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I. Dialect of Almondbury and Huddersfield 
compiled by A. Sasiher, ed. oy Thomas Lees 

II. Hampshire Words and Phrases 

compiled and ed. by Sir ft.H. Cope. 

III. Uptcn-on-Severn Sords and Phrases 
by R. Lawson. 


PREFACE ........................ vii 



BULL-BAITING ..................... *T 

NICKNAMES ........................ xvi 

HOME MANUFACTURE OF CLOTH .............. . xvi 

CHRISTMAS ... .. ................... Xvii 

FOOTBALL ........................ xix 

SHROVE TUESDAY ............... , ..... xix 

FECKLESS FANNY ..................... XX 

OAT-CAKE ........................ XX 

CHRISTIAN NAMES ............... ...... xxi 

JOSEPH 0' NUPPITS .................. Xxi 

NEW ROAD TO FARNLEY-TYAS ............... xxii 

PADFOOT ........................ xxiii 



GLOSSARY ......... ............ xxvi 



WHEN I first came to this place, somewhat more than a quarter 
of a century since, I was greatly struck not only with the singular 
vowel pronunciation, but with the vast abundance of words and 
phrases till then unknown to me. Accordingly, soon after I entered 
on my office as Master of the Grammar School, I began to collect 
such words as I heard, and my good friends made lists of many more 
for my amusement. From that time till now I have followed up the 
habit, and have succeeded in collecting some two thousand specimens 
of the dialect. I have in this Glossary inserted none, as far as I 
know, which are common to all England, except when I noticed 
some peculiarity in the idiom or pronunciation. Years ago I obtained 
such information as I could from several old inhabitants, then 
seventy or eighty years of age ; this carried me back in reality to 
perhaps 1774, and by tradition much farther. Unfortunately, as I 
was seeking as much for reminiscences as for words, I did not in all 
cases take down their information in their own dialect, I wish I had, 
but merely made a sort of precis of their statements. 

It must be particularly understood that all the expressions herein 
to be found are not known to all the people, as some have become 
obsolete, banished by the refinement of the present day. Hardly 
a person to whom the Glossary has been read word for word has 
failed to supply me with many words, and to plead ignorance to 
as many more. Such hearers, however, were chiefly of an 
educated class. 


At first I made some attempts to obtain derivations for all words 
where they seemed to be required. This I found to be a labour too 
vast for me, whose avocation connected with the school occupied 
so much of my time, and I soon learnt that many such derivations, 
which I chose to think were indisputable, were very doubtful, and 
some utterly at fault. Therefore I thought it better to confine 
myself to the pronunciation and actual use of words, fleeting as 
some of them are, catching them as they came, and to leave the 
derivation with others more conversant with the subject, especially 
as that part of the inquiry can be taken up at any time by persons 
better acquainted with it ; whereas the mere compilation of the 
Glossary will become harder every year. What will hereafter be 
almost impossible, even now is extremely difficult, owing to many 
persons adopting the more refined sounds of customary English, 
ignorant or forgetful of the ancient forms ; and such persons have 
been inclined occasionally to dispute my positions. With regard to 
pronunciation, when I have endeavoured to express words phonetic- 
ally, I have, of course, as far as possible, followed the ordinary vowel 
sounds of English ; therefore no Yorkshiremen must attempt to read 
such according to his own notion of sounds, or he will utterly fail to 
recognize them at all. In fact, our Yorkshire friends have ideas of 
their own as to their peculiar vowel sounds, and will hardly admit 
that a South countryman, even one so thoroughly acclimatized as 
myself, can pronounce them at all; and I own it is difficult. I 
will cite one or two instances. First, the word dance, which in the 
Glossary will be found spelt donee (6 in John), was objected to by 
an old and valued friend, to whom as an alternative I proposed the 
word daunce, which had really been given me by another critic. My 
friend declared the true sound was between the two, a sound I 
confess I cannot produce on paper. In another instance, long 1 I 
vocalized as aw; this was objected to also, and ah (in father) 
proposed instead. No doubt both these sounds are heard for i, but I 
am of opinion that aw most nearly represents the i as generally heard 
from the least refined talkers. As an illustration of this sound I 
may relate the following anecdote*. On one occasion a man called on 
me for a portion of the Nettleton Dole, in the administration of 


which I have a share. His tale was brought to me by my house- 
keeper, a south country-woman, acquainted with the sound of the 
Yorkshire i, and she concluded her report with these words : ' He 
says he has got a new wife.' I replied, ' What can that possibly 
have to do with it 1 Go again and ask him.' It turned out the 
man had said he had got a new warp, i. e. the materials for weaving 
a piece of cloth, and he wanted support till he had done the work. 
This was misunderstood for wawf (wife), and kindly translated for 
my better information. This of course shows the idea my interpreter 
had of the Yorkshire long i. 

To show that long i sound is certainly not ah, I may mention that 
I submitted my MS. of local anecdotes to a friend of considerable 
scientific and antiquarian attainments, who on finding I rendered this 
letter by aw, struck that form out as not sufficiently expressive, and 
actually inserted with his own hand Hot/he as a better rendering of 
the sound. It is possible he may have been betrayed into that from 
remembering that aw is sounded 5 or ho ; but the fact remains that 
he thus rendered i far enough removed from ah. 

To the same effect it may be mentioned, that at a Town's meeting 
in 1873 to consider the propriety of supporting religious teaching, 
and to canvass the voters in favour of what was called the Bible 
candidates, the inhabitants assembled in large numbers, and gave 
utterance to their extremely liberal sentiments by bawling out during 
the speeches, * We want no Bauble here ! ' suggesting to a southern 
stranger a certain Cromwellian purity and puritanism. But not so ; 
it was the Book they objected to as being likely to disagree with 
their digestions, of which no doubt they took a perfectly correct view. 

It is a somewhat amusing fact, that in a company of Yorkshiremen 
each thinks his own dialect the most genuine. I was informed by a 
resident near York that the true dialect of the county was spoken in 
the vale of York. Captain Harland, who has given the English 
Dialect Society the Glossary, * Series C., No. 1,' thus writes : 'The 
Swaledale dialect .... is altogether different from the barbarous 
jargon of the West Eiding of Yorkshire, the north of Lancashire, or 
the colliery districts of Durham and Northumberland.' Whether 
our dialect merits the strong words above quoted it is not for me to 


say ; but it is (or rather was) the language of the most populous, 
most active, and most enterprising portion of this large county, and 
for that reason deserves consideration, if not for its beauty, at least 
for its raciness, copiousness, and vigour. 

All Yorkshiremen unite in looking down on men of other counties 
as unenlightened barbarians, insomuch that they regard the county 
as the undoubted centre of the universe, and would say, to parody 
the Earl of Derby's celebrated declaration, " An Englishman if you 
please, but a Yorkshireman first " By no means inconsistently with 
this amusing view of their position they hold two canons. 1st, That 
no south countryman can speak Yorkshire at all ; 2nd, That they 
themselves speak the most perfect and classical English. It is clearly 
no fault of theirs, then, but a subject for praise, that they never can 
banish their vowel sounds, nor shake off the drawling so well known, 
and the terrible roughness of their speech, which is very remarkable 
to a southern ear. On one occasion a highly respectable friend 
of mine, a well-to-do manufacturer, indeed one of my most valued 
and gifted friends, went to call on a London customer, who said to 
him, perhaps not very politely, * Do you come from that part of 
England where the men talk like bulls?' In another case, a 
merchant, wealthy, well-informed, well-educated, was making a tour 
in the south, and on the deck of a steamer struck up an extempore 
acquaintanceship with an intelligent southerner, and the two conversed 
long and agreeably. Our friend thought he was getting on capitally, 
when in a pause in the conversation he was thus addressed : ' And 
how far did you say you lived from York, sir ? ' which pleasant piece 
of chaff astonished our friend, as no mention of York had been 

Be this as it may, the dialect is undoubtedly rich in philological 
treasures, the vowel sounds are very remarkable, the local words 
numerous, and the idioms in many instances both peculiar and 
interesting ; and whether the dialect be classical or not, there can be 
no doubt about its variety and vigour, and the compiler fears he has 
by no means done justice to it, though he has spared neither pains, 
time, nor money in making his Glossary as perfect as possible. He 
hopes, however, it will be admitted as a small contribution towards 


our better knowledge of the wondrous capabilities of the English 

In this compilation I have passed by no words, &c., merely because 
they may be called vulgarisms; and I think with reason. The 
vulgar element, if the term must be used, has had far more to do 
with the formation of the English tongue than perhaps any other. 
There was a time when all English was vulgar ; when the lord who 
sat at the high table spoke a jargon of Norman-French, and the fine 
old Saxon, the language to be of the civilized world, was left to the 
churl and the swineherd. And vulgar as any words may be, the 
process of word-formation and the history of every dialect are written 
in them ; and nothing should be thrown away by the w^ord-collector, 
any more than by a botanist a singular shooting specimen of a plant; 
if he would learn the laws that regulate its formation, he must keep 
his eye on every manifestation of vitality. In fact, such pronuncia- 
tions as gain for grin, scholar d for scholar, bud for but, and so on, 
throw a light on a process which has ever influenced language, and 
no doubt ever will. What was good English once, in numerous 
cases is called a vulgarism now. What is a vulgarism now may be 
good English hereafter. We must not give ourselves airs, and presume 
to say the English of the day is perfect and for ever fixed : all 
history proves the contrary, and it is a sign of its vigour that it is 
not fixed, but capable of indefinite improvement. Growth must 
continue, changes must supervene, even as things are, but greater 
may occur. For instance, should the capital of the British Isles be 
removed to Dublin, then Thackeray's jokes of Garge for George, 
pork fox park, &c., would be jokes no longer. Or if Mother Shipton's 
saying (herself a Yorkshire worthy) should in its fulness be verified, 

' York was, London is, and Lincoln shall be 
The greatest city of the three,' 

would there not be a manifest change in the English of the courtly 
and polite 1 

With these ideas I have passed by nothing save one or two words 
not usually found in dictionaries, and which need not be perpetuated. 

In conclusion, I must express my obligations to the many friends 


who have a8sisted me in this Glossary. Some of ;them have 
departed. The chief of those are, 

Rev. John and Mrs. Paine, Rev. Jos. Tombs, M.A., Rev. Canon 
Hulbert, M.A., Rev. Thos. Lees, M.A., Rev. J. H. Walton, Miss 
Harling, Messrs. C. Stephenson, M.A., J.P., J. F. Brigg, J.P., John 
Nbwell, Thomas Nowell, F. Learoyd, J. E. Taylor, E. Hallas, F. H. 
Senior, S. H. North, S. S. Booth, C. H. Taylor, H. J. Whitely, 
J. Armitage, J. Dobson, H. Dobson, D. Eastwood, T. Beaumont. 

I may possibly have omitted some if so, I must plead want of 
memory, and by no means want of gratitude. But I suppose the 
above are the individuals to whom I am chiefly indebted, and to 
those of them still living I render accordingly my warmest thanks. 


AFTER a long and painful illness, the' Rev. Alfred Easther was 
called to his rest on Monday, September 25th, 1876. Connected 
with him for thirty years in the closest ties of friendship, I had long 
been cognizant of the progress of this compilation, and had assisted 
him therein by contributing word-lists, reminiscences of my early 
days in Yorkshire, and quotations from old authors. Shortly before 
his death he requested that I would edit for the English Dialect 
Society this the cherished work of his life's leisure. That charge, to 
me a sacred one, I now to the best of my ability fulfil. When com- 
pelled by increasing illness to relinquish his pen, Mr. Easther had 
got as far as the word * Nar/ in the final transcription for the press, 
and commencing at that point, I have completed the work from his 
materials, and such other sources as were available. 

During his lifetime, my old friend often spoke to me with grati- 
tude of the useful suggestions he had received from the Rev. W. W. 
Skeat. On his behalf, and on my own, I beg most sincerely to 
thank the learned Professor not only for the aid he so kindly 



rendered in the preparation of the Glossary, but also for the con- 
siderate interest he has taken, and the valuable additions and 
corrections he has made in its progress through the press. 

Professor Skeat wishes me to say, that many of the notes to which 
his initials are appended deal with questions of etymology, and that 
he feels some explanation to be necessary, inasmuch as the usual rule 
of the Society is to eschew this difficult subject, with respect to 
which so much is written that is wholly misleading. The fact is, 
that these notes were communicated to Mr. Easther by way of 
assisting him in his investigations, and were not intended for publi- 
cation. But it appears that they were nevertheless adopted by 
Mr. Easther in many instances, and, being once in print, it did 
not seem worth while to suppress them. This will account for their 

T. L. 



DISTRICT (See Assnook in the Glossary). 

In connection with this word I may perhaps be excused for intro- 
ducing the following anecdote. Mr. Nowell of Farnley Wood, well 
known for his scientific attainments, and especially for his knowledge of 
chemistry, the study of which he introduced into this neighbourhood, 
himself related to me these facts. 

About the year 1809, then quite a youth, he had succeeded in pro- 
ducing oxygen and other gases under circumstances of no ordinary 
difficulty, chemical materials and apparatus being at that time by no 
means easy to procure. 

Having become somewhat expert in such experiments, many neigh- 
bouring gentlemen, and other lovers of science, came to see his per- 
formances, and among them Mr. Michael Harrison. There was at 
that time a book-club at Meltham, and Mr. Harrison persuaded Mr. 
Nowell to pay him a visit, with the view of preparing the gases at 
his house near Crosland factory, to be afterwards shown before the 
club, the members of which were anxiously awaiting the exhibition. 

Having produced a quantity of oxygen and hydrogen, which were 
placed in stone bottles, they were taken to the inn where the book- 
club met. The house was crowded with anxious people, and the 
great chamber was reached with some difficulty. There was a large 
table in the middle of the room, and the young lecturer, then only a 
lad of fifteen, was placed upon it. Around stood Mr. Harrison, Mr. 
Jonas Brook, the Messrs. Taylor of Marsden, Mr. Dean of Slaith- 
waite, and many others ; the room was in fact crowded to excess, and 
the windows blocked up. Taking courage, the young experimentalist 
proceeded with his work ; the combustion of the file, and large drops 
of molten iron falling, created much surprise ; then the bubbles of 
oxygen and hydrogen in their proper proportions, rising to the top 
of the room and there exploding, astounded those who had never before 
experienced such effects. Carbonic and other gases were exhibited, 
and in fact all went off successfully. 

Two or three days after, Mr. Nowell, senior, was informed of the 
exploits of his son, which were not at all to his mind. After a few 
weeks another story arose. The whole affair had now become witch- 
ery, and the old man was grievously vexed. ' The hare and hounds,' 
it was said, ' as natural as life, had been brought out of the assnouk, 


the dogs in pursuit of the hare had coursed round the room, and all 
had returned to the assnook ! ' The tale passed current in Meltham, 
and was believed in by many for a long time. 

Some five-and-twenty years afterwards, Mr. Nowell being at an inn 
in Huddersfield, his name happened to be mentioned, when a vener- 
able and wealthy manufacturer came forward, and said, * Eh ! Mr. 
Nowell, it's a long time sin Au saw yo. Au sail ne'er forget while 
Au live what Au saw yo do at Meltham.' ' What, Mr. ? X ? ' ' See ! 
wha t' hare and hounds as natural as life coom aat o' t' assnook, run 
raand as fast as they could, and into t' assnook agean.' ' And did you 
really see that, Mr. X ? * ' See it ! ay, to be sewer ; and what Au 
see wi' my own een Au mun believe.' 

A very remarkable instance, as well of credulity as of the pro- 
cess by which wondrous tales arise. The old gentleman had so often 
heard the facts thus stated that he, although a spectator, actually 
believed he had seen the marvellous sight. Probably in the course of 
the lecture Mr. Nowell had frequently used the word * air,' and spoken 
of it as being liberated by the agency of fire. "We may fairly suppose 
also the hearer to have been somewhat bewildered with the brilliant 
flashes of light and the loud explosions, and, confounding ' air ' with 
' hare,' to have seen with his mind's eye a veritable ' hare ' pro- 
duced to which, as a matter of taste, he added the dogs. 

Since the above was written, I showed it to a friend, who assured me 
he had met > man (about 1861) who positively asserted he saw the 
' hare and hounds,' &c., on the occasion stated. 

Need we wonder at the marvellous tales told of witches in former 
times, and that, moreover, they were thoroughly believed ? 


In former days many of the cottagers kept bulldogs, and it was posi- 
tively dangerous at times to pass through the streets of our village. The 
bull was usually brought from Flockton, where one was kept for the 
express purpose of being baited at wakes, feasts, &c. At Almondbury 
Common is a triangular piece of ground (now occupied by the tenters 
of Messrs. Taylor) where, in the latter days of this delectable sport, the 
animal was tortured for the pleasure of other animals as fierce as itself, 
if not more intelligent. The bull was tied to a stake with ropes about 
twenty y^ards long ; the owners of the dogs stood in the front ranks 
with their pets, which were successively slipped at the bull. Some- 
times they were tossed yards high ; sometimes they caught the poor 
creature by the muscular part of his head, when the animal became 
frantic, tossing them wildly in its agony, and the spectators yelled 
and danced with delight. On a certain occasion it broke loose from 
the stake, and scattered the amiable bystanders in wild confusion. 
Once, too, an old acquaintance of mine (to whom I am indebted for 
certain reminiscences, and I am glad he escaped scot free) was thrown 
up into the air, and thus was seen a long way off ; he came down on 
his head, and was for a long time insensible. 

Ultimately the public voice put a stop to the barbarous custom. 
The last bull-baiting is said to have occurred at the Eush-bearing, 
1824, when the animal was brought to town with a band of music. 


It must be gratifying to all friends of humanity to think that 
though not quite two thousand years have passed since the Gospel 
was first preached, bull-baiting has been done away with, at least 
provisionally ; cock-fighting is obliged to be done on the sly ; and 
rabbit-worrying, boring out birds' eyes to make them sing better, and 
eating live rats for a show, though still lingering amongst us, are 
possibly to disappear also in the course of a few generations. 


Here, and in many of the villages near, some names are so 
common, particularly Armitage, Brook, Haigh, Shaw, Sykes, Taylor, 
and a few others, that it is almost necessary to have the byname. 
Some men indeed are scarcely ever called and hardly known by their 
proper appellations. One old man, to whom I was formerly indebted 
for many tales, was never spoken of by his real name ; and though 
he was perfectly well known, I doubt whether many persons knew 
then his surname, or know it now. 

The byname is of great use in finding a person in the wilder neigh- 
bourhoods, &c. ; sometimes it has proved effective in another way. 
A labourer once went to Mrs. Scott of Woodsome Hall for the ' drink- 
ings,' who, as a matter of course, asked him how many men there 
were, to which he replied, ' Count for yersen, mistriss.' So he gave 
the true names of the men and their bynames, by which means he 
secured for three the drinkings of six : Jem Taylor and Wantem, Dan 
Waring and Blackcop, Johnny Lodge and Muddlinpin. 

Perhaps in such a matter Yorkshire people would hardly expect to 
be surpassed, although I have heard of a similar trick played off in 
Hampshire which in craft exceeds even this ; whether the cunning 
man belonged to that county I am unable to say, but thus the tale 
goes. At the close of a certain Winchester election, in the good old 
times, various persons went to make their claims for services performed 
for one or other of the candidates. Amongst the rest one made his 
petition who said he represented the ringers of a church (name not 
known to me) which had but one bell. Said the paymaster, ' How 
many are there of you ? ' To which he answered, ' The clerk, the 
sexton, Nicky Smith, and myself. 5 Mr. Nicholas Smith (not the real 
name), being himself, clerk, and sexton, thus secured his four guineas 
instead of one. 


Mirfield was a great place for the manufacture of hand-made cards 
formerly. In driving through that village during 1840-44, the traveller 
would notice numbers of women sitting on the doorsteps of the cottages 
with long perforated straps of leather across their knees, into which 
they stuck with great accuracy wires bent for the purpose. 

Under this heading may appropriately be introduced a short 
description of the mode followed in the home manufacture of cloth, as 
performed a generation or two back. 

Formerly every weaver was really a manufacturer or master 
clothier. His dyeing-pan, which was of lead, was set out of doors. 


Such men would go to Huddersfield, buy their oOlbs. weight of wool, 
carry it home on their backs, spread it out on the house-floor, strinkle 
it with oil, layer on layer, then beat it with sticks. Hand cards were 
then used. They teased it altogether, and turned it off in a floss 
state, as they do now by the scribbling machine. They worked it 
together in long slivings ; it was then spun into rough or fine threads, 
then into warp and woof. 

The piece when made was spread on the floor. A large kitful of 
urine (see Weeting) and swine's dung was taken and strained 
through straw ; it was then sprinkled on the cloth, and, as may be 
imagined, the smell in the house was horrible. As they lecked one 
piece it was laid down, and so layer on layer were placed, in the form 
of a long parallelogram raised from the ground ; then all the members 
of the household got up and trampled it ! There it lay till morning ; 
it was then wrapped up in a bundle, taken to Honley (or the nearest 
place) to a fulling mill ; it was scoured, the offensive fluid washed 
out of it, and it was then brought dripping home. It was next 
trailed over furze-bushes, hung out upon the walls, and the small 
pieces pulled off in the bushes whisked from it ; then burled in the 
house by the family. 

Then it was taken again to the mill, and placed in the fulling 
stocks with soap, by which process it was reduced in dimensions. It 
was afterwards laid on the mill-stone (a long stone table) and stamped 
by the Government official, who affixed seals to the piece impressed 
with the length and breadth. It was then carried home, and as it 
was being fastened to the tenter the family pulled at one end to increase 
the length. If it was stamped for (say) fifty yards it would thus 
stretch to fifty-one or fifty-two, and shrink again on being finished. 
The market was at Huddersfield, and the cloth was exposed for the 
sale on the churchyard wall. 

The seals before spoken of were of lead. The officer, who was 
sworn at Pomfret sessions, made a hole at each end of the piece. A 
strip of lead three and a half inches long and half an inch broad was 
bended at one end ; it was passed through the cloth, and by means 
of a hole at one end of the lead and a button at the other it was 
rivetted by a hammer. The length was stamped on the lead with a 
die. The manufacturer was now at liberty to remove his cloth, which 
before could not be done under a fine. This stamp-law became 
obsolete twenty or thirty years before it was repealed. 

I do not hold myself responsible for the above I have given it 
nearly in the words in which it was related to me ; but I thoroughly 
believe in its accuracy, and am quite sure it was given in perfect 
good faith. 


This festival is kept up with some ceremony still. On Christmas 
Eve, and during the whole of the week till New Year's Day, may be 
heard the carols, of which the following is one of the most common. 

' Here we come a wesselling 

Among the leaves so green, 
And here we come a wandering 
So fair as to be seen. 


Chorus : And to your wessel, 
And to jolly wessel, 
Love and joy be to you, 
And to your wessel (tree). 

The wessell l>ob is made 

Of rosemary tree, 
And so is your beer 

Of the best barley. 

And to your wessell, &c. 

We are not beggars' childeren 

That begs from door to door, 
But we are neighbours' childeren 

That has been here before. 

And to your wessell, &c 

We have got a little purse 

Made of ratching leather skin, 
And we want a little money 

To line it well within. 

And to your wessell, &c. 

Bring us out your table, 

And spread it with a cloth ; 
Bring us out your mouldy cheese, 

Likewise your Christmas loaf. 

And to your wessell, &c. 

God bless the master of this house, 

Likewise the mistress too, 
And all the little childeren 

That round the table go. 

And to your wessell, &c. 

Good master and good misteress, 
While you're sitting by the fire, 

Pray think of us poor childeren 
That's wandering in the mire. 

And to your wessell, &c/ 

Immediately after midnight various sets of singers go round from 
house to house (in the season of 1873 I heard two parties ; in that of 
1875i not one, owing to the boisterous night), and sing generally three 
verses of the Christmas hymn so popular here, ' Christians, awake, salute 
the happy morn.' Sometimes as many as sixteen sets visit a house 
during the night, consisting of singers, bands, and hand-bell ringers. 

In the minds of the superstitious a highly important part of the 
proceedings is ' the letting Christmas in,' which is sometimes done 
over-night, after twelve, but more commonly early in the morning. 
On this occasion no woman must enter the house first ; but if possible 
a man with dark hair : one with light hair is objectionable, and with 


red hair quite inadmissible. Sometimes favourable black-haired boys 
or men go about and ask to be allowed to perform this function. They 
are paid or regaled with Christmas fare. 

The same custom is followed at the opening of the New Year. I 
myself once, rather unwillingly, performed this duty. Some neigh- 
bours had passed Christmas Eve, or New Year's Eve (I think the 
latter), at my house. They remained till after twelve, and I (being 
duly qualified in respect of the colour of my hair) was entreated to go 
home with one family and let in the festival, which I accordingly did. 


Formerly at festal seasons great games of football were played in this 
neighbourhood, sometimes between Honley and Meltham, and some- 
times between Almondbury and Farnley. These were played in a style 
which would astonish the athletes of our days. The last game between 
this village and Farnley is said to have taken place on old Christmas 
Day, 1819, when the ball was turned out in Farnley fields. The Farnley 
men were to drive it across Thurstonland boundary, and the Almond- 
bury men across Almondbury boundary ; thus they had a course of 
extremely rough country of about three miles long. Many ferocious 
kicks were given and received on this occasion; even when the ball 
was scores of yards away men stood kicking each other violently, and 
a portion of wall upwards of a rood was thrown down in the contest 
in one place. The kicks were by no means child's play, as they were 
all administered in clogs. The Farnley people won. 

For a full generation the game has been left to schoolboys, and has 
been revived in a milder form. The idea that it was a thing of the 
past was an error, arising from ignorance of the fact that the passion 
for the game is almost innate in mankind. It is more than an even 
chance that if a couple of street Arabs were passing quietly along 
the road and caught sight of an old shoe or cabbage stump, they would 
rush at it with fury in their looks, and would kick it about till they 
were tired ; if, moreover, they happened to be fond of rough music, 
and the object of attraction were an old tin can, they would poise it 
until it had neither shape nor sound left in it. 

Without taking this into consideration, we must consider the game 
an enormous advance in the direction of civilization, when compared 
with the rough and cruel sports of our ancestors, and as contrasting 
very favourably with many still left among us. 


At 11 a.m. on this day a bell is rung at the church, and aL. work is 
supposed to be over for the day, and formerly all prentice lads were con- 
sidered to be loose for twelve hours. On the first anniversary, in 1849, 
after I had entered on my duties as master of the Grammar School, 
the pupils took care to inform me of the custom, and, nothing loth, I 
dismissed them for the day, which practice has been continued to this 
time. In 1873 the bells being unhung, during the restoration of the 
church, when two new treble bells were added, much anxiety was 


manifested by the boys as to the possibility of the pancake bell being 
rung. It was managed some way, and the boys gained their holiday. 
To new-comers, who were ignorant of the usage, it was sometimes 
stated that at eleven pancakes were thrown from the church-steeple. 

The following extract from John Taylor's Jacke a Lent, pub. 1630, 
may be found amusing : 

* At whose entrance (Shrove Tuesday's) in the morning all the whole 
kingdom is in quiet, but by that time the clock strikes eleven, which 
(by the help of a knavish sexton) is commonly before nine, then 
there is a bell rung called the pancake bell, the sound whereof makes 
thousands of people distracted, and forgetful either of manner or 
humanity. Then there is a thing called wheaten flour, which the 
sulphery necromatic cooks do mingle with water, eggs, spice, and 
other tragical, magical enchantments, and then they put it by little 
and little into a frying-pan of boiling suet, where it makes a confused 
dismal hissing like the Lernean snakes in the reeds of Acheron, Styx, 
or Phlegethon, until at last by the skill of the cook it is transformed 
into the form of a flap-jack, which in our translation is called a pan- 
cake, which ominous incantation the ignorant people do devour very 
greedily (having for the most part well dined before) ; but they have 
no sooner swallowed that sweet candied bait, but straight their wits 
forsake them, and they run stark mad, assembling in routs, and 
throngs numberless of ungoverned members, with uncivil civil 


I am not aware whether the word feckless belongs to the 
dialect or not, but I have introduced the name of the unfortun- 
ate young woman mentioned by Sir Walter Scott in his Heart of 
Midlothian, because in her wanderings she came with her ten or twelve 
sheep to Almondbury, and lay in the churchyard with them for one 
night. She wore a man's hat and coat, and carried a shepherd's 
crook. One of her sheep she called Charlie, and when she lay down 
to sleep she placed her poor head on this her favourite. Some persons, 
whom I formerly knew, saw her on this occasion and remembered her 
well. I am happy to add that the people behaved kindly to her and 
gave, her relief. 


To make oat-cake : First get your nakit (which see), a sort of 
small tub to mix the dofe in. Two persons are generally employed. 
"Warm water is poured into the nakit ; then one of the operators puts 
the meal in by handfuls, whilst the other mixes with hand and arm, 
yeast being added, until it is considered to be stiff enough, though able 
to be poured out. It is then left to stand for a night to ' sour.' Next 
morning more meal is helted in to make it rather stiff er ; it is then 
ready for baking. A portion is taken out with a ladle, or maispot, 
as much as would be sufficient for one cake. It is poured on the 
baklrade, where it is reeled, or made round. It is next placed 
upon the flannel; then the baking spittle is put under it, and it 


is thrown upon the bakstone, by which proceeding the cake becomes 
longer one way than the other. Some bakers put in common whiten- 
ing to make it mix better. The cakes are only partially baked on the 
bakstone ; when cold they are soft and limp, and look something like 
leather, for which strangers have taken them. They are finally hung 
up on the bread creel, or reel, in the kitchen, for the purpose of drying, 
where they continue till taken for use. 


With regard to Christian names two peculiarities may be here 

1. The custom of giving nicknames to children at the font is very 
common ; thus the Bens, Freds, Joes, Toms, Willies, &c. are innumer- 

2. When a double name is given the child is usually addressed by 
both, of which practice I remember an amusing instance. On one 
occasion I heard a mother calling her child, whom we will suppose to 
be Ann Taylor Kamsden (employing the commoner Christian and 
surnames). The young lady was upstairs, and the mother, in want 
of her, bustles forth from the kitchen, and calls pretty loudly, 'Annie, 
Annie ' (no answer) ; then, raising her voice to reach a flight of stairs 
higher, ' Ann Taylor, Ann Taylor ' (still no answer) ; finally, roused 
to indignation: 'Ann Taylor Eamsden, come downstairs directly.' 
Thus invoked, Ann Taylor Kamsden demurely tripped down to her 
wrathful parent. 


There was, some eighty years since or more (1875), a well-known 
Almondbury character, ' Joseph o' Nuppits,' of whom numerous tales 
are told. I imagine the name to amount to ' Silly Joseph,' or some- 
thing to that effect. Joseph o' Nuppits died about 1794, and was well 
known by many people to whom I have spoken. He belonged to 
the class of sturdy beggars happily not now so common as of yore, 
and numerous are the anecdotes still told of him, some of which will 
be found under the words illustrated by them. He used to carry 
three pokes ; one for bread, one for meal, and one for wheat. When 
any of these pokes did not get enough to please him, he laid it down 
on the ground and ' sarved it,' i. e. beat it with a whip. Occasionally 
he carried nine pokes, and in this respect was better equipped than 
Eobin Hood. See fioUn Hood and the Widow's Sons, ver. 23 : 

* I've a bag for meal, and a bag for malt, 

And a bag for barley and corn ; 
A bag for bread, and a bag for beef, 
And a bag for my little small horn.' 

He carried generally seven whips all at once, which John Shearran, 
a well-known saddler, supplied him with. It was his habit perhaps he 
was delicate, or possibly proud not to ask for anything, but to stand 
at the door until he was attended to. 


Soon after John "Shearran married for the second time, Nuppits 
came and stood at the door ; the new wife did not know him, and he 
stayed till ' he wor stalled.' She was in fact ' fear'd on him.' He 
then went into the shop and said, ' Johnny, what sort'en a woman 
hast ta' getten into t' haas ? ' Shearran : ' What for, Joseph ? ' 
Nuppits: 'Au'll tell thee what, Johnny; Au do not approve on her 
ways by far and mich.' The wife said ' she dar not speak, nor 
hardly stir, he looked so dreadful.' Her husband, however, said, 
' When he comes again, give him a handful of meal, and he'll go away 
and make no disturbance.' 

He lived in the poor-house. One Peggy, not his sister, must 
make him a pudding with some of his meal. So she said, ' Joseph, 
mun we make some saim to it ? ' ' Yus,' said he, ' it will be better 
wi' saim.' He ate the pudding, however, while she was making the 
* saim,' and then said, ' Naa, tha may have the saim for thy share.' 

He was sharp enough, it appears, and not without wit, as the fol- 
lowing anecdote shows. He was much about Woodsome Hall, a sort 
of voluntary lial. Once he told the master that the mistress had done 
something at him ; she had, in fact, thrown some boiled milk upon 
him from a window. And on his subsequently complaining, Mr. Scott 
said, * When was it, Joseph ? ' To which he slily replied, ' The day it 
rained milk porridge.' On one occasion he nearly killed Mr. Scott, 
for whom he used sometimes to plough. Joseph always would go on 
the wrong side of the horses, and Mr. Scott attempted to force him 
to the proper side, when he snatched up a hedging-bill and struck his 
master on the head, which ever after bore the mark. 

His end was sad enough. He was found dead at the bottom of a 
flight of steps which led to the entrance of an inn, now a shop, oppo- 
site Huddersfield parish church. He had his mouth full of greens, 
and was supposed to have fallen, or been pushed, down the steps. 
He was very annoying, and used to go to that house and help himself 
by clawing the contents of the dishes. His funeral was one of the 
largest ever known at Almondbury. He was buried at the east end 
of the church where there was formerly a pathway. 


When the severe distress of the hand-loom weavers came on, 
in or about 1826, in order to find employment for the operative 
and manufacturing workmen, various improvements were sug- 
gested; amongst the rest, the widening of the almost impassable 
lane leading from Almondbury to Eushfield. For this purpose 
a vote of 15 was passed to build a new culvert at Eushfield Bridge, 
which at that time, I believe, consisted of little more than a plank. 
Whilst the chairman of the meeting, Mr. E Roberts, was entering 
the vote on his minute paper, as having passed unanimously, a voice 
proceeded from the middle of a dense mass of parishioners to the fol- 
lowing purport : ' Yo're all a pack o' fooils together ; yo care not yah 
yo rob the public. Fifteen paands for Eushfield Brigg ! ! Yo're nowt 
but a set o' rpbbers. Au may toil and slave wi' Darby thro' morn to 
neet a coilin' to find brass for mi honest debts ; and when Au've 
done, sich as yoo com and pick mi pocket on it. Fifteen paands for 


Kushfield" Brigg ! Yo're nowt but rogues and thieves. Fifteen 
paand I ! Fifteen shillin's sadly too mitch for that ; for t 5 road leads 
nowwher but to Nah- wills' at t' Wood. Fairnley fooils is bad enough, 
but Omebury fooils is waur ! ! ' The old man was rather mistaken as 
to the advisability of the outlay, for the repair of this bridge led to 
the project of making a new road to Farnley. Five hundred pounds 
were begged of Sir James Macadam (the dispenser of the public 
money) for the filling up of the valley, and the new road to Farnley 
cost nearly 4000, all which gratuitous and generous as the gift was 
resulted from the kindness of William, the late Earl of Dartmouth, 
in providing labour for the famishing poor of the district. 


I will repeat here most of the evidence I have received on the 

Johnny B. often saw the padfoot on the footpath by Clough Hall. 
He described it as of a gray colour, with ' e'en as big as tea-plates.' 
He had seen it at all times, in the moonlight and in the dark. It 
often turned off the path for him, and when he looked round for it, 
it was gone. 

The old folk always said that the improved cultivation had killed 
them by destroying their harbour. It often knocked down old Jo 
B. (a man fond of liquor) in the dark lane leading to Thorpe. His 
testimony is given at the end. 

The padfoot was like an immense sheep_ or bear, with large eyes as 
big as tea-plates. It walked along the village streets, followed by all 
the dogs! It disappeared in Barley Time, i.e. 1799 or 1800, and 
was supposed to have been ' clammed ' to death. It used to be seen at 
the * gang doors,' the doors of an old barn-like building, which stood 
opposite to the east end of the church, where the new houses now 
are : supposed to be called the * gang doors ' on account of an unruly 
mob who used to assemble there, a practice not entirely discontinued. 

W. H. said, ' About 1820 (this must have been a resuscitation), 
J. L., going from Farnley Bank to fetch Dr. Bradley, who lived 
near Almondbury Church, met the padfoot at the lane end. It 
was like a bear, with eyes, &c., and it accompanied him to Almond- 
bury shog shog shog ; he lost it at Pentys end. Coming out of 
the doctor's, the padfoot was ready for him, jumped olit of a narrow 
passage, and followed him home as far as the bottom of Shrog Wood. 

Old A. M. once went to Eoyd House to pay for his milk and butter. 
He stopped till eleven, and gate a little beer ! Coming back between 
Eoyd House and Square Hall, he met the padfoot in the form of a large 
dog. He said, making a solemn adjuration, ' What wantest thou wi' 
me ? ' The padfoot stared at him with eyes like two tea-plates, then 
turned towards the hedge and changed into a calf, and followed him 
all the way home into Upperfold. He had a wooden kit of milk on 
his head, and a wooden piggin in his hand. When he gat to his own 
door he had to call for his wife to open it. People always believed 
the padfoot to have seized them in the arms, which caused them to be 
useless. The night following a few old men, as customary, met to- 
gether at F. Lodge's cottage at Sharpe Lane end. Old Joe North 


said lie was going home. Old A. M. said, ' I'd rather thou had to go 
nor me, because thou'll meet the padfoot ; ' but old Joe couldn't believe 
it. When he got out to Sharpe Lane end he met the padfoot, like a 
hound dog, all white ; he tried to coax it, but it turned into a calf ! 
When he got below it turned into a bear, and began rolling over all 
the way down ! A footpath ran through the churchyard then, and 
he thought if he went through the padfoot couldn't follow him. When 
he gate through down the steps it was ready for him again. It went 
into as many forms as it had done before, till he gate home. It seized 
him so fast he had to call his wife up to open the door ; ever after he 
believed in it. 

J. Or. went to look out of the window, and couldn't get her head 
back again, for padfoot was holding her. Her sister said she could 
see no padfeet I 'Then tak' hold o' me, and thou'lt see.' She took 
hold, and saw ; it was like a large dog. 

J. L. of Hunter Nab never went out of doors at ' neeght ' but he 
saw it. He could tell when a woman was ' baan to go to bed,' or 
when ' folks were baan to dee.' 

Jo B., before alluded to, was the only man I have met with who 
professed to have seen it. He said, ' It was the same as a sheep. I 
often ran to see it when people said they saw it. One night when I 
wur going to Holmfirth, I lit on it ; it went wi' me aw the way. I 
don't know what it wor ; it wur a queer 'un, wi' eyes as big as tea- 
plates. ' 


THIS inscription is carved in oak, in raised Old English characters, 
on the cornice of the clerestory of the nave. The great height, the 
difficulty of getting proper light, and the evident misplacement of 
some portions, render the reading of it a matter by no means easy. 
For the following version the editor is greatly indebted to Mr. J. E. 
Dore, of Huddersfield, a gentleman well known among antiquaries 
for his valuable collection of Early Printed Bibles. 

West End. Geferay Daystu was the I maker of I twuor. 
East End. Anno diTi m ccccc I xxij ihs. 

West. thow man I vnkynd 

haue in thy mynd 

my blody face 
my : wondys I wyde 
on euery syde 

for thy trespas 

North. thou : synnar hard 

turn heder : ward 

be hold thy sauyor fre 


vnkynd I thow : art ! 
from : me I to : de I pt : 

1 mercy i wold gratye 

for loue of the I 

the jwyss smeard I me 

w* : schourgeous i kyne : and : sharp I 
w 1 a crwn I of thon I 
my i hed ! all to torn 

wyth a speyr they therlyd my hart : 
wyth naylis tre 
they naylyd : me 

fast ! both . foyt i and i had 
for thy : trespas 
my pasyo was 

to rede the from the fende i * 

East. penne I canott i wrytt : 

nor ma indytt 

South. paynes I that i i i had 

so : thoro : mad 
my i body I bloo w* ] ^wonds i both 

larg I and long 
thow doys me mor dere I 
when : thou doys i swer 

be I mebere of my body 
then the Jwiss dyd 
that speyll i my : blod ! 

on the i mont i of cauere i 
quarfor i pray the : thy 
sweryng layby : 

di-ed god aftersyn 
yf thow wyll do i so : . 
to heuyn sail thowgo I 

amang angels : to i syng i 

* From " yo was : " to " fende n has been transferred to the west end. 


Aar, a combination which may be taken to represent the word our 
(see Aa, above). It must, however, be observed that the true dialect 
word is Yar, or Yarh ; which latter form, was suggested by a 
venerable friend, to whom I am much indebted both for words and 
illustrations. See Us, Wur, Yur. 

Aat, one form of the word out. See Aa. And where the vowels ou 
come together with that sound, as in about, shout, &c., they take the 
aa sound ; the first a as in father, the second the a in fat. The 
words ah I at, said sharply, produce the sound. See Yat. It has 
been stated to me that the first a is rather the a in game. I hardly 
think so, but I leave it an open question. In different publications 
I find the forms aht and aaot, but I prefer the form above given. 

Abaat, the pronunciation of about. 

Accaant, the pronunciation of the word account. 

Acorns, variously pronounced Accorns, Accrons, and Ackerins. See 
Letter I, 3 (2). 

Admire, pronounced admaur. 
Afthernooin, i. e. afternoon. See Nooin. 
Agean, the pronunciation of again. 

Allblaster, a word sometimes used for alabaster. In Westmoreland, 

Another. This word I have heard called anootlier, but it seems 
doubtful whether that pronunciation belongs to this district. 

Any, pronounced anny, or onny. Some people, however, say tiiny, 
but this is supposed to be an attempt at refinement. So, mainy for 

Apron, pronounced ap'run, or aperin. 

Ate, the pronunciation of eat. J. K. was once at the ' Woolpack ' 
amongst his chums, and there was a discussion as to the mode of 
living in the other world. Jem, with tipsy gravity, said he wished 
his treatment to be just what that of the horses at the Wood was, 
' Plenty to ate } and nowt to do.' 


Behimd, the pronunciation of behind. 
Beyund, the pronunciation of beyond. 
Boogth, the pronunciation of Bugth, which see. 

Book. This word is not pronounced smartly, as in the south, but 
the 66" is sounded as in the customary English of spoon, &c. See Oo 
under Letter 0. 

Bottil, the pronunciation of bottle. See Letter I, 3 (3). 
Bouster, the pronunciation of bolster (ou as in loud). 
Brears, the pronunciation of briers. 
Breet, the pronunciation of Bright, which see. 
Broad, pronounced brooad ; by some brode. 

Bud, pronounced nearly bood (gl. buod). The word but is sometimes 
so pronounced. 

Butter, formerly pronounced bootlier (gl. buotthur). See Tt. 

Caa, the pronunciation of the word cow. 

Caird, the pronunciation of card. See Letter A (1). 

Chale, or Chales, the pronunciation of the name Charles. So Chaley 
for Charley. See Letter R. 

Chance (gl. chauns), or Chonce. as in John. 

Chayle. See Chale. 

Chossen, pronunciation of chosen. 

Claads, the pronunciation of clouds. 

Claat, the pronunciation of clout, or cloth. 

Fother, the pronunciation of fodder. 

Frozzen, the pronunciation of frozen. 

Fummle, the pronunciation of fumble. 

Grange, pronounced graunge. 

Gronfathther, pronunciation of grandfather. 

Gronny (the pronunciation of granny), grandmother. 

Grow, the common verb, pronounced to rhyme to cow, now, &c. 

Haand, pronunciation of hound t but often yaand, or yand. 


Haase, pronunciation of house. 

Half, pronounced Jwfe. 

High, pronounced hee, or hay. 

Maunge, sb. the mange. 

Maunger, sb. the manger. 

Paark, or Paerk, the pronunciation of park. 

Scar, rhymes to car, the pronunciation of scare. 

Schooil, pronunciation of school. 

Spokken, i. e. spoken. 

Spread, the pronunciation of spread. 

Squent, to squint. 

Sweat (pronounced sweat, two syllables ; gl. swrh't). 




A. (1) When this vowel occurs in some words, it is in the Almond- 
bury dialect sounded as ai in wait. Thus, arm, card, farm, harm, 
wash, &c., are airm, caird, fairm, Tiairm, waish, &c. ; but if the 
word be spoken sharply, there is a tendency to produce the sound 
of e in met. 

(2) In such words as make, take, shake, &c., the sound of a in man, 
cat, is used, and the words become mak, tak, shak, &c. 

(3) In the words chance, dance, France (when a family name, but 
not the country), the short o in John is used ; thus, chontz, &c. 

(4) When the combination ange occurs, the practice amongst old 
people is irregular ; thus, grange, mange, and strange, are graunge, 
maunge, and straunge ; but range is roange, and change, choinge. 

N.B. The pronunciations of the last two words have been disputed ; 
but on the case being referred to an aged man, he said, * I have 
heard the words so pronounced thaasands o' times.' 

(5) Au. This diphthong in customary English generally is sounded 
here as long o; thus, Paul, Saul, applaud, pause, &c., become Pole, Sole, 
&c., in the dialect. Calf, half, &c., follow the same rule, and become 
cofe, hofe, &c. ; though some call them cauf, hauf, which in the 
dialect would represent the spelling of cofe, hofe, &c. 

N.B. Nos. 6 and 7, the two next following, are merely conventional 
forms intended to produce the northern pronunciation by stand- 
ard English sounds ; and this will be generally the case where the 
spelling is varied or doubtful. 

(6) Aa. This combination of vowels will be used in the glossary 
where ou diphthong occurs in ordinary English, with the sound of 
ow in how, as in thaasands, above ; but not in such words as four, 
pour, &c. 

(7) Au. "When this diphthong stands by itself in the specimens of 
the dialect in the following work, it is to be taken for the personal 
pronoun 7. It may be a matter of some astonishment that the old 
sound of the above pronoun is so variable and so doubtful that I 



have met with no less than eight forms ^suggested as represent- 
atives of pronoun /, viz. A, Ah, Au, O, Oh, Oi, Hoyh, Hoy he; 
but I apprehend they are reducible to four. A and Ah are 
probably the same sound ; Hoyh is an aspirated and rather fanciful 
form of Au or 0, and Hoy he of Oh or 0; Oi is seemingly a 
transition sound, and to be rejected on that account. We may then 
consider Ah, Au, 0, 0, as being, to different ears at least, fair repre- 
sentatives of pronoun /. I am inclined to think that hereabout the 
usual sounds are the southern sound of Au, and its short form 6 (the 
o in not, cot, &c.), and one or the other of the two, generally the 
former, will be the usual representative of pronoun / in this 
glossary ; and to this I am the more inclined from haying selected the 
form Aiu years ago, before I was aware of the variations. Long i 
(not the pronoun) has other sounds as well, which will be spoken of 
in their place under Letter I. 

Abbut, and sometimes Abbur, Ah ! but : a common exclamation. 

Aboon, above, of which an old form is Aboven ; and if the v were 
elided, as is constantly the case here (see Letter V), abo'en would be 
the result. Halliwell gives two instances of aboven for above. Aboon 
is pronounced as spelt, and not as though abooin, which might have 
been expected. See oo under, Letter 0. Connected with this word is 
the curious local expression of ' The Man aboon,' or ' The Man above,' 
both of which are used for the Omnipotent. And I look upon it as 
a sign of a tender regard for the Third Commandment, that such a 
form is current, which, considering the numerous oaths in use here, 
could hardly have been anticipated. I have heard the expression in 
conversation more than once, and I understand it is perfectly 
well known, and quite common. See Man Above. 

Addle, to earn : found in old authors, and still very common. A 
boy, who had a long way to walk to his work in Almondbury, said, 
' Au've addled all my wage wi' trailin'.' 

Admirable has the i long, and is pronounced admaurdble : it is often 
used in the sense of wonderful, or surprising. 

Agate (gl. ugait), in action, or -at work. Ray says as gate is way, so 
agate is on the way. In the compound form runagate it occurs in 
Psalm Ixviii. 6, Prayer Book version. In the Authorized Version 
the word is rendered by rebellious. [No doubt runagate had this 
meaning in popular etymology; it is, however, none the less true 
that it is a corrupt form, and stands for renegate. W. W. S.] Agate 
is still constantly to be heard. ' Who's been agate o' this ? ' = ' Who's 
been meddling with this ? ' ( Wat ar' ta' agate on ? ' = ' What are 
you doing ?' ' T' bells is agate,' i. e. ringing. 

Agate'ards, i. e. agate wards, adv. To go agate 1 ards with a person is 
to accompany him part of the way. ' Au'll go agate 1 ards wi' thee.' 

Aim, even. The boys play at ' odd or dim,' i. e. odd or even. 

Aim, used to denote a desire, or expectation. I had aimed to do so 
and so, means I had expected, &c. See Intend. 

Ains, or Anes, the beards of corn, especially of barley ; awns. 


Airm, the pronunciation of arm. ' To mak' a long airm ' = to 
reach. In Nashe's Lenten Stuffe, published in 1599, occurs this 
sentence : ' It divided them, and it divided them not ; for over that 
arm of the sea could be made a long arm.' 

Airm i' airm, i. e. arm in arm. Some will say c hand i' airm,' 
speaking of the woman. 

Aise (pronounced ah-ice, or aJi-eece), an axe. The" x is constantly 
pronounced thus in old Almondbury diction. See Letter X. This 
form, however, though still to be heard, is fast ceasing. Halliwell 
says the word aise is found in Skinner for axweed. Ossings, the name 
of a field, is no doubt oxings. 

Alegar (pronounced allicJcer, or ettic'ker), a word sometimes used for 
vinegar, though not exactly the same. It is said to be really ale, or 
beer, allowed to acidify and the word itself is formed from ale and 
aigre, precisely as the word vinegar from the French vin, wine, 
and aigre. 

All afloits, i. e. all afloat ; all in disorder : as of a house on a wash- 
ing day ; said also of books, clothes, dress, &c. 

All maks, i. e. all makes, or all sorts. Very common. 

All nations, used instead of the word enough. If one had been at 
a party, he would describe the abundance of eatables, &c. , by saying 
there were all nations of things. The expression, however, seems 
stronger than the simple word enough. Both forms are sometimes 
used together ; thus, ' all nations enough ' may be heard to express a 

All out, i. e. entirely. ' It is almost, if not all out, as bad as 
thieving.' It occurs \G\Tristram Shandy. 

Allys, always : pronounced by some as written, and by others olys, 
which is the true dialect pronunciation. See A (5). A young woman 
forming one of a wedding-party, at the beginning of this century, 
was going down Fenay Lane with her companions, when they met 
a man, who said, ' Eh ! what bonnie lasses ! Au wonder wheer all 
f faal wives come thro'.' She answered, c Maister, didst ta' ivver see 
a grey mare foiled ? They olys grow sooa.' 

Almondbury, called by the polite Aimbury ; by the genuine York- 
shireman, Aumbury, or, better still, Oambury. See A. The well- 
known beggar, Joseph o' Nuppits (of whom more anon), when he 
was asked for what the different villages which he was accustomed 
to honour with his visits were specially noted, used to reply, 
'Honley for brass, Fairnley for mail (meal), Oambury for nout.' In 
justice to Almondbury, it should be said he lived here in the work- 
house, and our townsmen no doubt had quite enough of him, and 
could not afford to be generous as well as just. 

Alto, adv. altogether ; entirely ; wholly : a word not found now 
in the dialect, but inserted here as being in an inscription on a fillet 
round the nave in Almondbury church, where it is spelt as two 
words all to. See Preface, * Inscription in Almondbury Church.' 
It occurs also in Judges ix. 53 * And a certain woman cast a 

B 2 


piece of millstone on Abimelech's head, and all to brake Ms skull ; ' 
on which passage a well-known commentator remarks, ' A most 
nonsensical version of what is literally, "And she brake, or fractured, 
his skull " ' ; the writer being evidently unacquainted with this 
peculiar adverb. I must add that his version reads ' break ' the 
infinitive for ' brake ' the past tense, which is perhaps what has led 
him astray, or else is a second blunder consequent on the first. In 
Wordsworth's Commentary the passage is correctly rendered; thus 
'"all to brake his skull," i.e. wholly fractured his skull.' The 
expression alto for entirely occurs frequently in the Towneley 
Mysteries : e. g. 

'I wold be rent and alto torne.' Oblacio Magorum. 

[The use of ail-to as an adverb arose from entirely misunderstand- 
ing the M.E. al tobrak, in which al is the adverb, and tobrak the 
verb. W. W. a] 

Amang 1 , also Emang, among. Often found without its substantive 
or pronoun, as, ' There's a flock of geese, and ducks amang.' 

Am'ot, contracted from am not. "Without absolutely justifying 
this form, it may be said to compare favourably with the southern 

Anent, prep, opposite to ; over against ; in opposition to ; in compa- 
rison with, &c. : an expressive and very common word, which should 

. be retained in the language. A cricket-ball in a line with the wicket 
is anent it ; when one man works in company with another, he works 
anent him ; a lass striving to rival a lady in the fashion dresses anent 
her, &c. In Scotland it means concerning, but has not that 
sense here. 

Aran (pronounced arrin), a spider in general : no doubt from the 
Latin, aranea. Ray says it is used only for a larger kind of spider, 
but I have heard nothing to justify this distinction. In old authors 
it is found as araine and aranee. See Halliwell's Dictionary of 
Archaisms, &c. In Gavin Douglas's Prologue to the 12th ^Eneid of 
Virgil the word occurs in a modified form, as derived from the 
Greek (lines 169172) : 

' In corneris and cleir fenystaris of glass 
Pull bissely aragne wevand was, 
To knyt hir nettis and hir wobbys sle, 
Tharwith to caucht the myghe and litill fie.' 

See Skeat's Specimens of English Literature, p. 132. 
Aranwebs (pronounced arrinwebs), cobwebs. 
Ark, a chest used for meal, horse-corn, deeds, &c. 

Arrandsmittle, infectious, or poisonous : and the word arrandpoison 
is used as well. ' It is foolish to let the children go there, for it is 
arrandsmittle,' i. e. the disease is highly infectious. See Smittle. 
The word arrand is not unlikely, as has been suggested, the same as 
arrant, as in arrant knave, which is the more probable as the letters 
d and t are frequently interchanged. See Letters I? and T. Dr. 


Bradley of Almondbury, well known to a generation almost passed 
away, used to say, * The infection of some fevers would stop in an 
arrinweb for seven years.' Had he, or the good folk who repeat his 
saying, any unconscious mental association between the words arrand 
and arrin 9 Spiders are still, in some places, considered poisonous. 

Arsy-farcy, no doubt arsy-versy : topsy-turvy ; irregular ; disobedient. 
Said of a woman who is dressed in an out-of-the-way style : * Sho 
dresses in an arsy-farcy way.' A parent will say to a disobedient 
child, ' Tha a't varry arsy-farcy.' 

Ask, put for hash, i. e. harsh. Phillips says ask means dryness. 
Here it is evidently used as an adjective, expressing a peculiar 
quality or condition of cloth, such as might be produced from boiling 
in a solution of alum. ' It handles ask,' might be said of wool if 
dried too quickly on a stove, or if it has remained too long, in which 
case it never works well, choose what oil they use. * It's varry ash and 
drau, and hasn't natur in it it owt to have.' 

Asker, a newt, or lizard. 

Askness, dryness : put for haskness, or harshness. See Ask. 

Ass (a as in fat), vb. to ask. 

Ass (pronounced as above), ashes, or ash. 

Assnook, the place where the ashes fall beneath the grate. The hole 
in the hearthstone (chiefly found in kitchens) into which the ashes 
are drawn is called the gratehoil. See Preface, ' Introduction of the 
Study of Chemistry into this District.' 

Asspan, a pan, or instrument of iron, placed under the grate to catch 
the ashes. 

'At, pron. and conj. that. But as a pronoun chiefly the relative, as, 
' Them 'at Au catch,' &c. For the demonstrative that the word 
' you ' is commonly employed, especially if emphatic. 

At after, prep, and adv. after. It is used by Chaucer in The 
Frankelyrfs Tale, 1. 483 : 

' At after souper fell they in tretee.' 

Atatta, or Antatta. To go atatta is to go a-walking : a word used 
to children, and no doubt derived from saying ' tatta ' on departing. 
Grown young women will also use this expression to each other, 
instead of saying ' agate'ards.' 

Avelong (pronounced aivlong), oblong, or oval. Spectacle-glasses are 

Awand (the second a pronounced as in hand), a word much used. 
' Au'll awand thee tha'll do it ; ' similar to the ' warrant thee ' in other 
parts of England. 

Aye, the usual answer for yes. Atiee is nearly the sound. 



Baan, the pronunciation of boun. In the sense of ready, going, or 
directed, is very common. ' Wheer ar' ta baan ? ' = Where are you 
going ? ' He's nooan baan to get t' brass ' = He' s not about to get 
the money. Scott uses this word in his Lady of the Lake, canto vi. 
ver. 15 : 

' To hero boune for battle strife, 

Or bard of martial lay, 
'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life, 
One glance at their array.' 

Again in the far more ancient ballad of Robin Hood and Guy of 
Gisborne, first printed in 1765 : 

4 Busk yee, bourne yee, my merry men all, 
And John shall go with mee.' 

This word is not the same as bound, obliged, for that is called bun. 

Baat, i. e. bout : very common for without. This is the same as 
but frequently found in old writings, as in A lytell Geste of Robin 
Hood, first printed 1489 : 

' But he come this ylke day 
Disheryted shall he be ' (2 Fytte, ver. 6). 
Again : ' " What doost thou here," sayd the Abbot, 

" But thou haddest brought thy pay ? " ' (ver. 24) 

in both which cases it is used for ivithout, or more strictly for unless. 
Also in that amusing ballad, The Laird o' Drum, ver. 15 : 

' The first time that I married a wife, 

She was far abune my degree ; 
She wadna hae walk'd thro' the yetts o' Drum, 

But the pearlin abune her bree, 
And I durstna gang in the room where she was, 

But my hat below my knee ! ' 

Babby (gl. babi), a baby ; also a picture or print in a book. For 
instance, boys at play, guessing whether there were an illustration on 
the next page, would say, ' Babby o'er the leaf ? ' Again, one seeing 
a tutor teaching Euclid with diagrams, expressed his idea of the study 
by remarking, * It's babby lakin' yon ! ' See Laking. Halliwell says 
babs is used in the same sense. 

Backend, the autumn. They also sometimes say the bacTcend of the 
week, but the ' latter end ' is more common. 

Backset, a prop, or anything to lean or fall back upon ; money laid 
up for a rainy day. 

Backside (pronounced backsawd), the premises in the back part of a 
house : a word of ancient usage in this sense. Occurs in Exod. iii. 
1 : ' And he led the flock to the backside of the desert. ' 

Backword. When one has accepted an engagement, and wishes to 
withdraw from it, he * sends backword.' 


Bad (to rhyme to sad, pad, lad, had, &c.) seems to be the pronun- 
ciation, or at least a variation, of the word bat ; so bud is used for but. 
' Lakin' at bad' is 'playing at bat' a rude kind of cricket, played 
with a hat and hall, usually with wall toppings for wickets. One of 
my informants (1875) says, ' There was no lakin' at bad sixty years 
ago ; they call it cricket naa. There's a deSl more on it at the bothum 
o' my field nor Au lauken on ' (like). 

Halliwell says it was a rude game formerly common in Yorkshire, 
and probably resembling the game of cat. There is such a game still 
played, and very popular with youngsters, but it is called ' pig ' ; a 
dangerous game, against which the superintendent of police issues 
occasional manifestoes. I have seen one within a week or two (Dec. 
1875) warning all lads of the consequences of playing this game. 

Badger, a flour or corn dealer ; a pedlar. Properly, one who buys 
in one place and sells at a distance. 

Badly. Some make a distinction between badly and poorly. * Oh, 
Au am badly with tooithwark,' &c. ; but if sick, or really ill, they 
use poorly in preference. 

notable for the expression, 'to give the bag,' which is to 
dismiss; or 'to get the bag,' i. e. to be dismissed. In some parts to 
give and get ' the sack.' The word has long been known in this 
sense. In a Quip for an Upstart Courtier, published 1592, we read, 
' You shall be light-footed to travel far, light-witted upon every 
small occasion to give your masters the bag.' Again, in The Lament- 
able Complaints of Hop the Brewer, a,nd Kilcalfe the Butcher, 1641, we 

' Hop. I pray, Master Kilcalf, can you prevent him ? 

Kilcalf. Why, I'll show him the bag ; I'll run, man. Dost under- 
stand me ? 

Hop. Yes, very well ; but I believe that he had rather you 
would show him his money, and then he would understand you.' 

From the above quotation ' to show the bag ' seems to be to dismiss 
one's self. 

Bags, a word used by schoolboys when they assert a priority of 
claim to anything by mere calling. It is used thus : ' Bags me that 
bat, seat,' &c. See Barley. At King James's School the boy who 
got first to bed at night (or if sent to bed in the day-time) used to 
' bag the bowls,' i. e. he claimed and assumed the right to say who 
should wash first in the morning, and which bowl each boy should 
have for his use. There is some limitation now (1875) on this singu- 
lar proceeding. In a tale called My Schoolboy Friends, by A. B. Hope, 
half a dozen of the boys have to be thrashed, and one, having his 
thick jacket away at the tailor's, says, ' Sags me to go in last ; he'll 
have to go over five of you, and he'll be pretty well tired by the time 
he comes to me.' 

Bail, or Bale, to fester, or swell, when a wound heals up falsely. 
Bairn, a child. See Barn. 

Bakbrade. This is the word which Halliwell calls bacJcboard. It 
is in fact the baking-board. Bred is the Anglo-Saxon word for board. 
The baJcbrade is about twenty inches long, by eighteen inches broad, 


and is used in making oat-bread. It is cut or scored diagonally, so 
as to form diamonds of about one square inch in size. See Haver- 
bread and Leather-cake. 

Bakstone (pronounced bafafn), the stone on which oat-cake is 
baked. Formerly little or no wheaten bread was used in this neigh- 
bourhood ; the haver-bread formed the great staple food ; and it was 
always thought a young woman was ineligible for marriage unless 
she were able to bake oat-bread. About 1825 a man was in the habit 
of hawking bakst'ns ; he came from Saddleworth, and went along the 
street ' shaattin' "haver cake bakst'ns." ' He carried them on horse- 
back, edges upwards, balanced on each side of the animal. They are 
occasionally still hawked, but rarely, as oat-bread is seldom made by 
any but public bakers. 

Balk (pronounced bank), a large beam in a cottage or house roof; or 
the beam of the scales, which is a weigh- balk. 

Balk, in mowing : when some portion of the grass, &c. is left higher 
than the rest it is called a balk. 

Balk, vb. to leave such a portion. Halliwell says a balk is a ridge of 
greensward left by the plough in ploughing, or by design between 
different occupancies in a common field. 

Ballance, or perhaps Balance, a word used for valance : probably a 
mere corruption. 

Bally, belly, but now almost obsolete. The word occurs in Reli- 
gious Songs (Percy Society Edition of The Owl and Nightingale), 
13th century, in the form bali. 

Bally wark, belly- work ; the stomach-ache. 
Balm (pronounced borne), the plant so called. 

Bambooze, to abuse, domineer over, push one about, &c. ' Au'm 
nooan baan to be bambooz'd wi' thee.' Forty years back this word was 
* bamboozle.' 

Ban', i. e. band = bound, the past tense of to bind. So in the 
Ballad of Kinmont Willie, ver. 3 : 

' They land his legs beneath the steed, 

They tied his hands behind his back ; 
They guarded him fivesome on each side, 

And they brought him ower the Liddel-rack.' 

Band, a particular kind of string made into round balls for weavers 
to tie gear with ; also any sort of string. 

Bandend, or Bandender, an indifferent article, such as an old horse. 
' It's a owd bandend on a horse, that,' meaning one almost finished. 

Bander, or Band chap, one of a band of musicians. 

Bank, a word commonly used for a hill, and especially to that 
portion traversed by a road : Almondbury Sank, Farnley Bank, 
Kilner Bank, Shelley Bank, Thurstonland Bank, &c. 


Bank, to become a bankrupt; or, vb. a. to cause to become a 

Banker, a bankrupt. 

Bannock, a sort of bread made of coarse flour. After baking it is 
placed on the haver-bread reel (which see) to dry, then it is considered 
fit to be eaten. Perhaps the same as Leather-cake. One aged man 
knows nothing of this, but thinks he has heard the word jannock used 
for oat-bread. 

Bant, to abate in a bargain. Few persons seem to know this, and 
it may be an error for bate, or banter. 

Banter, to talk with the object of beating one down in price. * It's 
o' no use yor tryin' to banter me; Au s'll tak' no less.' 

Barcom (pronounced barknm), a piece of leather on the top of a horse- 
collar of little use, but sometimes turned down to let off the rain. 

Barley, the grain (pronounced bairley). This seems also the case 
elsewhere : see The Laird o' Drum, ver. 1 : 

' The Laird o' Drum is a hunting gane, 

All in the morning early, 
And he has spied a weel-faur'd May 
A-shearing at her barley.' 

Barley, a word used by schoolboys when they want to rest in play ; 
also, like bags, to bespeak a thing, as, 'Barley me that desk.' Barlow 
is also used in the first sense, as, ' I cried barlow,' and so on. Both 
in use as far back as 1814, and supposed to be a corruption of parley. 

Barley time, a period during the great French war, when wheat 
could hardly be purchased, and barley had to be used for bread. 

Barn, a child : the true form of the word, but here pronounced 
bairn, and usually spelt so. It merely follows the analogy of certain 
other words, arm, card, &c., which become airm, caird, &c. See 
Letter A (1). 

Barque, or Bark, a box for candles, which is called the 'cannle- 

Barrow, a flannel garment for an infant between the chemise and 
the lapping piece. The word used in Somerset in the same sense. 

Bat, a stroke, or a blow. 'He has not struck a bat sin' Christmas,' 
*. e. he has done no work. It expresses also a state or condition. 
' What bat are ye at ? ' i. e. what are you doing ? 

Bat, the straw of two wheat-sheaves tied together. The loose straw 
arising from the thrashing of several sheaves, after the bats were 
taken, would form a bottle. 

Bate , the past tense of to bite. 

Batter and crown him, a well-known boys' game ; otherwise, Baste 
the Sear. 


Bear, Beer, or Bere. In cotton-weaving thirty-eight ends or threads 
form a here. The word is probably taken from some other source, and 
forms no part of the dialect, because cotton-weaving, until recently, 
has not been followed in these parts. See Porty wove. 

Beardie, a small fish formerly abundant in the streams of this 
locality before they were poisoned by the dye- water ; the same as 
the ' loich ' or ' Tommy loich.' Colitis barbatula, or the smelt with 
the small beard. 

Bearsears, the plant auricula. In this word the rs are almost silent, 
so that the pronunciation is nearly baysees. See Letter R. 

Beast, or Beest, the first milk drawn after a cow has calved. In 
some parts of England this is called beastings, in others beastlings. 

Beat, the pronunciation of beat in the sense of to surpass. 
Beck, a small stream, but broader than a dyke. 
Bedfast, bedridden. 

Bedlam, or Bedlamspit, the liver, kidney, sweetbread, &c. of a pig ; 
otherwise called pig's fry (pig fraw). The termination spit may be 
accounted for from the spluttering noise made in the cooking ; much 
the same way as meat and cabbage fried together have received the 
name of bubble and squeak. 

Bedstocks, the frame of the bedstead, including the head-board- 

Bee-hoppet, a bee-hive. Hoppet is a hand-basket in Lincolnshire 
and elsewhere. 

Beeter, or Beetin (the latter form the more common), a piece put 
in to mend a warp, when an end or thread has broken. If it breaks 
in front of the * yeld ' it only wants once tying, otherwise twice. 

Beetneed, a common word. Halliwell says, ' assistance in the hour of 
distress.' The meaning seems wider than that, for the term when 
applied to a person, as it often is, is considered offensive. ' I'll not be 
Mrs. So-and-so's beetneed,' may be heard from an indignant matron 
or helper. Now if the word only implied ' kindly assistance ' there 
could be no offence in it. It much more likely means a last resource, 
a stop-gap, or even a cat's-paw ; in short, anything to serve a turn. 
This and the preceding word are connected with ' boot ' in ' to boot.' 

Scott, in his Old Mortality, Yol. II. ch. xl., has the word beetmaster, 
evidently the equivalent to beetneed. 'Next she' (Mistress Ailie 
Wilson) ' enlarged on the advantage of saving old clothes, to be what 
she called beetmasters to the new. ' 

The word bete itself occurs in Chevy Chace, Fytte 2, line 140 : 

' Jesu Christ our balis bete, and to the bliss us bring,' 

i. e. amend our ills. 

[Beet is rather to mend than to assist ; hence the opprobrious use 
of it. W. W. S.] 

Before long. This expression is here sometimes rendered by ' before 
(or afore) owt's so long.' 


Bellman, the town-crier. 

Belong, used peculiarly. In such sentences as imply ' To whom does 
this belong ? ' the phrase is, * Who belongs this house, knife ? ' &c, 

Benk, or Bank, an early form of bench ; a stone seat. The benk 
used to be outside the cottage doors, where rnilk-bowls, &c. were 
placed to cool ; and people were accustomed ' to sit on the benk i' the 
summer-time.' Occurs in a tract, Now the Ooode Wif thaught hir 
Daughter, ascribed by Sir F. Madden to the time of Henry VI. : 

' Doughter I the praye, that thou the so be thengke 
What men the honoiiren, and sette the on the bengke. 1 

Bensel (pronounced bens-it), to beat, or bang. Eay has this word. 
Bent, a small grass which grows on the moors. 

Benin, i. e. burying, or funeral. ' It was formerly the custom to 
note, just as the coffin set off, the first person met coming in the 
opposite direction, and this was considered to indicate the age and 
sex of the neist person to be buried. At that time they always sang 
them away, a practice which has nearly died out.' 

Berry, the common name for the gooseberry. Various fruits are here 
styled in a different way from that of the south of England ; thus, 
currants are currant-berries, sometimes currans; raspberries, rasps; 
blackberries, blags, &c. 

Bessie (pronounced bezzle), to guzzle, or drink hard. 

Better, used peculiarly to signify well after an illness, ' Are you 
quite better ? ' is a regular salutation even amongst well-informed 
persons. It is curiously used in such expressions as ' I sought and 
better sought,' &c. 

Between. A singular idiom prevails here to omit the first substan- 
tive or pronoun after this preposition. ' Between and next week,' 
* between and the wall.' See note to Thropple. 

Beuld, a former pronunciation of the word build (the eu as ew in 
new southern pronunciation). This may be still heard with old 

Beverage. ' To pay beverage ' is to give money for the purpose of 
drink. When one has a new suit of clothes, or has met with good 
fortune of any kind, he is asked to pay beverage. 

Bilberry, the whortleberry : a fruit produced abundantly upon the 
moors of this neighbourhood, most excellent for pies or puddings. In 
the season large numbers of persons may be seen gathering them. 
The usual present cost is about 6d. per quart (1874). 

Billy, a machine for stubbing cardings. 

Bindhome, perhaps Bindholm, copsewood where birds lodge. 

Birk, the birch tree. The word not much used now in this sense, 
but found much in compounds: Birkby, Birkhouse, j&rtanill, Birks- 
wood, &c. Birksmill began to work in 1800. 


Black, used as the word Hue is, in a bad sense ; thus, ' to talk 
Hack ' is to us,e filthy language. 

Blackthorne, the name of a boys' game. If played on a road, two 
marks are made across the road at some distance apart. One boy 
stands on one mark, all the rest on the other. The odd boy calls out 
the word ' Blackthorne.' The others, * New milk and barley-corn.' 
The one, * Haa many sheep ha' yo to-day ? ' The rest, * More nor 
yo can catch and carry away.' They then run to his mark, and he 
tries to catch one or more as he goes to theirs. The captives join his 
party, and the game goes on as before. The nominy above-mentioned 
was said in 1814, and is still. At Lepton the word yamdy is used for 
' how many,' which word is also well known here. See Nominy and 

Blaggin. To go Orblaggin is to go getting blackberries. Any little 
urchin bent on this errand will say, * Au'm baan a-bfaggin.' 

Blags, blackberries. See Berry. 

Blather, a bladder. For the interchange of d and th see Letter D. 

Blether, vb. to make a noise like a calf ; to make a ' faal ' noise. 
This, in the form of Mother, occurs in Colin Clout, 11. 66-8 : 
' Thus each of other Mother, 
The tone against the tother, 
Alas ! they made me shudder.* 

Bletherhead, or Bletheryed, a bladder-head ; a stupid fellow. 

Blin, to stop ; to cease to move, flow, run, &c. A child may cry for 
half an hour, and never blin; it may rain all day, and never blin ; 
the train ran 100 miles, and never blinned. See the Felon Sew of 
Hokeby, ver. 24 : 

' And Peter Dale would never blinn, 
But as fast as he could ryn, 
Till he came to his wife.' 

Again, in Minot's Battle of NeviTs Cross, 11. 61-4 : 

' Both Durham and Carlisle they would never blin 
The worship of England with weapon to win.' 

The past tense was blan. See the Rising of the North, ver. 11 : 
* One while the little foot page went, 

And another while he ran ; 
Until he came to his journey's end 
^ The little foot page never blan.' 

And again in ver. 34. In the heading of one of Laurence Minot's 
Political Songs we read : 

1 How Edward at Hogges unto land wan, 
And rade thurgh France or euer he blan, 1 

i. e. how Edward III. landed at Cape La Hogue, and passed through 
France without opposition. The extract is taken from Morris and 
Skeat's edition of Specimens of Early English. No doubt the past 
tense here was blan, but it seems to be forgotten now. 

Blinders, or Blinkers, i. e. blinders for horses. 


Blind hummabee, the name of a boys' game. When a strange boy, 
supposed not to know the trick, comes to a school, one perhaps says, 
* Let's play at blind hummabee : who'll be king ? ' The stranger, 
thinking it a good part, possibly volunteers, and if not he is persuaded 
to be king. He has to sit and shut his eyes, whilst the bees go ' to 
fetch the honey.' The boys fill their mouths with water, and approach 
him humming, and conclude the game by discharging the water over 
the unfortunate monarch. Thus he may be said to commence his 

Bloach, a blab, or tale-bearer. Skinner says Uoach is a tumour. 

Blob, or Blub, a bubble, or bulb. A butter-blob is a buttercup. 
And Halliwell says water-blobs are water-lilies. Also the marsh 

Blocker, an axe, or chopper. 

Blonk, or Blunk, to put on a sour, distressed, or sulky face. 

Blonky, or Blunky, adv. corresponding to the word above. 

Blooaneed (spelling uncertain), a word used in the following way : 
' It must be blooaneed, or they would not turn out on such a night as 
this.' A man who made Jenny broiched, when he came for his money 
used to say, 'It's nowther for want nor for scant, but fair daan 
blooaneed.' He meant ' he were bun to come.' 

Blotch, a blot. 

Blotch-paper, blotting-paper. 

Blue uns, i. e. blue ones ; the delirium tremens. 

Bluff, or Bluft, to blindfold. 

Blufters, not the blinders for horses, which are usually called mobs, 
but more properly what is placed over a horse's eyes to prevent him 
from straying when turned into a field. 

Blurry, sb. an error ; a blunder ; a breakdown. 
Blurry, vb. to commit a blunder, &c. 

Bob, a nosegay of flowers ; also a chignon. The bush carried by 
wassailers at Christmas is called ' the wassail bob.' 

Bodle, or Baudle, half a farthing. ' He pays a penny bodle for his 
land,' i. e. one penny and a half-farthing per yard. Halliwell says 
it is worth one-third of a halfpenny. He spells it bodle, as it is here 
pronounced ; but according to the custom of this part, that would be 
the pronunciation of baudle, or bawdle, as au is usually sounded o. 

Boggard, the dried moisture of the nostrils. 

Boggard, a ghost. When a horse takes fright he is said to ' tak' th 7 

Boggard night (pronounced met), St. Mark's Eve. It used to be said 
that at any time after 8 p.m. there was always something ghostly to be 


seen. At Bretton it was formerly the belief that if a young woman 
went into a laithe and set both the doors open, the man she was to 
have would pass through at 'midneet.' Watchers used to sit in 
Almondbury church porch, who expected or pretended to see all the 
funerals or weddings which were to take place during the ensuing 
year. These persons were naturally detested ; they would say they 
saw the funerals of those against whom they had a spite ; often with 
ill results. And sometimes they caused as much annoyance by 
managing to see weddings. It was believed that if a person went 
once to watch, he was under a spell to continue the practice year 
after year, duly as St. Mark's Eve came round. 

Boh, the interjection : when spoken of as a substantive sometimes 
called bo/, of which the following is an illustration. A man had 
undertaken to train a foal, and he instructed his son to lie in wait 
under a hedge, and spring out and say Boh I in order to startle the 
animal. This he accomplished pretty effectually, for the father was 
thrown sprawling upon the road. On rising, he exclaimed, ' Nay, 
lad, that was too gret a ~boff for a foil.' 

Boison. See Boson. 

Bole, or Booal, the trunk of a tree. 

Bolsh, to kill by over-feeding. * Tha'll bolsh that if tha' doesn't 
mind.' Chiefly used with respect to rabbits. 

Bonny, pretty ; fair ; beautiful. Also used ironically : * That's a 
bonny come up,' i. c. a pretty affair. 

Booin, a word used for a cow-stall. 

Booin, i.e. boon. 'To give a booin* is to assist a farmer gratis to 
get in his crops. Halliwell says ' boon days ' are those on which a 
tenant is bound to work for his lord gratis. 

Booltins on. In making oat-bread there is much waste of meal, &c. 
This is swept up, and sometimes given to the pigs, and is known by 
the name above. 

Boose (pronounced boois), the place where the cow lies ; an ox-stall. 

Boose-seal (pronounced boots-seal), a piece of wood or chain going 
round the neck to tie or ' seal ' (as it is called) the cow or ox to the 

[N.B. A seal is a rope (A.S. sdl, Du. zeel, G. seil); nothing to do 
with sealing. W. W. 8.] 

Boose-stake (pronounced boots-stake), a stake in the nristal or stable 
to which cattle are tied. 

Boson, a badger. ' Paid for a pair of bawnona.' Old Churchwarden's 
Accounts. By some, as at Lepton, called bauson. l He's as silly as a 
bauson;' 'he's a gert bauson,' &c. By others called boison, as given 
to me here. In one glossary it is spelt bawson, and by Halliwell 
boson. It must, however, be observed, if the true word were boson, 
the Almondbury pronunciation might be boison ; and if the true word 
were bawson, then the local pronunciation would be boson. 


Botch, to mend carelessly, as said of ill-darned stockings. 
Botcher, a cobbler. 

Bothum, the pronunciation of bottom. Also used adverbially. 'A 
bothum bad un ' is a very bad one. 

Bothum' d, a word much used in quarrels, as, ' Tha' a't a bad bothum 1 d 

Bothumest, a sort of superlative of bothum or bottom, and is pro- 
bably bottommost, corresponding to topmost. It may be said of a 
book in a pile, ' It's the bothum est of all the lot.' 

Bottle (of straw). See Bat. ' To look for a needle in a bottle of 
hay ' is a well-known proverb. Occurs also in Midsummer Night's 
Dream, Act IV. sc. i., where Bottom says, ' Methinks I have a great 
desire to a bottle of hay : good hay, sweet hay, hath no fellow.' 

Bottlebrush, a plant otherwise called Common Spurry, or Farmer's 
Ruin : Spergula arvensis. It has received its first name from being 
suitable to 'fettle a bottle.' See Fettle. Another plant bears the 
same name the Mare's Tail, or Hippuris vulgaris. 

Boulder, a round stone, called here, and at Lepton, boolder. 

Bout, without. See Baat. 

Bowl, pronounced baal. See Bullybaal. 

Bowman, the dried moisture of the nostrils. See Boggard. And 
also, like boggard, it means a ghost in some parts. 

Brabblesome, quarrelsome : not much known. Halliwell also gives 
4 brabble,' 'brabbler,' and other derivatives. 

Bracken (pronounced brac/cin), a kind of fern : Pteris aquilina. 

Bradford, often pronounced Bradforth. The pronunciation is a 
favourite one, and the interchange of d and th is common enough in 
old English. See Letter D. 

Braid, used in the form, ' to braid of,' i. e. to be like to, to resemble. 
Eay gives as a Scotch proverb, * Ye breid o' the miller's dog, ye lick 
your mouth or the poke be ope.' Also to retch. 

Branded, perhaps the same as brinded. A term applied to express 
a mixture of black and fawn colour, with which cattle are sometimes 
marked alternately. 

Brandreth, or Brandrith, a frame, supported on pillars, on which 
corn-stacks are placed. In some parts a trevet is so called. Eay has 
it in that sense with the latter spelling; and to the same form 
Halliwell gives this meaning ( a fence of wattles, or boards, round a 

Brass, a word commonly used for money. Halliwell says, ' copper 
coin ; ' but here it undoubtedly signifies money in general. See note 
to Almondbury. 

Brast, past tunse of burst. 


Brat, the smock worn by wool-sorters ; also a pinafore. Halliwell 
says, ' An Arglo-Saxon word, meaning a coarse mantle.' It is men- 
tioned in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. A little boy from Cumberland, 
on his first visit to Yorkshire, encountered at Bradford railway station 
a wool-sorter attired in the usual long clean pinafore. The child 
gazed with astonishment at the man, whom he evidently regarded as 
some strange kind of clergyman. The object of his wonder, evidently 
amused, exclaimed good-temperedly, ' Bless t' lad ! Did he nivver 
see a brat afore ? ' 

Braunging, overbearing. Halliwell says, ' pompous.' The sound 
of the word suggests the spelling * brange.' See Letter A (4). 

Bray, to braise or break (as in a mortar) ; also to beat. Stones are 
brayed for the roads. 

Bread (pronounced as two syllables ; gl. breeud). Many other 
words follow this rule. See Ea. ' When Au were a young man up 
to twenty-four years of age' (i. e. 1824) ' Au'd niwer a bit o' wheaten 
bread, nobbut on a Sunday. Abaat eighteen hundred and ten or 
eleven we paid as mich as eight shillings and sixpence a stoan of 
fifteen pund ; then it lowered to seven shillings. Theer was no o'oms 
and boilers i' them days.' 

Bread-creel, or Bread-reel, a frame suspended in the kitchen on 
which the oat-bread is hung to dry. 

Breadth (pronounced bredth), area, or acreage. Said of a farm, 
' What breadth o' land is there ? ' 

Breastbeam, part of a loom. 

Breeder. A day peculiarly fine, especially if out of season, is said 
to be a ' weather- breeder,' i. e. worse must be expected soon. Jan. 4, 
1876, was a remarkably brilliant day by Castle Hill, when Hudders- 
field was wrapped in a black fog ; on the 6th and 7th snow came. 
Halliwell says it is an eastern county word for a fine day, but it is 
perfectly well known here. Also they call it a breeder if the sky looks 
red and angry in a morning. 

Brekken, same as Brokken. 

Brestye, or Briestye, of a coal-pit ; called also the dayJwle, e'ehoil, 
i. e. eyehole. It is the place where the coals are brought out in 
scoops or waggons. 

Breward, the brim of a hat. A.S. brerd. 

Breward (pronounced by some as spelt, by others brayard,^ or 
braird}, after-grass, or young shoots of corn. 'This corn is i' 
breward,' i. e. in blade. ' That's a nice breward o' wheat,' meaning it 
is coming up evenly and well. A.S. brord, a blade of grass. 

Brewis, or Browis. This is a favourite dish with some people. It 
is made from oat- cake by ' teeming ' hot water upon it to soften it ; then 
some sort of fat or ' grease ' is poured over it, and all seasoned with 
pepper and salt. There is another kind called * water browis,' but 
this is very poor, having no fat. 


1 What an ocean of brewis shall I swim in.' 

Diodesian (Beaumont and Fletcher). 

See in a pamphlet called A Quip for an Upstart Courtier, by Eobert 
Greene, A.D. 1592: 'Wandering on further, Mercury espied where a 
company of shoemakers were at dinner, with powdered beef and 
brewis.' A very interesting note on the word browesse is in Vol. I. 
pp. 53, 54 of the Camden Society's edition of the Promptorium 

Bridlestyle, or Bridlestile, a narrow road for horses. The latter 
form pronounced braudlestaul. My informant, W. M., had seen many 
a pack-horse ; there were bells on the first horse. The road ran by 
the old workhouse (now being pulled down, 1876), down ' taan,' by the 
Grammar School, then by the old road near Mr. Nowell's o' th' Wood, 
then by Woodsome, Woodsome Mill, Bugden, and so on to Wake- 
field. It was no cart-road ; it was called ' Bridlestyle road. 1 

Brig, a bridge. 

Bright (pronounced breet), a clever contrivance. ' There's allys new 

Brigs, a trevet to set pots on, or, in brewing, to put across a tub to 
support the hoptemae. 

Broach (pronounced broich see Oa, 2), a piece of wood turned or 
'thrown' (as here called), something like a lead-pencil, tapering to 
one end, thicker at the other, but running to a point at both. It is 
intended to receive the ' cop,' where the spindle has been, to wind off 
for the ' bobbin.' 

Brock, a small insect which produces a kind of froth on plants, 
commonly called cuckoo-spittle. Hence, perhaps, the saying, ' He 
sweats like a brock, though some are disposed to derive this from 
brock, a badger. 

Brockholes (pronounced Brocklioils), a station on the Huddersfield 
and Sheffield Railway, in the ancient parish of Almondbury. Here 
the word brock no doubt means badger. See Tod. 

Broddle, to pick out, &c. A splinter in the hand is broddled out 
with a pin or needle ; a rabbit in a hole is broddled out ; so is a cork 
in a bottle when brought out piecemeal. Halliwell says the word 
means to make holes. [It is a frequentative of brod, the same as 
prod, W.W.S.] 

Brokken, the pronunciation of broken ; the past participle of break. 
Another form is Brekken. 

Broo, brother : common with old-fashioned people. * My broo John,' 
' my broo Will,' &c. 

Broomstale (yl. broomstail), a broom-stick, or broom-handle. 

Broth. Soup, porridge, &c. are all curiously spoken of in the 
plural. ' Will ye tak' a few ? ' is common, and also in Cumberland 
and Westmoreland. An old London lawyer had the question put to 
him by his Yorkshire servant, who, to her great surprise, was 
answered, ' Seven, please.' Now ' two or three,' or ' a to ar thre,' 



would not have surprised her, as it would have been a correct reply. 
This mode of speaking is not confined to these parts, nor is it a 
modern usage only. Dr. Lever, master of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, in the reign of Edward VI., says in one of his discourses, 
speaking of the students there : ' At ten of the clock they go to 
dynner, where as they be content wyth a peny pyece of biefe amongst 
four, having a fewe porage made of the brothe of the same byefe wy the 
salte and otemel, and nothing else,' &c. See p. 122, Arber's Reprint 
of Lever's Sermons. 

Browntitis, or Browntitus, very commonly used for the bronchitis, 
which has a very startling effect when pronounced brown typhus, as 
it often is by those who strain after understanding a word. I am 
told this is far from uncommon. I was once considerably alarmed 
on hearing that a friend whom I had seen the day before was suffer- 
ing from typhus fever. On inquiry I found the news came through 
two servants, and I then guessed at the state of affairs, as I knew of 
the pronunciation. The bronchitis was the complaint. 

Browys. See Brewys. 

Brussen (gl. brus'n), i. e. ' brusten,' or bursten, the past participle of 
'brust,' or burst. 

Brussen i' taa, a very peculiar form of words, applied chiefly to 
sacks, bags, and such matters which have burst to pieces, not neces- 
sarily into two. The quotation above given might certainly seem to 
suggest this, but I am assured the taa is the same sound as that for 
the word thou, and by no means the sound of the word two. 

Brust, same as burst. 

Brusten, occurs in its form of bursten in the ballad LawJcin, 
ver. 24: 

' " I wish a' may be weel," he says, 

" Wi' my dear lady at hame ; 
For the rings upon my fingers 
They've bursten into twain." ' 

Buffet, a portable stool for sitting ; also a foot-stool. Halliwell says 
it was in early times applied to a stool of three legs ; certainly it is 
not so here used. A buffet has two ends to rest on, and no proper 
legs at all. 

Bugth (pronounced boogth ; gl buogth), bigness, size, &c. If a 
thing is of a good size, &c., they say, 'It is a rare bugth,' or ' a gret 
bugth ; ' also ' a feit o' bugth.' 

Build, formerly pronounced lewld (ew as in. few, com. Eng.) : common 
still with old people. 

Bullspink, the bullfinch. 

Bullward, the person who had the charge of the bull at the bull baiting 
which was practised on Eush-bearing Monday. See preface, ' Bull- 

Bully bowl (prorounced bully baal), a child's or boy's hoop, which 


is beaten along with a stick. The boy in driving the hoop is said to 
butty it. 

Bull-yed, a bull-head ; a tadpole ; the fish called the ' Miller's 

Bullyrag, a bullying fellow. This is no doubt the same as bullyrock 
(see Halliwell), and so found in Shakespere (Merry Wives, I. iii. 2) as 

Bullyrag, used also as a verb, to bully. 

Bulsh (pronounced boolsh), to dent, bruise, &c. ' Tha'll bulsh that 
piggin if tha' knocks it agean t' floor.' If an apple, &c. is indented 
by being thrown against anything it is said to be bulshed. 

Bumroyd, most likely Bottomroyd, the name of a field lying 

between Castle Hill and Newsome. 
Bun, bound, in the sense of obliged : so fun is found ; and wun, 

Bun, a bobbin for thread, &c. 

Bunch. Six hanks make a bunch in cotton and worsted, and four 
in woollen. See Hank. 

Bundle (pronounced bundil). See Letter I, 3 (3). 'Doncin' a 
bundil ' is a term used to express the frog's hornpipe, as danced by 
Mr. Bailey, junior. 

Bur, a vegetable product found sometimes in wool, having stuck 
originally to the sheep's fleece. 

Bur, vb. To bur a cart is to put a stone under a wheel to rest the 
horse ; to bur a gate is to fasten it back with a stone, &c. 

Burl, to pick small pieces of hair, wool, fibre, &c. from the cloth. 
Burler, one who ' burls.' 

Burnfire, the word most commonly and resolutely used to express 

the bonfire of Nov. 5th. 
Burr, a burrow. 
Burwall, a wall made for the purpose of holding up a road, &c. 

Busk, to drive out, or cause to come, as may be said of a bird : 
' Au've busked her off on her nest.' 

Busk, to bustle about ; to hasten. Occurs in a somewhat similar 
sense in Robin Hood, Fytte i. ver. 55 : 

' " Hastely I wyll me buske" sayd the knight, 
"Over the salte see!'" 

Again in the ballad Waly, Waly, ver. 2 : 

' wherefore should I busk my heid ? 
Or wherefore should I kame my hair ? ' 

where it has the original sense of ' prepare,' * get ready,' or ' dress.' 

c 2 


Buskers, a name applied to those who drive game from the cover for 
those employed in the amusement of battue shooting. 

Buttershive (pronounced buttershauve), a slice of bread and butter. 
Halliwell gives 'buttershag' in the same sense. Treacleshive (gl. 
traiklshauv) explains itself. These are common sayings : ' No thank 
ye has lost mony a gooid buttershauv ; ' ' There's neer been no gooid 
doins since thumb buttershauvs went daan.' 

Butty (pronounced bootty ; gl. buot'i), being in league with. If two 
men engage to deceive a third, they are butty. The word in some 
dialects means a companion. 

Buzz, to empty a bottle ; to drink off. 

Buzz, to rush out, or against. Perhaps the same as Busk in one of 

its meanings. A person who should run against another in the street 
would ' buzz agen him.' 

Buzz, to force out ; perhaps the same as Busk. At the time when 
the first organ was put up in Almondbury church, in order to make 
room for it several pews were required, one of which the occupants 
were unwilling to surrender. It was suggested by a member of the 
committee that the organ should be built over the refractory parties, 
and, added he, ' we mun buzz 'em aat.' 

Of course it is quite possible he might intend to employ the word 
buzz solely in allusion to the sound of the instrument, for it is 
certainly so applied sometimes. Jonathan Martin, incendiary of York 
Minster, in his defence said, ' The organ then made such a buzzing 
noise, I thought, "Thou shall buzz no more; I'll have thee down 
to-night." ' 

Buzzard, properly a moth, not a butterfly. 

Buzzer, a kind of whistle used in the mills to call the hands together, 
&c. ; also to give alarm of fire. The noise is hoarser than that of the 
ordinary whistle. 

By, sometimes curiously used with the omission of the noun follow- 
ing ; as, ' by the school breaks up,' i. e. by [the time when] the 
school, &c. 

Byname, a nickname. See Preface, 'Nicknames.' 
Byset, a channel cut in the road to take off the water. 

The letter c coming before I is supposed to have the sound of t ; 
thus clear is Hear. Only one such word, however, has been given to 
me, which will be mentioned in its proper place ; but I see in some 
publications the same form continually recurring. 

Ch at the end of a word is frequently pronounced hard ; thus, birch 
is birk, perch is peark, reach is rake, screech is skreek or skrike, speech is 
speek or speyk ; also formerly church was kirk, as is manifest from 
Kirk Burton, Kirk Heaton, Kirklses names of places near; and 


Kirksteel (or style) at Kirk Heaton. Exceptions to this rule are teach, 
which is taiche, and preach, praich. 

The same takes place in some words even where ch is preceded by 
t ; thus, flitch is flick, hatch is heck, itch is eke, pitch is pik, thatch is 
thak, ditch is dyke ; but it does not take place in bitch, catch, cletch, 
match, stitch, spetch, stretch, and watch (the substantive), but the verb 
to watch is sometimes wake (which see). 

Lastly, the word much is mich, and such is sich. 

Caffing, funking. In the Craven dialect to caff is to run off a 
bargain, or abandon anything. 

Caffler (perhaps the same as caviller, or possibly from to cajfle), a 
shuffler, excuse-maker, &c. 

Calling, weakly, sickly, &c. Gail appears to mean to wane away. 

Caitiff, a deformed person, lame in the legs, arms, &c., or simply 
one infirm. Hunter says, ' This word is used in a memorial sent from 
Hallamshire to the Council of the North, 1640 : " Aged 80 and above, 
being a very caitiff and lame for impotent old age." That the same 
word,' he adds, * should describe that which calls for pity and that 
which deserves reprobation, is not creditable to human nature.' 
Perhaps this is hardly the way to regard the connection. The word 
originally meant a captive, and it is easy to see why a lame person, 
confined to house, bed, &c., should receive that name. Why a cap- 
tive should be a despicable fellow is another question. 

Cal (pronounced kal), vb. to crouch. ' He cols ovver t' fire o' t' 

Calf, pronounced cauf by some, cofe by others. A butcher in a 
neighbouring township, well known to us, ordinarily pronounced the 
word as above, in the local form ; but when calling at the parsonage, 
where the inmates may be assumed not to understand such forms, he 
kindly adapts himself to them by invariably pronouncing the word 
as caif. 

Calf-licked, having a lock of hair turned up and hanging over the 

Calhoil, or Callinhoil, i. e. calling-hole (the a pronounced as in. shall), 
a house where people go for news, and where neighbours' doings are 
talked over. Connected perhaps with callet, which means a scold, and 
to scold. 

Call (gl. kaul ; pronounced as usual), to call evilly, abuse, scold, &c. 
' He swore at me and catted me.' 

Callifugle, to cheat. See Fugle. 
Calling (call like shall), gossiping. 

Callis (a as in shall). When a bone has been broken and begins to 
heal, or when it enlarges owing to a wound, it is said to cattis. 

Cambril, Camber-rail, or Cameril (the first is the Almondbury 


form), the curved and notched piece of wood which butchers use to 
stretch the hind-legs of the slaughtered animal. Halliwell says 
cambril means hock in Derbyshire, and quotes Blount, who uses 
cambren (1621) for the instrument above-mentioned. 

Canker, the rust of iron. 

Cankerdyke, (gl. kangk'ur dauk), a ditch or watercourse containing 
a deposit of iron. 

Cannle, candle. 

Cannot, generally used at length instead of can't : a peculiarity of 
the dialect, seen also in donot, munnot, sha'not, winnot all which see. 

Cant (pronounced not as can't for cannot, but as cant, religious 
whining), nimble, active, lightfooted. &c. Used chiefly now in the 
case of aged persons : ' He's pretty cant for an old man.' See Peebles 
to the Play (circa 1450) : 

' A young man stert into that steid (place), 
As cant as any colt.' 11. 51, 52. 

Again in the Tale of the Uplandis Mouse and the Surges Mouse : 
1 Fra fute to fute he cast her to and fra, 
Whiles up, whiles down, as cant as any kid.' 11. 169, 170. 

Cap, to surprise ; to take by surprise ; to please. ' Sho's capp'd wi' 
a husband,' i. e. pleased with. ' That caps all,' i. e surpasses all. 

Caper-a-fram, or Cater-a-fran, all on one side ; askew. 

Capper, something surprising ; as, ' That's a capper,' i. e. that beats 

Capple (pronounced cappil), a patch or piece of leather to mend a 
shoe. When they thrash with the hand they place the striking part 
of the flail into a kind of leather socket, that also is a capple. 

Capplesnod, a word given to me, but the meaning not exactly 

Card (pronounced caird), a kind of comb used to dress wool, having 
wires set in leather, somewhat as brushes are made. These cards are 
now made by most ingenious machinery. See Preface, ' k Home 
Manufacture of Cloth.' 

Cast, a stone to pitch with in ' cots and twys ' (which see) and other 

Catched (the past tense of to catch), caught. A woman and her 
servant were trying to catch a horse, which continually eluded their 
efforts. A man coming by at the time said, ' Ho ! mistress, yon 
galloway has a varry bad fault ; yo cannot catch him.' To whom she 
replied, ' Ah ! master, he's a waur nor that ; he's nowt when he is 
catched. J 

Catlap, a name sometimes given to weak tea. 

Caussey (gl. kaus-i), a footpath. O.Fr., caussie. Occurs in Sir 
David Lindsay's Supplication in Contemplation of Side Tails : 


{ Wherever they go it may be seen 
How kirk and causay they soop clean.' 

Causey seems to be a paved footpath. Ancient Eomaii roads, which 
were always paved, are in many localities now called causeys; e.g., 
six miles south of Carlisle is an inn on the great Roman road always 
known by the name of ' Causey House.' Causeway is a corruption of 
this word, and ought to be abolished; the local form is the true 

Cavil, sb. a question in dispute. ' It used to be a cavil whether 
Christmas Day was one of the twelve or one of the twenty/ i. e. in 
reckoning for Twelfte'em (the Epiphany) and Twentite'em. 

Ceiling, not confined to the roof, but used for a partition, by which 
a portion of a room, &c. is said to be ' ceiled off.' 

Censioners. The judges at ringing matches are so called. Perhaps 
it is derived from censure, to judge, but I can find no trace of it 
in any glossary. Bell-ringing matches are common enough in this 
neighbourhood, and would be much more so were it not for the steady 
opposition of the clergy, who object to them on account of the 
disorder they sometimes cause. The people frequently take advantage 
of the appointment of an incumbent to a church which has a peal of 
bells, and get permission for a match not often refused under the 

Formerly each set of ringers had their own censioner, but now only 
two censioners are appointed, who are placed in a room isolated from 
other persons, listen to the ringing, mark the blunders, and give 
judgment. This room at Almondbury was in the top storey of 
a lofty house, and the windows were covered with whitewash, so that 
the censioners might not be informed, by any signal from outside, 
what set of ringers was performing. 

Centage, i. e. per centage. ' He ligg'd his brass theer, and gate six 
per cent, and that's a varry gooid centage.' This word is certainly 
admitted into the language, but falls in most harmoniously with the 
customs of the local dialect, rejoicing as it does in so many abbrevia- 
tions, some of which will be noticed in their places. 

Chamber, formerly Chaumber, now pronounced generally as usual. 
In the proper name Chambers it is still often Chaumbers. 

Chance child, an illegitimate child. Such a child is said to have 
been ' gotten in a raffle.' 

Change, with old people sometimes pronounced choinge, especially 
in money matters. Very common, I understand, at Holmfirth. 

Chap, a very common expression, used for man, person, &c. On one 
occasion a well-to-do manufacturer, to whom money was ' no object,' 
brought a boy to school as a boarder, and introduced me to the youth 
as follows : ' This is the chap 'at's to taiche thee ; tha mun maund 
what he ses ; and tha' 11 have to go to church, so tha mun behave 
thesen.' I must, however, observe that such an introduction never 


took place on any other occasion. Chap ranks lower than * man ' and 
higher than ' folly.' 

Charks, cracks in the hands ; chaps ; chilblains. 

Chalky. Said of a man in liquor. ' Tha a't getten varry charJcy,' 
alluding to his talking too much; possibly connected with the 

Checkstone, the name of a game played by children, similar to the 
dibs of the south and the talus of the Eomans. A set of checks con- 
sists of five cubes, each about half an inch at the edge, and a ball, the 
size of a moderate bagatelle ball ; all made of pot. They are called 
checkstones, and the game is thus played. You throw down the cubes 
all at once, then toss the ball, and during its being in the air gather 
up one stone in your right hand and catch the descending ball in the 
same. Put down the stone and repeat the operation, gathering two 
stones, then three, then four, till at last you have * sammed up ' all 
the five at once, and have succeeded in catching the ball. In case of 
failure you have to begin all over again. 

In Nashe's Lenten Stuffe (1599) occurs the following: 'Yet towards 
Cock-crowing she caught a little slumber, and then she dreamed that 
Leander and she were playing at checkstone with pearls in the bottom 
of the sea.' 

Cheese and bread, the expression generally used instead of bread 
and cheese. The tender shoots of the thorn used to be called cheese 
and bread. 

Cheet, to creak ; to chirp, &c. ' Shoes clieet as you walk.' Birds 
cheet, and it is said specially of a robin, as winter approaches. Halli- 
well gives the word ' cheep/ to chirp. If shoes cheet they are supposed 
not to have been paid for. Young pigeons, for about the four first 
weeks of their existence, are invariably called cheeters in Yorkshire 
' squeakers ' elsewhere. 

Chelter'd blood is clotted blood. 

Chersen (gl. kers'n), to christen. When a friend of mine was pass- 
ing over Cowms by the footway, a decent-looking woman called out, 
Hullo, hullo ! stop yo ! ' He pulled up. ' An't you Burton 
paarson ? ' * No.' ' Oh, Au thought yo had.' ' Why did you think 
so ? ' * Yo'd a black coit i' yer back lawk a paarson.' ' What did you 
want ? ' c Au wanted him to chersen a chauld.' 

Chersmas, or Chersmis (with ch as k), the pronunciation of 

Christmas. See Preface, ' Christmas.' 

Chesses, the forms for children to sit on in school. I have only met 
with this once. [The phrase ' three chesses or rowes ' occurs in Fitz- 
herbert's Husbandry (note to section 125, 1. 4), edited by me for the 
E. D. S. W. W. S.] 

Chevil hen, or Chivil hen, the smaller Eedpole, Fringilla linaria. 

Childer, children. 

Chin cough. See Kink cough. 


Chintz cat, a kind of (light ?) tortoiseshell cat. The yellow portion 
seems to be that specially called the chintz. A cat slightly spotted 
with yellow amongst her other marks was spoken of as having that 
' bit of chintz? It may, however, be the introduction of the yellow 
which forms the whole into a chintz. 

Chissup, to sneeze : a word evidently formed from the sound, but 
seems not to be much known. When a boy sneezes, another who 
happens to be near is likely enough to exclaim, ' Say your nominy ' 
(which see). The sneezer then says, 'Bob wood' (cloth, &c.), and 
touches some article of wood, cloth, &c., and thus proceeds : 

' Julius Csesar made a law, 

Augustus Caesar signed it, 
That every one that made a sneeze 
Should run away and find it.' 

He then whistles, though some whistle before. This has been a boy's 
custom for at least forty years. It is required to be known if of longer 

Chivs (gl. chivz), small scraps of dead branches. In Suffolk chife is 
a fragment, which seems to be the same word. 

Choosehow (pronounced choosehaa, or shooshaa). It means, ' under 
any circumstances,' and is usually placed last in a sentence, but not 
always. * He will have to do it choosehow,' i. e. whether he likes 
it or not. 

Choosewhat, whatever : used adjectively. * They cannot mak it 
grow gooid crops, choosewkat manure they put in.' 

Chrisamas, perhaps Christmas, or possibly ' Christenmesse,' as 
formerly spelt. 

Chrisom. (gl. kraus-m), still used in the local dialect, and probably 
signifies a pitiable object, such as a man reduced to a skeleton. The 
chrisom is understood to be properly the white cloth set on the head of 
a child newly anointed with chrism after baptism. The chrism itself 
is a mixture of oil and balsam consecrated by Roman Catholic bishops 
on Easter Eye for the ensuing year, and it is used not only in 
baptism, but in confirmation, extreme unction, and the coronation of 
kings. Halliwell says that in the bills of mortality chrisoms are such 
children as die within the month of birth, because during that time 
they used to wear the chrisom cloth. 

Chuck (gl. chuok), a word used in calling fowls to bed. In the 
Craven dialect it means a hen, and Hunter in his Hallamshire Glossary 
says, a chicken. Part of a turning-lathe is called a chuck. 

Chuffy, haughty ; proud ; puffed up, &c. In the east ' fat and 
fleshy.' In some parts ' clownish.' 

Chump (gl. chuomp), a block of wood, a tree root, or some other 
portion of a tree, sought for to be burnt on Nov. 5th. The boys go 
chumping for some time before that date, and lay in a large stock of 


Chumphead, a blockhead. 

Chunter (gl. chuont-ur), to j complain, growl, grumble, &c. ' If yo 
said aught to him he'd chunter like a bulldog.' In Devonshire * chowter ' 
is used in much the same sense. A man went once seeking work, 
and on being asked where he was going, said, 'Au'm baan i' seekin' 
wark, but for at Au pray 'at Au may find nooan ; but Au want a trifle 
o' spendin' brass, and yaar Jooeseph keeps chunter , chunter, chunter.' 

Churchmaster, i. e. churchwarden. This word is said to occur in 
certain legal instruments. 

Churchwarner, no doubt a corruption of churchwarden. These two 
last words are also used in Cumberland. 

Cinglet (pronounced cinglit), a waistcoat. Cingle is a horse-girth, 
and both words, in all likelihood, from cingulum, Latin, a girdle. 
Some persons, however, say the spelling should be Singlet (which see). 

Clag, the same as dog, as when dust causes machinery to move with 

Clam, or Clem, vb. (both active and neuter) to starve. Eay says, 
' clanid, starved, because by famine the bowels are, as it were, 
clammed, or stuck together ; sometimes it signifies thirsty, and we 
know in thirst the mouth is very often clammy.' Found in Ben 
Jonson's Every Man out of his Humour. 

Clap to. To clap to is to begin working. 

Clart, to slap smartly on the face. This is called ' clout ' in some parts 
of England, and seems, therefore, to suggest claat rather than dart. 
Forty years ago it was always claat. Clart seems to one who formerly 
knew the dialect well a modern corruption. 

Clarty-farty, moving briskly about ; frisking ; unsettled. Clarty 
in some parts of the county means dirty, with a degree of stickiness. 

Clave, the past tense of cleave in both its meanings, to split and to 
adhere to. Occurs in Ruth i. 14 : ' Orpah kissed her mother-in-law ; 
but Ruth clave unto her.' 

Gleam (pronounced as if tleam). to cause to adhere, or stick to. 
' The wind was so strong it cleam'd me to the wall.' ' Gleam me 
a buttershauve,' i. e. spread me a slice of bread and butter. This 
mode of pronouncing c before I as t is indicated frequently in the 
Tale of Natter in Nan, ver. 6 : 

' Yee've seen that dolt o' mucky tlay (clay) 

0' t' face o' Pudsa Doas, 
T' owd madlin's worn it all his life 
An fancied it a noas.' 

A similar pronunciation of d for g before I is supposed to take place, 
for which see the same amusing poem, last verse but one : 

' " Tha'll coom ta t' berrin ? " " Yus," says Ah ; 
" Ah sail be varry dlad." ' 


And such substitutes are no doubt more common than this glossary 
intimates. I have marked it only in the word particularly pointed 
out to me. 

Cleek, to catch hold of; to snatch. 

Cleg, the grey horse-fly : but the word not much known here. 

Cletch, a brood of chickens, ducklings, &c. 

Clever, sharp, or brisk, bodily as well as mentally. * He's a clever 
looking child,' i. e. looks active. 

Clicks, sb. the hooks used for moving packs of wool. 

Clock, vb. n. to cluck. A clocking hen = a brooding hen, a hen 
desirous of sitting before the eggs are given her. 

Clocks, beetles, chafers, &c. 

Clogs, shoes with wooden soles, still much worn : they are particu- 
larly useful in the factories where dyeing is going on. 

Cloise, or Clols, a close, or field. 

Cloke (spelling doubtful), the nail or claw of a cat. Cluke in the 
same sense is found in the Upland Mouse and the Burgess Mouse : 

' And up in haste behind a parralling 

She clam so high that Gilbert might not get her, 
Syne by the duke there craftily can hing 

Till he was gane, her cheer was all the better.' 1L 176- -179. 

Gilbert was the cat. 

Trefoil is called catduke, from its fancied resemblance to a cat's 
paw. See G. Douglas's Prologue to 12th Book of Virgil's sEneid, 1. 
116, Skeat's edition of Specimens of English Literature: l The clavyr, 
catduke, and the cammamyld,' i. e. clover, trefoil, and camomile. 

Cloke, to scratch. ' The cat cloked me/ i. e. clawed or scratted me. 
Clouch in Lincolnshire is to catch, or clutch. 

dough, (pronounced duff), a ravine, or narrow glen. Much used in 
names of localities, as Dijdough, Clough Hall, &c. Connected with 
cleave. Above Marsden the word is doos. 

Clowen, past participle of cleave. 

dumb (pronounced clum), past participle of climb. 

Cluther. ' Folks clutlier round t' fire i' winter.' 

Cobble, to stone, or throw a stone. No doubt derived from cobble, 
a round stone. 

Cobbler, a piece of cloth which has to be finished over again. 
Cobbler, or Cobblin, a large coal. 
Cockaloft, high up ; puffed up ; conceited. 


Cocker, conceit. 

Cocker, vb. to pamper. 

Cockerate, to brag. ' He wanted to cockerate ovver me.' 

Cocket, merry, &c. Halliwell says swaggering or pert ; Ray says 
brisk, malapert. 

Cockled (pronounced cockl'd), said of worsted cloth which has gone 
into lumps. 

Cocklety, applied to what is likely to tumble or fall off. ' A woman 
a' horseback is a cocklety sort on a thing.' 

Cockstangs, i. e. haycock stangs, two sticks, or poles, used to con- 
vey haycocks in dearth of carts, or when the ground was too steep for 
a cart to be used. 

Cod, or Codde, a pillow, or cushion. It seems rather uncertain 
whether this word has been known in the dialect of late years. One 
person asserts it was certainly used in the above sense about thirty- 
five or forty years ago ; another, who is an older man, declares he 
has no recollection of it. A horsecodde is a horse-collar ; and apeascod, 
or peacod, is so called from its resemblance to a pillow. 

Coddar, or Codder, a saddler or harness-maker. 

Coddar, or Codder, the name given to a football, but apparently 
passing out of use, though still well known. See Preface, ' Football. 1 

Cogglin, *' e - co ooli n o j perhaps cockling, likely to fall off. 

Coil, the pronunciation of the word coal. See Letters Oa (2) and Oe. 
Hunter says, ' In a lease of the prior of Bretton to a Wentworth 
in the reign of Henry VII. the word is throughout written 
coytte.' In ' Creatio ' (Towneley Mysteries) one of the demons says, 
' Now are waxen blak as any coylle. 3 But after all these passages 
only prove that the word was pronounced then as now in this neigh- 
bourhood, and that these were simply instances of phonetic spelling, 
for coal occurs in the Early English Psalter, Ps. xvii. 9, spelt kole : 
' Koles that ware dounfalland ' (falling down). 

Coit, the pronunciation of coat ; also of cote for pigeons, &c. When 
George Lord Dartmouth came into possession of the Woodsome estate, 
he visited that portion near the Grammar School, went into a farm- 
yard, and began to cross over the land. The farmer, seeing a tres- 
passer, a stranger to him, went to his door and called out, ' Hullo ! 
hey ! coom thee back ; a felly with a gooid wit on lauk thee owt to 
know better nor to trespass on folks's land ! ' His lordship craved 
pardon and withdrew. When the tenant afterwards learnt it was his 
landlord, he was much troubled, but the matter passed over. 

Cold pig, a term used by manufacturers for returned goods which 
hang upon hand ; also by newsagents in case of a surplus of news- 
papers, magazines, &c. Pouring water over any one in bed is ' treating 
him to cold pig.' 


Collop, or Collup, a slice of any meat, especially a rasher of bacon. 
Occurs in Job xv. 27 : * And maketh collops of fat on his flanks/ 
Also see Dunbar's Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins : 

' Him followed mony foul drunkart 
With can and collop, caup and quart, 
In surfeit and excess.' 

Collop Monday, the day before Shrove Tuesday, here called 
Fastens Tuesday. On this day eggs and slices of bacon form the 
staple dish. Sometimes children call and beg for collops. 

Combs (pronounced cums), sprouts or husks from malt. 
Come thank. See Cum thank. 

Commydick, a clay marble somewhat despised by the boys ; no 
doubt the same as the commoney of Master Bardell. 

Connywest, adj. sheep's-eyed ; sidelong ; shy, &c. ; used also when a 
person squints a little, adv. slily. ' He' s a connywest sort on a chap 
hasn't a word for nobody.' Perhaps the word is cannywest, for 
canny hinny in some parts means a sly person. 

Considered, used peculiarly for resolved, determined, concluded, 
&c. ' I have considered to take the place ; ' ' I have considered to do as 
you wished me.' ; 

Cooil, adj. cool, or cold. The verb to cool is keel (which see). 

Co-operation, a word used by mistake for ' corporation.' For many 
years ' co-operative stores ' have been familiar to this neighbourhood, 
but Huddersfield has only been incorporated a short time. The word 
' corporation ' is therefore comparatively new, and the well-known 
co-operation does duty for it. Certainly a worse mistake might be 

Cop, to catch, or detect. * Au copt him doin' it.' A cricket-ball is 
copt ; so is a bird if hit with a stone. * Au've gotten copt fair i ; t' 

Cop, or Coppin, the yam which is spun on to the spindle. 

Cope, used sometimes when a person offers or answers a challenge 
in wrestling, fighting, &c., and is equivalent to Til try what I can 
do with thee.' 

Corkey, half -seas over. In some parts of England this word means 
' offended.' 

Corn. To carry corn. ' He cannot carry corn ' is said of one who has 
got above his business, or who misbehaves when elevated by good 

Cornish, i. e. cornice ; the mantelshelf is so called. 

Cote (pronounced coit), a pigeon-house ; a pig-sty : which latter is 
called a pigcoit. 


Cots and Twys, the present name of a game played by boys ; really 
the designation of two kinds of buttons. The cot was a button off the 
waistcoat or trousers; the twy one off the coat, and, as its name 
implies, was equal to two cots. Formerly, when cash was much more 
rare than now it is amongst boys, these formed their current coin, 
with which they dealt in birds' eggs and other such matters as are 
interesting to youths ; and in these consisted their wealth. 

The game about 1820 seems to have been chiefly one of tossing, and 
was played with buttons, then common enough. Now, metal buttons 
being rare, it is played with pieces of brass or copper of any shape, 
and is a game of skill, in which the element of chance is almost 
entirely absent. 

Each player first selects a cast, or stone to pitch with ; on another 
stone called the hob the cots and twys are placed ; at some distance 
scops are set in the ground. 

First of all they pitch from the hob to the scop, and the one who 
gets nearest goes first. He then pitches at the hob, and if he knocks 
off the stakes he has them, provided his cast is nearer to them, than 
the hob is ; in failure of this, the other player tries. In pitching up, 
one cast may rest on another, and if the boy whose stone is under- 
neath can lift it up to knock the other cast away, it has to remain at 
the place to which it has been struck ; if he does not succeed in doing 
this, the second player may lift off his cast, and place it by the side of 
the first. Whoever knocks off the stakes, they go to the boy whose 
cast is nearest to them. The hob and scop are usually three yards 
apart. The expression, ' I haven't a cot ' is sometimes used to signify 
that a person is without money. 

Cotteril, a small iron pin for fastening a bolt. Halliwell says 'a 
small round iron plate in the nut of a wheel.' The word 'cots' of 
' cots and twys ' being originally buttons, i. e. circular pieces of metal, 
must evidently be connected with this word. 

Conk (pronounced as spelt, with ou as in out\ a cinder. 

Coul (by some pronounced as spelt, i. e. the ou like ow in cow ; by 
others as though coal, or cole), to scrape up the dirt off roads, &c. 

Collier. The true pronunciation of coul will of course affect this 
word also. It is the name of the instrument used in scraping the 

Coulrake. This word is variously pronounced con? rake, colerake, 
and co'rake. It is an instrument similar to the above, and used 
chiefly for drawing coals upon the fire; many think it derives its 
name from this circumstance, but that could hardly be, because then 
its name would probably have been coilrake, to follow the pronuncia- 
tion of the word coil (i. e. coal). On the other hand, Hunter, in his 
Hallamshire Glossary, calls the word courake, and thinks it must be 
formed from couk and rake. Both I conceive to be errors, for there 
can be no doubt that the first syllable of the word is coul, to scrape up. 

Counsel (pronounced caansel), to gain the affections of. 

Counsel, sb. likeness. ' He's the very counsel of him,' i. e. very 
much like him. 


Cousin (not pronounced coz'n, or cuz'n, as in standard English, but 
distinctly cuzin, the i being well sounded. See Letter I. In this 
case the Yorkshire pronunciation is the more precise). When first 
cousins marry there is a saying here that the union will be healthless, 
wealthless, or childless. I heard this many years ago, but have no 
means of knowing how old the idea may be. Such marriages are not 
forbidden by the Mosaic law, nevertheless there seems to be an 
impression that they are not expedient. Combe, in his Constitution 
of Man, ch. v. 2, says, * Another organic law of the animal king- 
dom deserves attention, namely, that by which marriages between 
blood-relations tend decidedly to the deterioration of the physical 
and mental qualities of the offspring ; ' and much more to the same 

Coverable (pronounced cooverable), used for recoverable (of money 
risked, owed, &c.). See 'Posit, 'Liver, 'Plain, &c. 

Cow, pronounced cad. 

Cowbanger, one who looks after cows. 

Cower (pronounced caar), to crouch down. Halliwell spells it coure. 
Hunter, who spells cower, as above, says, * To cower down is to reduce 
the height as much as possible while still standing on the feet.' He 
gives a reference to 2 Henry VI. , Act III. so. ii. : 

' The splitting rocks cowered in the sinking sands. ' 

It is also expressively employed to signify the act of bankruptcy, 
but is then used without the word down. 

Cowlady, the lady-cow, or lady-bird. The following is the local 
' nominy ' : 

Cowlady, Cowlady, hie thee way whum I 
Thy haase is afire, thy childer all gone ; 
All but poor Nancy set under a pan, 
Wavin' (i. e. weaving) gold lace as fast as sho can. ' 

Note the employment of poor Nancy in the general labour of the dis- 
trict; not that they weave gold lace, though, if the glittering equipages 
of people who were labourers half a generation since be taken into 
account, the idea of gold weaving is not so fanciful after all, and the 
local versifier has not gone so much out of the way as poets are wont 
to do. 

Cowlick, a rness for cows, composed of chopped roots, grains, bran- 
meal, &c. 

Craasing (probably crousing), said of female cats caterwauling at 
the time of breeding. I have heard this word often, but seen it in no 
book. See Grouse. 

Crack, to boast. Found in Shakespere's Love's Labour's Lost. 

1 Siche wryers and wragers gose to and fro For to crak.' 

1 Prima Pastorum,' Towneley Mysteries. 


Craddock, said of a woman when confined, but seems not much 

Craig, or Craigh, the craw, or crop, of a fowl. Crag in the eastern 

counties is used in the same sense. 

Crammle (pronounced as written), to twitch, or squeeze, into a small 
compass. Thus a shoe is crammled down at the heel. It also means 
to hobble, or creep, in walking. 

Crampy, rheumatic. * Sho's crampier nor ivver,' i. e. more rheumatic 
than ever. 

Cranky, in a bad temper. 

Craps, the renderings of lard. The same as scraps in the south ; 
but not used for scraps of other things. 

Crash, cress. A hawker of this vegetable (1874) was in the habit 
of calling out ' Watter-cras/?.' 

Cratch, the cradle which glaziers use ; also, figuratively, the stomach. 
It is the name of the clog, or table, on which pigs are killed ; and 
wreets (wrights) use a cratch to chop on. 

Craw, the pronunciation of the word crow. 

Crazelty (a as in grass), the same as cranky in the sense of infirm, 
or dilapidated. It is said of a sick person, or one out of sorts ; and a 
gate ready to fall to pieces is crazelty. 

Creel (called also Reel), a kind of rack, or wooden framework, on 
which the oatcake is placed to dry. It usually hangs suspended from 
the roof of the kitchen over the hearth. See Bread-reel. 

Cronck, or Cronk, to sit quiet huddled up in a slinking or crouch- 
ing way. Halliwell gives it the meaning of ' to perch.' Miners and 
colliers will ' cronk daan i' th' cabin for a taum, when they come aat 
o' th' pit.' 

Croodle, much the same as Cronck. 

Cropper, a workman in the factories whose business it was to crop, 
or dress, the cloth with shears. 

Croppy, proud ; like a cropper pigeon in appearance. 

Grouse, bold; brave; lively. As in Peebles to the Play, st. 10 : 

' Ane spak in wourdis wonder crous, 

Adone with ane mischance.' 
See Craasing. 

Crozzle (pronounced crozzil), usually applied to signify a hard cinder 
found in furnaces. Halliwell and Hunter both say ' half-burnt 
coals,' which would here generally be called conks, or cinders. The 
word, however (as well as Crozzlin), is used to signify that kind of 
cinder which starts out of the fire, and by its resemblance to a coffin, 
cradle, purse, &c., is supposed to prognosticate certain future events. 


At the time when leather breeches were commonly worn, a prentice 
lad had got wet, and over night actually placed his small-clothes in 
the oven to dry. In the early morning he went downstairs, and 
speedily came running back with a handful of matter which looked 
like a large brown cinder, calling out to his brother apprentice, * Ho ! 
Jooa, Au conna get ma' breeches on ! ' ' What for, lad ? arn't they 
dra ? ' ' Dra and dra ! all draued to a crozzil, all but buttons and 

Crozzlin, the diminutive of Crozzle, and signifies a little hard cinder. 
Cruddle, to curdle. 

Cruddlestaff, i. e. curdlestaff, otherwise the handle of the churn. A 
respectable and well-known individual of the neighbourhood, when 
on one occasion they could not make the butter churn, caused a new 
cruddlestaff to be made of wigyin to withstand the witch, supposed to 
be at the bottom of the churn, or at least of the mischief. 

Crut, a hut, or small cot. In some parts means a dwarf. 

Cuckoo-point, the name of the well-known plant Arum maculaium. 
It is also called 'Lords and Ladies,' 'Priest's pintle,' and 'Wake 

Cuckoo-spit, or Cuckoo-spittle. See Brock. Cuckoo-spit occurs in 
Eobert Greene's A Quip for an Upstart^ Courtier : ' There was the 
gentle gilliflower, that wives should wear, if they were not too froward ; 
and loyal lavender, but that was full of cuckoo-spits.' 

Cum thank, peculiarly used in the expression, still frequently heard, 
' I cum ye no thank,' i. e. I acknowledge no thanks to you ; where 
come or cum seems a mistake or corruption of con, having the meaning 
of < know ' in the sense of ' to acknowledge.' It occurs in Eobin Hood, 
Pytte iv. ver. 36 : 

c And thou art made her messengere, 

My money for to pay, 
Therefore I con thee more tliank 

Thou art come at thy day.' 

A certain person had the misfortune some years ago, perhaps 
unwittingly, to appropriate moneys illegally, was tried for the offence, 
and was in danger of transportation. A friend of mine busied himself 
in getting up a memorial to the court, in which the prisoner was 
stated (truly enough) to be of weak intellect. In consequence hip 
sentence was commuted to twelve months' imprisonment. Some 
years afterwards the grateful prisoner took advantage of the memorial- 
ist in a trading transaction, and when he was naturally reproached 
for his ingratitude, he retorted, ' Au come ye no thank for what yo did 
for me, nouther yo nor them 'at signed yor paper ; yo made me into 
an eediot, or waur ; it's takk'n away mi' character. ^ Au'd rather ha' 
been sent yat o' th' country nor made into an eediot.' 

Curing-drops, the last drops of medicine in a glass : obviously so 
called to entice children to take off their doses. 

Currans, or Currant-berries, currants. 


Cuss (pronounced coos, sharp ; gl. kuos), a kiss. 

Glisten (pronounced cussen), cast. ' Cussen iron ' is cast iron ; earth 
thrown into a hole or pit is ' cussen earth ' ; also the sky when clouded 
is ' owercussen.' In the form of casten it is found in the Ballad of 
Young Beiclian, ver. 4 : 

' They've casten him in dungeon deep, 
"Where he could neither hear nor see.' 

Cut, a canal. The Huddersfield and Manchester canal was so called 
when it was first made, in or about 1814, and is so still by some. 

Cut. When a warp is long enough to form two or three pieces, each 
one as cut out and taken to the shop is called a cut. 

Cuts. ' To draw cuts ' is to draw lots. See Chaucer's Canterbury 
Tales, ' The Pardoner's Tale ' : 

* Wherefore I rede that cut among us alle 
We draw, and let see wher the cut wol falle ; 
And he that hath the cut with herte blithe, 
Shall runnen to the toun and that ful s withe.' 

Cirttle (gl. kuot.l), vb. to fold cloth in the following manner. First 
a small portion is doubled, then another upon it (not round it), and 
so on until it is all doubled up ; finally wrap the end, left first or 
last, round all. The reasons for adopting this mode are, that the 
cloth is supposed to keep best ; it is easier to unfold for show purposes ; 
it piles best. 


When the letter d is doubled the second is softened in a peculiar way 
into th. Thus Huddersfield is by some called Huthersfield (as I have 
eeen it spelt), or Hudthersfield. 

Also when the d is fjnal the same change takes place, as Brudforth 
for Bradford, and Bedforth for Bedford. There appears to have been 
always this tendency in the language, and in some words the change 
remains to this time ; thus in Robin Hood we find feders, gadred, 
togeder, thydqr, &c., which have become feathers, gathered, together, and 
thither; also fader for father in Chaucer, The Knight's Tale. 

On the other hand, hondreth is found for hundred in Robin Hood, 
and elsewhere. So murder was formerly murther, &c. 

D is also sometimes used for t, as bad, bud, mud, &c., for bat, but, 
might, &c. 

Daak daan, to duck down. 

Daasted, i. e. dowsted, or what is elsewhere called ' dows'd.' ' He'll 
get weel daasted ' (with rain) ' before he gets back.' 

Daft, adj. foolish ; stupid, &c. : connected with da/, to daunt, and 
daffe, a fool. Daft is for da/ed. 


Dagger, a word used as an oath : ' By dagger ! ' Also as an exela- 
mation : ' What the dagger ' (sometimes daggermenf) ' art ta doin ? ' and 
so on. 

Damp, offensive fumes from hot coals. Used in a similar way in 
the words fire-damp, choke-damp. 

Dampy, adj. damp ; moist, &c. 

Damstakes, the inclined plane, built of stones, or otherwise, over 
which flows the excess of water beyond what is necessary for the 

Dance, pronounced donee, or doniz. See Letter A (3). 
Dark, blind : said of persons who have lost their sight. 
Dateless, heedless ; stupid ; without sense. 

Baud, or Daudy (pronounced Doad), the nickname for George. I 
had originally written the word Doad, according to the sound I heard ; 
but I noted Halliwell's spelling, and remembering that Saul and Paul 
are called Sole and Pole, I have thought it better to spell as above. 
Soul itself is frequently called sowl to rhyme to fowl. 

Dawgy, soft ; flabby. Used of under-done bread, &c. 
Dawkin, a slut. See Dule. 

Day tie, or Day tall (pronounced dayfl), a man who works by the 
day, frequently changing his master. The word occurs in Tristram 
Shandy, where it is written daytall. It stands for day-tale. 

Deaf, pronounced as two syllables. See Letter Eea. So tea, 
fled, &c. 

Deaf-yed, stupid head ; a dull fellow. 

Dean, i. e. dearn (r silent). A 'yate dean' is a stone gate-post. See 
Dearn in Halliwell. 

Deem, to doom, judge, condemn. Used chiefly of a magistrate in 
some such form as this : * The chairman deemed him to pay a five 
shilling fine.' 

Deewark, or Dewark, i. e. a day-work : a term often used to mean 
' three-quarters of an acre,' that being about what a man may mow in 
a day. The word is employed when no allusion to mowing is made. 

Deg, to wet with water ; the same as to * leek/ or sprinkle. ' Get 
them clothes degged.' In some parts the form is dag; to 'leek,' 
however, is more usual here. 

Delf, a stone quarry ; a place where stone is delved. 

Delf-case, the sideboard on which the crockery, &c. are displayed, 

Delve, to dig. 

Demic, i. e. epidemic. So liver for deliver, posit for deposit, &c. 
A diseased potato is * a demicttd un.' This mode of abbreviation is 

D 2 


very popular here, especially in proper names ; in such cases, how- 
ever, the latter part of the word is usually removed, and not the 
former, as above. Thus Donk for Donkersley, Crab for Crabtree, Jenk 
for Jenkinson, Mac for Macdpnald, Tat for Tatterson, and many others. 
I have been told of one instance in which the abbreviation caused 
considerable annoyance. A gentleman took to wife a lady with the 
classical but uncommon name of Persephone (the name I have changed 
to save the feelings of the family). This word took the popular 
fancy, and the lady was incontinently called Mrs. Sephony ; by and 
by her daughters and husband became the Miss Sephonys and Mr. 
Sephony. In short they found it advisable to seek another place of 
residence. An instance somewhat similar came within my own know- 
ledge. The lady in this case had a Scripture name say Kesiah. 
They were people of wealth and station, but the natives would speak 
of her as ' Kesiah,' and the boys were * Kesiah lads.' 

Devil (otherwise the 'fearnought/ the 'willow,' or 'willy,' but now 
generally called the ' teaser '), a rapidly-revolving machine for tear- 
ing the wool. Should a person be caught by its spikes, which now 
and then happens, 1 he injuries inflicted are frightful; hence, no 
doubt, the name. Formerly this machine was called a ' shoggy.' 

Devil on all sides, the common ranunculus, R. arvensis. So called 
from the hooks which surround the seeds and cause some difficulty in 
separating them from the grains of corn. 

Diabolion. Formerly, when witchery was more in vogue than now, 
the above singular cognomen was given to a then well-known dabbler 
in the black art, *'. e. on state occasions ; ordinarily he was spoken of 
as ' Old Di.' 

Dick, plain pudding. If with treacle sauce, treacle dick. See Lumpy 

Dick, a kind of apron such as worn by shoemakers, especially a 
leather one, which was called a ' leather dick.' The acquisition of one 
of these used to be a great object of ambition with Almondbury lads ; 
they regarded it as a kind of toga virilis. Girls also wore them ; and 
a lass having got hers very wet, went close to the fire to dry it ; of 
course it curled up, and she called out in some surprise that it was 
' frozzen.' 

Dike, or Dyke (pronounced dauk), the old form of the word ditch. 
In Robin Hood, Fytte vi. ver. 25, the word seems to be undergoing its 
transformation : 

' Some there were good bowes ibent 

Mo than seven score ; 
Hedge ne dyche spared they none, 
That was therein before.' 

Dike and ditch, however, must not be regarded as exactly equivalent, 
for the former means (besides what is ordinarily called a ditch) a 
watercourse or stream, as Eushfield Dyke, Fenay Bridge Dyke, Denby 
Dyke, &c., all fast-flowing water. If this circumstance had been 
considered the well-known Dyke-end Lane of Huddersfield, which 


meant something by no means disagreeable, would not have been 
converted into Portland Street, which, though perhaps a word more 
pleasing to the ear, has the disadvantage of meaning little or nothing 
as connected with the street called by that name. 

Din, common for ' noise.' ' Hod thi' din' is 'hold your nois^,' or 
' be quiet.' See Willie and May Margaret, ver. 13 : 

' For my mither she is fast asleep, 
And I maun mak' nae din.' 

Ding in, to stir in, as of barm into liquor ; or generally to impress a 
thing on any one. 

Dither, to thrill, shake, or shiver : as when one has become well 
chilled with cold in the open air, he will go into the house dithering. 

Dizzle, i. e. drizzle (as rain). Note the elision of the r. See 
Letter B. 

Do, sb. a merry-making or festivity, &c. A successful meeting or 
feast would be called ' a good do. 1 

Dob, a pony. 

Dock, or Docken, a common plant, the Rumex vulgaris. 

Doff, vb. to do off, or put off. Very common. 

Doffed (pronounced doffd or doft), stripped or unclothed. ' The lads 
ran across the field doffed," 1 i. e. naked. 

Dognauper, Dognoper, or Dogknoper, a name given to a beadle or 
inferior sexton ; in some parts called a dograpper. This name is also 
given to a short staff with a thong, used for self-defence. 

Dogsoap, black bituminous shale of the coal-measures. It may be 
found in dike bottoms, and looks like a kind of blue slate. Boys have 
sometimes used it for slate-pencil. 

Dogstalk, Dogstandard, or Dogstanders, the plant ragwort, 
Senecio Jacobcva. 

Doidy. See Doy. 
Dollum'd, soiled. 
Dollums, a slattern. 
Dolly. See Peggy. 

Dolly, a term of contempt for a woman. ' He's got a maungy dolly 
for a wife,' i. e. one of little value, either for use or ornament. 

Don, ?;. e. do on ; to put on. ' He donn'd him ' = ' he dressed him- 
self.' It is peculiar to the dialect frequently to omit the word * self ' 
in such sentences as the above ; thus, ' Au'll waish me ' means ' I'll 
wash myself.' This word, or rather the past tense of it, in its pro- 
gressive form, occurs in Robin Hood, Fytte viii. ver. 4 : 


' The kynge kest of his cote then, 
A grene garment he dyde on, 
And every knyght had so, I wys, 
They clothed them full soone.' 

Deor (pronounced doo-er). ' To keep t' door oppen/ or ' to swing t' 
door,' are phrases both meaning to pay the expenses of the house. 

Doorchesks, the side-posts of the door. 

Doorhoil, i. e. door-hole, the doorway. 

Door stead (pronounced dooerstead), the place where the door stands. 

Doorstone (pronounced dooerst'n), the flag outside the door. 

Dorm, vb. to doze. 

Dorm, sb. a kind of half sleep or cat sleep. A woman speaking of 
her sick child, said, ' Last neet he fell into a dorm, and then he 
wakken'd, and said his prayers, and Au thowt it were varry gooid.' 

Dotterel (pronounced dotteril), a bird of the plover genus, said to be 
easily caught : used here formerly to signify a foolish person. 

Doubler, a pie-dish ; a g?eat dish or platter : it may be of clay. 
Hunter says ' a pewter dish,' and spells it dubbler. A * shoal dubbler ' 
is a ' shallow dish.' 

Doubt, vb. used in the sense of fear. ' I doubt it will rain ; ' ' I doubt 
he will never get over it.' 

Dough, pronounced dofe [doaf], or by some dooqf. 

Doughy, pronounced dofy [doaf'i]. 

Downfall, a fall of rain or snow. 

Downliggin, a lying-in. 

Down-spirited, low-spirited. 

Dowsted. See Daasted. 

Doy, or Doidy, a term of endearment. Perhaps a softened form of 
the word joy, which is also used in the same way in speaking of one 
beloved. The word doy is used chiefly to children, but might be said 
to a kitten or any small pet. 

Draff, grains after brewing, or wash for hogs. See Peebles to the 
Play, 11. 137139 : 

'Thereby lay three and thirty swine 
Thrunland in a middin of draff? 

i. e. trundling or rolling in a heap of grains. 
Drake, used in the same sense as Drate, which see. 

Drakes, the mark from which boys begin to taw at marbles. Tina 
is also called dregs. 


Drape, a cow which, has borne one or more calves, hut whose milk is 
dried up, and is likely to have no more. Eay has the word. Halli- 
well says ' a barren cow.' 

Drate, or Draight (perhaps connected with the word draw), to 
drawl. ' Slow drating ' is applied to a speaker or preacher who 
drawls. It is perhaps remarkable that this people, fond of abbrevia- 
tion as they undoubtedly are (see Byname), should be BO given to 
drating in their conversation. 

At the time when Napoleon threatened to invade England, in 1803 
or 1804, a beacon was placed on Castle Hill ; a hut was built near, 
and watch was kept by one or two soldiers. One of these happened 
to be in a public-house in Almondbury when two of the natives were 
there, who, with a laudable curiosity, desired to know from what dis- 
trict the soldier hailed, when the following colloquy took place : 
Native No. 1, ' And wheer do yo come thro' ? ' Soldier, in a smart, 
decisive tone, ' I come from Hull, sir ; ' and the question and answer 
were repeated in much the same form. Foiled in his attempt to 
understand the gentleman, who spoke Dutch (which see), Native 
No. 1 turned to No. 2, and exclaimed, ' Wat ses he ? Where dus 
t' felly say he cums thro' ? ' Then No. 2, as though his friend were 
deaf, bawled out, ' He ses he cooms thro' Ho-o-o-o-ol.' 

Drake is sometimes used in the same sense as drate, and, if not 
connected with that word, is probably derived from draw. 

Drate-hoil, or Draight-hoil, i. e. the draught-hole behind the fire- 

Drave, the past tense of to drive. Occurs in 1 Chron. xiii. 7 : ' And 
Uzza and Ahio drave the cart ; ' also Judges i. 19. 

Draze, or Draeze, a large flat broom, made with a hurdle and brush- 
wood, to brush manure into the ground. 

Draze, vb. to use the above. 

Dree, long; tiresome; tedious. 'A dree road,' 'a dree job/ &c. A 
very old and common word. [From A.S. dreogan, to endure : a well- 
known word in Scotch. W. W. S.] 

Dregs. See Drakes. 

Drence, a former pronunciation of the word drench. 

Drinking, a tea or meal between chief meals. A luncheon is a 
1 forenoon drinking? 

Drinking water, i. e. water for drinking is curiously spoken of as 
' eating water.' 

Druffen, and Drukken, both forms of drunken. Young folks at 
Golcar and old folks at Lepton have been heard to use the former 
term. The latter at Golcar is sometimes pronounced by old people as 
druchen, rather guttural. Both words are well known at Almond- 
bury. [Of. Icel. drukkinn, drunken, tipsy. W. W. S.] 

Drufty, droughty ; dry. ' A drvfty day,' a good day for drying 
clothes on. 


Drysides, the word well known, but the meaning not precisely 
denned. Some say ' a witty or humorous man, ' others ' a grasper.' 

Dubs, i. e. doubles. When boys shoot at marbles in a ring and 
knock out more than one, they have to put the rest back unless they 
cry dubs. 

Dudmanstone, ths proper name of a place near Honley, usually, but 
erroneously, called Deadmanstone. A. ' dudman ' is a scarecrow, or 
ragged fellow, and ' duds ' are rags or clothes. Gunning, in his 
Reminiscences of Cambridge, vol. i. p. 169, says, speaking of Stourbridge 
Fair, 'Another row of booths was called "The Duddesy." These 
contained woollen cloths from Yorkshire and the western counties of 
England.' The word dudds occurs in Peebles to the Play, 1. 35 : 

' Among you merchants my dudds do,' &c. 

Duff, vb. neut. to be afraid ; also vb. act. to frighten. ' Tha's duffd 
on it,' i. e. given in. 

Duff, or Duffer, one short of pluck ; a coward, or fool. [Duff is a 
variation of O.Bng. daffe. ' Thou doted daffe ' occurs in Piers Plow- 
man, B. 1. 138. W. W. S.] This is comparatively a new word in 
this district. 

Dule, devil, or daemon. The word is not much used now, but the 
proverb is well known, * Better have a dule nor a dawkin,' i. e. an 
evil spirit than a fool. This saying probably originated with one who 
had suffered only from the ' dawkin.' 

Dun, used for do in interrogative sentences. ' Dun yo think sooa ? ' 
i. e. ' Do you think so ? ' 

Dunneck, or Dunnock, the Hedge-sparrow, Accentor modularis. 
[The word means the little dun bird. W. W. S.] 

Dusk o' dark, an expression used for the faint light just before night 

Dutch, sb. and adj. language scientific, technical, or otherwise which 
cannot be easily understood. * To talk Dutch ' is to speak in a more 
refined tongue than the ordinary dialect. The phrase ' as Dutch as a 
mastiff ' is used of one who has done some mischief and assumes the 
air of innocence. In the south I have heard it said of children, when 
they gabble in the unknown tongue of childhood, that they talk 
Double Dutch. 

Dyke. See Dike. 


Ea. When this combination of vowels occurs it generally forms two 
syllables, where in classical English it forms but one ; thus, bread, 
deaf, flea, lead (sb. and vb.), sweat, tea, wheat, &c. But breadth and 


read are pronounced as usual ; also swear, though some say sweiir. 
Speak is spake. 

Earth, pronounced yerth. 
Easter, pronounced Tester. 
E'e, the eye. 

E'em, even, or evening. Not used much now alone, but occurs in 
the words Twelfte'em and Twentite 'em. 

E'en, i. e. t eyen,' the eyes. When I first came into this neighbour- 
hood the following sentence was proposed to me as a puzzle, more 
difficult to the ear than to the eye : ' Bang her amang her e'en,' i. e. 
* Hit her between her eyes.' Now though the words be good of them- 
selves, I am disposed to doubt whether they were ever so used, except 
as above mentioned. The above was said to be a Skeldmanthorpe 
' nominy.' ' Her ' is independent of gender, and means ' him.' 

Eh, interj. very common (pronounced as a in mate) ; used much as 
oh in the south. But when pronounced as ee in meet it expresses 
great delight or surprise. If a crowd of Yorkshire boys of this district 
were looking on at an exhibition of fireworks, and a flight of a 
hundred rockets went up together, the general exclamation would be 
Ee-ee-ee, continued for some seconds. 

Either, pronounced anther or other. It has been said that the ques- 
tion was once put to an honest Yorkshireman whether this word 
should be pronounced eether or tther, who gravely decided, ' Other '11 

Elder. See Helder. 

Element, usually spoken of as ' th' element,' i. e. the sky, or atmo- 
sphere. [Found in Shakespere and in North's Plutarch. W. W. S.] 

Ellentree (pronounced ellmtree), the elder. 

Eller, keen. It seems, however, very little known. 

Elsen, or Elsin, a cobbler's awl. See Fray o' Suport, ver. 8 : 

* Hoo ! hoo ! gar raise the Eeid Souter, and Eingan's "Wat, 
Wi' a broad elshin and a wicker ; 
I wat weil they'll mak' a ford sicker ' 

t. e. with a broad awl and a switch for weapons they will make a ford 
sure. Of. utch els, an awl. 

Elsen, or Elsin, has another meaning not well defined. When 
something has been eaten with too much pepper and salt, which 
therefore bites the tongue, it is frequently said, 'It is as keen as 
elsin.' If then the elsin were not originally an awl, it must have been 
something sharp and pricking. See above. 


Emang, i. e. ' araang,' or among. The e sound in this word is some- 
times very distinctly heard. [Of. A.S. gemang. W. W. S.] 

Etten, the pronunciation of eaten. 
Ever, pronounced ivver. 

Faal, the pronunciation of foul, which word usually means ugly 
rather than dirty. See Allys. [Of. G. faul.W. W. S.] 

Faan, or Fan, the pronunciation of found ; past tense of to find. The 
latter form is the hetter. 

Fadge, a bundle of cloth, wool, &c., fitted into a pack-sheet, and 
fastened with skewers, usually four inches long. The word not much 
used now. Halliwell says 'a bundle, or fagot.' When cloth was 
packed in this way it was arranged in long cuttles, fitted within the 
sheet, which was then skewered up with packpricks, made of wood. 
Four or five such pieces in one fadge were placed across a horse, and 
tied round the animal with a rope called a wantey. 

Fageing, or Fagey (gl. f aij 'ing, faij-i), deceiving ; flattering; soft- 
sawdering. I have heard this word used, but only as an adjective. 

Faigh, or Feigh (pronounced fay-ee, almost as two syllables), 
rubbish above the stone in a quarry ; also in digging for the founda- 
tion of a house they take the faigh out. 

Faigh, vb. When digging for the walls they say, ' They are faigliing 
the groundwork for a building.' [The original word means ' to clean.' 
See Fauf. W. W. S.] 

Faigli in, vb. ( To faigh in ' is to scatter the droppings of animals 
over a field. 

Fain, glad. This word occurs in Ps. Ixxi. 21 (Prayer-Book Ver- 
sion) : ' My lips will be fain when I sing unto thee.' The present 
reading is, ' My lips shall greatly rejoice ; ' and the Latin version, 
' Exsultabunt labia mea.' It occurs also in Chevy Chace, Fytte ii. 
1. 66: 

' These worthy frekis for to fight 
Thereto they were full/ain.' 

And in the Towneley Mysteries, ' Lazarus ' : 

' Martha, Martha, thou may be fayn 
Thi brothere Lazarus shall rise and lif agayn.' 

In St. Luke xv. 16 it is used adverbially. 

False, very common in the sense of cunning or intelligent. As far 
as my own knowledge extends, it is used chiefly in respect to animals, 
young children, &c., and it indicates a high appreciation of their 


character. I am not aware, however, whether cunning and intelli- 
gence are here looked on as synonymous terms. At our rent-audit, 
Nov. 1874, one of the tenants, speaking of a certain horse, said ' he 
was as false as a Christian,' which, however high a compliment it 
might be to the horse, sounded a somewhat doubtful one to the 

Faltering iron (gl. foalt-uring), an instrument employed to knock off 
< ains ' of barley. Halliwell says ' a barley chopper.' 

Faltree (gl. foaltree), a rough piece of timber placed behind cattle to 
support the bed. 

Fan (see Faan), found ; past tense of to find. In its form fand it 
occurs in The Uplandis Mouse and the Surges Mouse, 11. 132, 133 : 

' The Spenser came with keyis in his hand, 
Openit the door, and them at dinner fand' 

And in its formfaand in the still older poem, Cursor Mundi (1320), 
' The Visit of the Magi,' 1. 145 (or 1. 11,517 in Morris's edition) : 

' Bot that thai /acme?, wit-uten wand,' 
i. e. without hesitation. 

Farantly, handsome ; decent ; comely : still used by some, but not 
much known. The word farand, from which the above is formed, 
occurs in Robert of Gloster's description of Vortigern and Eowena : 

' A cup with wine she had in hand, 
And her attire was well /ar am?,' 

t. e. well-fashioned, or orderly. 

Fardin, i. e. farthing. Curious as opposed to the habit of using th 
for d. 

Far lent, i. e. far learnt, or learned ; meaning well-informed. Note 
the sinking of r. See Letter R. 

Farrups, or Ferrups, a word used in expressions of surprise, &c. : 
chiefly by old people. ' What the farrups are ye at ! ' 

Fashion. ' To be in better fashion ' is to be in more than ordinary 
good health. 

Fashion, vb. to venture or dare. ' Why don't you go and ask him 
for it?' *I cannot fashion,' i.e. I am ashamed, or have not the 
courage. Or if you told of some one's impudence, it would be 
answered, ' How can he fashion ? ' 

Fast, puzzled. 'Why don't you get on with your job 1 ?' 'Nay, 
Au'm fast,' i. e. I don't know what to do next. 

Fast for, to be in want of (anything). 

Fastens (pronounced fassens), fastings, or Lent. Some call it Fast- 
ness. Dunbar, in his Dance of Ye Seven Deadly Sins, calls Shrove 


Tuesday Fastern's Even, and it is so called here ; in fact the word 
Fastens, instead of being Fastings, may be Fastern's, "sinking the r. 
See Letter R. 

' Mahoun gart cry ane dance 
Of Shrewis that were never shriven, 
Against the fast of Fastern's Even 
To mak' their observance.' 

Fastens Tuesday, the name here given to Shrove Tuesday, and, as 
stated above, is probably a corruption of Fastern's Tuesday. See 
Preface, Shrove Tuesday. 

Fat, or Fattened, said of a marble driven up when it lodges on the 
small ring at ringtaw. 

Fate [fait-], the past tense of fight for fought. Fought is also used, 
but is pronounced as font (ou as in sound}. 

Fat hen, the common name of a plant, Ckenopodium album. For- 
merly it was much used as a vegetable, and is similar in its taste to 
spinach. It grows luxuriantly by muckmiddins. 

Father, pronounced to rhyme to the word gather in Southern 

Fatshive (pronounced shauv), a slice of bread soaked in the dripping 
pan, or spread over with fat. 

Fattened, the same as Fat (which see). 

Fauf (gl. foaf), said of land when ploughed or prepared, but not 
cropped. A ' potato fauf is when the land is ready for the sets, and 
also after the crop has been taken out. 

Fauf, vb. They say a man is faufing his land when he is cleaning 
it with no crop on it. [The word is probably a variation of feigh, or 
fay. The Icelandic is fdga, to clean, to till the ground, &c. ; and the 
Icelandic a is pronounced as ou in foul. W. W. S.] 

Fearnought (pronounced fearnout), a machine for mixing wool, 
shoddy, and mungo before putting upon the condenser. 

Felks, the pieces of wood which form the circumference of a wheel. 

Felly, a fellow ; used also for a husband. One of our tenants said 
to me, ' Au've lost my felly sin' Au saw yo,' which I soon found to 
mean her partner. 

Felly, vb. ' He fellies about,' i. e. swaggers. 

Felter, to entangle. In Towneley Mysteries we find : 

' With a hede lyke a clowde felterd his here/ ' Prima Pastorum. 


1 This jelian jowke dryfys he no dogges to felter. 1 ' Juditium.' 

Fend, to provide ; be industrious. A jay is a bird ' fonder of steal- 
in' fruit nor fendin\' that is, will not take much trouble to seek its 


Fender, a careful provider. A cow or horse which takes pains to 
find all the choice or eatable portions of a meadow is a good fender. 

Fending (used adjectively), industrious. 

Fent, a fag end of cloth ; a portion woven after the piece is com- 
pleted, three-quarters or a yard long. Formerly weavers claimed 
the fent from every warp, ostensibly to help to clothe the children. 

Fest, to fasten, tie, or bind ; but especially used of binding an 
apprentice, who is said to be fessted. [Fested = fastened (Prick of 
Conscience, 1. 5295). W. W. S.] 

Festen (pronounced fessen ; gl. fes'n), to fasten. 

Fettle, to clean ; set in order, &c. A person when fully dressed is 
fettled ; so is a room when set in order ; polished or clean shoes are 
fettled. The word occurs in the History of Sir John Eland of Eland, 
ver. 106: 

4 Beaumont of Quarmby saw all this, 
And Lockwood, where they stood ; 
They fettled them to fence I wis, 
And shot as they were wood.' 

Again in Robin Hood and Guy of Oislorne, ver. 57 : 

* Then John he took Guye's bow in his hand. 

His boltes and arrows eche one ; 
When the Sheriffe saw Little John bend his bow 
HQ fettled him to be gone.' 

Fettled is also applied to ale or porter which has been refined 
or bottled ; and also to the same liquids warmed over the fire in a tin 
vessel (specially made for the purpose in the shape of a large extin- 
guisher), and seasoned with sugar and nutmeg. 

A well-known eccentric character of Almondbury, B. K M once tried 
an experiment with a clean shoe and a dirty one, and found there was 
little difference at the end of the day. ' W'at's t' use, then,' said he, 
' o' all this fettlin' o' yor shooin ? ' 

Fettle, sb. A field in good order is in good fettle. 

Fettler, one who cleans up : especially one whose business it is to 
clean machinery, engines, &c. 

Few, pronounced fa-oo, or fe-oo (gl. fai'uo), as two syllables. The 
expression ' a good few ' means what is elsewhere called ' a good 
many.' It is also curiously used in connection with broth, soup, 
porridge, bread and milk, &c. ' Will ye tak' a few ? ' is an ordinary 
invitation ; but I am not aware that the substantive to which it 
refers often follows in the sentence. 

Fick, to struggle with the feet ; to kick about. 
Fidge, vb. to move about uneasily ; to fidget. 
Fight, vb. pronounced fate. 


Finedrawer, sb. one who follows a trade which, though perhaps not 
peculiar to the neighbourhood, is of much importance here, where 
flaws in the newly-manufactured cloth have to be repaired. 

Finkel (pronounced firikil), fennel. [This word, spelt finkil, occurs 
in a copy of Piers Plowman (A. text, Pass. 5, 1. 156), in the library 
of University College, Oxford. W. W. S.] 

Firepoint, sb. the poker. In some parts -flrepoft, which seems the 
more likely word. See Poit. Joseph o' Nuppits, the well-known 
beggar of Almondbury, once went to Padiham, was thus lost for a 
time, and fared but badly there. On returning he endeavoured to 
account for his condition, saying, ' Au've stopp'd at Padiham sooa 
long that ma legs have swelled as thick as firepoints.' 1 

Five, pronounced fauve. 

Flacker, vb. to flutter : may be said of a bird shaking its wings. 

Flageing 1 , pt. canting ; flattering : but I have met with no corre- 
sponding verb. 

Flamshaw, a word which has been given to me, but with no meaning 

Flang, also Flung, vb. past tense of to fling. 

Flasket, sb. an oval-shaped washing-tub, or one of rectangular form. 
In some counties a clothes-basket of oval shape. 

Flay, vb. to frighten. ' To flay the cold off ' is an expression used 
for airing water, in which case it probably means * to drive away.' 
So in Kinmont Willie, ver. 36 : 

' I sleep saft, and I wake aft ; 

It's lang since sleeping was flayed frae me : 
Gie my service back to my wife and bairns, 
And a' gude fellows that spier for me.' 

Flaycraw, or Flaycrow, sb. a scarecrow. 
Flayed, pt. frightened, or afraid. 
Flaysome, adj. frightful. 

Flea, sb. (pronounced fled, or fledh ; and on the other hand fly is 
pronounced flee, from which circumstance amusing mistakes sometimes 
occur). A little boy had his face bitten, and on its being remarked, 
said it was done by the flees. ' There are no fleas here, child ; do you 
know one when you see it ? ' Yes.' Where did you see any ? ' 
' In the wood.' ' Well, what were they like ? ' They were little 
things with wings.' ' Then you mean flies, or rather gnats, my man.' 

Fleam, sb. a lancet for bleeding cattle. 
Flee. See Fly. 


Fleer, vb. to laugh mockingly, or to have a countenance expressive 
of such laughter. 

Fleet, vb. to skim milk, or other liquid having a scum. The word 
is most likely connected with fleet, the old form of float. 

Fleeting-dish, sb. the dish used to skim the milk. 
Flegg'd, or Fligg'd, pt. or adj. fledged : as of birds. 

Flep, sb. the bottom lip. ' He hings his flep this mornin',' i. e. he 
looks cross. Halliwell gives the word flepper. 

Fletcher-house, the name of a farm-house in the neighbourhood. A 
fletcher is an arrow-maker. 

Fleyk, sb. (pronounced flake ; gl. flaik), an article of wickerwork in 
the form of a gate, used for opening the staple, and beating the dust 
out of wool, which was placed on it and beaten with two sticks. See 
Swinging. Also a gate set up in a gap, a hurdle. Thoresby spells 
it as above, but Bay has fleacJc. 

Flick, the pronunciation of flitch (of bacon). So pick for pitch, &c. 
Flit, vb. to move from one house to another. 

Flite, vb. (pronounced flaut), to scold, brawl, &c.: both active and 
neuter. 'Au've yeer'd 'em flaut thee; tha's been doin' some' at 
wrang.' Occurs in Lindsay's Complaint, 11. 31, 32 : 

* I will not flyte, that I conclude, 
For crabbing of thy celsitude.' 

Again in his Supplication in Contemplation of Side Tails : 

* Without their faults be soon amended, 
My fly ting, sir, shall ne'er be ended ; 
But wald your grace my counsel tak', 
Ane proclamation ye should mak/ &c. 

Flizgig, sb. a flighty woman, one adorned with showy, flying cap- ' 
ribbons, or dressed at all out of the way. Flizz is to fly off in 
O.Eng., and gygge a flighty person. Halliwell says phizgig, an old 
woman dressed extravagantly. 

Floggish, adj. slow; bulky. 

Flomepot, or Flonepot, a small earthenware pan used for holding 
milk, making pies, &c., and contains generally less than a gallon : 
if much more, it is called a 'bowl.' [The word probably isflaunpot. 
Flaun is a custard. Cf. ' As flat as aflaun.' W. W. S.] 

Floor-claat, i. e. floor-clout. See next word. 

Floor-cover, sb. This, with the preceding word, both formerly much 
used for a carpet or any kind of covering for the floor. 

Floping, pt. flashy ; moving about to draw attention, or with 
clothes not properly arranged. 


Flouch, sb. an awkward mouth. ' Art ta settin' thy flouch agean 1 ' 
In southern diction ' making mouths.' 

Flower, pronounced fldar. 

Fluff, sb. the stuff which collects in pockets, under beds, &c.; else- 
where called flue. 

Fluggons, sb. a slatternly woman. Halliwell gives fluggan, a coarse, 
fat woman. 

Flup, sb. a stroke, blow, &c. ' Au'll gi'e thee a, flap.' 
Flup, vb. to hit, strike a blow, &c. 

Flupperlipped, adj. where lips are large, or out of shape or propor- 
tion. Halliwell gives flapper-mouthed in much the same sense. 

Fluppy, adj. careless ; heedless, &c. 

Flusk, or Flusker, vb. to startle a bird out of a bush. 

Flusker, vb. neut. to fly out. ' A bird hasflusker'd out here.' 

Fluz, vb. the meaning not exactly ascertained. It has been heard 
applied to a servant engaged in cleaning fire-grates, and may have 
reference to the noise produced by the brushes. 

Fly, sb. pronounced flee. See Flea, and Flee. 

Fly by sky, si. a word applied to a woman dressed in an out-of-the- 
way manner. Halliwell gives this word as flee by the sky. I write it 
as I heard it pronounced. The same word is also used for a sort of 
fly-wheel in certain machinery. 

Fog, sb. after-grass. Ray spells it fogge, and describes it as long 
grass remaining in the pasture till winter. 

Foil, sb. (one syllable) the pronunciation of the word foal. To a 
respected friend of mine not caring to be dressed in the height of the 
fashion, a cart-driver said, ' Mester, Au sud lauk a foil o' thy coit,' 
i. e. a foal of thy coat, or a coat like yours. My friend fired up in a 
moment as he exclaimed, ' Why, this man is a barbarian a Vandal ; 
let me see his name ; ' so he danced round to the other side of the 
cart, to the wonderment and confusion of the driver. 

Foilfooit, sb. the pronunciation of foalfoot, the same as Colt's-foot 
Tussilago Farfara. 

Foil hoyle, a shed for sheltering foals. 

Fold, sb. a name applied to a collection of cottages standing in a 
yard more or less inclosed. Thorpe Fold, Heck Fold. 

Fooil, the pronunciation of fool. See Letters 0, Oo. 
Fooilify, vb. to make a fool of. 

Fooit, the pronunciation of the word foot. See Letters 0, Oo. This 
word occurs in the Almondbury Church inscription, and is there spelt 


foyt, and the latter, sounded as two syllables, is a close approach to 
the local pronunciation. If then the Almondbury spelling was not 
correct at the date of the inscription (1522), it was probably phonetic, 
and at least shows that the local sound, if not the same, was as near 
as possible what it is now. 

Fooitin', a fine paid, generally in beer, by a novice on his first intro- 
duction to a gang of men with whom he has to work. 

Fooit it, to measure distances by placing one foot before the other. 

Forenoon (pronounced forenooin), used for that portion of the 
morning from breakfast to dinner. 

Forenoon drinking, sb. luncheon. 

Forgat, and Forgate, the past tense of to forget. Occurs in Gen. 
xl. 23 : ' Yet did not the chief butler remember Joseph, but for gat 
him.' Also Ps. cvi. 13. 

Forgetten, p.p. used often for forgotten. 

Fot, past tense of to fetch, cnfotch: formerly much used. S. B., in 
a fit of disobedience, ran away from her father, who followed her for 
the purpose of punishment. He overtook her in the churchyard, and 
on reaching home gave the following account of his proceedings : ' Au 
fot her a fillip, and then fot her another, and daan her coom, and sho 
fell agen dame Yetton's tomb.' Fet seems to have been an old form. 
Occurs in Robin Hood, Fytte iii. ver. 2 : 

/ Lytell Johan/e his bowe anone.' 

Fotch, and Fot, vb. to fetch. Not long since a man rang at a 
friend' s door, and the servant took her own time to answer the bell, 
to whom in remonstrance he said, ' Yo bide somefottin, lass,' meaning 
she required some fetching to the door. 

Foughten (pronounced fuffen ; gl. fuof'n), the past participle of to 
fight. Occurs in The Felon Sew of Rokeby : 

1 He told them all unto the end 
How he had foughten with a fiend, 
And lived through mickle strife.' 

There used to be a story told about Longwood ' Thump,' or wake, 
to this effect. No ' wake ' was thought to be complete unless all the 
men had engaged in battle on the occasion. A father addresses his 
stalwart son, ' Jack, has te foughten f ' Jack replies, c Noow, fatther/ 
and the affectionate parent rejoins, ' Kurn then, get thee foughten , 
and let's gwoa whom.' 

Foul. See Faal. 

Foumard, or Foumart (pronounced foomart), sb. a polecat. 

Fouse, the former pronunciation of the word fox, now nearly obso- 
lete, but remaining in the local proverb ' Onny owd fouse can bide 
its own stink.' [Of. Dutch vos, a fox. W. W. S.] 



Foyt, the form in which the word foot is found in the Almondbury 
Church inscription. Pronounced as a monosyllable it would be the 
same asfoit, which I understand to be the pronunciation in the west- 
ern parts of the parish of Halifax ; but if as a dissyllable, it would be 
nearly foeet, which approaches closely to the present local form fooit, 
which see. 

Frame, vb. to contrive, attempt, or set about a thing : a word in 
common use. ' He frames well.' ' He doesn't frame? i. e. sets 
awkwardly to work. ' Are the boys up yet ? ' ' No ; but they're 
framing. ' ' What do you mean ? ' ' They are sitting in bed, putting 
on their stockings.' Probably the same as A.S. fremian. The 
word occurs in Judges xii. 6 : ' Then said they unto him, Say now 
Shibboleth, and he said Sibboleth, for he could not frame to pronounce 
it right.' 

Franch, adj. French. 

Frangy, adj. quarrelsome ; kicking about. 

Frap, sb. a pet, or ill-temper ; also a small firework made by placing 
a pinch of gunpowder in a piece of paper folded in a triangular form. 
It is sometimes used by good housewives in cleaning the flues of 

Fratch, vb. to quarrel as boys. 

Fratch, sb. a quarrel. 

Fraze, for froze, past tense of freeze. 

Fresh, adj. having too much drink. Sharp fresh has the same 
meaning, but in a minor degree. 

Frittises, sb. fritters. 

Frosk, sb. a frog. 

Frow, sb. a coarse woman : formerly much used. 

Fruzzins, sb. superfluous hairs, &c. which come off the yarn in the 
winding, or from the cloth in the finishing, or when being peark'd 

Fud (gl. fuod), small portions of wool, &c. which come off cloth in 
handling it. 

Fuffen (gl. fuof'en), i. e. foughten, which see. 

Fuffle, Fooffle, or Fufflement, sb. a word applied to an abundance 
of clothing. A woman with too many flounces or ribbons, &c., would 
be said to have too much fuffle about her ; so would a plant of wheat 
if it had too many blades. 

Fugel, or Fugle, to cheat, deceive, or trick : used actively. One 
might fugel another one of an estate, &c. Uallifuyle has the same 


Full, pronounced as usual. When in playing at ringtaw, &c., a boy 
wishes another to fire, and not place his marble in some convenient 
place with his hand, he says, ' Full thee ; ' or if to fire through the 
ring, then, ' Full thee through.' The word ' fullock ' is applied to pro- 
jecting a marble somewhat slowly by means of the thumb and bent 

Fun, past tense and past participle of to find. 
Furr, sb. a furrow. Occurs in Burns's Holy Fair : 

' The hares were hirpling down the furs.' 
Fuzball, sb. the well-known fungus, F. pulverulentus. 

Furry, secky, thirdy, and lacky, all words used at marbles, when 
boys call for the first, second, third, or last turn. 


This letter is not often heard in the termination ng t except in words 
of one syllable. G or gh at the end of some words is hard here, 
though softened in classical English. Thus, craiyh, craw; gnaigh, 
gnaw ; haigh, haw ; aaigh, saw ; so lig, lie ; perhaps also doke, or doge, 
claw. There is also a very singular pronunciation of gh. See the 
words Keighley and Pighle. 

Gabbleratches, Gobbleratches, or Flee-by-neets, called by some 

' night- whistlers,' birds which fly overhead in the night, and are con- 
sidered to be forewarners of death. There is an opinion that these 
birds are at least of two distinct kinds. The ' night- whistlers ' are 
birds high in the air, passing by, but of doubtful race ; they have, 
however, a perfect whistle. The gabbleratches, on the other hand, 
are said to frequent damp places, and their cry is a sort of gabble 
like that of the magpie. 

As specimens of the superstitions which have prevailed, I hear that 
on one occasion the gabbleratches passed over this valley, when a woman 
had the hardihood to go out and mock them. They flew to the window 
of her house and left blood there. A person (!) died soon after. 

One of my informants remembers his mother to have said to 
her children, wishing to keep them within-doors, 'Yo'll be hearin' 
gabbleratches some o these neets, and then yo'll stop i' th' haas.' 
About Leeds gabbleratches are believed to be the restless souls of 
children who have died unbaptized. 

Halliwell says, ' At Wednesbury there is a superstition of hounds 
in the air, which are called Gabriel's Hounds, but the more sober con- 
sider them to be wild geese in their flight.' When it is considered 
that ratche or rache is a dog which hunts by scent, it is probable that 
these superstitions are the same, and the names nearly or quite the 
same. In an old song the expression ' gable rangers ' occurs, the 
meaning of which is doubtful. Can it be the same as the above ? 
'Hounds,' 'ratches,' and 'rangers' may be looked on as synony- 
mous, but how about 'Gabriel,' 'gabble,' and 'gable,' which have 

E 2 


puzzling inquiry to determine which, it is 

Gadge, vb. to baste (in sewing). ' Gadge me these trousers up,' one 
might say when they wanted mending. 

Ga'e (pronounced gay), gave. Gav is also used. 

Gaerse, sb. grass. A.S. goers. 

Gaersedrake i. e. grassdrake, the Corncrake, Gallinula crex. 

Gael, or Gail (pronounced gayil), the matter which gathers in the 
corner of the eye, especially during the night. 

Gael, or Gail, vb. corresponding to the substantive above. ' The 
eyes gail.' 

Gaffer, sb. used much for master, or the chief of a gang of labourers. 

Gain, or Gane, adj. near ; convenient ; active ; useful ; ready to 
hand : very common. In some parts of Yorkshire * bane ' is used in 
a similar sense. 

Gainer, Gainest, the comparative and superlative of the above. 

Galcar, or Galker (a as in gallon, cat, &c.), sb. beer in course of 
fermentation. Halliwell says galcar is an ale-tub ; it certainly is not 
the tub here, but the new liquor. Eay calls it gaildear. 

Z. S. was a believer in witchery, and in winter-time when the ale 
would not ferment he attributed the defect to the ill offices of some 
witch, and would be heard to say, ' Ay, sho's in it sho's in it agean, 
the old pouse.' He would then heat a chain red hot, throw it into 
the galcar (the wort), and burn ou-t the witch, for the beer thus heated 
would naturally begin to ferment. He would then gleefully exclaim, 
' Ay, Au knew sho were in it; we'n maistered th' oud pouse.' 

Galching 1 , or Gardening. * Snapping and galching ' is an expression 
used to describe the style of colloquy of two irritated persons. 
' Galching and retching ' another combination of words to express the 
forcing up of food from the stomach when one is troubled with wind. 

Gallimawfry, and by corruption Gallimawverty , a mixture of several 
sorts of meat. The latter form is also used adverbially, and is applied 
to a man who conducts himself in a frolicsome way. 

Gam, sb. game. Making gam of one is making fun. Pheasants, &c. 
are gam, but the laws for their protection are usually spoken of as 
' the game laws.' 

Ganner, sb. a gander. 

Ganister, sb. a kind of siliceous stone found in coal-pits. It under- 
lies the hard bed, and is from one to eighteen inches thick. 


Gantry, or Gantree, sb. a frame to set casks upon. 

Gapstead (pronounced gapsteed, or gapstid), an interval in a field 
wall intended for a gate, or merely used for the passage of cattle. If 
the interval be of an accidental nature, arising from the falling of the 
wall, &c., it is simply a ' gap.' 

Garnet. See Mungo. 

Garth, sb. a yard, croft, &c. ; the same word as yard. A stackgarth 
is a stackyard. So ' gate ' and ' yate ' are interchangeable except 
when ' gate ' means way. [Icel. gar%r ; A.S. geard. W. W. S.] 

Gassy, adj. boasting ; bumptious, &c. Used in Huddersfield, but 
not much in Almondbury. 

Gat, or Gate, the same as got, past tense of to get. 

Gate, sb. a street, or way in general. ' Get out o' my gate ' = * Get 
out of my way.' Very common in the names of streets, &c. : North- 
gate, Westgate, J&rkgate, Castle^afe, &c., in Huddersfield ; Keldgate and 
Minster-moor<7afe in Beverley ; Mickle^afe and Monkgate in York ; 
Briggrafe in Leeds ; De&nsgate in Manchester ; Skelter^a^e in Almond- 
bury, &c. As might be imagined, gate for way is an old usage. See 
Robin Hood and Guy of Oisborne, ver. 13 : 

' As often words they breeden bale, 

So parted Robin and John ; 
And John is gone to Barnesdale, 
The gates he knoweth eche one.' 

Gatewards (pronounced gate'ards ; gl. gait'urds), used chiefly in the 
expression ' to go agate 'ards,' i. e. to accompany part of the way. 
See Agate'ards. 

Gaumless, adj. senseless. [Icel. gaumr, heed, attention. W. W. S.] 
Gav, past tense of to give. 

Gavlock, or Gavelock, sb. a crowbar : formerly spelt gaveloJce, or 
gavyloke, and meant a spear or javelin. In Cumberland a crowbar 
is called a javelin. [A.S. gafeluc, diminutive of geafle, a lever. 
W. W. S.] 

Gawby, same as Goby. 

Gawkhanded, or Gawkyhanded, left-handed. 

Gears (pronounced geerz g hard), harness for horses, &c. The 

Coliphizacio ' (Towneley Mysteries] a similar phi 
applied to mental aberration : 

' He is inwardly flayde, not right in his gere. } 

Gee, a word used to horses when they are intended to go away from 
the driver's side. See Haw. 


Geld, or Gelt, sb. a cow not likely to have more calves, and fit only 
for feeding. 

Gemmers (pronounced jemmers), hinges : a very common word. 
[Lat. gemellus, O.F. gerneau, a twin. W. W. S.] 

Gen (pronoun cedjen). See Guys. 

Gennel, or Ginnel (pronounced ginnil), a long narrow passage : 
according to some, unroofed ; others say either roofed or unroofed. 
[A.S. gin, an opening; Icel. gin, a mouth. W. W. S.] 

Gesling, sb. a gosling. 

Getten, i. e. gotten, or got. When the footpads knocked down Dr. 
B. and stole a roll of lint from his pocket, the lucky finder exclaimed, 
thinking it was a roll of one pound notes, then common, ' Au've getten 
it, lads ; ' and away they went to share their ill-gotten booty. The 
word is found in Chaucer's Clerk of Oxenford, 1. 291 : 

' For he had geten him yet no benefice.' 

And in his Tale of Melibeus : ' And therefore, saith Caton, use the 
riches thou hast y geten in such manner,' &c. 

Gie, give : very common. A friend of mine was once asked out to 
dinner in the neighbourhood, at a house where everything, including 
the dialect, was of the first order ; and on gathering round the table, 
the host jogged his guest by the elbow, and said, * Gie us a word.' 
The latter was a little startled, but as a pause ensued, he took it for 
granted he was to say grace, which he accordingly did. 

Gi'ed, gave; also p.p. given. 
Gi'en (pronounced geen), given. 

Gig, sb. a kind of spiral knife used to remove knots, &c. from cloth, 
in order to fettle it up. 

Gillery (g hard ; gl. gil'eri), sb. trickery, or deceit : a well-known 
word, and would be used in matters of horse jockeying. 

Gilliver (g soft), a kind of pink clove or carnation, Dianthus caryo- 
phyllus. Halliwell spells this word gillofer. 

Gilliver, sometimes used as Jezebel, a term of reproach to a woman. 
Gilt (g hard), a sow cut. A sow for breeding is an ' open gilt.' 

Gilty galty (or gaulty), sb. a boy's game, thus played. One boy is 
chosen, who says the following ' nominy ' (see Nominy) : 

' Gilty galty, four and forty, 
Two tens make twenty.' 

He then counts one, two, three, four, &c., up to forty, having his 
eyes covered by his hands, and the others hide during the ' nominy.' 
At the conclusion of it he uncovers his eyes, and if he sees any boys 
not yet hidden they have to stand still. He seeks the rest, but if he 


moves far away from his place, called his * stooil ' (stool), one of the 
hidden boys may rush out and take it, provided he can get there first. 
Should he fail in this, he also has to stand aside ; but if any one suc- 
ceeds, then all run out as before, and the same boy has to say the 
' nominy ' again. On the other hand, if he finds all the boys without 
losing his 'stooil,' the boy first caught has to take his place and 
say the ' nominy,' and the game goes on as above. It was thus played 
at Almondbury in 1810, and is so still both here and at Lepton. 

Gip (gl. gip), vb. to retch. ' Ma heart gips reeght agen it.' ' Au gip 
every taum Au smell it.' 

Girn, vb. to grin. 

Gizzen, or Gizzom, sb. the windpipe, &c. 

Gizzen, vb. to choke. If a person were swallowing food, and 
could get it neither up nor down, and consequently be checked in his 
breathing, he would be said to be gizzening. 

Glad, adj. smooth ; easy. A screw turns too glad when the hole is 
too large. [Dutch glad means smooth, slippery : connected with the 
Eng. glide. W. W. S.] 

Gladmelshed, adj. said of a cow which loses her milk even as she 
lies down. The word therefore appears about equivalent to * easily 

Glassener (pronounced glazzener\ a glazier. 

Gled, or Glead, sb. a hawk, or kite. Gledholt, i. e. Gleadeholt, is the 
name of an estate near Huddersfield, and means Hawkwood. [A.S. 
glida.W. W. S.] 

Glee, vb. to squint, or look aside. 
Glenk, o/ to Glink, sb. a glimpse. 

Glent, or Glint, has the same meaning as glerik ; and both glerik 
and glent with their variations are verbs also. 

Gloppen'd, adj. surprised ; disgusted ; frightened. If something 
were set before one too dirty to be eaten, he might say, ' Au'm 
glopperid on it,' or ' wi' it ' ; or one may be glopperid with a person who 
is in any way a nuisance. This word was communicated by one who 
had been a resident in Kaye Lane, and on its being referred to 
younger persons, they have denied all knowledge of it. I have, how- 
ever, found it in Thoresby's Appendix addressed to Eay. It also 
occurs in the Cursor Mundi (Morris's edition), in the part describing 
the flight into Egypt (written about 1320), 1. 1,1610 : 

* The suanis than bigan to cri . . . 
Quen Jesus sagh tham glopnid be, 
He lighted of his moder kne,' &c., 

where the word means ' frightened.' 

The word glope for a surprise, or something startling, occurs in 
4 Magnus Herodes ' (Towneley Mysteries) : 


' 0, my hart is rysand now in a glope ! ' 
Gnaghe, or Gnaigh, vb. to gnaw. See Letter G. 

Gnaigh, also used as a substantive. At the open air concert in 
Greenhead Park, May 1874, the following conversation between two 
gentlemen of the band was overheard. After refreshment had been 
served, one said, ' Hey, Jim, hast ta' getten thi churn full ? ' ' Nay, 
lad, Au've nobbut takken away the gnaigh on it.' 

Gnang, vb. to gnaw as a pain ; to half cry. ' This old tooith is 
gnangin' at it agean.' A child who neither cries nor lets it alone, 

Gnangnails, sb. corns. 

Gnatter, vb. to gnaw or nibble, as a mouse ; also to tease, worry, &c. 

Gob, sb. the mouth. ' Shut thi gob. 1 [A Celtic word, still preserved 
in Gaelic, meaning mouth, chiefly in a ludicrous sense; more 
properly used of a bird's beak. W. W. S.] 

Gob, vb. to swallow hastily ; also to snatch at marbles : as when a 
boy has been looking on at a game, and offers to snatch one, he is said 
to be going to gob. 

Gobslotch, sb. a term of reproach ; properly, one who dirties his 
mouth ; but according to some, one who eats ravenously. See 
Slotcher. The following elegant oration was delivered at Dewsbury 
Moor in 1856. The Heckmondwike omnibus is approaching, and a 
little child toddles out of a cottage into the middle of the road. Its 
mother, armed with a fire-shovel, rushes forth, and standing on the 
edge of the causeway, flourishing her shovel, thus addresses her 
offspring : ' Coom yaat o' t' rooad wi' thee, tha' gret gobslotch I 
Doesn't ta' see cooach a cummin ! Coom yaat o' t' rooad wi' thee, or 
Au'll slawve thi' yed wi' mi' shool.' 

Godspenny, sb. earnest money; a penny given when a servant is 

Going part (pronounced gain paat, or payt see Letter R), a portion 
of a loom suspended just before where the piece is woven. It has 
boxes to hold the shuttles, and a ledge before the sleigh (which see) 
on which the shuttles run. The boxes may have more than one 

Goit (the pronunciation of the word gote}, sb. a sluice or channel cut 
to carry water to a mill. This word is always sounded and spelt .goit ; 
but if properly gote, it would still be goit in the dialect. See Letter 
O. The channel which conveys the water from a mill is called the 
' tail goit.' In the answer to the Inquisition of the Manor of Almond- 
bury in 1584, is the following passage : ' And they further say that 
there was a way fbr the inhabitants of Huddersfield to the said Miln 
from one Miln called Shower Miln, along the west side of the broad 
water until anent the Tayle Gote end of the Queen's Majesty's said 
Miln anent the which said Tayle Gote they went over the broad water,' 
&c. Hobkirk's Huddersfield, p. 135. 


Good, pronounced gooid. A clerical friend, in his house-to-house 
visitation, found a boy suffering from a retention of water. The 
mother, who was a Methodist, had heard say that a borrowed 
Common Prayer Book was gooid for it. She put it into his ' coit 
pocket and ligged it ovver him i' bed.' The boy got well. 

Good few (pronounced gocridfaoo), means several, or a good many. 
Good-like (pronounced gooid-lauk), adj. good-looking, or comely. 
Gow. See Guys. 

Gowk and titling. When two persons are constantly seen in 
company together, the one in somewhat obsequious attendance on 
the other, they are said to be 'like gowk and titling.' The gowk, or 
cuckoo, is popularly supposed to be constantly attended by a little 
bird of the tit species (titling). This saying is, or was, in constant use 
at Paddock. 

Graat (the pronunciation of grout see Aa), sb. a term applied to 
small beer ; properly the last runnings of the wort, or what is left in 
the barrel bottom. 

Grabber, sb. a tight-handed man. 

Gradely, adj. and adv. decent ; decently. Ray spells the word 
yreatlily, and gives the meaning 'handsomely, towardly.' This 
word, though known to some here, is not much used at Almondbury, 
but is rather perhaps a Lancashire than a Yorkshire word. It is, 
however, well understood in the parts bordering on Lancashire. 

Gran', or Grim', past tense of to grind. Grun' is also the past parti- 

Gratehoil, i. e. gratehole, sb. the hole on the hearth into which the 
ashes are drawn. See Assnook. 

Grease (pronounced gredz ; gl. grrh'z), to flatter. 

Grease in with, vb. to endeavour to gain the friendship of any one 
by flattery. 

Greasy, adj. flattering. See Slam. 

Great, pronounced gret, and formerly get. Perhaps this was the 
first word actually noticed by me in Almondbury itself, through 
which village I was one day walking, before my appointment to the 
Grammar School, with the then resident master, about 1846. We 
met a butcher, to whom he said, ' Is it Halifax get fair to-day ? ' 
' What is get fair ? ' said I. * Oh, it means great fair, but that's the 
way they say it.' Gret, however, is much more common now. For 
the dropping of the r see Letter R. 

Greensauce, the plant Sorrel, Rumex acetosa, called also by some 
saar grass (sour grass), much used formerly as a sauce with meat, 
especially veal. When the Eev. J. Paine entered on the occupancy 
of Woodland's Grove, Dewsbury Moor, about 1829, there was in the 


garden a long row of cultivated sorrel of a superior quality. In the 
dining-room, called 'the house' (see House), was a box seat, or 
locker, which contained a large heavy ball. This was pointed out to 
the incomers as to be used for crushing the greensauce, which was 
customarily placed in a large bowl, and the ball rolled about upon it. 
One of my informants says, ' About fifty years ago every garden 
had its greensauce. It was very common then to have cofe feet boiled, 
and the grcensauce was used with them ; also ' amang sallit.' He saw 
it used in 1874. 

Greet, sb. grit ; bits of sand, &c. 
Greetty, adj. gritty. 

Grime (pronounced graum), sb. smut or soot on the bars ; not dirt 
of every kind. 

Grimes (pronounced graumz), sb. blacks in wheat. 

Grobble, vb. to grope in the dark, or in a dusky light. [The frequent- 
ative of grope. W. W. S.] 

Grobbler, sb. a knackler, or one adapted to odd jobs. 
Groon (pronounced grooin, or grow), sb. the snout of a pig. 

Groop (pronounced grooip), the place behind cows, &c. for receiving 
the excrement. [In some parts grip. A.S. grcep, a ditch. W. W. S.] 

Grout. See Graat. 
Grun. See Gran. 

Grundown, or Grundaan, i. e. ground-down, the flour with the bran 

Grimtle, vb., and Gruntling, pt. and sb. a word employed to express 
the moaning noise made by a sick animal, such as a cow. Not the 
same as grunting, for that is here, as elsewhere, applied to pigs. 

Guisors, persons masked who go about at Christmas time. They 
have no particular performance, and say little or nothing, but chiefly 
present themselves for admiration. The last day for this mummery 
is the 12th of January. They made their appearance at the Grammar 
School, Dec. 31, 1874, when one had a black mask something like a 
pig's face. 

Gulley, sb. a gutter ; a large knife. 

Gutting, sb. a great eater ; a guttler. 

Guts, sb. used freely for entrails, the stomach, &c. 

Guys, a word used in an old form of oath : * By guys ; ' also, ' By 
gen' (Jen), and ' By gow ' all well known at Lepton and Almondbury. 
Occurs in Dolly's Gaon, ver. 7 : 

' Shoo'd fifty gaons, but nooaii like that, 
I' gy, it is a blazer ! ' 

Guzzle guttle, sb. a glutton. 


Haa, adv. how. This occurs sometimes as yaa. 

Hack, sb. a kind of hoe with a long blade, and may be regarded as a 
half mattock. It is used instead of a spade for turning up sods ; also 
for hacking out wall or hedge bottoms. 

Hackle, vb. to set in order ; to dress. A witness at a late trial said, 
' Deceased hardly knew how to hackle a child/ Also metaphorically 
of one well beaten in controversy : ' Au nivver knew a man so hackled 
i' mi' lauf.' It seems to be derived from cock-fighting. 

Haghe, or Haigh, sb. the haw ; the berry of the hawthorn. I have 
heard this fruit styled haghaws in Hampshire. [This is really a 
reduplication ; both hag and haw are from A.S. haga, a hedge. The 
same reduplication occurs in haha, or hawhaw, a sunk fence. 
W. W. S.] As a proper name Haigh is very common in this locality. 

Hal, sb. a fool, or jester. The word is still used for a fool or silly 
person. 'He's acting the hal agean.' 'What sayst ta, tha' halt* 
Many tales are told of the hals of Woodsome, of Bretton, of Kirklees, 
&c. There is a saying still in use at Lepton, &c. : ' Tha' ar sillier nor 
t' hal o' Kirklees, for he did know t' way to his maath.' Sir T. 
Blacket of Bretton, contemporary with Sir John Kaye of Grange, and 
Colonel Ratcliff of Milns Bridge, who formed themselves into a con- 
vivial club, was of an eccentric character, and is said sometimes to 
have wandered about in the neighbourhood even in the guise of a 
beggar. He kept a hal (the usual appendage of a great house), and 
in one of his excursions met the jester, to whom he took off his hat. 
The hal, who, as a matter of course, knew him well enough, said 
in reply to the salutation, ' Keep thi' hat on, lad ; cofe yed (calf head) 
is best wairm.' 

Halsh, or Halsh-knot, sb. a slip-knot. [Probably originally a neck 
knot, from A.S. heals, the neck. W. W. S.] 

Han, much used for the present plural of to have. ' We han him. ' 
= 'We have him.' It should be understood that in many plural 
verbs the final en is still preserved, as, ' We thinken sooa ; ' ' Au mun 
be careful, for ma clogs slippen' But it is found also in the infinitive 
mood, as in Chaucer, The Man of Lawes Tale, 11. 207, 208 (Morris 
and Skeat's Specimens of Early English) : 

* And seyde hem certein but he myghte haue grace 
To han Custance with-inne a litel space,' &c. 

Again in Hoccleve's Misrule (A.D. 1400), 11. 203206 : 

' Methought I was y-made a man for ever, 
So tickled me that nice reverence 
That it made me larger of dispence, 
Than that I thought han been.' 


Hand, sb. a workman, especially in a mill. * The old hand ' is the 
master, or head of the establishment. 

Handsel, sb. the first act of sale, or payment for the same, or the 
first usage of an article. A hawker, or pedler, who had sold nothing 
would say he had not taken handsel to-day. So a man might say, ' I 
have not handselled my new plough, 3 i. e. not used it : in which case 
the word is taken as an active verb. On receiving a handsel the 
recipient sometimes turns it over and spits on it ' for luck.' 

Hangby, sb. a hanger-on. 

Hangman, or Hangment, sb. a word used in oaths, and generally in 
the form of ' hangman tak' it.' Halliwell says the word is hanyment, 
but gives no quotation. Many persons think this the correct form, 
but the meaning appears to be somewhat obscure. When a certain 
woman of Almondbury for the first time wore a pair of right and left 
shoes, she by mistake placed them on the wrong feet. She habitually 
turned in her toes, and being therefore surprised at the appearance 
of her feet as she walked, she was heard to say 

' Why, what the hangman do I ail ? 
I used to twang, but now I shale ! ' 

See Twang and Shale. 

Hank, sb. thread, &c. in course of preparation wound upon a large 
cylinder. A hank of wool or cotton consists of 840 yards, and of 
worsted, 560. Six hanks make one bunch in cotton and worsted, four 
in woollen. 

Hank, vb. to associate with. ' Au wonder haa he could hank wi j 
sich folk.' 

Hap, vb. to wrap up in bed-clothes, &c. ; but now lap is more used. 
Ray spells the word happe. Perhaps it is connected with ' heap.' 
Occurs in The Wife of Usher's Well, ver. 12 : 

' The mantle that was on herself 
She has happ'd round our feet.' 

Happen, adv. very common for perhaps. 

Harden, vb. a word used of the weather, which is said to harden as 
it becomes drier. 

Hardhead, sb. same as Crozzle, which see. 
Hardly, in very common use for scarcely. 
Harescaled, adj. hare-lipped. 

Har'est (pronounced harrest), sb. harvest. Note the elision of v. 
See Letter V. 

Harrish, perhaps arrish, vb. to starve with cold. 'He harrished 
his colts,' i. e. left them out in the cold weather. 


Hask, adj. dry ; parched, &c. A form of harsh. See Ask. [Danish, 
harsk, rancid. W. W. S.] 

Haster, or Hastener (pronounced haister), sb. a meat screen. 
Hat, past tense of to hit. 
Hand, hold. See Hod. 

Haufrockdon (pronounced hofe), sb. a half-rocked one, half-witted. 
Halliwell spells this word haufrockton. 

Hauf-thick, adj. when applied to bacon means half -fed, or half fat, 
but if to a man, half-witted. 

Haupenny (pronounced hopenny), halfpenny. 
Haust. See Host. 

Have on, vb. to make fun of ; to chaff. ' They are nobbut having 
him on' = l They are only making fun of him.' Sometimes they say 
* having him on for the mug,' in the same sense the latter part 
of which expression is not quite clear as to its meaning. 

Haverbread, or Haver cake, oat-cake, or oat-bread ; cakes made of 
oatmeal, very thin, the size of a large pancake. They are still much 
in use, and formerly little else was to be met with, at least among the 

[Icel. hafr, oats ; Middle English, haver. The word occurs in Piers 
the Plowman, B. vi. 284 : 

' A few cruddes and creem, and an haver cake.' 

From the Dutch form haver comes haverzak, and the French and 
English haversack. W. W. S.] 

The 33rd Eegiment of Foot rejoices in the title, ' Havercake Lads,' 
from the circumstance of its having been originally raised, it is said, 
in this district. Eecruiting parties of this regiment used formerly to 
carry a piece of oat-cake on a cane as a standard. See Preface, 
' Oat-cake.' 

Haw, a word used to horses when they are to go to the driver's side. 
Gee, when to go off. 

Hawbuck, or Hawby (pronounced the same), sb. an ungainly person ; 
a sawney ; a country lout. 

Hay, or Hey (gl. hai), an old word for a boundary, or fence. Found 
in names of homesteads, &c. : Farnley Hey, Thorpe Heys (Holm- 
firth), &c. 

Head, pronounced head, and sometimes yed : the latter form evi- 
dently arising from the attempt to say head rapidly. The Anglo- 
Saxon heafod became subsequently heeved, or heved, and the v being 
elided, the local pronunciation is nearly correct. 

Head-tie (pronounced headtee, or yedtee), sb. a collar to tie horses' 


Headwark, i. e. head work, the headache : a word still often used. 

Heald (pronounced yeld), sb. a portion of the loom through which 
the warp passes into the alay. 

Heart. ' By t' heart ' is a very common exclamation, or oath, wherein 
no doubt the allusion is to the Sacred Heart. A boat's crew, nearing 
land, seemed suddenly to disappear in the waves, when an Almond- 
bury man, looking on, exclaimed, ' By t' heart they're gone.' If a 
man were unwilling to believe a thing, the informant would likely 
enough say, ' By t' heart it's true.' Sometimes the r is sunk, and the 
sound is, ' By t' halt : ' the th as in thin. 

Heck, sb. a small gate, or wicket ; the rail or hurdle placed in front 
and behind a cart, used in housing hay ; also a rack for cattle to feed 
at, in which sense Ray has it. A fold now within the vicarage 
grounds at Almondbury was, in my recollection, Heck/old. There is 
also the town of Heckmondwike, not far from Bradford. [Heck = 
hatch. Swedish, hack, a hedge, coop, rack. W. W. S.] 

Mr. North, a well-known attorney, had been to the Heck Inn, 
near the vicarage, one Christmas-time, and on his road home some 
lads, who wanted money, waylaid him and his man in Fenay Lane, 
and pelted him, the man, and the lantern with snowballs. He called 
for assistance, and the boys ran forward, and offered to see him safely 
home, which they did, and each received a shilling. There were three 
lads, one of whom told my informant. No doubt the sign of the inn 
gave the name to the fold, but all traces of inn and fold are now 

Heckles, sb. the long feathers on the neck of a cock, sometimes called 
hackles. Hence, no doubt, ' to set up one's heckle ' = to show signs 
of a bad temper. Occurs in Gavin Douglas's Prologue to the 12th 
-ZEneid of Virgil, 1. 155 : 

' Phebus red fowle hys corall creist can steir, 
Oft strekyng furth hys hekkill, era wand cleir.' 

Hed, vb. to hide. The past tense and past participle are the same. 
Hedden, also the past participle of hed, to hide. 

Heights, pronounced both hates and kites. It is an exclamation 
used when a boy wishes to shoot without the marble touching the 
ground before it hits the other, at which the aim is taken. 

Heinous cold, i. e. very, or dreadfully, cold. 

Helder, adv. rather : but not now generally known. It was given to 
me by a respected friend, who about forty years ago was watching 
some masons setting a flag, which continually wanted more packing 
to make it lie flat and steady. One kept saying, ' It's elder slack 
yet/ and the others evidently understood him. I have found one 
person besides who knows the word. [Icel. lieldr ; Moeso- Gothic, 
haldis. Gawain, 1. 376 ; Seven Sages, ed. Wright, 1. 1835. W. W. S.] 

Hele, vb. to cover up (in the bed-clothes, &c.); to hide. 


Heligo, or Helligo, adj. wild ; romping : but the word seems not 
much known. ' They're just like heligo lads.' 

Heling, sb. I have heard this name given to a kind of garret, or 
attic, where the roof leans in one direction, and nearly reaches the 
floor. Halliwell gives helings, eyelids. Compare to hele. 

Helter, sb. the pronunciation of the word halter. 

Helting, sb. and pt. In making oat-cake, the water and meal being 
first put into a tub, the mixture stands for the night, then more meal 
is gradually stirred in, and this process is the helting. Halliwell says, 
to helt is to pour out. See Haverbread. A certain woman, reputed 
to be a witch (about 1823), indulged a neighbour, who was a shop- 
keeper, with her custom, and ran up a large score. As she showed 
no signs of payment, the shopkeeper was obliged to stop the credit, 
and ' sho cursed him.' In the evening the man and his wife were 
helting ; the meal would not thicken ; the husband poured it in, and 
* t' wife ' stirred it up. Still little progress was made. At length he 
said, * Tak' thi' airm aat.' She did. He stabbed a penknife into the 
tub, and added more meal. Surprising to say, it thickened immedi- 
ately ! The next day the witch, with her arm lapped up, came by, 
and she said to one of the parties, who went to look at her, ' Yo hev 
not killed me yet ! ' She was supposed to have had her arm in the 
tub to impede the helting, and to have been struck by the knife. 

Hen-hoil, i. e. hen-hole, formerly much used for ' hen roost,' or the 
place where fowls are kept. 

Hen-race. This expression is commonly used to denote a certain 
amount of contempt, in such sentences as, ' Au wodn't be seen at a 
hen-race wi' thee.' The sport in popular opinion is evidently of the 
lowest degree of merit, and no doubt it is. That the hen is held in 
contempt witness Chaucer : 

' Therefore should ye be holden gentlemen : 
Such arrogance is not worth a hen.' 

That the bird is nothing for sport or ornament, and that it is perhaps 
without exception the most useful of all the feathered creation, are 
severally sufficient reasons for its being treated with high disdain. 

Henscrattins, i.e. hen-scratchings, small streaky clouds in such 
form as the name suggests. 

Hezzlebroth, i. e. hazel-broth, a flogging with a hazel stick. 
Hig, sb. a huff, or quarrel. 
Higgler, sb. a hawker of cloth. 

Him, pers. pron. frequently used for himself. ' He has cut him ' = 
' he has cut himself/ The other pronouns are used in the same way, 
as ' I'll wash we,' &c. 

Hime (pronounced haum, or hoime a transition sound), sb. the 
same as rime, or hoar frost. The expression ' himy frost ' for * white 


frost' is common enough. [The Anglo-Saxon for hoar-frost is 
and if the r be dropped it becomes hime. See Hush.. W. W. S.] 

Hindlift, i. e. hmdlift, sb. a joint of beef taken from the hinder part 
of the animal, and corresponding with the aitchbone of the south of 
England. Some people call it the ' inlift, ' which is probably a 

Hing, vb. a form of Jiang, but it is not applied when a person hangs 
himself. See illustration to Cloke. Occurs also in Sir Richard 
Maitland's Satires on the Town Ladies, A.D. 14961586 : 

' With hingan sleeves like geil pokis.' 
Hip, same as Hipe. 
Hipcloths. See Hippings. 

Hipe (pronounced haup), vb. to strike, push, &c. A cow liipes 
another with her horns. 

Hipe, sb. a stroke, or a blow. See Naybreed. 

Hippings, sb. hipcloths, or napkins for infants : no doubt connected 
with Hap (which see), flf allied to hip. it cannot also' be allied to 
hap.-W. W. S.] 

Hissel, or Hisse'n, both forms used for the word himself. 
Hitten, past participle of to hit. See Hat. 

Hoast, or Haust (pronounced hoste), sb. a dry cough. [A.S. hwost ; 
Icel. h6sti.W. W. S.] See illustration to Pay. 

Hob, sb. the name of a stone used in various games, such as ' cots and 
twys,' for placing the stakes upon, or in ' duckstone.' Also a piece of 
iron the mark at quoits.. 

Hoblin, sb. In the course of hay-making, when rain is expected 
before the hay is made, it is customary to rake it up into small heaps 
to prevent it from being spoiled, with the intention of spreading it out 
again. These heaps are hoUins. In size they are between the ricklin 
and the haycock. 

Hobling, sb. a silly fellow. 

Hocker, vb. to hesitate. ' I hocker'd long about it.' I have heard 
this word elsewhere called hacker. 

Hod, the pronunciation of the verb hold. ' Hod thi din, wilt ta 1 ' 
= ' Hold your noise, will you ? ' See Thomas the Rhymer, ver. 14 : 

* But Thomas ye sail hand your tongue, 
Whatever ye may hear or see,' 

where the au is the lengthened sound of the o in hod. 

Under this head I may venture to give an illustration of the 
Huddersfield street Arab as he is. A short time back from this date 


(1876) the children of one of the Kagged Schools had a feast. At table 
a young lad, who seemed to have enjoyed his meat, and to have had 
enough, was asked by a kindly subscriber in attendance if he would 
have some pudding, to which he promptly replied, ' Now (no), Au'll 
tak' some more mate.' When this was demolished the question was 
repeated, and the same answer returned. The proposal was made 
once more, and the lad, who was now replete and irritable, answered 
sharply, 'Now; Au'm full up, Au tell thee ; Au cannot hod? If 
some good Samaritan had furnished this youth with the traditional 
half-crown, as he evidently possessed the quality of perseverance to lead 
to ultimate success, a splendid career might have been looked for. 

Hodden, or Ho'den, i. e. holden, the past participle of to hold. 

Hodfast, i. e. holdfast, adj. used thus : * Au'm varry hodfast on it ' 
= ' I am sure of it.' 

Hoil, the pronunciation of the word hole. ' T' Tioil? i. e. the hole, 
means a cage, or a prison. Used also in various compounds : 
draught-Ao?'/, la.en-hoil, pickin-Aoi7, steel-7io?7, &c. (which see). 

Hoilakes, sb. the name of a game of marbles, which are cast into a 
hole on the ground. The word is no doubt formed from hoil, hole, 
and lakes, games. 

Holeyn, or Hollin, sb. the holly tree. Hollin is quite generally 
used. See The Outlaw Murray, ver. 3 : 

' There's the picture of a knight, and a lady bright, 
And the green hollin abune their bree.' 

1 Thick Hollins ' is the name of a residence near Meltham. 

Hoo, pers. pron. she A.S. heo] : nearly gone out of use, but I occa- 
sionally meet with it. Shoo [A.S. seo] is now much more used here. 
Connected with the pronoun of the third person singular, masculine 
or feminine, two curious usages prevail. 

1. The speaker will use correctly the first person of the verb, and 
with it what is now the third, as thus : * I haven't been there, nor isn't 
going;' 'I haven't taken that house, nor doesn't intend ' [which in 
fact is the old Northumbrian first person preserved. W. W. S.] 

2. In families parents will speak to their children, even when 
grown up, addressing them in the mass in the third singular, and 
then as it were tossing the remark to one. Thus a father, instead of 
saying to his daughter, ' Mary, iron me another handkerchief,' would 
express himself thus : ' She must iron me another handkerchief 
Mary ! ' This certainly has the effect of keeping all attentive. 

Hoodstone. See Hudstone. 

Hoof, or Hoove (pronounced as spelt), sb. a part of the skin on the 
hand made hard by labour. Sometimes hurriers in coal-pits will have 
hooves on their heads, from constantly pushing the carts. 

Hoofed, used as a participle, connected with the above. 'He's 
hoofed to it,' i. e. he is hardened or accustomed to it. 


Hooker in, sb. a traveller, or other person, who is accustomed to 
stand outside merchants' warehouses to invite customers to enter. A 
merry friend of mine was^in the habit of alluding to one of these 
gentlemen as ' the Judicious Hooker. ' 

Hooned (pronounced hooined), pt. harassed; overworked. 

Hoop (pronounced as usual), sb. a finger-ring. Shakespere so uses 
the word Merchant of Venice, Act Y. sc. i. : 

Portia. A quarrel, ho, already ? what's the matter ? 
Gratiano. About a hoop of gold, a paltry ring. 

Hoop for a barrel, sometimes called a garth. 
Hoop for a wheel, generally called a tire. 

Hopper, or Hoppet, sb. A sowing lioppet is a basket made of 
wicker-work, used for sowing corn, &c. ; a bee hoppet is a bee-hive. 
Eay says a hoppet is a hand-basket. [The same as M.E. hoper, a 
basket; P. Plowman, B. vi. 63. W. W. S.] 

Hoptemse (pronounced temce), sb. a hop sieve. Ray has temse. 

Hopy, perhaps the same as hobby, sb. a child's name for a horse, or 
for a toy-horse. In one glossary spelt howpy. 

Hopy dob, used in the same sense as liopy at Holmfirth, &c. 
Hoste. See Hoast, and Haust. 

Hotch, or Hutch, sb. a bout, or turn. ' Give him a hotch over.' 
[The same as hitch. W. W. S.] 

Hotch, or Hutch, vb. to move on a seat without lifting oneself ; also 
to give a slight lift to one getting over a wall, &c. 

Hound, pronounced haand, or yaand. Formerly these dogs were 
much kept in Almondbury, and when one sat on his haunches and 
barked upward in the dead of the night, it was considered to be a 
warning of death. 

House (pronounced haas, or yaas), especially signifies the kitchen, 
or the common room in which the family usually sit. 

Housings (pronounced haasingz s sharp), the lower edges of a roof 
or eavesings. It is clear that this word is a corruption of * eavesings,' 
though the people here suppose it to be derived from 'house,' and 
pronounce it accordingly. 

However, pronounced haaivver, or yaaivver. 

How go ? Although the people hereabout do not profess to be very 
polite, some are undoubtedly civil, and will occasionally salute each 
other in the above form, instead of saying, ' How d'ye do ? ' 

Hubbling, pt. stuttering. 

Hudstone, sb. the hob, or hobstone, of the fireplace. 


Huffle. See Huvvle. 

Hug (pronounced lioog ; gl. huog), vb. to carry a load : very common. 

Huggen, sb. the bone of an animal projecting on each side close to 
the tail. 

Hum, vb. to humbug. 

Humlock, sb. the name of a plant, but not the same as hemlock. 
The former is Chcerophyllum silvestris, the latter is Conium maculatum. 

Hundreds, sb. the name of a boys' game at marbles, which is carried 
on till one of the players scores 100, or some higher number agreed 
upon ; at that stage a change takes place in the proceedings. Any 
number can play at the game, but it will be best described for two 
players, A and B. First they taw up to a hole ; if both get in they 
repeat the process until one is left out, say B ; then A counts 10. 
Should both fail the nearest goes first. He may now lay his taiv about 
the hole, or fire at the other, on hitting which he counts another 10. 
He now goes for the hole again, and failing, lies where he happens to 
stop. If he misses, B from his present position tries to get into the 
hole, and failing, lies still ; but if he reaches the hole he counts 10, 
and proceeds as A had done. The one who first gets the 100 (or other 
number) now goes in for his pizings, which performance takes place 
thus : The loser, so far, is lying about, and the winner goes back to 
drakes, and again tries to lodge in the hole, and if he succeeds the 
game is up. If not, he lies still, and the loser tries for the hole ; if 
he gets in he counts another 10, or if he should succeed in hitting the 
winner, he scores his adversary's hundred to his own number, and 
then goes on for his pizings, as the other had done. 

In failure of either securing the game thus, the process is repeated 
at drakes. When, however, the one who is on for his pizings manages 
to taw into the hole, the game is concluded. 

Hurchent, or Hurchin, sb. the hedgehog. See The Cherry and the 
Slae, by Alexander Montgomery (circa 1597) : 

' I saw the hurcheon and the hare 
In hidlings hirpling here and there.' 

Hurcle, vb. to cower down ; to squat. When persons are gathered 
close round a fire for warmth they are said to Tiurcle ; also if a horse 
or a cow appears poorly, or if they have been out on a cold night, 
they liurcle. Perhaps the word means to draw up in a small compass, 
as we do when cold. In some parts the word is hurple, or liirph. 
See the illustration to Hurchent. [Connected with hurken, to squat 
Dutch. W. W. S.] 

Hurrier, sb. a boy who pushes coal-trucks, &c. in a pit. 
Hurry, vb. to draw or move a cart. A horse hurries coals, &c. 
Hurted, past tense of fo hurt. 

Hurted, and Hurten, past participle of to hurt. 

F 2 


Hush, sb. a gust of wind : evidently for rush. [A.S. hreosan, to 
rush; drop the r, hush.W. W. S.] 

Hussle, or Hustle, sb. rubbish. Halliwell has liustlement = odds 
and ends. 'Before Au turn'd it into a garden There was nowt but 
hustle there.' 

Huvvle, d-b. a stall for the finger or thumb. The word is usually 
pronounced uvvil. Now, making allowance for the ml, which would 
suggest the spelling vel, or vie (see Letter I, 3, 1, 3), and admitting 
the h, which might or might not be intended, we come to liuvvle as 
the most probable local form. Grose, however, calls it huffle. 

The personal pronoun 7 is generally sounded like au in caught. 

1. But the long i in words Las a greater diversity of sound. 

(a) In some words it is pronounced as ee; thus, light, bright, slive, 
&c., are leet, brest, sletve, &c. 

(b) And occasionally, but rarely, like a in ray ; thus, right is 
sometimes called rate, and. fight generally fate ; also pismire, pismare. 
[The Anglo-Saxon has both riht and reht for right W. W. S.] 

(c) Again, in some words, the long i is shortened ; thus, wind (the 
verb) is wind, hinder is hinder, and hmdlift is hmdlift. In fact the 
long i, as sounded in customary English, is almost or quite unknown 
here in the dialect. 

2. On the other hand, the short i is a particularly favourite sound, 
that is, it is introduced in numberless instances where in customary 
English it is not found. 

(a) Some words containing the diphthong oa are pronounced as if 
spelt oi, or oy ; thus, coal, coat, foal, loan (a lane), and throat, are coil, 
coit, foil, loin, and throit. The exceptions are numerous load, road, 
&c. ; oak is yak. 

(b) The same sound is given to o followed by e with a consonant 
intervening; thus, cote, hote, pose, pote, thole, &c., are coit, hoil, poise, 
poit, thoil, &c. Choke, coke, smoke, &c. are among the exceptions. 

(c) The short i is introduced after oo in a large number of words, 
chiefly, however, where the oo is full in ordinary English ; thus, boon, 
boot, boose, fool, goose, moon, noon, roose, school, shoot, spoon, tool, tooth, 
&c., become booin, booit, booise, &c. 

(d) The same takes place, but more rarely, in words where the oo 
has the shortened sound of u in put ; thus, foot and good are fooit and 
gooid. But in such words generally the sound of oo is simply 

(e) The rule, therefore, seems to be, when the oo is full the i is 
introduced, and when short it is lengthened, in the dialect. 

3. The short i sound of the South in such words as din, pin, sin, 
&c. is used here for words ending 

(a) In en; thus, brethren, children, Ellen, elsen, &c., are brethrin, 
childrin, Ellin, elsin, &c. 


(&) More strangely, for words in on ; acron (acorn), mutton, Nelson, 
ribbon, &c., are ackerin, muttin, Nelsin, ribbin, &c. : all which, 1 
myself have heard. 

(c) In such words as Christmas, Michaelmas, &c., which are 
Kersmis, Michaelmis, &c., and Australia, Austrilia. 

(d) And in some words ending in le; thus, bottle, bundle, crozzle, 
&c., are bottil, bundil, crozzil, &c. 

4. In cousin the i is distinctly heard. 

The following is an illustration of the sound of pronoun /. A 
tenant of the Grammar School once on our rent day told a long story 
of his searching for his father, who had been, as it is called, ' out on 
the spree.' On the son's return home, sick and weary, after a boot- 
less errand, as he was toiling up Almondbury Bank he fancied he 
heard his father calling for help. He immediately posted off for 
Dalton, and found his father in the dyke, about one and a half miles 
from the town end. One of the audience said, ' Warn't it queer, 
Jooa, tha' yeerd thi fathther sooa far ? ' To whom he replied, c Au 
deedn't say Au yeerd him, Au said Au thowt Au yeerd him.' 

I' (pronounced ee) t used for in. ' Theer isn't a better haas i' th' 

Ickle, for icicle. [A.S. giceJ, a little jag. The Anglo-Saxon for 
icicle is is-gicel.W. W. 8.] 

If is sometimes pronounced ef. Three men stood by the wayside 
chatting over matters, and one was heard to say, ' Au'll tell thee w'at ; 
ef a man does wrang, yo'll yeer on it all ovver t' country ; but ef a 
man does reight, nobody ses nowt.' [Icel. ef, if. W. W. 8.] 

Imp, sb. always used in a bad sense. 
In. See I 1 . 

In, used as a verb, as, ' The clock ins, 1 i. e. gains. See Hoccleve's 
Poem and Eoundel (A.D. 1408), ver. 29 : 

' Were our seed inned then we mighten play,' 
where inned means gathered in. 

Ing, sb. a field, or meadow. Halliwell says, ' generally one lying 
low near a river,' but it hardly seems so here ; in fact the word is 
very common in this hilly district. 

Inkum jinkum, the name of a ' nominy ' (which see) used at Lepton, 
and formerly at Almondbury, in the game of * Buck, Buck,' which is 
thus played. A boy jumps up on another's back, and holding up 
some fingers, says, 

* Inkum jinkum, Jeremy buck, 
Yamdy horns do Au cock up ? ' 

If he guesses wrong say two for three the first proceeds : 

' Two tha' ses, and three there is ; 
Au'll lean thee to lake at 
Irikum jinkum, ' &c., 


and repeats the question, striking the under boy alternately with his 
flattened fists, fingers downwards, and keeping time with the empha- 
sized syllables. When the under boy guesses correctly he mounts 
the other, and the game goes on. 

N.B. Yamdy means ' how many,' and is a well-known word. 

Insense (accent on last syl.), vb. to inform, or to make one 
acquainted with. Eay says, ' a pretty word used about Sheffield,' 
but it is common enough here. ' I insensed him with it,' or ' into 
it ' = ' I explained it to him,' or ' informed him about it.' 

Intend, vb. used curiously to express a desire or expectation in 
matters beyond one's own control. ' I had intended our rector to be a 
bishop,' &c. Aim is used in a similar way. 

Ippity pippity, an expression of contempt ; but I am unable to say 
whether used as an interjection or adjective. 

I'se, an abbreviated form of ' I shall.' So ' We'se,' ' Ye'se,' &c. See 
The Outlaw Murray, ver. 5 : 

' " I make a bow," then the gude king said, 

" Unto the man that dear bought me ; 
Pse either be king of Ettrick Forest, 

Or king of Scotland that outlaw sail be." ' 

Ista', i. e. art thou ; but art to? is also used. [Chaucer has ' I is as 
ill a miller as is ye ; ' Cant. Tales, 4043. W. W. S.] 

Itches, vb. pronounced ee/cs, or ekes. 
Ivin (pronounced auvin), sb. the Ivy. 
Ivver, the pronunciation of ever. 

Jackabout, or Jagabout, sb. one of no particular branch of business, 
but willing to do anything. 

Jackband, sb. a figurative expression for ' the course of the year,' 
derived no doubt from the kitchen apparatus. The phrase ' When the 
jackband is turned ' means ' after the 21st of June or December.' 

Jacks, sb. a portion of a loom, formed of pieces of wood several 
together on a pivot, which passes through the centre of each. At 
each end of the jack is a string ; the one connects it with the lam 
(below), the other with the yeld. 

Jamb, or Jambstone (pronounced jaum), sb. The side-stone of a 
fireplace, door, or window is so termed. 

Jamp, past tense of to jump. 


Jannock, adj. genuine ; honest ; straightforward. ' That's not 
jannock ' = ' That's not fair.' 

Jannock, sb. Ray says this word means ' oat-bread made into large 
loaves.' I have met with one aged man, and only one, who seems to 
know this fact ; but bannock has a similar meaning. 

Javel, vb. to wrangle, or quarrel. Spenser uses the same word for a 
worthless fellow. 

Jealous, adj. afraid, or suspicious. ' Au'm jealous he's not baan to 
carry on long,' i. e. ' I fear he is not going on long with his business.' 

Jegging, pt. joining at dinner, &c. from another's stores. 
Jegs, sb. shares. ' To go jegs ' = to go shares. 
Jemmers. See Gemmers. 

Jenny broach (pronounced jinny broich), used for the hand jenny to 
spin from. In form like a pencil pointed at both ends, and thicker 
towards the bottom. [The old meaning of broach was a point, or 
pointed pin. W. W. S.] 

Jerry, sb. the common name of a machine for finishing cloth, by 
which all the rough portions are removed. 

Jezebel, sb. a term of reproach curiously used even for a man. F. 
said to M. H. the constable, ' Au'll mak' thee do thy duty, tha old 

Jezebel ! ' 

Jiste (pronounced jaust\ vb. to 'agist,' or feed cattle for hire : used 
chiefly in the participle jisting. An animal so fed is ajister (jauster). 
[Ultimately from Latin jacere. It originally meant to find cattle a 
lodging, or lying-down place. W. W. S.] 

Jobby, sb. a beam or jamb. 

John it, or Jon it, an expression used by some as an oath. 

Johnny ringo (pronounced ring-go], the name of a children's game, 
thus played. One kneels down, and the rest, boys and girls, one 
or both, stand round in a ring. One of the players goes round the 
ring and says, 

' Johnny, Johnny ringoS 
The centre player calls out, 

' Don't stale all my faun sheep.' 
The outsider says, 

* Nobbut one by one 
Whaul they're all done/ 

and as he takes them one by one from the ring they hide. Johnny 
Rinyo at length gets up to look for his sheep ; when he finds them 
they run about ' baaing,' and he catches them, and reckons to cut 


their heads off, till ho has caught them all. Then the game begins 
anew. It was so played as far back as 1810, and is still. 

Johnny Kingo, sb. the Yellow Hammer is so termed by some. 

Jooah, or Juah, the pronunciation of the name Joe, but when used 
with the surname sharply it is Ju' (as in jut), as Ju 1 Brook, Ju' Sykes. 
(See Preface, ' Christian Names. 7 ) 

Joss, sb. the master or leader. ' Joss o' t' haas ' is the master of the 
house. ' He's nooan baaii to be^'oss ower me ' = ' He's not going to 
be my master.' 

Jot, vb. to distribute, &c. ' Jot out their dinners,' i. e. place on their 
plates so much, and no more. 

Jowl (pronounced joul, or jowl), to knock the head against anything. 
Joy, sb. a term of endearment : much used. See Doy. 

Jubberty, Jubbity, Jubblety, sb. a difficulty ; misfortune, &c. 
' He's had some jubbities in his lifetime.' [A corruption of O.Eng. 
jupardy : Modern English, jeopardy. W. W. S.] 

This letter suffers elision in some words ; thus, td and md for take 
and make. Tried, i. e. taked, is used for took. 

Kay, the pronunciation of key, as in Middle English. 

Keeker, adj. squeamish ; cowed ; fearful. ' Keeker o' food ' means 
dainty, and ' /cec&er-hearted ' is cowardly. 

Keel, vb. (active and neuter), to cool ; but not adj. A person may 
keel himself, or let his tea keel, but he would not speak of a keel 
evening. [A.S. col, adj. cool; celan, vb. to cool. W. W. S.] 

Keighley, sb. the name of a town in the West Riding, introduced 
here on account of the peculiarity in the pronunciation. It is not 
called Kedey, as might be supposed, but as if written Keihley, 
wherein there seems to be a relic of a guttural sound. 

Kelt, sb. money : common word. 

Ken, sb. knowledge]: chiefly in such phrases as 'that's past my 

Kenspeck, or Kinseback, adj. easy to be known. ' This is Tcenspeck 
enough, 'i.e. you may see what it is. Halliwell spells this word 
kensback. [A well-known Icelandic word, kennispeki, the faculty of 
recognition. From kenna, to ken, spakr, wise. W. W. S.] 

Kenspeckled, adj. marked or branded, as sheep, &c., with the iron. 
Bay calls this word kenspecked. 


Kerry, sb. a passion. 
Kersen, Kersmas, &c. See Chersen, Chersmas, &c. 

Kesh, sb. used only in the phrase ' to be in one's Jcesh,' i. e. in a 
state of elation, or delight. A man just come to good fortune, or 
married, would 'be in his kesh.' 

Ket, sb. carrion; offal, &c. An exclamation on seeing offensive 
animal matter : ' What Jcet ! ' [Icel. fat, or kjot, flesh. W. W. S.] 

Ketlock, sb. the plant charlock, Brassica campestris. 

Kettish, adj. putrid, &c. It may be said of meat too far gone, 
' It's varry kettish.' 

Ketty, adj. putrid ; rotten ; stinking, &c. The word a little though 
not much known, used by an old man of Lepton in sentences similar 
to the following, said to tiresome children. ' Od bone yor ketty heads 
on yo, ye little ketty madlins.' The meaning of ' Od bone ' not clear. 

Hex (pronounced Wise, or My-eece ; gl. karh's), sb. Halliwell says 
the dry stalk of Hemlock, or similar plant. ' He is as hollow as a 
kex,' said of a deceitful man. For pronunciation see Letter X. There 
are two sorts of kex Shiny Kex, Angelica sylvestris ; and Hough 
Kex, Heracleum, spondylium. 

Kink, vb. to choke : in laughter, &c. A child who throws himself 
into a kind of fit, laughs or cries till he kinJcs. 

Kinks, used also as a substantive. ' Kinlcs of laughter,' &c. 

Kinkcough, otherwise called the Chincough (pronounced tchiri), sb. 
the whooping-cough. This word occurs in a Cambridge MS., Ff. 
ver. 48, fol. 74, in the University Library : Weather Prognostications 
for when the Year begins on a Friday, die Veneris. 

' The chincouyh shall be full rife 
That many men shall short her life.' 

The word kynke = to draw the breath audibly occurs in * Juditium/ 
Towneley Mysteries : 

' Peasse, I. pray the, be stille, I laghe that I kynke. 1 

Kinkhost, sb. same as the above. [Dutch kinkhoest = Eng. chin- 
cough. See Hoast. W. W. S.] 

Kinsbody, sb. a relative. 

Kippersome, adj. (perhaps capersome), used of a prancing horse, &c. 

Kist, sb. a chest, especially for corn. See Uplandis Mouse and 
Surges Mouse, 11. 13, 14 : 

* And freedom had to go quhair e'er scho list, 
Among the cheese in ark and meal in kist.' 

Kit, sb. a pail or vessel with two handles, used for water or milk, 


and is placed on the head. At merry-meetings there is a well-known 
game called l Duck under the water kit.' 

Killing, sb. very common for kitten : from the word cat. It was 
once in dispute, when J. B. was in the company, what animal most 
resembled a cat. Some said the tiger, lion, leopard, &c., but Jem, 
with great gravity, observed, 'I' ma 'pinion theer's nowt so rnich 
lauk a cat as a gret big kitlin".' 

Kittle, vb. to have kittens. 

Kittle, adj. dangerous ; ticklish, &c. 

Kiver, i. e. cover, sb. ten sheaves of corn set up together. Eight 
sheaves form a stack. See Thrave. 

Knackle, vb. to mend in a small way ; to trifle, &c. ' He is a 
knackling fellow,' i. e. one who works on small and varied jobs. So 
' knicknacks ' are trifles. 

Knackler, sb. connected with the above. 

Knade, past tense of to knead, but kneaded is also used. 

Knadekit, commonly called the nakit, a kind of tub, two feet deep 
by one and a half broad, used to hold the meal and water to form the 
dough for oat-bread, from which vessel it is ladled and placed upon 
the bakbrade. They don't reckon to clean the nakit, as it is considered 
the bread is better to manage by leaving the remnants of the old 
bread in the tub. 

Knock on, vb. to get on fast. 

Knodden, past participle of to knead. 

Knoll (pronounced nole ; gl. noal), vb. to sound the knell. 

Knoll, ftb. a little round hill, or the top of a hill. Raven's Knoll is 
the name of a farm near Farnley Tyas. 

Knop, sb. a bud. A flower in bud is said to be ' in knqp.' Occurs 
in Scripture, as in Exod. xxxvii. 20 : 'In the candlestick were four 
bowls made like almonds, his knops, and his flowers.' 

Knope, vb. to strike on the head ; to break (stones). 
Knopple, sb. the head ; the diminutive of knob, or knop. 

Knor and spell, the name of a game played with a wooden ball (the 
knor), a spell, and a pommel. The spell is a kind of stage with three 
or four iron feet to drive into the ground ; on the top of this stage is 
a spring made of steel, containing a cup to receive the knor, which is 
about one or two inches in diameter, and usually made of holly or 
box. The spring is kept down by a sneck, which is tapped by the 
pommel when the knor is intended to be struck. Two may play at 
the game, or two sides. When a player goes in he drives the knor 
for, say, 100 yards, i. e. five score, and he reckons five. Each person 
has the same number of strokes, previously agreed upon, but gener- 
ally only one innings. 


The pommel is thus formed. The driving part is frequently of ash- 
root, or otvler, in shape like half a sugar-loaf, split lengthwise, but only 
three or four inches long, and the handle is of ash, wrapped with wax 
band where held, which is in one hand only. 

This game was not practised here in 1810, and is not much now ; 
but it is very popular about Dewsbury, Batley, Robert Town, &c. 

Krausom. See Chrisom. 
Kuss, sb. a kiss. 

Kuss (pronounced koos, sharp ; gl. kuos), vb. to kiss. Hearing a merry 
girl use this word to a half-witted youth, who appeared dreadfully 
alarmed, I thought it meant to curse, but on seeking an explanation 
I found I was greatly in error. * Coom hither, George,' says she, 
' and Au'll kuss thee.' Nay, nay, tha' shaunot.' 

This letter in many words is entirely silent. 

1. In those in which it is silent in ordinary English. 

2. In some few other words, as in cold, fold, hold, moult, old, &c., 
which are cowd, fowd, hod, maat, owd, &c. 

Sold and told are sell'd and tell'd ; mould, earth, is sometimes mull 
(muol), but mould, a shape, as spelt. As to bold and gold, they are 
generally sounded as usual, though sometimes bowld and gowld. Scold 
is a word not much used, but call instead (which see). 

Laak. See Laiak. 

Lad, sb. the ordinary word for boys ; also much used in addressing 
men, or speaking of them. The soldiers of the 33rd Eegiment are 
called the Havercake Lads (see Havercake). The Oddfellows are 
often spoken of as ' th' Odd Lads,' and so on. Before I was acquainted 
with Yorkshire usages, I was on one occasion much scandalized when 
a freshman from this county spoke of his fellow-students at Emmanuel 
College as ' the lads. 1 

Lady's smock, sb. the local name of the plant Cardamine pratensis. 

Laiak (two syllables), vb. to take the weeds out of corn. Kay spells 
it lowk, of which laak (lah'ak) would be the usual pronunciation, but 
Halliwell gives lauk with the same meaning, a word which here would 
be pronounced loke. 

Laithe (th as in though), sb. the ordinary word for barn. 

Lake, vb. to play, be idle, &c. : very common. When men are out 
of work they are said ' to lake.' The word is sometimes pronounced 
as above in one syllable, and occasionally as two laiak (lay-ak). 


Lake, sb. a game. The word is common in Early English. It is 
the origin of the word lark, which is sometimes also used here. 
Behind the choir-stalls of Carlisle Cathedral is a series of ancient 
paintings illustrating the legends of St. Anthony, St. Cuthbert, and 
St. Augustine. On the first of those relating to St. Cuthbert is this 
inscription : 

1 Her Cuthbert was forbid layks and plays, 
As S. Bede i' hys story says.' 

An ancient dame who lived at Sharp Lane end, being of an econo- 
mical turn of mind, was fond of knitting, and said one evening at the 
conclusion of her labours, 'Au ha' burnt a hopenny cannle, and 
addled a fardin it's better nor lakin.' 

Lakins, i. e. lakings, sb. games ; also toys, or playthings. 

Lam, vb. to beat, or thrash. 

Lammin, i. e. lamming, a beating. ' Au'll gie thee a gooid lammin. 9 

Lams, sb. pieces of wood in a loom, connected with the treadles by 
strings, which are connected also with the jacks (above) in a similar 
way, and work the yelds. 

Lang, adj. long. 

Lang larence, i.e. Long Lawrence; also Long lorren, Long lawrent, 
and Lorrimer, an instrument marked with signs, a sort of teetotum. 
A long lawrence now before me is about three inches long, some- 
thing like a short ruler with eight sides ; occasionally they have but 
four. On one side are ten x's or crosses, forming a kind of lattice 
work ; on the next to the left three double cuts, or strokes, passing 
straight across in the direction of the breadth ; on the third a zigzag 
of three strokes one way, and two or three the other, forming a w 
with an additional stroke, or a triple v ; on the fourth, three single 
bars, one at each end, and one in the middle as in No. 2, where they 
are doubled. Then the four devices are repeated in the same order. 

The game, formerly popular at Christmas, can be played by any 
number of persons. Each has a bank of pins, or other small matters. 
A pool is formed. Then in turns each rolls the long lawrence. If 
No. I comes up the player cries * Flush,' and takes the pool ; if No. 2, 
he puts down two pins ; if No. 3, he says ' Lave all,' and neither 
takes nor gives ; if No. 4, he picks up one. The sides are considered 
to bear the names, 'Flush Put daan two Lave all Sam up one.' 

It has been suggested that the name Lawrence may have arisen 
from the marks scored on the instrument, not unlike the bars of a 
gridiron, on which the Saint perished. 

Lang saddle, or Lang settle, sb. a long wooden seat with a back, 
such as are seen in public-houses. [A.S. setl, a seat. W. W. S.] 

Lant, sb. a word not unknown here, but doubtful whether it belongs 
to the dialect. The substance is more usually called ' weetin' ' 
(wetting), or ' old waish ' (wash) ; the former word being the more 
common. It is urine, much used in cleansing cloth. Ray says the 


word is land, and common in Lancashire. [ A.S. and Icelandic, Tiland. 
W. W. S.] 

Lap, sb. the end of a piece of cloth, which in weaving laps round 
the low beam. [O.E. wlappe.W. W. S.] 

Lap, or Lappe, vb. to wrap up. See a Lytell Geste of Robin Hood, 
Fytte i. ver. 70 : 

* " Mayster," then sayd Lytell Johan, 

"His clothynge is full thynne. 
Ye must gyve the knyght a lyveray, 
To lappe his body ther in.'" 

Largesse (pronounced lairgesse). This word, at least in latter times, 
was only used on Plough Monday, the celebration of which holiday 
was discontinued here about 1838, but I cannot ascertain the exact 

A miniature plough was driven through the town, drawn by two 
men, and one held it ; another, who was the driver, had a bladder 
' teed to th' end o' a stick. ' The man who went into the houses 
begging was ' donn'd i' ribbins ' ; and when money was given all the 
men cried ' Layergsss ' three times, finishing with a long-drawn 
' Whoo oop.' The word ' Hurrah ' was not used. 

Lash, sb. to comb the hair. 

Lashcombs, sb. hair-combs. Halliwell says a ' wide-toothed comb.' 
Lass, sb. the ordinary word for a female, as lad for a male. 
Lat, sb. a lath (sounded as in rat, cat, &c.). 

Lat, adj. out-of-the-way ; awkward, &c. ' A lat place to build 
upon ' = awkward to get at. 

Late, the past tense of to let. 

Lathrpck. This word seems to be almost unknown. It was given to 
me in the relation of an anecdote, and appeared to mean ' a slice,' 
and it may be connected with ' lath.' Be that as it may, it looks like 
a genuine word, and accordingly I have retained it. 

Lauker, the pronunciation of Ulcer, i. e. more like. ' Tha's lauker 
thi mother nor thi fathther.' 

Laver, vb. said of a person looking older, perhaps of one who shrinks 
in his clothes ; but I cannot exactly ascertain the meaning. 

Lays, sb. a technical term in weaving ; also used figuratively in such 
sentences as * Au cannot get the Jays on it,' which means 'I do not 
understand it.' When the warp is made ready for the loom, the 
threads are separated, and passed alternately above and below a string 
called the laysband. Where the threads cross, or perhaps the whole 
arrangement itself, may be considered the lays. In this condition the 
warp is ready for work ; hence the figurative use above mentioned. 

Laysband, sb. See Lays. 


Lead, sb. the metal ; also the verb to lead : are both pronounced in 
two syllables as lee-ad. 

Lead, vb. to draw or haul coals, lime, manure, &c. , or indeed almost 
anything ; see above. The owner, or driver, is said to lead the coals, 
&c., and the horse to 'hurry ' them. 

Leaf, sb. lard before it is rendered, or melted down. 
Learn. See Lern. 

Leathercake. It was formerly the custom to make some oat-cakes 
not thrown as usual, but simply reeled (see Heel). These were much 
thicker than the ordinary ones, and the mode of making them was as 
follows. Upon the bakbrade (which see) was scattered some oatmeal, 
then the dofe (dough) was taken out of the nakit with a ladle and 
placed upon the meal. Then commenced the reeling, after which it 
was allowed to slip off upon the bakstone. When sufficiently baked 
it was placed on the bread-reel to dry. Sometimes it was baked 
before the fire. 

Leatherdick, sb. a leathern pinafore, such as is used by shoemakers. 
The acquisition of one used to be a great object of ambition with 
Almondbury lads ; they regarded it as a kind of Toga virilis. 

Leek, vb. to sprinkle, or throw on water or other liquid. Halliwell 
spells this word lake, but it is not here pronounced as the word which 
means to play. [Connected with leak, Dutch lekken, to leak, or drip. 
W. W. S.] 

Leech, sb. pronounced as usual, but I have heard these creatures 
termed lyches, probably a mistake arising from the supposition that 
the word is so spelt, and improperly called leeches. 

Leg, vb. to walk, or run. ' He legs it rarely.' 

Lennock, adj. nimble ; flexible ; limp ; pliable ; supple, &c. ' Haa 
lennock he is i' lopin ovver t' wall.' Its Cumbrian equivalent is 

Lern, or Learn (sometimes pronounced lean ; gl. lih'n), vb. to lend. 
' Lern me that knife.' This is very much used by those who probably 
consider it the correct word. [Cf. M.E. lenen, to lend. W. W. S.J 

Let, past tense of to light, or alight. ' I let on him ' = ' I met 
with him.' 

Letten, past participle of to let. Occurs in Robin Hood, Fytte viii. 
ver. 37, 

' Than bespake good Eobyn,' 

In place where as he stode, 
' ' To morow I must to Kyrkeslye, ' 
Craftely to be leten blode." ' 

Lift and lurry, i. e. lift and turn (a sick person in bed), by pressing 
against him. 


Lig, vb. to lie down ; also to tell a lie : in both senses very common. 
[In the former sense from A.S. licgan, in the latter from A.S. ledgan. 
W. W. S.] 

Light (pronounced 

Light (pronounced leet), vb. to alight, or happen. ' That's just as it 
leets,' i.e. as it may happen. * She didn't leet to he at whum.' 

Lighters (old pronunciation, leeters), sb. layers. ' It was all laid i' 
lighters. 1 

Light on (pronounced leet on), to meet with. 
Lightsome (pronounced leetsome), adj. active, &c. 

Like (pronounced lauk), likely ; bound ; obliged, &c. * He's lauk 
to do it' = He's bound to do it, or must do it. 

Liken (pronounced lauken), the plural of the verb like. The follow- 
ing is a well-known specimen of the dialect. ' He comes thro' Denby 
dauk saud, wheer they lauken pau, wheer they put a sheep in a pau 
and call it a tayat,' i.e. Denby dike side, where they like pie, where 
they put a sheep in a pie and call it a tart. 

Likened, pt. This word is sometimes called likken'd. 'It had 
likkend to ha' gone,' i. e. it was likely to have gone. 

Like on, or Liken on, vb. to like. ' They do it a deal more nor 
Au lauk on,' or ' lauken on.' 

Like urrow, for lauk urrow. Both spelling and meaning somewhat 
uncertain. It is used thus : as in a race when one is far ahead, he is 
said to have beaten his competitor lauk urrow. 

Lippen on, vb. to expect, depend on, &c. 'He lippen'd on the 
goods coming to-day.' ' Au should ha' gone to see him, but Au lip- 
pen'd on him comin' here.' 

Lithaas, i. e. lith-house, sb. a dye-house. Ray has it. It was given 
to me as a local word, but does not seem much known, but as illus- 
trating other words is useful. [Mid. Eng. fatten, to dye ; hence litster 
and lister, a dyer. W. W. S.] The ' Pharao ' in the Towneley Mys- 
teries is entitled the * Lytster Play,' because it was performed by the 

Lithe, or Lithen (pronounced lauthe ; gl. laudh), vb. to thicken (as 
milk, water, &c. ) with meal, flour, &c. 

Lithe (pronounced lauthe), adj. thick, as sauce may be. 

Lithening (pronounced lauthenin), sb. that which is put into broth, 
&c. to thicken it. 

Liver (gl. liver), to deliver; so posit for deposit, &c. 

Lob, sb. ' lobscouce,' a kind of hash. 

Lobby, sb. a shelf or platform consisting of boards, &c. brought 


forward beneath an unceiled roof, used for lumber, and sometimes 
serving for a chamber : it is generally reached by a ladder. 

Loich (probably loach), a small fish found in the becks, peculiar for 
its swift and direct motion. Hence the expression as ' straight as 
a loich.' It is also called a Tommy Loich, and Beardie. See 

Loin, sometimes considered a vulgarism for lane, but really the local 
pronunciation of loan, which means lane. Both lane and loin are 
generally used where road would be in some counties, which latter 
word is used as well, but is never pronounced royd. See Royd. 

An eccentric character, G. B., well remembered by myself, once was 
met by J. N. near Coldhill Churn (commonly called Crudhill Churn), 
and although unacquainted with J. N., he began laughing, and said, 
' Wat does ta think ? Yon Ben Walker o' Mirfield, he strake me wi' 
a stick. Au said to mysen "Au'll reeght thee, lad;" an' sooa Au 
coom'd into Kaye loin fro' Mirfield, and sitha' Au gate a stooan as 
big as that, an' lapp'd it up in a hankerchy, an' I went wi' it all the 
gate to Mirfield ' (which must be four or five miles), ' and Au bang'd 
it reeght thro' his windy. Ha ! ha ! ' 

Loise (gl. loiz, or looiz), vb. to lose. G. H. and his sister Sal went 

he money) they somehow 
yo' may weel loise t' piece, 

to Huddersfield to sell a piece, which (or the money) they somehow 
managed to lose, when G. exclaimed, * Eh ! yo' may weel loise t' piece, 
goin' i' a l>onnet ! ' This article of head-gear must have been looked 

on as a rarity not so long since, for when a friend of mine some thirty 
years ago became incumbent of E., he noticed Sunday after Sunday 
a certain style of bonnet, which on inquiry he found to be the same 
bonnet lent about among the females of the congregation, that evi- 
dently being considered the only proper head-dress in which to appear 
at church. 

Lollicker, sb. the tongue : not much known. 
Lolly, si), either the upper or lower lip. 
Lolling, pt. lying against. 

Long dog, sb. an expression sometimes heard for ' greyhound.' ' He 
runs like a long dogS 

Lop, sb. a flea : the word evidently derived from lope, to leap. ' T' 
bairn's as wick as a lop,' i.e. as lively as a flea. 

Lope, vb. to leap. Hop, stride, and lope, an expression used for 
what is elsewhere called 'hop, step, and jump.' [A.S. hleopan, to 
run, leap, &c. W. W. S.] 

Lopperd, adj. or pt. a well-known word, and often applied to milk, 
blood, &c. Halliwell gives instances in which it is spelt lopird or 
lopyrd. and says it means coagulated. Here it is used when milk 
is gone sour and lumpy, and not exactly for curdled milk. Lopper 
milk occurs in Spenser. It is applied also to clotted blood. Trousers 
splashed are sometimes said to be ' lopperd wi' muck.' 


Lorrimer, sb. a name given by some to the ' lang larence ' (which 

Letch, or Lotch in, vb. to move as children do with the hand and 
thigh ; to take more space than is allowed at a game ; to go further 
than the rest to make a jump ; to peg too many holes at bagatelle, 
cribbage, &c. 

Loup, vb. another form of the verb lope. See Annan Water, ver. 2 : 

' He's loupen on his bonny grey, 

He rade the right gate and the ready : 
For a' the storm he wadna stay, 
For seeking o' his bonny lady.' 

Again in May Colvin, ver. 6 : 

" Loup off the steed ! " says false Sir John, 
" Your bridal bed you see." ' 

Love (pronounced in the plural as loaves of bread ; gl. loav), sb. a 
term of endearment : much in use. 

Love and sich. * All love and sicJi ' is an expression signifying full 
of love. 

Lovers (pronounced loavers), sb. Chimneys or chimney-pots are 
sometimes so called. The word was heard at Halifax, but seems 
hardly known here. [It occurs in Spenser's Faerie Queen, vi. 10, 42 : 

' Ne lightned was with window nor with lover.' 

It rhymes with ' discover,' 'over,' and 'hover.' It is the Mid. Eng. 
louvre. Of. Eng. lufferboards.W. W. S.] 

Lozin, a word used to. express the dismissal of a congregation. ' T' 
church is lozin,' i. e. the people are leaving after service. 

Lugs, sb. the ears, or hair; also the handles to a tub or pitcher. 

Lum, sb. a chimney. 

Lumb, adj. useless, in the sense of ' numb.' 

Lumbman, sb. a shiftless fellow. 

Lumphead, or Lumyed, sb. a blockhead ; also a hemispherical-headed 
iron used for ironing into the * gathers ' of shirts. 

Lumpydicks, sb. a kind of oatmeal porridge made with water. If 
ordinary porridge were being made the meal would be scattered in 
finely ; but in the case of lumpydicks the meal is dropped in lumpy as 
the water is boiling. The hot liquid sears it over, and it still remains 
lumpy. This may be improved by adding milk. 

Lumreek, sb. chimney-smoke. 

Lungin, or Lungy (g soft), adj. coarse ; sulky-looking, &c. 

Lurcher, or Lurching man (ch soft),sb. one who slinks about poaching, 


&c. Bather remarkable if the same word as lurJcer, as the tendency 
here is to harden cJi. See Letter C. 

Lurgy (ff hard ; gl luorgi), adj. idle ; loafing, &c. Halliwell has a 
word of similar meaning spelt lurdy, which he states to be a north- 
country word. 

Lurry, sb. a kind of dray, or waggon. 
Lurry, vb. See Lift. 

M final is often found where the proper termination is n. See 
Letter N. 

Ma (pronounced may ; gl. mai), vb. to make. See Mak. 

Ma and Ta, for make and take. Both occur in Douglas's King Hart, 
369372 : 

' Soon came delight, and he begouth to dance ; 
Green love upstart, and can his spreitis ta\ 
" Full weill is me," said Disport, " of this chance, 
For now I traist gret melody to ma'." ' 

Maas (pronounced mah-as ; gl. maa'h's), sb. a mouse. 'Tha hasn't 
as mich wit as 'ud bait a maas-trap.' 

Maat (pronounced mah-at ; gl. maa'h't), vb. to moult. The proper 
local pronunciation, sinking the letter I. 

Maath (pronounced mah-ath ; gl. maa'h'th), sb. the mouth. A white 
cat with a black mark by her nose was trotting along within sight of 
two boys, when one hastily remarked, ' Sitha, sitha, t' cat's getten a 
maas i' her maath.' She came a little nearer, when the other replied, 
' Nay, lad, sho's nobbut been amang posnits,' i. e. among the sauce- 
pans or pots. 

Maddled, adj. or pt. puzzled ; partially mad, or mazed, for a short 
time, as when one has been struck on the head. 

Madlin, or Maddlin, adj. perplexing; and as a substantive, a 

Maiden, sb. the peggy for washing clothes. 

Maidening tub, or Swiller. sb. a tub in which is worked an instru- 
ment called the maiden, peggy, or dolly. 

Maispot, or Masepot, sb. a sort of black pipkin holding about a pint. 
This word may be connected with mazars or masers, i. e. bowls, 
goblets, &c. ; in which latter form it occurs in Rolin Hood. Fytte iii. 
ver. 31 : J 


' They toke away the sylver vessoll, 

And all that they myght get, 
Peces, masars, and spones 
Woldne they non forgete.' 

Joseph o' Nuppits went from house to house for dinner on Sundays 
in a kind of rotation. Once at John Shearran's he was somewhat 
dissatisfied with his allowance, and said, * Is thish all Au'm to hev ? 
Ef Au'd been at Aylom's o' Lockwood, Au could ha' had sa'em (seven) 
or naun (nine) mase,' i. e. masepots. 

Maister, the pronunciation of master. 

Mak, vb. to make. ' To make the door, shutters,' &c., is to fasten 

Mak, sb. make ; kind ; sort, &c. ' All maks ' = all sorts. A lass, 
in return for some impudence from a boy, said, ' Sattle thee, lad, 
Au'm noan one o' that mak ; ' i.e. Be quiet, lad, I'm not one of that 

Make (pronounced make), vb. to riddle oatmeal, &c. 

Maleder, Melder, or Milder, sb. what a man takes to the mill to be 
ground, whether a large or small quantity. [Icel. meldr, flour or 
corn in a mill. W. W. S.] 

Mally, sb. Molly, the nickname for Mary. ' McHly Pashley's ' is a 
well-known roadside inn, called the Three Crowns, kept formerly by 
one Mary Pashley. 

Man above, The, the Supreme Being. See Above. I am in- 
formed that children, when asked who is the best man, will answer to 
this effect, though not in these words. The idea is evidently not con- 
fined to any age or locality, for at Oswestry on Hallow e'en is sung 
a kind of carol, in which occur the following words : 

' One for Peter, and two for Paul, 
And three for the good man 
That made us all.' 

Again in Robin Hood, Fytte iv. ver. 36 : 

' " I make myn avowe," said Eobyn, 

Monke, thou art to blame, 
For God is holde a ryghtwys man, 
And so is his dame.' 

Which words are addressed to the monk of St. MaryVAbbey. The 
expression * Being above ' is also used. 

Manchet (pronounced manshet], sb. a species of fine bread. The 
word has now disappeared from the neighbourhood, but I have met 
with persons who remembered a man whose business was to sell such 
bread, from which circumstance he was known as ' Billy Manchet.' 
The word occurs in the Ingoldsby Legends, ' The King's Scholar's Story ' 

' Her manchets fine 
Were quite divine.' 

G 2 


Manifold, si. the bag of a cow which contains the excremental 

Mank, si. a trick ; silly trick ; practical joke, &c. ' Can you show 

any manks on the bar ? ' 

Manner, si. a minnow. 

Map, si. a mop. 

Marlocks (yl. inairioks), si. tricks ; playful proceedings. 

Marrables, si. lumps containing worms, &c., found on the backs of 
hqrses, cows, &c. 

Marrow, or Marry, vl. to match. This word is sometimes pronounced 
marry, especially in a kind of tossing, when each spins a coin, and 
one calls out heads or tails, according to the indication of his own 
coin. When challenging another to this game it is 110 unusual cir- 
cumstance to hear one say, 'Au'LL marry thee,' i.e. match my coin 
against yours. 

Marrow, adj. similar ; corresponding to, &c. ' The marrow glove, 
shoe,' and so on. ' The 'marrow figure ' is the figure corresponding to 
the pattern. See The Banks (J Yarrow, ver. 3 : 

' stay at home, my ain good lord, 
O stay, my ain dear marrow ; ' 

where, however, it is used as a substantive. 

Marrow to bran, i. e. to brand, and Marrow to bonny. Both these 

expressions signify ' exactly alike.' 

Marry, an interjection still much used. ' Marry, lad ! ' ' Now, marry ! ' 
' Aye, marry ! ' ' Yus, marry ! can he ? J &c. 

Martlemas, or Martlemis, si. Martinmas, Nov. llth; Old Martinmas, 
Nov. 23rd. 

Mash, vl. to smash, break, bruise, &c. 

Mater, or Mauter, i. e. malter, a vessel so called. 

Maunce (gl. mauns), si. a blunder, or dilemma. ' It's a pratty 
maunce. 3 ' Tha's made a bonny maunce on it.' Perhaps the spelling 
should be mance ; then by the analogy of Letter A the above sounds 
would follow. See Mense. 

Maunder, vl. to mutter, as an old man. 

Maungy , adj. mangy : a word common, and used in the peculiar sense 
of ' foolishly fond, sentimental, peevish at trifles.' At a certain wedding 
where the bride was saluted in church by her female friends, a strong- 
minded woman looking on said in my hearing, ' Sitha, sitha, they're 
kussin' one another, the maungy things ! ' 

Mawky, or Morky (gl. mauki), adj. maggoty (as cheese, bacon, &c.). 
A mawk is a maggot. 


May gosling's, or gosling's, si. the flowers of the Willow, &c., some- 
times called ' palms.' See Palms. 

Maze, sb. a state of amazement. 

Mazy, adj. dizzy, as when one turns round too often. 

Meant (pronounced ment), sb. meaning, or importance. ' Are these 
letters of any meant ? ' i. e. are they on business, or of any more im- 
portance than circulars ? A white cat appeared to a man at Bradley 
Spout fields always when he went home at ' neet.' He could not tell 
what was the meant o' this cat, but he knew a certain woman was 
agen him. So as he was going thro' a steel (stile), he struck at 'the 
cat, and the next mornin' ' th' woman was i j bed wi' her theegh 

Measure is pronounced mezzur (gl. mez'ur), no h sound ; so ' sure ' is 
sewer, or seooar ; and ' sugar ' is nearly seoogar, or sewgar. Perhaps 
this pronunciation is really that of the word ' messour.' See Alex- 
ander Scott's Roundel of Love : 

1 Short pleasour, lang displeasour, 

Eepentance is the hire ; 
And pure tressour, without mcssnur, 
Luve is ane fervent fire.' 

Meaverly, or Meverly, adj. Halliwell says, ' bashful ; shy ; mild ; ' 
but I have heard it stated to be * middling ' as regards health. ' Art ta 
meaverly ? ' = ' Are you pretty well ? ' But it seems not much known. 

Meg, sb. a halfpenny. 

Meist (pronounced nearly mayeest), the old form of mixed. A similar 
character to Joseph o' Nuppits was one Ben Morton, who lived at 
Milnesfold, on Almondbury Bank. He was chiefly remarkable for 
begging with a can, into which was put everything that was given 
him. First perhaps went in bread, then meal, then milk, potatoes, 
porridge, and so on ; his theory being, ' As it has to be meist, it mout 
as weel be meist first as last.' Like many other plausible theories, it 
did not answer in practice. His route was not much in Almondbury. 
On one occasion there was a festival of some kind near where he 
lived, and the pudding sauce was missing in fact some one had seen 
old Ben drink it. The violence of the threats denounced against him 
will be understood from his own reply, which amounted to this : 

* Ef there's poisin o' bottoms, there's nae rippin o' bailies.' 

Ben was not without wit. He once met a gentleman coming up 
the Bank on horseback, who said to him, ' A fine morning.' He 
answered, ' Aye, maister, it is ; ' adding, ' an' it's a rare thing for some 
on us horses weer made.' ' What for, my man ? ' said the equestrian. 

* Wha, if theer had been nooan, sicklauk as me would ha' had to hug 
sicklauk as thee.' 

Melder, sb. a confusion in the mind. 

Mell, vb. to meddle. See Skelton, Colin Clout, 11. 161-3 : 


* But they arc loth to mett, 
And loth to hang the bell 
About the Cattes neck.' 

Melsh, adj. moist ; mild, &c. A melsh nut is a soft one, not ripe ; 
and a melsh night is a mild or moderately warm night. It occurs 
in a different form in Hamlet, Act II. sc. ii., in the last two lines of 
the Player's speech : 

' The instant burst of clamour that she made 
(Unless things mortal move them not at all,) 
Would have made milch the burning eyes of heaven, 
And passion in the gods.' 

Melsh Dick, a wood-demon, who is supposed to guard over unripe 
nuts. ' Melcli Dick '11 catch thoe, lad,' was formerly a common threat 
used to frighten children going a' nutting. 

Melt, vb. to make malt. ' They don't lauk malt 'at were melted i' 
cuckoo taum.' 

Mense, or Menseful, adj. tidy ; clean ; comely, &c. Eay has mense- 
ful. A.S. mennisc, human, manly. 

Mense is also a substantive [and is constantly so used in Lowland 
Scotch. W. W. S.]. 

Merritrotter, si. a species of swing, formed by a rope thrown over a 

Mester, sb. Mister ; Mr. 
Met, sb. a bushel. 

Mew, pt. mowed, the past tense of to mow ; so sew for sowed, and 
snew for snowed. 

Mich, adj. and adv. much. ' By far and mich, an old expression. 

Mich (pronounced maucli), vb. to move quietly, or slily. If one 
were asleep it would be said, Tha mun iriauch in,' &c. 

Midden, Middin, or Midding, sb. a dunghill, &c. Ray has it. The 

ass-middin is an ash-heap ; the muck-middin a manure heap, or dung- 
hill. Occurs in Dunbar's Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins, 1. 68 : 

' Syne sweirness, at the second bidding, 
Came like a sow out of a midding.' 

Middlemost, adj. the centre, &c. See Ezek. xlii. 5 : < The galleries 
were higher than these, than the lower, and than the middlemost of the 
building.' Occurs again ver. 6. 

Midge, sb. the common word for a gnat. See Aran. 

Milkhaas, sb. milkhouse, i. e. a kind of dairy, or cellar, on the ground 


Millin, or Milling, adj. middling. 

Miln, sb. a mill. IT/^sbridge a village near Huddersfield, in the 
parish of Almondbury. 

Milner, sb. one who milns the cloth, i. e. puts it into the stocks. 

Minch-pau, pronunciation of mince-pie. 

Min' me on, i. e. mind me on, or remind me. 

Mischief neet (night), sb. the 30th of April, when it was formerly 
thought the canny Yorkshireman might do what mischief he pleased, 
and often did a great deal. Policeman X is now the spoiler of this 

Mistal (pronounced mistl), sb. a cow-house. 
Mixed. See Meist, and note to it. 
Mobs, sb. blinders (blinders) for horses. 

Mod, sb. A little mod or moddin thing is a dumpy or clumsy child, 
one that ' sets down flat feet,' &c. 

Modiwarp, sb. a mouldwarp, or mole. Pronounced generally mowld- 
warp at Lepton. Occurs in Spenser [in Colin Clout's come home 
again, 1. 763; and in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV., Act III. sc. i. 
W. W. S.] 

Mog. See Mug. 

Moich, i. e. ' moche,' or ' moach,' vb. to measure (land, &c.). In a game 
where the distance from any mark is doubtful, it might be said, 
'Au'll moich thee.' It is not used for measures of capacity, but 

Moit, sb. a mote. 

Moit, vb. to pick out motes, burrs, small pieces of wood, &c., from 
the cloth ; which process is called moiting. 

Mooil, or Mooild, i. e. ' mool,' used for mood, or temper. ' Sho's in a 
queer mooil to-day.' 

Moolter, or Mooter, sb. what a miller takes for his work. 

Moorgrlme (pronounced yraum), sb. drizzling or hazy rain, not 
likely to be permanent. 

Mopple (pronounced moppil), vb. to confuse. Halliwell says moppil 
(which is the local form of mopple] is a mistake, or blunder. I have 
never heard the substantive, though often the verb. At a cottage 
prayer-meeting an Independent W. B. was, as it is called, 'engaged' 
in prayer, when he was much annoyed by one of the assembled 
hearers, who was a Wesleyan, and continually exclaimed, ' Glory, 
Amen, Yus,' &c. Suddenly he stopped in the midst of his petitions, 
tapped his troublesome hearer on the shoulder, and said, * Drop it, 
mun ; tha moppils ine.' 


Morky. See Mawky. 

To-morn, to-morrow. See Robin Hood, Fytte iii. ver. 56 : 

' " Or I here another nyght lye," said the Sheryfe, 

" Eobin, now I pray thee, 
Smyte of my hede rather tomorne, 
And I forgive it the."' 

To-morn at neet, to-morrow night. This and to-morn are both 

now very common. 
Mosker, vb. to fritter away, decay gradually, as a wall, &c. ; also to 

smoulder, as of burning wood. 
Moss, sb. peat ; also that part of the moor where it is found, as 

Harden Moss, Holm Moss. 
Moss-wether, sb. a moor-edge wether, or sheep. Used figuratively 

for a slovenly or uncombed man. 

Mot, sb. on a bagatelle-board, the small mark from which the balls 
are started, &c. ; or in quoits, pitch and toss, &c., the mark to which 
the object is thrown. 

Mow, hay stored in a barn (pronounced moo). 
Muck (gl. muok), sb. manure ; also dirt of any kind. 
Mucky (gl. muoki), adj. dirty. 
Mud (gl. muod), vb. might. 
Mudn't, i. e. might not. 

Muff, vb. to speak indistinctly, or make a slight noise. ' The cat 
pass'd me, and neer muff'd.' Said of a child who was scalded, ' We 
took his hand, held it under the tap, and wrapp'd a wet cloth about 
it, and he never muff'd.' 

Mug, or Mog, vb. to move gently. ' Moggin on ' = moving or 
getting on. ' When a man helps t' wauf (wife), they may mug on,' i. e. 
get on. 

Mugpot, sb. a small mug of common brown or black ware, holding 
three gills, or a quart. The messpot, or masepot, held a pint. 

Mule (gl. meul), sb. the word generally in use for ' ass.' 
Mule, sb. a machine in a mill on which yarn is spun. 

Mull (gl. muol), pronunciation, of mould, i. e. earth, &c. A certain 
well-known inhabitant of Almondbury had a determined purpose to 
make himself independent, and spoke constantly of his resolution. 
His efforts, however, one and all failed ; and after one of some signifi- 
cance, a friend met him and said, 'Well, M., are you independent 
yet ? ' To which he replied, ' Naw ! nor nivver mun be, whaul (till) 
Au can live aat o' door and ate mulV 


Mullock (gl. muol'uk), sb. a mull; blunder; mess, &c. It is also 
sometimes used for dirt, or rubbish. 

Mullock, vb. to make a blunder. 

Mungo (gl. muong'oa), sb. old cloth, stockings, rags, and other 
material, chiefly woollen, opened out by a machine (called a garnet, 
waste-opener, or rag-machine) for the purpose of being manufactured 
into cloth. The origin of this word is involved in great obscurity, 
but it has been thus accounted for. When the machine was first 
introduced something was presented to its maw which it refused to 
receive, and one of the hands reported to the master that it would not 
pass through the machine, on which he exclaimed, ' But it mun go,' 
and hence the word. This does not seem a very satisfactory solution 
of the difficulty, but I give it for what it is worth. [More likely from 
M.E. mungen, mixed; cf. mung-corn, mixed corn. W. W. S.] 

Mutty cauf (gl. muoti kauf), sb. a little calf ; also figuratively, a silly 

Muzzle (gl. rnuoz'l), vb. used for muffle, in regard to the church bells. 
Mysell, and Mysen, both common for myself. 


The letter n at the termination of some few words, or syllables, is 
turned into m ; thus eleven becomes ela'em, or claim ; even (not odd), 
aim ; even, i. e. evening, e'em, in the words twelfth em and tiventite'em ; 
oven, <?om; seven, so? em, or saim : steven, sta'em, or staim; Stephen, 
Ste'em ; gizzen, gizzem. Also flaunpot is flaumpot ; and grandfather 
and grandmother are sometimes called gromfather and grommother. 

Naa, the pronunciation of now. Though the inhabitants of this 
neighbourhood are generally well disposed, they are not exactly what 
would be termed a polite people ; still this word is sometimes used, as 
a pleasant form of address, when one meets a passing acquaintance. 

Nab, sb. a projecting hill : very common here in local names. Thus, 
Nab hill at Dalton Bank end, West-nab near Meltham, Hunter's Nab 
between Almondbury and Farnley, Butter-wa6 at Lepton. [A varia- 
tion of knap, or knop. A S. cnap, a rounded hill. W. W. S.] 

Nabreed, or Naybreed. I have only heard this word in expressions 
like the following : * Watch t' nabreed, it comes round once in seven 
years, and gives somebody a Mpe! A similar sentence might be used 
by a person injured, who thinks the wrong will be returned on the 
wrong-doer. It seems, therefore, a kind of Nemesis, but no doubt 
there is some tradition connected with this expression other than 
what is intimated above. 

Nacks, sb. used in the following way. ' Yaa art ta, lad 1 ' ' Au'm 


no gret nacks.' Evidently equivalent to the ' no great shakes ' of the 
south. A poorly-bred cow is also ' no great nacks.' 

Nadekit, or Nakit. See Knadekit. 
Naff. See Nath. 

Naffler, sb. a person busy about trifles, doing something, and 
nothing. Used also contemptuously to a child : * Tha' little nafflin 

Naked, or Nakt (gl. naikt ; the a as in fate). This word is pro- 
nounced as one syllable, and not naked. 

Nanberry, or Nanbury, sb. a kind of wart formed on the bag of a 
cow. See Anberry in Halliwell. 

Nantle (sometimes pronounced nontle ; gl. nont'l), vb. to move about 
with a mincing step ; to dance attendance, as on a young woman. 
Halliwell says, to fondle, or trifle. 

Nar, or Naur, adj. (which would be pronounced naur), used for 
nearer, and even nearest, and seems to be a sort of correlative to far. 
[Near is nigher, and nearer is nigherer, a reduplicated comparative. 
Near is always a comparative in Old English. W. W. S.] 

Nath, also Naff, sb. the nave of a wheel. 

Naturable (gl. naat-unrbul), adj. natural : used in many parts, at 
Lepton and Almondbury. When some lovers of music, for which the 
West Eiding is noted, were returning from one of the Bradford 
Festivals, a discussion commenced as to the merits of the Hailstone 
chorus. One said it was * vary gooid.' Another caught him up, 
indignant at such scant praise : * Gooid ! Au mean to say it was 
perfectly naturableS 

Nannt (pronounced naunt), aunt. * Yaa's thi' naunt ?' '0, sho's 

Nawther, also Nowther, and Nother, the pronunciation of neither : 
an equivalent to the local sound of nitlier. But nowther is found in 
Chaucer. In the Towneley Mysteries we have nother and nawder. 

Near, sb. the kidney: connected with the latter syllable of that 
word. [Mid.Eng. neere; Germ. niere.W. W. S.] 

Neeze, used to express the whistling sound in breathing through the 
nose when one has a cold. [Occurs in Job xli. 18 ; and (in some old 
versions) in 2 Kings iv. 35. W. W. S.] 

Neif (pronounced naif, or nayif ; plural, neives), the fist. flcel. 
hnefi.W. W. S.] 

Neighbour row, sb. In most country districts a certain distance is 
laid out by custom within which persons are bidden (from each house) 
to a funeral ; called as above. 

Neist (pronounced naist, or naijiat), adj. next. [The local word 



often better than the standard one. Nigliest and next are both derived 
from A.S. nehsta, in Mid.Eng. nehst, or neist. W. W. S.] It must, 
however, be remarked that the mode of pronouncing next in the local 
fashion would be neist, as * vaist ' for * vexed,' &c. See Letter X. 

' She neist brought a sark o' the saftest silk, 
Well wrought wi' pearls about the band.' 

Alison Gross, ver. 5. 

* The neistan step that she waded, 
She waded to the chin. 7 

Willie and May Margaret, ver. 30. 

Nesh, adj. tender ; delicate ; nice ; sensitive to cold. Used also in 

' I can fynde no flesh, 
Hard nor nesh, 
Salt nor fresh, 

Bot two tome platters.' 

* Secunda Pastorum,' Towneley Mysteries 
(Surtees Society), p. 113. 

Nestlecock, sb. the youngest child, &c. 
Nifle, vb. to steal quietly, or slily. 
Nifler, sb. a sly thief. 

Night, pronounced neet, but sometimes naivt. On one occasion a 
friend of mine heard two persons taking leave. ' Gooid neet,' said 
one ; ' Good nawt,' said the other. The latter is considered the more 
modern form, though it is hard to say why, as the long i is so 
frequently pronounced as au, or aw. 

Nip, scrat, and bite. Used to express a scramble, 

Nipper, sb. a boy who runs to different offices to see whether there 
are any goods for the station. To nip about is to go about quickly. 

Nobble, vb. to thrash or beat a person ; also to take possession of. 

Nobbut, or No' but, i. e. not but, or nought but, constantly used for 
only. ' It's nobbut me.' Henryson, who wrote about 1540, has in his 
Abbey Walk, 11. 4144 : 

' This changing and great variance 
Of earthly statis up and down, 
Is not but casualty and chance, 
As some men say without reasoun.' 

Also in the Yorkshire Horsedealers : 

' Thinks Abey, t' oud codger '11 nivver smoak t' trick, 
I'll swop wi' him my poor deead horse for his wick, 
An 3 if Tommy I nobbut can happen ta trap, 
'Twill be a fine feather i' Aberram cap ! ' 

Noddlin, nodding (?). A man brought his wife to Almondbury to 


bo buried. The coffin was placed on horseback, and of course moved 
about with the motion of the horse. The husband, observing this, 
said, ' Tha's bin a noddlin fooil all thi lawf, and tha goes noddlin to 
thi grave.' He was not over careful himself, for he had not ordered 
a grave to be made, and the coffin was left on the churchyard wall 
till it was ready. 

Nogs, sb. certain instruments like the letter L, and made of elastic 
iron. They were formerly much used in woollen weaving to put on 
the beam for the purpose of holding the warp. As the piece gradu- 
ally progressed towards completion, they one by one fell out. They 
are not much used now, but flanges instead. 

Noint, for anoint, vb. to beat. 'Au'll noint thee.' [Noint for 
anoint is a corruption of the loth century. W. W. S.] 

Noit, the pronunciation of note in the sense of business or employ- 
ment : here very common. Chaucer uses note in this sense (Canterbury 
Tales, line 4066) : What noit are ye at ? ' = ' What are you doing ? ' 
'We sud be at the same noit as before,' i. e. in the same position, or 
difficulty. It is said of a cow a long time after calving, ' Sho is old 
noited.' If giving no milk, and not in calf, ' Sho is at no noit. 1 In 
the Towneley Mysteries ' (Surtees Society), at p. 58, we find : 

* To neven (i. e. name) sych noytes new 

To folk of wykyd wylle, 
Wyth outen tokyn trewe, 

Thay wylle not tent ther-tylle.' 

Nominy, or Nomine, sb. a tale, or formulary. * He gave us the whole 
nominy ' = ' He told us all about it.' A woman, describing the cere- 
mony of her marriage, said, ' Paarson read t' nominy over us,' i. e. the 
service. No doubt derived from ' In nomine Patris,' &c. For various 
nominies see the games * Blackthorne,' ' Inkum Jinkum,' &c. 

None, or Nooan (gl. noan, or noa'h'n), not. ' He's nodn baan to do 
that,' i. e. not going to do it. See quotation to Maaspot from Robin 

None (pronounced noon), not one. 

Nooa, Now, or Naw, the pronunciation of no. 

Nooin, or Nooinin, noon ; midday. 

Nook (pronounced like book), sb. a corner. 'Ass nook,' the place 
where the ashes fall. 

Nor, than. See note to Lake. 

Noration (see Oration), sb. It is doubtful which form the word 
takes, i. e. I have not been able to make out whether people say < an 
oration ' or ' a noration ' / perhaps the latter is rather more probable, 
as the natives here are not, more than elsewhere, addicted to use the 
article ' an.' 

Nought (pronounced nowt), nothing. A sensible old saying here is, 


' Too mich o' owt 
Is gooid for nowt.' 

Nower, i. e. nowhere. 

Nncket, si. a little nook, or corner. 

Numbling, adj. unhandy ; same as fumbling. 

Nuncle, sb. uncle. ' My nunde Joe/ &c. King Lear, passim. An 
old gentleman, coming from the Cock at Farnley (1858) late at night, 
and going towards Almondbury Common, the night being dark, lost 
his way, and fell into a small dyke near Newcastle Park. He could 
not get out, having a weakness in his back, and being, moreover, an 
old man, so he sat on the brink to reason. ' Au say, Joe, tha' s hed 
many ups and daans i' this world, but this is lawk to be a finisher.' 
He then called out lustily, ' Is there nobody to save me in a Christian 
land like this ? ' At last, however, his own niece found him, and on 
recognizing his voice exclaimed, * Good gracious my nunde I ' 

Nuppit, sb. simpleton : still used. Halliwell says nup is a fool. 
See Preface Joseph o' Nuppits. 

The long o has chiefly two forms. 

(1) In some words it takes the sound of aw (which also represents 
*), as no, Joseph, Moses, slow. 

(2) In other words it is lengthened into two or three vowels, ood; 
as go, no, so, which are gooa, nooa, sooa. 

(3) In some words it has the usual pronunciation. 

(4) And in many the long o becomes #, as over, ovver ; open, 

Oa (1) forms two syllables ; thus, broodd, looad, roodd. 

(2) Sometimes, when sounded as o, it becomes oi, diphthong; thus, 
I, coat, foal are coil, coit, foil. See Letter I (1). 

(3) And when o is followed by a consonant and final e the samo 
change takes place ; thus, cote, hole, pose, pote, thole, &c., become coit, 
hoil, poise, poit, thoil, &c. 

Oo. This form has two sounds. 

(1) As in book, cook, crook, hook, which take the southern sound of 
oo in moon, soon, &c., except the words good and. foot, which fall under 
the next rule. 

(2) In such words which in the south have oo pronounced full, as 
in moon, cool, spoon, noon, school, soon, fool, goose, &c., the pronunciation 
here is very singular, mooin, cooil, spooin, nooin, schooil, sooin, fooil, 


& c ., together with the words foot and good, which become fooit and 
gooid. Hoop and wood seem to be exceptions to this rule. 

Oi, in the words oil and soil, appears in the dialect as o, these words 
being often called die and sole ; possibly under the impression that oil 
and soil are corruptions. 

Ou, when sounded in the southern dialect as in about, scout, out, &c., 
here takes the sound aa, the first a as in father, the second as in 
fat. Thus out (when not sounded yat) is aat, or ah-at, nearly. When 
ou takes the sound of o in southern English, as in soul, pronounced 
sole (gl. soal), it here becomes sowl (gl. soul) ; ihusfour isfowr ; pour, 

Oachering, or Cohering (ch soft), lavishing. 

Ockslaver (gl. ok'slavur), perhaps ack slaver, or hawkslaver (pro- 
nounced slavver), one who froths at the mouth. It might be said, 
* Yo' gret ockslavering yaand,' as an expression of contempt. 

Odd, used in a peculiar sense. An odd child is an illegitimate 

Oddlads. Th' oddlads, i. e. the odd lads, the order of Odd Fellows. 

Oddments (gl. od'ments), remnants ; odds and ends : the syllable 
merits distinct ; not munis. 

Off, different ; besides ; or in addition to. ' You will want some 
off the scholars,' i. e. besides the scholars. 

Offald (pronounced offuld), a term of reproach. From offals (off- 
falls), fragments of meat, &c. A word much used. ' An offald 

' Then Nan began to froth an' fume, 

An' fiz like botteld drink.' 
" Wat then, tha's enter'd t' haase agean, 
Tha offald lewkin slink." 'Natterin Nan, ver. 44. 

Offalment, a bad man, article, &c. 

Oil, Aul, or Aual (spelling very uncertain), the pronunciation of a 
word applied to those circular and raised portions of grass left by 
horses when pasturing in a field. 

Old becomes oud or oad (gl. oud, or oad). 
Olys. See Allys. 

On, used for of. < Tak' hod on it, lad.' ' What sort on ? ' (or sort 
en '). What is it made on ? ' 

Onely (pronounced wunly ; gl. wunii), solitary ; lonely. ' He feels 
varry oneley.' 

Or, before. 


Oration, a large number, or a long row. ' There's walls enough to 
build an oration of cottages for poor folk.' ' Au saw an oration of 
people.' See Noration. 

Oss (pronounced os sharp), to offer, attempt, &c. Ray suggests from 
ausus. [But rather from F. oser, a derivative of ausus. W. W, S.] 
' Au sail ne'er oss ' = 'I shall never attempt.' On the occasion when 
Sir John Bamsden came of age, he gave several public dinners, and 
on passing between Longley Hall and Huddersfield, he encountered 
some mill hands, lads and lasses. A lad taps a lass on the shoulder, 
and she says, 'Drop it, lad; Au want none o' thi bother.' The 
lad, ' Au'm noan baan to mell on thee.' ' Well, but tha were ossin.' 
Sir John was much exercised with this, and took it up at the dinner, 
where he found plenty of his guests able to restore the dialogue to 
its beauty, and explain its meaning. 

Ossings, the name of a field : probably oxings. See Aise. 

Othersome, i. e. others : very common. Sometimes used even in the 

Ouse, formerly used for ox. See Letter X, and Ossings. Occurs in 
The Death of Parcy Heed, ver. 20 : 

' O turn thee, turn thee, Willie Ha', 

turn thee, man, and fight wi' me. 
When ye come to Troughend again, 
A yoke o' owsen I'll gie thee.' 

Again in The Fray o' Suport, ver. 1 : 

' Nought left me o' four and twenty good ousen and ky, 
My weet-ridden gelding, and a white quey.' 

Out-trees, cross pieces of wood which support the material of a 

Ou-wher, or Awer, anywhere. ' Tha'll nooan faund (find) it awer 
near theer.' They say also nower for nowhere, a word which seems 
closer to its equivalent. 

Oven is pronounced o'om, as in room. See Letter V. 

Overlade (pronounced ovverlade ; gl. ovurlaid), sick ; troubled ; 
over-burdened. It is a corruption of overled. To overlead in Old 
English means to oppress. 

[' Shal neither kynge ne kny^te, constable ne meire 
Overlede the comune,' &c. (i. e. oppress the commons). 

Piers Plowman, B. text, 3. 314. W. W. S.] 

Owler, or Oler (gl. oul'ur, or oal'ur), the alder tree, Alnus glutinosa. 
Owlet (pronounced ullet ; gl. ul'et), the owl. 


Paak, a stye on the eyelids. 

Paand. See Pound, and New Road to Farnley in Preface. 

Paddle, vb. to lead by the hand. 

Paddle, or Peddle, sb. a huckster's cart ; a hand cart. [In form, a 
diminutive of ped, a basket. W. W. S.] 

Padfoot (pronounced padfooit), a kind of ghost, or goblin, still often 
talked about here, and probably believed in by some. It is described 
as being something like a large sheep, or dog; sometimes to have 
rattled a chain, and been accustomed to accompany persons on their 
night walks, much as a dog might ; keeping by their side, and 
making a soft noise with its feet pad, pad, pad whence its name. 
It had large eyes as big as ' tea-plates.' To have seen it was of course 
a portent of various disasters. See Preface, Padfoot. 

Padinoddy, or Palinoddy (a iuTiad), funk ; agitation ; or embarrass- 

Pagmag, odds and ends ; nonsense. J. B. made a dish of bacon, 
fowls, and greens ; and, being a strong-stomached man, he actually 
added a tallow candle. He called it a pagmag. 

Pail, or Pale (pronounced as pay-il ; gl. parh'l), to hit hard; to 
drive ; to thrash. Said to one thrashing corn, ' Pail it out.' 

Paise waise, or nearly Pisewise (gl. paa'iz waa'iz ; a in father, i in sit), 
i.e. pax-wax, the ligamental matter of the neck of ruminating 
animals. Here understood of the gristle in a neck of mutton. Also 
said of what is tough. 

Pale away, work away ; push along. See Pail. 

Palm (pronounced pawm or poam), the tree so called. Sallow buds 
are so called. We find the following in a note on p. 334 of Acts of the 
Chapter of Ripon (Surtees Society, vol. Ixiv.) : ' Our forefathers used 
any substitutes for the Oriental palm that came most readily to hand : 
in Italy, olive branches ; in France, box or laurel ; in Russia, some 
kind of sallow ; in England, the yellow flowering sallow, yew, and 
box ; in Scotland, the sallow ; in Ireland, the yew. The term palm 
is popularly applied in the north of England and in Scotland to the 
yellow callow, and in the south to the yew. In North Yorkshire 
'palm crosses' are made every Palm Sunday, and hung up in the 
cottages till the next year ; so, in Ireland, tufts of yew that have been 
blessed as palms. In the prayer of benediction of the palms, the words 
of the Eoman missal are, " benedic etiam et hos ramos palmce et olivce ; " 
in the Parisian, " Jws frondium ramos ; " in Sarum, York, and Here- 
ford, " hos palmar um cceterarumque arborum ramos." There is no 
mention of the custom previous to the eighth or ninth century.' 


Palt (pronounced pault), to mend. May be said of mending a stock- 
ing, a coat, a cart, or indeed anything. ' Tha' a't paltiri up then.' 

Pan, vb. to settle, unite, fit, &c. Boards pan when they lie close 
together. Also may be said of a man : ' He pans to work,' i. e. settles 
down to it. 

Pancake Bell. See Fastens Tuesday. 

Pancheon, or Panshun, sb. an earthenware bowl, unglazed externally, 
and internally glazed black or yellow: used for kneading bread, 
washing small articles, and containing milk to be skimmed. 

Parkin, oatmeal gingerbread, universally used here on the 5th Nov., 
and for many days after. Presents of it are often sent to me by the 
boys' parents, and others. 

Parlour (pronounced paylour ; gl. pail'ur). See Letter R. 

Parpoint, the name of a certain sized stone, much about the form 
and bulk of a brick, but rather thinner. It is used chiefly for forming 
inner and division walls, and is no doubt derived from the old French 
parpaigne. * Parpaigne, a pillar, buttresse, or supporter of stone- 
works, serving to bear up a beam or summer in a wall.' Cotgrave. 

Part, used by some persons in a peculiar way for some. ' He has 
part money ' = ' he has some money.' 

Pash, sb. a word used to express a quantity of rain (Hall, says of snow 
also). * It will clear up after another pash of rain.' Used jokingly 
also of fine weather. Also used for a large quantity of any liquid. A 

Pash, vb. The wind poshes (i. e. blows) the door to. ' He pash'd his 
neive i' mi face ' = struck me. Pash, to strike, occurs in Tudor-English 
in Ford's Lovers' Melancholy, i. 1 ; and in Shakespeare. 

Pattren, i. e. pattern. George Hepplestone, a well-known humorous 
native who had the unenviable distinction of being one of the last 
men placed in the stocks (which he preferred to paying the fine, in 
order to annoy the constable), on one occasion had been to 'The 
Wood' for work, and proceeding homewards, met John Mallinson, 
father of the well-known schoolmaster, to whom he said, ' Johnny, 
what does ta' think ? Au've been to t' Wood for mi pattren, an' it's 
to be wooven wi' fouer treddles. Naa, if we had been intended to 
wave wi' fouer treddles, we'd ha' had fouer legs instead o' two. 
Doesn't ta' think sooa ? ' Of. F. patron, a pattern. Cotgrave. 

Pawk (gl. pauk), the pronunciation of pike (which see). 

Pay, to beat. Formerly in good use. See Dunbar's King Hart, 
c. ii. st. 58 : ' Heidwerk, Hoist, and Parlasy maid grit pay,' i. e. gave 
a sound beating. 


Peace Egg, the name sometimes given on the title-page of the drama 
of ' St. George, 7 which is performed at Christinas. I insert it here, not 
as necessarily forming a part of the dialect, but as being an instance of 
a very singular corruption, arising from the straining of a word to 
meet the knowledge, or ignorance, of the mass of people. The true 
name is Pace Egg, i. e. Pasch Egg, or Easter Egg. Still it may be 
asked why such a name should be given to a drama performed at 
Christmas, and the entire reason may be difficult to make out. It 
must not be forgotten that the drama was, and I believe is still, in 
some parts performed at Easter, and the egg is the symbol of ttie 
Eesurrection. It is much the same as if a Christmas publication 
were called the ' Holly Branch ' ; but the Pace Egg of course has a far 
wider signification. 

Peahull. See Peascod. 

Pear, the fruit, is, pronounced pear, as two syllables (gl. peeii'r). 

Peartly, adv. in a brisk, lively manner. See Merrie Conceited Jests 
of George Peek, Gentleman. 1607. * So down-stairs goes she peartly.' 

Peascalding (pronounced pay scalding}. This was a kind of pea feast, 
formerly popular enough, and conducted as follows. A large quantity 
of peas were gathered, say two strokes, which equal a bushel. They 
were boiled with the swads on in the set-pot ; they were then piled 
upon a riddle and placed upon the table. Bound the base of the 
mountain were a lot of cups containing butter, which was melted by 
the warmth of the peas. The neighbours and friends gathered round. 
To eat the peas, they took hold of the stalk and stripped the pods in 
their mouths after dipping them in the melted butter, and the sweet- 
ness thus derived from the swads made the peas delicious. Bread was 
eaten with them. In the midst of the mound of peas was a salt pot, 
into which the peas were dipped. Sometimes a little playfulness arose, 
and they pelted one another with the swads. 

Peascod, the pod of the pea : so called probably from its resemblance 
to a pillow, in some places called a cod. ' Hull ' is also used, i. e. 

Peaswad, or Peaswod (pronounced payswad ; gl. pai-swaad, second 
a as in had), a pea-pod . 

Peddle, a long tale. ' Let's ha' a less o' thi peddle,' i. e. not so much 
of your talk. 

Peggy, an instrument used in washing clothes, having a long handle 
inserted at right angles to the plane of a wooden disc, in which are 
set several pegs ; also called ' the maiden.' 

Pelt, sb. a skin : used chiefly for rabbit-skins, which are called rabbit 
pelts, and for hare-skins also. 

Pen, a feather. 

Penk, and sometimes Pink, to wink, or squinny. Dr. Kenealy. in 
his speech for the defence of the Claimant, said, ' One of the witnesses 


spoke of a pinker in the eyebrow, whatever that may mean.' A poor 
fellow about here, who had drooping eyelids, used to be teased by 
impudent boys, whft entreated him to sell them a penn'orth of ' penkin 
drops.' [To pink is used by Hey wood for ' to peer.' See Nares's 
Glossary. Dutch pinken, to wink, leer. W. W. S.] 

Pennett, a kind of sweetmeat, of the humbug species, cut in form 
like a double pyramid. [Occurs in Piers the Plowman, B. v. 123. 
O.Fr., penide ; Mediaeval Greek mivlSiov, the diminutive of TT^VJJ, 
a thread. Properly applied to twisted sticks of barley-sugar. ' Penide, 
f. a pennet ; the little wreath of sugar taken in a cold.' Cotgrave. 
W. W. S.] 

Penny, a word used to describe the appearance of birds when moult- 
ing, the feathers sticking up, or being otherwise irregular. A young 
bird, in its process of coming to maturity, is first nakt (which see), 
then in Uue pen, then flegg'd. 

Penny Cast, the name of a game played with round flat stones, about 
four or six inches across, being similar to the game of quoits ; some- 
times played with pennies, when the hobs are a deal nigher. It was 
not played with pennies in 1810. 

Pentys. So spelt in old documents. A part of the street at the 
bottom of Almondbury was called Pentys End, possibly from a roof 
over the churchyard gate close by. Hall, spells the word pentice, but 
gives also pentes and pentys. He says it means, amongst other things, 
' an open shed or projection over a door.' In Eaine's St. Cuthbert, p. 
147, among extracts from the accounts of the church of Durham, we 

' 1425-6. Paid for making the organs 6. 8. 

One Pentys made anew 10. 0.' 

And in a note below on the word pentys Eaine writes thus : ' Primarily 
a porch or some such matter, " Penticium, appendix sedis, gurgustium, 
tuguriolum parieti affixum." Du Fresne. It is, perhaps, no great 
stretch of supposition to conceive that the small partitioned-off recess 
within the feretory, appropriated to its keeper, is here to be under- 
stood under the term pentys; it was literally his pent-house.' The 
Promptorium Parvulorum gives ' Pentyce, of an house end, Appendi- 
cium, imbulus, appendix.' 

Caxton, in The Boke of the Fayt of Armes, explains how a fortress 
ought to be supplied with fresh water, cisterns being provided ' where 
men may receiue inne the rayne watres that fallen doune a-long the 
thackes of thappentyzes and houses.' The Camden Society's edition 
of the Promptorium, from which this last extract is taken, also gives 
the following : ' Bp. Kennett states that in Chester there was a 
" curia penticiarum tenta in aul& penticid ejusdem civitatis. ; ' ' I am 
informed that boys playing at the game called ' stag ' at Lidget, 
Lepton, used to shout out on beginning a game, ' Th' owd baandaries 
Billy loin end., penny haas end, and t' hossin steps; ' and my informant 
appeared to think ' penny haas ' a corruption of pentys, which seems 
to me all the more probable, as I have heard of 'pent-houses' else- 
where. [Pent-house is a corruption of pentis, which is the O.Fr. 
apentis. W. W. S.] 

H 2 


Perch (pronounced peerlc or peark). 

Perch (peark}, to examine. This meaning is itfms derived. Pieces 
of cloth are placed over a pole or perch, to be thoroughly examined in 
order to discover burls or motes. I have heard this word used to 
explain the looking through an account-book with the view of dis- 
covering errors. 

Perfectly. Mentioned here to note a peculiarity of the dialect in 
laying the accent on certain words of three syllables ; thus, perfectly. 
spectacles, Doncast'er, Manchester, and no doubt many more, are all 
accented on the middle syllable, which has a singular effect, especially 
in the word spectacles. 

Pettibab, or Pettibabe, a spoilt child; also used for older folks 
who behave childishly. 

Pewtling, Puteling, or Poutling (pronounced pay-ootling), crying. 
Perhaps connected with puling. 

Pic, or Pick, pitch from tar j also an emetic. To l pick up ' is to 
vomit. Also for pickaxe. 

Pick, to pitch. To pick down is to throw down ; to pick up, to 
throw up. See last word. Observe what in the south is called 
' picking up ' is here * samming up.' To pick also means to throw the 
shuttle, and the thread thus laid is called a 'pick.' When speaking 
of the number of threads, the weavers sometimes say, so many ' picks ' 
to the inch. ' To pick a pick ' is to throw the shuttle once across. 
[Pick in the sense of to pitch occurs in Shakespere, Coriolanus : * pick 
a lance,' i. 1. 204. W. W. S.] A cow which comes before her time is 
said to pick her calf. If the cow were frightened it would not be 
* arrandsmittle ' (which see), but if the occurrence takes place natur- 
ally, it is so. 

Pickin hoil, i. e. pitching-hole, a hole in the wall of a barn through 
which hay, &c. are tossed in. When J. N. lived at Almondbury in 
the house at the top of Grasscroft, he was annoyed by the road, which 
led to his kitchen-door, being too near some assmiddins. He accord- 
ingly caused the road to be altered, and the doorway from the lane to 
be walled up, leaving what is called a piekin-hoil, two feet square and 
two feet from the ground, through which the coals might be shovelled. 
A soft innocent woman, L. B., had often come to the kitchen door 
with messages from her mistress. Lo ! she found the way walled up, 
except the narrow aperture. ' What/ she exclaimed, ' is this all the 
gate there is to t' haas ? ; ' Yus/ was the answer given by J. L., W. H., 
and other awkward bystanders; ' yus, yo're lawk to go thro' theer.' 
She had a jug in her hand containing beast as a present, and she hesi- 
tated. ' Eh, bud yo mun traw, Sally ! ' Thus encouraged, she put her 
pitcher of beast first, and then her head, and managed to struggle part 
of the way through, but got wedged fast. The bystanders urged her 
on with shouts of laughter. This called out the owner, to find the 
unfortunate woman vainly struggling. On seeing him she ex- 
claimed, ' Eh ! maister, Aw'd ha' made a bigger gate nor this to 
t' haas, yah-ivver ! ' As soon as he could recover from his merriment 


he prevailed on her tormentors to withdraw her from the durance, 
which had now become insupportable. She never attempted that way 

Pie (pronounced paw ; gl. pau). See Liken. 

Piece, a name given to a person, man or woman. * A queer piece ' 
is a queer fellow. 

Pienet (pronounced pawnet ; gl. pau'net), a magpie. 

Pig, a game for boys, well known, but comparatively new here, 
somewhat similar to the * cat ' of the south. See Bad. The pig is a 
long piece of wood pointed at the ends. 

Pig-coit, or Pig-hoil, i. e. pig-cote, a pigsty. 

Piggen, or Piggin, a vessel with one handle, of wood, tin, &c., for 
holding or transferring liquids. Eay says an erect handle. [Welsh 
picyn, a piggin, or noggin. W. W. S.] 

Pigmarine, a term of contempt formerly applied to volunteers. 
Pig's fraw, i. e. pig's fry. See Bedlamspit. 

Pike (pronounced pawk : gl. pauk), to pick. They pike a bone, 
teeth, &c. After a mowing-machine has gone over a field, the 
labourers go round near the edges piking with a scythe ; after harvest, 
raking over the field to gather up stray corn is piking. Not used for 
picking a thing from the ground. See ' to pick. ' As a sort of catch 
specimen of Yorkshire dialect, the expression, ' T' weet maks 'em pawk 
'em,' is a great favourite. It is applied to fowls cleaning themselves 
after rain, and the interpretation is, ' The wet makes them pick them- 
selves.' Pike occurs in Dunbar's Tidings from the Session : 

' Some cut throats, and some pyhes purses.' 
Again, in the Twa Corbies (ravens), ver. 9 : 

' Ye' 11 sit on his white hause-bane, 
And I'll pike out his bonny blue e'en.' 

Pikelet (pronounced pawUet ; gl. paukiet), a crumpet : also used 
in Monmouthshire. 

Pill, to peel, or strip off the bark from a tree : common in Old 

Pimrose, a primrose : note the elision of the r. See Letter R. 

Pindar, or Pinder, the keeper of the pound, or pinfold. [A.S. 
pyndan, to pen up. W. W. S.] 

Pinfold, the pound for cattle. 

Pinnacle, the name of a field at Farnley Wood ; also of one on the 
top of a hill between Whitley and Mirfield. Perhaps this word is the 
same as pendide : see Dedication to the Heart of Midlothian. 


Pismire (pronounced pissmare ; gl. pis'mair), an ant. The sound of 
the second syllable we should expect to be mawr, but it seems rather 
as above. Dandelions also go by the same name. 

Pitcher, to ask money of one who goes courting, especially if out of 
his own neighbourhood : the demand, if not complied with, is followed 
up with great violence. The origin of the word is said to be derived 
from the fact that money is sometimes rattled in a pitcher, to express 
in an unmistakable manner what is desired. Two young fellows some 
years since had to pay 4 for pitchering a young man who came from 
Huddersfield to Almondbury Bank courting. They were taken to 
the Wool-Pack, Back Green, where the magistrates then sat, and 
were 'deemed' to pay 1 each to the infirmary, and 1 expenses. 

W. M. was pitchered at Smithy Place, near Honley ; he was, in fact, 
thrown into a sump-hole, where he was almost suffocated. The violence 
in this case may be accounted for, as he stole away another man's 
sweetheart. A case was mentioned in the local papers of Saturday, 
Sept. 25th, 1875. 

Pizeball (pronounced pausebatt), a ball which children play with, 
formerly stuffed with sawdust, &c., and used on * Tester Monday, 
Fastens, and so on.' It was often parti- coloured and ornamented ; 
now it is sometimes of india-rubber, and hollow. The idea seems to be 
a ball for tossing. 

Pizings. See Hundreds. 

Plain, exposed. 'That house is in a, plain situation.' 

Plaining. To be plaining is to complain, to tell tales, &c. 

Plant, to hide. When hens are stolen and hidden they are said to 
be planted. 

Plat, the ground. See 2 Kings ix. 26. A field at Whitleyis called 
White Plaits. 

Plead (pronounced in two syllables), to plead. The past tense is 
' pled,' which is also the past participle. 

Please (gl. plrh'z), to satisfy, or remunerate well. ' Tell him to do 
that for me, and I'll please him well.' 

Pled. See Plead. 

Pleg, to run away, especially from school. 

Plevy, a bricklayer's hammer with a cutting edge ; also a tool used 
by farmer men when ploughing, to set the ploughshare right. 

Plod, plaid. Ploddy Hall, a house at Almondbury, near the Grammar 
School, where formerly plaids were made. So clod for clad. It is 
customary here to call any largish house, above a cottage, a hall. 

Plonk, to hit plump. Used especially of marbles, when the one shot 
strikes the other before touching the ground. If the driven marble 


runs on the ground it is dribbled, or drilled. In a trial at Dewsbury, 
June 25, 1874, a witness said, ' There were three fighting when you 
plonked Wells in the face.' Plonk is a variation of plump and plunge. 

Plonker, a large marble of stone, clay, pot, &c. about one and a 
quarter inches in diameter. 

Plough (pronounced pleugh, or plod). 

Plumb. ' He's not altogether plumb ' means ' He's not right in his 

Pobble. See Poddle. 

Poddle, a puddle. An ancient pronunciation. Hall, gives an example, 

Poidles, or Pawdles, fancies. Perhaps, according to the analogy of 
the dialect, this word should be poadle or podle, but I can find no 
trace of it in books. It was said to me of a poor little boy temporarily 
lame, ' Eh ! poor bairn, he's all poidles,' i. e. full of fancies. [Probably 
connected with the Welsh pwd, a fit of the sullens : pwdu, to pout. 
W. W. S.] 

Poise (pronounced poiz), i. e. pose, to kick : a very common word. 
Perhaps from the French pousser, to push out, or perhaps connected 
with the word following. Many years ago three well-known gentle- 
men, all of whom afterwards became in their way distinguished men, 
were coming up over the fields to Almondbury, and had to pass a 
number of youths, who, as the custom was, and in a less degree is still, 
saluted them with_their native humour, in these terms : ' Sitha, here's 

long A , and Ombry B , and owd C ; let's poise his legs 

straight. Didst ta' ivver see a faaler set o' chaps ? Let's poise 'em all.' 
It is, however, but right to say no violence was attempted, and the 
three passed on no doubt deeply impressed with the magnanimity of 
their assailants. See Poss. 

Poit (i. e. pote, the original of potter), to poke, kick about, &c. 
Poit and potter are both used of poking the fire, but the latter would 
imply reiterated action. ' The child is poitin 1 about i' bed.' One boy 
poits another out of bed. It was said of a woman who had fallen 
down, * She were liggin on her rig a poitin',' i. e. lying on her back 
kicking about. [Welsh pwtio, to push or poke. W. W. S.] 

Poke (pronounced podk ; gl. poa'h'k), a bag or sack. 

Poll (pronounced pole, and by some poul ; gl. poal or poul), to cut 
the hair. Ophelia, in Hamlet, Act IV. so. v., uses poll for a head of 

Pommel, Pommil, or Pummil. To pommel, to strike. See Knor and 

Pompey, the House of Correction. 

Poppydock, or Puppydock, the Foxglove, Digitalis purpurca. 


Porridge, oatmeal boiled with water or milk : used for breakfast or 
supper, now not unfrequently. This is the substance of which Dickens 
thus writes : ' Into these bowls Mrs. Squeers poured a brown compo- 
sition which looked like diluted pincushions without the covers, and was 
called porridge' One of my tenants remarked, ' There's not many 
porridge made now.' 

Portywoof, or Portywoove, wooven in a peculiar manner. A porty 
is forty ends, i. e. forty threads in woollen ; and in cotton thirty- 
eight ends or threads is called a beer, bear, or here. Bere is probably 
not a word of this dialect, as cotton weaving has not been much fol- 
lowed here until recently. [Dutch portie means a portion, and is 
evidently a word of French origin. W. W. S.] 

Posit, or Possit, no doubt deposit. An infant posits when the food 
runs out of its mouth. So liver for deliver ; plaining for complaining. 

Ppsnet (pronounced pos?iit), an iron pot with feet ; a skillet, or 
pipkin. The word is found in old writings. 

Poss, to rush, or plunge head first. Hall, says 'to dash about.' 
Clothes in a tub are passed with a stick. Said of a lamb, ' See haa 
he's possin f owd ewe agean.' [Occurs in the Prologue to Piers the 
Plowman, and is the old form of the modern push. In Piers the 
Plowman it is said of a cat playing with mice that she ' possed him 
aboute; ' B. prol. 151. W. W. B.] 

Potates (two syllables), used very commonly for potatoes. 

Potter, to bother, stir, disorder, &c. : used in a varied sense. One 
is pottered when perplexed; potters coals out of the fire, or money, 
&c. out of his pocket. 

Pough (pronounced pali-oo ; gl. paa'uo), the lower lip. Pout per- 
haps connected with this word. Poughing is crying. 

Pound, pronounced pund when signifying weight, and paand when 
signifying money. 

Pouse, a baggage ; dirty slut, &c. I have heard this word addressed 
to a trespassing cow. Weak or tasteless liquid is called l weary 
pouse.' I take it to be the same word as that of which Hall, says, ' It 
was formerly a common and not indelicate imprecation.' See Letter 
X, and Galker. 

Prabble, a quarrel, or squabble. When John Hep worth was ill, his 
mother sent Tom Bell to Dr. Bradley to get him some medicine. He 
said, ' If yo please Au'm coom for some phezzic for little John ; he's 
varry, varry badly.' Dr. < Who's little John ? ' T. B. ' Wha, little 
John, yo know.' Dr. ' What little John ? ' T. B. ' Wha, little John 
up yonder ; ' and Tom could get no further. ' Little John, yo know 
yo know, little John.' The doctor, getting a slight understanding of 
the case, prepared some medicine. The mother of the boy, becoming 
impatient of her messenger's delay, went to meet him, and said, 
' What has ta been doin', Tom, so long? ' Tom. Doin' ? Au've 


had enough to do, Au think. An could mak' nowt o' yon docther ; 
Au couldn't mak' him understand who little John was.' ' Wha ! did 
ta tell him t'other name ? ' Tom. ' Nooa. Everybody knows little 
John, yo know. Eh, bless yo ! lie's sich a man Au dar say nowt till 
him. Au darn't differ wi' him for fear on a prabble for fear on him 
geein' t' lad sommat to do him hurt.' 

Pratly, softly ; slowly. Hall, calls this word prattily. I have only 
heard it pronounced as spelt. A child who takes short steps walks 
pratly. A tap runs pratly when it lets out only a^ small stream in 
proportion to its size. See Natterin Nan, ver. 4 : 

* Pratly, reyt pratly ower t' floor, 
A' top o' toas ye walk.' 

Presently, immediately : also used in Pembrokeshire. [Common in 
the Bible.] 

Prey a (generally pronounced pray-ya), i. e. I pray you. Common. 

Prial, or Prile (gl. praul). Hall, gives the former mode of spelling, 
and thinks it a corruption of pair royal [which it undoubtedly is ; the 
expression is used at cards even in the south, though now nearly 
obsolete.] It means three of a sort taken together. I met a man, 
July 24, 1865, driving two donkeys tandem in a coal-cart, and I said 
to him, * A fine team you have there.' To which he merrily answered, 
* Yus, there's a prial on us when we are all at whum.' 

Priest, the orchis, 0. maculatus. Probably so called from its gay 
colours resembling a priest's chasuble. 

Prise (pronounced pram ; gl. prauz), to force open by leverage. 
Prospect glass, a telescope. 

Proven prickt (o as in John; gl. provn prikt), over-fed, or so well 
kept that a man does not know what he would have. Prevent = 
provender. Legend of Montr ose, p. 56. [Provand is found in Shake - 
spere, Coriolanus, Act II. so. i. 1. 267.] 

Psalm (pronounced saum, or sawlm). 

Pullen, domestic fowls; turkeys; ducks, &c. Hall, says pullaine 
and pullen are found in several early plays. The word is very common 
here, as well as the two following. [' A false thief That came, like a 
false fox my pullen to kill and mischief.' Oamr/ier Gurton's Needle, in 
Old Plays, ed. Hazlitt, iii. 239. W. W. S.] 

Pullendry and Pullentry, having the same meaning as above. 
Pnnd. See Pound. 

Putten, past participle of put. Is used at Heckmondwike also. 
Putting on, a makeshift, or convenience for a time. 



In some words this letter seems to have heen silent. Thus we find 
wick for quick (very common) ; warier n for quartern; weak for squeak; 
swurrel for squirrel ; and, more oddly, twilt for quilt. 

Quarrel, a stone quarry. There is a place near Almondbury called 
Warle Hill (a in ware}. I am told this is Quarrel, or Quarry, Hill. 
If so it illustrates wartern for quartern, and querfore for wherefore, 
in the Almondbury Church inscription. In ' Mactatio Abel ' (Towne- 
ley Mysteries] Cain says : 

' Bery me in Grudeboure at the Quarelle hede.' 

Quarrel, or Quarry, a square or pane of glass. An old lady friend 
of mine, feeling a draught, said to her granddaughter, ' Isn't there a 
quarrel out of the window ? ' The little girl looks out, expecting to 
see two boys fighting, and innocently says, ' No, grandma dear, I 
don't see any.' Eobert of OHoster, who lived in the reigns of Henry 
III. and Edward I., in his description of Eobert Curthose, son of 
William the Conqueror, says : 

' Thycke man he was ynou ; but he nas noght wel long, 
Quarry he was, and well ymade vorto be strong,' 

where the word quarry implies that he was square built. See Hearne's 
edition, p. 412. French carre = square. 

Quart (pronounced quaert). 
Queer, i. e. quire, for choir. 

Quilting feast. When a woman had patched a bed-quilt, she invited 
her neighbours to help to quilt it, for which purpose it was stretched 
with its lining on a long frame, and sewn across. Sometimes they 
drew figures with saucers, oyster-shells, &c. In later times tea and 
cake were given ; formerly a cold posset consisting of new milk, 
sugar, currants, and rum (or beer). When they could get it, the milk 
was taken warm from the cow, and milked fast into the ' piggin ' to 
froth it. 

Quite, very much used for quiet. l He is a quite lad.' On the con- 
trary, I have known quiet put for quite. The same word is peculiarly 
used in the expression ' quite better,' in general usage, and signifies 
perfectly recovered. Mrs. Scott of Woodsome stood one evening at 
the court door, and wanted the opinion of W. I. about the weather, 
saying, ' What do you think of the moon to-night ? ' Possibly she 
had a cold ; at any rate W. I. thought she said ' Bull,' and answered, 
' He's as quite as a lamb, madam ; he'll hurt nobody.' 


This letter is much elided or slurred over. Thus the proper names 
Armitaye and Charles are generally called Aymitage and Chales, or 
Chale; so parlour, parson, and primrose are paylor, paason, and 
pimrose. [The dropping of the r occurs in standard English in speak, 
invariably used for A.S. sprecan, showing that our word should be 
spreak. The r was dropped in that word about A.D. 1100. W. W. S.] 
Again, li is found in a few instances where r occurs in ordinary Eng- 
lish, as- hime for rime (hoar-frost), hush for rush (of wind). [This h 
probably represents the A.S. hr, the r being dropped. W. W. S.] 

Raavy, not fresh ; dissipated ; half washed ; unshaven ; untrimmed. 
Back, the apparatus for roasting meat. 

Raddle, a piece of wood stuck full of pegs, having also a top part 
which dons on to hold the warp while it is wound on to the beam. A 
porty (and sometimes half a porty} goes through one space in a woollen 

Hade, past tense of to ride, for rode. See Bonnie George Campbell, 
ver. 3 : 

' He rade saddled and bridled, &c., 
Careless and free.' 

Raesty, or Raisty, rusty ; bad-tempered : also applied to a foul 
tobacco-pipe. Clearly the same word as redsty, rancid. 

Raggabrash, a ragamuffin a term of reproach. Hall, writes raga- 
brash, and Nares raggabash. 

Rake, or Raik, the pronunciation of reach. 

Rake. To rake a fire is to throw on a large quantity of coals in 
order to keep the fire in through the night. Very commonly done. 
[So used by Chaucer, Cant. T., 3880 : 

* Yet in our ashen cold is fyr i-reke,' 

i. e. still in our cold ashes is fire raked togethed. So the Mseso-Gothic 
version of Eom. xii. 20 is practically, ' Thou shalt rake (or gather 
together) coals of fire on his head,' where rikan is used to translate 
ffupevfiv. W. W. S.] 

Rammy, rank ; smelling like a ram. 

Randy, accensus libidine. 

Range (pronounced roange ; gl. roanj). 

Rantipoles, sb. the game of see-saw. ' Let's lake at rantipowls. ' 

Rase, past tense of to rise, for rose. 


Rash. A rash of beef = a beefsteak. 
Rasp, the common word for raspberry. 
Ratch, to stretch. See Chersmas Carol, ver. 4. 

Ratching the Rope (pronounced ratchin f rooap ; gl. ratchin 
t' roo-h'p) is ' pulling the long bow,' lying, &c. [In Lowland Scotch 
' to rax a raip ' is to stretch a rope, and = to die by hanging.] In 
Dunbar's Discretion in Giving we have : 

' Some taks other menn's tacks, 
And on the puir oppression maks, 

And never remember that he maun die 
Till that the gallows gars him rax. 

In taking sould discretion be.' 

Rather is pronounced rayther (gl. raidh'ur). 

Raton, a rat. Hall, gives this quotation from a Cambr. MS. : ( Matons 
and mice and soch small dere.' Ratoun occurs in the Prologue to 
Piers the Plowman, also in the Pardoner's Tale : 

1 And prayed him that he him wolde selle 
Some poison, that he might his ratouns quelle.' 

Rank (pronounced roak, or ro'ke), a ridge in cloth formed in the 
weaving ; and it is also applied when the dyeing is defective, and 
the weft shows a different shade of colour. 

Rave, past tense of to rive ; also raved. 

Ravel coppin. "When one thread catches another and rives a deal of 
threads off at once, it is a ravel coppin ; also a wild, disorderly, reck- 
less fellow a term derived from manufacturing. If a part of the cop 
comes off with the thread, it is said to be ravelled or snavelled, and 
is, in fact, spoiled. Therefore ravel coppin is used as a term of reproach 
for a careless man. [Ravel and rive are not allied words. W. W. S.] 

Reaminess, sl>. dizziness, &c. 

Reamy, or Rimy (pronounced reamy), adj. dizzy ; half awake, &c. 
Ream, or reme, however, in some parts means to cry ; and ream in 
Suffolk is to droop the head. 

Rear, or Reere (the latter spelling found in old writings), under- 
done ; almost raw. 

Reaster, reasty horse, or raist-horse, a horse which will not draw ; 
a restive horse. 

Reckan, a hook from which a pan is suspended over a fire from a 
galley-balk. (Beverley.) 

Reckless, a vulgarism for the flower called the Auricula. 

Reckling, the smallest or youngest of a family, whether of men or 


Reckon. Common. Used for think, or believe. Gr. H. had been to 
Lords' Miln, near Honley, for a piece fifty yards long, which he 
brought home ' cuttled ' into a bundle. On his way back he got too 
much beer, and the piece getting unrolled, trailed along on the ground. 
Entering his father's house, he said, ' Theer's one end o' t' piece here ; 
wheer t' other is Au canna' tell, but Au reckon it's somewhere between 
yaar haas and t' Miln.' 

Redster, a redstart. [A.S. steort ; Dutch staart, a tail. "W. W. S.] 

Reek, a common word for smoke. Formerly certain dues had to be 
paid to the vicar : ' So much for reek, house custom, eggs/ &c. 

Reeling. This is a part of the process in making oat-bread, &c., by 
which the cake is made round. The dofe (dough) is placed on the 
bakbrade in a semi-fluid state, then, by moving the board about in a 
peculiar manner (somewhat as a pancake is shaken in the pan), the 
cake is turned into a rounded form. 

Reever, or Rever, any man or animal in a poor condition ; a lame 
man, horse, &c. 

Reezed, Reezed, or Reazed (gl. rrh'zd), a term applied to rancid 

Render, to separate, or extract, the fat from membranous substances. 
Rhemus, the rheumatism. 

Rickling, a small lump of hay raked up to dry better before being 
put into cock. 

Rig, a ridge in general; the backbone ; the back. [A.S. hrycg, the 
old form of ridge.] 

Right, pronounced reet, or rait. 

Right (a word in much use), the same as regular or proper in some 
parts ; as, ' He is a right fool.' 

Rig tree, the highest beam in the frame of the roof. 

Ringo (pronounced ring-go). ' Johnny Ringo ' is the name of a game. 
See Johnny. Also the Yellow-hammer is sometimes so called. 

Rip. When a boy takes a bird's nest he is said to rip it. 

Rism, or Rissom (pronounced rizm), a small portion. I have heard 
it used in these sentences : ' He never had to work one rism sin,' i. e. 
he had done no more. ' There isn't a rism on it left,' there is none 
left. ' Tha' gev him a lot o' cheese and bread ; Au niwer gev him a 
rism i' mi' lauf.' 

Rive (old pronunciation reeve ; now rauve, or rive), to tear. 

Road (not pronounced royd, but rdoad ; gl. roo'h'd), used peculiarly 
for way or manner. ' It's done that road,' i. e. in that way. 


Robinet, the Redbreast. A nickname given to the people of Farnley 

Rocken, reached. 

Hold, a word used for rough. A roid night is a stormy one ; roid 
work is a quarrel. I think once also I heard the words * roid wheat,' 
which possibly meant coarse. [This is common in Mid. English, and 
roide is the French word for rough. W. W. S.] 

Roit (perhaps roat, or rote), the same as Bail, which see. 

Rommy, or Roms, a certain plant (Allium ursinum, the Broad-leaved 
Garlic Ramsons) of which cows are fond. It grows in hedge-bottoms, 
and, when eaten, spoils the taste of the milk. 

Rooaky, drizzling : as in the phrase, a 'rooaJcy weet neet.' 

Roois, the pronunciation of a word which is most likely roos, or 
rooz. When a person has been doing something out of the common, 
and no one applauds him, if he begins to praise himself he is said to 
be ' rooisiri hissen. ' Halliwell gives the word rose, to praise. The 
word roos seems not, however, to be used for praising in general. See 
ruse in Jamieson's Scot. Diet. 

Rounce, or Rownse (gl. rauns), to make round, in case of a loop 
being enlarged to admit of a new spindle. 

Rout, to bellow, or make a noise as a cow, donkey, &c. Pronounced 
raut, and so spelt by Hall. ; but it must be observed that if raut were 
the proper spelling Almondbury people would call it rote, as some do. 
[A.S. hrutan, to bellow. The A.S. u is Mid.Eng. u, and commonly 
passes into modern standard ou. W. W. S.] 

Rove, past tense of to rive. See Rave. 

Roving, a process in spinning wool, by which the filaments are 
drawn out to much greater length than by the proper method. Both 
word and process as followed in the wool trade introduced by Mr. J. 

Royd, a very common word in names of places, and in surnames 
most probably derived from such. Places : Royals' hall, lloydhouse, 
~Bwmroyd, Cisroyd, Doeroyd, TLighroyd, TLudroyd, Huntroyc?, Jack- 
toyd, Kidroyd, Ladyro?/d, ILestenroyd, Yitroyd, Sealroyd, Sonthroyd, 
Wheairoyd, &c. Families: Akeroyd, A.ckroyd, 'Booihroyd (also a 
place), Holn>?/c, ~Le&royd, Oldroyd, ~M.urgatroyd. The meaning is 
supposed by some to indicate a clearing in a wood where the trees 
have been got rid of, and that the true word is rode, which would 
here be called royd. It is remarkable that the word 'road' (for 
carriages) is not so pronounced. It is clear the word has not been 
always spelt royd. We read of ' A dispensation from Selow for Eichard 
de Akerode, &c., issued from Eome by Jordan, bishop of Alba, Apr. 
27, 1433.' This is the now familiar name of Akroyd, or Ackroyd. 
[The word is Scandinavian ; cf. Icel. rj6%r, a clearing, derived from 
the strong verb hrjo%a, to clear, allied to Eng. rid. W. W. S.] 


Ruffiner, a ruffian ; a rough, person. 

Ruffle topping, a rough head of hair, and applied to one who has 

Rump, a name given to the foliage of the oak about the 29th of 
May : so spoken of even when on the tree. The boys gather branches 
of it, and bid others display theirs ; in failure of which they are 
beaten with the oaken boughs. 

Rush-bearing", the name of one of the Almondbury feasts, which 
occurs on the first Monday in August. In former times, I under- 
stand, a rush-cart was drawn through the town, and on the cart were 
displayed such articles of silver as the neighbours would lend for the 
purpose ; the cart too was attended by persons who danced as it was 
drawn along. The festival is still kept, but shorn of this observance. 

The names of feasts in this neighbourhood are somewhat varied and 
curious; thus, Almondbury Eush-bearing, or Bush, Kirkheaton 
Eant (Yetton Eant), Kirkburton Trinity (because on Trinity Sunday 
and Monday), Longwood Thump, Meltham Bartleby (Bartholo- 
mew). Joss Armitage (little Joe A.), who formerly went about raper 
dancing, used to say the feast was on the first Saturday after old St. 
James's Day. T. B. says there was never much to do on the Monday 
till after the Eeform Bill was passed ; previously it was all on the 
Saturday from four till bed-time or so. 

John Buckley was the first man to begin on the Monday with his 
speeches for the mock election of members of Parliament ; but the 
bull-baiting, which ended many years previously, had generally been 
held on the Monday. 


There are certain peculiarities connected with this letter. 

(1) The possessive s is almost always omitted; as, 'Jem knife,' 
' Tom hat,' &c. ; except, curiously enough, in some words where in 
ordinary English it is omitted; as, Colon's hall,' 'the town's 
books.' Still more remarkably, the 's is added in those instances 
similar to ' for justice' sake.' See Julius Ccesar, Act IV. sc. iii. : 

1 Did not great Julius bleed for justice' sake ? ' 

I have frequently heard the expression, ' For peace's sake ; ' and one 
of my esteemed contributors writes, not as an example of a York- 
shireism, but in perfect good faith, as customary English, ' For ease's 

(2) In at least one instance the s is flattened, *. e. the word us, 
objective of we, which is always called uz ; but in as and is many 
persons here sharpen it, i. e. they become ass, iss, but that is done when 
they think they are speaking good English. 

(3) Again, it appears here in words which want it in some other 
counties ; as, smuse, muse, for game ; spink, pink, a bird ; spetch, 
patch, on a shoe, &c. ; snape, nip, as a frost ; stite, tite (see Stite). 


(4) It is wanting in other words in which it usually occurs in ordin- 
ary English ; e. g. ting, or tang, sting ; craps, scraps, of lard ; -mash, 
smash ; pare, spare, in milking; weak, squeak (q becoming 10), 

Saar, the pronunciation of sour. 

Saargrass, sour-grass, the common Wood-Sorrel, Oxalis acetosella. 

Saath, south. 

S acker, to seem innocent when up to roguery. 

Sackering, telling false tales of distress. ' Backer in' Sam ' was a 
well-known beggar of Dalton. 

Sackless, innocent ; trembling, &c. In the ' Flagellacio ' (Towneley 
Mysteries, p. 209), Pilate says :] 

' Now that I am sakles of this bloode shalle ye se, 
Both my handes in expres weshen shalle be, 
This bloode bees dere boght I ges that ye spille so frele.' 

Again, in the ' Peregrin! ' (Towneley Mysteries, p. 270), Cleophas 
exclaims : 

' Thise cursyd Jues, ever worthe thaym woe ! 
Our lord, our master, to ded gart go, 
Alle sakles thay gart hym slo 
Apon the rode.' 

Sad, said of bread, cakes, &c. when heavy or doughy. 
Sa'em (pronounced say em ; gl. sarh'm), seven. 

Sage, or Saghe (g hard), a saw, Also a verb, to saw : quite in 
common use. 

Saime, lard. 

Sal, the pronunciation of shall. 

Sale, or Sail, used peculiarly. ' What sail is the wind in ? ' i. e. 
what quarter, or direction. [Of. A.S. seel, season, time, &c. In 
Essex they ask, ' What is the seel of day ? ' i. e. What time is it ? 
W. W. S.] 

Sallet, or Sallit, salad. Occurs in Hamlet, Act II. sc. ii. : 'I 

remember, one said, there were no sallets in the lines, to make the 
matter savoury.' 

Salt, the condiment (a pronounced as in shall, under the impression 
that it is good English). 

Salt pie (pronounced salt paw), & box for salt. Also used humor- 
ously for a building with the roofing only one way. 

Sam, to pick up, or gather together : very common. ' He has 
sammed up a lot o' brass,' i. e. made a great deal of money. ' Go into 
t' wood and sam up a few sticks.' Sammeln, in German, and at 
samle, in Danish, both mean to collect. 


Sammy, a fool. 

Sannot, shall not. ' Au sannot ' = I shall not. 

Sant, the pronunciation of the word saint, at least when prefixed to 
a name. Thus, St. Helen's Well, or in the local style dropping the 
possessive s, St. Helen Well, is pronounced as if written ' Santelm 
Well.' The road from Almondbury leading to the well is now called 
Helhoil, which, being between rather high banks, and very steep, is 
supposed by some to be Hill hole, though others derive it from Helen, 
as above. 

Sark, a shirt, or shift. See the Jolly Goshawk, ver. 23 : 

* Her sisters they went to a room 

To make to her a sarJe. 
The cloth was a' o' the satin fine, 
And the stitching silken wark' 

A local saying here, formerly in common use, was, ' Nar (near) is mi' 
sark, but narrer's mi' skin.' 

Sarred, or Sard. See Served. 

Sarry is also used for serve. 

Satten, or Sattun, seated, past tense of to sit. 

Sattle, settle. ' He sattles i' his clothes,' i. e. he becomes thinner. 

Saucy, or Socy, slippery. Said of the streets, &c. when covered 
with ice, but not when slippery with dirt. The word is in common 

Sauge, the pronunciation of sage, the plant (gl. sauj.). 

Savour (pronounced savver ; gl. saavur), to like. ' He does not 
savour me.' A sick person does not savvur his food. In Chaucer's 
last verses it is used simply in the sense of taste. 

' Frees hath envye, and wele blent ouer al : 
Savour no more than thee by hove shal.' 

Used in Matt. xvi. 22 in much the same sense. 
Scaddle, to scare, or frighten. Scaddled, frightened. 

Scage, to strike with a switch, or throw stones at a bird, or birds' 
eggs, blindfold. If done with open eyes, the eggs, &c. were concealed 
in sand. See Switcher. 

Scom, contempt ; chaff. In the parish church of Huddersfield one 
Sunday morning, a young man, connected with a marriage, was taking 
infinite pains to write well. The curate, however, was in haste to begin 
the public service, and called out, ' Come, come, we don't want copper- 
plate.' The young man, drawling on the last word, said, ' That's your 


Scoop, the name of the waggon in which coals are ' hurried ' in the 
pit : it contains two, and sometimes three, cwt. The coals are some- 
times sold by this measure at the pit's mouth. 

Scopperil, or Scoperel, a teetotum, ordinarily manufactured by 
sticking a pointed peg through the centre of a bone button. A friend 
of mine having to go to Halifax, many years since, being absent in 
mind, allowed his horse to take his own course. The animal (perhaps 
more used to travel that way) took him along the Leeds road, and 
the rider came to his senses at the sight of the first turnpike. He 
now essayed to turn the horse, who dropped his ears, and showed 
other signs of obstinacy ; so, to use his own words, ' he paid him 
there, and he went round and round like a scopperil.' Old Rob Hirst, 
who was by, laughed till he was sore, and bawled out, ' Hit him 
behund, mun ; hit him behund.' So at last he got him into the right 
road, and he went broadside on to Halifax in. the manner of Air. 

Scops, potsherds. 

Scraffle, to scramble. 

Scraffle, a quarrel. 

Scram, past tense of to scrim, which see. 

Scran, food. 

Scrat, the pronunciation of scratch. ' Hen scrattins, a name given 
to that kind of cloud called Cirrus. Sal Earnshaw was an old mendi- 
cant who frequented Alinondbury, but had gained a settlement at 
Kirk Burton, which place, however, she did not affect. People could 
never plague her worse than to say she should be buried at Burton, 
when she would reply, ' If yo do, Au'll scrat, and Au'll scrat to 
Omebury churchyaerd ; ' or, * Au'll coom agean to plague yo'.' She 
was brought to Almondbury, perhaps in consequence of her wish or 
threat, and was buried by her mother. 

Scrat, Owd, a name for the devil. 

Scrauming (pronounced scroming), wide-spreading ; ungainly. 

Screed, a cap border. 

Screw, a salary. 

Scribble. After the wool has passed through the ' willy (which 
see), an instrument with iron spikes revolving at a rapid rate, it 
is passed through another machine, which cuts it fine ; this is 

Scrike, or Skrike (pronounced slcrauk; gl. skrauk), a scream ; also 
verb, to scream, or shriek. 

Scrim, or Scrimb, to climb : past tense, scram ; past participle, 

Scuft, the nape of the neck. 


Scuttle, to move the feet peculiarly. 

Seak, to catch (hold of). < Seak hod, Jem.' 

Seal, or Sele, to fasten a cow, &c. to the stall. Perhaps to put on 
the sole, a collar of wood. [We find A.S. sal, a rope, chain ; whence 
s&fan, to tie up. The A.S. a becomes o, and <& becomes ea ; hence the 
substantive would be sole, arid the verb seal, which is just right. 
W. W. S.] 

Searchin, i. e. searching : said of a piercing wind. 
Seedstone, a pebble so called. (Robert Town.) 
Seeing-glass, a looking-glass. 

Seeming-glass, the same. (Robert Town and Alniondbury.) Occurs 
in Natter in Nan, ver. 15 : 

' A've doubled t' neiv, afoar ta day, 
At t' fboil i' t' seemin dlassj 

which for southern readers will require the following translation : 
' I have doubled my fist before to-day at the fool in the looking- 

Seise, Sese ; Seisteen, Seseteen, six ; sixteen : a pronunciation going 
gradually out of use. Seise pince may be still heard for sixpence. For 
pronunciation see Letter X. 

Sel, or Sen, self. 

Seldom, used as an adjective : ' Some seldom times.' 

Selion, a name mentioned in old documents, and seems to be what 
is sometimes called a land, or ridge between two furrows. [It contains 
twenty perches. It is derived from Fr. sillon, a furrow.] 

Selvins, Silvins, or Shilvins, i. e. shelvings, the rails of a cart 
or waggon to enable a larger load to be carried. 

Sen, same as Sel, i. e. self. 

Sen, plural indie, of say, i. e. sayen. ' They sen soa ' = they say so. 

Ser'ed, Serred, or Sarred, served : the v elided. 

Set, to go part of the way with. See Gate'ards. ' Au'l set you 

Set pot, the iron pot fixed in the back kitchen, for brewing pur- 
poses, &c. In the south called a copper, and made of that metal. 

Settin a face = making a face. 

Sew, Soo, or Seoo, a sow. ' My soio's picrg'd ' was a game at cards 
played in this neighbourhood some forty-five years ago. We find it 
mentioned in Tom Nash His Ghost, 1642 : ' For your religions you 
may (many of you) cast cross and pile, and for your just dealing you 

-l 2 


may play at my sow's pigged.' 'The lawyers play at beggar my 
neighbour ; the schoolmasters play at questions and commands ; the 
farmers play at my sow's pigg'd.' Poor Robin's Almanack, 1734. 

Sew (gl. sen), sowed. ' Au sew ma' whuts (oats) yesterday/ 

Shackle, cr Shakle (gl. shaa.k-1), the wrist. As ' wrist ' comes from 
' writhe,' and is applied to that part of the arm which enables the hand 
to turn or twist, so it is not unlikely this word, as here used, comes 
from shake. 

Shade, pronunciation of shed, for cattle, &c. (gl. shaid). 

Shade, Sheide, or Shed, the opening between two lines of warp, 
through which the shuttle passes. In some localities shed is the 
parting of the hair ; watershed the parting of the waters. 

Shaffle, to retreat from one's word; to move lazily. 'He goes 
shaffling to his work. 7 Seems equal to shuffle. 

Shaffler, one who * snaffles.' 

Shale, to turn out the feet in walking. See Hangman. ' There he 
comes, shalin' along.' Also when the woof is not driven up close 
enough it is said to shale. 

Shamed, ashamed. 

Shane (gl. shain), shone, past tense of shine. 

Share, past tense of to shear. 

Sharpen, to cause to hasten, or hurry. A certain J. T. shot at 
a hare and missed her. The crack of the gun, however, made her 
run faster, and he exclaimed with some triumph, ' Au've sharpened 
you, haven't Au ? ' 

Shatter topping, a poorly-looking child : probably one with the 
hair uncombed, or disordered. See Topping. 

Shaul (pronounced shoal), shallow. Used also in Pembrokeshire. 

Shear, to cut corn. Ray has it. ' We went for fourteen year, eight 
on us, into t' low country a shearin 1 to a spot they call Sprodboro' ' 
(Sprotbrough : note the d for t), ' three mile ovver Doncaster, Eother- 
ham rooad. It looks queer ' (don't it ?) ' to see steeple and bells in t' taan, 
an' t' church a mile off in t' fields. Old men said it shiften itsen. 
There wur marks on t' steeple wheer t' church had been built up to 
it three different tawms. It wor said at tawn there wur an old man 
could tell on it shiften.' It is somewhat remarkable that similar 
tales are told of many churches, and even of some chapels. It shows 
the different condition of this neighbourhood now, when, far from 
sending labourers into the low country, we have to depend for our 
harvesting mainly on the Irish labourers. It is probable, however, 
that the narrator went from the neighbourhood of Holmfirth, as he 
was brought up in that town. 

Sheavs, the pronunciation of sheaves of corn. 


Shepster, a starling. 

Shiften, i. e. shifted, past tense of to shift. 

Shiftless, unable to do a thing in a satisfactory manner ; helpless. 
Shillins, i. e. shellings, oats with both coverings removed. 
Shippen, a cow-house. 

Ships, the name of a boy's game. It is thus played. (1) Of a 
single character. One boy bends down against a wall (sometimes 
another stands pilloiu for his head), then an opponent jumps on his 
back, crying ships simply, or ' Ships a sailing coming on.' If he 
slips off, he has to bend as the other ; but if not, he can remain as 
long as he pleases, provided he does not laugh or speak. If he for- 
gets to cry ships he has to bend down. (2) Sometimes sides are 
chosen ; then the whole side go down heads and tails, and all the boys 
on the other side have to jump on their backs. The game in each 
case is much the same. The mounting ' norniny/ was formerly ' Ships 
and sailors coming on.' 

Shive, pronounced sliauve. A butter shauve is a piece of bread and 
butter ; a treacle shauve explains itself. Occurs in the Jolly Goshawk, 
ver. 32 : 

' give me a shive o' your bread, love ; 

O give me a cup o' your wine ! 
Long have I fasted for your sake, 
And now I fain would dine.' 

Shivs, or Shivvins, small bits of wood in wool, or even bits off the 
yarn. [A mere variation of shives. W. W. S.] 

Shoddy, waste material thrown off by the engines in the process of 
making cloth : used for low-priced cloth, or for mixing with wool 
having a longer staple. 

Shoe, to fit, please, give satisfaction to, &c. * He's a bad 'un to 


Shollock, a slice of meat, &c. 

Shoo, she : common. It is sometimes spelt schoo (see Kist). Hoo, 
which forty years ago was very common, is now nearly out of use. 
[Shoo, A.S. sco, fern, of se, definite article. Hoo is the A.S. heo, the 
regular word for she. W. W. S.] 

Shool, a shovel. 

Shool, to sponge, or to seek another's company for the purpose of 

Shooler, a shoveler ; one who has the faculty of making himself at 
home in others' houses, and getting what he can in the way of 


Shoon (pronounced shooiri), shoes. Chaucer has it. It occurs in 
liobin Hood, Fytte iii. ver. 49 : 

' Robyn corninaunded lytell Johan 
To drawe off his hosen and his shoneS 

In the early part of this century, about 1815, three young people, 
Mr. S., Mr. D., and Mrs. H., were proceeding to Castle Hill. The 
gentlemen were dressed in Tartan plaids, and the lady wore nankeen 
boots. The odd appearance of the party attracted the attention of the 
natives, and on seeing them a young lad exclaimed, in derision of 
their dress, ' Eh ! lads, here's French a coomin.' Then, catching sight 
of the boots, ' Sitha ! sitha ! sho's baat shooin.' 

Shoveller, or Shuffler, a kitchen shovel with holes in to let ashes 

Shrog, a little wood (on a bank side V). Hall, says ' shrubs,' &c. 
[A wood of small wood, underwood, &c. W. W. S.] Sometimes 
written scrogg. See Johnny of Braidislie, ver. 1 1 : 

' As I came over by Merriemass, 
And down amang the scroggs, 
The bonniest chiel that ever I saw 
Lay sleeping atween twa dogs.' 

In ' Secunda Pastorum' (Towneley Mysteries] : 

' I have soght with my doges 
Alle Horbery shroges, 
And of xv hoges 

Fond I bot oone ewe.' 

Shubbans, i. e. shoe-bands, shoe-strings ; shoe or boot laces. 

Shummaker, pronunciation of shoemaker. 

Shunks, shanks : a pronunciation not now much used. 

Shunt. When a wall gives out at the bottom it is said to shunt ; if 
at the top, then to shutter. 

Shut (<jl. shuot), to get quit of. A man shuts his brass who spends 
his money. 

Shutness, riddance. ' And a good shut ness too/ 
Shutter, a spendthrift. 

Shutter, to fall to pieces, especially from the top as a wall might ; to 
become a bankrupt. A man who slips from a haystack, &c. shutters 
off or down. [All four probably connected with the verb to shoot. 
W. W. S.] See Natterin Nan, ver. 49 : 

' An' then shoo rave reit up be 't rooits 

A 'andful of her 'air, 
An' flittered like a deein' duk 
An' shutturd aht a' t' chair.' 


Shuttle-board, a battledore. 
Shuttle-feather, a shuttlecock. 

Shuttl'ee, i. e. shuttle e'e, or eye, the name of a coal-pit at Grange 
Moor, in the occupation of one who had made some capital by weav- 
ing, or through the shuttle-eye. 

Sic, or Sich (gl. sik, or sich), such. So mich for much. 

Side, pronounced saud. 

Side, to put away ; to set aside. 

Sidebye, aside. To put sidebye is to set aside. 

Sidewires, a balk or beam in a roof, part of the way down, passing 
from end to end, used for laying the spars on. 

Sight, pronounced seet. 

Sight, a large number or quantity. ' There's a seet o' cottages theer 

Sile (pronounced saul), a strainer for milk made of fine wire in 
which hairs and other refuse are left. Seile occurs in Heart of 
Midlothian, Vol. i. 226. 

Sile (pronounced saul), to strain. 
Sin, since. 

Singlet (pronounced singlit). See Cinglet. It] is stated by Halli' 
well that a doublet is a singlet lined. 

Sip, Sap, Say, a ' nominy ' used by boys when whistle manufacturing, 
during the beating of the wetted bark of the mountain ash with 
a clasp-knife handle. The wetting is to make the bark slip off easily 
tc form the case of the whistle. The complete ' nominy ' is 

' Sip, sap, say, 
Sip, sap, say, 
Lig in a nettle bed, 
While May day.' 

Sipe (pronounced setup), said of water or other liquids flowing slowly 
through earth, &c., or through a leaky cask or tap. Used in the 
Heart of Midlothian, but there spelt seip, p. 316. 

Sipings (pronounced saupins), same as ' strippings ' of a cow 

Siss, to hiss (gl. sis). 

Skalamount, to kick about (in bed). 

Skalamount, si. A lad fond of climbing is called ' a regular skala- 

Skear'd, frightened, &c. Hardly seems to be scared, for that is pro- 
nounced scard. Doubtful whether it is a local foim. 


Skeldmanthorpe, perhaps Scheldtman Thorpe, a village near 

Skellered (pronounced skelter' d), warped, become crooked, as a 
door made of green wood. Paint blistered with heat is also said to 
be skellered. Perhaps connected with scale, to peel off. 

Skelp, to beat, or whip. [The original sense of this word is allied to 
scale, or shell, an ontside covering that easily peels off ; whence skelp, 
to flay, to flog so as to fetch the skin off ; secondarily, to beat gener- 
ally. W. W. 8.] 

Skep, or Skip, a basket made of willow, &c. Hall, says made of 
rushes, or straw. A coal-scuttle is a coal-sKp, of whatever material 
it may be made. 

Skew (pronounced skaoo), to peep out of the corner of the eye ; 
to turn up the nose, or to twist in general. At a Huddersfield trial, 
Dec. 1861, when speaking of an assault on a woman, a witness said, 
' He skewed her up and down like a barley mow.' 

Skift, to shift. 

Skimaundering", hanging or hovering about. A word known at 
Kirk Burton and Almondbury. 

Skimmering, peeping out of a window, round a corner, &c. 

Skitter, to hurry over or spoil work. A skittered piece of cloth is 
one irregular in colour or texture. 

Skrike (pronounced shrank, and also skreek), to screech. See 

Skylant (pronounced skawlant\ askew, &c. ' They looked rather 
skylant at me,' i. e. looked askew with a sinister intention. 

Sky parlour (pronounced skaw-paaler), the attics of a house. 
Slack (pronounced sleek ; gl. slek), small coal. 

Slaithwaite (pronounced Slowit ; gl, Sloirit), a village near 
Huddersfield : seems formerly to have been Slack-thwaite. 

Slake (pronounced sleek), to wet lime ; to wet in general ; to put out 
the fire with water. 

Slam, to shuffle the feet forward in walking. On one occasion the 
well-known Torney North, of Fenay Hall, was returning from 
Huddersfield in muddy weather, and was accompanied by his Sancho 
bearing the legal bag. A neighbouring tradesman walked with them 
up the Bank. Sancho, to curry favour with his master, thus addressed 
the tradesman (J. S.) : ' Johnny, dunnot slam sooa ; yo'll slart Mester 
North his stockins.' Johnny replied, ' Tha greasy dog, I dunnot 
slam, nor never did.' North put an end to the dialogue by saying in 
a loud tone, ' I say, Johnny, you do slam.' Not a word more was 
spoken ; the lawyer's decision was ruled absolute. 


Slambrash. Hall, says ' a great sloven. ' 
Slamp, dull. 

Slang, past tense of to sling. 
Slank, past tense of to slink. 
Slapdash, to stencil. 

Slape, slippery. Known by some here, but not perbaps belonging to 
the dialect. 

Slart, to sprinkle, or splash, but not necessarily with dirt, as Hall, 
intimates. * Tiie boys slart each other with water.' See Slam. 

Slate. ' He has a slate slipped,' i. e. slate off, or is slightly deranged. 

Slay, or Sleigh, an instrument used in weaving to keep the threads 
straight. It also acts as a support to the shuttle as it runs, and, on 
being pulled to the piece, it drives the threads of the woof closer 

Sleat, or Sleet (gl. sleaii't, or sleet), to let a dog slip, or set him at 
anything. Eay. 

Sleek. See Slack, and Slake. 
Sled, a sledge. 

Slewy (pronounced slooe), a sloven or slut. The spelling is doubtful. 
Hall, does not give this word. 

Slippen, the plural of slip. 

Slither (pronounced slawther, but some say slither ; the i as in bit), 
an extra quantity, perhaps added slily, or secretly. ' Two spooinfuls 
and a slawther o' rum i' your tea.' Bum in tea is called ' milk from 
the brown cow/ and was formerly very commonly used at funerals. 
The pronunciation of this word is uncertain, as few people now know 
or use it. 

Slive (pronounced sleeve ; gl. sleev), to split, &c. They slive the 
wood for the fires, &c. 

Sliver (pronounced sleever ; gl. sleevur), a long carding of wool, 
which they formerly passed through their fingers in the process. A 
cart sliver (slauver), sometimes called the slipper, is a round piece of 
iron coupling to fasten the body of the cart to the shafts. 

Sleekened (gl. slok'nd), satiated ; saturated ; soaked, &c. Hall, says 
' slacken, to slake, or quench.' The ground is quite slackened after a 
heavy rain. ' Tha's slackened this lime,' i. e. put too much water to 
it. * I am slocken'd wi' the job,' i. e. tired of it. See Kinmont Willie, 
ver. 1 1 : 


' I would set that castle in a low, 

And sloken it wi' English blood ! 
There's never a man in Cumberland 

Should ken where Carlisle Castle stood.' 

Sloffened. When one eats to repletion he is sloffened. This word and 
the preceding are evidently the same. I have written them as they were 
given to me, but it seems both ought to be sloughened, an opinion in 
which I am confirmed by one aged man who gave the word a guttural 
sound. [The Icelandic slokna, to be extinguished, is clearly the 
original verb, and the original guttural was a hard k. W. W. S.] 

Slope, to run away in debt, &c. 

Slops, the trousers, or legs of trousers : used in the singular for one 

Slot, the groove in which a window frame, or a sliding door, or a bolt 
runs. Hall, says, as a substantive, 'still in use in the north, and 
applied to a bolt of almost any kind.' 

Slot, to bolt a door. Also, in the imperative, to signify, Bolt ! Be 
off ! Slide ! Vanish ! ' I'll slot into bed.' 

Slotch. ' When a pig has takken some'at into it maath, and holds it 
head up, he slotches.' 'It's a slotcher, yon!' 'A pig olys thrawvs 
well when it's a slotcher' 

Slub, to draw out cardings of wool to greater length into a kind of 
thick yarn. 

Slubber, one who 'slubs.' 

Slug, to beat. * They slug'd him reight.' 

Slupper, to slobber ; to slop, as when one spills water ; also when 
work is badly done it is ' slupper'd ovver.' 

Slur, to slide. 

Slurclog, a name given to a well-known and respectable old man, 
who shuffled his clogs along when walking. He was in some repute 
for his quiet humour and good sense, of which latter quality the 
following is an illustration. It may be styled ' An antidote for 

' Well, Billy, how are you to-night ? ' ' Oh, varry decent, thank 
yo', and Darby's doing weel (his horse) naa we've this gooid gaerse 
at t' road side.' 'Yes, your horse looks better than he did. I hope 
you are doing as well as Darby appears to be.' ' Ah-h ! O'm doin' 
middlin' ; but O'm sorry to say 'at lately O've been a good deal dis- 
turbed i' my mind. O've an ill-conditioned nabour 'at grieves me sadly.' 
' How's that ? ' ' When O'm ready in amornin' to start for t' coil pit, 
he comes aat on his haase, and calls afther me, "Mind tha' brings 
nowt back wi' thee but w'at's thee own ; " leavin' folk 'at hears him to 
think 'at O'm a dishonest man. O've pondered t' case ovver i' mi 
own mind a varry deal, and latly O've gotten easier i' some degree ; 
for O've arrived at this conclusion an' think all ma experience, 


an' all 'at O've seen abaat men's ways, proves it to be true 'at what- 
ivver men say abaat ye, i' th' long run doesn't tak' a man's character 
away ; for in general ill reports abaat onny body drop in a while, an' 
are as if they say nowt ; an' it's seldom 'at a man's character can be 
injured long together, unless he does summut to desarve it.' 

Slurring ice (pronounced slurrin awst), a boys' slide. 

Slutter, to slide, or slip off : 'as when a druffen (drunken) man slips 
aat on a cheer (chair) on to t' floor.' Same usage as Shutter. 

Smithum, the smallest of malt, malt dust. In some parts of England, 
lead ore beaten to dust. 

Smit, used to express the appearance when coal breaks out of the 
land, which is a ' break.' 

Smits, small pieces of smut. ' When Au coughed and spitted a 
little phleem, Au olys faand smits i' t' phleem.' 

Smittle, to infect ; also a substantive. See Arrandsmittle. 
Smoor'd, smothered ; smoor, to smother. 
Smudge, small coal. 

Smudge, vb. to smoulder. A bit of brown paper which continues to 
burn when the flame is out, smudges. 

Smuse, a hole which hares, rabbits, &c. make through a hedge ; or 
one made for game through a wall. Muse in many parts of 

Snape, to snub, chide, or correct. ' Snape that dog,' i. e. call him 

Snape (<//. snaip), a check, chiefly in connection with vegetation. If 
early in spring plants look well and trees bud, it is often said, ' We 
must expect a snape after this.' 

Snasty (pronounced sndesty ; gl. snarh'sty), queer-tempered; cross; 
testy, &c. Used in Suffolk. 

Snattle, to waste away. If a child has gradually taken away sugar 
from the basin, it might be said, ' Tha's snatthd this away/ Hall. 
says, to linger, or delay.' In some counties snat is the burnt snuff 
of a candle. 

Snavel, to talk through the nose. 
Snavelled, the same as ravelled. 
Sneck, to latch. Ray has * to snock.' 

Sneck, that part of the fastening raised by moving the latch and the 
thumb-bit as well. When Mr. Eranks, Vicar of Huddersfield, was 
about to appoint a new incumbent to Slaithwaite, an old disciple, 
well known for his plain speaking, said, * Yo' mun ha' one 'at '11 go 


to t' ikumb-sneck as well as to t' brass rapper,' i. e. call alike on rich, 
and poor. 

Snell, keen ; sharp, &c. A snell morning is a sharp, frosty one ; a 
sneU man is peevish, sharp, narrow in his dealings. Douglas, the 
translator of Virgil, says, ' Cheverand for cauld, the sessoun was sa 
snell' (Prologue to ^Eneid, Bk. vii.). 

Snew, snowed ; so mew and sew for mowed and sowed. ' Her father 
said she should go to school if it snew fire-points.' Snown used for 
the participle (at Lepton). [Snew is really the correct English word. 
-W. W. S.] 

Snickle, a snare for birds, hares, &c. [The diminutive of sneck. 
W. W. S.J 

Snicksnarl (pronounced by some snichsnail). When thread is so 
much twisted that on being slackened it runs into double twists, it is 
a snicJcsnarl. 

Snig, to snatch ; to pull away secretly ; to move a tree away. Snig- 
hill in Sheffield. 

Snigtree, the part behind the horses to prevent the traces touching 
the heels. Sometimes called the stretcher. 

Snittle, to snare ; also a substantive. [Same as Snickle. W. "W". S.] 

Snod, smooth. The road's as snod as that table.' ' The grass-plat 
is quite snod now.' Snod-toppiu. is a well-brushed head of hair. 

Snot, the mucous running from the nose. 

Snotterel (pronounced snotteril), diminutive of snout. Heard applied 
to pigs' snouts. The word is common enough. 

Snutter, to snigger : perhaps connected with snout. 

Sny (pronounced maw}, to abound with, swarm, &c., especially 
' wi' owt 'ats wick.' * That dog snaws wi' fleas.' 

So and so, used for so so, paltry, feeble. 

Soa, Sooa, generally doubled, soa, soa : used for * stop, stop/ when too 
much of a thing is given. 

Soak (pronounced sooak ; gl. soo'h'k), liquid manure; and the holes 
where it collects in the yard are called soak-hoils, sivump-hoils, and 

Soft, applied to a person, means foolish ; to the weather, moist or 

Softling- (pronounced sqflin), a soft-headed person. 
Softly, soft-headed; foolish. 


Soft-head (gl. sauft-hi-h'd), the ordinary word for a fool, or block- 

Sole (gl. soal), earth ; soil. Peculiar as being the reverse of the ordin- 
ary usage, for had the word really been sole, it would in all proba- 
bility have been called soil. Some do call it soil. Possibly sole may 
be used only by persons who think soil is as contrary to good usage 
as hoil. The sole of a shoe is constantly called soil. 

Soon (pronounced sooin). W. S., going late to his work, met his 
employer, who said, ' Tha' art varry lat to-day, William.' He 
answered, 'Well, maister, Au'll tak' care to be sooin enough to- 
neeght ; we munna hav' two lats i' one day.' 

Soss (gl. sos), to sit down plumply or quickly. ' Soss ye daan.' 
Also, to drink off. A man will soss up his beer before he stops. 

Soss, sb. A person is hit straight in the stomach with a soss ; falls 
plump on the ground with a soss ; a wet dish-clout goes down with a 

Sough (pronounced suff), to tire of. When men tire of doing a 
thing they sough on it, i. e. show weak-heartedness. 

Sough (pronounced soaf), the Willow : here called the Palm-tree. 
Sow (pronounced sad ; gl. saa'h'), a drain. 
Sow (pronounced sad), vb. to drain. 

Sower (spelling doubtful ; pronounced soar, or sore), the black 
matter which accumulates in a hole where refuse water is thrown. 
Sower -hoil is the hole in question. [Sower = sewer ; from the verb 
sow, also sew, to drain. W. W. S.] 

Spadger, a sparrow. 

Spadille, or Spedille (accent on last syllable), a smooth, tapering, 
round stick, about ten inches long, with a straight axis, used to 
stretch the screed of a widow's cap in the process of getting it up after 

Span, spun ; past tense of to spin. 

Spane (gl. spain), to wean (a child). A man after five days of 
drunkenness, when he was recovering, said he was ' spaininy off.' 

Spanghew (so spelt by HalL, and so pronounced at Lepton ; but 
spankhew as I heard it pronounced), a verb to express a peculiar 
process adopted to torture birds, young animals, &c., fully described 
by Hall. ; exhibited to me by a native, but unnecessary to be explained 
here. ' . 

Sparge, to point or plaster the inside of a chimney. 
Spattle, spittle. 


Speaks, specks, spakes, speeches, or sayings. { He has some queei 

Spectacles, noticeable only for the stress on the second syllable. 
See Perfectly. [The true Mid.Eng. accent. W. W. S.] 

Spelhering, or Speldering, spelling. At Bedale, but not often used 

Spelk, a splint for a broken bone. See Stackbrods. 
Spell. See Knor and spell. 

Sper (pronounced spur), to ask in church previous to marriage. The 
askings, or banns, are called the sperrings, which are said to be * put 
in.' No doubt from spere, to ask or inquire. From p. xvi of the 
Surtees Society's Manuale et Processionale ad Usum Insignis Ecclesice 
Eboracensis, I obtain the following copy of a form of Notice, written 
on the outside leaves of a manuscript York Manual, in the Fothergill 
Collection in the Minster Library at York : 

' Frendys, y* cawse of our commyng at y u tyme es for y e worthy 
sacrament off Matrimonie, the qwylk es for to cupyll two persons in 
one wyll, ay ere of yam gowernynge one sawle. Allsso, frendys, it ys 
noght unknawn unto }ow yat efftyr y e forome and use of holy kirke, 
y* N. and N., ye qwylk er here preceiit, hase bene spirred thre solemne 
dayes in y e kirke, no lettyng ne none ympedyrnent fond, bott y* yay 
may go togydir efter the law and forome off haly kyrke ; bott }itt as 
for y e more sekyrnes yet I spyrr y e beynis off y e forsuyde N. and N., 
iff y r be any man can tell us any lettyng or impediment, tell us now 
or newyr.' 

In Cumberland during the fortnight over which the sperrings run, 
the contracting parties are said to be * hanging in the bell ropes.' 

Sperit, spirit. 

Spetch, a patch of any kind, even a plaster on the hand. 

Spetch, to patch. 

Spice (pronounced spawce), a general name for sweetmeats, such as 
peppermint, toffy, &c. Bay says, ' Raisins, plums, figs, and such -like 
fruits, in which sense it seems to be used in " spice-ceike." ' [In Chaucer 
it seems to be all sorts of things in the way of spices, &c. A grocer 
was formerly a spicer. French, ep icier. W, W. S.] 

Spicecake, or Spicebread, a kind of loaf made at Christmas-time, 
similar to plum- cake. 

Spiff, fine ; smart, &c. 

Spine, or Spine i' th' back, a spinal complaint ; a crink in the back ; 
the lumbago. 

Spink, the Chaffinch. Pink in Pembrokeshire. Bullspirik, the Bull- 
finch. In the Complaint of Scotland, pub. 1548, we read: 'The 
grene serene sang sueit, quhen the gold spynk chantit.' (See 
Murray's edition, p. 39.) 


Spinnle, or Spinnil, spindle. 

Spinny gronny, i. e. spinning granny, or Tom spinner, the Crane- 

Spittle, or Baking spittle, a wooden shovel for moving cakes, bread, 
&c. in the oven. 

Splatterdash, to put on a house lime, or pebbles, before white- 

Splint, spread, as of marbles which lie asunder. 

Splints, a game at marbles, in which they are dropped from the hand 
in heaps. 

Spuds, potatoes of all kinds. 

Spuers, squibs ; serpents ; a kind of fireworks. 

Stack, eight sheaves of corn set up together in a field. [In Hood's 
Ruth caUed stook.W. W. S.] 

Stackbrods, the sticks to fasten the thatch on corn-stacks, &c. These 
are commonly of hazel, from eighteen inches to two feet long, pointed 
at the thicker end, and slightly forked at the other. In Cumberland 
they are called spelks. 

Stackgarth, a stackyard, or rick yard. 

Stackles, used peculiarly. ' Whatever he took he had no stacldes,' 
i. e. the food did not stay on his stomach. 

Staddle, boughs of trees, poles, &c. placed on the ground (or on a 
frame) to rest a stack upon. The material is the staddling. 

Staddlethorpe, near Hull. 

Sta'em, or Stame (gl. staim, or starh'm), i. e. steven (see Sa'em, 
&c.), to bespeak for a certain time ; to give an order for a thing. A 
man sta'ems a pair of shoes, a new coat, a ' pack ' of potatoes, &c. This 
word, long known to me by sound, I found it difficult to hunt down. 
Hay has it, and spells it stein, or steven. [From A.S. stefen, voice, 
pence, appointed time ; Chaucer has steven. W. W. S.] 

'Dost thou not know that thy father went to John Walker's to 
steime a pare of shooes, and he would not let him have them without 
he had money in his hand, but he never made pare after.' Depositions 
from York Castle (Surtees Society), p. 210. 

This word staem, or steven, occurs as a substantive in Robin Hood 
and Guy of Gisborne, ver. 28 : 

' First let us some masterye make 

Among the woods so even, 
We may chance to meet with Eobin Hood 
Here at some unsett steven.' 


Also in 'Thomas Indise' (Towncley Mysteries, p. 284) we find a 
similar use of the word : 

'From ded to lyf at set stevyn rasid me throughe thi paustee,' 

i. e. raised me by thy power from death to life at set time. 
And again in ver. 53 of Robin Hood and Guy of Oisborne : 

' When little John heard his master speak 

Well knew he it was his steven : 
" Now shall I be loosed," quoth little John, 
" With Christ his might in heaven." ' 

In all these passages steven evidently means time, or appointed time. 

Stag, a boys' game, played thus : One boy appointed for the purpose 
issues forth and tries to ' tig ' another, previously saying this ' nominy,' 
or the first two lines : 

' Stag, stag arony 
Ma' dog's bony. 
Them 'at Aw catch 
'ill ha' to go wi' me.' 

When one boy is ' tigged ' (or ' tug ') the two issue forth hand in hand, 
and when more, all hand in hand. The other players have the privi- 
lege of breaking the chain, and if they succeed the parties forming 
it are liable to be ridden back to the den. At Lepton, when the game 
was publicly played, the boundaries were ' Billy Loin end, Penny 
Haas end, and T horsin step.' So played in 1810, and is still. 

Stake, or Steak (pronounced stake ; gl. staik), to fasten a door. See 
Willie and May Margaret : 

' O, he's gane round and round about, 

And tirled at the pin, 

But doors were steek' d and windows barr'd, 
And nane to let him in.' 

Stale, past tense of to steal. 
Stall' d, tired ; wearied ; satiated. 
Stang, a paiii. 

Stang, a kind of pole or perch. [Stang is the Danish for a pole.] 
Cows and geese have stangs to prevent them passing through hedges. 
There is a custom here called ' riding the stang, "* especially when there 
is anything wrong between man and wife. The party ' riding the stang ' 
is not the guilty party, but one of the mob who takes the lead in the 
matter. The ' nominy ' runs thus : 

' With a ran, with a ran, 
With a ran dan dan, 
Sound of a horn, and a owd tin can ; 
Owd Mally has paid her good man.' 

(Here the cans are beaten and the horns blown, and silence being 


' Up-stairs and under the bed, 
Such a life as nivver wor led. 
Daan-stairs and under t' stone, 
There she made him for to groan. 

With a ran, &c. 
Hip, hip, hurrah ! ' 

According to another version : 

.' Up-stairs and into bed 
There wor such a pail as ne'er wor led.' 

Any such demonstration, although the stang may not be used, is 
called ' riding the slang.' In 1857 a man who had a wife of his own 
went courting to Honley ; and being found out, the people rode the 
stang for him, having previously (it is said) asked permission of the 
police ! They made a straw effigy of him, put it on the stang, fired 
pistols at it, then pretended to bury it, and finally committed it to 
the flames : a band accompanying the ceremonies. The people have 
an impression that if the performance be conducted in three townships 
it is quite legal, and the police cannot interfere ! This must have 
arisen from the fact of prize-fights taking place on the borders of three 
counties where it was expected (and sometimes happened) that 
warrants were not taken out in all the counties, and the fight could 
proceed unmolested in the second or third. 

Staple (pronounced st apple ; gl. staapi). By corruption used to 
express the length of the lock of wool (?). ' Long staple ' is wool long 
in the fibre. 

Stark, stiff ; wearied. Ray has it. In German it means ' strong.' 
Old Syineon, in the 'Purificatio Marise' (Towneley Mysteries, p. 154) : 

' No wonder if I go on held, 
The fevyrs, the flyx, make me unweld, 
Myn armes, my lymmes, ar stark for eld, 
And alle gray is my berd.' 

Starken, to stiffen. Melted fat, paste, &c., starken as they cool. 

Staupards, or Stauperds (pronunciation of stiperds ; gl. staup'urdz), 
the four main posts by which a loom is supported. 

Staup-hoils (pronunciation of stipe-holes), small holes full of water in 
a dirty road, or made by feet of cattle in a wet field. 

Stew, vb. a word used by schoolboys to express hard study, especi- 
ally for examinations. [Not local. W. W. S.] 

Stew, sb. ' To kick up a stew ' is to kick up a dust. 

Stiff (used in a peculiar sense), glad ; rejoiced. A man is stiff of a 
new coat, &c., or of any kind of good fortune : ' I was right stiff (very 
glad) to see her look so well.' 

Stigh (pronounced stee), the usual word for 'ladder/ From A.S. 
stigan, to climb, or ascend. See ' Jacob ' (Towneley Mysteries, p. 47) : 



' What have I herd in slepe and sene ? 
That God leynyd him to a steghe, 
And spake to me, it is no leghe.' 

Stile-hole (pronounced steel Jwil), a passage into a field made by erect- 
ing two upright stones with a space between, or by a breach in a 

Stipe-holes. See Staup-hoils. 
Stiperds. See Stauperds. 

Stirk, a young cow in the stage between a calf and a heifer ; also a 
young ox. Bay has it. 

Stirrings, feasts ; also disturbances. 

Stite (pronounced stawt), used in the expression ' as stite as,' which 
means 'as lief as,' or 'as soon as.' Eay says the word is tite, and 
connects it with tide. But here it is certainly stite, for stiter may be 
constantly heard. * I'd stiter do it than be withaat.' ' I'd stiter do it 
that road.' [But tite is the correct word ; stite = astite. ( He shuld, 
for ferdnes titter it fle.' Hampole, Prick of Conscience, 1. 2354. 
W. W. S.] 

Stock, a large number ; a lot. ' What'en a stock o' names tha' has 
daan,' i. e. what a lot of names you have down. 

Stockdove, a Wood-pigeon. 

Stocks, a portion of the machinery for milling cloth. When it 
comes out of the loom the threads may be counted ; after it has been 
in the stocks it is much more difficult. 

Stocks, a schoolboys' game, thus played : Two boys pick a side, 
and there is one den only, and they toss to see which side shall keep 
it. The side which wins the toss then goes out, and when the boys 
have got a good distance off they cry stocks. The boys who keep the 
den run after them to catch them. When one is caught his capturer 
counts ten whilst he holds him (in a more primitive but less refined 
state, spat over his head), and cries stocks. This prisoner is taken 
into the den. If they are all caught the other side turns out. But if 
one of the outer side can manage to run through the den and cry 
stocks, all the prisoners are relieved, and can go out again. 

Stogs, stone marbles, so called by the boys. 

Stone-knoper, one who breaks stones for the road. In an old Town's 
Book of Lepton, breaking stones is described all in one page by three 
different designations, * braying,' ' mashing,' and ' knoping stones.' 

Storicle, a word given to me by more than one old inhabitant, but 
few persons seem now to know it. Hall, spells it sterrade, and says it 
means 'performances, strange things, sights, or doings.' I have it 
written storide in my note-book, and it is said to mean a kind of 

Stormcock, the Missel-thrush. 


Stoven (pronounced stuvven, to rhyme with oven). When a bough 
of a tree is cut off, or a tree cut down, the portion left close to the 
trunk, or the remainder of the trunk itself, is the stoven. Hall says it 
is a young shoot from the trunk of a tree which has heen felled. 

Strackled. A stracMe-'biamed fellow is a careless, thoughtless, 
heedless one, as Halliwell says, and not a half idiot. 

Strade, past tense of to stride. 

Strae, Stree, or Strea (gl. stree, strrh'), the pronunciation of straw. 

Strake, past tense of to strike. See Acts xxvii. 17. 

Strang, past tense of to string. 

Strave, past tense of to strive. 

Stretcher. See Snigtree. 

Strickle, an instrument to strike corn from the measure; also an 
instrument covered with emery to sharpen scythes. 

Strinkle, to scatter matters, especially such as are of a powdery 
nature ; as sand on the floor, emery on a ' strickle,' salt or sugar on 
bread. Water also may be strinlded. There may be a strinkling of 
rain. In ' Thomas Indise ' (Towneley Mysteries, p. 283) we find : 

' Luf makys me, as ye may see, strenkyllid withe blood so red.' 

Strinkling, sb. used in a somewhat wider sense than the verb, to 
express in addition small quantities or numbers scattered amongst a 
greater mass. Thus a congregation might consist chiefly of women, 
with a strinkling of men. 

Strippings, the last milk from the cow. 
Strdak, or Stroke (gl. stroa-h'k), half a bushel. 

Struncheon (pronounced strunslm ; gl. struonsh/n). Hall, says, 
' a verse of a song.' A common word here, and seems to signify a 
tune, or part of one. A thrush singing near was ' giving us a 
struncheon,' I was informed. It might be said to a fiddler, ' Come, 
old chap, give us a struncheon.' 

Studded, or Stooded (gl. studid ?), astonished. 

Stridden, or Stooden, stood ; participle of to stand. Nanny A. ' o' 
th 1 Ing Yed,' Thurstonland , called up her family one winter's morning 
somewhat too early, for the clock had stopped. She set them to 
work, and when she thought it was time, made breakfast, but there 
was no daylight. After what seemed a proper interval, she gave them 
their forenoon drinking still no daylight. She then set the pot on to 
boil the meat, exclaiming, * It'll ne'er be leet to-day.' A man who 
worked on the premises now came in, and said, ' Dame, wat art ta 
doin' ? ' She answered, ' Wha, lad, yar clock's studden. Aw thowt it 
wur ne'er baan to be day-leet ; we ha' had aar breakfast and aar fore- 
nooin drinkia', and we naa mun ha' our dinnur.' 

R 2 


Stunken, past participle of to stink. 

Sub, to draw money on account before it is due. 

Suck. If a person has been taken in, it would be said, < What a 
suck I ' Seems modern. 

Sugar (pronounced sewgar, or seeogar, without any trace of the h 
sound ; gl. seug'ur). People slightly more refined endeavour to copy 
the established pronunciation, and say shugyar (gl. shuog'ur ?). 

J. o' Benny's said, ' When Mr. B. first came to Ornbry he sent me 
to Downing's for a loaf o' sewgar. Joe Booth wur diinkin' gin at the 
Star on the Brigg. Gin were allys too many for me. Au fell and 
brak t' sewgar. Booth hugged it for me, and gav' it me at top o' t' 
Bank. Au fell agean and brak it ; then Au wor mad, and claated it 
agean t' wall, and mash'd it to little loomps. Au hearken'd at door 
long enough to see if he wur in, and Au went in and laid it daan. 
Mr. B. said if he had ho'd o' me he'd varry sooin put me in a toob o' 
watter. Au slipt aat o' his gate. Au couldn't go in t' morn ; Au 
couldn't fashion.' 

Sump-hole (pronounced sumphoil ; gl. suomp-hoil), a place into which 
the refuse of dye runs, or any surplus liquid. 

Sup (gl. suop) \ vlj. to drink ; sb. a draught. ' We've had a good sup 
o' rain.' 

Sure (pronounced sewer, or seooar ; gl. seur). See Sugar. 

Swab (a as in had), something spilt, or something over. ' Two spoon- 
fuls and a swab.' % 

Swab, or Sweb (pronounced as the above), to swoon. Eay and Hall, 
both spell it sweb. 

Swad (a as in had), a pea-pod, or ' pay wad.' 
Swaif, i. e. swaith, a row of grass as it falls when mowed. 
Swaimous, or Swamous, bashful. (Mod. Eng. squeamish.) 
Swang, past tense of to swing. 

Sward, or Swarth, skin or rind of bacon, or of any meat. Called 
also by some sivord (soard), like the weapon. 

Swattle (like cattle), to waste away. 

Sway, vb. to push or press down. They sway in a candle when 
they press it into the socket. Pressing on a table with the hands is 
swaying. If a person were lying down and another pressing on him, 
the latter would be ' swaying him daan.' 

Sway, sb. the mass, or bulk, as in the following : ' T' sway on it will 
go into his pocket.' Possibly this may be Mid. Eng. sweigh, as also 
the word preceding. 


Sweal (pronounced sweet), to burn the soot out of the chimney. Also 
the candle sweals ; or one siveals the candle when the grease runs 
down, or the flame is turned by the wind. 

Swiller. See Maiden, or Peggy tub. 

Swilloky, said of such things as shake like jelly, c., when moved 

Swine grease (gl. swein 'grin's), an expression often used for the word 
1 lard.' 

Swinging, or Swinging rods. See Fleyk. 

Swingletree, a bar attached to carriages, ploughs, &c., to which 
the horses are yoked. 

Swirrel, a squirrel. See Quarrel, &c. 
Swissop, a rap on the side of the head. 

Switcher, to strike blindfold at birds' eggs with a switch. Whit 
Monday is a day specially devoted to this elegant amusement. 

Swither, to singe. They swither the hairs off a fowl after it has been 
plucked. They used to siuither pieces (of cloth) formerly. 

Swither, sb. a switch. At Lepton. 

System (pronounced sistim ; gl. sist'im), a word which, consider- 
ing its origin, does a singular amount of duty in this district. It has 
a very extensive use, signifying not only whaj; is commonly known as 
a system, but a plan, a way of doing anything, an action, and even a 
company, or assemblage. A lad seeing a windmill for the first time 
(which are not common in the neighbourhood of Huddersfield), ex- 
claimed, ' Does ta see that system ? ' 

On one occasion a pupil brought to the Grammar School, for general 
purposes, a sharp cutting instrument, which unfortunately was, by 
his neglect, the cause of great injury to a boy. A surgeon's bill was 
the con sequence. The injured boy' s parents thought the boy originally 
in fault should be responsible for the amount. To this his father, 
a wealthy manufacturer, demurred, insisting that the dangerous 
weapon had been brought for the whole system, i.e. for all the boys; 
therefore all were liable. 

At another time I was looking on at an All England cricket match, 
at Huddersfield, when a friend from Dewsbury joined me. He, like 
myself, was from the south, but of more recent importation, and quite 
ignorant of the dialect. He was struck with a mechanic near, who 
said in a warning voice, ' Drop that system ! ' What my friend 
imagined I can't tell ; but if it had been a command to banish a 
sun with its attendant planets to a bottomless abyss, the words would 
have expressed it. Much perplexed, and with wondering countenance, 
he looked at me, and said, ' What does he mean ?' ' Oh,' I replied, 
' he is speaking to those boys jumping over the forms, and is only 
requesting them to leave off; that's all.' 


T and th are both used for the, and are incorporated with the pre- 
ceding or the following word. Thus, ' The man in the moon ' may 
be ' 2Yi'man i'th* mooin/ or * T'man i'^ mooin ; ' in which latter 
form it is written in the Pogmoor Almanack. 

Although the fact is warmly disputed, it seems to me the t is some- 
times omitted. In Dolly's Gown, or the Effects of Pride, I find the 
expressions, 'When church did loase/ 'Lads ran at apples, spice, and 
nuts/ in which cases at least three definite articles are wanting ; and 
I am of opinion it is often omitted. But it is said the ghost of a t' is 
always to be recognized. It may be so, and I leave it for the con- 
sideration of others. 

Tt. Again, when two t j s occur the second usually becomes th, as 
when two d's meet ; thus butter is butther ; potteries, pottheries, and so 
on. This statement is also disputed ; but I have certainly heard the 
effect of tt as described, and entered it years ago in my note-book. Of 
course I am willing to admit that pronunciation to be fast dying out. 

Th is in some words used for d. See Letter D. 

In some words d takes the place of t, as bad for bat, bud for but, also 
mud for might. 

Ta, taa, tha, thaa, all variations for the word thou, which is in 
general use. At the time of the Huddersfield Exhibition (about 1839), 
originated by Dr. Turnbull, Mr. Nowell, and other scientific men of 
the day, a very powerful electric machine was shown, and its effects 
tried on the then rising generation of school children. These young 
experimental philosophers were ranged in a large ring, and the power 
applied. Immediately after the shock the children suddenly broke up 
into little quarrelling parties of twos and threes, saying, ' What didst 
ta hit me for ? ' ' What didst taa hit me for, then ? ' much to the 
amusement of the lookers-on. 

Taart, or Taert, the pronunciation of tart. 
Tabs, odd pieces cut from the ends of cloth. 

Tackling, said of parchment deeds. &c., which secure an estate. 
Speaking of one whose title to a certain property was in question, 
a man said, ' Well, he's got the tacklin' on it no doubt, somewhere 
laid by,' meaning the deeds of conveyance, &c. 

Ta'ed (gl, tai'd), contraction from talked for took. 

Ta'en, past participle of to take. In Bellenden's story of Macbeth, 
we read, ' His body (i. e. King Duncan's) was buryit in Elgin, and 
eftir tane up and brocht to Colniekill.' 

Tak, take. Used also peculiarly. ' He's nowt to tak to/ i. e. nothing 
to eat. 

Tallowjack, a candle. 


Tally, to live unmarried with. 

Tammy. Scores of people in this neighbourhood were employed 
from 1750 to 1780 in spinning worsted for the Halifax goods called 
tammys. There were places both in that town and at Wakefield 
called tammy halls, where these goods were exposed for sale ; but 
not in Huddersfield. The wool was put out here by agents. 

Tammy board, a thin slab of wood used for folding waistcoatings or 
light cloths around. 

Tang, or Ting, to sting. Jem o' Benny's was once cleaning some 
outhouses at the bottom of the Grammar School garden, when the 
wasps proved too troublesome to him. Jem, after making some 
ineffectual dabs at the noxious insects, said to Mr. B., who was 
by, ' Maister, they ha' tang'd me.' * Never mind, Jem.' So Jem 
remained quiet. By-and-by he said, ' They'n tang'd me agean, 
Maister.' ' Well, Jem, you'd better come out.' ' Aw think Aw mun, 
or (i. e. before) my nose is too big for t' hoil,' i. e. before my nose is 
too big for the doorway. 

Tangles, a thriftless person. 
Tangs, the tongs. 

Tankliments, i. e. trankliments, ornaments ; implements ; accoutre- 
ments. The tankliments of the mantelshelf are its ornaments ; the 
tankliments of a gardener, his spade, rake, &c. Note the elision of 
the r. 

Tashel, or Tashil, a tassel. 

Taunt, used in the expression, ' to make taunt of,' i. e. to make 
fun of. 

Tea (pronounced ted two syllables ; gl. ti:h'). 
Ted, to spread hay. 
Teem, to pour out. Eay. 

Teethy (pronounced tedthy ; gl. trh'thi th as in hath), cross ; 
peevish ; tiresome. Hall, says teety. In the ' Processus Noe ' 
(Towneley Mysteries') we find 

* For she is full tethde, 
For litille oft angre, 
If anythyng wrang be 
Soyne is she wroth.' 

Tell'd, past tense and past participle of to tell. 
Tem'd, past tense and past participle of to teem. 
Temper, to make (butter) soft for spreading. 

Temples, an instrument used in weaving, composed of two pieces of 
wood joined in the middle by a pin. At each end are prods to fasten 
the cloth, and the object is to keep the cloth stretched in the loom. 


Tempse. In the expression ' hop-tempse,' a hop-sieve, but not other- 
wise used here. It is, however, spoken of as the tempse. 

Tent, to tend, or look to ; attend to : such as any machinery, power- 
loom, &c. This word is found in The Towneley Mysteries, which volume, 
it is worthy of remark, abounds in specimens of the dialect of this 
part of the West Eiding. 

' Tent hedir tydely, wife, & consider, 
Hens must us fle alle sam togeder 

In haste.' Processes Noe. 

1 Wyth outen tokyn trew, 
Thay wyll not tent ther-tylle.' Pharao. 

' Take tent to my taylle till that I have told 
Of my dere son.' Ascensio Domini. 

Tenter, (1) a long frame on which cloth is stretched to dry. In 
Robert Greene's A Quip for an Upstart Courtier, A.D. 1592, we find 
this implement thus mentioned : ' Beside, he imposeth this charge 
to the clothworker, that he draw his cloth, and pull it passing hard 
when he sets it upon the tenters, that he may have it full breadth and 
length, till thread and all tear and rent a-pieces.' 

Again, in Thomas Wash's Lenten Stuff e, or Praise of the Red Herring, 
A.D. 1599, we find it alluded to : ' But, Lord, how miserably do these 
ethnicks, when they once match to the purpose, set words on the 
tenters, never reading to a period, which you will scarce find in thirty 
sheets of a lawyer's declaration, whereby they might comprehend the 
entire sense of the writer together, but disjoint and tear every syllable 
betwixt their teeth severally ! ' 

The hooks by which the cloth is stretched are tenter- JwoJcs. This 
last word is used metaphorically in the phrase, ' to be on tenter-hooks,' 
i. e. in suspense. 

(2) the person who attends to the engine is the ' engine tenter ' ; to 
power-looms, a ' power-loom tenter, 1 &c. 

Tether-toad, the Ranunculus repens, which runs along the ground 
like the strawberry plant. 

Tew (pronounced tdoo ; gl. taew), to be actively employed ; to 
labour, strive, or contend with. 'He tcw'd with it long enough.' 
' That lime wants better tewing,' i. e. working, or mixing. A word 
much in use. 

Thaam, an ancient pronunciation of the word thumb. In a manu- 
script copy of the Hagmena Song, as taken down in A.D. 1675 from 
the dictation of a Scotch pedler, the last line runs 

' Cut round, cut sound, cut not yer muckle thaum.' 

About fifty years ago (say 1825) butter was usually spread on oat- 
cake with the thaam. One of the later Kayes of Woodsome bid an 
old woman of Slaithwaite, who was politely getting a knife, to ' spread 
with her thitftm.' 


Thack (gl. thaak), pronunciation of thatch. See Bessie Bell^ and 
Mary Gray, ver. 1 : 

' Bessie Bell and Mary Gray, 

They were twa bonnie lasses ; 
They built a house on yon burn brae, 
And theek't it o'er wi' rashes.' 

This word is found in the Promptorium Parvulorum. 

Thakin, i. e. thatching (gl. thaikin). ' A thakin of bread ' means a 
bread-creel full of bread or oat-cake, which hangs overhead in the 
kitchen like a thatch. 

That, used peculiarly for him, her, it, &c. 

Theer, there. One W. Ibberson was the manager, or hind, to Mr. 
Scott, senior, of Woodsome. He could not count twenty, but knew 
his stock by their features. When he had to reckon his sheep, look- 
ing at each in turn, he used to say, ' Tha' a't theer, tha' a't theer,' 
and so on through the whole number, concluding with, ' Au think 
ye're all theer.' 

Thems 'em, i. e. those are they. 
Thew, past tense of to thaw. 

Thible, or Thibel (pronounced thawUe ; gl. thauVl), a smooth 
round stick used to stir porridge with. Ray spells it thivel. 

Thingumtibob, a nondescript name or thing. 

Think on, very common for remember. ' Moind yoa think on and 
don't forget.' [Common in Shropshire. W. W. S.] 

Th' hoil, or T' hoil, See Hoil. 

Thole (thoil),to bear, suffer, brook, allow willingly. Very common. 
' She can't thoil her to you,' '. e. is not willing to let you have her. 

Thole (pronounced thoil), sb. ' He gave it with a thoil, 1 i. e. 

Thomasin'. Going about begging on St. Thomas's Day is ' going 
a Thomasin' . ' It is still the custom for children to go about on that 
day, and when they solicit coppers they ask, perhaps, ' if yo serve 
Thomasers! In Mr. Scott's day, at Woodsome Hall, a sack of wheat 
stood at the door with a pint measure. All comers who chose to take 
it were served with a pint of wheat, supposed to be for frumenty. 
The same custom in a different form was followed at the Wood after- 
wards. There they gave pennies to Almondbury people, a halfpenny 
each to children, but Farnley folk had twopence. Wheat also was 
given away. 

Thrast, past tense of to thrust. 
Thrave, past tense of to thrive. 
Thrave, twenty-four sheaves of corn set up together. Ray has it. 


Thraw (gl. thrau), pronunciation of throw. 

Threap (pronounced threap two syllables ; gl. thrrh'p), to insist on a 
statement, &c. Used in this way : ' He wanted to threap me down 
that, 1 &c. To maintain sturdily in dispute. ' Eagle-soaring Boling- 
broke, that at his removing of household into banishment, as Father 
Proissart threaps down, was accompanied with forty thousand men, 
women, and children, weeping from London to the Land's End, at 
Dover.' Lenten Stuffe. In the Toivneley Mysteries we find 

' Thirteen ar on thre, thar ye not threpe. 3 

* Processus Talentorum.' 

And again 

' Do way youre threpyng, ar ye wode ? ' 

' Thomas Indise.' 

Three thrums, purring ; the noise a cat makes when pleased. ' Pussy 
is singing threethrums : what loud threethrums ! ' The sound suggests 
the word, as in * chissup.' It is generally said the purring consists of 
' three threes and a thrum. 1 

Thro', i. e. through, and pronounced as threa in threaten. It means 
from. ' He came thro* (from) Huddersfield.' * Whar do yo come 
thro 1 ?' A Parnley lad was once going to Wakefield, and J. H., who 
was employed on the road, called to him as he passed hastily along. 
The lad took no heed. Then said J. H., ' If Au had thee up yon tree 
Au'd ma' thee coom daan wi' once tellin' ! ' This effectually roused 
the lad's spirit, who said, ' Nay, tha' cannot,' and immediately climbed 
the tree. ' Naa tell me to coom daan, Jooa ; Au've sheep to fetch 
thro' Wakefield.' 'Coom daan, lad.' The lad moved not, but smil- 
ingly awaited a further order ; but Joe went on with his work. The 
lad, getting tired, snivelled out, ' Jooa, wha' doesn't ta tell me to coom 
daan agean ? ' ' Nay, lad, if tha' doesn' t chooise to coom daan o' thi 
sen, tha' may sit theer as lang as tha' lawks. It's nowt to me.' So 
when he had realized his dilemma he came down chopfallen, certainly 
a sadder lad, and perhaps a wiser. 

Throat, pronounced throit. 

Throddy, portly; stout, &c. 

Throng, busy. ' This is a throng day with us.' 

Thropple, the throat, or windpipe. Eay. 'At Baimbro' (Bam- 
brough) a cat killed a man, and man killed cat. They lig at back o' 
poupit haoon i' marbil naa. The man wur donn'd i' leather all but his 
throit and his shackles. The cat pull'd his thropple aat ; and when he 
wur stretch't aat to dee he catch'd cat between and the wall, and 
killed it. It was something which haunted t' churchyard, and he 
wod be such a man (yo know) and f eight it. Cat, if it wor a cat, had 
long claws, as long as ma' fingers.' 

Throstle, a Thrush : Turdus musicus. 
Throwfall, a trial at wrestling. 


Thrown, turned in a lathe (as bed-posts, &c.). 

Thrum. When the piece of cloth is finished the weaver leaves one 
or two yards of the cloth in the slay, or yeld. When the fresh mate- 
rial is put in, the new warp is twisted with the fingers to that left in. 
It is next pulled through the yelds and slay, and when the weaving 
is commenced the old warp is cut off. The part so cut off is the 
thrum. The weavers formerly had the thrum for themselves, but not 
now. This spare material was used for the manufacture of hearth- 
rugs, dust-mops, &c. 

Thrushen, past participle of to thrash, or thresh. 

Thrusten (pronounced thrussen ; gl. thrus'n), crowded; inconveni- 
enced by pressure of business, or want of room. 

Thumb, formerly pronounced thaam, which see. 

Thumper, a lie. 

Thunner, thunder. 

Thunnerclock, thunder-clock, a black beetle. See Clock. 

Thwaite, a word found in names of places, as ~Linthwalte, Sl&ithwaite, 
&c. Also iii family names, as Thwaites, M.ic'klethwaite, &c. The word 
itself means ploughed land where a wood has been grubbed up. 

Tickle, careful ; nice ; dangerous, &c. Tickle weather, when it may 
soon turn to rain ; a tickle job, one that requires care and caution. 
A mouse-trap should be set tickle, i. e. easy to go off. 

Ticktack, a second. 

Tigaree, tigaree, touch me wood, a boys' game. One boy turns 
out to run, and as soon as he can touches one who does not touch 
wood. The ' tigged ' boy takes his place, unless he is sharp enough 
to touch No. 1 in return. 

Time (pronounced tawm ; gl. taum). In such an expression as ' By 
[the time] I had got home I had lost the pain,' it is usual to omit the 
words in brackets. 

Tinkler, a tinker. 

Tin money. In money clubs it is customary to make a certain con- 
tribution for the good of the house, to be spent in drink, for which a 
sort of tin token is given. 

Tirl, the wheel of a barrow. Probably from tirl, a variant of trill, 
to turn. Troll was used in Hampshire for trundling a hoop. 

Toarthre, no doubt formed from two or three, but to be taken as a 
whole, and to be used adjectively as such, of which the following is an 
example. A boy at the Grammar School came up to one of the 
masters and said, ' I've brought you a toarthre sums.' ' Oh, two or 
three. Very well; let me look.' 'No, sir, not two or three; a 
toarthre.' ' Well, how many then ? ' ' Perhaps six or seven.' 


Tod, a fox. Not used here now, but found in the word TWmorden, 
a neighbouring town ; perhaps also in Toadholea, the name of a field 
belonging to the Grammar School, which may be JWholes, similar to 
' Brockholes ' not far off (?). 

Toil, perhaps tirl, the wheel of a barrow. 
Toil. ' To keep in toil ' is to keep in action. 

Toit. ' To keep in toit ' is to keep in good order, temper, &c., as of 
a machine. At Golcar the word is * in toy.'' 

Tombo, one who acts sillily. Very common. Used adjectively as 
well. A boy looking at a clock said, ' Eh ! what'en a tombo face ! ' 

Tommy Loich. See Loich and Beardie. 

To-morn, to-morrow. * To-morn at neet/ i. e. to-morrow night. See 
under Letter M. In the 'Peregrini' (Towneley Mysteries) Luke 

1 Thou art a pilgreme, as we ar, 
This nyght shalle thou fare as we fare, 
Be it les or be it mare 

Thou shalle assay, 
Then to-morne thou make the yare (ready) 

To weynde'thi way.' 

Tompimpernel, the Pimpernel : AnagalUs arvensis. 
Tomspinner, the Crane-fly, or tipula. 

T'one or t'other (pronounced toon two syllables or Jitther), the 
one or the other. See Colin Clint : 

'They each of other blother, 
The f one against the tother,' 

where notice the doubled article, ' the t'one.' 

Topping, the hair, and particularly that in front of the head. See 
Snod. Also the top stone of a wall. 

Tormochel (ch soft), applied to a troublesome child: 'A regular 

Tcrmoit, torment. 

Tot, a small drinking-glass holding a quarter of a pint. 

Touchous, touchy, or tetchy. 

Town's hall, i. e. town-hall, a curious word, not only because contrary 
to the use of all England, but even more particularly of this part, 
where the usual 's is so freely omitted. ' That's Tom Smith voice ; ' 
' Look at it taH.' 

Towser, /. e. tolser, a prison. In some parts tolsey. Strictly a toll- 
place, a kind of exchange. ToUbooth also is a prison. 


Trade, trod ; past tense of to tread. 

Trail, to drag ; or, intransitive, to move or walk about. See Addle. 
To a slovenly man it is sometimes said, / Tha' looks as if tha'd been 
trailed thro' a wickthorn hedge.' 

Traily, slovenly. 

Trap. In weaving, when they break a lot of threads close to the 
cloth, so that they cannot be piecened, it is usually called ' a trap.' 
The threads are lengthened by putting others to them. They are 
then put under the temples, which plan holds them in till they get 
fastened with the weaving. A bad place in the cloth is the conse- 
quence, and that is also called a trap. 

Tredden. for trodden, past participle of to tread. 

Trepanned, punished. ' I'll have thee trepanned : ' perhaps knocked 
on the head. 

Tress, or Trest, a long bench to sit on ; a form. Hence trestle. 

Trest, a table used to kill pigs on. 

Trigg off, about, &c., i.e. move off, about, set off, &c. 

Trollers, or Troullers, the rockers of a rocking chair. 

Trones, the steelyards. 

Trowel (ow as in now). To play trowel is to play truant. 

Trowell, mason's instrument (pronounced very oddly, something like 

Trucks, smuts in grain. 

Tubber, a cooper. 

Tug 1 , past tense and past participle of to tig. 

Tul, to : only used before a vowel. Tul 'em = to them. Much used 
in Farnley Tyas, also at Lepton and Almondbury. [Pure Scandina- 
vian; Danish til.'} 

Turn, vb. which denotes the first process in carding wool, when it 
was worked between ' hand kaerds ' to make it uniform, break it up, 
and lay the fibres. 

Turn, one who Hums.' 

Tune (teun), to beat, or thrash ; also a process in manufacturing. 

Tuner, one who tunes, i. e. sets the looms in order to weave the 
pieces perfect. 

Turmerhill, an artificial hill at Hillhouse. 
Twags, twigs. 


Twan, past tense of to twine. 

Twang, vb. to turn out the toes in walking. 

Twelft e'em, i. e. twelfth night. Old J. S. and many others would 
never acknowledge the new style. They used to say of New Christ- 
mas Day, ' What do yo' keep yor Chersmis naa for ? It's nooan the 
right taum. Wait whaul twelft day. This taum was nohbut made 
by man.' 

Twentit' e'em, or Twentieth e'em, i. e. twentieth eve after Christmas 
Eve, once a notable day in this neighbourhood, and regarded as the 
real termination of the Christmas festivities. It is still spoken of. 
Forty years ago it was much observed. It corresponds with the 13th 
of January, which is now, as in the ancient English calendars, 
observed in churches of the Roman Obedience as the Octave of the 
Epiphany in honour of the Mystery of our Lord's Baptism. 

Twilt, vb. quilt, beat, or thrash. 

Twilt, sb. a quilt for a bed. 

Twilting, quilting, beating, or thrashing. 

Twinge (gl. twinj), according to some, the earwig ; but others say 
the Forty-legs. 

Twisted out. After the trials at York, an order in Council directed 
that by a certain time the Luddites, who had taken a secret oath, 
should go before a magistrate, and be twisted out, as it was called ; 
that is, they took the Oath of Allegiance. Bodies of forty or fifty at 
a time were to be seen passing Birks Mill on their way to Woodsoine, 
to take the oath before Mr. Scott, J.P. Among these, to the amaze- 
ment of observers, were some very respectable men indeed, such as 
master croppers, &c. On one of these occasions a man said, after 
being ' sworn out,' ' Eh ! Au'm so fain (glad) ; my heart seems so leet. 
Au feel as if Au could lope ovver yon buildin'.' 

Twitch Court, the County Court. To put a person there is to twitch 

Two or three, used all as one word, with the article a before it 
(pronounced a toarthre}. ' Will ta hav' a toarthre ? ' alluding, perhaps, 
to broth, soup, &c. See Few. 

Twys. See Cots and Twys. 

The h sound found (in standard English) in connection with u in 
some words, as sure, sugar, measure, &c., is not inserted in the dialect. 
The word measure, for instance, is mezzur (gl. mez'ur). 

In many words u is sounded like oo in foot (southern pronunciation). 
Sometimes it is used for i, as behund for behind; and sometimes for 
short e, as yus for yes, yusterday for yesterday. 


Unaccountable, said of persons, when advanced in years, if their 
memories fail. 

Ungain, awkward to get at, or to deal with ; unhandy. The contrary 
to ' overgain.' 'Everything is ungain there.' Ungainly is used in 
Pembrokeshire and other counties; but, I imagine, in the sense of 

Uphold (pronounced upholt). ' I'll upholt ye/ I'll assure, confirm, 
or stand by you. 

Urchin, or Urchint, a hedgehog. 

Us (gl. uz), used for our when not emphatic. 'We mun get us 
drinkin',' i. e. ' We must get our drinking.' But if emphatic, then aar 
or yaar is used ; as, ' This is aarn, that's thawn.' 

Us (gl. uz), objective of we. 

Uveltee. In the expression ' all uveltee shawvs/ i. e. all sixes and 

Uvvil, spelling uncertain : prjobably Huvvle (which see), the finger 
(or thumb) of a glove ; or a piece of rag sewn into such form, to 
protect an injured finger. 

V in this dialect is much slurred over ; thus aim or e'em for even, 
ela'em for eleven, ha'n for haven (the plural of have], har'est for 
harvest, gi'en for given, (torn for oven, sa'em for seven, sare'd or served 
for served, staem for steven, Ste'em for Stephen. 

Vast, used substantively. ' A vast of information.' 

Very (gl. vari ; pronounced 
deal of corn, fruit,' &c. 

Voider, a large clothes-basket. 

Very (gl. vari ; pronounced varry), used adjectively, as, ( a very 
deal of corn, fruit,' &c. 


W in some words is sounded as oo ; as few, pronounced fayoo. 

Wabble (pronounced to rhyme with babble ; but some say wobble) 
to move from side to side like a drunken man. 

Wace, or Waice (pronounced wayeece), an old form for wax. See 
Letter X. Occurs in Willy 1 s Lady, ver. 8: 

' Ye'll do ye to the market-place, 
And there ye'll buy a loaf o' wace ; 
Ye'll shape it bairn and bairnly like, 
And in it twa glassen e'en ye'll pit.' 


Wake (gl. waik), to watch with a sick person; to work by candle- 

Waken (pronounced wakken), to wake, or awake : both active and 

Wakender, or Wakkener (pronounced wakkender ; gl. waak-ndur), 
livelier; more awake. 

Walt, to totter, or fall over ; also, to turn over. Two Almond bury 
men were looking into a crockery shop, when one said to the other, 
4 Sitha, Johnny, what a nawce teapot ! Couldst ta lawk to hav' it ? ' 
To whom Johnny replied, rubbing his hands slowly over each other, 
' Nay, lad ; it ud wait ma table ovver,' being too big and too fine for 

Wamble (pronounced ivammle ; gl. waanrl), to move with wind, as 
the intestines ; to wriggle. Used in Pembrokeshire for to twist like a 
worm. It is also used as an adjective : ' Aw feel rate wake and 
wammle.' Especially applied to horses when weak in their legs. ; 

Wan, past tense of to win. 

Wan', past tense of to wind, or wind. 

Wandy (rhyme to handy), like a wand. * A wandy lad ' is a well- 
grown lad, straight and slim. 

Wangby, tough. Perhaps from wangs, the cheek or jaw teeth. In 
Cumberland and some parts of Yorkshire a tough kind of cheese is 
called ' old wang '; here, * wangby cheese.' 

Wanter, or Wantey (a as in man), a large girth for a pack-horse. 
' Aw nivver saw owt like thee. Tha's coom'd without wanter agen. 
Aw mun get thee a piece on a warp to festen it on.' 

From Depositions from York Castle (Surtees Society), p. 210: '. . . 
who laid soe till the next morning he found they had cutt the wanty 
that tyed his pack fast to his panyers,' &c. 

Wsnty (pronounced as the last), wanting; deficient. 
Ware. See Wear. 
Wark, work. 

Wark, to ache. Tooiih-wark is'tooth-ache ; belly-0ar& is stomach- 
ache ; yead- or yed-wark is head-ache ; shackle-war^ is pain in the 
wrist. As a verb this word is found in the 'Processus Noe' 
(Ton neUy Mysterits) : 

' My bonys are so stark, 
No wonder if thay wark, 
For I am fufle old. 1 

Warm (pronounced as usual), to beat, or thrash. Very common. 
Used in Pembrokeshire. 


Warpin-woof, a frame three yards and one foot long (ten feet) in 

which warps are prepared for weaving. This length in weaving is 

called ' a string.' 
Wartern, i, e. a quartern, a weight of woollen warp which is, when 

complete, twenty -four or twenty-five pounds. See Quarrel, 

Swirrel, &c. 

Warty, i. e. workday. ' Warty clothes ' = workday clothes. 
Wash (pronounced waish), the same as Weeting-, which see. 

Washer (pronounced wesher), a small, round, flat iron ring placed on 
the axis of wheels, &c. 

Wassail (pronounced wessel). Wassail-cup, hy the corruption of the 
would-be refined, hecomes ' vessel-cup ' ! 

Wassail bob (pronounced wessel bob), a garland or bouquet carried on 
New Year's Eve from house to house, and adorned with fruit, ever- 
greens, artificial flowers, &c. Formerly a doll gaily dressed, represent- 
ing the Blessed Virgin, was placed in the midst. 

On Tuesday, Dec. 29, 1874, a wessel bob was Drought here for exhi- 
bition. It consisted of two hoops covered and ornamented with coloured 
cut paper ; a little fir-tree in the middle, ornamented with an apple, 
an orange, a doll (like a man), and a wax cherry. The bearers sang 
the song, ' Here we come a wesselling.' See Christmas. 

Wassail Night (pronounced iceesel neight ; gl. wes'l neeght), New 
Year's Eve. On this occasion (and sometimes for a few nights pre- 
vious) they sing a ballad, and are thus said to * sing wessel.' or * go a 
wesselling. f At Holmfirth the ' wessel song ' is only sung on Epiphany 
after dark, and the chorus there differs from the one given under 
Christmas. It runs thus : 

' For in Chersmas time 

People travel far and near ; 
So I wish you a merry Chersmas, 

And a happy new year.' 

Forty years ago the chorus at Almondbury ran thus : 
4 And it's your wassail, 
And it's jolly wassail; 
Love and joy,' &c. 

Waster, anything not up to the mark. 

Watchful, wakeful. 

Water (pronounced by some waiter, and by others watther : a as in 
flat ; gl. wat'r, wat'thur). .When Dr. Batty practised at Fenay, two 
country lads came from Meltham requiring his assistance. After he 
had examined them, the lads sitting in the surgery, he addressed his 
assistant, giving him verbal directions for compounding the medicine. 
So many grains, &c. of this, that, and the otjier, finishing with, l Fill 
the bottle with aqua fontis.' The lade remarked that ' aqua fontis ' 
made up at least nine-tenths of the medicine, and one whispered to 
the other, * Dost ta' see ? If we could get to know what t' stuff is we 
could cure folk as weel as him,' The doctor and his assistant both 
withdrew for a short time, when the lad ran to the bottle, tasted it, 
and exclaimed, '^Nowt but watther I nowt but watther I ' 


Water bowl (pronounced waiter boivl). J, M., when a lad, thought 
if he could get up to the top of the hill above Farnley Wood, he could 
touch the sky. ' Au thowt it looked lawk a gret ivatter loiul. Well, 
we gate up theer me and Dick Mallinson and we wur furder off 
nor iyver. That wur a Sunday afternooin job, that wur.' 

This belief is by no means confined to rustics. Emerson, in his 
Conduct of Life, thus alludes to it : ' In childhood we fancied our- 
selves walled in by the horizon, as by a glass bell, and doubted not by 
distant travel we should reach the baths of descending sun and stars. 
On experiment the horizon flies before us, and leaves us on an endless 
common sheltered by no glass bell' (ch. vii.)- This, making due 
allowance for difference of language, is a perfectly parallel passage. 

Waterfirling, or Waterparkin, an oaten cake baked without 

Wattles (pronounced to rhyme with tattle; gl. wat'lz), the red 
appendages on a fowl's head. 

Wauf, pronunciation of wife. A curious instance of misunderstand- 
ing the vowel sounds occurred on one occasion when H. L. (personally 
known to me) went to Hunter's Nab delivering St. Thomas's tickets. 
He asked L. K. if one Mr. William Sykes lived there. She said she 
did not know, '.but if yo'll wait a bit Au'll ax Bill Sawks' wauf,' who, 
thus appealed to, said, ' Doosn't he live here, think' st ta ?' 

Waughmiln, or Woffmiln, a fulling mill. ' It smelt wauglij i. e. as 
a fulling mill does. [But see Woaf. W. W. S.] 

Waur, worse. Occurs in The Death of Farcy Reed, ver. 5 : 
' And Crosier says he will do waur, 

He will do waur, if waur can be/ 

A woman and her servant were trying to catch a horse which con r 
tiriually eluded their efforts. A man coming by said, ' Ho ! mistress, 
yon galloway has a bad fault ; yo canna catch him.' To whom she 
replied, ' Ah, maister, he's a waur nor that ; he's nowt when he is 

Wave, past tense of to iveave, which is also called wave. 

Wax, to grow. Common amongst old people ; but the word tln-ive is 
perhaps more used now. 

Weak (pronounced weak; gl. wrh'k), to squeak: said of a man 
who speaks in a squeaking voice. Pigs weak. 

Weam, or Weme, quiet ; tidy, &c. ' A weme woman in a house is a 
jewel.' * A nice little weme packet.' One speaking of a bicyclist said, 
' He went daan t' hill as weme and as nauce (nice) as possible.' 

Wear (pronounced as usual), to spend (money) : commonly used 
instead of spend. [Ware is the better mode of spelling, as it is so 
spelt in old books, when it has the sense of spend. W. W. S.] 

Weet, pronunciation of wet. See Pike. 

Weeting", i. e. wetting. Stale urine is so called, because in the pro- 
cess of manufacture the cloth is wetted with that liquid when sent 
to the mill, the object being to bring out the grease. Weeting is also 
called lecking. I have been told of persons using this substance 


instead of soap, even for washing themselves ! .' Aw'll got me some 
weetin', and hey a gooid weetiri lather,' old folks would say, using 
soap also with it. 

Weigh-balk, a beam to weigh, on ; also the beam or balk of an 


Walking, applied to a man means bulky, fat, &c. 
Welt, to beat, or thrash. 

Wemmle, to cockle, or topple. A thing which does not stand 
steadily wemmles. It seems to be connected with wammle, though 
used in a slightly different way. 

We'n (pronounced u-een), we ha'n, i. e. we have, when used as an 
auxiliary. ' We'n had that a long time.' As a principal verb : ' We 
han him,' *. e. we have (got) him. Also in interrogative sentences : 
' Han yo' getten that brass yet ? ' = Have you got that money yet ? 
See Han. 

We'se, Ye'se, &c., need for we shall, ye shall, &c. Etin the Forester, 
ver. 40 : 

'When he came in before the Earl 

He fell down low at his knee. 
" Win up, win up, now, Etin ! 
This day ye'se dine wi' me." ' 

What (the a sounded as in cat, sat, pat, &c.). 

What'en (pronounced watlen, like fatten), in such phrases as 
* What'en a fooil he is.' [Short for O.Eng. whatkin, i. e. what kind. 
W. W. S.] Occurs in the ballad, Edivard, Edward, ver. 4 : 
' And whatten penance will ye dree for that, 
Edward, Edward ? 

Whatten penance will ye dree for that ? 
My dear son, now tell me, O.' 

What for, used close together for why. ' What for doesn't he do 


What sort en, for what sort of. 
Wheat, pronunciation of wheat. 

Wheat-twinge, a very small insect, in form something like the ear- 
wig. It lives in wheat when growing, and sometimes leaves it in 
swarms, when they are very troublesome. 

Whetter, to worry ; to repeatedly complain. 

Whew, or Whue (pronounced weoo), a whistle. ' Like Cawthorne 
feast, is all ended in a whewj or nothing. See Robin Hood and the 
Curtail Fryer, ver. 31 : 

' The fryer set his fist to his mouth, 

And whuted whites three : 
Half a hundredth good bandogs 
Came running over the lee.' 

Whiecalf, or Whycalf (gl. waircauf), a female calf. 
While, until. 

L 2 


Whins, furze, or gorse. See Lykewake Dirge : 

' If hosen and shoon thou gavest nane 
The whinnes shall prick thee to the bare bane.' 

Whip, a boys' game, called in the South hoop, or hoophide. This is 
a curious instance of corruption, for the name hoop is pronounced in 
the local manner as hooip, whence whip. 

Whisht, be quiet ! 

Whisket, a small scuttle, or basket. 

Whissundy, or Whissunty (gl. hwisnmti; emphasis on the first 
syllable), seems to mean Whitsuntide rather than Whit Sunday. 

Whitening (gl. whaut'enin ; i long), silver ; money in general, which, 
however, is usually called brass. ' If you have not made your 
whitening this year, you ne'er will do.' 

Whitley, a whitlow. 

Whittle, a steel for sharpening knives, &c. 

Whome (pronounced whom, or wliurri), home. ' 

Whopper, a great lie. Anything large in size is called a whopper. 

Whue. See Whew. 

Wick, quick (see Wartern, &c.) ; active ; alive. * T' cheese is wick 
wi' mawks.' Natterin Nan, ver. 33 : 

* Fowk says 'ar Sal 'al sooin be wed, 
Bud t' thowt on't turns ma sick ; 
Ah' d rayther hing her up by t' neck, 
Ur see her berrid wick.' 

Wick, in this sentence seems to mean life. c He will get it out of 
their wick,* i. e. make them suffer in their life, or manner of living. 

Wicks, quicks, for hawthorn hedges. 

Wiggin (gl. wig'in), the mountain ash, an unfailing remedy against 
witchcraft. One Polly Day was afraid of being witched by Mashpot, 
who lived above her. To prevent it she always carried three pieces of 
wiggin, taken from three different lords' lands, to keep off the witch- 
ery. My informant has seen her pull the pieces out of her pocket 
many and many a time. At p. 209 of Depositions from York Castle 
we find this belief mentioned. One of the witnesses in a case of witch- 
craft, tried at York in 1674, deposes that she heard one reputed witch 
say to another, ' I think I must give this Thomas Bramhall over, for 
they tye soe much whighen about him, I cannot come to my purpose, 
else I could have worn him away once in two yeares.' 

Wild, untidy in looks, dress, &c. 

Willow, or Willy, a machine for tearing wool. See Devil. 

Wiln't, contracted from will not, and used as won't is in ordinary 
English. Winnot or wi not is also used. 

Wimble (pronounced wimmle ; gl. whirl), an auger. ' There's 
nowt lawk boring wi' a little wimmle. 1 


Wind (waund : i long), the wind. 

Wind (contrary to the last), the verb to wind. ' To wind bobbins/ 

Windrows (pronounced waundrows), a term used in hay-making 
when the crop is raked into rows after being in ricklins, and before 
being put into cock. 

Wine, pronounced waun by old people, or sometimes woine : evidently 
passing into wine. 

Winter-hedge, a clothes' horse. In Scotland called a winter-difke. 
This word is unknown in Cumberland. A lady from Huddersfield, 
who had been for more than twenty years resident in Cumberland, 
was astonished to hear a new servant, a native, use this word. Oil 
inquiry, it appeared that the girl's mother was a Yorkshirewoman, 
who had imported the word from her original county. 

Wise, the haulm of potatoes. Found in old MSS. wyse. 

Witch. This word is applied to males as well as females. The 
following is an account of a visit to a witch about 1790, given in the 
narrator's own words. ' We four Joshua Moorhouse, Matthy 
Moorhouse, Joe Tinker, and mysen' (Jem o' Benny's) 'went one 
Sunday to see t' witch ' (who lived near Holmfirth) : ' sho could ha j 
witched onnybody. They couldn't get a cofe to live abaat there for 
iwer so far, and all thro' that (her). 

' When we gate to t' haas Matthy Moorhouse said to th' owd man, 
"Au'veyeerd theer's somebody 'at can do hurt abaat thee!" He 
replied, *' Yo'll see if yo' stop a bit happen : hoo's oft a plaging some- 
body if strangers coom." T' owd man then said, " Au'll waish me, 
and shirt me ! " In a moment shirt flew aat o' t' box at back o' t' 
fire Au saw it, we all saw it and stones fell daan chimley. Matthy 
Moorhouse said, "Preya let's gooa, or hoo'll hav' howd o' some 
on us." 

' We saw th' owd woman ; hoo sat broodin' ovver t' fire ; hoo said 
nowt to us. Old Mat said, " Wat art ta' doin' i' that fashion ? " Hoo 
gav' him no answer. There was a deal o' things i' them days there 
isn't naa (1857). Yo' could ha' gone to no haas and seen a bit o' 
cake ' (wheat bread), ' it were all haver bread then.' 

One G. B. lived next door to W. M., and was a believer in witches. 
* A piece of beef fell down and brake his warp ; so when he was 
gettin' agate a wavin' he had to get a charm for it. He had a bottle 
hung up the chimley with his watters in, and as they wasted it would 
side away t' witch. Old D.' (see Diabolion) ' gave him a charm which 
he fixed i' th' warp, and he went on wavin' after we pulled it aat. 
We then telPd him on it, and he could not wave agean until he gate 
another charm.' See Meant. 

Witch, a machine which stands on the top of a loom, and was used 
previously to the jacquard machine for the purpose of figuring the 

Wither, to throw quickly, or forcibly. ' He 'wtt7iei*d it wi' some 
vengeance/ Evidently connected with wuther, if not the same word. 
Occurs in the Outlaw Murray, ver. 15 : 


* Baith dao and rae and hart and hind, 
And ol a' wild beasts great plentie : 
He heard the bows that boldly ring, 
And arrows ivhidderan' him near by.' 

So also in Barlour's Bruce, b. xvii. 1. 684, it is said of a stone shot 
from a great engine that ' it flaw out, quheairand, with a rout/ i. e. 
with a great noise. 

Woaf (no doubt the word wauf}, indigestive ; insipid. ' If you had 
put some pepper and salt in it, it would not ha' been so ivoaf.' 

Woaf, or Woave, a measure ten feet long, applied to the warp of 
a piece of cloth. 

Wok, or Woak, the oak by some. Wok tree, oak tree. Others 
use yak. 

Wolfstones, Th' oostones, a place near Holmfirth 

Woolly boy, Arctia caja, a large rough caterpillar. In other parts 
of England called woolly bear, and in Cumberland hairy worm. When 
a woman meets one of these creeping, she takes it and throws it over 
her head ; then she shall have the next man she meets, or one of the 
same name. 

Workened, or Wurken'd, choked ; suffocated, &c. ' She made the 
grog so strong he wur fairly worken'd wi' it.' ' The smell almost 
worken'd me.' [Bay spells this whirkened, p. 73. W. W. S.] 

Worm, pronounced worrom, or wurrum ; gl. wuorr'm. 

Worsit (gl. wurs'it), i. e. worsted, the material for stockings, (fee. 

Wot, Wote, or Wut, sometimes used for hot. ' He'll hev it if it's 
nother too whot nor too heavy.' 

Wottle (pronounced wottil), an iron to burn holes with : perhaps 
connected with the preceding word. 

Wovven, i. e. woven, past participle of to iveave. 

Wraithe, or Wraive (th as in lathe), vb. and #b. the same 
as wale. As a verb, to raise a mark on the flesh by a stroke of a 
cane, &c. ; and as a substantive, the mark so made. Perhaps the 
word is only raithe (gl. raidh). 

Wrammle, to hustle, pull the hair. Might be said of a new boy at 
school, ' Let's wrammle him.' 

Wrang, wrong. 

Wrate, past tense of to write. 

Wreeght, pronunciation of wright, for wheeltmVjH 

Wun, wound (of thread), past tense of to wind. 

Wur, was, or were. ' Aw wur just thinkin' sooa,' 

Wur, sometimes used for our. 


Wuther, to rush, or cause to rush. Said by one who would not 
prefer to be buried in the open country : ' If Aw mun goa to t' ceme- 
tery, wuther me by t' church gate,' i. e. hasten by with a rush. Hall, 
says, ' Wuther, to beat or flutter.' See Wither. 

Wuthering, or Whuthering (gl. wuodlrurm), participle or adjective 
descriptive of the noise made by the wind, cattle bellowing, &c. Thus 
they who know how the winds rage in this district against exposed 
places will appreciate the title of Miss Bronte's novel. Wutherinq 
Heights. See Wither. 

This letter has a very peculiar sound, now going out of usage, but 
still well known. It will be best understood by examples : thus, box, 
fox, ox were formerly called bouse, fouse, ouse. Also the following 
have for equivalent sounds, kex, kay-eece; wax (pax- wax), ivy-eece; 
vex, vay-eece; six, say-eece; next, nay-eest. Box called bouz; kex called 
kai-ees (karis). 

This letter (1) sometimes interchanges with g both ways; thus, 
yate for gate, and garth for yard; also yoldring for goldring, and 
yark for jerk. 

(2) Sometimes it is introduced where not found in ordinary Eng- 
lish ; thus we have yat, yerth, yed, yester, for out, earth, head, caster. 
Thus out in the dialect is aat, contrary to yat. 

Yaand, from haand, the pronunciation of hound. 

Yahr, pronunciation of our (aar) when emphatic. See also Wur 

and Us. 
Yamdy, how many. A word perfectly well known at Almondbury 

and Lepton ; probably thus derived : How many = Haamany = Yamy 

= Yamdy. 

Yammer, to contradict sharply. 

Yark, jerk. 

Yarm, to speak ill-naturedly. 

Yarn (pronounced yern ; Pembrokeshire also), woollen thread. 

Yat, same as aat, out : still very common. 

Yate, a gate (to a field) ; but not in the sense of ' way,' or ' street.' 
See the Baron of Brackley, vers. 1, 2 : 

' Down Deeside came Invery whistling and playing ; 
He's lighted at Brackley yates at the day dawing.' 

' Says Baron o' Brackley, " are ye within ? 
There's sharp swords at the yate will gar your blood spin." ' 

Also see the note to Baat, where, however, th^ word is spelt yetts. 


Yearth, pronunciation of earth, which see. 
Yed, pronunciation of -head. 

Yeddin, i. e. heading, a portion woven at the beginning of the piece 
of cloth, which is cut off when the piece is taken out of the loom. 
There is one at the end as well. 

Yes, pronounced yus. 

Ye'se, for ye shall. See Lady Elspat, ver. 13 : 

' Ye's get as mickle o' my freeland 
As he'll ride about in a summer's day. 

Again, in the Gardener, ver. 2 : 

* O lady, can ye fancy me, 

For to be my bride ? 
Ye'se get a' the flowers in my garden 
To be to you a weed.' 

Yest, east. 

Yester, Easter. 

Yesterday, pronounced yusterday. 

Yesternight (pronounced yusterneeght), i. e. yesterday evening. 
Occurs Genesis xxxi. 29. Sometimes they say, * Yusterday at neet.' 

Yo (yoa), the pronunciation of the pronoun you. 

Yoldring, the Yellow-hammer, Emberiza citrinella. Perhaps gold- 
ring, under which form it occurs in Morris's British Birds. 

Yond, for yon, or yonder. 

Yonderly, vacant ; beside himself. * He looks yonderly] i. e. lost, 
or poorly. See Natterin Nan, ver. 61 : 

* Then Nan lewkt at me we a lewk 
So yonderly an' sad.' 

Yowl, to howl. 

Yuleclog, a Christmas log for the fire. 


Bunyay : Clay and Taylor, TAe Chaucer Press. 











9 a tt } a I : 



A VERY long residence in Hampshire, and an acquaintance with 
its dialect, led me to consent to edit the following Glossary for the 
English Dialect Society. I had in the course of many years 
collected a number of words and phrases used by the people of 
North Hampshire. And I the more gladly give them an enduring 
record, because the use of them is fast disappearing. However great 
the advantages of the present advanced education of the middle and 
lower classes, the operation of National and Board Schools is fast 
effacing all distinctive language in the people of this county ; and, 
in another generation or two, it will probably disappear altogether. 
Already I have found the children of parents who speak among 
themselves the dialect of the county, ignorant of the meaning of 
words commonly used by their fathers. And even among the older 
people there is a growing disinclination, when speaking to educated 
persons, to use, what I may call, their vernacular dialect. So that 
when asked to repeat a word, they frequently from a sort of false 
shame substitute its English equivalent. And it is only perhaps 
my habit of being much with my workmen and cottagers, and fre- 
quently using their own words and names of things, that has enabled 
me often to overcome this shyness, and so to recover some words in 
this Glossary. 

The language or dialect of the counties which formed the king- 
dom of Wessex has in many respects great similarity. And of these 
the people of the district formed by West Sussex, Hampshire, and 
Wiltshire use many words in common. Hence in the following 
Glossary I have inserted many words from Mr. Durrant Cooper's 


Glossary of Sussex Provincialisms^- and from Mr. Akerman's Wilt- 
shire Glossary, 2 which arc also in use in Hampshire. But the 
dialect of Hampshire contains a very large number of words which 
are peculiar to the county. And there are special forms and 
incidents in the dialect, some of which I may here note. 

The consonants in a word are frequently transposed, e. g. : Aks 
Jor ask; apern/or apron; aps for aspen; claps for clasp ; geart 3 /or 
great ; haps for hasp ; waps for wasp, and many others. 4 

In many words other consonants are substituted for those used 
in English, or are added, as : Ast for ask ; bruckle or brickie for 
brittle ; cast or casty for cask ; chimley for chimney ; pank for pant ; 
pasmets for parsnips ; sharf for shaft ; turniit for turnip ; tinkler 
for tinker ; warf for warp, and others. 5 

The article is frequently omitted. As ' Be'est a gwine to vyer 1 ' 
for ' Be'est a going to the fair' ; * You'd best call at house, afore you 
leaves work,' for f At the house'; 'He was up agin stable/jfrr 'against 
(near to) the stable.' 

The old English plural in en is still heard among the old people. 
As ' housen ; peasen ', &c. ; but it is not common. 

It is, however, almost universal to form the plural of words 
ending in sp or st in es. Thus the plural of waps is wapses ; 
of aps, apses ; of beast, beastes ; of ghost, ghostes ; of post, 
postes, &c. 

In pronouns, the nominative is used for the inflected cases, as : 
' It be'ant no pleasure to we ' ; ' What good '11 it do we ' 1 ( I'm a 
gwine to put she to bed.' 

And conversely (strangely enough) the inflected case is often 
used for the nominative, as : ' Shall us start at once 1 ' 

1 A Glossary of Provincialisms in use in Sussex. By William 
Durrant Cooper. 1852. 

2 A Glossary of Words, &c. in use in Wiltshire. By John George 
Akerman. 1842. 

3 Pronounced as in learn. 

4 Of. A.S. axian, acsian, to ask; seps, an aspen tree; M.E. elapsed, 
to clasp; A.S. hsepse, a hasp ; weeps, a wasp. W. W. S. 

5 Of. M.E. brukel, brutel, brittle (from different verbs). Pank, for 
pant, occurs in Dry den. W. W. S. 


The possessive pronouns (when not preceding the substantive) 
have the termination in n; as, hisen, 1 ourn, yourn, tlieirn. 

The possessive pronoun, its, is almost unknown in Hampshire. 
I have never heard it used by the elder people. His or liisen 
invariably takes its place. 

In verbs the preterite is very often used instead of the participle 
with the auxiliary verbs, as: 'He had no call to have went'; 'He was 
took bad a Sunday ' ; * They carpets be'ant shook after all' ; ' He was 
drove to do it, poor chap ' ; ' He ain't took any wages for a fortnight. 7 

There is a saying that ' Everything in Hampshire is called he, 
except a Tom-cat.' This is not strictly true. The cat indeed, 
whatever its sex, is always she; but so is generally a waggon, and 
any sort of carriage, and invariably a saw. And I have heard a top- 
sawyer give to his mate in the pit the somewhat strange direction : 
1 Gi' she a drop o' water.' And an old sawyer, exhibiting the 
remains of a pit-saw which had been destroyed in an accidental fire, 
said : ' This be all that 's left o' she. 9 

But with few exceptions everything in Hampshire is he, or, in 
the inflected cases, the provincial 'un. 

I have only now to acknowledge the assistance which has been 
given me in compiling this Glossary, and some of the sources from 
which it is derived. 

The Glossary contained in the work of Mr. J. E. Wise on the 
New Forest has furnished a complete list of words used in that 
part of the county; and his copious and valuable MS. notes on the 
Glossaries of Akerman and Cooper have been of great assistance in 
the compilation of this Glossary. The words contributed by Mr. 
Wise have his name, or the letter W, affixed. 

A MS. Glossary by the late Sir Frederick Madden, which was 
sold with his MSS. after his death, though not so full as I should 
have expected from his connection with and interest in the county, 
has supplied the words marked F. M. 

A very extensive MS. Glossary, drawn up by the late Colonel 

1 I do not remember to have heard hern, but I have no doubt that 
it is used. 


Jolliffe, of the Koyal Marine Light Infantry, was submitted to me. 
This contained a large number of words which certainly had no rela- 
tion to the dialect of the county. But from it I extracted many 
words and phrases in use in South Hampshire. These are marked J. 

The names of plants have been supplied by Mr. John Britten. 
His contributions are marked J. B. 

Of the published sources from which words in the following 
Glossary have been derived, that by Edward Lisle, of Crux Easton, 
on the North-Western border of the county, is interesting, as being, 
I believe, the first attempt to record and preserve the Hampshire 
Dialect. To the octavo edition of his Observations on Husbandry, 
published in 1757, is appended a Glossary of Hampshire Words ; and 
the body of the work contains several terms used in agriculture in 
the county, which he has not noted in his Glossary. In the lapse of 
more than a century and a quarter, some of the words noted by 
him have become rare. The words derived from his book, are 
distinguished by his name Lisle. 

The other published authorities are quoted in full ; and are 
enumerated in the bibliographical list subjoined to this introduction. 

I have inserted the words of (what may be called) the language 
of St. Mary's College, Winchester. This may, indeed, be said not to 
be Hampshire Dialect ; but the school has been now close upon five 
centuries connected with the county, and situated in it; it was 
founded by a Hampshire man; and the school language has been 
formed in the county. All these facts seem to give it a claim to 
have its words inserted in any Glossary professing to contain ajl 
Hampshire words. 

The late Charles Kingsley, in the interest which he took in 
everything relating to his people at Eversley, had paid much atten- 
tion to their dialect. And he not only gave me many words, but 
had often conversed with me on the dialect generally. 

Mr. Frederick Marshall's intimate acquaintance with the people 
of Eversley and its neighbourhood has enabled him to supply me 
with many words not previously known to me ; and he has kindly 
helped me to the exact definition of words and phrases of whose 
meaning I was doubtful. 


For the words marked N". H. (North Hants), or with my initials, 
I ani responsible; as I am for all notes or remarks to which no initials 
are appended. I believe that all the examples illustrating words 
recorded by me are such as I have heard actually used as here noted. 

To the Eeverend W. W. Skeat, Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the 
University of Cambridge, at whose suggestion I undertook to edit 
this Glossary, I am indebted not only for furnishing me with a large 
portion of the material, but, above all, for perusing the proofs, and 
for many valuable suggestions which his superior philological know- 
ledge enabled him to give me. 

Eramskill, 1883. 

I append two published specimens of the Hampshire Dialect. 
A letter to the Editor of the Times, from a poor man at Andover, 
on the Union Workhouse. 1 

Sm, Hunger,, as I've heerd say, breaks through Stone Walls ; but 
yet I shoudn't have thought of letting you know about my poor 
Missus's death, but all my neibours say tell it out, and it can't do you 
no harm and may do others good, specially as Parliament is to meet 
soon, when the gentlefoke will be talking about the working foke. 

I be but a farmer's working man, and was married to my Missus 26 
years agone, and have three Childern living with me, one 10, another 7, 
and t'other 3. I be subject to bad rumatiz, and never earns no more, as 
you may judge, than to pay rent and keep our bodies and souls 
together when we be all well; I was tended by Mr. Westlake when he 
was Union Doctor, but when the Guardians turned him out it was a 
bad job for all the Poor, and a precious bad job for me and mine. 

Mr. Payne, when he come to be our Union Doctor, tended upon 
me up tQ almost the end of last April, but when I send up to the Union 
House as usual, Mr. Broad, the Believing Officer, send back word 
there was nothing for me, and Mr. Payne wodnt come no more. I 
was too bad to work, and had not Yittals for me, the Missus, and tho 
young ones, so I was forced to sell off the Bed, Bedstead, and furniture 
of the young ones, to by Yittals with, and then I and Missus and the 
young ones had only one bed for all of us. Missus was very bad, to, 
then, but as we knowd twere no use to ask the Union for nothink cept 
we'd all go into the Workhouse, and which Missus couldn't a bear, as 
she'd bin parted from the childern, she sends doun to tell Mr. Westlake 

1 HalliwelVs Dictionary, vol. i. p. xviii. 


how bad we was a doing off, and he comes to us directly, and tends 
upon us out of charity, and gives Missus Mutton and things, which he 
said, and we know'd too well, she wanted of, and he gives this out of 
his own Pocket. 

Missus complaint growd upon her and she got so very bad, and Mr. 
Westlake says to us, I do think the guardians wouldn't let your wife 
lay there and starve, but would do something for you if they knowd 
how bad you wanted things, and so, says he, I'll give you a Sertificate 
for some Mutton and things, and you take it to Mr, Broad, the releving 
officer. Well, I does this, and he tells me that hed give it to the 
guardians and let me know what they said. I sees him again, and 0, 
says he, I gived that Sertificate to the guardians, but they chucked it a 
one side and said they wouldnt tend to no such thing, nor give you 
nothing, not even if Missus was dying, if you has anything to do with 
Mr. Westlake, as they had turned him off. 

I told my Missus this, and then says she we "must try to get their 
Union Doctor, Mr. Payne, as we can't go on for ever taking things 
from Mr. Westlake's Pocket, and he turned out of Place, and so good 
to many poor folks besides us. So we gets Mr. Payne after a bit to 
come down ; and he says to Missus you're very bad, and I shall order 
the Union to send you Mutton and other things. Next Week Mr. 
Payne calls again, and asks Missus did she have the things he'd 
ordered for her to have? She says I've had a shillings worth of 
Mutton, Sir. Why, says he, you wants other things besides Mutton, 
and I ordered them for you in the Union Book, and you ought to have 
them in your bad state. This goes on for 5 or 6 weeks, only a shillings 
worth of Mutton a Week being allowed her, and then one Week a 
little Gin was allowed, and after that as Missus couldnt get out of bed 
a Woman was sent to nurse and help her. 

I didnt ask Mr. Payne to order these ere things, tho' bad enof God 
knows they was wanted ; but in the first week in last November I was 
served with a summons to tend afore our Mayor and Justices under the 
Vagrance Act; I think they said twas cause I had not found these 
things for Missus myself ; but the Union Doctor had ordered 'em of the 
Guardians on his sponsibility. Well, I attends afore the Justices, and 
there was nothing against me, and so they puts it off, and orders me to 
tend afore 'em again next week, which I does, and then there wasnt enof 
for 'em to send me to Gaol, as the Guardians wanted, for a Month, and 
they puts it off again for another Week, and says I must come afore 'em 
again, and which I does ; and they tells me theres nothing proved, that 
I could aford to pay for the things, and I mite go about my business. 

I just loses three days' work, or pretty handy, by this, and that 
made bad a good bit worse. Next Day Mr. Payne comes again, and 
Missus was so outdaceous bad, she says cant you give me something to 
do me good and ease me a bit ; says Mr. " Payne, I dont see you be 
much worse. Yes, I be, says Missus, and I wish you'd be so good as 


to let me send for Mr. Westlake, as I thinks lie knows what'd make me 
easier, and cure the bad pains I do suffer. Mr. Payne abused my Poor 
Missus, and dared her to do anything of that sort, and so we were 
feared to do it, lest I should be pulled up again afore the Justices, and 
lose more days work, and perhaps get sent to Gaol. Eight days after 
this Mr. Payne never having come nist us, and the Union having lowd 
us nothing at all, my poor Missus dies, and dies from want, and in 
agonies of pain, and as bad off as if shed been a Savage, for she could 
only have died of want of them things which she wanted and I couldnt 
buy if she'd been in a foreign land, were there [be] no Parsons, and 
People as I've heard tell be treated as bad as dogs. 

Years agone, if any body had been half so bad as my Missus, and 
nobody else would have tended to her, there' d been the clergyman of 
the parish, at all events, who'd have prayed with her, and seen too 
that she didn't die of starvation, but our Parson is in favour of this 
here new Law, and as he gets 60 a year from the Guardians, he arnt 
a going to quarrel with his Bread and Cheese for the likes of we, and 
so he didn't come to us. Altho' he must have knowed how ill Missus 
was ; and she, poor creature, went out of this here world without any 
Spiritual consilation whatsomever from the Poor Man's Church. 

We'd but one bed as I've telled you, and only one Bedroom, and it 
was very bad to be all in the same Eoom and Bed with poor Missus 
after she were dead ; and as I'd no money to pay for a Coffin, I goes to 
Mr. Broad, then to Mr. Majer, one of the Guardians, and then to the 
overseers, and axes all of 'em to find a Coffin, but 'twere no use, and so, 
not knowing what in the World to do, off I goes to tell -Mr. Westlake 
of it, and he was soon down at the House, and blamed me much for 
not letting he know afore Missus died, and finding we'd no food nor fire, 
nothing ibr a shrowd cept we could wash up something, and that we'd 
no soap to do that with, he gives us something to get these ere things, 
and tells me to go again to the Eeleving Officer and t'others and try 
and get a Coffin, and to tell 'un Missus ought to be burried as soon as 
possible, else 'twould make us all ill. This I does, as afore, but get 
nothing, and then Mr. Westlake give me an order where to get a 
Coffin, and if he had not stood a friend to me and mine, I can' t think 
what would have become of 'em, as twas sad at Nights to see the poor 
little things pretty nigh break their hearts when they seed their poor 
dead mother by their side upon the Bed. 

My troubles wasnt to end even here, for strang to tell the Eegistrer 
for Deaths for this District dont live in this the largest Parish with 
about 5000 inhabitants, but at a little Village of not more than 400 
People and 5 Miles off, so I had to walk there and back 10 miles, 
which is very hard upon us poor folk, and what is worse when I got 
there the Eegistrer wasnt up ; and when he got up he wouldnt tend to 
me afore hed had his breakfast, and it seemed as 'twas a very long 
time for a poor chap like me to be kept a waiting, whilst a man who is 


paid for doing what I wanted won't do such little work as that afore 
hese made hisself comfortable, tho' I telled him how bad I wanted to 
get back, and that I should loose a Day by his keeping me awaiting 

That this is mostly the fault of the Guardians rather than anybody 
else is my firm belief, tho' if Mr. Payne had done his duty hed a been 
with Missus many times afore she died and not have left her as he did, 
when he knowed she was so bad, and hed a made 'un give her what she 
wanted; but then he must do, he says, just what the Guardians 
wishes, and that arnt to attend much on the Poor, and the Eeleving 
Officer is docked if what he gives by even the Doctors orders arnt 
proved of by the Guardians aterward, and he had to pay for the little 
Gin the Doctor ordered out of his own Pocket, and, as the Newspaper 
says, for the Nurse, as this was put in our Paper by I'm sure I don't 
know who, but I believes tis true, last week. And now, Sir, I shall 
leave it to you to judge whether the Poor can be treated any where so 
bad as they be in the Andover Union. 

This is a fair specimen of the dialect; but is written by an 
educated person, whether the actual pauper or his representative. 
He occasionally strays into English iriuch above the comprehension 
of a Hampshire labourer. * Spiritual consolation ' would certainly 
not convey to the mind of such a one the meaning intended by the 
writer. 'Consolation' is a word, I believe, not understanded by 
Hampshire folk, at least, in the sense here used. And if they were 
told the Parson was ' spiritual,' they would think he was ' angry.' 



'If you plase, zur, I be a Hampshire Yarmer. I 
writes to you cause I knows you wunt mind my not beeun a scollurd, 
and ool excuse bad spellun and all that. Lookun over the peeaper 
'tother market day at Winchester, I zee a count o' the Prize Cattle 
Show up in Lunnun. I wanted to know what a sed about the pigs ; 
whose they was and where they come vrom. I vound as how as there 
warn't a zingle hog vrom Hampshire among the lot. You knows that, 
I dare zay, as well as I do ; and very like you be astonished at it, 
zummut. Tell 'ee how 'tis, Zur. We volks in Hampshire breeds pigs 
as pigs ought to be, and dwoant goo vattenun on em up till they can't 
wag. We sez pork ought to have lane as well as fat, and we likes our 

1 From Punch, vol. ix., p. 264 (1845). 


bihaacon strakey. Zame wi' cattle. Where's the sense or razon o- 
stuffun and cranimun a hox till a beant yeable to zee out o' his eyes ? 
What is the use o' all that ere fat, I wants to know ? Who is there as 
ates it ? The ile-cake, turmuts, manglewurzle, and cabbidge as is 
wasted in makun one bullick a monster, ood goo to keep dree or vour 
fine hoxen in good condishn. Why, zur, they med just as well fat up 
stags and hares and rabbuts, ay, and pheasants and paatridges, vor the 
matter o' that. 

'Tell 'ee what, Measter Punch, if, 'stead o' vlingun away good 
provender to turn horned animals into Danul Lamberts, they was to 
bestow bread, and mate, and turmuts on Christians, and make zome o' 
them a little fatter than they be, they'd do more good a precious zight ; 
and I'm bound you be o' the zame opinion. 

* I be, Zur, your bajient Zarvent, 


This is written by a person thoroughly conversant with the 
dialect; and perfectly illustrates the manner of speech of the 


1. Observations on Husbandry. By EDWARD LISLE, of Crux 
Easton. 2 vols. 8vo. London. 1757. 

At the end is a Glossary of Hampshire Words. There is an 
Edition in one vol. 4to. published in the same year, which does not 
contain the Glossary. 

2. Hampshire. MS. List of Words used in the neighbourhood of 
Alresford, Hants. By Eev. B. BELCHER. See Phil. Soc. Trans. 
1845, ii. 109. 

On application to the Secretary of the Philological Society, it 
appears that this collection has long been lost. 

3. School-life at Winchester College ; with a Glossary of Words, &c., 
peculiar to Winchester College. By E. B. M[ANS FIELD]. Cr. 
8vo., pp. 243, 2nd ed. London. J. C. Hotten, 1870. 

[The Glossary contains a few words that are really provincial, 
the rest being school slang.] l 

1 Quoted as Winch. Sch. 01 


4. * The New Forest ; its History and its Scenery. By J. E. WISE. 
4to., pp. viii. and 336. London. Smith. Elder, and Co., 1871. 

There is a Glossary of words used in the New Forest at pp. 279 
288 ; and other provincial words occur in the text. The publishers 
have kindly given leave to the E. D. S. to reprint these in the 
Glossary of Hampshire Words which is being prepared for the 
Society by the Eev. W. W. Skeat. 1 

5. A List of Hampshire words was printed at pp. 37, 38 of vol. iv. 
of Warner's Collections for Hampshire. 6 vols, 4to. London. 

These are simply collected and copied from Grose's Provincial 

A List of Hampshire Words was also printed at p. 481 of 
Wheeler's Hampshire Magazine for 1828. After considerable 
trouble, it was discovered to be the very same list. 

At p. 137 of the same Magazine is a Dialogue between a lawyer 
and his client. The client's talk is perhaps intended to represent 
the Hampshire dialect ; but it is short and not remarkable. See 
also Notes and Queries, 1st Ser., vol. x. pp. 120 and 256; 2nd Ser. 
xii. 493 ; 3rd Ser. i. 66. 

6. * MS. Glossary of Hampshire Words. By Sir F. MADDEN. 

This autograph MS. has been purchased for the E. D. S., and 
has been transcribed for press by the Eev. W. W. Skeat. 

7. * MS. Glossary of Words used in the Isle of Wight. To be 
edited, with additions, by C. EOACH SMITH, Esq. (brother of the 
compiler), for the E. D. S. 

[N.B. This has since been published by the E. D. S. as 
Glossary C. 23, in 1881.] 

8. Wykehamica. A History of Winchester College and its Com- 
moners, from the foundation to the present day. By H. C. 
ADAMS. 8vo. Oxford. 1878. 

Contains a Glossary of School Words. 

Nos. 2 7 are from the ' Bibliographical List ' published by 
the E. D. S. in 1873, and marked as A. 1. among the Society's 

An asterisk is prefixed to such books of reference as are of admitted 

1 Professor Skeat' s collections are included in the present Glossary. 



Abear [u'bai-r], v. to put up with, endure. N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 

Abed [u'bed-], in bed. S. 

Abele-tree [u'beeHree], sb. Populus alba. Holloway's Dictionary. 
J. B. 

Abide [u'berd], v. to put up with, endure; the same as abear. 
N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 401. 

Abin [u'bin*]. Because. 

See Recollections of the Vine Hunt, privately printed [By the Eev. 
S. E. Austen-Leigh], p. 19 and note. 

About [u'bou't], adv. very, extremely. Ex. ' She' war just about 
mad.' t It war just about cold.' It is used to intensify a statement. 

Abouten [u'bou'tn], prep, about, near to. Cooper. 
Abroad [u'brau'd], adv. scattered. J. 

Abs [abs], adj. ' simply an abbreviation of " absent " written against 
a defaulter's name. Abs (more recently) is used with a verb, ' ' get 
abs.," t. e. "get away."' Adams' Wykehajnica, p. 415. 

Account [u'kou-nt]. See 'Count. 

Adapted [u'dap'tud], adj. accustomed to, versed in, experienced. 
Ex. ' A man adapted to pigs,' i. e. experienced in the breeding and 
care of swine. N. H. 

Adder's-Fern [ad'urs veern], sb. the common polypody, polypodium 
vulgare ; so called from its rows of bright spores. Wise, New Forest. 

Addle [ad-1], adj. stupid. J. 

Adin [u'din 1 ], prep, within. Cooper. 

A done [u'dmr], imp. (for 'have done/ a command or request to 
leave off). J. 

Adry [u'drer], adj. thirsty. N. H. 


Afeard [u'feevrd], pp. as adj. afraid. F. M. 

Afore [u'foa-r], before. *Ak. often pronounced 'avore' [uvoar]. 

N. H. 
After-math [aft'ur-maath], sb. a later crop of grass; called also 

Ijattermath., q, v. *Ak. 

After-shear [aft-ur-sheer], sb. the after-math, or latter crop of grass. 

Wise, New Forest. 
Agape [u'gai-p], adv. surprised, wondering. ' He was all agape.' 

Agg [ag], v. to cut clumsily ; to hack. * Ak. 

Agin [u'gnr], prep, against. Cooper. 

Agister [u'jist'ur], sb. Wise, New Forest, p. 190. 

Agistment [u'jist-ment], sb. Wise, New Forest, p. 190. 

Agoggle [u'gogi], adv. shaking, trembling, palsied. ' His head is 
all agoggle,' i. e. of a person paralyzed. N. H. 

Agone [u'gau'n], adv. ago, since. Ex. ' Ten years agone.' J. 

Agreeable [u'gree-ubl], adj. acquiescent, consenting (to a thing). 
Ex. 'I'm agreeable,' I consent. Cooper; Wise. 

A-hoh [u'hoa-], adv. on one side; generally 'all a-hoh,' all on one 
side. *Ak. Ex. ' A load of corn all-a-hoh.' Wise. 

In North Hampshire it is used also of a person upset, anxious, 
vexed. Ex. ' He was quite a-hoh because a shower come on,, he 
thought 'ud spoil his hay.' W. H. 0. 

Aich-bone [arch-boan], sb. part of a rump of beef ; commonly called 
edge-bone. Cooper. 

Ails [ailz], sb. beards of barley. J. 

Airs [airz] sb. pi. ash saplings. W. F. Eose. 

But see 'heirs,' which is universally applied to young trees in 

Aish [aish], sb. stubble. Grose; Warner; F. M. A mispronun- 
ciation for Erish, which see. 

Akering-time [arkurin-teim], sb. the autumn, when acorns fall, and 
are gathered. N. H. 

Akermast [arkurmaast], sb. the fruit of the oak. 

Aker [arkur], v. to gather acorns. Ex. ' The children be all gone 

Akers [ai-kurs], sb. pi. acorns. K H. 

Akse [aks], v. to ask. *Ak. ; N. and Q. 1st ser. x. 401. 

All-a-hoh. See A-hoh. 

Alley [ali], sb. a taw, not made of baked clay or grey stone, as 
common marbles are, but of alabaster, or what is supposed to be so ; 
and hence its name. Brockettj Forby ; F. M. 


Allgood [aul'good] sb. Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus. J. B. 

All-holland cakes [aul-hol-und-kaiks], sb. pi. for All-hallows. Cakes 
cried about on All- Saints day. J. 

All-in-a-churm. See Churm. 
All-in-a-muddle. See Muddle. 

Allow [aloir], v. (1) To think, suppose, consider. ' If you ask a peasant 
how far it is to any place, his answer nearly invariably is, " I allow it 
to be so far." ' Wise, New Forest. 

(2) To admit, concede, assent to. As if you state anything to them, 
they answer, ' I allow that.' N. H. 

Allus [auiuz], adv. always. *Ak. 
Amost [umwoa-st], adv. almost. *Ak. 

Amper [amp'ur], sb. a tumour or swelling ; a flaw in a woollen cloth. 
Cooper. Also, matter in a tumour ; as, ' prick it, an' let th' amper 
out.' 'Wise. 

Ampery [amp-uri], adj. beginning to decay especially applied to 
cheese; weak, unhealthy. Cooper. 

An [an], prep. if. Ex. ' An I were back, I'll pay you.' J. 
Anchor [ank'ur] sb. the chape of a buckle. *Ak. 

Aneust [u'neu-st], adv. nigh, almost, near at hand. Cooper. Much 
the same. *Ak. 

Anguish [an'gwish], sb. inflammation. Of horses it is said, ' If we 
foment it, it 11 take the anguish out of it.' N. H. 

Anigh [u'ner], adv. near to. J. 

Anighst [u'nei'st], prep, near to. *Ak. 

Anont, Anunt [u'nont*, u'nunt'], prep, against, opposite. *Ak. 

Any -when [eni-wen], adv. at any time. J. 

Apast [u'past'J, adv. or prep, past, after, beyond. *Ak. 

Apern [arpurn], sb. apron. See Yapern. 

Apple-pie [ap-l-pei], sb. EpiloUum hirsutum. K H. 

Apse [aps], sb. the aspen-tree. Cooper. Ex. ' made out of apse,' 
i. e. made of aspen wood. Wise. The Abele-tree. N. H. 

Archet [aarclrut], sb. an orchard. *Ak. 

Argufy [aargeufei], v. to argue, prove, have weight as an argument. 

Arra-one [ar'u'wmr] e'er a one, ever a one. *Ak. 

Arris [ariz], sb. the sharp rectangular edge of a piece of wood or 
stone, which is generally shaved off to prevent splintering or chipping. 
Ex. ' I'd better take the arris off ut.' N. H. ' 

Arse [haarz], sb. (1) The upright part of a field-gate to which the eyes 
of the hinge are fixed. 

B 2 


(2) The bottom of a post ; the part which is fixed in the ground. 

N. H. 

Arter [aa-tur], prep, after. Cooper. 
Asprawl [u'spraui], adv. in a sprawling posture. 'He fell all 

usprawV N. H. 
Ast [aast-], v. to ask. Ex. 'He ast me to come.' Til ast 'un 


Astour [u'stoo'r], adv. as it were. N. H. 
Athin [u'dhin*], prep, within. *Ak. 
Athout [n'dhon-t], prep, without. *Ak. 
Athurt [u'thurt*] prep, or adv. athwart. *Ak. 

Attery [at'uri], adj. irascible, choleric. *Ak. Not common in 
Hants. Wise. Unknown in North Hants. W. H. C. 

Atwo [u'too'J, prep, divided, separated. *Ak. 

Auver-drow [airvur-droa], v. to overthrow, to upset. *Ak. Ex. 
* I auverdrow'd my load,' i. e. upset my load. Wise. 

Aveard. West Hants. Wise. See Afeard. 
Axen [aks-n], ashes. Grose; E. M. ; *Ak. 

Bachelor's-buttons [bach-elurz-but-nz], sb. the wild scabious, *Ak. 
Scabiosa succisa. 

Backside [bak-seid], sb. the back yard or back court of a house. 

Backsword [bak-soard], sb. the game of singlestick. *Ak. Not 
very general in Hants. W. H. 0. 

Back up [bak'up], v. to vent any opinion, or retort energetically 
generally in support of one's friend or party. Adams' Wykehamica, 
p. 416. 

Bacon-rack [barkun-rak], sb. a railed frame fitted to the ceiling of a 
kitchen, or cottage, on which bacon is stored. N. H. 

Bacon-silt [bai'kun-silt], sb. a trough in which bacon is salted. 

Badger-pied [baj -ur-peid], adj. sandy-coloured ; applied to the tame 

boars found in the New Eorest. Wise, New Forest, p. 259. 
Bag [bag], sb. the udder of a cow. *Ak. 

Bail [bail], sb. (1) a hanging bar to divide horses in a stable. 
(2) The semicircular handle of a bucket or pot. N. H. 

Baily [bail-i], sb. a bailiff on a farm. J. 

Bait [bait], v. to mend or light a fire ; cf. Sc. beet. Wise, New 
Forest, p. 192. See Beet. 


Baker [bai'knr], sb. anything (such as a cushion or blotting-book) 
placed on a form to sit upon. Winch. Sch. Glos. Anything comfort- 
able to sit on (from the presumed comfortable warmth of a bake- 
house). Adams' Wylcehamica, p. 416. 

Ballyrag [baHrag], v. a. and n. to abuse, to use vituperative 
language. N. H. 

Bang [bang], v. (1) To beat. Ex. 'I just about did bang 'un.' J. 
(2) To puzzle, to overcome. Ex. ' That bangs me.' 

Bangles [banj-iz], sb. pi. drab trousers : so called from Banqy, q. v. 
Winch. Sch. 01. 

Bangy [banj-i], sb. brown sugar. Winch. Sch. Gl. From Banga- 
lore, a coarse-sugar growing country. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 41. 

Banney, Bannis, Banticle, Bannistickle [ban-i, ban-is, ban-tiki, 
banistikl], sb. the fish called the stickle-back. A.S. ban, bone, and 
sticel, a sting. *Ak. 

Bannick [banik], v. to beat or thrash. Cooper. 

Bargan [baag-un], sb. (1) A yard ; as a rick bargan, a rick-yard. 


(2) A small property ; a house and garden ; a small piece of land. 
N. H. 

Barley-bird [baal-i-burd], sb. the Rays wagtail ; Motacilla campestris, 
Pall. Known in the New Forest as the barley -bird, as it appears 
about the time the barley is sown. Wise, New Forest, p. 310. 

Barm [baam], sb. yeast. *Ak. This word is common in Hants ; 
the A.S. gist [= yeast] pronounced in Hampshire yest, is used as 
well. See Bauxn. 

Barton [baa-rtn], sb. a farm-yard. Wise, New Forest, p. 166. Mr. 
Barnes gives the derivation of the first syllable from A.S. beor, a 
grange, not from A.S. bere, barley, as in Akerman; but the A.S. beor 
seems to lack authority. 

Base [bais], sb. a sea-perch. Grose ; F. M. 

Basket Fern [baas -kit- veeurn], sb. Lastrea Filix-mas. 

Basket-fortune [baas-kit-forchun], sb. a small fortune. Said, it is 
believed, of a girl's marriage-portion. Wise. Cf. German Korb. 

Baste [baist], v. To beat or thrash. N. H. To beat with a 
stick. Ex. ' Jim was terribly basted at the fair.' J. Cf Icel. Eeysta, 
to flog. 

Bat [bat], sb. a drag to a carriage or waggon. Also called a drug- 
bat. Wise. 

Batlings [batiingz], sb. pi. the (Winchester) boys' weekly allowance 
of one shilling. Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Baiim [baum], sb. barm, yeast. N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 401. (There 
spelt borm.} See Barm. 


Bavin [bavin], sb. a bundle of the lop of a tree. See Barnes. Ex. 
' Not a faggot, only a bavin,' Wise. But the word faggot is unknown 
in North Hants; all bundles of lop or underwood being called 
bavins. W. H. C. 

Bay [bai], sb. (1) A division of a barn. "Wise. 
(2) A bason (rare). Wise. 

Bead-bind [beed-beindj, sb. the black bryony (Tamus niyer). Wise. 
See Bedwine. 

Bed-furze [bed-fuz], sb. Ulex nanus. J. B. 
Bed-steddle [bed-stedl], sb. a bed-stead. J. 

Bedwine [bed'wein], sb. Clematis Vitalba, and Polygonum Con- 
volvulus. Dr. Broinfield's MSS. J. B. Qusere, Bedwind ? 

Beechmast [beechmaa'st],s&.the fruit oiFagus sylvatica. Holloway's 
Dictionary. J. B. ; Com. 

Bee-hake, Bee-hackle [bee haik, bee hak-1], sb. a cap of straw placed 
over a ' bee-pot' to protect it from wet. Wise, New Forest, p. 184. 

Bee-pot [bee-pot], sb. a bee-hive. Wise, New Forest, p. 184. 

Beest [bee'u'st], v. 2nd p. s. present, (thou) art. N. H. *Ak. gives 
the pronunciation Bist. 

Beeswaxers [bee'zwak'zurz], sb. pi. thicklaced boots. Wincli. Sell. 

Beet [beet], v. to replenish fire with fuel. A.S. betan, to make 
better, improve, restore. ' When joined with/yr (fire)/ observes Mr. 
Bosworth, ' it signifies to mend or repair a fire.' *Ak. In the New 
Forest pronounced bait. Wise. See Bait. 

Beevers [bee'vurz], sb. pi. a portion of bread and allowance of beer 
laid out in (Winchester School) hall at Beever-time, q. y. ; from the 
Fr. boire [Old Pr. boivre, beivre]. Winch. Sch. Gl. Obviously from 
the Italian ' bevere,' whence our 'beverage.' Adams' Wyfohamica, 
p. 417. 

Beever-time [bee'vur teim], sb. a quarter of an hour's relaxation 
allowed to the (Winchester) boys in the middle of afternoon school in 
summer, to give them an opportunity of disposing of beevers, q. v. 
--Winch. Sch. GL 

Behither [be-hidlrur], adv. and prep, on this side ; on this side of. 

Be how 't will [bee hou twil], phrase. Let the consequence be 
what it may. J. 

Bell Heath [bel-heth], sb. Erica Tetralix.3. B. 
Bellis, Billis [bel-uz, bil-uz], sb. pi. bellows. J. 

Bellock [bel-uk], v. to cry out or roar when beaten or frightened ; a 
corruption of bellow. *Ak. Ex. ' To bellock like a bull.' Wise. 

Bellocking [belmking], sb. the bellowing or lowing of a cow. Wise, 
New Forest, p. 186. 


Benneting time [beniting teim], when the pigeons eat the grass- 
seeds. Lisle. 

Bennets, [ben its], sb. pi. bents, bent-grass. Wise. Spiry grass run- 
ning to seed. Lisle. 

Ben't [baint], present tense. Be not. It is always used in Hamp- 
shire for the present of the v. to be, when negative. Ex. ' I ben" 1 1 a 
gwyne,' ' I am not going.' ' He bent no use.' ' We ben't tired.' ' You 
ben't cold, be ye ? ' ' They ben't come yet.' 

Bent [bent], sb. This is the usual pronunciation in North Hants. 
See Bennets. 

Benin [berr'in], sb. a burying, a funeral. J. 

Besom [bez-um], sb. a broom. F. M. A birch broom. *Ak. A 
broom made of heath, N. H. 

Beswin', Beswind [bes'wcin, bes'weind], sb. Convolvulus Major. 

Bethwine [bethwein]. See Bedwine. 

Bettermost [bet'urmust], c-ompar. adj. much the best. N. and Q. 
1st Ser. x. 401. Cooper explains it by * superior, eminent.' The 
better of two or more objects. N. H. 

Betwit [be-twit'], v. to taunt, upbraid. *Ak. 

Beugle, Bewgle. See Bugle. 

Bibble [bib-1], v. to tipple. *Ak. 

Bibbler [bibiur], sb. corruption of bibber, a tippler. *Ak. 

Biddy [bid-i], sb. a hen. K H. A chick. J. 

Bide [beid], v. n. (1) To dwell, live ; as, ' where I do bide,' i. e. where 
I live. *Ak. 

(2) To stay, remain. *Ak. to continue. 

(3) To be postponed. Ex. ' We can let that bide till next week.' 

Big-bee [big-bee], sb. a drone. Wise, New Forest, p. 184. 
Bightle [beit'l], sb. a large wooden mallet. N. H. 
Bill [bil], sb. a bill-hook. *Ak. 

Bill brighters [bil-breit'urz], sb. pi. small faggots. Adams' Wyke- 
hamica, p. 417. 

Billet [bil -it], sb. a bundle. Ex. ' A billet of reeds/ 

Bindweed [bei-ndweed], sb. Convolvulus septum. Hollo way's Dic- 
tionary. J. B. 

Bine [bein], sb. the hop-stalk ; so called because it binds round the 
pole. Cooper. 

Bird-batting [bur-d-bat'in], sb. the catching of birds by night with a 
net known as the bat-folding net. *Ak. 


Bird-fraying [burd-frarin], part, driving birds from seed or com. 
N. H. 

Bird's-eyes [burdz-eiz], sb. pi. flowers of the various species of 
Myosotis and Veronica. See Robin's-eyes. Wise. 

Bishops-weed [bish-upz-weed], sb. Mentha aqnatica; from which 
' hum ' is made. Called also bishop-wort [bish'up-wurt]. Wise, New 
Forest, p. 166. See Hum-water. 

Bits. See Beest. 

Bit and crumb [bit un krum], every, phrase. They say ' he is a 
good dog, every bit and crumb of him; ' i.e. entirely. N. and Q. 1st 
Ser. x. 400. 

Bitter-sweet [bhVur-sweet], sb. a kind of apple ; perhaps the bitter- 
sweeting of Shakesp. Bom. and Jul. ii. 4. Wise. 

Bittish [bitish], adj. rather; as, 'a bittisli cold,' 'a bittish wet.' 

Bittle [bit'l], sb. a beetle (i. e. the insect). A.S. Utel. *Ak. 

Blackberry-summer [blak'bur'i-sunrur], sb. Fine weather experi- 
enced at the end of September and the beginning of October, when 
blackberries are ripe. Wright. 

Black-bob [blak-bob], sb. the cockroach (blotto, orientalis). Barnes. 

Black-heart [blak-haart], sb. the bilberry ; vaccinium myrtillis. ' So 
called by a singular corruption, the original word being hartberry, 
the Old English heorot-berie [from heorot, a hart, a stag], to which 
the qualifying adjective has been added. To go " hearting " is a very 
common phrase. See Proceedings of the Phil. Soc. iii. pp. 154, 155.' 
Wise, New Forest, p. 280. 

Black Heath [blak-heth], sb. Erica cinerea. J. B. 

Black Jack [blak-jak], sb. the caterpillar of the turnip-fly (athalia 
spinarum). Barnes. 

Black Merry [blak-meril sb. a black fruited var. of Prunus Avium. 
Dr. Bromfield's MSS. J. B. 

Black Strap [blak-strapl,s&. Polygonum aviculare. Dr. Bromfield's 
MSS. J. B. 

Blacktail [blakiail], sb. the fieldfare. ' Large numbers frequent the 
New Forest, where it is known as the blacktail.'' Wise, New Forest, 
p. 312. 

Bladder [blad'ur], sb. a blister, boil, pustule. See Firs-bladder in 
Wise's New For. Glos. Also a burn, scald, pimple. Wise, New Forest. 
See Bunch ; Chill-bladder. 

Blare [blair], v. to bleat, cry. Ex. 'D'rat the wold thing blaring 
so.' J. 

Blatch [blach], adj. black, sooty. *Ak. 
Blather [bladhnir], sb. a bladder. *Ak. 


Bleating" [blee'ting], sb. a name given to the noise made by the wings 

of the snipe. Wise, New Forest, p. 270. 
Bleeding-heart [blee'ding-haart], sb. the hearts-ease ( Viola tricolor). 

Blink [blink], sb. a spark of fire ; glimmering or intermittent light. 


Blissy [blis'i], sb. a blaze. Cf. A.S. blysa, a torch; blister, an in- 
cendiary. *Ak. Mr. Wise (New Forest, p. 193) explains it as an 
adj. bright, said of a brightly burning fire ; lit. blazey. I believe 
this to be an error. The word is the Oxf. Uizzy, and is merely an 
allied word to blaze; indeed, Mr. Wise also endorses Akerman's 
definition, and cites the expression ' it is blisseying,' i. e. just blazing. 

w. w. s. 

Blood Vine [blud-vein], sb. EpiloUum angustifulium. J. B. 

Bloody- Warrior [bludi-wauriur], sb. the dark-coloured wall-flower. 
*Ak. The garden wall-flower (Cheiranthus cheiri), so called from the 
blood-like tinges on its corolla. Barnes's Dors. Gl. 

Bloomy [bluo-mi], adj. hot. In sultry weather they say ' it's bloomy 

hot.' *Ak. 
Blow [bloa], sb. a flower. J. In North Hants not used of a single 

flower, but collectively. Ex. * It's a very good blow this year,' i. e. the 

blossom is plentiful. W. H. 0. 

Blow [bloa], v. to blush. Winch. Sch. Gl. To show embarrassment, 
either by blushing, as a rose blows ; or from the resemblance to a 
whale when distressed. Adams' fPykehamica, p. 417. , 

Blowings [bloaingz], sb. pi. blossoms. *Ak. 

Blue Cowslip [bloo-kou-slip], sb. Pulmonaria angustifolia. Dr. 
Bromfield in Phytologist, O.S. iii. 575. J. B. 

Bluff [bluf], adj. lusty, like a farmer. J. 

Boar-thistle [boar-thisl], sb. Carduus lanceolatus. Hollo way's 
Dictionary. J. B. 

Bob [bob], sb. a beetle. K H. 

Bob, sb. a timber carriage. K H. See Timber-bob. 

Bob, v. act. to carry on a timber-bob. Ex. ' We can bob that tree 
home.' N. H. 

Bob, sb. a large white jug, holding about a gallon. Winch. Sch. Gl. 
Probably from its price, one shilling. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 417. 

Bobbery [bob'ur'i], sb. a quarrel, noise, disturbance. Cooper. 

Bobbies'-eyes [bob-iz-eiz]. sb. pi. the forget-me-not. Veronica 
Chamcedrys. J. B. 

Bobbish [bobish], adj. well in health. Ex. 'purfcy bobbish, thank 

'e,' i. e. pretty well. *Ak. 
Bolder stones [boa-ldur-stoa*nz], sb. large insulated stones found in the 

downs and sometimes in the valleys. The word is now used in 


geology for u stone which has been rolled in an antediluvian torrent. 
*Ak. Com. 

Bolster-pudding [boa-lstur-puod'in], sb. a roly-poly. J. 
Bolt [boalt], sb. the line of cleavage of lath. N. H. 

Boncer [boirsur], si. a taw or stone used to strike marbles from a 
ring. N. H. 

Boner [boa'nur], sb. a smart rap on the spine. Adams' WyJce- 
hamica, p. 417. 

Borse [bans], sb. a calf of half-a-year old. Grose ; Warner ; 

E. M. 
Bosky [boski], adj. elated with liquor. Cooper. 

Bothen [bath Tin], sb. Chrysanthemum segetum. Bromfield's FL 
Vectensis, p. 259. J. B. 

Bottle-brush [boH-brush], sb. Jlippuris vulgaris. Hollo way's 
Dictionary. J . B. 

Bottom [bot'uin], sb. a valley, glen, or glade. Cf. Milton, P. L. ii. 
299. Wise, New Forest, -p. 187. In North Hants used only of a valley. 

Bouge [bou'j ?], v. to bulge 1 Wise (note on Cooper). 

Boughy [bou*i], adj. applied to a tree which is full of boughs, 
instead of running straight up. Wise, New Forest. 

Boulder [boa -Idur], sb. See Bolder. 

Boulder-head [boa*ldur-hed], sb. a work against the sea, made of 
small wooden stakes. Cooper, 

Bounce [bouns], v. n. to rebound, or v. a. to cause to rebound. Ex. 
' bounce that ball.' N. H. 

Bounce [bouns], sb. boasting, pretension. N. H. 

Bound-oak [bound-oak], sb. a boundary oak. Wise, New Forest. 
See Mark-oak. 

Bower-stone [boirur-stoan], sb. a boundary-stone, Wise, New 
Forest, p. 163. 

Bowl-dish [boal-dish], sb. a wooden bowl with handle. J. 

Boy's-love [boiz-luvj, sb. the herb southern-wood. *Ak. Arte- 
misia vulyaris, called also Old Man in N. H. 

Bozzle [bozi], sb. Chrysanthemum segetum. The corn-marigold. 

Brakes [braiks], sb. common fern. Cooper. Also in the compound 
form, fern brakes. Wise. 

Bran-goose [bran-goos], sb. the brent goose; anser bernicla, Illig. 
'Locally known as the brangoose.' Wise, New Forest, p. 312. 

Bran-new [bran-neu], adj. quite new. *Ak. In Wilts., they have 
also vire-new (fire-new). These terms were originally applied to 
things fresh from the forge. *Ak. Com. as brand-new. 


Brashy [braslri], adj. full of small stones. Lisle. 

Brave [braiv], adj. in good health, hearty. *Ak. Cf. Sc. braw. 

Breachy [bree'chi], adj. brackish; applied to smuggled spirits which 
have been impregnated with salt water. Wise (note on Cooper). 

Bread and cheese [bred un cheez], sb. the leaves and the opening 
buds of the white thorn. Cratcegus oxyacantha. J. B. and Wise. 

Break [braik], v. to tear. In Hants break is used for tear, and tear 
for break; as, 'I have a-torn my best decanter or china dish/ 'I 
have a-broke my fine cambrick aporn.' Grose ; Warner ; F. M. 

Brevet about [brevut u-bout], v. to beat about, as a dog for game. 

Brickie. See Bruckle. 

Brighten [brertn], sb. a kind of lichen. Recommended as a remedy 
for weak eyes. Wise, New Forest, p. 176. 

Brindled [brhrdld], adj. severe, fierce, stern ; in the phrase, l a 
brindled look,' equivalent to Lat. torve tuens. Wise. 

Brit [brit], v. to shatter, like hops from being over-ripe. Cooper. 
Also used of corn. Wise. To shed, to fall. Lisle. Ex. ' The corn 
britsj means that the husk opens. See Pegge's Kentish Glossary. 

Brize [breiz], v. to press. 'Brize it down,' press it down. Wise, 
New Forest. Eather perhaps Prize, which see. 

Brock [brok], v. to tease, chaff, or badger. From brock, a badger. 
Winch. Sch. 01. 

Broken-mouthed [broa'kun-mou'dhd], adj. said of a person (or 
animal) who has lost his teeth. Wise. 

Broody [broo-di], adj. spoken of a hen when inclined to sit; 'the 
hens are broody.' F. M. 

Brook-lime [bruok-leim], sb. Veronica Beccabunga. J. B. 

Broom-dasher [bruom-dash'ur], sb. one who pulls heath and makes it 
into brooms. N. H. 

Brow [brou], adj. brittle ; but in the New Forest applied only to 
short, snapper, splintering timber of a bad quality. Wise, New Forest. 
Ak. has brow, brittle. 

Brownie [brou-ni] sb. a bee. Wise, New Forest. See Low Brown. 
Bruckle [bruki], adj. brittle, easily broken. K H. 

Brum [brum], adj. without money. Winch. Sch. Gl. From Lat. 
bruma, 'midwinter,' denoting the extremity of bareness in a boy's 
pocket. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 418. 

Brummell [brunrul], sb. a bramble or blackberry (Rubus fruticosus). 
Warner ; F. M. ; Hal. ; J. B. See Bumble-kite. 

Brush [brush], sb. (1) A quarrel, a hurried fight. K H. 

(2) ' A brush of a boy,' means a sharp, quick, active boy. Wise. 
Cf. the phrase ' to brush about,' to be active, stir nimbly. 


Buck [buk], si. the buck of a cart or waggon, the body of it. Grose ; 
Warner ; F. M. 

Buck [buk], sb. the stag-beetle ; also called pink-buck. The children, 
when catching it, sing this snatch : 

* High buck, low buck, 
Buck, come down.' 

The female is known as the doe. Wise, New Forest. 

Bucky-cheese [bnki-cheez], sb. a sweet, rank cheese. Perhaps from 
a rank, goatish taste, bouc in French signifying a he-goat. Grose ; 
Warner ; F. M. ; as bock does in German. 

Bud [bud], sb. a young deer. Applied in Sussex to a calf of the 
first year, because then the horns begin to appear or bud. Wise (note 
on Cooper). 

Budgy [budji], adj. round, like a cask. Ex. * a little budgy, quatty 
thing.' J. 

Bugle [beu'gl] sb. a bull. * A word forgotten even by the peasantry, 
and only to be seen, as at Lyinington and elsewhere, on a few inn- 
signs, with a picture sometimes of a cow, by way of explanation.' 
Wise, New Forest, p. 188. 

Bulky [bul'ki], adj. generous. Winch. Sell. Gl. Good-natured, 
liberal ; from amplitude, sometimes used by Latin writers in this 
sense. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 418. 

Bull's-head [buolz-hed]. sb. the fish also called the miller's thumb ; 
Cottus gobio, Linn. White's Nat. Hist, of Selborne, Letter xi. 

Bull-thrush [buol-thrush], sb. the missel-thrush. Wise, New Forest, 
p. 189. 

Bumble [bumb-1], v. (1) To buzz, to hum ; as, ' to bumble like a bee 
in a tar- tub.' 
(2) To stumble, to halt. Wise, New Forest, p. 189. 

Bummell, or Bumble-kite [bunrl, burnbi-keit], sb. a bramble or 
blackberry. Rubus fruticosus. Grose. See Brummell. 

Bunch [bunch], sb. (1) A blow. 

(2) A swelling (as the effect of a blow). 

(3) A blotch, burn, scald, pimple. Wise, New Forest. See Bladder. 

Bunch, v. to punch, to strike. Wise, New Forest. 
Bundle off [bundi-auf], v. to set off in a hurry. Cooper. 

Bundles [bund'lz], sb. pi. a game at cards, which I have often 
played, but forget now the way. F. M. 

Bunk [bunk], v. in imper. mood, be off ! F. M. 

Bunny [bun'i], sb. a small ravine opening to the sea ; as in Chewton 
Sunny, Beckton Bunny. Also any small drain, culvert, &c. 'The 
little cottage was partly sheltered by an elbow of the cliff ; otherwise 
it would have been flying up the bunny long ago.' Cradock Nowell, 


2nd ed. p. 183. A footnote says : ' The chink or narrow rift in the 
cliff-line, called in the Isle of Wight a chine, is known in the New 
Forest as a bunny.' 

Bunt [bunt], v. a. to sift meal. J. 

Bur [bur], sb. the sweetbread of a calf or lamb. *Ak. 

Burnbeat, or Burnbate [burn "beet, bunrbait], v. to cut up the turf 
and burn it in hillocks on the land. Lisle. 

Bush [buosh], sb. a thorn. Ex. * I've got a bush in my finger.' 

Bustle-headed [bus-1-heded], adj. badly-grown or stunted trees are so 
called. Wise, New Forest, p. 183. As are the oak-trees whose tops 
are rounded and shorn by the Channel winds. See Buzzly. 

Butt [but], sb. a small paddock. Ex. ' The church butt, Shanklin. 
J. No doubt from being the field where archery was practised, at 
butts. W. H. 0. 

Buttercups [but'ur-kups], sb. pi. Ranunculus bulbosus (and no doubt 
also E. acris and E. repens). Hollo way's Dictionary. J. B. Com. 

Butter-fingered [but'ur-fing'ur'd], adj. apt to let things slip through 
the fingers. Pegge's Add. to Grose ; F. M. Com. 

Butter-teeth [but-ur-teeth], sb. pi. broad and yellow teeth. F. M. 
Buttry [but'ri], sb. a dairy. Wise. 

Butty-lark [but'i-laak], sb. the meadow pipit ; Anthus pratensis, 
Bechst. ' The butty-lark, i. e. companion-bird, of the New Forest ; so 
called because it is often seen pursuing the cuckoo, which the peasant 
takes to be a sign of attachment, not of anger.' Wise, New Forest, 
p. 308. 

Buzzly [buz-li], adj. used of a tree, without a leading shoot, and 
whose branches are thick and stunted. N. H. 

By now [bei nou], adv. just now, immediately. Wise. 

Caddie [kad-1], sb. a dispute, noise, confusion. *Ak. Also, con- 
fusion, litter, mess. Ex. ' What a caddie ' = what a mess. Wise. 

Caddie, v. a. to tease ; as, ' don't caddie me.' *Ak. Also said of 
slow people. Ex. ' How you da caddie I ' Wise. 

Caddling [kadiin], adj. troublesome, annoying. *Ak. In the New- 
Forest it means not agreeing. Wise. 

Cadge [kadj], v. to beg. N. H. 
Cadger [kadj'ur], sb. a beggar. N. H. 

Caffin, Gavin [kaf in, kavin], sb. the long-tailed titmouse ; parus 
caudatus, Linn. ' Known throughout the New Forest as the long- 
tailed caffin or caving Wise, New Forest, p. 308. 

Call [kaul], sb. necessity, occasion. Ex. ' You'd no call to do it.' 


Callards [kal'urdz], sb. pi. cabbage. Isle of Wight. ~F. M. 
Camber [kanrbur], v. a. to bend. N. H. 
Camber, sb. 'on the camber/ bent, bowed. K H. 

Cammock [kanruk], sb. ' In Hampshire almost any yellow flower, as 
S. John's Wort, Fleabane, Ragwort, &c. is called Cammock.' Mr. G-. 
B. Corbin in lit.J. B. 

Cammocky-Cheese [kanruki-cheez], cheese made from milk flavoured 
with Rest-harrow. J. The Rest-harrow, Ononis spinosa, being called 
Cammock in Hants. See above. W. H. 0. 

Camshetting [kanrshuting], sb. boarding to keep up gravel ; as the 
flooring of a wooden bridge ; planking protecting a bank. N. H. 

Cane [kain], sb. a small weasel ; * a little reddish beast, not much 
bigger than a field-mouse, but much longer, which they call a cane.' 
White's Nat. Hist, of Set 'borne, Letter xv. ' The animal here spoken 
of by White is probably only the female of the common weasel, which 
is constantly smaller than the male.' Note by Rev. L. Jenyns. 

Canker [kan'kur], sb. (1) A fungus, a toadstool. Wise, New Forest. 

(2) A sore. N. H. 

Cankered [kan-kurd], adj. sore. Ex. ' That dog's ear is canJcered.' 

Cant [kant] v. a. (1) To tilt up or put into a sloping position. N. H. 

(2) To jerk. 

(3) To cant off ; to let an object slip or fall. Cooper. 

Cantankerous, adj. contentious, quarrelsome. *Ak. Com. 

Cargo [kaargoa], sb. a hamper of good things from home. Adams' 
Wykehamica, p. 418. 

Carriage [karr'ij], sb. (1) A drain, water-carriage. *Ak. 

(2) A waggon-load. Ex. ' I expect he'll have a carriage of wheat in 
Basingstoke market o' Wednesday.' N. H. 

Cass [kas], sb. a spar used in thatching. Wise, New Forest. See 
Spar- gad. 

Cassey [kasi], sb. a causeway. Wise. 

Cass'n [kas'n], 2nd p. s. pr. (thou) canst not. *Ak. 

Cassock [kas-uk], sb. any kind of binding weed. Wise, New Forest, 
p. 166. 

Casty [kaast-i], sb. a cask ; as, a ' casty of beer.' E. M. 

Note. Sir E. M. writes it caste, which can hardly mean anything 
but casty. 

Caterwise [karturweiz], adv. diagonally. J. 

Cat's eye [kats ei], sb. Germander Speedwell, Veronica Cham- 
cedrys. N. H. 

Cat's head, [kats bed], sb. the name of a kind of apple. Wise. 


Cat's head, sb. the end of a shoulder of mutton. Adams' Wylte- 
hamica, p. 418. 

Cat's tail [kats tail] sb. Hippuris vulgaris, Linnaeus. F. M. 

Cat's tails [kats-tailz], sb. pi. catkins of Salix. Holloway's 
Dictionary. J. B. 

Cattan [kat'un], sb. a sort of noose or hinge, which unites the 
' hand-stick ' to the flail. It is made in two parts. The joint which 
fits the flail is made of leather, as it is required to be more flexible 
near the part which strikes the floor. Wise, New Forest. 

Causey [kairzai], sb. a causeway. J. 

Certicate [surtikait], sb. certificate. N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 400. 

Cham [cham], v. to chew, champ. *Ak. Common in Hants. Said 
in N. F. of being put out of temper. Ex. ' You've no occasion to 
cham it.' Said also of a person not liking a thing ' You seem, to 
cham.'' Wise. 

Charlick [chaa'lik], sb. wild mustard, Sinapis arvensis. N. H. 

Charm [chaam], sb. noise ; as of bees, birds, children ; in the phrase 
' they are all in a charm,' they are all talking loud. A.S. cyrm, a 
noise, shout, clamour ; as in synnigra cyrm, uproar of sinners; Ccedmon 
xxxiv. 17. *Ak. Also called churm. See Churm. 

Chase-row [chais-roa], sb. in planting quicksets a single chase is a 
single row ; a double chase means another row planted below the first, 
not directly underneath the upper plants, but under the middle of the 
intermediate spaces. Lisle. 

Chaum [chaum], sb. a chasm ; a crack in the ground. *Ak. 

Chavish [chavish], sb. a chattering of many birds or noisy per- 
sons. Cooper. Ex. * What a chavish you are making ! ' Wise, New 
Forest (note on Cooper). 

Cheeses [chee-zuz], sb. pi. the fruits of Malva sylvestris. J. B. 
Chesil-bob [chiz'1-bob], sb. the wood-louse. N. H. 
Chilbladder [chil-blad-ur], sb. a chilblain. Wise, New Forest. 
Childag [chil'dag], sb. a chilblain. Wise, Neio Forest. 

Chilyer-lamb [chil'vurlam], sb. a ewe-lamb. A. S. cilfor-lamb. 
Wise, New Forest, p. 193. See Thwaite's Heptateuch ; Leviticus v. 6. 

Chimley [chinrli], sb. a chimney. *Ak. 

Chine [cheinl, sb. a small ravine on the sea-coast. Bournemouth, 
and Isle of Wight. 

Chink [chink], sb. the chaffinch. F. M. Also see Wise, New 
Forest, p. 308. See Spink. 

Chinner [chhrur]. sb. a grin (cachinnus). Adams' WyJcehamica, p. 


Chisel [chiz'l], v. a. to cheat. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 418. Not 
peculiar to Winchester. 

Chissom [chis'um], v. to put forth roots; to grow. Lisle. To 
germinate. *Ak. See Chit. 

Chit [chit], v. to bud, or germinate. *Ak. To sprout out, to grow. 
Lisle. A.S. ci%, the tender shoot of a herb; hence the term 'little 
chit ' applied to a child. *Ak. 

Chitterlings [chit'urlingz], sb. pi. the entrails. The word is also 
applied to an old-fashioned frill in the W. of England as, 'here 
comes old Warder wi' his chitterlin vrill.' *Ak. Cf. divina tomacula 
porci. Juvenal, Sat. x. 355. In Jarvis's translation of Don Quixote, 
ed. 1842, p. 1, we read that the knight enjoyed ' sheep's chitterlings 
on Saturdays.' So in Hudibras, ' Which was but souse to chitter- 
lings.' Bell's ed., vol. i. p. 87. In the New Forest we hear also of ' a 
chitterlin shirt.' Wise. See Souse. 

Chocky [choki], adj. chalky, dry. Lisle. 

Choice [chois], adj. careful. Ex. l Tom's mortal choice over 'em 
peasen.' J. 

Choor, Char [choor, chaa], v. to do household work in the absence 
of a domestic servant, as a char-woman does. *Ak. A.S. cerre. Com. 

Choor, Char, sb. a turn of work. *Ak. 

Chop [chop], v. to exchange, to barter. *Ak. Com. 

Chopper [chop-ur], sb. pig's chap. J. 

Chops [chops], sb. pi. the jaws, or face; as, 'To give one a slap in 
the chops' F. M. Com. 

Chouse [chous], sb. a shame, a scandal. Here it has been Wyke- 
hamically diverted from its original meaning, viz. ' to cheat.' Adams' 
Wykehamica, p. 418. 

Chow [chou], v. to bite or masticate food. 

Christmas [kris'mus], sb. (1) The holly used to decorate churches, 
houses, meat, &c. at Christmas. F. M. Also (2) used generally of the 
holly (Ilex aquifolium). J. B. 

Chuck [chuk], -v. a. to cast, to throw. 

Chuck, Chuck [chug], inter}, a word commonly used in calling swine. 
Grose; Warner; F. M. See Chug. 

Chuckle-headed [chuk-1-heded], adj. stupidly noisy. Cooper. 
Chucks [chuks], sb. pi. large chips of wood. Cooper. 

Chuffy [chufi], adj. broad-faced, healthy. Ex. ' a c7iw$7/-headed 
rascal.' J. 

Chug [chug], sb. a pig; so called from the term (chug, chug) used in 
calling swine. See Chuck. N. H. 

Chump [chump], sb. a log of wood. *Ak. 


Chunk [chunk], sb. (1) A log of wood. 

(2) A large slice as of cheese, bread, or bacon. 

Church-litten [church-lit n], sb. a churchyard or burying-ground. 

Churlick [churlik], sb. Sinapis arvensis. See Charlick. Hollo way's 
Dictionary. J. B. 

Churm [churm], sb. a noise, disturbance, confusion; cf. A.S. cyrm. 
Ex. ' Like a swarm of bees all in a churm ; ' again, wild ducks are 
said to be ' in a churm ' when they are in confusion, flapping their 
wings before they settle or rise. Wise, p. 191. See Charm. 

Churn-owl [churn-oul], sb. the goat-sucker. See Puckeridge. (Pro- 
bably for churm-owl ; see Churm.) 

Circusified [surkusifeid], adj. It being remarked to a Hampshire 
farmer that his horse (a spotted roan) was a peculiar colour, he replied, 
* Well, he do look rather circusified: W . H. 0. 

Civer [kivur], v. to cover. Ex. 'That rick ought to be civered.' 
N. H. 

Civer [kivur], sb. cover. Seems used for chest in Stacey's account 
of Langtrey's murder; Portsmouth Telegraph, Aug. 9, 1829. F. M. 
If so used, it would seem to be a mispronunciation not of cover, but of 
co/er.W. H. 0. 

Civil [sivi], adj. good-natured ; much used of animals, as ' a civil 
dog.' N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 120. Ex. c He was always a very civil 
dog to we.' 

Claggy [klag-i], adv. wet, miry. J. 

Clam [klam], sb. (1) The stacks in which bricks are built within a 
kiln. See clamp in Pegge's Kenticisms. 

(2) The place where bricks are dug. N. H. 

Clane [klain], adj. clean. *Ak. 

Clap-down [klap-doun], v. (1) To sit down. Cooper. 
(2) To put down. 

Clap-on, v. a. to fix quickly. 

Clap-to, v. n. to shut, to go together, to slam, as of a door or a gate. 
Ex. ' If yer let 'un go, he'll dap-to. 1 N. H. 

Clappers [klap-urz], sb. pi. stepping-stones in a brook or stream, to 
enable foot-passengers to cross, generally suffixed to the name of a 
place, as 'Mattingley clappers.' N. H. 

Claps [klaps], v. to clasp. (So in Chaucer, Prol. 273.) 

Claps, sb. a clasp. *Ak. So also they say, ' a cZaps-knife.' Wise. 

Cleet [kleet], v. to shoe oxen when they work. Wise, New forest. 
*Ak. has cleet, to mend with a patch. See below. 

Gleets, sb. pi. iron tips on a shoe. Wise, New Forest. *Ak. has elect, 
a patch. In N. H. a plate of brass or iron, nailed or screwed to wood, 
for various purposes, is called a elect. 



Clever [klevur], adv. straight (?). It is used thus: 'I went clever 
to Brighton.' .V. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 400. 

dim [klim], v. to climb. *Ak. 
Clinker [kliirkur], si. a blow. 

Clinkers [klhrkurz], si. pi. bricks burnt very hard, and not fit to be 
placed with others. So called from the noise they make when struck. 

Clit [klit], adj. clotted, close. Ex. ' I would sow grass-seeds, but the 
ground will be clit.' Grose. [The example is from Grose, who assigns 
no meaning ; the meaning is given by Dr. Curry, in MS. additions to 
Grose, where we find, ' ditty, clotted, close.' W. W. S.] 

Clitches [klich'uz], si. pi. the chinks in the boles of beech- trees. N. 
Hants, Wise. 

Clittery, or Cluttery [klit'uri, klut*uri], adj. said of weather ; change- 
able weather, inclinable to be stormy. Grose ; E. M. 

Clivers [klivurz], si. pi. cleavers, goose-grass, Galium aparine. 
Wise, New Forest, p. 166. See Clyders. 

Clo [kloa], si. a box on the ear. Contracted probably from clout. 
Adams' Wykehamica, p. 420. [Or from claw ; Of. dapper-daw. W. 
W. S.] 

Clocking [klok'in], si. the sound made by falling, gurgling water. 
Wise, New Forest, p. 186. Cf. to duck. 

Close [kloas], adv. hard, sharp. Ex. 'It hits close, 1 i.e. it hits 
hard. Wise, New Forest. 

Clout [klout], si. a box on the ear. *Ak. Com. 
Clow [klou]. See Clo. 

Clum [klum], to handle roughly or clumsily. A.S. clom, a band, 
&c. *Ak. 

Clumpet [klump-it], si. a clod of earth. N". H. 

Clung [klung], adj. hard, as wood when it has become dry and 

tough. N. H. 

Clutch [kluch], adj. close. Ex. ' He holds it quite clutch.' Cooper. 
Cluttery. See Clittery. 
Clyders [klei'durz], si. Galium aparine. Wise. See Clivers. 

Coaching [koaclrin], part, drinking beer in the harvest-fields. N. 
and Q. 1st S. x. 400. 

Coal-shoot [koal-shoot], si. a coal-scuttle. J. 

Coary [koarr'i], adj. ' About the middle of a field near me, there 
runs a vein of black, coary, and yet dry earth.' Lisle, i. p. 28. I 
have inquired of farmers and labourers for the meaning of this word, 
but the sense seems to be lost. W. H. C. 

Coathe, or Cothe [koaclh], v. to cause a disease in sheep. 'The 
springs in the New Forest are said to cothe the sheep, i. e. to disease 
their livers.' Wise, New Forest. From A.S. cotSw, disease. 


Coathy [koa'dhi], adj. rotten ; applied to diseased sheep. Warner : 
F. M. SeeCothe. 

Cob [kob], sb. a lump of clay, such as those with which walls, 
houses, &c. are built. So we hear of cofr-walls, and a co&-house. 

Cob-nut, sb. a large species of hazel-nut. See Hartshorne's Salopia 
Antiqua. F.;M. In the Isle of Wight a cob-nut is a large nut 
*Akerman's Wilts Gl. 

Cocker [kok-ur], sb. a light horse, occasionally used in the plough. 

N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 400. 

Cock-eyed [kok-eid], adj. squinting. See Forby. F. M. 
Cockle [koki], sb. the bur of the burdock (Arctium lappa). Wise. 

Cock-squoilin [kok-skwoiiin], sb. the barbarous custom of throwing 
at cocks; formerly a custom at Shrove- tide. This unmanly pastime 
is, I fear, not entirely abolished in some parts of England [A.D. 1842], 
I have seen the poor unfledged nestlings of small birds stuck upon a 
gate-post and thrown at by countrymen. Squoilin is also used for 
throwing. *Ak. See Squoil. 

Cock-steddling [kok-stediin], sb. a boyish game ; Portsmouth Tele- 
graph, Sept. 27, 1813. F. M. 

Codgel [kodj'el], sb. the fat on the under-jaw of the hog. N. H. 

Codger [koHj-ur], sb. a name given when familiarly addressing an 

acquaintance. N. H. 
Colley [kol-i], sb. a kettle. Wise. 

Colt-pixey [koalt-piksi], sb. a spirit or fairy, in the shape of a horse, 
which wickers (neighs), and misleads horses into bogs, &c. Grose ; 
Warner ; F. M. ' As ragged as a colt-pixey ' is a common proverb. 
Wise, New Forest, p. 174. There is scarcely a village or hamlet in 
the Forest district which has not its ' Pixey Field ' and ' Pixey Moor ' ; 
or its 'Picksmoor,' and ' Cold- Pixey, J and ' Puck-piece.' At Prior's 
Acre wo find ' Puck's Hill,' and not far from it lies the great wood of 
Puck-pits ' ; whilst a large barrow on Beaulieu Common is known 
as the Pixey 's Cave. Wise, New Forest, p. 175. See also Brand's 
Pop. Antiq. ed. Ellis, ii. 513. 

Combe [koom], sb. a valley. Cooper. 

Come [kum], adv. used to indicate the completion of a period. Ex. 
' 'Twill be a year come next Michaelmas.' N. H. 

Come-back [kum-bak'], sb. a guinea-fowl. Its peculiar cry is sup- 
posed to resemble the pronunciation of these words. F. M. 

Con [kon], sb. a smart tap on the head administered generally with 
the knuckles (whence the derivation : ic6vdv\ov, a knuckle). Adams' 
Wykehamica, p. 420. 

Conk [konk], v. to croak. Conking is especially used of the hoarse 
croak of the raven ; but the word, like the bird, is rare. Wise. 

Contraption [kontrap-shun], sb. (1) Construction. N. and Q. 1st 
Ser. x. 120. 

(2) Contention. Ibid. 

C 2 


Coop [kqop], inter j. a word used in calling horses ; particularly when 
in the field they are enticed by a sieve of oats to be caught. Probably 
a contraction of ' Come up.' 

Coopiddy [koop-idi], inter/, a word used in calling poultry to their 
food. Suggested by Sir Frederick Madden to be a corruption of 
' Come biddy.' 

Copse [kops], sb. underwood cut at stated times. Com. The 
expression ' all in a copse,' means indistinct. Wise, New Forest, p. 179. 

Copse Laurel [kops lorr'u'l], sb. Daphne Laureola. Dr. Bromfield in 
Phytologist, O.S. iii. 798. J. B. 

Cotch [koch], v. a. to catch. K H. 
Cotched [koch-d], part, caught. JST. H. 

Cothe [koadh], adj. applied to sheep, means diseased in the liver. 
Wise, New Forest. See Coathe. 

Cot-house [kot-hous], sb. an outhouse, shed. Wise. 

Cotterel [kot'erul], sb. the crane to which the kettle or pot is fast- 
ened so as to hang over the fire. Wise, New Forest. ' Cotteril, sb. a 
hook to hang spits, &c. on.' Cooper. 

'Count [kount], sb. value, importance. Ex. 'He be'ant no ''count ;' 
It is of no value. N. H. 

Couples [kupilz], sb. pi. ewes and lambs. Lisle. 

Cow [kou], sb. an earthenware funnel, placed on the tops of chim- 
neys, curved and revolving with the wind. More generally elsewhere 
called * cowl,' which is the correct name. 

Cow-cress [kou-kres], sb. Helosciadium nodifloruin. J. B. 
Cow-lease. See Lease. 

Cow-parsley [kou-paas-li], sb. Anthriscus sylvestris. J. B. 
Cowowing [kou win], sb. the caw, or noise made by rooks. K H. 

Cowslip [koirslip], sb. Fritillaria Meleagris, a curious misnomer. 
'In proof of the incurious nature of the Hampshire peasantry, I 
could not find any one at Strathfieldsaye who knew its name ; some 
called the plants snowdrops (the white variety), others daffodils, 
whilst the rest pronounced them to be cowslips I ' Dr. Bromfield in 
Phytologist, O.S. iii. 965. J. B. 

Cramp [kramp], sb. (1) A bend in a ditch or fence. 
(2) A bent iron, or the like. N. H. 

Cranky [kranki], adj. (1) Brisk, merry, jocund. Cooper. Ex. 'I 
am pretty cranky.' Wise. 

(2) Peevish, fretful, cross. N. H. 

Craup. See Crope. 

Craw [krau ; *Ak. writes craw], sb. the bosom ; the crop of a bird ; ' a 
spelt th' drenk down's craw,' he spilt the drink down his bosom. 
*Ak. Hence shirt-craw, the bosom of a shirt. Wise. 


Greeny [kree'ni], small, diminutive. *Ak. 
Creepers [kree-purs], sb. pi. low wooden pattens or clogs. F. M. 
Criamany [kreianruni], inlerj. an expression of surprise. N. H. 
Crim [krim], sb. a small quantity ; lit. a crumb. *Ak. 

Crimany [krinruni], interj. expressive of surprise. See Forby. 
F. M. 

Clink-crank [krink-krank], adj. ' Or Ink-crank words are. long words 
verba sesquipedalianot properly understood.' See Proceedings of 
Phil. Soc., v. 148-8. 

Crippled or Croppled [krip-uld, krop-uld],^p. found unable to do 
the lesson. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 421. 

Critch [krich], sb. any earthenware vessel ; a jar. N. and Q>. 1st S. 
V. 251. Of. Fr. Cruche. 

Croaky [kroak'i], adj. sickly, weak, delicate ; applied to plants. Ex. 
'My roots did look rather croaky till the rain come.' N. H. 

Crock [krok], sb. (1) An earthen vessel. Cooper. 

(2) A pot ; more commonly applied to an earthen pot. Hence our 
' crockery ware.' A.S. crocca, a pot or pitcher. It occurs in Richard 
the Redeles (ed. Skeat, ii. 52) ; 'And cast adoun J?e crokk ' }?e colys 
amyd.' *Ak. Perhaps borrowed from the Welsh. Of. W. cregyn or 
crochan, a pot. 

Crope [kroap], pt. t. of vb. to creep. Wise, New Forest, p. 190. 

Croppled [krop*uld], pp. floored in an examination. Winch. Sell. 
Gl See Crippled. 

Cross-patch [kros'pach], sb. an ill-tempered fellow, as denned by 
Forby. Cf. the lines, 'Cross-patch, Draw the latch,' &c. F. M. 

Crow [kroa], sb. the peacock butterfly. See Owl. Wise, New Forest. 

Crow-gaper [kroa -gar pur], sb. a very hot day. N. H. 

Crow-pecks [kroa'peks], sb. pi. Scandix Pecten, the shepherd's 
needle. J. B. ' Called also old ivoman's needle. There is a common 
saying in the New Forest that tl Two crow pecks are as good as an oat 
for a horse ; " to which the reply is, "A crowpeck and a barley-corn 
may be." ' Wise, New Forest. 

Crow's claw [kroa'z-klau], sb. Ranunculus repens. Holloway's 
Dictionary. J. B. 

Crow's foot [kroa-zfuot], sb. Ranunculus repens. Holloway's 

Dictionary. J. B. 

Cr owner [krou'nur], sb. a coroner ; as in Shakespeare, &c. *Ak. 
Crummy [krunri], adj. fat, fleshy, corpulent. Cooper. 

Crutch [kruch], sb. ' dish, or earthenware pipkin ; as, a lard-crw^c/i, 
a butter-cn^cA.' Wise, New Forest. See Critch, and cf. Germ. Krug, 
and Fr. Cruche. 


Cubbidy. See Cooppidy. 

Cubby-hole [kubi-hoal], sb. a snug place. *Ak. Probably for 
cup-board hole. 

Cuckoo-day [kuok'oo-dai], sb. the day on which Beaulieu fair is 
held, April 1 5. There is a local proverb. ' The cuckoo goes to Beaulieu 
Pair to buy him a great-coat; ' because he arrives about that time. 
Wise, New Forest, p. 180. 

Cuckoo-flower [kuolroo-flour], sb. Cardamine pratensis. J. B. 

Cuckoo-flower [kuok'oo-flour], sb. Orchis mascula. The name is 
differently applied in different counties. In the Midland Counties it 
is often the lady's-smock (Cardamine pratensis], and in the more 
northern counties the wood-sorrel (Orchis acetoseila] ; each appearing 
at the particular period when the cuckoo arrives. In Shakesp. Love's 
Labour's Lost, y. 2, the ' cuckoo-buds of yellow hue ' is said of the lesser 
celandine. Wise. 

Cuckoo-spit [kuok'oo-spit], sb. the fine white froth on plants, which 
covers the larva of the Cicada spumans. Otherwise frog-spit and toad- 
spit. F. M. 

Cud [kud], adj. pretty, nice. Winch. Sc7i. Gl. Pleasant; possibly 
[from] Couth, Couthy. Adams' Wyltehamica, p. 421. 

Cues [keu*z] sb. pi. shoes for oxen. Lisle. *Ak. 

Cull [kul], Tom Cull, sb. the fish called the ' miller's thumb.' 

Culls [kulz], sb. pi. inferior sheep separated from the rest of the 
flock. From cull, to choose. Cooper. 

Cusnation [kuznarshun], adj. an epithet compounded of curse and 
'nation. *Ak. 

Cut [kut], sb. a method of drawing lots. [The method, described, is 
merely interesting as showing that the old word cut is in use at Win- 
chester]. Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Cute [keut], adj. acute. *Ak. Com. 

Cut-thorn [kut'thaun], sb. the perambulation of the limits of the 
borough of Southampton is so called. F. M. Cut-thorn is, in fact, 
the name of an enclosure which is one of the boundaries visited in the 
perambulation. Davies. Hist, of Southampton, p. 50 and passim. 
W. H. C. 

Cuttran, Cutty [kut Tan, kut'i], sb. a wren. Cutty is the commoner 
term ; cuttran is a contraction of cutty-wren. Wise, New Forest. 

Dab [dab], sb. (1) A blow. Ex. ' A geart dab in the chaps.' 
(2) A proficient. Ex. ' He's a dab at that work.' J. 

Dabster [JaVstur], sb. a proficient. *Ak. 
Daddick [dad-ik], sb. rotten wood. *Ak. 

Daddicky [dad-iki], adj. decayed, rotten. *Ak. Ex. ' Daddicty 
wood.' Wise. 


Daffodil [daf -odil], sb. Fritillaria Meleagris. See Cowslip. 

Daglets [dag-lutz], sb. pi. icicles. *Ak. 

Dain [dain], v. a. to sharpen, or beat out, a pick, fork, hoe, &c. 

Darks [daaks], sb. pi. nights on which the moon does not shine. 
Used by sailors and smugglers. Cooper. 

Darling [daa'lin], sb. the smallest or youngest of a farrow or litter 
of pigs, &c. Cooper; Wise. 

Dawg [daug], sb. a dog. 

Dead-horse [ded'haus], sb. To ' work out a dead-horse J is to work 
out an old debt. Cooper. To ride the dead-horse is to be behind- 
hand. J. 

Dead-man [ded-man], sb. the line of string marking the next course 
of bricks, in bricklaying. N. H. 

Dead Man's Hands [ded-manz handz], s&. pi. Orchis mascula. J. B. 

Dean [deen], sb. a hollow among downs. As Yincli-dean, Bram- 
dean. J. 

Deaw [di'auq, sb. dew. A.S. deaw. *Ak. 
Deaw-bit [di'au-bit?] sb. a dew-bit, q. v. *Ak. 

Deaw-bitter [di'att-biti f), sb. a dew-beater; one who has large feet 
or who turns his toes out, so that he brushes the dew off the grass in 
walking. *Ak. 

Deaw-claw (written deaiv-cldiv), [di'au-klau], sb. a dew-claw. *Ak. 
It means a bone or nail behind a deer's foot. Webster. Also behind 
a dog's foot. N. H. 

Decker, Dicker [dek'ur, dik'ur], v. to ornament, to spangle. ' A 
lady' s fingers are said to be deckered with rings, or the sky with stars.' 
Wise, New Forest. 

Dedocky [ded'oki], adj. failing, likely to die. Said of trees. ' That 
tree has been dedocky some time.' N. H. See Daddicky. 

Dee [dee], sb. day. So also to-dee, to-day. Cooper. 

Deedily [dee'dili], adv. diligently ; it applies to anything done with 
a profound and plodding attention, or an action which engrosses all 
the powers of the mind and body. See note to Our Village Sketches, 
by Mary Eussell Mitford, vol. i. p. 244. E. M. 

Deedy [dee'di], adj. diligent, plodding, attentive. Ex. said of a 
servant : * She's very deedy.' N. H. 

Deer's-milk [dee'rz-milk], ,sb. wood-spurge ; Euphorbia amygdaloid?*. 
' So called from the white viscous juice which exudes from its stalks 
when gathered.' Wise, New Forest. 

Denial [denerul], sb. an encumbrance. Ex. ' His children be a great 
denial to 'un.' J. 

Desperd [desp-urd], adj. desperate. *Ak. 


Deusiers [deuz-yerz?], sb. pi. the valves of a pig's-heart. Grose says 
this is a corruption of Jew's ears. *Ak. A person with large ears is 
said to have deusiers. Wise. 

Devil's Coach-wheels [devulz-koa'ch-wheelz], sb. pi. Ranunculus 
arvensis. Hayling Isld. Dr. Bromfield's MSS. J. B. 

Devil's-guts [devulz-guts], sb. pi. the dodder plant. Cascuta 
Europcea. J. 

Devil's purses [devulz-purs-iz], sb. pi. skate-eggs, commonly found 
empty on the sea-shore. F. M. Also called Mermaid' s-purses, and 
in some places Skate-barrows, from a fancied resemblance to a hand- 

Dew-beater. See Deaw-bitter. 

Dew-berries [deirberiz], The large wild berry resembling 
the bramble-berry, but generally growing closer to the ground. F. 
M. Rubus cosius. See Dew-berry in Halliwell. In a letter in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, Feb. 1836, p. 126, the writer says that, in 
Sussex, the dewberry is the gooseberry, and refers to Culpepper's Herbal. 

Dew-bit [deu'bit], sb. the first meal in the morning, not so sub- 
stantial as a regular breakfast. Halliwell ; Wise, New Forest, p. 193. 
*Ak. defines it a breakfast, a meal taken while the dew is on the 
grass ; on which Wise notes only in hay and corn harvest. See 

Dew-claw. See Deaw-claw. 

Dew-cup [deu'kup], sb. the first allowance of beer to harvestmen. 
Halliwell, s. v. dew-drink. 

Dey-hus [darus,], sb. a dairy. *Ak. (who writes Da' its, Day' us, 

Dik [dik], sb. a ditch. Cooper. 

Dill-cup [dil'kup], or Yellow-cup, sb. Ranunculus arvensis; the 
'tufted crow-toe' of Milton (Lycidas, 143). Wise, North Hants. 

Dillijon [diHjaun],&. a heavy two- wheeled cart. The similarity of 
this word to the French diligence is apparent. N. and Q. 1st Ser. v. 
251. The writer had only heard it at Fullerton, a secluded spot in 

Dirt [durt], sb. loose earth, or mould ; it has no reference to want of 
cleanliness. N. H. 

Dis-sight [dis-seit], sb. a blemish, a" disfigurement. Ex. ' 'twill be no 
die-sight to cut that tree.' N. H. 

Dis-remember [dis-rememb-ur], v. to forget. - 

Dish-washer [dish-waslrur], sb. the wagtail ; doubtless from the 
constant sweeping motion of the tail. *Ak. In Hants, the wagtail 
is also called ' Molly dish-washer.' Wise. 

Doaty [doati], adj. unsound, decayed, rotten. Applied to wood. 

lN _LJ- 


Dock [dok], sb. Rumex sanguineus, to which great medicinal virtues 
are attributed by the country people. A decoction of dock-root, called 
' dock-root tea/ is considered an excellent purifier of the blood ; and 
the leaf is supposed to be good for the sting of a nettle. When a 
child is stung, he plucks a dock-leaf, and, laying it on the part affected, 

' Out 'ettle, in dock, 
Dock shall ha' a new smock ; 
'Ettle zhant ha' narrun [ne' er a one] ! ' 

See the expression ' Nettle in, doke out ' in Chaucer's Troil. and Cress. 
ed. Bell, vol. v. p. 196. *Ak. 

Dock, v. to dock a book, to tear out the leaves. Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Dock-yard mead [dok'yaad-meed], sb. as recently as thirty or forty 
years ago every labourer was either a poacher or smuggler, very often 
a combination of the two ; and to this day various fields far inland, 
are still called the dockyard-mead. Wise, New Forest, p. 170 (A.D. 

Doe [doa], si. the female of the buck, i. e. of the stag-beetle. "Wise, 
Neiu Forest. See Buck. 

Doff [dauf], v. to do off ; to doff the coat or hat. *Ak. 

Dogberries [dog'beriz], sb. pi. the hips of the wild rose (Rosa 
Canina), the dogrose. Wise. 

Dogged [dog'ed], adj. (a disyllabic), very, excessive ; as ' dogged 
cute,' very acute. *Ak. 

Dog's grass [dogz-graas], sb. Cynosurus cristatus. Holloway's 
Dictionary. J. B. 

Dogwood [dog'wuod], sb. Rhamnus Frangula. R. Turner, Botan- 
ologia, 1664. J. B. But note that dog is often pronounced daug in 
North Hants. 

Dole [doal], ,96. food given in charity, at Christmas-tide. N. H. 

Dole [doal], sb. a stratagem, clever trick. Winch. Sch. Gl. From 
dolus, a trick. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 422. 

Dolifier [doaHfeiur], sb. one who contrives a trick. Adams' Wyke- 
hamica, ibid. 

Doll [dol], sb. the smallest pig in a litter. Wise, New Forest. 

Dollop [dol up], sb. (1) Cooper has dollop, a packet or lump of tea, 
weighing from 6 to 18 pounds, so packed for the convenience of 
smuggling. On which Wise notes a dollop of tea was a certain 
weight, equal to 28 pounds in Hants. 

(2) sb. A lump of anything. Ex. Them 'taters are dollops of flour. ' 

Don [don], to do on, to put on. *Ak. 

Donnarg [doirarg], v. to argue in an overbearing manner ; to con- 
tradict (lit. to down-argue). Ex, ' He'd donnarg oon out of oon'd 
Christian name.' See Harg. Wise. 


Donnings [don-ingz], things put on, clothes, apparel. *Ak. 
See Don. 

Dorymouse [dorimous], sb. a dormouse. Wise. 
Dotchel [doeh'ul], sb. a small animal of its kind. N. H. 
Dount [dount], v. to dent, dint, imprint. 

' Here's the poor harmless hare from the woods that is tracked, 
And her footsteps deep dounted in snow.' 

Song in N. F., entitled ' A Time to Remember the Poor.' Wise. 

Dout [dout], v. a. to do out, put out, extinguish. Ex. * We've 
douted the tire.' 

Dowel [dovul], sb. the devil. *Ak. 

Down-along- volk [doun-ulong-voak], sb. the 'down-along-folk,' i. e. 
the inhabitants of Dorset and the West; opposed to up-along-volk, i. e. 
those in Surrey, Sussex, &c. Wise. 

Downarg. *Ak. See Donnarg. Also pronounced downharg. 

Dowse [dous], sb. a blow : as, ' a dowse in th' chops,' a blow in the 
face. *Ak. 

Dowse [dous], v. to beat down. N. H. 
Drag [drag], sb. a heavy harrow. N. H. 
Drag, v. a. to harrow with a drag. N. H. 
Draggle-tail [dragi-tail], sb. a slattern. J. 

Drail [drail], sb. a land-rail. N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 400. (A mere 

Drash [drash], v. to thrash. Wise. 

Drashel [drash-ul] v. a thrashel, i. e. a flail. Wise. 

Drattled [dratid], pp. used like ' hanged,' as a profane oath ; as, 
' No, I'll be drattled if her is.' In his Glos. Akerman gives -' Druttle, 
a corruption of a profane oath, " God throttle," but not thus under- 
stood now.' Probably it was never so understood, but is a mere vari- 
ation of dratted, which is from drat, a corruption, I suppose, of * God 
rot,' as it is also used in the form drot. W. W. S. 

Draut [draut], sb. the throat. *Ak. 

Dray [drai], sb. (1) A squirrel's nest. ' A boy has taken three little 
squirrels in their nest, or drey, as it is called in these parts.' White's 
Nat. Hist, of Selborne, Letter xxxiv. note, ed. 1843. Chiefly North 
Hants. In the New Forest they use cage. Wise. In W. Browne's 
Britannia's Pastorals, Bk. i. 5, we read of a squirrel that he ' gets to 
the wood, and hides him in his dray.'' W. W. S. 
(2) A prison. Wise, New Forest. 

Dredge [drej], sb. (1) Oats and barley mixed. Cooper; See A. V. 
Job xxiv. 6 (margin). See Drudge. 
(2) A bush-harrow. J. 

Drouth [drout], sb. thirst. Cf. A.S. dmgaft. *Ak. 


Drouthy [drout-i], adj. thirsty, dry. *Ak. 

Drow [droa], v. to throw. See Akerman's Wilts. Tales, p. 170. 

Drowd, pp. of drow, i. e. thrown. *Ak. Also used, I believe, for 
the pt. t. i. e. threw. 

Drove-road [droavroad], sb. an unenclosed road over one field 
leading to another. Cooper. 

Drucksy [druk'si], adj. rotten, decayed, used especially of wood. 
N. H. 

Drudge [druj], sb. dredge, mingled corn, oats mixed with barley. 
Wise, New Forest, p. 193. See Dredge. 

Drudge [druj], v. to harrow with bushes. Cooper. 

Drug-bat [drug-bat], i. e. a drag-bat, a drag for awheel. See Bat. 

Drumbledore [drumb'ldoar], sb. the humble-bee. See Dumble-dore. 

Drunch [drunch], v. to draw up, to press, to squeeze. Wise, New 

Dry [drei], adj. thirsty. N. H. 

Drythe [dreidh], sb. drought, thirst. J. 

Dubbed [dub'd], adj. blunt, without a point. *Ak. 

Dubbin o' drenk [duVn u drenk], sb. a mug of beer. *Ak. A half- 
' pint of beer. Wise. 

Dubby [dub-i], adj. short, blunt, not pointed ; as ' dubby fingers,' and 
' dubby nose.' Cooper. 

Dubersome [deu-bursum], adj. doubtful. J. 

Duck [duk], sb. expression of face. Adams' Wyltehamica, p. 422. 
Com. as a school-boy's word. 

Dudder, Duther [dud'ur, dudlrur], v. to confuse, deafen, confound 
with noise. *Ak. 

Duds [dudz], sb. petticoats, clothes. J. Com. 

Duffer [duf'ur], sb. a pedlar; applied only to a seller, or rather 
hawker, of women's clothes. Cooper. 

Dumble [dumbl], adj. stupid. *Ak. See Dummell. 

Dumble-dore [dumb i-d oar], sb. (the humble-bee) a large species of 
wild bee, remarkable for the noise it makes in flying. The name is 
evidently expressive of the noise made by this insect. Forby elegantly 
refers to the ponfavaa n'tXiaaa of Theocritus, but the Teut. bommen t 
sonare, appears to be its more immediate root. F. M. Dumb, like 
Hum and Boom, is an imitative word. W. W. S. 

Dummell [dumi], adj. slow to comprehend. K H. Cf. Ger. dumm, 
Dumpt [dumpt], adj. blunt : comparative, dumpier. N. H. 


Dunch [dunch], adj. slow of comprehension ; deaf. Cooper. Deaf, 
stupid. Ex. ' Dunch as a bittle,' i. e. deaf as a beetle. *Ak. Common 
in the New Forest. Wise. Cf. 'And all the daughters of music be 
deaf that is when the eares be dull and dunch.' Newton, An Herball 
to the Bible [1587] p. 237. The allusion is to Ecclesiastes xii. 4, where 
the Vulgate has ' Obsurdescent omnes filioz carminis.' 

Dunch-dumpling [dunch-dump'lin], sb. a hard dumpling, made of 
flour and water. 

Dunnamany [dun'u'men-i], for ' I don't know how many.' Cooper. 
Dunnamuch [dmru'much], for ' I don't know how much.' Cooper. 
Dunnies [duniz], sb. pi. Petasites vulgaris. J. B. 

Dwarf-elder [dwaurf-eld'ur], sb. ^Egopodium Podogravia. ' The 
common name throughout Hants.' Dr. Bromfield, Flora Vectensis, 
202.- J. B. 

Eairts [airtz], sb. (1) Stubble. 

(2) That which is refused at meals. N. H. *. e. orts. 

Earth [urth], sb. to one, two, three earths, means to plough the 
ground once, twice, or thrice; to sow after one, two, or three 
ploughings. Lisle. 

Earth-nuts [urth-nuts], sb. pi. the tubers of (Enanfhe pimpinelloides. 
Dr. Bromfield in Phytologist, O. S. iii. 260. J. B. 

Easy [ee'zi], adv. easily ; for which it is generally used in N. H. Ex. 
' He'll easy walk that far.' * That can easy be mended.' 

Eath, or Yeath, sb. earth. *Ak. 

Edge-grown [edj-groan], adj. coming up uneven ; not ripening 
together. Lisle. 

Een-a-most [eeiru'moast*], even almost, nearly. Cooper. 

Ees [ees], sb. an earth-worm. J. Halliweli and Wright spell it 

Eez [eez], adv. yes. *Ak. 

Effet [ef-ut], sb. an eft, a kind of lizard. A.S. Efeta.'N. H. Also 
*Ak. and N. F. 

Elam [eal-um], sb. a handful of thatch. * Common in the New 
Forest. Three elams make a bundle, and 20 bundles a score, and 4 
scores a ton.' Wise, New Forest. See Yelm in Halliweli. 

Eldern [el'durn], sb. an elder-tree. *Ak. 
Eldern, adj. anything made of the elder-tree. *Ak. 
Ellum [el-urn], sb. elm, the elm-tree. N. H. 
Elm. See Helm. 


Elmin [el'mun], adj. made of elm. Also sb. ' an dmin tree,' an elm- 
tree. *Ak. As an adjective it should, no doubt, be spelt Elmen ; as 
< Oaken,' 'Beechen,' ' Golden, 3 &c. W. H. C. 

Emmet [envut], sb. an ant. Wise. 

Emmet-humps [enrut-humps], sb. pi anthills. Wise. 

Empt [empt], v. a. to empty, to void, to pour out. *Ak. 

Enjoy [enjor], v. to thrive, to grow freely. Used of plants. Ex. 
' They oaks do seem to enjoy the'selves.' N. H. 

Erishes [erishuz], sb. pi. stubble. N. H. 
Ershe [ursh], sb. stubble. Lisle. See Erishes. 

Eten-bird [ee*tn-burd], little, sb. the wryneck. ' Known in the 
New Forest as the " Little Eten bird," and from its cry the " Weet- 
bird." ' Wise, New Forest, p. 310. See also Barley-bird and Fell- 

Ether [edlrur], sb. a piece of pliant underwood wound between the 
stakes of a new-made hedge. Cooper. They speak of an ' ether- 
hedge,' *'. e. a hedge made like a hurdle. Wise. Erom A.S. eder, a 
hedge. *Ak. In a ' stake and ether hedge,' the stake is the upright, 
the ether the horizontal twisted rod. ' When you intend to stock a 
pool with carp or tench, make a close ethering hedge, across the head 
of the pool, about a yard distance off the dam, and about three feet 
above the water.' Bowlker, qu. in Isaak Walton, pt. i. ch. 20. 

Ether [edlrur], v. to bind hedges with flexible rods called ethers. 
Wise, New Forest, p. 193. 

Eve-jar [eev-jaa], sb. the goat-sucker. See Puckeridge. 

Evet. See Effet. 

Eye [ei], sb. ' A light eye, 1 a break in the clouds. Wise. 

Eyoty [ei'uti], adj. like an eyot or island. Ex, * That eyoty piece 
near the ford.' N. H. 

Fag [fag], v. to reap oats. N. and Q. 1st Ser. 400. Corn cut with 
the sickle is said to be fagged. Wise. 

Faggot [fag-ut], sb. a ' trimmed ' bundle of fire-wood. *Ak. See 
Bavin. The word faggot is never used in North Hants ; * bavin ' is 
the term universally employed. W. H. 0. 

Faggot [fag'ut], sb. a term of reproach [to a female] J. 
Faggots [fag'utz], sb. pi. a savoury mess of liver and onions. J. 
Fairy-butter [fairi-but-ur], sb. Tremella. J. T. Nostocl 
Fairy's Bath [fairiz-baath], sb. Peziza coccinea. J. 
Fall [faul], sb. the time of cutting timber. Cooper. 
Fall [faul], sb. a valley. E. M. 


Fallals [fal'alz], sb. pi. the mundus muliebris [a woman's ornaments]. 
Forby limits it to flaunting and flaring ornaments, and derives it 
from the Lat. phalerce ; but this is very doubtful. F. M. 

Fardel [faa'dul], sb. a part. Certain classes were divided into three 
fardels , or parts, for the examination. Winch. Sch. Ol. 

Fashion [fash'un], sb. a corruption of farcey, a disease in horses. 
*Ak. Akermann relates the following : An old Wilts farmer, when 
his grand-daughters appeared before him with any new piece of 
finery, would ask what it all meant. The girls would reply, 'fashion, 
gran' vather,' when the old man would rejoin, ' Ha ! many a good 
horse has died o' th' fashion I ' 

Fat flab [fat flab], sb. a cut off the fat part of a breast of mutton. 
Adams' Wykehamica, p. 423. 

Fat hen [fat hen], sb. Chrysanthemum segetum p]. J. B. 

Favour [faivur], v. to resemble, to be like. Ex. ' He very much 
favours his mother.' J. 

Fay [fai], v. to act or work notably. * It fays well ' ; it works well ; 
it answers. Cooper. So also, 'it don't fay at all.' Wise. Cf. Er. 

Fearful [feerfuol], adj. timorous, timid ; 'a, fearful man,' a timid 
man. The word occurs in 3 Hen. VI. v. 4. 

Fearn [vee-urn], sb. fern. JST. H. 

Featish [fee'tish], adj. fair, tolerable, middling. Ex. 'How be 'eeV 
1 Featish, thank 'e.' ' There's a featish crop of grass yonder.' Chaucer 
has/efca; Prol. 157. *Ak. 

Feck [fek], sb. a pointer. J. 
Feck, adj. worthless. J. 

Felling-bird [feHng burd, veHng burd], the wryneck, Yunx tor quill a. 
Sometimes called the stripping-bird. It derives these names from its 
note being first heard about the time (April) when oaks are felled, and 
the bark stripped. N. H. 

Fen [fen], abbreviated from Fend or Defend ; an expression in fre- 
quent use among schoolbdys, and applied in various ways. See Let 
and Sweal. *Ak. gives the form fend ; it is short for defend. See 

Fenny [fen-i, ven-i], adj. mouldy. Ex. ' blue vennied cheese.' J. 
Fern-owl [furn-oul], sb. the goat-sucker. See Puckeridge. 
Fescue [fes'keu], sb. a kind of grass (Lat. Festuca). J. 

Fess [fes], adj. used among schoolboys to express confident, pre- 
sumptuous. ' You are very /ess.' Probably a corruption of fierce. 
F. M. To be fess is to be set up, elated, in high spirits. Wise. 

Fessy [fesi], adj. (1) Proud, upstart. 

(2) Put out, flurried; 'fashed,' as the Scotch would say. Wise, 
New Forest. 


Fetch [fech], sb. a trick.- 

Fetch [fech], v. used with reference to churning butter. ' To fetch 
the butter. 5 to raise the cream into a certain consistency. Wise, 
New Forest. 

Feyer [vei-ur], sb. a fair. Ex. 'Be'est a-gwine tofeyer.' IS". H. 
Fid [fid], sb. a piece. Ex. ' A fid of cheese.' J. 

Fig [fig], sb. a raisin. A figged cake, a plum-cake, made with 
raisins and currants. A figged pudding, a plum-pudding. 

File [feil], sb. a deep cunning person. So a hare is said ' to run her 
file,' i. e. foil. Cooper. 

Fingers-and-Thumbs [fin-gurz-and-thumz], sb. pi. Lotus corniculatus. 

J. B. 
Finjy [finji], a corruption of 'fen I [or rather of 'fend /] ; when 

some one of a number of boys had something unpleasant to do, the 

one who said fingy last had to do it. Winch. Sell. Ol. See Fen. 

Adams gives it as finge, and imagines it to be the Latin rendering of 

feign. Wykehamica, p. 423. 

Fir-apples [fur-apiz], sb. pi. cones of Pinus sylvestris. Hollo way's 
Dictionary. J. B. 

Fir-needles [fur-nee -dlz], sb. pi. the leaves of the Scotch Fir, Pinus 
sylvestris. N. H. 

Fire-bladder [feir-blad-ur], sb. a pimple or eruption on the face. 
Wise, New Forest. See Bunch and Bladder. 

Firk [furk], v. A dog is said to firk himself when searching and 
scratching for fleas on his body. Wise. 

Fit [fit], adj. a fit time, i. e. a long time ; fit deal of trouble, i. e. 
much trouble. N. and Q. 1st S. x. 120. 

Fitten [fit-un], sb. a pretence. *Ak. 

Fitten [fit*n], part. pres. fit, proper. Cooper. Put for fitting i. e. 

Fiz-gig [fiz-gig] , sb. a whirligig ; a round piece of iron or brass, ser- 
rated at the rim ; through two holes near the centre, a piece of whip- 
cord is -passed. When set in motion by the twisting of the string, 
either in the air or in water, it makes a whizzing, hissing, or fizzing 
noise. F. M. 

Flags [flagz], sb. pi. (1) The pieces of turf wbich are pared off, in 
burning land. ' The practice of harrowing after burning shakes 
much earth from the^a^rs.' Driver's General View of Agriculture in 
Hants (London, 1794), p. 88. W. W. S. 

(2) The leaves of Typha latifolia. Dr. Bromfield's MSS. J. B. 

Flannel-plant [flan-1-plaant], sb. Verbascum Thapsus. Dr. Bromfield 
in Phytologist, O.S. iii. 598. J. B. 

Flapper [flap-ur], sb. a young bird that has just taken wing, but 
cannot fly fast. Cooper. Applied in Hants to young wild-ducks, 
as, ' To go a popper-shooting.' Wise. 


Flead [fleed], sb. the fat inside the skin of a pig. J. 

Fleck [flek], sb. (1) The fat of a pig before it is boiled down into 
lard. *Ak. has the spelling flick y vlick. 
(2) The fur of the hare. J. 

Fleet [fleet], &.- (1) A sheet of water. K H. 
(2) A ditch filled by tide. J. 

Fleet [fleet] v. to float. Cooper. 

Flem [flem], sb. a 'fleam,' or farrier's lancet, for bleeding cattle. 

Flem-stick [flem-stik], sb. the small stick used for striking the flem 
into the vein. *Ak. 

Flew [floo] adj. puny, weak. K H. See Flue. 
Flick [flik], sb. a thin membrane. J. 

Flick, v. a. (1) To inflict a smart, stinging pain, by striking the 
hand, &c. with [the corner or end of a] silk-handkerchief or other 

(2) To strike a horse a sharp stroke with the end of the lash of a 
whip. N. H. 

(3) v. n. to flutter. Blackmore's Cradock Nowell, ii. p. 63. 

Flick. See Fleck. 

Flicking-comb [flik'in-koam], sb. a large-toothed cornb. J. 

Flipper-de-flapper [flip'ur-di-flap'ur], sb. noise and confusion caused 
by show. Cooper. 

Flisky [flisk'i], adj. small, minute; as 'flisfcy rain,' i.e. fine rain. 
Wise, New Forest. 

Flitch [flich], sb. a plank cut from the middle of a tree. Ex. 'We'll 
get a good flitch out of that 'ere tree.' N. H. 

Flitch, adj. (1) Impertinent, busy, lively. *Ak. 

(2) Good-natured, good-humoured. Ex. 'You are very flitch to- 
day,' i.e. good-natured. Wise, New Forest. Hence 

(3) Over-friendly. Ex. * Don't be too flitch wi'un.' J. 

Flitterings [flit'uringz], sb. pi. the tops of oak-trees when lopped. 
Wise, New Forest, p. 183. 

Flitter-mouse [flit-ur-mousl, sb. a bat. Cf. Germ. Fledermaus. 

Flitterns [flit'urnz], sb. pi. oak saplings. ' Oak-trees and clean oak 
flitterns with their tops, lops, and bark.' Bill of Sale at Hursley, 
June 1876. Asking a man exactly what was meant by flitterns, I was 
told that they would be so called until they were as thick as, or thicker 
than, a man's leg. W. F. Eose. 

Floddy [flodi], adj. plump, stout. Ex. * They pigs befloddicr than 
yourn.' N. H. 

Flook [flook], sb. a hydatid worm found in the livers of rotten sheep. 
*Ak. Com. See Fluders. 


Flop [flop], adv. plump, flat. F. M. Ex. 'To fall flop down.' 

Flounders [flouirdurz], sb. pi. animals found in the livers of rotten 
sheep. Cooper. They are called floolts or fluders in Hants. Wise. 
See Fluders. 

Flouse [flous], v. to dabble, splash, play in the water ; said of 
children, ducks, &c. splashing in the water. Wise. 

Floush-hole [floush-hoal], a hole that receives the waste water from 
a mill-pond, and into which it flows with great violence. Cooper. 

Flucks [flukz], v. a. to peck in anger like a hen. Ex. ' Th' old hen 
flucksed 'un.' 

Fluders [flood'urz], sb. pi. worms, which on certain land get into the 
livers of sheep, when the animal is said to be cothed. Called also 
/looks and flounders. Wise, New Forest. See Cothe. 

Flue [floo], adj. washy, weakly, liable to catch cold, tender. Ex. 
'That horse is very flue.' 1 Cooper. Also called fl uey [flooi]. Wise. 
See Flew. 

Fluff [fluf], sb. the nap of a coat, or any light gossamer substance. 
F. M. ; Com. 

Flush [flush], adj. fledged. *Ak. 

Flush, adj. even or level. Cooper. Probably general among me- 
chanics. ' Flush, a term common to workmen, and applied to surfaces 
which are on the same plane.' Weale's Diet, of Terms in Architecture, 
&c. 5th ed. 

Flying-snakes [flerin-snaikz], sb. pi. dragon-flies. Wise. 

Fob [fob],?;, to froth as beer. Cooper. Ex. 'How the beer/oZw/' 


Fogey [foa'gi], adj. passionate. Wise, New Forest, p. 190. 

Foldshore [foal'dshor], si), the stake, or shore, which supports the 
hurdle of the sheepfold. N. H. 

Fool [fool], sb. a wag ; a witty person ; one who diverts the com- 
pany. Ex. * He do make me laugh so, he be such a fool.' N. H. It 
has, in this sense, no reference to want of intellect. 

Footy [foo'ti], adj. foolish. Wise, New Forest, p. 190. Paltry, 
trifling, valueless. *Ak. Silly, foolish, beneath notice. Cooper. 
Also, contemptibly small. 

Fore-right [foa-r-reit], adj. headstrong. Cooper. In ' Hants a for e- 
right person is an idiot, or a simple person, viz. one that without 
consideration runs headlong and does things hand over head.' Dr. 
Pegge, aios. of Kenticisms ; E. D. S, Glos. C. 3. W. W. S. 

Fork [fauk], sb. a digging fork with three tines. See Prong. N. H. 
Fotch [foch], pt. t. of vb. to fetch. Wise, New Forest, p. 190. 
Fetched [foch-d], pr. of fetch. N. H. 
Foust [foust], v. n. to become musty or mouldy. ET. H. 



Fousty [fou'sti], adj. musty, mouldy. N. H. 

Fowsty [fou'sti], adj. musty, ill-savoured. It is also spoken of the 
asthma called the fowst, and a person is said to be fowsty when he 
has a fit of it. F. M. 

Fractious [frak'shus], adj. quarrelsome, fretful. *Ak. But this is 

Frail [frail], sb. a rush basket, in which labourers carry their food. 
Ex. 'And in las frail a most glorious dinner, hanging on a hedge- 
stake.' Blackmore's Cradock Nowell, iii. p. 65. 

Fray [frai], v. a. to frighten. See Bird-fraying. K H. 

Fresh [fresh], sb. homebrewed small-beer, requiring to be drunk new 
or fresh. Cooper. 

Fresh liquor, sb. unsalted hog's fat. *Ak. 

Frim [frim], adj. growing fast, full of sap. K H. 

Fringed water-lilies [frinj-d wau-tur IHiz], Menyanthes nymphy- 
oideSy sb. the buckbean. 

Frit [frit], pp. as adj. frightened. N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 120. See 

Fritch [frich], adj. intimate, sociable. Grose ; F. M. The same as 
Flitch. Ex. ' You are very fritch with your advice,' i. e. very 
forward or impertinently busy. Wise. See Flitch. 

Frith [frith], sb. copse-wood. Wise, New Forest, p. 183. 

Frithing [fridh'ing], part. pr. cutting underwood. Blackmore's 
Cradock Nowell, iii. 64. 

Froar [froar], pp. frozen. *Ak. Wise. 

Fromward or Frommard [frunrurd], sb. a tool used in lath-rending 
or cleaving. N. H. 

Frought [fraut], pp. frightened. N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 120. Some- 
times pronounced Frit. 

Frout [frout], adj. angry. Winch. Sch. Gl. 
Frow [frou], adj. apt to break off short. N. H. 

Frum [frum], adj. fresh, juicy ; applied to corn, grass, vegetables, 
&c. *Ak. Apples from the tree are said to be frum. See Frim. 

Frump [frump], sb. a cross old woman. F. M. 

Frying-pans [frei-in-panz], sb. pi. the ' cups ' of acorns. Wise. 

Fudgy [fudj'i], adj. irritable, fretful, uneasy. Ex. ' They young cows 
are apt to be fudgy in milking.' N. H. 

Funch [funch], v. a. to push rudely. Ex. ( He funched me, an' I 
funched 'un agin.' J. A mispronunciation for punch. 

Furk [furk], v. to expel; to be furked, to be expelled. Winch. Sch. 
Gl. [Old Eng. firke, to drive away.] 


Furl [furl |, v. to throw. Ex. ' He furled a geart stick at his head.* 
J. (Probably a mispronunciation of Hurl.) 

Furze [fuz], sb. Ulex europceus, R. Turner, Botanologia, 1664. 
J. B. *Ak. gives the pron. * fuz.' So pronounced, but in North 
Hants the Ulex is generally called Gorse. 

Furze-hacker [fuz-hak'ur], sb. the bird whinchat ; so called from its 
cry. Wise, New Forest, p. 270. 

Furze-jack [fuz-jak], sb. the whinchat. N. H. 
Fusty [fust-i], adj. thirsty. *Ak. 

Gaany [gaani], adj. sticky. K H. 

Gaa oot [gaa oot], interj. go out, go outwards ; addressed to horses in 
a team. The opposite to coom hedder, come hither. *Ak. 

Gaby, sb. a stupid or clumsy fellow. *Ak. Com. 

Gaffer [gaf'ur], sb. grandfather. Cooper. 

Gag [gag], v. to choke ; like a dog or cat in eating greedily. J. 

Gait [gait], sb. a crotchet, a whim. * When a person has done any- 
tjiing foolish, he says' 4 This is a, gait I have got." ' Wise, New Forest. 

Gale [gail], sb. an old bull, castrated. Grose ; Warner ; F. M. 
Gall [gaul], sb. a disease in the oak tree. W. H. C. 

Galley [gaH], v. to frighten. Wise, New Forest, p. 165. *Ak. 
gives ' gallered, gallowed, frightened.' Chatterton has the word, 
which he no doubt picked up at Bristol. 

' List ! now the thunder's rattling noisy sound 
Moves slowly on, and then, full-swollen, clangs ; 
Shakes the high spire, and lost, expended, drowned, 
Still on the gallard ear of terror hangs.' 

Chatterton' s Works, ed. Skeat, ii. 112. 

See also Trans, of the Phil. Soc., 1858, pt. i. pp. 123, 124, with refer- 
ence to gallow in Shakespeare's King Lear, iii. 2. 

Galley, v. a. to drive away. Ex. ' Gcdley them pigs out o' the 
peasen.' J. Evidently a second meaning of the same verb. 

Galley-baggar [gali-bag'ur], sb. a scarecrow. Wise, New Forest, 
p. 165. *Ak. gives the form galley-crow. Evidently compounded 
from the preceding. 

Gallows [gal'uz], sb. a frame formed by fixing four poles, two and 
two, in the ground, crossed X wise, and laying another pole across, 
against which planks or boards are set when sawn out, to dry. 
N. H. 

Galls [gaulz], by, interj. ( By Galls ! ' an oath. Wise. 
Gambril [ganrbrel], sb. a spreader. J. 

D 2 


Gameling [ganrulin], romping about. Cooper. Used of children 
playing. Wise. Merely a corruption of gambolling. 

Games [gaimz], sb. pi. tricks. Ex. ' He played strange games wi' 
'un.' N. H. 

Gamesome [garumsum], adj. forward, dissolute. N". H. 
Gammer [ganrur], sb. grandmother. Cooper. 

Gammocky [ganruki], adj. wild, full of tricks. Ex. * Most boys be 
gammocky at first.' N. H. 

Gant [gaant], adj. gaunt ; thin, lean, long-legged. Cooper. 

Garn [gaan], sb. a garden. *Ak. 

Gawney [gauni], sb. a simpleton. *Ak. A stupid person. N. H. 

Gear [geer], sb. the harness of horses, &c. *Ak. 

Gearn [gairn], sb. a garden. N. H. 

Geart [gurt], adj. great. N. H. 

Gee [jee], v. to agree, to go on well together. *Ak. 

Genuine [gen'euin], sb. praise. The adjective ' immense ' was pre- 
scriptively attached to it. Ex. ' He got immense genuine for his 
voluntary from the Doctor.' Adams' Wykehamica, p. 424. 

Gettet [get'et], pp. or adj. sprung, or slightly cracked. Wise, New 

Gibber [jib-ur], sb. foolish talk. Wise. 
Gie [gee], v. to give. *Ak. 

Giggle [gigi], v. to stand awry, to stand crooked. Especially of 
small things, which do not stand upright. Wise, New Forest. 

Gild-cups [gild'kupz], sb. pi. buttercups and marsh marigolds. The 
latter are sometimes called halcups. ' Mardon-ground, that takes 
more pride in the company of the cowslipp, then the gilt-cup which 
carrieth the garland from the rest.' Yaughan (of New Court) ; Here- 
fordsh. Watenvorks, sig. Q. 2. 

Gill-go-by-ground [jil-goa-bei-ground], sb. Nepeta glechoma. E. 
Turner, Botanologia, 1664. J. B. 

Gimmel [gimi], sb. a ( gambrel,' an iron or wooden splinter used in 
hanging up a pig, sheep, &c. by the tendons of the hock. *Ak. 

Girt, adj. See Geart. 

Glincy [glinsi], adj. smooth, slippery; applied only to ice. 

Glope [gloap], v. to spit. Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Gloxing [gloks'in], sb. the noise made by falling, gurgling water. 
Wise, New Forest, p. 186. *Ak. has ' Glox, the sound of liquids 
when shaken in a barrel. ' 

Glum [glum], adj. dull, heavy, out of spirits, sulky, gloomy. 
Cooper. Com. 


Glutch [gluch], v. (1) to stifle a sob. Wise, New Forest, p. 190. 
(2) To swallow. *Ak. 

Gnash [nash], adj. crude, raw. Lisle. 

Goadsman [goad-zmun], sb. the driver of an ox-team. Ex. ' Thee'st 
a kind-hearted goadsman as ever went to field.' Horace Smith's New 
Forest. A novel. 1829. ii. p. 22. 

God A'mighty's colly-cow [god umeuViz koH-koul sb. the ladybird ; 
CoccineHa septempunctata ; which it is considered unlucky to kill. 
Hants children repeat this rhyme : 

' God almighty* & colly-cow, 

Ply up to heaven ; 
Carry up ten pound, 
And bring down eleven.' 

They also use the common rhyme, quoted in Barnes. 

God a'mighty's thumb-and-fingers, sb. Lotus corniculatus. See 

Goggle [gogi], sb. shake, tremor. Ex. ' His head was all on a 
goggle? said of a paralytick person. N. H. 

Goldcup [goa'ldkup], sb. Ranunculus bulbosits (and no doubt also JR. 
acris and E. repens). Holloway's Dictionary. J. B. Cooper says 
' The meadow ranunculus.' 

Gold Heath [goa-ld heth] sb. Sphagnum. J. B. 

Gold- or Golden- Withy [goa-ld, goal 'dun- widhi], sb. Myrica gale. 
J. B. The bog-myrtle, or sweet gale. 

' Beneath their feet, the myrtle sweet 
Was stamped in inud and gore.' 

New Forest Ballad, by Charles Kingsley. 

' It grows in all the wet places in the Forest, and is excessively sweet, 
the fruit being furnished with resinous glands.' Wise, New Forest. 
It also grows in damp places in the fir woods and heaths in the north 
of the county, in the neighbourhood where Kingsley resided. Its 
sweet scent is very perceptible, especially after a shower, whether it 
be in fruit or only in leaf. W. H. C. 

Goldweed [goa'ldweed], sb. Ranunculus arvensis. J. B. 

Gomer [goa-mur], sb. (1) A pewter dish. 

(2) A new hat.-- Winch. Sch. Ql. Adams suggests 'go-homer' as 
the derivation. Wykehamica, p. 424. 

Gooding [guod-icg], sb. To 'go gooding' is when poor old women go 
about on St. Thomas's day to collect money for Christmas. Wise, 
New Forest, p. 178. The recipients are supposed to be the wives of 
holders of cottages ' goodmen,' i. e. house-holders (comp. St. Matt. 
xxiv. 43), and were called Goodwife or Goody. Hence the name. In 
old lists of Ooodings of Bramshill, the recipients are all entered 
' Goody so-and-so.' 

Goose-gogs [goo'sgogz], sb. pi. gooseberries. F. M. 


Goslings [gos-linz], sb. pi. flowers of the willow. J. 

Gown [goun], sb. coarse brown paper. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 

Grab [grab], v. to rake up with the hands so as to soil them. Cooper. 
Of. to yrub, and Germ, graben, to dig. 

Grabble [grab'1], v. to snatch or take roughly. - 

Grabby [grab-i], adj. grimy, filthy, dirty. Cooper. Cf. grubby. 

Graff, Grampher [graaf, granrfur], sb. a pig brought up by hand. 
Wise, New Forest. See Wosset. 

Graffage [graf'ej], sb. a railed fence at the junction of two ditches, 
or where a ditch abuts on a road at right angles. N. H. 

Graimed [grarmd], adj. begrimed, dirty. *Ak. Ak. has 'grained, 

Gramfer [gram -fur], sb. grandfather. *Ak. 
Grammer [granrur], sb. grandmother. *Ak. 
Grampher. See Graff. 

Grandfather's beard [giah'faadhon beerd], sb. a species of Equisetum 
(mare's-tail). Wise. 

Gray-bird [grai'burd], sb. a thrush. Cooper. 
Grete [greet], sb. mould. Lisle. 

Grey-mullet-hawk [grai-mul'ut-hauk], sb. the osprey, so called, near 
Christchurch, on account of his fondness for that fish. Wise, New 
Forest, p. 261. 

Gringel [gringnil], sb. the viper's bugloss ; Ecliium vulgare. The 
word is rare ; I have only heard it once or twice. Wise. 

Grip [grip], sb. (1) Corn is said 'to lie in gri-pj i. e. to lie on the 
ground, before it is bound up in sheaf. Lisle. 

(2) ' A grip of wheat/ the handful of wheat grasped in reaping. 

(3) A small ditch or drain. Cooper. 

Grip, v. a. to grip or to grip up, i. e. to take up the wheat, and put 
it into sheaf. Lisle. 

Gripe [greip], sb. an armful. Lisle. 

Grist, Griz [grist, griz], v. to gnash and show the teeth angrily. Cf. 
A.S. toj?a gristbitung, gnashing of teeth ; St. Matt. xxv. 30. *Ak. 

Grist, sb. both the wheat sent to the mill and the flour which comes 
back are so called. ' The toll is heavier than the grist ,' is a common 
proverb in reference to foolish expense. Wise. 

Grizing [grerzing], sb. the snarling of a dog. Wise, New Forest, 
p. 186. 

Grommer [gronrur], v. to make very grimy ; said of dirt. Of dirty 
children it would be said, ' It's grommered in 'em.' Wise. 


Groom [groom], sb. a forked stick used by thatchers for carrying 
bundles of straw. Spelt Qrom. *Ak. E. D. S. B. 3. 

Gross [groas], adj. luxuriant, rank ; applied to crops. Wise, New 

Ground-ash [ground ash], sb. a young ash sapling. Winch. Sell. Gl. 

Ground Elder [ground eld -ur], sb. JEgopodium Podagraria. 'The 
common name throughout Hants.' Dr. Bromfield in Flora Vectensis, 
202. J. B. 

Ground-hawk [ground hauk], sb. the goat-sucker. ' Known through- 
out the Forest as the night-hawk, night-crow, ground-hawk, from its 
habits and manner of flying.' Wise, New forest, p. 311. See 

Gull [gul], sb. a gosling; K H. In S. Hants called also a 
maiden. Gull occurs frequently in Shakespeare. Wise. 

Gull [gul], v. to laugh, to sneer, to make mouths. *Ak. (who writes 
gule). Ex. * You have no cause to gull us.' Wise. 

Gumbly [gunrbli], adj. or adv. confused or disorderly ; spoken of 
fine work. F. M. 

Gummy [gunri], adj. thick-ankled. J. 

Gumption [gunrshun], sb. ingenuity, common sense. *Ak. Nearly 

Gunney [gnn-i], adv. archly, cunningly. ' He looked gunney at me.' 
Wise, New Forest. 

Gunney [guni], v. to look archly, knowingly. ' He gunney 'd at 
me,' he looked straight at me. Wise, New Forest. Of. squiny in 

Gurgeons [gurjunz], sb. pollard, coarse flour. *Ak. 
Guzzle [guz-1], v. to drink voraciously. *Ak. Com. 

Hack [hak], v. to reap beans; the reapers use two hooks, one to 
cut, and the other, an old one, to pull up the halm. Wise, New 


Hacker [halrur], v. to stutter, stammer. Wise. See Hakker. 

Hackle [hak-1], sb. the straw cover of a bee-hive ; the straw covering 
of the apex of a rick. Cf. A.S. hcecele, a cloak, mantle. *Ak. 

Hackle, v. to agree together. 

Haft [haaft], sb. the handle of an axe, pick-axe, or mattock. N. H. 
Cf. Germ, haft. 

Hag [hag], v. to cut. J. Evidently a mispronunciation for ' hack.' 

Hag, sit. a haw, or berry of the hawthorn. Wise, New Forest, p. 
54. See below. 


Hag-berry, Hogberry [hag'ber'i, hog'ber'i], sb. the berry of the 

white- thorn. See above. Wise. 
Haggils [hagilz], sb. pi. haws of the white-thorn, N. Hants. Wise. 

Haggises [hag-isuz], sb. pi. hips; the berries of the dog-rose (Rosa 
canina). F. M. 

Haggle [hag'l], v. to stand hard in dealing. Cooper. 
Hagler [hag'lur], sv. a farm-servant; a handy man. J. 

Halcups [hal'kups], sb. pi. marsh-marigolds (Caltlia palustrus). 
Called also gold-cups. Wise. 

Hakker [hak'ur], v. to tremble with passion. *Ak. Never used in 
this sense in North Hants. It probably means to be in such a passion 
that a person hackers (stammers) with rage. W. H. 0. See Hacker. 

Halm [haum], sb. the stalks of beans, peas, &c. Cooper has it under 
the name ' nam t ' which is the universal pronunciation in N. Hants. 
Cf. A.S. healm. *Ak. 

Hame [haim], sb. small pieces ; in the phrase ' all to hame,' all to 
bits, said cf broken glass. Perhaps from wheat running ' to halm,' 
pronounced haim. Wise, New Forest. It is never so pronounced in 
North Hants. 

Hames [haimz], sb. pi. the pieces of wood or metal attached to the 
collar of a horse, and to which the traces are attached. *Ak. has it. 

Hand [hand] , sb. performance, part, share. Ex. ' I had no hand 
in it.' 

Handbolts [hand'boalts], sb. pi handcuffs. Wise. 
Handy [hand-i], adj. skilful, clever. *Ak. Com. 

Hangers [hang-urz], sb. pi. downs or hills. The Hangers near 
Bishop's Waltham are a line of downs on the road to Winchester. 
Somner in his Dictionary quotes from the book of Abingdon a passage 
relative to the passage of Cnut's army in 1015 : ' & ferd to Lundene 
eal be norSan Temese & swa at }?uruh Clseighangran.' Clceighangrt 
is Clay-hill, in the parish of Wotton, Hertfordshire. F. M. Cooper 
defines it as 'a hanging wood on a declivity of a hill.' Barnes has 
' hangen, the sloping side of a hill, called by the Germans ein abhang,' 
which is much more satisfactory. ' These hangers are woods on the 
sides of very steep hills. The trees and underwood hang, in some 
sort, instead of standing on it. Hence these places are called hangers.' 
Cobbett's Rural Hides, p. 87. 1 

Hanker [hank'ur], v. a. to wish. Always used with the preposition 
' after ' suffixed. Ex. ' To hanker after a thing ' = to wish for it. 
N. H. 

Haps [haps] sb. a hasp. A.S. hceps. *Ak. 

^Cobbett, though not a Hampshire man, was bora and brought up in a 
parish adjacent to the boundary ; lived much in the county ; and must have 
been familiar with its dialect. 


Hard [haad], sb. a gravelly landing-place in a harbour or creek. 
Ex. 'Portsea Hard; Gosport Hard; Priddy's Hard.'W. H. 0. 

Harg [haag], v. to argue. Ex. ' They'd harg me out o' my Christian 
name.' See Donnarg. Wise. 

Harl [haal], sb. the hock of a sheep. Wise, Neiv Forest. 

Harl, v. to become knotted, or entangled. "Wise. *Ak. gives liarl, 
knotted. ' All in a harl,' all in a tangle. See Haul. 

Harnen [haarnun], adj. made of horn. *Ak. If a horse's skin is 
coarse, it is called harnen. Wise. 

Harts [haats], sb. pi. orts ; fragments of broken victuals. Cooper. 
Ex. ' Who is going to eat your harts? ' Wise. See Eairts. 

Harvest-lice [haarvest-leis], sb. pi. fruits of Galium Aparine, and 
Agrimonia Eupatoria. J. B. 

Hash [hash], adj. harsh, severe. *Ak. And also used in the sense 
of hard, not pliable. Ex. ' That rope's too hash.'N. H. 

Haskin [haskin], sb. an inferior kind of cheese. Wise. 
Haslet [haz-lit], sb. the edible entrails of a pig. 

Hassock [has'uk], sb. a tuft of rushes or sedges. White's Nat. Hist. 
of Selborne ; Letter viii. See Torret. 

Hat [hat], sb. (1) A clump or ring of trees, e.g. the 'Dark Hats,' 
near Lyndhurst. 

(2) Any small irregular mass of trees, as the ' Withy-Bed Hat,' in 
the valley, near Boldrewood. Wise, New Forest, p. 183. 

Hatch [hach], sb. a half-door. The buttery-7*a#c/i, in old halls, was a 
half-door, with a ledge on the top. A.S. hcvc, a grating. *Ak. Ex. 
'I opened the top-hatch,' or, 'both hatches.' Wise. 

Hatch, sb. a gate. Generally a gate dividing parishes or manors. 
Ex. The Hatch-gate ; the sign of a public-house at the place where 
the gate between Bramshill and Heckfield stood : Tyler's Hatch, the 
name of the gate between Bramshill and Swallowfield. N. H. 

Hatched [hach'd], #p. cut, trimmed; used of cutting and trimming 
bark for the market. See Maiden-bark. Wise. 

Hatch-hook [hach-hook], sb. the kind of bill-hook used for 
chopping oak-bark small for the tanner, termed hatching bark. 

Haul [haul], sb. entanglement. ' It's all in a haul ' ; spoken of en- 
tangled yarn, cotton, &c. F. M. 

Haulm. See Halm. 

Haunt [haunt], v. to haunt pigs or cattle in the New Forest, is to 
accustom them to repair to a certain spot, by throwing down beans or 
fodder there when they are first turned out. F. M. 

Haves [haavz], sb. pi. i. e. halves. The [Winchester] College name 
for half -boots. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 425. 


Hawbuck [hatrbukl, sb. a term of reproach ; a hulking lout ; a 
clown. Used by Cobbett in his writings, and in a novel (I forget the 
title) of which the scene is laid in the New Forest. F. M. 

Hay-hoa [harhoa], sb. Nepeta gleclwma. K. Turner, Botanologia, 
1664. J. B. 

Hayn, or hayn up [liain], v. a. to hedge in; to preserve grass 
grounds from cattle. Lisle. 

Hay ward [hai'wurdj, sb. the warden of a common. Wise, New 
Forest, p. 166. An officer of a manor. See Howard. 

Haze [haiz], v. to dry ; to ripen. Ex. ' The corn be'ant hazed 
enough.' J. 

Heal [heel], v. a. to cover in. Ex. ' To heal seed with harrows ' = to 
to cover it in. Lisle. 

Heart [haat], sb. goodness, condition, as applied to land. A com- 
mon covenant is to leave the land ' in good heart and condition.' 

Heart, sb. Vaccinium Myrtillus. J. B. The bilberry. 

Hearting, Harting [haat'in], sb. the gathering of bilberries ; as, 
' to go hearting. 1 It should rather be harting. Wise, New Forest. 
See Black-heart. 

Heart' s-ease [haats-eez], sb. Viola Tricolor. Halliwell ; J. B. 

Hearty [haat'i], adj. consisting of heart-wood ; not sappy. Applied 
to trees, and to timber. N. H. 

Heath-cropper [heth-krop-ur], sb. a small, poor horse. In Driver's 
Gen. View of Agriculture in Co. Hants (London, 1794), p. 27, we are 
told that the small horses bred in Hampshire, ' having scarcely any- 
thing to feed on but heath, have hence derived the appellation of 
heath-croppers' W. W. S. 

Heath-poult [heth-poalt], sb. the black grouse; Tetras tetrix, Lin. 
Wise, New Forest, p. 309. 

Heaves [heevz], sb. hillocks, such as made by a mole. Mole-hillocks 
are called Mole-Agaves or Wont-heaves. Wise. 

Hecth [hekth], sb. height. *Ak. 

Hedge Lilies [hedj liHz], sb. pi. Convolvulus sepium. J. B. 

Hedge-picks [hedj-pikz], sb. pi. the fruit of the common black-thorn 
or sloe (Prunus spinosa], J. B. 

Hee grass [hee'graas], sb. stubble of grass Lisle. 

Heel [heel], v. properly, to cover up ; to heel in the bed-clothes 
means to tuck up the bed at the feet. F. M. See Heal. 

Heft [heft] sb. See Haft, which is often pronounced as above. 

Heft, sb. weight. Ex. ' The heft of the branches.' Wise, New 
Forest, p. 188. 


Heft, v. To lift a thing, so as to try the weight of it. Ex. ' To 
heft the bee-pots,' to lift the bee-hives to see how much honey they 
contain. Wise, New Forest, p. 188. Ex. ' Heft un,' i. e. feel the weight 
of it. *Ak. 

Heirs [hairz], sb. pi. young timber-trees. Cooper. Saplings. 
Hele [heel], v. to pour out of one vessel into another. *Ak. 
Hell [hel], sb. a dark place in the woods. "Wise, New Forest. 
Helm [helm], sb. halm or straw prepared for thatching. Lisle. 
Helm, v. To lay the straw in order for thatching. Lisle. 
Heltrot [hel-trot], sb. Heracleum Sphondylium. J. B. 

Henge [henj], sb. the liver and lights and fry of a pig or sheep. Ex. 
' A sheep's head and henge.' ' A pig's henge.' Wise. 

Herder [hurd'ur], sb. a sieve. 'A rhyme about honey-combs or 
workings says : 

" Sieve upon herder, 
One upon the other ; 
Holes upon both sides, 
Not all the way though. 
What may it be ? See if you know ? ' " 

Wise, New Forest, p. 185. 

Herence [heruns], adv. hence. *Ak. 
Hereright [hee-ureit], adv. on the spot. *Ak. 
Heriff [her if], sb. Galium Aparine. J. B. 
Heth [heth], sb. heath. K H. 

Hiders-catch-winkers [heid-urz-kech-wink-urz], sb. the children's 
game of hide and seek. Wise. 

Highlows [herloaz], sb. pi. very thick, high shoes, not half boots. 
Winch. Sch. Gl. See Haves. 

Hike [heik], v. to go away ; used in a contemptuous sense. Ex. 
'Hike off! ' i. e. begone. Icel. hika, hvika, to quail, shrink, waver. 
P. M. So also Cooper and *Ak. 

Hile [heil], sb. (1) A sheaf of wheat. Wise, New Forest. 
(2) A shock of twelve sheaves. J. 

Hile [heil], v. to put up wheat into sheaves. Sheaves of barley or 
oats are called pucks. Wise, New Forest. 

Hil-trot [hil'trot], sb. the wild carrot ; Daucus carota. Wise, New 
Forest. But see Heltrot, where the name is more accurately allotted 
to a different plant. W. H. 0. 

Hin [hinj, pron. him ; but (more commonly) it. Ex. ' Poor zowl on 
hin* ; i.e. poor soul of him. 'I cant aupen hin, maester,' I can't 
open it, master. A.S. hine, hyae, ace. sing. *Ak. 

Hinge [hinj], sb. the heart, liver, and lungs of a sheep. *Ak. Also 
of a calf or bullock, or of a man. Wise. See Henge. 


Hint [hint], v. to lay up ; to put together. JS". H. 
Hit [hit], sb. a good crop. *Ak. 

Hit, v. n. to look promising; said of crops. Ex. 'The apples hit 
well f year.' *Ak. ' The corn hit well,' i. e. looks well. Wise. 

Hit, v. a. to throw, to pitch. Generally followed by a preposition. 
Ex. 'Hit 'un up.' So to hit out; or to hit away. Of. Germ. ' Hebt 
es auf ' = ' Lift it up.' N. H. 

Ho [hoa], sb. f ass, bustle. Ex. ' He made a great ho about it.' 
Evidently derived from the interjection Ho ! See A-ho. 

Hoar-withey [hoar-widlri], sb. Pyrus Aria. The white-beam. J. B. 

Hob [hob], sb. a potato-A0&, i. e. a place where potatoes are covered 
over. Wise, New Forest, p. 163. 

Hob-lantern [hob-laan'turn], sb. a Will-o'-the-wisp, a Jack-o'-lantern. 

Hock [hok], v. to hack, to cut in a haggling unworkmanlike manner. 


Hocksing [hoks*in],jpf. walking rudely, trespassing. N". H. 
Hocksing-up [hoks'in-up], pt. throwing down. X. H. 
Hog-berry. See Hag-berry. 
Hog-fold [hog-foald], sb. a fold of young sheep. N. H. 

Hoggets, Hog-colts [hog-etz, hog-coaltz], sb. pi. colts of a year old. 
Warner. O. Er. hogetz.F. M. 

Hog-haghes, or haws [hog-haaz or hauz], sb. pi. fruit of OratcRgus 
Oxyacantha. Holloway's Dictionary of Provincialisms. J. B. 

Hogo [hoa'goa], sb. a bad smell. F. M. 
Hog-sheep [hog-ship], young sheep. N. H. 
Holl [hoi], v. to hurl or throw. Cooper. 
Hollis [hoi- is], sb. an oval pebble. Winch. Sell. Gl. 

Hollow [hol'ur], v. n. to cry out ; to make a loud noise. Used of 
animals as well as of mankind. Ex. ' I heard the mare hollowing, 1 
i. e. neighing. ' That cow was hollowing,' i. e. lowing. ' I don't want 
no children hollowing about here,' i. e. crying. 

Holm-bush [hoam buosh], sb. an old holly. 'The expression "to 
rattle like a boar in a holme-lush " is a thorough proverb of the Eorest 
district.' Wise, New Forest, p. 179. 

Holm [hoam], sb. Ilex aquifolium. J. B. 

Holm-frith [hoam-frith], sb. a holly-wood. Blackmore's Cradock 
Nowell, ii. p. 62. 

Holt [hoalt], sb. a wood on a hill. J. 
Holt, interj. hold ! stop ! *Ak. 

Honeysuck [hunisuk], sb. Lonicera Periclymenum. Holloway's 
Dictionary. J. B. 


Honeysuckle [hmrisuk'l], sb. the louse-wort ; Pedicularis sylvatica. 
Wise. But in North Hants this name or the preceding is invariably 
applied to the Lonicera. W. H. 0. 

Hoo [hoo], sb. simmering ; as 'the kettle is on the Jwo.' See below. 
Wise, New Forest. 

Hoo, v. to simmer, to boil. Wise, New Forest. 

Hooi [hooi], sb. the sound made by wind whistling round a corner, 
or through a keyhole. Wise, New Forest. 

Hook [huk], v. to strike with the horn. Cows are said to hook a 
person down, and to hook one another. Wise. See Hike in Gloss. B. 
5 (E. D. S.}. 

Hoop [hoop], adv. ' to go &-lioop,' i. e. to go where you like. ' He 
is going Si-hoop,' i. e. is going to the bad. Wise, New Forest. 

Hoosbird [hoo'zburd], sb. the same as wosbird. ' A term of reproach ; 
the meaning of which appears to be unknown to those who use it ; it 
is evidently a corruption of whore's bird.' Akerman's Wiltsh. Gl. 
Sir F. M. notes, in a copy of Akerman' s Springtide, p. 27 : ' So also 
in Hampshire, but pronounced hoosbird ' F. M. [i. e. hoo'zburd. Pro- 
bably the bird is the Old Eng. burd, a young woman ; and the primary 
signification, a bastard daughter. W. W. S.]. 

Hop-abouts [hop-u'bouts], sb. pi. apple-dumplings. F. M. 

Hopfrog [hop -frog], sb. the common frog. The opposite term seems 
to be ' heavy-gaited toad ' in Shakespeare. 

Hop-scotch [hop'skoch], sb. a game played amongst schoolboys. 
F. M. Com. 

Hord for [haud for], pp. provided for. Wise. *Ak. gives Howed 

Horse [haus], sb. to put a frog or toad to death by placing it on the 
end of a balanced stick, and, by striking the other end smartly, send- 
ing the poor animal high into the air, of course killing it by the fall. 
F. M. See SpangwJiew, in Glos. B. 7. E. D. S. 

Horsebeech, Husbeech [haus-beech, hus-beech], sb. the hornbeam. 
Cooper. Carpinus betulus. 

Horse-lease [hausieez]. See Lease. 
Hort [haut], v. to hurt. Cooper. 

Hos-stenger [haus-steng'ur], sb. a horse-stinger, i. e. the dragon-fly. 
*Ak. Eather the horse-fly. W. H. 0. See Startle-Bob. 

Hot-pot [hot-pot], sb. warmed ale and spirits. Cooper. Not very 
common in Hants. Wise. 

Hough [huf], v. to breathe hard. Ex. ' It made me hough going up 
hill.' J. 

Housen [hou-zn], pi. of house. *Ak. 


Housewallah [hous'wol'ur], sb. one who inhabits a house, in con- 
tradistinction to a dweller in a tent. Used commonly by the gypsy- 
tribes in North Hants. W. H. 0. 

Housle [hou-zul], v. to hustle. Winch. Sch. Gl. 
How [hou], pron. who? Cooper. 

Howard [hoirurd?], sb. a hay- ward (q. v.) or cattlekeeper. N. and 
Q. 1st Ser. x. 400. 

Huck [huk], v. a. to push, to lift, to gore as a cow. See Hook. 

N. H. 
Huckmuck [huk'muk], sb. a strainer used in brewing. *Ak. 

Huck-muck [huk'muk], adj. comfortless, without order. Cooper 
spells it hugger-mugger ; on which Wise notes huckmuck in Hants. 

Hud [hud], v. to hide. *Ak. 

Hudgy [hudj'i], adj. (1) Thick, clumsy. *Ak. 
(2) Short. Wise. 

Hudmedud [hud'midudj, sb. (1) A scarecrow. See Gallybaggar. 

(2) A stingy person. Wise. 

Huff [huf], sb. ' A huff of cattle ' is a drove or herd. Wise, New 
Forest, p. 185. Ex. ' The cattle in huffs came belloking to the lew of 
the boughy trees.' Blackmore, Cradock Nowell, ii. 62. 

Huff, sb. very strong (Winchester) College ale. Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Huffled [huf -uld], pp. as adj. angry, offended. To huff, in Forby, is 
to scold. F. M. 

Hulk [hulk], sb. a lout, a lubber. * The hulk, Sir John.' Shak. 
2 Hen. IV. I. i. 19. F. M. 

Hull [hul], sb. the husk or chaff of corn. Cooper. Used generally 
in the pi. in North Hants. 

Hum-water [hunrvvau'tur], sb. a cordial 'made from the common horse- 
mint, mentha aquatica. Wise, New Forest. See Bishopwort. 

Hunch [hunsh], v. a. to push, or gore as a cow. N. H. 

Hunch, sb. a solid piece of bread, meat, or cheese. Cooper. Com. 

Hurst [hurst], sb. a wood. Cooper. 

Hustle-cap [husl-kap], sb. a game, in which half-pence are placed 
in a cap and thrown up ; a sort of * pitch-and-toss.' F. M. 

I spy I [ei spei ei], sb. the game of ' Hide and Seek.' N. H. 

Ice-candles [eis-kandlz], icicles; called also daglets and ice- 
lets. In the old local song of A Time to Remember the Poor, we have : 

* Here's the poor Robin-redbreast approaching our cot, 
And the ice-candles hanging at our door.' Wise. 


Icelets [eisiitz], sb. pi. icicles. North Hants (rare). See Ice candles. 

He [eil], sb. oil. Cooper. 

Ill-conditioned [il-kondislrund], adj. bad : worthless ; ill-tempered. 
N. H. 

Ill-convenient [il-konvee'nyent], adj. for inconvenient. N. H. 

In [in], v. to house corn. Cooper. 

Inbarn [nrbaan], v. to house corn in barns. IS". H. 

In-co's [in'coaz], i. e. in partnership. Cooper. 

Iniun [iiryun], sb. an onion. F. M. 

Innerds [in-urdz], sb. pi. inwards. ' Pig's innerdsj entrails. *Ak. 
See Chitterlings. 

Inon [hrun], sb. an onion. *Ak. 

Inward [nrwu'rd], adj. silent, reserved. J. 

Inwardly [nrwu'rdli], adv. inaudibly. Ex. ' He spoke so inwardly 
I couldn't rightly understand him.' J. 

Ire [eir], sb. iron. Ex. ' That ire is not good ; ' where it is used for 
iron-stone. Wise. 

Isle-of-Wight parson [eil-u-weit paa-sun], sb. the cormorant ; Carbo- 
cormoramts, Meyer. Wise, New Forest, p. 309. 

Isle- of- Wight Rock [eil-u-weit rok], sb. a particular kind of skim- 
milk cheese, extremely hard, only to be masticated by the firmest 
teeth, and digested by the strongest stomachs. Warner, Hist. Isle 
of Wight, p. 292. W. W. S. 

Isses [is'ez], sb. pi. earthworms. Grose; F. M. See Eace. 

Ivy-drum [ervi-drum], sb. the stem of an ivy tree or bush, which 
grows round the bole of another tree. Wise, New Forest. 

Ix [iks], sb. an axle-tree. Cooper. 

Jack [jak], sb. a lever playing on a pin, to raise a waggon or carriage 
in order to take off the wheels. N. H. 

Jack, sb. a large leather vessel for beer. Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Jack-hern [jak 'hum], sb. a heron. I. of Wight. Cooper. Also 
Wise, New Forest. 

Jack-in-the-Green [jak-in-dhi-green], sb. a name given to the various 
kinds of polyanthus seen in the cottagers' gardens. Wise. 

Jack-in-the-hedge [jak-in-dhi-hedj], sb. the bryony ; Bryonia dioscia. 

Jack-o'-lantern [jak-u-laant-u'rn], sb. a will-o'-the-wisp. See Hob 
lantern. *Ak. 


Jacks, ragged. See Ragged-jacks, 

Jack-straw [jak-strau], sb. the stonecliat ; so called from its nest 
being formed of hay and straw. Wise. 

Jan [jaii], prop, name, John. *Ak. 
Janders [jaan-durz], sb. the jaundice. *Ak. 
Janty [jaant'i], adj. showy. Cooper. 

Jar-bird [jaa-burd], sb. the goat-sucker so named from its jarring 
noise. Wise, New Forest, p. 187. See Night-jar. 

Jasey [jai-zi], sb. a wig. Forby says it is a corruption, from being 
made of Jersey yarn. F. M. Which derivation is absurd, there being 
no yarn made in Jersey.- W. H. C. 

Jawled-out [jau id-out], adj. excessively fatigued. Cooper. 

Jawster [jairstur], sb. one given to overmuch speech. Adams' 
Wykehamica, p. 425. 

Jews-ears [jeirz-eerz], sb. pi. the tomato, or love-apple. F. M. 

Jibbet [jib'ut], sb. a small quantity, small load. Ex. ' Ajibbet of 
corn or hay.' Wise. See Jobbett and Knitch. 

Jobation [joabarshun], sb. a severe lecture or reprimand. Cooper. 

Jobbett [job'ut], sb. a small quantity, commonly of hay or straw. 
Grose ; Warner ; F. M. ; *Ak. < A small load.' *Ak. 

Jockey [jok-i], v. a. to get before another. Ex. ' I've jockeyed him 
in cuse,' i. e. the list of boys arranged in their form order. Adams' 
Wykehamica t p. 426. 

Jod-trot, sb. jog-trot. Wise. 
Joggle [jog'l] v. to shake. J. 

Joist [jeist], v. to take in cattle to keep at a certain price per head 
or score. Lisle. 

Jorney [jau'ni], sb. a day's work or day's journey. Cooper. Used 
in N. H. for a day's work only. W. H. C. 

Jorum, or Joram [joa'rum], sb. the peculiar- shaped tin can in which 
beer was served out [at Winchester College]. Adams' Wykehamica, 
p. 426. 

Joseph-and-Mary [joa-zef un mai-ri], sb. Pulmonaria officinalis. 
J. B. 

Joseph's- walking-stick [joa'zefs-wau'kin-stik], sb. Polemonium co&ru- 
leum. Wise, New Forest. 

Joss, Jossing-block [jos, josiug-blok], sb. a block by which a rider 
mounts his horse. Cooper. 

Jostle [jos-1], v. (1) To cheat. Cooper. 
(2) To push rudely. N. H. 

Jub [jub], v. to move as a slow heavy horse. Cooper. 


Jubilee [jeu'bili], sb. a pleasant time. Ex. ' Won't next holidays be 
a jubilee? we've an extra week.' Adams' Wykehamica, p. 426. 

Jump-up-and-kiss-me [juinp-up-und-kis-mi], sb. the name given to 
the heart's ease or pansy ; Viola tricolor, Linn. F. M. 

Junk [junk], sb. a log. Ex. ' a junk of wood/ a log of wood. 
Wise. Corrupted from chunk. W. W. S. 

Junket over [junk-ut oa'vur], v. to triumph or exult over another 
person in a friendly manner. Ex. * I junket over you, old fellow ; I 
have leave out to-morrow.' Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Just about [just ubout 1 ], adj. very, extremely ; used as an intensive. 
Ex. ' He was just about geart,' he was certainly a big fellow, and no 
mistake about it. Wise. 

Justly [just'li], adv. exactly, accurately. Ex. ' I can't justly say.'- 

Kack-making [kak'markin], sb. making children's boots and shoes. 

Kacks [kakz], sb. pi. children's boots and shoes. Wise. 

Keach, Kech [keech, kech], v. to congeal. *Ak. (Also spelt, 
keatch) ketch.] 

Keck [kek], v. to retch,~as if sick. *Ak. 
Keeker [kek-ur], sb. the windpipe. *Ak. 

Keep [keep], sb. the metal band which retains a latch, and in which 
it plays. N. H. 

Keep, sb. growing food for horses or cattle. *Ak. Ex. ' We've 
plenty o' keep for 'em.' 

Kell [kel], sb. a kiln ; as lime-kcll, briclc-kell. Cooper. 

Kelter [kelt-ur], sb. condition. Ex. * We're all in good belter.' J. 

Ker [kur], sb. the pochard. See Red-head. 

Kerf [kurf], sb. (1) The furrow made by a saw ; a notch in wood. > 
Cooper. Ex. ' A little kerf in it.' Wise. 
(2) A layer of hay or turf. 

Kettle-pad [keti-pad], sb. purple orchis (Orchis mascula?). J. 

Kex, Kexy [keks, keks-i], sb. the dry stalk of the hemlock. Ex. 
' As dry as kex. } (Ak. has keeks [mispr. for kecks] kecksy, the dry 
stalks of hemlock, with the illustration, ' as dry as keeks' But the 
right old spelling is kex, and it is properly singular. ) Withering 
gives kex as a name of the common hemlock, Conium maculatum. 
W. H. C. 

Kex, tab. the fruit of the wild sloe. J. Prunus spinosa. 

Kexy, sb. Conium maculatum, according to Holloway's Glossary ; but 
no doubt a general term for the stems of Umbelliferce. J. B. 


Keys [keez], the seeds of the sycamore and ash. *Ak. Hence asli- 

Keystone [kee-stoan], sb. ' Everywhere was understood the smuggler's 
local proverb, " Keystone under the hearth, Keystone under the horse's 
belly," i. e. the smuggled spirits were concealed either below the tire- 
place, or in the stable, just beneath where the^ horse stood.' Wise, 
New Forest, p. 170. 

Kibble [kib'l], sb. rubbish, as dead leaves, broken brush-wood, or the 
like. N. H. 

Kid [kid], sb. (1) The pod of beans, pease, &c. Cooper. 

(2) Cheese. Winch. Sch. Ol. 

(3) A small wooden tub, with handle, used on board ship to receive 
the rations of brandy, &c., or to hold water. F. M. Called a kyt in 
Barbour's Bruce, b. xviii. 1. 168. 

Kid, v. n. to produce kids or pods ; used of beans, &c. Ex. ( They 
beans have kidded uncommon well.' N. H. 

Kiddle [kid'l], v. to entice, to coax. Cooper. 

Kidware [kid'wair], sb. pulse growing in cods or pods. Grose ; F. M. 

Kill [kil], sb. a kiln. K H. 

Kink [kink] sb. over-twisted yarn. J. An entanglement. Ex. 
' He's got all of a kink.'N. H. 

Kit [kit], sb. the entire quantity. Ex. ' The whole kit.' *Ak. 

Kit-in-the-candlestick [kit-in-dhi-kand-1 stik], sb. the Will-o'-the- 
wisp ; Ignis fatuus. Wise. 

Kittering 1 [kit-ur'ing], adj. weak. Wise, New Forest. See Tilly. 

Kittle [kit-1], adj. liable to take a cold. K H. Subject to accidents, 
uncertain. Lisle. 

Kiver [kiv ur], sb. a cover ; a cooler used in brewing. *Ak. See 

Knabbler [nabiur *?], sb. a person who talks much to no purpose. 
Cooper. The reason for the prefixed k is not clear. 

Knap [nap], sb. the top of a hill ; also, a small piece of rising ground. 
Cooper. A small hill. Wise. 

Kneeholm [nee-hoain], sb. Ruscus aculeatits. New Forest. I he 
Cousins, by J. Wise. J. B. 

Knettar [net-ur], sb. a string to tie the mouth of a sack. Cooper. 
Lit. a knitter. 

Knitch [nich], sb. a sufficient load of heath, fire- wood, &c. for a man 
to carry. N. H. 

Knot-fine [not-fein], adj. very fine. Lisle. 

Knot-fine, v. n. to turn up fine under the plough. Lisle. 

Knotted Sheep [notid sheep], sb. sheep without horns. Lisle. 


Knub [nub], sb. a knob. Ex. ' Gi' me a hiub o' sugar.' J. Evi- 
dently a mere mispronunciation. 

Kuril [kum], v. to turn to fruit. J. M. E. Tcurnen, P. Plowman 
0. xiii. 180 ; Cf. Germ, kornen. 

Lace [lais], v. a. to thrash, to beat. Ex. * I laced '\m sweetly.' 
N. H. 

Lack [lak], v. to want. Ex. 'I lacks to go.' J. 

Lades [laidz], sb. pi. rails or boarding placed round the top of a 
waggon, jwhich project over, and enable it to bear a greater load. 

Lady-cow [lardi-kou], sb. the coccinnella. J. The invariable name 
in N. H. 

Lady's fingers [lardiz-fing'urz], sb. pi. Lotus corniculatus. J. B. 

Lady's nightcap [lardiz-nertkap], sb. a wildflower ; a species of bind- 
weed. *Ak. Convolvulus septum. 

Short for ' Our lady's nightcap,' and named, as usual, from the 
Virgin Mary. 

Lady's pincushion [lardiz-phrkuoshun], sb. Armeria maritima. 
J. B. 

Lady's smock [lai'diz-smok], sb. Cardamine pratensis. J. B. 

Lady's smock [lai'diz-smok], sb. Arum maculatum [?] Holloway's- 
Dictionary. J. B. All the foregoing names of plants are probably 
called after ' our Lady ' the Blessed Virgin Mary. W. H. C. 

Lag [lag], sb. a pair ; a couple. As ' a lag of gulls,' a young goose 
and gander. N. H. 

Lance [laans], v. to leap, bound ; the deer are said ' to lance over 
the turf.' Wise, New Forest. Cf. French, Lancer. 

Land-cress [land'kres], sb. Cardamine Inrsuta. J. B. 
Lane [lain], sb. a layer; a 'lane of corn' in a stack is a layer. 
Wise, N. Hants. 

Lark's-lease [laaks-leez], sb. a piece of poor land fit only for larks. 
Wise, New Forest. 

Larrup [larr' -up], v. to beat. Cooper. 

Latter [lat-ur], sb. a setting of hen's eggs. J. 

Lattermath [lat-urmath], sb. aftermath, q. v. *Ak. 

Launch [laansh], v. to drag a boy out of bed, mattrass, bed-clothes, 

and all. Winch. Sch. Ol. 
Laurence [lor'-uns], sb. the name of a New Forest fairy. ' If a 

peasant is lazy, it is said, " Laurence has got upon him," or " he has a 

touch of Laurence." & He is still regarded with awe, and barrows are 

called after him. 'Wise, New Forest, p. 174. 



Lavants [lavunts], sb. pi. springs which break out in wet seasons. 
N. Hants. * The land-springs, which we call lavants, break out much 
on the downs.' White, History of Selborne, Letter xix. 

Leap up and kiss me [leep up und Ids mi], sb. Viola tricolor. 
HalliwelL J. B. 

Lear [leer], adj. empty, void. Ex. ' The waggon will be coming 
back leer' Used also of the stomach 'a leer stomach,' i. e. wanting 
food. Hence it signifies faint with hunger. Ex. ' I feel quite /fear.' 
Of. German leer. Cooper; Wise, New Forest, p. 193. N. H. 

Learn [lurn], v. a. to teach. Ex. 'He learned him to write.' 

N. H. 
Lease [leez], v. n. to glean. A.S, lesan, to gather. *Ak. 

Lease, lea, lay, or ley [leez], sb. grassy ground; meadow ground, 
unploughed and kept for cattle. Lisle. 

Leasing [lee-zin], part, gleaning after the reapers. This word is 
found wherever the West-country dialect is spoken. That it is used 
in Hants, will be seen from the following anecdote. When Cob- 
bett lived at Botley, he on one occasion forbad the poor people to 
come gleaning in his corn-fields. A day or two afterwards, as he 
rode through the village, he saw written on a wall in huge uncial 
letters ' We will go a leasin in spite of old Cob.' Cobbett got off his 
horse, and rubbing out the word leasin, substituted thieving, and so 
left it. *Ak. The word is common in N, H. 

Leather-jacket [ledh/ur-jak'ut], sb. an apple with a thick rind. Per- 
haps the leather-coats of Shakesp. 2 Hen. IV. v. 3. 

Leave or Lieve [leev], adv. soon ; rather. Ex. ' I'd as leave not do 't.' 
For Lief, q. v.N. H. 

Leg [leg], sb. a long narrow meadow ; generally when it runs out of 
a larger piece. Wise (note on Cooper). A long narrow piece of land. 

Lemfeg [lenrfeg], sb. an Elleme fig. Elleme is in Turkey. *Ak. 

Lent, Length [lent, lenth], sb. the loan of a thing. *Ak. Ex, 
' Thank you for the lent of it.' Wise. 

Let [let], v. and sb. stop or impede the course of a marble, cricket- 
ball, &c. ; a stoppage. In playing marbles, schoolboys generally 
guard against an accident of this sort by crying out fen lets, which 
gives the owner of the taw a right to push it on to the distance it 
would have probably reached had it net been inadvertently stopped 
by the foot, &c. of a spectator or player. F. M. See Fen. Com. 
in the sense of to hinder. Cf. 2 Thessalonians ii. 7, and Hamlet, i. 4. 

Levver [levur], sb. a lever. Ex. 'Fetch a levver to un.' Used also 
as a v. a. Ex. ' Levver un up a bit.' 

Lew [loo], sb. to 'get into the lew, 1 means to get into a place 
sheltered from the wind. A.S. hleow, hleo, shelter. *Ak. Ex. ' The 
lew of the hedge.' Wise. 

Lew, adj. sheltered from the wind. 


Lewer [loo'ur], sb. a disease in the feet of cattle ; cured by an appli- 
cation of tar, or by rubbing the sore with a tarred string. Wise. 

Lewth [luoth], sb. (1) A place of refuge or shelter from the wind. 

(2) Warmth. A.S. hleow*. *Ak. 

Ley [laif], sb. a recently-mown clover-field is called a clover-7ei/. 

Lief [leev], adv. soon ; ' as lief, 1 as soon. *Ak. merely mentions 
lief, and gives it as a synonym of liefer, which it is not. 

Liefer [lee-vur], adv. rather. *Ak. Comparative of lief '. 

Lift [lift], sb. assistance. Cooper. 

Lill [lil], v. to loll out the tongue. *Ak. 

Lily [KH], sb. Polygonum Convolvulus. l Over the whole county/ 
Fl. Vectensis, p. 435. Also Convolvulus arvensis. J. B. 

Lily-flower [liH-flour], sb. Convolvulus septum. J. B. 
Limber [limb'ur], sb. the shaft of a waggon. Wise. 
Limber, adj. limp, flaccid. *Ak. 

Linchet [lin-chit], sb. a ledge of ploughed ground on the side of a 

hill. N. Hants'. 

Linchets [liirchits], sb. pi. grass strips in ploughed fields. N. H. 
Linge [linj*], adj. pliable; as new leather. N". II. 

Lissen, List [lis'en, list], sb. a line or band of sand is so called. 
Wise, New Forest. List is properly a strip of anything. W. H. 0. 

Lissom [lis'um], adj. lithe, active, nimble. IS". H. *Ak. 

Litches [liclrez], green lumps.] of grass found in hay when 

not properly tedded. N. H. 
Lithy [lei'dhi], adj. pliant, supple. Cooper. 

Litten [lit-n], sb. a churchyard. N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 400. See 

Liver sick [livursik], sb. a hang-nail; a piece of loose skin on the 

finger. N. H. 
Live-under [liv-und-ur], v. to be tenant to, or hold land of. Ex. 

' They've lived under Lord -, father and son, this many a year.' 

N. H. 

Lob [lob], v. to throw gently. Cooper. 
Lob-along [lob-ulong-], v. to walk lazily. J. 
Lobster [lob -star], v. to cry, to blubber. Winch. Sch. Gl. 
Lob-taw [lob- tau], sb. a large marble. J. 
Lock [lok], sb. a small quantity of hay. *Ak. Namely, as much 

as a man can carry under his arm. Wise. 
Lod [lod], pt. t. of vb. to lead. Wise, New Forest, p. 190. 


Lodging [lojin], adj. continuing the same; this quaint but express- 
ive word was made use of by a labouring man, in reply to an 
inquiry after the health of his child: 'Oh, sir, he's pretty much 
lodging, neither better nor worse.' N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 120. , 

Log [log], v. lit. to lag. Ex. 'To hj at school,' to play truant; 

logging, i. e. playing truant. Wise. 

Loggy [log'i], adj. heavy, full to repletion. Ex. 'I be so loggy 
after yettin' ' [eating]. J. 

Lollop [lol'up], v. to lounge in walking. To walk loosely or lazily. 
J. Used also of a horse clumsy in his paces. N. H. 

Lomper [lompmr], v. to walk heavily. J. 

Long [long], adv. in consequence of. Ex. 'It's all long o' he, that 
they done it.' N. II. 

Long-dog [long'dog], sb. a greyhound. Cooper; N". H. 1 

Longful [long-fuel], long, tedious. Ex. 'A longful time.' X. II. 

Long-tailed Capon [long'taild-kai-pun], sb. name of a small bird, 
whose nest is of an oval form with a hole in the middle. F. M. 

Lope, or Loppat [loap, lop'ut], v. n. to idle ; to hang about idle. 

Lop-grass [lop-graas], sb. Bromus Mollis.Dr. B cornfield's MSS. 
J. B. 

Lords-and-ladies [laudz-u'nd-lai'diz], sb. pi. Arum maculatum. 
J. B. 

L ouster [lou'stur], sb. noise, confusion, disturbance. Ex. ' What a 
lousier you are making ! ' Wise, New Forest. 

Lout [lout], v. to bend, bow, in making obeisance ; to touch the hat. 
Wise, New Forest, p. 188. 

Love-in-idle [luv-in-erdl], sb. Viola tricolor. J. B. The M.E. in 
idel commonly means in vain, to no purpose. J. B. 

Low Brown [loa broun], inter j. ' It is held rather as a tradition, 
than a law, that if a swarm of bees flies away the owner cannot claim. 

them, unless, at the time, he has made a noise with a kettle or tongs 

to give his neighbours notice. It is on such occasions that the phrase 
low brown may be heard, meaning that the bees, or the brownies, as 
they are called, are to settle low.' Wise, New Forest, p. 185. 

Lowle [loal?], adj. said of a pig's ear; 'a Zo?0?e-eared pig/ a long- 
eared pig. *Ak. Of. E. loll. 

Lug [lug], sb. (1) A pole on which fowls roost, or on which clothes 
are hung. *Ak. Common in New Forest. Ex. 'The lay in the 

roost.' Wise. 

(2) A pole in land measure, 5J yards. *Ak. Lisle. 

(3) The pot-lug on which the ' cotterel ' hangs ; the same as rug- 
stick. Wise. See Rugstick. 


Lug-stick. See Rugstick. 

Lummakin [lunrukin], adj. awkward, clumsy, heavy. *Ak. 

Lump [lump], v. to beat, drub. F. M. 

Lungs of Oak [lungz uf oak], Stikta pulmonaria. A lichen which 
grows rather plentifully on oak-trees. Wise, New Forest, p. 176. 

Luxer [luks'ur], sb. a handsome fellow. Adams' WyJcehamica, p. 

Madder [mad'ur], sb. Anthemis Cotula. J. B. 
Mag [mag], sb. prattle. Hence magpie. F. M. 

Maggot [mag'ut], v. ' to maggot money away ' is to spend it foolishly. 

Maggoty [mag-uti], adj. (1) Frisky, playful. *Ak. 

(2) Foolish, crotchety. Wise. Of. O.E. maggots, whims, fancies. 
Maiden [mardun], sb. a gosling. See Gulls. Wise. 

Maiden-bark [mardun-baak], sb. bark from a young maiden-oak or 
* flittering,'not yet arrived at timber. It is also called ' flittering-bark, ' 
and is more valuable than ' timber-bark ' (which requires to be cut and 
hatched for the market), and still more so than 'pollard-bark.' Wise. 

Maiden-down [mardun-dcun], sb. an unbroken, unploughed down 
or hiU. Wise, North Hants. 

Maiden-timber [mardun-timb-ur], timber that has never been touched 
with the axe. Wise, New Forest, p. 183. 

Main [main], adj. very. Ex. 'Main sprack,' very lively; 'main 
good,' very good. *Ak. A Wiltshire labourer, whom I knew, on 
first seeing the sea at Mudeford in Hants, exclaimed ' What a great 
main pond ! ' Of. * Plutoe's post seeing this, stood still to watch them, 
and at length saw them, in maine galop, make toward a goodly fayre 
place.' Decker, Villanies Discovered [1616] Sig. D. Again, in the 
certificate of Peter Pett, we read (concerning the state of the New 
Forest) of the keepers ' sparing the Toppes of the Trees, which yeeld 
maine good knees.' State Papers, Ohas. I., May 17, 1632; No. 216, 
fol. 56 I. Wise. Cf. French, mainte. 

Mala whoot [maa-lu whoot], inter j. said to horses, to bid them stand 
still. F. M. This I believe to be a mistake ; it probably answers^ to 
the West Kent muther-ivhoot [muodh'ur whuot] which is a direction 
to horses to turn toiuards the driver, and may fancifully be derived 
from come hither, wilt thou? a phrase which, at any rate, expresses 
the meaning correctly. The opposite, in West Kent, is yai-wlwot 
[yai'whuot]) signifying go yonder, wilt thou ? and directs the horse to 
turn from the driver. W. W. S. In North Hants the call to horses 
to come towards the driver is coom-o-the-wut [kuom-u-dhi-wut], 
which may mean come hither, wilt thou ? W. H. 0. 

Male-shag [marl-shag], sb. a caterpillar. J. 


Mallace [mal-us], sb. Malva sylvestris. J. B. The common mallow. 

Malm, white [maam], sb. a kind of soil. ' To the north-Avest, north, 
and east of the village, is a range of fair enclosures, consisting of what 
is called a white-malm, a sort of rotten or rubble-stone, which, when 
turned up to the frost and rain, moulders to pieces, and becomes 
manure to itself.' White's Nat. Hist, of Selborne, Letter I. 

Malm, black, sb. a kind of soil. * The gardens to the north-east and 
small enclosures behind, consist of a warm, forward, crumbling 
mould, called black malm, w T hich seems highly saturated with vege- 
table and animal manure.' White's Nat. Hist, of Selborne, Letter I. 
Malm seems in fact to mean soil, or earth. A field in the south of 
the county is called The Malm. 

Malt-rashed [mairlt-rasht],c/. o ver- heated ; burnt. Lisle. 
Mammered [manrurd], pp. perplexed. *Ak. 
Mammy [manri], adj. soft, marshy. J. 
Mammocks [manruks], sb. pi. leavings. Lisle. 

Mannered [man-urd], pp. a meadow abounding in close and sweet 
grass is said to be goodi-mannered. Cooper. 

Marg" [maag], sb. Anthemis foetida, Stinking Camomile. N". H. 
Margon [maa'gun], sb. Anthemis Cotula. J. B. Corn Camomile. 
Mark-ash [maak-ash], sb. a boundary ash. See below. 

Mark-oak [maak-oak],ft a boundary oak, the same as 'bound-oak'; so 
called from the ancient cross or mark cut on the rind. The custom of 
marking is very old. Of. on than merkeden 6k, to the marked oak. 
Saxons in England, vol. i. App. A. p. 480. Wise, New Forest. 

Martin. Free-Martin [free-maatin], sb. 'A free-martin is a sort of 
barren cow, which hardly carries any teats to be seen ; she will never 
take bull ; she fats very kindly, and in fatting she'll grow almost as 
big as an ox ; she is counted especial meat. When a cow brings two 
calves [of different sexes] the cow-calf will be a free-martin, and will 
never bear a calf.' Lisle, ii. 99. 

Mast [maast], sb. the fruit of Fagus sylvatica. Holloway's 
Dictionary. J. B. 

Mathan [maa'dhun], sb. Anthemis Cotula. J. B. 

Maunder [mairndur], v. to talk menacingly and vaguely. *Ak. 

Maunt [maunt] present tense of v. must not. Ex. ' We maunt let 
'un bide more than a day.' N. H. 

Mawk [mauk], sb. a slattern, an awkward woman. Cooper. 

May [mai], sb. (1) The hawthorn blossom. *Ak. 

(2) The hawthorn tree. Cratcegus Oxyacantha. N. H. 

May-be [mai -bee], adv. perhaps. Cooper. *Ak. 
May-bittle [mai-bit'ul], sb. the may-beetle, the cockchafer. 


May-bush [mai-buosh], sb. the hawthorn. Cratcegus Oxyacantha. 

Mayweed [mar weed], sb. camomile. Lisle. 

Maze [maiz], sb. (1) Astonishment. J. Ex. 'When she see 'un she 
was all in a maze.'' 

(2) A labyrinth ; a place where a labyrinth (though destroyed) has 
been; as ' The maze-hill at Bramshill.' W. H. 0. 

Mead [meed], sb. a meadow. J. Com. 

Mearing [rnee'r'ing], adj. marking a boundary. As 'a mearing 

ditch.' N. H. 

Mears [meerz], boundaries. N". H. 

Measter [mee'ster], sb. master. *Ak. Master is never so pronounced 
in North Hants. W. H. C. 

Meaty [mee'ti], adj. in good condition. J. Used of animals stall- 
fed or fatted. Ex. ' That bullock be'ant meaty. 1 W. H. C. 

Meddle nor make [med-1 nur maik], phr. to interfere. J. Ex. 
' 1*11 neither meddle nor make wi' un.' 

Meetiner [mee'tinur], sb. a dissenter; one who frequents a meeting- 
house. F. M. 

Mendment [mend'munt], sb. manure; as 'mending the land.' Cooper. 
Short for amendment. 

Merry [mer'-i], sb. a cherry. "Wise, New Forest, p. 190. 
Mersk [mursk], sb. a marsh. Cooper. 

Mesh [mesh], sb. a rabbit's 'run' through a hedge; a 'musit.' 

Messenger [mes-unjur], sb. a sunbeam pouring down slantwise to 
the earth from a rift in a large cloud. Wise. 

Meuse [menz], sb. a hole through a hedge, made by a rabbit or hare. 

Mezell [mez'll, sb. Daphne Mezereum. Selborne. Dr. Bromfield's 
MSS. J. B. 

Mickle [mik'l], adv. much. A.S. micel. Also, as sb. Ex. ' Many 
a little makes a micUe.' *Ak. I never heard the word in Hants. 

Miff [mif], sb. offence. Ex. 'He's in a miff, 1 he's offended. *Ak. 
' To take miff, 1 to be offended. Britton. 

Millard [mil-urd], sb. (1) A miller. 

(2) The white moth which flies at twilight. *Ak. And is used for 
fishing for trout. Wise, New Forest. 

Miller-doustipoll [mil-ur-dou'stipoal], sb. (1) A species of moth, so 
called from the mealiness of its wings. See Barnes, who quotes a 
rhyme also known in Hants : 


1 Miller y, millery, doustipoll, 
How many zacks hast thee astole ? 
Yow'r an' twenty, and a peck ; 
Hang the miller up by's neck.' 

Children say this to the moths, and condemn them. Shakespeare 
speaks of ' the mealy wings' of butterflies. Trail, and Cress, iii. 3. 79. 
(2) A species of stock grown in cottagers' gardens. Wise. 

Mill-mountain [mil-moirntin], sb. Linum catharticum. l On the 
second of October 1617, going by Mr. Colson's shop, an Apothecary of 
Winchester in Hampshire, I saw this herbe lying on his stall, which 
I had scene growing long before [at Saint Crosse, a mile from. Win- 
chester] : I desired of him to know the name of it, he told me that it 
was called Mitt-mountain.' J. Groodyer in Johnson's ed. of Gerarde, 
p. 560. J. B. 

Mind [meind], v. to remember; to recall to mind. Ex. 'I don't 
mind un ' = I don't recollect him. J. 

Mint [mint], sb. (1) A mite (in cheese). *Ak. 
(2) A small coin. -Wise. 

Minty [mint'i], adj. full of mites. *Ak. Said of a cheese. Wise. 

Missel-thrush [miz'ul thrush], sb. the tree-thrush, the eggs of which 
are not green as the bush-thrush, but dirty white, with reddish spots. 
-F. M. 

Mitch [mich] v. n. to idle, to shirk work. K H. See Mouch. 

Mith [meith] , vb. in pt. t. might. Cooper. Ex. ' I mith have done 

Mixen [mix-un], sb. a heap of dung, or rather a heap of dung and 
lime, or mould, mixed together for manure. Cooper. *Ak. In N. 
H. a manure-heap. W. H. C. 

Miz-maze [miz'maiz], sb. confusion. J". 

Mizzle [miz-1], v. to rain slightly ; to drizzle. J". 

Mokin [moa'kin], sb. (Ak. has MawJcin) t a coarse piece of sacking, 
attached to a stick, with which the charcoal- sticks are swept from the 
oven previous to putting in the batch. *Ak. Cf. Mokins, leggings 
made of coarse sacking. See Vamplets. Wise. Cf. M. E. mawkin, for 
Malkin, dimin. of Hand, used for all sorts of things used in a servile 
office, like Jack in bootjack, &c. 

Mokins [molrinz], sb. pi. gaiters made of coarse sacking. Wise, 
Neiv Forest, p. 162. 

Mokus [moa-kus], sb. a donkey. K H. 

Mommick [monvik], v. to cut or carve awkwardly or unevenly. 
Cooper. Ex. ' You are mommicking it.' Wise. See Mammocks. 

Mons [monz], sb. a crowd, aheap ; also as a verb. Ex. ' Don't mons t y 
i. e. don't crowd. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 427. 

Moon-rakers [moon-rarkurz], sb. pi. a name given to Hampshire and 
Wiltshire peasants. 'The expression of "Hampshire and Wiltshire 


moon-rakers " had its origin in the Wiltshire peasants [who were en- 
gaged in smuggling] fishing up the contraband goods at night, 
brought through the New Forest, and hid in the various ponds.' 
"Wise, New Forest, p. 170. But Hampshire folk-lore tells that "Wilt- 
shire peasants, seeing the full moon reflected in a pond, fancied it 
was a cheese, and tried to get it out with a rake; and hence are 
called in Hampshire moon-rakers. 

Moonshine [mocrnshein], sb. smuggled Schiedam. Cooper. 

Moots [moots], sb. pi. the roots of trees left in the ground. *Ak. 
See Stouls. 

Mop [mop], sb. a statute-fair for hiring servants. *Ak. I. of 

More-loose [moa'rloos], adj. loose at root. Lisle. 

Mores [moarz], sb. pi. root?. Lisle. See Wise, New Forest, p. 163. 

Morgan [], sb. Anthemis Cotula. Grose's Glossary, Also 

Anthemis arvensis. Wise ; J. B. See Margon. 
Morris-apple [mor'*is-pi], &. an apple with very red cheeks. Wise. 

Mort [maurt], sb. a great deal ; a vast quantity. Ex. ' He's in a 

mort of trouble.' N. H. 
Mortal [mairrtul], adv. excessively. Used before an adjective 

intensatively. Ex. ' It's mortal hot.' J. 

Mosey [moa*zi], adj. musty. J. 

Most-times [moa'st-teimz], adv. generally. J. 

Mote [moat], sb. a stump of a tree. ' Motes are stumps and roots of 
trees, in opposition to the smaller mores, applied also to the fibres of 
ferns and furze. The sailor calls them mootes [moots], when he 
dredges them up in the Channel.' Wise, New Forest, p. 194. But 
mores generally signifies the roots of trees. See Mores and More- 
loose.-W. H. C. 

Mothery [mudh-uri], adj. mouldy; generally applied to liquors, as 
mothery ale, mothery wine; being thick liquor, with the filaments 
in it, &c. Cooper. *Ak. 

Mouch [mouch], v. to idle, loiter from school, play truant. A 
' black- berry moucher ' is one who idles his time in gathering black- 
berries. ' Shall the blessed sun of heaven prove a micher and eat 

' blackberries?' 1 Hen. IV. ii. 4. Also pronounced much [much]. 
*Ak. writes it mooch. Wise. See Mitch, which is the North Hants 
as well as Shakespeare's pronunciation. W. H. C. 

Mouse-digger [mous-dig-ur], sb. a miniature pick-axe, used by some 
[Winchester] boys to dig out vermin of various kinds, and by others 
to hunt for fossils. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 427. 

Monster [mou'stur], v. to muster. *Ak. 

Mow [raou], sb. (1) A stack in a barn, in distinction from one out 
of doors. 


' They tied him to a cart, 

And carried him to a barn ; 
And there they made a mow of him, 
To keep him free from harm.' 

Ballad of John Barleycorn (Hants version). 

(2) The wooden division separating the parts of a barn. N. H. 

(3) The division of the barn so separated. N. H. 

Muchen [much/en], pron. of miching. See Mitch and Mouch. 

Muck [muk], sb. dung. Lisle. 

Mucker [muk'ur], adv. all over with it, finished, done, hopeless. 

N. H. 
Muckle [muk'l], v. 'to manure with long unrotted dung from the 

yard.' Driver's Gen. View of Agriculture in Hants, p. 73. (London, 

1794.) W. W. S. 
Mud [mud], v. a. to pet ; to fondle. Ex. l Don't 'e mud that boy 

so.' * A mud calf = a calf brought up by hand. J. 

Muddle [mudi], v. to fondle, to caress ; to rear by hand. Wise, 

New Forest. 
Muddle, Muggle [mud'l, mug'l], sb. confusion. *Ak. Ex. 'All in 

a muddle,'' confused, tangled. 

Muddle-headed [mudi-hed'ed], adj. (1) Confused and bewildered in 

(2) Tipsy. *Ak. 

Mug [mug] v. to read hard ; also to pay great attention to anything. 
Any one cleaning and oiling a bat was said to mug it ; a boy with 
carefully greased and brushed hair was said to have mugged hair. 
Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Muggle. See Muddle. 

Muggy [mugi]. adv. warm, moist ; said of weather. *Ak. Com. 

Mullock [mul'uk], sb. dirt, rubbish ; a confused heap. *Ak. and 
Wise, New Forest, p. 163. Ex. ' What a mullock you have,' i. e. what 
a lot of rubbish. 

Mumbly [mumb'li], adj. crumbling, likely to fall. N. H. 
Mumpole [mump-oal], v. to beat. E. M. 

Mun [mun], sb. man. Also used in addressing a woman, child, or 
sometimes a horse or dog. *Ak. 

Murg, sb. Antliemis fcetida. See Marg. 

Musher [mush-ur], sb. a mushroom. Large ones are called ' cow- 
mushers. Wise. In North^Hants ' ftorse-inushrooms.' W. H. 0. 

Mutter [mut'ur], v. n. to crumble; to fall to pieces. Ex. 'Clods 
will mutter after a shower.' N. H. 

Muttoner [mut-unur], sb. a blow from a cricket-ball. Adams' 
Wykehamica, p. 428. 


Muzzy [muz'i], adj. muddled, or stupefied with wine or strong 
liquors. F. M. Com. 

Mwoil [mwoil], sb. mud. Ex. 'To get into the mwoilj to get into 
the mud. *Ak. 

Nab [nab], sb. the summit of a hill : also a small piece of rising- 
ground. Cooper. 

Naght [naa-U], sb. naught. *Ak. 

Nail [nail], sb. a weight of eight pounds, as of beef, pork, cheese, &c. 

Naked-men [narkid-men], sb. pi. old, decayed, leafless trees. Wise, 
New Forest. 

Nammit [nanrit], sb. noon-meat, i. e. luncheon. Wise, New Forest, 
p. 193. *Ak. has nummet. 

Nan [nan], inter/. What did you say 1 shortened from anon. Cooper 
has the word but gives no meaning. 

Narra one [naru wun], never a one ; often clipped down to nar'n. 

Nash, Nesh [nash, nesh], adj. tender, chilly. A.S. Imesce. *Ak. 
Said of grass in the New Forest. Wise. See Gnash, which seems 
the correct spelling. W. H. C. 

Nat [nat], adv. not. *Ak. Ex. 'Nat that/ i. e. 'not that.' Wise. 

Nation [narshun], adv. extremely ; as ' nation strange/ ' nation dark. 
*Ak. Modified from an oath. 

Native [nartiv], sb. a birth-place. Ex. ' He went back there 'cause 
'twas his native.' N. H. 

Neb [neb] , sb. the pole of an ox-cart or ox-waggon ; so called from 
its shape. Cooper. A neb or nib is a leak. 

Needles [nee-dlz], sb. pi. Scandix Pecten. Holloway's Dictionary. 
Has ' long seeds like unto pa,ck-needles.' Gerarde. J. B 

Nens [nenz], adv. much the same. Ex. f Nens as he was/ much the 
same as he was ; ' pretty nens one/ pretty much the same. N. and Q. 
1st Ser. x. 120. 

Nessel [nes'til], v. to trifle. Cooper (who spells it nestle). 
Nettle-creeper [neti-kree'pur], sb. the lesser whitethroat. W. 

Net-up [net-up], part, for eaten up. Ex. ' I'm net-up wi' cold.' J. 
Evidently a mispronunciation for ' eat up ' or ' ate up.' W. H. C. 

Neust. See Aneust. 

Never [nevur], adv. not one; not so much as. Ex. 'She's got 
never a sweet-heart.' J. 


Nibs [nibz],s&. pi. the short handles of a scythe. Wise, New Forest. 

See Snead. 
Niest [neist], adj. nighest, nearest. *Ak. 

Night-crow [neit-kroa], sb. the goat-sucker. Wise, New Forest, p. 

Night-hawk [neit-hauk], sb. the goat-sucker. See A. V. Lev. xi. 
16; Deut. xiv. 15. In the Genevan Version in the same texts it is 
called the night-crow, as above. Wise, New Forest, p. 193. See 
Ground-hawk, Jar-bird. 

Night-jar [neit-jaa], sb. the goat-sucker, Caprimulgus. N". H. 

Nine-bobble square [neiirbobl skwair], adj. bent or distorted every 
way bnt the right. F. M. 

Nine-galley- west, old gunner's- point [nein-gaH-west, oald-gun'nrz- 
point], as adj. with nearly the same meaning as the preceding. F. M. 

Nine-men's-morrice [nein-menz-moris], sb. a game played with 
counters. J. 

Nipper [nip-ur], si. a boy, a fellow, a chap. N. H. 

Nipperkin [nip 'in-kin], sb. a large stone jug for beer, of which there 
was one in each ' chamber.' Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Nire, Nigher [nei-u], adj. nearer. *Ak. 

Nitch, Nidge [nich, nij], sb. (1) A small quantity of hay or corn; 
less than ajobbet. Grose; Warner; P.M. 

(2) A bundle of faggots. 

(3) The 'bush' belonging to the 'man in the moon.' Wise, New 
Forest. *Ak. says 'He has got a niteh,' i.e. he is drunk. See 

Nobbut [nob'ut], adv. none but; only. J. 

No call [noa kaul], phr. no reason, no obligation. Ex. ' He had no 
call to go ' = He was not compelled to go. ' You've no call to be 
afeard ' = You have no reason to be afraid. N. H. 

No count [noa kount], sb. no account, of no value ; not worth any- 
thing. Ex. 'It be'ant no count ' = It is of no- value. 'That chap 
be'ant no count ' = He is a worthless fellow. N. H. 

Noggly, noddly [nog-li, nodii], adj. weak, trembling. Ex. 'My 
knees be so noggly* N. H. 

No-how [noa-hou], adv. not in any way at all. Ex. ' I can't abide it 
no-how.' J. 

Nonce, for the [nons], j>7*>\ on purpose, designedly. Ex. 'He did it 

for the nonce' Cooper. 

Nonsuch [non*such],s&. Medicago lupidina. Holloway's Dictionary. 
J. B. 

Noration [norarshun], sb. a piece of news. Ex. ' There's a noration 
for he.' J. Evidently used for narration. 


Not [not], sb. a gnat. Ex. 'We ought to have 'un painted afore the 

nots be about' viz. the summer. 'They nots be so terrifying.' 

N. H. 
Not [not], adj. a not cow is a cow without horns. Cf. not-heed in 

Chaucer Prol. 109. Wise, New Forest, p. 186. 
Not, adj. in good condition. Ex. ' Not field ; not corn ; not sheep.' 

J. But the last example may have the meaning of the preceding. 

W. H. 0. 
Notch [noch], sb. 'To take the notches out of the scythes,' is to give 

money to mowers in the harvest-fields, when one is out shooting. 

N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 401. 
Nubbly [nubii], adj. having knobs or lumps. Ex. < Nubbly coals.' 

A field ploughed wet, when dried is said to be nubbly. J. See 

Nunch [nunsh], sb. lunch. I have never heard this meal called by 

another name. N. and Q. 1, x. 120. See Moor. Halliwell. But 

see Nuncheon. 
Nuncheon [nun'shun], sb. luncheon. *Ak. Miss Austen (from 

Hants) uses it. ' I left London this morning at eight o'clock ; and 

the only ten minutes I spent out of my chaise procured me a nuncheon 

at Maiiborough.' Sense and Sensibility, vol. iii. ch. 8. The word 

nuncheon is used in Hampshire for the meal between breakfast and 

dinner. W. H. 0. 

Nuncle [nunk-1], sb. uncle. *Ak. 

Nuther [nudh'ur], adv. mispronunciation of neither. J. 

Nut-stinger [nut-sting'ur], sb. a grub which bores a hole in nuts. 

Nye [nei], sb. a brood of pheasants. Cooper (who spells it ni). In 
the New Forest they say ' an eye of pheasants.' Wise. Which seems 
correct. Cf. JSyrie, and cf. nid, French. W. H. C. 

Obedience [ubee'dyens], sb. a, curtsey. Ex. ' I made my obedience 
to him.' N. H. 

Odds [odz], sb. pi. concern; business; consequence. Ex. "Taint no 
odds to you'=It is no business- of yours. ' 'T weren't no odds to he 
that he lost it ' = It was of no consequence to him to lose it. N. H. 

Odds, v. a. to alter. Ex. ' I can't odds 'ua.' K H. 

Odments [od-ments], sb. pi. odd things. J. 

Of [ov], phr. used for with. Ex. ''I've no acquaintance o/liim.' J. 

Offer-up [auf'ur-up], v. a. to try, to prove, to ascertain how a thing 
fits, or looks. Ex. * Let's offer 'un up ' of a picture, or looking- 
glass, or such like. N. H. 

Oils [oilz], barley-oils, sb. pi. the beard or prickles. Lisle. 


Old man [oald-man],s&. southern- wood (Artemisia vulgaris). 1ST. H. 
Old-men [oald-men], sb. pi. gnats. "W. 

Old- woman' s-needle [oald-uomunz-nee'dl], sb. the 'shepherd's needle' 
(Scandex Pecten Veneris). W. 

Omary cheese [onruri cheez], sb. an inferior sort of cheese, made of 
skim-milk. Wise, New Forest. See Rammel. [Perhaps for ord.'nary.~\ 

On [on], prep. (1) In. Ex. ' On mistake,' in mistake. 'I run agen 
hin on th' street,' i. e. in the street. *Ak. And 
(2) Of. Ex. ' There's an end on V J. 

Onbelieving [onbilee'vin], adj. unbelieving; a term of reproach. 
Ex. 'You onbdieving child, don't tell lies.' It exactly answers to 
miscreant, Fr. mecroyant. N. H. 

Once [wuns], adv. sometime. Ex. 'I will pay once this week/ I 
will pay you sometime during this week. Wise, New Forest. 

Ongainly [ongai-nli], adj. ungainly. *Ak. 
Onpossible [onpos-ib'l], adj. impossible. *Ak. 

Ore [oar], sb. sea-weeds washed on shore. Cooper. Ex. ' Plenty of 
ore,' plenty of sea- weed. Wise. 

Organy [au-guni], sb. the herb penny-royal (Mentlia Pulegiwri). 
Lat. origanum. *Ak. 

Orkard [airkud], adj. awkward, unmanageable, of a curious temper. 
Ex. * He's rather an orkard horse,' i. e. unmanageable. ' She's rather 
orkard if anything upsets her,' i. e. of a strange temper. N. H. 

Ornary [airnuri], adj. common, mean-looking. For ordinary. 

Otherwhile [udlrur well], adv. sometimes. Cooper. 

Ought [aut], part. p. of owe. The phrase, 'He hadn't ought to' 
(for ' he should not have done so ' ) is very general. Cooper. Ex. 
' He didn't ought to have went,' he should not have gone. 

Oughts [auts]. Lisle. See Eairts. 
Ourn [ourn], pr. ours. N". H. 

Out-axed [out-ak8'd],_par& having banns published for the third 
time. Ex. ' She were out-axed last Sunday.' N. H. 

Out-stand [out-stand], v. a. to oppose firmly; to contradict stub- 
bornly. Ex. ' She out-stood me wi' that 'ere lie.' J. 

Oven-pile [uvn-peil], sb. a wooden shovel for putting the dough or 
' sponge ; into the oven, and taking out the loaves. W. Old Eng. 

Oven- rubber [uvn-rub-ur], sb. a stick with a cloth attached to it, 
for cleaning out the embers from the oven before baking. W. 

Our-runner, for Over-runner [our-run-ur], sb. a shrew-mouse ; which 
is supposed to portend ill-luck if it runs over a person's foot. Wise, 
New Forest. 


Ovest [oa-vest], sb. 'the mast and acorns of the oak are collectively 
known as the turn-out or oixst.' Wise, New Forest, p. 183. 

Owl [oul], sb. (1) The tiger-moth. Wise, New Forest (note on 
(2) Any small white moth. W. See Miller. 

Ox-bird [oks-burd], sb. (1) The ringed-plover; Charadrius hiaticula, 
Linn. ' Known, in the neighbourhood of Christchurch and Lyming- 
ton, as the oxbird." 1 Wise, New Forest, p. 312. 
(2) The common sand-piper. W. 

Oxlip [oksiip], Primula elatior of English authors ; i. e. a caules- 
cent form of P. vulgaris, not the true P. elatior. J. B. Holloway's 

Oyster [oi'stur], sb. the blade-bone of veal dressed with the meat on. 
Cooper. Of. oxter, the arm-pit; r E. D. S. Gloss. B. 15. 

Packing-penny-day [pakin-pen-i-dai], sb. The last day of the fairs 
formerly held at Portsmouth, and on Portsdown-hill, was so called, on 
which articles were supposed to be bought greater bargains. F. M. 

Paddle [pad-1], sb. a hoe with a straight blade. K H. 
Paddle, v. a. to trample in the dirt. J. 
Paddy [pad'i], adj. worm-eaten. Lewis. 

Palmer-worm [paa-mur-wurm] , sb. a caterpillar. See A. V. Amoa 
i v . 9._-\Vi se , New Forest, p. 193. 

Palms [paamz], catkins of various species of Saltx. J. B. 
Pank [pank], v. n. to pant. Ex. 'He do pank so.' N". H. 

Panshard, Ponshard [pansh'urd, ponsh'urd], sb. a passion, a rage. 
Ex. ' You have no need to get into a panshard.' Wise, New Forest. 

Pasmets [pas*mets], parsnips. *Ak. 
Passel [pas'ul], sb. a parcel. J. .. . . 

Patchy [pach'i], adj. testy, uncertain in temper. Said of people 
who proverbially blow hot and cold. Wise, New Forest. 

Pax [paks] , sb. a friend. Ex. ' Have pax, 1 an invitation to make up 
a quarrel. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 429. [Evidently Pax = peace.] 

Peaked [pee'ked], adj. (1) Running to a point. Ex. 'A peaked 
piece ' = a triangular field. 

(2) Delicate in appearance. Ex. ' To look peaked.' Always pro- 
nounced as a dissyllable. N. H. 

Peakish, adj. See Pickish. 

Peal [peel], sb. a species of satirical comment on any one's personal 
appearance, character, or actions, put into a terse and epigrammatic 
form, and delivered three times in succession, in a measured tone, as 
a kind of chant. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 429. Cf. Eng. peal, 'to 
assail noisily ; ' and see Peel. 

1 I believe oxter also means 'shoulder-blade.' W. W. S. 



Peal, v. a. ' to lose its hair.' Lisle. 

Peart [pee-urt], adj. pert. (1) Impertinent. *Ak. 

(2) Quick, lively, saucy. 

(3) (Of a tree or plant.) Flourishing. N. H. See Pert. 
Peasen [pee'zun],^. of pease. A.S. piosan. *Ak. 

Peck [pek], sb. a quantity, a deal ; as ' a peck of trouble.' N. and 

Q. 1st Ser. x. 400. 
Peck, sb. a pick-axe. K H. See Pick. 

Peel [peel], sb. a disturbance, noise. ' To be in a peel ' is to be in a 
passion. Wise, New Forest. 

Peel [peel], sb. a wooden shovel used in baking bread. Cooper. 
Commonly oven-peel in Hants. Wise. 

Peeze [peez], v. to ooze out, as from a leaking cask. Cooper. 

Peezy-weezies [pee-zi wee-ziz], sb. pi. (1) It is said of a person who 
is sulky, or is in the dumps, that ' He has the peezy-weezies or the 

(2) It also means a swelled face. F. M. 

Peg" [peg], sb. a roller or clod-crusher, as distinct from the frame. 
Ex. ' That peg will do if he has a new frame.' N. H. 

Peg [peg], sb. a pig. *Ak. 

Pelt [pelt], sb. (1) A passion, rage, ire. Ex. ' A' come in, in such a 
pelt. 1 *Ak. 

(2) Anger, noise, rage, disturbance. Ex. 'What a pelt the dog is 
making,' how angrily the dog is barking. Wise, New forest. 

(3) Skin, ' The pelt is very thick,' said of the skin of a pig. Wise. 

(4) The iron plate on the heel of a boot. J. 

Pen-stock [pen-stok], sb. a sluice to a pond, or in a mill-dam. 

Perky [purki], adj. smart, brisk, lively. Ex. 'She be a perky 
little maid.' J. 

Persuade [purs ward], v. a. to advise, to counsel, to urge. (Does not, 
as used in North Hants, imply that the advice was followed.) Ex. 
' I persuaded him to see the Doctor, but he wouldn't do it.' See Acts 
xix. 8, and Hamlet, iv. 5. N. H. 

Pert [pnrt], adj. lively? ' Oat-malt and barley-malt equally mixed, 
as many of the country people here use it, makes very pretty, pert, 
smooth drink, and many in this country (in Hants) sow half barley, 
half oats, for that purpose, and call it Dredge ' [which see]. Lisle, i. 
p. 377. 

Pet [pet], sb. a pit with water in it. Cooper. 

Pewit [pee 'wit], sb. the lap-wing. *Ak. The grey plover, N. H. 

Pick [pik], sb. (1) A hayfork, prong. *Ak. 
(2) A pick-axe. N. H. 


Picked [pikt], adj. (1) Sharp, pointed. Wise, Neio Forest. 

(2) Sharp-featured; said of a person. W. It is never pronounced 
as a monosyllable in N. H. See Peaked. W. H. 0. 

Pickish, Picksome [pik-ish, pik-sum], adj. dainty. Cooper. Pro- 
nouncedjpee/as/i in North Hants, where it also signifies sickly, delicate- 
looking. Ex. < She do look very peakish of late.' W. H. 0. 

Piggin [pig'in], sb. a round wooden tub, with a long, upright handle. 

Piggy back [pig'i-bak], adv. on the back. Spelt also pickaback, 
piyback, &c. P. M. 

Pighau, Pigaul [pig-hau, pig-aul], sb. the berry of the whitethorn. 

Pightle [pertul], sb. a small field. N. H. 

Pigweed [pigweed], sb. Chenopodium album. Polygonum aviculare. 
J. B. 

Pile. See Ovenpile. 

Pill [pil], sb. a pitcher. J. 

Pinch [pinsh], sb. a crisis. Ex. ' It has come to the pinch now.' 
N. H. 

Pincher-bob [pin-shur-bob], sb. the stag-beetle. N. H. 

Pink, Pinker [pink, pin-kur], adj. small ; applied especially to the 
eyes. * Bacchus with pink eyne.' Ant. and Cleop. ii. 7. W. 

Pish, Pishty [pish, pisht'i], inter j. a cry or call to a dog. *Ak. 

Piss-a-bed [pis*a-bed], sb. the common dandelion. F. M. Leontodon 

Pit [pit], v. a. to back j to set to fight. N. H. 

Pitch [pich], sb. uneven ground, an undulation in the ground. 

N. H. 
Pitch, v. n. (1) To undulate, to be uneven. Ex. ' The ground pitches 

in that field. 'N. H. 

(2) To waste, to sink in flesh. Lisle. 

Pitchers [piclrurz], sb. pi. boughs of withy, cut for planting, espe- 
cially to make hedges. W. 

Pitchin [pichin], sb. used in distinction from paving ; the latter 
being performed with flat or large stones, but pitchin with small, 
uneven ones. In North Hants generally flints. W. H. C. 

Pitch-up [pich up], sb. a small concourse ; a boy's pitch-up were his 
ordinary companions. [And as a v.~\ Ex. * To pitch-up ' with any 
one : to associate with him. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 430. 

Pity [pit'i], sb. love. * Pity is akin to love/ says Shakespeare ; but 
in the W. of Eng. it is often the same. Wise, New Forest. 

Plash [plash], sb. a mill-head; as < Winkton plash.' Wise, New 

F 2 


Plash, Plush, v. to partially cut off the branches of a hedge, and 
entwine them with those left upright. *Ak. (who gives the form 
plash ; Mr. Wise adds the form plush}. Cf. E. to pleach. I never 
heard it pronounced otherwise than plash in Hampshire. W. H. 0. 

Play [plai], v. to swarm as young bees do. Wise, New Forest, p. 184. 

Plim [plim], v. to swell. *Ak. Barley is plim, when it is full. 
Wise. Used also of poultry. Ex. Fowls or ducks are said to ' plim 
up well' in roasting. N. H, 

Plock [plok], sb. a block of wood. Wise, New Forest, p. 163. A 
Christmas plock,' the yule-log. W. 

Plough-stilts [plou-stilts], the handles of a plough. Ex. 
'When he be walking between the plough-stilts.'' Horace Smith's 
New Forest, a novel, 1829, ii. p. 25. 

Poach [poach], v. to tread damp ground into holes and foot-prints, 

as by cattle. 
Podge [poj], sb. a blow, a nudge, a belly- winder. Ex. 'I'll give you 

a podge in the guts.' F. M. 
Poke [poak], (1) v. n. To point the head forwards, in a stiff way. 

'He goes poking along.' Cooper. Com. 
(2) v. a. to thrust. ' The cow poked him with her horns.' Cooper. 


Pole-ring [peal-ring], sb. the ring which secures the blade of a scythe 

to the pole or handle. See Snead. 
Pollard [pol'urd], sb. a large post. E. M. I never heard the word 

applied in North Hants to anything but a tree whose branches have 

been cut off. W. H. C. 

Pomewater [poam-wautur], sb. a large apple, tempting to the sight, 
but excessively sour. Described by Shakespeare, Love's Labour's 
Lost, iv. 2. In the old ballad, Blue Cap for me, we have : 

' Whose cheeks did resemble two roasting pomewaters.' 

Shakespeare 's Birthplace, by J. B. Wise, p. 99. 
Pon-shard, Panshard [pon-shurd, pan-shard], sb. a fragment of 

broken earthenware. See Shard. *Ak. Also see Punchard. 
Ponto [ponioa], sb. a lump of soft bread kneaded into a ball. 
Adams' Wykehamica, p. 430. 

Pook [pook], v. to thrust with the horns. J. 

Pooks [pooks], haycocks. N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 120. See 

Poor man's weather-glass [poor manz wedhur-glaas], sb. Anagallis 
arvensis. J. B. 

Pop [pop], sb. a smart blow. W. Ex. ' Gie that post a pop on the 
heacLwi' a bightle.' 

Pop, v. to strike ; ' to pop a child,' to whip it. W. 

Poppers [pop'Urz], sb. Digitalis purpurea. ' In Hampshire it is 
very well known by the name of Poppers ; because if you hold the 
broad end of the flower close between your finger and thumb, and 


blow at the small head, as into a bladder, till it be full of winde, and 
then suddenly strike on it with your other hand, it will give a great 
crack or pop.' E. Turner, Botanologia, p. 124 (1664). 

Popple-stone [popi-stoan], sb. a pebble. J. 

Pops [pops], sb. pi the same as Poppers. W. ; J. B. 

Pot-lug [pot-lug], sb. the same as the lug, lugstick, or rugstick. See 


Pouchy [pou'chi], adj. soft; as land softened by rain. J. 
Poult [pult ?], a blow with a stick. *Ak. Also, to give one a 

putting with a stick, now commonly called a quitting. Wise. 

Powdering-tub [pou-dring tub], sb. a salting-tub. J. 

Pranked [prankid], adj. variegated, spotted. Ex. ' A pranked 
butterfly; a prcm&ed kerchief.' J. 

Pride [preid], sb. a kind of lamprey ; ammocaetes branchialis, Dum. 
See Plot's Oxfordshire. Note by Kev. L. Jenyns to White's Nat. 
Hist, of Selborne, Letter xi. 

'Pright [preit], adj. and adv. upright. N. H. 
Prinit [prin-it], i. e. take it. Fr. prenez. *Ak. 
Prise [preiz], v. to raise by means of a lever. Cooper. 

Prong [prong], sb. a hay-fork, a dung-fork ; used only of forks with, 
two tines or points. N. H. 

Proud-flesh [proud-flesh], sb. the flesh when swollen and inflamed 
round a sore or wound, which is removed by vitriol or caustic. F. M. ; 

Pruff [pruf], for proof ; hard, insensible to pain. Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Obstinate. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 431. 
Puck [puk], sb. a sheaf of barley or oats. 

Puck, sb. a New Forest sprite. Wise, New Forest, p. 174. See 

Puck, v. to put up sheaves, especially of barley or oats. Wheat is 

put up in hiles. Wise, New Forest. 
Pucker [pulcur], sb. irritation; temper, perplexity, vexation. Ex. 

'I be in a terrible pucker." 1 J. 

Puckeridge [puk-uridj], sb. (1) The fern-owl or goat-sucker. 

(2) A disease in calves. ' The country-people have a notion that the 
fern owl, or churn-owl, or eve-jar, which they also call a puckeridge, 
t is very injurious to weaning-calves, by inflicting, as it strikes at them, 
a fatal distemper known to cow-leeches by the name of puckeridge.' 
Miscellaneous Observations, by Rev. Gilbert White. See Jar-Bird. 
Note the numerous names of this bird ; viz. fern-owl, churn-owl, eve- 
jar, jar-bird, night-jar, night-hawk, night-crow, ground-hawk, and 
puckeridge, all of which seem known in Hants. 

Puckets [puk'ets], nests of caterpillars. Cooper. 

Puck-needle [puk-nee'dl], sb.. Scandix P.ecten. Hollo way's Diction- 
ary. J. B. 


Puddling about [pudiin u'bout], part, wasting time on trifles. 

N. H. 
Puffballs [puf -baulz], sb. pi. Lycoperdon giganteum and other species. 

Holloway's Dictionary. J. B. 
Pug [pug], sb. a kind of loam. Cooper. Used in the New Forest. 


Pulling, sb. See Poult. 

Pumple-footed [pump-1 fuot-ed], adj. club-footed. Cooper. 

Pure [peur], adj. well, in good health. N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 120. 

Purely [peurli], adv. (1) The same as Pure. Ex. ' Quite purely,' 
quite well. *Ak. 

(2) Extremely. Ex. ' 'Tis purely mild.' J. 

Purl [purl], v. to turn round, as clouds veer with the wind. W. 
Pur-lamb [pur-lam], sb. a male lamb. Lisle. 
Purly [purli], adj. weak-sighted. *Ak. 

Pussy-cats [puosi-kats], sb. pi. Catkins of Salix. Holloway's 

Dictionary. J. B. 
Putlug [putiug], sb. the horizontal pole which supports the boards 

oi a scaffold. N. H. 
Putlug-holes [put'lug-hoalz], sb. pi. spaces in a wall where tine put- 

lug entered, and which are filled up after the scaffold is struck. 

N. H. 

Pwint [pwoint], sb. a pint. *Ak. 

Quag [kwag], sb. a quagmire. W. 
Quaggle [kwog'l], v. to shake like jelly. J. 

duar [kwor], sb. the udder of a cow or sheep when hard after 
calving or lambing. Wise, New Forest. 

Quar, v. to work in a quarry. *Ak. 

Quarred [kword], adj. * Beer is said to be quarred, when it drinks 
hard or rough. Wise, New Forest. 

Quarrel [kworul], sb. a square of window-glass. *Ak. 

Quarries [kworiz], sb. pi. the diamond-shaped panes of a leaded 
casement. N. H. Compare French Carre. 

ftuat [kwot], sb. a pimple, small boil, small blister. See Othello, V. 
i. 11. _W. Also called quilt. 

Q,uat, v. to squat. *Ak. (who spells it qwat). 
Q,uat-vessel [kwot-ves-1], sb. Carduus lanceolatus. J. B. 

Querking [kwurk'in],^>ar. grumbling. Ex. 'He be allus querking 9 

Quest [kwest], sb. a wood-pigeon. *Ak. Not common in Hants. 


Quest, v. to give tongue as a spaniel does on trail. Cooper; Wise. 

Quick [kwik], sb. pi. young plants of hawthorn (Cratwgus oxya- 
cantha). Ex. ' It'll take nigh upon two thousand quick to plant that 
bank.' N. H. 

Quick-beam [kwik-beeml, sb. the mountain ash. Sorbus aucuparia. 
N. H. 

Quickhedge [kwik-hej], sb. a hedge formed of hawthorn, or other 
growing shrubs ; a live-hedge, in contradistinction to a dead-hedge 
made by twisting brushwood along the bank. N. H. 

Quid [kwid], v. to suck. *Ak. Cf. the phr. 'a quid of tobacco.' 

Quiddle [kwid'l], v. to be anxious and busy about trifles; to fuss 
about. Heard at Bournemouth. See Twiddle. W. W. S. 

Quill-up [kwil-up], v. to rise as water does in a spring. K H. Cf. 
Germ, quelle, a spring. 

Quilt [kwilt] , s&. a pimple, boil, small blister; the same as quat. "W. 
Quilt, v. a. to beat with twigs. Ex. ' I'll quilt thee jacket to 'ee.' J. 
Quilt, v. n. to swallow. *Ak. 

Quinnets [kwiiruts], sb. pi. the rings of iron that secure the nibs of 
a scythe. See Snead. 

Quirk [kwurk], to cry out, as a hare when caught in a trap. "N. H. 
Quiskin [kwis'kin], pres. pt. complaining. *Ak. 

Quod [kwod], v. to catch eels with an earth-worm, or a piece of 
worsted. J. 

Quoilers [kworlurz], sb. pi. part of cart-harness. J. 
Quop [kwop], v. to throb. *Ak. 

Quot [kwot], v. n. to walk in an undignified manner. J. 
Quotted [kwot'ed], pp. satiated, cloyed, glutted. Cooper. 

Babbit you [rab'ut], inter j. confound you! Another form of the 
oath is ' rabbit your head.' 

Rabbiter [raVetur], sb. a blow on the back of the neck given with 
the edge of the open hand. From the mode usually employed in kill- 
ing rabbits. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 431. 

Rack [rak], sb. part of a neck of mutton. Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Rack-and-manger [rak-un-mai-njur], phr. expresses utter mismanage- 
ment, all going wrong, everything out of place, and going to de- 
struction. N. H. See Life <of Robin Good/Mow. 1628. HalliwelTs 
Diet. ii. 662. 

Rack-and-rend [rak-un-rend], phr. wreck and ruin. J. [It should 
probably be spelt wrack.] W. H. C. 


Back-up [rak-up], v. to feed the horses and leave them for the night. 

Racket [rak-it], sb. a bustling noise. J. Com. 

Eackety [rak-iti], adj. unsteady, extravagant ; as a spendthrift. 

N. H. 

Racony [rak-uni], adj. harsh, wiry. Applied to cloth. J. 
Raff [raf], sb. a low, worthless fellow. J. 

Raftering, [raaf -turing], sb. ' raftering the land is a sort of rest- 
baulk ploughing, on account of the number of flint-stones rendering 
it too difficult to breast-plough.' Driver's Gen. View of Agriculture in 
Hants (London, 1794), p. 68. W. W. S. 

Rafty [raafti], adj. (1) Kancid; musty, as 'rafty bacon.' *Ak. 
Rafty bacon is rusty bacon. 

(2) Being of a cross-grained temper. J. 

Rag [rag], v. a. to rail at. Ex. 'Measter gied me a ragging.' J. 
Ragged-jacks [ragid-jaks] , sb. pi. small shrimps (sea-coast). Wise. 
Ragged Robin, sb. Lychnis Flos-cuculi. J. B. 

Rags and jags [ragz un jagz], sb. 2)1. shreds of cloth, &c. So in the 
nursery verses : 

' Hark, hark, the dogs do bark, 
The beggars are coming to town ; 
Some in rags, and some in jags, 
And some in tattered gowns.' F. M. 

Another version velvet gowns. "W. W. S. 
Rain [rain], v. to peel bark. Wise, New Forest. 

Rainer [rarnur], sb. one who peels bark. New Forest. 'The 
rainers, as the bark-peelers were called, were then busy,' The Cousins, 
by J. Wise. J. B. Probably a different pronunciation of rinder. See 
Kind. W. H. C. 

Ramard [ranrurd], adv. to the right. Put for ramward, a corruption 
of framward or fromward. So toard, for toward, means to the left, 
i. e. to you. Wise, New Forest. 

Rammel cheese [rami cheez], sb. the best kind of cheese; as dis- 
tinguished from omary cheese, q. v. Wise, New Forest. 

Rammucky [ram tiki], adj. dissolute, wanton. 'A rammucky man ' 
is a depraved character Wise, New Forest. 

Rampage [rampaij], v. n. to prance about furiously; to make a dis- 
turbance ; to be violent. Ex. ' He went rampaging about/ N. H. 

Rampagious [ramparjus], adj. riotous, noisy. F. M. 

Rampant [ranrpunt], adj. extremely painful ; agonizing. Ex. ' My 
poor head be so rampant.' N. H. 


Ramshackle [ranrshald], adj. old, worthies?, broken, out of order. 
F. M. Loose, untidy, ungainly. *Ak. Out of repair. Applied to 
a building ; out of order and condition, in general. Pegge's Supp. to 

Ramsons [ranvzunz], sb. wild garlic. Allium ursinum. J. 

Ramul-up [ranrul-up], v. to eat greedily. IS". H. 

Rank [rank], adj. strong-growing. Applied to plants. K H. Com. 

Rantipole [ran'tipoal], sb. the wild carrot ; daucus carota ; so called 
from its bunch of leaves. Wise, New Forest. See Hilltrot. 

Rashed. See Malt. 

Ratch [rach], v. to stretch; as 'ratch your maw,' i.e. stretch your 
stomach with food. Cooper. Cooper writes it wratch; but cf. Scot. 

Rath [raath], adj. and adv. early, soon. Ex. *I got up rath this 
morning.' Cooper. 

Rath-ripe [raath-reip], adj. early ripe. Lisle. 

Rather [raath -ur], adj. (comparative of rath) sooner. Lisle. 

Rattle-trap [rati-trap], sb. a worn-out, shaky cart or carriage. K H. 

Rattle-traps, sb. pi. things lying about in disorder, or requiring to 
be packed up. Ex. * A woman's rattle-traps,'' are all her apparel, &c. 
F. M. 

Raught [raut], pi. t. reached. *Ak. 

Ravelings [ravlingz], sb. pi. frayed or unwound textile fabrics. 
J. Com. 

Razor-bill [rarzur-bil], sb. the red-breasted merganser ; mergus 
serrator, Lin. ' Known to the fishermen at Christchurch as the 
razor- UIV Wise, New Forest, p. 312. 

Ready [red-i], adj. cooked ; used of meat when well done ; opposed 
to Bear, q. v. W. 

Rear [reer], sb. ' a piece of wood placed under the " bee-pots " to give 
the bees more room.' Wise, New forest, p. 185. 

Rear, Reer, Rere, adj. raw, underdone. *Ak. and Wise, New 
Forest, p. 192. 

Rearing-bone [ree'rin-boan], sb. the hip-bone of a pig. J. 

Rearing-feast [ree'rin-feest], sb. a supper when the roof of a new- 
built house is put on. J. 

Reaves [ree-uvz], sb. pi. the boards or rails put round waggons, so as 
to enable them to take a greater load. Wise, New Forest. 

Red-head [red-hed], sb. the pochard ; Anas ferma, Liu. ' Known 
along the Hampshire coast as the redhead and her? Wise. New Forest, 
p. 312. 

Red Heath [red heth], sb. Calluna vulgaris.J. B. 


Bed Merry Fred meri], sb. a red-fruited var. of Primus Avium. 
Dr. Bromfield's MSS. J. B. 

Redweed [redweed], sb. Papaver Rliceas. J. B. 

Refuge [ref-euj], ad/, inferior, unsaleable as, ' refuge bricks,' ' refuge 
sheep,' &c. Corr. from refuse. Cooper. 

Regarder [regaad'ur], sb. an officer whose business it is to enquire 
into the trespasses committed in the Forest. N. F. 

Remedy [renridi], sb. a half -holiday at Winchester School. Pegge's 

Supp. to Grose. 
Remward [renrurd], adv. to the right. See Ramard. 

Rennie-mouse, Reiny-mouse [reni mous, rarni mous], sb. the bat. 
See Beremouse. Wise, New Forest, p. 192. 

Rere [reer]. See Rear. 

Rere-mouse [reer'inous], sb. the bat. Wise, p. 192. A.S. hrere- 
mus, the fluttering mouse, from hreran, to flutter. See Flittermouse. 

Resolute [rez'uloot], adj, strong, active. Ex. ' He is a great, resolute 
chap.' * That's a resolute dog of yourn.' N. H. 

Revel [revl], sb. a parochial festival. *Ak. 

Ribgrass [ribgraas], sb. Plantago lanceolata. Holloway's Dictionary. 

J. B. 
Rick [rik], sb. a sprain. Ex. 'I think it's a rick; that's what the 

matter wi' 'un.' N. H. 
Rick, v. a. to sprain. Ex. 'He's ricked his arm.' N. H. 

Rick, v. to twist. Ex. ' To rick one's ancle,' to twist it ; 'to rick a 
ball ' at cricket, to make it twist or turn. W. 

Rick-rack [rilrrak], adj. only applied to the weather ; stormy, bois- 
terous. Of. Eng. reeky, and rack. Wise, New Forest. 

Rick-staddle. See Staddle. 

Rick-victuals [rilrvitlz], sb. pi. hay, peas, beans. W. 

Rickest [rik'est], sb. a rick-yard. J. 

Rid [rid], v. to clear off work. J. 

Riddle [ridl], sb. the ruddle, or composition of red ochre, with 
which sheep are marked. *Ak. 

Ride [reid], sb. (1) A little stream. Grose; Warner; F. M. 
(2) A road through a wood. N. H. 

Ridge-bone [rij-boan], sb. the weather-boarding on the outside of 
wooden houses. Cooper. 

Rig [rig], v. (1) To climb. J. 

(2) To leap on, as quadrupeds in copulation. N. H. 

Rile [reil], v. to ruffle one's temper. Cooper. 

Rind [reind], sb. the bark of a tree. Ex. ' They poles '11 do for 
rafters wi' the rind on.' N. H. 


Rip [rip], sb. (1) A coop. 

(2) A worthless fellow. F. M. When applied to a female a 

lewd, unchaste person. 
Rip, v. a. to put into a coop. Ex. ' To rip a hen ; ' to put a hen into 

a coop. N. H. 
Rip, v. a. to saw with the grain of wood. Ex. ' We'll just rip un 

down/ N. H. 
Rip-hook [rip-uok], sb. a sickle ; a reaping-hook. K H. 

Rise [reis], sb. brushwood or coppice-wood ; as, 'a bundle of rise.' 
Cooper. Common in Old English. See White -rice. 

Rise [reiz], v. to begin to ascend. Ex. * You must turn-off afore you 
rise the hill.' N. H. 

Rishes [rislvez], sb. pi. various species of Juncus. Holloway's Dic- 
tionary. J. B. Old pronunciation of rushes. 

Robin's-eyes [robinz-eiz] , sb. pi. the flowers of the milkwort (Poly- 
galum vulgare) . Applied also to others, as those of the forget-me-not. 


Rock [rok], v. to reek, steam, smoke. W. See Roke. 

Rockiers [rokyurz], sb. a small blue dove. 'Among them [the 
wood-pigeons] were little parties of small blue doves, which he calls 
rockiers.' White's Nat. Hist, of Selborne, Letter xliv. 

Rockled [rok-uld], adj. wrinkled. Cooper. Cooper writes tcrocJded. 

Cf. ruck and ruckle in Hal. 
Roke [roak], sb. steam from boiling-water. See Rock. 

Roke, v. (used rather loosely) in the senses (1) To smoke. 

(2) To steam, as a dunghill in frosty weather ; or as hot water. 

(3) To drizzle, as small, misty rain. W. Bather as warm rain 
which evaporates in mist. Cf. Germ, fiauch, smoke. W. H. C. 

Roker [roa-kur], sb. a stick or other instrument used for stirring any- 
thing. So also v. ' to roke.' 
Roky [roa-ki], adj. misty, steamy. See rooky, in Macbeth, iii. 2. W. 

Rong, sb. the step of a ladder. *Ak. See Rung, as it is always 

pronounced in North Hants. W. H. C. 

Ronge [ronj], v. to kick or play ; said of horses. Wise, New Forest. 
Roopy [roo-pi], adj. hoarse. Ex. ' I be that roopy I can't zing.' J. 

Rough-music [ruf-meu-zik], sb. a serenade with pots, kettles, or any- 
thing else that makes a hideous noise, given to married folks who are 
reputed to quarrel, or ill- treat one another ; or to those who otherwise 
disgrace themselves. N. H. 

Roughings [mf-ingz], winter dried grass. J. See Rower 
and Rowings. 

Round-frock [round-frok], sb. a gaberdine, or upper garment, worn 
by the rustics. Cooper. A smock-frock. Wise. 


Bouse-about [rouz-ubout], adj. bustling. Ex. ' Mrs. Jones is a 

rouse-about woman/ J. 
Ho wen and Bowet [roa*un, roa'ut], sb. winter grass. Lisle. 

Bowings [roa-ingz], sb. pi the latter pasture, which springs up after 
the mowing of the first crop. Cooper. 

Bubbage [rab-ij], sb. rubbish. 
Bubble [rub'l], sb. rubbish. 

Bubble [rub'l], v. to remove the gravel, which is deposited, in the 
New Forest, in a thick layer over the beds of clay or marl. Wise, 
New Forest. 

Bubblin [rubiin], sb. the gravel over the marl or clay. Wise, 
New Forest. 

Budder [rud'ur], sb. a riddle, a sieve. W. 

Buddley [rudii], adj. stained with iron rust. Ex. 'They drain-tiles 
we took up was all full of ruddley stuff,' i. e. mould impregnated with 
iron. Sometimes incorrectly pronounced rugyley. W. H. 0. 

Bue [roo], sb. a row ; a hedge-row. Cooper. 

Buffatory [ruf'utori], adj. rude, boisterous. F. M. 

Buggley. See Buddley. 

Bug-stick [rug-stik], sb. a bar in a chimney, on which hangs the 
cotterel (or iron-scale or crane, as it is also called) to which the kettle 
or pot is fastened. Called also lug-stick. Wise, New Forest. 

Bum [rum], adj. eccentric, queer; as, 'bruin ol' feller.' Cooper. Com. 

Bumbustical [rumbustikl], adj. blusterous in manners, bustling, 
pushing, and incommoding others. Cooper. Used also of an un- 
manageable horse. N. H. 

Bumpled-skein [runrpuld-skain], sb. anything in confusion ; a dis- 
agreement. *Ak. 

Bummey [runvi], adj. queer, eccentric. See Bum. K H. 
Bung [rung], sb. the cross-rail or step of a ladder. N". H. 
Busty [rust'i], adj. restive. *Ak. 
Bux [ruks], v. a. to stir, or shake. As * to rux it out/ K H. 

Saace [saas], sb. sauciness, impertinence. *Ak. 

Sabbed [sabd], pp. saturated w,ith water or liquor. Cooper. 

Safe [sa,if],adj. sure. Ex. 'Safe to die/ N. andlQ. 1st Ser. x. 

120. Hal. Certain. Ex. I'm safe to be there myself.' 
Sag [sag], v. to bulge. J. Kather to bulge downwards. W. W. S. 

Salt-cat [sault-kat], sb. (1) A mixture of coarse meal, clay, and salt, 
with some other ingredients, placed in a dove-cot to prevent the 
pigeons from leaving it, and to allure others. Forby derives it 
from cate, i. e. cake. F. M, 


(2) A lump'of rock-salt, for cattle to lick in the field or 'barton '; 
also put into a pigeons' house for the pigeons to peck at. W. Of. 
the old phrase to turn cat in pan. Bacon's Essays ; Of Cunning. W. 
W. S. 

Salts [saults], sb. pi. marshes near the sea flooded by the tides. 

Saul [sairl], sb. soul. *Ak. 

Sar [saar], v. (1) To serve. Ex. 'It sar'd un right.' 

(2) To feed. Ex. Sar the pigs.' J. 
Sawney [sau'ni], sb. a simpleton. N. H. Com. 
Scadger [skaj-ur], sb. a ruffian. Which. Sch. Gl. ' 

Scaldings [skau'ldingz], interj. A cry raised to warn others to get 
out of the way at their peril (as though a person were carrying some- 
thing scalding hot). Adams' Wykehamica, p. 432. 

Scale, Squoil [skail, skwoil], sb. a short stick loaded at one end 
with lead, and is distinguished from a snog, which is only weighted 
with wood. Wise, New Forest, p. 182. See Squoyl. 

Scale [skail], v. to throw stones. J. 
Scaly [skarli], adj. (1) shabby. F. M. 

(2) Mischievous, close, mean. Ex. ' A scaly fellow,' a mean person. 

Scamble [skambi], (1) v. n. to crumble, as a bank. 

(2) v. a. To break down, or tread down. 

(3) v. n. To roam about. N. H. 

Scar [skaar], v. to drive away. J. [For scare.] 
Scarcy [skarrsi], adj. scarce. F. M. 

Scaut [skaut] , v. to strain with the foot in supporting or pushing 
anything. *Ak. 

Scaut. See Squat. 

Scoat [skoat], sb. ashore. J. 

Sconce [skons], v. to deprive a person of anything. Winch. Sch. GL 

Scoop [skoop], sb. a boiler. J. 

Scrabble [skrab-11, v. n. (1) To crawl about. Ex. 'Little Billy's 
scrabbling about house.' 

(2) To make a scratching noise. As * rats scrabble.' J. [Eather to 
scratch, without reference to the noise. Cf. 1 Samuel xxi. 13.] 

Scran [skran], sb. a bag. [See the remarks on this word in E. D. S. 
Gloss. B. 19, p. 24.] 

Scraze [skraiz], v. a. to graze. Ex. 'I've scrazed my leg.' J. 

Screech [skreech], sb. the bull-thrush. Wise. *Ak. gives ' Screech, 
the missel-thrush.' Never so called in N. H. 

Scrim [skrim], v. a. to crush. Ex. ' Scrim the curds well.' 


Scrimpy [skrinrpi], adj. mean, small. Ex. 'A terrible scrimpy 
pudden.' J. 

Scroop [skroop], v. to grate, to creak, as a door on rusty hinges. 
Wise, New Forest, p. 186. Or as a cart-wheel wanting grease. N. H. 

Scroudge, Scrudge [skrouj, skrudj], v. to squeeze closely. F. M. 

(2) To crowd up. Cooper, who spells it scrowge. *Ak. scrouge. 
See Scrunch. 

Scrow [skrou], adj. (1) cross. ! Ex. 'Main screw," 1 very cross. *Ak. 
[2) Angry, scowling.' Cooper. 

Dark, threatening, as weather. Ex. ' A screw night.' J. 

Scrumple [skrump-1], v. to crush. J. [For crumple.] 
Scrumpling [skrump'ling], sb. a small apple. J. [For crumpling.] 

Scrunch [skrunsh], v. (1) To bite in pieces with the teeth, so as to 
make a noise. F. M. 

(2) To squeeze closely. F. M. See Scroudge. 

Scuddick [skud'ik], sb. a small coin. Ex. 'Not worth a scuddick.' 
' Not got a scuddick to fly with.' W. See Scuttick. 

Scuffle [skuf i], sb. a kind of hoe for scraping the ground. N. H. 

Scuffle [scuf'l], (1) v. a. To scrape the surface of the ground. Ex. 
' To scuffle up weeds.' 

(2) v. n. To walk without raising the feet from the ground. Ex. 
' He goes scuffling along.' N. H. 

Scug [skug], sb. a squirrel. ' Let's go sci^-hunting ' i 
phrase. AT. and Q. 1st Ser. v. 251. N. H. 

Scugbolt [skugboalt], sb. a stick with a leaden head, used for knock- 
ing down birds and acugs (squirrels). N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 400. See 

Scuggy [skug-i], sb. a squirrel. W. See Scug. 

Scull [skul], sb. a drove, or herd, or pack of low people; lit. a 
shoal; always used in an opprobrious sense. Wise, New Forest. 

Scuppit [skupit], sb. a small scoop used by malsters, &c. Cooper. 

Scut [skut], sb. the wren. Sometimes called scutta-wren [skut'uren], 
F. M. Eather scutty-wren W. H. C. 

Scuttick [skut'ik], sb. anything of the smallest possible worth. ' I'll 
tell you what I mean to do; I won't pay one farthing no, I won't 
pay one scuttick towards the taxes, nor the Poor's rate, nor the parson 
neither, not till I find something to satisfy my mind.' Election Speech, 
Newport, Isle of Wight, April 20, 1831. See Scuddick. 

Sedge [sedj-], sb. Spartina altemiflora. Dr. Bromfield in Phytolo- 
gist, iii. 1096, O.S. J. B. 

Seed-lip [seed-lip], sb. a wooden box, of a peculiar shape, which is 
carried by persons when sowing the ground. Cooper. 

is a common 


Serve [surv], v. a. (I) To make; to treat. Ex." 'We maun nerve 
him same as t'other one.' We must do to it as to the other one, viz. 
a gate or post, or articles of furniture. N. H. 
(2) To feed animals. See Sar. J. 

Setty [set-i], adj. Eggs are said to be setty when they are sat upon. 
Wise, New Forest. 

Sew fseu], adj. dry, spoken of cows. Ex. ' To go sew ' (of a cow) is 
to go dry. Cooper. 

Sewent [seu*ent], adj. smooth, as a field of corn. <J. See Suant. 
Shacket [shalrut], sb. a fair load of hay or straw. N. H. 
Shackety [shak-uti], adj. out of repair. K H. 

Shackle [shaki], sb. a withy ring for securing hurdles to the stakes. 
- u . ^ 

Shade [shaid], sb. ' It has nothing in common with the shadows 
of the woods, but means either a pool or an open piece of ground, 
generally on a hill- top, where the cattle in the warm weather collect, 
or, as the phrase is, " come to shade," for the sake of the water in the 
one and the breeze in the other. Thus " Ober Shade" means nothing 
more than Ober pond ; whilst " Stony-cross Shade " is a mere turfy 
plot.' Wise, New Forest, p. 181. The word was suggested by the 
notion of coolness. 

Shadow-cow [shad'u-kou], sb. a cow whose body is a different 
colour to its hind and fore-parts. Wise, New Forest, p. 185. 

Shake [shaik], sb. a crack, flaw, or rift in a tree. A woodman's 
term. W. 

Shaky [sharki], adj. unsound, as applied to timber having shakes or 
rifts. * The trees on the freestone grow large, but are what workmen 
call shakey, and so brittle as often to fall to pieces in sawing.' 
White's Nat. Hist, of Selborne, Letter i. See Shake. 

Shammock [shanruk], v. to slouch, to shamble. Wise, New Forest. 

Shammocking, pres. part, as adj. shambling ; a sliammocldng man 
means an idle, good-for-nothing person ; a shammocking dog means 
almost a thievish, stealing dog. Wise, New Forest. 

Shard [shaa'd], sb. (1) A gap in a hedge or bank. Cf. A.S. Sceran, 
to cut. 

(2) A cup. Ex. 'A shard of tea,' a cup of tea. Wise, New Forest. 
It probably does not mean 'a cup,' but * a small quantity,' as a bit 
of meat, a morsel of bread ; so a shard (i. e. a little piece) of tea. 
W. H. 0. 

Sharf [shaarf], sb. the shaft of a cart or carriage. PI. Sharves. Ex. 
' One of them sharves is broke.' 

Sham-beetle [shaan-bee-tl], sb. dung-beetle. J. But the word 
beetle is very rare among the peasantry in Hants. They always call 
it JBob, with various prefixes. W. H. 0. 

Sharp [shaap], sb. the shaft of a cart. Cooper. See Sharf. 


Sharp [shaap], v. a. to sharpen. Ex. ' I maun sharp the saw, afore 
I does more wi' her.' N. H. 

Shaul [shaul], sb. a shovel to winnow with. Cooper. From Ray, 
who writes sliawle. It is literally shovel, the v being pronounced as 
u ; as in the nursery rhyme 

' I, said the owl, 
With my little shoueVW. H. 0. 

Shaw [shau], sb. a small wood. K H. 

Shealing [shee'lin], sb. a lean-to; a smaller building constructed 
adjoining to, and against another. N. H. 

Sheening [shee'ning], sb. for machining ; working by taskwork at a 
machine. N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 400. 

Sheep-slate [sheep-slait], sb. a sheep-walk ; sheep-lease. Lisle. 

Sheer [sheer], adj. shining, glassy ; used especially of any inflamma- 
tion which looks angry. W. 

Sheers [sheerz], sb. pi. for shires; the midland counties. Ex. 'He 
comes out of the sheers somewheres.' N. H. 

Sheets-axe [sheets-aks], sb. pi. oak-galls. J. B. ' On the 29th of 
May children carry oak-apples about, and call out sheets-axe in 
derision to those who are not provided with them.' Wise, New 
Forest, p. 183. 

Shelf, sb. (1) A bank of sand or pebbles. 
2) A shallow in a river. 

(3) A ford. See shelves in Milton, Comus, 117 ; and slielvy in Sh. 
Merry Wives, III. v. 15. Wise, New Forest. 

Shim [shim], sb. a smock. J. This word appears to be an abbrevi- 
ation of the French chemise. W. H. C. 

Shim, adj. lean, thin, slim. Ex. 'He's a shim fellow,' i.e. thin. 
Wise, New Forest. 

Shire-way [sheir-wai], sb. a bridle-way. Cooper. 

Shirk off [shurk auf], ?;. to decamp, to retreat in a cowardly way, to 
slink away from. *Ak. See Shog off. 

Shirky [shurk'i], adj. deceitful. Cooper. 
Shirt-craw. See Craw. 

Shiver-grass [shivur-graas], sb. a species of grass which continually 
seems agitated, or quivers. F. M. Also called didder-grass, viz. in 
Cambs.-W. W. S. \_Briza.~] 

Shock, Shoak, Shuck [shok, shoak, shuk], v. to break off short. 
Gravel is said to shock off at any particular stratum. Wise, New 

Shock [shok], sb. a heap, applied not merely to corn, but to anything 
else. * A shock of sand,' i. e. a line or band of sand. Wise, New Forest. 


Shock-shower [shok-shou-r], sb. a slight shower in harvest ; one 
which just wets the Shocks, or sheaves of corn. W. 

Shoes and Stockings [shooz und stokingz], sb. pi. Lotus corniculatus. 
Holloway's Dictionary. J. B. 

Shog off [shog auf], v. the same as shirk off. *Ak. Perhaps it has 
less of the idea of sneaking away. Of. ' Let us shog o/.' Henry V. 
ii. 3. [Shog and shirk are not allied. W. W. S.] 

Shoot [shoot], sb. a deep road downhill. J. 

Shoot-off [shuot-auf, sometimes pronounced shut], v. to unyoke; 
used sometimes without the suffix. Ex. * I've just shot the mare,' i. e. 
taken her out of harness, and put her in the stable. N. H. 

Shooting-off-time [shuolin-auf-teim], sb. the hour at which farm- 
horses leave off work. N. H. 

Showl [shoul], sb. a shovel. *Ak. See Shaul. 

Shrammed [shram -d], pp. chilled. *Ak. Very cold. N. H. Con- 
veys the notion of being shrunk up with cold. Ex. 'I'm shramm'd 
wi' cold.' W. 

Shrape [shraip], v. to scold. Cooper. 

Shrew-ash [shreu-ash], sb. a ' medicated ' ash-tree. ' A shrew-ash was 
made thus : Into the body of a tree a deep hole was bored with an 
auger, and a poor devoted shrew-mouse was thrust in alive, and 
plugged in.' White's Nat. Hist, of Selborne, Letter xxviii. 

Shrievy [shree-vi], adj. having threads withdrawn. Cooper. 

Shroving [shroa'ving], sb. l Boys and girls "go shroving" on Ash- 
Wednesday ( ? Shrove Tuesday) ; that is, begging for meat and drink 
at the farmhouse, singing this rude snatch : 

" I come a shroving, a shroving, a shroving, 
For a piece of pancake ; 
Por a piece of truffle-cheese 
Of your own making ' ' ; 

when, if nothing is given, they throw stones and sharda at the door/ 
Wise, New Forest, p. 178. 

Shuck [shuk], sb. a husk, or shell, as a ' bean-s7mc&.' Cooper. 
Used only after the seed has been removed. W. H. 0. 

Shuck [shuk], v. to shake. Cooper. 

Shuckish [shukish], adj. unpleasant, unsettled, showery; as a 
' shuckish journey,' ' shuckish weather,' &c. Cooper. It seems equiva- 
lent to shaky. 

Shuffling [shuf -ling], pres. part. ' To go shuffling ' is to walk with- 
out raising the feet much from the ground, thereby making a shuffling 
noise. F. M. See Scuffle. 

Shun [shun], v. to push. Cooper. 

Shut. See Shoot. 



Shute [sheut], sb. a young growing pig ; bigger than a sucking-pig, 
but not a full-grown pig. Wise (note on Cooper, who writes sheat, shut], 

Shutes [sheuts], sb. pi. young hogs or porkers before they are put up 
to fatting. Lisle. 

Side [seid] , adj. long. Cf . ' side sleeves/ i. e. long sleeves. Much 
Ado, iii. 4. 

Side-lands [seid-landz], sb. pi. the headlands of a ploughed field, 
where the plough has.been turned. Cooper. 

Sidy [sei'di], adj. surly, moody. Cooper. 

Silk- wood [silk-wuod],s&. the great golden maiden-hair; Polytricum 
commune ; ' which they call silk-wood.' White's Nat. Hist. ofSelborne, 
Letter xxv. 

Silly [sili], adj. frantic, mad, insane. Ex. ' It 'ud drive me silly to 
see it.' ' He' s gone silly, and took to th' asylum.' It is always used 
to designate insanity not folly or idiotcy, which is designated by the 
word Simple. N. H. 

Silt. See Bacon-silt. 

Simple [sinrpl], adj. weak-minded, foolish, idiotic. Ex. 'He be 
quite simple, poor chap. ' N. H. 

Sithe [seidh], v. to sigh. *Ak. (who writes sythe). 

Size [seiz], sb. thickness, consistency ; the ' size of the gruel ' means 
its consistency. Wise, New Forest. 

Sizzing [sizing], sb. yeast or barm, so called from the sound made 
by ale or beer in working. Cooper. 

Skeel [skeel], sb. a stratum ; a layer of soil of any kind. K H. 

Skeer [skeer], sb. a hard surface as on land not easily broken up. 
N. H. 

Skellet [skel'ut], sb. a round brass pot, having a bail (q. v.) to hang 
it over the fire. N. H. 

Skenter [skent-ur], sb. an animal that will not fatten. - 

Skenting 1 [sk en ting], adj. cattle are said to be skenting when they 
will not fatten. J. 

Skid [skid], sb. a piece of timber laid at an angle with the ground. 
Two or more skids are laid, so as to form an inclined plane to lever 
(q. v.} up large timber. N. H. 

Skillin [skil-un], sb. a penthouse. *Ak. Common ; especially at 
the back part of a house. Wise. See Shealing. 

Skimmer-cake [skinvur kaik], sb. a small pudding made up from 
the remnants of another, and baked upon a skimmer, the dish with 
which the milk is skimmed. Wise, New Forest. 

Skimmington [skimintun], sb. what is called rough music (q. v.). 
N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 400. ' To ride Skimmington ' is a ludi- 
crous diversion in many parts of England, when the grey mare is 


the better horse. A sort of triumphal procession, wherein the van- 
quished husband or his representative rides behind, towards the 
horse's or ass's tail, with a distaff in his hand, spinning or winding 
flax ; and the wife, or her representative, before, with a skimmer or 
ladle in her hand, with which she sometimes gives the man a rap over 
the head, for not minding his work. Madden. (It is much the same 
as what is called Hough Music in the South, in allusion to the ' rough 
music ' with which the procession is accompanied. See the description 
in Chambers' Book of Days, ii. 510 ; and in Butler's Hudibras, bk. ii. 
canto 2 ; and the numerous illustrations of the phrase in Brand's 
Pop. Antiq. ed. Ellis, ii. 190. W. W. S.) 

Skise [skeis], v. to frolic about. Ex. ' The lambs skise about the 
fold.' J. " 

Skitter [skit'ur], v. n. to shuffle along ; to walk stealthily. Ex. 
4 To skitter like a mouse to her hole.' Cf. E. shuttle. 

Skitter-boots [skit-ur-boots],s&. pi. half-boots laced in front. Called 
also skitter-vamps. I. of W. Halliwell. 

Skrow [skrou], adj. Shattered, battered. Wise, New Forest. See 

Slab [slab], sb. a thick slice or lump. Ex. 'A slab of bacon,' a 
large piece of bacon. Opposed to snoul. Wise, New Forest. See 
Squab, Snoul. 

Slabby [slab-i], adj. dirty. J. 

Slabs [slabz], sb. pi. the outer parts of a tree, sawn off before the 
body is sawn into plank, or the like. N. H. 

Slade [slaid], sb. a brook ; a small running stream. N". H. 

Slan [slan], sb. a sloe. *Ak. Corruptly used; slan (A.S. sldn) is 
properly a plural form. 

Slap [slap], adv. straight, promptly. Ex.' * To put a horse slap at a 
fence.' N. H. 

Slap [slap], v. to slap on the cheek is to make use of rouge. Said to 
be confined to the localities of Sallyport (Portsmouth), Gosport, and 
Dock. See Sailors and Saints, i. 258. F. M. 

Slat [slat], v. (1) To beat upon with violence, as when rain beats 
against the window. Cooper. 

(2) To split, to crack (lit. to slit). *Ak. 
Slat [slat], sb. a slate. *Ak. 
Slate [slait], sb. a pod or husk. J. 
Sleep-mouse [sleep-mous], sb. a dormouse. N. H. 

Sleepy [slee-pi], adj. tasteless, insipid; spoken of apples and pears 

in the first soft state before they rot. Cooper. 
Slim [slim], adj. deceitful, crafty. Ex. ' A slim fellow,' a rogue. 

Slink [slink], sb. a bit ; only in the phrase, ' a slink of a thing,' 

G 2 


which means a poor, weak, starved creature, or anything small and 

of bad quality. Wise, New Forest. 
Slink off. L. See Shirk off. 

Slipshaws [slipshauz], sb. pi. nuts that are ripe. W. 
Slither [slidh-ur], v. n. to slide. N. H. 
Slize [sleiz], v. to look sly. *Ak. Wise, New Forest. 
Slock [slok], v. to throw away. Ex. ' Slock it away.' Wise, New 


Sloop [sloop], v. to exchange. *Ak. 
Slox [slocks], v. to waste or pilfer. *Ak. 

Slub [slub], sb. wet and loose mud. Used as slush or slosh is else- 
where. Cooper. 

Sluggard's guise [slug-urdz geiz], sb. a sluggardly habit. Hence the 
'rhyme : 

1 Sluggards guise ; 
Loth to bed and loth to rise.' *Ak. 

Slurry [sluri], adj. dull, stagnant, dirty. N". H. 

Slut [slut], sb. a noise ; chiefly in phrase, ' a slut of thunder,' i. e. a 
peal. Wise, New Forest. See Slat. 

Smack [smak], v. to strike with the open hand. Ex. ' I'll smack 
thee vace for 'ee.' J. Com. 

Smack, adv. decidedly ; as, ' he went smack at it.' Cooper. 

Small Heath [smaul heth], sb. Galluna vulgar is. J. B. 

Smart [smaart], adj. expresses quantity or length. Ex. ' A smart 

many ; ' ' a smart way ; ' ' it'll go a smart ways into it ' = it will 

expend a good deal of a sum of money. N. H. 

Smatch [smach], sb. a smack, an unpleasant flavour. W. See 


Smicket [smik-ut], sb. a smock-frock. Wise, New Forest, p. 162. 
Smock-faced [smok-fais-d], adj. sheepish, bashful. J. 

Smolt [smoalt?], adj. (1) Smooth and shining. Cooper. 
(2) Polished, brushed. Wise. 

Smoorn [smoorn?], v. to smear. Cooper. 

Snack [snak], sb. a small ' fives' ball. Winch. Sch. GL 

Snacks [snaks], sb. pi. shares; 'to go snacks, 1 to share or divide 
anything. F. M. Com. 

Snag [snag], sb. (1) Prunus Spinosa, the blackthorn. 
(2) The sloe. W. 

Snag-blossom [snag-bios -urn], sb. the blossom of the blackthorn. W. 
Snaggle [snag-1], v. to snarl. W. 

Snail-creepers [snail-kree'purz], sb. the embroidered front of a 
countrvman's smock-frock. W. 


Snake-Fern [snaik-veeurn], sb. Osmunda regal ts 9 and Blechuum 
Spicant. J. B. 

Snake-flower [snaik-flour], sb. Pulmonaria angustifolia. J. B. 
Snake stang [snaik-stang], sb. a dragon-fly. J. 

Snead [sneed], sb. the handle of a scythe. The family of Sneyd, 
of Staff., bear a scythe in their arms. Cooper (who writes Snead). 
*Ak. explains that it is the pole of a scythe (A.S. snwd) ; the two* short 
handles are called the nibs, the rings that fasten these handles are 
called the quinnets, and the ring which secures the blade is called the 

Snigger [snig-ur], v. to giggle. J. See Sniggle. 

Sniggle [snigi], sb. an eel peculiar to the Avon in Hampshire ; 
Anguilla mediorostris. Wise, New Forest. 

Sniggle, v. n. (1) To titter ; to sneer at a person. K H. 
(2) To snarl; as a dog. Wise, New Forest. 

Sniggling [snigiing], sb. the snarling of a dog. Wise, New Forest, 
p. 186. 

Snoder-gills [snod'ur-gilz], sb. pi. yew-berries. N. H. 

Snog [snog], sb. a stick used for ' cock-squoyling.' Wise, New Forest, 
p. 182. See Scale and Squoyl. 

Snotch [snoch], sb. probably for notch. ? ' To get a snotch of a per- 
son,' is to gain an advantage over him. It seems rather, from the 
broad Hampshire a, to be for snatch, if it be not an original word. 
W. H. 0. 

Snoul [snoul], sb. a small quantity. Cooper. A small piece, a 
morsel. Ex. ' I've just had a snoul,' I have only had a morsel. 
Wise, New Forest. Whence it appears that it is a small quantity of 
something edible. W. H. 0. Opposed to Slab. 

Snow-blossom [snoa-blos-um], sb. a snow-flake. A very beautiful 
word ; more commonly used on the Wilts border. W. 

Snow-drop [snoa-drop], sb. a white variety of Fritillaria Meleagris. 
See Cowslip. J. B. 

Snuff-box [snuf-boks], sb. Various species of fungus are so called. 
Cf. the Scotch term, 'the devil's snuff-box.' W. 

Sock [sok], v. (1) To hit hard at cricket. 

(2) To win; to be socked, to be beaten. Winch. Sch. Ol. 

Soggy [sog-i], adj. damp, wet, boggy ; applied to land. N. H. 
Solly [soli ]], sb. a tottering and unsafe condition. Cooper. 

Some [sum], adv. somewhat, a little. ' It has rained some,' i. e. a 

little. W. 

Some-when [sum-when], adv. at some time. J. 
Sossle [sosi], sb. a slop, mess. ' What a sossle you have made ! ' 



Sossle [sos-1], v. to make a slop. Cooper. 

Souse [sous], sb. the face, ears, feet, and tail of a hog, eaten cold 
after it has been boiled. The terra is derived from souse, the ear, and 
properly, the ear of a pig. F. M. 

Spalt [spault], v. to turn up. Ex. ' It spoils up from below the 
staple,' i. e. the bad ground turns up in ploughing from below the good 
mould. Lisle. [Spalt is properly to split. W. W. S.] 

Spanes [spainz], sb. pi. the longitudinal bars of a field gate. N. H. 

Spanker [spankair], sb. (1) A cant term applied to a showy woman 
of loose character, or who is largely made in the hips. F. M. 
(2) A stout or active person ; spoken of either sex. F. M. 

Spanking [spank-ing], adj. quick. F. M. 
Spanky [spank -i], adj. showy. *Ak. 

Spar [spaar], sb. Spars are small pointed sticks, doubled and 
twisted in the centre, used by thatchers for fixing the straw on a roof. 

Sparables [sparablz], sb. pi. small triangular nails used by shoe- 
makers. F. M. 

Spar-gad [spaar-gad], sb. a beam from which a cass can be made. 
Wise, Neiu Forest. See Cass. 

Spat [spat], sb. a blow ; a form of pat. Ex. ' To give one a spatj 

i. e. a pat or slap. W. 
Spat, v. to pat rather sharply, to slap. 

Spats [spats], sb. pi. long leggings. J. Evidently an abbreviation 
of spatter-dashes or spatter-dashers. W. H. 0. 

Spavins [spavunz], sb. pi. spasms. N. and Q 1st Ser. x. 400. 

Spean [speen], sb. a cow's teat. Wise, New Forest. ' A kicking 
cow has good speans.' Dixon, Canidia [1683], part iii. p. 89. 

Speckle-back [spek-1-bak], sb. a snake. 'The proverb "eat your 
own side, speckle-back," is a common New Forest expression, and is 
used in reference to greedy people. It is said to have taken its origin 
from a girl who shared her breakfast with a snake, and thus reproved 
her favourite when he took too much.' Wise, New Forest, p. 179, 

Speg [speg], adj. smart. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 435. 

Spell [spel], sb. (1) A fit or start. Pain is said to come and go by 
spells, i. e. by continuances of it at certain intervals. Wise, New 

(2) A time or quantity. Ex. 'He done a good spell of work.' 

Spene [speen], sb. See Spean. 

Spick, Speck [spik, spek], sb. lavender. W. Not in Ak. [Halli- 
well or Wright, in this sense.] 

Spikenard [speik-naad], sb. Sison Amomum. Flora Vectensis, p. 
201. J. B. 


Spillwood [spil'wuod], sb. wood thrown away by the sawyers. 

Spine-oak [spein-oak], sb. the heart of oak. Wise, New Forest. 
Spink [spink], sb. a chaffinch. N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 400. 

Spinney [spin-i], sb. a very small wood ; a strip of wood between 
two fields. 

Spire-bed [speir-bed], sb. a place where the spires [spei'u'rz], or 
shoots of the reed- canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) grow. A 
spire-bed field or spear-bed field, is a field where the spires grow, that 


are used by plasterers and thatchers in their work. Wise, New Forest. 

Spiritual [spir-iteu'ul] , adj. angry ; as, 'I got quite spiritual with 
him.' N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 120. 

Spit [spit], sb. the depth of a spade. Ex. ' They trenched 'un two 
spit deep.' N. H. 

Spith [spith], sb. pith, strength, force. Wise, New Forest. 
Spitter [spit-ur], sb. a spud, a hoe. W. 
Splice [spleis], v. to throw. Winch. Sch. Gl. 
Splodger [splodj-ur], sb. a thick stick, a bludgeon. W. 

Sport [spoart], v. (1) To give away. 

(2) To display any article of dress. Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Sprack [sprak], adj. quick, lively, brisk, active. Also neat, tidy. 
Wise, New Forest. ' A sprack nn,' a lively one. *Ak. 

Spratling [spraHin], adj. uppish ; consequential. J. 

Spratter [sprat-ur], sb. the guillemot; uria trioile, Lath. Wise, 
New Forest, p. 309. 

Spreader [spred-ur], sb. the bar across the chain-traces of the leading 
horses of a team. N. H. 

Spreath [spreedh], adj. active, able. *Ak. See Sprack. 

Spreathed [spree'dh'd], adj. bitten ^by frost. W. *Ak. gives 
' spreazed, chapped by cold. ' 

Spree [spree], adj. (1) Conceited, giving oneself airs, when applied 
to a person. 

(2) Smart, stylish, when applied to a thing. Winch. Sch.^ Gl. 
When used in a bad sense 'pretentious'; when in a good, 'stylish,' 
'superior.' Adams' Wykehamica, p. 435. 

Spring-bird [spring-burd], sb. See Barleybird. 

Spud [spud], sb. a short knife used to grub up weeds, &c. F. M. 

In North Hants a kind of straight hoe with a long handle, for grub- 

bing up weeds or cutting down thistles. 
Spuddle [spud-1], v. to stir about. *Ak. To muddle. Wise. 


Squab [skwob], sb. (1) An unfeathered bird. Cooper. *Ak. defines 
it as ' the weakest bird of the brood.' 

(2) 'On the 30th of last June, I untiled the eaves of a house where 
many pairs [of swifts] build, and found in each nest only 2 squab, 
naked pulli? White's Nat. Hist, of Selborne, Letter xxi. 

(3) Anything large. Ex. ' a squab of a piece,' a large piece. 

(4) A thickset, heavy person. Wise, New Forest. 

Squat [skwot], sb. the stay of a waggon to prevent its slipping back 
downhill. N. H. 

Squat [skwot], sb. a pimple ; the same as Quat, q. v. Just as squat 

is used for quat, so quat is used for squat, in the sense of to squat 

down. W. 
Squat, v. to bruise or to lay flat. Cooper. To press or push 

back. N. H. 
Squawk [skwauk], v. to squall. Ex. * How the child do squawk /' 

N. H. 

Squawking-thrush [skwau -kin-thrush], sb. the missel-thrush. J. 
Squeaker [skwee-kur], sb. the swift. ]S". H. 

Squelch [skwelsh], adv. heavily, said of a fall. Ex. ' A veil down 
squelch ,' he fell down heavily. *Ak. 

Squibbed [skwibd], pp. killed, crushed, applied to vermin ; and 
also to linen when rumpled. F. M. 

Squinney [skwiiri], v. to fret, as a child. Halliwell. 
Squinny-guts [skwini-guts], sb. a fractious child. J. 
Squirts [skwurts], sb. diarrhoea. Ex. 'To have the squirts' F. M. 
Squish [skwish], sb. weak tea. Adams' Wykehamica, p. 435. 

Squoil [skwoil], sb. a ' scale ' (q. v.) 'or short stick loaded at one end 
with lead, used for throwing at cocks, squirrels, &c. From the 
notion of throwing squoils at a person came the forced interpretation 
of throwing glances at one. * And so in the New Forest at this day 
squoyles not unfrequently mean glances.' Wise, New Forest, p. 182. 
Ex. * He throwed a squoyle ; ' that is, he looked at it. Blackmore's 
Cradock Noivell, i. p. 225. Hence the name of the game of squails. 

Squoil, v. To throw squoils ; also, to slander. ' With the sb. is 
also employed the verb to squoyle, better known in reference to the 
old sport of cock-squoyling [i. e. throwing sticks at cocks]. From 
throwing at the squirrel the word was used in reference to persons, 
so that, " don't squoyle at me," at length meant, " don't slander me." ' 
Wise, New Forest, ibid. 

Stabble [stab'l], v. n. to enter a house with dirty shoes. N. H. 

Stabbles [stabiz], sb. pi. marks, footprints ; always in the plural. 
In an old rhyme upon a hailstorm, we have 

' Go round the ricks, and round the ricks, 
And make as many stabile as nine-score sheep.' 

Wise, New Forest. 


Staddles [stad-lz], sb. pi. stone or wooden supports which uphold 
rick-stands ; or on which granaries or barns stand. N. H. *Ak. has 
the word. 

Staff [staaf], sb. a stick or rod. Ex. c To take the staff to 'un ' 
To beat or thrash a naughty boy. N. H. 

Stale [stail], adj. dry, tasteless, not nutritive. Applied to grass. 
Ex. 'We may leave they beasts out till the grass oegins to get stale. 1 

Stale-fallows [stail-faloaz], sb. pi. ground that has been ploughed 
some time, and lies in fallow. N. H. 

Stamwood [stam-wuod], sb. i. e. stem-wood; the roots of trees 
removed from the earth. Cooper. 

Starky [staak'i], adj. used of land that is stiff and unworkable, 
especially after rain. Wise, New Forest ; also *Ak. ' 'Twur starky 
moor nor stoachy ; ' stiff rather than muddy. Blackmore's Cradock 
Nowell, i. p. 226. See Stoachy. 

Startle-bob [staaH-bob], sb. the horse-fly. K H. 

Steanin [stee*nin], sb. a road made with small stones. A.S. stcenen, 
stony. *Ak. 

Stear [stee'ur], v. to gaze intently ; to view with astonishment. For 
Stare. Ex. ' I've got something as '11 make 'ee stear.' N. H. 

Stem [stem], sb. a period of time. Ex. ' We have had a stem o' 
dry weather.' A.S. stefen, stemn, a set time. ' Hi hsefdon hiora stemn 
gesetenne,' they had stayed their appointed time; A.S. Chron. ann. 
894, ed. Thorpe, p. 166. 

Stepper [step'ur], sb. a round of a ladder. W. 

Still [stil], adj. quiet, steady. Ex. ' A still lad,' a quiet, well-con- 
ducted boy. N. H. 

Stinge [stinj], sb. a sting. PI. stinges [stinj'ez]. *Ak. 
Stitch-hyssop [stich-his'up], sb. Genista anglica. J. B. 

Stoachy [stoa*chi], adj. dirty; as 'a stoachy road.' Cooper. So 
also * a dreadful stoachy piece of ground.' Wise. See Stodge -full 
in Hal. 

Stock [stok], sb. ' A rabbit-sfoc& ' is a rabbit-burrow. W. 
Stodgy [stodji], adj. thick, heavy. Ex. 'a stodgy pudding.' J. 
Stolt [stoalt], adj. stout, strong. Ex. ' The chicken are quite stolt.' 

Stomachy [stunruki], adj. proud, haughty. W. Used of a horse, 
high-tempered, fresh. N. H. 

Stoneweed [stoan-weed], sb. Polygonum aviculare. Dr. Bromfield's 
MSS.-J. B. 

Stool [stool], sb. a stump of a tree. Wise, New Forest. Especially 
the stumps of a coppice which has been cut. N. H. *Ak. has stoul. 
See Snouls, and Moots. 


Stooled [stoo'ld], adj. applied to a tree that lias been reduced to a 
stump. * " A stooled stick" is used in opposition to maiden-timber, 
which has never been touched with the axe.' Wise, New Forest, p. 183. 

Stop [stop], si). 'A stop of rabbits/ a nest of rabbits. W. See 

Stouls [stoulz]. See Stool. 

Stout [stout], sb. a gad-fly. A.S. stut. Wise, New Forest, p. 193. 
Also *Ak. and N. H. 

Stramots [stranruts], si. pi. grassy places. Ex. ' The main of 'un 
tuffets and stramots ; ' most of the ground was hillocky and grassy. 
Blackmore' s Cradock Nowell, i. p. 226. 

Strand [strand], sb. one of the twists of a line of horse-hair. 
Cooper. Com. Used of any rope. 

Strap-grass [strap-graas], sb. couch-grass. Triticum repens. W. 

Strig [strig], sb. the stalk of a plant. J. 

Strip [strip], v. a. to bark the oak tree. 

Stripping-bird [strip*in-burd], sb. the wry-neck (Junx torquilla), 

whose note is generally heard about stripping-time. N. H. See 


Stripping-time [strip'in-teim], sb. the period of spring, when the 
bark parts freely from the oak. N. H. 

Strogs [strogzl, sb. pi. gaiters. Wise, New Forest, p. 162. ' StrogsJ 
says Mr. Wise, ' do not reach quite so high as the gaiters called 
vamplets.' See Vamplets, Mokins. 

Strommelmg [stronruling], adj. awkward, ungainly, unruly. *Ak. 
Stub [stub], v. to take out young feathers from a plucked fowl. J. 

Stubby [stub'i], adj. short and thick, like the stump of a tree. 

Stuckling [stuk'ling], sb. a kind of mince-pie made of minced beef, 
caraway seeds, and apples, always served at the election dinners. 
Winch. Sch. 61. 

Stump [stump], a stoat. N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 120. 

Stumps [stumpz], sb. pi. ' To cock up his stumps] to be conceited, 
self-sufficient, or refractory. Ex. ' 'Twas that made 'un cock up his 
stumps so.' N. H. 

Stwon-dead [stwoan ded], adj. stone-dead, dead as a stone. *Ak. 
Stwonen [stwoan'un], adj. made of stone. *Ak. 

Suant [seu'unt], adj. kindly, even, regular. Lisle. Pliable. N. H. 
*Ak. gives the forms sewent, shewent, and swity. See Sewent. 

Sugg [snog], inter j. used to invite pigs to come and eat; * sugg ! 

sugg ! ' F. M. See Chug. 
Sugg -up [sug up], v. a. to face a bank with damp turf ; to revet it 


Suggy. See Soggy. 

Sull [sul], sb. a plough. J. 

Summut [sunrut], adv. somewhat, something. Ex. ' 'Twas summut 
like that.' ' Gie 'uu summut to drink.' N. H. 

Surplice [surples], sb. a smock-frock. Wise, New Forest, p. 162. 

Sussex-dumpling [sus-eks-dump-lin], sb. a dumpling made only of 
paste and water ; called also ' a dunch dumpling.' W. 

Swabber [swoVur], sb. the blower in a malt-house. Portsmouth 
Telegraph, Dec. 7, 1812. F. M. 

Swanky [swan-ki], adj. swaggering, strutting. *Ak. 

Swath [swaadh], sb. a row, line, or layer of cut grass, as it lies when 
just mown. *Ak. defines it as ' the grass as it lies after being cut 
down by the mower,' which is hardly explicit enough. 

Sweal, Swele [sweel], v. (1) To singe ; applied to the process of 
burning off the bristles of a newly-killed hog, or the feathers of a fowl. 
(2) To scorch linen. F. M. ; also Cooper. 

Sweal, Swele [sweel], v. in playing marbles, is an expression used 
by schoolboys to signify the intention of moving the taw from a 
distant spot into a hole, or one of two holes, made immediately with- 
out the ring. The utterance of the word claims the right to do this ; 
but should another boy cry Fen sweal before the word is pronounced, 
the intention is thereby defeated. F. M. 

Sweaty [swet'i], adj. mean, of no value ; as, a sweaty thing, asiceaty 
horse. Used at Bishop's Waltham^SchooL F. M. 

Swig [swig], v. to suck. *Ak. 

Swimmy [swinri], adj. giddy in the head. Cooper. 

Swinge [swinj], v. a. to flog. J. 

Swingeing [swinj ing], adj. violent, great. ' A swingeing blow ; ' 
'a swingeing price.' *Ak. [Comp. Goldsmith's Haunch of Venison. 
' At the bottom was tripe in a swingeing tureen.'] 

Swingel [swing i], sb. that part of the flail which beats the corn out 
of the ear. Cooper. The swinging part. 

Swittle [swit'l], v. to cut a stick ; ' to cut and sivittle,' to cut a stick 
and leave the pieces about the room. *Ak. Of. American whittle, 
to cut small bits from a stick. 

Swivity [swivuti], adj. giddy, dizzy. Ex. ' My head's all swivity.' J. 

Swizzle [swizi], v. to drink much, to swill. Cooper. 

Sword [swoard], sb. sward. Lisle. 

Sworl [swaul], v. to snarl as a dog. Cooper. 

Tab [tab], sb. a shoe-string. J. 

Tack [tak], sb. a shelf, a mantle-piece. Ex. ' Up on th' tack* *Ak. 


Tackle [tak'l], sb. (1) Harness; as plough-tackle, caik-tackle. K II. 

(2) Implements of agriculture. *Ak. 

(3) Food and drink. Ex. * This be capital tackle.' *Ak. 

Tackle, v. a. (1) To attack. 

(2) To be even with, or a match for. Ex. ' One of we could tackle 
two or three Koosiuns.' A Private's letter from the Crimea. 

(3) Tackle -up; to mend, to repair, to put in order. Ex. 'We can 
easy tackle-un-up.' N. H. 

Taffety [taf'uti], adj. dainty in eating. J. 
Tag [tag], sb. a sheep of a year old. Cooper. 

Tailings, Tail-ends [taiiinz, tarlendz], sb. pi. refuse corn not sale- 
able at market, but kept by the farmers for their own use. *Ak. 

Tallet, Tallot [tal-ut], sb. (1) A hay-loft over the stable. *Ak. 
(2) An attic ; a room under the roof. J. 

Tame [taim], adj. cultivated, as opposed iowild. The 'tame withy' 
is the Epilolium angustifolium when cultivated in a garden. W. 

Tan [tan], adv. then. J. 

Tang [tang], v. to make a noise with a key and shovel at the time 
of the swarming of a hive of bees ; not, as is supposed, to induce them 
to settle, but to give notice of the rising of the swarm, which could 
not be followed if they went on to a neighbour's premises, unless this 
warning was given. This rude kind of music was called a tanging, it 
being an imitation of a bell. *Ak. See Tong. 

Tarblish [taablish], adv. tolerably. Ex. ' TarblisJt middlin, thankee,' 
i. e. tolerably well. *Ak. 

Tarrat [tarut], sb. a loft ; the same as Tallet, q. v. W. 

Tat [tat], sb. a slight tap or blow. J. 

Tawer [tau'ur], sb. a fellmonger, leather-dresser. Cooper. 

Tawling [tauiing], sb. the mark from which the marble is shot at 
the beginning of the game. Cooper. Probably nothing but taw-line. 

Teart [tee'urt], adj. sharp, painfully tender ; said of a wound. A.S. 
teartj severe. *Ak. 

Ted [ted], v. a. to spread and toss hay. Ex. ' We've well tedded 
that hay.' N. H. 

Tee-hole [tee-heal], sb. the entrance for bees into a hive. Wise, New 
Forest, p. 185. 

Teeing [teeing], adj. buzzing, alluding to the buzzing or teeing noise 
made by bees. Wise, ibid. 

Teel [teel], v. to place anything in a leaning position against a wall, 
&c. *Ak. Ex. ' Put it a little teeling, i. e. leaning.' Wise, New Forest. 
' Teel 'un up ' = set it on its end against something. N. H. 

Teft [teft], v. to try the weight of anything with the hand. *Ak 
Corrupted from to heft. See Heft. 


Teg [teg], sb. a sheep of the first year. 1ST. H. 

Tell [tel], v. a. to count or reckon. Ex. ' I've told they lath ' = I 
have reckoned the number of lath, charged by a lath-render. N. H. 

Tempest [tenrpust], sb. a thunder-storm. "Used exclusively to 
denote thunder in North Hants, without reference to wind. N. H. 

Tender [tend'ur], adj. trying ; used of a sharp east wind ; as, * the 
wind is very tender.' N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 120. 

Terrible [terubl], adj. very, extremely. Ex. 'He is terrible ill.' 
* He gets terrible handy.' It may sometimes be meant, in mispronun- 
ciation, for tolerable, as, * I'm terrible well, thank 'ee.' N. H. 

Terrify [ter'-ifei], v. to tease, worry, irritate, annoy. Cooper. To 
fret. N. H. Ex. ' And be anxious about nothing. The word here 
is the same as in the Sermon on the Mount. It means, do not fret ; 
do not terrify yourselves.' Kingsley's Town and Country Sermons. 
Ser. xxxi. [Preached to a North Hants congregation : Eversley.] 

Tew [teu], adj. small, tender, sickly. J. See Tooly. 

Thee [dhee],jDrow. very commonly used instead of you in North 
Hants ; also for thy, your. Ex. ' What's thee name ? ' *Ak. 

Theesum [dhee'zum], pron. these. Ex. ' Theesum here things ; ' these 
things here. *Ak. 

Them [dhem], pr. those. Ex. ' Them be'ant the ones we wanted. 
' Did ; ee fetch them tools ? ' N. H. 

Then [dhen], adv. that time. Ex. ' By then it will be gone.' J. 

There right [dhair-reit], inter j. addressed to horses at plough, when 
required to go straightforward. A.S. fycerrihte, directly. *Ak. 

They [dhai], those. Ex. ' Drive they cows out of that field.' 

Thic, Thik [dhik], pron. this. *Ak. Which seems correct. 
W. H. 0. [Put for thilk, A.S. \>HUc.W. W. S.] 

Thick [thik], adj. (1) Stupid. 

(2) Very intimate. Winch. Sch. Ql. 

Thief [theef], sb. a young ewe. Lisle. 

Thik [dhik], pron. that. Wise, New Forest, p. 190. Never used 
for that in North Hants. W. H. 0. See Thic. 

Thiller-horse [thil'ur-haus], sb. the shaft-horse, the last horse in the 
team. Shakespeare has fill-horse (M. of Ven. II. ii. 100). Wise, New 
Forest, p. 189. 

Thissum [dhis-um],^>ro. this. *Ak. 

Thoke [thoak], sb. the act of lying in bed late. Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Thoke [thoak], v. n. to bask ; usually applied to lying warm and 
comfortable in bed (Gr. OWKOG, a resting-place), often used metaphor- 
ically to denote resting pleasurably on any idea. Ex. * I thokeou the 
leave-out day next week.' Adams' Wykehamica, p. 436. 


Thoker [thoa'kur], sb. a thick piece of bread dipped in water, and 
then baked in the ashes. Winch. Sch. Gl. 

Thrashel [thraslrul], sb. a flail. W. See Drashel. 

Three-cunning [three-kuning], adj. intensely knowing, particularly 
acute. Wise, New Forest, p. 189. 

Thrifty [thrift 'i], adj. thriving, flourishing; occasionally in the sense 
of being in good health. Wise, New Forest. 

Throat-hapse [throat-haps], si. a halter. J. 

Throw [throal (rather, I think, throu)], sb. a thoroughfare. 

Throw [throa], v. to produce. The ground is said by woodmen to 
throw good or bad timber. W. 

Thuck, Thuk [dhuk], pron. that. *Ak. 

Thumb [thura], sb. the mousehunt, or smallest of the weasel tribe. 
N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 120. 

Thumb-bird [thum-burd], sb. the golden -crested regulus ; Regulus 
cristatus. Koch. ' Known throughout the New Forest as the thumb- 
bird: Wise, New Forest, p. 308. 

Thumb-pot [thum-pot], sb. a particular kind of earthenware Roman 
drinking- vessel, found in some excavated potteries in the New Forest. 
It somewhat resembles a tumbler, with perpendicular depressions 
ranged round it, which were made by the workman's thumb, whence 
the name. One of them is figured in Wise's New Forest, at p. 225 ; 
see also p. 219. 

Thunder-bee [thun*dur-bee], sb. a kind of horse-fly, which only 
appears before a thunder-storm. N. H. 

Thwartover [thwau'toavur], adj. obstinate. J. 

Tickler [tikiur], sb. something to puzzle or perplex. Cooper. 

Tiddle [tidl], v. (1) To bring up by hand the young of a creature 
which has died or been removed from it. A.S. tyddrian, to nourish, 
&c. *Ak. 
(2) To fondle. Wise, New Forest. 

Tiddlin [tidiin], adj. ' a tiddlin' lamb/ a lamb brought up by hand. 
*Ak. See Mudlamb. 

Tight [teit], adj. formidable in fight. Sometimes used as excess of 
anything. Ex. ' a tight rot ; ' 'a tight snob ; ' ' an awfully tight lick- 
ing.' Adams' Wylcehamica, p. 436. 

Tightish [tei-tish], adj. (1) Well; in good health. Ex. 'Pretty 
tightish,' pretty well. Cooper. 

(2) Considerable, numerous. Ex. ' A tightish weight ; ' * a tightish 
lot.' J. 

Tillow [til-ur], v. n. to spread, to shoot out many spires. Lisle. 

Tilt [tilth], sb. tillage. To be in good tilt is to be in good order or 
in good tillage. Lisle. 


Tilt or Tilth, [tilth], sb. to give land one, two, or three tilts is the 
same as to plough to one, two, or three earths. See Earth.. Lisle. 

Timber-bob [tinvbur-bob] , sb. a pair of wheels and pole on which a 
felled tree is slung. N. H. See Bob. 

Timersome [tinrursum], adj. timorous. Cooper. Timid. *Ak. 
Tine [tein], sb. a tooth or spike [of a fork, rake, &c.]. Lisle. 

Tine [tein], v. to snuff a candle ; not (as originally) to light it. 
Wise, New Forest. It would mean to make it burn brightly ; hence, 
to snuff it for that purpose. 

Turing [tei'ning], sb. to give two tinings, three tiningtt, &c., to draw 
the harrow over the ground twice or thrice in the same place. Lisle. 

Tinker [tink'ur], v. to mend, but not thoroughly. Cooper. 

Tinkler [tink-lur], sb. a tinker. N". H. A field in Eversley parish 
named in surveys and terriers Tinker's Croft is called by the people, 
Tinkler's Croft. 

Tip-up [tip-up], v. (1) To cause to fall down. Cooper. 
(2) To set on end. J. 

Tissick [tis'ik], sb. a tickling, faint cough ; called also a tissicky 
cough. Cooper. From Pthisis. 

Tit [tit], sb. a teat. *Ak. 

Tite [teit], v. a. to ascertain the weight of a thing, by lifting or 
otherwise ; to weigh. N. H. Jennings' Dialects of the JVest of Eng- 
land, p. 76. 

Titty [tit'i], adj. small. A little titty cat. 

To [too], prep, used for at. Ex. 'He lives over to Gosport.' 

W. H. C. 

Toad-in-a-hole [toad-in-a-hoal], sb. a baked meat pudding. F. M. 
Toad-lodge [toad-lodj], sb. the stone loach. N". H. 

Toad's-spawn [toad-spaun], sb. (or rather Twoad-spawn), the green 
scum on a pond ; described by Shakespeare as the ' green mantle of 
the standing pool ; ' Lear, iii. 4. W. 

To-dee [tu'-dee-], to-day. Cooper. 

Todged milk [toj*d-milk], sb. milk thickened with flour. *Ak. 

To-do [tu'-doo*], sb. ado, bustle, stir. Cooper. A fuss. *Ak. 

Tole [toal], v. to entice ; primarily, to entice or allure animals. 
Wise, New Forest, p. 192. 

Toll [tol], sb. a clump of trees. Cooper. 

Toll [toal], v. to tell, i. e. to count. ' I toll ten cows,' I count ten 

cows. Wise, New Forest, p. 192. It is evidently used as the preterite 

of tell. W. H. C. 
Tong [tong], v. to toll a bell. Ex. ' The bells be tonged,' i. e. are 

being tolled. Wise. *Ak has tang. Of. the common Eng. ting-tang, 

the bell last tolled before the service. 


Tongue-bang [tung-bang], v. to scold. J. 

Tooly [too'li], adj. tender, sickly; as, 'a tooly man or woman.' 

Grose; Warner; F. M. 
Top-up [top-up], v. to finish; to put the finishing stroke to. Ex. 

' We'll top-up the rick afore night.' N. H. 

Torret [torut], sb. a tuft of a kind of sedge, the Carex cespitosa. ' I 
mean that sort which, rising into tall hassocks, is called by the 
foresters torrets ; a corruption, I suppose, of turrets.' White's Nat. 
Hist, of Selborne, Letter VIII. 

Tot [tot], sb. a bush ; a tuft of grass. Cooper. 

T'other-day [tudlrur-dai], sb. (not indefinite, but) the day before 
yesterday. Cooper. In old English the other means the second. 

Totty-land [toH-land], sb. marsh land where hassocks or tufts of 
grass grow. Wise (note on Cooper). See Tot. 

Touchen-leaves [tuclrn-leevz], sb. pi. Hypericum Androscemum. 
' It be's as sweet as the touchen-leaves in the forest.' The Cousins, J. 
Wise. See also New Forest, pp. 254, 255. Evidently a corruption of 
tutsan (toute saine). J. B. 

To-year [tu-yur], adv. this year ; as in Chaucer. W. See T'year. 

Toys [toiz], sb. pi. properly a boy's books, paper, pens, &c., together 
with the cupboard which held them. In process of time the word 
came to mean the latter only. But the phrase ' toy-time ' shows the 
original meaning, viz. when t the toys were in use. Adams' Wyke- 
hamica, p. 437. 

Trade [traid], sb. household goods, lumber ; also work, instruments 
of work. Cooper. 

Tradesman [trardzmun], sb. an artificer ; a mechanic. Used to dis- 
tinguish the carpenters, smiths, &c. , in an establishment or parish from 
the agricultural labourers. Ex. 'Of course tradesmen gets higher 
wages than we.' N. H. 

Trail, the [trail], the flowers of Quercus Robur. J. B. 
Trammel [tranrl], sb. a hook to hang a boiler on. J. 

Transmogrify [transmog-rifei], v. to transform, to metamorphose. 
Cooper. Com. 

Trapesing-about [trap'uzing-ubout], part, walking a great distance 
for little profit or purpose. N. H. 

Trick-and-tie [trik-und-tei], plir. equal to each other. K H. 
Trig [trig], adj. firm, even. Lisle. 

Trig [trig], v. (1) To place a stone behind a wheel, to prevent a 
carriage from slipping. Cooper. 

(2) To prop up. J. Evidently from the preceding adjective, i. e. 
to make firm,. 

Trip [trip], sb. (1) A litter of pigs ; when a sow farrows or has a 
litter, she is said to have a trip. F. M. 

(2) A brood, as * a trip of chicken, geese,' &c. W. 


Troll [troal], v. to bowl a ball. W. Or a hoop. See Trull. 
Troller [troaiur], sb. a bowler ; one who bowls a ball. W. 
Trollop [trol'up], sb. a low, dirty woman. J. 

Trounce [trouns], v. (I) To punish by legal process. *Ak. 
(2) To beat. J. 

Trow [troa], sb. a trough. Ex. ' A pig-trow. 1 N", H. 

Truck [truk], sb. business ; dealing. Ex. * I'll ha' no truck wi 'un.' J. 

Truffle-cheese [tmfi-cheez], sb. the best cheese; also called rammel ; 
distinct from otnmary, q. v. Wise, New Forest, p. 178. 

Trug [trng], sb. a trull, low female companion. * A soldier's truy,' 
i. e. trull. W. 

Trull [trul],*?;. to trundle or bowl a hoop. Cooper. 
Trullibubs [trulibubz], the intestines. F. M". 

Trumpery [trunrpuri], ado. temporary. ' He was only took on 
trumpery ' = he had only a temporary engagement. N. II. 

Trunk [trunk], sb. an arched drain under a road ; a culvert. N". H. 
Trunk [trunk], v. to under-drain. Cooper. 

Tub [tub], sb. a keg containing four gallons of spirits, [a term] much 
used by smugglers. Wise, New Forest, p. 170. 

Tuck [tuk], sb. an upper garment worn by children. Cooper. 

Tuck [tuk], v. n. to throb, to palpitate. Ex. (of a gathering on the- 
finger). ' He do tuck so.' (Of a dog) ' His heart's a-tucking.' N. H. 

Tack, v. a. ' To tuck a rick,' to smooth the sides and ends, by pulling 
out the protruding pieces of hay or straw. N. H. 

Tuck-shell [tuk-shel], sb. a tusk of a hog. Cooper ; Wise. 
Tuffet [tuf-ut], sb. a hillock, tuft of earth. Wise, New Forest. 

TufFdty [tuf-ufci], adj. full of hillocks, uneven; said of ground. 
Wise, New Forest. 

Tug [tug], sb. a timber-carriage. Cooper. ' From which a timber- 
wain, in Hampshire called a tug, was slowly emerging.' Horace 
Smith's New Forest, a novel, 1829, i. p. 3. 

Tag, adj. old, stale ; hence tugs, sb. pi. stale news. Winch. Sch. GL 
Tuly [teuii], adj. See Tooly. 

Tun, sb. a chimney. Ex. ' Up the tun] up the chimney. *Ak. In 
the New Forest, the top of the chimney ; as, * right up on the tun' 

Tunding [tunding], sb. a thrashing with a ' ground-ash,' inflicted by 
a Prefect. Winch. Sch. Gl. [From Lat. tundere.~\ 

Tunnel [tun'l], sb. a funnel. J. 
Tupp [tup], sb. a ram. Lisle. 


Turmit [turmnt], sb. a turnip. K H. 

Turn-out [turn-out], i tlie mast and acorns of the oak are collectively 
known as the turn-out or ovest.' Wise, New Forest. 

Twick-band [twik-band], .<?&. the mountain-ash. Quaere, a mis-pro- 
nunciation of Quick-beam, q. v. 

Twiddle [twid'l], v. (1) To whistle. Ex. ' The robins are twiddling,' 
which is said to be a sign of rain. Wise, New Forest. 
(2) To be busy about trifles. F. M. See Quiddle. 

Twig 1 , v. to observe a person who is doing something on the sly. 

Twist- wood [twist-wuod], sb. Vibernum Lantana. J. B. 
Twit [twit], v. to reproach. *Ak. Com. 

Twitter [twit'ur], sb. agitation, tremor. Ex. ' I'm all of a twitter.' 
J. Com. 

Twoad [twoad], sb. a toad. *Ak. 

Twoster [twost'ur 1], sb. a stick spirally indented by a stem of ivy 
having grown round it. Winch. Sch. Gl. 

T'year [tyur], adv. for to-year, this year ; like to-day for this day. *Ak. 

Tin [un], pron. him. Ex. ' I told tin. 1 Warner. Also for it (which 
is not used in Hants). Ex. 'I put un in my pocket.' *Ak. A.S. 
nine, ace. case of he ; cf. 'em, them, from A.S. hem, them. 

Unbeknown [unbinoan], pp. unknown. J. Ex. ' If he did, 'twas 
unbeknown to me.' 

linked [unkid], adj. lonely. *Ak. Ex. ' It's an unJced road to 
travel by night.' 

Tip-along [up-ulong], adj. ' Up-along volk ' are the people of 
Surrey and Sussex, in opposition to the ' down-along volk ' of Dor- 
setsh. and Somersets. W 

TIpping-stock [uping-stok], sb. a horseblock (to mount or get up 
by). *Ak. 

Tip-sides [up-seidz], ado. a match for, equal to. Ex. ' I can't be 
lips 'des wi' un.' J. 

Tip-tip [up-tip], v. to overset. J". 

Vallee [vaH], sb. value, worth. ]ST. II. 

Vallee, v. a. to value, to estimate. Ex. ' I don't vallee 'un a pin.' 
N. II. 

Valler [val-ur], si. fallow ; a barren field. K II. 

Vaniplets [vanrplets], gaiters. Wise, New Forest, p. 1G2. 
Also *Ak. 

Van [van], sb. a winnowing machine. J. For fan. Cf. S. Luke 
iii. 17, authorized version. W. H. C. 


Van-winged hawk [van-wing'd hank], sb. the hobby (Falco subbutes). 
Wise, New Forest, p. 261. 

Vardy [vaad'i], adj. speaking so as to interrupt conversation. 
N. H. 

Varm [vaam], v. to clear out. Ex. ' Varm out the pigstye.' 

Vaught [vaut],_p. t. fetched ; pt. t. of to fetch. *Ak. See Fotch 
and Fetched. 

Vay [vai], v. to succeed ; to do. Ex. l It won't vay.' J. 
Vearn [veeurn], sb. fern. K H. 

Verderer [vurdrur], sb. An officer whose business it is to look 
after the vert (i. e. cover) in the Forest. The present verderers of tho 
New Forest are Magistrates and Landholders who try all causes 
punishable by the Forest laws. N. F. 

Vessel [ves*ul], sb. a vessel of paper, strictly a strip of paper nsed as 

a wrapper to a roll of paper, &c. ; by modern usage a half-quarter of 
a sheet of foolscap. (Lat. Fasciculus, a wrapper : Ital. Vassiola. 
F. M. This appears to be wrong. The Italian word is fascia or 
fascetta. W. W. S. Lemon's Archceol. Diet, approved l)y Johnson, 

TWlrVo c/1 i-f \ ArJaw-io' IF"<iiZ*7i//m/iVvY v* A38 


F. M. This appears to be wrong. The Italian word is fascia or 
fascetta. W. W. S. Lemon's Archceol D\ 
Todd's edit.) Adams' Wykehamica, p. 438. 

Vet [vet], sb. pi. feet. *Ak. 

Vetches-goar [veclruzgoar], sb. pi. early-ripe or summer vetches. 

Vinney [vin-i], adj. (1) Mouldy; as, 'a vinney cheese.' 

(2) Koan-coloured ; as, ( a vinney heifer.' Wise, New Forest, p. 

190. A.S. finie. *Ak 

Vinney, sb. (from the adj.) t a particular kind of cheese ; also called 
blue vinney ; distinguished from ommary and rammel. -Wise, ibid. 

Vinnow [viiroa], sb. mouldiness. Lisle. 

Virgin Mary's Thistle [vurj-in marriz this'l], sb. Carduus Harianus. 

J. B. 

Vlick [vlik], v. to comb out the hair. J. 
Vore [voar], sb. a furrow ; as ' a water-wre.' J. 
Vriz [vriz], pp. frozen. *Ak. See Froar. 
Vrore [vroar], pp. frozen. See Froar. 
Vuddle [vudi], v. to spoil a child. Wise. 
Vuddled [vudl'd], pp. fuddled, drunk. *Ak. 
Vuddles [vudl-z], sb. a spoilt child. *Ak. See Vuddle. 

Wabble [wob-1], v. to shake from side to side, to vibrate, to move 
awkwardly and weakly. Common in var. dial. Cooper. A better 
definition would perhaps be ' to turn about unevenly. 7 

Wag [wag], sb. a breath, a slight wind. ' A wag of air,' a gentlo 
draught of air. Wise, New Forest. 

H 2 


Wag, v. (1) To move. N. and Q. 1st Ser. x. 401. 

(2) To shoot, as grass or herb. Ex. ' These showers J ull set every- 
thing a-ivagying.' N. H. 

Wag- wants [wag- wonts], sb. quaking-grass. J. (Briza Media.} 

Wainy [warm], adj. not straight ; the edge not straight, but partly 
deflected. Ex. * He fits well enough except where the post's wainy,' 
said of the side of a post which was not quite straight in its whole 
length. N. H. 

Wampy [womp-i], adj. faulty, shaky. Used of timber. N. H. 

Wanty [wont-i], sb. the leather band which passes from the shaft of 
a cart under the horse's belly. N. H. 

Waps [wops], sb. a wasp. The plural is wapses [wopsez] ; so also 
in the gen. sing, as, ' a wapses nest.' A.S. weeps, vespa. E. M. Also 

Wapsy [wopzi], adj. spiteful, waspish. J. 

War [wor], pt. t. i. e. was. Declined thus, I war, he war, we war, 
&c. *Ak. 

War, for beware, take care. A.S. iccer, aware. *Ak. Com. in 
hunting language. 

Warf [wauf], v. n. to warp. Ex. ' We can't use un, he's war fed 
so.' N. H. 

Warnd [wau'rnd], v. to warrant. Ex. ' You'll get un, I wamd.' *Ak. 

Wase [waiz], sb. a wisp of straw, for cleaning a horse. Wise, New 
Forest. Any small bundle of straw. 

Wasset-man [wos-ut-man], sb. a scarecrow. *Ak. Wise, New 


Watcher d [wot'shud], adj. wet-footed. N". II. 

Water-tables [wau-tur-tai-blz], sb. pi. the side-dikes along the road 
which carry off the water ; channels. Wise, New Forest. 

Wathe [waidh], adj. exhausted, tired. Ex. ' I be so wathe.- 

Wattle [wot'l], sb. a hurdle. Cooper. 

Waze-goose [waiz-goos], sb. a stubble-goose. J. See Wase. 

Weald [weeld] , v. to bring corn or hay into swathe, before putting 
it into pucJt. Wise, New Forest. See Puck. 

Wean-house [wenms], sb. a wain-house or waggon-house. Cooper 
(who notes that it is pronounced wenlius}. 

Wean-gate [ween-gait], sb. lit. wain-gait, the tail-board of a waggon. 

Weet-bird [weet-burd], sb. the wryneck ; so named from its cry of 
weet [weet]. Wise, New Forest, p. 186. See Barley-bird, Felling- 
bird, Spring-bird. 

Weeth [weeth], adj. tough and pliable, (like) a with. *Ak. Wise, 
New Forest. 

Weeze [weez], v. to ooze. Cooper. 


Weigh-jolt [wai-joalt], sb. a see-saw. 

Well-apple [wel-ap'l], sb. a light yellow apple. W. 

Well-crook [wel-kruok], sb. a stick for ladling the water out of the 
shallow Forest pools and wells. Wise, New Forest. 

Welt [welt], v. to beat severely. Cooper. Ex. ' I'll welt tin like an 
'ard shoo. ' You should welt they cabbages before giving 'em to tanie 
rabbits.'- N. H. 

Welched, adj. wet-shod. *Ak. See Watcherd. 

Whacking [waking], adj. fat, lusty, hearty; huge and large; as, 
' a whacking woman,' ' a whacking leg.' Cooper. Com. 

Whaffling-up [wofiin up], part, eating greedily. N. H. 

Wheel [weel], sb. a halo; the 'wheel round the moon ' is the halo 
seen round the moon before wet weather. There is a Hants saying : 
4 The bigger the wheel, the nearer the wet.' W. 

Wheeler [wee'lur], sb. a wheelwright. W. 
Whiddle [widij. See Whittle. 

Whilk [wilk], v. to howl like a dog ; to mutter to oneself, as a 
person does when off ended. Cooper. 

Whip hance [wip'uns], sb. the ^ar of a plough to which the traces 
are fixed. N. II. 

Whistersniff [wis'tursnif], sb. (1) An urchin. 
(2) A heavy blow. N. H. 

White-rice [weit-reis], sb. Pyrus Aria. J. B. 
Whitewood [weit'wuod], sb. Vibernum Lantana. J. B. 

Whitewort [weit'wurt], sb. a species of chamomile cultivated in the 
cottagers' gardens. W. \_Anthemis arvensis.~\ 

Whitten-beam [wit un-beem], sb. Pyrus Aria. North Hants. Dr. 
Bromfield's MSS.- J. B. 

WMtter [wit-ur], v. to whinny, as a horse. W. See Wicker. 

Whittering, Wickering [wit-uring, wik-uring], sb. the neighing of 
a young ^colt. Wise, New Forest, p. 186. See Wicker. 

Whittle [wit'l], sb. (1) A three-cornered shawl with fringes along 
the border, worn by women of the lower classes, and generally red or 
white, chiefly made of worsted. Portsmouth, in 1820. F. M. 

(2) A shawl of any kind. N. H. 

(3) Used especially of a child's shawl. Wise. 

Whop, Wop [wop], v. to beat soundly. Com. 

Whopper [wop*ur], sb. anything uncommonly large. Ex. ' She's a 
ivhopper? spoken of a fat woman. c That' s a whopper,' i. e. a great 
lie. F. M. Com. From the verb to wop or whop ; * that's a whopper' 
= that beats all. 

Wicker [wik-ur], v. to neigh or whinny. Grose ; F. M. See Colt- 


Wigg [wis;], sb. a small oval cake, with honey in the middle. 
T. W. R, in N. and Q. oth Ser. ii. 138. 

Wik [wik], sb. a week. *Ak. 

Wild Spinage [weild-spin*ij], sb. Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus. 
Dr. Bromfield in Phytologist, 0. S. iii. 753. J. 13. 

Wild Vine [weild-vein], sb. Bryonia dwica. Dr. Bromfield's MSS. 
J. 13. 

Willy-basket [wiH-baask'ut], sb. a "basket made of willow, used for 
carrying chaff. N. H. 

Wim [wim], v. to winnow, to clean corn. Cooper. 

Wimble [winib-1], sb. (1) An auger. 

(2) An instrument with which to take up faggots or trusses of hay. 
Wise, New Forest. 

Windle [wurdl], v. to dwindle ; to waste or pine away. N. and Q. 
x. 401. 

Wind-row [win-roa], sb. a row of mown grass, raked together after 
being tedded, i. e. in order to expose it to the wind. Ex. ' We've got 
the main o' un into ivindrovjs.' N. H. 

Winnick [win'ik], v. to fret ; to cry peevishly, as an infant. N". IT. 

Wint, Went [wint, went], sb. two furrows ploughed by the horses 
going to one end of the field and back again. Cooper. 

Wint, Went [wint, went], v. to go to and from. (See above.) Cf. 
' The cursed land, where many wend amiss ; ' Spenser's Faerie 
Queene. ' Wend you with this letter ; ' Meas. for Meets, iv. 3. 

With [widh], sb. a twisted willow- wand, with which faggots are 
bound. A.S. wi$$e. *Ak. Generally used in the pi. in N. II. 

Withs [widhz], sb. pi. the flexible boughs of the willow with which 
bavins are tied. See Bavin. Ex. 'We'd better fetch same witlis and 
tie they bavins.' N. H. 

Withwind [widh-weind], sb. wild convolvulus, bindweed. Wise, 
New Forest, p. 166. A.S. ivi$-iuinde, bindweed. Also called lithwind 
in New Forest. See Bithwind. 

Withy [widh-i], sb. (1) Various species of Scdix. Holloway's 
Dictionary. J. B. 

(2) The common willow. Salix Alba.N. II. 

Withy-Wind [widh-i-weind], sb. Myrica gale. Pratt's Flowering 
Plants of Great Britain. J. B. 

Wivver [wivur], v. to move, to veer round. K H. 

Wivvery [wivuri], adj. giddy, dizzy. ' Weavery, from the clack 
and thrum of the loom ; or, more probably, a softer form of quivery.' 
Blackmore's Cradocls Nowell, i. p. 211 note. These derivations seem 
far-fetched. It is manifestly derived from the verb, to wivir, which 
seems to have some relation to waver. W. H. C. 

Wobble, See Wabble. 


Wok [wok], pt. t. awoke. *Ak. 

Woke [woak], sb. an oak. This pronunciation, though not general 
in North Hampshire now, used to be so. Thus, Wokingham was 
withiu my recollection spelt Oakingham ; and Woking was originally 
Oakiiig. W, H. C. 

Wont [wont], si. a mole. Common in Old Eng. W. 

Wood Laurel [wuod lau-rul], sb. Daphne Laureola.Dr. Bromficld 

in Phytologisty 0. S. iii. 798. J. B. 
Woodnacker [wuod-nalrur], sb. a wood-pecker. Wise, New Forest, 

p. 272. 

Wood-pie [wuod-pei], sb. the spotted woodpecker; Picus major, Lin. 
Wise, New Forest. 

Wood-quest [wuod-kwest], sb. a wood-pigeon. J. 

Wood-roughed [wuod-ruft], adj. ' cattle [and pigs], which are entered 
in the marksman's books, are said to be wood-roughed.' Wise, New 
Forest, p. 186. 

Woodseer-ground [wuodseer-ground], sb. loose, spongy ground. 

Workings [wurlcingz], sb. pi. honeycombs. Wise, New Forest, 

p. 185. 
Worrit [wurut], v. n. to fret ; v. a. to give trouble. Evidently a 

corruption of worry. N. H. Ex. (1) ' He do worrit hisself so about it.' 
(2) * They children do worrit that poor dog.' 

Worsteders [wurstid-urz], sb. pi. thick worsted stockings, worn 
outside the trowsers at football, to protect the shins. Adams' 
WyJcehamica, p. 439. 

Wosbird [woz'burd], sb. a term of reproach ; the meaning of which 
appears to be unknown to those who use it. It is evidently a cor- 
ruption of whore' s-bird. *Ak. To which it must be added that bird 
in O.E. and A.S. means birth, and hence offspring, jprogeny ; or, 
the O.E. burd bride, young woman, in which case the term means 
a bastard daughter. Either way, it comes to much the same ; and 
the term was easily generalized, being often applied even to animals. 

Wosset [wos'et], sb. a email, ill-favoured pig. The smallest pig in a 
litter is known as the doll [in N. II. the darling"] ; a pig brought up 
by hand is called a graff or grampher. Wise, New Forest. 

Wots [wots], sb. pi oats. N. H. 

Wynd [weind], sb. l on the wynd ' = warped or twisted. Applied to 
boards or planks. N. H. 

Yacker [yak'ur], sb. an acre. *Ak. 

Yaffel [yaf Til], sb. the green woodpecker. N". H. 

Yaffingale [yaf -ingail], sb. Picus viridis ; the common green wood- 
pecker, so called from its loud shrill laugh. Wise, New Forest, p. 
187. See Yuckel. This bird is very beautifully called the * garnet- 
headed yaffingale ' by Tennyson in Gareth and Lynette. See \Vestm. 
Rev. Jan. 1873, pp. 327, 328, and Science Gossip, 1870, p. 236. 


Yaffle [yaf-1], v. to eat greedily. J. See Whaffling-up. 

Yanger [yang-ur], prep, yonder (from which it is corrupted). 

Yap [yap], v. to cry like a dog. J. 

Yape [yaip], v. (I) To gossip. Cooper. 

(2) To loiter. Ex. ' To yape about.' Wise. 

Yat [yat], sb. a gate. *Ak. 

Yaw [yau], v. to chop, to reap ; used of cutting com, peas, or beans, 
though hacking is generally used of the last. Wise, New Forest. See 
Hack. [Yaw for hew, like y elders for hilding.~\ W. W. S. 

Yead [yed], sb. the head. J. 

Yeaker [yai-kur], sb. an acorn. J. B. 

Yelden [yel'dun], sb. a hilding ; a mean coward. *Ak. 

Yellow-cup [yel'u-kup], sb. Ranunculus arveusis. See Dill-cup. 

Yeppurn [yep -urn], sb. an apron. 

Yigh [yei], adv. aye ; yes. J. 

Yirth [yurth], sb. earth. *Ak. 

Yokel [yoa'kul], sb. the yellow-hammer. J. 

Yokes [yoaks], sb. pi. hiccoughs. J. [See Tex in Halliwcll.] 

Yourn [yourn], pr. yours. Ex. 'If he be'ant yourn, he must be 
ourn.' N. H. 

Yow [yoa], sb. a ewe. J. 

Yuckel [yuk-ul], sb. a woodpecker. *Ak. See Yaffel. 

Zaat [zaat], adj. soft. *Ak. 

Zarl [zaal], sb. a plough. J. A.S. sulh, a plough. 

Zart [zaart], sb. sort ; kind. Ex. ' That's your zart ' = that's your 
sort, i. e. the right kind of thing. 

Zartin [zaartun], adj. certain. *Ak. 

Zedding [zed-ing], pres. part, in the phrase ' to go zedding,' i. e. zig- 
zagging. Prom the letter Z. Wise, New Forest. 

Zooap [zoo* up], sb. soap. *Ak. 
Zooner [zoo-nur], adv. sooner. *Ak. 

Zound [zound], v. n. to swoon. Sound for swoon is common in old 
English to the eighteenth century. 

Omitted in its proper place. 

Ferrol [ferul], sb. an indurated lump of gravel, saud, and iron. 
N. H. These ferrols frequently occur in the heath-lands of North 






Sector of Upton-on- Severn, and Hon. Canon of Worcester Cathedral. 




THE collection of Upton-on- Severn Words and Phrases 
which occupies the following pages was made by the Rev. 
Canon Lawson, and is attached as an Appendix to a new 
book by Mrs. Lawson, entitled The Nation in the Parish, 
or Records of Upton- on- Severn. 

On Mr. Lawson applying to me for some information, I 
took the opportunity of asking him if he would allow the 
English Dialect Society to have a reprint of his list of 
words for issue to the members. He kindly consented, 
and the present publication, including a few corrections 
and additions, is the result. The thanks of the members 
are due to Canon Lawson for his permission to add this 
collection to the Society's series. 


November 1, 1884. 


MUCH of the language belonging to different eras of national 
life still lies imbedded in the various strata of local dialect. 
This, however, is rapidly disappearing before the advance of 
railways, newspapers, and schools; for it is the tendency of 
these, while levelling up our vocabulary to the requirements 
of contemporary diction, to smooth down and bury all out- 
cropping ruggedness of old-world speech. 

It is the more desirable to collect some of the survivals which 
may yet be found among the household words of our Worces- 
tershire folk, because Mr. Halliwell-Phillipps * has noticed very 
few as belonging to this county. And Upton, combining, as it 
does, some urban with some rural characteristics, would be 
likely to yield, were the needful leisure and study applied, a 
richer variety of such survivals than places which are towns or 
villages pure and simple.t 

The collection here presented is very far from being com- 
plete. It has been made with scanty knowledge of other 
colle.ctions ; and the specimens which it contains have been 
picked up, for the most part, upon the surface, and in many 
cases labelled with more of guesswork than of research. 
Nevertheless, an expert in etymology will not fail to note 
among them some fossil relics of the speech of the successive 
races which have made their homes on the banks of Severn ; 
and he will also find expressions which, although long unknown 
to ordinary dictionaries, were once familiar utterances, in locally 
varied forms, of our composite English tongue. 

To some of the words and phrases given below attention was 
called by a brochure issued under an assumed name by the late 
Rev. C. Allen, Incumbent of Bushley,J who has therein re- 

* "Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words," tenth edition, 
1881. Only fourteen of the Upton words given below are by him 
assigned to Worcestershire. To each of these the abbreviation Hall. 
is appended. 

t Leland speaks of Upton as " a townlet ; " but Strabo, a writer 
of much earlier date and more extended travel, uses a term which 
still more accurately describes it, " KwjtoTroXtf, a village -town." The 
game word is used in St. Mark i. 38. 

t "Notes of Quaint Words and Sayings in the Dialect of South 
Worcestershire, by A. Person, M.A." James Parker & Co., London ; 
and Garrison, Tewkesbury, 1875. 


corded a number of original and racy sayings of the South 
Worcestershire peasantry. The words in his list are about a 
hundred and fifty ; but, as Bushley is neighbour to Tewkesbury 
rather than to Upton, less than a hundred of these find a place 
in an Upton Glossary. From a much longer list, sent by the 
pressnt Incumbent of Bushley, the Rev. E. R. Dowdeswell, 
about thirty words have been thankfully adopted after careful 
scrutiny. Many valuable additions have been suggested by Mrs. 
Chamberlain's " Glossary of West Worcestershire Words,"* and 
by an unpublished collection which has been made by the Rev. 
Hamilton Kingsford, Vicar of Stoulton, and illustrated from 
Shakespeare by his brother, Mr. Walter B. Kingsford, of 
Lincoln's -inn. With regard to some special words, Professor 
Skeat has been consulted, and he has most kindly furnished 
the information and suggestions to which his name is attached. 
For further matter, derived from his Etymological Dictionary, 
the new edition (1884) of that work is quoted. Miss Jackson's 
" Shropshire Word-book" (pp. 524) f was not obtained until after 
the following Glossary had gone to the printer ; and, even then, 
the extent and completeness of her work might have extinguished 
this attempt in despair, but for the consciousness that the latter 
purports to be no more than a hastily developed after-thought, 
appended to the records of a single parish. 

Much care has been taken to exclude all words which have 
not been verified as being more or less used in the parish of 
Upton ; and cordial thanks are due to many friends who have 
rendered welcome aid in the process of authentication, as well 
as in that of discovery. 

It has properly come within the scope of the Glossary to 
include words which, although not of unusual meaning, are 
unusually pronounced ; but only a few of such are given by 
way of helping to indicate local phonetics. The following may 
serve as specimens of a considerable number for which space 
could not be afforded : athirt (athwart), athout (without), 
brockilow (brocoli), 'cute, enow, gownd, laylock (lilac), marvel 
(marble), moral (model), 'ommer (hammer), opple, rot (rat), 
ruff (roof), sallet (salad), skellinton, sparrib, sullinge (syringe), 
'tice, turmit, unbeknownst, whatsomever, wops. 

The lack of space has also demanded the excision of the 
names of wild flowers, except in a few special instances. 

While no words have been rejected because not peculiar to 
Upton, the general rule kept in view has been not to admit any 
which appear either (1) to belong to the domain of slang or 
coarse language, or (2) to be used with uniform sound or mean- 
ing in most parts of England ; such as (1) bloJce, catlap (tea), 
lushy, mopus, sack (dismiss), slope (depart), swell, &c. ; (2) 
abide and abear (endure), chitterlings, crock, finger-stall, 
fold-yard, names, haulm, helve, huff, lusty (stout), near (stingy), 
oaf ', pikelet, put-about, quality (gentry), rime, sight (quantity), 

* Published for the English Dialect Society by Triibner & Co., 
Ludgate-hill, 1882. 

t Triibner & Co., Ludgate-hill. Shrewsbury : Adnitt & Naunton. 
Chester : Minshull & Hughes. 187981. 


slack (small coal), slop, smocTc, snack, swarm (climb), swath, 
tine, trapes, venturesome, withy, &c. 

It is, however, almost impossible so to observe this rule as to 
satisfy every reader, and an exception to it has purposely been 
made in the case of a few technical words (mostly relating to 
trades or agriculture), which are more or less in general use. 
These have been inserted in order to supply an explanation of 
terms which occasionally meet the unfamiliar eye or ear 
without conveying a clear impression of their meaning. 



ABBREVIATIONS. Adj., adjective; adv., adverb; all., allied; 
A.S., Anglo-Saxon; comp., compare ; der., derived from ; Et. 
Diet., Skeat's Etymological Dictionary ; Fr., French; Hall., 
Halliwell-Phillipps ; Icel., Icelandic ; int., interjection ; Lat., 
Latin; M.E., Middle English; n., noun ; part., participle ; 
plu., plural ; prep., preposition; pr., pronoun; pron., pro- 
nunciation; sing., singular; v., verb. 

ABOVE-A-BIT, adv. Considerably, a good deal. 
ACCAED, v. Pron. of accord. To agree, or be of one mind. 
ACKEEN, n. Pron. of acorn ; der. not A.S. dc, oak, but A.S. 

cecer, a field, an acre (Et. Diet.). 
ACQUAINTANCE, n. A sweetheart. 

ADDEE, n. One who enlarges a statement beyond the facts. 
ADLAND, n. Pron. of headland. A strip of ground left for 
_ the plough to turn upon at the end of the furrows. 
ADLED, part. Pron. of addled ; A.S. adela, mud (Et. Diet.). 
A-GATE, adv. Astir, a-going, in hand. 
AGLE, n. An icicle. A.S. gicel (Skeat). 
AILS, n. (pronounced, ahyls). Beards of cone-wheat or barley. 

A.S. egla, egle, a prickle, a mote (Et. Diet.). 
AIT, n. Pron. of eyot. An islet in a river. Icel. ey, an island 

(Et. Diet.). 

ALL-ABOUT-IT, n. The whole matter. 
ALL-AS-IS, n. All that remains. 
ALL- AS-ONE, adv. All the same. 
ANANT, ANENST, OR ANUNST, prep. Next to, over against, 

opposite. Anenst, Ben Jonson's Alchemist, ii. 1. 
ANIGHST,.prep. Near. 
ANIGHTS, adv. At night. 
ANT-TUMP, n. An ant-hill. 
ANY-MOEE-THAN, adv. If it was not that. " I should be 

sure to go to church any more than I've not got a gownd to 

my back, nor yet a shoe to my flit." 
AEEAND, OR AEEANT, n. Pron. of errand; A.S. arende, a 

message, business (Et. Diet.). 
ASP, n. An aspen tree. Properly, aspen is the adj. form, as 

wooden of wood (Et. Diet.). 
AWHILE, v. To spare time. " I can't awhile to stop now ; I 

got my washin' agate." 

BACKEN, v. To keep back, as growth of crops. 
BACK-FEIEND, n. A hangnail. 
BACK-SIDE, n. A yard at the back of a house. Ben Jonson's 

The Case is Altered, iv. 4. 
BADGEE, n. A dealer, as in fruit, grain, poultry, &c. Properly, 

a dealer in corn, and jocularly transferred to the brock, which 

was supposed to feed upon corn. Herrick calls the badger 

" the gray farmer " (Et. Diet.). 

BAG, n. (1) (Of wheat) three bushels. (2) The udder of a cow. 
BAIT, n. A labourer's luncheon. Comp. bait for a horse, and 

BAND-HAY, n. Inferior hay used for hay -bands, packing, &c. 


BANGLES, n. Severed branches not less than six inches in 

BAN NUT, n. A small kind of walnut. 

BAT, n. A beetle, v. To blink with the eyes. 

BITHEE, v. To take a dust bath, as birds do. 

BATTEE, v. To slope the side of a ditch or bank. Fr. abattre. 

BEAEBINE, n. The wild convolvolus (arvensis). A.S. bere, 
corn or barley (bere-lic, i.e., bear-leek, Skeat), and bine, a 
twining stem, as of the hop-plant. 

BECALL, v. To rate, or abuse. " 'Er becalled mu sheamful ! " 

BED-LIEE, n. One who is bed-ridden. 

BEESTINGS, or BOISTINGS, n. The first milk drawn from 
a cow after calving. 

BEETLE, n. A heavy mallet, chiefly used for driving wedges. 
2 Hen. IV. i. 2. 

BELL, n. A small watery blister, v. To bellow, as a cow. A.S. 

BEST, v. To get the better of. 

BEZZLE, v. To squander on drink. " 'E's bin bezzling about 
all the wik." (See Embezzle and Imbecile in Et. Diet.). 

BIG, v. To magnify. " 'E's a good un to big 'isself." 

BIED-BATTING, n. Bird-catching. 

BIVEE, v. To quiver as the lips do ; A.S. bificm, to tremble 
(Skeat). Uncommon. 

BLACKSMITH'S DAUGHTEE, n. A lock and key to a door 
or gate.* 

BLACK- STEEE, n. A starling. 

BLAGGEED, n. Pron. of blackguard. One addicted to swear- 
ing and low language. 

BLIND, adj. Applied to blossom that does not come to fruit. 

BLOW, n. Blossom (pronounced, blaow). 

BLUB, v. To swell. "Well, your face be blubbed up ! " 
Comp. blubber ; also bleb and blob, a blister or bubble (Et. 

BLUE ISAAC, n. A hedge-sparrow. A.S. Jiege-sugge, hedge- 
sucker. Chaucer, Assemble of foules, heisugge. Blue, pro- 
bably, from colour of eggs. 

BLUE-TAIL, n. A fieldfare. 

BOAT, n. A vessel on Severn, pointed at either end, and carry- 
ing about thirty- seven tons. 

BOBOWLET, n. A large moth. 

BODY-HOESE, n. The middle horse in a team. 

BOLTING, n. A measure of straw, being a bundle of from 
14 Ib. to 21 Ib. 

* Both lock and key, however, are mostly represented by masculine 
pronouns ; and, so far as has been ascertained, the only inanimate 
objects spoken of as "she," or rather "her" (which is the usual 
nominative), are a boat of any kind, a church bell, a cricket ball, a 
fire-engine, and a railway train. In Devonshire it used to be said 
that the use of the feminine pronoun was still more restricted, and 
that everything was of the masculine gender except a tom-cat. In 
that county the writer has heard a woman say, " He's a nice, 
motherly shawl," and one of Nelson's old salts speak of a ship as 
" he." 


BONDS, n. Willow twigs for tying up kids, &c. 

BOKB, n. The tidal surge in Severn, which used to be plainly 

visible at Upton. Also called Flood's-head. 
BOST, v. To burst, generally in an execrative sense. " They 

bosted woonts." " Bost this door, 'e wunt open." 
BOTTLE, n. A small wooden keg for carrying a labourer's 

BOUGHTEN, part. Said of bread or beer not made or brewed 

at home. 
BOUT, n. A turn or time ; specially applied to sickness and 

ploughing. Der. Danish bugt, a bend, turn, bight ; but in 

sense of sickness, drinking, &c., der. Fr. bouter, to thrust ; a 

stroke, or time (Et. Diet.). 

BOW-HAUL, v. To tow a vessel by man-power. 
BOX, n. The treasury of a Friendly Society ; "on the box," 

drawing an allowance from the Club. 
BKAND-TAIL, n. The redstart 
BEEE, n. A large cattle-fly. Brise, Troil. and Cress, i. 3. 

A.S. brimsa, a gad-fly ; M.E. brese (Et. Diet.). 
BEEEDS, n. The brim of a hat. 
BEfiVIT, v. To prowl, or hang about. " I seed Mr. Eanalds 

(the fox) a-brevitiri about." " Wot be them bwoys a-brevitin' 

about in our lane for ? " 
BEIM, n. A boar pig. 
BEUND, or BEUN, n. A log for burning. " Fetch a good 

chump o' wood out o' the cellar, and put 'im beyind the fire 

for a Christmas brun." Comp. brand (brond, Chaucer, C. T. 

1340). A.S. brinnan, to burn (Et. Diet.). 
BEUSH, or BEASH, n. Small branches of trees, used for pea- 
sticks and kids. 
BEUSH-HOOK, n. A long-handled bill-hook for trimming 

BUCKLE, n. A twig of hazel or withy, pointed at both ends, 

shaved flat, and twisted, for securing thatch, v. In sense of 

bend, 2 Hen. IV. i. 1. 
BUFFLE, v. To speak with a catch in the breath ; to stutter. 

In Middle English buffer is a stutterer (Et. Diet.). Wiclif, 

Isaiah xxxii. 4. 

BUFF-PEAL, n. A muffled peal. 
BULLPITS, OR BULLPEATS, n. Tufts of coarse grass very 

blunting to the scythe. Probably from the tuft on a bull's 

forehead. See Miss Baker's Northamptonshire Gloss., 

" Bull-pated." 

BUMBLE-FOOTED, adj. Club-footed. 
BUNNEL, n. Something to drink. Boon-ale ? (Skeat). 
BUNT, v. To butt or thrust with the horn. 
BUECOE, n. Pron. of borecole. 

BUEDEN, v. To forbode. " I burdens tempest afore night." 
BUEE, v n. A sweet-bread. 
BUEEU, n. Shelter from wind or sun. Babies must be kept, 

and cuttings must be planted, in the burru. Same word as 

burrow and borough. A.S. beorgan, to protect (Et. Diet.). 
BUEY, n. A storage of roots covered with earth. Pronounced 

as berry. 


BUSSOCK, or BOOSSOCK, n. A bad cough, v. To cough. 
Chiefly applied to cattle. 

BUT-JUST, adv. Just this moment. 

BUTTY, n. A mate, or fellow-workman. Der. boty-felowe, 
partner in booty. A butty gang is a gang of men who share 
equally. (Et. Diet.). 

C ADDLE, v. To nestle, to want to be petted. Comp. Cade- 
lamb, coddle. Old Fr. cadel, a starveling, &c., one that hath 
need of cockering and pampering (Et. Diet.). 

CADGE, v. To beg indirectly by means of hints or flattery. 

CAG-MAG, v. (Hall) To quarrel.. 

CALL, n. Business, right, occasion. " 7 Er 'ad no call to kip 
on becallin' of 'im that-a-way." 

CALLUST, adj. Saturated, choked up, impermeable ; applied 
to soil. Connected with callous, from Lat. callus, or callum, 
thick skin or coating, difficult to penetrate (Skeat). 

CANT, v. To tell tales behind back. 

CAPLIN, n. The attachment of the nile to the hand-stick of a 
flail. Through the bow of a wooden swivel working on the 
hand-stick, and through a loop of strong horse-hide laced on 
the nile by a thunk, the middle-bond loosely passes, and, being 
knotted, fastens the two members of the flail together. 

CAECASE, n. The trunk of the body. " It were about as big 
as the carcase of our John." 

CARPET, v. To call in for reproof. " I knowed as 'er 'd be 
carpeted if 'er carried on so." 

CARRIER, n. Same as Messenger. 

CARRY-ON, v. To behave improperly. 

CARRYINGS-ON, n. Improper conduct. 

CAST, n. A second swarm of bees from one hive. 

CATCHING, adj. Applied to weather, showery. 

CAZ'U'LTY, adj. Precarious, uncertain. " A cazu'lty job." 

CHANGER, n. One who makes rash and inexact statements. 
" She's a bit of a chancer." 

CHARKY, adj. Caked, cracky, as soil in drought after wet. 

CHA.RM, n. A hum, or confused murmur, as of many voices. 
Der. Lat. carmen, a song (Et. Diet.). 

CHASTISE, v. To find fault with ; to question (confused with 
catechize ?). Der. Lat., through Fr., castigare (Et. Diet.). 

CHAT, v. To gather chips. " I got the grant to go a.-chattin' 
when they fall'd them big ellums." 

CHATS, n. Chips. 

CHAWL, n. Pron. of jowl, a pig's cheek. Jaw was formerly 
spelt chaw (Et. Diet.). 

CHAWM, n. Pron. of chasm, a crevice, an earth-crack. 

CHEAT, n. The grasshopper-warbler. 

CHEESE, n. Apples that have been pressed for cider, but not 
wrung through the hairs. 

CHIBBALS, n. Onions grown from bulbs. Fr. ciboule. 

CHILL, v. To take the chill off. A.S. cijle, cele, great cold. 
Comp. Lat. gelidus (Et. Diet.). 

CHILVER, n. A ewe lamb. A.S. cilfor (Skeat). 

CHIMB, n. Pronounced, chime ; the end of a stave which pro- 
jects beyond the head of the cask. 


CHIT, v. To sprout, as a potato, n. A.S. cid, a germ, a sprout 
(Et. Diet.). 

CHOBBLINGS, n. Pulped fragments, as of apples chewed 
and then ejected by rats. 

CHOCK-FULL, adj. Choke-full, as full as can be. 

CHRISTEN, v. To baptize (a child) in church. See Half- 
baptize. Also, to receive into church. 

CHUMP, n. A log of wood. Icel. Ttumbr. 

CLAM, v. To starve with hunger. 

CLAY, n. Pron. of claw. 

CLOUT, n. A rough patch. A.S. (but of Celtic origin) clut, a 
piece (Et. Diet.). 

COCK-BOAT, n. A small boat attached to a trow. " Cock," 
K. Lear, iv. 6. 

GOFER, n. Pron. of Coffer. (1) A chest for keeping clothes or 
linen in. (2) A corn-bin. Dying out. 

COLLY, n. Coal-dust, or soot from a kettle, v. To blacken, 
Oth. ii. 3 ; Mids. Night's Dr. i. 1. Comp. collier. 

COLT, v. To fall in, as the side of a grave or pit. 

COMICAL, adj. Unwell. " 'E seemed that comical as 'e 
couldn't eat no fittle." 

CONES, or CONE-WHEAT, n. Bearded wheat. 

COOP-UP, v. To pucker up, as in a clumsy seam. 

COP, n. The first bout of a veering in ploughing. Little used. 

CORD, n. A measure of fire-wood, being a heap 4 ft. high, 8 ft. 
long, and 3 ft. 1 in. from back to front. Firewood is sold by 
the cord in America. 

CORD-WOOD, n. Branches of felled trees too small for 
bangles, and too large for kids. 

COTTER, n. An iron bolt passing through a shutter from the 
outside, and secured within by a pin passing through it. 

COW-HEARTED, adj. Timid, cowardly. Icel. Mga, to 
tyrannise over, and A.S. Tieorte (Et. Diet.). 

COWL, n. (1) A chimney top. (2) A vessel on wheels for 
carrying liquid. 

COW-LEECH, n. A cattle-doctor. A.S. c^, cow and Icece^ 
physician. Wiclif, St. Luke iv. 23, " Leche, hele thi silf." 

CRAB, n. A standard frame with an apparatus of rollers, cog- 
wheels, windlass, rope-tackle, and pulleys, for moving timber 
or vessels, pulling down trees, &c. 

CRAISY, n. A buttercup. Said to be a corruption of 
" Christ's-eye " (oculus Christi), the mediaeval name for the 
marigold, erroneously transferred to the marsh-marigold, and 
so to the ranunculus family. 

CRANE, n. A heron. 

CRATCH, n. A rack of any kind, including the rack-like tail- 
board of a cart or waggon. 

CRESS, n. A ridge-tile (crest, Lat. crista, ?). 

CRICKET, n. A low wooden stool. The game of cricket was 
probably a development of the older game of " stool-ball," 
a dairy-maid's stool being used for the wicket. Wedgwood 
suggests that the proper name for the bat was cricket-staff. 
A.S. cricc, a staff. Comp. crutch (Et. Diet.). 

CROCK, n. An earthenware pan or vessel. 


CROSS-EYED, adj. Squinting badly. 

CRUD, n. A curd. 

CRUDDLE, v. To curdle. 

CUB, n. A crib for cattle to eat from ; a tree-guard ; a hen- 
coop. Probably a corruption of coop (Et. Diet.). 

CUCKOO'S MAID, or MATE, n. The wryneck. 

CULLEN, n. Small grains of corn winnowed out. Der. cull ; 
Lat. colligere (Skeat). 

CURF, v. To cut off in layers, as hay. 

CURNOCK, n. Four bushels of corn. 

CUT,w. A canal. 

CUTLINS, n. Oatmeal grits. 

CUTTING, adj. Moving, pathetic. 

DABBLY, adj. Wet, rainy. "If so be as it should come a 
dabbly time." 

DADDOCK, n. Decayed wood, touchwood. 

DADDOCKY, adj. Flimsy, unsubstantial, soft with decay. 

DAHNT, v. Pron. of daunt ; to cow or dishearten ; " Our Bill, 
'e's that melch-'arted as 'e's soon dahnted." 

DAFFY, adj. Simple, soft. A.S. daft, mild, meek. Comp. 
innocent for foolish (Et. Diet.). 

DAUBY, adj. Damp and sticky ; used of bread made from 
" grown " wheat. Not common. 

DAWNY, adj. Soft, damp. Perhaps all. to dank (Skeat). 

DEADLY, adj. Accomplished, having strange power. " A 
deadly woman at doctoring ; " "a deadly man to fight." 
Comp. " dead shot," " dead level." 

DEALS, n. The teats of an animal. 

DEEF, adj. Pron. of deaf. Common in America. 

DEEPNESS, n. Cunning. 

DENIAL, n. Disadvantage. " 'Twere a great denial to 'im, 
as 'e never 'ad no schoolin'." 

DESPERATE, adj. Same as deadly, adv. Beyond expectation 
or imagination. Comp. in Devon and Dorset use of cruel and 
terr'ble, also dtivog and deiv&g, all expressing strange power. 
See Terrify. 

DICKY, adj. Middling in health. 

DILLADERRY, adj. Pron. of dilatory. Comp. dilly-dally. 

DINK, v. To toss up and down, to dandle as a child. 

DIS 'ABILL, n. Disorder. Plu. Working clothes. 

DISANNUL, v. To disallow, disappoint, disinherit, dispossess. 

DlTHER, or DITHERING, n. A trembling or dizziness. 
v. To tremble or become dizzy. 

DJAOU, n. Pron. of dew. 

DJAOUCED, adj. and adv. Deuced, devilish, to a supernatural 
extent (disguised swearing). Der. Lat. Deus. An old Nor- 
man oath vulgarised, and corrupted in sense from good to bad 
(Etym. Diet.). 

DJUD, or DYUD (monosyllable), adj. Pron. of dead. 
DO, n. A festivity, a fuss (pronounced, doo). 
DOLLY, n. An implement used by washerwomen. 
DOLLY-DOUCE Y, n. (Hall, doucet). A child's doU (ou at 

Upton as in mouse, at Offenham as in ousel). 
DOTHERING, n. A bothering din in the head ; o sounded as 


in other. " No, mum, I don't go to church now, mum ; them 
orgins do make such a dotherin' in my poor yud." 

DOTMENT, n. A mess of grease and dirt procured from 
church-bells, or a cart-wheel, supposed to cure the shingles. 

DOUT, v. To do out, or extinguish. Comp. doff, and don. 

DOWN-HILL, adj. and adv. (1) Applied to wind, ambiguous ; 
according to the watermen, a down-hill wind is, like a down- 
stream wind, from the north : but it is often used otherwise, 
as, " The wind isa-gonQdown-'ill," i.e., has gone round to the 
south. (2) Applied to a line on the downward slope. " That 
rail don't sim just level ; 'e falls down-'ill a bit." 

DOWSE, n. A blow (on the head). Pronounced as rhyming 
with house. Perhaps all. to dash (Et. Diet.). 

DOZEN, n. Thirteen in selling plants, cucumbers, and many 
kinds of vegetables for eating. 

DRAFT, n. Two and a half hundred- weight of coal. 

DRIGGLE, n. A small-meshed draw-net, used from the river 
bank in high water. 

DRINK- HOUSE, n. The building in which cider is kept. 

DROMEDARY, n. A slow, stupid, or clumsy person. " 
Jim, you dromedary ! to miss that easy catch ! " 

DUB, v. (1) To bend or pull down. (2) To throw, as a stone. 

DUCK'S-FROST, n. Drizzling rain. " It'll be a ducVs-frost 
afore the morrow." 

DUMB-NETTLE, n. Dead-nettle. 

DUMMEL, n. A stupid, awkward thing ; applied to men, 
cattle, tools, &c. A.S. dumb (Skeat). 

DUNNY, adj. Deaf. 

DURE, v. To last. 

EAN, v. (of ewes). To bring forth young. "Eanings" and 
" eaning-time," Mer. of Venice, i. 2. A.S. ednian (Et. Diet.). 

ELDER, n. An udder. 

ELEVENS, n. An intermediate meal at 11 a.m. 

ELLERN, n. An elder-bush. The dis excrescent ; M.E.eZZer 
(Et. Diet.). 

EMPT, v. To empty. 

ETHERINGS, n. Rods of hazel used for weaving in and out 
of the tops of hedge-stakes ; also for bean sticks, and for 
making crates. In some places called edderings. 

ETTLES, n. Nettles. 

EVENT, n. Used for amount or quantity. "There's any 
event of potatoes in the bury." 

EVER-SO, adv. In any case, at the worst. " Not if it were 
ever so." 

EXPRESSIONS, n. Coarse language. 

EYE, v. (1) To glance at. " Her on'y eyed the letter, and 
giv'd it me back." (2) To regard with ill-will ; 1 Sam. 
xviii. 9. 

FAD, n. A whim, a fancy. 

FADDY, adj. Fanciful, fidgety. 

FADY, adj. Flabby, as the flesh of a drooping child. "Why, 
'is dear little arms be &sfady aafady." 

FAG, generally OLD FAG, n. Tufts of last year's grass not 
eaten down. Northern, Fog. v. To pull hard, as at a rope. 


FAGGIT, n. (1) A cake, or small pudding, of spiced mince, 

made from pig's-fry, &c. (2) A term of reproach to a 


FAINT Y, adj. Inclining to faintness. 
FALL, v. To fell, as a tree. 
FALLING- WEATHEE, v. Weather in which rain, hail, or 

snow may be expected. 
FALTER, v. To fail in health. 
FAMMEL, v. To famish. Comp.'L&t.famelicus. 
FARDEN-PIECE, n. A farthing. 
FAST, adj. Forward, impulsive. 
FATCHES, n. Vetches. " Fitches," Isaiah xxviii. 25 ; Ezek. 

iv. 9. 
FAVOUR, v. To bear lightly on, to ease from weight or 

pressure, as a horse may. " He seems to favour the off fore- 
FEATURE, v. To be like in face. " 'E do feature 'is father ; 

'e's as like as like." 
FELT, n. A fieldfare. 

FELTH, n. Sensation. " 'Er've no felth uv 'er right 'and." 
FETCH, v. To deal, as a blow. " 'A-done, or I'U fetch thee a 

dowse on th' yud." 
FETTLE, n. Proper order, v. To get ready, set in order ; 

Rom. and Juliet, iii. 4. 
FILBEARD, n. Pron. of filbert. Perhaps called after St. 

Philibert, whose day, Aug. 22 (old style) is in the nutting 

season (Et. Diet.). 
FIND OF, v. To feel. 
FIRE-LIGHT, n. Pron. of violet. 
FITCHER, n. A polecat. 

FITCHER-COLOURED, adj. Of the colour of a polecat. 
FITHER, v. To scratch or fidget with feet or fingers. 
FITTLE, n. (Hall.) Pron. of victual. 
FLEET, n. A floating bridge, or horse-ferry. 
FLEN, n. Plu. of flea. 

FLETCHER, n. A shoot for the overflow of surplus water. 
FLIM, adj. Pliable, limp. 

FLOOD'S-HEAD, n. Same as Bore on the Severn. 
FLOWER-KNOT, n. A flower-bed ; King Richard II. iii. 4. 
FOOT-SET, adj. Applied to a temporary fence, or stop-gap, of 

dead thorns set upright in a trench, and trodden in with the 


FOREMOST-HORSE, n. The leading horse in a team. 
FOUR-O'CLOCK, n. A meal at that hour. 
FRAME, n. A skeleton. " 'Er bain't no more nor & frame." 
FRANGY, adj. Of horses, restive (g soft). 
FRANZY, adj. Passionate, impetuous (frenzied). 
FRESH, adj. Not very drunk. 
FRESH-LIQUOR, n. Unsalted lard. 
FRODGE, n. The ground-ice which rises from the bottom of 

Severn, " like packs o' wool," when a hard frost breaks up. 

Comp. froze. 
FRUM, adj. Forward, well grown, fall, thriving; applied to 

vegetables, grass, fruit, and animals. 


FULLAE, n. The tool used for making a fullaring. Dying out. 
FULLAEING, n. The groove in a horse-shoe in which the 

nails are inserted. Dying out. 
FUENACE, n. A large boiler, set in brickwork, for brewing, 

making soup, &c. 
FYAOU, adj. Pron. of few. 
GAFFEE, n. A master, an overlooker. 
GAIN, n. A shallow water-course, adj. (1) In a workmanlike 

way. (2) Near. Comp. the like use of " handy " in both 

senses. Pronounced, gahyn. Comp. Icel. gegn, ready, ser- 
viceable (Et. Diet.). 
GALLUS, adj. Applied to boys only ; impish, mischievous. 

" 'Taint as the lad's wicked, nor yet spiteful, but 'e's desp'rut 

gallus." " Gallows " (n.) applied to Cupid, Love's Labour 

Lost, v. 2. 

GALLUSNESS, n. Impishness, love of mischief. 
GAMBEIL, n. A curved and notched piece of wood for hanging 

up and extending carcases. 

GAME, v. To make fun. A.S. gamen, a,game, sport (Et. Diet.) . 
GAMMET, n. Fun, sport, a whimsical trick. 
GAMPUS, n. Hinder part of traces used in field work. 
GANGEIL, n. A lanky, ungainly creature, whether man or 

GAPPING-QUICK, n. Strong thorns planted to fill up a gap 

in a hedge. 

GAEMENT, n. A chemise. 
GAUN, n. A wooden vessel ; properly, a gallon. 
GAWBY, n. Pron. of gaby ; a silly, foolish person. Icel. gapi, 

a rash, reckless man (Et. Diet.). 
GAWM, v. To paw, to pull about with the hands. "Don't 

you be &-gawmin' o' the fittle with yer mawlers." 
GAY, v. To swing or see-saw. 
GENDEE, n. The spawn of frogs and of eels. Pronounced, 


GET, v. Of a clock or watch, to gain. 
GET-BEYOND, v. To make out, to master, to get to the 

bottom of. Also to recover from, as an illness. 
GIDDLING, adj. Applied to girls only, thoughtless, flighty. 
GILLBENTS, n. Stems of coarse grass (G- hard). 
GIED, or GUED, n. A spasm. " By fits and girds." 
GLAT, n. A gap in a hedge. 
GLUM, n. Pron. of gleam ; " hot glums " are spoken of in 

close, thundery weather. 
GLUTCH, v. To swallow with effort. Comp. " glut " in same 

sense, Tempest, i. 1. 
GO-BACK, v. To grow worse, or lose ground, as crops, or a 

sick person. 

GOLDEN-CHAIN, n. Laburnum. 
GONE-DEAD, part. Dead, as a plant or tree. 
GOOD-SOETED, adj. Of good sort. " Good-sorted pigs." 
GOUT, n. A water-course bridged to make a roadway. M.E. 

gote, a water-channel; closely allied to gut or gutte,^ the 

intestinal canal. Not connected with gutter, which is of 

Lat. origin (Et. Diet.). 


GEAFF, or GEAFFING-TOOL, n. A long and narrow spade 

used in draining. A.S. grafan, to dig (Et. Diet.). 
GKANCH, v. To grind the teeth. 
GEASS-NAIL, n. A linked hook for bracing the scythe to the 

GEE AT, adj. Friendly, intimate. " His lads were allus great 

with ourn, when they was youngsters together." 
GEET, Work by the, n. Piece-work. By the great or gross ? 
GEEWED, adj. Of milk, &c., stuck to the pan in boiling. Not 


GElNDLESTONE, n. A grindstone. 
GEIP, n. A field- gutter. 
GULL, n. A gosling. 
GULLOCK, v. To swallow. Comp. gullet, and Lat. in gula 

(Et. Diet.). 
GUEGEONS, n. Sharps; wheat-meal at the stage between 

flour and bran. 

HACK, or HACK-EAKE, v. See Eake-turn. 
HACKLE, n. (1) A conical and movable thatch, for bee-hives. 

(2) Three reaps of beans set up in the field, v. To shelter 

sheaves from wet by spreading an inverted one on the top 

of the others. 

HAGGLE, n. (1) A mild dispute. (2) The process of bargain- 
ing ; higgle, a weakened form. 
HAIES, n. Hair-cloths used in the cider-press. 
HALF-BAPTIZE, v. To baptize privately. See Christen. 
H&LLIEE, or ALLIEE, n. One who draws coal, timber, 

bricks, &c. 
HANDFUL, n. A person difficult to manage. " Our 'Liza's 

wonderful took up uv that chap o' hern, but if they gets 

married he'll be a handful, I reckon." 
HAND-STICK, n. The handle of a flail. 
HAPPEN, adv. Perhaps. 
HAECELET, n. The liver, lights, and heart of a pig made 

into a dish. Formerly spelt hastelet, hastlet, haslet ; of Fr. 

origin (Skeat). 

HAEDISTEOW, n. A shrew-mouse. 
HAVEEDEPAZE, adj. In doubt, mentally on the balance. 

Corruption of avoirdupois. 

HAYN-UP, v. Applied to grass land, to shut it up for hay. 
HAY-EIFF, n. Goose-grass. 
HAY-TEUSSEE, n. One who cuts hay out of a rick and makes 

it up into trusses. (Between twenty and thirty men in Upton 

are thus employed. The weight of a truss is 56 Ib.) 
HAY-WAED, n. An officer in charge of cattle and fences on 

common land, Nares (1822) speaks of the word as disused ; 

but the term and the office have been in use at Upton within 

the last five years. Der. A.S. hecg, hedge (connected with 

Jiaga, whence haw, haw-haw, haw-finch, haw-thorn), and 

A.S. wear -d, a guard (Et. Diet.). 
HE AD- STALL, n. A stout sort of bridle for fastening a horse 

to the manger. 
HEAVEE, n. A stile that may be lifted from between fixed 


HEDGE-BETTY, n. A hedge-sparrow. 

HEDGE-BILL, n. A long-handled hooked blade for cutting 

hedges, much stronger than a brush-hook. 
HEEL, n. The top crust of a loaf. Uncommon. 
HEFT, n. Weight. In sense of heaving, Wint. Tale, ii. 1, 

" with violent hefts" v. To weigh. 
HELE, v. To cover up, as seed, potatoes, &c. Often pronounced 

yeal, or yill. A.S. helan, to cover. Comp. Lat. celare and 

cella (Skeat). 
HELL-EAKE, n. A large rake drawn along to collect outlying 

wisps of hay. Der. ell, or heel (?). 
HIGH-MINDED, adj. At a comparatively high mental level. 

" 'E was that 'igh-minded as I couldn't understand J is ser- 
mons no more nor nothinV 
HILE, v. To push with the horn. 
HILT, n. A young sow for breeding. 
HIKING-MONEY, n. The shilling given at a mop to engage 

a servant. 
HIT, n. A crop. " A good hit o' fruit." Icel. hitta, to hit 

upon, meet with (Et. Diet.). 
HOB, n. A third swarm of bees from one hive. 
HOBBEDY'S-LANTEEN, n. Will-o'-the wisp. 
HOG, v. To cut hair short, as a horse's mane. " Provincial 

English" ; probably der. hag, Scotch weakened form of hack 

(Et. Diet.). 

HOLLOW- WAY, n. A road between high banks. 
HONESTY, n. (Clematis vitalba) ; not, as in most parts of 

England, Lunaria biennis. Traveller's joy. 
HOOP, or Cock-hoop, n. A bullfinch. Nope, in Drayton's 

Polyolb. xiii. (Nares). 
HOOP-DEIFT, n. A cooper's tool for tightening the hoops on 

a barrel. 

HOOT, v. To cry out. 
HOOVE, v. (Hall.) To hoe. 
HOESE-STINGEE, n. A dragon-fly. 
HOWEVEE, adv. In short, in any case; generally placed at 

the end of a sentence. 
HUD, n. (Hall.) Husk, case (hood ?). 
HULL, v. To shell, as peas. 
HUMBUG, n. A kind of sweetmeat. 
HUMBUZ, n. A cockchafer. 

HUMOUESOME, adj. Full of humours, whimsical. 
HUMP, v. To grumble. 
HUNDEED, n. (I) Long, by machine weight, 112 Ib. ; by 

count, six score = 126. (2) Short, by steelyard weight, 100 Ib. ; 

by count, one hundred. E.g., a hundred of asparagus, of 

oranges, of walnuts, &c., would be 126 (see Score) ; a hundred 

of herrings, 100. 

HUEDLE-BUMPEE, n. A sheep's head. 
HUEEISH, v. To drive cattle. 
ILL-CONVENIENT, adj. Pron. of inconvenient. 
INCH-MEAL, adv. Inch by inch. See Limmel. 
INCH-TEEE, n. Pron. of hinge-tree, the upright side of a gate 

to which the hinges are attached. 


INONS, n. Pron. of onions. Anglo-French oynon (Et. Diet.). 

INSENSE, v. To inform, or make to understand. 

ITEM, n. (Hall.} A hint or intimation. " I whistled to Jim 

to give 'im an item as the gaffer were a-cominV 
JACK-UP, v. To dismiss, cashier ; also to resign employment, 

to break off work. In the last sense used in America. 
JACK-SQUEALEK, n. A swift. 
JESSUP, v. Syrup, juice. Uncommon. 
JUSTICING, part. Going before the magistrates. 
JUSTLY, adv. Exactly. " I couldn't justly say." 
KAY'OLD, adj. Pron. of keyhold ; applied to house property 

with no legal owner, and claimed by the occupier. 
KEAGH, inter j. Hallo ! Used in calling to a dog, or in 

expressing wonder or incredulity. Probably abbreviation of 

"look here." Pronounced as a monosyllable, with stress on 

the first two letters. 

KECKLE, v. To cough or choke. Comp. chuckle, and cackle. 
KEECH, n. A thick layer, as of hay. (Lump, or mass in 1 

Hen. IV. ii. 4, and Hen. VIII. i. 1.) 
KEEN, v. To sharpen, as a knife. 
KEFFEL, n. Term of reproach or disparagement for a horse. 

Ceffyl is Welsh for horse. Comp. Lat. caballus, and French, 

Spanish, Italian, and Irish equivalents. 
KELL, n. The caul of an animal. 
KELP, or KILLUP, v. To yelp as a dog does ; to worry by 

talking. Comp. A.S. gilpan, to talk noisily (Et. Diet.). 
KEENEL, n. A gland swollen hard. Formed from A.S. corn, 

grain (Et. Diet.). 
KETCH, n. A two- masted vessel, formerly used on Severn. 

Der. Turkish quaiq. 
KIBBLE, v. to split, crush, or coarsely grind, as oats, beans, or 

Indian corn ; n. (plu.} lumps of coal about the size of swan's 


KID, n. A faggot, v. To make into faggots. 
KIND, adj. Applied to plants, trees, roots, &c. ; natural, as 

good as their kind is capable of being. Comp. genus, genial. 

" There's a smart fyaou opples, but they don't look kind." 

n. Ant. and Cleop. v. 2, " The worm will do his kind," act 

according to his nature. " .BTmcZless," Ham. ii. 2, unnatural 

(Nares). A.S. cynde, natural (Et. Diet.). 
KINDLE, v. Of rabbits, to bring forth young. As You Like It, 

iii. 2. Der. A.S. cynde, originally, born. 
KIPE, n. A basket of circular form, wider at top than at 

bottom ; it should properly hold two pecks and a half. 
KIPE-FUL, n. The smallest measure in selling coal. 
KNOLL, v. To toll, as a bell. Comp. knell ; Macb. v. 7, " His 

knell is Jcnolled " (Nares). 
KNUBBLINGS, n. (Hall.) Lumps hand-picked out of best 

coal, weighing about from 5 Ib. to 10 Ib. 
'KYANDEE, inter j. Look yonder ! 
LADE-GAUN, n. A vessel attached to a stick, for ladling out 

LAMP, v. To beat soundly. " A lamming," Beaum. and 

Fletch., King and No King. Icel. lama, to bruise. Comp. lame. 


LAP, v. To wrap. 

LASHINGS, n. Abundance, lots. Abbreviation of lavishing ? 

LAZE, n. Laziness. 

LEAF, n. A membrane in a pig from which the lard is obtained. 

LEAEN, v. To teach. Psalm (Prayer-book) xxv. 4, 8 ; A.S. 

Icdran (Et Diet.). 

'LECTIONS, n. Likelihood, chance. " No 'lections of rahyn." 
LEEZE, v. To glean. A.S. lesan (Skeat),. 
LEW-WAEM, adj. Lukewarm, tepid. Lew by itself used in 

same sense by Wiclif, Eev. iii. 16. 
LIE-IN, v. To cost. " 'Twill lie you in a matter of ten 


LIF, adv. Pron. of lief, willingly. 
LIGHT-OF, v. To meet with. " Light-on," Gen. xxviii. 11 ; 

2 Kings x. 15. 

LIMB, n. Elliptical expression applied only to a boy; a scape- 
LIMMEL, adv. Pron. of limb-meal, limb from limb. A.S. mcel, 

a portion (Et. Diet.). 

LISSOM, adj. Supple, pliant, active; Blithesome (Et. Diet.). 
LISTY, adj. Applied to bread when heavy and streaked, owing 

jto under-baking : A.S. list, a stripe JOT border (Et. Diet.). 
LIVEEY, adj. Applied to soil that is moist and tenacious, and 

hangs to the spade. 
LODE, n. A ferry, or ford ; A.S. lad, a course. Comp. lead, 

v. (Skeat). 

LOOSE, v. (1) To walk alone, as an infant. (2) To let go. 
LOP, n. Severed branches. 
LOVEEING, part. Making love, courting. 
LUMBEESOME, adj. Heavy, awkward to move. 
LUMPUS, adv. In a lump, heavily (applied to a fall). " 'E 

come down lumpus." 

LUNGEOUS, adj. Impetuous, violent ; ready to strike, kick, &c. 
LUNY, adj. Mentally soft. Comp. lunatic. 
LUSH, v. To beat down with green boughs, as wasps. Comp. 


LYE, n. Water in which wood ashes have been steeped. 
MADAM, n. A title of respect used ironically by itself, but 

bond fide when prefixed to a surname. 
MAGGET, n. A magpie. 

MAGGOTY, adj. Of a child, fractious, ill-humoured. 
MAEKET-PEEET, adj. Excited by liquor. This savours of 

the drinking customs which beset marketing and dealing. 
MAETIN-AYFEE, n. A heifer naturally incapable of breeding, 

as is the case with a female twin calf when the other is a male. 
MASLIN, adj. Composed of mixed materials. A maslin kettle 

is made of zinc and copper. Becoming scarce. Der. miscere ? 
MASONTEE, n. -A mason. 

MAWKIN, or MALKIN, n. (1) A scare-crow (female) figure. 
Comp. " malkin," Coriol. ii. 1, and Per. P. of Tyre, iv. 4. (2) 
See Scovin. 

MAWLEES, n. Hands. 
MAWMBLING, adj. Wandering in mind and speech. 


MAWMET, n. An effigy or scare-crow. Wiclif calls an idol a 

mawmet, Acts vii. 41, xv. 20 ; Eom. ii. 22 ; &c. Der., on 

lucus principle, from the iconoclastic Mahomet ? " Mammet," 

for doll, Eom. and Jul. iii. 5, and 1 Hen. IV. iv. 3. 
MAXUM, n. Same as Morum. 
MAYFISH, n. A fish said to be found only in the Severn, 

amongst English rivers, and in the Mediterranean Sea ; also 

called Twayt. 

MEATY, adj. Of store animals, rather fleshy than fat. 
MEECHING, adj. Melancholy, complaining. Used in New 

MELCH - HEAETED, adj. Gentle, diffident, poor-spirited. 

Comp. " milk-livered," K. Lear, iv. 2. 
MESS, n. Applied contemptuously to anything unsatisfactory 

or insignificant. " Tis but a poor little mess of a place." 
MESSENGEE, n. A small detached cloud (cumulus) floating 

low, and supposed to betoken rain. Sometimes called a 


MESS-OVEE, v. To make much of, to spoil, as a child. 
MIDDLE-BOND, n. The strip of leather, or, by preference, large 

eel-skin, which forms part of the caplin, and connects the nile 

with the hand-stick of a flail. 
MIDDLING, adj. (Hall) Not in good health. 
MIFF, n. A falling out. " We 'ad a bit of a miff." 
MIGHTY, adv. Very. Comp. Lat. valide, valde. See Desperate. 
MILE, v. Pron. of moil, to make dirty (so bile for boil, quine 

for quoin, &c.) " Bemoil," Tarn o' Shanter, iv. 1. 
MILLAED, n. Miller (mill- ward). 
MIMP, v. To make a pretence, to sham. Probably all. to 

mumper, a beggar (Skeat). 
MINTY, adj. FuU of cheese-mites. 
MISCALL, v. To speak unkindly to. 
MISHTEEFUL, adj. Mischievous. 
MISKIN, n. Same as mixen, a dung-heap. A.S. miscan, to 

mix (Et. Diet.). 
MISS, n. Want. "Tom's lost his place; and 'e'll find of it 

afore winter, and feel the miss o' good fittle." 
MISSUS, n. A man's wife. 
MISWOED, n. An unkind word. " We was feUow- servants 

nigh upon two year, 'er and me, and never 'ad a misword." 
MIX- OUT, v. To clean out, as a cowhouse. 
MOGGY, n. Vocative and pet name for a calf. 
MOITHEEED, adj. Harassed, dazed, bothered. 
MOLLY, v. To do woman's work indoors, being a man. " 'E 

were a good un to molly for 'isself, were old Joe." 
MOMMOCK, v. To cut in pieces, to cut to waste, as food : 

Coriol. i. 3. 

MOON, n. An ox-eye daisy. 
MOP, n. A statute fair, for hiring servants. 
MOEUM, n. A vagary, a freak, an antic, a whimsical peculiarity 

also a method, or nostrum. 
MOSE, v. To smoulder, as green wood on fire. 
MOSEY, or MAWSEY (Hall), adj. Gone soft and woolly, as 

fruit. Fr. moisi ? 


MOTTY, n. A mark to throw at. 

MOUCH, v. To pilfer eatables ; to prowl in search of spoil. All. 

to mich, to skulk (Skeat). 
MUCKSHUT, n. The time just before dark, twilight. Mirk- 

ehade ? but comp. " cock-shut time," Bic. III. v. 3 ; and see 

Shut for shoot ; according to the latter analogy, the veil of 

darkness is shot, or flung, over the earth. 
MUDGIN, n. The fat on the chitterlings of a pig, called 

mugerom in the north (Skeat). 
MUG, v. To enlist a man by drink for towing a boat. Dying 


MULLEN, n. The bridle of a cart-horse. 
MULLOCK, n. A mess, a litter. 
MUMKUFFIN, n. (Hall.} The long-tailed titmouse. 
MUNGEE, v. To mutter, to grumble (g soft)._ 
MUSE, n. An opening in a fence through which a hare passes 

(pronounced, muce). " Them Welshmen (Welsh sheep) 'd 

go through a rabbit run or a har' muce." " Musit" in same 

sense, Venus and Adon. (Nares). 
MUST, or MAST, n. The cake of apples pressed for cider, after 

it has been wrung through the hairs. 
NABBLE, v. To gnaw. Comp. nibble. 
NAG, n. To worry with reproaches. " Provincial ; but a good 

word. From Swedish nagga, to nibble, peck. A doublet of 

gnaw." (Et. Diet.). 

NAGEB, v. To work hard. Der. nigger. 
NAIL-PASSEE, n. A gimlet. 
NALLS, n. Belongings, goods and chattels. 
NATIF, n. Native place. 
NAY-WOED, n. A by- word; a name of ridicule or reproach. 

Twelfth Night, ii. 3 (Nares). 
NEIGHBOUB, v. To visit about and gossip. " I never was 

one for neighbouring" 

NESH, adj. Delicate, tender : used by Chaucer (Nares). 
NIBS, n. The handles which stand out from the scythe-snead. 
NICKEE, n. To snigger. A.S. hncegan, to neigh. 
NIFLE, v. To idle or "loaf." n. A fit of idleness. " You've 

bin on the nifle," or " on the nifling pin." 
NILD, and NIDDLE, n. A needle. A.S. nadl. Nild dying 

NILE, n. The upper part of a flail, that which beats the corn. 

The " Shropshire Word-book " makes the nile the same as 

the caplin, and for the meaning of the former, according to 

Upton use, gives " swipple." Hall, gives " swingel " as 

" Var. Dial.," but gives " nile," in the Upton sense, as " Salop " 
NIP, v. To move quickly. "I nips athirt the ground and 

gives 'im the meetin'." 
N1PPLED, adj. (of a knife, scythe, &c.) Notched. Comp. nib 

and neb, in the sense of point or projection. 
NISGAL, n. The smallest pig in a litter. 
NlTHEE, n. (Hall.} A grimace, also a shiver. " All uv a 

nither." v. To grin as a dog, to* grimace ; to shiver with 

NOBBY, n. Vocative and pet name for a colt. 


N ORATION, n. Busybody's talk. Distorted use of oration. 

NOSE-BLEED, n. A bleeding at the nose. 

NUNCHION, n. Luncheon (no etymological connection) ; pro- 
perly, none-schenche, i.e. noon-drink. A.S. scencan, to pour 
out (Skeat) ; comp. "under-skinker," 1 Hen. IV. ii. 4, and 
" skink," B. Jons., New Inn, i. 8. 

NUKDY, n. Used as nisgal ; a small, unhealthy creature ; a 
weakling. In Yorkshire, a wreckling. 

NUEEA-ONE, n. Never- a-one, nobody. 

OATH, v. To swear. " I'll oath it." 

OBBLY-ONKEES, n. The game of "conquer-nut," played 
with strung horse-chestnuts. Obbly was probably nobbly or 
knobbly, expressing the appearance of the string of nuts, and 
onJcers was probably invented as a rhyme to " conquers." The 
doggerel attached to the game here is 

" 'Obbly, obbly, onlcers, my first conquers; 

'Obbly, obbly, 0, my first go ! " 

Mrs. Chamberlain, who spells the word differently, adds 
" Hobley, hobley ack, my first crack." 

OCKEED, adj. Pron. of awkward ; contrary, when applied to 
weather or temper. Formerly an adverb ; M.E. awTc, auk, 
contrary : ward, a suffix, as in forward, backward, &c. (Et. 

ODDMENTS, n. Odds and ends. 

ODDS, n. A difference. " There's an odds in childern." v. 
To balance, as an account, or to alter. 

OFFLING, adj. Of no account, refuse. Der. offal. 

OLD, adj. (1) Cunning, especially as applied to children. (2) 
Displeased, angry. " He looked very old at me.'' 

OLD-MAID, n. A horse-fly ; in Yorkshire called a cleg. 

OLDNESS, n. Cunning, especially of children. 

OEDAIN, v. To make right, or set to rights ; vaguely applied 
to many ways of doing so. 

OEL, n. The alder tree. 

OTHEEEN, adj. Other. " Every otheren day." 

OTTOMY, or NOTTOMY, n. A very thin perron. Der. atom, 
or anatomy ? (1) As You Like It, iii. 2, and 2 Hen. IV. v. 4; 
(2) K John, iii. 4. 

OULESS, or OLESS, adj. Neglectful, unwilling to take trou- 
ble. " 'Er don't sim to take no delight in 'er work ; 'er's got 
reg'lar ouless." 

OUT-ASKED, part. Said of a couple whose marriage-banns 
have been asked in church three times. " They was out-askt d 
Sunday was a fortnight." 

OUTEIDE, n. The district of a commercial traveller. 

OVEE, v. To repeat again and again. 

OVEE-GET, v. To get over, as trouble or sickness. 

OWNEE, n. One who owns a boat, barge, or trow. Used as a 
vocative and as a prefix. " Do you know what's the matter 
with Owner Smith ? " " Well, sir, I did hear as the doctor 
should say as it were purity (pleurisy)." 

OX-PUDDINGS, n. Pron. of hog's-puddings ; a large sort of 
sausages, made from the leaf of a pig, chopped up and stewed 
with cutlins, rice, rosemary, sage, leek, organy, and spice. 


Innovators add sugar and currants. Sometimes coloured with 


PANTLE, v. To pant. 
PASS-OUT, v. Of the passing bell, to toll (trans, and intr.). 

" Send Jack up to pass-out the bell." " The bell's just passed 

out for ould Kester." 

PAYMASTEE, n. An employer of labour, a payer of wages. 
PEASIPOUSE, n. Peas and beans grown together as a crop. 

Lat. pisa, a pea, and puls, pottage made of peas, pulse, &c. 

(Et. Diet,). 
PECK, n. A point (peak) : " The peck of the shou'der." See 

Pick. v. To fall forward (pitch). 
PECK-ED, part, (two syllables). Pointed (peaked). A boat is 

peck-ed at both ends, and a trow is round at both ends. 
PECK-SHAFT, n. The handle of a pick-axe. Peak, peck, pike, 

and pick have a Celtic origin. Shaft is A.S. sceaft. Comp. 

shave, and shape (Et. Diet.). 
PEEEK, n. (sing, and plu.} A perch, or perches, in land 

PEEET, adj. Lively, in good spirits. " The pert and nimble 

spirit of youth." Mids. Night's Dr. i. 1. Used by negroes in 


PEEETEN-UP, v. To become lively. 
PEEISHED, part. Dead, or half-dead, from cold or decay. 
PHLEEM, n. Pron. of phlegm. 
PICK, or PECK, n. (1) A pick-axe ; M.E. pikois, or pikeys ; 

not an axe at all (Et. Diet.). (2) A pointed hammer for 

breaking coal. 

PIE-FINCH, n. A chaffinch. 

PIG-MEAT, n. Meat which is not bacon from a bacon-pig. 
PIGS-COT, n. A pig-sty, A.S. cote and cyte, a den (Et. 

PIGS-FEY, n. The liver, lights, heart, mudgin, &c., of a pig 

sold for frying. 

PILCH, v. (1) To poke with the horn. (2) To pilfer. 
PIN, n. A fit, an inclination, a mood. See Nifle. 
PIP, n. The blossom of the cowslip, v. To pull the blossom 

out for making wine. 

PISHTY, n. Vocative and pet name for a dog. 
PITCH-POLL, adv. Head over heels, v. (1) To turn head 

over heels. (2) To sell an article for double the price it cost. 
PIT-HOLE, n. A grave. 
PLACK, or PLECK, n. A plot of ground. 
PLANTS, n. Young brocoli, borecole, brussels-sprouts, &c. 
PLAYCHEE, n. Pron. of pleacher, or plasher ; a stem in a 

hedge half cut through and bent down. " The pleached 

bower," Much Ado, iii. 1. Comp. plait ; der. plectere (Et. 


PLIM, v. To swell, or be plumped out, as bacon in boiling. 
PLIM-BOB, n. A plummet. 

PLUNGE, n. A falling into, or going under, trouble or sickness. 
PLUNT, n. A cudgel. Stronger form of plant ? 
POKE, or POUK, n. A pustule (pock), especially a sty in the 

eye. A.S. poc, a pustule (Et. Diet.). 


POLE-RING, n. The ring which fastens the head of the scythe- 
blade to the snead. 

POLT, v. To beat down, as fruit ; to thump, n. A blow. 
POMP, v. To pamper or feed up ; spoiled children are said to 

be pomped-up ; also horses and other animals for sale. 
POOKFOIST, n. A kind of fungus, a puff-ball. " Puck " is 

probably the first syllable (Skeat). 
PORKET, n. A young pig for small pork. 
POT, n. A local measure containing from 4 to 5 pecks. Of 

potatoes, plums, and pears the weight is 84 Ib. ; of plums 

and onions 72 Ib. ; of gooseberries 63 Ib. See Side (2). 
POT-FRUIT, n. Eating fruit, as distinguished from that made 

into cider or perry. 

POT-HAMPERN, n. A hamper containing a pot. 
PR AWL, or PROLL, v. To do needlework in a rough and 

clumsy way. The word is dying out. 
PRICHELL, v. To goad or prick. 
PRIMMY-ROSE, n. Pron. of primrose. " Primerole," Chaucer 

C. T. 3,268 (Et. Diet.). 

PROMP, v. To curvet, and show high spirits, as a horse. 
PROMPT, adj. Spirited, as a horse. 
PUG, n. A quill left in a plucked fowl. " Chockful tf pugs." 

v. To pull, to pluck. 

PURE, adj. Well in health. " I be quite pure." 
PURGATORY, n. An ash-hole under the grate. 
PURGY, adj. Cross, surly ; g hard, 
PUSSY-CATS, n. Catkins. 
PUTCHEON, n. A wicker eel-trap, smaller than a wheel ; u 

pronounced as in put. 
QUARTER, n. One of the four compartments of the bag of a 


QUICE, n. A wood-pigeon. 
QUICK, n. Growing hawthorn. 
QUILT, v. To beat (welt). 
QUILTER, n. A big one, synonym of whopper. " 'Ere's a 

quilter of a cowcumber!" "Owner, 'as you seen Quilter 

White to-dahy ? " 

QUIZ, or QUIZZIT, v. To ask prying questions. Comp. quest. 
RACE, n. The pluck of a sheep or calf. v. Pron. of rase, to 

scratch or abrade. 
RAFFAGE, n. A heap of refuse, odds and ends. A fishing net 

gets full of raffage. German, raffeln, to snatch up ; Fr. 

rafter, to catch or seize (Et. Diet.). 
RAIN-BAT, n. A small beetle, on the killing of which rain is 

expected shortly to ensue. 
RAISE-THE-PLACE, v. To make a disturbance. " 'E's an 

onaccountable lungeous chap. 'E were like to raise the place 

becos my little wench fetched a turmit out of 'is ground." 
RAKE-TURN, v. To rake tedded grass into ridges, so as to 

expose the under side to the sun and wind. Sometimes Hack, 

or Hack-rake, is used to designate this process, n. The ridge 

formed by rake-turning. 
RAMP, n. An ascent in a wall-coping. 
RANDOM, adj. Headlong, impulsive. 


EANGLE, v. Pron. of rankle, as a wound does. 

EASTY, or EAISTY, adj. Eancid, as bacon (rusty). 

EAVE, v. To speak loudly. 

EEAP, n. A sheaf or bundle of corn, beans, &c. ; A.S. npan, 

to reap. 
EEDIX, n. Used only at marbles. When a boy has placed his 

marble in a certain position, and afterwards finds that another 

position would be more advantageous, if he can say, " No first 

my redix " before anyone else says, "First your redix," he 

may make the change, but not otherwise. Probably connected 

with Lat. dixi. 
EEEN, n. The last bout of a veering (little used). Comp. rain 

Northern for ridge (Sail.) and rein, Icel. for a strip of land 

EEFtJSE, n. Eefusal. "Master Willum promised me the 

first refuse o' that bit o' ground." 

EELISH, n. Any sort of condiment ; pickle, red-herring, &c. 
EIBBET, n. Pron. of rivet. 
EICK-MOULD, n. An imaginary implement, represented by 

any heavy weight in a bag, which a victim, inexperienced in 

hay-making, is sent to borrow, and has to carry for a long 

distance, with strict injunctions not to drop it. 
EID, v. To clear away, to dispatch ; 3 Hen. VI. v. 5. 
EIDDLINGS, n. Large pebbles sifted out of gravel ; comp. 

A.S. hridian, to sift (Et. Diet.). 
EIFF, n. The itch. 
EIFLE, v. To rouse or startle. " The youngster's got the 

'iccups bad ; you rifle 'im a bit." 
EIG, n. A sprain, v. To sprain. Earely used except of the 


EIPPING, part, (of frost or cold). Sharp, cutting. 
EIVEL, v. To shrivel or wrinkle. " The rivelVd lips " (Cowp. 

Task, ii. 488). 
EOAD, n. Way or method. " 'Er don't know the right road 

to dink a babby." 

EOBBLE, n. Prow, of ravel; a tangle, v. To entangle. 
EODNEY, adj. Eough and idle. " A rodney sort of a chap." 
EOMMELY, adj. (of bacon, &c.) Greasy. 
EONK, adj. Pron. of rank; strong, of luxuriant growth. 

A.S. ranc, strong, forward (Et. Diet.). 
EOOT, n. Pron. of rut. 

EOPY, adj. Stringy ; applied to bread and to cider; 
EOWENS, n. Chaff and refuse after threshing. 
EOX, v. To soften ; hence roxed, applied to fruit, means 

decayed. Also applied to phlegm. 
EUBBEE, n. A stone for whetting a scythe. 
EUBBLING, part. Pertaining to rough work. " I don't want 

no more nor a rubblin' gurl for my work." " I on'y wants 

a rubblin' place for the wench." 
EUDGEL, or EIDGUL, n. (g soft) (1) a half-gelding. (2) A 


SADE,<y. To weary (sate ?). " Saded of gruel." "Asadingjob." 
SAG, n. Flags, rushes, older form of sedge (Skeat). v. To be 

weighed down in the middle, as a rope loosely stretched. 


SAG-SEATED, adj. Bush-bottomed. 

SALLY, n. (1) A kind of willow ; comp. Lat. salix. (2) The 

fluffy part above the lower end of a church bell-rope, mainly 

jised in chiming. 
SAPY, adj. Gone moist, soddened, as meat, poultry, &c. All. 

to Low German sipan, to trickle, and to soap rather than to 

sap (Skeat). 
SCAMBLING, adj. Make-shift. " 'E made a scambling job 

of it." 
SCAEF, n. To unite two pieces of timber end to end. Der. 

Swedish sJcarf, a seam or joint (Et. Diet.). 
SCAWT, or SCOTE, v. To scramble, slip about, or scrape the 

ground with the feet. 
SCOEE, n. (1) Twenty- one in selling plants for growing, 

cucumbers, asparagus, radishes, &e. ; but mostly used as an 

aliquot part of the " long hundred " (see Hundred) . (2) The 

core of an apple. 
SCOUT, v. To drive away. All. to shove and shoot, from 

Scandinavian origin (Et. Diet.). 

SCOVIN, n. (o as in oven). A cloth, mat, or old fishing- 
net, attached to a pole and used for cleaning out a baker's 

oven. Hall, gives " scovel, a baker's manikin. " Sometimes 

scurvin, or scuffle. Becoming scarce. 
SCEABBLE, or SCEOBBLE, v. To scramble. 
SCEATCHEE, n. A machine for cider-making. 
SCEATCHINGS, n. (Hall.} Fragments strained out of lard 

in melting, and made into a dish. 
SCEAWL, v. Pron. of crawl. 
SCEEENINGS, n. Fine gravel. 
SCEIBE, v. To mark wood with a pencil or instrument, as a 

carpenter does. 

SCEIBING-IEON, n. A tool for marking trees for felling. 
SCBIGGLING, n. A stunted apple. All. to scraggy (Skeat). 
SCEOODGE, v. To squeeze, to crowd. " I likes them chairs ; 

us can't be scroodged in 'em, like we was in the old church." 
SCEOODLE, v. To cower, crouch. 
SCUTCH, n. Couch-grass (u pronounced as in butcher). 
SEED-LIP, n. A wooden vessel for sowing seed, shaped for 

carrying on the hip. 

SEEDS, n. Growing clover (pronounced, sids). 
SENNA, n. Pron. of sinew. 
SET, v. To let, as house or land. 
SETTLE, n. A long seat with a high back ; A.S. sett. Comp. 

Lat. sedile. 
SHAD- SALMON, n. Another name for the shad. Of doubtful 


SHAED, or SHOED, n. A gap in a hedge. 
SHAEPS, n. Same as gurgeons. 
SHEAEHOG, n. A two-year-old sheep. 
SHEED, v. Pron. of shed. 

SHEPPICK, OR SHUPPICK, n. Pron. of sheaf-pike, a pitchfork. 
SHIP, n. Pron. of sheep. Hence in Acts xxvii. danger has 

been experienced of confusing shipwreck with the more 

familiar sheep-rack. 


SHOWL, n. Pron. of shovel. "I, said the owl, with my spade 

and showl " (Death of Cock Eobin). 
SHEOUD, v. Among the watermen the sun is said to shroud, 

or s'roud, when its rays appear through the clouds slanting 

to the horizon, in a form resembling the shrouds of a ship. It 

is then said to be " drawing water," and rain is predicted. 
SHUCK, v. Pron. of shake. " Pick the best on 'em, and then 

shuck the tree." 

SHYUD, n. Pron. of shed ; monosyllable. 
SHUETY, adj. Angry. 
SHUT, n. (shoot). A cast or throw of a fishing-net, adj. 

Shot, rid (often pronounced, shet) ; A.S. sceotan, to shoot 

(Et. Diet.). 
SIDDEE, adj. Soft, mellow ; applied to peas that will boil well 

when old, and to land which will grow such peas ; also to 

decayed wood. Probably all. to seethe (Skeat). 
SIDE, n. (1) A company. "A strong side at the pea-picking." 

(2) A measure of cherries or of currants, weighing 63 Ib. 
SKEEL, n. A shallow wooden vessel for washing butter in ; a 

like vessel, but larger, and spouted, used in brewing. 
SKIM-DICK, n. Poor cheese. 
SKIP, n A shallow basket made of oak laths, with rounded 

bottom and ends, and an opening at either end by way of 


SLAWN, n. Plu. of sloe. 
SLICK, adj. (sleek). Smooth and shiny, as of ice or hair. v. To 

make smooth and shiny. " Slick yer 'air afore yer goes." 
SLIMBEE, v. To take work easily. 
SLINKVEAL, n. The flesh of a newly-born calf. 
SLlTHEE, v. To slide. 
SLIVEE, n. A piece cut off. K. Lear, iv. 2. v. Ham. iv. 7. 

Comp. slice. 
SLOB, n. Pron. of slab ; the outside cut of a tree when sawn 

into planks. 
SLOBBEEDY, adj. Dirty, sloppy. "Slobbery," applied to 

land, Hen. V. iv. 5. 
SLUMMACKING, adj. Slovenly. Probably an "imitative 

word" (Skeat). 
SMAET, adj. Good or well in a vague sense. " A smart lot." 

" I'm smartish." 

SMITE, n. A mite, a bit. " Every smite of it." 
SMUDGE, n. A kiss. v. To kiss. 
SNEAD, n. The curved pole to which the scythe-blade is hung. 

Pronounced, sned. 
SNIPING, part, (of frost or cold). Biting, sharp. All. to 

sneap, snap, and snub (Et. Diet.). 
SNIEP, v. To shrivel or wither. 
SNITCHOCKS, n. A disease in game birds like the gapes in 

SNOB, v. To sob. 

SNOPE, n. A thump or slap. v. To strike, to slap. Dealers on 
concluding a bargain say, " Snope it down," i.e., " Strike 
hands on it" (comp., " Strike-me-luck," Hudibras, ii. 1, 539, 
quoted by Nares). All. to sneap, v., Love's Labour Lost, 


i. 1, and n., 2 Hen. IV. ii. 1 ; also to snub and snap 

SNOWLEE, n. A blow on the head. " Nowl," head, Mids. 

Night's Dr., iii. 2. 
SOCK, or SOCKAGE, n. The drainage from cattle-sheds, &c. 

Der. soak; A.S. sucan, also sugan, to suck (Et. Diet.). 
SOLID, adj. Grave, serious. 
SOLLUM, v. To sulk. " 'Er 'ud sit sollumiri' for an hour 

SPALL, v. To splinter, as the under side of a bough in sawing ; 

n. a splinter. From Teutonic base spald, to splinter (Et.Dict.). 
SPEAE, 7i. The spirelet, or sprout, which, if not checked, 

would appear at one end of the grain when malting barley ger- 
minates after steeping. See " ackersprit," and " acrospire " 

in Hall. 

SPINE OF THE BACK, n. The spine (which is never men- 
tioned alone). 
SPITTAL, n. A spade. 
SPITTAL-TEEE, n. A spade-handle. 
SPOT , n. Of cider, beer, rain, &c., a drop. v. To begin to rain, 

to rain slightly. 
SPEACK, or SPEACKT, adj. Lively, bright. Sir H. Evans 

pronounces it sprag, Mer. W. W. iv. 1. 
SPEEADEE, n. A stick to keep the traces from the heels of 

SQUAEE, n. In thatchers' and builders' work a superficial 

area ten feet square. 

SQUAT, v. To prevent a wheel from rolling by blocking it. 
SQUENCH, v. Pron. of quench. " 'Tis both squenchin' and 

feedin', that oatmeal drink." 
SQUIB, n. A squirt, v. To squirt. 
SQUILT, n. A pimple or pustule. 
STADDLE, n. A rick-stand; used in LoweU's " Biglow 


STAGGEEING-BOB, n. A very young calf slaughtered. 
STALE, n. The handle of a mop, broom, pitchfork, &c. A.S. 

steel, stel (Et. Diet.). 
STAM, n. Pron. of stem. '* That old 'awthorn stam wants 

stockin' up." 
STANDY, adj. Wilful, defiant, froward (applied to children 

STANK, n. A dam or stoppage in a stream. Year-Books of 

Ed. I. i. 415, estang, a pool ; ii. 451, estank, a mill-dam (Et. 

Diet.). Comp. Lat. stagnum. v. To dam or stop water. 

Comp. stanch. 
STILCH, or STELCH, n. (1) A post in a cow-house to which 

cows are tied ; a variant of stalk, and all. to stilt (Skeat). (2) 

A breadth across a field which a labourer would take for 

reaping, &c. 
STIVING, part. Close, stifling (Hall.) ; stived up, almost 

STOCK, v. To strike with a poiat, as a bird with its beak. 

Comp. stock-axe, also stoccata (fencing term) and stuck (n). 

Twelfth Night, iii. 4. 


STOCK-EEKLE, n. A woodpecker. 

STOCK, or STUCK, n. From six to ten sheaves set upright in 

the field, v. To set up in a stook. 
STOP-GLAT, n. A stop-gap. 

STOPLESS, n. The wooden lid of a brick oven (little used now). 
STOEM, n. A shower. 
STOKM-COCK, n. A missel-thrush. 
STOUL, n. The butt of a tree left in the ground (stool). 
STRIKE, n. A piece of wood for striking level the contents of 

a bushel measure. 

STUB, n. (1) A prop at the bottom of a post. (2) Same as Stoul. 
STUCK, n. The handle of a jug (stalk). 
STURLY, adj. Staring, as applied to the coat of an animal. 
SUBSTANCE, n. A tumour. 
SUITY, adj. Of a sort, level; used by pig-dealers to signify an 

even and level lot. 
SUN-DOG, n. An appearance among clouds, like a small 

fragment of a rainbow, supposed to foretell rain. 
SUPPER, v. To give supper to, as to cows. 
SWAG, n. Sway, balance. 
SWALE, or SWEAL, v. To singe or burn. A.S. swelan, to 

burn. Comp. swelter and sultry (Et. Diet.). 
SWARD, n. Rind, as of bacon. A.S. sweard, the skin of 

bacon (Et. Diet.). 
SWARDY, adj. With thick rind. 
SWELTH, n. Swelling. 
SWILL, v. To cleanse by flooding. A child in a school, being 

asked what the Almighty did to the world in Noah's days, 

graphically replied, " A swilled un." A.S. swilian, to wash. 

Comp. scullery (Et. Diet.). 

SWIMY, adj. Having a swimming in the head. 
SWINGE, v. Prow, of singe. 

SWllHER, n. (Hall.) Perspiration. Comp. Lat. sudor. 
TABBER, v. To tap or drum ; Nahum ii. 7. Comp. tabor. 
TACK, n. (I) Stuff, materials. (2) Keep for cattle. 
TADDY, adj. Pot-beUied. 
TAGGYFINCH, n. A chaffinch. 
TAIL-WHEAT, n. The inferior portion of a dressing kept for 

home consumption. 
TALE, n. A story of doubtful authority. " Don't you listen to 

what them chaps says, Owner; 'tis nothin' but tales." 
TALLAT, n. A loft used for hay, &c. 
TANCEL, v. To beat. Der. tan ? Comp. Fr. tancer, to chide 

TANG, v. To cause a swarm of bees to settle by a clanging 

sound; also, to claim the ownership of it by the same process. 
TED, v. To toss and spread about mown grass in hay-making. 
TEEM, v. To pour out. 

TEERT, adj. Smarting. A.S. teart, whence tart, adj. (Skeat). 
TEG, n. A sheep at a year old. Ray, 16th century, spells it 


TEMPEST, n. A thunderstorm. 
TERRIFY, v. To astonish, to annoy or trouble strangely. See 

Deadly and Desperate. 


THAT, adv. So. " 'E's got that fat I must be to kill 'im soon." 

THEAVE, n. A ewe at a year old. 

THILLER, n. The shaft-horse in a team. " Filler," Mer. of 
V. ii. 2. Thill is the shaft, closely allied to deal or thel (used 
in 1586), a plank (Et. Diet.). 

THINK-ON, v. To remember. 

THBAVE, or THEEAVE, n. (sing, and plu.) Twenty-four 
boltings of straw. Icel. threfi (Skeat). Originally, a handful. 

THRIFTY, adj. Thriving, as a pig. 

THBIPPLES, n. Same as " ripples," in Shropshire ; a movable 
attachment of rails to enable a cart or waggon to carry loose 
material, as hay or straw. Sometimes called " ladder." 

THUNK, n. A thong. 

TICEFOOLS, n. Puff-balls, from their likeness to mushrooms. 

TICE -PENNY, n. and adj. Catch-penny. 

TIDDLE, v. To make much of, to fondle. 

TIDDLING, n. A pet animal. 

TIDY, adj. Respectable ; also good or well in a vague sense. 
" A tidy chap." " A tidy lot o' currants." "I'm pretty tidy." 

TILTH, n. A freshly turned furrow. 

TIMES, adv. Often, time after time. 

TIND, v. To kindle, as a candle or fire. Comp. tinder. " Tine " 
(v.), Faery Q. II. xi. 21. 

TISSUCKING, adj. (applied to a cough only). Dry and hack- 
ing. Corruption of phthisical. 

TITTER, n. A see-saw. Comp. " Titterstone," one of the 
Glee Hills, called after a rocking-stone thereon ; also totter. 

TITTY, n. The mother's breast. A.S. tit. 

TOP-AND-TAIL, v. To take off tops and bottoms from 
turnips, mangold wurzels, &c., while pulling them up. 

TOP-UP, v. To finish at the top, as a hay-rick. 

TORRIL, n. A creature not good for much ; applied to mankind 
and brutes. 

TOSTY-BALL, n. A cowslip-ball. 

TOT, n. A small mug. 

TOTTERDY, adj. Unsteady, infirm. 

TOW, n. A chain for hauling timber. Pronounced, taou. 

TOWEL, v. To beat. 

TRAFFIC, n. A track or passage made by rats, rabbits, &c. 
" You'd best lay a trap right in the traffic o' them rots." 

TRAM, or TRAMMING, n. A framework, or a loose arrange- 
ment, of stout parallel rails on short legs, or blocks, for sup- 
porting casks. 

TRAMMEL,. A large drag-net. 

TRAVEL, v. To walk, to have the use of the feet and legs. 
" This pig bain't to say bad in 'imself, but 'e don't sun to 
travel right." 

TREE, n. A plant grown in a pot. 

TRIG, n. A nick, a shallow trench. 

TRIMPLE, v. To tread limpingly, as one with tender feet. 

TROW,*n The largest sort of vessel on the Severn, and 

* One of the public-houses in the town bears the name of " The 
Severn Trow." 


rounded at both ends ; carries up to 130 tons weight (ow as in 
cow). Comp. trough. Perhaps all. to tray (Et. Diet.) 
TEUEL, n. A mason's trowel. Middle English (Et. Diet.) 
TEUNK, n. A rough chest, pierced with holes, and moored in 

the water for keeping live fish. 
TUMP, n. A conical heap. 
TUN-DISH, n. A funnel. Measure for M. iii. 2 ; A.S. tunne, 

a barrel ; Comp. tunnel (Et. Diet.). 
TUP, n. A ram. 

TUSSOCK, n. A tuft of coarse grass. 
TWAYT, n. Same as May-fish. 
TWIN, n. A double fruit. 
UNACCOUNTABLE, adv. Uncommonly, surprisingly; the 

first syllable is pronounced, on. 
UNCLE, n. Familiar vocative in addressing an elder friend. 

Der. avunculus, literally, "little grandfather." (Et. Diet.) 
UN GAIN, adj. Unhandy, inconvenient. 

UNKED, adj. Dismal, lonely, dreary. M.E. unhid, from un 
and kid, p. part, of kythe, to make known (Burns, Hallowe'en, 
st. 3) ; literally, not known ; hence strange, solitary, uncom- 
fortable, &c. Another form of uncouth (Et. Diet J. 
UNSUITY, adj. Not of a sort, not matching. 
UP-COUNTEY, adj. and adv. Applied to North Worcester- 
shire and Staffordshire. 
UP-HILL, adj. and adv. (applied to wind), North or South; 

see Down-hill. 

UPON-TIMES, adv. Now and then. 
UPSET, n. A disturbance. 
UECHIN, n. A hedgehog. 

UTIS, n. A riotous noise, a din ; such as used to accompany 

the eighth day of a festival. 2 Hen. IV. ii. 4. Utas, old 

Anglo-French form of octaves (Skeat) ; comp. modern Fr. 


VALLY, n. The felloe of a wheel ; pronounced as valley. A.S. 

felga (Et. Diet.). 
VAUM, n. Prow, of foam. 

VEEEING, n. A certain number of ridges and furrows in 

ploughing. Not much used. Perhaps all. to furrow (Skeat). 

VENT, n. Demand, use, opportunity of disposal. " No vent 

for apples this year." Comp. old use of vent (Fr. vente), 

from vender e (Skeat). 

WAD, or GEASS-WAD, n. A small heap or cock. 
WALLUSH, adj. Insipid, cloying, nauseous. Walsh, common 
in M.E. Boiling up, as it were, in the stomach ; A.S. weallan, 
to boil (Skeat). 
WAEM, v. To beat. 
WAEMSHIP, n. Warmth. 
WASHINGS, n. Cider made from a second pressing of the 

cheese with admixture of water. 
WASTEE, n. A refuse article of imperfect fabric. 
WASTEIL, n. One who is falling away in flesh, man or beast. 
WATEE-DOG, n. Same as Sun-dog. 

WATTY-HANDED, adj. Left-handed ; a sounded as in what. 
WAVE-WIND, n. The large wild convolvulus (Sepium). 


WAY-LEAVE, n. Permission to use a way. 

WAZZEN, n. The weasand or windpipe (a sounded as in wax) ; 

A.S. wdsend (Et. Diet.) 
WED, part. Weeded. 

WEEP, v. To exude (transitive and intransitive). 
WELL-ENDED, adj. Well got in, as hay. 
WENCH, n. A girl. 
WENT,^ar. Gone. "I'd 'a' went myself if I'd a-known as 

you wasn't a-going." 
WEBBIT, n. One of an anxious, fidgetty disposition, v. To 

worry. Connected with the worrying of a wolf; A.S. wearg, 

a wolf (Et. Diet.). 

WETHEE, n. A male sheep disabled from breeding. 
WHAT-FOR, n. A vague threat of unpleasant consequences. 

" If I lights uv that young limb, I'll let J im know wot-for." 
WHEEL, n. A wicker eel-trap, almost twice the size of a 


WHIMMY, adj. Given to whims. 
WHINNOCK, v. To cry whiningly as a child ; A.S. hwinan, 

to whine (Et. Diet.). 
WHISKET, n. A gardening basket. 
WHISSUN-BOSSES, n. Gueldres-roses. 
WIG, n. An oblong bun, made with carraway seeds instead of 

WILGILL, n. An epicene creature ; an animal that is of both 

sexes (g soft). 
WINDLE-STBAW, n. Something easily blown about ; applied 

to a corn crop that is light. 

wind. " Two fut 

of a wind-scare." 
WINTEB-STUFF, n. Borecole, brussels-sprouts, savoys, and 

other greens. 

WIBES, n. The runners of strawberry plants. 
WOLLIES, or WALLIES, n. Bidges into which hay is raked 

before carrying it, or putting it into cocks. Comp. Wallige 

(Hall.), a loose bundle of anything. 

WONDEBMENT, n. Something to stare at or talk about. 
WOONT, n. A mole. A.S. wand, found in a Glossary of the 

eighth century (Skeat). 
WOBLEBS, or WUBLEBS, n. Gaiters. 
WOZZLE, or WUZZLE, v. To beat or trample down and 

twist the stems, as of grass or corn. 
WBATCH, n. Pron. of wretch; applied compassionately. 

" 'E've not 'ad a wink o' sleep all night, 'e've not, poor 

wratch." A.S. wrecca, an outcast (Et. Diet.). 
YABB, n. Pron. of herb. 
YO W, n. Pron. of ewe ; A.S. eown (Et. Diet.). 
YOX, v. To heave or cough. Comp. yex, for hiccough. 
YUD, n. Prow, of head. 


An object presenting resistance to the 
'11 be dip enow for this pwost ; 'e ain't much 


Three other words may be mentioned which, although no 
longer current, occur in the parish books of the last century. 

" Garderailes " is pronounced by a friend to be an old 
term for balustrades. " Type " he thinks may be a corruption 
of tympanum, the sounding-board of the pulpit. " Lappertage " 
represents something (the repair of which is charged for) 
between the two " Hams," or large common meadows ; but no 
satisfactory interpretation has been arrived at. 

The following phrases are current in Upton : 
" A good churchman " = a clergyman with a good voice. 
" A good man round a barrel, but no cooper " = one who is 

fond of drink. 
" An afternoon farmer " = a farmer who takes things easily, 

and is always behindhand. 

"As black as black," "as wet as wet;" and so with other 
epithets. " Can be " would complete the elliptical sen- 
" At the edge of night " = just before dark. 

" By scowl of brow " = judging by eye, and not by rule or 

" In himself (or herself, &c.) " = in his (or her) general health. 
The distinct existence of the corporeal ego and its 
subordinate members is clearly recognised. " How are 
you to-day, Mary ? " "I be better in myself, sir ; but my 
poor leg 'ave got that swelth in 'im as I couldn't get J im 
along to the top o' the town, not if you was to crown mu." 

" Like a humble-bee in a churn ; " said of one whose voice is 
not distinctly audible. 

"May Hill" = the month of May in relation to consumptive 
patients (see Fuller, Worthies, Derbyshire, i. 252, quoted 
in Davies's " Supplemental English Glossary "). " 'Er 11 
never over- get Mahy ''ill, I doubt, poor wratch." 

11 Not if you was to crown me " = not for a kingdom. 

" Shuffling jobs " = irregular work. 

The tops of the potatoes, &c., "have had the soot-bag over 
them " = have been blackened by the frost. 

To be " off his head " = to be out of his mind. 

To be " on the mending hand " = to be improving. 

To be "up in the boughs " = to be out of temper, or 

To " drop it " on a person = to " give it " him. 

To " get the grant " = to obtain permission. 

To " get the turn" = to pass the crisis. 

To " get the scog of " = to be able to crow over. 

To " give the meeting " = to meet. 

To " have a cow calve " = to be left a legacy. " His last cow 
has calved now, I expect." 

To have " dropped his watch in the bottom of the rick;" a 
jocular hypothesis to account for the cutting or turning 
of a rick which has become over-heated. 

To " have leaden socks in his boots " = to be lazy. 

To "know to a nest," &c. = to know o/a nest, &c. 


To " make a poor out of it " = to obtain small results. 

To " mend his draught " = to take another glass. 

To " miss every hair of his head " = to miss him sadly. 

To "pass the time of day" = to wish good morning, or 

evening, &c. 

To " pick up a knife " = to get a fall from a horse. 
To " play the bear with " = to damage. 
To " pick up his crumbs " = to finish up his work neatly. 
To "put his spoon into the wall" = to die. 
To " stick up his stick " = to die. 

"Up to dick," or "nick," "the door," "the knocker," or "the 
nines " = in first-rate condition ; to perfection : comp. 
Lat. ad unguem. " That nag o' your'n be up to dick, 
master 1 'E were a-prancin' and a-prompin' about, 
pretty nigh ready to snuff the moon, if you'd let 'im go." 

It is with a pang that some words and phrases have been 
omitted which belong to the Evesham neighbourhood, and 
which had been adopted into family use between thirty and 
forty years ago. 

" Backwarn " is a word of strength and point, and ought to be 
in general use, for its meaning is conveyed less tersely and 
forcibly by a periphrasis. An old parish clerk would say, 
" They've a-put off that 'ere funeral, and I must be to bacTcwarn 
the parson." * " Dwiny " seems to be " a portmanteau word," 
and to derive expressive power from its combination of 
" dwindled " and " tiny." " I don't say but what 'e might be a 
very nice gen'leman, but I niver seed sich a dwiny pair o' legs." 
A "swig-swag" garden-path appeared to wind with a stately 
sweep, which could never be described by the ordinary and 
angular sound of " zig-zag ;" and, when a lad was " measured for 
a warm suit of clothes," the harsher features of corporal punish- 
ment were humorously resolved into an expression of bene- 
volence on the one side, and comfort on the other. 

In that neighbourhood there was also a remarkable tendency, 
which is apparent to a less extent about Upton, to decline the 
responsibility of a direct assertion, and to guard against the 
possible consequences of making any admission. " Is your 
wife at home to-day, James ?" " Well, sir, I shouldn't think 
but what 'er might be." 

But these reminiscences must not be indulged, lest they 
should run on for ever, and this Appendix prove what an old 
parishioner at Offenham would have called " a wheel-string 

* "Unspeak" is used in the same sense by Pepys, Richardson, 
and others (Davies's "Supplementary English Glossary;" G-. Bell 
& Sons, 1881). 

Easther, Alfred 

2082 A glossary of the 
E3 dialect of Almondbury