tour, gulf; sinuous. 

Eyrka {Sw.), a church. C/. Eirk, Eerk. 

EysUak {E. Turk.) See Eishlak. 

Eyst {Nor., Da.), coast. Cf. East, EUste. 

Eynng {Burma), an island. 

Eyoi, Gyol {Korea), a stream, creek, e.g. Eybl-Pong, 




-La {Cent, Africa), a suffix, applied to things, not per- 
sons, meaning ' great.' 

La (Congo), height, altitude, elevation. 

La {Lolo, China), boat. 

La (Min-Kia, Yunnan), south. For other points see Pen. 

La (Tibet), a col, pass ; usually placed aft^r the name, e,g. 
Chang-la, 'north pass,' see Chang, though some- 
times at the beginning, e.g. La-sar, ' new pass.' Cf, 
Mongol Daban, E. Turk, Davan, Chinese Ling. 

Laag (Dch,), bed, stratum ; as adj, low, e.^. LaagSoeren, 
Laag Zutem. 

Laager (Cape Dch.), a camp formed by arranging wagons 
end on, so as to enclose a space. 

Laagte (Dch,), valley, glen. 

Laam (Siam), bay ; bend in a river. 

Laba (Somali), two, e.g, Laba Oumbnr Kado, ' the two 
black hillocks.' See Oumbnr, Hado. 

Lablab (Hind.), sand, gravel. 

eLabo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country. Cf 

Lab-tse (Tibet), stones marking a road. j 

Labnan (Malay), anchorage, harbour; more properly 

Lac (Fr.), a lake (L.) Cf. Lago, Lajo. 

Lacn (NeO'Greek), a lake. 

Lacuna (It.), a lagoon, stagnant pool. Cf. Lagume. 

Lada (S. Cape, New Guinea), cloud. 


Ladrillal, Ladrillar (Sp.), a brickfield, brick-kiln. 

Laepa (Motumotu, New Guinea), a mountain. 

Lag (Tibet), arm, bay. 

Laga (Galla), river, stream. 

Laggan {Gaelic lagan), a small hollow, e.g. Laggan (Inver- 

Lagham {Chad L. region), a river. 

Lago {It), a lake (L.), e.g. Lago Haggiore, ' greater lake/ 

Lagnme {It), a broad pool of stagnant water, a marshy 
place. Of. Laonna. 

Lagiwa {It, Sp.), a lagoon, lake. 

Lagone {Fr.), a lagoon (Lag.) 

Lahi {Niue and Tonga, Polynesia), great. 

Lahti {Fin.), bight, bay. 

Laliim {Sierra Leone), land, country, e.g. Karelahim, 
pronounced KaYlaim. 

Lai {Cambodia), a helm, rudder ; e.g. An-Lai, in Bao-An. 
See An, Bao. 

Lai {Motu, New Guinea), wind. 

Lai {Thai, Pai), a mountain. 

Laida {Buss.), a shoal which dries. 


Lai glieng {Miao-tse, Yunnan), hamlet. 

Lailai {Mbau, Fiji), small. 

Laili {MiaO'tse, Kwei-chau), a field. 

Laja {Sp.), a flat rock. 

Lak {Hung.), a dwelling. 

L&k {Hung.), lake, pond. 

Laka {Hausa), mud. 

Lakar-kot {Arab,), a stockade. 

-Lakk {Pers.), a suflfix meaning ' place.' 


Lalag^ (Mossi, French Sudan) y wall, fortifications. 
Lalap {Malay), swamps. 

Lalasi (S, Cape, New Guinea), north-west wind. 
Lalo (Nika), a neighbourhood, locality = Arab, Dar. 
Lalum (Malay), water. 

Lam, Lam-kha {Chin hills ; Tibet), path, way, the way. 
nLam {Fan, French Congo). For meaning see Iflam. 
Lama {Port.), mud, e.g. the wooded depression north of 

Allada (Dahome), known to the natives as Ko {q.v.) 
Lambardar {India), village headman. 
umLambo (Kafir), a river. 
nLamba {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a flat shore beside a 

river, beach, bank ; course of a river. 
Lamorde {Adamawa), the house or seat of a Lamido or 

governor. Cf. Ribag^o. 
Lampong {Malay), buoy. 
Lan {Brittany), a church, e.g. Landivisiau, * the church 

of St. Tivisiau.' Cf. Llan. 
Lan {Celtic), a plain, e.g. Lantbwaite. See Thwaite. 
LaE {China), market-place. 
Lftn {Sw.), a county. 
Lan {Yoruba). See Ifla. 
Lanark {Gaelic), a forest glade. 
Landa {It.), down, heath, moor. 
Landas {Tagala, Philippines), a way, road. 
Lande {Fr.), sandy grounds (L**®), e.g. The Landes. 
Lftnde {Ger.), landing-place, quay, pier. 
Landgnt {Ger.), country estate, manor. 
Landsohaft {Ger.), region, district, province. 
Landschap (Dch.), province, country, canton. 


Landstadt (Ger,), a coantry town. 

Landnngsplatz {Ger.), wharf, landing-place. 

Landweg {Dch.)y country road. 

Landzunge {Ger.), a spit. 

Lang (Annam), a village. ' 

Lang (China) f waves. 

Lang, Lange (Ger.)^ long, e.g, Langenberg, Mong 

Lang (Siam)y lower, e,g, Lang Suan (Swan), in the pen- 
insula, south of Tenasserim. 

Langa (Con^o), to inundate, swamp, flood; a camp, 
regular resting-place for travellers. 

Langar (E. Turk), a resting-house for travellers. 

Lange (G^r.), longitude. 
mLango {East Africa, dialect of Bantu), a channel. 

Langtao {Siam), the bar of a river. 
nLanga {Loango, dialect of Bantu), water. 

Langne (Fr,), a tongue or neck of land. 

Langnr {Nepal), a lofty snow-capped mountain. Cf. 

Lanka {Hind,), island. See Dip, Jingira. 

Lankh {Serer), sand. 

Lansi {Fin.), western. For other points see Pohia. 

Lao {China), old, e.g. Lao Sung Ling, ' old pine pass ' ; 
a misspelling is Liao. See Sang, Ling. Cf Lau. 

Lao {Hainan), a path. 

Lao {Nung, Lao-kai), great, large. 

Lapa {Madagascar), a palace. 
eLapo {Cent. Africa, Bantu), country. Cf eLabo. 

Lapong, Lapang {Malay), an opening in the land. 


Laraga (Aroma, New Guinea), a garden. 

Larg {Gaelic learg), a hill, slope, e.g. Largs. 

Las (Somali), a shallow well or sand-pit, e.g. Las Anod, 
' milk well/ Las Dibbra. 

Lashi (Cent Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass ; for other 
dialect forms see Dinyasi. 

Lat (Siam), a short cut. 

Latala (Cent. Africa), a forest. 

Lafh (Hind.), an obelisk, minaret, vertical beam of oil- 

Lathe (Eng. from A.S. ladh), a part or division of a 
county, comprising several hundreds (q.v.) ; occurs 
now only in Kent, where there are still five lathes. 

Latifondo (It.), a large farm, extensive estate. 

Latse (China), a saw-peaked range of hills. Cf Sierra. 

Lau (China), a tower ; pronounced with a different tone 
means ' old.* See Lao, Liao. 

Lauba (Aroma, New Guinea), a cloud. 

Laubholz (Ger.), a leafy wood ; opposed to Ifadelholz, 
pointed needle-like (pine) foliage. 

Lanf (Ger.), a stream, course, current ; cf lanfen, to run. 

Langith (Ebon, Polynesia), sea. 

Lanlabada (Motu, New Guinea), south-east wind. 

Lant, Lautbesar (Malay), the sea, ocean. 

Lauter (Ger.), clear, e.g. Lauterbnumen, 'clear foun- 

Layanambu (Sansc), the sea. 

Lavan-Khani (Sansc), a salt mine. 

Law (Anglo-Saxon), a hillock, mound, rising ground, 
e.g. Hoodlaw. Cf. Low. 


Lax, Laks {Nor.), Balmon ; e.g. Lazvoe, Lazay. See 

Voe, Ay. 
Lasar (Ilasaania), a marsh, bog. 
Le (Danakil), water. 
La (Anglo-Fr.), beside, near, e.g. Houghton le Street, 

from lez, Ids (q.v.) 
•Le {Somali), a suffix signifying locality ; e.g. Adadle, 

' the place of Adad {i.e. trees).' 
Lea {Anglo-Saxon), a meadow or grassy plain. Ley, 

Leigh are other forms. 
Lea {Hainan) y a mountain. 
Leao {Gaelic)^ slate, slab ; e.g. Leao Ban, Leao Lee point. 

See Ban, Lee. 
Leben {Ger.), a place to live in. 
Led {Buss.), ice; see next entry. 
Ledyanaya gora {liiiss.), an iceberg. See Oora. 
Lee {A7ujlO'Saxon hied, a shelter), the side of a ship 

opposite to that from which the wind blows, so 

any shelter or sheltered spot, e.g. Alder Lee, Lees 

Lee {Gaelic le), smooth, e.g. Loohlee, ' smooth lake.* Cf* 

Lee wa {Indian, California), sea. 
Lefal'a {Arab., N. Africa), a place infested by horned 

Legi {Congo), a road. 
Leg! {Kerepunu, New Guinea), grass. 
Le go {Indian, California), a lake. 
Lehibe {Madagascar), great, large. 
Lei {Dch.), schist. 


Lei (Upper Nile), water. 

Leidi (Fula), country, district. 

Leigh {England, S,W,), a meadow, pasture; e.g. Bud- 

leigh ; a variant of Lea. 
Leihflien ohu (China), telegraph. 
Leite (Ger.), a mountain slope, declivity. 
Leito {Fort.), the bed of a river. 
Leiz {from Nor., Da. Lax), salmon ; e.g. Abbey Leiz. 
LejbiBbcbe, Lezhbisbcbe {Buss.), a seal-breeding place, a 

* rookery ' ; lit. a place of rest. 
Lek {Laos), iron. 
Lek {Siam), small. 
eLeko (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a town. 
kiLela {Gent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), an island. 
kiLele {Swahili), a summit, peak. 
eLelensM {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a plain ; level, flat. 
Leleu {Mentawei), a hill. 
Lell {Nissan I., New Guinea), a road, path. 
Lem {Siam), a cape, headland, point. 
eLenga {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a place where the 
grass has been beaten down by a great concourse 
of people. 
Lenger {Turkestan), a station or rest-house. See Langar. 
Lenpu {N. Arakan), large. 

Ler {from Icel. Leir), mud, e.g. Lerwick, * mud bay.' 
Ler {Da., Nor., Sw.), mud, e.g. Lersimd. 
Ler {Armenia), a mountain. 
Lis {Fr.), near, beside, e.g. Aspres-les-yeynes ; is a variant 

of lez {q.v.) 
Lesaw {N. Chin hills), a river. 



Leste {Sp.)y the east wind, east ; the L is here really 

only the article. 
Lette (Gironde), a pool formed after rain (L^). 
Letto {It), the bed of a river. 

Leachttorm, Leuchtthurm (Ger,) , lighthouse. Cf. Lichttoren. 
Lenfa (Araucanian, Patagonia), river, e.g. Karrileafa, 

' green river.' 
Levante (It), east, eastern region, lit, 'rising' (of the 

Level {Latin libella, through French), a gutter for 

water to run in. 
Levu {Mbau, Fiji), great; e,g, Vanua Levu. 
Lewaya (Ceylon), a salt-pan. 
-Ley (England), an open place in a wood, e.g. Dudley. 

See Lea, Leigh. 
Lez (Fr.from Latin latus, * side,* Provengal latz, laz), 

near, by, beside, obsolete except in place-names, 

e.g. Plessift-lez-Tonrs, ' Plessis near Tours,' Saventhem- 

lez-Bruzelles, ' Saventhem near Brussels.' Variants 

are le and les (q.v.) 

(Swahili), a buoy ; lor pi. see Chilezo, Hlezo. 

Lha (Tibet), god, genius, spirit ; e.g. Lhasa, * the seat of 

the divine intelligence.' See Sa. 
Lho (Tibet), south. • For other points see Byang, Bak, 

Nub, Ike, Shar. 
Li (China), a hamlet of twenty-five families. 
Li (China), inner. Cf. Nui. 

Li (China), a measure of length = one-third of a mile. 
eLi (Fan, French Congo), a tree; ior pi. see Eli. 


uLi (Fan, French Congo), a clearing in a forest. 
Ilia (Hind.), land which is annually flooded. 
Liang (Chungkia, Thai), a road. 
Liao (China), distant, e.g. Liao-Ho, < distant river/ Liao- 

Yang, * remote sun (light).' See Lao. 
Liba (Somali), lion. See under Shabel. 
maLiba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), water. 

Libongo (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Bongo. 
Lichinga (Mavia, Mozamb.) See Chinga ; cf Litnmbi. 
Liohinya (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Chinya. 
Licht (Ger.)f light ; e.g. Lichtenstein. See Stein. 
Lichttoren (Dch,), a lighthouse. Cf. Leuchttnrm. 
Lid (Anglo-Saxon hlidh), a slope, side of a hill, Latin 

clivna, e.g. Warning Lid in North Sussex. 
nLidi (German East Africa^ dialect of Bantu), a ravine. 
Lido (It.), shore, bank. 
Lienga (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Enga. 
Liesnoi (Buss.), woody, applied to many place-names 

in Alaskan waters. Properly Lyesnoi (q.v.) 
Lietnika (Buss.), summer village. Properly Lyetnika, 

see Lyeto. 
Lien (Fr.), place, e.g. Beanlieu. See Beau. 
maLifjEi (Bakundu, Kam^run), water. 

Lifawukho (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Fnwukho. 
Ligne de faite (Fr.), a water-parting or divide between 

two or more river basins. See Faite. 
Lihenga (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Henga. 
Lik (Tibet), people, tribe, e.g. Tagh Lik, * mountaineers,' 

a nomad tribe of Tatars. See Tagh. 
Likete (Ebon, Polynesia), a place, locality. 



Li kiari (Gurma), wells. 

Liko {Swahili), See Diko, Ko. 

Lilang (Chong-Chia-tse, Yunnan), mountain. 

Lilbaden (Jibali, Berber), a mountain. 

LiUa (Sw,), small (lil. or 1.), e.g, Lilla Luldi Elf. Cf. Stor. 

Lille (Nor,, Da,), small (L»*), e.g, Lille Belt, *the Little 
kiLima (Swahili), hill, detached mountain, mound, e,g, 

Eilima Hjaro. 
mLima {East Africa, dialect of Bantu), a mountain. 

Liman (Turk.), harbour, port.] These are really the same 

Liman (Buss.), an estuary, r Greet word, borrowed in 

Limen (Greek), harbour, port. ) Bussian and Turkish. 

Limitrophe (Fr.), neighbouring, bordering. 

Limne (Greek), a lake. 

Limo (Prov. Sp,, ItaL), mud, from Lat. limns, mud, slime. 

Lin, Ling (China), grove, wood, forest ; imperial tomb ; 
e.g, Tn Lin, * elm forest.' 

Lin, Ljrn, Linn, Lynn (Gaelic, linne, Irish, linn, a pool ; 
Anglo-Saxon, hlinna, a brook), a spring, pool, 
especially one under a waterfall, source of a 
river, precipice, ravine, e.g, Dnblin, * Black Pool ' 
(dnbh= black) ; King's Lynn, Linmonth or Lynmonth; 
Corra Linn, near Lanark. See Llyn. 

Lin (Pat, Yunnan, China), earth. 

Lina (Aroma, New Guinea), tide (flowing). 

Linani (Kossova, Eastern Uganda), forest. 

Lind (Icelandic), a well. 

Ling (China), chain of hills ; a height not peaked ; a pass 
over a mountain ridge, e.g. Hanling. See San. 


Ling {Punjab), a stone pillar which is supposed to 

represent the god Shiva. 
Ling (Tibet), region, district ; also a garden, e.g. Ham- 
ling, from Ham (q.v.), sky, the monastery being on a 

high hill with a garden at the foot. 
Lingara (A-Zande), a village. 
Lingua (It.), a small promontory, tongue. 
Linn. See Lin. 

Linyasi {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Dinyasi. 
Linyi {Hausa), a slave village. Cf Enmde. 
Lipa (SlaiJonic), lime-tree, e.g. Leipzig, originally a Slav 

Lips (Greek), south-west ; really the S.-W. wind 

(sirocco). For bther points see Boreas. 
Lirova (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Eova. 
Lis (Gaelic), a garden, e.g. Lismore, 'great garden.' 

See Kore. 
Lis (Irish), a fort made of earth, e.g. Listowel. 
Lisidre (U.S.A.), a strip of country along the coast; 

lit., in French, a selvage. 
Lit (Fr.), bed, stratum ; bed of a river. 
Litala (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Tala. 
Lithos (Greek), stone. 

Litiwa (Ketosh, Eastern Uganda). See Tiwa. 
Litnlo (Lu-Wanga, Eastern Uganda), a mound. 
Litnmbi, Chitnmbi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), 

mountain, large hill. See Tnmbi. Cf. Lima. 
Liva (Turk.), subdivision of a Vilayet (q.v.) 
eLiwa (French Congo coast, dialect of Bantu), lake. 
iLiwa (Zulu, Kafir), a precipice, cliflF. 


Ijioeai {Albanian) , lake. 

Ijongs (Tibet)t a broad valley. 

Llan- (Welsh) y a prefix meaning enclosure, church, e.g. 

Llanadas (Patagonia), gently sloping plains, at such an 

altitude above the level of a river as to be free 

from floods. 
Llano (Sp.)i * plain, level ground. 
LLeam (Armenian), a mountain. 
Llena (Sp.), alluvion, overflow of rivers. 
Llyn (Welsh), a pool, lake, e.g. Llyn Kymbyr. See Lin. 
beLo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), part of a town ; a cluster 

of houses in a town. 
Lo (Cent. Africa), an old root meaning * to flow,* e.g. 

Lomami. Cf. Do, Bo, En. See Domasi, Eln. 
Lo (Dagboma, Mossi), village. 
Lo (Hainan), a path. 
Lo (Man Sung, Lao-Kai), great, large. 
Lo (Ja-Luo, Eastern Uganda), sand. 
nLo (Fan, French Congo) ; for meaning and^Z. see Hlo. 
Lo (Loh, China), boat. 
maLoa (Kossova, Eastern Ugajida), ground. 
Lbb (Da., Nor.), channel, passage, fairway. 
Locature (Provincial Fr.), farm, holding. 
Loch (Ireland and Scotland), a lake, a sheet of fresh 

water ; bay or arm of the sea. The original Gaelic 

and Irish are both loch, though the latter is now 

usually written lough ; is cognate with A.S. lagu, 

sea, lake, and with Lat. lacns, whence A.S. lac, 

E7ig. lake. 


Lode {England), a reach of water in a canal. 

Lodo {Span., Port.), mud, from Lat. lutnm, whence 
Lutetia Farisioram (Paris). 

Loe {Pal, Yu7inan, China), a mountain ; is a variant of 
• Loi {q.v.) 

Logar {Port.), a village. 
eLogh {Fan, French Congo), grass; tox pi. see Elogh. 

Loi {Shan States), a hill. See Loe. 

Lokko {Yoruba), on board, aboard, e.g. Fort Lokko. 

Lo knl lo {Indian, California), a valley. 

Lolo {Songhai), a road. 

Lorn wow {Siam), north wind; lorn tapow, south wind; 
lorn tawan-ok, east wind; lorn tawan-tok, west 
wind ; for points of compass see Hua. See also Fon. 

Loma (Sp.), rising ground in the midst of a plain ; 
hill, hillock, knoll. 

Lon {Annam), great, large. 

Lon&r {Hind.), salt lands ; a place where salt is pro- 
duced ; from 16a, salt ; cf, Sansc. lavan&kar, a salt-pit. 

Londe (Congo), a hill; used only in composition, e.g. 
edu-londe, highlanders. 
eLondo {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a back current, an 

Long {S. Chin hills and Borneo), stream, river, e.g. 
Kannglong, Thet Long. 
muLonga {dialect of Bantu), a river. 
nLongo {Giryama), clayey soil. 

nLonki {Fan, French Congo), below, the direction to- 
wards which a river flows. 

Loo {Belgium), an open place in a wood, e.g. Waterloo. 


Lorgenai {Lake Budolf district, East Africa), black 

stones, e.g, Donyo Lorgenai^ 'the mountain of 

black stones/ a Masai name for Mount Kenia. 
Lotsitsi {Bechuana, Bantu). See Tsitsi. 
Lotsimg (Sumatra), See under Bale. 
Lough (Ireland). See Loch. 
Lovoka (Madagascar), a bay. 
Low (England, from Anglo-Saxon hlaw), a mound, hill, 

rising ground, e.g. Ludlow, High Low in the Peak 

district. Of. Law. 
Lu- (Bantu), a prefix frequently applied to the roots to 

form the names of rivers, e.g. Luapula, Lualaba, 

Lu (China), a road, a way. 
Lu- (Congo, Uganda, dtc, Bantu), a prefix applied to 

the root to denote the language ; e.g. Luwanga, the 

language of the Wawanga. See Wa. 
-Lu (Congo), river, e.g. Sankulu. Cf. Ka, Bu. 
Luala (Bantu). See Ala. 
Luanda (Nika). See Anda; cf. Lwanda. 
Luang (Siam), yellow, e.g. Luang Frabang. Cf. Luong. 
Luaqa (Bantu). See Anja. 

Luanza (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Anza. 
Lubira (Victoria Nyaiiza region). See Bira. 
Lubok (Malay), a pool; deep holes in the sea; lake, 

river, a reach of a river ; a recess or bight in the 

winding of a river, e.g. Lubok Ajung, Lubok Fangku 

Lubu (Kerepunu, New Guinea), sacred house or platform. 
Lubulu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Bulu. 


Luchau {Lolo, China), a wood. 
luLachi {Ketosh, Eastern Uganda), a river. 

Luda (Buss.), a rock or reef out of water. 

Ludide, Lntite {Nika), small, little. 

Ludzidzi {Nika). See Dzidzi. 

Luenga (Gogo, Bantu). See Enga. 

Lueru {German East Africa, dialect of Ba^itu). See Eru. 

Lnfalo (Nika), See Fulo. 

Lugan (Malinke, Senegal), cultivated land. 

Lugar (Sp.), a village or small town ; any place; from 
Lat. locus. 

Lugga (Galla), a nuUab. 
aLugh {Fan, French Congo) ; for meaning see Alugh. 

Lnharano (Madagascar), source, fountain, spring. 

Luhasaha (Madagascar), a valley. 

Luhatona (Madagascar), the dry season, spring. 

Li^ (Arab.), the ocean; an abyss. 

Lnji (Arab.), the sea. 

Lnjja (Arab.), deep water, the middle of the sea. 

Lnkala (Ketosh and Lu-Wanga, Eastern Uganda). See 
kuLnkira (Nika), a road made by the traffic of cattle. 

Lnkkn (Fin.), a rock. 

Lnkolo (Giryama). See Kolo. 
Lukolonga (Bantu). See Kolonga. 

Luknlu, Hknlu ( Ce7it. Africa, dialects of Bantu) . See Kulu. 

Luluohi (Ketosh, Eastern Uganda). See Luchi. 

Liun (England, Welsh lliun = that which projects), a 

chimney; also a woody valley, a deep pool, e.g. 

The Lum near Leek in the Peak district. 


Lum (Yambo, Upper Sobat B.), grass. 

Liunba {Hausa)^ a garden. 

Luini (Albanian), river, stream. 

Lompor (Malay), mud; sometimes found as Lumpur. 

Lun (Khas Chos, Indo-China), house, abode. 

Lun (Tibet), wind. 

Lund (Nor,, Da.), a grove ; e.g. Lundgarth. See Oarth. 
chiLundi (Tonga, Bantu), a detached hill or mountain. 
iLundi (Bantu), a high mountain, a detached hill. 

Lunengenenge (Congo, dialect of Bantu) . See If enge-nenge. 

Lung (China), a dragon, e.g. Hei Lung Kiang, 'Black 
Dragon River.' Cf. Luong. See Hei, Kiang. 

Lunga (Tibet), ditch, valley. 

Lungma (Tibet), a river. Cf. Lungpa. 

Lungma (Tibet), coarse grass. 

Lung-pa (Tibet), a straight valley; also river; cf. 
Lungma; also one's country (Hind, mulk, loan 
word from Arab.) 

Luogo (It.), place, site. 

Luong (Cambodia), a dragon, e.g. Ham-Luong, 'Dragon's 
Jaw ' in Bao-Duk. Cf. Lung. It also means 
* sweet,' e.g. Phui Luong, * Sweet Wealth,' in Bao- 

Luong (Laos), yellow. Cf. Luang, of which it is another 

Luong (E. Siam, Annam), great, large. 

Luoto (Fin.), a shoal. 

Lupa (Tagala, Philippines), land. 

Lupata (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Fata. 

Lupiri (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Piri. 


Lusese (Bantu). See Sese. 

LuBolo {Cent, Africa^ dialect of Bantu). See Solo. 
Lut (Pers.), baore, naked, e.g. Dasht-i-Lut, * bare steppe/ 
Lutite (Nika). See Ludide. 
Luvanga (Nika). See Vanga. 
Lnvila (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Vila. 
Luwi (Bua, Bantu). See Wi. 
Luwong^o (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Wongo. 
Lnzi, Hgnzi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See Zi, 
Lwanda (Giryama). See Anda. 
uLwandle (Kafir), the sea. Davis gives u as the prefix, 

but Torrend renders it ulw-Andle.' 
Lye (English), a siding, oflfset, or loop from a main line 

of railway ; from A.S. liegan. 
Lyen (Welaung, Kwenam), large, great. 
Lyeng, Lyong (Korea). See Syeng. 
Lyes (Buss.), a forest. See next entry. 
Lyesnoi (Buss.), wooded, woody. The adjective of lyes 

Occurs misspelled as Liesnoi (q.v.) 
Lyeto (Buss.), summer. 
Ljrn, Lynn. See Lin. 
Ly» (Da., Nor.), light (colour), e.g. Lysned. 


M-. See Ka (S. Cent. Africa). 

Ka (Arah.), water. 

Ma (Indian, U.S.A.), large water expanse. 

* See Kaffir-English Dictionary^ by W. J, Davis, and A Comparative 
Qrammar of tlie South-African Bantu Languages, by J. Torrend, S.J. 


Ma {Indian, California), earth, land. 

Ma- {Loango), king, a prefix followed by the name of 
the country, e,g. Ma Loango^sKing of Loango. 

Ma {Motumotu, New Guinea), water. 

Ma-, M- (S. Cent. Africa, Barotseland), the people, e.g. 
Marotse. Cf The English. See Ba-. 

Ma {Tibet), down, low. See Mad. 

•Ma {Central Sudan), a singular suffix, e.g. Kanema, i.e. 
Kanem-ma, ' a man of Kanem.* See -Bu. 
kuMa {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a place. 

Ma'a, Maka {Samoa, Niue and Tonga, Polynesia), stone. 

Maader {Arab., N. Africa), lowland, covered with 

Maadie ( Upper Nile) , a ferry boat ; below the Cataracts 
it is used for a large freight and passenger 

Maap {S. Africa), muddy. 
. Maar {Iceland), a cauldron-shaped depression. 

Mabar {Arab.), pass, ferry, ford. 

Mabehe {Ce7it. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Behe. 

Maoohia {It.), jungle, thicket. 

Machar {Celtic machair), a plain, e.g. Maohars (Wig- 
town). Cf. Mauch, and see Maghera. 

Machi {Japan), town ; street. 

Machi {Fan, French Congo). See Chi. 

Machila {Cerit. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a conveyance, 
consisting of a canvas hammock hung on a long 
bamboo pole, carried by two men. See Chila. 

Mad {Tibet), low country. See Ma, 8mad. 

Madan {Arab.), a mine, quarry. See Maden. 


Kadeira {Port), wood, timber, wooden (building), e.g. 

Kadeira I., Kadeira B. Cf. Kadera. 
Kaden {Turk.), a mine. See Kadan. 
Kader {Arab.), a moist locality. 
Mader {Pers.), mother, e.g. Kader Kuh, 'mother hill.' 
Kadera {Sp.), timber, wood, the same word as Kadeira. 
Kadhaiya (Hind.), cottage, hut. 
Kadhya {Sansc), middle, e.g. Kadhya-deth = the part of 

India comprising Allahabad, Agra, Delhi, Oude, &c. 
Kadhne {Arab.), a minaret. 
Kadi {Bafo, Kamerun). See Di. 
Kadiba {Kamerun, dialect of Bantu). See Diba; opp. 

to Kandi. 
Kadina, Kedine {Arab.), a city. See Kedine. 
Kado, Kadu, Kadoba {Somali), black, applied to a valley 

that is dark and shady, e.g. Afinadu. See Af. 
Kadrasa {Cent. Asia, Persia, India), a college; loan 

word from Arab, darasa, to read. 
Kadnk, Kadugu {Mande, West Sudan), the house of a 

king, palace. See Dagn. 
Kadzi {Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Dzi. 
Kadzi-Kaiyi {Giryama), sea. 
Kae {Hang Ghek, Indo-China), a tree. 
Ka el ma (Arab.), a source. See Ka. 
Kaen {Welsh), a large stone, e.g. Kaen y Frenfol, near 

Kaes {Welsh), a field, a heath, e.g. Kaesbnry. See Bury 
Kafana {Madagascar), hot, e.g. Banomafieuia, ' hot water/ 

See Rano. 
Kafaza {Arab.), a desert. 


Kafltsi. See Kafutsi. 

Mafdtsi (Hausa), ferry, landing-place, wharf. 

Mag (Gaulish) y a field, e.g, Karmagen. 

Kag (Hind,), road, path, way ; from Sansc. m&rg, road. 

Kag (Sever y Senegal) y a river. . 

Kagala (Somali), a town, e,g, Kagala Sahil, ' coast town,' 

i,e, Berbera. 
Magangamn (Hausa), confluence, equivalent to the Fula 

Magas (Hung.), great, high (Mg.)i applied to a large 

number of towns and villages. 
Magdnxaat (Darfur), a province under a Kagdum or 

Magh (Irish), a field, e.g, Armagh. 
Kaghera (Irish), a plain, a field, e.g, Magherafelt. 
Maghrabi (Arab,), western, relating to North Africa. 

Cf, Gharb. 
Maghreb (Arab.), west. Cf. Oharb. 
Maghribi (Swahili), west ; borrowed from the Arabic 

maghreb. Cf. Oharb. 
Magrem (Arab., N. Africa), meeting, junction, e.g. 

Magrem el Buhur, ' the meeting of the waters,' the 

Arab, name of No L. See Bahr. 
Magu iesiva (S. Cape, New Guinea), tide (flowing). 
Magura (Rumanian), a wooded height (Mgr.) 
Mah& (Sansc, Hind.), great, e.g. Mahanadi. See Hadi. 
Mahal (Arab.), place, building, house, mansion. 
Mahal el knfir (Egyptian Sudan), old ruins. See Kofr. 
Mahallah (Cent. Asia) a quarter of a town. 
Mahanke (Indian, U.S.A.), earth, land. 


Kahareb (Wadai)^ the round bell-shaped huts of Wadai, 
made of reeds, as opposed to Keri, the Wadai name 
for the portable Arab huts. 

Mah^-van (Sansc), a large forest. See Van. 

Mahifohifo {Nine, Polynesia) y west. For other points see 

MaMgen {Arab.), a whirlpool, eddy. 

Malyar (Arab.), rocks which impede the current of a 

Mahrusa (Arab,), a garrison or fortified place. 

Mai (Bantu) y water ; probably not originally Bantu, but 
from Arabic Ka. 

Mai (MotunwtUy New Guinea), river. 

Mai (Siam), new. 

Maidan {Arab., Pers., India, Abyssinia), 'plsAa, open field, 

place d'armes. 

„ {Marocco), an open space on which to practise 

horsemanship, usually found in front of every 

castle. This is the original meaning, from Arab. 

mida, meda, to be moved or agitated. 

MaVen {Upper Nile), bush, tall grass. 
i {Hausa). See Fadi. 
Jje {Kilimane, Bantu). See Ije. 

Mai-ma {China), trade, e.g. Maimachin, ^ trade town,' 
near Kiakhta ; chin = town. 

Maing {Burma), a town of the fourth order or sub- 
district capital. Another form of Meng {q.v.) 

Maiigi {dialect of Bantu). See Mansi. 

Mainya, pi. of Baba {Hausa), great. 

Maio {Fula). See Mayo. 

{Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Ji. 


Kaireveina {Motu, New Guinea)^ east. 

Kaison (Fr.), house (M°"). 

Maiya (Equatorial Nile), a backwater, e.g. Maiya Bita 

Signora, named after the great traveller Miss 

Tinn6. Another form is Maya (j.v.) 
Kajani (Swahili). See Jani. 
Kajen (Arab.), a natural reservoir. 
Makali (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), bitter, 

e.g. Marenga Makali (Biver)s= bitter water. See 

Makan (Arab.), a house, dwelling. 
Makani (Galla), a village. From the Arab, makan (?). 
Makao, Makazi, Makani (Swahili). See Kao, Kazi, Xani. 
Makaya (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kaya. 
Makaad (Swahili). See Kazi. . For other forms see 

Makbar (Arab.), burying-place, tomb, monument. 
Makhade (Arab.), a ford. 
llAkkoren (West Sudan), great, large, e.g. AutelMakkoren; 

Imakoren, ' large island ' formed by the Niger 

Makop (Bali, Kamerun), wood, forest. 
Makro (Greek), long, e.g. Makri Yalo, a bay in Crete. 
Makta (Arab.), a ford. 
Makna, Makwa (A-Zande), river, stream. 
Maknni (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Knni. 
Mai (Hung.), mountain, e.g. Xiralymal=K0nig8berg. 
Mai (Fan, French Congo). See Dzal. 


Mala, pi. of Buala (Loango), See Ala. 

Kala (Slav.), little. Cf. Malo, Mali, Maly. 

Maladrerie (Fr,), lazaretto (Mai*'*'). 

Malai (Tamut), mountain, hill. 

MalaUa (Mekeo, New Guinea), north. 

Malan {Hind.), a path. 

Malang, Mallang (Malay), rocks visible at high water, 

e.g. Malang Saklt Mata. 
Malanga {Nine, Polynesia), south. For other points see 

Malashi (Gent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Dinyasi. 
Mali (Chin Hills), great, e.g. Mali Kha, * great river,' the 

Myit Qji of the Burmese. Cf Nmai. See HLjit, 

Oyi, Kha. 
Mali (S. Slavonic), little. Cf Malo, Mala, Maly. 
Mali (W. Africa, between the Niger and the Atlantic), 

hippopotamus, e.g. Malinke, the people whose fetish 

or idol is the hippopotamus. See Ke, Nke; cf. 

Bamba, Sa. 
Maliba (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Liba. 
Maliba mokru (Upper Nile)^ river, stream. 
Malifa (Bakundu, Kamerun). See Lifa. 
Malj (Albanian), mountain range. 
Malka (Galla), a river. Cf. Melka. 
Malmala (Hind.), brackish (water). 
Malnad (India, Mysore), hill country, applied generally 

to the Manjarabad and Nagar ranges. 
Malo (Buss., Servian), small, e.g. Malo Jezero, ' little lake.' 

Cf Mala, Mali, Maly. See Jezero. 
Maloa (Kossova, Eastern Uganda)* See Loa. 



Maly {Buthenian), small (ML), e.g, Maly Kriaz, N. of 

Cracow. Cf, Mala, Mali, Malo. 
Mamakating {Indian, TJ.SA), a great standing heap, 

Mambo {Zavibezia), chief, king. 
Mamelon {Fr) lit, pap, breast ; a rounded hill. 
Man {Celtic), district, e,g. Manchester. See Chester. 
Man {Korea), bay, e.g, iraD-to-Man = Goshkevich bay. 
Man {Shan States), a village. 
Man {Shan States), new, e.g, Man-Maw, * New-Market,' 

the Shan name for Bhamo. See Bha, Maw. 
Man {Tamul), earth, land. 

Mana {Bambara), a cliff, e.g, Mananle, ' red cliff.' See TTle. 
Mana \ 


"M I (^^^^- ^/"^ic^y dialects of Bantu), river, lake. 

muMana > 

-Mana, -Manavi {Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a suffix 

meaning * little.' 
Mana {S. Cape, New Guinea), wind. 
Manahiqj {Indian, U.S.A.), a spring. 
Mananga {Gazaland), sandy waterless tracts, above the 

level of the river valleys, covered with thorny 

scrub. See Nanga. 
Mananyaro {Amis, Formosa), a village. 
Manarokta {Indian, U.S.A.)^ forest, wood. 
Manasi {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), See Dinyasi. 
•Manavi {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), See -Mana. 
Hanbate {Sara, Chad L.), b, house made of wood. Cf 



Mandal (Hind.) 9 a fountain ; a port, harbour. 

Mandal (Hind.), circle, sphere; the solar disk; the 

heavens ; a round tent ; a district ; from Sansc, 

mandanla, a disk. 
Handan (Deccan), the world. 
Handap {Sansc,^ Hvjid,), a shed ; temple, pavilion. 
Mandhi (Sansc, Hind.), a cottage ; small temple ; shrine ; 

hermit's cell. 
Man^i {Hind.), market ; a shop, storehouse for sale of 

goods by auction or on commission. 
Handing (Wolof), a desert, wilderness. 
Mandir {Sansc, Hind,), house, mansion, palace, temple. 
Mane (Sara, Chad L.), water, cf. Tutu ; river, cf, Ba. 
Manene (Congo, dialect 0/ Bantu). See Nene. 
u Mango (Kafir), the ridge of a country; an elevated 

tract of land. 
Mangrullo (Spanish S. America), watch-tower, a signal 

staff fixed in the branches of a tree. 
Manhattan (Indian, U.S.A.), rapids. 
Mania (Banjan, Kamerun), water. 
Manigua (Cuba), a tropical forest. 
Maigi (Bali, Kavierun). See Nji. 
Mankala (Arab.), a day's journey; a halting-place ; a 

way through mountains. Cf. Manzil. 
Mankiala (Fin.)^ isthmus. 

Manse (Low Latin, mansa, a farm), a house or dwelling 
with or without land ; a dwelling-house reserved for 
a minister ; Capital Manse, a manor-house. 
Mansi, Manzi, Menzi, Amensi, Amazi, Minzi, Amaji, Maji, 

Masi, Mesi, Madsi, Maiqi, Mari (Cent. Africa, 

B 2 


dialects of Bantu) ^ water. See Nzi, Nn, Dzi, Ji, 

Si, Zi, Mazi. 
Mantiase {Gold Coast), a subordinate town ; a dependent 

of a leading town. 
Manufacture (Fr,), factory (Manuf"). 
Manyasi {Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), See Dinysuii. 
Hanyata {East Africa, Masai), the villages of the Masai. 
Hanza {Senegambia), a king or sovereign, hence Kassa- 

manza, ' chief of the emigrant Kassa people,* cor- 
rupted into Easamansa, or Casamance. 
Manzaua {Spanish S. America), a block of houses in the 

form of a square, there being a street at each 

Manzi {dialect of Bantu). "See Nzi. 
Manzil {Arab.), a day's journey ; an inn ; a dwelling ; 

boundary. From Nazala=to alight. Cf the other 

forms Menzil, Munsil, Mankala. 
Mao (Fula). See Mayo. 
Maol {from Gaelic maol, bare), a headland, e.g. Maol 

Dubh, in Loch Leven. See Dubh. 
Ma pa {Indian, U.S.A.), water. 
Mape {MekeOy New Guinea), coast. 
Mar {Abba, N.W. of Budolf L.), a road. 
Mar {Arab.), a saint (Christian). 
Mar {Sp., Port.), sea. Cf Mare, Mer, Mari, Mere. 
Mar {Woloj), a stream. 

Mara {A-Zande), iron, applied to ferruginous districts. 
Marabut {North Africa), a saint ; monk ; a monument 

erected in honour of a saint, generally a chapel 

or shrine with a cupola. 


Haraflari, Waraflari. See Baflari. 

Marago (Ki-Mrima, East Africa), See Sago. 

Haraira {Maiva, New Guinea)^ north wind. 

Harairana (Kabadi, New Guinea), north wind. 

Maraifl (Fr.), swamp, marsh (M*). 

Marakat (Arab.), a shoal with soft bottom. 

Maraovai {Motumotu, New Guinea), tide (flowing). 

Harca (It,), boundary, frontier, a loan word. See Hark. 

March {Eng,, Scot.), border, frontier ; c/. the * Warden of 
the Marches.' From A,S. mearo (whence the 
border kingdom of Merda) and Goth, marka (whence 
the Harcomanni, the ' border men '). See Hark. 

HarcU (Fr.), market. 

Mare (Rumania), great, e.g, Btobodzieya Hare, on Pruth B. 

Hare (Fr.), pool, pond. 

Mare (It.), sea. Cf, Mar, Her, Hari, Mere. 

Marea (Maiva, New Guinea), sacred house or platform. 

Harea (Sp.), tide; sea-shore. 

Marfie (Fr.), tide. 

Haremma (It.), down, fen, salt-water marsh. 

Marenga. See Kenga. 

Marevo (Buss.), mirage. 

Marfag (A rab., N. Africa) , promontory, cape. Cf Henkeb. 

Marhaiya. See Marhi. 

MarM (Hind.), a variant of Mandhi (q.v.) 

Marl (dialect of Bantti). See Mann. 

Marl (Fin.), sea. Cf. Mar, Her, Hare, Here. 

Marigot (Senegal), a corrupted Jolof word, shallow 
creek, arm of a river. Cf. Faddama, Adar-n-Eghirrl^u, 
Eejl, Kra, Bot-ho. Now used in French works. 


Marina (It,), sea-coast, shore, strand. 

Haxjal (Sp.)> ^^^i woodland, marsh. 

Mark (Indo-European), a boundary, e,g, Benmark, 

Altmark ; Meroia, the * Marches.' Is cognate with 

Lat. margo, margin, frontier. 
Mark (Scotland), a forest, e.g. Markinoh, * the forest 

island.' See Inch. 
Markas (Arab.), a halting-place. 

Markt (Ger.), market-place, e.g. Nexunarkt, ' Newmarket.' 
Marmaro (Hatisa), source, spring. 
Marne (Fr.), clay, marl. 
Marra (Galla), house, dwelling. 
Marraraba (Hausa), bifurcation (whether of roads or 

streams), division, equal division, half way. See 

Marsa (Arab.), a port, e.g. Marsala, Marsa Zafran. 
Manoh (Ger.), marsh, moor. 
Mart (Hung.), bank, shore, coast. 
Martha, Marta (Nestorian Christian), village, hamlet. 
Mam (Sansc), a region destitute of water, desert, sands. 
Marwa (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), quartz. 
Marz (Per 8.), region, district. 
Mas (Provence), small country house (M.) 
Masa (liubiana, Solomon Is.), a reef. 
Masabki (Hausa), a lodging-place. 
Masakin (Arab.), mansions, habitations. 
Masalik (Arab.), ways, paths. 
Masanza (Congo, dialect of Bantu), See Sanza. 
Masar (Cent, Asia), a saint's tomb. 
Masara (Arab.), a mill. 


HaiUiad (Arab.), a burying-place, monument. 

Madirik (Arab,), the east. See Hatla. In Hind, Hashrak. 

doHasi (Cent. Africa^ dialect of Bantu). See Mazi, Domari. 

Hasidi (Hausa), inn, resting-place. 

Hasika (E. Africa, dialect of Bantu), See Bika. 

Hasiina (Swahili), See Bima. 

Maqid (Arab,), a mosque. 

Haskara (Arab,), a camp. 

Maslak (Arab,), a path, track. 

Maflsa-dufiTU ) 

(Mande), capital. See Dngn, Bu. 

Masseria (It.), a farm (Mass^). 

Masflstab (Ger,), scale (of a map). 

Hasua (Cent Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Isoa. 

Hasnmba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), See Buinba. 

Haswa (Arab,), a dwelling, habitation. 

Hat (Suriss), a field, e,g, Andermat; same as Matt. 

Hata (Port.), ) 

Hata (Sp.), 

Hata (Barotofiga, Polynesia), great. 

Hatadi (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Tadi. 

Hatal (Carolines), waterways. 

Hatala (Fin,), a reef. 

Ha-tau (China), jetty, port. 

Ma-teu (China), mouth, estuary. 

Hath (Albanian), great. 

Hatiu (Maiva, New Guinea), a tree. 

Hati (Marovo, Solomon Is.), sand. 

„ (New Georgia, Solomon Is.), a reef. 
Hatiyara (Sansc), arable land. 

bush, thicket, copse. 


Hatla {Arab.), the east. See Oharb, Said, Mashrik. Cf. 

Hatd, Hatsu (Japan) , town, village, e.g. Hatsnye in 

Shimane, Hatsuda near Tokyo. 
Matswerero (Giryama). See Tswerero. 
Matt (Swiss), a meadow, e.g. Andermatt, sometimes 

spelled Mat. 
Ma-tu (China), a road constructed in European 

Mata (Samoa), north wind; Itu i Matu, north, lit. 

' north side.* For other points see Basa'e, Bisifo, 

Matnntugge (Indian, U.S.A.), bog, marsh. 
Mauch (Gaelic magh), a plain, e.g. Mauchline, *the plain 

with the pool ' ; cf. Machar, Magh. See Lin. 
Mandzu (dialect of Bantu). See TTdzu. 
Mauer (Oer.), a wall. 
Mauna (Polynesia), mountain; other forms are Maua, 

Maunga, Manga. 
Mauta (Motumotu, New Guinea), south-east wind. 
Mavro (Neo-Greek), black, e.g. Mavri Thalassa, the ' Black 

Maw (Burma), a market, e.g. Bhamo, properly Bha-maw, 

* New-market.' See Bha, Man. 
Mawa (Arab.), dwelling, abode, habitation. 
Mawarid (Arab.), a watering-place. See Ma. 
Mawn (Kwefiam), a hill. 
Mawr, Mor (Celtic), great, e.g. Pemnaenmawr, Benmore. 

See Ben, Fen, Maen. 
Maya (Albanian), mountain. 


Maya {Upper Nile), a name applied to the shallow 

lagoons formed in the swamps, which bomid the 

lower Bahr-el-Jebel. See Maiya. 
Hayak {Buss,), a lighthouse, beacon tower. 
Mayo {Fula), a river, e.g. Mayo Kebi ; other forms are 

Mao, Maio. 
Maz- {Pers.), mountain, e.g. Mazandaran, 'within the 

Mazar {E, Ttirk.), a saint's tomb. 
Mazaraat {Arab.), cultivated lands. 
Mazi {Lusinga, Ghula, Uganda), See Zi. 
aMazi {Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. For other 

forms see Manri, Bi, Zi. 
Maziko {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Ziko. 
blMbali {Upper Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Bali. 
Mbambi {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Bambi. 
Mbanga {Ghazal region), royal station, zeriba. 
Mbanza {Congo, dialect of Bantu), See Banza. 
Mbeka {Congo), precipice, cliflf. 
Mbel {Serer, Senegal), lake, marsh. 
Mbenge {Kamerun), west. See Pongo. 
Mbewe {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Bewe. 
Mbla {A-Zande), a mountain. 
Mbin {Serer, Senegal), house, dwelling. 
Mbira {Giryama). See Bira. 
muMbo {Lu'Wanga, Uganda), west. 

Mboka {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Boka. 
Mbotu {Marovo, Solomon Is.), hill. Cf Mbutn. 
Mbu {Congo), sea, ocean. 
Mbua {Kamerun), rain. 


Mbulangiana {Congo, dialect of Bantu), See 

Mbunga {Sara, Chad L.)» a tree. Cf. Kaga. 

Mbutu {Kusage, Solomon Is.), hill. Cf. Hbotn. 

Mohenga {Zamhezia, dialect of Bantu), See Ohenga. 

Hoho {E, Africa), occasional showers which fall through 
a month or six weeks in June and July. 

Hdima {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Dima, Dema. 

Hdo {Tibet), the end of a valley, confluence. 

He {AttiCf Ivory Coast), running water, river. 

He {Nigeria), palm oil, e.g. Bafam*me = the portion of 
Bafiun where palm oil may he collected. See Katae. 

He {Siam), a river, e.g. Uenam, Hekong. 

He {Songhai), bank of a river. 

He {Tibet), low country. 
akaUe {Congo, dialect of Bantu), water. 
go He {Nika), an overhanging rock. 

Uea (Cambodia), gold. 

Hea {Motumotu, New Guinea), cloud. 

Hea {Botuma, Polynesia), small. 

Heal {England, East Coast), a sandhill. 

Heall {Gaelic), a lump, e.g. Heall Beg island. 

Heban {Fayi, French Congo). See Aban. 

Heben {Fan, French Congo). See Aben. 

Ueboli {Fan, French Congo). See Aboli. 
kaHecM {Ketosh, Eastern Uganda), water. 

Hedalla {Lomwe, Mozambique), road. 

Hedine {Arab.), city, ranking above Boxj (a town) ; 
another form of Uadina {q.v.) 

Hedzim {Fan, French Congo), water. 

Heer {Ger,), sea, e.g, Schwarzes Heer, ' the Black Sea.' 


Heerbnsen (Ger,), a gulf. 

Heerenge (Ger,), a strait, eiig= narrow. 

Me fan (Fan, French Congo). See Afan, Fan. 

Megalo (Greek), See Megas. 

Megas, -ale, -alo (Greek), great, e.g. Megalokhorio in 

Eurytania, Megalo Voumo Ht. Cf. Magas. See Bliorio. 
Hegh-agam, Hegh-kal (Sansc), the rainy season. 
Hegheta (Arab.), a natural cistern, generally in the bed 

of a wadi. Cf. Ain, Bir. 
Megisknn {Hudson Bay region), a fish-hook, a name 

given to a branch of a river, from its shape. 
Heha (Ghazal region), the lagoons formed by the river 

overflowing its banks ; called also Fula. Cf. 

Hehareg {Arab., N. Africa), a burnt place, a denuded 

spot, a depression without outlet surrounded by 

vertical cliflGs. 
Mehm {Indian, California), water. 
Hei {China), coal. 
Meidan, Hedan {Pers.), plain, a plain open space. 

Corrupt Persian forms of Haidan {q.v.) 
Heierhof {Ger.), farm. 
Hejaz {Arab.), a ford, a ferry. Cf. Hakta. 
Mejebed {Arab.), a caravan route, composed of several 

MraYr {q.v.) 
Mqra {Arab.), a canal, channel, stream, current. 
Mekam {Arab., N. Africa), a space surrounded by stones 

in honour of a saint. 
Mekebb {Arab.), an affluent. 
Mel {Buss.), a shoal. 


Hel (Somali) t place. The Somali article is a, i, or u, 
always placed after the word and connected with 
it by certain letters, in this case by t, thus melta, 
melti, meltn ; further, the combination It is always 
changed into sh, thus, mesha = meshi = meshu = 
the place. Cf, Le. 

Mela {Ghazal region)^ the lagoons formed by the river 
overflowing its banks = Heha {q.v) 

Helahtei {NuMa), bare, e.g. Jebel Helatei, 'bare moun- 

Melaina (Greek), See Helas. 

Melas, -aina, -an (Greek) , black, e,g. Cape Helano. 

Melha (Marocco), salt. 

Heli (Fan^ French Congo), See Ali. 

H,fMiSenegal)y free, opp, to Aswanek, subject, e.g, Helinke, 
the free people. 

Melka (Arah,)^ confluence, junction. 

Melka (Galla, Abyssinia), a ford. Cf. Halka. 

Melki (Buss.)f shallow. 

Hellah (Marocco)^ the Jewish quarter of a town. 

Mellem (Da., Nor,), middle, e.g. B06n Mellem Bmaaldene, 
in Vordingborg bay. 

Melli (Senegal). See Meli. 

Helnitsa (Buss.), a mill. 

Melrir (Algeria, Tunisia), quicksand, e.g. Bhott Helrir. 
See Bhott. Pronounced by the Arabs Helghigh. Cf. 
Shat=Ohat. Should be spelled Helrhirh or Helrir. 

Melugh (Fan, French Congo), See Lugh, Alugh. 

Memnite (Indian, California), a lake. 

Men (China), a gate, e.g. Ta Men CMe, 'main gate street.' 


Mena (Madagascar), red, e.g. Ampanmena, ' on the red 
sand/ Ambatomena, *at the place where the red 
rock is.' See An, Pari, Bato. 

Menda (Fan, French Congo). See Nda. 

Mendere {Mossi, French Sudan), source, spring. 

Mendhra (Arab.), a post of observation. 
uMendo {Zulu, Kafir), a highway, a public road. 

Menea (Arab.), a strong castle difficult of approach. 

Meng {Bwma), a town of the fourth order or sub- 
district capital. See Meung, Mong, Muong. 

Hengku {Mongol), a snowy peak. 

Mengub {Arab,, N. Africa), dug out with a pick ; a 
place where there is a subterranean watercourse 
pierced for water. 

Henhel, pi. Henahel {Arab.), a place for watering 

Menhir {Brittany), a large raised stone or monolith 
dating from the New Stone Age. From Celtic 
maen, stone ; hir, long. 

Menikon {hidian, U.S.A.), a town, village. 

Henkeb {Arab., N. Africa), promontory, cape. Cf. 


Hennikere {Indian, U.S.A.), sea. 
Henotene {Indian, U.S.A.), a town. 
Henzen {Fan, French Congo). See Nzen, Zen. 
aHenri {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water; for 
other dialects see Hanri. 
Henzi {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. Cf, 

{Arab.) See Manzil. 


Her {Fr.)y sea, e,g. Mer Morte, ' the Dead Sea/ 
Merabut (Tripoli), a saint's tomb=Marabut of Algeria. 
Herageb (Arab,, N. Africa), See Hergeb. 
Merah (Malay), red, e,g. Cape Herah, ' Bed Cape,' 

Borneo and Java. 
Meraku (Tamul), west ; for other points see Vadakku. 
Meroato (It,), market-place. 
Here (Anglo-Saxon, Eng,), a lake, marsh, e,g, Viendj, 

Windermere ; cognate with Welsh mor ; Lat. 

mare ; Ger. meer. 
Hergeb, pi, Herageb (Arab,, N, Africa), a culminating 

point ; hill ; look-out. Of. Herkeb, really the same 

Herima (Swahili). See Sima. Cf. Lima. 
Hexj (Arab,), meadow, plain. 
Hexjah-tue (Arab,), marsh, bog. 
Herkeb (Sahara), hill, mound, lit. a high seat, e,g, 

Herkeb Said n All. Cf. Hergeb. 
Hers, Hersa (Arab,), anchorage, port ; another form of 

Hesa (Sp,), flat or level surface on the top of a hill or 

mountain, tableland ; a landing-place, lit, a table. 
„ (U'.iS.-4.), a flat-topped mountain bounded on at 

least one side by a steep cliff. 
Heses (Neo-Greek), north-east. For other points see 

Hesha, Heshi, Heshu (Somali), See Hel. 
Heshera (Arab,, N, Africa), a pond, pool. 
Heshgeg, J7{. Heshgegin (Arab,, N, Africa), clayey soil. 
Hesh-hed (Arab.) See Hashhad. 


Meshra (Arab.)^ wharf ; port ; a ford ; watering-place 

for cattle, e.g. Heshra er-£ek. 
Hedita (Arab.), winter quarters. 
Medta {Sp., U.S.A.), a small Mesa (q.v.) 
Heqid (Arab.), a mosque. 
Meso (Hung.) See Hezo. 
Mesogli (Fan, French Congo). See Sogh. 
HeBon (Sp.), an inn, tavern. 
Mesos (Greek), middle, e.g. Mesopotamia, ' the land 

between the rivers.' See Potamos. Cf. Boab. 
Metagh (Fan, French Congo), soil, earth. 
Mfitairie (Fr.), small farm (M6t*«). 
Metallef (Arab., N. Africa), labyrinth, difficult passage. 
Hetamore (Marocco), a granary. 
Hetemma (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), a hollow or 

Meuang (Siam), a state. 
Heung (Shan States), district, or chief town of a 

districts Hong. See Heng, Huong. 
Heya (Fan, French Congo). See Aya. 
Meyoa (Fan, French Congo). See Ayna. 
Mezemelin (Arab., N. Africa). See Smala. 
Mezi (dialect of Bantu). See Hansi. 
Mezo (Hung.), field. Sometimes misspelled Heso. 
Hezrah (Arab.), sown land, arable land. 
M£Edme (Swahili), See Falme. 
Hflnda (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Tinda. 
Mfiunu (dialect of Bantu), See Fnmu. 
Mgabe, pi. Egbe (Chamba), a large river. 
Hgbenn, pi. Egbenn (Basari), large river. 


Hgizi {Lvsinga, Chula, Uganda). See Oiri. 

Mgo (Tibet), head, source of a river. 

Mgunda {Swahil% Yao). See Ounda. 

Mhari (Deccan), house, mansion, palace. 

Hhitu (German East Africa). See Hitu. 

Hi (Cambodia), good, e.g, Hi-hoa, 'good alliance,' in 

Hi (Loloy China), earth, land, soil. 
Hi (Indian, California), a house ; Yo Hi, a village. 
Hi (Terauye, Sahara), water. See Ejri. 
Hia (Arab., JV. Africa), a hundred ; e.g. Wad Hia is 

the wad of a hundred aifluents or a hundred 

Hia (Syriac), water, e.g, Hia Khwara, 'the white 

Hian (Pers.), middle, e.g. Hiandoab or Marhametabad in 

N.E. Persia. See Boab. Cf. Heiopotamia. 
Hianzi (Swahili), bamboos or large reeds, e.g. Hianzini. 
Hiao, Hiau (Tibet, China), a temple, e.g. Lama Hiao, 

' Lama temple.' 
Hibar (Arab.)^ pass ; ferry, ford. 
Hie (Bumanian), little (Mc.) Cf. Hicu. 
HioM (Japan), road, path. 
Hiohi-ihiwo (Japan), flood-tide. See Bbiwo. 
Hicu (Biimania), small. See Hikroi, Hio. 
Hidden (Dch.), middle, e.g. Hidden Beemfter. Cf. 

Hidzu (Japan), water, fresh water as opposed to sea 

water. Another form is Hitsu. Cf. TTmi. 
Hidzu«umi (Japan), freshwater lake. See TTmi, 


Kigha {Fan, French Congo). See Dzigha. 

Miho (LolOf China), earth, soil, land. 

Mjjlpaal (Dch.), a milestone, lit, -mile-pole. Cf. MilepsBl. 

Mikagano {Lomwe, Shirwa L.)y a boundary. 

Mikha (Pula, China), earth. 

Hikongo {Cent. Africa), forest, bush. 

Mikong*e {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kong*e. 

Mikros, a, on {Greek), little, small, e.g. Mikros Han 

loannifl on the Gulf of Saloniki. 
Milepal (Da., Nor.), a milestone (M.) Cf. Mijlpaal. 
Mimana {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Mumana. 
Mimipik {Indian, U.S.A.), pond, pool. 

{China), the people. Cf Jin. 

(Sp., Ital., Port.), a mine. 
Minami {Japan), south = Nan {q.v. for other points). 
Minamoto {Japan), source, spring. 
Ulnar {Arab.), minaret, obelisk. 
Minato {Japan), haven, harbour, port. 
Mine {Indian, U.S.A.), water, e.g. Minnehalia, 'laughing 

Mine {Japan), peak, summit ; mountain. 
Mine, Minet {Arab.), harbour, port. 
Minh^j {Arab.), highway, road ; a wide street. 
Minhal {Arab.), a watering-place. 
Miniake {Indian, U.S.A.), good land. 
Miniera (J^.), a mine. 
MinBter {England), a monastery; from A.S. mynster, 

contract, of Lat. monasterium. 
Mintik {Berta, E. Sudan), a pass. 
Minzi {dialect of Bantu). See Inad. 



Miongo {Congo), highlands. 

Hipaka (dialect of Bantu), See Mpaka. 

Kir (Per8.)y a mountain, e.g. Kir Kalan, ^ big mountain.' 

Kiri {Motumotu, New Guinea), beach, shore. 

Kirigini {Motu, New Guinea) ^ north wind. 

Kirim (Brazil), little, e.g. Lagnna Kirim. 

Kimrn (Motumotu, New Guinea), wind. 

Kis, Kio8 (New Guinea), island. 

Kisald (Japan), cape, promontory. See Saki. 

Kisezo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Ksezo. 

Kisks (Londonderry), the ridges of bog, which alternate 

with ridges of sand, called Dryms, on the seaboard 

near Lough Foyle. 
Kisr (Arab.), Egypt, Cairo ; any large city. 
KiBsidi (French Guinea), a mosque. 
Kitang (Hu-ni, China), a mountain. 
Kiti (Indian, U.S.A.), a town. 
Kiti, Kuti, pi. of Kti (Zamhezia), trees. 
Kitija (Arab.), a plain crowned by mountains. 
Kitsa (Hu-niy China), earth, land. 
Kitsanga (Giryama), sandy soil. 
Kitsom (Lu'Wanga, Uganda), a forest, wood. 
Kitsn-Tuni (Japan), freshwater lake. Kitsn is another 

form of Kidzu (q.v.) See Umi. 
Mittel (Ger), middle, between (Mt.), e.g. Kittelmeer 

= the Mediterranean Sea. Cf Kidden. 
-Kiut (Eskimo). See -Kate. 
Hiya (Japan), a temple. 

Kiyi (Somaliland), jungle ; Kiyigi, * the jungle.' 
ji, pi. K\ji (Swahili), a village. 


IQnng (Tibet), below ; embouchure. 

Mkar (Tibet), a fort. 

Hknka (Gent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), See Knka. 

Mlanj^ (E. Africa, dialect of Bantu), See Lango. 

Mlet (Chinbon), a river, e,g. Mlet Alyen, * the big river.' 

Mlezo, pi, Milezo (Swahili), a buoy. 

Mlima (E, Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Lima. 

__ (Slavonic), a mill (M.), e.g, Hiinek. 

Mo (China), sea, e,g. Shamo, * the sand sea/ i.e. Gobi. 

Mo (Indian, U.S.A.), a spring. 

Moadya (Conga, dialect of Bantu). See Adya. 

Moana {Faka^ofu, Polynesia), sea. 

Modara (Singalese), mouth of a river. 

Modder (Dch.), mud, e,g. Modder Biver. 

Moel (Wales), a bare hill summit with a conical outline, 

e.g. Moel Siabod. 
Moe\je (Dch.), a mole. 
Moeras (DcA.) , marsh, bog, morass; from moer=moor, 

mire ; cf Ger. Morast. 
Moghreb (Arab.), west. See next entry. See also 

Oharb for other points. 
Moghreb-el-Aksa (Arab.), far west; the Arab name of 

Mogila (Riiss.), a barrow, tumulus. 
Moha (Upper Nile), a mountain. 
Mohn (Marovo, Solomon Is.), west wind. 
Mohnnk (Indian, U.S.A.), great hill. Cf. Hnnk. 
KoY (Annam), savages, hill-people, equivalent to the 

Ka of the Shan States. 

5 2 


Moi-he-un {Hainan), market, market-place. 

Koinho (Port), a mill. 

Mojon {Sp.), a landmark. 

Mok (Korea), neck of a hill, e,g. Mok-Pho. 

Moki (Bakundu, Kamerun), a village. 

Mole (Fr.), pier, mole. 

Molen (Dch,), a mill, e.g, Kolend^'k. 

Molhe (Port.), mole, pier. 

Molima (Swahili), a hill. See Lima. Cf, Sima. 

Molino (It, Sp.), a mill (M°). 

Molle (Da., Nor.), a mill. 

Kolb (It), pier, mole. 

Momasa (Mossi, French Sudan), grass. 

Monadk (Gaelic), hill, e.g. Monadh Liadh, Inverness. 

Monadnock (U.S.A.), an isolated hill or momitain rising 
above a plain. 

Monaster (Ireland, Greece), a monastery, e.g. Monas- 
terevin. Cf, Minster, and Fr. Monastere. 

Mond, Monde (Dch.), mouth of a river, e.g. Bendermonde. 
Cf. Mnnd. 

Monde (Fr.), world. 

Mono (Mentawei), a plantation. 

Money (Ireland), a brake or shaw ; from Irish moine; 
e.g. Moneymore. 

Mong (Burma), a town of the fourth order or sub- 
district capital. See Meng, Meong, Mnong. 
„ (Shan States), district or chief town of a 

Mongo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Ongo. 

Mongwa (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ongwa. 


Moni {Gaelic monadh), a hill, e,g, Monimail, properly 
Monadh-Maol, ' bare hill ' ; Monifleih, properly 
Monadh-Feidh, ' hill of the deer.' See Maol. 

Mono {Sara, Chad L.)» small. 

MonBoon. See KubIil 

Mont (Fr.y Gaelic), a hill (M*). 

Montagna {It), a mountain range (M«°*). 

Montagne {Fr.), a mountain (M«°'^). 

Monte {IL, Port,, Sp.), a mountain (M.) ; also (Sp.) 
wood, forest. 

Moor, More {England), peaty land, marsh ; e.g. Black- 
more; from A.S. m6r, cognate with Old Ger, muor. 

Mor. See Mawr. 

Morast {Ger.), morass, marsh. Cf. Moeras. 

Morder {Arab.), a deep pool. 

More {Gaelic mbr), great; e.g. Olen More. Cf. Mawr. 

More {England). See Moor. 

More {Buss.), sea. 

Morfa, Morva {Welsh), a marsh, e.g. PenmorCei. 

Morfog {Arab., N. Africa), a bend in a river; a bend in 
a valley where there is vegetation. 

Mori {Japan), a wood. 

Mome {American), small mountain. 

Morros {Venezuela), hills on the Savannah. 

Morva. See Morfa. 

Moryana {Buss.), a sea breeze. 

Morzhesovia {Buss.), a walrus island. 

Mosea {Gold Coast), gravel. 

Moss {Anglian), a bog; e.g. Chat Moss, Ooldsitch Moss; 
from A.S. meb$; cf. Ger. moos. 


Most {Slavonic) f a bridge ; e.g, Babimost 

Mot {Mongol), many, e,g, Oolmot, ' many rivers.' See Gol. 

Mo ta {Indian, California), a town. 

Motu {Poly?iesia), island, e.g, Motu-iti, ' little island.' 

Motun {Mongol), a tree. 

Mouillage (Fr,), anchorage. 

Moulin {Fr.), a mill (M»°). 

Montiers {Old Fr), a monastery. From Lat, through 

Provencal Mostier, e.g, Moatiers-les-Manxfaits. 
Monvemente {Fr,), undulating (ground). 
Mojra {Skilluk, Sohat B, region), a pool. 
Moye {Arab.), water. 
Mpaka, pi, Mipaka {Swahili). See Paka. 
Mpambn {Congo, dialect of Bantu), See Pambn. 
kiMpambwila {Congo, dialect of Bantu), For meaning see 

Mpatantwer {Gold Coast), a steep place. 
-Mpiti {Cent. Africa), a sufi&x meaning * great.' 
Mpo-ano {Gold Coast), sea shore, coast. Cf Nsu-ano. 
Mpwa {Swahili). See Pwa. 
MraXr, pi. of Mrira {Arab,), paths. See Mejebed. 
Mrara {Arab.), a cavern. 

Mrima {E. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Sima. 
Mrira {Arab.) See MraYr. 
Mjittika {Sa^isc), earth, clay, soil. 
Msangu {Ceiit. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Sang^. 
Mseb {Arab.), the mouth of a harbour or river. 
Mser {Arab.), a journey, a road, e.g. Mser ben wafl. 
Msezo, Misezo {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), See Sezo. 
Msif {Arab.), summer quarters or camp. 


Mdl {Arab.), current of a river or in the sea. 
Ksiqe (dialect of Bantu), See Siqe. 
Mflitu (dialect of Bantu). See Situ. 
Mta, pi. Hita (Swahili). See Ta. 
Mtengo (Zamhezia, dialect of Bantu). See Tengo. 
paMtengo (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), woods, in the 

woods. See Pa. 
Mti,^Z. Hiti (Loango). See Ti. 
Mto, pi. Hito (Swahili). See To. 
tiMto (Uganda, dialect of Bantu), a forest; lit. trees. 
Mto (Tur1c.), high, lofty. 
Mtso (Tibet), lake; is the same word as tso (q.v.), m 

being mute. 
Mtii, pi. Watu (Swahili). See Tu. 
Mn-, Ngu- (Cent. Africa, Bantu), a singular prefix 

signifying a person ; Mn-nta, an individual of the 

Ba-ntu people. Cf. Ma, Ba 
Ma (China), wood, trees. 
lbi,pl. Mia (Congo), the sea. 
Ma (Tibet), limit, boundary. 
Maa (N. Chin Hills), a hill. 
Maakbash (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), slate-coloured 

(of the rocks in the region). 
Maang (Malay Pen.), province, township. 
Maaong (Khas Clws, Harem, Indo-China), town, village. 
Maara (Borneo), river mouth. 
Maata (Balunda, Bantu, Angola, and Congo), master, 

chief, e.g. Maata Tamvo. 
Maba (Kiwai, New Guinea), a cape. 
Maohili,^Z. Miohili (Barotseland, Bantu). See Chili. 


Hndandando (Nika). See Dandando. 

Mudargag {Ahhadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt) ^ a hill rising 
steeply from a level plain. 

Mndi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Di. Cf Musi. 

Mndir {Turk.), governor of a Nahy or parish. 

Mndiri, Mudirah (Upper Nile), a prefecture, e.g. of Khar- 
tum ; an administrative department of a province. 
The more usual form is the Arab. Mndiria. 

Mndzi {dialect of Bantu). See Miud, Bzi. 

Mnelle {Sp.), a mole, jetty. 

Knen {Taungtha, Arakan), a hill. 

Muezi {dialect of Bantu). See Ezi. 

Muftunu {dialect of Bantu). See Fnmn. 

Mugharah, j7Z. Mughair {Arab.), a cave. 

Muhaka {Giryama). See Haka. 

Huhinfi {Hind.), the mouth of a river; channel or bed 
of a river ; an estuary ; confluence of two rivers. 

Muhi {Shahpur, Punjab), a clan, being a subdivision of 
a Kom or Zat (tribe). 

Knhiohi {Cent. Africa, dialect of Ba7itu). See Hiohi. 

Mohiku {Lomioe, Mozambique), a forest, wood. 

Mlihle {Ger.), a mill (M.), e.g. AltmUhl. 

Mnho {Giryama). See Ho. 

Mai {Aymam), cape, promontory. 

Muide (Dch.), mouth, e.g. Ijmaiden. 

Muiru {Nika). See Im. 

Mnis, MyB {Buss.), a cape, headland. 

Huiza {Buss.), country house, villa. 

Mok {Eskimo), water; cf. Emuk, Nanimuk. 

Knka {Galla), a tree. 


Knkam (Arab.), a sacred station or shrine. 

MiJd (Balun, Kamerun), a village. 

Mokim {Malay) f a parish. 

Mokom (Kamerun), slave ; a bash-dweller, as opposed 

to a coast-dweller. 
Mokondo (Nika). See Kondo. 
Mnknrri {Kamerun), a mountain. 
Mul {Korea), mountain stream, e.g. Mul-Knbi in Ham- 

Mulde {Ger.), a Trongh {q.v.) 
Mulk {Arab., Hind.), kingdom, country. 
Mull, Haol (Gaelic), a headland ; e.g. Mnll of Can tyre. 

See Maol. 
Mullen {Irish), a mill, e.g. Mnllingar. 
Mnlonga {dialect of Bantu). See Longa. 
Mnmana, Hinutna, Umbana {Cent. Africa, dialects of 

Bantu), a river. See Mana. 
Mumbo {Lu'Wanga, Eastern Uganda). See Mbo. 
Muinir {Arab.), passage, pass ; ford. 
Mumpanga {dialect of Bantu). See Panga. 
Man {Bagirmi), intermittent, e.g. Man Ba, * the inter- 
mittent river.' 
Man {China), a gate. Another spelling is Men {q.v.) 
Monara {Giryama). See Nara. 
Mund {Da., Nor., Ger.), mouth (of a river), e.g. Swakop- 

mand. Cf Mond, see Op. The Sw. form is Mand, Man. 
Manda {Giryama), cultivated ground, a farm, garden. 

See Nda. 
Mondi {Kamerun), town, land ; opp. to Madiba. 
Mtindang {Ger.), mouth of a river. See Mand. 


Mungar, Mongar {Arab.^ N, Africa), steep slope at the 
extremity of a mountain or plateau. 

Mtuga (Kamerun)y sea» stream. 

Mtugn (Chamba), water. 

Mnnsil (Arab.), camp, bivouac ; the same word as Manzil. 

MUnster (Ger,), minster (q.v,), e.g. MUnsterberg. 

Munte {Bum.)f mountain, hill. 

Mnong (Indo- China, Siam), town of the third or fourth 
order, or capital of a district or sub-district. In 
Laos Muong prefixed to the name of a village 
denotes that the place is the seat of a native chief. 
These villages are always inhabited by Laotians 
only. Villages without the prefix Muong may be 
inhabited by Khas, as the hill tribes are collectively 
called. See Meng, Meung, Mong. 

Muongo, Hwongo (Loango), See Ongo. 

Mur (Fr.), a wall. Cf, Hnro, Mnur. 

Mora (Japan), a village. 

Murabba {W, Australia), salt water. 

MnrdM {Sa^isc, Hind), summit, top, head. 

Mnren, Murin {Mongolia, Tibet), stream, river; large 
river, e,g. inan-Muren=the Eed Kiver. See Ulan. 

Hurima {Giryama). See Bima. 

Murira {Giryama). See Eira. 

ItMXQ {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). SeeTLo. 

Muro {Sp., Ital, Port.), a wall. Cf Mur, Muur. 

Muronga {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Songa. 

Murot {Nandi, Uga7ida), north. Cf Kaimen. 

Mumi {Mongolia, Tibet), tortuous, e.g. Hnmi-OBn (nsu), 
* tortuous river,' the upper Yangtse. 


Mnrun tsiraka (Madagascar), beach. 

Mams (Mongol), river, the river. 

Mns (Hind,), land along the high banks of rivers. 

Musfiflr-khana (Arab., Pers.), a house for the reception 

of travellers. 
Mnsattah (Arab,), level ; an open plain. 
Musi, Muziy Miiji, Umnzi, Mndzi (Cent. Africa, dialects of 

Bantu), See Dzi, Ji, Si, Zi. 
Musin (Arab.), season; whence Eng. monsoon, either 

through the Ital. monsone or Span, monzon. 
Musiiyi, Msiiqe (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 

Mudtn (dialect of Bantu). See Mwitn. 
Muskeg (U.S.A.), a bog or marsh. 
Mnskiiknl (Indian, U.S.A.), grass. 
Mnskuta (Indian U.S.A.), low plains. 
Mnsoir (Fr.), mole or pier-head, a term largely used by 

Mnsselim (Turk.), governor of a city. 
Mnssnn (Mongol), ice. Cf Muz. 
-Mat (Eskimo). See -Mute. 
Mutatago (Oiryama). See Tatago. 
-Mute,-Mnt, -Mint (Eskimo), people, collection of people, 

encampment, e.g. Akmnte, Paimnte, Tachergamnt, 

* the Ak, Pai, and Yacherk peoples or villages * ; 

Tnbuktnligmint, * the Tubuktulig people. ' See Tnlik. 
Mntesarrif (Turk.), the governor of a Sanjak (q.v.) 
Mntesarriflik (Turk.), the government of a Mntesarrif, a 

Sai^jak; also an independent Sazgak, i.e. one not 

under a Vali of a Vilayet (q.v.) 


Mutba (Nika). See Tha. 

Mu-ti {China), pasture land. 

Muti, Miti (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Ti. 

Mutli {Kanarese, W, coast of Hindustan), east. For 

other points see Gi. 
Mnto (Mavia, Mozambique), river. 
Mntswerero (Giryama), west. Another form is ITtBwerero. 

See Mwakani. 
Mutna, Abatna {Cent, Africa, dialects of Bantu). See 

Mutulu (dialect of Bantu). See Tula. 
Mnur (Dch.), a wall. Cf. Hur, Muro. 
Muvaka (Nika). See Vaka. 
MuYu {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Vu. 
Huvumbi {Giryama). See Vumbi. 
Muvunbi {Oiryama). See Vunbi. 
Muwat {Arab.), waste land. 
Huwu, j^Z. Miuwu (Congo), sea, ocean. 
Muyisi (Lomwe, Shirwa L.), damp ground fitted for the 

growth of rice. 
Muz {E. Turk.), ice, e.g. Mnztagh, *the ice mountain.* 

Cf. Mussun. 
Muzi (dialect of Bantu). See Knai. 
Muzik (Arab.), a strait. 

Mvitu (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Hwitu. 
Mvogh (Fan, French Congo), country, applied to the 

territory of a tribe or collection of villages. Cf 

Si, Fan. 
Hyuini (German East Africa), sand. 
Mwago (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Mwango. 


Kwakani (Giryama). See Akani. 

Mwako {dialect of Bantu). See Ako. 

Kwamba {pi. Miamba), ITmwamba, Imiamba {Cent. Africa, 

dialects of Bantu). See ibnba. 
Mwana {Upper Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ana. 
Mwango, Mwago, Mwako (C^n^. Africa, dialects of Bantu). 

See Ango, Ako. 
Mwanya {Giryama). See Anya. 
Mwe {N. Arakan), hill. 
Mwene, Umwene, Amwene {Cent. Africa, dialects of 

Bantu). See Ene. 
Mwqo {Giryama), wilderness ; district once devastated 
by war or pestilence and no longer inhabited. See 
Mwila {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ha. 
Mwinano {Makua, German E. Africa). See Inano. 
Mwim {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Iru. 
Kwitu, Mnsitn, Msitu, latu, Umnsitu {Cent. Africa, dialects 

of Bantu). See Witu, Situ. 
Mwongo, Muongo {Loango). See Ongo. 
Mya- {Zambezia), a prefix meaning * place.* Cf. Nya. 
Myestechko {Buss.), a market town. 
Myesto vuigmzki (Buss.), a landing-place. 
Myit {Taungtha, Arakan), river, e,g. Myittha. 
Mynydd {Welsh), mountain, e.g. Mynydd Mawr, Car- 
narvonshire. See Kawr. 
Myo {Burma), town of the second order or provincial 

Mzinda {Cent. Africa). See Zinda. 



-Na, -No, -Nn {Indian, Alaska), a river, e.g. Tonzona, 

Tateno, Echeatuu. See Chaget, Kaget. 
Na (Siam), field; in Laos, rice field. 
Naaki {A-Zande), a wood. 
Naam (Arab.)^ a desert. 

Naauw {Dch.), narrow, e.g. Naauwpoort. See Poort. 
Naauwte {Dch.), pass, defile. 
Nab, Nabb {England, from Icel. nabbi, a knot), top or 

summit of a rock or mountain ; a rising ground, 

e.g. Higher Nabb in the Peak district. 
Nach {Ger.), to (direction of road) (n.) 
Nach {Tangut), wood, forest. 
Nad {Mysore) ='Eob]i {q.v.) 
Nada {Japan) y inlet, tract of open sea, sea. 
Nadaha {Hind.), a canal. 

Nadelbolz {Ger.)^ fir, pine woods. See Laubholz. 
Nadi {Hind.) a creek, a river; e.g. Hahanadi ; see Maha. 

Cf. Nullah. 
Nadi {Motu, New Guinea), stone. 
Nadi, ^Z. Nadiyo {Pali), a river. 
Nadi-tir {Hind.), bank of a river. 
Nador, Nazor {Aral.), an observatory. 
Nadu {Telegu), a country. 
N8B8 {Nor., Da.), ness, cape. Cf. Ness, Neus, 
Nag {Somali), jungle. 
Nagah {Egypt), an encampment, either temporary or 

Nagai {Japan), long, e.g. Nagai, near Tokyo. See Nangai. 


Nagar, Nagari, Naggar (India), a town, city, e,g, 

Ahmadnagar; Nagarkot. 
Nagara (Malay) . See Negri, Nagri. 
Nagaropant (Sansc, Hind.), a suburb. See Nagar. 
Naghsal (Mongol), a forest. 
Nagor. See Nagar, of which it is a variant. 
Nag-po (Tibet), black. Cf. Kar-po. 
Nagri (Malay), town of the second order, or provincial 

capital ; borrowed from the Indian Nagar. 
Nags (Tibet), a forest. 
Nagy (Hung.), great (N.), e.g. Nagy-koros. 
Nabaj (Arab.), way, road, path. Another form of NahJ. 
Nahij, Nahie (Turk.), a parish, a subdivision of a Kaza, 

under a Mndir. 
Nahiya (Arab.), territory, country, district ; coast, shore. 
Naly (Arab.), a road. See Nabaj, which is another form. 
Nahr (Arab., Turk.), a river, perennial stream. PL Anhar. 
Nahri (Punjab), land ordinarily irrigated by canals. Cf. 

Nai (Ai7iu, Sakhalin), river, e.g. Poronai, ' Big river.' 
Nai (Korea), mountain stream, e.g. Kui-Nai. 
Naig (Indian, U.S. A.), sand. 
Naiposha (Masai, East Africa), lake ; another form of 

Naivasha, the p sound being changed to the / (v) 

NaYri (Mossi, French Sudan), capital town. 
Nairobi (Masai, East Africa), cold water; name of a 

station on the Uganda railway. 
Naistan (Pers.), a sugar plantation. 
Naivasba (Masai, East Africa), a lake, name of a lake 


and railway station in Eastern Uganda. See 
Naizar (Pers.) See under Ham^. 
Naji {Mosso, China), black water. 
Najwah (Arab,), shoal, sandbank. Cf, Einasat. 
Nak (Indian, U.S.A.), land, earth, soil. 
Naka {Japan), middle. See next entry for example. 
Naka ami {Japan), inland sea. See TTmi. 
Nakb {Arab.), col, saddle. 
Nakhil (Arab.), a date grove. 
Nakhsa {Eskimo, Smith Sound), flat country. 
Nakla (Arab.), a subordinate village belonging to an 

Nala {Hind.), a ravine, rivulet, canal, gutter, furrow ; 

anglicised Nullah. 
Nali {Punjab), long narrow depressions. Cf. Vahal. 
Nallo {Nissan I., New Guinea), bush, forest. 
Nalu {Aroma, New Guinea), water. 
Nam {Chin Hills), a village. 
Nam {Korea), south, southern, e.g. Nam-San. 
Nam {Mongol, Tibet), heaven, sky, e.g. Drolma Nam Tso, 

* the heavenly Lake Drolma.' See Tso. 
Nam {Shan States, Siam), river, stream, water, e.g. 

Nam Kong or Nam Kawng = Salwln B. 
Nam {Chong-Chia-tse, Yunnan), earth. 
Nam {Ja-Luo, Uganda), great water, lake. 
Namaga (Mongol), springs. 
Nam-ohemut {Hang-chek, hido-China), sea. 
Namchata {Mongol), prairie land. 
Namekha, Namik (Mongol), source, spring, fountain. 


Namen {Botel Tobago Islands ^ Formosa), a village. 
Nam lnong (Black B, region, Indo-China), a river. 
Namma {W. Australia), small natural reservoir, formed, 

after rain, in the granite formation. 
Nammonkoro {Gold Coast), a narrow path, a pass. 
Nam-ta (Upper Bed B, region, Indo-'China), a river. 
Namwago {Lomwe, Mozambique), hill. 
Nan (Carolines), place, e,g. Nanmetal, ' the place of Metal 

or w^aterways ' ; Nan Molnohai, ' the place of cinder 

heaps,' left by the workmen who • assisted the 

demi-gods to construct the breakwater or ring and 

the islets within, i.e. the atoll. 
Nan (China), south, e,g, Nanking, ' the southern capital.' 

Cf. Pe, Si, Tung. See King. 
Nan (Japan), south, southern =](inami. See Nishi, Sal, 

Hoku, Kita, Higasi, To for other points. Cf. Nam. 
Nana (French Congo), a river. 
-Nandi (Cent, Africa), See Indn. 
Nan fiuig (MiaO'tse, Kwei-chau, South China), south. 

For other points see Ngthai Lob. 
maNanga (Gazaland, dialect of Bantu), See Hananga. 
Nangai (Japan), long ; Tokyo dialect for Nagai (q.v.) 
Nanimnk (Eskimo), lake. Cf. Huk, Emuk. 
Nant (Cymric), a valley, brook, e.g, Nant-frangcon. 
Nann (Kerepunu, New Guinea), water. 
Naos (Greek), temple, shrine. 
Na po (Indian, California), town, village. 
Nappa (W. Australia), fresh water. 
Nappe (Fr,), a sheet (of water). 
mnNara (Giryama), a tower. 



Narok {Masai, East Africa), black, e.g. Owaso Harok, ' 

* black river.' Cf. Hyiro, Hynki. See Owaso. 
Hara (Korea), ferry, e.g. Chyn-Nam in Kang-non. 
Has (Arab), people. 
Has (Somali), breast, a pointed hillock, e.g. Has OodMy 

' the hillock of the cave.' See God ; i is the article, 

k the joining letter. 
Hasala {Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt). See Hasla. 
Hasb {Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), a bluff. 
Hascente {Port.), a well or spring. 
Hase {Ger.), a naze, lit. a nose. Cf. Hess. 
Hasheb {Pers.), declivity, hollow. 
Hashi {Arab.), the winter north-east winds of the 

Persian Gulf. 
maHasi {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass. For other 

dialect forms see Dinyasi. 
Hasla, Hasala {Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), a peak. 
Haslud {Buss.), a pool of water on ice. 
Hasua {Botuma, Polynesia), place. 
Hat {Hind.), a pillar, obelisk, the Carnatic country. 
Hatenga {Mossi, French Sudan), capital, town. 
Hatsu {Japan), summer. 

Hau-ei {Siam), small. See Hawi, another form. 
Haulochos {Greek), harbour. 
Haurah {Arab.), a waterwheel. 
Haus {Greek), a ship, e.g. Hauplia. 
Havam {Tamul, Deccan), rainy season. 
Havolok {Buss.), a bluff, cliff. 
Hawaii {Arab.), environs, district ; coast, shore. 
Haw-dan {Pers.), a dock, aqueduct. 


i (Siam), small. 
Nawng (Siam), a swamp, lake. 
ITayaoli {Indian, U.S,A,), forest, bush. 
Hayak {Indian, U.S. A,) See Hyak. 
Hazri-darg^ {Arab.), land given as an endowment to 

places of religious worship. 
Nbia {A'Zande), rock, mountain ; Na-nbia, * over rock,' 

* flowing over rock,' hence a stream ; thus the term 
is frequently applied to rivers, e.g. Nbia Daragumba. 

-Nohi {Batta, Benue B. region, Adamawa), a suffix mean- 
ing language, Chi in some dialects, e.g. Damanohi, 

* the language of the Dama people ' (not to be con- 
founded with the Dama people of S.- W.Africa). 

Hda, pi. Henda {Fan, French Congo), a native hut. 
muHda {Giryama), cultivated ground, a farm. 
paNda {Swahili), a bifurcation, whether of roads or 

Hdako {Congo, dialect of Bantu) . See Dako. 

Hdala {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Dala. 

Hdambu {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Dambu. 

Ndap {Bali, Kamerun), a house, dwelling. 

Kde {Ibo, Nigeria), the one who, those who, e.g. nde nlo, 

* the man in the house,' * the man who has the house/ 
' proprietor,* nde ahia, ' traders,* * merchants ' ; occurs 
in many place-names, e.g. Nde Akala, Nde Okpo, &c. 

Ndela {Barotseland. dialect of Bantu). See Dela. 
Ndema, Mdima {Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See 

Dema, Dima. 
Ndera {dialect of Bantu). See Dera, and for other 

forms see Nzila. 

T 2 



Ndimba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), See Dimba. 
iliNdle (Zulu, Kaffir), an uninhabited place, a moor. 
Ndo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), See Do. 
•Ndo (Cent, Africa), See Indu. 
Hdokh (W'olof), water. 

Hdoxnba (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Domba. 
Ndried (French Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Dried. 
haNdu, ^Z. ru-Hdu (Kikuyu, Eastern Uganda, Bantu), a 

Ndyela (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Dyela. 
Ndyia (Maginza, Congo), a road. See Dyia. 
Ndyila (Bangala, Congo), a road. See Dyila. 
Ndzea (Mobali, Congo), a road. See Dzea. 
He (Tibet), a residence. 
Nebak (Arab,), pi. of Nebka (q.v.) 
Nebenfluu (Ger,), a tributary stream. 
Hebka (Arab.), fine sandy soil; a small dune. PI, 

Neder (Dch.), nether, low, e,g. Koningr^k der Neder- 

landen, the ' kingdom of the Netherlands.' 
Nedre (Nor,), lower (nd.) 
Neg (Wolof), house, cottage. 

Nega (Sahara), a bleak open district. See Hamraye. 
Negri, Nagara (Malay). See Nagri. 
Negro (It., Port., Sp.), black, e.g. Bio Negro. 
Nei (China), inner, e.g. Nei-Hsing-An, * the Inner Khingan 

M**,* as opposed to Wei-Hsing-An, * the Outer 

Khingan M^-.' 
Ne-i (Mangbattu), a road. 
Nejd (Arab.), highland. 


Nek {Dch.)y a saddle of land between hills, a col, e.g. 

Laing's Nek. 
Nekopi (Manghattu), a mountain. 
Nemal'o (Mangbattu), river, stream. 
Neiniri (Marocco), stones, e.g. Tisi Neiniri, * the hill of 

-Nene {Gent. Africa), suflSx, meaning ' great.' Cf. Anene. 
islNene {Zulu, Kafir), the right-hand side. 
maNene {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a highway. 
luNengenenge {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a precipice. 
Neo, Neos {Greek), new, e.g. Neokastro, * New castle.* 
Nepese {Indian, U.S.A.), a lake. 
Nepoto {Mangbattu), marsh, swamp. 
Nero {NeO'Greek), water. 
Nes {Icel.), ness, promontory, e.g. Sn»fell Nes. See Fell ; 

Sn»=:snow. Cf Ness, Neus, Nez. 
Neskotak {Indian, U.S.A.), bad swamp. 
Neaos, Nisi, Nisia {Greek), island, islands. 
Nefls {Scotland, from Nor. n»8), a nose, headland. Cf. 

Neiu, Nes, Nez. 
Nen (Ger.), new, e.g. Neu-Brandenburg. 
Neus {Dch.), promontory, lit. nose. Cf. Ness. 
Nev, Nav, Nan {Pers.), new, e.g. Nevshehr, * new town.' 
Nevado {S. America), a snow-capped peak. 
N^v^ {Switzerland), half-solidified snow. Cf Pirn. 
Nez {Fr.), nose, cape, point, e.g. Blanc Nez. Cf. Ness. 
Neza {Arab., N. Africa), a mass of stones to mark the 

spot where some one has died. 
Nezala {Marocco), inn, caravansery. 
Nfomo {Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Fumo. 


Nga {Ibo, Nigeria), a place, e.g. Ngahnn (for Hga Ahnn), 

that place, there ; egaivalent to Ibe. 
icUNga {Cent Africa^ dialect of Bantu), island. 
isiHga (Kafir), thorn country, a plot or locality where 

the mimosa grows. 
paHga (Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), country. For other 

forms see Panga. 
Ngaa (Sara, Chad L, region), land, earth. 
Ngada (Kanuri, Bomu, Chad L. region), the current of 

a river. 
Ngaita (Eldorobo, Uganda), See Oaita. 
Hgalisu (Marovo, Solomon Is.), east wind. 
Ngayam (Kanuri, Bormi, W. of Chad L.), a swampy 

shallow creek or backwater, equivalent to the 

Hausa Faddama and the Sel of Adamawa. 
Hgan (Annam), a river. Cf Hge, Vgoi. 
ITgandu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See OandiL 
Ngangau (New Guinea), peace, e.g. Yeku Ngangau, ' the 

peace of Jesus,' the place where the Inawaia and 

Eboa tribes were reconciled, generally referred to 

as Yeku (Jesus). 
Hganzu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ghmzn. 
Ngari (Masai, East Africa), water, e.g. Hgari na Nynki, 

' red water.' 
Hgas (Sever, Senegal), well, spring. 
Ngas (Tibet), wood, forest. 
Ngaufiate (Chad L. region), an encampment. 
Hga-ya (Hainan), a prefecture. 
Nge (Burma), small, e.g. ](]rit Hge. See Myit. 
Hge (Burma), a river. Cf. Ngan, Ngot 


JSgele {Sara, Chad L. region), grass. 

Ngelendn {Wolof), south. See Kharfd. 

Ngesa (Fula), field, garden. 

Hgi (MiaO'tse, Kwei-chau, South China), narrow (of 

a pass or stream). 
Hgila {Usagara, Ger, East Africa, Bantu). See GUa. 
Ngira Boxnu {Giryama and Ketoshy Uganda), highway, 

path, road. 
Ngo {Kamerun), a cold wind. 
lui.'Sgo {Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), a chief; for pL 

see Kango. 
Hgoa (A'Zande), tree, a wood. 
Hgodia {Congo), an abyss. 
Hgoi {Annam), a river. Cf Hgan, Hge. 
Hgoka {Giryama). See Ooka. 

Hgolo {Chad L, region), large, great, e,g, Kabe Ngolo. 
ITgome {Congo), water. 
Ngome {Swahili), fort, castle. 
ITgon {Bali, Kamerun), a village. 
iNgone {Zulu, Kafir), a bend in a river ; an arm of a 

river ; creek, inlet. 
-Ngono {Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu). See NinL 
Hgono, On- {Zambezia), little. 
Ngthai luh {Miao-tse, Kwei-chau), west. See next entry 

and Han Fang. 
Ngthai ta {Miao-tse, Kwei-chau), east. See above entry. 
Ngn {Cent, Africa, Bantu), See Mu. 
Ngu {Banda, A-Zande), water, e,g. the rivers Bnngn, 

Ngnbi. * This is also found, with the vowel 

* Superville in La Qiographie^ viii. 1903, p. 22. 


modified, in the middle, aR well as at the beginning 
or end of a word, e.g. Onngara, ' the water of the 
bamboos/ Bangoran. See On. Cf. Oirungiu 

Hgnu&6 (A'Zafide), sand. 

Nguiifula {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Gnngula. 

Hgam {Bornii)j wild beast, hippopotamus, e.g. Hguru- 
tnwa, ' the place of the hippopotamus/ a name 
very frequently given to villages. Cf. Dorina. 

Hgutu {Cent. Africa)^ a town. 

Nguzi {dialect of Bantu). See Zi. 

-Ngwa {Eskimo, Smith Sound) has a diminutive force. 

Ngwongomoka {Congo), a landslip. 

Nho {Ann^m, Laos), little, small, e.g. Ban Tanho, on the 
Se Nan, a tributary of the Nam Khong. See Ban ; 
Ta= pagoda. 

Ni {Yayo, China), earth; mud. 

Hia (Jihu, New Guinea), a path ; also * water.' 

Nia ba (Annam), confluence. 
kilfiaAmgo (Nika). a wood, forest. 

Hiakh (Wolof), grass. 

Hiam-niam {Cent. Africa), cannibals, applied to the 
tribes inhabiting the A-Zande plateaux. 

Nianam (N. of Budolf L.), river, water ; sometimes 
applied to Eudolf itself. 

Hianset {Nandi, Uganda), sea, lake. Cf Hyanza. 

Nieder (Ger.), nether, lower, under; applied to nume- 
rous place-names, e.g. Nieder Sitten. Cf Heder. 

Niedernng {Ger.), low country or ground. 

Nie {MiaO'tse, Kwei-chau), shallow. 

Niem {Basari), water. 


Hieuw (Dch,)y new, applied to numerous place-names, 
e.g. Hieuw Dordrecht. 

Hif-enser {Arab.)^ a mountain. 

Nij-jot {Sansc, Hind.), lands cultivated by the pro- 
prietors or revenue-payers for their own profit. 
akaNika (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 

Nika {Bangweulu L, region), a wide salt plain. These 
plains constitute the main wealth of the region. 

Nikuli (Makua, Mozambique). See Kali. 

Nilas (BurSs.), newly formed autumnal ice. 
alfingo (Mpongwe, Gabun B. district, Bantu), water. 

-Nini, -Nono, -Alonga, -Hgono (Cent. Africa, dialects of 
Bantu), a suffix meaning 'little.' 

ITiraksli (Sansc, Hind.), the Equator; lit. *no latitude.' 

Hir-jal {Sansc, Hind.), a desert. 

Nir-jhar (Sansc, Hmd.), a cascade, torrent. 

Nimin (Lokub, Budolf L.), a nullah. 

Hishan (Pers.), beacon ; lit. any sign, mark, or signal. 

Nishi, Hifli, Sai (Japan), West. For other points see 

Nisi (Neo-Greeh), island. 

Nifd (Japan). See Hishi. 

Hit (Wolof), people. 
eHiuma (Kossova, Eastern Uganda), a house. 

niveau (Fr.), level. 

Hiwan (Sansc), low (ground). 

Hizki, Nizky (Buss., Bohemia), low (Nz.) 

Hjarga (Fin.), a promontory. 

Njera (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Nzila. 

Nji (Bafo, Kamerun), a road. See Njira 

{Za/mhezia^ Uganda^ dialects of Bantu), road, 
path. Hee Jira, Nji. 


maHji (Balif Kamerun), a road. See Njira. 
Hjia (Bantu). See Jia. 
Njia Panda (Swahili), cross-roadB, or where three roads 

meet. See Jia, Nda. 
Njila (Bantu). See Jila. 
ohi Njira 
e Njira 

Nju (Togoland)f water. 
kaNka (Congo, dialect of Bantu), brushwood, thicket, 

jungle of bushes. 
Nkaku (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a dam made in a 

stream, in which one or two waterways are left ; 

a weir. See Kaku. 
Nkalango (Cent Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kalang^. 
Nkambalalu (Congo, dialect of Bantu) . See Kambalalu. 
Nkant (Ilarem, Indo-China) , a mountain. 
-Nke (Mande, West Sudan, Sahara) signifies ' inhabi- 
tants,' e.g. Tawatinke, the people of Tawat. Cf Ke. 
Nki {Bafo, Kamerun), a village. 
Nki (Chad L. region), water, e.g. Nki Tselim, ^ black 

water,' applied to a portion of the lake. 
Nkoko (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Koko. 
Nkokonoa (Gold Coast), the brink of a river or lake. 
Nkol, pi. Minkol (Fan, French Congo), a mountain. 
Nkol ntogh, ph Nkol mitogh (Fan, French Congo), a 

small mountain. Cf. Obe Nkol. 
Nkong'e, Hikong'e (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). 

See Eong'e. 
Nkot,2?Z. Nkor (Fan, French Congo), zigzag (of a road). 
Nkuku (Congo), a torrent, stream ; current. 


Nknlu {dialect of Bantu). See Knlu. 
6 Nknlu I (Cen^. Africa^ dialects of Bantu), a road. Cf. 
Nknlu) Zila, Zira. 
Nknlnntn, jpZ. Bakuluntn {Loango). See Knluntu. 
-nkarn {dialect of Bantu). See -Kulu. 
Nkwammoe {Gold Coast), a well-made road. 
Nkyerekyera {Gold Coast), dry land, a barren desert. 
Hla {Yoruba), great, big, e,g, Omi Hla, * big water ' ; in 

some combinations becomes Lan, e.g. Omi Lano, 
. ' the big water over there.* 
Nlam {Fan, French Congo), country; applied to the 

territory of a village; cf Mvogh; a hamlet or 

group of huts in connection with a larger village. 
Nlambu {Congo^ dialect of Bantu). See Lambu. 
Nlangn {Loango, dialect of Bantu). See Langu. 
Nlidi {German East Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Lidi. 
Hlo, pi. Milo {Fan, French Congo), a river. Cf. (Hon, 

Osn ; see Lo. 
Hlo nen {Fan, French Congo), a great river, like the 

French Flenve. 
Nlonki {Fan, French Congo). See Lonki. 
Nmai {Chin Hills), bad, inferior, e.g. Hmai Kha, the 

Myit Kge (Gyi), or * Little Eiver,' of the Burmese. 

Cf Mali. 
-Ho {Indian, Alaska). See -Na. 
Ho {Japan), a plain. 

No {Nhan, Lao-kai, Indo-China), little, small. 
Nobori {Japan), a mountain. 
Nock {Irish and Gaelic, Cnoc), a hill, e.g. Bannockbnm, 

' the stream of the white knoll ' ; see Ban, Bnm. The 

Anglicised form is Knock, e.g. Knockbride, Knocklong. 


Nogo {Bozo, Mande) village. 

Hoheu {TsO'Of Formosa), a village. 

Noir (Fr.), black ; e.g. Noirmoutier island. 

Noko {Hammer Koki, Abyssinia), water. 

IToxn {Hainan), a river. 

Homa {Mangbattu), forest, wood. 

Hong {Cambodia, Siam), lake, raarsh, pond, pool. 

Honi {German East Africa), white clay, e.g, Kanoni (a 

river in Bukoba). 
-Nono. See -Nini. 
Hoord {Dch.), north. 
Nopi {Mangbattu), bush, tall grass. 
Nor {Mongolia, Tibet), lake, e,g, Koko-Nor, * blue lake,' 

Wayan-Hor, *rich lake,* Tosu-Nor, * butter lake.' Cf. 

Nnr, Tso. 
Hord (Fr,, Ger,, Da., Nor., Sw.), north. 
Horia {Pers.), a waterwheel. 
Norre {Da.), adj. north (N*"^). See S0nder, Oster, Vestor, 

Norte {It., Sp.), north. See Ovesto {It.) 
No8 {Buss.), a cape, headland. 
Nosi {Madagascar), island, e.g. Nosi Be, 'great island.' 

AnoBi, * the place without islands ' ; also means 

sheep, e.g. Valanosi, * sheep-field.' 
Notch {U.S.A.), a short defile through mountains. 
Note {Port., Sp.), south wind. 
Notes {Greek), south. For other points see Boreas. 
Novo {Port., Buss.), new, e.g.Toxto Novo, Novgorod. See 

Novy, Novi {Bohemian), new (Nv.), e.g. Novi Selo. 
inNqaba {Kafir), a stronghold, tower, fortified place. 


omNquba (Zulu, Kafir), an encampment. ' 
iNqnbn {Zulu, Kafir), a bend in a river. 
Nrata {Makua, Mozambique), lake, swamp. 
Nsan {Fan, French Congo), street, the Fan houses being 
arranged on both sides of a single street, which 
forms the village. 
'SBe,pl Ese {Chamba), a road. 
Nseghe {Fan, French Congo). See Seghe. 
HsM {Congo, dialect of Bantu), See Shi. 
Ksi {Bali, Kamerun), water. 
iNsi {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country. 


_ A {Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), water, 
a nut An j 

Nsua, Suwa {Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See Sua. 

Hsu-akyi {Gold Coast), the other side of the river, 

beyond the river. 
Hro-aniwa {Gold Coast), well, spring. 
Hsu-ano {Gold Coast), bank, shore of a river, of a lake 

or of the sea. Cf Mpo-ano. 
Nsuku {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Suku. 
Hsnlu {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Snlu. 
Nro-noa {Gold Coast), land or country by the side of a 

Nsuvila {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Suvila. 
Ntaba {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Taba'. 
Htak {Wolof), shore, beach. 

Htaka {Cent. Africa a fid Congo, Bantu). See Taka. 
irtamazirt {Sus, Berber), a village. Cf Amazagh. 
ITtando {Cent. Africa, Bantu). See Tando. 
Nteleka {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Teleka. 


Ntetele (Fan, French Congo), steep. 

Hti (Swahili). See Ti. 

iHtla {Zulu, Kafir), the top, summit (of a moun- 
iliNtle (Zulu, Kafir), an open, uninhabited country, a 

kiNtombo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the season of the late 
heavy rains. 

Ntoto (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Toto. 
aNtu (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), people. 
baNtu (Bantu), the people, humanity. See Ba. . 

ITu (Fon, Dahome), mouth, e.g, Kotonu (for Kutoim), 
* the dead mouth of the lagoon,* referring to the 
sand bar which blocks the entrance ; Ku = dead. 
See To. 

-Nu (Indian, Alaska), See -Na. 

Nua (Siam), north ; for other points see Tai, Tawan-ok, 
Tawan-tok, and for winds see Lorn. 

Nua (West Australia), sand. 

Haail (Marocco), thatched huts. 

Nub (Tibet), west. For other points see Lho. 

Nuba (^rab), a garrisoned position. 

Hnoh (Indian, U.S.A.), water. 

Nudo (Sp.)f a mountain knot. 

Hue, Nuwe (Batta, Benue B. region), mother, e.g. Benue 
' Mother of waters.' See Be. 

Huevo (Sp.), new, e.g. Golfo Nuevo, Valle Huevo. 

Nui (Annam), a mountain. 

ITui (China), inner. Cf la, Hei. 

Nui (Maori), great, e.g. Awanui in Mongonui county. 


Hui (Marquesas, Hawaii), great, e.g. Faa-nui, 'great 

Hnkb (Arab.), a pass. 

Hnkunuku (Mbau, Fiji), sand. 

Hnllah (Giryama), a chasm. 

Hnllah (India, Anglo-Indian), a creek. Cf. Hada, Hala. 

Hum (Nongo, Shan, Laos), water. 

Huma (Japan), a swamp. 

Hnma (New Guinea), a house. 

Hnmba, pL Simba (Zambezia), a house, e.g, Simbabwe, 
' a house of stones ' (one of the derivations pro- 
posed for the Zimbabwe monuments in Bhodesia). 

Himatak (U.S.A.), a rock island in a glacier. 

HuoYO (It), new, e.g. Konte Huovo, to the west of 

Hnr (Arab.), light, e.g, Hnrpnr, 'town of light.* 

Hnr (Mongol), a lake. Cf. Hor. 

Hnsa (Java, New Georgia, Solomon Is.), an island. 

HusheYs (U.S. of Colombia, Bontukwa Indian), large 
huts used as a meeting-place. 

Huwe (Batta, Benue B. region). See Hue. 

Huyi, pi. Hutnlu (Telegu, Dcccan), a well. 

Hvoa (A'Zande), grass. 

Hvoi (A'Zande), forest, wood. 

Hwhea (Gold Coast), sand. 
IHxanxasi (Zulu, Kafir), a waterfall. 
iHziwa (Zulu, Kafir), the site of an old village or 

iHxulniiia (Zulu, Kafir), a large village or kraal. 

Hy (Da., Sw.), new, e.g. Hybttrg in Fiinen I. 


Kya {Tanganyika region), a prefix meaning * place.' Cf, 

Nyaba {Congo), swamp, marsh, any muddy place. 
Nyag {Tibet), a little col. 

Nyaggfa {Kikuyu, East Uganda), beautiful, e.g. Eirima 
Nyagga, * beautiful mountain,* the Kikuyu name 
for Mount Kenia. 
Nyak {Indian, U.S.A.), corner, point, angle. 
eNyangfha {Fan, French Congo), a lagoon or open 
marsh, not covered with grass. Cf. Nzam ; for pL 
see Enyangha. 
Nyaiya, Nyanza, Nyasa {Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), 
lake ; water either of a river or lake. See Aoja, 
Anza, Asa. 
Nyanza {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Nyaiya, 

i Nyanza {Lu-Wanga, Uganda), great water; lake. 
Nyasa {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Nyaiya, 

Nyasi {Swahili), grass, reeds. 
dlNyasi, liNyasi, maNyasi {Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), 

grass. See also Dinyasi for other forms. 
iNyatuko {Zulu, Kafir), a footpath. 
Nyeng, Nyong, Byeng, Eyong, Lyeng, Lyong (Korea), a pass. 
eNyi {Fan, French Congo), island. For pi. see Enyi. 
Nyika, Nika {Nika, Giryama), wilderness ; lit. unin- 
habited borderlands ; uplands. Cf. Tanga]i3rika. 
Nyila {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a road. Cf Zila, 
eNyin {Fan, French Congo), the sea. 


Hyiro {Masai, East Africa)^ gr©y> brown; e.g. Owaao 
Kyiro, ' grey river/. Of. Harok, Hyuki. See Owaso. 

Hyit (Burma), stream, torrent. Cf. Myit. 

Hyondo {German East Africa), a forge hammer, e.g. 
Manyonda, ' a village with many forges.* 

Hyong {Korea). See Hyeng. 

Hyua {dialect of Bantu). See Va. 

Nynki {Masai, East Africa), red ; e.g. Ngari ua Nynki, 
* red water.' Cf Harok, Kyiro, See Owaso. 

Hza {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Za. 

Hzadi {Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Zadi. 

Nzala {Marocco), a Government post-house ; a small col- 
lection of huts enclosed in zeriba ; a halting-place. 

'S2Bm,pl. MinyAni {Fan, French Congo), a marsh covered 
with grass, &c. 

Hzann, pi, Ezanu {Basari), a r6ad. 

Hzanza (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Zanza. 

Hze, pL Jtinze (Bedzi) (Fan, French Congo), a bridge. 
Cf Abon. 

"SzeHypl. ICnzen (Fan, French Congo). See Zen. 
amaHzi (Kafir), water. 
maNzi (Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. 
iHzi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), comitry, dis- 

Nzige (Upper Nile), a lake. 

Hzila, Inzila, Inzila, Izira, Dzira, Inzira, Njera, Ndera (Cent. 
Africa, dialects of Bantu). Cf Hyila ; see Zila, Sila, 
Zira, Jera, Dera. 

Hziri (Arab.), a barren spot. 

Hzonza (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Zonza. 



iNzu {Lu'Wanga, Eastern Uganda), a house. 
Nzula (Zulu, Kafir), deep. 


(Japan), great, large =Oki=Tai= Dai, e,g. shiwo 
(q.v.) ; Jigfoku, * great hell,' a name given gene- 
rally to the solfataras or hot sulphur springs of 
Tateyama and other localities. 

(Da,, Nor.), island. 

6 (Hung,), old, e.g. O-beose. 

6 (Sw.) island, e.g. Fir5 (Baltic), * sheep island.' Cf. Ey 
(Saxon Ea). 

Oaia (S. Cape, Netv Guinea), garden. 

Oase (Ger.), oasis (q.v.) 

Oasifl (Lat. from Coptic through Greek), a fertile spot 
in a desert ; originally only applied to the Libyan 
desert, but now generally. The Greek form 
is avaa-Ls, which is doubtfully referred to a 
Copt, (late Egyptian) word (hialie=a dwelling- 

Ob (Hottentot). See Ep. 

Ob, Oban (Gaelic), creek, haven, e.g. the harbour of Obb, 
in the Hebrides ; Oban. 

Oba (Turk.), a summer village. 
isOba (Zulu, Kafir), a plantation of sugar-cane. 

Obalama (Servian), bank (of a river). 

Obaaka (Hudson Bay region), grassy narrows. Cf. 

Obba (Yoruba), king, chief. 


Obe nkol, pL Abe nkol {Fan, French Congo). See Be 
nkol ; cf. Hkol ntogh. 

Ober (Ger,), upper (O.) ; applied to numerous place- 
names, e,g, Ober Ammergau. 

Oberflftche {Ger.), surface. 

Oberland {Ger,), highlands. 

Oberlanf {Ger,), the upper course (of a river). 

Oblart {Bio88.), province. 

Obo {Fanti, Gold Coast), stone. 

Obo {Mongol), piles of stones for marking a road. 

Obo {Kiwaiy New Guinea), water, topo obo, 'fresh 

water,' obo oriro, * flood-tide,' auo obo ogo, ' flood,' 

obo bobo, ' lagoon.' 
Oboi {laibo, New Guinea), a passage through a reef. 
Obon {Gold Coast), valley, bed of a river. 
Obonka {Gold Coast), channel^ ravine. 
Obstplantage {Ger,), nursery, orchard. 
Obsan {Mongol), pasturage. 
Obnka {New Georgia, Solovwn Is,), a river. 
Ooh, loh, Aoh {Gaelic), a field, e.g, Avioh, Avooh, ' the 

field of the water or stream,' Ardoch, 'high field,' 

Aohray, * smooth field.' See Av, Ard, Ray. 
ddam {Tamul, Deccan), torrent, flood. 
Odan {Fanti, Gold Coast), an abode. 
Odan (Yoruba), a plain, a grass field. 
Odanah, Otannng, Odaniigfh {Indian, U.S,A.)i a town. 
Odanugh. See Odanah. 
Odde {Da., Nor.), a point, a tongue of land. 
Ode {Berber), a valley, e.g. Tiggeroden or Tiggernrtin. 
Odi {Yoruba), a walled fortification round a town ; fort. 

u 2 


diegu, pi, Ti dieti {Gurma, French Sudan), town, 

Odo {Yoruba)y district, division, e.g. Odo Ofl» Odo Itu. 
Odo {Yoruha), brook, river, e.g. Odo Oli, Odo Oyi. 
Oeagi (S, Gape, New Guinea), a tree. 
Oeo {Maiva, New Guinea), a mountain. 
Oever (DcA.), shore, coast, bank (of a river), e.g. Den 

Oever in Drente and North Holland. 
Of {Eastern Sudan), a mountain. 
fai {Tahiti), stone. 
Ofer. See Over. 

O-fa-hye (Gold Coast), boundary, frontier. 
Ofweam {Gold Coast), the current or swiftest part of a 

Og {Tibet), down, below. 
Oga {Indian, U.S.A.), a place. 
Ogbon {Yoruba), ditch, valley. 
Oghmd, pi. of Ohnrd {Arab., N. Africa), large dunes ; 

a small number of dunes in a mass. 
Ogi {Walamo, Abyssinia), a road. 
Ogiri {Yoruba), a wall. 
Ogla, Oglat {Arab., N. Africa), the junction of several 

wells in the same spot ; a place where one is sure 

to find water ; large deep wells ; wells. 
Ogo {Somali), above, upper, e.g. Ogo, the upper region, 

the high land, behind the Ouban, or N. Somali 

coastal plain. 
Ohi {Indian, U.S.A.), a mountain. 
Ohioho {Lomwe, Shirwa L., Nyasaland), east. See 

Om irimana. 


(K (E. Turk,), a hollow, depression. 

Oikot (Oreek)y a house. 

Oinan (Mentawei Island, S.W. Coast Sumatra), water. 

Oinet {Nandi, Eastern Uganda), a well. 

Ojjo (Yambo, Upper Sobat B.), a road. 

•Ok (Alaska), a diminutive termination, e.g, Tyonok 

village, i.e. * the village of the little chief.' 
Ok {Indian, U.S.A.), a forest. 
Ok {Hind.), a house, dwelling, asylum. 
Oka (Galla), grass. 
Oka {Gold Coast), ditch, trench, canal ; the bed of a 

river ; a bay, creek. 
Oka (Japan), land. 
Oke (Yoruba), hill, mountain, Oke Tede, Oke Amo; in 

Ibo, Nigeria, a boundary. 
Okedi, Ekedi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See 

Old (Japan), large, great, e.g. Old Shixoa. Cf See 

Old (Japan), anchorage. 
Okla (Indian, U.S. A.), water. 
Okpinle (Yoruba), termination of the earth, land or 

Oku (Gold Coast), gap, chasm, abyss, precipice. 
Okun (Yoruba), sea, salt water. 
Okimda (Cent. Africa), a forest. 
Okwan (Gold Coast), way, road, path. 
Ola (Mongol), mountain. See Ula. 
Olare (British East Africa), a salt-lick (q.v.), e.g. Olare 

le lang'alang, 'the salt-lick of many crossings,' 


i.e. to which access can only be had by crossing 

the neighbouring meandering river many times. 

Langs to cross. 
Olindoror {Nandi, Uganda), east. 
Oliut {Turk., Mongol). See U. 
Olkhon {Buriat, Bussia in Asia), dry. 
Olo (Kerepunu, New Guinea), mountain. Cf. Golo. 
Olon (Mongol), a ford. 
Olos (Mongol), people, tribe. 
Oltre (It.), beyond. 
Olua (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a tree. 

Olmnata (Kiriwina, New Guinea), beach, sandy beach. 
Olusi (Lomwe, Mozambique), river. 
Omamma (Gold Coast), a small town or state. 
Omantan (Gold Coast), an independent state; a mother 

me kutl (Indian, California), island. 
Omi (Yoruba), water, e.g. Omi Nla, * big water/ Omi Lano, 

* the big water over there.' See Hla. 
Om irimana (Lomwe, Shirwa L. ; Makua, Ger. E. Africa)^ 

the south. See OhiolLO. 
0mm (Arab.) See TTmm, of which it is another form. 
Ommodo (Yoruba), brook, rivulet. 
Omo (China), a lake. 

OmBtreek (Dch.), the surrounding country, environs. 
Omut (Indian, U.S.A.), land. 
Omwa (Upper Nile), a mountain. 
On (Indian, U.S.A.), a hill. 
On (Japan), august, e.g. Ontake, * august peak,' the 

south peak of the Japanese Alps. See Take. 


Onder {Dch.)^ lower, under, e.g. Onderdyk. 
Ondri {Madagascar), sheep, e.g. Ambalanondri, * at the 
sheep field,' AntBahaondri, 'in the sheep valley.' 
See An, Bala, Saha. 
One (KerepunUy New Gui/nea), beach, sand ; the forms 
Onetai, Oneone occur also in Poljmesia. 
mOngo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a forest. 
mOngo {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 
mOngo {Congo, dialect of Bantu), hill, mountain ; down ; 
ascent; plateau. 

^/^ I {Loango, dialects of Bantu), a mountain. 
mOnwgo I 

Ongot {Tagala, Philippine Archipelago), cape, point. 

mOngwa {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a town. 

Oni {Madagascar), river. Frequently placed at the end 

of the name. There is also the form Ona, and 

sometimes Ena. 
Oniesann {Gurma, French Sudan), a river. 
Oxijila {Herero, Bantu). See Jila. 
Onkuln, Enkuln {Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See 

Onland {Dch.), waste land. 
Onna {Yoruba), road, street, way, path. 
Omen {Japan), warm spring. 
Onvaarbar {Dch.), unnavigable (of a river). 
Oost (Do A.), east. 

Op {Dch.), on, e.g. Bergen op Zoom. 
Op {Hottentot). See Ep. 
Opararini {Loniwe, Shirwa L.), north. 
Oparashe {Indian, U.S.A.), a hill. 


Opatawaga (Hudson Bay region) , sand narrows. Cf. 

Oplag^shavn {Da., Nor.), a loading-place not possessing the 

privileges of a regular port or town ; a harbour or 

dock for bonded goods. 
Optrek (Dch.), a resting-place. 
Or (Anglo-Saxon), the shore of a river or of the sea, e.g^. 

Bognor, Windsor. 
Orang (Malay), a man or human being ; people. See 

next entry. 
Orang TTtan (Malay), savages, lit. men of the woods. 

See TTtan. 
Oras (Rumania), town; genitive Or^mim. 
Ordi (Turk.), encampment; a variant of Urdu (q.v.) 
0re (Nor.), an ear or low point; sands or sandbanks at 

the mouth of a river or in a bay. 
Oret (Nandi, Uganda), path, road. 
Orgo (Mongol), tent. 
Ori (New Guinea), cloud. 
Oririmela (Lomwe, Shirwa L.), deep water. 
Orishon (Yoruba), spring, fountain. 
Orman (Turk.), forest, wood. 
Ormos (Greek), bay, roadstead. 
Oro (Madagascar), edge, brink, shore, e^g. Amorombe, 

' at the great shore.' See An, Be. 
Orogongo (Kossova, Uganda). See Bogongo. 
Orok (Mongol), a clan. 
Oromo (Kiwai, New Guinea), river. 
Oromoito (Kiwai, New Guinea), coast, Obo oromoito, the 

sea, lit. coast water. See Obo. 


Orooro (Motu, New Quinea), monntain. Cf. Oolo. 

Qrot {Greek), mountain, hill. 

Orove (Mpongwe, Bantu). See Sove. 

Ort (Ger,)y place, spot, locality. 

Orta {Hung,), middle, e.g. Orta Arad on Maros B., a 

tributary of Theiss B., Orta Dombonar, to S.E. of 

Flatten L. 
Oru {Motumotu, New Guinea), a garden. 
Orurondo {Herero, Bantu) . See Sondo. 
Os {Indian, U.S. A.), pebble, drift. 
Oflambene {Cent. Africa), a forest. 
Osanu {Gurma, French Sudan), a road. 
Osen {Buss.), autunm. 

shiwo {Japan), spring tide. Cf. siwo. SeeO, Shiwo. 
Oshoro {Yoruha), cascade, cataract. 
Oflhiuni {Yoruha), a grove. 
Osiago {Gurma), the rainy season. 
Osin {Yoruha), left (hand). 

siwo {Japan), springtide. Cf. ihiwo. See 0, Siwo. 
Oso, 0s80 {Fanti, Gold Coast), big, great, e.g. Ogbomoso. 
Ospudo {It), hospice (Osp®). 
Osni {Mongol), a river, e.g. Taaban Ossu, ' White Biver.' 

See Taaban. There is also the Manchurian form 

TTssu {q.v.) Cf. TTro. 
0st {Da., Nor.), east. 
Ort {Ger.), east. 

Ostang {Turkestan), water channel, ditch. 
0rt6r, 0rtre {Da., Nor.), adj. east (00. 
dsteria {It.), inn, hotel (Ost*). 
Ottrog {Buss., Kamchatka), a village. 


Oitroy (Buss.), island. 

Osu {Fan^ French Congo), the sea; also Osn, jpZ. Aiu, the 

water of a river, the river itself. See 8u; c/. 

Bio, (Hon. 
Osua {Kiwa% New Guinea), summit. 
Osyp, Obsyp (Buss,), a landslip. 
Ot (Ja-LuOj Uganda), house. 
Ota {Lomwe, Shirwa L.), the west. 

Otainahe {Indian, U,S.A.), a town. : 

Otaiwai {Indian, U,S.A,), a town. 
Otako {MaJcua, Get, E, Africa), a desert. 
Otannng {Indian, U,S,A,) See Odanah. 
Otdyel {Bu88,, Caucasia), an independent district. 
Otebwet {Nandi, Uganda), a pool. 
Oti {Makua, Ger, E. Africa), the east. 
Oti {Motumotu, New Guinea), earth. 
Otlin {Bu88.), the ehb tide. 
Oto {Nubia), water. 
Otok {Mongol), tribe, clan. 
Oton, pL Aton {Fan, French Congo), See Ton ; cf Hlo, 

Otra {E. Turk,) See Utra. 
Ottar {from Gaelic oitar), a low promontory, e,g, 

Dnnottar, *the fort on the low promontory.' See 

Otton {Yoruba), right (hand). See next entry. 
Ottoto (Yoruba), the north, with the face to the west, i.e. 

the right-hand side. 
Ond, Onde {Dch,), old, e.g. Ond MaaB B. 
Onest {Fr,), west. 


Oules {Ft, from Latin olla, * pot '), the semicircular 
escarpments over which streams fall at immense 
heights, which are a distinctive feature of the 
French Pyrenees. 

Ova {Damar aland) y Bantu prefix signifying 'people,' 
e.g. the Ova Kpo of Ovampoland ; Ova Herrero, 
* the merry people ' of Hereroland. Ova corre- 
sponds to the Wa, Ba, Vna, &c. of other Bantu 

Ova (TurJc), plain. 

Ovava {Bihe, Angola, Bantu), See Ta. 

Over, Ofer, TTfer {Ger,), a shore, beach, bank of a river, 
e,g. Hanover. 

OveralpiBch (Dch.), transalpine.' 

Overhaal (Dch), a ferry. 

Overpad (Dch), a cross-path, cross-road. 

Overt {It), west. 

Ovrag (Buss,), a ravine. 

(Jfvre (Da,, Nor,), upper (6v.), e,g, Ovrebtt. 

wai {Indian, California), a town. 

wo {Gold Coast), the drying up of a river. 

Owe {Yoruba), cowries, e,g, the town of Owe, Oworo. 

Oya {Singalese), a river. 

Oyak {Brazil), a river. 

Oyaki {Brazil), a little river. 

Oyapok {Brazil), a large river, e,g, the Oyapok. 

Oyari, Yari, Awari, Aragari {Brazil), large river, the 
great river. 

Oyaaa, Waaa, Wesa {Brazil), straight river. 

Oye {Yoruba), the Hajmattan wind. 


Oyun, pi of Ain (Arab.)^ sources. Cf. Aynn. 
Osero {Bu88.)f a lake. 

Pa- {Cent Africa, Bantu), locative prefix, at, village of. 

Pa (China), temporaxy embankment, digues volantes. 

Pa (Maori), a stockade. 

Pa (Siam), a wood. 

-Pa (Tibet), a suffix signifjring people, tribe, e.g. Bod-pa, 

Pa (Ute, Colorado, dtc), water. 
Paa^je (Cape Dch), a path. 
Paango (Swahili), See Ango. 

Paohoham (Hind,), west. For other points see Vttar. 
Pad (Dch.), road, path. 
Pada (Pali), place. 
Padang (Malay), plain, open space, e.g. Padang Sibagas, 

Padang Susa, Padang Langgin. 
Padela (Servian), division (administrative). 
Padnn (Buss.), a waterfall, cataract. 
Padurea (Buss.), a forest. 
Paese (It.), country, region, town. 
Paesello (It.), a small town. 
Pag (Kan-su), garden, wood. 
Pag-ra (Tibet), a wall of stones, entrenchment. 
Pah, Pa* (Malay), father, e.g. Pah-tani or Patani, * Tani's 

father,' the founder of the N. Malay States, called 

Pa ha (Indian, California), water, river. 


Paha (U.S.A.), a long ridge of fine loamy material 
deposited from a stream, which has cut a chaimel 
in a melting glacier. 

Pahar, Par {Hind.), mountain, hill. Cf. Oiri. 

Pahli (Fin.), bay, gulf. 

Pai (China), white, e.g. Chang Pai Shan, 'ever-white 
mountain,' see Shan; Pai Shui Chiang, 'white- 
water river,' a name given to a section of the 
Upper Yangtse, see Shui, Chiang. 

Pailler (Fr.), a farmyard. 

PaYn (Pers.), lower. See Bala. 

PaYopan (Yambo, Upper Sobat B.), village, country. 

Pigonal (Spanish S. America), marshy land, on which 
bukushes, reeds, &c., grow. 

Pak (Eskimo). See Pnk. 

Pak (Malay, Siam), confluence. 

Pak (Malay, Cambodia), mouth, estuary. 
mPaka (Swahili), boundary, limit ; for ^2. see Mpaka. 

Pakau (Malay), market town. Cf. Pasar. 

Pakdandi (Deccan), a footpath. 

Pakhns (Da., Nor.), a warehouse. 

Paknam (Siam), the mouth of a stream, whether it falls 
into the sea, a lake, or a larger river. See Pak, Nam. 

Pakflo (Fin.), bluff, chff. 

Pal (Punjab), cultivated land, embanked to catch the 
drainage oflf higher ground. 

Pala (JarLuo, Uganda), a wall. 

Palaeo, Palaios, a, on (Greek), old, ancient, e.g. Palaeo or 
Yradeton mountains. 

Palais (Fr.), a palace. 


Palanka {Turk.), fort, fortress. 

Palast {Ger.)f a palace. 

Palavanna {Marovo, Solomon Is.), village, place. See 

Pale {Yavtbo, Upper Sobat ii.), great. 
Palier (Fr.), a landing-place. 
Palisade (U.S.A.), a picturesque extended rock cliff 

rising precipitately from the margin of a stream 

and of colunmar structure, e.g. The Palisades, New 

uPalla (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), a rock, 

Pallala (Pali), a pool. 
Palli (Tamul), a village. 
Palude (It.), marsh, moor. 
isiPaluko (Zulu, Kafir), a valley or stream that branches 

off from another. 
Pains (Lat., Fr.), marsh, moor, fen. In Fr. used only 

in the expression Palus Hiotide = Palus-Heotis = 

Sea of Azov. 
P&lya (Hung.), a road ; Vasp^ya, railway. 
mPambu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the junction or forking 

of roads. 
isiPambusa (Kafir), a by-path, lane. 

Pampa (Gold Coast), hill, hillock. Cf Pempe, Koko. 
Pampas (S. America), the great grass plains of Argentina. 
Pampero (Sp.), a violent westerly or south-westerly 

wind which sweeps over the pampas of Argentina. 
Pamtengo (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Htengo. 
Pamyatnik (Bms.), a monument. 


Pan (China) ^ mountain, hill. 

Pan {Gape Dch.), a pool, a place where a pool has been. 

Pana {Paiwan, Formosa) , a river. Cf. Panna. 

Panda {Swahili), See Hda. 

Pandai, Banteai {Cambodia), fortress. 

Pang (Burma), confluence. 

Pang (Shan States), a camp, encampment. 

Pang (Tibet), height. 

„ prairie land. 
Panga, im Panga, mu Panga (Cent, Africa, dialects of 

Bantu), country. See Hga. 
Panga, im Panga (Giryama), cave, chasm. 
Pangalanes (Madagascar), the portions of land inter- 
vening between the lakes or lagoons on the N.E. 

coast of Madagascar. 
Pangkalan (Malay), landing-place ; mart ; e,g, Pangkalan 

Badak, P. Balak, P. Bnjal. Also Pengkalan (q.v.) 
Pangaa (Mekeo, New Guinea), village. Cf, Vanua. 
Pangwadi (A-Zande), bank ; from Pangwa, edge, and Di, 

water. Cf WiUdi. 
Pani (Hind.), water, e.g. Panigong, 'water village.' 
Panj (Pers.), five, e.g. Punjab. See Ab. Cf Doab. 
Paqang (Malay), long, tall, e.g. Padang Paiqang. See 

Panna (Shan States), a district. 
Panna (Tsarisen, Formosa), a river. Cf Pana. 
Panne (Indian, U.S.A.), a valley. 
Pant (Welsh), a hollow or valley, e.g. Pantglas, Pant-y- 

groes ; groes = croes (q.v.) 
Pantalan (Tagala, Philippine Archipelago), mole, jetty. 


Pantano (It), a marsh (Pant"°). 

Pantano (Sp.), stagnant water, marsh. 

Pantei (Malay), coast, beach, shore. 

Pao (China), an outpost ; also a subdivision of a Su or 

PapandQJan (Java), a forge, a name given to volcanic 

Papeterie (Fr.), paper mill (Pap*®). 
Par, Pahar (Hind,), mountain, hill. Cf. Oiri. 
Para (Indian, Brazil), a river, sea, e.g. Paraguay, Parahiba, 

* bad river,* Parakatu, * good river.' 
Para (Hind,), a quarter of a town, a ward, village. 
Param (Tamut), bank, shore. 
Parana (Brazil), a branch out of the main stream of a 

river; side channel between islands; lateral branch 

of a river. From Indian Para, river, sea. 
Pare (Fr.), a park (P.) 
Paroo (It), a park. 
Pared (Sp,), a wall. 

Parian (Philippines), a market, bazaar. 
Pint (Malay), a drain, ditc]i, trench, moat, canal. 
Pariu (Bumania), rivulet, brook (Par.) 
Paroisse (Fr.), a parish, parish church. 
Parque (Port., Sp.), park, an enclosed wood. 
Part (Hung.), bank, shore, coast. 
Pas (Fr.) channel, e.g. Pas de Calais ; passage, defile, e.g. 

Pas de la Cere. 
Pasanggrahan (Java), equivalent to the Anglo-Indian 

Bungalow (q.v.) 
Pasar (Malay), market, corruption of Basar (q*v.) 


Pasi (Madagascar), a modified form of flaBi, fieuika 
(g.v.)* used in compounds, sand, thus ampad = at 
the place where the sand is, e,g. Ampasimena, ' on 
the red sand ' ; AmpasiiLdaya, ' where the great 
stretch of sand is.' See An, Mena. 

Piflir {Malay), sand, a reach of sand, e,g. Pasir Oebo, 
Pasir Salak. 

Paw (Sp.), a pass. 

Passaat (Dch.), trade wind. 

Passage (jFr.), ferry (P««). 

Passatwind (Ger,), trade wind, monsoon. 

Passe (Fr.)y a channel. 

Passo (It., Port), a pass (P*°). 

Past (B. Turk.), low. C/. Post. 

Pat {Indian, U.S.A.), a hill. 
luPata {Zamhezia, dialect of Bantu), a gorge. 

Patak (Hung.), brook, rivulet (P.) 

Patam {Tamul, Deccan), a city, contracted from 
Patanam, e.g. Seringapatam. 

Path {Sansc, Hind.), a road, highway. 

Patik {E. Turk.), marsh, moor, swamp. 

Patkak {E. Turk.), marsh, moor, swamp. 

Pattan {Sansc), a city, town. 

Patte-d'oie {Fr.), the intersection of several roads. 

Patti {India), a division of a village. 

Pattik {Mongol), marsh, swamp. 

Pa tzn (Yunnan), a cultivated valley. 

Pau ga {MiaO'tse, Yunnan), hill. 

Paul {Hind.) See Pol. 

Pau-tai {China), a fort. 



PaviUon (JFV.), pavilion, summer house (P*"). 

Paya {Burma), a temple. 

Piya (Malay), swamp, marsh. 

Pays (Fr,), country. 

Pe (A-Zande), bush, tall grass. 

Pe {China), north, e,g. Peking, 'the northern capital.' 

Cf. Peh, Van, Si, Tnng. See King. 
Piage {Fr), toll-house. 
Peak, Pike {England), allied to the words beak, ipike, 

e.g. Peak in Derbyshire, Pike o* Stickle. 
Peam {Cambodia), mouth, estuary. 
Pecze {Hung), boundary mark. 
Pedhiadha {Neo-Greek), a plain. 
Pedra {Fort), a rock or stone. 
Peel {Celtic), a stronghold. 
Peh {China), e.g. north, Peh Fang in Miao-tse, Yunnan. 

Cf, Pei, Pe, merely different spellings. 
Pei {China), north. Cf. Peh, Pe, which are merely 

different spellings. 
Pek {Nandi, Uganda), water. 
Pekan {Malay), a village, lit, a place for buying and 

Pela {Singalese), a hut. 
Pema {Tibet), sand. 
Pempe {Gold Coast), a hillock, knoll, smaller than Pampa 

Pen {Welsh), a head, hence a mountain, e.g. Penmaen- 

mawr, Pennigant, Pennine. Cf. Ben, Kin. 
Pen {Min-kia, Ktvei-chau), north. For other points 

see La, Turh, San. 


Pe&a {Sp.), a rock or large stone. 

Penghulu (Malay Pen.), district or village headman. 

Pengkalan (Malay), mart, e,g, P. Balak ; landing place, 
e.g. P. Pojak in Wellesley Province. See Pangkalan. 

Peng la (Min-kia, Yunnan)^ a lake. 

Peniflola (It), a peninsula. 

Penon (Sp.), a rock or rocky mouAtain. 

Penong (Cambodia), savages. 

Pente (Fr.), declivity, slope. 

Penyi (Ja-Luo, Uganda), country. 

Perebor (Buss.), rocks in a river. 

Perede (Gold Coast), a plain. 

Peresheek (Buss.), an isthmus. 

Perevoz (Buss.), a ferry. 

Permitang (Malay), ranges of low sandhills which mark 
the ancient sea boundaries ; high ground ; a water- 
shed ; e.g. Permatang Bogak in Province Wellesley. 

Pertnis (Fr.), opening or strait. 

Pesak (Servian), sand. Cf. Pesok. 

Peachaai (Buss.), sandy. 

Peaok (Buss.), sand. Cf. Pesak, the same word. 

Petankimk (Indian, U.S.A.), a fall. 

Peth (Deccan), a village, small town. 

Petit (jFV.), little ; applied to many place-names. 

Petobeg (Indian, U.S.A.), bog. 

Petra (Greek), a rock. Cf. Piatra, Piedra, Pierre. 

Penk (Korea), north, northern, e.g. Peuk-Dong. 

Pfitd (Ger.) a path. 

Pftlz (Ger.),B, palace, high oflBcial residence; palatinate. 

Pfjm (Upper Nile), a village. 

X 2 


Pferdebahn (Ger.), horse- tramway. 

Pha {Indo'Chinay Black B, region), a forest. 

Phai {Man Sung, Lao-kai), little, small. 

Phanos (Greek), light, beacon. 

Phare (Fr.), lighthouse (Ph.) ; Phare Flottant, lightship. 

Pharol {Port.), lighthouse (Parol). 

Pharos {Greek), lighthouse. 

Phieng {Hang Chek, Indo- China), a town. 

Pho {China), a market. 

Pho {Korea), anchorage, river bank, e.g, Chemulpho, 

Pho {Thos, Annam), a mountain. See Phu (note), Po. 
Phong {Cambodia), custom, e.g. Phong-Hi, ^good custom/ 

in Bao-Ehanh. See Hi. 
Phra {Siam), a pagoda. 
Phrair {Siam), a tributary of a river. 
Phu {Annam), town of the third order, district capital. 

(This occurs in all French books and maps dealing 

with the region. Cf, Chinese Pu.) 
Phu, Phui {Cambodia), rich, wealth, e.g. Phui-Kwoi, 

kwoi conveying an idea of nobility, noble. 
Phu {Siam, Indo-China), hill, mountain. See Pho. 
Phu {Tibet), a lateral valley. 

Phybng, Phyeng {Korea), a plain, e.g. Phyong-An. Cf, Beul. 
Pi {Ja-Luo, Uganda), water. 
Piaggia {It.) , rising ground, the seashore. 
Piano (I^.)»aplain(P"«). 

Piatra {Btimanian), a rock. Cf. Petra, Piedra, Pierre. 
Pic {Fr.), a peak (P.) 
Picaoho {Sp.), top, summit, 


Picaoho {U.S. A,), a peaked butte {q.v,) 
Picada {Spanish S. America)^ mountain pass ; ford of a 
river which can only be passed by horsemen ; path. 
Pico {Port, Sp.)y a peak. 
Picco {It), a peak (P*'**). 
Pie {Min-kia, Yunnan), low. 
Pied {Fr.), foot, e.g. Piedmont. Cf. Ital. Piemonte. 
Piedra {Sp.), a rock. Cf. Petra, Piatra, Pierre. 
Piena {It.), flood or overflow of waters. 
Pierre {Fr.), stone. Gf. Petra, Piatra, Piedra. 
Pigh gnai {Indian, U.S.A.), hill. 

Pihara {Maiva, New Guinea) ^ stone. 

Pi-hu {Tibet), fort, post of observation. 

P\jlerbrag {Dch.), a pier, pillar bridge. 

Pike. See Peak. 

Pila {Tibet), a river. 

Pill {England), an inlet or pool capable of holding 
vessels to unload, e.g. Pill (Somerset). C/. Pool, Pwll. 

Pimb {Serer, Senegal), a mountain. 

Pimb aneu {Serer, Senegal), a hill, a small mountain. 

Pin {Fr.), a pine or fir tree, e.g. lie des Pins. 

Ping {China), a plain. 

Piongo {MarovOy Solomon Is.), a river. 

Piramnn {Pers.), environs. 


a pf^ft Piri 

{Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a mountain, e.g. 

^ Pirikwamba, to the west of northern Nyasa. 
Cf. Lima, Bima. 




iPiro {Mozambique, dialect of Bantu), a road, path. (7/. 
Zila, Zira. 

Piaang (Malay), banana; used in place-names, e.g. Pulo 
Pisang, banana island. 

Pisholina {Servia), a marsh. 

Piflhtak {Cent. Asia), an arched fa9ade. 

Pi si {Min-kia, Yunnan), wind. 

Piska {Indian, California), sea. 

Piste {Fr), a track, trail. 

Pistyll {Welsh), a waterfall, e.g. Pistyll-y-Cain. 

Pit {Gaelic pitht), a hollow, e.g. Pitcaim, * the hollow of 
the cairn.* 

Pitch {W. of England), slope, declivity, top of a hill. 

Pi te nge {Min-kia, Yunnan), a plain. 

Piton {Ft.), a peak. 

Pitth {Ja-Luo, Uganda), a mound. 

Pi2 {Tyrol), equivalent to Beak, Pike, e.g. Piz Hortiratsch. 

Pjert {Armenia), a castle, fort. 

Plaats {Dch.), a place or spot. 

Plache {Ger), a plain, flat country. 

Plage {Fr.), shore, beach. 

Planina {S. Slav.), a mountain. 

Piano inclinado {Port.), a patent slip. 

Plantlbergang {Ger.), a level crossing. 

Plateau {Fr.), used not only in Fr. but also in Eng. and 
Ger. as a form of sub-oceanic relief for a steep 
Elevation {q.v.) of large extent in which the length 
and breadth do not greatly differ. It may rise 
from the depressions of the ocean, or, as in the 
case of the Azores Plateau, from a Rise {q.v.) On 


dry land Plateau = Tableland; e,g, the Anahuac 

Plateau (Mexico). 
Plau {Cambodia), a road. 
Playa (Sp.)> shore, beach, coast. 
„ (U,S,A), an alkali-flat ; the dried bottom of a 

temporary lake without outlet ; an alluvial coast- 
land, as distinguished from a beach. 
Plaza (Sp.), square or market place, fortified town. 
„ (V.8.A,)y an open valley-floor, the flat bottom of 

a narrow canon. 
-Pie. See Polls. 

Pleme {Montenegro), tribe, clan. 
Plon, Plun {Slavonic), a plain, e,g, PlOner See. 
Plot {Buss.), a floating landing-place, raft. 
Plou, Plu, PleA, Plo, PM, Pla {Breton ploui), village or 

parish. Cf. Welsh Plwyf. 
Plu {Upper Sassandra B. region), white, e,g, Ibo Plu, 

' the White Ibo R.' 
Plur {Armenian), a hill. 
Plwyf {Welsh), a parish. 
Pneuma {Greek), wind. 

Pnom {Cambodia), a mountain, e.g. Pnom Penh. 
Po {China), a lake, cf. Hu ; swamp. 
Po- {China), a prefix meaning ' white/ See Pal. 
Po {Indian, U.S.A.), water. 

Po {Tibet), summit of a mountain. Another form is Spo. 
Poa {Nika), the coast. 
Poili holma {Fin.) , a peninsula. 
Poblado {Sp.), town, village. 
Pochtamt {Buss.), post ofiice. 


Pocoson {U,S.A.)y a swamp. 

Podere (It,), an estate (Pod®). 

Podo {Kiwaiy New Guinea), hill, mountain. 

Podvodnitsa (Euss.)^ shoals covered at extremely low tide. 

Poe {Maivay New Guinea), beach, shore. 

Poggio {It), a cliff (P«*°). 

Pogost {Ru^s.), a parish. 

Pohaku (Hatoaii), stone. 

Pohia (Fin.), north. For other points see Etel&, Itahan, 

Pointe (jPr.), a point (P^), 
Poio {Tagala, Philippine Archipelago), island. 
Po ka {Indian, U.S. A,), a river. 
Po kwa {Indian, U.S.A.), a lake. 
Pol {Neo-Greek), see Polls ; {Gaelic), see Poll. 
Pol, Panl {Hind.), a gate, a quarter of a city having its 

own gateway. 
Pdl, Peal {Korea), a plain, e.g. Pol-La-Do, Pol-Hang-Hi. 
Po-la {Indian, California), a river, lit. running water. 
Pola {Mentawei Island, S.W. Coast Sumatra), earth. 
Polden {Buss.), south. For other points see Syever. 
Polder (Dch.), a tract of land reclaimed from the sea 

by means of high embankments. 
Pole {Celtic), an inlet, pool, e.g. Bradpole. See Poll. 
Polei {IndO'China), a village. 
Polls, Poll, Pol, Pie {Greek), city, town, e.g. Philippopolis, 

Tripoli, Sevastopol, Constantinople. 
Poll, Pol,Pnill {Gaelic), Pol (Cornis A), pool, bay, e.g. Poll 

Scut (Hebrides), Pnill Cro (Islay Sound), Polmont, 

' the hill by the pool.' Cf. Pole. 

AND tOPOGlUPfllCAL TfillMS 318 

Polnaya voda {Russ,)^ high water. See V6da. 
Polovodye {Ru8s.)y the high waters of spring-time. 
Poluostrov {Buss,), a peninsula. 
Poly (Greek), much, many, e.g. Polydendri, * a place of 

many trees,' in Agya. 
Pol]rana (Buss.), field-ice ; also field, forest clearing. 
Polye {S. Slav.), open country, fields. 
Pom {Siam)j a fort. 

Porno (Fin.), a bar of a harbour or river. 
Ponchak (Malay), the peak of a hill. 
Pondok (Malay), a shed or hut. 
Ponente (It), west, west wind. 
Pongo (Kamerun), north. See Mbenge. 
Pont (Cape Dch.), a ferry. 
Pont (Fr.), a bridge (P*). 
Pont (Welsh), a bridge, e.g. Pontaberglaslyn, Penpont, 

* head or end of the bridge ' ; is a loan word from 

Lat. pons. See Aber, Olas, Llyn, Pen. ' 

Pontal (Port.), a point or promontory. 
Ponto (It, Port), a bridge (P*«). 
Tool (England), an inlet or pool, e.g. Poole, Liverpool. 
Poo lok (Indian, California), a lake. 
Poort (Cape Dch.), an opening between mountains, lit. 

gate, e.g. Karoo Poort. 
Popoa (Buhiana, Solomon Is.), village, place. 
Po pi (Indian, U.S.A.), B,Qfnng. 
Popoka (Aztek), smoke, e.g. Popocatepetl, * the mountain 

of smoke.' See Tepetl. 
Pore (India), a city. Anglicised from Pur (q.v.) 
Pori (German East Africa), bush, forest. 


Poro (Ainu, Sakhalin), great, big, e.g. Poronai, ' big 

river.' See Hai. 
Port(JPr.), port, harbour (P*). 
Porte (jPr.), a gate (P**). 
PorteUo (It), a gate (Port"«). 

Portillo (Sp.)> ^ g^P- 

Porto (It, Port.), haven, port, e,g, Portobello, 'beautiful 

Posad (Buss.), suburb, a settleraent. 
Posada (Sp,), house, hotel. 
Poselok (Buss,), a small village. 
Pdsito (Sp.)» a public granary. 
Po 80 (Indian, U^SA,), sea. 
Port (Albanian), lower. 
Posto (Fr.), post, guardhouse (P^*). 
Potainik (Buss.), a sunken rock over which the waves do 

not break. 
Potamos (Greek), a river, e.g. Aspropotamo, 'white river.' 
Potok (Bohemian), stream, brook, rivulet (P.) 
Potsang (Hu-ni, China), a mountain. 
Potto-potto (Upper Nile), a marsh. 
Potutonga (Tonga, Polynesia), south. See Tokelau. 
Po tzae (Indian, U.S.A.), bog, marsh. 
Poudrerie,'Poudriere (Fr.), powder mills (Poud*®). 
Pougkkeepsie (Indian, U.S.A.), a small cove. 
Poul, Poull (Breton), pool, e.g. Ponldu = ' Black-pool.' 

Cf. Pwll, Pol, Poll. 
Povoa9&o (Port.), a town, a village. 
Po 3rare (Indian, U.S.A.), an island. 
Pozo (Sp.), a well, a deep hole in a river, whirlpool. 


PozM (It.), a well (P«»). 

Prabit {Sansc), a mountain. 

Pra9a (Port), a market or piazza, a town, fortress. 

Prado (Sp.)> meadow land. Cf. Prato. 

PrsDstegjeld (Nor.), a parish (Pgd.) 

Prahu (Java), the native canoe, e.g. Tangkuban Prahu, 
' a reversed or up-turned canoe,' a name given to 
mountains on account of their shape. 

Praia (Port), beach, shore. 

Pnya (Malay), a town. 

Pran (Cambodia), pyramid, monument. 

Prasat (Cambodia), a tower. 

Prato (It.), a meadow. Cf. Prado. 

Pratir (Sansc), shore, bank. 

Pre (Camhodia), a wood. 

Pre (jFV.), a meadow. 

Priau (Fr.), a courtyard. 

Predio (It.), a farm, a holding. 

Predmyestie (Buss.), a suburb. 

Predni (Bohemian), fore = German Vorder. 

Prek (Cambodia), a river; confluence; tidal stream. 

Presa (Sp.), a weir. 

Presidio (Sp.), a fort. 

Presqu'ile (Fr.), a peninsula. 

Priberezhie, Priberejie (Buss.), the shore, coast. 

Priel (Dch.), a narrow channel. 

Priliv (Buss.), flood tide, flood. 

Pristan (Buss.), a port, harbour. 

Proda (It.), a landing-place, bank, shore, brink. 

Proliv (Buss.), a strait. 


Paa (Cambodia) y a market. 

Pa {Ghina)y a citadel, e,g, Shang Pa, 'upper citadel/ 

Pa (China) f a commercial village. Cf. Tan, Tsun, 

Chwang, Cheng. 
Pa (Korea) y a county or department, divided into Kan 

or prefectures ; a city, e,g. Pa-San (Fusan). 
Pa (Laos, Siam), hill, mountain. 
Pa (Tibet), the top of a valley. 
Paava (Marovo, Solomon Is,), earth, soil. 
Padtho (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a field or plantation. 
Paeblo (Sp.), a town, village, e,g, Paeblo Vnevo, 'new 

Paente (Sp.), a bridge (P.) 

Paerta (Sp.), gate, a narrow pass between mountains. 
Puerto (Sp.), a port, e.g. Paerto Bico, not Porto Bico. 
Paesto (Argentina), an estate. 
Pag {Tibet), a cavern. 
Paill (Gaelic). See Poll. 
Paits (Ft.), a well. 
Pok, Pak (E skimo), hig, greei,i, e.g. Kwikpak, ' big river.' 

See Kwikk. 
Pal (Albanian), forest. 

Pal (Pers.), a bridge, embankment, causeway. 
Palak (Mongol), a spring, e.g. Ulan Palak, * red spring.' 

Another form of Balak. 
Palaa, Palo (Malay), an island, e.g. Palaa Singapara, 

Palaa Enche' Ona, P. Jelnai, P. Bentan. 
Pal-bandi (Pers.), an embankment. 
Palin (Sansc), an island of alluvial formation, a small 
i^laufl left in a river after the falling of the waters. 


Polo {Malay), See Fulau. 

Fu-lu {Tibet), a shepherd's hut. 

Pnm {Cambodia), a village in the interior. (7/1 Kom- 

Puna {S. America), upper Cordillera of the Andes, in- 
cluding elevated plateaux, spacious valleys, &c. The 
word signifies an affection of the body produced 
by the rarefaction of the air at high altitudes, and 
hence its geographical application, e,g. Puna de 

Pong-mai {Pat, Shan States), forest, bush. 

Pnnj. See Paq. 

Ponkhokkie {Indian, U.S.A.), a steep bank. 

Pnnta {It. Sp.), a point (P.) 

Puntone {It.), a point (Punt***). 

Pupni {Bismarck Archipelago), See Sapni. 

Pnr {Sansc), a city, town. Anglicised Pore, e.g. 
Cawnpore. See Pnra. 

Pura {Sansc), a city, e.g. Singapore, properly Singapnra, 
* the Lion city.* See Pnr. 

Pnrab {Hind.), east. For other points see Vttar. 

Pnraeahi {Maiva, New Guinea), tide (ebb). 

Pnrga {Buss.), a snowdrift. 

Pnri {East Africa), a desert. 

Pnrongo {Tso-o, Formosa), a mountain. 

Pusawat {Mentaweil., S.W. Coast Sumatra), anchorage. 

Piuhe {Mandara, Bornu, Lake Chad), a spring. 

Pnshta {Pers.), a hillock ; a quay. 

Pnfltoth {Buss.), heath, moor. 

Pnszta {Hung.), heath, a steppe. 


Put (Senegal), a village. 

Put (Khas Cho8, Indo-China), great. 

Put {Bu88,)f way, line of communication. 

Putova (Servian), road. 

Putra (India), son, e,g. Brahmaputra, ' Son of Brahma.' 

Puy (Auvergne), equivalent to Beak, Pike, Pio, e.g. Puy 

de Oantal. 
mPwa (Swahili), beach, shore. 
Pwang-sheh (China), rocks. 
Pwani (Swahili), beach, shore, coast. 
Pwi (Chin Hills), ridge, spur. 
PwU (Welsh), an inlet or pool, e.g. Pwllheli, ' salt, pool.' 

Cf. Poll. See HeU. 
Pyatno (Buss.), a spot, a little place with a small depth 

of water. 
Pye8hekhodn]ra (Buss,), a footpath. 
Pyrgos (Greek), a tower. 


uQampu (Zulu, Kafir), a neck over a ridge or mountain, 
uftato (Zulu, Kafir), a desert. 
umQenqelezi (Zulu, Kafir), a steep place in the side of a 
uAilima (Zulu, Kafir), a stockade. 
isiOiti (Zulu, Kafir), an island. 
isiOiti (Zulu, Kafir), a site to settle on, a village. 
Quai (Fr.) a quay, wharf. 
Quartier (Fr.), a quarter in a town (Q'). 
Quassaik (Indian, U.S.A.), rocky stream. Cf. Cox- 
saokie, i.e. QuaMaikie, 


Qnebrada (Sp,), broken, uneven ground. 

,y (U.S.A.)j a canon of rugged aspect, a fissure- 
like ravine. 

Quelle {Ger,)y well, spring, source (Q.) 

Quemado (Sp. Philippines), burnt, e,g. Quemado cape, 
* burnt cape.' 

Qninta {Port,, Sp,), a country house. 
isiQwato {Zulu, Kafir), a clearing in bush, grass, or 


Sa, pL Gu (A'Zande), the definite article, the. See Gu. 

Ba {Bismarck Archipelago), the article; for use cf. 
Baluana, Eakunei, Bawalien. 

Ba {Mbau, Fiji), west. For other points see Vua liku. 

Ba {Tangut), house, castle, village. 

Bab {Tibet), a ford. 

Ba-ba {Tibet), enclosure, tent. 

Baba {Hausa), to divide, used in place-names to in- 
dicate position, e.g. Mararraba, * the half way * 
between Ghat and Air. 

Baba {Upper Nile), small cleared arable spots in the 
midst of wooded or grass land. 

Baba {Arab., N. Africa), a forest, brushwood, thicket. 

Babat {E. Turk.), a resting-place for travellers. 

Babdan {Tibet), a house, e.g. the monastery Babdan 
Chnling, chu meaning wisdom, and ling a garden. 

Babuana {Bismarck Archipelago). See Baluana. 

Baoe (English), a strong or rapid current of water, 
from A.S. rjSs, a swift course. 


Bad {Somali), track. See Hilin. 

Bade (Fr.), road, roadstead. 

Badeau (Fr.), a raft (K*»). 

Bafi, pi. Bafauka or Baftma (Hausa), brook, brink, 

bank, valley, e.g. Gober Bafi, * Gober valley,' as 

opposed to Oober Tudu, ' Gober uplands.' 

maBaflari ) ... 

. {Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), chief, king. 
waBanan j ** 

Bag {Somaliland), people = Bad. 

Bagh {Pers.), a meadow, a declivity. 

Bagham {Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), limestone. 

maBago {Ki-Mrimi, E. Africa), a camping-place. 

Baguba {Arab.), a height, elevation. 

Bah {Hind, and Pers.), a way, road. Cf. Basta. 

Bahad, Bahat {Arab., N. Africa), a pool, lake. 

Bahara {Motu, New Guinea), north-west wind. 

Bahi {Manahiki, Tahiti), great, e.g. the river Faha Bahi, 

in the N.-E. of the island. 
Bahi {Arab.), a village, house. 
Bahon {Pazzehe, Pei-Po, Formosa), a river. 
Bai {Siam), clearings made in the forests, by felling 

and setting fire to the timber, for the cultivation 

of hill crops. 
Bala {Port.), boundary, limit. 
Bain {Ger.), a grassy ridge, serving as a boundary ; 

meadow, hillside. 
Bainstein {Ger.), boundary stone. 
Bairai {Hausa), sand. 
Bak, Bakat {Arab.), a hard bank, shoal, but with no 



Baka {laibo, New Guinea), coast. 
Bake {from Da,, rage, to project, jut out), an inclina- 
tion or slope, e.g. The Bakes, Long Bake, Bakeway, 

in the Peak district. 
Baknet (Arab,, N. Africa), a peak. 
Baknnei {Bismarck Archipelago), grass, grass land. 

There is also the reduplicated form rakunakimei, 

ra being the article. 
Bala {Mexico), a foot, e,g, the tribe Balamari, 'foot 

runners,* corrupted by the Spanish into Tarahu- 

Balnana {Bismarck Archipelago), mountain, hill. There 

is also the form rabuana ; in each case ra is the 

Bam {Chong Ghia-tse, Yurman,, and Upper Bed Biver 

region), water. 
Bam {Yindu Chin, W. of Hon B,, Burma), a path. 
Bama {New Guinea), sea. 
Bamal {Sp,), branch line (of a railway). 
Bamalle {Bismarck Archipelago), a valley, ra being the 

Bami,^2. Bamuna {Hausa), a cave. Cf Kogo. 
Bamla {Arab,, Sahara), sand, e.g. Baa el Bamla, 'the 

Sand Head.' 
Bamu {Kuvarawan, Pei-Po, Formosa), village. 
Ban {Hang Chek, Indo-China), a house ; also in Chong* 

chia-tse, Yunnan. 
Bana {Khas Chos, Indo-China), a road. 
Banoho {Spanish S. America), a wooden building 

with walls of mixed clay and cow-dung, roofed 




with reeds, supported by forked pillars, and having 
a mud floor. Hence ranch. 

Brand {Dch., Ger.)^ edge, rim ; ridge of hills ; border 
range ; e.g, Bandberg, Witwatersrand. 

Bang {Annam), a rice-field. 

Bang (£. Turk.), wild goat, e.g. Bang Knl, ' wild goat 

Bang (P6r5.)> colour, e.g. Bangpor. 

Bang-tag {Tibet), a mill. 

Bani (Hausa), the dry season. 

Bann {Mahratta), wood, waste, e.g. Bann of Kutch. 

Bano {Madagascar), water; thus andrano=:the place 
where there is water, e.g. Andranofotsi, ' the place 
where the white water is,' Andranomami, 'the 
place where the sweet water is.* See An. 

Bantau {Malay), lit. a reach of a river or of a narrow 
strait ; district or country, e.g. Bantau Haji Bolah, 
at the mouth of Perak K. 

Bann {Motu, New Guinea), water. 

Banumaria {Madagascar), rapids in a river. 

Bannmasina {Madagascar), the sea. 

Banundriaka {Madagascar), a torrent. 

Bao {Afinam), a river. 

Bape {Icelandic), a division of a county (Sussex), inter- 
mediate between hundred and shire. The rapes of 
Sussex (there are six) answer to the tithings, 
lathes, &c., of other shires. 

Bapide {Fr.), a rapid in a river. 

Bapni {Bisrnarck ArcJtipelago), bush, thicket. Also 
reduplicated pnpni, without the article ra {q.v.) 


Ear (Arab.), a cave, grotto. 

Barha {Mossi, French Sudan), a market. 

Barhi (Punjab), cultivated land. 

Bas, pi. Bans (Arab,), head, cape, top ; chief, headman, 

prince; e,g, Bas el Had, 'cape of danger,* Baa 

Makonen, name of an Abyssinian prince. 
Bad (Swahili), head, headland ; from the above, 
Basta (Hind,, Urdu, Pers,), a way, road, path. Cf, Bah. 
Bat (India), kingdom. 
Bath (Irish and Scotch), an earthen fort or mound, e.g, 

Bathboyne, Bathen, ' the fort on the river.' See En. 

The Bath, originally perhaps a natural hill or 

hillock, as in Bathgar, Bathmore, was properly a 

round rampart or breastwork enclosing a mound. 
Baudal (Sp,), torrent, rapid stream, (S, America) rapids. 
Banma (Fin,), a strait. 
Bavin (Fr.), a ravine. For use as a form of sub-oceanic 

relief see Trench. 
Bawa (Tibet), enclosure, tent. 
Bawalien (Bismarck Archipelago), seashore, beach. 

Walien=: beach, ra being the article. There is also 

the reduplicated form wawalien, without the 

article, as well as rawal. 
Bawapara (New Guinea), the deep sea. 
Bay, Bie (Gaelic, Beidh), smooth, e.g, Achray, ' smooth 

field ' ; Airdrie, * smooth height.* Cf. Lee. See 

Ach, Aird. 
Baz (Fr.), a race, a bore. A name given to a violent 

tidal stream in a narrow passage; from Breton 

raz=a whirlpool, swift current. 

T 2 


Baz {Pers.), a castle. 

Bazvalini {Buss.), ruins. 

Bbia {Marocco)y pasturages, e.g. Urn er Bbia. See Vimn, El. 

Bdir (Arab.), a gulf, whirlpool. See Bedir. 

Bdo {Tibet), stone ; in this and the two next words 
initial r is mute. For s mute see Sde. 

Bdung {Tibet), a hill. See under Bdo. 

Bdzong {Tibet), fortress ; chief town of a prefecture. 

Be {Beja, Nubia), a well, e.g. Tamenre, * The Ten Wells.' 

Bear {Ebon, Polynesia), east. For other points see Enng. 

B6oif {Fr.), a reef of rocks. See Beef. 

Bed Bhed {Da., Nor.), Bedd {Sw.), a roadstead. Cf. Bee, 

Bedir, pi. Bedair {Arab.), a natural reservoir of rain- 
water ; a sheet of water ; a temporary sea. 

Bedoute {Fr.), a redoubt (Ked*). 

Beduoto {Port.), a redoubt. 

Bee (Dch.), Beede {Dch.), a roadstead. Cf, Bed, Bedd. 
' Beef {Eng.), as a minor form of sub-oceanic relief, a 
single elevation or submarine mountain which 
comes within eleven metres of the surface, e.g, 
Faracels Beef. Equivalent to Ger. Biff, Fr, B^cif. 
Another similar term is Shoal. Beef is referred to 
an old Teutonic root rif=to split, as in ^orse ri£Bi = 
a rift, crack, &c. 

Beeks {Ireland), ridge, crests ; e.g. Macgilliouddy Beeks ; 
from Old Irish crocen=back, ridge ; cognate with 
A.S. hrycg =s ridge = i^orse liryggr. 

Beg {Arab., N. Africa), firm level ground, generally 
without vegetation, a barren, naked plain. Another 
form is Bek, e.g. Meshra er-Bek. 


Begadera {8pJ)y a canal for irrigation. 

Segadio (Sp.), irrigated land. 

Begi (Aroma, Neto Guinea), grass. Cf. Bei, Beina. 

Begione (It), region (R.) 

Begyahn (Ataiyal, Formosa), mountain. 

Bei (Motu, New Guinea), grass. Cf. Begi, Beina. 

Beich (Ger.), kingdom, dominion ; cognate to Eng, -ric, 

as in Bishoprio, from A.S, rice = kingdom. 
Beid, Beida (Buss.), a road, roadstead. 
Beina (Kabadi, New Guinea), grass. Cf. Begi, BeL 
Bejem (Arab,), similar to Jedar, a look-out place on a 

road, generally made of stones. 
Bejl (Arab,), an open creek of water. Cf, Kra, Bot-ho. 
Bek (Sahara), See Beg. 
Beka (Bohemia^i),] 
lUAz (Servian), (» river (E.) C/. Hieka. 

Bekama, pi. Bekaim (Arab., N, African), a Bal'a (q,v,) 

with chalky soil. 
Bekba, pi, Beknb (Arab.), large sandy undulations. 
Bel (Kurdish), forest, bush. 
Bemel (Arab,), an isolated dune; sandy country. 
Bemiae (Fr,), coach-house (R^). 
Benunare (Fin.), shoal. 
Benigo (It.), sands ; sandbank. 
Bende (Da., Nor.), a channel. 
maBenga (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. 
Bepnnta (Sp,), point, headland. 
Ber (Somali), a tribal prefix, e.g. Ber Vgaz Kothen, Ber 

Vgaz Hnr. Also means a village. 
(Arab,), a causeway, dam, dike. 

a reef. 


Eeri (Wadai), the name given to the portable Arab 

huts, as opposed to Mahareb (q.v.) 
Besmjp^ BesTim {Arab,)^ traces of ruins. 
SesBao (Fr.)y surf. 
Bestinga (Port.),' 
Bestinga (Sp.), 
Beu {Wolof)y country, region. 

Rev (Da., Nor.), a reef, sandbank. The Sw. form is Bef. 
Bevle {Da.)f a bar, sandbank. 
Bevona {Kabadi, New Guinea), north-east wind. 
Bezan (Nestorian Christian), a vineyard. 
Bgal {Tibet), a ford. 
Bhaiadr, Bhayadr (TF^Z^/t), a cataract, e.g, BhayadrMawr. 

See Mawr. 
Bhed. See Bed, Bee. 
Bhede (Ger.), a roadstead. Cf. Bed, Bee. 
Bhine {Somerset), a deep wide trench. 
Bhos {Celtic), a moor, e.g, Bhoscolyn ; Boscommon. 
Bhyd {Welsh), a ford, e.g, Bhyd y Oroesau. 
Bi {Botuma, Polynesia), house. 
Bi {Tibet), a mountain. 
maBi {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. For other 

forms see Mann. 
Bia {Sp.), the mouth of a river. 
Biad {Marocco), a garden. 
Bialto {It), a knoll, bluff. 
Biana {Madagascar), cascade. 
Biba {Arab.), an abrupt turning. 
Bibago, Bibawo, Bibado {Fula), a governor's country 

seat, the nucleus of a village. 


kaBiba {Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), a gorge. 

Bibat (Arab.), an inn, monastery. 

Bibeira (Port.), a meadow, low moist ground. 

Bibeirfto (Port.), si. great river. 

Bibeiro {Port.)y a stream. 

Bibera (Sp.), the shore, the bank of a river. 

Bidge (E7igr.), in sub-oceanic relief , is a relatively narrow 
Elevation (q.v.), which, unlike the Bise (g.v.). rises 
at a steep angle, e,g, the Atlantic equatorial Bidge. 
Equivalent to the Ger, Bttcken, Fr, Crete. In 
ordinary language an elongated elevation, usually 
of irregular surface; from A, 8. hrycg=the back 
of a man or beast. Cf. the ridge of the nose. 

Biding {from Icelandic thriding), one-third, one of three 
divisions. The th is supposed to have been lost 
by the proximity of the fh in Horth, Soath, in Horth 
Thriding &c. 

Bie (Gaelic), See Bay. 

Bieka (Polish), a river. Cf Beka. 

Biet (Dch), reeds. 

Biet (Ger,)f reed, a marshy piece of ground covered 
with reeds, moor. Also Bied, Bieth. 

Bif (Arab,), coast, littoral, beach, lit, a well-watered 
country with plantations. 

Bif (Buss,), a reef. 

BifF (Ger,), a reef, a ridge of rocks in water. See Beef. 

Biffle (U.S.A.), shallow water at the head of a rapid, a 
rapid with comparatively little fall. 

Bift (Prov. Eng.) shallow place in a river, ford. 

Big (Pers.), sand. 


Big (Arab,), a shallow flat bank extending off shore. 
Sijia (Hausa), a well. 
Bijks {Dch.)y kingdom. Cf. Beioh (g.v.) 
Biko (Giryama), See Ko. 
klBima (Nika), hill, top, plateau of a mountain. Cf. 

meBima {Swahili), continent, mainland. 
mBima (Swahili), coast. 
muBima (Giryama), a hill, mountain. Cf, Lima. 
Bimba (Malay), forest or virgin jungle. 
Bi-na {Tibet), a promontory. 

Binoon {Sp,), a comer, house, small district or country. 

„ iJJ^SA.), a cove, the angular indentation in a 

Mesa {q,v.) edge or escarpment in which a canon 


Binne {Ger.), a channel, a cleft serving as a watercourse. 

For use as a form of sub-oceanic relief see Onlly. 
Binok (Buss,), a market. 
Bio {It,, Port,, Sp.), a stream, river (E.) 
Biole {Ger,), a deep furrow, channel. 
Bapa {It), a river-bank. Cf, Biva. 
MBira {Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), an island. 
muBira {Giryama), a trench. 
Birinina {Madagascar), winter. 
Birion {Ataiyal, Formosa), a river. 
Birowa {Kossova, Eastern Uganda), country, region, 

Bisa {Giryama). See Sa. 

Bise {Eng,), in sub-oceanic relief, is an Elevatioii {q.v.) 
which rises gradually with an angle of only a few 


minutes of arc, irrespective of whether it is wide 
or narrow or of its vertical development. Such 
features on dry land would be the main water- 
sheds. Equivalent to the Ger. Sohwelle, Fr. 

Biserva {It.), reserve (K^*). 
IBiso {Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass. 

Bit {Servian), marsh, bog. 

Bithe {Anglo-Saxon), running water, e,g. Meldrith. 

Biu {Rumania), a river (R.) 

Biva {It), the seashore. Cf, The Biviera, Bive, Bipa. 
kaBiva {Zamhezia, dialect of Bantu), a gorge. 

Bive {Fr,), shore, bank of a river. Cf, Biva, Bipa. 

Bivier {Dch,), a river. Cf. Spruit. 

Biviere {Fr,), a river. Cf, Fleuve, Bmsseau. 

Bivos {Vonum, Formosa), mountain. 
IBiwa {Zulu, Kafir), a green rich pasture. 
muBo {Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 

Bobat {Turkestan), an inn, caravansery, e,g, Tashrobat. 

Bobine {Fr,) See Boubine. 

Boca {Sp,), a rock. 

Booca {It,), a rock (R°») ; a fortress built on a rock. 

Bocha {Port), a rock. 

Boohe {Fr,), a rock. 

Bochedo {Port), rocks, a rocky place. 

Booher {Fr,), a rock (R*^0- 

Bocher {Port), a rock or rocky place. 
uBochi {Kossova, Eastern Uganda), a river. 
Bod, Bode, Both {Ger,), land that has been ridded of 
trees. Cf, Boyd. See next entry. 


Sodeland {Ger,)y woodland made arable. See Sod, cf. 

ansrottenrsto uproot, weed, &c. 
Boe {Kabadiy New Guinea), a Bacred house or platform. 
Bogo {Mo$$i, French Sudan) , house, hut. 
oBog^ongo (Kossova, Uganda), a place, site. 
Bohi (India), a loamy clay soil always found in low lands. 
Bohricht (Ger.), a bank of reeds or rushes. 
Bojo iSp.)y red, e,g. Lagnna Bojo Aguado. 
Boknia {Arab,), a bend formed by a river. 
Bourne (Celtic). See Buinme. 
Bomo {Cent Africa), a lip, e.g. Chiromo, * a big lip.* 
B0n {Da.), detached separate rocks. 
oruBondo {Herero, Bantu), a rivulet, jpZ. otuBondo. 
Bong-pa-d {Siam), custom-house. 
Bong {Tibet), gorge, defile, valley, e.g. Fya Bong. 
muBonga {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 
Bi^nne {Da., Nor.), a small hut. 
Bopa {Kabadi, Neto Guinea), a garden. 
isiBeqoba {Zulu, Kafir), a very rough broken piece of 

B08, B08e {Da., Nor.), Bdse {Sw.), rocky ground. 
Boseaux {Fr.), reeds. 

BoBli {India), a kind of Bohi {q.v.) soil mixed with sand. 
Boss, Bus, Bhos {Celtic), a moor, morass, marsh, e.g. 

Bossall, Busholme, Bhosoolyn. 
Boss, Bos {Celtic), a promontory, headland, peninsula, 

e.g. Kinross, Bosdhn, ' black headland ' ; Ardersier 

(Ard-ros-iar), * high western promontory.* See 

Kin, Bhu, Ard, lar. 
Both {Ger.), red, e.g. Bothhaus in Baden. 



Both {Ger,) See Bod. 
Boto {Maori, New Zealand) y a lake. 
lunBotya {Zulu, Kafir), a deep narrow hollow made by a 

stream, a ravine. 
Bonbine {Fr.), a canal communicating between a salt 

basin and the sea (Eoub"®). 
Bougie {Fr,)y red. 
Boute (Fr.), a road (K^). 
liBova {Lu'Wanga, Uganda), earth, soil. 
oBove {Mpongwe, Gabun District, Bantu), a desert, pL 

toBovo {Giryama), clay, mud. 

rlBowa {Kossova, Eastern Uganda), country, district. 
Boyd {Teutonic), land that has been ridded of trees, e,g, 

Holroyd. Cf. Bod. 
Btse {Tibet), summit, top (r mute), e.g, Lab-rtse {i.e: La- 

b-rtse, the b being inserted for euphony), ' the top 

of the pass.' See La. Cf. Bdo for mutes. 
Ba {Cent. Africa), an old root meaning * to flow,' e.g. 

Basizi, Bnfji. See Do, Lo, Bo, Elu. 
Bu {Gaelic), point, headland, e.g. Bn bni, * Yellow Point ' 

in Loch Alsh. Cf. Budha. See Bni. 
Bua {Hausa), water, rain, river. See Buwa. 
Bna {Port.), a street. 
Buadh {Gaelic), red, e.g. Buadh More, Boad Sg^ir, on the 

west coast of Scotland. Cf. Both. See More, Sg^eir. 
Bubar {Kurdish), a river. 
Bubi {Kiwai, New Guinea), a village. 
Bubu {Aroma, New Guinea), a sacred house or platform. 
Buohei {Buss.), a rivulet. Dim. BuchelSk. 


Bnohka (Buss.)^ creek, channel. 

Bttoken (Ger.), a ridge. For use as a form of sub- 
oceanic relief see Ridge. 

Efid {Per8.)f a river, e.g. Hari-Eud. 

Eudge (England), a back or ridge. 

Eudha (Gaelic), point, headland ; e.g, Endha Bnbh, 
* Black Point ' in Bute I. Of. En. See Dubh. 

Ene (Fr.), a street (E.) 

Ene, Eozi (Abba, N.W. of Budolf L.), a river. Cf. Eu. 

Eugga (Fula), small villages. 

Enggens (Cape Dutch), undulating slopes, unirrigated 
hilly country. 

Emmne, Eomne (Celtic), a marsh, e.g. Eomney. 

Enissean (Fr,), a stream (B***). Cf, Flenve, Eiviire. 

Euizi (Karanga, Bantu). See Izi. 

Eiijm (Arab.), a cairn. 

Enk (Ebon, Polynesia), south. 

Eukal (Puyuma, Formosa), a village. 

Eaknki (Hausa), underwood. 

Enl (Dch), rugged, uneven, undulating (ground). 

Eum (Ghong Chia-tse, Yunnan), wind. 

Eum (Chungkia, Shan States), water. 

Enxnah (Malaysia), a house. In Sumatra there are three 
recognised varieties of the Batak Euma, viz. ' the 
chief's,' * the rich man's,* * the poor man's.* Cf. Bale. 

(Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), an island. 

Eumde (Fula), a slave village; in the Yola (Adamatca) 
region this* has come to signify 'the farm of,' 
e.g. Eumde Hamidu. Cf. Linyi. 


Sumel {Arab.)y sand. 

Sumi (Arab.), lit. Boman, hence Christian. 

Run (U.S.A.), a brook or small creek, e.g. Bull's Run. 

Runan (Puyuma, Formosa), a mountain. 

Rung (Annam), wood, forest, bush. 

Runs, Runse (Ger., Switzerland), a watercourse, gully. 

Rup {Holstein), a village, e.g. Wanderup. 

Rupiri {dialect of Bantu). See Piri. 

Rus, Ruiset {Arab.), another form of Ras (q.v.) 

Rus {Celtic). See Ross. 

Rnsoko {Gent. Africa)^ a river. 

Rnsta {Pers.), a village. 

Ruth {Gaelic), red, e.g. Aberruthven, ' the confluence of 

the red river.* See Aber; ven contracted from 

Gaelic abhuinn, river ; cf. Avon. 
Rutol {Pazzehe, Pei-Po, Formosa), a village. 
Runs, pL of Ras {q.v.) 
Ruwfk {Hausa), a river. See Rua. 
Ruzi {Budolf L.), a river. Cf. Rue. 
Ryeka {Buss.), a river. 

Ryekostav {Buss.), the time when a river freezes. 
Ryeng, Ryong {Korea), See Nyeng, Chi. 


6a {Tibet), land, territory, place, abode, e.g. Tug-sa, 'a 
camping place,' an encampment. 

6a {W^ Africa, between the Niger and the Atlantic), 
snake, e.g, Samokho, the people whose idol or fetish 
is the snake. Cf. Bamba, Mali, Sama. 


riSa (Giryama), pasture-ground. 
Saatenland (Ger,), land covered with crops. 
Saba {Bambara), three, e.g, Khosababe, lit, * three 

streams/ confluence; be=to be. Cf. FuUk. See 

Sabah {Arab,, Egyptian Sudan), east, lit. the dawn. 

See Said, Safel, Oharb, Shark for other points. 
Sabil (Arab,), a road. 
Sable (Fr.), sand. 

Sablonniere (Fr.), a sand-pit, a gravel-pit. 
Sabrang (Malay), across or over the water. 
Sa-cha (Tibet), place. 
Saco (Sp,), a bay. 

Saea (Motumotu, New Guinea), sea. 
Sael (Caucasus), mud torrents. Of, Selaf. 
SflDter (Nor.), mountain pasture ; a chalet (SO. 
Bafar (Arab.), stone, rock, e.g. Trik es Safer, ' stony road.' 
Safera (Dandkil, Eritrea), camp, hamlet. 
Safeid, Safid (Pers.), white, e.g. Safid Kuh. See SefLd, Kuh. 
Safel (Egyptian Sudan), north. See Said, Sabah, Oharb, 

Shark, Oebele, Oebli for other points. 
Safra,/e77^. of As&r (q,v,) 
Saga (S. Cape, New Guinea), a river. 
Sagar (Pu7ijab), ocean, sea. 
Saghe (ChadL. region). See Tsadhe, Sara, Isa. 
Saghir (Arab.), little. Cf, Seghir, Seria. 
Sagia (Arab.) See Sakia. 

Sagik (Aleut.), a point or sharp edge, e.g. Sagigik island. 
Saha (Madagascar), valley, a brook in a valley, thus 

antsaha «» the place where the valley or brook is, 


e,g, Antsahakeli, ' at the little brook/ Antsahaondri, 

' in the sheep valley.' See An, Keli, Ondri. 
Sahal, Sahel (Arab.), easy, of a road without obstacles ; 

of land, easily cultivated or dug ; fertile country ; 

a plain; the high land along the banks of the 

Nile ; coast, seaboard ; e,g. Wa-Swahili, * the coast 

Sahan (Arab.j N. Africa), a depression among dunes, 

often at the junction of two valleys, especially 

where vegetation abounds. Further south the 

large Sahans become Wadis. 
Sahara (Arab.), a desert, a plain. See Sahra. 
Sahel (Arab,), the littoral. See Sahal, another spelUng. 

Of. Ouban of the Somali coast. 
Sahir {India, Cent Asia), a city, from Pers. Shahr. 
Sahra (Arab.), a plain, desert. Cf. Sahara, which is a 

corrupt European form of Sahra. 
Bahr^ (Arab.), a basin. 
Sahu (Arab,), unevenness of ground. Similar to Fr. 

Aocidente and Ger. SchoUen. 
Sai* (Cantonese), little, small. 
Sai (E, Turk.), a valley, sometimes very broad; a 

Sai (Japan), west == Hisi = Ifislii. Cf. Chinese Si. See 

Hoku for other points. 
Sai (Siam), sand, gravel. 
Sai (Turkestan), a stony plain. 
Said (Egyptian Sudan), south. See Sabah, Safel 

Oharb, Oebele, Shark for other points. 
Saiki-nosi (Madagascar), a peninsula. See Ifosi. 


Sail (Arab.), a current, torrent. 

Sailab (Punjab), land subject to inundation from riverB. 

Saiyal (Arab.), a current. 

Saka (Marocco), an irrigation canal. 

iSaka (dialect of Bantu), a sandy unproductive land. 

Sakan (Burma), a halting-ground. 

Sakh (Serer, Senegal), country, village. 

Sakha (Sonmke). See Sakka. 

Sakhalin (Manchu), black, e.g. Sakhalin Ula, ' black river.' 

Saki (Japan), cape, promontory, Vagaiald. See Idaki. 

Sakia (Arab.), an irrigation canal ; a water-wheel. 
Another spelling is Sagia. 

Sakka (Soninke, West Sudan), a market. Found also 
in the form Sakha. 

Sakne (Arab.), a suburb. 

Sal (England), a stone house, e.g. Kenial. Sometimes 
spelled SaU (q.v.) Cf. Hall, SelL 

Sala (Siam), rest-house. 

Salann, Salen (Gaelic), a salt-water bay, e.g. Salen bay, 
in Mull Sound. 

Salat (Malay Pen.), a channel. 

Salida (Sp.), the environs of a town. 

Salina (Sp.), a saltpan. 

Salines (Fr.), salt-water lagoons ; salt works (Sal.) 

SaU (England), a stone house, e.g. Walsall. Sometimes 
spelled Sal. Gf. Hall, Sell; from A.S. sal, sel, sael, 
salu, and other forms; originally a large one- 
roomed house, a hall (A.S. heall), not from sal by 
normal change of s to h, but from a different root. 
Gf. Ger. saal and halle. 


Salo (Btiss.), the first thin ice. 

Salt-lick (British East Africa), a name applied to any 

brackish marsh or salt spring, where the cattle are 

driven once or twice a month. 
Salto de agna {8p.), cataract, waterfall. In Spanish S. 

America, Salto alone is used with this meaning. 

Thus SaltOB (Argentina), rapids. 
Salz (Oer)y salt, e,g. Salzburg, 'salt castle,' castle on 

the Salza or salt stream. 
Sama (W. Africa, between the Niger and the Atlantic), 

elephant, e,g, Samanke, the ' people whose idol or 

fetish is the elephant.' See Hke. Cf Bamba, Mali, Sa. 
Samar (Mongol), road, path. 
Samavi (Wadai), the round bell-shaped huts of Wadai 

made of reeds. See Mahareb. 
Samba (Tibet), bridge. 
Sami (Samoa), sea, salt water. 
Sampandranu (Madagascar), an affluent of a river. 
Samt (Arab.), a way, road. 
Sa-mtsam (Tibet), a frontier. See Sa. 
San (China, Japan, Korea), hill, mountain, e,g, Chyeng- 

Am-San, Chyeng-Oyeng-San. Cf. Shan. 
San (It,, Port., Sp.), saint (S.), e.g. San Eemo. 
San (Min-kia, Yunnan), west, also used for ' small.' 

For other points see Pen. 
San Chan (China). See Chan. 
Sanot (Ger.), saint (S., St.) 
Sande (A-Zande), earth, land. 
Sandia (U.S.A.), an oblong rounded mountain mass, 

lit. water-melon (Sp.) 



Sang {Tibet), a plain. 

Sanga (Congo) , an island. 

Sangaya {New Georgia, Solomon Is.), a passage in a 

m Sanga (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), forest. 
Saqak (Turk,), district under a mutesarrif, a subdivi- 
sion of a Vilayet, and itself divided into Kaias ; flag. 
Sankt (Styria, dc,), saint. 
Sanpn, Sanpo (Tibet), a large river, lit. the 'purifier/ 

generally written Tsang-po, Tian-po, name of the 

Upper Brahmaputra flowing through Tibet. 
Sanianne (Hausa), camp, encampment, a permanent 

camp, town, e.g. Sansanne Mangn. 
Santa (Fin.), sand. 
Santo (It., Port., Sp.), saint, e.g. Santo Domingo, Santa 

maSansa (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the season of the early 

light rains. 
Sao (Songhai), forest. 
Sao-thong (Siam), flagstafif. 
Saovi (Fin.), clay. 
Sap (Siam, Cambodia), great, e.g. Tonle Sap, ' the great 

lake ' (of Cambodia). 
Sapala (Congo), wood, copse, bush. 
Sapalayo (Mossi, Fr. Sudan), the dry season. 
Sapiniire (Fr.), a fir plantation (Sap~). 
Bar (Punjab), a sacred tank, pond, small lake, e.g. 

Amritiar, ' lake of immortality.' Cf. Sara (Pali). 
Bar (Pers.), summit, head ; equivalent to the Hind. Sir 



•Bar {Pers,), a suflSx implying a place ' abounding in/ e.g. 
Kohsar, ' a mountainous country.' See Koh and Zar. 

Bar (Tibet), new, e.g. La Bar, * new pass.' See La. 

Bara (Pali), a pond. Cf. Bar (Punjab). 

Bara, Barah (Bagirmi form of Arab. Ban) ; the former 
means water running rapidly, the latter running 
freely. Shari is the local (Kotoko) pronunciation of 
Ban, hence Bara B. is equivalent to Bhari B. See Isa. 

Barai (Pers.), a palace, house, as in caravanBery ; from 
Old Per 8. sliarai= house, inn. By popular etymology 
sarai has been confused with It. serraglio, which 
is from serrare^to lock up (8erra=a bolt). 

Barar (Somali), a plateau. 

Bardsir (Pers.), summer pasture grounds. 

Bare perede (Gold Coast), a grassy plain. 

Bare (Upper Sassandra B. region, Sudan), red, e.g. Ibo 
Bare, ' the Bed Ibo * or Fereduguba B. 

Bari (Arab.) See Bara. 

Bari, Barith (Turk.), yellow, e.g. Bari-kol, 'the yellow 
hand,' name both of the river and valley. 

Barik (E. Turkestan), grass. 

Sariki, Barki (Hausa), king, prince. See Beriki. 

Barka (Tibet), a goldfield. 

Baru (Welsh), causeway, paved road, e.g. Bam Helen. 

Baro (Madagascar), difl&cult, dear, dangerous, e.g. 
Sarodrivotra, ' difficult on account of the wind.' 

Barota (Hausa), a kingdom. 

Baa (Botuma, Polynesia), sea. 

Basa'e (Samoa), east. For other points see Matn. 

Sasik (Gent. Asia), putrid, e.g. BaBik-Kul, 'putrid lake.* 

% 2 


Saasim (Mongol), snow. 

Sa-tfig (Tibet), a post station. 
eSan (Congo, dialect of Bantu), landing-place, ferry, ford, 
beach, crossing. 

Sang (Pers., Afghan), stone. 

Saumpfad (Oer,), a path for pack animals. 

Saumweg (Ger.), a road for beasts of burden; mole- 

Savannah (Sp,), a meadow, meadow land, a grassy, tree- 
less tract. The Sp, form is 8£bana=a sheet, from 
Lat, sabannm = Greek adfiavov = a linen cloth. 

Sawa (Japan), a ravine. 

Say, Se (Songhai), a river. 

Saye (Soninke, West Sudan), sand. 

Sba (Arab., N, Africa), a peak. 

Sbah (Darfur), south. Cf Babar. 

Sbarcatojo (It.), wharf, landing-place. 

Sbocoo (It.), opening, mouth. 

Sbngs (Tibet), cavity, recess ; end. 

Scale (Nor. Skaale), a shepherd's hut, e.g. Portinsoale. 

Scar (from Nor. Skar), glen, gap, notch in a mountain, 
e.g. Scarborongh. Of Score. 

Schaapskooi (Dch.), a sheepfold. 

Schftferei (Ger.), a sheepfold (Schaf.) 

Schans (Dch.), Schanze (Ger.), a trench ; earthwork. 

Soheer (Dch.), sands, shoals, clifb. 

Scheide (Ger.), a parting, waterparting ; from scbeiden= 
to divide. 

Schelf (Ger.), shelf (q.v,) 

Schere (Ger.), a cliflf (in water;, rock, ridge. 

Schicht (Ger.), layer, stratum. 


Sohiefer (Ger,), schist ; also used for shale. 

Sohiena (It,), a ridge, saddle ; lit. backbone. 

Schiffbrilcke (Ger.), a bridge of boats, pontoon. 

Schiffintlhlen {Ger,), floating mills (erected in boats). 

Schilf (Ger.)f rushes. 

Schlangpfitd (Ger.), a winding path, lit * snake-path.' 

SchleoBe (Ger,), sluice, lock. 

Sohlippe {Ger,)y a narrow place or way. 

Schloss (Ger,), a castle (Schl.) 

Sohlnoht {Ger.), ravine, gorge, valley. 

Schlnnd {Ger,), an abyss, chasm. 

Sohnee (Ger.), snow, e.g. Sohneekopi^ ' snow head.' 

Sohnelle (Ger.), rapids in a river. 

Sohollenland (Ger.), broken accidented country. 

Schorren (Dch.), alluvium. 

Sohnttnng {Ger.), a dike, dam. 

Schwars (Ger.), black, e.g. Schwarzes Meer, ' Black Sea.' 

Sohwelle (Ger.), iii sub-oceanic relief, a Biae (q.v.) 

Soierie (Fr.), sawmills (Sc**). 

Soirocoo. See Siroooo. 

Scoglio (It.), rock, stone. 

Scopetino (It.), a heath. 

Score (from Gaelic Bgoir), a sharp rock, e.g. DuiiBCore, 

' the foot on the sharp rock.' See Dim. Of. Scar. 
Score (Icel. skor, an incision), a cutting, a steep, narrow 

passage leading down to the sea, e.g. Lighthouse 

Score, Herring Fishery Score, Mariner's Score, &c. 

Sde (Tibet), country, district. See De. In this and the 

next word initial s is mute. For r iiiute see Rdo. 
Sdings (Tibet), depression, col. See Ding, Sde. 


Se {Japan), a shoal ; a cliff. 

Be {Min-kia, Yunnan) , deep. 

Se (Siam), a river. 

Se. See Say. 

Seaon {China), little. 

Seba {India), Mughal division of a country under the 

control of a lieutenant-governor. 
Sebe {Indian, U.S.A.), a river. 
Sebil {Arab.), a wayside fountain. 
Sebkha {Arab.), marsh, saltpan. 
Sebz {Pers.), green, e.g. Kuh-i-iebz, 'green mountain.' 

See Knh. 
Secadal {Sp.), dry barren ground. 
Sedlo {Slavonic), a possession, e.g. Sedlitz. 
See {Ger.), lake (S.) in niasc. ; in fern. sea. 
Seeb {Indian, U.S.A.), a river. See Seep. 
Seebucht {Ger.), an estuary, a bight or bay. 
Seep {U.S.A.), a small trickling stream. See Seeb. 
Seff {Sudan), the dry season, summer (April- June). 
Sefid {Pers,), white, a variant of Safeid {q.v.) 
BebtLyfem. of Asfar {q.v.) 
nSeghe {Fan, French Congo), sand, a sandbank. 
Seghir {Arab.), little ; e.g. the Khor Seghir in Farsan 

Seghir Island. See Seria, Saghir for other forms. 
Segia {Arab.) See Sakia. 
Segoma {Mossi, French Sudan), a defile. 
Sei {China), a temple, e.g. Fai ma sei, 'white horse 

temple.' See Fai. Ma = horse. 
Sell {Arab.), torrent, stream. 
Seipi {Motumotu, New Guinea), south. Cf. Eanritape. 


eSeki {Congo, dialect of Bantu), dry land, land. 
Sekkin (Arab.^ N, Africa), the ridge of a dune. 
Sel (Adamawa), a shallow river; equivalent to the 

Kanuri lfga\jftin (q.v.) 
Selaf (Caucasus), mud torrents. Cf Sael. 
Selat (Arab.), a dry watercourse, e.g. Selat Eataba in 

S. Arabia ; the term wadi being here more used 

for ' valley." Cf Sahan. 
Selat (Malay), a strait or narrow. 
Selim (Chad L, region). See Tselim. 
Selka (Fin,), a bay. 
Sell (Anglo-Saxon), a cottage, a little superior to Cote 

(q.v.) Cf SaU. 
Selo (Buss.), a village with a church. 
Selsela (Arab., N, Africa), a chain (of hills or dunes). 
Selva (Port.), 
Selva (Sp.), 
Semak (Malay), low bush. 
Semanterion (Greek), buoy, mark. 
Semaphore (Fr.), semaphore (S6m.) 
Semita (It), a footpath. 
Sempang (Malay), cross-roads. 
Sen (China), town of the second order, or provincial 

capital. See Hrien. 
Sen (Japan), equivalent to the German Vorder (q.v.) ; 

fore, in front. 
Sen (Tamul, Deccan), length, distance. 
Senda, Sendero (Sp.), path, footpath. Cf, Sentiero, Sentiei 
eSenge (Congo, dialect of Bantu), sand. 
Senke (Ger.), low ground or country. 

a wood, forest. 


Seno {It., Sp.), a gulf or bay. 

Sentier {Fr.), footpath, track. Cf. Senda, Sendero. 

Sentiero (J^.)i path, narrow way. Cf. Senda, Sendero. 

iSep {Fan, French Congo), a garden made directly after 
the rainy season, and usually planted with maize. 

Scpa {Jibu, New Guinea), river. 

Sepewe {Indian, U.S.A.), a river. 

Sequedal {Sp.), Sequeral {Sp.), a dry barren soil. 

Ser {Kurdish), mountain, e.g. Ser-i-Amadia, 'Amadia 

Ser {Tibet), gold, e.g. the goldfield Ser-ka-Shyar. 

Sera {Swahili), rampart. 

Seraf {Arab., N. Africa), stream, e.g, Seraf Sayid (near 

Serai {Turk.), palace, in E. Turk., commercial entrep6t ; 
a loan word from Pers. Sarai {q.v,) 

Sere {Soninke), people. 
- Serekhore {Soninke), a chief. See Sere. 

Serekhole {Senegal), white men. See Sere. 

Serhoma {Mossi, French Sudan), a ravine. 

Seria, Seghir {Arab.)f small. See Seghir. 

Seriki {Hausa), another form of Serki, a chief, e.g. 
Oidda-n-Seriki-n-Fawa, ' the town of the chief Pawa,' 
n being the sign of the possessive. See Sariki. 

Serir {Arab.), flat ground without vegetation ; parts of 
the Sahara covered with masses of siliceous horn- 
stone, in contradistinction to the sandy wastes. 

Serki-gari {Hausa), capital town, Serki meaning ' a chief.' 
Cf. Fama-Dngu. See Seriki. 

Sermiakhsu {Eskimo, Smith Sound), a glacier. 


Serra (It.), a cross ridge, a pass ; Zi^. = a bolt, bar. 
Serra {Port.)y a mountain ridge ; Zi^.=a saw. 
Serraddes (Brazil), * high woods,* stunted tracts on the 

dry, unproductive uplands. See Carrascos, CapSes, 

Serrania {Sp.)j a mountainous district, a ridge of 

mountains. See Sierra. 
Sertoes {Brazil), ' backwoods,' suggestive of waste land, 

wilderness, rather than woodlands, and applied to 

both Taboleras and ChapadaB (q,v,) See also Campos. 
luSese (Bantu), sand. 

Sesmo (i8p*)» ^ division of territory in some Spanish 

Set {Anglo-Saxon), a settlement, e.g. Itorset. 
Seter {from Nor. Sseter), a chalet, e.g. EUanaeter. 
Seto {Japan), strait, channel. 
Sett. See Sudd. 
nmSetulnka {Kafir), a sideling place on a road which is at 

so acute an angle that a vehicle in passing would be 

in danger of sliding down. 
Seuil {Fr.), sill (as of a dock). As a form of sub-oceanic 

relief equivalent to Bise {q.v.) 
Sewat {Deccan), summit, top. 


r (C'en^. Africa, dialects of Bantu), forest, bush. 

Sgang-ka {Tibet), summit of a hill ; s is mute. See QKng. 

Sgar {Tibet), camp, permanent camp; is the same word 

as Oar {q.v.) ; s is mute. See under Edo. 
Sgeir {Gaelic), a rock in the sea, e.g. Bnadh Sgeir. Cf. 



Sgor (Gaelic), a peak, e.g. Sgor Dearg in the isle of Skye. 

Sha (China), sand, sandbank, e,g. Shamo, ' the Sand Sea,' 
i.e. Gobi. 

Sha (Indian, U.S.A.) See Cha. 

Shaaba (Arab,, Algeria), system of sinuous ravines ; 
another form of Shaba (q.v.) 

Shab (Arab.), a rocky shoal. 

Shaba (Arab., N. Africa), a ravine. See Shaaba. 

Shabel (Somali), leopard, e.g. Shabele, i.e. Shabel-le, ' the 
place of leopards.' Many places in Somaliland are 
named after living creatures and trees, e.g. Libale, 
'the place of lions,' Warabale, 'the place of 
hyaenas/ Shimbirale, ^the place of birds,' Ooble, 
* the place where the Gob trees grow.' See Le. 

Shabet (Arab.), a basin surrounded by mounts, e.g. 
Shabet el Akhera ; a plain, e.g. Shabet el Ahir, ' the 
plain of Air/ 

Shah-bandari (Turk.), a buoy. 

Shahid (E. Turk.), a martyr, the tomb of a martyr. 

Shahr (Pers.), a town, the proper form of Shehr (q.v.) 

Shair. See Sher. 

Shakata (Yoruba), fen, bog, morass. 

Shal-ma (Tibet), schistose debris. 

Shamal (Arab.), the prevailing north-west winds of the 
Persian Gulf. 

Shamama (W. Sahara), inundated banks; more fre- 
quently written Chamama. 

Shaman (Siberia, Alaska), a medicine man, e.g. Shaman 
village, island, and point. 

Shamba (Nika), a plantation. 



Shan {China), hill, moontain, range, e,g, Tian Shan, cf. 

San ; island. 
Shang {China), upper, e.g. Shang-pu, 'upper citadel.' 

Cf. Hsia. 
Shang {Korea), grotesque signposts. 
Shang {Tangut), wood, forest. 
Shan-hn {China), coral. 
Shan-tan {China), bluff, cliff. Cf. Tsian-pi. 
Shan-ting {China), a mountain chain. 
Shao {China), small, e.g. Shao-ho, ' small river.' 
Shar {Pers.), a whirlpool, eddy. 
Shar {Tibet), east. For other points see Lho. 
Shar {White Sea region), long narrow gulf, strait. 
Shara- {Mongol), a prefix meaning yellow, e.g. Shara 

Moren, * Yellow Eiver,* Shara Gol, * Yellow Stream.* 
Sharaki {Egypt), land unirrigated and therefore un- 
Shari {Arab.), a highway. 
Shari, Sari {Kotoko, South Bornu, Chad L. region), 

water, river. See Isa, Sara. 
Shark {Arab.), the east. See Said, Safel, Oharb for other 

„ {Arab., Egyptian Sudan), the right bank of the 

Nile, from the above. 
Sharki {Arab.), the winter south-east winds of the 

Persian Gulf, from Shark. Cf. Kaos. 
Sharki {Turk.), east, from Arab. Shark. 
Sharm {Arab.), a port. 
Sharon {Hebrew), a plain. 
Sha-iien {China), shoal. 


Shat (Arab.), fresh water, river, e.g. Shat el Arab, the 
combined Tigris and Euphrates. 

Sha-tan (China), sandbank, bar. See Sha, Tan. 

Shaw (England), a shady place, a wood, e,g. Bagshaw. 

Shbar (Hassania), a mud wall surrounding an enclosure. 

She (China), a reef of rocks ; also a monastery ; stone ; 
a fortification. 

She (Formosa), the headquarters of a native tribe. 

ShealiDg (Scotland), a highland cottage. 

Sheanyi (Lu-Wanga, Eastern Uganda), an enclosure. 

Sheb (Pers,), descent, declivity. 

Sheba (Arab.), a ravine, watercourse. 

Shebika, dim. of Shebka (q.v.) 

Shebka (Arab.), a network of ravines ; a country greatly 
intersected by ravines, e.g. the Shebka of Mzab. 

Shehar, Shehr (Pers.), a town, e.g. Eski Shehr, ' old town.' 
Eski (Turk.) =^old. 

Sheikh (Arab.), chief, elder, saint, e.g* Sheikh HuBsem. 

Shejera (Arab.), a tree. 

Shelf (Eng.), used, in sub-oceanic relief, for the portion 
of the continental border which extends seaward 
from tide-marks, sinking very gradually as a rule to 
the depth of about 100 fathoms, and then suddenly 
falling steeply to a great depth ; e.g. the British, 
Sunda, and Newfoundland Shelves. Equivalent 
to Ger. Schelf, Fr. Socle or Plateau Continental. 

Shemfil (Arab.), north, north wind. 

Shemal (E. Turk.), wind. 

Shenyi, Mshenyi (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu) 
sand, e.g. Kashenyi, a town in Kyanya. 


Shor {Arab., N. Africa), barley, e.g. Wad Sher, * barley 
valley/ See Wad. 

Shergi {W. Sahara), east. Cf, Oebele, Oebli. 

Sheria (Arab.), a small footpath. 

Sherm (Arab.), a creek or small cove. 

Shershaf (Arab.), a cliff. 

Sherfdiar (Arab.), a cascade. 

Shet (Icelandic bjalt), high, e.g. Shetland, ' high land.' 

She-tan (China), a reef of rocks. See She. 

Shi (China), market-place, market, e.g. Ma-shi-tai, 
' horse market terrace.' See Tai. Ma = horse. 

Shi (China), stone, e.g. Shi-hn, ' stone gorge.' 

Shi (Miao-tse, Kwei-chau, and Min-kia, Yunnan), 
new, e.g. Chin-shi-min, west of Yao Ngan. 
nShi (Congo, Bantu), region, state ; earth, gromid. 

Shib (Arab.), a mountain pass, ravine. 

Shibi (Korea), house, usually built round a quadrangle. 

Shidle (Somaliland), a rocky place. See Le. 

Shiiro (Lu-Wanga, Eastern Uganda), market. 
I Shiknln (Lu-Wanga, Eastern Uganda), hill, moun- 

Shili (Mongol), a grassy hill. 

Shima (Congo), pool, pond, well. 

Shima (Japan), island, Tokyo dialect for Sima (q.v.) 

Shimia (Arab.) See 8hem£l. 

Shimbira (Somali), birds. See under Shabel. 

Shimo (Japan), lower, e.g. Shimo-tra-fiut, * lower Fusa.' 

Shimo (Swahili), ditch, pit, excavation, 
e Shima (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Eshimn. 

Shina (Syriac), cUff, e.g. Tura Shina. See Tnra. 


Shinarkh (Arab,), a promontory. 

Shinden (Japan), certain paddy-lands brought into 

cultivation since the last survey. 
Shing (Tibet), a tree. 

Shir (Yambo, Upper Sobat B.), the rainy season. 
Shire (England), something sharn off, a division, county. 
Shiroi (Japan), white, e.g. Shirokubi Saki. 
Shitong (Hainan), market, market town. 
Shitta (Sudan), winter (October-March), autunm. 
Shitn-dianza (Manchuria), a stony valley. 
Shin (China, Japan), province, district. 
Shin ia (Min-hia, Yunnan), snow. 
Shivala (Punjab), a pillar-like temple of the god Shiva, 

(7/. Ling. 
Shiver (E. Turk.), marsh ground with vegetation. 
Shivn (Congo), the cold season. 
Shiwo (Japan), tide; Tokyo dialect for Siwo (q.v.) See 

Hiki Shiwo. 
Shiieng (Cambodia), rain. 

Sho (Cambodia, Cochinchina), market. See Cho. 
Shoal (Eng.), a single Elevation (q.v.), or submarine 

mountain rising to within eleven metres of the 

surface, e.g. Adler Shoal. Equivalent to Ger. Omnd, 

Fr. Hant Fond. Similar to Beef. 
Shong (Tibet), excavation, small lateral valley. 
Shor (C. Asia, Punjab), salt, land impregnated with salt. 
Shorrafa (Arab.), local rain, places watered by local rains. 
Shott (Arab., N. Africa), bank, shore; a large river; a 

vast stretch of salt water ; a saltpan ; a muddy 

depression without vegetation. This is really the 


Arab, Shat (pronounced shut) (q.v.), of which Chott 

(Shott) is. the Fr. spelling. 
Shmi {Cambodia), a cape. 
Shna {Annam), a pagoda. 

Shuf (Arab,), a prominent or culminating point. 
Shui (Annam), stream, torrent. 

Shui (China), water, e.g, Kiang shui, ' waters of the Eiang.' 
Shukf, Shnkif (Arab.), a cliff (cleft). 
Shnl (Tibet), a track, road. 
Shnma (Servian), a forest. 
waShnmba (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), See 

Shur (Arab,), low clay hills. 

Shur, SiiOT(Pers,), brackish ; cf. Sansc, Kshara = very bitter. 
Shnra (Kaffa, Abyssinia), black. 
Shorh kwie (Min-kia, Yunnan), mountain. 
Shushet (Arab,), a slight undulation. 
Shuddtna (Alaska), a great muddy river, ther great 

muddy river, the Shushitna. See Sfa. 
Shnt (Persia), a salt-water river. 
Si (China), west, western, e,g. Kwang-ti. Cf, Tung, Pe, 

Bfan. See Kwang. 
Si (Fan, French Congo), the world; a large tract of 

country. Cf Fan. 
Si (Hainan), a village. 
Si (Lolo, China), a wood. 
Si (Mashonaland), a prefix meaning * small,' e.g. Sifnra, 

* small Fura.' See Fura. 
a Si (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. See Man, 

Mansi, Zi, 


ohiSi {Cent. Africa^ dialect of Bantu), island, 
ma Si (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), town, country. Cf. 

Si (Bambara, Malinke), town, village, e.g. Sikoro, *oId 
village.' See Koro. 

Sia (China), lower. 

Sia, Zia (Nika), a reservoir, lake. 
kiSia, -zia (Nika), a small lake. 

•Sia (Tripoli), a plural termination signifying people, 
inhabitants, population, e.g, Ohadanuia, 'the in- 
habitants of Ghadames.' Cf Senassia, 'the followers 
of Senussi.' 

Siah (Pers., Afghan), black, e.g. Siah Koh. Cf Siya. 
See Koh. 

Siao (Yunnan), little, small, e.g, Siao Kwen-kea, near Yao 

Siao-ho (China), a rivulet, lit, 'little river.* 

Siao-tao (China), an island, small island, islet. See Tao. 

Sibansho (Japan), guard-house. 

Side (England), a slope, declivity, or ascent, e.g. Cross- 
land Sides near Hartington ; from A.S., nde (root 
Sid, long, extended). 

Sidzaa (Lolo, China), a wood, forest. 

Sierra (Sp.), a rugged mountain range with serrate 
outline ; from sierra = a saw. 

Sif,pZ. Siaf (Arab., N. Africa), an extended dune with 
thin ridge ; winding low dunes. 

Sifa (Arab.), sandy beach. 

Sigaram (Tamul, Deccan), summit of a mountain. 

Sighi (Turk.), a bank, shoal. 


Signal (JFr.), signal (S*^). 
Siipu {Indian, U.S. A,), a creek, cove. 
Sika, eSika {Congo, dialects of Bantu), a house. 
maSika {East Africa, dialect of Bantu), the rainy season 
(end of March to end of May). 
Sikka {Arab., N. Africa), a road. 
Sil {Cent. Asia), a sadden flood or inundation. 
Sil {Korea), a valley, e.g. Sil-Lyeng, Chara-Sil. 

. a*i {{Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), SkTOSkd, Cf.ZUsL. 
in Sua) 

Silanga {Philippines), a channel, strait, passage ; in the 
southern islands this is used for 'a bay.* Also 
used to convey the meaning ' small, low islands.' 

SiUa {Fin.), a bridge. 

Sillon {Fr.), a furrow, ridge. For use as a form of sub- 
oceanic relief see Furrow. 

Sima {Japan), island ; makes Jima sometimes in com- 
pounds, e.g. Awa jima, ' Awa island.* See Shima, Jima. 

Sima {Tangut), sand. 
kiSima {Swahili), a well, j^Z. ma Sima. 

Simba {Zamhezia), pi. of Sfumba {q.v.) 
inSimi {Zulu, Kafir), a piece of cultivated ground. 

Simpang {Malay), a crossing, e.g, Simpang Lima, a 
station on the new Perak railway. 

Sin {Amharic), an elephant's tusk, applied to a mountain 

Sin {China), a walled village. 

Sin {China), new, e.g. Sin-kai, 'New Market,* the 
Chinese name for Bhamo, properly Bhamaw< See 
Kai, Bha, Maw. 

A A 


Sin {ArabO'Pers.) See Jin. 
Sinavi (Motu, New Guinea), a river. 
Sindom (Soninke, Fr. Sudan), south. See Xinkhenna. 
Sing (China), a spring, fountain. 

Sing (Tibet), a place covered with short grass, a marsh. 
imSingakazi (Kafir), a very powerful stream of water, a 

Singha (Malay), a place of call, e.g. Singapore or 

Singhapura, ' the city of the place of call.' Other 

authorities give Sinha (Sansc), lion, thus Singapore, 

* lion city.' See Pura. 
nlnSingi (Gent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), a forest. 
Sinikh (Turk.), ruined, in ruins. 

Siora (Eskimo, Smith Sound), sand. 

Siper (Albania), upper. 

Siphandon (Laos), ' The Four Thousand islands,' a name 

given to the group at Ehong on the Mekong. 
Sipil (Chinese Turkestan), fortification, wall of a town. 
Sir (Arab.), a fold. 
Sir (Hind.), head, summit, e.g. Sir Daria, the ' Head 

Stream ' (Jaxartes). Cf Sirdar ; see Sar. 
Sira (Madagascar), salt, e.g. Antsirabe, ' the place where 

there is much salt.' See An, Be. 
Siraoga (Bubiana, Solomon Is.), a road. 
Sirge (Bornu), a lake of natron. See Abge. 
Sirik (Mongol), a valley. 
Sirkar (India), a district or division. 
Siro (Japan), palace, castle ; white. 

(Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a river. 


Siro {Nandi and Ja-Luo, Uganda) ^ a market. 

SirooeOy Soiroooo (It), a hot oppressive wind coining from 

Northern Africa over the Mediterranean to Sicily 

and Italy. 
Sirt (Turk.), a ridge. 

Sisifo (Samoa), west. For other points see Mata. 
Sifim (Agni, Ivory Coast), a village, place of cultivation. 
Bitch, Sioh (England), a watercourse, a little current of 

water, which is dry in summer, a gutter; from 

A.S. no, noh, a furrow, watercourse, e.g. Ooldsitch 

Mom. See Mom. 
Sitlal (Aztek), a star, e.g. Sitlaltepetl, ' star mountain,' 

the Orizava of the maps. See Tepetl. 
Sitt (Arab.), lady, female saint. 

mSitnl (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), forest, wood, 
mu Situ j thicket. Cf Witu. 
n ma Situ/ 

Siuf, pi. of 8if (q.v.) 

Siwa (Mt. Kenia region), swamp, applied to the Lorian 

ohiSiwa (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), isla,nd. See Ziwa. 
kiSiwa (Swahili), island ; tor pi. see Kisiwa. 
Siwo (Japan), tide, current. Cf. Shiwo. 
Siya (Pers.), black. Cf. Siah. 
Sjo (Sw.), sea. 

-8k (Buss.), a suffix meaning ' town,' e.g. Omsk. 
Skala (Hung.), rocks (Ski.) 
8kam (Tibet), barren, dry. 
8kand86 (Da.), fort. Gf Sohana. 

▲ A 2 


SkclT (Sw,), a skerry, a rock at times covered by water. 

See SlqaBr. 
Skard {IceL)^ a ravine. 
8ke (Tibet), a neck or gorge. 
Skip (from Da., Nor. Skib.), a ship, e.g. Skipness, ' ship 

point.* See Sfess. Cf. Skipper. 
Skiron (Neo-Greek), north-east. For other points see 

Slqar, Sk©r (Da., Nor.), a skerry, a rock at times covered 

by water. See Skftr. 
Skole (Da., Nor.), a school (S*^^). 
Skopelos (Greek), rock, e.g. Skopelos Islands north of 

Euboea (Negropont). 
Skov (Da., Nor.), a wood, forest. 
Slaak (Dch.), a channel, passage. 
Sliabh, Slievh (Irish), a momitain, e.g. Slievh Beg, Sle- 

mish. Cf. Slieve, Slien. 
Slib (Dch.), mud, ooze, e.g. Slibbroek. 
Slide (U.S.A.), the exposed surface left in the track of 

a landslide, as a landslip is called in the States. 
Slien (Manx), a mountain. Cf. Sliabh, Slieve. 
Slieve (Gaelic), a mountain, e.g. Slieve Bloom. Cf. 

Sliabh, Slieu. 

Sloboda, Slobodka (Buss.), a suburb, village (SI.) 

Blot (Da., Nor.) ] 

Blott (^ \ ^ palace, castle. Cf Ger. Schloas. 

Sluis (Dch.), a sluice, dam, e.g. Zwartsluis, Buitenslois. 

See Zwart, Buiten. Cf Sluss.. 
Bluit (Cape Dch.), a ditch, gutter, stream. 
Sluse (Da., Nor.), Slnss (Sw.), a lock, sluice. Cf. Sluis. 


Smad (Tibet), low country. See Ma, Had ; 8 is mute. 
Smala, Zmala, pi Zemnl or Xezemlin (Arab,, N. Africa), 

the camp of a great chief. See Zmala. 
Smeida, Smid, Smidet (Arab,), an isolated low dune. 
Smid. See Smeida. 

Snee (Da., Nor.), snow, e.g. SneehsBtten. 
Sneeuw (Dch.), snow, Sneeuwbergen. 
8nd (8w.), snow. Cf, Snee. 
Snyeg (Buss.), snow. 
So (Agni, Ivory Coast, Mande), place, town, village, 

e.g. Assikasso, Aboiaso. Cf. 8u, Tonga. 
So (China), a guard-house ; military station of less im- 
portance than a Wei (q.v.) ; a fortified military place, 

camp ; town, village. 
So (Fin.), the mouth of a river, estuary. 
S0, Sjd (Da., Nor.), sea. 
iSoa] (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), grass. See 
maSoaj Sua, Suwa, Swa. 

Soa (Madagascar), beautiful, good, e.g. Soarano, ' good 

water,' Soakazo, 'beautiful tree.' Cf. Tsara. See 

Bano, Kazo. 
Soaks (W. Australia), shallow wells in granite formation. 
Soane (Kusage, Solomon Is.), o, road. 
Sobba (Arab., N. Africa), a cascade. 
Soberga (Mongol), a pagoda, e,g, Chagan Soberga, 'white 

pagoda.' See Chagan. 
SiBFbod, Sjdbod (Da., Nor.), a warehouse abutting on the 

Socken (Stc), a parish. Cf Sogn. 
Socle (Fr.), shelf (q.v.) 


Soder (Sw.), adv. south, e.g, SMerhamn, ^ south haven.' 
aSogh {Fan, French Congo), a fall, rapid; for ^^ see 

Sogn (JDa., Nor,), parish. Cf, Sooken. 
Sok (Marocco), district, place ; country market, e.g. 

Sok el Arba, a place where a market is held on 

Wednesdays, or the 4th day. Similar place-names 

are found for other days of the week. See Snk. 
Sokaki {Smyrna Greek), b» street. 
Sokke {Soninke, Senegal), grass. 
Soko, pL Masoko {Swahili), market. 
Sol {Fr.), soil, ground. 
Solano (5p.), a hot, oppressive south-east wind, the 

local Spanish name for Sirocco {q*v.) 
Solo {Rotuma, Polynesia), a mountain. 
luSolo {Cent Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river; in Ya^ 

{Nyassaland) this is lnSolo, jpZ. nSnlo. See Snlu. 
Somed {Arab.), a rocky round hill. 
Sommet {Fr.), summit (Som.) 
SomiQO {It.), summit, top. 
Son {Cambodia), mountain, e.g. Long-Son, ' Flourishing 

Mountain,' in Bao-Hue. 
Son {Siam), confluence. 

S0nder {Da.), south (S**). See Syd, Sforre, for other points. 
Song {Annain), a river. 
Son-ni {Hainan), a path. 
Sono {Ce7it. Africa), grass. See Sore, Bote. 
Sopa {Lolo, China), a mountain. 
Sopak {Mentawei I., S.W. Coa^st Sumatra), a stream. 
So pan {Indian, U.S.A.), a valley. 


Sopi {Kiriwina, New Grumea), water. 

Sopka {Btc8S.)y a small separate hill ; a volcano. 

Sopo {Sumatra). See under Bale. 

Sore {Mossi, French Sudan), a road. 
iSore {Gent Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass. See Bote. 

Sorgente (It.), a source (Sorg*°). 

Soro (Songhai), a minaret. 

Sosobi {Hausa), a ravine. 
iSote {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass. See Sore. 

Source {Fr.), source, spring, fountain. 

Speoo {It.), a cave, cavern. 

Spelonk {Dch.), a cave; from Lat. 8pelniica=cave. 

Spi (Kurdish), white, e.g. Av-i-spi, ' white water.* See Ava. 

Spiaggia {It.), the sea shore, coast. 

Spiti {Neo-Greek), a house. 

, [ summit; top of a mountain, crest; 
. \ equivalent to Beak, Pike, Spit, e.g. SpitE- 

l bergen, Oertler Spitz. 

Spo {Tibet), summit of a mountain ; same word as Po 
{q.v.) ; 8 is mute. See under Bdo. 

Sponda (It.), the bank of a river. 

Spoor {Dch.), track, trail. See next entry. Cf Spur. 

Spoorweg {Dch.), railway. See Spoor, Weg. 

Spruit (Dch.), a small stream. Cf. Bivier; is cognate 
with Eng. Sprout. 

Spui {Dch.), a sluice, lock. 

Spur {Ger.), track, trail. Cf. Spoor. 

Squero {It.), a dockyard. 

Bra {Cambodia), reservoir, tank. 

Srok {Carnbodia), a canton. 


Sron (Gaelic), a nose, promontory. 

Srontron (Gold Coast), summit, highest point. 

Stable. See Staple. 

Stack (from Icel. Stakkr), a high isolated rock, usually 

columnar ; sometimes corrupted into Stag. 
Stad (JDa., Nor., Dch,, Sw,), a city, large town. Cf. 

Stadt, Stede. 
Stadhuifl {Dch.), a townhouse, town hall. 
Stadt (Ger.), a city, town, e.g. Kronstadt. Cf. Stad, Stede. 
Staff {Scandinavian staphi), pillars, e.g. Staffa, properly 

Staffey, ' the island of pillars,* from the columnar 

formation of the basalt of whjch it is composed. 

Cognate with A.S. stoef^ staff. See Ey. 
Stag. See Stack. 
Stagno (It.), a pool, marsh. 
Stah (Arab.), a plateau. Cf. SteYhat. 
Staith {Anglo-Saxon stsdh, bank, shore, Icel. stbdh, a 

harbour, roadstead), a landing-place, an elevated 

railway staging from which coal-trucks discharge 

their loads into cars or vessels beneath. 
Stak {Da., Nor.), a heap, stack (of stones). Cf. Stack. 
Stam {Dch.), a tribe, race ; cognate with Eng. stem. Cf. 

Ger. stamm. 
Stan {Pers.), a suffix of locative meaning, place, e.g. 

Hindustan, Kaflristan, A^hanistan. 
Stan {Buss.), a station, camp. 
Stanitsa (i2{i5^.), a Cossack village. 
Stanitsa {Servian), a station, railway station. 
Stanovishche {Buss.), a station, camp. 
Stantsiya {Buss.), a station. 


Staple {England), a market, e.g. Barnstaple, Staplegrove, 
Stapleford ; Low Ger. stapel = a pile of goods for 
sale, a warehouse. 

Stari {Buss.) ] old (Str.), e.g. Stara Zagora, the 

Stary {Bohemian) j Turkish Edd Zagra. See Eski. 

Stfttte {Ger.), place, spot. Cf. Stead, Stede. 

Stasione {It.), a station (Staz^). 

Stead {England), a place, e.g. Hampstead; from A.8, 
stede = a place. Cf. Stad, Stadt, Stede, St&tte. 

Stede {Dch.), a town, place, spot. Cf. Stead. 

Steeg {Dch.), a lane, alley. 

Steen {Dch.) stone, rock, e.g. Steenbergen. Cf Sten, 

Steep {Indian, U.S.A.), earth, land. 

Steg(JDcA.), ' 

Steg {Ger.), 

Steig {Ger.), a path. 

Steiger {Dch.), a pier, quay, landing-place. 

SteVhat {Arab., N. Africa), a plateau. Cf Stah. 

Steil {Dch., Ger.), steep, precipitous. See next entry. 

SteilabfaU {Ger.), escarpment. See Steil. Cf Abhang. 

Stein {Ger.), stone, e.g. Ehrenbreitstein, ' broad stone of 
honour.' Cf. Steen, Sten. 

Steinbruch {Ger.), a quarry. 

Stelle {Ger.), place, site. 

Sten {Da., Nor., Sw.), stone, rock. Cf Steen, Stein. 

Steno {Greek), narrow, e.g. Steno Pass. 

Steppe {from Buss.), a vast treeless plain, prairie ; the 
Buss, form is Step (pronounced * stepp '), and is ap- 
plied generally to grassy, saline, and sandy tracts. 

a narrow wooden bridge, path. 


Steptoes (U,S.A,)y island-like areas in a sea of lava. • 
Ster {IceL stadr), a stead, seat, dwelling, e.g. TTlster. 
Stieng (IndO'China), savages, applied now to hillmen 

N.-E. of Saigon, though originally the name of a 

tribe of hillmen. 
Stiert (Da.), a spit of land. Cf. Stjert. 
Stift (Ger., Da., Nor., Sw.), diocese ; religious founda- 
tion, monastery, &c. 
Stirpeto (It.), a brake. 

StjsBrt, Stjert (Da., Nor.), a tail or spit of land. Cf. Stiert. 
Stob (Scotland), stump, e.g. Stobo, properly Stobol, ' the 

hollow of stobs or stumps,' Stobs Castle. 
Stock. See Stoke. 
Stoep (Cape Dutch), a masonry platform with steps in 

front of a house. 
Stoke, Stook (England), a stockaded place; from A.S. 

stocc = post, stem ; e.g. Basmgstoke, Woodstock. 

Cf. Stow. 
Stolp (Buss.), pinnacle rock. 
Stong, Tong (Tibet), a desert. The s is mute. 
Stoommolen (Dch.), a steam mill. 
Stor, Store (Da., Nor., Sw.), large, great (St.), e.g. Stor 

Aa, Store Belt. 
Stora (Sw.), large, great (st.), e.g. Stora Liile& Elf. See 

Stow (England), a place, a stockaded place, from A.S. 

stdw = a place ; e.g. Chepstow. Cf. Norse st6 ; 

Lithuanian stowe. 
Straat (Dch.), a street. See next entry. 
Straatweg (Dch.), a high road. See Straat, Weg. 
Strada (It.), a road. See next entry. 


Stradone (It,), a high road. See Strada. 

Strand (Dch., Eng., Ger,), beach, shore. 

Straaae (Ger.), a street. 

Strafh {Gaelic), a broad valley with a river flowing 

through it, e.g. Strafholyde, Strathmore. See More. 

C/. Welsh Ystrad. 
Strauoh (Ger,), shrub, bush, small tree. 
Strecke {Ger.), a stretch or reach of a river ; region. 
Strelka (Russ.), a sandspit. 
Stretto (It), a strait, defile. 
Strom (Ger.), a stream. Cf. Flnsa. 
Strdm (Nor., Da., Sw.), river-current, stream of the 

Strombett (Ger.), the bed of a river. See Strom, Bett. 
Stromsclmelle (Ger.), a rapid in a river. See Sohnelle. 
Stmdel (Ger.), an eddy, whirlpool. 
Stmjra (Buss.), eddy water, current. 
Stung (Cambodia), a rapid over sand or pebbles, river, 

e.g. Stung Treng. 
Su (China), a township, e.g. Kan-su. 
-Sn (Ashanti), a sufl&x signifying *on a river,' e.g. 

Prasu, ' the town on the Pra E.' Cf. Poa. 
Su (Mande, Fr. Sudan), an inhabited place of less im- 
portance than a capital. Cf. So, Tonga. 
Su (Turk.), water, river ; e.g. Ak-su, * white water ' (the 

oSn (Fan, Fr. Congo) ; for meanings and^Z. see Osn. 
Sua (Mandara, South Bomu), a well. 
chiSna (Bantu), an island in a river. 
nSua (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), an island ; for 

other form see Hsua. 


uSua (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), grass. See Swa, Snwa, 

Saan (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt) ^ flint. 

Suba (Arab.), a province. 

Subs (Per8,)f green, e.g. Kuba^i-Subs, 'green dome.* 

Subsolano (Sp.), south- east wind. See Solano. 

Baokaniasing {Indian^ U.S.A.), black stone place, e.g. 

Sud (Fr., Sp.), Slid {Ger.), south. 

Sudan (Arab.), blacks, thus Beled es Sudan, ' the land of 
the blacks,' Nigritia or Negroland. See Beled, EL 

Sudar (Hung.), a peak. Of. Sug^. 

Sudd {Upper Nile), a luxuriant growth of vegetation, 
which blocks the Bahr el Ghazal and Nile as far 
as Sobat E. junction annually from September to 
January, and at times for years together; was 
cleared in 1900-1901, and measures are now being 
taken to keep the navigation open. 

Suduga {Mossi, French Sudan), a cascade, waterfall. 

Sof (Arab.), wool, e.g. XTm Suf, 'mother of wool,' i.e. 
the plant Vossia, tall reeds with white fluffy 
heads, which, with papyrus, cover an enormous 
area of the Ghazal swamps. 

Suf (Wolof), cultivable land, sand. 

Sugar (Hung.), a peak. Cf. Sudar. 

Bugur (Moro, E. Archipelago), a bay. 

Suh (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), granite. 

Suhaili (Arab.), the much-feared south-west vdnda of 
the Persian Gulf. 

Suheli (Swahili), south. See Kusini, Kibula. 


Snk {Arab,)t a market. Another form of 8ok {q,v.) 

Sukhaya voda (Btiss.), low water. See Voda. 

Sukhoi (Buss.), dry. 
nSuku (Congo, dialect of Bantu), inlet, bay, gulf, creek. 

Bui (Port), south, e,g. Bio Grande do Sul, ' great river 
of the south.' 

Solagh (E, Turk,), a place where there is water. 

Suli (Kanarese, W. coast of Hindustan), south. For 
other points see Oi. 
kaSnlo (Upper Congo, dialect of Bantu), a source of a 

nSnlu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), brook, stream. See Solo. 

Sum (Mongol), monastery. 

Soma (Arab,), a minaret. 

Snxna (S. Slav,), a forest, bush. 

Snmale (Bambara, Fr. Sudan), fresh, e,g, Jisomale, 
' fresh water * ; ji= water. 
maSnxnba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the kraal or village 
of a chief. Cf Boma, Zeriba. 

Stunbi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a lake. 
uStunbi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river, stream. 

Sum-do (Tibet), a confluence. See Do. 

Bmnpf (Ger.), a marsh, bog. 

Bun (Hainan), a path, road. 

Bund (Da., Sw,), a sound. 

Bung (China), pine tree, e.g. Bung-Hua-Chiang, 'Pine- 
flower river,* i.e. the Sungari in Manchuria ; Lao- 
Bung-Ling, 'old pine pass.' See Chiang, Lao, 

Sung (Ckinbon), a hill, small mountain. 


Siingar {Afghanistan), a small stone erection, made for 
the purpose of obtaining cover. 

Sungi, Snngei {Malay), a river, stream. 
inSimgnzi {Kafir), a path passing through a forest, over- 
shadowed by trees ; a path overgrown by luxuriant 
eSnnsa {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a cape or headland. 

Sunt {Upper Nile), the mimosa tree. 

Suong {Laos), high, lofty, upper. 

Super {Latin), above, upon, on, e.g, Wesion-snper-Kare, 
* Weston-on-8ea ' ; mare == sea. Cf. Sur. 

Supo {Gold Coast), an island. 

Sur {Arab.), a rampart, wall. 

Bur {Fr.), on, upon, e.g. Oh&lons-sur-Mame. Cf. Super. 

Surkh {Pers.), red, e.g. Surkh-ab, * red river.' See Ab. 

Susnka {Bubiana, Solomon Is.), a lagoon. 
nSuvila {Congo, dialect of Bantu), inlet, an arm of the sea. 

Suwa {dialect of Bantu). See Ifsua. 

Svaty {Bohemian), saint (8 v.) Cf Szent, Svent. 

Sveta {Bohemia), saint. 

Svoboda {Buss.), a suburb (Sv.) See Sloboda. 

Svyatoi {Buss.), holy, e.g. Svyato Island ; there are two 
of this name in the Caspian Sea. 
uSwa {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass. See Sua, 

Swade (Fula), bush, wood, underwood, grass. 

Swale {U.S.A.), a slight marshy depression in land 
which is generally level. This is really, an Old 
English term, still current in many districts in the 
sense of low ground, valley, moor, &c. 


8wef {Lokub, Bvdolf L.), a hill, eminence. 

Swi {Hainan), a village. 

Syd (Da., Nor.), south. Cf. Sender. See ITorre for other 

Syever (iZt^s.), north. For other points see Polden, 

Tug, Vostok, Zapad. 
Syssel {Iceland), a district, a county, e.g. Strandir SysseL 
Syog-salmak {Korea), grotesque sign-posts. 
SzlQlaB {Hung.), a hamlet, village (Szl.), lit. lodgings. 
SzAl {Hung.), breadth, end, boundary, limit. 
Szent {Hung.), saint (Szt.) Also Svent. 
Sziget {Hung.), an island (Szig.) Also island town, 

town at the confluence of rivers. 
Sziiksen {Tangut), a river. 
Sych {Welsh), dry, e.g. Sychnant Pass. 
Syem, Syom {Korea), island, e.g. 8yem-6ang, y mute. 

Ta {Burma), a wood, forest. 

Ta- {China), a prefix signifying 'great,' e.g. Ta-kiang, 
' Great Biver,' i.e. the Yangtse ; Wu-ta-oha^shan, 
' the five great tea hills ' of the Shan tea district. 
See Kiang, Shan. 

Ta, Tah {China), a lofty tower, pagoda. 

Ta {Japan), rice-land. 

Ta {MiaO'tse, Kwei Chau, South China), deep. 

Ta {Shan States), a ferry. 

Ta {Siam), a landing-place; mouth, estuary. 
mTa {Swahili), .a district of a town ; for ^Z. see Mta. 

Taam {Da., Nor.), a tower. 


Taba {dialect of Bantu, Gallaland), a mountain. Cf. 

the Thaba of Basutoland. 
nTaba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a swamp, marsh. 
Tabarit (Tuareg, Berber), a road. 
Tabema (Sp., Port.), an inn; from Lat, tabema=booth, 

stall, inn. 
Tabia (Turk.), a battery. 
Tabo (Hausa), mad. 

Taboleioas (Brazil), * platters,' very flat and dry her- 
baceous plains. Cf. Campos. 
Tada (Hind.), an island. 
Tadakt (Tuareg, Berber), a hill. 
Tademal't (Berber, N. Africa), a height, summit; a long 

Gkura (q.v.) 
maTadi (Congo, dialect of Bantu), stones or rocks, hence 

the name of the town Matadi on the Congo estuary. 
Tafariki (Hausa), a road, way. 
Taftan (Persia), boiling, hence the name of the volcano 

Kvh-i-Taftan, * boiling mountain,' known locally as 

Chehel-Tau, ' the mountain of the forty Beings.' 
Tafelberg (Dch.), tableland, a 'table mountain.' 
Tag (Tibet), rock, a rocky mountain. Cf Tagh, Dagh, Tan, 

for other forms. 
Tagama (Tuareg, Berber), a forest, wood. 
Tagaye (Soninke, Fr. Sudan), a mud-wall surrounding 

an enclosure. 
Tagh (Turkestan), a mountain. See Tag, Dagh, Tan, for 

other forms. 
Tagit (Kabile), a plain. 
Tahama (Arab.), lowland. Cf. Hejd« 


Tahi (Polynesia), See Tai. 

Taho {Motu, New Guinea), west. 

Tahsil, Tehflil (India), a subdivision of a district, under 

a Tah»ildar or sub-collector. 
Tahtani (Arab.), lower, e.g. Moghar Tahtani, 'Lower 

Moghar.' Cf. Asfal, Fukani. 
Tahnne, pi. Tawahin (Arab.), a mill. 
Tai (China), a terrace, plateau, eminence, e.g. Shi-tai, 

' market terrace.' 
Tai (China, Amoy dialect), great. See Typhoon. 
Tai (Japan), large, great ; equivalents are Dai, 0, Oki. 
Tai (Siam), south ; for other points see Hua. 
Tai, Kai, Tahi (Polynesia), sea. 
Tai (Tibet), a fort. 
Taiga (Siberia), the belt of * virgin forest * lying to the 

south of the Tondras (q.v.) 
Tak (Annam), a rapid over rocks in a river. 
Taka (E. Turk., from Pers.), the ibex, e.g. Min-taka pass. 
nTaka (Congo ; Brit. Cent. Africa, Bantu). In the former 

region this means ' ground which is always moist ; 

marshy ground ' ; in the latter it means * country.' 
Takai (Japan), high, lofty, tall. Cf Take. 
Take (Japan), peak, ridge, hill, e.g. Tarigatake, 'the 

spear peak.' Other forms are Daka, Dake (q.v.) 

Cf Takai. 
Takht (Pers.), throne, seat, e.g. Takht-i-Suleiman, ' Solo- 
mon's Throne,' a mountain in Afghanistan. 
Taki (Japan), a waterfall. Cf. Takai. 
Take (Kamertm), a mountain. 
Taksibt (Kabile), a fortified position. 

B B 


T&l (India) y lake, e.g. Ifaini-Tal. See T&Uib. 
• Tal (New Guinea)^ a house. 

Tal (Welsh), front, end, e.g. Tal-y-boat, Tal-y-Uyn. 

Tala, Talat (Arab.), a path up a mountain or ravine. 

Tala (Kahile), source, fountain, spring. 

Tala (Mongol), a plain. 

Tala (Tibet), a marsh. 
liTala (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), town. 

Tal&b (Pers.), a lake, pond, tank, reservoir. 

mao (Hind.), tank, reservoir, is the Hind, form of the 
Pers, T&lab (q.v.) 

Talaoro (Marovo, Solomon Is.), north wind. 

Ta^lat (Siam), a market. 

Talat (Arab.) See Tala. 

Taldik (E. Turk.), straight, e.g. the river of that name. 

Tale (Siam), a lake. 
iTali (Bantu), the side of a river, bank. 

Ta ling (Khas Chos, Indo-China), a rice-field. 

Tall (Arab.), a hill. Other forms are Tel, Tell. 

Talla (Indian, U.S.A.), a town. 

Talla (Punjab), low-lying land on which grass grows vsrell. 
kiTalu (Swahili), an enclosure with a stone fence ; torpL 
see Kitalu. 

Taluk (Madras), a subdivision of a district. Cf. Tahail. 

Tam (IndO'China), a stream, torrent. 

Tam (E. Turk.), a wall. 
eTam (Fan, French Congo), pond, small lake; see Etam. 

Tambaga (Malay), copper; from Hind, tanba (pro- 
nounced tamba) = copper. 

Tamda (Kabile), a pond, pool. 

Taxnozhnya, Tamojnya (Buss.), custom-house. 


Tampon (Fr.), buffer, e.g. titat Tampon =3 buffer state. 

Tamnrt (Kabile), country, region. 

Tam-8on {Hainan), a market. 

Tan (Berber). See In. 

Tan (Cambodia), new, e.g. Tan-Ki, in Bao-Duk. 

Tan (China), rapids in a river. In Laos Tang. 

Tan (Indian, Alaska), cape, point, used especially in the 

neighbourhood of Cook Inlet. 
Tan (Welsh), below, under, e.g. Tan-y-bwloh, * below the 

Tana (Madagascar), used in composition for tanana, 

place, village, town ; thus antana = at the place, 

at the village, e.g. Antananarivo, at the place of 

thousands. See An. 
Tana (Pokomo, E. Africa), a river, stream, e.g. the river 

of that name. 
Tanah (Malay), earth ; country, land, e.g. Tana Kaling, 

' the land of the Kaling,' i.e. Hindustan ; Tana 8a« 

brang, ' the land across the water,' i.e. Hindustan. 
Ta-nam (Tai, Shan States), a river. 
Ta-nan (Indian, California), water. 
Tanan (Alaska), mountain men, e.g. Tanana, ' the river 

of the mountain men,' properly Tanan-na. See Ifa. 
Tanao (Indo-China), lake, marsh, pond. 
nTando (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a mountain. 
Tang (China), lake, marsh ; sea. 
Tang (La^os), a rapid in a river. Cf. Tan (China). 
Tang (Pers., Afghan), a defile, e.g. Bartang, 'narrow 

Tang (Shan States), a road, path. 

BB 2 


Tang (Tibet), a large flat valley ; steppe. 

Tang, Tangi {Kurdish, Kermanji dialect), a narrow 
defile or narrow place in a road. 

Tanga {Mossi, Fr. Sudan), village, place of cultivation ; 

Tanganyika (Gent Africa), the shining plain or desert ; 
water ; hence the lake of that name. See Vyika. 
omTangala {Zulu, Kafir), a stone fence. 

Tange {Da,, Nor.), a tongue or strip of land. 

Tangi {IceL), a tongue of land. 

Tangik (Aleut.), island, dim, Tangidak. 

Tangkuban {Java), reversed, turned upside down, e.g. 
Tangkuban-praku, 'an upturned canoe,' a name 
given to mountains because of their shape, 
u Tango {Kafir), a fence, hedge. 

Tangong, Tanjong {Malay), a point, cape ; a contraction 
of t&nah-Qjong, lit. * land's end ' ; tnnah=land ; 
ujong=:point, tip, end. 

Tangnra {Kabile), a peak. 

Tangwani {Gurma, Fr. Sudan), a mountain. 

Tank {Indo-China), a town of the second order, or pro- 
vincial capital. 

Tani {Japan), a valley. 

Tani {Madagascar), country, region, district. 

Tanimbari {Madagascar), a rice-field. 

Tanjong {Malay). See Tangong. 

Tank {U.S.A.), a pool or waterhole in a wash. 

Tano {Motu, New Guinea), earth. 
imlTantato {Zulu, Kafir), stones placed as stepping-stones 
for crossing a stream. 


nmTantato (Kafir), a bridge, any contrivance for crossing a 

Taunt (Berber), wells. 

Tanya (Hung.), hainlet, halting-place, an inn (Tn.) 

Tanznna (Madagascar), a cape, promontory. 

Tao (China), an island. Lit, mountain. See Tan. 

Tao (Korea), the head prefecture in a circuit. 

Taong-ji (Burma), a mountain. Cf. Tanng. 
eTapa (Cent Africa, dialect of Bantu), forest. 

Tapera (Spanish S. Amei-ica), a solitary dwelling, espe- 
cially in the middle of a field and completely iso- 

TaphoB (Greek), a tomb. 

Tapki, Tepki (Hausa)^ swamp, pool, marsh. Cf. Tebki, 

Tappa (India), an assessment circle. 

Tapn (Hind,), an island, a shoaJ. 

Tar (Indian, U.S. A.), rock, stone. 

Tar (E. Turk.), narrow ; strait ; a narrow gorge. 

Tara (Maori), rock, stone, e.g. Tarawera, ' burnt rocks.' 

Tara (Mongol), desert, e.g. Knrban Tara, 'the three 
(days) desert.' Gf. Taren. See Knrban. 

Taraf (India), a subdivision of a village. 

Tarai (Hind.), a marsh, meadow; an island. 

Taram (E. Turk.), the dividing of a river into several 

Tarasham (Sahara), a house, dwelling. 

Tarbat, Tarbert (Gaelic tairbeart), an isthmus, e.g. 
Tarbat in N.E. of Ross and Cromarty, Tarbert in 

Taren (Mongol), cultivation, cultivated land. Cf. Tara. 


Tarf (Arab.), a cape, promoDtory, headland. 
Tari (Korea)^ bridge, e,g. Tari-Bong, Tari-Bahoi. 
Tank, pi. Tnrnk (Arab.), a road, way. See Trik. 
Tarim (E. Turk.), cultivated ; probably from Taram, i.e. 

cultivated by means of irrigation. 
Tarim (Cent. Asia), river, stream, the river. 
Taijam (Tibet), a po8thoa8e=(7Ame«6 Cha. 
Tarn (England), a small mountain lake, especially one 

without affluents or effluent, e.g. Blentam; from 

Norse tjllm=pool. 
Tarn (Sing ales e), mouth of a river. 
Tasamormeiig, Taseraktedliiig, Tanaza (Eskimo, Smith 

Sound), lake. 
Tdsek (Malay), the sea, ocean ; lake. Of. D&nau. 
Taih, Tashrah (Turk.), outer, e.g. Tashlite in Bosnia. 
Tash (E. Turk.), stone, e.g. Tash Kurgan, ' stone toveer.' 
Tashkun (E. Turk.), inundation, flood. 
Tashlik (Turk.), stony, rocky, rough. 
Tashrah (Turk.) See Tash. 
Tau (Songhai), sand. 
Tasik (Malay), lake, marsh, pool. 
Tasili (Sahara, N. Africa), plateau, apphed to several 

upland districts, e.g. the Tasili of the Azjer Tuaregs. 
Tat (Deccan), fortification of a city; environs. 
Tat (Punjab), declivity ; bank of a river. 
Tata (Fula, Mande, Serer, Wolof, West Sudan), a mud 

wall surrounding an enclosure. 
muTatago (Giryama), a bridge. 

Tatani. See Tahtani. 
inTatyana (Kafir), a small mountain. 


Tan {Cent Asia^ Caucasus), mountain, e,g, Ak-tau, 

' white mountain * ; mountain-top. Cf. Tagh, Tag, 

Tan (China), island, head. Same word as Tao. 
Tani (Nissan I., New Guinea), a plantation. 
Tanng (Burma), mountain, hill. Cf. Taong-ji. 
Tau-tn (China), clay. 
Tawahin, pi. of Tahune (q.v.) 
Tawan-ok (Siam), east, lit 'rising sun, sunrise'; for 

other points see Hua. 
Tawan-tok (Siam), west, lit * sunset * ; for other points 

see Ifua. 
Tawf (Upper Nile), an island of floating sudd (q^v.) 
Tawil (Arab,), long, e.g. Wadi el Tawile, * the long vale.' 
Tasirt (Kabile), a mill. 
TcBU, Chsin (Tangut), water. 
Tea (Hainan), a prefecture. 
Tea-gna (Hainan), mountain. 
Teawent (Tuareg, Berber), a ford. 
Tebbad (Turkestan), the violent hurricanes which sweep 

over the Turkoman steppe, carrying with them 

clouds of impalpable sand. 
Tebki (Sahara), a pond. Cf. Kulugn, Tepki. 
Teohenie (Buss.), current, stream of tide. 
Tedrag (Tuareg, Berber), a little hill. 
Tefes (Serer, Senegal), shore, beach. 
Tefsedt (Kabile), a place in ruins. 
Tegift (Tuareg, Berber), a sandhill. 
iTegn (Zulu, Kafir), a bay ; estuary. 
Tehiil. See Talisil. 


Teich (Ger.), a pond, ditch. 

Tei-haku (Japan) j an anchorage. 
uTeka (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass. 

Tekan, Tekra (Hind.), a height, elevation ; rising 

Tekiye. See Tekke. 

Tekke, Tekiye (Turk,), a Mohammedan convent. 

Tel (Arab,), a hill ; another form of Tell (q.v,) ; e.g, Tel 
el Kebir. See Kebir. 

Telag^ (Java), a lake. 

Telak (Malay), a bay. See Teluk. 

Tele {Samoa and Fallaofu), large, great, e,g. Hautele I., 
S.E. of Upolu I. 
nTeleka (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a cascade or water- 
idTeleti (Zulu, Kafir), a street. 

Tell, pL Tellnl (Arab.), a mound, especially one covering 
ruins ; e,g, Tell-Lo in Babylonia. See Tel. 

Teluk (Malay), a bay, haven, harbour, e.g. Teluk Bharu; 
cf. Tillo ; the misspellings Telok, Tullok are also 
frequently found ; in standard Malay the word is 
pronounced tluk. 
kuTemba. See Kutemba for meaning. 

Tembe (Bantu), a fortification built round a town, 
formed of two walls about 10 ft. high, 10 ft. apart, 
roofed, and divided into rooms facing inwards. 
The outer wall is covered with clay and is loop- 

Tembe (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), a 
dwelling. See Kutemba. 


Tembladeral (Spanish S. America) y bog, which presents 

the appearance of a pasture. 
Temborari (Swaliili), coastal plain. Cf. Sahel. 
Temdint (Mzabi, Berber)^ a town. 
Temir (Turk,) See Demir. 
Temnra (Tripoli, Berber), a town,jpZ. Timdinin. 
Ten (Wolof)j spring, fountain ; wells. 
Ten (Berber). See In. 
Tena odh lam me (Indian, California), town, village ; 

lit, many houses. 
inTendeleko (Zulu, Kafir), a fence round an enclosure. 
Tendm (Madagascar), summit, top. See next entry. 
Tendrnmbnhitra (Madagascar), a mountain peak. See 

Tendm ; Bnhitra = Vohitra (q,v,) See also Bohi. 
Tenere (Tfiareg, Berber), a desert plain. 
Tenga (Mossi, Fr, Sudan), country ; an inhabited place 

of less importance than a capital. Cf. Su, So. 
Tenghi (Cent. Asia), a narrow glen-path. 
Tengo (GefU. Africa, dialect of Bantu), bush. Cf. 

T'hengo and next entry. 
mTengo, nTengo (Dialects of Bantu), a tree. See Tengo. 
Tengri (E. Turk.), heaven, e.g. Tengri Hor. Cf Mongol 

Ham. See Hor. 
Tenia, Teniet (Arab.), a mountain path, defile; col. 
Tenkai' (Mossi, Fr. Sudan), village, place of cultivation. 
Tenne (Mossi, Fr. Sudan), kingdom. 
Tennnsha (Arab.), a steep summit. 
eTenta (Congo, dialect of Bantu), brow, top of a hill. 
Tenuta (It.), a holding (Ten^). 
Tepe (Fula), junction, confluence. 


Tepe (Turk,), a hill, e.g, Ak-tepe, 'white moantain.' 
See Ak. 

Tepetl {Azteh)^ mountain, e,g, Popokatepetl, ' the moun- 
tain of smoke,' Sitlaltepetl, ' star mountain.' See 
Popoka, Sitlal. 

Tepilaut (Malay), coast, seaboard ; lit, margin (tepi) of 
the sea (laut). Gf. D6rat. 

Tepki (Hausa) . See Tapki. 

Tera {Japan), a temple (Buddha). 

Terbia {Arab.), a bog, marsh. 

Terku {Tamul), south ; for other points see Vadakkn. 

Termino {Sp.), boundary, landmark ; district of a town. 

Terp {Dch.), an artificial mound. 

Terra {It, Port.), earth, land. 

Terrain {Fr.), ground. 

Terre {Fr.), earth, land. 

Terrein {Dch.), ground. 

Terreinhelliiig {Dch.), the slope of ground. 

Terrera {Sp.), a declivity, a sloping piece of ground. 

Terrontera {Sp.), a break in a mountain. 

Terumbe {Malay Pen.), a coral reef. 

Tet,pl. Tittawen {Tuareg, Berber), source. Cf. Thit. 
nTetele {Fan, French Congo) ; for meaning see Htetele. 

Tethedderth {Kabile), a village. Cf. Themmurth, Htama- 
sdrt, Emizdegh, Amazagh. 

Teto {Hung.), a peak (T.) 

Teton {U.S.A.), a rocky mountain crest of rugged 

Tetsu {Japan), iron. 
muTha {Nika), a district or part of a town, a township. 


Thaba (Bechuana and Basuto lands), mountain, e.g. 

Thaba Hohu, Thaba Bosigo. 
Thak {Annam)y a rapid in a river. 
Thake {Fiji), east. For other points see Vua liku. 
Thaknilt {Berber), a plateau, pL ThUunlin. 
Thai {Ger,), a valley, dale, e.g. Langenthal, 'long valley.' 
Thai {Funjah), dry land, ford, mound, sandhill (Th.) 
Thala {Berber), fountain, source, pL Thiliwa. 
Thalassa {Greek), the sea, e.g. Havri Thalassa, ' the Black 

Sea/ Havri = black in Ned-Greek. 
Tha-le {Siam), sea, lake. 

Thalweg {Ger.), the line followed by the waters of a 
. valley ; the middle line of a river. See Thai, Weg. 
Than {China), rapids in a river. 
Than {Tangut), a plain. 
Thanas {India), a subdivision of a Tahril {q.v.), a 

police circle. 
Thang {Siam), a road, path. 
Thanh {Cambodia), thriving, prosperous, e.g. An-Thanh 

in Boa-An, an conveying the idea of tranquillity. 
Thanthan {Botuma, Polynesia), sand. 
Theerofen, Therofen {Ger.), a tar-pit (T.O.) 
Themmorth {Berber), a town. Cf. Tethedderth. 
T'hengo {Cent. Africa), a forest. Cf. Tengo. 
Theva {Mbau, Fiji), south. For other points see Vua 

Thifiiua {Siam), north. See Thit-tai, Thit-tawan-bk, 

Thing {China), sub-prefectural city. 
Thit {Berber), eye, source, ^Z. Thitawin. Cf. Tet. 


Thi-thort-samor (Siam), anchorage. 

Thit-tai (Siam), south. Gf. Thifana for other points. 

Thit-tawan-ok (Siam), east. Cf. Thifima for other points. 

Thit-tawan-tok {Siam)y west. Cf. Thifiiua for other points. 

Thniye, Tnie (Sahara), a winding mountain pass, 
a mountain top, e.g. Thniye Twennin. Cf. Kuleb, 
Keluba of other districts. 

Tho- {Nilotic Kavirondo, Uganda), a prefix signifying 
language, e.g. Tho-luo, the language of the negro 
tribe Ja-luo. See Ja. 

Thok {Tibet), a goldfield. 

Thorn {Cambodia), great, large. 

Thon {Ger.), clay. 

Thorpe, Thorp {England), a village, e.g. Althorp, Win- 
thorpe. From A.-S. thorp, cognate with Goth. 
thanrp, Icel. throp, Ger. Dorf. Cf. Throp. Is per- 
haps cognate with Gr. crvpfirj, rvpfiij, Lat. turba. 
Cf. Nor. thyrpja = to crowd. 

Thrik {Hassania), a road, po^th. From Arab. Trik {q.v.) 

Throp, Trop {Icel.), a hamlet, e.g. Ibthrop. Cf Thorpe. 

Thsuan {China), a streamlet, small river. 

Thsun {China), borough, village. See Tboii, Thun. 

Thui {Cambodia), water, e.g. Tien-Thni-Tai, * Pure-water- 
west,* in Bao-Duk. See Tien, Tai. 

Thnk {Cambodia), water. 

Thun {China), borough, village. See Tsun, Thun. 

Thong {Chin Hills, E. of Mon B,, Burma), hill, peak. 

Thurm {Ger.), tower, steeple. 

Thwaite {North of England), a forest clearing, e.g. 
Finflthwaite ; from Norse thveit, and cognate with 
A.-S. thwitan, thweotan=:to cut off, lop, prune, 


whittle (perhaps from same root) ; a variant is 

Twaite= wooded land grabbed up for tillage. 
Ti {China) y dam, dike. 
Ti (China), the ground. 
Ti (Indian, U.S,A,), water. 
Ti (Sahara), rock, e.g. Tibu, 'rock people,' see Bu; 

Tibesti, 'rocky mountains.' 
mTi (LoangOy dialect of Bantu), a tree; ioipl. see Hti. 
muTi (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), a tree ; for pi, see 

nm (Swahili), country, region, district. 
Tia (Gold Coast), boundary, end, limit. 
Tialugel (Fula), a stream. 
Tian (Chinese), heaven, e,g, Tian-ahan; found also 

spelled Tien, e.g. Ho-tien-ling, ' heaven-reaching 

pass.' See Shan, Ling. 
Tiangol (Fula), equivalent to Harigot (q.v.) 
Tiazibin (Kabile), farms. 
Ti diete. See diegu. 
Tie (China), iron, e.g. Liao-tie-shan, * old iron hill.' 

See Liao, Shan. 
Tief (Ger.), in sub-oceanic relief, a Deep (q.v.) 
Tien (China), fields, arable land ; village ; inn, shop. 
Tien (China), small lake, swamp. 
Tien (China). See Tian. 
Tien (Cambodia), pure, e.g. Tien-Thni, *pure water,* in 

Bao-Duk. See Thni. 
nmnTienyi (Kossova, Uganda), a mountain, hill. 

Tierra (Sp.), earth, land, country, e.g. Tierra del Faego, 

not Terra del Fnego. 
iTi& (Cent. Africa, Bantu), island. 


Tig {Indian, U.S.A.), a tree. 

Tiggert (Kabile), a field. 

Tigli, Ty (Gaelic), a tionse, e.g. Tighnabmaich, ' the house 

on the edge of the bank,' Tyndnim, 'the house on 

the ridge/ see Drum; cf, Lat, tugurium, for 

tegariom, from tego=to cover. Cognate with A.-S. 

thflBO = thatch, Ger. Daoh (roof), dekken (to cover), 

Tighilt {Kabile), a hill, small mountain. 
Tih (Arab,), a desert. 
Tik {E. Turk.), steep. 
Tikit (Hassania), house, cottage, 
in Tile {Zulu, Kafir), a flat strip of land, a small valley, 

parallel with a river and suitable for cultivation. 
Tilemmas {Tamahak, N. Africa), equivalent to TsmaYd 

Tiliwa, pi. of Tala {q.v.) 
Tilla {Punjab), a hill, mound. 
Tillo {Malay Peninsula), a bay. Cf. Telnk. 
TUnias, pi. TilmanuB {Arab.), underground reservoirs in 

the beds of rivers. 
Tim {Gilyak, Sakhalin), cranberry, e,g, Tim R. 
Tim {Yayo, China), a mountain. 
Timagami {Canada), deep water. 
Timbila {Mossi, French Sudan), a hamlet. 
Timeri {Kabile), an observatory. 
Timor {Malay), east, hence Timor island. 
Timor laut {Malay), north-east, lit * seaward Timor/ a 

smaller island lying to seaward (eastvsrard) of 

Timor, laut meaning ' sea.' 


Timto {Uganda), See Hto. 

Tin (Berber). See In. 

Tina {Btiss,), ooze. 

Tindila {Mossi^ French Sudan), a hill, small mountain. 

Ting (China), peak, hill. 

Ting (China), an independent sub-prefecture; sub- 
prefecture, a provincial division subject to a pre- 
fecture. Cf, Fn, Chi-li-ting. 

Ting (China), a cape, promontory, headland. Cf. Ti-tau. 

Tintiy Tindi (Mande). See Tond. 

Tiobart (Gaelic), source, well, stream. 

Kr (Gaelic), land, e.g, Cantyre. Cf, Lat, terra. 

Tirath (Punjab), a sacred bathing-place ; a place of 

Tirilt (Kabile), a hill. 

Tirremt (Marocco), a small fortress, fortified village, 
ph Tirrematin. 

Tisi (Marocco), hill, peak ; pass ; e,g. Tisi Hemiri, ' the 
hill of stones.' 

Ti-tau (China), a promontory. C/. Ting. 

Titi (Malay), a bridge. 

Tin (Botuma, Polynesia), great. 

Tivotaina (Maiva, New Guinea), west. For other 
points see Tototaina. 
liTiwa (Ketosh, Uganda), a lake. 

Tizi (Algeria), a col, saddle. 
uTlanga (Kafir), a tribe, nation. 

Tnie (Sahara), See Thniye. 

To (Fon, Dahome), a lake, lagoon, stream, e.g, Kotonn, * the 
dead mouth of the lake,' properly Eutonn. See Hn. 


Td {Hung.), a pond, pool, lake. 

To {Japan, Korea), an island, e.g. To-Yang, To-San. See Do. 

T6 {Japan), east, egoivalent to Higasi. For other 

points see Hoku. 
To {Tibet), high, lofty. 
To {Upper Kushkokwim, Indian, Alaska), water, river, 

used especially in the Copper river region, e.g. 

Higato, * Niga river.' Another form is Tu {q.v.) 
chiTo {Bantu), a ford in a river. 
mTo {Swahili), a river, e.g. Hto wa XTmba ; for pi. see 

muTo {Mavia, Mozambique), a river. 

Toa {}few Georgia, Solomon Is.), a mountain. 

Tobar, Tober {Gaelic, Irish), source, well, stream, e.g. 

Tobarcurry ; Tobermoney in co. Down. See Dobur. 
Tod {Tibet), upper, e.g. Singhtod and Po Tod in South- 
west and South-east Tibet respectively. 
Toft {Danelagh), an enclosure, e.g. Lowestoft, Wainfleet 

Tofts; from Dan. toft = an enclosed plot near a 

Tog {Tibet), above, summit ; gold-bearing land. 
Toga {Samoa), pronounced Tonga {q.v,) 
Togana {Nubia), flat land. 
Togo {Japan), a mountain pass, e.g. Harinoki-toge, * the 

pass of the alder trees.' 
Toghri {E. Turk.), right, direct (of a road). 
Togoda {Sienre), village, place of cultivation. 
Togoro {A'Zande), a marsh, bog. 
To-hi {Haitian), a village. 
Toi {Cambodia), little. 


Toi-lea {Hainan), a mountain. 

Toka {Barotonga, Polynesia) y stone, rock. 

Tokai (Turkestan), bush, wood. 

Tokang (Malay) y small islets with few or no trees. 

Tokelau (Tonga, Polynesia), north. For other points 

see Potntonga, Hahake, Hikifa. 
Tokilau (Niiie^ Polynesia), east. See Malanga, Hahifohifo. 
Tol (Dch.), toll-gate. 
Tol (Ebon, Polynesia), a mountain. 
Tol, Toli (Wolof, Mande), a field, garden. 
Toldilla (Sp.), a round-house. 
Toli (Wolof, Mande). See Tol. 
Tolkha (Mongol), head, source of a river. 
Tolts (Newfoundland), hummocks of granite protruding 

on the east coast of Newfoundland. 
Tom (Tibet), market, bazaar. 
umTombo (Kafir), a fountain, spring. 
Tomboka (Congo), ascent, hill. 
eTombwelo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), wharf, landing-place. 
Tomio (Japan), lighthouse. 
To-mu (China), wooded (country). 
Ton (Anglo-Saxon tfin), an enclosure, hence a village, 

e,g. Taunton, ' the village on the Tone B. ' ; from 

A.'S. tynan, to tine, to enclose ; cognate with Celt. 

dfin (q.v.) and with Old High Ger. zun, a hedge ; 

Mod. Ger. Zannssan enclosure; Sw. tuna, e,g. 

EskilBtnna ; cf. Zeriba (q.v.) 
Ton (Fan, Fre^nch Congo), stream, small watercourse. 

Cf. Xo, Su ; for pi. see Oton. 
Tondi (Songhai), rock, stone hill. See next entry. 

c 6 


Tondi ber (Songhai) , a mountain (ber = ' great ') . See Tondi. 

Tong {Annam)y a canton. 

Tong (China), openings for carrying off surplus water 

from a canal. 
Tong (Ghinay Korea), east, another spelling of Tung. 
Tong {Siam), mountain. 
Tong {Tibet and W, Yunnan), town, village. 
Tonga {Samoa), south wind: hence Itu-i-Tong, north; 

lit, north side. For other points see Itatu. 
Tonge {Jibu, New Guinea), village. 
Tong-oher (Tibet), a town. 
Tonle (Cambodia), river, large river, lake, e.g, Tonle Sap. 

See Bap. 
-Too (Indian, N, America), river (suflSx), a misspelling 

of Tn (q.v.) 
Top (Anglo-Saxon, Da,), a tuft, crest, summit ; an 
elevation, e,g, Oldhay Top, Edgetop in the Peak 
district, of. Cloud. See Edge. 
Topa (Turkestan), argillaceous fertile soil. 
Toprak (E. Turk.), clay. 
Tor (Arab.), an isolated mountain. 
Tor (Celtic), a tower-like rock, e.g. Ham Tor; Torphichen, 

* Eaven's hill ' ; Yes Tor (Dartmoor). 
Tora (Mottimotu, New Guinea), a tree. 
Torba (Arab.), fine dusty gypseous soil. 
Torfboden (Ger.), turf, ground. 
Torni (Fin.), a tower. 
Torek (Turk.) See Derek. 
Torokai (Tibet), a path. Cf. Deroga. 
Torony (Hung), a tower. 


ToroYO (Giryama), See Aoyo. 

Torp {Sw,)^ cottage, hamlet, village. Of, Dorp, Thorp. 
Torre {It, Fort, Sp.), a tower (T'*). 
Torrent (Fr.), a torrent (T»^). 
Torrente {It,), a torrent (T.) 
Torreon (Sp.)» ^ round-tower. 

To«Ti {Tibet), butter, e,g. Towl Hor, * butter lake.' See Hor. 
Tot {Nonnandy, Norse), an enclosure, e,g, Yyetot, Totnes. 
Tota {SingaUse), the mouth of a river. 
Tote {Nine, Polynesia), small. 
nToto {Congo, dialect of Bantu), earth, land, ground. 
Toto {Jihu, New Guinea) ^ a bridge. 
To to an {Indian, U.S.A.), a plain. 
Totolo {Marovo, Solomon Is.), tide. 
Tototaina {Maiva, New Guinea), east. For other points 

see Tivotaina, AMdaina. 
Tour {Fr.), a tower (T^. 
Toorbidre {Fr.), a peat bog. 
Tourelle {Fr.), a small tower, a turret. 
Town {England), see Ton. 
Toyam {Tamul), water. 
Tra {Irish), a strand, sandy beach, e.g. Tralee. Cf. 

Traigh, Trae, Traeth. 
Trab {Hassania), sand, cultivated land. 
Trace {Fr.), track, trail. 
Trae {from Gaelic traigh), shore, e.g. Ballantrae, ' the 

town on the shore.' See Bal. Cf. Traeth, Tra. 
Traeth {Welsh), sandy beach or shore, e.g. Pentraeth. 

See Pen. Cf Trae, Traigh, Tra, Draeth. 
Trai {Annam)^ a village. 

c c 2 


Traigh (Gaelic) j a strand, sandy beach, e,g. Traigh 
Bhailanoais bay, in Islay. Of. Tra, Trae, Traeih. 

Traktir (Buss,), an inn. 

Tram (Tibet), bank (of a river). 

Trampal (Sp.), a quagmire, morass. 

Tran (Cambodia), a plain, e.g, Tran Hinh. 

Tranquera (Sp.), a palisade. 

„ (Spanish S. America), a cross-bar frame to 

be laid on soft ground for the passage of men, 
vehicles, or cattle. 

Traazon (Sp.), part of a forest which has been cleared. 

Travess&o (Port.), a rocky barrier. 

Traws (Welsh), across, beyond, e.g, Trawscoed. See Coed. 

Tre, tref (Cymric), a village, e.g, Tredegar, Trefaant. 

Tremedal (Port, Sp.), marsh, morass. 

Trench (Eng,), used in sub-oceanic relief for an elon- 
gated Depression (q.v.), narrower than a Trough (q.v,), 
with steeply sloping borders, one of which (the 
continental) rises higher than the other (the 
oceanic), e.g, the Cayman Trench. Equivalent to 
Ger, Oraben, Fr. Eavin. 

Trepang (Cambodia), lake, marsh, pool. 

Tri- (Greek), three, e.g. Tripoli. See Polis. 

Tribu (Fr), a tribe. 

Trichter (Ger.), a crater (of a volcano) ; properly a 

Trik (Arab.), a road, Triked Duesa, * the road through 
the palms ' ; Trik es Safar, * the stony road.' See 
El, Sa&r, Tarik. 

Trillo (Sp,, Philippines), a track, trail. 


Trinchera^ (Sp.), a trench. 

Troli {Cambodia), a stream. 

Troon (Cymric trwyn), a promontory = Hess, e.g, Troon 
in Ayrshire. 

Trossachs {Gaelic), scrubby territory. 

Trottoir (JPV.), a footpath. 

Troa6e {Fr.), an opening, gap between heights, e.g. the 
Trouie of Belfort. 

Trough {Eng.), used, in sub-oceanic relief, for an 
elongated and wide depression, with gently slop- 
ing borders. A trough may be divided by 
transverse elevations into Basins {q.v.), as in the 
Atlantic. Equivalent to the Ger. Hulde, Fr. Valine. 

Tmmbu {Malay), shoal. 

Tmng {Cambodia), a canton, e.g. An-nga-tnmg. See An. 

Tmsan {Malay), channel, passage, e.g. Trusan Treacher, 
Tmsan Ligitan, both in the north of Sibuko bay, 
North Borneo. 

Trwyn {Welsh), snout, promontory. 

Tsa {Giryama), hill-top. 

Tsa {Tibet), salt ; hot. 

Tsa {Tibet), grass. 

Tsadaka {Indian^ Alaska), moose, e.g. Tsadaka creek. 

Tsadhe, Tsad {Chad L. region), water ; merely another 
pronunciation of Saghe, Sara, and corrupted into 
Chad. See Isa. 

Tsagan, Tsahan {Mongol), white, e.g. Tsagan-deressu, 
Tsahan Ossa, ' white river.' See Ossu. 

Tsai {Hainan), a village. 

Tsaidam {Tibet), salt swamp ; a Variant is Chaidam. 


Tsaka (Giryama), a forest. 

Tsakor (Mongol), flint, silica. 

Tsang^-po {Tibet), ' the pure one/ the purifier, hence a 
river, the river (the Tsang-po, i.e. the upper coarse 
of the Brahmaputra). For other spellings see 
knTsano (Giryama), the hot season. 
nmTsantsa (Zulu, Kafir), a ravine, kloof. 

Tsao (China), grass, herbage. 

Tsara (Madagascar), good, beautiful, e.g. Tsaranoro, 
'beautiful shore,' Saratanana, 'beautiful village.' 
Tsararano, ' good water.' Cf. Soa. See Oro, Bano, 

Tsanni (Hausa), a hill. Cf. Tadu. 

Tb6 (China), a small lake, swamp. 

Tse (Tibet), a summit, top of a mountain. 

Tsela (Basuto, Bantu), a road, path. Cf. Zira. 

Tselim, Selim (Chad L. region), black, e.g. Hki Tselim, 

* black water.* 
Tsen (China), a village. 
Tserkov (Buss.), a church. 
Tsko (Tibet). See Tso. 
Tsi (China), a borough. 

Tsi (Giryama), country, land. 

T$i (Japan), a plain. 

Tsi (Madagascar), that which has not, without, a 
negative prefix, e.g. Tsiala, * the treeless place,' 
Tsiafak, * not to be attained or approached,' 

* difficult of access,' e.g. Tgiafiikantltra, Tsia&karivo. 
See Ala. 


uTsi (Kaniba, Bantu), a river. 

Tsiau-pi (China) , cliff. Cf. Shan-tan. 
inTsimi (Zulu, Kafir), cultivated land. 

Tsingira (Lu-wanga, Uganda), crossways. 
loTsitsi (Bechuana, Bantu), a watercourse; pL diTsitsi. 
Tsiu (Hainan), a sub-prefecture. 
rTriu (Japan), a suffix meaning * middle/ e.g, Bitsiu. 
Tskhali (Caucasus), stream, secondary river. 
Tskharo (Caucasus), a spring, source. 
TsmaYd (Arab., N. Africa), holes dug in WadiB (q.v.) for 

procuring water. 
Tso (Tibet), a lake, e.g. Drolma-nam-tso, 'the heavenly 
lake Drolma.' Cf. Hor. See Ham. Tso is a variant 
of Cho (q.v.) 
Tsong kang (Tibef), a store, shop. 
Tson-nea (Hainan), a village. 
Tsoroha (Tso-o, Formosa), a river. 
Tsu (Japan), haven, harbour, port. 
Twii (China), promontory, cape. 
Tsni-sha (China), gravel. Cf Sha. 
Trai-wei (China), rocky, stony. 
kiTsnlu (Giryama), a hillock. 
Tbiui (China), a village, hamlet ; smaller than Hdang ; 
an agricultural village. Cf Pu, Tan, Thsnn, Thnn, 
Chwang, Cheng. 
Tsnngwe (Zambezia), bamboo. 
maTswerero (Giryama), west ; also muTswerero. 
Tn (China), ford. 

Tn (China), a capital, e.g. Shang-tn, ' upper capital.' 
Tn (China), earth. 


Ta (Ingalik, Alaska), water, frequently misspelled Too, 

used especially in the Copper river region, e.g, 

CShititu, * Copper water.' See To. 
Ta (Kirghiz), a mound of stones, with a branch fixed 

in it, on which are hung religious offerings, such 

as skulls, horns, &c. 
Tu {Maude, Fr, Sudan), dense vegetation, a forest. Of. 

mTu (Swahili), man, person ; for ^Z. see Mtu. 
waTa (Swahili), people of the river. Cf. To. See Wa. 
mnTaa (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), chief; for another 

form see Mntua. 
Taaija (Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), See Xaya. 
Tual (Arab), See Tuil. 
Tuat, Twat (Sahara), the oases. This was originally 

the name of a disease, which raged in the Sahara 

in the fourteenth century, and attacked the oases 

most virulently. Hence the Twat oases. 
Taa vela (Marovo, Solomon Is.), south wind. 
Tabber (Gaelic, Irish). See Dobur, Tobar. 
Tubk (Arab.), a terrace. 
Tabu oinan (Mentawei I., S.W. coast Sumatra), a 

Tacnra (Spanish S. America), small clay hills of 

conical or semi-conical shape on which are villages, 

especially near rivers and flooded land or in 

mountain dales. 
Tacutuzal (Spanish S. America), ground full of surface 

holes and pits, making transit difficult and 


Tugnrio {It), 
Tngorio {Port,),^ 
Tngnrio (Sp.), 


Tudu, Taddu, Xuduma (Hatcsa), hill, highland, upland, 
e.g. Oober Tudu, ' Goher upland/ as opposed to Oober 
Safl, • Gober valley.' Cf. Tsanni. 
Tn&na (Hausa), flood. 

Tug (Somaliland), the bed of a river dry for a portion 
of the year; a sand river. Equivalent to the 
Arab. Wadi (q.v.), e.g. Tug Fafan. Cf. Selat. 
Tughai (E. Turk.), a grassy place. 
Tug-sa (Tibet), a camping-place, encampment. See Sa. 

/a cottage; from Lat. tugurium, from 
ItalO'Celtic root teg, cover, roof, cog- 
nate with Teutonic dek; cf. thatch 
from A.'S. thsBC. See Tigh and Ty. 
Tugurmen {E. Turk.), a mill. 
Tui {Chin Hills), water. 

Tuil, Tual, Tuilet (ilrab.), elevations, heights, undulations. 
Tmlerie {Fr.), tilekiln (T*^) ; see Ziegelei. 
Tuin (Dch.), a garden. 
Tuk {Cambodia), a boat. 
Tukos {Amis, Formosa), a mountain. 
Tuku {Polynesia). See Tuu. 
Tukul {Upper Nile), a round hut, with conical roof, 

made of straw. 
eTukulu {Congo, dialect of Bantu), headland, cape. 
Tul {Somali), a heap, mound ; cf Ohumbur, Bur. 
Tulde {Fula), a mountain, hill. 

Tulik, Tulig {Indian, Alaska), crack, cleft, fissure, e.g. 

Tulik volcano. 

{Eskimo), region, e.g. Tubuktuligmiut, ' the 
people of Tubuk region.' See Mute. 

99 >> 


Tullu (Indum, U.S. A.), high peak. 
Tnln {Galla), mountain, generally isolated, lit. a heel, 
e.g. Tnln Arba, ' elephant peak/ 
muTnlu {dialect of Bantu), a fertile plain. 
Tnlwenyo {Nandi, Uganda), mountain. 
Tulwet {Nandi, Uganda), a mound, hill. 
TnmaiL {Bitss,), a fog. 
Tumniep {Siam), a rest-house. 
Tnmta {Mongol), middle, e.g. Tnmta Habsere, 'middle 

Habsere.' See Kurban. 
Tumn {Kiwai, New Guinea), a forest. 
Tnmnr {Mongol), iron. 
Tun {China), an outpost ; market village. Cf. Pn, 

Tsnn, Chwflng. 
Tunan {Mentawei), a cape, headland, point. 
Tund, Tnndo {Wolof, Mande), a small mountain, hill, 

equivalent to Tindi, Tindila {q^v.) 
Tundra {Buss.), the barren northern country of Siberia, 
beyond the limits of forest growth ; generaUy, 
plains full of lakes, rivers, or bogs many parts 
permanently frozen below the surface. See Taiga. 
Tung {China), an alley, small street. 
Tung {China), copper. 
Tung {China), east, eastern, e.g. Kwang Tung, as 

opposed to Kwang Si. See Si, Pe, Nan, Kwang. 
Tung {Chin Hills, E. of Mon B., Burma), a hill, peak ; 
the same word as Taung, pi. Chung ; e.g. Pynng 
Horn Tung. 
Tung {Khas Chos, Indo-China), a forest. 
Tunga (/St6\), Tunge {Da., Nor.), a tongue or strip of land. 


Tangeffil {Tanguf)^ a stream. 
Tunika, ph of Akanifca {q.v.) 
IdTuntu {Oerman East Africa, dialect of Bantu), a peak, 

hill- top ; applied to villages built on high ground. 
Tnpe {E, Turk.), summit, top (of a mountain). 
Tnpik {Indian, U.S.A.), a spring, well, source. 
Tura (Syriac), mountain, e.g. Tara Khwara, 'white 

Tnraa (Arab.), a stream, river. 
Tnrbat {Arab., Pers.), a tomb. 
Tnrh {Min-kia, Yunnan), east. For other points see 

Turk la (Min-kia, Yunnan) ^ a cave. 
Tnro (Mande), a forest. Cf Tn. 
Turuba (Hausa), a path. Cf Hainya. 
Tnsu {Marovo, Solomon Is.), an island. 
Ta 8ze {Tibet), a small district under a headman. 
Tntak {Turk. ), the bar of a river. 
Tutan {China), a ferry. 
Tatu {Sara, Chad L.), water. Cf. Mane. 
Tnn, Tnkn {Polynesia), a place, site. 
Tnvn {Maiva, New Guinea), grass. 
Tnwa {Bornu), place, locality, abode, e g. Ng^om-tawa 

* the place of the hippopotamus.' See Ngnm. 
Tn wak {Pimo Indian, S.W. United Sfaf 65), a mountain. 
Tnz {Turk.), salt, e.g. Tnz Knl, ' salt lake.' See Knl. 
nTwa {Kafir), a deep place in a river. 
Twaite {N. of England). See Tbwaite. 
Twat {Sahara). See Tnat. 
Twiftle {Northumbria), a boundary, e.g. Entwifltle. 


Twr (Welsh), tower, e.g. Twrcelyn. 

Ty (Welsh and Scotch), a house, e,g, Ty-Owyn. Cf. 

Tigh ; see Tugmo. 
iuTya (Zulu, Kafir), a small garden. 
Tyap (Turkestan), a ravine. 

Tyn = Ty'n =s Ty yn (Welsh), house in, e,g, Tyn-y-coed. 
Tyol (Turkestan), a steppe. 
Typhoons (Chinese), the violent circular storms which 

visit the Chinese seas ; lit, great wind, from tai, 

great, and fon^ wind. 
Tjrr = Ty'r = Ty yr (Welsh), house of the, e.g. Tyr-escob. 

See Esoob. 
Tyre (Gaelic). See Tir. 
nmTynba (Zulu, Kafir), brackish water. 
Tze (China). See Tbo. 
Tzerg (Armenian), mud. 
Tzerkov (Buss.), a church. 


U- (Swahili). The names of countries are formed from 
the root by means of the prefix IT, e.g. TTnyika, the 
country of the Wanyika. See Wa, Ki. The cor- 
responding form in the equatorial lake region is 
Bu. But Swahili influence has prevailed, and 
Uganda, XJnyoro, &c. are now the accepted forms 
instead of Buganda, Bunyoro, &c. 

U (New Guinea). See On. 

Ua, pi. Hyna (Swahili), an enclosure, fence, 

Uai (Polynesia). See Vai. 

Uanja (Swahili). See Anja. 


Uar, War (Bahanwin dialect^ South Somaliland), a water 

tank, an open trench, not intended for irrigation, 

but to collect drinking-water. 
TTato (Swahili). See Watn, Tn, To. 
Ub (Hottentot). See Ep. 
Ubityi (Zulu, Kafir), See Bityi. 
Ubnilaya Voda {Buss.), low water, low tide. See Voda. 
Ubuku (Kafir). See Bnkn. 
Uch, Uwch (Welsh), higher, Ucha, TTchaf, highest, e.g. 

Ownnws TTcha. 
Uchau (Hu-ni, China), a wood, forest, bush. 
TTclima, TTjma (Chinese Turkestan), a post station. 
Uda, Uddak (Aleut), bay, gulf, e.g. Alimuda, ' Alim 

Udada (Kafir). See Dada. 
Udak (Aleut), dried fish, e.g. cape Udak. 
Uddak (Aleut). See TTda. 
Udgha (Berber). See Wadrar. 
Udherer (Shawia, Berber), a hill. 
TTdBni (Fan, French Congo). See Dsni. 
Uduuru (S. Cape, New Guinea), a mountain. 
TTdvar (Hung.), courtyard, manor, house, castle. 

l (dialects of Bantu), forest, lit. grass. See Dzn. 

Ue nem to koi (Indian, California), island, lit. middle 

of water. 

XJ&lme, Vfalume, Ufanme (Swahili), kingdom. 

nfjEduiie. See IJ&lme. 

nfaimie. See IJ&lme. 

Ufer (Ger.), bank of a river, beach shore. See Over. 


Ugau {Zulu, Kafir), a bend, curve, or inclination in a 

range of mountains ; a crooked, rocky, and difficult 

pass in a mountain. 
JJgn {Ibo, Nigeria), hill, mountain, e.g. Elu IJg^, * top of 

the mountain.' 
Ug^den (Jibali, Berber), a low hill. 
Uliaa (laibo, New Guinea), east. 
Ui (E. Turk.), tent, house, dwelling, abode. 
Uin {Serer, Senegal), people. 
Uiterbuurt {Dch.), the outskirts of a town; suburb. 

See Buurt. 
TTj (Arab. N. Africa), talus slope, lit. a face. 
Uj {Hu/ng.), new, e.g. Uj Kigyos. 
Ujar {Berber). See Wadrar. 
Ujong {Malay). See Tangong. 
Uketo {Swahili). See Keto. 
TTkingo {Swahili). See Kingo. 
Ukreplenye (Buss.), a fort. Properly Vkryeplenie. 
Ukumkani {Zulu, Kafir). See Kuxnkani. 
tria {China), stream, river. 

nia, m {Mongol), a mountain, e.g. Bogdo Ul, *6od*s 
wXHa (Giryama), rain. 
mad, Aulad, Awlad {Arab.), a district, tribe, tribal 
district, like the territory of the old Highland clans ; 
Aulad=son ; see Gaelic Mao ; cf. Walad, Wad. 
Tllak {Aleut), house or everybody's house, house for 

everybody, e.g. TTlak island. 
XJlalo {Ja-Lu^, Uganda), bridge, especially a bridge of 


Ulan (Mcytigol, E. Turk.), red, e,g. XTlan Kudnk, 'red 

wells.* See Kndnk. 
Ule (Bambaray Malinke), red, e,g. Banle, * red river ' ; 

Manaule, ' red cliff.' See Ba, Mana ; cf, Fing, Khwa. 
Ulikowa {Lu-Wangu, Uganda), a wall. 
Ulo {Ibo, Nigeria), house. 
TJlo, nioto {Bamhara, Malinke), a forest. 
Ulongo {Giryama). See Longo. 
Ulu, Huln (Malay), the interior or up-stream portion of 

a country, source of a river, e.g. TTlu Bemam, ' the 

source of Bemam B.* 
Ulu (Turk.), great, e.g. TIlu Chai, * great river,' in Asia 

Minor. See Chai. 
triugh (E. Turk.), great, high, lofty. From Turk. Ulu. 
Ulimivaiina {Mbau, Fiji), a mountain. 
Ulns {E. Turk.), a tribe, clan. 

TJlnsingi (Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Singi. 
TJluzi (Lusinga and Chula, Uganda). See Zi. 
niwandle (Kafir). See Lwandle, Andle. 
Urn (Arab.) See Umm.' 
Urn (Friesland), a home, e.g. Bjrsiun. 
TTma (Kamerun), a place, site. 
Uma (Mentawei I., 8.W. coast Sumatra), a house. 
Uma (New Guinea), garden. 
Uma (Zambezia), dry. 
Umai (Pal, South Chhia), a wood. 
Umango (Kafir). See Mango. 
Umbana (Cent. Africa, Bantu). See Mumana. 
Umbolompo (Kafir). See Bolompo. 
Umbnso (Zulu, Kafir). See Bnso. 


UmbutiBO {Zulu J Kafir) ^ a mealie ground cultivated by 
the whole tribe of a chief. 

Umda {Amdxosay Kafir), See Da. 

Umdiliya {Amaxosa, Kafir), See IKliya. 

IJmen {Mongol), before, in front ; south. 

IJmendo {Zulu, Kafir). See Mendo. 

Umfola {Zulu, Kafir), See Fula. 

Umfimgi {Lu-Wanga, Uganda), See Fimgi. 

Umc^bimgen {Ger,), environs. 

IJmgegend {Oer,), environs, district surrounding any 

Umgxobozo {AmaxosUf Kafir), See Ozoboso. 

Umhlaba {Kafir), See Hlaba. 

Umhlahlo {Aniaxosa, Kafir), See Hlahlo. 

Umhlambo {Kafir), See Hlambo. 

Umi {Japan) y the sea. Cf, Nada. 

Umieshi {Lu-Wanga, Uganda), sand. 

Umitsiiru {Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Mitsuru. 

Umlambo {Kafir), See Lambo. 

TTmlopu {Kiriwina, New Guinea) , a valley. 

IJmin {Arab,), mother; as a geographical term this 
signifies producing, containing, e,g. ITin er Ebia, 
< abounding in pasturage,' see El, Bbia ; used in a 
similar manner to Abn {q,v.) ; it is often joined to 
the following word by omitting the TT and simply 
prefixing M, e.g, Umm-gheir is contracted into 
Magheir. Frequently found in the form TTm. 

TTmnqiiba {Zulu, Kafir), See Nqnba. 

Umqenqelezi {Zulu, Kafir). See Qenqelesi. 

Umrotya {Zulu, Kafir), a ravine. See Sotya. 


nmsala {Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a tree. 

Umiwtuluka (Za». Sf66 Setuluka. 

Umgingakari (Kafir), See Singakanl. 

Umtangala {Zulu, Kafir). See Tangala. 

Umtantato {Kafir). See Tantato. 

Umtombo {Kafir). See Tombo. 

TTmtsantsa {Zulu, Kafir). See Tsantsa. 

Umtynba {Zulu, Kafir). See Tynba. 

TTmnchi, Imiclii {Kossova, Eastern Uganda). See CShi. 

nmnBitn {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Mwitu, 

Umutienyi {Kossova, Uganda). See Tienyi. 
Umuzi {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Mud. 
Umwalo {Lu'Wanga, Uganda). See Alo. 
Umwamba {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 

Umwene {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Mwene. 
Umzi {Zulu, Kafir), a village; a place of residence, 

e.g. Umzinyati B. = *the buffalo haunt/ UmzimYubu 

B.=*the hippopotamus haunt.' See Zi for prefix 

and root. 
Umzila {Kafir). See Zila. 
nmziiiiandlela {Zulu, Kafir). See Zimandlela. 
Unajia {Mentawei I., S.W. coast Sumatra), a marsh, bog. 
Unaktak {Aleut), broken, rugged, e.g. Uniktak bay. 
TTnoha {Sansc), a height, elevation, hill. 
Ung {Taungtha, Arakan), a valley. 
Ungala {Mandara, South Bomu), road, path, way. 
Vngnnyek {Nandi, Uganda), sand. 
XJngnr {E. Turk.), a cave, cavern. 

D D 


Ungwa (Hausa)yB, pagan village; e.g. Ungwa Sammit, 
Ungwa-n-Bodo, ' Bodo's village.' Cf, Oimi. 

TTngn^rina (MekeOt New Guinea), summit. 

XJsjoBho (Japan), custom-houBe. 

Unter {Ger.), mider, lower (U.), e.g. TTnter den Linden. 
See next entry. 

TTnterlauf (Ger.), lower course of a river. 

Unuwa (laibo, New Guinea), a forest. 

Up (Hottentot). See Ep. 

IJpalla (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 

Upavan (Deccan), a grove. 

IJprata (Deccan), the west. 

Uqampu (Zulu, Kafir). See ftampn. 

TTqato (Zulu, Kafir). See Qato. 

Ur (Hung.), a town, e.g. Kereaztur, equivalent to Var (q.v.) 

Ura (Albanian), a bridge. 

Ura (Japan), bay. 

Urdian, TTrjan (Fula), serpent, the name given to the 
four bends of the Senegal E. 

Urdn (Turk.), a camp, a market ; e.g. Urdt Zaban=the 
* Camp Language ' (Hindustani). 

Ureba (Nubia), a mountain, a large conspicuous moun- 

IJrgebirge (Ger.), primitive mountains or rocks ; from 
Ur, prefix of originality, and Oebirge, extended form 
of Berg = mountain. 

IJrgo (Mongol), an inhabited place ; e.g. Sam Beise ITrgo, 
' seat of prince Sam.' Vrga, the Bussian pronuncia- 
tion of this. 


Urir {Mzahi, Berber), a mountain. Cf, Ighil. 

TTijan (Fula), See UrdiaE. 

IJrma {Nestorian Christian)^ a church. 

Uro (Fula), a village, a farming village, as opposed to 

Bumde {q.v.) ; e.g. IJro Eanawaohi. 
Urochi {Kossova, Uganda). See Soohi. 
TTroohlBhche (Buss.), boundary, limit. 
Urta {E. Turk,) See Utra. 
IJrtaiig (E, Turk.), a post station. 
TTm, pi. Xniu {Telegu, Deccan), a village. 
TTmizi, IlBiunbi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See 

In, Snmbi. 
Usadba (Buss.), a farm, manor house. 
TTsgik (Aleut), willow, e.g. TTski inlet. 
VBhar (Arab.), barren (land) ; a spot with saline soil. 
Usk. See Wyag. 
Urine (Fr.), a factory (Us*). 
TTsri (Tamul, Deccan), top, summit. 
TTssn (Manchuria), river; e.g. TTBSnri. There is also the 

Mongol form Ossn (q.v.) Cf. Ura. 
Ustang (Turkestan), a large canal. 
IJstnn (E. Turk.), upper, higher, e.g. Ustnn Tagh. See 

Vstye, Ust (Buss.), entrance, mouth (of a river), e.g. Ust- 

Usu (Mongolia^ Tibet), water, e.g. Tsagan-usu, otherwise 

Ehaidikgol. Cf. ITmu, Omu. 
Usua (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Sua. 
Vsnmbi, TTmizi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See 

Siunbi^ In. 

p D 2 


IJnim {French Sudan), customs duty, a place at which 

customs duty is collected. 
TTswa {Cent Africa, Bantu). See Isoa, Swa. 
TTt {E. Turk.), grass. 
Via {Marocco), a plain. 

Vtan {Malay), forest, wood, IJtan Simba= virgin forest, 
ntango {Kafir). See Tango. 
Uteka {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Teka. 
Utes {Buss.), bluff, cliff. 
TTtin {Hu-ni, China), water. 
ntlaiiga {Kafir), a tribe, nation. See Tlanga. 
Utra, Otra, Urta {E. Turk.), middle. Cf. Mongol Tnmta. 
Utsi {Ukamba, Brit. E. Africa, Bantu). See TA. 
ntswerero {Giryama), west. Another form is Huts- 

werero. See Akani. 
nttar {Hind.), north. For other points see Dakhni, 

Junubi, Pachcham, Pnrab. 
ntwa {Kafir), a deep place in a river. See Twa. 
Uvi {Motumotu, New Guinea), house. 
Uvra {Mandara, South Bornu), a mountain. 
TTwatu {Swahili). See Tu. 
Uwch {Welsh). See Uch. 
Uy, Ui {Cent. Asia), tents, a collection of tents, an 

Uyasd {Cent. Asia), a district. 
TTzo {Ibo, Nigeria), road, street. 
Uznn {Turk.), long, far, far off; e.g. Unm Taki, 'the 

distant Taki,' 


ovaVa {Bihe, Angola, Bantu), water. 
Vaag (Nor,), an inlet, small bay. 
Vaart (Dch,), way, course ; e.g. DedemsTaart. Cf, Fahrte. 
Vadakku {Tamut), north, cf, Kuperftn. For other 

points see Terku, Intiran, Mekakn. 
Vadera (Sp.), a shallow part of a river. Cf, Vado. 
Vftderqvam {Sw.), a windmill. 

Vado (Sp.), a ford (V.) Cf. Vadera. Port, form is V<o. 
Vaeau (S. Gape, New Guinea), east. 
VflDrft (Da., Nor.), wharf, dockyard, shipyard. 
Vager (Da.) a beacon, buoy. 
Vague (Fr.), waste (land). 
Vahal (Punjab), long narrow depressions, probably old 

river channels. Cf. Kali. 
Vai, Uai, Wai, Vol (Polynesia), water. 
Vahau (Kerepunu, New Guinea), south-east wind. 
muVaka (Nika), a boundary. 
iVakavaka (Zulu, Kafir), a sandy country; damp 

country ; yielding ground. 
Vakima (Eabadi, New Guinea), stone, rock. 
Val (Da.), the shore. 
Val (It., Sp.), vale, dale, valley. Cf. Valle. Obsolete in 

Fr. except in place-names, e.g. Val Fante. 
Val, Vala (India), town, e.g. Karoval. 
Va-la (Hainan), a village. 
Vala (Madagascar), enclosure, field, farm ; e.g. Ivalanosi, 

' the goat field.' See I, Nosi. 
Valaka (Kerepunu, New Guinea), north wind. 


Vale (Bumanian), a valley (V.) See Val, Talea. 

Vale (Polynesia). See Fae. 

Valea (Buss.), valley, dale. 

Vali (Turk,), governor-general, the administrator of a 

Vilayet (g.t?.) 
Valla (Port.), a ditch, trench. Cf. Valle. 
Valla (Sp.), a space or ground surrounded with stakes 

or palisadcB ; barrier ; entrenchment. 
Vallado (Sp.), palisade, fence. 
Valle (It), a valley (V*®). See Val and next entry. 
Valle (Port,, Sp,) A valley, dale, vale. See Val, Vale, 

Valea, Valla, Vall6e, Vallei. 
ValWe (Fr.), a valley (V**). See Valle. For use as a 

form of sub-oceanic relief see Trongh. 
Vallei (Dch,), dale, valley. See Valle. 
Valiza (Sp.), beacon, buoy. 
Vallon (Fr.) a small valley (V**"). See VaUfc. 
Valu (Kiriwina, New Guinea), land, village ; Viloveaka, 

' big village ' ; Vilokikita, ' small village.' See under 

Vamaknmanelo (Lomwe, Shirwa L.), a stockade, en- 
eVambn (Congo, dialect of Bantu), junction (of roads). 
Van (Sansc, Hind.), forest, wood, grove. 
Van-tot (Sansc, Hind.), the skirts of a wood. See Van, 
Vand (Da., Nor.), water; a small lake; Vandfiald = 

Vandmplle (Da., Nor.), a watermill (V"'*). 
e Vanga (Congo, dialect of Bantu), suburb, hamlet. 
luVanga (Nika), a cave. 
Vank (SaJisc), the bend of a river. 


Vanua (Kabadi, New Guinea), village. For other 

forms see Fenua. 
Vannga {Kerepunu, New Guinea), a village. Gf, Vanua. 
Vapfivai {N. Tepehuane Indian, Mexico), stone, rock. 
Vapi (Sansc,), pond, lake, pool. 
Vaqueria {Spanish 8. America), an enclosure for cattle ; 

a cowhouse ; from vaca=cow. 
Var {Gaelic). See Barr. 
Yit {Hung.), fortress, town roimd a fortress ; e.^.Temesvar, 

* fortress on the Temes B.' Of, Ur, Varos. 
Var {N. Chin HillSy Burma), a stream. 
Varaigne {Fr.), a tide-sluice (of salt marshes). 
Varam {Tamul, Deccan), bank, shore. 
Varde {Da,, Nor.), a beacon, cairn, landmark. 
Vareana {Kabadi, New Guinea), south-east wind. 
Varenne {Fr,), waste land. Of. Warren. 
Viri {Sansc, Hind.), water. 
V&ri-prav6h {Sansc, Hind,), a cascade; a current of 

YiroB {Hung,), a town. See Var. 
Vamru {Maiva, New Guinea), north-west wind. See 

Vanla, Vaura. 
Vfts {Sansc, Hind,), a house, dwelling. 
Vase {Fr.), mud. 
Vanr {Hung,), a market. 
Vat {Cambodia), a Buddhist monastery or temple, 

e.g. Ankor Vat ; the same word as Wat {q.v,) 
Vat {Hebrides), a small lake, e,g, Ollevat. 
Vat {Hind.), a road, path ; from Sansc, vanta. 
eVata {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a town, village. 


V&ti} B4ti {Sansc, Hind.), a house, building ; garden, 

plantation ; villa. 
Vato (Madagascar), stone, rock, e.g. Vodivato, * at the 

foot of the rock.* See Vodi. 
Vatten (Sw,), Vatn, Vdtn (Iceland), a lake ; e.g. YatteniGEdl 

= waterfall ; Hvitarvatn, ' white lake * ; FiskiYotn, 

* fish lake.' 
Vatu (Mbau, Fiji), stone, rock. 
Van (Kerepunu, New Guinea), stone. 
Van (Vonum, Formosa), a village. 
Vaula (Maiva, New Guinea), south-east wind. See 

Varum, Vaura. 
Vanra (Maiva, New Guinea), wind. See Vaula, Varuru. 
Veoohia, o (J^.), old, e.g. Civita Veochia. See Civita. 
Vedu, Vendu (Fula), lake, marsh, swamp. 
Veen (Dch.), bog, turf, e.g. Boerveen. 
Veer (Dch.), a ferry. 
Vega (Sp.), an open plain, a tract of level and fruitful 

„ (S. America), a valley. 
Vci (Maiva, New Guinea), water. 
Vci, Vcj (Da., Nor.), a road. Cf. Weg. 
Veioa (Eabadi, New Guinea), water. 
Veld (Dch.), an open plain ; field, ground. Also moun- 
tain range ; e.g. Boggeveld in Cape Colony. Cf. Fell. 

Frequently, but quite erroneously, spelled Veldt. 
Velho (Port), old, e.g. Villa Vclha. 
Velikii (Buss.), ] great (Vk.), e.g. Veliki Stala, on 
Veliky (Bohemian),) the river Morava. 

Venaje (Sp.), the current of a stream. 


Vendaval (Sp.)i ^ strong south-west wind. 

Vendu (Fula). See Vedu. 

Veni {Sa7isc.), confluence of rivers, junction. 

Venta (Sp.), a poor inn (Vta). 

Ventorillo {Sp.), a small inn (Vtto). 

Vera, Wera {German East Africa), white, Vera* 
nyange, the chief town of Karagwe. 

Verchne, Yerolmoi (Buss.) See YerUmi. 

Verde {Port, Sp., It,), green, e.g. Cape Verde. 

Vereda {Sp.), path, narrow way, footpath. 

Verger (Fr.), an orchard. 

Verkh (Buss.), a peak. 

Verklmi (Buss.), upper, e.g. Verkhni Uralsk. 

Verrerie (Fr.), a glass factory (V^O- 

Versant (Fr.), declivity, side (of a mountain) ; a water- 

Vertiefnng (Ger.), used, in sub-oceanic relief, for a 
depression enclosed on all sides by elevations of 
the sea bed ; from Tief=deep. 

Vertiente {Sp.), cataract, waterfall, cascade. 

Vesna {Btcss.), spring. 

Vest {Da., Nor., Sw.), west. 

Vest {Dch.), fortress ; wall, rampart. See Vesting. 

Vester, Vestre {Da., Nor.), west, western (V*"). 

Vesting {Dch.), a stronghold, fortress. See Vest. Cf. 
Ger. Festnng. 

Vestra {Sw.), west, western. 

Vetta {It.), peak, summit, top. 

Vetu {Bubiana, Solomon Is.), house. 

Ven {S. Cape, New Guinea), stone. 


Via (It, Port, 8p.), road, route, street, 
e Via {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a field, plantation. 

Viani {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Eiani, AnL 

Vicheadero {Spanish S, America), heaps of small stones, 
surrounded by a wall, found on the W. borders of 
Uruguay, where it is said the Indians place 
sentries to give notice of the approach of an 

Vidik {Hung,), region, district, environs. 

Viejo {Sp,), old, ancient, e.g. Cabo Viejo. 

Vien {Siam), a town of the fourth order or sub-dis- 
trict capital. 

Vienz, Vicil, Vieille, Viellc {Fr.), old, ancient, e.g. Vieuz 
Berqnin, Vieilleville, Vielmnr, Vielle-86gar. 

Vig, Vik {Da., Nor.), a bay, creek ; e.g. QiLalvig, * whale 
bay.' Larvik. Cf Vik. 

Vigfa {Sp.), Vigie {Fr.), a look-out ; doubtful shoals, the 
existence of which in their exact locality is doubtful. 

Vigne {Fr.), a vineyard. 

Vijni {Buss.) See Vyshni. 

Vijver {Dch.), a pond. 

Vik {Sw.), a bay ; {IceL), a creek, inlet, or cove ; hence 
Vikingr (£ng'. Viking) = creek-dweller, rover, corsair. 

Vil {Indo-China), a village. 
luVila {Congo, dialect of Bantu), family, clan. 

Vilag {Hung.), world. 

Vilayet, Eyalet {Turk.), government or province under 
a Vali, divided into Sanjaks ; land, country. 

Villa {It.), country house (V**). 

Villa {Port., Sp.), a town. 


Village (Fr,), a village. 

Villar (Sp.)i village, hamlet. In Port, fannhouse. 

Villa (Fr.), a town. 

Villeta (8p.), a small town or borough. 

Villiers (France), an abode, house, e.g. Hardivilliers. 

Villino (It.) J a small country house (V"*^). 

Vinayo {Pazzelie, Pei-Po, Formosa), a mountain. 

Vire-vire (Fr.), a whirlpool. 

Viria (Mbau, Fiji), a place. 

Vives eanz (Fr.), spring tide. 

Vivicr (Fr.), a fishpond (V^. 

ViB {Hung.), water. 

Vladi (Btc8s.,from the same root as vladika, ' a ruler '), 

rule, e.g. Vladikavkaz, ' rule the Caucasus.' 
Vlakte (Dch.), flats, a plain. 
Vlci {Cape Dch.), a hollow filled with water, frequently 

dry in the hot season, e.g. Zeekoe Vlei {lit. sea-cow 

vlei), Brand Vlei, ' burning vlei ' (a hot spring). 
Vlek {Dch.), a borough, market town. 
Vliet {Dch.), a brook, stream, e.g. Heenvliet. Cf. Fleet. 
Vloed {Dch.), stream, great river ; torrent, inundation, 

flood ; tide. 
Vlonder {Dch.), a narrow wooden bridge. 
Vnam {Cambodia), mountain, hill. 
Voda {Buss.), water. 
Vodi (Madagascar), foot, bottom, e.g. Vodivohitra, * the 

foot of the mountain.' See Vohitra, Bodi. 
Vodopol {Buss.), the overflow of a river. 
Voe {Shetlands), a bay, a fiord, e.g. Dury Voe. For 
comparison with Oeo and Wick see Oeo. 


Voetpad (Dch,), a footpath. 

Vogelj (Albanian), little. 

Vohitra (Madagascar) y a village ; also a mountain ; con- 
tracted to vohi in composition, e.g. Vohibahoak, 
* the village of the people ' ; Vohibe, * great mountain.* 

Voi (Polynesia). See Vai. 

Voic (Fr.), way, road, track. 

Vokahal (Kuvarawan, Pei-Po, Formosa), a river. 

Yoladero (8p.), a precipice, abyss. 

Yolastnoi (Cent. Asia), a native district chief. 

Vttlgy (Hung.), a valley (Vgy.) 

Volk (Dch.), people, na»tion, folk. 

Volkaan, Vulkaan (Dch.), a volcano. 

Volok (Buss.), an isthmus, a portage. 

Vom (Fan, French Congo), place, spot. 

Von (Ger.), from (direction of road) (v.) 

Vorder (Ger.), fore, in front (V.), opp. to Hinter. 

Vorgebirge (Ger.), a promontory ; foot-hills. 

Yorota (Buss.), gates, a channel. Found also in the 
form Varota. 
kiVodio (Giryama), ferry. 

Yostok (Buss.), east, e.g. Vladivostok, 'rule the east.' 
SeeYlsM; other points areZapad, Syever, Polden, Tug. 

Vowiflha (Makua, Ger. and Port. E. Africa), deep water. 

Yowoloa (Makua, Ger. and Port. E. Africa), damp 
ground fitted for the growth of rice. 

Vrchol, Vrch, Vrh (Boheynian), a mountain. 

Vrelo (8. Slav.), source, spring. 

Vrij, Vry (Dch.), free, e.g. Oranje Vrijstaat, * Orange 
Free State,* now the Orange River Colony; 
Vryburg, * free town,' refuge, sanctuary. 


Vrijliafeii {Dch.), a free port. 
Vrtaohe (Servian), valley, dale. 
Vry (Dch.) See Vrij. 
Vrysis (Neo-Greek), source, spring, 
mu Vu {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a ditch or dike. 

Vua liku {Mbau, Fiji), north. For other points see Ba, 

Thake, Theva. 
Vnhitra {Madagascar), See Vohitra. 
Vuiselok {Buss.), settlement, colony. 
kiVnku {Swahili), ferry, ford, crossing-place. 

Vuli {E, Africa), the lesser rains, which continue for 

three or four weeks from the latter part of 

September nearly through October. 
Vulkaan {Dch.) See Volkaan. 
muVnnibi {Giryama), the hot season. 
muViinbi {Giryama), the rainy season. 
Vung {Annam), a bay. 
Vuno {Neo-Greeh), a mountain. 
eVwangi {Congo, dialect of Bantu), thicket, brushwood, 

jungle of brushwood. 
Vycd {Malta), a ravine, valley, or river ; from Arabic 

Wad {q,v.) 
Vyetreimaya melnitsa {Buss), a windmill. 
Vyiliny, Vishni {Buss.), upper, e,g, Vyshni Volochok. 
i {Bohemian, Buss,), high, great (Vsk.) 



Wa (Bantu), a prefix meaning ^people,' e.g. Uliehe the 
country, Wahehe the inhabitants; Uganda the 
country, Waganda the people of Uganda (in Ki- 
Swahiliy but not in Lu-Ganda) ; see V, cf. A, Ba, 
-Bn, Im, Kel, Ahel, Hke. 

-Wa {Hau8a)f a termination sigjiifying * of * or ' belong- 
ing to/ e.g. Hassarawa is equivalent to Hassara's, 
frequently found in place-names. -Awa is a com- 
mon Hausa pi. termination. 

Wachtposten (Ger.), a guard-post or station. 

Wad, Wadde (Dch.), a ford, a shallow. 

Wad {Arab.), contracted from Walad, son, e.g. Wad 
Medani. See Vlad. 

Wad, Wadi, pi. Widan (Arab.), a watercourse, dry in 
summer ; a valley. E.g. Wadi Halfia, ' the valley 
where the Haifa grass grows.' Cf. Wed, Selat, 
„ (Marocco)y a river, not a dry river-bed. 

Wadrar (Berber) , a corruption of Adrar, a mountain ; 
also written Udgha, Vjar. 

Wag (8w.), a road. Cf. Weg, Vcj. 

WagenfiUire (Ger.), a ferry for wagons (W.F.) 

Waha (Fin.), little. 

Wahann (North Chin Hills, Burma), a valley. 

Wai (E. Archipelago, New Guinea), water, river, cf 
Aki ; the word is current throughout the whole of 
Malaysia. See Vai. 


Wai {China) J outer, beyond, e.g. Ku-Wai, * beyond the 

passes.' Cf. Hei. 
Wai (Maori), water, e.g. Waikato, * flowing water.' 
Waia (Kiriioina, New Guinea), river. 
Waiau (Aroma, New Guinea), south-east wind. 
Waitni (Mbau, Fiji), the sea. 
Wakoba (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), a 

community=the Arabic Kabila. See Koba, Wa. 
Wai (Dch), rampart, wall, e.g. Diepswal. Cf. Wall. 
Walad (Arab.), see Wad, mad. 
Walan {Aroma, New Guinea), east. For other points 

see Bagiriwa, Oabnrigo. 
Wald (Ger.), woodland, forest (W.) Cf Weald, Wold. 
Waldweg (Ger.), a forest road. See Weg. 
Walien (Bismarck Archipelago). See Bawalien. 
Wall (Ger.), a wall, rampart ; dike, dam ; coast, shore ; 

is cognate with A.-S. weall=wall, and perhaps 

with Lat. vallus, vaUnni. Cf. Wai. 
Walo (Senegal), a riverain strip of country subject to 

annual inundation. Cf Chamama. 
Wamerima (Swahili), the people who live on the coast. 

See Bima and Wa. 
Wan (China), a bay, e.g. Talien Wan. 
Wan (Shan States), a village. 
Wan (Chong Chia-tse, Yunnan), black, e.g. Tong Wan 

Tien in Western Yunnan. See Tong, Tien, 
i Wanda (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a valley. 
Wangaras (Hausa), the cities of the Hausa merchants 

in the Bariba country. 
Wangioheng (Ja-Luo, Uganda)^ east. 


Wankonos {Indian, U.S.A.), a wall, e.g. Bhawangnnk, 
' great wall/ See Sha. 

Wano {Kerepunu, New Guinea), earth. 

Wanna {Marovo, Solomon Is.), a house. Cf. Fenna. 

Wapentake {North [Danish'] England), a name formerly 
given, in some of the northern counties of England, 
to a territorial division of the county, correspond- 
ing to the Hnndred of the southern counties, from 
A.'S. w^pent&c, which is from Norse v&pnatak, lit 
* weapon taking ' (in homage of the district chief). 

Wapta {Bocky Mountain region, Canada), the Stony 
{Assiniboin) word for * river ' in general. This has 
lately been introduced for * Kicking-horse B.' and 
should not be applied specifically to one of the 
minor rivers of the region. 

War, El War {Arab., N. Africa), difiBcult, difficult 

War {Bahanwin dialect. South Somaliland). See Uar, 

War {Galloppa, Abyssinia), a hill. 

Wara {Hind.), a quarter of a town where people of the 
same caste or trade live. 

War& {Hind.), situated on this side (of a river), near, 
close by. Cf. Warla. From Scr. awara=near. 

War& {Arab., Hind.), beyond, on the further side, 

Waraba {Somali), hysena. See under Bhabel. 

Warafiari {Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Baflari. 

Waraya {Singalese), harbour. 

Ward {England), a territorial subdivision of some 
English counties as Westmoreland, Cumberland, 


and Durham, equivalent to the Hundred (q.v.) of 
the midland counties, from A.-S. weard =ward, 
guard, watchman, &c. ; a division of a forest, e.g. 
Wardley. See Ley. 

Warla {Hind), on this side (of a river). Cf. Wara. 

Warmbad {Ger,), hot springs, lit. warm bath. See Bad. 

Wardmfti (Baluch), alluvial soil deposited by a river 
when in flood. 

Warttharm {Ger.) a watch-tower (Wth.) 

Was {Slavonic), a village, e.g. Wasowetz. 

Wasa {Brazil). See Oyasa. 

Wash, Wath {England), a piece of ground washed by 
the action of the sea or a river, or sometimes over- 
flowed and sometimes left dry ; a shallow part of 
a river, or of the sea ; a ford ; also marsh, bog ; 
e.g. The Wash, Wadiboame, Washford, Washwood, 

Waahnmba {German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), 
shepherds, e.g. Vdmniba, a village with much 
pasture land in the neighbourhood. 
eWaso {Bantu). See Ewaso for meaning. 

Waisermtilile {Ger.), a watermill. 

Wassersoheide {Ger.), a water-parting, divide; from 
soheiden =to separate, see Watershed. 

Waswanipi {Hudson Bay region), a torch, e.g. the lake 
and river of that name. 

Wat {Cambodia, Siam), a pagoda, monastery, temple. 
Cf Vat. 

Watan {Arab.), a countr}% region, one's native land. 

Wate {Ubangi B. region), people of the river. Cf Tu. 

E £ 


Watermolen (Dch,)y a watermill. 

Watershed {English), a water-parting, divide; is a 

popular etymology from Ger. Wasserscheide (q.v.) ; 

shed {A.'S. sce&dan) is cognate with scheideii. 
Wath (England). See Wash. 
WatUd (Indian, California), town, village. 
Watth (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a ferry. 
Watu (dialect of Bantu), See Tu. 
Watu (Java), a stone or rock. 
Waturawa (Ceylon), swampy, undrainable ground. 
Wawalien (Bismarck Archipelago). See Bawalien. 
Wawarsing (Indian, U.S.A.), holy place, i.e. for feasts 

and dances. 
Waye (Sara, Chad L.), sand. 
Wayen (Tibet), a corruption of the Mongol Bayan (q.v.)^ 

rich, prosperous, e.g. Wayen Hor. See Hor. 
We ah (Indian, California), earth, land. 
Weald (England), woodland, e.g. The Weald of Kent, 

Walden; from A.-S. weald, wald= a wood, forest, 

cognate with Goth, walthus, and Gr. aXaos, grove. 

Cf. Wold, Wald. 
Webi, Web, Webbe (Somali), a large running river, as 

distinguished from a Tug (q.v.) ; e.g. Webi Shebeli, 

Wed (Arab.), the bed of a stream, dry for the greater 

part of the year ; another form of Wad, used in 

Marocco for a perennial stream. 
Weem (Gaelic uaimh), a cave, e.g. Weem in Perthshire. 
Weg (Dch.),\ j.^^ ^^^^^ ^j, y . 
Weg (Ger.), \ 


WegUberfUhnuig {Ger.), a bridge over a railway. 
Wegwijzer {Dch.), a sign-post, lit. * way-pointer.' S€e 

Welir (Ger.), weir, dam. 
Wei (China), see Wai. 

Wei {China), a military station ; also a district. See Bo. 
Weide {Ger., Dch,), pasture land. 
Weiler {Ger.), an abode, house, village (Wlr.), e.g. Ber- 

weiler. C/. Will. 
Weinberg {Ger.), a vineyard. 
Weine, Wein {Somali), big, e.g, Durie-weine, Oedweia, 

* big-tree.* C/. Yer. 
Weiss {Ger.), white, e.g. Weiflses Meer, the * White Sea.' 
Wei {Dch.), spring, fomitain, source, cognate with Eng, 

Weleshi {Congo), grassy marsh, where the Welewele 

grass grows. See Shi, Eshi. 
Weli {Arab.), Moslem saint (used for a saint's tomb). 
Well {England) . See Will. 
Welle {A'Zande), river, stream, e.g. the Welle or Upper 

Ubangi B. 
Welt {Ger.), world, earth. 
Wen {Berber). See In. 
Wendn {W. Sudan), a large sheet of water, frequently 

fringed with trees. 
Wene kame {Songhai), west. See Jiji, Diaman. 
Wera {German East Africa). See Vera. 
Werala {Singalese), sea-shore. 
Were (Fula), village, place of cultivation. 
Werft {Ger.), wharf, dock. Cf. Werp. 

B B 2 


Werp {Dch.), a wharf, e.g. Antwerp. Cf, Werft. 

Weru (Giryavia). See Em. 

Wesa (Brazil). See Oyasa. 

Wes a na {Indian. California) ^ a valley. 

Wetering (Dch.), outlet, canal, e.g. Overwetering, Oude 

Wbeal {England), a mine, e.g. Nether Wbeal in the 
Peak district ; the Cornish Huel, with which this 
may be cognate, has special reference to a tin 
mine ; cf. Hael-v6r, * great mine.' 

Whim {England), a hoisting device to wind a rope and 
draw a kibble or bucket from a mine ; used for the 
mine itself, e.g. Tilly Whim in the Isle of Purbeck 
= Tilly mine ; The Whim, in the Peak district. 
luWi {Rua, Bantu), a river. 
oluWi {Bihe, Angola, Bantu), a river, pi. olo Ndwi. 

Wick {Essex), a cheese made from the milk of sheep, 
the making of which was at one time a recognised 
Essex industry ; then the shed where the cheese 
was made, e.g. Lee Wick, Well Wick, Cocket Wick, 
Wigborough Wick, all in the parish of St. Osyth. 

Wick, Wich, Vic {England), an abode, village ; e.g. Sand- 
wich, Warwick, from A.-S. wic, a loan word from 
Lat. vicus, village ; a brine-pit, e.g. Hantwich. 

Wick {from Norse Vik), a bay, e.g. Greenwich, cf. Wyke. 
In the Shetlands * a broad open bay,* e.g. Hoswick, 
see Geo, Vik. 

Wielki (Polish), great. 

Wies (Polish), village, country. 

Wiese (Ger.), meadow, e.g. Wiesenthal. 


iW {Slavonic)^ a market. 
Wilbokbok {Jibii, New Guinea) j a forest. 
Wilidi (A'Zande), a stream ; from will, son, and di, 

water. Cf, Pangwadi. 
Will, Well {England), an abode, house, e,g. Chiswill, 

PejTwell, Cf. Ger. WcUer. 
Willahk (Indian, California), a valley. 
Wi-mo-ti (China), an isthmus. 
Win (England), white, e.g. Winchester, white fort. 
Winde (Fula), a swamp. Cf Wendu. 
Windgap (U.S.A.), an elevated gap, not occupied by a 

Windi (Songhai), a house. 
Windmolen (Dch.), a windmill. 
WindrntOile (Ger.), a windmill. 
Woda, Voda (Slavonic), water, e.g. Oder, KrasnovodBk. 
Woest (Dch.), a desert, waste, e.g. Woertehoeve. Cf Wliste. 
Wold (England), woodland, e.g. CotswoldB. Cf. Weald, 

Wo les (Indian, California), sea. 
Worn (Yayo, China), water. 
luWongo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a market. 
Woro (Botel, Tobago Islands, Formosa), a mountain. 
Worth (Anglo-Saxon; Ger.), an enclosure, e.g. Tarn- 

worth, from A.-S. worth (with variants worthi, 

worthig, weorfhig), a field, close, farm. 
Woshe (Hausa), region, country. 
Wond (Dch.), forest, wood, e.g. Aartswoud, Hoogwoud. 
Woude (Dch.), woodland, e.g. Emswoude. 
Wu (Wakhan, Pamirs), a pass. 


Wud {Indian, U.S,A,)y a mountain. 
Wniri (Mossi, Fr, Sudan), a village, place of cultivation. 
Wnitka (Indian, U^S,A.), an island. 
Wnju {Indian, U.S.A.), a mountain. 
Wula {Griryama). See Ula. 

Wula, Wulo {Bambara, Malinke), grass, undergrowth. 
eWumba {Congo, dialect of Bantu), mine, quarry. 
Wun {Ingalik, Alaska), a lake. 
Wura {Gold Coast), grass ; bush, forest. 
Wurau {Jibu, New Guinea), sea. 

Wuru, Wurro {Hausa), place, house of, e.g. Wurro Madi. 
Wtlrte {Ger.), a desert, waste. Cf. Woest. 
Wy {Cymric), water, e.g. Wye. Wey, Minwy. 
Wyke {England), a small bay, e.g. Bumboldswyke. Cf. 

Wiok {Norse) , Wik and Vik. 
Wynd {Scotland), an alley, lane. 
Wysg {Celtic), running water, e.g. XTsk, Axe, Eze. Of, 

Irish uisgebeaiha (usquebaugh) = * water of life.' 
Wyzszy {Polish), upper, cf. Vyshny. 

ifliXa {Zulu, Kafir), a very bushy country. 

Xaimaka {Jamaica). This word, from which * Jamaica ' 

is derived, signifies * island of fountains.' 
Xam {Annam), a village. Another form of Kam. 
iXandeka {Zuliv, Kafir), the slope on either side of a 
valley; hillside. 
isiXeko {Zulu, Kafir), a town or large village. 
; Xieng {Siam), town of the second or third order, pro- 
vincial or district capital =:Kieiig, CSiieiig. 


Y (Welsh), the, e.g. BettW8.y-Coed=* Bettws (of) the 
wood.* The position of the noun Coed after Bettws 
indicates the genitive case. See Bettws, Coed. 

Ya {China), an official residence. 

Ta (IndO'China)y water. 

Ya (New Guinea), a house. 
aYa (Fan, French Congo), a dam ; for plural see Aya. 

Yabog^ot (Nandi, Uganda), an enclosure* 

Yaghach (E. Turk.), tree ; wood, forest. 

Yagaoh-nishan (Ce^it. Asia), a sign-post. See Hishan. 

Yagak (Aleut), firewood, driftwood, e.g. Cape Yagak. 

Yai (Siam), large, great, e.g. Koh Yai near Bangkok. 

YaUa (E. Turk.) See Yal'lak. 

YaYlak (Turk.), summer pasturage ; E. Turk. Yaila. 

Yak (New Guinea), water. 

Yak (Pers.), ice, e.g. Zuh Yak Ab, * ice-water mountain.' 
See Kuh, Ab. 

Yaka (E. Turk.), boundary, extremity. 

Yaka- (Nilotic Kavirondo, Uganda), a prefix signifying 
clan or tribe, e.g. Yakagemi. Cf. Ja-, Ka-. 

Yakomoe Myesto (Buss.), anchorage. 

Yalud (Pers.), the sea-shore. 

Yama (Japan), mountain, e.g. Fosi Yama, 'great moun- 

Yam pa (N. Arakan), a river. 

Yang (Miao-tse, Yunnan), a ford. 

Yang (China), blue, e.g. Yangtse Kiang, *blue river.' 
See Kiang. 


Tanga {Mossiy French Sudan) , east. 
eYanga {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a lake. 
Yangayanga (Congo), a small lake, reduplicated form of 

Yangi, Yani (E. Turk,), new, e.g. Yangi Shahr, Shahr 

being another form of Shehr (q.v.) ; Yangi Su. See 

Shahr, Su, Yeni. 
Yannekat (New Guinea), water. 
Yao (China), small, e.g. Yao Chan. 
Yao (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a lake. 
Yapak (Wakha7i, Gilgit), a river. 
Tar (Turk.), bluflf, cliff ; ravine. 
Yara (Yoruba), a trench behind a fortification. 
Yard, Oard (England), an enclosed place, e.g, Fithgnard, 

from A.'S. geard= enclosure, court; is cognate 

with Lat. hortu8= garden. Cf. Oarih. 
Yare. See Oarw. 
Yari (Brazil). See Oyari. 
Yam (Tibet), upper, e.g. Yam Tsang-po, *the upper 

Tsang-po' (q.v.) 
Yasa (Congo), a very rocky torrent bed. 
Yashiki (Japan), palace of a Daimio. 
Yashikichi (Japan), building land. 
Yasi, Kiau (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), grass. See 

Yaya (Ceylon), a tract of paddy fields. 

Ydre (Da.), outer. Cf. Indre. 

Ye, pi. Be (Fan, French Congo), a slope or declivity. 

Yeilau (Ferghana, from Turk. YaYlak), a summer camp, 

grazing ground ; there is also the form Yeilik. 
Yellang (Kirghiz), bare (of a mountain). 


Yen (China), dam, dike; lake, marsh, pond, pool, 

especially one formed by a dam. 
Yen (China), a cavern. 
Yen (China), salt. 
Yen (Hainan), a sub-prefecture. 
Yena (Eskimo, Smith Sound), a peaked island. 
eYendelo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), path, course, track, 

eYenga (Cango, dialect of Bantu), chasm, gorge, abyss, 

Yeni (TurJc,), new, e.g, Yeni Bazar (in Bulgaria), Yeni 

Zagra or Nova Zagora. Cf Eaki, Yangi. 
Yen-ton (China), a beacon. 
Yer (Somali), small, e.g. Ban Yero, 'little plain.' See 

Ban. Cf Wein. 
Yer (Turk.), land, country ; place, spot. 
Yerbal (Spanish S. America), wooded lands, where the 

Paraguay tea' (mat^) plant grows. 
Yen, pi. Yellu (Telegu, Deccan), a river. 
Yediil (Turk.), green, e.g. Yeshil Zul, * the green lake.* 

See Kul. 
Yet (Eng. and Scot.), a gate, passage, e.g. Yetholm, 

* the hamlet at the gate or passage,' i.e. between 

England and Scotland. 
Yezero (S. Slav.), a lake. Cf Ozero. 
Yi (China), any centre of population ; post-town. 
Yike (Mongol), large. See Iki. 
Yilga (Cent. Asia), ravine, valley, e.g. Bos-Yilga, * grey 

Yimbu (Hausa), clay. 


Tin {China), silver. 

Tin (Mongol), a genitive suffix, e.g. Haiohiyin Gol, ' the 

river of Naichi.' See Gol. 
Ting {China), a fortified military place ; camp. 
Tite {Soninke), a tree. 
Tm, Tn {Welsh), in, at, e.g. Llanflhangel yn Hhowyn 

To {New Guinea), water. 
Tobu {Songhai), market. 
Tog {Tibet), down, below, lower. Cf. Tod. 
Tokara {Turk.), upper, e.g. Tokari Chaoskoi. 
Toki {Fin.), a river. 
Tol {Turk.), channel ; road. 
Tol {Welaung, Kwenam), small. 
To mi {Indian, California), town, village (mi=hou8e). 
eTondi {Kamerun). See Jondi. 
Tort {Siam), a peak. 
Ton {New Guinea), water. 
Towed {Bagirmi), a hamlet. 
.Towi {W. Australia), water. See Tni. 
Tr {Welsh), the ; Tr Aran (one of the peaks of Snowdon). 
Tspytty {Welsh), hospital, e.g. Tspytty Tstwyth, is a 

loan word from Lat. hospitinm. 
Tstrad {Welsh), a paved road, street ; a vale, dale ; a loan 

word from Lat. strata = strewn, i.e. paved (way), e.g. 

Tfltradgunlais. Cf. Gaelic Srath, Strath. 
Tttre {Sw.), outer, e.g. Enhoma Tttre. 
Tu {China), a lofty bank. 
Tna {Bunna), town of the fourth order, or sub-district 



aTua {Fa7i, French Congo), a lodging-place where one 

sleeps when on a journey ; for pL see A3nia. 
Yuen {China) J source ; also garden. 
Tug (Russ.)y south. For other points see Syever. 
Yui {W. Australia), fresh water. Cf. Turri, Towi, other 

forms of the same word. 
Yuld {Japan) y snow. 

Yukon {Indian, Alaska), river, the river, the Yukon. 
Yumdi {Mossi, French Sudan), rainy season. 
Yungo {Valovale, Barotseland), a river; sometimes 

misspelled Bungo. 
Yur-ba {Tibet), a canal. 
Yurri ( W. Australia) , water. Cf. Yui, Yowi, other forms 

of the same word. 
Yuri {Cent. Asia), tent, household, family. See Yurta. 
{Kamchatka), a wooden hut covered over with 

sods and grass. See Yurta. 

{Mongol.), tent made of felt. See Yurta. 

{Tibet), inhabited country. See Yurta. 
Yurta {Turk.), encampment ; this and Yurt are variants 

of XTrdu {q.v.) 
Yuyal {Spanish S. America), land covered with Yuyo 

Yuyo {Spanish S. America), a poisonous grass which 

cattle will not touch. 


Za {Congo, dialect of Bantu), a pool left after the fall of 
a river, a hole in the bed of a river. 
nZa {Co7igOf dialect of Bantu), the world, earth. 





nZadi (Congo, dialect of Bantu), * the great river,' i.e. 

* The Congo.' From this by change of d to r 

comes Zaire, the Port, name of the Lower Congo. 
Zail {India), the jurisdiction of a zaildari, who is the 

representative of the headmen in several villages. 
Zair {Arab,) See Jezira. 
Za khon (Laos), a country, region. 
Zaki (Japan). See SaU. 
Zakol (Buss.), a weir. 

Zaliv (Buss.), a bay, gulf. Sometimes Zalif. 
nZam (Fan, French Congo) ; for pL and meaning sec 

Zamofka (Khiva), a mud-walled enclosure for storing 

Zam-pa (Tibet), a bridge. 
Zan (Japan), a mountain ; a loan word from Chinese 

San, Shan. 
Zand (Dch.), sand, e.g. Hienenssand, Hoogzand. See next 

Zandstniving (Dch.), sand drift. See Zand. 
eZandu (Congo, dialect of Ba?itu), a market, market- 
to w^n. 
Zang (Chad L. region), a halting-place. See Zango. 
Zang, Zanj (East Africa), black, e.g. Zangue Bar, Indian- 

ised Zanzibar. See Bar. 
Zango (Hausa), a camp, a station, e.g. Zango Ladan, ' the 

station where ladan, tax, is taken.' Cf Sansanne ; 

for variants see Zongo, Zungo. 
Zanja (Spanish S. America), a channel formed by the 

rains between two heights or on a plain. 


Zenqon (Spanish S. America), a short Zanja (q.v.) 
nZanxa (Congo, dialect of Bantu), flat hill-tops, a table- 
Zapad (Buss,), west. See Yug^» Vostok, Polden, Syever, 

for other points. 
-Zar (Pers,), a suffix meaning a place * abounding in,' 

another form of Bar (q.v.) 
Zar-ba (Tibet), steep, as of a mountain pass. 
' Slastyenk (Buss,) a farm. 
Zat (Shahpur, Punjab), a tribe, divided into Muhi, or 

clans. Cf. Eom. 
Zavel (Dch.), gravel. 

Zivod (Buss,), a bay ; Zavdd, a manufactory. 
Zawia (Arab,, N. Africa), lit. angle, comer ; a retreat, 

monastery, priory. 
Ze (Burma), a market. 
nZe (Fan, French Congo) ; ior pi. and meaning see ITze. 
isiZeba (Kafir), a reach or deep pool in a river. 
Zebara (Arab., N. Africa), a sandy knoll. 
Zee (Dch.), sea, e.g. Zuyder Zee. 
Zeitun (Arab), olives, e.g. Mersa Zeitun, in Algeria. See 

Zemilet (Arab.), the summit of dunes of moderate height. 

Cf Zemul. 
Zemla, jpZ. Zemul (Arab,, N. Africa), a long dune. 
Zemlya (Buss.), the earth, the world ; land, e.g. Hovaya 

Zeinlya='Newland' ; r/. Newfoundland. 
Zemul (Arab.), the lofty summit of a chain of dunes. 

Cf. Zemilet. 
Zemul (Arab., N. Africa). See Smala. 


nZen (Fan, French Congo) ^ road, path ; tor pi. see Nzen. 
Zendeh (Pers.), man, living man, e.g, Kuh-i-Zendeh. See 

Zephyros (Greek),, west, the west winA=Lat. Favonius. 
Zerdeb (Arab,, N. Africa), a precipice. 
Zerlba, Zariba (Northern Africa), lit, a fence, paling ; 

an enclosure ; a fortified village ; corresponds to 

the Boma of the Bantu races, and the Kraal ; from 

Egypt, Zeribak= thorn fence. Cf Sumba. 
Zerkhof (Buss.), church, mosque. Properly Tserkov (q.v,) 
ZeTighatis (Ger.), an arsenal. 
Zhang-sung (Korea), grotesque sign-posts. 
Zhelobina (Buss,), the deepest part of a channel. 
Zhelyezo (Buss.), iron. See Jelyezo, the difference lying 

simply in the representation of the Eussian letter 

by zh or j. See next entry. 
Zhelyeznaya Doroga (Buss,), a railway. See Doroga. 
Zheng (Tibet), a plain. 
Zhi (Nupe, Nigeria), See Ji. 
Zhing (Tibet), cultivated ground. 
luZi] (Cent, Africa, dialects of Bantu), a river; other 
ulnZij forms are ngnZi, maZi, amaZi. 

muZi (Cent, Africa, dialect of Bantu), a town. See MiuL 
lunZi (Zulu, Kafir), a place of residence, a village. See 

Zia, Sia (Nika), a reservoir, lake; the forms kiZia, kiSia 

also occur. 
Ziarat (Pers,), sacrifice, e.g. Kuh-i-Ziarat, * Sacrifice hill.* 

See Kah. 
iZibuko (Kafir), a ford. 


Ziegelei (Ger.), a brick kiln (Zgl.) ; from Ziegel= brick, 
tile, from Lat. tegfiila=tile ; whence also A.-S. 
tigel, Fr, tuile as in Tnilerie (g.t;.) 
Ziehbnmnen (Ger.), a draw-well. 
ZigtL {Mossi, French Sudan) , a place. 
Ziko) {Cent Africa, dialects of Bantu), comitry; for 
maZiko i other dialects see Dziko. 

inZila) {Cent, Africa, dialects of Bantu), a road, path. 
nZila) Cf Zira, Sila, Jia, Jira. 

umZila {Kafir), a cattle-track. Cf inZila. 

Zima {Buss.), winter. 
umZunandlela {Zulu, Kafir), the bomidary of cultivated 
mZinda {Ge7it. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a town. 
Zippele {Mossi, French Sudan), a plain. 
Zira {Hassania), a hill. 

iZira] {Cent Africa, dialects of Bantu), a road, path. 
inZiraj Cf Zila. 

Ziro {Japan), palace, castle ; white. 
Ziwa, Chisiwa {Cent, Africa, dialects of Bantu), island. 

Cf Eolela. 
iZiwa {Lusinga and Chula, Uganda), a water-hole, a 

Ziya {Giryama), pool, pond, lake. 
Zmala, pL Zmul {Arab,), a chief's camp ; a spahi's farm. 

See Smala, really the same word. 
Znak {Buss,), a beacon, a mark. 
Zollhaus {Ger.), a custom-house, from zoIl= toll; c/\ to 

take toll. 
Zoma {Nestor ian Christian), summer pasture grounds.