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** Indocti discant, et ament meminisse periti." 

Henatjlt, after Pope. 








Fourth Edition 
Revised and Enlarged 




First Edilion, May 1900 
Second Edition, September 1905 
Third Edition, July, 1916 
Fourth Edition, January 192S 
Reprinted, June 1949 
Reprinted, January 1953 




PREFACE vii-x 

Plan of the Wobk xii 



** Every other authour may aspire to praise, the lexi- 
cographer can only hope to escape reproach." 

Db. Samuel Johnson. 


The task of selecting the terms to be included in any branch of 
science offers many difficulties : in the case of botany, it is 
closely linked on with zoology and general biology, with geology 
as regards fossil plants, with pharmacy, chemistry, and the 
cultivation of plants in the garden or the field. How far it is 
advisable to include terms from those overlapping sciences which 
lie on the borderland is a question on which no two people might 
think alike. I have given every word an independent examina- 
tion, so as to take in all, in fact, which might be fairly expected, 
and yet to exclude technical terms which really belong to another 
science. Words in common use frequently have technical mean- 
ings, and must be included ; other technical words are foreign to 
botany, and must be excluded. Thus " entire " must be defined 
in its botanic sense, and such purely geologic terms as Triassic 
and Pleistocene must be passed by. The total number of rare 
alkaloids and similar bodies recorded in pharmacologic and 
chemical works, if included, would have extended this Glossary 
to an inconvenient size ; I have therefore only enumerated those 
best known or of more frequent mention in literature, or inter- 
esting for special reasons. Many words only to be found in 
dictionaries have been passed by; each dictionary I have con- 
sulted contains words apparently peculiar to it, and some have 
been suspected of being purposely coined to round off a set of 

The foundations of the list here presented are A. Gray's 
" Botanical Text-Book," Lindley's " Glossary," and Henslow's 
" Dictionary," as set forth in the Bibliography. To these terms 
have been added others extant in the various modem text- books 
and current literature, noted in the course of reading, or found 
by special search. The abstracts published in the " Journal of 
the Royal Microscopical Society " afforded many English equiv- 
alents of foreign terms. In drawing up definitions, the terms 



used to denote colour were found to be so discordant that I was 
compelled to make a special study of that department, and the 
result will be found in the " Journal of Botany," xxxvii. (1899), 

I have carefully considered the criticisms of this work which 
have come under my notice, and have adopted all those sugges- 
tions which could be taken up, so far as they did not contradict 
the plan on which this volume was drawn ; some criticisms were 
mutually destructive, others were due to insufficient knowledge 
of the original definitions on the part of the critic, whilst others 
advocated radical changes, which would have made this, not my 
book, but some other person's product. I have tried to furnish 
the terms in use in various periods, so that a paper or book of 
any period can be read, and its special expressions understood ; 
to cut down the volume would have been therefore unwise, and 
the attempt would have failed to gain the approval of competent 
judges, as no two teachers would have agreed upon the exclusion 
of given terms. In more than one case, an obsolete term has 
been lately revived. 

In issuing a new edition of this book, I should have much 
preferred to blend old and new into one alphabet; but the 
increased cost of type-setting has made that impracticable from 
the publishing point of view, and has necessitated a reprint of 
the pages here numbered 1 to 414, by photo-zincography. 

The total numbers included in this Glossary now amount to 
nearly 25,000, and if the various meanings were added, they 
would amount to about 1400 more. The derivations have been 
carefully checked, but as this book has no pretension to be a 
philological work, the history of the word is not attempted ; 
thus in " etiolate " I have contented myself with giving the 
proximate derivation, whilst the great Oxford dictionary cites 
a host of intermediate forms deduced from stipella. The meaning 
appended to the roots is natiurally a rough one, for to render 
adequately all that may be conveyed by many of the roots is 
manifestly impossible when a single word must serve. The 
accent has been added in accordance with the best discoverable 
usage; where pronunciation varies, I have tried to follow the 



best usage; in some words such as " medullary " I have given 
the accent as it is always spoken, though all the dictionaries, 
except Henslow's, accent it as " med'ullary." When words have 
become thoroughly anglicised, it would have been mere pedantry 
to accent them otherwise ; we say or'ator, not as in Latin, ora'tor. 
The accent does not imply syllabic division, but when the accent 
immediately follows a vowel, that vowel is long ; if one or more 
consonants intervene, then the vowel is short; thus ca'nus, 
cas'sus, as though they were printed cd-nus, cds-siLs; in a few 
instances the pronunciation is also given when the word would 
otherwise be doubtful as to sound. 

It has been my duty to condense the definitions, often a difficult 
matter when a longer explanation would have been easier to 
draw up. I trust that I have in each case succeeded in setting 
out the main or central meaning, but many writers have their 
own modified or restricted meaning of even well-known terms. 
To still further economise space, words drawn from the same 
leading word have been grouped into paragraphs, thus obviating 
the necessity of repeating the leading word with its meaning 
many times over, and only requiring the additional root to be 
given; occasionally this has led to the intentional neglect of 
strict alphabetic sequence. The names of groups of plants have 
given much trouble ; whilst all proposed terms manifestly could 
not be included, many have become so often quoted as to demand 
recognition ; as a rule I have not admitted groups of even ordinal 
value, still less of lower rank. Compound terms have been left 
out when intermediate between the meaning of the primitives ; 
those included seem to require mention on special grounds. 

The number of recently-coined terms in ecology and genetics 
will be noted ; I have not included many compound terms, such 
as '* Carex-Sieversia-Polygonum-Coryphium," or its vernacular 
equivalent, " The Sedge-smartweed- Alpine meadow formation.** 
Authors' names in parentheses, following definitions, are those 
who have been taken as authority for such definition, and when 
the actual language is used, it is indicated by quotation marks ; 
the authority sometimes coincides with the inventor of the term. 
As instances I may mention the use of " creek," " blow-out," 



** sand-bar " in the American usage of those terms. Substantives 
in the headings have been shown by the use of a capital letter, 
adjectives and other parts of speech by a small letter ; exceptions 
being adjectives drawn from a proper name as " Darwinian," 
and those which form part of such terms as *' Conjoint Bundle." 
Greek is quoted in the original characters, Latin in italic, or 
where otherwise it would be doubtful, it is indicated; this is 
further explained on the page facing page 1 of the Glossary ; the 
use of small capitals refers the reader to the word so printed for 
a definition of the term, or to a correlative term. 

The Appendixes hardly need any detailed explanation ; it will 
be seen that the Bibliography is a selected list of works chiefly 
in alphabetic form, arranged chronologically. General diction- 
aries, and large works in which technical terms form only a 
small proportion of the whole, have been omitted. 

The pleasant duty now remains of acknowledging most grate- 
fully the invaluable help I have received from a host of friends 
during the progress of the work. I must name as principal 
helpers, the following; the star prefixed shows help extended 
to this edition. Mr. L. A. Boodle, F.L.S., Mr. N. E. Brown, 
A.L.S., Mr. I. H. Bukkill, M.A., Sir Feancis Dabwin, F.R.S., 
Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S., *Dr. R. R. Gates, F.L.S., Prof. 
M. M. Hartog, F.L.S., Mr. G. E. Massee, A.L.S., Dr. C. E. Moss, 
F.L.S., Prof. H. H. W. Pearson, F.R.S., Mr. R. A. Rolfe, A.L.S., 
Mr. E. S. Salmon, F.L.S., Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., Mr. A. G. 
Tansley, F.R.S., Prof. J. W. H. Trail, F.R.S., Dr. Harold 
Wager, F.R.S., Mr. W. C. Worsdell, F.L.S., and Mr. C. H. 
Wright, A.L.S. ; their help remains embodied in the text, 
though six of the helpers have passed away. To all, my indebted- 
ness is great, the value of this Glossary being largely due to 
their ready aid. 

In every volume of similar character to this which I have had 
to consult, I have found errors, sometimes numerous, occasionally 
serious. This much larger volume offers a greater chance of 
error, but I trust that comparatively few errors will be found. 


Gla^kam: AiLgust, 1927. 


At the time of his deatji, Dr. Daydon Jackson 
was completing the revision of the proofs of 
this, the fourth edition of his book. 


Headings in black type ; substantives are shown by the use of an initial capital 
letter; adjectives and adverbs by the use of a small initial letter 
(exceptions are explained in the Preface) ; the sign -- is used to avoid 
repetition of the heading; X was used by Lindley to denote a word 
which is obsolete or improperly formed, and is used here for undoubtedly 
obsolete terms. 

Latin words are shown by being in Italic where practicable, ehewliere by the 
abbreviation Lat. appended ; other languages are indicated by Fr. for 
French, Ger. or Germ, for German, Ital, for Italian. 

Cross-references in small capitals are employed to spare repeated definitions ; 
they are usually preceded by the sign of equality, = . When variants do 
not differ save by the termination, that only is given, but if the accent 
varies, they are spelled out in full. A few well-known abbreviations are 
also employed, such as dissyll. for dissyllable, pr. for pronounced, and 
th3 like. 


a, privative ; in Greek compounds = 
\vithout, as apetalous, without 
petals ; modified into an- for eu- 

ab (Lat.)> from; as abnormal, a 
deviation from rule. 

abax'ial {ah, axis, an axle) ; (1) ap- 
plied to an embryo which is out of 
the axis of the seed by one-sided 
thickness of the albumen ; (2) the 
side of a lateral organ away from 
the axis. 

abbre'viated, ahhrevia'tua, shortened, 
as when one part is shorter than 
another ; Abbrevia'tion, a selection 
of those most frequently used will 
be found in the Appendix. 

aber'rant, aber'rans {aberro, I go 
astray), dilfering from usual struc- 
ture, departing from the type. 
Aberra'tion, non -typical structure. 

abiet'io {Abies, a tir-tree), used of 
certain coniferous products which 
are not exclusively from Abies, -^ 
Anhy'dride, the resin in turpentine ; 
-^ Acid, a compound of the last with 
■ water, forming a large proportion 
of the constituents of frankincense ; 
abiet'ifomi Hairs {forma, a form), 
having a uniseriate main axis, with 
whorla of Tav-cells (Solereder) ; 
Ab'ietin, resin from Abies pectinoUa, 
DC, and Ab'ietite, a sugar from 
the leaves of the same species ; 
abieti'neona, abieti'nean, allied to 
or resembling Abies ; abieti'nus 
(Lat., made of fir), applied to 
cryptogams which (1) grow on fire, 
or (2) resemble a fir- tree in habit, as 
Alsia abiiiina, Sulliv. 

Abiogen'esis (a, not ; Bios, life ; ytvetris, 
beginning), spontaneous genera- 
tion ; the assumed origin of living 
organisms from non-living matter. 

Abjee'tion {abjedio, a throwing away), 
casting off spores from a sporophore. 

abjoint' {ab + joint ; a hybrid word), 
to delimit by septa or joints. 

Abjanc'tion {abjunctus, unyoked), 
cutting off spores on portions of 
growing hyphae by septa. 

Ablacta'tion {ablacto, I wean), an in- 

Ablaqaea'tiGn, Ablaqiua'tio, loosening 
the soil roun<l trees. 

Ab'last (a, not; B^aarhs, a bud or 
shoot), the entire suppression of an 
organ, as distinct from Abortion, 
in which it remains rudimentary 
or partially developed (Eichler) ; 
ablast'ic, applied to parts of a flower 
or other organ which have not been 
developed ; ablaB'toas, without germ 
or bud. 

Abnoda'tion {abnodo, to clear of knots), 
cutting away knots from trees. 

abnorm'al, abnorma'lis {abiiormis, ir- 
regular), deviating from rule, as 
when stamens are opposite the 
petals instead of being alternate. 

aborig'inal (a6, from ; origo, a source), 
indigenous ; not introduoed. 

Abor'tion {abortio, a miscarriage), 
non-formation or incompletion of 
a j)art ; abortive, aborti'vus, im- 
perfectly developed, as abortive 
stamens when filaments only ; 
abort'iens, becoming abortive. 

abra'ded,aZ»a'5U5, rubbed or scraped off. 

abrupt', abrup'tus, suddenly ending 
as though broken off; abmpt'ly- 
aeu'minate, having a point arising 
from a broad extremity ; ~' pin'nate, 
a pinnate leaf ending with a pair of 

Ab'iciis-lay'er, a layer of separation, 
especially with reference to tlie 
phenomena of defoliation. 



Abscis^sion [abscissus, cut off), detach- ' 
ment of spores from a sporophore I 
by the disappearance of a connecting 

absinth'ic, referring to Artemisia 
Absinthium, Linn. ; Absinth'in, a 
bitter principle obtained from the 

ab 'solute (a65o^w'<w5, perfect, complete), 
actual, the opposite of relative. The 
absolute direction of an embryo may 
be inverted, but erect relatively to 
the carpel. 

Absorp'tion {absorp'tio, a swallowing), 
the act of imbibing liquids or gases. 

Abstric'tion (a6, from, stricius, drawn 
together), a term which covers both 
Abj unction and Abscission. 

abys'sal {Hfiva-ffos, bottomless), abplied 
to organisms existing in the aepths 
of the ocean (Warming). 

ftcalycalis (o, not ; KdKv^, a cup) ; (1) 
having no calyx ; (2) having no ad- 
hesion to the calyx ; acarycine, 
acalyc'inous, acalyci'nus, acal'ycis, 
destitute of calyx. 

acana'ceous (S/favo?, a thistle-head ; + 
ACEOUs), used of prickly plants, such 
as thistles. 

Acanth'a, Acan'thon {i.KayOa, a thorn), 
a spine or prickle ; acantha''ceous 
( + ACEOUs), (1) armed with prickles ; 
(2) belonging to the natural order 
Acantha'ceae, the typical genus 
being ^cawiA'M5,Toum.; acanth'ine, 
pertaining to that genus ; acan- 
thocarp'ous {Kapirhs, fruit), having 
spiny fruit ; acanthocla'dous (kXc£5os, 
a branch), acanthocla'dus, with 
s[4ny branches ; acanthopb/orous, 
{<(>4p<M>, I bear), acanthoph'orits, 
spine-bearing ; aoanthop'odous {irovs, 
troShs, a foot), having petiole or 
peduncle furnished with spines or 
prickles ; Acanth'ospberes {<T<paipa, 
a sphere), ciliated bodies in the 
cells of Nitella, termed "Stachel- 
kiigeln " by the Germans. 

Ac'aro-doma tia {Aca,rvs, the typical 
genus of mites ; Sw/xdnoy, a little 
Eotise), formations on plants adapted 
to shelter Acari when they are of 
service to the host. 


Acaroph'ily {(piKcw, I love), mutual ad- 
vantages between plants and mites ; 
adj.,, acaroph'ilous ; acaropbyt'ic 
{(pvrov, a plant), harbouring mites ; 
Acaropbyt'isiu is the condition 

acarpotrop'ic ( + carpotropic), not 
throwing off its fruits. 

acarp'ous (a, not ; K^p-irhs, fruit), des- 
titute of fruit. 

acaulesc'ent, acaulesc'ens, becoming 
stemless ; acaurine, acanrose, 
acaurous, acaul'is, stemless or 
seemingly so ; Acaulo'sia, abnormal 
deficieucy of stem. 

accessor'ial, accessor^ ius, specially ap- 
plied to those' branches of Pitho- 
phora arising from near the base 
of the mother-cell (Wittrock). 

Acces'sory (Accessio), an: addition or 
appendage ; -^ Buds, those addi- 
tional to the axillary and normal 
buds, and frequently assuming their 
function ; '- Branches, those which 
spring from the foregoing ; --' Cell, 
the sister-cell of a guard-cell of a 
stoma ; -' Fruits, parts which are 
conspicuous but form no part of the 
pistil, as the enlarged torus of the 
strawberry ; a ps'^udo-carp ; -' Gon- 
id'ia, formations occurring in Muco- 
rini besides the typical gonidia ; 
'^ Indu'sium, when the margin of 
a fern-frond is inflexed over the 

accident'al = adventitioit.s. 

acci'sus (Lat.) denotes an end having 
an acute sinus between two rounded 

Acclima'tion {nc — ad, to, clima, 
climate), used by L. H. Bailey for 
the natural process of becoming 
inured to a climate at first harm- 
ful ; Acclimatiza'tion, is preferred 
for scientific use, especially when 
denoting human action in inuring 
plants to a strange climate. 

Accommoda'tion (accommodalio, an 
adjustment). Adaptation. 

accresc'ent, accresc'eris, increasing in 
size with age, as the calyx of some 
plants after flowering. 

accrete' {accre'tusy grown together), 



agglutinate, naturally grafted. 
Accre'tion, Accrt'tio, (1) growing to 
one another ; (2) increase bv addi- 
tion of particles to the outsiae. 

accumb'ent, accuvib'ens, lying against 
another body ; '-' Cotyle'dons, those 
having their edges against the 
radicle, thus o= . 

accu'ment (Heinig) = accumbent. 

acellera'tus (Lat.)i somewhat acerose. 

Acen'iam = Achene. 

acepli'alous, aceph'alus (a, without ; 
K^<pa\^, a head), headless ; used for 
an ovary which is not terminated 
by the stigma, as in Labiatae. 

a'eer, used by some authors instead 
of the generally adopted a'eris, 
(1) sharp, pointed ; (2) acrid, as 
in Ranunculus acris, Linn. 

acera'ceous, relating to the genus 
Acer, or its allies ; acer'ic, pr. 
a-ser'-ik, pertaining to the genus 
Acer, the Maple or Sycamore. 

a'cerose, a'cerous, acero'sus {acer, 
sharp), needle-shaped, like the 
leaves of Pinus ; Acero'sae, a term 
proposed by A. Braun for the 

acer'vate [acervus, a heap), hea]->ed 
up ; Acer'valas (Lat., a Utile heap), 
pi. Acer'vuli, small clusters, as of 
Fungi appearing on bark or leaves. 

acetab'uliform, acetahuliform'is {Ace- 
tabulum,, a cup or vinegar-cruet ; 
forma, shape), saucer-shaped, used 
of the fructification of some Lichens ; 
acetab'uloas, acetabu'lcus, acefabu- 
lo'sus are variations in form of the 
word; Acetab'ulum (Lat), the re- 
cejitacle of some Fungi. 

aceta'rioQB {acetaria, vegetables with 
vinegar), relating to salad herbs ; 
Ac'etary, Grew's term for Salading. 

ace'tio, pertaining to vinegar, ace- 
turn ; ~' Fermenta'tion, oxidation 
of alcoholic liquids, caused by 
the Fungus popularly known as 
"Mother of Vinegar," Bacterium 
xylinum, A. J. Brown ; ac'etoee, 
aceto'sus, sour, acid. 

a'oeas, a Latin suflBx of resemblance, 
KAfolia'ceus, leaf-like ; in English it 
becomes -aceous. 

Achae'na, Achae'iiium, = Achene. 

Achae'nocarp (a, not ; x^^""* I gape ; 
Kapirhs, fruit), or Ache'nooarp, any 
dry indehiscent fniit. 

Achascophy'tnm (o, privative ; x^t<^> 
I open ; (pvrhv, a plant), a plant with 
indehiscent fruit. 

acheil'ary (o, without ; x«*^o*» a 
lip), wanting a lip, as some 

Achene, pr. a-ken', Ache'nium (a^ not; 
X<^y(a, I gape), a small, hard, dry, 
indehiscent fruit, strictly of one 
free carpel as in the buttercup ; 
occasionally consisting of m-ore than 
one carpel as in Composites, in the 
latter case with adnate calyx. Also 
spelt Akene', Ake^nimn, etc. ; Ache- 
no'dium, a double achene, as the 
cremocarp of Urabelliferae. 

achlamyd'eoQS, achlamyd'evs (a, with- 
out ; x^aiwws, a cloak), destitute of 
perianth, as in willows. 

achlorophylla'ceons (o = without, + 
CHLOROi'HYLLACEOUs), destitute of 

aehromat'ic (a, withont ; xp^f^t 
colour) ; (1) without colour, ach- 
roous ; (2) not readily taking colour ; 
'~ Spindle, the thread-like proto- 
plasmic figures between the poles 
in karyokinesis ; Ackro'matin, 
Flemraing's term for the basic 
substance of the nucleus, le« sus- 
ceptible of staining than thie chro- 
mosomes ; the Nuclein of Stras- 
burger ; achromat'ophile {4>t\4a>, I 
love), applied to a structure which 
does not take staining. 

achro'mns, ach''roos {&xpoos, to be 
without colour, pale), colourless ; 
hyaline ; Achro'ocyst U^'trns, a 
cavity), Arbaumont's term for cells 
of the terminal meriatem, which 
have clear contents : cf. Cyanocyst ; 
Achroodex'trin ( + Dextrin), one of 
the group of dextrina not coloured 
by iodine : cf. ERYTHKOMtXTRlN, 

Achyrophy'tum {ixvpoy, chaff ; ^vrhv, 
a plant), a plant with glumaceous 
flowers, as grasses. 

Aoio'ula, (acus, a needle), the bristle 



like continuation of the rhachilla 
of a grass ; Acic'ulae, tooth-like 
processes of the hyinenium of 
certain Hjrmenomycetous Fungi ; 
acio'ular, adcula'ris, (1) slender 
or needle-shaped, (2) a phase of 
Bacterium Termo, Cohn, when it 
becomes needle-shaped ; -^ Crystals, 
needle-shaped crystals ; '-- Fi'bres, 
fibrous cells or raphidines, occurring 
in Acanthaceae ; aoic'alate, acicu- 
Wtus, aciciUi'niM, superficially 
marked as if scratched with a pin ; 
acieu'liform {forma, shape), needle- 
acido'tuB (oLKthwrhs, pointed), when 
branches or organs end in a spine 
or hard point. 
Ancles (Lat., edge), the edge or angle 

of certain, stems. 
ac'iform {acus, a needle ; forma, 

shape) = ACicuLAR. 
acina'ceous {acinus, a grape seed + 

ACEOUS), full of kernels. 
acinac'ifolias {acinaces, a scimitar ; 
folium, a leaf), a fleshy leaf, curved 
like a scimitar ; acinac'iform, acina- 
ciform'is, scimitar- shaped. 
acina'rias {acinus, a grape-seed), when 
a stem is covered with vesicles 
resembling grape-seeds ; Ac'ine, 
Ac'inus, a single member of such 
fruits, as the raspberry ; a drupel ; 
formerly used for a bunch of fruit, 
as of grapes; Acinoden'drnB {S4v5pov, 
a tree), a plant whose fruit is in 
bunches ; ac'inose, acino'sus, like 
gi-apes, or of granular bodies resemb- 
ling them. 
ftciphyl'lus {a.K^, a point ; <pv\\ov, 
a leaf), a linear and pointed 
Aola'dinm (a, without ; K\dSos, a 
branch), in Hieracium, the peduncle 
of the terminal flower- head ; Acly- 
throphy'tnm {KkfWpov (?), a door, 
<pvThy, a plant), plants whose seeds 
are supposed to be naked, without a 
pericarp ; acond'yloBe, acond'yloas 
{K6ySv\os, a knuckle or finger-joint), 
said of plants which have no joints 
or nodes. 
Aooni'tin, the alkaloid derived from 

monkshood, Ac&niium Napellus, 
Ac'orln, a glucoside from Acorus 
Calamus, Linn., which is used in 
Alcorn, the fruit of the oak. 
Ac'osporeB, -ae {b.K^, point, -+- Spore), 
plants having awned seeds, as 
gi'asses (Clements). 
Acotyle'don (a, without ; 'KorvKtiSijav, 
used for seed-lobe), a plant desti- 
tute of cotyledons or seed-lobes ; 
Cryptogams and such plants as 
Cupula ; adj. acotyle'donouB, a- 
aoqui'red {acqv,iro, I acquire), used of 
those characters which arise in the 
life-time of the organism as the 
result of the environment, in dis- 
tinction to hereditary chai-acters. 
acramphib'ryouB {&Kpos, apex ; a/xtpl, 
on both sides ; fipvw, to bud), plants 
producing lateral as well as apical 
buds ; Acramphib'rya, a division 
proposed by Endiicher to embrace 
Dicotyledons and Gymnosperms ; 
Acran'dry {av^p, auSphs, a man), 
when antheridia occupy the apex of 
a shoot in Bryophytes ; adj. acran'- 
drous ; Acran'thi, pi. [ivdos, a 
flower), employed by W. Wilson to 
denote terminal inflorescences in 
acris, cf acer. 

Acroblaste'ais (6,Kpos, apex ; fiKaa-rhs, a 
bud), when the germ-tube of Lichens 
proceeds from an end of the spore ; 
acroblas'tic, Celakovsky's term for 
the branch of an inflorescence 
which arises fi-ora a terminal bud ; 
Acrob'rya {fipvw, to bud), plants 
growing at the point only, as all 
Acrogens having a distinct axis ; adj. 
acrob'ryous; acrocarp'ouB {/copirbs, 
fruit), terminal fruited ; a main 
division of Mosses ; Acrocecid'iam 
(-|- Cecidium), a deformity of the 
terminal bud, due to gall-insects ; 
Acrochlamyd'eae {xf^afivs, a tunic), 
a term proposed by Hoeck for all 
haplostemonous Gamopetalae exclu- 
sive of Cunurbitaceae, but inclusive 
of Umbelliferae ; a group con- 



sidered by him to stand at the 
head of Dicotyledons ; Acroconid'- 
ium (+C0NIDIUM), used of those 
conidia which successively mature 
and break away from the apex of the 
conidiophore (A. Fischer) ; acrod'- 
romous {Sp6/xos, a course), venation- 
strands uniting at the apex of the 
leaf, as in Plantago ; acrofu'gal 
ifugw, a flight), basipetal ; Ac'rogam 
{yd/jLos, marriage), the same as chal- 
azogamic ; acrog'amous (ydfj-os, mar- 
riage), plants producing the egg- 
apparatus at the summit of the 
embryo-sac, as in most Angiosperms 
(Van Tieghem) ; Acrog'amy, may 
be double, as when the pollen tube 
and egg-apparatus are both apical ; 
or partly basigamic, either of male 
(pollen-tube) or female (egg-ap- 
paratus) (c/. BASTGAMOUs) ; acrog'- 
enous, {yf yos, race), (1) used of 
plants growing at the apex, such 
as Ac'rogens, Ferns ; (2) produced 
at the end of a filament, as some 
fungus spores ; Acrogen^esis {y4v€ffis, 
origin), terminal fructification ; Aero- 

f^onid'ium {ySvos, offspring, eI5os, 
brm), a gonidium. formed at the 
apex of a gonidiophore ; acrog'ynous 
iyvu^, a woman), having the stem 
terminated by female organs, as 
archegonia ; acrogyra'tus {gyratics, 
turned round), having an elastic ring 
at the point (LindleyO as in Schizaea. 

Acro'nns (perhaps from &Kpov, the 
highest point), Necker's term for 
an ovary without a basal disk. 

acronych'ius {&Kpos, apex ; ovu|, a claw), 
curved like the claw of an animal ; 
acrop'etal (peto, I seek), produced 
in a succession towards the apex, as 
applied to development of organs ; 
the antithesis of basipetal ; acroph'- 
ilus {<pi\€co, I love), dwelling in the 
alpine region ; Acrophy'ta {<purhv, 
a plant), alpine plants ; Acrophyti'a, 
alpine plant formations (Clements) ; 
Acrosarc'um ((rcip£,(ropK^j, flesh), Des- 
vaux's term for a berry from an ovary 
with adnate calyx, as the currant ; 
acroscop'io (<TKoit4ci>, I see), looking 
towards the simimit ; the rever-se of 

basiscopic ; Acrosperm'eae (orep/io, a 
seed), Ac'rosperms, those Angio- 
sperms which are presumed to have 
begim with simple porogamous mode 
of impregnation ; c/. Pleukosperm ; 
Ac'rospire (o-iretpo, a coil), Grew's 
name for the first sprout of a germi- 
nating seed, the extruded radicle ; 
acrospi'red, germinated, as in malt- 
ing ; Ac'rospore (triropk, a seed), a 
spore formed at the summit of a 
sporophore or filament ; acrothe'cal 
{6i)K-n, a case), applied to vii-escent 
anthers when the polliniferous por- 
tion is confined to the apex, the 
lower portion becoming leaf-like 
(Celakovsky) ; Acrot'onous {t6vos, a 
cord), the tissue of the poUen-sfwj in 
Orchids prolonged to the upper end 
of the anther ; Acrot'ropism {rporij, a 
turning), the continued direction of 
a root so long as its ape^ is uninjured. 

Ac'rose = Fructose. 

Ac'tad [OLKT^, rocky coast ; iSTjs, patro- 
nymic suffix), a plant of a rocky 
shore (Clements). 

Actiuench'yma (o>ct/s, a ray ; Kyxvfxa, 
an infusion), cellular tissue formed 
in a star-shaped manner, as seen in 
a cross-section of Juncus; aetin'io, 
used of certain rays of the spectrum, 
which have a powerful effect on 
growth ; Act'iniam, the chemical 
action of sunlight ; Act'inocarp, a 
fruit which is actinocarp'ie {Kapvhs, 
finiit), having the carpels or pla- 
centas radiating like the spokes of 
a wl'.eel ; actiaod'romoiis {^piixos, a 
course), when veins are palmately 
or radially arranged, as in Acer; 
Actinomor phy {nop<p^, a change), 
an ACTiNOMOurHic arrangement ; 
actinomorph'ic, -ous, having flowers 
of a regular or star pattern, capable 
of bisection in two or more planes 
into similar halves ; Actinomyco'sis, 
a disease in the jaw-bone of man 
and animals attributed to a Fungus, 
Nocardia Actiiiomi/cosvt, Trev. ; 
Act'inostele ( + Stele), the stele of 
most roots and certain stems, con- 
sisting of alternating or radial groups 
of xylera and phloem within a 



pericycle (Brebner) ; actinost'omous 
(arSfia, a mouth), radiate structure 
round the ostioles of Lichens and 
other Cryptogams, 

Actinoph'rjds (Actinophrys, Ehrenb,, 
a genus of Rhizopods), Gobi's term 
for globes with radially-arranged 
pseudopodia in Pseiodospora, a 
parasite on Vaticheria. 

Acti'am, pi. Acti'a (o«t^, rocky coast), 
a rocky seashore plant formation ; 
actoph ilus {<pi\e(c, I love), gi-owing 
on the seashore ; Actophy'ta, plants 
of the rocky shore (Clements). 

ac'tive, in a growing condition ; not 

aca'leate, aculea'tus {a^uleus, a stiug 
or prickle), armed with prickles, as 
the stem of a rose ; acu'leiform, 
aculeiform'is {forma, shape), prickle- 
shaped ; acu'leolate, aculeola'tus, 
somewhat prickly ; aculeo'sus, 
decidedly prickly; Acu'leus (Lat.), 
a sharp epidermal emergence, a 
prickle ; pi. Aculei ; Acu'leolus, a 
diminutive of the last. 

Acu^men (Lat., a point), a tapering 
point ; acu'minate, aciLinina'tus, 
having a gradually diminishing 
point; acuminifo'lius {folium, a 
leafj, with acuminate leaves ; 
aea'minose, acumino'sus, approach- 
ing acuminate ;acumin'ulate, having 
a small terminal point. 

acutang'nlar, acutang'ulus, (Lat.), 
when stems are sharply angular ; 
acutate' {acu'tics, sharp), slightly 
aliarpened, as at the apex ; acu'te, 
acu'tus, distinctly and sharply 
pointed, but not drawn out ; acu- 
tiflor'uB (Lat., flos, Jloris, a flower), 
with acute perianth segments ; 
acutifo'lius (Lat., folium, a leaf), 
with pointed leaves ; aontilo'bus 
(Lat., lobus, a lobe), composed of 
lobes which are acute ; acatius'cnlas 
(Lat.), somewhat acute. 

aeyanophorlc (o, not ; Kvavox, dark blue • 
<pophs, bearing), applied to plants 
which do not produce cyanogen ; 
aoyc'lic {kvk\os, a circle), tised of 
flowers whose parts are arranged 
spirally, not in whorls. 

-ad (-a87j», patronymic suffix) used by 
Clements as an addition meaning 


Adapta'tion {adaptatus, fitted), the 
means by which an organism adapts 
itself to changed surroundings ; 
•^ Direct'or, employed to denote an 
advantageous change by reaction to 
a stimulus (Lotsy) ; cf. Biaiometa- 
MORPHOsis ; adapt'able, -"able to 
originate Ecads" (Clements); adap'ii- 
ive modifications are those which 
obviously fit an organism to exist 
in given environments, and perhaps 
produced by the latter ; '-' Par'a- 
sites, saprophilous fungi become 
parasitic ; --' Ea'ces, morphologic- 
ally identical, but differing physio- 
logically ; cf. BIOLOGIC Races. 

adax'ial {ad, to ; axis, an axle), the 
side or face next the axis, ventral. 

addnceut'ia Va'sa {ad, to ; duco, I 
lead), the spirals in tracheids, which 
spirals were formerly supposed to be 
vessels ; Adducto'res, Hedwig's term 
for archegonia. 

Adelogain''icae, (SSr/Aoi, unknown ; 
ydixos, marriage), Radlkofer's terra 
for Fungi and Lichens ; adelosi- 
phon'ic {(Tl<p(av, a tube), applied tc 
a DiCTYOSTELE when complex, and 
ceasing to be tubular (Brebner). 

Adelph^ia {aSeXcphs, a brother) ; (1) a 
fraternity ; a collection of stamens 
by their filaments into one bundle ; 
pi, Adelph'iae, two or more similar 
bundles ; (2) used by Galton for 
fraternities in variation ; adelph'ic, 
adelph'icus ; adelph'ous, adelph'tis, 
having brotherhoods of stamens ; 
Adelphog'amy {yiixos, marriage), 
fertilization between neighbouring 
plants of the same species ; Adelph- 
oph'agy {<t>ayos, a glutton), the 
union of two gametes of the same 
sex (Giard) ; Adelphotaz'y (t££|«s, 
order), used by Hartog to express 
the mutual attraction of ^ores of 
Achyla and of Pedastreae after 
Adelome (possibly from SStjXos, con- 
cealed) = Alburnum (Lindley). 
Aden (d5Jji/» a gland), a gland or 



tubercle : aden'ifonn (Jorma, sliape), 
a hybrid term for gland-shaped ; 
adenoca'lyx {KaXv^, a cup), where the 
calyx is studded with glandular 
spots ; Ade'nocyst (/cuerTJs, a cavity), 
the membrane of a cell or cells 
surrounding a gland (Yuillemin) ; 
ad'enoid {iihos, like), gland-like ; 
^ Or'gan, Williamson's terra for 
the ligule of Lepidodendron ; Ade- 
nopet'aly {ireraXov, a ilower leaf), 
a term proposed by C. Morren for 
the transformation of nectaries 
into petals, or similar structures ; 
Ade'nophore (<^opea>, I bear), a stalk 
supporting a gland ; adenoph'orous, 
bearing glands ; adenopbyrious 
{(pvWov, a leaf), glandular leaved ; 
adenop'odons, cvden'ojnis (ttoCs, iroSbs, 
a foot), with the petiole or peduncle 
glandular ; adenoste'mon {aTrifxov, a 
stamen), having glands on the sta- 
mens ; ad'enose, ad'enous, glandular. 

Ades'my (o, without ; Seafjihs, a bond), 
JMorren's term for congenital separa- 
tion of parts normally united. 

Adflnx'ion {nd, to ; fluxio, a flowing), 
the attraction by which sap is drawiv 
towards the leaves. 

adglu'tinate, adglutina'tns {ad, to ; 
glu/ino, 1 glue), grown together, 

adhe'rent, adhe'rcns {adhaereo, I stick 
to), the union of parts usually 
separate ; ~ Vema'tion, when the 
bases of Fern-fronds are continu- 
ous with the caudex ; Adhe'rence, 
Adhe'sion, the stnte of union with 
some other organ or j)art ; CJoebel 
restricts it to union of dissimilar 
parts ; cf. Cohesion. 

Adicliog''amy (a, without -}- Dicho- 
gamy), both sex^s developed at 
the same time (Knuth). 

Adipocel'luloBes {ndcps, adipis, fat, + 
Cellulose), a group of bodies whii;h 
constitute the cuticular tissues of 
leaves and fruits ; cf. Cellulose. 

adisca^lis (a, without ; SIo-kos, a quoit), 
destitute of a disk. 

AdJMSt' meat {ad, to -J list us, right, just), 
used for the functional resiK)nse to a 

adli'gans {ad, to ; Hgo, I tie), holding 
fast or binding, as the aeiial hold- 
fasts of ivy ; ad'ligant, al'ligant 
(Heinig) ; cf. adligans. 

Adminic'ulum (Lat., a prop) = Ful- 

admoti'vas {ad, to ; nvoreo, I move), 
when in germination the albumen 
remains attached to the sheath of 
the cotyledon. 

adnas^cent, adnas'cens {adruiscor, to 
grow to), growing to or upon some- 
thing else ; Adnas'cens ; (1) a young 
bulb, as a "clove" of garlic; (2) 
a sucker of some Monocotyledons, 

ad'nate, adtiatus {adnascor, I grow 

'to), attached the whole length, 

^ Anth'ers have the lol)e8 attached 

their entire length to the filament ; 

Adna'tion, the state in question. 

adnezed' {adnexo, I tie), used of the 
lamellae of some Agarics, which 
reach the stem, but are not adnata 
to it. 

ad'pressed, adpress'us = appressed. 

adscend'ent = ascendent. 

adsurg'ent, adsarg'ens = assurgknt. 

adunc'ate, adunc'ous (cuittnats, hooked), 
bent or crooked as a hook. 

adust'uB (Lat., swarthy), soot-coloured, 

adventit'ious, adventit'ius {ad, to ; 
venio, I come), applied to plants 
lately introduced ; '*- Bads, those 
produced abnonnally, as from the 
stem instead of the axils of the 
leaves ; -^ Roots, those which do 
not arise from the radicle or its 
subdivisions, but from another part ; 
advent'ive = adventitious. 

ad'verse {ad, to ; verso, I turn) ; (1) 
opposite ; (2) facing the main axis 
or other object ; adversifo'liate, ad- 
versi/o'lius {folium, a leaf), having 
opposite leaves; advera'as (Lat.), 

Adynaman'dry {aiwaixia, weakness ; 
avijp, avSphs, a man), Delpino's 
term for self-sterility ; that is, 
when a flower does not set seed 
from its own pollen. 

aee'ial, aecid'ial, relating to or resem- 
bling the form-genus Aecidium; '^ 



Form, a fungus in that stage of 
development ; Aecidlolum, in Ure- 
dineae, a small fonn and usually a 
later development of the Aecidium' 
stage ; a sperraogoniiim. 

Aecid'ioHT^ore (Aecidium, inli-a ; cnropet, 
a seed), a spore formed in the fol- 
lowing : Aeeid'ium (probably from 
oUlStov, a little house), a sporocarp 
consisting of a cup-shaped envelope, 
its interior surface consisting of a 
hyrnenium, from whose basidia the 
aecidioapores are successively thrown 
oflF; the name was propounded by 
Persoon as a genus of Fungi, but it 
is now regarded as only a form-genus 
of Uredineae. 

Ae'ciospore (+ Spoke) = Aecidio- 
sroRE ; iB'ciuxn, Arthur's term for 

Aeeol'ogy = Ecology or Oncology. 

Aegagropi^lae, pi. (0/707^05, a wild 
goat ; itjAos, felt), Lagerheim's term 
for those marine Algae which are 
more or less spherical, and freely 
driven about in the sea. 

aelophlloas (&€AAa, storm- wind; </i>(A€a), 
I love), applied to plants dissemin- 
ated by wind. 

aeo'lian {al6\05, shifting), used of 
sandy soils liable to rapid removal 
by wind (Clements). 

ae'iieus (Lat., bronze), used for brass- 
coloured ; sometimes for verdigiis. 

aeqaalis, ae'quans (Lat.), equal or 
equalling ; similar in size, uniforni ; 
aequilat'eral, aequilatera'lis, equal- 
sided, of equal length ; aequali- 
fior^us (Lat.), with flowers alike in 
form and character ; aequimag'nus 
J (Lat.), equal sized ; aequinoc'tial, 
aequitwctia'lis, pertaining to the 
equinox ; used of flowers, which 
open or close at stated hours ; 
aequivalv'is (Lat.), having valves 
of flowers or fruit of similar size ; 
aequive'nius (Lat.), all the veins of 
•qual distinctness. 

ae'rating [aer, air) Roots, peculiar 
roots rising out of the mud, covered 
with a loose, corky tissue, and 
having large intercellular spaces ; 
Aerenoh'yma (?7xwm«> that poured 


out), Schenk's term for a tissue of 
thin-walled cells, and large inter- 
cellular spaces, found in the stems 
of some mardh- plants, serving for 
aeration or floating tissue : adj. 
aerenchy'matoua ; ae'rial, ae'rius, 
used for plants (or })arts of plants) 
living above the surface of the ground 
or water ; ~ Plants, epiphytes as, 
Tillavdsia and many tropical 
orchids ; ^ Boots, those which vege- 
tate altogether above the ground. 

ae'reus (Lat.), copper- coloured or 

A'^erobe (&ios, life), a suggested ab- 
breviation of Aerobium ; aero'bic, 
peitaining to such organisms ; ~ 
Energe'sis, the disruptive process 
by which energy is released (Barnes) ; 
t/. Respiration ; Aerobi'ont, a i)lant 
dependent upon free oxygen for its 
respiration ; aerobiot'ie, needing air 
for existence ; Aerobio^'sis, life in 
atmospheric air ; Aerob'iam, an 
organism which thrives only in the 
presence of air or free oxygen ; 
applied to certain bacteria ; Aero- 
car'py {Kapvhs, fruit) producing fruit 
above ground ; cf. Ampisicarpy, 
Geogahpy ; Ae'rocyst {kvottis, a bag 
or pouch), the air-bladders of such 
algae as Fucus resiculosiis, Linn. ; 
A^erogams {yk/jios, marriage), plia- 
nerogams ; Aeroidot'ropism (rpoTrr?, 
a turning) = Akkoteopism ; Aero- 
morpho'sis {^6p<l>(uaris, a shaping), 
changes in water plants induced by 
growth in air (Herbst) ; aeroph'ilous 
{<pi\4(i), I love), (1) Beyerinck's term 
for essentially aerobiotic organisms ; 
cf. micboaerophilous ; (2) Are- 
schoug's term for renovation buds 
produced above ground ; cf. piioto- 
PHILOUS ; '-' Shoot, the growth from 
such ; Ae^ropyle (wvAtj, a gate), a 
pore at the base of the pod in cer- 
tain Leguminosae, as Faba vulgaris 
(A. H. Church) ; Ae'rophyte {^vrhv, 
a plant), air-plant, epiphyte ; Aero- 
tax'is {ri^is, arrangement), used by 
Hartog to express positive stimulus 
by ©xygen to the irritability of zoo- 
spores, adj. aerotact'ie ; Aerot'ropism 



(rpoir)?, a turning), the influence of 
gases on growth and curvature ; it 
is a form of Chemotropism ; adj. 

aeru'ginose, aerug'inous, ae^-ugin'eus, 
aerngino'sns, {aerugo, the rust of 
brass), the blue-green colour of 

Aesc'ulin, an alkaloid from the horse- 
chestnut ; Aesculus Hippocasianum, 

Aestatifrutice'ta, pi. {aestas, the hot 
season ; friiticetum, a thicket), de- 
ciduous bush formation ; Aestati- 
sii'vae, pi. {silva, a wood), deciduous 

Aesthe'sia {ataer.cris, perception by 
sense), Czapek's expressioji to de- 
note the capacity of an organ to 
respond to definite physical stimuli ; 
Aesthe'sis, the apparent perception 
on the part of a root (Czapek). 
^aes'tival, aestiva'lis, belonging or 
peculiar to summer ; Aestiva'ria, 
the summer quarters of plants in 
botanic gardens. 

Aestiva'tion, A estiva' tio, the manner 
in which the parts of a flower are 
folded up before expansion. 

Aestuar'ium (Lat., a tidal estuary), 
applied to a flat shore which is 
flooded with sea-water at spring- 
tides (Warming). 

Aete'rio = Etaerio. 

Aetha'lium {ai9a\os, soot), a couj- 
pound s[)oriferous body, foiTned 
from a combination of plasmodia 
in Myxogastres ; Ae. sepiicum, Fr. , 
is known as "Flowers of Tan"; 
aetha'lioid {eUos, form), like the last 

aethe'os {a-qd-qs, unusual), in com- 
pounds = unusual ; aetheogam'ic, 
aetheog'amous {yafjLos, marriage), 
synonymous with cryptogamic. 

aethe'reus (Lat,), aerial,- 

aetiog'enous {atnov, cause ; yevhs, off- 
spring), caused externally ; cf. 
All 10- ; Aetiorogy (x<J7os, discourse), 
the doctrine of the cause of disease, 
as of Vegetable Galls ; also spelled 
Aitiology and Etiology. 

Affinity {affoi'itas, near alliance), the 
closeness of relation between plants 

as shown by similarity of import- 
ant oigans. 

affix'ed (aJJix'us, fastened to), fixed 

afo'liate (a, without ; folium, a leaf), 
leafless ; a hybrid word for aphyl- 

Aft'er-ri'pening, applied to the period 
of dormancy in many seeds before 
germination, as those of Crataegus. 

Ag'ad (07^, beach), a beach plant ; 
Agi'mn, an association of beach 
plants (Clements). 

Ag'amae (a, without ; ydfxos, marriage) 
= Cryptogamae ; Agamandroe'cism 
(4- Androecium), in Compositae, 
having male and neuter flowers 
in the same individual ; agam'ic, 
ag'amous, Necker's term for crypto- 
gamous ; Agamob^ium (ffios, life), 
Harvey Gibson's term for the asexual 
generation in organisms sho\ving 
alternation of generations ; thesporo- 
phyte ; Agamogen'esis {yevsais, 
origin), asexual reproduction i3y buds, 
gemmae, etc. ; Agamogjnae'cism 

- ( -j- Gynaeceum), in Compositae, 
having female and neuter flowers 
in the same individual ; Agamo- 
gynomonoe'cism, the presence of 
neuter, female, and perfect flowers 
iu the same individual ; Agamo- 
hennaph'roditism ( + hekmaphuo- 
dite), with hermaphrodite and 
neuter flowers in the same plant ; 
Agamonoe'cia ( 4- Monoecia), used 
by Engler and Prantl for those plants 
which have hermaphrodite and barren 
flowers in the same inflorescence, as 
Viburnum Opahif^, Linn. ; Agamo- 
noe'cism, the condition named ; 
Agamophy'ta {<pvrhv, a plant), C. 
MacMillan's term for protophytes ; 
Agam'ospore {avoph, a seM), a spore 
or gonidium produced asexually ; 
agamotrop'ic {rpoii-f}, a turn), ap- 
plied to flowers which remain open 
without closing. 

A'gar, a gelatinous product from Agar- 
agar, or Agal-agal, which consists of 
various marine Algae from tropical 
Asia ; also called " Ceylon Moss " 
and "Bengal Isinglass." 

Agaric Acid 


Agaric Acid {Agarictis, Toum., a 
genus of Fungi), found in Polyponis 
officinalis, Ft. ; agaricic'ola (colo, 
I inhabit), applied to a parasite on 
Hymenomycetous Fungi ; J, 8. 
Henslow prints it as agaric 'olus. 

agendas X (a, without ; yevos, sex, 
race) = neuter ; a'genas, used of 
cellular Cryptogams, " which are 
enlarged by the addition of new 

ageotrop'ic ( + geotropic), negatively 

Agged'nla (derived by Necker from 
ayyei^iov, a little vessel), the spor- 
angium of Mosses, and of Picccinia. 

Ag'geres (Lat.), banks or rockwork 
in botanic gardens. 

agglom^erate, agglom^erated, agglom- 
era'tus (Lat., crowded together), 
collected into a head, as the flowers 
of Scabious. 

agglu'tinate {agglutino, I glue), glued 
together, as the pollen-masses of 
Asclepiads or Orchids ; accrete. 

ag'gregate, ag'gregated, aggrega'tus 
(Lat., assembled), collected to- 
gether, as the flowers of Cuscuta ; 
~ Flowers, those gathered into a 
head, as Dipxacus, but not as in 
Compositae, which are capitulate ; 
'^Fruits, collection of separate 
carpels produced by one flower, 
the product of a polycarpellary 
apocarpous gynaeceum ; -' Spe'cies, 
a super-species, which may be com- 
pounded of more than one true 
species ; Aggrega'tion, (1) condensa- 
tion of cell-contents under some 
stimulus ; (2) the coming together of 
plants into gi-oups (Clements). 

Ag'rad {ayphs, a field), a cultivated 
plant (Clements). 

agrarian {agrar'ius, pertaining to 
the field). H. C. Watson's term for 
the cultivable portion of Great 
Britain ; <*' Begion, divided into three 
'~ Zones, the super-, mid-, and infer- 
agrarian zones. 

agrest'al {agrestis, belonging to the 
field) ; (1) Watson's term for plants 
growing in arable ground ; (2) rural 


Agric'ola (Lat., a rustic), a native or 
country dweller. 

agricalt'aral Bot'any {agricuUura, 
husbandry), that part of economic 
botany which relates to fiirni plants ; 
agricnlt'ural Spe'cies, so-called, are 
constant forms or varieties of cul- 
tivated plants, as maize, wheat, etc. 

Agri'nm (ayphs, a field), "a culture 
formation " ; Agroc'ola (Clements) 
= Agricola, a native of the fields ; 
agroph'ilus, "dwelling in grain 
fields" ; Agrophy'ta, "culture 
plants" (Clements). 

Agropyre'tum, a formation of Agropp- 
rum grasses. 

writing), the description of grasses ; 
Agrostorogist, an expert or writer 
on grasses ; Agrostol'ogy {\6yoSt 
discourse), the botany of grasses. 

agyna'rius J (a, without ; yw^, a 
woman) ; agyn'icus ; (1) sai I of 
stamens which are free from the 
ovary ; (2) pistils wanting, desti- 
tute of pistils ; ag'ynous. monstrous 
flowers with pistils missing. 

aheliotrop'ic (a, not ; ifiKios, the sun -; 
rpuTri], a turn), neutral to light, 
neither attracted to nor repelled by 
it ; more correctly Apheliotropic. 

aianth'ous (del, ever ; &vdos, a flower), 
(1) constantly flowering; (2) ever- 
lasting flowers, as Helichrysum. 

Aigiali'am {aiytaKhs, seashore), a 
beach-plant formation ; aigialo- 
ph'ilas (<pi\4ci}, I love), beach- 
loving ; Aigialophy'ta {(pvrhv, a 
plant), beach or strand plants 

Ai'gret (Fr;, Aigrette, tuft of feathers), 
the pappus of Compositae ; Eng- 
lished by T. Martyn as E'gret. 

aiina, in Greek compounds = blood - 
coloured ; properly heema (from 
aJ/ia, blood). 

aiophyl'lus {ali}v, eternity ; <pv\Kov, 
a leaf), evergreen. 

Aiphyll'ium {afl<pv\\os, evergreen), an 
evergreen forest formation ; aiphyl- 
lophllus {<pt\€c,}, I love), growing 
in such forests ; Aiphyllophy'ta 
{<pvrhv, a plant), plants forming 



evergreen forests ; Aiphyti'a, ulti- 
mate or fixed formations (Clements). 

Air-Blad'ders, intercellular spaces in 
some Algae, serving as floats ; -^ 
Cavity = '--Chambers (2); ~ -Cells, 
'~ -Chambers, (1) intercellular spaces 
occurring in aquatic plants, usually 
prismatic in form, (2) the inter- 
cellular space beneath a stoma ; <-* 
Passage, = — -Chamber ; '-- -Plants, 
epij^iytes, as Bromeliads and some 
Orchids ; -' Pores, (1) i= Stoma- 
TA, (2) Pneumathodes of Hepaticae, 
'-' Roots ^ Pneumatophores ; <-' 
Sacs, cavities in the pollen-grains 
of Pinus ; '-' Vessels, term formerly 
applied to empty tracheids, etc. 

Aithali'am {aeidah^s, an evergreen 
thicket), a formation of evergreen 
thickets ; aithaloph'ilus {(piXew, I 
love), plants delighting in such 
habitats ; Aithalopby'ta {<pxnhv, a 
plant), plants composing such for- 
mations (Clements). 

aitiogen'ic, aitiog'enuus {atnos, caus- 
ing ; yevos, offspring), due to 
external causes ; Aitiomorpho'sis 
{/M6p<pw(Tis, change), change in shape 
caused by external factors (Pfeffer), 
adj. altiomorpb'ous ; aitiouastlc 
{uaffrhs, pressed close), bent from 
some external cause Aitionas'ty, 
the condition itself; aitionom'ic, 
aition'omous {v6fios, law), due to 
external circumstances, as growth- 
curvature ; Aition'omy is the condi- 
tion ; Aitiotlopism (rpoir);, a turn- 
ing), movement depending upon 
outside causes ; adj. altiotrop ic ; 
aitog'enous = aitiogenous. 

akar'yote (o, without ; Kapuov, a nut), 
the chromidial condition after the 
close of the vegetative phase in 
Plasmodiophoraceae, when the 
nucleus has disappeared. 

Akene', Ake'nium, = Achene, Achen- 

Akine'sis (a, without ; Kivriais, move- 
ment), increase without the phenom- 
ena of karyokinesis ; A'kinetes, in 
green Algae, single cells whose 
walls thicken and separate off from 
the thallus, corresponding to the 

chlamydospores of Fungi ; imraotile 
reproductive cells, formed without 
true cell- formation, or rejuvene- 

Akla'dium = Aclat>ium. 

A'la (Lat., wing), (1) formerly an axil, 
but now obsolete in that sense ; (2) 
a lateral petal of a papilionaceous 
flower ; (3) a membranous expansion 
of any kind, as in the seed of 
Bignoniaceae ; (4) employed by Wm. 
Smith for the marginal processes in 
Surirella : (5) the outer segment of 
the coronal lobes in some Asclepiads ; 
(6) in Mosses, the a'lar cells are 
those at the basal angle of a leaf. 

Alabas'trum (Lat., bud), a flo^pr- 

a'lar, ala'ris {ala, wing), (1) formerly 
used for axillaris ; (2) --' Cells, cf. 
Ala (6). 

alate', ala'tus (Lat., winged), furnished 
with an expansion, as a stem or 
petiole ; alatepinna'tus, when the 
common petiole of a pinnate leaf is 
marginally winged. 

alba'tus (Lat.), whitened; Aibe'do 
( Lat.), whiteness ; Albefac'tion {facio, 
I make), blanching ; albes'cent, 
albes'cens, white; arbicant, 
albicans, tending to white : Albi- 
ca'tion, becoming blanched or varie- 
gated with white ; albid'ulus, 
al'bidus, albin'eus (Lat.), whitish ; 
Arbinism, a disease from absence of 
normal colouring, producing an 
Albi'no ; albi'nus, al'bulus (Lat.), 
somewhat white. 

Al'bumen (Lat., white of an egg), the 
nutritive material stored within the 
seed, and in many cases surrounding 
the embryo. (Note. Not to be 
confounded with animal Albumen.) 
Restricted by Van Tieghem to the 
result of the development of the 
Trophime, the central nucleus of 
the embryo-sac ; Al'bumin, in plants, 
the proteids which readily coagulate 
from their aqueous solutions by the 
action of heat or acids ; Albu'mi- 
nates, nitrogenous substances in- 
soluble in water, soluble in dilute 
acids or alkalies, e. g. gluten of 




wheat ; Albu'minoids {^Uos, resem- 
blance), nitrogenous organic sub- 
stances, proteids ; albu^minose, 
albn'minous, albumino'sus, contain- 
ing albumen, a term restricted to 
seeds ; Albumo'ses, similar to albu- 
minates, but soluble in ■water ; 
common constituents of aleuron. 

Albur'nitas {alburnum, sap-wood), a 
disease in trees, a tendency to 
remain soft like the recent wood ; 
albur'nous, relating to the sap- 
wood ; Albur'num, the outermost 
and youngest portion of the wood, 
still permeable by fluids. 

al'bus (Lat.), dead white, without 

Alcaliot'rop'sm (alkali, Fr. ; rpoir^, a 
turning), chemotropism induced by 
alkalies (Massart). 

Alchemille'tum, an association of 
Alchemilla plants. 

Alcohorase, the same enzyme as 

alcohortc Fermenta'tion, see Fehmen- 


Al'der-Will'ow association, a wood 
usually showing a dominance of 
alder, with a mixture of willows, 
and sometimes of ash and oak. 

alector'ioid {Alectoria, Ach., elSos, 
resemblance), filamentous, as the 
thailus of the genus after which it 
is named. 

alepido'tus, I (o, not; heiriSurhs, scaly), 
destitute of scurf or scales. 

Ale'tophytes {akijTns, vagrant ; <pirov, 
a plant), ruderal or wayside plants 

Aleu'ron, or Aleu'rone (sfXeupov, wheaten 
flour), ja-oteid granules of globulins 
and peptones, present in seeds, 
~ Lay'er, a special peripheric layer 
in most seeds, especially in grasses ; 
adj., aleuron'ic. 

Alex'ine (dAe|w, I ward off), a sub- 
stance hypothetically assumed to 
be formed by plants for protection 
against bacteria ; antitoxine. 

AVgB,e (alga, seaweed), c'hloro[)hyll- 
containing Thallophytes, which usu- 
ally grow immersed in water, fresh 
or marine ; known popularly as 

" Seaweeds," or " Waterweeds " ; 
al'gal, relating to Algae ; — Layer, 
the green band of gonidia in the 
thailus of heteromerous lichens, also 
styled <-' -Zone ; aigi'nus J resem- 
bling a thread like Alga ; Al'^t 
= Algorogist, a student of Algae ; 
al'goid (eUos, resemblance), like an 
Alga ; Argo-li'chenes, Lindsay's 
term for certain transitional forms 
between Algae and Lichens ; argons 
= ALOAL ; Algol'ogy, {\6yos, dis- 
course), the science of Algae ; Algs, 
F. von Mueller's word for Algae. 

A'lien, used by H. C. Watson for 
introduced" plants which have be- 
come naturalised in Britain. 

alif' erous {ala, a wing ; fero, I bear), 
having wings ; ariform (fo-nna, 
shape), mng-shaped ; alig'erons 
igero, I bear) = aliferous (Crozier). 

alig'ular {a, from ; ligula, strap), 
Russow's term for that leaf- face in 
Selaginella which is turned away 
from the ligule and stem. 

Alimo'nia % (Lat., nourishment) = 
ascending sap. 

Ariquote {aliquot, some, in numbers), 
the constant of temj»eratures for a 
given event in the life-cycle of an 
organism ; the sum- temperature of 
the event divided by the total sum- 
temperature of the year (Linsser). 

-alis, Latin termination indicative of 
belonging to ; thus radic-alis, be- 
longing to the root, radix. 

alisma'ceous {Alisma,'D\\\., -j-cEOUs), 
belonging to the order Alismaceae, 
of which the genus named is the 

Aliz'arine (Fr., Alizari, madder-root), 
the colouring matter of the root of 
madder, Rubia tinctoria, Linn. 

Alkachlor'ophyll (Alkali + Chloro- 
phyll), a presumed constituent of 
chlorophyll, produced by the action 
of an alkali ; alkales'oent, of the 
nature of an alkali ; Alk'aloids 
{elSos, resemblance), general term 
for the organic bases in many plants, 
markedly medicinal or poisonous, a.s 
Morphia, Strychnia. 

allagopbyirons (iAAay^, a change ; 




0WAA.OV, a leaf), alternate-leaved ; 
allagoste'mon, allagostern'onons, 
when stamens are attached alter- 
nately to the petals and the torus. 
allanto'dioid, applied to ferns which 
resemble the genus Allantodia, R. 
Br., in habit or fructification. 
allant'oid {ahhas, a sausage ; elZoSf 
form), sausage-shaped ; AUanto- 
spor'ae ( + Spora), 'J'ra verso's term 
for cylindrical •s[>ores somewhat 
allassoton'ic (dWactrw, I vary ; t6vos, 
turgescence), movements of mature 
organs, caused by augmentation of 
turgor with diminution of volume. 
Allautogam'ia {&XKos, other ; avrhs, 
self; ydfjLOs, marriage), unusual 
method of pollination (Clements). 
Alleeog'amy = Allog'amy. 
AUe lomorph (dw^Aws, mutually ; 
lxop(p^, shape), applied to "unit- 
characters existing in antagonistic 
pairs" (Bateson) ; c/. Hypallelo- 
MORPH ; adj. allelomor''piiic ; AUe- 
lomor'phism, the condition in 
question ; AUelosif'isiu (o-Itos, food), 
Norman's term for Syntjiophy ; 
All'esy or AUe'sis, employed by 
Massart for the power of an organ 
to show interference. 
allia'ceous, -cens {allium, garlic, 4- 
ACEU.s), having the smell of garlic 
or onions ; allia'rius (Lat. ) is a 
Alli'ance, a group of Families now 

usually styled Cohort. 
Alliga'tor [alligo, I bind) = Fulcrum. 
Aliochlor'opliyll {hXKos, another, -f 
Chlorophyll), a second green sub- 
stance accompanying chlorophyll 
(Schunck and Marchlewski) ; allo- 
ch'rous (xp<^«j complexion), changing 
from one colour to another ; Allo- 
car'py («opiri>s, fniit), fruiting from 
cross-fertilized flowers ; Allog'amy 
(7ajuos, marriage), cross- fertilization : 
sub-divided into GEiTONOc;AMY,from 
another flower on the same plant, 
and Xenogamy, from another plant 
of the same species ; adj. allog'am- 
0T18 ; AU'ogene {yeuos, descent), the 
recessive element of a couplet or 

pair of Allelomorphs ; cf. Proto- 
GENE (Pearson) ; AUomet'ron {fierpov, 
a measure), a quantitative change, 
the genesis of new proportions in 
an existing character (H. F. Osborn). 
Alloorysis {aWoios, ditferent ; \vcris, 
loosing), applied to the mode in 
which natural diastase acts on the 
endosperm of the date, and the 
changes thereby caused. 
Ariosperm {aWos, another ; arirep/xa, a 
seed), an embryo arising through 
Allogamy (MacMillan) ; Al'lospore 
(+ Spora), a spore which gives rise 
ultimately to a gametophyte (Radl- 
kofer) ; Allot'ropliy (rpo^rj, nourish- 
ment), (1) when plants are not in a 
condition to assimilate CO2 (Pfeffer) ; 
(2) tlie condition of flowers of low 
adaptation to insect- visitors (Loew) ; 
allot'ropous {rpoir^, a turn), Mac- 
Leod's term for plants having stores 
of honey open to all insect-visitors ; 
Allot'ropy, otherwise turned or 
formed ; adj. allotrop'ic ; allotyp'ic, 
proposed by Strasburgcr in place of 
atypic mitosis ; heterotypic followed 
by homotypic nuclear division : 
Allozy'gote ( + Zygote), a homo- 
zygote displaying recessive characters 
exclusively (K. Pearson). 

Alla'ring Glands of Nepenthes, glands 
in the pitchers which tempt insects 
down the tube (Macfarlane). 

Alne'tum, an association of alder 
plants, Alnus. 

alpes'trine, alpes'tris, strictly appli- 
cable to plants gi'owing above the 
limit of forest growth, on the Alps, 
but practically synonymous with 
Alpine ; alpes'ter (Lat.) is used by 
some botanists for the more usual 

alphitomor'phous {&Ki^irov, pearl 
barley ; f^op<p^, form), like barley- 
meal ; applied to certain fungi. 

alplgene [alpig'eiia, bred in the Alps) 
= Alpine. 

alp'ine, alpi'nus, properly denoting 
plants belonging to the Alps {alpes, 
mountains), but frequently used in 
a wider sense, embracing alpestriue, 
as well as the higher situated plants ; 




'-'Kegions, defined thus by Schim- 
per : ba'sal -^ , liygrophilous warmth- 
loving plants of the foothills ; 
mon'taae^', the same as the last, 
but able to endure cooler tempera- 
ture ; alp'ine--', restricted to actual 
alpine plants. 

Al'sad {&\<Tos, a grove, + ad), a grove 
plant ; Alsi'um, a grove formation ; 
alsoph'ilus {(piXfo, I love), gi-ove- 
loving plants ; Alsophy'ta {<pirrhv, 
a plant), grove plants (Clements) ; 
alsoc''olus (Clements) = alsoc'ola, 
dwelling in groves. 

alBina'ceous {Alsine, Tourn., 4-cEous), 

(1) used of a petal having a short, 
but distinct claw ; (2) belonging to, 
or resembling the group of plants 
of which Alsine is the typical genus. 

altema'rioid {Mos, likeness), resem- 
bling the genus AUemaria; Al- 
tema'riose, a disease caused by the 
same fungus genus. 

alter'nate, alter'nus ; alterna'tus, 
alter' nans, (1) placed on opposite 
sides of the stem on a different line ; 

(2) when between other bodies of 
the same or different whorls, as in 
Umbelliferae, where the stamens are 
alternate with the petals, that is, 
between them ; Altema'tion, Alter- 
nation (1) interchange, by turns ; (2) 
the heterogeneous arrangement of 
plant groups and formations (Cle- 
ments) ; -^ of Genera'tions the re- 
production by organisms which do 
not precisely resemble the parent, 
but the grand-parent, applied espe- 
cially to the regular succession of 
sexual and asexual phases, as in 
Ferns, etc. 

alter'native, alternati'vus, in aestiva- 
tion when the perianth segments are 
in two rows, and the inner so covered 
b}' the outer, that each exterioi 
member overlaps the half of two 
interior members. 

altemipet'alous {alternusy every other ; 
•KfraKov, a flower leaf), applied to 
stamens alternating with the petals ; 
alternisep'alous ( + Skpalum), used 
of petals alternating with the sepals. 
alternipin'nate, or altem'ately-pin' 

nate, when the leaflets of a pinnate 
leaf are not exactly opposite each 

Artheine, a principle from the marsh- 
mallow, Altha,ea, Tourn,, analogous 
to Asparagin. 

Alt'itude, Altitu'do (Lat., height), used 
to specify the height above the sea 
of the vegetation in question. 

Altolierbipra'ta, pi. {alius, high ; hfrha, 
a plant ; pratum, a meadow), a divi- 
sion of Terriprata characterised 
by the dominance of tall-growing 

Alu'mina Bod''ies, substances found 
in the mesophyll and cortex of 
Symplocos (Radlkofer). 

aluta'ceovB, aluta'cetcs {aluta, soft 
leather + CEOUs), (1) the colour of 
buff leather, or light tan ; (2) 
leathery in texture, coriaceous. 

Al'var, applied to peculiar dwarfed 
growth, resembling steppe vegeta- 
tion, in Uland, etc. (Sernander). 

Alve'ola {alveolus, a hollow vessel), 
pi. Alveolae ; (1) cavities on the sur- 
face, as the pits on the receptacle of 
many Compositae, honeycombed ; 
(2) the pores of such Fungi as 
Polyporus ; (3) the perithecia of 
certain other Fungi ; adj. arveolar ; 
-' Theory, applied to Biitschli's 
theory of protoplasm as a foam-like 
substance ; Alveolarplas^ma (irXd<r/ito, 
modelled), term used by Strasburger 
in place of Troi'HOPLAsm, gianular 
protoplasm ; al'veolate, alveola'tus, 
alveola'ris, marked as tnough 
honeycombed ; Alve'oli, the pit-like 
markings on the valves of many 
Diatomaceae ; Alveoliza'tion, the 
process of becoming granular or 
honeycombed ; alve'olized, the pro- 
cess named. 

Amadou^ (l^'r. ), (1) the substance of 
certain Fungi used as tinder, as 
Polyporus fo7nenlarms, Fr. ; (2) as 
a styptic when from the pubescence 
of the Phanerogam Melastoma hirta, 

Amalthe'a X {H/xa, together ; a\d(w, I 
increase), used by Desvaux for an 
aggregation of dry fruits within 




a calyx which does not become 
fleshy, as Alchevxilla, and Sangiii- 

Aman'itin (from Ainanita, Dilh ), (1) 
the red pigment of the pileus of 
the Fly-Agaric, (2) the poisonous 
alkaloid from the same, also written 

Amath'ad (i/io0os, sandy soil + ad), 
a sand-hilt plant ; Amathi'um, a 
sand-hill formation ; amathoc'clos 
{i.e. = amathoc'ola), a sandy 
dwelling plant (Clements) ; amatho- 
ph'ilus {(piKeoD, I love), dwelling on 
sand-hills or sandy plains ; Amatho- 
phy'ta {(pvrhy, a plant), sand-plain 

Am'ber, the English name of Suc- 

ambig'enus {umbo, both ; gemis, off- 
spring), applied to a perianth whose 
exterior is calycine, and interior 
corolline, as Nymphaea. 

ambiguiflor'us {ambiguus, doubtful ; 
flos, Jioris, flower), applied by 
Cassini to flowers of an indetermin- 
ate form ; ambig'uous, (1) said of 
an organ when its origin is un- 
certain, thus the dissepiments of an 
orange may belong to the axis or 
the paries ; (2) of a plant when its 
position is doubtful, 

ambip'arous, -rus, {umbo, both ; pario, 
I bring forth), producing two kinds, 
as when a bud contains both flowers 
and leaves, as the Horse-chestnut ; 
ambisporang'iate ( + Sporangium), 
hermaphrodite flowers, otherwise 
macro- and micro-sporangiate, that 
is, bearing ovules and pollen-sacs ; 


Amb'ilus (Lat., a going round), 
the outline of a figiire, as of a 

ambleocar'pus (afjLfix6ofxai, to be abor- 
tive ; Kap-rrhs, fruii), when most of 
the ovules abort, a few only becom- 
ing perfect seeds. 

Ambro'sia {afi$p6<ria, divine food), 
the mycelial or oidial stage of a 
Fungus, probably of some Asco- 
mycete, found in the burrows of 
some beetles in fruit-trees, and 

believed to be used as food ; am- 
bros'iacus, possessing a strong scent 
of Ambrosia ; fragrant, 

Ambula'crum (Lat.), a walk laid out 
in a botanic garden, 

ameliorating ( Fr, , atrUlioration, an im- 
provement) '-' Plants, those bacteria 
which cause nodules on the roots of 

Am'ent, Ament'um (Lat., a strap), a 
catkin, a spik^e of flowers usually 
bracteate, and frequently deciduous ; 
amenta'ceous, -cev^ ( -f ceus), amen- 
t'iform {forma, shape),- amenti- 
f'erous {fero, I bear), catkin-bear- 
ing ; catkin-like ; Ameiitiflo'rae 
{fios, Jioris,a. flower), wind- fertilized, 
catkin-bearing plants, as the hazel 
or willow (Delpino). 

Ament'ula (diminutive), the so-called 
catkins of the male inflorescence in 

ameris'tic' (o, not ; fxepiaros, divisible) 
~ Ferns, are those whose prothalli 
being insufficiently provided with 
nutriment are destitute of meristem, 
and produce antheridia only. 

Am'erosporae (a, without; fifpos, a part^ 
+ Spora), applied to pluricellular 
spores, subdivided into Allanto- 
sporae, Hyalosporae, Phaeo- 
sporae (Traverso), 

ametab'olous, ametab'olits (o, without; 
fiCTa^oKij, change), used of species of 
Equisettim, where fertile shoTits die 
away after dispersal of the spores 

amethyst'eus, amethyst 'inns (Lat,), 
the colour of amethyst, violet. 

ametoe'cions (o, not; /uera, with, after; 
ol/cos,' house), a parasite which does 
not change its host ; the reverse of 


amicron'ic (a, not ; /juKphs, small), ap- 
plied to jiarticles beyond the powers 
of the microscope. 

Am'idases ( -t- Amide), enzymes occur- 
ring in the mycelium of Aspergillus, 
which split ott' ammonia from urea, 
etc., but are not proteolytic (Shibata) ; 
and diffuse into the air, such as the 
hawthorn and elder. 

Amides (Am[-monia] + ide), certain 




substances occurring in plants, 
soluble in water, diHusible, crystal- 
lizable, not coagulating on boiling ; 
those of common occurrence are Aspa- 
ragin, Leuciu, and Ty rosin ; Amid'- 
ulin, soluble starch, existing in small 
quantity in ordinary starch-grains ; 
Ami'doplast (irAaorrbj, modelled), an 
error for Amyloplast; am'inoid 
(e!8os, resemblance), used by Kerner 
for those scents which have an 
amine as their foundation. 

Amito'sis (a, withoiit ; fxlros, a web), 

de lined as degenerate mitosis, when 

nuclear division takes place dii'ectly 

-without the phenomena of karyo- 

kinesis ; adj . amito'tic. 

Am'me (Ger., nurse), cf. Tropho-. 

Ammoch'thad i&H-t^os, sand ; 0x^77, 
bauk + AD), a sand-bank plant ; 
Ammochthi'um, a sand-bank forma- 
tion ; ammochthoph'ilas {<pi\e<a, I 
love), plant dwelling on sand- 
banks ; Ammochthophy'ta {(pvrhv, a 
plant), plants of sand-banks (Cle- 
ments) ; Am'modytes (Sua), I sink 
in), living in sandy places ; ammo- 
ph'ilous, -lus \(pi\€Q}, I love), sand- 

Ammo'nia (Amnion, the Libyan 
Jupiter; first found near his temple), 
a pungent gas; the so-called volatile 
alkali ; Ammonifica'tion {facio, I 
make), the production of ammonia 
by certain bacteria ; Ammo'nobac- 
te'ria ( + Bactekium), organisms 
capable of producing ammonia from 
nitrogen compounds (Lipn)an). 

Ammophile'tum, an association of 
Ammophila arundinacca, on sand- 

Am'nion, Am'nios (a.uvioj, foetal mem- 
brane), a viscous fluid which sur- 
rounds certain ovules in an early 
stage ; amniot'ic Sac = Embryo-Sac. 

amoe'boid {aixot^aios, interclianging), 
applied to the jelly-like plasmodium 
01 Myxogastres when in motion, 
resembling an Amoe'ba, a protean- 
8ha])ed rhizopod ; Amoeboid'eae, 
used by (jo1)i for the lowest forms 
of plant-life which are destitute of 
chlorophyll ; Amoe'bulae, the separa- 

tion of plasma round each nucleus 
in Sorospkaera (Schwartz). 

amorph'ouB, amorph'us (a, without ; 
fiopip^, form), shapeless, the form not 
regular or definite ; Amorph'opliyte 
{(pvrhy, a plant), a plant with ano- 
malous flowers. 

Am'pelid, (it^TreAos, a vine ; elSos, like), 
used by J. Smith for any climbing 
plant ; Ampelog'raphist {ypdtpo), I 
write), a writer on vines. 

Amphanth'ium I {aix<pi, around ; &vdos, 
flower), the dilated receptacle of an 
inflorescence, as in Dorstenia; clinan- 
thium ; Am'phiaster {aurr^p, a star), 
the combined nuclear-spindle and 
cytasters ; also for the combined 
cytasters only (Crozier) ; amphib'ioas 
{^los, life), growing on dry land or 
in water equally well ; -^ Altema'- 
tion, the adaptation of organism, 
originally of aquatic habit, to sub- 
aerial conditions ; Amphib'rya {^pvo, 
to sprout), Endlicher's name for 
Monocotyledons ; amphib'ryons, 
•yus, growing by increase over the 
whole surface ; amphicarp'ic, -pons, 
-pits {Kapvhs, fruit), possessing two 
kinds of fruit, differing in character 
or time of ripening ; Amphicarplom, 
an archegonium persisting as a 
fruit-envelope, after fertilization ; 
ampliicarpog'enous(76i/oj, olFspring), 
producing fruit above ground, which 
is subsequently buried beneath ; 
chrome (xpw^a, colour), used for 
plants which abnormally produce 
flowers of two ditt'erent colours on 
the same stock (Lindman) ; cf. poly- 

CHROMR ; Amphichro'matism, the 
condition named ; amphicoelous 
{ko'iAos, hollow), concave on both 
sides (Heinig) ; Amphicotyle'don 
{KUTv\r}dcov, a hollow), De Vries's 
term for cotyledons united so as to 
form a cup ; Amphicot'yly, if. 
AMPnisYNcoTYLY ; amphicri'bral 
(cribrum, a sieve), applied to a 
liadrocentric bundle (Habe)laudt). 
amphige'al {aix(pl, around ; yv, the 
earth), applied to a plant which 




bears dimorphic flowers, the upper 
from the stem, the lower from tlie 
root or root-stock, as Kraschenini- 
kowia; amphigae'us, amphige'an (1) 
plants which are natives of both Old 
and New worlds ; (2) used of flowers 
which arise from the rootstock ; Am- 
phig'amae {ydfios, marriage), plants 
whose fructification • is unknown, 
possibly of both sexes ; amphi- 
gam'eous, amphig^amous, supposed 
to be destitute of sexual organs, or 
where their presence has not yet 
been ascertained ; it has been ap- 
plied to Cryptogams ; Amphigast'er, 
proposed alteration of the following : 
Amphigast'ria [yaar^, helly), stipu- 
]ar organs in Hepaticaj, which clasp 
the stem ; axupbig'enoas {yivos, 
oflspring), growing all round an 
object; used of Fungi when the 
hymenium is not restricted to any 
particular surface ; ^ Castra'tion, tlie 
action of UsiUayo ant her arum, DC, 
when it mingles the characters of 
both sexes by developing in each 
some of the characters of the other ; 
Amphigen'esis {yeveais, beginning), 
Haeckel's term for sexual reproduc- 
tion ; Amphig'ony {y6vos, olfspring), 
sexual reproduction (Haeckel) ; Am- 
phigcn'ium, Kerner's term for 
Akchegonium; Amphile'psis {^v^ts, 
a receiMng), the ordinary result 
of fertilization ; c/. Monolefsis 
(Bateson) ; AmpMmix'iB {fii^is, a 
mingling) : (1) sexual reproduc- 
tion (Weismann), (2) the union of 
parental characters in the embryo 
(Sargent); Amphinu'cleus (+ Nu- 
cleus), Goldsclimidt's term foi the 
nucleus when it possesses both 
generative and somatic functions ; 
amphiphlo'ic, applied to tlie central 
cylinder of stems, with phloem on 
both sides of the xylem ; cf. Kcto- 
phi.ok; (Jeffrey) ; ^ Pro'tostele (or 
'-'Hap'lostele), a stele in which the 
solid central xylem is traversed by a 
continuous internal strand of phloem, 
connecting with the external phloem 
at the nodes (Chandler) ; '- Phyl- 
losi^'phony, when the tubular central 


cylinder exists with foliar gaps, and 
without external phloem ; Am'phi- 
phyte {<pvT6t/, a plant), a plant on 
boundary zone of wet land, amph ibious 
in life and hydrophy tic in adaptation 
(Schroter) ; Amphipy 'renin (-Trvp^y, 
stone of fruit), the membrane of 
the pyrenin, the body of the nu- 
cleus ; Amphisarc'a (orap|, capKhs, 
flesh), an indehiscent rauitilocular 
fruit, dry without, pulpy within, as 
a melon ; Amphisor'ns \ + Sonus), 
a group or patch of Am phi spores 
(Arthur and Holway) ; Amphisper'- 
miam {air^pp^a, a seed), a fruit which 
is amphisper'xuous, wlien the peri- 
carp closely invests the seed and 
assumes its shape; a!npxiispor''al, 
amphispor'ic (-f Hpohe); relating to 
an Am'phispore, Carleton's name for 
Mesospore ; amphisporan'giate, an 
emendation of Ambispora>.giate 
(Arber and Parkin) ; AmpMsporan- 
gia't&e, plants possessing micro- and 
megaspores, i. e. stamens and pistils ; 
amphistomat'ic, amphistom'atous 
(+ Stoma), with stomata on both 
upper and lower leaf-surfaces ; 
Amphisyncot'yly (+ Cotyledon), 
having cotyledons coalescent in the 
form of a funnel or trumpet (De 
Vries) ; shortened to Amphicot'yly ; 
Amphithe'cium {d-^Kri, a case), peri- 
pheral layer of cells surrounding the 
endothecium in the early stage of 
the development of the moss-capsule ; 
adj. amphithe'cial ; amphit'ropal, 
or more correctly amphit'ropous 
-pus {rpovos, turn), said of the ovule 
when it is curved so that both ends 
are brought near to each other ; 
amphitroph'ic, relating to Am phi- 
trophy ; Amphit'rophy, Wiesner's 
term for growth when greatest in 
the shoots and buds on the sides of 
the mother shoot; amphiva'sal {vasa, 
vessels), used of a leptocentric bundle 

Am'phora (Lat., a wine jar), the lower 
part of a pyxis, as in Henbane. 

amplecfant, amjdecl'ans, avipUcti'vus 
ampkx'ans (Lat.), embracing ; am- 
plex'us, in Vernation, when two 



sides of one leaf overlap the two 
sides of the one above it ; amplez'- 
ioaal, amplexicau'lis {caulis, stem), 
stem-clasping, when the petiole- 
leaf, or stipule, is dilated at the 
base, and embraces the stem. 

am'pliate, amplia'tiis (LaX.), enlarged ; 
ampliatiflor'us J {flos, flower), used 
for Composites having the ray- 
florets enlarged, as in the Corn- 

A]nplifica''tion [aniplificatio, an enlarg- 
ing), teitn used for all changes 
leading to increased formal or struc- 
tural complexity of the plant (Bower). 

Ampuria (Lat., a bottle), the flasks 
found on aquatics such as Utri- 
cularia; axnpolla'ceouB, -ecus, am- 
puriiform, ampullifor'mis, swollen 
out in flask-shape, as the corolla in 
some Heaths. 

Amyg'dala {amygdalum, a kernel), an 
almond ; amygd'aliform {forma, 
shape), almond-shaped ; Amyg'da- 
llii, a glucoside found in the fruit of 
many Rosaceae ; amyg^'daline, per- 
taining to or resembling an almond. 

amyla'ceous {&fiv\ov, tine flour -f 
ACEOUs), starchy ; Am'ylAse, an enzy- 
me, the same as Diastase ; amylif e- 
rous {<p^p<», I bear), starch -bearing ; 
AmVlin, a product of the action 
of diastase on starcli ; Am'ylites, 
skeletons of starch -granules com- 
posed of amylodextrin (Belzung) ; 
Amylobacte'ria {$aKr4}pioy, a little 
rod), microbes ^troducing butyric 
feiTTientation, ascribed to the action 
of Bacillus Amylobacter, Van Tiegh. ; 
Amyloceriulose (+ Cellulose), a 
supposed constituent of starch- 
granules ; amyloclas'tio [KXaarhs, 
broken in pieces), the breaking down 
of starch by an enzyme ; Amylo- 
dex'trin (-f- Dextrin), an inter- 
mediate in converting starch into 
dextrin ; cf. Achroodextrin ; Amy- 
loer'ythrin {ipudphs, red), a carbohy- 
drate resembling starch occurring 
in rice and millet ; Amylogen'esis 
{yivtaris, beginning), the formation 
of starch ; amylogen'ic iytvos, off"- 
spring), producing starch ; -^ Bodies, 


Leucoplastids ; Amylohy'drolist 
(v5a>p, water ; \vai.5, a loosing), 
an enzyme which transforms starch 
by hydrolysis ; Amylohydrol'ysis, 
the act in question ; am'yloid (elSos, 
resemblance), analogous to starch ; 
Amyloleu'oites {Kfjinhs, white), plas- 
tids producing starch-granules ; 
Amylorysis (A-vcty, a loosing), trans- 
formation of starch into other bodies, 
as sugar ; amylolyt'ic En^zyme, an 
unorganised ferment, which breaks 
up the starch cell-contents into 
dextrin and sugar ; Amy'lome, a 
term applied to xylem parenchyma, 
when it contains starch ; Amy'ion, 
Amy'lunijin composition = Starch ; 
Amylopec'tin (-j- Pectin), a muci- 
laginous constituent of starch 
(Maguenne and Roux) ; Amy'lum- 
Bod'y, a rounded body in a chloro- 
phyll band or plate, which is a 
centre of starch formation ; '^ 
Cen'tres, Strasburger's term for 
Pyrenoids ; '-- Grains, or ~ Gran'- 
ules, the laminated bodies which 
are formed of starch as reserve 
material in plant cells ; '- Star, a 
tuber-like organ in Chara sUlligera^ 
Bauer, which is closely packed with 
starch, it consists of an isolated 
subterranean node ; Amylopfylly 
{<l>vWov, a leaf), the produc- 
tion of starch -leaves ; Amy'loplast 
{trXaarhs, moulded) = Leucoplas- 
tid, a colourless granule of 
protoplasm, which generates a 
starcli - granule ; amyloplast'ic, 
starch-forming ; Am'yloses (Amyl, 
a chemical term -f ose), a group of 
substances of which cellulose and 
starch are the commonest ; Amyl- 
osyn'thesis {(TvvBfais, composition), 
the formation of stai-ch (Hick). 

Anab'iont (/3/oy, life), perennials, 
flowering and fruiting many times 
(A. Braun). 

Anabio'sis (&i/aj3<ow, I revive), the con- 
dition of latent life, which may occur 
through-loss of moisture (Areger). 

An'abix, pi. Anab'ioes, those vegeta- 
tive parts of Cryptogams which 
perish below, but vegetate above, 



as Lycopodium, Lichens, and Hepa- 

anaboric {ava, up ; fio\^, a throw, 
stroke) ; adj. of" Anab'olism, con- 
structive metabolism of the proto- 
plasm, the building up of more 
complex from simpler substances ; 
" Baustoffwechsel " of the Germans ; 
Anab'olite, any product of construc- 
tive metabolism in the plant ; cf. 

Anacamp'yla + {KafiiruXos, bent), 
lacerations of the epidermal layer 
as in some Agarics. 

anacanth'ous {av, without ; JknavBa, a 
thorn), ^vithout thorns or spines. 

anacardia'ceous, resembling Anacar- 
dium, Linn., as to arrangement of 
fruit, etc. 

Anachore'sis {ayaxi!>pv<Tt5, a going 
back), retrograde metamorphosis of 
an organ or whorl. 

Anaclinot'ropism {ava, up ; k\Iuij, a 
bed ; rpoir^. a turning), positive 
clinotropism, that is, having the 
direction of growth oblique or hori- 

anacrog'ynous (ov, not ; &Kpos, apex ; 
yvv^, woman), said of Hepatics in 
which archegonia do not arise at the 
extremity of the shoot, which con- 
tinues to grow ; cf. acrogynous. 

anad'romous {ava, up ; SpS/xos, a course), 
in venation, that in which the first 
set of nerves in eacli segment of the 
frond is given oH' on the upper side 
of the midrib towards the apex, as 
in Aspidium, Asplcvium, etc. 

anaeret'icus {av, without ; alperiKhs, 
power of choosing), applied by C. 
Sciiimper to an al)nornial arrange- 
ment of the leaves in single rows on 
the axis, as happens in torsion, etc. ; 
Anaero'be, Anaerob'ium, pi. Anae- 
rob'ia {a^p, air ; 0ios, lile), an organ- 
i.sni able to live in the absence 
oi free oxygen, as many bacteria ; 
fac'ultative ~', organisms which 
can live as Anaerobes ; ob'ligate '^ , 
tiiose which can exist or thrive 
only in the absence of free oxygen ; 
anaerob''ian, -b'ious, -bic, anaero 
biot'ic, adj. ; Anaerobi'ont (o, with- 

out ; d^p, air ; filos, life), a plant 
independent of free oxygen for re- 
spiration ; Anaerobio'sis, the state of 
living without oxygen ; anaerob'ic 
Energe'sis, the disruptive process 
without air. by which energy is 
released (Barnes) ; Anae^rophyte 
{(pvrhv, plant), a plant which does 
not need a direct supply of air. 

Anarogy (01/0X07^0, proportion), (1) re- 
semblance in certain points, as in 
form not function, or function not 
form, as the tendrils of the Pea, 
ISmilax, or Vine; (2) "that resem- 
blance of stnictures which depends 
upon similarity of function " (Dar- 
win) ; anarogous, resembling, but 
not homologous ; An'alogues, struc- 
tures corresponding to previous 

Anarysis {ava\vais, releasing), (1) the 
examination of a plant to deter- 
mine its affinities and position ; (2) 
the details of the flower, etc., on a 
botanic di awing. 

anametad'^romoas {ava, up, -f Meta- 
DROMOus), in the venation of Ferns, 
when the weaker pinnules are ana- 
dromous, and the stronger are cata- 
dromous ; Anamor'phose (Goebel), 
Anamorph'ism (Crozicr), = Ana- 
morpJi'osism, Anamorpho'sis 
{fiSpcpcocris, a shaping), (1) a gradual 
change of form in a group of plants 
in geologic time ; (2) a similar change 
in a group now existing ; (3) a strik- 
ing change in form, the result of 
changed conditions of growth 

anandrar'ious, -rru.<?, anan'drous {av, 
not ; avijp, avSphs, a man), having 
no stamens, but with floral en- 
velopes and pistils ; anantb'erous, 
Ananthe'rum {avd-npos, flowering), 
applied to filaments destitute of 

ananth'ous, -thus {avdos, a flower), 
wanting the flower ; An'aphase, 
Anapb'asis {<pdais, appearance), the 
formation ol daughter-nuclei in 
karyokinesis, following the Meta- 
PHAsis ; An'aphyte {<pvrhv, plant), 
the potential independence of every 




branch or shoot ; Anaphyto'sis, the 
building up of plant structure by 

An'aplast (ir\o<rTby, moulded), A. 
Meyer's term forLEucoPLASTiD; Ana- 
sar'oa {<rdp^, aapKhs, flesh), dropsy in 

anasohis'tie (a;/o, up. ; <rxi<Trhs, cleft), 
used of chromosomes which split 
longitudinally ; cf. diaschistic 
(Farmer); Anasor'iam {<ra>phs, a 
heap), the building up of nutritive 
material in the protoplasm, but not 
an integral part of it (Hartog) ; 
anastat'ic {(xrdffis, a standing), 
reviving, as certain plants after 

Anast'ates, pi. {audffTaros, removed), 
the products of anabolic or ascend- 
ing conversion of food-material into 
protoplasm (Parker). 

Anastomo'sis {avaffronou, I form a 
mouth), (1) union of one vein with 
another, the connection forming a 
reticulation ; (2) Vuillemin's term 
for conjugation in Mucor, two 
equal gametes conjugate and are 
cut off from the parent hypha by 
a septum. 

Anataximorph'osis (ava, up ; To|iy, 
order ; fiap<p}), change), Gubler's term 
for teratologic changes which are in 
conformity with the normal order ; 
Anat'omy (to/x^s, cutting) in botany, 
the study of structure ; anat'ropal, 
more correctly anat'ropons, anat'- 
ropus [rpoTTij, a turn), the ovule 
reversed, with niicropyle close to 
the side of the hilum, and the 
chalaza at the opposite end ; an- 
atyp'ic (tuttos, a type), apDlied to 
an anomaly which conforms to the 
general law of the organism ; Ana- 
ty'pose, an anomaly of the kind 
specified (Gubler). 

An'bury, Am'berry, a disease caused by 
Plasmodiophora Brassicae, Woron., 
in Crucifers, the root becoming 
Anc'ad (ii7«os, mountain glen, + ad) 

a canon plant. 
an'ceps (Lat., two-headed), ancip'ital, 
ancip'itous, two-edged, flattened or 

compressed, as the stem of Sisym- 
brium a'ficeps, Cav. 

anohor'aeform {anchora, an anchor ; 
fonna, shape), with two limbs, as in 
the petals of A nkyropetaluTn, Fenzl ; 
Anc'hor-hairs, hairs having recurved 
barbs, distinctive of the Loasaceae ; 
Anc'horing Disk, a growth from 
rhizoids in Lejeunia ; —Or'gan, the 
ends of tendrils with flattened disks 
for clinging ; '-' Koot, holdfasts such 
as those of Iledera. for support, not 
nourishment (Goebel). 

Anchu'sin, the colouring matter of 
Anchusa tinctoria, Linn., now re- 
ferred to the genus Alkanna. 

ancis'trus {ayKiarpiov, a small hook), 

Anci'um, pi. Anci'a {^yKos, a hollow, 
as a glen), a canon forest formation ; 
ancoph'ilus ((|)iA.€a), I love), haunt- 
ing canons ; Ancophy'ta (^urbv, a 
plant), plants of canons ; an- 
coc'olus, i. e. ancoc'ola, living in 
cahons (Clements). 

ander, -dra, -dro, -drum {av))p, dvdphs, 
a man), in Greek compounds = the 
maie^ sex ; An'drochore {xop^w, I 
spread abroad), a plant dispersed by 
human agency ; Androclin'ium 
{k\iv^, bed), the bed of the anther 
in Orchids, an excavation on the 
top of the column, usually written 

Androconid'ium ( -f Conidium), term 
propounded by Colin for a sperma- 
tium of assumed male function ; 
An'drocyte Uvros, hollow vessel), 
the cell which afterwards develops 
into the antherozoid (Allen); andi'O- 
dioe'cious (51s twice ; oIkos, house), 
used of a species witli two forms, 
one male only, the other hermafhro- 
dite ; Androdioec'lfim, the condition 
itself ; androdynam'ic, = axduody- 
NAMous ; andrody'namous {Svvanis, 
power), of Dicotyledons in which the 
stamens are highly developed ; An- 
droe'cium {oIkos, house), the male 
system of a flower, the stamens 
collectively ; androe'cial, relating 
to an androeciuni ; Androgametan'- 
gium {ya/x(Tr}s, a spouse ; 0776*0;', 




a vessel), = Antheridium, the organ 
in which the male sexual cells are 
formed ; Androgam'etes, zoosperms, 
male sexual cells ; Androgam'eto- 
phore {(popds, carrying), male sexual 
form of a plant, as in Equisetum ; 
Androg'amy {yoi/j.os, marriage), em- 
ployed by Dangeard for the im- 
pregnation of a male gamete by a 
female ; it may be, {a) cyto- 
plas'mic ■-', the cytoplasm of the 
female gamete acting, or (6) nu'clear 
'~, when the nucleus of the female 
effects the impregnation ; Androgen'- 
esis {yfveais, beginning), the growth 
of an individual from a male cell ; 
cf. Parthenogenesis ; androg'- 
enous (yeyos, offspring), male-bear- 
ing ; — Castra'tion, the action of 
Ustilago antherarum, DC, when in- 
citing production of male organs ; 
An'dxogone (y6i'os, off"spring), any 
cell within an antheridium other 
than the androcyte or androcyte- 
mother-cell (Allen) ; Androgonid'- 
ium (-f- Gonidium) = Andkospore; 
androg'ynal, androg'ynoiis - nus 
iyvv^, woman), (1) hennaphrodite, 
having male and female flowers on 
the same inflorescence, as in many 
species of C'^rex ; ' (2) occasionally 
used for monoecious ; androgyna'- 
ris (Lat. ), of double flowers in wliich 
both stamens and pistils have be- 
come petal oid;androgyn'icu8t( Lat.), 
belonging to, or of an hermaphrodite 
flower ; androgyniflor'ust {fios, fivris, 
a flower), a hybrid term for when the 
head of a composite bears hermaph- 
rodite flowers ; Androg'ynism, a 
change from dioecious to monoecious. 

Andromedotox'in, a ghicoside occur- 
ring in Andromeda and other Erica- 

andromonoe'cioxis (avr;p,dv8pi)s, a man ; 
ti6vos, alone ; oIkos, house), hav- 
ing perfect and male flowers, but 
no female flowers; Andromonoec'ism, 
the state described ; Andromorpho'- 
sis {/x6p<pw<Tis, a change), the altera- 
tions caused by the excitation of the 
pollen tubes (Schroter) ; andropet'- 
alout, andrupdala'riuH {ir(Ta\ov, a 

flower leaf), flowers double, the 
stamens petaloid, the pistils un- 
changed ; An'drophore, Andro- 
ph'orum {<pop6s, carrying), (1) a sup- 
port of a column of stamens, as in 
Malvaceae ; (2) a stalk supporting an 
androecium ; An'dropbyll {<f>v\\oi-, 
a leaf), a male sporophyll, a stamen ; 
An'drophyte {(pvrhu, a plant), a male 
plant in the sexual generation. 

Androsac'ile (+ile), a "Society" of 
Androsace (Clements). 

Androsporan'gium {av^p, avSphs, a 
man, airopa, a seed ; ayy^loVf a 
vessel) ; a microsporangium, a spor- 
angium containing An'drospores, 

(1) swarmspores of Oedogoniae, 
which give rise to Dwarf-males 
destined to produce spermatozoids, 

(2) (A. W. Bennett) = Microspoke ; 
an'drouB, staminate, male. 

Anelectrot'onus {, up ; fjXcKrpov, 
amber ; r6uos, stress), the diminished 
excitation produced on the vital 
movements of plants by a constant 
current of electricity from the anode. 

An'emad {&yefios, wind, 4- ad), a 
"blow-out" plant; Anemi'um ( + 
ium), a "blow-out" formation ; Ane- 
mo'chore {x<^p^<^^ I spread abroad), 
a pknt distributed by wind 
(Clements) ; Anemocho'ry, anemo- 
chor'ous (xwpls, asunder), applied 
by Sernander to plants which 
retain their seeds through the 
winter, and then disseminate them 
by the instrumentality of the 
wind ; Ajiemodi'um, siiggested by 
Clements for plants of "blow-outs," 
hollows in dunes excavated by 
wind ; ' anemodoph'ilas {<piKeo, I 
love), plants dwelling in "blow- 
outs " ; Anemodophy'ta (<t>vrhu, a 
plant), "blow-out" plants; Ane- 
moentomoph'ily, ( +Entomophily), 
employed of a polymorphic species 
which in some individuals is adapted 
for Avind-fertilization, and in others 
for insect- fertilization (Knuth). 

Anem'onin, an acrid substance from 
several species of Anemone, Tourn. 

anemoph'ilous {&v€fxos, wind ; 0iAe«, I 
love), api>lied to flowers which are 




wind-fertilized, the pollen being 
conveyed by the air ; Anemoph'ilae, 
wind-fertilized plants ; Anemoph'ily, 
the condition described ; Anemo'^sis, 
wind-shake, a disease of timber- 

Anemog'amae {ya.iJ.os, marriage), wind- 
fertilized plants ; also as Anemo- 
phllae {<pi\eu>y I love) ; an'emo- 
phile, delighting in wind, growing 
in breezy places ; ane^mopliobe, shun- 
ning wind ; Ane^mophyte, Hans- 
girg's term for a wind-fertilized 

aufract'aose, anfractuo'sus, anfrac'- 
tous, anfrac'txis (Lat. , a curving), 
sinuous, as the anthers of gourds ; 
also spirally twisted. 

angianth'eons, employed by A. Gray 
as pertaining to Jl!w^ia7i<Az^s, a genus 
pf Inuloid Comppsitae. 

Angiench'yma (d77€ro»', a vessel ; 
^yxvi^o, an infusion), vascular 
tissue of any kind ; angiocar'pic, 
angiocarp'ons, -]pus {Kapirhs, fruit), 
(1) having the fruit invested by 
some covering which masks it, as 
in the Cupuliferae ; (2) with spores 
enclosed in some kind of receptacle ; 
a closed apothecium in Lichens ; 
Angiocy'cads, proposed by F. W. 
Oliver for fossil cycads, having an 
hermaphrodite flower ; Angiog'amae, 
Ardissone's group for Angiospcrms 
and Gymnosperms ; Ing'iolum, the 
spore-case of certain Fungi (Lind- 
ley),; angiomonosperm'ous {fiouSs, 
one ; a-irepfia, seed), having only one 
seed in the carpel ; Angiosperm'ae, 
An'giosperms, plants having their 
seeds enclosed in an ovary ; angio- 
sperm'al, angiosperm'ous, belonging 
to the plants classed as Angiospernis ; 
~type of Stomata, characterized by 
the development of the inner and 
outer borders of their cuticle, the 
outer border usually considerably 
thickened ; angios'porous, used of 
Cryptogams producing spores in a 
closed receptacle ; Angiosp'orae, 
plants so characterized. 

An'gle, An'gulm (Lat., a corner), in 
botany not limited to the inclina- 

tion of two lines, but often refers to 
the meeting of two planes to form 
an edge, as in angular stems ; ~ of 
Deviation, that which a branch or 
similar organ makes \Wth its axis ; of 
Diver'gence, the degree of difference 
in the position of two adjacent leaves 
or organs on the same or different 
planes, as in f phyllotaxis, it is 
144° ; ide'al - , Schimper's term for 
a theoretic angle for a " central 
station of rest" in phyllotaxis, as 
130° 30' 27" -936 ; ang'ular, aiigu- 
lar'is angula'tus, angulo'sus, used 
when an organ shows a determinate 
number of angles, as the quadran- 
gular stems of Labiatae ; ~ Diver- 
gence, in phyllotaxis, is given under 
Angle of divergence ; ang'alate, 
angula'tas, more or less angular ; 
angalinerv'ed, angulinerv'ms J {ner- 
vus, a nerve), when veins form an 
angle with the midrib, as in most 
Dicotyledons ; angolodent'ate {deiis, 
dentis, a tooth), having angular 
teeth (Crozier). 

angaillulaeformls (Lat., shaped like 
a small eel), applied by Koerber to 
Lichen-spores which are worm-like 
in shape. 

angastifo'liate, -lions, -lius {angustus, 
narrow ; folium, a leaf), narrow 
leaved ; angustisept'al, angutUsep- 
tatus {septum, a division), having 
a narrow-partitioned fruit, as the 
silicle of Thlaspi ; Angustisep'tae, 
]tlants so ch iracterized. 

Anhalo'nine, a poisonous alkaloid 
from Anhalonium Lewinii, Hen- 
nings ; it resembles Strychnine. 

An'ilophyll, a product from Chloro- 
phyll after treatment with Aniline, 
whence the name. 

An'ime, a transparent resin from 
Hy)ncnaea Courbaril, Linn. 

anisa'tas, partaking of the scent of 
Anise, Pimpinella Anisnvi, Linn. 

anisob'rious, anisoo'rius % {Jiviaos, un- 
equal ; /3puw, 1 swell), a name ^iven 
to Endogens, from one side being 
supposed to possess greater develop- 
ing force than the other, hence 
only one cotyledon is formed ; 




anisocotyle'donous ( +Cotylbdon), 
unequal development of the cotyle- 
dons ; Anisocof'yly, the condition 
in question (K. Fritsch) ; aniso- 
dy'namous, -tmls (Suvomis, power) 
=3 anisobrious ; ani80gametan''goas 
Copula'tion (+ Gametangium), 
when gametes are sexually diverse, 
as Oogonia and Antheridia, e. g. in 
Ascomycetes (Hartmaun) ; Ajiiso- 
gam'etes {ya/ifr-ns, a spouse), sexual 
cells, showing a ditfereuce between 
male and female ; Anisog'amy 
(ydfjLos, mgirriage), the union of two 
gametes differing chiefly in size ; the 
smaller (micro-) gamete is male, 
the larger (mega-) gamete is female 
(Hartog); anisog'onous {y6yos, off- 
spring), applied to hybrids which do 
not equally combine the characters 
of their parents ; c/. isogonous ; 
anisog^ynous (ywi], woman), with 
fewer carpels than sepals ; Anisoho- 
log'amy ( + Hologamy), union of 
gametes somewhat differing in size, 
with slight sexual difference (Hart- 
mann) ; anisom'erous, anisoiner' icus 
ifiepos, a part), where the parts of a 
flower are not all regular, unsym- 
metrical ; Anisomerog'amy ( + 
Merogamy) or Oogamy, the union 
of macro- and microgametes, eggs and 
spermatozoa, as Volvox, many Algae 
and Fungi(Hartraann) ; Anisoxnor'phy 
{fjLop(pi], shape), change in form of an 
organ caused by its position in rela- 
tion to the horizon of the mother- 
axis ; anisopet'alous, -lus, (viraKov, 
a flower leaf), having unequal-sized 
petals ; anisophyll'ous {(piXKov, a 
leaf), when the two leaves of a pair 
are diverse in shape or size ; An'i- 
sophylly, (1) used by Krasser for the 
different forms of leaf structure due 
to difference of position, as in aquatic 
plants, the submerged or floating- 
leaves ; (2) the occurrence of leaves 
varying in f<irm or size on shoots 
which are obliquely inclined to the 
light ; it may be (a) habitual '^ , so 
fixed as to be capable of being arti- 
ficially propagated ; (6) common '- , 
throughout the whole shoot ; or 

(c) lateral '*', where only the side- 
branches display the inequality 
(Wiesner) ; Anisophy'tes {<i>vrhVf a 
plant), formerly used for Muscineae ; 
an'isoschist (o-xwrbs, cleft), used of 
gametes which are unequal, some 
being degraded or aborted (Hartog) ; 
anisosep'alooa, -lus (+ Sepalum, 
calyx-leaf), the sepals unequal ; aniso- 
sta'menoxis (Crozier), anisoste''mon- 
Otts, -mis ((TT^/na;!', a thread) = having 
stamens of different size ; anisostemo- 
pet^alus = anisostemoDous ; aniso- 
trop'ic, anisot'ropous (rpoirij, atum), 
endowed with different kinds of 
irritability ; Anisot'ropiam, Anisot'- 
ropy, the quality itself, as shown 
in leaves and roots which respectively 
see^ and shun light. 

Anla'ge (Ger.), has been variously 
rendered as Rudiment, Inception, 
Primordium, Fundament. 

annex'ed, annex' us {hskt.^ fastened to), 
= adnatc. 

annot^inoos, -nus (Lat., a year old), 
applied to branches of last year's 

an'nual, annua' lis, an'nuus (Lat., 
lasting a year), within one year ; 
(1) used of plants which perish 
within that period ; (2) of the rings 
in wood which denote the year's 
growth } Annual King, the marks 
seen on cross- section of wood whicli 
show the respective increment dur- 
ing each year ; -^ Shoot, = ramus 

ann'ular, annular'is, annular'ius 
{ajinuhis, a ring), used of any 
organs disposed in a circle ; '^ Duet, 
-^ Vessel, one in which the second- 
ary thickening has taken place in 
the form of rings ; an'nulate, 
annula'tus, annuliformfis {forma, 
sliape), ring-shaped ; Annula'tion, a 
ring or belt (Crozier) ; annulat'i- 
form, ring-like, as the apex of the 
thecae of SchizoM. 

An'nulus (Lat., a ring); (1) in Ferns, 
the elastic organ which partially 
invests the theca, and at maturity 
bursts it ; (2) in Fungi, a portion 
of the ruptured marginal veil, 




forming a frill upon the stipe after 
the expansion of the pileus ; (3) 
in Mosses, the ring of cells between 
the base of the peristome or orifice 
of the capsule and the operculum ; 
(4) in Diatoms, used by W. Smith 
for a compressed rim of silex 
within the frnstules of such genera 
as Rhabdoiiema, Kiitz.; (5) in Eijui- 
setaceae, the imperfectly developed 
foliar sheath below the fruit spike ; 
(6) the fleshy rim of the corolla in 
Asclepiads, as the genus Stapelia ; 
'^ in'ferus, -^ mo' bills, as defined in 
1 ; '-' su'perus, = Armilla. 
anod'al, anod'ic (dvo, up ; iJbj, a wa,y), 
iu the upward direction following 
the genetic spiral, 
an'oderm {h.v^ without ; 5«pjua skin), 
destitute of covering membrane or 
anom'alous lus (o, not ; 8/xo\<{s, 
equal), unlike its allies in certain 
points, contrary to rule ; anomaloe^- 
cious + {(Ako%^ a house), = polygam- 
ous ; ^om'aly, variation from 
normal character. 
Anomod'romy (dvo/tos, without law ; 
SpSfios, a course), venation which 
cannot be assigned to any special 
order (Prantl). 
Anophy'ta, An'ophytes (ovcb, upward ; 

<l>vrhv, plant), = Bryophyta. 
An'sae (ansa, a handle), the partial 
leaf stalks of a compound leaf ; an'- 
sulate, coiled at the apex and then 
bent over in a loop, as the shoots in 
some Cucurbitaceae (Crozier). 
Ant-ep'iphytes (+ Ei'Ipiiyte), certain 
plants cultivated by ants (Ule) ; 
^ -guards, (1) ants attracted by 
nectaries on involucral bracts ; 
(2) some Compositae which guard 
the flowers from predatory beetles 
(Kerner) ; -- -plants, plants utilized 
by ants for habitation ; see myrme- 
copiiiLOUS plants, 
antagonist'ic (cn/TayMyKTr^s, adversary) 
Symbio'sis, where the symbionts 
are not mutually helpful or neutral, 
but hurtful, at least on the part of 
Ante-cau'lome {ante, before, ^+ Cau 

LOME), Potonie's term for the theor- 
etic plant possessing an axis ; An^te- 
chamber, the space immediately 
below the guard-cells of a stoma ; 
antedimor'phic (+ i>imorphic), the 
condition of a species previous to 
its attaining Dimorphism, as Viola, 
supposed to be at one time trinior- 
phic (S. Moore) ; An'teform (forma, 
shape), an original form which has 
died out, but has given rise to modi- 
fied offspring (Kuntze) ; antemarg'- 
inal (margo, edge), used of sori which 
area little within the margin ; ante- 
me'dixis * (mediics, middle), standing 
before the middle of another body, 
Anten'na (Lat., sail- yard), Darwin's 
term for the slender process of the 
rostellum in Catasetuvi, borrowed 
from entomology ; antennaeform'is 
X {forma, shape), used of the fruit 
of Ammi majiis, Linn., the two 
styles suggesting the antennae of 
Ante-phyll'ome {ante, before, -j- Phyl- 
lome), the theoretic leaf ; cf. Post- 
PHYLLOME(Potonie) ; anteplacen'tal 
(-{- Placenta), in front of the 
placentae ; cf. iNTEUPLACENrAL ; 
Anteposit'ion {pono,posittcm,, placed) 
= Superposition. 
aiite'rior(Lat., that before), (1) of time, 
previous ; (2) of place, position in 
front, or turned away from the 
an'tero-poste'rior (Lat., later), median. 
Ante-spor'ophyll {ante, before, -f-Spouo- 
phyll), the primitive structure of 
the s]»ore-bearing organ (Potonie) ; 
Ante-tropVophyll{-f Tkophophyll) ; 
the ancestral form of the leaf 
(Potoni^) ; Ante-trophospcr'ophyll, 
the ancestral leaf-like organ, pos- 
sessing the function of leaf and 
sporophyll (Potonie). 
Anthe'la {av6-h\ioy, a little flower), the 
panicle of JunciLS, where the lateral 
axes exceed the main axis. 
Anthe'lia or Anthelie'tum, an arctic 
alpine association with Anthelia as 
a constituent ; Snow-flush vege- 




Anth'emy, Anthe'mia {&v6f/ioi/, flower- 
pattern ?), a flower-cluster of any 

An'ther, Anthe'ra {avdrtphs, flowering), 
(1) that portion of a stamen which 
contains the pollen, usually bilocu- 
lar, and sessile, or attached to a flla- 
ment ; (2) an old term in Fungi, 
for the Antheridium ; (3) also used 
by Linnaeus for the seta and capsule 
of Mosses, as in Bri/um ; ~ Cap, -^ 
Case, in Orchids, the outer deciduous 
case or bag, which is virtually the 
anther minus the pollinia ; '-' Lust 
= Pollen ; ~ like, — shaped, re- 
calling the form of a stag's horns, 
as certain trichomes ; ^ Lobes, the 
cells which contain the pollen ; '^ 
Wings, the horny, lateral expan- 
sions of the anther-lobes in Asclepi- 
adeae r Antheran'gium (dyyctov, a 
vessel), the sporocarp of Dioonites 
containing both macro- and micro- 
spores (Wittrock) ; An'therid, An- 
theridium (e/Sos, resemblance) ; (1) 
the male sexual organ in Crypto- 
gams, the analogue of the anther in 
Phanerogams ; (2) in Hymenomy- 
cetes, an old term for Cystidium ; 
Antheridan'gia {olyy^'^ov, a vessel), 
microspores of Marsilca and allied 
plants ; antherid'ial, antherid'ic, 
pertaining to antheridia;-^ Cell, the 
product of a prothallial cell, which 
divides into the Genkjiativk Cell, 
and the Stalk-cell; Antherid'io- 
phore {(pophs, bearing), a unisexual 
gametophore, bearing antheridia 
only, a specialized bi-anch in Sphag- 
7in»t and Hepaticae ; antherif'erous, 
-rus i/ero^ I bear), anther-bearing ; 
an'-therless, destitute of anthers, 
female or neuter flowers ; An'thero- 
cyst i&vdos, a flower, kvo-tis, a 
bladder), (1) Camel's term for An- 
theridium, (2) restricted by Vuille- 
min to a unicellular structure devel- 
oping antherozoids ; antherog'enous, 
-ntts {ycpos, ott"spring), applied to 
double flowers arising from the 
transformation of anthers (De Can- 
dolle) ; an'theroid (eZSos, like), 
anther-Hke ; Antheroma'nia {jnayiia, 

madness), an inordinate develop- 
ment of anthers ; An'therophore 
{(pophs, bearing), a cylindrical or flat- 
tened axis in Ephedra bearing the 
Antherophyriy {kvd-nphs, flowering ; 
<pv\\ov, a leaf), the virescence 
and phyllomorjihy of anthers ; 
Antherosporan'gium {airopa, a seed ; 
ayye'iov, a vessel), a synonym for 
Micros PORANGIUM ; Antherozo'a 
Antherozoids {(ooov, an animal ; 
€l5os, resemblance), malfc motile 
cells provided with cilia, produced 
in antheridia. 
Anthe'sis {ivdriaris, flowering), the 
expansion of the flower, the time 
when fertilization takes place. 
Anthesmol'ysis X (Anthesmus ; Kvcris, 
a loosing), the metamorphosis of in- 
florescence (Lindley) ; Anthesmotax'is 
(Te{|($, order), the arrangement of 
the difl'erent parts of the flower 
(F. N. Williams) ; Anthes'mus t» 
an inflorescence; Anthobiol'ogy {-{- 
Biology), Hansgirg's term for the 
life-history of the flowery An'tho- 
carp, Anthocarp'iwn, a fruit formed 
by the union of the floral organs or 
part of them, with the fruit itself, 
as in Nyctagineae ; anthocarp'ous, 
-pus {Kapirhs, fruit), applied to fruits 
with accessories, sometimes termed 
pseudocarps, as the Strawberry and 
anthoc'erotoid (elSos, resemblance), re- 
sembling the hepatic genus AiUho- 
Anthochlor'in(fii'eos, a flower ; x^<^P^^j 
pale green), the yellow colouring of 
flowers ; xanthein ; Anthoclinlum 
{K\ivn, a bed), the receptacle of a 
Composite ; Anthocy'anin {Kvavos, 
dark blue), the blue, sometimes red, 
colouring of flowers. 
Antho'dium {&v6w5ris, flower-like), the 
capitubim of the Compositae, by 
some restricted to the involucrum. 
Anthoe'cium {ipdos, a flower ; ohos, a 
house), the spikelet of such grasses 
! as Panicum ; Anthoecol'ogist {oIkos, 
i house ; x6yQ^, discourse), a student 
j of plant-life in its environlfient 




Anthog'amae {ydfios, marriage), 
Trevisan's term to include Bryo- 
phytes and Characeae ; an'thoid 
(elSoj, resemblance), flower-like, as 
the male inflorescenceof PoZt/^rtcAwwi; 
Antholeu'ein {\tvK65, clear), the so- 
caUed colouring matter of white 
flowers ; An'tholite {xiBos, a stone), a 
fossil plant which has the appearance 
of a flower ; Anthorysis (x*5<ns, a 
loosing), the retrograde metamor- 
phosis of a flower ; Anthophae'in 
{<path5, dusky), (1) the brown colour- 
ing matter of flowers ; (2) the colour- 
ing of the bl«w;k spots on the corolla 
of Vieia Faba (Moebius) ; a&tho- 
ph'ilons {^iA««, I love), applied to 
plants with flower-visiting insects 
which aid cross-fertilization ; An- 
thoph'iliui, a florist, a cultivator of 
garden flowers ; An'thophore, An- 
thoph'orum, -its {<pop4(D, I bear), a 
short stalk which sometimes occurs 
between the calyx and petals, sup- 
porting the interior organs, as in 
Silene; anthoph'orouB, -rvs, bearing 
flowers, fioriferous ; An'thophyta 
{ipvrhy, plant), R. Brown's term for 
Phanerogams ; An'thophyte {tptrrhv, 
a plant), a flowering plant, a 
Phanerogam ; Anthopto'sis {-KTuffis, 
a falling), the fall of flowers. 
An'thos, An' thus {Hvdos, a flower), used 
in Greek compounds ; ^n'thosperm 
{ffiFfpfia, a seed), "a little coloured 
concretion scattered in the tissues 
of certain Fucoids " (Lindley) ; 
Anthosper'mae (ffirepua, a seed), a 
division of plants intermediate 
between Angiospermae and Gymno- 
spermae (Williams) ; AnthostroVilas 
{<rrp6&t\os, a fir-cone), the theoretic 
type of an Angiospermous flower 
(Arber and Parkin) ; anthoatroblloid 
(elSos, resemblance), the adjective of 
the preceding ; Anthotax'is, Antho- 
tax'y {rd^is, order), the arrangement 
of the flower ; anthotrop'ic (rpoir^, 
a turning), employed by Hansgirg 
for any curvature of the peduncle 
during flowering ; Anthot'ropism, 
any movement of the flower and its 
parts (Clements) ; Aathoxsin'thin 

{^av6hs, yellow), (1) the colouring- 
matter of yellow flowers ; (2) used 
by Frank as a synonym of Carotin ; 
ijithozy'mase (-+- Zymase), an en- 
zyme found by Bechamp in the petals 
of flowers. 
anthrae'inus (Lat.), coal-black. 
Anthrac'nose {&vdpa^, coal ; v6<tos, dis- 
ease), the "Bird's-Eye Rot" of the 
Vine, caused by Phmna ampdinum, 
Berk, et Curt. 
An'thraz, disease in animals due to 

Bacillus Anthracis^ Cohn. 
Antk'rochore, an abbreviation of the 
following; Anthro'pochore (iyflpwiros, 
man ; x«^P^5, asunder) ; anthropo- 
ch'orouS; following man, used by 
Rikli to denote plants which are in- 
troduced involuntarily by the agency 
of man ; Anthro'pophile {<pt\4(i), I 
love), a plant which follows culti- 
vation ; Anthro'pophyte {<pvTou, a 
plant), a plant introduced by culti- 
vation ; cf. Hemerophyte. 
Anthu'ms * {ivdos, flower ; ovpa, tail), 
a cluster of flowers at the end of a 
long stalk ; An'thus, of old authors = 
anti-, in composition = against. 
An'tiarine, the active poisonous prin- 
ciple of the upas tree, Antiaris 
toxicaria, Lesch. 
Antibi'onts (ovtI, against ; )3toj, life), 
antipathetic organisms ; Antibio'sis, 
antipathy, a term proposed by 
anti'cal, anti'cons, anti'cus (Lat., fore- 
most), the fore-part : (1) that most 
remote or turned away from the 
axis ; (2) Spruce uses antical to de- 
note the upper (dorsal) face of a 
stem in Hepaticae ; (3) occasionally 
employed for iiitrorse, as applied to 
Anti-cen'tral (ovtI, against), em- 
ployed by Praeger for plants whose 
distribution tends towards the 
coasts, avoiding the centre of the 
island ; Antlchem'ism ( + chem). 
Cope's term to denote the proto- 
plasm-producing energy, as anta- 
gonizing chemical force. 
Anticipa'tory Inheritance, suggested 




by Boulger for what has since been 
called Precocity. 
anticli'nal {avrl, against ; K?dve(a, I in- 
cline), perpendicular to the sur- 
face; '-Cells, "parent "-cells which 
persist in their primitive state with- 
out producing antipodal cells or 
vesicles ; Vesque further subdivides 
them into (a) inert, {b) active or 
albuniinigenous, (c) cotyloid ; — 
Planes, --Walls, those which cut the 
surface or the periclinal walls at 
right angles ; An'ticlines, anticlinal 
walls or planes ; anticlinan'thons 
{&vdos, flower), the inferior scaly 
parts of some Composite flowers ; 
anticryptogam'ic (-I-cryptogamic), 
used of mixtures for destroying fungi; 
Antidimor'phism ( + Dimorphism), 
varied shape of an organ in the same 
plant, as distinct' from variation in 
two distinct individuals (Lindman) ; 
antid'romal, antid'romons {5p6fxos, a 
course), the direction of a lateral 
spiral being different to that of the 
main stem ; -^ Torsion, a twist 
against the direction of twining ; 
Antid'romy, diverse twining ; used 
also when diff'erent individuals of 
the same species display right- and 
left-hand torsion ; Antifer'ment 
(-{-Ferment), bodies which inhibit 
the action of enzymes ; Ahtihet'ero- 
phylly + (Heterophylly) = An- 
TiDiMORPHisM ; Antikin'aso (-f Ki- 
nase = Antiferment : Antily'sin 
{\vffi5, a loosing), any substance 
which inhibits catalytic action ; anti- 
mycot'ic (/iv«7jy, fivKTiros, fungus), 
fungicidal ; antipathet'ic {iradr}TiKhs, 
suffering), applied to plants which 
do not easily unite by grafting 
(Crozier) ; Antip'athy, the quality 
shown by antipathetic plants ; anti- 
pedunc'nlar {pedu-nculus, a stalk), 
placed opposite a peduncle ; anti- 
pet'alons {ir€Ta\ov, a flower leaf), 
oppositp or superposed to a petal, 
not alternate : the same as oppositi- 
PETALOUS; An'tiphyte {tpvrhv, plant), 
in alternation of generations, that 
generation which produces reproduc- 
tive cells asexually, the antithetic 

generation (Celakovsky) ; adj. anti- 
phyt'lc ; antip'odal (irovs, voShs, foot) 
~ Cells, three cells at the base of the 
embryo sac, formed by division of the 
primary nucleus, when surrounded 
by protoplasm and finally cell walls ; 
antisep'alous ( + Sepalum), oppo- 
site to or upon a sepal, that is, not 
alternate with it ; a shorter word 
for opposiTisEPALous ; antisep'tie 
{fftjirriKhs, putrefying), preventing 

Antisperm'y (kvrl, Eigainst ; awtpfta, a 
a seed), Delpino's term for the 
coalescence of the fertile divisions of 
.the phyllome into a single fertile 
body opposed and superposed to the 
sterile division, in Phanerogams ; in 
Pteridophytes ho terms this phe- 
nomenon Antisporan'gism (<nrop^, 
seed ; ar/yf^ov, vessel). 

antithetic {atfrid«ris, opposition), in 
alternation of generations opposed 
to homologous, implying that the 
two generations are different in 

Antitox'in {iyrt, against + Toxin), a 
substance secreted by the plant to 
protect itself against harmful bac- 
teiia ; adj. antitoxic; antit'ropal, 
antit'ropous, -pus (TpoiHj, a turn), 
a synonym of Orthotropal as ap- 
plied to ovules ; antitrop'ic (rpoir^;, 
a turning), (1) suggested by A. 
Gray for twining against the sun, 
that is, sinistroi-se ; (2) relating to 
Antit'ropy ) Lopriore's term for 
roots which branch in opposite direc- 
tions from the main axis ; anti- 
nlto'nian ( + Ultonian), used by 
Praeger for plants whose distribution 
is least in the province of Ulster ; 
antizy'mic, antiz3rmotlo (Cvfirj, 
yeast), preventing fermentation. 

au'trorae, aniror'siis {aniero-, before ; 
versus, turned backwards), directed 
upwards, opposed to betrorse. 

Ant'rum % (Lat., a cave) = Pomum. 

ann^oleate (o, without, 4- nucleus) 

•a'nom, Clemen ts's suffix to denote 

ap-, apo", prefix of negation (Rothert); 




Apaerotax'is {d^f, air ; rd^is, order), 
used by Rothert for negative stimu- 
lus by oxygen, in the case of anaero- 
bic organisms. 

apag'ynus J (fiira|, once; ywi], woman), 

Apan'dry (iiro, without ; ovr/p, ituSphs, 
man); (1) M'Nab's term for fusion 
of tlie antheridium with the oogon- 
ium ; also aj>plied to the pollen- 
tube ; (2) the loss of function in tlie 
male organs ; adj. apan'drous. 

aparaph'ysate (o, without ; wapa, near ; 
<pvonai, I am born), destitute of 
paraphvses ; aperisperm'ic, aperi- 
upernuvtus (-f Perisperm), exal- 

apertiflo'rous {fios, fion's, a flower), 
Boulger's term for chasmooamic. 

Aper'tio (Lat , unfolding)= Anthesis. 

Apertu'ra (I .at., opening), a) formerly 
used of the dehiscence of anthers ; 
(2) the ostiole of certain Fungi ; 
apert'ns (I-at., opened), exposed, 

Apet'alae (a, without ; irtraKov, a 
flower leaf"), plants wanting petals or 
corolla ; apefalous, his. apet'alose, 
without ]ietals, or with a single 
perianth, as in Clematis, where the 
coloured sepals simulate petals ; 
Apet'alouaness, being without petals; 
Apet'aly, the condition of wanting 
petals ; rf. A.i-etat.ousness. 

A'pex X pi. A'pices (Lat., sunmiit), (1) 
an old name for Anther ; (2) the 
ostiole of Fungi (Lindley) ; (3) the 
growing point of a stem or root ; (4) 
the tip of an organ ; Floral ~ = 

Aphan'eri, 1>1. (o, not ; <pavcp})s, mani- 
fest), organisms which are not vis- 
ible without the aids of re-agents 

Aphan'isis {a.(pa.viais, disappearance), 
suppression of parts. 

Aphanocy'clae {6.<pav^Sy unseen ; kvkKos, 
a circle), Sachs's name for certain 
plants where the whorls are not very 
manifest, as Nympliaeaceae. 
Aphaptot'ropism (-f Haftotropism), 
not influenced by touching stems or 
other surfaces (G. Henslow). 


Apheliot'ropism (diro, from ; ^A-tos, the 
sun ; rpoirh, a turning), turning away 
from the light, negative heliotrop- 
ism, as in roots ; adj. apheliotrop^ie. 

ApbleVia (a, without ; <p\f^, <(>\€fihs, 
vein), used generically by C. Presl, 
but descriptively by Solms-Laubach 
for anomalous pinnae on the rhachis 
of certain fossil ferns, and the exist- 
ing Hcmitelia capensis, R, Br. 
'- Traces, pinna traces in Diplolabis 
derived from aphlebiae ; apho'tic, 
aphotis'tic {(tftoriariis, one who gives 
light), growing practically without 
light, as abyssal organisms may do ; 
cf. Aphotistes ; Aphotis'tes J, a 
plant growing in the absence of 
light, as a Truffle. 

aphotomet'ric (o, not ; <pws, (pwrhs, 
light ; fifTpov, measure), applied by 
Strasburger to phototactlc zoospores, 
which constantly turn the same 
extremity to the light ; opposed 
to PHOTOMETRIC ; Aphototax'is ( + 
Phototaxis), the condition of organ- 
isms which are unaffected by the 
stimulus of light ; adj. aphototac'tic ; 
Aphotot'ropism (-j- Piiototropism), 
turning away from light. 

Aph'rostase X (d<^P^y. froth ; crrd<Tis, 
standing), cellular tissue. 

ApVthae {&(pdai, ulcerations in the 
mouth), the disease known as 
Thrush, ascribed to Saccharomyces 
albicans, Keess ; Aphthaphy'tes 
{(purhu, plant), the Fungi mentioned 
above as causing the disease. 

Aphydrotax'isCdiro, from ; v5wp, water; 
ra^is, order), repulsion from water. 

Aphyll'ae (o, without ; <f>v\\ov, leaf), 
(1) liindlcy's term for Thai.lo- 
PHYTEs.; (2) plants having only rudi- 
mentary leaves or none (Schimper) ; 
aphyirous, -Ins. aphyirose, wanting 
leaves ; aphyllop'odoas {vovs^^oios, 
a foot), the stem of /fieraci'uvi when 
leafy, and without a basal ii^sette of 
leaves ; Aph ylly, sui)pression of 

a'pical, apica'lis {apex, apicis, sum- 
mit), at the point of any structure ; 
-^ Axis, in Diatoms, the line through 
the centre of the pervalvar axis in 



the direction of the raphe, at equal 
distances from homologous points 
of the girdle band surfaces, and 
through the apices ; ^ Cell, the 
single cell in many plants which 
is the origin of all longitudinal 
growth ; '- Cone = Punctum Vege- 
TATiONis ; -^ Growth, extension in 
the length of the axis ; ^ Plane, in 
Diatoms, the plane at right angles 
to the valvar plane, which passes 
through the pervalvar and apical 
axes ; cf. pervalvar <-' ; trans- 
apical '- ; -^ Pores, special hyd- 
athodes and monocotyledons (Haber- 
landt) ; apicicircinna'tus % [circin- 
natus, turned round), ending in 
a circinnate manner ; apiciriary, 
apicilla'ris, inserted on, or per- 
taining to the summit, as in the 
dehiscence of the capsule of Ceras- 
Hum ; apic'ifized {fixus, fastened), 
descriptive of a suspended anther 

Apic'ula, Apic'tdu7n (Lat., a little 
point), a sharp and short, but not 
stitf point, in whicli a leaf may 
end ; apic'ulate, apicula'tus, fur- 
nished with an apicula. 

Apig'enin, a ghicoside found in many 
Umbelliferae, especially Apium. 

A'pilary (a, without ; ir'iKos, hat), sup- 
pression of the upper lip in such 
flowers as Calceolaria; Aplano- 
gametan'gium [ayytTiov, a vessel), 
the organ which gives rise to aplano- 
gametes ; Aplanogam'etes (oTrAavrjs, 
not wandering ; yafieTTjs, a spouse), 
a non-ciliated gamete, which may or 
may not be set free ; Aplan'ospores 
{ffvoph, a seed), non-motile cells 
which are detached for propagation, 
formed asexually by true cell-forma- 
tion and rejuveiifscence ; aplasmo- 
dioph'orus (o, without ; irKda-fia, 
moulded ; clSos, resemblance ; <popds, 
bearing), used of Myxo^asties which 
do not produce plasmodia ; aplas'tic 
(irAao-rSs, moulded), not convertible 
into organic tissues ; aplolepid^eous 
(Acirls, a scale), applied to those 
Mosses having a single row of teeth 
or scales in the peristome ; Aploperi- 

st'omi {airXdos, simple ; rtpl, around ; 
o-rd/ia, mouth). Mosses having a 
single row of teeth in the peristome, 
or none ; adj. aploperistom'atous. 

apobat^ic {airofialvot, I depart), re- 
pulsive ; cf. isTROPHIC. 

Ap'oblast (otto, up ; fiXaarhs, a germ), 
a barren shoot, as from pollard 
willows ; adj apoblas'tic ; Ap'ocarp, 
Apocarp'iwni {Kapirhs, fruit), a fruit 
which is apocarp'ous, -pus, that is, 
when ike carpels of a Gynaecium 
are separate ; Apocar'py is the con- 
dition ; Apochemotax'is {+ Chemo- 
TAXIs), negative attraction due to 
chemical influence ; repulsion ; adj. 

apocyna'ceoua, apoc3ai'eouB, relating 
to or resembling the genus Apocy- 
num or its allies. 

apocyt'ial {kvtos, a hollow), of. the 
nature of an Apocyt'ium or Ap'ocy te, 
an habitually plurinucleate mass of 
protoplasm, cell-di\asion remaining 
in abeyance; multinucleate and 
unicellular ; Apoc'yty, Vuillemin's 
term for non-cellular tissue in Fungi 
and Algae, the cells being reduced 
to several nuclei within the cell- 

apod'ial (a, without ; irovs, voShs, 
foot), destitute of a Podium or foot- 
stalk ; apodog'ynus X iy^f^h, woman), 
applied to a disk which is not ad- 
herent to the ovary. 

Apoem'bryony (otto, from ; tfi^pvov, 
au embryo), the embryo-stage sup- 
pressed, the oosphere giving rise 
immediately to the vascular mem- 
bers ; Apogalvanotax'is ( + ' Gal- 
VANOTAXis), negative Galvano- 
TROPISM ; apogEun'ic, apogamous. 

Apog'amy {yafios, marriage), (1) ab- 
normal budding and production of 
a bion by a prothallus without 
sexual intervention ; (2) indepen- 
dently framed by Romanes to ex- 
press ' ' indiscriminate isolation " | 
meiot'ic ~, apogamy after meiosisT 
when the sporophyte originates from 
the oosphore or from gametophytic 
tissue ; diploid ^ = Euapooamy ; 
hap'loid '^ = MEiOTic Apogamy ; 




ob'ligate --' = Parthen apogamy : 
somat^ic '^ = Euapooamy ; gen'- 
erative '^ = meiotic Apogamy ; 
adj. apog'amous ; Apog'eny {yfvos, 
offspring), loss of power for sexual 
reproduction, the function of both 
male and female organs being de- 
apogeoesthet'ic (i.iro, from ; alcrOriTiKhs, 
perceptible), when the young hypo- 
cotyl bends upwards (Czapek) ; Apo- 
ge'otaxi8(7)j, the earth ; rd^is, order), 
negative Geotaxis ; Apogeot'ropism 
(ttj, the earth ; rpoir^, a turn), grow- 
ing away from the earth, as normal 
stems ; apogeotrop'ic, negatively 

feotropic ; Apogesta'tion {gestatio, a 
earing), defined by A. S. Wilson 
as "the gestation of the germ of 
one plant in the tissue of a wholly 
differeut plant away from the gener- 
ating system"; Apog'yny {yw^, 
woman), loss of reproductive power 
in the female organ. 

apo'lar (a, privative ; ir6\os, a pivot), 
applied by Bertrand and Cornaille, 
to indeterminate tibro vascular masses 
without tracheae, in Ferns. 

apomio'tic, relating to Apomix'is (airo, 
from; fx^is, intercourse) = Apo- 
gamy; apopet'alou8(7reTaAo»', a flower 
leaf), having free petals. ; polypetal- 
ous ; apophyll^ouB {<pv\\ov, Ic'^f), 
applied to parts of a single perianth 
whorl wlien free ; Apophototax'is ( + 
pHOTOTAXis), the action of light 
causing no definite arrangement of 
organisms or chlorophyll granules ; 
adj. apophototac'tic ; Apoph'ysis 
{<piw, I grow), (1) the swelling below 
the capsule of Splachnmn and other 
Mosses ; (2) also in the cone scale 
of Plnus Pinaster, Soland. ; apoph'y- 
sate, possessing such an enlargement ; 
Ap'ophytes, pi. {<t>vrov, a plant), 

(1) Boulger's term for Lichens ; 

(2) Kikli's term for autochthonous 
plants which follow cultivation ; 
adj. apophyt'ial, -ic ; Apoplas'tidy 
{trXcuxrhs, formed), modifications of 
the same species ; apoplasmo'dial 
(+ Plasmodium)), and apoplastog''- 
amoni (+ Plastogamy), said of 

the Acrasieae, as differing from the 
Myxogastres by the non-fusion of 
their cytoplastic elements (Hartog) ; 
apora'chial (+ Rhachis), directed 
aw^ay from the rhachis (Davie) ; 
Aporog'amy (-f Porogamy), when 
the pollen- tube does not pass through 
the micropyle ; adj. aporog'amous ; 
ap'oBChist (<rx»<rTbs, split), used of 
a gamete in which cell division does 
not occur, but the cell directly 
assumes the behaviour of a gamete 
(Hartog) ; aposep'alous {sepalu7)i, 
calyx-leaf), having free sepals ; 
Aposmotax'is (+ Osmotaxis), the 
repulsive influence of certain solu- 
tions on organisms ; Ap''osperms 
{(Tvfpfia, a seed), plants defined by 
MacMillan as integi-ated separately 
from the placenta; cf. Synsperms ; 
Aposp'ory {aTropa, seed), supi»ression 
of spore-formation, the prothallus 
developing direct from the asexual 
generation; direct -^j is normal but 
prolonged ; induced--', where the 
prothalli produce buds forthwith 
(Lang); adj. aposp'orous; Apost'asis 
((TToo-is, standing), the monstrous dis- 
union of parts normally united ; Apo- 
stax'is {(rrd^w, I drip) the abnormal 
loss of nutritive or secreted fluids by 
bleeding, gumming, etc. ; Apost'- 
rophe {(rrpo(pi), turning), the position 
assumed by the chloroplastids durijig 
intense light, along the sides of the 
cell-walls, instead of the outer sur- 
face ; negative -• , is caused by weak 
light, as at night, and positive-', by 
strong light; apostroph'ic, • relating 
to AposTiiopiiE ; '- In'teival, the 
space on the Photrum capable of 
apostrophizing chloroi)hyll granules 
(S. Moore) ; also termed Apostro- 
ph'ion; Apostrophiza'tion, the act 
of chlorophyll granules in taking 
up the position of Apostkophe ; 
Apotaximorpho'sis {rd^is, order ; 
lj.6p(pa)<Ti5, a shaping), Gubler's term 
for any teratologic change which 
seUnis antagonistic to the normal 
laws governing the organism ; Ap'o- 
thece = Apothe'cium (0^«tj. a case), 
(1) an organ of fructification pecu- 




liar to lichens, and usually cup- 
shaped "Shields"; (2) bowl-shaped 
fructifications in Pezizaceae ; Ap- 
otherxnotax'is ( -f- Thermotaxis), 
insensibility to the influence of 
temperature ; Apothigmotax'is ( + 
Thigmotaxis), irritability induced 
by contact with a solid body 
(Rothert); apotroplc, used of the as- 
cending axis (White); Apot'ropism = 
Apogeotropism; apot'ropous (rpos-)?, 
a turning), used of an anatropoua 
ovule with the raphe ventral ; apo- 
typ'ic {tvttos, a type), an anomalous 
.departure from the general law of 
development ; Ap'otype, a supple- 
mentary type, aiding the completion 
of descriptions ; c/. Hypotype ; 
Apoty'pose, an abnormality in de- 
velopment (Gubler). 
Appen'dage, Appen'diz (liat. , an addi*^ 
tion), (1) a part added to another, 
as leaves are appendages to the stem ; 
(2) a name given to processes of any 
kind, especially those of the peri- 
thecia of fungi ; (3) in the plural the 
term Appen^dices wm formerly ap- 
plied to suckers, such as the offsets 
of the pineapple, 
appen'dent, appen'dtna {appetido, I 
hang by), when the hilum is 
directed towards the upper part of 
the seed, which is sessile, or nearly 
so, on the placenta, as in stone- 
appendio'ulate, appendiciila'tus {ap- 
pcndicitla, a small appendage), (1) 
furnished with appendages ; (2) the 
pileus of an agaric, when portions of 
the secondaiy veil remain attached 
to the margin of the pileus ; appen-' 
dic'ular Eidgea, on guard-cells of 
cei-tain Rhizophoreae, dividing the 
front cavity into two compartments ; 
appen'dieled, having wnall append- 
Appendic'alam +, diminutive of Ap- 
appense' {appen' »us, weighed), being 
hung up as a hat is upon a peg, an 
approach to pendulous (Lindley in 
Loudon, Encyc. PI. 1095). 
ap'planate, applana'tus {ad, to ; plan- 

atiiSf made flat), flattened out or 
horizontally expanded. 
Ap'ple, a^eshy, inferior, plurilocular, 
two to five-seeded fruit, technically 
styled a Pome. 

applica^tns (Lat., applicaii'ous, close 
to, or attached), applied face to face, 
without folding. 

ap'posite, appos'ifus (Lat., applied to), 
when similar parts are placea close to 
or side by side ; appoaifo'liar [folium, 
leaf), an error for oppoaitifolioufl ; 
Apposition, side by side or close to ; 
<~ Theory, of the growth of the cell- 
wall, as due to repeated dispoiation 
of layera of substance on the internal 
surface of the original cell-wall. 

appress'ed, appress'us, {ad, to ; pressiis, 
kept under), lying flat for the whole 
length of the organ ; Appres'sori, 
organs of attachment of germinating 
filaments of parasite to host ; Ap- 
presBor'ia, pi. , Frank's term for the 
exterior organs of attachment of para- 
sitic Fungi, as distinct from the 
Haustoria or absorbing organs. 

approximate, approximatus {ad, to ; 
proximo, I approach), drawn close 
together, but not united. 

Aprica'rium {apricus, lying open), the 
summer habitation of plants in 
botanic gardens, for exposure to sun 
and air ; apri'cns (Lat. ), living in 
open sunny places. 

ap'terous, -rus (a, without ; wrtphp, a 
wing), wingless, used of petioles, 
seeds, and the like ; apyr«'aiii 
{irvpifv, seed), applied to fruit which 
is seedless, as cultivated varieties of 
the pineapple, orange, or grape. 

Aqaar'inm (Lat., relating to water), a 
tank for aquatics in botanic gardens. 

aqaat'ic, aqitat'icus {aqua, water), 
living in water ; aqwxt'Uii, has been 
defined as living undw: water ; the 
first category would include LeTima 
and Typha, the second, Cerato- 
phyllum, Chara, etc. 

aq'aeons aq'xuxLs, aqua' sits (Lat., 
watery), (1) indicates some colour- 
less structure, hyaline ; (2) having 
much water in the tissues ; aq'neom 
Tissue, consists of one or more layers 




of thin-walled parench3Tnatous cells, 
destitute of chloroplastids, with much 
watery sap, without interspaces, and 
acting as water-reservoirs ; aquifer- 
ous ifero^ I bear) Tissue, is a synonym. 

Aquilo'nary Pe'riod {aquilonaris, 
northern) = Xekothekm. 

Aquipra'ta (aqua water ; pratum, a 
meadow), pi. plant-communities and 
lierbs, grasses, and bryophytes, where 
influenced by ground-water. 

Ar'abin, a substance derived from Gum 
Arabic, deflecting the polarized beam 
to the left ; Ar'abinose, a glucose 
obtained from it, also from cherry- 
gum; Arabinoz'ylan.a hemicellulose, 
found in the bran of wheat and rye. 

ara'ceous, relating to the order 

aracb'noid, arach'noideus [kpixvn, 
spider, or spider's web ; eZSos, re- 
semblance), like a cobweb, from an 
entanglement of line whitish hairs. 

aralia'ceous, resembling the genus 
Aralia, or the order of which it is 
the type. 

ara'neous |, araneo's^is $, ara'neose 
{a7-anta, a spider), have the same 
meaning as arachnoid. 

Araro'ba, a powdery excretion in cavi- 
ties of the Brazilian tree, Andira 
Araroba, Aguiar, 

Ar'bor (Lat., tree), a woody perennial 
plant, having a bole from which 
the branches spring ; arbor'eous, 
arbor' ens, tree -like ; arbores'cent, 
arborca'cens (-{- escens), attaining 
the size or character of a tree ; 
Ar'boret, a small tree or shrub ; 
Arbore'tum, a place assigned foi* 
the culture of trees, usually in 
systematic order ; also the title of 
a book devoted to trees ; arboric'ol- 
ine, arboric'olous (-f suffix -cola, 
inhabitant), dwelling on trees, as 
the habitat of Fungi or epiphytes ; 
ar'boroid (elSoj, resemblance), a 
hybrid word for dendroid, tiee- 

Arbus'cula (Lat.), a small shrub with 
the aspect of a tree, as some heaths ; 
Ar'busole is an old term for the 
same ; Arbus'culus (Lat.), a small 

tree ; arbus'cular, arbiiscula'ris, 
shrubby, and branched like a tree. 

arbus'tivfc, arbiisii'vus (Lat., planted 
with trees), coppiced. 

Arbus'tum (Lat), (1) a shnib, a 
branched woody perennial plant, but 
wanting a distinct bole ; (2) applied 
to an account of the woody plants of 
a country ; a Sylva. 

Ar'butiu, a glucoside occurring in many 
plants, especially Ericaceae; it de- 
rives its name from Arbutus. 

Arces'thide, Arces'thida {apKtvBXs, ISos^ 
juniper berry) = Galbulus. 

Archae'ophytes {<f>vrdv, a plant), Rikli's 
term for weeds introduced into culti- 
vated ground in prehistoric time. 

archa'ic {apxaiKhs, antiquated), used 
with reference to a type of a former 
age, as Casuarina. 

Archebio'sis {apxh, beginning ; $lo5, 
life), origin of life ; Arch'egone = 
Akchkgonium ; archego'nial iyovi], 
race),a{>plied by Tschirch to stomata, 
whose outer walls of the guard cells 
are thickened, inner walls only a thin 
lamella, the guard cells separated in 
their central part but not at the 
poles, as in Gymnosperms ; archego'- 
niate, possessing archegouia ; Arche- 
gonia'tae, plants j)rodacing arclie- 
gonia, applied to Hryophytes and 
Pteridophytes ; Archego^niophores 
{<popfu, I bear), the supports of 
archegonia in certain ferns, oiit- 
growtlis of the prothalli, also, 
specialized branches on Sphagnum 
with the same function ; Archego'- 
nium, the female sexual organ in 
CryptogamSjContaiuing the oosphere, 
which after fertilization develops 
within the venter ; Archene'ma 
(j/^ytio, a thread), term proposed by 
C. MacMillan for gametophy tic struc- 
tures in Thallophytes ; Arch'esperm 
{avepfia, a seed), (1) the fertilized 
contents of an archegonium (Bennett 
and Murray) ; (2) also employed by 
MacMillan, for jilants with obliga- 
tory and archesper'mic seeds, with 
monomorphous embryos ; Arch'- 
espore, Archespor'ium {(riropa, a 
seed), the cell or cells from which 




the spores are ultimately derived as 
in the pollen-sac, or its homologue ; 
archespor'ial, belonging to the same ; 
~ Cells, the original cells in spore- 
formation : -- Pad, Bower's term for a 
mass of cells developing beneath the 
sporogenous tissue in certain Pteri- 
dophytes; Arch'etype {tvvos, a type), 
an original simple type ; restricted 
to a series of forms from the simplest 
to complicated, with common type 
of structure and phylogenetic con- 

ArcManth'emum (opx'> prefix for chief 
or primitive ; &vdefiov, a flower), 
C. Schimper's term for a well- 
developed flower at the apex of a 
botryoid inflorescence, where it is 
normally absent (Penzig). 

Arch'icarp {apxh, beginning ; Kapvhs, 
fruit), in ascomycetous Fungi, the be- 
ginning of a fructification, the cell or 
group of cells fertilized by a sexual 
act ; ArchioMamyd'eae (x^afivs, 
-vSos, a mantle), Engler's term to 
include the Polypetalae and Incom- 
pletae of Phanerogams ; Age of '^ , 
the Middle Tertiary Period is so 
termed by MaoMillan ; Archiclei- 
stog'amy (+ Cleibtogamy), the 
condition of permanently closed 
flowers, whose organs are consider- 
ably smaller than those of normal 
ilowers (Loew) ; archigon'ic {y6vos, 
oflsprin^;), arising by spontaneous 
generation (Haeckel) ; Archigynmo- 
sper'mae ( -f OYMNOsrERM), Jefl"rey's 
term for the ferns and the lower 
Gymnospeims ; Archimyce'tes 

(nvK-ns, a mushroom), imicellular 
Fungi, parasitic on Diatoms (Marp- 

arch'ing, curved like a bow. 

Arch'isperm {apx^, beginning ; atttpya, 
seed), (1) another name for Gymno- 
sperms, from their presumed an- 
tiquity ; (2) Boulger's tenn for 
structures formed before fertiliza- 
tion, or at an early stage in the 
macrospore ; Arch'isphere {a^paipa, 
a sphere), the contents of an arche- 
gonium previous to fertilization. 

Archistrep'tes {i-pXh chief; erparrhs 

twisted), the principal spirals fonned 
in phyllotaxis. 

Archocleifltog'amy {itpx^s, chief; -f 
Cleistogamy), when the flowers 
remain closed at the time when the 
sexual organs ripen (Knuth) ; cf. 
Archicleistogamy ; Aroh'oplasm 
(irXic/ia, moulded), Boveri's term for 
KiNOPLASM ; adj. archoplai'mio ; -^ 
Sphere = Achuomatic Spindle. 

arct'ic, a term applied by H. C. 
Watson to a British region, compris- 
ing three zones, styled super-, mid-, 
and infer-arctio zones, relating to 
plants growing above the limits of 

arctogae'al {yata, the earth), in plant- 
distribution refers to Huxley's 
term Arcto^ae'a, which incluaes 
Europe, Asia, Africa, and North 
America as far as Mexico. 

arc'uate, arnia^tus (Lat. ), bent like a 
bow, curved ; arcua'to-areola'toB, 
divided into spaces by curves ; <-' 
-contort'uB, forming a depressed 
spiral, as in some legumes. 

Ardell'a (ip5», I sprinkle), small apo- 
thecia of certain lichens, as Anhonia, 
seemingly dusty ; Ardi'am or Ardi'on 
(ip5a», I irrigate), a formation of 
plants due to irrigation (Clements). 

ardos'iacos (Mod. Lat., from Fr. 
ardoise, slate), slate-grey ; arde'sia- 
CU8, slate-coloured (Clements). 

-are, suflix denoting a community 

A'rea (Lat., a space), (1) a bed in 
botanic gardens ; (2) in Diatoms, 
the surface of a valve when circular 
and destitute of a stauros ; (3) J the 
receptacle of certain Fungi (Lind- 
ley) ; (4) A. Braun's term for the 
space round the sporangium in 
hoeits ; r of Infec'tion, the part 
open to attack, as the stomata, 
epidermis or wound. 

arena'ceouB, arena'rious, arcna'rius, 
arevo'siib {arena, sand), growing in 
sandy places. 

Arenariet'um, a formation in which 
Arcnaria is dominant or exclusive 
(Clements) ; Arena'rion, a family 
of Arenaria (Clements). 




arenic'olous (arena, sand ; coh, I in- 
habit), growing in sand or sandy 
places ; Arenoph'ilae {<f>i\4a>, I love), 
sand-loving" plants. 

Are'ola(Lat., aiminutive of Area), (1) 
a space marked out on a surface ; 
(2) a small cell or cavity ; (3) a 
tessellation in the thallus of some 
Lichens ; (4) a lumen in the sporan- 
gium of Achlya due to the influx of 
water (Harper) ; are'olar, are'olate, 
areola' 'tus, marked with areolae, 
divided into distinct spaces ; Areola'- 
tion, in Mosses, the arrangement 
of the cells. 

arg'entate, argent' eus (Lat. , silvery), 
silvery as to tint and lustre ; 
argenta'tuB (Lat.), silvered. 

argilla^ceous, ^ceus (Lat.), clayey, 
growing in clay, or clay-colourea ; 
argil'licole (-f colo, I inhabit), 
dwelling on clay ; argillo'suB (Lat.), 
living in clayey places. 

Ar'ginin (deriv. ?), a proteid peculiar 
to the Coniferae, occurring in their 
seeds and etiolated seedlings. 

arg'os, in Greek compounds = white ; 
in Latin, Candidas. 

Argotaz'is (d/>7J>s, passive; r&^is, order), 
passive movements due to surface- 
tension (Pfetfer). 

argute', argu'tus (Lat.)} sharp, as 
argute' -sen-a'tus, sharply-serrate. 

arg'yros, in Greek compounds = sil- 
very ; Lat. , argenteus. 

arhi'zal, arhi'ztis = arrhi'zal, etc. 

Arlcine, an alkaloid from cinchona 
bark, obtained from Arica, in Chili. 

arieti'nous (arieti'mis, pertaining to 
a ram), like a ram's head (Heinig). 

A'ril, AriU'us (Fr., arille), (1) an ex- 
pansion of the funicle, arising from 
the placenta, and enveloping the 
seed ; mace is the aril of the nutmeg ; 
(2) used by J. E. Smith for the utricle 
of Carex ; ar'illate, arilla'tus, pos- 
sessed of an aril ; arilliform'is ^ 
(/orwa,. shape), bag-shaped; A'ril- 
lode, Arillo'dium, a false aril, a coat 
of the seed, and not arising from the 
placenta ; aririoid (e/5os, resem- 
blance), like an aril. 

ari'nas [ipp-qv, male), Necker's suffix 

to words enumerating stamens, in- 
stead of the Linnean -androus. 

Aris'ta (Lat.), an awn, the beard of 
corn ; arist'ate, arista'tus, awned ; 
aris'tulate, aristula'tas, bearing a 
small awn. 

arigtolochia'ceous, resembling the 
genus Aristolochia, Tourn. 

aristosty'lous {apiarfphs, left ; o-tCAos, 
a pillar), applied to a flower with an 
exserted style bent towards the left. 

Arm-parisade (-f- Palisade), cells 
having protrusions Which amalga- 
mate with each other in the palisade - 
tissue ; -' -por'tion, of two-armed 
hairs ; ~ -tis'sue, elements having 
the shape of the letter H (Haber- 
landt). , 

Arma (Lat.), Ar'mature, any kind of 
defence, as prickles or thorns ; 
armed, bearing thorns or similar 

armenia'ceous, armen'iacus, (1) apricot- 
coloured, a dull orange, named from 
Prunus Arnieniaca, Linn. ; (2) a 
native of Armenia. 

Armill'a (Lat., bracelet), the frill of 
the stipe of Agarics left attached 
on the expansion of the pileus ; at 
first it forms a covering of the 
hymenium ; ar'millate, consisting of 
rings or circles ; ar'millary, like a 
bracelet (Heinig). 

Amat'to, also written Amotto and 
Annotto, the red colouring matter 
from the pulp of the fruit of Bixa 
Orelluna, Linn. 

aroid'eous, relating to the family 

Aro'ma ^Lat., spice), the perfume of 
a plant ; aromat'ic, -cics, possessing 
a s])icy smell or taste. 

arrect', arrcct'us (Lat., set upright), 
stiftly erect. 

Arrest' {arrestare, Late Lat., to stop), 
employed by Goebcl to include 
AnouriON and Sui'PRESsion; sporal 
— , see Spokal Aurest. 

arrhi'zal, arrhi'zous, arrhizvs (a, with- 
out ; ^fC«. ^ root), rootless, want- 
ing true roots ; Arrhizoblas'tus t 
(^Aoffrbs, a germ), an embryo which 
has no radicle. 




Ar'row-head'ed, '-' sliaped, barbed like 
an arrow, sagittate. 

arth'onoid, artho'nioid, of the form or 
consistence of the apothecia in the 
genus Arthonia, Ach. (The generic 
name is falsely derived from an 
imaginary &pdcD ; it should be -^r- 
donia from &pS<a). 

arthrodes'moid, resembling in form 
the Desmid genus ArthrodesmvLS 

arthrog'enous (JifiBpov , a joint; yivos, 
oflFspring), when portions separate 
from the cell, and gradually develop 
into distinct individuals (Massee) ; 
e. g. -^ Spores, in Bacteria when 
portions separate from the cell and 
develop into spores ; Arth'rospore 
{a-Kopa, a seed), one of spores like 
a chain of beads, formed by fission ; 
arthrospor'ic, arthrosp'orous, ap- 
plied to Schizomycetes, in those 
species which have no endogenous 
spore -formation ; Arthrosterig'mata 
{(rr'f)piyfia, -aros, a prop), .jointed 
sterigmata in some Lichens, made 
up of rows of cells from which spores 
are abstricted. 

Article, Artic'ulus (Lat.), a joint; 
artic'ulated, articula'tus, (1) jointed, 
separating freely by a clean scar, 
as in leaf-fall ; (2) used by Bentham 
and Hooker for the jointed pod of 
Desmodium ; Articula'tion, (1) a 
joint, popularly applied to the nodes 
of grasses ; (2) the basal portion of 
the sensitive bristle in Dionaea ; 
Artic'uli, the segments of coralline 
Algae, usually incmsted with lime. 

Ait'iiact {arSy art ; foetus, made), a 
substance not naturally existing, 
but resulting from laboratory treat- 
ment ; artific'ial, artificia'lis (Lat., 
according to rules of art), applied to 
any scheme of classification which 
is based on one set of characters, as 
opposed to a natural scheme, which 
takes all characters into account. 

artiphyirous, -lus {iprios, complete ; 
(pvWov, leaf), used of nodes which 
bear manifest buds. 
Ar'tolin {dpros, a loaf), the proteid of 

amn'coid {eUos, like), resembling 
Spiraea Aruncu8. 

anmdina'ceous, arundina'eeus, reed- 
like, having a culm like tall grasses ; 
arandin'eons, reedy, abounding in 

arven'sis, {arva, arable land), applied 
to plants of cultivated land, espe- 
cially of ploughed fields. 

Asafoet'ida {aza, Persian for mastic ; 
foetidus, stinking), a gum-resin of a 
persistent alliaceous odour and taste, 
yielded by Ferula Narthex, Boiss., 
and other allied Umbelliferae. 

As'arin, the bitter principle of Asara- 
bacca, Asarum europaeum, Linn. ; 
As'arine, a crystallized substance 
resembling camphor. 

Ascell'uB, (1) diminutive of Ascus ; (2) 
the spores of certain Fungi (Lindley). 

ascendent, -ens, ascend'ing, (1) 
directed upwards, as the stem ; the 
ascending axis is oblique at first, 
then erect ; (2) opposed to descend- 

-ascens, a suffix denoting a tendency 
towards something, as ciner-ascens, 
becoming ash-coloured, cinereus. 

ascidia'tus (Lat.), furnished with 
AsciDiA ; Aicid'inm (oo-KtStov, a little 
pitcher), pi. Ascid'ia, (1) the pitcher 
of Nepenthes, etc., the metamor- 
phosed lamina of the leaf, becomes 
tubular, usually with a lid, which is 
a development of the apical portion 
of the leaf ; (2) the asci of certain 
Fungi ; ascid'iform {forma, shape), 

ascirerous {ascus, Mod. Lat., a wine- 
skin ; fero, I bear), bearing asci ; 
ascig'erous {gero, I produce) = Asci- 


asciifor'mis {ascia, a hatchet ; formis, 
shape), used by Masters for hatchet- 
shaped ; dolabriform. 

asclepiad'eous, like the genus As- 
clepias or its allies, as to structure ; 
Asclepiadol'ogy {kdyos, discourse), 
the science, or a treating of the 
order of Asclepiadeae (Schlechter). 

As'cocarp {aa-Khs, a wine-skin ; Koprhs, 
fruit), the sporocarp of Ascomycetes 
producing asci and ascospores ; its 




three kinds are termed Apothecium, 
Perithecium and Cleistocarp ; 
As'cooyst (Kiic-ris, a cavity), a large 
hyaline empty cell with a thick wall, 
by some authors termed a para- 
physis, occurring in Myrionenia and 
allied genera (Sauvageau) ; asco- 
gen'ie, ascog'enous {yevos, offspring), 
producing asci, asclferous ; asco- 
go'niai, relates to an As'cogone, or 
Asoogo'niam {yov)\, race), (1) a 
synonym of Archicarp ; (2) a 
portion of an Archicarp, the con- 
tents taking part in forming asco- 
genous hyphae = reproductive cells 
containing female nuclei (V. Black- 
man) ; Ascoli'chenes, Lichens pro- 
ducing asci ; Asc'oma, Wallroth's 
term for Receptacle and Hymenium 
of Fungi ; Ascomyce'tee {ti^Ky\s, 
fungus), Sachs's name for a large 
group of Fungi, forming ascospores 
and stylospores. 

Asoop'ora, an error (?) for the next. 

Asc'ophore, {kcrKhsy a bag ; <pop4w, 
I cany), the ascus-bearing hyphae 
within an ascocarp ; ascoph'orous 
ascus-bearing ; Ascoph'yBes (4>ua», I 
make grow), the hyphae vhich con- 
stitute the ascogenous cushion in 
Chaetomium; As'cospore {(rvopa, a 
seed), a spore produced by an ascus, 
sometimes termed sporidium or 
sporule ; A8'cus,jpl. As'ci (pr. as'si), 
a large cell, usually the swollen end 
of a hvphal branch, in the ascocarp 
of which normally eight spores are 
developed ; '^ Appara'tus, a portion 
of the sporocarp, comprising the 
asci and the ascogenous cells ; -^ 
suffalto'rius, Corda's term for Bas- 


asoy^phoni (o, without ; <TKv<pos, a 
beaker), without Scyphi ; asep'tate 
{septunif an enclosure), without 
partitions or cross-divisions ; asep'- 
tic {<rr)imK6s, putrefying), not 
liable to become rotten ; asez'nal 
{sexualis, pertaining to sex), destitute 
of male or female organs ; neuter ; 
<^ Genera 'tion, in alternation, that 
generation which produces spores 
asexually, but is itself the product 

of a sexual act ; thus, in Ferns, the 
full-grown form is the asexual form 
or sporophyte, the prothallus the 
sexual form or gametophyte. 

Ash, the mineral residue of plants after 
complete combustion. 

Ash-Oak^ wood association, woodland 
having a quantity of ash- trees with 
oak usually co-dominant ; Ash 'wood 
association, the ash dominant, 
characteristic of limestone hills in 
Yorkshire and Derbyshire. 

Asim'ina = Assiminum. 

Asiphon'ogam (a, privative -f Sipho- 
nogam), a plant fertilized by an- 
therozoids ; a cryptogam ; asomat'ic 
{awixa, body), having only embryonal 
parts (Pfetfer) ; Asomat'ophyte 
{ipvrov, a plant), plants without 
permanent tissues. 

Aspar'agi {affvdpayos, asparagus), for- 
merly used for TuRiONES or suckers, 
young shoots emerging from the 
rootstock under ground, and at first 
bearing scales only, as in Asparagus ; 
Aspar'agin, a commonly occurring 
amide, which was first obtained 
from Asparagus officinalis, Linn., 
hence its name ; asparag'inoas, ap- 
plied to plants whose young shoots 
are eaten as asparagus. 

As'pect {aspecUis, sight, view), "the 
seasonal impress of a formation, e. g. 
the spring aspect " (Clements). 

as'per (Lat., rough), as'perate, as'- 
perous, rough with hairs or points. 

aspergiirifonu, asperyilliform'is {as- 
pergillum, Mod. Lat., holy-water 
brush ; fornia, shape), tufted, brush- 
shaped as the stigmas of grasses. 

Aspergill'in, pigment of the spores of 
Aspergillus niger, Van Tiegh. , now 
known as Sterigmatocystis nigra, Sacc. 

asperifo'liate, asperifo'lius (asper, 
rough ; folium, leaf), rough-leaved, 
as Borrago officinalis, Linn. ; As- 
per'ity {asperitas), roughness. 

asper m'ous (o, without ; airfpfia, seed), 

as'peroas {asper, rough), scabrous, 
harsh to the touch ; asper'ulous, 
dightly rough with little points 




Asphyx'ia {a<r<pv^la, without a pulse), 
in plants, insensibility brought on 
by suspension of respiration due 
to absence of oxygen (Dutrochet). 

Aspide'tum Ganong's term for a bog- 
niarsh plant-association of Carex and 
Aspidium, whence the name. 

ABpidia'ria, formerly the name of a 
genus of fossils, now applied to a 
lepidodendroid stem when the cortex 
has been stripped oft" (Scott). 

Aspidosper'motype, a wind-dispersed 
seed resembling the seed of Aspido- 
spenna, circular in shape, with the 
weight of the seed in the centre 

asple'nioid, {elSos, resemblance), like 
the Fern genus, Asplenium. 

Asporomyce'tes (a, without ; airopa, a 
seed ; yut/KTjs, fungus), Marchaud's 
name for Fungi imperfecti. 

Assimila'tion, Assimila'tio {assimulo, 
I make like), the process by which 
extraneous matter, crude food, is 
converted into plant substance ; 
constructive metabolism ; used espe- 
cially for the formation of organic 
substance from carbon dioxide and 
water by green plants in sunlight ; 
Assimila'ta, pi., the first-formed 
products ; assim'ilative, conducing 
to Assimilation ; -^ Fil^aments, 
sterile hairs which grow intermixed 
with the sporangia of such Algae as 

Aflsim^inum (Fr., Assiminier, a name 
of Asimiim triloba, Dun.), Desvaux's 
name for Syncarpium. 

Association (Plant); term proposed to 
supersede Plant Formation or Plant 
Society ; Dan. Plantesamfund, Ger. 
Pflanzenverein ; Chief --■ , = stable 
association ; Closed '^ , the ground 
fully covered by plants ; Inter- 
me'diate -^ , more or less covered ; 
Mixed ~ , several species competing 
for dominance ; O'pen --' , partly 
covered with vegetation ; Pas'sage ^ , 
leading from one to another ; Pro- 
gres'sive '^ , open and intermediate, 
tending towards stable ; Pure -^ , a 
single species dominant ; Eetrogres'- 
siv« ^ , a decaying stable-association ; 


stable '-' , in a state of equilibrium, 
but may degenerate ; Snbor'dinate 
•^ , a progressive or retrogressive as- 
sociation ; Snb'stitnte ~' , a secondary 
formation (W. G. Smith) ; Tran- 
sitional'-', in course of develop- 
ment ; Unstable ~ , leading to an 
intermediate association. 

Assnmen'ta (pi. of ussumenttim, a 
patch), the valves of a siliqua. 

assor'gent, assur'gens {ad, to ; surgo, 
I rise), rising upward ; ascend- 

Astath'e I (affrad^s, unstable), "a 
substance supposed by Hartig to lie 
between the outer and inner lining 
of a cell " (Lindley) ; secondary 
membrane (von Mohl). 

Aste'ly (a, without ; <Tri\\r), pillar), 
destitute of a stel6, or axial cylinder 
of tissue ; cf. Schizostely ; adj. 

As'ter (io-T^p, a star), a stage in nu- 
clear division ; the chromatin forms 
rods over a great part of the fusi- 
form nucleus, its poles being occupied 
by fine achromatic filaments ; cf. 

astera'ceous, allied to the group of 
Compositae of which the genus Aster 
is the type. 

aster'iate (Heinig) = asteroid. 

Asterid'ia, pi. (ocrr^p, a star, tStof = 
diminutive), spinous or stellate 
bodies occurring in the cells of 
Conjugatae, possibly some parasitic 
form (Archer) ; Asterosphae'ria, pi. - 
{<r<paipa, a sphere), a synonym of 
the same. 

As'terile {Aster, Tourn., -f ile), 
Clements's term for a "Society" of 
Aster ; ast'eroid (elSoy, resemblance), 
(1) star-shaped ; (2) like the genus, 
Ader, Tourn. 

ast'iohous, as'tichtis X (a, without : 
(rrixos, row, line), not arranged in 

Astig'matae (o, without, -f Stigma), 
Van Tieghem's name for the Arche- 
ooNiATAE ; cf. Stiomatae ; Astig- 
mat'icae, Knuth's term for wind- 
fertilized plants which do not 
possess stigmas, such as Gymno- 



sperms; astip'ulate (a, without, + 
Stipula) =exstipulate ; astoin'- 
atal (+ Stoma), wanting storaatu ; 
ast'omons, ast'omus {ffrSfia, mouth), 
not having an orifice. 

astrag'aloid {acrTpdyaXos, a knuckle- 
bone; eUos, resemblance), (1) dice 
shaped (Heinig) ; (2) having affinity 
with the genus Astragahis. 

as'tral (+ Aster), relating to the 
Aster in cytology. 

Astrocen'ters {k(rr)]py a star ; Kevrpov, 
point, centre), C, MacMillan's term 
for the bodies variously known as At- 
traction-spheres, Directive-spheres, 
Tinoleucites, etc. ; Astroscle'reids 
{(TKKijphs, hard), thick-walled star- 
shaped cells occurring in the leaves 
of Camellia, and frequently in bark 
amongst the surrounding parenchym- 
atous cells (Tschinih); Ast'rosplieres 
{a<l>aipa, a sphere), Strasburger's term 


As'trophe, or As'trophy (o, not ; o-rpo^Tj, 
a turning), negative Epistrophe 
(S. Moore) ; Asymblas'ty (a, not ; 
orvv, with ; &\a<rThs, shoot), the 
various periods of germination of the 
seeds of the same plant (Haberlandt) ; 
asymmet'ric, asymmefrical ((rJ^ujue^ 
rpos, symmetric), (1) irregular in 
outline or shape ; (2) used of a flower 
which cannot be divided in any ver- 
tical plane into two similar halves ; 
(3) dissimilarity of the number of tlie 
members in calyx, corolla or genitalia; 
Asym'metry (-fSYMMETRY), term ex- 
tended by Goebel to express the 
dissimilarity of lateral halves and 
leaflets, irrespective of the entire 
leaf; asyngam'ic {yd/xos, marriage), 
used of plants prevented from inter- 
crossing by their flowering at dif- 
ferent times ; Asyn'gamy {ydixos, 
marriage), the natural prevention of 
cross-pollination by the respective 
plants or species flowering at ditter- 
ent times (Kerner) ; asynthet'ic 
{(TvvOeros, compounded) Oonid'ia, 
free Lichen gouidia, occurring on the 
outside of the thallus (Koerber). 

atactodes'mic {AraKTos, out of order ; 
Sifffxi], bundle), applied to the vas- 

cular system of Monocotyledons 
(Brebner) ; Atact'ostele (-f Stele), 
Hrebner's term for the monostele of 
Monocotyledons, having scattered 
vascular bundles imbedded in con- 
junctive ground-tissue ; also in Dico- 
tyledons when the meristeles are not 
in a single ring; adj. atactoste'lic ; 
Atactoste'ly, the condition described. 

At'avism {atavus, an ancestor), ances- 
tral resemblance, reversion to an 
older type ; At'avist, applied to a 
plant showing that tendency ; ata- 
vist'ic, reverting to an older type of 

ataxinom'ic (a, not ; rd^is, order ; vS/jios 
law), used for teratologic, abnormal 
structures not represented amon^ 
plants in a normal condition, as 
Fasciation, Chloranthy, etc. 

ataxonom'ic (o, not, -f taxonomic), 
any part of botany which is 
not concerned with systematic 

ateg'minous, (a, without ; tegmen, 
covering), used of naked ovules 
(Goeliel) ; Ateg'miny, is the state. 

a'ter (Lat. ), i)ure, lustreless black ; in 
composition, atro-. 

atharamous (a, without ; 0Ji\afxos, 
bride-chamber), said of Lichens 
witliout apothccia on their thallus. 

athairine (a, witliout ; daWhs, young 
shoot)', without thallus. 

Ath'era, {adi]p, -fpos, beard of corn), 
in Greek compounds =awn or stilf 

Atlant'ic Type of Distribution, IL C. 
Watson's term for Ikitish plants 
which occur most frequently towards 
the west of Great Britain. 

At'mograph (or^bs, vapour ; ypa(pu, I 
write), an instrument for meaain-ing 
the amount of water evaporated. 

At'om (a, not ; t4iivw, 1 cut), defined by 
Nageli as the ultimate particle of a 
chemical element ; in botanic par- 
lance it means the smallest divisible 
portion of any substance. 

at'omate (-+-AroM), "sprinkled with 
atoms " (Stevenson). 

Atomogyn'ia {arofihs, cannot be cut ; 
yvv^, woman), the elder Richard's 




name for the Angiospermia of 

Atracten'chyma I {&TpaKTos, a spindle ; 
fyx^H-^y t^*t poured in), i)rosen- 
chyma, a tissue of fusiform cells. 

atramenta'rius {atr amentum , inky 
fluid), inky ; black. 

atrate', atra'tous, atra'tii^ (garbed in 
black) ; defined by Heinig as " turn- 
ing black " ; blackened, as in some 
species of Car ex, the apex of the 
glumes being darkened ; atric'olor 
{color, colour), inky-black. 

Atriplice'tum, an association of 
species of Airiplex, with Suaeda 
and similar p ants (Warming). 

at'ropal, preferably at'ropous (o, not ; 
rpoT^, a turn), a synonym of ortho- 
TROPOUS ; applied to the ovule. 

atroph'ic (o, without ; rpocpr], nourish- 
ment) = a pi.astic ; At'rophy {Tpo<pii; 
nourishment), wasting away, abor- 
tion or degeneration of organs ; At'ro- 
phytes {<{>vrhv, a plant), those Fungi 
which cause atrophy of important 
organs of the host-plant. 

At'ropine, a poisonous alkaloid ob- 
tained from Atropa Bclladonna,Lmn. 

atro-purpu'reus (Lat.), black-purple, 
the colour of Sweet Scabious, 
ifcabiosa atropurpurea, Linn. ; '^ 
-violaceus (Lat. ), very dark violet ; 
~ -vixens, <-' -viridi8(L9t.), dark or 
blackish green ; a'trous, dead black 

Attach'ment-disc, the holdfast or basal 
hapteron of an Alga. 

atten'uate, atienua'tus (Lat., thinned), 
narrowed, tapered. 

Attire', Grew's term for stamens and 

Attrao'tion-spheres, the same as At- 
trac'tive-spheres, Centrosphe res, 
or Tinoleucites ; ~ Glands of Ne- 
penthes, situated within the ascidia, 
to tempt insects farther down the 
tube (Macfarlane). 

-a'tus, a suffix indicating the presence 
of an organ, thus : foli-atus, having 

atyp'ic (a, not ; tuitoj, a type), (1) not 
typical, departing from the type ; 
(2) allotypic Mitosls. 

auc'tus (Lat., increased) ; (1) enlarged 
after flowering, accrescent; (2) 
augmented by an addition. 

aucupa'rious {aiccupari, to catch 
birds), " attracting birds " (Heinig), 
employed in bird-snaring. 

Augment-Cells, a modification of an 
auxospore in Diatoms, after divi- 
sion becoming transformed into 
daughter-cells, and the starting- 
points of new generations ; Aug' 
menta'tion, increase beyond the 
normal number of parts. 

aulacocar'pous {ai\ai, a furrow ; 
Kapir6s, fruit), with furrowed fruit, 
sulcate (Heinig). 

A'Ulae'um J (Lat., a curtain), used occa- 
sionally for Corolla by Linnaeus. 

Au'laz-galls, galls which resemble 
stone-fruits produced by gall- wasps 
of the genus Aulax, especially- on 
I,abiatae (Kemer). 

Aulog'amae {av\hs, a tube ; ydfios, 
marriage), employed by Ardissone 
for Muscineae. 

Aul'ophyte (auA)?, abode ; ipurhv, a 
plant), one plant living in the 
cavity of another for shelter only, 
not parasitic ; the German is 
' ' Raumparasit. " 

aurantia'ceoos auran'tiacus, auran'- , 
tills (Lat. ), (1) orange-coloured ; (2) 
like the Orange, Citrus Aurantium, 
or the order to which it belongs. 

Auran'tium (Lat., an orange), a succu- 
lent superior fruit with a rough 
rind, such as the Orange. 

aura'tus (Lat., gilt), metallic yellow, 
shot with gold ; Au'rea {aureus, 
golden), a plant deficient in chloro- 
phyll ; au'reus (Lat, golden), glow- 
ing yellow, not metallic. 

Aur'icle, Auric' ula {L&t. , ear-lap), (1) 
a small lobe or ear, an appendage to 
the leaf, as in Sage, or the Orange ; 
(2) the lobule, or minor lobe of the 
leaf of Hepaticae, often balloon- 
shaped ; (3) formerly and erroneously- 
used for Amphigastria ; (4) a small 
lobe or special patch of cells at the 
basal angle of the leaf in Mosses ; 
auric'ular, axiricula'ris, auricled ; 
'*' Cells, the cells in the leaf 




described above (4), also termed alar 

auric'ulate, auricula'tus, eared, 

aur'iform {auris, the ear ; formis, 
shape), ear-shaped. 

Auri'go {auritgo, jaundice), a leaf 
disease shown hy the yellow colour 
usually due to intumescence- forma- 
tion (Sorauer). 

auror'eus (Lat. ), the colour of dawn, 
rosy or golden. 

austere' {auste'rus, harsh), astringent 
to the taste, as a sloe. 

austra'lis (Lat., southern), occasion- 
ally applied to plants which are 
natives of warmer countries, even if 
not from the southern hemisphere. 

sensibility to some internal stinmlus ; 
Autallogam'ia {&\\os, other ; 70/110$, 
marriage), normal pollination (Clem- 
ents) ; Auf 'ecology ( + Ecology), 
the relation of individual plants to 
their habitats (Schroter) ; Autem'- 
bryo8penn(^/i.^pyo»', a foetus; atrfpfxa, 
a seed), MacMillan's term for Pau- 
THENOSPKRMS with the endosperm 
the result of fecundation from effec- 
tive pollen arising in the same flower; 
Auten'dosperm ( -f Endosperm) ; 
the embryo being the result of 
fecundation, the effective pollen aris- 
ing from the same flower as the seed 
(MacMillan) ; Auto'allog'amy (+ Al- 
logamy), the condition of a species 
when some individuals are adapted 
for self-fertilization and others for 
cross-fertilization, as in Viola tri- 
color, Linn. (Engler and Prantl) ; 
Aut'oblast {$\ac-rhs,a, bud), a free and 
independent " Bioblast " (Schlater) ; 
AntoVolitei {$o\\s, a missile, -|- ite), 
the products of division of the living 
protoplasm (Beyerinck) ; Autocarp'- 
iu8 + {Kapirhs, fruit), (1) a superior 
fruit, not adherent to the pericarp ; 
(2) see AuTOCARPY ; adj. autocarp'- 
ian, autooarp'ic, autocarpia'nus ; 
Autocarp'y, the fruiting of a self- 
fertilized flower, the product of 
autogamy; adj. autocarp'ous ; auto- 
carpotrop'io ( + carpotropic). 

automatic separation of fruit ; Auto- 
catarysis (4- Catalysis), self-fer- 
mentation (Johannsen) ; adj. auto- 
catalyt'ic ; Aut'ochore {x<^pf(», I 
spread abroad), motile plants or 
those with motile spores (Clements) ; 
autochor'ic {x^p^s, separate), applied 
to plants distributed by means of 
their own movements (Kirchner) ; 
Autocho'ry, the state itself. 
Autoch'thon {avT6xSo}v, indigenous), 
an aboriginal form ; a native plant, 
not an introduction ; adj. autoch'- 
thonal, autoch'thonous ; -^ The'ory, 
the theory that each species origin- 
ated where now found (L. H. Bailey). 
Autodeple'tion {avrhs, self; depleo, I 
empty out), self-digestion by the 
enaosperm of grasses and palms. 
Autodifferentia'tio {differencia, a differ- 
ence), inherent power to vary. 
Autodiges'tionidigestio, digestion), the 
endosperm digestingreserve material; 
autoe'cious {oJkos, a house), applied to 
a parasite which runs its whole course 
on a single host of a particular species ; 
this state of things is Autoe'cism ; 
Autoeu'forms {ed, well ; formis, 
shape), Arthur's term for those species 
of PxLCcinia which produce every 
kind of spore on the same host ; 
Autofecunda'tion ( -4- Fecundation), 
self-fertilization ; autogam'ic, auto- 
gamous, self- fertilized ; autog'amous 
(yei/uoj, marriage), self-fertilization ; 
Autog'amy, (1) when a flower is fer- 
tilized by its own pollen ; (2) self- 
fertilization by a single cell = AUTO- 
Mixis ; Autogen'esis [yh^ais, begin- 
ning), a synonym of Spontaneous 
Generation ; autogenet'io, self-de- 
rived ; '-Fertiliza'tion=self-pollina- 
tion ; autogen'ic [ytvos, race, de- 
scent), self- derived ; autog'enous 
{y4vos, race), self-derived, used of 
diseases, etc., which have their origin 
within the oiganis:m ; autog'enus, 
term proposed in place of monotypic, 
to show that the genus contains but 
a single species (Crozier). 
autoi^cous, used for Bryophytes, when 
the"" male and female inflorescences 
are on the same plant ; the follow- 




ing modifications occur ; cla'do — 
(/cAaSos, a branch), the male inflor- 
escence on a proper branch ; go'nio- 
'-' {y6vo5, offspring), the male inflor- 
escence bud-like and axillary on a 
female branch ; rhiz — (^fC«> a root), 
the male branch very short, cohering 
to the female by a rhizoid ; Au- 
tol'ysis {\^(ris, a loosing), chemical 
changes in dead cells in which 
microbial decomposition is excluded ; 
adj. autol3rt'ic. 

automat'ic {avrSixaros, self-moving), 
spontaneous movement of certain 
parts, as the leaflets of DesDwdium 
gyrans, DC. 

Automix'is {avros, self ; fu^is, a mix- 
ing) ; self-fertili;cation (Hartmann) ; 
Automorpho'sis (+ Mokphosis) = 
Mutation ; autonas'tic (vao-ros, 
pressed close), relating to Autonas'- 
tism, curvature of an organ not 
attributable to any outside force. 

autonom'ic, auton'omous {avr6uoiJ.os, 
independent), used of plants which 
are perfect and complete in them- 
selves, and not simply phases of 
other forms. 

autonyctitrop'ic (avrbs, self; vv^, 
vvKThs, night ; rpoir);, a turn), spon- 
taneously assuming the position 
usual during the night ; autopelag'ic 
{v4\ayos, the sea), applied to plank- 
ton which lives continuously on the 
surface (Forel) ; Autoph'agy {(pdyo, 
I eat), employed by Dangeard to 
express complete fusion of gametes ; 
recip'rocal ~, or eex'ual '~, sexu- 
ality in primitive forms of Algae, — 
further diff"erentiated into, Proto- 
GAMY, HoLOGAMY, and Merogamy ; 
Autophyllog'eny {(pvWoy, a leaf ; 
yfvos, offspring), the production of 
a leaf upon the blade of another ; 
Aut'ophyte {(purhv, plant), a plant 
not dependent on himms, as opposed 
to Saprophyte ; adj. autophyt'ic ; 
Aut'oplast {irXaa-Ths, moulded), (1) a 
synonym of chlorophyll granule ; 
(2) occasionally employed for Plas- 
TiD ; autopot'amic (iroTo/ib*, a river), 
applied to Algae which have become 
adapted to living in streams ; a modi- 

fied form of tychopotamic plankton 
(Zimmer) ; Autop'sia {His, sight), 
actual inspection of the plant or phe- 
nomenon in question ; Aut'ospenn 
{anepfia, a seed), a plant whose em- 
bryo arises through autogamy (Mac- 
Millan) ; autosymbion'tic ( -H Sym- 
biont), used of cephalodia having 
similar commensals (Bitter) ; auto- 
tem'nous {Tefivo}, I cut), capable of 
spontaneous division, as cells in 
growing tissue ; autotroph'ic [rpocp^, 
food), (1) applied to plants which 
can collect their own nutriment, non- 
parasitic ; (2) digesting reserves of 
food-material (Keeble and Gamble) ; 
Autot'ropism, the same as Rkcti- 
PETALITY, the tendency of an organ 
to grow in a straight line ; autos'- 
enous (le'poy, a host or guest) = 
ATiTOECious ; Autox'eny, the autoe- 
cious condition ; Autox'idators 
(o|i;s, sharp), cell-subst-ances, which 
at a low temperature and with 
absorption of molecular oxygen, can 
be oxidized by decomposing water ; 
Autoxida'tion, the phenomenon in 
question ; autoxidi'zable, the pro- 
perty of readily undergoing this 
SiVitxiai'nsA autumna'lis (Lat. ), belong- 
ing to autumn ; flowering at that 
season ; ~ Wood, wood formed at 
the close of the growing season and 
notable for its smaller cells ; '~ Xan'- 
thophyll ( -f Xanthophyll), the 
autumnal colouring-matter of leaves 
Auxan'agram, another spelling of 

Auxan'agrammes, pi. {av^dvw, I in- 
crease ; aua, up ; ypd/j.ij.a, an outline), 
bactcrian fields of increase, marked 
by greater development' within the 
diffusion area of the nutrient sub- 
stance (Beyerinck) ; Auxanom'eter 
[jxiTpov, measure), apparatus for 
measuring increase of growth in 
Auxe'Bis {ai)^-n<ns, growth), (1) dilata- 
tion or increase in the valves of 
Diatoms, etc. ; (2) ne^v formation 
of organs (Czapek) ; (3) predominance 




of leaves, hairs, etc, , on a particular 
side (Pfeffer). 

Auxil'iaries, used by S. Moore for 

Auxil'iary {auxiliaris, helpful) Cell, a 
cell borne by a specialized branch 
in certain Algae, which unites with 
the conjugating tube emitted by 
the fertilized tricho'phore, and then 
gives rise to filaments bearing the 
spores (Osterhout) ; '-' Nu'oleus, the 
nucleus of the auxiliary cell in 
Ih-udesnaya purpurifera, J. Ag., 
which does not fuse with ihe nucleus 
of the sporogenous cell when the 
cytoplasm does (Oltmanns) ; --' 
Ve'sicles = Synekgidae. 

Aux'oblast, (oC|7j, increase ; ^Xaffrhs, 
shoot), employed by Kirchner for 
any shoot which can serve for vege- 
tative reproduction ; Anxo'sis, used 
when the general growth of an organ 
has suffered a change (Massart) ; 
Aux'ospore (<nropck, seed), in Diatoms, 
the spore formed by the union of two 
frustules, or the excessive growth 
of a single frustule, whence arises a 
new bion, larger than the parents ; 
auxoton'ic {rivos, strain), applied to 
the movements incident to increase 
of growing organs, as heliotropism, 
nutation, etc. 

avelhi'neus (Clements), avellan'icus 
{avellana, a filbert), drab, the colour 
of the fresh shell of the Hazel-nut, 
Corylus Avelldna, Linn. 

avena'ceoas, -cetis {avena, oats), relat- 
ing to oats ; Av'enine, a substance 
derived from oats. 

aye'niui (o, without ; vena, vein), vein- 
less, or seemingly so. 

Averrunea'tion {averrunco, I remove), 
(1) pnming ; (2) uprooting. 

averse', aver'sus (Lat.), turned back 
or away from. 

Av'oform {aims, a grandfather, + 
Fokm), the still existing stem-form 
of Ramiform and Praeform 

awl-shaped, narrow and tapering to a 
point ; subulate. 

Awn, a bristle-like appendage, espe- 
cially occurring on the glumes of 


grasses ; -^ of CJiaetoceras, a dia- 
tomaceous genus, having prolonga- 
tions of the frustules, recalling the 
awns of gi'asses ; awned, having 
awns ^ bearded. 

axe-shaped, dolabiiform, as the leaves 
of some species of Mesemhryanthe- 

ax'ial {axis, an axle), relating to the 
morphological axis, as distinct from 
its appendages ; -- Bow, the two or 
more first- formed cells in the embryo- 
sac (Wiegand) ;~ Shoot, a cylindrical 
appendage in the axil laetween stem 
and leaf in Zyaopteris ; it is a pro- 
longation of the ~ Strand, itself 
the stele of the main stem (Scott) ; 
-' Wood, the normal central cylinder 
of xylem ; axirerous {/ero, I bear), 
bearing an axis, but without leaves 
or other appendages. 

Ax'il, Axiira (Lat., arm-pit), the angle 
formed between the axis and any 
organ which arises from it, espe- 
cially of a leaf. 

ax'ile {axis, an axle), belonging to the 
axis without reference to its morpho- 
logical nature, as axile placentation. 

axill'ant {axilla, arm-pit), subtending 
an angle ; axill'ary, axiUa'rv<, gi-ow- 
ing in an axil ; axilla'tus, having 

Ax'is (Lat., an axle), an imaginary 
line, round which the organs are 
developed ; --' of Inflores'cence, 
that part of the stem or branch 
upon which the flowers are borne ; 
access'ory ~', an axis of secondary 
rank ; a'pical '*- of Diatoms, is 
that line which passes through 
the centre of the pervalvar axis in 
the direction of the raplie and 
at equal distances from homo- 
logous points of the girdle-band 
surfaces ; Append'ages of the ~ , 
such organs as leaves, flowers, etc. ; 
ascend'ing '~' , = the stem ; descend'- 
ing '~, = the root ; pervalv'ar ~ , the 
main longitudinal axis of Diatoms ; 
trania'pical -^j the axis which 
passes at right angles to the apical 
axis of Diatoms, and through the 
centre of the pervalvar axis ; trans- 



vers'al '^ , the axis which lies in the 
transversal plane of Diatoms, cutting 
the pervalvar axis. 

Axog'ainy(S|cD»', axis; ydfios, niarriage), 
plants bearing sexual organs on 
the leafy stem ; adj. axogam'ic ; 
Axophy'ta {(pvrhv, a plant = Cormo- 
PHYTA ; plants having an axis, that 
is, stem and root ; axosperm'ous 
(ffrrfpfia, seed), with axile placenta- 
tion of ovules. 

aio'nal (o, not ; C^vr], girdle), C. Mac- 
Millan's term for Plant-associations 
which show no well-marked radial 
symmetry ; Azote' {&Cootos, ungirt), 
Lavoisier's name for nitrogen, still 
used in Frerich works ; azo'tised, 
compounded with nitrogen ; Azo'to- 
bacte'ria (+ Bacteria), applied to 
bacteria capable of changing ele- 
mentary into combined nitrogen 
(Lipman) ; Azotifica'tion, the process 

az'ure, azu'reus (lato Lat., sky-blue), 
blue as the sky. 

Aiy'gosperm (a, not ; (vyhs, a yoke ; 
ffirfpij.a, seed), a synonym of Azy'- 
gospore (rnropo, seed), the growth 
of a gamete direct without conjuga- 
tion, a parthenogenetic spore ; pi. 
Azy'gosporeB, — ae ( + Spore), the 
spores of Phycomycetes (Saccardo) y 
az'ygous, unpaired, as a leaflet which 
is not matched on the opposite side 
of the rhachis. 

Bac'ca (Lat.), a berry, a succulent 
fruit with seeds immersed in the 
pulp, as the Gooseberry ; ~ cor- 
tioa'ta, berry with a rind ; the term 
has been applied to the ovary ; ~ 
sicc'a,^ succulent while unripe, dry 
when mature; ~ spu'riajj any 
fleshy fruit which is not a true 
berry, as raspberry and strawberry ; 
bac'cate, bacca'tus, berried; "se- 
mina baccata," seeds having a 
pulpy skin, as in Cycas ; Baccau- 
lar'is, Baccaular'ius, t (deriv. ?), 
Desvaux'a name for Carcerule ; 
Baccau'sus = K paerio ; Bacce'tum, 
Dumortier's term for Syncarp ; 
bacciferous, hac'ci/er, {, I 

bear), berry-bearing, the fruit a 
berry, usually applied when the 
normal fruit of the genus is 
otherwise ; bac'ciform, hacciform'ls 
{forma, shape), like a berry in shape. 
Baciirus, pi. Baciiri {bacillum, ^ 
staff), (1) X young bulb; (2) the 
frustules of certain Diatomaceae, 
as Bacillaria ; (3) rod-shaped Bac- 
teria ; bac'illar, hncilla'ris, bacil'li- 
form {forma, shape), rod- or club- 
Back, that side which is turned from 
the part or substratum to which 
an organ is attached ; the dorsal 
surface ; Back-cav'ity, the inner 
cavity of a stoma ; in Germ. 
Bacte'rium, pi. Bacte'ria {0aKT-npiov, a 
small stall^, Cohn's name for low 
forms of organic life, multiplying 
by lission, Schizomycetes ; see also, 
Ammono-, Azoto-, Ferri-, Proteo-, 
SULPHO- Bactkkia, with their re- 
duction forms having De- prelixed 
(Lipman) ; bacteria'ceous, relating 
to bacteria ; bacterici'dal {-cida = 
killer), germicidal, destructive: of 
bacteria ; Bacte'rio-pur'purin, the 
purple colouring-matter of some 
bacteria ; Bacte'rioblast {^Xacrhs, 
a bud), applied by Winkler to 
gelatinous bodies, homogeneous at 
first, then in succession finely-, and 
coarsely-granular, at last becoming 
detached bacteria ; bac'teroid (elSos, 
resemblance), resembling bacteria ; 
~ Tissue, applied to the root- 
tubercles of various plants ; Bac'- 
teroids or Bacter'ioids, organisms 
found -in nitrifying tubercles on the 
roots of plants, especially Legu- 
minosae, attributed to the action of 
bacteria ; Bacteriorogist {\6yo5, 
discourse), a person versed in the 
knowledge of bacteria ; Bacteriol'- 
Ogy {\6yos, discourse), the science 
of the life-history of bacteria ; Bac- 
terio'sis, disease due to the attack 
of bacteria ; Bacteriotox'in (-f 
I Toxin), any substance poisonous 

or harmful to bacteria. 
! bacalif eroas {haculnm, a staff ; fcro, 




I bear), bearing canes or reeds ; 
baculitorm, baculiform'is (forma, 
shape), stick-shaped, rod-like, as the 
ascospores of certain Lichens. 

bad'ious, bad'ius (Lat.), dark reddish- 
brown ; chestnut-brown. 

baeomy'cetoid (BaeomyceSf elSos, re- 
semblance), like the genus of Lichens 

Balanoph'orin, a waxy substance 
^Yhich occurs in quantity in the 
stems of certain species of Langs- 
dor ffia, a genus of Balanophoreae, 
whence the name. 

Balaus'ta {0a\av(rTiov, pomegranate 
flower), the fruit of Punica Grana- 
tum, Linn., with firm rind, berried 
within, crowned with the lobes of 
an adnate calyx. 

bald, destitute of pubescence or downy 

Bale t (Fr., Bale, chaff), cited by S. F. 
Gray for the outer glume (5f grasses. 

Ball'ing, in nuclear development, the | 
fusion of nuclei into one nucleus. I 

balllB'tic, or balii'tic (ballista, a cata- ! 
pult) Fruits, used by Kerner to de- [ 
scribe those fruits which discharge ! 
their seeds elastically ; catapult - 

Balm (0d\<TaiJ.ou, balsam), pr. Bahm, 
a thick, usually resinous exudation 
of reputed medical efficacy ; Barsam, 
pr. Bawls'm ; a similar exudation, 
generally of resin mixed with 
volatile oil ; baUam'ic, having the 
qualities of balsam ; balsam'ifer, 
(Lat.) balsamif'erous, i/ero, I bear), 
producing balsam. 

Balus'tra, ' ' sometimes applied to 
fruits like the pomegranate " 
(Crozier) ; c/. Balausta. 

Bkmb'oo, the name applied to the 
culm of arborescent grasses, notably 
species of Bambusa ; Bambuse'tum, 
a tropical bamboo forest associa 

Band, (1) space between two ridges in 
the fruit of Umbellifers ; (2) a stripe 
generally ; (3) certain marks in tlie 
fruit of Zostera mi-nor, termed by 
Reichenbach Processus ; ^ shaped, 
used of long narrow leaves, linear ; 


band'ed, marked with stripes of 

Ban'ner, the standard of a papilion- 
aceous flower. 

Barb, hooked hairs, frequently doubly- 

Barba (Lat.), a beard; bar'bate, barba'- 
tus, bearded, having long weak 
hairs in tufts ; Barbell'ae X, the 
short stiff straight hairs of Com- 
posite pappus ; adj. barbell'ate ; 
Barbeirulae, + similar structures in 
the pappus of Aster; adj. bar- 
beU'nlate, barbellula'tvs ; Barb'nle, 
Barb'ula, (.1) the inner row of teeth 
in the peristome of such Mosses as 
Tortilla; (2) a small barb (Crozier). 

BaiiU'a (Spanish), the crude soda 
obtained from Salsola and allied 

Bark, (1) the outer integuments of the 
wood and exterior to it ; all tissues 
outside the cambium ; (2) frequently 
restricted to the periderm and tissues 
external to it ; '- bared, stripped of 
the bark ; --bound, having the bark 
too tense, thus impeding growth ; 
'- galled, having the bark injured ; 
'^ parench'yma, the same as cortex - 

Barm, the floating yeast used in 
bread-making, the " Oberhefe " of 
the Germans ; barm'y, containing 

barred, crossed by lines approximately 

bar'ren, unproductive, infertile; ap- 
plied to the male inflorescence of 
certain Mosses ; '-Flow'er, the male 
or staminate flower ; -^ Ground, in 
North Amerira, is mainly Tundra 

Bar'riers, Clements's term for the 
limiting forces which hinder dis- 
persion ; these may ^^e biologioal ~ , 
due to the habit of the plant or its 
rivals, or physical , such as 
mountains, deserts, seas, etc. 

Bars, the persistent portions in a 
scalariform perforation ; see also 
Sanio's Bars. 

Barymorpho'sis {Bapvs, lieavy ; n6pi>w- 
<rir, shape), Sachs's term for the 



changes produced in organisms in 
consequence of gravitation. 

ba'sal {basis, foundation), at the base 
of an organ or part ; '-'Cell, the first 
cell of an angiospermous embryo 
which becomes attached to the wall 
of the embryo-sac ; -^ Growth, in- 
crease near the base, as distinguished 
from apical growth ; -^ nerved, 
hasiner'vis, with nerves from the 
base of the leaf; --' Placen'ta, the 
placenta at the base of the 
ovary ; '^ Wall, the division of the 
oospore in Archegoniatae into an 
anterior and a posterior half ; Base, 
the extremity of attachment, by 
which nutrition takes place ; Basi- 
chro'matin ( + Chromatin), chrom- 
atin in the usual sense ; that portion 
of the nuclear network stained by 
basic tar-colours. 

Bas'id = Basidlum, pi. Basid'ia {hasi- 
dium, a little pedestal), (1) the spore- 
mother-cells of Hymenomycetous 
and Gasteromycetous Fungi, having 
little points from which spores are 
thrown off ; (2) employed by Thaxter 
for the swollen attachment of the 
conidium to the conidiophore in 
Basidiobjlas, Eidam ; (3) by older 
authors employed for the central 
Fertile Cells of Uredineae. 

basid'ial, relating to a Basidium ; ^ 
Lay'er, the structure in Agarics 
which produces or bears the basidia. 
basidiogenet'ic {yevos, race, descent), 
produced upon a basidium ; Basi- 
diogonidlum {yov^, race, offspring), 
proposed emendation of ' ' basidio- 
spore " ; Basidioli'chenes Lichen- 
forming Basidiomycetes ; Basidio- 
myce'tes (juuktjs, fivKrjrus, fungus), 
Fungi producing spores on basidia ; 
Basid'iophore {(popcu, I carry), a 
sporophore bearing a basidium ; 
Basidiorhi'zae (^tC", a root), Vuille- 
min's name for Basidiomycetes ; 
Basidlospore {(riropa, a seed), a spore 
produced by a basidium ; basidio- 
sp'orous, producing such spores. 
basifiz'ed, hasifix'us {basis, foundation; 
JixHS, fast), attached by the base ; 
basifugal {/ugo, I put to flight). 

developing from the base upwards ; 
basigam'ic, basig'amous {ydfios, 
marriage), when the normal position 
of egg-apparatus and antipodals is 
reversed ; the oosphere and syner- 
gidae being at the lower end of 
the mother-cell of the endospeim 
(embryo-sac) ; Van Tieghem con- 
templates the possible occurrence 
of double Basig'amy; Basigjm'ium 
{yvvrj, a woman), a thecaphore, the 
stalk of an ovary above the stamens 
and petals ; bas'ilar, basila'ris, 

basila'tus | arising from a broad base 
as certain hairs. 

Ba'sin, the connection between the 
pouch of certain secretory cells and 
the cell -wall in Magnoliaceae and 
a few other families (Solereder) ; 
-^ shaped dished or hollowed out. 

basiner'ved, {basis, foundation -fUervus, 
a nerve), veined from the base. 

basip'etal {peto, I seek), growth in the 
direction of the base. 

Bas'iplast, adj. basiplas'tic {-irXaarhs, 
moulded), Prantl's term for those 
leaves whose permanent tissue 
appears first at the apex, the lower 
portion continuing longer as 

Ba'sis (Lat.), the base ; basiscoplc 
{aKoirew, I look), looking towards the 
base, the reverse of acroscopic ; 
basisolu'tus, + {sohctiis, unbound), 
used of such leaves as those of 
Sedicm which are prolonged down- 
wards beyond their true origin ; 
basithe'cal {BiiK-n, a box), applied to 
virescent anthers, the upper portion 
leafy, the pollen-bearing portion 
extending toward iihe base (Cela- 
kovsky) ; basit'onoTis (t(/vos, a cord), 
the prolongation of the tissue of the 
pollen-sac to the lower end of the 
anther in Ophrydineae ; bas'ophil 
{<pi\4w, I love), readily taking stain 
from basic substances. 

Bass, the inner fibrous bark of the 
lime, used by cultivators for tem- 
porary ties ; the liber. 
Bass'orin, a product of Bassora Gum, 
Tragacanth, etc., which does not 




dissolve like Gum Arabic, but swells 
up when placed in water, and forms 
a pasty mass ; bassorinog'enous 
{yfyos, offspring), producing Bass- 
OKiN ; '^ Lay'er, the tissue con- 
cerned in the production of this 

last, (1) the same as Bass ; (2) 
phloem ; (3) fibrous tissues serving 
for mechanical support ; -^ Cells, 
the components of the bark ; -^ Col- 
lench'yma, tissue with the walls of 
the sides thickened on all sides 
(C. Mueller) ; -- Fi'bres, = liber- 
libres ; -^ Group, the phloem elements 
and individual vascular bundles ; 
'-' Sheath, layer of thin-walled 
cells surrounding the fibro-vascular 
cylinder next within the cortex ; the 
periphloem ; ^ Tis'sue, phloem ; 
- Ves'sel, sieve-tube ; - Wedg'es, 
groups of phloem, wider in section 
outwards ; — Hard -^ , liber-fibres ; 
Soft '~, the sieve-tubes, with the 
thin-walled part of the phloem. 

Bastardem'bryosperm {(rirepua, a seed), 
C. MacMillan's term for any plant 
with partbenogenetic embryo, the 
effective j)ollen derived from another 
plant or variety ; Bastarden'dosperm, 
a similar jdant with partbenogenetic 
endosperm, the ellectivo pollen aris- 
ing from another individual or 
variety ; Bastard 'ocarpy (vapiros, 
fruit), the production of fruits by 

Bast-i'slands, another name for 
Phloem-islands ; ^ Nerves, libri- 
foi-m cells in the leaf of Najas 
graminea, i)elile ; ~ Parench'yma, 
phloem parenchyma ; '-- Rays = 
Medullary Rays. 

Bath'mism {^aQ^iis, a step or degree), 
Cope's term to denote the force or 
energy of growth. 

bathyb'ic {^advs, deep or high ; ^ios, 
life), applied to the deepest plankton 
(Forel) ; batbylimnet'ic (A^^v»j, a 
lake), used of plants sometimes 
rooted, sometimes floating, with 
a tendency towards deep water 
( Kirch ner) ; bathymet'rical [ficrpov, 
measure), used of the distribution of 


plants on the sea-bottom ; and the 
depths at which they grow ; bathy- 
pelag'ic (-H pelagic) ; plankton 
companies which daily descend from 
the surface (Forel) ; bathyph'ilus 
{<pi\4a3, I love), dwelling in low- 
lands ; Bathypby'ta, the plants of 
a lowland association (Clements) ; 
Bathyphyti'um {furdi', a plant), a 
lowland plant formation. 

Batorogist {Bdrosr a bramble ; hdyos, 
discoui-se), a student of brambles, 
the species and forms of Ruhus ; 
Batorogy, the study of brambles ; 
batolog'ical, adj. of Batology. 

Batracbie'tum, an association of water- 
crowfoot ; of any form of the Batra- 
chium section of Jianuncultis. 

bay, dun-colour ; an equivalent of 


Bays, applied to recessed or undulating 
cell-walls (Solereder). 

Beak, a pointed projection ; beaked, 
used of fruits which end in a long 

Beard, synonymous with Awn ; 
beard'ed, (1) awned, as bearded 
wheat ; (2) having tufts of hairs, as 
on the lip of Pentstemon harhalus, 
Roth ; beard'letted, having small 

Bear'ers, used by Blair for flower-buds. 

Bebeer'in, a tonic alkaloid from the 
Greenheart, Nedaiidra Rodiaei, 
Hook. , native name, Behecru. 

Bedeguar', a fibrous gall produced on 
a rose-bush by the puncture of a 
species of Cynips. 

Bee-bread, the pollen of flowers, col- 
lected by bees as food for the young 
larvae ; ~ -flow'ers, those flowers 
which afford honey to an insect hav- 
ing a proboscis of 7 mm, ("275 in.) in 

Beech' wood Association, natural beech- 
woods found on the cbalk, Fayc'tum 
sylvat'icae calcarcum. 

Beglei'ter (Ger. , companion) Cells, 
small grbups of thin-walled cells 
associated with Deuteu Cells, and 
probably serving as conductors of 
water (Limpricht) ; cf. Companion 
Cells (Salmon). 



bell-shaped, tubular and inflated, as 
the corolla of Campanulaceae. 

beirying, swelling on one side, as in 
the corolla of many Labiatae. 

Belt Tran'sect, a strip of a few inches 
or feet in width, with its constituent 
plants recorded (Clements). 

Belt's Corpus'cles, Schimper's expres- 
sion for the FooD-BOBiES of certain 
species of Acacia used by ants as 
food ; Belt'ian Bod'ies are the same. 

bennettit'ean, resembling the fossil 
genus Lennettites. 

Benth'on, or Benth'os {^evBos, depth, 
'bottom), the vegetation at the 
bottom of the sea, lakes, or streams ; 
the fixed growth as distinct from 
the plankton or floating growth ; 
Forel distinguishes necton'ib '^ , 
organisms which float freely ; 
ses'sile --', those which remain 
attached, and vag'il ~, wandeiing 
organisms ; Ben'thophyte {(puroy, a 
plant), a plant whose habitat is at 
the bottom. 

Benzoin', a fragi-ant resinous exuda- 
tion from Styrax Benzoin, Dryand. ; 
called also Gum Benjamin. 

ben'zoloid, used for a group of scents 
derived from aromatic ))odies, o.^ 
eugenol or ail of cloves, and in 
the flowers of Heliotrope, Lilac, etc. 

Ber'berine, a yellow bitter principle 
from the root of Berberis vulgaris, 

Berge'ria, formerly considered a genus 
of fossils, now applied to a lepido- 
dendroid stem when the epidermis 
has been stripped off (Scott). 

ber'ried, baccate, possessing berries. 

Ber'ry, a pulpy fruit, with immersed 
seeds ; cf. Bacca ; '- -cone, a cone 
who-e scales have become fleshy and 
fused, as in JuniperuH. 

Bes'imen, % P^- Besim'ina {^tuxrifios, 
having the power of living), Necker's 
name for a spore. 

Be'tain, an amide-like substance from 
Beta, the beet. 

Bet'ulase, tlie same enzyme as Gaul- 
'I'JiEiiASE, but obtained from the 
bark of Betula le^nta, Linn. ; Betnle'- 


turn, a plant association of birch 
trees (Clements) ; pi. Betnle'ta cla- 
dino'sa, an association of birch with 
the lichen Cladina ; ■^ bylocomio'- 
sa, birch and Hyloconiium moss 

Between Baces, intennediates between 
a species and a variety of it. 

bi-, bis-, in compound words meaning 

Biacbae'nium {hi + Achaenium), 
Beck's term for a Schizocarp, of 
two carpels, as in Galium; biacn'- 
minate, biacumma'tus ( -f acuminate), 
having two diver^ng points, as the 
hairs of Malpighiaceae, attached by 
the centre. 

Biaiometamorpho'sis {^iaios, forced, 
+ Metamorphosis), Lotsy's term 
for a disadvantageous change, in re- 
sponse to stimulus : Biaiomor'phoBe, 
Biaiomorpho'sis, the form so pro- 

Bianc'oni's Plate, a plexus of scleren- 
chymatous fibres near the vascular 
bundles towards the concave or 
sensitive face of tendrils ; so termed 
by Borzi after the discoverer. 

biang'ulate {bi, twice ; angulus, a 
corner), having two corners or angles ; 
biartic'ulate, biarticula'tus {articu- 
lus, a" joint), two-jointed. 

Biastrep'sis {fiidu, I force ; (rrp4\^/is 
the act of turning), (1) C. Schimper's 
term for Tor-sion ; (2) the trMisition 
from decussate to spiral phyllotaxia 
(De Vries). 

biator'ine, resenibling the Lichen 
genus Biatora. 

biauric^ulate {hi, twice; auricula, the 
ear lobe), with two auricles or ear- 
like appendages ; biauri'tus (Lat.) is 
substantially the same ; biaz'ial - 
{-\- Axis), used of a spore gemiinat- 
ing at both ends (S. Moore) ; Bi- 
bac'ca (-}- Bacca), a double berry 
as in some species of Lonicera ; bi- 
bract'eate, bibractea'tus {bractea, 
a thin plate), having two bracts ; 
bibract'eolate, with two bracteoles ; 
bicalc'arate {calcar, a spur), having- 
two spurs ; bicairose bicallu'sus 
{callus, hardened skin), with two 



callosities ; bicap'sular {caj)sida, a 
box), (1) with two capsules ; (2) 
liaving a capsule which is bilocular ; 
bicar'inate, bicarina'tus {carina, a 
keel), with two keels ; Bicar'pals, 
proposed by Bessey for the Bicar- 
pella'tae of Benthani and Hooker, a 
series of gamopetalous Phanerogams 
{cf. Gen. PL ii. pp. vi.-vii. ) ; the 
latter term also used by Boulger to 
embrace the majority of Gamopeta- 
lae with Umbelliferae ; bicar'pel- 
lary (+ carjiellum), of two carpels 
or pistils ; bicarpell'ate, having a 
two-celled fruit ; bicellular, of two 
cells ; biceph'aloas {K€<paK^, head) ; 
bi'ceps(Lat. ),twoheaded ; bichron'ic 
{xpdvos, time), applied to an e(4ua- 
tion, in which the mutations multi- 
plied by the intervals of time, equal 
the biologic time (De Vries) ; bicir- 
iate, hicilia'tns {ciliinn, an eyelash), 
with two cilia, as many zoospores ; 
bitip'ital, with two heads or two 
supports ; bicollat'eral {con, -\- latiis, 
lateris, side), applied to a vascular 
bundle with two groups of phloem 
lying upon opposite sides of the 
xylem ; BicoUaterarity, is the state 
just described. 

bic'olor (Lat.), two-coloured, parti- 

biconcen'tric {bi, con -\- centrum, a 
point), Poulsen's term for the fibro- 
vascular bundles in Eriocauleae ; 
round the axial hadrome bundle is 
a layer of lei)tome, which is again 
enclosed by a hadrome layer ; bi- 
con'jugate, bicovjuga'tus {conjuga- 
tus, joined), twice-conjugate, that 
is, when each of two secondary 
petioles bears a ])air of leaflets ; 
biconjuga'to-pinna'tus, similar to 
the last, but each petiole ])innate. 

Bicor'nes {Jncornis, two-horned), the' 
heaths, from their horned antliers ; 
bicor'nis (Lat.) bicorn'ute, bicor- 
vtl'tiis, two-horned, as the siliqua 
o\' Mnff/iioJa bicornis, DC. ; bicotyle'- 
donary, having two seed-lobes, more 
conectly ciilled dicotvlkdonous. 

bicre'nate {hi, twice ; crcna, a notch), 
(1) having two crenatures or rounded 

teeth (Crozier) ; (2) doubly crenate ; 
bicru'ris (Lat.), two-legged, a^ the 
pollen-masses of Asclepiads ; bi- 
cusp'id {cicspis, spear-point) ; bicus- 
pldate, having two sharp points ; 
bident'ate, bidenta'tivs {dtrns, dentis^ 
a tooth), (1) having two teeth ; (2) 
doubly dentate, as when the mar- 
ginal teeth are also toothed ; bidi- 
gita'tus (Lat.) = biconjugate. 

biddulpb'ioid {ethos, like), resembling 
the genus of Diatoms, Biddidphia. 

Biden'ton {Bidens -f- on) Clements's 
term for a "family " of Bidens. 

bid'uons, bid'uus {biduum, two days 
long), lasting for two days. 

Bienn'ial {biennium, a period of two 
years), a plant which requires two 
years to complete its life-cycle, 
growing one year, and flowering 
and fruiting the second ; signs (2) or 
; bien'nial, &ic?i'?»'s=monocarpic. 

Biere'mus {bi, twice, cremus, a hermit), 
a two-celled frait, the cells so far 
apart as to seem separate, as in 
Cerinthe; bifa'cial {fades, an appear- 
ance), (1) when the leaf has si)ongy 
tissue on the lower face, and com- 
pact tissue on the upper sides ; 
opposed to centric ; (2) having the 
opposite sides alike ; (3) dorsiven- 
tral ; bifa'riam (Lat., in two parts), 
ai'ranged in two rows ; ~ imbrica'- 
tus, imbricated in two rows ; 
bifa'rious, bifa'rius, distichous. 

Bi'fer ipi, twice ; fero, I bear), a plant 
which ripens fruit twice a year 
(Crozier) ; bif' erous, biferus, double 
bearing, producing two crops in one 
season ; bi'fid, bif'idus {findo, fidi, 
to cleave), twice-cleft, divided half- 
way into two ; bif' idate = hifid 
(Crozier) ; bifist'ular {ftstula, a 
pipe), with two tubular openings 
(Crozier) ; biflor'ate (Crozier), bi- 
flor'ous, -nw {Jios, Jloris, a flower), 
having two flowers ; bifoliate, bi/o- 
lia'tus {folium, a leaf), two-leaved ; 
bifo'liolate. bifoUoUi'tns, having two 
leaflets ;, --' Leaf, binate ; bifollic'- 
ular, possessing a Bifollic'ulas 
(foUiculus, a small sack) ; a double 
follicle, as in Asclepiads. 




bifo'rate, hifora'tus {biforis, having 
two doors), with two perforations ; 
Bif'orine, an ohlong cell, opening 
at each end, containing raphides ; 
bifo'rous = biforate. 

biform'is (Lat.), two formed ; in two 

bi'frons (Lat.), (1) having two faces 
or aspects ; (2) growing on both 
surfaces of a leaf ; amphigenous. 

bifurc'ate, hifiirca'lus {bi/icrcus, two- 
pronged or forked), twice forked ; 
Bifurca'tion, division into two 

bigem'inate, higeviiiuitus [ycminus, a 
twin) = biconju(;atf, ; bigem'inus, 
in two pairs, as in the jtlacentae of 
many plants. 

Bi'gener (Lat., a hybiid), mule plants 
obtained l)y crossing species of 
ditferent genera, usually spoken of 
as a bigener'ic Cross. 

bigland'ular {hi, two ; yhindula, a 
gland), with two glands : biglu'mis 
{yluvm, a husk), consisting of two 
glumes, the components of the 
perianth of g)-asses. 

bignonia'ceous, resembling or allied 
to the genus Biynunia. 

bihila'tus \ [hi, + Hilum), having two 
scars, as in certaini})ollen ; bi'jugate, 
bij%i,ya'tns, bi'jugous {Jnyuni, a yoke), 
(1) ajtplied to a })innate leaf, with 
two pairs of l^allets ; (2) [bi'jugate], 
type of ]»hy Uotaxis in which the })ara- 
stichy latios are divisible by 2 ; bila'- 
biate, hilahia'tus {labium, li]>), di- 
vided into two lips, as are many gamo- 
pctalous corollas, etc. ; bilam'ellar, 
bilam'ellate, hilamelki'tus {lamella, 
a thin plate), consisting of two 
j)lates, as some placentae ; bilat'eral, 
hilaterd'lis {latus, side), arranged on 
o[)posite sides, as the leaves of the 
yew ; Bilat'eralism {latns, latcns, 
a side), having similar or ]>ilateral 
symmetry ; taken by L. }L liailey 
as the tyjte of animal evolution ; 
Bilateral'ity, means the same. 

Bil'berry Moor Associations, Vaccinieta 
Myrtilli, especially abundant in the 

bilo'bate, hiluha'tus, bilo'bed {Ko^hs, 

the ear-fla))), divided intt. two 
lobes, as mc<st anthers, or the 
leaves of Bauhinia ; biloceli'ate 
{locellus, a small coiijiartment), 
made up of two locelli ; biloc'ular, 
bilociclar'is {loculus, a comjjart- 
ment), two-celled • Bilomen'tum 
(-|- Lomentum), a double lomentum 
as in some species of Raphanus 
(Beck) ; bimac'ulate {macula, a 
spot), with two spots. 

bimes'tris (Lat.), of two months' 

bi'mus ( Lat. ), lasting for two years. 

bi'nary, bina'rixis, {bini, by twos), con- 
sisting of two members ; bi'nate, 
bina'tus (Lat.), (1) where a leaf is 
composed of two leaflets at the 
end of a connnon petiole ; (2) a 
simple leaf nearly divided into 
two; bina'tim (Lat.), in pairs; 
bina'to-pinna'tus t = iii pinnate. 

biner'vate {hi, two; nervus, a nerve), 
with two nerves, especially if pro- 
minent ; binervula'tus I (Lat.), 
having two vascular strands. 

bi'ni (Lat.), two together, twin; as 
biniflor'us, bearing iiowers on pairs. 

bino'dal, bino'dis {hi, two; nodus, a 
knot), consisting of two nodes. 

bino'mial {hi, two; nomen, a name), in 
botanic nomenclature, the use of a 
generic and specific name to con- 
note a given organism ; used also 
for Newtonian Curve. 

bi'nous, bi'nas (Lat.), in pairs; cf. 


binu'clear, binu'cleate {hi, two; 
nudeiLS, a kernel), having two 
nuclei ; binu'cleolate, biniccleola'tus 
(Lat.)-, with two nucleoli. 

Bi'oblast (/3»os, life ; ^Kaarhs, a shoot), 
term proposed ))y Schlater for the 
unit of life, comprising autoblasts, 
or free-existing bioblasts, and cyto- 
blasts or colonies of such bioblasts 
as have lost their independent 
existence ; cf. Biophok. 

bioc'ellate {hi, two ; ocellus, a little 
eye), marked with two eye-s}»ots. 

Biochem'ist {^ios, life), an expert 
in the chemistry of living organ- 
isms ; Biochem'istry, the branch of 




cliemistry concerned with biology ; 
Bi'ochore (xt^P^s, asunder), a plant- 
climate boundary ; biochron'ic 
(XP^vos, time), the period during 
which mutations have been possible 
(De Vries) ; Biocoeno'sis {ko7vos, in 
common), the conjoint life of certain 
plants with animals ; biodTnam'ic 
{SvvafMis, force), vital power or force ; 
subst. Biodynam'ics ; Biogen'esis 
{yiveais, beginning), the doctrine of 
life from life, the production of 
organisms from others already in 
existence ; in opposition to Spon- 
taneous Generation ; biog'enous 
(yevos, race), growing on li^dng 
organisms ; Bio|f'eny, the evolution 
of living forms, including Ontogeny 
and PuYLOGENY ; biogeograph''ic 
(+ GEOGRAL'iiic) Concerned with the 
distribution of living forms over 
the world ; biological (Races, or) 
Spe'cies, those species which differ 
only by their physiological beliaviour, 
being morphologically identical : 
Biorogy {\6yos, discourse), the 
science wliich^ investigates vital 
phenomena, both of plant and 
animal; as limited by De1pino = 
Krgdlogy) ; biolyt'ic {Aua, 1 break 
down),de8tructiveof life ; Biom'etry, 
{fierpov, a measure), the a})plicatiou 
of statistical nu'thotls to biological 
data ; adj. biomet'rical ; Biomol'ecule 
(+ MoLKci'Li:), a living molecule ; 
adj. bimolec'ular : Biomon'ad. a 
symbiotic system of hiomores ; wlien 
very complex it constitutes a cell ; 
Bi'omore an aggregation of biomole- 
cules, living i)articlcs (these three 
terms are due to Giglio-Tos) : Bi''on, 
an individual,- morpliologifrally 
and physiologically inde})en(lent ; 
Bionom'ics {v6/jlos, a law), Goddes's 
term to express Phytobiology, the 
ecology of })lants ; in German, 
Pflan/iiibiolouie ; Bion'omy {vSfios, 
usage, law), the }irincii»]es of i)lant 
economy, or I'cology (PfeMer); 
Bioph'agism {(pdyo}, I eat), the 
absorption and digestion of the 
mutter of li\'ing organisms (i'oulgei'); 
bioph'agous {(pdyos, a glutton), I'eed- 

ing on living organisms, truly para- 
sitic; biopb'ilbas {<pi\fw, I love), 
used of Fungi which are parasitic on 
leaves or stems of living plants; 
Bi'ophor {(popcw, I carry), G. C. 
Bourne's name for the cell, as the 
vital unit; Bi'ophore8(<;)opfa), I bear), 
hypothetical units which are grouped 
into determinants (Weismann); 
Biopbys'ics {(pvainhs, inborn) = 
BioDYNAMics ; Bi'ophyte {<pvThv, a 
plant), a biophagous plant ; Bi'o- 
plasm {iT\d<rfjia, moulded), Beale's 
name forPuoTOPLASM ^bioplasmat'ic, 
relating t/3 Bioplasm ; Bioplas'son 
{irAiiffa-w, I mould), Elsberg's emen- 
dation of Bioplasm ; Bi'oa, a sub- 
stance so termed by Wildiers, as 
indispensable to the development 
of fermentation. 
Bio'sis {^iuais, the act of living), the 
state of vital activity ; life (Es- 
combe) ; Bio'ta, pi. (living things) ; 
biology (Grinnell) ; biot'ic, vital ; 
~ Fac'tors, the relation of plants 
to each other from ah ecologic stand- 
point ; '-' Succes'sion, a sequence of 
living forms, 
Bi'otype {$ios, life; rviros, a type), an 
elementary stable form (Johannsen); 
biova'rial ( + Ovary), deiived from 
the ovaries of the same plant 
bipareolate, Upaltola'tus {bi, -f- Pale- 
ola), consisting of two paleae, or 
small scales in grasses ; biparmate. 
hipalina'tus {palma, the palm of the 
hand), t\nce palmate, palmately 
compound ; bip'arous {pario, I 
bring forth), bearing two ; '-- Cyme, 
Bravais's expression for a normal 
dichotomous inHorescence ; bipart'- 
ible, bi'parfib'ilis, bipar'tile [parL'- 
ills, divisible), capable of ready 
division into two similar parts ; 
bipart'ite, biparti'tus (Lat.), divided 
nearly to the base into two ])ortions ; 
Bipartit'ion, the act of dividing into 
two ; bipect'inate {pccten, a comb), 
toothed like a comb on two sides ; 
bipelt'ate [pcUa, a shield), having 
two shield-shaped parts (Crozier) ; 
bipsrenn'ial {jjerennis, perpetual), 




used of a part that lives two years, 
but reproduces itself indefinitely 
(Crozier) ; bipet'alous [ireraKov, a 
flower leaf), Blair's term for two- 
petalled flowers, as Circaea ; bipen- 
taphyirus (trivrr], five ; <pv\\ov, 
leaf), having from two to five leaflets. 

bi'pes (Lat., Lwo-footed) = bickuris. 

bipin'nate bipinna'tus {pinnatus, fea- 
thered), when both primary and 
secondary divisions of a leaf are 
pinnate ; bipinnat'ifid, bipinnati/'i- 
dus, when the divisions of a pinna- 
tifid leaf are themselves pinnatifid ; 
bipinnatipart'ed = bipinnatifid ; bi- 
pinnat'isect, bijnnnatisect' v^ {sec- 
tics, cut) = bipinnate ; bi'plicate, 
biplica'tus (plico, I fold), doubly 
folded in a transverse manner, as 
some cotyledons ; bipo'lar {polus, 
the end of an axis), having two 
poles, the usual number in nuclear 
division ; -^ Ezpau'sion, growth at 
both extremities, root and shoot; 
Bipolar'ity, (1) the condition of 
possessing two poles ; (2) in dis- 
tribution when the same species is 
found towards the north and south 
poles, but is wanting in intermedi- 
ate regions ; bipolymor'ious + {ttoXvs, 
many ; /x6piov, a small portion), con- 
sisting of two or many parts ; bipo'- 
rose, biporo'sus {poms, channel), 
opening by two pores as the anthers 
in Erica; biprophylla'tuB (+ Pro- 
piiylla), Buchenau's term for 
possessing two prophylla (Vor- 
blatter) ; bipunc'tate (punctnm, a 
point), having two spots ; bira'- 
diate, biradia'tus {radius, the spoke 
of a wheel), of two rays, as in certain 

Birch'wood Association, characteristic 
of the Highland valleys above the 
limit of the oak. 

biri'mose, biritno'sus {bi, two ; rima, 
a chink), opening by two slits as most 
anthers ; bisac'cate {saccus, a bag), 
having two pouches. 

biscoctifonn'ia {bis, twice ; cod us, 
cooked ; forma, shape), biscuit- 
shaped, applied by Koerber to some 

biscuit-shaped, wlien used in transla- 
tions from the German, means 
oblong, and slightly constricted in 
the middle. 

bisep'tate, bisepta'tus{bi, two; septum, 
a wall), having two partitions ; 
bise'rial, biseria'lis, bise'riate, 
biseria'tus {series, a succession), 
arranged in two rows as on a flat 
surface ; biser'rate, biserra'tus {serra, 
a saw), twice serrate, as when the 
serratures are themselves serrate ; 
bise'tose, bise'tous {seta, a bristle), 
with two bristles ; bisex'ual, bisex- 
ua'lis {sexus, sex), having both sta- 
mens and pistils, possessing perfect, 
that is, hermaphrodite flowers ; -^ 
Hered'ity, transmission of qualities 
of both parents ; bispatheriulate, 
bispathelhtla'tusX (-}- Spathella), 
consisting of two glumes (Lindley) ; 
bispi'nose {spiuo'sus, thorny), having 
two spines ; bispi^'rous (tnrctpo, a 
twist), term used by Spruce for 
elaters having two spirals ; cf. dis- 
piRous ; bisporang'iate (-[-Spor- 
angium), (1) used when a plant 
possesses two sporangia in place 
of one ; (2) amphisporang[ate ; 
Bi'spore {airopa, seed), (l)"atwo- 
spored tetraspore " (Crozier) ; (2) an 
ascus with two cells, in place of the 
normal eight ; biste'lic ((tt^Xt?, a 
pillar), having two steles ; bistip'- 
ulate (-f Stipula), with two stip- 
ules ; bistip'ular, bistipulate ; bis- 
tra'tose {stratum, a layer), cells 
disposed in two strata or layers; 
bistri'ate {striatus, striped), marked 
with two parallel lines or striae; 
bisulc'ate bisulca'tus {sulcus, a 
groove), two-gi'ooved ; bisymmet'ric 
{(rvfifierpos, commensurate), bilateral 
symmetric, each side alike ; Biteg- 
mina'tae {tegmen, a cover), Van 
Tieghem used this for Phanerogams 
whose seeds have double integu- 
ments; biteg'minous, used of ovules 
possessing double integuments; the 
condition is Biteg'miny (Balfour); 
bitem'ate, bitenia'tus {ternus, by 
threes), compound ternate, as in a 




bit'ten, abruptly ended, of roots or 

leaves, praemorse. 
Bitt'er Orange Spot, on leaves and 
fruit, due to Colletotrichum gloeo- 
Bitt'er Pit, an abnormal spotting of 
the fruit of the apple, ascribed to 
peculiar external conditions (Pole 
bityp'ic {hi, two ; rvvos, a type), 
applied to those genera vsrhich con- 
sist of two widely separated species ; 
biv'alent {valeiis, strong), having 
hypothetically two chromosomes in 
each of the apparent chromosomes, in 
nuclear reduction divisions ; bi' valve, 
hivaVvis {valvae, leaves of a door), 
having two valves, as some capsules ; 
Bi' valve, "a capsule of two valves " 
(Crozier) ; bival'ved, (1) used of 
Diatoms, as possessing two valves ; 
(2) the indusia of certain fenis, as 
Bicksonui; bival'vular = ni valve ; 
bivasc'ular {vasculum, a vessel), with 
two vessels ; bivert'ed {veHo, I turn), 
0. Muller's tenn for an inverted 
diagonal symmetry in diatoms ; 
bivit'tate {vittae, fillets), having two 
partitions which appear as bands or 
Bix'in, the colouring-matter of Bixa 

Bizzari'a (ItaL, extravagant whim), a 
hybrid between the orange and the 
citron which has the character of 
both in juxtaposition, but without 
blending (Heinig). 
Black Bligbt, Capiodium citricolum 
on Citrus leaves ; ^ Earth, rich in 
mineral salts, found in Asiatic 
steppes and in North America 
(Warming) ; ^ Bjiot, a devastating 
disease on plum and cherry trees, 
caused by Ploivrighlia niarhosa ; 
'~ Leg, a bacterial disease of potatoes 
due to Bacillus phylophthorus ; -^ 
Root Eot, due to Thielavid basicola, 
Zopf ; '-' Rot, diseases from Gtiig- 
nardia Bidwdlii and Fseudomonas 
campestris ; ~ Rust, Puccinia gra- 
minis, a universally distributed rust 
attacking cereals ; '~ Scab, of pota- 
toes, caused by a Synchitrium, 

Blad'der, (1) Grew's term for a cell ; 
(2) a hollow membranous appendage 
on the roots of Utricularia, which 
entraps water insects ; (3) similar 
gi-owths in the frond of some Algae, 
serving as floats ; (4) an inflated 
membranous pericarp, as in Phy- 
salis ; -^ Plums, an abortion of the 
fruit of plums, the stone being 
wanting, and a thin bladder repre- 
senting the rest of the fruit ; 
blad'dery, thin and inflated. 
Blade, the limb or expanded portion 

of a leaf. 
blanched, (1) the whitened appearance 
of leaf or stem from the want of 
iron ; (2) artificially produced by 
exclusion of light, the green chloro- 
phyll pigment not being developed 
in either case. 
Blaste'ma ()3Ao<TT7j^a, a sprout), (1) 
originally the axis of an embryo, 
the radicle and plumule, excluding 
the cotyledons ; (2) % the Lichen- 
thallus ; blaste'mal, (1) rudimentary; 
(2) asexual (White) ; blastemat'icus, 
thalloid ; Blaste'sis, the reproduc- 
tion of the thallus of Lichens by 
gonidia (Minks). 
Blastid'ia {^Kaarhs, shoot), Schleiden's 
term for secondary cells gtiifrated 
in the interior of another cell ; 
daughter-cells ; Blast'idules, M'Nab's 
expression for all reproductive 
bodies which are not spores, but 
produced asexually, as gemmae, 
propagula, etc. ; blastocarp'ons 
(Kapirbs, fruit), applied to those 
fruits which gemiinate within the 
pericarp; Blast'ochore (x^^P^^) 
separate), plants distributed by 
oflshoots (Clements) ; Blastocol'la 
{K6\\a, glue), the balsam which is 
produced on buds by glandular hairs 
j (Hanstein) ; Blastogen'esis {ytviais, 
beginning), M'Nab used this for all 
methods of asexual reproduction 
which are not due to Sporogenesis ; 
blastogen'ic {-y^vos, off'spring), em- 
ployed by Weisniann for those 
characters which have originated 
from changes in the germ (L. H. 
Bailey) ; Blastograpb'ia {ypa.<pu, I 




write), the study of buds (Du Petit 
Thouars) ; Blastoma'nia {/j-avid, 
madness), the production of an 
abnormal number of leaf-shoots (A. 
Braun) ; Blastomyce'tes {/jlvktjs, 
fungiis), a synonym of Saccharo- 
mycetes, the yeast Fungiis, etc. ; adj. 
blastomyce'toid {elSos, resemblance); 
Blast'opbore, Blastoph'orus % {<pop4(a, 
I carry), tlie vitellus, the sac of the 
amnios in a thickened scale, forming 
a case in which the embryo lies ; 
Blast'us +, the plumule. 

Blaze-currents, ~ -reaction, electric 
response in definite direction in 
plants (Waller). 

Blea, pp. blee ; the liber or inner 

Bleb, Hill's term for a pith-cell. 

blech'noid, resembling the Fern genus 

Bleed'ing, applied to an extravasation 
of sap, such as occurs in vines if 
injured in spring during leaf ex- 
pansion ; '- Pres'sure, exsudation 
pressure, the internal force needed to 
cause an abnormal flow. 

Blend'ing, a hybrid formed by the 
crossing of races (Heinig) ; Ger. , 
Blend] ing. 

Blendring, a hybrid between races, 
not species. 

Bleph'arae, pi. {&\€<t>apov, an eyelash), 
the teeth belonging to the peristome 
of a Moss ; Bleph'aroplast (ttAoo-tos, 
moulded), the specialized proto- 
plasm which gives rise to the motile 
cilia of the antherozoids as in Zamia 
and Cycas; Blepbaroplast'oids {flho^, 
resemblance), the two bodies ap- 
pearing between the 2- and 4-celled 
stage at each pole of the two 
spindles, in nuclear division, dis- 
appearing into the cytoplasm before 
the rise of the blepharoplasts them- 
selves (Shaw). 

Blet, a soft spot /on fruit ; Blet'ting, 
the change in consistence without 
putrefaction, of certain fruits, as the 

Blight, popularly applied to an epi- 
demic, either of minute Fungi, or of 



Blind, a cultivator's expression for 
abortion, as when a flower-bud is 
said to go blind, that is, does not 

Blister Blight, of the tea plant due 
to Exobasidium vexaiis ; -^ Bust, 
due to Peridermium Sirohi. 

Bloom, (1) synonymous with Blossom ; 
(2) the white waxy or pruinose 
covering on many fruits and leaves. 

Blos'som, the flower, especially of fruit 
trees ; --' Bud, = Flower-bud. 

blotch'ed, colour irregularly disposed 
in patches. 

Blow-off Lay'er, an epidermal layer of 
presumably mucilage-cells, forming 
the outermost investment of the 
testa of palaeozoic seeds (Oliver and 

blunt, ending in a rounded form, 
neither tapering to a point, nor 
abruptly cut off. 

boat-shaped, having the figure of a 
boat, with or without a keel. 

Bod'y-cell, the cell which divides to 
form the male cells in certain 
Conifers (Nichols). 

Bog-moss Association, Spha<jniim^6\n- 
inant in moorland vegetation ; '- 
Xerophyte8(-f Xekophyte), plants 
presenting the appearance of xero- 
phytes though growing in water 

bola'ris (Mod. Lat.), dark red, brick- 
coloured ; from the earth, Armenian 

Bole, the main trunk of a tree, with a 
distinct stem. 

bole tic, obtained from the genus 
Boletus, as boletic acid ; Bole'tol, 
Bertran'd's name for the blue colour- 
ing-matter in certain Fungi, as 

Boll, pr. boal, the fniit cajtsule or 
pericarp, especially of the cotton 
plant ; Bo'Uing, pr. boal ing, = 
Pollard ; boiled, pr. boald, come 
into fruit, as flax when the dapsuie 
is formed. 

Borochore (jSoAt), a throw ; xu>p^u), I 
spread abroad), a plant distributed 
by propulsion (Clements). 

bomby'cinus, (Lat.), silky, feeling as 



sniootli as silk ; bom'bysine (Heiiiig) 


bo'ny, of a otose and hard texture, as 

tlie stones of plums, etc. 
boragina'ceous, belonging to or re- 
sembling the genus Borago or its 
allies ; bor'agoid, or bor'ragoid, from 
the genus Borago, applied to a form 
of inflorescence which tinds its fullest 
development in Anchusa, an extreme 
case of extra-axillary inflorescence 
(K. Schumann). 

bord'ered, having a margin distinct in 
colour or texture from the rest ; 
'^ Pit, a pit in which the margin 
projects over the thin closing mem- 
brane, as in coniferous wood ; -^ 
Pore, is the same thing. 

Bo'rer, (1) the penetrating root of a 
parasite (De Bary) ; (2) an insect 
tunnelling into the Avood of trees 
during its larval stage. 

bor'ragoid = bora(joid. 

Boss, a protuberance ; bossed, witli a 
rounded surface having a projection 
in its centre. 

bost'rychoid (^fiSarpv^, a ringlet ; ^iSos, 
resemblance), having the form of a 
Bo.sTRYX ; '-' Cjrme, a sympodial 
branch-system in which the right- 
or left-hand branch is always the 
most vigorous ; a helicoid cyme ; 
'-' Dicbot'omy, a dichotomy or 
repeated forking of an inflores- 
cence, within the previous detini- 
tiou ; Bost'ryx, a uniparous, helicoid 

botanic (jSotoj'tj, a herb), pertaining to 
the knowledge of j)lants ; -^Gar'den, 
a garden esi)edally devoted to the 
culture of plants for scientific ends ; 
Bot'anist, a student of plant life, in 
any of its departments ; bot'anize, 
(1) to seek for plants in tlieir places 
of growth ; (2) to study actual 
plants ; Botanol'ogy {\6yos, dis- 
course) = Botany ; Bot'any, (1) the 
study of the vegetable kingdom in 
all its divisions ; its classification, 
morphology, physiology, and eco- 
ininocs ; (2) also used for a text- 
book or local -flora. 

Bothrench'yma {P6dpos, a i)it ; (yxv/j-a, 

tliat poured in), tissue composed of 
dotted or pitted ducts or cells. 

Bot'ms (Crozier) = Hotrys. 

bot'ry-cy'mose {B6tpvs, a bunch of 
grapes ; Kv/xa, a wave), racemes or 
any botryose clusters cymosely 
aggiegated ; bot'ryoid, botryoid'al 
{elSos, resemblance), like a cluster 
of grapes ; bot'ryose, hotryo'sus 
racemose ; Bot'rys, a raceme. 

Bottom-yeast, or Low -yeast, the yeast 
which forms at the bottom of the 
vats ; in German, "Unterhefe." 

bot'uliform, hotuliform' is {botulics, a 
sausage ; forma, shape), sausage- 
shaped, allantoid. 

Bouillon (Fr.), meat-broth, used for 

Bound'ary Cell, Ger. , Grenzzelle =s 

bour'geontFr., in English pr. bur'jun), 
to bud or sprout. 

Bracb'eid, Tschirch's suggested ab- 
brevaation of his own term 

bracbialis {hrachium, the fore-arm), 
a cubit long, roughly about 18 
inches ; bra'cbiate, hra^hia'tus, 
when branches spread and widely 

brachy {^paxvs) = short, used in Greek 

bracbybiostigmat'ic {Bpaxvs, short ; 
Pios, life ; ariyfia, a spot), a term 
proposed by Uelpino to express 
stigmas which are short-lived, 
withering before their proper anthers 
ripen ; pro togy nous ; Bradh'y blast 
(jSAotrrbs, a bud), Hartig's tenu for 
a spur, or short branch ; also spelled 
Brach'yoblast ; brachychi'mous 

(x«tMO) winter), exposed to short 
winters (Drude) ; brachyclad'ous, 
•dus {kAoSos, a branch), applied by 
Kussow to those species of Sphagnuvi 
which bear short branches ; brachy- 
dod'romous {SpS/xos, a course), with 
looped veins (Kerner), cf. brochi- 
DODROMUs ; Brach'yforms ( + forma, 
shape), Arthur's term for Brachy- 
puccinid, the ascidia being wanting, 
but spei-magonia, uredospores and 
teleutospores occur on the same 




host ; Brachymeio'sis (+ Meiosis), 
abnormal nuclear division in which 
half the heterotype number of 
chromosomes are present, sometimes 
without their visible union (Fraser 
and Brooks) ; adj. brachymeiot'ic ; 
brachyphyU'ous {(pvWou, a leaf), 
short-leaved ; brachyp'odous {irovs, 
iroShs, a foot), having a short stalk 
or foot ; Brachyscle'reids {(XKA-nphs, 
hard), stone-cells, the sclereids in 
barks and fruits (Tschirch) ; brachy- 
sty'lous (+ Style), a synonym 
of MicRosTYLOus ; brachytheroxero- 
chi'mous (l^p^s, dry), adapted to 
short summers and dry winters 
(Drude) ; brachyther'ous {dcpos, 
summer), exposed to short summers; 
3rachytme'ma {rfxruxa, section), a 
disc-shaped cell, which by its rup- 
ture sets free a gemma in Bryophytes 
(Correns) ; brachyxercchi'mous, in- 
ured to short, dry winters (Drude). 

Brack'et-cells, secretory cells in Lon- 
chocarpics with papillose epithelium ; 
-^ -epithe'lium, leaf epithelium sliow- 
\ ing finger-like differentiation of the 
component cells ; '-- -hairs, bent or 
liooked at the apex ; ~ -shaped, a 
term used by Boodle and Fritsch, 
for a body curved like a parenthesis. 

Bract, Bract' ea (Lat., a thin plate of 
metal), the modified leaves inter- 
mediate between the calyx and the 
normal leaves ; ~ -cell, used for 
ceitain cells on the branchlets of 
Chara ;, '^ -scale, in Coniferae, a 
scale of the cone above which lies 
the seed-bearing scale ; bract'eal, of 
the nature of a bract ;• bract'eate, 
hractea'fus, provided with bracts ; 
bracteif'erous (fero, I bear), bearing 
bracts ; bract ea' mis X, formed of 
bracts; Bracteo'dy (eUos, rcsemb- 
lauce), the change of foliar organs 
into bracts (Worsdell) ; Bract'eole, 
Bracte'ola, (1) a bractlet, or small 
bract ; (2) a prophyll ; (3) a pos- 
tical bract of Hepaticae (Spruce) ; 
Bract'eole-succulents, such plants as 
lose their leaves by drying up, but 
the bracteoles round the flowers 
become enlarged and succulent, e. g. 

Salsola ; bract'eolate, bradeola'tus, 
having bract^ets ; Bracteoma'nia 
{rtiania, madness), excessive develop- 
ment of bracts ; bract'eose, hract- 
eo'sus, having conspicuous or 
numerous bracts ; bract'less, want- 
ing bracts ; Bracflet, a bract of the 
last grade, as one inserted on a 
pedicel or ultimate flower-stalk, 
instead of subtending it. 

brad'yscMst {^padhs, slow ; o-xtCTJ)?, 
split), when in a brood mother-cell 
successive nuclear divisions are com- 
pleted before cell-division (Hartog). 

Bran, the husks or outer coats of 
ground corn, separated from the 
flour by bolting ; bran-like, s-curfy 
in appearance. 

Branch, a division of the stem, or axis 
of growth ; Branch'ery, Grew's term 
for the ramifications in the pulp of 
fraits ; Branch'ing, Interc'alary, in 
Hepaticae where branchin;^' arises 
below the apical cell ; Ter'minal '- , 
the branching arising from a division 
of the apical cell (Leitgeb) ; branch'- 
less, bare of branches ; Branch'let, 
a twig or small branch, the ultimate 
division of a branch. 

Brand, disease caused by minute Fungi 
on leaves, as Ustilayo, etc. ; Brand'- 
spore = Uredospore. 

Bras'ilin, the colouring - matter of 
Brazil wood, Caesalpinia hrasiliensis, 

brassica'ceous {Brassica -\- aceous), 

rcsemblini; the 


Brassica, or 

belon,i(ing to it. 

Braun's Series, the same as Fibonacci 

Jbreak, (1) to put out new leaves ; (2) 
to show a variation, as in florist's 
flowers ; Break-back, reversion to an 
earlier type ; Breaking, a popular 
expression for a sudden jti'ofusion 
of algal life in certain lakes or 

Brea'thing-pores = Stoma ta. 

Breed = PtACE ; Cross-breed ^Hvp.rid. 

bre'vi-ramo'sus (^/ri-/.>--, short; 7'amosus, 
bi-anched), sliort-branched. 

brick-colour, usually implies a dull- 
red ; latericious, testaceous ; ~ like. 




resembling courses of brickwork, as 
tissue of rectangular cells. 
Bridge, a narrow band of tissue con- 
necting larger masses of the same 
(Kearney) ; bridg'ing, applied to 
certain species which act as inter- 
mediate hosts of Fungi, thus 
breaking down immunity, e. g. -- 
Spe'cies, as in Broimts. 
Bri'dles, (1) strings of protoplasm 
which often connect the nucleus 
Avith the layer of protoj^lasm next 
the cell-wall ; (2) strands of cells 
connecting other tissues. 
Bris'tle, a stiff hair, or any slender 
body which may be likened to a 
hog's bristle ; -- like, resembling 
bristles ; ~ point'ed, ending in a 
stiff short hair ; bris'tly, beset with 
Brit'ish, used by H. C. Watson to 
express the distribution of those 
plants wliiih are found throughout 
the island of Great Britain, 
brochidod'romus {&p6xos., a noose ; 
€/5oy, like ; 5p6/j.os, a course), Ett- 
ingshausen's term for loop-veined. 
Bro'mare ( + -are), Clements's term for 

a ' ' conmiunity " of Brom us. 
Bro'melin, a proteolytic enzyme oc- 
curring abundantly in the juice of 
the ])ineapple, which is a member 
of the Bromeliaceae, whence the 
Bronte'sis {^povr)], thunder), injury to 

plants by electric shock. 
Brood-bod'ies, gemmae on leaves of 
Mosses, becoming detached and 
growing into protonemal filaments ; 
■^ Buds, (1) a synonym of Soredium 
in Lichens ; (2) the same as Bulbil 
in Arcliegoniatae ; ~ Cell, asexu- 
al ly produced jtropagative cell of 
a gonidiuiii ; ~ Gem'ma, a pluri- 
cellular projiagative l)ody produced 
asexually and i)assing gradually into 
a bi-dod-cell on one side, and a bulbil 
on the otlier. 
Broti'Um, or Broti'on [Bp-yrhs, mortal), 
a succession of plants due to htiman 
agency ; Brot'ocbores, -ae ix^-'P^^ 
separate), dispeision by man (Cle- 

Brown Rot, of cacao pods, attributed 
to Diplodia cnraoicola^ P. Henn. ; 
~ of potatoes, due to Stysnnus Ste- 
monitis, Corda. 
Brown'ian Move'ment, motion shown 
by minute particles when suspended 
in a liquid. 

Bru'cine, a poisonous alka\)id from 
Strychnos Nux-voniica, Linn., for- 
merly supposed to be from Briwea 
fcrvKgiiica, L'Herit. 

Bruguiere'tum ( + ETiTM),f.n association 
o{ Bruguicrn, a mangrove formation. 

bruma'lis (Lat. ), pertaining to the 
winter .solstice ; flourishing in mid- 

Brunissure' (Fr.), injury caused to 
vines by Plusmodiophora Vitis, 

brun'neolus (Mod. Lat.), brownish. 

brun'neus or brun'eus (Mod. Lat.), 
broAvn in colour. 

Brush, applied to the young fruit of 
the hop, when the stigmas are pro- 
truding ; ^ Form, of stigmas of 
some i)apilionaceous flowers, as 
o( Phaseolns, Vicia, Lathyr us, etc. ; 
~ -shaped, aspergilliform. 

Bry'ogams, Bn/ogam'ia{0pvov, a moss; 
yd/xos, marriage), term })roposed by 
Caruel for the Bryophytes ; Bryol'- 
ogy {\6yos, discourse), the science of 
Mosses, or Br3'ophytes generally ; 
Bryo'ma, the vegetative substance 
of Mosses. 

Bry'onine, a poisonous principle ex- 
tracted from the roots of Bryonia 
nlha, Linn. 

Bry'ophytes [Bpvov, a moss ; (pvrhv, a 
])lant), plants, the true 
Mosses and the Hepaticae or Liver- 
worts ; bryophyt'ic, pertaining to 


sepals or wings 

buck'ler-shaped, resembling a round 
buckler with a raised rim. 

Buck'mast, the fruit of the beech tree. 

Bud. the nascent state of a flower or 
brunch ; ~ Cones, of the earob, 
Centt'niid Sili(fua, Linn., arrested 
or alH)rtive inflorescences ; — corm, 

X (Lat., cheeks), the lateral 
of the flower of 




the root-system of most herbaceous 
plants (J. Smith) ; ~ -gall, Kerner's 
term for a gall which involves 
several or all the members of a 
shoot, and may be leafless or leafy ; 
'- Glue = Blastocolla ; '-' Eot, a 
disease of palms caused by Pythnim 
palmivorum ; ~ Ru'diment, in 
Chara, a cell cut off from a pro- 
embryonic branch as the primordium 
of the young plant; ~ Scales, the 
coverings of a bud; ~ Sport = Bud- 
variation ; ~ Varia'tion, changes 
of colour or form in plants arising 
from a flower or leaf bud. — Adven- 
tit'ious ~ , a bud arising out of the 
normal course or locality ; Brood '~' 
= Brood-buds ; Flow'er ~ , the in- 
florescence before expansion, or a 
unit thereof; Leaf ~, an imde- 
veloped leaf; Bud'dage, propagation 
by buds (L. H. Bailey); Bud'ding, 
( 1 ) propagation of a garden form by 
inserting a bud or " eye " on another 
stock ; (2) used also for expansion 
of the buds; Bud'let, "a little bud 
attached to a larger one " (Crozier) 

Bulb, Bul'bus (Lat.), a modified bud, 
usually undergroimd; (.1) na'ked^, 
hulbiis squamosiis, having scaly 
modifications of the leaves, as in 
the lily; (2) tunica'ted ~, whose 
outer scales are thin ;uid membran- 
ous, as the onion or hyacinth ; (3) 
the so-called sol'id ~, is a CouM ; 
(4) the swollen base of the stipe of 
the sporophore in Hymenomycetes ; 
~ Scale, one of the components of 
a bulb; Plu'mule -^^ bulb produced 
direct from the seed ; Run'ner ~, 
bulb arising from a stolon (Blodgett). 

bulba'ceous, -ecus, (1) bulbous; (2), 
having bulbs. 

Bul'biceps, [Indhus, a biilb ; caput, a 
head), a stem bulbous at liase ; 
bulbif'erous, -rus (fero, I bear), 
biilb-b"aring, as when bulbils are 
amongst the florets of an inflor- 
escence, or axils of the leaves ; 
Bul'bil, Bulbil/' US ; Bulb'let, Biclb'- 
ulus, (1) a small bulb, usually axil- 
lary, as in Lilium bulbiferum ; (2), 
Bulbil is also applied, {a) in some 

fungi to small pluricellular bodies 
incapable of germination ; (6) de- 
ciduous leaf-buds capable of develop- 
ing into a new bion or brood-bud, 
in Archegoniatae ; Bulbo'dium + = 

bulb'ose, bidbo'sus, bulb'ous, having 
bulbs or the structure of a bulb ; 
bulb'ouB Hairs, bulbo'si pi'li, hairs 
with an inflated base ; Bulbotu'ber, 
Gawler's name for CoRM ; Bul'bule 
= Bulbil (Crozier). 

Bul'garine, Zopf's term for an oranue 
pigment produced by Bulgaria jtoly- 
morpha, Wett. 

Bttlk'head, transverse divisions and 
air-chambers in stem of Scirpus 

bul'late, bulla'tus {bulla, a bubble), 
blistered or puckered, as the leaf 
of the primrose ; Bullescen'tia 
( + ESCEXs), the state of being blis- 
tered, as the Savoy Cabbage ; bul'- 
liform (forma, shape), used of some 
large thin-walled cells, occurring on 
the epidermis of certain grasses 

Bullions, a local name for Coal-balls. 

bunched, gibbous. 

Bun'dle, a strand of specialized tissue, 
vaiiously modified; -^ -ends, the 
peripheral ends of bundles when 
spread out in the leaves or peri- 
phery of the stem ; ~ Flange, com- 
nmnications between the unbranched 
leaf-bundles of Gymnosperms and 
the surroimdiiig tissues ; ~ Sheath, 
the enveloping cylinder of closely 
united parenchyma;- ~ -trucks, 
those bundles which pass through 
the stem, root, leaf-stalk, and thick 
nerves of the leaf; they may be 
com[)lete or incomplete ; — Bicolr 
lat'eral -', when a second bast- 
s' rand exists oil the inner, medullary, 
side of the wood of the conjoint- 
bundle ; Caul'ine ~ , confined to the 
stem: Closed -^ , destitute of cam- 
bium, the procambium ha\'ing 
become permanent tissue ;^ Col- 
lat'eral -^ , when the wood and bast 
lie side by side ; Com'mon ^ , that 
is, to stem and leaf, becoming a leaf- 




trace ; Concen'tric ^ , when either 
the wood, or the bast- system sur- 
rounds the other ; Conjoint' -^ , con- 
sisting of both wood and bast; 
Cort'ical -^ , peculiar to the cortical 
region ; Meduriary <-' , the vascular 
bundles occurring in the pith, when 
there is a well-defined exterior ring ; 
O'pen ~ , when the bundle possesses 
a portion of cambium ; Ra'dial ^ , 
having the strands of wood and bast 
alternately as in roots ; Phlo'em -^ , 
the bast portion ; Vasc'nlar '^ , the 
entire strand, consisting of liber or 
bast portion (phloem) and tracheal 
or wood portion (xylem) in vari- 
ous degrees ; Xy'lem -^ , the wood 

Bunt, a common disease of the wheat 
plant, from Tilletia Tritici, Winter. 

Bur or Burr, (1) a prickly-headed 
fruit ; applied to the chestnut, Arc- 
tium, and the like ; (2) the female 
inflorescence of the hop, when the 
stigmas forming the Brush are 
visible ; "bur^ry, resembling a bur. 

Bur'gpindy Pitch, a resin from species 
oi Abies. 

Burr, a woody outgrowth from the 
bark of certain trees ; cf. Gnaur. 

Bur'sa (Lat., a purse), % the antheri- 
dium of Chara ; Bur'sicule, Bur- 
sic'ula (Lat., a small purse), the 
pouch -like expansion of the stigma 
into which the caudicle of some 
Orchids is inserted ; bursic'ulate, 
bursicula'tus, purse-like. 

Bush, alow shrub, branching from the 

Bush'land, shrubs and small trees con- 
stituting a formation (Warming) ; 
arctic '^ , with Betula nana ; subal'- 
pine ~', Rhododendrons, Vacciniutn, 
etc. ; Bush-swamp, made up of 
woody plants as alder and willow 
with marsh plants ; Bush-wood, of 
taller, lignified plarts, but falling 
short of Forest. 

But'terfly Flowers, Lepidopterid 
flowers, usually red, whose honey- 
store can only be readied by a long 
proboscis (Knuth); ~like, -^ shaped, 


But'tons, (1) an old term for Buds, 
(2) J. E. Smith's name for Tricae. 

But'tress, the knee-like growths of 
trunk or roots in certain trees. 

Butyr'ic Fer'ment, caused by Bacillus 
Amylohacter, Van Tiegh. ; see Fer- 

bux'eous, hux'eus {Buxiis, the Box- 
tree), (1) the colour of box-wood, 
(2) pertaining to that tree.; Bux'ine, 
an alkaloid from Buxus semper- 
virens, Linn. 

Bynedes'tin {^vvri, malt, -f Edestin), 
a globulin found in malt with 
By'nin, a proteid which replaces 
Hordein when barley is malted. 

byssa'ceous, -ceus {byssus, fine flax), 
composed of fine threads. 

bys'sine, bys'soid {eJSos, resemblance), 
the same as byssaceous. 

Bys'sus, the stipe of certain Fungi. 

Caa Ting'a, Brazilian forests, which 
are deciduous during the hot and 
dry season (Warming). 

caca'inus, chocolate brown ; from the 
name of Theobroma Cacao, Linn. 

Cach'rys % (Lat.), the cone of a pine- 

Cac'onym {KUKhs, bad ; 6vo/j.a, a name), 
a name rejected for linguistic reasons 
(0. F. Cook). 

cact'al {Cactus, a genus of succulents), 
cacta'ceous (-}- aceous), cactus-like, 
or pertaining to the order Cactaceae ; 
cac'tiform (forma, shape), applied to 
succulent stems like those of cacti, 
and of Euphorbia. 

Cacu'men J (Lat. ), the apex of an 

ca'dens (Lat., falling), when the funi- 
culus passes over the top of the 
seed, as in Plumbagineae ; cadu'cous, 
cadu'cus, dropping off" early, as the 
sepals of a poppy on expansion. 

Cae'cum (Lat., blind), a prolongation 
of the embryo in Casuarina and 
certain Amenti ferae. 

Caeno'bio =CoEX< )Bio. 

Caenody'namism {naivhs, recent ; 
Zvva(xis, power), Giard's term for 
tlife replacement of complex fuhc- 
tions by simpler ; adj. caenody- 




nam'ic ; Caenogen'esiB {Kaivhs, new ; 
ytvea-is, beginning), the acquisition 
of characters of a recent date from 
readjustment to the environment 
(spelled also in various ways) ; 
cf. Palingenesis ; adj. caeno- 
genetlc ; Caenomorph'ism {fxopcp^y 
shape), simple modifications from 
complex, in living organisms 

Caeo'ma (kuIo, I burn), term derived 
from the genus Caeoma, Link, a form 
of uredineous fungi having the 
spores in chains, and destitute of 
peridium ; ~ Gush'ions, or ^ Disks, 
'enlargements of the tips of twigs, 
due to the attack of forms of 
Caeoma, Link, believed to be a stage 
of Melampsora ; Caeo'mospores — ae 
(4-^pore), spore of Uredineae in the 
Caeoma stage. 

caerulesc'ent {caeruleus, sky-blue -f- 
escens), verging towards blue ; 
caeru'leus, sky-blue. 

caesalpina'ceous, or caesalpin^eous, 
pertaining to the tribe of Legu- 
minosae named after the genus 

cae'sian, resembling the Dew-berry, 
Ruhus caesius (Rogers). 

cae'sious, cae'sius (Lat., gi-ey of the 
eyes), light grey in tint ; caesiel'ius 
is a diminutive. 

caespitell'ose {caespes, or cespes, a sod), 
somewhat tufted ; cae'spitose, cae- 
spito'sus, growing in tufts like grass ; 
caespit'ulose, somewhat crowded in 
tuft-like patches. 

Caespit'ulus (late Lat., a little sod), 
employed of Hymenomycetes for a 
Fungus tuft. 

Caeto'ninm, Lindley's spelling of 


Caff'eine, an alkaloid from coffee 
berries, Coffea arabica, Linn. 

Cakile'tum (-f etum) an association 
of Cnkile viaritima, Linn. 

Calamagrostide'tum (-f-ETHM), an as- 
sociatit)n of Calainagrostu . 

Calama'riae (calamus, a reed), (1) a 
term of vague application, wliich 
has been used for plants resembling 
grasses, chiefly sedges, but even in- 

cluding Isoetes, Juncus, Typha, etc. ; 
(2) restricted to fossil plants, Equi- 
setineae ; calama'rian, sedge-like ; 
calamitean ; calamif'eroos {fero, I 
bear), having a hollow, reed-like 
stem ; (2) producing reeds ; Caram- 
ite, a fossil type, resembling recent 
Equiscta on a gigantic scale ; cala- 
mi'tean, resembling the last ; calam'- 
itoid [iihos, resemblance) — cala- 
mitean ; CaUamus, a fistular stem 
without an articulation. 

cala'thial, relating to the heads of 

Carathide, CaVathida., Calath'ium 
CaZathid'ium {Kd\ados, a wicker 
basket), the head of a Composite ; 
preferably restricted to the invo- 
lucre of the same ; calathidiflor'us X 
{Jlos, fioris, a flower), having a 
Calathidium or Capitulum; Cala- 
thidiph'omm {<pop4(a, 1 bear), the 
stalk of a Capitulum ; cal'athifonn, 
calathiform'is, cup-shaped, almost 
hemispherical ; Cal'athis, see Cala- 
thide ; Calathocladlum {K\d5os, a 
branch), in Hieracium and its allies, 
the upper part of the stem bearing 
flower-heads as distinct from the 
unbranched part or Cladophoke 
(F. N. Williams). 

Calc'ar (Lat.), a spur ; oalo'arate, cal- 
cara'tus, furnished with a spur ; 
calcariform'is {forma, shape), spur- 

Calca'rion (calcarius, pertaining to 
lime, -j- on), a plant formation of 
calcareous soils (Moss) ; calc'areous, 
-eus, (1) chalk-white, as to colour ; 
(2) growing in chalky or limestone 
places ; (3) having the substance of 
chalk, as the chalk-glands of certain 

carceiform, calcei/orm'is ; oal'ceolate, 
calceola'ttis {calceolus, a slipper ; 
fonna, shape), shaped lik^ a shoe. 

cskl'ceas (Lat. from calx, chalk), chalk- 
white ; cal'cicole, calcio'olous [colo, I 
inhabit), dwelling on chalky soil; 
Calcifioa'tion (4- fado, 1 make), 
deposition within cells of carbonate 
of lime, in hairs, or cell-contents; 
cal'cifled, the process completed; 




ealo'iform (/orma, shape), " powdery, 
like , chalk or lime," (Crozier) ; 
Calciph'ilae {<pi\4(>>, I love), plants 
addicted to calcareous soils ; cal- 
ciph'ilous, chalk-loving; calcif'ugal 
ifugo, I flee), shunning chalk, as 
heather ; Calciph'obae {(p6Bos, fear), 
plants avoiding chalk or limestone ; 
calciph'obouB {tpofiew, I fear), chalk- 
hating, plants shunning chalk or 
limestone; calciv'orous {voro, I de- 
vour), applied to Lichens which eat 
into their limestone matrix ; Carco- 
sazic'olae {saxtim, a rock, -f cola), 
plants of rocky limestone, as some 

Calc'ulary {calculus, a pebble), Crew's 
term for the sclerogenous tissue of a 

Calda'rium (Lat. , warm bath-room) in 
botanic gardens signifies an inter- 
mediate or warm greenhouse. 

Calenda'rium (Lat., an account-book), 
-^Flor'ae, an arrangement of plants 
according to their period of flower- 

Calend'ulin, a mucilaginous substance 
from tlie marigold, Calendula 
officinalis, Linn. 

calicalis = calycalis. 

calica'tus = calycatup. 

calicina'ris, calicina'rius = calycin- 
aris, etc. 

calicinia'nus = calycinianus. 

calic'alar, calicula'ris = calycular, 

calic'ulate = calyculate. 

Caliorogy (/caAta, a cabin ; \6yos, dis- 
course), juvenescen re; the dynamics 
of the young cell (J. C. Arthur). 

Ca'lix = Calyx. 

oairose, callo'sus (callus, hard skin), 
(1) bearing callosities; (2) hard and 
thick in texture ; Cairose, Mangin's 
term for a presumed essential con- 
stituent of the cell-wall ; Callos'ity, 
a leathery or hard thickening of 
part of an organ ; callo'so-serra'tus 
when the serratures are callosities. 

Callune'tum, Warming's term for a 
plant-association consisting of 
heather^ Calluiia. 

CaU'uB (Lat, hard skin); (1) an 

abnormally thickened part, as the 
base of a cutting ; (2) a special 
deposit on sieve-plates ; (3) a 
synonym of Verruca ; (4) the 
hymenium of certain Fungi ; (5) an 
extension of the flowering- glume 
below its point of insertion, and 
grown to the axis or rhachilla of the 
spikelet; Callusheteroplas'y (-|-He- 
trroplasy), the cell-structures or 
tissues which arise as the result of a 
wound ; Callnshomdoplas'y ( -j- Ho 
MOOPLAsv), increase of normal tissue 
due to an injury; Callusmetaplas'y 
( -\- Metaplasy) when through 
injury to an organ, the contents of 
cells change, but not the cell-wall ; 
^ Cush'ions, hemispherical pads 
covering the pits on the side of 
sieve-tubes ; -^ Rods, thread-like 
portions crossing the walls of sieve - 


(KaXhs, fair ; ttoCs, 


TToBhs, foot), Rumph*s term for 

caloritrop'ic (calor, iieat ; Tpoirr], a 
turn); Klercher's t^rm for thernio- 
tropic ; Calorit'ropism, curvature 
produced by conducted heat 
(Klercker), Thermotropl^m. 

Cal'pa {KaX-r-f}, an urn), Necker's term 
for the capsule of Fontinalis. 

carvous, cnl'vus (Lat., bald), naked, 
as an achene without ])appus. 

Calyb'io [Ka\v&iov, a cottage), Mirbel's 
name for a hard, one-celled, in- 
ferior, dry fruit, such as the acorn, 
or ha/el-nut ; Calyb'ium + is a 

calyc'alis, of or belonging to the calyx 
(/ca\i;|, acup); Cal'ycals, proposed by 
Bessey for Calyciflorae ; calycanth'- 
emous {avQos, a flower), (1) having 
the sepals converted wholly or |)arti- 
ally into jtetals; (2) the corolla and 
stamens inserted in the calyx ; Caly- 
canth'emy, a monstrosity of tiie 
calyx imitating an exterior corolla; 
calyca'tus (Lat.), furnished with a 
calyx ; Calyc'ia, a stipitatc and 
boat-shaped ai)otheciuni ; Calyci- 
flor'ae [Jlos, ftoris, a flower), jilants 
having tlieir petals and stamens 



adnate to the calyx; adj., calyci- 
flor'al, calyciflor'ous ; calyc'iform 

{Jorvia, shape), cup-shaped, applied 
to an indusinm ; Cal'ycin, a bitter, 
yellow, crystallizable substance 
from Caliciiim chrysocephalum,kch.. , 
and other Lichens; calycina'lis 
(Lat.), carycine, calyci'nus, (1) 
belonging to the calyx ; (2) of the 
nature of a calyx ; (3) denoting a 
calyx of unusual size ; calycinia'nus 
X, calycina'ris % polyphylly of the 
calyx ; calycina'rius, formed from 
the calyx ; Cal'ycle, Calyc'uhis, the 
epicalyx, or involucre hinmlating 
an additional calyx, a whorl of 
bracts outside the true calyx ; cal'y- 
cled, provided with a ring of bracts 
like an additional calyx ; cal'y- 
coid, calycoid'eus (elSoy, resem- 
blance), resembling a calyx ; Caly- 
coste'mon ((tt^/xw*', a tilaraent), a 
stamen seated on the calyx ; 
calyc'ulate, calycula'lns, bearing 
bracts which imitate an external 
calyx ; Calyphy'omy {(pvo/xai, I 
spring from), adhesion of the sepals 
to the petals, 
Calyp'tra {Ka\vwTpa, a veil) or Calyp'- 
ter, (1) the hood or cap of a Moss in 
fruit when it crowns the capsule, 
formed from the archegonial wall ; 
(2) applied to any cap-like cover- 
ing of a flower or fruit, as the 
extinguisher -shaped calyx of 
Eschscholttia, or the lid which 
falls ott' on expansion of some 
Myrtaceae, as Eucalyptus ; (3) Go- 
mont's term for a thick memlirane 
shutting off the apical cell of a 
trichome in Oscillarieae ; (4) a term 
proposed by Van Tieghem and 
Douliot for that portion of the root- 
cap in lateral roots which belongs 
strictly to the root-system ; (5) 
Tournefort's word for Caruncle ; ~ 
thalamog'ena (-|- Thalamus, yevos, 
race, descent), a structure of the 
capsule and stalk in some Hepaticae 
acting as covering for the young 
sporogonium ; calyp'trate, calyptra'- 
tus, bearing a calyptra ; calyp'tri- 
form, caiyptri/orm'is {forma. 

shape), shaj>cd like an extinguisher ; 
calyptrimorph'ous {fj.op<f>h, shape), 
a synonym of the last ; Calyp'trogen 
{yfvos, offspring), (1) the layer of 
cells from which the root-cap takes 
its origin, (2) the layer of tissue 
covering the young embryo, as in 
Ferns ; calyptrogen'ic, producing a 
cap or calyptra. 
Ca'lyx (/ca\u|, a cup), the outer- 
most of the floral envelopes ; ^ ad- 
he'rens, when not separable from 
the ovary ; '~ calycula'tus, when 
surrounded by a ring of bracts ; 
r^ commu'nis, the involucre of 
Composites ; ~ infe'rior, — li'ber, 
when free from the ovary ; -^ supe'- 
rior, when adherent to the ovary ; 
-- Tube, (1) a tubular form of the 
calyx, due to the union of the sepals ; 

(2) J the receptacle of certain Fungi ; 

(3) the "perianth" of Hepaticae, 
that is, the Colesula (Hooker and 

Cam'ara {Kaixdpa, a vault), occasion- 
ally used for the cells of a fmit ; 
Camer'ula, a diminutive of the fore- 
going ; cama'rius, resembling a 
simple carpel, as the berry-like 
fruit of Actaea. 

oamb'ial {cambio, I change), relating 
to Cambium ; camb'iform (forma, 
shape), resembling cambium ; 
Camb'ium (Mediaeval Lat., = ex- 
change), a layer of nascent tissue 
between the wood and bast, adding 
elements to both ; formerly con- 
sidered as a mere viscous mass ; 
~ Fi'bres, the immediate deriva- 
tives of the cambium ; |)artly 
formed woody fibres (Sanio) ; -^ 
Lay'er, the formative tissue during 
active growth ; --' Ring, the com- 
plete system of the cambimn, separ- 
ating the wood from the bast in 
the shoot ; — fascic'ular --' , that 
which belongs to the vascular 
bundles ; interfascic'ular '- , that 
which is formed between the vas- 
cular bundles, and the primary 
medullary rays ; cambiogeiftt'ic (-f 
Cambium, yevos, offspring), giving 
rise to cambium (De Bary). 




oameli'nns (Lat.)» camel - coloured, 

Camni'nm {K^ya^ I cultivate), a 
succession duo to cultivation 

carrpana'ceus {campana, a bell) ; cam- 
pan'iform, campaniform/is ; cam- 
pan'ulate, campanula' tus, bell- 
shaped, applied to a corolla; 
Crozier adds campaniriform. 

eampet'ter (Lat.), campes'tris, growing 
in fields ; the second form is that 
usually found in botanic works; 
adj. oampes'tral. 

CampVor, a solid essential oil from 
Cinnamomuin Camphora, T. Nees 
et Eberm., and other trees; cam- 
phora^oeoQs (+ aceous), camphoric, 
pertaining to, or of the nature of, 

Camp'o, Brazilian savannahs, low open 
woods with ground vegetation. 

eamptod'romus (kcCjuto), I bend ; 9p6fjLos, 
course), venation in which the 
secondary veins curve towards the 
margins, but do not form loops; 
eamptot'ropal {rpor^, a turn), an 
orthotropaf ovule, but curved like a 
horse-shoe; Camptot'ropiBm, (rpoir^, 
a turn), the tendency to resume the 
natural position if forced out of it. 

oampulit'ropal (/ca/Airi;Ao;, curved ; 
rpoir^f a turn) ; eampolit'ropouB, see 
Camptlitropal, etc. ; Campy lid'- 
ium, described by Mueller-Arg. as 
an accessory fruit in certain lichens ; 
now known to be a Fungus, Cyphella 
aeruginascerut, Karst. ; campylod'- 
romoufl, -mtis {Sp6fios, a course), 
venation with its primary veins 
curved in a more or less bowed 
form towards the leaf apex; oam- 
pylosper'moua, -mus (<nr^pfio, seed), 
having the albumen curved at the 
margin so as to form a longitudinal 
furrow ; eampylot'ropal, campylot'- 
ropio, campvlot'ropous {rporii, a 
turn), appliea to an ovule, one side 
of which has grown faster than the 
other so as to bring its true apex 
(micropyle) near the hilum ; Cam- 
pylot'ropitm, the state of being bent 

Can'ada Eal'sam, an oleo-resin ob- 
tained from Abies balsamea, Mill., 
much used in the preparation of 
microscopical specimens. 

Canal', cana'lis (Lat., pipe or channel), 
an internal channel; '- Cells, an 
axial row of cells in the neck of tlie 
archegonium, ultimately forming a 
canal by disappearance of the septa, 
which becomes the way of access for 
antherozoids ; ^ Ba'phe, modifica- 
tion of the raphe in Diatoms, with 
longitudinal fissure, as in Surirella ; 
canalic'ulate, canalicula'tus, chan- 
nelled, with a longitudinal groove ; 
Canalic'ulus (Lat., a small channel), 
a diminutive of Canal; see Gum- 
canal, Sorus-Canal. 

can'cellate, caticella'tus (Lat., latticed), 
as in Clathrus, and Chcvirandra. 

CandelaT)ra Hairs, stellate hairs in 
two or more tiers. 

oan'dicant, cand'icans (Lat.), white, 
clear, and shining. 

cand'idus (Lat.), white, and shining; 

Cane, the stem of reeds, large grasses, 
and small palms ; Cane-suffar, a 
sucrose, the crystallized proouct of 
Sugar-cane, Sorghum, Beetroot, etc. ; 
^ Und'ershrubs, plants having 
lignified but commonly monocarpic 
shoots, as various species of Ruhus ; 
— Sugar-cane, Sacchariim officin- 
arum, Linn. : its chief Fungus-dis- 
eases are Cane Freckle, '^ Bust, 
causes uncertain ; '~ Soot, by Macro- 
sporium graminum, Cooke ; '~ 
Spume, by Struinella Sacchari, 

canella'oeous, (1) pertaining to the 
order of which Canella, P. Br., is 
the type ; (2) resembling cinnamon, 
Ital., Canella, in taste or shape. 

canes'oent, canes' cens (Lat.), grow- 
ing grey or hoary; Canes'cenoe, 

Cank'er {cancer ^ an ulcer), a disease m 
deciduous-leaved trees, ascribed to 
Nectria ditissimu, Tul., shown by 
malformed rind, with swollen 
cushion-like margin, and depressed 




canna'ceous, relating to the genus 
Canna or its allie-. 

Can'opy (Mediaeval Lat., canopium, 
tent), (1) a characteristic membrane 
within the testa surrounding the 
free part of the nucellus in Lageno- 
st-oma (Williamson); (2) the high, 
leafy covering in woodlands, the 
uppennost layer in forests ; -^ Trees, 
those having well-branched crowns 
and abundant leafage (Warming). 

Cantharoph'ilae {ndyQapos, a beetle ; 
<pi\4(i}, I love), plants which are 
fertilized by beetles, having showy 
colours, and abundance of pollen ; 
adj. cantharopViloas. 

ca'nus (Lat.), hoary, grey. 

Caoutcli'ouc, (S. American), pr. koot'- 
shook, a substance occurring in 
the milky latex of many plants ; it 
is allied to the Hydrocarbons ; -^ 
Bod'ies, small particles in the latex. 

Cap, (1) Grew's term for the husk of 
a nut ; (2) the pileus of Hymeno- 
mycetous fungi ; (3) the calyptra 
of Mosses ; (4) the short, upper 
division of the dividing cell in 
Oedogoiimm ; '^ Cells, the upper 
sister-cells of the embryo-sac in the 
ovule which are compressed as the 
embryo-sac develops and for a time 
figure as a cap on its apex ; ~ Fangi, 
pileate Fungi, as the mushroom ; 
Cellulose '^, formation by proto- 
plasm of cells of certain trichomes. 

capilla'ceous, -ceuSy capillary, capil- 
la'ris {capillus, a hair), slender, 
comparable with a hair ; capil/a'tus, 
liairy ; capilla'tae Kadi'ces, roots 
with evident root-hairs ; Capil'- 
lament, CapiUament'urn, the fila- 
ment of an anther ; capillamento'sus 
(Lat.), comose ; Capillitlum, sterile, 
thread-like tubes or fibres gro^ving 
amongst the spores in a sporogenous 
body, frequently forming a net, 
especially in Myxogastres ; adj. 
capillit'ial ; Capiirus, the width of 
a hair, taken ns i^th of a line or 
about 'l? mm. 

Cap'italist, a term applied to plants 
which have a large reserve of 
material, and are insect-fertilized. 


cap'itate, capita'tus (Lat., having a 
head), (1) pin-headed, as the stigma 
of a primrose ; (2) growing in heads, 
as the floAvers • of Composites ; 
capiteirate,capifgZZtt'^M5, diminutive 
of CAPITATE; Capiteirum, the cap- 
sule of Mosses ; capitiformls, % 
{forma, shape), shaped like a head, 
somewhat globose ; capit'ular = 
CAPITELLATE (Crozier) ; capit'uli- 
form, shaped somewhat like a head ; 
Capit'ulum (Lat., a little head), (1) 
a close head of sessile flowers ; ^2) 
a term vaguely applied to the 
pileus, etc. of Fungi ; (3) a rounded 
cell borne upon each of the manu- 
bria in the antheridium of Chara ; 

capno'des, capnoi'des (kottvwStjj, 
smoky), smoke-coloured. 

cappari'nus (Mod. Lat., from Capparis, 
the caper-bush), brownish-green. 

cap'reolate, capreoln'tus (capreolus, a 
tendril), having tendrils. 

Caprifica'tion, Caprifica'iio (Lat.), (1) 
the fertilization of the fig by 
insects, branches of the wild .fig 
being placed among the cultivated 
kind ; the subsequent fertilization 
is attributed to the punctures of an 
hymenopterous insect ; (2) fecunda- 
tion by artificial means ; Caprifi'cus, 
(Lat.), the wild or " male " fig, the 
uncultivated form, 

CapseU'a (/cov|/a, a box), Link's term for 


Cap'sicin, an acrid alkaloid principle 
found in some species of Capsicum. 

Capsoma'nia {nd^a, a box ; fiavia, 
madness), a multiplication of pistils. 

Cap'sule, Cap'sula, (1) a dry, dehiscent 
seed-vessel ; (2)thetheca of Mosses ; 
(3) X the perithecium or receptacle 
of Fungi ; cap'sular, capsula'ris, 
possessing a fruit of the kind just 
mentioned ; cap'sulate, enclosed in 
a capsule ; capsulife'rous, -n«, 
{fero, I bear), bearing capsules. 

Cap'ut, (Lat., the head), the peridium 
of some Fungi; ~ Flor'um % = Capit- 
ULUM ; — Sadi'cis, the crown of the 
root ; the obsolete stem or bud of 
herbaceous plants. 



Carbohy'drates, (Carbon + Hydrate), 
non-volatile solids, as arabic acid, 
cellulose, dextrin, starch, sugar ; the 
non-saccliarine members may be 
turned into sugars by boiling in 
dilute acids, usually into glucose 

Car'bon Diox'ide = C02 ; carbona'ceous 
( + ACEOUS), (1) consisting chiefly of 
substances in which carbon predom- 
inates ; (2) resembling charcoal, in 
colour or substance ; carb'onised, 
turned into nearly pure carbon by 
slow combustion, as charcoal. 

Carbozy'mase (C^m, leaven), an enzyme 
occurring in yeast. 

Car'cerule, Career a I us {career, prison), 

(1) Desvaux's name for a dry, in- 
dehiscent, many celled, superior 
fruit, such as that of the lime-tree ; 

(2) it has also ])een employed for the 
sporangia of some Fungi ; carcer'u- 
la,T,carcerula'ris, having a carcerule 

Carcino'des (KapKivciSrjs, cancerous dis- 
ease) and Carcino'ma (Kapnivccfxa, 
cancerous ulcer), have been used 
to denote Cankei'v and kindred 

Carcith'ium J or Carcyth'ium I {Kap- 
itivova-dai, to become entangled, as 
roots), Necker's word for Mycelium ; 
Carcy'tes, + = Myceliijm. 

card'mal {cardinalis, princijjal), ap- 
plied by Malinvaud to those species 
Avhich cannot be reduced ; Card'inal- 
.erade, points of temperature, («) 
lowest, (0) optimal, and (c) highest, 
at which vital I'unctions can be 
performed (Kirchner). 

Carene' (Fr. ,Cari-ne) = C.viuna, keel ; 
has lieen used for the keel or midril) 
in the leaves of grasses. 

Carice'tum, a plant-association of 
Career (Warming). 

Caricog'raphy {Carex, Car ids, ypa(p-n, 
writing), a treatise on Cyperaceac, 
sedges, from the geims Carcx, tiie 
largest in the order ; Caricorogist 
{Koyos, discourse), a writer on sedges. 

Car'ies (Lat. , rottenness), putridity, 

Cari'ua, (Lat., keel) ; (1) the two an- 

terior petals of a papilionaceous 
flower, or similar organ ; (2) the 
keel of the glume of grasses ; (3) 
the principal nerve of a sepal ; 
cari'nal, relating to the keel in 
aestivation when the carina includes 
the other parts of the flower ; ~ 
Canal', in Equisetavi, a water canal 
on the inner side of the xylem, op- 
posite a ridge on the surface of the 
stem ; carina'lis, that side of the 
fruit of Umbelliferae which repre- 
sents the carina, or principal nerve 
of the adherent calyx ; car'inate, 
carina' tus, keeled; carina'to-pli- 
ca'tus, plaited so that each fold re- 
semljles a keel, as the peiistome of 
some Mosses. 

Cariop'side, Cariop'sis {Kcipvov, a nut ; 
6\l>is, resemblance), a one-celled, one- 
seeded, superior fruit, with pericarp 
united to the seed ; the iruit of 
cereals; cariopsid'eous, having a cari- 
o})sis as fruit, also spelled Cauyoi'SIs. 

car'iose, Ctirio'sus, car'ious, decayed ; 
cario'so-can'cellate, used of Lichens 
becoming latticed by decay. 

Car'mine (Mediaeval \j\.it. , car mcsinus), 
the purest red pigment obtainable, 
without admixture of blue or yellow. 

carna'tion, [caniatio, fleshiness), llesh- 
coloured. [Wheat ear Carnation is 
a monstrous state of that flower with 
multiplied bracts.] 

carn'eous, .-■((/•?«>' /<5 (Lat. , of flesh), flesh- 
coloured ; Carniv'orism, the condi- 
tion of insect ivurous plants ( Haillon); 
Carniv'orophyte {<pvrhv, a ])lant), a 
carnivorous or flesh-digesting plant ; 
carniv'orouB {voro, I devour), flesh - 
eating ; ap[)lied to those plants which 
di^^est insects; Carno'sitas (Lat.), 
fleshiness ; carn'ose, carn'ous, car- 
no'sxLs (Lat.), fleshy, jmlpy ; Ca'ro 
(Lat., flesh), (1) the llesliy parts 
of fruits ; (2) the tissue of some 

Caro'tin, (1) the red colouring-matler 
of chromoplasts ; name ironx Daucus 
Caruta, Linn. ; pi. Caro'tins ; (2) a 
group of red and yellow colouring- 
matters (Czapek) ; also styled Caro'- 
tinoids (elSos, leseniblance) (Tswett). 




Car'oubin, a carbohydrate first ob- 
served in the Carob ; Caroub'inase, 
a hydrolytic enzyme formed during 
germination in seeds of Ceratonia 
b'iliqua, Linn. ; French, Caroube. 

Carpade'lium I Carpade'lus J {Kapirhs, 
fruit ; 65r;Aoy, not manifest) = Cre- 


Carp, a suggested abbreviation of 
Carp'el, Carpel'luin {Kapirhs, fruit), 
a simple pistil, or element of a com- 
pound pistil, answering to a single 
leaf ; a female sporophyll ; carpel'- 
lary, carpella'ris, carp'icus, relating 
to a carpel ; -^ Disk, Williamson's 
term for the ovuliferous expansion 
in Williaiiisonia ; carpel'late, pos- 
ijessing carpels; Carpel'lody (e/5os, 
resemblance), the change of a floral 
leaf into a carpel (Worsdell) ; Carpel- 
lotax'y (Ta|ts, order), the arrange- 
ment of carpels in the fruit. 

Car'phospore {Kap<pos, a scale), a plant 
whose seeds are disseminated by 
means of a scaly or chatfy pappus 

Carp'id, Carpid'iitm {Kopiths, fruit) = 
diminutive of Carpel; Carp'iam, 
(1) the oogonium modified by fer- 
tilization, which remains as an 
envelope around the embryo ; (2) J 
= Carpel ; Garpoas'ci {aaKhs, a 
wine-skin), the more complex As- 
comycetous Fungi; all, except the 
Exoascaceae (Kerner) ; Carpoceph'- 
alum {K€<pa\^, a head), the sporo- 
gonial rece})tacle of the Marchantieae 
(Campbell) ; Carpoclo'nium (/c\w»'^ov, 
a young shoot), "a free case or 
receptacle of spores found in certain 
Algals " (Lindley); Carpoderm'is 
(Se'p/ia, skin), Bischolfs emendation 
of PERiCAPtP ; C&r-po' deB,Carpo'dium, 
pi. Carpo'dia, abortive carpels, as in 
Ti/pha; Carp'ogain(7o^/ios, marriage), 
the female organ in a procarp, pro- 
ducing a cystocarp ; Carpog'amy, 
the process itself; carpogen'ic, car- 
pog'enous {yevos. race), producing 
fruit; in Florideae, applied to 
special cells of the carpogoni \; 
Carp'ogone, Carpog^n'ium iyoyr], 
offspring), (1) part of a procarp of 

carpogenous cells resulting in a 
sporocarp after fertilization; (2) in 
Ascomycetes = Archicarp ; carpo- 
gon'ial, relating to a carpogonium ; 
Carpogonid'ium (+ Gonidium), 
suggested by Svedelius as an 
emendation of Carpospore; Carp- 
og'raphy {ypd(pu, I write), de- 
scription of fruits ; Carp'olite, 
Carp'olith {\ldos, stone), a fossilized 
fruit, or cast, found in the coal 
measures, probably of gymng- 
spermous origin ; Carpol'ogist, 
Carpol'ogus {\6yos, discourse), a 
specialist in fruits ; Carpol'ogy, 
classification of fruits ; Carpo'ma + 
" a collection of spermangia " ( Lind- 
ley), i. e. a compound sporocarp ; 
Carpoma'nia {fiavia, frenzy), adiseewe 
of grittiness in fruit; Carpoma'ny, 
pistillody, or substitution of pistils 
for stamens ; Carpomorph'a + {iJ.op<p^, 
shape), apothecia of Lichens, re- 
sembling true fruits. 
Car'pon {Kapirhs, fruit), in Greek com- 
pounds = fruit ; Carp'ophore, Car- 
pophor'iitm {(popew, I carry); (1) the 
stalk of a sporocarp ; (2) that part 
of the receptacle which is prolonged 
between the carpels as a central 
axis, as in Ceratnium ; (3) used by 
Fayod as inclusive of stipe, pileus 
and lamellae of Fungi ; Carp'ophyll, 
Carpophyl'lum {(pvKKov, leaf), syno- 
nym of Carpel; Carp'ophytea 
{<pvThv, a plant), Phanerogams; adj. 
carpophyt'ic ; -^ Fun'gi, Clements's 
term for Fungi which produce Co- 
nidia ; Carpopod'ium {podium, an 
elevation), fruit-stalk; Carpopto'sis 
{irrSxTis, falling), abnormal falling 
of the fniit ; Caiposo'ma {awfia, 
body), the fruit-body of Fungi ; 
Carp'osperm {ait^pixa, seed), the 
impregnated oosphere of Algae; 
Carp'osphere {acpalpa, a sphere), the 
oosphere of Algae before impregna- 
tion ( Bennett and Murray) ; Car- 
poaporan'gia {airopa, a seed; ayye'iov, 
a vessel), differentiated sporangia 
in the cystocarp of Rhodophyceae ; 
Carpospo'reae, one of Cohn's, also 
Sachs's, main divisions of Thallo- 




pliytes, of plants which produce 
spore-fruit as the result of fertiliza- 
tion ; Carp'ospore {airopa, a seed) ; 
(1) a spore; (2) a spherical uninuclear 
spore formed in a sporocarp, arising 
from the swollen tips of branched 
filaments resulting from the fertiliza- 
tion of the cai"pogonium ; (3) used 
by Clements for a plant possessing 
chaflfy pappus; adj. carpospor'ic ; 
Carp'ostome, Carpostom'ium {ffr6fia, 
the mouth), the opening in the 
cystocarp of some Algae; Carp'o- 
Btrotes, -ae {(rrpwrhs, spread), plants 
whose distribution is eftected by 
fruits (Clements) ; Carpot'ropism 
{rpoir^, a turning), the movements 
of fruits before or after pollination ; 
adj. carpotrop'ic ; Carpozy'gote ( + 
Zygote) = Zygospore. 

Carr, an association of scattered trees 
and shrubs progressing from fen to 
scrub (Tansley) ; Fen '- , ultimate 
stage of fen formation ; Swamp -^ , 
occurs on edge of water as a Swamp- 

Car'ragheen Moss, chiefly of Chondrus 
crispus, Ag. 

Carth'amice, red colouring-matter from 
flowers of Carthamus tinctorius, Linn. 

cartilag'inons, cartilagin'cus (Lat., 
gristly), hard and tough, as the skin 
of an apple-pip. 

Caruncle, Carunc'ula (Lat., a little 
piece of flesh), a wart or protuber- 
ance near the hilum of a seed ; 
caranc'ulate, caruncala'tus, possess- 
ing a caruncle ; camncala'ris = 


Caryog'amy {Kdpvov, a nut ; yd/xos, 
marriage), the fusion of male and 
female nuclei; adj. caxyogamlc ; 
Caryokine'sis or Caryocine'sis 
(Crozier) = Karyokinesis ; nuclear 
division ; caryologlc {\6yos, dis- 
course), relating to the nucleus ; 
caryolyt'ic {XvriKhs, able to loose), 
relating to nuclear dissolution ; Cary- 
omi'tome ( -f- Mitom), the chromatin 
portion of the nucleus. 

oaryophylla'ceous, -cetis, relating to the 
Caryophyllaceae ; caryophyireous, 
-lous, used of a corolla having petals 

with a long claw as in Dianthus 
Caryophyllus, Linn., whence the 
name ; caryophylla'tus, = the same. 

Car'yoplasm {Kdpvov, a nut = nucleus ; 
irKdaua, moulded), Vuillemin's term 
for the plasma of the nucleus; 
caryopsid'eus (Mod. Lat.), like a 
Cariopsis ; Caryop'sis {oypis, resem- 
blance) = Cariopsis ; Caryorhex'y 
i}>V^i5, a breaking), the loss or dis- 
solution of a nucleus ; Car'yosomes 
{awfitt, the body), the constituents 
of the nucleus (Vuillemin). 

cascarill'us (Lat.), the colour of the 
inner bark of Cascarilla (Heyne). 

Cas'ein, see Plant-casein. 

Caspa'rian Dots, markings on the cell- 
walls of the endodermis oiDianthera; 
they are named after R. Caspary. 

Casque = Galea. 

cassid'eous, -eus (cassis, a helmet), 
helmet-shaped, as the upper sepal 
in Aconitum. 

cas'sus (Lat., empty), empty, as an 
anther destitute of pollen. 

casta'neus (Lat. ), chestnut-coloured. 

cast'ing, prematurely shedding leaves, 
or fruit. 

cas'trate, castra'tus (Lat. , gelded), said 
of a defective part, as a filament 
Avithout an anther ; Castra'tion, in 
botany, (1) removal of anthers for 
artificial crossing ; (2) the action of 
Ustilago, etc. , on Lychnis and allied 
genera ; divided into amphig'enous 
'^ , transformation in either stamens 
or pistils ; androg'enous -^ , produc- 
tion of anthers ; thelyg'ynous '~ , 
production of pistils in male-host. 

Casts, fossils showing the impressions 
of the structures whence their forms 
are derived ; medullary -- , impres- 
sions of the internal cavities of 
Catamites, etc. 

Cas'ual {casicalis, fortuitous), H. C. 
Watson's term for an occasional 
weed of cultivation, which is not 

catabol'ic, (kot^, down ; fi6\os,. a 
throw), adj. of Catab'olism, destruc- 
tive metabolism of the protoplasm, 
or Ihe formation of simpler sub- 
stances from more complex, accom- 




panied by a conversion of potential 
into kinetic energy ; also spelt 
Katabolism ; Catab'olites, the pro- 
ducts of Catabolism ; cf. Hetero- 
BOLiTES, ScHizoBOLiTES ; cata- 
clad'ous, -dus {KXdSos, a branch), de- 
flexed ; applied to certain species of 
Sphagnum; Catacle'sium + {K\^aris, 
a shutting up) = Diclesium ; Cata- 
coroira {corolla, a little' garland), a 
second corolla formed exterior to 
the true one ; resembling a hose-in- 
hose flower ; catad'romoas {dpSfxos, 
course), Luerssen's term when the 
first set of nerves in each segment 
of a Fern frond is given ofl" on the 
basal side of the mid-rib, as in 
Osmunda ; Catagen'esis {yeyea-is, a 
beginning), retrogressive evolution, 
by loss of attributes or simplifica- 
tion of structure ; catagenet'io, 
relating to Catagenesis. 

Cat'alase (deriv. from the next), an 
enzyme in fiesh tobacco leaves 
(Loew). Catarysis (Kara, down ; 
Xixris, a loosing), chemical changes 
ett'ected by a substance which does 
not itself undergo change ; ferment 
action ; catalyt'ic, modification of 
chemical force which causes cata- 
lysis ; catametad'romous (+ meta- 
DROMOUs) in Ferns, when they are 
sometimes catadromous and some- 
times metadromous, which may occur 
in the same species ; catapet'alous, 
-H3, {iTfTaXov, a flower-leaf), where 
petals are united only by cohesion 
with united stamen, as in Malva ; 
Cat'aphyll, Cataphyl'la, pi. {(pvWov, 
leaf), the early leaf-forms of a plant 
or shoot, as cotyledons, bud-scales, 
rhizome-scales, etc. ; in German, 
Niederblatter ; cataphyl'lary, of the 
nature of the foregoing ; <-- Leaves 
= Cataphylls. 

Cat'apult Fruit ; those fruits dispers- 
ing seeds or fruit-segments by the 
elasticity of their peduncles. 

Cat'ecMn, a crystallizable constituent 
of catechu; Cat'echa, pr. Cat'eshoo, 
cutch, the lieart-wood of Acacia 
Catechu, Willd., i)owerfully astrin- 

gent from its rich tannin-contents. 


cate'nate {catena, a chain), the co- 
herency of Diatom frustules in a 
connected chain ; cate'nnlate, ca- 
tenula'tus, formed of parts united or 
linked as in a chain. 

Cath'edrus {KadeSpa, a chair), a part 
growing between the angles of a 

Cathlon (koto, down -j- ion), an ion 
charged with electricity which mi- 
grates toward the cathode or negative 
pole (J. F. Smith) ; in physics the 
word is usually spelled ' * Catiou " ; 
oathod'al, cathod'ic {6S6s, a way) = 


Cat'kin, (1) a deciduous spike, consist- 
ing of unisexual apetalous flowers ; 
an amentum ; (2) improperly used 
by J. E. Smith for the spikelet of 
Carex ; (3) the male flowers of 
Cycads and Conifers are erroneously 
styled catkins; Cat'alus (Lat., 
puppy), X * synonym of Catkin. 

Caa'da (Lat.), a tail, any tail-like 
appendage ; cau'date, caiidattis, 

Cau'dex (Lat. ), the axis of a plant, 
consisting of stem and root ; -^ de- 
scen'dens, the root ; -^ Badi'ois, the 
root-tip ; -^ reopens * = Rhizome ; 
caudlci-contin^uiis J continuous 
with the stem, used of those leaves 
which have no articulation with the 
stem ; caudic'iform {forma, shape), 
like a caudex in form ; Cau'diele, 
Cnudic'ula, the cartilaginous strap 
which connects certain pollen-masses 
to the stigma, as in Orchids. 

eaulesc'ent, -ciis {caxUis, a stalk), be- 
coming stalked, where the stalk is 
clearly apparent ; Caullole, Canl'ic- 
ule, Caulic'ulus, a diminutive stalk ; 
(1) a small stem produced on the 
neck of a root without the pre- 
vious production of a leaf ; (2) the 
initial space between the radicle and 
the cotyledons of an embryo, now 
termed the hypocotyl ; (3) the stipe 
of certain Fungi ; caalic'oloxis {colo, 
I dwell), applied to Fungi which 
live on stems ; Caulidlam, term 

f»roposed by Bower to express the 
eaf in the oophore generation ; its 



analogue in the sporophore genei^a- 
tion is Caulome ; caulif'erous ^fero, 
I bear), bearing a stalk ; canl''ifonn 
{forma, shape), having the shape of 
a stalk ; Ganliflo'ry, the production 
of flowers from the old wood (C. 
Schimper) ; Cauliflower (+ Flower), 
hypertrophy of the flower-stalk, 
accompanied by defective flowers ; 
caulig'enoas {yivos, race), arising 
from a stem ; caulig'eroas {gero, I 
bear), borne on a stem ; caurinar, 
caulina'ris, caul'inary, caulina^ritis ; 
oattl'ine, cauli'nuSf belonging to the 
stem or arising from it ; '- Bnn'dles, 
vascular bundles growing acropetally 
with the stem, having no direct 
communication with the bundles 
which pass into the leaves. 

Caul'is (Lat. ), a stem ; the ascending 
axis, restricted to the above-ground 
IX)rtion in its normal state ; '-' deli- 
qaesc'ens, + a stem which branches 
irregularly; -^ excur''rens, a stem 
shooting straight upwards, having 
side branches, as in Abies; Canlo- 
calyx (kcJauI, a cup), the Pseudo- 
perianth of Hepiticae; oanlo- 
oarplc, caulocarp'ous, caulocarp'eus, 
'"p'icus {xavXhs, stem ; Kapirhs, fruit), 
bearing fruit repeatedly, as trees 
and shrubs; Canl'ode {elSos, resem- 
blance), a portion of a Thallophyte 
which simulates a stem; canroid 
{flSos, resemblance), emulating a 
stem, as in Pithophora (Wittrock) ; 
Caulo'ma, t (1) the stem of a palm; 
(2) the stem-like portion of such 
Algae as FiLci ; Caul'ome, the stem 
as an abstract entity ; the leaf- 
developing axis ; Bower suggests its 
restriction to the sporophore genera- 
tion only ; Caul'omer {fifpos, a part), 
a secondary axis in a sympodium ; 
Caalotaxls {rd^is, arrangement), the 
order of branches upon a stem. 

caust'icus (Lat., burning), biting in 
taste, as Cayenne Pepper. 

oaverna'rins {cavema, a cave), grow- 
ing in caves; Cayem'nli, the pores 
of such Fungi as Polyporus, 

Cay'itus % {cavus, hollow) and Cav'as 
are given by Lindley as respectively 

the perithecium and peridiimi of 
some Fungi; also Cav'us sup'erus, 
defined by him as the hymenium of 
certain Fungi. 

Cecidiorogy {k7}kIs, a gall ; \6yos, dis- 
course), the science of galls and 
their origin ; Cecidi'um, the galls 
produced by Fungi or insects, the 
consequence of infection being an 
abnormal growth. 

Cell, Cel'lula {Lat., a small apartment), 

(1) an independent unit of proto- 
plasm, strictly with a single nucleus, 
contained in a chamber of cellulose, 
etc. , which originally was recognized 
and called cell, now Cell- wall ; 

(2) the cavity of an anther, other- 
wise anther-lobe; (3) the cavity of 
an ovary or pericarp, containing the 
ovules or seeds ; --' Bon 'dies, a band 
or bundle of similar cells, as the 
bast fibre in dicotyledons; '-' Cap, 
an appearance in Ocdogonhtm, due 
to intercalary surface-growth ; '-- 
Ker'nel = Nucleus ; '- Con'tents, of 
two kinds, living or protoplasmic, 
and non-living, such as starch, fats, 
proteids, crystals, cell-sap, and 
the substances dissolved in it ; '^ 
Divis'ion, in free cell-division, 
several daughter-cells are formed 
in the cavity of the mother-cell; 
in ordinary cell -division, as a rule 
only two daughter-cells are formed, 
iisually followed by a subsequent 
further division of each ; '~ Fam'ily, 
a group of cells of common origin, a 
colony or coenobiura ; -^ Fi'bres, 
the achromatic filaments which form 
the nuclear spindle in nuclear-divi- 
sion ; '*' Forma'tion, the construction 
of a new cell by reorganization of 
the protoplasmic energid, with or 
without division of the cytoplasm ; 
— Fa'sions, cells united by absorp- 
tion or perforation" of transverse 
walls as Sieve-vessels; -^ Gronps, 
associations of similar cells, as the 
sclerenchyraa in the pulp of the 
pear, or in cork ; --' Mas'ses, when 
cells are united in all directions 
■of space, not having necessarily 
any definite form ; ^ Moltipliea'- 




tion takes place by the formation 
of two or more protoplasmic bodies 
out of one; -^ Nu'cleus, an organ- 
ized stnicture within the cell, the 
active agent in division, usually 
spherical in form, and of higher 
refractive power than the rest of the 
cell-contents ; --' Plate, formed by 
the thickening of threads of kino- 
plasm, marking out the future 
septa ; -^ Bows, have the cells in 
contact by their ends, thus mak- 
ing a filament; -^ Sap, a watery 
solution of various substances, salts, 
sugars, alkaloids, and the like ; '-' 
Snr'faces, where the cells form a 
single layer, as in some Algae ; '~ 
Tis'sue, distinguished from vascular 
tissue by being made up of cells 
only ; '~ Wall, a closed membrane, 
formed of cellulose, and a small 
proportion of mineral substances, 
originated by the layer of proto- 
plasm which lines it, frequently 
thickened by secondary deposits ; — 
Hinge -' = Hinge-cell ; Prim- 
ordial '^, a cell previous to the 
creation of a cell-wall ; Stalk ~ = 
Ceria (Lat., storeroom), (1) Sc(^oli's 
name for the fruit of CouroupUa, 
Aubl. ; (2) J a form of perithecium 
in Fungi (Lindley) ; Cellase, an 
enzyme which reduces Cellose; 
celUf' erous i/ero, I bear), bearing or 
producing cells ; Cellobi'ose formerly 
Cel'lose, a sugar stated to have 
nearly the same composition as 
Cellulose ; Ceriol (cellula, a cell), 
Blair's term for anther ; cel'lular, 
cellula' ris, consisting of cells, 
spongy : ~ Bark, <-' Eiiverope, the 
middle layer of the bark, meso- 
phloeum ; '- Plants, plants which 
do not possess vascular tissue ; non- 
vascular Cryptogams ; ^ Spore = 
Sporidesm ; Cellula'res ; (1) plants 
which are built up of cells only, as 
those last mentioned ; (2) the term 
has been applied to all plants built 
up of cells, in opposition to non-cellu- 
lar or unicellular ; Ceriule, Cel'lula, 
diminutive of cell ; Ceriales, pi. , 


used by J. E. Smith for Cistulae ; 
cellulif erons {fero, I bear), bearing 
or producing cellules ; Ceriolin, 
Pringsheim's term for a modifica- 
tion of cellulose; --' Grains, bodies 
found in vegetative hyphae ; Cellulo'- 
sae, Corda's name for Sporidesm ; 
Ceriulose, (1) a carbohydrate, the 
chief organic base of the cell-wall ; 
(2) Diatom valves composed of 
cellules are termed cellulose, a 
synonym of cellular ; (3) an 
enzyme occurring in Polyporus and 
Merulius which attacks woody 
tissues ; Cel'luloses, a generic term 
for the carbohydrate group above 
mentioned; divided by chemists 
into sub-groups, as Adipoceriuloses. 
{adeps, adipis, fat), consisting of 
cuticular tissues of leaves and fruits 
and of cork; Hemiceriuloses, all 
carbohydrates in the cell-wall which 
are not coloured blue by chlor-zinc- 
iodide, such as reserve-cellulose, etc. ; 
Lignoceriuloses, lignin combined 
with cellulose, as in Jute fibre ; 
Metacelluloses, in Fungi and 
Lichens ; the fangine of Braconnot ; 
Paraoel'luloses, the cellulai- tissue 
and epidermal cells of leaves ; Pecto- 
celluloses, composed of pectic acids 
and cellulose, such as the purified 
bast of Russian flax. — Other modi- 
fications are named but not charac- 
terized by Messrs. Cross and Bevan 
in their work "Cellulose," 1895, as 
Cuto-, Hydra-, Hydro-, Muco-.Hitro-, 
Pseudo-celluloses. Fung'us-ceriu- 
lose=CHiTiN; Beserve' '-', cellu- 
lose which is stored up as a food- 
supply ; cellulo'sic, composed of 
Cellulose ; Cellxilo'side, a mixture 
of cellulose and pectose, composing 
the primitive cell-wall (Green) ; 
cellulo'so-plic'ate, folded so as to 
form small cells (Phillips). 

Cement'-disk, the retinaculum in 

Cementa'tion, union of the membranes 
of hyphae by a slip of cementing 
substance, concrescence; in German, 

Cenanth'y {Kiv6s, empty ; aydoi, a 



flower); suppression of the stamens 

and pistils, leaving the perianth 

empty; adj. cenan'thous. 
ceno'biar, cenohio'neus cenobiona'ris, 

Ceno'bium ; = coenobiar, etc. 
cenogenet'ic [Kaivhs, recent; y^vir-qp, 

a parent), secondary (Crozier) ; cf. 


Cen'ser-ac'tion, used for such capsules 
as partially open by valves, the 
seeds being gradually shaken out 
by the wind, as in Papavcr and 
Cerastium (Kerner); Cen'eer-holes, 
apertures in the capsule, as in 

centifolioas {centum, a hundred ; 
folium, a leaf), literally having a 
hundred leaves ; actually, more than 
can be readily counted ; Centi- 
metre, Centime' trum, 0*3937 of an 
English inch, roughly, two-fifths. 

oen'tonate {cento, patchwork), used by 
F. N. Williams for the blotched 
leaves of Hieracium. 

cen'tral {centrum, the middle), (1) re- 
lating to the centre of a body; (2) 
applied by Praeger to those plants 
which are distributed centrally, and 
die out towards the extremities of a 
country or island ; -^ Cell, of the 
archegonium, that in the venter 
from which the oosphere, and 
ventral canal-cell arise ; -^ Cord, a 
series of cells in the leaves and other 
parts of Mosses, which simulates a 
vessel; -^ Cyl'lnder, in stems and 
roots the portion within the endo- 
dermis ; Cen'trarch (ipx^> begin- 
ning), solid xylem, protoxylem 
elements being in the centre (Lang) ; 
Centraxo'nia (i|»i', an axle) = 
Syngramme ; ^ Cent're, in Dia- 
toms, the middle point of the per- 
valvar axis ; cent'ric, in the middle ; 
centrifugal {fugo, I flee), tending 
outwards or developing from the 
centre outwards ; Cen'triole, Boveri's 
term for Centrosome ; centrip'etal 
{peto, I seek), developing towards 
the centre from without ; Centro- 
gen'esis {yh^ris, beginning), the 
rotate or peripheral type of form 
assumed by plants (L. H. Bailey) ; 


adj. controgenlc; cf. Dipleuro- 


Cent'ron [K^vrpov, a sharp point), in 
compounds = Spur. 

Centronu'cleus {centncm , the middle + 
Nucleus), a nucleus whose cen- 
trosoraes are active during division 
and intranuclear (Olive) ; Cent'ro- 
some {(Twfia, body), minute bodies 
believed to have directive influence 
in nuclear division ; the central 
particle of the centrosphere ; Cent'- 
rospheres {<T<pa7pa, a sphere), two 
small colourless bodies near the 
nucleus, imbedded in the cytoplasm, 
having a centrosome in each. 

Cen'trospores, -ae {Kevrpov, a spur + 
Spore), plants having spurred 
fruits (Clements). 

Centrostig'ma {centrum, the middle ; 
arriyiiay a point) = Synstigma ; cen- 
troxyric {ivXov, wood), referring to 
Centrox'yly, centrifugal primary 
woody structure (Van Tieghem) : 
Cent'ram (Lat.), the centre of a solid 

Centaury [centuria, a hundred), in sets 
of dried plants, each hundred is 
styled a century. 

cepa'ceons, -ceics {cepa, an onion), 
having the taste or smell of garlic; 

Cephalanthlum % {Kf<pa\h, a head; 
iudos, a flower), the capitulum or 
head of Composites ; anthodium ; 
Cephaliom, a woody enlargement at 
the apex of the stem in some 
Cacteae, from which the flowers 
appear ; Cephaliza'tion, the simpli- 
fication of floral elements ; ceph'- 
alodine, forming a head (Leighton) ; 
Cephalo'dium, (1) a knob-like shield, 
as in the genus Scyphophorus ; (2) 
the capitulum of Composites ; (3) 
peculiarly shaped, branched or 
convex outgrowth of a Lichen - 
thallus, in which algal cells are 
situated ; (4) a synonym of Tuber- 
CULUM ; ceph'aloid, cephaloid'eous, 
-(hus {el^os, resemblance), capitate ; 
Cephalo'nion Gall, a sac-like gall, 
joined to the leaf by a narrow neck 
(Kemer) ; Cephalopli'onim ((poptw, 



I carry), (l).ihe receptacle, or (2), 
the stipe of some Fungi. 

cera'ceous, -eus {cercus, Lat. ), waxy, 
(1) in appearance, or (2) colour, 
that of unbleached wax. 

Ceramid'ium {Kepdfj.iov, ajar), synonym 
of Cystocarp. 

Cer'asin, a gummy exudation from 
plum and cheery trees, swelling in 
water but not dissolving ; the name 
is from Primus Cerasux, Linn. 

Ceratench'yma {Kepas, a horn; eyx^fxa, 
poured in), the tissue of effete sieve- 
tubes wliich becomes horny in 
texture ; Cera'tium, a long, slender, 
one-celled, two-valved, superior fruit, 
as in Hypecoum, '* capsula sili- 
quiformis " Ceratoma'nia {fxavla, 
frenzy), monstrous production of 
horn-like or hooded structures in 
the flower. 

Cer'atrin, the hitter principle of " Ice- 
land Moss," Cdraria islaiidica, 

Cercid'ium {K^pKi^iov, a small comb), 
the mycelium of some Fungi. 

ce'real, ccrea'lis {Ceres, goddess of 
agriculture), applied to any Gra- 
mineae whose seeds servo as food ; 
Cerea'lia, corn-plants generally ; Ce'- 
reum, Ce'rium, Ce'rio = Cahiopsis. 

cer'ebriform {cerebrum, the brain ; 
forma, shape), having an irregular 
brain-like appearance, as the kernel 
of a walnut. 

cerif'erous {cera, wax ; fcro, I bear), 
wax-producing; ceri'nus (Lat.), the 
colour of yellow wax. 

Ce'rin, Ce'rine {cera, wax), a substance 
stated to be a constituent of cork. 

cern'uous, cernuvs (Lat.), nodding, 
applied to such flowers as Narcis- 
sus, or Coltsfoot when in fruit. 

cerussa'tuB (Lat.), white as though 
]>ainted with white lead. 

cerv'ine, cervi'nus, cervic'olor {ccrvvs, 
a stag), dark tawny colour. 

Cerv'ix (Lat., the neck) = Rhizome. 

ce'sious {caesius, the grey of the eye), 
blue-grey, usually spelled caesious. 

cespitit'ious {caespiticius, made of 
turf), pr. cespitish'us ; cesp'itose, 
pertaining to turf, or growing in 


tufts ; cespit'nlose, somewhat tufted; 
of. Caespes. 

Cet'rarin, a principle from several 
species of the genus Cctraria. 

Chae'ta {xo-ir-q, a bristle), the slender 
sporophore of Mosses, the seta ; 
Chaetoplank'ton (-f Plankton), 
plankton composed of Diatoms with 
awn-like processes, as Cha^toceras 

Chaff, (1) sm&ll membranous scales, 
degenerate bracts, in many Compo- 
sitae ; (2) the outer envelopes, of 
cereal grains ; chaff'y, paleaceous. 

Chain-gem'ma {gemma, a bud), in 
Fungi, having the form of a septate 
confervoid filament, the segments 
of which are capable of growth ; 
termed also Sprout-gemma. 

Ohala'za {x<i-^aCa, small tubercle), that 
part of the ovule or seed where the 
nucellus joins the -integuments ; it 
is the base of the nucellus and is 
always opposite the upper end of 
the cotyledons ; chala'zal, pertain- 
ing to the Chalaza ; cliala'zian, 
or chalazi'nuB, like a Chalaza, or 
pertaining thereto ; Chala'zo^ainfl 
{yifjLos, marriage), plants which are 
fertilized through the chalaza, and 
not the foramen, as Casiuirina, and 
many Cupuliferae ; cf. Porogams ; 
Chalazog'amy. fertilization by the 
chalaza ; adj. chalazogamlc. 

Charicad (xa^'l. gravel -f ad), a 
gravel slide plant ; Chalico'dium, 
" a gravel slide formation " ; chali- 
codoph'ilus {<pi\ea}, I love), "dwell- 
ing in gravel slides"; Chalicodo- 
phy'ta {(pvrhu, a plant), "gravel 
slide plants " (Clements) ; Ghali- 
cophy'ta {<l>uThv, a plant), gravel 
plants ; Chalicophy'tia, gravel plant 
formations (Clements). 

Chalk-glands, multicellular glands 
which deposit calcareous matter, as 
in some Saxifrages, the secretion 
escaping through a special channel, 
the water- pore ; ~ White, pure white, 

chalyb'euB {chalyheius, of steel), steel- 
grey, or lead-coloured. 

Cha'maephytes (x«/*«^ on the ground ; 



<pvTov, a plant), plants whose resting - 
buds are but slightly above the 
giound (Raunkiser) ; adj. chamae- 
Cham'ber-flu'id, the Kammerfllissigkeit 
of Grato, comprising cell-sap and 
enchylema between lamellae of 
Cham'bered-fi'bres, fibres which have 
become septate and seemingly multi- 
cellular, as in the secondary wood of 
Dicotyledons; '- O'vary, when the 
margins of the carpels project into 
the interior to form incomplete 
longitudinal dissepiments, the ovary 
remaining unilocular. 
Cha'nar Steppe, regions in Argentine 
predominating in Oourlieadecorticans 
and other Leguminosae and Com[io- 
sites (Grisebach). 
chan'nelled, hollowed out like a gutter, 

as in many leaf-stalks. 
Chaplet, a series of objects arranged 
like beads on a string, as the spores 
of Cystopus (Crozier). 
Chap'paraUSpan. ),dry shrubby regions, 
the plants usually leafless in summer. 
Cliarace'tum, an association of plants 
of the genus Chara ; Char'acine, a 
species of camphor from terrestrial 
Algae, as Falmella, Oscillaria, etc. ; 
it smells like Chara, hence the 
name ; characi'nus J CAam-like, 
composed of a single, or a few 
parallel tubes. 
Char'acter (Lat., a mark), the techni- 
cal difference whereby allied forms 
are distinguished, as ordinal, generic, 
specific, and so on. 
Chart Quad'rats, metre-squares of 
vegetation, each plant being accur- 
ately plotted on the chart (Clements). 
charta'ceous, -cciis {charta, paper + 

aceous), papery. 
chasmanthe'ric, chasmanth'erous (x*'*''- 
/io, a chasm ; avd-nphs, flowering), 
in cleistogamic flowers, when the 
anthers open, and liberate their 
pollen ; Chasmantlie'ry, partial cleis- 
togamy, when the stamens are ex- 
serted from the otherwise closed 
flowers (Knuth) ; Chasmocho'mopliyte 
(xw/w*, an aggregation : ^{>tov, a 

plant), a plant of a rock-crevice ; 
Chas'mocleistog'amy ( + Cleisto- 
gamy), the condition of possessing 
both cleistogamic and chasmogaraic 
flowers (Delpino); adj. chasmocleis- 
tog'amous; Chas'mo-dichog'amy (4- 
Dichogamy), when cleistogamic 
flowers are accompanied by others 
which are chasmogamic (Delpino) ; 
chasmogam'ic, chasmog'amous (7d/xos, 
marriage), pollination effected dur- 
ing expansion of the floral envelope ; 
Chasmog'amy, the opening of the 
perianth at the time of flowering, as 
opposed to cleistogamic ; Chasmo- 
pet'aly {pctalum, a flower-leaf), per- 
sistent opening of the floral 
envelopes : cf. Cleistopetaly ; 
Chas'mophyte {(pvrhv, a plant), 
a plant which grows in rock-crevices 
(A. F. W. Schimper). 
Check, an experiment or observation 
for confirmation; frequently the 
word " Control " is used for this. 
cheilod'romous {x^thos, lip; hp6nos, a 
course) = craspedodromous ; Chei- 
loma'nia {ixavia, frenzy), Morren's 
term for the doubling of the lip in 
Orchids, as in Orchis Morio, Linn, 
cheiroste'monous (x«^P) hand ; (TT-nnwv, 
thread), (1) with five stamens united 
at the base (Heinig) ; (2) relating 
to the genus CheirosUmon. 
chelate (x^^^. a hoof or claw), " with 
two cleft claws ; " cf. bifurcate 
Chemaux'ism [chem + aH^v, growth), 
incitement to growth by certain re- 
agents or other compounds ; Che- 
miotax'is = Chemotaxis ; Che'mo- 
aesthe'sia (aTo-^rjo-is, perception by 
sense) ; term employed by Czapek to 
express the capacity of a plant- organ 
to respond to chemical stimuli; 
Chemokine'sis {Kivrtais, motion), the 
action of zoopores induced by 
chemical attraction ; Chemorysis 
{\v(ris, a loosing), chemical solu- 
tion or analysis ; Chemomorpho'sis 
{lj.6p(pu(ris, a shaping), an alteration 
in shape caused by some compound, 
as galls by insect puncture ; chemo- 
nas'tic {vaarhs, pressed close), cur- 




vature due to chemical stimuli ; 
Chemosyn'thesis {avvdea-is, composi- 
tion), the composition of carbo- 
hydrates by chemical forces (Mac- 
dougal); Chemotax'is {rd^is, order), 
the attraction of bacteria, anther- 
ozoids, etc., by certain sulastances; 
sometimes spelled Chemiotax'is ; 
adj. chemotact'ic ; neg'ative Chemo- 
tax'is, repulsion instead of attrac- 
tion, = Apochemotaxis; Chemot'- 
ropism {rpoir^, a turning), the 
condition of Chemotaxis (Miyoshi); 
Chemozo'ophobe {C<^ov, an animal ; 
<p6fieoi}, I fear), a plant which defends 
itself against insect- or animal- 
attack by tannin, raphides, etc. ; 
adj. chemozooph'obous. 

Chera'dad {x^pados, silt, + ad), a wet 
.sandbar plant ; Cheradi'um, a sand- 
bar fomiation ; cheradopli'ilus 
{<pi\4oo, 1 love), dwelling on sand- 
bars; Cheradoph'ytae ((pi;T^i/,a plant), 
sandbar plants (Clements). 

chermesi'nus(Lat.,dyed with Chermes), 

Cher'sad (x^pf^os, dry land 4- ad), a 
plant of a dry waste ; Chersi'um, 
a dry waste formation ; chersoph'- 
ilous {(piXeu), I love), dwelling in dry 
wastes ; Cher'sophytes {(purdv, a 
plant), dry waste plants (Clements). 

CMla'rium {x^i\dpioi', a lip), the bound- 
ary of a small pit in the testa of 
Phaseolus, of two movable valves, 
which by hygi'ometric movements 
cause the rupture of the testa ; chi'- 
lary Lay'er, the investment of the 
seed which contains the chilarium. 

chi'lding, proliferous. 

CMmae'ra (Lat. , a monster), the product 
from a bud with mechanical coales- 
cence of two jjarent- forms (Winkler) ; 
pericli'nal '~, = Graft-hybrid, as 
Cytisus Adami (Keeble and Arm- 

Chimio'sis (xeu/ua, that poured; ^ueicuo-is, 
reduction), the alteration in time of 
action of digestive fluid in a carni- 
vorous plant (Massart). 

CMmiot'ropism = Chemotropism. 

Chim'ney, applied to protrusion of epi- 
dermal cells round the guard-cells of 

a stoma, producing a long respiratory 

chimonocMo'rous {x^ljxwv, winter ; 
X^op^s, pale green), applied to 
plants whose thin herbaceous leaves 
persist through the winter (F. 
Ludwig) ; chimonoph'ilous {(p'lXew, I 
love), the chief development taking 
place in the winter season (F. 
Ludwig) ; chimopelag'ic {ireXayos, 
the sea), Forel's term for plankton 
found on the surface only in winter. 

Chi'na (Ital.), (1) a synonym for 
Quinine ; (2) the bark of Cinchona, 
supplying valuable febrifuges and 

Chi'na-grass, the fibre from Boehm- 
eria nivca, Gaudich. ; it was for- 
merly confounded with Ramie ; cf. 
Kew Bulletin, 1898, p. 209. 

Chinin' = Quinine. 

Chio'nad (x'w". snow + ad), a snow- 
plant ; Chioni'nm a snoAv-plant for- 
mation (Clements) ; chionoph'ilous 
{<pix4(t3, I love), F. Ludwig's term 
for the winter-leaves of Hellehorvs 
foetidus, Linn. ; chionoph''obous 
{(p6&os, fear, dismay), the same 
aiithor's word for the summer-leaves 
of the same plant ; Chio'nophobe, a 
plant shunning snow ; Chionophy'ta 
{(pvThv, a plant), snow-plants ; Chi- 
onophyti'um, a snow-plant associa- 
tion (Clements). 

Chi'ronym (x^lp, hand ; 6vofj.a, a name), 
a manuscript name ; Chi'rotype 
(tuttos, a type), the specimen on 
Avhich a manuscript name is based. 

Chiropteroph'ilae (Chiropteron = bat, 
<bL\4u3, I love), plants which are ferti- 
lized by bats ; adj. cliiropteroph'ilous. 

CM'tin (x'Twv, coat of mnil), a sub- 
stance allied to horn, which forms 
the protective covering of many 
insects such as beetles, identified as 
being of the same composition as 

Chive, (1) an old word for Anther ; 
(2) sometimes confined to the Fila- 
ment ; (3) an offset of a bulbous 

Chlamyd'ia, (1) bud-scales; (2) floral 




Chlamydogonid^ium (xAajuus, xAo/tu5os, 
a cloak : yovrj, race, offspring), uni- 
cellular gemmae of certain Fungi, 
which are relatively large and thick- 
walled, and adapted for a period 
of quiescence before vegetating ; 
Chlam'ydospore, a spore having a 
very thick memhrane. 

cMamydomon'ad, applied to the type of 
Alga represented by Chlamydomonas 
(F. Blackman) ; chlamydomon'adine, 
the pliase of algal growth resembling 
that genus ; Chlamydomone'tum, an 
association of Chlamydomonas and 
Diatomaceae lying loose on the 
sand and not cemented together 

Chle'dad {x^v^os, rubbish + ad), a 
ruderal plant ; Chledi'um, a waste 
formation ; chledoc'olus, i. e. chle- 
doc'ola, inhabiting wastes ; chle- 
doph'ilus {(pi\€v, I love), dwelling in 
waste places ; Chledophy'ta {(pvrhv, 
a plant), plants of waste places 

Chloram'ylite (x^^op^s, giass green ; 
&fjv\ov, fine flour), Belzung's term 
for chlorophyll granules derived 
from the transformation of starch ; 
chloranth^'oas (Avdos, a ^ower), with 
green, usually inconspicuous flowers ; 
CUor'antliy {au6os, a flower), the 
change of all or most parts of the 
flower into leaf-like organs ; frond- 
escence ; chloras'cens, gi-een^ in 
dining to yellow ; Chlorench'yma 
{^yxvfJia, an infusion\ assimilating 
tissues ; Chlor'in, used by Kraus to 
denote the green constituent of chloro- 
phyll ; Chlori'na, a plant deficient 
in chlorophyll, xanthein and carotin ; 
chlori'nus, yellowish-green ; Chlor'is, 
used as the title of a work on the 
y)lants of a district ; analogous to 
Flora ; Chlor'ites, Arbaumont's term" 
for chloropltyllous plastids, further 
specialized as Endochlorites and 
Gymnochlohites ; chloroch'rous 
(XP<Ja, complexion), having a green 
skin ; Chlorocypera'ceae, those 
Cyperaoeae which have little scleren- 
chyma in the cortex, but much 
assimilatory tissue an<l numerous I 


stomata (Plowman) ; Chlor'ocyst 
{kvo-tis, a cell) a chlorophyll cell ; 
CUorofu^cine {<pvKos,fiicus, soaweed), 
a chlorophyll of a clear yellowish- 
green colour (Sorby) ; Chloroglob'in 
(globuft, a ball), the green colouring- 
matter of chlorophyll, which has 
been separated from it in the form 
of minute globules (Tswett) ; Chloro- 
gonid'ium {yov^, offspring), the green 
gonidia of Lichens, as distinguished 
from the chrysogonidia ; chlorogon'i- 
mu8 {yovifios, productive), applied 
to the gonidial layer in Lichens ; 
CMoroleu^cite {\€VKds, pale), Van 
Tieghem's term for chlorophyll 
granule, by Belzung restricted to 
those which are formed from proto- 
plasm, albuminous ; syn. Chloro- 
PLASTiD (A. Schimper), Autoplast 
(A. Meyer) ; chlorophae'ns {<pai6s, 
dun -coloured), yellow-green as the 
colouring-matter of Algae ; Chlor'- 
ophore {(popeo)), I cany), Schmitz's 
term for chlorophyll granule ; a 
chloroleucite ; Chlor'ophyll {cpvWov, 
leaf), the green colouring-matter of 
jilants ; -^ Bod'y, ~ Cor'puscle, -' 
Grain, ~ Gran'ule, a ]»roteid or 
plastid in the cells of plants, usually 
of a green colour ; cf. Chloro- 
leucite, etc. ; ~ Ve'sicles, chloro- 
phyll granules ; chlorophy'ceoas, re- 
sembling or relating to the Chloro- 
phyceae, or green Algae ; chloro- 
phylla'ceous (-f aceous), applied to 
cells which contain chlorophyll, in 
contra-distinction to those which 
do not, and are consequently colour- 
less ; Chlorophyrian, a synonym of 
Hypochlorin ; chlorophyllig'erous 
(gero, I bear), bearing chlorophyll, 
or containing it, etc. ; Chloroph'yl- 
line, the green principle of chloro- 
phyll ; Chloroph'yllins, Tswett's 
name for those constituents of 
chlorophyll which are fluorescent ; 
cf. Metachlorophyllins, Xantho- 
PHYLLiN.s ; chlorophyl'lose, contain- 
ing chlorophyll ; -^ Cells, those 
small cells in leaves of SpJiagnum 
and other Mosses which contain 
chlorophyll ; Chlor'oplast, Chloro- 



plast'id {irXaards, moulded), the 
plastids or granules of protoplasm 
which are of a green colour ; Chloro- 
plast'in, Schwarz's term for a proteid 
constituting the ground substance of 
the chlorophyll granule ; Chlororu'fin 
{rufus, reddish), a reduced chloro- 
phyll, the red pigment of Chloro- 
phyceae, so named by Rostafinski ; 
Chloro'sis, a disease, shown by loss 
of cfriour ; chlorospenn'ous {(nrepfxa, 
a seed), belonging to those Algae 
having green spores ; chlorofic, 
chlorot'icHS, greenish in colour : 
Chilorovaporiza'tion {vaporatio^ a 
reeking), a function analogous to 
transpiration, but proceeding only 
from the chloroleucites under certain 
lights (Van Tieghem). 

Chomap'ophyte (xw/^ct. accumulation ; 
airh, form ; <pvTov, a plant), ruderal 
plants (Simmons) ; Cho'mophjrte, a 
plant growing on ledges or in 
fissures (Ottli). 

Chon'driokonts, pi., (x^vdpos, grain ; 
Kovrhs, a pole) = Mitochondria, or 
Chromidia ; Chon'driom, the entire 
number of chondriosomes in a cell ; 
Chon'driomes, pi., a collective term 
for Chondriosomes; Chon'driomites 
(liiTos, a web), also Chon'driosomes 
{(rwjxa, a body), the same as Chon'- 
driokonts ; chon'droid (eI5os, 
resemblance) applied to a Lichen 
medulla with the hyphae forming 
a solid axis ; Chon'drome, granular 
masses in the fluid cell-contents 
(Schneider) ; cf. Linome. 

Chord'a (Lat., a cord) pistilla'ris, the 
line of tissue between the stigma 
and the cavity of the ovary ; chor- 
da'ceous % ( -f aceous), having the 
figure of a rope. 

chordorrhi'zal {xop^^, catgut; pi(a, a 
root), where the rootstock produces 
numerous flowering-stems one be- 
fore the other from its sides (Syme), 
as in Carex chordorrhiza, Linn. f. 

-chore {x^P^^f I spread abroad), a 
combining term to denote agent of 
migration (Clements). 

Chor'ion ( x<^p»oi', a caul), (1) Mal- 
pighi's term for the pulpy matter 


which fills the young ovule, and is 
absorbed during development ; (2) 
J a carpel ; Choriona'rius, X = 

Choripet'alae(xa'piy, separate; ireraKov, 
a flower-leaf), (1) proposed by 
Bessey for Polypetalae ; (2) by 
W. R. M'Nab for Polypetalae and 
Incompletae ; choripet'alous, -us 
{ireraXov, a flower leaf), having 
petals separate, polypetalous ; chori- 
phelloid {(peWhs, cork bark), ap- 
plied to the separated suberized cells 
and lenticels (Klebahn); choriphyl'- 
\ovis{(pv\\ov, a leaf), having separate 
leaves, used of the floral members ; 
chorisep'alous, -us (+ Sepal), with 
.«!eparate sepals, polysepalous ; Cho'- 
risis, the separation of a leaf or 
phylloid nrvember into more than one, 
dedoublement, doubling; coUat'eral 
~, when the plane of separation 
is antero-posterior ; par'allel -", 
the plane of separation lateral ; 
chorisolepid'eus + (AtTrlr, \e-iriSos, a 
scale), when the scales of the in- 
volucre of Composites are distinct 
from each other ; cho'ristate, un- 
lined(Lindley); c/. Chorisis; chori- 
stophyl'lous, -Its {<pvX\ov, a leaf), 
separate leaved ; Choriza'tion = 

Chortonom'ia X ix'^P'^os, green herbage ; 
vSfxos, law). "The art of making 
an herbarium." 

Chre'sard (xp^trts, use), the available 
water of the soil, the physiological 
water-content (Clements). 

cliromat'ic (xp^^ua, colour), relating to 
colour ; ~ Sphere, the coalescence 
of the chromosomes after anaphasis ; 
the nuclear membrane is formed 
round it {H. M. Davis); -- Thread, 
the filiform body in nuclear division, 
which breaks up into Chromosomes ; 
Chromatid'ium, J the colouring- 
matter of plants ; Chro'matin 
(Flemming), that portion of the 
nucleus which readily takes arti- 
ficial staining, termed Nuclein by 
Strasburger ; chromatln'ic, relating 
to Chromatin ; Chromatorogy 
{\6yos, discourse), used by Sorby to 



express the science of vegetable 
colouring-matters ; Chromatorysis 
{\v<TLs, a loosing), (1) Cavara's term 
for the condensation of nuclear 
chromatin in a homogeneous mass, 
which afterwards subdivides ; (2) 
the solution of chromatin (Nemec) ; 
Chro'matomere {/J-^pos, a part) 
= Chromosome ; chromat'ophile 
{(piXew, 1 love), readily receptive of 
stain ; easilv colourable ; Chromat'o- 
phore {(popfw, I carry), a collective 
term for the various plastids, 
chloro-, chromo-, leuco-plastids ; 
Chro'matoplasm (TrAao-^o, moulded), 
the protoplasm of the colouring 
and allied substances (Strasburger) ; 
Chromid'ium, (1) the gonidium of a 
Lichen, (2) pi. Chromid'ia, Hertwig's 
term for discrete chromatin granules 
derived from the nucleus (Wager) ; 
gen'erative '^, those which replace 
the nucleus or can be reformed 
into nuclei ; veg'etative '^ , those 
extruded for metabolism, or accu- 
mulated in nuclear-like structures; 
adj. chromid'ial ;. Chromidiocen'trum 
{centrum, a centre), chromidia when 
grouped into a well-defined mass in 
the cell (Wager); Chromidiog'amy 
{ydfius, marriage), fusion of chromidia 
(Wager); Chromid'iosome (ffoD/io, a 
body), Minchin's term for Chro- 
MiDiUM ; Chromid'iosphere (tr^oTpo, 
a sphere), the same as Chromidio- 
CENTRUM ; Chro'mism, an abnormal 
colouring, as of leaves; Chro'moblast, 
an error of some writers for Chromo- 
plast; Chro'mogen {y4vos, offspring), 
ap]»licd to sundry colourless sub- 
stances in plants, which by artificial 
oxidation or fermentation produce a 
colouring-matter ; Indican is an ex- 
ample; chromogen'ic, chromog'enous 
{y4uo5, offspring), colour-producing, 
as some bacteria; Chromoleu'cite 
(KfvKhs, white), Van Tieghem's name 
for protoi)lasmic colour granules ; 
Chro'momeres {fxepos, a })art), granules 
susceptible of staining darkly in 
chromosomes; adj. chromomer'ic ; 
chromop'arous {pario, I produce), 
colour-producing, applied to bacteria 

(C. Jones) ; chromoph'ilous (<pi\ea>, 
I love), employed for those nuclei 
which readily take up staining ; 
chromoph'orous {(popeu, I carry), 
used of protoplasm which is itself 
coloured (C. Jones); Chro'mopliyll 
{(pvWov, a leaf), any substance 
which colours plant-cells; Chro'mo- 
plast (A. Meyer), Chromoplast'id 
(A, Schimper) (ttAoo-tos, moulded), 
are synonyms for gi-anules contain- 
ing other colouring than chlorophyll ; 
Chro'mosomes ((r<£/uo, a body), fibrillar 
bodies of definite number formed 
during nuclear division, dividing by 
fission into new groups, and contri- 
buting to form the daughter nuclei ; 
adj. chromoso'mal ; Dau'ghter -^j 
secondary or derived chromosomes ; 
Chro'mospire (+ Spirem), the folds 
of the spirem in nuclear division 
(Dangeard) ; Chro'mula, colouring- 
matter of the plant, other than 
chlorophyll ; applied especially to 
petals; Chro'mule, Sorby's term for 
any coloiiring-matter in plants. 
Chron'ispore {xp^yos, time ; airoph., a 
seed), a resting-spore ; Chronisporan'- 
giiim(d77eroj', a vessel), the sac which 
produces chronispores (Vuillemin) ; 
Chronizo'ospore {C^hs, living ; airopa, 
a seed), a microzoogonidium pro- 
duced by Hydrodidyon, which rests 
for some weeks before gernunating ; 
also called Chron'ispore (Pringsheim) ; 
Chronot'ropism {rpoir)], a turning), 
changes due to age, as the position 
of leaves. 
chroococ'coid, resembling Chroococcus; 
chroococca'ceous, allied to the same 
chroole'poid, (1) like tlie genus Chro- 
olcpis; (2) consisting of yellow scales. 
. ohry8aloi'deu8(xpi'0'a^^^s>a.pupa ; el^os 
resemblance), rolled up and folded 
up at the same time ; wrapped up 
as an insect pupa or chrysalis. 
chrysan'thine (xpvo-os, gold ; Hvdos, 
a flower), yellow flowered ; chry- 
sell'us, somewhat golden-hued ; 
chry'seus, yellow as gold ; chrysi'- 
tes {xpv<TiTr)s, like gold), gold- 
coloured; Chrysochlor'ophyll ( + 




Chlorophyll), according to Gaidu- 
kov, a constituent of Chryso- 
CHROME ; Chry'sochrome (xp<iMa> 
colour), Klebs's term for a character- 
istic pigment found in Ohromulina 
Rosanoffi, ; chrysoch'rous ixP^^y 
skin), having a yellow skin ; Chryso- 
goiiid''ium {yov^, offspring), a yel- 
low gonidium of Lichens; chryso- 
gon'imus {y6vLixos, productive), the 
layer of yellow gonidia in some 
Lichens ; Chry'sophan {(palvw, I 
show) occurs in Physcia parietina, 
De Not., etc., as gold-coloured 
crystals ; also known as chryso- 
phan'ic Ac 'id ; Chry'sophyll {(pvWov, 
a leaf), a yellow colouring-matter 
from leaves ; chrysophyrious, having 
Chrysophyll ; Chrysorham'nin, a 
yellow substance from unripe buck- 
thorn berries, Bhamnus catharticus, 
Linn.; Chrysotan'nia (+ Tannin), 
a group of colouring-matters in 
plants, when oxidized giving rise to 
brown tints in autumn foliage ; 
Chrysoxanth'ophyll {-{- Xantho- 
Fhyll), said to be a constituent of 
Chrysochromr (Gaidukov). 

Chylocau'la, pi. {x^k'^s, juice ; Kav\hs, 
a stem), plants with succulent stems, 
as Cacti (A. F. W. Schimper); 
adj. chylocau'lous ; Chylocau'ly, the 
condition; Chylophyriae, T^\.{(pv\\ov, 
a leaf), plants with succulent leaves 
(A. F. VV. Schimper); adj. chylo- 
phyrious; Chylophyriy, the con- 

chymif' ems {chymiis, juice ; fero, I 
bear), chj^inifera Va'sa, X Hedwig's 
term for an imaginary "sap-thread" 
rolled round a tube to form a trach- 
eid or spiral vessel. 

Chytridio'sis, a disease due to 
Cladochytrivmt viticolum, Prunet. 

Cic'atrice, Cicairic'ida, Cica'triz (L&t., 
a scar), the mark left by the separa- 
tion of one part from another, as 
by the leaf from the stem; cica- 
trisa'tus, cic'atricose, cicatrico'sus 
scarred or scarry ; cicatricial, 
relating to a Cicatrix. 

Cicin'nns {kUivvos, a ringlet) = Cin- 



Ciench'yma (possibly, Kiw, I go ; l^yxvfia, 
an infusion), a system of inter- 
cellular spaces (Kohler, fide Crozier). 

Ciria, pi. of Cirium (Lat., an eyelash), 
(1) Vibratile whip-like processes of 
protoplasm by which zoospores 
and similar bodies move; (2) the 
hair-like processes in the endostome 
in Mosses ; (3) the marginal hairs of 
Luzula; cilia'ris (Lat.), like an eye- 
lash, or short hair; cillate, cilia'tus, 
fringed with hairs ; cilia'to-denta'tus, 
the teeth finely serrate, as if fringed ; 
cil'iif orm (/orwia, shape), resembling 
cilia; cil'iograde {gradus, a step), 
moving by means of cilia (Crozier) ; 
Cil'iola, secondary or diminutive 

cimici'nus {ciniex, a bug), < smelling of 
bugs, as Coriander. 

Cincho'na (genus), compounds, see 
China, Quininr, etc.; cinchona'- 
ceous ( -f ACEOus), relating to Cin- 
chona plants; Cin'chonine, one of 
the alkaloids found in the bark of 
C-inchona ; cinchon'ic, relating to 
the same genus. 

cin'cinnal, cincinna'lis (Lat., curled), 
applied to curled inflorescences, as 
'-' Cyme, a cyme in which the suc- 
cessive flowers are on alternate 
sides of the pseudaxis ; -^ Dichot'- 
omy, a cyme in which alternate 
branches develop; Cincin'nus (Lat., 
a curl), applied to a uniparous scor- 
pioid cyme ; the erroneous form 
CiciXNUs is found in some writers. 

cinc'tus (Lat., girded), used of albu- 
men when surrounded by an annular 

Cinench'yma {Kiveu, I move; eyxv/xa, 
an infusion), laticiferous tissue ; 
cinenchym'atous, possessing latex 

cinera'ceous, -eus (Lat.), somewhat 
ashy in tint. 

cineras'cens {cinis, cincris, ashes), turn- 
ing ashy grey; ciner'eous, -eus (Lat., 
ashy), the grey of wood ashes; 
cineric'ius, cineritlous, -ius = cin- 

Cing'uhua (Lat., a girdle), (1) the 
neck of a plant, that which is 



between stem and root, the colluni ; 
(2) the connecting zone, girdle, or 
hoop of Diatom frustules. 

Cin'nabar {KivydBapi, a red pigment), 
(1) Dragon's blood, a resiuous gum 
from Daemonorops Draco, Blnme, 
and other plants ; (2) also the colour 
obtained from it, vermilion ; cin'na- 
barine, scarlet- coloured ; cinnabari'- 
nu8, scarlet. 

cin'namic, or cinnamo'mic, pertaining 
to cinnamon; cinnamo'meus (Lat.), 
cinnamon colour, a light yellowish 

Ci'on, an old form of Scion. 

Cionosper'meae(K(w>', a column ; airepfia, 
a seed), plants whose ovules develop 
on a central, more or less columnar 
placenta, as Olacineae and Santa- 

cir'ca, in Latin compounds = round 

cir'cinal, circina'lis {circiiw, I make 
round), involute from the tip into 
a coil ; cir'cinnate, circinna'tus, 
coiled into a ring or partially so; 
sometimes spelled cir'cinate. 

Cir'cle, Migra'tion {miyratw, change 
of habitation), movement of mi- 
gration of plants from a parent 
individual or group (Clements). 

Circula'tion {circulation a revolution), 
the streaming motion of protoplasm 
in cells ; cf. Rotation. 

cixcumax'ile, circuDiax'ilis {circurn, 
round ; axis, an axle), surrounding a 
central axis whicli separates when 
the fruit splits open ; circumcinc'tus 
(Lat. ), girded round ; Circumciss'ion 
(circunicissiis, cut around), ( 1 ) Blair's 
term for ringing fruit trees; (2) cut 
round, as the apothecia of some 
Lichens ; circumferen'tial (Lat., cij-- 
cumfercntia), relating to the circum- 
ference ; circumflor'al (fios, fluris, a 
flower), a}»plied to nectaries on the 
outer side of a Hower, as in Eu- 
I'HoiJiiiA ; Circumlat'eralism {IuIks, 
lalcris, a side), the tendency in plant 
]»hylogeny to devcloi) a circular 
arrangement of parts (L, H. Bailey) ; 
circummedul'lary {medulla, the 
spinal n)arro\v), a j)ioposed emenda- 

tion of " perimeduUary " ; circurn- 
nu'tate {nxJUo, I nod), the movements 
of the growing points of plants 
round the axis ; Circumnuta'tion, the 
phenomenon of the apical portions 
of stem, tendril, root, turning to 
various quarters of the compass ; 
circumpo'lar, round the pole, as of 
arctic or antarctic plants confined 
to high northern and southern 
latitudes ; Circamposit'io {positus, 
placed), a, layer, or branch laid into 
the earth to root, whilst still con- 
nected with the parent stock ; cir- 
cumsciss'ile, circumscisn' His, circuin- 
sciss'us {sci)ido, sciss^is, to split), 
dehiscing as if cut circularly around, 
as in the capsule of Anagallis ; Cir- 
cumscrip'tion {scriho, scriptum, to 
write), (1) the outline of any organ ; 
(2) the definition of a form or group 
of forms, as of species, genera, 
orders ; circamse'piens {sepio, I 
enclose), surrounding, as a protec- 
tion ; circumsepien'tia fo' Lia, is used 
by de Caudolle for leaves whicli sur- 
round the stem, as if to protect the 
young growth. 

Circumvalla'tion(<:ir«4>nra//a<Ks, walled 
round), a method of layering, by 
ringing the stem and siirrounding it 
with soil kept moist, while the stem 
continues erect. 

cir'rhate, cirra'tus, cirrha'tus, cirrh- 
a'lis {cirrus, a tendril), tendrilled, 
or assuming the functions of a ten- 
dril ; cirrhif'erous ifcro, I bear), 
producing tendrils ; cirrh'iforxn, 
cirrhiforiit'is {forma, shape), appar- 
ently a tendril ; cirrhig'erous {(jero, 
1 bear), cirrliiferous (Crozier) ; Cir- 
rho'sitas, the state of possessing 
tendrils; cirrh'ose, cirrh'ous, cirrh- 
o'stis, (1) tendrilled, (2), with a wavy 
huir-i)oint (Braithwaite) ; Cirrh'us, 
since Linnaeus, used for a tendril, 
a filiform organ of attachment, 
modified from a leaf, stipule, or 
aborted branch. — The foregoing 
are frequently spoiled cinif'erous, 
cirr'ifonn, cirr'ose, Cirr'us, etc. 
(from cirrus, a curl). 

Cigtel'la, Cis'tula (Lat., a little chest) 




used for the apothecia of Lichens, 
which, globular at first, burst at 

Cis'tern-ep'iphyte (+ Epiphyte), em- 
ployed by A. F. W. Schiniper for 
that clsiss of epiphyte iu which the 
roots are mere supports or alto- 
gether suppressed, and the entire 
nourishment takes place by the leaves. 

Cist'olith = Cystolith. 

Cist'ome Cisto'ma (Mod. Lat. con- 
tracted from Cistostoma) {Klcrrr], a 
l)ox; arrSfia, a mouth), a membranous 
sac which was supposed to pass be- 
neath the stomatic guard-cells ; but 
the cells at the bottom of the 
stomatic cavity are destitute of 

CistopVotum {(pop4co, I carry), "the 
stipe of certain Fungals " (Lindley). 

Cistula = CiSTELLA. 

Cis'tus-Ma'qui, (Maqui, Corsican for 
thicket), a mass of mostly evergreen 
vegetation in the Mediterranean 
region largely composed of Cistics 

citrellus (from Citrus, Linn.), some- 
what yellow ; cit'reus, lemon-yellow ; 
citrineriiis, yellowish ; cit'ric Ac'id 
is abundant in lemon juice ; cit'rine, 
citri'nns, lemon-yellow. 

cladautoi'cous (kA-cxScj, a branch ; 
avTos, self; oJkos, a house), having 
the male inflorescence of a Moss on 
a proper branch ; Claden^chyma J 
{^yxvfia, an infusion), branched 

cladino'sus, Nilsson's term for those 
heaths which have a substratum of 
Cladina lichen. 

oladocarp'ous (kXc^^os, a branch 
vapiros, fruit), having a fruit ter 
minating a lateral shoot in Mosses 
Clad'ode, a branch of a single inter 
node simulating a leaf; Clado'dium. 
a flat expansion of the stem ; Clado 
dystroph'ia (Sus, bad ; rpo<p)\, nourish 
ment), the perishing of branches 
Cladoma'nia {fj-avia, madness), an ex- 
traordinary exuberance of branches 
(Penzig) ; Clad'ophore (^ope'cw, I bear), 
the portion of the stem in Jlieracium 
giving rise to the branches of the 


inflorescence ; Clad'ophyll, Clado- 
phyl'la {<pvK\ov, a leaf), (1) a branch 
assuming the form and function of 
a leaf, a cladode ; (2) Cladophyrium, 
a cone-scale (Archangeli); Cladopto'- 
sis (tttcSo-js, a fall), abnormal casting 
otf of branches ; Cladoscle'reids 
{(TK\i]pos, hard ; elbos, resemblance), 
stellate bodies containing calcium 
oxalate in leaves and floral en- 
velopes of Earyale ferox, Salisb. ; 
oladosipho'mc {ai(pa>v, a tube), hav- 
ing a tubular stele interrupted at 
the insertion of branches (Jeffrey). 

cladospor'oid, L, Planchon has em- 
ployed this to express likeness to 
Oladosporium, Link. 

cladoste'monus («Ao5os, a branch ; 
(TT-fificDv, a stamen), Hayne's term for 
semi-connate filaments in willows 
(Wimmer); Cladostro'ma J {crrpoifia, 
something spread), a receptacle or 
growing-point covered with carpels, 
each of which has a free placenta. 

Clamp-cells, (1) small semicircular 
hollow protuberances, laterally at- 
tached to the walls of two adjoining 
hyphal-cells, and stretching over the 
septum between them; (2) "the 
nipple-like cells by which an epiphy- 
tic root adheres to its support " 
(Heinig) ; -- Connec'tions, are the 

Clap'per, the water-sac, or lobule of 

Clasileu'cite {KAdffis a fracture -}- Leu- 
cite), that part of the protoplasm 
differentiated in nuclear division to 
form the spindle and centrosomes or 
spheres when present (Dangeard). 

Clasp'ers, Grew's term for tendrils. 

Class, Clds'sis (Lat., a fleet), (1) a 
primary group of Orders, Dicotyle- 
dons for example ; (2) ~ of Var'iates, 
a group all of which show a par- 
ticular value falling between certain 
limits (Lock) ; Classiflca'tion, ar- 
rangement under respective groups ; 
taxonomy, from Class to Variety, or 

clatliraT'ian, the characteristic mark- 
ings of the fossil Clathraria, now 
referred to Sigillaria. 



clath'rate, clatlira'tus (Lat., latticed), 
latticed, or pierced with apertures ; 
'~ Cell = Sieve-tube ; Clathi'rus (Lat. , 
a lattice), a membrane pierced with 
holes and forming a sort of grating ; 
Clath'rophores {(popew, I bear). D. 
Don's term for the glands in the 
pitchers of nepenthes. 

Claus'ilus {clausus, shut), Richard's 
term for his macropodal embryo, 
when its radicle is united by its 
edges, and entirely encloses the rest 

cla'vate, dava'tus {clava, a club), 
club-shaped, thickened towards 
the apex ; clav'ellate, clavella'ius, 
diminutive of the foregoing ; Clav'- 
icle, Clavic'ula (Lat., vine-tendril), 
tendril, cirrhus ; clavic'ulate, clavi- 
cula'lus, furnished with tendrils or 
hooks ; clav'iform, daviform'is 
{forma, shape), club-shaped ; clavil- 
lo'sus (Lat.), clubbed, or markedly 
club-shaped ; Clav'ule, Clav'ula, the 
club-shaped sporophore in certain 
Fungi, as Clavaria; Cla'vus, the dis- 
ease of Ergot iu grasses, the young 
grain being malformed and club- 
shaped, from the attack of Claviccps 
purpurea, Tul. 

Claw, the narrowed base of the petals 
in such plants as Dianthus ; -'Hook, 
the petiole of a well-developed leaf 
which is transformed into a hook 
after the fall of the lamina (Goebel). 

Cleat (pr. Gleet) of Diatoms, a small 
outgrowth of silica from the second- 
ary hoops of certain Diatoms (Palmer 
and Keeley). 

Clea'vage [disyll.], (1) sporangial di- 
vision by which sporangiospores and 
conidia are formed ; either (a) progres- 
sive, or (b) complete (Harper) ; (2) in 
xylem by cell-division in wood-paren- 
chyma, pith and medullary rays, 
resulting in formation of sci)arate 
strands, sometimes followed by 
growth of meiistem (Solereder) 

Cleft, cut lialf-way down ; graft' 

ing, insertion of a scion in a^ cleft 
n)ade in a stock ; Clefts, used by sir 
W.J. Hooker for LiRELLAK. 

Cleistanthe'ry {KKeia-rhs, shut; av6T]phs, 

flowery), the anthers of a partially 
cleistogamous flower remaining in- 
side and not exserted (Knuth) ; 
Cleis'tocarp {Kap-rrhs, fruit), an asco- 
carp, which is completely closed, the 
spores escaping by rupture, a cleis- 
tothecium ; adj . cleistocarp'ic, cleis- 
tocarp'ous, applied to those Mosses 
whose capsules do not open by a 
lid ; cleistogam'ic, cleistog 'amous 
{ydfios, marriage), with close fertil- 
ization, it taking place within the 
unopened flowers ; Cleistog'amy, the 
condition described ; Cleis'togene 
{yevos, offspring), a plant which 
bears cleistogamous flowers (Crozier) ; 
Cleistog'eny, the bearing cleistogamic 
flowers ; adj. cleistog'enoas ; — Paeu'- 
do ■^ ; Hansgirg's term for an inter- 
mediate condition, the flowers being 
normal, but not opening, and pollin- 
ation taking place within the closed 
perianth ; Cleistopet'aly {ireraXov, a 
leaf), permanently closing of the 
floral envelopes, thus ensuring 
Cleistogamy; Cleistothe'cium {OvKn, 
a case), an ascocarp which remains 
' closed till decay or rupture sets free 
the ascospores, a cleistocarp. 

Clepsy'droid (/cA.€if j'Spo, a water-clock ; 
eUos, resemblance) Trace, a band 
of centrifugal xylem separating into 
halves, each having parenchyma and 
dying-out remains of centripetal 
xylem (Lang). 

Clest'ines (deriv, ?), large parenchyma- 
tous cells in which raphides are 
frequently deposited. 

Climacorhi'zae {K\7p.a^, a ladder ; piCa, 
a root), Van Tieghem's term for 
Gymnosperms and all Dicotyledons 
except the >; ymphaeaceae, their 
root-hairs having an epidermal ori- 
gin ; climacorhi'zal, relating to the 

climat'ic {KXl/xa, a climate), relating to 
climate ; ~ Fac'tors, the elements re- 
sulting in a stable plant formation 
due to climate. 

cli'max {cliMiix, from K\7ixa^, a ladder) 
Leaves, the most develojied and com- 
plete leaves of a given plant ; ■-' 
Vegeta'tion growth of mature age. 




cli'mbing, ascending by using other 

objects as supports. 
Clinand'rium {KXivq, a bed ; dv);p, 
avlphs, a man), the anther-bed in 
Orchids, that part of the column in 
which the anther is concealed ; 
Clinanth'ium (avOos, a flower), the 
receptacle in Compositae ; Clinid'- 
ium, the stalk supporting a stylo- 

Cli'nism {K\ivu, I bend), inclination of 
the axis due to each unit bending, 
the axis making an angle to its 
original direction. 

Cli'nium {kMvt), a bed), (1) the recep- 
tacle of a Composite flower ; (2) the 
sporophore of some Fungi ; Cli'node, 
a term proposed by Leveille for the 
conidiophores of certain Fungi, as 
the Uredineae, etc. ; cf. Sterigma ; 
clinomorpho'us {/xopcp^, shape), when 
asymmetric organs are withont defi.- 
nite relation to the horizon (Wies- 
ner) ; Clinosporang'ium {a-iropa, a 
seed ; ayye'iov, a vessel), a synonym 
of PvcNiDiUM ; Cli'nospore = Stylo- 
.si'OKE ; Cli'nostat = Klinostat ; 
clinotrop'ic {rpon^, turning), used 
of an obliquely placed organ, which 
shows no vertical plane of symmetry 
(Wiesner) ; Clinot'ropism, the con- 
dition in question. 

Clip, the seizing mechanism in the 
flowers of Ascepiads ; Ger. , Klemm- 
k or per. 

Cli'tochores, -ae {kXitvs, a slope ; x^^P^^i 
asunder), plants which are dis- 
tributed by falling or sliding 

clock'wise, in the same direction as tlie 
hands of a clock ; dextrorse. 

Clona'rium J {kXuv, a little branch), 
tlie ripe, spiral -coated nucule of 
Char a ; Clone, Webber's term for a 
bud individual. 

Close Fertiliza/tion, fecundation Ijy its 
own i>ollen. 

closed, used of those fibro- vascular 
bundles in which all the pro-cam- 
bium cells become permanent tissue; 
^ Bun'dles, as described, so that in- 
crease is prevented ; '-' Fertiliza'tion 
= Close Fertilization : '-Forma'- 


tions, when the component plants 
are so crowded that invasion by 
other species is very difficult 
(Clements) ; ~ Flow'ers are cleisto- 
gamic Flowers ; ~ Nu'cleus, that of 
the higher plants. 
Clo'sing Mem'brane, the original un- 
thickened cell-wall at the centre of a 

Clo'ster, Clo'strum {kXuctottjp, a spin- 
dle), elongated cells, pointed at each 
end, frequent in wood. 

cloud'ed, when colours are unequally 

Clove, a gardener's name for a young 
bulb developed by the side of the 
mother-bulb, as in garlic. 

Club, a pluricellular hair, one of the 
elements of the pulp of the orange 
or lemon fruit (Crozier) ; club- 
shaped, gradually thickened upward 
from a slender base, clavate ; Club- 
root, malformation in Crucifers 
caused by Plasmodiophora Brassicae, 
Woron. ; Clubb'ing is a synonym. 

Clusi'um, -071 {kAv(u}, I dash against), 
an association of plants growing in 
flooded places (Clements) ; also 
spelled Clysi'um. 

Clus'ter, (1) old name for raceme, as 
used by John Hill ; (2) J = Vascular 
Bundle ; '~ Cups = Aecidium ; r^ 
Crys'tals, groups of single crystals ; 
clus'tered, compactly gathered to- 
gether, as the flower of Cusciifa ; '~ 
-gall, a gall with stunted axis and 
densely crowded leaf-like append- 
ages (Kerner). 

clyp'eate, dypea'tus {dy-pciis, a round 
shield), buckler or shield -shaped ; 
clypeastriform'is ( fonaa^ shape), 
clypeola'ris, clyp'eiform, clypei- 
foi-gi'is, all denote shield-shaped ; 
clyp'eolar, clyp'eolate, somewhat 
shield shaped ; Clyp'eus, a covering 
of the })erithecia formed of myce- 
lium, as in Clypeosphacria (Traverso). 

Clysi'um, cf. Clusium. 

Cnice'tum. an association of road-side 
weeds and Cnicus, whence the 

coacerv'ate, coaccrva' lus (Lat., heaped 
up), clustered. 



coad'nate, coadna'tus (coaduna'Ucs, 
gathered into one) ; (1) an equiva- 
lent of ADNATE ; (2) cohering ; (3) 

coadni'tus, cited by Lindley as equal 


coaeta'neous {coaetaneo,- to be of the 
same age), existing or appearing at 
the same time. 
Coag'ulase {coagulum, I cause to curdle), 
an enzyme which can precipitate 
starch in solution (Butler). 
Coal-balls, calcareous masses in coal- 
seams containing fragments of fossil 
Coales'cence {coalesco, to grow to- 
gether), the act of growing together ; 
'~of Cells, the absorption or disap- 
pearance of partitioning cell-walls, 
as in the formation of vessels ; coal- 
es'cent, coalesc'ens, union by growth. 
Coalit'io {coalitus,' fellowship), the 
growth together of parts, as the 
coalescence of petals causes that con- 
dition ; adj. coaritus. 
coarc'tate, coardaftus (Lat., pressed 
together), crowded together ; Coarc' 
ture, Coarctu'ra^ Grew's term for 
the neck or collum, the junction of 
root and stem at the level of the 
Coat, the successive layers of a bulb ; 
coat'ed, occurring in layers, usually 
of varying consistence, as the bark 
of a tree, the rind of fruits, etc. ; '~ 
Bulb, a tunicated bulb. 
coax'ial {co for con, with, and axis, an 
axle), parallel with the axis, or 
having a common axis. 
Cob, tlie spike of maize. 
cobalti'nus (Mod. Lat.), the colour of 

cobalt, a light blue, azure. 
cob'webbed, cob'webby, entangled with 

fine filaments, arachnoid, 
Coca'ine, an alkaloid from the leaves 

of Erythroxyluvi Coca, Lam. 
Coc'ci, pi. of Coccus. 
Coccid'ium t («<^««os, a kernel or berry) 
=Cy.stocarp; coccif'erous {fero, I 
bear), bearing berries. 
cocciform'is {cocciim, kermes ; forma, 
shape), used by Koerber to denote 
Lichen spores shaped like the 

kermes, or insect which affords the 
scarlet dye from Quercus cocci/era, 
Linn. ; coccinell'us, light scarlet in 
colour ; coccin'eus, scarlet, with a 
tendency towards carmine. 
coccochromat'ic {k6kkos, a berry; 
XP^i/J-a, colour), colour distributed 
in granular patches, as in some 


i.^ cco'des, spherical granulations 
resembling pills ; Coc'cogone, Coceo- 
go'nhim {yov-i), offspring), a propaga- 
tive cell of the nature of a sporan- 
gium in Cyanophyceae ; coc'coid 
(elSos, resemblance), applied to 
amorphous colonies of propagative 
cells in Nosloc (Sauvageau) ; '-' 
State, the unicellular state of Algae 
(F. F. Blackman) ; Coc'colith {hidos, 
stone), constituent plates of Cocco- 


Coccolo'ba Associa'tion, an association 
in which the shrub Coccoloha uvifera 
is predominant. 

Coc'cosphere {k6kkos, a berry ; (rcpaipa, 
a sphere), spherical masses of proto- 
plasmic origin, bearing coccoliths on 
their external surface, Coccosphaera 
leptopora, 0. Murr. & Blackm. ; 
Coc'cule, Coc'culum, a portion of a 
divided Coccus ; Coc'cus, Coc'cum, 
(1) part of a schizocarp or lobed 
fruit ; (2) also applied to the 
rounded bacteria. 

Coch'lea {cochlea, a snail or spoon), a 
closely coiled legume ; coch'lear, 
cochlea' r is ; (1) spoon-shaped ; (2) 
used of a form of imbricate aesti- 
vation with one piece exterior; coch- 
lear 'if or m, cochltarifoi-in'is, spoon - 
shaped ; coch'leate, cochlea'tus, 
shell-shape, in the manner of a 
snail-shell ; Cochlidiosperm'ataJ 
{a-ircpfjia, seed), seeds convex on one 
side, concave on the other, from 
unequal gi'owth or anomalous 

cocks'combed, fasciated (Crozier). 

Cod = a seed pod ; cod'like, follicu- 
lar ; Cod'ware, an old %Vord for 

Co'deine {KuSeia, a poppy-head), an 
alkaloid in the opium poppy. 




codiophyl'lus [kw^ov, a fleece ; <pv\\ov, 
a leaf), when a leaf is covered with 
a woolly pubescence. 

Co-dom'inant (+ dominant), domi- 
nant in common with another 
species, neither preponderating. 

coelen'terate {koTKos, hollow ; (UTepov, 
a bowel), used by Boulger for the 
carnivorous habit of Nepenthes and 
Cephalotus ; Coeleblast {^KacxThs, a 
bud), employed by Sachs for non- 
cellular Algae and Fungi ; cf. 
Apocytium ; Coelone'mata, pi. of 
Coelone'ma, Myxogastres having a 
hollow capillitium ; cf. Stekeone- 


Coelo'ina, pi. Coelo'mata {KolKuna, a 
hollow), Kuetzing's term for the 
body of Vaucheria, etc. ; an un- 
septate coenocyte. 

Coelosperm'ae (kojAos, hollow ; (nrepfia, 
a seed), plants whose seeds have 
albumen curved at the ends ; coelo- 
sperm'ous, coelosperm'us, hollow- 
seeded ; used for the seed-like 
carpels of Umbelliferae, with 
ventral face incurved at the top 
and bottom, as in coriander ; 
Coenanth'ium {avOos, a flower) = 

Coe'nobe = Coenobium. 

Coenc'bium {koiu68iov, a cloister) ; (T) 
the same as Caroerule ; (2) a 
colony of independent organisms 
united by a common investment, as 
Volvox, Pandorina, etc. ; (3) fruits 
such as those of Labiates, consisting 
of distinct lobes but not terminated 
with a stigma ; sometimes spelled 
Cenobium, etc. ; adj. coeno'biar, 
cocnobia'riSj coeiiohio'iicits ; coeno'- 
bioid (e/5os, resemblance), like a 
Coenocar'pium {Koivhs, in conmion ; 
Kupirhs, a fruit), the collective fruit 
of an entire inflorescence, as a flg 
or pine-apple. 
Coenocen'trum {Kaivhs, new, -\- Cen- 
trum), a dense, deeply stainable 
mass of gi'anules, probably of the 
nature of Chromiisia, lound by 
Wager in the oosphere of Albiujo, 
and since in other Fungi ; present 



before fertilization and disappearing 
later ; presumably nutritive, and 
possibly concerned in producing oily 
reserves in the oosphere. 
Coenoclad'ia {Koivhs, in common ; 
KXdhos, a branch), natural grafting 
where branches have grown to 
gether ; Ccen'ocyte {kvto^, a vessel), 
an aggregation of protoplasmic 
units (energids) enclosed in a com- 
mon wall, as in Vaucheria ; coeno- 
cyt'ic, of the nature of a coenocyte, 
non-cellular or multinucleate ; Coe- 
n'ogamete ( + Gamete), a multi- 
nucleate mass of protoplasm, whose 
individual nuclei are sexual elements 
(Stevens) ; Coenogen'esis {"yivf^ais, 
beginning), development by adjust- 
ment to the environment ; cf. 
Palingenesis : — it is also spelled 
Caen-, Cain-, Cen-, Kenogenesis ; 
Coenomonoe'cia (-|- Monoecia), 
polygamous plants, the same ifidi- 
vidual having male, and female 
floTvers, as well as the normal her- 
mai)hrodite flowers ; the condition is 
Coenomonoe'cism (Kirchner) ; coeno- 
p'odns = coinopodus ; coeno'- 
pterid (irrepts, a fern), resembling or 
allied to the Coenopteridae, Seward's 
name for Palaeozoic ferns previously 
termed Botryopterideae ; Coe'no- 
sphere, Dangeard's term for Coeno- 


coerules'cens, coeru'lens — CAERui<Ea- 


coesins = caesius. 

coeta'neous, coaeta'neus, of the same 
age, existing at the same time ; also 
spelled coaetaneous. 

Coeto'nium {koituiv, a bed-chamber), 
the outer glumes of a multifloral 
spikelet in grasses (Trinius). 

coffea'tus (Mod. Lat.), the colour of 
roasted cofl'ee-berries, Coffca ara- 
hicay Linn. 

cogener'ic, preferably congeneric. 

cohe'rent, cohc/rens, cohe'riiigicoliaerco, 
I cleave to) ; (1) the act of Cobe'- 
sion, the incorporation of one 
part with another, as the petals 
to form a tubular corolla ; (2) 



Co'hort, Co'hors (Lat., a band of 
soldiers), a group of orders, forming 
an Alliance. 

coinop'odus + {kolvSttovs, with common 
foot), terminating downwards in a 
cone, as most embryos ; Lindley also 
spells it coenop^dus. 

Colchicine, an alkaloid yielded by 
Colchicum autumnale, Linn. 

Co'iein, the red colouring-matter of 
Coleus Verschaffcltii, Leiu. 

Colench'yma = Collenchyma. 

Coreogen («oA.ebs, a sheath ; yevvau), I 
bring forth), a ring-shaped gi'oup 
of cells, surrounding the mestome 
of Bicksonia, etc. (Haberlaiidt) ; 
Coleophyrium {(pvWov, a leaf), the 
first leaf in germination of mono- 
cotyledons, which sheathes the suc- 
ceeding leaves. 

coleop'teroid (Coleopteron, elSos, re- 
semblance), resembling a beetle or 
tick, as the seeds of many Euphor- 
biaceae (S. Moore). 

Coleop'tilum (/coAebs, a sheath ; tttIKov, 
a feather) = Coleophyllum ; Coleo- 
rhi'za i^iCa, a root), the sheath of 
a monocotyledonous embryo, when 
pierced by the true radicle ; adj. 
coleorhiza'tus ; Col'esule, Cohs'ula; 
a membranous bag-like organ en- 
closing the sporangium of Hepati- 
cae, the perichaetial sheath, usually 
termed the Vaginule. 

coUap'sing, used by Babington for 
the form compared to a painter's 
pencil, assumed by the submerged 
leaves of some aquatic plants when 
taken out of the water ; Collap'sion, 
Collap'sio (Lat., falling together), 
the act of closing or falling to- 

Collar, CoVlum (Lat,, neck) ; (1) the 
' ' neck " of a plant, the imaginary 
boundary between the above- and 
underground portion of the axis ; 
(2) the annulus in Agarics ; (3) an 
encircling outgrowth at the base of 
the ovule in Ginkgo (Potter). 

Colla're + (Lat., a collar) = Ligule. 
collat'eral {coVlatero, to admit on 
both sides), standing side by side ; 
'~ Bun'dles, those having a single 

strand of bast and wood, side by side, 
and usually in the same radius ; 
BICOLLA.TERAL BuNDi.ES are a vari- 
ation on this type, having two of 
one element to one of the other ; 
-^ Cho'risis, see Chokisis. 

collecting {collect'io, a gathering to- 
gether) Cells, are roundish cells at 
the base of palisade tissue, destitute 
of chlorophyll and densely filled 
with protoplasm ; in German *' Sam- 
meiizellen " ; -- Hairs, hairs on the 
styles of some Compositae serving 
to collect the pollen on its discharge 
from the anthers ; collective Fruits, 
the aggregation of the fruits of 
several flowers into one mass, such 
as the mulberry ; --' Spe'cies, a 
super-species, an assemblage of sub- 
species ; CoUect'ors, Collector'es, the 
hairs of certain styles, as in Cam- 
panula, which collect or brush out 
the pollen from the anthers ; cf. 
Collecting Hairs. 

Collench'jnna {k6\\i, glue ; Hxyuna, 
an infusion) ; (1) parenchymatous 
cells with cellulose walls usually 
elongated, forming strands of grea^ 
strength under the epidermis, thick- 
ening in angles, etc. ; (2) the cel- 
lular matter in which the pollen 
is formed, usually absorbed, but 
remaining and assuming a definite 
form in some plants, as in Orchids, 
or delicate threads, as in Oenothera 
(Lindley) ; — Bast '^ , thickening 
chiefly involving the whole wall ; 
Cartilage -^j walls thickened all 
round with sharply differentiated 
inner lamella ; Met'a- '-' , caused by 
slow death of the cell, and metamor- 
phosis of the cell-wall ; Plate '^ , 
a form which resembles the true 
hard bast ; Rift -' , portion of wall 
bordering on an intercellular space 
alone thickened ; collenchymatlc, 
coUenchym'atouS, relating to Col- 

Collet = Collar. 

CoUe'ter (/coA\7jtJ>j, gUied), mucila- 
ginous hairs on the buds^ of many 
phanerogams which secrete gum. 

collic'alose, colliculo'sus {collicidus, a 




little hill), covered with little round 
elevations or hillocks. 

coniferous {collum, a collar), bearing 
a collar, as the stipe of an Agaric ; 
CoUiform'e (fortna, shape), an osti- 
ole, the orilice being lengthened into 
Br neck. 

colliga'tus (Lat., fastened together), 
collected (S. F. Gray). 

coUi'nus (Lat., appertaining to a hill), 
growing on low hills. 

coUiques'cent {colliquescere, to become 
liquid), becoming fluid, dissolving in 

Col'loids (kSWu, glue ; elSos, resem- 
blance), substances of a gelatinous 
character ; opposed to crystalloid ; 
adj. colloid'al. 

Col'lum (Lat., neck) ; (1) the collar or 
neck of a plant, see Collar ; (2) 
the lengthened orifice of the ostiole 
of Lichens. 

colo'nial (colonia, a band of settlei-s), 
in cell-division, eveiy cell dependent 
on the other cells of the organism 
at large (Hartog) { Coronist, H. C. 
Watson's term for weeds of the 
cultivated land and about houses, 
seldom found elsewhere ; Corony : 
see CoENOBiUM. Ener'gid --' , Pro'- 
toplast '-', a temporary union of 
Meriplasts, the individuality of the 
Protoplasts not being disturbed 

colorific {color, colour ; facia, I make), 
applied to those Lichens which yield 
a dye. 

Corour, coroured, possessing any tint 
l)ut gieen, technically white is re- 
gardeid as a colour, green is not ; 
corourless, (1) pale, and hyaline ; 
(2) in Lichens, not brown. 

Colpencli'yma {kSXitos, bosom ; fyxvfia, 
an infusion), cellular tissue with 
sinuous cell-walls. 

corubrine [coluhrinus, like a serpent), 
snake-like in appearance (Heinig). 

Co'lum X (Lat.,a,strainer) =Placenta. 

columbi'nus (Lat.), dove -col oured ; 
sometimes used for the tint of a 
blue pigeon. 

Col'umel {coluviella, a small pillar), 
Jaccard's term for ligniiied tissue 

a 85 

formed in place of the fertilized 
archegonium, bearing at its extrem- 
ity the privileged embryo, the only 
one which develops, as in Ephedra 
helvetica, C. A. Mey. ; Columel'la ; 
(1) a persistent central axis round 
which the carpels of some ft-uits are 
arranged as in Geranium; (2) the 
axis of the capsule in Mosses ; (3) 
the receptacle bearing the sporangia 
of Trichomanes, and other Ferns; 
(4) the central portion of the anther 
in Solanaceae (Halsted) ; (5) a sterile 
axial body within the sporangium 
of Fungi ; columel'lifonn {forma, 
shape), shaped like a small pillar 
or column. 

Cofumn, Colum'na (Lat,, a pillar) ; 
(1) the combination of stamens and 
styles into a solid central body, as 
in Orchids ; (2) the lower, twisted 
portion of the awn of glasses, not 
always present (Trimen); colum^nar, 
columnaWia, having tlie form of a 
column, as the stamens of Malva ; 
^ Crys'tals = Styloids. 

com, in Latin composition, a modifica- 
tion of coii, with. 

Co'ma (Lat., the hair); (1) the hairs at 
the end of some seeds ; (2) tlie tuft, 
at the summit of the inflorescence, 
as in the pineapple; (3) the entire 
head of a tree; co'mal Tuft, a tuft 
of leaves at the tip of a branch ; 
oo'mate, coma'tus, tufted. 

combina'te-veno'sus % (Lat.), joined 
veins, when in a leaf the lateral 
veins unite before reaching the 

combi'ned-Hy'brids, hybrids having the 
strain of more than two species, as 
one arising from a simple hybrid + 
another liybrid or species. 

comb-shaped, pectinate. 

Com'bus, used by S. F. Gray for Corm us, 
for which it is probably a niisjfrint. 

Com'ites (pi. of comes, a companion), 
Hegehnaier's term for certain cells 
occurring in the embryo-sac of 

commen'sal {c^m = con, with ; mevsa, a 
table), used of two organisms living 
in mutual beneficent relations, as in 



the dual-lichen theory, where the 
Fungus stimulates the host-Alga to 
greater energy of function ; Com- 
men'salism, the state in question. 

Com'missure, Coynmissu'ra (Lat., a joint 
or seam), the face by which two 
carpels adhere, as in TJmbelliferae ; 
adj. commissu'ral ; '^ Corunm, the 
central vascular strand in ferns ; <-- 
Strand, the same structure ; -^ Sieve- 
tubes, structures which unite the 
different kinds of Sieve-tubes with 
each other (A. Fischer). 

com'mon (Lat., covimu'nis), general or 
principal, as opposed to partial ; --' 
Bud, containing both leaves and 
flowers, or more than one flower ; ~ 
Bun'dles, those which are common 
both to stem and leaf, being con- 
tinuous from one to the other ; '^ 
Ca'lyx X = Involucre; ~ Involu'cre, 
that belonging to tlie main inflor- 
escence, as of the general umbel; 
— Name, one in popular use for a 
plant, exclusive of the scientific 
name ; ~ Ped'uncle, the main stalk, 
when it supports several subordinate 
ones, or pedicels ; -^ Per'ianth, 
occnsionally used for the involucre, 
as in Composita.e ; -^ Pet'iole, the 
first and principal leaf-stalk in com- 
ix)und leaves, the secondary petioles 
being termed " partial "; '^ Eecept'- 
acle, that which su})ports more than 
one organ; --^ Um'bel = compound 

commu'nis (Lat.), growing in society; 
not common, which is rendered by 
vulgaris; Commu'nity, Clemen ts's 
tenn for growths intermediate be- 
tween Society and Family ; he 
uses -AiiE to denote it. 

co'mose, covio-sus (Lat., with mucli 
hair) , tufted, comate. 

Com'ospores (fV'?. the hair, -\- Spore), 
seeds mancd or comate (Clements). 

compact', covipacl'us (Lat.), closely 
joiiied or ])ressed together. 

Compa'go, pi. Compa'gines (Lat., a 
connection) used by Wallroth m 
speaking of the Lichcn-thallus 
when more or less brittle or readily 
parting into layers ; compagina'tus 

(Lat.), packed closely one over 
Compan 'ion-Cells, (1) in Phanerogams, 
cells which are associated with 
sieve -tubes and are of common 
origin, filled with granular proteid 
contents, and jjossessing strongly 
marked nuclei; (2) Salmon's term 
for Begleiter-Zellen, cf. Begleiter- 
CELLs; ~ Hy'phae (y</)rj, a web), the 
tip of the trichogyne of Polystigma 
passing through a stoma into the air 
is accompanied by slender mycelial 
hyphae, which fonii a tuft, the 
so-called companion hyphae (De 
Com'pass-plants, those which place 
their leaves so that their surfaces 
face east and west, the edges north 
and south, such as Silphiicm lacinia- 
tum, Linn. 
Compensa'tion {compaisaiio, weighing 
together) of Growth, used when the 
development of a primordium of an 
organ is sujipressed, or its growth 
limited by another organ (Goebel). 
Competit'ion {comj)ctitor, a rival), the 
relation between plants occupying 
the same area, and dependent upon 
the same physical factors (Clements); 
Competitive Society, applied to two 
or more species whose roots occupy 
the same level in the soil (Adamson). 
comp'ital l^covi])lta'lii<, pertaining to 
cross roads) in venation when the 
veinlets angularly intersect ; also 
when the sori are on the point of 
com'planate, compliDia'tus (Lat., 

levelled), flattened, compressed, 
complement'ary {compleraentum, that 
which completes), when plants re- 
ciprocallv help, as Mosses protect 
soils and profit by shade and trees 
above them ; -^ Cells, the com- 
ponents of lentioel tissue arising 
from the phellogen ; — chromatic 
Adapta'tion, the power of Algae to 
make efi*ective use of the light 
which ivaches them, complementary 
to their own coloration (Engel- 
mann) ; -^ Soci'ety, two or more 
species which loot at different levels 




in the soil to each other (Adamson) ; 
sea'sonal '-' '-- , when different plants 
use the same ground at different 

complete', ccnnjyh'tus (Lat., filled), hav- 
ing all the parts belonging to it or 
the type. 

Com'plex (Lat.), interwoven fibres, 
or group of complicated parts 
(Crozier)j complex'us (Lat., em- 
braced), in vernation Avhen a leaf is 
folded over another at the sides and 
apex; ~ cellulo'sus (Lat.) = cellu- 
lar tissue ; '^ membrana'ceus (Lat.), 
elementary membrane, gi'ound-tissue ; 
- tubula'ris (Lat.), woody tissue, 
-xyleni; ~ utricula'ris (Lat.), angular 
cellular tissue ; ~ vascula'ris (Lat.), 
spiral vessels, sometimes used for 
small vessels showing secondary 
deposits; complexi'vus = com plexus. 

com'plicate, comjolica'tus {complico, I 
fold together), folded upon itself. 

Composit'ion, mmjyosit'io (Lat., putting 
together), tlie combination of parts 
to form the whole, as of subordinate 
parts to form an organ, or elements 
to form a substance. 

com'pound, similar parts aggregated 
into a common whole ; ~ Cor'ymb, 
one having more than one flower to 
each branch ; -- Dicha'sium, that iii 
which the primary axis divides into 
secondary dichasia ; --' Flow'er, an 
accumulation of florets as in the 
Compositae, Anihodium ; -- Fn it, 
where many distinct carpels are 
associated, as in the mulberry ; ~ 
Fun'gus-body, growth -form in which 
the thallus is constituted by the 
coherence of separate liyphal rami- 
fications ; ~ Hairs, branched or rami- 
fied hairs ; ~ Inflores'cence, where 
an inflorescence is itself composed 
of secondary ones ; ~ Leaf, one 
divided into separate blades ; '-' 
O'vary, an ovary having more tlian 
one carpel ; '-' Pis'til, two or more 
carpels coalescent into one body; 
^ Raceme' = Panicle ; '- Spike, 
occurring frequently on grasses, 
when the inflorescence is made up 
of spikes; -^ Spore = Sporujesm ; 

'-' Spor'ophore, formed by cohesion 
of the ramifications of separate 
hyphal branches, Ger., Fruchtkor- 
per ; '-' Stem, one that is branched ; 
'^ TTm'bel, an association of simple 
umbels, each ray being itself an 

compress'ed, comprcss'us (Lat., pressed 
together), flattened, complanate ; 
compressis'simus (Lat.), excessively 

con (Lat., with), modified by euphony 
frequently into co and com — meaning 
* ' with " in Latin compounds. 

concat'enate, concatcna'tm (Lat., linked 
together), joined as links in a chain, 
as when strings of spores, or frustules 
of Diatoms are linked together. 

Ooncaulesc'ence {con, with ; cauliSy 
stem), the coalescence of axes. 

con'cavejCynca'yws (Lat., hollowed out), 
hollow, as the in.'iide of a saucer. 

con'centrate {con, with ; centrum, 
centre), to bring to a common 
centre ; concen'tric, having a com- 
mon centre ; -^ Bun'dles, where one 
element -is wholly surrounded by 
the others, as the xylem by the 
phloem ; -^ Cells, in Cyanophyceae, 
destitute of nucleus, and yielding on 
slight pressure, the cell-walls curved 
inwards (Kohl) ; ^ Vasc'ular-bun'dle 
is the same as ^ Bundle; Concen- 
tra'tion, applied to the growth of 
Primordia with the bulk remaining 
constant (Church). 

Concep'tacle, Concepta'culum (Lat., a 
receptacle), (1) originally used by 
Linnaeus to express'^oLLiCLE ; (2) 
afterwards for the fruit of Ascle- 
piads and Apocyneae ; (3) a hollow 
case covering tlie sexual organs in 
some Algae; (4) the peridium of 
Fungi; (5) the capsule of Mosses; 
(6) by Medicus, following Jung, 
used for pericarp; (7) a general 
expression for a superficial cavity 
opening outwards, within which 
reproductive cells are ]>roduced. 

conch'iform, conch i for vi^ is {concha, a 
shell ; forma, sliape), shaped like 
the shell of a bivalve. 

coiicin'nus (Lat.), neat, elegant. 




concolor'ous, cmi' color (Lat., of one 
colour), unifoiTii in tint. 

concom'itant {concom'itans, attending), 
used of vascular bundles which run 
side by side without being separated 
by other bundles. 

Concresc'cHce {concresco, to grow to- 
gether) ; (1) growing into union; 
coalescent; (2) a synonym of 
Cementation; adj. concres'cent ; 
concrete', concre'ius, growing to- 

Condensa'tion {condcnsatio, making 
dense) = Concentration ; condens'- 
ing Len'ses, epidermal papillae act- 
ing so as to focus the available light 
on the chloroplasts in the palisade- 
cells (Haberlandt). 

Conduct'ing Bun'dles, strands of elon- 
gated cells in leaves and even the 
stems of Mosses, simulating a vas- 
cular bundle ; also used for Vascular 
Bundles ; -^ Cells, long narrow cells, 
associated with sieve-tubes, but 
having imperforate walls ; '^ Sheath, 
elongated parenchymatous cells 
in the inner cortex of the stem, 
continued into the leaves as an in- 
vestiture of the vascular bundle ; '- 
Sur'face, in the pitchers of Nepenthes, 
upon which insects have no foothold, 
but fall downwards ; '-' Tis'sue, a 
loose tissue of the style through 
which the pollen-tubes can readily 
make their way ; Conduct'ive Tis'sue 
is the same. 

condu'plicans (Lat., doubling), doub- 
ling up, as conduplicaM'ia Fo'lia, 
the leaflets of a compound leaf which 
apply themselves to each other's 
surfaces; condu'plicate, conduplica- 
ti'rns, folded together lengthwi>e ; 
Conduplica'tion, in aestivation when 
the sides of an organ are applied to 
each other by their faces. 

Con'dyle, Condyl'lum {k6vSu\os, a 
knuckle), (1) the antheridium of 
Chara, (2) the swelling which termi- 
nates the rhizoi>last of Polytoma 

Cone, Co'nus (Lat.), the fruit of the 
pine or fir-tree with scales form- 
ing a Strobile ; '- Gen'us, a fossil 

genus only kno\\Ti by its cones ; -^ 
of Growth, the apical growing portion 
of the stem. 

Co'nein = Conia. 

Cone'let (disylL), the diminutive of 
Cone, applied to a cone of the first 
year (Mohr). 

Conench'yma {kwvos, a cone ; iyxvixa, 
an infusion), conical cells which 
constitute hairs (Lindley). 

conferru'minate, covferrumina'tiis 

(Lat., cemented), adherent by ad- 
jacent faces, as the cotyledons of 
Horse Chestnut. 

confert'ed, confert'as (Lat., brought to- 
gether), closely packed or crowded. 

conferva'ceous, confer'void, composed 
of threads, resembling the genus 

con'fiuent, con'Jivens (Lat., flowing 
into), blended into one, passing by 
degrees one into the other ; ~ Fruit, 
a compound fruit, such as the mul- 
berry or pineapple. 

conformed' (disyll.), coyxform'is (Lat., 
shaped), (1) similar in form ; (2) 
closely titting, as a seed -coat to the 

Con'gener (Lat., of the same race), 
another plant of the same genus; 
congeneric, belonging to the same 
genus; Congener'ity, the condition 
of belonging to the same genus. 

congen'ital {congenitus, born together), 
grown to anything; strictly, of the 

same origin. 

congest'ed, congest' ns (Lat., lirought 

together), crowded, 
conglo'bate, congluba'txis (Lat., made 

like a ball), collected into a ball. 
conglom'erate, conglomrra'tus (Lat., 

rolled together), clustered. 
Conglu'tin [conglAUinatus, cemented 

together), a constituent of jilant- 

casein, usually with legumin ; con- 

glu'tinate, congliitina'tiis, as though 

glued together. 
con'gregate [congrego, to assemble), 

collected into close ]>roximity. 
Coni'a {kwv^iov, hemlock), the active 

principle of Conium macukitwn, 

Linn., a jioisonous alkaloid. 
con'ical, con'icus (Lat., cone-shaped). 




having the figure of a cone, as the 

conid'ian [kovis, dust), referring to 
conidia; conld'ioid {fUos, resem- 
blance), like conidia in form or 
function (W. G. Smith) ; conidiif er- 
ous {<pop4(t), I carry), bearing 
Conidia ; Conid'iophore, Conidioph'- 
ora = GoNlDioPHORE; the organ 
which produces Conidia in the 
Hyphomycetes and Phycomycetes 
(Saccardo); Conidlospore (inropa, a 
seed) = CoNiDiUM ; Conid'ium (pi. 
Conidia)=GoNiDiA ^ Con'ids, simpli- 
fication proposed by Bennett and 
Murray for Conidia. 

Conif erin [conus, a cone ; fero, I bear), 
a glucoside derived from coniferous 
wood; coniferous, producing or 
bearing cones, as many Gymno- 
sperms; co'niform {forma, shape) = 
conical ; Conifrutice'ta, pi. ( + 
Fruticeium), forests composed of 
or dominated by coniferous shrubs. 

Coni'in, Cone 'in, the same as Conia. 

Coniligno'sa, pi. {conus, a cone; 
lignosus, woody), dominated by 
trees and shrubs with typical needle- 
like foliage. 

Coniocyst', Coniocyst'a {k6vis, dust ; 
KvcTTis, a bag), a closed sporangium 
resembling a tubercle, containing a 
mass of spores ; Coniotjie'ca I [d-nKV, 
case), the loculus of an anther. 

Conisil'vae, pi. conns, a cone (+ Silva), 
coniferous forests. 

Con'joint Bun'dle, a vascular bundle 
when it is composed of wood and 
bast elements. 

con'jugate, conjuga'tus (Lat., united), 
coupled ; as a }»innate leaf, of two 
leaflets ; ~ Spi'rals, whorled leaves 
so arranged as to give. two or more 
genetic spirals running j-arallel with 
each other; Conjuga'ting Tubes, 
long processes emitted by the fer- 
tilized trichophore in certain Algae, 
which unite with the auxiliary 
cells (Osterhout); Conjuga'tion, (!) 
the fusion of sexual elements, the 
union of two gametes to form a 
zygote, used especially when the two 
gametes are similar, as in some 


serving to 
applied by 
which the 

Algae and Fungi ; (2) the temporary 
and incomplete fusion of two indivi- 
duals (Hartmann) ; ^ Canal', an open 
tube formed between the conjugation 
cells (gametes) of certain Algae (F. 
Blackman and Tansley) ; — Tubes = 
Conjugating Tubes, various kinds 
of, as cross ~, when some cells in 
a given algal filament are active, and 
others passive; lat'eral ~, when it 
takes pla«e cell by cell ; scala'riform 
~, when the entire filament is con- 
cerned; ~ -Cell=GAMETE; conjuga'- 
to-palm'ate, when a leaf divides 
into two arms, each of which is 

{conjunct Ivits, joined), 
unite ; - Symbio'sis^ 
Frank to those (ases in 
symbioiits are so inti- 
mately blended as to form apparently 
a single body; ~ Tliread8= Spindle 
Fibres; '- Tis'sue, the fundamental 
tissue or ground tissue interior to 
the stele; Conjunctor'ium J, the 
operculum of a Moss. 

conna'cian, used by Praeger for plants 
chiefly growing in Connaught. 

connas'cent {con, with ; nascor, to be 
born), produced at the same time 

con'nate, conna'tus (Lat., born at the 
same time), united, congenitally or 
subsequently ; con'nate-perfo'liate, 
imited at the base in pairs around 
the supporting axis. 

Connect'ing {conncctus, fastened to- 
gether) Cell = Hetekocyst; '- Tis'- 
sue, a special colourless tissue ad- 
joining the veins of some leaves 
(Soleneder) ; ~ Zone, the " hoop " or 
girdle connecting the valves of a 
Diatom frustule ; Connect'ive, Coii- 
nccti'vum, the portion of a stamen 
distinct from the filament which 
connects the two lobes of an anther ; 
connectiva'lis, having to do with the 

conni'vent, conni'vcns (Lat,, winking), 
coming into contact or converging. 

Connu'bium (Lat., wedlock), the stage 
of protoplasmic coalescence in the 
conjugation of filamentous Algae. 




Conooarplnm (kHvos, a cone : Kapwhs 
fruit), an aggregate fniit consisting 
of many fruits on a conical re- 
ceptacle, as the strawberry ; co'- 
noid {fUos, resemblance), cone-like ; 
conoid'al, conoida'lis, resembliug a 
conical figure, but not truly one, 
as the calyx of Silene coiwidca, 

conop'eus {K<t)vu}^, K<t)vwKos, a gnat), a 
correction of conopseits, gnat-like, 
as in Hahenaria conopsea ; cf. Gras, 
in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. ix. (1862), pp. 

Conophor'ium {Kwvo<p6pos, cone-beai- 
ing), a coniferous forest ; conopho 
roph'ilous {<piK4w, I love), dwelling 
in coniferous forests ; Conophoro- 
phy'ta {(purhu, a plant), coniferous 
forest plants (Clements). 

Conopodlum {kuvos, a cone ; novs, 
iFod6s, a foot), a conical floral re- 

Conostro^ma + {arpufia, spread out) 
Endlicher's term for a growing 
point, constituting a free central 

Conserv'ative Or'gans {coiiscrvcUio, a 
keeping), those which are employed 
in nutrition, as root, stem, leaves. 

consim'ilar {conshnilis, entirely alike), 
applied to the valves .of a Diatom, 
when both sides are alike ; Con- 
simiritude, resemblance of the two 
valves, unequal but sijnilar, of the 
Epitheca and Hypotheca. 

Consocia'tion {consociatio, union), a 
group formed by Consoc'ies (Lat. ), 
used by Clements in the sense of As- 
sociation ; Consocie'tum ( + etum), 
an association. 

consol'idated {consolido, I make firm) ; 

(1) when unlike parts are coherent ; 

(2) Crozicr adds, having a small 
surface in proportion to bulk, as 
many Cacti. 

Con'sortism {consors, sharing pro- 
perty), Reinke's term for Symbiosis. 

Consor'tium (Lat., fellowsliij)), (1) the 
relations of Lichen life (Keinke) • 
(2) the intimate association or felt- 
ing of certain algal vegetation (F. E. 

con'stant {constans^ steadfast;, in the 

same condition, or always present. 
Constella'tion (Lat., coyistellatio, a star- 
cluster), employed by Pfeffer for the 
aggregate of conditions regulating 
the vital mechanism, e. g. of the 
con'stipate {constipatio, crowding to- 
gether), crowded or massed together. 
constrict'ed {constrictua, compressed), 

drawn together, contracted. 
Constric'tion {constrictio, binding to- 
gether), the narrowest portion of 
Diatoms and Desmids seen from the 
Constnict'ive Metab'olism = Assimi- 
consu'tus (Lat., stitched together), 
when parts are united by a mem- 
brane of threads. 
Contabesc'ence {contabesco, to waste 
away), the abortive condition of 
stamens and pollen. 
con'tact {contactus, touching) Cy'cles, 
individual members of a phyllotac- 
tic system overlapping to form 
continuous investments of the axis 
(Church) ; -^ Lines = Pakasticuies ; 
'-' Parasticli'ies is a synonym ; --' 
Pres'sures, those between growing 
primordia in a Coxcentuation 
conta'gious {cmitagio, touch), used of 
diseases when communicable by 
touch ; cf. infectious. 
contemato'sus X (deriv. ?) covered by 
an armature between bristly and 
aculeate (Lindley). 
conter'minous {coyiteriiiinus, neighl)our- 

ing), of e([ual boundaries. 
Con'text {contextus, woven together), 
employed by Murrill for the flesh 
of Fungi ; contex'tus = Tissue. 
contig'uous, coiitiy'uus (Lat., adjoin- 
ing), when neighbouring parts arc 
in contact, as most cotyledons. 
contin'gent {contingens, toucliing) 
Symbio'sis, see Symbiosis ; in (Jer., 
Kauni parasitism us. 
contin'uous {continuus, running on), 
the reverse of interrupted ; also used 
for asrptaie ; Continu'ity, uninter- 
rupted connection. 




contort'ed, cantor' tus (Lat.), twisted or 
bent ; in aestivation the same as 
CONVOLUTE ; Contor'tion, a twisting ; 
Contortoplank'ton (+ Pf-ankton), a 
neritic floating mass of Diatoms, 
especially of Chactoceras debile and 
C. conlortum, whence the name ; 
contortu'plicate {plicatUs, woven), 

(1) twisted and plaited or folded; 

(2) twisted back upon itself. 
contra-, in Latin compounds=against; 

~ clock'wise, against the motion of 
the hands of a clock ; sinistrorsc. 

contract'ed, conlrad'us (Lat.)) nar- 
rowed or shortened ; spreading but 
slightly ; contract'ile, capable of 
actively shrinking in volume and 
expanding again, used of proto- 
plasm ; ~ Vac'uoles, small cavities in 
protoplasm, whicli increase and de- 
crease in .size rhythmically ; Con- 
tractil'ity, the capacity of altering 
s])ontaneously in volume. 

con'trary, contra'riiis (Lat.), in ■ an 
opposite direction, as a silicic com- 
pressed contrary to the dissei»i- 

Contror, frequently used in the sense 
of the English word Check, as '^ 
Experiments, to check the original 

Co'nus (Lat.) = Cone, Strobile. 

Convar'iants, pi. {co7i = witti ; vario, I 
alter), individuals of equal age or 
the same generation, wlio are liable 
to vary; cf. Devaiiiants; converg'- 
ent {rcrgms, bending), ai)plied to 
veins which run from the base to the 
apex of the leaf in a curved manner ; 
converg'iner'vis, vius, convergen'ti- 
nervo'sus (Lat.), simple veins di- 
V(>rging from the midril) and con- 
vpijging towards the margin. 

con'v%x, convcx'us (Lat., arched), liav- 
ing a more or less rounded surface ; 
convexiusc'ulus. somewhat convex. 

con'volute, coavohi'tuH (Lat., rolled 
round), convolu'tive, convohiti'vus : 
(1) when one part is wholly rolled 
up in another, as the petals of the 
\\'alltlowt'r ; (2) in a spathe when 
the margins nmtually envelope each 

convolvula'ceous, denoting affinity 
with the genus Convolvnlas. 

co-ovar'ial, derived from cells of the 
.same ovary (K. Pearson). 

co'ipious (I'opiostos, plentiful), abundant; 
abbreviated cop.' cop.' cop.^ to show- 
decreasing frequency (Warming). 

cop'pery, brownish red, with a metal- 
lic lustre ; cui)reous. 

Cop'pice, a small wood which is regu- 
larly cut at stated intervals, the 
new growth arising from the stools ; 
Copse is practically the same ; cop'- 
picing, in forestry, cropping the 
plantation by cutting the under- 
.wood every few years. 

coproph'ilous (/coVpoy, ordure ; (fnXtw, 
I love), applied to Fungi whose 
habitat is the dung of animals ; 
Cop'rophyte {(pvToUy plant) = Sapko- 


Cop'ulae (i»l. of copula, a thong or 
band), inteiniediate bands of cell- 
wall in Diatoms, as in Teiysinoe, 

Copula'tion {copidatio, coupling), (1) 
used for Conjugation, tlie union of 
sexual cells; (2) the entire blending 
of two individual nuclei (Hart- 
mann) ; cop'ulative J, used of dis- 
sepiments not readily separating 
from the axis or walls of the 

Coque (Fr., shell), used by S. F. Gray 
for Coccu-s. 

Cor Se'minis % (Lat. ) = Embryo. 

corac'ihns (Lat., raven-black), glossy 

cor'acoid (f<^pa^, a javen ; elSos, resem- 
blance), " shaped like a crow's beak " 

Cor'al Spot, a fungus disease caused by 
the wound parasite Ncdria cimui- 
barina, Fr. 

coralliform''.i8 [corallum, coral ; forma, 
sliape), coral-like in form ; cor'al- 
line, coralli'nus (Lat., coral red), 
resembling coral in appearance ; 
cor'alloid, coraUoi'dcs [flhos, resem- 
blance), coral-like, as the roots of 
Ncottia Nidus-avis, Rich., and also 
certain Lichens. 

Cor'cle (Crozicr); Cor'cule, Cor'cuhim 




(Lat , a little heart) = (1) embryo.; 

(2) plumule, or plumule and radicle. 

Cord, a synonym of Strand; umbili'- 

cal -^ = Funiculus. 
cordai'tean, resembling the genus of 

fossils, Cordaites. 
cor'date, corda'tus (Lat. ), heart-shaped, 
applied to leaves having the petiole 
at the broader and notched end ; 
cor'diform, cordiformf is (Lat. ) ; 
shaped like a heart. 
eord'shape = funiliform. 
Core, (1) the seeds and integuments of 
a pome, such as an apple ; Grew 
spells it "Coar"; (2) an axial 
strand of parenchyma in the hau- 
storium of certain parasites (De 
Bary); coreless [disyll.], \vithout 
core (Bailev). 
core'mial {Koptina, a broom), like the 
genus Coremium, Link; core'mioid 
(eZSos, resemblance), applied to a 
fasciated form, as of PenidUiuvi, 
etc. ; Core'iniuin= Synnema. 
Cor'eses («^pts, a bug), " dark red, 
broad, discoid bodies, found beneath 
the epicarp of grapes " (Lindley). 
coria'ceous, coria'ceus [corium, leather), 

Cork, protective tissue replacing the 
epidermis in older superficial parts 
of plants ; the outer cells contain 
air, and are elastic and spongy in 
texture, but impervious to liquids ; 
'^ Camb'iiim = PHKLLO(;EN ; -- Cor'- 
tex, the corky layers of the bark ; 
-- Mer'istem = Phellogen ; '-' 
Pore 'cork, suberised portion of lenti- 
cels, with intercellular spaces be- 
tween the cork-cells (Klebahn) ; 
^ Warts, local formations of cork on 
leaves (Solereder) ; cork'y, of the tex- 
ture or quality of cork ; ^ Envel'ope, 
"- Lay'er, the bast layer beneath 
the epidermis Avhich gives rise to 
coik ; -^ Scab, a potato disease due to 
the Myxomycete Spongospora Solani. 
CorxQ, Corm'v^ {Kopfxbs, a trunk), a 
bulb-like fleshy stem or base of stem, 
a "solid" bulb; cormo'des {fl^o^, 
resemblance), possessing an axis (A. 
liraun) ; Cormog'amae {y^ixos, mar- 
riage), Ardissoiie's division for Char- 

aceae and Muscineae ; cormog'enons 
(7€Vos, offspring), having a stem or 
corm ; cormophylla'ceoas {<pv\\ov, 
a leaf, + aceous), used by E. New- 
man for those Ferns whose fronds 
are attached to the caudex ; Conn'o- 
phyte {<{>vrhy, plant), Endlicher's 
term for plants possessing axis and 
foliage, that is. Phanerogams and 
vascular Cryptogams ; adj. cormo- 
phyt'ic ; -^ Associa'tion, dominated 
by cormophytes (F. E. Fritsch). 
Corn, cereals generally ; in the United 

States it is confined to maize. 
corna'ceous, (1) allied to the cornel 
tree, Cornus ; (2) "of a horn-like 
consistence " (Vasey). 
cor'neoQS, cor'neus (Lat.), horny, with 

a horny texture. 
Cor'net {cornu, a horn), a hollow horn- 
like growth ; '~ -sliape, cucuiliform, 
hooded ; cornic'alate, cornicula'tus 
(Lat.), furnished with a little horn 
or horns ; comiculireroas, -nis 
i/cro, I bear), bearing horns or 
protubei-ances ; cor'niform {forma, 
sliape), shaped like a horn. 
Cor'nine, a bitter piincii)le in the bark 

of Cornus sanguinca, Linn. 
Cor'nu (Lat., a liorn), (1) a horn-like 
process ; (2) occasionally used for 
Calcar or Spur ; cor'nute, cormi'tiif!, 
horned or spurred ; '-' Leaves, a 
sudden ])rojection of the midrib 
forming a spine-like outgrowth, 
often in a difierent plane ; Cor- 
nu'tin, a poisonous body derived 
from ergot, the "spur" of rye and 
other grasses. 
Cor'ol (Crozier) = Corolla. 
Corol'la (Lat., a little crown) ; (1) the 
interior perianth, comjtoscd of petals, 
free or united ; (2) J the annulus of 
Fungi; (3) emploja'd by Sir J. E. 
Smith for the utricle of Carex ; 
corolla'ceous (-f aceous) corolla- 
like, petaloiil ; cor'ollate, corulla'lua, 
corolla'ris, possessing a corolla • 
Cor'ollet, a floret of a Composite ; 
coroUif'erous, -riis {frro, 1 bear), 
corolla-bearing ; coroUiflor'al {,flos, 
Jloris, a flower), corolliflor'ous, -rns, 
having the calyx, petals and ovary 




inserted separately on the disk, the 
stamens on the corolla ; cor'olline, 
corolH'nus, (1) seated on a corolla, 
(2) corolla-like, petaloid, (3) belong- 
ing to a corolla ; Cor'ollale, Corol- 
lu'la ; (1) a diminutive corolla ; (2) 
floret of a head, as in Compositae. 
Coro'na (Lat., a crown) ; (1) a coronet, 
any body which intervenes between 
the corolla and stamens ; (2) % the 
"eye" of apples or pears, the re- 
mains of the calyx limb ; (3) \ the 
ray of the capitula iu Compositae ; 
(4) a whorl of ligiiles or petals, 
united or free ; (5) a synonym of 
CucuLLUS ; (6) used by J. Hill for 
the pericycle, or "circle of pro- 
pagation " ; (7) the ring of primary 
wood "in the medullary sheath; (8) 
the MEDULLARY Crown, or '- 
Sheath ; '^ stipula'ris, the circle 
of stipulodes in Chara (Migula) ; 
~ Se'minis = Pappus ; -- stamin'ea 
= Orbiculus, a coronet formed from 
the transformation of stamens ; cor'- 
onal, appertaining to a corona, as 
<~ Ves'sels, those of the corona ; 
coro'nans (Lat.), crowning, seated 
on the apex ; cor'onate, corona'tus 
(Lat.), crowned, having a corona; 
'-' Papiriae, growths with an ap- 
pearance of crown-like cells at their 
apex (Solereder) ; Cor'onet = Cor- 
ona ; coro'nifornr, coroniformHs 
{forma, shape), shaped like a crown 
or coronet ; Coro'nule, Corcni'tda ; 

(1) a diminutive of corona, a floret ; 

(2) = Pappus ; (3) the small calyx- 
like body which crowns the nucule 
of Chara ; (4) in Diatoms, a set of 
spines which terminate the frustules; 

coronopifo'lioid (eUos, resemblance), 
recalling the foliage of Plantago 
coronopifolia, Bret., now merged in 
P. macrorhiza, Poir. 

Cor'pora (pi. of coi'pits, a body) car- 
no'sa (Lat., fleshy), the sporangia of 
certain Fungi ; Cor'pus, the mass or 
substance of anything ; -^ lig'neum, 
'-' ligno'sum, the mass of the woody 
tissue of a plant ; ~ medulla're, 
the mass of the cellular tissue in 
the pith. 


Corpufc'cle (corpuscidum, a small body), 
a small mass or body ; Corpusc'ola, 
sing. Corpusc'ulTun ; (1) sporangia of 
some Fungi ; (2) archegonium, or 
the central cell of the same in Coui- 
ferae ; (3) the connections between 
the arms of the pollen-masses in 
Asclepiads ; (4) = Egg, Oospheres; 
/~ venniform'ia, spiral vessels in a 
contracted, strangled condition. 

correla'ted {con = with, relatics, re- 
turned) I z-' Variabil'ity, having 
reciprocal vaiiation ; Correla'tion, 
the reciprocal influence of one organ 
upon another. 

cor'rugate, corruga'tus ; corrugati'vua 
(Lat.), wrinkled. 

Cor'sican Moss, dried Algae. 

Cor'tex (Lat.), (1) the bark or rind; 
the gi'ound tissue between the stelp 
and epidermis ; (2) the peridium of 
Fungi ; cor'tical, cortica'lis, relating 
to the cortex ; -^ Intm'sion {in- 
tnisus, thrust in), applied to growth 
of external tissues into stelar or vas- 
cular structures (Lang); -^ Lay'er, 
'-' Integ'ument, the investing layers 
of the bast system ; see also Endo-, 
Exo-, Medio-cortex; '-'Pore=LEN- 
TICEL ; -^ Bays = medullary rays 
in the phloem ; — Sheath, Naegeli's 
teiTO for the whole of the primary 
bast bundles ; <- Stra'tum, the super- 
ficial layer of the Lichen-thallus ; 
cor'ticate, cortica'tus {h&t.), covered 
with bark, or with an accessory 
bark-like covering; cortica'ting, con- 
stituting cortex, as -^ Cells, those 
which make up the cortex ; Cortica'- 
tion, the formatioti of corte^ ; cor- 
ticlf' erous {/ero, I bear), producing 
bark ; cortic'iform {/oi'ma, shape), 
like bark ; cor'ticole, cortic'olous 
(colo, I inhabit), living on bark, as 
some Lichens and Fungi ; cor'ticose, 
cor'ticons, barky, full of bark. 

Corti'na (Late Lat., a curtain), the fila- 
mi-ntous annuli of some Agarics; 
cor'tinate, cortina'rius (Lat.), havisg 
a web-like texture. 

corvi'nus (Late Lat., pertaining to the 
raven), raven-black. 

Coryd'alin, an alkaloid present in the 



root of Corydalis tuberosa, DC. ; 
coryd'aline, corydalin' eua, resem- 
bling the genus Coi-ydalis. 

Cer'ymb, Corym'bus (Lat., a cluster of 
flowers), a flat-topped or merely 
convex and open flower-cluster of 
the indeterniinato or centripetal 
order: the term formerly included 
most cymes; cor'ymbate, corymb'- 
iated, having corymbs or growing in 
corymbs; corymbif'eroas, •rvs{fcro, 
I bear), bearing corymbs ; corym'- 
biform {forma, shape) ; cor'ymboBe, 
corymbo'sus, corym'bous, arranged 
in corymbs ; corymb'ulose, -Ions, in 
small corymbs. 

Corynid'ia {itopvpiq, a club), " Processes 
sunk into the margin of the ger- 
minating leaf of Ferns, and con- 
taining spiral threads" (Lindh-y) 
[= Antheridia ? ]. 

Coryphi'um, pi. Coryphi'a {Kopv<p7], 
summit), alpine plant formations ; 
coryphoph'ilus ((piXfu, I love), grow- 
ing in alpine places ; Coryphophy'ta 
{(pvTbv, a plant), alpine plants 

Coryphyny {Kopv(p7], the crown of the 
head ; <pvKXov, a leal), a monstrosity 
in which the axis ends in a loaf,' 
sometimes coloui'ed. 

Cosmaesthe'sia {KSa-fios, the world, + 
Ae.sthesia), sensibility to external 
stimuli ; Cosmop'olite {ir6\is, a city), 
a plant of well-nigh universal dis- 
tribution ; cosmoporitan, distributed 
throughout the world. 

Cos'ta (Lat.), a rib, when single, a 
midril) or middle- nerve ; cos'tal- 
nerved, nerves springing from the 
midrib ; cos'taefonn [forma, shape), 
applied by J. Smith for primary 
veins in ferns when parallel to each 
other and very evident ; cos'tate, 
costa'tus (Lat.), ribl)ed, having one 
or more primary longitudinal veins ; 
costa'to-veno'sus, when the parallel 
side veins of a feather- veined leaf are 
much stouter than those which in- 
tervene ; costel'late, having small 
ribs; Cost'ulae, used by J. Smith 
for the primary veins of Fern-seg- 

Cot'ton, the hairs of the seeds of 
species of Gossypium ; Cot'ton-grass 
Associa'tion, an association in which 
Eriophoriun is dominant; cot'tohy, 
pubescence of long soft hair, 
cot'ylar {k6tuK7i, a hollow vessel), 

Cotyle'don {KorvKriS-MU, a hollow), ap- 
plied first by Linnaeus to the seed- 
lobes, th^ first leaves of the embryo, 
one in monocotyledons, two or more 
in dicotyledons, rarely a whorl borne 
by the radicle br caudicle ; -^ -trace, 
the common bundlq in the stem 
proper to the cotyledon ; its leaf- 
trace ; cotyledona'ris, union or close 
approximation of the seed-lobes; 
Cotyle'donoid (elSos, resemblance), a 
germinating thread of a Moss, a pro- 
tonema; cotyle'donous, cotylcdo'ncHS, 
possessijig seed-lobes. 

cotyrifonn, cotyliform' is {k6tvKt}, a 
hollow ; forma, shape), dish-shaped 
or wheel-shaped, with an erect or 
ascending boixler ; Cot'yloid Cell, a 
single huge cell in Ariccnnia offici- 
nalis, acting as a haustorical ojgan ; 
its branches ramify throughout the 
nucellus and finally invade the pla- 
centa (Habeilandt) ; jtossibly a sister- 
cell of the embryo-sac (Treub) ; 
cotyloi'deus (Mod. Lat.), = cotyli- 
FoiiM ; Cotylvar'iants, pi. {varians, 
varying), variation in the number 
of cotyledons (De Vries). 

Coum'arin, the fragrant i)rinciple of 
the Toufjuin bean, lJij)lcryx odorata, 

coun'ter {contra, against) clock-wise, 
sinistrose, turning the reverse way 
of clock-hands. 

Cou'ple-cell, Ilartog's term for Zvcjotk. 

Coup'let, the result of Coupling; 
union due to allinity in the .same 
individual between allelomorphs 
which belong to distinct pairs; also 
termed Game'tic Coupling. 

Cour'baril, a resin from JTymmaca 
Courbaril, Linn. 

Cov'er = Oi'KiicuLi'.M. 

Cov'er-cell, of He}iati(ae, the apical 
cells of the neck of a young arche- 
gonium (Campbell); cov'er-like = 


cover like 



LARis ; '- -Plate, in Ferns, see Steg- 
MATA of Mettenius. 
cowled = cucuLLATE (Crozier). 
Crab, a disease of thfe larch, due to the 
mycelium of Peziza Willkommii, 
Crad'ina (xpclSos, the wild fig-tree), a 
proteolytic enzyme existing in the 
juice of the common fig-tree, Ficus 
Carica, Linn, 
cra'dling = involventia (folia). 
Cram'pon (Fr.), hooks or adventitious 
roots, which act as supports as in 
craspedod'romous, -ynits {KpdaircSov, a 
border; Zp6fxos, a course), when the 
lateral veins of a leaf run from mid- 
rib to margin without dividing. 
Crassinucella'tae {crassus, thick, + 
NucELLUs), Van Tieghem's term 
for plants whose nucelli remain of 
considerable bulk up to the time 
of the formation of the embiyo; 
rf, Tenuinucellatae. 
crass'us (Lat.), thick. 
Crate'ra («poTTjp, a cup), a cup-shaped 
receptacle; Crate'ria, pi., ascidia 
which arc derived from the surface 
of a leaf (C. Schimper) ; crate'riform, 
crateriform'is {foTTna., shape), goblet 
or cup-shaped, hemispheric or shal- 
low in contour. 
cratic'ular {craticula, a small giid- 
iron), a resting condition of 
Diatomaceae, in which a pair of 
new valves are formed within the 
original valves. 
Cra'ay-weeds, the same as Loco- 
weeds, chiefly species of Astragalus 
and Lupinus which produce " Loco " 
disease in animals which have eaten 
cream- colour, white with a slight in- 
clination to yellow. 
Creat'ospores, -ae {Kp4as, flesh, 
-f Spore), " nut-fruited " plants 
creep'ing, rmming along or under the 
ground and rooting at intervals; 
restricted by Syme to those cases 
where there is only one, or rarely 
two, flowering stems from each 

branch of the rhizome ; "- Stem, 
often means Rhizome. 
cre'meus (Mod. Lat., creamy) = 


Crem'nad {Kp-qfivhs, a clitt"), a cliff 
plant; Crenmi'on, a suggested 
emendation of Cremni'um, a cliti 
plant association ; cremnoph'ilus, 
{(piXeo), T love), cliff- dwelling; 
Cremnophy'ta [cpvTvh, a plant), clifl' 
plants (Clements). 

Crem'ocarp, Cremocarp'ium {Kpffidw, I 
hang; Kapirhs, fruit), a dry and 
seed-like fruit, composed of two 
one-seeded carpels invested by an 
Qpigynous calyx, separating when 
ripe into mericarps. 

cremoric'olor {cremeus, color, colour) 


Cre'na (Mod. Lat, a notch), a rounded 
tooth or notch ; cre'nate, crena'tua, 
scalloped, toothed with crenatures; 
Cre'natnte, CrerMit/ra, a rounded 
notch m*. the margin of a leaf; 
Cren'ei, Cren'elling = Crena; 
cren'elled crenula'ris, margined 
with crenatures ; cren'ellate, crerul- 
la' Ills, cren'ulate, crenula'tus, cren- 
ate, bub the toothings themselves 
small ; Cren'ule, a diminutive Crena. 
Cre'nad {Kp-hvn, a spring or source), a 
spring-loving plant ; Creni'um, a 
spring formation ; crenoph'ilus 
{(pi\4w I love), spring-loving; Cre- 
nophy ta {<pvTbv, a plant), plants of 
springs (Clements), 
creoph'agous {Kpeas, flesh ; (pdya, I 
eat), a synonym of carnivorous, as 
apfilied to plants, 
cres'cent-shaped, approaching the 
figure of a crescent, as the leaves of 
certain species of Passiflora. 
Cres'cograpli {cresco, I grow ; yptuph, 
writing), employed by Bose for an 
instrument to measure growth. 
Creat, (1) an elevation or ridge upon 
the summit of an organ; (2) an 
outgrowth of the funiculus in seeds, 
a sort of axil ; crest'ed, possessing 
any elevated line or ridge on the 
surface such as may be compared 
with the crest of a helmet, 
creta'ceous, -ecus (a-eta, chalk), (1) 




chalky, as the chalk -glands found 
in Saxifrages ; (2) chalk-white, 

Crev'ice-plant = Chasmophyte ; crev'- 
iced = HiMOSE. 

cri'brate {cribrum, a sieve), usually 
written cribrose; cri'brifonn, a-i- 
bnfonn'is {forma, shape), sieve-like, 
pierced with many holes ; — Ciells = 
Sieve-cells ; ^ Tis'sue, containing 
sieve-cells and tubes; cri'brile, 
(Kearney), cri'brose, crihru'sus, 
pierced like a sieve ; --' Cells = 

crinif' erous {crinis, hair ; fero, I bear), 
used by J. Smith for hirsute; 
cri'nite, crini'tus, bearded with long 
and weak hairs, 

crin'oid [npivov, a lily; elSos, resem- 
blance), lily-like (Crozier). 

Crin'ula {crinis, hair) = Elatek ; 
Cri'nus, a stiff hair on any part. 

crisp, cri67y'«5 (Lat.), curled; crispa'- 
bilis, capable of curling uj) ; crisp'- 
ate, crisped, crispa'tics, crispati'viis, 
curled; Crisp 'ature, Crispatu'ra, (1) 
when the edge is excessively and 
irregularly divided and twisted ; 
(2) or the leaf much puckered and 
crumpled, but not so much as 
bullate; crispes'cens, able to curl up; 
crispiflor'al {Jios, /oris, a flower), 
having curled flowers ; crispifo'li- 
ous {folium, a leaf), with curled 

Cris'ta (Lat.), a crest or terminal tuft; 
crist'aeform {forma, shape), used by 
J. Smith for crested appendices in 
Kerns, as in Adinostackys, Wall. ; 
cris'tate, crista' tiis, crested ; in 
Ferns, having a tasselled margin to 
the fronds. 

Crist'arc (Fr., cristarque, from cristal 
and arque), Van Tieghem's teiTn for 
a layer of cortical tissue, whose arc- 
shaped cells contain macled crystals 
and are strengthened by sclerogen ; 
occurring in Ochnaceae. 
Critench'ynia {xpirbs, chosen ; (yx^fia, 
an infusion), the tissue of bundle- 
sheaths, open or closed envelopes 
which accompany fibro-vascular 
^bundles ; crit'ical, used of plants 


which need great discrimination in 


Crithme'tum (+etum), an association 

of Samphire, Crithmum maritimum. 

croca'tus, cro'ceous, croc'eus (Lat.), 

saffron -yellow; a deep yellow tint 

from the stigmas of Crocus •sativus, 

Linn. ; Cro'cin, the colouring-matter 

of the foregoing. 

Cro'mules (G. T. Moore) = Chro- 

Crop-hairs, trichomes occurring in 
Cordia, unicellular and usually 
knobbed at the extremity (Mez), 
resembling a bird's crop in shape. 
crook'ed, curved. 

Cross, term implying a hybrid of any 
description ; -^ armed, brachiate 
(Crozier) ; '-- Breeds, the progeny of 
interbred varieties ; '-- -conjuga'tion, 
see Conjugation, cross; -^ Fertili- 
za'tion, fecundation by pollen from 
another flower of another individual ; 
~ FoUina'tion, dusting the stigma 
of one flower with pollen from an- 
other; '-' Septa'tion, division by 
transverse septa ; '-' Type, in nuclear 
division, the formation of tetrads. 
Crossed-pits, cells in sclerenchyma, 
with the slits on opposite walls at 
right angles to each other. 
crowd'ed, closely pressed together or 

tiiickly set. 
Crown, see Corona; also (1) in 
Characeae, the apex of the nucule ; 
(2) in Diatomaceae, a series of teeth 
connecting the frustules into fila- 
ments, as in Stephaiwpyxis ; ~ of 
the Root, the point where root and 
stem meet; ~-gall, disease of the 
root-crown of fruit-trees, ascribed to 
a Myxogaster, Dovdrophagus (Tou- 
mey) ; '^ rust, of cereals due to 
ruccinia coronal a ; crowned, coro- 
na'tiis, furnished with a coronet ; 
crown'ing, coro' nans, borne on the 
summit of an organ. 
Cro'zier, "anything with a coiled end, 
as the young leaves of most Ferns" 
cru'ciate, crucia'tits (Lat.), cross- 
shaped, used especially of the 
flowers of Cruciferae ; -^ Tetragon- 



id'ia, those gonidia formed by two 
divisions at right angles to each 
other ; Cru'cifer (Lat. cross-bearing), 
a phmt with four petals and tetra- 
dynamous stamens ; cruciferous, 
cross-bearing, used of the corolla of 
Crucifers, which have four petals ; 
CTu'citorm, cruciform' is (Lat.), cross- 

cruenta'tus (Lat. stained with blood), 
dyed or blotched with red. 

cruent'us (Lat. gory), dark purplish 
red, the colour of gore. 

crum'pled = corrugai e ; -- Aestiva'- 
tion, when folded in bud irregularly, 
as in the poppy. 

Cru'ra (pi. of cr^ts, a leg), divisions of 
the teeth of the peristome in Mosses. 

cru'ral, crura' lis (Lat. pertaining to the 
legs), ''somewhat leg-shaped; used 
mainly in composition " (Crozier). 

Crust, Criost'a (Lat. rind or shell), the 
hard and brittle part of certain 
Lichens ; crusta'ceous, -eus, of brittle 
texture, some Lichens are thus 
termed ; crust'ose = crustaceous ; 
crustuli'nus, toast-colour, darker 
and warmer in tint than a cracknel 

Cry'mad {Kpvixhs, cold), a polar plant, 
Crymi'um, a " polar barrens " forma- 
tion ; crymoph'ilus {<pi\4w, I love), 
dwelling in polar regions ; Cry'mo- 
phyte {(puThv, a plant), a polar plant 
(Clements) ; adj. crymophyt'ic. 

Cry'opbyte (^pyos, frost, <pvThv, a plant), 
a glacial association of microphytes 
periodically exposed to ice cold water 
(Warming); cryoscop'ic ((r/coirew, I 
see), observation of low temperatures 
as a method ; Cryos'copy, the study 
described ; Cryot'ropism {rpov^, a 
turning), movements influenced by 
cold or frost. 

Crypt {cry} ta, a vault), used by 0. Hens- 
low for the front cavity of a stoma ; 
Cryp'ta, applied to sunken glands, 
receptacles for secretions of plants in 
dotted leaves. 

cryptan'tlious {Kpvirrhs, hidden, 6.v6os, 
a flower), an emendation of cleist- 
anthous ; the stamens remaining 
enclosed in the flower (Davis); 


Cryptan'thery is the condition ; 
cryptobio'tic {$ios, life), Kuntze's 
suggested expression for those lowly 
organisms which ap})eared in geologic 
times, but have left no trace of their 
existence ; Crypt'oblast {fiKaa-rhs, a 
bud) = KuYPTOBLAST ; Cryptoco- 
tyle'dons ( + Cotylkdon), a group to 
contain syncotyledonous and mono- 
cotyledonous plants (Agardh) ; 
cryptocryst'alline (+ Crystal), of 
the minute crystals in plant-cells 
(Kraemer) ; Cryptogam'ia {ydfios, 
marriage), plants destitute of sta- 
mens, pistils, and true seeds, but 
often reproduced as the result of a 
sexual act ; cryptogam ian, crypto- 
gam'ic, cryptogam' ic us, cryptog'am- 
ous, belong to the sub- kingdom just 
defined; cryptog^am'tc Wood, the 
centripetal portion of the xylem in 
certain fossil Cycadoxylese ; Cryp- 
tog'amist, a botanist devoted to the 
study of flowerless plants ; Cryptog'- 
amy (1) the state of concealed fruc- 
tifii ation ; (2) the condition of 
cryptogamous plants ; Cryptohy'brid 
(4- Hybrid), a term for a hybrid 
which displays unexpected charac- 
ters ; Cryptone'ma'a [vrifia, a thread) 
small cellular threads produced in 
cryptostomata ; Cryp'tomere {ji^pos, 
a part), applied to plants possessing 
latent characters ; Cryptom'erigni is 
the condition; cryptom'erous, having 
latent characters which show in the 
crossed offspring ; cryptoner'viua 
{nervus, a nerve), the nervation hid- 
den, as by hairs or texture of the leaf; 
Cryp'tophyte (^uT^v, a plant). Crypto- 
phb'tum, a cryptogamous plant ; 
Cryptophyti'um, an association in 
.which HEMiCRYPTorHYTEs and Geo- 
PHYTES together are dominant 
(Vahl); Crypt'opore, adj. cryptop'- 
orous, -rxis (+ Poke), applied to 
stomata which are below the plane 
of the epidermis; cf. phaneropor- 
ors ; Cryptostom'ate (o-rd/io, a 
mouth), barren conceptacles in some 
Algae, containing hairs, or para- 
Crypts, stomatal pits. 



Cryst'al {KpvffraWos, ice), a mineral 
solid, usually of regular faces or 
angles, found in the tissues of plants, 
of very various composition; — cells, 
cells containing crystals ; '-' Bust, 
exceedingly small crystals in plant- 
cells (Haberlandt) ; '- -conglom'erate, 
clustered crystals ; — hairs, crystal 
projecting inwards as in some eu- 
phorbiaceae ; Id'ioblasts, in the 
epidermis, large or small special cells; 
-^ Eecep'tacles, a term to include all 
kinds of crystal-containing cells ; ~ 
-sacs, enlarged special cells ; '-- -sand 
= '-' Dust; -' -scleren'chyma, tissue 
of cells with thickened walls con- 
taining single crystals (Solereder) ; 
Crys'tallid, Fischer's emendation of 
Crystalloid ; Cryst'allochores, -ae 
(x«pis, separate), plants distributed 
by the action of glaciers (Clements) ; 
Cryst'alloid {eUos, resemblance), (1) 
term applied to protein crystals as 
being less truly angular than normal 
crystals, as well as swelling in water ; 
(2) in contradistinction to colloid. 

Ctein'ophytes {kt^Ivo}, I kill ; ^vrhu, a 
plant), Fungi whose influence on 
their hosts is chemical only 

cten'oid (ktcIs, KT^vhs, a comb, eI56s, 
resemblance), comb-like, pectinate. 

Cu'bebine, the active principle of Piper 
Cubeba, Linn. 

cu'biform {cubus, a die ; forma, shape), 
dice-sliaped, cubic; cu'bic, cu^bicus, 
cu'bical, of a cubic form. 

CuTsit [cubitum, the elbow), a measure, 
from the elbow to the finger-tips, 
usually reckoned as equivalent to 18 
inches, or 45 cm. ; cubitalis (Lat. ), 
about half-a-yard in length. 

Cu'bus (Lat.), a solid figure of six 
square sides. 

cuculla'ris, cu'cullate, cuculla'tus {cuc- 
ullus, a hood), hooded, or hood- 
shaped ; cucull'ifonn {forma, shape), 
hood-like in shape; Cucall^as, a 

cucu'miform {cucumis, a cucumber), 
shaped like a cucumber (Crozier). 

cucurbita'ceous {cucurbita, a gourd, -f- 
ACEOUs), like a gourd ; of gourd- 

like growth ; cucurbiti'nus has the 

same meaning. 


Cud'bear, the Scotch name for Orchil. 

Cul-de-sac (Fr. ), "a tubular or bag- 
shaped cavity, closed at one end" 

Culm, culm'vs (a stalk, especially of 
grain), the peculiar hollow stem or 
•' straw " of grasses ; culm'eus (Lat.), 
straw- like ; citlmic'olous {colo, I in- 
liabit), growing on the stalk of 
grasses ; culm'ifer, culmif'erous 
ifero, I bear), producing culms. 

Cul'tifomi {cultus, tilled, forma, shape), 
a cultivated form of a species or 
variety (Kuntze) ; Cultohy'bridoform, 
a cultivated hybrid of mixed parent- 
age (Kuntze). 

cult'rate, cuUra'tus (Lat. knife-like), 
the shape of a knife-blade ; cult'ri- 
form, cultriform'is {culler, a knife; 
forma, shape), in shape like a knife, 
or coulter. 

Cult'ures, in botany, applied to ex- 
])erimental growth conducted in the 

cumaphyt'ic [Kv^ia, Kv/xaros, a wave, 
(pvrhv, a plant), plant-modification 
due to wave-action (MacMillan) ; 
Cumaphy'tism is the condition. 

Cu'marin, see Coumarin. 

cu'neal (Croziej), {cunem, a wedge), 
cunea'rius X (Lindley), cu'neate, 
cionea'tus, cu'neifonn, cuneiform' is, 
wedge-shaped, triangular. 

cunic'ulate, cunicula'tus {cuniculus, a 
rabbit), pierced with a long deep 
passage open at one end, as the 
peduncle of Tropaeolnm. 

Cu'nix X (deriv. ?) ** The sepai-able 
place which intervenes between the 
wood and bark of exogens " (Lindley) ; 
the cambium region. Mr. Gepp 
suggests as a possible derivation, 
Kvwv, a dog, i*|6s, birdlime, as being 
viscous but worthless as birdlime. 

Cup, (1) an involucre, as of the acorn; 
(2) the receptacle, or "shield "in 
some Lichens ; (3) used for Disco- 
carp ; -- shaped, formed like a goblet, 


cu'pola-shaped, nearly hemispherical, 
like an acorn-cup. 



cu'preus {cuprum, copper), copper- 
coloured, with its metallic lustre. 

cupres'soid {cupressus, cypress, e:Xhos, 
resemblance), with foliage like the 
cypress ; appres'sed ■^ , apically 
directed and sometimes decurrent ; 
le'pidoid — broad and short. 

Cu'pule, Cu'pula (Lat. a little cup), 
(1) the cup of such fruits as the 
acorn, an involucre composed of 
bracts adherent by their base, and 
free or not, upwards ; (2) a free 
sheathing structure from the pedun- 
cle investing one or more seeds (Oliver 
and Salisbury) ; cu'pular-shaped 
(fiindley) set cupola-shaped; cu'- 
pular, cupula'ris, cu'pulate, cufru- 
la'tus, furnished with, or subteuded 
by a cupule; Cupulifer (Lat.), cupu- 
liGf'erous {fero, I bear), producing 
cupules ; cu'puliform, cupuliform'is 
{forma, shape) cupola-shaped. 

Cur'arine, an alkaloid from * * Curare, " 
obtained from several species of 

Cur'cuinine, the colounng matter of the 
roots of Turmeric, Curcuma longa, 

Curl, a disease, shoAvn by deformed and 
curled leaves, ascribed in some cases 
to Exoaseus deformans, Fuckel ; see 
Leaf Curl; curled, when a leafy 
organ is folded or crumpled, as 

Cur'tain = Cortina. 

Curv'ature (cw7-vai'urrt, a bending), con- 
tinued flexure or bending from a 
right line ; ~ of Concussion, that 
produced as the result of a sudden 
blow ; Darwin 'ian <-' , effects pro- 
duced on growing organs, as root- 
tips in consequence of irritation ; 
Sachs's ~, the difference ih gi-owtb 
of the two sides of the root (Wett- 
stein) ; curva'tus (Lat.), bent as a 
bow, or arc of a circle ; Curve, the 
same as curvature ; ^ ribbed, -^ veined 
= CURVINERVED ; curved, bent, not 

curvembryon'ic {curvus, bent, tfifipvou, 
a foetus), used of any curved 
embryo; all, except the atropous 
(orthotropous) form; curvicau'date 

{cauda, a tail), having a curved tail ; 
curvicost'ate {costa, a rib), with 
curved ribs pv veins ; curviden'tate 
{dens, a tooth), with curved teeth, 
cur'vifonn(/o?-7«a, shape)= curved ; 
cur'vinerved, curviner'viu^, curvive'- 
nius (Lat.), having curved nerves, 
esj)ecially applied to monocotyle- 
dons ; curvip'etal {peto, I seek), 
Vochting'^ tenn for the causes 
which tend to curve an organ; 
Curvipetal'ity is the condition; see 
AuTOTP.opisM ; curvise'rial {series, 
a row), (1) in curved or oblique 
ranks ; (2) an orthostichy spiral ap- 
plied to a cylindric surface (Church). 

Cushion, (1) the enlargement at or 
beneath the insertion of many 
lea-ves, the pulvinus; (2) the por- 
tion of a Feru-prothallus on which 
archegonia are borne, often per- 
ceptibly thicker than the margins ; 
-^ -plants, having the shoot-system 
much branched, and densely packed 
to form hemispherical cushions, as 
Raoulia, Hilene acaulis and many 
Mosses; cushioned, tufted, as in 
some Mosses; '^ Fun'gi, Fungi 
growing in tufts. 

Cusp, Cusp' is (Lat. a point), a sharp, 
rigid point ; cuspidate, cv^ida'tus, , 
tipped with a cusp. 

cut, the same as incised, or in a 
general way as cleft. 

Cu'ticle, Cuti'cula (Lat. the outer skin), 
the outermost skin or pelliple, con- 
taining the epideiTuis ; Cuti'cula 
dcn'sa, '^hym^nifarm' is, -^primordi- 
a'lis, -^ p7-o'pna, '^ regula'ris, '^ 
subnul'la, modifications proposed 
by Fayod, in Ann. Sc. Nat., Bot. 
S^r. VIL ix. (18S9) 243-244; cutic'- 
ular, pertaining to the Cuticle; 
'~ Beads, pearl-like glands, as of 
Chenop)odium album; <^ Crown, at 
the apex of papillae in certain Anon- 
aceae ; -^ Crests, on epidermis and 
lower side of leaf in certain Mi- 
moseae ; -^ Epithe'lium, formed of 
cells of the epidermis and primary 
cortex, with thickened outer walls; 
<- Lay'ers, more or less cuticularized 
and apposed to the cuticle on its inner 




side; -^ Pegs, intrusions of cuticle 
into epidermal cells ; <-' Bidges, 
occurring on the flat epidermis 
between papillae (Solereder) ; Cu- 
tieolariza'tion = Cutinization ; 
outio'aloid (elSos, resemblance), a 
structure resembling skin (G. 

Cu'tin {cutis, the skin), the substance, 
allied to Suberine, which repels 
liquids from passing the cell-wall; 
Cutiniza'tion, the modification of 
the cell-wall so «ks to become im- 
pervious to liquids; Curtis: (1) the 
skin or epidermis; (2) the peridium 
of some Fungi; Catocenuloses (+ 
Cellulose), modified cellulose, the 
cuticularized layers of cell-wall, im- 
pregnated with cutin; Cu'tose, the 
transparent film covering the aerial 
organs of plants. 

Cnt'tage, multiplication by cuttings 
(L. H. Bailey). 

Cut'ting, (1) the severed portion of a 
plant, used for propagation ; (2) the 
outline of a leif or frond when 

out -toothed, "deeply and sharply 
toothed " (Crozier). 

cyali'nus X (Mod. Lat. ) = cyanous. 

Cyamlom X {icvafios, a bean), ' ' a kind 
of follicle resembling a legume" 

cyanae'us, J cyan'eus {kvuvos, corn- 
flower), a clear full blue, corn- 
flower-coloured ; cya'neous, corn- 
flower blue; cyanerius, almost a 
skyblue ; cyanic, blue ; — Flow'ers, 
those whose colouring tends to- 
wards blue, in contrast to xanthic 
Flowei-s; cyanoch'rous (xp'^*. Xpo^^? 
the skin), having a blue skin ; Cy'- 
anooyst {kvo-tis, a bladder), a cell in 
which starch and chlorophyll occur, 
whose contents take a blue stain 
(Arbaumont) ; cf. Achroocyst ; 
Cyanogen'esis {ycvtiris, origin), the 
formation of cyanogen in plant- 
tLBSues; cyanoph'ilous ((/>i\ew, I 
love), applied to nuclei which readily 
take a deep blue stain ; cyanophor'ic 
{<pophs, bearing), used of certain 
forms which yield cyanogen, as 

Lottia comieulatus ; oyanophy'ceous, 
resembling or allied to the Cyano- 
phyceae, or Blue-green Algae; 
Cyanophy'cin {(pvKos, sea-weed), the 
blue colouring matter of Algae ; 
Cy'anophyll {<pv\\ov, a leaf) = 
Kyanophyll; Cy 'anoplast (irAao-rA j, 
moulded) used of chromatophores, 
or minute granular pigmentary 
bodies in Schizophyceae (Hegler); 
Cyanoplas'tid ( + Plastid) granules 
of blue colouring matter (Hegler). 

cyathea'ceous, allied to the Fern-genu« 

cyath'iform, cycdhiformUs {Kvados, a 
wine-cup ; forma, shape), shaped 
like a drinking-cup ; Cyathlum, the 
inflorescence of Euphorhium, con- 
sisting of involucral bracts, with 
glands between single stamens each 
equivalent to a male flower, and a 
trilocular ovary ; cy'athoid (elSor, 
resemblance), cup-like ; Cyath^lite 
{\idos, stone) =Coccolith; Cy'athus, 
the cup-like body which contains 
propagula in Marchantia, etc. 

Cyb'ele (pr. Sib'-e-le), H. C. Watson's 
name lor an estimation of the dis- 
tribution of plants in a given area, 
an analogue to Flora; the name is 

cyca'ceous, Hayne's term for ''sago- 
grey " ; from Metraxylon Sagu, the 

cycada'oeous, cy«ad'ean, allied to or 
resembling Cycas ; cycada'lean, re- 
lating to the Cycadales (Wieland); 
cycadeoid'ean, allied to the fossil 
genus Cycadeoidea (Wieland) ; cyca- 
dofilicin'ean, allied to the Cycadofili- 
cineae, a group of fossil plants par- 
taking of the characters of Cycads 
and Ferns, such as LyginodendroTt, 
Williamson, and Medullosa, Cotta 
(Scott) ; Cy'cadophytes {<p\)rov, a 
plant), plants allied to Cycadeae. 

Cy'clamine, a principle found in the 
root of Cyclamen europasum., Linn. 

Cy'clarch {kvkXos, a circle; ipxh, be- 
ginninsj), the first member of a whorl ; 
Cy'cle, ( 1 ) used for one turn of a helix 
oi^ spire, in leaf arrangement; (2) 
for a whorl in floral envelopes; 




cy'clic, cy'clicus, applied to foliar 
stinictures arranged in whorls, coiled 
into a cycle or relating to a cycle ; 
cy'clical, rolled up circularly, as 
many embryos; Cyclocho'risis ( + 
Chorisis), Fermond's term for the 
division of an axial organ into a 
sheaf of secondary axes; cyclodes'- 
mic (5e<r/iiy, a bond), applied to the 
vascular system of typical Dicotyle- 
dons (Brebner) ; Cy'clogens {ytwdw, 
to bring forth), exogerious plants, 
from their exhibiting concentric 
circles in the section of their stems ; 
cyclog'enons, having concentric 
circles in the stem, exogenous; cy- 
clolyt'ic {\v<Tis, a loosing) In'terval, 
the space on the Photrum with all 
gi-ades of illumination up to direct 
sunlight, capable of producing cyclo- 
sis or rotation of protoplasm in a 
plant-cell (S. Moore); Cy'cl6ine, a 
ring-shaped cushion of anthers 
(M'Nab); Cyclom'eter {fierpoy, a 
measure), a series of concentric 
circles traced on a board, for com- 
parison with curved structures; 
Cyclo'sis, the rotation of proto- 
plasm within the cell, in one or 
more currents ; cyclospenn'ous 
{ffirrp/xa, a seed), with the embryo 
coiled round the central albumen ; 
Cyclu'ra {ovpdL, a tail), the last 
member of a whorl. 

cyg'neous cyg'neus (Lat. pertaining 
to a swan), the seta of Mosses when 
curved so as to suggest a swan's neck. 

cylindra'ceons, -eics {KvKtviposy a 
cylinder, -f aceous), somewhat 
cylindric; Cylindranth'erae {Hvdos, 
a flower), syngenesious, from the 
stamens forming a tube ; Cylind- 
rencVyma (fyxv/JiCi, an infusion), 
tissue made up of cylindric cells ; 
cylind'ric, oylind'rical, elongated, 
with a circular cross-section ; Cylin- 
drobaaioste'mon i$d(ri5, a pedestal ; 
ar-hiKDv, a stamen), monadelphous ; 
cylindrogen'ic {yivos, race, oflF- 
spring), longitudinal expansion of 
amoeboid organisms (Jensen). 

cymaphyt'ic, emended spelling of 


Cyma'tium {Kvfidnov, a little wave) = 

cymb'aeform, more correctly cymb'l- 
form, qjmbiform'is {cyinba, a boat ; 
forma, shape), boat-shaped, used 
for Diatoms, or the keel of Legu- 

Cymbellae {cymlnda, a little boat), 
reproductive locomotive bodies of an 
elliptic form, found in some Algae. 

Cyme, Cy'tna (/cC/io, a wave, Lat. the 
sprout of a cabbage), a flower- 
cluster of determinate or centri- 
fugal type, esi'ecially a broad and 
flattened one ; heriooid <^ (a) a 
Bostryx, and (6) a Drepanium, the 
lateral branches of the successive 
ramifications always occurring on 
the" same side ; scorploid '^ (a) 
Gincinnus, and (&) Rhipidium, the 
lateral branches always occurring 
alternately on opposite sides ; Cy- 
melet, I'r. sim-let, a little ayroR ; 
cymif'erous {/ero, I bear), produc- 
ing cymes ; cy'mo-bot'ryoae [or bot'- 
ryoid], when cymes are arranged in 
a botryoid manner ; cy'moid (elSos, 
resemblance), having the form of a 
cyme ; cy'mose, cymo'sus, cy'monB, - 
bearing cymes or relating to cymes ; 
^ 171111)61, one with cetitrifiigal in- 
florejscence ; Cy'mnle, a diminutive 
cyme or portion of one. 

Cyn'apine, an alkaloid occurring in 
Aethusa Cynapium, Linn. 

Cynsirrhod'ion, -dium, -dum (k^uv,- a 
dog ; b65ov, a rose), a fruit like that of 
the dog-rose, fleshy,, hollow, and 
enclosing achenes. 

Cy'on, Grew's spelling of Cion^ftr Scion. 

cypera'ccouB {Cypenis, -f aceous), re- 
lating to sedges, from the typical 
genus Cypeitis ; Cyx>erog'rapher 
{ypd(pa>, I write), a writer on CypeT- 

Cyphel'la {Kv<phs, bent), "collections 
of gonidia in the form of cups " 
(Lindley) ; Cyphel'lae, orbicular 
fringed spots like dimples, under 
the thallus of Lichens ; cyphellate, 
marked with Cyphellae. 

cypripe'decTzs, allied to or resembling 





Cyp'sela (kui^cAtj, a box), an acliene 
invested by an adnate calyx, as the 
fruit of Compositae. 
Cyriodoch'ae {Kvpios, regular, as to 
time, Soxrj, entertainment), em- 
ployed by Clements to denote 
regular successions of plants. 
Cyr'rhus = Cirrhus, a tendril. 
Cyst, Cyst'is (Kvans, a cavity), (1) a 
sac or cavity, usually applied to a 
structure whose nature is doubtful ; 
(2) all cells of non-sexual origin in 
green Algae which reproduce the 
plant by gennination after a rest- 
ing period as resting spores, hyp- 
nospores, chronospores, aplano- 
spores, akinetes (F. Gay) ; Cyst'a J, 
Necker's term for a berry with dry, 
membranous envelope, as in Passi- 
flora; Cysticar'pium = Cystocarp ; 
adj. cysticar'pic ; Cyst'id, a pro- 
posed emendation for Cystid'ium; 
(1) large, one-celled, sometimes in- 
flated bodies, projecting beyond the 
basidia and paraphyses of the hy- 
raenium of Agarics, of unknown 
function; (2) - Utricle; Cyst'o- 
blast (jSAoo-tJ)?, a shoot), cited by 
Crozier for Cytoblast; Cyst'ocarp 
Cystocarp' ium {Kapirhs, fruit), a 
sporophore in Algae, especially Flo- 
rideae, a cyst containing sexually 
produced spores; Cyst'olith {xldos, 
stone), mineral concretions, usually 
of calcium carbonate on a cellulose 
stalk, occurring chiefly in special 
cells of the Urticaceae, as in Ficus 
elastica, Roxb. ; adj. cystolith'ic ; 
Cyst'ophore {(popeu, I carry), the 
same as Ascophore ; Cys'tosphere 
{apdipa, a ball), masses of secretion 
enclosed in a kind of sac or pouch ; 
Cyst'osore Cystoso'ncs {a-wphs, a 
heap), a group of resting-spores 
within a cell as in Woronina ; 
Cyst'ospore [ar-nooa., a seed) = Carpo- 
SPOF.E (Strasburger) ; Cys'totyle 
(tuAi7, a lump), nmcilaginous con- 
cretions resembling Cystoliths, but 
uncalcified and usually occurring in 
pairs (Radlkofer) ; Cyst'ula = CisT- 
ULA, Clstella. 
Cy'tase {kvtos, a hollow vessel), an 

enzyme found in germinating seeds 
which hydrolyses cellulose ; Cytas'- 
ter (acT^p, a star), a series of achro- 
matic rays from each pole of the 
nucleus into the cytoplasm in 
karyokinesis (Crozier); Cytench'yma 
(^7Xy/ti«, an infusion), vacuolar 
structure in cells, fluid which sepa- 
rates from protoplasm as vacuoles 
(Crozier) ; Cy'tioderm (Se^;ua, skin), 
the cell-wall in Diatomaceae (Cro- 
zier) ; Cytioder'ma, or Cy'toderm 
(Sep/Ao, a skin), (1) the cell-wall; 
(2) the outer layer of protoplasm 
next the cell- wall, the primordial 
utricle ; Cytioplas'ma {irKdafxa, 
moulded), the cell-contents. 
Cyt'isine, an alkaloid occurring in the 

genus Cytisus. 
Cy'to-anat'omy {kvtos, a hollow vessel 
-f Anatomy), the organisation of 
the cell (Graf); Cytoast'er (+Astek), 
a star in nuclear division ; cf. Dy- 
ASTER ; Cy'toblast (jSAacrrbs, a 
shoot), (1) Schleiden's name for the 
cell-nucleus ; (2) a colony of bio- 
blasts which have lost their inde- 
pendent existence ; cf. Bioblast ; 
Cytoblaste'ma, the formative ma- 
terial in which cells are produced, 
and by which they are held in union ; 
protoplasm ; Oy'tochem'istry, the 
chemistry of the cell (Graf) ; Cyto- 
cho'rism {x^piCw, I separate), divi- 
sion of living cells (Fitting) ; Cyto- 
chyle'ma (x^Abs, juice), the contents 
of the cell, composed of Plasmo- 
CHYM, and Cy'tochym (x"i"«> that 
which is poured), the more watery 
sap present in the vacuoles of the 
plant-cell (Strasburger) ; cytoclas'tic 
(/cAao-rbs, broken in pieces), destruc- 
tive of the cell ; Cytocoag'ulase 
{coagiilo, I cause to curdle), an 
enzyme in the caml)ium region of 
Primus in autumn, which deposits 
an insoluble product from gum 
(Griiss); Cy'todes, (1) cells; (2) 
nuclear elements in wliich the oaryo- 
somes are not grouped into nuclei 
(Vuillemin) ; Cy'toderm = Cytio- 
DEiiMA , Cytodier'esis [hiaip^ais, di- 
vision), cell-division with nuclear 




division, and formation of a nu- 
clear-spindle and asters (Crozier) ; 
Cy'to-dynam'ics (-f dynamic), phe- 
nomena of motion, cell-division, 
maturation, fertilization, death and 
part pathology (Graf) ; Cytog'amy 
{ydfios, marriage), the complete 
fusion of two cells into a seminucleate 
zygote or oosperm ; Cytogen'esis 
(yfvecns, beginning), the origin and 
development of cells ; sometimes 
written Cytiogenesis ; cytogenetic, 
pertaining to eel l-fonnation ; cytog'- 
enous, producing cells, or cellular 
tissue ; Cytog'eny = Cytogenesis ; 
Cytohy'aloplasm (+ Hyaloplasm), 
the protoplasm of the cell, apart 
from any granules or foreign matter ; 
Cytohy'drolist (u5o/?, water ; \v<tis, a 
loosing), an enzyme which attacks 
and breaks up the cell-wall by 
hydrolysis ; Cytohydrorysis, the 
action of an enzyme on the cell-wall, 
^hich becomes broken down in 
consequence ; Cytokine'sis {Kivrjcris, 
motion), cell-division by mitosis ; 
Cy'tolist {Kvais, a loosing), an enzyme 
which dissolves the cell-wall ; Cy'to- 
lite = Cystolith ; Cy'tolymph 
{lympha, springwater), the more fluid 
contents of a cell ; cytolytic, of a fer- 
ment dissolving cells apart ; Cy tol'ogy 
{\6yos, discourse), the science of the 
cell, its life history, nuclear divi- 
sions and development ; adj. cyto- 
logic, cytolog'ical ; Cy'to-mechan'- 
icB, physical properties and be- 
haviour to mechanical stimuli (Graf) ; 
Cytomi'crosomes {fxiKphs, small ; 
awixa, a body), the granules or 
microsomes imbedded in the cell- 
protoplasm : Cytomix'is (M'f'^) a 
mingling), the extrusion of chroma- 
tin from the nucleus of one pollen- 
mother-cell into the cytoplasm of 
an adjacent mother-cell (Gates) ; 
Cyto-morphol'ogy (-f MoiirHOLOGY), 
external form and size of the cell 
(Grat) ; Cyto-physiol'ogy (-f Physi- 
ology) ; Graf divides this into sub- 
heads of Cyto-Chemisthy, ^ Dyna- 
mics, '^ Mechanics, and - Statics ; 
Cy'toplasm {irKdajxa, moulded), the 

general protoplasm of the cell 
(Strasburger) ; cytoplas'mic (TrAatr/ia, 
that formed), relating to Cyto- 
plasm ; r^ Androg'amy, the male 
gamete is fertilized by the cyto- 
plasm of the female gamete (Dan- 
geard) ; -^ Gynog'amy the female 
gamete is impregnated by the cyto- 
jilasm of the jnale gamete (Dangeard); 
Cy^t'oplast (irAttcrrbs, moulded), the 
cytoplasm as a unit, in contrast to 
the nucleus; cytoplas'tic, relating 
to the Cytoplast ; Cytoplast'in, a 
proteid which apparently forms the 
bulk of the cytoplasm ; Cy'tosarc 
{capl, crapKhSf flesh) , the body of a cell 
exclusive of the nucleus (Schneider) ; 
Cy'tosomes {aufia, a body), Vuille- 
min's name for the granules of cell- 
protoplasm ; cytomicrosomes; Cy'to- 
stat'ics (o-TOTi/cbs, causing to stand), 
conditions of equilibrium in the cell 
(Graf) ; Cytotax'is (jd^is, order), 
the mutual relation of cells or 
organisms ; neg'ative '^ , the tend- 
ency to separate from each other ; 
positive '-' , the tendency to approach 
each other ; Cytotox'ins {ro^iKhs, for 
the bow, i. e, poison), enzyme-like 
productions of which little is known ; 
also styled enzy molds ; Cytotlopism 
{rponi], a tiirning) = Cytotaxis. 

dacryoi'deus {SaKpv, a tear ; fI5oy, 
resemblance), used for pear-shaped 
fruit, ob ong and rounded at one 
end, pointed at the other. 

dactyli'nus (SoktvAos, a flnger), divided 
like fingers ; dac'tyline, dac'tyloid, 

(1) finger-like ; (2) pertaining to the 
§ Dactyloides of the genus Saxi- 
fraga ; Dactylorhi'za {l>iCa, root), 
the forking of roots ; dac'tylose, 
dactylo'sus, fingered, or finger- 

daedaleous, daeda'leus (Lat. = skilful 
craft), (1) the apex of a leaf irregu- 
larly jagged, though not arcuate ; 

(2) wavy and irregularly p'aited as 
the hymenium of some Agarit s ; 
Daedalench'yma {tyxvua, an infu- 
sion), tissue made up of entangled 
cells, as in some Fungi. 




Dali'line, a substance resembling starch 
from the tubers of the genus Dahlia, 
Dam'mar, a transparent resin from 
Agathis loranthifolia, Salisb., for- 
merly named Dammara orienialis, 
Damp^ing, a cultivator's term for pre- 
mature decay in plants, especially 
young seedlings, attributed to excess 
of moisture ; Damping off, the col- 
lapse of seedlings, ascribed to the 
attacks of the Fungus Botrytis viU- 
garis, or of Pythium De-Baryanum. 
Daph'nin, the bitter principle of 

Daphne Mez^reum, Linn. 
Darwin, ser, Knight-Darwin Law. 
Darwinian Cnrv'atTire. the bending 
induced by the irritation of any 
foreign substance close to the apex 
of the root, 
dasyclad'ous, -dits {daffvs, thick ; 
KkdSos, a branch) = compactus 
(Russow) ; daayphyrious, -lies 
{<p{)\\oy, a leaf), (1) thick-leaved ; 
(2) leaves thickly set ; (3) with woolly 
date-shaped, resembling a date in, 

Datis'cin, a substance having the 
appearance of grape-sugar, first 
obtained from Datisca cannabina, 
Linn. ; it has been used as a yellow 
Datu'rine, an alkaloid of Datura 

Stram'mium, Linn. 
Dangh'ter-cells, young cells derived 
from the division of an older one, 
the mother-cell ; <-- Chro'mosome, a 
secondary cliromosome, derived from 
division of the original ; ~ Skein, 
stages in nuclear division when the 
chromatin is more or less in a reticu- 
late condition ; further distinguished 
by som ' observers into ' ' loose " or 
'* close " ; '~' Spore, a spore produced 
immediately from another or upon a 
promycelium ; «* Star, one of the 
groups of chromatic filaments at the 
poles of a dividing nucleus ; the two 
together with the connecting spindle 
constitute the "Dyaster" stage. 
Day-position, the pose assumed by 
leaves during the day, in contra- 

distinction to that taken for the 
deaf, has been applied to imperfect 
fruits of Rumex ; --'-seeds, imperfect 
seeds of grasses (Percival). 
deal'bate, dealha'tus (Lat. white- 
washed), whitened ; covered with 
an opaque wh te powder. 
Deammonifica'tion {de, from ; ammo- 
Ilia, an alkali ; facio, I make) ; a 
reduction of ammonia by the soil 
bacteria Deammonobacte ria (Lip- 
Deassimila'tion {assimilatio), conver- 
sion of food into digested products ; 
the process of plant-katabolisra 
Death- point, the critical point when 
a spore is rendered permanently 
incapable of germinating (J. F. 
Deazotoflca'tion (azote ; fado, I 
make), the reduction of nitrogenous 
substances by Deazotobacte'ria 
Decagyn'ia (Seta, ten ; .yw)], woman), 
a Linnean artificial ordor of plants 
with ten pistils ; decagyn'ian, 
decag'ynous, having ten styles or 
carpels ; decam'erous, decam'erus 
(fifpos, a share), in tens ; decan'der 
(Mod. Lat.) = DECANDROUS ; De- 
can'dria (av^p, avSphs, a man), a 
Linnean artificial class of plants 
with ten stamens ; decan'drian, de- 
can'drons -rics, having ten stamens. 
decapct^alons, -lu-'* (Sc/co, ten ; triraXov, 
a flower-leaf), with ten petals ; de- 
caphyrious {<pvWov, a leaf), with 
ten leaves or segments ; decari'nus 
(SppTjK, male), > ecker's term for ten 
stamens and one pistil ; decasep'- 
alous, -lus (4-Sepalum), with ten 
sepals ; decasperm'al {cnr4pixa, a 
seed), having ten seeds. 
decemdent'ate {decern, ten ; dens, 
dentis, a tooth), having ten teeth, 
as the capsule of CerasHum ; de- 
cem'fid (Crozier), decem'fldus {fid, 
the root of ./Wo, I split), ten cleft ; 
decemlocula'ris {hculus, a compart- 
ment), with ten cells, as an ovary. 
decep'tive {deceptus, deceived) Fly- 




plants, applied to Parnnssia and 
other flowers which seem to offer 
much honey, but the apparent 
glands are dry (Knuth). 

Decidailigp[io'sa, pi. (deciduus, ready to 
fall ; lignosus, woody), associations 
of trees and shrubs which lose their 
leaves during unfavourable periods, 
and usually have protected buds 
(Riibel); decid'uous, -uus, falling in 
season, as petals fall after flowering, 
or leaves in autumn, evergreens ex- 
cepted ; Deciduous'ness, the quality 
of falling once a year. 

deo'linate, declma'tiis (Lat. turned 
aside), beat or curved downward or 
forward ; decli'ned, directed ob- 

Decoloora'tion, Decolora'tio (Lat.), 
absence of colour ; decororate, de- 
colora'tns (Lat.), discoloured, dis- 
charged of colour, colourless. 

decom'poand, decompos'itus (Lat.), 
several times divided or com- 

decort'icated (decoriicatio, barking), 
deprived of bark ; Decortica'tion, 
stripping ofl" bark. 

decreas'ingly pinn'ate, where the 
leaflets diminish in size from the 
base upwards. 

decum'bent, -ena (Lat. reclining), 
reclining, but with the summit 

decur'rent, decur'rens (Lat.), running 
down, as when leaves are prolonged 
beyond their insertion and thus 
run down the stem ; decar'sive, 
dtciirsi'vus {decursics, a descent) = 
DECURRENT ; decur'sively pin'nate, 
the leaf .seemingly pinnate, but the 
leaflets decurrent along the petiole. 

decus'sate, decussa'tus (Lat. divided 
crosswise), in pairs alternately at 
right angles ; DecnisA'tion, a cross- 
ing by pairs of leaves. 

D^doublement (Fr.), doubling = 

dedn'cens (Lat: leading forth), applied 
by Macfarlane to the conducting 
surface in the pitchers of Nepenthes. 

Deduplica'tion (Fr. deduplication), a 
synonym of D£doublement. 

Defarina'tion (de, from, farina, flour), 
De Vries's term for suppressed or 
greatly lessened formation of atarch. 

deferent [defero, 1 bring down), con- 
veying anything downward. 

deferred' Shoots, those produced by 
buds which have remained long 

Leferrifica'tion {de, from, ferrum, 
iron, facio, I make\ the reduction 
of iron by Ferribacte'ria (Lipman). 

definite, defini'tus (precise, clear), 
(1) precise ; (2) of a certain number, 
as of stamens not exceeding twenty ; 
(3) applied to inflorescence it means 
cymose ; ~ Inflores'cence, where the 
axis ends in a flower ; defln'itive 
Nn'cleus, a result of the fusion of 
one nucleus each from th6 micro- 
pylar and chalazal ends of the 
embryo sac. 

defix'ed, defix'us (Lat. fastened) = 

deflect'ed, dejiex'us (Lat. bent aside), 
bent or turned abruptly downwards ; 
deflezed', bent outwards, the oppo- 
site of inflexed ; Deflexion, turned 

deflo'rate, dejlora'tus (Lat.), past the 
flowering state. 

deflow'er, to deprive of flowers. 

deflu'ent (L^^-defliiens), flowing down. 

defo'liate, defolia'ttis (Mod. Lat.), 
having cast its leaves ; Defolia'tion, 
the act of shedding leaves. 

De'form {defortnis, misshapen), used 
by 0. Kuntze for Deformity ; De- 
f orma'tion, a malformation or altera- 
tion from the normal state; de- 
formed', disfigured, distorted ; De- 
form'ity,. Btformfitas (Lat.), an 
unshapely organism ; a monster. 

degen'erate {degenero, to become un- 
like the race), degraded in function 
or form ; Degenera'tion, an altera- 
tion for the worse, or less highly 
developed, as when scales appear 
instead of leaves. 

degerm'ed {de, from, germen, an em- 
bryo), used of a seed deprived of its 
embryo (Pond). 

Degrada'tion {degradatio, L. Lat. the 
act of reducing), (1) less highly differ- 




entiated, simpler structures taking 
the place of more elaborate ; (2) lower 
in function, retrograde metamorpho- 
sis, or a katabolic change, complex 
substances resolving into simpler ; 
'- Prod'uct, the result of kato^bolism, 
as mucilage. 

degressive, tending towards de- 

dehisce' {dehisco, I ya^vn), to open 
spontaneously when ripe, as seed 
capsules, etc. ; Dehis'cence, De- 
hiscent' ia, the mode of opening of a 
fruit capsule or anther by valves, 
slits or pores ; dehis'cent, dehis'cens^ 
dehis'cing, splitting into definite 

Dehydra'tion {de, privative ; i/'Sw/), 
water), depriving of water as a 
component, as by the use of alcohol, 
or calcic chloride. 

delignify'ing {lignum, wood ; facio, I 
make), applied to an enzyme which 
breaks down the structure of wood, 
as in Merulius. 

Deli'la, applied to those colour-forms 
of Antirrhinum with ivory tube and 
magenta or crimson lips (De Vries). 

Delimita'tion (Late Lat. deliviitare), 
used for Akjunction ; cutting ott" 
by a precise limit ; delimited, 

deliques'cent, -ens (Lat. melting 
away ), dissolving or melting away, 
as (1) when the stem loses itself by 
repeated branching ; or (2) when 
certain Agarics become fluid at 

Deliq'uium J (Lat., a defect) = 
EMAKGINATE (Liudley). 

Del'phine, an alkaloid present in 
Drlphinium Staphisagria, Linn. 

del'ta-leaved (SeAra, the Greek letter 
A), having triangular leaves;- 
del'toid, deltoi'de.f, -deus {eUos, re- 
semblance), shaped like the Greek 
A ; an equilateral triangle. 

demat'ioid (e/Sos, resemblance), like 
the genus Dcmatium, having a felted 
layer of hyphae bearing perithecia. 

demersed', demer'sus (Lat. plunged 
under), under water, especially of 
a part constantly submersed. 


(Lat.), hanging down, 


demises ns 


Dena'rii % (Lat.) = ten 

Den'drad (SeVSpoj/, a iree + ad), an 
orchard plant (Clements) ; den'dri- 
form {forma, shape) = dendkoid ; 
dendrit'ic, -icus, -ical, having a 
branched appearance, as the lirellae 
of Lichens, etc. ; Dendrio-tham- 
no'des, with thallus branched as a 
bush, as the Reindeer Lichen, Cla- 
donia rangiferina, Hotfm. ; Den- 
dri'tes, cellulose in crystals ; Ben- 
dri'um, "an "orchard formation" 
(Clements) ; dendrophllus {(pi\ea}, 
I love), " orchard loving " ; Dendro- 
phy'ta {(pvrhy, a pLmt), "orchard 
plants " (Clements) ; den'droid, den- 
droi'des, dendroi'deus (eJSoy, resem- 
blance), tree-like in form, or 
branching ; Den'drolite {xlQos, 
stone), a fossil tree ; Dendroi'ogist 
{K6'yos, discourse), one skilled in the 
knowledge of trees ; Dendroi'ogy, 
the study of trees. 

deni (Lat.), by tens, ten together. 

den'igrate, denigra'tus (Lat.), black- 

Denitrifica'tion (c?'', from, nitron, nitre, 
facio, I make), the reduction of 
nitrates by the action of Denitro- 
bacte'ria (Lipraan). 

Den'izen, H. C. Watson^s term for 
plants suspected of foreign origin, 
though maintaining their place, as 
Viola odorata, Linn. 

Dens (Lat.), a tooth; den'tate, den- 
ta'tus (Lat.), toothed, especially 
with salient teeth directed for- 
ward ; denta'to-crena'tus = chena- 
TODENTATUs ; ~ -lacinia'tus, with 
toothings irregularly extended into 
long point ; — -serra'tus, the tooth- 
ings tapered and pointing forward ; 
Denticle, a small tooth (Crozier) ; 
dentic'ulate, denticula'tus, minutely 
toothed ; Denticula'tions, small pro- 
cesses or teeth ; dent'iform ( forma, 
shape), J. Smith's equivalent for 
toothed; den'toid (eJ5«s, form), 

denu'date, denuda'tus (Lat.), stripped, 




made bare, or naked; Denuda'tion, 
the act of stripping bare ; denu'ded 
Quad'rat, a permanent quadrat, or 
metre-square of land, from which all 
the original vegetation has been re- 
moved, for the study of invasion 

deoperc'ulate, deopercula'tiis {de = 
from, operculum, a lid); (1) when 
the operculum of a Moss does not 
separate spontaneously from the 
sporophore ; (2) having lost the 

deor'sum (Lat. from de, down, versus 
turned towards), downward. 

depaup'erate, depaupera' tus (Lat.), 
impoverished as if starved, reduced 
in function. 

depend', depen'dent, depen'deiis (Lat.), 
hanging down. 

Deperula'tion {de, prefix of separation, 
+ Ferula), the act of throwing off 
the bud-scales in leafing ; calyp'tral 
'~ , thrown off as a cap ; tu'bular 
-', when remaining as a collar at 
the base of the shoot (Kirchner). 

Depigmenta'tion [pigmentum, colour- 
ing matter), latency of colour in 
flowers, etc. (De Vries). 

depla'nate, deplana' tus (Lat.), flat- 
tened or expanded. 

Deple'tion {drpletxLs, emptied out), 
enzyme digestion of reserve material 
in the endosperm (Pond). 

Depos'its {depositus, laid aside), 
secondary growths on the cell- 
wall, more or less covering it, in 
various forms. 

depres'sed, deprcs'sns (Lat.), sunk 
down, as if flattened from above ; 
Depres'sio (Lat.), a pressing or sink- 
ing down, a little hollow; r^ dor- 
sa'lis, a depression in the spores of 
some Agarics extending along the 
back of the spore; ~ hila'ris, a 
similar depression, but of less ex- 
tent, above the hilum (Fayod) ; 
depress'o-trunca'tus = retuse. 

Deproteofica'tion('^«, from, -f Proteid, 
facio, I make), decay and putre- 
faction due to the action of Deproteo- 
bacte'ria (Lipman). 

deregula'ris J {de, opposed ; regularis 

in order), between regular and irre- 
gular (Lindley). 

Deriv'ative Hy'brids, those sprung 
from a union of a hybrid, and one 
of its parent forms or another 

deri'vod {derivo, I turn aside) (disyll.), 
used by Clements to denote not 

Der'ma {d-epfxa, Sepfj-aros, skin), surface 
of an organ, bark, or rind; Denna- 
calypt'rogen {KaXv-nrpa, a veil ; 
yhvaca, I bring forth), Schwendener's 
term for a common histogen which 
produces root-cap and root-epider- 
mis in Phanerogams ; derm'al, relat- 
ing to the outer covering ; ~ Tis'sue, 
the substance of the epidermis and 
periderm ; dermati'nua, applied to 
those plants such as Lichens, which 
live on bark or epidermis; der- 
mat'ioid {fihos, form), skin-like in 
function or appearance; Dermato- 
Derm'atocyst, iJeinnafocys'tis {kv(ttis, 
a bag or pouch), inflated hairs on 
the surface of the sporophore of 
young Agarics; Dermat'ogen(7eVj'a&;, 
I bring forth), the m.eristem form- 
ing the layer of nascent epidermis; 
primordial epidermis ; Dermat'- 
ophyte ( (pvThv, a plant), any Fungus 
parasitic on the skin of man or 
other animals (Crozier) ; Dermat'- 
osomes (o-oi^m, a body), Wiesner's 
term for granular bodies in rows, 
united and surrounded by i)roto- 
plasm, which form the cell-wall; 
Dermoblas'tus {dXaarhs, a shoot), 
"the cotyledon formed by a mem- 
brane that bursts irregu'arly" 
(S. F. Gray) ; Demiocalypt''rogen 
= DERMACALYPTftoGEM ; Derm'o- 
plast {irXaarrhs, moulded), Pirotta's 
term for a Moxoplast, invested 
with a membrane ; Dermosym'plast, 
the same writer's word for a Sym- 
PLA.^iT as a latex-vessel. 

descending, drsceji' dens (Lai.), tending 
gradually downwards; (1) as the 
branches of some trees ; (2) as the 
roots; '-' Ax'is, the root system; 
~ Metamorph'osis, substitution of 




organs of a lower grade, as stamens 
for pistils, petals for stamens, etc. ; 
'~' Sap, formerly applied to the 
Cambium ; Descen'sus J = Root. 

Des'ert, Deser'tum (Lat.), a tract 
where rain is continuously wanting, 
and vegetation is most scanty, as 
the Etjypto- Arabian desert; it may 
be either climatic or edaphic. 

Deser'tion of Host = Ltpoxeny. 

de'sinens (Lat. ceasing), Desintn'tia, 
ending in, the manner in which a 
lobe terminates. 

desmid'ian, allied to the Desmideae; 
Des'midocarp {Kap-nhs, fruit), the 
special cystocarp of Balbianin ; the 
fertilized trichogynial cell divides 
transversely, each daughter-cell 
in turn branching with terminal 

Desmobry'a (Seo-yubs, a bond ; fipvov, a 
moss), a division of Ferns, where 
the fronds are adherent to the 
caudex; cf. Eremobrya; Degmo- 
chon'dria, pi. (x<^»'5pos, grain) = 
^Microsomes; Des'mogen (veWaw, I 
brin§ forth), distinguished as pri'- 
mary '-, the procambium, or em- 
bryonic tissue from which the vas- 
cular tissue is afterwards formed ; or 
sec'ondary '-, formed fi'om the 
cambium, afterwards transferred 
into permanent vascular strands ; 
Desmoplank'ton ( + Plankton), 
plankton united into bands or 
ribbons (Forel). 

destarch'ed, deprived of starch, as by 

destructive Metab'olism, those changes 
which take place during the waste 
of tissues; '- Par'asite, one which 
seriously injures or destroys the host. 

Desulphofica'tion {de, from, suljitr^ 
brimstone, facio, I make), the re- 
duction of sulphates and sulphites 
by Desulphobacte'ria (Lipman). 

detect'us (Lat. laid bare) = naked. 

detenliive {detento, I hold back), used 
of those parts of a Pitcher plant 
Avhich detain insects (Macfarlane). 

Deter'minants, pi. {detervdno, I limit), 
separate material particles in the 
germ-cells; -^ of Hered'ity, those 

carried by zygotes (Weismann); 
deter 'minate, determina'tus (Lat. 
bounded), definite ; ~ Growth, 
when the season's growth ends with 
a bud; — Inflores'cence, when it 
ends with a bud, as in cymes; De- 
termina'tion, -atio, the ascel-taining 
the names and systematic position 
of plants, identification. 

deus'tate, deus'tons {denstus, burned 
up), as if scorched (Heinig). 

Deu'ter (Ger., an interpreter) Cells, 
a row of large parenchymatous 
cells, empty or containing starch, 
which occur in the middle nerve of 
Mosses (Limpricht) ; cf. Pointer- 

Deuterog'amy {Sivrtpos, the second; 
ydixos, marriage), peculiar nuclear 
fusions in certain Cryptogams, 
superposed upon and subsequent to 
the sexual act (P. Groom). 

deutogen'otypic ( -f genotypic) = 


Deuterogonid'ium ( -f Gonidium), a 
gonidium in the second generation 
of a transitorial series (A. Braun 
Denteroplas'ma {rrAdafia, moulded) 
= Paraplasm ; sometimes con 
tracted into Dent'oplasm; Deutero 
stroph'ies {erpotp^, a twist or turn) 
spiials of a third degree in the 
development of leaves ; Oentozylem 
( + Xylem), a synonym of Meta- 

Devel'opment, the gradual extension 
of the parts by which any organ or 
plant passes from its beginning to 
its maturity. 

Devia'tion, probable, Galton's term 

for probable variation. 
Dew-leaves, leaves which slope up- 
wards, so that dew is collected; 
'^ -rust, "blotchy discoloration of 
leaves caused by dew " (Heinig). 

dez'trad {deztra, the right hand) ; 
an unusual modification of dez'tral, 
towards or on the right side, as 
a climbing plant, cf. dexthorse; 
Dez'trin, a substance produced dur- 
ing the transformation of starch into 
sugar, said to be of two forms : — AcH- 
roodextrin and Amylodextrin ; 




Dex'trinase, an enzyme stated to 
be present in diastase (Wysman); 
dez'tro-ro'tatory. turning towards 
the right; dex'trorse, dextror'sns 
(from versus, turned towards), to- 
wards the right hand; dextror'sum 
volu'bilis (Lat.), twining towards 
the right; Dex'trose, glucose, or 
fruit sugar, it turns the plane of 
polarization to the right ; cf. Levu- 
LOSE ; Dextrosty'ly ( + Style), the 
style curves to the right in enantio- 
stylous flowers. 

di-, die-, in Greek compounds = two, 
or double. 

dia-, Greek, for through. 

Liablaste'sis ( + Blastesis), special 
growth from the hyphal layer of a 
Lichen (Minks). 

Diache'nium (5t, two, + Achenifm), 
or Diake'nium = Ckemocarp. 

Diach'yma (5ta, through : x^l^^^y a liba- 
tion), Link's term for Mesophyll. 

diac'mic (5<, two ; ok/u)?, a point), 
employed to denote plankton having 
two maximum periods ; cf. monac- 


Di'ad, a variation in spelling of Dyad, 

DiaderpMa(5t,two; dSeXc^bs, a brother), 
a Linnean class having the stamens 
in two bundles or brotherhoods ; 
diadelpVian, diadelph'ous, -us, -icus, 
with two groups of stamens. 

diad'romons {^id, through ; 5p6fj.os, 
course), applied to a fan-shaped 
venation, as in Gingko biloba, Linn. 

diae'cious = dioecious. 

diage'ic {yh, earth), plants producing 
stolons which are below ground ; 
diageotrop'ic {rpSiros, a turn), a 
modified form of geotropism, the 
organs placing themselves in a hori- 
zontal position, as though opposing 
forces were neutralised ; Diageo- 
t'ropism, the state just described; 
Diagno'sis {yvwais, wisdom), a brief 
distinguishing character. 

diag'onal (Sm, across ; ywvla, angle), a 
mean between two forces, a com- 
promise of position ; -^ Plane, in a 
Bower, any vertical plane which is 
not antero -posterior (front to back) 

or lateral (side to side); --' Posit'ion, 
one intermediate between median 
and lateral; ~ Sym'metry, applied 
to the valves of Diatoms when 
their torsion amounts to 180° ; 
Di'agram {ypa/xfi^, an outline), see 
Floral Diagram; Diaheliot'ropism 
{ifiXtos, the sun; rpSiros, a turn), 
growth more or less horizontal, 
under the influence of light, as when 
leaves place themselves at right 
angles to incident light; adj. dia- 
heliotrop'ic ; Diakine'sis {Kivnais, 
energy), the last stage in the hetero- 
type prophase in which the definitive 
chromosomes have been formed and 
the nuclear membrane is still intact; 
adj. diakinet'ic. 

dialycarp'ic (5toAua», I disbaiid ; Kapirhs, 
fruit), having a fruit composed of 
distinct carpels; Dialydes'my (Se<r/iJ>s, 
a band), the breaking up of a stele, 
into separate bundles, each with 
its own endodermis ; Dialypet'alae 
{iTfraXov, a flower-leaf), Endlicher's 
equivalent for the Polypetalae of 
Jussieu ; dialypet'alous, poly- 
petal ous ; dialyphyll'ous [cpvWov, a 
leaf), bearing separate leaves; dia- 
lysep'alous ( + Sepalum), bearing 
separate sepals; Diarysis, the 
separation of parts normally in 
one, especially parts of the same 
whorl ; dialyste'lic ( + Stele), 
having distinct steles ; Dialyste'ly, 
a variation of Polystely, in which 
the separate steles remain for the 
most part separate during their 
longitudinal course. 

diamesog'amous (Sta, through ; fxeaos, 
middle ; yd/xos, marriage), fertiliza- 
tion by the means of some external 
agent, as wind or insects ; Dia- 
mesog'amy, the condition just 

dian'dreous (Si-, two ; aur]p, avdphs, 
man ; + eous), the condition of 
Orchids having two perfect stamens 
(S. Moore) ; Dian'dria, a Linnean 
class with plants of two stamens ; 
dian'drian, dian'drous {diander), 
possessing two stamens ; dianth'ic 
\6.v6os, a flower), pollination by 




a flower of the same plant (K. 
diaph'anous, -^is (Sta, through ; (palvo), 
1 show), permitting the light to 
shine through ; also written dia.- 
PHANUs ; Diaph'ery {(p(pu}, I bear), 
the calycine synthesis of two flowers 
(Morren); Diaphototax'is((pa3s, light; 
Ta|ts, order), the arrangement of 
Oscillatoria threads at right angles 
to incident light of optimal intensity 
(Pieper) ; Diaphotot'ropism (+ Pho- 
totropism), the act of self-placing 
at right angles to incident light ; 
adj. diaphototrop'ic ; Diaphragm 
{(ppdaaco, I enclose), a dividing mem- 
brane or partition, as (1) the con- 
striction in the neck of the nucule 
in Chara, from the inward projec- 
tions of the segments; (2) the 
transverse septa in the stem of 
Equisetum or of grasses ; (3) the 
layer separating the prothallium 
from the cavity of the macrospore 
in Vascular Cryjitogams; dia- 
phyrious {(pvKKoVf a leaf) = DIA- 
LYPJriYLLOUs; Diaph'ysis {(pvca, to 
make grow), proliferation of the 

di'arch (5t-, two; apxh, beginning), 
having two protoxylem groups, used 
of the steles of roots; diari'nus {&ppw, 
fnale), Necker's term for diandrous. 

diaschis'tic (5ia, through; o'x'o't^s, 
deft), applied to chromosomes when 
they divide transversely; cf. ana- 
scHisTic (Fanner) ; Dias'pasis 
(o-Traoj, I tear), when the daughter- 
nuclei in amitosis are torn asunder 

Di'astase {Sidaraais, standing apart), 
an amylolytic enzyme which con- 
verts starch into malt-sugar ; -^ 
of Transloca'tion attacks starch 
grains gradually over their whole 
surface; it is almost universally dis- 
tributed in ])lants; -- of Secre'tion. 
acts by corrosion, attacking parts of 
the starcli -grain iirst ; it is formed 
by the glandular epithelium of the 
scutel.iuu of grasses ; adj. diastat'ic 

Di'aster {hi-, two ; aarrjp, a star), sop 

Diast^ole {diaa-Tokh, separation), the 
slow dilation of a contractile vesicle ; 
cf. Systole. 

Diatherm'ancy (5ta, through ; depjiaivu^ 
I warm), the relative conductivity 
of a medium with regard to the 
transmission of heat (T. W. Engel- 
mann); diathermotrop'ic { + thermo- 
TROPic) unaffected by or placing itself 
transversely to the source of heat ; 
Diathermot'ropism, the condition 

Diatme'sis (T/iT^o-ts, a cut), in Amitosis 
when the daughter-nuclei become 
neatly divided (Wasielewski). 

diatoma'ceous, resembling or conoist- 
ing of diatoms whose type is Dia- 
toma ; Diat'omine, the colouring 
matter of Diatoms, phycoxanthine ; 
Diat'omist, one devoted to the study 
of Diatoms ; Biat'ompMle (</)i\ew, 
I love), an enthusiastic student of 

diatrop'ic (5m, through ; rpSiros, twin- 
ing), used of organs which place 
themselves transversely to the 
operating force ; Diat'ropism is the 
condition ; it may be geotp.opic or 


dibot'ryal = dibotryoid. 

dibot'ryoid(5ls, double ; -f botryoid), a 
compound inflorescence, the branches 
of the first and succeeding orders 
being botryoid, such as the com- 
pound umbel, panicle, or spike ; 
Dicar'otin (5ls, twice, -f Carotin), a 
lipochrome pigment; dicarp'ellary 
(/i-apTrbs, fruit), composed of two 
carpels or pistil-leaves ; Dicar'yocyte 
(napvov, a nut ; kvtos, a hollow 
vessel), a binuclente cell (Moreau) ; 
Dicar'yoji, the complex of two inde- 
pendent nuclei, united in the same 
cell (Bonnet); Dicar'yophase (<pa(r«s, 
a phase), the stage ending in the 
])rodartion of teleutospores (Moreau). 

dicha'sial {5ixdC(o, I disunite), re- 
lating to a DiCHAsiuN^; ~ Cymes, 
cymes whose secondary members 
are dichasia, such as occur in 
Euphorbiacea^ ; Dicha'sium, a false 
dicliotomy in which two lateral 
shoots of nearly equal strength 




arise from the primary axis below 
the flower which terminates the 
apex, the process being repeated 
by each set of branches ; a two- 
parted or two-ranged cyme ; dich- 
ast'ic, spontaneously dividing, 
dichlamyd'eous (S/xa, in two ; j(, 
X^ajxvdos, a cloak), having a double 
perianth, calyx and corolla ; di- 
choblas'tic {fihaffrhs, a shoot), (1) 
suggested by Celakovsky to replace 
"dicbotomous " when the repeated 
dichotomy develops into a sympo- 
dium ; (2) branching intermediate 
between his aero- and pleuro-blastic 
conditions, it apparently occurs in 
the embryo of Pteridophytes ; Dicho- 
carp'ism {KapirSs, fruit), Cooke's 
term, for Fungi producing two dis- 
tinct forms of fructiti cation ; di- 
morphic as to fruit ; dichody'nam- 
ous, dichodynam'ic {dvva/jus, power), 
applied to hybrids in which the 
characters of both parents are 
equally represented; dichog'amous 
{yd/u.os, marriage), hermaphrodite 
with one sex earlier mature than 
the other, the stamens and pistils not 
synchronizing; Dichog'amy, insuring 
cross-fertilization, by t\ie sexes not 
being developed simultaneously ; 
Dichog eny (yivos, offspring), the 
condition when of two formative 
impulses, one is set in motion, and 
the other inhibited (De Vries) ; 
dichopod'ial {ttSSiov, a small foot), 
when an axis repeatedly forks, giving 
rise to an inflorescence termed a 
Dichopod'ium (Pax) ; dichot'omal, 
{rSfj-os, a cut), pei-taining to a bifur- 
cation, as a '^ Flow'er, one seated 
in the fork of a dichasium ; Dicho- 
to'mia, forking, as of branches in an 
inflorescence ; dichotomy ; ~ brachi- 
a'lis, in Clculophora, the normal fork- 
ing, the cell-wall remaining un- 
changed ; -^ conna'ta, the basal cells 
of the forK grown together ; -^ ma- 
trica'iis, when the terminal cell 
forks and the branch and stem are 
equal in thickness ;~spu'ria, branch 
and stem of equal size, but the 
mother cell is bent (Brand) ; dichot'- 


omize, to fork or divide in pairs; 
dichot'omous, -us, forked, parted by 
pairs; ~ Cyme, of English authors = 
Dichasium; Dichot'omy, the state of 
being repeatedly forked ; — hericoid 
~, in each successive forking, the 
branch which continues to develop is 
on the same side as the previous one, 
the other branch aborts ; false -^ , 
= Dichasium; scorp'ioid '-', the 
branches develop on each side alter- 
ately ; dichotyp'ic {tvttos, type), the 
appearance of two or more types on 
the same plant (Focke); Dictiot'ypy 
{tvttos, a type), the occurrence of 
two diflerent forms of the same 
stock; Dicle'sium {kXtjctis, closing), 
an achene within a separate and free 
covering of perianth, as Mirahilis ; 
Di'cIiniBm, {kaIvt}, a bed), the separ- 
ation of pollen and stigma in space, 
as dichogamy is in time ; di'clinous, 
unisexual, having the stamens in one 
flower, and the pistils in another ; 
Di'cliny, male and female organs 
separate and in difl"erent flowers; 
di'coccous, -us {Sis, two ; k6kkos, a 
kernel), having fruit of two cocci ; 
dicoe'lous {ko7\os, a hollow), with 
two cavities. 

Dicot'ylae, an abbreviation of Dicoty- 
ledoneae ; dicot'ylous = dicotyle- 

Dicotyledo'neae, Dicotyle'dones, Dico- 
tyle'dons {kotvXtiZwv, cup-shaped 
hollow, used for seed-lobe), plants 
of the class denoted by their posses- 
sion of two cotyledons; dicotyle'- 
donous, — nus, having a pair of seed- 
lobes; Dicot'yls, an abbreviation for 

dicrana'ceous, resembling the Moss 

Dict'ydin, a substance found by Jahn 
in the Myxomycete Didydiuni umbi- 
licatum, as granules which resist 
both acids and alkalis. 

dictyodes'mic {Biktvou, a net ; dfafios, 
a bond), the vascular network in 
Ferns so termed by Brebner ; dic- 
tyod'romous {Sp6fMos, a course), with 
reticulate venation ; Dic'tyogens 
{yevyauf, I bring forth), plants having 



netted veins, proposed by Lindley as 
intermediate between his Endogens 
and ExoGENs; dictyog'enous, ap- 
plied to monocotyledons with netted 
veins ; <-' Lay'er, a layer of meristera 
general in monocotyledons, which 
gives rise to the central "body " and 
cortex of the young roots (Mangin) ; 
dictyomeriste'lic ( + Mkristele), 
the stem -steles in certain Ferns thus 
designated by Brebner ; Dictyospo'rae 
(4- Spoha), Fungi having muriform 
spores (Traverso) ; Dictyosporan'gi- 
uitt(+ Sporangium), the sporangi- 
um of Saprolcgnia, with encased 
spores germinating within the spo- 
rangium (Walpole and Huxley); 
Dict'yostele ( + Stele) a stele with 
large overlapping leaf-gaps ; — dis- 
sec ted ■~', a perforated dictyostele 
in which the strands of the stelar 
network are reduced to thin threads 
(Tansley); per'forated '-, a dictyo- 
stele in which gaps other than leaf 
gaps occur; siphon'ic ■~,when the 
network of meristeles is simple and 
tubular (Brebner) ; adj. dictyoste'lic ; 
Dictyox'ylon {^v\ov, wood), applied to 
the cortex of a fossil stem possessing a 
netted system of hypodermal fibrous 
strands, as in Lyginodendron (Scott). 
Dictyu'chus State of Saprolegnieae 


dicy'clic (Sis, two ; kvkKos, a circle), 
(1) when a series of organs is in two 
whorls as a perianth ; (2) applied 
to biennials ; Dioy'cly, the condition 
of having two concentric vascular 
cylinders ; Di'cyme, a cyme in which 
the lirst (or higher) axes again form 
cymes (Eichler) ; — a two-fifths 
spiral expressed in terms of two 
circles, two outside, and three inside 
(Church) ; dicy'mose [nvixa, a wave), 
doubly cymose ; didip'loid (5<, twice, 
-f diploid), used of a nucleus con- 
sisting of the fusion of two diploid 
nuclei (Nemec) ; cf. syndiploid;- 
did'romic {Sp6fxos, a course), doubly 
twisted, as the awns in Danthofiia, 
Stipa, etc.; Did'romy, double torsion ; 
Didymospo'rae (-f Spoua), Fungi 
bearing spores in pairs (Traverso). 


did'ytnous, -its {SlSv/xos, twin), (1) found 
in pairs, as the fruits of Umbelli- 
ferae ; (2) divided into two lobes ; 
'-' An^'thers, when the two lobes are 
almost destitute of connective. 

Didyna'mia {5\s, twice ; Svvafxis, 
power), a Linnean class marked by 
didynamous flowers; didyna'mian, 
didy'namous, flower, four-stamened 
with stamens in pairs, two long, 
two short, as in most Labiatae. 
Didy'namy, the condition above 

Die-back, of Salix, a disease due to 
Diplodina salicina ; '^ of Citms, 
some uncertain condition of health ; 
-- of Prunus, from Naemospora 

Dientomophlly (+ Entomophily), 
when in a species, some individuals 
are adapted for insect- fertilization 
by a ditierent group of visitors 
from the remaining individuals 
(Engler and Prantl). 

Dieres'ilis, Dieresil'ia {hiaipiu), I 
divide), Mirbel's name for Car- 
CERULE ; adj. dieresirian. 

Diete'siae (5<, two ; ir^aios, annual), 
perennials with short shoots, long 
shoots being absent or fugacious 

Differentia'tion, of a Cell-wall, the 
arising of apparent layers ; '^ of 
Tis'sues, their development into 
permanent tissue and consequent 
diverse growth. 

diffluent {diffluens, dissolving), having 
the power to dissolve, or readily 
doing so. 

^iSLormedJ ,difforin'is {dis-, apart ;/orma, 
shape), of unusual formation or 
shape ; Difform'itas (Lat.), an 

diffract', diffrac'tus (Lat., broken), 
broken into areolae separated by 

diffuse', diffu'sus (Lat., spread abroad), 
wide y or loosely spreading ; '^ 
Col'our, a colour which has "run" 
into the surrounding tissues ; 
Diffu'sion, (1) tei-m used by Wiesner 
for the intermingling of different 
gases under equal pressure, with or 




without intervening partitions ; (2) 
mixture of fluids, or dispersion of 
a fluid thiough a solid or tissue; 
stafic ~ , in botany, the absorption 
of gaseous bodies through stomata 
and diff'usion through tissues ; 
Diffuslv'ity, the ratio of such 

dig'amous, -us (51s, twice ; ydfios, mar- 
riage), having the two sexes in the 
same cluster ; as in Compositae. 

dig'enous (51s, two ; ytvos, off"s{iring), 
containing both sexes, or produced 
sexually ; digenet'ic, sexual ; digeno- 
diff'erent (+ genodifferent), 
when in a hybrid, the genotypes 
of the two genodifferent gametes 
involved, differ on two points 
(Johannsen) ; Di'gency, the con- 

Digestive-cells, of the mycorrhiza of 
Neottia : cf. Host-cells ; ~ Glands, 
structures in the lower portion of 
the interior of the pitcher of Nepen- 
thes (Macfarlane) ; ~ Pock'et (or -^ 
Sac), an investment of the second- 
ary rootlets, Avhich penetrate the 
tissues of the primary root till they 
reach the exterior. 

Dig'italine, an alkaloid contained in 
iJigitalis jncrpurea, Linn. 

digita'lis [digitus, a finger), a finger 
length ; dig'itate, digita'tus, fin- 
gered ; a compound leaf in which all 
the leaflets are borne on the apex of 
the petiole, as in the Horse-Chestnut; 
'-' pin'nate, when the leaflets of a 
digitate leaf are pinnate ; digita'tely, 
in a digitate manner ; digitaliform'is 
[forma, shape), shaped like a finger, 
as the corolla of the Foxglove ; 
digitinerv'ius [jiervi-f, a nerve), when 
the secondary nerves of a leaf diverge 
from the sunimitof the main petiole, 
straight riboed ; Dig'itus, a measure 
of about 3 ins. in length, or 8 cm. 

dig'onous (51s, two ; ywvla, an angle), 
two-angled, as the stems of some 
cacti (Crozier) ; Digyn'ia [ywi), a 
woman), a Linnean class, with a 
f^ynaeciimi of two pistils ; digyn'ian, 
dig'ynous, with two separated styles 
or carpels; dihap'loid [-\- hai^loid), 

the coupling of two haploid nuclei 
(Bonnet) ; Dihap'lophase [(pdais, an 
appearance) tlie condition described. 

Di-hybridisa'tion, or Dihy'bridism (5t, 
two ; + Hybrid) having two pairs 
of allelomorphs, showing the pro- 
portions of 9:3:3:1. 

Dikar'yon, cf. Dicaryon. 

dilac'erate, dilacera'tus (Lat.), torn 
asunder, lacerated. 

Dilamina'tion {dis, apart ; lamina, a 
thin plate), the separation of a layer 
from a petal, like or unlike it in 
form ; chorisis. 

dila'ted, dilaia'tus (Lat., widened), 
ex|tanding into a blade, as though 
flattened, like the filaments of (trni- 
thogalwn ; Dilata'tion, cell-division 
in the parenchyma of the wood, the 
pith, and the medullary rays, caus- 
ing cleavage of the xylem-mass. 

dilep'idus X (51s, two ; AeTrls, KerriSos, 
scale), consisting of two scales, 

dilu'tus (Lat. thinned), of a pale tint. 

dimer'ic, dim'erous, -rvs (81s, two ; 
fiephs, a share), with two members 
in each part or circle ; Dimer'istele 
(-f Merlstele), two meristeles or 
vascular bundles (Brebner) ; adj. 

■dimidiate, ditnidia'tus (Lat., halved), 
(1) halved, as when half an organ is 
so much smaller than the other, as 
to seem wanting ; (2) used of the 
calyptraof Mosses when split on one 
side by the growth of the theca ; 
(3) in Lichens applied to the perithe- 
cial wall when it covers only the upper 
half of the })erithecium ; dimidia'to- 
cordatus, when the larger half of a 
dimidiate leaf is cordate. 

Diminu tion [diminutio, a decrease), 
siruplification of inflorescence in 
successive branches ((Juillard). 

Dimonoe'cism (+ Monoecfsm), the 
condition of two out of three kinds 
of monoecious flowers, having perfect 
flowers, and [a) male, [h) ieijiale, or 
(c) neuter flowers also (KTiuth). 

dimorph'ic, dimorph'ous (51s, twice ; 
^op(pT), shape), occurring under two 
forms ; Dimorph'ism, the state of 
presenting two forms, as long or 




short-styled flowers in the same 

dimo'tus (Lat., separated), somewhat 
remote from. 

dineur'oid {^l$os, resemblance), like 
the fossil genus Dineuron. 

Di'odange (+ Diode, ayyfiov, a vessel), 
a group of diodes surrounded by one 
or more layers of sterile cells (Van 
Tieghem) ; Diodang^'ium {Uo^os, a 
passage ; kyy^'lov, a vessel), Van 
Tieghem 's term ffir a sporangium in 
Vascular Cryptogams and Bryo- 
phytes ; Di'ode, Van Tieghem's term 
for a reproductive body peculiar to 
vascular plants which develops into 
a rudimentary body or prothallium, 
the transition between the rudi- 
mentary and adult stages ; cf. 
IsoDionY, Heterodiody ; Di'odo- 
gone(7oj/)?, offspring), Van Tieghem's 
term for a sporangium which pro- 
duces diodes in Phanerogams, the 
embryo sac and pollen sac , Di'odo- 
phytes {(pvrhv, a plant), vascular 
plants (Van Tieghem). 

Dioe'cia (S)s. two ; oIkos, a house), a 
Linnean class of plants with uni- 
sexual flowers ; dioeclan, dioec'ious, 
unisexual, the male and female 
elements in different individuals ; 
dioec'io-dimorph'ous, heterogenous ; 
dioec'io-polyg'amous, when some 
individuals bear unisexual flowers, 
and others hermaphrodite ones ; 
Dioec'ism, the condition of being 
dioecious ; dioi'cous, a spelling used 
by bryologists for dioecious, the 
male and female organs on separate 

dioph'anus = Diaphanous. 

Di'osmose, Diosmo'sis (5ta, through ; 
ijifffxhs. a pushing), the transfusion 
of liquid through membrane. 

dipet'alous, -us (Sis, two ; iriTaXov, 
a flower-leaf), having two petals ; 
dipho'tic (<^ci)s, tpasrhs^ Hght), two 
surfaces unequally lighted ; Dipho'ro- 
phyll (;<pv\\ou, a leaf), a leaf differen- 
tiated into palisade and spongy 
tissue from unequal illumination 
(Clements) ; diphyU ous, -us i<pv\\ov, 
a leaf), having two leaves ; diplanet'ic 

{irXavos, roaming), relating to Di- 
PLANETISM ; Diplan'etism, double- 
swarming ; in certain genera allied 
to Saprdlegnia the zoospores escape 
from their sporangium destitute of 
cilia, come to rest in a cluster each 
forming a cell-wall, and after some 
hours the protoplasmic contents of 
each spore escapes, acquires cilia and 
active movement ; Diplecolo'beae 
(ttAc/co*, I fold"; ho^hs, a lobe), a 
sub-order of Cruciferae, the incurved 
cotyledons being twice folded trans- 
versely ; Dipleurogen'esis {wkevpa, 
the side ; yepeais, beginning), term 
used by L. H. Bailey for Bilaterality, 
as the type of animals ; cf. Centro- 


diplo {dnr\6os, twofold), in composition 
= duplo; Diplobaciirus (+ Bacil- 
lus), bacilli which are composed 
of two cells or adhere in pairs ; 
Diplobacte'ria = Diplobacillus ; 
diplocaulesc'ens {caulescens, stem- 
producing), having axes of the 
second order ; diplochlamyd'eous 

(XAo/ti/S, acloak)=DICHLAMYDEOUS ; 

having a double perianth ; Diplo- 
coc'cus (+ Coccus), a coupled 
spherule or result of the conjugation 
of two cells ; Dip'locyte {kvtos, a 
hollow vessel), a somatic cell having 
the full number of chromosomes 
(Benson) ; adj. diplocyt'ic 

Dip'loe {Bnr\6-n, doubling), Link's term 
for Mesophyll. 

dip'loid {SittxSos, twofold), applied to 
the state of the 2x Generation, the 
chromosomes being doubly as many 
as in the haploid generation ; 
dip'loid Generation, the Sporo- 
phyte (Strasburger) ; Diplogam'ete 
{8nr\6os, twofold ; + Gamkie) in 
Ascomycetes the double gametes pro- 
duced in the same cell (Dangeard) ; 
Diplogen'esis {yfveais, a beginning), 
doubling of parts normally single ; 
Dip'lonasty {vacrThs, pressed close), 
when organs grow faster on the up- 
per and the under surfaces than on 
the sides ; Diploperisto'mi (+Peri- 
stoma), with double peristome, ap- 
plied to Mosses ; Dip'lophase {(paivw, 




I apjicar), Vuillemin's term for 
the di})loid generation ; Dip'lo- 
phyll {(pvWou, a leaf), a leaf having 
jialisade tissue on Lotli surfaces 
^Clements) ; diplosporan'giate, an 
error for ambispoiiangiate ; Dip'- 
lospore ( + Si'OKe), Dangeard's term 
fur Tei.eutosi'OJie; diploste'monous 
{aTr^/biwv, a stamen), with stamens 
in two whorls, those of the outer 
whorl alternating with the petals, 
the inner wliorl alternating with 
the last ; Diploste'mony, stamens as 
just described ; diplos'tic, Van 
"Tieghem's term for rootlets when 
the mother-root has only two xylem 
bundles ; Diploteg'ia, -gis, -gium 
{r4yos, a covering), a capsule or 
otlier dry fiuit, invested with an 
adnate calyx ; an inferior capsule ; 
dip'lotene [raiyia, a ribbon), the 
synajjfic stage of the nuchnis in 
which the thread is double ; diplos'- 
tichous {arixos, a row), in two series 
or rows ; diploxyl'ic {ivXov, wod), 
(1) used of vascidai- bundles in which 
the centrifugal part of the wood is 
secondary ; (2) liaving two or niore 
vascular bundles in tlie leaf, e. g. 
Pinuslo7ig/fo/i(', lioxl). ; diplox'yloidj 
resembling the genus Jyiploxhlon 
(Williamson) : diplox'ylous = i>ir- 


Dip'terid (Diptera = Hies), or Fly 
Klowers, chidiy visited by dipterous 
Hies, as Rata, and P't-inassuf. 

Dip'tero-cecid'ia (Sis, two ; impov, a 
wing ; K7]Kis, a gall), galls j)roduced 
by dipterous Hies ; dip'terous, -?r.s', 
two-winged, having two wing-like 
piocesses ; dipyre'nus (ttuptjj/, fruit- 
stone), containing two stones. 

Direct'-Metamorph'osis, the same as 
Pium:]ii:ssive MKTAMoitriiosis ; ~ 
Superposit'ion, the ' situation of 
accessoiy buds in an axil above the 
leading Imd or that liist foimed 
(Crozicr) ; direc'te-veno'sus, a feather- 
veined leaf, where secondary ribs 
(})riiiiary veins) j>ass direct from 
mid ril) to margin, men inekvius ; 
direct'ingLeu'cite, - TiN(>i,i:iJciTE ; 
Direc'tion Cells, -~ Corpus'cles, syii- 


onyms of Polar Cells , directive 
Spheres, = attractive Spheres ; 
Directivity {diredus, made straight), 
the controlling ellect of the vital 
functions (Sir A. H. Church). 

Direm'ption, Dircm'ptio (Lat. , a separa- 
tion), the occasional separation, or 
displacement of leaves. 

dirin'ean, diri'nold, resembling the 
genus JJirina. 

disappearing, branching in extreme. 

disartic'ulate {dis, apart ; articulus, a 
joint), to separate at a joint, as the 
leaves in autunrn. 

Disassimila'tiou, the breaking down, 
the katabclism .of plants. 

Disc, 01- Disk [disc'us, a quoit), (1) 
develo])ment of the torus within the 
calyx or within the corolla and 
stamens ; (2) the central part of a 
capittrlum in Compositae as opposed 
to the Kay ; (3) the face of any 
organ, in contradistinction to the 
margin ; (4) certain markings in 
cell walls, jof circular outline ; bor- 
dered pits ; (5) the valves of diatoms 
when circular ; (6) the base of a 
]>ollinium ; (7) the expanded base 
of the style in Undielliferae ; (8) in 
a bulb, the solid base of the stem, 
around which the scales are arranged ; 
adhe'sive '■^ , modified tendrils, as in 
Vitia kcUrophylla, Thunb. , Er cilia, 
etc. ; carpell'ary -^ , expansion of 
strobilns of fossil cycads bearing 
ovules (Wicland) ; stam'infite '^ , the 
surface bearing the staminate oigans 
in fossil Cycads (Wieland). 

disc'al, Avord used bv J. Smith to 
expres:s "on the surface of the frond, 
superficial " ; Dis'cals, Hessey's 
l>roj)osed abbreviation of Discillorae, 
a series of ])olypetalous Phanerogams, 

Discentra'tion (dis, ai>art ; cadruvi, 
ccntie), used by C. V. Schimper 
for {a) fasciation of the axis, and 
[!>) multiple of a leaf-organ (Penzig). 

Dischis'ma [oh, two ; o-xi'^/ia, separa- 
tion), the fruit of /'/rt/?/.'.-/n//o//, which 
divides into longitudinal carpels, 
each of whicli again divides trans- 

dis'cifer (Tjat.), disciferous {fcro, I 




bear), disc-bearing, as the wood of 
conifers ; dis'ciform, disciform'is 
{Jorirta, shape), flat and circular, 
orbicular ; discig'erous {gero, I bear), 
disc-bearing ; ~ Frus'tules, in Dia- 
tonis those having valves more or 
less circular in outline. 

Dis'cocarp (SiV/cos, a quoit ; Kafmhs, 
fruit), an ascocarp in which the 
hymenium lies exposed while the 
aaci are maturing ; an apotheciura ; 
Discocarp'imn, a collection of fruits 
within a hollow receptacle, as in 
many Rosaceae ; disc^oid, discoi'deus 
{flSos, like), with a round thickened 
lamina, and rounded margins ; --' 
Flow'ers, those belonging to the 
disk, usually tubular florets ; '- 
Glands, stalked glands of Urticaceae 
with round head of a single layer of 
cells ; '^ Mark'ing, see Disc, (5) 
disco'idal, discoida'Hs, orbicular ; 
Discoli'chenes (-f-Lichenes), Wainio's 
term for Discomyce'teg, Fungi with 
open hymenium, as Pcziza. 

dis'color (Lat. of different colours), 
used when the two surfaces of a 
leaf are unlike in colour. 

discontin'ucus Varia'tion, forms arising 
at a single step with complete and 
definite characters of other species. 

Discoplank''ton [Sia-Kos, a quoit, + 
Plankton), floating diatoms of 
discoid forms,chiefly oiCoscinodiscns; 
Discopod'ium (iroOs, ?ro5o$, a foot), a 
disc-shaped floral receptacle ; disc'- 
ous, the same as discoid (Crozier), 

discrete', discre'tus (Lat., parted), 
separate, not coalescent. 

Disc'ulus (dim. of Discus), the adven- 
titious lobule of Hepaticae (Spruce). 

Disc'us (Lat. from UaKos), (1) see Disc ; 
(2) a flat stroma through Avhich the 
ostioles of fungi protrude, as in Falsa. 

disep'aloua, -7(s {5U, two, + S£palttm), 
of two sepals. 

dishannon'ic, used of a flora showing 
gaps in series and with many mono- 
typic genera. 

Disjunc'tion {disjunctio, separaMon), 
see Dialysis, Fissiox, Solution, 
varying degrees of separation in 
organs ; Disjunc'tor, Woronin's 

term for a spindle-shaped cellulose 
connection between the gonidia in 
certain Fungi ; the developed septum, 
as in Sclerotinia^ Vaccinii, "Woron. 

disjunc'tive {disjtnictivtit, disjoined) 
Symbio'sis, applied by Frank to 
those cases in which the symbionts 
do not form an associated organism, 
but are temporarily associated, as in 
the case of insects and plants. 

Disk, see Disc. Disk is the more 
usual spelling in the case of Com- 
positae, as -^ Flor'ets, '^ Flow'ers, 
those occurring on the central 
portion of the capitulura of com- 
positae, not of the ray (or margin) ; 
'-' shaped = discoid. 

Disloca'tion {dis, apart ; locus, a place) 
= Displacement ; Disloca'tor Cell, 
in Gymnosperms, a wall-cell derived 
from the antheridial mother-cell 
which sets loose the spermatocyte 
from its attachment (Goebel) ; 
disoperc^ulate {operculum), a lid), 
deprived of the cover or lid. 

disperm'ous {Sis, double ; a-nepfMa, a 
seed), two seeded. 

Disper'sal, Tispers^ion {dispersus, 
scattered), the various ways by 
which seeds are scattered, by wind, 
birds, adhesion to animals, etc. ; 
in Ger. Verbreitungsmittel. 

Dispi'rem (Sis, two, -f Spirem) a 
stage in nuclear division, having two 
chromatic groups, the achromatic 
filaments being constricted in the 
middle, which follows the Dyaster 

dispi'rons {5ls, double ; <nreipa, a coil). 
Spruce's term for the elaters of Hepa- 
ticae which have double spirals. 

Displa'cement, the abnormal situation 
of an organ ; diremption. 

Disposit'io (Lat , arrangement), the 
manner in which parts are ar- 
ranged, as " disp. I " indicates that 
phyllotactic system. 

dissect'ed, dissect'us (Lat., cut up), 
deeply divided, or cut into many 

Dissemina'tion {disseminatio, sowing), 
the contrivances by which ripe 
seeds are shed by the parent plant ; 




(in Ger. Aussaet) ; Dissem'inule, a 
plant in the state of being trans- 
ported ; a seed fruit modified for 
migration (.Clements). 

Dissep'iment, Dii^sepiment'um (Lat., a 
partition), a partition in an ovary 
or pericarp, caused by the adhesion 
of the sides of carpellary leaves ; 
spu'rious ~, a partition not having 
that origin. 

dissil'ient, dissil'iens (Lat., flying 
apart), bursting asunder. 

dissim'ilar (dissimilis, unlike), when 
similar organs assume different 
forms in the same individual, as 
the anthers of Cassia. 

Dissocia'tion {dissociatio, separation), 
observed in the fibrovascular system 
of the Lentibularieae, the wood and 
bast being mutually independent. 

Dis'sophyte {Zicrahs, two-fold ; <f)vThv, 
a plant), a plant with xerophytic 
leaves and stems, and mesophytic 
roots (Clements). 

dist'ad = dis'tal {disto, I stand apart), 
remote from the place of attach- 
ment ; the converse of proximal ; 
dist'ant, distans, when similar parts 
are not closely aggregated, in 
opposition to approximate. 

Disteleorog^, defined by Haeckel as 
purposelessness ; for botanic usage, 
see Dysteleology. 

Disten'sion {distensus, stretched out), 
swollen or bulging. 

dist'ichoas, -vs {Slanxos, of two rows), 
disposed in two vertical ranks, as 
the florets in many grasses. 

dist'inct, distinct'us (Lat., separate), 
separate from, not united. 

distrac'tile distracti'lis {distractiuf, 
pulled two ways), borne widely 
apart, as the anther-lobes in 

Dis'trict, applied as the equivalent of 
the Ger. Bezirk ; a small region or 
tract of country. 

distromat'ic {^U, two, + Stroma), ap- 
plied to those species of Porphyra 
\v\i\i the thallus in two layers; </. 
MONOSTROMATic; Dls'trophy {rpotph, 
nourishment), employed for Re for 
disparity in size of homologoua 

organs ; dithe'cal (Si^fTj, a case), 
dithe'cous, dithc'cus, of two cells, 
as most anthers ; Ditopog'amy 
{r6iros, place ; yd/j-os, marriage), 
Ludwig's term for Heterostyly ; 
ditrichot'omous {rpixv, threefold ; 
tJjUtj, a cutting), doubly or trebly 
divided; di'triploid (-f triploid), 
the fusion of two triploid nuclei into 
one (NSmec). 

diur'nal, diur'nus (Lat., daily), oc- 
curring in the day-time, sometimes 
used for ephemeral ; ~ Sleep, = 

divar'icate, divarica'tus (Lat., spread 
asunder), extremely divergent. 

Diverg'ence {divergium, turning in 
different directions), used when 
parts gradually separate as they 
lengthen, as the follicles in Ascle- 
pias ; Angle of — , the angle between 
succeeding organs in the same 
spiral or whorl ; diver'gent, -etis, 
diverg'ing, separating by degrees) ; 
diverginer'vius {nervus, a nerve), 
with radiating main nerves. 

diversiflor'ous, -rus{diversus, contrary ; 
flo8^ jioris, a flower), with flowers 
of more than one kind ; diver'sus, 
(1) variable (deCandolle) ; (2) differ- 
ent or separate. 

Divertic''ulum (Lat., a byeway), in 
Algae, a protoplasmic protrusion, 
communicating with the fused 
procarp cells and the placenta, as 
in Gracilaria confervoides, Grev. 

divi'ded, divi'sus (parted asunder), 
used where lobing or segmentation 
extends to the base ; divisu'ral 
(line), the line down the teeth of 
the peristome of a Moss by which 
the teeth split. 

Dix'eny (5)s, two ; ^ivos, a host), where 
an autoecious parasite may infest 
two species, but does not need a 
change of host to ensure its develop- 
ment (De Bary) ; dixyric (^vAoy, 
wood), having the xylem in two 
masses (Brebner). 

-doch'e {'^oxh, succession), used by 
Clements for "succession " 

Dodecagyn'ia (Sa'ScKo, twelve ; yw^, 
woman), a Linnean order of plants 




with twelve pistils ; dodecag'ynous, 
-nus, possessing twelve pistils or 
distinct carpels; dodecame'rous, -ras 
ifieph^, a share), in twelve parts, as in 
a cycle ; dodecan'der, dodecandrous ; 
Dodecan'dria {av^p, avdphs, a man), 
a Linnean class of plants with twelve 
stamens ; dodecan'dl'ian, dodecan'- 
drous, -drus, of twelve stamens, 
normally (occasionally extended to 
nineteen) ; dodecapet'alous {irfTaKov, 
a flower-leaf), with twelve petals. 
or less than twenty ; dodecari'nus 
(appr)v, male), Necker's equivalent 
for dodecandrous, 

Do'drans (Lat., a span), a full span, 
from thumb tip to extremity of the 
little finger, about nine inches, or 
23 cm. ; dodranta'lis, a span long. 

dolabra'tus (Lat.), axed, or axe- 
shaped ; dolaVrifonn. dolahriform'is 
(forma, shaped), hatchet-shaped. 

doleiform'is {dolea, casks ; forian., 
shape), barrel shaped. 

dolia'rius dolia'tus (Lat.), circinate. 

Dolichone'ma {ZoXixos, long; vTj^a, a 
thread), the stage in nuclear division 
which immediately precedes syna]»sis 
in the formation of the reproduc- 
tive cells ; Dolicho'sis, retardation 
of growth in length (Czapek) ; 
dolichosty'lous (+ Style), in 
dimor]»hic or trimorphic species 
applied to the long-styled form ; 
Dolicho'tmema {rfxrifxa, free), a fili- 
form cell which ruptures and sets 
free the gemma of a Moss (Correns). 

Doma'tia {huixanov, a little\ 
modified projections for .^shelter- 
parasites (Tubeuf)- 

domestica'ted, thiiving under culti- 
vation (Cro/cier). 

dom'inant (dom'uiam, prevailing, 
ruling^ (1) in hybrids, the prevalent 
character, in opposition to itErF-s- 
sive; (2) chief constituent of a 
j)lantassociation ; (3) ruling, as the 
prei)onderant races and plants at a 
given period. 

Domin'ion, state, condition ; recently 
used as the ecpuvalent of (loebel's 
" Staat," as Cell- -, Energid- ~. 

Dom'itofonn {domitus, tamed ; furma, 

form), a cultivated form, the 
original being unknown or dis- 
similar (Kuntze). 

dor'mant {doriniens, sleeping), applied 
to parts whicli are not in active 
life, as -^ Buds, -- Eyes, potential 
buds which normally do not shoot, 
until excited to growth by special 
circumstances ; '~ State, the condi- 
tion of a i^lant during thenAvinter, 
or when inactive from any reason. 

dor'sal, dorsa'lis {dorsum, the back), 
relating to the back, or attached 
thereto ; the surface turned away 
from the axis, which in the case of 
a leaf is the lower surface (Note. — 
Til is is reversed by some authors); 
~ Su'ture, the suture of a follicle 
or legume which is exterior to 
the axis ; the midrib of a carpel ; 
dorsicum'bent {cumhens, lying down) 
= SUPINK (Crozier) ; dorsiferous 
{fero, I bear), borne on the back, as 
the sori on most Ferns ; dor'sifixed. 
dorsifix'us {fixiis, fast), fixed on the 
back or by the back ; Dorsinas'ty 
(vaffrhs, pressed) = Etinasty ; dorsi- 
vent'ral( render, the belly), used of an 
organ which has dorsal and ventral 
surfaces, as a leaf ; Dorsiventral'ity, 
the condition of possessing upper 
and lower faces of an organ ; Dor'sum 
(Lat), (1) tlie back, or parts of the 
ilower which face the outside ; (2) 
in Diatoms, in forms which are more 
or less Innately curved, the convex 
side of the girdle. 

Dots (1) receptacles of oil in the 
loaves ; (2) pits in the cell -wall ; 
dotted, punctured with dots ; ~' 
Ducts, vessels with pit-like mark- 
ings on the walls; ~ Tis'sue = 

dothidia'ceous, like the genus 

doub'le, du'phx (1) twice ; (2) used of 
flowers when the })etals are mon- 
strously increased at the expense of 
other organs, especially the stamens ; 
~ bear'ing, producing a crop twice 
in the same season ; ^ Fert'iliza- 
tion, in Angiosperms. when one 
male cell from the pollen-tube fuses 




with the egg nucleus, the other with 
the upper polar nucleus, and this 
last with the lower polar nucleus ; 
also termed Triple Fusion ; '-- 
Fructifica'tion, dimorphism in fruit, 
applied to certain Algae ; ~ Nee'dle, 
in Sciadopitys, a dwarf branch with- 
out bud scales, the two leaves being 
fused together at the edges into one 
needle ; '-- Eecip'rocal Cross, the off- 
spring of two reciprocal crosses, 
as {b X m) X {m X b) resulting in 
the usual suppressing of the charac- 
ters of the middle parent, m : ~ 
Rosette", = Dyaster ; Doub'ling, 
the same as Chorisis ; doubly, some- 
thing repeated, as ~ toothed, the 
teeth themselves being toothed. 
Down (1) soft pubescence; (2) the 
pappus of such plants as thistles ; 
down'y, pubescent, with fine soft 
Dra'canth {draganthum, Mid. Lat.), a 

synonym of Gum Tragacanth. 
Draco'nine, a red resinous substance 
from "Dragon's Blood," produced 
by Baemonorops Drado, Blume, and 
Dracaena Draco, Linn. 
Draining-point, of a leaf; cf. Drip- 
drawn, applied to attenuated shoots^ 
diminished and etiolated, often 
increased in length. 
drep'aniform {Speiravov), a sickle ; 
/•*rma, shape), falcate (Crozier) ; 
Drepa'nium, a sickle-shaped cyme ; 
drepanoclad'ous («A<£5oy, a branch), 
having sickle-shaped branches 
Dri'mad {5pi/xvs, pungent, -f- ad), a 
plant of an alkaline formation ; 
Drimi'um, an alkali plain or salt 
basin formation ; drimyph'ilus 
{<pi\4a}, I love), salt-loving, halo- 
philous ; Drimyphy'ta {(pvrhv, a 
plant), salt-plants (Clements). 
Dri'odad {Splos, a thicket, + ad), a 
plant of a dry tliicket ; Driodi'um, 
a dry thicket formation (Clements). 
Drip-point Drip-tip, the acuminate 
apex of a leaf, from whose point 
water soon drips ; Germ. Triiufel- 


Dromofropism {Sp6fjLos, a course ; 
rpoTT^, a turning), the irritability 
of climbing plants which results 
in their spiral growth (Macilillan) ; 
adj. dromotrop'ic. 
droop'ing, inclining downwards, cer- 

nuous, but not quite pendent. 
Drop-dis'ease, a disease of lettuce 
ascribed to Botrytis vulgaris and 
Sclerotinia Liberliana. 

Drop'per, the young bulb of a tulip, 
not of flowering size. 

Drop'ping-point = Drip-point. 

Drought (pr. drowt), want of rain 
hindering plant-growth ; physical 
'~, when the soil contains very little 
free water ; physiological -- , v/hen 
the soil contains a considerable 
amount of water, which, by reason 
of the character of the soil or weak 
osmotic for<;e of the roots, cannot be 
used by the plant (Warming). 

drupa'ceoua(c?/-w;ja,an olive, -fACEOirs), 
resembling a Drupe, possessing its 
character, or producing similar 
fruit ; Drupe^ Dru'pa, a stone-fruit 
such as a plum ; the pericarp fleshy 
or leathery, containing a stout with 
a kernel ; false '~ , a nut-like fruit 
where the lower persistent part of 
the perianth becomes fleshy, as in 
Ncea ; spu'rious '~ , any fleshy body 
enclosing a stone ; Dru'pel, Dru'- 
pelet, Dricpe'ola, a diminutive drupe, 
the fruit of the Blackberry is an 
aggregation of these ; Drupe'tum, a 
cluster of drupes ; Dru'pose, a con- 
stituent of the btone-cells of the 
flesh of pears (Cross and Be van). 

dru'sy, a mineralogical term used by 
G. E. Smith to express the appear- 
ance of the stigma of Orobanche 
caryophyllea ; pruinose. 

Dry 'ads, pi. (5puos, a wood-nymph), 
applied to shade-plants. 

Dry-rot, destruction of timber in houses 
by Merulius lacrymans, Fr. 

du'bious, du'bius (Lat. ), doubtful, used 
for plants whose structure or affinities 
are uncertain. 

Du'ces, pi. {dux, duds, a leader), 
Lorentz's name for character cells in 
Mosses ; = Deuter Cells. 



Diict, Duct' us (Lat., led, conducted), 
an elongated cell or tubular vessel, 
espenially occurring in the fibro- 
vascular portions of plants ; an'nular 
'~, the secondary thickenings occur- 
ring more or less in the form of rings ; 
closed '^ , long cells, not continuous, 
but with the intervening septa re- 
maining ; dott'ted '-', = BoTii- 
RENCHYMA ; intercell'ular '^, pas- 
sages between the cells ; retic'ulated 
'^ , where the markings seem to form 
a network ; scalar'iform -^ with 
ladder-like markings as in Ferns. 

durcis (Lat.), sweet, extended to any 
kind of taste which is not acrid ; 
Dul'cite, a crystalline substance 
from Melavipyrum, also found in 
Madagascar Manna. 

du'metose, dumeto'sus [dumetum, a 
thicket), bushy, relating to bushes ; 
Dume'tum, a thicket. 

dumose' {dumo'sus, bushy), full of 
buslies, of shrubby aspect ; Du'mus 
(Lat.), a bush. 

Dune, undulating banks of blown sand, 
with characteristic vegetation ; cf. 

duods'ni (Lat.), by twelves, growing 
by twelves. 

du'plex (Lat.), double; du'plicate, 
duplica'tns, double or folded, twin ; 
-^ Par'asitism, self-parasitism, as in 
the case of mistletoe upon mistletoe ; 
Duplica'tion, doubling, Chorisis ; 
duplica'to-crena'tus. doubly-crenate ; 
~ denta'tus. doubly-toothed ; '-- 
pinna'tus, bipinnate ; ~ serra'tus, 
doubly -serrate ; -^ terna'tus, biter- 
nate ; duplo = twice as many ; in 
Greek compounds it is diplo. 

Dura'men (Lat., a hardened vine 
branch), the heartwood of an exo- 
genous stem, wlii h has become 
hardened by deposits. 

Durifrutice'ta (du7-us, hard ; frutice- 
tunt. a thicket), sclerojihyllous scrub 
formations ; Durilig^o'sa [lignosus, 
woody), trees and shrubs which have 
sc'erophyl ous leaves or green axes 
which serve as le ives ; Duripra'ta 
{pratum, a meadow), where the 
dominant species are strengthened 

by mechanical tissue, largely consist- 
ing of grasses and sedges ; Durisil'vae 
{silva, a wood), sclerophyllous forest 
formations, as of Quercus Ilex in the 
Mediterranean region and Eucalyp- 
tus in Australia. 

Dust, Blair's word for Pollen ; dust'y, 
covered Avith granulations lesem- 
bling dust ; or powdered, farinose. 

dwarf, of small size or height com- 
pared with its allies ; ~ Male, a 
short-lived filament of a few cells 
in Oedogoniaceae, the upper cells 
being antheridia. 

Dy'ad (5uos, hvaZos, two), (1) a sub- 
division of a Tetrad by mitosis, 
again dividing into single elements 
(Calkins) ; (2) a bivalent chromo- 

Dyas'ter (8«5o, double ; a<Tr))p, a star), 
the stage of nuc ear division when 
the rays of linin split longitudinally 
and two stars are formed which move 
apart, ending with the formation of 
daughter-skeins ; dyblas'tus {^\a<r- 
rhs, a bud), two-celled, applied to 
Lichen spores ; Dycle'sium, or 
Dyclo'sium, see Diclesium. 

dynamic {5uva/xLs, power), applied to 
tissue which is capable of strongly 
swelling on one side ; ~ Cell, any 
thick-walled prosenchymatous ele- 
ment, having its molecules or micellae 
in transverse rings, which undergoes 
marked longitudinal contraction in 
water (Eichholz) ; Dynam'ia, used 
by Linnaeus to express the degree 
of development of stamens, as Didy- 
namia and Tetradynamia, applied 
to flowers where resfiectively two 
and four stamens have longer fila- 
ments than the remaining two ; 
dy'namo-staL'ic {(rrdais, a standing) 
El'ements, hygroscopic motor-cells 
(Eichholz) ; Dyne, the unit of force 
expressed by the weight of one 
gramme moving one centimetre in 
one second of time (Errera) [= CGS]. 

dyploste'monous = diplostemonous. 

Dyploteg'ia = Ditlotegia. 

dysanth'ic {avdos, a flower), fertiliza- 
tion by the pol'en from a difl'erent 
plant (K. Pearson). 




dysgeog'enouB (5u<r-, i. e bad ; 77), the 
earth; yivvao}, I bring forth), em- 
ployed by Thurmann for those 
plants growing on soils which do 
not readily yield detritus ; hard 
rocks generally, such as granite ; 
dyspho'tic dysphotis'tic (<^ws, (pwThs, 
light), applied by A. F. W. Schimper 
to the deeper situated Benthos ; -^ 
Plants, are th' se which are adapted 
to a minimum of light ; dysphoto- 
trop'ic {rpoTTTf), a turning), used of 
leaves adajited to a certain amount 
of light, but not too intense, as 
Lactuca Scariola ; Dysteleorogy 
{t4\05, completion ; \6yos, dis- 
course), frustration of function ; as 
where an insect obtains honey by 
puncluring a nectary instead of by 
the floral opening ; atlj. , dysteleolog'- 
ic, ^ cal ; Dysteleorogist, an agent 
which evades the teleologic end, as 
a bee which obtains honey by means 
Avhich do not conduce to fertilization ; 
dyst'ropous (tpott^, a turning), in- 
jurious insect- visiting, so f<ir as the 
flowers are concerned ; Dys'tropy, 
the condition described. 

Dyss'ophytes, -ae {Siaahs, two-fold ; 
(pvTov, a plant). Clements's term 
for plants which are sometimes 
hydrophytes and sometimes aero- 
phytes ; the author gives the deriva- 
tion as from " duaahs, double." 

e, ex, in Latin compounds, privative, 
as ecostate, without ribs. 

Ear, the spike of corn ; £ar-coc'kles 
of wheat, a disease due to eel- 
worms, Tyletichus tritici ; ear- 
formed (Loudon), eared, auriculate. 

ebe'neous, black as ebony, the heart- 
wood of Diospyros Ebenum, Koen. 

ebeta'tus = UEnETATUs. 

ebori'nus {eboreus, made of ivory), 
ivory-like, or ivory-white. 

ebrac'te"te, chrad ea' tus (e, priv. ; 
hractea, a biact), without bracts ; 
ebrac'teolate, ehracteola'tus, desti- 
tute of bracteoles, 

eburn'eous, -eus (Lat., of ivory), ivory 
white, white more or less tinged 
with yellow. 

E'cad [oIkos, a house ; -f. ad), a habitat 
form due to origin by adaptation 

ecalc'arate, ecalcara'tus {e, priv. ; 
calcai\ a spur), spurless ; ^cau'dal 
{rauda, a tail), ^vithout a tail or 
similar appendage. 

Ecballi'um, or Ecballi'on {iK$d\\a), I 
throw out), succession of plants after 
timber felling (Clements). 

Ecblaste'sis {^k, out of ; fiXaart], 
gi'owth), the appearance of buds 
within a flower, prolification of the 

eccen'tric = rxcentric. 

Eo'dysis {fKlvtris, a shifting out), 
exuviation or the physiological 
mechanism by which Dinoflagellata 
rid themselves of their carapace 

Ece'sis, or Oece'sis {oIktictis, the act 
of dwelling), the germination and 
establishment of invaders. 

Ech'ard (ex'") I withhold), the non- 
available water of the soil (Clements). 

Echi'nops-fluorescine, Echinops'ein, 
and Echinops'ine, alkaloids found in 
Echinops liitro (Greshoff). 

ecWor'ophyllose (e, priv. ; + Chloko- 
piiyll), without chlorophyll ; scari- 
ous ; ech'inate, echina'tus (Lat., 
prickly), beset with prickles ; ecMn'- 
ulate,ecAi/iM^ai'«s, having diminutive 

Ech'ma, pi. Ech'mata (^XM«. a- sup- 
port), the hardened hook-shaped 
funicle in most Acanthaceae which 
supports the seed ; cf. Retinacu- 
lum (3). 

Ecid'ium (Crozier) = Af.cidium. 

ecil'iate (+ Cilium), without cilia. 

Ecogen'e8i8(o?/cos,a house ; + Genesis), 
the origin of ecologic factors ; ect)- 
log'ic Opt'imum. when the sur- 
roundings off"er the most favourable 
conditions for the life of a given 
plant ; Ecorogism = Ecology ; 
Ecorogist, or Oecorogist, a student 
of the life of the plant in relation 
to its surroundings ; Ecorogy (\6yos, 
a discourse), or Oecorogy, the study 
of plant-life in relation to envii'on- 
ment ; adj. ecolog^ical, oecolog'ical ; 



Eel trap Hairs 

Ehysiograph'ie Eeorogy, the distri- 
ution of plants accormng to climate 
and soil ; economic Botany (yo/jLiKhs, 
resting on laws), appliea botany, 
that branch which takes note of 
technical application of plants and 
plant-products ; -^ Coeffic'ient, the 
weight produced by a consumption 
of l<tO parts of the nutrient material 

Ecopar'asite, or Oecopar asite (oIkos, 
a house ; -f Parasite), a specialized 
form of a parasitic fungus when 
growing on one or more host-species 
to which it is confined under nonnal 
circumstances ; c/. Xenoparasite ; 
Ecopar'asitism, or Oecopar'asitism, 
is the condition in question 

ecortlcate, ecortica'tus («, priv. ; cortex, 
bark), destitute of baric, or bark- 
like covering ; ecos'tate, ccosta'tua 
{costa, a rib), without ribs, nerve- 
less ; ecrusta'ceous (crusta, rind, -f 
aceous), destitute of thallus, applied 
to Lichens. 

E'cotone {oIkos, a house ; r6vos, stress), 
the stress line or boundaries between 
plant associations (Clements) ; also 
spelled Oe'cotone. 

Ectauze'sis {iKrhs, outside ; ai^rj&is,- 
growth), the growth of an organ 
outwards through the substance of 
the parent shoot (Weisse) ; ectocy'- 
olic {kvkXos, a circle), used of 
sieve-tubes which are between the 
epidermis and the ring of sclerogen 
(Fischer) ; Ecto^en'esis {yevecris, a 
beginning), variation induced by 
external conditions ; ectogenlo 
(7«Vo$, offspring), capable of living 
outside of a given body, as certain 
bacilli ; Ectopar'asite (-f Parasite), 
a parasite which remains on the 
exterior of its host, only sending its 
haustoria within ; opposed to En do- 
parasite ; Ectopep'tase {ir«irrhs, 
cooked), an enzyme which peptonizes 
the more complex of the proteins, 
and occurring in the excretions of 
plants, such as the pitcher-liquid of 
Nepenthes (Vines) ; ectopMoeo'des 
{ipKoihs, bark), living on tne surface 

or bark of other plants as some 
Lichens ; ectopMolo, the condition 
of stems when the internal phloem 
iswanting; cf. amphiphlqic (Jeffrey); 
Ect^oplasm {irxdvua, moulded), a 
delicate, firm, superficial layer of 
the cytoplasm or general protoplasm 
of the cell, hyaloplasm. 

Ec'topy {iKT&Kios, displaced), the 
abnormal position of an organ. 

Ect'ospore {iicrhs, outside ; airopk, 
seed), a synonym of Basidiospore ; 
Ectospor'iam, the outer layer of a 
spore in bacteria (Miihlschegel) ; 
ectos'porous, possessing exogenously 
formed spores; ectothe'cal (d'^wn. a 
case), in Ascomycetes used for naked- 
spored ; ectotropVic h-po(p^, nour- 
ishment), when a fungus clothes a 
root oply externally ; ectrotrop'io 
{rp6iros, direction), (1) outward cur- 
vature ; (2) the course of the pollen- 
tube in acrogamic fertilization, by 
the micropvle to the embyro-sac 
(Pirotta ana Longo). 

ecy'phellate («, priv. +, 
used of Lichens destitute of cy- 

edaph'ic (l5a<^os, the ground), A. F. W. 
Schimper's term for the influence of- 
the soil on the plants growing upon 
it ; Edaph'ophytes {<pvrhv, a plant), 
plants which root in the earth, with 
assimilation organs in the air above 
it ; normal plants, or Euphytes 

edent'ate, edenta'ttis (deiis, dentis, a 
tooth), without teeth ; ede&t'nlui 
(Lat.), toothless. 

Ed'eetin {4i€<rrhs, eatable), a globulin 
constituent of wheat flour, forming 
about six to seven \>ei cent. 

Edge, the margin or outline, as of a 
leaf ; edged, when a patch of colour 
is rimmed round by another tint. 

Edob'oles, -ae, pi. {oUos, a swelling, 
0o\i], a throw), distribution by 
turgescence of fruits or sporangia 

Eel-trap Hairs, hairs found in struc- 
tures which detain insect visitors, 
as in iyarracenia and Aristulnchici 
Clematitis (Habcrlandt). 




effete', ej[e'tus, effoe'tus (Lat. , exliaus- 
ted), past bearing, functionless from 


ef£i.^'viX?LiQ,effigura'tus (figura, a fignro). 
(1) when an prgan is completed l»y 
the full development of its subordi- 
nate parts ; (2) of definite outline, 
opposed to EFFUSE ; Effigura'tiona, 
outgrowths of the receptacle or 
torus, as in Passijivra, Capparis, etc. 

Ifflores'ence, Fjflorescen'lia [etflorcsco, 
I blossom forth), the season of 
flowering, anthesis. 

Effolia'tion -(Lindley) = Exfoltatiox. 

effuse, effu'sus (Lat., poured out), 
patulous, expanded ; Effu'sio, an ex- 
pansion ; Effu'sion, used by Wiesner 
for an intermingling of gases under 
different pressures, the current acting 
through openings in membranes. 

eflagellif'erous {e, priv. + Flagel- 
LUM, fero, I bear), destitute of fla- 
gella ; efo'liolate, rfoliola'tus [folio- 
luvi, a small leaf), without leaf-like 
scales or squamre ; efo'iiolose has 
the same meaning ; efov'eolate 
[fovea, a pit), "smooth, without 
]tit8 or dejnessions " (Heinig) ; — the 
form " eforeolate " is a press error ; 
eful'crate, efulcra'tus [fulcrum, a 
bed-postj, ust'd of buds from which 
the customary leaf or bract lias fallen. 

^g? (1), Ovum, ovule ; (2) restricted 
in meaning as below ; - Appara'tus, 
the three cells with nuclei at the 
micropylar end of the emliryo sac, 
two form the synergidit}, and the 
other forms the ousphere ; ~ Cell, the 
oosphere or gynogamete ; ~ -sac, 
the mesochite and endocliite of 
Fucaceae, the membranes which en- 
close the egg ( Farmer and Williams) ; 
~ -shaped, = ovate ; ~ Spore = 
eglandu'lose, ajJnadulo'sus [r, priv., 
gJandula, a gland), destitute of 
glands ; egran'ulose {granuJa, a 
small grain), without granules. 
E'gret, ^fartyn's term for pappus ; 

Fr. Aigrette. 
ehila'tus J {e, priv.; -f- Hilum), imper- 
forate, applied to pollen grains 
having no perforations. 

eis'odal, eiso'dial [("((xoSos, an entry), 
anterior, as the outer pore -^f 
stomates (Tschirch). 

Ejacula'tion {ejaculor, I shoot forth) 
= Kjection. 

Ejec'tion [cjech'o, a casting forth), 
for<;i])ly throwing out endogen- 
ously formed spores from a spor- 


Elabora'tion [rJahoratio, persevering 
labour), used of tlie changes which 
tiike place after the absorption of 
food material to fit it for the use of 
the plant. 

elaeo'des {i\aia, olive), olive colour, 
brownish green ; Elaioleu'cites 
[\fvKhs, white), Van Tieghem's term 
for Elaioplasts ; Elaioplank'ton 
(+ Plankton), plankton floating 
by means of fatty matters (Forel) ; 
Elai'oplapts [irKacTThs, moulded), 

(1) })lastid8 which are believed to 
form oil, as leuco})lasts form starch ; 

(2) oil-drops, usually applied to the 
chromatophores in Diaton)s, some- 
times free ; the^' are particularized 
as Libkoplasts, Placuplasts, and 
Spausioplasts (Mereschkowsky) ; 
Elai'osomes, pi. [(rwfjia, a body), 
characteristic oily appendages and 
seeds of myrmecochorous plants, 
such as arils, crests, etc., offering 
food-bodies to ants (Sernander) ; 
Elai'ospheres {cr<pa7pa, a sphere), 
bodies in spongy and palisade paren- 
chymi, similar to elaioplasts, pro- 
bably oilrbodies (Lidforss). The 
foregoing are also spelled elaeo-. 

elaphi'nes {f\a(piv^s, a fawn) ; eia- 
phi'iivs [i\a<phs, a deer), tawny or 

Ela$'tic Lim'it, the extreme load which 
a vegetable fibre or body can sup- 
port, without being permanently 
stretched (Haberlandt). 

Ela'ter [iKar^p, a driver), (1) an 
elastic spirally twisted filament, 
occurring amongst the spoics in the 
ihecfe of Hepatict^i ; (2) a free capil 
litium thread in Myxogastres; (3) 
in EquiHctum, four clubbed hygro- 
scopic bands attached to the spores, 
which serve for dispersal. 




Elat'erine, the active principle of the 
fruit of Elaterium, Jacq. 

Elate'riam (iKariipios, driving away) ; 
(1) = Coccum; (2) the dried juice 
of the wild cucumber, Elaterium. 

Elat'erophore {<t>op4a), I carry), thready 
organs which bear the elaters in 
certain Hepaticae. 

•la'tus (Lat., exalted), tall, lofty. 

Eloot'ropism (Iaac«, I drag; rpoir^, a 
turning), compulsory attraction of 

Elec'tion {electio, a choice), the selec- 
tion of the fittest, eis opposed to the 
elimination of the unfit. 

eleo'trinus {liXenrpoy, amber), yellowish 
amber coloured ; Electrorysia (Auo-is, 
a loosing), analysis by electric force, 
adj. electrolytic ; electrotrop'ic 
{rp6iro5, direction), actuated by 
electric force ; Elect'ropism, or 
Electrot'ropism {rpSiros, direction), 
(1). the elect) ic impulse which governs 
certain plant-functions; (2) the in- 
flection of roots or shoots towards 
the cathode (Macdougal); Electro'- 
sis, reaction from an electrical cur- 
rent (Massart) ; Electrotax'is {rd^is, 
order), arrangement induced by 
electric currents, galvanotaxis ; 
Electrot'onus {r6vos, stress), a latent 
period of electric, stress (Hoerniann) ; 
Elec'tro-vegetom'eter, an ariange- 
ment of insulated wires and points 
above the plants to be electrified by 
atmospheric electricity (Berthelon). 

Element'ary Or'gans, the constituents 
of cellular and vascular tissue. 

eleutheran'thorous {ixtvdepos, free, 
-f Anther), having the anthers 
di^<tinct, not united; elenthero- 
pet'alous {vfTa\ov, a flower-leaf), 
polypetalous, having free petals, 
choripetalous ; eleutherophyll'ouB, 
{<f)6\\oy, a leaf), separate leaved ; 
eleutherosep'aloua ( -f Skpalum), 
with distinct sepals ; elenthero- 
tep'alons ( + Tepal), having free 
tepals (Pax). 

eleva'ted, applied to a Lichen when 
raised above the surface of its 

Elf'in-tree ; --' -wood, applied by 

A. F. W. Schiraper, to alpine forest, 
distorted from mountain climate ; 
Ger. , Krummholz. 

Elimina'tion {elimino, I move out), 
the destruction of forms from various 
natural causes (Plate). 

Elitric'ulus = Elytriculus. 

Ell, a measure variously understood, 
the English ell being 45 inches, the 
Flemish ell 54 inches. 

Elleb'orin, an acrid resin from Eranthis 
hyemahs, Salisb., formerly con- 
sidered a species of HeUehorus. 

Ellip'soid (^A.A.6Ji//ts, a failing short; 
«l5oy, like), an elliptic solid; adj. 
ellipioi'dal, ellipsoida'lis; sometimes 
etnployed for ellip'tic, ellip'tical, 
ellip'ticus, sliaped like an ellipse, 
oblong with regularly rounded ends. 

elitt'oral {e, from litoralis or littoralis, 
pertaining to the shore), employed 
to denote the coastal region below 
the sublittoral, and extending as far 
as the light penetrates (Warming). 

eloc'ular, elociila'ris («, priv. loculns, 
a cell), unilocular. 

elo'dioid {e'ldos, resemblance), like 
Elodea ; applied to a linear leaf 

Elonga'tion, Elonga'tio [elongo, \ 
lengthen), remarkable for length 
in comparison with its breadth ; 
elonga'ted (dongaUus, drawn out in 

Elu'vittm {cliivio, a washing away), 
used by Boulger for sand-blown 

Elyme'tum, an association of Elymus 

Elytric'ulus [iXvrpov, a covering), 
Necker's t^nn for a floret in Com- 
positae ; ely 'triform {forma, shape), 
resembling the wing-case of a beetle 

emar'cid, e'nar'cidus {eviarcesco, I 
wither), flaccid, withered. 

emar'ginate, emargina'tus {emargino, 
to deprive of its edge), having a 
notch cut out, usually at the ex- 
tremity ; Emarginatu'ra (Lat.), the 
notch at the apex of an emarginate 

Emascula'tion, in plants, the removal 




of the stamens, hefore they dehisce, 
from ht^rniaphrodite flowers previous 
to artiticial hybridization. 

embed'ded veins, those surrounded on 
all sides by assimilatory tissue. 

Em'bolus {f/x$oKos, a pump piston), a 
plug, a process which projects down- 
wards from the upper part of the 
cavity of the ovary of Armeria, and 
closes the foramen of the ovule. 

em'boss''ed (dissyl.), umbonate, having 
a slight central nodule. 

embra'cing, clasping by the base, 

Em'bryo, Em'bryon {(/x^pvov, a foetus), 
the rudimentary plant formed in a 
seed or within the archegonium of 
Cryptogams; ~ Buds, "spheroidal 
soiia b'dies, of unknown origin, re- 
sembling woody nodules formed in 
the bark: of trees, and capable of 
extending into branches" (Lindley); 
^ Cell = OosPHERE ; -^ -cord, in 
Hydnora, a single row of flattened 
cells connecting the embryo with 
the outer surface of the albumen 
(Solms-Laubach) ; — sec'ondary ~ , 
'= Embryo-sac Tubes; -' Nod'ule, 
the same as Embryo Buds; ~ Sac, 
the cell in the ovule in which the 
embryo is formed, also by some 
termed the macrospore ; -^ Tubes, 
tubular upgi'owths and compartment 
walls within which the female nuclei 
of IVel.witsckia are conducted to the 
nucellar cone (Pearson) ; fixed ~ , a 
leaf-bud; Embryoblas'tanon {Bkacr- 
rhs, a bud), Miquel's term for the 
suspensor in Cycads ; embryogen'ic 
{yivvao), I bring forth), belonging to 
the development of the embryo; •^ 
Bod'ies, in Mucorini, naked masses 
of protoplasm apparently derived 
from the nuclei, at each end of the 
zygospore, ultimately fusing to- 
gether, becoming ~ Spheres, then 
surround themselves with a double 
cell-wall, and finally become Km- 
BRYONic Spheres (Leger); Embry- 
og'eny, formation of the embryo ; 
direct' ~, when a spore gives rise 
to an embryo resembling the adult 
form; heteroblast'ic >-', when the 

embryo differs widely from the 
adult form it is not borne direct, 
but as a lateral outgrowth ; ho'lo- 
blastio ~, in which the whole of the 
ovum takes part : ho'moblas'tic -^ , =• 
direct '-' ; in'direct -- = hetkro- 
BLASTic ~ ; meroblast'ic, when 
only a portion of the ovum takes 
part in the development i Em- 
bryorogy (A.J70S), discourse, study 
of the embryo ; em'bryonal, embryo- 
va'lis, relating to the embryo ; '-' 
Tubes, tubular structures which 
develop in Abietinege, forming the 
suspensor; ■~Ve'sicle, the oosphere ; 
em'bryonary Sac = Embryo Sac; 
em'bryonate, having an embryo 
(Crozier) ; embryon'ic, rudimentary, 
in an early stage ; '- Appen'dage, 
the apical portion of the suspensor 
in grasses (V^mes); Em'bryophore 
{<pop4(a, I carry), in Eqiiisetum the 
homologue of the suspensor of 
Phanerogams and ScIagineUa, the 
lower of the two cells first cut oflF 
by a septum in the oosphere, then 
again separated, and this time 
forming the lower two of the quad- 
rants, one becoming the " font," the 
other the first root ; Embryophy'ta 
((bvrhv, a plant), plants possessing 
embryos, divided into ~ Sipbono- 
gam'ia, having pollen-tubes, prac- 
tically a'l flowering plants, and -*' 
Zoidiogam'ia, with ciliated sperma- 
tozoids, practically all Cryptogams; 
embryophyt'ic, relating to Embryo- 
PHYTA ; ~ Branches, in Chara, 
peculiar branches resembling an 
embryo, which become separate and 
grow into new plants ; '^ Spheres, 
see under ExMbryogenic Spheres; 
Embryote'ga, -tegum, -tegium, 
-iega {rcy^), a covering), a callosity in 
the seed coat of some seeds near the 
hilum, and detached by the protru- 
sion of the radicle on germination ; 
Embryotroph'a {Tpo(f>i}, nourish- 
ment), (1) Perisperm; (2) Amnion 
(J. S. Henslow). 
Emer'gence {emergo, I come forth), an 
outgrowth from the surface, differing 
from hairs in arising from more than 




tlie supcrlicial cells, and from spines, 
in arising from a few layers only ; 
prickles, warts, etc. ; emer'gent, 
emer'(icns, used of capsules which 
rise slightly above the perichaetium; 
emer'sed, emer'sun, raised above and 
out of the water ; Emersipra'ta 
{praiHVi,'a, meadow), marsh plants 
which root in water-covered or satu- 
rated soil, but have their leafy shoots 
erett above the surface. 

Em'etin. a supi)o.sed alkaloid from 
Ipeciu'uanlia and similar emetic 

Emissa'ria, pi. (r.missarinin, an out- 
let), Moll's term for Hydathodes or 
water-glands; Emissiv'ity, thermal, 
the interchange of heat between a 
leaf and its surroundings. 

Emo'din, a glucoside obtained from 
buckthorn and a species of rhubarb, 
llhruvi Emodi, Wall. 

empa'led, (irew's term for henmied in, 
as the flower by the calyx ; Em- 
pa'lement, — Calyx ; Empa lers, 
the calyx segments. 

empenna'tus t (Mod. Lat.), pinnate. 

emphysemato'sus + {i/jLcpuardco, I breathe 
upon), bladdery. 

Emph'ytism {ftx^vs, inhering). W. D. 
Cope's term for inherited or simple 
type of growth force ) Emphyto- 
gen'esis {y4v€(xis, beginning), the 
origin of inherited growth force 
(W. D. Cope), 

emphytog'enous {f/x(f>vTos, innate ; 
yevi^v, born), employed by Carriere 
to denote graft-hyl)rid8. 

Empir'ic Di'agram, a .scheme showing 
the relative number and po.>^ition of 
I)arts of a flower as seen by inspec- 

emprosthrod'romous {(fnrpoadfv, in 
front ; ZpSixos, a couise), used of a 
flower wlien the genetic sjjiral on its 
shortest way from the bract to the 
outermost i)erianth-segment passes 
outside the flower, farthest from the 

em'pty, void ; ~ Glumes, one or more 
glumes subtending a Hj)ikelet in 
grasses enclosing one or more 

I Emursin {emuhus, nniKcd), an enzyme 
acting upon glucosides, found plen- 
tifully in almonds. 

En'alid {iudKios, marine), Warming's 
term for such jdants as Zostera, Hcdo- 
phila, and other marine submersed 

enantioblast'ic, -tous(ei'ai'Ta, opposite; 
^Kaarhs, a shoot), having the em- 
bryo at the end of the seed diametri- 
cally opposite the hilum ; enanti- 
osty'lous {ivavTios, opposite, + 
Stvi-E), flowers wh(5se stvles are 
protruded right or left of the axis, 
with the stamens opposite ; Enanti- 
ostyly is the condition; cf. Dextuo-, 


Ena'tion {enahis, sprung up), an out- 
growth from another organ, as the 
corona from the perianth of Nar- 

Enaul'ad {ivavXos, a water course ; -\- 
Ai>) "a sanddraw plant"; Ena- 
uli'um, a "sanddraw formation" 
(Clements) ; enauloph'ilus {(pixiw, I 
lo\^5), dwelling in such places ; 
Enaulophy'ta {^vrhv, a])lant), i)lants 
inhabiting " sanddraws " (Clements). 

Encarp'ium [iu, in ; Kapirhs, fruit), 
Trattinick's term for sporopliore. 

Enca'sing, of protoplasm, the forma- 
tion of cellulose-caps by the proto- 
plasm in the cells of certain tri- 
chomes (Ilaberlandt) ; Ger., Ein- 

Enchyle'ma {iyxf(^^ I pour in ; Atj/xtj, 
rheum), the more fluid })ortion of 
the cytoplasm (Haiistein). 

Encyoneme'tum (iv, in; kIw, I contain; 
yri/xa, vtj^oto, a thread), an algal as- 
sociation in Lake Constance of Spiro- 
gyra, etc. ; encyst'ed {kvcttis, a 
bladder), enclosed in a bag, or in- 
vested with a coating when in a 
non-uiotilc state, as some unicel- 
lular i)hints ; Encyst'ment, the con- 
dition of being encysted. 

end'arch {^vhov, within ; apxhi begin- 
ning) applied to a bundle in wliich 
the j-rimaiy xylcm, in most Phaner- 
ogams, id wholly centrifugal, cen- 
troxylic ; Endauxe'sis (o(/^7j<rts, 
growth), on the inner side of an 




organ relatively to the main shoot 

endecag'ynous, endecagnyn'ian (^f- 
SeKas, eleven ; yvv^, a woman), 
having eleven pistils ; endecan'- 
drous {ay^p. di-SpSs, a man), having 
eleven stamens ; endecaphyirous 
{(pvWov, a leaf), having eleven leaves 
or leaflets. 

ende'mic, ende'micus {iy, in ; SJjyuos, a 
country district), confined to a given 
region, as an island or country ; 
Ende'mism, the condition of en- 
demic plants. 

Endhy'menine (v/j-w, a membrane) = 


En'distem {tvbov, within ; IffTtj/jn, I 
stand), young, pith. 

endivia'ceous, light blue, like the 
flowers of endive, Cichorium Intybu-f. 

Endobasid'ium {evSov, within ; basid- 
ium, a little pedestal), an enclosed 
basidium, as in Gasteromycetes ; en- 
dobiot'ic {BioT^, life), living within 
as a parasite, as Chrysophlyctis en- 
dobiotica, Rose, in potato tubers ; 
En'doblem {BAij^a, a coverlet), 
tissue beneath the derraatogen, of 
small celled parenchyma ;. En dooarp 
{Kapirhs, fruit), the inner layer of a 
pericarp ; endocarp'oid (elSos, re- 
semblance), resembling the Lichen 
genus Eiidocarpon ; Encfocaryog'- 
amy = Endogamy ; endocatad'rom- 
ous ( + CATADROMOUs), when Ferns 
in their nervation have their stronger 
pinnules catadromous, the weaker 
ones,anadromous; En'docliite {xtriav, 
a tunic), the innermost membrane 
of the egg in Fucaceae (Farmer) ; 
Endochlor'ites ( -f Chlorite), 
chlorophyllous plastids contained in 
achroocysts (Arbaumont) ; En^do- 
chro'a % {xp^^, skin), a supposed 
interior layer of the cuticle (Lind- 
ley) ; En'dochrome, Endochro'ma 
(xpufia, colour), the peculiar colour- 
ing matter in cells, especially in 
Algae ; -plate, used of the two bands 
of colour in the frustule of navi- 
cular Diatoms, lying on the con- 
necting band (Pfitzer) ; En'dochyle 
{xv\hs, juice), a. plant which has 

its water-tissue witliiii its assimi- 
lating tissue (A. F. W. Schimper) ; 
endococ'coid, like the Lichen Endo- 
coccus; Endoconid'ia ( -|- Conidia), 
a synonym of Endogonidia ; Endo- 
cor'tex {cortex, bark), the innermost 
layer of the cortical region ; endo- 
cri'brose { -f crib rose), within the 
sieve-tubes (Buscalioni) ; En'docyst 
{kvo-tis, a blaHder), Cleve's term for a 
probably sexual organ in the frustules 
of certain Diatoms ; Endoderm'is 
{Sepfia, skin), the layer of gi'ound- 
tissue which abuta on the stele, 
being diff'erentiated as a sheath 
round it; adj. endoderm'al ; Endo- 
derm'ogens ( -f Endodehm, '^cvos, 
descent). Van Tieghem's term for 
Vascular Cryptogams ; endoderm' 
oid {tlZosi resemblance), like the 
Endodermis (Rendle) ; endogamlc 
(ydfios, marriage), crossing between 
two flowers of the same individual 
(K. Pearson) ; Endog'amy, (1) the 
condition above described : (2) an ' 
expression for fusion or coalescence 
of two or more female gametes of 
the same brood (Hartog): adj. en- 
dog'amoud; En'dogen {yevos, race, 
oH -spring), a monocotyledonous 
plant, supposed to grow by in- 
ternal accessions ; endog'enons, 

(1) pertaining to an Endogen ; 

(2) produced within another body, 
arising from deep-seated tissues ; 
'~ Cell-formation, free cell -forma- 
tion ; -^ Spores, those formed within 
a cell ; Endogonid'ium ( + Gonid- 
ium), a gouidium formed within 
a receptacle or gonidangium ; En- 
dogo'nium, the contents of the 
nucule of Cha^a; Endobaastor'ium 
( + Haustorium), a body resem- 
bling a young haustorium within 
a cell of a plant infected by Uredi- 
neous Fungi (Eriksson) ; Endokary- 
og'amy {itdpvov, a nut or kernel) 
= Endogamy ; endolith'ic {xiOos, a 
stone), used of lichens growing 
below the surface of limestone rock ; 
Endomer'istem ( + Meristem), 
Russow's term employed by Vaizey 
for that meristem in a Moss which 




produces the central strand ; endo- 
nast'ic {vaarhs, close-pressed), ap- 
plied by Van Tieghera to an anatro- 
pous or campulitropous ovule, when 
the curvature is horizontal towards 
the edge of the carpel ; Endo- 
nusle'olus ( + Nuci.eolu.s), a space 
inside the nucleolus (Huie) ; Endo- 
nu'clens {nuclerts, a small nut), "the 
nucleolo- nucleus " (Macfarlane) ; En- 
dopar'asite ( + Parasite), a plant 
which lives and develops within 
the tissues of the host ; adj. endo- 
parasit'ic ; Endoperid'ium (irepiStov, 
a little pouch), the inner layer of 
the peridium in Fungi ; Endo- 
phloe urn {<p\oihs, bark), the inner 
bark ; Endophrag'ma J {<ppd.yixa, a 
fence), a partition in the frond of 
some seaweeds ; endophyrious, en- 
dophyVlus {<pv\\ov, a leaf), (1) 
formed from within a sheatJiing 
leaf; (2) living within the sub- 
stance of a leaf ; endophy'tal, endo- 
phytic, "Cus {(pvrhv, a plant), one 
plant growing inside another plant, 
whether parasitic or not ; En'do- 
phyte, (1) the woody body or timber 
of an exogen, including the pith 
(Lindley) ; (2) a plant which grows 
in the interior of another living 
plant ; Endophy'tism, the condition 
last described ; En' {irKaa^ia, 
moulded), the internal granular 
portion of the protoplasm as dis- 
tinguished from the outer portion, 
the ectoplasm, which is free from 
granules ; En'doplast {-nyacrrhs, 
moulded), the protoplasmic contents 
of a cell (Huxley) ; Endoplaatld, a 
plastid containing one starch 
granule, simple or compound (Ar- 
baumont) ; Endoplea'ra (irAevpck, a 
rib), the inner seed-coat, tegmen ; 
Endoprothal'leae, Van Tieghem's 
nlime for Phanerogams ; endop'tile, 
endop'iilus {tttIxov, a feather), used 
of an embryo whose plumule is rolled 
lip in the cotyledon ; Endorhi^zae 
= Monocotyledons ; endorhi'zal, 
endorhi'zoufl, -us {f>iCa, a root), 
monocotyledonous, for in germina- 
tion the radicle instead of lengthen 

ing gives rise to secondary rootlets ; 
Endosap'rophytism ( -f Saprophyt- 
ism), Elenkin's term for the Lichen- 
life, when dead gonidia in a he' eronier- 
ous Lichen are utilized bythehyphae; 
Endosclero'tium ( -f- Sclrrotium), 
a persistent tuber-like myielium of 
endogenous origin (Fayod) ; Endos- 
mom'eter [jiirpou, a measure, an 
instrument to show endosmosis. 
En'dosmose, Endosmo' sis (icr/i^s, im- 
pulsion), flow of liquid through a 
membrane into a more viscid fluid ; 
En'dosperm, Endospervi^im {tr-rrcpfia, 
seed), (1) tiie albumen of a seed in 
Angiosperms, by recent observers 
limited to the endosperm deposited 
within the embryo sac ; (2) in 
Gynmosperms the prothallium with- 
in the embryo sac ; (3) in Selagi- 
nella, tissue formed in the cavity of 
the macrospore below the prothal- 
lium ; endosperm'ic, -icus, having 
albumen, or associated with it ; en- 
dosphae'rine, resembling or allied to 
Endosphaera, a genus of Protococ- 
En'dospore, Endospor'ium (evSoi/, with- 
in ; airopa, seed), (1) the innermost 
coat of a spore ; (2) the Intine of a 
pollen grain ; (3) the interior mem- 
brane of the pollen in Angiosperms ; 
endosp'orous, -ns, having spores 
formed within; En'dostereJ (o-repebs, 
stiff), the timber of an exogen, 
without the pith (Lindley) ; En'dos- 
XomQ, Endosi'ortui {<TT6fia,t\\6 mouth), 
the foramen of the inner coat 
of an ovule ; Endotest'a ( -f Testa), 
the hard lignitied inner integu- 
ment of the seed of Cordaicarpits 
(Brongniart); Endothe'ca (e-^/crj, a 
case), Tulasne's term for endothe- 
cium; Endothe'oium, (1) Purkinje's 
name for the inner layer of a pollen 
grain ; (2) the inner lining of the 
loculus of an anther ; (3) the inner 
tissue of the theca in Muscineae ; 
Endothe'lium (^^Atj, a nipple), 
Schwere's name for Endodermis ; 
endotherm'ic {depuhs, hot), internal 
changes of heat within a plant ; 
endotroph'ic {Tpo<pii, nourishment), 




applied to mycorhiza when the 
fungus attacks the cells of the 
root itself; Endot'rophy, Wiesner's 
expression for the condition of 
thickened growth of a shoot in 
the direction of the parent-shoot ; 
cf. Exothophy; endotrop'ic (rpoT^, 
a turning), (1) inward curvature; 
(2) fertilized by pollep from another 
flower of the same plant (K. Pear- 
son) ; (3) the path of the pollen- 
tube in basigamic fertilization ; 
Endrotryp'sin, or Endotryp'tase ( -f 
Trypsin), a proteolytic enzyme in 
yeast (Vines); endozo'lc ({T'yoK, an 
animal), living inside an animal ; 
entozoic (Crozier) ; Endozoocho'ry 
(X^pew, I make way), dispersion of 
plants through the interior of 

Eneile'ma {ivflKrjfia, a wrapper), the 
inner skin of the seed. 

Energ^t'icB {ivepyvriicds, active), the 
science which treats of the trans- 
formation of energy. 

Energe'sis {it^epySr, busy), the dis- 
ruptive process by which energy is 
released (Barnes); — aero'bio ~, 
anaero'bio ~, ferment'ative ~ ; see 
under Respiraiion. 

En'ergid {4vepy4ia, action ; ISris, Greek 
suffix = paternity), Sachs's term for 
the nucleus and protoplasm as a 
vital unit; En'ergy, the capacity 
for domg work, as -^ of actual 
motion or kinetic -^ ; or -^ of 
position or poten'tial ~. 

ener'vis, ener'vius (Lat.), destitute of 
veins or nerves. 

EnK'lish Type of Distribution, H. C. 
Watson's term for those plants 
whose range in Great Britain is 
centred in England proper. 

Enha'lid Forma'tion, spermophytes 
and larger Algae growing on loose 
soil in salt water ; Enhalus occurs, 
whence the name. 

Enneagynla {4yy4a, nine ; ywi), a 
woman), a Linnean order of plants 
with nine pistils ; enneagyn'ian, 
enneag'ynous, having nine pistils ; 
Eniiean'dna [iiv^p, ivSphs, a man), 
a Linnean class characterized by 

having nine stamens ; ennean'driouSi 
ennean'droQS, with nine stamens ; 
enneapet 'along (WtoAov, a flower- 
leaf), having nine petals ; enneari'- 
nu» {fS^ppvv, male), Necker's synonym 
for enneandrous ; enneaaep'aloui 
( + Sepaldm), with nine sepals 
(Crozier) ; enneasper'moiu (cirep/ta, 
seed), nine-seeded (Crozier). 

Enno'bling, an old term for inarching. 

eno'dal, eno'dis (Lat.), without knojta 
or nodes. 

en'sate (Crozier), ensa'tus {ensis, a 
sword), sword-shaped ; en'siform, 
eiisifurm'is {^orma, shape), sword- 
shaped, as the leaves of Jris. 

entetophleo'des {^vrepov,- intestine ; 
<f>\oih5, bark), by Wallroth applied 
to Lichens which need some anxount 
of preparation in the bark, wood, 
etc. , by weathering, before they can 

entire' ( 1 ), without toothing or division, 
with even margin ; (2) in Lichens 
applied to ah apothecitim in which 
the perithecium or hypothecium 
wholly subtends the hymeniura, or 
to the margin of an apothecium 
when continuous (Leigh ton). 

entocy'clic (ivrhs, within ; kvkKos, a 
circle), applied to sieve-tubes ^n the 
inner side of the ring of seleren- 
chyma in Cucurbitaceae ; entodi*'- 
calis {SiffKos, a quoit), inserted within 
a disc, as in the case of some stamens. 

Entomog'amy {^vto/xos = Insect; yd/jLos, 
marriage), fertilization of flowers by 
insects ^Kirchner) ; entompgenons 
{yevvdw, I bring forth), used of 
Fungi which are parasitic on insects ; 
Entomoph'ilae, plants whose flowei-s 
are fe undated by insects, especially 
Lepidoptera ; entomoph'i]ou8(<p(A.^tf, 
I love), applied to flowers which are 
fertilized by insects ; Entomoph'ily, 
is the conditioh ; entomophy'tal 
{ipurhv, a plant), entomogenous. 

Entopar'asite {ivrds, « ithin ; vapimros, 
a parasite), a parasite living en- 
tirely within its host (Crozier) ; 
entophy'tal {(pvr6v, a plant) = endo- 
phytal ; En'tophyte, En'ophy'ta, a 
plant which grows within other 




plauts, as some Fungi ; adj. ento- 
phyt'ic ; Ent'ospore ( -f Spoka), a 
primitively interior spore, possessing 
its own membrane apart from that 
of the sporophore (Vuillemin) ; en- 
tozo'ic (CvP**! an animal), growing 
within animals, endozoic. 

En 'trance,' the outer aperture of a 
stoma ; in Ger. *' Eingang." 

enu'cleate ( + Nucleus), destitute of 
a nucleus. 

En'velope, a surrounding part ; '- Ap- 
para'tus, the sporocarp in Ascoray- 
cetes exclusive of the asci, and 
ascigerous cells ; ~ Cell, Archer's 
equivalent of Cohn's " Hiillzelle " ; 
the common hyaline envelope of a 
colony of Stephanosph aeria pluvialis, 
Cohn ; the Flo'ral En'velopes are 
the perianth or its analogues ; en- 
vel'oping = involucrate. 

Envi'ronment (Fr., environnement), 
the aggregate of surrounding con- 

enzymat'ic (^v, in ; (v/xri, yeast), per- 
taining to a ferment ; En'zyme, an 
unorganised or soluble ferment, as 
Diastase; amylolytlc ~ , as Diastase, 
converting starch into sugar : fat ~ , 
converting olein into oleic acid and' 
glycerine ; glu'coside ~ , as Synap- 
tase or Emulsin ; hydrolyt'ic '^ , 
splitting up by hydrolysis ; in'vert 
'~, turning cane-sugar into grape- 
sugar ; oxidising '~ , assisting in 
the oxidation of various substances ; 
proteolyt'ic ~, decortiposing pro- 
teids ; Enzymo'id (ttSos, resem- 
blance), H body resembling an enzyme 
in its action; Cytotoxins; Enzy- 
morogy ( -f- Enzymk. \6yos, dis- 
course;, the study of the soluble 
ferments ; Enzymorysis {\vais, a 
loosing), the a:;tion of breaking up 
a substance by the solvent power 
of an enzpiie ; Enzymo'sis, changes 
induced by the action ol an enzyme; 
enzymo'tic, acting as an enzyme. 

eoclad'ous (fjas, dawn early ; K\i5os, 
a branch), applied by Prantl to 
those leaves whicli in devel(>})inent 
become branched while in the meri- 
stematic state. 

Eosin'ophil (eosin, a rose-red dye from 
coal-tar products ; <pi\(u, 1 love), 
denotes any substance which be- 
comes coloured by the application of 

Epan'ody ( 4irdyoio5, return to normal), 
a return to a regular state from an 
irregular, as a peloria flower. 

epan'thous (eVf, upon ; &vdos, a flower), 
growing upon flowers, as certain 
Fungi ; Ep'en (Crozier) — Epench'yma 
{iyxv/xa, an infusion), Nageli's term 
for tibro-vascular tissue; Ephar'- 
monism, physiolog'ic [ap^ovia, con- 
cord), Vesque's Icrm, used for the 
methods by whi h the plant is 
adapted to sun and drought ; Ephar'- 
mony, growth form in c^ontradistinc- 
tion to its systematic form ; adj. 
epharmon'ic (or ephannon'ical) ; ~ 
Conver'gence, resemblance of plants 
which are distant in affinity ; Ephar- 
mo'sis {apfio(w, I joiu together), the 
adaptation of plants under new con- 
ditions (Vesque) ; adj. epbarmo'tic. 

ephebogenet'ic (e(p-o0oi adult ; yivos, 
race, «lescent), matured, applied to 
development of sperm-cells. 

Ephe'raer {i<prtnfpio!t, short-lived), 
(1) Rikli's term for introduced plants 
wiiich are unable tc persist, but 
soon disappear ; (2) flowers which 
close after a short term of expan- 
sion ; ephem'eral, ephem'erous, -us 
{■T]fjL(pa, day), (1) lasting for a daj or 
less, as the corolla of Cistus ; (2) 
used by Mtibius as ~ polycarpic 
plants, which flower several genera- 
tions in the same year, as Stellaria 
media, Cjv; Ephe'merophytes {<pvroy, 
a plant), casuals. 

Ephydr< gam'icae, pi. {M, upon ; vda>p, 
water ; yd/xos, marriage), Knuth's 
term for i>lants whose flowers are 
fertilized on the surface of water, 
as VaUisntria ; Ephydrog'amy, the 
condition described. 

Ep'iachene (+ Aciiene), an achene 
developed from an inferior ovary 
(Villari) ; Epiascid'ium (+ Asci- 
dh'm), a funnel formed from a leaf, 
the inner surface corresponding to 
the upper surface ; cf, Hypoas- 




ciDiuM ; epiba'sal {fidtris, the base), 
in front of the basal wall, as in the 
anterior half of a proembryo ; ~ Cell, 
the upper cell of an oospore in 
Bryophytes and Pteridophytes ; ~ 
Oc'tants, the subsequent divisions of 
the '~ Cell ; Ep'iblast, Epihlast'xis 
{0\a(TThs, a shoot), the first and 
undeveloping leaf of the plumiile of 
grasses, a nidimentary second coty- 
ledon ; Epiblas'tanus is a synonym ; 
Epiblaste'ma, a superficial outgrowth 
from leaves ; Epiblas'teme, a tuft 
of glandular emergences which act 
as colleters, their cells secreting a 
t'isoid substance (Kerner) ; Epiblas- 
te'sis, growth of Lichens from go- 
nidia which develop on the parent 

Epible'ma {iTrl^X-nna, a cloak), (1) the 
extremity of the root with its root- 
hairs (Schleiden), now restricted to 
the primary integumentary tissue 
of the root, apart from the root-cap ; 
(2) an epidermis of thickened and 
flattened cells (Lindley). 

epicalyc'ius {iirl, upon ; Kd\v^, a cup) 
= EPisTAMiNEOUS ; Eplca'lyx, an 
involucre resembling an accessory 
calyx as in Malva; Ep'icarp {Kapirls, 
fruit), Epicar'pium, the external 
layer of a pericarp ; epicarpan'thous, 
•us (Jkvdos, a flower), epicarp'ous, 
epicarp'ius, -icus, superior, applied 
to a flower or its parts ; Ep'icMl, 
Ep'ichile, Epichi'lmm {x^lKos, a 
lip), the terminal part of the label- 
luni of an orchid when it is distinct 
from the basal portion ; Epichro'a X 
(xpws, skin), a supposed external 
layer of cuticle ; Ep'icline {kXIvh, a 
bed), a nectary when on the recep- 
tacle of a flower ; epicli'nal, epicli'- 
nus, seated upon the torus or 
receptacle ; Epicop'ula ( -t- Copula) 
an intermediate band of cell-wall, in 
the upper or larger valve of Diatoms 
(0. Miiller) ; epicor'mic {Kop/xhs, a 
tree-timnk), (1) applied to pre- 
ventitious buds which develop on 
the trunks of trees ; (2) usea of 
"branches which develop on the 
body of a forest tree from which 

surrounding trees have been re- 
moved " (Crozier) ; epieor'ollixie, «pt- 
corolla'tus (+ Corolla), inserted 
upon the corolla ; Epicot'yl (kotwXij, 
hollow vessel), the young stem 
above the cotyledons ; adj. epi- 
cot'ylar : epicotyle'donary, placed 
above the seed-leaves ; Epiou'tia 
{cutis f the skin), Fayod's term for 
the superficial layer of the cuticle 
in Agarics ; JEp'iderm, Epider*mis 
{Sepfia, skin) ; the true cellular skin 
or covering of a plant below the 
cuticle ; spider 'mal, relating to the 
outer covering ; -^ Lay'er, the outer 
cortex (Williamson and Scott) ; 
-^ Tis'sue, the tissue which makes 
up the epidermis ; epiderm'oid 
(elSos, like), belonging to or re- 
sembling the epiderm ; epidermo'idal 
lay'er, the exoderm of roots ; Epidi- 
phyll'um (Sis, double ; <pv\\oy, a 
leaf), Kronfeld's terin for a double 
leaf, when the growth of the lamina 
has been interrupted at a particular 
spot ; epi-endoderm'al, applied to 
cells with thickening ridges immedi- 
ately outside the endodermis in the 
roots of many Cruciferae ; epigae'an, 
epigae'ous, epige'us (7^, the earth), 
(1) growing upon^the groimd ; (2) on 
land as opposed to water ; (3) the 
above-ground flowers of such genera 
as have hypogaean flowers also, as 
Krascheninikovia ;• also occurs as 
epige'al, epige'an, epige'oas, especi- 
ally when used of cotyledons wnich 
spread above the surface ; epigele, 
Vahl's term for plants whose stolons 
are above grouna ; epigamle [yifios, 
marriage), sex determined during 
the later stages of development 
(Correns) ; Epigen'esiB (ydv^vis, a 
i3eginnin^),' the theory that the 
embryo develops by the differentia- 
tion of new organs ; opposed to the 
old theory of "Evolution" or Pre- 
formation ; adj. epigenet'ie ; epig'- 
enoas, epig'tnus {y4vos, race), grow- 
ing on the surface, as Fungi on 
leaves ; Epigeot'ropism (-j- Geo- 
tropism), growing on the sm-face of 
the soil (White) ; Ep'igone, Epi- 




go'nium {yov)\. offspring), (1) the 
cellular layer covering the young 
sporophore in Hepaticae ; (2) similar 
tissue in Mosses after formation of 
the capsule, frequently ruptured, 
the upper portion carried up as the 
calyptra, the lower remaining as 
the vaginule ; (3) the nucleus in 
Chara ; epigyn'icus, with the calyx 
or corolla superior ; epigynophorlas 
{yvv)], a woman ; <pop4w, I carry), 
placed upon a gynophore or stipe of 
an ovary (Lindley) ; ej^ig'ynovLB, -us, 
on the pistil, apparently above the 
ovary ; Epig'yny, the state of having 
epigynous flowers ; epilith'ic {\idos, 
rock), growing on rocks as many 
Lichens ; Epimat'ium (tVoT^ov, an 
outer garment), the ovuliferoas scale 
of Coniferae. 

•pim'enas (^Ti, upon; /teVa, I remain), 
Necker's term for the perianth being 
superior; epinast'ic {vaarhs, pressed 
close), (1 ) in leaves when pressed close 
to the ground, or away from the 
axis ; (2) in organs when the ventral 
surface grows the fastest, as in revo- 
lute vernation ; (3) when ovules are 
curved in a downward direction 
(Van Tieghem) ; Epinas'ty, De 
Vries's term for curvature produced 
by greater growth of the ventral 
surface ; Epine'mus {vrjfia, a thread), 
the upper part of the filament in 
Compositae bearing the anther ; 
epinyo'toas (v<J{, wKrds, night), 
ephemerous, applied to flowers 
which begin to open in the evening ; 
Epiontorogy (-f Ontology), the 
developmental history of plant-dis- 
tribution ; adj. epiontologlc. 

^ipedochor'isis {iiriiefSos, level ; + 
Chobisis), the division of an axial 
organ in one plane ; it frequently 
does not differ from Fasciation 

epipertate {iirl. upon ; -f peltate), ,a 
phyllorae having the base of the 
limb on the superior face (C. de 
CandoUe) ; Epiperid'iom (+ Peri- 
dium) = Exoperidium ; epiperi- 
gperm'icns (irepi, about; <rir4pfia, 
seed), without perisperm or albumen 

(S. F. Gray) ; epipet'alous, -us, epi- 
peia'leus {iriraKov, a flower-leaf), 

(1) borne upon the petals ; (2 )placed 
before the petals ; epipetre'oas (ir^- 
rpo, a rock), gi-owing on rocks, saxi- 
cole; epiphloe'dic = epiphloedal ; 
Epiphlo'em(0Aoi<^s, bark), the outer- 
most or corky bark ; epiphloe'odal, 
existing on the outer bark; Ep'i- 
phlosa = Epiderm (Lindley); Ep'i- 
phragm, Epipkrag'ma {<ppdyfj.a, a 
fence), (1) a membrane which closes 
the opening of the theca in Mosses ; 

(2) a delicate membrane closing the 
cup-like sporophore in Nidularia; 
Eplphyll {(pvKXov, a leaf), the upper 
portion of a leaf, from which the 
petiole and blade are developed; 
epiphyllosperm'ous {(Tir4p/j,a, seed), 
bearing seed or the like on leaf-like 
organs, as the dorsiferous Ferns; 
epiphyirous, -us, growing on leaves ; 
Epiphyll'ae, epiphyllous Algae and 

Spiph'ysis {iirKpvw, to grow up), pro- 
tuberances round the hilum or for- 
amen of some seeds ; strophioles. 
Ep'iphyte {M, upon; <pvThv, a plant), 
' a plant which grows on other plants, 
but not parasitically ; an air-plant ; 
epiphyta'ceous = epiphytic ; epi- 
phy'tal, epiphytic, relating to epi- 
•phytes ; Eplphytism, the condition 
of epiphytes; Epiphy'toid («I5oj, 
like), Johow's temi for a phanero- 
gamous para>ite presumably derived 
from an autophagous epiphyte; ~ 
Par'asites, as Loranthaceae and 
Santalaceae ; epiphyto'tic, u^d of 
wide -spreading disease in plants, as 
an epidemic (Crozier) ; Epiplank'ton 
(-f Plankton), (1) the upper por- 
tion of pelagic plankton ; (2) float- 
ing organisms attached to pelagic 
organisms (Forel) ; Ep'iplasm (irA.o<r- 
fM, moulded), protoplasm rich in 
glycogen, which remains in the ascus 
after the formation of ascospores ; 
glycogen-mass ; Epiplea'ra {ir\eupd, 
a rib), the outer half of the diatom- 
girdle, belonging to the epitheca ; 
Epipod'iam {vovs, rroSds, a foot), (1) 
the apical portion of a developing 




^yllopodium or longitudinal axis 
of a leaf ; (2) J a form of disk con- 
sisting of glands upon the stipe of 
an ovary ; (3) J the stalk of the 
disk itself (Lindle^) ; epiporyarch 
{iToKvs, many; Apx', beginning), the 
division of the median protoxylem 
in a triarch stele (Prantl) ; epipro'- 
teoid (+ proieoid), applied to 
plants whose leaves have sclero- 
gamnus cells on the upper surface 
(Vesque) ; epip'terous, epip'terus 
{irrepoy, a wing), winged, especially 
at the summit. 

Epirrheorogy 'Jinppea), I overflow ; 
^6yos, discourse), the effects of 
external agents on living plants. 

cpirhi'zous, -ziis (iirl, upon; f>iCa, & 
root), gi'owing on roots, as certain 
]>arasites ; episep'alou8( + SEPALUM) 
(1) on the sepals : (2) standing be- 
fore the sepals ; Ep'ispenn {airep^a, 
seed), the coat or outer covering 
of the seed, spermodenn, perisperm ; 
epispermlcus, exalbuminous ; Epi- 
BporaEg'ium {criropa, seed; ayyuov, 
a vessel), the indusium of Ferns ; 
Ep'ispore, Ejnspor'iuvi, an external 
coat or perinium formed from the 
periplasm round the oospore in 
some Fungi and the spores of cer- 
tain of the higher Cryptogams ; 
episporlc, connected with the outer 
coat of a spore ; epistamina'lis 
(-f Stamen), on the stamens, as 
hairs ; epistat'ic {cTariKhs, caus- 
ing to stand), applied to a unit- 
character becoming invisible but 
not inactive (Shull) ; Epist'asis 
is the condition ; epistom'eons 
{orrSfMa, a mouth), "spigot-shaped" 

Epist'roplie {iirta-rpotp^, turning about), 
the arrangement of chlorophyll 
granules on the upper and lower 
faces of the cells in diffused light ; 
cf. AposTRorHE ; adj. epistroph'ic ; 
~ Int'erval, or Epistroph'ion, S. 
Moore's term for that range of in- 
tensity of sunlight needed to pro- 
duce Epistrophe ; Epistrophiza'tion, 
the condition described . Epist'ro- 
phy, Morren's term for the reversion 

of a monstrous form to the normal 
condition : epanody, 

epitact'ic {iidTaKTos, commanded), 
placed behind another; cf. panto- 
tactic ; PARATACTIC. 

Epit'eospores, — ae, (iirl, upon ; -f 
Spora), spores in a sorus surrounded 
by prominent paraphyses, as in the 
genus Epitea, Fries, whence the 
term ; epitet'rarch (-f Tetkarch), 
when in a triarch stele, the third 
(median) protoxylem gi-oup is divided 
(Prantl) ; epithall'ine {Oawhs, a 
young shoot), growing on the tliallus; 
EpithaH'us, the cortical layer of 
Lichens, by Zukal employed for all 
modifications of the cortical hyphae 
at the margin or apex of the thallus, 
which serve as protection to the 
gonidia ; Epithe'ca [d-hKij, a case), 
the outer and larger half-frustule of 
Diatoms ; adj. epitbe'cal ; Epithe'- 
cium, the surface of the fructifying 
disc in Lichens ; Epithe'lium {diiKv, 
a nipple), (1) any distinct layer of 
one or more cells in thickness which 
bounds an internal cavity ; (2) t = 

Eplthem, or Epithe'ma, pi. Epithe'- 
mata {imdrifia, a cover), masses of 
tissue in the mesophyll of leaves, 
serving as internal hydathodes, the 
cells being usually devoid of chloro- 
phyll, as in Crassula. 

epitri'arch [M, upon, -f triarch), 
when in a triarch stele, the third 
(medial) protoxylem group is upper- 
most, t.ei ventral (Prantl) ; epitroph'ic 
{rpo<p)), nourishment), having rela- 
tion to Epitrophy (Wiesner) ; Epit'- 
ropliy,tlie condition when the growth 
of the cortex on wood is greater 
on the upper side of the organ ; or 
having buds or shoots on the upper 
side (Wiesner) ; epitrop'ic {rp6'Kos, 
direction), below the axis ; epicotyl- 
ary ; Epit'ropism = Geotropism ; 
epit'ropoas (rpoir^, a turn), denotes 
an anatropous ovule with its rapLe 
averse when ascending, adverse 
when suspended ; Epivarva, Epi- 
valve {valva, a valve), the valve 
belonging to the epitheca of a 




Diatom; epixyio'neus (^vAov, ^vood) ; 
epix'ylous (Crozier), growing on 
wood, as Hypoxfylom ; epizoa'rins 
{C^ov, an animal), growing on deac" 
animals; epizolc, epizo^us, (1) 
growing on living animals, parasitic 
or not ; (2) the dispersal of fruits 
by their adhesion to passing animals 
(Sernander) ; Epizoocho'ry (C«o''> ^^ 
animal ; x^P^^> I wander), dispersal 
of plants by animals carrying them 
on their fur (Semarider). 

epliea'tus (e, priv. ; pliccUvs, folded), 
not plaited or folded. 

Epoik'ophytes {ivoiK^cc, I settle tis 
colonist; <pirov, a plant), fairly 
naturalized jJants, but almost en- 
tirely confined to roadsides or paths, 
as Lepidium ntderale (Rikli). 

eprophylla'tus(e,priv. ; +Piiophylla), 
without prophylla, braeteoles ; — in 
Ger. Vorblatter ; epra'inose {prui- 
nosus, frosty), without surface fiirina. 

e'qaal {a^uah's), (1) alike as to length 
or number ; (2) in Mosses when the 
capsule is symmetrical ; -^ siMed, 
equal, When applied to the two sides 
of an organ ; e'qually-pin'nate = 
abruptly pinnate, having no tenninal 
leaflet ; e'qnans (Lat. ), equalling. 

Equatorial Plane, the line which 
passes through the mother-star of 
the nucleus, the plane of cell-division ; 
'*' Plate, the nuclear disc of Stras- 
burger, the grouping of chromosomes 
at the middle of the spindle in 
nuclear division. 

eqoilat'eral, equilaUra'lis (aequilater- 
alis), equal-sided. 

eqninoot'ial, equinoctia'lis {acquinodi- 
aliSy pertaining to the equinox), 
used of plants whose flowers expand 
and close at particular hours of the 

eqaiieta'ceon8=EQUiSETic; Equisete'- 
tum, Warming's term for a plant- 
association of Equisetum ; eqoise'tie, 
pertaining to the genus JEqttisetum ; 
equifle'tifonn, resembling the same 
genus as to form. 
e'qnitant, e'quitans (Lat. riding), 
folded over, as if astride ; equi- 
tati'vus (Lat. ) % = equitant. 


equivalv'ular {aeque, equally ; valva, 
leaf of a door), having the valves of 
a fruit equal in size. 
Eqniv'ocal (a- quivocus, ambiguous) 
Genera'tion, spontaneous genera- 
eradic'alose («, priv. ; radicida, a small 
root), without rootlets or rhizoids ; 
eramo'stts {ramus, a branch), un- 
erect', erect' 'm (Lat.), upright, per- 
pendicular to the ground or its 
attachment ; erec'to-pat'ent {patens, 
lying open), between spreading and 
Eremacau'sis {iiptfia, gently ; /coCcru, 
burning), slow combustion or oxi- 
dation, such as long preserved seeds 
show, as if charred. 
Ere'mad {ipriH-ia, a desert ; + ad), a 
desert plant ; Eremi'on, Eremi'tim 
(-{- ion) = a desert formation ; ere- 
moc'ola, desert dwelling ; eremo- 
ph'ilus {(piKecc, I love), desert loving ; 
Eremophy'ta {(pvruf. »■ plant), desert 
plants (Clements). 
Ere'moblast {ipVH-os, solitary ; ^Xaarhs, 
a shoot), cells which, united at first, 
afterwards separate themselves ; 
Eremobry'a {Bpvw, I grow), a division 
of Feins having articulated fronds, 
and not adherent to the stem or 
rhizome ; Ere'mus X ^ carpel apart 
from its sister carpels. 
Erep'sin, a fibrin -digesting enzyme ; 
Erep'tases, peptolyzing 
Ergasiap'ophytes {ipya<ria, labour ; + 
Apophytes), colonists of cultivated 
fields (Simmons); Ergasiali'pophytes 
{\iirap4(c, I persist), relics of culti- 
vation (NageliandThellunu) ; Erga- 
siophy'gophytes {<pvyh, flight), fugi- 
tives from cultivation; Ergas'io- 
phytes, foreign cultivated plants, 
which have reached their habitats by 
the conscious action of man (Wood- 
head) ; Ergas'iphytea, foreign culti- 
vated plants (Simmons). 
Ergastoplas'ma {ir\d<rna, moulded), 
applied to protoplasmic filaments 
observed in the embryo-sac of cer- 
tain Liliaceae whose origin and 




formation are still uncertain (Bon- 
net) ; adj. ergastoplasmat'ic. 

Erge'sis {(pyo, I work), the aV)ility 
of an organ to exhibit reaction 
(M assart). 

Ergogen'esis {<lpyov, work ; yevetris, 
beginning), the exhibition of growth- 
energy (J. A. Ryder) ; Ergd'ogy 
(A070S, discourse), proposed by Lind- 
man for Delpino's " liiology." 

ergoplas'tic Nu'cl«»us, Schwarz's term 
for the vegetative nucleus. 

Er'got (Fr.), also pr. Er'got ; Claviceps 
purpurea, Tul. , causing "Spur" in 
grasses ; Ergost erin. Ergotlo Acid, 
Er'gotin, substances occurring in 
the sporophore of the Ergot Fun us ; 
er'gotised, infected with Ergot ; 
Er'gotism, the effect produced by 
eating bread which is ergotized, 

erianth^ouB, -us {tpiov, wool; JlnvQos, a 
flower), woolly-flowered. 

erica'ceous, heath -like, or allied to the 
genus Erica. 

eri'cetal {ericetum, Mod. Lat., a 
heath), H. C. Watson's term for 
plants which grow upon moors, such 
as heather, Krica ; erice'tinous, 
ericcti'nus (Mod. Lat.), (1) grow- 
ing on heaths ; ('2) heath-like, in 
form or habit: Erice'tum, (1) an 
account or monograi h of heaths ; 
(2) a heath plant-assoeiation ; pi. 
Erice'ta, employed by Nilsson, as 
-^ cladino'sa, '^ hylocomio'sa, ~ 
polytricho'sa, ~ pu'ra, ~ sphag- 
no'sa, according to the* substratum 
of Lichen or Moss (Heinig) ; Erici- 
frutice' {friUicetiim, a thicket), 
heath communities ; Ericiligno'sa 
pi. {/ignosus, woody) community of 
heath characterized by rolled-up 
leaves ; Eri'ci-ma'qai (+ Maqui), 
preponderance of arboreal heaths 
with C/lex and Samthainmis, as in 
the " Landes " of France; erico'id 
(«/5oy, like), used of leaves which 
are like those of heaths. 

e'rigens {erigo, I raise), used of a 
branch, horizontal at first, rising at 
the point. 

e'nnoots (er,eris,& hedgehog), " prickly, 
rough with sharp points " (Heinig). 

Eriophore'tum (-{- etum), a plant 
formation of cotton gi'ass, £rio- 

erioph'orous {(pio", wool ; <popeto, I 
carry},wool-b. aring, densely cottony ; 
eriophyll'oue, -us {(pvWop, a leaf), 
woolly leaved. 

Eris'ma {(pfiffna, a buttre33\ Necker'a 
term for the rhachis in grasses. 

ermin'eus (Mod Lat.), the colour of 
the fur of ermine, white, broken 
with \ellow. 

ero'ded, ero'se, ero'sus (Lat. gnawed), 
as though bitten or <;nawed. 

erost'rate, eroatra'twt, trost'ris (Lat.), 

Er'ror, probable, see Deviation. 

Ersatzfas'em, Sauio = Substitute 
Fibres, intermediate in form be- 
tween wooily fibres and parenchyma. 

erubesc'ens (Lat. blushing), blush red. 

erucaeform'is {eruci, a caterpillar ; 
forraa, shape), used for such Lichen 
spores as those of Gr-'p'is, which 
are long, septate, blunted at the 
extremities, and in shape suggest a 
short cnterpillar. 

erunip'ent, erump'ens (Lat. breaking 
through), prominent as though 
bursting through the epidermis. 

Erys'imin, a glucoside found in Ery- 

Er'ytlirism {ipvdpls, red), a red colour 
in flowers usually white, the reverse 
of albinism ; Erythrobacte'ria ( + 
Bacteria), bacteria of a deep red 
colour ; in Ger., " Purpurbacterien " ; 
erytliroph'iious {<pi\4w, I love), used 
of nuclei .vhich take up red stains 
in preference to blu^* ; Er'ythrophyll 
{(pvWov, a leaf), Berzelius's term for 
the red colouring of leaves ; Er'y- 
throphore ( 0opea>, I carry), Schmitz's 
term for a chlorophyll-granule when 
red, as in certain Al^ae ; Erythrost'' 
omum + {<TT6ixa, the mouth), Des- 
vaux's word for Etaerio ; Er'y- 
throzym {^vp.y\, yeast), an enzyme 
from the root of the madder which 
acts on glucosides. 

Escape', a cultivated 1 lant found 
gi-owing fis though wild, dispersed 
by some agency. 




-escenfl, a Latin suflBx = ish, thus rub- 
eacens = redd-ish. 

M'calent {esculentus, fit for eating), 
suitable for human food. 

Es'culin = Aesculin. 

•sep'tate («, priv. ; septmn, a partition), 
destitute of septa. 

esore'diate, destitute of Soredia. 

esoteric {i(r<i>repos, inner), arising from 
inside the organism. 

Espalier, a fruit tree trained lattice- 
fashion, in one plane, but not 
attached to a wall ; — shape, 
stems pressed against tht ground 

espatha'ceas {e, priv.^ + Spatha, 
-aceus), wanting a spathe ; Lindley 
gives the form espatha'tus J. 

essen'tial {essentia, the being of any- 
thing), the necessary constituent of 
an existing object : -- Char'acter, 
the distinguishino; note by which a 
form differs from its allies, diagnostic 
character ; ~ Or'gans, those which 
are absolutely necessary, stamens 
and pistils. 

Esthe'sis = Aesthesis. 

esti'val = aestival ; e'stivate = 
aesiivate; Estiva'tion = Aesti- 

estrophlolate {rstrnphioln.'tus, destitute 
of caruncle, or Strophiole. 

Etae'rio, Etai'riuTn {fraipela, com- 
panionship), an aggregate fruit 
composed of achenes or drupes, as 
in Ranunculus, the Strawberry, 
and Blackberry ; adj. etairiona'ris, 

Ete'sisB I iri.atof. annual), herbaceous 
perenuials ; the root persisting, 
with the above-ground portion only 
annual ; adj ete'sial. 

ethnobotan'ic (?0j/rfr, a tribe ; fiordyrj, 
a herb), relating to those plants 
which illustrate or are typical of 
the custom? of a given race or 

e'tiolative, tending to disease. 

e'tiolated etwla'tus (Fr. etiol^, drawn 
out), lengthened or deprived of 
colour by absence of light ; Etiola'- 
tion, the condition of being blanched; 
E'tiolin, the yellow-colouring matter 


of blanched plants, chlorophyll which 
has not acquired its green colour 

etiological, connected with Aetio- 
logy ; E'tiology = Aetiology. 

etrabecula'tus {e, priv. ; trabecula, a 
little l>eam), not cross-barred ; when 
the peristome teeth of Mosses want 

-e'tum, sufRx denoting Consocies 

eii- (eS, well), in Greek compounds = 
true ; often used in sectional names, 
with a restricted meaning ; enacran- 
thlc {&Kpos, apex ; fiv^o-f, flower), 
truly terminal ; ~ Flow'er, a terminal 
flower which springs immediately 
from the apex of a shoot which has 
produced leaves or other lateral 
structures ; cf. pseudacranthic ; 
euanthlc, used by Del pin o to denote 
a monothalamic flower, the reverse 
being fskudanthio ; Euanthros- 
trobllus (-f Anthrostrobilus), the 
theoretic id^a of the flowering 
Angiosperms (Arber and Parkin) ; 
to such ca'^es as have no obvious need 
for fertilization as in Aihyrium. 
(Farmer and Digby). 

Eucalyptorogist, an expert in the 
polymorphic genus Eitcalyplus 

Eucar'otin (eS, well ; -f- Carotin), Zopf 
employs this to denote the yellow 
carotin as distinct from the red ; 
eucarplc {Kapirh^, fruit), applied to 
certain Algae where part only of the 
body of the plant goes to form the 
sporangium, in contrast to HOLO- 
CARPic ; eucar'pouB, ( 1 ) = eucarpic ; 
(2) of Fungi when producing several 
successive fructifications from the 
same thallus ; eucy'clic {kvk\o5, a 
circle), when flowers are composed 
of alternate isomerous whorls. 

Eudiom'eter {evSla, fair weather ; 
fierpoi^, measure) an instrument for 
measuring the quantity of oxygen in 
a given bulk of fluid ; adj. eudio- 

euephem'erous (eS, well ; -f ephem- 
eiu)Us), applied to flowers which open 




and close within 24 hours ; Eu'forms 
{forma, a shape) of uredineous Fungi, 
whose spores develop on the living 
host, bnt only germinate after the 
host's death, usually after a resting 
period ; Eugam'ophyte {yiixos, mar- 
riage; <Pvt6v, a plant), term proposed 
by C. MacMillan for such Cryptogams 
as Ocdogtnium,, Marchantia, Sphag- 
num, "which support dependent 
sporophytes. " 

Eu'genol, the chief constituent of oil 
of cloves, obtained from Pimenta 
acris, Kostei., and other myrtace- 
ous plants, formerly referred to 

eageog'enous (e5, well ; 7);, the earth ; 
yivviv, I bring forth), Thurmann's 
word to indicate rocks readily 
yielding detritus and the plants 
which grow on it ; Euisog'amy 
[ydiios, marriage), the union of a 
gamete with any other similar gamete 
(Hartog) ; Eugonid'ia, pi. (+ Goni- 
dia) "bright-green gonidia " (A. L. 
Smith) ; eulimne'tic ( + limnetic), 
plankton exclusively of pools ; Eu- 
meio'sis (+ Meiosis) the opposite 
term to Pseudomeiosis ; a true 
meiotic phase ; eumeriste'lic, having 
reduced El.-nTELes, as some species 
of Primula and Gunnera, (Brebner) ; 
Eunu'cleole (+ Nuclfole), used by 
Rosen for an erythrophilous nucleus ; 
Eunucle'oli (+ Nucleolus), a class 
of nucleoli which persist in nuclear 
division after the Pseudonucleoli 
have disappeared (Rosen). 

Eu'nuchs, pi. {euniichare, to castrate), 
Lee's term for flowers destitute of 
stamens, as doable flowers. 

Enpartlien'ospenn {ei>, well ; -f Par- 
thenosperm), C. MacMillan 's terra 
for plants in which both embryo and 
endosperm are parthenogenetic. 

Eupato'rine, an alkaloid occurring in 
Eitpatorium cannabinum, Linn. ; 
eupelag'ic (+ pelagic), applied to 
plankton confined to the ocean ; 
Euphe'mera (+ Ephemera), flowers 
which opeu and close finally within 
twenty-four hours. 

Euphor'bium, an acrid inspissated 

juice or resin from various species 
of Euphorbia. 

eupho'tic (eu, well ; (pws, (pcorhs, light), 
applied to hydrophytes which receive 
an abundance of light ( Warming) ; 
euphotomet'ric {ix4rpov, a measure), 
used of leaves which place themselves 
so as to obtain the maximum of 
diffused light, as the foliage of 
forests (Wiesner) ; euphototrop'io 
[TpoTr)), a turning), Drude's term for 
EUPHOTOMETRic ; Euphyl'la, pi. 
true leaves ; adj. euphyl'loid, eu- 
pfiylloid'eus ; Eu'phylls {<p6\\ov, a 
leaf), true leaves, foliage leaves ; 
euphy'toid {(pirhv, a plant; e'lSos, 
like) Par'asites, are erect land 
plants, parasitic in habit (Johow) ; 
Euplank'ton (-f Plankton), free- 
floating organisms (Forel) ; eupon^tic, 
species whi<h show only a slight 
westward range from Pontus, the 
N. E. of Asia Minor (Preuss) ; eupot- 
am'ic {irorafjLhs, a river), applied to 
the plankton of running or stand- 
ing inland waters ; (Ziramer) ; Eupuc- 
cin'ia, cf. Euforms ; eurad'ulan, 
employed by batologists to denote 
similarity to Rubus Padula. 

eurotopli'ilus {evpws, mouldiness ; 
(pi\4(ii}, I love), dwelling in leaf- 
mould ; Eurotopliy'ta {(pvrhv, a 
plant), leaf-mould plants ; Euro- 
tophyti'a, leaf-mould plant forma- 
tions (Clements). 

eurycho'ric {evpvs, broad ; X(^P^<^, ^ 
spread), used of plants having a 
wide distribution in varying climates 
and several plant formations (Drude); 
Eurycho'ry, is the condition. 

euryc'ladous (eS, well ; kAoSos, a 
branch), employed by Russow for 
laxus ."euryharme {a\s, a.\hs, salt), 
plankton adapted to varying con- 
ditions of salinity (Forel) ; eury- 
pho'tic {<p(as, (pwrhs, light), adapted 
to light of varying intensity (Forel) ; 
Eu'rytherm ddpfiV) heat, applied to 
bacteria capable of enduring great 
heat; adj. eurytherm'ic ; eusigil- 
lar'ian, used of ribbed Sigillaria 
stems from the Carboniferous Form- 
ation ; eu'schist (o-xJo-Tbr, split), 




when a gamete is formed by successive 
complete divisions from the parent- 
cell, the gametogonium (Hartog). 
Eu'stathe J {eva-radris, steadfast), Har- 
tig's term for the outermost layer of 
a cell. 
Eu'fltele (eu, well ; + Stele), Brebner's 
term for the nionostele of typical 
dicotyledons, a ringbfmeristeles, in- 
cluding pericyclic and ground tissue ; 
the stele of a typical Dicotyledon, 
with ring of collateral bundles ; adj. 
enste'lio ; the condition is Euste'ly ; 
eusporang'iate {aTropa, seed ; ayye'ioy, 
a vessel), in Pteridophytes, possess- 
ing a Sf^ orangium, a Eusporan'gium, 
derived from a group of superticial 
cells ; Eusporophy'ta(</)i;Tbi', aplant). 
Cryptogams defined by 0. Mac- 
Millan as "self-supporting, and do 
not nurse the gametophytes, r. g. the • 
higher Mosses, the lower Fern-worts 
and Club-mosses." 
Euthariophy tes, Eiith allophy'ta, 

Schroeter's term for Thallophytks 
exclusive of Myxogastres ; by Wett- 
stein employed in a more restricted 
sense for Chlorophyceae and Fungi 
Eutbybas'id {^hehs, direct). Van 
Tieghem's word for those basidia 
which spring directly from the 
sporophore ; cf. Pkobasid ; Euthy- 
xnorph'osis {iJ.6p(pcc<Tis, a shaping), 
the rapid succession of members of 
ditterent form on the same stem, 
buds, etc., polymorphism (Caruelh 
eu'thyschist (evehs, immediately ; 
(rX'0"r^y split), in brood-division, 
when each nuclear division is accom- 
jtanied by cell division (Hartog). 
eutroph'ic (eS. well ; rpocf)^, nourish- 
ment), applied to plants adapted to 
live at the expense of nutritive solu- 
tions present in the soil ; eutrop'ic 
{Tp6iros, dirc'-tion), (1) A. Gray's 
word for twining with the sun, that 
is, left to right, devtrorse ; (2) those 
flowers Avhich display Eutropy ; 
Eu'tropy, applied by M'Leod to 
those flowers to which only a 
restricted class of specialized insects 
can giiin access ; adj. eu'tropous. 

evalv'is, evalv'ular {e, priv., valva, 
leaf of a door), destitute of valves, 
not opening by them. 

evanes'cent {eranescens, vanishing), 
soon disappearing, lasting only a 
short time ; evaniscen ti veno'sus, 
when the lateral veins of a leaf do 
not reach the margin. 

Evapora'tion {evaporat'o, vaporizing^, 
to pass off in vapour ; Evaporim'eter 
{fiirpov, a measure), an insu-ument 
to measure the amount of moisture 
given off by plants. 

Evec'tion [cvectus, carried), when in 
Cladophora the initial cells of the 
branfihes arise from the sides of the 
upper end of the mother-cell ; Evedio 
dislocctvs is an extreme form of 
this displacement in C. Nordstdti, 
Hauck (Brand). 

e'ven, without inequalities of surface ; 
E'venness, absence of elevations 
or depressions ; e'ven-pin'nate = 
ABRUPTLY-PINNATE (Crozier) ; ev'er- 
green, bearing green foliaiie all the 
year ; everlast'ing, used of some 
flowers which preserve their shape 
and colour in drying, as species of 
Gnaph'ib'um, Hdichrysicm, etc 

ever'niaeform [f'rma, shape), like the 
thallus of Evernia, a genus of 
Lichens ; Ever'nine, a principle 
found in the same genus ; ever'nioid 
{clSos, resemblance), like the genus 
Evernia (Leighton). 

Ever'sion {eversio, an overthrowing), 
protusions of organs from a cavity, 
turned backwar»l or outward ; 
evert'ed, turned inside out. 

ev'ident {evidens, manifest), clearly 

evit'tate, evitta'tus (e, priv. ; vitta, a 
fillet), not having ViiTAE, oil- 
reservoirs in the fruit of Umbelli- 
e'volute {evolvo, I roll forth), unfolded, 
turned back ; Evolu'tion, (1) the 
act of development ; (2) the theory 
according to which complex forms 
are considered to have been evolved 
from simpler ones; sal'tatory -^ , 
sudden appearance of sports ; mu- 




ex, privative prefix in place of e, when 
a vowel follows. 

exalba'mlnoas, exalbumino'sus {ex, 
priv. ; 4- Albumen), destitute of al- 
bumen, used only of seeds when the 
embryo occupies the whole cavity 
within the testa ; escalate, exala'tus 
{alatus, ■winged), wingless. 

exalta'tus (Lat., raised high), lofty, 

exai>%alate (ex, priv. ; annulus, a 
ring), used of Ferns which do not 
possess an elastic ring round their 

Exanth'etna(^|, out of ; 2i'0oj, a flower), 
(1) a blotch on leaves, etc., as though 
eruptive; (2) the " Dieback " of 
CitrtLS ; Exanth'ium J bractlets of 
the last degree, incapable of forming 
axillary buds, and immediately ex- 
ternal to the flower. 

exapophysa'tus [ex, priv. ; -f Apo- 
physis), destitute of an apophysis, 
or swelling below the capsule of a 

©x'arcli (^f out of; apxh, origin), used 
of vascular bundles in which the 
whole primary wood is centripetal ; 


exar'eolate, exareola'tus [ex, priv. ; -}- 
AREOLATUs), not spaoed out or 
marked into small areas ; exar'il- 
late (+ Aiai.LA), without an aril; 
exar'istate, exarista'tv.s (+ Arista), 
destitute of awns. 

exas'perate, exa-spera'tus (Lat., rough- 
ened), rough with hard projecting 

ex cavate {excavaius, hollowed out), 
as though dug out. 

excen'trio, excen'triciis {ex, out of; 
centrum, the centre), one-sided, out 
of the centre, abaxial. 

Ex'ciple, Ex'cipule.(Crozier), Excip'- 
nlaxn, Excip'ulu!> (excipula, a basin), 
wart-like excrescences on the thallus 
of certain Lichens, which have a 
narrow opening ; the portion of 
thallus which forms the rim round 
the base of apothecia. 

Excitabirity, ExcitahiVitas (excitahis, 
roused), the faculty of responding to 
external stimuli. 

Excoe'mum (^|, out ; oifj-dw, I issue), a 
fringe or tuft of hair at the base 
of the glumes in some, grasses 

Excoria'tion {ex, out of; corium, skin), 
the falling otf of the outer layer of 
the terminal cells of glandular or 
capitate hairs, as in Geranium 
(Heinig) ; Excortica'tion {corticatus, 
covered with bark), the stripping of 

excres'cent {excresccns, growing out), 
growing in an unnatural way, as a 
wari; or other outgrowth ; Excres'- 
cence, a gnaur or wart on the stem 
of a tree ; enation. 

Excre'tiou (ex, out of ; cretus, sifted), 

(1) the action by which any sub- 
stance is rejected from the organism ; 

(2) the thing itself excreted, as 
gum, resin, honey, etc. ; excur'rent, 
excur'rens (Lat., running out), (1) 
running through to the apex and 
beyond as a mucro ; (2) where the 
stem remains central, the other parts 
being regularly disposed round it ; 
'-' Vena'tion, in -Ferns, when the 
veinlet is directed outwards. 

exendosperm'ous (6|, out ; ivlov, with- 
in; airepfia, seed), used of seeds which 
have reserve material stored in the 
embryo ; exendotrop^ic ( + Endo- 
TROPic), when fertilized from another 
flower of the same or a different 
plant (K. Pearson) ; Exendot'ropy, 
the condition itself. 

exe'sus:^ (Lat., eaten away), applied 
to a surface irregularly sculptured 
as though by corrosion. 

exfo'liate {ex, from; folium, a leaf), to 
come away in scales or flakes, as the 
bark of the Plane ; Exfolia'tion, 
peeling off. 

exha'lant {exhalo, I exhale), breathing 
out, as exhalan'tia Va'sa | imagin- 
ary vessels in the epidermis, actually 
the sides of confluent cells ; Ex- 
hala'tion, the function discharged 
by stomata in passing otf vapour ; 
exhomotrop'ic, ( + homotropic), 
when fertilized from the anthers of 
the same, or a different plant (K. 
Pearson) ; Exhomot'ropy, is ^he 




condition described ; Exhy'menine 
(ujUTjy, a membrane) = Extine. 

exig'uous, exig'uus (Lat., scanty), 
small and narrow, mean. 

ex'ilis (Lat), thin, meagre ; lank and 

exim'ius (Lat., distinguished), excel- 
lent for size, for beauty. 

exindu'siate, exindvsia'tus {ex, priv., 
4- iNDUsiATE), without an indusium, 
the membrane which covers the torus 
in Ferns. 

Ex'ine = Extine. 

Exlntine (ex-, out ; + Intine, the 
middle coat of a pollen grain, that 
which is next the intine. 

Ex'iscem (e'l, out; iarhs, a web), the 
" Aussenschicht " of Sanio, consist- 
ing of Mesistem, "thickening ring" 
and Perisiem, young cortex ; it is 
the tissue of i>rotomeristem which is 
not young pith. 

Ex'it, the inner a^-erture of the 
slit of a stoma; in Germ, "Aus- 

exo, prefix = outward : Ex'ocarp, Exo- 
car'pium (€|co, outside; Kapnhs, fruit), 
the outer layer of a pericarp ; Exo- 
caryog'amy {Kapvov, a nut; 70^05, 
marriage) = Exogamy ; exocatad'ro- 
mous (+ CATADKOMOUs). when Ferns 
in their nervation have their stronger 
pinnules anadromous, and their 
weaker catadromous (Prantl) ; Ex'o- 
chite {x^Twv, a tunic), the outerm 'St 
membrane of the egg in Fucaceae 
(Farmer) ; Exocho'mophyte (x^."". 
a mound ; (purhv, a plant), surface- 
rooting and mat-forming plants. 
Exocor'tex {cortex, bark), (1) the 
outermost portion of the cortex ; (2) 
in Rhizomorphae specially pervaded 
by hyphae : (3) as[)ecial layer in the 
roots of saprophytic Orchids ; Exo'- 
dermis (5€V,ua, skin), the outermost 
cortical layer of the adult root, 
answering to the hypodernia of the 
stem ; exogam'ic {yd/jios, marriage), 
.when Howers are crossed from diller- 
ent plants (K. Pearson) ; Exog'amy 
{yd/jLos, marriage), (1) the tendency 
of closely allied gametes to avoid 
pairing ; (2) the union of two gametes 

of distinct broods (Haitog) ; exog'- 
enous, exog'enus {ysvvdo), I bring 
forth), (1) growing as the wood of 
Dicotyledons ; (2) arising from super- 
ficial tissue ; Ex'ogens, Exog'ena-i, 
plants which increase in growth by 
the addition of wood on the outside 
beneath the constantly widening 
bark ; exog'ynous, cxoy'ynus (7uu^, 
woman), where the style is exserted 
beyond tlie flower ; exohadromat'ic 
(+ Hadkome), exterior to the had- 
rome ; cf. perihadromatic ; Exo- 
isog'amy ( + Isogamy), when a 
gamete will pair only with a himilar 
gamete of another brood (Hartog) ; 
Exoraer'istem (+Mrristem), Rus- 
sow's term for the meristem which 
produces all the tissues of a Moss 
outside the central-strand, namely, 
cortex and epidermis (Vaizoy) ; exo- 
nas'tic {vaarhs, pressed close), in 
anatropous or campylotropous ovules 
when the curvature is, horizontal 
towards the median nerve of the side 
of the upper face of the carpel (Van 
Tieghem) ; cf. endonastic ; Exo- 
neuro'sis, {v^vpov, a nerve), the 
separation of veins in appendicular 
organs, and their reappearance as 
teeth, spines, or brisiles, as in the 
Harberry (Clos) ; Exoperid'ium ( + 
Periditm), the outer layer of the 
peridium of su. h Fungi as Ly coper- 
don, which peels or flakes off on 
maturity ; exophyl'lous, -iis {<pv\\ou, 
a leaf), not having a foliaceous 
sheath, with naked cotyledons ; 
Exopleu'ra {TrXfupa, the side) = 
Testa (Heinig) ;. Exoprothal'leae, 
Van Tifghem's term for vascular 
Cryptogams ; exop'tile, exop'tilis 

{tttIXou, a wing) = EXOPHYLLOUS, 

said of an embryo whose plumule is 
naked upon or between cotyledons 
and not rolled up in one (Lindley) ; 
Exorhi'zae (^jC«, a root), = Kxo- 
gens ; exorhi'zal, exorliiza'H<, the 
radicle not sheathed, so the primary 
root in germination has no covering 
to pierce; Exosclero'tes (trvArj^i/s, 
hard), sclerot'.a which arc external to 
the surface of Agarics ; Exos'mose, 




Exosmo'sis {uxr/jLhs, a thrusting), the 
passage through a membrane out- 
wards from a thin to a dense fluid ; 
^n'oBT^ore, Exospor'iuyn {(rnopa, seed), 

(1) the outer covering of the spore ; 

(2) a thick coat developed from the 
periplasm round the oospore in 
Peronosporeae ; (3) the three outer 
layers of the spores of Isoetes (Fitt- 
ing) ; Exosporin'ium, the outer in- 
tegument of a pollen-grain, or micro- 
spore of flower. ng plants (Fitting) ; 
exos'porous, having scattered spores, 
as Fungi ; Ex'ostome, Exod'oma 
{(Tr6iJ.a, a mouth), the foramen of the 
outer coat of the ovule ; Exosto'sis 
(oo-reW, bone), (1) the nodules on 
roots of Leguminosae ; (2) the hard 
turgescence of sound wood, showing 
as }>rominent knots ; Exosty'lus J 
(+ Stylts), Mirbel's word for fruit 
as in Labiatae, four seemingly naked 
nutlets ; ezoter'ic {i^urepiKhs, ex- 
ternal), arising from outside the 
organism, the opposite of esoteric ; 
Exotest'a (-f Testa), the hard outer 
layer of a seed-coat (F. W. Oliver) ; 
Exothe'cium (flrj/fi?, a case), (1) the 
outer case of the anther (Henslow, 
Lindley) ; (2) Purkinje's term for 
tlie extine or outer layer of pollen- 
grains ; exotherm'ic {depfihs, hot), 
heat derived from outside, and not 
as the result of vital action. 

exot'ic {e^wriKhs, foreign), not native, 
introduced from aliroad ; Exot'ics 
are those plants which are not in- 
digenous ; Exot'ism, a shortened 
form of Exot'icism, the condition 
of non-nativity, introduced from 

exotroph'ic (e|w, out of ; rpo<pt), 
nourishment), employed by Wiesner 
where an organ or lateral shoot, 
as opposed to the mother-shoot, 
is most sti'ongly developed ; Ex- 
ot'rophy, development of lateral 
shoots instead of the main axis ; 
exotrop'ic (t/jottt;, a turning), ferti- 
lized from antliers of the same }»lant 
(K. Pearson) ; Exot'ropism, the 
tendency of lateral roots to grow 
away from a main root (Willis) ; Ex- 

ot'ropy, roots arising from the small 
extremities of a flattened secondary 
root (Lopriore). 

expand'ed, exvan'sus (L,at. spread 
out), diffuse ; Expan'sion, the con- 
dition of a flower in full perfection ; 
^ of protoplasm., the normal con- 
dition when it is impermeable 
to cell-sap, the opposite of con- 
traction, when it is flaccid and 

ex'planate, exnlana'tus (Lat., flattened 
out), spread out flat. 

Explodiflo'rae {expludo, I drive off; 
Jios, jloris, a flower), Delpino's term 
for wind-fertilized iioweis which ex- 
pel their pollen by explosive action. 

expursive {expulsus, driven out) 
Fruits, fruits which forcibly expel 
their seeds. 

exquisi'tus + (Lat., choice), used of 
parts larger or more highly coloured 
than usual, as Bracteae exquisitae ; 
cf. Coma. 

exraphid'ian {ex = without ; + 
Rapiiis), destitute of raphides 

exscul'ptus (Lat., carved out), show- 
ing small depressions as though dug 
-out, as the seeds of Anchiisa. 

exsert', exsert'ed, exscrt'us (Lat., pro- 
truded), protruded beyond, as 
stamens beyond the tube of the 

Exsicca'ta {cxsiccatus, dry), dried 
plants, usually in sets for sale or for 
subscribers, frequently with printed 
tickets (Note. — Fhyra exsiccata is 
the full expression). 

exstip'ulate, exftijjula'tiis {ex, priv. f 
-f- Stipula), wanting stipules. 

exsuc'couB, exsuc'cus (, juiceless. 

Extensib'ility {extensus, spread out), 
having the property of stretching. 

exten'sus (Lat), spread out. 

extenua'tus (Lat., thinned), a synonym 
of viRiiA'ius (Henslow). 

exte'rior (Lat., outer), outer, in the 
flower sometimes = antekior. 

extern'al, extern' us (Lat.), outward; 
~ Sheath, a modilication of the 
Imndle-shcath, stated to occur in 
Ferns (Kussow). 




Ex' tine {extimus, outside ; + ine), the 
outer coat of a pollen-gi'ain. 

ex'tra (Lat.), without, beyond, as 
ex'tra-axiirary, -^ .axilla'ris, he 
yond, or out of the axil ; '-' -c«ll'u- 
lar, outside a cell ; -^ -fascic'ular, 
outside the vascular bundles ; '^ 
-flor'al, beyond tlie flower, as some 
nectaries; '-' -foUa'ceous, away 
from the leaves, or inserted in a 
ditlerent position from them ; -^ 
extramat'rical, outside of a nidus or 
matrix ; Extrameabirity {nieabilis, 
penetrable), the capacity of proto- 
plasm to permit substances to pass 
outwards from its vacuoles (Janse) ; 
extra (Lat. beyond) -median, beyond 
the middle ; -- nup'tial, applied to 
nectaries or honey-glands which are 
not part of the floral organs ; -*- 
-ov'ular ( + Ovule), exterior to the 
ovule ; -- prothall'ial ( -f Pko- 
THALLUs) originating outside tlie 
prothallium (Bower); <-' -sac'eal, 
u«ed of embryos arising outside the 
cells of the embryo-sac. 

e-itra'rius (Lat., outward), placed on 
the outside. 

extrasem'inal {extra, without), out- 
side the seed, as -^ Deveropment, 
following tlie sowing of the seed, 
as the escape of the embryo, etc. 

ex'tra (Lat. beyond) -ste'lar, the 
ground-tissue outside the central 
cylinder; extra-trop'ical (-f Tropic), 
beyond the tropics, to the north 
or south of them ; extravagi"'nal 
{vngina, a sheath), beyond or 
outside the sheath, applied to 
branches springing from buds, 
which break through the sheath 
of the subtending leaf, chiefly in 
grasses ; Extravasa'tion (ras, a 
vessel), unmtural flow of a liquid 
from a tissue or organ, as the" 
" bleeding " of vines ; extra-xy'lar, 
or ex'tra-xylem'ic (-f Xylem), out- 
side the xylem (Houlet). 

ex'trorse, cxiror'tnis {exteros, on the 
outside; i^cvfius, towards), directed 
outward, as the dehiscence of an 

ex'tus, a modern term = extra ; 

similar in fomi to intus, but not 
classic Latin. 

Exttda'tion {exudo, or exsudo, I sweat), 
the transpiration of liquids from 
hydathodes, etc., as seen on the 
leaf-tips of Monocotyledons ; '^ 
Press'ure, PfeflFer's terra for Root- 

exunguic'ulate {ex, prlv. : nngula, a 
claw), without a claw (Crozier). 

Exn'eion, Berkeley's term for Exu- 


exu'tive {extUus, drawn off , applied to 
seeds wanting the usual integument. 

Zxu'viae (Lat. , stripped off clothing), 
cast-ott' pdrts, as shed scales ; Exu- 
via'tion, the operation of shedding 
effete material. 

Eye, (1) a gardener's name for an un- 
developed bud ; (2) the persistent 
calvx of a pome, cf. Crown ; (3) a 
confipicuous spot m a flower or seea, 
as a blotdh of cokm : (4) = Hilvm : 
'-' Spot ( 1 ) a coloured spot in a 
motile gamete or spore, Avhich is 
sensitive to light ; (2) markings on 
the silicious valve of Coscinodiscus, 
consisting of an apeiture with a 
thickened margin in each alveole ; 
dor'mant '■^, a bud which is not 
called into growth. 

faba'ceons, -eus {/aba, a bean ; -f 
ACEOUs), like a bean, or having its 
qualities ; fabiform'is {forma), ap- 
plied to Lichen spores which are 
bean -shaped. 

Face, that surface of an orgah which 
is opposed to the back, usually the 
upper or inner side ; fascial, applied 
to a hiluni which is on the side and 
not on the margin of a seed (Heinig). 

Fa'cies (Lat., shape), (1) the general 
aspect of a plant ; (2) suggested for 
the dominant species of an asso- 
ciation, but this usage has been 

ia,Qi\t'\0ViB, factWiiis (Lat.), artificial. 

Fac'tors, \\. (factor, a maker or doer) 
the elements which in their entirety 
make up a character or quality. 

fac'ultative {facuJtas, capability), oc- 
casional, incidental, as opposed to 




OBLIGATE ; •'- An'aerobes, organisms 
which can exist without the presence 
of free oxygen or air ; ~ Par'asites, 
normally saprophytes, but able to 
develop as jiarasites ; ~ Sap'ro- 
phytes, the converse of the last, 
parasites which can run their course 
as saproj)hytes ; ~' Sym'biont, an 
organism which can either exist and 
reach maturity independently or in 
symbiosis with another. 

fa'ding, withering, without imraedi- 
diately falling away. 

Fae'cula, see Fecui.a. 

Fage'tum {fagus, a beech-tree), an 
association of beeches ; Fage'ta, 
pi., asperulo'sa, beech forests with 
ground- vegetation and Asperula ; ~ 
myrtillo'sa, the same with Vac- 
cinium Myrtilhis in place of As- 
perula; Fagi'on ( -|-ion), a formation 
of beeches. 

Fairy-ring, a circular patch of Agarics 
which have grown centrifugally, and 
whose influence on the soil is shown 
by greener grass after they have 

farcate,/a/ca'^w5(Lat.), sickle-shaped ; 
falca'rius, falcator'ius, ai** Latin 
synonyms ; farciform, falciform' is 
( jdlx, a sickle \ forma, shape), sickle;^ 

Fall of the Leaf, defoliation, casting 
off the leaves, as done in temperate 
climates by deciduous trees in 

False, /a/'i'jw (Lat., untrue), spurious, 
having a specious resemblance ; 
-^ . Ax'is, a pseudaxis, see S^m- 
PODIFM ; '- Bark, a layer on the 
outside of endogens of cellular 
tissue, into which tibrous tissue 
passes obliquely ; ~ Dichot'omy, a 
dichasium, in which the lateral axes 
are two ; ~ Dissepiment, a par- 
tition which does not arise from the 
3dges of carpels, but some form of 
cellular tissue ; "- Foot, the base 
of the seta in some Bryophytes, 
which becomes dilated ; -^ Fruit, 
a p'-endocarj), as a Strawberry ; 
~ Hy'bridism, Millardet's term 
when the hybrid shows the char 

acter of one parent only ; '/. Moxo- 
LEPsis ; ~ Indu'sium, the recurved 
margin of some Fern-pinnules, which 
serves to protect the sori ; ^^ Par- 
ench'yma = Pseudopauenchyma ; 
'-' Plank'ton, Plankton, at first 
fixed, afterwards broken loose, and 
floating (Warming) ; ~ Raceme' = 
Helicoii) Cyme ; -- Ray, bands or 
aggregations of uniseriate rays in 
the wood of certain Cupuliferae 
(I. W. Baiky) ; ^ -stom'ata 
(-}- Stoma), pores in the epidermis 
of Eqnisftam ; ~ Tis'sue, hyphal 
or mycelial felted ti>sue ; falsiner^vis 
{nerviis, a nerve), when nerves are 
foruied of cellular tissue. Without 
fibrovascular bundles, as in Mosses, 

Family, Famil'ia; (1) a group of 
genera, formerly styled Order ; 
(2) "a group of individuals belong- 
ing to one species " (Clements) : i. e. 
the lowest association. 

Fan, an equivalent of Rhipidium ; 
'-' -nerved, having the nerves dis- 
posed in the fashion of a fan, 
radiating fi'om the base ; ^ shaped, 
flabelliform ; ~ veined, = ^ nerved. 

farc'tate./a?-c7M5 (Lat. , stufl"ed), filled 
up, not hollow or tubular. 

fa'riam, = in rows, as bi-fariam, in 
two rows, etc. 

Fari'na (Lat., meal), (1) Blair's term 
for pollen ; (2) starch or starchy 
matter ; farina'ceous ( -f acfous), of 
the nature of starch, or containing 
starch ; farinose, farina' sics, (1) 
covered with a mealiness ; (2) Mohl's 
term for the cellulose of starch. 

fa'riouSj as bi-, tri-, quadri-fa'rious, 
in two, three, or four rows. 

Fas'cia (Lat., a band), pi. Fas'ciae, a 
cross-band, as of colour. 

fascialis fasclate, fiscia'tus {fascit, 
a bundle), used of the condition of 
a stem when several have coalesced ; 
Fascia'tion, a band or bundle caused 
by a monstrous growth of stems into 

fas'ciarius (Lat., band-like), banded, 
or band-shaped, narrow and long, 
with parallel margins, as in sea- 




Fas'cicle, Fascic'ulus (Lat., a little 
bundle), a close cluster or bundle 
of flowers, leaves, stems, or roots ; 
fascic'ular, fascicula'ris, fas'cicled, 
fascicula'tus, connected or drawn 
into a fascicle; fascic'ular Cambium, 
is that portion which belongs to 
the vascular bundles ; '- Tis'sue, 
or '^ Syst'em, the fibro-vascular sys- 
tem ; ~ Xy'iem, the hadrome, the 
wood-elements of a bundle ; fascio- 
la'ris, fasciola'tus, fasciated. 

Fasergriibchen (Ger.) = Crypto- 


fastig'iate, fastigia'tus {fastigium, a 
slope, a gable), (1) parallel, clustered 
and erect, as the branches of Fopu- 
lus fastigiata, Linn. ; (2) frequently 
used as if it meant the same as fa.-ci- 
ate ; Fastigia'tion, when branches 
become more or less parallel with 
the main stem. 

Fat Bpd'ies, pi., fatty oils occurring 
in j)lants, often as reserve-material, 
particularly in seeds ; Fat En'zyme, 
an unorganized ferment which breaks 
up oils and fats. 

Fath'er-plant, in hybrids, the pollen- 
parent or male element. 

Fatigue'-sub 'stances, Recnitzer's name 
for bodies thrown off the plant, 
which act in a restraining or poison 
ous way on its own life ; Ger. , 

fatis'cent {Jalisco^ I gape), cracked, 
or gaping open. 

Fau'ces (Lat., the throat), pi., the 
throat of a gamopetalous corolla ; 
Faux, singular, is an assumed word. 

Favei'la (? a diminutive of favas, 
honey-comb), the conceptacle of 
Ceramium, a dense terminal agyle- 
meration of spores within a thin 
colourless membrane ; Favellid'ium 
{flStov, diminutive) = Cystocarp ; 
fave'olate, faveola'lus (perhaps from 
favus, honey-comb), honey-combed, 
alveolate ; Favil'la, Favillid'ium, 
Lindley's erroneous spelling of 
Favella, ard Favellidifm ; 
fa'vose, faro'siis (Lat.), honey- 
combed, as the receptacles of many 
Corapositae ; favo'so-areola'tus. 

mapped-out into spaces, suggestive 
of the cavities of honey-comb ; '- 
dehis'cens, seeming honey-combed 
after dehiscence, as the anther of 
Viscuvi ; favo'sulns, somewhat 
honey-combed ; Fa'vus, a skin dis- 
ease caused by Achorion Schoenleinii, 

favular'ian, a ribbed surface separated 
by zigzag furrows in certain genera 
of fossil Lycopods, derived from tha 
obsolete genus Favularia. 

feath'er- veined, with secondary veins 
proceeding from the midrib, penui- 

feath'ery, plumose, with long hairs 
which are hairy themselves. 

Fe'cula {faecula, wine-lees), starch or 
similar substances ; fe'oulent, thick 
with sediment (Crozier). 

Fecundation {fecundo, to make fruit- 
ful) = Fertilization. 

Federa'tion, the whole of the plant- 
associations of the world. 

Feed'er, (1) a hcst-plant ; (2) in TFel- 
wiischia and other Gnetaceae, an 
outgrowth of the hypocotyl, serving 
as a temporary organ of absorption ; 
(3) used by S. H. Vines for the 
"foot" of Selaginella. 

fell'eus (Lat, full of gall), bitter as gall. 

Fell-flelds, districts of dv^arf, scattered 
plants, chiefly Cryptogams ; arc'tic 
r^ , occur round the north pole. 

felt'ed matted with intertwined hairs ; 
'-' Tis'sue, hyphal tissue not regu- 
larly united, but more or less grown 
together ; syn. Tela contexta. 

fe'male the fruiting element in plants, 
the pistil and its analogues, arche- 
gonia, oospheres, etc. , shown by 9 . 

femin'eus (Lat., womanly), female, as 
Flos '~, a flower which contains 
pistils but no stamens. 

Fen, a moist, level tract, peaty and 
rich in humus. 

Fence, Withering's word for Invo- 

Fenes'tra (I^at., a window), an open- 
ing through a membrane ; Fenes'trae 
(Lat., windows) apica'les, and '■^ 
basa'les, openings in the outer coat 
of certain Silicoflayellatae (Lemmer- 




mann) ; fenes'teate, fenestra' tus, 
fenestra'lis, pierced with holes, as 
the septum in some Cniciferae. 

fer, Latin suffix from fero, I bear ; 
occurs in such words as florifer, 
bearing flowers ; sometimes found as 
-ferus, which is very rarely correct. 

fe'ral {fera, a wild animal), wild, or 
indigenous ; -not cultivated. 

Fer'ment [fermentwrn, leaven), a sub- 
stance which produces or excites 
chemical changes, but not itself 
appreciably contributing to the new 
products. Ferments may t)e divided 
into {a) organised ~, such as yeast 
and other Schizomycetes, a,ud (J) 
unorganized ~ , or enzymes ; the 
latter are related to and apparently 
derived from the proteids ; their 
composition is not absolutely known, 
and their names are usually derived 
from the sources whence they are 
derived ; diastase, invevtase, papain 
etc. ; Fermenta'tion, the catalytic 
operation of ferments, particular- 
ized as ace'tic ~ y produced by Bac- 
terium Aceti, Lanzi, alcohoric —, 
by yeast, and similar organisms, 
butyr'ic ~ , by a Vibrio, lac'tic ~ , by 
which sugars are turned into acids ; 
another classification is (1) diastat'ic 
'-' , converting starch into sugar ; 
(2) ferments which decompose gluco- 
sides with production of sugar, such 
as emulsin ; (3) ferments which con- 
vert cane-sugar into glucose, as in- 
vertase ; (4) and those which convert 
proteids into peptones, or pep'tic 
~, such as papain; ferment'ative 
Energe'sis, the disruptive process 
by fermentation by which energy is 
released (Barnes). 

Ferrificft'tion {ferrum, iron), the ac- 
tion of Ferrobacteria ; Ferrobacte'ria 
(+ Bacterium), bacteria which 
oxidize ferrous to ferric salts ;-ferru- 
ginas'ceng (Lat.), becoming rusty; 
ferrugin-'eous, -eus, ferru'ginous, 
ferrugino' sus {ferrugo, rust), rust- 
coloured ; Ferru'go (Lat.), a disease 
in plants known also as "Rust," 
due to the Uredo stage of various 
species of Puccinia. 


iert'ilQ, fert'ilis (Lat.), capable of pro- 
ducing fruit ; ~ Cells, binucleate 
cells forming a basal layer in the 
aecidium of uredineous Fungi, and 
giving rise to the aecidiospores ; 
-^ Flow'ers, female flowers, those 
which possess pistils ; ~ Sta'mens, 
those bearing pollen which fecund- 
ates the ovules ; — self '~, flowers 
perfectly fruitful in the absence of 
insects ; Fertirity, the state of being 
fertile ; Fertiliza'tion, Fertilisa'tio, 
( 1 ) fusion of two gametes to form a 
new individual cell (zygote) ; (2) the 
effect of pollen, deposited on stig- 
matic surface, resulting in conversion 
of flower into fruit, and of o\'nle 
into seed ; Close ~ , breeding in-and- 
in, or successive progeny of closely 
related parents ; Cross •-' , progeny by 
other forms not of close affinity ; cf. 
Pollination ; doable ~ ,one generat- 
ive nucleus from the pollen-tube fuses 
with the nucleus of the egg-cell 
(oosphere), the other with the defin- 
ite nucleus, itself formed by fusion of 
the polar nuclei ; genera'tive ~, the 
sexual union of germ plasm of differ- 
ent parentage and diverse potentiali-' 
ties ; Post- '^ , the stage after fertiliz- 
ation to the ripening of the seed ; 
Pre- ~ , the stage of the ovules pre- 
vious to fertilization; redacted '^ , 
partial ftision of a female cell with 
a vegetative cell, or the fusion of 
two female cells ; vegeta'tive '~, the 
stimulus to growth resulting from 
the fusion. of two nuclei or other 

masses of protoplasm ; Tube, 

the channel by which gonoplasm 
passes from the antheridium to the 
oogonium in Peronosporeae. 

ferula'ceous, ferula' ceas (Lat.), (1) re- 
sembling the genus Ferula ; (2) per- 
taining to reeds or canes, or being 
formed like them, hollow. 

Fervida'rium {fervidus, boiling hot), 
applied in botanic gardens to the 

Festuca're, a community of Festuca ; 
(Clements) ; Festuce'tam, an asso- 
ciation of the same grass-genus ; 
fes'tucine. straw-coloured, as the 



dry culm of Festuca ; fes'tucous, 
formed of straw. 

fe'tidUS = FOETIDUS. 

Fibonac'ci Se'ries, Braun's series of 
numbers formed thus, 1 2, 3, 5, 8, 
13, 21, 31, £5 . . by successive 
additions of the last two ; they 
occur in phyllotaxis, and were for- 
mulated by Leonardo of Pisa, sur- 
named Fibonacci. 
Fi'bre, Fl'hra ( at.), (1) a fine thread 
or filament, chambered or woody ; 
(2) the fusiform cells of the inner 
bark ; (3) the u'timate rootlets ; 
element'ary ■^^ the thread in a spiral 
vessel, secondary deposit in a spiral ; 
fl'briform {forma, sliape), fibre- 
shaped ; Fi'bril, Fihrill'a, diminu- 
tive of Fibre ; ~ of Nu'cleus = 
Chkomosome ; fi'brillate, fibril- 
latus, fl'brillose, fi'brillous, fihrillo'- 
sus, furnished with fibres, as roots, 
or having a finely lined a])pearance ; 
-^ Lay'er, two outer layers of closely 
woven hyphae in (xeaster ; -^ Myce'- 
lium= KiBROus Mycelium ; Fi'brin 
(veg'etable), occurs in gluten, has 
no fibrous structure as animal fibrin, 
but forms hen dry a tough, horny 
mass ; fl'bro-cel'lular. " composed of 
spiral cells " ; fibro-va'sal (Hillhouse) 
= ~- -vasou'lar, tissue of mixed 
vessels arid' fibres ; ~ -^ Bun'dle, 
or Vascular Bundle, an association 
of vessels characteristic of the 
hiyher plants, usually onsisting of 
phloem and xylem elements, often 
surrounded by a special layer of 
cells known as the bundle--h<-ath ; 
-^ Cord, proposed by Strasburger 
for the similar structure in mono- 
cotyledons ; ~ Cyl'mder, the central 
C3'linder ; ~ Sys'tem, the whole of 
the fibrous p'rfion of a plant, ex- 
clusive of the pure y cellular struc- 
tures ; Fibrole'in, Kayod's term for 
a very delicate membrane of the 
spirals of protoplasm (hyaloplasm) ; 
fi'brouB, fi'brose, fib>o'sn^, having 
much woody fibre, as the r-nd of 
a Coco-nut ; Fi'brous-myce'liam, 
when the hyphae form long branch- 
ing strands ; Fi'brose, Fr^ray's term 

for the substance of woody fibre, a 
variety of cellulose ; Fi'brosin, a re- 
serve substance resembling Fibrose, 
found by Zopf in the conidia of cer- 
tain Fungi, in the form of rounded 
flattened ' discs, embedded in the 
protoplasm ; -^ Bod'ies, the discs 
described ; Fi'brotype {fibra, a fila- 
ment ; typus, a type), Macdougal's 
expression for the condition of a 
root of Cephalanthera with a re- 
duction and fusion of the stelar 
compounds, and radially elongated 
cortex : fi'bry, used by Loudon for 


Fi'bula (Lat:, a buckle), a cylindrical 
podetium, lierrainated by apothecia. 

fld'dle-shaped, panduriform. 

-fldus, Latki suffl*x for cleft, as tri- 
fidua, three-cleft. 

Field -stra'tutn {stratum, a layer), 
formed by grass and herbs and 
dwarf shrubs (Warming). 

Fig-insect, the fertilizing agent in 
caprification, Blasto})haga. 

Fi'la (pi. of Jilum, a thread), adduct- 
or'ia, the abortive " pistillidia " 
of Mosses ; -^ succalent'a, para- 

Fil'ament, Filament'um {Jilum, a 
thread), (1) the stilk of an anther, 
the thread-like stem ; (2) any 
thread-like body ; Filament'a os- 
tiola'ria, delicate colourless threads 
lining the perithecium round the 
epithecium of Verrucaria ; flla- 
ment'ous filament'ose, fiktmento'- 
sics, formeil of filaments or fibres ; 
-^ Fung'us, growth - form of a 
branched hyplia without union with 
other hyphae ; -^ Myce'lium = 
Fibrous Mycklium ; ~ Spor'ophore, 
a simple sporophore ; -- Tbal'lus = 
Fruticoije Thallus ; Fi'lar-plas ma 
{ir\<icT/j.a, moulded), Strasburger's 
term for Kinoplasm ; fila'rious 
(Crozier) = filamentous ; fila'tus 

(Lat.) = VIROATUS. 

Files, a series of N'aviciila-like frust- 
ules as in Micromcaa. 

Fii'ial {Jilia, a daujihter) -cell. Hen- 
frey's term for daughter-cell ; '^ 
Genera'tion, the first cross-bred 




generation, " denoted by F^ ; the 
second by Fg; ^tc. 
firical {filix, a fern), Fern-like, or 
allied to Ferns ; filicin'ean, filicin'- 
eous, relating to the Filicinoae, that 
is, Ferns in the widest sense (Scott) ; 
firicoid {(l^us, like), Fern-like ; Fil- 
icol'ogy (A(^705, discourse), = PxEni- 


fil'iform, filiform' is {filitm, a thread ; 
forma, shape), thread-shaped ; -^ 
Appara'tus, the upper ends of the 
synergidae, which pierce through 
and are prolonged beyond the 
'summit of the embryo-sac ; filipen- 
d'ulous, -Ills {pindulus, hanging 
down), having tuberous swellings 
in the middle or end of filiform 
roots; Filobacte'ria ( -f Bacterium), 
thread-like bacteria ; fi'lose, ending 
in a thread like process (Crozier). 

Fim'bria (Lat. , fringe), (1) a fringe; 
(2) an elastic-toothed membrane 
beneath the o})erculum of mosses ; 
fim'briate, fimbria' tus, with the 
margin bordered by long slender 
processes ; fim'bricate = fimbkiate 
(Crozier) ; Fimbriria, a diminutive 
fringe ; fimbril'late, fimhrilla'tus, 
having fimbrillae ; fimbrillif' erous, 
-rus, with many little fnnges, as the- 
receptacle ot the Compositae. 

flmeta'rius {fimetum, a dung-hill), 
growing on or amongst dung. 

fimic'olong {fimus, dung ; coZo, I in- 
habit), growing on manure-heaps. 

Finger-and-toe, a disease in Cruci- 
fera caused by Plasmodiophora 
Bra^sicae, Woron. ;— Clubbing or 

fing'ered, digitate. 

Fi'niform {finis, a boundary; -f- Form), 
a form whose nearest relations have 
completely died out (Kuntze). 

First'ling-Cell, from the Germ. Erst- 
lingzelle, the first of a new genera- 
tion from an auxospore in Diatoms. 

Fise'tin, the yellow colouring-matter 
of Rhus Cotinus, Linn. 

fis'sile, fis'silis (Lat.), tending to 
split, or easily split ; Fis'sion, 
si»litting ; -- Fun'gi = Schizoniy 
cetes ; Fi88ip''ari8m {pario, I bring 

forth), the act of multiplication 
among the lower forms by ttreaking 
up into living portions; Fiesipar'- 
ity = FissiPARisM ; fissip'arous, di- 
viding into two or more divisions 
by splitting ; fis'sus (Lat., split), 
split or divided half-way. 

Fis'tula (Lat.), a pipe ; ~ spiralis = 
Trachea ; fis'tular, fis'tulose, fistu- 
lo'sus, fis'tulous, hollow throughout 
its length as the leaf and stem of an 

Fixa'tion of CO.^, respiration of oxygen 
and retention of carbon dioxide. 

flabel'late, flahclla'his (flabellinn, a 
fan), fan-shaped, dilated in a wedge- 
shaped, sometimes plaited ; flaberii- 
form, flabellifo'rm'is {forma, shape), 
shaped as a fan ; flabelliner'ved 
{nerviis, a nerve), radiate-veined. 

&&c'ciA.,-fiac'c idles (Lat.), withered and 
limp, flabby. 

Flacberie' (I'r.), a disease in silk 
worm caused by Micrococcus Bmn- 
bycii, Cohn 

Flag-appara'tus, Goebel's term for 
anthers becoming petaloid, as a 
signal for insect-visitors. 

Flagella'ta {Jlagellum, a whip). Algae 
distinguished by possessing whip- 
like flagella, by whicli they are 
able to progress through the water ; 
flag'ellate, flagclki'tus, provided 
with whip-like runners ; flagel- 
la'ris, having creeping sarmenta ; 
flag'ellary, caused by flagella, as 
the motion Of zoospores (Crozier) ; 
Flagel'lum, pi. Flagel'la, (1) a run- 
ner or sarmentum, branchlets in 
Mosses.; (2) the whij>-like process of 
the protopliism of a swarmspore ; 
(3) similar organs in the cells of 
some Schizomycetes ; fiageriiform, 
flagelliform' is {forma, shape), (1) 
resembling a runner, or (2) lash- 
like, as the cilia of zoospores ; Fla- 
gello'sis, a disease of Euphorbia 
attributed to Leptomonas Davidi, 
a flagellate })arasite. 

flag'on-shaped (Loudon), used lor 

Flake, a nectariferous gland (S. F. 
Gray) ; flaTiy, lamelliform. 




-flame-coloured, jlam'meus (Lat.), fiery 

Flange, (1) a ring-like projection of 
the integuraental lining of tlie 
micropyle of certain fossil seeds ; 
(2) Bower's term for the apparent 
margin of the pinnae in Blechnum. 
Flank- cur v'ature, unequal gi'owth of 
climbers, Ger. " Flanken-Kriim- 
mung " ; Flanks, the lateral sur- 
faces of a bilateral body. 
Flask, the utricle of Carex; flask- 
shaped, having the form of a 
Florence flask, somewhat globular, 
with a drawn-out neck. 
Flats, proposed equivalent for the 

German " Etagenbildung." 
Flat'tening, (1) the fasciation of a 
stem ; (2) the production of a 
Flave'do (Lat.), yellowness, a disease 
in which the green parts have be- 
come yellow. 
flaves'cent, flaves'cens (Lat.), yellow- 
ish, becoming yellow ; fla'vicans, 
fla'vidus (Lat.), somewhat yellow ; 
Fla'vone [fiavus, .yellow), a natural 
yellow colouring matter occurring in 
plants ; fla'vo-vi'rens (Lat.), yellow- 
ish green ; fla'vous, fla'vics, nearly 
pure yellow, a bright clear hue. 
Flee'ciaess, villosity. 
Flesh, the soft parts, as the flesh of 

apples or pears ; flesh'y, succulent. 
flexed Xflexus, bent), used of Diatoms 
which appear as though bent ; 
flexible, flex'ilis, Jlexib'ilis, capable 
of being bent, but elastic enough 
to be able to resume its original 
figure ; flex'uose, flexuo'sus, flex-' 
uous, bent alternately in opposite 
directions, zigzag ; Flex'nre, the 
"bend" of Diatoms, 
float'ing, borne on the surface of 
water; - Tis'sue, air-containing 
tissue in the seeds of plants dis- 
persed by water currents (Haber- 
landt) . 
Floc'ci, pi. of Floc'cufl (Lat , a lock of 
wool), locks of soft hair or wool ; 
floc'cose, Jiocco'sus, bearing flocci, --' 
Myce'lium, = Fibuous Mycelium ; 
floc'culent, Jlocculent'ics, diminutive 

of FLOCCOSE ; floc'culose, like wool 
Flo'ra (Lat., goddess of flowers), (1) 
the aggregate plants of a country 
or district, (2) a work which con- 
tains an enumeration of them ; 
Flo'rae Horolo'gium, a floral clock, 
certain plants arranged in the order 
of the hours of opening or closing ; 
flo'ral, flora'lis, belong to flowers ; 
'^ A'pex = Mamelon ; ~ Di'agram, 
a drawing to show the relative 
position and number of the con- 
stituent parts ; --' En'velopes, the 
perianth leaves, calyx and corolla ; 
-- Glume, the lower glume of the 
flower iu grasses ; flowering glume 
(Beal) ; -- Leaf = Bract ; a sug- 
gested equivalent for the Ger. 
Flores'cence, Florescen'tia, anthesis, 
the period of flowering ; Flo'ret, a 
small flower, one of a cluster, aa in 
floribun'dns {flos, floris, a fl^ower ; 
abitndtcs, = production of present 
activity), abounding in flowers ; 
Floricurture {cuUura, cultivation), 
cultivation of flowers, flower garden- 
ing ; Flor'ie, Grew's word for peri- 
anth ; flo'rifer (Lat), florlf'erous, 
flower-bearing ; florif'erae Gem'ma«, 
flower buds ; Floriflca'tion, the act 
or time of flowering ; flo'riform 
{forma, shape), shaped like a flower ; 
Flo'riglume, the flowering glume in 
grasses ; Flo'rilege {lego, I gather), 
a treatise on flowers ; florip'arous, 
-us {pario, I bring forth), (1) pro- 
ducing flowers, (2) a monstrosity 
producing other flowers instej^d of 
fruit ; Flo'rist, (1) a cultivator of 
flowers, especially those variable 
forms known as florist's flowers, (2) 
a writer of a Flora, (3) in foreign 
usage ' ' Florist " means a local botan- 
ist ; Floraecorogy, used for the 
ecology of flowers (Lovell) ; Flo'rula, 
(1) a small flora, (2) the botanic 
accoimt of 'a small district ; flo'ru- 
lent, flowery ; flo'rns, in composition 
means flowered, as uni-fiorxts, one- 




Flos (Lat.), an assemblage of the 
organs essential for fertilizatioD , as 
stamens and pistils, with some pro- 
tecting envelope ; — A'quae, floating 
Algae, as Rivularia fluitans, Cohn ; 
'~ compos'itus X = Capitulum ; '~ 
ple'nus, a double flower, where the 
stamens or pistils, or both, are con- 
verted into petals ; flos'cular, flos'- 
culouB, flosculo'sus (1) relating to 
florets or flowers, or presenting many 
florets ; (2) w4th tubular florets. 

Flos'cule, Flos'culum (Blair), Flos- 
cidvs, a little flower, a floret ; Sem'i- 
flos'cule, a composite floret ; Floss, 
the down in certain Compositae, 
as Thistle-down : Flossifica'tion, 
flowering, expansion of flowers. 

Flou'rish, Blair's word for a disk -floret 
of Compositae ; half '-- the same for 
ligulate florets. 

Flow'er, defined under Flos ; -- Bud, 
an unexpanded flower, as distinct 
from a leaf-bud ; --' Head, a cluster 
or flowers, as the Capitulum or 
Head in Compositae ; Flow'erage, 
the state of being in flower ; 
Flow'eret, a small flower, a floret ; 
Flow'eriness, abounding with flowers; 
Flow'ering, the maturity of the 
floral organs, and exi-ansion of their 
envelopes ; '-' Glume, the lower of 
the two organs which subtend the 
flower of Grasses (the upper being 
the palea) ; ~ Plants = Phanero- 
gams ; flow'erless, destitute of 
flowers ; ~ Plants = Cryptogams ; 
Flow'erlessness, absence of flowers ; 
flow'ery, abounding in flowers. 

Flow'ers of Tan = Aethaliuw septicum, 
¥r ; '^ of Wine, growth of Sac- 
charomyces Mycoderma, Reess. 

fL\i'\iB.Jit, fluitans (Lat.), floating. 

Fluke-cell, resembling the fluke of an 
anchor ; in shaggy hairs of Crano- 

flumina'lis, flumin'eus ( fluvien, a 
river), applied to plants Avhich grow 
in running water. 

Fluores'cence (from Fluor-spar), the 
property of diminishing the re- 
frangibility of light ; ~ of Chlor'o- 
phyll, the shifting of the spectrum 

T. " 1 

by the colouring matter contained 
in chlorophyll ; fluorescigen'ic ( + 
Fluorescence ; 76^05, ofl'spring), 
causing fluorescence, as certain 
Flush, a shallow runnel floored with 
vegetation result (Crampton) ; — 
Snow- -^ tracks of channels leading 
from snow-patches ; cf. Anthelia. 
flu'vial, ftuvia'lis, fluviat'ic (Crozier), 
flu'viatile, fluviat'ilis {Lsit.), applied 
to plants groAving in streams. 
Fly-flow'ers, those specially adapted to 
be fertilized by flies ; Fly-traps, 
contrivances by which insects are 
caught, as pitchers, tentacles of 
Drosera, etc. ; Fly-wood, oakwood 
destroyed by Stereum (Tubeuf). 
Fly'ing-hairs, hairs which aid seeds 
in dispersal ; -^ Mem'brane, the 
expanded structures in winged seeds ; 
'■^ Tis'sue. the structure composing 
the last (Haberlandt). 
foemin'eus = femineus, female, 
foeni'nus {foenum, hay), "hay grey" 

foe'tidus (Lat., stinking), fetid, smell- 
ing strongly and disagreeably ; 
Foe'tor (Lat., a stench), the odour 
given oft" by flowers which thereby 
attract carrion flies. 
folded, in vernation when the two 
halves of a leaf are applied to one 
another ; '^ Tis'sue, endoderm with 
suberified or liquified membrane, 
confined to a band on the lateral 
and transverse faces' of the cells, 
without thickening (Van Tieghem). 
Folds of Sa'nio = Sanio's Rims. 
folia'ceous, -exts {folium, a leaf; -f- 
ACEors), having the texture or 
shape of a leaf, as the branches of 
Xylophylla ; — Thal'lus, a frondose 
thallus, flat and leaf-like, usually 
crisped and lobed, which spieads 
over the surface <m which it grows, 
and can be detached without much 
injury ; Folia'ceae, frondose vascu- 
lar Cryptogams ; Fo'liage, the leafy 
covering, especially of trees ; -^ 
Leaves, ordinary leaves, as distin- 
guished from those which have 
undergone metamorphoses as bracts, 




petals, etc. ; Fo'lial = Foliole ; 
fo'liar, folia' ris, (1) leafy or leaf- 
like, (2) inserted on, or forming an 
appendix to a leaf, epiphyllous ; 
cir'rhus folia' ris = tendril ; ^ Gap, 
a mesh in the vascular bundle 
cylinder from the margin of which 
vascular bundles pass into the frond 
in Ferns ; '- Spur, a dwarf shoot in 
a pine-tree, which bears a pair of 
leaves (Hartig) ; -^ Trace, = Leaf- 
trace ; the remains of the vascular 
bundle or bundles which supplied 
the leaf. 

foliate, /o/m'<«s(Lat.), leaved, clothed 
with leaves, as bi-fo'liate, two- 
leaved, etc. 

Folia 'tion, Folia' tio (Lat.), vernation; 
used by Grew for the act of leafing. 

Fo'liature {foliatura, foliage), Blair's 
term for petals. 

folif' erous, foliiferous, -rus {folium, 
a leaf; fero, I bear), leaf-bearing ; 
foliic'olous {colo, I inhabit),, grow- 
ing on leaves, as some Fungi and 
Lichens ; folii'f erae Gem'mae (Lat.), 
leaf -buds ; fo'liiform, foliiform'is 
{forma, shape) = foliaceous ; foliip'- 
arous, -rus {pario, I bring forth), 
bearing leaves ; foliolar, relating 
to a leaflet ; foliolate, foliola'tus, 
clothed with leaflets ; bi-, tri-fo'lio- 
late, two-, three-leafletted ; folio'- 
lean, folcola'mts, gi-owing from the 
end of a leaf. 

Fo'liole, Fol'iola (dim. of folium), 
(1) a leaflet, the secondary division 
of a compound leaf; (2) em- 
ployed by Spruce for the postical 
leaves of Hepaticae, those on 
the ventral or rooting surface ; 
foliolose, closely covered with leaf- 
lets ; Fo'liolum, a small leaf or 
leaflet ; io'\io&e, folio' sus, (1) closely 
clothed with leaves ; (2) applied to 
a lichen with a leaf-like expansion 
ofthethallus : fo'lious, having leaves 
intermixed with flowers ; Folium, 
(Lat.), a leaf, pi. Folia. 

FoUice'tum {folHcul aw, a small bag), 
a whorl of follicles ; Follicle, 
FoUic'ulus, (1) a fruit of one carpel, 
opening by a ventral suture to 

which the seeds are attached, 
formerly applied to any capsular 
fruit ; (2) by Linnaeus used for the. 
bladder of Utricularia ; (3) a little 
bladder on the leaves of some Mosses, 
as Pottia cnvifolia, Ehrh. ; follic'ular, 
follicula'ris^ folliculiformls {forma, 
shape), shaped like a follicle. 

fonta'nus, fontinalis (Lat.), relating 
to a spring), growing in or near a 
spring of water. 

Food-bodies, small pear-shaped bodies 
formed on or near the leaves of 
certain plants, as Acacia spadici- 
fera, Cham. & Schlecht., and Leea 
aequMa, Linn., which are utilised 
by ants as food; Ger. " Ameisen- 

Foot, (1) as a measure, 12 inches, or 
30'5 cm., sign '; (2) = Podium ; 
(3) a development from the hypo- 
basal part of the embrj'o, as an 
organ of attachment and temporary 
nutrition ; (4) in Myxogastres, 
the first development from the 
Plasmodium which leads to the 
formation of spores, a cell-wall of 
cellulose, forming an axis (Van 
Tieghem) ; (5) the base of a hair, 
often enlarged ; -- Cell, the spore 
of Outtulina rosea, Cienk., arising 
from a naked cell of protoplasm, 
from the aggi'egated plasmodiura ; 
'- Em'bryo, an arrested terminal 
growth of the embryo of Cutleria, 
thus differing from the pro to - 
nematoid embryo of the same 
si)ecies ; -^ Eot, a disease on 
species of Citrus caused by Fus- 
ariuin Limoiis, Briosi ; -^ Stalk, 
a stem specialised as peduncle, 
petiole, etc. 

Fora'men (Lat., a hole), an aperture, 
especially that in the outer inte- 
guments of the ovule; c/. Micro t'yle; 
foram'inose, foramiiio'sus, per- 
forated by holes ; Foramin'ula, 
"the ostiolum of certain Fungals " 
(Lindley) ; foramin'ulose, marked 
with little holes. 

Force, any cause which chanores the 
state of a body as to rest or motion ; 
vital force is kinetic energy. 




Forc'ing, the operation by which 
cultivators produce fruit and 
vegetables out of season, early or 

for'cipate, forcipa'tus {forceps, nip- 
pers), forked like pincers. 

Fore-leaf, a translation of the Ger. 
"Vorblatt"; a bracteole or pro- 

Fore-ran'ner Point, a form of leaf- 
apex which performs all duties of 
assimilation before tlie basal por- 
tion is mature; Ger. " Vorlaufer- 
spitze. " 

For'est, in a botanic sense, laud 
covered with trees exclusively, or 
wdth an undergrowth of shrubs or 
herbs ; many varieties are re^-og- 
nized by ecologists, e. g., swamp '-, 
etc., forest'ian'^(upper), a stage in 
peat when Finns was dominant : ~ 
or (lower) Betula, Cory /us and Alnus, 
the prevalent trees, in the peat-stage. 

Fore'wold, the thicket zone bordering 
a forest (Clements). 

forfica'tus, {for/ex, scissors), scissor- 
lii<e, resembling shears. 

forked, sepn rating into two divisions, 
more or less apart. 

Form {forma, shape), a slight 
variety or variation, as long and 
short-styled Forms; nearly thirty 
special terms are enumerated by 
0. Kuntze in his " Methodik der 
Speciesbeschreibung, " pp. 15-17 ; ~ 
Gen'us, a genus made up of an 
assemblage of '- Spe'cies, an ap- 
parent species which is really a 
single stage of the life-cycle of a 
pleomorphous species ; ~ Spore, a 
body simu'ating a spore but with- 
out germinating power, or remaining 
attached to its sporophore ; For'mae 
oxyda'tae. (Lat.) crustaceous Lichens 
which have become rust-coloured 
from an infiltration of some salt of 

Fonna'tion, {formatio, a shaping), in 
botany, applied ' to an assemblage 
of plants of similar habits and en- 
vironment, as a forest is a -^ of 
trees, turf a ~ of grasses ; in Ger. 
** Pflanzenverein " ; closed '^ , Avhen 

the plants are so crowded that in- 
vasion is difficult; mixed '~, when 
a mixture of two or more distinct 
formations ; o'pen -^ , when the 
plants and groups are scatteied 
(Clements) ; sec'ondary -^ , those 
which have arisen through human 
interference (Wanning) ; Dr. 
Moss's subdivisions are given tmder 
Association. Isotv,-.— Association 
is also used, but both terms are 
somewhat loosely employed. 

form'ative. giving form, plastic ; <*< 
Irritabirity, the capacity of tissues 
to respond to stimuli and to produce 
outgrowths (Virchow); -*- Mate 'ri- 
als, applied to such as starch,, 
fats, and albuminoids ; --' Re'gion, 
the growing point proper; '^ 
Stim'uius, the capacity of micro- 
organisms to produce outgrowths 
of determinate form (Virchow). 

formicar'ian {formica, an ant), ap- 
plied by Beccari to those plants 
possessing saccharine fluids, thus 
attracting ants. 

for'nicate, for-ica'tus (Lat., arched 
over), provided with scale-like 
a[)pendages in the corolla-tube, as 
in Myosotis ; For'nices, p . of For'- 
nix (Lat.), a little scnle. 

Fos'sil ( ossiis, dug), the remains of 
a plant < hanged to a stony con- 
sistence, from various straa; --' 
Bot'any, the department which 
takes note of fossil plants, palaeo- 

Fos'sula (Lat., a little ditch), a small 
groove in some I )iatom- valves. 

Fost'er-plant = H ost. 

Founda'tion, a literal rendering of 
the Ger. " Anlage." 

four-fold, quadruple ; — Porien- 
Grains, as in Oeruthera, which 
form coherent tetrads. 

Fov'ea (Lat., a small pit), a depres- 
sion or pit, as il) in the upper surface 
of the le.if-base in Isuetes, which 
contains the sporangium ; (2) the seat 
of The pollinium in Oi cliids ; fov'eate 
fovea' ins, pitted ; Fov'tola, (1) a 
small pit : (2) " the perithecium of 
certain Fungals " (Lindley) ; (3) in 




Isoetes, a small depression above the 
fovea, from which the ligule springs ; 
fov'eolate, fovenla'lus, marked with 
small pitting. 
Fovil'la {foveo, I nourish), the con- 
tents of the pollen grain. 
Fox'glove-sh&ped, lil<e the corolla of 

Digitalis ; digitaliform. 
frac'idus (Lat., mellpw), of a pasty 

texture, between fleshy and pulpy. 
Frac'tional (fractio, a breakinj?) cul- 
t'ures, cf. Separation Cultures ; 
Fractiona'tion, in biology denoting 
variation due to the quantitative 
disintegration of factors (Hateson). 
Fragmenta'tion {fragmentum, a piece), 
Van Benedeu's term for direct divi- 
sion of the nucleus. 
Fran'g^lin, a yellow crystalline body 
from the parenchyma of Rhamnus 
Frangula, Linn. 
Fraternity {fraternifas, a brother-' 

hood), see Adelphia. 
Fraxine'tum, an association of ash- 
trees ; Frax'inin, a principle existing 
in the bark of the ash, Fraximis 
excelsior, Linn. 
free, not adhering, the reverse of 
adnate ; Free-cell, a cell formed by 
'^ Cell-forma'tion, the production 
of new cells from several nuclei 
within the mother-cell, as in 
pollen ; endogenous cell-formation. 
Fren'ching, a disease caused by 
Fusarinm vasinfcctum, Atkins., in 
the leaf of the cotton-plant 
fre'quent, used of a species often 

Frigida'rium (Lat., the cool room), 
in botanic gardens applied to the 
Orangery, or Temperate Ho^ise with 
simple exclusion of frost. 
Frlgofu'ges {frigidvs, cold ; fugio, I 
flee), plants which shun low tem- 
peratiires ; Frigorideser'ta, pi. 
l/rigidiis, cold ; + Deseut), cold 
deserts with vegetation of herba< eous 
perennials, frequently of tufted 
growth ; tliey are nearest to the 
poles of any desert. 
Frill = Armilla. 
Fringe, used by Sir W. J. Hooker for 

the peristome of Mosses; fringed, 
margined with hair-like appendages ; 
Frond, Frons (Lat., a leaf), (1) the 
foliage of Ferns and other Crypto- 
gams ; (2) the leaves of Palms, ac- 
cording to Linnaeus ; — -gen'us, a 
genus described solely from fronds, 
as of Ferns ; frondesce', to unfold 
leaves ; Frondes'cence, Fronde seen' - 
tia, (1) vernation; (2) phyllody ; 
(.3) by Morren restricted to the forma- 
tion of leaf-like organs in the place 
of petals ; see also Virescence ; 
frondif erous {fe,ro, I bear), produc- 
ing fronds ; fron'diform {forma, 
shape), like the fronds of Ferns ; 
frondip'arous ( pario, I bring forth), 

(1) beariy^ fronds; (2) the mon- 
strous production of leaves instead 
of fruit • Fron'dlet, a small frond ; 
fron'dose, fron'dous, frondo'sus 
(Lat., full of leaves), (1) leafy; 

(2) frond-like or bearing fronds : --' 
Thal'lus, foliaceous thallus ; Fron'- 
dula, Fron'dules, used by J. Smith 
for the main stems of Sekiqinella. 

Front, of a Diatom, is that view 
which has the ciugulum facing 
and the valves fore-shortened in 
side view. 

Front-cav'ity, the outer cavity of a 
stoma; in Ger. "Vorhof." 

Frost-cracks, longitudinal cracks in 
the bark due to sudden reduction 
of temperature ; Frost-rib, callus 
caused by growth after a rise of 
temperature of a Frost-crack, and 
consequent closing of the wound ; 
frost'ed, with a surface having the 
appearance of hoar frost. 

Fructes'cence, Fructcscen'lia {frucius, 
fruit), the time of maturity of 

fructiferous [frudifer, fruit-bearing), 
producing or bearing fruit; Ca'lyx 
fruc'tifer, the fruiting calyx. 

Fructification, Fructifica'tio (Lat.), 
(1) fruiting; (2) in Cryptogams, 
the result of the sexual act; (3) 
any sporogenous structure or an 
aggregate of them ; double -^ . 
dimorphic fructification in Algae. 




fructip'arous [fructus, fruit ; pario, 
I bring forth) ; Fruc'tose, fruit- 
sugar, or levulose ; it exists with 
other sugars in fruits, honey, and 
treacle; Fruc'tus (Lat.), fruit, the 
product resulting from fertilization. 

frugiferous {fiuges, pi. of frux, fruits 
of the earth ; fero, I bear), pro- 
during fruits or crops. 

Fruit, (1) strictly, the pericarp and its 
seeds, the fertilized and developed 
ovary ; (2) widely, the matured 
pericarp and its contents, with any 
external part which is an integral 
portion of it ; — bear'er, Potter's 
term for Carpophore ; ~ -bodies, 
(1) zygotes which show subdivision 
into spores ; (2) sporophores ; --' 
Dots, the sori of Ferns ; -- -forms, 
forms or means of reproduction of 
Fungi (Potter) ; ~ Galls, diseased, 
growth caused by Ustilago Treuhii, 
Solms ; ~ Stalk, (1) peduncle-; (2) 
the seta of Mosses ; ~ Su'gar, = 
Levulose ; ^ Walls (or ■- Coats), 
the pericarp ; Spu'rious ^ = Pseudo- 

fnimenta'ceous, frxiinenta' cexLs (Lat., 
of corn ; frumenta'ricus, frumen- 
ta'rins (Lat.). (1) pertaining to 
grain ; (2) producing sufficient 
stanh to warrcint culture ; Fru- 
men'tum (Lat., grain), produce of 
corn-lands ; grain or cereals. 

frustra'neous {frustra, useless), relat- 
ing to the Linnean order Fruslranea, 
Compositae with the disk flowers 
hermaphrodite, and those of the ray 
neuter or imperfect. 

Frus'tule, Frus'tida {/riistuhcm, a 
small piece), a Diatom cell, consist- 
ing of valves, girdle and contents ; 
Frus'tilla, an obsolete synonym ; 
frus'tulose, consisting of small 

Fru'tex (Lat., a shrub), a woody plant 
destitute of a trunk ; frutes'cent, 
frut's'cens, becoming sliru1>by ; 
Frut'ical, a small shrub with a soft- 
wooded stern, such as shrubby 
species of Geranium (J. Smith) ; 
fru'ticant, fru'licaiis, growing into 
a^ shrub-like plant ; (1) fru'ticose, 

frutico'sus, shrubby ; (2) in Bubtis, 
allied or belonging to the super- 
species R. fruticosus ; fru'ticous is a 
synonym ; ~ Thal'lns a Lichen 
having a shrub-like thallus; frati- 
c'ulose, somewhat shrubby ; Fruti- 
c'ulus (Lat.), a small shruD. 

fruticules'cent i friUicuhis, a small 
shrub ; -j- escens), applied to a 
Lichen when somewhat shrubby 

Fru'tlet, suggested for low tufted 
evergreen plants as Saxifiages 
(J. Smith). 

Frn'tose = Fructose, Fruit-sugar. 

fuca^ceoas {fu'cus, from (pvKos, sea- 
-weed ; 7I- aceous), relating to the 
genus jf^ucns, as -^ Ve'sicles, the 
bladders of F. vesi-rulosiis ; fu'coid 
(eI5oy, like), fucoi'dal, resembling 
seaweed ; Fu'cosan, Hanstein's name 
for a granular substance found in 
the assimilating tissue of Fucoideae, 
the Phaeophyceae-starch of Schmitz ; 
Fu'cose is probably a partial inver- 
sion of it ; Fucoxan'thine {^avdhs, 
yellow) Sorby's name for the colour- 
ing-matter of the olive-green sea- 

fuga'cious {fugax, fleeting), soon 

ful'ciens {fulcio, I support), support- 
ing, used of an organ above another. 

Ful'cra (pi. of fulcrum, a prop), the 
appendages of the leaves, as prickles, 
tendrils, stipules, etc. ; fulcra'ceufl, % 
of or belonging to the fulcra ; ful'- 
crate, ful'cratus, haviiig fulcra. 

fuligin'eus (Lat., sooty), fulig'inons, 
fulig'inose, faligino'sus, sooty or 

full, used of a double-flower, the 
stamens and pistils being trans- 
formed into petals. 

fulmin'eus ( tulmen, lightning), ful- 
vous, almost brown ; used of a 
species of Cortinariiis by Fries. 

folvel'lus, fulves'cens, ful'vidus (Lat.), 
ful'vid (Crozier), the diminutive of 
the next; fviVyoxiB, ff^'vus (Lat.), 
yellow, tawny. 

fuma'goid resembling Fumagot 

fumaria'ceous, pertaining to Fumaria. 




or its allies ; fama'rioid, like the 
genus Fumaria. 

Fii'marole (It., fumarole, frovo. fumo, 
I give off smoke), a spot in a 
volcanic region which gives off 
sulphurous vapour ; the surrounding 
flora is xerophilous (A. F. W. 

fu'meus (Lat., full of smoked, smoky, 
or smoke-coloured ; fu^midus (Lat.), 
slightly smoke-coloured; famiga'tus 
(Lat.), as though smoked, fumed ; 
fu'mose, fumo's-ics, fu'mous, smoke- 

fana'lis (Lat., of a rope) = funili- 


Func'tion {fundio, performance), the 
peculiar action caused by certain 
stimuli ; func'tional Metab'olism, 
the kinetic effects of certain chemi- 
cal changes in the plant. 

Fun'dainent {fundamentum, ground- 
work), a suggested equivalent of the 
Ger. "Anlage" (Potter); funda- 
men'tal, basic ; ~ Cells, parenchyma ; 
-^ Origans, the nutritive organs es- 
sential to plant existence ; -- Spi'ral 
.= genetic spiral ; ~ Sys'tem = cel- 
lular system ; — Tia'sue, tissue not 
belonging to the normal or fasicu- 
lar system; ground tissue; funda- 
menta'lius, an es-ential part, as the 
axis and appendages of a plant ; 
Fundamen'tum = Hypocotyl. 

Fun'dus (Lat., foundation) = Collum. 

funga'ceouB {fungus, a mushroom), 
F. von Mueller's word for fungoid 
or fungus-like ; fnn'gal, relating to 
Fungi ; fun'gio, belonging to mush- 
rooms ; ~ Acid, a mixture of citric, 
malic, and phosphoric acids (Cooke) ; 
fongtci'dt {-cida, a killer), destnic- 
tive of Fungi ; Fungici'de, an agent 
or mixture for killing Fungi ; anti- 
mycotic ; fun'g^orm, fungiform' is 
{forma, shape), faagiriiform, fun- 
gilli'forin'<s, mushroom - shaped ; 
FTingirius. a small parasitic Fungus; 
Fung'in, the " flesh " of mushrooms. 
Fungus cellulose ; fungi'nas, belong- 
ing to a Fungus ; fang'oid (elSoi, 
like), pertaining to a Fungus; ~ 
Par'asites, parasites which are 

Fungi ; Fun'gro-li'chens, Lindsay's 
term for plants considered to be 
transitional forms between Fungi 
and Lichens ; fung'ose, fungo'sus^ 
fung'ous, (1) spongy in texture; 

. (2) relating to a Fungus ; (3) pro- 
duced by a Fungus ; Fungs, F. von 
Mueller's word for the plural of 
Fun'gus (Lat., a mushroom), pi. 
Jungi, thallophytes destitute of 
chlorophyll, parasitin or saprophy- 
tic, comprehending forms from the 
simplest uniceUular structure to 
some of complex character : many 
are symbiotic ■ ~ Cel'Iulose, the sub- 
stance of the cell-wall in Fungi ; 
'-' Gam'boge, a yellow, resinous 
colouring matter found in Fungi ; 
'-' Traps, or "catch-crops," quickly 
growing crops to secure attack from 
Flasmodiophora Brassicae, and re- 
moval with the Fungus, leaving the 
land free for that season for a later 
crop of Crucifers ; fung'used, at- 
cacked by a Fungus (Ciozier). 

Fu'nicle. Funic'aluH {funis, a rope), 
(1) the cord or thread which some- 
times connects the ovule or seed to 
the placenta ; (2) in Nidularia, a 
cord of hyphao attachini^ the peri- 
diolum to the inner surfai e of the 
wall of th peridium ; (3) used by 
W. Griffith for the si!spen>-or of 
Gneticm ; fu'niform {forma, shape), 
rope like ; funil'lfonn, applied to 
organs tough, cylindrical, and flex- 
ible, as the roots of arborescent 

Fun'nel, in Marsiliaceae, a space below 
the thick outer coats of the ma^TO- 
spore into which the apical papilla 
projects (Goebei ) ; ~ Cells, short and 
hroad cells, shaped as a funnel ; 
fun'nel-form, fun'nel-shaped, hypo- 

fur'cate, /wrca'/Ks (Lat.), forked, with 
terminal lobes which are like prongs; 
tnr'cella.te, Jurcel' latuSjdiminntively 

furfura'ceous, -eiis {furfur, bran), 
scurfy, having soft scales. 

fur'rowed, sulcate, striate oi^ a large 




fur'ry, pubescent (Lowe). 

fur'vus (Lat., swarthy), black and 

Fusa'rioae, or Fusario'sis, disease in- 
duced by an attack of the Fungus 
Fusarium (Mortensen). 

fusca'tas (L&t. ),fuscel'lus, fusces'cent, 
-ens, fuscid'ulus, somewhat dusky ; 
fu8'cou8,/«^s'cw5 (Lat., dark), dusky, 
too brown for a grey ; the word is 
akin to furmis. 

fvi'iiioTm, fusiform' is {fiisiis, a spindle; 
forma, shape), thick, but tapering 
towards each end; fusi'nus +, a 
synonym of the last. 

Fu sion {fusio, a melting), the complete 
union of vessels, as in the latici- 
ferous vessels ; Cell, a double cell in 
uredineous Fungi, formed by con- 
jugation of a pair of fertile hyphal 
cells, their nuclei not fusing (Grove) ; 
~ Nu'cleus, in Uredineae imme- 
diately after division of the nuclei, 
each of the Fusion-nuclei gathers 
found it protoplasm to form a resting 
spore (Hartog) ; '^ Sor'us, sori ruu 
together; Trip'le '-, Macdougal's 
teiTO for DouiiLE Fertii-ization. 

fu'soid ifusus, ft s[>indle ; ("1505, like), 
somewhat fusiform. 

Galac'tin {yd\a, milk), (1) a principle 
in the juice of Galactodendron ; (2) 
a substance in leguminous seeds 
like Gum Arabic ; galacti'tes, white 
as milk; Galac'tose, a sugar pro- 
duced from Galactin. 

Garbanum (Lat. ), a gum of uncertain 
origin; gal'banus (Lat.), a colour 
resembling the same, greenish- 

GaVbulus (Lat.), the fruit of the 
cypress, a modified cone, the apex 
of each carpellary scale being en- 
larged and somewhat fleshy. 

Garea (Lat., a helmet), a petal shaped 
like a helmet, placed next to the 
axis, as in Aconitum ; gal'eate, 
galea'tns, hollow and vaulted, as in 
many labiate corollas; galeiform'is 
[forma, shape) = galeate. 

galeric'ulate (galericidum, a cap), 
covered, as with a hat. 


Gall, Gal'la (Lat., an oak-apple), a 
monstrous growth caused by an 
insect puncture ; ~ Flow'ers, atro- 
phied female flowers of the fig, 
within whose ovaries the eggs of an 
insect undergo evolution ; Gallic 
Ac'id, an astringent occurring abun- 
dantly in oak-galls ; Gal'lotannin, a 
glucoside occurring in oak-bark. 

galoch'rous (70X0, milk ; xP'^^t skin), 
milk white. 

Galto'nian Curve, see Newtonian 


Galvanotax'is (after Galvani, the dis- 
coverer of galvanic electricity ; ri-lis, 
order), arrangement induced by gal- 

• vanic curi ents ; neg'ative ~ , shown 
by infusoria, Flagellata and Bac- 
teria, collecting round the kathode ; 
pos'itive ^, the same, collecting 
round the anode ; galvano'tropic 
(rpoir)?, a turn), curvature shown 
when subjected to a galvanic cur- 
rent, usually towards the positive 
electrode (anode); Galvanot'ropiatn, 
the condition just described; neg'a- 
tive ~, when the curvature is 
towards the negative electrode 

Gam'bo^e, a yellow resinous gum from 
several species of Guttiferae; Fun'gus 
~, a somewhat similar product 
found in some Fungi. 

Gam'etange, Gametang'iam (yo/neVTjs, 
a s[)0use ; ayy^^tov, a vessel), differ- 
entiated cavities in the filaments 
of certain Algae which produce 
Gametes; adj. gametan'gial ; -^ 
Copula'tion, fusion of polynuclear 
gametangia with reciprocal kary- 
ogamy, cell-division ceasing on 
formation of gamet«s (Hartmann) ; 
Gam'ete, a unisexual protoplasmic 
body, incapable of giving rise to 
another individual until after con- 
jugation with another gamete, and 
the joint production of a Zygote; 
Game'tocyst {kv<ttis, a bag), the 
envelope enclosing one or more 
gametes (Vuillemiu) ; Gameto- 
gen'esis {yevyaw, I bring forth), the 
production of gametes ; gameto- 
gen'ic, gametog'enous, {y4vos, race, 



oflfspring), giving rise to gametes, 
sexual cells ; Gametog'eny, the pro- 
duction of gametes ; Gametogon'inm 
{y6vos, offspring), the mother-cell 
of a brood of gametes ; Gam'etoid 
(cISos, resemblance), an apocytial 
structure which unites like a gamete, 
producing a zygotoid as the result ; 
Gam'eto-nu'cleus, the nucleus of a 
gamete ; Gam'etophore {<pope(a, I 
bear), the portion of an algal 
filament which produces gametes 
according to function, further dis- 
criminated as Androgametophore 
and Gynogametophore ; Gam'eto- 
phyll {<pv\\ov, a leaf), a more or 
less specialized leaf which bears the 
sexual organs ; Gam'etophyte {(pvrdv, 
a plant), the generation which 
beais the sexual organs, producing 
gametes, in turn giving rise to 
the Sporophvte ; Gam'etoplasm 
{irXdfffjLa, moulded), the protoplasm 
of gametes ; Gametozo'ogpore ( + 
Zoospore), Pascher's name for the 
biciliate zoospores of Ulothrix ; 
gametrop'ic {rpotri}, a turning), 
movements of organs before or after 
fertilization (Hansgirg). 
Gamob'iiun {yd/xos, marriage; $105, life), 
H. Gibson's term for the sexual 
generation of organisms which show 
alternation of generations (Parker) ; 
a gauietophyte ; Gamocen'tres, pi. 
{KevTpoy, a sharp point, = cevtrum), 
centres of grouped chromatin 
granules during synapsis, afterwards 
becoming the reduced number of 
bivalent chromosomes (.^trasburger) ; 
gamodes^mic {yd/ios, marriage, union ; 
Seafihs, a bond), used of a stele 
which has its component vascular 
elements, fused together ; Gamo- 
des'my, the stelar condition in ques- 
tion ; Gamoe'cia {oIkos, a house), 
used by Lind^ierg for the inflores- 
cence of Bryophytes ; gamogas^'trous 
{yaariip, the belly), applied to a 
pistil fornied by the more or less 
complete union of ovaries, the styles 
and stigmas remaining free ; Gamo- 
gen'esis {yevecris, beginning), sexual 
reproduction ; gamogen'ic {ytvos, 

offspring), developed as the result 
of a sexual process ; gam'oid, sexual, 
opposed to vegetative reproduction ; 
Gamomer'ius X {fj-^phs, a part), a 
flower whose parts are united by 
their edges (Lindley) ; Gamomer'is- 
tele ( + Meristele), the lateral 
fusion of individual bundle sheaths 
(Jeffrey) ; gamomeriste'iic adj. = 
gamodesmic; Gam'omites, pi. (iUtVos, 
a thread or web), the conjugated fila- 
ments in karyokinesis (Strasburger) ; 
Gamopet'alae (TreVaAov, a flower- 
leaf), plants having the petals united ; 
adj. gamopet'alous, -lies ; gamo- 
phyl'lous, -lus {(pvWov, a leaf), with 
leaves united by their edges ; Gam'o- 
phyte {(pvrhv, a plant), proposed by 
0. MacMillan for "sexual plants;" 
gamosep'alous, -his (-j- Sepalum), 
the sepals united into a whole ; 
Gam'osomes, pi. {<rd>/xa, a body), 
Strasburger's term for the aggrej^a- 
tion of chromatin granules formed 
from portions of the thread during 
synapsis ; Gam'osperms {airipixa, a 
seed), plants having seeds without 
parthenogenetic embryos (C. Mac- 
Millan) ; Gam'icae, Radlkofer's term 
for Algae ; Gamospor'ae [cTropa, seed), 
Cohn's term for those Algae which 
produce zoogonidia or zygospores, 
as the Conjugatae, Volvocineae, 
and Fucoideae cf. Carposporeae ; 
Gam'ostele, (o-t-^Atj, a post), a poly- 
stele, in which the vascular bundles 
are not distinct throughout their 
entire length, but fused together at 
some portion ; adj. gamoste'lic ; 
Gamoste'ly, the state described ; 
gamotrop'ic, {rpov^, a turn), the 
position of flowers when expanded 
(Hansgirg), cf. carpotropic ; Gamo- 
t'ropism, (rpoir)?, a turning), C. Mac- 
Millan's term for the movement of 
mutual attraction in similar con- 
jugating gametes. 
Ganglia, pi. of Gang'iion {ya.yy\iov, 
a little tumour), (1) used for various 
enlargements of mycelium, some 
being rudimentary fructifications 
•(Crozier) ; (2) the origin of the 
vascular bundles in Dicotyledons ; 




ganglion'eous, used by Lindley for 
hairs whi<li bear branchlets on their 

Gan'grene, Gangre'na {ydyypaiva, an 
eating ulcer), a disease ending in 
putrid decay. 

Gap, see Leaf-gap. 

Garide' (disylL), Chodat's term for 
bush land composed of deciduous 
shrubs occurring in the Jura and 
the Rhone Valley. 

jGarigue' (disyll. ), the French term for 
vegetation belonging to forest soil, 
but wanting trees ; widespread in 
the Mediterranean region. 

Gas, pi. Gas'es, in plants, a continu- 
ous system from the stomata and 
lenticels by the intercellar spaces ; 
Gas-vac'uoles, special floating organs 
in certain Cyanophyceae, as Aiia- 
haina ( Kerner) ; Gasoplank'ton ( + 
Plankton), organisms which float 
by means of air vacuoles (Forel). 

Gastercli'chenes (yacT^p, the belly + 
(Lichen), defined as Gasteromycetes 
in symbiosis with Algae ; Gastero- 
myce'tes {fj-vxris, fungus), a division 
of Fungi which includes Lycopcrdon, 
Puff"-balls ; Gasterothalam'eae {ddxa- 
fjLos, a bed-chamber), referring to 
those Lichens whose sporangia are 
always closed or which burst through 
the cortical layer of the thallus ; 
gas'tric Bacte'ria, those which are 
found in the digestive tract of ani- 
mals ; Gastronas'ty [vacrrhs, pressed) 
= Hyponasty. 

Gattine' (Fr. ), a disease in silkworms 
caused by parasitic Fungi. 

Gaurtherase, an enzyme producing oil 
of Wintergreen and glucose from 
Gaul'therin, a principle occurring in 

Geitonemb'ryosperm {ytlruv, a neigh- 
bour ; i(xl^pvQv, foetus ; cirepfia, a 
seed), a plant with parthenogenetic 
embryo, fertilized by pollen from a 
diff"erent 'flower on the same stock ; 
Geitcnen'dosperm (Ij/Sov, within), a 
plant with parthenogenetic endo- 
sperm, fertilized by pollen from a 
neighbouring flower on the same 
stock ; Geitonocar'py {Kapvhs, fruit), 

the production of fruit as the out- 
come of Geitonggamy ; Geitonog'- 
amy {ydfios, marriage), fertilization 
between neighbouring flowers on the 
same plant ; Geit'onosperm, a plant 
whose embryos arise by geitonogamy, 
and are not parthenogenetic, three 
terms due to C. MacMillan. 

Geratin {gela'tus, congealed), in plants 
confined to albumen-like bodies, 
which are tough, viscid, and scarcely ' 
soluble in water ; Gelat'ina hy- 
mene'a, a gelatinous substance sur-* 
rounding the asci and paraphyses 
in some Lichens (Leighton) ; Gela- 
tiniza'tioil, used when a membrane 
breaks down into a jelly-like msiss ; 
gelat'inose, gelatino'sns (gelatio, 
freezing), having the consistence or 
Appearance of jelly ; gelat'inous, 
jelly-like ; '-' Felt ; ~ Tis'sue, tissue 
which is slimy from the cell mem- 
brane being soft and mucilaginous ; 
Gel'atoid {elSos, like), suggested for 
protein-like substances resembling 
ge'atin (Escombe) ; Geliflca'tion, be- 
coming gelatinous ; Gelin'eae, cells 
in Algae which secrete vegetable 
jelly ; Gel'ose, vegetable jelly from 

Gem, a leaf-bud, cf. Gemma. 

Gem'inate, gemitia'tus (Lat. doubled), 
in pairs, binate. 

Gem'ini (Lat), (1) twins, paired; (2) 
the union of two chromosomes ; 
Synap'tic ~ , the pairing of somatic 
chromosomes in prophase of the 
first or heterotypic meiotio division ; 
geminiflor'uB (/os, florid, a flower), 
bearing two flowers, or- two flowers 

Gem'ma (Lat.), (1) a young bud, either 
of flower or leaf, as used by Ray ; 
(2) an asexual ])ro(luct of some 
Cryptogams, as in the Hepaticae, 
analogous to leaf-buds ; «' Brood = 
Brood-gemma; --' Ciip= Cyathus ; 
gemma'ceous (-f aceous), relating 
to leaf-buds ; Gem'maecorm ( + 
Gorm), J. Smith's term for a bud- 
corm, applied to herbaceous plants 
with a root- crown which increases 
by side-buds; Gemma'tioa, Qem- 




ma'iio, (1) budding, vernation ; ('2) 
disposition or phy Ho taxis of buds ; 
(3) budding', as in the multiplica- 
tion of yeast (Huxley) ; nu'clear ■^ , 
in Syiichptriujn when the karyosome 
of the parent nucleus gives off a 
small karyosome whioh passes 
through the nuclear membrane and 
becomes an independent nucleus, 
repeated until a definite gi'oup of 
nuclei is formed (Griggs) ; Gem- 
mid'iom = Tetraspoke ; genimi- 
ferous {/(^ro, I bear), bearing buds ; 
gem'miform {^fornia, shape), bud- 
shaped ; gemmip'aroas {pario, I 
bear), producing buds ; Gem'mule, 
Gon'iaula, (1) buds of Mosses, and 
reproductive bodies of Algae ; (2) 
a=PLUMUi-E; (3) = Ovule (End- 
licher) ; (4) certain primary forma- 
tive granules in the protoplasm 

Gene (monosylL), [yivos, race, off- 
spring), Joliaunsen's term for unit- 
factors; allelomorphs. 

Geneagen'esis (7ej/eo, stock, race ; 
yhiffis, beginning) = Pariheno- 


GenepiBt'asis {ytvos, offspring ; ivi 
araais, a halt), graduated evolution,- 
by the persistence of certain indi- 
viduals at a definite lower ^rade, 
the reiiiainder advancing farther in 
modification (Eimcr). 

Gen'era, \>\. of Gen is. 

gen'eral, yenera'iis (Lat. , jtertaining 
to all), opposed to jjurtial, as -^ 

Gen'erating {gencratio, a begetting), 
producing; ~ Spi'ral = Genktic 
Spiral; ~ Tis'sue = Meristem ; 
gen'erative Apog'amy (-f Apo- 
gamy). the asexual origin of a sporo- 
phyte from the vegetative tissues of 
the gametophyto, when the nucleus 
of the mother-cell of the sporo- 
])hyte has only haploid chromosomes 
(Winkler); ~ Cell, (1) a gamete or 
sexual roproiluctivc cell ; (2) the cell 
in a pollen grain which develops 
into male gametes ; '~ Nu'cleug, the 
nucleus in a pollen-grain which is 
actively concerned in fertilization, 


see Nucleus ; '~ Earthenogen'esis 
(-f Parthenogenesis), the asexual 
origin of a sporophyte Irom a germ- 
cell, when the nucleus of the latter 
has haploid chromosomes only 
(Winkler) ; Gensra'tions, alterna- 
tion of, see Altkrnation. 

gener'ic, gener'icus {genus, birth, race), 
the differences which make the genus 
as opposed to those which make the 
order, or species. 

Genesiorogy {ytveais, origin ; \6yoi, 
discourse), the doctrine of the trans- 
mission of qualities from the parent, 
both in vegetative and sexual repro- 
duction (Archer) ; genet'ic, genea- 
logical, that which comes by in- 
heritance ; ~ Spi'ral, a si)iral line 
which passes through the point of 
insertion of all equivalent lateral 
members of ^n axis, in order of 

Genetic'ian, an expert in Genet ics 
[yiuinqs, an ancestor), the modern 
science of breeding on Meiidelian 
lines ; heredity and i£s developments 

genic'ulate, geniculatus (Lat., with 
bent knees), abruptly bent so as to 
resemble the knee-joint ; Genic'ulum, 

(1) a node of a stem (Lindley) ; 

(2) the junction of the articuli of 
Coralline Algae, which is destitute 
of crustation. 

Genita'lia, Gen'itals {genitalis, per- 
taining to birth), in plants, the 
stamens and pistils, or their ana- 

Gennylang^ium {yewdu}, I beget ; uAt; 
= Materia ; &yyeiou, a vessel), 
h'adlkofer's term for Anther ; 
Gennylei'on (^i'a, =food) = Anther- 
ilium ; Gennylozo'id iC^^ov, an 
animal ; el5os, resemblance) = Si'ER- 


Genodiff'erent {ytvos, race, offspring; 
differo, I differ from), a hybrid word 
used by Johannsen for the gametes 
forming a monohybrid ; Genohoro- 
type (oAos, whole ; tuttos, a type), 
the one species on which a genus is 
founded (Sehuchert and Buckman) ; 
Genolect'otype (Ackt^s, chosen), the 




one species subsequently selected out 
of a series as typical of a genus, there 
being no Genoholotype (Schuchert 
and Buckman); Gen'oplast (TrAoarbs, 
moulded), H. L. Clark's emenda- 
tion of Johaunsen's Genotype, the 
fundamental hereditary combination 
of the genes of an organism ; adj. 
genoplast'ic ; Genosyn'type {<tvv, 
with ; TVTTos, a type), one of a series 
of species upon which a genus is 
founded, no one species being the 
actual type (Shucht'rt and Buck- 
man); Gen'otype, (1) the type of a 
•genus, the species upon which the 
genus was established ; (2) Johann- 
sen has employed it for a combina- 
tion of the genes of an organism ; 
= Biotype, Genoplast ; ~ Con- 
cep'tion = Heredity ; adj. geno- 
typ'ic, genotyp'ical ; Genoty'pist, a 
student of Biotypes. 

Gens (Lat., a nation), a tribe in 

gentia'neous, resembling or akin to 
the genus Gentiana ; Gent'ianose, a 
sugar from Gentiana lit'ca, occurring 
with saccharose ; Gen'tianine, the 
bitter ]irinciple of Gentiana. 

Genuflec'tion {genu, the knee ; jiecto, 
I bend), a bend in a conjugating 
filament of an Alga ; gen'ufiezed 
{Jlexus, bent), bent, as the valves 
of certain Diatoms. 

Gen'us (Lat., a race), tlie smallest 
natural group containing distinct 
species; large genera are frequently 
for the sake of convenience divided 
into sections, but the generic n ime 
is applied to all species ; '-' Hy'brid, 
or gener'ic Hy'brid, a hybrid between 
two genera, a bigener or bigeneric 

Geoaesthe'sia (77), the earth ; ataOria-is, 
perception by sense), the capacity of 
a plant to respond to the stimulus 
of gravity • Geob'ion {Bios, life), 
plant €Lssoci itions of the land, as dis- 
tinct from water (Forel) ; Ge'cblast, 
Geohlas'tun (BKaarhs, a bud), an 
embryo whose cotyledons remain 
under ground in germination, as the 

geocarycal, resembling the Hepatic 
genus Geocalyx, Nees ; marsupial. 

Geocar'py (7^, the earth ; Kapirhs, fruit), 
the subterraneous ripening of fraits, 
which have developed from a flower 
above ground; geocen'tric {Kivrpov, 
a sharp point), used by Wiesner in 
opposition to geotropic ; ageotropic ; 
Geocrypt'ophyte (-f Cryptophyte) 
= GEOPHYTii; Gecdiat'ropism (5»o, 
through ; rpoir^, a turning) the func- 
tion by which an organ places itself 
at right angles to the force of gravity ; 
Geogen'esis {y^v^ais, beginning) or 
Geog'eny, derived from the ground, 
as gravitational movement ; adj. 
geogen*ic ; geographic {ypa<p^, writ- 
ing), descriptive of the earth or a 
portion thereof ; -^ Bot'any, that 
aepartment which takes account of 
the -^ Oistribu'tion of plants over the 
earth's surface ; Geobeterause'cism 
{Jirtpos, other ; at/^Tjo-js, growth), 
variation in the relative growth of 
opposite sides of an organ due to 
gravity, (Pfeffer) ; geologic (\6yos, 
discourse) Bot'any = Palaeobotany or 
Fossil Botany ; geomor'phic it^opdi], 
shai)e), taking its shape from the 
earth (= gravity V; Geonas'ty (yao-rbj, 
pressed), curved towards the ground 
(Pfeffer) ; geonyctinast'ic = geonyo- 
titrop'ic (vuf pvicrhs, ni^ht ; rpoir^, 
a turning), sleep-movements requir- 
ing also the stimulus of gravity ; 
Geoparallot'ropism {irapdWTjKos, par- 
allel ; Tpovki, a turning) when an 
organ places itself parallel to the 
suiface of the earth ; adj. geoparal- 
lelotrop'ic ; Geopercep'tion = Geo- 
AESTHESIA ; Gcoph ilae {<pi\f(a, I 
love), soil -loving species ; geoph'il- 
ouB, -us, (1) earth-loving, used of 
such plants as fruit unaerground ; 
(2) land-loving, terrestrial ; ~ Fun'- 
gi, those which grow saprophy tic- 
ally on decaying vegetable matter 
on the ground ; Geoph'ily is the con- 
dition ; Geophy'ta {<pvrdv, a plant), 
Ge'cpbytes, plants which produce 
underground buds, with perennial 
development there ; Hat- -^ peren- 
nial spot-bound plants ; Bbi'zome -^ 




or Trav'elling ~ plantc having hori- 
zontal hypogeous scaly shoots, giving 
rise to leaves and flowers (Warm- 
ing) ; adj. geophyt'ic ; Geophyti'a, 
land plant formations (Clements) ; 
eeoplagiofropismi X + PLACiioxROP- 
ism), havmg the rtirection of growth 
oblique to the ground ; Geostroph'- 
iem (-f Stkophism) the tendency 
to twist in response to gravity ; 
geotac''tic, relating to Geotaxis ; 
it may be poa'itive or neg'ative ; 
Oeotax'is {rd^is, order), movement 
or arrangement in plants caused by 
gravity (Czapek) ; Geotax'y = pre- 
ceding ; Geothermom'eter {Oepfihs, 
warm ; fierpov, a measure), a ther- 
mometer for earth temperatures ; 
Ge'otome (to^)?, an edge), an instru- 
ment for obtaining samples of soil ; 
Oeot'onus {t6vos, stress), the tendency 
to bring back to a normal condition 
any or^an which has been forced 
from it (Czapek) ; Geotort'ism 
{tortics, twisted), torsion caused by 
the influence of gravitation (Schwen- 
dener and Krabbe) ; Geot'rophy 
(rpo^))?, food), unilateral inec^uality 
in growth due to position with 
regard to gravity (Wiesner) ; geo- 
trop'ic (TpoTTTj, a turning), relating 
to the influence of gravity on grow- 
ing organs; Geot'ropism, the force 
of gravity as shown by curvature in 
nascent organs of plants ; la'teral 
'^, curving horizontally, as in twin- 
ing stems (Macdougal) ; neg'ative 
'^ growing away from the earth, 
as stems do normally ; pos'itive -^ , 
growing towards the earth's centre, 
as roots ; trans'verse ~, = Diageo- 
TROPISM ; Geox'yl {^v\op, wood), ap- 
plied by Lindman to any woody 
plant with numerous stems arising 
from a subterranean rhizome. 

gerauia'ceoas, resembling or allied to 

Oerm (germen, a bud), (1) a bud or 
growing point ; (2) the ovary or 
youn^ fruit ; (3) a reproductive cell, 
especially in bacteria ; '- Cell, (1) a 
female reproductive cell ; (2) a spore 
of the simplest character, a sporidium 

(Brefeld) ; — disc, — fil'ament, '-' 
plants, stages in the life of Hepaticae. 
(Goebel) ; ~ Nu'cleus, the nucleus 
resulting from the union of the 
pronuclei of two gametes in con- 
jugation ; -^ -plasm, the assumed 
original generative substance con- 
tained in the body of the parent 
from which new individuals arise ; 
cf. Soma - plasm (Weismann) ; •^ 
Pore, a pit on the surface of a spore- 
envelope through which a germ-tube 
makes its ap( earance ; -^ Tube, a 
tubular process from a spore develop- 
ing into a hypha. and then into a 
myi^elium or promycelium. 

Germanic, H. C. Watson's term for a 
type of distribution in Great Britain 
of those plants Avhose headquarters 
are in the eastern portions of the 

Ger'men (Lat., a bud), (1) Xinnaeus's 
term for the ovary ; (2) formerly 
used for the capsule of Mosses ; (3) 
by Pliny and later writers it signi- 
fied a bud generally ; Ger'micide 
{-cida, a killer), an agent which 
causes the death of bacteria or 
spores ; cf. Sporocidr ; Germicul'- 
ture (-j- Culture), the practice of 
bacteriology ; ger'mintible (-+- able), 
capable of germinating ; viable ; 
ger'minal, relating to a bud ; <- 
Appara'tus, = Egg-apparatus ; '- 
Cor'pascle = Oospheke ; -' Dot, 
of Diatoms, the centrosome ; ~ Lid, 
a separable area of a pollen-grain, 
breaking away to permit a pollen- 
tube to issue ; ^ Pro'cess J a part 
belonging to or proceeding from an 
ovary (Lindley) ; --' Slit, a small 
break in the seed-coat of Scitamincae; 
'-' Ve'sicle = Oosphere ; Germina'- 
tion, Germina'tio, the first act of 
growth in a Seed ; sprouting ; 
germ'inative Nu'cleus = Nucleus, 

gerontogae'ous, -arus {yepwv, yepovros, 
an old man ; yrj, the earth), used of 
plants which are confined to the 
Old World. 

gib'ber (Lat , hump-backed), giVbose, 
gib'bous, gibbero'sus, more convex 




in one place than another, a pouch- 
like enlarg' ment of the base of an 
organ, as of a calyx ; Gibboa'ity, 
Gibbos'itns, a swelling at the base 
of an organ ; gibbo'sus (Lat.) = 


gigan'tic, gigan'teus (Lat. , pertaining 
to giants), of unusual height ; Gigan- 
tism, unusual size ; opposed to 

Oil'iare, ( + -are) a community of Gilia, 

Gills, the plates or lamellae of an 
Agaric which bear the spores. 

gil'vns (Lat.), pale yellow, a term 
of confused application, sometimes 
reddish or even greyish. 

Ginger-beer "plant," an association 
of organisms which ferment a sweet- 
ened liquid into Ginger-Beer. 

gin'glymoid {yiyy^vfihs, a hinge ; eUos, 
resemblance), like a hinge (Heinig). 

ginkgoa'ceous, resembling the Maiden- 
hair tree, Oingko hiloha ; gink- 
goalean, Wieland's term for the 

Gir'der sclerencli'yma, strengthening 
tissue in section recalling a T or H 
girder ; -^ shaped, an organ so 

Gir'dle, (1) the hoop or cingulum of 
Diatoms, that portion of the frus- 
tule which unites the valves ; (2) 
also applied to a ring-like branch 
of the leaf-trace of Cycas ; — band, 
the hoop, girdle or cingulum of a 
Diatom-frustule ; ~ Canals', narrow 
intercellular air spaces round the 
palisade cells parallel to the leaf 
surface (Warming) ; -^ Strnc'ture 
vascular bundles surrounded by 
radially elongated photosynthetic 
cells (Haberlandt) ; ~ -view, the 
front or back view of a Diatom, 
in distinction to a lateral view ; 
Gird'ling, in cultivation, ringing. 

githagin'eus (Lindley) ; githagino'sus 
(Hayne), defined as greenish red, 
meaning red or purple streaks on 
a green ground, as the calyx of 

gla'ber (Lat., without hair), ria'brate, 
glahra'tus, destitute of puoescence ; 

by Bentham extended to mean also 
destitute of any roughness ; gla- 
bres'cent, glabrea'cens, becoming 
glabrous, or slightly so ; Gla'brism, 
the smoothness of normally hairy 
parts ; glabriua'culus (Lat. j, some- 
what glabrous ; gla'brons, smooth, 
without pubescence. 

gla'cial {glacies, ice), employed by 
C. MacMillan for " distinctively 
northern plants." 

gl&'dia.te,gladia''us {gladiuf^, a sword), 
(1) tiat, straight, or slightly curved, 
with acute ap x and approximately 
parallel edges, ensiforni . (2)aiicipital. 

Gland {glans, glatidis, an acorn) ; (1) 
an acorn, or acorn-like fruit ; {y) a 
definite secreting structure on the 
surface, embedded, or ending a hair ; 
any protuberance of the like nature 
which may not secrete, as the warty 
swellings at the base of the leaf in 
the cherry and peach ; (3) in Orchids, 
see Glandula ; '- of the Torus, 
see Lepal (Crozier) ; allu'ring or 
attract'ive -*', in Nepenthes aecretrng 
nectar to attract insects ; chalk -^ , 
those which exude salt solutions and 
give a whitish deposit on drying, as- 
in some species of Siixifrctge ; dermal 
z** , external secreting cells or groups 
of such ; diges'tiye '-, in the pitcher 
of Nepenthes giving forth a peptic 
ferment ; epider'mal '^ , those on 
the external surface ; ezter'nal '-' , 
glands not immersed in the tissues ; 
intra-mn'ral '~, tubular curved or 
sinuate secreting elements in PsoraUa 
(Haberlandt) : mar'ginal ~ , glands 
found inside the upper part of the 
pitchers of carnivoious plants ; salt 
^ , which excrete solutions jof hygro- 
scopic salts, -are dry in day time and 
deli(|[uesce at night; glandiferons 
{fero. I bear), bearing or producing 
glands ; gland'iform {forma, shape), 
shaped like a gland ; Gland'ula, 
Gland'ale, a viscid gland in Orchids 
and Asclepiads, which holds the 
pollen-masses in their place; the 
retinaculum; glandula'oeous, -ceus 
(+ ACEOTJs), the colour of a ripe 
acorn ; raw sienna yellow ; glan'du- 




lar, possessing glands ; -^ Disk, ^ 
Glandula; ^ Hair, an epidermal 
appendage, the end of which is 
usually enlarged, and contains a 
special secretion ; ~ Wood'y Tis'sae, 
coniferous pitted tissue ; Glandulu'- 
tion, -tio, the arrangement of the 
glands on a plant ; glandulif' erous, 
-rus, gland-bearing ; glan'dulose, 
'glaiidulu'sm, gland'aloas, glandular; 
glan'duloso-serra'tua, having serra- 
tions tipped or bordered with glands ; 
Glaus (Lat.), a fruit one-seeded by 
abortion, or a few-seeded dry inferior 
indehiscent pericarp seated within 
a cupular involucre, as th^ fruit of 
the oak, nut, etc. 

gla'real {glarea, gi-avel), term em- 
ployed by H. C. Watson for those 
plants which grow oil dry exposed 
ground, chiefly gravel or sand ; 
gla'reose, glareo'sus, frequenting 

Glass'wort Associa'tion, formed of 
various species of tialicornia (Tans- 


Glass'y Fir, an appearance found on 
sawing tir wood, due to wood-cells 
being filled with water and then 

glauces'cent, glauces' ce)is {yKavK^s, 
bluish grey), becoming sea-green ; 
glauci'nus (Lat. ), bluish sea-green; 
Glaucogonid'ium ( + Goniuium), the 
bluish green gonidium of Lichens 
(Bornet) ; glau'cous, -cics (1), sea- 
green ; (2) covered with a bloom as 
a plum or cabbage- leaf. 

Gle'ba ^Lat., a clod), the chambered 
spoiogenous tissue within a sporo- 
phore of Phalloideae; Glebe=GLEBA; 
Gle'bula, (1) a synonym of Gleba ; 
(2) the sporangia of certain Fungi, 
as Nidularia ''i) a rounded eleva- 
tion on the thallus of Lichens ; 
gle'bulose, possessing a gleba, or 
resembling it. 

gleiche'nioid, resembling or allied to 
the ferrt genus GleLckenia. 

gleocap'soid {dZos, resemblance), like 
the genus Gleocapsa. 

Gli'adin {yhia, glue), vegetable glue or 
gelatin forming part of gluten ; 

Gli'an, the alcohol-soluble parr- of 

Gli'ding-growth = Sliding Uhowtii. 

glit'tering, lustre from a polished siu'- 
face which is not uniform. 

glo'bate {globus, a sphere), globular ; 
Globes^ Grew's term for pollen- 
grains ; Glo'bi spermat'ici, spores 
of some Fungi (Lindley) ; Glo'boids 
(eI5os, like), rounded masses of 
mineral matter in proteid grains ; 
glo'bose, globo'sus, nearly spherical ; 
glob'ular, globiila'ris, spheroidal 
in shape ; Glob'ule, the spheri- 
cal antheridium in Characeae ; 
Glob'ulet used by Gr^^w for (1) a 
glandular hair, (2) a pollen-grain ; 
Glob'ulin, (1) "round transparent 
granules in cellular tissue, consti- 
tuting fecula " (Henslow) ; (2) tlie 
chief ingredient in alearone or 
protein granules, occurring amor- 
phous or as crystalloids ; (3) in 
Lichens = Chlorophyll (Olivier) ; 
glob'ulose, glubulo'sus, a diminutive 
of GLOBOSE ; Glob'ulus (Lat., a little 
globe), (1) used by M"ecker for the 
fruit of Hepaticae ; (2) the deciduous 
shield in some Lichens ; soredia. 

Glo'chid, Glochid'ium {yKcDX^s, an an- 
gular end or barb), (1) a barbed 
hair or bristle ; (2) a similar struc- 
ture on the massulae of certain 
Cryptogams which act as organs 
of attachment to a macrospore ; 
glochid'eous, zCus, glochid'iate, glo- 
chidia'lns, pubescent with barbed 
bristles ; Glo'ohis, a barb. 

Gloeoli'chenes {y\oihs, sticky), For- 
sell's name for homoeomerous 
Lichens, as Collemacei, Ascolichenes 
with gonidia belonging to the Chro- 
ococcaceae Gloe'ophyte {<pvThy, a 
plant), Gobi's name for Thali-0- 
I'HYTE ; Gloe'ospores, -ae (y\oia, 
glue ; -f- Spora), plants having vis- 
cid seeds (Clements) ; Gloiocar'pus 
(/copirdy, fruit), a tetraspore (Lind- 

Glome [glomus, a ball), a rounded 
head of flowers ; glom'erate, glom- 
era'lics, agglomerate, collected into 
heads; Glom'erule, Glomcnc'liis, (1) 




a cluster of capitula in a common 
involucre, as Echinops ; (2) a Sore- 
DiUM ; glomeruliferous [fero, I 
bear), bearing clusters of coral-like 
excrescences ; glomer'ulose, having 
glomerules ; Glom'us + = Olome- 

Glossol'ogy {y\u><T<Ta, a toftgue ; \6yos, 
discourse), the explanation of tech- 
nical terms ; Glos'sopode, Glosso- 
pod'iam {irovs, vobhs, a foot), the 
sheathing base of the leaves in 
Isoetes ; adj. glossopod'ial. 

Glu'case {y\vKvs, sweet), an enzyme 
which hydrolyses maltose ; Glu'cose, 
(1) a group of carbohydrates, crystal- 
lizable and soluble in water, occur- 
ring in fruits, as grape-sugar, etc., 
see Dextrose, Levijlose ; (2) also a 
commercial term for syrups made 
fron) starch or grain ; Glu'coside 
(eJSos, like), for complex substances 
which give rise on decomposition to 
Glucose, such as Amygdalin, Coni- 
ferin, Salicin ; ~ En'zyme, a ferment 
such as Synaptase or Emulsin. 

Glue, viscid secretion on surface of 
some plants; Bud ~' = Blastocolla. 

gluma'ceoas {gluma, husk of corn ; -}- 
ACEOUs), resembling the glumes of 
glasses, as the perianth -segments 
of June us ; Glume, Glu'ma, the 
fchaffy tw^o-ranked members of the 
inflorescence of grasses and similar 
tolants ; bar'ren ~ , em'pty ~ , glumes 
which subtend a spikelet, and do 
not include a flower ; fer'tile -^ , flo'ral 
'*' , flow'ering ^ , the glume in grasses 
which includes a flower, the palea ; 
finiit'ing ~, the fertile glume at the 
time of maturity ; sterile '^, a 
glume which subtends other glumes 
or has no flower ; glu'mal, charac- 
terized by having a glume ; Glum- 
el'la, Glu'melle, (1) the palea of 
grasses ; (2) the lodicule of the same 
(Richard) ; glumellea'nus X of or be- 
longing to a glumella ; Glumel'lule, 
Glumellu'la, (1) = palea ; (2) = lodi- 
cule ; glumose', glumo'sas = gluma- 
CEous ; glu'moas, having glumes, as 
a flower which has a subtending 

Glu'tamin {gluten, glue), an amide 
allied to asparagin found with it in 
the juice of beets, etc, ; Gla'ten, a 
tough protein substance occurring in 
grain after the removal of the starch ; 
'~ Cells, of the endoderm contain 
oil, but no starch ; Glu'tenin, a 
constituent of wheat gluten ; Gluten- 
casein or Zymom ; Glatin'iam, "the 
flesh of certain Fungals " (Lindley) ; 
glu'tinons, glutino'sus, covered with 
a sticky exudation. 

Gly'case [yKvKvs, sweet), axx enzyme, 
the same as Glucase. 

Glycerie'tum, an association of Gly- 

Glyosrrrhi'ziiit or Gly'cion, a saccharine 
matter from the roots of Glycyrr- 
hiza glabra, Linn. , liquorice. 

Glycodru'pose {yXvKvs, sweet ; -f 
Drupose), a lignocellulose, forming 
the hard concretions in the flesh of 
pears ; Gly'cogen {yewata, I bring 
"forth), a carbohydrate present in 
quantity in epiplasm, capable of 
being converted into glucose ; '^ 
Mass, protoplasm permeated with 
glycogen, epiplasm ; Glycolig'nose 
{lignuM, wood), a presumed gluco- 
side, from pinewood. 

glyco'sic, resembling the action of thes 
enzyme Glucose. 

glyphorecine {y\v<pw, I hollow out ; 
\4kos, dish), with wavy longitudinal 
canals or grooves (Heinig). 

Gnaars, burrs or knotty excrescences 
on tree -trunks or roots, probably 
from clusters of adventitious buds. 

gnawed, = erosus. 

Gnesiog'amy (yvf)<Tios, legitimate ; 
ydfios, marriage), fertilization be- 
tween different individuals of the 
same species. 

gneta'lean, allied to Gyietum. 

gnomon'ical, gnomoii'icus {yvufiav, the 
pin of a dial), applied to an ap- 
pendage when abruptly bent at an 
angle to its attachment. 

gob'let-shaped = cup-shaped. 

Gonang'ium {y6vos, offspring ; ayyelop, 
a vessel), a spherical colony of 
Pahnclla, etc. , overgrown with thick- 
walled brown Lichen-hyphae ; Gooes, 




pi., suggested by Lotsy to cover 
asexual spores and gametes ; goneo- 
clin'io {K\lvri, a bed), applied to a 
hybrid which approximates to one 
parent, and not intermediate. 

gongroei'roid, resembling the genus 
Gongrosira, Kuetz. ; applied to the 
resting-stage of Faitcheria. 

gongylo'des (70770X01, round), knob- 
like ; Gong'ylas (1) for round corpus- 
cles on certain Algae, which become 
detached, and germinate as separate 
individuals ; (2) globular bodies in 
the thallus of Lichens ; (3) = Spore, 
Sporidium, Speirema. 

Gonian'g^um {ySvos, offspring), term 
projjosed by A. Braun to include cys- 
tocarps and the scyphi of Hepati- 
cae ; goniaatoe'cioas, goniantoi'cous 
{avros, self ; oIkos, a house), the male 
inflorescence of a Moss, bud-like and 
axillary on a female branch ; Gon'id, 
proposed abbreviation of Gonidium ; 
Gonidan'ginm {e'lSos, like ; ayyc'toy, 
a vessel), in a gametophyte, the 
organ which produces a sexual spore 
or gonidium ; Gonide'ma (Seiv, to 
bind), Minks's term for the entire 
gonidial layer in Lichens ; gonid'- 
ial, pertaining to gonidia, as --' 
Lay'er, (1) an aggregation of simple 
gonidiophores to form a cushion-like 
layer or crust ; (2) the algal layer 
in the Lichen-thallus ; gonid'ic, 
possessing gonidia (Lindsay) ; 
Gonidim'inm, a small algal cell 
occurring in the hymenium of 
some Pyrenocarpei : gonid'ioid (elSoj, 
resemblance), gonidium-like ; Gonid'- 
iophore [<pop4uy I carry), a sporo- 
phore which bears a gonidium ; 
Gonid'iophyll {<pv\\ov,Si\ea.f),C. Mac- 
Millan's term for the sporophyll of 
Alaria; Gonidlam, (1) in Li- hens, 
an algal cell of the thallus ; (2) the 
same as Brood-Cell, a propagative 
cell, asexually produced and separ- 
ating from the parent. 

Gonim'ia, pi. of Gonim'ium {ySvi/xos, 
productive), the gonidia in Lichens ; 
gonim'ic, relating to gonidia, as --' 
Lay'er, the algal layer in tlie Lichen- 
thallus ; Gon'imoblast [BKaaros, a 

shoot), filaments which 

are often 
clustered, arising from the ferti- 
lized carpogouiuni of certain Algae ; 
Gon'imolobes. pi. {\ol36s, a lobe), 
the terminal tufts of gonimoblasts ; 
Gon'imon, Wallroth's term for the 
gonidial layer ; gon'imous, relating 
to gonidia. 

Gon'iocyst {jSpos, oflspring ; Kvans, 
a bag), a sporangium (A, Braun) ; 
Gonocys'tia = Gonocysi s ; Gonio- 
cyt'ium [k\jto$, a hollow) = Goni- 
DANGiUiM ; Gon'osphere {acpaipa, a 
sphere), a zoogonidium of Chytri- 
diaceae (Nowakowski) ; Gon'ocysts 
(KV(rris, a bag), used by Minks for 
metamorphosed gonidia extruded on 
the superficial crust, having a pecu- 
liar appearance ; Gon'o-hyphe'ma 
{v<pa, woven), applied by Minks to 
the hyphal layer of Lichens ; Gon'o- 
meres {/xepos, a part), the theoretic 
separate existence of paternal and 
maternal nuclear parts (Haecker) : 
Gon'ophore, Gonoph'urum {<pop4o}, I 
carry), an elongation of the axis, 
a receptacle bearing stamens and 
carpels, as in Capparis ; Gou^oplasm 
{x\(iafia, (moulded), in Perono- 
sporeae, that portion of the proto- 
plasm of the antheridium which 
passes through the fertilization tube 
and coalesces with the oosphere ; 
Gonotax'is (to^js, order), the move 
ment of antherozoids towards tht 
female organ (C. MacMillan) ; adj. 
gonotac'tic ; Gonothall'lum {dawhs, 
a twig), the gonidial layer of Lichens 
(Minks); Gon'otokonts, pi. {KovroSf 
a pole), Lotsy 's term for the mother- 
cells which inaugurate reduction 
phenomena ; Gonotroph'ium {Tpo<p^, 
food) = SoREDiUM ; Gonot'ropism 
{rpov^, a turning), C. MacMillan's 
term for the motion of antherozoids 
and pollen-tubes towards the female 
organ ; the same author also suggests 
the restriction of this term to pollen- 
tube gi-owth ; adj. gonotrop'ic ; 
Gon'osphere, Gonosphae'rium {<T(pai- 
pa, a sphere), = Oosphere ; Gono- 
^sphaerid'ium, = Gonidium (0 

Gorge, the throat of a fiower. 




Gos'ling, an old term for catkin, is 
resembling a soft- feathered young 

gos'sypine, qossypi'nus, cottony, floc- 
cuknt, like the hairs on the seeds of 

Gourd, a fleshy, one-celled, many- 
seeded fruit, with parietal placentas, 
as a melon. 

grac'ilis (Lat.), slender ; Crozier has 
the needless word "gracile." 

Graft, a union of diff"erent individuals 
by ai)position, the rooted plant 
being termed the stock, the portion 
inserted the scion ; ~ Hy'brid, effect 
produced by one or the other of 
tiie united individuals on its grafted 
fellow ; Graft'age, L. H. Bailey's 
term for multiplication by gi-afting 
or the state of being thus increased. 

Grain, a general term for cereals, those 
grasses cultivated for food ; the 
caryopsis or the fruit of the same ; 
grained, having grain-like tubercles 
or processes, as in the flowers of 
Rumcx (Crozier). 

gramina'ceous, gramin'eal [gramen, 
grass), s3'nonyms of gramin'eous, 
-eus. g^a'minous, ( 1 ) relating to grass 
or grain-bearing plants ; (2) grass- 
coloured ; g^amiuic^olous {colo, I 
inhabit), growing on grasses, as some 
Fungi ; graminifo'lious, {folium, a 
leaf), liaving grass-like leaves ; 
Graminorogy {\6yos, discourse) = 
Agrostology (Crozier). 

gram'micus (Lat.), [ypafifiiKhs, lined), 
lettered, marked as though in- 
scribed ; grammopodlus + (iroCy, 
iroBhs, a foot or stem), having a 
striped stalk. 

Gra'na, pi. of Gra'num (Lat.), a seed, 
(1) any small bodies ; (2) the 
coloured drops in chloroplasts 
(Strasburger) ; --' tetras'ticha, 
" the spores of certain Fungals " 

granati'nus (Lat.), pale scarlet, the 
colour of the flower of Funica 
Granatum, Linn , the pomegranate. 

grandifo'liate {grandis, large ; fulhcvi, 
leaf), applied to plants in which the 
stem is subordinate, the internodes 

M 16 

are short, and the leaves the domin- 
ant organs, e. g. Palms, Water-lilies 

Grand'mother Ax'is, the primary axis 
of a series of three (Pottt-r) ; ~ Cell, 
the primary cell of a third genera- 

Granif'erns {granifer, grain-bearing), 
a synonym of Monocotyledon (J. S. 

gra'nifonn {granum, a gi'ain ; forma, 
shape), having the shape of grains 
of corn. 

granit'icus (Mod. Lat.), applied to 
plants growing on granite rocks, as 
certain Lichens. 

Gran'ula, Gran'ule, Gran'ulum, pi. 
Gran'ula {granum, a grain), (1) any 
small particles, as pollen, chloro- 
plasts, etc. ; (2) the Naviculae ot 
^chizovema (fide Lindley) ; (3) spo- 
rangia in Fungi (Lindley) ; (4) by 
Frommann used for the nucleolua- 
like structure in the nucleus of the 
terminal cells of the glandular hairs 
of Pelargovium zonale, Ait. ; (5) a 
minute particle, the assemblage of 
such being held to constitute proto- 
plasm (Oltmanns) ; Gran'ula gon'- 
ima, the gonidia in Lichens ; gran'- 
ular, granula'ris, (1) composed of 
grains ; (2) divided into little knots 
or tubercles, aa- the roots of Saxi- 
fi aga granulala, Linn. ; gran'ulate, 
graniila'tiis, means the same thing ; 
granalif'erouB(/'ero, I bear), granule 
bearing ; gran'ulose, granulo'sus, 
composed of grains ; Gran'alose, 
used as a substantive by Naegeli 
for true starch. 

Grape-sugar, a sugar found abundantly 
in the grape, dextrose. 

Grascila'tio (Mod. Lat.), used by 
Desvaux for Etiolation. 

Grass-green, clear lively green ; iu 
Latin, })rasinns, gramineus. 

Grass-heath, Tussock -formation ; pe- 
culiar to the southern hemisphere ; 
~ Moor, intermediate between IScirptis 
moors and silicious grass-land, mainly 
of grass, rushes, and sedges ; Grass- 
land, dominance of grasses, as above 
the forest belt in alpine regions. 




Grav'eolence {graveolentia, a rank 
smell), a smell ad strong, as to be 
unpleasant ; grav'eolent, grav' eolens, 
strongly scented, of intense and 
heavy odour. 

Gravipercep'tion {gravis, heavy ; per- 
ceptio, receiving), suggested instead 
ofGEOAE^THESiA (F. Darwin). 

Oravita'tion [gravitus, weight), tl;e 
act of tending towards a centre, as 
of the earth ; in botany sometimes 
confused with Geotropism and 

greasy, oily to the touch. 

greaved (monosyll.) = ochre ate. 

Green-rot, a disease in wood, the tissues 
becoming verdigris green, ascribed 
to Peziza aeruiinosa, Pers. 

Greffe (Fr.) graft ; -^ des Charlatans, 
a fraudulent apparent graft, the 
scion being passed through a hole 
bored in the stock. 

gregar'ions {gregaritcs, belonging to a 
flock), growing in company, asso- 
ciated but not matted ; soritary 
-^j a single clump of one species 

Greg'iform (grex, gregis, a flock ; -f- 
Form), a variable or polymorphic 
FiNiFoRM (Kuntze). 

grey, gris'e%is (Lat. ), cold neutral tint, 
varied in tone ; ~ Blight, a fungus, 
Pestalozzia Gue2nni, wliich attacks 
the tea-plant. 

griserins (Lat.), gria'eolus, diminutive 
of foregoing, somewhat greyish. 

Grit-cell, a sclerotic cell, as in the 
flesh of j)ears. 

gromon'ical, an error of Lindley's for 

gross'e- (Late Lat.), coarsely. 

Grossifica'tion {gross^is, thick ; fdcio, I 
make), the swelling of the ovary 
after impregnation ; gros'sus (Lat. ), 

(1) coarse, larger than usual, used 
adverbially as gTOs'se-crena'tus, --' 
serra'tuB, coarsely creuate or serrate ; 

(2) Grcs'sus, an unripe fig (Heinig). 
grosBula'oeous, gros'sular, relating to 

the gooseberry, liibcs Gr.ossularia, 
Linn. ; GroB'suline, a principle 
found in certain acid fruits. 
Ground Form (Ger. Grund-Form), ele- 

mentary form, as distinguished from 
Growth Form ; Ground Mass, used 
of the woody tissues ; -^ Stra'tum, 
from the surface of the soil to about 
5 centimetres (two inches); ~ -tissue, 
applied to the pith, cortex, and 
medullary rays ; ~ Vegeta'tion, the 
plants which cover the soil under 
trees, etc. ; -^ Wa'ter, that collected 
above the impermeable stratum of 
soil, and moving in obedience to 

Grow'ing-point, the extremity of the 
stem, or cone of growth, the seat of 
the activity of the apical cell, and 
its divisions. 

Growth, increase by new cell-forma- 
tion or extension of old cells ; -^ 
-en'zyme, a ferment which conduces 
to growth, by breaking down tissue 
in advance ; -^ Form, a vegetative 
structure marked by some charac- 
teristic feature which does not 
indicate genetic affinity ; a tree, 
shrub, sprout-fungus, are growth- 
forms ; '^ Bing, the annual rings of 
growth in exogens ; ~ Wa'ter, the 
percentage of soil moisture in excess 
of that present when wilting occurs 

Grub'bing, in forestry, the uprooting 
of trees. 

graina''lis [grics, a crane), shaped like 
the bill of a crane, as the fruit of 

a hillock), divided into little clusters 
of grains. 

Grand-Form (Ger.), the original form, 
sometimes hypothetic, from which 
other foinis have been derived by 
mor})hologic variation. 

g^aiaci'nus, Hayne's term for greenish- 
brown ; from " Gum guaiacum." 

Chiara'iiine« a bitter principle from 
Guarana bread, or Brazilian cocoa, 
isomeric with cafl'eine. 

Guard-cells, Guard'ian-cells, in stom- 
ata, two cells which open or close 
the stonia by their greater or less 

Guilds, Schim})er's term for Sapro- 
phytes, Epiphytes, Lianes, etc., 




each member group having a close 
connection with tlie others. 

gular {yula, the throat), pertaining 
to the throat (Crozier). 

Gum [gurnvii, gum), a viscid' secretion 
frequently extruded from stems, 
and hardening iu the air ; ~ Ar'abic, 
derived from species of Acacia in 
tropical countries, dissolving easily 
in water ; -^ Canals', thin-walled 
sacs in the pich of Lyginodendron, 
now regarded as secretory sacs ; -^ 
Cells, Ger. Kleberzellen, see Oil- 
cells ; '-' Lac, excretion by an insect, 
Carteria Lacca, from various trees ; 
— Pas'sage, an intercellular passage 
containing gum ; -^ Ees'in, exuda- 
tion partaking of the nature of gum 
and resin ; gummif' erous {f'^ro, I 
bear), producing gum ; Gum'ming, 
a disease, known also as Gummo'sis, 
producing gum in excess. 

Gut'ta-per'cha {gutta, a drop), a kind 
of chaout(!houc, said to be derived 
from THchopsis Gutta, Benth. and 
Hook.f. ; gut'tate (^'/</a'^(<^, spotted), 
as to colour ; Gutta'tion tlie exuda- 
tion of drops of fluid ; Gut'tifer 
{feru, I bear), a plant which pro- 
duces gum or resin (Crozier) ; adj. 
guttif erous ; gut'tulate, resembling 
drops of oil or resin ; Gut'tule, used 
foi- drops of oil or vacuoles contained 
in the i ajntate paraphyses of Fungi ; 
Lat. Gut'tulae. 

gyalec'tiform {forma, shape), urceo- 
late. like the apothecia of the genus 
GynUcta, now merged in Lecidea ; 
gyalec'tine, and gyalec'toid (eI5oy, 
like\ are synonyms. 

gymnan'thous, -us {yviJ-vhs, naked ; 
6.vQos, a flower), naked flowered ; 
Gymnax'ony {^^(^v, an axle), Mor- 
ren's terra for the placenta protruding 
through the ovary ; gymnoblas'tus 
{^Kadrhs, a bud), having the ovary 
su|ierior ; gymnocar'pic, gvmno- 
( arpous ; gymnocar'picus, gymno- 
car'pous, -us [Kairphs, fruit), (1) 
naked-fruited ; M'here the perianth 
does not adhere to the outer integu- 
ment ; (2) where the fruit is without 
[•ubescence (J. S. Heuslow) ; (3) 

when the hymenium is exposed 
during; the maturation of the spores ; 
GymnocMor'ites (-f Chlorite), 
chlorophyllous plastids contained in 
cyaiiocysts, usually soon becoming 
detached from the protoplasmic 
layer of their formation (Arbau- 
mont) ; Gymnocid'iuxn % {tyKiBiov, 
tubercle), Xecker's term for the 
swelling sometimes formed at the 
base of the capsule in Mosses, the 
apophysis ; Gymnocy'cads naked- 
flowered Cycads (K. W. Oiiver). 

Gymnodin'ium Stage, appliedrto mobile 
flagellate bodies of certain Peridinia- 
ceae, resembling the genus named. 

Gymnog'amae (yvfivhs, naked ; ydfios, 
marriage), (1) Ardissone's term for 
Heterosporous and Lsosporous Cryp- 
togams ; Gym'nogams, Gymnog'amae, 
(2) Camel's terms for all plants pos- 
sessing naked motile male cells ; 
Gymnog'amy (yaiios, marriage), when 
cytoplas'mic '^, the female gamete 
is impregnated by the cytoplasm of 
of the male gamete ; when nu'clear 
-", the female gamete is impregnated 
by the nucleus of the male gamete 
(Dange^rd) ; Gym'nogen {yewdco, 
1 bring forth), = Gymnosperm ; 
gymnog'ynous + (yvp^, a woman), 
havii.g a naked ovary ; Gym'noplast 
{irKaarhs, mou ded), a monoplast 
devoid of covering membrane 
(Pirotta) ; Gymnoplast'id. plastids 
similar to Gymn.'CHLOKITES found 
in the pith of certain shrubs 
(Arbaumont) ; gymnop'odal {-iroiis, 
iroUs, a foot), applied to peculiar 
branches of Vhara, partially or 
wholly destitute of cortex on the 
lowest whorl ; Gymnosper'mae 
{(Tirepfia, seed^, Gymnosper'mia, (1) 
the Linneau order Didynamia, plants 
having four nutlets, taken for naked 
fruits, as Labiat- s ; (2) the modern 
order of naked -ovuled plants, as 
Conifers ; gymnosper'matous relat- 
ing to conifers and their allies, recent 
and fossil ; Gymnosper'mism, the 
real or supposed condition of plants 
with naked seeds ; gymnosper'mous, 
the ovules developed without the 




usual tegumentary pericarp, as in 
Coniferae; opposed to angiosper- 
nious; Gymnosper'my, the state of 
bearing really or apparently naked 
fruit; Gym'nospore, a naked spore, 
one not produced in a sporangium ; 
gymnos'tonious {(rrdfia, a mouth), 
applied to the peristome of Mosses 
when destitute of teeth ; G3nnno- 
sym'plast (+ Symplast), a Plas- 
modium, a mass of naked protoplasm 
(Pirotta) ; gymnotetrasper'mus X 
{rfTpks, four; ffiriptia^ seed), Ijaving 
a four-lobed ovary, as in Labiates, 
once considered to be naked-seeded ; 
gymnotre'moid (rp^/to, a hole ; elSos, 
like), a bare open spot or space 

(}ynoeciTim (7w»^» a woman ^ olitoi, a 
house)^ the pistil or pistils of a 
flower ; the female portion as a 

gynan'der {yw^i, a woman ; ok)jp, 
AvSpbs, a man) = gynandrous ; 
Gynan'dria, a Linnean class, with 
gynandrous flowers; adj. gynan'- 
drian; Gynan'drophore {<t>op€a}, I 
carry), a column bearing stamens 
and pistils; Gynan'drospore (-f 
Androspore\ a term applied by 
Radlkofer to the majority of Fern 
spores ; gynandrosp'orouB {ffvopa, 
seed), used of dioecious forms of 
Oedogoniae in which the female 
plant produces androspores; gy- 
nan'droTis, when the stamens are 
adnate to the pistil, as in Orchids, 
etc.; gynan'therous, -j^C+Anther), 
used of stamens converted into 

• pistils ; Gyne'cium = tj¥KOKCTUH ; 
Gynix'us, Gyni'zus {l^hs, birdlime), 
the stigma in Orchids; Gyn'obase, 
Oynoh'dsiH {$d(ns, a pedestal), an 
enlargement of the torus on which 
the gynaeceum rests; gynobas'ic, 
appliea to a style which adheres by 
its base to a prolongation upwai-ds 
of the torus between carpels ; Gyno- 
eid^iam, an error for Gymnccidium ; 
Gjmodimorph'ism (-f- Dimorphism), 
the Occurrence of small female flowers 
on a gynodioecious plant ; gynodioe'- 
oions, dioecious, with some flowers 

hermaphrodite, others pistillate only, 
on separate plants ; Gynodioe'cism 
(4- DiOECisM), the occurrence of 
female and hermaphrodite flowers 
on a plant separated from its fellows ; 
g^ynody'namus {Svvafxis, power), 
applied to an organism where the 
female element is preponderant; 
Gynoe'cism, the presence of female 
flowers without any m^ile flowers 
whatever; Gynoe'cium = Gynae- 
ceum ; Gynogametan'ginm {yafierris, 
a spouse ; i77erov, a vessel), an organ 
in which female sexual cells are 
formed ; an archegonium ; Gyno- 
gam'etes, egg-cells (McNab) ; Gyno» 
gam'etophore {<pop4w, I carry), the 
female ganietophore ; gynomonoe'- 
cious, monoecious, with female and 
hermaphrodite flowers on the same 
plant ; Gsoiomonoe'cism is the con- 
dition; Gyn'ophore, OynophorHum 
{<pop(a), I carry), the stipe of a pistil ; 
adj. g^3mophora'tuB $ g3rnophoria'nu8 
X ; Gynophyriy {(bvWov, a leaf), 
viresceuce or phyllomorphy of the 
ovary; Gyn'ophyte (^vrhv, a plant), 
the female plant in the sexual 
generation ; Gyn'ospore {airoph, a 
seed), formerly suggested for macro- 
spore, that is, a Megaspore ; 
Gynospof an'gium (0776401', a vessel), 
a sporangium producing the same; 
Gynosteg'ium {ffreyos, a roof), the 
staminal crown in Asdepias ; 
Gynoste^minm (o-t^/xcov, a stamen), 
the column of an Orchid, the an<lroe- 
ciiim and gynaeceum combined; 
Gynoteg'ium [riyos, a roof), the 
sheath or covering of a gynaeceum 
of any kind. 

gyp'seus (Lat,, plastered with lime), 
chalk-white, cretaceous. 

gypsoph'ilous {yvy\ios, chalk ; <l>i\4w, I 
love), dwelling on limestone ; Gyp- 
sophy'ta (<pvThv, a plant), chalk 
or limestone plants ; Gypso- 
phyti'a, limestone plant formations 
(Clements) ; Gyp'sum-crystals occur 
in the epidermis of certain species 
of Capparis, also — spheres. 

gy'rate, gyra'tus (Lat.), curved into a 
circle, or circular ; circinate. 




Gy'rolith {yvpos, round ; \i0os, stone), 
the presumed fossil fruits of Chara ; 
Gyro'ma, (1) the annulus of Ferns ; 
(2) the button-like shield of Gyro- 
phora ; gy'rose, gyro' -us, curved 
backward and forward in turn ; 
Gy'rus (Lat., a circle) = Gykoma. 

Hab'it, HaVihLs (Lat., appearance), 
the general appearance of a plant, 
whether erect, prostrate, climbing, 
etc. ; habltally, used in the United 
States for resembling ; having the 
habit of another plant. 

Hab'itat, Ilabita'tio (Lat., dwelling), 

(1) the kind of locality in which a 
plant grows, as woods, moors, etc. ; 

(2) the geographic distribution or 
limits, now termed Locality, or 
more precisely Station ; '-- Form, 
the impress given to the plant by 
the habitat (Clements) ; '^ Group, 
applied to those plants M'hich have 
common habitats, though not re- 
lated, as Halophytes, Hydro- 
phytes, and the like ; '-' Ra'ces, 
used by Magnus for those heter- 
oecious Uredines, which are adapted 
to respective species of host 

hadrocen'tric (-|- Hadrome ; centrum, 
the middle), Bun'dle, having the 
hadrome in the centre surrounded 
by the leptome (Haberlandt) ; Had'- 
romal, also termed Had'romase, an 
enzyme found in Merulius lacry- 
mans, Schum. , and other Fungi, 
which attacks the hadrome and 
destroys its lignified cell -walls 

Had''rome, a shortened form of Hadro- 
mes'tome {aZphs, thick, ripe, strong ; 
fiecTTos, filled), the xylem or woody 
portion of a vascular bundle ; con- 
sisting of the H YD ROME and part of 
the Amylome ; together with the 
Lkptome it forms the Mestome. 

Hae'matein {al/xa, ai/xaros, blood), the 
colouring matter of Logwood ; hae- 
mati'nus, haem'atites, haematit'ic, 
hatmatit'icuH, haematochro'os (xp^s> 
a tinge), blood-red; Haematochro'me 
(xp&'Ma, colour), Cohn's term for the 

pigment of ITaematococcut pluvialis, 
etc. ; Haematox'ylin (^v\ov, wood), 
the colouring matter of Logwood, 
Haematoxylon caTnpechianum, Linn. ; 
Haemorrha'gia {f>ayia, from ^-f^yv/jLai, 
to break forth), a disease in plants 
when the sap is constantly exuding 
through an external wound. 

Hair, an outgrowth of the epidermis, 
a single elongated cell, or row of 
cells ; '^ Cyst'oliths, pi. , structures 
resembling cystoliths occurring in 
trichomes ; — point'ed, ending in a 
fine, weak point ; -^ -shaped, fili- 
form, very slender, as the ultimate 
divisions of the inflorescence of many 
grasses ; Hair-breadth = Capillus ; 
Hair'iness, hirsute, more rigidly 
hairy than pubescent ; hair'y, pubes- 
cence when the hairs are separately 

harberd-, or hal'bert-shaped, hastate ; 
-^ -headed, means the same. 

Half, (1) a moiety ; one part of that 
which is divided into two equal 
portions ; (2) sometimes it means 
one-sided, dimidiate ; '-- - anat'ropous, 
amphitropous ; '-- Breed, the pro- 
duct of a cross- fertilization ; '^ 
-cor'date, heart-shaped on one side, 
'-' -cylin'dric, applied to a stem 
flattened on one side ; — equ'itant, 
partially equitant ; '-' -hu'mus 
Plants, semi-saprophytes ; -^ -in- 
fe'rior, used of an ovary when the 
stamens are perigynous; -^ -mono- 
pet'alous, the jietals united, but so 
slightly as to separate easily ; ~ 
-moon-shaped, semilunate, crescent- 
like ; ~ -net'ted, when of several 
layers, only the outer is netted, as 
the corm of GlaiHuhcs commnnis, 
Linn. ; — -race^ a form intermediate 
between a species and a variety of it, 
I)roducing but few seedlings of the 
racial character, the majority revert- 
ing to the specific type ; ~ Sibling 
(-f Sibling), a ]iair of plants from 
the ovaries of the same parent, or 
pollen of the same parent (K. Pear- 
son) ; '- -stem-clasp'ing. partly am- 
plexicaul ; --' -supe'rior, the same as 
half- inferior ; -^ -terete', flat on one 




side, terete on the other : — Half- 
Galtonian-curve, see Newtonian 

Halm, see Haulm. 

Halobi'ou {6.\s, a\ds, salt, the sea ; 
^ios, life), associations of marine 
plants (Forel) ; halolimnet'ic (+ 
LiMNKTic), belonging to the sea or 
salt lakes ( Forel). 

haronate, halona^tus {aKas, the disc 
of the sun, halo), when a coloured 
circle surrounds a spot. 

Halodrymi'um (a\s, aKos, salt, the 
sea ; Spvfxhs, a coppice), a mangrove 
formation (Diets) ; hal'o-ne'reid 
{Nripeis, a sea-nymph), pertaining to 

halo'nial, used of the fertile branches 
or tubercles of the fossil Lepido- 
pMoius, formerly considered as 
belonging to Halonia, Lindley ef 
Hutt., non Fries. 

haloph'ilous (aAy, a\hs, salt, the sea ; 
(pi\ew, I love), salt-loving ; Haro- 
phobe {<pofiea>, I fear), a plant which 
shuns salt ; adj halopli'obous ; Ha- 
lophy'ta {<i>vThv, a plant), salt plants; 
Harophyte {(pvrou, a plant), a plant 
which grows within the influence 
of salt water ; adj. halophyt'ic ; 
Halophyti'a, plant associations of 
salt marshes ; Halophy'tism, the con- 
dition in question ; Haloplank'ton 
(+ Plankton), the floating vegeta- 
tion of salt-water, nerit'ic ~ , con- 
fined to the coast ; oceanic '^ , or 
pelag'ic '^ , that of the open sea. 

Hal'ospore, an error for Haplospore. 

halved, dimidiate ; Halves, cf. Segment 

Hama'da, stony desert tracts in Al- 

ha'mate, hama'tus (Lat. hooked), 
hooked at the tip ; ha'mose, ha'- 
mous, hamo'sus, hooked ; ham'ulate, 
hxniula'tus; ham'ulose, hamulo'sus, 
beset with small hooks ; Ha'mulus, 
a hooked bristle in the flowers of 
Uncinia ; Ka'mus, a hook. 

Ham'mock vegetation, a Florida term 
for Climax Vegetation. 

Han'dle, the manubrium of the anthe- 
ridium of Characeae. 

hapaxan'thic, hapaxan'thous (a7ra|, 
once ; 6.veos, a flower), used of herbs 
having a single flowering period. 

Haplan'the {aTrx6os, single ; &vdi], a 
blossom), Huxley's term for the hy- 
pothetic anemophilous type of the 
flowers of Gentianaceae ; cf. Journ. 
Linn. Soc, Bot. xxiv. (1887), 112, 
122 ; Haplobacte'ria (+ Bacteria), 
iimple bacceria, colonies and cells 
in aggregation, the product of divi- 
sion as in Sarcina; Haplobi'ont (/Si'os, 
life ; ovra, things existing), a plant 
which fruits once only ; monocarpic ; 
haplocaules'cent, uniaxial ; haplo- 
cau'lous {kuvKos, 8l stem), having a 
simple unbranched stem ; haplo- 
chlamyd'eous (x^oMi's, a mantle), 
monochlamydeous, having a single 
perianth ; Hap'locyte {kvtos, a hol- 
low vessel), a cell containing nuclei 
with the reduced number of chro- 
mosomes (Benson) ; adj. haplocyt'ic ; 
Haplogen'esis (yiveais, beginning), 
the origin of new forms by evolution 
and development of new characters ; 
haplogen'eus {y€vvdcc, I bring forth), 
= heteron EMEUS ; Haplogonid'ium 
(-f Gonidium), a lichen gonidiuni 
occurring singly and resembliDg Pro- 
tococcus ; Haplogonim'ia (+ Go- 
nimia), gonimia occurring singly ; 
Hap'lf^id (IjSos, resemblance), the 
organism with the single number of 
chromosomes, the hap'loid, or x Gene- 
ration ; the gametophyte (Stras- 
burger); haplolepid'eous, the prefer- 
able form of APLOLEPiDEous; Hap- 
lomer'istele ( + M e histele) , a simple 
stele consisting of an axial series of 
tracheae surrounded by a ring of 
phloem ; adj. haplomeriste'lic (Breb- 
ler) ; Haplomito'sis (-f Mitosls), 
nuclear division in which the spirera 
does not give rise to the chromosomes^ 
but to chrumospires (Dangeard) ;' 
^aploperist'omous (+ Peristome), 
used of Mosses with a peristome of a 
single row of teeth ; haplopet'alous, 
-lus (ireraAov, a flower leaf), with 
one row of petals ; Hap'lophase 
{(paivw, I appear), Yuillcmin's term 
for Haploid ; Hap'lospore {(nroph. 




seed), (1) a sitaple spore in Lichens ; 
(2) an asexual spore (Benson) ; haplo- 
ste'monous (o-r^/iajv, a stamen), with 
a single series of stamens in one 
whorl ; Hap'lostele ((tttjXtj, a pillar), 
a simple stele consisting of xylem 
surrounded by phloem (Brebner) ; 
Hap'lotjrpe {tvttos, a type), used of 
a single species in its original place 
of publication ; adj. haplotyp'io ; 
haploxyric {^v\ov, wood), having a 
single vascular bundle in the leaf, 
e. g. Fimis excelsa, Wall. 

Hap'teron, pi. Hap'tera,(fiirTa>, I fasten 
.upon), Warming's term for organs 
of attachment which do not contain 
vascular tissue, as in Podostomaceae ; 
Hap'tere, C. MacMillan's term for 
Hapteron, a holdfast ; hapter'ic, 
of the nature of a holdfast ; Hapto- 
morph'ism, stimulus by contact ; 
Haptotax'is, Haptot'ropism {rpS-nos, 
direction), the curvature induced in 
climbing plants by the stimulus of 
a rough surface (Czapek). 

hard'y, enduring without protection ; 
not injured by the climate. 

harmon'ic {ap/xovla, consonance), ap- 
plied by Boulger to the development 
of large gi'oups characteristic of 

Harmo'sis {ap/j-oa-is, an adapting), re- 
sponse to stimulus, both of adjust- 
ment and adaptation (Clements). 

harpid'ioid, (1) resembling or allied 
to the Harpidium section of Hyp- 

. num ; (2) similarly the Lichen genus 

has'tate, hasta'tus {Jiasta, a spear\ 
halbert-shaped, sagittate, with the 
basal lobes turned outward ; lias'ti- 
form {forma, shape), spear-sh9,ped, 
hastate ; has'tile, hasti'lis (Lat., 
like the shaft of a spear), used for 

hatch'et- shaped, dolabrifonn. 

Haulm, Halm, Haum, (1) the culm of 
grasses ; (2) the stem of herbaceous 

Haustor'ium {fcaustor, a drawer), (1) a 
sucker of parasitic plants ; (2) used 
by Komarow for an appendage of peri- 
tliecia ; (3) a structure arising from 

the secondary nucleus of Lathraea, 
the embryo sac containing two 
haristoria, one equatorial, the other 
micropylar (Chodat) ; Haustor'ia 
(pi.) appendicula'ta, when they arise 
from a protrusion of %he^ hyphae, 
appressors ; '^ exappendicula'ta, 
when they arise direct y from the 
hyphae without much contor4:ion at 
the point of origin; '- lobula'ta, 
lobed appressors. 

Haust'rum (Lat. machine for drawing 
water), the bulbous nursing foot of 
developing plants ; an organ of 
attachment and temporary nutri- 
tion ; adj. hanst'ral. 

Haut'schicht fGer.), the layer of cell 
protoplasm known as Ectoplasm. 

Head, (1) an inflorescence; the capi- 
tulum of Composites ; (2) formerly 
used for the theca of Mosses ; ~ Cell, 
the capitulum of Chara; head'ed, 
capitate. * 

Heart, used by Grew for the centre, 
as heart of oak, the duramen ; '~' 
shaped, cordate ; -^ Eot, a disease 
of ) line-apples of unknowm origin ; 
-^ Wood, the innermost and oldest 
W'ood next to the pith, the duramen ; 
'^ "^ Rot, Polyporus hispidus, the 
cause of this disease on fruit trees ; 
it attacks the wood near the ]»ith 
and spreads towards the sap-wood. 

Heath, an expanse of peaty or sandy 
soil, with a predominance of Cal- 
luna ; r^ Associa'tion, a stable ])rin- 
cipal growth of heather, without 
trees ; Heathland, a delayed or 
abortive stage of Moorland. 

Heath'er-moor, Calluna is dominant, 
often with Vaccinium Myrtillus. 

Heaut'otype (Ioutou, of his own ; 
rviros, a type) applied to a specimen 
of a previously described and named 
species selected by the author, not 
being otherwise recognizable : meant 
to supersede Autotype. 

hebecar'pus (^/3rj, puberty ; Kapvoiy 
fruit), having the fruit covered with 
downy pubescence. 

heb'etate, hebeta'tus (Lat., blunted), 
having a dull or blunt or soft point. 

Hecist'otherm = Hekistotheum. 




hedera'ceous, Jiedcra'ceus {Hedcra, ivy ; 
+ ACEOUS, (1) pertaining to \\j \ 
{%) resembling ivy in habit ; hed'- 
eral, composed of ivy ; hederif er- 
ous [fcro, I bear), ja-odncing ivy; 
Hed'erose, a sugar contained in ivy, 
Bedera Hch'x. 

Hedi'um, or Hedi'on {fSos, a base), a 
succession of plants on residuary 
soils (Clements). 

He'gemon I {riyeiJLUjv, a leader), fibro- 
vascular tissue. 

Hekis'totherm (t^/cjo-tos, the smallest; 
Oep/Jir}, heat), a plant which needs 
Viut little lieat, and can withstand 
long periods of darkness (Warming) ; 
adj. hekistotherm'ic. 

Hel'ad (eAoj, a marsh ; + ad), a marsh - 
plant ; Heleoplank'ton, or Helei' 
oplankton (+ Plankton), the float- 
ing vegeti<tiou of marshes, which 
overpowers the animal plankton ; it 
diflers from Fotamoplankton by 
less motion of the water (Zimmer). 

Helcot'ropism (fAKco, I drag ; tpotttj, a 
turning), compulsory attraction of 
plants ; a correction of Elco- 


heliaca'lis (tiXixkos, belonging to the 
sun), heliacal ; spiral. 

He'liad {r)\ios, the sun), a heliophyte 
or sun-loving plant, adajtted to full 
ex I osure (Clements' ; He'lias, a " sun 
funn " or heliophyte. 

helianth'ine, relating to Hclianilms; 
Helian'thon, Clements's term for a 
family of Hclinnthns. 

Helichry'sin, the yellow colouring 
matter of several s[)ei-ies of Ilcli- 

helic'iform ihrlix, a snail ; forma, 
shai>c), coiled like a snail shell. 

H^ricism (e\i|, fhiKos, twisted), a 
torsion which shows itself usually 
at an advanr-t-d ]>eriod of ]»lant-life, 
as the tendrils and fruit of Sircpto- 
carpug ; Hel'lcocarp {nap-nos, fruit), 
Nicotra's term for a fruit wliose 
constituent carpels are arranged in a 
spiral : helicogy'rate, hclicuyn'raius 
(gi/rafvs. turned iu a circle), having 
a riilg cariied oblicpiely round as the 
annulus in some Ferns ; hel'icoid. 

helicoid' cii.'^ {fldos^ like), coiled into 
a helix, or like a snail-shell ; '- Cells, 
terminal cells, which are usually 
branched, of Pithophora (Wittrock) ; 
~ Cyme, a sjanpodial inflorescence 
Avhose lateral branches are all de- 
veloped on one side, a bostryx, or 
drepanium ; in some text-books this 
is erroneously called "scorpioid"; 
~ Cyst'oliths, twisted cystoliths ; 
~ Dichot'omy, when in two unequal 
branches, the more vigorous one is 
uniformly on the same side ; ~ 
Inflores'cence, when the flowers are 
in a single row ; ~ unip'arous Cyme, 
a bostiyx ; helicoi'dal, spirally 
twisted, in the manner of a snail- 
shell ; Helicomor'phy {uopcpr}, shape), 
term covering the young and adult 
forms of leaf in heteroplastic plants 
he'lio- {TfjKios, the sun), Drude's pre- 
flx to his groups de})ending upon 
the sun in summer for the vege- 
tation period; helioph'ilous, -?(5 
{(piKecti, I love), adapted to full 
exposure to the sun ; helioph'obic 
{(po^^u, I dread), shunning the 
light), negatively heliotropic ; helio- 
ph'obous {(po^eu), I fear), ada})ted to 
a very small amount of light ; He'lio- 
phyll {(pvWov, a leaf), a leaf of a 
Hei.ioi'HYTE ; He'Uophytes, -phy'ta 
{(pvTov, a plant), ))lants adapted t^ 
full sunlight ; Heliophyti'a, forma- 
tions of such plants (Clements) ; 
Helio'sis, injury done by sun -burn ; 
Helioetroph'ism (4- Stuoi', a 
tendency to twist, in response to 
light (Ffeller) ; HeHotax'is {rd^a, 
arrangement), the turning of an 
organism such as a sjiore, in relation 
to light; Heliotor'tism {torhui, 
twisted), torsion caused by incidence 
of light (Schwendener and Krabbe) ; 
heliotrop'ic (rpSiros, direction), turn- 
ing towards the light ; ~ An'gle, 
the angle of incidence at which light 
lias the most stinmlating elfect ; 
Hsliot'ropism, the act of turnihg 
towards the sun or source of light ; 
neg'ative ~, shunning light ; pos'i- 
tive ~, growing in the direction of 




the light ; trans'verse ~, = Dia- 
HELOTROPLsM : Helioturgot'ropism 
{turgor, a swelling ; rpoir^, a turn- 
ing), becoming turgid in response to 
light (Pfeffer) ; helioxeroph'ilous 
(+ XEROPHTLous), the condition of 
plants adapted to strong sunlight 
and dryness (Vesque) ; Helioxero- 
ph'yll [(pvWov, a leaf), the state of 
leaves capable of withstanding 
drought and strong sunshine (Ves- 
que) ; heliozo'oid {C<^ov, an animal ; 
elSos, like), amoeboid, but having 
distinct ray like pseudopodia. 

Heli'uEa (eXos, a marsh), a marsh 

Helkot'ropism (eA/ro), I drag ; rpoiri), a 
turning), attraction on plants as of 
gravitation ; cf Helcotkopinm. 

Hel'met, = Galea ; ~ shaped = 

helminth'oid (cAjuij/y, fKfxivdos, a worm ; 
flSos, resemblance), worm-shaped, 
vermiform (Heinig). 

helminthospor'oid {eUos, resemblance), 
resembling the genus Hdmintho- 
sporiuvi, I'ers. 

helo'bious (e'Aos, a marsh ; ^ios, life), 
living in marshes, paludal.. 

Helo'dad (IAwStj?, marshy ; + ad), a 
marsh plant ; Helo'drad, a j'lant of 
a marsh thicket ; Helodi'um, a 
sw^ampy open woodland formation ; 
Helodri'um {dplos, a thicket), a 
thicket formation : Helohy'drad 
(uAtj, forest), a marsh forest plants. 

Helohy'lium (e'Aos, marsh ; SAt?, forest), 
a swamp forest formation ; helo- 
hyloph'ilus {(pi\€cc, I love), dwelling 
in wet forests ; Helohylophy'ta 
{^vrhv, a plant), wet forest plants 
(Clements) ; Helolochmi'um (aoxmi?, 
a thicket), a meadow thicket form- 
ation ; helolochmoph'ilus (<piA4w, I 
love), dwelling in meadow thickets ; 
Helolochmophy'ta {cpvThu, a plant), 
meadow thicket plants (Clements) ; 
heloph'ilus {<pi\fw, I love), marsh- 
loving; Helophyli'um, a inarsli forest 
formation (Clements) ; Hel'ophytes 
{(pvThv, a plant), marsh plants 
(Clements) ; Heloplank'ton ( -f 
Plankton), the floating vegetation 

of a marsh ; Helorgadi'um (eAos, 
marsh ; opyas, meadow), swamp for- 
mation (Gaong) ; helorgadoph'ilus 
{<pi\4co, I love), dwelling in swampy 
woodlands; He^orgadophy'ta {<pvrov, 
a plant), plants of that formation 

Herotism (d'Aws, a serf). Warming's 
term for the syml)iotic relations of 
Algae and Fungi in Lichens. 

hervolus ( Lat. ), pale ochreous yellow ; 
hel'vus (Lat.), light bay, dun-colour. 

He'matine = Haeaiatin. 

Hemeran'thy {-rj/j-epa, day ; audeco, I 
llowei), day-fiowering ; adj. hemp'- 

He'merophytes (^^uepo?, cultivated ; 
(pvThv, a plant), plants introduced 
by the agency of man ; anthrojjo- 
phytes (Simmons). 

hemi- ivfj-i), in composition means half; 
Hemi-albumose' ( + ALBrMosEs), a 
mixture chiefly of proto- and hetero- 
albumose ; hemiamphicar'poas ( -j- 
AMPHicARPOUs), having two kinds 
of fruit, one of which is both aerial 
and subterranean, e. g. Catananche 
lutea ; hemianat'ropous {ava, up ; 
rpoirr], a turn), half-anatropous, the 
ovule being partially bent back, half 
the raphe free ; hemitropous, am- 
phitropous ; heiniangiocar''pic, he- 
miangiocar'pous (+ axgiocarpic), 
when the ascocarp (apothecium) is 
closed at first, but oi ens on 
approaching ripeness and discloses 
the liymenium of crowded asci ; 
Hemiangiasperm'eae ( + Axgi()Spek- 
mak), hypothetical direct ancestors 
of the Angiosperms (Arber and 
Parkin) ; Hemiaut'ophyte { + A u to- 
phyte), chlorphyll-bearing parasites 
( Boulger); Hem'icarp, Heuikarp'ium. 
Kapvhs, a fruit), a half-carpel, a 
mericarp; Hemiceirulose (-f- Cellu- 
lose), all carbohydrates present in 
the cell-wall which are not coloured 
blue by chlor-zinc-iodide, such as 
jjectinaceous substances, reserve 
cellulose, etc. (Gilson) ; formerly 
termed Pseudo-cellulose ; hemichi- 
moiiopli'ilous(xetMw'', winter; <pi\(w, 
I love), applied by F. Ludwig to 




those plants whose above-ground 
development begins even during* the 
prevalence of frost, as Ranunculus 
Ficaria, Linn. ; hemichlamyd'eous 
(xAo/xi/s, a cloak), half-coated, as 
ovules when borne on an inverted 
sympliyllodiuni in Coniferae (Cela- 
kovsky) ; Hemicleistog'amy '( + 
Cleistogamy), Knuth's term for 
che condition of plants whose flowers 
open slightly; adj. hemicleisto- 
gam'ic ; hemiconcen'tric {concentri- 
cus, Late Lat., having a common 
centre), incompletely concentric 
(Solereder) ; Hemicrypt'ophytes ( + 
Cryptoi'HY'J'es), perennial plants 
having their buds at the level of the 
ground (Raunkifer) ; Hemicy'cle 
(kvk\o5, a circle), a half-circle, or 
half-coil ; hemicy'clic, partly in 
whorls, as the perianth leaves in 
whorls, and the sporophylls in 
spirals ; hemicylin'dric {KvAivSpos, 
a cylinder), (1) hal f- terete ; (2) a 
leafy expansion, plane on one fide, 
convex on the other; Hemidys- 
troph'ia {8vcr-, bad ; rpocpij, nomish- 
raent), partial nourisliment, semi- 
starvation ; hemiendobiot'ic ( -f 
KNDOBioiic), living usually within 
the host, sometimes outside it ; 
hemiendophyt'ic (+ endophytic), 
used of a fungus parasite sometimes 
external and sometimes internal 
(Salmon)'; Hemiendozo'a {Cci}ov, an 
animal), applied to Torxihia, as 
though imperfect plants ; Hemiep'i- 
phyte (eVI, upon ; (pvrhv, a plant), 
employed by Went for a plant which 
at first roots in the soil, afterwards 
developing aerial roots ; Hem^iform 
( -f- Form), used of heteroecious 
Fungi, having uredospores and tele- 
utospores, the latter on ly germinating 
after a resting period ; hemigamot'- 
ropous {ydfios, marriage ; rpoir)?, a 
turning), used of flowers which open 
and shut imperfectly ; hemigona'ris + 
{yovos, offspring), employed when a 
part of both stamens and pistils are 
changed into petals ; hemigymno- 
car'pous (-f oymnocarpous), iised 
of Fungi which mature their spores 

in closed receptacles which open 
for their dispersal ; Hemigy'rus J 
iyvpor, round) = Follici-e ; hemi- 
hel'icoid (+ helicoid) F. N. Wil- 
liams's term for Braun's hemicyclic ; 
hemi'iden'tic, nearly the same ; e. g. 
the red flowers and spots of the leaf- 
axils in certain races of peas arsL, 
hemiidejitic characteis; Hemimetat''- 
ropy {/xerh, with ; Tponi], a turning), 
in crossing when the interchange 
between male and female elements 
from different flowers or plants is 
only half completed (K. Pearson) ; 
adj. hemimeta tropic ; hemiortho- 
morph'ic {opdhs, upright ; fJ.op(p^, 
shape), symmetric organs which 
possess an equality in a vertical 
plane (Wiesner) ; Hemiorthot'ropy 
(rpoTTTj, a turning), any naturally 
placed organ displaying vertical 
symmetry (Wiesner) ; Hemipar'a- 
site (+ Parasite), (1) plants whose 
seeds germinate without a host plant, 
but whose after life is dependent 
upon a host, as Bartsia and Tozzia ; 
(2) a facultative saprophyte, a para- 
site which can exist as a saprophyte ; 
Hemiparthen'osperm (+ Parthen- 
08PRRM),, C. MacMillan's term for 
a plant having either embryo or 
endosperm parthenogenetic, but not 
both ; hemipe'lic (TrrjAbs, clay), rocks 
which yield a moderate amount of 
clay detritus, and the plants which 
aff"ect such localities (Thurmann) ; 
hemipelor'ic (ireAciptos, monstrous), 
partly peloric flowers in Lhuiria, 
the flowers being nearly regular 
(Vernon) ; Hemipentacot'y^. a seed- 
ling with partial division of its 
cotyledons so as to appear as if it 
had five ; Hem'iphyll {<pv\\ov, a 
leaf), the hypothetic segment of a 
carpel ; ov'ular ~ , placen'tal ~ , 
those which become modified into 
special parts of the ovary respec- 
tively, cf. Tkiphyllome ; Hemi- 
plank'ton ( + Plankton), the 
mingled vegetation of shallow and 
deep water forms in land-locked 
pools, etc. (A. F. W. Schimper) ; 
hemipsam'mic (i^c^^juos, sand), strata 




which give a moderately porous 
detritus, with the plants which pre- 
fer such places (Thurmaim) ; Hemi- 
puccin'ia, a group of Puccinia, = 
liEMiFoPwM ; Hemisap'ropliyte ( + 
Saproi'Hvtk), a plant which appro- 
priates humus although capable of 
self-support, a facultative parasite 
(Warming) ; hem'iscliist (trxto'Tos, 
split), in brood-cell formation when 
the nucleus only divides, the cyto- 
plasm remaining whole (Hartog); 
Hemisyncot'yly ( -f Syncotyly), 
when seedlings have their cotyledons 
partially fused with one another or 
3ome other organ (De Vries) ; hemi- 
syngyn'icus {(rvy, with ; yuvr), yvvai- 
Kosy a woman), half-adherent (Lind- 
iey) ; Hemite'ria X {repas, & monstei), 
' ' a monstrosity of elementary organs, 
or of appendages of the axis " (Lind- 
ley) ; Hemitetracotyle'don {rerpas, 
four ; -f Cotyledon), De Vries's 
expression when both cotyledons 
are divided, or one normal and the 
other divided ; hemit'riclious J {dpli, 
rpiKhs, hair), half covered with hairs ; 
Hemitricotyle'don {rpus, three ; + 
Cotylrdon), used by De Vries, when 
one cotyledon is apparently divided 
into three ; Hemitricot'yly, partial 
division of one cotyledon ; complete" 
fission is Tuicotyly (De Vries) ; 
hemit'ropal, hemit'ropous (r^Jiroy, 
direction), (1) amphitropous, the 
axis of the ovule being more curved 
than the anatropous conditian ; 
(2) employed by MacLeod for flowers 
which are lestrictea to certain in- 
sects for lioney-getting ; (3) with 
flowers of moderate adaptiveness to 
insect visitors, the mean between 
ALLOTROPous and EUTiiopous ; (4) 
also applied to insects which visit 
the same, as flies, short-tongued bees, 
and most butterflies (Loew) ; '-' 
Herkog'amy = Hercogamy 

Hemp, the libro-vascular tissue of 
Cannabis saliva, Linn. 

Hen-and-chickens, proliferous flowers, 
the centre flower or head being sur- 
rounded by subsidiary flowers. 

Henslo'vian Mem'brane, the cuticle ; 

so named from Prof. J. S. Henslow's 
researches on the same. 

hepat'ic, hepat'icous, -cus (Lat., dis- 
eased in the liver), liver-coloured, 
dark, imrplish-red ; Hepaticorogist, 
an expert in Hepaticae ; Hepati- 
col'Dgy {K6'yos, discourse), the 
study of the Hepaticae or Liver- 

Hepo'doche (eVw, I follow ; 5ox^, suc- 
cession), a secondary succession 

Heptagyn'ia (iTrra, seven ; yw^, a 
woman), a Jinnean class of plants 
having seven pistils ; heptagyn'ian, 
possessing seven pistils ; heptam'- 
erous (/jLcpos, a part), having the 
parts in sevens ; heptan'der {avhp.. 
avSphs, a man), having seven sta- 
mens ; Heptan'dria, a Linnean order 
of plants with seven stamens ; hep- 
tan'drian, heptan'drous, relating^ to 
the same, or possessing seven sta- 
mens ; heptapet'alous (Tr4ra\ov, a 
flower leaf), having seven petals ; 
heptaphyl'lous {(pvWov, a leaf), with 
seven leaves ; hep'tarch, applied to 
a fibrovascular cylinder or stele with 
seven rays or bundles ; heptari'mis 
{&ppT]v, male), IS'eckei''s term for 


Herb, Herh'a (Lat., grass, herbage, 
plant), a plant with no persistent 
stem above ground ; herba'eeous, 
-ceus ( -f ) ACEOUS, ( 1 ) with the t exture, 
colour and properties of a herb ; (2) 
with annual stems from a perennial 
root, as an ~ Peren'nial ; Herb'age, 
herbs collectively, grass, pasture ; 
Herb'al, (1) an ola volume containing 
descriptions of plants, such as John 
Gerard's " Herball " ; (2) sometimes 
= Herbarium ; Herb'alist, (1) a 
writer of herbals, one of the old 
botanists ; (2) a person skilled in 
the knowledge of herbs ; Herb'arist, 
an old word for l)otanist ; Herba'- 
rium, a collection of dried plants, 
formerly styled a ^'hortus siccus" \ 
Herb'elet, Herb'let, a small herb ; 
herbes'cent, growing into herbs ; 
Herb'orist, a collector of plants for 
medical use ; Herboriza'tion, a 




botanic excursion for the collection 
of plants ; herb'orize, to botanize. 

Hercog'amy {epKos, a fence ; yd/LLos, 
marriage), applied to hermaphrodite 
flowers, when some structural pecu- 
liarity prevents self-fertilization ; 
requiring insect- visitation ; adj. her- 
cogamlc, herkogam'ic, hercog'- 
amous, -mtcs ; ab'solute -^ , the 
possibility of self-pollination is 
always excluded ; conceared ~ , self- 
pollination as frequent as insect- 
pollination ; contin'gent -^ , acci- 
dental and occasional self-pollination 
is possible ; half ~ , flowers at first 
hercogamous, but at a later period 
self-pollination becomes practicable 
from growth or change in parts of 
the flower. 

Hered'ity {hcre'diias, heirship), pos- 
session by inheritance, of certain 
qualities or structures ; bisex'ual '^ , 
unisez'ual ^, having the qualities 
of both, or of one parent only trans- 
mitted ; adj. hered'itary ; ~ Sjrmbi- 
o'sia, the presence of Mycobacteria 
in the tissues, including seeds. 

hermapli'rodite, hermaphrodi'tus (Lat. 
having the characters of both sexes), 
the stamens and pistils in the same 

Her'pes (cpTrrjs, a cutaneous eruption) 
tonsu'rans (Lat., shaving), ring- 
worm, a disease of the skin as- 
cribed to Trichophyton tonsurans, 

Hcrp'ism (epirc, I creep), creeping by 
means of variously shaped pseudo- 
podia, as in Flagellata ; Her poblast 
{^Kacrrhs, a shoot), Cramer's term 
for a confervoid prothallium lying 
flat on its substratum. 

Hertzot'topism {rpoir)], a turning), 
movement due to the influence of 
the Hertzian waves, whence the 
term (M assart). 

Hesperid'ium (from the golden fruit 
of the garden of the Jlesperides), 
Desvaux's term for a fruit, such as 
the orange : a superior, polycarpel- 
lary, syncaipous berry, pulpy within, 
and externally covered with a tougli 
rind ; Auiiantium of de Candolle. 

Hetae'rio {eraipcia, a brotherhood); 
a collection of distinct indehiscent 
carpels produced by a single flower, 
dry or fleshy, as in the Strawberry, 
Buttercup, Raspberry ; usually 
spelled Etaeuio. 

Heterac'my {erepos, other ; aK/x^, 
apex), = DicoGAMY ; Heteraderphy 
{a8€\<phs, a brother), used of two 
adherent carpels which develop 
unequally, one being more or less 
atrophied (Reymondaud); heterand'- 
rous (ovTjp, auSphs, a man), with 
two sets of stamens ; applied to 
flowers whose stamens vary in size ; 
Heteran'dry, the condition de- 
scribed ; Heteranthe'ry, the con- 
dition of having distinct kinds of 
stamens ; Heterauxe'sis {aij^r)<rls, 
giowth), variation in the relative 
growth of opposite sides of an 
organ ; beterax'on {&^a>v, an axle), 
applied by 0. Mueller to a diatom 
if the transverse axes are unequal ; 
Heteroalbumose' ( + Albumose), 
Kuhne-s term for proteid, pliytal- 
bumose ; heteroblas^tio {^haaros, a 
shoot), (1) afiplied to embryogeny 
which is indii'ect, the ofllspring not 
similar to the parent, but producing 
the adult form as an outgrowth, as 
in Chara; (2) used by Uoebel to 
express the fact that the adult form 
of a plant is very unlike tiie young 
or larval form ; (3) applied bv 
Pfitzer to those Orchids in which 
the pseudobulbs consist of a single 
swollen internode ; the condition is 
Heteroblas'ty ; Heterob'olites (SoXly, 
a missile), a catabolic product with 
absorption of other bodies (Beyer- 
inck) ; cf. Schizobolites ; hetero- 
car'picus (fructus), " an inferior 
fruit" (Lindley) ; heterocar'pinus 
{Kapvos, fruit), an inferior or par- 
tially inferior fruit, as the acorn ; 
beterocar'pous, -pics, producing more 
than one kind of fruit ; Heterocar'py, 
having two kinds of fruit ; hetero- 
ceph'alus ■{K€<pa\^, the head), bear- 
ing two kinds of head or capitulum ; 
beterochlamyd'eous, -deits (xA-o^iuj, 
a mantle), when the calyx and 




corolla clearly differ ; heterocho'ric 
(xopfoo, I spread abroad), used of 
a species inhabiting two or more 
closely related formations ; hetero- 
chromat'ic, adj. of Heterhchko- 
MATisM ; Heterochro'mati8m(xP'iii"a, 
colour), a change in the colouring or 
marking, of petals ; Heterochro'mo- 
somes ( + Chromosomes), aberrant 
chromosomes (< -ates) ; cf. Mono- 
somes ; heterochro'mous, when the 
florets of the disc in Compositae 
differ in colour from those of the 
ray ; heterccli'ronous (xp<^»'os, dura- 
tion of time), in cultures when sow- 
ings are made at different times 
(Clet?ents) ; heterocis'mal, an ill- 
contrived version of heteroecious ; 
het'erocliue, heterocli'nous, -nws, 
{kKIvi}, a bed), Avith the male and 
female members on separate recep- 

het'eroclite, heteroc'litus {erep6K\iTos, 
varying in declension), anomalous 
in formation. 

heterocot'ylous («T6poj, other ;-f Coty- 
ledon), having cotyledons un- 
equally developed ; heterocy'clic 
{kvk\o^, a circle), used when tiie 
floral whorls are heteromerous, not 
uniform or isomerous ; Het'erocyst, 
{kvo-tis, a bag), large inert cells 
in the filaments of certain Algae, 
separating contiguous hormogonia ; 
adj. heterocyst'ous ; heterodes'mic 
{SefffjLos, a bond), used when the 
vascular bundles are partly of 
phloem only ( I>rebner) ; cf. homo- 
DESMic ; Heterodichog''ainy ; Engler 
and Piantl's synonym for Dicho- 
gamy ; Heterodi'ode ( -f Diode), 
a term to include Mackodiode and 
MiciioDiODE (Van Tieghetn) ; Het- 
erodi'ody {Si6Sos, a passage), Van 
Tieghem's term for the condition of 
those Diodes which are differenti- 
ated into Macrodiodes, and Micro- 
diodes ; cf. IsoDiODY ; Hetero- 
disty'ly ( + di ; stylus, a style), 
dimorphism, the presence of two 
kinds of plant, having either long 
or short styles, e.g. Primvia ; adj. 
heterodisty'lous ; heterod'romous. 

-vius, {Zp6/j.os, a course), having 
spirals of chani;ing directions, a-t 
in some tendrils, or phyllotaxis ; 
Heterod'romy, when two spirals take 
-different or opposite courses ; he- 
terodynam'ic {Svuafiis, power), ap- 
plied to pairs of characters, one 
dominant, the other recessive ^Cor- 
rens) ; heteroe'ciotis, forms which 
pass through their stages of de- 
velopment on diHerent ho.sts are 
so termed ; metoecious is a syno- 
nym ; Heteroe'cism, the condition 
a heteroecious parajsite ; heteroecis'- 
mal, should be heterokciois ; 
Heteroe'cium {oJkos, a house), a 
Fungus which passes its stages on 
more than one host plant ; a 
metoecious parasite ; Het'eroecyst 
(Crozier) = Heterocyst ; Hetero- 
eu'fonns {d, well ; -f- Form), forms 
of Pitccinia, producing uredospores 
and teleutospores on a host other 
than that on which they biing 
forth spermognnia and aecidia ; 
Het'erofonns is a contraction for the 
same ; heterog'amous, -mus, {yd/xos, 
marriage), (1) bearing two kinds of 
flowers, a.s in Compositae, the florets 
of the ray may be neuter or uni- 
sexual, and those of the disk 
hermaphrodite ; (2) an abnormal 
arrangement of the sexual organs 
(Masters); Heterog'amy, change of 
the function of male and female 
flowers, or in their arrangement ; 
heterogene (ycVos, offspring), the 
character of offspring when the 
parents are hybrids or belong to 
aifferent types (Lotsy); heteroge'- 
neouB (yfvos, race), not uniform in 
kind; Heterogeneity, dissimilarity 
of nature ; heterog'enous Induc'tion, 
used by Noll to denote sensitive 
movements in which two different 
causes co-operate ; Heterogen'esis 
{yeueais, beginning), (1) alternation 
of generatiiins ; (2) tJie origin of 
organisms from different genera or 
orders, or de' novo (Ijastian); (3) 
origin by sports, or bud variation; 
heterogenet'ic, when applied to 
fertilization me^ns cross-pollina- 




tion ; -^ Varia'tion = Mutation; 
Heterog'enism = Hetkrogenesis ; 
Het'erogone (701/7?), oft'spring), a 
plant whose flowers are dimorphic 
or trimorphic iu the length of the 
stamens or styles ; adj. heterog'- 
onous, het'erogo'iieus : Heterog''ony, 
the same as Hkterostyly, cf. 
HoMoGONY ; Heteroho'motype, the 
entire stage of Hetero- and Homo- 
type karyokinesis (Gregoire) ; het- 
eroi'cous, a form preferred by some 
bryologi>.ts to the usual spelling 
HETERORcious; hsteroi'deus % [fl^os, 
like), diversified in form (Lindley) ; 
Heterokaryot'ic {Kapvov, a nut), the 
ijharacter of spores in which both 
male and female nuilei exist (Bur- 
geif; Heterokaryo'sis is the con- 
dition ; Heterokine'sis {Kiuriais, 
motion), heterotypic meiosis (Gre- 
goire); Heteroli'chtni ( + L[chkn), 
Lichens in wliich the gonidia are 
stratitied in the thallus (Jatta) ; 
eromal'lus, -las {/xaWhs, a Ue^ce or 
tuft of wool), si'roadiiig in all direc- 
tions ; heterom'alous (I'rozier) = the 
foregoing ; Heterom'erals, Bessey's 
abbreviation for the lleteromerae 
of l^entham and Hooker, a series 
of Gamopetalae ; Heteromer'icarpy 
{/jLfpos, a part; Kapirhs, fruit), (1) 
heterocarpy occurring between parts 
of the same fruit (Delpino) ; (2) 
Huth's term lor a binary fruit, the 
halves of which dilfer from each 
other, as I'lirgenia hytcracarpa, DC; 
heteromer'icus, strati Tied, as in some 
Lichens; heterora'erous (1) wlien 
the number of the members is not 
uniform ; (2) in Lichens. tl\e oppo- 
site of isomerous ; heteromor'phic, 
lieteromor'phous ' (xop(p)], form), (1) 
variati'in from normal structure, as 
deformities, etc. ; (2) having organs' 
dilfeiing in Icngtli. dimorphic, with 
long and sliort styles; tiimoipliic, 
with long, sh:)rt, and medium length, 
the male organs (stamens) b. ing of 
corresponding length ; Heteroraes- 
Og'amy (^erros, intirnu'diate ; ydixos, 
marriage), when individuals vary in 
the method of feitilizatioii, as {a) 

auto-allogamous, (&) homodicho- 
gamous, and (c) dientomophilous ; 
Heteromorpho'sis or Heteromor'phy 

= AiTOMORPHOSis in botanic usage; 
Heteromorph'ism, the heteromorpliic 
condition^; heterone'meus {vrifxa), a 
thread), applied to plants which on 
germination produce thread-like 
growths, which afterwards give rise 
to a leafy axis, such as Bryophytes 
and Pteridophytes ; Heteropet'alody 
( -\- Petalody) change from one kind 
of petal into another ; heteroph'agous 
{<pay(a, 1 eat), applied to Fungi which 
attack plants not congeneric (Eriks- 
son) ; Heteroph'agy, used by Dan- 
geard for sexual (protoplasmic) unions 
which leave a residue ; cf. AuTO- 
PHAGY ; heterophyad'ic, heterophy- 
ad/icus ((pwTj, growth), used of those 
species which have fertile stems of 
different form from the barren stems, 
as in some Equiseta ; heterophyl'- 
lous {(pvWoy, a leaf), having leaves 
of ditferent foims ; Heterophyl'ly, 
used by Krasser, for two different 
forms of leaves, when caused by 
dilference in organization ; Het'ero- 
phyte, Ileterophy'tus {(purhv, a plant), 
(1) Trattinik's name for those plants 
which bear leaves and flowers on 
separate stems, as Curcuma Zedo- 
aria, Rose. ; (2) Boulger's term 
for parasites destitute of chloro- 
phyll ; (3) Warming's term for those 
plants which are liolosaprophytes or 
parasites, unable to exist indepen- 
dently ; (4) employed for species of 
wide range of habitats (F. B. H. 
Brown) ; (5) the dioecious s}>oro- 
phyte ; of heterotliallic plants, those 
with unisexual sporophytes (Blakes- 
lee) ; adj. heterophy'tic, hetero- 
phy'tous ; Ileteroplas'tid's, th )se 
organisms whose dillering cells i)er- 
form ditferent functions ; Hetero- 
plas'y {irXanau}, I form), applied to 
all f)rms, and cells and tissues 
arising frnm aluiormal grctwth after 
a wound ; heteropo'lar {1^6X0$, a 
pivot), for the axis of Diatomaceae 
when the extremities difler ; Hetero- 
pro'thally ( -f rRoTHALLU.*^), Van 




Tieghem's term for the production 
of unisexual prothallia ; hetero- 
rhi'zal {^ICa, & root), having roots 
or similar organs proceeding from 
any indeterminate portion of a spore 
in germination or rooting from no 
fixed point; HeteroscM'zis (<rx^C«> 
I split), the simultaneous fragment- 
ation of the mother nucleus, giving 
rise to many (Griggs) ; Heterosepal- 
o'if ( + Skpalody), the change of 
one sepal into another (Worsdell) ; 
Heterosper'my {(nripixa, seed), bear- 
ing two kinds of seeds, as in Suaeda, 
some species producing both seeds 
with endosperm, and other seeds 
destitute of it ; heterosporan'gic 
( -f Sporange), male and female 
gametes produced by different 
sporangia (Blakeslee) ; Het'erospore 
( 4- Shore), a spore containing male 
and female energids in variable pro- 
portion, mixed but not fused (Dan- 
geard) ; heterospor'ic ( + Si-oka), 
producing spores giving rise to male 
and female gametophytes ; heteros'- 
porous {ffTTopa, seed), with spores of 
two kinds, as in S<iaginella ; Het- 
eros'pory, the condition of produc- 
ing microspores and macrospores, 
etc. ; Heterostamino'dy ( + Stam- 
inody), the change of a stamen of 
one type, into that of another 
(Worsdell) ; het'erostyled, hetero- 
stylous ( -f Stylus) = hrtero- 
GAMOUS ; Heterosty'lia, heteroga- 
mous plants ; Heterosty'lism, having 
flowers differing in the styles, as 
Compositae when certain florets are 
unisexual and others hermaphrodite 
in the same head ; Heterostyly = 
Heterogamy ; heterosymbiont'ic 
{ + Symbiont), used of lichens 
whose algal constituents are diverse 
in the same example (Bitter) ; het- 
erotac'tic (to/ctzkos, qualified to ar- 
range), with more than one system 
in the same inflorescence ; Hetero- 
tax'y {rd^is, arrangement), devia- 
tion, as the production of organs in 
situations where under nonmal con- 
ditions they would not be found ; 
heterothariic {daWos, a sprout), em- 


ployed by Blakeslee for dioecious, 
in Al ucorineae ; Heterothall'ism is 
the state ; heterotherm'ic {depfios, 
hot), applied to porous silicious 
soil, which absorbs and loses warmth 
(Krasan) ; heterotop'ic {rSiros, a 
place), used of plants found on soils 
apparently very diverse from their 
normal stations ; Heterotristyly, 
trimorphism, as in Lythrum Sali- 
caria, Linn. ; heterot'ropal, hetero- 
t'ropoas {tpSttos, direction, (1) in 
ovules, the same as amphitropous ; 
(2) employed by Agardh for col- 
lateral ovules, back to back ; (3) 
lying parallel with the hilum ; Het'- 
erotroph {rpof^, food), (1) employed 
by Pfeffer to denote a pure sapro- 
phyte ; (2) an organ which is de- 
veloped more on one side than 
another (Wiesner) ; adj. heterotro- 
phic, -us; Heterot'rophy, (1) used 
by Minks for those Lichens living 
symbiotically ; (2) by Wiesner for 
the compound position of a shoot 
with regard to the horizon and of 
the mother-shoot; (3) also apj)lied 
to nutrition by ingestion, like an 
animal (Keeble); Het'erotype (tu-jtos, 
form, type), Flemming's term for a 
peculiar nuclear division connected 
with the reduction of the chromo- 
somes, marked by the early fission 
of the chromatic thread, a special 
form of the chromosomes themselves 
(Farmer); adj. heterotyp'ic, which 
is also employed to denote vegeta- 
tive division ; heterotyp'ical, de- 
scribed from more than one species, 
these diff"ering in structure (Schu- 
chert) ■; heterox'enous Uevos, a host) 
= HKTEROEcious ; Hcterozygos'lty, 
having heterozygotes ; Heterozy'- 

fote ( -1- Zygote), a " zygote formed 
y a pair of opposite allelomorphic 
gametes " (Bateson). 
Hexacoc'cus m, six ; kSkkos, a kernel), 
a fruit of six cells, as in IWiglochin : 
hexacot'ylous, having apparently 
six cotyledons due to fission of the 
normal two (de Vries) ; hexacy'dic 
{kvkKos, a circle), arranged in six 
whorls ; Hexagoniench'yma {ywvia, 



angle ; $yxvfia, an infusion), cellu- 
lar tissue which exhibits hexagonal 
cells in section ; hezag'onoid {eUos, 
like), J. Smith's term for hexagonal 
areolae on Ferns, which are bor- 
dered by veins ; hexag'onus, six- 
angled; Kex&gyn'ia. {yvv^, a woman), 
a Linnean order of plants possessing 
six pistils ; hexagyn'ian, plants be- 
longing to that order, or having its 
character ; hexag'ynous, with six 
pistils ; hexalep'idus (\€7rts, XcirlSos, 
a scale), six-scaled ; hexam'erous, -rus 
{fifpos, a part), in sixes; hexan'der 
{av^p, avSpos, a man), having six 
stamens ; Hezan'dria, a Linnean class 
characterized by the possession of six 
stamens ; hexan'drian, relating to 
that class ; hexan'drous, with six 
stamens ; Hexand'ry, the state of 
possessing six stamens ; hexapet'aloid 
(elSos, like), having a i)erianth of six 
pieces, which resemble petals ; hexa- 
pet'alous {TTCTaKov, a tlower leaf), with 
six petals ; hexaphylet'ic {<pv\^, a 
tribe), applied to those derivative 
hybrids which are the product of 
six forms or species, as in some 
willow-hybrids; hexaphyl'lous, -las 
{<pv\\ov, a leaf), six-leaved; Hex'a- 
pod (irof's, iroShs, a foot), a fathom 
of six feet, used sometimes as a 
measure of altitude ; hexap'terous, 
■ rus {irrepov, a wing), six-winged ; 
hexapyre'nus {wphv, a kernel), 
having six kernels ; hex'arch {apxh, 
beginning), applied to a stele with 
six strands or origins ; hexari'nus 
i&pprfu, male), Necker's synonym 
for hexandrous ; hexasep'alus, -lus 
( + Srpalum), with six sepals ; 
hexaste'monous, -nus [ar-hfiwv, sta- 
men), hexandrous,. six-stamened, 
hi'and (Lat. ), gaping, as a ringent 

Hibem'acle, Hiberna'culum (Lat., a 
winter room), (1) a winter bud; 
(2) in botanic gardens, the winter 
quarters for plants, especially j>lant 
houses and frames ; hiber'nal, 
hiherna'lis (Lat.), pertaining to 
winter ; Hiberna'tion, passing the 
winter in a dormant state. 

Hiber'nian, H. C. Watson's term for 
those plants of the United Kingdom 
whose headquarters appear to be in 
Ireland (Hibernia). 

hid'den, concealed from view ; '^ 
veined, with veins which are not 
obvious, as in Pinks and House- 
leeks, by excess of parenchyma. 

hide-bound, a cultivator's expression 
when the bark does not yield to the 
growth of the stem. 

Hid'roplank'ton {Ihpws, sweat ; -f 
Plankton), organisms which float 
by virtue of some secretion (Forel). 

hi'emal, hiema'lis (Lat.), relating to 
winter; Hiemisil'vae {silva,a, wood), 
woods in which the trees shed their 
leaves in the dry summer season. 

Hieraciorog^st {K6yos, discourse), an 
expert in the genus Hieracium. 

High'land, used by H. C. Watson 
for a type of distribution in Great 
Britain, of those plants chiefly found 
in the H ghlands of Scotland. 

High-moor, arises in water but emerges 
from it, and is then dependent upon 
rain-water ; it is supra-aquatic ; 
High-yeast, bann, the yeast which 
forms at the surface ; cf. lovt or 
bottom yeast. 

hi'lar, hila'rls {hilum, a trifle), relat- 
ing to the hilum ; Hile (S. F. Gray) 
= Hilum ; '-' bear'ing, marked 
with a hilum ; hilif'erous, hi'lifer 
{fero, I bear), having a hilum on the 
surface ; Hilof era, the second or in- 
ternal integument of a seed ; Hi 'lam, 

(1) the scar left on a seed where 
formerly attached to the funicle or 
placenta ; (2) the central point in a 
starch granule which the ring- like 
markings seem to surround ; (3) 
X any point of attachment ; (4) 
X an aperture in pollen gr^iins. 

Hinge, (1) the isthmus of Diatoms ; 

(2) in stomata, delicate lamellae of 
cellulose, upon which the mobility 
of the guard-cells usually depends ; 
they may form an inner or outer 
hinge ; in German, '* Hautgelenk " ; 

(3) a special part of the stem near a 
node, between two rigid portions, 

i capable of movement (Kohl) ; -^ 




Cells, cells lying in furrows on the 
upper face of the leaves of grasses, 
deeper than epidermal cells and 
easily folded as the leaf cuils ; '- 
Plants, plants thus susceptible to 
hin'nuleus (Lat., a young stag), a 

tawny cinnamon colour, 
hino'ideus (/t prefixed ; tVoetS^s, fibrous), 
used when veins proceed from the 
midrib and are parallel and undi- 
divided ; venulo'so- '^, the same, if 
connected by cross-veins. 
Hip, the fruit of the rose ; technically 

a cynarrliodium. 
hippocre'piform, hippocrq)if(ynn'is {1ir- 
-iros, a horse ; k/jtjttIs, shoe ; forma, 
shape), horse-shoe shaped. 
hirci'nus (Lat., j)ertaining to a goat), 
smelling like a goat ; hirco'sus X 
means the same, 
hir'sute, hirsic'tus (Lat., rough, hairy), 
hairy, with Icng, tolerably distinct 
haii-s ; Hirsu'ties, the hairiness just 
described ; Hirteiriforms, in llosa, 
those forms having haiis on the mid- 
lib of the leaf (Almquist) ; named 
from It. hirtcUa ; hirtell'ous, -Ins, 
minutely hirsute ; Hir'tiforms, in 
llosa, with lower leaf surface and 
leaf hairy (Almquist), name from 
R. hirta ; hir'tose, used by K. T. 
Lowe for hir'tus (Lat.), hairy, prac- 
tically the same as hiisute. 
his'pid, his'jndus (Lat., biistly), beset 
with rough hairs or bristles ; his- 
pid'ulons, -his minutely hispid. 
Histiol-'ogy (Crozier) == Histolooy. 
Histodiarysis {hrbs, a web ; 5ia, 
through ; Xvcis, a loosing), the 
separation of the cells of a tissue 
from each other (Cilozier) ; Hist'o- 
gen {yevhs. ofrs})ring), the origin of 
tissue ; histogenet'ic, hlBtogen'ic, 
tissue-torming ; — Plas'ma, Weis- 
maim's term for tissue- forming 
Itrutojtlasm ; Hietogen'esis {yiv^ais, 
beginning), or Histog'eny, formation 
or origin of tissue ; his'toid (elSor, 
resenililanee), araclmnid (Heinig) ; 
Historogy {Koyos^ disco\n-sc), the 
Kcicnce of tissues ; Histometab'ases, 
]•!. (fi(rd0a<tis, alteration), chemical 

N 1 

changes by which tissues have 
been fossilized ; histoph'iluB {<pi\fto, 
I love), parasitic ; Histophy'ta 
{<pvrhv, a plant), parasites ; Histo- 
phjrti'a, parasitic plant formations 
hiurcus, (Lat.), gaping, split. 
Hizom'eter {'1(0, I sink), an instm- 
ment for measuring gravitation 
water (Clements). 
hoar'y, canescent, grey from line pubes- 
Hochblatter (Ger.), bracts. 
Hoch-moor (Ger.) moss-moor or 

Hof (Oer., a court), (1) the areola of 
a bordered pit ; (2) Rosen's ex- 
pression for a clear, gi'anule-free 
space sunounding the nucleus or 
Horard {oXos, whole), the total water- 
content of- a soil (Clements). 
Hold'fasts, the disc-like attachments 

of Algae. 
holendobiot'ic {o\os, whole ; BiwriKhs, 
pertaining to life), used of Fungi 
which produce their spores in other 
organisms, as Saprolefjnia ; Holen'- 
dophytes, pi. {<pvrhv, a plant), Fung, 
confined to life within other plants, 
as Ustilagineae ; Holendozo'a, pi. 
{iSoov, ail animal), Fungi living 
within animals, as Chytridineae. 
holera'ceous (Crozier) = 0LEiiAf;Eous. 
Holobas'id (oAos, whole ; hasidium, a 
little pedestal), an undivided baai 
dium in Basidiomycetes (Van Tieg- 
hem) ; holoblas'tic (pXaffrhs, a bud 
or shoot), en)ployed when the whole 
spore is -concerned in the embryo- 
geny, rf. mki!(»bi.asti(' ; Hcl'ocarp 
{Kapirhs, fruit), Nicotra's tenn for 
an entire fiuit resulting from a 
number of carj)els ; it n>ay l)e an 
apocar]*, or a syncarp, or an insen- 
I sible blending of the two forms ; 
other divisions are actinocarj), and 
helicocarp, according as it is founded 
on a whorl or. spiial ; and anti- 
spcrmic or plcurospennic according 
to the ]>ositiou of the placenta ; 
j holocarp'ic, holocarp'ous, (1) having 
! the peii(ar[» entire ; (2) 'n simple 




Algae, the whole spore (individual) 
becomes a sporangium, and invested 
with a cell-wall ; (3) used of Fungi 
producing fruit once only from the 
same thallus; cf. eucarpous; holo- 
chlamyd'eous [xKayivs, a cloak), 
employed for ovules such as those of 
Ginkgo when the integuments are 
practically complete (Celakovsky) ; 
holocy'clic {kvkKikIs, circular), (1) 
applied to a stem with amplexicaul 
leaves, regarded as encircling the 
stem and ending at the node in a 
loaf (Celakovsky) ; (2) evergreen 
(Drude) ; Holog'amy {yajxos. mar- 
riage), when the nuclei of gametes 
fuse together (Daiigeard) ; Holo- 
gonidlum {y6vos, offspring), em- 
ployed by Wallroth for the algal 
gonidia pure and simple, or soredia ; 
hologymnocarp'ous (+ gymnocar- 
I'ous), permanently gymnocarpous, 
the fruits being entirely free ; Holo- 
par'asite ( + PAiiAsrrE), a p^ant en- 
tirely dependent upon the host- 
])lant for its existence (Warming) ; 
holophyt'ic, pertaining to Holo- 
phy'tism {<pvrhv, a plant), the con- 
dition of a plant with its growth 
maintained entirely by its own 
organs, without any suspicion of 
saproi'hytism or jjarasitism ; Holo- 
plank'ton (+ Plankton), plankton 
of the open sea ; adj. holoplankton'- 
ic ; Holosap'rophyte (trairp^s, rotten; 
<pvThv, a plant), employed by Johow 
for a true sai)rophyte, a ])]ant which 
is dependent upon humus for its 
existence ; holoseric''eou8, -ceiis, 
{scriccKS, silken), covered with a 
fine and silky pubescence ; Horo- 
type {tvttos, a t3'pe), the one speci- 
men possessed by the describer of a 
s}»ecies, and forming the basis for 
the original diagnosis. 
homalocho'ric {6ixa\hs, c(jual ; x<^p^^> 
I spread aKroad). refers to a species 
confined to one formation ; homalo- 
clad'ous, -dus (/cAaSos, a branch), 
Russow's term for stiaight-branched; 
homalot'ropouB (rpoir^, a turning), 
a]iplie(l to organs which grow in a 
horizontal direction (Noll) ; Homa- 


lot'ropism, is the condition; = 


honioblas'tic {^/j-os, one and the same ; 
fiKacrrhs, a shoot), (1) denotes em- 
bryogeny which is direct ; (2) used 
by Goebel to express the fact that 
the larval and adult forms are prac- 
tically the same ; (3) Pfitzer employs 
it for those Orchids whose pseudo- 
bulbs co!)sist of several internodes, 
only the terminal one bearing 
developed leaves ; Homoblas'ty is 
the condition ; homocarp'ous, -pics 
{Kapirhs, fruit), having fruit of one 
kind only ; homocent'ric {k4vtpov = 
centre - of a circle), concentric 
(Crozier) ; homoceph'alic (/ce</>aA);, a 
head), Delpino's term for homogamy 
when the anthers fertilize the stig- 
ma of another flower of thu same 
inflorescence ; homochlamyd'eous 
(xAo,uus, a mantle), the perianth 
leaves all alike ; Homochro'inatism 
(XP<»Mo, colour), constant as to the 
colouring of the flower ; homocliro'- 
mous, uniform in colour ; homo- 
clin'ic, homocli'nous (/cAiVr?, a bed), 
used by Delpino for that kind of 
homogamy when the anthers fertilize 
the stigma of the same complete 
flower; homodes'mic (Secr/x^s, a 
bond), when the vascular bundles 
of an atactostele are of the same 
type (Brebner) ; Homodichog'amy 
(-f Dichogamy), the existence of 
homogamous and dichogamous in- 
dividuals in the same species ; homo- 
drom'ic, homod'romal, homod'ro- 
mous, -nins {Spdjuos, a course), hav- 
ing the spirals all of the same direc- 
tion ; Homod'romy, uniformity in 
diiection of spirals; homodynam'ic 
{Svvauii, power), in hyl)rids in 
which the parental characters are 
efjually transmitted (Correns) ; ho- 
mody'namous (Suvo^js, strength), 
equal in strength or vigour. 
homoean'drous {u/jloios, like; avi]p, 
avSph),, a man), having, only one 
kind of stamen ; Homoean'dry, the 
condition of having uniform stamens; 
Homoeog'amy (70^05, mairiage), 
the in\pregnation of an antipodal 



cell, instead of the oosphere as 
in Balanaphora (Van Tieghem) ; 
Homoeokine'sis {Klv-qans, motion), 
Grt'goire's terra for liomotypic meio- 
sis; Homoeoli'chenes (+ JL-khen) 
Lichens with gonidia distributed 
throughout the thallus ; homo- 
eom'erous {fj-fpos, a rest, hyphae 
and gonidia more or less mixed 
in a lichen thallus ; Ho'moeomorph 
(^0^77, shaj)e), similar organisms 
of ditiereiit origin due to condi- 
tions of the environment, as many 
species of Cactaceae and Euphor- 
biaceae ; Homoeomorph'y is the state; 
Hom'eoplasy {irXdaaw, I form), ab- 
normal growth composed of normal 
elements ; Homoeo'sis {dia-is, = im- 
pulse), Bateson's term for metamor- 
phy, a variation by assumption by one 
member of a meristie series, of the 
form or character proper to others ; 
in'ward ~ outer organs taking on 
the structure of a whorl internal to 
itself; out'ward ■^ assumi»tion of 
form of outer organs by inner parts, 
as disc-flowers of Compositae 1 >ecom- 
ing peialoid like those of tlie ray ; 
homoet'ic, metamorphic. rf. Homo- 
Eu.sis; Hom'oetype = HoMorvrE; 
homoetyp'ic = iidmotyi'ic 
homog'amous, -inus {ofxbs, one and the 
same, yd/xos, marriage), bearing one 
kind of flower ; Homog'amy, simulta- 
neous ripeness of pollen and stigmas 
in a perfect flowei' ; (]) Iw Delpino 
divided into ikjmocephalic ~, 
HOMOCLIMC '~, or MON'OEl lous ~ ; 
(2) independently coined by G. J. 
Romanes to express '"discriminate 
isolation " ; homogen'eal, homo- 
genet'ic, homoge'neous, {y4vos, race, 
kind), of the same kind or nature, 
uniform, opposed to hetm-ogeneous ; 
Homogen'esis, Hoinog'eny, the re- 
verse of Heti<:uo(;enes[s ; the suc- 
cessive generations resembling the 
parent foiiu ; Hom'ogene, the con- 
dition of oirs]tring whose parents are 
pure and vi' tlie same type (Lf)tsy); 
Hom'ogone {yopos, ofl's]iring), a jtlant 
bearing only one kind of flowers ; 
adj. homog'onous ; Homog'ony, the 

state of uniform respective length 
of anthers and stigmas in perfect 
flowers ; homostylous ; the opposite 
of Heterogony ;" Homoheterosty'ly, 
the occurrence of similar and dis- 
similar styles in the same species 

homoiochlamyd'eous (ofioios, like ; 
X^a/j.vs, a mantle) used by Engler and 
Prantl when the perianth is uniform ; 
homoiog'amous (70,1105, marriage), adj. 
of the next ; Homoiog'amy, the fusion 
of two sexual nuclei of the same kind ; 
homoiom'erous i/iejos, a part), used of 
a Lichen thallus when the gonidia 
and hyphae are distributed in about 
equal proportions ; Wallroth em- 
ployed the word ho/noeom'eres from 
6fMoiofj.(p)]s ; Homoi'otlierms, pi. 
[Qipfxos, hot), plants whose vital 
temperatures are approximately the 
same as their surroundings. 

homokaryot'ic [bpihs, one and the 
same; Kapuov, a nut), spores which 
contain nuclei of differing sexuality 
(Burgett") ; Homokine'sis {Kivrjais, mo- 
tion), liomotypic mitosis (Gregoire) ; 
Homoli'cheni, a defective term for 
HoMOEOLK'HENEs, i.e., Liclieus 
with gonidia distributed generally 
throughout the tliallus ' (Jatta) ; 
homorogous {\6yos, discourse), ot 
one type, eonstrnctfd on the same 
plan though varying in form and 
function, as leaves and jiarts which 
answer morphologically to leaves ; ~ 
Alternation of (Jcnerations, difler- 
entiation of generations which are 
fundamentally alike a-; regards 
descent, either in form or the char- 
acter of their reproductive organs ; 
cf. ANTITHETIC ; Hom'ologue, the 
equivalent of certain organs ; 
Homorogy, the identity of parts 
apparently different homomal'lous, 
homom'alous (Crozier). -/ns (fxa\\i>s, 
a lock of wool), recurved, arising 
from all sides but turne<l to one 
direction ; homomer'icus {/j-fpos, 
a ])art) = HoMoKi.MEimus ; homo- 
mor'phous, -phns, homomor'phic 
p.op<pT], form), uniform in ^hape; 
Homomor'phy, uniformity, as when 



the disk and ray florets of Compositae 
are alike ; either normally or by con- 
version of the disk florets from 
tubular into ligulate florets ; Homo- 
ne'meae {viifia, a thread), formerly 
applied to Algae and Fungi (Hens- 
low) ; Hom'onym, Homon'ymon 
{6voixa, a name), (1) botanically, the 
same specific name'in another genus 
of the same plant, as Myrtus buxi- 
folia, Sw., is a Homonym as well as 
a Synonym of Eugenia buxifolia, 
Willd.; (2) a name rejected because 
an earlier application of the same 
name to another genus (0. F. Cooke) ; 
Homon'ymy, the possession of the 
same specific name under another 
genus ; homoo^gonous {y6vos, race) = 
ANESOGONOUs, breeding true ; homo- 
om'erous = homoiomerous ; Homo- 
bp'lasy {ir\a.a<xui, I shape), when an 
abnormal gi'owth consists of the same 
elements as the part whence it arises 
(Kiister); homopet'alous {TriraKov, a 
flower leaf), (1) all petals being alike ; 
(2) the receptacle of Compositae when 
the florets are alike, as the Ligulatae ; 
homophyad'ic. homophyad' cus {<pvr}, 
growth), applied to those species of 
Equisetuin, whose fertile and barren 
stems are similar in form; homo- 
phyt'ic, used of plants having 
bisexual sporophytes (Blakeslee); 
Homoplas'my (TrAaa/ia, moulded), 
similar in form but not of similar 
origin, as Cacti and succulent 
Euphorbias ; Hom''oplast, corre- 
spondence in external form, but dis- 
tinct in nature; adj. homoplas'tic ; 
Homoplas'tids, pi. organisms derived 
from similar cells, cf. Hkteko- 
PLASTiDS; Hom'oplasy, moulded 
alike but of diHereut origin, ana- 
logous, not lioiaologous, cf. Homo- 
plasm Y; homopo'lar {^6x05, a pivot), 
relating to the same pole ; homo- 
pro'teoid (-H pi'vOtkoid), used of 
plants whose leaves have sclerotic 
cells uniformly distributed (Vesque); 
Homosporan'gium ( + Sporangium), 
a spore-case whirh develops into a 
bisexual prothallis, as of n Fern 
(Worsdell) ; homosporan'gic, giving 



rise to one sort of spore only 
(Blakeslee) ; homospor'ic (-f Si'Oba), 
derived from one kind only of spore 
(Blakeslee) ; homos'porous {airopa, 
seed), (1) similar-seeded, in oppo- 
sition to HKTEKOSFOKOUS ; (2) 
neutral -spored; Homostat'ic {o-rarhs, 
& standing) Pe'riod, that period 
during which the present vegetation 
developed efter the Pliocene forma- 
tion (Tuzso) ; liom'ostyled(-i-STVLK) 
= HuMOGONous ; Homostylia, 

homogonous plants ; Homostyly, 
( -j- Style), the same relation of 
length between all styles and anthers 
of the same species (Axell); homo- 
tac'tic (raKTiKhs, apt to arrange), 
when only one system of arrange- 
nient prevails in an iniiorescence ; 
homothal'amus {ddKafios, a room, 
bride-chamber), defined by Lindley 
as ' ' resembling the thalius, used 
for Lichens only " ; homothall'lc 
{daWbs, a sprout), monoecious, 
applied to Mucorineae (Blakeslee)^ 
Homothalli'iini, Minks's term for 
the medullary layer of a lichen ; 
homother'mic [Qip^os. hot), applied 
to firm earth or rooky soil, which 
absorbs heat and loses it slowly ; 
cf HETEKOTHEUMic ; homot'ropal 
{rpovri, a turning), applied to organs 
having the same direction as the 
body to which they belong ; homo- 
t'ropic (r/x^irov, direction), fertilized 
by anthers from the same flower (K. 
Pearson) ; homot'ropous, -lyits (1) 
curved or turned in one direction ; 
(2) used of an anatropous ovule 
having the radicle next the hilum ; 
Homot'ropy (1) the Jiomotropous 
condition ; (2) Lopriore's term for 
secondary rootlets which branch in 
the same direction from the axis ; it 
may be longitu'dinal ~ , or trans'- 
verse^ ; Hom'otype {tv-kos, form, 
type), (1) correspondence of parts; 
(2) in nuclear division this term is 
apjtlied to those cases resembling 
ordinary karyokinesis, save in niinor 
respects, immediately following the 
HETERca YPE ; in some cases it occurs 
in all the stages after the Hetero- 



type, in which the reduced number 
of chromosomes are retained up to 
the formation of gametes (Farmer) ; 
(3) organs sliowing no trace of dif- 
ferentiation between one and another 
in function (K. Pearson) ; adj. homoty- 
p'ic, homologous ; Homotypo'sis, the 
principle of the likeness and diversity 
o^ homotypes (K. Pearson) ; Homo- 
f ypy,the condition of correspondence 
of parts which are in series ; Homo- 
2?g-oc'ity, Homozygo'sis, the con- 
dition of producing horaozygotes; 
Homozy'gote (+ Zygote), a zygote 
produced by the union of gametes 
liaving similar allelomorplis (Bate- 

Hon'ey, the sweet secretion from glands 
or nectaries, which acts as an induce- 
ment to insect visitors ; -^ Cup, used 
by "Withering for nectary ; ~ Bew, ^ 
sweet secretion voided hy aphides 
from the juices of their host plants ; 
~ Guides, lines or streaks of honey 
or colour leading to the nectary ; 
'-' -leaves, nectaries such as those of 
^^«?7(f(7/a (Potter) ; '^ Pore, a sup- 
posed pore or gland wliieh secretes 
honey; ~ Spot= -Ouides; Hon'ey- 
comb-cells, in Diatoms, hexagonal 
hollows, as in Triceratium Favus, 
Elircnb. ; hon'eycombed, alveolate. 

Hood, = Cucui.Lu.s ; hood'ed, Hood- 
shaped (Crozier) = cuculj.ate. 

Hook, a slender process, curved or bent 
back at the tip ; ^ Cli'mbers, plants 
which support themselves by hooks 
or prickles, as the bramble ; hooked- 
back, curved in a diiectiou from the 
apex to the base as the side lobes in 
a dandelion leaf. 

Hoop, the zone or girdle of Diatoms, 
the connection between the valves of 
the fnistule. 

Hop meal = Lupulin. 

hora'rius, hor'ary {hora, an houi), 
lasting an hour or two, as the ex- 
panded petals of Cistus. 

hordea'ceus (Lat. pertaining to barley), 
shaped like an ear of barley ; 
Hor'dein, a special proteid occur- 
ring in barley, Hordeum vulgarc, 

horizon'tal, horizontalis {SpiCotv, the 
circular boundary of vision), level ; 
Horiaon'tal Sys'tem, the cellular, aa 
distinguished from the fibro- vascular 
system (Crozier). 

Hor'mogon (Crozier) = Hormogone, 
Hormogon'iuin {Sp/ios, necklace; 
y6i>os, offspring), in filamentous Algae, 
those portions composed of pseudo- 
cysts marked off by heterocyste 'vhich 
become detached, and after a short 
period of spontaneous motion, come 
to rest and develop into new fila- 
ments ; Hormogonim'imn (-f Goni- 
mium), gonimia arranged in necklace 
fashion ; Hor'mosporos (airopa., seed), 
a term used by Minks for spores 
which <are similar in origin to stylo- 
or teleuto-sporea of Fungi, colourless, 
dividing into cells, raicrogonidia, 
etc., with deliquescence of the 
mother-cell, the microgonidia de- 
veloping into heterocysts. 

Horn (1) any appendage shaped like 
an annual's horn, as the spur in 
Linaria ; (2) the antheridium of 
VaiLcheria ; Hom'let, (1) the male 
organ of Vaueheria, a papilla or 
projection from the filament (Cooke); 
(2) a little horn (Crozier); hor'ny, 
corneoMS as to texture. 

Horn'bast (Ger.), a tissue of obliterated 
groups of sieve-tubes, specially 
thickened and of horny texture 

homot'inus, hor'nus (Lat.), of this 
year, the present year's growtl, ; 
Ra'mi hor'ni^ branches not a twelve- 
month old. 

horologlcal (horologiciis, pertaining 
to a clock), said of flowers which 
open and close at stated hours ; 
Horolo'giam Flo'rae, a time-table of 
the opening and closing of certain 
flowers : — see Linnaeus, Phil. Hot. 
274 ; Kerner, Nat. Hist. Plants, ii. 

horten^'sis (Lat. ), pertaining to gardens, 
or only found there ; Hortula'nim 
(Lat.), (1) a gardener; (2) belonging 
to a garden ; Hort'ns (Lat.), a gar- 
den; '~ sic'eas, an herbarium; 
formerly it consisted of volumes 




with dried specimens glued down ; 
'^ vi'vufl, also means Herbarium. 

Hose-in-hose, a duplication of the 
corolla, as though a second one 
were inserted in the throat of the 

hospita'ting (hospes, a guest), of plants 
which shelter ants, as Hyd^wphyluin ; 
Hospita'tors, the plants in question 

Host, a plant which nourishes a para- 
site ; Host-plant, the same ; Host- 
cells, the cells in niycorhiza of 
NeoUia, associated with the diges- 
tive cells (Magnus). 

Hosto'^rium [hosliOf I requite, ex 
J. S. Henslow) = Haustorium. 

Hov'er-fly flowers, those adapted for 
pollination by Syrphidae (Knuth . 

Hum'ble-bee flowers, specially adapted 
for the visits of species of Bomhus. 

hu'mi (Lat.), in or on the gi-ound. 

humic''alar, Beccari's term for sapro- 
phytic ; Humifica'tion, the reduc- 
tion of dead plant substances to 
humus by Fungi (Beyerinck). 

hu'mifuse, humifu'sus {hicmus, the 
ground; fusus, spread), spread on 
the surface of the ground ; humi- 
Btra'tus, {stratus, stretched out), 
laid flat on the soil. 

hu'milis ( Lat. ), lowly. 

Hu'mor (Lat., moisture) = Sap. 

Hu'mulia, the oleoresin of the hop, 
Humulus Lujmlus, Linn. 

Hn'mus (Lat., the ground), decom- 
posing organic matter in the soil ; 
-^ Plants = Saprophytes ; ~ Soils, 
garden soils enriched with organic 

Hask, the outer covering of certain 
fruits or seeds ; husk'less, wanting 
the usual outer covering, as in 
certain forms of barley, walnuts, 
etc. ; hus'ky, abounding with or 
consisting of husks. 

hyacin 'thine, hyacin'thus,hyacinth'inus 
{vaKivdivos, hyacinth-coloured), (1) 
♦lark purplish blue; (2) hyacinth- 
like in habit, a scape bearing spicate 

byales'cent (uetAJvos, ot glass), " some- 
what hyaline " (Crozier) ; hyalic'olor 

{color, colour), wanting in colour ; 
hy'aline, hyaWnus, colourless or 
translucent; ^ Ar'ea, the smooth 
part of a diatom-valve. 

Hyalodict'yae {vaXos, crystal; Uktvov, 
a net), Fungi having translucent 
muriform or netted spores (Traverso) ; 
Hyalodid'ymae, Didyniosporae with 
clear spores (Traverso) ; Hy'alom = 
Hyaloplasma ; HyalopTirag'miae 
{(ppdyfia, a fence). Fungi having 
many-septate spores (Traverso) ; Hy'- 
aloplasm, Hyaloplas'ma {Trxdar/jLa, 
moulded), the hyaline matrix or 
clear and non-granular portion of 
protoplasm ; by some restricted to 
the Ectoplasm ; Hy'alosomes {crwua, 
a body), colourless granules which 
do not take up stains : Hyalospo'rae 
(-1-Spora), having colourless spores 
like Laestadia (Traverso) ; Hyalo- 
staur'ae [aravphs, a pole or cross), 
Fungi with cruciate sport's destitute 
of colour (Traverso^ 

Hyber'nacle, Hyberna'culum=HinER- 


hybemalis = hibp:rnalis. 

Hy'brid, Hyh'rida (Lat., a mongrel), 
a plant obtained by the pollen of 
one species on the stigma of another; 
bisex'ual '^ , when the oHspriig 
shows the character of the parents 
combined in pairs (Clements) ; de- 
riv'ative ~, when crossed with each 
other or a parent ; doub'le -^ , rf. 
Dihybridization ; doub'le-recip'ro- 
cal ■^ , the crossing of reciprocal- 
hybrids; false ~, False-Hybrid- 
ism ; graft ~, reciprocal influences 
of scion and stock on each other ; 
heterodynam'ic '~, showing the 
characters of male and female parents 
in varying degieo; homodynam'ic ~, 
showing equal combination of the 
characters of both paients ; mosa'ic 
'~, showing traces of eaih ]iarent, 
as spei'ial colour patches ; recip'ro- 
cal ~, obtained from the same 
parents, but transposing the male 
and female elements ; sec'oudary '~, 
crossed with a hybrid ; sesquireci- 
p'rocal '^ , when a hybrid is crossed 
with one of the parental tyjies ; 




twin '^, hybrids identical but from 
reciprocal sources ; unisez'ual '~ , 
when a certain character found in 
one parent does not occur in the 
other (Clements) ; Hybrid'ity, Jly- 
brid'itas, crossed in parentage ; 
Hybridiza'tion, (1) the art of obtain- 
ing hybrids by artificial crossing; 
(2) also used for tlie same operation 
occurring naturally ; Hyb'ridiform 
(+ Form), a hybrid between Fini- 
FoRMs (Kuntze) ; Hybridopro'liform 
{prolef\, offspring), a fertile hybrid 
of Hybridofokms (Kuntze) ; Hy- 
bridog'amy {ydfjLos, marriage), hybrids 
between different species ; Hybrid- 
ol'Dgy {K6yos, discourse), the science 
of hybridizing. 

Hy'dathode {v^wp, water ; bZhs, a way), 
Haberlandt's term for water-pore 
or Avatei-gland, an organ which 
extrudes water or other liquid ; it 
resembles a stoma with functionless 
guard-cells; sub'stitute ~ ; cf. 
Edemata ; Hydatophyti'a, pi. 
[<pjThv, a plant), submerged forma- 
tions (Diets) ; Hydracel'lulose ( + 
Cellulose), see Cellulose ; Hy'drad 
(4- ad), a hydrophyte (Clements); 
Hydral'gae (+ Algae) = Hydro- 
THYTEs; hy'drarcb (o^x^i begin- 
niug), ap})lied to successions from 
ponds or lakes by growth of plants ; 
Hy'dras, the "wet form" of a 
species (Clements). 

Hy'drastin, an alkaloid found in 
Hydrastis canadensis, Linn. 

Hy'drate (u5a>/j, water), a compound 
containing a definite proportion of 
water in chemical combination ; 
Hydra'tion, the act of becoming 
chemically c >mbined with water ; 
hy'dric, pertaining to water ; hydro- 
car'pic {Kapirhs, fruit), used of 
aquatic plants whicli are fertilized 
above th^ water, but withdraw the 
fertilized flowera below the surface 
for development, as in Vallisneria ; 
HydroCar'py, the condition de- 
scribed ; Hydroceirulose, see Cel- 
LiLosE ; Hydrocb'arid Formntion, 
macrophytes such as Hydrocharis 
floating on or in the water ; Macro- 

plankton ; Pleuston ; Hydro- 
obi'moas {x^ijxwv), winter, used for 
plants adapted to a rainy ^vinter 
(Drude) ; Hy'drochore (x^P^^, asun- 
der), a plant distribiited by water 
(Clements); hydrocho'ric, dispersed 
by water, rivers or floods ; Hydro- 
cleistog'amy(+CLEiSTOu amy), when 
flowers do not open in consequence 
of submersion (Knuth); Hy'dro- 
chrome (xp^m^j colour), used by 
Nadson for the pigments of jRiissula 
and Amanita Mitscaria, Fr. ; 
bydrodynam''ic {hvvams, powef), 
used for the action of tides and 
waves in distribution ; Hy'droganu, 
{ydfxos, marriage) = CRYProGAMS ; 
Hydrobai'mose {apuS^M, I join to- 
gether), response to water stimuli 
(Clements) ; Hy'droid {eUos, like), 
Potonie's term for a water-conducting 
strand in aerial stems; a tracheid, 
cf. Hydrome; hy'droger {gero, I 
bear), water-bearing, as hydwg'era 
Fa'sa, threads in a spiral vessel 
which were formerly supposed to 
convey fluid; hy'drolated, combined 
with the elements of water, by 
Hydrola'tion ; Hydroleu'cite ( -f 
Leucite), Van Tieghem's term for 
vacuoles in cell-sap, which he further 
subdivides into tanniferous '-', oxal- 
iferous -- , coloured ~ , albuminiferous 
■^ , in accordance with their produc- 
tion of tannin, oxalates, coloui'ing 
matter, or aleurone ; Hy'drolist, cf. 
Cytohydrolist, Proteohvdrol- 
LST ; hy'drolysed, {Kv<ns, a loosing), 
chemically decomposed by taking up 
the elements of water ; Hydrol'ysis, 
the act of being hydrolysed ; Hy'dro- 
lyst = Hydrolist ; Hy'drolyte, the 
substance which undergoes fermen- 
tation (Al'iiistrong) ; hydrolyt'ie, 
causing hydrolysis ; Hy'drome, the 
hydral or water-system of a vascular 
bundle, cf. Hadromr ; water-con- 
ducting tissue in stems, particu- 
larized into, ~ -cyrinder, conducting 
vasculir tissue supplying wate^; '- 
-man'tle, composed of elements 
identical with the hydroids of the 
leaf- traces; — sheath, a separation - 




layer between Hadkome and Lep-- 
TOME: — stele, = -Cvlindek; ~' 
-Bte'reome or ->^ -strand, a unit of 
the water vascular tissues (Tansley 
and Chick) ; Hydromeg'a therm, 
(;te7o, great ; Ofp^t], heat), Warming's 
tei ni for a plant which needs mucli 
heat and moisture, as the natives of 
nidst tropical regions ; Hydromor- 
ph'osis, Hydromor'phy {(xSpcpwais, a 
shaping), structural peculiarities in- 
duit d by being submerged (Herbst); 
Hydronas'ty (vao-T^y, pressed), curva- 
tures produced by changes in fluid 
relationships in the tissues; adj. hy- 
dronas'tic; Hy'drone, the simple fun- 
damental molecule of whicii water is 
composed ( Armstrong) ; Hydroph'ilae 
(0tAew, I love), (1) water-pollinated 
plants ; (2) = Crvptooams; hydro- 
pVilous {cf>i\4<i}, I love), (1) some 
aijuatic Phanerogams, and many 
Cryptogams which need, water in 
order to b« fertilized ; (2) dwelling 
in wet land or water (Clements) ; 
~ Fun'gi, refers to those Fungi 
which are allied to Sapro/cjaia ; 
Hy'drophyll {(px'iWoy, a leaf), the 
leaf of a iiydropliyte (Clements). 

hydrophylla'ceous, pertaining to Jly- 
(Irop/ii/lluiii or its allies. 

Hy'drophytes, Hydrophy'ta (u5u>p, 
water; (pvrhv, a plant), water-]>lants, 
partially or wholly immersed ; Hy- 
drophyti'um, a ])lant association of 
bog and swam]) plants ; hydrophyt'ic, 
relative to Hydrophytes ; Hydro- 
phytol'Dgy (Ao><Js, discourse), a 
treatise on water-plants. 

hydrop'ic {vSpoiriKos, dropsical), Cells, 
certain enlarged cells in Cyano- 
phvceae (I'rand). 

Hy'droplast {">5<ap, watf-r; irAaarba, 
moulded), an apparent vacuole in 
which aleurone-grains arise ; Hydro- 
plast'ids, pi., Van Tieghern's term 
for a[>p.irent va-uoles in the endo- 
speruj of the seel of Itu'iinis; Hy- 
drople'on (ttAcji/, full, = a)j agi^regate 
of molecules, but smaller than a 
micella), water o*" crystallization ; 
hydroBtat'ic {(rrariKhs, standing), 
"completing the succession under 

hydrophytic conditions " (Clements); 
Hydroste'reids (<rTep€^«, solid), pro- 
senchymatous thick-walled elements, 
with conspicuous pits, but without 
spiral thickening on tlie wails (Fla- 
berlandt) ; Hydroste'reome, trans- 
verse, the transverse parenchyma 
.)f Pudocu r pus aud Ci/ras (I5ernard) ; 
Hydrotax'is {ri^is, order), creeping 
from dry to moist situations, as 
]>la<modia (Verworn) ; adj. liydro- 
tact'ic ; Hydrotribi'um {rpi$h, 
grinding), "bad lands" foimatiou ; 
hydrotriboph'ilus (^zAeco, I love), 
dwelling in bad lands; Hydrotribo- 
phy'ta {(purhu, a plant), bad land 
plants (Clements) ; Hydrot'rophy 
{rpocpr], food), unef|ud growth caused 
by une(iual supply of mo'sture on 
one side of a part (Wiesner); hydro- 
trop'ic {Tpoir}}, a turning), (1) un 
eijual growth dvie to ditVerence in 
the supply of moisture ; (2) apj)lied 
to successions whicli become meso- 
phyti(; (Clements) : Hydrot'ropiam, 
the phenomena indu('ed by the 
influence of moisture on growing 
organs ; pos'itive ~ , turning towards 
the source of moisture ; neg'ative ^ , 
turning away from moisture. 

hy'emal, hi/cnm'lL'i (/j/g/zw, winter) -- 
HI KM A MS, pertaining to winter. 

hygrochas'tic {vyphs, moist ; x°"''Ma^'' 
I yawn), applied by Ascherson U- plants in which the bursting 
of the fruit and dispersion of ^le 
spores or seeds is caused by ab- 
sorption of water, as in Aiiasfatiai 
hinrochuntica, Linn. ; Hygroch'asy, 
the act in question ; Hy'gro diflfu'- 
sion, the taking in of moist air by 
diflusion, and its subseiiuent extru- 
sion from looser tissue of the leaf 
(Olnio) ; Hygrodrimi'ura (V"M''J. a 
co])pice), a iiojiical forest formation 
(Diels) ; hygromet'ric (;(fT;>oi/, a 
measure), moving un<ler tiie influence 
of more or less moisture, hygro3co[)ic; 
Hygromor'phism {po,>(Pv, shape), (1) 
form (h'termined by nn>ist surround- 
ings ; (2) the state of little water 
absorj)tion aud erjually little evapo- 
ration (Drude) ; adj. hygromor'phic; 




hygroph'anous {<paivw, I appear), 
looking watery when moist, and 
opaque when dry (Cooke); Hygro- 
ph'ilae {<pi\fu}, I love), moisture- 
loving plants; hy'gropliile, hy'gro- 
ph'ilous, pertaining to Hygro])hyte8; 
Hygrophorbi'um (c^op/S^, pasture), 
low moor formation (Diels) ; hygro- 
pli'orous, water-bearing, or saturated 
with it; apjjjied by Spruce to certain 
Hepaticae ; Hy'grophytes {(pvrbv, a 
plant), marsh] ilants, or plants which 
need a large supply of moisture for 
their growth ; Hygropliyti''a, for- 
mations of hygiophytes (Diels) ; 
Hy'groplasm {Trkda/xa, moulded), 
Nageli's term for the fluid portion 
of protoplasm ; cf. Steheoplasm ; 
Kygropoi'um {Tr6a, grass), meadow 
formation (Diels) ; hygroscop'ic 
{ffKonfoj, I see), susceptible of .ex- 
tending or shrinking on the applica-, 
tion or removal of water or vapour ; 
~ Cells, certain cells in the leaves 
of grasses which cause them to alter 
in shape in dry weather, known also 
as bulliform cells ; Hygroscopic'ity, 
Hygroscopic' Has, the hygroscopic 
property ; Hygrosphagni'um {Sphag- 
num, bog-moss), high moor (Diels), 

Hy'lad (i^At;, forest; + ad), a forest 
plant ;Hyli'um, a forest fonnation ; 
hyloc'ola, dwelling in fon sis. 

hylocomnio'sus, moSsy, composed of 
Jhjlocomniura and similar J^Iosses 
as a formation (Nilsson). 

Hylo'dad (-f ad), a \\\ ait of the follow- 
ing; Hylodi'um (uAoStjs, wooded), 
pi. -la, dry open woodland forma- 
tions; hylodoph'ilus (tpiXe-x, I love), 
dwelling in dry woods ; Hylo'dophyte 
{<pvrhv, a i)lant), a dry woodland 

Eylog'amy (uAtj = material ; ydfios, 
marriage), the fusion of a sexual with 
a vegetative nucleus; Hyloids (tISos, 
resemblance), crystals in Gouania 
leaves suggesting logs of wood as to 
shape ; hyloph'ilus, dwelling in 
forests; Hylophy'ta, pi , forest plants 
(Clements) ; Hy'lophyte {(pvrhv, a 
plant J, a plant which grows in woods, 
usually moist ; adj. hylophyt'ic 


Hy'lus, Hy'luin=HiLUM. 

Hy'men (vfi^v, a membrane), a skin 
or membrane ; hyme''nial (1) per- 
taining to the Hymenium ; (*J) 
relating to the reproductive organs 
in certain Cryptogams ; '~ Al'ga, 
the algal cell in a sporocarp in 
Lichens, also termed ~ Oonid'iom ; 
~ Lay'er = Hyme'nium, an aggre- 
gation of sj)ore mother-cells in a 
continuous layer on a sporophore, 
the .s])oriierous part of the frucdtiia- 
tion in Fungi; hymeno'des (elSos, 
like), having a membranous texture ; 
Hymenoli'chen (+ Lichen), a term 
devised by Mattirolo for a Lichen 
which is symbiotically assoi iated 
with a hymenomycetous Fungus ; 
hymenomyce'tous {/xvK-ns, a mush- 
room), having the hymenium ex- 
posed at maturity, the spores borne 
on basidia ; Hy'menophore, Hyvieno- 
phm-'iiim {<pop€<t3, I carry), in Fungi 
that part which bears the hymen- 
ium, the sporophore ; Hy^'menopode, 
Hymeiwpod'ium {-novs, vodhs, a foot), 
Fayod's name for the hypothecium ; 
hymenopt'erid Flowers, those which 
can be pollinated only by Hymenop- 
tera», e.g. Leguminosae; Hyme'nulum, 
a disc or shield containing aaci, but 
without an excipulum. 

Hyoscy'amin, an alkaloid contained in 
henbane, Hyo^ajarmis niger, Linn. 

Hypalle'lomorph, (vvh, under; -f 
Allei.omoki'H), the constituents of 
comi)Ound allelomorphs (Bateson). 

Hypan'thlum, Hypantho'dium {&v6osy 
a Hower^, an enlargement or develop- 
ment of the torus undei' the calyx ; 
a syconium. 

Hyperanisog'amy (ywfp, above; &yi(ros, 
unequal ; ydfxos, marriage), the female 
gamete, at first active, and much 
larger than the male gamete (Hartog); 
cf. Oogamy; hyperbor'ean, hyper- 
hor'eus {fiopeas, the north wind), 
northern ; Hyperchimae'ra (-{- Chi- 
MAEH.v), a giaft-hybrid resembling 
a tiue hybrid intermediate between 
its ]>arents (Strasburger). 

hyperchromat'ic ( vvip, above ; xpufM- 
riKbs, suited for colour), readily 




susceptible of taking colour, or in- 
tensified colouration ; Hyperd'romy 
{Spofios, a course), when anadromous 
and catadromous venation o curs on 
one side of a Fem-frond (Prantl) ; 
hyperhy'dric, Klister's expression 
for an outlet or overflow for water in 
tissues; hypermetatrop'ic, defined 
as when " the ovary of one plant 
receives pollen from another of a 
flower of the same or a second plant, 
while the ovary of the lattei' flower 
receives pollen from another asso- 
ciated with the first ovary " (K. 
Pearson) ; Hypermetat'ropy, the 
condition in question; Hy'perplasy 
{v\(iacra}, I shape), an abnormal 
groAvth of tissue due to undue cell- 
division (Kuster); adj. hyperplast'ic ; 
hyperstomat'ic, hyperstom'atous (-+- 
Stoma), having the stomata on the 
upper surface of the leaf; hyper- 
troph'ic {rpoiph, food;, morbidly 
enlarged ; Hyper'trophy, an abnormal 
enlargement of an organ, presumably 
by excess of nourishment ; Hyper'tro- 
phytes {(pvrhi-, a plant), a term em- 
ployed by Wakker for those parasitic 
Fungi which cause hypertrophy in 
the tissues. 

Hy'pha {ixph, a web), pi. Hy'phae, 
element of the thallus in Fungi, a 
cylindric thread-like brancheil body 
developing by apical growth and 
usually septate ; Sieve '~ , or Trum'pet 
— , a special form found in Algae, 
bulging at each septum (F. W. 
Oliver) ; hy'phal, relating to hyphae ; 
~ Bod'ies, short thick hyphae in 
certain Fungi, which produce fruc- 
tifying hyphae or conidiophores 
(Thaxter) ; ~ Tis'suo, interwoven 
hyphae, constituting the tissues of 
the larger Fungi. 

Hyphalmy'ro - plank'ton {ixpaKiivpos, 
somewhat salt, -f Plankton), the 
floating organisms of brackish water 

Hyphas'ma {v<pac/xa, a web), the 
thallus of Agarics. 

Hyphe'ma {v<p7], a web), used by Winks 
for the hyphal layer in Lichens; 
Hyphench'yma(^7Xi'iUO) an infusion), 

tissue of felted hyphae ; HypMdlum, 
a term proposed by Minks for 
Spermatium ; hyphod'romous, -mas 
{SpSfios, a course), used when the 
veins are sunk in the substance of 
a leaf, and thus not readily visible ; 
Hyphomyce'tes are Fungi imperfccti; 
hyphomyce'tous {fxvKr^s, a mush- 
room), applied to Fun^i bearing 
their spores on simple or branched 
hyphae ; Hy'phopode, Eyphopod'ium 
(irouj, irodhs, a foot), appendages on 
the mycelium of Meliola which bear 
the perithecia (Gaillard) ; Hypho- 
stro'ma + {arpw/xa, spread out), the 
mycelium of Fungi ; Hyphothairinm 
{daXKhs, a sprout) = Hypothallus. 

Hyphydrogam'icae {v-rrh, under; vSwp, 
water; yd/xos, marriage), plants 
whose flowers are fertilized under 
Water, as Naias (Knuth) ; Hyphy- 
drog'amy, the condition specified. 

Hypne'tum, a plant-association com- 
posed of Mosses, especially of 
Hy/inum, and its allies. 

Hyp'nocyst (yVvos, sleep • kixttis, a bag 
or pouch), in Pediastreae, etc., a dor- 
mant stage assumed when the con- 
ditions for growth are unfavourable ; 
Hyp'noplasm (irA.a(r/xo, moulded), 
the protoplasm of a dormant in- 
dividual, as of a seed, cf. Necro- 
PLASM ; Hyp'noplasy {ir\d(T(ra), I 
shape), arrested development due 
to various inhibiting reactions, which 
prevent the cells or tissues attaining 
normal size (Kuster); Hypno'sis, 
the state of dormant vitality shown 
by seeds whilst still retaining their 
power of germination (Escombe); 
Hyp'nosperm (avfpfxa, a seed), the 
winter state of the zygosperm of 
Jhjdrodictyoi\ , Hyp'nosporange, Hjrp- 
nosporan'gium ( -l- Sporange), a 
product of the modification of the 
root of Botrydium, a sporangium 
which produces zoospores after a 
resting period (Rostafinski) ; Hyp'- 
nospore, a resting spore ; Hyp'iiote, 
an organism in a dormant state ; 
hypnot'ic, dormant, not dead, as 
in seeds ; Hypnothallas {QaWhs, a 
young branch), Chodat's term for 




gi'owth by cell-division from bypno- 
cysts, as in Mmostrotna ; Hypnozy'- 
g'ote (+ Zygote) a di'i-mant zygute 
or union of two sexual cells (Hartog). 
Hy'poachene(virb, under; -f Achene), 
an achene from an inferior oviry 
(Villari); Hypoascid'ium (+ As- 
cidium), a funnel- shaped growth, 
the inner surface corresponding with 
the lower surface of the metamor- 
phosed leaf (C. de Candolle) ; hypo- 
ba'sal (iSacTK. a pedestal), behind 
the basal wall, employed as regards 
the posterior half of a proembryo ; 
cf. EPIBASAL ; Hyp'oblast = Hypo- 
blas'tus {^KaffTos, a shoot), the 
fleshy cotyledon of grasses ; Hypo- 
carp'ium {Kaptrhs, fruit), an enlarged 
growth of the peduncle beneath the 
fruit, as in Anacardium ; hypo- 
carpoge'an, -gens {Kapirhs, fruit; 777, 
the earth), = hvpugaean ; hypo- 
carpog'enous (7e»'os, offspring), the 
flowers and fruit produced under- 
ground (Pampaloni) ; c/. amphicar- 
I'OGENous; Hy'pochil, Hypochi'lunn, 
Hypochi'lus {x^'iXos, a lip), the-basal 
portion of the labellum of Orchids; 
Hypochlor'in (xAwpos, light green), 
Pringsheim's name for a constituent 
of chlorophyll corpuscles, supposed 
to be the first visible product of 
constructive metabolism ; Hypochro'- 
myl {xp(*>H-a, colour) = Hypochlo- 
Rix ; Hypocop'ula {-{- Copula) 
the lower or intermediate band o"f 
cell-wall in the lower and smaller 
valve of certain Diatoms ; Hypocot'yl 
{+ CoTYLKDOx), the axis of an 
embryo below the "otyledons, but 
not passing beyond them ; adj. 
hypocot'ylar ; hypocotyle'donary, 
below the cotyledons and above the 
root ; hypocrate'riform, hypocraieri- 
t'orm'is (Kpar^p, a bowl ; forma, 
shape), salver-shaped, as the corolla 
of the Primrose, Primuhi vulgaris, 
Huds. ; hypocrateriinor'phous, -phus 
{lxop<pv, shape), salver-shaped ; the 
same meaning as in the last, i)ut 
derived wholly from the Greek ; 
Hyp'odenn=Hypoder'nia, Hypoder'- 
viis (5f^/ia, skin, liide\ the inner 

layer of the capsules of Mosses; 
hypoder'mal, beneath the epidermis; 
~ Cell, the a}>ical cell of tlie nucellus 
giving rise to the embryo-sac ; hypo- 
der'mic Zone, Bastit's term for struc- 
tuie deschbed by him in the scales 
of the rhizome of certain Mosses 
distinct from the bundle in the mid- 
rib; hypogae'ous, -cus, hypoge'al, 
hypoge'an (7^, the earth), growing 
or remaining below ground, as certain 
cotyledons, as in the Pea ; hypog'- 
enous {yfvos, offspring), produced 
beneath ; hypog'ynous, -nils {ywii, 
a woman), free from but inserted 
beneath the pistil or gynaecium ; 
Hypog'yny, the condition of possess- 
ing hypogynous flowers ; hypolitli'io 
{\ieos, a stone), growing beneath 

hypom'^enous, -us (uTro/xfVoi, 1 stay 
behind), free, not adherent, arising 
from below an organ without ad- 
hesion to it. 

Hypomic'lia [sic, possibly a misprint 
for ' ' Hypomycelia " from virh, under ; 
-f- Mycelium], "the mycelium of 
certain Fungals " (Lindley) ; hypo- 
nas'tic {uaarhs, close pressed), (1) 
used of a doi si ventral organ in Avhich 
the ventral surface grows more 
actively than the dorsal, as shown 
in flower expansion ; (2) by Van 
Tieghem employed for auatropous 
or campylotropous ovules when the 
curvature is in an upward direction ; 
Hyponas'ty, the state in question ; 
Hy'ponym {uvo/xa, name), a name to 
be rejected for want of an identified 
type ; Hypoog'amy (<ii>v, an egg ; 
yd/ios, marriage), a shortened form 
of Hypehanlsogamy; hypopel'tate 
(-f peltate), applied to a phyllome 
having the base of the limb on the 
inferior face ; cf. epi peltate (C. de 
Candolle) ; hypophloe'odal, hypo- 
phloe'odic {(p\oihs, bark), applied to 
Lichens when growing under the 
epideraiis of the bark ; Hy'pophyll, 
Hypophyl'lum {<pv\\ov, a leaf), (1) 
an abortive leaf or scale under another 
leaf or leaf-like organ, as in Ruscus ; 
(2) also used for the lower portion 




of the leaf from which stipules 
develop, adherent to the axis and 
ultimately forming the leaf-scar ; 
hypophyliop'odous {t6vs, a foot), 
radical leaves present when flower- 
ing, but not numerous ; used of 
certain Hieracla ; cf. phyllopu- 
Dous ; hypophyllous, -Iur {<pv\\ov, 
a leaf), situated under a leaf, or 
growing in that position ; Hy'po- 
pliyse, ~ Cell = Hypoph'ysis {<pvoi, 
i grow), the ceii from which 
the priiuary root and root-cap 
of the embryo in Angiosperms is 
derived • adj. hypophyg'ial ; Hy'po- 
plasy {nKdaao), I mould), defective 
development due to insuffic ent 
nourishment, and consequent cessa- 
tion of growth (Kii^ter) ; adj. hypo- 
plast'io ; Hypoplea'ra {ir\tvpa, a 
rib), the inner half-girdle of the 
frustule of a Diatom (0. Muel- 
ler) ; Hypopod'ium (iroOj, iro8bs, a 
foot), the sta,lk of a carpel ; hypo- 
pro'teoid (+ i'hoteoid), used of 
plants having sclerotic cells on 
the lower surface of their leaves 
(Vesque) ; Hypopter'ies + [vTephy, 
a feather or win^')> ^ wing growing 
from below, as the seed of a Fir- 
tree ; hypoptera'tus, J having wings 
produced from below ; Hyposath'ria 
{<ra9phs, rotten), the state of secon- 
dary ripening styled bletting, as in 
medlars ; Hy'posperm {avepixa, a 
seed), the lower part of an ovule or 
seed, below the level where the in- 
tegument becomes free from the 
nucellus (F. \V. Oliver) ; Hypo- 
sporan'giam (arvopii^ a seed ; iiyyfiov, 
a vessel), the indusium of Ferns, 
when proceeding from below the 

Hy'postase {vv6<rra<ri5, a support), a 
disc of lignified tissue at the baise of 
the ovule in certain orders (Van 

Hypoit'asis {v'^h, under; ardaris, a 
standing), (1) the suspensor of an 
embryo ; (2) a unit- factor concealed 
or inhibited (Bateson) ; adj. hypo- 
static ; cf. Epistasis ; Hy'postate 
= Hyposperm ; hypos tomat'io, 

hypostom'atous {+ Stoma), with 
the stomata on the under surface; 
Hypostom'iam, cells fofming the 
lower portion of the stomiura of 
the annulus of a rupturing 8i>oran- 
gium in the Ferns ; Hypostro'iaa 
{ffrpoifia, spread-out) (1) = My- 
celium; (2) the stroma at the base 
of the fructification only (Tra verso) ; 
hjrpotet'rarch (-f tetrauch), in a 
triareh stele, the division of the 
median protoxylem ; hypothal'line 
(daWhs, a young branch), relating 
to the hypothallus or resembling 
it ; hypothallin'ic, situated beneath 
the thallus of a Lichen ; Hypo- 
tharUum, Areschoug's term for the 
basal rhizoidal layer in calcareous 
Al>(ae ; Hypothal'lus, the m.arginal 
outgrowth of hyphae in crustace- 
0U8 Lichens ; Hypothe'ca {B-fiKv, a 
case), the inner half- frustule of a 
Diatom (0. Mueller) ; hypothe'cal, 
belonging to the hyf»otheca of a 
Diatom ; Ky'pothece = Hypothe'- 
cium, a layer of hyplial-tissue 
immediately beneath the hyinenium 
in certain Cryptogams ; hjrpotri'arch 
( -f TKI auch), when in a triareh stele, 
the median protoxylem group is 
lowermost (Prantl) ; Hypot'rophy 
{rpo<f>^, food), Wieisner's term when 
the growth of cortex or wood is 
greater on the lower side of the 
branch ; also when buds or stipules 
form on the loner side ; adj. hypo- 
t'ropous ; Hypoval'va {valva, a door) , 
the valve of the inner "shell" or 
hypotheca of a Diatom (0. Mueller); 
Hypoxan'thin {^audhs, yellow), a 
substance akin to xanthin, which 
has been found in germinating seeds. 

Kypsi'um, or Hypsi'on {u>i, high, 
aloft), a succession of plants by 
elevation (Clements) ; Hyp'sophyll 
{(ftvWoyy a leaf), a bract of the in- 
florescence, a reduced or modified 
leaf towards the upper end of a 
shoot ; cf. Catapiiyll ; Oer. Hoch- 
blatt; hypsophyl'lary, relating, to 
bracts; ~ Leaf, a bract. 

hys'ginus {v^ytvov), a red colour, or 
dark reddish pink. 




liysteran'thous, -thus, -this {va-repos, 
following ; &veos, a fiower), used 
of leaves which are produced after 
the flowers, as in tlie Almond ; 
hysterogenet'ic = hysterogen'ic 
{jivos, race, offspring), used of iu- 
tercellular spaces which are formed 
in the older tissues ; hysterolyai- 
g'enous (At'cTis, a loosing ; y4vos, oft"- 
spriug), when a cavity is ultimately 
formed by the dissolution of cells ; 
Hys'terophyme {<pviJ.a, a tumour or 
excrescence), elementary organs 
which have been mistaken fou 
independent animal or vegetaUiG 
organisms (K. Karsten) ; hystero- 
phy'tal {(purhu, a plant), .fungoid ; 
Hys'terophyte, a plant which lives 
upon dead matter ; a saprophvte ; 
Hysteropias'ma {Trxda-fj-a, moulaed), 
Nfigeli's term for the more liuid part 
of PpanoPLASM ; Hyst'erostele 
(-f- Stsle), a stele which is sup- 
posed to be reduced in structure, 
as in Ilippuris and Potcunogeton 

Hystrei'ia {varJfirj, the matrix), a 
synonym of Cari'EL. 

ianth'intts {IduBiyos, violet colour), 
bluish purple, violet. 

iced, having a glittering papillose 
surface, as Mesemhryantltemum erys- 
tallinum, Linn. 

Ichneu'inon Flowers, those which are 
specially visited by Ichneumouidae. 

Tcones, pi. {icon, cIkuv, a iigure), 
pictorial representations of plants ; 
botanic figures. 

icosahed'ral {eUoffi, twenty; 15/ja, a 
seat or base), having twenty sides, 
as tlie pollen-grains of Iragopof/on ; 
icosan'der, icosan'drous, -rus {a-^hp, 
av^phs, a inan), with twenty or 
more stamens ; Icosan'dria, a Lin- 
nean class of plants with twenty 
stamens or more, inserted on the 

I'cotype [iiKhs, what is like), types 
serving for identification, but not 
previously used in literature. 

icter'icus (, icteri'nu3 [iKTepixhs, 
jaundiced), the colour of a person 

suffering from jaundice, impure 

Ic'terus (Lat. , a yellow bird), vegetable 

jaundice ; a form of Chlorosis 

shown by yellowness. 
Id (jStjs, sutiix implying paternity), 

an hereditary unit recognized in 

granules and chromosomes ; I'dant, 

a serial complex of ids, Weismann's 

term for Chromosome. 
ide'al {iclealis, existing in idea) 

An'gle = Angle, Ideal. 
Identifica'tion, used for Determination 

Id'eotype, cf. Idiotype. 
-i'des, -i'deus (elSos, like), a suffix in 

Greek compounds denoting similar ; 

cf. -O-IUES. 

idioandrospor'ous [IBios, peculiar ; -r 
Androspohe), when dwarf-males of 
Oedogoniaceae are produced from 
zoospores contained in certain ceils 
of neuter individnals (Wittrock) ; 
Idloblast {^AaoThs, a bud or shoot), 

(1) a special cell in a tissue which 
niaikedly dilFers from the rest in 
form, size, or contents, as the 
''stellate-cells" in Nymphaea ; 

(2) used by Hertwig for Pangen, 
a unit of hereditary substance, a 
biopliore; ol'eoid ■^ , long sinuous 
sclerenchym cells, occurring in Olea ; 
prot'eoid -' , similar cells in Protea ; 
Idioeiiro'mosome (-{• Chromosome), 
special chromosomes believed to 
convey sex-tendency (Wilson) ; 
Idiochromid'ia, pi. (+ Chromidia), 
generative chromidia; idiog'yntta X 
(7ui/r?, a woman), not having a pistil ; 
Idiomeres', pK {/J-^pos, a part), struc- 
tures evolved during the resting 
stage in nuclear division, and 
believed to be the sexual elements 
of the resultant nucleus ; Idio- 
morpVosis i/j.6p<t>u<ns, a shaping), a 
special kind of metamorphosis, as 
the petals of CartielUa, from bundles 
of stamens, or petaloid sepals of 
Polyyala (Delpino) ; Idioplasm 
{v\d(Tixa, moulded), Nageli's term 
for the active organic part of the 
protoplasm, identified with Chro- 
matin ; Id'ioplast (irAao-Tos, 




moulded), employed by F. S. Lloyd 
for Idioblast; a cell with special 
contents ; Id'iosome {au>i^a, a body), 
a hypothetical ultimate unit of the 
cell, a biophove ; idiotharamous, 
idiothaVamus {ddKaaos, a bedroom), 
having different coloration from 
the thalhis, a term in lichenology ; 
Idiot'ery {repas, a monster), Gub- 
ler's term for a monstrosity ^Yhich is 
peculiar to the individual ; c/. Taxi- 
TEKY ; Id'iotype (rviro;, a type), a 
specimen identified by the describer, 
but not from the original locality ; 
idiotypic, sexual (Radlkoler) ; the 
condition is Idiot'ypy; rf. zelotypic. 
ig'iiexis (Lat., fiery), flame-coloured, 
used for combinations of red and 
yellow, or brilliant in tone. 
ignia'rius (Lat., pertaining to fire), 
of the consistence of German tinder, 
derived from puff-balls. 
-lie, suflBx to denote Society, as Iridile 

for a society of Iris (Clements). 
illegit'imate, fertilization in dimorj.hic 
or tvimorphic flowers so termed, when 
occuiTing between parts of diverse 
length, as long with short, etc. 
Imberb'is (Lat.), beardless, devoid oi 

Imbibit'ion {imbibo, I drink in), the 
act of imbibing ; -^ The 'cry, Sachs's 
suggestion that water ascends in 
plants by a chemical process in the 
cell-walls, and not by actual passage 
upwards by vessels ; -^ Walter, the 
amount which occurs in organic 
bodies (Warming). 
im'bricate, imbrica'ted, imbrica'txcs 
(Lat., covered with gutter tiles), 
(1) overlapping as the tiles on a 
roof; (2) in aestivation, used of a 
calyx or corolla where one piece 
must be wholly internal and one 
wholly external, or overlapping at 
the edge only; imbric'ative is a 
iminarg inate, immargina'tus {im = 
not; margo, marginis, a border), 
not margined or bordered. 
izaxnedia'tns (Mid. Lat., not mediate), 
proceeding directly from a part, as 
pedicels of a raceme. 

immer'sed, immer'sus (Lat., plunged), 
below tl^e surface ; (1) entirely under 
water ; (2) embedded in the substance 
of the leaf or thallus. 
immo'bile, immo'bilis (Lat.), immov- 
able, as many anthers; opposed to 
Immotiflor'ae (wnnotus, motionless; 
Jlos, Jloris, a flewer), Delpino's term 
for v.-ind- fertilized plants whose 
flowers are steadily fixed, 
immnta'tus (Lat.), unchanged, as 
the phyllaries of JJieracium after 
impa'ri-pin'nate, -^ -pinna'tus {impar, 
unequal ; -f pinnate), pinnate with 
an odd terminal leaflet. 
imper'fsct, imperfcc'tus (Lat., incom- 
plete), where certain parts Usually 
]iresent are not developed; as a 
flower may be imperfect, that is, 
imperforate {in, into ; per, through) ; 
fora'tus, bored), without an opening, 
closed (Crozier). 
implex'us (Lat., an entwining), en- 
tangled, interlaced. 
implica'tus (Lat.), entangled, woven 

Impregna'ting Tube, an outgi-owth 
from the antheridium of Pyihium, 
which penetrates the periplasm to 
the surface of the oosphere. 
Impregna'tion (i??i=in; praegnalus, 
pregnancy), fertilization, the union 
of male and female elements ; 
gen'erative '^ , the fusion of the 
generative nucleus with the egg; 
vegeta'tive -, Strasburger's term 
for the fusion of the polar nuclei, 
either with each other or with one 
of the generative nuclei. 
ixnpres'sui (Lat. , pressed into), marked 

with slight depressions. 
impu'bes, not mature, as impu'bes 
Ae'tas, the period before impregna- 
inadhe^ring {incidhaeren^, not cling- 
ing), free from adjacent parts. 
inaequa'lis (Lat.), unequal in size; 
inaequimag'nuB, J {magnus, large), 
not the same in size ; inaeqailat'eral, 
inaequilatera'lis, inaequilat' eris 




{hdus, late lis, a side), unequal sided, 
as tlie leaf of Begonia ; inaequiner'- 
vius [nervus, a ucvve), when the 
veins are of dissimilar size ; inae'- 
quivalve, inaequivarvular {valva, a 
door-leaf), used of the glumes of 
plants which sliow inequality in 
their constituent valves. 

inane', ina'nis (Lat. ), empty, void ; 
as an anther containing no pollen ; 
Inanit'ion, the condition of green 
cells induced hy want of oxygen 
and consequent loss of power of 
assimilation (Pringsheim). 

inan'therate (Crozier) = inanthera'tUB, 
(in = not; + Anther), having no 
anther ; said of ..abortive or sterile 

inappendic'ulate, inappendicida'tua 
(j/i = not; appcndicula, a small 
appendage), without appendages ; 
inaper'tus {aperLus, opened), not 
opened, contiary to its hahit. 

Inarch'ing, grafting hy approach, the 
scion remaining partly attaclicd to 
its parent, until union has taken 

inartic'ulate, inarticula'tas (Lat., 
indistinctj, not jointed, continuous. 

incanes'cent, incancs'cens (Lat., turning 
hoary), becoming grey, canescent. 

inca'nous (Crozier) = inca'nus (Lat.), 
quite grey, hoary. 

incar'nats, incarna'his (Lat., clotlied 
iu llesh), flesli-coloured, '"carneous." 

In'cept, In'ception [inceptum, a begin- 
ning), suggested I'endering of the 
German " Anlage." 

Inch, an English measure, equalling 
2.54 cm. ; in Latin, uiuia, uncialis. 

inci'sed, Inci'sus (Lat., cut into), cut 
sharply into the margin ; inci'so- 
denta'tus, slashed toothed ; ~ -ser- 
ra'tus, deep-slashed serrations ; In- 
cis'ion, Incis'io, an indentation on 
the margin of a foliar orgai). 

inclining, inoli'ned {inclinatus, bent 
down), falling away from the hori- 
zontal direction. 

inclu'ded, indu'sus (Lat., shut in), 
not protruding beyond the sur- 
rounding organ ; includen'tia Fo'lia, 
applied to alternate leaves which 

in the sleep-position approach buds 
in their axils, seeming to protect 
them as in Sida (De Candolle). 

Incog'nit [incognitus, not examined). 
Used by H. C. Watson for those 
British plants whose nativity or 
distribution are matters of doubt. 

incomple'te, ' iiicompletus (Lat., not 
finished), wanting some essential 
part ; Inoomple'tae, usually synony- 
mous with Mouochlamydeae, but 
variously circumscribed by ditferapt 

incomprees'ible [in =■ not ; compresso, I 
press together), ''offering resistance 
to compression " (Drummond). 

inconspic'uous, -cuus (Lat., not re- 
markable), not readily seen from 
srr.all size or lack of colour. 

incras'sate, incrassa'tus (Lat., thick- 
ened), made stout, as the leaves of 

incre'asing = accrescent ; incres'cent 
{incresco, I grow), growing (Crozier). 

Incrusta'tion {Incrusta'tio, an encas- 
ing), fossils encased in mineral sub- 
stance, with the actual tissue 
wanting ; easts which give impres- 
sions of markings or cavities, but 
.show no organic structure. 

IncruBt'ing, inc7-iista'tits (Lat., coated), 

(1) used of seeds so firm in their 
pericarp as to seem one with it ; 

(2) encrusted witli earthy matter. 
IncvLb&'tion {Incubatio, a brooding), the 

time from the moment of infection, 
or sowing of spores, until growth is 

in'cubous, -bus {iiicubo, I lie upon), 
the oblique insertion of distichous 
leaves, so that the lower overlap 
the upper on the same side of tlie 
stem on the dorsal surface, as in 
Bazzania ; cf. succubous. 

incum'bent, incum'bens (Lat., leaning 
on), resting or leaning upon, pro- 
cumbent ; '^ An'ther, one which lies 
against the inner face of its filament ; 
'^ Cotyle'dons, when the back of one 
liesngainst the radicle, shown as || o. 

incur'ved, incur' vies ; incur' vate, in- 
curva'tus {incurvus, bent), bending 
from without inwards. 




indecid'uous {in = not ; deeiduus, cut 
or lopped off), evergreen or persist- 
.cnt foliage (Crozier) ; indefinite, in- 
defini'tus (Lat., not precise), (1) un- 
certain or not positive in character ; 
(2) too many for easy enumeration, 
as an abundance of stamens, de- 
noted by, the sign w ; (3) in an in- 
iiorescenee, when racemose, the main 
axis being capable of constant ex- 
tension; '-' Growth, continuous 
growth and not tlie mere extension 
of a limited organism or bud ; '- 
Inflores'cence, indeterminate or cen- 
trifugal, acropetal of some authors ; 
Indehis'cence (dehiscens, gaping), not 
opening, as of fruits which remain 
closed at maturity; indehis'cent, 
-cens, not opening by valves or along 
regular lines. 

Indepen'dence, the separation of organs 
usually entire. 

Indeterminate, indetermina'tus, not 
terminated absolutely, as an infior- 
esceiice in which no flower ends the 
axis of the Hower-cluster. 

In'dican, a nitrogenous glucoside, by 
its decomposition forming Indigo. 

indifferent iindiffrrens, without dif- 
ference), not specialized or differen- 

In'digene (indiges, native), a native 
plant ; indig'enoue, -nus, original 
to the country, not introduced. 

In'digo, a deep blackish blue obtained 
from various species of Indigo/era ; 
In'digogene, white indigo, or colour- 
less indigotine ; indigotlcos, indigo 
blue, atro-cyaneus ; la'digotine, pure 
blue indigo, forming about four-, 
tenths of the commercial indigo ; 
Indimul'sin, a>i enzyme producing 
indigo in the leaves of Indigo/era. 

indirec'te veno'sus, Link's term for 
lateral veins combined witliin the 
margins, and emitting other little 

Individ'ual, Individ' uum {individ'uus, 
inseparable), a unit of the series 
which constitute species ; Individ'- 
ualism, (1) capable of separate exist- 
ence ; (2) symbiosis in which the 
total aggregate result is wholly dif- 

ferent from any of the symbionta ; 
Individua'tiou, a synonym of the 
last (2). 

indivi'sus (Lat.), undivided, entire. 

induced', applied to those movements 
wliicii are the result of some irrita- 
tion or stim.ulus, as pressure, liglit, 
heat, etc. ; Induc'tion, the produc- 
tion of sensitive movements ; hetero- 
g'enous ~ ,due to two or more causes; 
iaog'enous ~ , due to one cause. 

Indumen'tum (Lat., a garment), any 
covering, as hairiness. 

indup'licate, induplira'tus, indu'plica- 
tive, with the margins bent inwards, 
and the external face of these edges, 
applied to each other, without twist- 

induras'cens (Lat., from induro, I 
harden), hardening by degrees; 
indura'ted, hardened. 

indu'saefonn, indu'sifonn (-f Indu- 
siUM ; forma, shape) ; indu'sial, 
having indusia; '-- Flaps, a false 
indusium in IVoodwardia; indu'siate, 
^indusia' tiis, possessing an indusium ; 
indu'sioid {fl^os, like), John Smith's 
expression for any indusium-like 
covering in Ferns. 

Indu'sium (Lat., a Avoman's under- 
garment), (1) an epidermal out- 
growth covering the sori in Ferns ; 
(2) a ring of collecting hairs below 
the stigma ; (.3) the annulus of some 
Fungi (Lindley). 

Indu'viae (Lat, clothes), (1) persist- 
ent portions of the perianth, or 
leaves which wither, but do not fall 
off; (2) scale-leaves ; indu'viate, tn- 
dnvia'lis, induvia'tus, clotlied with 
withered remnants. 

inembrypna'tua {in = not ; embryo, an 
embryo), having no embryo. 

Inench'yma {U, Ivhs, muscle-tibres ; 
(yxvfia, an infusion), tibro-cellular 
tissue, the cells having the appear- 
ance of spiral vessels, as in Si^hagnuvi. 

inerm', iner'mous, infr'?ni5 (Lat. , un- 
armed), without spines or prickles. 

inezten'iible {in = not ; extensus, 
stretched) "offering resistance to 
stretching " (Drummond). 

ineye', to inoculate, or bud. 




infarc'tate {infarchis, stuffed into), 
turgid or solid. 

Infec'tion Ar'ea, the portion of the 
host attackedby a fungus ; -^ Lay'er, 
a patch of hyphae near the base of 
the scutellum in Lolium temulen- 
turn (Freeman); --' Thread, con- 
tinuous chanis and bacteria passing 
from cell to cell ; -- Tube = Germ- 
tube ; '-' Ve'sicle, the haustoriura 
of an invading fungus ; '~ Zone, a 
series of cells in which the infection 
threads pass from cell to cell ; infec'- 
tious, communicable by infection, 
as diseases in plants, etc. ; caused 
by some organism from outside. 

in'fer-agar'ian (infer, below) Zone, 
H. C. Watson's term for the lowest 
portion of the cultivated lands in 
Great Britain ; ^ arc'tic Zone, a 
similar term for the lowest division 
of his arctic region in Britain ; 
In'ferals, a division of gamopetalous 
Dicotyledons proposed for Kubi- 
aceae, Conipositae, Companulaceae, 

infe'rior (Lat., lower), (1) below some 
other organ, as an -^ Ca'lyx is be- 
low the ovary, or an ~ O'vary 
seems to grow below the adnate 
calyx ; (2) has been used- for anteiior, 
or turned away from the axis. 

infla'ted, infia'tus (Lat., puffed up), 
bladdery, swollen. 

inflec'ted [iyiHec'to, I bend), bent or 

inflex'edj iuyf«r'?«(Lat., bent), turned 
abruptly or bent inward, incurved. 

inflex'ible {in — not ; flexibilis, pliant), 
"offering resistance to bending" 

InfLores'cence, l7{/loresccn'tia{inJioresco, 
I begin to bloom), (1), the disposi- 
tion of the flowers on the floral axis ; 
(2) less correctly used for the Flower 
Cluster: definite '-', when each 
axis in turn is terminated \vith a 
flower, as in a cyme ; indefinite ~ , 
when the floral axis is capable of 
continuous extension, as in a | 
raceme. i 

info'liate {in, in ; folium, a leaf), to i- 
cover with leaves. I 

o 197 

infos'sas (Lat., buried), siink in any- 
thing, as the veins in some leaves, 
but leaving a visible channel. 

in'fra-axil'lary, infra-axilla' )-is {infra, 
below; + axillaris), below the axil. 

infrac'ted, infrac'tus (Lat., broken, 
bent), incurved. 

infracuta 'neons {infra, below ; cutis, 
skin), below the surface, subepider- 
mal; infrano'dal {nodita, a knot), be- 
low a node ; '^ Canals', gaps in the 
medullary rays of Galamiies, below 
the node, leaving prints on the casts 

Infructes'cence {fractus, fruit, by an- 
alogy to inflorescence), (1) the in- 
florescence in a fruiting stage; (2) 
collective fruits. 

va.tTVic'Vio%Q{infraciuo'sus, unfruitful), 
barren, not bearing fruit. 

infundib'ular, infundihxda'ris {in fun- 
dibulnm, a. funnel), funnel-shaped; 
infundibu'liform, infundihulifor'mis 
{forma, shape), shaped like a funnel. 

infus'cate {infuscus, dusky), of a 
brownish tint. 

inhib'ited, (1) used for spores, not 
killed, but whose germination has 
been prevented b}' the use of certain 
solutions ; (2) hindered. 

Inhibit'ion {inhihitio, a restraining), 
modification or restraint in function ; 
Inhib'itor, a restraining or prevent- 
ing factor. 

init'ial {initialis, original); --' Cells, 
cells from which primordial layers 
or nascent tissues arise ; -^ Lay'er, 
the middle cambium layer ; Initials, 
the beginnings of tissues, the early 


of cells or tissues, as Der- 

mat'ogen '^, or Per'ibleni' 
Injec'tion {injeclus, cast into), the fill- 
ing of intercellular spaces with 
water (Crozier). 
in'nate, inna'tus (Lat., natural), (1) 
borne on the apex of the support; 
in an anther the antithesis of 
adnate ; (2) imbedded (Leighton). 
in'ner, internal, nearer the centre than 
something else ; -^ Lam'ina, the 
layer of a lignified cell-wall which is 
next the inside of the cell ; •- Perid'- 
ium, '-' Tu'nic, a more or less coloured 



membrane .wliich surrounds the liy- ■ 
menium in Vcrrucaria beneath the i 
perithecium. I 

in'novan8(Lat.), renewing; innovan'tes i 
Gera'mae, the fixed or persistent buds ; 
of Mosses. 

Innova'tion, /n7?ora7w(Lat., an alter- i 
ation), a newly formed shoot in i 
Mosses, which becomes independent 
from the parent stem by dying off 
behind ; ~ Shoot, a vigorous shoot 
which carries on the further growtli 
of the plant. 

Iimucella'tae(m=:not ; +^l'C', 
Van Tieghem's name for phaneio- 
gamic plants whose ovules want 
nucellns and integuments, such as 
the Santalaceae. 

Inocula'tion {inoculatio, ingrafting), 

(1) grafting, more properly budding, 
a single bud only being inserted ; 

(2) facility for the introduction of 
seed to newly estal)lished beach 
(F. ^Y. Oliver). 

inophyl'lous {U, lv)s, a nerve ; <pv\\ov, 
a leaf), with thread-like veins in the 
leaf (Heinig). 

in'ops (Lat. destitute), poor, deficient 

inorgan'ic {in, not ; + organic), devoid 
of organs ; -^ Ash, the tinal residuum 
after complete combustion ; the 
mineral portion of a vegetable tissue ; 
'^ Com'pounds, those wliich form 
part of animal or plant structure 
derived from mineral substances ; ~ 
Fer'ments, enzymes, as opposed to 
organic ferments, such as l^acteria. 

inos'culatlng {in, into ; osculalw!, 
kissed), anastomosing; Incscula'- 
tion, budding or grafting. 

I'nosite, (ly, Ivhs, strengtli, sinew), a 
saccharine aromatic princi]>le which 
txiiurs in many seeds and other parts 
of plants, especially in climbers ; 
Inotag'mata, pi. (+ Tagma), tl it- 
hypothetical contractile elements of 
protoplasm (T. W. Engelmann). 

Inovula'tae(m, not;4-OvuLUM), phan- 
(Jfogamic plants which have no ovules 
discernible at the time of fertili- 
zation, as the Lorantiiaceae (Van 


in'quinant {inqnino, I stain), stained 

or staining. 
inro'Ued, rolled inwards (Boulger). 
insculpt' {insculptics, engraved), em- 
bedded in rocks, as some Lichens. 
In'sect PoUina'tion, the transfer of 
pollen from the anther to tlic stigma 
of the same or a dilferent tlower bv 
insect visitors ; entomophily. 
iasectiv'orous {insedum, an insect ; 
ro/o, I devour), used of those plants 
which capture insects and absorb 
nutriment from them. 
Insemina'tae {in = not, sonrn, seed), 
j \'an Tieghem's name for those plants 
i whicli do not contain seed separable 
or distinct at maturity; in order to 
f'ermiiiate, the fruit must be sown 
I Insepara'tion {ins.'pciycMis, not sepa- 
rated), Masters's term for coalescence ; 
adj. insep'arate. 
j inser'ted, insf/iun (Lat., put into), 
I joined to or placed on ; inser'tion, 
Inscr'tio^ (1) mode or place where 
one body is attached to its suppoit; 
; (2) Grew's term for a medullary ray. 
'■■ Insit'ion {insitio, a giaiting), the in- 
j sertion of a scion into a stoc!c, 
;■ grafting. 

; lnso\B.'tion {insolo, I expose to the sun), 
I exposure to the direct rays of the 
' sun. 
laspis'snted (/;;, into ; spissalus, thick- 
ened), thickened, as juice by evapo- 
instip'ulate {in ■= not ; + .srirrLATi'), 
I exstipulate (Crozicr). 
' in'teger (Lat., whole), entire, not lobed 
or divided; integer'rimus, an em- 
phatic assertion of the entii'et}'' of 
an organ ; Integmina'tae {in = not ; 
• trr/vicn, a covering), van Tieghem's 
name for }>lants wiiose nucellns is 
devoid of intf^gumcnt; in'tegra 
Ra'dix, an unbranchcd root ; '-' 
Vagi'na, the shcatiiing petiole whicli 
' forms a continuous tube, as in sedges ; 
integrifo'liouB {folium, a leaf), with 
j undivided, or simple leaves. 
I Intcg'ument {intccj^cmenirnn, a cover- 
ing), (1) tiie coveiing of an organ or 
i body; (2) the envelope of an ovule; 




Intcgitmen'ta Flora'lia, the floral en- 
velopes; integnmen'tal Glands, pel- 
tate glands, the integument being 
raised like a bladder due to the 
formation of abundant secretion ; '^ 
Tis'sue, the epidermis and hypoderm. 

in'ter-Bxiirary (mier, between ;+ Axil- 
laris), between the axils; inter- 
biomor'ic ( + Biomore), employed 
to denote the condition of Hyalo- 

inter'caiary {intercaiaris, that to be 
inserted), used of growtls, which is 
not apical but between the apex and 
the base ; ~ Branching, intermediate 
branching short of the apex ; ~ Cell, 
a small cell arising from conjugate 
division, disappearing after the form- 
ation of the aocidiospore mother-cell 
(Grove) ; ~ Infiores'cence, when the 
main axis continues to grow vegeta- 
tively after giving rise to the flowers 
(Parkin) ; ■^ veg'etative Zone, a por- 
tion lying between mature tissue, 
which takes on growth as though a 
growing point ; inter'calated, inter- 
posed, placed between. 

intercarp'eilary {inter, between ; -}- 
Carpel), between the carpels ; inter- 
cell'ular (-f Cellular), between the 
cells or tissues ; -^ Pas'sage, a con- 
tinuous opening between tlie cells ; 
'^ Space, a cavity bounded by the 
cells of a tissue ; — Sub'stanee, 
material extravasated from within 
to outside the cell ; -- Sys'tem, the 
intercellular spaces and adjacent 
tissues (Crozier) ; intercos'tal [cosia, 
a rib), between the ribs or nerves of 
a leaf; intercotyle 'denary ( + Coty- 
ledon), between the cotyledons ; 
Intercros'sing, cross fertilization ; 
Intercu'tis [cutis, the skin), Kroe- 
mer's name for the hyi)odenn of the 
root ; interfascic'ular {fasciculus, a 
bundle), between the vascular 
bundles ; '-' Cam'binm, that formed 
between the buucQes in the primary 
medullary rays; -- conjunc'tive 
Tis'sue = preceding ; /^ Phlo'exn, '^ 
Xylem, respectively formed from the 
'-' CambiuiM ; interfl'lar {filum, a 
thread), between filaments, as the 

resting spore in Meaocarpits (Crozier) ; 
interfolia'ceous {folizim, a leaf; + 
ACEOUs) between the leaves of a pair, 
as the stipules of many Rubiaceae ; 
interfo'liar, situated between two 
opposite leaves ; interfo'liate, inter- 
fo'liar ( -f Foliole), between the 
leaves, or between the leaves and 
some other structure ; Int'erfoyles, 
Grew's name for (1) bracts; (2) 
scales ; (3) stipules. 

intergeri'num (Lat., placed between), 
Lig'nnni+, the dissepiment of a frtiit. 

Interkine'sis {inter, betwe.en ; Klvrjais, 
motion), the heterotypic telophase 
or the period elapsing between the 
two meiotic divisions; Interlob'ule 
( -T- Lobule), name given by Spruce to 
a small plane process of a subulate or 
triangular form, between the lobule 
and the stem in certain Hepaticae. 

interme'diate, interme'dius (Lat., that 
which is between), half-way or 
between ; -^ Bnn'dles, applied to 
somewhat later bundles, as the six 
last in the stem of ClemaUs Vitalha ; 
^ Tis'sue, the ground tissue in 
exogens, except that of the epider- 
mis and vascular bundles ; -^ Type, 
employed by H. C. Watson for those 
plants whose distiibution in Great 
Britain is of a local or doubtful 
range; ~ Zone, (1) the active zone 
between the pith and epidermis, 
containing the vascular bundles in 
JMonocotyledons ; (2) used by H. C. 
Watson as indicating a certain eleva- 
tion, between the agrarian and arctic 

intermicel'lar {inter, between ; + Mi- 
cella), between the micellae; inter- 
molec'ular (+ Molecule), between 
the moleciiles. 

inter'nal {interne, inwardly), '-' Peri- 
cy'cle, riot's expression for the pro- 
cambium retaineo. on the inner side 
of the vascular bundle. 

In'temode, InUmo'diuni (Lat.), the 
space or portion of stem between 
two nodes;, adj. intemb'dal. 

interpet'iolar, interpetiola'ris {intert 
between ; petiolus, a little stalk), (1) 
between the petioles; (2) enolosed 




by the expanded base of a petiole ; 
(3) also applied to connate stipules 
whicli have coalesced from two oppo- 
site leaves ; interplacen'tal (+ Pi-a- 
centa), between tlie placentas ; 
applied to vascular bundles which 
occur in the capsule; cf. ante- 

interpo'sed {hite^'positits, placed be- 
tween) Mem'bers, those parts a\ hich 
have arisen in a whorl subsequent to 
its earlier members ; Interposit'ion, 
iTiierposit'io, formation of new parts 
between those already existing in a 
whorl ; interpositi'vus (Lat.), inter- 

interprotoplaa'mic {inter, between ; -f 
Proto PLASM) Spa'ces, gaps in the 
reticulum of Myxogastres. 

interrup'ted {interruptus, broken or 
separated), when any SAnnmetrical 
arrangement is destroyed by local 
causes ; a solution of continuity ; ■^ 
Growth, an alternation of abundant 
and scanty development, appearing 
as constrictions in an organ, as a 
fruit or tap-root; interrup'tedly 
piii'iiate, (1) a pinnate leaf without 
a terminal leaflet ; (2) havisig small 
leaflets interposed with those of 
larger size. 

intersem'ixial {inter, between ; semen, 
seed), between or anio:iigst seeds, as 
scales on the torus of Anihemis ; 
interspor'al {a-Topa, a spore), in a 
sporangium, situated between the 
spores (Harper); interstam'inai ( + 
staminal), placed between two sta- 
mens ; interstam'inate is a synonym. 

Inter'stice {interslit'utm, a space be- 
tween), small air-spaces; larger are 
termed lucunae, still larger, air- 
passages: interstitial Bod'ies, nin- 
cilaginous discs occurring in certain 
pollen-grains (Beer) ; -- Growth, the 
theory which requires the interpo- 
sition of new particles between the 
older portions, instead of superficial 

intertrop'ic (inter, between; -f tropic), 
relating to the torrid zone ; within 
the tropics ; intervag'inal {vagina, 
a sheath) Scales, squauuiles found 

between the- leaves of aquatic mono- 
cotyledons (Gibson) ; Interve'nium 
{vena, a vein), a portion of paren- 
chynja between the veins of a leaf; 
Interwea'ving (+ weavii^g), the 
union of hyphae by growing amongst 
each other, without cohesion ; Ger. 
Vertiechtung ; interxy'lary ( + Xy- 
lem), amongst the xylem elements ; 
In'teraones ( -|- Zonk) Bessey's tenn 
for the portion of a Diatom frustule 
which in some cases lies between the 
girdle and the valves. 

Intex'ine, Intex'tine {intus, within ; + 
Extine), the inner membrane when 
two exist in the extine, or outer 
covering of a pollen-grain ; In'tine, 
the innermost coat of a pollen-grain; 
intodisca'lisj {discus, a disc), in- 
serted within the disc of a flower. 

Intor'sio (Lat.), curling or crisping; 
Intor'tiou = Torsion ; intor'tus 
(Lat., twi.sted), |ractically a synonym 
of contorted ; twisted upon itself. 

in'tra-axiriary {intra, within ; -f 
axillary), within the axil, as 
many leaf-buds ; intracam''bial ( + 
cam rial), within the cambium, in- 
ternal to it ; intracarp'ellary ( -f- 
Carpel), within the carpels ; intra- 
ceirular (-f Cellular), within a 
cell ; intracutic'ular (-j- Cutiglk), 
AAithin the cuticle ; applied to parts 
or organs whose normal position is 
outside ; intrafascic'ular {fasciculus, 
a bundle), within a bundle ; intra- 
ii'Iar {fihim, a thread), within a, 
iilament; intraflo'ral ( + floral), 
within the floral organs, as many 
nectaries ; intrafolia'ceous, -cms 
{folium, a leaf ; -f aceous), within 
or before a leaf, ns within the axil ; 
intralam'ellar {lamrlla, a small 
plate), within plate-liko structures, 
as the trama of Agarics ; intramar- 
g'inal {munjo, a margin), placed 
within the margin near the edge ; 
intrama'trical {matrix, a mould), 
inside a matrix or nidus ; Intra- 
meabil'ity {meahilis, penetrable), the 
capacity of protoplasm to permit 
substances to pass into its vacuoles 
(Janse); intrameduU'ary (-f medul- 




lary), within the pith (Soleredci) ; 
intxamolec'ular ( + Molecule), 
within the molecules; intrarau'ral 
{7nuralis, pertaining to a wall), be- 
tween the Avails of cells, as ^ 
Glands, used by De Bary for multi- 
cellar organs of secretion, whose 
product appears in the limiting 
walls; intranucell'ar (+Nucellt;s), 
within the nucelliis ; intrann'clear 
{mcclcAis, a kernel), within the 
nucleus ; intraov'ular ( + Ovule), 
within an ovule ; intraparear ( -j- 
Palea), referring to the fertilization 
of cereals which commonly takes 
place within the floAver, before the 
exsertion of the anthers ; intra- 
pet'iolar {petiolus, a small stalk), 
within the petiole, or between it 
and the stem, as -' Buds, tliose 
which are completely enclosed by 
the petiole, as in Platanus ; intra- 
prothall'oid ( + Prothallus), in 
the prothallus or immersed in its 
tissues ; intraprotoplas'raic (+ Pho- 
totlasm), within the protoplasm ; 
intrasac'cal (+ Sac), employed of 
embryos arising outside the embryo- 

intrar'ioas, intrar'ncsiX'- Lat.), turned 
inward toward the axis. 

intrasem'inal {intra, within ; sevieii, a 
seed), within the seed ; ~ Deverop- 
ment, the whole development under- 
gone by the embryo during the 
conversion of the ovule into the 
ripe seed; intrasporang'ial (-fSro- 
rangium) Germina'tion, gi*owth of 
an embryo within the sporange; 
intrastamin'eal (-f Stamen), Avithiu 
the stamens, as the disk of Ana- 
cardiaceae ; intraste'lar (+ Stele), 
Avithin the stele, as ~ Tis'sue = Con- 
junctive Tissue ; intravag'iual 
{vagina, a sheath), Avithin the sheath, 
applied to branches which spring 
from buds which- do not l-reak 
through the sheath of the subtend- 
ing leaf (Scribner); intravalvula'ris 
(-}- valvularis), Avithin valves, as 
the dissepiment in many Cruciferae ; 
intraxy'lary (+ Xylem), Avithin the 

in'tricate, intrica/bus (Lat.), entangled. 

introcur'ved, iiitrocur'vus (Lat.), in- 

introdu'ced {introiluct'us, brought 
Avithin), used of plants Avhicli have 
been brought from another coitntry. 

introflex'ed (i?i^rOj inside; /Zatj^s, bent), 
inflexed ; intromarg'inal ( -f mar- 
ginal), used of a vein running just 
Avithin the outer margin of a leaf. 

in'trorse, hUror'sus (Mod. Lat.), turned 
inAvard, toAvards the axis. 

introve'nius {intro, inside ; vena, a 
vein), hidden veined ; from the 
abundance of parenchyma, the A-eins 
not readily seen ; cf. aveniur ; in- 
trozy'lic (|uAo/', Avood), Avithin the 

intrn'ded, in'truse, intnc'siis (liat., 
thrust in), jmshed or projecting 
forward ; Intru'sion, cort'ical, ab- 
normal groAvtK of cortex in other 

Inturaes'csnce {intumcsccre, to swell 
up), any abnonnal swelling on the 
exterior of plants. 

Intussuscep'tion {intus, Avithin ; sui- 
ceptus, taken up), the theory of 
groAA'th, Avhich the inter- 
calation of new particles (micellae), 
between the already existing par- 
ticles of the cell Avall. 

In'uiase (from the genus hnUa), an 
enzyme in Compositae wliich con- 
verts Inulin into Lcvulose ; Ina'- 
lenin, a subordinate constituent of 
Inulin (Tanret) ; In'alin, a body 
like starch, lirst found in Compositae, 
in the form of sphaero-crystals. 

inun'cans % (Lat., hooking), the surface 
covered Avith glochidia or hooked 

inunda'tal {invndatus, oA'erfloAved), 
PI. C. Watson's expression for those 
plants which gi'OAV in places liable 
to be inundated in Avet Aveather, 
but dry in summer ; inunda'tus, 
flooded, sometimes under water, 
sometimes dry. 

-inus, a Latin suffix, meaning, (1) 
resemblance ; (2) augmentation. 

invag'inated {in, into ; vagina, a 
sheath), enclosed in a sheath. 




Inva'sion, (iyivasus), an intrusion of 
an alien plant into regions or 
stations foreign to it. 

inverse' {inversus, tiu'ned about), in- 
verted ; Inver'sion, (1) a change of 
Older or place ; (2) the action of In- 
vertase ; In'vert-en'zyme, In'ver- 
tase, an unorganized ferment, wliich 
transmutes cane-sugar into inverted- 
sugar ; inver'ted, having the apex 
in an opposite direction to the 
normal ; Inver'ted-sugar, a mixture 
-of fructose and glucose by the 
action of invertase on cane-sugar ; 
'- Superposit'ion, the position of 
accessory buds below the principal 
bud, or one first formed (Crozier) ; 
invcr'tens (Lat.), inverting, becom- 
ing reversed, as iriverten'tia Fo'lia, 
leaves which in sleep hang down- 
ward, but touch by the upper sur- 
face, as in Cassia ; In'vertin = 
Invertask ; this form is chiefly 
employed by zoologists. 

invisible {irivisib'ilis, not to be seen), 
used of any organ which is not 
sufficiently developed to be seen ; In- 
vol'ucel, Invoiucel'luvi (Fr., involu- 
celle, from involucrum, a wrapper), 
a secondary partial involucre ; 
involuceriate, invohicella'tus, pro- 
vided with a secondary involucre ; 
involu'cral, involucra'lis^ belonging 
to an involucre ; invorucrate, in- 
voluera'tus, involn'cred, having an 
involucre of some kind ; Involu'cre, 
Involu'crum, (1) a ring of bracts, 
surrounding several flowers or their 
supports, as in the heads of Compo- 
sites, or the umbels of Urabelli- 
ferae ; (2) the tissue of the thallus 
in Anthoceroteae, grown up and 
overarching the embryo, afterwards 
pierced by the lengthening sporo- 
gonium ; (3) the pcridium, volva or 
annulus in Fungi (Lindley) ; (4) the 
indusium of Ferns ; gen'eral — , that 
which is at the base of a compound 
umbel ; par'tial '^ , sec'cndary '^ , 
thatwhich surrounds a partial umbel ; 
Invohi'cra lig^nea, Malpighi's name 
for the concentric zones of growth in 
exogens ; Involu'oret, an involucel. 

in'volute, involu'tus, involuti'vns 
(Lat., enwrapped), having the 
edges of the leaves rolled inwards ; 
Involu'tion, (1) the act of rolling 
inward ; (2) the return of an organ 
or tissue to its original state ; <^ 
Form, a swollen bladder-like form 
of Schizomycetes, supposed to be 
a diseased condition of the form 
associated with it ; "^ Pe'riod, the 
resting period ; «-' Spore, a rest- 
ing-spore ; '- Stage, tho resting 

invol'vens (, rolling together, as 
xnvolven'iia Fo'lia used by A. P. de 
CandoUe, for trifoliate leaves whose 
leaflets rise up, unite at the summit 
... so as to form an arch which 
shelters the flowers, as in Trifolium 
incarnatum, Linn. (Lindley). 

io'des (iw57?s, violet-coloured), icdi'nus, 
violet ; I'odine, an elementary body 
obtained from marine Algae, etc.; 
io'nides, violet-coloured. 

I'on [ihp, neut. of twj/, past part, of 
fiui. I go), a physical term, defined 
by J. F. Clark as the division of a 
molecule ; adj. io'nic ; loniza'tion, 
the partitioning of a molecule ; 
ioni'zed, divided into ions. 

I'ridile (+ ile), a society of Iris 

irreg'ular, irregula'ris (Late Lat., not 
according to rule), (1) wanting in 
regularity of form ; (2) asymmetric, 
as a flower which cannot be halved 
in any plane, or one which is capable 
of bisection in one plane only, zygo- 
morphic ; -^ Pelorla, a monstrosity 
by which irregular forni has become 
regular by symmetric development; 
Irregular'ity, Irregular' itas, the 
state of being unequal in form. 

Irritabirity {irritahilis, easily excited), 
phenomena induced by stimuli, such 
as shock, absence or presence of 
light, warmth, gravity, etc. 

is'abelline, isahelli'mis (Mod. Lat.,: 
refers to Isabella, Queen of Spain), 
a greyish drab colour, a dirty tawny 

isadelph'ous, -its (Jftros, equal to; 
a^fK<phs, a brother), equal brother- 




hood, the number of stamens in the 
two jihalanges being equal. 

I'eatin, the colouring principle of 
woad, Isatis tindoria, Linn. 

isidloid, resembling tlie Lichen genus, 
Isidium ; isidiif erous (/?ro, I bear), 
bearing a thallus like the genus 
■whence it derives its name. 

isid'iose [lens = a genus of corals ; 
+ OSUS) ; isidio'sus, having jiowdery, 
coral-like excrescences ; Isid'iuni 
{ilZos, like), the coral-like elevation of 
a Lichen thallus with a globule on it. 

I'slands, a term applied to isolated 
strands of ])hloera in the xylem. 

i'so- [i(Tos, equal to), Drude's prefix 
to denote the uniformity as to li?,'ht, 
temperature and raiu, of certain 
gi'oups of i)lants; isoand'rospore (+ 
Andhospore), Janet's term for the 
spermatozoids of Marchantia ; iso- 
bilat'eral {bis, twice ; latus, lateris, 
a side), capable of being divided 
into two similar halves ; isobria'ttis, 
dicotyledonary ; isob'rious {^piaoi, I 
strengthen), of equal sti'cngth, refer- 
ring to the embryo of Dicotyledons ; 
I'socheira {x^i/j-a, winter\ the iso- 
thenn of the coldest months ; iso- 
cho'mous (x'^M«j a mound), applitd 
to branches springing from the same 
stem at tlie same angle ; isocot'ylous 
(-j- Cotyledon), having equally 
developed cotyledons ; isochro'mouB 
{xp<*>iJia, colour), all of one colour or 
hue, uniform in tint ; isocy'clic 
{kvk\os, a circle), encyclic, a Rower 
having isomerous v.horls ; isodia- 
met'ric (Sm, through ; jnerpou, a 
measure), of equal dimensions 
Cells, those haviug an equal dia- 
meter in each direction ; Isodi'ode 
(EloSos, a passage), when all the 
Diodes produced are alike (Van 
Tieghem); Isodi'ody tlic condition 
of producing Diodes which give 
rise to unisexual prothallia (Van 
Tieghem) ; isody'namous {, 
power), equally developed. 

Isoe'toid, applied to a leaf wliich is 
linear, undivided, terete, often 
tubular, and sessile, which occurs 
in Isoetes, niularia, etc. (Warming), 

~ I 

Isogam'ete {^(tos, equal ; yafjLerrjs, a 
spouse), gametes or sexual cells of 
similar size and appearance, which 
conjugate and rtsult in a zygote ; 
the organ which produces isogametes ; 
isogametan'gial, pertaining to an 
isogametangiura ; '-' -copula'tion, 
when the gametangia and nuclei 
are alike (Hartmann) ; isog'amous 
{yajj-os, marriage), used for those 
plants Avhich produce isogametes ; 
Isog'amy, the fusion of similar 
sexual cells ; isogenotyp'ic ( + 
Genotype), Avhere two or more 
generic names have been applied to 
the same type species ; isog'enous 
{yevos, race), employed by Johannsen 
for individuals which belong to the 
same "genotype," i. e. = biotype; '^ 
Induc'tion, used by Is'oll to express 
sensitive movements arising from a 
single cause ; isog'onous {yovos, off- 
spring), used of hybrids which com- 
bine the parental characters in equal 
degree (De Vries) ; cf. anisogox- 
ous ; Isogyn'ospore (+ Gynospore), 
.Tanet's term for the egg of Mar- 
chantia ; iBOg'ynous [ywi], a woman), 
having the pistils similar ; isogy'rus 
X {yvpbs, round), forming a complete 
spire; Isoholog'amy {'6\os, whole; 
ytxjios, marriage), Avhen the coales- 
cing individuals are entirely alike 
(Hartmann); isolat'eral [lateralis, 
pertaining to the side), (1) equal 
sided; (2) employed by Heinricher 
for ''central"; '~ Leaves, those 
which possess palisade tissue on 
both surfaces. 

leola'tion' (Fr., isolation, insulation, 
from insula, an island), the pre- 
vention of intercrossing between a 
separated section of a species or 
kind and the rest of tliat species 
or kind (Romanes). 

Isomalt'ose [iaos, equal to ; -f Maltose), 
a product of amylodextrin, passing 
by fermentation into maltose ; iso- 
mer'ic, isom'erous, -us {fj-epos, a 
part), (1) haviug the same elements 
in the same proportions, but with 
different properties ; (2) having 




members of successive cycles equal 
in number, as the petals and sepals ; 
Isomerog^amy {n^pos, a part ; ydjj.os, 
marriage), the copulation of iso- 
gametes, as in many Algae (Hait- 
mann) ; I'somorpb (fiopcj)^, shape),, 
shnilar in external form, l>nt not 
in essential structure ; a mineralogi- 
cal term;l8omorph'ism, the condition 
described, as exemplified by the out- 
ward agreement of purple Crocus and 
Colchicum ; isoph'agous {(pdya, I 
eat), applied to Fungi which attack 
one, or several allied species (Eriks- 
son) ; isophe'nous {(paivw, I appear), 
used of individuals which belong to 
the same phenotype (Johannsen) ; 
isoph'orous {<pop4a), I carry), trans- 
formable into something else 
(Crozier) ; isopho'tic (cpws, (pccTos, 
light), equally illuminated, as leaves 
Avhich are erect, so that both sides 
are exposed to the light (Clements) ; 
Isopbo'tophyll {(pvkXoy, a leaf), a leaf 
in which botli halves of the chloren- 
chym are alike, due to equal il- 
lumination (Clements) ; isophyrious, 

(1) leaves alike, in shape or size ; 

(2) bilateral; Isophylly, (1) the 
condition described; (2) " biiater- 
aiity expressed in the form of two 
equal sides about an axis of the 
member in the tangential plane of 
the system " (Church) ; Isophytot'- 
onus {(pvrov, a plant; rovos, strain), 
in temperature identical with the 
plant's requirements (Cler^ients) ; 
Isoplan'ogametes {nxdvos, wander- 
ing ; -f- Gamete), motile sexual cells 
of equal size, occurring in Algae; 
isopo'lar {polus, a pole), an axis of 
Diatom frustules is so termed when 
its extremities are similar (0. Muel- 
ler); lBopro'tbally(4- Prothai-lus), 
producing prothallia which are 
similar in sexual character (Van 
Tieghem) ; i'soschist {cxicttos, split), 
ap})lied to a cell of a brood, all of 
which are equal in size and function 
(Hartog) ; isosmot'ic {w<Tfj.os, im- 
pulse, pushing), passing by osmosis 
in or out with eoual facility ; I'go- 
spore {a-rropa, seea), a spore produced 

by one of the Isospo'reae, plants 
having one kind of spore, as in 
Ferns, opposed to heterosporous ; 
isos'porous, homosporous, or having 
one kind of spore only ; Isosp'ory, 
the state of producing one sort of 
spore; isoste'monous, -nus, having 
as many stamens as petals, or sepals ; 
Isoste'mony, ecpiality in number of 
staniens with the segments of the 
perianth whorls ; isos'tic, Van Tieg- 
hem's term when the mother root 
has more than two xylem bundles ; 
I'sotherel&e'pos, summer)', an isotherm 
of the hottest months (Boulger) ; 
isotonic {rovos, a strand, a brace) 
Concentra'tion, that degree of differ- 
ent solutions in which they attract 
water with equal force (De Vries) ; 
iso»'tomous ((TTOfxa, a mouth), the 
calyx and corolla the same size ; 
Isofrophy {rpo(pi], food), equal growth 
all round : adj. isotroph'ic ; isosty'- 
lous {+ Stylus), the styles being 
similar, opposed to heterostylous ; 
Isot'rophyte {Tpo<pi], food; <pvTov, 
a ])lant), a parasitic Fungus whose 
influence is only chemical, with but 
slight changes in the liost (Wakkev) ; 
isot'ropous {rpoTTos, direction), equal 
torsion in development, as in val- 
vate and contorted aestivation (K. 
Schumann) ; Isot'ropy, capable of 
being attracted in any direction ; 
I'sotype {tvttos, a type), forms 
common to different countiies ; 
isotyp'tc, described from more than 
one species, all of which ai^e 

Isth'mus {la-dfxbs, a neck of land), (1) 
the narrowed connection between 
half-cells of Desmids; (2) the girdle 
of such Diatoms as IsUnnia. 

itera'to-proiif'erous (/i!6ra/«s, repeated ; 
-f- ruoLiFEKOu.s), repeatedly bearing 

Iteorogy (ire'a, a willow ; \6yos, dis- 
course), the study of the genus 
JSalix, willows; adj. iteolog'ic. 

ithyphyHus {Ms, straight ; <pv\\ov, a 
leaf), straight and stitf-leaved.' 

-ium (-etov, locative affix), suffix de- 
noting a formation (Clements). 




ix'ouB {l^hs, bird-lime), sticky, viscous 

Jac'ulator (Lat., a darter), a hook- 
like process on the placenta of certain 
fruits, whicli aids in the expulsion 
of tlie seeds, as in Acanthaceae 

Jag'gery, a coarse dark ^ugar from the 
coco-nut and other palms, which 
produces arrack by*ferraentation. 

Jal'apin, a constituent of the officinal 
Jalap, a purgative root, derived 
from Ipomoea Purga (Hayne). 

Jama'icin, an alkaloid occurring in 
the cabbage bark-tree, Andira iner- 
■mis, Kunth, a native of tlie West 

Jamin's Chain,- a chain of air and 
water in the vessels of plants. 

jaspid'eus, or iaspid'eus (Lat., from 
• iasper, jasper), a mixture of many 
colours arranged in small spots. 

Je'terus, a mistake of Bischoff, copied 
by Lindley, for Ictekus, vegetable 

Join'ing, used by Babington for the 
point of union of two different 
parts ; a node. 

Joint, an articulation, as a node in 
grasses or other plants ; joint'ed, 
articulated, falling apart at the 

jonquirieus (Mod. Lat.), the bright 
yelloAV of the Jonquil, Narcissus 
odorus, Linn. 

Jord'anism, an excessive multiplica- 
tion of so-called species, regarded 
as mere varieties which are tolerably 
constant under cultivation : the 
name is derived from Alexis Jordan 
of Lyons; cf. MiCROtiPECiE.s, or 
elementary species. 

Ju'ba (Lat., a mane), a loose panicle, 
with diliquescent axis ; juba'tus, 

ju'gate {juga'tus, connected or yoked 
together), used in composition as 
conjugate, bijugate, etc. 

Ju'gum (Lat., a yoke), pi. Ju'ga ; (1) 
a pair of leaflets ; (2) the ridges on 
the fruits o£ Umbelliferae. 

Juice, the liquid contents of any plant- 

tissue; -^ Ves'sels, J. Hill's term 
for vascular tissue; juice'less, dry, 

jula'ceous, -ceus {julus, Mod. Lat., an 
amentmn or spike ; -f- aceous), bear- 
ing catkins, amentaceous ; ju'liform 
{/orvui, shape), like a catkin; Ju'lua, 
an old term for catkin, or spike, 
sucli as in Acorus Calamus, Linn. 

junca'ceoua {juncus, a rush), rush -like; 
Junce'tum, an association of a species 
of Juncus: junc'oid (elSos, resem- 
blance), junc'ous, jun'ceouB, rush- 

Junctu'ra (I-at., a joint), an articula- 
tion or note. 

Jungernian'nia Form, applied to plants 
having distichous leaves, usually 
orbicular and shortly stalked 

Jun'gle, wild forests and thickets in 
India, referred by Warming to the 
savannah type. 

juniperi'nuB, bluish-brown, like the 
berries of the juniper (Hayne). 

JunquiU'o-pam'pa, pampas character- 
ized by Sporobolus arundinaceus. 

Jute, the fibre of Corchorus capsularis, 
Linn., and C. olUorius, Linn. 

Juvenes'cence {juvenesco, I grow young 
again)^= Rf.juvknescence. 

ju'venile (juvenilis, youthful), applied 
by Goebel to the early forms, as the 
larval-forms of conifers. 

Juxta'position (juxta, close to ; posit us, 
placed), the relative position in 
which organs are placed. 

K, for many words see also under the 

letter C. 
Kaiid'ion, KaHd'ium ; pi. Kalid'ia 

[KahiZiov, from KoAm, gianary) = 

kamptod'romous = camptodp.omols. 
Kar-herb'age (Ger. Karfiur), the plants 

occurring in hollows high amongst 

mountains ("Kar" is an Austrian 

geological term for hollows dug out 

by glaciers). 
karpotrop'io = cakpotkopic. 
Karyas'ter [Kapvov, a nut; -f Abtek), 

the spindle -figure of the nucleus; 

Karyochyle'ma (xu'^^*. juice), pro- 




posed by Stras'biirger for Achko- 
MATiN ; Karyoderm'atoplast, pi. 
{iep/j-a, SepjjLaros, the skin; irXatrrhs, 
moulded), kinoplasmic asters of 
Synchitrium (Kusano); Karyogam'- 
etes ( + Gamete), gametonuclei ; 
their union is Kakyogamy ; Karyo- 
g'amy {yafxos, marriage), the union 
of gametonuclei, to form a zygote- 
nucleus (Maupas) ; Kar'yoids {dZos, 
like), minute spherical bodies at- 
tached to the chlorophyll plate of 
Conjugatae and Desmida ; Karyo- 
kine'eis {Kiv-nais, motion, 1 change), 
Schleicher's term for the series of 
changes undergone by the nucleus 
in cell-division ; ' ' also spelled Caryo- 
cinesis " (Crozier) ; it is the indirect 
division of Flemming; adj. karyo- 
kinet'ic ; Karyorogy {\6yos, dis- 
course), the science of the nucleus 
and its development and vital his- 
tory (Trow) ; Kar'yolymph ( + 
Lymph), the nuclear liquid ; Karyo- 
Tysis {yvffis, a loosing), the dissolu- 
tion of the nucleus, in whole or in 
part; adj. karyolyt'ic; Karyomito'sis 
liniros, a thread or web) = Mitosis ; 
Karyomix'is {fn^is, intercourse), the 
fusion of the two nuclei of a teleuto- 
spore ( Vuillemin and Maire) ; Karyo- 
pli'agy {(pdyos, a glutton), the de- 
struction of a nucleus by a special 
parasite (Daugeard); Kar'yoplasm 
{ir'Ad(TiJ.a, moulded), the more fluid 
protoplasm of the nucleus, between 
the nuclear threads ; Kar'yopiast, 
Strasburger's term for the nucleus 
in its entirety ; Karyorhe''xis {l>v^is, 
a breaking), rapid dissolution of a 
nucleus (Maire) ; Karyoso'ma (o-oi^a, 
a body), a close mass of microsomes 
in a nucleus ; pi, Karyoio'mata ; 
Karyosymph'ysig {<Tv/j.(pv^is, growing 
together), nuclear fusion (Hartog). 

Kat'ablaBt {Kara, down; ^Xaarls, a 
bud), a shoot from an underground 

kataboric {KaTufidWu, 1 cast down), 
descending metabolism, the break- 
ing up or compounds into simpler 
bodies ; Katab'olism, destructive 
metabolism ; Katab'olite, any pro- 

duct of destructive metabolism ; cf. 

Kataklinot'ropism («aTo, down ; kxIvu), 
I bend), negative klinotropism ; 
Kat'alase, see Catalase ; Kata- 
lysa'tor, any substance which causes 
katalysis ( = Catalysis); katalyt'ic 
= catalytic ; kataphor'io {(popew, 
I carry), the power of carrying off 
or away ; Kat'astates, pi. {(rrarhs, a 
standing), intermediate products of 
katabolism, during the breaking 
down of protoplasm (Parker); kata- 
ton'ic (rdyosy a strain), tending to 
decrease a stimulus ; katatroplo 
{rpoir)], a turning), negatively tropic ; 
Katelectrot'onus {p^eKrpov, amber; 
r6vos, strain), heightened excitation 
in plants due to an electric current 

Katharo'bia {Kadaphs, clean, pure ; 
/8ios, life), organisms of clean water. 

kathod'io (ko^oSos, a descent), that 
half of a leaf which is turned away 
from the direction in which the 
genetic spiral turns ; the opposite of 


Keel, or Carina, (1) a ridge like the 
keel of a boat ; (2) the two anterior 
and united petals of a papilionaceous 
corolla; — -punc'ta, pi., nodulated 
thickenings on one margin of the 
valves of Nitzschia{0'iilea,Ya,); keeled, 

Kenap'ophytes {xivhs, empty; -|- Aro- 
PiiYTEs), plants which colonize 
cleared land (Simmons) ; Ken- 
ench'yma {(yxvfia, an infusion), 
permanent tissue which has lost its 
living contents, as cork-tissue ; in 
Ger. , ' ' Leerzellengewebe. " 

Keramid'ium = Ceramidium, or 

kermesi'nus (Mod. Lat.), carmine, a 
colour from Kermes. 

Ker'nel, (1) the nucellus of an ovule, or 
of a seed, that is, the whole body 
within the coats ; (2) the softer 
part of the pyrenocarp within the 
outer wall in certain Fungi. ^ 

Ke'tones (a variation of "Acetone"), 
a class of ethereal oils ; camphor is 
probably one of this class. 


Kettle -traps 


Ket'tle-trapfl, applied to such flowers 
as those of Aristolochia, which iro- 
prison insects until fertilization is 

Key, (1) a clavis or short statement of 
the contrasted characters of a genus 
or other group; (2) or Key-fruit, 
the Samara of sycamore or ash. 

kid'ney-form, kid'ney-shaped, oblately 
cordate ; crescent-shaped, with the 
ends rounded. 

Kin'ases, pi., ferments or enzymes. 

Kind, genus or species, a sort. 

Kine'sis {Kluriais, motion), (1) move- 
ment, used by T. W. Engelmann in 
contradistinction to Taxis ; (2) = 
Karyokinesis ; kinet'ic, relating to 
kinesis; --' En'ergy, the energy of 
actual motion, as opposed to potential 
energy ; Kine'tosomes, pi. {cMixa, a 
body), small polar plates or bodies 
of kinoplasm present before mitosis, 
presumably material for the forma- 
tion of the spindle-fibres (Allen). 

kinlc [Kina-Kina, a name for Cin- 
chona), pertaining to cinchona ; r^ 
Ac'id, an organic acid in Cinchona 

King'dom, one of the highest groups 
of organic nature ; the Veg'etable '^ 
includes all plants. 

Ki'noplRsm iKiVfco^ I set in motion ; 
irXdfffia, moulded), that part of cyto- 
plasm involved in spindle formation, 
as contrasted with Trophoplasm ; 
Ki'nospore ( -f Spoue), a spore re- 
sulting from a simple process of 
division, as motile zoospores, conidia, 
pycnidospores (Klebs). 

Klado'dium = Cladode. 

Kleisanthe'ry = Cleisanthery. 

kleistogam'ic, kleistog'amous = cle- 


Klinogeot'ropiBm [kKivu, I bend ; 77), 
the earth ; rpoir^, a turning), the 
drooping tendency of the free end 
of a climbing plant whilst mutating 
(Pfeffer) ; Klinomorph'y {uop^^, a 
shape), Wiesner's terra for the con- 
dition of an organ determined by 
the simultaneous obliaue position of 
the principal and meaian planes, so 
that the right and left halves may 

be distinguished as upper and lower, 
resulting in a diflferent shape of the 
two halves ; klinorrhom'bic {(tSufios, 
a rhomb), a mineralogic term applied 
by De I3ary to oblique rhombic 
crystals iu plants ; Kli'nostat = 
Clinostat ; klinotroplc = clino- 
TROPic ; Klinot'ropism = Clino- 


Knaur = Gnaur. 

Knee, (1) an abrupt bend in a stem or 
tree-trnnk ; (2) an outgrowth of 
some tree-roots ; -joint'ed, genicu- 
late; '--pan-shaped, concavo-convex, 
patclliforra ; kneed, geniculate. 

Knight-Dar'win Law, generally under- 
stood as "that no organic being 
fertilizes itself for an eternity of 
generations"; preferably "Nature 
abhors perpetual self-fertilization," 
cf. Y. Darwin in Nature^ Iviii., 

knob-like = gongylodes; knobbed = 
TORULOSE; knoVby = nodosk. 

Knobs, used by Sir J. E. Smith for 

Knor'ria, formerly a genus of fossil 
plants, now used for lepidodendroid 
stems when their cortex has been 
stripped off to a considerable but 
variable depth (Scott). 

Knot, (1) a node in the stem of 
grasses ; (2) a swelling in stems at 
the attachment of the leaf; (3) 
various diseases caused by Fungi, 
as Black -- , effected by Plowrightia 
Diorbosa, Sacc. (Tubenf); Knot-phase, 
in nuclear-division, is also known 
as skein-stage^ or spirera; Knot- 
stage = Skein in nuclear division ; 
kaot'ted, knot'ty, nodose. 

Knur, Knurl, a knob or hard substance 
= Gnaur. 

koele'rian, relating to Eiihus Koderi 
or its close allies. 

Koleoch'jrma («o\ebj, a sheath; tyxvixa, 
an infusion) = Kritenchyma. 

Koriaplankton {niKXa, glue ; -4- 
Plankton), used of organisms which 
float by being encased in gelatinous 
envelopes (Forel) ; Kollen'ohym 
(e7xy,wo, an infusion) = Hypno- 




Kremast'oplank'ton {Kpefiaarls, hung 
up; -j- Plankton), floating organ- 
isms supplied witli appendages 
which conduce to that function, as 
hairs, prickles, etc. (Forel). 

Kriten'chyma {Kpirhs, chosen ; tyxvH-'^, 
an infusion), one or more layers of 
cells which form a sheath for a 
vascular bundle (Russow). 

Kryp'toblast [Kpvirr'bs, hidden; ^Xaa- 
riis, a bud), a preventitious bud 

Kryptocotyle'dons = CuYi'TocoTYLE- 


Kun'changraph (Sanscrit, Kunchan, 
contraction ; ypacp^, writing; ; pron. 
Koonchangraph), apparatus to niea- 
siu'e longitudinal contraction (Bose). 

Ku'tine = Cutin. 

kyanoph'ilous {kvuvos, blue ; ^t\ea>, I 
love), used of any tissue which 
readily absorbs blue staining; 
Ky'anophyll {(pvXXov, a leaf), nearly 
jmre chlorophyll freed from its 
associated yellow pigment, xantho- 
phyll (Wiesner); it is bluish-green 
in colour. 

La'bel {labellum, a little lip), (1) Crew's 
term for the pinnule or ultimate seg- 
]uentof a Fern-frond; (2) Labellum; 
Laberium, (1) the third petal of 
Orchids, usually enlarged, and by 
torsion of the ovary become anterior, 
from its normal posterior position ; 
(2) a similar petal in other flowers. 

la'biate, labia'tus (Lat., lipped), lipped, 
usually bilabiate ; characteristic of 
the family Labiatae ; labiatiflor'ous, 
-7U.S, used of certain Compositae with 
bilal)iate corollas to their florets ; 
labioscop'ic (-j- Laisium, (r/coxeoj, I 
look), employed by Ptitzcr for the 
condition of certain Orchids when 
the sepals are combined with an ex- 
tension of the axis, as in Drymoda. 

la'bile {labilis, slippery), "plastic, 
easily modifled " (Clements) ; perish- 
able or trajisient. 

la'biose, labio'sus (Lat., having large 
lips), applied to a }>olypetalous co- 
rolla seemingly t\vo-li])ped ; La'bium 
(Lat., a lip), (1) the lower lip of a 

Labiate flower ; (2) the lip subtend- 
ing the ligule in Iso'etes. 

Laboulbenomyce'tes, Engler's term for 
Laboulbeniaeeae and their allies. 

labjrrinthifor'mis {labyrbiihus, a struc- 
ture with winding passages ; forma, 
shape), marked by sinuous lines, rf., 


Lac (Ital. , lacca, a varnish), a resinous 
exudation from various tropical 
plants, occurring in commerce in 
diH"erent forms ;• Lac'case, the en- 
zyme which produces Lauqueii, 
from fluid lac; lac'cate, as though 
varnished ; Lac'cine, a substance 
found in lac, insoluble in water, 
alcohol, or ether. 

lac'erate, lac cms, Mod. Lat. {lacer, 
mangled) ; lacera'ted laccra'tus ; 
torn, or iiTegularly cleft. 

Lacb'rima = Lac rim a. 

Lacin'ia (Lat., the flap of a garment), 
a slash or slender lobe; Lacinia'tion, 
fission ; lacin'iate, lacinia'tus, 
slashed, cut into narrow lobes; 
lacin'iform {forma, shaped), fringe- 
like (Crozier); Lacin'ule, (1) a dim- 
inutive lacina or lobe; (2) the 
incurved point of the petal in many 
Umbelliferae ; lacin'ulate, lacin'u- 
lose, linely laciniate, possessing 

Lac'quer, a Japanese varnish; cf. Lac 
and Laccase. 

Lac'rima (Lat., a tear), a diop of gum 
or resin exuded from a tree ; also 
s})elled Lach'ryma and Lach'rima ; 
lac'rimiform, lacrimiform'is {forma, 
shape), tcar-shaped; sometimes but 
less correctly spelled lach^rymaeform, 

Lac'tase {lac, milk), Beijerink's name 
for an enzyme which inverts sugar, 
but is distinct from Invertase ; 
Lac'teals, Lac'tifer {fero, I bear) ; 
Lac'tents, Grew's nanies for lactici- 
ferous ducts ; lactes'cent, lades'ceiis, 
yielding milky juice ; lac'teus (Lat.), 
milky, white as milk; lactic'olor 
[color, colour), milk-white ; lacti- 
f'erous, Grew's word for laticiferous ; 
Lac'tose, milk-sugar ; the sweet 
principle of milk, and stated to 




occiir in the fruit of Achras Sapota, 

Lactuca'rium, the dried juice of the 
lettuce, Lactuca sativa, Linn., con- 
taining an active principle, Lac'ta- 

Lacu'na (Lat., a hole or cavity), (1) an 
air-space in the Ihidst of tissue ; 
(2) a depression on the thallus of a 
Lichen ; (3) applied to the vallecular 
canals of Equisetum ; lacu'nar, per- 
taining to or arising from lacunae ; 
'-' Tis'sue, thin-walled cells, forming 
iiTegular trabeculae radially travers- 
ing the intercellular cavity of the 
stem oi Selaginella ; it may be re- 
garded as the equivalent of the 
Bundle-Sheath of most other vas- 
ciilar Cryptogams ; lacu'no-rimo'sus, 
marked with irregular cracks and 
excavations liacu'no-ru'gose, ~ -rugo- 
sus, having irregular wrinkles, as 
the stone of the peach ; lacu'nose, 
Ictcitno'sus, (1) when the surface is 
covered with depressions ; (2) per- 
forated with holes. 

lacuB^tral (Zocus, a pond or lake), H. C. 
Watson's term for plants which are 
usually floating in water or immersed ; 
lacus'trine, laeus'tris, belonging to, 
or inhabiting lakes or ponds; the 
form lacus'ter has been introduced 
of late years. 

laev'igate, laeviga'tas [leviyatns, 
smooth, slippery), smooth, as if 

lae'vis {levis, smooth), smooth, in the 
sense of not being rough. 

Lage'nian, pertaining to Leinster, from 
lAigenia, the Latin name of that 

lage'niform, lageniform'is llagena, a 
fiaski forma, shape), shaped like a 
Florence flask. 

Lagenost'ome, the free apex of the 
nucellus in Lagenostoma. 

lago'pus {\ayu>Trovs, hare's foot), hare- 
footed, densely covered with long 

Lair-flo'ra, the flora groAving upon 
ground manured by animals, as sheep 

or goats (Crampton) ; herb'age, 

the plants forming a similar flora. 

Lam'el, LameVla (Lat. , a thin plate or 
scale), a thin plate ; pi. , Lamei'lae, the 
gills of Agarics; Lameria, mid'-dle, 
the membrane or primary septum 
between any two cells; lam'ellar, 
lamella'ris, composed of thin plates ; 
lam'ellate, lamella' tus, mads up of 
thin plates, as the hymenium of tlie 
nmshroom ; lameriiform {forma^ 
shape), in the shap« of a plate or 
scale; lam'ellose, laiiullo'sus = Lam- 
ellate ; Lamel'lulae, the gills of 

Lam'ina (Lat., a thin leaf), the limb, 
blade, or expanded part of a leaf; 
'-' prolig'era, -' sporig'era, the disk 
or centre of the apothecium of a 
Lichen ; lamina'ted, consisting of 
plates or layers ; ~ Bulbj & tunicated 
bulb, as a hyacinth; ISIiiiiia'ting, 
separating into layers. 

Laminarie'tum, an association of the 
marine algal genus Laminaria ; 
lamina'rioid (eZSoy, resemblance), 
resembling or akin to the genua 

La'na (Lat.), wool, or woolly covering ; 
la'nate, lanatus, clothed with woolly 
and intergi'own hairs. 

lau'ceolate, lanceola'ius (Lat., armed 
with a little lance), (1) narrow, 
tapering to each end ; Linnaeus used 
it for a leaf having nearly similar 
extremities, but in modern use the 
base is usually somewhat broadened, 
with the greatest breadth at about 
one-thil-d from the base ; (2) the 
primitive meaning is preserved in 
Carduus lanceolatiis, Linn. ; '^ 
-has'tate, a ha.state leaf with the 
principal lobe lanceolate ; — sag'it- 
tate, a sagittate leaf, the middle 
lobe lanceolate; lance-o' vate (Crozier), 
lanceolate ovate, indicative of a form 
intermediate between the two named 
terms ; lance-shaped, lanceolate. 

Landes (Fr.), tracts of " Erica-maquis " 
in the south of France, but destitute 
of raw humus (Warming). 

la'nose, lano'sus (Lat.) woolly, cf. 


lanu'ginose, lanu'ginous, lanugino'sus 
(Lat.), woolly or cottony, clothed 




Avith lanu'go (Lat.), woollineaa; long 
and interwoven liairs. 
lapid'eus (Lat., stony), lapillo'sus, 
stony, as tlie seeds of " stone 
fruits " ; lap'idose, lapido'sus, grow- 
ing amongst stones. 
lappa'ceous, lappa'ceus (Lat.), bur-like, 

lar'val {larva, a mask), (1) ajiplied to 
the resting stage, as the sclerotium 
of ergot; (2) the early form of certain 
Conifers, wiiosc perfect and adult 
form is very different ; larva'tus 
(Lat.) personate. 
lagian'thus (Atio-tos, shaggy ; av6o^, a 
liower), woolly-flowered ; lasiocar'- 
pous [Kaptrhs, fruit), pubescent- 
latebro'sus (Lat., full of lurking 

places), hidden. 
La'teney {lateiis, hidden) of characters, 
applied to those which are not observ- 
able until brought out in the hvbiid 
generation by crossing ; la'tent, dor- 
mant ; '-' Bud, an adventitious bud ; 
■--' Fac'tors allelomorphs by them- 
selves invisible, yet when combined 
in ci oss-breeding with certain others, 
produce the appearance of new 
characters; — Pe'riod, (1) resting- 
stage ; (2) the time required to take 
up any stimulus, and respond to it 
Lat'era, pi. of Lat'us (Lat., a side), 
the sides ; lat'eral, latera'lls, fixed 
on or near the side of an organ ; ~ 
Bud, adventitious bud ; ~ Dehis'- 
cence, bursting or o[iening at ihe 
side ; ~ Nucle'olus, ~ Ku'clous, cf. 
Paranucleus; ^ Plane, the ver- 
tical plane at right aiiglcs to the 
antero-posterior plane, as of a flower; 
'~ View of a Diatom frustule, when 
the valves are seen in front view, the 
girdle being then in side view ; 
Iateral-geot'ropi8m(-f Geotkopism), 
the movement of climbing plants 
laterally to a support, neither posi- 
tive nor negative geotroi)isni (Stras- 
•burger); Lateral'ity, used by Sachs 
for Symmetry, both radial and 
dorsi ventral, 
lateric'ious or laterifious, lateric'iu?. 

lattrrWius (Lat., made of bricks), 
laterifo'lious {lat us, lateris, a side ; 
folium, a leaf), growing on the side 
of a leaf at the base ; lateriner'vis, 
lateriner'viua (nerviis, a nerve), 
straight-veined, as m grasses ; lateri- 
stip'ulus t ( -f- Stipula), having 
stipules growing on its sides, 
La'tex (Lat., juice), (1) the milky 
juice of such plants as spurge or 
lettuce ; (2) the moisture of the 
stigma; (3) the gelatinous matter 
surrounding the spores in some 
Fungi ; --' Cells, laticiferous coeno- 
cytcs ; ~ Gran'ules, starch or other 
granules floating in the latex ; '~ 
Hairs, hairs continuous with latex- 
tubes, easily breaking and then 
liberating drops of latex ; '-' Sacs, 
specialized cells, containing latex; '- 
Tubei, laticiferous vessels; <- Vess'els, 
anastomosing vessels derived from the 
original septa becoming absorbed. 
laticiferous {latex, laticis, juice ; fern, 
I bear), latex-bearing ; -^ Cells, 
structures which are not cell-fusions ; 
'-' Coe^nocytes, branched cells or 
vessels like cells containing latex ; 
-^ Tis'sue, the system of cells or 
vessels; '- Ves'sels, the tubes or 
similar structures which have milky 
juice, usually branched syncytes, 
the walls between adjacent cells 
being absorbed ; Latic'ifers, latici- 
ferous cells or vessels. 
latifo'liate, latifo'lious, latifo'lhis 

(Lat.), broad -leaved. 
latisep'ial {latus, broad ; st-pium a 
hedge), applied to those Crucifers 
which have broad septa in their 
silicles as Honesty, Lunarin, annua, 
Linn. ; latisep'taie, latisep'tus, with 
broad partitions. 
lat'ticed, cross-barred ; ~ Cell = 


Laur'ad {\avpa, a drain ; + AD), a 
drain plant ; Lauri'um, "'sewer form- 
ation " ; lauroph'ilus {(piXeoo, I love), 
" sower-dwelling " ; laurophy'ta 
{(pvTov, a plant), "sewer plants" 

Lauriligno'aa {laurus, laurel ; liyaoms, 




woody), woods with dominance of 
evergreen, mostly glabrous bright 
gi-een leaves ; in moist subtropics ; 
Lauri'on, an association of laurels ; 
Laurisil'vae, pi. {silva, a wood), 
the knysna forest of South Africa; 
Lau'rin, an acrid principle from the 
berries of Laurus iwlilis (Linn. ). 

lav'ender, pale bluish grey ; the colour 
of the flowers of Lavandula vera, 

lax, lax' us (Lat.), loose, distant. 

Lay'er, (1) the stroma or receptacle of 
Fungi ; (2) in propagation, a branch 
caused to root whilst still connected 
with the parent ; (3) different strata 
of growth, as trees above a lower 
stratum of shrubs and again of herb- 
aceous plants ; ab'soiss '*- , usually 
corky tissue cutting off the leaf from 
the branch ; lig^'nified --' , at the base 
of the leaf before leaf- fall ; proteo'- 
tive -^j partly suberized ; Separa'- 
tion -', the absciss layer in leaf- fall; 
Lay'erage, term proposed by L. H. 
Bailey for propagation by layering, 
or the state of being so multiplied ; 
Lay'ering, the art of making layers ; 
Lay'ing, a gardener's term for the 

lazuli'nus (Mod. Lat.), ultramarine 
blue, a pigment obtained from 
"Lapis Lazuli." 

leach'y, losing material by percolation, 
as rain washing awav nutriment 
through the soil ; Leach ing, is the 
action itself. 

lead-coroured, dull gi-ey ; cf. plumbeus. 

Lea'der, the primary or terminal shoot 
of a tree. 

Leaf, the principal appendage or lateral 
organ borne by the stem or axis ; it 
is a sim'ple -^ when undivided, com'- 
pound -^ when divided into distinct 
parts ; ~ Arrang'ement, see Phyl- 
LOTAxis ; /- Blade = Lamina ; 
-^ Blis'ter, disease of pear-leaves due 
to Taphrina bullata ; ~ Blotch, 
black patches on sycamore leaves 
caused by JRhytisma acerinum ; ^ 
Bud, a bud which develops into 
a leafy branch ; opposed to 


" Flower Bud " ; 

Cast, pine- 

leaves diseased by Lophodermium 
Pinastri ; -^ Curl, disease due to 
attack of Exoascus on peach leaves ; 
Cy'cle, in phyllotaxis, a spiral which 
passes through the insertions of in- 
termediate leaves till it attains the 
next leaf exactly above its starting 
point ; '- Fall, defoliation ; ^^ 
Green = Chlorophyll ; ^ Pores = 
Stomata ; '^ Scar, the mark or 
cicatrix left by the articulation and 
fall of a leaf; '-"Scorch, fungus attacks 
on leaves of various plants, appear- 
ing as if scorched ; ~ Sheath, the 
lower part of the petiole which more 
or less invests the stem ; <^ Spot, 
diseased portions due to fungus at- 
tacks on the leaves of many species ; 
<-< Stalk = Petiole ; -^ Ten'dril, 
one which is a transformed leaf; ~' 
Trace, all the common bundles in a 
stem iDelonging to one leaf. 

Leafing, the unfolding of leaves; 
Leaf'it, Withering's term for Leaf- 
let ; leafless, wanting leaves ; 
Leaflet, the blade or separate divi- 
sion of a compound leaf ; leaf like 
= foliaceous ; leafy, full of 

leath'er-yeriow, a vague term for the 
tint of tan or bulf leather ; alu- 

leath'ery, tough, coriaceous. 

Leaves, pi., Pock'et -^ or Man'tle ^, 
specialized leaves which accumulate 
humus, as Asplenium Nidus, etc. 

lecanor'ine, resembling the apothe- 
ciuni of the genus Lecanora, which 
has a paler margin arising from the 

lecid'eifprm {forma, shape), lecid'eine, 
like the apothecium of Lecidca, 
which has a margin of the same 
colour as the disc ; lecid'ioid [ei^os, 
resemblance), lecideiform. 

Le'cithin {K-f]icv9os, an oil-flask), a type 
of white, waxy, phosphorus-con- 
taining substances, some of which 
have been separated from the seeds 
of maize, peas and wheat. 

lecof ropal {\4kos, a dish : rpoir^, a 
turning), shaped like a horse-shoe, 
as some ovules, cf. lyootkopous. 




Lec'totype {\eKrhs, chosen ; riiros, a 
type), a specimen of the original 
series, chosen after the original 
description to be the type. 

Le'cus (A€xos, a bed) = Corm, 

leek-green, vivid green, prasinous. 

left, sinistrorse ; see Appendix C. 

legit'imate {legitimits, allowed by law) 
Fertiliz'ation, in dimorphic or tri- 
morphic plants, fertilization by its 
own -form pollen, as sltort-styled 
flowers by pollen from otlier short- 
stamened flowers, etc. (Darwin).' 

Leg'ume, Legu'nicn (Lat., pulse), the 
seed-vessel of Legnminosae, one- 
celled and two-valved, bnt various 
in form ; Legu'min, an albuminoid 
from pulse, vegetable casein ; legu'- 
minous, legiimina'ris, (1) pertaining 
to a legume ; or (2) to the order 

Leimonap'ophyte (Xe/^iv, a meadow; + 
Apophyte), a plant introduced into 

leiodermar'ian, resembling Lei6(hr- 
innria in external markings (Scott). 

Lem'ma {Ke/nfjia, a husk), the palea or 
flowering glume of a grass ; ster'ile 
'~, the third glume. 

Lemne'tum, an association of Lemna, 

lem'on-col''our€d, pale, pure yellow, 

len'diger {lens, hndis, a nit), liaving 
the appearance of small insects, as the 
panicle of Gastridiuni levdigrrum, 

Lens (Lat., a lentil; gen., lentis), the 
contracted tissue of the free portion 
of the nucellus frequently attached 
to the base of the lagenostome (F. 
AV. Oliver); '^ Cells, cells of the 
integimient capable of focussing 
light and otlier rays ; -^ shaped, 
lentil-like, doubly convex, len- 
ticular ; conden'sing '^ or Len'ses, 
epidermal papillae causing photo- 
synthetic activity (Haberlandt). 

Len'ticel, LenticrTla (Jens, Jcntis, a 
lentil), lenticular corky spots on 
yoimg bark, corresponding to epi- 
dermal stoniata ; syn. Lent'icelle 
(Crozier") ; lenticella'tus(MoLl. Lat.), 

having lenticels ; Lentic'ulae, "the 
spore-cases of certain Fungals " 
(Lindley) ; lentic'ular, hnticula'ris, 
lentiform'is (/(9rtn«, * shape), like a 
doubly convex lens ; len'tiform 
(forma, shape), doubly convex, 
shaped like a lentil-seed. 

lentig'inose, lentig'inous, lentigino' sxis 
(Lat., fall of freckles, minutely 
dotted as though freckled. 

leochro'mus (Aewv, a lion ; XP'^/"". 
colour), tawny, the colour of a lion's 
hide ; leoni'nus (Lat., pertaining 
to a lion), something of the samii 

Lep'al, Lcp'alum (Mod. Latin, from 
AcTrij, a scale), a nectary originat- 
ing in a bari'en transformed stamen 
(J. S. Henslow). 

Lepan'tMum (Afttis, a scale ; 6.vQos, a 
flower), *'a petal which contains a 
nectary" (Crozier) ; Lepic'ena (k€i/J)s, 
empty), the glume in gi-asses, by 
Richard used for the lower pair 
of glumes; Lep'ides, pi., scales, 
usually attached by their centre. 

lepidoden'droid (elSos, resemblance), 
like the fossil genus Lepidodendron, 
a carboniferous Lycopod. 

lep'idoid (Acttis, a scale ; elSos, resem- 
blance), as though scaly, applied 
to leaves, as in Thuya ; lepidophyl- 
I'ous {(pvKXov, a leaf), has the same 
meaning ; Lep'idophyte, Lepido- 
phy'tae {<pvThu,^ plant), L. "Ward's 
term for Lepidodendroid fossil 

lepidopt'erid, used of flowers adapted 
for lepidopterous pollination ; Lepi- 
dopteroph'ilae (Lepidopteron, ^jAcw, 
I love), applied to plants which are 
fertilized V)y lepidopterous insects. 

Lepidosper'mae (Aetrls, a scale ; cnrc/j/xa, 
seed), applied to seed-bearing Lyco- 
pods (Ward). 

lepidos'troboid, recalling the fossil 
genus Lepidosfrohis in form or 

lep'idote, lepido'tns {Ketri^uTos, scaly), 
beset with small scurfy scales. 

Lepio'ta (ActtIs, a scale ; otjs, wrhs, an 
ear), "the annulus of certain F\in- 
gals" (Lindley); but Lfpioia is a 




genus of Agarics, having been pro- 
posed by Persoon for a section of 
Agaricics ; Le'pis, a scale. 

Lepis'ma {\(iri<Tua, peeled bark), a 
membranous scale in some Ranuu- 
culaceae, an apparently aborted 
stamen in Pneoiiia papaveracca, 
Andrz. ; several of them enclose 
the ovary. 

Lep'ra {\evpa, leprosy), a white mealy 
matter extruded from the surface 
of some plants ; lep'rose, lep'roua, 
lepro'sus, scurfy. 

lep'rarioid, resembling the old Lichen 
genus Lepraria. 

leptocen'trio (+ Leptome ; centrum, 
the middle), when a vascular bundle 
has the leptome in the middle, with 
the hadrome round it (Haberlandt). 

leptoclad'ous {Keitrhs, thin; K\dSos, a 
branch), slender branched. 

thin, delicate ; Sepfia, skin), thin- 
coated, used of moss-capsules when 
pliable ; Lep'toforms (forma, shape), 
heteroecious Fungi having teleuto- 
spores only, which as soon as they 
arrive at maturity germinate on 
living plants. 

lepto'gioid (cISoy, resemblance), like 
the Lichen genus Leptogium. 

Leptogonid'ium (AcTrrbs, thin, delicate ; 
+ Gonidium) = MicROGONimuM ; 
Lepfoid (elSoj, resemblance), a group 
of six to eight polygonal cells, re- 
sembling sieve-tubes, in the leptome 
of certain Bryophytes (Tansley and 
Chick) ; Lep'tome, an abbreviation of 
Leptomes'tome{/*e(rT?»s, filled), Haber- 
landt's expression for the phloem- 
like portion of the vascular bundles 
in vascular plants; Lep'tome- 
mantle, fusion of several leptoida 
into a layer ; ^ Strand, modifica- 
tion of the leptome cylinder ; lep- 
tomat'io, pertaining to the leptome ; 
Lep'tomin, a substance found in the 
leptome of some plants, especially 
in the sieve-tubes and laticiferous 
vessels, the presumed function being 
to convey oxygen (Raciborski) ; 
Leptoae'ma {vrifxa, thread), the deli- 
cate thread formed during the tran- 

P 2 

sition from a reticulum to a spirem 
in synapsis ; Leptonisa'tion, the re- 
duction of the nucleus into a finely 
filamentous condition, from reti- 
culum into spirem ; Leptophlo'em 
(-{- PHLoiiM), rudimentary phloem, 
for storage or conduction of food 
material (Vaisey) ; leptophyl'lous, 
-lus, {<pv\\ov, a leaf), slender-leaved; 
Leptopuccin'ia, a group of the genus 
Fticcinia, which produces only teleu- 
tospores; leptosporan''giate (o-Tropck, 
seed ; ayyeiop, a small vessel), 
having leptosporangia ; Leptospor- 
an'giom, a sporangiimi derived from 
one superficial cell, as in the true 
Ferns, and not from a group of cells 
as in Ophioglossaceae ; lep'totene 
(jivav, a tendon), tvhen the dividing 
nucleus is extended into a mass of 
fine filaments ; leptoti'chus (rerxoj, 
a wall), thin-walled, applied only to 
tissue ; Leptoxy'lem (4- Xylem), the 
water-conducting tissue of the sporo- 
phy te of Mosses : functional w ood 
{ Vaizey) ; lepta-zygotene (+ zygo- 
tene), a transition stage between the 
delicate single threads or leptonema 
of the nucleus and their paired 
arrangement in the zygonema. 

Lepyrophyriy (A6Vi»poj/,a scale; <pv\\oy, 
a leaf), Morren's term for arrest of 
the testa in the leaf-stage. 

les'keoid, resembling the moss-genus, 

le'thal [lethalis, deadly) Coeffic'ient ; 
infe'rior or supe'rior, the lowest or 
highest temperatures which are 
fatal to the vital functions of a given 
organism (C. Jones). 

lett'ered, vpith spots resembling letters; 


leucan'thous, -thus {\evKbs, white or 
grey), white-flowered ; Leu'cia or 
" Amidocaproic acid" is a white 
substance, first found in animals, 
afterwards found in plants ; Leu'- 
cite, Van Tieghem's name for Leuco- 
plast; he further modifies the term 
by prefixing am'ylo-, chlo'ro- 
chro'mo-, ela^io-, ox'aii-, for various 
modifications ; furthermore, act'ive 
<^, or pas'give or reserve' '--, accord- 





to function : leiicophyirus 
i<pv\\ov, a leaf), white- leaved ; 
Leu'cophyll-gTain = Leucoplast ; 
Leu'coplast, Leucoplas'tid (TrAacrrbs, 
moulded), A. F. W. Schimper's term 
for the specialized colourless proto- 
plasmic granule; syn. Anaplast (A. 
Meyer), and Leucite (Van Tieghera); 
Leucoso'mata, pi. = leu'cosomes 
(<rwyua, a body), small spherical 
bodies, apparently composed of 
albiiminoids inclosed in the leiico- 
plasts of Commelynaceae (Zimmer- 

leviga'tus (Lat.), smooth, slippery; 
in botanical Latin it is usually 
spelled ' ' lae-sagatus. " 

le'vis (Lat.), smooth, in the sense of 
not rough ; from the time of Linnaeus 
downward this has been spelled bo- 
tanically as "laevis." 

Le'vulose {laevus, on the left side) ; 
Fructose or fruit-sugar ; it detiects 
polarized light to the left. 

Lia'na, Lia'ne (Span, liar, to tie ; 
pron. leah-na, le-ahn), luxuriant 
woody climbers in the tropics with 
stems of anomalous structure ; 
lia'noid {eUos, like), having a liana- 
like habit ; Lia'noid, Johow's term 
for phanerogamous parasites which 
proceed from autotrophous climbers. 

Lib'er (Lat., inner bark), the inner 
bark, v/hich is often fibrous, the 
phloem of the vascular system con- 
taining the bast-tissue ; '~ Fi'bres, 

li'ber (Lat., free), having no cohesion 
with the adjoining parts; libera'tus 
(Lat.), freed. 

liberolig'neous {lihe}-, inner bark ; 
lignum, wood), applied to a conjoint 
bundle composed of bast and wood 
elements ; Lib'riform {forma, shape), 
a tissue coniposed of librifoum 
cells (Tschirch) ; lib'riform Cell, a 
narrow, thick- walled cell of woody 
tissue resembling bast, Avood-fibre 
(Crozier) ; ^ Fi'bres, substitute 
fibres reduced in form (Germ., 

Li'broplasts {liber, free ; nXafXThs, 
moulded), elaeoplasts which are free 


on the median line of Diatoms 

Li'chen (AetxV> lichen), a Cryptogam 
which forms a thallus that is 
either shrubby, leafy, crustaceous or 
powdery, generally regarded as a 
symbiosis of hyphal filaments with 
algal gonidia ; '^ Al'gae, the gonidia 
or green bodies in the thallus ; -^ 
Fun'gi, the filaments of hyphae, 
which are usually interwoven with 
the gonidia ; -' Starch = Lichenin; 
■^ Tun'dra, Hat or gently undulat- 
ing land, chiefly producing Lichens, 
especially in the north of Siberia; 
lichenic'olous {coIo, I inha1)it), dwell- 
ing in or on a Lichen ; Li'chenin, 
the peculiar starch -like body in 
Cdraria islandica, Linn., and other 
Lichens ; Li'chenism, the special 
symbiosis between Alga and Fungus 
occurring in Lichens ; Licheno- 
g'rapher, Lichenog'raphist {ypd(pa>, 
I write) = Lichenologist ; Lioheno- 
g'raphy, the study of Lichens ; adj. 
lichenograph'ic ; li'chenoid {eUos, 
like), irregularly lobed, as Lichens ; 
Lichenorogist {\6yos, discourse), 
a student or writer on Lichens ; 
Lichenol'ogy {\6yo5, discourse), the 
science and study of Lichens ; Lich- 
noer'ythrine {epvOphs, red), Sorby's 
name for the red colouring matter 
of Lichens ; Lichnoxan'thine {^aydhsy 
yellow), the same observer's term for 
the yellow colouring in Lichens. 

Lid, (1) the operculum of moss-capsules 
(W. J. Hooker) ; (2) the distal e.x- 
tremity of the ascidium of Nepenthes 
which forms a lid-like appendage to 
tlie pitcher ; (3) the areas of pollen- 
grains which are detached to permit 
the poUen-tnbos to pass; '~ Cells, 
the terminal cells of the neck of the 
archegonium which temporarily close 
the canal ; the stigmatic cells. 

Life, the state in which "plants can 
grow or perform their functions of 
absorption, assimilation, reproduc- 
tion, etc. ; ~ Cy'cle, tlie course of 
development from any given stage 
to the same again, as from the seed 
to the seed once more. 



Ligamen'tum + (Lat, a band or band- 
age) = Rapiie. 

Light-absor'ption, the ratio of the 
wliole of daylight to that of the place 
in which the plant grows (Wiesner) ; 
-^ -traps = Lens-cells. 

lig'neous, lig'nous, lii/neus (Lat.), 

lignic'olor {lignwn, wood; color, col- 
our), tawny, the colour of freshly 
cut wood ; lig'nicoie, lignic'olous 
(colo, to inhabit), applied to plants 
which live on timber ; lignif' erous 
ifcro, I bear), used ot branches 
which form Avood only but no 
flowers ; Lignilica'tion {facio, I 
make), the hardening or thicken- 
ing of the cell-wall by secondary 
deposits; lig'nified, converted into 
wood ; '-' -lay'er, in leaf- fall, the 
layer of cells immediately above 
the separation layer; lig'niform 
(forma, shape), like wood ; lig'nify, 
to turn into wood ; Lig'nin or Lig'- 
nine, an incrusting or impregnating 
sul)stance on the cell-wall, produc- 
ing woody tissue ; it is insoluble in 
water or ether, soluble in alcohol 
and alkalis, and is the remainder 
after the cellulose has been removed 
by chemical means ; Lignire'cse 
(deriv. ?), Payen's term for a con- 
stituent of Lignin, only slightly 
soluble in water ; Lig'nite, a fossil 
or semi-1'ussil wood substance ; jet is 
an example; Lignoceriulose ( + 
Celm'losr), see Cellulose ; Lig'- 
none, a substance which differs from 
Lignin by being insoluble in water, 
alcohol and ether, but soluble in 
ammonia, potash, soda (Payen) ; 
Lig'nose, a constituent of Lignin, 
but soluble only in potash and soda 
solutions (Payen) ; lig'nose, ligno'- 
sus, woody, ligneous ; Lig'no-suberi- 
zation (+ »Suj5i:uization) ; in leaf- 
fall when the lignification and the 
protective layer is completed by a 
layer of suberine, and the disap- 
pearance of the protoplasm from the 
cells (Lee) : Ligno'sum, a type of 
vegetation in Avhicli there are several 
layers, conditioned by the dominant 

trees or shrubs; Lig'num, wood, 
that wuthin the cortex, including 
both alburnum and duramen. 

Lig'ule, Lig'ula (Lat., a little tongue), 
(1) a strap-shaped body, such as 
the limb of the ray florets in Com- 
positae ; (2) a lobe of the outer 
corona in Stapelia (X. E. Bz'own) ; 
(3) the thin, scarious projection 
from the top of the leaf-sheath in 
grasses ; (4) a narrow membranous, 
acuminate structure, internal to the 
leaf-base in Isoetes and Sclaginella ; 
(5) an appendage to certain petals, 
as those of SSileiic and Cuscuta 
(A. Gray); (6) the ovuliferous scale 
in Araucaria, united with the bract, 
and resembling the ligule in Isovtes 
(Potter); (7) the envelope which 
])rotects tlie young leaf in palms, as 
Chamaerops and llhaphis. 

lig'ular, (1) jjcrtaining to a ligule, in 
its various meanings ; (2) Russow's 
term for that leaf-face of Selaginella 
which is turned towards the ligule ; 
cf. ALiGULAK ; lig'uiate, ligula'tus, 
furnished with a Ligule ; lig'aliform, 
ligulifoi'm'is [forma, shape), strap- 
shaped; iigulillor'ate, liguliflor'ous, 
-rus {flos, Jioris, a flower), having 
ligulate florets, as Hieraciiun. 

lilac, pale Avarni pur[»le, the colour of 
i\i&^o\\QVoi Syriaga vulgaris, Linn. ; 
Li'lacine, a bitter principle from the 
bark of the same plant; li'lacine 
(Heinig), lila'ceus (Mod. Lat.), 
lilaci'nous, -nus, lilac in colour. 

lilia'ceous, -ceas {lilium, a lily ; -4- 
ACEors), lily-like. 

limaciform'is {Umax, linuicis, a slug ; 
foriiia, shape), applied by Koerber 
to those Lichen spores v>hich arc 
slug- shaped. 

Limb, Urn' bits (Lat., a border or hem), 
(1) the border or expanded part of 
a gamopetalous corolla, as distinct 
from the tube or throat ; (2) the 
lamina of a leaf or of a petal ; 
(3) the margin of the leaf in Mosses 
wlien distinct in colour and cell- 
structure ; lim'bate, limba'tia^, hav- 
ing a margin of the kind stated. 

Lime, used to denote calcium carbonate 




in plants ; '-- Gran'ules, lime-knots in 
Myxogasties, concretions occurring 
in the capiliitium ; '*- Scales, the 
chaik-glands which excrete lime, as 
with certain Saxifrages. 

Li'mes (Lat., a cross-path or boundary) 
commu'nisi, the colhiDni or neck of 
a plant. 

limic'oloas {limicola, a dweller in 
ir.ud), growing in mud, as on the 
margins of pools. 

lim'itary {limitaris, pertaining to a 
"boundary), placed at the limit, as 
a guard ; limiting, restricting ; '- 
Ceil = H'eterocyst; --' Fae'tor, 
the factor in growth which fails 
first ; it may be humidity, or light, 
or temperature, etc. 

lim'itate (limitatus, restricted), limited 
or bounded by a distinct line of 
hypothallus in Lichens (Leighton). 

Lim'nad (AiV»''?, a lake ; -\- ad), a lake 
plant (Clements) ; Limnae'a Forma- 
tion, aquatic plants with a loose 
substratimi of soil; limnetic, applied 
to plants which grow -in pools or 
their neighbourhood ; Limni'um, 
lake formation ; Limno'bion {fiios, 
life), organic associations occurring 
in fresh water; cf. Halobion,' 

Limno'dad {\i,uucoSr)s, marshy; + ad), 
a plant of a salt marsh ; Limnodi'um, 
employed by Ganong for wild salt 
marsh vegetation ; limnodoplillas 
{<pi\4(c, I iQve), marsh-loving ; Lim- 
XLOdopliy''ta {(pvrhv, a plant), marsh 
plants (Clements). 

Limnone'reid i^i/j-vn) a lake ; "Sripeh, a 
sea-nymph), freshwater algal sub- 
formation ; limnoph'ilus (i>i\4<i>, I 
love), pond-loving ; Limatophy'ta 
{^vrhv, a plant), pond plants 
(Clements) ; Linmoplauk'ton (-f 
Plankton), the floating vegetation 
of freshwater pools or streams. 

Li'namarin {linurn, flax), a glucosidc 
in linseed, Linum; the same as 
Phaseolunatin ; Li'nase, an enzyme 
in flax (Armstrong). 

Line, Li'nea (Lat., a line or thread), 
as a measure of length, the twelfth 
part of an inch, in millimetres, 

2-1167 ; the Paris line is 2-325 
mm^ ; '- Tran'sect, a record of 
the plants occurring along a straight 
line (Clements) ; Li'vca transversa' lis, 
the ostiolum of some Fungi ; Lines 
of Gro'Wtii, the limits of each year's 
growth in woody stems ; <-' of Vege- 
ta'tion, for any giveu species, those 
obtained by joining all the places in 
a given direction where the species 
stops ; the resultant lines map out 
the distribution of the said species 
(Kerner) ; linea lis (Lat., consisting 
of lines), measuring about a line ; 
lin'ear, Unea'ris, narrow, several 
times longer than wide ; lin'eate, 
Ihua'tus, marked with lines; liiiea'ta 
Va'sa I, vessels transversely marked, 
as annulate ducts or tracheids ; line- 
a'tipes X {pes, a foot), having a lined 
or striated foot-stalk; lined = lineate, 
stiiate ; lin'eolate, lineola'tiis, marked 
with fine or obscure lines. 

linguiform'is {lingua, a tongue ; forma, 
shape), tongue -slhaped ; ling'ulate, 
lingula'tus, also means tongue- 

Li'nin or Li'nine {xivov, a thread), tlie 
hyaloplasmic filaments of the nucleus 
in repose (Schwarz). 

Linn'ean Syst'em, the artificial classifi- 
cation devised by Linnaeus, based 
upon the number and position of the 
stamens and pistils. 

Li'nolein {linum, flax; oUum, oil), 
"the glyceride of lineoleic acid 
found in linseed oil. " 

Li'nom = Linin. 

linosp'orous {li)iea, a line ; -j- Spore), 
employed by G. F. Atkinson for 
"linear spored." 

Liorhi'zae {Xttos, smooth ; piCa, root). 
Van Tiegliem's name for Mono- 
cotyledons and Nymphaeaceae, the 
root-hairs being of exodermic origin ; 
liorhi'zal, pertaining to Liohhizae. 

Lip, (1) one of the two divisions of a 
bilabiate corolla or calyx, that is» 
a gamopetalous or gamosepalous 
organ cleft into an upper (superior 
or posterior) and a lower (inferior 
or anterior) portion ; (2) the label- 
lum of Orchids ; <^ Cells, two narrow, 




lignified cells on the sporangia of 
some annulate Ferns, distinct from 
the anniiliis, wliich are the first 
to separate on dehiscence ; cf. 

Lip'ase {\lTros, grease), a fat-splitting 
enzyme occurring in oily seeds ; 
Lipasei'din, the fat-splitting enzyme 
of the cytoplasm in castor-oil seeds, 
Eicimts; Lip'ochrome {xpSlipLa, colour), 
the yellow pigment of flowers, so 
nanwd by Hansen from its reseni- 
blance to an animal pigment ; 
Lipocy'anin i^Kvavos, blue), the blue 
pigment of some plants ; Lip'oid 
(eI5os, resemblance), applied to a 
series of fatty bodies found in plants 
in association Avith protoplasm ; e.g. 
CiTOLiPOiD, TROPHOLiroiB, etc. ; 
lipolytic (AutTis, a loosing), dis- 
solving fats. 

lipox'enous {xdirw, I leave ; ^4vos, a 
host), deserting its host ; Lipox'eny, 
the desertion of a host-plant by a 
parasite to complete its development 
on reserve materials previoiisly ob- 
tained from the host, as in the 
falling away of Ergot, the sclerotium 
of Cordyceps jniiyurea, Tul. 

lipped = LABIATE. 

Li'quor (Lat. a liquid) Am'nios (cf. 
Amnios), a term borrowied from 
zoology for the fluid "contained in 
the sac within which the embryo is 
engendered " (Lindley). 

Lirel'la (dim. of lira, a ridge), in 
Lichens an oblong apothecium with 
a furrow along its middle, as in 
Ojyegrapha; lirellate, lireriine, lirel- 
la-like ; lireriifonn, lirelliform' is 
{forma, shape), shaped like a lirella. 

lisigenet'ic, = lysigenetic. 

List-quad'rat, an enumeration of the 
plants found in a square space 

Lithobiblion {?d6o5, a stone ; $ifiKiov, 
a paper or scroll) = Lithophyl ; 
Lith'ocarp (Kapirhs, fruit), fossil 
fruit ; Lith'ocyst {KvaTis, a bag or 
pouch), a ciystal cell ; lithoph'ilus 
(0i\ew, I love), rock-loving ; lithoph'- 
ilous, saxicolous, dwelling on rocks ; 
'^ Formation, a formation of aquatic 

plants fixed to stones or rocks, as 
marine Algae ; Lith'opliyl {(pvWov, 
a leaf), a fossil leaf or leaves; 
Lithophy'ta, Lith'ophs^es (</)vtJ>v, 
a plant), (1) plants which grow ou" 
stones, but derive their nourishment 
from the atmosphere, as saxicolous 
Lichens ; (2) plants growing amongst 
rocks ; Lithophyti^a, rock plant for- 
mations (Clements) ; lithospenn'ous 
(o-B-ef)/io, seed), having hard, stony 
seeds; Lithox'yle {^vkov, wood), 
fossil wood. 

Lit^mus, a violet colour dqfived from 
t>everdl species of Lichens, such as 
Eoccdla^ etc. 

lit'oral, litora'lis (Lat. pertaining to 
th£ sea-shore), belonging to or grow- 
ing on the sea-shore (A. Gray adds 
"river banks," which strictly speak- 
ing is " riparian ") ;. used by H. C. 
Watson for plants of the sea-shore ; 
frequently spelled \WtoTdkl,liUora'lis. 

Litorideser'ta (litoreiis, pertaining to 
the sea-shore ; + Deserta), strand- 
steppes, deseiis developed under the 
influences of the sea, consisting 
chiefly of halophytes and succulents. 

litua'tus * {litAius, a crooked staff), 
forked, with the points turned a 
little outward. 

litura'tus % [litura, a smearing), when 
spots are formed by an abrasion of 
the surface. 

li'vens, liv'id, li'vidiis (Lat.), pal« 
lead colour. 

liv'er-coroured = hepaticous. 

Liv'erworta, Plepaticae. 

Lla''no8 (Span.), a special type of 
savannah, forming va.*5t plains in 
Venezuela, and characterized by 
usual absence of trees. 

Lobe, Lo'biis (xo&hs, the lower part of 
the ear), any division of an organ 
or specially rounded division ; 
Mid'dle'^ , a small conical or tongue- 
shaped growth arising from between 
the two side lobes of a Fern-pro- 
thallus; lo'bate, loha'tus, divided 
into or bearing lobes ; Lo'belet, a. 
small lobe; Lob'iolua, a small IoIm 
int« which some Lichen-thalli are 
divided ; lobose', occasionally used 




for LOBED ; lob'ulate, lohitla'lns, 
having .small lol)Cs ; Lob'ule, (1) 
a small lobe, a lobulet ; (2) Spruce's 
Avord for the minor lobe of thfe leaf 
of Hepaticae, the auricle of Kecs 
and others; (3) a tongiie-like struc- 
ture opjiosite the scutelhihi in 
grasses, the epiblast (Van Tieg- 
hem) ; Lob'ulus, a small lobe. 

Local'ity (Jocalitas, a place), the ap- 
proximate geographic position of 
an individual specimen. 

locel'late, lucella'tus, dividing into 
LocELLi ; Locerius (dim. of loculvs, 
a little compartment), a secondary 
compartment, as a primitive pollen- 
sac, wliich, by the destruction of a 
septum, unites with an adjoining 
locellns to form an anther-loculus. 

Loch'mad {K6xiJ--n, a thicket ; -f ad), a 
thicket plant; Lochmi'um, a thicket 
fonjiation^ locbmoc'ola [colo^ I in- 
habit), and lochmopb'ilus {<pi\4o, I 
love), dwelling in thickets ; Loch- 
mophy'ta {<pvr6y, a plant), thicket 
plants (Clements). 

Lochmo'dium {XoxfJi^^vs, bu.shy), a dry 
thicket formation ; locbmodopb'ilus 
((pi\4<a, I love), dwelling in dry 
thickets; Locbmodophy'ta (^i/tov, a 
plant), dry thicket plants (Clements). 

Lo'co, disease of cattle and sheep from 
tlieir feeding on Lo'co*plant3 or '- . 
-weeds, chietiy species of Asiragalns 
and Lupimis. 

Loc'oform {locus, a place; -f Form), 
a form which differs from its nearest 
allies by peculiarities deriveil from 
the climate or soil (Ivuntze) ; looo- 
greg'ifonn (yrex, g regis, a flock), 
a. secondary or tertiary K.amiform 

Lor/ulament, Loculamen'tnvi (Lat. a 
case or box) ; (1) = Loculu.s of a 
carpel ; (2) " the pcrithecium of 
certain Fungals" (Lindley) ; loc'ular, 
Ipcula'ris, having cavities or Locnli, 
ienuted further by the addition of 
, utxi-, bl-, tri-, etc., for one-, two-, 
three-, etc., celled ;locula'tus, divided 
into cavities ; loculici'dal {caedo, I 
cut), th? cavity of a pericarp <]e- 
hiscent by the back, the dorsal 


suture ; loc'iilcse, lor.ulo'sus, Icc'u- 
lous, divided internally into cells, 
l)artitioned ; Loc'ulus, (1) the cavity 
of an ovary or anther ; (2) the peri- 
derm of certain Fungals (Lindley) ; 
(3) a chamber in the apex of the 
testa of a fossil seed (F. W. Oliver). 

Locus'ta (Lat crayfish or locust), the 
spikelet in grasses. 

Lodg'er-arrangements, used by those 
liowers which detain their insect 

Ldd'icule, Lodicu'la (Lat. a small 
coverlet), a small scale outside the 
stamens in the Hower of grasses; 

Loess, drifting dust detained and con- 
solidated by vegetation. 

Log'otype (a.£$7os, word ; tvtos, type), 
a type determined historically from 
two or more original species ; adj. 
logotyp'ic (0. F, Cook). 

Lol'iopiiyll, Etard's naviie for chlo- 
rophyll from Loliiim and other 


Lo'ma, a in Peru, the life 
of plants is during the winter when 
mists moisten the soil, in summer it 
is dried up. 

lomar'ioid, resembling the Fern genus 

long'ipes {longns, long ; ;;««, a foot), 
long-footed or long-stalked. 

lomenta'ceous, -reus {, bean- 
meal), bearing or resembling 
Loroents ; Lo'ment, Lomen'tiim, a 
legume which is contracted be- 
tween the seeds, falling apart at 
the constrictions when mature into 
one-seeded joints. 

Long'ipeBplankton (+ Flankton), a 
summer boreal association composed 
of Peridiniaceae, es[>ecially of Cera- 
lium longipes, whence th(! name. 

longis'simus (Lat.), very long. 

LongistRmin'eae {longns, long; -|- Sta- 
men), DeJpino's term for liowers 
with long stamens which are wind- 
fertilized ; adj. longistam'inate. 

Longitu'dinal Sys'tem, an old term for 
tibro- vascular system ((Jrozii-r). 

in the direction of the length. 




Longitu'do (Lat, lengtli) nieaus, 
botaiiically, in the direction of 

loose, (1) as applied to inflorescence, 
lax, as a panicle ; (2) hardly co- 
herent, as loose tissue; -- Smut, a 
disease of cereals caused by various 
species of UsWago. 

Loph'ad {\o(j)La, a crest ; + Ad), a hill 
plant; lophios'tomate {(TT6iJ.a, a 
mouth), having crested apertures or 
openings ; Lophi'um, a hill or crest 
formation ; lophoph'ilus {(pi\4a), I 
love), hill-dwelling ; Lophophy'ta 
{(pvTov, a plant), hill-plants (Clem- 
ents) ; Lopli'ospores, -ce (+ Spore), 
plants having plumose pappus 
(Clements) ; lophot'riclious (6pl|, 
Tpixos, hair), used of those bacteria 
possessed of a tuft of cilia (Jones). 

lor' &te,lora'tus {lorum, a thong), strap- 
shaped, ligulate. 

Lori'ca (Lat., a leather corslet), (1) 
the entire silicious covering of the 
frustule in Diatoms ; (2) formerly 
used for the Testa ; (3) employed 
bv Hance to denote the scales of 
the fruit of Calamus. 

lor'icate [clothed in mail], "equally 
narrow throughout " (Braithwaite), 
is probably a slip for lokate. 

Lo'rulum (Lat. dim. of lorum, a 
thong), the filamentous and branched 
thallus of some Lichens. 

Lo'tase, an enzyme in Lotus arahicua ; 
Lotofla'vin, a yellow colouring mat- 
ter in the same plant ; Lo'tusin, 
a yellow crystalline glucoside also 
from it. 

low, small as compared to its allies ; 
'^ Moor, a swampy formation de- 
veloping peat (Warming) ; -^ Yeast, 
that Avhich is found at the bottom 
of a fermenting liquid: Ger, " Un- 
terhefe" ; low'ered, used when the 
lip of a bilabiate corolla is inclined 
at about a right angle to the tube. 

lu'bricous; hc'bricus (Lat.), smooth, 

iu'cens, lu'cid, lu'cidus (Lat.), shin- 
ing, referring to the surface. 

lumbrica'lis {lumbricus, a maw-worm), 
worm-shaped, as in some Algae ; 

lum'bricous, shaped like an earth- 

Lu'men (Lat, light, opening), the 
space which is bounded by the 
walls of an organ, as the central 
cavity of a cell ; Lu'minous Line, in 
Malpighiaceae, etc., on the testa of 
the seeds, is due to a modification 
of the outer layer. 

lu'nar {Imia, the moon), (1) pertain- 
ing to the moon ; (2) lunate ; ^ '^ 
Plants, Grew's term for those which 
twine "with the moon," against' 
the sun, siuistrorse ; In'nate, luna^- 
ius, half-moon shaped ; luua'ted, 
having lunar markings (Crozier) ; 
lu'niform [forviay shape), crescent- 
shaped (Crozier) ; lu'nulate, lunu- 
la'tu's, diminutive of lunate. 

Lu'pinine, an alkaloid in the flower- 
buds of Lnpinus hUeus, Linn. ; 
Lu'pinite, a bitter substance occur- 
ring in the leaves of the white lupin, 
Lupinns albus, Linn. 

Lu'pulin, (1) a secretion from the 
glandular hairs of the hop-strobiles, 
Bumv.his Lupalus, Linn., which 
gives a bitter taste ; (2) see Lupu- 
LiNic Glands ; lu'puline, lupuli'- 
noui, lupuli'niis, resembling a hop- 
strobile ; Lupulin'ic Glands, the 
resinous glandular bodies within 
the scales of the female flower of the 
hop, "also called Lupulin " (Stor- 
month) ; Lu'pulite, a lupulinic gland. 

lu'rid, lu'ridus (Lat., sallow, wan), in 
botany, dingy brown or yellow ; 
lurid'ic Acid occurs in Boletus 
luridus, Schaeff. 

Lu'siform {lusus, a game), a new form, 
due to cultivation, which reproduces 
itself by vegetable increase only, and 
not by seed (K"\mtze). 

Lu'sus (Lat., a game), a sport or varia- 
tion from seed or bud ; — Natu'rae 
a monstrosity. 

lu'teo-fus'cus {hUeiis, yellow ; fascus, 
swarthy), blackish -yellow ; lu'teolin, 
a vellow colouring matter found in 
weld, Reseda Luieola, Linn.; lu'teolus 
(Lat), yellowish; lutes'cent, lutes' - 
cens, becoming yellow ; lu'teous, 
lu'tens (Lat), a full yellow. 




lu'tioole {hUum, mud ; colo, I inhabit), 
used of a plant growing in miiy 

Luxu'ria, Luxu'ries (Lat., rankness), 
exuberant growth ; Luxu'riant, 
luxu'rians (Xat.), usually signifies 
that the organs of nutrition are 
more developed than those of 

lycoper'dioid (Lycoperdon, a genus of 
Gasteromycetes ; elSos, like), resem- 
bling a puff-ball. 

lycopodia'ceous (-|-aceous), resemb- 
ling the genus Lycopodiuiii ; lycopo- 
din'ean, lycopodi'nous, resembling in 
structure Lycopodiiim ; Lycop'sida, 
Lycop'gids, pi. (o^j/jj, appearance), 
a group of cryptogams, consisting 
of Lycopodiales and Equisetales 
(Jeffrey); adj. lycop'sid, sporangio- 
phoric; the cryptogams specified. 

lycot'ropal = lycot'ropouB, -pits {Xvkos, 
a door-knocker ; rpotr^, a twining), 
when an otherwise orthotropous ovule 
is bent like a horse-shoe. 

Lymph, Lym'pha (Lat. , spring water), 
Grew's term for sap ; Lymph ae- ducts 
= Ducts ; lymphatic, clear, pellucid ; 
-- Ducts = Ducts. 

lysigenet'ic, lysigen'ic, lysig'enous 
[KvaiSy a loosing ; yivos, offspring), 
Avhen a cavity is formed by a dis- 
organization or dissolving of cells. 

ly'rate, iyra'tus {Kvpa, a lute or lyre), 
lyre-shaped, pinnatiftd with the 
terminal lobe large and rounded, the 
lower lobes small; lyra'ti-parti'tus, 
'-' -seo'tus, lyrately pinnate; lyre- 
shaped = LYKATE. 

Ly'sin {Xvais, a loosing), a product 
of tlie hydrolysis of protamines and 
other proteids, isolated from sprout- 
ing plants; Ly 'sis, the metamorphosis 
of a part. 

Mace, the arillus of the nutmeg. 

Hacera'tion {Maceratio, a steeping), 
steeping, as in the case of barley for 

macran'drous {/xuKphs, long ; dj/^jp, 
aybpbsy a man), having large or long 
male plants in Algae; macran'thus 
{Updos, a flower), long flowered. 

Mac'ro-, in Greek compounds =slong; 

frequently but improperly used for 
mega-, or megalo-, large. 
macroaeroph'ilous iixaKphs, long ; dr/p, 
au- ; (pi\ea, I love), employed by 
Winogradsicy to express the avidity 
for oxygen shown by Clostridium; 
Macroan'drospore (+ Androspore), 
Janet's term for macrospores of 
Selagiuella having a male function ; 
SPORE, Sporangium), the sporangium 
producing macroaplauospores (Thax- 
ter); Macroaplan'ospore (+Aplano- 
8P0RE), aplauospores of large size 
given off by Compsopogon (Thaxter) ; 
Macrobiocar'py (/3tys, life ; Kapnhs, 
fruit), Delpino's expression for the 
property of cei'tain fruits to retain 
their seeds during a series of years, 
as Callistemon ; macrobiostigmat'ic 
()8(oy, life ; arly/xa, a puncture), Del- 
pino's term for those plants whose 
stigmas remain capable of fertiliza- 
tion until the anthers are mature ; 
Macroblast^ jSAaiTTbs, a bud), a normal 
Avood bud(Hartig); macroceph'alous, 
•tiis (k€(/)oA^, head), big-headed, di- 
cotyledonous embiyos with consoli- 
dated cotyledons ; macroclad'ous 
'dtis (/cAoSbs, a branch), having long 
branches; Macroconid'iam(+Coifi- 
dium), a large conidium produced at 
a different period in the life-cycle 
to a MicROCONiDiUM ; Mac'rocyst 
{kixttis, a bag or pouch), (1) one of 
the vesicles which originate the fertile 
tissue in Pyronema, etc. (Tulasue); 
(2) the resting condition of a very 
young Plasmodium, a mass of proto- 
plasm, with nuclei in a double wall 
(Lister); Maerocy'te, trisyll. (kutoj, 
a hollow), the larger form of dimorphic 
flagellate Algae ; Macrodi'odange 
(+ Diode; dTYcToj', a vessel), Van 
Tieghem's tenn for Macrosporan- 
GiUM ; Macrodi'ode, the same botan- 
ist's word for Macrospore ; Macro- 
gam'ete {yaij.4r7}s, a spouse)=MEGA- 
GAMETE ; Macrogonid'ium {y6vos, 
offspring ; fUos, like), a gonidium of 
large size in comparison with otheis 
produced by the same species; c/. 
Megalogomdiuji ; Macrogy'nospere 




{+ Gynospore), Janet's terra for 
gynospores of Selaginella liavins^ pre- 
sumably a female function ; Macro- 
microspor'ophyll = Carpel. 

macromit'reous, resembling the genus 

macrophyl'line {ixaKphs^ lon^ ; (pvWov, 
a leaf), macrophyrious, liaving elon- 
gated leaflets or leaves ; Mac'ropliyte 
{<pvrhv, a plant), employed by 
Schimper to denote marine Algae 
of extreme length ; macrophyt'ic, 
(1) used by Schimper for the large 
forms of marine Algae ; (2) the non- 
microscopical plants found in the 
pleuston or liydrocharid formation 
(Warming) ; Maorophytoplank'ton 
{+ Plankton), plants such as Utri- 
cularia ; Mac'roplast {■nXaaT'bs, 
moulded), Lankester's term for large 
disc-like plastids in Bacterium rubes- 
cens ; macrop'odal, macrop'odous 
(iroOs, iroSbj, a foot), used of an 
embryo witli enlarged hypocotyl 
forming the greater part of its mass ; 
(Crozier adds another meaning, ap- 
plied to a leaf with a long petiole) ; 
Macroprothairium (+ Troth al- 
lium), a prothalloid growth from a 
microspore of Selaginella, etc., hav- 
ing a female function ; Macrop'teres 
{irrfplv, a feather or wing), the wings 
on the stems of plants' with reduced 
leaves ; Macropyc'nid {ifvKv'bs, dense) 
= Stylospore ; Macroscle'reids 
{<TK\r,phs, hard), Tschirch's term for 
long stone-cells with blunt ends ; 
macroscop'ic {a-Ko-nfca, I see), viewed 
by the naked eye, opposed to micro- 
scopic; Macrospartine'tum, a salt 
marsh plant association in v.'hich 
Spartina is dominant (Ganong) ; 
macrosporan'giate, possessing macro- 
sporangia; -~ Flow'ers, carpellary 
flowers, pistillate flowers destitute 
of stamens ; Macrosporan'gium 
{(XTTopa, seed, ayy^tov, a vessel), (1) 
a sporangium containing macro- 
spores ; (2) the nucellus of the ovule 
of Phanerogams; Mac'rospore; (1) 
the larger kind of spore in vascular 
Cryptogams ; (2) the enibryo-sac in 


macrospor'oid (elSos, resemblance), re- 
sembling the genus Macrosporium, 

Hacrospor'opliore {/laKphs, long) 
( -f Sporophor?:), an organ support- 
ing macrospores; Macrospor'op'nyll 
{(pvKKoy, a leaf) = CARPEL ; macro- 
gporophyl'lary, carpellary ; macro- 
sty'lous (cttCaos, a post), long styled ; 
Macrosym'biont {<tvij.^i6w, I live 
with), the larger of the associated 
organisms in symbiosis ; Mac'rotherm 
{dlpnTl, heat)=MEGATiiERM; macro- 
thennopli''ilus(0iAe'a)), I love), dwell- 
ing in the tropics ; Mafcrothenno- 
phy'ta {<pvrhv, a plant), trojdcal 
jilants; Macrothermophyti'a (Cle- 
ments). [Note. — These words would 
have been better coined from mega-, 
instead of macro-.] ; Macrozoogonid'- 
ium(^wo»', an animal ; -j-Gonidium), 
in Uloikrix the larger kind of zoo- 
spore, \\hich genninates indepen- 
dently; cf. MirROZOOGONIDIUM ; 
Macrozo'ospore, a large zoospore 
when compared with others of the 
same species. 

Mac'iila (, a spot; pi. Mac'ulae: 
(1) areolated pits of Conii'erae; (2) 
also organs on the aerial stem of 
Cyaihophorum, large round Avhite 
dots in two rows, probably water- 
storing organs; Macula'tion, the 
ai-rangement of spots on a plant 
(Crozier) ; maeulifor'mis i/ormis, 
shape), used by Koerber for apothecia 
which are shaped like irregular 
spots ; mac'ular, mac'ulate. mac'- 
ulose {maculosus, spotted), blotched 
or spotted. 

madefac'tus ( Lat. ), moistened, as plants 
in an herbarium previous to examina- 

Madu'ra, the fungus-foot disease sup- 
posed to be caused by Chiouyphe 
Carten, Berk. 

mag'moid {fj-dyna, dregs ; eUos, like), in 
l.ichens, "like an Alga, consisting 
of spherical green cellules " (Leigh- 

Magnetot'ropism {fidyvrfs, a magnet i 
rpoiri), a turning), a theoretic term 
for a possible tro})ic force of a magnet 




upon responsive particles in a plant 


Magno-carice'ta, pi. {ynagnuf, great), 

associations of tall-growing species 

of Car ex. 

Maio'8is=MEiosis ; maiot'ie=raeiotic. 

Ma'jor Quad'rat, Clementa's term for a 

square of four quadrats. 
Mak'roflora ( + Flora), applied by 
Levier and Soniniier to the luxuriant 
vegetation of some of the valleys in 
the Caucasus. 
Malacog'amy {/xaAaKia = moliusca ; 
ydfios, marriage), used in eases of 
Malacophilae (</)tAeaj, I love), plants 
which are fertilized by snails or 
slugs ; adj. malacoph'ilous. 
mal'acoid {/xa\ax^s, soft ; dSos, like) 
mucilaginous; maiacophyU'ous {(pv\- 
\ov, a leaf), with soft or fleshy 
male, a plant or flower which bears 
stamens or their analogues ; -^ Cell, 
the smaller of two unequal gametes ; 
^ Flow'ers, staminate flowers ; -^ 
Or'gans, those structures which, in 
fertilization, are concerned, as the 
stamens, antheridia, etc. ; '^ Pro- 
thariium, one wiiich bears antheridia 
only ; -' Sys'teni, all that part 
of the flower which belongs to the 
malic {maliau, an apple), pertaining 
to apples, as -^ Ac'id, which is said 
to be the most frequent of organic 
acids in cell-sap. 
Malicor''imu (Lat. ), the rind of the 

malig^nant Oedem'a, disease in animals 
resembling antlirax, and like that, 
caused by a bacillus. 
Mallee' Scrub, a slirub-steppe largely 
composed of Eucalyptus about the 
height of a man. 
Harieolus (Lat., a small hammer), a 
layer ; a shoot bent into the ground 
and half-divided at the bend, 
whence it emits roots. 
mallococ''cu8, {/xawSs, a lock of wool ; 

k6kkos, a berry), downy fruited. 
Malpighia'oei Pi'li, hairs attached by 
their middle, frequent in the order 
Malpighiaceae ; malpighia'ceous, re- 

lating to Malpighiaceae, as the 
peculiar hairs of many species ; Mal- 
pig'hian Cells, those which compose 
the outer layer of the seed in Mal- 
pighiaceae, with a "luminous line" 
composed of Lignin. 

Malt'ase or Malt'in, a ferment found 
in all germinating cereals, and of 
greater activity than diastase (Du- 
brunfaut) ; Malt'ing, germinating 
seeds of barley until the radicle 
(acrospire) is produced, and then 
checking the further germination by 
means of heat ; Maltodex'trin, a body 
intermediate in properties between 
maltose and dextrin ; Malt'ose, a 
sugar formed by the action of 
diastase on starch. 

malva'ceous, resembling or belonging 
to the order Malvaceae. 

Mamelon' (Fr., iiipple), the floral axis 
(Treub) ; ov'ular '~ , the papilla 
which precedes the formation of 
the nucellus in Cycas (Treub). 

Mamilla (Lat., a nipple or teat) = 

Mam'miform("iajji/ua, abreast; forma, 
shape), breast-shafied, conical with 
rounded apex. 

Mammiria (Lat.), a nipple or projec- 
tion ; used for granular prominences 
on pollen-grains ; mam'millar, mam- 
milla'ris, mam'millate, mammilla'- 
tus, having teat-shaped processes ; 
manuniriiform {forma, shape), ap- 
plied to those papillate protuber- 
ances on a ])etal which give it a 
velvety appearance. 

mam'mose {mammo'sus, full-breasted), 
having breast-like protuberances. 

man'cus (Lat., maimed), deficient or 

man'icate manica'tus, (Lat,, long- 
sleeved), applied to pubescence t-o 
dense and interwoven that it may 
be stripped ofl", "like a sleeve." 

Man'na, the hardened exudation from 
vahous trees, as from Fraxiniis 
Onius, Linn.; Man'nan, a Uenii- 
cellulose ; Man'nite, a sweet sub- 
stance in the sap of the tree men- 
tibned ; Man'nitose, sugar from 
the pith of ash, oak and elder ; 




Man'nose, a sugar lesiilting from the 
hydrolysis of cellulose ; MannoceH'- 
uiose{+ Cellulose), a constituent 
of gyniuosperni wood, which on 
hydrolysis yields abundant JIan- 
NOsE (Hertrand), 

Manom'eter {fxauhs, rare, scanty ; 
fxfTpou, a measure), apparatus to 
measure the i»ressure of gas or 

Mantiss'a (Lat. , an addition or make- 
weight), a su])plement. 

Man'tle, used by Grew for oerca : ~ 
Cells, tapetal cells ; -^ -fi'bres, 
A. A. Lawson's term for the fibres 
of tlie nuclear-spindle ; ~ Lay'er, a 
layer of tapetal cells ; ^ Leaf, 
Goebel's term for the pro.strate, 
half-enveloping barren frond, as in 
Platycrriuin alcicGrnc, Desv., as dis- 
tinct froui the fertile frond. 

Manu'brium (Lat., a handle), a cell 
which projects inward from the 
centre of the shields in the globule 
of Char a. 

man'y-head'ed, M'ith many distinct 
buds on the crown of a root. 

Ma'qui, a Coi-sican term f-a- dense 
thickets of shrubs, mostly evergi'oen. 

marattia'ceous, akin to or resembling 
the fern genus Mavaitia. 

mar'bled, stained with irregular streaks 
of colour. 

marces'ceut, inarccs'cens (Lat., wither- 
ing), withering without falling olf; 
mar'cidus (Lat.), withered, shrunk. 

Mar'cor (Lat., decay), welting; flac- 
cidity caused by want of water. 

Margel'la (dim. of viargo, a border), 
the elliptic ring round a stoma 
formed by the guard-cells. 

Mar'gin, Mnr'ffo, the edge or boun- 
dary line of a body ; mar'ginal, mar- 
gina'lis, placed upon or attached to 
the edge ; ^ Bast, a strong develop- 
ment of a hypoderm on the edges" 
of the leaves of certain families, as 
Ilicineae and M^Tsineae ; ~ Glands, 
glands on tlie incurved margin of the 
pitchers of Nepenthes ; -^ Gr07/'mg- 
point, in a flattened member when 
the marginal cells remain embryonic 
and capable of growtli ; '-' Ov'ule, an 

ovule borne on the margin of a car- 
pel ; ~ Pits, pits which traverse the 
outer walls of the epidermis in leaves 
(Solereder) ; ~ Veil, a inembrane en- 
closing the hymenium in the young 
stage of Agarics, the Vel um part' ale ; 
Margina'les, leptosporangiate Ferns 
whose sori ai;i3e from the margin 
of the frond (Bower) ; cf. SurEii- 
FiciALES ; mar'ginate, marffina'ttt', 
marqina'rhis, broad-brimmed, h\v- 
nished with a margin of distinct 
character ; raar'gined, marginate ; 
marginici'dal (caedo, I cut), dehis- 
cent by the disjunction of the united 
margins of the carpels, a form of 
septicidal dehiscence ; Mar'go thal- 
lo'des, the rim of the shiefd of a 
Lichen formed by the ihallus. 

marine', miri'nus [LbX., pertaining to 
the sea), growing v.-ithiu the influence 
of the sea, or immersed in its v/aters. 

marit'imu* (Lat., marine), belonging 
to the sea, or confined to the sea- 

Mark'inge, used of various forms ot 
thickening on the cell- wall, aa 
annular, reticulated, spiral, etc. 

mannora'tus (Lat., marbled), having 
veins of colour, as some marbles. 

Mar'ram-grass association, formed of 
Ammnphila, on sand dunes. 

Mar'row, used by Blair for the pith. 

Marsh plants = Helophytes. 

marsu'pial (fiapavTriov, a pouch), geo- 
calycal Or pouch -fruited, used of 
certain Hepaticae ; Marsu'pium, the 
fruiting receptacle of the same ; 
marsu'pioid, [eWos, resemblance) = 


mas, mas'culus, masculi'nus (Lat.), 
male ; staminate, or with corre- 
sponding structures. 

masked, ]jersonate. 

Mass, (1) usually written Mast; (2) 
Mass, pi Masses, used by Sir J. E. 
Smith for Sonus, Sohi. 

Mas'sa (Lat., a lump), the mass or 
substance of a body ; '~ semina'iis, 
the ilesh of some Fungi (Lindley) ; 
~ sporoph'ora ; — thecig'era, the 
sporangia of some Fungi (Lindley) ; 
Mas'ses, (1) collections of anything 




in unusual quantity, as pollen - 
masses ; (2) used by Sir J. E. Smith 
for SoRi. 

Mas'sula (Lat., a little lump), (1) the • 
hardened frothy mucilage enclosing 
a group of microspores in Hetero- 
sporous Filicineae ; (2) in Phanero- 
gams, a group of cohenng pollen- 
grains produced by one primary 
mother-cell, as in Orchideae ; also 
styled Pollen-mass. 

Mast, the fruit of such trees as beech, 
and other Cupuliferae. 

Mas'tic {fiaarixv, g^m), a resinous 
exudation from Msiacia Lentiscus, 

mast'igopod {fidaTi^, a whip ; irovs, 
iroBhs, a foot), a stage in the develop- 
ment of Myxogastres, the contents of 
each spore escape as a zoogonidium 
enclosing a nucleus and contractile 
vesicle, %\ith a single ciliuni ; Mas'- 
tigospores, -ae ( + Spore), plants 
with flagellate spores (Clements). 

mas'toid (uocrrbs, a breast ; eUos, like), 

Mat, a closely intertwined vegetation, 
with roots and rhizomes intermixed ; 
- Ge'cphytes, ph ( + Geophyte), 
perennial spot-boimd plants, mostly 
m onocoty ledons. 

Math, an old term for crop, as after- 
math = second crop, 

mato''iiioid (sISos, resemblance), like 
the Fern genus Matonia. 

Ma'trix (Lat., the womb), the body on 
which a Fungus or Lichen grows ; -^ 
Poriinis, the cell in which pollen - 
grains are developed ; the pollen - 

matrocli'nous {viater, a mother ; KXivw, 
I incline), used of hybrids which 
have th& characters of the female 

matteuo'ciold {el^os, resemblance), 
akin to or like the Fern genus 

Mattul'la, or Mat'tula {matta, a mat), 
the fibrous material surrounding 
the petioles of palms ; cf. Me- 
dulla (3). 

Matura'tion, Matara'tio (Lat.), ripen- 

matures''cent {mcUurescens, becom- 
ing ripe), approaching maturity 

matuti'nal, matiitina'lis, matuti'nus 
(Lat. ), pertaining to the morning ; 
plants flowering early, as Ipomoca 
purpurea, Roth. 

maz'ixnal {maximus, greatest), em- 
ployed to denote the utmost which 
an " organism can endure as, the 
gi-eatest degree of heat. 

Mazae'dlum (deriv. ?), the fructifica- 
tion of Calicei, the spores free from 
the asci and forming a powdery mass 
in nearly closed heads. 

Mead'ow, disylh, usually grass-land 
artificially maintained by mowing 
and grazing. 

meary, farinaceous. 

mean'djiform + (fiaiavSpos, a winding 
river; forma, shape), having a wind- 
ing direction, as the anther-cells of 

Mea'tus (Lat., a i)assing) intercel'lu- 
laris, an intercellular passage ; •^ 
pneumat'icus, an air-passage. 

Meclianomorpii''osis i/J-vxO'yh), contriv- 
ance ; ij.6n(pa<ris, shaping), a woixl 
coined by Sachs to express mechani- 
cal changes in structure produced in 
the larger gi'oups by similar external 
causes, as leaf-like organs in Algae 
and Phanerogams ; Mechanot'ropism 
{rpoir^, a turning), a general term 
for all orienting movements in re- 
sponse to mechanical agencies. 

Me'conlne {/x^kuv, a poppy), an alka- 
loid contained in opium ; Meco'nium, 
botanically, the juice of Papaver 
somniferum, Linn. 

me 'dial, me'dian, media' nus (Lat., in 
the middle), belonging to the 
middle ; me'dian Bract'eole, one in- 
serted at the middle of the pedicel ; 
'- Chor'isis, the multiplication of a 
single organ in the median plane ; 
-^ Line, the central line of a bilateral 
organ as the midrib of a symmetric 
leaf; --' Plane, when used of a 
flower in the plane of bract and 
axis ; ~ Wall, in Archegoniates, 
the wall in a plane at right angles 
to the basal wall dividing the pro- 




embryo into lateral halves ; ~ zygo- 
morph'ous, capable of di-.-ision into 
similar halves by a piano passing 
through the middle ; cf. sagittal 
Section ; Mediananisophyriy (+ 
Ani30PH^lly), the form of leaves 
on median shoots, as seen v,dien the 
twigs are normally decussate. 

Medica'gophyll {Medicago, Tourn. ; -f 
phyll), the characteristic chloro- 
phyll of Lucerne, Mcdicago sativa, 

medifix'us {nicdius, middle ; fixus, 
fastened), fixed by the middle ; 
Mediocor'te2(4-CoiiTEx),tlie central 
layer or layers of tlie bark, usually 
characterized by inert refractive 
funeral masses (Grooni) ; Med'ioform 
( +"Form), an intermediate form 
not due to liybridity (Kuntze) ; 
Medioloc'oform {loacs, a place), a 
local Medioform (Kuntze). 

mediterra'neua (Lat., midland), (1) 
inhabiting spots far from the sea ; 
(2) occmTing in the Mediterranean 


{incdius, middle 



on tlie 



a valve), 
middle of tlit 
Medulla (Lat., pith, marrow) ; (1) tlie 
pith ; (2) the central looser portion 
of the llesh in certain Fungi ; (3) the 
"Mattulla" of palms (Stomionth)*; 
'-' Se'miaist, the albumen of seeds ; 
medui'lary, medulla' ns (Lat., seated 
in the marrow), relating to the 
pith, pithy ; -- Bun'dles, the more 
lateral vascular bundles of the leaf- 
trace in Monocotyledons ; '-' Casts, 
impressions of the internal cavity 
of Calaniites in solid material ; '-' 
conjunc'tiv© Tis'sue = Pith ; - 
Crown, = -^ Sheath ; ~ Phlo'em 
Bun'dles, independent phloem 
bundles developed just witliin the 
ring of normal vascular bundles ; -^ 
Hays, plates of parenchyma or 
cellular tissue radiating from the 
•pith to the cortex; the "silver- 
grain" of joiners ; -^ Sheath, trach- 
eids forming a circle round the pith, 
the primary xylem bundles project- 
ing into the pith from the cambium- 


ring ; '^ Spot, an accmiiulation of 
parenchymatous cells in certain 
woods, as Alnus (De Bary) ; '^ 
Sys'tem, sometimes used for the 
whole ground tissue, but more 
properly the pith and medullary 
rays only ; meduU'ated, possessing 
i)ith ; Medulla'tion (1) the fact of 
possessing pith ; (2) the special 
system of the pith ; (3) the forma- 
tion of the central tissue of a stele ; 
Medul'lin, the cellulose from pith of 
the sun-fiower and lilac (Bracounot) ; 
Medulli'na (Lat.) = Pith; medul- 
lo'sus (l^t., marrowy), having the 
texture of pith, 
megaceph'alus (m«7«s. large; K€<pa\^, 
head), used of large capituia of 
Compositae ; Megachlor'oplast (-f 
Chloroplast), compound chloro- 
phyll granules in Tillandsia, com- 

(Billings) ; Megaconid'ea, pi. 
Megacon'ids {kSvis, ashes), Zukal's 
term for the large conidia borne in 
pycnidia of certain Ascomycetes ; 
Megagam'etes (yafxir-ris , a spouse), 
the larger motile sexual cells of 
Algae, presumably female ; adj. 

Megalogonid'ium {fj-eydhos, large ; -f 
GoN'iDiuM) = Macrogonidium. 

Megaphan'erophytes, pi. (/j-eyas, large ; 
-\- Phanerophyte), trees exceeding 
the height of 30 metres ; Mega- 
phyl'lidae (<^uAAov, a leaf), the 
Ferns, as possessing broad fronds; 
megaphyrioas, the leaves or leaf-like 
expansions large (Jeffrey) ; Mega- 
phyll'y (^vAAov, aleaf), the possession 
of large leaves; Megaplank'ton (-}- 
Plankton), distinct from ordinary 
plankton by inclusion of mega- 
phytes and Algae of special gi'oups 
(Wanning) ; Megaplanogam'ete (-f 
Planogamete), Brebner's term for 
a large planogamete, presumably 
female ; Megaprothairus (-f Pro- 
thallus), the prothallus producing 
archegonia ; Megasporang'ium (+ 
Sporangium), the correct form of 
MacrospoIiangium ; Megarchid'iiim 
{apxiSiov, a rudiment), = Nucellus ; 




megarhi'zous {piCa, a root), large- 
rooted ; megascop'ic {ffKoirfw. I see), 
vision with the naked eye ; Mega- 
80'rus {-\- SoRUs), a sorus which 
gives rise lo megasporaugia in 
Balvinia ; Kegasporan'ge [four 
syll. ] (o-iropa, seed; 0776401', a vessel), 
a sporaugiuin which produces niega- 
spores ; Meg'asyore, the more correct 
foimof Macrospoue, (1) the larger 
spores of vascular Cryptogams ; (2) 
used for OvuhE; (3) = Embryo-sac ; 
pri'mary ^, the megaspore mother- 
cell (Gibbs) ; Megaspor'ocarp [Kapiths, 
fruit), the development of the 
megasporangium in AzoUa, Unally 
containing the single perfect mega- 
spore ; Mtgaspor'ocyte [kvtos, a 
hollow vessel), the early state of 
the embryo-sac ; Megasporogen'esis 
{yiv^cris, beginning), the develop- 
ment of a megaspore; Megaspor'o- 
phyll(<?)uAAoj/, a leaf), (l)a carpel; (2) 
a sporophyll which bears megaspores; 
Meg'atherm, adj , megather'inic, 
the correct forms of Macrotherm, 
MACKOTHERMic, requiring much 
heat, as tropical plants ; Mega- 
zo'oidB [C^cv, an animal; fihos, resem- 
blance), large motile daughter-cells 
of certain unicellular Algae (Hazen) ; 
Megazoosporan'ge (o-Tropa, a seed ; 
0776 4 ov, a vessel), in IJydrodictyon , 
the special sporangium wiiich con- 
tains a swarm of megazoospores, 
the protoplasm of a cell giving 
rise to a large number, each pro- 
vided with four cilia ; Megazo'ospore 
(-f Zoospore), a motile spore, larger 
than those termed Microzoospores ; 
Meg'ecad {4-Ecad), a gi-oup of 
several ecads of close affinity. 

MegiB'totherm {depf^os, hot), a plant 
requiring high uniform tenjjjerature ; 
adj. megistotherm'ic. 

meiogy'rouB {fj-fiuiv, less;yvphs, round), 
rolled inwards a little ; mei'on, 
prefixed to an organ, shows it is less 
than some other organ understood ; 
Meiophyl'ly {(pvXKoy, a leaf), dinu- 
nution in number of the leaves in a 
whorl, as compared with the pre- 
ceding whorl. 

Meio'sis (ixeicoffis, reduction), applied 
to reduction divisions of chromo- 
somes (Farmer and Moore) ; adj. 
meio'tic ; ~ Euapog'amy, when the 
nuclei of the mother-cells of the 
sporophyte liave the haploid number 
of chromosomes. 

Meiosporan'ge {iJ.dwu, less ; -f Spor- 
angium), Sauvageau's name for the 
Smaller plurilocular sporangia en- 
closing zoospores of Edocarpus 
viJTSce/iSjThuret; Mei'ostates{(rTaTj»s, 
a standing), the intermediate pro- 
ducts of metabolism, comprising 
(a) Anastates, formed during 
anaboiism, and (6) Katastates, 
during katabolism (Parker) ; mei- 
oste'raonous {<xri]ixwv, a filament), 
with fewer stamens than petals ; 
Meiotax'y (ra^ts, order), the sup- 
pression of entire whorls ; Mei'othenn 
{OepfjiT}, heat), a plant inhabiting 
cool temperate regions ; all are hardy 
in Englau'l. 

Melampy'rine, Melampy'rite, a sub- 
stance occurring in Melampyrum 
ncDwrosum, Linn. ; the same as 


melangeoph'ilus (jtieAas, black ; 7^, 
earth ; <pikiu>, I love), dwelling in 
h am ; Melangeophy'ta {(pvrhy, a 
plant), loam plants; Melaugeo- 
phyti'a, loam or alluvium plant 
formations (Clements) ; Mel'anin, 
a black pigment of bacteria ; 
Mel'anism, a disease producing 
blackness; melanochlor'us {x^^P^^> 
pale green), blackish green, atro- 
virens; Meranopliyll, the chief 
colouring matter of Diatoms (Warm- 
ing, Handbook, Engl, ed., p. 18); 
melanopliyrius {<pv\\ov, a leaf), 
having leaves of a dark colour; 
melanosperm'ous {a-nep/xa, seed), 
having dark-coloured seeds or spores. 

melasmat'ic {ixiXacr/xa, black spot) Tis'- 
sue, a group of large cells round the 
vascular bundles in the stems of 
Calamites, with dark brown or black 

melastoma'ceous, resembling or per- 
taining to those plants of which 
the genus Melastoma is tlie type. 




Melez'itose (Fr., meleze, larch), a 
sugar from the larch. 

Melib'iase (mel, honey), a synonym 
of Raffinase. 

me'linus (fx.'h^ivos, pertaining to 
quinces), like quinces, or quince- 

Mel'itose {viel, honey), sugar from 
EucalyptiLS "Manna," produced in 
Tasmania ; also spelled Meritoze, 
a synonym of Kaffinose; Mel'i- 
zitase, an enzyme present in 
Sterigmatocystis nigra, Sacc. ; Mel'i- 
zitose, a sup;ar existing in Alhagi 
Maurorum, Linn. 

Mellaro'se (Ital.), the name of a 
variety of the orange in which the 
carpellary whorl is multiplied, pro- 
ducing an appearance of prolitica- 
tion (Masters). 

merieus (Lat., pertaining to honey), 
(1) with the taste or smell of 
honey ; (2) honey-coloured. 

Meriigo (Lat., honey-like juice), used 
for "Honey-dew," the exudation 
of Aphides. 

mel'lmus {mel, mellis, honey), the 
colour of new honey. 

Melittoph'ilae (/teAtTra, a bee ; </)jAea>, 
I love), flowers which are adapted 
for fertilization by the larger bees ; 
the colour and scent are attractive 
to man also (H. Mueller) ; adj. 

Melon'ida t, Melonid'ium % {/j-v^ov, an 
apple ; €/5oy, like), an inferior, 
many-celled fruit, as an apple ; 
melo'niform {forma, shape), melon- 
shaped; irregularly spherical with 
projecting ribs as in Mclocactus. 

Hem'ber, any part of a plant regarded 
with reference to its fonn and 

Mem'brane, Membra' na (Lat.), a deli- 
cate pellicle of homogeneous tissue ; 
Membra'na gongylif'era, the hy- 
menium of Fungi ; membrana'ceous, 
•ceus (Lat. ) ; mem'branous, thin and 
semi-transparent, like a fine mem- 
brane, as the leaves of Mosses ; 
mem'branous Layer, '- Myce'lium, 
interwoven hyphae forming a layer ; 
membranogen'ic (76Vos,race), produc- 

tive of a membrane ; Membra'nula % 
the indusium of Ferns. 

menmon'ius (Lat., from Mermion), 
(1) brownish black, nearly as dark 
as piceiis ; (2) = matutinus. 

Men^del's Law, the gametes of a 
heterozygote bear the pure parental 
allelomorphs completely separated 
from one another, and the numerical 
distribution of the separate allelo- 
morphs in the gametes is such that 
all possible combinations of them 
are present in approximately equal 
numbers (Lock) ; men'delize, to 
work in accordance with Men'delism 
as stated ; Menderitiee, pi., fects in 
harmony with the foregoing. 

Metieblaste'iBa {/JL'hvv, moon =s a month ; 
&\d(Trr]fxa, a sprout), Minks's term 
for the soredia of Lichens. 

menisca'tus {ix-qviffKos, a crescent), "a 
cylinder bent into half a circle " 
(Lindley) ; menis'coid, ineniscoi'dcn^ 
(6lSos,like),tliin and concavo-convex, 
like a watch-glass ; Menis'cus, pi. 
Menis'ci, applied by H. H. Dixon to 
crescentic bubbles in woody-tissues. 

Menisperm'ine, an alkaloid from the 
genus Menisjjermuin. 

menstrua'Us, men'stnius (Lat.), lasting 
for a month or so ; cf. bimestris, 


Menta'gra (Lat., an eruption on the 
chin) parasitica = Sycosis ; Men- 
ta'graphyte {(pvrhv, a plant), the 
Fungus supposed to cause the 
disease Mentagra or Sycosis. 

Menthorogist {Mentlm, \6yos, dis- 
course) an expert or writer on 
mints, the genus Mentha. 

Men'tum (Lat., the chin), an extension 
of the foot of the column in some 
Orchids, in the shape of a projection 
in front of the flower. 

Merench'3rEia {fj-epos, a part; ^yx^Aia, 
an infusion), spherical cellular 
tissue ; --' Cells, unpitted cells in 
the pith of trees, witli intercellular 
spaces, and much elongated radi- 
ally ; cf. Palisade Cells ; 
merencby'matouB, belonging to or 
likeMERENCHYMA ; Merlcarp, Meri- 
car'piti'm, {KUfyxhs, fruit), a portion 




of a fruit which splits away as 
a perfect fruit ; as the two carpels 
in Umbelliferae ; mericy'clic {kvkKos, 
a circle)^ occupying a part only of 
the diameter, as spirally-arranged 
leaves (OelakovskJ^). 

meridia'nus (Lat., belonging to noon), 
at mid-day or noon ; towards the | 
south (in northern latitudes) ; j 
meridian, applied by 0. Mueller ] 
to the plane in Diatoms which 
contains the pervalvar axis. 

Herldisk i/iepos, a part; StV /cos, a disc), 
term proposed by Clos for any pro- 
cess upon the receptacle apart from 
the floral organs, whetlier glandular 
or not (Crozier) ; Mer'iphyte {((>vrhv, 
a plant), employed by Lignier for 
the vascular tissue of the leaf ; 
Mer'iplast {irKaarhs, moulded), a 
protoplast in a polyplast which 
remains distinct, and does not fuse 
with its fellows (Pirotta) ; Merlsm, 
(1) Bateson's term for the repeti- 
tion of parts to form a symmetry 
or pattern ; (2) division of cells, 
cellular structures-, or dichotomous 
division of organs (Massart) ; 
merismat'ic (uepia-fxa, a share), divid- 
ing into parts or similar portions ; 
'-' Tis'sue, formative tissue, cf. 

meris^moid (eI5os, resemblance), hav- 
ing a likeness to the fungus-genus 

Mer'ispore {fxepos, a part; o-wopo, seed), 
the segment of a sporidesm ; Meri- 
spor'ocyst {kixttis, a bag), the 
simple or branched Sporocyst of 
Cephalideae, considered as a depar- 
ture from the type of fructification 
of the Mucoraceae (Vuillemin) ; 
Mer'istele (ffri^Arj, a pillar), a portion 
of the stele of a monostelic stem 
received by each leaf ; restricted by 
Brebner, by excluding Actinostele 
and Haplostele from it ; further 
particularized into Di-, EU-, haplo-, 


types ; merist'ic Varia'tion, see 
Mer'istem {^i^piarhs, divisible), nas- 
cent tissue, capable of being trans- 


formed into special forms, as cam- 
bium, etc. ; Pri'mary '^, forms the 
whole tissue of very young organs ; 
Sec'ondary ^, occurs in organs 
along with permanent tissue, usually 
in thin layers ; meristemat'ic, 
pertaining to the Meristem; meri- 
stogenet'ic {yivir-ns, a begetter), 
produced by Meristem, actively 
dividing cell-tissue. 

Mer'ithal, Merithal'lus (n-^pos, a part ; 
0a\\h<i, a young shoot), an inter- 
node ; meroblas'tic {^Aaa-rhs, a bud) 
Embryog'eny, when only a part of 
the spore is concerned, cf. holo- 
ELASTIC ; Meroconid'mm, pi. Mero- 
conid'ia (+ Conidium), conidia 
which arise from the simultaneous 
septation of a- hypha in Zygomy- 
cetes, and mature together, while 
ACROCONIDIA mature in succession 
from the apex (A. Fisher) ; Merog'- 
amy {ydfios, marriage), reduced 
autophagy, which does not require 
the participation of the whole of a 
^econd gamete, but only its cyto- 
plasm or nucleus (Dangeard); Merog'- 
ony iyov^, ofispring), fertilization 
of the oogonia of Cysioseira, with- 
out nuclei (Winkler) ; Meroplank'ton 
(-{- Plankton), that found only at 
certain seasons of the year (Forel) ; 
adj. meroplankton'ic. 

meros- as a prefix, and its forms 
-merous, -merus, as suffixes, denote 
parts or numbers, as dimerous, etc. 

Mer'otype (iJ.epos, part ; rinros, a type), 
a specimen collected from the original 
type in cultivation, by means of 
vegetative reproduction (Swingle) ; 
syn'chronoQs -^j taken at the same 
time as the original (Swingle). 

Mes'ad {fieaos, in the middle), a meso- 
phyte (Clements) ;mes'arch (apx^?, be- 
ginning), applied by Solms-Laubach 
to those bundles in which the pro- 
toxylem lies in the interior of the 
primary strand of the wood, thus 
partly centripetal and partly centri- 
fugal ; mesendobiot'ic {tvSov, within ; 
$ios, life), applied to a mesosapro- 
phyte, as Pythium, etc. ; Mesendozo'a 
iC^ov, an animal), animals resemb- 




ling Fungi, as Toruhia; Mesenter'ica 
{tvrepov, an intestine), ''the myce- 
lium of certain Fungals" (Lindley) ; 
Mesid'ium, a strongly developed, 
thickened portion of the mesochil in 
the flower of certain orchids ; Mes'- 
istem, contracted from Mesomer'is- 
tem, the thickening ring of Sanio, 
a ring of tissue producing the bundle 
system ; Mes'oblast (iSXao-rbs, a bud), 
the nucleus ; Mesoblaste'sis, medial 
growth from Lichen hyphae (Minks) ; 
Mes'ocarp, Mesocar'pium {Kapirhs, 
fruit), the middle layer of a 
pericarp ; MeBOcauleorhi'za {KuvXhs, 
stem ; piCa, root), Gaudicliaud's 
term for " the line of demarcation 
between the ascending and de- 
scending systems in his 'Phyta,'" 
(Lindley) ; Mes'ocMl, Mesochil'ium 
[x^lKos, lip), the intermediate part 
of the lip of those Orchids which 
have it separated into three dis- 
tinct parts ; Mes'ochite (x'twi/, a 
tunic), the middle layer surround- 
ing the egg in Fucaceae, composed 
of cellulose and attached at the 
base (Farmer) ; mesochthonoph'ilus 
(x^iij", the ground ; <pixiw, I love), 
dAvelling in midlands ; Mesochthono- 
phy'ta [<pvThv, a plant), midland 
plants ; Mesochthonophyti'a, mid- 
land plant formations (Clements) ; 
mesoclad'ous, -dus (KXdSos, a branch), 
possessing branches of medium 
lengtli (Russow) ; Mesocol'la J 
{K6\\a, glue), a supposed inter- 
mediafe'layer of the cuticle between 
the upper and lower surfaces ; Meeo- 
cor'tex (-f- Cortex), the middle | 
cortex (Groom ) ; Mesocot'yl ( + Coty- I 
ledon), an interpolated node in the )' 
seedling of grasses, so that the sheath j 
and cotyledon are separated by it ! 
(Celakovsky) ; Mes'ocycle {kvkAos, , 
a circle), a layer of parenchjona ' 
between the phloem and xvlem 1 
of Ghichenia (Boodle) ; Mes'ocyst 1 
{Kvaris, a bag), the definite central j 
nucleus of the embryo-sac with 
which the second antherozoid fuses | 
to form a Trophime (Van Tieghem) ; j 
Mesoder'mis (Sep^a, skin), the middle \ 

o 229 

layer of tissue in the tlieca of a 
Moss ; Mes'odes, pi. , the two medium 
cells of tlie embryo-sac of Angio- 
sperms which contain the polar nuclei 
(iJangeard) ; Mesog'amy {ydfjLos, mar- 
riage), a process of fertilization in 
certain Urticaceae, intermediate be- 
tween Basigamy and Acrogamy 
(Pirotta and Longo) ; adj. meso- 
gam'ic ; Mesogonid'ium (-f Goni- 
dium), a gonidium which is partially 
enveloped in new tissue; mesogon- 
im'icus {ySuifjios, productive), having 
the gonidial layer in the centre (Wall- 
roth) ; mesoliydrophyt'ic,^ntermedi- 
ate between mesophytic and hydro- 
])hytic ; plant-s which incline to a 
damper habitat than the true Meso- 
rHYTE (Whit ford) ; mesohygro- 
morph'ic {/xopcp^, shape) = mesophy- 
Tio ; Mesomeritae, pi. (jncl, honey), 
Huxley's term for a series of Gen- 
tianeae which have lioncy-glands in 
the central portion of the flower ; cf. 
Perimelitae ; Mesomer'istem = 
Mesistem ; mesometatrop'ic ( 4- me- 
tatropic), when the "first ovary 
receives pollen from an anther as- 
sociated with a second ovary, but 
the second ovary receiving pollen 
from the anthers of the first plant 
not associated with the first ovary " 
(K. Pearson) ; mesomor'phous [fiop^rj, 
shape), applied to plants not specially 
protected against desiccating influ- 
ences ; Mesomyce'tes duu/crjs, a mush- 
room), a group intermediate between 
Phycomycetes and the higher Fungi 
(Warming) ; Mesopet'alum {irhaXov, 
a flower-leaf), Pfitzer's term for the 
Labellum of Orchids ^ Mesophan'e- 
rophyte (+ Phaneropiiyte), per- 
ennial plants from 8 to 30 metres 
in height, with buds partially pro- 
tected ; Mesophanerophyti'uin, a for- 
mation of mesophanerophytes(yahl); 
mesopVilus {(piXeco, I love), dAvelling 
in moist lands ; Mesophlo'em {cpAoihs, 
bark), the middle, or green bark ; 
Mesophorbi'iun {<popfii], pasture), al- 
pine meadow formation (Diels) ; 
Mes'ophyll, Mcsophyl'lvm {<pv\\ov, jt' 
leaf), (1) the interior parenchyma 



of a leaf, the whole interior ground 
tissue of the blade ; (2) the de- 
marcation be tween leaf and leaf-stalk ; 
mesophyrious, -lus (/pvWov, a leaf), 
having leaves of medium length or 
average size for the genus (Russow) ; 
Mes'ophyte {(pvThu, a plant) ; (1) 
Warming's term for those plants 
which are intermediate between Hy- 
drophytes and Xerophjtes ; avoid- 
ing both extremes of moisture and 
drought ; (2) moist land plants. 
Mesophyti'a, pi. moist land plant for- 
mations (Clements) ; mesophyt'ic, 
relating to plants which require an 
average amount of moisture only ; 
Hesophy'tisxn, possessing the power 
of withstanding a certain amount of 
aridity ; Mesophyti'um, a mesophytic 
formation (Clements) ; Mesophy'tum, 
(1) a name given by Clarion to the 
Collar or jimctiou of stem and 
root ; (2) by Lindley given as the 
demarcation between the internode 
and petiole ; Mesopod'ium {ttovs, 
iroShs, a foot), the intermediate part 
of a leaf, the petiole or leaf-stalk ; 
mesopro'teoid {Protea, dSos, resemb- 
lance), leaves which have sclerous 
cells derived from the middle zone 
of the mesophyll ( Vesque) ; Meeopte- 
ride'tum (f^crw, bracken), an associa- 
tion of Pteris, Eoleus lanatus and 
Scilla festalis (Woodhead) ; Meso- 
sapro'bia {oairpis^ rotten; ^los, life), 
organisms requiring a medium 
amount of impurity, as Algae in 
contaminated waters ; Mesosap'ro- 
phyte (-f Saprophyte), used of 
Fungi whose mycelium is wholly 
■within the host, but whose fruit- 
bodies are produced externally ; 
Mes'osperm {a-trfpixa, seed)^ the 
second membrane or middle coat 
of a seed, the sarcoderm ; Mes'ospore 
((TTTopel, seed), (1) Dietel's terra for 
an Uredo-siiovc which apparently will 
only germinate after a resting period ; 
\2) the middle portion of the spore 
of /so^^es (Fitting) ; MeBosporin'ium, 
the middle coat of pollen in An- 
giosperms (Fitting) ; mesostat'ic 
{arariKhs, standing), completing the 

succession under mesophytic con- 
ditions (Clements) ; mesosty'lous 
(+ Stylus), in trimorphic plants 
those wb.ich possess flowers hav- 
ing styles of intermediate length ; 
Mesothamni'um {ddjxvos, a copse), 
Diels's term for maquis, formed of 
hard-leaved shrubs ; Mesothe'cium 
{9i\Kr\, a case), (1) the intennediate 
layer of cells in the wall of the 
anther ; in ripe anthers it often 
occurs as the inner layer by disap- 
pearance of the endothecium proper ^ 
(2) the TiiECiUM of Lichens ; Mes'o- 
therm {dep/xr}, heat), a plant of the 
sub-tropical orwarra temperate zones, 
in Britain needing protection against 
frost ; adj. mesotherm'ic ; meso- 
tliermopli'ilus (^^Aew, I love), dwell- 
ing in the temperate zone ; Meso- 
thermophy'ta {(pvrhv, a plant), pi. = 
Mesotijerm ; Mesothennophvti'a 
temperate plant formation (Cle- 
ments) ; mesotri'arch (-f triarch), 
when in a tiiarch stele the two 
principal xylcm bundles are more 
or less fused (Prantl) ; mesotroph'ic 
{rpocp^, food), applied to the peat 
of transitional moors ; mesotrcp'io 
(rpoir^, a turning), applied to suc- 
cessions Avhich become mesophytic 
(Clements) ; mesoserophyt'ic, mid- 
way between mesophytic and xero- 
phytic ; cf. plants aftecting a dryer 
habitat than pure Mesophytes 
(Whit ford) ;ineflOxyric {^v\ov, wood), 
a synonym of mesarch. 
Mesfi'mates, used by A. C. Jones for 

Mes'tom or Mes'tome {/xeffThs, replete), 
Schwendener's term for the ducts of 
a bundle, those parts which do 
not conduce to its strength ; cf. 
Stereome ; Mes'tome-bun'dle, a 
libro-vascular bundle ; -^ Sheath, 
Metabio'sis {fxera, with ; $ios life), 
symbiosis, with one of the organisms 
pi'eparing the way for the other ; 
not synchronous ; motabio'tic, re- 
lating to Metabiosls ; Met'ablast 
{$\d(rros, a bud), the NucELLiis. 
metaboric (^ucToiSoA^, change), applied 




to chemical clianges in living organ- 
isms ; ^ Equiscta, those species 
■whose fertile stems subsequently 
form branches and become green 
(Goebel) ; ~ Force, vital activity; 
Metab'olism, the sura of the chemi- 
cal changes in a liviTig cell, usually 
restricted to constructive change ; 
(/. Anabolism,; metab'- 
olize, to change as described ; 
Metab'olite, a product of metabolism. 
Metaccl'lulose [y-^ra, witli ; + Cellu- 
lose), found in Lichens and Fungi ; 
it is the same as Fungine; Meta- 
cMamyd'eae (x^a/ius, a cloak), (1) 
C. MacMillau's proposed term for 
Conipositae ; (2) Engler's term for 
Gamopetalae; Age of '^ , C. Mac- 
Millan's term for the present age, 
subsequent to tlie Glacial Epoch ; 
adj. metachlamyd'eous ; Metachloro- 
phyriin ( + Choropiivllin), a class 
of chlorophyll derivatives, the cr^'s- 
tallizable chlorophyll (Tsvf tt) ; Me- 
tacliro'niatin= Volutin ; Metacbro'- 
mosomes ( + Chromosomes), certain 
bodies found in the hyphae of 
Asconiycetes which appear to be of 
the nature of Chromatin ; Meta- 
chro'my {xpo>iJ-a, colour), the chang- 
ing from one colour toanotlier ; adj. 
metacbromat'ic ; Metacollencb'yma 
( -{■ Collen'CHYMa), a result of 
secondary metamorphosis which has 
taken place at a late period (C. 
Mueller); Met'acorm (^op^^s, a log), 
the plant body after the ditferentia- 
tion of its permanent menilxn-s ; adj. 
metacor'mal ; Metacra'sis {Kpaais, a 
mixture), kinetic metabolism, trans- 
mutation of energy ; Metader'ma 
{Sepfj-a, a skin), a modified tissue 
which takes the place of cork in 
some stnicturcs, but does not pos- 
sess the properties of coi-k (A. 
Meyer) ; nietad'romous {Bp6/uos, a 
course), a form of venation in which 
in a single Fern-frond the first set of 
nerves in the segments are given otT 
on the upper, or the lower (basal) 
side of the midrib (Prantl) ; meta- 
gam'etal ( + Gamete) Kejuven- 
es'cence, a cell or mass of cells act- 

ing as a gamete or zygote (Hartog) ; 
Metagam'opbyte (ydixos, marriage ; 
(pvrhy, a i)lant), C. MacMillan's 
proposed name for his highest 
gi'oup of Phanerogams ; a synonym 
of " Siphonogamia " ; Metagen'esis 
iyeyeais, a beginning), M'Xab's term 
for true alternation of generations ; 
Metagymnosper'mae ( -f Gymno- 
si'Ekm), the higher Gymnosperms 
(Jeffrey) ; Metag'yny {yw^, a 
woman), with male flowers sexually 
mature before female (Loew) ; pro- 
tandry; Metakine'sis {Kiyqcris, a 
moving), the separation of the 
threads in tlie metaphasis stage of 
nuclear division ; Met'amer {fxepos, a 
part), used by Sachs to denote a 
Phyton, or one of a mmiber of 
similar parts of a series ; Metameri- 
za'tion, the multiplication of floral 

Metamorphogen'esis {fj.eTa}x6p<pu>(Ti%, 
transformation; yiv^ais, beginning), 
the process by which organs cliange 
from their normal to abnormal con- 
ditions, by mea?)s of transitional 
forms (Worsdell) ; Metamorpb'osis, 
in botan}'^ the change of one organ 
into another, as stamens into petals ; 
syn. Metamor'phy ; adj. metamor'- 
phosed, changed. 

Metanapbyto'sis (/uera, with ; -f Ana- 
PiiYTosLs), the formation of the 
floral envelopes ; Metan'dry {av^p, 
avZphs, a man), the fenjale flowers 
ready before the male ; }irotogynou3 ; 
Metane'ma {vriixa, a thread), C. Mac- 
Millan's name for the second stage 
in the germination of Mosses Avhich 
succeeds the protonema ; adj. meta- 
ne'mal ; Metanthe'sis [Sivd-nciS, 
flowering), retarded floral develop- 
ment, as opposed to Pkoanthesis 
(Wittrock) ; Metaph'asis {(picis, a 
phase), in nuclear division the 
separation of the daughter chromo- 
somc* ; Metapb'ery {<popeo, I carry), 
the displacen)eut of organs, as when 
alternate become opposite, etc ; 
Metaphlo em (-f Phloem), Van Tieg- 
hem's term for a simultaneous 
gro^\■th of bast-tissue with the 




Metaxylem ; Metaphyira, pi. 
{<piK\ov, a leaf), the mature leaf, as 
opposed to the juvenile form (Goe- 
bef); Metaphy'ta {(pvrhv, a plant), 

(1) plants which manifest sexuality 
or indicate by accessory characters 
that in their ancestral lines sexually 
complete progenitors have occurred ; 

(2) plants Vith tissue differentiation ; 
cf. Protophyte, adj. metaphy'ti6 ; 
Met'aplasm {nxdarfia, moulded), 
Hanstein's terra for the protoplasm 
which contains the formative or 
granular material ; metaplast'ic 
{irXacrrhs, moulded), formed of 
Metaplasm ; Metaplas'tid, used to 
designate the metapliytic organism 
(Moore) ; Metaplas'y, any progres- 
sive change of cells, other than by 
growth or division, such as by change 
of cell-contents (Kuster); Metar'abin 
(ixera, with, beyond, sharing with ; 
•+- Arabin), a substance present in 
8ome varieties of gum arable, possilily 
identical with the " Pectose " of 
sugar beet ; Met'asperm {(nripfia, 
seed), (T) a spomphyte in which the 
egg-organ is aborted, and no purely 
vegetative cells are to be found in 
either male or female plants ; (2) a 
synonym for Angiosperms ; (3) ap- 
plied by Boulger for the large-celled 
secondary pro thallium in SclagivcUa^ 
the secondary endosperm in Gymno- 
sperms, and the endosperm, oiiginally 
so-called, fonned after fertilization 
by the division of the secondary 
nucleus of the embryo-sac ih Angio- 
sperms ; metasper'mic, metasper'm- 
0U8, angiospermous ; Metaspor'o- 
phyte, C. MacMillan's expression for 
a Cryptogam of the highest special- 
ization, as Selaginclla. 

Metas'tasis [fx^rdcTacns, a removing), 
(1) the sum of the changes under- 
gone by the products of assimilation 
in the cells ; metabolism ; (2) the 
shifting of an organ to some unusual 
position (Moquin-Taiidoii). 

Metasynde'sis {avvliwcns, a binding 
together), when the chromosomes are 
paired end to end ; Telosvnapsis, 

metaton'ic (m^^o, with ; t6vos, a 

strain), used of a stimulus which 
reverses action" ; metatop'ic (toVos, a 
place), refers to imbricate bud-cover- 
ing which has departed from the 
course of the normal genetic spiral, 
by secondary development (Pax) ; 
metatrach'eal (Tpax€«"«, the wind- 
pipe), applied to wood-parenchyma 
when forming tangential bands 
(Solereder) ; metatroph'ic {rpo^^, 
food), applied to bacteria restricted 
to substances fabricated by higher 
organisms (Jones) ; Metatroph'isia, 
the correlated catabolism of the re- 
serves and anabolism of the living 
tissues (Hartog) ; Met'atrophs, ap- 
plied to saprophytic Fungi, those 
which feed upon decaying matter ; 
Met'atype (ti/tt&s, a type), a speci- 
men from the original locality, 
recognized as authentic by the 
describer himself. 

Metax'in [ix^ra^v, between), a protcid, 
the material of the fibrils of 

Metaxylem (Mera, beyond ; + Xylem), 
tlie central wood as distinguished 
from the peripheral xylem-strands 

meteoric (Mod. /werewpos, in mid air), 
applied to flowers whose expansion 
depends upon the weather, 

metis'toid (jtiexa, = sharing ; [(ttos, a 
wel) ; eiZos, like), com])Osed of differ- 
entiated cells, each cell being de- 
pendent on the other cells of the 
organism (Hartog). 

metoe'cious (M^ra, beyond ; oIkos, 
house), existing on different hosts, 
heteroecio\is ; Met'onym {6vv/xa, 
name), a name rejected because an 
older valid name was based on 
another species of the same genus 
(0. F. Cook) ; metox'enous (|<Voy, a 
host), the same as metoeciou.s. 

Metrogonid'ium {/x-fir-np, mother; + 
Conidium) = Hetekocvst. 

Mette'nian Glandi, organs peculiar to 
Plumbagineae which secrete mucilage 
and sometimes chalk. 

Me'tuloids {iiidnla, a small })yramid ; 
(Uos, like), modified cystidia, en- 
crusted with lime, which project 




from the liymenium of Peniophora, 
giving it a velvety appearance. 

Miasm', Mias'ma {/xlaa-iJia, defilement), 
Naegeli's term for those diseases 
which are due to microbes. 

Micel'la (L. Lat. from mica, a crumb), 
an aggregation of molecules in the 
manner of a pleon, but in larger 
numbers (Nageli) ; miceriar Ag'gre- 
gate, a combination o^ Micellae. 

Micraerox'yl (iJ-iKphs, small ; a^. air ; 
^vKou, wood), dwarf woody plants, 
with one main axis, and branches 
free from the soil, as Calluna, or 
Empetricm (Lindman) ; Micran'dre 
{avi)p, avSpds, a man) = Dwarf- 
male ; micro-aeroph'ilous (aV. a"' 5 
(piXeoj, I love), Bcijerinck's term for 
anaerobic, needing but little free 
oxygen ; Microaplan'ospore (+ Ap- 
lanospore), non-motile spores of 
small size, possibly due to unfavour- 
able surroundings (Thaxter) ; Mi- 
crobacte'ria, pi. (+ Bacterium), 
minute bacteria ; Microb'asis {$d(xis, 
a base), a variety of the carcerule, 
as in Labiates; Mi'crobe, pi. Afi- 
cro'bia {$ios, life), Pasteur's term 
for such organisms as Schizomycetes, 
bacteria; Microbiol'ogy ( + Bio logy), 
used by Duclaux for the biology of 
])acteria and enzymes ; miorobio'tic, 
relating to microbes ; Microcen'trum 
{centrum, Kfvrpov, a sharp point), 
applied to the granular inclusions 
in the astrosphere of leucocytes ; 
probably the equivalent of Centro- 
some (Farmer) ; Microchlor'oplast 
(-f, chlorophyll gran- 
ules in Tillandsia of minute size, 
constituting MEGACiiLOJiorLASTB 
(Billings); Micrococ'cus, pi. Micro- 
coc'ci {kSkkos, a kernel), a genus of 
bacteria, sometimes used to express 
microbiotic organisms ; Microcon'id, 
Microconid'him, pi. Microconidia 
(+ Conidium), the smaller conidia, 
when two sizes are produced ; Mi'- 
crocyst (kuo-tiv, a bag), an amoeboid 
(;ell which is stirrounded by a mem- 
brane, the resting state of swarm- 
cclls of Myxogastres ; Mi'croderm 
{S4piia, skin) = Microbe; Mi'cro- 

di'odange (+ Diode ; ayyf7ov, a 
vessel). Van Tieghem's term for 
pollen-sac; Microdi'ode, the same 
botanist's expression for pollen- 
grain; Microflor'a (-[-Flora), (1) 
the alpine flora, especially when 
small and massed (Freshfield) ; (2) 
the microscopic flora of a given 
locality ; Mi'croform {forma, shape), 
used of a heteroecious Fungus with 
teleutospores only, which germinate 
only after a resting period; Micro- 
fun'gi (-f Fungus), minute Fungi; 
Microgam'etes (+ Gamete), the 
smaller and male motile cells of 
Al^ae ; Microgam'etophyte, the 
individual bearing the male sexual 
organs of a dioecious species; adj. 
microgametophyt'ic ; Microge'oxyl 
{y}), the earth ; ^v\ov, wood), lowly 
woody plants, with numerous stems 
arising from a subterranean root-« 
stock, as Eosa or Vaccinium (Lind- 
man) ; Mi'crogerm {germen, offshoot) 
=a Microbe ; Microgonid'ium (-|- 
Gonidium), (1) a small gonidium, 
as compared with others produced 
by the same species ; (2) small 
bodies in Cyanophyceae derived from 
the division of gonidia (Brand); 
MicroU'chens {+ Lichen), minute 
Lichens ; Micromelittoph'ilae {/xtKir- 
ra, a bee ; (piXiw, I love\ applied to 
those flowers whose fertilization is 
elfcctcd by small bees and similar 
insects ; the attraction is incom- 
prehensible by human sense; 
Microm'eter {yUrpov, a measure), a 
device or apparatus to measure 
minute dimensions ; Micromil'li- 
meter, the thousandth part of a 
millimeter, and the unit of micro- 
scopic measurement, denoted by the 
sign /i ; Micromyiopb'ilae {i^vla, a 
fly; (piKioj, I love), flowers which 
arc fertilized by small flies which 
are often imjtrisoned ; adj. micromy- 
ioph'ilous; Mi'cron, a micromilli- 
metre ; micron'ic, visible under the 
microscope; Micronu'cleus (-j- Nu- 
cleus), derivatives of the nucleolus 
by its breaking up ; Micropar'asites 
(-f Parasite), minute organisms 




belonging to their respective 
categories ; Microphan'erophytes 
(4- Phaxerophytes), trees and 
slirubs attaining the height of two 
to eight metres (Raunkiter) ; micro- 
phyriine {<pv\\oy, a leaf), composed 
of small leaflets or scales; micro - 
phyH'ous, small leaved ; Mi'cro- 
phyte {(pvrhv, a plant). (1) used 
of bacteria ; (2) used by Schimper 
for the smallest Algae, as Diatoms ; 
adj. microphyt'ic ; -^ Forma'tion, 
a community exclusively composed 
of Lichens or Algae ; Microphy- 
tol'ogy ( + Phytology), used 
chieHy of bacteriology, but also 
applied to any branch which is 
entirely dependent on microscopic 
research ; Microprothairus (+ Puo- 
THALTJJs), the reduced prothallus 
due to tlie germination of a micro- 
spore in Pteridophyta and Gymno- 
sperms ; Mi'cropteres {irrephv, a 
wing), farrows in the stems of 
plants ; Micropuccin'ia, having teleu- 
tosporcs only (Plowright) ; Micro- 
pyc'nid {ttvkvos, dense) = Pycko- 
coxiDiUM ; mic'ropy'lar, relating to 
the MiCiioPYLE ; '- Fun'nel. the 
lower part of the - Tube where it 
expands to join the seed cavity ; 
'^ Mem'brane, the integument lining 
the JMiciiopvLE ; -^ Scar, the spot 
on the ripe seed occupied by the 
micropyle (Kerner) ; -^ Tube, the 
])assagc formed by the MicPvOPYLE ; 
Mi'cropyle {ttvAt], a gate), the 
aperture in the skin of the seed 
fonnerly the foramen of the ovule ; 
it marks the position of the radicle ; 
micropylif'erous {fcro, I bear) Tube 
= ExosTOME ; Microscle'rote (o-kA?/- 
phs, hard), a sc'erotinin modified by 
unfavourable vital conditions ; after 
a resting period it develops into a 
perithecium (Zukal); Mi'crosome, 
iMicroso'uui, pi. Microsu'viaf.a {acifia, 
a body), in the plural applied to 
small "granules embedded in the 
protoplasm ; Microso'rus (+ Sonus), 
the male sorus in AzoUa ; Micro- 
spe'cies (+ Specie-s), species founded 
on very minute dilferenccs, as those 

in Erophila by A. Jordan ; Micro- 
sporan'gium (+ Sporangium), a 
sporangium which produces micro- 
spores ; microsporan'giate Flow'er, 
male, or staminate flower ; Mi'cro- 
spore ((TTTopa, seed), (1) the smaller 
sized spore in heterosporous plants, 
as SelagineUa ; (2) of late years 
applied to the pollen-grain ; adj. 
raicrospor'ic, micros'porous : Micro- 
spo'rocarp [napvls, fruit), the growth 
from which the niicrosporangia of 
AzoUa are produced; Microspo'ro- 
cyte {kvtos, a hollow), the mother- 
cell of a nncrospore or pollen-grain ; 
Microsporogen'esis {-yh'^Gis, be- 
ginning), the development of the 
poilen-grain, or microspore ; Micro- 
gpor'ophore (+ Sporophobe), an 
organ which bears Microspores ; 
Microspor'ophyll {cpi/Wov, a leafj, a 
leaf-like organ bearing microspor- 
angia ; microsporophyl'lary Flow'er, 
a male or staminate flower; Mi'cro- 
Btome {crTSj^ca, a mouth), a small 
orilice ; niicrost'omous, applied to 
floAvers having narrow apertures; 
Microsty'lospore {aTvXos, a column; 
ffTTopa, seed), stylospores of a small 
size, as in Locularia ; microstylouB, 
sliort-styled, as applied to dimorphic 
flowers ; Microsym'bicnt {+ Sym- 
biont), the smaller of the two 
associated organisms ; Mi'crotherxn 
{eep/j-rj, heat), used for j)lants charac- 
teristic of the arctic alpine zone, in 
England needing protection from 
drought and direct sunlight; adj. 
mieroihenn'ic ; microthermoph'ilus 
{(pix4co, I love), dwelling in boreal 
regions ; Microthermophy'ta {(pvrhp, 
a i>lant), boreal plants [note the 
distinction from Mickotheums] ; 
Microthennophyti'a, boreal plant 
formations (Clements) ; Mi'crotome 
{ro/j-h, a cutting), an instrument for 
section-cutting for microscopical 
purposes ; microtrich'al, micro- 
trich'ous (apl|, rpix^s, hair), used of 
pubescence when so minute as to be 
observable only under the microscope, 
but sometimes perceptible to the 
touch (Williams); Mi'crotype (tuttov, 




a type), the type of a Microspecies ; 
Microzoogloe'a (C'^ov, an animal ; 
yXoihs, a sticky substance), a stage 
of Schizomycetes when they are 
immersed in a gelatinous envelope ; 
Microzoogonid'ium (+ Gonidium), 
a motile form of microgonidium ; 
microzooph'ilous (+ zoophilous), 
^>ollinated by insects and other 
small animals (Hansgirg); microzo- 
oph'obous {<p6kos, fear), repelling 
the visits of insects or other small 
animals (Hansgirg); Microzo'ospore 
{a-nopa, seed), (1) a motile spore, 
Small in size compared -with others 
of the same species, (2) employed by 
Dodel for Gametozoospore; Micro- 
zo'oid {fUos, resemblance), a small 
motile reproductive cell in some 
unicellular Algae, as Sphcuirella 
(Hazen); Mi'crozyme (C'^i"^) yeast), 
B^champ's name fur microbes and 
small ferments. 

Micti'um {fiiKrhv, mixture), a mixed 
formation (Clements). 

mid, intermediate ; used by H. C. 
Watson for ^ -agrarian, and '^ 
-arctic zones of vegetation ; ~ Er'ror, 
see Deviation ; -- Bace, an inter- 
mediate capable of being improved 
by artificial selection (de Vries). 

Mid'body, a translation of the Genn. 
' ' Zwischenkorper, ' ' probably the 
homologue of the cell plate in the 
higher plants (Timberlake). 

mid'dle, central ; ~ Lameria, the mem- 
brane or primary septum between 
any two cells ; -^ Lam'ina, in a 
lignified cell-wall, the portion be- 
tween the ~' Lamella and inner 
lamina ; ~ Lobe, see Lobe, Middle. 

Mid'rib, the princi2)al nerve in a leaf. 

Mid'suminer Growth, a second start 
into giowth after ceasing ; it does 
not occur in all trees. 

Mi'grant {migrans, wandering), a 
plant that is migi-ating or invading 
(Clements) ; Migra'tion {migratio, 
change of habitation), (1) movement 
of plants by invasion, becoming 
denizens of places in which they 
are not native ; (2) the passage of a 

nucleus from a vegetative to a fertile 

cell in Phragmidium, etc. ; '^ Cir'cle, 
a circle emjiloyed to measure migra- 
tion (Clements) ; mi'gratory, passing 
or migrating. 

mih'i (Dat. sing, of ego, I), as an 
authority it means the particular 
form accepted as the true one by 
the author using it. 

Mik'rofiora = MiciiOFLORA. 

Mil'dew, a disease in i)lants caused 
by the attack of the conidial form 
of Erysipheae ; frequently used in 
a popular sense for any small 
parasitic Fungus. 

milia'rius {milium, millet), minute 
glandular spots on the epiderm ; 
Henslow spells it " niiliaris " ; Mili- 
ary Glands = Stomata. 

Milk, an opaque white juice ; the 
latex ; ~ Sac, laticiferous vessels 
in some species of Acer ; '^ Sap = 
Latex (Crozier) ■~ Ves'sels, latici- 
ferous vessels. 

mill-sail shape, molendinaceous. 

mimetic {fxijxririKhs, imitative), used 
of organs oi plants which resemble 
each other in extcnial appearance, 
but not in characteristic structure ; 
Mimicry, resemblance to some 
other species, usually serving as 

Mi'motype {fu/xos, an imitator ; rviros, 
a type), forms distantly resembling 
each other, ful filling similar func- 
tions, and thus representing each 
other in different floras. 

miniate, minia'tus (Lat., coloured 
with cinnabar), the colour of red 
lead ; more orange and duller than 

minimal {minimus, least), (1) in the 
least degree ; (2) the lowest con- 
dition at which a phenomenon can 
exist ; Minimum, Law of the, growth 
proportioned to the quantity of the 
nutrient constituent present in least 
amount, v.'hich regulates the total 

Minus ( — ), used of spores Avhose nuclei 
are presumably female (Blakeslee). 

minu'te, minu'tus (Lat., small), vciy 
small, inconspicuous. 

Miophylly = Meiophylly (Crozier). 




mioste'monous = meiostemonous. 

Mire, a north -country Avord for a 
marsh or boggy place. 

Mischom'any {jxiaxos, a pedicel ; ^lavia, 
madness), increase in the number 
of pedicels, as in Rhus Cotinus, 
Linn., Muscari comosum, Mill., 

Mist'oform {mistus, mixed ; -j- Form), 
a hybrid or cross from forms which 
themselves have varied from the 
original ; Mistoproliform (proles, 
offspring), fertile hybrids of Misto- 
FORMS (Kuntze). 

mis'tus, mix'tus (Lat.), cross-bred. 

Mitochon'dria, pi. {jj-'nos, a thread or 
web ; x'^^Spos, a grain) = Chro- 
MiDiA ; Mitokinet'icism {Khrjais, 
motion), kinesis Avhicli reveals itself 
by a thread structure (Hartog), adj. 
mitokinet'ic ; Mit'om, Flemming's 
term for the network of threads of 
protoplasm ; Mito'sis, Flemming's 
term for nuclear division ; Karyo- 
kincsis of Schleicher ; adj mito'sic, 

Mi'tra {/j-irpa, a head-dress), (1) the 
galea of a corolla ; (2) the thick 
rounded pileus of some Fungi ; 
mi'triform, mitriform'is {fm-ma, 
shape), mitre-shaped ; ->' Calyp'tra, 
one which is entire at the base 
(W. J. Hooker). 

mixed {niixtus) For'est, one composed 
of various kinds, growing inter- 
mingled ; ^ Forma'tion, caused by 
the intermingling of two or more 
neighbouring formations (Clements) ; 
'-' Inflores'cence, one in which 
partial intlorescence devcloi* differ- 
ently from the main axis, as centri- 
fugal and centripetal together; -^ 
Ves'sels, those having thickenings 
of more than one description, as 
annular and spiral (Crozier), 

Mix'ie {^Jl■^ls, a mingling), ]\Iaire's 
term for tlie fusion of two similar 
nuclei ; the product lie terms 
Mix'ote; Mixochimae'ra (H-Ciii- 
MAEJiA, a monster), the artilicial 
mingling of spore material, })ro- 
ducing {•\-) ( — )and neutral mycelia 
(Blakeslee) ; Mix'otroph {rpo<f>^, 

food), applied to any plant whose in- 
sufficient chlorophyll contents does 
not > ensure a proper assimilation 
(Pfeff'er) ; Mix'tae, applied to homo- 
sporous Ferns producing sporangia 
in succession in time but not in space 
(Bower) ; mixotropli'ic, half-sapro- 
phytic (Pfeffer) ; mixtiner'vius J 
(Lat.), having veins of various sizes. 

Mne'mon {/xv^fxccu, unforgetting), 
Coutagne's term for the elemen- 
tary factors of heredity. 

mni'oid, (1) resembling the Moss 
genus Mnium ; (2) used by E. New- 
man as resembling any kind of 

mo'bile, ino'bilis (Lat.), (1) easily 
moved, movable or versatile ; (2) 
" modified for migration "(Clements); 
(3) as moving sands ; Mobilideser'ta, 
pi. (-[- Desert), include a variety of 
plant communities on unstable sub- 
stratum, as of shifting sand-dunes 
and screes; Mobil'ity, power of 
movement ; cf. Motility. 

Mock-plums, abnormal growths known 
also as Bag-plums. 

Modiflca'tion Forms, inconstant varia- 
tions due to alteration in external 
conditions (Hedlund). 

modioliform'is {modiolus, a small 
measure, nave of a wheel, etc. ; 
forma, shape), like the naA^e of a 
Avheel, depressed, with narrow 
orifice, as the ripe fruit of Ganl- 

Mod'ulus (Lat., a measure) of elasticity 
=» Elastic Limit. 

Moreoule {mohcibla, a small mass), 
an aggregation of atoms, hence the 
ultimate particle of a chemical 
compound ; cf. Pleon, JIicella ; 
adj. molec'ular. 

molendina'ceous, -ecus, -a'ris (Lat., 
pertaining to a mill), furnished 
with large, wing-like expansions. 

Moliue'tum, a plant association com- 
posed of MdJiiila caeruJca, Moencii 
( Warming). 

moriis (Lat.), soft; usually meaning 

molyb'deus, molyb'dos (^uc^AuySSos, lead), 
lead-coloured ; sad, neutral grey. 




Mon- {iJ.6vos, one), in Greek com- 
pounds = one ; monac'mic {olk/j.^, a 
point), applied to neritic Diatoms 
having but one maximum in the 
year ; ef. diacmic ; MonacrorM'zae 
{&Kpos, at the end; ^i^a, a root), 
plants whose roots are derived 
from a single mother-cell, as 
most vascular cryptogams, ex- 
cept Lycopodium and Isoetes (Van 
Tieghem) ; adj. monao'rorhize ; 
Mou''ad, occasionally used for Zoo- 
spore ; Monaderphia {aSeXcphs, 
brother), a Linnean class in which 
the anthers are united by their 
filaments into a single brother- 
hood ; adj . monaderphian, mona- 
del'plious ; monan'der, Necker's 
term for monan'drian, monan'drous 
(av^p, ai/Bphs, a man), with one 
stamen ; monan'dreous, having but 
one perfect stamen, as most orchids 
(S. Moore); Monan'dria, a Linnean 
class, with one-stamened flowers; 
Monan'dry, the condition in ques- 
tion ; monan'gic {ayye7ov, a vessel), 
(1) Prantl's word for a sporangium 
Avhen enclosed by a hood-like 
indusium ; (2) used of a sorus con- 
taining one sporangium ; monan'gial 
is a synonym; monan'thous {&vdos, 
a flower), one-flowered ; mon'arcli 
{apxv, beginning), applied to a 
xylem-bundle which consists of one 
protoxylem-group ; --' Bun'dle, one 
in which there is only one strand ; 
monari'nus {ipprfv, male), Necker's 
expression for monandrous ; Mon- 
as'ter (ao-rrjp, a star), in nuclear 
division the mother-star, the 
chromosomes forming a ring round 
the central spindle ; monax'ial Co- 
axial), applied to a nuclear spindle 
of one axis, but hot necessarily end- 
ing in fixed points (Hof) ; Monax'on 
(A|coi/, an axle), when the two 
transverse axes of an organ or or- 
ganism are equal ; mone^cions = 
MONOECIOUS ; Monem'bryony (e/x- 
fipvou, an embryo), the production 
of one embryo only ; adj. monem- 
bryon'ic ; mouer'gic, an abbreviation 
of monergid'ic, consisting of one 

energid, that is, one unit or nucleus 
mon'eroid, like the genus Moncra, 
in which the protoplasm forms 
the whole structureless body of 
the fully developed organism, 
which is devoid of a nucleus ; a 
presumed protistoid body. 
Mon'grel, a cross or hybrid, 
monirifomi, moniliforni'is {monile, a 
necklace; forma, shape), necklace- 
shaped; like a string of beads. 
Mon'ism {tJL6vos, one), employed by 
L. H. Bailey for "the doctrine of 
oneness ; the supposition that all 
phenomena and all forms of life 
are derived from the unfolding or 
evolution of one single principle 
and substance." 
Monob'asis {ix6vos, one ; ^aau, base), 
when the root is reduced to a small 
Unbranched portion, as though it 
were only the base of the stem ; adj. 
monobas'ic ; Monoblaste'sis, used by 
Schneider forMESOBLASTESis ; Mono- 
blas'tus {^Kaarls, a shoot or bud), 
used of Lichen-spores when pos- 
sessing a single cell ; Monocaro'tin 
( + Carotin), a lipochrome pigment 
allied to Carotin, the colouring of 
the root of the carrot ; Mon'ocarp 
{Kapirhs, fruit), an annual or other 
plant that flowers but once (Crozier) ; 
monocarp^ean = monocarpic ; mono- 
carp'ellary, composed of one carpel 
only; monocar'pic, bien'nial- '^ , 
a biennial plant ; peren'nial- -^ , a 
plant which lives many years before 
fruiting and perishing ; monocar'- 
pian, moiiocarpia'mis, Dwnocar' pi- 
ens, monocar'pous, only fruiting 
once ; monoceriular {celhcla, a little 
cell), cited by Crozier for unicellu- 
lar ; monoceph'alous, -lus {K€<pa\^, 
a head), bearing a single head or 
capitulum ; monochas'ial {x<^<ris, 
separation), a cyme with one main 
axis ; Monochas'ium, Monoch'asy, a 
uniparous cyme, either pure, or t;b- 
suiting from the reduction of cymes 
(Urban) ; MonocMamyd'eae (x^afivs, 
a mantle), a large division of Phan- 
erogams which have only one set of 




floral envelopes ; monocUamyd'eous, 

-deus, having only one kind of 
perianth ; monochro'mic {xpup-a, 
colour), of one tint, unicolorous ; 
monochron'ic [xp^^o^y time), arising 
but once (Clements) ; monocli'nouB, 
-nns, monoclin'ian {kXivt], a bed), 
(1) hermaphrodite, having both 
stamens and pistils in the same 
flo^^*»r; (2) applied to the capitula 
of Composites which have only 
hermaphrodite florets ; the condition 
is Mon'ocliny ; xnonocor'mic {Kopfihs, 
a trunk), expressive of those trees 
which have one main axis bearing 
lateral branches of bilateral sti-uc- 
ture (A. H. Burtt) ; Monocotyle'- 
don {KOTv\r)d(bv, a liollow), a plant 
having but one cotyledon or seed- 
lobe ; Monocot'ylae was suggested 
by L. Ward as a shortened term ; 
monocotyle'donous, with a single 
seed-lobe, as grasses and palms ; 
monocot'ylous = monocotyledon- 
ous ; monocy'clic {kvkKos, a circle), 
(1) when the members of a floral 
series are in one whorl, as the calyx, 
corolla, etc. ; (2) annual plants ; 
the state is Monocy'cly I monocys'tic 
{K^ffros, a cavity), of one cell or 
cavity ; monodes'mic {S«rnhs, a 
bond), possessing a single vascular 
bundle or meristele"; used of petioles 
(Scott) ; monodichlamyd'eotis (5<, 
twice ; x^^M^^j ^ mantle), having 
either one or both sets of floral 
envelopes ; monody'namous {5vvanis, 
power), with one stamen much 
longer than the others ; Honoe'oia 
{oIkos, a house), a Linnean class 
characterized by having flowers with 
the sexes separate, but on the 
same plant ; monoe'cious, -cms, 
the stamens and pistils in separate 
flowers, but borne on the same in- 
dividual ; -- Homog'amy, fertiliza- 
tion from another inflorescence of 
the same plant (Delpino) ; monoec'- 
iausly polyg'amous, having hemi- 
aphrodite and unisexual flowers 
on the same specimen ; Monoe'cism, 
the state of possessing monoecious 
flowers ; Monoepigyn'ia {M, upon ; 


yvv^f, a woman), a class in Jussieu's 
system containing monocotyledons 
with epigynous stamens ; Mouoen'- 
ergid {epepyhs, active), used of a 
protoplast possessing a single nucleus 
(Faull) ; Mon'ogam {yd/xos, mar- 
riage), a plant with simple flowers, 
but united anthers ; Monogam'ia, a 
Linnean order in the Composites 
with united anthers, but flowers free 
on the same receptacle ; monogam'- 
icuB, Necker's term for monogamous ; 
Monogen'esig {yhea-is, beginning), 
non- sexual reproduction ; adj. mono- 
genet'ic; -^ Reproduc'tion, asexual 
reproduction ; monogenodiff'erent, 
used of hybrids in which the gametes 
diflfer from each other in one single 
point (Johannsen) ; monog'enoua 
{yfvos, race, oflspring), =* Endogen- 
ous ; monog'enni, (1) raonocotyle- 
donous ; (2) monotypic (Crozier, 
Diet. p. 18) ; Monog'ony {y6vos, 
offspring), means the same ; Mon'- 
ograph (ypdcpu, I write), a system- 
atic account of a particular genus, 
order, or group ; Mon'ogyn (yw^, 
a woman), a plant having a single 
pistil in a flower ; Monogyn'ia, a 
Linnean order, having a solitary 
pistil or style, though it may have 
many carpels ; monogyn'ian, mo- 
nog'ynous, -mis, possessing but one 
pistil ; mouogynae'cial {ywaiKfloVf 
women's quarters), simple fruits 
resulting from the pistil of one 
flower ; Monohy'brid ( + Hybrid), 
a cross from parents which differ 
by one character only (De Vries) ; 
Monohypogyn'ia {virh, under ; yw^, 
a woman), a class in Jussieu's s^'stem 
containing monocotyledons with 
hypogenous stamens ; monoicodi- 
mor'phic ( -f dimorphic), cleisto- 
gamic ; monoi'cous {oIkos, a house), 
used by bryologists for monoecious ; 
monokar'ic {K&pvov, a nut), having 
a single nucleus (Pirotta) ; mono- 
lep'idus (Xeiris, AeTTiSos, a scale), 
one-scaled ; Monole'psis (Atjij/js, a 
receiving), false hybridism, where 
the characters of one parent only 
are transmitted (Bateson) ; monor* 



obus {\o$hs, an ear-lobe), used by 
Spruce for one-lobed ; monoloc''- 
ular, iiionolocula'ris {loculics, a little 
place), one celled, unilocular, applied 
to ovaries, etc. ; Monomer'istele ( + 
Meiustele), a single out-going leaf- 
trace (Brebner); monom'erous (yuepos, 
a part), formed of a single member, as 
a fruit which may be of one carpel ; 
monomorph'ous [ixop<p)), shape), of 
one form only, not polymorphic 
(Bailey) ; monopet'alous, -his (ircro- 
Kov, a flower-leaf), (1) literally one- 
petalled ; (2) gamopetalous, where 
the corolla is composed of several 
petals laterally united ; monoph'- 
agous {(piyos, a glutton), applied to 
a Fungus confined to a single species 
as its host ; monophylet'ic [<pv\)), a 
tribe), originally descended from one 
tribe, as opposed to polyphyletic ; 
monophyrius, -lus {<pv\\ov, a leaf), 
(1) one-leaved, as an involucrum of 
a single piece ; (2) used of a leaf- 
bud where a single leaf is subtended 
by an investing stipule ; (3) gamo- 
sepalous or gamopetalous ; Mon'- 
oplast {irXaarhs, moulded),, the 
organic form element of protoplasm, 
which group into polyplasts ( Vogt) ; 
adj. monoplast'ic ; Mon'opode, Mano- 
pod'ium (ttoCs, TToZhs, a foot), a stem 
of a single and continuous axis ; adj. 
monopod'ial ; monop'terous {irTephv, 
a wing), one-winged; monopyre'nus 
{iTvp-qv, a kernel), containing a single 
stone or nutlet ; monosep'alous, -lus 
( -f Sepalum), gamosepalous, the 
segments of the calyx being united ; 
monosiplion''ic [alcpuv, a . tube), ap- 
plied to Algae consisting of a con- 
tinuous tube, an algal filament of 
a single row of cells ; monosi'phon- 
ous {crl<pcci', a tube), consisting of a 
single tube, as some Algae ; niono- 
siphonic ; Mono'sis, the isolation of 
an organ from the rest ; Mon'osomes, 
pi. ((Twfia, a body), used by Gates 
for aberrant chromosomes which pass 
undivided into one of the daughter- 
nuclei; Mon'ospenu {(nrepfia, seed), 
a plant of one seed only ; mono- 
sperm'ous, -mics, one-seeded ; mono- 

spi'rous {(Ttrtipa, a twisted cord), 
Spruce's term for that condition of 
the elater in Hepaticae, which con- 
sists of a single spiral ; Monospi'rus, 
an elater of this kind ; monospo- 
ran'giate ( + Spoiiancium), (1) 
unisexual ; (2) applied to a flower 
with sporangia borne on separate 
axes, as the beech and oak ; (3) 
having one sporangium ; further 
distinguished as mac'ro- or mi'cro- 
sporangiate, as they bear sporangia 
of the kind indicated ; Monospo- 
rang'ium, used by Sauvageau for 
the organ which produces mono- 
spores ; Mon'ospore, a special spore 
in Ectocarpus, by Sauvageau con- 
sidered to be a Gemma ; monos'- 
tachous {(TTaxvs, a spike), arranged 
in one spike ; monoBte'lic (o-t^Atj, 
a pillar) ; monoste'lous, having but 
one stele or central cylinder of vas- 
cular tissue ; Monoste'ly, the state 
of having a single stele ; monos''- 
tichous, -chiis {(TTLXos, a row), (1) in 
a single vertical row ; (2) applied to 
bacteria arranged in one row or 
chain (C. Jones) ; monostromat'io 
(<TTpw^a, bed-covering), consisting of 
a single layer ; applied to the leaves 
of Mosses and the thallus of Algae 
when so composed ; cf. distromatic; 
monosty'lous, -lus ( -^ Stylus), hav- 
ing a single style. 

Mono'sy {ij.6vu>(tis, deserted), Morren's 
term for the abnormal isolation of 
jmrts due to (a) Adesmy or {b) 

monosymmet'rical {ij.6uos, one; (tv/jl- 
/j.€Tpos, proportionate), used of a 
flower which can be bisected in one 
plane only ; zygomorphic ; mono- 
thalam'ic, monothal'amous {BaKa/xos, 
a bed-chamber), (1) applied to apo- 
thecia consisting of a single chamber ; 
(2) when galls consist of only one 
interior chamber ; monothal'mic, 
derived from a single flower, as most 
fruits (Crozier) ; monotIie''cal {9r]KT), 
a case), having a single loculus or 
cell ; monot'ocous, -cus {t6kos, child- 
birth), fruiting once only, as annuals 
and biennials, monocarpic ; mono- 




top'ic (tj^ttos, a place), (1) originating 
oace only (Clements), (2) arising from 
one centre (Drude) ; monotrich'ous 
{dpi^, rpix'iis, hair), having one bristle 
or cilium, as certain Flagellata ; 
monotroph'ic {Tpo(pi], food), nutrition 
con6ned to one host-species ; cf. 
pOLYTROPHic ; monotrop'ic (rpoir^, a 
turning), applied to bees which visit 
only one species of flower ; mono- 
typ'ic [rviros, a type), having only 
one exponent, as a genus with but 
one species ; Monox'eny {^(vos, a 
host), used of a parasite on one host 
only ; autoecious ; monoxyl'ic {^v\ov, 
wood), used of vascular bundles in 
which the centrifugal part is primary 

Monsoon' For'est, Schimper's term 
for tropical, deciduous high-forest, 
with heavy rainfall and long dry 

Mon'ster,il/o7i's<n<w (Lat. ,an unnatural 
production), an abnormality ; Mon- 
stros'ity Monstro'sitas, some confor- 
mation deviating from the usual and 
natural structure ; adj. mons'trous. 

mon'tane, monta'nua (Lat.), pertaining 
to mountains, as a plant which grows 
on them. 

Moor^land, ranges from sea-level to the 
high hills in Britain, with peat, and 
ericaceous plants as chief vegetation ; 
'- Province, an area in which climatic 
factors tend to produce moors 

Mor'iaiJ: {iJi&pos, a share), parts of a 
flower in general, as pentamorhis, all 
parts in fives. 

Mor'in {Morus, mulberry), a principle 
derived from the yellow heartwood 
of fustic, Madura aurantiaca, Nutt.; 
the name is derived from Morus, to 
which genus the plant was formerly 
referred ; mori'nus, Hayne's terra 
for mulberry black ; the deep purple 
of the ripe fruit of Morus nigra; 
Morozy'mase {(^h-v, leaven), an 
assumed enzyme in the mulberry, 
now believed to be a mixture of 
diastase and zymase. 

Morphaesthe'sia {n-optp^, shape ; 
atadrfiTis, perception by the senses), 


Koll's terra for the tendency to as- 
sume definite relations of symmetry. 

Morphia, Morph'ine {Morpheus, the 
god of sleep), the best known of 
all the alkaloids contained in the 
opium poppy. 

Morphogen'esis {/jLop(f>^, shape ; yivicris, 
beginning), the production of morpho- 
logical characters; adj. morphogenet'- 
ic; morphog'enous Ir'ritants, ex- 
ternal factors requisite for inception 
of propagation (Herbst) ; Morphog'- 
eny {yhos, offspring), the study of 
adaptations of the plant in its natural 
surroundings (Jaccard) ; Morphog'- 
raphy (7pa<^a>, I write), anatomy and 
descriptive histology (Vuillemin); 
moi^holog'ical, relating to Morpho- 
logy; r^ Spe'cies, Parraentier's term 
for such specific forms as occur in 
Rosa, which are assumed to hav^ 
departed from their ancestral form 
in consequence of varied environ- 
ment ; Morphol'ogy {\6yos, dis- 
course), the study of fonn and its 

Morpho'sis {fjL6p(pa}<Ti5, a shaping), the 
manner of development ; the order 
in which organs form from their 
earliest to their final condition. 

mor'phus (i^optpi), shape), in Greek 
compounds = appearance, as rhizo- 
morphus, having the appearance of 
a root. 

mor'ulose {morulus, dark-coloured), 
dark, almost black (Solereder); c/. 


mosa'ic (Fr. , mosaique, from' late Lat. 
mitsaicus, tessellated work), (1) ap- 
plied to hybrids which display 
patches of varying character (Bate- 
son) ; (2) Mosa'ic, a disease ascribed 
to some physiological cause, showing 
patches on the leaves of tobacco and 
other plants. 

mos'chate, moscha'tus [moschus, nmsk), 

Moss, (1) the common name for bryo- 
phyte ; (2) a lowland moor ; <^ Moor, 
usually higher in the centre, with 
growth oi Sphagnum; "Hoehraoor" 
of the Germans ; -^ Tun'dra (Finnish), 
flat or undulating tract, devoid of 




forest, in the north of Russian 
Siberia ; Mossing, covei-ing decorti- 
cated trunks with moss, to induce 
the production of renewed bark in 
Cinchona culture. 

Moth'er, used in the sense of "parent"; 
'-' Cells, those which divide to form 
other cells ; - Plant, (1) the parent 
plant, from which vegetative portions 
have been derived ; (2) the female or 
seed-bearing parent of a hybrid;-^ 
Skein, a cnntinuous ribbon like figure 
of chromatin in the early stages of 
nuclear division, further divided into 
close '-', looped ~, and loose ^ ; --' 
Star = Monaster, a stage of nuclear 

Moth'er-of-Vin'egar, the active agent 
in acetous fermentation, Saccharo- 
myccs My coder ma, Reess. 

Moth-flow'ers, adapted for moths as 
pollinating visitors : they are usually 
white flowers. 

mo'tile [moius, a moving), moveable ; 
~ Re'gion, (1) the region of elonga- 
tion in growing members ; (2) in 
mature members a distinct organ, 
such as the pulviniis in Mimosa 
piidicct, Linn. 

Motirity (Fr., motilite), the power of 
movement ; -^ of Pro'toplasm, a 
suggested emendation of "contrac- 
tility " of protoplasm. 

Mo'tion-dicog'amy ( -f Dicooamy), 
when the sexual organs vary in 
length or position during flowering. 

Mo'tor (Lat., a mover) ; -^ Re'flex, 
negative chemotropism, a reactive 
motion ; ~ Zone, another term for 
Motile Region. 

Mould, applied to microscopic sapro- 
phytic Fungi, such as Mucor and its 

Move'able, the same as motile, (1) 
used of a versatile anther whose 
attachment is slight, therefore apt 
to be moved by wind or slight shock ; 
(2) with colours, "shot" or change- 
able (J. S. Henslow) ; (3) the annulus 
of an Agaric when it detaches it- 
self from the stip^ and remains 

Move'ment, motion, continuous or 

transient ; ^ of Varia'tion, see 


Mox'a (native name), the Avoolly leaves 
of Artemisia Moxa, DC. 

Mu'cedin (mucedus, mouldy), a tough 
viscous body associated with gluten 
in vegetable gelatin (Goodale) ; 
tauce'dinous, musty, mouldy. 

mu'cic {7nucus, nasal secretion), re- 
lating to gum ; Mu'cilage (Fr.), vege- 
table gelatine belonging to the amy- 
lose group of carbohydrates; ~ Canal'; 
~ Cav'ity, space caused by the break- 
ing down of the cell-wall of neigh- 
bouring cells ; '^ Cells, cells whose 
contents are gum or similar secre- 
tions; - Slit, an opening on the under 
surface of the thallus in Anthocero- 
teae, like a stoma without guard- 
cells, leading into a cavity tilled 
with gum ; mucilag'inous, slimy, 
composed of mucilage ; Mu'cine, a 
constituent of wheat-gluten which 
is soluble in water ; Muco-ceriulose 
(+ Cellulose), alluded to under 
Celluloses ; mu'coid {dSos, resem- 
blance), a secretion resembling that 
formed by tlie mucous membrane of 

Mu'corin, an albuminoid substance 
occurring in species of Mucor (De 
Bary) ; mu'corine, mucedinous, re- 
sembling the genus Mucor; mucor- 
in'eous, resemblinj? the Mucorineae ; 
Mucormyco'sis (+ Mycosis), any 
disease in animals due to mucorine 
Fungi (Barthelot). 

mu'cous, muco'sus (Lat.), slimy; cf. 

Mu'cro (Lat., a sharp point). (1) a 
sharp terminal point ; (2) used' by 
Arthur and Hoi way for Micro- 

MILLIMETllE (= /i) ; c/. MiCRON ; 

Mucro'na % = Mucro (Lindley) ; 

mu'cronate, mucrona'tus, possessing 

a short and straight point, as some 

leaves ; Mucrona'tion = Mucro ; 

mucronula'tus (Lat.), dim. of 

Mu'cus (Lat., nasal secretion), gum-like 

matter soluble in water; mu'cous, 

Mu'darin, a substance occurring in the 




bark of the "muder," Calotropis 
gigantea, Diyand., and C. proeera, 
Dry and. 

Muel'ler's Bodies, ^ Corpus'olos, meta- 
morphosed glands found in certain 
myrmecophilous plants, as Cecropia 
adenopus, Mart., which forms a 
velvety coating on the under side 
of the base of the petiole ; they are 
utilized as food by ants. 

Kule, in botany, means cross-bred, a 

Murga Scrub, chiefly composed of 
thorny acacias, forming an impene- 
trable thicket (Warming). 

multan'gular, multangular' is, mid- 
aivg'ulus {multiis, many ; angulus, 
an angle), many- angled ; multicap'- 
snlar {capsula, a small box), having 
many capsules ; multiciriate {cilium, 
an eyelash), with many cilia ; mul'ti- 
oeps, multicip'itftl {caput, a head), 
with many heads; it refers to the 
crown of a single root ; multicofl'- 
tate {costa, a rib), many-ribbed ; the 
ribs running from the base of a leaf 
towards its apex ; multiden'tate 
{dcntahis, toothed), with many teeth; 
multidigita'to - pinna'tus, having 
many secondary petioles with digi- 
tate-pinnate arrangement (J, S. 

multifa'riam ( Lat. , many -ranked ) , many 
ranked, as leaves in vertical ranks ; 
multifar'ious, multifar'ius, (Lat., 

multiferons, -rus- {muUifer, bearing 
much), often bearing, fruitful. 

mnltifid, multifidus (Lat.), cleft into 
many lobes or segments. 

multiflor''ous, ■rus{miUius, m&ny ;Jlos, 
floris, a flower), many-flowered ; 
multifolia'tus [folium, a leaf), 
many-leaved ; multiju'gate, mul- 
tijuga'tiis, multiju'gous, -us {jugum, 
a yoke), having many pairs or jugae ; 
mnltiju'gate Types, phyllotaxis in 
which the parastichy ratios are 
divisilile by a common factor 
(Cliurch) ; multilat'er&l {l<itus, a 
side), many-sided, liaviii<;f several 
flattened surfaces ; -^ Sym'metry, 
radial disposition of jiarts ; mul- 

tiloc'ular, muUilocula'ris {loculus, a 
little place), many-celled, as an 
ovary ; -^ Spore = SroRlDESM ; 
Multilocula'res, compound spores ; 
multino'dal [nodus, a knot), used of 
a branch comprising one or more 
internodes (Shaw) ; mnltinu'clear, 
(+ Nucleus), multinucleate, having 
many nuclei ; multinu'cleate, having 
more than one nucleus to a cell ; 
multip'arous [pario, I bring forth), 
many-bearing, applied to a cyme 
which has many axes ; multipar'tito, 
multiparti'tus [partitas, divided), 
many times divided, much cut. 

mnrtiplex (Lat., with many folds), 
where many of the same parts 
occur together ; Murtiplez, an 
individual resulting from multiple 
fusion of the product of a fertilized 
ovum ( Worsdell) ; mul'tiple Corol'la, 
one that has more than one whorl 
of petals ; - Fruits, the fruit of a 
flower-cluster when confluent into 
one mass ; '~ Pri'mary Boot, a root 
with several main divisions from 
the crown, as in Dahlia (Crozier); 
<*' Spi'rals, a system of more genetic 
spirals than one (Church). 

multiplic'ate [muUus, many : plica, a 
fold), folded often or repeatedly ; ■^ 
Flow'er,a double flower ; Multiplioa'- 
tion, mvUip'ica'tus['LB.t. , increasing), 
augmentation, pleiotaxy, pleio- 
phylly : adj. multiplica'tus ; multi- 
po'lar ( jpo^ws, a pole), with more than 
two poles ; --' di'arch, a stage in 
spindle formation during nuclear divi- 
sion (Overton) ; >- Spin'dle, Guig- 
nard's term for an achromatic spindle 
when extending in a star-shape be- 
tween several nuclei ; Multipolar'ity, 
the state in question ; multira'diate, 
muUiradia'fns [radius, a ray), with 
many rays ; multira'mose [ramus, a 
branch), much branched ; multi- 
sep'tate, mult i septa' l us [septum, a 
hedge), with many partitions ; multi- 
se'rial, mnUisena'lis, multlBe'riate, 
multiseria'lis [scries, a row), in 
several reries ; multisiriquous ( + 
SiLiQrA), having many pods or seed- 
vessels ; multiste'lic = polystelic. 




Mummifica'tion of fruits, \ised by 
Tubeuf to express the fungal rest- 
ing body or sclerotium. 

Mumo'nian {Momonia, or Mumonia), 
relating to the province of Mnnster. 

mu'niens (Lat.), fortifying; munien'- 
tia Fo'lia, protecting leaves which 
overhang or otherwise guard parts 
which need protection. 

mu'ral, mura'lis (Lat., pertaining to a 
wall), growing on walls ; mura'rius 
(Lat.) means the same ; mura'li- 
divi'ded = mu'iuform. 

mu'ricate, murica'tiis (Lat., like 
murcx), rough, with short and hard 
tubercular excrescences; muric'ulate, 
7nuricula'tus, diminutive of the 

mu'riform, muriform'is {murus, a wall ; 
forina, shape), (1) flattened cellular 
tissue, with cells resembling bricks 
in a wall ; (2) Koerber applies the 
term to certain Lichen-spores. 

muri'nus (Lat., of mice), mouse- 

Mu'sa-form, gigantic tropical herbs 
with perennial, epigeous, evergi*een 
stem of involute leaf-sheaths, such as 
Micsa (Warming). 

Muscardino' (Fr,), a silkworm disease 
caused by Botryirs Bassiana, Bals. 

mascar'ian {musca, a fly), Beccari's 
term when flowers attract flies by a 
putrid stench (Praeger). 

muscar^iform, muscariform'is {mus- 
earinm, a fly-flap ; forma, shape), 
(1) fly-brush shaped; (2) like the 
genus Mascari as to habit or in- 
florescence ; Mus'carine, a poisonous 
.alkaloid from Amanita Muscaria, 
P. Karst. ; Musca'rium (Lat.), a 
loose and irregular corymb. 

Mus'ci, sing. Muscus (Lat.), Mosses; 
nma'cifonn, musciform'is {forma, 
shape). Moss- like in appearance ; 
mus'cicole, nmscic'olons {cola, I 
inhabit), growing on Mosses; mus'- 
coid {fihos, like), resembling or 
belonging to M oss ; Muscorogy 
{\6yot, discourse), a hybrid term 
for BiiYOLOGY ; an account of 

miisli''room-head'ed, a cylindric body 

topped by a convex head of larger 
diameter ; fungifonn. 

mu'table, (1) = mutaiulis ; (2) able 
to produce mutants (Clements) ; 
muta'bilis (Lat.), changeable, either 
in form or colour. 

Mnta'tion {mutatio, a changing), De 
Vries's term for "species" derived 
by progi'essive or sudden changes 
in several generations of seedlings ; 
^ At'avism, a tendency to revert ; 
degressive ■^ , when a change t^kes 
place in the partial latency of a 
character ; progress'ive ~ , when an 
entiiely new character appears ; 
retrogress'ive -^ , Avhen an active or 
present character becomes latent; 
Mu'tant, G. Henslow's name for a 
"species" so raised. 

mu'ticons, mu'ticus (Lat., curtailed, 
docked), pointless, blunt, awnless. 

Mu'tilate {mutilus, maimed) ; mu'tilus 
(Lat., maimed), applied to a flower 
nearly or wholly wanting the petals. 

Mn'tnalism (mutual -f ism), the same 
as Commensalism ; that is, an asso- 
ciation of two organisms which is 
beneficial to both; also termed Mu'- 
tual Par'asitism ; adj . mutualis'tic. 

Mycelconid'ium {fivKTjs, a mushroom ; 
fiAos, excrescence ; -f Conidium), A. 
Fischer's term for Stylospore; 
Mycele' = Myce'lium ; myce'lial, 
relating to a mycelium ; ~ Lay'er = 
MEMBRANOUS Mycelium; --'Strand, 
fibrous mycelium ; Uycelia'tion, 
taking on the aspect or form of 
Mycelium (A. S. Wilson) ; myce'- 
lioid (elSos, resemblance), resembling 
a mycelium (Archer) ; Mycelitha 
{\ldos, a stone), an old terra for 
ScLKiiOTiUM ; Myce'lium, tlie vege- 
tative portion of the thallus of Fungi, 
composed of hyphae (Trattinick) ; 
filamen'tous '^ , the thread-like loose 
felting of hyphae ; mexn'branous -^ , 
the layer formed by the interweaving 
of the hyphae ; myce'Ioid [eUos, like), 
resembling a mycelimn ; mycetoge- 
nefic (yeveTrji, a parent), producing 
Fungi ; -^ Metamorph'osis, de- 
formation of parts by Fungi ; myce- 
tog'enous {yeuos,, race, off"spring), 




producing Fungi; >-' Ghloran'thy, 
the development of green in organs 
normally of some other colour, due 
to a fungous parasite ; ■^ Chlor'isis, 
Avhcre the chlorophyll is bleached 
by thie action of hyphae of some 
Fungus (Tubeuf); my'cetoid, myce- ; 
toi'deus {fl^os, like), fungoid ; with j 
the appearance of Fungi ; Myce- 
tol'ogy, Mycetolo'gia {A6yos, dis- j 
course), = Mycology ; Myce'tozoa | 
{((^ov, an auimal), De P)ar\'^'s term 
for Myxooastkes ; adj. niyceto- 
Mychogam'ia {/J^vxhs, recess), self or 
direct fertilization, as opposed to 
Hercogamy (Clements). 
My'cina, in Licliens, a globular stipitate 

Mycocecid'ium (/nw/crjs, a nuishroom ; 
KfjKls, k7}k7Bos, a gall-nut), a gall 
produced by a Fungus; Myco- 
doma'tia {Swixdnou, a. little house), 
fungus-chambers, formations of 
peculiar character found on the 
roots of plants, regarded hj Frank 
as possessed of the power of at- 
tracting B'ungi and digesting them ; 
Mycol'ogist (?.6yos, discourse), one 
skilled in tlie knowledge of Fungi ; 
Mycorog-y, the science of Fungi ; 
My'coma, the body of a Fungus 
(A. Braun) ; Mycomyce'tes, the 
higher Fungi ; Mycomy'cophytea 
{(pvrhu, a plant), IMarchand's term 
to include Fungi and certain 
Lichens ; mycoph'thorous {<pd6pos, 
destruction), a Fungus parasitic on 
another Fungus, as llypocrca fungi- 
cola (Rutland); Mycophy'tophytes, 
Marchand's name for Lichens other 
than MYCOMYCOPHYTES; My'coplasm 
(■n-Adcr/xo, moulded), (1) Frank's term 
ibr bacteroids, as the rliizobia on 
leguminiferous roots; (2) an as- 
sumed property of the protoplasm 
of panisitic Fungi of renuiining 
latent in tlie seed of the Jiost, and 
reawakening to complete its cycle, 
on the return of favourable condi- 
tions; adj.mycoplas'mic; Mycoplas'- 
ma, Eriksson's teim for a lateut 
.svnibiotic fnrui of Puccinia wliich 

may exist in tlie seed and develop 
into a mycelium Avheu the host has 
developed ; Mycopro'tein ( -\- Pno- 
TEix), a gelatinous albuminoid 
rese7n]>ling protoplasm, of which 
the putrefactive bacteria are com- 
posed; MycorhFzome (-|- Rhizome), 
mycori'hiza-like structure in Coral- 
lorhiza and Epipogtim roots ; My- 
corhi'za, preferably Mycorrhi'za 
[piCa-, a root), the symbiotic union 
of Fungi and roots of ]ilants ; it 
may be ectotroph'ic, feeding out- 
side, or endotrophlc, obtaining its 
nourishment internally ; farther as 
ectotrop'ic, '^ entirely outside, or 
endotrop'ic, ~ entirely within the 
cells; adj. mycorrhi'zic ; My'cose, 
My'cosin, the s[iecial nitrogenous 
substauce of the cell-wall in Fungi 
corresponding to the animal sub' 
stance chitin (Gilson) ; Myco'sis, a 
disease in animal tissue caused by 
species of Eurotium ; mycotroph'ic 
{rpo(p)], food), employed of plants 
possessing mycorrhiza. 
My'crocy3t= Microcyst. 
Mycropro'tein = Mycopkotein. 
My'cropyle = Micropyle. 
My'crozyme = Microzyme. 
Myioph'ilae {fivta, a fly ; <|>i\€w, I 
love), i)lants which are fertilized by 
diptera; their flowers are dull in 
colour and their odours are dis- 
agreeable to man. 
mykoklep'tic [^t-vn-ns, a mushroom; 
K\€-nriKhs, thievish), applied to the 
hairs on the rhizome of Corallo- 
rhiza iimnta, R. Br., "which seize 
the mycelium." 
myoch'rous {fj.vs, a mouse; xpovs, of 

the skin), mouse -coloured. 
Myr, used in Norway and Iceland for 

any kind of Moon. 
myr'cioid (e/5os, resemblance), like 
Miircid or akin to it (b\ v. Mueller), 
myr'iaspored [fxvpias, a myriad ; + 
Si'okk). having innumerable spores, 
myriophyll'oid (e/Sos, resemblance), 
like }i!iriophyUum or having aftinity 
with it. 
myrmecobro'mous {i^vpfiri^, an ant ; 
^pwfxr), food), applied to plants 




alibrding food to ants (Haiisgirg) ; 
myrmecoohor'ous (x^^p^^, I sprea;d 
aViroad), dispersed by means of ants ; 
Myrmecocho'ry is the stirte itself; 
Myrmecodoma'tia {dw/xinov, a little 
house), shelters formed by plants in 
which ants live; adj. myrmecod'- 
omous, affording slielter only ; 
myrmecopli'ilous {cpiXew, I love), 
plants which are inhabited by ants 
and offer specialized* shelters or food 
for them ; Myrmecoph'ilism, the 
state described ; rayrmecopho'bic, 
myrmecoph'obous {<p6^eo}, I fear), 
shunning ants, used of plants which 
by hairs, or glands, repel ants ; 
Myrme'cophytes {(pvrhu, a plant), 
ant-plants ; MyrmecOBjrmbio'sis ( + 
Symbiosis), the mutual relations 
between the ants and their host- 
plants ; adj. myrmecosymbio'tic ; 
myrmecotroph'ic,(Tpo(^^, food), fur- 
nishing food; myrmecox'enous (|eVos, 
a host), supplying both food and 

My'rosin {fxvpov, sweet juice), a gluco- 
sidc occurring in the seed of Brassica 
siiU'poides, Roth, and other Crucifers. 

Myrrh, an aromatic gum-resin yielded 
by Coriimiplwra Myrrha, Engl. 

myr'tiform, imjrtiform'is [myrtus, tho 
myrtle ; forma, shape), resembling 
the myrtle ; myr'toid, myrtoi'deus 
(eiSos, like) is a synonym. 

myrtilli'nus (Mod. Lat.), myrtle- 

Mys'trin, a peculiar carbohydrate 
found in MystrojKtaloji, Harv. (H. 

myu'rus {t^vs, a mouse ; ovph, a tail), 
long and tapering like a mouse's 

Myxamoe'bae or Myxoamoe'bae, pi. 
{ixv^a, mucus ; afioifi^, interchange), 
the swarm-spores of Myxogastres ; 
Myxobacter'ia (-f Bactekia), ap- 
plied to those bacteria which form 
colonies united by a gelatinous 
covering (Tliaxtcr) ; Myx'obia {Bios, 
life), Sell rotor's term for Hacckel's 
Protista, i. e. Frotophyta + Proto- 
zoa ; Myxogaa'ters, an Anglicized 
form of Myxogas'tres {yacrr^p, 

R 2 

belly), Fries's term for the group 
of " 81ime Fungi," otherwise known 
as Myxomyce'tes and Mycetozoa ; 
adj. myxogas'trous ; myxomyce'touB, 
relating to the same group under its 
name of Myxomycetae ; Myxomon'ad 
{/xovas, a unit), a swarm-spore of 
Myxomycetes ; Myx'on, a constitu- 
ent of wheat-gluten precipitated 
l)y alcohol ; Myxophy'ceae {cpvKos, 
seaweed) = Schizophyceae; Myx'o- 
phyte {(pvrhu, a plant), AVettstein's 
name for Rhizopoda regarded as 
plants ; Myx'opod {ttovs, noShi, a 
foot), the amoeboid stage in con- 
trast to the mastigopod ; Myx'ospore 
((TTTopa, a seed), a spore formed in 
the sporangia of Myxogastres; adj. 
myxos'porous ; Myxothallopby'tae 
(-}- Thall(H'Hytr) =Myxogastres; 
myxotroph'ic {rpo<pi], food), feeding 
by the ingestion of solid particles. 

na'creous (Fr., nacre, mother-of-pearl), 
with pearly lustre (Heinig). 

Nahrlos'ung (Germ.), a nutrient solu- 
tion for laboratory cultures; by 
mycologists usually restricted to a 
soluiion of horse-'dung. 

Nail, as a measure, about half an inch 
in length, the average length of a 
iinger-nail ; unguicularis. 

Nail-head Rust, due to Cladosporium 
herbariorum, var. eitricola. 

na'ked, wanting its usual covering, as 
without p\ibescence, or flowers desti- 
tute of perianth, or buds without 
scales; '~ seed'ed, (1) gymnosper- 
mous ; (2) formerly used of Labiates, 
from a false idea of the fruit. 

Nama'tad {vafia, vafxaros, a stream ; 
-f- ad), a brook plant ; Namati'um, 
a brook foi-mation ; namatoph'ilus 
{(pL\€w, I love), brook-loving; 
Namatophy'ta {(pvrhy, a plant), 
brook plants (Clements). 

nanan'drous {vavos or vdwos, a dwarf; 
av^p, ay5phs, a man), u^ed of certain 
Algae Avhicli produce DwARl-'-MALEs; 
Na'nism, Chodat's term fur becom- 
ing dwarf; Nannan'der, a dwarf- 
male ( Wittrock) ; cf. nannanbrous ; 
i Nann'oplankton (4- Plai^kton), free 




floating organisms of extremely small 
size; Nanophan'erophytes, pi. ( + 
Phanerophytes), shrubs not ex- 
ceeding 2 metres in height (Kaun- 
skiser) ; Nanophanerophyti'um, a 
formation of the shrubs in question ; 
na'nus (Lat.), dwarf, cf. pumilus. 

napa'ceous {najnts, a turnip ; + 
ACEUs) ; na'piform {forma, shape), 
turnip- shaped or rooted. 

nap'py, tomentose. 

Nar'ceine [vdpK-n, numbness), an opium 
alkaloid forming silky, inodorous, 
bitter crystals. 

Nar'cotine [vapKosriKbs, making numb), 
also an opium alkaloid, but of very 
little narcotic power. 

Narcot'ropism {vapKdo), I grow stiff; 
rpQir^, a tm'ning), movement due to 
a narcotic cause. 

Narde'tum, an association of Nardus 

Nar'dine, pertaining to Nard, Nardo- 
stachys Jatamansi, DC. 

nas'oent {nascor, to be born), in the 
act of being formed ; <- Tis'sue = 

Nas'tie {va^Ths, pressed close), auto- 
matic curvature of a dorsiventral 
organ influenced by continued 
growth in length (De Vries) ; adj. 

na'tant, na'tans (Lat., twimming), 
floating under water, that is, wholly 

na'tive, used by H. C. "Watson for 
undoubtedly indigenous. 

nat'ural, produced or effected by 
nature; -' Family, a group of 
genera formerly styled Ouder, but 
since 1905 the latter has been re- 
stricted to a superior group ; '- 
Graft, when branches are naturally 
united by "approach"; -^ Or'der, 
an assemblage of Families, inferior 
to Class ; '-' Sys'tem, an arrange- 
ment according to the affinity of the 
plants, and the sum of their charac- 
ters, opposed to any artificial system, 
based on one set of characters; 
Naturaliza'tion, the act of be- 
coming naturalized ; naturalized, 
of foreign origin, but established 

and reproducing itself as tliough a 

Nau'cum, pi. Nau'ca (Lat., a trifle), 
(1) the fleshy part of a drupe (Lind- 
ley) ; (2) seeds with a very large 
hilum (J. S. Henslow) ; Nau'ciui, 
certain cruciferous fruits which have 
no valves. 

naut'iform {nanticu9, pertaining to 
ships or sailors ; forma, shape) » 
navicular (Crozier). 

nau'tiloid (elSos, resemblance), spirally 
formed, like the shell of a Nautilus 

nave-shaped, . round and depressed, 
with a small opening, modioliform. 

Navic'ulae, pi. {navicicla, a boat), free 
frustules of Diatoms like those of 
the genus Navicxda ; navic'alaef orm 
{forma, shape) = naviculoid ; na- 
vio'ular, navicida'ris, boat-shaped, 
cymbiform; navic'uloid (elSoy, liKe), 
like the genus Navkula. 

neb'ulose, nebulo'sus (Lat., vaporous), 
(1) cloudy, misty, applied to such 
finely divided inflorescences as of 
Eragrostis ; (2) used by Bischoff" as 
meaning smoke-coloured ( = /wwg'U5). 

Necessa'ria {neccssarius, unavoidable), 
Linnaeus's term for a division of his 
Syngenesia (= Compositae) in which 
the ray florets are female and the 
disk florets male. 

Neck, (1) the collar or junction of stem 
and root; (2) the point where the 
limb separates from the sheath of 
certain leaves; (3) the contracted 
part of the corolla or calyx tube ; 
(4) the elongated portion of the 
embryo sac or arch egonium; (5) the 
prolongation of the apex of the peri- 
thecium in Pyrenomycetes ; <-' Cells 
in the archegonium of Bryophytes, 
the drawn-out portion, as distinct 
from the venter. 

necklace-shaped, moniliform. 

Nec'rides, pi. {veKphs, dead ; li^os, 
resemblance), certain cells in Cyano- 
phyceae which become gelatinous 
and disappear (Brand); neoroco- 
leopteroph'ilous {vtKphs, dead; -+- 
Ooleopteron ; 4)i\lo, I love), when 
fertilized by carrion beetles; 




nacrog'enous, -us {yevos, offspring), 
applied to certain fungoid parasites 
which hasten the decay of the plants 
on which they live; necroph'agous 
{(pdycj, I eat), applied to saprophytes; 
Neo'roplasm {'ir\d(TiJ.a, moulded), the 
homologue of protoplasm in a dead 
seed ; Neo'roplaet, a proto[)last whose 
organization has suffered irreparable 
injury and is dead; Necro'sis, (1) 
canker in plants ; (2) used by 
Escorabe as meaning the death of 
an organism ; Nec'rotype {tvitos, a 
type), applied -to forms formerly 
existing but now extinct ; fossil. 

Ifec'tar [v^Krap, the drink of the gods), 
a sweet fluid extruded from various 
parts of the plant ; in the flower it is 
called honey; '~ Flow'ers, without 
coloured perianth or petals, producing 
Bticky pollen, as Salix ; ^- Glands, 
the secreting organs which produce 
the nectar; '- Guides, lines of colour 
leading to the nectary ; ~ Marks = 
'-' Guides (Crozier) ; ~ Spots = '- 
Guides; Necta'rium, or Nec'tary, 
(1) the organ in which nectar is 
secreted, formerly ajtplied to any 
anomalous part of a flower, as its 
spurred petals ; (2) employed by 
Linnaeus for the utricle of Carex ; 
nectariferous, -us (fero, I bear), 
nectar-bearing; Nectarily'ma (etAuw, 
I wrap round), any appendages to a 
nectary, as the long hairs in Meny- 
anthcs ; Nectari'nus = Nectary ; 
Nectarostig'ma {(rriyfia, a spot), 
some mark or depression indicating 
the presence of a nectariferous gland; 
Nectarcthe'ca {dr^Kri, a case), the 
portion of a flower which immediately 
surrounds a nectariferous pore. 

Nec'tism {vnKrhs, swimming), swim- 
ming by means of cilia, as zoospores; 
Neo'ton, Haeckel's term for plankton 
in active movement ; originally re- 
stricted to animals. 

Nee'dle, the stiff linear leaf of Coni- 
ferae ; doub'le <-- , the specially 
metamorphosed leaf-organ of Sciado- 
pitys ; -^ shaped, acerose, acicular. 

neg'ative {^ugativus, that denies), im- 
plying denial or absence of some 

quality or substance ; -' Geot'ropism, 
apogeotropism, the growing in a 
contrary direction to gravitation ; 
'-' Heliot'ropism, apheliotropism, 
shunning light ; --' Pres'sure, when 
gases in plants are at a lower 
tension than air, in consequence of 
the withdrawal of water. 

Neidioplank'ton {vnls, a nymph; -f 
Plankton), Forel's term for plank- 
ton organisms jwssessing swimming 

Ne'ism [veos, new), the origin of an 
organ on a given place, as the 
formation of roots in a cutting. 

Nek'ton = Necton. 

Ne'ma {vrjfj.a, a thread), a filament. 

Nemati'um, water margin plant-for- 
mation (Ganong) ; cf. Namatium. 

Ne'ma thece, Nemathe'cium {vv/xk, a 
thread ; Btik-tj, a case), a wart-like 
elevation of the surface in some 
Algae containing anthcridia and 
paraphyses or cystocarps ; Ne'ma- 
tablast (ySAoo-rby, a bud), = Nema- 

Ne'matodes {wnfiano^ris, thread-like), 
in botany, applied to Confervae. 

Ne'matogone {vvfia, a thread ; yovr], 
offspring) ; Correns's term for au 
asexually produced gemma on the 
protonema of Mosses; adj. nemato- 
g'enous; Ne'meae, "Cryptogams 
whose sporules elongate into a 
thread-like form in germination " 
(J. S. Henslow); cf, Nemoblastus ; 
ne'meous, thread-like, filamentous 
(Crozier) ; Nematomy'ces (ixvic-ns, a 
mushroom), a synonym of Hypho- 
mycetous Fungi ; Ne'matoplast 
{irXaa-rbs, moulded), thread-shaped 
plastids observed in the cytoplasm 
of Momordica Elateri'i.m ; Nemo- 
blast'us (jSAoarbs, a bud), used by 
Willdenow to include Mosses and 

nemoralis (Lat., sylvan), inhabit- 
ing woods and groves ; nem'orose, 
nemoro'sus (Lat., full of woods), 
used as if a synonym of nemoralis. 

neogae'an, neogae'us {veos, new; yrj, 
earth). New World, that is, Ameri- 
can or West Indian; cf. amphi- 





migratory on recent geological 
formations (Crampton) ; neomor- 
phog'enous [fxop^ri, shape; yevos, 
race), causing a new growth in con- 
trast with that existing ; Ne'ophyte 
{(pvThv, a plant), a newly introduced 
plant (Rikli); Ne'oplast {-n-XacTTbs, 
moulded), a new individual arising 
from one or more previously existing 
}»rotoplasts, as the fertilized egg- 
cell (Hanstein); neotrop'ic (tpotttj, 
■ a turning). South American, in 
plant distribution ; Ne'otype (tvitos, 
a type), a specimen from the original 
locality whence the true type was 
obtained, which had been lost or 
Nepenth'in, a proteolytic enzyme oc- 
curring in the pitchers of Nepenthes. 
neph'roid, nephroi'dcua {i/e<pphs, the 
kidneys; cUos, like), reniform, kid- 
ney-shaped ; Nephros'ta, Necker's 
term for the sporangia of Lyco- 
nepion'ic {u-ninos, young), applied to 
the first leaves of seedlings developed 
immediately succeeding the em- 
bryonic stage of the cotyledons. 
Ne'reid {Nereis, a sea nymph), a 
mythologic name used by "Warming 
to designate water-loving plants 
which grow on rocks and stones ; '^ 
Forma'tion, a community of Algae 
ner'itic(i'rjpiTr?s, son ofNereus), ajtplied 
to plankton which is coastal; 
Neroplan'kton ( + Plankton ), 
Hacckcl's term for neritic plankton, 
nerva'lis (Lat., pertaining- to tlie 
nerves), (1) synonym of loculicidal, 
the deliiscence being along the mid- 
rib of the carj)els ; ('2) relating to 
the midiib of a leaf, as a j)rolonga- 
tion of it — as a tendiil. 
Nerva'tion, Ncrva'tio {nerrus, a nerve), 
venation, the niannci' in which tlie 
foliar nerves or veins are arranged ; 
ner'vate, vcrva'tus (Lat.), nerved 
or veined ; Nerve, Ner'vus, in 
V)otaiiy, a siiii|ile or uniuanclied 
vein oi- slender rib; nerved, ncr'- ; 
vi(jer {(/'/■(), I bear), liaving nerves, 

in a botanic sense ; ner'veless, with- 
out apparent nerves; Nervimotil'- 
ity (+ Motility), used by Dut- 
rochei; to denote the stimulating 
effect of the substratum on a grow- 
ing or^n ; ner'vose, nervo'sus 
(Lat., sinewy), full of nerves, or 
prominently nerved ; ner'vulose, 
ncrvuJo'sufi, diminutive of ner- 
vous; Ner'vures, the principal 
veins of a leaf. 

Nest-ep'iphyte (-f Ei'IPHYTe), an epi- 
})hyte which accumulates humus 
around itself for its growth ; ^ 
Leaves, pi., dimorphous-leaved ferns, 
those possessing heart-like bases 
acting as accumulators of humus 
(Goebel) ; --' Roots, negatively 
geotropic roots of epiphytes which 
form nest-like masses within which 
humus accumulates (Goebel). 

nest'ling, nidulant (Crozier). 

Net-knot = Karyosome. 

Net-plasmo'dium (+ Plasmodium), a 
state of Acrasieae, due either to 
fusion or merely contact (Olive). 

net'ted, reticulated, net-veined with 
any system of irregularly ana- 
stomosing veins. 

Neuramphipet'alae {vevpov, a nerve or 
sinew ; aincpl, around ; ireraAov, a 
liower-leaf), Cassini's name for 
the Compositae ; Neura'tion (-f- 
ation) = Nervation (Crozier). 

neurop'terid, akin to or resembling 

neur'ose, ncuiVsux = nekvose. 

neu'ter (Lat., neither of two), sexless, 
as a flower which has neither sta- 
mens nor })istils ; -^ Flow'ers, func- 
tionally asexual flowers; neu'tral, 
pertaining to neither sex ; -■ Axis, 
that connuon to tlie several I-girdei's 
in stems (Haberlandt); ~ Lam'ina, 
the plane of zero-tension in a stem 
(or ^rder) when subjected to a 
bending force (Haberlandt); -^ 
Zone, in Charaeeae, that line or 
])lace where rotating stre;ims of 
protoplasm flow beside each otlier iu 
oi>posile directions, the " indilfer- 
ent line " shown by tlie absence of 
chlorophyll gianules; neutriflor'ui 




{Jlos, fioris, a flower), used of the 
ray-florets of Coiupositac ulieii 
neuter; neu'trophile {(piX^u, I love), 
a lij'brid word for elements which 
do not take up either acid or basic 
stains, as hyalosomes. 

new, the first publication of a genus, 
species, variety or form. 

Newto'nian Curve, called also the 
binomial or Galtonian curve, a 
graphic representation of varia- 
tions -I'lotted geometrically in 
two dimensions ; the Half- Galtonian 
Curve is a similar scheme, from the 
maximum to minimum, or vice 

Nex'us (Lat.), a connection. 

nicked, emarginate or notched 

nicotia'nus, tobacco-coloured, from the 
genus Nicotiana ; it usually means 
a full brown ; Nic'otin, an alkaloid 
found in tobacco-leaves. 

nido'sus = nidoro'sus (Lat., reeking), 
having a foul smell, as of l»urnt 
meat or rotten eggs. 

nid'ulant, ?i/V/ti/a?is (Lat , nesting), (1) 
partially encased or lying free in a 
cavity, as the gemmae of Mar- 
chantia'y (2) embedded in pulp, as. 
tlie seeds in a berry ; nidula'tus 
(Lat.), nested, nestling; Nidular'- 
ium, "the mycelium of certain 
Fungals " (Lindley). Note.— There 
is a genus of Fungi named Xidu- 
laria, Fries. 

Ni'dus (Lat., a nest), a favourable 
place for a seed or spore to ger- 

Niederblat'ter (Germ.)=CATAPHYLLA. 

ni'ger (Lat.), black. 

Night-position, the position assumed 
by leaves during darkness, the 
edges usually being turned towards 
the zenith. 

Nigre'do (Lat.), blackness; nigres'cent, 
nic/rca'cens (Lat.), turning black; 
ni'gricant, -li'gricans (Lat.), becom- 
ing black ; this and the last are 
used for tints which turn black with 
age ; ni'gritus (Lat. ), blackened, 
clothed in black. 

Nipe'tum, an association of Nipa 
palms. 1 


ni'pho- {vic^o}, to snow), Drude's prefix 
for terms to denote snow. 

Nip'ple, = Papilla. 

niteli'nns (Lat., pertaining to a dor- 
mouse), dormouse-coloured. 

nit'id (Crozier), = nit'idous, nit'idus 
(Lat., shining), smooth and clear, 

Nitriflca'tion [nilrum, nitre; -f tica- 
tion), the action of a nitric ferment 
resulting in the production of 
nitrates and nitrites; Nitrobacte'ria 
( 4-Bactehia), bacteria which pro- 
duce nitrification by their action ; 
Nitroceriulose (+ Cellulose), see 

nitroph'ilous {virpov, potash or soda; 
(piX^co, I love), used of alkali-loving 
plants ; Ni'trophytes {(purhv, a 
plant), potash-loving plants, thriv- 
in£f best on soils attbrding most 
alkalies (Schimper). 

Nit'schia-plank'ton (-f Plankton), 
floating masses of the Diatom-genus 
NitscJi id. 

Ni'valflora, the flora above the snow- 
line ; nivalis (Lat., snowy); (1) 
growing in or near the snow ; (2) 
more correctly snow-white; niv'eous, 
niv'cus (Lat, snowy), snow-white; 
pure and lustrous. 

Nix'us (Lat., an effort), affinity, as of 
one species to another of the same 

no'bis (dative pi. of ct/o, I), used as 
an authority in defining species, 

Nocona'mum (deriv. 1), Necker's term 
for the sporangium of Sclagi- 
neUa (?). 

noctur'nal [nocturnaJis, 


at night, or 

by night), 
lasting one 

no'dal {nodus, a knot), relating to a 
XoDE ; '-' Cell, a cell at the base of 
the oogonium in Cluira interposed 
between the egg-cell and the stalk- 
cell, Avith the " Wendungszelle " ; 
'^ Di'aphragm, any septum Avhich 
extends across the hollow of the 
stem at a node ; '- Plex'us, the net 
or transverse girdle of bundles 
which sometimes exists at a node ; 




nod'ding, hanging doAvn, nutant. 

Node, No'dus (Lat., a knot), that part 
of a stem which normally has a leaf 
or a whorl of leaves; the "knot" 
in a grass-stem; Lindley gives the 
following modifications : closed '^ ; 
com'pound '■^ ; divi'ded '^ ; entire' 
n^ ; o'pen '--; sin'gfle '^ ; see his 
Glossary (1849), p. Ixii. ; nodif- 
erous Cfero, I bear), bearing nodes; 
no'dose, nodo'sus (Lat., knotty), 
knotty or knobby, chiefly used of 
roots ; Nodo'sity, Nodo'sitas (Lat., 
knottiness), a woody swelling; Nod'- 
ule, No'dulus (Lat., a little knot), 

(1) a small knot or rounded body; 

(2) = CoAL-BALLS ; '-' of Diatoms 
= Stauros ; no'dulose, nodulo'siis, 
the diminutive of nodose. 

No'menclature {nomenclatura, a list 
of names), the names of things in 
any science; in botany frequently 
restricted to the correct usage of 
scientific names in taxonomy. 

Nom'ad {vonhs, a pasture), a pasture 
plant (Clements) [Note.— Not to 
be confounded with the homonym 
derived from vo/xas, vo/xddos, wander- 
ing; cf. nomad'ic, used of certain 
steppe plants, blown from their 
original station] ; Nomi'um, pi. No- 
mi'a, pastuie formation ; nomoc'ola 
{colo, 1 inhabit), nomoph'ilus {(piKeco, 
I love), dwelling in pastures ; Nomo- 
phy'ta {(pvrhv, a plant), pasture 
plants (Clements). 

Nomolo'gia {v6ij.os, custom ; K6yos, dis- 
course), relating to the laws which 
govern the variations of organs ; 
nomoBper'mouB {ffirepixa, seed), used 
by Radlkofer to denote the seed 
normally occurring in the order, 
tribe, or genus. 

non-anal'ogous = divergent (Osborn) ; 
non-mari'time, inland (Kearney) ; 
Non-occurrence, employed by Kear- 
ney to denote absence fronj a given 
locality ; non-saline, shunning salt, 
as plants of inland localities (Kear- 
ney) ; non-undulate, flat, not wavy 


no'nus (Lat.), ninth. 

nor'mal, norma'lis (Lat.), according 
to rule, usual as to structure. 

Nosorogy {v6(ros, disease ; K6yos, a dis- 
course), see Vegetable Nosology. 

Nos'toc-lay'er, in Lichens when the 
Algal layer consists of Nostoc or 
allied forms (De Bary) ; nostocha'- 
ceous, resembling N'.ostoc or allied to it 
(Archer) ; nos'tocine means the same. 

notate', nota'tus (Lat. , marked), marked 
with spots or lines. 

notched, emarginate, nicked. 

noteroph'ilons (voref bs, moist ; (piXeu, 
I love), applied to plants which are 
intermediate between hydrophytes 
and xerophytes ; by Warming termed 

Nothog'amy [vSOos, bastard ; ydnos, 
marriage), heteromorphic xenogamy, 
crossing of various varieties in contra- 
distinction to Hybridogamy ; Notho- 
gamla has been proposed by Clements 
for hybridization generally. 

noth'ns (Lat.), false or bastard, usually 
applied to the false root of a parasite. 

notorrhi'zal {vuroi, the back ; l)lCa, a 
root), used for incumbent ; the radicle 
being on the back of the cotyledons 
in certain Cruciferae ; nototriTjal 
{rpi^w, I beat), pertaining to those 
flowers described by Delpino as no'to- 
tribe, whose stamens and styles turn 
so as to strike their visitors on the 
back ; syn. nototri'bous. 

no'vem (Lat. ), nine ; -- digita'tus, 
nine-fingered ; --' lo'bus, nine-lobed ; 
'- ner'vius, nine-nerved 

No'viform {jwvtis, new), a Cultiform 
of recent origin (Kuntze). 

nu'bilus (Lat., dusky), greyish blue 

Nucamen'tum (Lat., a fir cone or 
catkin), an amentum or catkin; 
nucamenta'ceous, -ceus, (1) having 
the hardness of a nut ; (2) synonym 
for indehiscent, monospermal fruit. 

Nncel'la, = Nucel'lus (Lat., a small 
kernel), (1) the kernel of an ovule; 
(2) tlie body of the ovule or macro- 
sporangium containing the embryo 
sac or macrospore ; Nuceriam, Ger- 
main's form of Nucbllus. 



niioif'erous {nux, a nut ; fero, I bear), 
bearing or producing nuts ; "nu'ci- 
form {forma, shape), nut-like in 

na'clear {nucleus, a kernel), pertaining 
to a nucleus ; -- Associa'tion,- the 
fusion of protoplasts which contain 
them ; ~ Bar'rel, a stage immedi- 
ately preceding the nuclear spindle; 
'-' Disc, the mother-star stage ; -<- 
Divis'ion, either direct by fiagmcn- 
tation,.or indirect by karyokinesis, 
the entire history of the division of 
the cell-nucleus; ~ Fi'brils, chromo- 
somes ; cf. Spindle-fidres; --' Fira- 
ment, the chromatin or chromatic 
tilaraent; -' Fu'eion, the union of 
two nuclei; c/. Syngamy; '-Osmo'sis, 
the theory that the nucleus enlarges 
in the manner of a sap-vacuole 
(Lawson) ; --' Plate, the demarcation 
of the daughter- cells in nuclear- 
division, see Motheh-Stak ; '-' Ee- 
dao'tion, v,'hen a smaller niunber of 
segments occur than at the previous 
divisions of the parent- cycle (Hartog) ; 
'~ Ring, the equatorial arrangement 
of chromosomes ; c/. Motuer-Star; 
-^ Sap, the intermediate matrix 
(Schwarz) ; -^ Spin'dle, slender fila- 
ments from the poles, and crossing 
the equator, beginning in the skein 
stage, and completed in the mother- 
star ; -^ Star = Aster ; -^ Threadfl = 
Spindle-fibres ; nu'oleated, having 
a nucleus or nuclei. 

ITn'clei ; pi. : Blad'der ^ , found in 
latex, which seem to increase by 
direct division (Molisch); Giant -- of 
certain species of Aloe, remarkable 
for their size; Thread--', long draAvn 
out, in the mucUage of Amai-yllideae 

Nu'olein, Strasburger's term for Chro- 

Nu'oleo-oen'trosomes {nucleus, a ker- 
nel), a term used by G. Karsten in 
describing the nuclear division of 
PsUotum triquetrum, Sw.; probably 
the same as Strasburger's ' * Secretion 
bodies"; <-' Hy'aloplasm, Stras- 
burger's word for Linin ; <-' Id'io- 
plasm, the formative part of the 

nuclear hyaloplasm ; --' Mi'croflomei 
(Strasburger) = CHROMATrN ? Ku- 
cleochyle'ma {x<J><hs, juice), Stras- 
burger's term for the fluid which 
fills the spaces in the Linin. 

nn'cleolate, na'cleolated {nucleus, a 
kernel), possessing a nucleolus ; Ntt'- 
cleole, Nucle'olus, a sharply defined 
point in the cell-nucleus ; Nncle'olo- 
Nucle'olus, = Endonucleus ; Nu'- 
cleophy'ses (<^i5w, I grow), tubular, 
septate projections in certain Fungi 
which correspond to the base of th& 
peritheciura, and ultimately become 
ascophyses ; Nu'cleoplasm {'jr\«(<r/ta, 
moulded), nuclear protoplasm, the 
nucleo-hyaloplasm of S. Vines ; 
nucleoplas'mic Ten'sion, after cell- 
division when the increase of proto- 
plasm and nucleus cannot proceed 
equally ; this tension causes an 
increase of the nucleus and chro- 
matin (R. Hert\vig) ; Nuoleopro'teid 
( -\- Proteid), any protein which is 
a characteristic constituent of the 

Nu'cleuB (Lat., a kernel), (1) the kernel 
of aa ovule or seed, the Nucellus ; 
(2) an organized proteid body of 
complex substance ; it contains one 
or more nucleoli, and ; divides either 
directly by Fragmentation, or in- 
directly by Karyokinesis, other- 
wise called Mitosis; (3) the hilum 
of a starch granule ; (4) in Lichens, 
the disk of the apothecium, con- 
tainiug asci ; (5) in Fungi, the 
centre of the perithecium ; (6) a 
clove or young bulb ; -^ Bar'rel = 
NUCLEAR Barrel ; -^ of the Em^bryo 
Sao, the secondary nucleus; '*' of 
O'osphere, that in the oosphei-e (female 
pronucleus) with which a sperm - 
nucleus (male pronucleus) coalesces 
to form a germ nucleus ; closed ^ , 
that kind of nucleus which occurs 
in the higher plants, cf. Open ~ ; 
gam'eto- -^ , the nucleus of a gamete ; 

fe'n'erative -^ , an active nucleus in 
aryokinesis; Grerm '^, a nucleus 
resulting from the fusion of a male 
and female pronucleus ; cf. Pro- 
nucleus ; O'pen -^ , the central body 



ob compressed 

of Phycocliromaceae, of iMich looser 
structure tlian in higher plants, and 
destitute of true nuclear membrane 
(Hieronynms) ; Kejec'tion ~ , sister- 
nuclei to the female nucleus Avhich 
play no ]iart in fertilization (Hartog); 
-' Spin'dle = xitlear Spindle. 

Nu'culane =^ Nucula'nium {nucula, a 
small nut), Richard's term for a 
drupaceous or haccate fruit contain- 
ing more than one stone or seed, 
adopted by Lindley for a superior 
stony-seeded berry, such as a grape ; 
Nu'cule, Kuc'ula, (1) a dhninutive 
of Nutlet ; (2) the female sexual 
organ of Chara; nuculo'sus (Mod. 
Lat. ), containing hard mit-like seeds. 

nuoumenta'ceous, an error for nuca- 


nude, nu'dus (naked), bare, naked, in 
various senses. 

nudicau'lous, nudicau'/is. {iiudns, 
naked ; caulis, a stem), naked- 
stemmed, not leafy ; nudius'culus 
(Lat.), somewhat bare. 

nulliner'vis {nnllics^ none ; ncrvus, a 
nerve), = ENEia is. 

nu'merous nnvuno'awi (Lat., very 
many), in botany indelinitc, not 
readily counted ; the sign is co . 

Nuphare'tum, an association of Niiphar 

nup'tial {)iuj>t ialis) , pertaining to 
marriage), employed to denote intra- 
Horal nectaries. 

Nursing-foot = Haustuum. 

Nut, linx (Lat.), a liard and indehis- 
cent one-seeded fruit, often vaguely 
applied to sucli fruits as those of the 
Labiatae and Cyperaceae ; spu'rious 
'■^ , a fruit Avhich owes its hardness 
to something other than the pericarp, 
as in Mirabilia; Nax bacca'ta, a nut 
enclused in a pulpy covering, as in 
the Yew. 

nu'tant, na'tans (Lat.), nodding. 

Nu'tation {nutatio, a nodiling), tlio 
revolution of the growing tips of 
young organs ; ~ Chor'isis, Fitting's 
term for a .separation due to the 
growth of a tissue ; revol'ving '^ 


Nut'let, the diminutive of Nut; cf. 


Nucule ; variously applied to any 
dry independent fruit, as an achene, 
or part of a schizocar[). 

Nu'tricism {nutricius, that nourishes), 
a form of symbiosis in which the 
Fungus becomes the nurse and feeder 
of the other symbiont, as in Mono- 
tropa; Nutrit'ion, the jJiocess of pro- 
moting the growth or repairing the 
waste caused b}' vital phenomena, 

Nux (Lat., nut), see Nut. 

nyctan'thous {vv^, vuKThs, night ; dvOos, 
a llo\\i.r), used of night-flowering 
l)lants ; Nyctan'thy, the condition 
of nocturnal flowering. 

nyctig'amous {vvKTlya/nos, marrying 
by night), flowers which close by 
day, but open at night, often 

Nyctinas'tisin,-Nyctinas'ty {I'v^, wKrhi, 
night ; vaarhs, 2»ressed close), = 
Nyctitroi'ISM ; adj. nyctinas'tic ; 
nyctipelag'ic (H- pelaoic), floating 
organisms whicli rise to the surface 
only at night (Forel) ; nyctitrop'ic 
{rpoTTT], a turning), placing the leaves 
as during tlie night; Nyctit'ropism, 
assuming the sleep position. 

nympliaea'ceous, lesembling or akin 
to the waterlilies, Nym})haeaceae ; 
Nymphaee'tum, an association of 
Nymph x" (Warming). 

nymphaeform'is {nijmpha, a pupa; 
forma, shape) ; Koerlier applies this 
to chry-salis-shaped spores of some 

Oak 'wood Associa'tion, woods in whicli 
the oak is dominant. 

Oan'gium {^hv, an egg ; ayyelov, a 
vessel), an apocytial oogonium which 
forms oospores by free cell-formation, 
as in Saprolegnieae (Hartog). 

ob, as a j»refix-, means inversely or 
oj)positely ; as obovate, inversely 
ovate.; sometimes, Itut incorrectly, 
used for sub-. 

obcla'vate {oh, inverse ; daratus, club- 
s1ki])C(1), attached at tlie thicker 
end ; obcompres'sed, ohcoiuprcs'.-ncs 
{comjire.s'siis, pressed together), 
flattened the other way, antero- 
posterioily instead of laterally ; 




obcon'ic, obcon'ical, obcon'icus 
{conns, a cone), conical, but attach- 
ed at the narrower end ; obcor'- 
date, obcorda'tus (+ coudatus), 
inversely heart-shaped, the notch 
being apical ; obcor'diform, ohcor- 
diform'is, are synonyms ; obcrena'- 
tus (+CRENAfiJs) J, denticulate; 
obcur'rens {cnn-ens, running X run- 
ning together and adhering at the 
point ol" contact ; obdiploste'mo- 
nous, -vs {dnrx6os, double ; (XTii/jioov, 
a thread), where the stamens are 
double the number of the petals to 
which the outer series are opposite ; 
Obdiploste'mony, the condition it- 
self ; Ob'forms, in Ilosa those forms 
with very glandular teeth and glands 
on margins of calyx (Almquist). 
Ob'ices (pi. of obc.v, a barrier), Cle- 
ments's term for hindrances to plant 
distribution ; they may be bio- 
log'ical '~, as constitution of the 
plants, or phys'ical ~, as the 
shutting in, as liy mountains. 
obim'bricate, ohimhricn'tvs {ob, inverse, 
+ iMBKR'ATUs), when the imbri- 
cation is from above, downward ; 
oblan'ceolate, ohlanceola'tus ( + 
LANCEOLATTs), strictly speaking 
this cannot occur, but the word is 
used for tapering towards the base 
more than towards theai>ex ; ob'late 
{lotus, broad), flattened at the poles, 
as an orange, 
ob'ligate {obligafus, obliged), neces- 
sary, essential ; the reverse of fa- 
cultative ; ~ Gam'ete, a gamete 
wliich is incapable of further de- 
velopment without union with 
another gamete ; ^ Par'asite, an 
organism in ' which parasitism is 
imperative in order to attain com- 
plete development ; ob'ligative, 
obligatory, as in obligate ; '-- 
Sym'biont, an organism which is 
dependent upon another for its 
oblig'ulate, obliguJa'tus {ob, inverse, 
-\- Li(;ULATE),used of ligulate florets 
of Compositae extended on the 
inner side of the capitulum instead 
of the outside ; obliguliflor'ous {fos, 

Jloris, a flower), florets wliich are 
obligulate, as in Zoegea. 
oblique', ohli'quus (Lat., slanting), 
(1) slanting; (2) of unequal sides. 
oblit'erated {obliteratus, erased), sup- 
})res3ed ; Oblitera'tion, suppression, 
ob'long, oblon'gus (Lat., rather long), 
much longer than broad, with 
nearly parallel sides. 
obo'val, obova'lis {oh, inverse, -{■ 
ovALls), reversed ovate, the distal 
end the broader ; obo'vate, obova/- 
tus, practically the same as the 
last ; obo'void (elSoj, like), an obo- 
vate solid ; obrin'gens (-f RiN- 
OENs), X a ringent floret of the 
Compositae, with an anterior lip 
one-fifth, and the posterior lip four- 
fifths of the whole, as though the 
lower lip were uppermost ; obro- 
lun'dus (+ noTUNDUs), J somewhat 
obscure', obscn'nis (Lat., dark), (1) 
dark or dingy in tint ; (2) uncer- 
tain in affinity or distinctiveness ; 
(3) liidden. 
ob'solete, ob.^ole'tus (Lat., worn out), 
wanting or r\idimentary ; used of 
an organ wliich is scarcely apparent 
or has vanished ; obsoles'cent ( + 
E.scENs\ nearly obsolete. 
obstruc'tus (Lat., blocked up), where 
hairs or other appendages partially 
close the throat of a tubular corolla, 
obsubula'tus {ob, inverse, + subula- 
Tus), very narrow, pointed at the 
base and widening a little towards 
the apex ; obsutura'lis {sutura, a 
seam), J applied to the suture of a 
pericarp ; septifragal. 
obtec'tus (Lat.), covered over by 
something ; obtec'to-veno'sus, when 
the principal and longest veins are 
connected only by simple cross- 
veins; ob'tegens (Lat.), covering over. 
Obtura'tor {obiurakis, stopped up), (1) 
a small body accompanying the 
pollen-masses of Orchids and Ascle- 
piads, closing the opening of the 
anther; (2) = Caruncle (J. D. 
Hooker), (3) a process of the wall 
of the ovary descending on the 
micropyle, in riumhago. 




obtorbina'tus {ob, inverse, + turbina- 
TVS), reverse top-shaped, swollen 
at the bottom, narrowed at the 

obtuse', dbtu'sus (Lat.), blunt or 
rounded at the end ; ~ An'gled 
stem-angles rounded, as in Salvia 
pratensis, Linn. ; obtusius'culur 
(Lat.), somewhat obtuse. 

obvariate, obvalla'tus {ob, about ; 
vallatus, walled round), apparently 
walled up, guarded on all sides; 
obvalla'ris, surrounded as by a 
wall, as in Karciss^is obvallaris, 

ob'verse, cbver'sus (Lat., turned to- 
wards) ; (1) the side facing, as 
opposed to reverse ; (2) used when 
the point of a radicle in a seed 
approaches the hilum; ob'versely, 
in an obverse form. 

ob'volnte, obvolu'tus (Lat., wrapped 
round), a modification of convo- 
lute, when the margins of one 
organ alternately overlap those of 
an opposite organ, such as half- 
equitant ; obvolu'tive is a synonym. 

Occlu'sion {occlnsus, shut up), the 
process by which wounds in trees 
are healea by the growth of callus, 
then said to be occlu'ded (M. Ward). 

occulta 'tus (Lat.), hidden. 

Ocoapa'tion, ** possession of the ground 
by plants " (Clements). 

Ooe'anad {oceanus, belonging to the 
ocean, -f- -Ad), an ocean plant ; 
oceanic, applied to organisms living 
in the open sea ; ocean'idus, used of 
a marine plant ; Oceani'xun, an ocean 
formation ; oceanoph'ilns {<pi\4a), I 
love), ocean-loving ; Oceanophy'ta 
{(pvrhv, a plant), ocean plants (Cle- 
ments) ; oceanophyt'ious, relating to 
ocean plants. 

oceriate, occUa'tus, ocella'ted {ocellus, 
a little eye), with a circular patch 
of colour. 

Ooerius (Lat., a little eye), (1) an eye- 
spot as in Salionyx, a genus of 
Diatoms ; (2) an epidermal cell of a 
leaf which is sensitive to light 

Ooheti'um, or Ocheti'on {ox^Thi, a 

conduit), a plant succession occa- 
sioned by drains or ditches (Cle- 

ochra'ceous, -ecus {ochra, yellow earth), 
ochre-coloured, yellow with a tinge 
of red. 

0'chrea=OcREA ; o'chreate=ocREATE. 

oobroleu'cous, -ens (&xpa, yellow 
earth; Kevxhs, white), yellowish 
white, buff. 

Och'thad {ox^v, a bank, + ad), a bank 
plant ; Ochthi'um, a bank forma- 
tion ; ochthoph'ilus (<^tAeft>, I love), 
bank loving ; Ocbthopliy'ta {(pvThv, 
a plant), plants of banks or dikes 

O'crea (Lat., a gi-eave), a tubular 
stipule, or pair of opposite stiiiules 
so combined ; o'create, ocrea'tuSf 
provided with ocreae. 

Octagyn'ia {oktw, eight; ywh, a 
woman), a Linnean order of plants 
^\'ith eight-styled flowers ; octag'y- 
nous, Qctagyn'icus, having eight 
styles : octam'erous {fji-epos, a part), 
in eights ; octan'der {av^p, avtphs, 
a man), vnth eight stamens ; Oc- 
tan'dria, a Linnean class of plants 
with eight stamens ; octan'drous, 
having eight stamens. 

Oc'tant (cctans, a half-quadrant), the 
division of an oospore ; '^ "Wall, 
applied to the septum which cuts 
the oospore into octants. 

octan'therous {oKri}, eight; au6T]phSf 
flowery), having eight fertile sta- 
mens ; octari'nus (S^pr/v, a male), 
Necker's term for octandrous ; 
octinu'cleate (+ Nucleus), having 
eight nuclei (Harper) ; octodiploid 
(-f diploid), applied to a nucleus 
formed by the fusion of eight diploid 
nuclei (Nemec). 

octofa'rius (L. Lat.), in eight ranks or 

octog'ynoufl = octagynous. 

octoloc'ular {octo, eight; Icculus, a little 
place), applied to an eight-celled 
fruit or pericarp; octopet'alous, 
-hit (tr(Ta\ov, a flower-leaf), with 
eight petals ; octora'diate {radius, 
a' ray), with eight rays, as some 
Comp^sitae ; octosep'alous (+ Sepa- 




lum), with eight sepals ; octo- 
sper'mous (a-irepixa, seed), eight- 
seeded ; Oc'tospore {airopa, seed) = 
the CARPOsroiiB of Porphyraoeae ; 
octosp'orous, eight sppred ; octo- 
ste'monous {a-T-qfjiav, a thread), with 
eight fertile stamens ; octos'ticlious, 
•us (arrlxos, a series), in eight rows ; 
OCtotrip'loid (rpiirAhos, threefold), 
used of a nucleus, formed by division 
of synti iploid nuclei and subsequent 
fusion (Neraec). 

oc'ulate {oculiis, an eye) = ocellate ; 
Oc'ulas, (1) the first appearance of 
a bud, especially on a tuber ; (2) 
the depression on the summit of 
some fruits, as the apple. 

od'dly pin'nate, with a terminal leaf- 
let, iraparipinnate. 

-odes (eI5o^, resemblance), a suffix for 
similar to ; as phyllodes, like a 

odon'toid (odovs, 686vtos, a tooth ; 
€l5os, resemblance), tooth-like 
dentate (Heinig). 

odora'tus (Lat.), fragrant, usually 
restricted to sweet-smelling O'dours, 
which, in flowers, are sometimes 
due to essential oils which can be 
distilled off; at other times the 
scent cannot be collected by chemi- 
cal means. 

Oece'sis = Ecesis. 

Oecorogy, and similar words derived 
from otK-ncTis, dwelling, Avill be found 
under Ecology, etc. 

Oede'ma, pi. Oede'mata {otdr^fxa, a 
swelling), (1) the tumid glands on 
woody tissues of Conifers ; (2) pro- 
posed in place of ''substitute Hy- 
dathodes" ; (3)= Intumescences. 

oedogonia'ceous, pertaining to Oedo- 
gonium or its allies. 

Oek'iophytes {oIkIov, a dwelling; (pvrhv, 
a plant), native cultivated plants 
for ornament or use (Naegeli and 

offici'nal, qfficina'lis (Lat., of the 
shops), used of medicinal or other 
plants procurable at shops. 

Offset, a lateral shoot used for propa- 
gating, as in the houseleek ; OfT- 
shoot, an offset. 

often-bear'ing, producing more tlian 
once in the season, multiferous. 

-oides, -oideus, -odes, -ides, suffixes 
from f'lSos, resemblance ; as j^ctoi- 
oideus, resembling a petal. 

Oid'ium, pi. Oid'ia {whv, an egg, -f 
l^iov, a diminutive), a term used to 
denote concatenate conidia (Cooke) ; 
not to be confounded with the form- 
genus Oidium, Link, the conidial 
stage of Erysipheae. 

Oil, used for any fluid fat-bodies in 
plants, chiefly stearic, palmitic, or* 
oleic acids ; ~ Cells, gimi-cells ; -' 
Plas'tids, Er.AioPLASTS ; -- Tube, a 
synonym of Vitta in the fruit of 

oleag incus, -us {oleagincus, pertaining 
to the olive), oily and succulent. 

o'leic {oleitm, olive oil) Ac'id, a glycer. 
ide or fat occurring in plants ; 
O'lein or O'leine, one of the vege- 
table fats. 

ol'ens (Lat.), smelling, especially 
sweetly odorous. 

o'leoid [Olca, eUos, resemblance), used 
of plants whose leaves are traversed 
by fibres, as in the olive (Vesque). 

Oleores'in {oleum, olive oil, + Resin), 
the natural admixture of a resin 
and an essential oil, forming a 
vegetable balsam or turpentine. 

oleo'so-loc'ular, applied to those 
Lichen-spores whose cells appear as 
drops of oil. 

olera'ceous, olera'ceus (Lat., herb-like), 
(1) having the nature of a pot-herb, 
esculent ; (2) J growing in cultivated 
places (De CandoUe). 

OliVamim (Arab., ol oral, the ; Luban, 
milk), a bitter and aromatic gum- 
resin from several species of Bosxoel- 
Ha ; the frankincense of commerce. 

oligan'drous, -rus [o\iyos, few ; kv^p, 
av^phs, a man), with few stamens ; 
oligan'thoas, -thus, {HvQos, a flower), 
few flowered ; ol'igarch [kpxh, 
origin), (1) applied to a vascular 
cylinder containing but few bundles 
(Crozier) ; (2) when a stele possesses 
few protoxylem elements ; oligo- 
dynam'ic {hvvayns, power), Naegeli's 
term for the poisonous condition of 




water containing minute traces of 
copper or brass ; it kills delicate cells 
of Spirogyra ; oligom'erous (iJ-fpos, 
a part), parts consisting of few mem- 
bers ; Oligom'ery, of few parts ; 
oligonitropli'ilous, used of bacteria 
which occur in nutritive media 
wanting in nitrogenous compounds 
(Beyerinck) ; oligope'lic {v-qXhs, 
clay), applied to plants which prefer 
certain rocks which yield a small 
amount of clayey detritus (Thur- 
mann) ; Oligophyria {<pv\\op, a 
leaf), Necker's expression for a 
bract ; oligophyrious, having few 
leaves ; oligopsam'mic {xpajx/jiosy 
sand), for plants affecting certain 
granite and dolomite formations 
(Thurmann) ; both of these classes 
belong to the dysgeogenous series ; 
Oligosapro'bia {a-aTrphs, pntrid ; fiios, 
life), organisms which flourish in 
waters but little contaminated ; 
Oligosperm'ons, -miis {(nrepfia, a 
seed), few-seeded ; oligoste'nionous 
((TTrjjUWj/, a thread), with few 
stamens ; Oligotax'y {rd^is, order), 
the decrease in the number of whorls 
in a flower ; oligotroph'ic {rpocpi}, 
food), plants Avhich grow on poor 
soil and compete for the nutritive 
salts in it (Warming) ; ~ Peat, moor 
peat (Weber) ; oligotrop'ic (rpoTr)?, a 
turning), employed by.Loew for bees 
which visit a restricted range of 

Olisthi'um, or Olisthi'on {uKicreos, 
slipperiness), a succession of plants 
on landslips (Clements). 

oliva'ceous, -ceus {oliva, an olive, -f 
ACEOUS, (1) olive-coloured ; (2) = 
oli'veus (Lat.), the colour of a ripe 
olive; olivas'cens (Lat), turning 
olive-coloured ; olivaeform'is {forma, 
shape), shaped like an olive, dru- 
paceous ; orive-colour, orive-green, 
yellowish gi-een darkened with black; 
olivic'olor {color, colour) = oliva- 

olopetalar'ius {(i\os, whole ; irtTaXov, 
a flower-leaf), the floral envelopes 
changed partially or wholly, as 
stamens or pistils changed into 

petaloid organs ; the correct form 
would be holopetalar'ius. 

Ombrom'eter {u/j-^pos, a storm of rain; 
/iifTpov, a measure), Clements's name 
for a rain-gauge ; Om'brcphile {(piKew, 
I love), Wiesner's term for a plant 
which likes rain ; ombroph'ilous, 
rain-loving ; Ombroph'ily, the 
condition described ; Om'brophobo 
{(p6^os, fear), a similar term for a 
plant disliking rain ; ombroph'obic, 
hating rain ; Ombroph'oby, dislike 
or impatience of rain ; Om'brophyte 
{(pvrhv, a plant), a shade-loving 
plant (Hansgirg). 

omniv'orous (o??r/iM'07'?f5, all-devouring), 
applied to parasites which attack 
many species and are not confined to 
one host-plant. 

Omoplephy'tum {6fj.oT\€K^is, interlaced; 
(pvrhv, a plant), applied to a m.ona- 
delphous flower, the stamens being 
in one bundle, 

Om'plialode, Omphalo'dhnn {6iJL<pa\hs, 
navel ; elSos, like), the mark in the 
hilum through Avhich the vessels 
pass to the chalaza. 

Omphalo'dium, Kerner's terra for 
Hilum (1) ; om'phaloid {e'lSos, re- 
semblance), navel-like, umbilicate 

-on, suffix employed by Clements to 
denote "Family." 

onagra'ceous, pertaining to Oenothera, 
a pre-Linnean name of which genus 
was Onagra, Tourn. 

Onc'ospores, -ae {oyicos, a hook, •{• 
Spoke), plants having hooked seeds 
to aid in dispersion (Clements). 

one-ribbed, having one prominent 
rib, as in the leaves of many 
grasses ; ^ si'ded, (1) turned to one 
side ; (2) the parts turned the same 
way ; (3) unequal sided. 

onisciform'is {onisciis, a wood-louse ; 
forina, shape), Koerber's word for 
certain Lichen -spores resembling a 
wood-louse in shape ; onis'cus 
(Lat.), used for lead-coloured, from 
the tint of the same creature. 

Onomatolo'gia {ovofxa, a name ; \6yos, 
discourse), the rules to be observed 
in the construction of names. 




Ontog'eny {oura, things existing ; 
7eVos, race, offspring), tlie develop- 
ment of an indiviJiMl in its various 
stages ; adj. ontcgenet'ic. 

ooblas'tic {ilihv, an egg^ fixaarhs, a 
bud) Fil'aments, see next ; Ooblas- 
te'ma {&\daTr},ua, a sprout), Fil'a- 
ments, the Fertilizing Tubes of 
Schmitz ; O'ocyst {Kvatis, a bag), 

(1) a female organ, an Oogonium ; 

(2) Vuillemin's term for an envelope 
of the egg which is due to the cells 
composing that structure ; Ooga- 
m'ete (+ Gamete), a female gamete 
(Hartog); oog'amous {y^/^os, mar- 
riage), conjugation in which the 
two coalescing gametes are of dis- 
similar form ; Oog'amy, the reverse 
condition of Isogamy ; the female 
gamete never active, the male a 
spermatozoon, and the product an 
Oosperm (Hartog) ; Oogem'ma 
{gemma, a Ijud), Camel's term for 
Archegonium ; Oogen'esis {jfyeais, 
beginning), (1) the formation of the 
OosPHERK, the early stage of the 
ovule ; (2) the differentiation of a 
large resting ceil (oos})hcre) to fuse 
■with a small motile cell (sperm) 
into a zygote (Hartog) ; O'ogone, 
Oogo'niwii, pi. Oogo'nia {yoyij, race, 
offspring), a female sexual organ, 
usually a spherical sac, contain- 
ing one or more oospheres ; 
oogo'nial Tube = Neok-canal ; 
ookinet'ic (/ciVtjtj/cos, putting in 
motion), tending to produce the 
female element ; Corysis {\vais, a 
loosing), viridescence, especially in 
carpels and ovules (Penzig) ; Oomy- 
ce'tes (nvKT]s, a mushroom), those 
Fungi whieli reproduce sexually by 
antheridia and oogonia, the result 
being an oospore (Tubeuf). 

O'dn {u}hv, an egg), proposed as an 
equivalent of Egg (P. F. Myles) ; 
Oonang'ium, the embryo sac (Radl- 
kofer) ; Oone'ion (vtjIs, a nymph), 
Radlkofer's term lor Archego- 
nium ; O'onyle (wAt], raw material), 
the unfertilized female organ of 
any sort (Radlkofer) ; Oonu'cleus 
(-f Nucleus), the nucleus of an 

oosiihere, cf. Si'f.RM - nucleus ; 
O'ophore {(popiu, I cai-ry), the 
OoPHYTE in Ai'chegoniatae ; Oopho- 
ridan'gia {ayyelov, a vessel), J. 
Smith's name for the macro- 
sporangia of Marsilea^ etc. ; Oo- 
pbcrid'ium, a sporangium contain- 
ing raacrospores in Selaginella ; 
O'opbyte {<pvrhv, a plant), that 
portion of the life-cycle of a plant 
during which it bears sexual organs ; 
the same as Oophork ; O'oplasni 
{iT\(i(Tfxa, moulded), the protoplasm 
of the oosphere ; ooplasm'ic, relat- 
ing to the ooplasm ; O'oplast, Ker- 
uer's terra for Oosphere ; O'osperm 
{a-jrfpfia, seed), the product of the 
fusion of a male and a female cell ; 
O'osphere {a-faipa, a globe), a naked 
and nucleate of protoplasm, 
which, after coalescence with the 
s[>erm-nucleus, dev^elops into an 
oosperm ; the egg or ovum ; Com'- 
poucd '-'jone which contains several 
or many functional sexual nuclei, 
as in Albugo (Stevens) ; oospbe'ric, 
relating to the Oosphere ; Oospor- 
an'ge = Oosporan'gium, pi. Oospor- 
an'gia {<nropa, a seed ; ayye'iov, a 
vessel), the sacs or sporangia which 
produce oospores ; O'ospore, the im- 
mediate product of fertilization in 
an oophore ; Oothe'ca {6-nKr], a case), 
the theca or sporangium of Ferns. 

opa'cus (Lat., shady, giving shade), 
(1) not transjjarent ; (2) dull, not 
shining ; opake and opaque are 
anglicized forms of the word. 

o''pen, (1) not closed ; (2) expanded, 
theopposite of DIFFUSE ; -- Bun'dle, 
one which retains a portion of cam- 
bium capable of further diff"eren- 
tiation ; oppo.sed to clo.sed bundle ; ^ 
Forma'tion, when the plants are 
scattered (Clements) ; ~ Nu'cleus, 
the nucleus of Cyanophyceae 

O'pening, expanding or becoming 
unclosed ; ~ Cells, those special 
cells by which the dehiscence of 
sporangia and pollen-sacs takes 
place {a) either by tangential 
contraction on drying, or (b) by 




a thickening wliicli causes a hinge- 
like motion of the cells themselves 
(Schinz) ; cf. Lip-cells ; r^ of 
Flow'ers, the expansion of the 
members at the period of maturity ; 
oper'colar, oper'calate, opercula'his 
{operculum^ a lid), furnished with 
a lid, as in many Mosses and 
Myrtaceae ; Oper'cule, (l)the lamina 
of the leaf of Sarracenix (Heckel) ; 

(2) the lid of the flower m Eucalyptus; 

(3) the Operculum of Mosses ; oper'- 
ouliform (JorTna, shape), shaped like 
a lid ; Oper'culum, (1) a lid or coyer 
which separates by a transverse line 
of divisioD, as in the pyxis, and 
Moss capsules; (2) also in some 
pollen grains ; (3) the cover of 
certain asci, which falls away at 
maturity (Traverso). 

oper'tus (Lat., hidden), the same as 

opliioglossa'ceoas, akin to or resembling 

oph'inre {p<pis, a snake ; ovpi, a tail) 
Cells, used by Jonsson for Astro- 
8CLEREIDS of Tschirch ; the liame 
is from their resemblance to Echi- 

ophryd'eouB, resembling or allied to 
the genus Ophrys. 

opisthe'lial, an error for opis'thial 
{orciaQios, hinder) Pore, Tschirch 's 
name for the posterior border of a 
stoma ; opis'thodal is a synonym ; 
cf. EisoDAL ; opisthod'romous 
{Zp6fxos, a course), a flower is so 
termed when the genetic spiral 
is assumed to pass on its shortest 
way from the bract to the first 
floral segment by the back of the 
flower, between it and the axis of 
the stem. 

O'pium (Lat., dried poppy-juice), 
the conciete juice from the cap- 
sules of Papaver somniferum, 
Linn. ; '-' Al'kaloids are numerous, 
the best known being Morphia. 

Opi'um (oirioj', poppy juice), a parasitic 
plant formation ; opoph'ilus {<pi\fa>, 
I love), sap-loving ; Opophy'ta {(pvThv, 
a plant), parasites (Clements). 

Oplarlam {SirXdpia, arms), Necker's 
word for Scyphus. 

Opporta'nism {opportunus, con- 
venient), the direction in meta- 
morphosis due to the factors potent 
at the moment (Ganong). 

op'posite, cppositus (Lat., standing 
in front) ; (1) set against, as leaves 
when two on one node ; (2) one 
part before another, as a .stamen in 
front of a petal ; opposi'te-pin'nata8» 
with leaflets on the same plane at 
right angles to the common petiole ; 
oppositiflor'us {jios^floris, a flower), 
having opposite peduncles ; opposi- 
tifo'lions {folium, a leaf), (1) with 
opposite leaves ; (2) opposite a 
leaf, as a tendril ; oppositipet'- 
aloas, ~lus (ttctoAoj', a flower-leaf), 
placed before a petal ; oppositisep'- 
alous (+ Sepal), situated before a 
sepal ; oppositi'vus (Lat.), when 
one part stands before another, the 
reverse of "alternate." 

Opseosper'mata (o»|/fy, o^'cws, sight ; 
atrfpfxa, a seed), tubercles on the 
surface of some Algals containing 
spores (Lindley). 

Opsig'ony {6\^iyovos, posthumous), the 
production and development of 
proventitious buds (Wittrock) ; cf. 

•opsis (oif/^s, appearance), employed for 
those Fungi in which uredospores 
are rare or wanting, the aecidium 
giving rise to teleutospores, e.g. 

op'timal {optimus, best), the most 
advantageous for an organism or 
function ; Op'timum refers to the 
degree of temperature, light, etc., 
which best conduces to the vital 
activities of a given organism. 

Opulastera'num, a "layer" of Opu- 
laster (Clements). 

O'rae {ora, extremity) Radi'cam % — 

Or'ange, (1) the fruit of Citrus Aur- 
anthcm, Linn.); (2) a secondary 
colour, red and yellow combined, 
taking its name from the tint of 
the fruit mentioned. 

orbic'ular, orhicula'ris (Lat., cir- 




cular), of a flat body with a cir- 
cular outline ; orbic'ulate, orbicu- 
la'tus, disk-shaped; Orbic'ulus, (1) 
the fleshy corona in the genus 
Stapelia; (2) a round flat hymen- 
ium in Fungi. 

Orbil'la {orbis, an orb), the shield of 
certain Lichens, as in Usnea. 

Oroberia, a general term for Lichens 
which yield dyes, as Lecanora, 
Eoecella, etc. 

orcbida'oeous, -eus, (1) furnished with 
two' tubers at the roots, as species 
of the genus Orchis and its allies ; 
(2) pertaining to the order Or- 
chideae ; orchid'ean, orcbid'eous, 
relating to the Orchideae ; Orohi- 
dol'ogy {\6yos, discourse), the study 
of Orchids. 

Or'chil, also known as Cudbear, and 
Litmus, a valuable dye from 
Lecanora tartarea, Ach., and other 

Or'oin, the colouring principle from 
various tinctorial Lichens. 

orculaeformls [orcula, a small tun ; 
forma, shape), used by Koerber for 
cask-shaped Lichen -spores. 

Or'der, Or' do (Lat., methodical ar- 
rangement), in botany, a group 
between genus (tribe, suborder) 
and class; or'dinal, relating to an 
order, as -*' Char'acter, that which 
marks it off" from kindred orders. 

Or'ead {opfi^s, a mountain nymph), a 
sun-plant or heliophyte. 

Orgadi^um {opyhs, a meadow), an open 
woodland formation ; orgadoc'ola 
{colo, I inhabit) ; and orgadoph'ilus 
{<pi\4w, I love), dwelling in open 
woodland ; Orgadopby'ta {<l>vrhv, 
a plant), open woodland plants 

Or'ffan {opyavov, an instmment), any 
definite part of a structure, as a 
cell, a fibre, a leaf, etc. ; Or'gans of 
Beproduo'tion, those which are con- 
cerned in the production of seeds 
or spores; in Phanerogams the 
stamens and pistils are so termed ; 
'*' of Vegeta'tion, those connected 
with the growth simply, as roots 
and leaves ; organ'ic, organ'icus, 

relating to living organs ; --' Cen'tre, 
the point or axis around which 
growth takes place, it may not be 
the structural centre ; Or'ganism, a 
body possessing organic structure ; 
Organog'eny (ycvos, race, ofl'spring), 
or Organogen'esis {y4vt<n5, begin- 
ning), the formation and develop- 
ment of organs from their primitive 
condition; adj. organogenetlc ; 
Organog'raphy ['ypi<pu}y I write); 
Organol'ogy {K6yos, discoui-se), the 
study of organs and their relations ; 
Org'anoid (e/Sos, like), an organ of ap- 
parently unknown functi^n( Swingle); 
organoplas'tic (ir\a<rTt/ci)s, suitable 
for being wrought), with the power 
of producing organs ; Or^^anopbysi- 
orogy, the requisite modification in 
structure to enable a species to settle 
in a given place (Drude). 

Orgy'a (op7ujo, a fathom), six feet in 
height; orgyalis, a fathom long, 
the height of a man. 

Orienta'tion {oriens, the east), (1) the 
correct placing with regard to the 
quarters of the compass; (2) gene- 
rally means relative position, as 
applied to organs, etc; in'verse -^f 
applied to the inversion of the 
ovuliferous scale bundles in Coni- 
fer ae. 

Or'ifice, Orific'ium (Lat., an opening), 
an opening by which spores, etc., 
escape ; ostiole. 

Or'igin, employed by Hartog to ex- 
press the German "Anlage"i cf. 
Fundament, Incept, Inception, 
Primordium, etc. 

Orig'oma = Ortgoma. 

omithog'amoas {opvis, opyiBos, a bird ; 
yifjLos, marriage), fertilization effected 
by birds ; Omitbopb'ilae {<I>iK4w, 1 
love), plants habitually fertilized 
by pollen brought by birds ; adj. 

Or'mogon, cited by Grozier, = Hor- 

oropb'ilus {6pos, a mountain ; ^tXcw, 
I love), dwelling in sub-alpine 
regions ; Oropby'ta {<pvrhy, a plant), 
sub-alpine plants; Oropbyti'a, sub- 
alpine plant formatio ns (Clements) 




Or'thoblast (opfl^s, upright ; BXaarhs, a 
bud), used by Cramer for confer- 
void prothallia growing iu an 
ascending direction ; orthoclad'ous, 
-dies {K\ddos, a branch), straight 
branched (Russow) ; Orthen'oliyma 
{iyxeo, I pour in), Williamson's cor- 
rection of Orthosen'ohyma, Binnev's 
term for parenchyma of vertically 
arranged cells ; adj. orthen'ohymous ; 
Orthogen'esis (yeVeo-ts, beginning), 
development along definite lines ; 
orthoheliotrop'io (-f heliotropic), 
directed straight to the source of 
light, as linear leaves and grasses 
may do ; orthomor'phous {ij.op<p7}, 
shape), radial and erect (Wiesner) ; 
Orthophototax'y {<pvs, farhs, light ; 
rd^is, order), the direct arrange- 
ment of such organisms as Volvox 
and Sfirogyra assume under the 
stimulus of light (Oltmanns) ; or- 
thophototrop'lo (rpoir)), a turning), 
the direct influence of light shown in 
Vaucheria, Phycomyces, and shoots 
of flowering plants (Oltmanna) ; 
Or'thophyte {(pvThv, a plant), Janet's 
term for a plant, the gametophyte 
-f sporophyte ; Orthoploc'eae (ttAo/c^, 
a twining), ' those Cruciferae which 
have conduplicate cotyledons ; ortho- 
plo'oeous, -ceiis, when the incumbent 
cotyledons are folded round the radi- 
cle ; Orthosper'meae {ciripfia, a seed), 
plants whose seeds have albumen flat 
on the inner face, neither involute nor 
convolute ; orthosper'moTui {a"K4pfia, 
a seed), having seeds with endosperm 
grooved on the ventral side, as 
m Carum ; orthostich'otis, straight 
ranked; Or'thostichy, pi. Or'thos- 
tiohies {arlxos, a row), a vertical 
row, as in phyllotaxis ; orthos'- 
tomons (<rr6iJLa, a mouth), with a 
straight opening; orthotac'tic {oKrhs, 
aiTanged), used by S. Moore in the 
sense of normal, applied to an interval 
in the Photrum; orthot'ropal, or- 
thot' ropotiB {rpoirh, a turning), used 
of an ovule with a straight axis, the 
ohalaza being at the insertion and 
the orifice or foramen at the oppo- 
site end, farthest from the hilum; 

orthotrop'io, assuming a vertical 
position ; Orthofropism is the con- 
dition described ; Or'thotype (tuitot, 
a type), a genus provided with a type 
by original designation (0. F. Cook) ; 
adj. orthotyp'ic. 

Oryg'oma {opvy/ia, a ditch or pit), 
Necker's term for the cup of a 
Marchantia containing gemmae. 

Os, Or'is (Lat.), a mouth or orifice. 

os'cillating = versatile ; oscilla'nus, 
oscillator' ius (Lat., from oscillo, I 
swing), has the same meaning ; 
Oscilla'tion, the movement peculiar 
to Trichobacteria and Cyiinopliyceae 

osoillatoria'eeoiLS, allied to the genus 

Os'culnm (Lat., a little mouth) =« 


Osmom'eter {wffixbs, a thrusting; 
fierpov, a measure), an instrument 
to measure Osmosis ; Os'mose, 
Osmo'sis, the diffusion of liquids 
through membranes ; Nu'clear 
Osmo'sis, the increased size of a 
nucleus, attributed to absorption of 
fluid through the nuclear membrane 
(Anstruther) ; adj. osmo'tic. 

Os'mospores (oo-/*);, scent ; + Spore), 
certain Uredineous spermagones, 
characterized by their having a scent 

Osmotax'is (ixrixhs, a thrusting; ri-lis, 
arrangement), rearrangement of mov- 
ing organisms in response to the 
influence of fluids; adj.osmotac'tic; 
Osmot'ropism (rpoir)), a tmning), 
tropic stimulus due to osmotic action 
(Pfeffer); adj. osmotroplc. 

os'seous, os'seus (Lat.), bony. 

Ossic^ulus, Ossic'ulum (Lat., a little 
bone), the pyrene of a fruit, as a 

os'sified {os, ossis, a bone; facio, I 
make), becoming hard as bone, as 
the stones of orupes, such as the 
peach and plum. 

Ostariphy'tam {oardpioy, a little bone ; 
<pvrhy, a plant), a plant which 
produces a drupe or drupe - like 

Osteosole'reids {hcriov, a bone; <rKAT7/>^5,. 




hard), the " bone- shaped " sclereids 
of Hakea. 

os'tiolate, ostiola'tus {ostiolum, a little 
door), furnished with an opening or 
mouth ; Os'tiole, Os'tiolum^ (1) the 
opening of the conceptacle in some 
jOgae ; (2) the aperture through 
which spores escape from the peri- 
thecium ; (3) a pore or opening 
in the prickles of Victoria regia 

ostracodermat'inus {S<rrpaKov, a hard, 
shell; Sepfidriyos, leathern), resem- 
bling the shells of molluscs ; applied 
to certain Lichens. 

-o'sus, a termination indicating aug- 
mentation, as radio'btis, large- 

Oued or Wed, Arabic terms for valleys 
containing water in the rainy season, 

out'er, exterior, abaxial; '^ Glomes, 
one or more glumes at the base of 
a spikelet in grasses, enclosing one 
or more flowers ; ^ Peridlum = 
Peripium externum. 

Ou^'growth, (1) another name for 
Emergence ; (2) a tuberous excre- 
scence on roots. 

Out'line, the continuous boundary-line 
of an organ, as of a leaf. 

o'val, ova' lis .{oncm, an egg), broadly 

Ovarioph'ylly (ic^p'oj/, asmallegg ; <pv\- 
\ov, a leaf), descending metamorpho- 
sis of a carpel into a leaf (Morren). 

O'vary, Ova' Hum [ovum, an ef'g), (1) 
that part of the pistil which con- 
tains the ovules, the immature fruif, 
formerly termed the Germen; (2) 
= Archegonium (H. Gibson). 

o'vate, ova'tus (Lat., egg-shaped), (1) 
shaped like a longitudinal section 
of a hen's egg, the broader end 
basal ; (2) used for ovoid. 

Ovel'lum, Dunal's term for a young 
carpel bearing the same relation 
to a mature carpel as an ovule to a 

Ovench'yma {ovum, an egg; tyx^P-o-i 
an infusion), loose tissue of oval- 
shaped cells. 

overhanging, projecting beyond the 

overlap'pine, suggested to denote 
right or left, as right edge ^^ o« 
sinistrorse {i.e. dextrorse seen in 
front) ; left edge <- , = dextrorae 
(t. e. sinistrorse viewed from the 

overly'ing, a suggested rendering of 
INC u ROUS (Potter). 

overtop'ping, the gradual assertion 
of predominaittce of certain limbs of 
a branch system over the others 

o'viform, ovifoinn'is {ovum, an egg ; 
forma, shape), ovoid, egg-shaped ; 
Ovocen'tmm {Kfvrpov, a sharp point), 
a central mass of fine-grained proto- 
plasm surrounding the nucleus in 
the ^organism of Achlya (Trow) ; 
o'void, ovoi'deibs (elSos, i-esemblancc), 
an egg-shaped solid ; ovoi'dal, having 
the outline of an egg ; ovnla'ris 
(Mod. Lat.) = OVOID ; ov'ulate, 
ovula'tus, (1) possessing ovules ; 

(2) somewhat ovoid (J. S. Henslow) ; 
Ov'ule, Ov'ulum, the young seed in 
the ovary, the organ which after 
fertilization develops into a seed ; 
'- Tube, a thread-like extension 
of the amnios, rising beyond the 
foramen ; ovulif erous {fero, I bear), 
bearing ovules; adj. ov'nlar; O'vnm, 
(1) the ovule; (2) = Zygote; 

(3) = OOSPHERK. 

oxBl'lc, pertaining to Oxalis, wood 
sorrel •,. oxalida'ceous, referring to 
the genus Oxalis, or its allies; --' 
Ac'id, a vegetable acid of frequent 
occurrence, abundant in Oxali* ; 
oxalif 'erous {fero, I bear), pro- 
duciug oxalic acid rr its salts; 
OxalUeu'cite (-f Leucite), Van 
Tieghem's name for a vacuole which 
contains oxalic acid. 

Oxo'dad (o|ai5Tjs, sour), a plant ot 
a humus marsh (Clements); 0x0- 
di'on, an association on acid soil ; 
Oxodi'um, a humus marsh formation 

oxyacan'thous, -thus {o^hs, sharp; 
UKavda, a thorn), furnished with 
•many thorns or prickles ; oxycar'- 
pus (/capirbs, fruit), when fruit is 
sharp-pointed ; Oxyoel'luloses + 





Cellulose) constitute the main 
mass of* the ground tissue of Phan- 
erogams, and occur with lignin in 
the walls of wood-cells ; Oxychro'- 
matin (+ Chromatin) granules in 
the linin thread, taking stain 
from acid tar-colours such as eosin 
(Heidenham) ; cf. Basichromatin ; 
Ox'ydases, a general term for oxy- 
dizing enzymes (J. K. Green) ; Ox'y- 
gena8e,a doubtful enzyme, considered 
to be a peroxydase. 
Oxygenotax'is {o^vs, sour ; -7€»'-, pro- 
ducing; T«(|js, order), Pfeffer's term 
for Oxygenot'ropism (rpoir)?, a turn- 
ing), movements induced by the 
presence of oxygen; Acrotropism ; 
oxygeoph'ilus (777, earth; pi\4o>, I 
love), dwelling in humus; Oxygeo- 
phy'ta {(pvrhv, a plant), humus 
plants ; Oxygeophyti'a, humus plant 
formations (Clements) ; Oxyli'um 
{l\hs, mud), a humus marsh forma 
tion; oxyloph'ilus {<pi\4a>, I love), 
himius loving; Oxylophy'ta {<i>vThy, 
a plant), humus plants (Clements); 
adj. oxylophyt'ic. 

Oxyrie'tam, an association of Oxyria 
plants (Clements). 

Oxyt'ropism {o^os, sour; rpoir^, a 
turning), movements caused by an 
excess of acid. 

paehyoar'pns {iraxvs, thick ; Kap^hs, 
fruit), having a thick pericarp; 
pachyolad'ons, -dus {kxASos, a 
iMunch), thick-branched (Russow); 
pachyder''matous ; pachyder'mous 
{BfpfjLa, skin or hide), applied to 
Mosses when the cells or capsules 
are firm and resistant ; Fachjme'nia 
{tnifiUy a thread), in nuclear division, 
the period of the thick, unsplit 
spirem in late synapsis ; Fachyno'sis 
{■waxvvta, I make thick), plant-growth 
in tliickness ; pachyphyrious 
{<pvK\ov, a leaf), thick -leaved ; 
paohvstich'ous {arlxos, a row), thick- 
sided, applied to cells only ; pach'y- 
tene {raivia, a ribband) Loops, when 
gamomites are in pairs during nu- 
clear divisions, later on dividing 
longitudinally (Stevens). 

Fack'et-form, the association of bac- 
teria in such colonies as Sarcina ; 
Facking-cells, Hillhouse's equivalent 
of Ger. FiUlzellen; =^uVLZMtH*^ 

Fad, (1) a cushion-like growth; cf. 
SuBARCHESPOBiAL Pad ; (2) a popu- 
lar name in the United States for 
the floating leaves of water-lilies ; 
(3) the central portion of -the lens 
or contracted tissue of the plinth of 
Conostoma (F. W. Oliver). 
Faedog'amy {vaU, vaiShs, a child ; 
ydfjLos, mannage), copulation of two 
gametes from the same game- 
tangium (Hartraann) ; paedog'amous 
Auto'gamy, the copulation of the 
nuclei and gametes, in place of the 
complete gametes (Hartmann) ; 
Faedogen'esis {yeveffis, origin), ap- 
plied by Costerus to cases of extreme 
precocity, as where the seedling of 
a tree flowers when only a few 
inches high. 
Fa'gina (Lat., a leaf), the blade or 

surface of a leaf, 
Fagi'am {vdyos, a peak), a succession 
of plants on glacial soils; pago- 
ph'ilus {(pi\4(0, I love), dwelling on 
foothills ; Fagopby'ta {(pvrhu, a 
plant), foothill plants ; Fagophyti'a, 
foothill plant formations (Clements). 
paint'ed, having coloured streaks of 

unequal density. 
paired, (1) conjugated ; (2) used of the 
teeth in the peristome of Mosses ; 
Fairing-cell, an equivalent of 
pala'ceouB, -ecus [pala, a spade or 
shovel ; + ACf:ous) when the edges 
of an organ, especially of a leaf, 
adhere to their support. 
palaea'ceous = paleaceous. 
Falaeobiolog'ist (iroAatbs, ancient; j9/oy, 
life ; \6yos, discourse), a student ot 
fossil plants ; Falaeobot'anigt, a 
student or expert in fossil botany; 
Falaeobot'any {^oravri, a herb), fossil 
botany, the study of plants in a 
fossil state ; palaeoge'ic {yea, earth), 
applied to soils derived from the 
older formations ; Falaeophytorogy 
{<t>vrhv, a plant ; \6yos, discourse), 




the science of palaeobotany ; palaeo- 
trop'ic {rpoTT^, a turning) Flo'ra, 
the tropical flora of the old world. 

•psi'lsLT, pala'ris (Lat., pertaining to a 
pale or stake), when the root is 
perfectly continuous with the 
stem ; pala'ri-ramo'Bus, when a 
palar-root has many branches. 

Pal'ate, Pala'tum (Lat., the palate), 
(1) the prominent lower lip of a 
ringent corolla; (2) the projection 
in the throat of a personate 
gamopetalous corolla. 

Pale, Pa'lea (Lat., chaff), (1) the 
chaffy scales on the receptacle of 
many Compositae ; (2) the inner 
bract or glume in grasses, called 
' ' Palet " by North American writers ; 
(3) the ramenta or chaffy scales 
on the stipe of many Ferns ; Pa'lea 
clathra'ta, the latticed scale of 
Ferns (Luerssen) ; palea'ceous (+ 
ACEOUs), chaffy, furnished with 
paleae or chaff-like in texture ; 
paleaeform'is {formis, shape), re- 
sembling paleae ; Pareola, a dim- 
inutive of palea, or of secondary 
order, applied to the Lodiculk of 
grasses ; pareolate, paleola'tus, 
furnished with a lodicule; paleo- 
lif'erous {fero, I bear), bearing 
paleae ; pa'leous, chaffy. 

Paleophy tol'ogy = Palaeophytology. 

Pal'et = Palea. 

Palingen'esia {naMv, again; yeveais, 
a beginning), Haeckel's terra for 
the doctrine of simple descent ; 
also written Palin'geny; adj. palin- 

Pal'lsade Cells, perpendicular elong- 
ated parenchyma cells on the sur- 
face of most leaves ; ^ Parench'yma, 
'~ Tis'sue, tissue composed of the 
said cells ; palisa'dic, relating to the 
'palisade cells. 

pal'lens (Lat., wan), pale in colour; 
pallea'cent, becoming light in tint ; 
pal'lid, pal'lidus, somewhat pallid ; 
pallid'ulus, slightly pallid. 

Pariium (Lat. , a covering or garment), 
a presumed gelatinous envelope of 

Palm {palma, the palm of the hand), 

three inches, the width of ill 
hand ; -^ veined = palmatelt 
VEINED ; palmarls (Lat.), the 
breadth of the palm, about three 
inches; pal'mate, palma'tus, lobed 
or divided, so that the sinuses 
point to the apex of the petiole ; 
parmately, in a palmate manner, aa 
-< cleft=PALMATiFiD;'-'Com''pound, 
<- divided, '-' lobed = palmatilo- 
BATE ; '-' nerved = palmatinervis ; 
^ part'ed = palm ati partite ; <- 
veined = palmatinervis ; pahnat'- 
ifld, palmatif'idus {findo, fidi, to 
cleave), cut in a palmate fashion 
nearly to the petiole ; palmatiform'is 
{forma, shape), the venation 
arranged in a palmate manner ; 
palmatilo'bate (lobatits, lobed), pal- 
mately lobed; palmatiner'vis {nervust 
a nerve), palmately nerved ; palma- 
tipart'ite {partitiLS,. divided), cut 
nearly to the base in a palmate 
manner; palmat'isect, palTnatisect'tcs 
{sedus, cut), palmately cut. 

Palmel'la (vaX/xhs, palpitation), the 
zoogloea stage of Sclmomycetes, 
etc. , when embedded in a jelly-like 
mass; not to be confounded ' with 
the Algal genus, Palmella, Lyngb. 

Palmeriin, Phipson's name for the 
colouring-matter of Palmella cru- 
enta, Agh. ; pahnerioid (elSoj, re- 
semblance), characteristic of the 
genus named. 

Pal'mid, J. Smith's term for Palms, 
Cycads and Tree-ferns of palm-like 

palmif erous {palma, a date palm ; 
fero, I bear), producing palms. 

pal'miform (palma, pabn of th<' 
hand ; fwma, shape) = palmati- 
form; palminer'ved, palminer vis 
= palmatinervis. 

palmitic {palma, a palm), relating 
to palms, as - Acid, derived from 
Pal'mitin, a glyceiide, a solid fat 
occurring in palm oil. 

palmogloe'an, allied to Palmogloea, 
or resembling it (Archer). 

Palmog'rBpher(j»a?ma,apalm ; ypdfpv, 
I write), a describer or monographer 
of Palms. 




Pal'mTU (Lat. , the palm of the hand), 
as a measure may denote a Span 
or a Palm, nine inches or three, 

pala'dal {palus, a marsh), H. C. 
Watson's term for natives of 
marshes, wet all through the year ; 
parudine, palu'dinous (Crozier) = 
parudose, paludo'sus (Lat., boggy), 
growing in marshy places. 

palumbi'nus (Lat., of wood-pigeons), 

palus'ter (Lat. , swampy) ; palua'trine, 
palus' tris, inhabiting boggy ground; 
the latter Latin form is more usual 
in botanic usage. 

Ptun'pas, the grass-steppes of South 
America, xerophilous in charactei", 
patchy, with taller grasses than 
meadows have ; usually with two 
periods of rest, caused by drought 
in summer and cold in winter. 

pam'piniform {pampimis, a tendril; 
forma, shape), resembling the ten- 
dril of a vine; Pampino'dy {eUos, 
resemblance), the change of foliar 
parts into tendrils (Worsdell). 

Pan, a hard layer or substratum of 
earth impervious to plant-roots. 

Pan-apos'pory (irSs, itavTi^s, all ; + 
Apospouy), the condition of pro- 
thalli being developed apo.sporously 
over the entire surface of the frond. 

pan'ary, cf. pannaey. 

pan'dorate, pandura'tua {2}andura, a 
musical instrument), fiddle-shaped, 
as the leaf of liumex pulcher, Linn. ; 
pandu'riform {forma, shape), fiddle- 
shaped, drawn in at the middle. 

Pangen'esis (way, rtavrhs, all ; ytveais, 
a beginning), a theory that each 
separate unit of a body throws ofi' 
minute gemmules during all stages 
of development, whii-h may develop 
at once, or remain dormant and be 
transmitted through the repro- 
ductive cells to later generations; 
Pak'gens, De Vries's term for the 
active particles assumed in Dar- 
"Win's theory of Pangenesis; Pan- 
gen'osomes (crw/ia, a boily), pi Stras- 
burger's teiTn for a complex of 

Panicle, Panic'iUa (Lat., a tuft). 

a loose flower - cluster, as a 
branched raceme or corymb ; pan'l- 
cled, furnished with a panicle ; 
panic 'ulate, panicula'tus (Lat.)» 
having an inflorescence of the kind 
described ; panic 'uliform {forma, 
shape), panicle-shaped (Crozier). 

Panifica'tion ipanis, bread ; facto, I 
make), the fermentative changes by 
which dough is converted into breads 

Panmiz'ia {-rras, iravrls, all ; /xffij, a 
mixing), Weismann's term to de- 
note the agency of modification or 
evolution which results from the 
cessation of natural selection. 

pan'nary {j)anis, bread), pertaining to 
bread, or suitable for making it 
(Crozier) ; more correctly pan'ary. 

Pannexter'na {pannus, a cloth ; ex- 
ternus, outside), =Epicarpium; 
pan'niform, panncform'is {forma, 
shape), having the appearance or 
texture of felt or woollen cloth ; 
Panninter'na {internus, within) = 
Endocarpium; panno'sus (Lat., 
ragged), botanically, the same as