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12, 13, & 14, LONG ACEE, W.C. 




THE Glossary is the outcome of a series of notes taken 
during a long course of close geographical reading extending 
over some ten years, and almost entirely restricted to works 
dealing with extra -European countries. When, however, 
the collection of terms began to assume fairly large propor- 
tions, it was thought advisable to add similar terms for the 
European languages. This is, in brief, the history of the 
Glossary the compilation of which has involved a very con- 
siderable amount of labour, apart altogether from the collec- 
tion of the raw materials. 

In a pioneer work of this kind small errors will inevitably 
creep in, however great care may be taken to exclude them ; 
errors of judgment, too, may possibly in time be brought to 
light ; the insertion of some few terms may eventually prove 
to have been superfluous, while the exclusion of some others 
may be thought to lessen the value of the whole. Time 
alone can tell. 

Though in no way responsible for the Glossary, or for 
any such errors, Dr. A. H. Keane has not only very kindly 
read the proofs, but has allowed the author to draw, without 
stint, on his vast fund of knowledge and experience, and has, 
moreover, by his criticism, both constructive and destructive, 
added largely to the value of the work ; and, as a matter 


of fact, the paragraphs in this introduction which deal with 
the law of interchange of consonants in the Indo-European 
family of languages are from his pen. 

The spelling of the terms has been made to conform, as 
far as possible, with the spirit of the system or code recom- 
mended by the Royal Geographical Society for the spelling 
of place-names. This code, though capable of considerable 
improvement, has, in its present form, been in use for some 
years, and Continental Geographical Societies have formu- 
lated similar codes on the same lines but with modifications 
to suit the language in each instance. In the case of 
languages written in Roman character the spelling of the 
terms, as recommended for place-names, undergoes no 
change; the terms remain as spelled in those languages. 
But where any language is written otherwise than in Roman 
character, or is not written at all, an approximation to the 
sounds intended to be conveyed is arrived at by the use of 
English consonants and Italian vowels. 

According to this code or convention a is pronounced as 
in father ; e and ei have the force of a in place, crater, i.e. 
they are equivalent roughly to the French e, e, e i is pro- 
nounced as in ravine, and replaces the English ee (as in 
deep) which is discarded ; o is pronounced as in the final o 
in volcano, or as in pole ; u as in true, flute ; y is always a 
consonant, never a vowel ; qu as in quarry is replaced by 
Jew, otherwise by k ; the sound of ou (as in mountain) and 
ow (as in tower) is replaced by au or ao ; the simple o is 
used for the sound ow (as in meadow) ; and thus w is a con- 
sonant except in the combination aiv ; i (as in mine) is 
replaced by ai, Ch is always pronounced as in church ; ph 


is never used to represent the sound of / ; g is always hard, 
the soft g being replaced by j, which always has the force of 
that letter in jetty ; the r is always rolled ; the sound 5 in 
measure is given by zh ; kh is a hard guttural as in loch ; 
gh another guttural something like the Northumbrian r or the 
Parisian r ; c is not used, the soft c being represented by s 
and the hard by Jc. Every letter is sounded and no super- 
fluous letters are used. Finally no diacritical marks are 
allowed except the accent (') to denote stress, and the 
ordinary short mark to suit one particular instance. These 
are the main features of the code of the Royal Geographical 
Society, which, so far as African words are concerned, has 
been rigidly adhered to in the Glossary, the final h being 
retained only in some Arabic words in the combination ah, 
when it is actually sounded. 

In transliterating terms from foreign works, the following 
modifications have been adopted : 

1. German : ch has been replaced by Jch; sch by sh, tsch 
by ch and dsch by j ; ai has been used for the German ei, 
and oi for eu. 

2. French : ou before a vowel has been replaced by w, 
and otherwise by u : thus the French Ouagadougou would be 
written Wagadugu ; ai, ay, and ey have been transformed 
into ei or the simple e, dj has been represented by j, ch by 
sh, tch by ch. The French eu has been allowed to stand, as 
the code does not provide for the sound. 

3. Italian : c before e or i has been replaced by ch, else- 
where by k ', g before e and i by j ; gli by lyi ; sch by sk ; 
sc before e and i by sh ; gu before a, e, i has been repre- 
sented by gw ; where ci, gi, sci are followed by another vowel, 


the i has been omitted ; thus the Italian Scioa would be 
represented by Shoa, and Goggiam by Gojam. 

Similar changes have been made in words derived from 
Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, and Scandinavian authors, so 
as to represent in all cases the actual sound as near as may 
be. Thus, the Span. Moqui, Chiquito, Quechua, become Moki, 
Chikito, Kechua, the Dch. Soenda becomes Sunda and so on. 

In Kafir terms, c, q, and x have been used to represent 
respectively the dental, palatal, and lateral clicks which are 
alluded to below. 

It has been thought advisable, in certain cases, to depart 
from the strict letter of the code, and to retain the customary 
diacritical marks, and in some cases the final h notably in 
words of Sanscrit, Persian, and Hindi origin, and also in 
Malay words where the terms are not actually place-names. 
When, however, the terms are used in the examples either 
as place-names or as constituent elements in place-names 
the diacritical marks have been withheld and the final h 
withdrawn in accordance with the spirit of the code. The 
reason for this departure from the conventional rules is 
threefold and may be best explained by examples. Firstly, 
the final h has been retained in some cases, as in dill, deh, 
the Pers. for ' village,' inasmuch as the h is an integral and 
important factor in the root diha from which dih, deh is 
drawn ; and, were the h omitted, the derivation would be 
obscured ; but in Charde (' The Four Villages '), since it is a 
place-name, the h is omitted and the derivation given. 
Secondly, the use of diacritical marks is necessary \o dif- 
ferentiate between terms which have different meanings, 
but, without the marks, would have precisely the same form. 


For instance mandal is the Hind, for * a port ' or ' harbour,' 
but manual in the same language means ' a district ' : 
ab-guzar is the Pers. for t a watercourse,' but ab-guzar for ' a 
ford,' and so on ; but as with the final h, so with the diacritical 
marks, when the terms become elements in place-names 
these marks have been dropped, thus hamiin the Pers. for 
' a desert,' but Hamun-i-Sistan without the mark ; batu the 
Malay for ' rock ' and Batu-tujo without the mark, but batu- 
titi, ' a mile-post,' with the mark, not being a place-name. 
Thirdly and this is a point not without importance those 
who have some acquaintance with these languages and 
their subtle niceties cannot only appreciate the exact pro- 
nunciation, but can also immediately re-transcribe the terms 
in the original characters. 

The Glossary being intended as an aid to the reading of 
maps and geographical works, many words, taken from 
standard books and maps, have been included the spelling 
of which does not accord with more recent ideas on the 
subject, the object being to assist the reader, without assum- 
ing that he already possesses sufficient knowledge to enable 
him to recognise a term disguised in what would now be 
thought an uncanny garb. Thus the forms itam and etam, 
hwang and hoang, are both given in the Glossary, and in 
some cases as many as three forms or more occur, as teluk, 
telok, tullok, but in such circumstances the misspellings 
are referred to the correct term. Where two or more 
forms are actually in use, where one term is simply a variant 
of another, in such cases of dialectic difference all the forms 
are given ; thus balad, bilad, and bled all appear, and so too 
gram, garam, and giram, kru, krum, korum, and krom, mong, 


meng, and meung, du, dhu, and dhub will all be found. 
Again, with regard to Chinese words, the spelling depends 
to a large extent on whether the language is that of the 
North, of the Mandarins, of the capital Pekingese in fact- 
or whether it is the language of the South, of the rest of 
China, or Nankingese, and the spelling will then further 
depend on whether the words found were transcribed accord- 
ing to the system adopted by Wade, or some modification of 
it, or whether they were rendered into Roman character in 
accordance with the system formulated by Von Eichthofen. 
Thus the chou of Pekingese and Wade becomes chau in 
Nankingese, according to Von Richthofen's rendering ; 
similarly the chiang of the North corresponds with the kiang 
of the South. In such circumstances, where both forms 
have been found, both have been inserted, and, in some 
instances, more than two forms are given, e.g. pe, peh, 
and pel. 

Dealing, as it does, with words selected from many 
languages and from various dialects, scattered over the 
face of the globe, the Glossary seems to need some kind of 
binding or cementing material, to join or link together, if 
not all, at least as many as possible of these languages and 
tribal or local dialects into groups, since they cannot, from 
the nature of the case, be brought into closer relationship 
and so form one homogeneous whole. In a certain limited 
measure this linking has been accomplished by means of 
references to cognate terms ; and with the same end in view 
the paragraphs which immediately follow are devoted to the 
various changes, principally consonantal changes, which 
words undergo as they pass from one of a group or family of 


languages or dialects to another ; and at the same time 
a few of the marked peculiarities of some of the languages 
are indicated. 

Peculiar to the Teutonic branch of the Aryan linguistic 
family is a general tendency to strengthen the mutes (ex- 
plosives), and this tendency, acting from remote times, has 
set up a normal permutation of consonants the law of which, 
discovered by Erasmus Kask, developed by Jacob Grimm, 
and completed by Karl Verner, is commonly known as 
Grimm's Law of Lautverschiebung ( ' sound-shifting ' ). By 
it are primarily affected the organic Aryan soft sonants, b, g, 
d, which become the hard surds, p, k, t, while the organic 
surds, p, k, t, become everywhere the hard fricatives, f, h, th. 
Here the rotation is arrested in the first instance, because 
these fricatives are incapable of further strengthening. 
These first shifts were already completed in the prehistoric 
period, as seen in the consonantal system of Gothic, the 
oldest known Teutonic language, whose written records date 
from the fourth century of the new era. 

But these first prehistoric shifts were not uniform and 
their vagaries were a cause of much trouble to philologists 
till the true explanation was discovered by Verner and 
announced in 1877 (in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xxiii. p. 97), 
as under : 

'Aryan k, t, p, first shifted everywhere to h, th, f; the 
fricatives thus generated, as well as the surd (voiceless) 
fricative s inherited from Aryan, then became themselves 
sonant (voiced) when medial and in sonant company, but 
remained unchanged immediately after accented vowels.' 

It is the clause here italicised that constitutes the essence 


of Verner's discovery, which for the first time takes into 
account the important part played by accent in this phonetic 
system. In general, mutes preceding the accent, being 
under less control, have double shifting, the voiceless stops 
passing first to voiceless fricatives, and then to voiced 
fricatives. But mutes following the accent have only 
one shift voiceless stops to voiceless fricatives, except in 
weak syllables, where the second shift takes place after as 
well as before the accent. Hence it is that in Teutonic 
organic k, t, p appear as h, th, f, or as g, d, b, according 
as they occur after or before the accent, while organic s 
(voiceless) remains unchanged or arrested after the accent, 
but becomes voiced (z) before the accent, and it is this 
voiced s that later becomes r in German, Anglo-Saxon, 
and especially Norse. Thus Scr. antara=Go^/i. anthar = 
A.S. odher (for 6ndher)=jE^. other, with simple shift only 
(t to th), because the accent precedes. But Scr. snita,T = Goth. 
undar = yl.$. and Eng. under, with double shift (t through 
th to d), because the accent follows. So Goth, hausjan for 
hauzjan = ^LS. heran=#m/. to hear, voiceless s through voiced' 
s (z) to r. 

These prehistoric shifts are carried further, but mainly in 
German and Dutch, in the historic period beginning about 
the seventh century A.D. Here the voiceless fricatives pass 
through the voiced fricatives to the voiced explosives : f 
through v to b ; hard h (ch) through soft h to g ; voiceless 
th through voiced th to d. Thus Goth, tha (voiceless th) = 
Eng. the (voiced th) = Ger. der, Dutch de. 

Here the shift is carried one step forward in Eng. ; and 
two in Ger. and Dutch, which thus complete the rotation. 


But A.S. and Eng. in many cases stand at the prehistoric 
(Goth.} level, as in thorp (voiceless fh) = Ger. dorf; Goth. 
thaurnus=:y4.$. and Eng. thorn (voiceless ih.) = Ger. dorn 
= Dutch, doom ; and always when th is followed by r or w, 
as in three = Ger. drei; thwart, thwack, &c. In Ger. k of the 
Gothic period passes through aspiration (ch for kh) to the 
aspirate (h) ; t through z (written ts) to ss for voiceless s, 
and voiceless s often to voiced s. Thus Pliny's Amisia 
(voiceless s) becomes the modern river Ems (voiced s), while 
the Catti of Tacitus pass through the forms Chatti, Hatsi, 
to the modern Hessen (Hessians). 

With these remarks the subjoined table of the more 
general permutations will become intelligible. And the 
confusion caused by our present somewhat exuberant phonetic 
terminology may be obviated by remembering that mutes, 
explosives, and stops are synonymous terms, having reference 
to those non-continuous consonants that form a complete 
vocal stop. These are the labials or lip-letters, p, b ; the 
gutturals or throat-letters, k, g ; and the dentals or teeth- 
letters, t, d. These again with the sibilant s may be either 
voiceless, surd, hard, tenues, or thin (all practically synony- 
mous terms) ; or else voiced, sonant, soft, flat, lenes, mediae, 
or smooth (also synonymous terms) ; the former being p, k, 
t, s, the latter b, g, d, z. Thus the mute, explosive, or stop 
p is a voiceless, surd, hard, or thin labial; b, a voiced, 
sonant, soft, flat, or smooth labial, and so on. Corresponding 
to these explosives are the fricatives and aspirates p'h, f, v ; 
k'h, h ; t'h, th, which in Teutonic grow out of the voiceless 
explosives p, k, t. With other categories, such as palatals 
and cerebrals, we are not here concerned. 




Organic Aryan Sonants, 
Surds and Fricative? and 

First (pre- 








Old High 
Ger. Dutch 

High Ger. 

New High 









Labials . 4 




f, b 

f (P, v) 

f, v, b 

f, V, b 


bh (h) 













k, ch, ck 

k, ch, ek 

Gutturals \ 



c, qu, g 



h, ch 

h, ch 








g, ck 



5 C 




z, tz 

z, tz, ts 

Dentals . 4 




th, d 



d, t 




f (d, b) 





Sibilants . 


ff S 


s, z, r 

ts (z) r 

sch, r 

sch, r 

The Arabs, essentially nomad herdsmen, dwelling in 
tents, have exerted a wide influence on the languages of the 
Old World. Arabic forms, with Sanscrit and Persian, a 
large constituent in Hindustani, and multitudes employ the 
Arabic script in writing their Persian, Turki, or Malay; 
while relics of the language are found in the furthermost 
parts of Western Europe, in the Iberian peninsula, e.g. 
Guadalquivir, which is the Arabic Wad el Kebir or ' the Great 
River,' and Alcazar, so frequently found in Spanish place- 
names, which is the Arabic el Kasr or ' the town,' ' small city,' 
or ' citadel.' The whole of the North of Africa has been and 
is subject to Arabic influences, many even of the Hamitic 
Berbers having become, so to speak, Semitised, while the 
Arabs have imposed their language on the whole Semitic 
group, with the exception of the Abyssinian section. The 
same Arabic influences are experienced in North Central 
Africa as far south as Foweira and Fajao on the Nile, these 


names being evidently the Arabic forms of the old Bantu 
names Paweira, and Pajao, the Arabs always substituting f 
for p, which does not exist in their language. In Eastern 
Equatorial Africa the coastal place-names, such as Bar es 
Salam, point clearly to the presence of the Arab traders, 
while the Ki-Swahili, the language of the Swahili or * coast- 
people ' (from Arab, sahel, * coast region ') which is the lingua 
franca of these equatorial regions, though Bantu at the 
base, is very strongly tinged with Arabic, e.g. gharika, ' flood,' 
' inundation,' from Arab, ghark ; husun, ' a fort,' from Arab. 
husn ; and so forth. Arabs are found everywhere in the Sudan 
Darfur, Wadai, the Chad Basin, the Hausa states, and in 
the extreme west in the coastal regions beyond Adrar and 
to the south of Marocco. 

The most important consonantal changes in Arabic as 
it is spoken in various parts of the world may be briefly 
stated as follows. In Cairo and the neighbourhood the k is 
frequently lost altogether or is rendered by an interruption 
of the voice, as in El 'Ahirah for El Kahira (' Cairo,' ' the 
victorious '). Suggested by this example, a fact with regard 
to pronunciation may here be stated, namely, that the 
Arabic final h in ah is only sounded when the h forms part 
of the root as in Allah, Timsah, Malh, whereas in the greater 
number of cases where the final h occurs it is merely the 
feminine termination and is not sounded. In Marocco the 
t is lisped into ts ; in Tunis, as well as in the Lebanon, the 
j (as in jetty) becomes zh (the French j), and in Upper Egypt 
and in Algeria the k (q) is rendered by g, thus kolea, ' a small 
castle or fort,' becomes golea as in El Golea. The d frequently 
finds a substitute in th and sometimes in dh. Thus the 


word Kadi (properly Qazi) becomes, in the Cairo dialect, 
Adi, and in Upper Egypt Gadi, while in other regions it is 
pronounced Kathi, Gathi, and Gadhi. In Egypt the g is used 
for j as in gebel for jebel, the th (as in thin) is there also 
replaced by t, while the Turks and Persians and Moslems 
of the Farther East pronounce it as s. The th. (as in thy) is 
in Egypt and Syria replaced by d, ds, and even z. 

Among the vowel sounds a becomes e in Algeria and 
Marocco, thus wadi, wad, ' valley or river bed,' of other 
regions is rendered wed, and similarly we find Tiled in the 
same regions for Ulad, ' a tribal name or district.' The 
reverse, however, happens in some instances ; for example, 
in Fez and Meknez we find that these towns are frequently 
called Faz and Meknaz. As to the accentuation of Arabic 
geographical names one general rule may be given. When 
a vowel is followed by two consonants, that vowel carries 
the accent with it, thus A'tbara, Dongola, Farafra, whereas 
in Persian and Turkish names the accent is generally on the 
last syllable, thus : Bakhtegan, Bendamir, Kerman, Tehran, not 

The great Berber race of North Africa is spread over 
a very large area, tribes of this family being found, roughly 
speaking, from the 28th meridian of east longitude west- 
wards to the ocean, and north of 15 north latitude. Con- 
sidering the vastness of this area, it is not surprising that 
Berber dialects differ considerably according to locality ; 
indeed, separated as these tribes are, and many being, more- 
over, unlike the Arabs, highland husbandmen, with settled 
permanent abodes, it is marvellous to find the close resem- 
blances which exist between the various dialects, much closer, 


for instance, than between Norse and English. An 
examination of the tribal consonantal changes in a large 
number of words has shown that a general law of inter- 
change may be traced ; and in accordance with this law the 
dialects may be grouped together in three sets, correspond- 
ing roughly with North, Midland, and South, which may be 
called the strong dialects, the intermediate, and the weak, as 
certain consonants become softened in passing from one 
group to another. To the strong class belong the dialects 
of the Northern Berbers (Kabile), the Zwawa, the Shelha or 
Shlu, as well as the dialects of Ghadames and of South 
Oran ; in the second or intermediate group are the Zenatia, 
the Mzabi, the Kelowi, the dialects spoken in the neigh- 
bourhood of Wad Ehir, and, notwithstanding their geo- 
graphical position, the Biffs ; while in the third, the weak 
or soft group, are included the Awelimmiden and the 
Zenaga, from whom the Senegal takes its name. In these 
three groups the consonants d, 1, s, g. and z become gradually 
softened as follows : 

d 1 1 s g z 

ch d j ) / , ) i f . i 

sh j y 1 -1 f 

Thus, ergez (' a man '), of the first group, becomes ariazin 
the second, and eryez in the third; and the plural irgezin 
(' men,' ' people ') develops into iriezin and iryezin, and in some 
dialects into irzezin. So too ales (' a man ') of the first group 
becomes ariaz as mentioned above. In addition to these 
characteristic relations which distinguish the groups, there 
are many other intertribal changes of consonants, to some of 
which it will be well to draw attention. The b of Zwawa 


becomes fin Ghadames, and u, w in Mzabi, Riff, &c., and g 
in yet other dialects, thus thabburth, 'a gate '=tufurt= 
twurt=thawurth=thawort=thaggurth. The Tuaregs inter- 
change z, sh, h, and j, according to tribe, the Kabile and 
Eiffs, and some other tribes prefer the soft th to t, and dh to 
d, and others frequently lisp the t into ts, but there is no 
ts in Mzabi, and, in the remaining Tuareg dialects, in Mzabi 
and in South Oran the soft th is never found. The n of the 
Eiffs becomes the m of Zwawia, and the Kabile use dh for 
zh (French j). The following table gives all the important 
consonantal interchanges, including the group shifts already 
mentioned : 















rh (gh) 






w (u) 






















Many of these changes may be traced in the following 
examples, in which the various tribal renderings of the same 
words are shown : 

A Village A House Man (sing.) Men, People (pi.) 































A Hill Month, Moon Night 

Tedrak Aggur It Iref 

Eddahereth liur Idh Ikhf 

Udherer Aiur Edhi 

Urir Ayur Ezi 

Ighil Edi 

The equivalents for ' sheep ' and ' dog ' are also good illus- 
trative examples, namely thikhsi, tirsi, tekshi, and akjun, 
arzim, akzin. 

One cannot but be struck by the extremely peculiar forms 
assumed by some - of these Berber words, more especially 
those which are the equivalents of ' a gate,' ' a house,' and ' a 
village ' ; and on the map of Africa, in the Berber area, will 
be found a very large number of place-names, which appear 
to bear, in formation, a very close resemblance to those 
mentioned above, such as Tafilelt, Tidikelt, Tuggurt, and so 
forth, and this peculiarity seems to call for some explanation. 
Now, most masculine substantives, in the Berber language, 
begin with a, e, i, or u, and the feminine is formed from the 
masculine by prefixing and postfixing th ; thus amrar, * an old 
man,' thamrarth, ' an old woman.' This final th may become 
t if preceded by n. In some dialects the initial th becomes 
h, or is entirely dropped, e.g. thit, ' an eye, source, spring/ 
becomes hit ; and in most of the Tuareg (Saharan) dialects 
the th, as has already been pointed out, is changed into t or 
even ts. Thus a very large proportion of the Berbers call 
themselves Amazirgh, i.e. ' noble,' and their language 
Tamazirght. Feminine nouns which are not formed from 
the masculine have no final th, for example thizi, 'a col.' 
There is also another source from which nouns having the 
initial and final th are derived, for diminutives are formed 



in precisely the same manner as feminines ; thus iger, ' a 
field,' thigerth, ' a little field,' igran, ' fields, ' thigrathin, 'little 
fields ' ; so also azekka, ' a tomb,' thazekkauth, ' a little tomb.' 
The final th in diminutives becomes sht in some dialects, e.g. 
amdun, ' a reservoir,' thamdusht, 'a little reservoir.' It should 
be noted that the n, as in the examples given for ' fields ' 
and ' people,' is essentially the Berber plural termination ; 
some nouns, however, especially those beginning with a, 
take an initial w for the plural, thus asif, ' a river,' wasif, 
* rivers.' We have here, then, the explanation of the 
peculiar forms assumed by so many place-names in the 
Berber country ; they are mostly feminine words, with 
some diminutives, while Temassinin, and similar place-names 
ending in n, are most of them plurals. In some cases the 
Berber terms or place-names have been derived from Arab 
sources. For instance, the tribe which the Arabs call 
Kintafah (h feminine) has been Berberised by the Shelha or 
Shlu into Takinteft, and similarly Tafilelt, Tarudant, and many 
other place-names are merely Arabic words made Berber by 
the addition of the initial and final t to make them feminine 
(possibly to agree with the Arab. Medina, ' town ') ; thus Arab. 
Filal, Berber Tafilelt, and so on. In some Berber dialects the 
Arabic t becomes th, as in Sok et Tlat-a, ' market of the third 
day,' i.e. the place where a market is held on the third day 
of the week, where many Berbers change Tlata into Thlatha. 
In the Abyssinian region the principal intertribal con- 
sonantal changes are the following : 

b g k s t 

w j g s h 1 




The most interesting of these interchanges are those in 
which w and h play a part. The former in some dialects, 
Sidamo for instance, is equivalent to the Galla and Amharic 
b, and thus it is found that Abbaba, as in Addis Abbaba, 
the present capital of Abyssinia, is by many pronounced as 
if the three bs were replaced by ws, and even in the capital 
itself it is thus rendered by some, the lips scarcely closing to 
form the b sound. The h frequently replaces both k and g } 
as in esger, 'a tribe,' which in some localities is pronounced 
askir, and in others ashir. Again, both w and h are not 
infrequently inserted or dropped, as the case may be, and 
thus Aksum is in some districts called Akwesum and Waha= 
Wha=Wa=Eha=Aka=Ak. The name of the province 
Gondar is, in different districts, rendered Guendar and Gwendar ; 
and the name of the lake Abassi is by some tribes called 
Awassi, and by others Hawassi (just as the Italian gets his 
oggi (' to-day ') from the Latin Tiodie), which becomes further 
north Hawash, the ' riotous ' river. It has already been 
pointed out how g replaces k, and it is also found to be inter- 
changeable with j ; thus both the renderings Harjesa and 
Hargeisa are found, and so too Jildessa and Gildessa, The t 
is sometimes softened into 1 ; thus Abbata, ' a lake,' becomes 
Abbala, and this 1 is still further softened (in the same way as 
the Italian gets hisfiume from the Latin flumeri) into i and y, 
and thus we find Abbaia and Abbaya ; similarly the hata, 
' water,' of the Walamo, becomes the aiya of the Shankala. 
The intertribal vowel changes may be exemplified by the 
various forms found for Begameder, ' the land or country of 
the Bega,' namely, Begamder, Bigameder, Begemeder, Bagemeder, 
Bagemder, and so also gibe, ' a palace,' is by some tribes called 


In the Somali subdivision of this area a large number 
of words will be found ending in i and sometimes also in 
a or n preceded by one of the consonants k, g, h, t, d or by 
sh ; and this peculiarity, which seems to call for some com- 
ment, arises from the fact that the vowel is the definite 
article, postfixed and connected with the word which it 
qualifies by one of the consonantal links, which are employed 
as follows : for masculine words, k is used after any con- 
sonant except g, k ; g after g, k, i ; h after vowels, except i ; 
for feminine words, t is used after consonants, except d ; 
d after vowels and after d ; when the combination Id or It 
occurs, it is changed to sh. Thus we have miyi, ' jungle,' 
miyigi, ' the jungle'; tol, 'tribe,' tolki, 'the tribe'; biyu, 
' water,' biyaha, biyahi, biyahu, ' the water ' ; so also mel, 
'place,' melsha, mesha (for melta), 'the place'; similarly we 
have rerki, ' the village ' ; burti, ' the mountain ' ; oddi, ' the 
zeriba ' or 'the kraal.' This article termination occurs in 
many place-names, e.g. Nas Godki, ' hillock of the cave,' Gadki 
Goble, 'the headland where the gob trees grow,' &c. 

When we come to the Bilad-es- Sudan, ' the land of the 
blacks,' Nigritia or Negroland, it is found that some tribes 
lack the r and replace it by 1. There is, for example, a branch 
of the A-Zande who call themselves A-Vungura, but the 
Mangbattu, who cannot sound the r, use the form Ma-Vungula. 
This l=r shift is, in fact, one of the most common throughout 
Africa. It has already been pointed out as occurring among 
the Berber tribes ; here we have it among the Sudanese, and, 
as we shall presently find, it occurs among the Bantu tribes. 
In the far east, too, the same peculiarity is noticed, the con- 
formation of the vocal organs in many peoples precluding 


the pronunciation of the r ; thus the Chinaman's struggles 
to pronounce and transcribe the Mongol khure, an ' encamp- 
ment/ result in no nearer an approximation than kulien or 

Again, just as the Arabs replace p by f, so in North-Central 
African regions, b is replaced by the same letter and Kobkob 
becomes Kufkuf, while further west, among the Fula tribes, the 
p and f are interchangeable, and the Faro River (a tributary 
of the Benue River) becomes Paro. In the Western Sudan 
t is found to replace d, in the Hausa region, as in kataruka, 
kadaruka, a bridge ; and n, 1, and d are interchangeable ; thus 
the Soninke dundu, ' a hill,' is equivalent to the Bambara and 
Malinke timdu, to the Fula tulde, the Wolof tunda and the 
Hausa tuddu. Again, 1 is sometimes replaced by t and thus 
Futa Jalon and Futa Toro are merely the Fula district Jalon, 
and the Fula district Toro. The Wolof kh becomes g in 
Serer, while the d of the former is represented sometimes by 
m in the latter ; thus degh, * a river,' becomes mag, which is 
softened to mayo, mao, in Fula. This kh is also replaced by 
t as in khol, ' a garden ' = tol = toll in Bambara. The d, r 
change may be exemplified by misidi, ' a mosque,' in Soninke, 
and musire in Bambara and Malinke ; and the h, f change 
by hore, ' a freeman,' of the former and foro of the latter 
tribes, which becomes horr in Hassania ; diude, ' a ford,' of 
the Fula is the equivalent of the Mande diube, where there 
is a d, b change ; the kh is sometimes replaced by r, or, 
perhaps, more properly the r is softened into kh and thus ; a 
market ' is sukuro in Bambara and Malinke, but sakha in 
Soninke ; the 1 of the Fon (Dahome) is the ny of the Hausa, 
alii, ' a path,' of the former becoming hanya in the latter. 


Further, d and f and also kh and f sometimes change places, 
e.g. (n)dokh, the Wolof for ' water,' is fof in Serer, and the 
Barnbara badala, ' a marsh,' is the equivalent of the Malinke 
bafala ; d, b, and z are also interchangeable, thus dugu ' place,' 
* house,' ' country ' = bugu=buiigo = zongo=zonko, where a 
g, k change may be noticed in the last pair of equivalents. 
The d, t, g change is well represented in the various 
equivalents for ' a wall,' namely din, gwin, dan-dan, tata, 
tagaye ; and as an example of the shift from h to v we have 
in Ibo (Nigeria) ibe ahun=ibe avun, ' that place,' ' there,' ibe 
meaning 'place.' The above and other Sudanese inter- 
changes may be represented synoptically thus : 

b b d d h 1 in p p r s t t 
f g 1 g v n b k f b sh g d 
zrz dd hi k f 

t kh 


In most of the Western Sudanese languages there is a 
nasal sound not unlike that of the French n, which has 
apparent!} 7 not been appreciated by the ears of many 
travellers, especially those of more recent times. Thus the 
older travellers wrote Bussang, Bussan (a town on the Niger 
River), which to-day is represented by Bussa, and many other 
examples of a similar kind might be given. This nasal of 
many tribes will be noticed in some of the examples which 
have already been given in connection with the consonantal 
changes ; for instance, in the shift from tata to dandan, from 
tuddu to tundu, and from bugu to bungu. A similar nasal is 
traceable in many other parts of the world, notably in Poly- 
nesia, where what is sometimes written Toga is pronounced 


Tonga, and Nadroga, Naduri are pronounced Nandronga, Nan- 
duri. The clipping or shortening of words is also a marked 
peculiarity of the Western Sudan, where, for example, badala, 
' a lake,' in some districts becomes badla, and in others dla, 
the ba being omitted and dala contracted to dla. The slurring 
over the consonants is another form of this process, as in 
Karelahun, or, with the nasal, Kanrelahun, in Sierra Leone, 
which is pronounced locally Kailaun by many natives. 
Similar contraction is also noticeable in the Hausa region, 
where Giddan Serkin Pawa, for example, is used for Giddan 
Serikin Pawa (' the town of the chief Pawa ') or more properly 
Gidda-n-Seriki-n-Pawa, the n being the sign of the possessive 
in Hausa, in which respect this language has a point in com- 
mon with Berber, and so also Kadaruka = Kaderku, ' a bridge.' 

In the region of the Niger Delta a very large proportion 
of the place-names will be found to begin with a vowel or 
with m or n, a peculiarity which arises from the fact that, 
in the Ibo language, the substantives are formed from verbal 
roots by prefixing either a vowel or an m or n ; thus we 
have oke, ' a boundary or limit,' from ke, ' to bind,' ibe, ' a 
place,' from bi, ' to be, to dwell ' ; ulo, ' a house, establishment,' 
from lo, ; to marry ' ; and similar formation accounts for such 
words as uzo, * a street, road,' ikpere, ' coast, bank,' nga, ' a 
place,' ohan, ' a nation,' ohia, ' a desert, wilderness,' and so 

The name Bantu, originally suggested by Dr. Bleek, is 
now by common consent applied collectively to all those 
idioms spoken by the agricultural black races found in all 
the well-watered regions from Keiskamma Eiver, in Cape 
Colony, in the south, to and beyond the equator on the 


north, and from Walfisch Bay fco Old Kalabar, from 
Angola to Mozambique and from Natal to Fernando 
Po. This large area may be said to comprise Africa south 
of the equator, except that in the extreme north-west it 
extends to 4 or 5 north latitude, and in the north-east 
equatorial lake region to about 2 N. The reason for the 
choice of this name for all these idioms is that in most 
of them some variant of the word Ba-ntu means ' people,' 
and is applied by these tribes to themselves as distinguished 
from white people. These Bantu languages are essentially 
languages of prefixes. Not only is concord established by 
means of prefixes (a point which, however, is here immaterial, 
as only words, and not phrases or sentences, are dealt with 
in the Glossary), but the actual words themselves are built 
up from stems by the employment of such prefixes. In the 
most highly developed of these Bantu languages no less than 
eighteen of these prefixes have been recognised, some of 
them generally implying a plural, others a singular meaning; 
and the same stem, by assuming different prefixes, obtains 
various meanings, though not necessarily kindred meanings ; 
thus mu-Tonga is ' a Tonga man,' ba-Tonga 'the Tonga 
people,' being the plural of urn-Tonga, and bu-Tonga is * the 
Tonga country,' and chi-Tonga ' the language of the Tonga 
people ' ; again, m-Nyamwezi is ' a Nyamwezi man,' wa-Nyam- 
wezi * the Nyamwezi people,' u-Nyamwezi ' the country of 
Nyamwezi,' ki-Nyamwezi ' the language of the wa-Nyam- 
wezi ' ; similarly mu-Ganda, ba-Ganda, bu-Ganda, and lu-Ganda 
have respectively corresponding meanings, but here what is 
properly Buganda in the Lu-Ganda language has become, 
through Swahili influence, Uganda, the u prefix in Jci-Swahili 


(' the language of the Swahili ') corresponding with the u of 
the Nyamwezi and the bu of the Tonga. 

A. single example will suffice to show how the Bantu 
words are gradually built up from a stem by means of 
prefixes. The stem izi, nzi, or ezi, as in Zambezi, Chambezi, 
conveys an idea of production or fecundity, and by most 
Bantu tribes the moon and water are considered to be the 
great fertilising powers in the world, hence mw-ezi is ' the 
moon ' ; by adding another prefix (nya), we have nya-mwezi, 
' the mountains of the moon,' and, as indicated above, by 
adding yet another prefix, wa-nyamwezi, ' the people who 
inhabit the mountains of the moon.' These elements may 
be arranged synoptically thus : 

ezi . . fecundity 

raw ezi . . . moon 

nya ( mwezi . . mountains of the moon 

wa nyamwezi . . people of the mountains of the moon 

The consonantal changes which are the main source of 
the differences between the various Bantu languages may be 
traced to the different conformation of lips and nose, to 
the tribal artificial disfigurements of teeth and the wearing 
of various ornaments in the lips and nose, &c. There being 
no less than one hundred and twenty-eight recognised Bantu 
languages or dialects, the number of interchanges of the 
consonants is, as might have been expected, correspondingly 
large. Taking Tonga, the language spoken between the 
Victoria Falls of the Zambezi and Lake Bangweulu, as a 
standard with which to compare other languages, a few of the 
more prominent features of some of the better-known of these 


Bantu languages will now be mentioned. The most marked 
characteristics of Tonga are the sibilants s and z, which are 
more common in this than in any others of the group, and 
the entire absence of the p sound, which is replaced by w. 
In Yao, which is spoken on the plateau between Nyasa and 
the coast, the z, v, and f either become mere aspirations or 
are omitted (cf. the k in Cairo Arabic). In Nyamwezi, 
after n, y completely disappears, and t, k, and d in similar 
circumstances are softened to h ; p of other languages is also 
softened to b, and v to b, while the Tonga f is replaced by g. 
In Taita, the language of the hill country between Mombasa 
and Kilima Njaro, k is softened to g, and v hardened to f. 
South-eastwards from Kenia towards Mombasa, in the Kamba 
language and also in Swahili, 1 is dropped or becomes j, and 
in the former b, z, and j are all either weakened or omitted. 
Nika, spoken inland from Mombasa, has h for t, and dz or 
ds for z. The Senna language is spoken in the regions round 
Senna and Tete and on the lower Shire, and has some 
peculiarities in common with Karanga or Kalaka, the chief 
language of the present southern Khodesia, which also 
includes the dialects of the neighbourhood of Lake Ngami 
and Zuga Eiver, as well as that of Mashonaland, sJiona 
being merely the Karanga pronunciation of Senna. The 
most noticeable of these common characteristics is the 
softening of sharp sounds, v to b, z to dz, and f to pf, while 
the latter language is distinguished from almost all the othe r 
Bantu dialects by its use of zh (French j), and sh instead of 
z and s. The insertion of a g or a b between vowels 
differentiates Ganda, the language spoken north of the Victoria 
Nyanza, from most others ; while the distinguishing 


peculiarity of the Kafir group, including the languages of 
the Amaxosa, the Amazulu, and the Matabele, is the use of 
clicks and of the combinations hi, dl, tl. In the Eotse of the 
Upper Zambezi z is changed to t, d, or y, and s to d, sh, or 
j, while in Lunda, or Eunda, which is closely connected with 
Eotse, and is the language of the Upper Kasai Eiver, zi is 
replaced by ji or chi. In Angola and the regions of the Lower 
Congo Eiver z followed by i becomes zh, and p is often repre- 
sented by b or h. The interchange of r and t characterises the 
languages of very widely separated areas, namely, the lan- 
guages of Mozambique or Kua of the Makua, including 
Masasi and Kilimane, the Chwana of Bechuanaland, and the 
Mpongwe, spoken in the regions of the Lower Ogowe Eiver. 
Chwana is also distinguished by the change from s to tlh, and 
Mpongwe by the replacement of z by 1. In Dualla of 
Kamerun 1 takes the place of the Tonga t and d that of z ; 
in Fan of the Ogowe basin 1 also replaces t, the Tonga 
f becomes k and g takes the place of v ; while in Fernandian 
z of the Tonga is changed to t. 

The stability of the vowel sounds is one of the marked 
peculiarities of the Bantu languages, the changes, where 
such exist, consisting chiefly of the reduction of two con- 
secutive vowel sounds to one. The following, however, 
deserve attention : the u of other dialects is changed in 
Chwana and Mpongwe to o, and i to e; in Fan a corresponds 
to the Tonga a or u, o to u, and e to o or a. In Tonga and 
many other dialects the e (accented) becomes i (unaccented) 
at the end of a word, thus mu-se, earth, but a-n-si, on the 
ground, a-fue, near, but a-fue-fui, very near. 


H W rfl 2 2 

H - tB S 03 

tt h 


t= - 


*~ a 

O^^Q, ^^^^'rt 

S * ja ^ -e 2 

gg -o^^-fl fi ^ 

^ rj _rt 

<i H cC^-M-^02 

^ _ 

M W ^ ^ rd > ^"ci 

: s - " s fa a a 5 

-aS- g >x 

W fi, pQ 
2 8 <! 
5 W h HS i 

0,0 c rt tc -^ -2 


fl r^ fl 



It would be impossible, even it were desirable, to illus- 
trate the whole of this great number of interchanges by 
examples bearing directly or indirectly on geography or 
topography, but many of the more important and more 
common changes will be found in the following list of 
equivalents for ' a path/ ' water,' and * grass ' in various 
Bantu languages. 

A Path 

inZila (Tonga) 
inZira (Bisa) 
nJira (Gogo) 
nGila (Sagara) 

Sila (Boondei) 
nJia (Sivakili) 
inDlhela (Zulu) 
onDyira (Herero) 
onJila (Bike) 
nGela (Mbunda) 
nDela (Botse) 

Dila (Kilimane) 
iPiro (Mozambique) 

Tsela (Ckwana) 
mPono (Mpongwe) 
nGia (Dualla) 
nTele (Fernandian) 
nJila (Kongo) 

maNzi (Tonga) 

Menzi (Bisa) 
maRenga (Gogo) 

maZi (Shambala) 
mlnzi (Nyanyembe) 
maDzi (NiJea) 

oMeva (Herero) 
ovaVa (Bike) 

Menya (Mbunda) 
me I (Rotse) 
maJi (Swakili) 

Menia (Angola) 
maZa (Lower Congo) 

Mesi (Yao) 
malji (Kilimane) 
ma Shi (Mozambique) 

Metse (CJvwana) 
aNingo (Mpongwe) 
maDiba (Dualla) 
ma Chi (Fan) 
bo Opi (Fernandian) 


bulzu (Tonga) 
maNyari (Sagara) 
mAni (Boondei) 
maNyasi (Taita) 
maSwa (Nyanyembe) 
maJani (Swahili) 
wldzi (Pokomo) 
wuKhua (Karanga) 
buSo (Ganda) 
u-tyAni (Zulu) 
o-wOnga (Bihe) 
bo Am bo (Mbunda) 

Mopo (Botse) 
ulsu (Angola) 
ma Nyashi (Mozambique) 
bo Jang (Chivana) 
biUlu (Dualla) 
bUt (Fan) 
fUta (Kongo) 

There also occur in the Glossary other examples of these 
changes, not found in the above list, but illustrating the 
interchange table on page xxx, such as mwiru, mwitu, ' a 
forest ' ; mwago, mwako, ' a mountain ' ; inchi, inti, ' a country ' ; 
makazi, makani, * a dwelling ' ; diko, liko, ' a landing-place ' ; 


mahali, pahali, * a place ' ; kilila, kirira, kidila, ' an island ' ; and 
many others. 

Among the Kafir peoples, i.e. that section or group of 
Bantu-speaking tribes which includes the Amaxosa, the 
Amazulu, and the Matabele, certain sounds, called clicks, 
are in use, which have been traced to an admixture of 
Hottentot, the roots of the words, in which these clicks 
occur, not being found in any other Bantu languages. 
These clicks, which are produced rather by drawing in than 
by expressing sound, are six in number, and may be divided 
into three sets, so far as their use in Bantu is concerned, 
each set consisting of a hard and a corresponding soft click, 
and known as the dental, palatal, and lateral clicks respec- 
tively, according to the process by which the sounds are 
formed. In Hottentot there is also a seventh click known 
as the cerebral, but this does not occur in the Kafir lan- 

It is quite impossible, even with the most complicated 
system of diacritical marks, to represent Chinese words in 
such a manner as to give the correct sounds to European 
ears, and this difficulty is aggravated by the existence in the 
Chinese language of what are called the tones, of which there 
are four in the mandarin or court language, though six, 
eight, or even twelve are found in southern dialects. We can 
only arrive at a very rough approximation, especially when 
we discard the diacritical signs ; thus the word which we 
represent by ma, when pronounced in one tone, is the 
world-wide term for ' mother,' but when another tone is 
employed it signifies ' a horse,' and in yet another tone it is 
a terrible oath ; similarly we have ku ' a pass,' ku ' old,' ku 


' a valley, canal, streamlet,' and ku ' a dam, dike.' Again in 
the south of China is the province Kwang Tung or ' Broad 
province east,' as distinguished from Kwang Si or 'Broad 
Province west,' and here Kwang means ' broad,' Tung ' east,' 
and Si ' west ' ; but in the north there is another Kwang 
Tung, and this Kwang does not mean ' broad ' nor does this 
Tung signify ' east,' the meaning of this Kwang Tung being 
' The Viceroy's Sword.' Further, we find that the word 
which we represent by li means ' inner,' ' hamlet,' and a 
standard measure of length (about two-thirds of a mile) 
according to the tone employed. To Chinese ears these 
sounds are as different as ' hall,' ' house,' and * hut ' to ours, 
but the ordinary European ear does not discriminate between 
them, so that there is no course left open to us but to repre- 
sent the different forms by precisely the same spelling. 

Allusion has already been made to the Chinese of the 
mandarins as spelled by Wade, and the language of the rest 
of the Chinese as spelled according to the system formulated 
by Von Eichthofen. A few of the more common differences 
will now be mentioned, as words are variously pronounced 
in different parts of the country or variously represented by 
some of the principal authors who have devoted their atten- 
tion to China. The ch of the mandarin pronunciation, when 
followed by i, is generally replaced by k, as in chiang, kiang, 
'a river,' chiao, kiao, 'a bridge,' though sometimes we find 
h, s, or ts instead of k, thus ching, hing, sing, ' a well ' or 
' the capital of a state,' and Ta tsien lu instead of Ta chien 
lu, which has also been rendered Tathsianlu. When the 
ch is followed by any other vowel, it generally remains 



unchanged, except in some instances where it is replaced by 
t, as in cheng, teng, ( a town,' ' a village,' and this t is 
variously represented by ts, th, thus tun=tsun=tsen=thun= 
tien=a village. The hs, which is a sound approximating to 
the Spanish c as in Ceuta, or to the ti in the termination -tion 
of Parisian French, is variously represented by h, ts, sh, and 
s (especially when followed by i), e.g. hsien, hien, a 'district 
city,' Hsining or Sining, a town to the east of Koko-nor, 
hsia, hia, 'lower,' An-hsun or An-shun in the south-west 
of Kwei-chau, Hsun-chau or Tsun-chau on the Si-kiang. The 
letters j and n are sometimes interchanged, as in Ju-chen or 
Nu-chen, the language of the Chin or Gold Dynasty ; and Jipen 
for Nipen, whence Marco Polo's Zipangu (Japan). 1 Another 
marked peculiarity in the writing of Chinese place-names is 
the insertion or rejection of ng by various authorities, e.g. 
Chian=Ki-ngan in Kiang-si, and Ngan-lo = An-lo in Hupe. 
The representation of such word-elements as the first in 
Su-mao and Se-chuan appears to point to a considerable 
divergence of authoritative opinion. In the first case the 
authorities give Su-mao, Ssu-mao, Semao, and in the second 
no less than eight forms will be found in works and on maps, 
all of which carry considerable weight, viz. Se, Si, Su, Ss, 
Sse, Ssu, Sz, Sze. 

The principal differences in vowel sounds occur in con- 
nection with the ou of Wade, which is represented by au 

1 This curious substitution of j for n took place during the Yen or Mongol 
Dynasty (1260-1366 A.D.) when the mandarin or court language was greatly 
influenced by the Mongol phonetic system. The change did not spread to 
Japan, which consequently still retains the n, as in Nip-pon from the original 
Chinese Nit-pon = the ' Eising Sun,' the Orient. 


in some cases, and by u in others ; thus Von Bichthofen and 
others write chau for Wade's chou, as in Kiao-chou, Kiao-chau ; 
and kou, ' a pass,' becomes ku. A minor difference is the 
substitution of e for Wade's a in such word-elements as 
yuan, yuen, tsuan, tsuen, hsuan, hsuen. 

In the various Polynesian languages certain consonantal 
interchanges, which are widespread, may here, in conclusion, 
be mentioned. The b, f, h, p, and v are frequently found 
replacing one another, thus bau=vau, a stone/ and banua 
= fenua=hanua=panua=vanua, 'a village.' The r is some- 
times replaced by n and vice versa, thus ruma=numa, 
' house ' ; and d, 1, and r appear frequently to replace one 
another, thus legi=regi, ' grass,' and dubu=lubu=ruvu, 
' the deep sea.' The aspirate sometimes gives place to t and 
sometimes to w, thus hano=tano = wano, ' earth.' On the 
other hand, the aspirate has ousted s everywhere in Poly- 
nesia except in the Samoan and Ellis groups. Thus the 
Samoan island of Savaii (for Savaiki) takes the form of 
Hawaii in the Sandwich Archipelago ; Havaii in Tahiti ; 
Havaiki in the Marquesas ; and in the Maori traditions 
Hawaiki was the land whence came the first inhabitants of 
New Zealand. Lastly the interchange of k and t ranges 
over the Pacific Ocean, and explains such forms as kanaka 
= 'men,' 'natives' (in Hawaii), and tagata (in Samoa, 
where, however, the t is now reverting to k). Subjoined is 
a table of the chief sound-shiftings in Polynesia : 















V V 

w, f 










N. Zea- 



























r, ' 










P P 

V V 






The Glossary is arranged so that after the Geographical 
or Topographical term follows the language or dialect to 
which it belongs, or the locality where it is used, or the 
name of the tribe in whose vocabulary it is found to be 
included ; and, in some cases, both the tribe or dialect and 
the locality are stated when this has been thought advisable. 
When any term is found in two or more languages, both are 
given. This portion of the information is printed in italics 
and enclosed within brackets. Then follows the meaning of 
the term. If there be an abbreviation for any term officially 
recognised in connection with any of the Great Topo- 
graphical Surveys, this will be found, within brackets, 
immediately after the meaning ; and several terms, which 
would not otherwise have found a place in the Glossary 
have been inserted for the express purpose of indicating .that 
such abbreviations are recognised for these terms ; for 
example, Regione, which is dignified by an abbreviation by 
the Italians (whereas the corresponding equivalents in the 
other Latin languages are not similarly honoured), Abbaye, 
Riviere, &c. Then follow, in many cases, examples and 



references to cognate terms, or to words of similar meaning 
or the reverse. The Bantu terms, where possible, have been 
referred to their stems or roots, the prefixes being outset in 
the margin. 

Most of the italicised portions of the entries need no 
explanation, but the following list, showing the geo- 
graphical situation of some of the less-known tribes, dialects, 
or localities, may be of use : 

Language, Tribe, or District 

Abbadi . 
Agni . 

Attie . 

A-Zande (' Niam-Niam ') . 

Bafo . 
Bagirmi . 

Bali . 
Bailing . 
Bambara . 
Bangala . 







Koughly corresponding geographical situation 

Upper Egypt, east of Nile 

Ivory Coast, between the rivers Bandama 

and Komoe 

Ivory Coast, west of Komoe K. 
Between the Ubangi R., the upper Bahr el 

Ghazal and the upper Shari R. 
Kamerun, on upper Mungo R. 
On Shari R., south of Lake Chad 
North Kamerun, south of Anglo-German 


Kamerun, on upper Mungo R. 
Western Sudan, upper Niger basin 
(a) Angola, on Ambaka R. and neighbouring 

Congo region 
(6) The district round Nouvelle Anvers, 

Middle Congo 

Kamerun, west of the upper Mungo R. 
North of the great Congo bend 
Western Sudan, the hinterland of the Gold 

Coast and Togo 
Benue R. region, Adamawa 
Central district of the French Ivory Coast 


Eastern Sudan, Darfur 
Angola, on upper Kwanza R. 
On the mainland of Eastern Africa opposite 

Pemba Island 
South and west of L. Chad 



Language, Tribe, or District 
Chamba . 
Chinbok . 
Chinbon . 
Chong Chia-tse 

Chwana . . . 
Danaldl . 
Etbai . 


Fanti . 
Fon . ... 
Fula . . .;. 
Galla . 

Giryama . 


Gonja (Gonya) 

Gurma . . . 

Harem . . . 


Kabile . 


Kanuri . . 
Karanga . 

Ketosh . 
Khas Chos 
Kirghiz . 

Kossova . 
Kotoko . 
Kwenaiu . 

Roughly corresponding geographical situation 
Western Sudan 
North Arakan, Chin Hills 

South China, Yunnan 
Shan States 

South-western Ked Sea littoral 
Upper Egypt, east of Nile 
French Congo, on upper Ogowe E. 
Gold Coast 

West and Central Sudan 
The region between Abyssinia, Lake Rudolf, 

and the Tana E. 
East Africa, near Mombasa 
In Ugogo, central German East Africa 
Northern Gold Coast, on White Volta E. 
French Sudan, north of the Dahome and 

Togo protectorates 
Laos, Siam 
South China, Yunnan 
West central Sudan, between the Niger and 


South China, Yunnan 
North Algeria and North Marocco 
British East Africa, from Mount Kenia to 

Kilima Njaro 
North-east of L. Chad 
Bornu, west and south-west of L. Chad 
Matabeleland, Mashonalaiid, and regions of 

L. Ngami and the middle Zambezi E. 
Eastern Uganda 
Laos, Siam 

Eastern Uganda, south of Mt. Kenia 
North and west of the Caspian Sea, West 

Siberia, and Pamir uplands 
Eastern Uganda 
Southern Bornu (q.v.) 
North Arakan 



Language, Tribe, or District 

Lomwe . 
Magunza . 
Makua . 
Malinke . 
Mandara . 
Maude . . . . 

Man Sung 
Masai . 
Miao-tse . 
Min-kia . . 
Mittu . 
Mobali . 

Nandi . . 
Nhan . 
Nika . 
Nongo . 
Nung . 



Roshnan . 

Rua . 

Sagara . 

Serer . 
Shignan . 

Shilluk . 

Roughly corresponding geographical situation 

Lake Shirwa and Mozambique 

Eastern Uganda, Nzoia River basin 

North of the great Congo bend 

German and Portuguese East Africa 


Southern Bornu (q.v.) 

Western Sudan, upper Niger and region to 

the south 
Upper Welle R. 

Lao-kai, northern Tonking and Yunnan 
Eastern equatorial Africa 
Group of islands off S.W. Sumatra coast 
Kwei-chau, South China 
South China, Yunnan 
Upper Nile 

North of the great Congo bend 

French Sudan, within the Niger bend 
French Congo, on Lower Ogowe and 

Gabun Rs. 

Eastern Uganda, south of Mt. Elgon 
Northern Tonking, Yunnan 
Eastern equatorial Africa, near Mombasa 
Shan States, Laos 
Lao-kai, Yunnan 
Shan States 
South China, Yunnan 
Upper Amu Daria (Oxus), south of the Mur- 

gab, Pamir region 
On the middle Lualaba (Congo) 
In Usagara, east-central German East Africa 
Districts of Senna, Sofala, Tete, Zumbo, 

Nyasa, and on the Rufiji and Shire Rs. 
Senegal coast, and about Cape Verde 
Between the Blue Nile and Sobat Rs. 
Upper Amu-Daria (Oxus), north of Wakhan 

R., Pamir region 
Upper Nile and Sobat R. 
Horn of Africa 



Language, Tribe, or District 

Songhai . 

Soninke . 
Taita . 
Tamul . 
Tangut . 
Taungtha . * . 
Thai . 


Tonga . 

Usagara . . . . 

Welaung . 

Wolof . 

Yambo . 


Yayo . 
Yindu Chin 
Yoruba . 

Rouglily corresponding geographical situation 

Western Sudan, Middle Niger from Tim- 
buktu to Say 

On Senegal E. 

Between Kilima Njaro and the Ndara Hills 

Deccan, Coromandel Coast and North Ceylon 

Eegion about Koko-nor 

North Arakan 

Shan States, Laos 

Lao-kai, Yunnan 

Between the Victoria Falls (Zambezi) and 
L. Bangweulu 


North Arakan 

Senegal coast between Senegal E. and Serer 

Upper Sobat E. 

On the tableland between Nyasa and the 

South China, Yunnan 

Chin Hills 

Between Dahome and the Lower Niger 

Deria-i-Zir, Central Kurdistan 





A (Africa, Welle-Makua region, North of the Equa- 
tor), a plural personal prefix, people, found in many 
dialects in this region, e.g. A-Zande, A-Barmbo, 
A-Bangba, A-Madi, i.e. l the Zande people,' ' the 
Barmbo people,' &c. ; equivalent to the Bantu 
(South of the Equator) Wa, Ba, Ama, Ova (q.v.) 
Cf. the postfixed -bu, -bi, -be (q.v.) 

A (Africa, Bantu, South of the Equator), a plural 
personal prefix, people, e.g. A-Kikuyu, ' the people 
of Kikuyu,' the sing, of which is Mukikuyu, ' a 
Kikuyu man ' ; A-Kamba, ' the Kamba people ' of 
the country Ukamba ; Mkamba, ' a Kamba ' ; A- 
Nyika, ' the Nyika people ' or 'people of the desert ' ; 
Munyika, ' a man of the desert.' The more usual 
forms of the Bantu plural personal prefix are Wa, 
Ba, Ama, Ova (q.v.), as in Wanyamwezi, Basuto, 
Amazulu, Ovampo, Ovaherero. 




A (Sw.) } A. rivulet, e.g. Tornea, Groote Aa, Asaa. 

Aa (Da., Dch.)} Cf. E, Ach, Av. 

Aachen (Ger.), same word as Aix (q.v.}, and Aixe ; hence 

Aachen = Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Aacho (Shimasha, Abyssinia), water. 
Aadad, pi. of Id or Ed (Egyptian Sudan), wells, espe- 

cially in a desert. 

Aan (Dch.), at, on, near, e.g. Egmond aan Zee. 
Aapu (Kabadi, New Guinea), a mountain. 
Aas, As (Nor., Da.), the ridge of a hill. Cf. As. 
Ab, Abu (Arab.), father; as a geographical term signi- 
fies producing, abounding in, large, and is of very 
frequent occurrence. Cf. Abbas. 
Ab (Hottentot). See Ep. 
Ab (Jaalin, Nubia), a patronymic termination, e.g. 

Kaliab, Sadab. 
Ab (Pers., E. Turk.), water, river; e.g. Punjab, 'the 

land of the five rivers ' ; panj = five. Cf. Doab. 
Abad, Abadan (Pers.), cultivated (lands), populous, in- 
habited ; in India this is used as signifying ' abode,' 
' city,' e.g. Allahabad. See Allah. 

Abaiaj (Abyssinia), a large mass of water ; a lake. See 
Abalaj also Abba, &c. 

Ab-amber (Pers.), a cistern; lit. a 'store of water/ 

See Ab (Pers.) Cf. Ambar. 

Aban, pi. Meban (Fan, French Congo). See Ban. 
Aban (Gold Coast), a house built of stone, a palace. 
Aban-kese (Gold Coast), a fort, castle. 
Abankor (Sahara), wells in the bed of a river, filled by fil- 
tration ; or wells in depressions filled by rain-water. 


Abarraka (Tuareg, Berber), a road. 

Abata (Yoruba), a marsh in a plain, a pool. 

Abata (Yoruba), a park. 

-Abatu (Congo], a suffix signifying ' direct ' (of roads or 

Abba \ 


I variants of Abaia (above). 


Abbas (Pers.), father, e.g. Abbasabad, 'paternal town or 

abode.' Cf. Ab. See Abad, 
Abbaye (Fr.), abbey (Abb e ). 
Abbazia (It.), abbey (Abb a ). 
Abdachung (Ger.), slope, declivity. Cf. Abhang. 
Abe (laibo, New Guinea), a path. 
Aben, pi. Meben (Fan, French Congo). See Ben. 
Abeng (Tuareg, Berber), a temporary lake, a pond. 
Aber (Wales and Scotland), the confluence of two 

rivers, or of a river and the sea, at the mouth of a 

river, e.g. Abergavenny, Abergeldie, Aberdeen. See 


Abetu (Yoruba), a brook, rivulet. 
Abge (Bornu), a lake of natron. See Sirge. 
Ab-guzar (Pers.), a watercourse, conduit ; channel. 
Ab-guzar (Pers.), ford, ferry. 
Abhang (Ger.), slope, declivity. Cf. Abdachung. 
Abiad (Arab., N. Africa), the proper form of Abiodh, 

white, e.g. Bahr-el-abiad, 'the white river,' i.e. the 

White Nile. 
Abiar. See Borj. 

B 2 


Abiodh (Arab., N. Africa), white ; fern. Beida. See Abiad, 

Abish-khur (Pers.), a reservoir. See Ab-khana. 

Ab-jo (Pers.), a rivulet. See Ab. 

Ab-khana (Pers.), a reservoir. See Abish-khur. 

Aboe (Gold Coast), a confluence of two streams. 

Aboli, pi. Meboli (Fan, French Congo). See Boli. 

Abom (Gold Coast), stony ground. 

Abomma (Gold Coast), tributary, affluent, branch of a 


Abon, pi. Mebon (Fan, French Congo) . See Bon. 
Abonse (Gold Coast), the bottom of a valley. 
Abosam (Gold Coast), cliff, crag. 
Abra (Port.), bay, creek, roadstead. 
Abrah (Pers.), conduit, canal, watercourse. 
Abrevadero (Sp.), a watering-place for cattle (Abro). 
Abrid (Kabile), a road. 
Abriz (E. Turk.), basin, ditch, depression in which water 

collects and remains. 
Absal (Pers.), vineyard, garden. 
Abshar (Pers.), waterfall, cascade, cataract. 
Abu (Arab.) See Ab. 
Abuano (Kerepunu, New Guinea), east. See next entry 

and Avurigo. 
Aburigo (Kerepunu, New Guinea), south. See above 


Abusua-ku (Gold Coast), family, tribe, clan. 
Abyad (Arab.) See Abiad. 
Abyar, pi. of Bir (Arab., N. Africa), wells. 
Ac (Celtic), a suffix, sometimes patronymic, sometimes 

possessive, e.g. Langeac. 


Acequia (Sp.), a canal. 

Ach, Ache (Alps), a river, e.g. Salzach. 

Ach (Gaelic). See Och. 

Achan (E. Turk.), a place where a gorge opens out into 

a plain. 

Achik (E. Turk.), salt, bitter, e.g. Achik Bulak, 'bitter- 
spring ' ; open, e.g. Achik-yilga, ' open valley.' 
Acquitrino (It.), percolating water, ooze, swamp, bog. 
Acre (Anglo-Saxon -fficer), a field, e.g. Long Acre. 
Ad (Indian, U.S.A.), deer, e.g. Adosia, ' fair-deerland.' 
Ad, Ado (Somali), white, e.g. Biyo Ado, 'white water,' 

Burad, ' white hill.' See Biyo, Bur. 
Ada, Ata (Turk.), an island. 
Adad (Somali), trees, e.g. Adadle, ' the place where trees 

grow.' See -Le. 
Ada-do (Yoruba), an island. 
Adar (Temashight, Berber), a mountain, mountain 

spur, lit. a leg. 
Adar-n-Eghirreu (Sahara), an arm (lit. a leg) of a river, 

a creek, used to include both the Arab, terms Rejl 

or Kra and Bot-ho (q.v.) See also Eghirreu. 
Adar-udar (Hind.), a ditch, or mound of earth thrown 

up from it to form a boundary. 
Addi (Eritrea), green; e.g. Dilemmi Island, properly 

Addi-lem, ' green spot.' 

Addis (Abyssinia), new, e.g. Addis Abbaba, Addis Harar. 
Adeb (Arab., N. Africa), a gently sloping hill. 
Adek (Chinbon), small, applied to a hamlet, as a small 

Adel (Ger), noble, e.g. Adelsheim, ' noble's home.' 


Adi (N. Chin hills), small, as of a stream, a small 


Adi (Basari). See Gudi. 
Adler (Ger.), eagle, e.g. Adlerberg. 
Ado (Danakil and Somaliland), white See Ad. 
Adosase (Gold Coast), arable land. 
Adrar (Sahara), a mountain. 
Aduana (Sp.), a custom house. 
moAdya (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a house. 

Af (Somali), an opening, ravine, valley, lit. a mouth, 

e.g. Afmadu, see Mado. 
Afae (Gold Coast), a pass, defile. 
Afam (Gold Coast), district, region. 
Afan, pi. Mefan (Fan, French Congo). See Fan. 
Afanin (Arab.), paths, ways. 
Afelle (Tuareg, Berber), desert, lit. north, i.e. the 

Sahara. Cf. Agus. 
AS (Gaelic), water. 
Affluent (Fr.), tributary stream. 
Afri (Kabile), a grotto. 

Ag (Indian, U.S.A.), water's edge, brink, bank, shore. 
Aga (Galla), rock. 
Agach (Turkestan), wood, tree. 
Agadir (Berber), escarpment, rampart, fortification ; pi. 


Agahar (Berber), a river. Cf. Akarka. 
Agbaiye (Yoruba), the world. 
Agba-ra (Yoruba), a wooden fortification. 
Agh (Ireland), a field, from Irish achadh, e.g. Ardagh, 

* the field on the height.' See Ard. 


Aghelad (W. Sahara), a defile. 

Aghil (E. Turk.), an enclosure for flocks. 

Aghma (Arab.), a desert. Cf. Ama. 

Aghz (Turk.), an entrance. 

Agi (Kerepunu, New Guinea), wind. 

Agib (Marocco), farm, as Agib Sherif, 'royal farm.' 

Agios,a,on (Greek), holy, sacred, saint. See Hagios. 

Agmana (Hindi), the east. For other points see Uttar. 

Agolmin (Berber), pool, pond. 

Agos (Tagala, Philippine Archipelago), current of a 

river ; a watercourse. 
Agrar (Deccan), a village or quarter of a town occupied 

by Brahmins. 

Agrish (Kabile), stone, rock. 
Agua (Port., Sp.), water, e.g. Aguas Calientes, 'warm 

Aguala (Spanish S. America), watering-station, a place 

where the water is drinkable, water-lock. 
Agula (Yambo, Upper Sobat B.), marsh land. 
Agus (Tuareg, Berber), south wind, south, the Northern 

Tuareg name for the Sahara. Cf. Afelle, Ego. 
Agy (Hung.), top, summit, peak. 
Aha (Indian, U.S.A.), water. Cf. Ha. 
Ahaban (Gold Coast), bush, wood, forest.- 
Ahandu (Lu-Wanga of Awa-Eimi group, Uganda). See 


Ahathluo (Indian, U.S.A.), sea. 
Ahawag (Sahara), a plain. 
Ahawin (Gold Coast), grass. 
Ahe (Gold Coast), place, locality, situation. 


Ahea (Fanti), sand. 

Ahel, Ahl (Arab.), people, e.g. Ahel es-Sahel, ' coast- 
people.' Cf. Ba, -Bu, Wa, Kel, A. See El, Sahel. 


. Y (Gold Coast), a kingdom. 

Ahidaina (Maiva, New Guinea), south. For other 

points see Tototaina. 
Ahlen (Chinbok, E. of Mon E.), red. 
Ahmar (Arab.), red, e.g. Tel el Ahmar, 'red hill'; fern. 

Hamara. See Hamar. 

Ah na ku il (Indian, U.S.A.), town, village. 
Ahoro (Yoruba), ruins. 
Ahtatalki voarat (Fin.), a mountain. 
Ahwan (N. Arakan), a village. 
AT (China), a col, saddle between hills. 
Aiara (Maiva, New Guinea), a village. 
kiAiek (Uganda), a ferry. 

Aigak (Aleut), great, big; e.g. Aigagin, volcano. 
Aiguille (Fr.), a spire, steeple, peak (Aig 1? ), e.g. Aiguille 


Aikh, Aik (Arab.), a hard bank. 
Aikak (Indian, Alaska), a passage between islands, 

between an island and the mainland, or into a river. 
Aimak (E. Turk.), a division of a tribe; means also 

(in Mongolia) an administrative district, and (in 

Afghanistan) a group of Turki or Mongol tribes, 

e.g. Char Aimak, the 'Four Tribes,' about the 

Herat district west of the Hazara. 
Ain, En (Arab.), a fountain, spring, source, e.g. Am 

Sefra. Engedi. 
Ainet (Nandi and Eldorobo, Uganda), a river. 


Aird (Gaelic Airde), high, height, e.g. Airdrie. See Hie. 

Cf. Ard. 
Airilich, Airilghan (E. Turk.), a place where a stream 

divides into several branches. 
Ai'ssu (Danakil and Somaliland), grass. 
Ai't (Berber), a tribal prefix corresponding to Ben, Mac, 

&c., e.g. Ai't-Ijer ; Ai't-Sedrat. See Aiyal. 
Ait (Kabile), a resident, inhabitant. 
Aix, Aixe (from Lat. aquas, of aqua, most French 
nouns derived from Latin being formed from the 
accusative case), waters, e.g. Aix-les-Bains, also Aix- 
la-Chapelle, Aixheim, Aixe-sur-Vienne. Cf. Ger. 
Aachen, really the same word. 
Aiya (Shankali, Abyssinia), water. 
Aiyal (Arab.}, a tribal prefix. Cf. Ai't. 
Aiyari (Hausa], caravan. 
Ai yaw (Yindu Chin, W. of Won R.), small. 
Ajelmam (N. Sahara), a lake. 
Aju (Maju) (German E. Africa), house, e.g. Nyakaju, 

' a village in Nyaka.' See Ju. 

Ak (Korea), peak, mountain, e.g. An-ak, Chai-ak, Pi-ak. 
Ak (Turk.), white, e.g. Ak Su=< White Water '=river 


chAka (Giryama), the dry season. 
dzAka (Nika), a forest. 

Aka (Japan), red, e.g. Akasaki, 'red cape.' See Saki. 
Akaba (Arab.), a col or saddle between two hills ; a 
hill or steep way ; any uninhabited place, wilder- 

Akakio (Uganda, dialect of Bantu). See Kio. 
Akalin (Arab.), countries, zones. 


Akame (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Me. 
mwAkani (Giryama), south. See Mutswerero. 

Akanika, pi. of Tunika (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). 

See Nika, 

Akar (Sansc.), mine, quarry, spring, source. 
Akarka (Basque), a river. Cf. Agahar. 
Akau (Hawaii), north. For other points see Kukulu 

Hema, Hikina, Komohana. 

Akaya (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kaya. 
Akba (Arab., N. Africa), ascent, height, elevation. 
Akbasha (Abbadi, Etbai), slate-coloured, applied to the 

rocks of the neighbourhood. 
Ake (Hu-Ni, China), water. 
Ake-ja-onna (Yoruba), a cross street, lane. 
Akena (Kabadi, New Guinea), river. 
Akere, Aki (Alfur), water. Cf. Wai. 
Akhal (Somali), house. 
Akhal (Arab., N. Africa), black, e.g. Akhalkalaki; fern. 

Akhdar (Arab., N. Africa), green, covered with verdure ; 

fern. Khadara. 
Aki. See Akere. 
Aki (Japan), autumn. 

Akim a (Pimo Indian, U.S.A. ; Mexico), a river. 
Akin (E. Turk.), the pouring forth or gushing out of 


Akipi (Elgumi, Uganda), water. 
Akja (Turk.), white. Cf. Ak. 
Ak-klut (Eskimo), provisions, ammunition ; e.g. Aklut 

'the village where provisions may be obtained.' 


Akla (Indian U.S.A.), deep water. 

mwAko (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a mountain. Cf. 

Ako-ban (Gold Coast), a defensive wall, fence, rampart. 

Akogha, pi. Bekogha (Fan, French Congo). See Kogha, 

Akropolis (Greek), citadel, fortress. 

Akroterion (Greek), cape, promontory. 

A ku (Indian, U.S.A.), a plain. 

Aku (Maiva, New Guinea), sea. 

A kum na (Indian, U.S.A.), bog, marsh. 

Akupaka (Maiva, New Guinea), the deep sea. 

Akwampo (Gold Coast), a desolate, bad, impassable 

Akwo (Yambo, Upper Sobat R.), sand. 

Akyn (E. Turk.) See Akin. 

Al (Arab.), family, race. 

Al, Alb, Alp (Aryan languages), high, hill, e.g. Shiffnal, 
Albania, Alps (cognate with Latin albus, white). 

Al (Wolof),& forest. 
dzAl (Fan, French Congo), a village. Foic pi. see Dzal. 

Ala (Madagascar), forest wood, thus anala=the place 
where the forest is, e.g. Analasora, ' at the wood 
where the hedgehogs are found.' See An. 

Ala (Arab.) upper. Cf. Fokani. 

Ala (Turk.), variegated, e.g. Alatau, ' variegated moun- 
tain,' because of the stripes and patches of dark rock 
alternating with snow. 

Ala (Yoruba), a boundary. 

>u \(Loango, Bantu), a village. Yorpl. see Buala. 


111 Ala (Bantu), a cliff. 
Alachuk (Persia), the bee-hive movable dwellings of the 

Yomut Turkomans, with a wooden framework, 

usually about 16 feet in diameter, and covered with 


Alafo (Yoruba), valley, ravine. 
Alambrado (Spanish S. America), wire fencing fastened 

to posts. Cf. Alambre, copper wire. 
Alamu (Nika), wide, broad (river). 
Alaya (Sansc.), abode, e.g. Himalaya=the abode of 

snow. See Him. 
Alb, See Al. 
Albardon (Spanish S. America), rising ground on the 

coast or amongst lagoons. 
Aid (Gaelic Allt), a stream, e.g. Aldcambus, ' the stream 

of the bay.' See Cambus. 

Aldea (Port., Sp.), a village, hamlet, used also in Anglo- 
Indian for a villa. 
Ale (Sara, Chad L.), a mountain. 
Aleb (Arab., N. Africa), a shelving hill. 
Aleg (W. Sahara), a lake. 
Alen (N. Chin hills, Taungtha), large, great. 
Alfa (Arab., N. Africa), a name common to several 

species of grass; sometimes Haifa, e.g. Wadi Haifa, 

' the valley with the esparto grass.' 
Alfandega (Port.), custom house. 
Algus (Hausa), green, as of a forest in leaf. Cf. 


All, pi. Meli (Fan, French Congo). See Li. 
Alifa (Bagirmi), chief, e.g. Alifa Ba = chief of the river. 


Alin (China), a mountain, range. 

Alizes, Vents- (Fr.), trade winds. 

Alkube (SongJiai), a fortified place. 

Allah (Arab.), God, e.g. Allahabad, 'the town of God.' 

See Abad. 

Alle (Wolof), a desert, a forest. 
Allt (Gaelic), a stream or brook, e.g. Allt Anavig, near 

the Kyle of Lochalsh. Gf. Aid. 

ch Alo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country, district. 
umwAlo (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a field or plantation. 
-Alonga. See Nini. 
Alor (Malay), a drain, dike, e.g. Alor Sama, Alor Pongsu 

in Bagan Serai. 
Alp, See Al. 
Alqueria (Sp.), grange, farmhouse ; generally a farm 

with a house at a distance from neighbours. 
Also (Hung.), under, lower, e.g. Also Alpar. 
Alt (Ger.), old, e.g. Altenburg. 

Alt, Allt (Welsh), a steep place, e.g. Altcar, Alltmawr. 
Alta (Indian, U.S.A.), swift, running water. 
Alta,o (It., Sp., Port.), high, e.g. Tierra Alta (Sp.), 

' high land.' See entries under Alto-. 
Altin (E. Turk.), lower, e.g. Altin Tagh. See Astin. 
Altopiano (It.), an elevated tableland. 
Altozano (Sp.), a height or little hill. 
Altun, Altyn (E. Turk.), gold, e.g. Altyn Kiopru. 
chiAlu (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country, district. 
Alugh, pi. Melugh (Fan, French Congo), the portion of 

a river between two dams, which is emptied in 

order to catch the fish. See Lugh. 


Aluj (Marocco), converts, e.g. Ulad el Aluj, 'the sons 

of the converts,' as the inhabitants of Agurai are 

called, being of Spanish gipsy origin. 
Alun-ahm (Java), a grassy public square surrounded by 

trees, which is found in the centre of all towns in 


Alvenaria (Port.), rough, unhewn stone (building). 
Alyen (Chinbon), large, e.g. Mlet Alyen, 'the big stream.' 
Alzata (It.), an embankment. 
Am (Madagascar). See An. 
Am (Welsh), by, near, e.g. Amlwch, Henllan-am-Goed, 

' the old church by the wood.' See Hen, Llan, Coed. 
Ama (Arab.), a desert. Cf. Aghma. 
Ama- (Bantu), plur. prefix signifying 'people,' e.g. 

Amazuhi. This is really the article a, followed by 

the prefix ma. See A. 

Amagamba, Igamba (dialects of Bantu). See Gamba. 
Amaji (dialect of Bantu). See Mansi. 
Amak (Aleut), blood, a name given to islands where 

walruses are found and killed. 
Amala (Arab., N. Africa), a province. 
Aman (N. Chin hills), black, e.g. Aman Var, ' black 


Aman (Marocco), water. 
Amantifi (Gold Coast), the upper part of the country ; 

the high country. 

Amanzi (Zulu, Kafir), water. See Nzi. 
Amapiri (dialect of Bantu). See Piri. 
Amara, Amr (India), immortal, e.g. Amarapura, * town 

of the immortals,' Amritsar, 'lake of immortality.' 


-Amatadi (Congo), suffix meaning rocky. See Tadi. 
Amazagh, Amashagh, Amezdhagh, Emizdegh (dialects of 

Eerier], a village. Cf. Ntamazirt. 
Amazi (dialect of Bantu). See Mansi. 
Amb (New Guinea), a house. 
Amba (Abyssinia), an elevated mountain plateau. 
imiAmba, mwAmba (Swahili), rock. 
kiAmba (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu], a mountain. 
Ambar (E. Tur7c.)> a granary. Cf. Ab-amber. 
Ame (Japan), rain. 

Amensi (dialect of Bantu). See Mansi. 
Amers (Fr.), landmarks, natural or artificial, on the 


Amezdhagh (Tuareg, Berber). See Amazagh. 
-Amiongo (Congo), suffix meaning ' hilly.' See Ongo. 
Amma-wa (Logon, Chad L. region), the current of a 


Amont (Fr.), up-stream. See Aval, 
Ampang (Malay), a dam, and to dam. 
-Ampwena (Congo), suffix meaning 'great.' 
Amt (Nor.), a county. 
Amtik (Kabile), a passage. 
Amud (Somali) , earth. 
A mim hive (Indian, U.S.A.), an island. 
kiAmvu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), bridge, pier. 
Amwene (dialect of Bantu). See Mwene. 
An (China), border, shore. 
An, And, Ant, Am (Madagascar), all modified forms of 

Ani, the place where one finds something, or where 

something is, at, on, in, near, e.g, Ankazobe, ' at 


the big trees,' ' the place where the forest is ' ; 

Andranomami, 'the place where the sweet water 

is ' ; Antsahakeli, ' at the little brook ' ; Antananarivo, 

' at the town of thousands or of a thousand 

dwellings.' See Kazo, Be, Rana, Saha, Keli, Tana, 

An (China, Cochinchina), signifies rest, tranquillity, and 

occurs in a large number of place-names ; e.g. 

An-Dien, ' the peaceful rice-field.' Cf. Friedenau. 
An (China), a saddle ; e.g. An-Shan, ' saddle hill.' 
Ana (Hatu, China), black. 
kiAna (Congo, dialect of Bantu), farm, garden. 
mwAna (Upper Congo, dialect of Bantu), an affluent. 

Anak-ayer (Malay), tributary of a river, lit. l child of 

the river,' e.g. Anak-ayer Kaching. See Ayer. 
Anamghur (Sahara), a watering-place. 
dzAnche (Nika), a place cleared of wood for cultivation. 
Ancoradouro (Port.), anchorage. 
Ancoraggio (It.), a roadstead, anchorage. 
Ancrage (Fr.), an anchorage. 
And (Madagascar). See An. 
luAnda (Nika), an open tract of land. 
IwAnda (Giryama), prairie, veld. 

Andar (Armenian), a forest. 
ulwAndle (Kafir). See Lwandle. 

Andrefana (Madagascar), west. For other points see 

Andriana (Madagascar), lord, chief, great man, noble, 

e.g. Ankaranandriana, ' at the lord's rock.' See An, 



Ane (Gold Coast), west, westward. See Boka. 

Anemomulos (Neo-Greek), a windmill. 

-Anene (Congo), suffix meaning ' great.' Cf. Nene. 

Ang (Kwenam), a stream. 

Ang'are (Brit. E. Africa), water, e.g. the river Ang'ares 

Ange (Kanuri, CliadL.), equivalent to Firki (q.v.) See 

also Ghadir. 

Anghi (Tuareg, Berber), torrent, rivulet. 
Angin (Malay), wind ; Angin-Darat, land-breeze ; Angin- 

laut, sea-breeze. 
mwAngo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a mountain. 

Cf. Ako, 
paAngo (Swahili), a cave. 

Angostura (Sp.) 9 a narrow pass. 
Angrenzend (Ger.), adjacent, contiguous. 
Angri (Marocco), a well. 
Angum (N. Arakan), a valley. 
Ang vai (Yindu Chin, W. of Mon E.), large. 
Anhar (Arab.), rivers, streamlets (pi. o/Nahr, stream). 
ki Ani 

chiAnih (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu}, grass. 

Aningo (Mpongwe, Bantu). See Ningo. 
luAnja (Bantu), the sea. 
> nyAnja (Cent. Africa, Bantu), lake, water either of a 

river or lake. Cf. Anza, Asa, 
uAnja (Swahili), an enclosure. 
Ankapahia (Fin.), a roadstead. 
Ankergrund (Ger.), anchorage. 


Ankik (Kabile), gorge, col, defile. 

Anna (Upper Nile], bush, high grass. 

Annexe (Fr.), a parochial chapel. 

Ano (Gold Coast), bank, shore. 

Ansa (It.), a creek, bay. 

Anse (Fr.), a creek, bay. 

Ant (Madagascar). See An. 

Ant (Tibet), end, extremity, e.g. Bhot-Ant, corrupted into 

Bhutan. See Bhot. 

Antia (Lomwe, Mozambique), lake, swamp. 
Antsinanana (Madagascar), east, For other points see 


Antu (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Ntu. 
isAntwenka (Zulu, Kafir), a deep reach of water. 
Ami (Gold Coast), near, alongside of, e.g. Apuanu, near 

the sea, sea-side, coast. See Apu, 
Ann. (Tuareg, Berber), a deep well. 
mwAnya (Giryama), a gap. 

luAnza (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country, town. 
nyAnza (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a broad water, 

lake. See Nyanza, Muanza, Anja, Asa, &c. 
Ao (Annam), lake, marsh, pond, pool. 
Ao (Hainan), a mountain. 
Ao, Awo (Japan), green. See Awo. 
Ao (China, Siam), bay, creek. 
Ap (Hottentot). See Ep. 
Ap (Sansc.), water. 

Apa (Gold Coast), borders, frontiers ; region, district. 
Apa (Indian, U.S.A.), abounding in cliffs. 
Apara klippo (Fin.), cliff. 


Apatoa (Tahiti}, north. See next entry. 

Apatoerau (Tahiti), south. See preceding entry. 

Apeliotes (Neo-Greek), east. See Boreas. 

Apere (Gold Coast), a plan for defence, entrenchment. 

Api (Malay), fire, e.g. Gunong Api=fire -mountain, or 

volcano. See Gunong. 
Approdo (It.), a landing-place. 
Apro (Hung.), little. 
Apu (Gold Coast),.ihe sea ; Apu Ami, 'the sea-side ' ; Apu 

Insu, ' sea- water.' See Ann, Insu. 
Aqnilon (Fr.), the north wind. 
Ar, Aru (Tamul), a river. 
Ar- (Welsh), 'upon/ e.g. Llanarmon. See Llan. 
Ara (E. Turk.}, middle. 
Ara (Indian, U.S.A.), a path at a gorge. 
Ara (Rarotong a, Polynesia), house. 
Aragari. See Oyari. 
Aragib (Arab., N. Africa). See Argub. 
Araha (Kerepunu, New Guinea), garden, plantation. 
Arak, pi. Arkan (Arab.), cavern or cliff. 
Aral (E. Turk.), an island. 
Aralcha (E. Turk.), small island. 
Arara, Karara (Hind.), high steep banks. 
Araras (Marocco), road, path. 
Arare (Marovo, Solomon Is.), wind. 
Arazi (Arab.), lands. 
Arba (Abyssinia), elephant, e.g. Tnln Arba, 'elephant 

range ' ; Gara Arba, ' elephant peak.' 
Arbre (Fr.), a tree (Arb.) 
Area de Agua (Sp.), reservoir. 

c 2 


Ard (Celtic), a height, high, e.g. Ardrossan, Ardnamurchan, 

'the height of the great headland.' See Mor, 

Chan. Cf. Aird. 
Ardhun (Arab.), earth. 
Area, Areia (Port.), sand ; from Lat. arena. 
Areg, sing. Erg, Arga, dim. Arigat (Arab.), a mass of 

dunes. See Armath. 
Arena (It., Sp.), sand. 
Arenal (Sp.), sandy ground, beach. 
Arete (Fr.), a sharp rocky crest. 
Arga, pi. Areg (Arab., N. Africa), a large dune. See 

Areg, Erg. 
Argile (Fr.)} . 
Argilla (!*.)} C 
Argub,pl. Aragib (Arab., N. Africa), branch of a chain 

of mountains ; spur. 
Ariawa (Hausa), north. For other points see Kudu, 

Kuddus, Gabbaz. 

Arigat (Arab., N. Africa), a small dune. See Areg, Erg. 
Arik (Turkestan), a small canal, an irrigation canal. 
Arima (Aroma, New Guinea), earth. 
Arish (Arab., N. Africa), vegetation on top of a dune ; 

sometimes the dune itself. 
Arisha (Arab.), sandy tracts of small extent on the 

borders of a plateau. 
Arka (E. Turk.), the back, behind, e.g. Arka Tagh, 


Arkan (Arab.), caverns or cliffs. 
Arkh (Caucasus), canal. 
Arkit (Tuareg, Berber), wilderness. 


Arl (Ger.), eagle, e.g. Arlberg. 

Armath (Arab., N. Africa), a group of low dunes, or a 

single dune of small relief. See Areg. 
Aro (Mongol), behind, north. For other points see 

Barong, Jung, 
ch Aro (Nika), caravan. 

Arok (Hung.), ditch, trench, valley ; equivalent to 

German Graben (q.v.) 
Arrabalde (Port.), suburb, environs. 
Arre. See Ere. 
Arrecife (Sp.), a reef. 
Arroio (Port.) 

. a rivulet, brook (A.) 
Arroyo (Sp.) 

,, (U.S.A.), the channel of an intermittent stream 

cut in loose earth. 
Arsh (Arab., N. Africa), a tribe. 
Art (E. Turk.), a col with long ascent almost in a 

straight line. 
Aru (Tamul). See Ar. 
Am (Amis, Formosa), river, 
ch Aru (Cent. Africa, Bantu), country, district. 
Aruabu (S. Cape, New Guinea), south-east wind. 
Arui (Welaung), a hill. 
Arus (Malay), current of a stream. 
Arvoredo (Port.), a grove. 
Aryk (E. Turk.) See Arik. 
Arz (Arab.), the earth, land. 
As (Sw.), ridge of a hill, chain of hills. Cf. Aas, 
nyAsa (Cent. Africa, Bantu), lake, water either of a river 
or lake. Cf. Anja, Anza. 


Asaga (Turk.), lower. 

Asai (Japan), shallow. 

Asarim, Esalim (Tuareg, Berber), bank of a river. 

Aselli (Hammer Koki, Abyssinia), a hill. 

Asfal (Arab.), lower, e.g. Zab-el-Asfal. Cf. Tahtani. 

Asfar (Arab.), yellow, e.g. Jebel es Safra, ' the Yellow 

Mount.' See Safra, El. 

Ashagha (Turk.), lower. Another form of Asaga. 
Ashiret (Turkey in Asia), a clan. 
Ashkin (Pers.), lands flooded only temporarily, e.g. 

Ashkinak around Chakansur on Hamun-i-Sistan. 

See Hamun. 

Ashokan (Indian, U.S.A.), rapids. Cf. Koho, 
kiAsi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass. 
Asi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. See Si. 
Asiaona (Kabadi, New Guinea), south. 
Asif (Marocco), a river; the form Assif is also found. 
Asighele osu (Fan, French Congo), current of a river. 
Asmak (Turk.), still water. 

Asogh, pi. Mesogh (Fan, French Congo). See Sogh. 
Aspro (Neo-Greek), white. 

Ass (Somali), ) 

- red, e.g. Dabass, Daarass, ' red clay. 
Assa (Danak^l),\ 

Assise (Fr.), stratum. 

Astillero (Sp.), a dockyard. 

Astin (E. Turk.), lower. Cf. Altin. 

Asto (Indian, U.S.A.), a defile. 

Astyn (E. Turk.) See Astin. 

Asuad (Arab.), black (sometimes written Aswad). 

Asu-bonten (Gold Coast), river, stream. 


Asu-kon (Gold Coast], bank of a river. Of. Nsu-ano. 

Asun afo (Gold Coast], down stream. 

Asu roki (Gold Coast], the bar of a river. 

Aswad. See Asuad. 

Aswanek (Senegal], subject, opp. to Melli, Men, free, e.g. 
Melinke, ' the free people.' l 

Asya-bad (Pers.), a windmill, lit. 'mill-wind.' 

At (Indian, U.S.A.), channel, current. 

Ata (Turk.), an island. 

Atak (Mongol), low, down, lower, e.g. Atak Habsere, 
' lower Habsere.' See Kurban, 

Atala (Fin.), mud. 

Atalaya (Sp.), an elevated place from which a consider- 
able view may be obtained ; a watch-tower. 

Atarpal (Sansc.), land that is left uncultivated. 

Atas (Malay), above, top, summit, surface. 

Ate (Maiva, New Guinea], a river. 

Atea (Indian, U.S.A.), a valley, landscape. 

Atem nu (Chinbok, E. of Mon B.), large. Cf. Im im. 

Atete-ba (Yoruba), a frontier, boundary. 

Ath (Irish), a ford, e.g. Athlone. 

Athmana (Sansc.), the west. 

Athmas (Sansc.), land constantly under cultivation. 

Atle (Indian, Mexico), water, from Atl, which is Aztec 
for 'water.' Cf. Atte, 

Atmur (Egyptian Sudan), a desert route. 

Ato (Venezuela), farmhouse, farm, estate. 

Atoe-fam (Gold Coast), the west side. 

Atoll (Maldive anglicised), one or any greater number 

For another derivation see under -Ke 


of coral islands of little height above the sea, 

situated on a strip or ring of coral surrounding a 

central lagoon. 
Atollon (Fr.), an atoll. 

(English), a small atoll on the margin of a larger 


Atraf (Arab.), environs, suburbs. 
Atsimo (Madagascar), south. For other points see 


Att (E. Turk.}, horse, e.g. Att-bash, 'horse-head peak.' 
Atte (Indian, Mexico}, water, cf. Atle. 
Au (Cambodia), a stream, torrent. 
Au, Aue (Ger.), a meadow, e.g. Reichenau, 'rich 

meadow,' Goldene Aue, ' golden meadow.' 
Au (New Guinea), a tree, also in MeJceo dialect 'the 

sea. 5 

Au (Siam), a bay. 

Au (Tibet), snows, e.g. Tsangau, ' the snows of Tsang.' 
Auch (Scotland), a field, e.g. Auchinleck. 
Auchter(Gae^cTTachdar), upland, upper land, e.g. Auchter- 

gaven, * the upland of the yearling cattle,' Auchter- 

muchty, ' the upper land of the wild sow ' (Muc = 


Auen (Nissan I., New Guinea), a bank, beach. 
Auj (Arab.), summit, top. 
Aul (Kirghiz), tent-village, camp. 
Aurir (Eabile), a mountain. 
Aurung (Anglo-Indian), a term applied to the old East 

India Company's factories, from the Pers. aurang, 

' a place where goods are manufactured ' ; ' a depot 

for^such goods.' 


Aushi (Sahara), tribe, clan, e.g. Aushi n Astafadet. 

Au stremot (Cambodia), a bay. 

Autel (Tuareg, Berber), an island. 

Av (Gaelic), water, e.g. Avoch, 'the field of water.' Cf. 

Avon. See Och. 
Ava (Madagascar), grotto, cave, cavern, e.g. Andavadolo, 

' the place where the grotto of the dead is ' ; 'at 

the tomb ' ; Andavakombi, ' at the cavern of the 

oxen.' See An. 
Ava (Slav.; Kurdish), water, river, e.g. Morava ; Av-i-spi, 

* white water.' 

Aval (Fr.), down stream. See Amont. 
Avala (Kerepunu, New Guinea), north-west wind. 
Avalaison (Fr.), a flood, torrent. 
Avara (Motumotu, New Guinea), north-west wind. 
Avaratra (Madagascar), north. For other points see 

Andrefana, Antsinanana, Atsimo. 
Aven. See Avon. 

Avivina (Kabadi, New Guinea), wind. 
Avok (Yindu Chin, W. of Mon B.), white (of snow or a 

foaming torrent). 
Avon (Celtic), a river, applied to a large number of 

British streams. Cognate with Lat. amnis. Cf. Av. 
Avras (E. Turk.), basin, ditch, depression in which 

water collects and remains. 
Avurigo (Kerepunu, New Guinea), west. For other 

points see Aburigo. 
Awa- (Bantu Kavirondo, Uganda, Nyasaland), a prefix 

signifying clan or tribe, e.g. Awawanga, the tribe 

speaking Luwanga, inhabiting Wanga, one of whom 


is called Mwanga, i.e. an inhabitant of Wanga ; 

similarly Awankonde, Awamwamba. See Wa, -Wa, A. 
Awari. See Oyari. 
Awhea (Gold Coast), sand. 

Awo, Ao (Japan), green, e.g. Awo Shima, 'green island.' 
Awoa (Gold Coast), high, lofty. 

Aworo (Gold Coast), cataract ; the swell of the sea ; surf. 
Aworo-so (Gold Coast), rapids in a river. 
Axe. See Wysg, Esk. 
Ay, pi. Aire (Teutonic), an island (Saxon Ea), e.g. 

Colonsay. Cf. Ey, Oe. 

Aya, pi. Meya (Fan, French Congo). See Ya. 
Ayag (E. Turkestan), under, lower. 
Ayaw, Tha (ChinboJc, E. of Mon R.), small. 
Ayer (Malay), water, stream; fresh water; river; 

district on a river ; e.g. AyerMati, on the Perak K. 
Ayer dras (Malay), a rapid over sand or pebbles. 
Ayer masin (Malay), salt water. 
Aymak (E. Turk.) See Aimak. 
Ayua, pi. Meyua (Fan, French Congo). See Yua. 
Ayun, pi. of Ain (Arab.), sources. Cf. Oyun, [state. 
Azel (Arab., N. Africa), landed property reserved by the 
Azenha (Port.), a water mill. 
Azhebik (Indian, U.S.A.), rock. 
Azib (Kabile, Marocco), country house, farm. 
Azrak, Azrek (Arab.), blue ; e.g. Bahr el Azrek, ' the 

Blue Eiver,' i.e. 'the Blue Nile.' 
isAzulu (Zulu, Kafir), a locality which is the centre of a 

Azzu (Kabile), rock. 



Ba (A-Zande), place. 

Ba (Arab., N. Africa}, a form of Bu= father. It enters 

into many names, e.g. TTlad-ba-Hammu. See Ulad. 
Ba- (S. Cent. Africa, Barotseland), prefix meaning a 

single individual, e.g. Ba-rotse. Cf. English-man. 
Ba- (Cent. Africa, Bantu), prefix meaning a people, 

e.g. Ba-ntu, the people ; Mu-ntu, the individual ; 

i.e. sing. Mu-, pi. Ba-. Cf. Bu, Wa, Kel, Im, Ahel. 
Ba (Sara, Chad L.), water, a river; e.g. Earning! ; Ba 

Bai, another name for the Logon R. Cf. Mane. 

The Ba of the Handing o or Mande, in the Western 

Sudan, has the same meaning. 
Ba (Togo), a road. 

Baae (Nor.), a sunken rock or shoal. 
Baaja (Arab., N. Africa), land full of pools. 
Baak (Dch.), a beacon. 
Baak, Baake (Da.), a beacon. 
Bab (Arab.), pi. Biban, Buwab (lit. a door or gate), a 

passage between dunes ; a narrow strait or gut ; 

e.g. Bab el Mandeb, ' gate of tears.' 
Baba (Hausa), great. 

Baba (Turk.), father, e.g. Babadagh= father mountain. 
Babchu (Tibet), a small river. 
Babord (Fr.), port side, i.e. the left side, when one 

faces the bows of a vessel, or larboard. 
Bach (Ger.), a brook, rivulet, small rapid stream (B.) 
Bach (Welsh), small, e.g. Eglwysbach = lit tie church. See 



Bache (E. Africa), river, stream. 

Bacino (It.), dock, dry dock, basin (of a river). 

"Back (Sic.), a brook, rivulet, small rapid stream. 

Bad (Ger.), bath, e.g. Baden, Carlsbad. 

Bad (Pers.), wind. 

Bad (Somali), tank, e.g. Badwein, ' big tank.' See 


Badala (Mande). See Badla, 
Badar (Hind.), a large house, a granary raised on piles ; 

Badar being a cloud. 
Badara (Mande), on the bank, riverside. 
Badi (A-Zande), a river. 

, (Arab.) a desert. 

Badla, Badala, Bafala (Mande), lake, marsh, swamp. 
Bsek (Nor., Da.), a brook, rivulet, or small rapid stream. 

Cf. English Beck. 
Baer (Icelandic), a farm, village. 
Bafara (Mande). Another form of Badla (q.v.) 
Bag (E. Turk.), a village. 
Baga (Mongol). See Bagba. 
Bagan (Malay), lit. a quay or landing-place, hence a 

ferry ; sometimes (e.g. in Wellesley Province) a 

district ; e.g. Bagan Nior, Bagan Ginting, both on 

Bernam E. Cf. Ox-ford, 
Bagar (Hind), pasture grounds. 
Bagare (Mossi, French Sudan), a garden. 
Baggara (E. Sudan), a name given to all cattle-owning 

nomad Arabs, cowherds. 
Bagh (Pers.), garden, orchard, grove ; e.g. Baghdad. 


Bagha, Baga (Mongol), small ; e.g. Baga Uchimuchin. 

See Ikhe. Cf. Bak (Hung.), Baka. 
Baghistan (Hind.), garden ground, vineyard. 
Bagiriwa (Aroma, New Guinea), west. For other points 

see Walau. 

Bagwio (Tagala, Philippines), a cyclone or hurricane. 
Baha (Hind.), a watercourse, channel. 
Baha (Tagala, Philippines), a flood. 
Bahandin, Bahai (Philippines), a house. 
Bahar (Darfur), north. Cf. Sbah. 
Bahar (Arab.), lake, sea. Cf. Bahr. 
Bahari (Swahili), sea. From the Arab. Bahar, Bahr. 
Bahat (Abbadi, Etbai), a mine. 

Baheira (Arab.), a lake ; the same word as Bahira (q.v .) 
Bahia (Port., Sp.), a bay; e.g. Bahia de Todos os Santos, 

'bay of all saints.' 
Bahira (Arab., N. Africa), lake, marshy spot, dim. of 


Bahnhof (Ger.), railway station (Bhf.) 
Bahr (Arab.), sea, water, river ; e.g. Bahr el Ghazal. See 

Boheira, Bahar. 
Baibua (New Guinea), peace, e.g. Jesu Baibua, or Yeku 

Ngangau, ' the Peace of Jesus,' generally called 

Yeku (Jesus), where the Inawaia and Eboa tribes 

were reconciled. 

Baida (Arab.), a desert, e.g. Bar el Baida. See Bar 
Bale (Fr.), bay, gulf. 

Bailiary (Scotland), the jurisdiction of a sheriff. 
Baime (A-Zande), river ; from Ba (father) and Ime 



Bain (Deccari), a large well. 

Baiska (Punjab], grazing ground. 

Bait (Arab.), a house, 

Baital (Cent. ^4sm),amare; e.g. Ak-Baital, 'white mare,' 

a northerly confluent of the Ak-Su. See Ak. 
Baiva (laibo, New Guinea), beach. 
Baixo (Port.), a shoal. 
Baja (It.), a bay, roadstead. 
Bajar (Punjab), street, market-place. 
Bajio (Sp.), a shoal. 
Bak (Hung.), little. Cf. Bagha, Baka. 
Bak (Sw.), a beacon, lighthouse. Cf. Bake. 
Bak (Tibet), west. For other points see Lho. 
Baka (Mongol), little. Cf. Bagha, Bak. 
Bakan (Buss.), a lake. 
Bake (Ger.), a beacon. Cf. Bak, 
Baken (Buss.), beacon or buoy. 
Bakere (A-Zande), great. 

Bakhbakha (Arab'., N. Africa), soft spongy ground. 
Baki-n-Gulbi (Hausa), on the bank, gulbi meaning 

' river ' ; a name frequently given to riverside 

villages or towns. Baki=bank, side, mouth. 
Baki-n-Rua (Hausa), bank of a river. See B,ua. 
Bakka (Mossi, French Sudan), marsh, pond. 
Bakke, Bakki (Da., IceL), a hill, e.g. Eyrarbakki. 
Baklan (Buss.), a cormorant, whence Baklanets or Bak- 

luish, small islands frequented by cormorants. 
Bako (Mossi), a river. 
Bal (Gaelic Baile), a town, e.g. Baldernock, 'the town of 

the stream at the knoll'; Der = Dur (q.v.), Nock 


(Gaelic Cnoc), a hill, knoll ; Balcarres, ' the town of 

the contest.' 
Bal, Bally, Balla (Irish), an abode, town, e.g. Balbriggan, 


eBala (Congo, dialect of Bantu). For meaning see Ebala. 
Bala (Madagascar), enclosure, field, farm, thus ambala = 

the place where the field is, e.g. Ambalanondr, * at the 

sheep field,' Ambalanosi, ' at the goat field.' See An. 
Bala (Pers.), upper, top, summit, e.g. Bala Murghab. 

See Pain, 

Bala (Welsh), the effluence of a river from a lake. 
Balad (Arab.), a town, village, country, land. See Beled, 

Bilad, Bled, for other forms. 
Balagan (Kamchatka), a wooden hut raised on piles to 

a height of about 10 feet above the ground. 
Balai (Tagala, Philippines), house. 
Balchik (Turk.), clay. 
Bald (U.S.A.), a high rounded knob or mountain top, 

bare of forest. 
Bale (Sumatra), the men's house in Batak villages, as 

distinguished from Lotsung,- the general meeting- 
place of the women. The men's house is also 

called Sopo. Cf. Human, Ingot Bage. 
Balgarsun (Mongol), a wall of fortification. 
Balgas (Mongol), town, large village, e.g. Khara Balgas, 

' black town,' Chagan Balgas, ' white city.' 
mBali (Upper Congo, dialect of Bantu), people of the west. 
Balik (Mongol), a town; in E. Turk, a fortification, 

Balise (Fr.), a beacon. 


Balka (Buss.), a ravine, valley, dell. 

Balkan (Turk.), a mountain range. 

Balla. See Bal. 

Ballewo (Fula), black, e.g. Mayo Ballewo, 'Black Eiver.' 

Balloch (Gaelic Bealach), a pass, an opening, e.g. Balloch, 

Ballochmyle, 'bare opening.' 

Ballut (Arab.), oak, e.g. Deir Ballut in Palestine. See Deir. 
BaUy. See Bal. 

Balm (Celtic), an overhanging wall of rock, a cave. 
Balsa (Spanish America), raft, timber float, also a 

pool of stagnant water. 
Balta (Neo-Greek), a marsh. 
Balu (Hind.), sand, gravel. 
Balu-danda (Hind.), shoal, sandbank. 
Balza (It.), rock, cliff, precipice. 
Bam (Pers.), roof, top, story, e.g. Bam-i-Dunya, 'the roof 

of the world,' applied by the Persians to the 


Bama=Hama (Japan), beach, shore. 
Bamba (Hind.), a well, fount, pump (cf. Port, pompa). 
Bamba (W. Africa, between the Niger and the Atlantic), 

crocodile, e.g. Bambara, ' the people whose idol or 

fetish is the crocodile.' Cf. Mali, Sa, Hence 
Bambara (W. Africa, between the Niger and the Atlantic), 

infidel, Kafir, a term wrongly applied to the Bam- 

mana, who are Mohammadans. The Bambara of 

our maps should be Bammana. 

mBambi (Congo, dialect of Bantu), boundary, frontier. 
Ban (Gaelic), white, e.g. Bannockburn, 'the stream of 

the white knoll.' See Nock, Burn. 


Ban (Malay] , a village ; used also in Laos. 

Ban (Siam), a house or farm place. 

Ban, Bun (Somali), an open plain, e.g. Ban-Yero, Ban-Ado 

See Yer, Ado, 
Baiiado (Spanish S. America), marshy land, flooded land, 


a Ban (Fan, French Congo), a garden; for pi. see Aban. 
Bane (Fr.), bank, sandbank. See Bank, 
Banche (Fr.), clay and sand bank under water. 
Banco (Port, and Sp.), a sand-bank in a stream. 
Band (Pers.), a dam. Cf. Bund. 
Band (Serer), a stream. 
Banda (Songhai), beyond, e.g. Hari Banda = beyond the 

river (the Aribinda of the maps). 
Bandar (Pers.), landing-place, sheltered anchorage, 

harbour, e.g. Bandar Abbas. 
Bandara (Deccan), shore, coast. 
Bander (Malay), a town, same word as Bandar (q.v.) 
Bane (Laos), a village. 
Bang (Siam), a village. 
Banga (Songhai), a hippopotamus, e.g. Bangagungu, an 

island in the Niger Kiver. See Gungu. 
Bangar (Hind.), high ground, uplands, tableland. 
Banglata (Danakil), tent, house. 
Bangu (Songhai), lake, wells. 
Banhos (Port.), baths. 
Bani (Sansc.), a small forest, wood. 
Bania (Bulgaria), hot springs. 
Banjung (Nepal), a mountain without snow, i.e. of less 

elevation than a Langur (q.v.) 



Bank (Eng.), as a minor form of sub-oceanic relief, a 
single elevation or submarine mountain rising to 
within 200 metres of the surface, but not so far as 
within 11 metres, e.g. Porcupine Bank, Equivalent 
to Ger. Bank, Fr. Bane, 

Banka (Buss.), a shoal. 

Banlieue (Fr.), outskirts of a town. 

Banquise (Fr.), an iceberg. 

Banteai. See Pandai. 

Banti (Hammer Koki, Abyssinia), a nullah. 

Banua (Aroma, New Guinea), a village. Cf. Fenua. 

Banuwa (Malay). See Benua. 

Banya (Hung.), a mine, e.g. Banya-Nagi great mine. 
mBanza (Congo, dialect of Bantu), chief town, city. 
iBanzana (Kafir), narrow, of a stream or path. 

Banzi (Kafir), broad, of a stream. 

Bao (Cochinchina), to guard, keep, preserve; e.g. Boa-Hoa, 
' to keep the covenant,' Boa-Thanh, ' to remain 
flourishing,' districts in Cambodia. 

Bao (Hainan), a village. 

Bar (Arab.), territory or country, the land, dry land, 
e.g. Malabar, Zanzibar. See Zang. 

Bar (Gaelic). See Barr. 

Bar (Russ.), the bar of a river. 

Bara (E. Africa), thorny scrub. 

Bara (Nika), land, the mainland. 

Barabido (Mossi), pond, pool. 

Bara gam (Hind.), a town. 

Barahi (Hind.) t land. 

Barak (Buss.), barracks. 


Barangai (Philippines), a group of from forty to fifty 

families into several of which a village is divided 

for purposes of taxation. 
Barani (Punjab), land dependent on the rainfall only, 

and not irrigated. 

Baraque (Fr.), hut, shed, barrack (B^ 6 ). 
Barat (Malay), west, Barat-daia, S.W., Barat-laut, N.W. 
Baratha (Hind.), land situated in the midst of a jungle; 

land on which sugar-cane has been grown, hence 

impoverished. The variant Baetha also occurs. 
Baraza (Zanzibar), a verandah or outer audience hall. 
Barca (Sp.), a ferry (Bca.) 
Barda (Hind.), sandy or light soil. 
Barka (Barbary States), a rocky place ( = Hamada) ; 

excellent, fertile ( = Beni) ; storm. 
Barkhan (Cent. Asia), a sandhill. 
Baro (Hind.), high jungle grass. 

Barong (Mongol), left, east. For other points see Aro. 
Barony (Ireland), a subdivision of a county. 
Barr (Arab.), dry land. See Bar, 
Barr, Bar, Var (Gaelic), point, upper part, summit, e.g. 

Barra (Barray), island, Barrhead, which is merely 

Barr with its English rendering, head, suffixed ; 

Dunbar, ' the fort on the point ' ; Craigievar, ' rocky 

point.' See Dun, Craig. 

/ a bar at the mouth of a river, bank of 
Barra (It.) 

sand. In Brazil Barra is used for the 
Barra (Port.)-{ ,, _ 

mouth of a stream, e.g. Tres Barras, 
Barra (Sp.) , ,, ,, , -p, 

\ l three mouths, on Paraguay R. 

D 2 


Barrabara (E. Siberia) an Aleut native house, sometimes 
partly underground. 

Barra-Barra (E. Africa] , a road three or four yards wide 
cut through woods, bramble, grass, &c. 

Barrabkie (E. Siberia), a hut. 

Barranca (Sp.), a deep break or hole made by mountain 

Barranca (Mexico and U.S.A.), a rock- walled and im- 
passable canon. 

Barrancas (Venezuela), shelving sandbanks. 

Barranco (Port.), a ravine, precipice. 

Barre (Fr.), a bar. 

Barreira (Port.), ) 

n /o \ f a bar, barrier, a turnpike. 

Barrera (Sp.), ) 

Barri (Sierra Leone), a hall of audience, meeting-place. 

Barri (Somaliland), east. Cf. Galbed. 

Barriere (Fr.), gate (B re ). 

Barrier reef (English), a reef fronting a coast line or 

encircling an island or group of islands, leaving a 
< deep channel between it and the shore. Cf. 

Fringing reef. 

Barrio (Sp.), a suburb, district of a town. 
Barro (Hind.), a name given to the uplands on the 

right bank of the Jumna River. 
Barrow =Beorh (Anglo-Saxon), hill, earthwork, fortified 

town, sepulchral mound. See Berg, Berk. 
Barth (Albanian), white. 
Barzan (Pers.), street, lane. 
Basat (Arab., N. Africa), any broad plain, an open 



Bas-bas, Basobas (Hind.}, a house, dwelling. 

Basgit (Hind.), a homestead, residence. 

Bash (Turk.), head, chief. 

Bash (E. Turk.), head, source of a river, e.g. Bash Kala, 
* the Castle at the Head of the Waters.' 

Bashnya (Russ.), a tower. 

Basin (Eng.), used, in sub-oceanic relief, for a depression 
of approximately round form, in which the hori- 
zontal diameters are about equal. Equivalent to 
the Ger. Becken ; Fr. Bassin. 

Basobas (Hind.) See Bas-bas. 

Bassah (Arab.), a marsh. 

Bassar (Caucasus), river basin. 

Basse (Fr.), shoal. 

Bassin (Fr.), basin, dock (B in ). As a form of sub- 
oceanic relief see Basin. 

Basso (Puma, L. Rudolf), water, e.g. Basso Nyiro. 

Bastide (Fr.), small country house (B ide ), chiefly in 

Bastita, Bastia (It.), rampart, fortress. 

Basu (Songhai), wells. 

Bat (Hind.), road, highway. 

eBata (Congo, dialect of Bantu), summit, top, ridge of a 

Batang ayer (Malay), a river; Batang = a tree stem, 
see Ayer ; water flowing between trees, hence ' river.' 

Batch (England), a small stream, e.g. Coldbatch. 

Baten (Arab.), gentle slope (of mountain, hill, or dune). 

Baternotu (Tibet), mosquito, e.g. Baternoto Gol, * Mosquito 
K.' (the Patagonto of the maps), a very appropriate 


name, mosquitos being a great pest in the Tsaidam. 
See Gol. 

Bat-ha (Wadai), a river. 

Batha (Hind.), running water. 

Bathan (Hind.), pasture grounds. 

Batika (Sansc. and Hind.), a villa. 

Bato (Gurma), ruler of a province. 

Bato (Madagascar), a modified form of vato, used in 
composition, rock, thus ambato = the place where 
the rock is found, e.g. Ambatomena, * the place 
where the red rock is.' See An, Mena. Cf. Kara. 

Batu (Malay), a stone or rock, e.g. Batu-titi, 'a mile- 
post ' ; Batu-api= ' fire-stone ' (flint). See Api. Also 
a mountain; e.g. Batu Tujo, Batu Lawing. 

Batu-brani (Malay), loadstone. 

Bau (Aroma, New Guinea), stone. 

Bau (Ger.), a building. PL Bauten. 

Baum (Ger.), tree. 

Baumschule (Ger.), a nursery, plantation. 

Baw (Siam), pit, shaft, mine. 
isiBaxa (Zulu, Kafir), a tributary of a river. 

Bayan (Mongol), rich, prosperous, e.g. Bayan Gol, ' rich 
stream.' See Gol. Cf. Wayen. 

Bayan (Tagala, Philippines), town, village ; also county. 

Baygall (U.S.A.), a swamp covered with growth of 

Bayou (U.S.A.), a lake or intermittent stream formed in 
an abandoned channel of a river ; one of the half- 
closed channels of a river delta. 

Bazar (Pers.), a market; whence the European bazaar. 


Bda (Indian, U.S.A.), a river. 

Be, Bi (Batta, Benue E. region), water, e.g. Benue, 

1 Mother of Water/ nue or nuwe being ' mother.' 
-Be (Chad L. region). See Bu. 
Be (Gold Coast), a mountain., e.g. A-be-tifi. 
Be (Madagascar), large, great, many, e.g. Nosi Be, 'big 

Be (Sara, Chad L.}, house made of stone or mud. 

Cf. Manda. 
Bealach (Gaelic), a pass, gorge, e.g. Bealach a Goach 

(W. coast of Scotland). 
Bear, Beer, Bere (Eng.from Scandinavian). An abode, 

farm, village, e.g. Shebbear, Kentisbeer. 
Bearu mamara (Kerepunu, New Guinea), north wind. 
Beau, Bel (Fr.) , beautiful, e.g. Beaulieu, 'beautiful place,' 

Belmont, ' beautiful mountain.' 
Bebe (Kamerun), near. 
Bebe (Yoruba), the brink of a precipice. 
Bee (Normandy), a small stream, e.g. Caudebec. Cf. Beck. 
Beca (Piedmont), beak, pike, e.g. Beca di Nona 
Bechi (Hammer KoJci, Abyssinia), water, 
Beck (England), a brook, rivulet, small rapid stream, 

e.g. Millbeck. 
Becken (Ger.), a basin. For use as a form of sub-oceanic 

relief see Basin. 

Bedd (Welsh), a grave, e.g. Beddgelert. 
Bedw (Welsh), birch trees, e.g. Llanbedw, ' birch 

church.' See Llan. 

Bedzi (Fan, French Congo), the bank of a river, 
Bee (Indian, U.S.A.), water. 


Beek (Dch.), a small rapid stream, rivulet, e.g. Loobeek, 


Beer (Eng.) See Bear. 

Beer (Hebrew), a well (= Bir), e.g. Beersheba. 
Beg (Irish; Highlands), little, e.g. Bally Begg. See Bally, 
Begaa (Arab., N. Africa), a marshy depression. 
Beglik, Beklik (Cent. Asia), an administrative division 

under a Beg. 

Begraafplaats (Dch.), burial-ground. 
Befcar (Hind.) See Bihar. 

maBehe (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a forest. 
Bei (Ger.), near to, e.g. Meidling-bei-Wien. 
Bei (Hainan), a village. 

Beida, Beidha (Arab.), white; fern. o/Abiad, Abiodh. 
Beit (Arab.), a house ; Beit Esh-Shaar, tent. 
Beiyat (Arab.) a shoal dry at low water. 
Bek (Eldorobo, Uganda), water. 
Bekkr (Icelandic), a brook, small rapid stream. 
Bekleme (Turk.), a guard-post. 
Bel, Bele (Berta, E. Sudan), rock. 
Bel (Celtic), a ford, e.g. Belfast. 
Bel (Turk.), a col. Cf. Gedik. 
Bela (Punjab), highlands only subject to inundation by 

very high floods ; cf. Kachcha ; also applied to 

islands in a river channel. 
Belaa (Arab., N. Africa), quagmire, marsh. 
Belad, Beldah. (Arab.) See Balad. 
Belbel (Adamawa), a square in a town. 
Bele. See Bel. 


Bele (Bambara, Malinke), iron, e.g. Beledugu, 'ferrugi- 
nous country.' See Dugu. 

Beled (Arab.), a form of Balad (q.v.) 

Beles (Cent. Asia). See Bills. 

Beli (8. Slavonic), white, e.g. Belgrad. See Grad. 

Bella (Sahara), a village for captives ; another form of 
Billa (q.v.) 

Belo (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Lo. 

Bemasen (Mongolia), a place of commerce, e.g. the 
Chinese quarter of Urga, called Bemasen by the 

Ben (Gaelic), a mountain (Scotland), e.g. Ben Nevis ; a 
hill (Ireland), e.g. Bengower ; a rocky promontory 
(Ireland), e.g. Bengore. Cf. Pen, Kin, from the 
same Celtic root cen, cean, head, top, summit. 
a Ben (Fan, French Congo), a dwelling made of trunks of 
trees placed horizontally, set apart as a guard- 
house ; to? pi. see Aben. 

Bench (U.S.A.), a strip of plain, along a valley slope. 

Bendang (Malay), padi field. 

Bendar (E. Equatorial Africa), harbour. See Bandar, 
of which this is a variant. 

Bender (Arab.), a market town. See Bandar, from which 
this is borrowed. 

Bender (Malay), port for trade. See Bandar, from which 
this is borrowed. 

Beni (Arab.), sons of; a common prefix to names of 
villages, e.g. Beni Hassan; signifies excellence, 
fertility. See Ibn, Barka. 
oBe nkol (Fan, French Congo), a hill ; for pL see Obe nkol. 


Ben na (Indian, U.S.A.), an island. 

Benua, Banuwa (Malay), land, country, region; hence 
Orang Benua, ' aborigines,' and thus Benua is ap- 
plied in Anglo -Indian to the wilder tribes of the 
Malay Peninsula. 
,, (Philippines), village. 

,, (Polynesia), land, earth. 

Benue (Batta), a river, lit. ' Mother of Water.' See Be. 

Bepo (Gold Coast), mountain, hill. 

Ber (Songhai), big, great, e.g. Tondi Ber mountain, lit. 
'big stone.' 

Bera (Soninke), a plain. 

Bercz (Hung.), a mountain. 

Bere (Mande), a mountain. 

Bere (Eng.) See Bear. 

Bereg (Buss.), the coast. 

Berg (Anglo-Saxon, Dch., Ger., Da., Nor., Sw.), moun- 
tain, hill (Ger. B., Nor. Bg.) See Berk, The 
usual A.-S. forms are beorg, beorh, whence barrow 
(q.v.) Cf. Bjserg, Bjerg. 

Bergerie (Fr.), a sheepfold (B ie ). 

Bergspitze (Ger.), peak of a mountain, summit. 

Beri (ChadL. region), a large hamlet, e.g. Beri Shuwabe, 
' the village of the Shuwa people.' See Be, Bu. Also 
used for an encampment or smaller village. 

Berk, Berg (Anglo-Saxon), a barrow, e.g. Berkhampstead. 
See Berg. 

Berkemi (Sara, Chad L.), north. 

Berry (Anglo-Saxon), a hill, fortified place, e.g. Dolberry ; 
corrupted from Barrow (q.v.) See Dol. 


Besar (Malay}, large, e.g. Chuko Besar, ' great Chuko.' 
Besh (E. Turkestan), five ; e.g. Besh-arik, Besh-bek, 

Besh-kent. See Arik, Kend. 
Beth (Hebrew), a house, e.g. Bethany. 
Beth (Hind.), sandy unproductive ground. 
Betha (Aral)., N. Africa), a depression. 
Beting (Malay), a sandbank, a shoal. 
Bett (Ger.), the bed (of a river). 
Bettws (Welsh), dwelling, village, town, e.g. Bettws-y- 

coed. See Coed, Y. 
Beu (Lolo, China), a mountain. 
Beubeu (S. Cape, New Guinea), the north wind. 
Beul=Peul=Deul=Teul (Korea), a plain, e.g. Mun-beul, 

Nan-deul, Nak-teul. Cf. Phyong, Phyeng, 
Bevaarbaar (Dch.), navigable. 
mBewe (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a chief. 
Beyaz (Turk.), white. 

Eh^Burma), new ; e.g. Bhamo (Bha-maw),' New Market.' 
Bhandar (Punjab), a storehouse. 
Bhanwar (Hind.), a whirlpool, eddy, revolution. 
Bharu (Malay), new, frequently applied to villages ; 

there is also Kampong Bharu in Singapore. 
Bhathiyal (Hind.), with the current, i.e. down stream, 

down the river. 

Bheira (Arab.), a lake. Cf. Birke. 
Bhil (Anglo-Indian), a marsh or lagoon ; especially used 

in E. Bengal. See Jhil. 
Bhot (Tibet), land ; e.g. Bhot-ant (corrupted into Bhutan), 

'Land's End,' i.e. the extremity of Tibet. 
Bhuda (Hind.), light sandy soil. 


Bhui (Gaelic). See Bui. 

Bhum (Cambodia), a hamlet. 

Bhum (Hind.), land, country, e.g. Birbhum, 'land of 

heroes.' Cf. Bum. 
-Bi (Gurma). See -Bu. 
Biar (Arab.), wells. See Bir. 
Biban, pi. of Bab (Arab.), gates, defiles. 
Bid (Deccan), street, lane. 
Bi da me (Indian, U.S.A.), a river. 
Bidrung (Baluch), saddle, col. 
Bief, Biez (Fr.), a reach of a river ; a mill-race. 
Bielki (Siberia), snowy summits. 
Bihar (Hind.), rugged land full of ravines. 
Bi iri (Mossi, French Sudan) , sand. 
Bikar-yilga (Cent. Asia), a cul-de-sac. 
Bilad (Arab.), the land, country; e.g. Bilad es-Sudan= 

' Land of the Blacks ' = Negroland = Nigritia 

= Sudan; is a variant of Balad (q.v.) See El, 

Bilene (Gazaland), plain country, occurring in the 

river valleys, with a rich covering of humus, 

and well provided with water. 
Bilis (Cent. Asia), a pass, e.g. Kara-Bilis, 'black pass.' 

See Kara. 
Billa (Bornu), a town, e.g. Billa Kabsharibe, 'the town 

of the Kabshari people'; see Be, Bu (suffix). 

Hence Billama, ' the man of the town,' ' the mayor ' ; 

see Ma (suffix). Also used as signifying the 

inhabitants, or, generally, people, e.g. Billangare, 

Billa Ngare, ' the Ngare people.' 
Bily (Bohemia), white (BI.) 



Bimbali (Upper Congo). See Mbali. 

Bina (A-Zande), a field. 

Binh (Cochinchina) lit. to equal, found in many place- 
names ; e.g. Binh-Tien, * eqaal in purity.' 

Binin (Gold Coast), bog, marsh, swamp. 

Binnen (Dck.), within, inside, e.g. Eemnes Binnen, to dis- 
tinguish it from Eemnes Buiten (q.v.) 

Biod. See Abiodh. 

Bir (Arab.), a well, e.g. Bir Hamam, 'Pigeon's Well,' 
places being frequently named after living creatures. 

Bira (Tibet), a river. 
luBira (Victoria Nyanza region, dialect of Bantu), the 

king's enclosure in a native town. 
mBira (Giryama), a tomb. 

Eire (A-Zande), a forest. 

Biringa (Mande), country, forest, brushwood, camp. 

Birke (Arab.), a lake. Cf. Bheira. 

Birket, pi. Burkak (Arab.), an artificial pool or tank. 

Birne (Arab.), a pool. 

Birni (Hausa), town, a capital, e.g. Birni n Kebi. Cf. Gari. 

Birsa, Bursa (Mande), bush, wood, grass. 

Bischof (Ger.), bishop, e.g. Bischofsheim. See Heim. 

Bise (Fr.), north wind, especially the dry north-easter. 

Bisha, Besha (Pers.), a forest, desert, wilderness. 

Bisham (Galla), water. 

Bisigya (Mossi, French Sudan), an encampment. 

Bissau! (Galla), water. 
uBityi (Zulu, Kafir), a bog, a quagmire. 

Biyaban (Pers.), a desert, wilderness. 

Biyo, Biya (Somali), water, e.g. Biyo-foga, 'distant water,' 


Biya-ha-Godle, 'water of the place of caves.' See 

God, Le. 

Bjserg, Bjerg (Nor., Da.), a mountain (Bg.) Cf. Berg. 
Blad (Arab., N. Africa), country, a form of Balad. Other 

forms are Bilad, Beled, Bled (q.v.) 
Blair (Gaelic), a plain clear of wood, e.g. Blair Athol. 
Blanc, Blanche (Fr.), white, e.g. Blanc Nez, ' white naze.' 

Dent Blanche, 'white tooth (peak).' See Nez, Dent. 
Blanco (Sp.), white, e.g. Cabo Blanco. See Cabo. 
Blato (S. Slav.), a marsh. 
Bled (Arab., N. Africa), town, country, a form of 

Balad (q.v.) See also Bilad, Beled, Blad. 
Blida (Arab., N. Africa), a small town, dim. of Balad. 
Blizhni (Buss.), near, e.g. Blizhni I., the nearest to the 

mainland of the New Siberia Islands. 
Blod (Friesland), a house. 
Bluff (U.S.A.), a bluff, as distinguished from a hill, is 

the escarpment formed by a river running 

through a tableland. 
Bo (Nor.), an estate. 

Boala (Kiriwina, New Guinea), a house. 
Bobrovia (E. Siberia), an otter island. 
Bobrovi Kameni (Buss.), sea-otter rocks. 

Boca (Port., Sp.), } 

[a, mouth or entrance. 
Bocca (It.), } 

Bod (Cymric}, a house, e.g. Bodmin, Bodwrog. 

Bod (Nor., Da.), a warehouse. 

Bode (Yoruba), custom house. 

Bodi, pi. Bodar (Icel.), rocks upon which the sea breaks. 


Bodi (Madagascar), a modified form of vodi, used in 
composition, foot, bottom, base ; thus ambodi (for 
ani vodi) = at the foot of, e.g. Ambodiala, 'at the 
base of the forest,' Ambodivohitra, 'at the foot of 
the mountain.' See Ala, Vohitra, An. 

Boe (Hainan), a village. 

Bceuf (Normandy), an abode, e.g. Elbceuf. 

Bogen (Ger.), a bend in a river. 

Bogha (Gaelic), a sunken rock. 

Boghaz (Turk.), defile, channel, strait, estuary. 

Bohangin (Tagala, Philippines), sand. 

Boheira, dim. of Bahr (q.v.) 

Bohi (Madagascar), a modified form of vohitra, used in 
composition, a mountain ; also a village, thus 
ambohi=the place where the mountain or village 
is, e.g. Ambohibe, ' on the great mountain,' Ambohi- 
malaza, ' at the celebrated village,' Ambohipanja, 
' the place where the marshy village is.' See An, Be. 

Bois (Fr.), a wood (B.), e.g. Bois de Boulogne. 

Boivi (laibo, New Guinea), island, mountain. 

Bok (Ebon, Polynesia), sand. 

Bok (Somaliland, Nogal district), a well. 

Boka (Egyptian Sudan), capital town. 

Boka (Gold Coast), east, eastward, leeward. See Ane. 
mBoka (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a town. 

Boko (Songhai), a gorge. 

Bold (Anglo-Saxon, Norse), a house. 
aBoli (Fan, French Congo), source, ravine ; see Aboli. 

Bolts (Neo-GreeJc), a town ; from Anc. Gr. TTO\IS 

Bolita (Kiriwina, New Guinea), salt water, sea. 


umBolompo (Kafir), a deep ravine ; a passage between 

high banks. 

Boloto (Buss.), marsh, swamp ; Bolotina, marshy place. 
Bolshoi (Buss.), great, e.g. Bolshayar, flowing into Gulf 

of Anadyr; Bolshoi Moszcenica, on OslikaR, trib. of 

Bolson (U.S.A., Mexico), a basin ; a depression or 

valley having no outlet, e.g. Bolson de Mapimi. 
Boma (Bantu), a palisade of poles, stones, &c., serving 

as a fortification, equivalent to the Kraal (q.v.) of 

the South, a native chief's village or capital ; 

applied now also to Government stations. Cf. 

Boma on the Congo R. estuary. 
Boma (Pula, China), a mountain. 
Bombordo (Port ), port side, i.e. the left side or larboard, 

when one faces the bows of a ship. 
a Bon (Fan, French Congo), bridge; ion: pi. see Abon. 
eBon (Fan, French Congo), a lodging-place, whereat to 

sleep when on a journey ; for pi. see Ebon. 
Bon (Siam), upper. 
Bona (Kamerun), people, race, family, e.g. Bona Basem, 


Bonde (Fr.), a sluice. 

Bondog, Bondok (Tagala, Philippines), a mountain. 
Bongo (Bornu), a hut with circular mud walls, thatched 

with straw. Cf. Kusi. 
Bongo (Songhai), a cape. 
li Bongo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), market, 
chi Bongo (Bantu), a small lake. 

Bool (Somali), ditch or torrent, e.g. Bool Bashiro, near 



Boomgaard (Dch.), an orchard. 

Bopo (Nilca), a hollow. 

Boquete (Sp.), a narrow entrance, pass. 

Bor (Slavonic), a forest, e.g. Bohrau. 

Bora (Italian origin], a violent north wind common in 
the upper parts of the Adriatic Sea. 

Boran (Somali), a trench = Hatakh (q.v.) 

Borau (A-Zande), people, the same word as Bore. 

Bord (Fr.), shore, bank, strand. 

Borde (Provincial, Fr.), a small farm (B rdfc ). 

Bore (Songhai), people, the same word as Borau. See 
also Boroyo. 

Boreas, Borras (Greek), north. For other .points see Lips, 
Meses, Skiron, Euros, Apeliotes. 

Borg (Arab.) See Borj. 

Borg (Da., Sw.), a castle, e.g. Aalborg, 'eel castle.' 

Borgata (It.), borough, market town; suburb. 

Borghetto (It.), a large village or small town. 

Borgu (Nigeria), grazing land, grass lands, a name given 
to several districts, as well as to the territory known 
by the name. 

Bori (Songhai), fertile lands. 

Borj (Arab.), a fortified building, a town ranking be- 
tween Medine (city) and Karie or Beled (village). 
See Borg. 

Borj, pi. Biar, Abiar (Arab.), wells. 

Born (Hesse) a stream, e.g. Hachborn. Cf. Bourne. 

Borne (Fr.), landmark, boundary. 

Boromma (Gold Coast), narrow street, lane. 

Borori (E. Africa), a cattle track, any path or track. 



Borough (England), from Anglo-Saxon burg (an earth- 
work), a fortified town. Of. Bury, Brough. 

Borough (Anglo-Saxon) = beorh, a hill, e.g. Ingleborough. 
Cf. Berg, Berk, Barrow. 

Boroyo (Songhai), people. See Bore, Borau. 

Borras (Neo-Greek). See Boreas. 

Borro, Borrone (It.), a large ravine. 

Bos (Cymric), a house, e.g. Boscawen. 

Bos (E. Turkestan), grey, e.g. Bos-kul, Bos-yilga. See 
Kul, Yilga. 

Boscaglia (It.), woods, underwood. 

Bosch (Dch.), wood, forest, e.g. Braambosch (Holland), 
Stellenbosch (Cape). 

Boschveld (Dch.), open plain covered with low bush. 

Bosco (It.) t wood, forest (B.) 

Bosogha (E. Turk.), gate, entrance. 

Bosonopo, Bosoropo (Gold Coast), the great sea, ocean. 

Bosque (Sp.), a tract of land planted with trees and 
brushwood, a forest. In the .Philippines this is 
used for any wild, uncultivated land. 

Bosquet (Fr.), grove, thicket. 

Bostan (E. Turk.), kitchen garden. 

Bot-ho (Arab.), a creek of water less open than a Rejl or 
Kra (q.v.) 

Botogo (Songhai), a marsh. 

Bottle (Anglo-Saxon, Norse), a house, e.g. Newbottle. 

Bottom (Anglo-Saxon'botm), a dale, a hollow, low ground. 
(U.S.A.), River Bottom or Flat Bottom, the low 
land, covered with wood, lying between a river and 
the hills which enclose its valley. 


iBotwe (Amaxosa), the metropolis, seat of government. 
Bouche (Fr.), mouth of a river (B che ). 
Bouee (Fr.), buoy, beacon. 
Bounon (Neo-Greek) , mountain, hill. 
Bourd (Gaelic Bhuird), flat, e.g. Benabourd, 'table-moun- 
tain,' one of the Cairngorms. See Ben. 
Bourg (Fr.), town. 
Bourne (Anglo-Saxon), a stream, rivulet, e.g. Eastbourne. 

Cf. Born, Burn. 

Bouwland (Dch.), arable land. 
Boven (Dch.), upper, above, e.g. Bovenkerk. 
Bowal (Fr. Guinea), a rocky plain. 
Box Canon (U.S.A.), a canon having practically vertical 

rock sides. 
Boyon (Tibet), an isthmus, e.g. Kara Boyon, 'black 

isthmus.' See Kara. Cf. Buyan. 
Boyuk (Turk.), great, e.g. Boyuk Derbend, in both 

Rumelia and Eastern Eumelia. 
Boz (E. Turkestan). See Bos. 
Brachos (Neo-Greek) , a cliff. 
Brae (Nor.), glacier, e.g. Jostedalsbrae. 
Brae (Scotch), slope of a hill. 
Brag (Tibet), rock, a rocky mountain. 
Branco, a (Port.), white, e.g. Rio Branco, Serra Branca, 
Brang, Brang-sa (Tibet), station, camp. 
Brasa (Slavonic), birch, e.g. Braslaf. 
Brazo (Sp.), an arm of a river. 
Brdo (S. Slav.), a mountain. 
Bre (Celtic), a promontory, e.g. Bredon. 



Break (Icelandic brekka, a declivity), a hollow among 
hills ; (Scotch) a division of land in a farm. 

Breite (Ger.), latitude. 

Bridalveil-Fall (U.S.A.), a cataract of great height and 
such small volume that the falling water is dissi- 
pated in spray before reaching the lower stream- 

Brig (North of Eng.), bridge, e.g. Briggate, Brighouse. 

Brija (Arab., N. Africa), a small fortified house ; dim. 
of Borj. 

Briqueterie (Fr.), a brick kiln (Briq ie ). 

Brisees (Fr., Mauritius), shooting paths cut in the jungle. 

Bro (Celtic), a district. 

Bro (Harem, Indo-China), forest. 

Bro (Nor., Da., Sw.), a bridge. 

Brod (S. Slav.), a ford. 

Bron (Dch., Ger.), source of a stream, e.g. Heilbronn, 
' holy source,' ' holy well.' 

Bronu (Gold Coast), a street, lane. 

Brough (England), from Anglo-Saxon burh or burg 
(an earthwork), a fortified town. Cf. Burg, Bury, 

Brousse (Fr.), forest, bush. 

Brucke (Ger.), a bridge. 

Brug (Dch.), a bridge, e.g. Burgerbrug, Nieuwebrug. 

Brughiera (It., Milanese dialect), heath. 

Brunnen (Ger.), well, stream. 

Brunnr (Icelandic), a fountain, spring. 

Bryn (Welsh), a brow, ridge, slope of a hill, e.g. 


Bu (Arab., Algeria). Added to names of animals, 
plants, &c., it denotes the place where they abound. 
In composition it signifies resemblance. Joined 
to adjectives it means river, e.g. Bu-Merzug=the 
fertilising river. 

Bu (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), prefix generally 
employed to indicate abstract nouns, e.g. Mu-ntu 
= a man, Bu-ntu = humanity ; also land, country, 
e.g. Buganda, Bunyoro. See Ba. 

-Bu, -Be (Chad L. region), a postfix signifying 'people,' 
e.g. Kanembu, the people of Kanem ; Fulbe (usually 
written Fula) ; Tibu. Corresponds to the Bantu 
prefix Ba, Wa, as in Basuto, Waganda. See also 
Kel, Im, Ahel. The singular is -ma, e.g. Kanema, 
Kanem-ma, ' a man of Kanem,' Billama, ' the man of 
the town, mayor,' Billa meaning 'town'; Ngurubu, 
pi. of Nguruma, people and person of Nguru. Further 
west, in Gurma, -bi is found, e.g. Gurmabi, 'the 
people of Gurma.' 

Bu (Tibet), middle, between. 

Buala, Bwala, pi. Mala (Loango). See Ala. 

Bucht (Ger.), bay, bight, cove. For use as a form of 
sub-oceanic relief see Embayment, 

Buda (Slavonic), a hut, e.g. Buda, Budkowitz. 

Budh (Punjab), old, e.g. old dry beds of branches of 
the Chenab. 

Budi (Congo), a papyrus swamp. 

Budo, Bude, Buda (Yoruba), a camp, e.g. Bude-Eku, Buda- 
Egba. See Egba. 

Budu (Mossi, French Sudan), nation. 


Bueno, a (Sp.), good, e.g. Buenos Aires, ' fine airs,' Buena 

Vista, 'good view.' 
Buff (Galloppa, Abyssinia, and Lolcub, L. Rudolf), 


Bug (Tibet), cavity, recess ; end. 
Bugt (Da., Nor., Sw.), bight, bay. Cf. Bucht. 
Bugu (Mande), an inhabited place of less importance 

than a capital ; house, cottage. Cf. Dugu. 
Buhaira (Arab.), a small sea, a lake. 
Buhne (Ger.), a wharf, quay; a dam to turn the course 

of a river. 
Bui, Bhui (Gaelic), yellow, e.g. Ru Bui, ' Yellow Point,' 

in Loch Alsh. 

Buira (Arab., N. Africa). See Bwira. 
Buisson (Fr.), bush, thicket. 
Buiten (Dck.), outside, without, e.g. Buitenveldert, 
Buitenplaats (Dck.), a country seat. 
Buitenverblijf (Dck.), a country house. 
Bujoko (Yoruba), a dwelling. 
Buk (Hang CkeJc, Indo-Ckina), great. 
Buka (Arab.), a valley between two mountain ranges; 

a low-lying tract of land ; burial-place of a saint. 
imBukha (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), cave. 
Bukhta (Russ.), bay, creek. 

Bukit (Malay), a hill, e.g. Bukit Hulu Bena, See Hulu. 
Bukoba. See Wakoba, Koba. 
Buksem (Cent. Asia), close tangled wood. 
uBuku (Kafir), a bog, a quagmire. 

Bui (Chad L. region), white, e.g. Nki Bui, ' white water,' 
a portion of Chad L. 


Bulak (Turk.), spring, source, e.g. Suj-Bulak. 

Bulakan (Philippines), a country or district where 

cotton is grown. 
mBulangiana (Congo, dialect of Bantu), confluence, 

junction of two streams. 

Bulli (Somali), a low place where water collects. 
Bulli Haredle (Somali), a rain-water pool. Hared= 

rain-water. See Le. 
Bulshaia (Alaska), .great mountain. 
Bulu (Mande), arm, branch, e.g. Babulu, 'river arm.' 

See Ba. 
luBulu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a small torrent-bed, 

Bum (Pers.), a country, land, soil, cognate with Sansc. 

bhumi. See Bhum, 

Buluga (Mossi, French Sudan). See Kuluga. 
Bumanda (Benue R. region), a ford or place of em- 


Bun (Irish), mouth of a river, e.g. Bundoran. 
Bun (Indo-China), a village. 
Bun (Mande), house, cottage. 
Bun (Somali). See Ban. 
Bunar (Turk.), the source of a river. 
Bund (Pers.), a dam. Cf. Band. 
Bundari (E. Africa), harbour, a form of Bandar 
Bunder (Pers.), a harbour, a form of Bandar. 
Bundu (Fula), wells, spring, source. 
Bunga (Galla), an uninhabited desert. Cf. Halla. 
Bungalow (Anglo-Indian), a corruption of the Hind. 

Bangla (contrac. from Bangala), the most usual 


class of house occupied by Europeans in the 
interior of India, being of one story and covered 
by a pyramidal thatch roof, though a tile roof is 
sometimes used. 

Bungo (Barotseland) . See Yungo. 

Bungu (Ja-Luo, Uganda), forest, 

Bunguntani (Madagascar), a little round hill. 

Bunik (Nandi, Uganda), country. 

Buntu (Celebes), mountain, e.g. Buntu Bila, 

Bur (Somali), a mountain, e.g. Bur-Mado, Bur-Dap, Gum- 
bur. See Mado. 

Bur (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a well. 

Burak (Arab.), artificial pools or tanks (pi. of Birket). 

Buran (Cent. Asia), a snowstorm. 

Biiren (Ger.), an abode, e.g. Amelsbiiren (in Westphalia). 
The Deli, form is Buren. 

Burg (Dch.), castle, town, e.g. Doornenburg, Rozenburg. 

Burg, Burgh (England), an earthwork, a fortified town. 
Cf. Brough, Bury. 

Burgo (Port.), a town or castle on a hill ; suburb. 

Burgos (Eendili, East Africa), white-necked, e.g. Donyo 
Burgos, ' the white-necked mountain,' the Eendili 
name for Mt. Kenia. 

Buri (Danakil), land, dry land ; e.g. Buri peninsula in 

Buri (Siam\ a city. 

Burj (Arab.), a tower. 

Burn (Anglo-Saxon), a bourn, stream, rivulet, e.g. 
Blackburn. Cf. Bourne, Born. 


Burnu, Burun (Turk.), cape, the French Nez ; point, 

promontory. See Burun. 

Buron (Fr.), hut, cottage (B on ), from Old Ger. bur, house. 
Burrock (from Anglo-Saxon beorg), a small weir or dam 

in a river. 

Burrone (It.), a precipice, ravine. 
Bursa (Mande). See Birsa. 
Burun (Songhai), king. 
Burun (Turk.), naze, lit. a nose, e.g. Injeburun. See 


Bury (England), from Anglo-Saxon burn, burg; an 
earthwork, fortified town. Cf. Brough, Burg, Borough. 
Bus (Slavonic), a dwelling, e.g. Trebus. 
Buscione (It.) t bush, jungle. 
Buso (Yoruba), a resting-place, inn. 
umBuso (Zulu, Kafir), a kingdom. 

Biistan (Pers.), a garden, especially a flower-garden, from 

bu, bo, fragrance, and stdn, place. 
Busu (Yoruba), loose sandy ground. 
umButiso (Zulu, Kafir). For meaning see Umbutiso. 
Butte (Fr.), a knoll. 

(U.S.A.), a lone hill rising with precipitous cliffs 

or steep slopes ; a small isolated Mesa (q.v.) 
Bttttel (Ger.), a house, lit. bailiff, e.g. Wolfenbuttel. Cf. 


Buurt (Dch.), a hamlet, e.g. Bovenbuurt, Geldersche Buurt. 
Buwab>Z. of Bab (Arab.), gates. 
Buyan (E. Turk.), saddle, neck, col. Cf. Boyon. 
Buyan (Buss.), wharf, landing-place (in masculine). 
Buyuk (Turk.), great, e.g. Buyukdere, on the Bosporus. 


Buzuk (E. Turk.), ruined, in ruins. 

eBwila (Congo, dialect of Bantu), mouth of a river, con- 

Bwira, Buira (Arab., N. Africa), little wells. 
-Bwo, -Bwe (Upper Sassandra B. region), a suffix, 
meaning village, settlement; e.g. Gogibwo, ' Gogi's 
village,' Gozrobwe, ' Gozro's village.' 

By (Da., Nor., Sw.), town, an abode, e.g. Derby, Whitby. 

Byang (Tibet), north. For other points see Lho. 

Byeli (JRuss.), white, e.g. Byeloye More, ' the White Sea.' 

Bye-ma (Tibet), sand. 

Caapau (Spanish S. America), a collection of trees ; also 

a small mound far from a river or spring ; has 

same meaning as Isla. 
Cabane (Fr.), a cottage (C ne ). 
Cabaret (Fr.), a tavern (Cab et ). Of. Khabarat. 
Cabeco (Port.), the top of a hill, summit. 
Cabo (Port., Sp.), cape, promontory, headland. 
Cacheo, Cachao (Port.), lit. the bubbles on water, so 

bubbling water, a torrential river, e.g. Cacheo Kiver. 
Cachimba (Spanish S. America), a shallow well, a 


Cachoeira (Port.), waterfall, rapids. 
Caer (Welsh), a fortress; e.g. Caermarthen. 
Cafeiere (Fr.), a coffee plantation. 
Cailloch (Gaelic cailleach), a nun, e.g. Inchcailloch, 'the 

island of the nuns.' See Inch. 


Cairn (Celtic}, a stony hill, e.g. Cairngorm. See Gorm. 
Cait, Caith (Cymric Caeth), narrow, e.g. Pencaitland (Pen- 

Caeth-Llan), < head of the narrow enclosure.' See 

Pen, Llan. 

Cajon (U.S.A.), a box-canon (q.v.) 
Cal, Calat (Sp.), a corruption of the Arabic Kalat, ' a 

castle on a rock,' e.g. Caltabalotta, Calatamisetta. 
Cala (It.), a bay. 
Cala (Sp.), a creek or small bay. 
Calat (Sp.) See Cal. 
Calata (It.), a slope or declivity. 
Calcosa (It.), a beaten path, a road. 
Caldeira (Fr. Port.) See Caldron. 
Calder (Celtic), a woodland stream. 
Caldron (Eng.), as a minor form of sub-oceanic relief, 

a more or less steep depression (q.v.) of relatively 

small extent, e.g. the Monaco Caldron on the 

Azores Plateau. Equivalent to Ger. Kessel, Fr. 

Caldeira. Cf. Furrow. 
Cale de Ferata (Rumania), railway. 
Caleta (Sp.), a cove. 
Calle (It.), a way, road, path. 

Calo (It.), fall, current of a river ; declivity of a hill. 
Calzada (Sp.), a highway. 
Cam (Welsh, Gaelic), crooked, e.g. Cam E. 
Cama (U.S.A.), a small upland prairie. 
Cama (Port., Sp.), a bed, stratum. 
Camber (Eng. from Old French), a small dock in a 

royal yard for unloading timber ; a harbour. 


Cambus (Celtic}, a bay, bend, e.g. Cambuskeimeth ; Ald- 

cambus, ' the stream of the bay.' See Aid. 
Caminho (Port.), a municipal or county road, cf. Estrada. 
Caminho de Ferro (Port.), railway. 
Camino (Sp.), a road (C.) 
Camino de Hierro (Sp.), railway. 

ampagna ( .), CO untry, open country, country fields. 

Campagne (Jrr.),l 

Campanario (Sp.),} 

Campanile (It.), \ a steeple ' tower ' belfr y- 

Campos abertos (Brazil), 'open plains,' where little is to 
be seen except herbaceous or scrubby growth. 

Campos agrestes (Brazil), ' rough plains,' where coarse 
tufty herbage of greyish colour prevails. 

Campos cerrados (Brazil), ' closed plains,' having nume- 
rous small groves, woods, and thickets. 

Campos geraes (Brazil), 'general plains'; the intermi- 
nable level or slightly rolling tracts, under short 
coarse growth, where the landscape is monotonous 
and seldom relieved by any conspicuous object. 

Campos mimosos (Brazil), ' tender campos,' under soft, 
fresh, bright green pasturage, suitable for cattle- 

Campos veros (Brazil), ( true plains,' grassy, treeless, and 
waterless plateaux. 

Camus (Gaelic), a bay or creek, e.g. Camus Orasay, in the 

Canada (U.S.A.), a very small canon. In Argentina 
this is used for any small depression. 


Cancha (Spanish S. America), a spacious flat or open 


Candelas (U.S.A.], a group of candle-like rocky pinnacles. 
Cangrejal (Spanish S. America), low marshy ground, 

full of ruts and holes, impassable and difficult of 


Canon (Spanish America), a mountain gorge. 
Cantera (Sp.), a quarry. 
Cantiere (It.), a dockyard. 
Canton (Low Latin Cantonum, a district, province, Fr. 

Canton, a collection of parishes), a small portion or 

division of land, a small district constituting a 

distinct government. Hence Cantonment, quarters 

for soldiers ; the Swiss Cantons. 
Caolas (Gaelic), firth, strait, e.g. Caolas na Aird. 
Cap (Fr., Ger.), cape, headland (C.) 
Capel (Welsh), a chapel, e.g. Capelcurig. 


Capelle (Ger.}, J- a chapel. 

Capilla (Sp.), ) 

Capo (It.), a cape (C.) 

Capocroce (It.), cross-roads. 

Capoeira (Brazil), ' aftergrowths,' the jungle that springs 

up rapidly in abandoned clearings. 
Capoes (Brazil), ' thickets,' patches of low growth, 

especially palms, in the damp parts of the grassy 

Campos (q.v.) 

Car (Wales), a city, town, e.g. Cardiff. 
Car (Scotland), a fortified place, e.g. Carstairs. 
Carabineros (Sp.), a post of military coastguards. 


Carraja (It.), a cartway. 

Carrascos (Brazil), scrub, brushwood. See Capoes, Ser- 
radoes. Catingas. 

Carrefour (Fr.), a cross-road (Carref 1 '). 

Carretera (Sp.), a high-road. 

Carrick, Carrig (Ireland), a rock, crag, from the Gaelic 
carraig, e.g. Carrickfergus, Carrig o Gunnel. 

Carriere (Fr.), a quarry (Carr e ). 

Carse (Scotland), low and fertile land adjacent to a 
river, e.g. Carse of Gowrie. 

Cartha (Phoenician), an enclosed place, a city, e.g. 

Casa (It., Port., Euman., Sp.), a house. 

Casar (Sp.), a village (Gas.) 

Cascajo (Sp.), gravel. 

Cascina (It.), pasture-ground, dairy farm (C ne ). 

Caserne (Fr.), barracks. 

Caseta (Sp.), a small house. 

Casino (It.), a country seat (Gas ). 

Casotto (It.), a small house, sentry-box (Ct). 

Cassine (Fr.), a little country house, box. 

Castagneto (It.) Castanhaes (Brazil), a forest abounding 
in chestnut trees. 

Caster (Anglian), from Latin castra, camp, e.g. Don- 
caster. Cf. Cester, Chester. 

Catena (It.), a chain (of mountains). 

Catingas (Brazil), extensive open woodlands of small 
growth and with much underwood, affording cover 
to all kinds of animals. See Campos, Capoes. 

Cavata (It.), a ditch, moat. 


.Cay, Key (U.S.A., W. Indies), a comparatively small and 
low coastal island of sand or coral, from Sp. cayo, 
e.g. Key West. 

Cayo (Sp.), rock, shoal, islet. 

Ceann (Gaelic), head, promontory, e.g. Ceann More, W. 
coast of Scotland. See More. 

Cefn (Cymric), a back, ridge, e.g. Cevennes, Cefnllys. 

Ceja (Sp.), the summit of a mountain. 
,, (U.S.A.), the cliff of a Mesa (q.v.) ridge, an escarp- 

Celt (Welsh), a covert. 

Cementerio, Cimenterio (Sp.), a cemetery, burial-ground. 
inCencesha (Amaxosa, Kafir), a rivulet. 

Cenn (Gaelic), a head, a mountain (pronounced ken), 
e.g. Kenmore. See More. 

Cense (Fr.), a small farm (C se ). 

Cercania (Sp.), neighbourhood; in pi. environs. 

Cerny (Bohemian), black (Cr.) Cf. Cherni, Tzerni. 

Cerrig (Welsh), a crag, e.g. Cerrig-y- Druidion. Cf. Carrick. 

Cerro (Sp.), a hill or highland which is in general craggy. 
(U.S.A.), a single eminence intermediate between 
hill and mountain. 

Cester (Mercian), from Latin castra, camp, e.g. Leicester. 
Cf. Caster, Chester. 

Cha, Sha (Indian, U.S.A.), great, e.g. Shawangunk= 
great wall : Chatemuc= great rocks. 

Cha (Indian, California), town, village, house. 

Cha (China), sand, e.g. Kin Cha Kiang, ' the river of 
golden sand,' i.e. the Upper Yangtse ; also a post- 
house. Cf. Tarjam. See Kin, Kiang. 


Cha (Kurdish), a mountain. 

Cha (Tibet), signifies extent, see Cha Lam; also a post- 
house, resting-place, e.g. Shangcha. 

Chabet, Chaaba (Algeria), a system of sinuous ravines. 
See the more usual forms Shabet, Shaaba. 

Chacra (Spanish S. America), a farm building. 

Chad. See Tsadhe. 

Chadir (Cent. Asia), house, e.g. Chadir Tash, 'stone 

Chagan (Mongol), white, e.g. Chagan Tologai, ' white 

Chaget (Indian, Alaska), a river mouth, e.g. Koschaget, 
'the mouth of the Kosna,' na being river. In the 
lower Yukon district the ch is hardened into k. 
See Kaget, Kakat. 

Chah (China), a barrier. 

Chah (Pers.), well, pit, e.g. Cha-Shirin. 

Chahi (Punjab.), land irrigated from wells, whether 
assisted by canals or river-floods or not. Cf. 

Chai (China), fortified military place, camp. 

Chai (Shan States), a village, e.g. Tao Kuan Chai. 

Chai (Turk.), a river, e.g. Ulu Chai. See TIlu. 

Chaine (Fr.), a chain of hills (Ch ne ). 

Chair (Turk.), a meadow. 

Chak (Pers.), hole, mine. 

Chak (Indian, California), earth, land. 

Chaka (Giryama). See Aka. 

Chaka (Tibet), a lake, e.g. Lima Ringmo Chaka. 

Chakerem (Cent. Asia), shout-distance. 


Cha Lam (Tibet), a ' large road,' high road. See Cha, Lam. 

Chalet (Fr.), house, Swiss cottage (Ch et ). 

Chalo, Charu, Chialu (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). 

See Alo, Aro, Alu, 

Chamama (W. Sahara), inundated banks of rivers. 
Chaman (Pers.), pasture, orchard. 
Chamine (Port.), a chimney, steeple. 
Chamur (Turk.), mud. 
Chan (China), resting-stages for the night. 
Chan (Gaelic), a headland, e.g. Ardnamurchan, ' the 

height of the great headland.' See Ard, Mor. 
Chandis (Java), the ancient temples of Central and 

Eastern Java. 

Chang (China), village, borough, market ; middle. 
Chang (China), long (either time or distance), e.*/. Chang 

Chiang, ' long river.' 
Chang (Pers.). See under Hamun. 
Chang (Tibet), north, e.g. Chang Pa, 'the men of the 

north/ a nomad tribe of Tartars called Tagh Lik, or 

' mountaineers ' in E. Turk. See Pa, Tagh, Lik. 
Changkat (Malay), a hill or rising ground, a small hill, 

e.g. Changat Jening, Changat Tepus. 
Chanh (Cochinchina), honest, upright ; e.g. Binh-Chanh, 

' equal in probity,' a district in Cambodia. See Binh. 
Chani (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kiani. 
Chanwa (Haitsa), green, of a wood in leaf. Cf. Algus, 
Chap (E. Turk.), a very enclosed ravine. 
Chapadas (Brazil), ' high ground,' applied vaguely to 

elevated plateaux, low ridges or serras traversing 

the Campos (q.v.) See also Taboleiras, Sertoes. 


Chapelle (Fr.) t a chapel (Ch lle ). 

Char (Bengal), a sandbank, also new alluvium brought 
down by a river ; in Anglo-Indian Churr. 

Char (Marocco), a village built of houses, not tents. 

Charde (Pers.), a group of four villages, from char, ' four,' 
and deh, ' village.' Cf. Char-su, 

Charneca (Brazil), 'heath,' applied to scrubby open 
tracts forming a transition from Carrascoes to the 
Sertoes (q.v.) 

Charo (Nika). See Aro. 

Char-su (Pers.), four roads meeting, a market. Cf. 
Charde, Chauraha. 

Chart (England), a forest, e.g. Seal Chart. 

Cham (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Chalo. 

Chase (England), an unenclosed hunting-ground, e.g. 
Cannock Chase. 

Chashma (Pers.), a fountain, source, e.g. Chasma Gauhir. 

Chat (E. Turkish), angle, junction of two water- 

Chat ta ua (Indian, U.S.A.), a hill. 

Chateau (Fr.), a castle (Ch au ). 

Chatel (Fr.), a castle, e.g. Ntmchatel. 

Chatemuk (Indian, U.S.A.), great rocks. 

Chatir (Cent. Asia), another form of Chadir (q.v.) 

Chau, Chou (China), department, the division of a 
province ranking above a district and below a 
sub-prefecture, usually called San Chou; district 
city. Cf. Hien, Fu. Also means islet. 

Chau (Cambodia), everywhere, altogether, e.g. Chau-Phu, 
1 everywhere rich,' in Bao-Lok, 


Chaufour (Fr.),a, limekiln. 

Chau kong fo (Miao-tse, Kwei-chou), a brook. 

Chaumine, Chaumiere (Fr.), a small cottage. 

Chaung (Burma), stream, creek. 

Chaur (Hind.), a large open space in a forest, an ex- 
tensive tract of low land. 

Chauraha (Hind., Pers.), a cross road, the junction of four 
roads. Cf. Char-su, Chaur being a variant of Char. 

Chaussee (Fr.), a main road (Ch 6e ). 

Chawng (Siam), a strait. 

Che (China), a dam. 

Cheaou (China), a bridge. Cf. Chiao, Kiao, 

Cheap. See Chipping. 

Chebiri (Hausa), an island. 

Chede (Nika). See Ede. 

Chekil (E. Turk.), a steep rock. 

Chekmeje (Turk.), a bridge. 

Chel (E. Turk.), a desert. 

Cheltang (Hang Chek, Indo-China), road. 

Chema (Tibet), sand. 

Chemin (Fr.), a road (Ch in ). 

Chemin de fer (Fr.), railway. 

Cheminee (Fr.), chimney (Ch n6e ). 

Chenal (Fr.), a channel (of harbours, &c.), a track. For 
use as a form of sub-oceanic relief see Gully. 

Cheng (China) , a city wall, a city ; a walled village or 
town ; a stage in a journey. Cf. Pu, Tun, Tsun, 
Chwang. Sometimes written Chen, e.g. Pei-ku- 
chen, ' north pass borough.' See Pei, Ku, 

Cheng (Yindu Chin, W. of Mon R.), a valley. 

F 2 


mChenga (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), sand. 

Chengo (Giryama), a camp. 

Chenu, pi. Chelu (Telegu), a field. 

Chep. See Chipping. 

Chergi (W. Sahara), east. 

Cherni (Buss.), black, e.g. Chernoe More, ' the Black 
Sea ' ; Chernagora, ' Black Mountain,' i.e. Monte- 
negro. Cf. Cerny. 

Chersonesus (Greek), a peninsula. 

Cheshme (Pers.), source, fountain. 

Chester (Saxon), from Latin Castra, camp, e.g. Win- 
chester. Cf. Caster, Cester. 

Chesu (Songhai), the bank of a river. 

Chete (Giryama). See Etc. 

Cheul (Turk.), a desert. 

Chevalis (Fr.), a ford when the water is low, a passage 
made with boats when a river is low. 

Chi (Cent. Africa), a prefix signifying 'big,' e.g. Chiromo 
=big lip. 

Chi=Hyeng=Nyeng=Ryeng (Korea), a pass, e.g. Ko- 


i mi Chi, umuChi (Kossova, Uganda), a town, 
ma Chi (Fan, French Congo), water. 

Chi (Batta, Benue E. region), a suffix meaning lan- 
guage, e.g. Paparchi, ' the language of the Papar 
people.' Cf. Nchi. 
in Chi (Swahili), country. 

Chia (China), a house, home, family; also a cape, 

Chia (Kurdish), a mountain. 

Chialu (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Chalo, 


Chiang (China), a river, never used for a small stream, 
though Ho may be applied to a large one. See Kiang. 

Ciiiao (China), a bridge; also a sect, e.g. Chei Chiao, 
1 abstinence sect,' applied to Mussulmans. 

Chibla (Songhai), earth. 

Chibongo (Bantu). See Bongo. 

Chico (Sp.), small, e.g. ChicoR. There are several rivers 
of this name in South America. 

Chidunda (Senna, Bantu). See Dunda. 

Chie (China), a street. 

Chien (China), a thousand ; e.g. Chien Shan, ' the thou- 
sand peaks.' 

Chien (China), shallow. 

Chieng (Laos), a city. 

Chie-ye (Miao-tse, Kwei-chau), a plain. 

Chiflik (Turk.), a farm. 

Chig (Indian, U.S.A.), shore. 

Chigogo (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), a kind 
of banana, e.g. Ngogo, a river rising in or flowing 
through a banana plantation. See Gogo. 

Chigunda (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kirumba. 

Chikowa (Hausa), flood. 

maChila (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). For meaning 
see Machila. 

Chilezo, pi. Vilezo (Swahili). See Lezo. 

Chi-li (China), metropolitan. 

{(China), independent department, i.e. 
independent of a prefecture; indepen- 
dent departmental city or city of the 
second order. Cf. Chau. 


mu Chili (Barotseland, Bantu), a clan, e.g. Mu chili Kaehi- 
hombo, ' the clan of fishers.' For pi. see Muchili. 

Chi-li-ting (China), independent sub-prefecture; a di- 
vision of a province ranking immediately after a 
prefecture, and dependent directly on a circuit. 

Chilundi (Tonga, Bantu). See Lundi. 

Chilwa (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu}. See Kirwa. 

Chima (Pula, China), a wood, forest. 

Chimen (E. Turk), prairie. 

Chimpolo (Loango), a ravine. 

Chin (China), a town, lit. a tent ; e.g. Maimachin, ' trade 
town ' near Kiakhta. 

Chin (China), gold, e.g. Chin Chuan, ' gold stream.' 

Chin (Hind.) See Jin. Chin (Korea). See Jin, 

China (It.), a declivity, slope. 

Chine (Anglo-Saxon Cinu), a rift, chink; ravine; e.g. 
Blackgang Chine. 

Ching (China), a well. 

Ching (China), the capital of a state. 
liChinga (Mavia, Mozambique), a small hill. 

Chinggo (Marovo, Solomon Is.), plantation, garden. 

Chini (Swahili), depth. 

Chiniak (Aleut), a rocky, impassable, wretched sea ; e.g. 
Chiniak bay, cape, and island. 

Chin-toil (Hang CheJc, Indo-China), a forest. 
liChinya (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), an island. 

Chiopak (Mentaivei), a stream. 

Chipanas (Java), hot springs. 

Chipping, Cheap, Chep (Eng. from old Teutonic root, 
meaning ' trade,' ' barter'), market-place, e.g. Chip- 
ping Norton, Cheapside, Chepstow. See Kbping. 


Chir (Gaelic chiar), dark brown, e.g. Aberchirder (Aber- 
chiar-dur), ' the confluence of the dark-brown 
water.' See Aber, Dur. 

Chirumba (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Rumba. 
Chirwa (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kirwa. 
Chisai (Japan), little, small. 

Chisi, Dzisi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See Si. 
Chisiwa (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Ziwa. 
Chisua (Bantu). See Sua. 
Chit (E. Turk), limit, boundary. 
Chito (Bantu). See To. 

Chitumbi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Litumbi. 
Chiung (China), border waste land. 
Chlum (Slavonic), an isolated hill. 
Cho (Annam), a market. Cf. Sho. 
Cho (Tibet), a lake, e.g. Am Cho; Garing Cho, Another 

form is Tso. 
mCho (East Africa, dialect of Bantu). For meaning see 


Chog (Tibet), a country, region. 
Chokel (Hausa), branch of a river ; backwater. Cf. 

Chokku (N. Nigeria), rocky, e.g. Chokku-Chokku, in 

Kabba district, meaning ' rocky-rocky,' i.e. very 


-Choko (Cent. Africa), a suffix meaning 'little.' 
Choi (Cent. Asia), a desolate plain. 
Choi (Punjab), a small hollow. Cf. Chura. 
Choi (Yambo, Upper Sobat E.), black. 
Chom (Zirian). See Chum. 
Chom (Kurdish), a stream. 


Chombo (Swahili), a dhow. 

Chon (Hainan), a village. Also in Korea. 

iChonde (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a forest. 

Chong (Siam), a strait. 

Chong (E. Turk.), great. 

Chong (Tibet). See Chung. 

Cho pol (Indian, California), a lake. 

Chor (Marocco), a fixed Berber village. 

Chorak (Turk.), a marsh. 

Chorion (Greek), a village. 

Chot (Wakhan, Pamirs), a lake. 

Chota (Hind.), small ; properly Chhota mas., Chhoti,/m., 
e.g. Chota Nagpur; Chhoti Nadi, a rivulet ('small 
river '). See next entry. 

Chota gam (Hind.), a small village. 

Chou (China), a department ; the capital of a depart- 
ment. See Chau. 

Chou (China), a place surrounded by water, island. See 

Chu (China), stream, river. 

Chu (Tibet), water, river. 

Chuan (China), stream, river, e.g. Chin Chuan, * Gold 
Stream.' Cf. Chuen. 

Chuang (China), borough, village. 

Chubar (Tibet), an isthmus. 

Chu-dog-po (Tibet), a torrent. 

Chu-dong (Tibet), wells. 

Chuen (China), a channel, river. Cf. Chuan. 

Chu henn (hon, hemm) (Laos), a garden. 

Chukur (E. Turk.), deep. 


Chul (Pers., Afghan), desert. 

Chula (Ja-Luo, Uganda), an enclosure. 

Chu lu (Indian, California), hill, mountain. 

Chum, Chom (Ziriari), summer hut ; hence Chumbi, suburb. 

Chu-mig (Tibet), source. 

Chu-mta (Tibet), bank, shore. 

Chun (China), an old variable designation correspond- 
ing with the present prefecture. Cf. Chau, Chi-li- 
Chau, Hien, Fu. 

Chung (Chin Hills), hill, peak. Cf. Tung. 

Chung, Chong (Tibet), small, e,g. Chong La, ' small pass.' 

Chung Yuen (China), mainland, chung meaning ' centre,' 
e.g. Chung Chiang, ' centre river.' 

Chura (Punjab), a wide hollow. Cf. Choi. 

Churang (Malay), a creek. Cf. Jurang. 

Churr. See Char. 

Chusa, Chuja (Tibet), a source of hot springs, e.g. 
Naisum Chusa. 

Chusquea (Chili), reeds. 

Chute (Fr.), waterfall, cataract. 

Chu-tram (Tibet), river bank. 

Chu- wo (Tibet), river. 

Chu-zar (Tibet), a cascade. 

Chwang (China), a village (agricultural). Cf. Pu, Tun, 
Tsun, Cheng. 

Chwang (Chong Chia-tse, Yunnan), a cave. 
iChweba (Amaxosa, Kafir), a lagoon of still clear water. 

Chwen (China), a river =Chyen (Korea). 

Cidade (Port.), a city, town, e.g. Cidade do Recife, ' city 
of the reef.' 


Cienaga (Sp.), a marsh, moor. 

(U.S.A.), an elevated or hillside marsh con- 
taining streams. 
Cima (It., Sp.), summit of a mountain (C ma ), e.g. Cima 

Nove, ' new peak.' 

Cime (Fr.), top, summit (of a mountain). 
Cimetiere (Fr.), cemetery (Cim re ). 
Ciottolato (It.), highway, paved road. 
Cirque (U.S.A.), a glacial amphitheatre or basin. 
Citadelle (Fr.), a citadel (Cit le ). 
Citta (It.), a city, town, e.g. Citta di Castello, 'town of 

the castle.' 

Ciudad (Sp.), a city, town, e.g. Ciudad Real, ' royal city.' 
Civita (It.), state, town, in composition, e.g. Civita 

Vecchia, ' Old Town.' 
Cjafe (Albanian), mountain top. 

Clachan (Gaelic), stones, sing, clach ; usually applied to 
a hamlet or small cluster of houses, probably from 
the existence of Druidical remains on the site, e.g. 
Clachantiompan. Cf. Clough, 
Clairiere (Fr.), a glade. 
Claugh (Irish). See Clough. 

Clawdd (Welsh), a ditch, fence, e.g. Caron Isclawdd. See Is, 
Cleit (Gaelic), a rugged eminence, e.g. Cleit Hianish. 
Clere (Anglo-Norman), a royal or episcopal residence on 

a lofty hill, e.g. Highclere. 
Clocher (Fr.), a belfry, clock-tower. 
Clogh (Irish). See Clough. 

Clon (Ireland), a plain surrounded by bog or water, 
from Irish cluain, e.g. Clonmel. 


Close (Old Fr. clos, Lat. clausus, shut in, enclosed), an 
enclosure, courtyard, the precinct of a cathedral. 

Cloture (Fr.), enclosure, fence. 

Cloud, Chide (Anglo-Saxon cltid, a rock, a hill), a cliff, 
rock, precipice, e.g. Thorpe Cloud. 

Clough, Claugh, Clogh (Irish), a stone, e.g. Cloghan, 
Claughton, Cloughton. Cf. Clachan, 

Clove (U.S.A.), a gorge, ravine. 

Coch (Welsh), red. See Goch. 

Coches (Upper Amazon region), small sluggish channels, 
leading to the lateral lakes which fringe a river 
in low swampy country. 

Coed (Welsh), a wood, e.g. Bettws-y-coed, ' dwelling 
across the wood.' See Bettws, Y, 

Cohonk (Indian, U.S. A), grey goose, e.g. Cohonkson = 
place of wild geese. 

Coill (Irish), a wood. 

Col (Fr., Eng.), a neck, an elevated pass. 

Collado (Sp.), a hill. 

Colle (I*.), a hill (C le ). 

Colline (Fr.), a hill. 

Collo (It.), the top, summit (of a mountain.) 

Coin (Latin, Colonia), a colony, e.g. Lincoln, Cologne. 

Colto (It.), ploughed land. 

Colwyn (Welsh collwyn), a hazel grove. 

Comba (Sp.), a valley. 

Combe (Celto- Saxon ; Cymric, cwm ; A.S., comb, cumb), 
a hollow between two hills, valley, dingle ; a bowl- 
shaped valley, e.g. Wycombe. 

Combe (Fr.), a small valley. 


Commune (Fr.), parish, township. 

Condate (Old Celtic), a confluence of two rivers. 

Confine (It.), boundary. 

Contea (It.), a county. 

Contornos (Port.), environs, suburbs. 

Contre-digue (Fr.), embankment, dike. 

Convento (It.), a convent (Conv to ). 

Cop (Celtic), a hollow, cup, e.g. Warcop. 

Cop (Saxon), a head, the top of a ridge, crest, e.g. Malcop. 

Coquilles (Fr.), shells. 

I a chain or ridge of mountains, a 

Cordilhera (Port.), , . . ^ 

4 long elevated and straight tract 
Cordillera (Sp.), 

( of land. 

,, (U.S.A.), a group of mountain ranges, in- 
cluding the valleys, plains, rivers, lakes, &c. ; its 
composite ranges may have various trends, but the 
Cordillera will have one general direction. 
,, (S. America), a chain of mountains with dis- 
tinct summits, but closely connected like the links 
of a chain or the strands of a rope. 

Corno (It.), an arm (of a river), peak of a mountain. 

Corral (Sp.), a court ; in America this is used to denote 
a cattle-pen, like the Port. Curral ; in Ceylon the 
term is applied to an enclosure for the capture of 
wild elephants. 

Corrego (Brazil), a stream, small river, e.g. Corrego Agua- 

Corrente (It.), current, stream. 

Corso (It.), a long broad street, a thoroughfare, e.g. 
il Corso (Rome). 


Cortijo (Sp.), farmhouse, grange, country house (Cort.) 

Cortinal (Sp.), a piece of ground near a village or farm- 
house, which is generally sown every year. 

Cos (Indian, U.S.A.), grass. 

Costa (It., Sp.), coast (C ta ), e.g. Costa Rica, 'rich coast.' 

Cote, pi. Cotan (Anglo-Saxon), a mud cottage, e.g. 
Fosscot, Coton. 

Cote (Fr.), coast. 

Coteau (Fr.), a small hill or declivity. 

(U.S.A.), an elevated pitted plain of rough 

Cotiere (Fr.), a range of coast, seaboard. 

Goto (provincial 'Sp.), territory, district. 

Coulee (U.S.A.), a cooled and hardened stream of lava; 
they occur as ridges of varying length and breadth, 
but rarely of great height ; a wash or arroyo 
(q.v.) through which water flows intermittently. 

Courant (Fr.), current, stream. 

Cours (Fr.), course, stream, current. 

Couvent (Fr.), convent (Couv 1 ). 

Cova (Port.), a ditch. 

Coxsackie (Indian, U.S.A.), high hills. Cf. Quassaick. 

Cozzo (It.), a spur of a mountain (C zo ). 

Craig (Cymric), a rock or crag, e.g. Craigruigh. Cf. Carrig, 

Crau (Savoy), a rock, crag. 

Crecida (Sp.), the flooding of rivers, in consequence of 
heavy falls of rain. 

Crete (Fr.), the crest of a mountain. For use as a form 
of sub-oceanic relief see Ridge. 

Crick, Craig (England) > a rock, crag, e.g. Cricklade, 


Crina (It.), the crest of a mountain. 

Crique (Fr.), a cove, creek. 

Crni (S. Slavonic), black. See Cherni. 

Croes, Crwys (Welsh), a cross, e.g. Croesgoch, ' red cross.' 

Croft (Anglo-Saxon), a close, or piece of enclosed ground 

adjoining a house ; a small farm. 

Croix (Fr.), a cross (Cr x ), e.g. Sainte Croix, 'the holy cross.' 
Crombie (Gaelic), curved, crooked, e.g. Abercrombie, 'the 

curved confluence.' See Aber. 
Cromlech (Welsh), a flat stone placed upon two upright 

stones in the form of a table, set up as a tomb. 
Crue (Fr.), a freshet or flood. 
Cruin (Gaelic), round, e.g. Inchcruin, ' round island.' 

See Inch. 

Cruz (Port., Sp.) a cross ; e.g. Vera Cruz, * the true cross.' 
Crwys (Welsh). See Croes. 
Csarda (Hung.), an inn (Cs.) 
Csatorna (Hung.), a canal (Cstn.) 
Csiri (Hung.), little. 

Csucs (Hung.), top, summit of a mountain (Cs.) 
Csun (Tangut), little. 
Csup (Hung.), a mountain peak. 
Csurtia (Tangut), a tower. 

Cuadra (Spanish S. America), a side of Manzana (q.v t ) 
Cuchilhas (Port., Brazil), long low ridges crossing the 

plains in all directions ; lit. knives. Cf. Cuchillas. 
Cuchillas (Cuba), an upland plain cut into numerous 

canons and salients. Cf. Cuchilhas, 
Cuchillas (Spanish S. America), a chain of mountains. 
Cuesta (Sp.), rising ground, eminence, 


Cuesta (U.S.A.), an ascending slope, a tilted plain or 

Mesa (q.v .) top. 
Cueva (Sp.) t a cave. 
Cuik (Cymric cog), a cuckoo, e.g. Penicuik, 'the hill of 

the cuckoos.' See Pen. 

Cul, Cull (Gaelic), back, neck, e.g. Culloden, ' the back- 
lying coast ridge ' ; Culross ' the back or neck of the 

peninsula.' See Ros. 
Culebra (Sp.), a snake, e.g. Culebra islands in the West 

Indies, Culebra K. (Cent. America), Culebra (Peru). 
Cum (Latin), with; occurs chiefly when one parish has 

been added to another, e.g. Whitton-cum-Thurlston. 
Cumbre (Sp.), top, summit, mountain peak, e.g. Cumbres 

Altas, ' the high peaks.' 

Cwm (Welsh), a bowl-shaped valley, e.g. Cwm Bechan. 
Czerna, Czerny. See Crni, Cherni, Tzerni. 


Da (Danakil), stone. 

Da (Tibet), the lower part of a lateral valley, 
urn Da (Amaxosa, Kafir), a boundary. 

Daal (Dutch), a valley, dale, e.g. Rozendaal. See Dal. 

Daan (Tagala, Philippines), a road. 

Daba (Somali), foot-hills, e.g. Daba-Ado, 'white hills.' 

See Ado. 
Daban (Mongol), col, pass, e.g. DalinDaban, 'the seventy 


Pabar (Hind.), a marsh, pool, pond, tank. 
Dabas (Lokub, L. Rudolf)) a tree. 


Dabba (Egyptian Sudan), small dry portions of land 

rising out of a marsh. 
Dabdaba (Arab.), rocky gypseous soil. 
Dabra (Hind.) See Dabar. 
Dad (Serer), grass, bush. 
Dad (Somaliland), people = Eag ; forest = Hedd, e.g. 

Dadliba, 'lion forest.' 
uDada (Kafir), a thicket, a jungle. 
Dadi (Fanti), ground, earth, e.g. Dadiasi. 
Dadipa (Gold Coast), arable. 
Dadze (Gold Coast), ground, shore. 
Dag (Mongol, E. Turk.), rock, a rocky mountain, moun- 
tain range. Cf. the other forms, Dagh, Tag, Tagh, 


Daga (Sara, Chad I/.), a lake. 
Daga, Dagah (Galla, Somali), stone, rock, e.g. Dagaha- 

Dayer, ' monkey rock,' Dagabur. See Bur. 
Dagat (Tagala, Philippines), sea. 
Dagh (Mongol., E. Turk.), a mountain. Cf. the other 

forms, Dag, Tag, Tagh, Tau. 
Dago (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a pool. 

Dahar (Arab.), an almost impracticable mountain tract. 
Dai=Tai=0 = Oki (Japan), large, great. 
Dai'a=Dhaya (Arab., N. Africa), small depressions, 

generally with vegetation. 
Daia, Dea (Hassania), a lake. 
Daibo (Japan), a fort. 
Dainu (Indian, U.S.A.), a town. 
Dair (Arab.), monastery, tavern, e.g. Dair Musa, 'the 

Moses convent/ Cf. Deir, 


Daira (India), a village, travellers' rest-house. 

Dairat, Dairah (Malay], a canton, province, territory. 

Dak (Indo-Cliina), a river. 

Dak-chemut (Harem, Indo-China), sea. 

Dake, Daka (Japan), peak, ridge, summit, e.^.Hodakayama, 

' the mountain of the standing ears of corn,' from 

the appearance presented by its granite towers. 

Another form is Take (q.v.) 
Dakha (Soninke), camp, bivouac. 
Dakhla (Arab.), the entrance to a gorge or defile. 
Dakhla (Hassania), a stream. 
Dakhlet (Arab.), country free from sand and surrounded 

by dunes. 
Dakhni (Hind.}, south. Cf. Junubi. For other points 

see Uttar. 

nDako (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a house. 
Dal (Dch.), a valley, e.g. Berg en Dal in Limburg, Haas- 

dal, See Daal. 
Dal, Dol (Celtic), a plain, dale, meadow, e.g. Dalarossie, 

' the field at the point,' Dalmahoy, ' the field to the 

north.' See Ros. 

Dal (Serer, Wolof), camp, bivouac. 
Dala, Dla (Mande), lake, marsh, swamp. See Badla, 
Dala (Ja-Luo, Uganda), town, village. 
nDala (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the fall of a river after a 

Dale (Eng.), a valley, e.g. Kirkdale, Lonsdale. Cf. Dell, 

Thai, Daal. 

Dalem (Java), the dwelling of the regent. 
Dalin (Mongol). See under Daban, 


Dalle (U.S.A.), a rapid. 

Dallol (Niger region, Songhai), large valley which serves 

for the collection of the rain, and forms a stream, 

but is usually dry for eight or nine months in the 

year, e.g. Dallol Mauri, Dallol Fogha. 
Dalni (Buss.), back, distant (of country), like German 

Hinter, e.g. Dalni, near Port Arthur. 
Dalr (Icel.), a valley, e.g. Fnjdskadalr. 
Dam (Laos, Siam), black. 
Dam (Teutonic), an embankment, e.g. Rotterdam, 'the 

dam of Kotte.' 
Dam (Tibet), a marsh. 
Dama (Hottentot), conquered, e.g. Damara, mistranslated 

' the people who were conquered,' i.e. by the 

Namakwa. Damara is fern, dual = two Dama 

women, and is quite wrongly applied to the 

people, who should be called Damakwa (masc. pi.) 
Damana (Hausa). See Damuna. 
Damana (Pers.), the foot of a mountain. The more 

usual form is Daman, e.g. Daman-i-Koh, ' skirt of the 

mountain.' See Koh. 
Dambo (Cent. Africa), an open patch in a wood or forest ; 

flat treeless swamp dry in the hot season ; malarial 


Dambok (Cambodia), a hill. 
nDambu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), bank (of a river), shore, 

coast, beach. 
Dam-bu (Tibet), reeds. 
Damele (Jibu, Neiv Guinea), flood. 
Daraka (Hind.), a hillock, eminence. 


Damm (Ger.), embankment, dam. 
Damuna, Damana (Hausa), wet season. 
Dan (Siam), Siamese police or customs station. 
kuDana (Nilca), a path or way branching out of another. 
Danau (Malay), a lake. Cf. Tasek. 
Dan-dan (Bambara, Malinke), a mud wall surrounding 

a town or an enclosure. Cf. Din. 
mu Dandando (Nika), a rude bridge. 
Dane (Japan), a valley. 

Dang (Hind.), a hill, precipice, summit of a mountain. 
Dang (Tibet), cold, e.g. Dang Cho, ' cold lake.' See Cho, 
Dang, Dang-sa (Tibet), station, camp. 
Danga (Hausa), a garden. 
Dangi (Hausa), a tribe. 
Dang-po (Tibet), right, direct (of a road). 
Dankari (Mande), a ford. 
Da no (Indian, U.S.A.), hill, mountain. 
Dar (Arab), a large house, an abode, a country, a 

subdivision of a province, e.g. Darfur ; Dar Dief, ' a 

house for strangers.' Cf. Khot, Fan. 
,, (Hassania), encampment, town, village, really the 

same word as the above. 
Dar (E. Equatorial Africa), harbour, contracted from 

Bandar, e.g. Dar-es-Salam. 
Dar. See Der. 
Dara (Pers.), a valley or pass between two mountains ; 


Darada (Danakil), a river. 
Darassi (Caucasus), mountain top. 
Darat (Malay), coast (dry land). Cf. Tepilaut. 

a 2 


Darb (Arab.), a village. 

Dar-band (Pers.), a difficult pass, literally a * door-bar,' 

a barrier, hence Derbend, the barrier between the 

foot of the Caucasus and the Caspian to bar the 

nomad Turks from entering Persia. 
Darbar (Punjab), a Sikh temple, e.g. Darbar Sahib, at 


Darela (Deccari), a waterfall. 

Daria, Darya (Pers.), a river, water, sea, e.g. Amu-Daria. 
Darsena (Sp.), a dock or basin. 
Darvase {Cent. Asia), a gate ; from next word. 
Darwaza (Pers.), door. 
Darya (Pers.) See Daria. 

Dash, Tash (Turk.), stone, rock, e.g. Tashkurgan. 
Dashera (Hassania), a village. Cf. Deshera. 
Dasht (Pers.), steppe, plain, desert, e.g. Dasht-i-Kavir, 

' the Great Plain.' See Kavir. 
Dat (Serer), a road. 
Daung (Burma), a town. 
Davan (E. Turk.) , a steep col, pass ; the same word as 

Daban (q.v.) ; e.g. Davan-Kum, i.e. sand with a pass 

running through it. 
Davara (Motu, New Guinea), sea. 
Dawng (Siam), a deep forest. 
inDawo (Kafir), a place, locality. 
Dayr. See Dair. 
Dazh (Pers.), a quicksand. 

Dazhi (Hausa), a wilderness (not barren), a forest. 
Dbus (Tibet), middle, between. 
De (Tibet), country, district, e.g. Jamaata de, north of 

Namcho ; De Namru. See Sde. 


Dea. See Daia. 

Dealu (Rumanian), a mountain (D.) 

Deas (Gaelic), south, e.g. Deas Point, Mull of Cantyre. 

Debba,^. Dibab (Egyptian Sudan), a small stony hill. 

Debbabia (Arab.), a misty or foggy place. 

Debdeba (Arab.), ground which resounds under the tread. 

Debe (SoninJce), a village. 
iDebi (Amaxosa, Kafir), a shallow in a river. 

Dechie, Detsie (Gold Coast), mud, e.g. Dechiesu, ' on the 
mud.' See Su. 

Decouvert (Fr.), an open (country). 

Deep (Eng.), in sub-oceanic relief, the deepest part of 
a Depression (q.v .), e.g. the Nero Deep ; opp. to 
Height (q.v.) Equivalent to Ger. Tief, Fr. Fosse. 

Defrichement (Fr.), a clearing in a forest. 

Deg (Wolof), marsh, bog, lake. 

Dega (Abyssinia), highland. Cf. Kwalla, Nejd. 

Dega (Indian, U.S.A.), a plain. 

Degirmen, Dei'rmen, Dermen (Turk.), a mill. 

Deh, Din (Pers.), a village. 

Dehess (Arab.), marshy ground. 

Deich (Ger.), a dike. 

Deir (Arab.), a house, monastery, a convent, sometimes 
in ruins, a variant of Dair. 

Deirmen (Turk.) See Dagirmen. 

De jos (Rumanian), lower (d.j.), generally placed after 
the name ; e.g. Sucin de jos, * Lower Sucin,' to dis- 
tinguish it from Sucin de sus, ' Upper Sucin,' both on 
a tributary of Lapos B., south of Maramaros. Cf. 
De mijloc. 


Dek (Cambodia), iron. 

Dek (Indian, Alaska), a creek, used chiefly in the Copper 

R. region ; e.g. Tatondek, ' Taton creek.' 
Dekame (DaJiome), a garden, applied by the natives to 

the eastern shore of L, Aheme, from its extreme 


Dekh (Wolof), a river. 
Dekhla (Arab., N. Africa), a pass, gorge ; a variant of 

Dakhla (q.v.) 

Dekke (Wolof), town, village. 
nDela (Barotseland), a road, path. Cf. Zila, Zira, Jila, 

Gila, Tsela 

Delaa (Arab.), a long mountain ridge. 
De le ba ron (Indian, California), an island. 
Dell (Southumbrian), a valley, e.g. Arundel. Cf. Dale, 

Delta (Greek), the triangular space occasionally enclosed 

between the diverging mouths of a river and the 

sea-coast; so called from its resemblance to the 

fourth letter of the Greek alphabet (A). 
Dem (Upper Nile), an Arab factory, town, village, e.g. 

Dem Ziber, ' Ziber's town.' 

Dema (Chad L. region), large, great, e.g. Kabe Dema. 
nDema (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country. 
De mijloc (Rumanian), middle. Cf. De jos, De sus. 
Demir (Turk.), iron. 
Demir-Yeri (Turk.), an anchorage. 
Den (Annam), black. 
Den, Dene (Celto- Saxon), a deep wooded valley, e.g. 



Dendron (Greek), a tree. 

Deng (Siani), red, e.g. Sala Deng near Bangkok. 

Deniz, Dengiz (Turk.), sea ; a large lake. 

Denkese (Gold Coast), bush, bushy. 

Denkmal (Ger.), a monument. 

Denkwan (Galla), a tent. 

Denkye (Gold Coast), bog, fen, moor. 

Dent (Fr.), a tooth, peak, e.g. Dent du Midi. 

Deo (Annam), a col. 

Deodhunga (Hind.), God's seat or hill; a name given to 

any sacred hill. 
Depression (Eng.),in sub-oceanic relief is enclosed on all 

sides by elevations of the sea-bed. Equivalent to 

Ger. Vertiefung. 
Der, Dar (Gaelic dur, Welsh dwr), water, e.g. Darent, 

* clear water,' Dart. 

Der (Somali), long, tall, deep, e.g. Tug Der. See Tug. 
Dera (Arab.), crest, ridge. 

Dera (India), house, encampment, e.g. Dera Dun. 
Dera (Japan), temple (Buddha). 
nDera (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), road. Cf. Dzira, 


Derb (Arab.), a road. 
Derbend (Pers.) See Darband. 
Dere (A-Zande), a wall, e.g. Ngaundere. 
Dere, Derin (Somali), a valley, ravine, e.g. Dere Godle, 

' the ravine of the cave place.' See God, Le, 
Dere (Turk.), a valley. 
Deren (Marocco), a mountain. 


Derevnya (Russ.), a village. 

Derevo (Russ.), a tree. 

Derigh (Somali), a road = Hilin. 

Dermen, See Degirmen. 

Dervent (Turk.), pass, defile ; a variant of Darband (q.v.) 

Desa (Malay), the country, as distinguished from the 

town or seat of government ; frequently used for 


Desaguadero (Sp.), an emissary from a lake. 
Descubridero (Sp.), an eminence or rising ground from 

which the adjacent country can be overlooked. 
Desembarcadero (Sp.), landing-place; quay. 
Deshabite (Fr.), uninhabited, deserted. 
Deshek (Somali), a lake, e.g. Deshek Wama. 
Deshera (Kabile), a village. Cf. Dashera, 
Desht (Pers.), a plain. Cf. Dasht, 
De sus (Rumanian), upper. See De jos. 
Dete (Giryama) , a chasm. 
Detsie (Gold Coast). See Dechie, 
Deyirme (Turk.), a windmill. 
Dhahr, Dhahret (Arab.), a back, ridge. In Abbadi 

(Etbai) this signifies* west,' i.e. of the water-parting. 
Dhaika (Abbadi, Etbai), a narrow pass. 
Dhal (Hind.), a declivity, slope. 
Dharmsala (Nepal, Tibet), a rest-house. 
Dhaya=Daia (Arab.), a small depression, generally with 

vegetation ; a dried-up pond. 
kiDhidha (Giryama), a bog. 
Dhiga (Arab.), a gorge. 


Dhiuliba (Upper Niger), water, river; corrupted into 
Joliba. *Lenfant says that Joliba means ' the river 
of songs.' 

Dhmirat (Arab., North Africa), a moderate- sized dune. 
Dhromo (Smyrna Greek), a road. See Dromos. 
Dhu, See Du. 
Di (A-Zande), water, e.g. Pangwadi, 'the water's edge,' 

'bank ' ; Wilidi, ' water's son,' stream. 
Di (Somali), a valley, e.g. Di-Wiyile, ' rhinoceros valley ' ; 

another form is De. 

maDi (Bafo, Kamerun), water. See Mansi, Manzi, 
muDi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), village. 
Diaman (Songhai), north. See Jiji, Wene Kame. 
Diamane (Soninke), country. 
maDiba (Kamerun, dialect of Bantu), sea, stream, river ; 

opp. to Mundi. 

Dibab, pi. of Debba (Egyptian Sudan), small stony hills. 
inDibonga (Amaxosa, Kafir), boggy unsound ground. 
Didi (Harem, Indo-China), small. 
Die. See Du. 

Die (Wolof), market, equivalent to the Arab. Sok, Suk. 
Dien (Cambodia), a rice field, e.g. An-dien, 'tranquil rice 

plantation,' in Bao-an. See An. 
Difali (Gurma), the dry season. 
Diga (It.), a dyke, embankment, mole. 
Digue (Fr.), a dyke (Dig.) 
Dih (Pers.), a village ; another form is Deh. 
Dihat (Pers.), the country. 
Diho (Motu, New Guinea), south ; lit. south wind. 

* Le Niger,' by Lenfant, Paris, 1903, p. 48. 


Diho (Motumotu, Neio Guinea), west. 

Diho (Sokotra), water, e.g. Dia Dimax, properly Diho 


Dijk (Dch.), a dam, e.g. Dijkshoek, Ganzedijk. 
Dik (Cambodia), water. 
Diko, Liko (Swahili). SeeKo. 
Dil (Turk.), isthmus, point, spit of sand. 
kiDila (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), island. 
isiDiliya (Amaxosa, Kafir), a vineyard, garden. 
umDiliya (Amaxosa, Kafir), a vineyard, garden. 
Dilla (Indian, U.S.A.), a little field. 
Dille (Central Sudan), watercourse, river ; the Marghi 

equivalent of the Kanuri Komadugu (q.v.) 
nDima (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country. 
nDimba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a valley, glen. 
Dimbadimba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a little valley; 

dim. of Ndimba and Dimbila, a valley. 
Dimbila (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a valley. 
Dimda (Eldorobo, Uganda), a forest. 
Din (Bambara, Mande), the wall of an enclosure, 

usually made of mud. Cf. Dan-dan. 
Din (Celtic), an elevated post, e.g. London (Londinium) ; 
other authorities say this is the Long-dun, ' ship- 
fort ' of the Cymric Celts. See Dun. 
Dinas (Welsh), a fortress, e.g. Dinas Dinnle, a huge pre- 
historic mound overlooking the sea, near Carnarvon. 
Ding (Tibet), depression, col. See Sdings. 
Dinh (Indo-China), town of the second order, or pro- 
vincial capital. 
Din niau (Siam), clay. 


Din si fong (Siam), chalk. 

Dintorni (It.), environs. 

Dinyasi. Manyasi, Manasi, Malashi, Linyasi (Cent. 

Africa, dialects of Bantu). See Yasi, Nyasi, Nasi. 


Dior (Wolof), a plain. 

Dioryx (Neo-Greek), a canal ; from Anc. Gr. Siopwytf. 
Dip (Hind.), an island. See Lanka, Jingira. 
Dique (Sp.), a dock ; a dam with retaining wall. 
Dirride (Kanuri, Bornu), light forest, with open pasture 

grounds. Cf. Karaga tselim. 
Diserto (It.), a desert. 
Dish (Abbadi, Etbai), low scattered hills. 
Distretto (It.), a district. 
Diu, Diva, Dvip (Hind.), island, e.g. Maldives, ' the 

thousand isles ' ; Lakhadives, ' the hundred thousand 


Diube (Soninke). See Jube. 
Diude (Fula). See Jude. 
Diwa (Serer),se&. 
Diyar (Arab.), a country, region, e.g. Diyar-Bakr 

(Diarbekr), ' the land of the Bekr,' an Arab tribe, 

who conquered it in the 7th century. 
Diz (Pers.), a castle. Cf. Kala. 
iDiza (Amaxosa, Kafir), a field of stubble. 
Djup (Sw.), a deep. 
Dla (Mande). See Dala. 
iDlambi (Zulu, Kafir), a wave. 
inDlandlatu (Zulu, Kafir), a narrow ridge between two 



inDlela (Kafir], a path, way. 

Dlinni (Buss.), long, e.g. Dlinnolieskoe Fort in Caucasia. 
inDlu (Kafir), a house, building. 
Do (Songhai), sand. 

Do (Nissan I., New Guinea), wood, forest. 
Do = To = Syem (Korea), island, e.g. Chin-do, Ko-je-do, 
Do (Tibet), stone; bottom of a valley; a confluence. 
Do. See Du. 
Do, Lo, Ro, Ku (Cent. Africa), an old root meaning ' to 

flow,' e.g. Domasi (q.v.), a river, masi meaning ' water.' 
nDo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a camp, sleeping-place on 

a journey, house. 
Doab (Punjab, Central India), the natural divisions of 

the Punjab, formed by the five rivers; lit. two 

waters ; applied to any country between two rivers, 

e.g. the Doab between the Ganges and Jumna. 

Cf. the Greek Mesopotamia. See Ab. Cf. Punjab. 
Dobang (Tibet), a religious wayside monument. Cf. 


i Dobela (Zulu, Kafir), the tide. 
Dobur, Tubber, Tober (Gaelic Tobar), source, well, stream, 

e.g. Tobermore or Tubbermore. See More. 
Doca (Port.), a dock. 

Do Chemut (Khas Chos, Indo-China), sea. 
Dodd (Cymric), a mountain with a round summit, e.g. 

Great Dodd in Cumberland. 
Doenyo (East Africa), mountain, e.g. Doenyo Ngai. 

This is also found as Donyo, Eldonyo, 
Dog (Tibet), ravine, torrent. 
Dogana (It.), a custom house. 


Dohar (Hind.}, the old bed of a river. 

Doi (Laos, Siam), a mountain. 

Dokori (Songhai), sand. 

Dol (Celtic), a plain, e.g. Dolberry, ' the hill on the plain.' 

See Berry. 

Dol (Slavonic), a valley. 
Dolgi (Buss.), long, e.g. Dolgaya Bay in Novaya 


Dolina (8. Slav.), a valley (Dol.) 
Dolni (Bohemia), under, lower (Dl.), e.g. Dolni Trnavo, 

on Morava R. 
Dolok (Burma), mountain. 

Dolon (Mongol), seven, e.g. Dolon Nor, the seven lakes.' 
Dom (Buss.), a house. 
Dom (Upper Nile). See Bum, 
Domandavo (Bakunda, Kamerun), a house. 
Domasi (Cent. Africa), a river, from Mazi and do, lo, ro, ru, 

&c., an old root meaning to flow, as in Lo-mami, 

Eu-sizi, &c. 

Domb (Hung.), hill, knoll. 
nDomba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a market. 
Dome (Eng.), as a minor form of sub-oceanic relief, a 

single elevation or submarine mountain of small 

area, but rising with a steep angle to a depth more 

than 200 metres from the surface. Equivalent to 

Ger. Kuppe, Fr. Dome, 
Domgha (Arab., N. Africa), a large dune standing out 

above others. 
Domo (Nika), a jutting out of land into the sea, or of a 

mountain into a plain. 


Don (Caucasus), a river. 

Don (Celto- Saxon). See Dun. 

Don (Siam), an island. 
kiDonda (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a mountain. 

Dong (Cambodia), east ; e.g. An-Binh-Dong, An meaning 
tranquillity, and Binh conveying an idea of equality. 
Cf. Tai. 

Dong (E. Turk.), hill, mountain, or rounded summit. 

Dong (Tibet), a deep hollow, gulf, whirlpool. 

Donnon (Gold Coast), a bend, bay, bight, 

-Dono (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), suffix meaning 
< little.' 

Donyo. See Doenyo. 

Doom (Deli.), thorn, thornbush, e.g. Enkledoorn. 

Do Phui (Klias Clios, Indo-Cliina) , a river. 

Dor (Tibet), a rock, e.g. Dorkia Lugu Dong, 'the monastery 
built on a rock looking something like a sheep's 
head,' lugu being a ' sheep ' and Dong a ' face.' 

Dorf (Ger.), a village (df.), see Dorp. 

Dorina (Hausa), a hippopotamus, e.g. Ruwa n Dorina, 
' the water, pool, of the hippopotamus,' a wide- 
spread name given by Hausa travellers to any water 
they may find in the wilderness. Cf. Ngurutuwa. 

Doro (Japan), mud. 

Doro (Jibu, Neto Guinea), mountain, summit. 

Doroga (Buss.), a road ; Bolshaya doroga, high road. 

Dorok, Torok (Turk.), a peak. 

Dorp (Dch., Cape Dch.), a village, e.g. Zeedorp, Villiers- 
dorp, pronounced Filjisdorp. Cf. Eng. Thorp, and 
Da. Torp. 


Douane (Fr.), a custom-house (D ne ). 

Dowi (Siam), a mountain. 

Down (Old Eng.), hill, mound ; long naked tract of hilly 
land ; sand ridge. Cf. Dun (Celtic), cognate with 
tun (town, hill, fort, enclosure) ; German Zaung. 

Doze (Nigeria), rocky hills. 

Dra, Draa (Arab., N. Africa), a chain of hills or dunes ; 
also a single rounded hill or mamelon, e.g. Wad 
Draa, ' the Wad between the hills.' 

Dra (Arab.}, pasturage in a region of dunes. 

Draeth (Welsh), an estuary, e.g. Trefdraeth. Cf. Traeth. 

Drangr, pi. Drangar (Icel.), a pointed rock standing alone. 

Dren (Ebon, Polynesia), water. 

n Dried (French Congo, dialect of Bantu), men of the 

Drift (Cape Dutch), a ford, e.g. Rorke's Drift ; in Dutch 
it means ' current.' 

Dromos (Constantinople Greek), a road. See Dhromo. 

Drowo (Slavonic), a wood, e.g. Drewitz. 

Drug (India), huge rocky pile rising often to an alti- 
tude of 1,500 feet, sometimes solitary, sometimes 
in clusters, and generally fortified, e.g. Chitaldrug, 

Drum, Drom (Ireland and Scotland), a back or ridge, 
from the Irish druim, e.g. Dromore, Dundrum ; from 
the Gaelic droma, e.g. Tyndrum. See Dun, Ty. 

Drumlin (U.S.A.), a smooth oval or elongated hill or 
ridge, composed chiefly of glacial detritus. 

Drumos (Greek), a wood. 

Dryms (Londonderry). See under Misks, 


Dry Wash (U.S.A.), a wash, arroyo (q.v), or coulee in 

the bed of which there is no water. 
Dsor (Armenia), a valley. 
uDsui (Fan, French Congo), a river. 
Du, Dhu, Dubh, Die, Do (Cornwall, Scotland, Ireland), 

black, e.g. Poldu, 'black pool,' Dublin, 'black pool/ 

Glenkindie, ' valley of the black head,' Knockando, 

'black hill.' See Pol, Lin, Kin, Knock, 
Du (Songhai), sand. 
Duar (India), a pass. 
Duar, Dwar (Berber), village ; a tent village as opposed 

to a built village (Karia, Char). 
Dub (Slavonic), an oak, e.g. Dubrau. 
Dubu (Motu and S. Cape, New Guinea), a sacred house 

or platform. 

Duchi (BenueR. amZS0A:ofor^\m),amountain,hill; rocks. 
Dud (Somali), a forest, e.g. Dud-dor e, Dud Jer; a ridge, 

e.g. Dud Subhiyu. 
Due, Dwe (A-Zande), a ditch. 
Dufan (Somali), grease or food left round the mouth 

after eating, e.g. Durie-Dufan. See Durie. 
Dug (Tibet), uncultivated land, pasturage. 
Dugu (Mande), country, locality, e.g. Wagadugu; Koma- 

dugu, 'the place where water is found,' river. 

Also town, village. 
Duhat (Arab.), a bay. 
Duinen (Dch.), dunes, e.g. Loosduinen. 
Duk (Cambodia), virtue, courage; e.g. Vinh-Duk-Tai, 

' Much virtue West,' in Bao-An, as distinguished 

from Vinh-Duk-Dong, ' Much virtue East.' 


Duk (Wolof), a village. 

Bum (Lokub, L. Rudolf), a camp. 

Dum (Upper Nile), a species of palm-tree, sometimes 

written Dom. 
Dumbe (Bambara, Malinke), a bend or curve, e.g. 

Badumbe, 'river bend.' See Ba. 
Dumi (Songhai), nation, tribe. 
Dun, Don (Celto- Saxon), a hill, mound, fort, e.g. London, 


Dun (India), a valley, e.g. Dera Dun, See Dera. 
chiDunda (Senna, Bantu), a detached hill or mountain. 
Dunde (Soninke), a mountain. 
Dundu (Soninke), a hill. 
Dune (Ger.), bank or hill of sand, dune. 
Dung (Tibet), a hill. 
Dur (Arab., N. Africa), change in orientation of a cliff 

or plateau ; the plateau itself. 
Dur (Welsh and Scotch). See Dwr. 
Dur (Somali), long stiff grass. Cf. Geda. 
Durch (Ger.), through. See next entry. 
Durchstich (Ger.), a cutting for a railway. 
Durdur (Somali), a perennial spring. 
Durie (Somali), dirt, a dirty place. 
Dusin (Malay), a small village, variant of Dusun (q.v.) 
Duss (Somali), a pass. 
Dusun (Malay), a village, country as distinguished from 

town ; also an orchard, e.g. Dusun Kepar, Dusun 

Lada. Cf. Desa. 
Dutto (It.), a canal, passage. 
Duze (Nigeria), a rocky hill. 



Dvor (Eiiss.), court, courtyard. 

Dwar (Berber). See Duar. 

Dwera, Dwira (Arab.), a small house. 

Dwfr (Welsh), water, stream. Cf. Dyfr, 

Dwr, Dur (Welsh and Gaelic), water, e.g. Glasdur, Durra, 


Dyb (Da., Nor.), a deep. 
nDyela (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a road. 
Dyfr (Welsh), water, stream; e.g. Dyfrdwy=the river 

Dee. Cf. Dwfr. 

nDyia (Maginza, Congo), a road. Cf. Zila, Zira. 
nDyila (Bangala, Congo), a road. Cf. Zila, Zira. 
Dyke (Eng.from A.S. die), a ditch, e.g. Wansdyke. 
Dyne (Da.), a down. 
Dyner (Sw.), downs. 
Dza (Tibet), clay. 
Dzaka (Nika). See Aka. 
kaDzaka (Nika). See Kadzaka for meaning. 
Dzal, pi. Mai (Fan, French Congo), village. 
Dzamba (Upper Nile), forest, wood. 
Dzanche (Nika). See Anche. 
nDzea (Mobali, Congo), a road. 
iDzendze (dialect of Bantu), a river. 
Dzeri (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Eri. 
Dzi (Nika), earth, land, country, continent. 
maDzi (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), water. 
muDzi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a town, village, 

hamlet. Cf. Musi. 
kaDzidzi (Nika), a small creek. 
luDzidzi (Nika), a creek or cove. 


Dzigha, pi. Migha (Fan, French Congo), confluence. 

[ (dialects of Bantu}. See Iko. 
iDziko J 

Dzira (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), road. Cf. Zila, 

Dzisi (dialect of Bantu). Sec Chisi. 

Dzitso (Giryama), source, spring. 

Dzong (Tibet), fortress, chief town of a prefecture. 
uDzu (dialect of Bantu), grass. See Tldzu. 
kaDzuho (Giryama, Nika), small river, rivulet 
kiDzuho (Giryama), affluent, small river, brook. 


E (Saxon), river, stream. Cf. A, Aa, Ach, Av, le. 

Eanua (S. Cape, New Guinea), a village. Cf. Fenua. 

Eapala (Aroma, New Guinea), the north-west wind. 

Eavana (S. Cape, New Guinea), west. 

Eb (Hottentot). See Ep. 

Ebado (Yoruba), sea-side, river-side, sand, beach. 

Ebala (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a little clearing made in 
a place where two roads meet, where a tree has 
been planted as a shelter or halting-place. Sec Bala. 

Ebata (Congo). See Bata. 

Ebe (Banjan, Kamerun), a wood, forest. 

Ebe (Yoruba), a hillock. 

-Ebene (Congo), a suffix meaning great, large. 

Ebene (Ger), a plain. 

Ebon, pi. Mibon (Fan, French Congo). See Bon. 

Ebor (Masai, E. Africa), white, e.g. Gwaso naEbor, 'the 
White Hiver,' 

H 2 


Ebun (Gold Coast), an abyss, depth of the sea. 

Ebute (Yoruba), a landing-place, wharf. 

Ebwetu (Lomwe, L. Shirwa), sand. 

Ebwila (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Bwila. 

Eccles (Scotland, /romEkklesia[g.i;.]), church, e.g. Eccles- 
machan, ' the church of St. Machan.' Cf. Eglwys. 

Ecclesia. See Ekklesia. 

Echelle (Fr.), the scale of a map. 

Echelle de Maree (Fr.), tide gauge. 

Echori (Elgumi, Uganda), a water-hole. 

Ecluse (Fr.), a lock of a canal or basin, sluice (E cse ). 

Ecueil (Fr.), a reef, rock. 

Ecurie (Fr.), a stable (Ec ie ). 

Ed (Egyptian Sudan). See Id. 

Eddahereth (Jibali, Berber), a hill. Cf. Udherer, TIrir. 
chEde (Nilca), a market. 

Edge (Anglo-Saxon ecg), a sharp point, a narrow part 
rising from a broader ; the highest part of a 
moorish and elevated tract of ground of con- 
siderable extent, generally that which lies between 
the streams, e.g. Axe Edge, Ipstones Edge, Claverton- 

Edogh (Fan, French Congo), deep. 

Efagh,j>Z. Bifagh (Fan, French Congo). See Fagh. 

Efun (Yoruba), chalk, lime. 

Egan (Yoruba), a dense forest. 

Egan-Oshusha (Yoruba), thorny, prickly forest. 

Egba, Ejba (Yoruba), people, e.g. Buda Egba, ' the 
people's camp.' See Budo. 

Egbe (Chamba). See Mgabe, 


Egbenn. See Mgbenn, 

Eghasher, Eghzer (Tuareg, Berber), a valley with a 


Eghirr'eu (Tuareg, Berber, and Hausa), a river, the river, 
the Niger. See Isa, 

. f a church, from sic/c^cna, ecclesia. 
,( C/.Eccle, 
Ego, Egoi (Basque), south wind; south ; c/. Agus. 
Egri (Turk.), crooked (of a stream or road). 
Egua (Gold Coast), a market-place. 
Eil (Somali), a deep well, e.g. Eil Sheikh. Cf. El. 
Eilean (Gaelic), an island, .#. Eilean Dun, inArdencaple 


Einfahrt (Ger.), the entrance to a river or harbour. 
Eisen (Ger.), iron, e.g. Eisenberg, ' iron mountain.' See 

next entry. 

Eisenbahn (Ger.) a railway. 

kiEji (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a rapid or cataract. 
Ejidi (Kamerun), the bush ; wood, forest. 
Ejinga (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a pool left after the 

fall of a river ; a hole in the bed of a river. See 


Ejman (Ebon, Polynesia), stone. 
Ejondi, Eyondi, Ejundi (Kamerun, dialects of Bantu). 

See Jondi. 

Eka (Indian, U.S.A.), earth. 
Ekam (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Kam, 
Ekanda (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Kanda, 
Ekanga (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Kanga, 


Ekare (Elgumi, Uganda}, a lake. 

Ekaza (Fan, French Congo). See Kaza. 

Ekedi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu}. See Kedi. 

Eken (Mongol), higher; summit; e.g. Eken Habsere, 
* upper Habsere.' See Kurban. 

Eket (Banjan, Kamerun), house, dwelling. 

Ekklesia, Ecclesia (Greek), a church. See Eccles, Eglwys. 

Eko (Gold Coast), lake, pond, pool. 

Ekobi (Lomwe, L. Shirwa), chalk. 

Ekogwi (Lomwe, L. Shirwa), a ravine. 

Ekohlo (Amaxosa, Kafir), the left-hand side. 

Ekolo (Gold Coast), a hill. 

Ekserserplads (Nor.), drill-ground. 

Ekumu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Kumu. 

Ekundze (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kundze. 

Ekunene (Amaxosa, Kafir), the right-hand side. 

Ekutilu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Kitulu, 

Ekwae (Gold Coast), a forest, wood, thicket. 

El (Arab.), the; when El precedes any dental, liquid 
except m, or sibilant, i.e. any of the ' solar ' letters, 
it is assimilated with it for the sake of euphony, 
though in Arabic writing the El is retained. Thus 
we have Beled-es-Sudan, Esh-Shark, Hofra-en-Nahas, 
Um-er-Kbia, &c. The solar letters are t, t (=th in 
thin), d, dh (= Irish th in thy), r, z, s, sh, s 
(=Fr. 9), d (hard palatal), t (hard palatal), z (= th 
in this), 1, n. 

El (East Africa), a plural prefix corresponding with 
Wa (q.v.), e.g. El Gonyi. 

El (Buss.), a fir tree ; adj.; Elevi, Elovi 


El (Somali), a well, e.g. El Dap. Cf. Eil, really the same 

Elabo, Elapo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Labo, 

Elamo (Motumotu, New Guinea), a sacred house or 


El boka (Egyptian Sudan), a capital town. 
Eldonyo (East Africa). See Doenyo. 
Eleko (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Leko. 
Elelenshi (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Lelenshi. 
Elenga (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Lenga, 
Eleut (Turk., Mongol). See II. 
Elevation (Eng.) As a form of sub-oceanic relief this 

is either entirely surrounded by depressions or is a 

prolongation of the continental border. Equivalent 

to the Ger. Erhebung. See Shelf, Rise, Ridge, Plateau. 
Elf (Sw.), a river, e.g. Dai-elf, 'the river of the dale.' 

Cf. Elv. 

Eli, pi. Bili (Fan, French Congo). See Li. 
Eliwa (French Congo Coast). See Liwa. 
Elian (Scotland), island, e.g. Elian More, ' Great Island,' 

see More ; Elian nan Ron, ' Seal Island.' 
Ellap (Ebon, Polynesia), great. 
Elogh, pi. Bilogh (Fan, French Congo). See Logh. 
Elondo (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Londo. 
Elsin (Mongol), sand. 
Elu, Eru (Cent. Africa), a root meaning ' open water,' 

e.g. Mweru. 
Elu (Ibo, Nigeria), top, summit, e.g. Elu Ugu, ' top of 

the mountain.' 


Elv (Da., Nor.), a river. Of. Elf. 

Em (Ebon, Polynesia), land. 

Emba (Lomwe, Mozambique), a house. 

Emba (Upper Nile), water. 

Embarcadere (Fr.), landing-stage, terminus (Emb t3 ). 

Embarcadero (Sp.), quay, wharf ; port, harbour. 

Embayment (Eng.), used, in sub-oceanic relief, for a 
wide and rounded or triangular extension of a 
Trough (q.v.), or Basin (q.v.), which penetrates the 
land or a submarine elevation either with a 
uniform or gradually diminishing depth or which 
is bounded on the one side by land and on the 
other by a submarine elevation. Equivalent to 
Ger. Bucht, Fr. Golfe ; cf. Gully. 

Embouchure (Fr.), estuary, mouth of a river or affluent 
(Emb ure ). 

Emelga (Sp.), a large furrow to serve as a landmark. 

Emi (Sahara), mountain, rock. 

Emizdegh (Wargla, Berber), a village. Cf. Amazagh, 

Empito (Lomwe, Mozambique), a road. 

Emu (Gold Coast), the interior of a country. 

Emuk (Eskimo), sea, cf. Muk, Nanimuk. 

Emumba (Makua, Mozambique), a house. 

En (Berber). See In, 

En (from Gaelic Aan), a river, e.g. Rathen,. ' the fort on 
the river.' See Rath. 

Encalladero (Sp.),; shoal, sandbank. 

Encanado (Sp.), a conduit. 

Enceinte (Fr.), precincts. 

Encerradura (Sp.), enclosure. 


Enchente (Port.), a flood. 

Enclave (Fr.), an isolated settlement within the territory 

of another country, e.g. the French enclave in our 

Niger territory and the Belgian enclave on the 

Upper Nile. 

Encrucijada (Sp.), cross way, cross roads. 
liEnga (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a lake. 
luEnga (Gogo, Bantu), a river. 

Engabunet (Nandi, Uganda), a cave. 
Engan (Fan, French Congo) , deep, especially of a river. 
Enge (Ger.), a strait. 
Engpass (Ger.), pass, defile. 
Enguololo (Elgumi, Uganda), a river. 
Eniuma (Kossova, Uganda). See Niuma. 
Enjira, Chinjira (Kossova, Uganda). See Njira. 
Enjorai (Masai). See Jorai. 
Enkulu. See Nkulu. 
mw Ene\ 

amw Enel (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a chief, 
u mw Ene ) 

Ennene (N. New Guinea), water. 

Enneri (N. Africa), a ravine, river-bed. 

Ennis (Ireland), an island, e.g. Enniskillen. Cf. Innis, 


Enseada (Port.), a bay. 
Ensenada (Sp.), a bay; also creek. 
Enshir (Kabile), a mass of ruins. 
Entours (Fr.), environs. 
Entree (Fr.), entrance ; mouth of a river. 
Entre-voie (Fr.), the six-foot way (of railways). 


Enua (Polynesia). See Fenua, 

Enyangha, pi. Binyangha (Fan, French Congo). See 

Enyi, pi. Binyi (Fan, French Congo). See Nyi. 

Enyin (Fan, French Congo). See Nyin. 

Eomaka (Kabadi, New Guinea), tide (flowing). 

Ep (Hottentot), water, river, e.g. Gari-Ep, * the great 
river,' i.e. the Orange Kiver. There are also the 
variants Ab, Ap, Eb, Ob, Op, Ib, Ip, Up, e.g. Swakop, 
Ugab, Kuisip, Hoanib, Khoneb, &c. rivers, and also 

Ep (Korea). See Eup. 

Epano (Greek), upper, e.g. Epanomeria in Thira. 

Eparawe (Lomwe, Mozambique), a waterfall. 

Epiro (Makua, Mozambique), a road. 

Equipate (Mexico), the light showers which fall in the 
mountain districts early in the year. 

Erara (Tuareg, Berber), a large valley. 

Erazer, Erhazar, Erasa (Sahara), vegetation; wooded; 
lit. the valley. 

Erdo (Hung.), wood, forest (E.) 

Ere, Arre (Musgu, Chad L. region), a river. 

Ere (Elgumi, Uganda), a village. 

Erekusu (Yoruba), an island. 

Ereru (Makua, German East Africa), sand. 

Erg (Arab.), a dune, a land of dunes. See Areg, Arga. 

Erhazar (Sahara). See Erazer. 

Erhebung (Ger.), as a form of sub-oceanic relief, is equi- 
valent to Elevation (q.v.) 
dzEri (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), left (hand). 


Erial (Sp.), uncultivated ground. 

Erife (Sahara), a strong north-east wind. 

Eriga (Makua, German East Africa), a stockade, an 


Erk (Abbadi, Etbai), a crevasse. 
Ermida (Port.), 

, a hermitage, sanctuary. 
Ermita (Sp.), J 

Ernik (Buss.), brushwood, underwood. 

Ero (Yoruba), a caravan. 

Erobi (Masai, East Africa), cold, e.g. Ngari na Erobi, 
' cold water.' 

Erbd (Hung.), a fort. 

Eroto (Elgumi, Uganda), a road. 

Erre (Yoruba), a marsh, bog. 

Errek (Ebon, Polynesia), small. 

Erto (It.), steep, ascent. 

Em, Elu (Cent. Africa). See Elu, 
luEru (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), lake. 
wEru (E. Africa, Giryama), prairie, veld. 

Erun (Yoruba), the dry season. 

Erythros (Greek), red, whence Eritrea, the Italian colony 
on the Ked Sea. 

Esalim (Tuareg, Berber). See Asarim. 

Esau (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Sau. 

Escarpe (Fr.), a bluff. 

Esclusa (Sp.)., lock, sluice. 

Escob, Escop (Welsh, Cornish), bishop, e.g. Tyrescob, 
/ bishop's house.' See Tyr. 

Escollo (Sp.), a rock, reef, shoal. 

Eseke (Congo, dialect of Bantu) . See Seke. 


Esenge (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Senge. 

Esep (Fan, French Congo). See Isep, 

Eserva (Tangut), rain. 

-Eshe (Zambezia, Congo), a termination signifying 

' river,' e.g. Lukoleshe, 
Esher (U.S.A.), a long winding ridge of sand or gravel ; 

the deposit from a stream flowing beneath a 


Eshi (Turk.), old. See Eski. 
Eshimu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), beach, shore, coast ; 

bank of a river (generally spoken of the opposite 

side). See Shimu. 
Eshi-nshi (Congo), the inhabitants of a country ; sing. 

Mushi ; Eshi-Kongo, the inhabitants of the old 

Kongo kingdom. See Shi. 
Esika (Congo, dialect of Bantu) . See Sika. 
Esk, Exe (from Celtic uisge, wysg), water, stream, 

e.g. Esk, Exmouth, Usk. 
Eski (Turk.), old, e.g. Eski Zagra (the Euss. Stara 

Z agora), as distinguished from Yeni Zagra or ' new 


Eso (Hung.), rain. 
Esopus (Indian, U.S.A.), steep coast, or high-walled 


Espigao (Port.), a sharp point of land without trees. 
Espigon (Sp.), a kind of wharf or pier. 
Esse (Yoruba), footpath, track, trail. 
Estacada (Sp.) t palisading on an embankment. 
Estacion (Sp.), a railway station. 
Estancia (Argentina), a cattle farm. 


Estero (Sp.), a small creek ; a lagoon. 

(Spanish S. America), low, marshy, inundated 

land covered with herbs and aquatic plants. 
Estrada (Port.), a high-road. 
Estrecho (Sp.), 

x , A strait. 
Estreito (Port.) 

Esuka (Tangut), a river. 

Esunsu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Sunsu. 

Etakao (MaJcua, German East Africa), chalk, lime. 

Etakwa (MaJcua, German East Africa), a forest. 

tale (Fr.), slack (of tide) ; settled (of wind), light 


Etam. See Itam, of which it is a misspelling. 
IStang (Fr.), lagoon, lake, pond (Et g ), e.g. tang de Berre. 
Etapa (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Tapa. 
feape (Fr.), halting-place, stage. 
Etaras (Tuareg, Berber), a plain, 
^tat (Fr.), a state. 
chEte (Giryama), a market. 

Etela (Fin.), south. For other points see Pohia. 

Etenta (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Tenta. 

Eti (Galloppa, Abyssinia), grass. 

Etiage (Fr.), the low- water mark of a river. 

iStier (Fr.), a creek which can receive small vessels; a 

conduit by which salt water enters a lake to be 

transformed into salt. 
Etiet (Nandi, Uganda), abridge. 
Eti-Odo (Yoruba), beach, waterside. 
Eto (Indian, U.S.A.), a forest. 
Etog (Banjan, Kamerun), a village. 


ttoile (Fr.), crossroads (Et le ), lit. a star. 

Etombwelo (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Tombwelo. 

Etoro (Lomwe, L. Shirwa), a desert. 

Etta (Turkestan), a town. 

Etukulu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Tukulu, 

Eukit (Malay), a hill. 

Eung (Indo-China), a mountain. 

Eung (Ebon, Polynesia), north. See Rear, Kabehmg. 

Eup, Ep (Korea), a magisterial town=Eumnai=Koel. 

Euren (Turk.), a ruin. 

Euros (Greek), south-east. For other points see Boreas. 

Euyuk (Turk.), a hillock. 

Ev (Turk.), a house. 

Evambu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Vambu. 

Evanga (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Vanga. 

Evata (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Vata. 

Everglade (Florida, U.S.A.), a tract of swampy land 
covered mostly with tall grass. 

Evia (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Via. 

Evwangi (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Vwangi. 

Ewaso (British East Africa, Bantu), water, river, e.g. 
Was Ngishu, < cattle water,' a name given to a salt- 
lick (q.v.), near Tigrik Kiver, Ewas-os-Soit, ' river of 
the stone.' See Waso. 
isEweri (KetosJi, Uganda), a water-hole, well. 

Ewo-erun (Yoruba), the dry season. 

Ewo-ojo (Yoruba), the rainy season. 

Ewukwe (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), east. Cf. Mbo. 

Ewumba (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Wumba. 

Exe. See Esk. 


-Ey, dim. Eyot, Ait (Teutonic), an island, e.g. Sheppey. 

Eya (Yoruba), a tribe, or division. 

Eyalet. See Vilayet. 

Eyanga (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Yanga. 

Eyendelo (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Yendelo. 

Eyenga (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Yenga. 

Eyi (Teda, Sahara), water, equivalent to the Terauye 

Mi, and the Arab. Ma. 

Eyondi (Kamerun, dialect of Bantu). See Ejondi. 
Eyot, Ait. See -Ey. 

Eyrr, Eyrar (IceL), a narrow low tongue of land. 
Ezandu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Zandu. 
Ezbah (Egypt), a village or hamlet. 
muEzi (dialect of Bantu), a pool of water. 


Fa (Annam, Black R.), a forest. 

Fa, Fana (Berta, E. Sudan), a mountain. 

Faa (Polynesia), a valley, e.g. Faa-Nui, ' great valley.' 

Fabrica (Sp.), 

, a factory (Fca.) 
Fabrica (Port.),} 

Fab (Welsh), son. 
Fabrik (Ger.), a factory (Fabr.) 
Fabrique (Fr.), a manufactory (Fab e ). 
Fach (Welsh), little, e.g. Llandewyfach. See Llan. 
Fad (Gaelic), long, e.g. Elian Fada, ' long island.' 
Fada (Hausa), residence of the king, e.g. Fada n 


Faddama (Hausa), an arm of a river, creek, a valley ; 
equivalent to Adar-n-Eghirreu of the Sahara, and 
includes both the Arab, terms Rejl or Kra and 
Bot-ho (q.v.) 

Fadi, Maifadi (Hausa), broad. 

Fae, Fale, Fare, Vale (Polynesia), a house. 

Fsestning- (Da., Nor.), a fort. 

eFagh (Fan, French Congo), & field, plantation; tor pi. 
see Efagh. 

Fahavaratra (Madagascar), the rainy season, summer. 

Fahre (Ger.), a furrow. 

Fahre (Ger.), a ferry. 

Fahrte (Ger.), a track, trail. Cf. Vaart. 

Fahs (Aral., N. Africa), a field. 

Faidh (Arab., N. Africa). See Feidh. 

Faija (Arab.), a col. 

Fair (Gaelic Fan), a sheep, e.g. Fair Isle, ' Sheep Isle ' 

Fair (Welsh), the Virgin Mary, e.g. Llanfairfechan. See 
Llan, Fechan. 

Faire (Sahara), a barren naked plain. See Falat. 

Faite (Fr.), top, summit, ridge ; Ligne de Faite, ' water- 

Faka (Gold Coast), a bay, gulf. 

Fakai, Fakhi (Sierra Leone), a farm village, as opposed 
to a permanent village. 

Fal, Falu (Hung.), a town. 

Fala (Bambara, MalinJce). See Fara. 

Falaise (Fr.), a cliff. 

Falat (Arab.), a bare desert. See Faire. 


Fale (Polynesia). See Fae. 
mFalme (Sivahili), chief, king. 
Falu (Hung.), village. 

Fama (Gurma), ruler of a province. See next entry. 
Fama-dugu (Mande), a capital town. See Dugu, cf. 

Fan (Upper Nile), a village, land, country, e.g. Kordofan, 

'the land of the Kordo,' equivalent to Arab. 

Bar (q.v.) 
Fan (U.S.A.), a mountain delta; a conical talus of 

detrital material. 
a Fan (Fan, French Congo), country, applied only to a 

vast extent, and then not to the country in which 

one actually is ; for pi. see Afan ; used also for 


Fana (Berta, E. Sudan), a mountain. See Fa, 
Fanal (Fr.), 

Fanal (Sp., Port.), 

a lighthouse. 

Fanar (Turk.), 

Fang (China), hamlet, house. 

Fange (Soninke), a river. 

Fango (Sp.), mud. 

Fankhane (Soninke), shore, be'ach. 

Fantsakana (Madagascar), well, spring. 

Fanua (Polynesia). See Fenua. 

Fanza (China), a house. 

Fara (Gonya, Gold Coast), torrents; low-lying land 

filled with water. 

Fara, Fala (Bambara, Malinke), a stream. 
Faraba (Bambara), a valley. 



Faraka (Mande), bifurcation (of roads or rivers). 
Fararano (Madagascar), autumn. See Fahavaratra. 
Fare (Polynesia). SeeJ?a,e. 
Farellon (Sp.), point, cape, headland; rock or cliff in 

the sea. 

Fari (Songhai), field, country. 
Farihi (Madagascar), a lake. 
Fari-tani (Madagascar), region. 
Faro (It., Sp.), a lighthouse. 
Farol, Pharol (Port.), a lighthouse. 
Farvater (Buss.), a channel. 
Fasht (Arab.), a reef of rocks. 
Fasika, Fasi (Madagascar), sand, e.g. Ifasimena or Fasi- 

mena, ' the red sand.' Cf. Pasi. See I, Mena. 
Fasting! (Fin.), a fort. 
Fatta (It.), dung, track in the bush made by 


Fatto (Bornu), a house. 

Fatu (ManahiJci and Fakaofu, Polynesia), stone. 
Faubourg (Fr.), outskirts, suburb (F bg ). 
Fauci (It.), a strait, mouth of a river. Cf. Foce. 
Fau-fu (China), a buoy. 
Fauns (from Gaelic Fan), a slope, declivity, e.g. Kinfauns, 

* the head of the slope.' See Kin. 
Fau-tau (China), roadstead. 
Fave (Motumotu, New Guinea), stone. 
Fechan (Welsh), little, e.g. Llanfairfechan. See Llan, Fair. 
Fedehan (Sokotra), a mountain. 
Fedi (Nepal), the low ground at the foot of a 



Fegagir,^. of Foggara (q.v.) 

Feher (Hung.) white (Fh.) ; e.g. Fehervag, a stream 

flowing from the Central Carpathians. 
Feidh, Faidh (Arab., N. Africa), a ravine which becomes 

a watercourse during the rains. Cf. Sahan, Selat. 
Feij (Arab., N. Africa), a valley between dunes. 
Fek (Hung.), camp. 
Fekete (Hung.), black (Fk.), e.g. Fekete Ardo in the 

Ugocsa district on the Theiss K. 
Feld (Ger.), plain open country. Cf. Veld. 
Feldweg (Ger.) a field road. 
Fell=Fjeld (Norse), a hillside, e.g. Goatfell (Arran), 

Skaptafell. Cf. Fjeld. . 

Fels (Ger.), rock, e.g. Drachenfels, * dragon rock.' 
Felsabhang (Ger.), declivity or slope of rock. 
Felsen (Ger.), cliffs, rocks; also in sing. rock. 
Felso (Hung.), upper (F.), e.g. Felsb Kaibin, to N. of 

Waag K. 

Feng (China), the peak of a hill. 
Fen mil (China), a tomb. 
Fenua, Eanua, Enua, Honua, Fanua, Fonua, Vanua, Vanuga, 

Hanua (Polynesia), land, town, village. Cf. Wanua. 
iFenya (Bantu) ; for meaning see Ifenya. 
Ferik (Arab.), village. In E. Sudan ' temporary village.' 
Ferka (Arab.), a division of a tribe. 
Ferma (Russ.), a farm. 
Ferme (Fr.), a farm (F me ). 
Ferner (Ger.), further (Fr.) 
Ferrocarril (Sp.), railway. 
Ferrovia (It.), railway. 

i 3 


Festung (Ger.), fort, fortress. Of. Vest, Vesting. 

Feudo (It.), a fief (F do ). 

Fiafi (Arab.), solitary wastes. 

Fial (Arab.), a current of water. 

Fidh (Arab.), a ravine. Cf. Feidh. 

Field (England), a forest clearing, where the trees 
have been felled, e.g. Sheffield. From A.S. Feld, 
cognate with Dch. Veld, Ger. Feld. 

Fii (Yambo, Upper Sobat R.), water. 

Fil (Arab.), elephant, e.g. Has el Fil, ' elephant's head ' ; 

Sin el Fil, ' elephant's tusk.' 
mFinda (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a forest or wood. 

Fing (Mande), black, e.g. Bafing, ' black river.' See Ba. 
Cf. Khwa, Tile. 

Firki (Kanuri), a shallow hollow, where the water 
collects in the rainy season and drying up gradually 
leaves a fertile argillaceous soil. See Ange. 

Firn (Switz., from Ger. firne, * last year's '), coarse, half- 
solidified snow. Cf. Neve. 

Firth, Frith (Scotch), estuary. Cf. third, three for r shift. 

Fittri (Kuka, Chad L. region), water, river. See Isa. 

Fiumara (It.), a river which overflows. 

Fiume (It.), a river (F.) 

Fjall, Fjall (Sw., Icel.), mountain, e.g. Blafjall. 

Fjard (Sw.), frith or long narrow inlet, bay. Cf. Fjord. 

Fjeld, Fjaeld (Nor.), mountain, e.g. Dovrefjeld. Cf. Fell, 

Fjord (Da., Nor.), frith or long narrow inlet. Cf. 
Fjard, Fjbrdr. 

Fjbrdr (Icel.), fiord. 

Flak (Da.), a flat, plain ; a shoal. 


Flash (Old Fr. Flasque, Flache), a pool, pond. 

Fleche (Fr.), a spire; a sharp peak (lit. an arrow). 

Flecken (Ger.), market-place, borough, country town. 

Fleet (England), a creek, inlet, arm of the sea ; lake, 
lagoon; e.g. Wainfleet. From A.S. fleot, a bay, 
lit. a place where ships float. Of. Vliet. 

Fleur (Normandy), a flowing stream, e.g. Harfleur. 

Fleuve (Fr.), a large river (Fl.) Of. Riviere, Ruisseau. 

Fliegende Fahre (Ger.), boat ferry, or flying bridge (Fl. F.) 

Fljot (Icel.), a stream, e.g. Hverfisfljot. 

Floresta (Sp.), forest, thicket. 

Flot (Fr.), flood. 

Flur (Ger.), field, meadow, plain. 

Flurstein (Ger.), a boundary stone. 

Fluss (Ger.), a river (FL) Cf. Strom. 

Flut (Ger.), flood, inundation. 

Fo (Thai), a mountain. 

Foa (Gold Coast), on a river, riverside, e.g. Ada-Foa, 
' riverside Ada,' on Volta Eiver. Cf. Su. 

Fobolo (Congo), a ruin. 

Foce (It.), the mouth of a river. Cf. Fauci. 

Fod (Hung.) See Fold. 

Fodsti (Da., Nor.), footpath. 

Fof (Serer), water. 

Fogara (Upper Nile), nomad priest? . 

Foggara (Arab., N. Africa), a succession of wells 
hollowed out on a slope and joined by a subter- 
ranean passage ; pi. Fegagir. 

Fokani (Arab.), upper. Cf. Ala. See Fukani, really the 
same word. 


Foko (Madagascar), a tribe. 

Fold, Fod (Hung.), earth, land. 

Folverok (Russ.), a small farm. 

Folyo (Hung.), a river (Fl.) 

Fon (China), wind. Cf. Typhoon. In Siam Fon is used 

for a squall or rain wind. See Lorn. 
Fond (Fr.), bottom, ground. 
Fonda (Sp.), an inn, tavern. 
Fondak (Marocco), a caravansary. Found frequently as 

Fonduk. See Funduk. 
Fond d'un bois (Fr.), the heart of a wood. 
Fondeadero (Sp.), anchorage. 
Fonderie (Fr.), a foundry (F rie ). 
Fondo (Songhai), road, path. 
Fonduk (Marocco). See Fondak. 
Fontaine (Fr.), spring, source (F ne ). See next words. 
Fontana (It.), spring, source (Font n ). Cf. Hontana, 


Fonte (Port.), well, spring. Cf. Fontaine, Fuente. 
Fontein (Dch.), a spring. Cf. Fontaine. 
Fonua (Polynesia). See Fenua. 
Force (Northumbrian), a waterfall, e.g. Airey Force. Cf. 

Norse Foss, Fors. 
Ford (England), a stream, a shallow part where the 

stream may be crossed, e.g. Oxford. 
Fordani, Forodani, Forothani (Nika), custom house. 
Forde (Hanover), a ford, e.g. Lemfbrde. 
Foresta (It.), forest, wood, wilderness. 
Foret (Fr), a forest (F*). 
Forge (Fr.), a forge (F* e ). 


Fork (Anglo-American), a large affluent, e.g. North 


Forme de radoub (Fr.), dry dock. 
Fornace (It.), a kiln (Forn ce ). 

Forodani ) 

,.\ (Nwa), See Fordam. 

Fors (Sw.), a waterfall, e.g. Helsingfors. 

Forst (Ger.), forest, wood. 

Fort (Fr.), fort, fortress (Ft.) 

Forte (It.), fort, fortress (F.) Cf. Fuerte. 

Fortha (Swahili), custom house. 

Fortiere (It.) t a rocky place full of seaweed. 

Fortin (Sp.), a small fort ; field or temporary fortifica- 

Fortino (It.), a redoubt (Fort no ). 

Fos (Nor., Da.), a waterfall. 

Fosca (Sp.), a thick wood or grove. 

Foso (Sp.), a ditch. 

Foss (Icel.), a waterfall, e.g. Skogar Foss, 

Fosse (Fr.), a ditch. For use as a form of sub-oceanic 
relief see Deep. 

Fosso (It.), a ditch (F 80 ). 

Fotoi (Chinese, E. Turk.), a measure of length equal to 
about 3 versts or 2 miles. 

Foil, Fu (China), a mound. 

Fbveny (Czec), sand. 

Foz (Port.), the mouth of a river. 

Freguezia (Port.), a parish, district. 

Frei (Ger.), free, e.g. Freiburg. 

Freo, Freu (Sp.), a strait. 


Friede (Ger.), peace, e.g. Friedland. See next entry. 
Friedhof (Ger.), a burial-ground, cemetery. See Friede. 
Fringing Reef (English), a coral reef extending from the 
shore, seldom for a long distance, having little 
water on it, and no ship-passage between it and the 
land. Cf. Barrier Reef, 
Frontiere (Fr.), frontier, limit. 

Fu (China), a prefecture, the largest subdivision of the 
modern province ; town of the second order, or 
district capital, e.g. Yun-nan-fu ; head, e.g. Ping Fu, 
'level heads,' Chien Fu, 'pointed heads,' applied to 
certain Akka tribes in the Shan States, from the 
head-dresses of the women. Cf. Chau, Hien, King, 
Ting. See Phu. 

Fu (Songhai), a house. 

Fuente (Sp.), a fountain or spring (Fte). Cf. Fonte. 

Fuerte (Sp.) a fort, fortress. Cf. Forte. 

Fufu (NiJca), a thicket. 

Fuhrt, Furt (Ger.), a ford, e.g. Frankfurt, 

Fukai (Japan), deep ; low, e.g. Fukaye island. 

Fukani (Arab.), upper, e.g. Mogher Fukani, in Algeria, 
to distinguish it from Mogher Tatani, 'Lower 
Mogher.' Another form is Fokani. 

Fula (Mande), two, e.g. Bafulabe, lit. 'two streams/ 
confluence. Be = to be; cf. Saba. See Ba. 

Fula (Ghazal region). See Meha. 
umFula (Kafir), a deep valley, a ravine. 
luFulo (NiJca), a ditch. 

Fum (Arab., Tripoli), a defile; mouth, e.g. Fum Doga, 
i.e. the mouth of the Wadi Doga. 


Fumarole (U.S.A.), a spring or geyser, which emits steam 
or gaseous vapours, is the Fr. fumarolle, fumerolle, 
from Low Lat. fumariolum (root fumus, smoke). 

(Congo and Central Africa, dialects of Bantu), 
imFumuy- . . 

chief, king. 


kiFumvu (Taita, Bantu), a detached hill or mountain. 
Cf. Lima. 

Fundeadouro (Port.), anchorage. 

Funduk (Tripoli), a warehouse. Cf. Fondak. 

Fune (Japan), a boat. 

Funga (MeJceo, New Guinea), flood-tide, 
urn Fungi (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a bridge. 

Fungu (S. and E. Africa), a bank or sandy reef. 

Fura (Mashonaland) , a river bed; originally 'a hole,' 
then 'water-hole,' and finally a river bed where 
holes are dug for water ; a mine. This word has 
been wrongly equated with the Biblical Ophir. 

Furche (Ger.), a Furrow (q.v.) 

Furo (Brazil), a natural narrow channel connecting two 
lakes or two rivers, e.g. Furo Tajapuro, one of the 
network of Furos connecting the Para with the 

Furrow (Eng.), as a minor depression (q.v.), in sub- 
oceanic relief, a valley or channel- like hollow in 
the continental border (see Shelf), and more or less 
at right angles to it, e.g. the Indus Furrow, the 
Ganges Furrow. Equivalent to Ger. Furche, Fr. 
Sillon. Cf. Caldron. 


Fttrst (Ger.), prince, e.g. Furstenwalde, 'prince's wood. 

Flirt (Ger.), a ford. See Fuhrt. 

Furu, Futo-Furu (Mande), field, garden. 

Fusa (Albania), a plain. 

Fuso (Kafir), fallow ground. 

Fussweg (Ger.), a footpath. 

Fut (Hung.), the course of a river, current. 

Futa (Congo), grass, herbage, especially wild ; jungle, 

Futaleufu (Araucanian, Patagonia), a large river, the 

large river, i.e. the Upper Kio Yelcho. Futa= 

Fute (Kanem), west, western, e.g. Beri Fute, ' western 

Beri,' to distinguish it from Beri Kura, or ' Great 


Futo-Furu (Mande), See Furu. 
liFuwukho (Lu^Wanga, Uganda), a ferry. 
Fuyu (Japan), winter. 
Fynnon (Welsh), a well, e.g. Fynnon-Asa, c St. Asaph's 

Fyr-Baki (Fin.),& lighthouse, lit. 'beacon-fire.' 


Ga (Japan), the indefinite term, ' a,' ' any.' 
kaGa (French Congo, dialect of Bantu), a mountain, hill, 

e.g. Kaga Mbale. 

Gaard, Gard (Da., Nor.), a farm, farmstead, estate (G (1 ). 
Gab (Da., Nor.), an open bay ; chasm. 
Gaba (Galla), market-place. 
Gabai (laibo, New Guinea), ditch, 


Gabbaz (Hausa), east. For other points see Ariawa. 

Gabbi (W. Australia}, water. 

Gabet (Nor.), gap, inlet, passage. 

Gabogabo (8. Cape, New Guinea), sea. 

Gabotumu (S. Cape, Neiv Guinea), the deep sea. 

Gabristan (Cent. Asia), burial-ground. See Stan. 

Gabuano (Aroma, New Guinea}, north wind. 

Gabungji (Togo), large river. 

Gaburigo (Aroma, New Guinea), south. For other 

points see Walau. 

Gachun (Tibet), a stage in the desert. Cf. Chan. 
Gad (Hind.), a boundary mark, landmark. 
Gad (Serer), an encampment. 
Gad (Somali), a headland, bluff, e.g. Gadki Goble, ' the 

headland where the gob grows.' Ki being the 

definite article i, with the connecting letter k. 

See Le. The gob is a tall thornless tree with smal 

red edible fruit. 
Gada (Arab., N. Africa), an elevated plateau, with steep 

sides, only accessible at certain points. 
Gadde (Wolof), camp, encampment. 
Gade (Da., Nor.), a street. 
Gadh (Sansc.), a fortress, castle. 
Gadir (Phoenician), an enclosure, e.g. Cadiz. 
Gado (Tsarisen, Formosa), a mountain. 
Gadobada (Motu, Neiv Guinea), the deep sea. 
Gadong (Malay), a house. 
Gad-pa (Tibet), a cliff. 
Gadu (Paiwan, Formosa), a mountain. 
Gagara (Hausa). See Kagara. 
Gahoste (Indian, U.S.A.), a plain. 


Gahri (Hind.), low swampy ground. 

Gahuen (Arab., North Africa), several little rocky hills 

in the midst of which is a moist depression with 


Gai (Polish), grove, small wood. 
Gail, Gayal (Hind.), a road, path. 
Gair (Gaelic Gearr), short, e.g. Gairloch, ' short loch/ 
nGaita (Eldorobo, Uganda), a village. 
Gajjar (Hind.), swampy ground. 
Gake (Japan), a cliff. 
Gal (Tibet), a ford. 
Gala, pi. Galat (Egyptian Sudan), fort on a hill. See 

Kala, really the same word. 
Gala (Galla), below, e.g., Galadede. 
Gala (Singalese), mountain, hill. 
Galana (Galla), a river, e.g. Galana Sagan. 
Galbed (Somaftland), west. Of. Barri. 
Galeb, Gleb, Garet, pi. Gur. Guiret (Arab.), rocky mounds 

with hard calcareous summits. 
Galit (Burma), communication. 
Galiyara (Hind.), lane, street; abode. 
Galle (Ger.), quagmire, pool. 
Galo (Mande), town, village. 
Gait (Egypt), reservoir. 
Gam (Hind.), a village. 
Gamat (Same.), a road, path. 

- (Cent. Africa, dialec ts of Bantu), mountain. 

Gamle (Da., Nor.), old (G le ), e.g. Gamle Carlsberg. The 
Sw. form is Gamla. 


Gail (Indian, U.S.A.), a lake. 

Gana (Bornu), small, e.g. Gana Woshem, flowing into 
Chad L. ; Gana Gulfei,' 'little Gulfei,' on the Shari K. 

Ganda (Galla), village. 

Ganda (Songhai), country. 
nGandu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a town. Cf. Ganzu. 

Gang (Same.), a river, stream, e.g. Ganges. See Ganga. 

Gang (Tibet), ice ; spur of a mountain. See Sgang. 

Ganga (Ceylon, India), a river, e.g. Ganga Pura, ' river 
town.' See Gang. 

Gangala (Sansc.), land subject to inundation by the 

Gangara, Gangala (A-Zande), hill, dam, dike, e.g. Gangara 
na Bojo, ' the hill of the chief Bojo.' 

Gang-barar (Sansc., Pers.) t alluvial land recovered from 
a river. 

Gangri (Tibet), a snow-capped mountain. 

Ganj (Bengal), a market-town, market, storehouse, 
whence the Anglo-Indian Gunge. 

Ganji (Songhai), uncultivated land, forest, desert. 

Ganon, Gaon, Ganw (Sansc., Hind.), village, town, dis- 

Ganua, Ganwa (Hausa), a ditch. 

Ganw (Sansc.) See Ganon. 

n Ganzu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), outskirts, the imme- 
diate vicinity of a town. Cf. Gandu. 

Gaon (Sansc.) See Ganon. 

Gar (Tibet), camp, permanent camp. The form Sgar 
also occurs. 

Gar (Arab.) See Ghar. 


Gara (W alamo and Galla, Abyssinia), a mountain 

range, a hill, e.g. Gara Arba, ' elephant range.' 
,, (dialect near Lugh), a hill. 
Gara, pi. Gur (Arab., N. Africa), a rocky peak. 
Gara (Sansc.), a ditch, pit, cavern ; also low land on 

which water does not lie long. 
Garam (Sansc.) See Gram, 
Garan (Hind.), a swamp, morass. 
Gard. See Yard. 
Gare (Fr.), wet dock; terminus or platform, station 


Garet (Arab.) See Galeb. 

Garganta (Sp.), mountain torrent ; a narrow pass be- 
tween mountains. 
Garh (Hind.), castle, hill, fort, e.g. Fathgarh (Futigarh), 

' fort of victory ' ; fath (Arab.) victory. 
Gari (Hausa), land, country, town ; e.g. Sabo-n-Gari, 
' Sabo's town,' Serki-Gari, ' chief town.' See Serki, 

Seriki. Cf. Birni. 
Garie (Somaliland) , a group of zeribas; a village of 

nomadic shepherds. See Garya. 
Garika, Gerka (Hausa), a garden. 
Garita (Sp.), a look-out house. 
Garmsir (Pers.), winter pasture grounds, hot lands ; 

from garm, hot, warm. 
Garra (Irish, Scotch, Manx), a plantation, e.g. Garrane- 

kinnefeake, 'Kenefec's plantation.' 
Gars (Arab.), a plantation. 
Garth (England), an enclosed place, croft, garden, from 

Icel. gardhr, an enclosure, e.g. Applegarth, See Yard, 


Garw (Welsh), Garbh (Gaelic), rough, torrent, e.g. 

Nantgarw, Yare, * the rough stream.' 
Garya (Ober, Somaliland). See Garie. 
Gasba (Hassania), fort. Cf. Kasba, of which it is a 


Gasse (Ger.), street, lane, road. 
Gassi (Arab., N. Africa), stream between dunes ; hard 

rocky ground covered with flints. 
Gasthaus (Ger.), inn, tavern. 
Gat, Gatti (Deccan), bank of a river. 
Gat (Hung.), dam, dike. 
Gat (Da., Nor.), gap, narrow inlet, passage. 
Gata (Japan), a lake near the coast ; harbour. 
Gata (Sw.), a way, street, lane. 
Gate (England), a passage, road, street, from A.-S. geat, 

an opening, gap, e.g. Reigate. 
Gatti (Deccan). See Gat. 
u Gau (Zulu, Kafir) ; for meaning see Ugau. 
Gau (China), a harbour. 

Gau (Teut.), a district, e.g. Breisgau, See Gay. 
Gaubu (Aroma, New Guinea), a tree. 
Gau Gau (Min-Kia, Yunnan), sea. 
Gauhani (Hind.), lands situated close round a village ; 


Gauntiya (Hind.), a small hamlet. 
Gavan (Buss.), a harbour. 
Gawa (Japan), a river, e.g. Sakada Gawa. 
Gawi (Chad L. region), firm hard ground, especially 

such localities in the Lower Shire K. marshes 
where villages can be built, e.g. the, village Gawi. 


Gay, Gau (Teutonic), a district, e.g. Spengay. See Gau. 

Gayal (Hind.) See Gail. 

Gaz (Cent. Asia), a goose, e.g. Gaz Kul, ' goose lake,' 

applied by the Kirghiz to all the Pamir lakes. 

See Kul. 

Gazovi (Servian), a ford. 
Gdir (Arab.), a gulf, whirlpool. 
Ge, Geya (Singalese), a house. See Geh. 
Gebel (Arab.), a mountain, e.g. Gibraltar. See Jebel. 
Gebele, El- (W. Sahara), south. See Gharb, Gebli, 

Shergi, Safel. 

Geber (Arab.) See Kebir. 
Gebi (Abyssinia). See Gibe. 
Gebiet (Ger.), territory, district, province. 
Gebirge (Ger.), mountain range (Geb.) e.g. Riesengebirge, 

' giant mountains.' 
Gebli (Arab., N. Africa), south, a variant of Gebele. 

See Safel. 

Gebiisch (Ger.), copse, thicket. 
Ged (Somali), fttiee, bush, e.g. Ged-wein, GedGalol. 


Geda (Somali), grass, pasture. Cf. Dur, 
Gedal (Arab.), a meadow. 
Gede (SoninJce), spring, fountain, well. 
Gedenkteeken (Dck.), a monument. 
Gedik (Turk.), a col. Cf. Bel. 
Gedong (Malay) , storehouse, e.g. Gedong Singata, 'an 

arsenal ' ; whence Anglo-Ind. Godown, warehouse &c. 
Geh (Hind.), a house, mansion. 
Gehucht (Dch.)> a hamlet t 


Geil (Icelandic), defile, narrow glen, a ravine. 

Gej (Wolof), sea. 

Geji (Lokub, L. Rudolf), a village. 

Gelah (Arab.), watch towers. Found also as Gelaa in 


Gelli (Welsh), hazel-grove, e.g. Dolgelly. See Dol. 
Gelman (Kabile), a ravine. 
Gelta (Kabile), a pond, pool. See Guelta. 
Gemaa (Arab.), a knoll. 
Geneza (8. and E. Africa), castle. 
Gennar (Arab.), a peak. 
Gentra (Arab., N. Africa). See Guentra. 
Geo (Shetland's), a rocky creek with precipitous sides, 

e.g. Klebergeo, as distinguished from Voe, a fiord, 

and Wick, a broad open bay. 
Geok (Turk.), blue, e.g. Geok Tepe, ' blue hill.' 
Gephyri (Neo-Greek), a bridge; from Anc. Ger. ytyvpa. 
Gera (Algeria), a lake. 
Gerai'r, pi. of Gurara (q.v.) 
Gerant (Harem, Indo-China), tree. 
Gerara (Arab.), a plot of ground. 
Gerara (Arab., N. Africa). See Gurara. 
Gereza (Swahili), a fort. 
Gerhush (Abbadi, Etbai), rotten schist. 
Geri (Galloppa, Abyssinia), a road. 
Geri (Masai), striped, e.g. Donyo Geri, ' striped mountain, 

a Masai name for Mount Kenia. See Lorgenai. 
Gern (Arab., N. Africa), a peak. 
Gerrua (Arab.), a bare summit or peak. 
Gesaa (Arab.), a small embanked plain. 



Gesh (Upper Nile), bush, tall grass. 

Gestade (Ger.), shore, bank. 

Geta (Danakil), a road. 

Gettar (Arab.), a well from which water trickles. 

Geul, Ghol, Gol (Turk.), a lake. 

Geya (Singalese). See Ge. 

Ghaba (Arab., Marocco), scrub, low bush. 

Ghadir (Arab.), a pool, pond ; in N. Africa equivalent 

to Firki (q.v.) 

Ghana (Bornu), little, e.g. Marte Ghana. 
Ghangakhsu, Ghangeng (Eskimo, Smith Sound), a cape. 
Ghangerdluakhsu (Eskimo, Smith Sound), a little fiord. 
Ghangerdlukhsoa (Eskimo, Smith Sound), a large fiord. 
Ghar, Gar, pi. Ghiran (Arab.), a grotto, cavern, e.g. 


Ghar (Hind.), house, dwelling; also clay soil. 
Gharb, El- (Egyptian Sudan), left bank of the Nile, 

from the Arab. Gharb, west. Cf. Maghrabi, Maghreb ; 

see Said, Matla. 
Ghari (Hind.), valley, ravine. 
Gharika (Swahili), flood, inundation. From Arab. 

Ghark, see next entry. 
Ghark-ab (Arab.), deep water. See Ab. 
Ghat, Ghaut (India), a mountain pass ; range of moun- 
tains ; a flight of steps for the convenience of 

bathers ; a passage, road, street. 
Ghati (Hind.), a strait ; pass ; a slope, gentle incline. 
Ghaut (India). See Ghat. 
Ghe (Harem, Indo-China), great. 
Ghede (Java), great. 


Ghedir (Arab., N. Africa), a small natural reservoir. 
Gheghertakhsoa, Gheghertakhsu, Gheghertarong, Ghegherten 

(Eskimo, Smith Sound), island. 
Ghelli (Kurdish, Kermanji district), narrow defile, 

narrow place in a road. 
Gheo lu (Miao-tse, Yunnan), a forest. 
Gher (Mongol), the Mongol circular felt tent. 
Gheridat, dim. of Ghurd (Arab., N. Africa), a small 

Ghiariccio (!.),. the gravelly bed of a river, from Ghiaja, 


Ghiem (Marocco), tents, hence a camp. 
GM ta he (Min-Kia, Yunnan), desert. 
Ghoe (Hainan), a river. 
Ghol (Turk.) See Geul. 
Ghorrafa (Arab., N. Africa), a large deep hollow 

running from dune to dune. 
Ghubba (Swahili), a bay. 
Ghukhsoa (Eskimo, Smith Sound), a river. 
Ghumbur (Somali), a hill ; found also as Gumbur (q.v.) 

See Bur. 
Ghunt (Hind.), rent-free lands assigned as endowments 

of religious establishments. 
Ghurd, pi. Oghrud (Arab.,N. Africa), a large dune. See 


-Gi (Nupe, Nigeria). See -Ji. 
Gi (Kanarese, W. coast of Hindustan), north. For 

other points see Suli, Mutli, Kabli. 
Gibe (Abyssinia], palace; sometimes spelled Gebi. 
Gibi (Hausa), precipice, ravine. 

K 2 


Gibi (Turkana, L. Rudolf), water. 
Gibla (Hassania), south. Of. Gebli, 
Gibya (Alia, N. W.ofL. Rudolf). See Gibi (Turkana). 
(Hausa), a dwelling-house, dwelling place, town, 

e.g. Giddan SerikinPawa, the n being the sign of 



the possessive, ' the town of the chief Pawa. ! 

Gierbrug (Dch.), a flying bridge. 

Gihat, El- (Egyptian Sudan), direction. 

Gil (Icelandic), a deep narrow glen. 

Gil (Pers.), clay. 

nGila (Sagara, Bantu), a path. Cf. Zila, Jira, Jila, 
Dlela, Tsela, Sila. 

Gilef (Abbadi, Etbai), sandstone. 

Gilia (It.), clay soil. 

Gill (Lake District), a ravine, e.g. Aygill. 

Gilli (W. Australia), a creek. 

Gimi (Hausa), a village. Cf. Ungwa, 

Gin (Japan), silver. 

Ginie (Soninke), cultivated land. 

Ginna (Abbadi, Etbai), cushion-shaped or mamillated 

Ginting (Malay Pen.), the saddle of a hill. 

Giogaja (It.), a ridge of mountains. 

Gipfel (Ger.), crest, summit of a mountain. 

Giram (Sansc.) See Gram. 

Gird (Pers.), environs. 

Girewa (Sansc.), a low hill ; ravine ; steep pass. 

Giri (Hind.), mountain, hill, e.g. Nilgiri, 'blue moun- 
tain.' Cf. Par, Pahar. 

Girima (Hausa), great. Cf. Baba. 


Giriwar (Sansc.), a mountain, hill. See Girewar. 
Girungu (Fr. Congo), ' great water/ large stream. See 


Gisr (Arab.), a dike. 

Giuncaja (It-), a place full of reeds and rushes. 
Gizan, pi. of Goz (Egyptian Sudan), small sandy hills. 
mGizi (Lusinga and Chula, Uganda), a village. 
Glas (Celtic), green, grey, blue, e.g. Glascoed, see Coed ; 

Glenfinglas, ' grey- white valley ' (fin from Gaelic 

fionn, wiiite) ; Glassalt, ' grey stream.' See Allt. 
Gleb (Arab.) See Galeb. 
Gleicher (Ger.), the equator. 

Glen (Gaelic), a narrow valley, e.g. Glencoe. Cf. Glyn. 
Gletscher (Ger.), a glacier. 
Glina (Buss.), clay. 
Gling (Tibet), region, district. 

Gluboki (Buss.), deep, e.g. Glubokoi in Vilna, S.W. Russia. 
Glyn (Ireland, Wales), a glen, narrow valley, e.g. 

Glynneath. Cf. Glen. 
Gnai' (Laos), great, large. 
Gnater (Arab., N. Africa), rocky ridges between 

depressions. Cf. Hodh. 
Go (Tibet), head, source of a river. 
-Go (Japan), suffix equivalent to the German Hinter, 

e.g. Bigo. 
Gob (Gaelic), the bill or beak of a bird, e.g. Gob na 

Crois, Gob na Hoe. 
Gob (So7naliland), a tall thornless tree with small red 

edible fruit, e.g. Goble, ' the place where the gob 

trees grow.' See Le. 


Gobiye (Galla), market. 

Goch (Welsh) ,-redi, e.g. Llanbedrgoch. Cf. Coch, $eeLlan. 

God (Pers.), lake, e.g. God-i-Zirra. 

God (Somaliland),~a, hole, e.g. Godlebile; Godwein, 'great 

cave.' See Wein, Le. 

nGodia (Congo, dialect of Bantu), an abyss. 
Godo (Congo), a town. 

Godown (Malay), storehouse ; corruption of Gedong (q.v.) 
Godut (Somaliland), red, e.g. Hell Godut, 'the red well.' 

See Hell. 

Goed (Welsh). See Coed. 

Goend, Gwend, Gwainda (Hind.), suburb; homestead. 
GoS (Somaliland), dry, e.g. Webi Goff, 'the dry river,' a 
watercourse which is dry except in the rainy 
season. See Webi. 
Gog (Tibet), ruins. 

Gogeti (Galla), a dry stream bed. Cf. Wadi. 
chiGogo (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 

Chigogo for meaning. 

kiGogo (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. 
Goila (8. Cape, New Guinea), water. 
Gok (E. Turk.), green, e.g. Gok Tepe, ' green hill.' See 

Tepe, Geok. 

nGoka (Giryama), shore, water's edge, bank. 
Gokje (Turk.), blue. Cf. Geok, Gok. 
Gol (Mongol), streamlet, small river, river, e.g. Khara-gol. 
Gol, Ghol, Geul (Turk.), a lake, e.g. Ak-Gol, ' white lake.' 
Gola (Slavonic), a wood, e.g. Gollwitz. 
Gola, Gol (Somali), a peak, e.g. Gola Daga = the rocky 
peak. See Daga. 


Gola (It.), a defile, narrow gorge; lit. 'throat.' 

Golea, Kolea (Arab.), a small castle, e.g. El Golea. 

Golets (Buss.), a bare rock. 

Golf (Ger.), gulf, bay. 

Golfe (Fr.), gulf, bay. For use as a form of sub-oceanic 

relief see Embayment. 
Golfo (I*., Port., Sp.), gulf, bay (G.) 
Goli, Goloi (Buss.), bare (of a rocky mountain, or arid 
desert). There are no less than ten islands of this 
name in Alaskan waters alone. 

Golo (Aroma, New Guinea), mountain. Cf. Olo, Oro oro. 
Golomyanni (Buss.), a sea breeze. 
Gome (Nika). See Me. 
nGome (Congo, dialect of Bantu), water. 
XL Gome (Swahili), a fort or castle. 
Gomito (It.), a creek, an arm of the sea ; lit. elbow. 
Gon (Indian, U.S.A.), clay-land. 

Gona, pi. Gonaki (Hausa), a farm, e.g. Gona-n-Berda, 
' Berda's estate,' n being the sign of the possessive. 
Gonaki (Sudan), garden-fields. See Gona. 
Gonda (Hind.), a suburb ; field near a village. 
Gong (India), a village, e.g. Chittagong, 'the four 

villages.' Cf. Charde. 
kiGongo (Gogo, Bantu), a detached hill or mountain ; also 

in Nyanyembe and Sukuma. 
Gonia (Greek), angle, corner. 
nGono (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), little. 
Gonpa (Tibet), a monastery, lit. solitude, e.g. Tulung 

Chubu Gonpa. 
Gop-mahal (Arab.), pasture grounds. 


Gor (Hammer KoJci, Abyssinia), a road. 

Gora (It.), aqueduct, mill-dam. 

Gora (Slav.), hill, mountain, e.g. Czernagora, ' black 

mountain '= Montenegro. See Czerni. 
Goram (Cent. Asia), stony ground. 
Gordo, a (Sp.), broad ; e.g. Punta Gorda, ' broad point.' 
Gore (A-Zande), left (hand side). 
Gore (Sonin'ke), encampment. 
Gorgo (It.), gorge, whirlpool, abyss. 
Gorha (Hind.), fields near a village, homestead. 
Goria (Somali), tree stumps, e.g. Goriale, 'place of tree 

stumps.' See Le. 

Gorm (Gaelic), blue, e.g. Bengorm. See Ben. 
Gornia (Neo-Greek), upper; a Slav loan-word. 
Gornoi (Buss.), mountainous, e.g. Gornoi island in Sitka 

Sound, Alaska. 

Gorny j (Polish, S. Slav.) upper (Grn.) ; e.g. Gorny 
Gornyi J Toponica on Morava R. 

Goro (Hung.), great, high. 
Gorod (RfMf.)* & burgh, town, e.g. Novgorod, 'new town.' 

Cf. Grad, Grod. 

-Gorongo (Cent. Africa), a suffix meaning 'great.' 
Gorm (Galloppa, Abyssinia), tree. 
Goru (Songhai), channel, bed of a river. 
Got (Ja-Luo, Uganda), hill, mountain. 
Gotara (Hind.), rich lands immediately adjacent to a 


Goulet (Fr.), a narrow entrance. 
ftowa (Kiwai, New Guinea), a passage in a reef. 
Gowt, Gote (Low German Gote, Ger. Gosse), sluice in 


a sea-embankment for letting out the land-water 

when the tide is out and preventing the ingress of 

sea- water, e.g. Winthorpe Gowt. 
Goz, pi. Gizan (Egyptian Sudan), a small sandy hill, a 

village built in a sandy plain, e.g. Goz Regeb. 
isiGquma (Zulu, Kafir), a knoll, hillock. 
i si Gqunyana (Zulu, Kafir), a small hillock. 
Graba (Maroceo), a wood. 
Graben (Ger.), a ditch, canal ; a term now generally 

applied to the ' rift ' valleys. For use as a form of 

sub-oceanic relief see Trench. 

Grad (Slav.), town, e.g. Belgrad. Cf. Gorod, Grod. See Bel. 
Graendse (Da., Nor.), boundary. Cf. Grans, Grens, Grenze. 
Gram (Tibet), a marsh. 

Gram, Garam, Giram (Sansc., Hind.), a village. 
Gran (Nissan I., New Guinea), a lofty bank. 
Grand, e (Fr.), great, e.g. Grande-Chartreuse. 
Grande (Sp.), great, e.g. Rio Grande. 
Grange (Fr.), a barn (G ge ). 
Granitsa (Servian), a boundary. Cf. Grenze. 
Granja (Sp.), a country house (Gr.) 
Grans (Sw.), a boundary. Cf. Graendse, Grens, Grenze. 
Grat (Ger.), ridge, the edge of a mountain. 
Gratz (Slavonic), a town, e.g. Kbniggratz. 
Gravier (Fr.), gravel. 
Greda (Sp.), chalk. 

Greh (Sansc.), house, mansion, abode. 
Grens (Dch.), a boundary. Cf. Graendse, Grans, Grenze. 
Grenze (Ger.), a boundary. Cf. Graendse, Grans, Grens, 



Grod (Polish), a burgh. Cf. Gorod, Grad. 

Grog (Tibet), ravine, torrent. 

Gron-ba (Tibet), stream. 

Grong (Tibet), a town." 

Groot (Dch.), great, e.g. Groote Eylandt. 

Groppa (It.), a hill-top. 

Gross (Ger.), great (Gr.), e.g. Grosswardein. 

Grube (Ger.), quarry, mine. 

Gruda (Buss.), a cairn, a pile. 

Grue (A-Zande), a road. 

Grun, pi. of Gern (q.v.) 

Grund (Da., Nor., Sw.), ground, shallow bank, shoal. 

Grund (Ger.), for use as a form of sub-oceanic relief see 


Grunn (IceL), shallow ground, shoal. 
Grus (Arab.), plantations. 
Gryaz (Buss.), mud. 
Gu (A-Zande), the; pi. Yo, Ha, or He; e.g. Gungara, 

' the water of the bamboos.' See Ngu. 
Gu (New Guinea), water, river; other dialects have 

Ku, TJ, thus Gu-pa, Ku-pa, U-pa, ' rain-water.' 
Gua (Mandara), a river. 
Guad (Spain), ravine, valley, river, from Arabic Wad, e.g. 

Guadalquivir=Wad el Kebir=< great river.' 
Guadal (Spanish S. America), a knoll of sand, a dune. 
Guasso (Guarani, S. America), great ; e.g. I-guasso. 
Guba (Galla), above. 
Guba (Buss.), a bay, gulf. 
Gubat (Tagala, Philippines), a forest, wood. 
Guberniya (Buss.), a government, province. 


Guchi (Japan), a mouth; used in compounds for 
Kuchi (q.v.) 

Gudar (Pers.), a pass. 

Guddi, pi. Dididi (Chamba), house, dwelling. 

Gudi, pL Adi (Basari), house, dwelling. 

Gue (Fr.), a ford. 

Guedi (LoJcub, L. Rudolf), a road. 

Guelta (Arab., N. Africa), a hole or basin in the bed of 
a river. Another and more correct form is Gelta. 

Guentra, pi. Gnater (Arab., N. Africa), a rocky ridge 
between depressions. Another and more correct 
form is Gentra. Cf. Hodb. 

Gueret (Fr.), land ploughed but not sow T n. 

Gugule (Bagirmi, Chad L. region), a shallow water- 

Guha (Sansc.), a cave, cavern. 

Guiang (Yayo, China), a wood, thicket. 

Guiret (Arab.) See Galeb. 

Guiret, dim. of Gara (Arab), a small rocky peak. 

Gujeta (Lokub, L. Rudolf), grass. 

Gul, Gur (Tibet), tent; slope of a mountain. 

Gulbi (Hausa), ocean, sea, stream, e.g. Gulbi n Kebi. 

Gulbo (Galloppa, Abyssinia), a nullah. 

Gully (Eng.), used, in sub-oceanic relief, for a long and 
narrow extension of a Trough (q.v.) or Basin (q.v.) 
which penetrates the land or a submarine eleva- 
tion, either with a uniform or a gradually 
diminishing depth, or which is bounded on the 
one side by land and on the other by a submarine 
elevation, e.g. the Faroe Gully, the Norwegian 


Gully. Equivalent to Ger. Rinne, Fr. Chenal. Cf. 


Gum (Abyssinia), mountain. 
Gumbaz (Cent. Asia), a tomb, e.g. Gumbaz-i-Bozai, ' the 

tomb of Bozai.' 
Gumbur (Somali), a hillock, e.g. Gumbur-ta-Jifto, * the 

sloping hillock.' Another form of Ghumbur. See 


Gumbed (Pers.), cupola, tomb of Mohammedan saint. 
Gume (Songhai), port, wharf. 
Gummat, Gumti (Hind.), a tower. 
Gun (Japan), a division of the country. 
Gun (Songhai), a gulf. 
Gun. See Gyun. 
Guna (Chad L. region), little, e.g. Bediguna, 'little 


Gund (Kurdish), a village. 

chiGunda (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), island. 
mGunda (Swahili, Yao), field, cultivated land. 
Gune (SoninJce), a desert. 
Gunga (Tibet), an egg, e.g. Gunga Nor, ' egg lake,' see 

Gungu (Hausa, Songhai), an island, e.g. Bangagungu, 

' hippopotamus island,' in the Niger K. 
nGungula (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the current of a 


Guni (Hausa), a little village. 
Gunne (Soninke), a forest. 
Gunong, Gunon, Gunung (Malay), mountain, e.g. Gunong 

Bongsu, Gunong Ledang. 


Gunong Api (Malay), a volcano. See Api. 

Gunta (Deccan), a tank, pool. 

Gur (Albanian), stone. 

Gur (Arab., N. Africa), rocky peaks. 

Gur (Cent. Asia), a grave, e.g. Ak-Gur, 'white tomb.' 

Gur (Tibet). See Gul. 

Gurara (Arab., N. Africa), a depression in the form of a 
basin, where rain-water remains for a consider- 
able period and induces vegetation ; larger than 
Dai'a (q.v.) 

Gure (Songhai), hill, dune. 

Gurgi (Somali), huts. 

Guri (Somali), a hut made of lierios or mats. 

Gurna (Arab.), a mountain promontory. 

Gursi (Deccan), cottage, hut. 

Gusong (Malay), shoal. 

Gusu (Songhai), cave, ditch. 

Gut (England), a passage, channel. 

Gutsi (Japan), an outlet. 
nGutu (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a town. 

Guzar (Pers.), a passage, a ferry. 

Gwainda (Hind.) See Goend. 

Gwaso (E. Cent. Africa), stream, water, lake, e.g. Gwaso 
Nyarok, Gwaso Masa. 

Gwend (Hind.) See Goend. 

Gwin (Bambara, Malinke), a mud wall surrounding an 

enclosure. Cf. Din. 
nGwongomoka (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a landslip. 

Gwy (Welsh), water, stream, e.g. Wye, Wey, Medway. 


inGxangxasi (Amaxosa, Kafir), a rapid in a river ; a small 


inGxoboza (Amaxosa. Kafir), a bog, marsh. 
umGxoboza (Amaxosa, Kafir), swampy ground. 

Gya, Gyan, Gyi (Tibet, Burma), signifies ' extent,' great, 
e.g. Gyantse, S.W. of Lhasa, Myitgyi, in Upper 
Burma. See Myit. 

Gybi, Kyoi (Korea), stream, creek, e.g. Kybi-San, ' moun- 
tain stream.' 

Gyun (Burma), an island. Cf. Kyung. 
Gyun (Tibet), a stream. 
Gzia (Upper Nile), grass. 

Ha (Indian, California), water. Cf. Aha. 

Habe (Indian, U.S.A.), hill, mountain. 

Habe (Fula). See Kado. 

Habilat (Arab., N. Africa), a chain of small dunes. 

Habr (Somali), a tribal prefix, e.g. Habr Gerhaji. 

Hacienda (Sp.), an estate (Hda). 

Hada (China), mountain, range. 

Hadd (Arab.), a spit of sand, or low sandy point. 

,, (Arab.), a limit, a boundary. 
Hadi (Madagascar), ditch, trench ; modified to Kadi 

(q.v.) in composition. 
Hadilanana (Madagascar), col, saddle. 
Haf (Sw.), sea, ocean. 

Hafen (Ger.), a port, e.g. Bremenhafen, * port of Bremen.' 
Hafen (Nor.), a wharf. 


Hafir (Arab.), an excavation, ditch. 

Hagaba (Upper Nile), small cleared arable spots in 

the midst of wooded or grass land. 
Hagar (Arab.), a stone, e.g. Dair el Hagar. See Dair. 
Hage (Da., Nor., Sw.), an enclosure, enclosed pasture. 
Hagen = Hag (Ger.), a hedge, a place surrounded by a 

hedge ; park, e.g. Hagendorn. 
Haghier (SoJcotra), white rocks. 
Hagios, a, on (Greek), holy, saint, e.g. Hagios Vlasis on 

Mount Olonos. Found also as Agios. 
Hagna, Hanya (Arab.), an eddy in a river. See Hania. 
Ha gurh (Min-Kia, Kwei-chau), house. 
Hahake (Tonga, Polynesia), east. For other points see 

Hai (China), sea, sometimes lake, e.g. Wei-Hai-Wei ; 

Hwang-Hai, ' yellow sea.' 
Haie (Fr.), a hedge. See next entry. 
Haigh (England), a place surrounded by a hedge; a 

park. Cf. Hay, Haie, Hecke. 
Hai-kau (China), bight, creek, lit. sea-mouth. See Hai, 

Hai-kio, Hai-ko (China), a cape, lit. sea-point. See Hai, 

Kio, Ko. 

Hai-mun (China), an estuary, lit. sea-gate. See Mim. 
Hain (Ger.), grove, wood. 

Hainya, Hanya (Hausa), road, path. Cf. Turuba, 
Haishat (Arab., N. Africa), sandy hillocks, covered with 

Halt (Arab.), a wall. 
Ha i tan (Indian, California), town, village. 


Hai-tao (China}, an island. Lit. 'sea mountain,' see 

Tao, Hai. 

Haiti (Santo Domingo and Haiti), mountains. 
Hai wan (China), a bay. See Hai, Wan. 
Hai-yau (China), a gulf. Cf. Hai Wan. 
Hajar (Arab.), stone, rock, e.g. Hajar Shwaf, 'Mirror 

Stone,' S. of Chad L., from the polished appear- 
ance of the rock. 
muHaka (Giryama), boundary. 

Halat (Arab.), a sandbank dry at low water. 

Halbinsel (Ger.), a peninsula. 

Haifa. See Alfa. 

Hali (Anglo-Saxon), holy, e.g. Halifax, ' holy tress,' i.e. 

of the Virgin Mary's hair. 
Halita (Hausa), a dwelling-place. 
Hall (England), a stone house, from A.S. heall, e.g. 

Cogge shall. 
Halla (Shangalla, Abyssinia), an uninhabited desert. 

Cf. Bunga. 

Hallal (Egyptian Sudan), a village. 
Hallier (Fr.), a thicket. 
Halom (Hung.), a hill. 

Hals (Da., Nor., Sw.), a strip or neck of land. 
Haltestelle (Ger.), halting-place (H. St.) 
Ha Luong (Khas Chos, Indo-China), a tree. 
-Ham (England), suffix meaning house, village, home, 

farm, e.g. Buckingham. 

Ham (Bintukwa Indian, U.S. of Colombia), rock. 
Ham (Cambodia), the jaw; e.g. Ham-Luong, 'Dragon's 

Jaw,' in Bao-Duk. See Luong. 


Kama, Bama (Japan), sand ; low-lying coast, beach 
shore, e.g. Yokohama. 

Hamada (Arab., N. Africa), plateau with rocky soil ; 
calcareous waterless plateau. 

Hamar, Ahmar, pi. Homer (Arab., N. Africa), red, e.g. 
Jebel Hamar, ' red mountain.' Cf. Homra. 

Hameau (Fr.), hamlet (H au ). 

Hamis, Hamse (Chad L. region), stagnant water, e.g. 
Hamis bay in S. of Chad L., after which Hager el 
Hamis, or Mount Hamis, is named. 

Hamma (Arab.), hot springs. 

Hammerwerk (Ger.), a foundry. 

Hamn (Sw.), harbour, haven, e.g. Carlshamn. 'Charles's 

Hamraye (Sahara), a bleak open district. See Nega, 

Hamun (Pers.), a desert ; plain, level ground ; a lake with 
swampy edges, having a large expanse of water 
free from reeds, e.g. Hamun-i-Sistan, Hamun-i-Fara, 
Ashkin being applied to lands only temporarily 
flooded, Chung, Chang, to water too deep for reeds to 
grow in, and Naizar to shallows and reed beds. 

Han (Japan), a clan, tribe. 

Han (Turk.), grass. 

Hana (Japan), cape, point. Also means ' flowers,' e.g. 
Hana Batake, 'the great flower-field.' 

Handaki (Swahili), ditch, trench. 
aHandu (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a place. 

Handu, pi. Kundu (KiJcuyu, Bantu) . See Ndu. 

Hang (China), dry, e.g. Hang ho = dry river; Hang 
kong pe = desert. In Korea a neck of a hill. 


Han-hai (Mongol), a sea of sand. See Hai. 

Hania (Arab.), a bend formed by a river, eddy. See 


Hano (Maiva, New Guinea), earth. 
Hantsana (Madagascar), a precipice. 
Hanua (Motu, New Guinea), a village. For other 

dialect forms see Fenua, 

Hanya (Arab.) See Hagna, Hania, the same word. 
Hao (China), ditch, trench. 
Haoz, Hauz (Pers.), tank, reservoir, from the Arabic 

Hand, See Hauz. 

Hapotrahana (Madagascar), falls in a river, rapids. 
Hara (Danakil), a tree. 
Hara (Japan), moorland. 
Harad (Sw.), a canton, county, district. 
Haram (Arab.), a sacred place. 
Hara (Mongol), prefix meaning black. Cf. Kara. 
Harana (Madagascar), rock, e.g. Haranandriana, ' the 

noble's rock.' See Andriana. The modified form 

Kara (q.v.) is also used. 
Hari (Kurdish), mud. 
Hari (Songhai), water, river, lake, sea. 
Harifa (Hassania), field, garden. 
Harimo (Songhai), source, fountain. See Hari. 
Harmattan (Fanti), a hot wind blowing from the interior 

of Africa to the Atlantic between Capes Verde and 


Harmina (Fin.), harbour. 
Hart (Ger.), a forest, e.g. Hunaart. From Harz, a wooded 

mountain, e.g. Harzgebirge. 
Hashakut (Indian, U.S.A.), a lake. 


Hashi (Japan}, a bridge. 

Hashiet (Hassania}, shore, beach. 

Hashish (Arab.), grass. 

Hashm (Arab.), a snout, and so a hill in the shape of a 

snout, e.g. Hashm el Agl, ' calf's snout,' Hashm el 

Dib, ' wolf's snout,' places being frequently named 

after living creatures. 
Hasi (Hassania}, spring, fountain, wells ; a variant of 

Hassi (q.v.) 
Hassadan (Somali), a euphorbia tree, e.g. Hassadanle, 

* the place where the euphorbias grow.' See Le. 
Hassar (Arab.), a rock. 
Hasse (Indian, U.S.A.), a river. 
Hassi (Arab., N. Africa), wells of little depth without 

masonry ; holes channelled out in the sand at the 

bottom of which one finds water. In Oran the 

name is applied to all wells, with and without 


Hat (Siam), a rapid over sand or pebbles; sandbank. 
Hata (Walamo, Abyssinia}, water. 
Hata (Japan], arable land. 
Hatakh (Somali), a trench =Boran. 
Ha tats (Indian, U.S.A.), sea. 
Hatch (England), a hitch-g&te, e.g. Westhatch. 
Hato (Mongol), stone, stony. 
Hatoba (Japan), wharf, landing-place. 
Hatsai (Siam), sandbank. 
Hatt (Hind.),-& market, market-place. 
Hattia (Sahara), a level valley with vegetation, waste 

land overgrown with scrub and brushwood. 

L 2 


Haud (Arab.), a reservoir, tank, cistern; the Persian 
forms are Haoz, Hauz. 

Haugh (England), (1) from the Norse haugr (a mound), 
a mound, cf. Hei, How ; (2) from the Anglo-Saxon 
haga (lit. hedge, then hedged ground, field) ; low- 
lying rich lands which are occasionally flooded 

Haugr (Nor.), a mound. Cf. Hei. 

Haul (Vonum, Formosa), a river. 

Hauma (Arab.), a district, quarter of a town. 

Hauptstadt (Ger.), chief city, capital. 

Haus (Ger.), house (Hs.), e.g. Schaffhausen. 

Haush (Arab.), a farm. 

Haut (Fr.), height, top, summit ; upper, e.g. Haute 
Loire. For use as a form of sub-oceanic relief see 

Hauteur (Fr.), rising ground, an eminence. 

Haut-fond (Fr.), a shoal (q.v.) 

Hauz, Haoz (Pers.), tank, reservoir; borrowed from 
Arab. Haud; e.g. Hauz Kalan, 'great pool.' See 

Hav (Da., Nor.), sea, ocean. 

Haveli (E. Turk.), a homestead. 

Havn (Da., Nor.), haven, harbour, e.g. Thorshavn; 
Kjbbenhavn, 'merchants' haven' (Copenhagen). 

Havod, Hafod (Welsh), a summer hut, a shealing, e.g. 

Havuana (Madagascar), a hill. 

Hawaii (Arab.), environs. 

Ha wili (Arab.), house, dwelling. 


Hawita (Arab., N. Africa), an enclosure ; a station 
marked by a tree or by a pile of stones. 

Hay (England), a place surrounded by a hedge ; a park, 
e.g. Roundhay, Cf. Haigh, Haie, Hecke, Hegge. 

Hayasi (Japan}, a forest, wood. 

Haz (Hung.'}, a house, dwelling. 

Hazo (Madagascar), tree. The modified form Kazo 
(q.v.) is also used. 

Hazor- (Semitic), an enclosure for cattle in the desert, 
e.g. Hazar-aman. 

Hbabchu (Tibet), a small river. 

Hbrog (Tibet), uncultivated land, pasturage. 

Hdam (Tibet), a marsh, bog, swamp. 

Hdam-bu (Tibet), reeds. 

He, pi. of Gu (A-Zande), the. See Gu. 

Hebu (Songhai), a market. 

Hecha (Marovo, Solomon Is.), north-east wind. 

Hecke (Ger.), hedge, enclosure. Cf. Hegge, Hay, Haigh, 
Haie, Haugh. 

Hedd (Somali), a forest, e.g. HeddGodir, ' Koodoo forest.' 
See Dad. 

Hedr (Arab., Etbai), a slope. 

Heferbe, pi. Kefero (Fula), infidel, e.g. Lafare Heferbe, 
' Pagan Lafare,' to distinguish it from the neigh- 
bouring village, Lafare Fulfulda, ' the Fulbe (Fula) 
Lafare.' Is an Arab, loan word ; see Kafir. 

Hegge (Deli.), a hedge. Cf. Hecke. 

Hegy (Hung.), mountain, peak (H.), e.g. Hegy-Allya. 

Hei, He (China), black, e.g. Hei Lung Kiang, 'Black 
Dragon river.' See Lung, Kiang. 



Hei (Nor.), hill or height, hummock. Cf. Hoi, Hbide, 

Haugh, Haugr. 
Held (Arab.), a mount. 
Heide (Dch., Ger.), a heath, e.g. Korteheide. 
Height (Eng.), in sub-oceanic relief, the highest part of 

a Rise, Ridge, or Plateau (q.v.) if it does not belong 

to the base of an island ; e.g. the Valdivia Height 

on the Walfisch Kidge ; opp. to Deep (q.v.) 

Equivalent to Ger. Hohe, Fr. Haut. 
Heilig (Ger.), holy, saint, e.g. Heiligenberg, in Baden. 
Heim (Ger.), a house, e.g. Hochheim. See Hoch. 
Heir (Arab), a pearl bank. 
Hei tu (China), black loam. See Hei, Tu. 
Hel (E. Turk.), damp, moist. 

Heli (Welsh), salt, e.g. Pwllheli=salt pool. See Pwll. 
Hell (Somaliland), a well, e.g. Hell Berdale, the ' well 

where the Perda plant grows,' see Le ; Hell 

Godut, ' the red well.' Cf. Hil. Found also as Hel. 
Hellet (Upper Nile), a village. 
Hen (Picardy), a home. 
Hen (Welsh), old, e.g. Heneglwys, 'old church'; see 

Hena (Ceylon), corrupted to chena, high jungle ground 

cultivated every 5 to 14 years, e.g. Kotahena, 

1 timber chena.' 

Hendura (Arab.), a slope, declivity. 
Hendere (Kanem), a valley. 
liHenga (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a pool, pond. 
Henshir (Tripoli), a fenced enclosure. 
Hepaithlao (Indian, U.S.A.), town, village. 
Herdade (Port.), a mansion or large manor-house, 


Herera (Nika), a plain. 

Herzogthum, Herzogtum (Ger.), a duchy ; lit. duke-dom, 

from Herzog=duke, and tum=dom. 
Heuvel (Dch.), a hill, Langenheuvel, Kaatsheuvel. 
He wi (Indian, California), hill, mountain. 
Hey. See Hay. 
Hia (China), a prefix signifying 'lower,' ' smaller,' e.g. 

Hia Kotu, near Chang Chai in Kwei Chau. 
Hia (Indian, U.S.A.), a meadow. 
Hia-kau (China), a strait. See Hia, Kau. 
Hiang-tsun (China), a village. 
muHichi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 
Hien (China), a district city. Cf. Chau, Fu, Hsien. 
Higashi, Higasi, To (Japan), east. For other points 

see Hoku. 

Hihidi (A-Zande), great. 
Hiki Shiwo (Japan), ebb tide. See Shiwo. 
Hikifu (Tonga, Polynesia), west. For other points see 


Hikina (Hawaii), east. For other points see Akau. 
Hikui (Japan), low, e.g. Hiku Shima. See Shima. 
Hil (Hind.), mud, ooze. 
Hil (Rahanwin, So?naliland), an eye; source of spring 

water, the same as the Arab. Ain and the Somali 


Hilin (Somali), a road = Derigh. 
Hilla, pi. Hallal (Egyptian Sudan), a village. 
Hima, Him (Sansc.), snow, ice, cold, e.g. Himalaya, ' the 

abode of snow.' 
Hin (Siam), rock, stone. 


Hina, -Him (Indian, N. America), a suffix meaning 

' river ' ; e.g. Klehini, Krotahini. 
Hinigala (Kusage, Solomon Is.), plantation, garden. 
Hinter (Ger.), hinder, lying behind. See next entry. 
Hinterland (Ger.), the region inland from the coast; 

equivalent to the French ' arriere-pays ' ; back 

Hippo (Phoenician), a walled town ; occurs in the ancient 

names of many towns in N. Africa, e.g. Hippo 

Regius, the present Bone. 
Hira (Japan), a plain. 
Hirhash (Abbadi, Etbai), mica. 
Hiroi (Japan), wide (of a stream or valley). 
Hishan (Egyptian Sudan), enclosures. See Hitah. 
Hissar (Turk), castle, fort, e.g. Kara-Hissar. See Kara. 

Is a loan word in Arab, and Pers. 
Hitah (Arab.), an enclosure. See Hishan. 
Hithe (England), a wharf ; a small haven or port, from 

.4.$. hydh, a haven, e.g. Queenhithe. 
Hito (Sp.), a landmark, guide-post. 
Hittuuk (Indian, U.S.A.), a tree. 
mHitu (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), wood, 

bush, forest. 
Kin (China), a cliff. 
Hiu (China), a market. 
Hjem (Da., Nor.), home, homestead, village, e.g. 

Throndhjem, ' throne home,' the place of coronation 

of Norwegian kings. Cf. Heim, Ham. 
umHlaba (Kafir), the earth, the world; ground, soil. 
iHlabati (Amaxosa, Kafir), the earth. 


umHlambo (Kafir], a valley. 

iHlane (Zulu, Kafir], an uninhabited country or district. 
umHlanhlo (Amaxosa, Kafir], a garden made in the bush. 
iHlati (Kafir], a forest, jungle. 
inHlazuka (Zulu, Kafir], a landslip. 
iHlobo (Kafir], the summer season. 
Hlong Ku (Chinbon), a valley. 
Ho (Annam], lake, marsh, pond, pool. 
muHo (Giryama], a river ; there is also the same word in 


Ho (Hung.], snow. 

Ho (China), a river, e.g. Hwang-Ho. Cf. Kiang, Chiang, 
Ho may be applied to any river, Kiang only to a 
large one. 

Ho, Hoe (Hainan), a river; from the above. 
Hoa (Cambodia), alliance, friendship ; e.g. Bao-Hoa, 

' preserve the alliance,' a district in Cambodia. 
Hoa (Laos), a boat. 
Hoai (Burma, Siam), stream. 
Hoang (China), savages. 
Hoang (China). See Hwang. 

Hoblis (Mysore), the subdivision of a Taluk. Cf. Thanas. 
Ho bune (Japan), sailing vessel. 
Hoch (Ger.), high, e.g. Hochkirch, ' high church.' See 

next entry. 

Hochebene (Ger.], tableland, plateau. See Hoch. 
Hbdde (Faroes e), a promontory. Cf. Hofdi. 
Hodh (W. Sahara), a depression between rocky ridges. 

Cf. Gnater. 
Hoe (England), see Hoo; Hoe (Hainan], see Ho. 


Ho e est (Indian, U.S.A.), a hill. 

Hoek (Cape Dch.), a ravine, pass, e.g. Braakhoek. In 

Dutch, cape, headland. 
Hoeve (Dch.), a farm. 
Hof (Ger.), a court-yard; farm, country house, e.g. 


Hofairt. Dim. of Hofra (q.v.) 
Hbfdi (Icel.), promontory or mountain ridge, e.g. 

Hjorleifshofdi. Cf. Hodde. 
Hofn (Icel.), a haven. Cf. Havn, 
Hofra (Arab., N. Africa), ditch, trench ; depression 

among large dunes, e.g. Hofra en Nahas. 
Hogback (Eng. and U.S.A.), a steep-sided ridge or long 

Hb'he (Ger.), height. For use as a form of sub-oceanic 

relief see Height. 
Hohlweg (Ger.), a hollow excavated way ; narrow pass, 


Hohu (Hu-Ni, China), a wood, forest. 
Hoi (Da., Nor.), hill or height. Cf. Hei, Heide, Hoide, 
Hoide (Nor.), hill, hummock. Cf. Hei, Heide, Hoi, 
Hoil (Khas Chos, Indo-China), a stream, small river. 
Hoka (Shinasha, Abyssinia), a river. 
Hoku, Kita (Japan), north. For other points see Nishi, 

Sai, Higasi, To, Nan, Minami. 
Hoi (Dch.), hollow (road), cave. 
H611 (Icel), a hillock. 

Hoi lo ma (Indian, California), hill, mountain. 
Hollow (Anglo-Saxon holh, holg), used in the same 

sense as Bottom (q.v.), e.g. Danebower Hollow. 


Holm (Da., Nor.), island, e.g. Tindholm, 'tooth-island,' 
Bornholm ; this and the four following entries are 
all really the same word, derived from an old Teu- 
tonic root cognate perhaps with Lat. coin's, 

Holm (Ger.), little hill, especially an elevation above the 
surface of inland waters ; islet. See above. 

Holm, Holme (Anglo-Saxon), an island in a river, flat 
ground along the side of a river. See above. 

Holma (Fin.), an island. See under Holm, 

Holme (Sw.), an island. See under Holm. 

Holper (Ger.), a hillock. 

Holt (Anglo-Saxon), a copse, e.g. Sparsholt, Cf. Hoiz. 

Holz (Ger.), a copse. Cf. Holt. 

Homer (Arab., N. Africa). See Hamar. 

Homowak (Indian, U.S.A.), water flowing out, spring, 

Homra (Arab., N. Africa), red, e.g. El Homra Hamada. 
Cf. Hamar, Ahmar. 

Hon (Annam), hill ; island. 

Hondo, a (Sp.), deep or shallow (really means bottom) ; 
shoals ; e.g. Honduras. Cf. Lat. fundus. 

Hondu (Songhai), a dune. 

Hontana (Sp.), fountain, spring. Cf. Fontana. 

Honua (Polynesia). See Fenua. 

Hoo (England), a tongue of higher land running out 
into a plain, e.g. Hoo End. 

Hoog (Deli.}, high, e.g. Hoogveld. 

Hoogte (Dch.), hill, eminence, rising ground ; e.g. 


Hook (U.S.A.), a low sandy peninsula forming the end 

of a bay; e.g. Sandy Hook. 
Hoorn (Dch.), horn, a peaked peninsula, e.g. Uithoorn, 

Hoowi (Siam), tributary of a river. Found in early 

writers for Hue (q.v.) 
Hor (Shan States), a stream, river. 
Hora (Abyssinia), lake, e.g. Hora Shale, Hora Korre. 
Hora (Bohemia), a mountain (Ha.) 
Horami, Kurremi (Hausa), valley. 
Horn (Ger.), a peak, e.g. Matterhorn, ' peak of the 

meadows,' i.e. rising from the meadows. 
Horni (Bohemia), upper (Hr.), e.g. Horni Micina on 

the Hungarian Erzgebirge. 
Horqueta (Spanish S. America), an acute angle formed 

by a river or brook together with the land included 

by the stream. 

Horst (Ger.), a thick wood. Cf. Hurst. 
Hosere (Hausa), a rocky hill, e.g. Hosere Cholle, ' bird 

rock.' Cf. Hossere. 

Hosh, pi. Hishan (Egyptian Sudan), an enclosure. 
Hoshun (Mongol). See Khoshun. 
Hosn (Arab.), a fortress ; a variant of Husn (q.v.) 
Hoso (Japan), narrow, e.g. Hososhima. See Shima. 
Hossere (Fula), mountain. Cf. Hosere. 
Hosya (Tso-o, Formosa), a village. Cf. Noheu. 
Hot (Harem, Indo-China), a river. 
Hota (Mongol), town, e.g. Chagan Hota, ' white town 
Hole (Hu-Ni, China), a mountain. 
Hotel (Fr.), mansion, large house, hotel. 
Hotk (Rotuma, Polynesia), stone, rock. 


Ho-to (China}, town, large village. 

Ho-tun (China), lighthouse. Cf. Kwang-lau. 

Houdh (Arab., N. Africa). See Hodh. Cf. Gnater. 

Hout (Dch.), wood, wooden, Oosterhout, Houtdorp. 

Hoved (Da., Nor.), head, cape, point. 

Hovedvej (Da., Nor.), main road. 

How (Cumbria), mound, e.g. Fox How. Cf. Haugh. 

Howe (English), a hollow. 

Hrad (Bohemia), a castle. 

Hrad (Sansc.),pond, lake. 

Hraun (IceL), a tract of lava, e.g. Odadahraun, Kjalhraun. 

Hsi (China), a marsh, bog, swamp. 

Hsia (China), lower, e.g. Hsia Pu, 'lower citadel.' Cf. 


Hsiang (China), a small street, alley ; village ; region. 
Hsiao (Shan States), small, e.g. Hsiao Wei Si, 'little 

Wei Si.' 

Hsien (China), district; capital of a district = Hien. 
Hsi Fang (China), the western region, often used for 

Tibet ; has also an ethnical meaning, being applied 

collectively to the aborigines of the uplands along 

W. frontier of China (Anglice Si Fans). 
Hsue (China), a cave in the side of a hill. 
Hta (Siam), landing-place, quay. 
Htoong (Siam), field, plain. 
Hu (China), a lake. Cf. Po. 
Hu (China), a gorge, e.g. Shi Hu, ' stone gorge.' 
Hu (Songhai), a house. 
Hua (China, Manchuria), flower ; e.g. Sung-Hua-Chiang, 

'pineflower river,' i.e. the Sungari. See Sung, 



Huala (Madagascar), a bay. 

Huana (Marovo, Solomon Is.), road. 

Huang (China). See Hwang. 

Huang tu (China), clay. 

Hue (Laos, Siam), a mountain stream, tributary. 

Huerfano (U.S.A.), a solitary hill or cerro (q.v.)', the 

Spanish word means ' orphan.' 
Hugab, pi. Haguban (Arab., Etbai), a boulder. 
Hugel (Ger.), a hill. 

Hu il (Khas Chos, Indo-China), a village. 
Huis (Dch.), a house, e.g. Druggenhuis, Nijenhuis. 
Huk (Da., Nor., Sw.), angle, point, hook of land. 
Hulu (Malay), river source ; up-stream, up-country, the 


Huma (Arab.), a district, quarter. 
Humedal (Sp.), humid soil, marsh. 
Hunahuna (Madagascar), a marsh. 
Hundred (English), a division of a county, supposed to 

be named from originally containing 100 freemen 

or families. 
Hunk (Indian, U.S.A.), a fall or rapid in a stream. Cf. 


Hunnebed (Dch.), a tumulus. 
Huntha (Indian, California), town, village. 
Huolo (China), a village formerly enjoying autonomy. 
Hurst (England), a thick wood, e.g. Penshurst. Cf. 


Hurst (Sw.), a shrub, a thicket. 
Hurubbe (Arab.), tank or cistern. 
Hus, Huus (Da., Nor., Sw.), a house (H s ). 


Husn (Arab.), a fortified dwelling. See Hosn. 

Husun (Swahili), a fort, from the above. 

Hutan (Malay), a wood ; never aspirated in ' High 

Malay.' See Titan. 
Hiitte (Ger.), cottage, hut. 
Hutung (Ger.), pasture-ground. 
Huus. See Hus. 
Huyen (Annam), town of the fourth order or capital of 

a sub-district. 

Hvita (Icel.), white, e.g. Hvita river. 
Hwang (China), yellow, frequently misspelled Hoang 

Huang, e.g. Hwang-ho, 'yellow river.' See Ho. 
Hwe (Shan States), a stream. 
Hydor (Greek), water. 

Hyen Gyina-Bea (Gold Coast), harbour, roadstead. 
Hyrna (Icel.), peak or summit of a mountain. 

I (China), barbarian, savage. See Jin. 

I (Madagascar), an article used only with proper names 

e.g. Ivohibe, 'the great mountain.' See Vohi, Be. 
I (Nung, Lao-Jcai), little, small. 
la (Indo-China), stream, torrent, 
laki (Fin.), a river. 
lar, ler (Gaelic), west, e.g. Ardersier (Ard-Ros-Ier), ' the 

high western promontory.' See Ard, Ros. 
larvi (Fin.), a lake, 
lavu (Pula, China), water. 
Ib (Hottentot). See Ep. 


Ibanzana (Kafir]. See Banzana. 

Ibe (Ibo, Nigeria), a place, e.g. Ibe Ahun or Ibe Avun, 

' that place,' ' there,' equivalent to Nga. 
Ibn, pi. Beni (Arab.), son ; as a geographical term it 

signifies producing, containing, &c., e.g. Ibn Ibrak, 

near Jaffa. See Beni. 
Ibotwe (Zulu, Kafir), the metropolis, the seat of 

government. See Botwe. 
Ibu (Galla, Abyssinia), a valley. 
Ich (Gaelic). See Och. 
Ich, Ichere (Turk.), inner. 

Ichinga (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Nga. 
Ichipiri (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Piri. 
Ichonde (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Chonde. 
Ichweba (Kafir). See Chweba. 
Iciba (Kafir), a pool. 
Id, pi. Aadad (Egyptian Sudan), a well (especially in a 

desert). Another form is Ed. 
Ida (Marocco), tribe, district. 
Idala (Ja-Luo, Uganda). See Dala. 
Idebi (Kafir). See Debi. 
Ide-yu (Japan), warm spring. 
Idiza (Kafir). See Diza. 
Idlambi (Zulu, Kafir). See Dlambi. 
Idobela (Zulu, Kafir). See Dobela. 
Idzendze (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Dzendze. 
Idziko (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Ziko. 
le (Saxon), river, stream. Of. E. 
lehaf (Arab.), a small mountain group. 
lelif (Wolof), governor. 


leto (Nandi, Uganda), a place. 

Ifenya (Zulu, Kafir), a narrow piece of land at the foot 

of a mountain suitable for cultivation. See Fenya. 
Ifri (Berber), a grotto, cave, e.g. Jebel Ifren or Yefren, 

1 the range of the cave-dwellers,' latinised Afer 

(Tunis), whence Africa. 
Ifuso (Kafir), fallow ground. See Fuso. 
Igamba, Amagamba (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 


Igapo (Brazil). See under Igarape. 
Igarape (Brazil), a small river ; brook ; lit. in Tupi 

language a ' boat way.' Applied especially to the 

affluents or feeders of Furos (q.v.) and rising in the 

Igapos, or marshy tracts of forest. 
Igboro (Yoruba), a street. 
Ighazeng, Ighazekhsoa (Eskimo, Smith Sound), strait, 


Ighil (Kabile), a hill. 
Ighir (Shilluh, Marocco), a fort, castle, or fortified 

place, e.g. Agadhir-Ighir. 
Ighuman (Kabile), reeds. 
Igidi (Marocco), sand. 
Igiz (E. Turk.), lofty, elevated. 
Iglerna (Eskimo, Smith Sound), terrace. 
Iglesia (Sp.), church, from e<cic\ricria, (ecclesia). 
Iglu (Eskimo), a house ; e.g. Iglu creek. 
Igreja (Port.), church. See Iglesia for derivation. 
Igzer (Kabile), a stream. 
Ihlabati (Zulu, Kafir). See Hlabati, 
Ihlane (Zulu, Kafir). See Hlane, 



Ihlati, dim. Ihlatana (Kafir). See Hlati. 
Ihlobo (Kafir). See Hlobo. 
li (Lolo, China), water. 
Ijara (Arab.), a farm, 
malje (Kilimane, Bantu), water. 
mwljo (Giryama) ; for meaning see Mwijo. 
Ijojo (Amaxosa, Kafir). See Jojo. 
Ijs (Dch.), ice. 

Iju (Yoruba), wilderness, desert, ocean. 
Ikamat (Arab.), house, dwelling. 
Ikari (Japan), anchor, anchorage. 
-Ike (Cent. Africa), suffix signifying ' little.' 
Ike (Japan), pond, pool. 
Ike (Tibet), east. For other points see Lho. 
Ikhf (Kabile), cape, promontory. 
Iki, Ike, Ikhe (Mongol), great, large, e.g. Ike TIssu or Ulan 

Hoshu in Dolon-nor district. See Tike, Bagha. 
Iki (Polynesia). See Iti. 

Ikisu (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kisu. 
dzlko (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country. For 

other dialects see Ziko. 
Ikomkulu (Zulu, Kafir). See Komkulu. 
Ikot (Efik, Old Calabar, Nigeria), a landing-place, 

beach, e.g. Ikotaba, Ikot Umian. Cf. Ikpa, Ikpere. 
Ikpa (Yoruba), track, way, path; in Efik, Old Calabar, 

means ' beach,' e.g. Ama-Ikpa. Cf. Ikot, Ikpere. 
Ikpakpa (Yoruba), pasture ground. 
Ikpasse (Yoruba), track, footpath. 
Ikpere (Ibo, Nigeria), coast, bank. Cf. Ikot, Ikpa. 
Iku (Mekeo,New Guinea), mountain, peak, headland, cape. 


II (Basque), new, e.g. Illiberis, ' new town.' 

II, pi. Ilat (Turk., Mongol), a tribe, especially nomad. 
Other forms are Ilyat, Eleut, Oliut, the last two 
being applied collectively to all W. Mongols and 
their languages, while Ilyat comprises all sorts of 
tribes Arab, Persian, Turki, Mongol in Persia 
and Afghanistan. 

II (Russ.), mud. 
mwlla (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a small affluent, a creek. 

lie (Fr.), an island, isle (I.) 

Ilha (Port.), an island. 

Ilhota (Port.), an islet. 

Ilije (Turk.), hot springs. 

Ilindle (Zulu, Kafir). See Ndle. 

Ilintle (Zulu, Kafir). See Ntle. 

Iliwa (Zulu, Kafir). See Liwa. 

Ilizwa (Kafir). See Zwa. 

Illagul (Fula), an inlet or backwater, creek. 

Illakei (Tamul), a fortress. 

Ille (Yoruba), earth, land, ground ; a town. Cf. Illu. 

Ille-babba (Yoruba), fatherland. 

Ille-ero (Yoruba), an inn. 

Ille-isho (Yoruba), a watch-tower. 

Ille-obba (Yoruba), a kingdom, territory. 

Illeto (Yoruba), a town or village. 

Illu (Yoruba), nation, country, people, town, village, 

Illu-keje (Yoruba), a small village, hamlet. 

Illu-nla (Yoruba), a capital city. 

Hog (Tagala, Philippines), a river. 

Ilogan (Tagala, Philippines), the mouth of a river. 

M 2 


Iloha (Kerepunu, New Guinea), cloud. 
Hot (Fr.), an islet. 

Ilundi (dialect of Bantu). See Lundi. 
Ilyat (Turk., Mongol). See II. 

Im (Chin Hills), an affix meaning village, lit. a house, 
e.g. Mkwi Im, Kakh Im, villages near Pushum-tung, 
S. of Myittha K. See Im im. 
Im (Ebon, Polynesia), a house. 

Im, Em (Sahara), people of, inhabitants, e.g. Imasro- 
dangh ; Emegedesen, 'the inhabitants of Agades.' 
Cf. Tel, Ahel. 
kilma (Kamba, Bantu), a detached hill or mountain. 

Cf. Lima. 
Imbukha (Lu-Wanga of the Aw a-Eimi group, Uganda). 

See Bukha. 

Ime (A-Zande), water. 
Imfumu, Mfumu, Mufumu, Fumu, pi. Afumu (Cent. Africa, 

dialects of Bantu). See Fumu. 
Imiamba (Swahili). See Amba. 
Imichi, Umuchi (Kossova, Uganda). See Chi. 
Imim (Marocco), the mouth of a ravine. Cf. Fum. 
Imitantato (Zulu, Kafir). See Tantato. 
Im nu (Chin Hills), an affix meaning 'large village/ 
lit. many houses, e.g. Tai Im Nu, * the large village 
on the Tai E.' See Im. 
Impanga (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 


Impiri (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Piri. 
In, fern. Tin (Berber) . This is the demonstrative pronoun 
followed by n ; it is found in many place-names 


e.g. In Hammu, Tin Erkuk. The forms En, Wan, 

Wen, Ten, Tan are also found. 
In (Burma), lake. 
In (Wakhan, Pamirs), a pass. 

mwlnano (Makua, German East Africa), a boundary. 
Inaran (Tsarisen, Formosa), a village. 
Inayan (Puyuma, Formosa), a river. 
Incencesha (Zulu, Kafir). See Cencesha. 
Inch (Scotch and Irish), an island, a corruption of Gaelic 

Innis, e.g. Inchiquin. 
Inchi (Swahili). See Chi. 
Inchike (Cent. Asia), narrow. 
Indatatakuohaak (Indian, U.S.A.), valley. 
Indawo (Kafir). See Dawo. 
Indibonga (Zulu, Kafir). See Dibonga. 
Indimnalahik (Indian, U.S.A.), lake. 
Indlandlatu (Zulu, Kafir). See Dlandlatu. 
Indicia, dim. Indlelanda (Kafir). See Dlela. 
Indlu (Kafir). See Dlu. 
Indre (Da., Nor.), inner. Cf. Yder, Inre. 
Indso (Da., Nor.), a lake. Cf. Insjo. 
-Indu, -Ndo, -Nandi (Cent. Africa), little (suffix). 
Inengea (Mekeo, New Guinea), a path. Cf. Keanga. 
Ing (Anglo-Saxon), suffix meaning 'meadow,' e.g. 

Wapping ; used also otherwise than as a suffix, e.g. 

Sloothby Ings, i.e. ' Sloothby meadows ' ; also a 

patronymic suffix, ' sons of,' e.g. Reading. Cf. Ingen. 
-Ing (Indian, U.S.A.), an inflexion signifying in, on, at. 
Ingebaude (Ger.), a building within an enclosure or 



Ingen (Ger.), sons of, e.g. Tubingen. Of. -Ing (Anglo- 

Ingone, dim. Ingonono (Zulu, Kafir). See Ngone. 
Ingot Bage (Sumatra), the rice-stores in the Batak 

villages. Of. Bale, Rumah. 
Inguna (Bintukwa Indians, U.S. of Colombia), road, 


Ingxangxasi (Zulu, Kafir). See Gxangxasi. 
Ingxoboza (Zulu, Kafir). See Gxoboza. 
Inhlazuka (Zulu, Kafir). See Hlazuka. 
Inja (Maslionaland) , a prefix meaning 'place of,' e.g. 

Inja ka Fura, ' water place,' river. See Fura. 
Inje (Turk.), narrow, e.g. Inje Burun, 'narrow cape/ on 

the north coast of Asia Minor. See Burun. 
Injira (Lu-Wanga of the Awa-Rimi group, Uganda). 

See Jira. 

Inkalo (Zulu, Kafir). See Kalo. 
Inkaya (Bantu). See Kaya. 
Inkundla (Zulu, Kafir). See Kundla. 
Innis (Gaelic), an island, e.g. Innismore, ' great island ' ; 

Innis Beg, 'little island.' Cf. Ennis. See More, Beg. 
Innqaba (Kafir). See Nqaba. 
Inqubu (Zulu, Kafir). See Nqubu. 
Inre (Sw,), inner. Cf. Indre, 
Insel (Ger.), an island. 
Insi (dialect of Bantu). See Inzi. 
Insila (dialect of Bantu). See Zila. 
Insimi (Zulu, Kafir). See Simi. 
Insirem (Gold Coast), a camp. 
Insjo (Sw.), a lake. Cf. Indso. 


Insu (Gold Coast), water, e.g. Apu Insu, ' sea water,' the 

sea. See Apu. 

Insunguzi (Kafir). See Sunguzi. 
Intatyana (Kafir). See Tatyana. 
Intendeleko (Zulu, Kafir). See Tendeleko. 
Interfleuve (U.S.A.) the upland separating two streams 

having approximately parallel courses. 
Intile (Zulu, Kafir), a flat strip of country, or a small 

valley running parallel with ia river, and suitable 

for cultivation. 

Intiran (Tamul), east ; for other points see Vadakku. 
Intla (Zulu, Kafir). See Ntla. 
Intsimi (Zulu, Kafir). See Tsimi. 
Inuma (Rubiana, Solomon Is.), plantation, garden. 
Inver- (Gaelic), a prefix meaning the confluence of two 

rivers, or of a river and the sea, e.g. Inverness ; 

occurs only in Scotland and Ireland, never in 

Wales, while the equivalent Aber (q.v.) occurs only 

in Wales and Scotland, never in Ireland. 
Invernada (Spanish S. America), good pasture-land 

especially fitted for fattening cattle. 
Inwijk (Dch.), creek, inlet, bay. 
Inxanxasi (Zulu, Kafir). See Wxanxasi. 
Inxiwa (Zulu, Kafir). See Nxiwa. 
Inxuluma (Zulu, Kafir). See Nxuluma. 
Inyanza (Lu-Wanga of the Awa-Eimi group, Uganda). 

See Nyanza. 

Inyatuko (Zulu, Kafir). See Nyatuko. 
Inzella (Marocco), the outbuildings of a Kasba (q.v.), for 

the accommodation of travellers. 


Inzi, Insi, Nzio (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See 

Nzi, Nsi. 

mlnzi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water; for other 
forms see Mansi. 

Inzila (Bantu). See Zila; cf. Zira. 

Inzira (Bantu). See Zira ; cf. Zila. 

Inzu (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Nzu. 

loki (Fin.), a river. 

Ion (Wolof), a road, path, track. 

Ip (Hottentot). See Ep. 

Ipiro (Mozambique). See Piro. 

Ira (Yoruba), morass, bog, fen. 

Iri (Mossi), an inhabited place of less importance than 
a capital. 

Iril (Kabile), a hill. 

Iriso (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Isote. 

Iriwa (Zulu, Kafir). See Eiwa. 

Irmak (Turk), a river, e.g. Kizil Irmak, 'red river.' 

See Kizil. 
mwlru (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a forest, bush. 

Irzir (Berber), a ravine, dim. Thirzarth. 

Is (Welsh), lower, e.g. Iscoed. See Coed. Cf. Isaf, Issa. 

Isa (Songhai), a river, the river, i.e. the Niger. The 
Songhai Isa, the Yoruba Kwara, the Temashight 
and Hausa Eghirreu (all applied to the Niger), the 
Kuka Fittri, the KotoJco Shari, Sari, and also Tsad 
(Chad) or rather Tsadhe, which is only another 
pronunciation of Saghe, Sare, all mean ' water,' 
' river.' 

Isa Ber, Isa Haribi, Isa Horno (Songhai), the sea. 


Isaf (Wels h), lowest, e.g. Road Isaf, in Kamsey Island. 

Isaka (dialect of Bantu). See Saka. 

Isantwenka (Zulu, Kafir). See Antwenka. 

Isazuzu (Zulu, Kafir). See Azulu. 

Isep, pi. Bisep (Fan, French Congo). See Sep. 

Iseweri (Ketosh, Uganda). See Eweri. 

Ish (N. Africa), a peak. 

Ishan-omi (Yoruba), tide, current. 

Ishi (Japan), stone, rock. 

Isibaxa (Zulu, Kafir). See Baxa. 

Isidiliya (Zulu, Kafir). See Diliya. 

Isigquma (Zulu, Kafir). See Gquma. 

Isigqunyana (Zulu, Kafir). See Gqunyana. 

Isikaulo (Kafir). See Kaulo. 

Isikoba (Kafir). See Koba. 

Isikumbu (Zulu, Kafir). See Kumbu. 

Isikungu (Zulu t Kafir). See Kungu. 

Isinene (Zulu, Kafir). See Nene. 

Isinga (Kafir). See Nga. 

Isipaluko, dim. Isipalukana (Zulu, Kafir). See Paluko. 

Isipambusa (Kafir). See Pambusa. 

Isiqiti (Kafir). See Qiti. 

Isiqwato (Zulu, Kafir). See Qwato. 

Isiroqoba (Zulu, Kafir). See Roqoba. 

Isiteleti (Zulu, Kafir). See Teleti. 

Isitu (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Situ. 

Isitya (Zulu, Kafir). See Tya. 

Isixa (Zulu, Kafir). See Xa. 

Isixeko (Zulu, Kafir). See Xeko. 

Isizeba (Kafir). See Zeba. 


Isizwe (Kafir). See Zwe. 

Iskele (Turk.), a landing-place. 

Isla (Sp.), an island. 

Isla (Spanish S. America), same meaning as Caapau 


Isleo (Sp.)) an island formed by rocks. 
Isleta (Sp.), an islet. 

Iso (Fin.), great, e.g. Isojoki in Vasa. See Joki. 
Iso (Yoruba), quarter, station. 
Isoa, Masoa, Tlswa (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). 

See Soa, Swa. 

Isoba (Zulu, Kafir). See Oba. 
Isoko (Yoruba), moorage. 
Isola (It.), an island (I.) 

Isore (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Sore. 
Isote, Isore, Iriso (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), 

grass. See Sote, Sore Riso. 
Issa (Songhai, Timbuktu), south, lit. the river, the 

Niger, another form of Isa (q.v.) 
Issa, Isaf (Welsh), lowest, e.g. Cwnnws Issa. Cf. Is. 
Issa honno (Songhai), sea. 
Is sha (Indian, California), water. 
Issi (Turk.), warm. See next entry. 
Issik (Turkestan), warmer, e.g. Issik-kul= warmer lake. 

See Kul, 

Istmo (It., Sp.), an isthmus. 
Isua (Fanti), a strait. 
It (Polynesia). See Iti. 

Italian (Fin.), eastern. For other points see Pohia. 
Itale (Bantu). See Tale. 


Itam (Malay), black ; often aspirated, Hitam ; e.g. 

Mt. Itam in the south of the Malay Peninsula. 
Itametta (Yoruba), a place where three ways meet. 
Itedo (Yoruba), an encampment. 
Itegu (Zulu, Kafir). See Tegu. 

Iterlekhsoa, Iterleng (Eskimo, Smith Sound), bay, gulf. 
Iti, It, Ngiti, Itiiti, Iki (Polynesia), small, e.g. Maiao-Iti, 

' little Maiao.' 

Itifa (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Tifa. 
Itiiti (Polynesia). See Iti. 
Itillemu (Soninke), bush, wood, grass. 
Itsiel (Yambo, Upper Sobat B.), house, hut. 
Itu (Maiva, New Guinea), house. 
Ivakavaka (Zulu, Kafir). See Vakavaka, 
Ivando (Fin.), an estuary. 

Ivavao (Kuvarawan, Pei-po, Formosa), a mountain. 
Iwa (Burma), a village. 
Iwa (Japan), rock, rock in the sea. 
Iwanda (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Wanda. 
Ixandeka (Zulu, Kafir). See Xandeka. 
lye (Japan), a house. 
lyo (Ja-Luo, Uganda), path, road. 
Izba (Buss.), a hut. 
rulzi (Karanga, Bantu), a river, 
urulzi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 
Izibuko (Kafir). See Zibuko. 
Izira (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Zira. 
Iziwa (Lusinga and Chula, Uganda). See Ziwa. 
Izwe (Kafir). See Zwe. 


Ja- (Nilotic Kavirondo, Uganda), a prefix signifying 
clan or tribe, e.g. Ja-luo. Cf. Ka, Yaka. 

Ja (Pers.), a place. 

Ja (Tibet), signifies extent. 

Jada (Pers.), a road, pathway. 

Jadid (Arab.), new, e.g. Trik el Jadid, 'the new road.' 
Cf. Jedid. See Trik. 

Jaga (Punjab), a place, a spot. 

Jaghfar (Arab.), a river, either large or small. 

Jakun (Malay), wild tribes ; applied vaguely both to 
the Negrito aborigines and to the Malay wild 
tribes of the Malay Peninsula. 

Jala (Sansc.), a mass of water, a lake. 

Jalan (Malay), road. 

Jali (Arab., N. Africa), palms left without cultivation. 

Jam (Bintukwa Indians, U.S. of Colombia), snow, 

Jam (Arab.), Jami (Turk.), Jamia (Arab., Palestine), 
mosque. The Turkish is borrowed from the 
Arabic, in which language Jam', Jam'a, properly 
means collection, then assembly, congregation, 
mosque. This occurs as Jama in Hassania. 

Jamana (Soninke), country. 

Jan (Manchuria), a station, post. 

Jana (Pali), people. 

Jangal (Sansc., Hind.), forest, wood ; corrupted into 


maJani (Swahili), grass. 

Jarita (Hind.}, brushwood, undergrowth. 

Jarnvag (Sw.), railway. 

Jarur (Arab.), a river, stream. 

Jarvi (Fin.), lake. Cf. Jaur. 

Jasor (Slavonic), a marsh, bog. 

Jatar (Punjab), cultivated land. 

Jaune (Fr.), yellow, e.g. Fleuve Jaune, i.e. Hwang Ho (q.v.) 

Jaur (Fin.), a lake. Cf. Jarvi. 

Jay (E. Turk.), place, spot. 

Jaza (Slavonic)] a house, e.g. Jaschen. 

Jazar (Arab), islands. 

Jazirah (Arab.) See Jezira. 

Jebel, pi. Jebal (Arab.), a mountain, e.g. Jebel Ahmar, 

1 Bed Mt.' Cf. Gebel. 

Jedar, Jedir (Arab.), a look-out place on a road, generally 
made of stones ; the wall of an enclosure ; rampart, 

Jedid (Arab.) See Jadid. 

Jeel (Anglo-Indian), a corruption of the Hind. Jhil, a 
stagnant sheet of water, mere, lagoon. In East 
Bengal the form Bheel (q.v.) is used. 
Jelal (Somali), the dry season. 
Jelyezo (Buss.), iron. See next entry and Zhelyezo. 
Jelyeznaya Doroga (Russ.), a railway. Lit. 'iron road.' 
Jembatan (Malay), jetty, mole, bridge. 
Jenan, Jenien (Arab., N. Africa), a garden, e.g. Jenien 

Bu Eesk. 

Jeni. See Yeni, which is the proper English spelling. 
Jenien (Arab., N. Africa). See Jenan. 


Jenjub (Turk.), southerly. 

Jenjun (Manchuria), general -in-chief of a large district, 

viceroy with both civil and military jurisdiction. 
nJera (Cent. Africa, Bantu), a road. Of. Zila, Dzira. 
Jeram (Malay Peninsula), a rapid in a river, e.g. Jeram 

Batu. Gendang on Perak B. See Batu. 
Jerf (Arab.),, quay, wharf. 
Jerf (Arab., N. Africa). See Jorf. 
Jernbane (Da., Nor.), a railway. 
Jetee (Fr.), a jetty, pier (J" 3 ). 
Jetwela (Congo), the horizon, from Jeta, to revolve, to 


Jewun (Indian, U.S.A.), a stream. 
Jezero (Servian), a lake, e.g. Malo Jezero. (Pol.) Jezioro. 
Jezira, Zira, pi. Jezair, Zair (Arab.), an island, peninsula, 

e.g. Algeziras, El Jezire (Mesopotamia). 
Jhalars (Punjab), wells. 
Jhil (Hind.) See Jeel. 
-Ji, -gi, -zhi (Nupe, Nigeria), a termination signifying 

* town,' ' village,' e.g. Kaboji, Ettungi. 
Ji, Jini (Soninke, Bambara), water. 
maJi (Gent. Africa, Bantu), water. See Mansi. 
muJi (Cent. Africa, Bantu), a town. Cf. Musi. 
nJia (Bantu), a road, path. Cf. Zira, Sila, Jila. 
Jibal (Arab.), mountains. See Jebel, of the pi. of which 

this is a variant. 
Jih (China), a post station. 
Jiji (Songhai), north. See Diaman, Wene Kame. 
kiJrji (Swahili), a village, e.g. Ujiji, on Tanganyika; for 

pi. see Kijiji. 


- (Bantu), a road, path. Cf. Zira, Jia, Sila. 
o n J ila j 

Jilgha (E. Turk.), a deep straight valley. 

Jima (Japan), an island, e.g. Awa Jima ; used in com- 
pounds for Sima (q.v.) See also Shima. 

Jin (China), men, people, whence ' China,' the Hind. 
1 Chin,' and the Arabo-Pers. ' Sin,' which gives 
the classical ' Sinse ' and our ' Sinsean,' ' Sinology.' 
I- Jin, ' barbarians,' ' barbarian people,' a term ap- 
plied to all foreigners, now forbidden, by treaty, 
to be used in official documents. See I. 

Jin = Chin =Naru= Komi (Korea), a ferry, e.g. TTl-jin. 

Jinde (Songhai), a tributary of a stream ; confluence ; 

col, gorge. 

eJinga (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ejinga. 
kinJingela (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a whirlpool, from 
Jinga, to coil or curl, hence ' an eddy.' 

Jingere-Ber (Songhai), a mosque. 

Jingira (Hind.), an island. See Dip, Lanka. 

Jini (SoninJce). See Ji. 

Jinna (Yoruba), far distant. 

Jiojia (Mentawei), water. 

Jir (Shignan), a mountain. 

inJira) (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), path, road; for other 
nJiraj Bantu forms see Zila, Zira. 

Jisr (Arab.), a bridge. 
kiJito (Swahili), brook, small stream; to? pi. see Kijito. 

Joch (Switzerland), a pass, ridge (J.) 

i Jojo (Zulu, Kafir), a sour-grass country ; a moist, damp 
climate or locality. 


Joki (Fin.), a river. 

Joki sen (Japan), a steamer. 

Joki sha (Japan), a railway. 

Jokull (Icelandic), an ice-covered mountain or plateau, 
e.g. Myrdalsjbkull, Vatnajokull. 

Joliba. See Dhiuliba. 

Jombo (Stvakili), a very large dhow. 
eJondi (Kamerun), an island. 

Jong (Tibet), a broad valley ; also a fort, e.g. Tinkijong, 

* the fort of the Tinki district.' 

en Jora (Masai, E. Africa), mimosa, pi. Njora, applied to 
a swamp where these trees grow. 

Jorf, Jerf (Arab., N. Africa), an escarpment. 

Joro (Fula), a residence, e.g. Joro Kabdu, ' the residence 
of the chief Kabdu.' 

Jozo (Madagascar), a junk, e.g. Anjozobe, ' at the place 
where there are many junks.' See An, Be. 

Ju (Korea). See Jyu. 

Ju, Jo (Pers.), a stream, brook ; from Old Pers. Gui. 
a Ju (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Aju. 

Jubb (Arab.), a well, pit. 

Jube (Mande), a ford, e.g. Jubeba, 'river ford.' Cf. Ox- 
ford. See Ba, Jude. 

Jude (Fula), a ford. See Jube. 

Judetzi (Rumania), districts. 

Jug (Tibet), below ; an embouchure. 

Jui-bar (Pers.), a large river receiving many streams. 

Juma (Serer, Wolof), a mosque. Cf. Jam. 

Jumba (Swahili), a palace. 
eJundi (Kamerun). See Jondi. 


Jung (Malay), a large trading vessel; anglicised Junk ; 

from the Chinese Chwan. 

Jung (Mongol), right, west. For other points see Aro. 
Jungle. See Jangal. 
Junk. See Jung. 
Junubi (Hind.), south. Cf. Dakhni. For other points 

see Uttar. 

Jur (Armenia), water. 
Jurang (Malay}, a creek. Cf. Churang. 
Jurdide (Adamawa), a mosque. 
Jyu, Ju (Korea), a magisterial town of the first class ; 

occurs also as Chyu, Chu. 


Ka (Arab.), a plain. 

Ka (Congo), small (river), e.g. Ka Bunda, Kabiboko. Cf. Lu. 

Ka (Congo), an abbreviation of Kazembe, great chief, 

prince ; e.g. Ka-Tanga, Prince Tanga, now applied to 

the territory of the chief, in this case situated in 

S.E. of Congo Free State. 
Ka (Indian, U.S.A.), a forest. 
Ka- (Mashonaland), prefix meaning 'great,' e.g. Kafura= 

great Fura. See Fura. 

Ka (Min-Kia, Yunnan), high, lofty (of a mountain). 
Ka (Nilotic Kavirondo, Uganda), a prefix meaning ' clan ' 

or 'tribe.' Cf. Ja, Yaka. 
Ka (Shan States), hill people, equivalent to the Moi of 

Ka (SoninJce), house, dwelling. 



Ka (Tibet), snow ; also the mouth, banks of a river. 

Cf. Kaba. 

Kaa (Arab.), earth, land. 
Kaai (Dch.), wharf, mole, quay. 
Kaap (Dch.), a cape. 
Kaar (Ger.), a little valley encircled by mountains like 

an amphitheatre. 
Kaba (Togo), house, dwelling. 
Kaba (Tibet), snow. Cf. Ka. 
Kaba-kum (Turk.), gravel. 
Kabba (N. Nigeria), stone, rock, hence the name of the 

province (Kabba), one of the most striking features 

of which is the large number of isolated peaks ; 

e.g. the stone of leri, the stone of Semarika. 
Kabbelstroom (Dch.), stream, rivulet, brook. 
Kabelang (Ebon, Polynesia), west. For other points 

see Eung. 

Kabike (New Guinea), a house. 
Kabila (Arab., Shahpur, Punjab), a family, being a 

subdivision of the Muhi, or clan, the Arabic word 

meaning ' race,' * tribe.' 
,, (Swahili), any community of people ; borrowed 

from Arab. 
(Marocco, Algeria), tribe; applied collectively 

to the Berbers of the coast, and now to their 

territory in Algeria (Kabile, Kabilia, dec.) 
Kabli (Kanarese, W. coast of Hindustan), west. For 

other points see Gi. 
Kabhmak (Eskimo), white people. 
Kabr (Somali), graves, e.g. Kabr Ogaden, ' Ogaden 



Kabulula (Kiriwina, New Guinea), a point of land. 
Kachcha (Punjab), land annually inundated by the 

ordinary floods. Cf. Bela. 
Ka Chia (Miao-tse, Kwei-chau), a cave. 
Kachor (Mongol), detour, bend, gulf. 
Kad (Arab.), a shoal. 

Kadaruka, Kataruka (Hausa), a bridge. See Kaderku. 
Kadda (Danakil), great, large, e.g. Kaddas Mt, 
Kadda (New Guinea), a house. 
Kade (Dch.), quay or dam. 
Kade (Gonja), an inhabited place of less importance 

than a capital. 

Kaderku (Hausa), a bridge. See Kadaruka. 
Kadi (Madagascar), a modified form of hadi, used in 

composition, ditch, trench, thus ankadi=' the place 

where the ditch is,' at the ditch, e.g. Ankadivori, ' at 

the circular trench,' Hadivor, ' the circular trench.' 

See An. 
Kadim (Arab.), old, e.g. Birni Kadim, the old capital,' 

i.e. of Bornu. See Birni. 
Kadis (Turk.), saint, holy ; from Arab, quds, qudsi, pure, 


Kad-Jak (Alaska). See Kikhtak. 
Kado, pi. Hade (Fula), blacks ; autonomous race ; 

strangers, e.g. Garo-n-Kado. 
Kadzaka (Nika), a small forest. See Dzaka. 
Kadzidzi (Nika). See Dzidzi. 
Kadzuho (Giryama, Nika). See Dzuho. 
Kaeaona (Kabadi, New Guinea), east. 
Kaf (Arab.), escarpment. Cf. Kef. 

N 2 


Kafir (Arab.), infidel, pi. Kufra (q.v.), e.g. Kafiristan. 
Kafr (Arab.) (Hebrew, Caphar), a village, e.g. Kafr et Tin, 

1 fig village ' ; also a saline swamp. 
Kafufu (NiJca). See Fufu. 

Kaga (French Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ga. 
Kaga (Sara, L. Chad), a forest. Cf. Mbunga. 
Kagara, Gagara (Hausa), a fortification, barracks. 
Kaget, Kakat (Alaska, Lower Yukon region), equivalent 

to Chaget (q.v.) 

Kahala (Arab., N. Africa). See Akhal. 
Kahf (Arab.), cave, large cavern. 
Kah mu ke (Pimo Indian), a town. 
Kahn (Arab.), a market. 
Kahnfahre (Ger.), ferry by wherry. 
Ka ho ku sha ma (Indian, California), valley, ravine. 
Kai* (China, Shan States, Hainan), market, bazaar, e.g. 

Sin-Kai, ' new market,' the Chinese name for 

Bhamo. See Sin, Bha, Maw. 
Kai' (Sahara), the mouth or junction of a stream. 
Kai (Japan), sea. 
Kai (Polynesia). See Tai. 

Kaija (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kaya. 
Kaikara (Motumotu, New Guinea), the deep sea. 
Kaimakam (Turk.), sub-governor of a Kaza (q.v.) The 

proper form is Kaimakan for Kaimaikin. 
Kaimen (Nandi, Uganda), west. Cf. Murot. 
Kaiser (Ger.), emperor, e.g. Kaiserstadt. 
Kaita (Nandi, Uganda), a town. 
Kaitya (Cambodia), Buddhist pyramid. 
Kaiva (Fin.), a rivulet. 
Kajum (Bornu), grass. 


Kakat (Alaska, Lower Yukon region), a river; e.g. 

Allenkakat, Daklikakat. See Kaget, Chaget, Na. 
Kakh (Pers.), a palace, villa. 
Kakir (E. Turk), dry hard ground. 
Kakkar (Punjab), snow. 
nKaku (Congo, dialect of Bantu). For meaning see 

Kala, Kalat, pi. Kila, Kalajat (Arab., Pers.}, village, 

fortress, castle, e.g. Bash-Kala. Cf. Kasr, Gala, 

Kale. The proper Arab, form is qala't. 
Kala (Caucasus), cliff, bluff. 
Kala (Hind.), black, e.g. Kalabagh on the Indus, 
hi Kala (Ketosh and Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a village. 
Kalajvik (Turk.), a little castle. See Kala. 
-Kalamba, -Kurumba (Cent. Africa), suffix signifying 

' great.' 
Kalan (Pers.), great, e.g. Mir Kalan, ' big mountain,' 

Pamir-i-Kalan, ' Great Pamir.' 
nKalango (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a forest, 

Kale (Turk.), castle, e.g. Yeni Kale, ' new castle.' See 

Kala, really the same word. 
Kaledets (Buss.), a well. 
Kali (Malay), a river, 
ma Kali (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), bitter. 

See under Makali. 
Kalkofen (Ger.), a limekiln (K.O.) 
Kallar, Kalri (Punjab), land impregnated with salt. 
Kallar Shor (Shahpur, Punjab), the efflorescence which 

appears on the surface under the influence of 


evaporation and capillary attraction whenever 

there is much salt in the soil. 
Kalle (Fula), house, cottage. 
Kallu (Tamul), a rook, cliff. 
Kalmelo (Songhai), a gorge. 
inKalo (Zulu, Kafir), a neck or opening in a mountain 


Kalri (Punjab). See Kallar. 
Kalt (Ger.), cold, e.g. Kaltbad, See Bad, 
Kalv (Da., Nor.), a detached islet, a small rock or islet 

alongside a larger one. Cf. The Calf of Man. 
Kalwa (Deccan), river, watercourse. 
Kam (Annam), a village. 
Kam (Dch.), a ridge (of hills). 
Kam, Kham (Tibet), region, e.g. Tang Kham in Eastern 


eKam (Congo, dialect of Bantu), water. 
Kamalig (Tagala, Philippines), a storehouse. 
Kamana (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Mana. 
Kamane (Bagirmi, Chad L. region), a shallow water- 
nKambalalu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a pass between 

Kame (U.S.A.), a small hill of gravel or sand made by a 


Kamechi (Ketosh, Uganda). See Mechi. 
Kamen (Buss.), stone, rock, e.g. Kamenitsi point, island, 

and bay. See next entry. 
Kamen (S. Slavonic), a stone, boundary (Km.) See 



Kami (Japan), upper, lit. chief, e.g. Kami-tsu-Ke = upper 


Kamish, Kamush (Cent. Asia), reeds. 
Kamm (Ger.), a crest, ridge. 
Kamoro (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a place, site. 
Kamp (Dch.), a camp, e.g. Maleskamp. 
Kampong (Malay), an enclosure ; collection of houses, 

village, e.g. Kampong Rantau. See Rantau. 
Kamush (Cent. Asia). See Kamish. 
Kan (India), a quarry, mine. 
Kana, pi. Kanat (Arab.), channel, aqueduct. 
Kanaal (Dch.), a canal. 
Kanal (Ger., Buss.), a channel. 
Kanal (Da., Nor., Sw.), a canal. 
Kanali (Fin.), a channel. 
Kanan (Arab.), ridge or spur. 
Kanan (Sansc.), forest, desert. 
Kanat (Pers. from Arab.), underground conduits. See 


Kand (Pers.) See Kend. 
Kanda (Bambara, Sudan), a country, district. 
eKanda (Congo, dialect of Bantu), clan, family. 
Kanda-hela (Singalese), mountain, hill. 
Kandaki (Hausa), a house. 
Kane (Japan), metal ; makes Gane in compounds, as 

Aki Gane, red metal, copper. 

Kang (China), a mountain ridge ; village. Cf. Keng. 
Kang (Shahpur, Punjab), a sudden high flood of a 

Kang (Tibet), a house. 


eKanga (Congo, dialect of Bantu), wilderness, barren soil. 
Kangka (Malay Pen.), Chinese village. 
Kango, pi. Akango (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a 

chief. See Ngo. 

Kang-sar (Tibet), new house, village. 
Kani, Keni (Kurdisli), a spring. 
maKani (Swahili), a village, dwelling. For other forms 

see Makao. 

Ka ni kwi ni ka (Hudson Bay region), long island. 
Kanisa (Pers,, Swahili), a church. 
Kanka (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Nka. 
Kanona (Kabadi, New Guinea), earth. 
Kant (Dch.), side, edge, brink. 
Kantara, pi. Knater (Arab.), a bridge. 
Kao (China), high, lofty. 
Kao (Siam), hill. 

ma Kao (Swahili), a village. For other forms see Makao. 
Kapa (E. Turk.), cottage, hut. 
Kapal (Malay), a ship. Kapal-api, 'fire-ship,' i.e. 

steamer ; kapal-layer, ' sailing-ship ' (layer = sail), 

kapal-prang, 'battleship' (prang = battle, war). 

See Api. 

Ka pe (Indian, California), a river. 
Kapel (Dch.), } 
Kapelliya (Euss.),\ ' 
Kapelle (Ger.), chapel (Kpl.) 
Kapu (Turk.), gate, pass. 
Kar (Beja, Nubia), a well, e.g. Tokar, ' The Well,' to 

being the fern, article ; also ravine, valley. 
Kar (E. Turk.), snow, e.g. Chum-kar-kashka glacier. 


Kar (Tibet}, strong castle, citadel. 

Kara (Turk., Cent. Asia], black, e.g. Kara-hissar, Kara- 
deniz. See Deniz, Hissar. 

Kara (Hausa), reeds. 

Kara (Galla), a road. 

Kara (Madagascar), a modified form of harana, rock, 
used in composition, thus ankara = the place where 
the rock is, e.g. Ankaramalaza, ' at the famous rock,' 
Ankaranandriana, ' at the nobleman's reck.' Cf. 
Bato. See An, Andriana. 

Karaga (Bornu), a wilderness, forest, e.g. Suk el karaga, 
' the market in the wilderness,' an Arab hybrid 
name for Doka; Karaga tselim, 'dark forest,' 
* dense forest.' See Dirride, Suk, Tselim. 

Karahi, Karhat (Punjab), cultivated land embanked to 
catch the drainage off higher ground. 

Karaja (Turk.), black, e.g. Karaja dagh. Cf. Kara. See 

Karan (Ataiyal, Formosa), a village. 

Karang (Malay), coral reef; any reef or shoal. 

Karara (Hind.) See Arara. 

Karaul (Turk.), guard-post ; watch-house. 

Karazana (Madagascar), race, tribe. 

Kare (Upper Nile), a river. 

Kare (Mossi, French Sudan), forest, wood, bush. 

Karez (Pers., Afghanistan), a subterranean canal. Cf. 
Kana. Kanat. 

Karhat (Punjab). See Karahi. 

Kari (Fin.), rock, islet. 

Kari (Hind.), a river. 


Karia (Somali), a village. See below. 

Karia (Arab.), a built village as opposed to a tent 

village (Duar). Cf. Beled. 
Kariba (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu}. Cf. Kariva, See 

Rib a. 
Karifi, Karfi (Hausa), iron, e.g. Koto-n-karfi, ' iron district,' 

n being the sign of the possessive. See Koto. 
Karikara (Motumotu, New Guinea), a village. 
Karin (Somali}, a pass, e.g. Karin daga, ' rocky pass.' 

See Daga. 
Kariva (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Riva; cf. 


Karkarpa (Tibet), rain. 
Kara (Arab.), a peaked hill. 
Karnak (Chad L. region), a capital town, e.g. Karnak 

Kar-po (Tibet), white, e.g. Lo kar-po in South-eastern 

Tibet. Cf. Nag-po. 
Karra (Galla), road, path. 
Karra (Songhai), a gorge. 
Karri (Araucanian, Patagonia), green, e.g. Karrileufu, 

' green river.' 
Karroo (Cape Dch.), from a Hottentot word meaning 

' dry place ' ; now a geographical term indicating 

certain districts ; frequently spelled Karoo. 
Karta (Fin.), cape, point. 
Karu (Hind.), a point. 
Karuba (Kabile), a quarter in a village. 
Kasa (Fin.), a beacon. 
Kasa, pi. Kasashi (Hausa), earth, land. 


Kasab (Arab.), town, large village. 
Ka sa glue (Miao-tse, Kwei-chau), sand. 
Kasba (Arab.), town, small city ; pi. Ksabi. 
(Arab., Algeria), a citadel. 
(Punjab), a small town. 
Kash (E. Turk.), bank, shore, border. 
Ka sho (Indian, California), a lake. 
Kashun (Mongol), brackish, e.g. Kashun Nor, 'brackish 

lake.' See Nor. 

Ka sit cha (Indian, U.S.A.), a bog, marsh. 
Kasr (Arab.), a castle, a palace, e.g. Kasr el amad, 'the 

castle of pillars.' Cf. Kala. 
Kassaba (Turk.), town, ranking between city and 

village, i.e. between Sheher (Shehr) and Kioi. 
Kassar (Arab.), a rock either above or below water. 
Kasteel (Dch.), a castle, (from Lat. castellum, for cas- 
Kastelli (Neo-Greek), a-jterulum=a small fort, from 

castle. (castrum. 

Kastro, Kastron (Neo-Greek), castle, fortress, e.g. Neo- 

kastro, 'new castle.' 

Kasuku (Chad L. region), a market, e.g. Uje kasukula. 
Kasulo (Upper Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Sulo, 
Kata (China), places where there were boundaries. 
Kata (Japan), a lake near the coast. 
Katah, Katat (Arab.), a patch of rocks. 
Katai (Beni Amer, Suakin), a pass. 
Katama (Abyssinia), town, village. 
Kataruka (Hausa). See Kadaruka. 
Kather (Mongol), land, territory, place. 
Katilish (E. Turk.), confluence. 


Kato (Greek], lower, e.g. Kato Rotamia in Elis. 

Katome (Indian, California), sea. 

Katsa (Indian, California'), grass. 

Katsi (Nigeria), farming, e.g. Bafum Katse = the district 

of Bafum where farming is chiefly carried on. 
Katta (Cent. Asia), large, e.g. Katta Kurghan. See 


Kattik (E. Turk.), hard, firm (ground). 
Kau (China), mouth of a river. 
Kaudi (Bornu), a yard set apart for weaving cotton. 
Kau iho (Hawaii), a place. 
Kauit (Tagala and Bisayan, Philippines), a creek, 

bend, or hook ; frequently used to name a point. 
Kau le (Min-Kia, Yunnan), stream. Cf. Kurh, Churh. 
isiKaulo (Kafir), a boundary. 

Kaum, Kom (Punjab), a people, race, tribe, family, or 


Kauponki (Fin.), a town. 

Kauritupe (Motumotu, New Guinea), east. Cf. Seipi. 
Kaus (A rab.), the winter south-east winds of the Persian 

Gulf. Cf. Sharki. 
Kavara (Kabadi, New Guinea), sea. 
Kavarapakana (Kabadi, New Guinea), the deep sea. 
Kavir (Pers. from Arab. Kebir, q.v.), great, e.g. Dasht-i- 

Kavir, the < Great (Salt) Desert.' 
Kavo (Neo-Greek), cape, promontory ; loan word from 

Ital. Capo. 

Kavuru (Motumotu, New Guinea), grass. 
Kaw (Malay), an island. 
Kawa (Tibet), snow. 


Kawa (Japan], stream, river, e.g. Shira-Kawa. Cf. Ko 

gawa. See Ko. 

Kawala (Malay), mouth of a river. 
Kaya, maKaya, inKaya, aKaya, Kaija, Tuaija (Cent. 

Africa, Bantu dialects), a town. 
Kaya (Hausa), thorn, thorn bush. 
Kaya (Nika), a village fortified with jungle. 
Kaya (Turk.), bluff, cliff; rocky (Kayalik). 
Kaza (Turk.), a sub-district forming part of a Sanjak, 

and itself sometimes composed of several Nahies. 
eKaza (Fan, French Congo), market. 
Kazarma (Russ.), barracks ; is the Fr. caserne, from Ital. 


Kaze (Japan), wind. 

Kazerne (Dch.), barracks. See Kazarma. 
maKazi (Swaliili), a village; for other forms see Makao. 
Kazo (Madagascar), a modified form of hazo, used in 

composition, a tree, thus ankazo = the place where 

the tree is, at the tree, e.g. Ankazobe, ' at the many 

trees,' ' the place where the forest is.' See An, Be. 
Kbab (Arab., N. Africa). See Kubba. 
Kber, pi. Kobur (Aral.), a tomb. 
Ke (Tibet), neck, gorge. 

-Ke, -Nke (West Africa, Upper Niger E. region), people, 
e.g. Mandinke, ' the people of Mande ' ; Malinke, the 
people whose fetish or idol is Mali, the hippopotamus. 1 
Kea (Marquesas), stone. 
Keao (Hainan), a bridge. 
Keanga (Mekeo, New Guinea), a path. Cf. Inengea. 

1 For another derivation see under Aswauek, 


Kear (Breton), house, village, town (K.) Cf. Ker. 

Keber, Geber (Arab., N. Africa), a tomb. 

Kebir (Arab.), great, e.g. Tel el Kebir, Guadalquivir 

(Wad el Kebir). See Tel, Quad, Wad. 
Kechil (Malay), little, e.g. the river Spatang Kechil, ' little 

Spatang,' a tributary of Spatang R. 
Ked (Armenian), a river. 
Keda (Kiriwina, New Guinea), a path, Kadaveako, ' wide 

path,' Kadakikita, ' narrow path.' See under Valu, 

for similar use of veako, kikita, 
Kedar (Sansc.), a field ; mountain. 

(Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a river. 
o Kedi j 

Kediat (Senegambia), a mountain. 

Kees (Ger.), a glacier. 

Kef, pi. Kifane (Arab., N. Africa), peak, rock ; a rocky 

steep escarpment. 
Keffi (Sahara), a stockade, which is placed round many 


Kefr (Arab.), a village. Another form of Kafr (q.v.) 
Kei (Deli.), stone, flint. 
Kei (Formosa), a river. 
Keiweg (Dck.), a pebbled road. 
Kekur (Alaska andE. Siberia), a pinnacle rock, any high 

isolated rock or island. The word is supposed to 

be of Kamchatkan origin. 
Kei (Berber, Sahara), people, inhabitants; people settled 

in a place, as opposed to nomadic tribes ; e.g. Kei 

Tidik, ' the people of Tidik,' Kel-owi, &c. Cf. Ba, 

-Bu, Im, Wa, Abel. 


Kelang (Malay), a mill. 

Keleipua (Mekeo, New Guinea), an island. 

Kelet (Hung.), the east. 

Keli (Madagascar) , little, applied frequently to place- 
names, e.g. Fampolrakeli on E. coast. See Saha. 

Kell (England), a place where water flows forth. 

Kella (S.W. Abyssinia), a guarded gate in fortifica- 

Keluba (Sahara). See Kuleba. 

Kem (Mongol), a river. 

Kemtsa (Polish), lowland ; a small island. 

Ken (Japan), a governmental district, prefecture. 

Ken (Gaelic). See Cenn. 

Kend, Kent (Pers.), a village, e.g. Tashkend, Besh-Kent. 
See Tash, Besh. Found also as Kand. 

Kendik (E. Turk.), a hillock. 

Keng (Burma), a city. 

Keng (China), ditch, stream. 

Keng (Siam), a rapid over rocks. 

Keni (Kurdish). See Kani. 

Kenia, Kenya (a corruption of a Masai word), mist, 
applied to the mountain, from the mist in which 
it is frequently enveloped. 

Kenie, Kenye (Bambara), sand, e.g. Kenieba, * the river 
with the sandy bottom,' Keniekho, meaning the 
same. See Ba, Kho. 

Kenise (Arab.), a church, from Hebrew Keneseth, 

Kenkenu (Benue E. region), a shallow hollow or 
depression, where water is obtainable. 


Kent. See Kend. Kent is Buss, in which Pers. d shifts 

to t. Cf. Tash-Kent. 
Kenye (Bambara). See Kenie. 
Keo (Hainan), a bridge. 

Kepaana (Kabadi, New Guinea), beach, shore. 
Ker (Breton), a fortress (K.) Cf. Kear, Caer. 
Ker (Senegal), a village. 
Kerabeb. See Kerbub. 
Kerbub, pi. Kerabeb (Arab., N. Africa), a place where 

one finds spherical water-worn stones of all sizes. 
Kerekere (S. Cape, New Guinea), beach, shore. 
Kereksur (Mongol), a barrow mound. 
Kererut (Nandi, Uganda), a valley. 
Kerim (Mongol), village. Cf. Khoto, Kure. 
Keringet (Nandi, Uganda), a wall. 
Kerk (Dch.), a church, e.g. Kerkhof, Giekerk. Cf. Kirk. 
Ker nor (Harem, Indo-China), a house. 
Kerspel (Dch.), parish, diocese. 
Kessel (Ger.), a basin ; lit. kettle ; for use as a minor 

form of sab-oceanic relief see Caldron. 
Kessur (Sahara), a desert village. See Ksar, Ksur. 
Keten (Dch.), a chain, range (of mountains). 
Ketit (Nandi, Uganda), a tree. 
uKeto (Swahili), depth (of a stream or lake). 
Ketsil (Malay Pen.) See Kechil, of which Ketsil is a 


Kette (Ger.), a chain (of mountains). 
Kettingbrug (Dch.), a suspension bridge. 
Kettle Hole (U.S.A.), a long-sided depression in sand 

or gravel ; a hole in the bed of a stream. 


Keugh (Armenian), a village. 

Keur (Senegal). See Ker. 

Keurfaz (Turk.}, a gulf. Cf. Kiurfez. 

Kevuni (Tamul), a fortified place. 

Key (U.S.A., W. Indies). See Cay. 

K'ha (Indian, California), water. Cf. Ha, Aha. 

Kha (Chin Hills), a river, e.g. Mali Kha, the Myitgyi 

of the Burmese. Cf. Khe. See Mali, Myit, Gyi. 
Khabarat (Pers.), a tavern ; whence Fr. Cabaret. 
Khadar (Hind.), low lands fit for rice-growing. 
Khadara (Arab., N. Africa). See Akhdar. 
Khal (Bengali), a creek. 
Khalanga (Sansc.), a park. 
Khalga (Mongol), a gate, hence Kalgan. 
Khalij (Arab., N.Africa), a confined, contracted ravine. 
Khallett (Arab.), ravine or dell. 
Kham (Laos), gold, e.g. Ban Vang Kham. See Ban. 
Kham (Tibet). See Kam. 
Khamal (Cent. Asia), wind. 
Khampa (Tibet), a corruption of Kyampo, nomad, applied 

by civilised Tibetans to the wilder races that exist 

along the northern part of the tableland abreast 

of Nari and Utsang. 
Khamsin (Arab.), a hot southerly wind in Egypt which 

lasts from April to June. The term means fifty, 

in reference to the fifty days that this wind generally 


Khan (Arab., Perso-TurJc.), inn, tavern. See Khani. 
Khan (Sansc.), a mine. 
Khan (Tangut), snow. 



Khana (Turk.}, a house. 

Khand (India], country, e.g. Baghelkhand=the coantry 

of the Baghelas. 
Khandak (Arab.}, trench, ditch. 
Khandal (Deccan], an open plain. 
Khane (Pers.), a house, e.g. Gau-Khane, ' the abode of 

cows,' a name given to a tract of jungle on the 


Khanga, Khanget, pi. Kheneg (Arab.), a gorge. 
Khangah (Punjab), the tomb of a holy man or saint 

(Fakir or Pir). 
Khani (Neo-Greek), inn, hotel; from Perso-TurJc. Khan, 


Khao (Siam), a mountain, hill. 
Khar (Tibet), a fort, e.g. Dingri Khar. 
Khara (Mongol), black, e.g. Khara-Usu, ' black water.' 

See Chagan, Usu. 
Kharanja (Hind.), a pavement. 
Khare (Soninke), marsh, bog ; lake. 
Kharfu (Wolof), west. See Ngelendu. 
Khargosh (Cent. Asia), a hare, e.g. Khargosh Pamir, ' hare 


Khari (E. Africa), a creek. 
Kharif (Sudan), the rainy season. See Kherif. 
Khatal (Hind.), springtide. 
Khaur (Arab.) See Khor. 

Khe (Annam), river, stream ; torrent. Cf. Kha. 
Khele (Hassania), a desert. 
Khelwa (Arab., N. Africa), hermitage, a place of 

retreat ; cavern. 


Kheneg (Arab.) See Khanga. 

Khera (Hind.), a village ; the land immediately adjacent 

to a village. 
Kherif (Sudan), rainy season, generally from Jane to 


Kheshem (Arab.), point, lit. nose; rocky promontory. 
Khet (Cambodia), province, district. 
Khet (Sansc.), a field ; a field of battle ; a holy place. 
Khets (Shignan and Roshnan], a river. 
Khevi (Caucasus), a dell. 
KM (China), streamlet, small river. 
Khiao (China), a bridge, frequently written Kiao. 
Khittat (Arab.), country, region. 
Khlon (Siam), mud. 
Khlong (Siam), canal, creek. 
Khnak (Marocco), a pass. 
Kho (Cambodia), an island. 
Kho (Kwenam), a village. 
Kho (Senegal), a stream ; variant Ko. 
Kho (Nhan, Lao-kai), great, large. 
Khoar (Tangut), a town. 
Khobe (Soninke), a fort. 
Khoh (Hind.), a cavern, abyss. 
Khoi (Hottentot), men, e.g. Khoikhoin, ' men of men,' i.e. 

the Hottentots. As a suffix it takes the form of 

Kwa, e.g. Nama-Kwa (Namaqua) = the Nama people. 
Khol (Serer), a field, garden. 
Kholan (Serer), a plain. 
Kholle, Khole, dim. Kule (Mande), a stream, branch of a 


o 2 


Khollelleme (Soninke), a stream, branch of a river. 

Kholm (Euss.), a hill. 

Khop (Hind.), a cave, fissure. 

Khor, Khaur, pi. Kheran (Arab.), a creek or narrow inlet 

of the sea ; a strait ; also a deep channel between 


(E. Africa), a tidal salt-water inlet. 
,, (Egyptian Sudan), a stream bed, e.g. Khor er 

Ramie, ' Sandy Khor.' See Ramla. 
Khora (Neo-Greek), a small town. Cf. Khorio. 
Kho Ral (Welaung), a valley. 
Khorbet, pi. Khrub (Arab.), a river. Cf. Khor. 
Khord (Hassania), a plain. 
Khori (Hind.), a narrow way, an alley. 
Khorio (Neo-Greek), a village, small town; from Old 

Greek ^wpos, %&ptov. Cf. Khora. 
Khos (Pers.) See Khus. 
Khoshun, Koshung, Hoshun (Mongol), flag or tribe, being 

a subdivision of an Aimak or principality. Cf. the 

Tonking division into flags or tribes. Since the 

seventeenth century all the Mongols subject to 

China are constituted in 41 Aimaks and 226 


Khot (Sudan), a district or subdivision of a Bar (q.v.) 
Khotat (Welaung), a village. 
Kho tien (Kwenam), a valley. 
Khoto (Mande), old or put on one side, applied to a 

settlement or village which has been deserted. 
Khoto (Mongol), town, village. Cf. Kerim, Kure. 
Khotum Bulak (Mognol), hot spring. See Bulak. 


Khou (China), mouth of a river or of a pass, often used 
to designate a place situated at the mouth of a 
river or pass, and frequently written Kow, Kan 
(q.v.) See Kou. 

Khrub (Arab.) See Khorbet. 

[ (Arab.), gulf, embouchure. 
Khur J 

Khurab (Arab.), ruins, pi. of Khurbe. 

Khure (Mongol), an encampment, e.g. Ikhe Khure, 

* great encampment.' 
Khus, Khos (Pers.), sweet, e.g. the well Khusab, ' sweet 

water ' ; pronounced, in Sarhaddi, Khwash. See Ab. 
Khusukei (Wolof), a ford. 
Khutor (Russ.), a farm. 
Khuwar. See Khor. 
Khwa (Mande), white, e.g. Bakhwa (on French maps 

Bakhoy), 'white river.' See Ba. Cf. Fing, Ule. 
Khwash. See Khus. 
Ki- (Congo, Nika), a diminutive prefix, e.g. the station 

in the Congo Free-State Kilonga ; longa=a small 


-Ki (China), dam, dike ; market. 
Ki (Japan), tree, forest. 
Ki- (E. Central Africa, Bantu), a prefix signifying 

kind of, sort of; language, e.g. Ki-Swahili, the 

language of the Wa-Swahili (' coast people '). 
-Ki (Songhai), a suffix meaning language. Cf. Nchi, Chi. 
Kia (China), hamlet, house. 
Kiai (China), frontier, boundary. 
Kiaiek (Uganda). See Aiek. 


Kia-kio (Hainan), a bridge. Cf. Kiao. 

Kia-lan (Hainan), a market. 

Kiamba (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Amba. 

Kiamvu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Amvu. 

Kiana (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ana. 

Kiang (Shan States), a city; the equivalent of the 

Burmese Keng and the Siamese Chieng. 
Kiang (China], a great river. Cf. Ho, Chiang (note). 
Kiang (E. Turk), large, broad. 
Kiani, Chani, Viani (Cent. Africa, Bantu dialects). See 


Kiao (China, Hainan), a bridge. Cf. Kia-Kio, Khiao. 
Kiasi. See Yasi. 
Kibali (Mangbattu), river, stream. 
Kibitka (Cent. Asia), a tent. 
Kibogo (Upper Nile), a mountain. 
Kibri (Arab., Upper Nile), forest, wood. 
Kibula (Swahili), north. See Suheli, Kusini for other 


Kichik (E. Turk.), small; a ford. 
Kicsi (Hung.), little. 
Kidhidha (Giryama). See Dhidha. 
Kidila (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Dila, 
Kidonda (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Donda. 
Kidzuho (Giryama), brook. See Dzuho. 
Kie (China), street, road. 
Kieji (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Eji. 
Kies (Ger.) gravel, e.g. Kiesenbach in Saxe- Weimar. 
Kieutigne (Tibet), a religious monument, superior to 

the Dobang (q.v.) 


Kiezel (Dch.), gravel. Cf. Kies. 

Kifar (Arab.), an extensive desert. 

Kifumvu (Taita, Bantu). See Fumvu. 

Kightak (Alaska). See Kikhtak. 

Kigogo (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 


Kigongo (Gogo, Bantu). See Gongo. Cf. Lima, Rima. 
Kiham (Borneo), a rapid in a river. 
Kihittuun (Indian, U.S.A.), sea. 
Kiima (Kamba, Bantu). See Ima. 
Kijiji, pi. Vijiji '(Swahili) . See Jiji. 
Kijito, pi. Vijito (Swahili). See Jito. 
Kik (Indian, California), water. 
Kikhtak, Kightak (Inuit, Alaska), an island. This has 

been corrupted into Kad-Jak, Kodiak, Kudiak. 
Kiko (Giryama). See Ko. 

Kikulue (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kulue. 
Kil (Celtic), a cell, shrine, church, burying-place, e.g. 

Kilkenny, Columbkille ; is the Lat. cella. 
Kil (Dch.), a channel. 
Kil (Sw.), Kile (Nor., Da.), a creek, a cove. 

Kila ) 

\ (Arab., Pers.), castle, fortress. Cf. Kala. 
Kile ) 

Kilela, Kirira, Kidila (Cent. Africa, Bantu dialects), an 
island. Cf. Ziwa. See Lela, Eira, Dila. 

Kilele (Swahili). See Lela,. 

Kilian (Malay), a mine, e.g. Kilian Bharu, Kilian TJlu 
Temelong, ' the mine at Temelong source.' See 

Kilima (Swahili). See Lima ; cf. Rima. 


Kilisa, Kilisse (Levant, Nubia), a church, from 

(ecclesia), affording an argument in favour of the 
former existence of Christianity in the Mohamma- 
dan places where it is found in use. 

Kill (U.S.A.), a creek. 

Kille (Songkai), race, tribe. 

Kille (Soninke), a road, path, track. 

Kilwa (Cent. Africa), a lake. 

Kima (E. Turk.), ferry boat. 

Kimpambwila (Congo, dialect of Bantu), division, branch- 
ing of a river ; confluent. See Mpambwila. 

Kin (Celtic), head, upper part, e.g. Kinsale, Kinloch. Cf. 
Ben, Pen, Ken. Sale = brine, i.e. tide. 

Kin (China), gold, e.g. Kin Cha Kiang, 'the river with 
golden sand ' (Yangtse). See Cha, Kiang. 

Kin (Tangut), snow. 

Kinara (Pers.), beach, shore. 

Kinasat (Arab.), shoal, sandbank. Cf. Najwah. 

King (China), capital city, e.g. Peking, Nanking. See Pe, 
Nan. Cf. Chan, Hien, Fu. 

Kinga (Sara, Chad L.), a palisade. 

King-chi-chau (China), a peninsula. 
uKingo (Sivahili), the edge (of a precipice). 

Kiniafungo (Nika). See Niafungu. 

Kinjingela (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Jingela. 

Kinkhenna (Soninke), west. Cf. Sindom. 

Kintombo (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ntombo. 

Kio (China), cape, point. 

Kio (Hainan), a bridge. Cf. Kiao. 

Kio, Kyo (Japan), a town, capital, e.g. Tokio. See To, 


akaKio (Uganda, dialect of Bantu), cross-ways. 
Kioi (Turk.), village, hamlet. 
Kir (E. Turk., Kirghiz), a place where two plains meet ; 

a hill, peak. 
Kir (Shittuk), a river. 

Kirche (Ger.), a church, e.g. Kirchdorf, 'church village.' 
Kirchhof (Ger.), a churchyard (Khf.) See Hof. 
Kirh (Indian, California), earth, land. 
Kirima (Nika). eeBima; cf. Kilima, Gongo. 
Kirira (dialect of Bantu). See Rira. 
Kir i vi ra (Indian, California), town, village. 
Kirk (Northumbrian and Lowland Scotch), church, e.g. 

Kirkcudbright. Cf. Kirke, Kirche. 
Kirk (E. Turkestan), forty, e.g. Kirk-gas, Kirk-saj. 
Kirke (Da., Nor.), a church (K e ). Cf. Kirche, Kerk, Kirk. 
Kirkko (Fin.), a church. Cf. Kirche, Kerk, Kirk. 
Kirmzi (Turk.), red. Cf. Kizil. 
Kirumba, Chirumba, Chigunda (Cent. Africa, dialects of 

Bantu). See Rumba, Gunda. 
Kirwa, Chirwa, Chilwa (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), 

an island. 

Kis (Hung.), little, e.g. Kis-Barath, Kis-Ber. 
Kishlak (Cent. Asia), a winter village ; winter pasture. 
Kisia, Kizia (Nika). See Sia, Zia. 
Kisima (Swahili). See Sima. 
Kisiwa, pi. Visiwa (Swahili). See Siwa. 
iKisu (Cent. Africa, Bantu), a country. 
Kita (A-Zande), winter. 
Kita (=Hoku) (Japan), north. For other points see 



Kitalu, pi. Vitalu (Swahili). See Talu. 

Kit chawan (Indian, U.S.A.), a large flowing stream. 

Kiti (Masai, East Africa), little, e.g. Ngari Kiti. 

Kitir (T a gala, Philippines), a street. 

Kitsulu (Giryama). See Tsulu. 

Kittuun (Indian, U.S.A.), a river. 

Kituntu (German E. Africa). See Tuntu. 

Kiurfez (Turk), a bay. Cf. Keurfaz. 

Kivosho (Giryama). See Vosho. 

Kivuko, pi. Vivuko (Swahili). See Vuko. 

Kizil (Turk.), red, e.g. Kizil Kum, 'red sand,' the plain 

E. of Aral Sea. 
Kjed (Armenian), a river. 
Kladbishche (Buss.), a cemetery. 
Kladovaya (Buss.), a storehouse, magazine. 
Kla kan (Indian, California), grass. 
Klana (Malay), a title implying jurisdiction on the 


Kiel (Dch.), clay, marl. 
Klein (Dch., Ger.), small (KL), applied to numerous 


Klemme (Ger.), a narrow pass. 
Kletter (Icel.), rock. 

Klich u (Indian, California), earth, land. 
Klinse (Ger.), cleft, gap. 
Klip (Dch.), cliff, rock, reef. 
Klippe (Ger.), bluff, cliff. 

Klippoia (Fin.), rocks ; a loan word from Sw. klippa. 
Klong, Klawng (Malay, Siam), stream, torrent ; creek ; 



Klong (Thai), a tidal stream. 

Kloof (Cape Dch.), a ravine, valley, gap. Cf. Kluft. 

Klooster (Dch.), convent, monastery, e.g. Gerkesklooster. 

Cf. cloister. 
Kluft (Dch.}, a crevice ; parish, ward ; e.g. Kalekluft, 


Kluft (Ger.), a ravine. 
Klupu (Fin.), rock, shoal. 
Knater (Arab.) See Kantara. 
Knock (Gaelic), a hill, e.g. Knockduff. See Nock, 
Knoll, Knol, Knowl (Anglo-Saxon cnol), the top of a hill, 

hillock, a small elevation, used both by itself and 

in compounds, e.g. Anchorsknoll, Dryknowl. 
Knott (England), a small round hill, e.g. Ling Knott. 
Knowl. See Knoll. 

Knude (Da., Nor.), a bluff, steep bank. 
Ko (China), a belvedere. 
Ko (China), a cape, point. Cf. Kio. 
chiKo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), ferry, ford. See 


diKo (Swahili), a landing-place. See liKo. 
kiKo (Giryama), a market for ivory and cattle. 
liKo (Swahili), a landing-place. See diKo. 
riKo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), ferry, ford. See 

Ko (Dahome), marsh, mud, e.g. the wooded depression 

north of Allada ; Ko river =' mud river.' Cf. 

Modder R. See Lama. 
Ko- (Japan), a prefix signifying ' little,' ' small.' See Ko 

Gawa, the dim. of Kawa. 


Ko=Kosui (Japan], a freshwater lake. 

Ko (Klias Chos, Indo-China), a mountain peak. 

Ko (Senegal). See Kho. 

Kob (Sere?"), desert ; forest. 
isiKoba (Kafir), a forest of yellow- wood trees. 

Kobsun (Mongol), reeds. 

Kobulo (Malinke), a stream. 

Koda, Kodda (Mittu), a river, stream. 

Kodiak (Alaska). See Kikhtak. 

Kodolo (Congo), a town, village. 

Kodra (Albania), a hill. 

Koel (Korea), a magisterial town. See Eup. 

Koe-si (Hainan), a market. 

Ko-gawa (Japan], stream. Lit. ' small river.' Cf. Kawa. 

Kogel (Ger.), hill-top, hill, kopje. 

aKogha (Fan, French Congo), tall grass ; for pi. see 

Kogi, pi. Koguna (Hausa), brook; also lake, river. 

Kogo, pi. Kogiina (Hausa), a cave. Cf. Rami. 

Koh (Persia), mountain, e.g. Koli-i-stan. Cf. Kuh. 
See Stan. Cf. Kohinoor= mountain of light. 

Koh (China), rocky peak, headland. 

Koh (Siam, Cambodia), an island. 

Koho (Indian, U.S.A.), waterfall, cascade, e.g. 'The 
Cohoes ' on the Hudson B. It is noticeable that 
a cascade near Spa (Liege) is called by this name, 
though, of course, a mere coincidence. Cf. 

Kbi, Keui (Turk.), a village. 

Koia (Kiriwina, New Guinea), a mountain. 


Koira (Songhai), a town. 

Kok (Siam), open jungle, generally of small hardwood 

trees. In Korea a valley. See Kol. 
Koka (Congo), path, highway. 
Kokai (Korea), a pass. 
Kokany (Hung.), mountainous. 

Koko (Gold Coast), hill, mountain. Cf. Pampa, Pempe. 
Koko (Tibet), blue, e.g. Koko nor, ' blue lake,' Koko kutul, 

1 blue pass.' Another form is Kuktt. See Kutul, Nor. 
nKoko (Congo, dialect of Bantu], river, stream, brook. 
Kokochela (Lomive, L. Shirwa), sterile ground. 
Kol (E. Turk.), valley, ravine; a hill connecting a 

mountain with a plain. Valley, village in Korea. 
Ko le (Indian, California), grass. 
Kolea (Arab.) See Golea. 
Kolk (Dch.), abyss, whirlpool. 
Koll (Cent. Asia), reservoir =Kul, lake. 
Kolo, Makolo (Cent. Africa), a chief, king. 
luKolo (Giryama), tribe, clan. 
Kolo (Mande) old or put on one side. See Koro. 
Kolo (Marovo, Solomon Is.), ocean. 
Kolo, Kolon, Kolongo (Bambara, Malinke), wells, spring, 


luKolonga (Boondei, Bantu), a river. 
Kolpos (Greek), a gulf. 

Kom (Mossi, French Sudan), water. Cf. Komadugu. 
Kom (Punjab, Shahpur), a tribe, divided into Muhi or 

clans. Cf. Zat. See Kaum. 
JKom (Tripoli), a hillock, mound, e.g. Kom en Ngus. 

See El. 


Komadugu (Kanuri, Bornu), lit. 'water-place,' a mass 
of water, either a river or a lake. The real name 
of the ' Komadugu,' shown on the maps as flowing 
east to L. Chad, is Waube. ' Komadugu Waube ' 
means simply ' river Waube ' ; similarly Komadugu 
Ngala= river Ngala. Cf. Dugu, Kom. 

Komatagui (Motu, New Guinea), tide (flowing). 

Komb (Serer), a market. 

Komi (Korea), a ferry. See Jin. 

Kome (Greek), a village. 
iKomkulu (Amaxosa, Kafir), a kingdom, dominion. 

Komohana (Hawaii), west. For other points see Akau. 

Kompe (Soninke), house, cottage. 

Kompong (Cambodia), a village; the same word as 
Kampong (q.v.) 

Kon (Indo-China), a village. 

Kon (Sierra Leone), head, top, summit. 
muKondo (NiJca), a track, narrow path, trail. 

Kone (Motu, Neiv Guinea), beach, shore. 

Kong (China), a temple, palace. 

Kong (Hainan), a river. 

Kong (Hainan), a road, path. 

Kong (Indo-China), a mountain. 

nKong'e] (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a river, 
miKong'ej stream. 

Kongerige (Nor., Da.), kingdom. 

Kong-ka (Tibet), summit of a hill. 

Kongo (Mande), country ; forest, brushwood ; mountain. 

Konig (Ger.), king, e.g. Konigsberg. 

Konke, Konkili (Mande), a mountain. 


Konko (Nigeria), a club- (house) used as a toll-bar. 

Konkosu (Mande), a village, place of cultivation. 

Konnyi brod (Buss.), a horse ford. 

Konton (Gold Coast), bay, bight, gulf. 

Koogi (Hausa), stream, river, e.g. Koogi n Tagelafi. 

Koonde, pi. Makoonde (Swahili), field, cultivated land. 

Kop (Dch.), head, hill, e.g. Gerverskop, Tekkop. Of. Kopf. 

Kopec (Bohemian], a mountain (Kpc.) 

Kopf (Ger.), head, top, peak, summit (K.), e.g. Schnee- 
kopf, ' snow head.' Cf. Kop, Kopje. 

Kbping (Siv.), trading-place, market, borough, e.g. 
Norrkbping, Sbderkbping (Northern and Southern 
Mart). See Chipping. 

Kopje (Cape Dutch), a small mountain, hill. Cf. Kop. 

Koppi, Koppe (Gold Coast), a village. 

Kopru, Kiopru (Turk.), a bridge, e.g. Altin Kiopru. 

Kor (Hammer Koki, Abyssinia), a tree. 

Kora (Bornu), great. 

Koram (Cent. Asia), stony ground ; the moraine of a 

Kor ami (Hausa), a dale, valley. 

Koramma (Hausa), a river, stream. 

Korchma (Buss.), a tavern, inn. 

Kore (Pers.), a channel. 

Kori (Japan), a department or subdivision of a pro- 
vince. Cf. Kuni. 

Korit (Nandi, Uganda), a village. 

-Koro (Mande), suffix signifying old, put on one side, 
e.g. Sikoro, ' old village,' Kulikoro. Cf. Kolo. 

Korum, Krum (Togo), a town. See Km. 


Kosa (Buss.), a sand-spit. 

Kosh (E. Turk.), two, double, e.g. Kosh-arik, Koshkul. 

Kosh (E. Turk.), stage, place where a caravan camps. 

Koshlash (E. Turk.), a confluence. See Kosh. 

Koshung (Mongol). See Khoshun. 

Ko siwo, Ko shiwo (Japan), neap tide. 

Kosogo (Mossi, French Sudan), a rapid in a river. 

Kosorho (Mossi, French Sudan), a valley. 

Kososobe (Hausa), precipice ; valley. 

Kossabulugu (Mossi, French Sudan), sea. 

Kosui=Ko (Japan), a freshwater lake. 

Kosun (Mongol), a desert. 

Kot (India), a fort, e.g. Noakot, 'new fort.' See Kote. 

Kot (Korea), promontory, e.g. Chyu-rang-kotinPhyeng-an. 

Kot (Nandi, Uganda), a house. 

Kota (Malay), a fort or stockade. Also found in Tagala 

(Philippines) as Kotta, * the walls of a fort.' 
Kote (India), a fort, e.g. Sealkote. See Kot. 
Kotel, Kotal (Pers.), a col or pass, e.g. Lundi Kotal. 
Koti (Gold. Coast), large, rank, luxuriant. 
Kotl (Slavonic), a kettle or combe. 
Koto (Bambara), old, e.g. Tukoto, * old bush.' 
Koto (Hausa), a region, district, e.g. Koto-n-karfi. See 


Koto-jigonron (Yoruba), deep valley, ravine. 
Kotok (Swahili), a spring, lit. bubbling water. 
Koto-oke (Yoruba), a valley. 
Kottek (Cent. Asia), dead forest. 
Kou (China), a mountain pass, e.g. Nan-kou, 'south 

pass.' See Nan, Khou, Ku. 


Kovna (E. Turkestan), old, e.g. Kovna-daria, Kovna- 

shahr. See Daria, Shahr. 
Kow, Kau (China), mouth (of a river), e.g. Hankow, 

properly Han-kau. 
Koyan (Turk.), bight, cove. 
Koye (Turk.), a well. 
Kozep (Hung), middle (Kp.) ; e.g. Kbzep Apso, on Theiss 

B. Found also misspelled as Kosep, 
Kpakpa (Yoruba), grass field ; a plain newly burnt ; 

pasture land. 

Kpo (Cambodia), high, lofty, upper. 
Kpotokpoto (Yoruba), a bog, marsh. 
Kra (Arab), an open creek of water. Cf. Rejl, Bot-ho. 
Kraal (Cape Dch), a cattle fold, a collection of native 

huts, a chief's capital. Cf. Boma, Zeriba. 
Krantz (Cape Dutch), cliff, precipice. 
Krasni (Buss.), red, e.g. Krasnovodsk. See Sk, Voda. 
Kraton (Java), a palace. 

Kreb (S. Tunis), sandy hills covered with vegetation. 
Kreek (Dch), bay, cove, creek. 
Kreide (Ger), chalk. Cf. Krijt. 
Kreis (Ger.), a district or circle. 
Kreits (Dch.), a district or circle. 
Krepost (Buss), castle, fort, fortress. 
Kreuzbaum (Ger), a turnpike. 
Krijt (Dch.), chalk. Cf. Kreide. 
Krits (Dch), summit, top. 
Krocht (Dch), hill, hillock. 
Kroft (Dch.), a hillock. 
Kroj (Albanian), source, spring. See Krua, 


Krom (Tibet), market, bazaar. 

Krom. See Km. 

Krom (Dch.), crooked, e.g. Kromvoort; with many bends 
(of a river or road). 

Kron-ba (Tibet), stream, river. 

Krong (Indo-China), a river. 

Kru, Krum, Krom, Korum, Kuru (Togo, Ashanti, Agni), 
town ; an inhabited place of less importance than 
a capital, e.g. Attakru, Kokokrum, Odukrom. 

Krua (Albanian), source, spring. See Kroj, 

Krugli (Buss.), round, e.g. Kmglolieskoe. 

Kruin (Dch.), summit, top. 

Kruis (Dch.), a cross, e.g. Kruisdorp. See Dorp. 

Krutoyar (Buss.), steep banks, from Krutoi, steep; e.g. 
Krutoi island, point, and cape. 

Ksar, pi. Ksur (Arab., N. Africa), village, fortified or 

surrounded with walls, in the Sahara oases. 
,, (Hassania), a village. 

Ksetra (Cambodia), a province. 

Ksob, Kseb (Arab.), reeds. 

Ksur (Arab., N. Africa). See Ksar. 

Ku- (Bantu), a prefix applied generally but not exclu- 
sively to such rivers as may be considered ' arms ' 
of others, e.g. Kubango, Kuanza, Kunene. 

Ku (China), valley, canal, streamlet, small river. 

Ku (China), a dam, dike. 

Ku (China), a pass, e.g. Ku pel ku, ' old north pass.' See 
Kou, Pel, and Ku (below). 

Ku (China), old. See above. 

Ku (New Guinea). See Gu. 


Ku (Pers.), broad street, square, market-place. 

Kua (Gold Coast), plantation, farm. 

Kuahini (Hawaii), mountain, hill. 

Kuala (Malay). See Kwala. 

Kuan (China), an official, e.g. Ta-Kuan- Chiang, ' Great 

Official river.' See Ta, Chiang. 
Kuan (China), fortified military place, camp. 
Kubba, Kuba, pi. Kbab (Arab., N. Africa), a cupola; 

chapel or shrine surmounted by a cupola in honour 

of a saint ; generally brilliantly white and visible 

at a great distance. 

Kubbat (Arab.), a deep-water bay or inlet. 
Kubbe, Kubbet (Arab.), dome ; the same word as 

Kubba, e.g. Kubbe-i-subs, ' green dome.' 
Kubi (Korea), a bend, curve, e.g. Kubini. 
Kubr, pi. Kubur (Arab.), a tomb. 
Kubu (Malay), a stockade, fort. 
Kubu (Songhai), a wood, bush, forest. 
Kucher (Asia Minor), nomad (tribes). 
Kuchi (Japan), mouth ; makes Guchi in composition, 

as Kawa Guchi, * the river's mouth.' See Kawa. 
Kuchuk (Turk.), little, e.g. Kuchuk Derbend. See Derbend. 
Kuda (Tamul), bay. See Kuddawa. 
Kudana (Nika). See Dana. 
Kuddawa (Singalese), bay. See Kuda, which is really 

the same word. 
Kuddus, Kudu (Hausa), south. For other points see, 


Kudia, Kudiat (Arab.), a hill, generally a small hill. 
Kudiak (Alaska). See Kikhtak. 

p 2 


Kudil (Tamul), a hut. 

Kuduk (E. Turk., Mongol), wells, e.g. Ulan Kuduk. See 

Kudulungu (Congo), an elevated plateau. 

Kudunia (Hausa), a hill. Cf. Tudu, Tsauni. 

Kue (China), promontory, cape. 

Kufra (Arab.), pi. of Kafir (q.v.), e.g. the oasis of Kufra, 
and other oases, so named from their pagan in- 
habitants, the Tibus. 

Kufriat (Egyptian Sudan), old ruins. 

Kuguli, Kuguri (Mossi, French Sudan), stone. See next 

Kuguri zugu (Mossi), mountain-top, summit. 
* Kuh (Pers.), mountain, cf. Koh, one form being more 
usual in the east, and the other in the west ; is 
from Zend root kup, to swell, hence anything 
huge, bulky, e.g. Kuh-i-chasma-o-chah-shirin, ' the 
hill of fresh-water wells and springs.' See 
Chasma, Chah. 

Kuh-sar (Pers.), a mountainous country. See Sar, Zar. 

Ku il (Khas Chos, Indo-China), little, small. 

Kuitahuun (Indian, U.S.A.), a hill. 

Kuka, Kukawa, Kukwa (Bornu), baobab trees, e.g. Kuka 

on Chad L. 
mKuka (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 

Ku-kou (China), a gorge, a narrow pass. 
nKuku (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a torrent, stream, 

Kukulu hema (Hawaii), south. For other points see 


Kukwa (Bornu). See Kuka. 

Kul (E. Turk, and Mongol.), a lake, e.g. Kara Kul. See 

Kulah (Arab.), a castle. Cf. Kulle. 

Kulao (Annam), an island. 

Kule (Mande). See Kholle. 

Kuleba, Keluba (Sahara), a high mountain- top, equiva- 
lent to the Thniye, Tnie of other districts. 

Kuli (Abbadi, Etbai), low bills. 
niKuli (Mozambique), a waterfall. 

Kuliba (Turk.), hut, cottage. 

Kulichkof (Russ.), snipe. Applied to several islands in 
Alaskan waters. 

Kuliliak (Aleut.), sorrow, anguish ; e.g. Kuliliak bay. 

Kuliugiak (Alaska), rocky and round ; applied usually to 

Kulla (Arab.), top, summit (of a mountain). 

Kulle (Turk.), a tower. Cf. Kulah. 

Kulo (Ja-Luo, East Uganda), a river. 

Kulu (Bambara, Malinke). See Kuru. 

Kulu, -Kuru, -Nkuru (dialects of Bantu), a suffix mean- 
ing ' great,' e.g. Kibokulu. 

luKuluf (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a mountain. 
nKuluj Cf. Lima. 

Kulu chenga (Mossi, French Sudan), a river, great river. 
kiKulue (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), the sani-clouds 
of the Kikwa valley. 

Kuluga, Buluga (Mossi, French Sudan), wells. 

Kulugu (Chad L. region), a place where water is found ; 
a lake, marsh, swamp, dead river. Cf. Tebki. 


Kulukira (NiJca). See Lukira. 

-Kulungwa, -Kurungu (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), 

a suffix meaning ' great.' 

nKuluntu (Loango), a chief; to? pi. see Nkuluntu. 
Kum (Turk.), sand, e.g. Kizil Kum. See Kizil. 
Kuma (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ma. 
isiKumbu (Zulu, Kafir), a hollow place between hills, a 


Kumchi (Hausa), impenetrable forest, thicket. 
uKumkani (Amaxosa, Kafir), a king, chief. 
Kummene (New Guinea), water. 
Kumo (Japan), clouds. 
Knmsal (Buss.), a bank of sand. 
eKumu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the bank of a river, 

coast, shore. 
Kumur (E. Turk.), coal. 
Kunmsh (E. Turk.), silver. 

Kun (Korea), a prefecture, a subdivision of a Pu (county 
or department), e.g. Kun-syu, ' a district magis- 

Kund (India), a province, e.g. Bundelkund. 
Kund (Sansc.), an abyss, pool, spring. 
Kunda (Gambia), a town, e.g. Baja Kunda. 
Kunda (Sierra Leone). See Kundo. 
inKundla (Zulu, Kafir), the area of a kraal (q.v.) 
Kundo, Kunda (Sierra Leone), head, source, e.g. Tembe- 

kunda, ' the source of the Tembe River.' 
Kundu (KiJcuyu, Bantu). See Handu, Ndu. 
Kundubulu (Congo), a small hill. 
eKundze (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a mountain. 


isiKungu (Amaxosa, Kafir}, a place of assembly. 

Kuni (Japan), province, lit. country. Cf. Kori. 
maKuni (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu}, a forest, wood. 

Kuny-ho (Hung.), a hut. 

Kuo (Annam), mouth, estuary. 

Kuo (China), a nation, state ; government. 

Ku-on (Hainan), a path. 

Ku-pa (Siam), savages. See I. 

Ku pau (Miao-tse, Kwei-cliau), a mountain. 

Kuperan (Tamul), north. See Vadakku. 

Kuppe (Ger.), top, summit, peak, ridge. For use as a 
form of sub-oceanic relief see Dome. 

Kupruk (E. Turk.), a bridge. Cf. Kopru. 

Kur (Wolof), house, dwelling. 

Kura (Harem, Indo-Cliina), road, path. 

Kura (Kanem), great, e.g. Beri Kura, ' large village.' 
See Beri. 

Kurban (Mongol), three, e.g. Kurban Habsere, 'the three 
Habsere,' i.e. the three Habsere mountain peaks, 
called respectively Atak Habsere, ' lower Habsere,' 
Eken Habsere, ' upper Habsere,' and Tumta Habsere, 
' middle Habsere ' ; Kurban Tara, ' the three days 

Kurduduffi (Hausa), a pond, pool, small lake. 

Kure (Mongol), a village. Cf. Khoto, Kerim, Khure. 

Kuret (dialect near Lugli, Somaliland), a hill. 

Kurgan (Buss.), a tumulus, barrow. 

Kurghan (E. Turk.), a fort, e.g. Tash Kurghan. See Tash. 

Kurh (Min-Kia, Yunnan), a river. 

Kurm, pi. Kurum (Arab), a vineyard. 


Kurmi, Kurimi (Hausa), forest, wood, bush, e.g. Kurmin 
Kaduna, ' the forest on the Kaduna River,' the 
final n being the sign of the possessive. 

Kuril (Arab.), a horn or peak. 

Kuro (Gold Coast), town, village. Cf. Kru, 

((Japan), black, e.g. Kuro Siwo, * black stream,' 
answering in the Pacific to the Gulf 
Stream of the Atlantic; Kurodake, 'dark 
peat.' See Siwo, Dake. 

Kuro-kese (Gold Coast), a large town, city, capital. 

Kurpi (Turk.), a bridge. Cf. Kopru. 

Kurremi (Hausa). See Horami. 

Kuru, Kulu (Bainbara, Malinke), a mountain. 

Kuru (Togo, Ashanti, Agni). See Kru. 

Kuru (dialect of Bantu). See -Kulu. 

Kuruk (Mongol), dry, e.g. Kuruk Tagh. See Tagh. 

Kurum (Arab.), vineyards, _pZ. of Kurm. 

-Kurumba (Cent. Africa). See -Kalamba. 

-Kurungu (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 

Kurye, Kuryet (Arab.), a village. 

Kush (Cent. Asia), killer, e.g. Hindukush, so called from 
the frequent deaths of the Hindu merchants at- 
tempting to cross its passes. 

Kusi (Bornu), a hut built entirely of stone. Cf. 

Kusini (Swahili), south. See Suheli, Kibula. 

Kuso (Songhai), fine dusty soil. 

Kusr (Arab.), house, tower. 

Kust (Dch.), coast, shore. See Kiiste, Kyst. 


Kiiste (Ger.), coast. See Kust, Kyst. 

Kut (Hung.), a stream. 

Kut (Buss.), the head of a gulf. 

Kut (dialect near Lugh, Somaliland), clayey ground. 

Kut (Ja-Luo, East Uganda), island. 

Kuta, Kota (Malay), a fortress. 

Kutale (Bambara), new, e.g. Sukutale, ' Newtown.' See 

Su. Cf. Koro, 

Kutel (E. Turk.), a col, a saddle. 
Kutemba (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), to 

ascend, e.g. Butembo, a village which is situated on 

the top of a hill. See Temba. 

eKutilu (Congo, dialect of Bantu], a place of assembly. 
Kutsano (Giryama). See Tsano. 
Kutsi (Japan), an outlet. 
Kutul (Tibet), corrupted from Pers. Kotal (q.v.), a pass, 

e.g. Koko Kutul, ' blue pass.' See Koko. 
Kutun (Mongol), a town, e.g. Nomoron Kutun, * the town 

on the river Nomoron.' 
Kuva (Nika), a fence, stockade. 
Kuyu (Turk.), wells. 
Kuzu (Sara, Chad L.), a village. 
Kwa (Modunga, Congo), a road, path. 
Kwa (E. Cent. Africa), a village, town, e.g. Kwa Mtesa, 

' Mtesa's town.' 

Kwa (Hainan), a sub-prefecture. 
Kwa (Hottentot), a postfix meaning ' people,' e.g. 

Korakwa, Namakwa, Grikwa ; is really the mas. plur., 

written also qua, e.g. Namaqua-land, 
Kwa (N. Chin hills), a village. 


Kwala, Kwalla (Malay), the embouchure of a river ; the 
place of junction between two rivers ; a river, river 
mouth, e.g. Kwala Bernam, Kwala Gula, 

Kwalla (Abyssinia), lowland, opp. to Dega. 

Kwan (China), custom house, mountain pass, a forti- 
fication, garrison village. 

Kwa-nam (Hainan), a river. 

Kwang (China), broad, e.g. Kwang Si, 'broad (province) 
west,' or western broad (province) ; similarly Kwang 
Tung = 'broad province east.' 

Kwang (Pai, China), a mountain. 

Kwang-lau (China), a lighthouse. Cf. Ho-tun. 

Kwara ( Yoruba), a river, water, the river, i.e. the Niger, fre- 
quently written Quarra and Quorra in error. See Isa, 

Kwenda (Swahili), depth (of a river or the sea). 

Kwikk (Eskimo), a river, dual Kwik, pi. Kwit, 

Kwikuru (German East Africa), a chief town. 

Kwiya (Hausa), a ridge (of hills). 

Kwonu (Gurma), a river. 

Kwori (Hausa), furrows, boundaries. 

Kwurmi, pi. of Kurmi (q.v.) 

Kyams (Tibet), house, castle. 

Kyla (Fin.), a village. 

Kyog (Tibet), bend, detour, gulf; sinuous. 

Kyrka (Sw.), a church. Cf. Kirk, Kerk. 

Kyshlak (E. Turk.) See Kishlak. 

Kyst (Nor., Da.), coast. Cf. Kust, Kttste, 

Kyung (Burma), an island. 

Ky'di, Gybi (Korea), a stream, creek, e.g. Kydi-Pong, 


-La (Cent. Africa}, a suffix, applied to things, not per- 
sons, meaning ' great.' 

La (Congo), height, altitude, elevation. 

La (Lolo, China), boat. 

La (Min-Kia, Yunnan), south. For other points see Pen. 

La (Tibet), a col, pass ; usually placed after the name, e.g. 
Chang-la, 'north pass,' see Chang, though some- 
times at the beginning, e.g. La-sar, ' new pass.' Cf. 
Mongol Daban, E. Turk. Davan, Chinese Ling. 

Laag (Dch.), bed, stratum ; as adj. low, e.g. LaagSoeren, 
Laag Zutem. 

Laager (Cape Dch.), a camp formed by arranging wagons 
end on, so as to enclose a space. 

Laagte (Dch.), valley, glen. 

Laam (Siam), bay ; bend in a river. 

Laba (Somali), two, e.g. Laba Gumbur Mado, ' the two 
black hillocks.' See Gumbur, Mado. 

Lablab (Hind.), sand, gravel. 

eLabo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country. Cf. 

Lab-tse (Tibet), stones marking a road. 

Labuan (Malay), anchorage, harbour; more properly 

Lac (Fr.), a lake (L.) Cf. Lago, Lajo. 

Lacu (Neo-Greek), a lake. 

Lacuna (It.), a lagoon, stagnant pool. Cf. Lagume. 

Lada (S. Cape, New Guinea), cloud. 


Ladrillal, Ladrillar (Sp.), a brickfield, brick-kiln. 

Laepa (Motumotu, New Guinea), a mountain. 

Lag (Tibet), arm, bay. 

Laga (Galla), river, stream. 

Laggan (Gaelic lagan), a small hollow, e.g. Laggan (Inver- 

Lagham (Chad L. region), a river. 

Lago (It.), a lake (L.), e.g. Lago Maggiore, 'greater lake.' 

Lagume (It.), a broad pool of stagnant water, a marshy 
place. Cf. Lacuna. 

Laguna (It. t Sp.), a lagoon, lake. 

Lagune (Fr.), a lagoon (Lag.) 

Lahi (Nine and Tonga, Polynesia), great. 

Lahti (Fin.), bight, bay. 

Lahun (Sierra Leone), land, country, e.g. Karelahun, 
pronounced Kai'laun. 

Lai (Cambodia), a helm, rudder ; e.g. An-Lai, in Bao-An. 
See An, Bao. 

Lai (Motu, New Guinea), wind. 

Lai (Thai, Pai), a mountain. 

Laida (Buss.), a shoal which dries. 

Lai gheng (Miao-tse, Yunnan), hamlet. 

Lailai (Mbau, Fiji), small. 

Laili (Miao-tse, Kwei-chau), a field. 

Laja (Sp.), a flat rock. 

Lak (Hung.), a dwelling. 

Lak (Hung.), lake, pond. 

Laka (Hausa), mud. 

Lakar-kot (Arab.), a stockade. 

-Lakh (Pers.), a suffix meaning ' place.' 


Lalaga (Mossi, French Sudan), wall, fortifications. 
Lalap (Malay), swamps. 

Lalasi (S. Cape, New Guinea), north-west wind. 
Lalo (NiJca), a neighbourhood, locality = Arab. Bar. 
Lalum (Malay), water. 

Lam, Lam-kha (Chin hills ; Tibet), path, way, the way. 
nLam (Fan, French Congo). For meaning see Nlam. 
Lama (Port.), mud, e.g. the wooded depression north of 

Allada (Dahome), known to the natives as Ko (q.v.) 
Lambardar (India), village headman. 
umLambo (Kafir), a river. 
nLambu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a flat shore beside a 

river, beach, bank ; course of a river. 
Lamorde (Adamawa), the house or seat of a Lamido or 

governor. Cf. Bibago. 
Lampong (Malay), buoy. 
Lan (Brittany), a church, e.g. Landivisiau, ' the church 

of St. Tivisiau.' Cf. Llan. 

Lan (Celtic), a plain, e.g. Lanthwaite. See Thwaite. 
Lan (China), market-place. 
Lan (Sw.), a county. 
Lan (Yoruba). See Nla. 
Lanark (Gaelic), a forest glade. 
Landa (It.), down, heath, moor. 
Landas (Tagala, Philippines), a way, road. 
Lande (Fr.), sandy grounds (L de ), e.g. The Landes. 
Lande (Ger.), landing-place, quay, pier. 
Landgut (Ger.), country estate, manor. 
Landschaft (Ger.), region, district, province. 
Landschap (Dch.), province, country, canton. 


Landstadt (Ger.), a country town. 

Landungsplatz (Ger.), wharf, landing-place. 

Landweg (Dch.), country road. 

Landzunge (Ger.}, a spit. 

Lang (Annam), a village. 

Lang (China), waves. 

Lang, Lange (Ger.), long, e.g. Langenberg, ' long 

Lang (Siam), lower, e.g. Lang Suan (Swan), in the pen- 
insula, south of Tenasserim. 

Langa (Congo), to inundate, swamp, flood; a camp, 
regular resting-place for travellers. 

Langar (E. Turk.), a resting-house for travellers. 

Lange (Ger.), longitude. 
mLango (East Africa, dialect of Bantu), a channel. 

Langtao (Siam), the bar of a river. 
nLangu (Loango, dialect of Bantu), water. 

Langue (Fr.), a tongue or neck of land. 

Langur (Nepal), a lofty snow-capped mountain. Cf. 

Lanka (Hind.), island. See Dip, Jingira. 

Lankh (Serer), sand. 

Lansi (Fiji.), western. For other points see Pohia. 

Lao (China), old, e.g. Lao Sung Ling, ' old pine pass ' ; 
a misspelling is Liao. See Sung, Ling. Cf. Lau, 

Lao (Hainan), a path. 

Lao (Nung, Lao-Jcai), great, large. 

Lapa (Madagascar), a palace. 
eLapo (Cent. Africa, Bantu), country. Cf. eLabo. 

Lapong, Lapang (Malay), an opening in the land. 


Laraga (Aroma, New Guinea), a garden. 

Larg (Gaelic learg). a hill, slope, e.g. Largs. 

Las (Somali), a shallow well or sand-pit, e.g. Las Anod, 

* milk well,' Las Dibbra. 

maLashi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass ; for other 
dialect forms see Dinyasi, 

Lat (Siam), a short cut. 

Latala (Cent. Africa), a forest. 

Lath (Hind.), an obelisk, minaret, vertical beam of oil- 

Lathe (Eng. from A.S. ladh), a part or division of a 
county, comprising several hundreds (q.v.) ; occurs 
now only in Kent, where there are still five lathes. 

Latifondo (It.), a large farm, extensive estate. 

Latse (China), a saw-peaked range of hills. Cf. Sierra. 

Lau (China), a tower ; pronounced with a different tone 
means ' old.' See Lao, Liao. 

Lauba (Aroma, New Guinea), a cloud. 

Laubholz (Ger.), a leafy wood; opposed to Nadelholz, 
pointed needle-like (pine) foliage. 

Lauf (Ger.), a stream, course, current ; cf. laufen, to run. 

Laugith (Ebon, Polynesia), sea. 

Laulabada (Motu, New Guinea), south-east wind. 

Laut, Lautbesar (Malay), the sea, ocean. 

Lauter (Ger.), clear, e.g. Lauterbrunnen, 'clear foun- 

Lavanambu (Sansc.), the sea. 

Lavan-Khani (Sansc.), a salt mine. 

Law (Anglo-Saxon), a hillock, mound, rising ground, 
e.g. Moodlaw, Cf. Low. 


Lax, Laks (Nor.), salmon ; e.g. Laxvoe, Laxay. See 

Voe, Ay. 

Lazar (Hassania), a marsh, bog. 
Le (DanaJcil), water. 
Le (Anglo-Fr.), beside, near, e.g. Houghton le Street, 

from lez, les (q.v.) 
-Le (Somali), a suffix signifying locality ; e.g. Adadle, 

'the place of Adad (i.e. trees).' 
Lea (Anglo-Saxon), a meadow or grassy plain. Ley, 

Leigh are other forms. 
Lea (Hainan), a mountain. 
Leac (Gaelic) , slate, slab ; e.g. Leac Ban, Leac Lee point. 

See Ban, Lee. 

Leben (Ger.), a place to live in. 
Led (Euss.), ice; see next entry. 
Ledyanaya gora (Buss.), an iceberg. See Gora. 
Lee (Anglo-Saxon hied, a shelter), the side of a ship 

opposite to that from which the wind blows, so 

any shelter or sheltered spot, e.g. Alder Lee, Lees 

Lee (Gaelic le), smooth, e.g. Lochlee, ' smooth lake.' Cf. 


Lee wa (Indian, California), sea. 
Lefai'a (Arab., N. Africa), a place infested by horned 


Legi (Congo), a road. 
Legi (Kerepunu, New Guinea), grass. 
Le go (Indian, California), a lake. 
Lehibe (Madagascar), great, large. 
Lei (Dck.), schist. 


Lei (Upper Nile}, water. 

Leidi (Fula), country, district. 

Leigh (England, S.W.), a meadow, pasture; e.g. Bud- 

leigh ; a variant of Lea. 
Lei hsien chu (China), telegraph. 
Leite (Ger.), a mountain slope, declivity. 
Leito (Port.), the bed of a river. 
Leix (from Nor., Da. Lax), salmon ; e.g. Abbey Leix. 
Lejbishche, Lezhbishche (Buss.), a seal-breeding place, a 

' rookery ' ; lit. a place of rest. 
Lek (Laos), iron. 
Lek (Siam), small. 

eLeko (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a town. 
kiLela (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu], an island. 
kiLele (Swahili), a summit, peak. 

eLelenshi (Congo, dialect of Bantu}, a plain ; level, flat. 
Leleu (Mentawei), a hill. 
Lell (Nissan I., New Guinea), a road, path. 
Lem (Siam), a cape, headland, point. 
eLenga (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a place where the 
grass has been beaten down by a great concourse 
of people. 

Lenger (TurJcestan), a station or rest-house. See Langar. 
Lenpu (N. AraJcan), large. 

Ler (from Icel. Leir), mud, e.g. Lerwick, ' mud bay.' 
Ler (Da., Nor., Sw.), mud, e.g. Lersund. 
Ler (Armenia), a mountain. 
Les (Fr.), near, beside, e.g. Aspres-les-Veynes ; is a variant 

of lez (q.v.) 
Lesaw (N. Chin hills), a river. 



Leste (Sp.), the east wind, east ; the L is here really 

only the article. 

Lette (Gironde), a pool formed after rain (L te ). 
Letto (It.), the bed of a river. 

Leuchtturm, Leuchtthurm (Ger.), lighthouse. Cf. Lichttoren. 
Leufu (Araucanian, Patagonia), river, e.g. Karrileufu, 

1 green river.' 
Levante (It.), east, eastern region, lit. 'rising' (of the 

Level (Latin libella, through French), a gutter for 

water to run in. 

Levu (Mbau, Fiji), great; e.g. Vanua Levu, 
Lewaya (Ceylon), a salt-pan. 
-Ley (England), an open place in a wood, e.g. Dudley. 

See Lea, Leigh. 
Lez (Fr.from Latin latus, ' side,' Provengal latz, laz), 

near, by, beside, obsolete except in place-names, 

e.g. Plessis-lez-Tours, ' Plessis near Tours,' Saventhem- 

lez-Bruxelles, ' Saven them near Brussels.' Variants 

are le and les (q.v.) 

(Swahili), a buoy ; for^Z. see Chilezo, Mlezo. 


Lha (Tibet), god, genius, spirit ; e.g. Lhasa, ' the seat of 

the divine intelligence.' See Sa. 
Lho (Tibet), south. For other points see Byang, Bak, 

Nub, Ike, Shar. 

Li (China), a hamlet of twenty-five families. 
Li (China), inner. Cf. Nui. 

Li (China), a measure of length = one-third of a mile. 
eLi (Fan, French Congo), a tree ; for pi. see Eli. 


uLi (Fan, French Congo), a clearing in a forest. 
Lia (Hind.), land which is annually flooded. 
Liang (Chungkia, Thai), a road. 
Liao (China), distant, e.g. Liao-Ho, ' distant river,' Liao- 

Yang, ' remote sun (light).' See Lao. 
Liba (Somali), lion. See under Shabel. 
maLiba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), water. 

Libongo (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Bongo. 

Lichinga (Mavia, Mozamb.) See Chinga ; cf. Litumbi. 

Lichinya (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Chinya. 

Licht (Ger.), light ; e.g. Lichtenstein. See Stein. 

Lichttoren (Dch.), a lighthouse. Cf. Leuchtturm, 

Lid (Anglo-Saxon hlidh), a slope, side of a hill, Latin 

clivus, e.g. Warning Lid in North Sussex. 
nLidi (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), a ravine. 
Lido (It.), shore, bank. 
Lienga (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Enga. 
Liesnoi (Russ.), woody, applied to many place-names 

in Alaskan waters. Properly Lyesnoi (q.v.) 
Lietnika (Russ.), summer village. Properly Lyetnika, 

see Lyeto. 

Lieu (Fr.), place, e.g. Beaulieu, See Beau. 
maLifa (Bakundu, Kamerun), water. 

Lifuwukho (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Fuwukho, 
Ligne de faite (Fr.), a water-parting or divide between 

two or more river basins. See Faite. 
Lihenga (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Henga. 
Lik (Tibet), people, tribe, e.g. Tagh Lik, ' mountaineers,' 

a nomad tribe of Tatars. See Tagh. 
Likete (Ebon, Polynesia), a place, locality. 


Li kiari (Gurma), wells. 

Liko (Swahili). See Diko, Ko. 

Lilang (Chong-Chia-tse, Yunnan), mountain. 

Lilbaden (Jibali, Berber), a mountain. 

Lilla (Sw.), small (lil. or 1.), e.g. Lilla Lulea Elf. Cf. Stor. 

Lille (Nor., Da.), small (L le ), e.g. Lille Belt, 'the Little 

kiLima (Swahili), hill, detached mountain, mound, e.g. 

Kilima Njaro. 
mLima (East Africa, dialect of Bantu), a mountain. 

Liman (Turk.), harbour, port.] These are really the same 

Liman (Buss.), an estuary. Gree k word, borrowed in 

Limen (Greek), harbour, port.) Russian and Turkish. 

Limitrophe (Fr.), neighbouring, bordering. 

Limne (Greek), a lake. 

Limo (Prov. Sp., Ital.),m.ud, from Lat. limus, mud, slime. 

Lin, Ling (China), grove, wood, forest ; imperial tomb ; 
e.g. Yu Lin, ' elm forest.' 

Lin, Lyn, Linn, Lynn (Gaelic, linne, Irish, linn, a pool ; 
Anglo-Saxon, hlinna, a brook), a spring, pool, 
especially one under a waterfall, source of a 
river, precipice, ravine, e.g. Dublin, ' Black Pool ' 
(dubh= black) ; King's Lynn, Linmouth or Lynmouth; 
Corra Linn, near Lanark. See Llyn. 

Lin (Pai, Yunnan, China), earth. 

Lina (Aroma, New Guinea), tide (flowing). 

Linani (Kossova, Eastern Uganda), forest. 

Lind (Icelandic), a well. 

Ling (China), chain of hills ; a height not peaked ; a pass 
over a mountain ridge, e.g. Nanling. See Nan. 


Ling (Punjab], a stone pillar which is supposed to 

represent the god Shiva. 

Ling (Tibet], region, district ; also a garden, e.g. Nam- 
ling, from Nam (q.v.), sky, the monastery being on a 

high hill with a garden at the foot. 
Lingara (A-Zande), a village. 
Lingua (It.), a small promontory, tongue. 
Linn. See Lin. 

Linyasi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu}. See Dinyasi. 
Linyi (Hausa), a slave village. Cf. Rumde. 
Lipa (Slavonic)', lime-tree, e.g. Leipzig, originally a Slav 

Lips (Greek), south-west ; really the S.-W. wind 

(sirocco), For other points see Boreas. 
Lirova (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Rova. 
Lis (Gaelic), a garden, e.g. Lismore, 'great garden.' 

See More. 

Lis (Irish), a fort made of earth, e.g. Listowel. 
Lisiere (U.S.A.), a strip of country along the coast; 

lit., in French, a selvage. 
Lit (Fr.), bed, stratum ; bed of a river. 
Litala (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Tala. 
Lithos (Greek), stone. 

Litiwa (Ketosh, Eastern Uganda). See Tiwa. 
Litulo (Lu-Wanga, Eastern Uganda), a mound. 
Litumbi, Chitumbi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), 

mountain, large hill. See Tumbi. Cf. Lima. 
Liva (Turk.), subdivision of a Vilayet (q.v.) 
eLiwa (French Congo coast, dialect of Bantu), lake. 
iLiwa (Zulu, Kafir), a precipice, cliff. 


Ljiceni (Albanian), lake. 

Ljongs (Tibet), a broad valley. 

Llan- (Welsh), a prefix meaning enclosure, church, e.g. 

Llanadas (Patagonia), gently sloping plains, at such an 

altitude above the level of a river as to be free 

from floods. 

Llano (Sp.), a plain, level ground. 
Llearn (Armenian), a mountain. 
Llena (Sp.), alluvion, overflow of rivers. 
Llyn (Welsh), a pool, lake, e.g. Llyn Mymbyr. See Lin. 
beLo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), part of a town ; a cluster 

of houses in a town. 
Lo (Cent. Africa), an old root meaning ' to flow,' e.g. 

Lomami. Cf. Do, Ro, Ru. See Domasi, Elu. 
Lo (Dagboma, Mossi), village. 
Lo (Hainan), a path. 
Lo (Man Sung, Lao-Kai), great, large. 
Lo (Ja-Luo, Eastern Uganda), sand. 
nLo (Fan, French Congo) ; for meaning audpl. see Nlo. 

Lo (Lolo, China), boat. 
maLoa (Kossova, Eastern Uganda), ground. 
Lob (Da., Nor.), channel, passage, fairway. 
Locature (Provincial Fr.), farm, holding. 
Loch (Ireland and Scotland), a lake, a sheet of fresh 

water ; bay or arm of the sea. The original Gaelic 

and Irish are both loch, though the latter is now 

usually written lough; is cognate with .4.$. lagu, 

sea, lake, and with Lat. lacus, whence A.S. lac, 

Eng. lake. 


Lode (England), a reach of water in a canal. 

Lodo (Span., Port.), mud, from Lat. lutum, whence 
Lutetia Parisiorum (Paris). 

Loe (Pat, Yunnan, China], a mountain; is a variant of 
Loi (q.v.) 

Logar (Port.), a village. 
eLogh (Fan, French Congo), grass; to? pi. see Elogh. 

Loi (Shan States), a hill. See Loe. 

Lokko (Yoruba), on board, aboard, e.g. Port Lokko. 

Lo kul lo (Indian, California), a valley. 

Lolo (Songhai), a road. 

Lorn wow (Sia?n), north wind; lorn tapow, south wind; 
lorn tawan-ok, east wind; lorn tawan-tok, west 
wind ; for points of compass see Nua. See also Fon. 

Loma (Sp.), rising ground in the midst of a plain ; 
hill, hillock, knoll. 

Lon (Annam), great, large. 

Lonar (Hind.), salt lands ; a place where salt is pro- 
duced ; from Ion, salt ; cf. Sansc. lavanakar, a salt-pit. 

Londe (Congo), a hill ; used only in composition, e.g. 

eshi-londe, highlanders. 

eLondo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a back current, an 

Long (S. Chin hills and Borneo), stream, river, e.g. 

Maunglong, Thet Long. 
muLonga (dialect of Bantu), a river. 

uLongo (Giryama), clayey soil. 

nLonki (Fan, French Congo), below, the direction to- 
wards which a river flows. 

Loo (Belgium), an open place in a wood, e.g. Waterloo. 


Lorgenai (Lake Eudolf district, East Africa), black 
stones, e.g. Donyo Lorgenai, 'the mountain of 
black stones/ a Masai name for Mount Kenia. 

Lotsitsi (Bechuand, Bantu). See Tsitsi. 

Lotsung (Sumatra). See under Bale, 

Lough (Ireland). See Loch. 

Lovoka (Madagascar), a bay. 

Low (England, from Anglo-Saxon hlaw), a mound, hill, 
rising ground, e.g. Ludlow, High Low in the Peak 
district. Cf. Law. 

Lu- (Bantu), a prefix frequently applied to the roots to 
form the names of rivers, e.g. Luapula, Lualaha, 

Lu (China), a road, a way. 

Lu- (Congo, Uganda, d*c., Bantu), a prefix applied to 
the root to denote the language ; e.g. Luwanga, the 
language of the Wawanga. See Wa, 

Lu (Congo), river, e.g. Sankulu. Cf. Ka, Ru. 

Luala (Bantu). See Ala. 

Luanda (NiJca). See Anda ; cf. Lwanda. 

Luang (Siam), yellow, e.g. Luang Prabang. Cf. Luong. 

Luanja (Bantu). See Anja. 

Luanza (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Anza. 

Lubira (Victoria Nyanza region). See Bira. 

Lubok (Malay), a pool; deep holes in the sea; lake, 
river, a reach of a river ; a recess or bight in the 
winding of a river, e.g. Lubok Ajung, Lubok Pangku 

Lubu (Kerepunu, New Guinea), sacred house or platform. 

Lubulu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Bulu. 


Luchau (Lolo, China), a wood. 
luLuchi (Ketosh, Eastern Uganda), a river. 
Luda (Buss.), a rock or reef out of water. 
Ludide, Lutite (Nika), small, little. 
Ludzidzi (Nika). See Dzidzi. 
Luenga (Gogo, Bantu). See Enga. 
Lueru (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Eru. 
Lufulo (Nika). See Fulo. 
Lugan (Malinke, Senegal), cultivated land. 
Lugar (Sp.), a village or small town ; any place; from 

Lat. locus. 

Lugga (Galla), a nullah. 

aLugh (Fan, French Congo) ; for meaning see Alugh. 
Luharano (Madagascar), source, fountain, spring. 
Luhasaha (Madagascar), a valley. 
Luhatona (Madagascar), the dry season, spring. 
Luj (Arab.), the ocean; an abyss. 
Luji (Arab.), the sea. 

Lujja (Arab.), deep water, the middle of the sea. 
Lukala (Ketosh and Lu-Wanga, Eastern Uganda). See 


kuLukira (Nika), a road made by the traffic of cattle. 
Lukku (Fin.), a rock. 
Lukolo (Giryama). See Kolo. 
Lukolonga (Bantu). See Kolonga. 

Lukulu, Nkulu ( Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu) . See Kulu. 
Luluchi (Ketosh, Eastern Uganda). See Luchi. 
Lum (England, Welsh Hum = that which projects), a 

chimney ; also a woody valley, a deep pool, e.g. 

The Lum near Leek in the Peak district. 


Lum (Yambo, Upper Sobat E.), grass. 

Lumbu (Hausa), a garden. 

Lumi (Albanian), river, stream. 

Lumpor (Malay), mud; sometimes found as Lumpur. 

Lun (Khas Chos, Indo-China), house, abode. 

Luii (Tibet), wind. 

Lund (Nor., Da.), a grove ; e.g. Lundgarth. See Garth. 
chiLundi (Tonga, Bantu), a detached hill or mountain. 
iLundi (Bantu), a high mountain, a detached hill. 

Lunengenenge (Congo, dialect of Bantu) . See Nenge-nenge. 

Lung (China), a dragon, e.g. Hei Lung Kiang, 'Black 
Dragon Kiver.' Cf. Luong. See Hei, Kiang. 

Lunga (Tibet), ditch, valley. 

Lungma (Tibet), a river. Cf. Lungpa. 

Lungma (Tibet), coarse grass. 

Lung-pa (Tibet), a straight valley; also river; cf. 
Lungma ; also one's country (Hind, mulk, loan 
word from Arab.) 

Luogo (It.), place, site. 

Luong (Cambodia), a dragon, e.g. Ham-Luong, 'Dragon's 
Jaw ' in Bao-Duk. Cf. Lung. It also means 
' sweet,' e.g. Phui Luong, ' Sweet Wealth,' in Bao- 

Luong (Laos), yellow. Cf. Luang, of which it is another 

Luong (E. Siam, Annam), great, large. 

Luoto (Fin.), a shoal. 

Lupa (Tagala, Philippines), land. 

Lupata (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Pata. 

Lupiri (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Piri. 


Lusese (Bantu}. See Sese. 

Lusolo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Solo. 
Lut (Pers.), bare, naked, e.g. Dasht-i-Lut, 'bare steppe/ 
Lutite (Nika). See Ludide. 
Luvanga (Nika). See Vanga. 
Luvila (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Vila. 
Luwi (Eua, Bantu). See Wi. 
Luwongo (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Wongo. 
Luzi, Nguzi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See Zi. 
Lwanda (Giryama). See Anda. 
uLwandle (Kafir), the sea. Davis gives u as the prefix, 

but Torrend renders it ulw-Andle. 1 
Lye (English), a siding, offset, or loop from a main line 

of railway; from A.S. licgan. 
Lyen (Welaung, Kwenam), large, great. 
Lyeng, Lyong (Korea). See Nyeng. 
Lyes (Buss.), a forest. See next entry. 
Lyesnoi (Buss.), wooded, woody. The adjective of lyes 

Occurs misspelled as Liesnoi (q.v.) 
Lyeto (Buss.), summer. 
Lyn, Lynn. See Lin. 
Lys (Da., Nor.), light (colour), e.g. Lysned. 


M-. See Ma (8. Cent. Africa). 

Ma (Arab.), water. 

Ma (Indian, U.S.A.), large water expanse. 

1 See Kaffir-English Dictionary, by W. J. Davis, and A Comparative 
Grammar of the 80 nth- African Bantu Languages, by J. Torrend, S.J. 


Ma (Indian, California), earth, land. 

Ma- (Loango), king, a prefix followed by the name of 
the country, e.g. Ma Loango = King of Loango. 

Ma (Motumotu, New Guinea), water. 

Ma-, M- (S. Cent. Africa, Barotseland), the people, e.g. 
Marotse. Of. The English. See Ba-. 

Ma (Tibet), down, low. See Mad. 

Ma (Central Sudan), a singular suffix, e.g. Kanema, i.e. 

Kanem-ma, ' a man of Kanem.' See -Bu. 
kuMa (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a place. 

Ma'a, Maka (Samoa, Niue and Tonga, Polynesia), stone. 

Maader (Arab., N. Africa), lowland, covered with 

Maadie (Upper Nile), a ferry boat ; below the Cataracts 
it is used for a large freight and passenger 

Maap (S. Africa), muddy. 

Maar (Iceland), a cauldron-shaped depression. 

Mabar (Arab.), pass, ferry, ford. 

Mabehe (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Belie. 

Macchia (It.), jungle, thicket. 

Machar (Celtic machair), a plain, e.g. Machars (Wig- 
town). Of. Mauch, and see Maghera. 

Machi (Japan), town ; street. 

Machi (Fan, French Congo). See Chi. 

Machila (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a conveyance, 
consisting of a canvas hammock hung on a long 
bamboo pole, carried by two men. See Chila. 

Mad (Tibet), low country. See Ma, Smad. 

Madan (Arab.), a mine, quarry. See Maden. 


Madeira (Port.), wood, timber, wooden (building), e.g. 

Madeira I., Madeira R. Cf. Madera, 
Maden (Turk.), a mine. See Madan. 
Mader (Arab.), a moist locality. 
Mader (Pers.), mother, e.g. Mader Kuh, ' mother hill.' 
Madera (Sp.), timber, wood, the same word as Madeira. 
Madhaiya (Hind.), cottage, hut. 
Madhya (Sansc.), middle, e.g. Madhya-desh the part of 

India comprising Allahabad, Agra, Delhi, Oude, &c. 
Madhne (Arab.), a minaret. 
Madi (Bafo, Kameruri). See Di. 
Madiba (Kamerun, dialect of Bantu). See Diba ; opp. 

to Mundi. 

Madina, Medine (Arab.), a city. See Medine. 
Mado, Madu, Madoba (Somali), black, applied to a valley 

that is dark and shady, e.g. Afmadu. See Af. 
Madrasa (Cent. Asia, Persia, India), a college; loan 

word from Arab, darasa, to read. 
Maduk, Madugu (Mande, West Sudan), the house of a 

king, palace. See Dugu. 

Madzi (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Dzi. 
Madzi-Manji (Giryama), sea. 
Mae (Hang Chek, Lido-China), a tree. 
Ma el ma (Arab.), a source. See Ma. 
Maen (Welsh), a large stone, e.g. Maen y Prenfol, near 


Maes (Welsh), a field, a heath, e.g. Maesbury. See Bury 
Mafana (Madagascar), hot, e.g. Ranomafana, ' hot water.' 

See Rano. 
Mafaza (Arab.), a desert. 


Mafitsi. See Mafutsi. 

Mafutsi (Hausa), ferry, landing-place, wharf. 

Mag (Gaulish), a field, e.g. Marmagen. 

Mag (Hind.), road, path, way ; from Same, marg, road. 

Mag (Serer, Senegal), a river. 

Magala (Somali), a town, e.g. Magala Sahil, ' coast town,' 

i.e. Berbera. 
Magangamu (Hausa), confluence, equivalent to the Fula 

Magas (Hung.), great, high (Mg.), applied to a large 

number of towns and villages. 
Magdumat (Darfur), a province under a Magdum or 


Magh (Irish), a field, e.g. Armagh. 
Maghera (Irish), a plain, a field, e.g. Magherafelt, 
Maghrabi (Arab.), western, relating to North Africa. 

Cf. Gharb. 

Maghreb (Arab.), west. Cf. Gharb. 
Maghribi (Swahili), west ; borrowed from the Arabic 

maghreb. Cf. Gharb. 
Magrem (Arab., N. Africa), meeting, junction, e.g. 

Magrem el Buhur, * the meeting of the waters,' the 

Arab, name of No L. See Bahr. 
Magu iesiva (S. Cape, New Guinea), tide (flowing). 
Magura (Rumanian), a wooded height (Mgr.) 
Maha (Sansc., Hind.), great, e.g. Mahanadi. See Nadi. 
Mahal (Arab.), place, building, house, mansion. 
Mahal el kufr (Egyptian Sudan), old ruins. See Kufr. 
Mahallah (Cent. Asia) a quarter of a town. 
Mahanke (Indian, U.S.A.), earth, land. 


Mahareb (Wadai), the round bell- shaped huts of Wadai, 
made of reeds, as opposed to Reri, the Wadai name 
for the portable Arab huts. 

Maha-van (Sansc.), a large forest. See Van. 

Mahifohifo (Nine, Polynesia), west. For other points see 

Mahigen (Arab.), a whirlpool, eddy. 

Mahjar (Arab.), rocks which impede the current of a 

Mahrusa (Arab.), a garrison or fortified place. 

Mai (Bantu), water ; probably not originally Bantu, but 
from Arabic Ma. 

Mai (Motumotu, New Guinea), river. 

Mai (Siam), new. 

Maidan (Arab., Pers., India, Abyssinia), plain, open field, 

place d'armes. 

,, (Marocco), an open space on which to practise 
horsemanship, usually found in front of every 
castle. This is the original meaning, from Arab. 
mada, meda, to be moved or agitated. 

Mai'en (Upper Nile), bush, tall grass. 

Maifadi (Hausa). See Fadi. 

Maije (Kilimane, Bantu). See Ije. 

Mai-ma (China), trade, e.g. Maimachin, ' trade town,' 
near Kiakhta ; chin = town. 

Maing (Burma), a town of the fourth order or sub- 
district capital. Another form of Meng (q.v.) 

Mainji (dialect of Bantu). See Mansi. 

Mainya, pi. of Baba (Hausa), great. 

Maio (Fula). See Mayo. 


Maireveina (Motu, Neio Guinea), east. 

Maison (Fr.), house (M on ). 

Maiya (Equatorial Nile), a backwater, e.g. Maiya Bita 
Signora, named after the great traveller Miss 
Tinne. Another form is Maya (q.v.) 

Majani (Swahili). See Jani. 

Majen (Arab.), a natural reservoir. 


, (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Ji. 
aMaji j 

Makali (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), bitter, 

e.g. Marenga Makali (Kiver)= bitter water. See 


Makan (Aral).), a house, dwelling. 
Makani (Galla), a village. From the Arab, makan (?). 
Makao, Makazi, Makani (Swahili). See Kao, Kazi, Kani. 
Makaya (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu) . See Kaya. 
Makazi (Swahili). See Kazi. For other forms see 


Makbar (Arab.), bury ing-place, tomb, monument. 
Makhade (Arab.), a ford. 
Makkoren ( West Sudan), great, large, e.g. AutelMakkoren; 

Imakoren, ' large island ' formed by the Niger 


Makop (Bali, Kamerun), wood, forest. 
Makro (Greek), long, e.g. Makri Yalo, a bay in Crete. 
Makta (Arab.), a ford. 
Makua, Makwa (A-Zande), river, stream. 
Makuni (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kuni. 
Mai (Hung.), mountain, e.g. Kiralymal=Konigsberg. 
Mai (Fan, French Congo). See Dzal. 


Mala, pi. of Buala (Loango). See Ala. 

Mala (Slav.), little. Cf. Malo, Mali, Maly. 

Maladrerie (Fr.), lazaretto (Mal re ). 

Malai (Tamul), mountain, hill. 

Malaila (Melceo, New Guinea), north. 

Malan (Hind.), a path. 

Malang, Mallang (Malay), rocks visible at high water, 

e.g. Malang Sakit Mata. 
Malanga (Niue, Polynesia), south. For other points see 


Malashi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Dinyasi. 
Mali (Chin Hills), great, e.g. Mali Kha, ' great river,' the 

Myit Gyi of the Burmese. Cf. Nmai. See Myit, 

Gyi, Kha. 

Mali (S. Slavonic), little. Cf. Malo, Mala, Maly. 
Mali (W. Africa, between the Niger and the Atlantic), 

hippopotamus, e.g. Malinke, the people whose fetish 

or idol is the hippopotamus. See Ke, Nke; cf. 

Bamba, Sa. 

Maliba (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Liba. 
Maliba mokru (Upper Nile), river, stream. 
Malifa (Bakundu, Kamerun). See Lifa. 
Malj (Albanian), mountain range. 
Malka (Galla), a river. Cf. Melka. 
Malmala (Hind.), brackish (water). 
Malnad (India, Mysore), hill country, applied generally 

to the Manjarabad and Nagar ranges. 
Malo (Buss., Servian), small, e.g. Malo Jezero, * little lake/' 

Cf. Mala, Mali, Maly. See Jezero. 
Maloa (Kossova, Eastern Uganda). 'See Loa. 



Maly (Euthenian), small (ML), e.g. Maly Ksiaz, N. of 

Cracow. Cf. Mala, Mali, Malo. 
Mamakating (Indian, U.S.A.), a great standing heap, 


Mambo (Zambezia), chief, king. 
Mamelon (Fr.) lit. pap, breast ; a rounded hill. 
Man (Celtic), district, e.g. Manchester. See Chester. 
Man (Korea}, bay, e.g. Nau-to-Man = Goshkevich bay. 
Man (Shan States), a village. 
Man (Shan States}, new, e.g. Man-Maw, 'New-Market,' 

the Shan name for Bhamo. See Bha, Maw. 
Man (Tamul), earth, land. 

Mana (Bambara), a cliff, e.g. Manaule, ' red cliff.' See Ule. 
Mana \ 

'M i $ en t- Africa, dialects of Bantu), river, lake. 

muMana J 

-Mana, -Manavi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a suffix 

meaning ' little.' 

Mana (S. Cape, New Guinea), wind. 
Manahinj (Indian, U.S.A.), a spring. 
Mananga (Gazaland), sandy waterless tracts, above the 

level of the river valleys, covered with thorny 

scrub. See Nanga. 

Mananyaro (Amis, Formosa), a village. 
Manarokta (Indian, U.S.A.), forest, wood. 
Manasi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Dinyasi. 
-Manavi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See -Mana. 
Manbate (Sara, Chad L.), a house made of wood. Cf. 



Mandal (Hind.), a fountain; a port, harbour. 

Mandal (Hind.), circle, sphere; the solar disk; the 

heavens ; a round tent ; a district ; from Sansc. 

mandanla, a disk. 
Mandan (Deccan), the world. 

Mandap (Sansc., Hind.), a shed ; temple, pavilion. 
Mandhi (Sansc., Hind.), a cottage ; small temple ; shrine ; 

hermit's cell. 
Mandi (Hind.), market ; a shop, storehouse for sale of 

goods by auction or on commission. 
Manding (Wolof), a desert, wilderness. 
Mandir (Sansc., Hind.), house/mansion, palace, temple. 
Mane (Sara, Chad L.), water, cf. Tutu; river, cf. Ba. 
Manene (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Nene. 
u Mango (Kafir), the ridge of a country; an elevated 

tract of land. 
Mangrullo (Spanish S. America), watch-tower, a signal 

staff fixed in the branches of a tree. 
Manhattan (Indian, U.S.A.), rapids. 
Mania (Banjan, Kamerun), water. 
Manigua (Cuba), a tropical forest. 
Manji (Bali, Kamerun). See Nji. 
Mankala (Arab.), a day's journey; a halting-place ; a 

way through mountains. Cf. Manzil. 
Mankiala (Fin.), isthmus. 

Manse (Loio Latin, mansa, a farm), a house or dwelling 
with or without land ; a dwelling-house reserved for 
a minister ; Capital Manse, a manor-house. 
Mansi, Manzi, Menzi, Amensi, Amazi, Minzi, Amaji, Maji, 

Mazi, Mezi, Madzi, Mainji, Mari (Cent. Africa, 

E 2 


dialects of Bantu), water. See Nzi, Nsi, Dzi, Ji, 

Hi, Zi, Mazi. 
Mantiase (Gold Coast), a subordinate town ; a dependent 

of a leading town. 

Manufacture (Fr.), factory (Manuf re ). 
Manyasi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Dinyasi. 
Manyata (East Africa, Masai), the villages of the Masai. 
Manza (Senegambia), a king or sovereign, hence Kassa- 

manza, ' chief of the emigrant Kassa people,' cor- 
rupted into Kasamansa, or Casamance. 
Manzana (Spanish S. America), a block of houses in the 

form of a square, there being a street at each 


Manzi (dialect of Bantu). See Nzi, 
Manzil (Arab.), a day's journey; an inn; a dwelling; 

boundary. From Nazala=to alight. Cf. the other 

forms Menzil, Munsil, Mankala. 
Mao (Fula). See Mayo. 
Maol (from Gaelic maol, bare), a headland, e.g. Maol 

Dubh, in Loch Leven. See Dubh. 
Ma pa (Indian, U.S.A.), water. 
Mape (Mekeo, New Guinea), coast. 
Mar (Abba, N.W. of Rudolf L.), a road. 
Mar (Arab.), a saint (Christian). 
Mar (Sp., Port.), sea. Cf. Mare, Mer, Mari, Mere, 
Mar (Woloj), a stream. 

Mara (A-Zande), iron, applied to ferruginous districts. 
Marabut (North Africa), a saint ; monk ; a monument 

erected in honour of a saint, generally a chapel 

or shrine with a cupola, 


Marafiari, Warafiari. See Rafiari. 

Marago (Ki-Mrima, East Africa). See Rago. 

Maraira (Maiva, New Guinea), north wind. 

Marairana (Kabadi, New Guinea), north wind. 

Marais (Fr.), swamp, marsh (M s ). 

Marakat (Arab.), a shoal with soft bottom. 

Maraovai (Motumotu, New Guinea), tide (flowing). 

Marca (It.), boundary, frontier, a loan word. See Mark, 

March (Eng., Scot.), border, frontier ; cf. the ' Warden of 
the Marches.' From A.S. mearc (whence the 
border kingdom of Mercia) and Goth, marka (whence 
the Marcomanni, the ' border men '). See Mark, 

Marche (Fr.), market. 

Mare (Rumania), great, e.g. Stobodzieya Mare, on Pruth R. 

Mare (Fr.), pool, pond. 

Mare (It.), sea. Cf. Mar, Mer, Mari, Mere. 

Marea (Maiva, New Guinea), sacred house or platform. 

Marea (Sp.) t tide; sea-shore. 

Maree (Fr.), tide. 

Maremma (It.), down, fen, salt-water marsh. 

Marenga. See Renga. 

Marevo (Buss.), mirage. 

Marfag (Arab., N. Africa), promontory, cape. Cf. Menkeb. 

Marhaiya. See Marhi. 

Marhi (Hind.), a variant of Mandhi (q.v.) 

Mari (dialect of Bantu). See Mansi. 

Mari (Fin), sea. Cf. Mar, Mer, Mare, Mere, 

Marigot (Senegal), a corrupted Jolof word, shallow 
creek, arm of a river. Cf. Faddama, Adar-n-Eghirreu, 
Rejl, Kra, Bot-ho. Now used in French works. 


Marina (It.), sea-coast, shore, strand. 
Marjal (Sp.), fen, woodland, marsh. 
Mark (Indo-European), a boundary, e.g. Denmark, 
Altmark ; Mercia, the * Marches.' Is cognate with 
Lat. margo, margin, frontier. 
Mark (Scotland), a forest, e.g. Markinch, ' the forest 

island.' See Inch. 
Markaz (Arab.), a halting-place. 

Markt (Ger), market-place, e.g. Neumarkt, ' Newmarket.' 
Marmaro (Hausa), source, spring. 
Marne (Fr.), clay, marl. 
Marra (Galla), house, dwelling. 

Marraraba (Hausa), bifurcation (whether of roads or 
streams), division, equal division, half way. See 

Marsa (Arab.), a port, e.g. Marsala, Marsa Zafran. 
Marsch (Ger.), marsh, moor. 
Mart (Hung), bank, shore, coast. 

Martha, Marta (Nestorian Christian), village, hamlet. 

Mam (Sansc.), a region destitute of water, desert, sands. 

Marwa (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), quartz. 

Marz (Pers), region, district. 

Mas (Provence), small country house (M.) 

Masa (Rubiana, Solomon Is.), a reef. 

Masabki (Hausa), a lodging-place. 

Masakin (Arab.), mansions, habitations. 

Masalik (Arab.), ways, paths. 

Masanza (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Sanza. 

Masar (Cent. Asia), a saint's tomb. 

Masara (Arab.), a mill. 


Mashhad (Arab.), a burying-place, monument. 
Mashrik (Arab:), the east. See Matla. In Hind. Mashrak. 
doMasi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Mazi, Domasi. 
Masidi (Hausa), inn, resting-place. 
Masika (E. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Sika. 
Masima (Swahili). See Sima. 
Masjid (Arab.), a mosque. 
Maskara (Arab.), a camp. 
Maslak (Arab.), a path, track. 

, (Mande), capital. See Dugu, Su. 
Massasu J 

Masseria (It.), a farm (Mass a ). 

Massstab (Ger.), scale (of a map). 

Masua (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Isoa. 

Masumba (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Sumba. 

Maswa (Arab.), a dwelling, habitation. 

Mat (Swiss), a field, e.g. Andermat; same as Matt. 

Mata (Port.), ) _ 

[ bush, thicket, copse. 
Mata (op.)j J 

Mata (Earotonga, Polynesia), great. 

Matadi (Congo, dialect of Bantu}. See Tadi. 

Matal (Carolines), waterways. 

Matala (Fin.), a reef. 

Ma-tau (China), jetty, port. 

Ma-teu (China) t mouth, estuary. 

Math (Albanian), great. 

Matiu (Maiva, New Guinea), a tree. 

Mati (Marovo, Solomon Is.), sand. 

(New Georgia, Solomon Is), a reef. 
Matiyara (Sansc.), arable land. 


Matla (Arab.), the east. See Gharb, Said, Mashrik. Of. 

Matsi, Matsu (Japan], town, village, e.g. Matsuye in 

Shimane, Matsuda near Tokyo. 
Matswerero (Giryama). See Tswerero. 
Matt (Swiss), a meadow, e.g. Andermatt. sometimes 

spelled Mat. 
Ma-tu (China), a road constructed in European 

Matu (Samoa), north wind ; Itu i Matu, north, lit. 

1 north side.' For other points see Sasa'e, Sisifo, 


Matuntugge (Indian, U.S.A.), bog, marsh. 
Mauch (Gaelic magh), a plain, e.g. Mauchline, ' the plain 

with the pool ' ; cf. Machar, Magh. See Lin. 
Maudzu (dialect of Bantu). See Udzu. 
Mauer (Ger.), a wall. 
Mauna (Polynesia), mountain; other forms are Maua, 

Maunga, Munga. 

Mauta (Motumotu, New Guinea), south-east wind. 
Mavro (Neo-Greek), black, e.g. Mavri Thalassa, the ' Black 

Maw (Burma), a market, e.g. Bhamo, properly Bha-maw, 

' New-market.' See Bha, Man, 
Mawa (Arab.), dwelling, abode, habitation. 
Mawarid (Arab.), a watering-place. See Ma. 
Mawn (Kwenam), a hill. 
Mawr, Mor (Celtic), great, e.g. Penmaenmawr, Benmore. 

See Ben, Pen, Maen. 
Maya (Albanian), mountain. 


Maya (Upper Nile), a name applied to the shallow 

lagoons formed in the swamps, which bound the 

lower Bahr-e]-Jebel. See Maiya. 
Mayak (Buss.), a lighthouse, beacon tower. 
Mayo (Fula), a river, e.g. Mayo Kebi ; other forms are 

Mao, Maio. 
Maz- (Pers.), mountain, e.g. Mazandaran, 'within the 


Mazar (E. Turk.), a saint's tomb. 
Mazaraat (Arab.), cultivated lands. 
Mazi (L using a, C hula, Uganda). See Zi. 
aMazi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. For other 

forms see Mansi, Si, Zi. 

Maziko (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Ziko. 
biMbali (Upper Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Bali. 
Mbambi (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Bambi. 
Mbanga (Gliazal region), royal station, zeriba. 
Mbanza (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Banza. 
Mbeka (Congo), precipice, cliff. 
Mbel (Serer, Senegal), lake, marsh. 
Mbenge (Kamerun), west. See Pongo. 
Mbewe (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Bewe. 
Mbia (A-Zande), a mountain. 
Mbin (Serer, Senegal), house, dwelling. 
Mbira (Giryama). See Bira. 
muMbo (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), west. 

Mboka (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Boka. 
Mbotu (Marovo, Solomon Is.), hill. Cf. Mbutu. 
Mbu (Congo), sea, ocean. 
Mbua (Kamerun), rain. 


Mbulangiana (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Bulangiana. 
Mbunga (Sara, Chad I/.), a tree. Cf. Kaga. 
Mbutu (Kusage, Solomon Is.), hill. Cf. Mbotu. 
Mchenga (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Chenga. 
Mcho (E. Africa), occasional showers which fall through 

a month or six weeks in June and July. 
Mdima (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Dima, Dema. 
Mdo (Tibet), the end of a valley, confluence. 
Me (Attie, Ivory Coast), running water, river. 
Me (Nigeria), palm oil, e.g. Bafum-me = the portion of 

Bafum where palm oil may be collected. See Katse. 
Me (Siam), a river, e.g. Menam, Mekong. 
Me (Songhai), bank of a river. 
Me (Tibet), low country. 
akaMe (Congo, dialect of Bantu), water. 
go Me (Nika), an overhanging rock. 
Mea (Cambodia), gold. 
Mea (Motumotu, New Guinea), cloud. 
Mea (Rotuma, Polynesia), small. 
Meal (England, East Coast), a sandhill. 
Meall (Gaelic), a lump, e.g. Meall Beg island. 
Meban (Fan, French Congo). See Aban. 
Meben (Fan, French Congo). See Aben. 
Meboli (Fan, French Congo). See Aboli. 
kaMechi (Ketosh, Eastern Uganda), water. 
Medalla (Lomwe, Mozambique), road. 
Medine (Arab.), city, ranking above Borj (a town) ; 

another form of Madina (q.v.) 
Medzim (Fan, French Congo), water. 
Meer (Ger), sea, e.g. Schwarzes Meer, 'the Black Sea.' 


Meerbusen (Ger.), a gulf. 

Meerenge (Ger.}, a strait, eng= narrow. 

Me fan (Fan, French Congo). See Afan, Fan. 

Megalo (Greek). See Megas. 

Megas, -ale, -alo (Greek), great, e.g. Megalokhorio in 

Eurytania, Megalo Vourno Mt. Cf. Magas. See Khorio. 
Megh-agam, Megh-kal (Sansc.), the rainy season. 
Megheta (Arab.), a natural cistern, generally in the bed 

of a wadi. Cf. Ain, Bir. 
Megiskun (Hudson Bay region), a fish-hook, a name 

given to a branch of a river, from its shape. 
Meha (Ghazal region}, the lagoons formed by the river 

overflowing its banks ; called also Fula. Cf. 

Mehareg (Arab., N. Africa), a burnt place, a denuded 

spot, a depression without outlet surrounded by 

vertical cliffs. 

Mehm (Indian, California), water. 
Mei (China), coal. 
Meidan, Medan (Pers.), plain, a plain open space. 

Corrupt Persian forms of Maidan (q.v.) 
Meierhof (Ger.), farm. 
Mejaz (Arab.), a ford, a ferry. Cf. Makta. 
Mejebed (Arab.), a caravan route, composed of several 

Mrair (q.v.) 

Mejra (Arab.), a canal, channel, stream, current. 
Mekam (Arab., N.Africa), a space surrounded by stones 

in honour of a saint. 
Mekebb (Arab.), an affluent. 
Mel (Buss.), a shoal. 


Mel (Somali), place. The Somali article is a, i, or u, 
always placed after the word and connected with 
it by certain letters, in this case by t, thus melta, 
melti, meltu ; further, the combination It is always 
changed into sh, thus, mesha = meshi = meshu = 
the place. Cf. Le. 

Mela (Ghazal region), the lagoons formed by the river 
overflowing its banks = Meha (q.v.) 

Melahtei (Nubia), bare, e.g. Jebel Melatei, 'bare moun- 

Melaina (Greek). See Melas. 

Melas, -aina, -an (Greek), black, e.g. Cape Melano. 

Melha (Marocco), salt. 

Meli (Fan, French Congo). See All. 

Meli (Senegal), free, opp. to Aswanek, subject, e.g. Melinke, 
the free people. 

Melka (Arab.), confluence, junction. 

Melka (Galla, Abyssinia), a ford. Cf. Malka. 

Melki (Buss.), shallow. 

Mellah (Marocco), the Jewish quarter of a town. 

Mellem (Da., Nor.), middle, e.g. S0en Mellem Smaaldene, 
in Vordingborg bay. 

Melli (Senegal). See Meli. 

Melnitsa (Buss.), a mill. 

Melrir (Algeria, Tunisia), quicksand, e.g. Shott Melrir, 
See Shott. Pronounced by the Arabs Melghigh. Cf. 
Rhat=Ghat, Should be spelled Melrhirh or Melrir. 

Melugh (Fan, French Congo). See Lugh, Alugh. 

Memnite (Indian, California), a lake. 

Men (China), agate, e.g. Ta Men Chie, 'main gate street.' 


Mena (Madagascar), red, e.g. Ampasimena, ' on the red 

sand,' Ambatomena, 'at the place where the red 

rock is.' See An, Pasi, Bato. 
Menda (Fan, French Congo). See Nda. 
Mendere (Mossi, French Sudan), source, spring. 
Mendhra (Arab.), a post of observation. 
uMendo (Zulu, Kafir), a highway, a public road. 
Menea (Arab.), a strong castle difficult of approach. 
Meng (Burma), a town of the fourth order or sub- 
district capital. See Meung, Mong, Muong. 
Mengku (Mongol), a snowy peak. 
Mengub (Arab., N. Africa), dug out with a pick ; a 

place where there is a subterranean watercourse 

pierced for water. 
Menhel, pi. Menahel (Arab.), a place for watering 

Menhir (Brittany), a large raised stone or monolith 

dating from the New Stone Age. From Celtic 

maen, stone ; Mr, long. 
Menikon (Indian, U.S.A.), a town, village. 
Menkeb (Arab., N. Africa), promontory, cape. Cf. 


Mennikere (Indian, U.S.A.), sea. 
Menotene (Indian, U.S.A.), a town. 
Menzen (Fan, French Congo). See Nzen, Zen. 
aMensi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water; for 

other dialects see Mansi. 
Menzi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. Cf. 

Menzil (Arab.) See Manzil. 


Mer (Fr.), sea, e.g. Mer Morte, ' the Dead Sea/ 
Merabut (Tripoli), a saint's tomb = Marabut of Algeria. 
Merageb (Arab., N. Africa). See Mergeb. 
Merah (Malay), red, e.g. Cape Merah, ' Bed Cape,' 

Borneo and Java. 

Meraku (Tamul), west ; for other points see Vadakku. 
Mercato (It.), market-place. 
Mere (Anglo-Saxon, Eng.), a lake, marsh, e.g. Mersey, 

Windermere ; cognate with Welsh mor ; Lat. 

mare ; Ger. meer. 
Mergeb, pi. Merageb (Arab., N. Africa), a culminating 

point ; hill ; look-out. Of. Merkeb, really the same 


Merima (Sivahili). See Rima. Cf. Lima. 
Merj (Arab.), meadow, plain. 
Merjah-tue (Arab.), marsh, bog. 
Merkeb (Sahara), hill, mound, lit. a high seat, e.g. 

Merkeb Said n All. Cf. Mergeb. 
Mers, Mersa (Arab.), anchorage, port ; another form of 

Mesa (Sp.) t flat or level surface on the top of a hill or 

mountain, tableland ; a landing-place, lit. a table. 
,, (U.S.A.), a flat-topped mountain bounded on at 

least one side by a steep cliff. 
Meses (Neo-Greek), north-east. For other points see 


Mesha, Meshi, Meshu (Somali). See Mel. 
Meshera (Arab., N. Africa), a pond, pool. 
Meshgeg, pi. Meshgegin (Arab., N. Africa), clayey soil. 
Mesh-hed (Arab.) See Mashhad. 


Meshra (Arab.), wharf; port; a ford; watering-place 

for cattle, e.g. Meshra er-Rek. 
Meshta (Arab.), winter quarters. 
Mesita (Sp., U.S.A.), a small Mesa (q.v.) 
Mesjid (Arab.), a mosque. 
Meso (Hung.) See Mezo. 
Mesogh (Fan, French Congo). See Sogh. 
Meson (Sp.), an inn, tavern. 
Mesos (Greek), middle, e.g. Mesopotamia, ' the land 

between the rivers.' See Potamos. Cf. Doab. 
Metagh (Fan, French Congo), soil, earth. 
Metairie (Fr.), small farm (Met ie ). 
Metallef (Arab., N. Africa), labyrinth, difficult passage. 
Metamore (Marocco), a granary. 
Metemma (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), a hollow or 


Meuang (Siam), a state. 
Meung (Shan States), district, or chief town of a 

district =Mong. See Meng, Muong. 
Meya (Fan, French Congo). See Aya. 
Meyua (Fan, French Congo). See Ayua. 
Mezemelin (Arab., N. Africa). See Smala. 
Mezi (dialect of Bantu). See Mansi. 
Mezb (Hung.), field. Sometimes misspelled Meso. 
Mezrah (Arab.), sown land, arable land. 
Mfalme (Swahili). See Falme. 
Mfinda (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Finda. 
Mfumu (dialect of Bantu). See Fumu. 
Mgabe, pi. Egbe (Chamba), a large river. 
Mgbenn, pi. Egbenn (Basari), large river. 


Mgizi (Lusinga, Ckula, Uganda). See Gizi. 

Mgo (Tibet), head, source of a river. 

Mgunda (Swahili, Yao). See Gunda. 

Mhari (Deccari), house, mansion, palace. 

Mhitu (German East Africa). See Hitu. 

Mi (Cambodia), good, e.g. Mi-hoa, ' good alliance,' in 


Mi (Lolo, China), earth, land, soil. 
Mi (Indian, California), a house ; Yo Mi, a village. 
Mi (Terauye, Sahara), water. See Eyi. 
Mia (Arab., N. Africa), a hundred ; e.g. Wad Mia is 

the wad of a hundred affluents or a hundred 

Mia (Syriac), water, e.g. Mia Khwara, 'the white 

Mian (Pers.), middle, e.g. Miandoab or Marhametabad in 

N.E. Persia. See Doab. Cf. Mesopotamia. 
Mianzi (Swahili), bamboos or large reeds, e.g. Mianzini. 
Miao, Mian (Tibet, China), a temple, e.g. Lama Miao, 

* Lama temple.' 

Mibar (Arab.), pass ; ferry, ford. 
Mic (Rumanian), little (Me.) Cf. Mien. 
Michi (Japan), road, path. 
Michi-shiwo (Japan), flood-tide. See Shi wo. 
Mien (Rumania), small. See Mikros, Mic. 
Midden (Dch.), middle, e.g. Midden Beemster. Cf. 

Midzn (Japan), water, fresh water as opposed to sea 

water. Another form is Mitsu. Cf. Umi. 
Midzn-nmi (Japan), freshwater lake. See Umi, Midzu. 


Migha (Fan, French Congo}. See Dzigha. 

Miho (Lolo, China}, earth, soil, land. 

Mijlpaal (Dch.}, a milestone, lit. mile-pole. Cf. Milepsel. 

Mikagano (Lomwe, Shirwa L.), a boundary. 

Mikha (Pula, China), earth. 

Mikongo (Cent. Africa), forest, bush. 

Mikong'e (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu}. See Kong'e. 

Mikros, a, on (Greek), little, small, e.g. Mikros Han 

loannis on the Gulf of Saloniki. 
Milepael (Da., Nor.), a milestone (M.) Cf. Mijlpaal. 
Mimana (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Mumana, 
Mimipik (Indian, U.S.A.), pond, pool. 
Min (China), the people. Cf. Jin. 
Mina (Sp., Ital., Port.), a mine. 
Minami (Japan), south = Nan (q.v. for other points). 
Minamoto (Japan), source, spring. 
Minar (Arab.), minaret, obelisk. 
Minato (Japan), haven, harbour, port. 
Mine (Indian, U.S.A.), water, e.g. Minnehaha, 'laughing 


Mine (Japan), peak, summit ; mountain. 
Mine, Minet (Arab.), harbour, port. 
Minhaj (Arab.), highway, road ; a wide street. 
Minhal (Arab.), a watering-place. 
Miniake (Indian, U.S.A.), good land. 
Miniera (It.), a mine. 
Minster (England), a monastery; from A.S. mynster, 

contract, of Lat. monasterium. 
Mintik (Berta, E. Sudan), a pass. 
Minzi (dialect of Bantu). See Inzi. 



Miongo (Congo), highlands. 

Mipaka (dialect of Bantu). See Mpaka. 

Mir (Pers.), a mountain, e.g. Mir Kalan, 'big mountain.' 

Miri (Motumotu, New Guinea), beach, shore. 

Mirigini (Motu, New Guinea), north wind. 

Mirim (Brazil), little, e.g. Laguna Mirim. 

Miruru (Motumotu, New Guinea), wind. 

Mis, Mios (New Guinea), island. 

Misaki (Japan), cape, promontory. See Saki. 

Misezo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Msezo. 

Misks (Londonderry), the ridges of bog, which alternate 

with ridges of sand, called Dryms, on the seaboard 

near Lough Foyle. 

Misr (Arab.), Egypt, Cairo ; any large city. 
Missidi (French Guinea), a mosque. 
Mitang (Hu-ni, China), a mountain. 
Miti (Indian, U.S.A.), a town. 
Miti, Muti, pi. of Mti (Zambezia), trees. 
Mitija (Arab.), a plain crowned by mountains. 
Mitsa (Hu-ni, China), earth, land. 
Mitsanga (Giryama), sandy soil. 
Mitsuru (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a forest, wood. 
Mitsu-umi (Japan), freshwater lake. Mitsu is another 

form of Midzu (q.v.) See Umi. 
Mittel (Ger.), middle, between (Mt.), e.g. Mittelmeer 

= the Mediterranean Sea. Cf. Midden. 
-Miut (Eskimo). See -Mute. 
Miya (Japan), a temple. 

Miyi (Somaliland), jungle; Miyigi, 'the jungle.' 
Mji, pi. Miji (Swahili), a village. 


Mjung (Tibet), below ; embouchure. 

Mkar (Tibet}, a fort. 

Mkuka (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu}. See Kuka. 

Mlango (E. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Lango. 

Mlet (Chinbon), a river, e.g. Mlet Alyen, ' the big river.' 

Mlezo, pi. Milezo (Swahili), a buoy. 

Mlima (E. Africa, dialect of Bantu}. See Lima. 

Mlin ) 

(Slavonic), a mill (M.), e.g. Mlinek. 


Mo (China), sea, e.g. Shamo, * the sand sea,' i.e. Gobi. 

Mo (Indian, U.S.A.), a spring. 

Moadya (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Adya. 

Moana (FaJcaofu, Polynesia), sea. 

Modara (Singalese), mouth of a river. 

Modder (Dch.), mud, e.g. Modder Eiver. 

Moel (Wales), a bare hill summit with a conical outline, 

e.g. Moel Siabod. 
Moelje (Dch.), a mole. 
Moeras (Dch.), marsh, bog, morass; from moer=moor, 

mire ; cf. Ger. Morast. 
Moghreb (Arab.), west. See next entry. See also 

Gharb for other points. 
Moghreb-el-Aksa (Arab.), far west; the Arab name of 


Mogila (Russ.), a barrow, tumulus. 
Moha (Upper Nile), a mountain. 
Mohu (Marovo, Solomon Is.), west wind. 
Mohunk (Indian, U.S.A.), great hill. Cf. Hunk. 
Moi' (Annam), savages, hill-people, equivalent to the 

Ka of the Shan States. 

3 2 


Moi-he-un (Hainan), market, market-place. 

Moinho (Port.), a mill. 

Mojon (Sp.), a landmark. 

Mok (Korea), neck of a hill, e.g. Mok-Pho. 

Moki (BaJcundu, Kamerun), a village. 

Mole (Fr.), pier, mole. 

Molen (Dch.), a mill, e.g. Molendijk, 

Molhe (Port.), mole, pier. 

Molima (Swahili), a hill. See Lima. Cf. Eima. 

Molino (It., Sp.), a mill (M). 

Mblle (Da., Nor.), a mill. 

Molo (It.), pier, mole. 

Momasa (Mossi, French Sudan), grass. 

Monadh. (Gaelic), hill, e.g. Monadh. Liadh, Inverness. 

Monadnock (U.S.A.), an isolated hill or mountain rising 
above a plain. 

Monaster (Ireland, Greece), a monastery, e.g. Monas- 
terevin. Cf. Minster, and Fr. Monastere, 

Mond, Monde (Dch.), mouth of a river, e.g. Dendermonde, 
Cf. Mund. 

Monde (Fr.), world. 

Mone (Mentawei), a plantation. 

Money (Ireland), a brake or shaw ; from Irish muine ; 
e.g. Moneymore. 

Mong (Burma), a town of the fourth order or sub- 
district capital. See Meng, Meung, Muong, 
(Shan States), district or chief town of a 

Mongo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Ongo, 

Mongwa (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ongwa. 


Moni (Gaelic monadh), a hill, e.g. Monimail, properly 
Monadh-Maol, ' bare hill ' ; Monifieth, properly 
Monadh-Feidh, ' hill of the deer.' See Maol. 

Mono (Sara, Chad L.), small. 

Monsoon, See Musin. 

Mont (Fr., Gaelic), a hill (M*). 

Montagna (It.), a mountain range (M gna ). 

Montagne (Fr.), a mountain (M gne ). 

Monte (It., Port., Sp.), a mountain (M.) ; also (Sp.) 
wood, forest. 

Moor, More (England), peaty land, marsh ; e.g. Black- 
more; from A.S. mor, cognate with Old Ger. muor. 

Mor. See Mawr. 

Morast (Ger.), morass, marsh. Cf. Moeras. 

Morder (Arab.), a deep pool. 

More (Gaelic mor), great ; e.g. Glen More. Cf. Mawr. 

More (England). See Moor. 

More (Buss.), sea. 

Morfa, Morva (Welsh), a marsh, e.g. Penmorfa. 

Morfog (Arab., N. Africa), a bend in a river ; a bend in 
a valley where there is vegetation. 

Mori (Japan), a wood. 

Morne (American), small mountain. 

Morros (Venezuela), hills on the Savannah. 

Morva. See Morfa, 

Moryana (Buss.), a sea breeze. 

Morzhesovia (Buss.), a walrus island. 

Mosea (Gold Coast), gravel. 

Moss (Anglian), a bog ; e.g. Chat Moss, Goldsitch Moss; 
from A.S. meos; cf. Ger. moos. 


Most (Slavonic), a bridge ; e.g. Babimost. 

Mot (Mongol), many, e.g. Golmot, ' many rivers.' See Gol, 

Mo ta (Indian, California), a town. 

Motu (Polynesia), island, e.g. Motu-iti, 'little island.' 

Motun (Mongol), a tree. 

Mouillage (Fr.), anchorage. 

Moulin (Fr.), a mill (M in ). 

Moutiers (Old Fr.), a monastery. From Lat. through 

Provencal Mostier, e.g. Moutiers-les-Mauxfaits. 
Mouvemente (Fr.), undulating (ground). 
Moya (ShilluJc, Sobat E. region), a pool. 
Moye (Arab.), water. 
Mpaka, pi. Mipaka (Swahili). See Paka. 
Mpambu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Pambu. 
kiMpambwila (Congo, dialect of Bantu). For meaning see 


Mpatantwer (Gold Coast), a steep place. 
-Mpiti (Cent. Africa), a suffix meaning ' great.' 
Mpo-ano (Gold Coast), sea shore, coast. Cf. Nsu-ano, 
Mpwa (Swahili). See Pwa. 

Mrai'r, pi. of Mrira (Arab.), paths. See Mejebed. 
Mrara (Arab.), a cavern. 

Mrima (E. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Rima. 
Mrira (Arab.) See Mrai'r. 
Mrittika (Sansc.), earth, clay, soil. 
Msangu (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Sangu. 
Mseb (Arab.), the mouth of a harbour or river. 
Mser (Arab.), a journey, a road, e.g. Mser ben wafi. 
Msezo, Misezo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Sezo. 
Msif (Arab.), summer quarters or camp. 


Msil (Arab.), current of a river or in the sea. 
Msinje (dialect of Bantu). See Sinje. 
Msitu (dialect of Bantu). See Situ. 
Mta, pi. Mita (Swahili). See Ta. 
Mtengo (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Tengo. 
pa Mtengo (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), woods, in the 

woods. See Pa, 
Mti, pi. Miti (Loango). See Ti. 
Mto,jpZ. Mito (Swahili). See To, 
tiMto (Uganda, dialect of Bantu), a forest; lit. trees. 
Mto (Turk.), high, lofty. 
Mtso (Tibet), lake ; is the same word as tso (q.v.), m 

being mute. 

Mtu, pi. Watu (Swahili). See Tu. 
Mu-, Ngu- (Cent. Africa, Bantu), a singular prefix 

signifying a person ; Mu-ntu, an individual of the 

Ba-ntu people. Cf. Ma, Ba 
Mu (China), wood, trees. 
Mu, pi. Miu (Congo), the sea. 
Mu (Tibet), limit, boundary. 
Mua (N. Chin Hills), a hill. 
Muakbash (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), slate-coloured 

(of the rocks in the region). 
Muang (Malay Pen), province, township. 
Muaong (Khas Chos, Harem, Indo-China), town, village. 
Muara (Borneo), river mouth. 
Muata (Balunda, Bantu, Angola, and Congo), master, 

chief, e.g. Muata Yamvo. 
Muba (Kiwai, New Guinea), a cape. 
Muchili, pi. Michili (Barotseland, Bantu). See Chili. 


Mudandando (NiJca). See Dandando, 
Mudargag (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), a hill rising 
steeply from a level plain. 

Mudi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Di. Cf. Musi. 

Mudir (Turk.}, governor of a Nahij or parish. 

Mudiri, Mudirah (Upper Nile), a prefecture, e.g. of Khar- 
tum ; an administrative department of a province. 
The more usual form is the Arab. Mudiria. 

Mudzi (dialect of Bantu). See Musi, Dzi. 

Muelle (Sp.), a mole, jetty. 

Muen (Taungtha, Arakan), a hill. 

Muezi (dialect of Bantu). See Ezi. 

Mufumu (dialect of Bantu). See Fumu. 

Mugharah, pi. Mughair (Arab.), a cave. 

Muhaka (Giryama). See Haka. 

Muhana (Hind.), the mouth of a river; channel or bed 
of a river ; an estuary ; confluence of two rivers. 

Muhi (Shahpur, Punjab), a clan, being a subdivision of 
a Kom or Zat (tribe). 

Muhichi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Hichi. 

Muhiku (Lomwe, Mozambique), a forest, wood. 

Muhle (Ger.), a mill (M.), e.g. Altmuhl. 

Muho (Giryama). See Ho. 

Mui (Annam), cape, promontory. 

Muide (Dch.), mouth, e.g. Ijmuiden. 

Muiru (NiJca). See Iru. 

Muis, Mys (Euss.), a cape, headland. 

Muiza (Euss.), country house, villa. 

Muk (Eskimo), water; cf. Emuk, Nanimuk. 

Muka (Galla), a tree. 


Mukam (Arab.), a sacred station or shrine. 

Muki (Balun. Kamerun), a village. 

Mukim (Malay), a parish. 

Mukom (Kamerun), slave; a bush-dweller, as opposed 

to a coast-dweller. 
Mukondo (NiJca). See Kondo. 
Mukurri (Kamerun), a mountain. 
Mul (Korea), mountain stream, e.g. Mul-Kubi in Ham- 

Mulde (Ger.), a Trough (q.v.) 

Mulk (Arab., Hind.), kingdom, country. 

Mull, Maol (Gaelic), a headland ; e.g. Mull of Cantyre. 

See Maol. 

Mullen (Irish), a mill, e.g. Mullingar. 
Mulonga (dialect of Bantu). See Longa. 
Mumana, Mimana, Umbana (Cent. Africa, dialects of 

Bantu), a river. See Mana. 

Mumbo (Lu-Wanga, Eastern Uganda). See Mbo. 
Mumir (Arab.), passage, pass ; ford. 
Mumpanga (dialect of Bantu). See Panga. 
Mun (Bagirmi), intermittent, e.g. Mun Ba, ' the inter- 

mittent river.' 

Mun (China), a gate. Another spelling is Men (q.v.) 
Munara (Giryama). See Nara. 
Mund (Da., Nor., Ger.), mouth (of a river), e.g. Swakop- 

mund. Cf. Mond, see Op. The Sw. form is Mund, Mun. 
Munda (Giryama), cultivated ground, a farm, garden. 

See Nda. 

Mundi (Kamerun), town, land ; opp. to Madiba. 
Miindung (Ger.), mouth of a river. See Mund. 


Mungar, Mongar (Arab., N. Africa), steep slope at the 
extremity of a mountain or plateau. 

Munja (Kamerun), sea, stream. 

Mimju (Chamba), water. 

Munsil (Arab.), camp, bivouac ; the same word as Manzil. 

Minister (Ger.), minster (q.v.) t e.g. Munsterberg. 

Munte (Bum.), mountain, hill. 

Muong (Indo- China, Siam), town of the third or fourth 
order, or capital of a district or sub-district. In 
Laos Muong prefixed to the name of a village 
denotes that the place is the seat of a native chief. 
These villages are always inhabited by Laotians 
only. Villages without the prefix Muong may be 
inhabited by Khas, as the hill tribes Ure collectively 
called. See Meng, Meung, Mong. 

Muongo, Mwongo (Loango). See Ongo. 

Mur (Fr.), a wall. Cf. Muro, Muur. 

Mura (Japan), a village. 

Murabba (W. Australia), salt water. 

Murdha (Sansc., Hind.), summit, top, head. 

Muren, Murin (Mongolia, Tibet), stream, river; large 
river, e.g. Ulan-Muren=the Bed Biver. See Ulan. 

Murima (Giryama). See Rima. 

Murira (Giryama). See Rira. 

Muro (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Ho. 

Muro (Sp., Ital, Port.), a wall. Cf. Mur, Muur. 

Muronga (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Ronga. 

Murot (Nandi, Uganda), north. Cf. Kaimen. 

Murui (Mongolia, Tibet), tortuous, e.g. Murui-osu (usu), 
' tortuous river,' the upper Yangtse. 


Murun tsiraka (Madagascar), beach. 

Mums (Mongol), river, the river. 

Mus (Hind.), land along the high banks of rivers. 

Musafir-khana (Arab., Pers.), a house for the reception 

of travellers. 

Musattah (Arab.), level; an open plain. 
Musi, Muzi, Muji, Umuzi, Mudzi (Cent. Africa, dialects of 

Bantu). See Dzi, Ji, Si, Zi. 
Musin (Arab.), season; whence Eng. monsoon, either 

through the Ital. monsone or Span, monzon. 
Musinji, Msinje (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 


Musitu (dialect of Bantu). See Mwitu. 
Muskeg (U.S.A.), a bog or marsh. 
Muskiikul (Indian, U.S.A.), grass. 
Muskuta (Indian U.S.A.), low plains. 
Musoir (Fr.), mole or pier-head, a term largely used by 


Musselim (Turk.), governor of a city. 
Mussun (Mongol), ice. Cf. Muz. 
-Mut (Eskimo). See -Mute, 
Mutatago (Giryama). See Tatago. 
-Mute, -Mut, -Miut (Eskimo), people, collection of people, 

encampment, e.g. Akmute, Paimute, Yachergamut, 

' the Ak, Pai, and Yacherk peoples or villages ' ; 

Tubuktuligmiut, ' the Tubuktulig people.' See Tulik. 
Mutesarrif (Turk.), the governor of a Sanjak (q.v.) 
Mutesarriflik (Turk.), the government of a Mutesarrif, a 

Sanjak; also an independent Sanjak, i.e. one not 

under a Vali of a Vilayet (q.v.) 


Mutha (Nika). See Tha. 

Mu-ti (China), pasture land. 

Muti, Miti (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Ti. 

Mutli (Kanarese, W. coast of Hindustan), east. For 

other points see Gi. 
Muto (Mavia, Mozambique), river. 
Mutswerero (Giryama), west. Another form is Utswerero. 

See Mwakani. 
Mutua, Abatua (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See 


Mutulu (dialect of Bantu). See Tulu. 
Muur (Deli.), a wall. Cf. Mur, Muro. 
Muvaka (Nika). See Vaka. 
Muvu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Vu. 
Muvumbi (Giryama). See Vumbi. 
Muvunbi (Giryama). See Vunbi. 
Muwat (Arab.), waste land. 
Muwu, pi. Miuwu (Congo), sea, ocean. 
Muyisi (Lomwe, Shirwa L.), damp ground fitted for the 

growth of rice. 
Muz (E. Turk.), ice, e.g. Muztagh, 'the ice mountain.' 

Cf. Mussun. 

Muzi (dialect of Bantu). See Musi. 
Muzik (Arab.), a strait. 

Mvitu (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Mwitu. 
Mvogh (Fan, French Congo), country, applied to the 

territory of a tribe or collection of villages. Cf. 

Si, Fan. 

Mvumi (German East Africa), sand. 
Mwago (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Mwango. 


Mwakani (Giryama). See Akani. 

Mwako (dialect of Bantu). See Ako. 

Mwamba (pi. Miamba), Umwamba, Imiamba (Cent. Africa, 

dialects of Bantu}. See Amba. 
Mwana (Upper Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ana. 
Mwango, Mwago, Mwako (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu) . 

See Ango, Ako. 

Mwanya (Giryama). See Anya. 
Mwe (N. Arakan), hill. 
Mwene, Umwene, Amwene (Cent. Africa, dialects of 

Bantu). See Ene. 

Mwijo (Giryama), wilderness ; district once devastated 
by war or pestilence and no longer inhabited. See 

Mwila (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ila. 
Mwinano (Makua, German E. Africa). See Inano. 
Mwiru (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Iru. 
Mwitu, Musitu, Msitu, Isitu, TImusitu (Cent. Africa, dialects 

of Bantu). See Witu, Situ. 
Mwongo, Muongo (Loango). See Ongo. 
Mya- (Zambezia), a prefix meaning ' place.' Cf. Nya. 
Myestechko (Buss.), a market town. 
Myesto vuigruzki (Buss.), a landing-place. 
Myit (Taungtha, Arakan), river, e.g. Myittha. 
Mynydd (Welsh), mountain, e.g. Mynydd Mawr, Car- 
narvonshire. See Mawr, 
Myo (Burma), town of the second order or provincial 

Mzinda (Cent. Africa). See Zinda. 



-Na, -No, -Nu (Indian, Alaska), a river, e.g. Tonzona, 
Tateno, Echeatnu. See Chaget, Kaget. 

Na (Siam), field; in Laos, rice field. 

Naaki (A-Zande), a wood. 

Naam (Arab.}, a desert. 

Naauw (Dch.), narrow, e.g. Naauwpoort. See Poort. 

Naauwte (Dch.), pass, defile. 

Nab, Nabb (England, from Icel. nabbi, a knot), top or 
summit of a rock or mountain ; a rising ground, 
e.g. Higher Nabb in the Peak district. 

Nach (Ger.), to (direction of road) (n.) 

Nach (Tangut), wood, forest. 

Nad (Mysore) =Hobli (q.v.) 

Nada (Japan), inlet, tract of open sea, sea. 

Nadaha (Hind.), a canal. 

Nadelholz (Ger.), fir, pine woods. See Laubholz. 

Nadi (Hind.) a creek, a river; e.g. Mahanadi ; see Maha, 
Cf. Nullah. 

Nadi (MotUj New Guinea), stone. 

Nadi, pi. Nadiyo (Pali), a river. 

Nadi-tir (Hind.), bank of a river. 

Nador, Nazor (Aral.), an observatory. 

Nadu (Telegu), a country. 

Naes (Nor., Da.), ness, cape. Cf. Ness, Neus. 

Nag (Somali), jungle. 

Nagah (Egypt), an encampment, either temporary or 

Nagai (Japan), long, e.g. Nagai, near Tokyo. See Nangai. 


Nagar, Nagari, Naggar (India), a town, city, e.g. 

Ahmadnagar; Nagarkot. 
Nagara (Malay} . See Negri, Nagri. 
Nagaropant (Sansc., Hind.), a suburb. See Nagar. 
Naghsal (Mongol), a forest. 
Nagor. See Nagar, of which it is a variant. 
Nag-po (Tibet), black. Cf. Kar-po. 
Nagri (Malay), town of the second order, or provincial 

capital ; borrowed from the Indian Nagar. 
Nags (Tibet), a forest. 
Nagy (Hung.), great (N.), e.g. Nagy-koros. 
Nahaj (Arab.), way, road, path. Another form of Nahj. 
Nahij, Nahie (Turk.), a parish, a subdivision of a Kaza, 

under a Mudir. 

Nahiya (Arab.), territory, country, district ; coast, shore. 
Nahj (Arab.), a road. See Nahaj, which is another form. 
Nahr (Arab., Turk.), a river, perennial stream. PL Anhar, 
Nahri (Punjab), land ordinarily irrigated by canals. Cf. 


Nai (Amu, Sakhalin), river, e.g. Poronai, ' Big river.' 
Nai (Korea), mountain stream, e.g. Kui-Nai. 
Naig (Indian, U.S.A.), sand. 
Naiposha (Masai, East Africa), lake ; another form of 

Naivasha, the p sound being changed to the / (v) 


Nai'ri (Mossi, French Sudan), capital town. 
Nairobi (Masai, East Africa), cold water; name of a 

station on the Uganda railway. 
Naistan (Pers.), a sugar plantation. 
Naivasha (Masai, East Africa), a lake, name of a lake 


and railway station in Eastern Uganda. See 


Naizar (Pers.) See under Hamiin, 
Naji (Mosso, China), black water. 
Najwah (Arab.), shoal, sandbank. Of. Kinasat. 
Nak (Indian, U.S.A.), land, earth, soil. 
Naka (Japan), middle. See next entry for example. 
Naka umi (Japan), inland sea. See Umi. 
Nakb (Arab.), col, saddle. 
Nakhil (Arab.), a date grove. 
Nakhsa (Eskimo, Smith Sound), flat country. 
Nakla (Arab.), a subordinate village belonging to an 

Nala (Hind.), a ravine, rivulet, canal, gutter, furrow ; 

anglicised Nullah. 

Nali (Punjab), long narrow depressions. Cf. Vahal. 
Nallo (Nissan I., New Guinea), bush, forest. 
Nalu (Aroma, New Guinea), water. 
Nam (Chin Hills), a village. 
Nam (Korea), south, southern, e.g. Nam-San. 
Nam (Mongol, Tibet), heaven, sky, e.g. Drolma Nam Tso, 

' the heavenly Lake Drolma.' See Tso. 
Nam (Shan States, Siam), river, stream, water, e.g. 

Nam Kong or Nam Kawng = Salwin E. 
Nam (Chong-Chia-tse, Yunnan), earth. 
Nam (Ja-Luo, Uganda), great water, lake. 
Namaga (Mongol), springs. 
Nam-chemut (Hang-chek, Indo-China), sea. 
Namchutu (Mongol), prairie land. 
Namekha, Namik (Mongol), source, spring, fountain. 


Namen (Botel Tobago Islands, Formosa), a village. 
Nam luong (Black R. region, Indo-China), a river. 
Namma (W. Australia), small natural reservoir, formed, 

after rain, in the granite formation. 
Nammonkoro (Gold Coast), a narrow path, a pass. 
Nam-ta (Upper Red B. region, Indo-China), a river. 
Namwago (Lomwe, Mozambique), hill. 
Nan (Carolines), place, e.g. Nanmetal, ( the place of Metal 

or waterways ' ; Nan Moluchai, ' the place of cinder 

heaps,' left by the workmen who assisted the 

demi-gods to construct the breakwater or ring and 

the islets within, i.e. the atoll. 
Nan (China), south, e.g. Nanking, ' the southern capital.' 

Cf. Pe, Si, Tung. See King. 
Nan (Japan), south, southern = Minami. See Nishi, Sai, 

Hoku, Kita, Higasi, To for other points. Cf. Nam. 
Nana (French Congo), a river. 
-Nandi (Cent. Africa). See Indu. 
Nan fang (Miao-tse, Kwei-chau, South China), south. 

For other points see Ngthai Lull. 

maNanga (Gazaland, dialect of Bantu). See Mananga. 
Nangai (Japan), long ; Tokyo dialect for Nagai (q.v.) 
Nanimuk (Eskimo), lake. Cf. Muk, Emuk. 
Nant (Cymric), a valley, brook, e.g. Nant-frangcon. 
Nanu (Kerepunu, New Guinea], water. 
Naos (Greek], temple, shrine. 
Na po (Indian, California), town, village. 
Nappa (W. Australia), fresh water. 
Nappe (Fr.), a sheet (of water). 
muNara (Giryama), a tower. 


Narok (Masai, East Africa), black, e.g. Gwaso Narok, 

' black river.' Cf. Nyiro, Nyuki. See Gwaso. 
Naru (Korea), ferry, e.g. Chyu-Naru in Kang-non. 
Nas (Arab.), people. 
Nas (Somali), breast, a pointed hillock, e.g. Nas Godki, 

' the hillock of the cave.' See God ; i is the article, 

k the joining letter. 

Nasala (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt). See Nasla. 
Nasb (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), a bluff. 
Nascente (Port.), a well or spring. 
Nase (Ger.), a naze, lit. a nose. Cf. Ness. 
Nasheb (Pers.), declivity, hollow. 
Nashi (Arab.), the winter north-east winds of the 

Persian Gulf. 
maNasi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass, For other 

dialect forms see Dinyasi. 

Nasla, Nasala (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), a peak. 
Naslud (Buss.), a pool of water on ice. 
Nasua (Rotuma, Polynesia), place. 
Nat (Hind.), a pillar, obelisk, the Carnatic country. 
Natenga (Mossi, French Sudan), capital, town. 
Natsu (Japan), summer. 

Nau-ei (Siam), small. See Nawi, another form. 
Naulochos (Greek), harbour. 
Naurah (Arab.), a waterwheel. 
Naus (Greek), a ship, e.g. Nauplia. 
Navam (Tamul, Deccan), rainy season. 
Navolok (Buss.), a bluff, cliff. 
Nawah (Arab.), environs, district ; coast, shore. 
Naw-dan (Pers.), a dock, aqueduct. 


Nawi (Siam), small. 

Nawng- (Siam), a swamp, lake. 

Na yach (Indian, U.S.A.), forest, bush. 

Nayak (Indian, U.S.A.) See Nyak. 

Nazri-dargah (Arab.), land given as an endowment to 
places of religious worship. 

Nbia (A-Zande), rock, mountain ; Na-nbia, ' over rock,' 
* flowing over rock/ hence a stream ; thus the term 
is frequently applied to rivers, e.g. Nbia Daragumba. 

-Nchi (Batta, Benue E. region, Adamawa), a suffix mean- 
ing language, Chi in some dialects, e.g. Damanchi, 
' the language of the Dama people ' (not to be con- 
founded with the Dama people of S.- W.Africa). 

Nda, pi. Menda (Fan, French Congo), a native hut. 
muNda (Giryama), cultivated ground, a farm. 
paNda (Swahili), a bifurcation, whether of roads or 

Ndako (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Dako. 

Ndala (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Dala. 

Ndambu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Dambu. 

Ndap (Bali, Kamerun), a house, dwelling. 

Nde (Ibo, Nigeria), the one who, those who, e.g. nde ulo, 
' the man in the house,' ' the man who has the house,' 
'proprietor,' nde ahia, 'traders,' 'merchants ' ; occurs 
in many place-names, e.g. Nde Akala, Nde Okpo, &c. 

Ndela (Barotseland, dialect of Bantu). See Dela. 

Ndema, Mdima (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See 
Dema, Dima. 

Ndera (dialect of Bantu). See Dera, and for other 
forms see Nzila. 

T 2 


Ndimba (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Dimba. 
iliNdle (Zulu, Kaffir), an uninhabited place, a moor. 
Ndo (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Do. 
-Ndo (Cent. Africa). See Indu. 
Ndokh (Wolof), water. 

Ndomba (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Domba. 
Ndried (French Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Dried. 
haNdu, pi. ru-Ndu (Kikuyu, Eastern Uganda, Bantu), a 


Ndyela (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Dyela. 
Ndyia (Maginza, Congo), a road. See Dyia. 
Ndyila (Bangala, Congo), a road. See Dyila. 
Ndzea (Mobali, Congo), a road. See Dzea. 
Ne (Tibet), a residence. 
Nebak (Arab.), pi. of Nebka (q.v.) 
Nebenfluss (Ger.), a tributary stream. 
Nebka (Arab.), fine sandy soil ; a small dune. PL 

Neder (Deli), nether, low, e.g. Koningrijk der Neder- 

landen, the ' kingdom of the Netherlands.' 
Nedre (Nor.), lower (nd.) 
Neg (Wolof), house, cottage. 

Nega (Sahara), a bleak open district. See Hamraye, 
Negri, Nagara (Malay). See Nagri. 
Negro (It., Port., Sp.), black, e.g. Rio Negro. 
Nei (China), inner, e.g. Nei-Hsing-An, ' the Inner Khingan 

M ts ,' as opposed to Wei-Hsing-An, * the Outer 

Khingan M ts .' 
Ne-i (Mangbattu), a road. 
Nejd (Arab.), highland. 


Nek (Deli.}, a saddle of land between hills, a col, e.g. 

Laing's Nek, 

Nekopi (Mangbattu) , a mountain. 
Nemai'o (Mangbattu), river, stream. 
Nemiri (Marocco), stones, e.g. Tisi Nemiri, ' the hill of 


-Nene (Cent. Africa), suffix, meaning 'great.' Cf. Anene. 
isiNene (Zulu, Kafir), the right-hand side. 
ma Nene (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a highway. 
lii Nengenenge (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a precipice. 
Neo, Neos (Greek), new, e.g. Neokastro, 'New castle.' 
Nepese (Indian, U.S.A.), a lake. 
Nepolo (Mangbattu), marsh, swamp. 
Nero (Neo-GreeJc) , water. 
Nes (Icel.), ness, promontory, e.g. Snaefell Nes. See Fell ; 

Snae = sriow. Cf. Ness, Neus, Nez. 
Neskotak (Indian, U.S.A.), bad swamp. 
Nesos, Nisi, Nisia (Greek), island, islands. 
Ness (Scotland, from Nor. naes), a nose, headland. Cf. 

Neus, Nes, Nez. 

Neu (Ger.), new, e.g. Neu-Brandenburg. 
Neus (Dch.), promontory, lit. nose. Cf. Ness. 
Nev, Nav, Nau (Pers.), new, e.g. Nevshehr, ' new town.' 
Nevado (S. America), a snow-capped peak. 
Neve (Switzerland), half-solidified snow. Cf. Firn. 
Nez (Fr.), nose, cape, point, e.g. Blanc Nez. Cf. Ness. 
Neza (Arab., N. Africa), a mass of stones to mark the 

spot where some one has died. 
Nezala (Marocco), inn, caravansery. 
Nfumo (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Fumq, 


Nga (Ibo, Nigeria), a place, e.g. Ngahun (for Nga Ahun), 

that place, there ; equivalent to Ibe. 
ichiNga (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), island. 
i si Nga (Kafir), thorn country, a plot or locality where 

the mimosa grows. 
pa Nga (Gent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country. For other 

forms see Panga. 

Ngaa (Sara, Chad L. region), land, earth. 
Ngada (Kanuri, Bornu, Chad L. region), the current of 

a river. 

Ngaita (Eldorobo, Uganda). See Gaita. 
Ngalisu (Marovo, Solomon Is.), east wind. 
Ngaljam (Kanuri, Bornu, W. of Chad L), a swampy 

shallow creek or backwater, equivalent to the 

Hausa Faddama and the Sel of Adamawa. 
Ngan (Annam), a river. Cf. Nge, Ngoi, 
Ngandu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Gandu, 
Ngangau (New Guinea), peace, e.g. Yeku Ngangau, ' the 

peace of Jesus,' the place where the Inawaia and 

Eboa tribes were reconciled, generally referred to 

as Yeku (Jesus). 

Nganzu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Ganzu. 
Ngari (Masai, East Africa), water, e.g. Ngari na Nyuki, 

' red water.' 

Ngas (Serer, Senegal), well, spring. 
Ngas (Tibet), wood, forest. 
Ngaufate (Chad L. region), an encampment. 
Nga-ya (Hainan), a prefecture. 
Nge (Burma), small, e.g. Myit Nge. See Myit. 
Nge (Burma), a river. Cf. Ngan, Ngoi. 


Ngele (Sara, Chad L. region), grass. 

Ngelendu (Wolof), south. See Kharfu. 

Ngesa (Fula), field, garden. 

Ngi (Miao-tse, Kwei-chau, South China), narrow (of 

a pass or stream). 

Ngila (Usagara, Ger. East Africa, Bantu). See Gila, 
Ngira Bomu (Giryama and Ketosh, Uganda), highway, 

path, road. 

Ngo (Kamerun), a cold wind. 
kaNgo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a chief; to? pi. 

see Kango. 

Ngoa (A-Zande), tree, a wood. 
Ngodia (Congo), an abyss. 
Ngoi (Annam), a river. Cf. Ngan, Nge, 
Ngoka (Giryama). See Goka. 

Ngolo (Chad L. region), large, great, e.g. Kabe Ngolo. 
Ngome (Congo), water. 
Ngome (Swahili), fort, castle. 
Ngon (Bali, Kamerun), a village. 
iNgone (Zulu, Kafir), a bend in a river ; an arm of a 

river ; creek, inlet. 

-Ngono (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Nini. 
Ngono, Gn- (Zambezia), little. 
Ngthai luh. (Miao-tse, Kwei-chau), west. See next entry 

and Nan Fang. 

Ngthai ta (Miao-tse, Ktvei-chau), east. See above entry. 
Ngu (Cent. Africa, Bantu). See Mu. 
Ngu (Banda, A-Zande), water, e.g. the rivers Bungu, 

Ngubi. * This is also found, with the vowel 
* Superville in La Geographic, viii. 1903, p. 22. 


modified, in the middle, as well as at the beginning 
or end of a word, e.g. Gungara, ' the water of the 
bamboos/ Bangoran. See Gu. Cf. Girungu. 

Ngume (A-Zande), sand. 

Ngungula (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Gungula. 

Nguru (Bornu), wild beast, hippopotamus, e.g. Nguru- 
tuwa, ' the place of the hippopotamus,' a name 
very frequently given to villages. Cf. Dorina. 

Ngutu (Cent. Africa), a town. 

Nguzi (dialect of Bantu). See Zi. 

-Ngwa (Eskimo, Smith Sound) has a diminutive force. 

Ngwongomoka (Congo), a landslip. 

Nho (Annam, Laos), little, small, e.g. Ban Tanho, on the 
Se Nan, a tributary of the Nam Khong. See Ban ; 

Ni (Yayo, China), earth; mud. 

Nia (Jibu, New Guinea), a path ; also ' water.' 

Nia ba (Annam), confluence. 
kiNiafungo (Nika). a wood, forest. 

Niakh (Wolof), grass. 

Niam-niam (Cent. Africa), cannibals, applied to the 
tribes inhabiting the A-Zande plateaux. 

Nianam (N. of Rudolf L), river, water; sometimes 
applied to Kudolf itself. 

Nianset (Nandi, Uganda), sea, lake. Cf. Nyanza. 

Nieder (Ger.), nether, lower, under; applied to nume- 
rous place-names, e.g. Nieder Sitten. Cf. Neder. 

Niederung (Ger.), low country or ground. 

Nie (Miao-tse, Kwei-chau), shallow. 

[Niem (Basari), water. 


Nieuw (Dch.), new, applied to numerous place-names, 
e.g. Nieuw Dordrecht. 

Nif-enser (Arab.}, a mountain. 

Nij-jot (Same., Hind.), lands cultivated by the pro- 
prietors or revenue-payers for their own profit. 
akaNika (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 

Nika (Bangweulu L. region), a wide salt plain. These 
plains constitute the main wealth of the region. 

Nikuli (Makua, Mozambique). See Kuli. 

Nilas (Buss.), newly formed autumnal ice. 
aNingo (Mpongive, Gabun B. district, Bantu), water. 

-Nini, -Nono, -Alonga, -Ngono (Cent. Africa, dialects of 
Bantu), a suffix meaning * little/ 

Niraksh (Sansc., Hind.), the Equator; lit. 'no latitude/ 

Nir-jal (Sansc., Hind.), a desert. 

Nir-jhar (Sansc., Hind.), a cascade, torrent. 

Nirum (Lokub, Budolf L.), a nullah. 

Nishan (Pers.), beacon; lit. any sign, mark, or signal. 

Nishi, Nisi, Sai (Japan), West. For other points see 

Nisi (Neo-Greek), island. 

Nisi (Japan). See Nishi. 

Nit (Wolof), people. 
eNiuma (Kossova, Eastern Uganda), a house. 

Niveau (Fr.), level. 

Niwan (Sansc.), low (ground). 

Nizki, Nizky (Buss., Bohemia), low (Nz.) 

Njarga (Fin.), a promontory. 

Njera (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Nzila. 

Nji (Bafo, Kamerun), a road. See Njira 


maNji (Bali, Kamerun), a road. See Njira, 
Njia (Bantu). See Jia. 
Njia Panda (Swahili), cross-roads, or where three roads 

meet. See Jia, Nda, 
Njila (Bantu). See Jila. 

^ (Zambezia, Uganda, dialects of Bantu}, road, 

chi Njira r ,, T . ,,.. 
path. See Jira, Nji. 

e Njira ) 

Nju (Togoland), water. 

kaNka (Congo, dialect of Bantu), brushwood, thicket, 
jungle of bushes. 

Nkaku (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a dam made in a 
stream, in which one or two waterways are left ; 
a weir. See Kaku, 

Nkalango (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kalango. 

Nkambalalu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Kambalalu. 

Nkant (Harem, Indo-China), a mountain. 
-Nke (Mande, West Sudan, Sahara) signifies ' inhabi- 
tants,' e.g. Tawatinke, the people of Tawat. Cf. Ke. 

Nki (Bafo, Kamerun), a village. 

Nki (Chad L. region), water, e.g. Nki Tselim, 'black 
water,' applied to a portion of the lake. 

Nkoko (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Koko. 

Nkokonoa (Gold Coast), the brink of a river or lake. 

Nkol, pi. Minkol (Fan, French Congo), a mountain. 

Nkol ntogh, pi. Nkol mitogh. (Fan, French Congo), a 
small mountain. Cf. Obe Nkol. 

Nkong'e, Mikong'e (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). 
See Kong'e. 

Nkot, pi. Nkor (Fan, French Congo), zigzag (of a road). 

Nkuku (Congo), a torrent, stream ; current. 


Nkulu (dialect of Bantu}. See Kulu. 
e Nkulu | (Cen. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a road. Cf. 
o Nkulu} Zila, Zira. 

Nkuluntu, pi. Bakuluntu (Loango). See Kuluntu. 
-Nkuru (dialect of Bantu). See -Kulu. 
Nkwammoe (Gold Coast), a well-made road. 
Nkyerekyera (Gold Coast), dry land, a barren desert. 
Nla (Yoruba), great, big, e.g. Omi Nla, * big water ' ; in 

some combinations becomes Lan, e.g. Omi Lano, 

' tbe big water over there.' 
Nlam (Fan, French Congo), country ; applied to the 

territory of a village; cf. Mvogh; a hamlet or 

group of huts in connection with a larger village. 
Nlambu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Lambu. 
Nlangu (Loango, dialect of Bantu). See Langu. 
Nlidi (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Lidi. 
Nlo, pi. Milo (Fan, French Congo), a river. Cf. Oton, 

Osu ; see Lo. 
Nlo nen (Fan, French Congo), a great river, like the 

French Fleuve. 

Nlonki (Fan, French Congo). See Lonki. 
Nmai (Chin Hills), bad, inferior, e.g. Nmai Kha, the 

Myit Nge (Gyi), or ' Little River,' of the Burmese. 

Cf. Mali. 

-No (Indian, Alaska). See -Na. 
No (Japan), a plain. 

No (Nhan, Lao-Jcai, Indo-China), little, small. 
Nobori (Japan), a mountain. 
Nock (Irish and Gaelic, Cnoc), a hill, e.g. Bannockburn, 

* the stream of the white knoll ' ; see Ban, Burn. The 

Anglicised form is Knock, e.g. Knockbride, Knocklong. 


Nogo (Bozo, Mande) village. 

Noheu (Tso-o, Formosa), a village. 

Noir (Fr.), black ; e.g. Noirmoutier island. 

Noko (Hammer Koki, Abyssinia), water. 

Nom (Hainan), a river. 

Noma (Mangbattu), forest, wood. 

Nong (Cambodia, Siam), lake, marsh, pond, pool. 

Noni (German East Africa), white clay, e.g. Kanoni (a 

river in Bukoba). 
-Nono. See -Nini, 
Noord (Deli.), north. 
Nopi (Mangbattu), bush, tall grass. 
Nor (Mongolia, Tibet), lake, e.g. Koko-Nor, ' blue lake/ 

Wayan-Nor, 'rich lake,' Tosu-Nor, 'butter lake.' Cf. 

Nur, Tso. 

Nord (Fr., Ger., Da., Nor., Sw.), north. 
Noria (Pers.), a waterwheel. 
Norre (Da.), adj. north (N re ). See S0nder, Oster, Vester, 


Norte (It., Sp.), north. See Ovesto (It.) 
Nos (Buss.), a cape, headland. 
Nosi (Madagascar), island, e.g. Nosi Be, 'great island.' 

Anosi, ' the place without islands ' ; also means 

sheep, e.g. Valanosi, ' sheep-field.' 
Notch (U.S.A.), a short defile through mountains. 
Noto (Port., Sp.), south wind. 
Notos (Greek), south. For other points see Boreas. 
Novo (Port., Buss.), new, e.g. Porto Novo, Novgorod. See 


Novy, Novi (Bohemian), new (Nv.), e.g. Novi Selo. 
(Kafir) , a stronghold, tower, fortified place. 


umNquba (Zulu, Kafir), an encampment. 
iNqubu (Zulu, Kafir), a bend in a river. 
Nrata (Makua, Mozambique), lake, swamp. 
Nsan (Fan, French Congo), street, the Fan houses being 
arranged on both sides of a single street, which 
forms the village. 
Nse, pi. Ese (Chamba}, a road. 
Nseghe (Fan, French Congo). See Seghe. 
Nshi (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Shi. 
Nsi (Bali, Kamerun), water. 
iNsi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country, 
ma Nsi 

. , (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), water. 

Nsua, Suwa (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See Sua. 
Nsu-akyi (Gold Coast), the other side of the river, 

beyond the river. 

Nsu-aniwa (Gold Coast), well, spring. 
Nsu-ano (Gold Coast), bank, shore of a river, of a lake 

or of the sea. Cf. Mpo-ano. 
Nsuku (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Suku. 
Nsulu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Sulu. 
Nsu-noa (Gold Coast), land or country by the side of a 


Nsuvila (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Suvila. 
Ntaba (Congo, dialect of Bantu,). See Taba. 
Ntak (Wolof), shore, beach. 

Ntaka (Cent. Africa and Congo, Bantu). See Taka. 
Ntamazirt (Sus, Berber), a village. Cf. Amazagh. 
Ntando (Cent. Africa, Bantu). See Tando. 
Nteleka (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Teleka. 


Ntetele (Fan, French Congo), steep. 

Nti (Swahili). See Ti. 

iNtla (Zulu, Kafir), the top, summit (of a moun- 
iliNtle (Zulu, Kafir), an open, uninhabited country, a 


kiNtombo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the season of the late 
heavy rains. 

Ntoto (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Toto. 
aNtu (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), people. 
baNtu (Bantu), the people, humanity. See Ba. 

Nu (Fon, DaJiome), mouth, e.g. Kotonu (for, Kutonu), 
' the dead mouth of the lagoon,' referring to the 
sand bar which blocks the entrance ; Ku = dead. 
See To. 

-Nu (Indian, Alaska). See -Na. 

Nua (Siam), north ; for other points see Tai, Tawan-ok, 
Tawan-tok, and for winds see Lorn. 

Nua (West Australia), sand. 

Nuail (Marocco), thatched huts. 

Nub (Tibet), west. For other points see Lho. 

Nuba (Arab.), a garrisoned position. 

Nuch (Indian, U.S.A.), water. 

Nudo (Sp.), a mountain knot. 

Nue, Nuwe (Batta, Benue JR. region), mother, e.g. Benue ? 
' Mother of waters.' See Be. 

Nuevo (Sp.), new, e.g. Golfo Nuevo, Valle Nuevo. 

Nui (Annam), a mountain. 

Nui (China), inner. Cf. Li, Nei. 

Nui (Maori), great, e.g. Awanui in Mongonui county. 


Nui (Marquesas, Hawaii), great, e.g. Faa-nui, ' great 

Nukb (Arab.), a pass. 

Nukunuku (Mbau, Fiji), sand. 

Nullah (Giryama), a chasm. 

Nullah (India, Anglo-Indian), a creek. Cf. Nada, Nala. 

Num (Nongo, Shan, Laos), water. 

Numa (Japan), a swamp. 

Numa (New Guinea), a house. 

Numba, pi. Simba (Zambezia), a house, e.g. Simbabwe, 
' a house of stones ' (one of the derivations pro- 
posed for the Zimbabwe monuments in Rhodesia). 

Nunatak (U.S.A.), a rock island in a glacier. 

Nuovo (It.), new, e.g. Monte Nuovo, to the west of 

Nur (Arab.), light, e.g. Nurpur, 'town of light.' 

Nur (Mongol), a lake. Cf. Nor. 

Nusa (Java, New Georgia, Solomon Is.), an island. 

Nushei's (U.S. of Colombia, Bontukwa Indian], large 
huts used as a meeting-place. 

Nuwe (Batta, Benue R. region). See Nue. 

Nuyi, pi. Nutulu (Telegu, Deccan), a well. 

Nvoa (A-Zande), grass. 

Nvoi (A-Zande), forest, wood. 

Nwhea (Gold Coast), sand. 
iNxanxasi (Zulu, Kafir), a waterfall. 
iNxiwa (Zulu, Kafir), the site of an old village or 

iNxuluma (Zulu, Kafir), a large village or kraal. 

Ny (Da., Sw.), new, e.g. Nybbrg in Fiinen I. 


Nya (Tanganyika region), a prefix meaning ' place.' Cf. 

My a. 

Nyaba (Congo), swamp, marsh, any muddy place. 
Nyag (Tibet), a little col. 

Nyagga (Kikuyu, East Uganda), beautiful, e.g. Kirima 
Nyagga, ' beautiful mountain/ the Kikuyu name 
'for Mount Kenia. 

Nyak (Indian, U.S.A.), corner, point, angle. 
eNyangha (Fan, French Congo), a lagoon or open 
marsh, not covered with grass. Cf. Nzam; ion: pi. 
see Enyangha. 

Nyanja, Nyanza, Nyasa (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), 
lake ; water either of a river or lake. See Anja, 
Anza, Asa. 
Nyanza (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Nyanja, 


i Nyanza (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), great water; lake. 
Nyasa (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Nyanja, 


Nyasi (Swahili), grass, reeds. 
diNyasi, liNyasi, maNyasi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), 

grass. See also Dinyasi for other forms. 
iNyatuko (Zulu, Kafir), a footpath. 

Nyeng, Nyong, Ryeng, Ryong, Lyeng, Lyong (Korea), a pass. 
eNyi (Fan, French Congo), island. For pi. see Enyi. 
Nyika, Nika (Nika, Giryama), wilderness ; lit. unin- 
habited borderlands ; uplands. Cf. Tanganyika. 
Nyila (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a road. Cf. Zila, 

eNyin (Fan, French Congo), the sea. 


Nyiro (Masai, East Africa), grey, brown; e.g. Gwaso 
Nyiro, ' grey river.' Cf. Narok, Nyuki. See Gwaso. 

Nyit (Burma), stream, torrent. Cf. Myit. 

Nyondo (German East Africa), a forge hammer, e.g. 
Manyonda, ' a village with many forges.' 

Nyong (Korea). See Nyeng. 

Nyua (dialect of Bantu). See Ua. 

Nyuki (Masai, East Africa), red ; e.g. Ngari na Nyuki, 
'red water.' Cf. Narok, Nyiro. See Gwaso, 

Nza (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Za. 

Nzadi (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Zadi. 

Nzala (Marocco), a Government post-house ; a small col- 
lection of huts enclosed in zeriba ; a halting-place. 

Nzam,>Z. Minzam (Fan, French Congo), a marsh covered 
with grass, &c. 

Nzann, pi. Ezanu (Basari), a road. 

Nzanza (Congo, dialect of Bantu) . See Zanza. 

Nze, pi. Minze (Bedzi) (Fan, French Congo), a bridge. 
Cf. Abon. 

Nzen, pi. Minzen (Fan, French Congo). See Zen. 
amaNzi (Kafir), water. 

maNzi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. 
iNzi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), country, dis- 

Nzige (Upper Nile), a lake. 

Nzila, Inzila, Insila, Izira, Dzira, Inzira, Njera, Ndera (Cent. 
Africa, dialects of Bantu). Cf. Nyila ; see Zila, Sila, 
Zira, Jera, Dera. 

Nziri (Arab.), a barren spot. 

Nzonza (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Zonza, 



iNzu (Lu-Wanga, Eastern Uganda), a house. 
Nzulu (Zulu, Kafir), deep. 

(Japan), great, large = Oki = Tai= Dai, e.g. shiwo 
(q.v.) ; Jigoku, ' great hell,' a name given gene- 
rally to the solfataras or hot sulphur springs of 
Tateyama and other localities. 

(Da., Nor.), island. 

6 (Hung.), old, e.g. 0-becse. 

6 (Sw.) island, e.g. Faro (Baltic), < sheep island.' Cf. Ey 
(Saxon Ea). 

Oaia (S. Cape, New Guinea), garden. 

Oase (Ger.), oasis (q.v.) 

Oasis (Lat. from Coptic through Greek), a fertile spot 
in a desert ; originally only applied to the Libyan 
desert, but now generally. The Greek form 
is avao-is, which is doubtfully referred to a 
Copt, (late Egyptian) word Ouahe = a dwelling- 

Ob (Hottentot). See Ep. 

Ob, Oban (Gaelic), creek, haven, e.g. the harbour of Obb, 
in the Hebrides ; Oban. 

Oba (Turk.), a summer village. 
isOba (Zulu, Kafir), a plantation of sugar-cane. 

Obalama (Servian), bank (of a river). 

Obaska (Hudson Bay region), grassy narrows. Cf. 

Obba (Yoruba), king, chief. 


Obe nkol, pi. Abe nkol (Fan, French Congo). See Be 
nkol ; cf. Nkol ntogh. 

Ober (Ger.), upper (0.) ; applied to numerous place- 
names, e.g. Ober Ammergau. 

Oberflache (Ger.), surface. 

Oberland (Ger.), highlands. 

Oberlauf (Ger.), the upper course (of a river). 

Oblast (Buss.), province. 

Obo (Fanti, Gold Coast), stone. 

Obo (Mongol), piles of stones for marking a road. 

Obo (Kiwai, New Guinea), water, topo obo, ' fresh 
water,' obo oriro, 'flood-tide,' auo obo ogo, 'flood,' 
obo bobo, ' lagoon.' 

Oboi (laibo, New Guinea), a passage through a reef. 

Obon (Gold Coast), valley, bed of a river. 

Obonka (Gold Coast), channel, ravine. 

Obstplantage (Ger.), nursery, orchard. 

Obsun (Mongol), pasturage. 

Obuku (New Georgia, Solomon Is.), a river. 

Och, Ich, Ach (Gaelic), a field, e.g. Avich, Avoch, 'the 
field of the water or stream,' Ardoch, ' high field,' 
Achray, ' smooth field.' See Av, Ard, Ray. 

Odam (Tamul, Deccan), torrent, flood. 

Odan (Fanti, Gold Coast), an abode. 

Odan (Yoruba), a plain, a grass field. 

Odanah, Otanung, Odanugh (Indian, U.S.A.), a town. 

Odanugh. See Odanah. 

Odde (Da., Nor.), a point, a tongue of land. 

Ode (Berber), a valley, e.g. Tiggeroden or Tiggerurtin. 

Odi (Yoruba), a walled fortification round a town ; fort, 

u 2 


diegu, pi. Ti dieti (Gurma, French Sudan), town, 


Odo (Yoruba), district, division, e.g. Odo Ofi, Odo Itu, 
Odo (Yoruba), brook, river, e.g. Odo Oli, Odo Oyi, 
Oeagi (S. Cape, New Guinea), a tree. 
Oeo (Maiva, New Guinea), a mountain. 
Oever (Dch.), shore, coast, bank (of a river), e.g. Den 

Oever in Drente and North Holland. 
Of (Eastern Sudan), a mountain. 
fai (Tahiti), stone. 
Ofer. See Over. 

0-fu-hye (Gold Coast), boundary, frontier. 
Ofweam (Gold Coast), the current or swiftest part of a 


Og (Tibet), down, below. 
Oga (Indian, U.S.A.), a place. 
Ogbon (Yoruba), ditch, valley. 
Oghrud, pL of Ghurd (Arab., N. Africa), large dunes ; 

a small number of dunes in a mass. 
Ogi (Walamo, Abyssinia), a road. 
Ogiri (Yoruba), a wall. 
Ogla, Oglat (Arab., N. Africa), the junction of several 

wells in the same spot ; a place where one is sure 

to find water ; large deep wells ; wells. 
Ogo (Somali), above, upper, e.g. Ogo, the upper region, 

the high land, behind the Guban, or N. Somali 

coastal plain. 

Ohi (Indian, U.S.A.), a mountain. 
Ohicho (Lomwe, Shirwa L., Nyasaland), east. See 

Om irimana, 


Oi (E. Turk.), a hollow, depression. 

Oikos (Greek), a house. 

Oinan (Mentawei Island, S.W. Coast Sumatra), water. 

Oinet (Nandi, Eastern Uganda), a well. 

Ojo (Yambo, Upper Sobat E.), a road. 

-Ok (Alaska), a diminutive termination, e.g. Tyonok 

village, i.e. ' the village of the little chief.' 
Ok (Indian, U.S.A.), a forest. 
Ok (Hind.), a house, dwelling, asylum. 
Oka (Galla), grass. 
Oka (Gold Coast), ditch, trench, canal; the bed of a 

river ; a bay, creek. 
Oka (Japan), land. 
Oke (Yoruba), hill, mountain, Oke Tede, Oke Amo; in 

Ibo, Nigeria, a boundary. 
Okedi, Ekedi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See 

Oki (Japan), large, great, e.g. Oki Shima. Cf. See 


Oki (Japan), anchorage. 
Okla (Indian, U.S.A.), water. 
Okpinle (Yoruba), termination of the earth, land or 


Oku (Gold Coast), gap, chasm, abyss, precipice. 
Okun (Yoruba), sea, salt water. 
Okunda (Cent. Africa), a forest. 
Okwan (Gold Coast), way, road, path. 
Ola (Mongol), mountain. See Ula. 
Glare (British East Africa), a salt-lick (q.v.), e.g. Olare 

le lang'alang, 'the salt-lick of many crossings,' 


i.e. to which access can only be had by crossing 

the neighbouring meandering river many times. 

Lang = to cross. 

Olindoror (Nandi, Uganda), east. 
Oliut (Turk., Mongol). See II. 
Olkhon (Buriat, Russia in Asia), dry. 
Olo (Kerepunu, New Guinea), mountain. Cf. Golo. 
Olon (Mongol), a ford. 
Olos (Mongol), people, tribe. 
Oltre (It.), beyond. 
Olua (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a tree. 

Olumata (Kiriwina, New Guinea), beach, sandy beach. 
Olusi (Lomwe, Mozambique), river. 
Omamma (Gold Coast), a small town or state. 
Omantan (Gold Coast), an independent state; a mother 


me kutl (Indian, California), island. 
Omi (Yoruba), water, e.g. Omi Nla, ' big water,' Omi Lano, 

' the big water over there.' See Nla, 
Om irimana (Lomwe, Shirwa L. ; Makua, Ger. E. Africa), 

the south. See Ohicho. 

Omm (Arab.) See Umm, of which it is another form. 
Ommodo (Yoruba), brook, rivulet. 
Omo (China), a lake. 

Omstreek (Dch.), the surrounding country, environs. 
Omut (Indian, U.S.A.), land. 
Omwa (Upper Nile), a mountain. 
On (Indian, U.S.A.), a hill. 
On (Japan), august, e.g. Ontake, ' august peak,' the 

south peak of the Japanese Alps. See Take. 

\(Loango, dialects of Bantu), a mountain. 


Onder (Dch.), lower, under, e.g. Onderdijk. 
Ondri (Madagascar), sheep, e.g. Ambalanondri, ' at the 
sheep field/ Antsahaondri, 'in the sheep valley.' 
See An, Bala, Saha. 
One (Kerepunu, New Guinea), beach, sand; the forms 

Onetai, Oneone occur also in Polynesia. 
mOngo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a forest. 
mOngo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 
mOngo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), hill, mountain ; down; 

ascent; plateau. 
nrn Ongo 
m Onwgo 

Ongot (Tagala, Philippine Archipelago), cape, point. 
mOngwa (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a town. 
Oni (Madagascar), river. Frequently placed at the end 
of the name. There is also the form Ona, and 
sometimes Ena. 

Oniesanu (Gurma, French Sudan) , a river. 
Onjila (Herero, Bantu). See Jila. 
Onkulu, Enkulu (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See 


Onland (Dch.), waste land. 
Onna (Yoruba), road, street, way, path. 
Onsen (Japan), warm spring. 
Onvaarbar (Dch.), unnavigable (of a river). 
Oost (Dc7i.),east. 

Op (Dch.), on, e.g. Bergen op Zoom. 
Op (Hottentot). See Ep. 
Opararini (Lomwe, Shinva L.), north. 
Oparashe (Indian, U.S.A.), a hill. 


Opatawaga (Hudson Bay region}, sand narrows. Cf. 

Oplagshavn (Da., Nor.), a loading-place not possessing the 

privileges of a regular port or town ; a harbour or 

dock for bonded goods. 
Optrek (Deli.), a resting-place. 
Or (Anglo-Saxon), the shore of a river or of the sea, e.g. 

Bognor, Windsor. 
Orang (Malay), a man or human being ; people. See 

next entry. 
Orang Titan (Malay), savages, lit. men of the woods. 

See Utan. 

Oras (Rumania), town; genitive Orasului. 
Ordi (Turk.), encampment; a variant of Urdu (q.v.) 
0re (Nor.), an ear or low point ; sands or sandbanks at 

the mouth of a river or in a bay. 
Oret (Nandi, Uganda), path, road. 
Orgo (Mongol), tent. 
Ori (New Guinea), cloud. 
Oririmela (Lomwe, Shirwa L.), deep water. 
Orishon (Yoruba), spring, fountain. 
Orman (Turk.), forest, wood. 
Ormos (Greek), bay, roadstead. 
Oro (Madagascar), edge, brink, shore, e.g. Amorombe, 

' at the great shore.' See An, Be. 
Orogongo (Kossova, Uganda). See Rogongo. 
Orok (Mongol), a clan. 
Oromo (Kiwai, New Guinea), river. 
Oromoito (Kiwai, New Guinea), coast, Obo oromoito, the 

sea, lit. coast water. See Obo, 


Orooro (Motu, New Guinea), mountain. Cf. Golo. 

Oros (Greek), mountain, hill. 

Orove (Mpongive, Bantu). See Rove. 

Ort (Ger.), place, spot, locality. 

Orta (Hung.), middle, e.g. Orta Arad on Maros E., a 

tributary of Theiss.B., Orta Dombouar, to S.E. of 

Flatten L. 

Oru (Motumotu, New Guinea), a garden. 
Orurondo (Herero, Bantu) . See Rondo. 
Os (Indian, U.S.A.), pebble, drift. 
Osambene (Cent. Africa), a forest. 
Osanu (Gurma, French Sudan), a road. 
Osen (Buss.), autumn. 

shiwo (Japan), spring tide. Cf. siwo. SeeQ, Shiwo, 
Oshoro (Yoruba), cascade, cataract. 
Oshusu (Yoruba), a grove. 
Osiago (Gurma), the rainy season. 
Osin (Yoruba), left (hand). 

siwo (Japan), springtide. Cf. shiwo. See 0, Siwo. 
Oso, Osso (Fanti, Gold Coast), big, great, e.g. Ogbomoso. 
Ospizio (It.), hospice (Osp). 
Ossu (Mongol), a river, e.g. Tsahan Ossu, ' White Kiver.' 

See Tsahan. There is also the Manchurian form 

Ussu (q.v.) Cf. Usu. 
0st (Da., Nor.), east. 
Ost (Ger.), east. 

Ostang (Turkestan), water channel, ditch. 
0ster, 0stre (Da., Nor.), adj. east (0 r ). 
Osteria (It.), inn, hotel (Ost a ). 
Ostrog (Buss., Kamchatka), a village. 


Ostrov (Buss.), island. 

Osu (Fan, French Congo), the sea; also Osu, pi. Asu, the 

water of a river, the river itself. See Su ; cf. 

Nlo, Oton. 

Osua (Kiwai, New Guinea), summit. 
Osyp, Obsyp (Buss.), a landslip. 
Ot (Ja-Luo, Uganda), house. 
Ota (Lomwe, Shirwa L), the west. 
Otainahe (Indian, U.S.A.), a town. 
Otaiwai (Indian, U.S.A.), a town. 
Otako (Makua, Ger. E. Africa), a desert. 
Otanung (Indian, U.S.A.) See Odanah. 
Otdyel (Buss., Caucasia), an independent district. 
Otebwet (Nandi, Uganda), a pool. 
Oti (Makua, Ger. E. Africa), the east. 
Oti (Motumotu, New Guinea), earth. 
Otlin (Buss.), the ebb tide. 
Oto (Nubia), water. 
Otok (Mongol), tribe, clan. 
Oton, pi. Aton (Fan, French Congo). See Ton ; cf. Nlo, 


Otra (E. Turk.) See TJtra. 
Ottar (from Gaelic oitar), a low promontory, e.g. 

Dunottar, ' the fort on the low promontory.' See 


Otton (Yoruba), right (hand). See next entry. 
Ottoto (Yoruba), the north, with the face to the west, i.e. 

the right-hand side. 
Oud, Oude (Dch.), old, e.g. Oud Maas R. 
Quest (Fr.), west, 


Oules (Fr. from Latin olla, ' pot '), the semicircular 
escarpments over which streams fall at immense 
heights, which are a distinctive feature of the 
French Pyrenees. 

Ova (Damaraland), Bantu prefix signifying 'people,' 
e.g. the Ova Mpo of Ovampoland ; Ova Herrero, 
' the merry people ' of Hereroland. Ova corre- 
sponds to the Wa, Ba, Vua, &c. of other Bantu 

Ova (Turk.), plain. 

Ovava (Bihe, Angola, Bantu). See Va. 

Over, Ofer, lifer (Ger.), a shore, beach, bank of a river, 
e.g. Hanover. 

Overalpisch (Dch.), transalpine. 

Overhaal (Dch.), a ferry. 

Overpad (Dch.), a cross-path, cross-road. 

Ovest (It.), west. 

Ovrag (Russ.), a ravine. 

0vre (Da., Nor.), upper (6v.), e.g. Ovrebb. 

wai (Indian, California), a town. 

wo (Gold Coast), the drying up of a river. 

Owo (Yoruba), cowries, e.g. the town of Owo, Oworo. 

Oya (Singalese), a river. 

Oyak (Brazil), a river, 

Oyaki (Brazil), a little river. 

Oyapok (Brazil), a large river, e.g. the Oyapok, 

Oyari, Yari, Awari, Aragari (Brazil), large river, the 
great river. 

Oyasa, Wasa, Wesa (Brazil), straight river. 

Oye (Yoruba), the Harmattan wind. 


Oyun, pi of Ain (Arab.), sources. Cf. Ayun. 
Ozero (Buss.), a lake. 

Pa- (Cent. Africa, Bantu), locative prefix, at, village of. 

Pa (China), temporary embankment, digues volantes. 

Pa (Maori), a stockade. 

Pa (Siam), a wood. 

Pa (Tibet), a suffix signifying people, tribe, e.g. Bod-pa, 


Pa (Ute, Colorado, <c.), water. 
Paadje (Cape DcJi.), a path. 
Paango (Swahili). 'See Ango. 

Pachcham (Hind.), west. For other points see Uttar. 
Pad (Dch.), road, path. 
Pada (Pali), place. 
Padang (Malay), plain, open space, e.g. Padang Sibagus, 

Padang Susa, Padang Lang-gin. 
Padela (Servian), division (administrative). 
Padun (Buss.), a waterfall, cataract. 
Padurea (Buss.), a forest. 
Paese (It.), country, region, town. 
Paesello (It.), a small town. 
Pag (Kan-su), garden, wood. 
Pag-ra (Tibet), a wall of stones, entrenchment. 
Pah, Pa' (Malay), father, e.g. Pah-tani or Patani, ' Tani's 

father,' the founder of the N. Malay States, called 

Pa ha (Indian, California), water, river. 


Paha (U.S.A.), a long ridge of fine loamy material 
deposited from a stream, which has cut a channel 
in a melting glacier. 

Pahar, Par (Hind.), mountain, hill. Cf. Giri. 

Pahli (Fin.), bay, gulf. 

Pai (China), white, e.g. Chang Pai Shan, 'ever-white 
mountain,' see Shan; Pai Shui Chiang, 'white- 
water river,' a name given to a section of the 
Upper Yangtse, see Shui, Chiang, 

Pailler (Fr.), a farmyard. 

Pain (Pers.), lower. See Bala, 

Pai'opan (Yambo, Upper Sobat R.), village, country. 

Pajonal (Spanish S. America), marshy land, on which 
bulrushes, reeds, &c., grow. 

Pak (Eskimo). See Puk. 

Pak (Malay, Siam), confluence. 

Pak (Malay, Cambodia), mouth, estuary. 
mPaka (Swahili). boundary, limit ; for pi. see Mpaka, 

Pakau (Malay), market town. Cf. Pasar. 

Pakdandi (Deccan), a footpath. 

Pakhus (Da., Nor.), a warehouse. 

Paknam (Siam), the mouth of a stream, whether it falls 
into the sea, a lake, or a larger river. See Pak, Nam. 

Pakso (Fin.), bluff, cliff. 

Pal (Punjab), cultivated land, embanked to catch the 
drainage off higher ground. 

Pala (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a wall. 

Palaeo, Palaios, a, on (Greek), old, ancient, e.g. Palaeo or 
Vradeton mountains, 

Palais (Fr.), a palace, 


Palanka (Turk.}, fort, fortress. 

Palast (Ger.), a palace. 

Palavanua (Marovo, Solomon Is.), village, place. See 


Pale (Yambo, Upper Sobat R.), great. 
Palier (Fr.), a landing-place. 
Palisade (U.S.A.], a picturesque extended rock cliff 

rising precipitately from the margin of a stream 

and of columnar structure, e.g. The Palisades, New 

uPalla (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), a rock, 


Pallala (Pali), a pool. 
Palli (Tamul), a village. 
Palude (It.), marsh, moor. 
isiPaluko (Zulu, Kafir), a valley or stream that branches 

off from another. 
Palus (Lat., Fr.), marsh, moor, fen. In Fr. used only 

in the expression Palus Meotide = Palus-Meotis = 

Sea of Azov. 

Palya (Hung.), a road ; Vaspalya, railway. 
mPambu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the junction or forking 

of roads. 
isiPambusa (Kafir), a by-path, lane. 

Pampa (Gold Coast), hill, hillock. Cf. Pempe, Koko. 
Pampas (S. America), the great grass plains of Argentina. 
Pampero (Sp.), a violent westerly or south-westerly 

wind which sweeps over the pampas of Argentina. 
Pamtengo (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Mtengo. 
Pamyatnik (Euss.), a monument. 


Pan (China), mountain, hill. 

Pan (Cape Dch.), a pool, a place where a pool has been. 

Pana (Paiwan, Formosa), a river. Of. Panna. 

Panda (Swahili). See Nda. 

Pandai, Banteai (Cambodia), fortress. 

Pang (Burma), confluence. 

Pang (Shan States), a camp, encampment. 

Pang (Tibet), height. 

,, prairie land. 

Panga, im Panga, mu Panga (Cent. Africa, dialects of 

Bantu), country. See Nga. 
Panga, im Panga (Giryama)t cave, chasm. 
Pangalanes (Madagascar), the portions of land inter- 
vening between the lakes or lagoons on the N.E. 

coast of Madagascar. 
Pangkalan (Malay), landing-place ; mart ; e.g. Pangkalan 

Badak, P. Balak, P. Bujal. Also Pengkalan (q.v.) 
Pangua (Mekeo, New Guinea), village. Cf. Vanua. 
Pangwadi (A-Zande), bank ; from Pangwa, edge, and Di, 

water. Cf. Wilidi. 

Pani (Hind.), water, e.g. Panigong, 'water village.' 
Panj (Pers.), five, e.g. Punjab. See Ab. Cf. Doab. 
Panjang (Malay), long, tall, e.g. Padang Panjang. See 


Panna (Shan States), a district. 
Panna (Tsarisen, Formosa), a river. Cf. Pana. 
Panne (Indian, U.S.A.), a valley. 
Pant (Welsh), a hollow or valley, e.g. Pantglas, Pant-y- 

groes ; groes = croes (q.v.) 
Pantalan (Tagala, Philippine Archipelago), mole, jetty. 


Pantano (It.), a marsh (Pant no ). 

Pantano (Sp.), stagnant water, marsh. 

Pantei (Malay), coast, beach, shore. 

Pao (China), an outpost ; also a subdivision of a Su or 

Papandajan (Java), a forge, a name given to volcanic 


Papeterie (Fr.), paper mill (Pap ie ). 
Par, Pahar (Hind.), mountain, hill. Cf. Giri. 
Para (Indian, Brazil), a river, sea, e.g. Paraguay, Parahiba, 

' bad river,' Parakatu, * good river.' 
Para (Hind.), a quarter of a town, a ward, village. 
Param (Tamul), bank, shore. 

Parana (Brazil), a branch out of the main stream of a 
river ; side channel between islands ; lateral branch 
of a river. From Indian Para, river, sea. 
Pare (Fr.), a park (P.) 
Parco (It.), a park. 
Pared (Sp.), a wall. 

Parian (Philippines), a market, bazaar. 
Pdrit (Malay), a drain, ditch, trench, moat, canal. 
Pariu (Rumania), rivulet, brook (Par.) 
Paroisse (Fr.), a parish, parish church. 
Parque (Port., Sp.), park, an enclosed wood. 
Part (Hung.), bank, shore, coast. 
Pas (Fr.) channel, e.g. Pas de Calais ; passage, defile, e.g. 

Pas de la Cere. 
Pasanggrahan (Java), equivalent to the Anglo- Indian 

Bungalow (q.v.) 
Pasar (Malay), market, corruption of Bazar (q.v.) 


Pasi (Madagascar), a modified form of fasi, fasika 
(q.v.), used in compounds, sand, thus ampasi = at 
the place where the sand is, e.g. Ampasimena, * on 
the red sand ' ; Ampasindava, ' where the great 
stretch of sand is.' See An, Mena. 

Pdsir (Malay), sand, a reach of sand, e.g. Pasir Gebo, 
Pasir Salak. 

Paso (Sp.), a pass. 

Passaat (Dch.), trade wind. 

Passage (Fr.), ferry (P^ e ). 

Passatwind (Ger.), trade wind, monsoon. 

Passe (Fr.), a channel. 

Passo (It., Port.), a pass (P so ). 

Past (E. Turk.), low. Cf. Post. 

Pat (Indian, U.S.A.), a hill. 
luPata (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), a gorge. 

Patak (Hung.), brook, rivulet (P.) 

Patam (Tamul, Deccan), a city, contracted from 
Patanam, e.g. Seringapatam. 

Path (Same., Hind.), a road, highway. 

Patik (E. Turk.), marsh, moor, swamp. 

Patkak (E. Turk.), marsh, moor, swamp. 

Pattan (Sansc.), a city, town. 

Patte-d'oie (Fr.), the intersection of several roads. 

Patti (India), a division of a village. 

Pattik (Mongol), marsh, swamp. 

Pa tzu (Yunnan), a cultivated valley. 

Paii ga (Miao-tse, Yunnan), hill. 

Paul (Hind.) See Pol. 

Pau-tai (China), a fort. 



Pavilion (Fr.), pavilion, summer house (P on ). 

Paya (Burma), a temple. 

Paya (Malay), swamp, marsh. 

Pays (Fr.), country. 

Pe (A-Zande), bush, tall grass. 

Pe (China), north, e.g. Peking, * the northern capital.' 

'Cf. Pen, Nan, Si, Tung. See King. 
Peage (Fr.), toll-house. 
Peak, Pike (England), allied to the words beak, spike, 

e.g. Peak in Derbyshire, Pike o' Stickle. 
Peam (Cambodia), mouth, estuary. 
Pecze (Hung.), boundary mark. 
Pedhiadha (Neo-Greek), a plain. 
Pedra (Port.), a rock or stone. 
Peel (Celtic), a stronghold. 
Peh (China), e.g. north, Peh Fang in Miao-tse, Yunnan. 

Cf. Pei, Pe, merely different spellings. 
Pei (China), north. Cf. Peh, Pe, which are merely 

different spellings. 
Pek (Nandi, Uganda), water. 
Pekan (Malay), a village, lit. a place for buying and 


Pela (Singalese), a hut. 
Pema (Tibet), sand. 
Pempe (Gold Coast), a hillock, knoll, smaller than Pampa 

Pen (Welsh), a head, hence a mountain, e.g. Penmaen- 

mawr, Pennigant, Pennine. Cf. Ben, Kin, 
Pen (Min-kia, Kwei-chau), north. For other points 

see La, Turh, San. 


Pena (Sp.), a rock or large stone. 

Penghulu (Malay Pen.), district or village headman. 

Pengkalan (Malay), mart, e.g. P. Balak ; landing place, 
e.g. P. Pajak in Wellesley Province. See Pangkalan. 

Peng la (Min-kia, Yunnan), a lake. 

Penisola (It), a peninsula. 

Peiion (Sp.), a rock or rocky mountain. 

Penong (Cambodia), savages. 

Pente (Fr.), declivity, slope. 

Penyi (Ja-Luo, Uganda), country. 

Perebor (Buss), rocks in a river. 

Perede (Gold Coast), a plain. 

Peresheek (Buss), an isthmus. 

Perevoz (Buss.), a ferry. 

Permdtang (Malay), ranges of low sandhills which mark 
the ancient sea boundaries ; high ground ; a water- 
shed ; e.g. Permatang Bogak in Province Wellesley. 

Pertuis (Fr.), opening or strait. 

Pesak (Servian), sand. Cf. Pesok. 

Peschani (Buss), sandy. 

Pesok (Buss), sand. Cf. Pesak, the same word. 

Petaukunk (Indian, U.S.A.), a fall. 

Peth (Deccan), a village, small town. 

Petit (Fr), little; applied to many place-names. 

Petobeg (Indian, U.S.A.), bog. 

Petra (Greek), a rock. Cf. Piatra, Piedra, Pierre. 

Peuk (Korea), north, northern, e.g. Peuk-Dong, 

Pfad (Ger) a path. 

Pfalz (Ger), a palace, high official residence ; palatinate. 

Pfan (Upper Nile), a village. 


Pferdebahn (Ger.), horse-tramway. 

Pha (Indo-China, Black E. region), a forest. 

Phai (Man Sung, Lao-kai), little, small. 

Phanos (Greek), light, beacon. 

Phare (Fr.), lighthouse (Ph.) ; Phare Flottant, lightship. 

Pharol (Port.), lighthouse (Farol). 

Pharos (Greek), lighthouse. 

Phieng (Hang Chek, Indo-China), a town. 

Pho (China), a market. 

Pho (Korea), anchorage, river bank, e.g. Chemulpho, 


Pho (Thos, Annam), a mountain. See Phu (note), Fo. 
Phong (Cambodia), custom, e.g. Phong-Mi, 'good custom,' 

in Bao-Khanh. See Mi. 
Phra (Siam), a pagoda. 
Phrair (Siam), a tributary of a river. 
Phu (Annam), town of the third order, district capital. 

(This occurs in all French books and maps dealing 

with the region. Of. Chinese Fu.) 
Phu, Phui (Cambodia), rich, wealth, e.g. Phui-Kwoi, 

kwoi conveying an idea of nobility, noble. 
Phu (Siam, Indo-China), hill, mountain. See Pho. 
Phu (Tibet), a lateral valley. 

Phyong, Phyeng (Korea), a plain, e.g. Phyong-An. Cf. Beul. 
Pi (Ja-Luo, Uganda), water. 
Piaggia (It.), rising ground, trie seashore. 
Piano (It.), a plain (P no ). 

Piatra (Rumanian), a rock. Cf. Petra, Piedra, Pierre. 
Pic (Fr.), a peak (P.) 
Picacho (Sp.), top, summit, 


Picacho (U.S.A.), a peaked butte (q.v.) 
Picada (Spanish S. America), mountain pass ; ford of a 
river which can only be passed by horsemen ; path. 
Pico (Port., Sp.), a peak. 
Picco (It.), a peak (P co ). 
Pie (Min-kia, Yunnan), low. 
Pied (Fr.), foot, e.g. Piedmont. Cf. Ital. Piemonte. 
Piedra (Sp.), a rock. Cf. Petra, Piatra, Pierre. 
Piena (It.), flood or overflow of waters. 

Pierre (Fr.), stone. Cf. Petra, Piatra, Piedra. 

Pigh guai (Indian, U.S.A.), hill. 

Pihara (Maiva, New Guinea), stone. 

Pi-hu (Tibet), fort, post of observation. 

Pijlerbrug (DcJi), a pier, pillar bridge. 

Pike. See Peak. 

Pila (Tibet), a river. 

Pill (England), an inlet or pool capable of holding 
vessels to unload, e.g. Pill (Somerset). Cf. Pool, Pwll. 

Pimb (Serer, Senegal), a mountain. 

Pimb aneu (Serer, Senegal), a hill, a small mountain. 

Pin (Fr.) t a pine or fir tree, e.g. lie des Pins. 

Ping (China), a plain. 

Piongo (Marovo, Solomon Is), a river. 

Piramun (Pers), environs. 



. ,._. . (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a mountain, e.g. 

Pirikwamba, to the west of northern Nyasa. 

p . . Cf. Lima, Bima. 



iPiro (Mozambique, dialect of Bantu), a road, path. Cf. 
Zila, Zira. 

Pisang (Malay), banana; used in place-names, e.g. Pulo 
Pisang, banana island. 

Pisholina (Servia), a marsh. 

Pishtak (Cent. Asia), an arched fagade. 

Pi si (Min-Jcia, Yunnan), wind. 

Piska (Indian, California), sea. 

Piste (Fr.), a track, trail. 

Pistyll (Welsh), a waterfall, e.g. Pistyll-y-Cain, 

Pit (Gaelic pitht), a hollow, e.g. Pitcairn, ' the hollow of 
the cairn.' 

Pitch (W. of England), slope, declivity, top of a hill. 

Pi te nge (Min-Jcia, Yunnan), a plain. 

Piton (Fr.), a peak. 

Pitth (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a mound. 

Piz (Tyrol), equivalent to Beak, Pike, e.g. Piz Mortiratsch. 

Pjert (Armenia), a castle, fort. 

Plaats (Dch.), a place or spot. 

Plache (Ger.), a plain, flat country. 

Plage (Fr.), shore, beach. 

Planina (S. Slav.), a mountain. 

Piano inclinado (Port.), a patent slip. 

Planiibergang (Ger.), a level crossing. 

Plateau (Fr.), used not only in Fr. but also in Eng. and 
Ger. as a form of sub-oceanic relief for a steep 
Elevation (q.v.) of large extent in which the length 
and breadth do not greatly differ. It may rise 
from the depressions of the ocean, or, as in the 
case of the Azores Plateau, from a Kise (q.v.) On 


dry land Plateau = Tableland ; e.g. the Anahuac 

Plateau (Mexico). 
Plau (Cambodia), a road. 
Playa (Sp.), shore, beach, coast. 

(U.S.A.), an alkali-flat ; the dried bottom of a 

temporary lake without outlet ; an alluvial coast- 
land, as distinguished from a beach. 
Plaza (Sp.), square or market place, fortified town. 
(U.S.A.), an open valley-floor, the flat bottom of 

a narrow canon. 
-Pie. See Polls. 

Pleme (Montenegro), tribe, clan. 
Plon, Plun (Slavonic), a plain, e.g. Plbner See. 
Plot (Russ.), a floating landing-place, raft. 
Plou, Plu, Pleii, Plo, Pie, Pla (Breton ploue), village or 

parish. Cf. Welsh Plwyf. 
Plu (Upper Sassandra R. region), white, e.g. Ibo Plu, 

' the White Ibo K.' 
Plur (Armenian), a hill. 
Plwyf (Welsh), a parish. 
Pneuma (Greek), wind. 

Pnom (Cambodia), a mountain, e.g. Pnom Penh. 
Po (China), a lake, cf. Hu ; swamp. 
Po- (China), a prefix meaning 'white.' See Pai. 
Po (Indian, U.S.A.), water. 

Po (Tibet), summit of a mountain. Another form is Spo. 
Poa (Nika), the coast. 
Poali holma (Fin.), a peninsula. 
Poblado (Sp.), town, village. 
Pochtamt (Russ.), post office. 


Pocoson (U.S.A.), a swamp. 

Podere (It.), an estate (Pod e ). 

Podo (Kitvai, New Guinea), hill, mountain. 

Podvodnitsa (Buss.), shoals covered at extremely low tide. 

Poe (Maiva, New Guinea), beach, shore. 

Poggio (It.), a cliff (Ps io ). 

Pogost (Russ.), a parish. 

Pohaku (Hawaii), stone. 

Pohia (Fin.), north. For other points see Etela, Italian, 


Pointe (Fr.), a point (P te ). 
Poio (Tagala, Philippine Archipelago), island. 
Po ka (Indian, U.S.A.), a river. 
Po kwa (Indian, U.S.A.), a lake. 
Pol (Neo-Greek), see Polls ; (Gaelic), see Poll. 
Pol, Paul (Hind.), a gate, a quarter of a city having its 

own gateway. 

Pol, Peul (Korea), a plain, e.g. Pol-La-Do, Pol-Hang-Ni, 
Po-la (Indian, California), a river, lit. running water. 
Pola (Mentawei Island, S.W. Coast Sumatra), earth. 
Polden (Russ.), south. For other points see Syever. 
Polder (Dch.), a tract of land reclaimed from the sea 

by means of high embankments. 
Pole (Celtic), an inlet, pool, e.g. Bradpole. See Poll. 
Polei (Indo-China), a village. 
Polls, Poll, Pol, Pie (Greek), city, town, e.g. Philippopolis, 

Tripoli, Sevastopol, Constantinople. 
Poll, Pol, Puill (Gaelic), Pol (Cornish), pool, bay, e.g. Poll 

Scut (Hebrides), Puill Cro (Islay Sound), Polmont, 

' the hill by the pool.' Cf. Pole. 


Polnaya voda (Buss.}, high water. See Voda. 
Polovodye (Buss.), the high waters of spring-time. 
Poluostrov (Buss.), a peninsula. 
Poly (Greek), much, many, e.g. Polydendri, ' a place of 

many trees/ in Agya. 

Polyana (Buss.), field-ice ; also field, forest clearing. 
Polye (S. Slav.), open country, fields. 
Pom (Siam), a fort. 

Porno (Fin.), a bar of a harbour or river. 
Ponchak (Malay), the peak of a hill. 
Pondok (Malay), a shed or hut. 
Ponente (It.), west, west wind. 
Pongo (Kam,erun), north. See Mbenge. 
Pont (Cape Dch.), a ferry. 
Pont (Fr.), a bridge (F). 
Pont (Welsh), a bridge, e.g. Pontaberglaslyn, Penpont, 

' head or end of the bridge ' ; is a loan word from 

Lat. pons. See Aber, Glas, Llyn, Pen. 
Pontal (Port.), a point or promontory. 
Ponte (It., Port.), a bridge (P te ). 
"Pool (England), an inlet or pool, e.g. Poole, Liverpool. 
Poo lok (Indian, California), a lake. 
Poort (Cape Dch.), an opening between mountains, lit. 

gate, e.g. Karoo Poort. 

Popoa (Bubiana, Solomon Is.), village, place. 
Po pi (Indian, U.S.A.), a spring. 
Popoka (Aztek), smoke, e.g. Popocatepetl, ' the mountain 

of smoke.' See Tepetl. 

Pore (India), a city. Anglicised from Pur (q.v.) 
Pori (German East Africa), bush, forest. 


Poro (Ainu, Sakhalin), great, big, e.g. Poronai, ' big 

river.' See Nai. 
Port(JFV.), port, harbour (P 1 ). 
Porte (Fr.), a gate (P te ). 
Portello (It.), a gate (Port 110 ). 
Portillo (Sp.), a gap. 
Porto (It., Port.), haven, port, e.g. Portobello, 'beautiful 


Posad (Russ.), suburb, a settlement. 
Posada (Sp.), house, hotel. 
Poselok (Russ.), a small village. 
Posito (Sp.), a public granary. 
Po so (Indian, U.S.A.), sea. 
Post (Albanian), lower. 
Poste (Fr.), post, guardhouse (P te ). 
Potainik (Russ.), a sunken rock over which the waves do 

not break. 

Potamos (Greek), a river, e.g. Aspropotamo, 'white river.' 
Potok (Bohemian), stream, brook, rivulet (P.) 
Potsang (Hu-ni, China), a mountain. 
Potto-potto (Upper Nile), a marsh. 
Potutonga (Tonga, Polynesia), south. See Tokelau. 
Po tzae (Indian, U.S.A.), bog, marsh. 
Poudrerie, Poudriere (Fr.), powder mills (Poud ie ). 
Poughkeepsie (Indian, U.S.A.), a small cove. 
Poul, Poull (Breton), pool, e.g. Pouldu = ' Black-pool.' 

Cf. Pwll, Pol, Poll. 
Povoacao (Port.), a town, a village. 
Po yare (Indian, U.S.A.), an island. 
Pozo (Sp.), a well, a deep hole in a river, whirlpool. 


Pozzo (It.), a well (P zo ). 

Prabit (Sansc.), a mountain. 

Praca (Port.), a market or piazza, a town, fortress. 

Prado (Sp.), meadow land. Cf. Prato. 

Praestegjeld (Nor.), a parish (Pgd.) 

Prahu (Java), the native canoe, e.g. Tangkuban Prahu, 
* a reversed or up-turned canoe,' a name given to 
mountains on account of their shape. 

Praia (Port.), beach, shore. 

Praja (Malay), a town. 

Pran (Cambodia), pyramid, monument. 

Prasat (Cambodia), a tower. 

Prato (It.), a meadow. Cf. Prado. 

Pratir (Sansc.), shore, bank. 

Pre (Cambodia), a wood. 

Pre (Fr.), a meadow. 

Preau (Fr.), a courtyard. 

Predio (It.), a farm, a holding. 

Predmyestie (Buss.), a suburb. 

Predni (Bohemian), fore = German Vorder. 

Prek (Cambodia), a river; confluence; tidal stream. 

Presa (Sp.), a weir. 

Presidio (Sp.), a fort. 

Presqu'ile (Fr.), a peninsula. 

Priberezhie, Priberejie (Buss.), the shore, coast. 

Priel (Dch.), a narrow channel. 

Priliv (Buss.), flood tide, flood. 

Pristan (Buss.), a port, harbour. 

Proda (It.), a landing-place, bank, shore, brink. 

Proliv (Buss.), a strait. 


Psa (Cambodia), a market. 

Pu (China), a citadel, e.g. Shang Pu, ' upper citadel.' 

Pu (China), a commercial village. Cf. Tun, Tsun, 

Chwang, Cheng. 
Pu (Korea), a county or department, divided into Kun 

or prefectures ; a city, e.g. Pu-San (Fusan). 
Pu (Laos, Siam), hill, mountain. 
Pu (Tibet), the top of a valley. 
Puava (Marovo, Solomon Is.), earth, soil. 
Pudtho (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a field or plantation. 
Pueblo (Sp.), a town, village, e.g. Pueblo Nuevo, 'new 


Puente (Sp.), a bridge (P.) 

Puerta (Sp.), gate, a narrow pass between mountains. 
Puerto (Sp.), a port, e.g. Puerto Rico, not Porto Eico. 
Puesto (Argentina), an estate. 
Pug (Tibet), a cavern. 
Puill (Gaelic). See Poll. 
Puits (Fr.), a well. 
Puk, Pak (Eskimo), big, great, e.g. Kwikpuk, ' big river.' 

See Kwikk. 

Pul (Albanian), forest. 

Pul (Pers.), a bridge, embankment, causeway. 
Pulak (Mongol), a spring, e.g. Ulan Pulak, ' red spring.' 

Another form of Bulak. 
Pulau, Pulo (Malay), an island, e.g. Pulau Singapura, 

Pulau Enche' Ona, P. Jelnai, P. Bentan. 
Pul-bandi (Pers.), an embankment. 

Pulin (Sansc.), an island of alluvial formation, a small 
island left in a river after the falling of the waters. 


Pulo (Malay). See Pulau. 

Pu-lu (Tibet), a shepherd's hut. 

Pum (Cambodia), a village in the interior. Cf. Kom- 

Puna (S. America), upper Cordillera of the Andes, in- 
cluding elevated plateaux, spacious valleys, &c. The 
word signifies an affection of the body produced 
by the rarefaction of the air at high altitudes, and 
hence its geographical application, e.g. Puna de 

Pung-mai (Pa'i, Shan States), forest, bush. 

Punj, See Panj. 

Punkhokkie (Indian, U.S.A.), a steep bank. 

Punta (It. Sp.), a point (P.) 

Puntone (It.), a point (Punt ne ). 

Pupui (Bismarck Archipelago). See Rapui. 

Pur (Sansc.), a city, town. Anglicised Pore, e.g. 
Cawnpore. See Pura. 

Pura (Sansc.), a city, e.g. Singapore, properly Singapura, 
' the Lion city.' See Pur. 

Purab (Hind.), east. For other points see Uttar. 

Puraeahi (Maiva, New Guinea), tide (ebb). 

Purga (Buss.), a snowdrift. 

Puri (East Africa), a desert. 

Purongo (Tso-o, Formosa), a mountain. 

Pusawat (Mentaweil., S.W. Coast Sumatra), anchorage. 

Pushe (Mandara, Bornu, Lake Chad), a spring. 

Pushta (Pers.), a hillock ; a quay. 

Pustosh (Russ.), heath, moor. 

Puszta (Hung.), heath, a steppe. 


Put (Senegal), a village. 

Put (Khas Chos, Indo-China), great. 

Put (Russ.), way, line of communication. 

Putova (Servian), road. 

Putra (India), son, e.g. Brahmaputra, * Son of Brahma.' 

Puy (Auvergne), equivalent to Beak, Pike, Pic, e.g. Puy 

cle Cantal. 

mPwa (Swahili), beach, shore. 
Pwang-sheh. (China), rocks. 
Pwani (Swahili), beach, shore, coast. 
Pwi (Chin Hills), ridge, spur. 
Pwll (Welsh), an inlet or pool, e.g. Pwllheli, ' salt pool.' 

Cf. Poll. See Heli. 
Pyatno (Russ.), a spot, a little place with a small depth 

of water. 

Pyeshekhodnya (Russ.), a footpath. 
Pyrgos (Greek), a tower. 


udampu (Zulu, Kafir), a neck over a ridge or mountain. 
udato (Zulu, Kafir), a desert. 
urn denqelezi (Zulu, Kafir), a steep place in the side of a 


udilima (Zulu, Kafir), a stockade, 
isiditi (Zulu, Kafir), an island. 
isiditi (Zulu, Kafir), a site to settle on, a village. 
dual (Fr.) a quay, wharf, 
duartier (Fr.), a quarter in a town (Q r ). 
duassaik (Indian, U.S.A.), rocky stream. Cf. Cox- 
sackie, i.e. duassaikie, 


duebrada (Sp.) t broken, uneven ground. 

,, (U.S.A.), a canon of rugged aspect, a fissure- 
like ravine. 

duelle (Ger.), well, spring, source (Q.) 
duemado (Sp. Philippines), burnt, e.g. duemado cape, 

' burnt cape.' 

duinta (Port., Sp.), a country house. 

isidwato (Zulu, Kafir), a clearing in bush, grass, or 


Ra, pi. Gu (A-Zande), the definite article, the. See Gu. 

Ra (Bismarck Archipelago), the article ; for use cf. 
Raluana, Rakunei, Rawalien. 

Ra (Mbau, Fiji), west. For other points see Vua Liku, 

Ra (Tangut), house, castle, village. 

Rab (Tibet), a ford. 

Ra-ba (Tibet), enclosure, tent. 

Raba (Hausa), to divide, used in place-names to in- 
dicate position, e.g. Mararraba, ' the half way ' 
between Ghat and Air. 

Raba (Upper Nile), small cleared arable spots in the 
midst of wooded or grass land. 

Raba (Arab., N. Africa), a forest, brushwood, thicket. 

Rabat (E. Turk.), a resting-place for travellers. 

Rabdan (Tibet), a house, e.g. the monastery Rabdan 
Chuling, chu meaning wisdom, and ling a garden. 

Rabuana (Bismarck Archipelago). See Raluana. 

Race (English), a strong or rapid current of water, 
from A.S. rses, a swift course. 


Rad (Somali), track. See Hilin. 

Rade (Fr.), road, roadstead. 

Radeau (Fr.), a raft (K au ). 

Rafi, pi. Rafauka or Rafuna (Hausa), brook, brink, 
bank, valley, e.g. Gober Rafi, ' Gober valley,' as 
opposed to Gober Tudu, ' Gober uplands.' 

(Gent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), chief, king. 
wa Rafiari 

Rag (Somaliland), people = Dad. 
Ragh (Pers.), a meadow, a declivity. 
Ragham (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), limestone. 
maRago (Ki-Mrimi, E. Africa), a camping-place. 
Raguba (Arab.), a height, elevation. 
Rah (Hind, and Pers.), a way, road. Cf. Rasta. 
Rahad, Rahat (Arab., N. Africa), a pool, lake. 
Rahara (Motu, New Guinea), north-west wind. 
Rahi (Manahiki, Tahiti), great, e.g. the river Faha Rahi, 

in the N.-E. of the island. 
Rahi (Arab.), a village, house. 
Rahon (Pazzehe, Pei-Po, Formosa), a river. 
Rai (Siam), clearings made in the forests, by felling 

and setting fire to the timber, for the cultivation 

of hill crops. 

Raia (Port.), boundary, limit. 
Rain (Ger.), a grassy ridge, serving as a boundary ; 

meadow, hillside. 
Rainstein (Ger.), boundary stone. 
Rairai (Hausa), sand. 
Rak, Rakat (Arab.), a hard bank, shoal, but with no 



Raka (laibo, New Guinea), coast. 

Rake (from Da., rage, to project, jut out), an inclina- 
tion or slope, e.g. The Rakes, Long Rake, Rakeway, 

in the Peak district. 
Raknet (Arab., N. Africa}, a peak. 
Rakunei (Bismarck Archipelago), grass, grass land. 

There is also the reduplicated form rakunakunei, 

ra being the article. 
Rala (Mexico), a foot, e.g. the tribe Ralamari, 'foot 

runners,' corrupted by the Spanish into Tarahu- 

Raluana (Bismarck Archipelago), mountain, hill. There 

is also the form rabuana ; in each case ra is the 

Ram (Ghong Chia-tse, Yunnan, and Upper Red River 

region), water. 

Ram (Yindu Chin, W. of Mon R., Burma), a path. 
Rama (New Guinea), sea. 
Ramal (Sp.), branch line (of a railway). 
Ramalle (Bismarck Archipelago), a valley, ra being the 


Rami, pi. Ramuna (Hausa), a cave. Cf. Kogo. 
Ramla (Arab., Sahara), sand, e.g. Ras el Ramla, ' the 

Sand Head.' 

Ramu (Kuvarawan, Pei-Po, Formosa), village. 
Ran (Hang Chek, Indo-China), a house ; also in Ghong* 

chia-tse, Yunnan. 

Rana (Khas Chos, Indo-China), a road. 
Rancho (Spanish S. America), a wooden building 

with walls of mixed clay and cow-dung, roofed 



with reeds, supported by forked pillars, and having 
a mud floor. Hence ranch. 

Rand (Dch., Ger.), edge, rim ; ridge of hills ; border 
range ; e.g. Randberg, Witwatersrand. 

Rang (Annam), a rice-field. 

Rang (E. Turk.), wild goat, e.g. Rang Kul, ' wild goat 

Rang (Pers.), colour, e.g. Rangpur. 

Rang-tag (Tibet), a mill. 

Rani (Hausa), the dry season. 

Rann (MaJiratta), wood, waste, e.g. Rann of Kutch, 

Rano (Madagascar), water; thus andrano = the place 
where there is water, e.g. Andranofotsi, ' the place 
where the white water is,' Andranomami, ' the 
place where the sweet water is.' See An. 

Rantau (Malay), lit. a reach of a river or of a narrow 
strait ; district or country, e.g. Rantau Haji Dolah, 
at the mouth of Perak B. 

Ranu (Motu, New Guinea), water. 

Ranumaria (Madagascar), rapids in a river. 

Ranumasina (Madagascar), the sea. 

Ranundriaka (Madagascar), a torrent. 

Rao (Annam), a river. 

Rape (Icelandic), a division of a county (Sussex), inter- 
mediate between hundred and shire. The rapes of 
Sussex (there are six) answer to the tithings, 
lathes, &c., of other shires. 

Rapide (Fr.), a rapid in a river. 

Rapui (Bismarck Archipelago), bush, thicket. Also 
reduplicated pupui, without the article ra (q.v .) 


Rar (Arab.), a cave, grotto. 

Rarha (Mossi, French Sudan), a market. 

Rarhi (Punjab), cultivated land. 

Ras, pi. Ruus (Arab.), head, cape, top ; chief, headman, 

prince ; e.g. Ras el Had, ' cape of danger,' Ras 

Makonen, name of an Abyssinian prince. 
Rasi (Swahili), head, headland ; from the above. 
Rasta (Hind., Urdu,Pers.), a way, road, path. Cf. Rah. 
Rat (India), kingdom. 
Rath (Irish and Scotch), an earthen fort or mound, e.g. 

Rathboyne, Rat hen, ' the fort on the river.' See En. 

The Rath, originally perhaps a natural hill or 

hillock, as in Rathgar, Rathmore, was properly a 

round rampart or breastwork enclosing a mound. 
Randal (Sp.), torrent, rapid stream, (S. America) rapids. 
Rauma (Fin.), a strait. 
Ravin (Fr.), a ravine. For use as a form of sub-oceanic 

relief see Trench. 
Rawa (Tibet), enclosure, tent. 
Rawalien (Bismarck Archipelago), seashore, beach. 

Walien= beach, ra being the article. There is also 

the reduplicated form wawalien, without the 

article, as well as rawal. 
Rawapara (New Guinea), the deep sea. 
Ray, Rie (Gaelic, Reidh), smooth, e.g. Achray, ' smooth 

field ' ; Airdrie, ' smooth height.' Cf. Lee. See 

Ach, Aird. 
Raz (Fr.), a race, a bore. A name given to a violent 

tidal stream in a narrow passage ; from Breton 

raz = a whirlpool, swift current. 



Raz (Pers.), a castle. 

Razvalini (Buss.), ruins. 

Rbia (Marocco), pasturages, e.g. Tim er Rlria. See Umm, El. 

Rdir (Arab.), a gulf, whirlpool. See Redir. 

Rdo (Tibet), stone ; in this and the two next words 

initial r is mute. For s mute see Sde. 
Rdung (Tibet), a hill. See under Rdo. 
Rdzong (Tibet), fortress ; chief town of a prefecture. 
Re (Beja, Nubia), a well, e.g. Tamenre, ' The Ten Wells.' 
Rear (Ebon, Polynesia), east. For other points see Eung. 
Recif (Fr.), a reef of rocks. See Reef. 
Red Rhed (Da., Nor.), Redd (Sw.), a roadstead. Cf. Ree, 


Redir, pi. Redair (Arab.), a natural reservoir of rain- 
water ; a sheet of water ; a temporary sea. 
Redoute (Fr.), a redoubt (Eed e ). 
Reducto (Port.), a redoubt. 

Ree (Dch.), Reede (Dch.), a roadstead. Cf. Red, Redd, 
Reef (Eng.), as a minor form of sub-oceanic relief, a 

single elevation or submarine mountain which 

comes within eleven metres of the surface, e.g. 

Paracels Reef. Equivalent to Ger. Riff, Fr. Recif. 

Another similar term is Shoal. Reef is referred to 

an old Teutonic root rif=to split, as in Norse rifa = 

a rift, crack, &c. 
Reeks (Ireland), ridge, crests ; e.g. Macgillicuddy Reeks ; 

from Old Irish crocen=back, ridge ; cognate with 

A.S. hrycg = ridge = Norse hryggr, 
Reg (Arab., N. Africa), firm level ground, generally 

without vegetation, a barren, naked plain. Another 

form is Rek, e.g. Meshra er-Rek, 


Regadera (Sp.), a canal for irrigation. 

Regadio (Sp.), irrigated land. 

Regi (Aroma, New Guinea), grass. Cf. Rei, Reina, 

Regione (It.), region (K.) 

Regyahu (Ataiyal, Formosa), mountain. 

Rei (Motu, New Guinea), grass. Cf. Regi, Reina. 

Reich (Ger.), kingdom, dominion ; cognate to Eng. -ric, 

as in Bishopric, from A.S. rice = kingdom. 
Reid, Reida (Buss.), a road, roadstead. 
Reina (Kabadi, Neiv Guinea), grass. Cf. Regi, Rei. 
Rejem (Aral.), similar to Jedar, a look-out place on a 

road, generally made of stones. 

Rejl (Arab.), an open creek of water. Cf. Kra, Bot-ho. 
Rek (Sahara). See Reg. 
Reka (Bohemian),} 
Beka rivOT R C ' Eieka ' 

Rekama, pi. Rekaim (Arab., N. African), a Dai'a (q.v.) 

with chalky soil. 

Rekba, pi. Rekub (Arab.), large sandy undulations. 
Rei (Kurdish), forest, bush. 
Remel (Arab.), an isolated dune; sandy country. 
Remise (Fr.), coach-house (K ise ). 
Remmare (Fin.), shoal. 
Renajo (It.), sands ; sandbank. 
Rende (Da., Nor.), a channel. 

maRenga (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. 
Repunta (Sp.), point, headland. 
Rer (Somali), a tribal prefix, e.g. Rer TIgaz Koshen, Rer 

Ugaz Nur. Also means a village. 
Resif (Arab.), a causeway, dam, dike. 


Reri (Wadai), the name given to the portable Arab 

huts, as opposed to Mahareb (q.v.) 
J&esmpl. Resum (Arab.), traces of ruins. 
Ressac (Fr.), surf. 
Restinga (Port.),} 
Restinga (Sp.), J a reef * 
Reu (Wolof), country, region. 

Rev (Da., Nor.), a reef, sandbank. The Sw. form is Ref. 
Revle (Da.), a bar, sandbank. 
Revona (Kabadi, New Guinea), north-east wind. 
Rezan (Nestorian Christian), a vineyard. 
Rgal (Tibet), a ford. 
Rhaiadr, Rhayadr (Welsh), a cataract, e.g. Rhayadr Mawr. 

See Mawr. 

Rhed. See Red, Ree, 
Rhede (Ger.), a roadstead. Cf. Red, Ree, 
Rhine (Somerset), a deep wide trench. 
Rhos (Celtic), a moor, e.g. Rhoscolyn ; Roscommon. 
Rhyd (Welsh), a ford, e.g. Rhyd y Croesau. 
Ri (Rotuma, Polynesia), house. 
Ri (Tibet), a mountain. 
maRi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. For other 

forms see Mansi. 
Ria (Sp.), the mouth of a river. 
Riad (Marocco), a garden. 
Rialto (I*.), a knoll, bluff. 
Riana (Madagascar), cascade. 
Riba (Arab.), an abrupt turning. 
Ribago, Ribawo, Ribado (Fula), a governor's country 

seat, the nucleus of a village. 


kaEiba (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), a gorge. 

Ribat (Arab.), an inn, monastery. 

Rlbeira (Port.), a meadow, low moist ground. 

Ribeirao (Port.), a great river. 

Ribeiro (Port.), a stream. 

Ribera (Sp.), the shore, the bank of a river. 

Ridge (Eng.), in sub-oceanic relief, is a relatively narrow 
Elevation (q.v.), which, unlike the Rise (q.v.), rises 
at a steep angle, e.g. the Atlantic equatorial Ridge. 
Equivalent to the Ger. Riicken, Fr. Crete. In 
ordinary language an elongated elevation, usually 
of irregular surface; from A.S. hrycg=the back 
of a man or beast. Cf. the ridge of the nose. 

Riding (from Icelandic thriding), one-third, one of three 
divisions. The th is supposed to have been lost 
by the proximity of the th in North, South, in North 
Thriding &c. 

Rie (Gaelic). See Ray. 

Rieka (Polish), a river. Cf. Reka, 

Riet (Dch.), reeds. 

Riet (Ger.), reed, a marshy piece of ground covered 
with reeds, moor. Also Ried, Rieth. 

Rif (Arab.), coast, littoral, beach, lit. a well-watered 
country with plantations. 

Rif (Russ.), a reef. 

Riff (Ger.), a reef, a ridge of rocks in water. See Reef. 

Riffle (U.S.A.), shallow water at the head of a rapid, a 
rapid with comparatively little fall. 

Rift (Prov. Eng.) shallow place in a river, ford. 

Rig (Pers.), sand, 


Rig (Arab.), a shallow flat bank extending off shore. 
Rijia (Hausa), a well. 
Rijks (Dch.), kingdom. Cf. Reich (q.v.) 
Riko (Giryama). See Ko. 
kiRima (Nik a), hill, top, plateau of a mountain. Cf. 


meRima (Swahili), continent, mainland. 
mRima (Swahili), coast. 

muRima (Giryama), a hill, mountain. Cf. Lima. 
Rimba (Malay), forest or virgin jungle. 
Ri-na (Tibet), a promontory. 

Rincon (Sp.), a corner, house, small district or country. 

,, (U.S.A.), a cove, the angular indentation in a 

Mesa (q.v.) edge or escarpment in which a canon 


Rhine (Ger.), a channel, a cleft serving as a watercourse. 

For use as a form of sub -oceanic relief see Gully. 
Rinok (Russ.), a market. 
Rio (It., Port., Sp.), a stream, river (E.) 
Riole (Ger.), a deep furrow, channel. 
Ripa (It.), a river-bank. Cf. Riva. 
kiRira (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), an island. 
muRira (Giryama), a trench. 
Ririnina (Madagascar), winter. 
Ririon (Ataiyal, Formosa), a river. 
Rirowa (Kossova, Eastern Uganda), country, region, 


Risa (Giryama). See Sa. 

Rise (Eng.), in sub-oceanic relief, is an Elevation (q.v.) 
which rises gradually with an angle of only a few 


minutes of arc, irrespective of whether it is wide 
or narrow or of its vertical development. Such 
features on dry land would be the main water- 
sheds. Equivalent to the Ger. Schwelle, Fr. 

Biserva (It.), reserve (K va ). 
iRiso (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass. 

Kit (Servian), marsh, bog. 

Rithe (Anglo-Saxon), running water, e.g. Meldrith. 

Riu (Rumania), & river (R.) 

Eiva (It.), the seashore. Cf. The Riviera, Rive, Ripa. 
kaRiva (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), a gorge. 

Rive (Fr.), shore, bank of a river. Cf. Riva, Ripa. 

Rivier (Dch), a river. Cf. Spruit. 

Riviere (Fr.), a river. Cf. Fleuve, Ruisseau. 

Rivos (Vonum, Formosa), mountain. 

iRiwa (Zulu, Kafir), a green rich pasture. 
muRo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 

Robat (Turkestan), an inn, caravansery, e.g. Tashrobat. 

Robine (Fr.) See Roubine. 

Roca (Sp.), a rock. 

Rocca (It.), a rock (E ca ) ; a fortress built on a rock. 

Rocha (Port.), a rock. 

Roche (Fr.), a rock. 

Rochedo (Port.), rocks, a rocky place. 

Rocher (Fr.), a rock (R er ). 

Rocher (Port), a rock or rocky place. 
uRochi (Kossova, Eastern Uganda), a river. 

Rod, Rode, Roth (Ger), land that has been ridded of 
trees. Cf. Royd. See next entry. 


Rodeland (Ger.), woodland made arable. See Rod, cf. 

ausrotten=to uproot, weed, &c. 

Roe (Kabadi, New Guinea), a sacred house or platform. 
Rogo (Mossi, French Sudan), house, hut. 
oRogongo (Kossova, Uganda), a place, site. 
Rohi (India), a loamy clay soil always found in low lands. 
Rohricht (Ger.), a bank of reeds or rushes. 
Rojo (Sp.), red, e.g. Laguna Rojo Aguado. 
Roknia (Arab.), a bend formed by a river. 
Romne (Celtic). See Ruimne. 

Romo (Cent. Africa), a lip, e.g. Chiromo, * a big lip/ 
Rpn (Da.), detached separate rocks. 
oru Rondo (Herero, Bantu), a rivulet, pi. otu Rondo. 
Rong-pa-si (Siam), custom-house. 
Rong (Tibet), gorge, defile, valley, e.g. Nya Rong. 
muRonga (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river. 
Rtfnne (Da., Nor.), a small hut. 
Ropa (Kabadi, New Guinea), a garden. 
.isiRoqpba (Zulu, Kafir), a very rough broken piece of 


R0s, R0se (Da., Nor.), Rose (Sw.), rocky ground. 
Roseaux (Fr.), reeds. 

Rosli (India), a kind of Rohi (q.v.) soil mixed with sand. 
Ross, Rus, Rhos (Celtic), a moor, morass, marsh, e.g. 

Rossall, Rusholme, Rhoscolyn. 
Ross, Ros (Celtic), a promontory, headland, peninsula, 

e.g. Kinross, Rosdhu, ' black headland ' ; Ardersier 

(Ard-ros-iar), ' high western promontory.' See 

Kin, Dhu, Ard, lar. 
Roth (Ger.), red, e.g. Rothhaus in Baden. 


Roth (Ger.) See Rod. 
Roto (Maori, New Zealand), a lake. 
umRotya (Zulu, Kafir), a deep narrow hollow made by a 

stream, a ravine. 
Roubine (Fr.), a canal communicating between a salt 

basin and the sea (Koub ne ). 
Rouge (Fr.), red. 
Route (Fr.), a road (K te ). 
HRova (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), earth, soil. 
oRove (Mpongwe, Gabun District, Bantu], a desert, pi. 


toRovo (Giryama), clay, mud. 

riRowa (Kossova, Eastern Uganda), country, district. 
Royd (Teutonic), land that has been ridded of trees, e.g. 

Holroyd. Cf. Rod. 
Rtse (Tibet), summit, top (r mute), e.g. Lab-rtse (i.e. La- 

b-rtse, the b being inserted for euphony), ' the top 

of the pass.' See La. Cf. Rdo for mutes. 
Ru (Cent. Africa), an old root meaning ' to flow,' e.g. 

Rusizi, Rufiji. See Do, Lo, Ro, Elu. 
Ru (Gaelic), point, headland, e.g. Ru bui, ' Yellow Point ' 

in Loch Alsh. Cf. Rudha. See Bui. 
Rua (Hausa), water, rain, river. See Ruwa. 
Rua (Port.), a street. 
Ruadh (Gaelic), red, e.g. Ruadh More, Ruad Sgeir, on the 

west coast of Scotland. Cf. Roth. See More, Sgeir. 
Rubar (Kurdish), a river. 
Rubi (Kiwai, New Guinea), a village. 
Rubu (Aroma, New Guinea), a sacred house or platform. 
Ruchei (Buss.), a rivulet. Dim. Rucheek. 


Ruchka (Buss.), creek, channel. 

Rucken (Ger.), a ridge. For use as a form of sub- 
oceanic relief see Ridge. 

Rud (Pers.), a river, e.g. Hari-Rud. 

Rudge (England), a back or ridge. 

Rudha (Gaelic), point, headland ; e.g. Rudha Dubh, 
' Black Point ' in Bute I. Cf. Ru. See Dubh. 

Rue (Fr.), a street (K.) 

Rue, Ruzi (Abba, N.W. of Rudolf I/.), a river. Cf. Ru. 

Rugga (Fula), small villages. 

Ruggens (Cape Dutch), undulating slopes, unirrigated 
hilly country. 

Ruimne, Romne (Celtic), a marsh, e.g. Romney. 

Ruisseau (Fr.), a stream (E au ). Cf. Fleuve, Riviere. 

Ruizi (Karanga, Bantu). See Izi. 

Rujm (Arab.), a cairn. 

Ruk (Ebon, Polynesia), south. 

Rukal (Puyuma, Formosa), a village. 

Rukuki (Hausa), underwood. 

Rul (Dch.), rugged, uneven, undulating (ground). 

Rum (Chong Chia-tse, Yunnan), wind. 

Rum (Chungkia, Shan States), water. 

Rumah (Malaysia), a house. In Sumatra there are three 
recognised varieties of the Batak Ruma, viz. ' the 
chief's,' ' the rich man's,' 'the poor man's.' Cf. Bale. 

[(Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), an island, 
ki Rumba j v 

Rumde (Fula), a slave village; in the Yola (Adamawa) 
region this has come to signify * the farm of,' 
e.g. Rumde Hamidu. Cf. Linyi. 


Rumel (Arab.), sand. 

Rumi (Arab.), lit. Roman, hence Christian. 

Run (U.S.A.), a brook or small creek, e.g. Bull's Run. 

Runan (Puyuma, Formosa), a mountain. 

Rung (Annam), wood, forest, bush. 

Runs, Runse (Ger., Switzerland), a watercourse, gully. 

Rup (Holstein), a village, e.g. Wanderup. 

Rupiri (dialect of Bantu). See Piri. 

Rus, Ruiset (Arab.), another form of Ras (q.v.) 

Rus (Celtic). See Ross. 

Rusoko (Cent. Africa), a river. 

Rusta (Pers.), a village. 

Ruth (Gaelic), red, e.g. Aberruthven, l the confluence of 

the red river.' See Aber; ven contracted from 

Gaelic abhuinn, river ; cf. Avon. 
Rutol (Pazzehe, Pei-Po, Formosa), a village. 
Ruus, pi. of Ras (q.v.) 
"Ruwa (Hausa), a river. See Rua. 
Ruzi (Rudolf L.), a river. Cf. Rue. 
Ryeka (Buss.), a river. 

Ryekostav (Buss.), the time when a river freezes. 
Ryeng, Ryong (Korea). See Nyeng, Chi, 


Sa (Tibet), land, territory, place, abode, e.g. Tug-sa, ' a 
camping place,' an encampment. 

Sa (W. Africa, between the Niger and the Atlantic), 
snake, e.g. Samokho, the people whose idol or fetish 
is the snake. Cf. Bamba, Mali, Sama. 


riSa (Giryama), pasture-ground. 
Saatenland (Ger.), land covered with crops. 
Saba (Bambara), three, e.g. Khosababe, lit. ' three 

streams,' confluence; be = to be. Cf. Fula. See 

Sabah (Arab., Egyptian Sudan), east, lit. the dawn. 

See Said, Safel, Gharb, Shark for other points. 
Sabil (Arab.), a road. 
Sable (Fr.), sand. 

Sablonniere (Fr.), a sand-pit, a gravel-pit. 
Sabrang (Malay), across or over the water. 
Sa-cha (Tibet), place. 
Saco (Sp.), a bay. 

Saea (Motumotu, New Guinea), sea. 
Sael (Caucasus), mud torrents. Cf. Selaf. 
Saeter (Nor.), mountain pasture ; a chalet (S r ). 
Safar (Arab.), stone, rock, e.g. Trik es Safar, ' stony road.' 
Safara (Dandkil, Eritrea), camp, hamlet. 
Safeid, Safid (Pers.), white, e.g. Safid Kuh. See Sefid, Kuh. 
Safel (Egyptian Sudan), north. See Said, Sabah, Gharb, 

Shark, Gebele, Gebli for other points. 
Safra, fern, of Asfar (q.v.) 
Saga (S. Cape, New Guinea), a river. 
Sagar (Punjab), ocean, sea. 
Saghe (Chad L. region). See Tsadhe, Sara, Isa. 
Saghir (Arab.), little. Cf. Seghir, Seria. 
Sagia (Arab.) See Sakia. 

Sagik (Aleut.), a point or sharp edge, e.g. Sagigik island. 
Saha (Madagascar), valley, a brook in a valley, thus 

antsaha = the place where the valley or brook is, 


e.g. Antsahakeli, ' at the little brook,' Antsahaondri, 

' in the sheep valley.' See An, Keli, Ondri. 
Sahal, Sahel (Arab.), easy, of a road without obstacles ; 

of land, easily cultivated or dug ; fertile country ; 

a plain ; the high land along the banks of the 

Nile ; coast, seaboard ; e.g. Wa-Swahili, ' the coast 

Sahan (Arab., N. Africa), a depression among dunes, 

often at the junction of two valleys, especially 

where vegetation abounds. Further south the 

large Sahans become Wadis. 
Sahara (Arab.), a desert, a plain. See Sahra. 
Sahel (Arab.), the littoral. See Sahal, another spelling. 

Gf. Guban of the Somali coast. 
Sahir (India, Cent. Asia), a city, from Pers. Shahr. 
Sahra (Arab.), a plain, desert. Gf. Sahara, which is a 

corrupt European form of Sahra. 
Sahrij (Arab.), a basin. 
Sahu (Arab.), unevenness of ground. Similar to Fr. 

Accidente and Ger. Schollen. 
Sai (Cantonese), little, small. 
Sai (E. Turk.), a valley, sometimes very broad; a 

Sai (Japan), west = Nisi = Nishi. Gf. Chinese Si. See 

Hoku for other points. 
Sai (Siam), sand, gravel. 
Sai (Turkestan), a stony plain. 
Said (Egyptian Sudan), south. See Sabah, Safel 

Gharb, Gebele, Shark for other points. 
Saiki-nosi (Madagascar), a peninsula. See Nosi. 


Sail (Arab.), a current, torrent. 

Sailab (Punjab), land subject to inundation from rivers. 

Saiyal (Arab.), a current. 

Saka (Marocco), an irrigation canal. 
iSaka (dialect of Bantu), a sandy unproductive land. 

Sakan (Burma), a halting-ground. 

Sakh (Serer, Senegal), country, village. 

Sakha (Soninke). See Sakka. 

Sakhalin (Manchu), black, e.g. Sakhalin Ilia, ' black river.' 

Saki (Japan), cape, promontory, Nagasaki. See Misaki. 

Sakia (Arab.), an irrigation canal ; a water-wheel. 
Another spelling is Sagia. 

Sakka (Soninke, West Sudan), a market. Found also 
in the form Sakha, 

Sakne (Arab.), a suburb. 

Sal (England), a stone house, e.g. Kensal. Sometimes 
spelled Sail (q.v.) Cf. Hall, Sell. 

Sala (Siam), rest-house. 

Salann, Salen (Gaelic), a salt-water bay, e.g. Salen bay, 
in Mull Sound. 

Salat (Malay Pen.), a channel. 

Salida (Sp.), the environs of a town. 

Salina (Sp.), a saltpan. 

Salines (Fr.), salt-water lagoons ; salt works (Sal.) 

Sail (England), a stone house, e.g. Walsall. Sometimes 
spelled Sal. Cf. Hall, Sell; from A.S. sal, sel, sael, 
salu, and other forms; originally a large one- 
roomed house, a hall (A.S. heall), not from sal by 
normal change of s to h, but from a different root. 
Cf. Ger. saal and halle. 


Salo (Ricss.), the first thin ice. 

Salt-lick (British East Africa), a name applied to any 

brackish marsh or salt spring, where the cattle are 

driven once or twice a month, 
Salto de agua (Sp.), cataract, waterfall. In Spanish S. 

America, Salto alone is used with this meaning. 

Thus Saltos (Argentina), rapids. 
Salz (Ger.), salt, e.g. Salzburg, ' salt castle,' castle on 

the Salza or salt stream. 
Sama (W. Africa, between the Niger and the Atlantic), 

elephant, e.g. Samanke, the ' people whose idol or 

fetish is the elephant.' See Nke. Cf. Bamba, Mali, Sa. 
Samar (Mongol), road, path. 
Samavi (Wadai), the round bell-shaped huts of Wadai 

made of reeds. See Mahareb. 
Samba (Tibet), bridge. 
Sami (Samoa), sea, salt water. 
Sampandranu (Madagascar), an affluent of a river. 
Samt (Arab.), a way, road. 
Sa-mtsam (Tibet), a frontier. See Sa. 
San (China, Japan, Korea}, hill, mountain, e.g. Chyeng- 

Am-San, Chyeng-Gyeng-San. Cf. Shan. 
San (It., Port., Sp.), saint (S.), e.g. San Remo. 
San (Min-kia, Yunnan), west, also used for ' small.' 

For other points see Pen. 
San Chan (China). See Chau. 
Sanct (Ger.), saint (S., St.) 
Sande (A-Zande), earth, land. 
Sandia (U.S.A.), an oblong rounded mountain mass, 

lit. water-melon (Sp.) 



Sang (Tibet), a plain. 

Sanga (Congo), an island. 

Sangava (New Georgia, Solomon Is.), a passage in a 


mSangu (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), forest. 
Sanjak (Turk.), district under a mutesarrif, a subdivi- 
sion of a Vilayet, and itself divided into Kazas ; flag. 
Sankt (Styria, dec.), saint. 
Sanpu, Sanpo (Tibet), a large river, lit. the * purifier,' 

generally written Tsang-po, Tsan-po, name of the 

Upper Brahmaputra flowing through Tibet. 
Sansanne (Hausa), carnp, encampment, a permanent 

camp, town, e.g. Sansanne Mangu. 
Santa (Fin.), sand. 
Santo (It., Port., Sp.), saint, e.g. Santo Domingo, Santa 

maSanza (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the season of the early 

light rains. 
Sao (Songhai), forest. 
Sao-thong (Siam), flagstaff. 
Saovi (Fin.), clay. 
Sap (Siam, Cambodia), great, e.g. Tonle Sap, 'the great 

lake' (of Cambodia). 
Sapala (Congo), wood, copse, bush. 
Sapalayo (Mossi, Fr. Sudan), the dry season. 
Sapiniere (Fr.), a fir plantation (Sap 1 " 6 ). 
Sar (Punjab), a sacred tank, pond, small lake, e.g. 

Amritsar, ' lake of immortality.' Cf. Sara (Pali). 
Sar (Per s.), summit, head ; equivalent to the Hind, Sir 



-Sar (Pers.), a suffix implying a place ' abounding in,' e.g. 
Kohsar, 'a mountainous country.' See Koh and Zar. 

Sar (Tibet), new, e.g. La Sar, ' new pass.' See La. 

Sara (Pali), a pond. Of. Sar (Punjab). 

Sara, Sarah (Bagirmi form of Arab. Sari) ; the former 
means water running rapidly, the latter running 
freely. Shari is the local (Kotoko) pronunciation of 
Sari, hence Sara K. is equivalent to Shari K. See Isa. 

Sarai (Pers.), a palace, house, as in caravansery ; from 
Old Pers. sharai = house, inn. By popular etymology 
sarai has been confused with It. serraglio, which 
is from serrare=to lock up (serra=a bolt). 

Sarar (Somali), a plateau. 

Sardsir (Pers.), summer pasture grounds. 

Sare perede (Gold Coast), a grassy plain. 

Sare (Upper Sassandra E. region, Sudan), red, e.g. Ibo 
Sare, ' the Ked Ibo ' or Fereduguba E. 

Sari (Arab.) See Sara. 

Sari, Sarith (Turk.), yellow, e.g. Sari-kol, ' the yellow 
hand,' name both of the river and valley. 

Sarik (E. Turkestan), grass. 

Sariki, Sarki (Hausa), king, prince. See Seriki, 

Sarka (Tibet), a goldfield. 

Sarn (Welsh), causeway, paved road, e.g. Sarn Helen. 

Saro (Madagascar), difficult, dear, dangerous, e.g. 
Sarodrivotra, ' difficult on account of the wind.' 

Sarota (Hausa), a kingdom. 

Sas (Rotuma, Polynesia), sea. 

Sasa'e (Samoa), east. For other points see Matu. 

Sasik (Cent. Asia), putrid, e.g. Sasik-Kul, 'putrid lake.' 

z 2 


Sassun (Mongol), snow. 

Sa-tsig (Tibet), a post station. 

eSau (Congo, dialect of Bantu), landing-place, ferry, ford, 
beach, crossing. 

Saug (Pers.j Afghan), stone. 

Saumpfad (Ger.), a path for pack animals. 

Saumweg (Ger.), a road for beasts of burden ; mule- 

Savannah (Sp.), a meadow, meadow land, a grassy, tree- 
less tract. The Sp. form is sa*bana = a sheet, from 
Lat. sabanum Greek o-dftavov a linen cloth. 

Sawa (Japan), a ravine. 

Say, Se (Songhai), a river. 

Saye (Soninke, West Sudan), sand. 

Sba (Arab., N. Africa), a peak. 

Sbah (Darfur), south. Cf. Bahar. 

Sbarcatojo (It.), wharf, landing-place. 

Sbocco (It.), opening, mouth. 

Sbugs (Tibet), cavity, recess ; end. 

Scale (Nor. Skaale), a shepherd's hut, e.g. Portinscale. 

Scar (from Nor. Skar), glen, gap, notch in a mountain, 
e.g. Scarborough. Cf. Score. 

Schaapskooi (Dch.), a sheepfold. 

Schaferei (Ger.), a sheepfold (Schaf.) 

Schans (Dch.), Schanze (Ger.), a trench ; earthwork. 

Scheer (Dch.), sands, shoals, cliffs. 

Scheide (Ger.), a parting, waterparting ; from scheiden= 
to divide. 

Schelf (Ger.), shelf (q.v.) 

Schere (Ger.), a cliff (in water), rock, ridge. 

Schicht (Ger.), layer, stratum. 


Schiefer (Ger.), schist ; also used for shale. 

Schiena (It.), a ridge, saddle ; lit. backbone. 

Schiffbrttcke (Ger.), a bridge of boats, pontoon. 

Schiffmuhlen (Ger.), floating mills (erected in boats). 

Schilf (Ger.), rushes. 

Schlangpfad (Ger.), a winding path, lit. ' snake-path.' 

Schleuse (Ger.), sluice, lock. 

Schlippe (Ger.), a narrow place or way. 

Schloss (Ger.), a castle (Schl.) 

Schlucht (Ger.), ravine, gorge, valley. 

Schlund (Ger.),' an abyss, chasm. 

Schnee (Ger.), snow, e.g. Schneekopf, ' snow head.' 

Schnelle (Ger.), rapids in a river. 

Schollenland (Ger.), broken accidented country. 

Schorren (Dch.), alluvium. 

Schuttung (Ger.), a dike, dam. 

Schwarz (Ger.), black, e.g. Schwarzes Meer, * Black Sea.' 

Schwelle (Ger.), in sub-oceanic relief, a Rise (q.v.) 

Scierie (Fr.), sawmills (Sc ie ). 

Scirocco. See Sirocco. 

Scoglio (It.), rock, stone. 

Scopetino (It.), a heath. 

Score (from Gaelic sgoir), a sharp rock, e.g. Dunscore, 

' the foot on the sharp rock.' See Dun. Cf. Scar. 
Score (Icel. skor, an incision), a cutting, a steep, narrow 

passage leading down to the sea, e.g. Lighthouse 

Score, Herring Fishery Score, Mariner's Score, &c. 

(Lowest oft). 
Sde (Tibet), country, district. See De. In this and the 

next word initial s is mute. For r mute see Rdo. 
Sdings (Tibet), depression, col. See Ding, Sde. 


Se (Japan), a shoal ; a cliff. 

Se (Min-kia, Yunnan), deep. 

Se (Siam), a river. 

Se. See Say. 

Seaou (China), little. 

Seba (India), Mughal division of a country under the 

control of a lieutenant-governor. 
Sebe (Indian, U.S.A.), a river. 
Sebil (Arab.), a wayside fountain. 
Sebkha (Arab.), marsh, saltpan. 
Sebz (Pers.), green, e.g. Kuh-i-sebz, 'green mountain.' 

See Kuh. 

Secadal (Sp.), dry barren ground. 
Sedlo (Slavonic), a possession, e.g. Sedlitz. 
See (Ger.), lake (S.) in masc. ; in fern. sea. 
Seeb (Indian, U.S.A.), a river. See Seep. 
Seebucht (Ger.), an estuary, a bight or bay. 
Seep (U.S.A.), a small trickling stream. See Seeb. 
Seff (Sudan), the dry season, summer (April- June). 
Sefid (Pers.), white, a variant of Safeid (q.v.) 
Sefra,/em. of Asfar (q.v.) 

nSeghe (Fan, French Congo), sand, a sandbank. 
Seghir (Arab.), little ; e.g. the Khor Seghir in Farsan 

Seghir Island. See- Seria, Saghir for other forms. 
Segia (Arab.) See Sakia. 
Segoma (Mossi, French Sudan), a defile. 
Sei (China), a temple, e.g. Pai ma sei, ' white horse 

temple.' See Pai. Ma = horse. 
Sell (Arab.), torrent, stream. 
Seipi (Motumotu, New Guinea), south. Cf. Kauritupe. 


eSeki (Congo, dialect of Bantu), dry land, land. 
Sekkin (Arab.) N. Africa), the ridge of a dune. 
Sel (Adamawa), a shallow river ; equivalent to the 

Kanuri Ngaljam (q.v.) 
Selaf (Caucasus), mud torrents. Cf. Sael. 
Selat (Arab.), a dry watercourse, e.g. Selat Kataba in 

S. Arabia ; the term wadi being here more used 

for ' valley/ Cf. Sahan, 
Selat (Malay), a strait or narrow. 
Selim (Chad L. region). See Tselim, 
Selka (Fin.), a bay. 
Sell (Anglo- Saxon), a cottage, a little superior to Cote 

(q.v.) Cf. Sail. 

Selo (Russ.), a village with a church. 
Selsela (Arab., N. Africa), a chain (of hills or dunes). 
Selva (Port.), 

. a wood, forest. 
Selva (Sp.), 

Semak (Malay), low bush. 

Semanterion (Greek), buoy, mark. 

Semaphore (Fr.), semaphore (Sera.) 

Semita (It.), a footpath. 

Sempang (Malay), cross-roads. 

Sen (China), town of the second order, or provincial 

capital. See Hsien. 
Sen (Japan), equivalent to the German Vorder (q.v.) ; 

fore, in front. 

Sen (Tamul, Deccan), length, distance. 
Senda, Sendero (Sp.), path, footpath. Cf. Sentiero, Sentier 
eSenge (Congo, dialect of Bantu), sand. 
Senke (Ger.), low ground or country. 


Seno (It., Sp.), a gulf or bay. 

Sentier (Fr.), footpath, track. Cf. Senda, Sendero. 

Sentiero (It.), path, narrow way. Cf. Senda, Sendero. 

iSep (Fan, French Congo), a garden made directly after 
the rainy season, and usually planted with maize. 

Sepa (Jibu, New Guinea), river. 

Sepewe (Indian, U.S.A.), a river. 

Sequedal (Sp.), Sequeral (Sp.), a dry barren soil. 

Ser (Kurdish), mountain, e.g. Ser-i-Amadia, 'Amadia 

Ser (Tibet), gold, e.g. the goldfield Ser-ka-Shyar. 

Sera (Swahili), rampart. 

Seraf (Arab., N. Africa), stream, e.g. Seraf Sayid (near 

Serai (Turk.), palace, in E. Turk., commercial entrepot ; 
a loan word from Per s, Sarai (q.v.) 

Sere (Soninke), people. 

Serekhore (Soninke), a chief. See Sere. 

Serekhule (Senegal), white men. See Sere. 

Serhoma (Mossi, French Sudan), a ravine. 

Seria, Seghir (Arab.), small. See Seghir. 

Seriki (Hausa), another form of Serki, a chief, e.g. 
Gidda-n-Seriki-n-Pawa, ' the town of the chief Pawa,' 
n being the sign of the possessive. See Sariki. 

Serir (Arab.), flat ground without vegetation ; parts of 
the Sahara covered with masses of siliceous horn- 
stone, in contradistinction to the sandy wastes. 

Serki-gari (Hausa), capital town, Serki meaning * a chief.' 
Cf. Fama-Dugu. See Seriki, 

Sermiakhsu (Eskimo, Smith Sound), a glacier. 


Serra (It.), a cross ridge, a pass ; lit. = a> bolt, bar. 

Serra (Port.), a mountain ridge ; lit. = a, saw. 

Serradoes (Brazil), ' high woods,' stunted tracts on the 

dry, unproductive uplands. See Carrascos, Capoes, 

Serrania (Sp.), a mountainous district, a ridge of 

mountains. See Sierra, 
Sertoes (Brazil), ( backwoods,' suggestive of waste land, 

wilderness, rather than woodlands, and applied to 

both Taboleras and Chapadas (q.v.) See also Campos. 
luSese (Bantu), sand. 

Sesmo (Sp.), a division of territory in some Spanish 


Set (Anglo-Saxon), a settlement, e.g. Dorset. 
Seter (from Nor. Saeter), a chalet, e.g. Ellanseter. 
Seto (Japan), strait, channel. 
Sett. See Sudd. 
umSetuluka (Kafir), a sideling place on a road which is at 

so acute an angle that a vehicle in passing would be 

in danger of sliding down. 
Seuil (Fr.), sill (as of a dock). Asa form of sub-oceanic 

relief equivalent to Else (q.v.) 
Sewat (Deccan), summit, top. 


( (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), forest, bush. 

Sgang-ka (Tibet), summit of a hill ; s is mute. See Gang. 
Sgar (Tibet), camp, permanent camp; is the same word 

as Gar (q.v.) ; s is mute. See under Rdo. 
Sgeir (Gaelic), a rock in the sea, e.g. Ruadh Sgeir. Cf. 



Sgor (Gaelic), a peak, e.g. Sgor Dearg in the isle of Skye. 

Sha (China), sand, sandbank, e.g. Shamo, ' the Sand Sea,' 
i.e. Gobi. 

Sha (Indian, U.S.A.) See Cha. 

Shaaba (Arab., Algeria), system of sinuous ravines ; 
another form of Shaba (q.v.) 

Shab (Arab.), a rocky shoal. 

Shaba (Arab., N. Africa), a ravine. See Shaaba. 

Shabel (Somali), leopard, e.g. Shabele, i.e. Shabel-le, * the 
place of leopards.' Many places in Somaliland are 
named after living creatures and trees, e.g. Libale, 
' the place of lions,' Warabale, ' the place of 
hyaenas,' Shimbirale, ' the place of birds,' Goble, 
' the place where the Gob trees grow.' See Le. 

Shabet (Arab.), a basin surrounded by mounts, e.g. 
Shabet el Akhera ; a plain, e.g. Shabet el Ahir, ' the 
plain of Air. 1 

Shah-bandari (Turk.), a buoy. 

Shahid (E. Turk.), a martyr, the tomb of a martyr. 

Shahr (Pers.), a town, the proper form of Shehr (q.v.) 

Shair. See Sher, 

Shakata (Yoruba), fen, bog, morass. 

Shal-ma (Tibet), schistose debris. 

Shamal (Arab.), the prevailing north-west winds of the 
Persian Gulf. 

Shamama (W. Sahara), inundated banks ; more fre- 
quently written Chamama. 

Shaman (Siberia, Alaska], a medicine man, e.g. Shaman 
village, island, and point. 

Shamba (Nika), a plantation. 


Shan (China), hill, mountain, range, e.g. Tian Shan, cf. 

San ; island. 
Shang (China), upper, e.g. Shang-pu, 'upper citadel.' 

Cf. Hsia. 

Shang (Korea), grotesque signposts. 
Shang (Tangut), wood, forest. 
Shan-hu (China), coral. 
Shan-tau (China), bluff, cliff. Cf. Tsiau-pi, 
Shan-ting (China), a mountain chain. 
Shao (China), small, e.g. Shao-ho, l small river.' 
Shar (Pers.), a whirlpool, eddy. 
Shar (Tibet), east. For other points see Lho. 
Shar (White Sea region), long narrow gulf, strait. 
Shara- (Mongol), a prefix meaning yellow, e.g. Shara 

Muren, < Yellow Kiver,' Shara Gol, ' Yellow Stream.' 
Sharaki (Egypt), land unirrigated and therefore un- 


Shari (Arab.), a highway. 
Shari, Sari (Kotoko, South Bornu, Chad L. region), 

water, river. See Isa, Sara. 
Shark (Arab.), the east. See Said, Safel, Gharb for other 

(Arab., Egyptian Sudan), the right bank of the 

Nile, from the above. 
Shark! (Arab.), the winter south-east winds of the 

Persian Gulf, from Shark. Cf. Kaus. 
Sharki (Turk.), east, from Arab. Shark. 
Sharm (Arab.), a port. 
Sharon (Hebrew), a plain. 
Sha-sien (China), shoal. 


Shat (Arab.), fresh water, river, e.g. Shat el Arab, the 
combined Tigris and Euphrates. 

Sha-tan (China), sandbank, bar. See Sha, Tan. 

Shaw (England), a shady place, a wood, e.g. Bagshaw. 

Shbar (Hassania), a mud wall surrounding an enclosure. 

She (China), a reef of rocks ; also a monastery ; stone ; 
a fortification. 

She (Formosa), the headquarters of a native tribe. 

Shealing (Scotland), a highland cottage. 

Sheanyi (Lu-Wanga, Eastern Uganda), an enclosure. 

Sheb (Pers.), descent, declivity. 

Sheba (Arab.), a ravine, watercourse. 

Shebika, dim. of Shebka (q.v .) 

Shebka (Arab.), a network of ravines ; a country greatly 
intersected by ravines, e.g. the Shebka of Mzab. 

Shehar, Shehr (Pers.), a town, e.g. Eski Shehr, * old town.' 
Eski (Turk.) = old. 

Sheikh (Arab.), chief, elder, saint, e.g. Sheikh Hussein. 

Shejera (Arab.), a tree. 

Shelf (Eng.), used, in sub-oceanic relief, for the portion 
of the continental border which extends seaward 
from tide-marks, sinking very gradually as a rule to 
the depth of about 100 fathoms, and then suddenly 
falling steeply to a great depth ; e.g. the British, 
Sunda, and Newfoundland Shelves. Equivalent 
to Ger. Schelf, Fr. Socle or Plateau Continental. 

Shemal (Arab.), north, north wind. 

Shemal (E. Turk.), wind. 

Shenyi, Mshenyi (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu) 
sand, e.g. Kashenyi, a town in Kyanya. 


Sher (Arab., N. Africa), barley, e.g. Wad Sher, 'barley 
valley.' See Wad. 

Shergi (W. Sahara], east. Cf. Gebele, Gebli. 

Sheria (Arab.), a small footpath. 

Sherm (Arab.), a creek or small cove. 

Shershaf (Arab.), a cliff. 

Shershar (Arab.), a cascade. 

Shet (Icelandic hjalt), high, e.g. Shetland, ' high land.' 

She-tan (China), a reef of rocks. See She. 

Shi (China), market-place, market, e.g. Ma-shi-tai, 
* horse market terrace.' See Tai. Ma=horse. 

Shi (China), stone, e.g. Shi-hu, ' stone gorge.' 

Shi (Miao-tse, Kwei-chau, and Min-Jcia, Yunnan), 

new, e.g. Chin-shi-min, west of Yao Ngan. 
nShi (Congo, Bantu), region, state ; earth, ground. 

Shib (Arab.), a mountain pass, ravine. 

Shibi (Korea), house, usually built round a quadrangle. 

Shidle (Somaliland), a rocky place. See Le. 

Shiiro (Lu-Wanga, Eastern Uganda), market. 

Shikulu (Lu-Wanga, Eastern Uganda), hill, moun- 

Shili (Mongol), a grassy hill. 

Shima (Congo), pool, pond, well. 

Shima (Japan), island, Tokyo dialect for Sima (q.v.) 

Shimal (Arab.) See Shemal. 

Shimbira (Somali), birds. See under Shabel. 

Shimo (Japan), lower, e.g. Shimo-tsu-fsa, ' lower Fusa.' 

Shimo (Swahili), ditch, pit, excavation. 
eShimu (Congo, dialect of Bantu). See Eshimu. 

Shina (Syriac), cliff, e.g. Tura Shina. See Tura. 


Shinarkh (Arab.), a promontory. 

Shinden (Japan), certain paddy-lands brought into 

cultivation since the last survey. 
Shing (Tibet), a tree. 

Shir (Yambo, Upper Sobat E.), the rainy season. 
Shire (England), something shorn off, a division, county. 
Shiroi (Japan), white, e.g. Shirokubi Saki. 
Shitong (Hainan), market, market town. 
Shitta (Sudan), winter (October-March), autumn. 
Shitu-dianza (Manchuria), a stony valley. 
Shiu (China, Japan), province, district. 
Shin ia (Min-Jcia, Yunnan), snow. 
Shivala (Punjab), a pillar-like temple of the god Shiva. 

Cf. Ling. 

Shiver (E. Turk.), marsh ground with vegetation. 
Shivu (Congo), the cold season. 
Shiwo (Japan), tide; Tokyo dialect for Siwo (q.v.) See 

Hiki Shiwo. 

Shlieng (Cambodia), rain. 

Sho (Cambodia, Cochinchina), market. See Cho. 
Shoal (Eng.), a single Elevation (q.v.), or submarine 

mountain rising to within eleven metres of the 

surface, e.g. Adler Shoal. Equivalent to Ger. Grund, 

Fr. Haut Fond. Similar to Reef. 
Shong (Tibet), excavation, small lateral valley. 
Shor (C. Asia, Punjab), salt, land impregnated with salt. 
Shorrafa (Arab.), local rain, places watered by local rains. 
Shott (Arab., N. Africa), bank, shore ; a large river ; a 

vast stretch of salt water ; a saltpan ; a muddy 

depression without vegetation. This is really the 


Arab. Shat (pronounced shut) (q.v.), of which Chott 

(Shott) is the Fr. spelling. 
Shrui (Cambodia), a cape. 
Shua (Annam), a pagoda. 

Shuf (Arab.), a prominent or culminating point. 
Shui (Annam), stream, torrent. 

Shui (China), water, e.g. Kiang shui, ' waters of the Kiang.' 
Shukf, Shukif (Arab.), a cliff (cleft). 
Shui (Tibet), a track, road. 
Shuma (Servian), a forest. 
waShumba (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 


Shur (Arab.), low clay hills. 

Shur, Shor(Pers.), brackish ; cf. Sansc. Kshara = very bitter. 
Shur a (Kaffa, Abyssinia), black. 
Shurh kwie (Min-kia, Yunnan), mountain. 
Shushet (Arab.), a slight undulation. 
Shushitna (Alaska), a great muddy river, the great 

muddy river, the Shushitna. See Na. 
Shut (Persia), a salt-water river. 
Si (China), west, western, e.g. Kwang-si. Cf. Tung, Pe, 

Nan. See Kwang. 
Si (Fan, French Congo), the world ; a large tract of 

country. Cf. Fan. 
Si (Hainan), a village. 
Si (Lolo, China), a wood. 
Si (Mashonaland), a prefix meaning 'small,' e.g. Sifura, 

' small Fura.' See Fura. 
a Si (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), water. See Mazi, 

Mansi, Zi. 


chiSi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), island. 
muSi (Gent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), town, country. Cf. 

Si (Bambara, Malinke), town, village, e.g. Sikoro, ' old 
village.' See Koro. 

Sia (China), lower. 

Sia, Zia (Nika), a reservoir, lake. 
kiSia, -zia (Nika), a small lake. 

-Sia (Tripoli), a plural termination signifying people, 
inhabitants, population, e.g. Ghadamsia, 'the in- 
habitants of Ghadames.' Cf. Senussia, 'the followers 
of Senussi.' 

Siah (Pers., Afghan), black, e.g. Siah Koh. Cf. Siya. 
See Koh. 

Siao (Yunnan), little, small, e.g. Siao Kwen-keu, near Yao 

Siao-ho (China), a rivulet, lit. 'little river.' 

Siao-tao (China), an island, small island, islet. See Tao. 

Sibansho (Japan), guard-house. 

Side (England), a slope, declivity, or ascent, e.g. Cross- 
land Sides near Hartington ; from A.S., side (root 
sid, long, extended). 

Sidzau (Lolo, China), a wood, forest. 

Sierra (Sp.), a rugged mountain range with serrate 
outline ; from sierra = a saw. 

Sif, pi. Siuf (Arab., N. Africa), an extended dune with 
thin ridge ; winding low dunes. 

Sifa (Arab.), sandy beach. 

Sigaram (Tamul, Deccan), summit of a mountain. 

Sighi (Turk.), a bank, shoal. 


Signal (Fr.), signal (S al ). 
Siipu (Indian, U.S.A.}, a creek, cove. 
Sika, eSika (Congo, dialects of Bantu), a house. 
maSika (East Africa, dialect of Bantu), the rainy season 

(end of March to end of May). 
Sikka (Arab., N. Africa), a road. 
Sil (Cent. Asia), a sudden flood or inundation. 
Sil (Korea), a valley, e.g. Sil-Lyeng, Chara-Sil. 

, (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a road. Cf. Zila. 
in Sila j 

Silanga (Philippines), a channel, strait, passage ; in the 
southern islands this is used for ' a bay.' Also 
used to convey the meaning ' small, low islands.' 

Silla (Fin.), a bridge. 

Sillon (Fr.), a furrow, ridge. For use as a form of sub- 
oceanic relief see Furrow, 

Sima (Japan), island ; makes Jima sometimes in com- 
pounds, e.g. Awa jima, ' Awa island.' See Shima, Jima. 

Sima (Tangut), sand. 
kiSima (Swahili), a well, pi. ma Sima. 

Simba (Zambezia), pi. of Numba (q.v.) 
inSimi (Zulu, Kafir), a piece of cultivated ground. 

Simpang (Malay), a crossing, e.g. Simpang Lima, a 
station on the new Perak railway. 

Sin (Amharic), an elephant's tusk, applied to a mountain 

Sin (China), a walled village. 

Sin (China), new, e.g. Sin-kai, ' New Market,' the 
Chinese name for Bhamo, properly Bhamaw, See 
Kai, Bha, Maw, 

A A 


Sin (Arabo-Pers.) See Jin. 
Sinavi (Motu, New Guinea), a river. 
Sindom (Soninke, Fr. Sudan), south. See Kinkhenna. 
Sing (China), a spring, fountain. 

Sing (Tibet), a place covered with short grass, a marsh. 
imSingakazi (Kafir), a very powerful stream of water, a 


Singha (Malay), a place of call, e.g. Singapore or 
Singhapura, ' the city of the place of call.' Other 
authorities give Sinha (Sansc.), lion, thus Singapore, 
'lion city.' See Pura. 
uluSingi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a forest. 

Sinikh (Turk.), ruined, in ruins. 
m Sinje 

. , (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a river. 

Siora (Eskimo, Smith Sound), sand. 

Siper (Albania), upper. 

Siphandon (Laos), ' The Four Thousand islands,' a name 

given to the group at Khong on the Mekong. 
Sipil (Chinese Turkestan), fortification, wall of a town. 
Sir (Arab.), a fold. 
Sir (Hind.), head, summit, e.g. Sir Daria, the ' Head 

Stream' (Jaxartes). Cf. Sirdar; see Sar. 
Sira (Madagascar), salt, e.g. Antsirabe, ' the place where 

there is much salt.' See An, Be. 
Siranga (Rubiana, Solomon Is.), a road. 
Sirge (Bornu), a lake of natron. See Abge. 
Sirik (Mongol), a valley. 
Sirkar (India), a district or division. 
Siro (Japan), palace, castle ; white. 


Siro (Nandi and Ja-Luo, Uganda), a market. 

Sirocco, Scirocco (It.), a hot oppressive wind coming from 

Northern Africa over the Mediterranean to Sicily 

and Italy. 

Sirt (Turk.), a ridge. 

Sisifo (Samoa), west. For other points see Matu. 
Sisim (Agni, Ivory Coast), a village, place of cultivation. 
Sitch, Sich (England), a watercourse, a little current of 

water, which is dry in summer, a gutter ; from 

A.S. sic, sich, a furrow, watercourse, e.g. Goldsitch 

Moss. See Moss. 
Sitlal (Aztek), a star, e.g. Sitlaltepetl, ' star mountain,' 

the Orizava of the maps. See Tepetl. 
Sitt (Arab.), lady, female saint. 

m Situ I (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), forest, wood, 
mu Situ [ thicket. Cf. Witu. 

Siuf,^. of Sif (q.v.) 

Siwa (Mt. Kenia region), swamp, applied to the Lorian 


chiSiwa (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), island. See Ziwa, 
kiSiwa (Swahili), island ; ioic pi. see Kisiwa. 
Siwo (Japan), tide, current. Cf. Shiwo, 
Siya (Pers.), black. Cf. Siah. 
Sjb (Sw.), sea. 

-Sk (Russ.), a suffix meaning 'town,' e.g. Omsk. 
Skala (Hung.}, rocks (Ski.) 
Skam (Tibet), barren, dry. 
Skandse (Da.), fort, Cf. Sohans. 

A A 2 


Skar (Sw.), a skerry, a rock at times covered by water. 

See Skjaer. 

Skard (Icel.), a ravine. 
Ske (Tibet), a neck or gorge. 
Skip (from Da., Nor. Skib.), a ship, e.g. Skipness, ' ship 

point.' See Ness. Cf. Skipper. 
Skiron (Neo-Greek), north-east. For other points see 

Skjaer, Skser (Da., Nor.), a skerry, a rock at times covered 

by water. See Skar. 
Skole (Da., Nor.), a school (S ke ). 
Skopelos (Greek), rock, e.g. Skopelos Islands north of 

Eubrea (Negropont). 
Skov (Da., Nor.), a wood, forest. 
Slaak (Dch.), a channel, passage. 
Sliabh, Slievh (Irish), a mountain, e.g. Slievh Beg, Sle- 

mish, Cf. Slieve, Slieu. 
Slib (Dch.), mud, ooze, e.g. Slibbroek. 
Slide (U.S.A.), the exposed surface left in the track of 

a landslide, as a landslip is called in the States. 
Slieu (Manx), a mountain. Cf. Sliabh, Slieve. 
Slieve (Gaelic), a mountain, e.g. Slieve Bloom. Cf. 

Sliabh, Slieu. 

Sloboda, Slobodka (Buss.), a suburb, village (SI.) 
Slot (Da., Nor.) 

Slott (Sw.) < 

Sluis (Dch.)- t a sluice, dam, e.g. Zwartsluis, Buitensluis. 

See Zwart, Buiten. Cf. Sluss 
Sluit (Cape Dch.), a ditch, gutter, stream. 
Sluse (Da., Nor.), Sluss (Sw.), a lock, sluice. Cf. Sluis. 


Smad (Tibet), low country. See Ma, Mad ; s is mute. 
Smala, Zmala, >. Zemul or Mezemlin (Arab., N. Africa), 

the camp of a great chief. See Zmala. 
Smeida, Smid, Smidet (Arab.), an isolated low dune. 
Smid. See Smeida. 

Snee (Da., Nor.), snow, e.g. Sneehsetten, 
Sneeuw (Dch.), snow, Sneeuwbergen, 
Snb (Sw.), snow. Cf. Snee. 
Snyeg (Buss.), snow. 
So (Agni, Ivory Coast, Mande), place, town, village, 

e.g. Assikasso, Aboisso. Cf. Su, Tenga, 
So (China), a guard-house ; military station of less im- 
portance than a Wei (q.v.) ; a fortified military place, 

camp ; town, village. 
So (Fin.), the mouth of a river, estuary. 
S0, Sjb (Da., Nor.), sea. 

iSoaj (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), grass. See 
maSoaj Sua, Suwa, Swa. 

Soa (Madagascar), beautiful, good, e.g. Soarano, * good 

water,' Soakazo, ' beautiful tree.' Cf. Tsara. See 

Rano, Kazo. 

Soaks (W. Australia), shallow wells in granite formation. 
Soane (Kusage, Solomon Is.), a road. 
Sobba (Arab., N. Africa), a cascade. 
Soberga (Mongol), a pagoda, e.g. Chagan Soberga, 'white 

pagoda.' See Chagan, 
S#bod, Sjdbod (Da., Nor.), a warehouse abutting on the 


Socken (Sw.), a parish. Cf. Sogn. 
Socle (Fr.) t shelf (q.v.) 


Sbder (Sw.), adv. south, e.g. Soderhamn, ( south haven,' 
aSogh (Fan, French Congo), a fall, rapid; for pi. see 


Sogn (Da., Nor.), parish. Cf. Socken. 
Sok (Marocco), district, place ; country market, e.g. 

Sok el Arba, a place where a market is held on 

Wednesdays, or the 4th day. Similar place-names 

are found for other days of the week. See Suk. 
Sokaki (Smyrna Greek), a street. 
Sokke (SoninJce, Senegal), grass. 
Soko, pi. Masoko (Swahili), market. 
Sol (Fr.), soil, ground. 
Solano (Sp.), a hot, oppressive south-east wind, the 

local Spanish name for Sirocco (q.v.) 
Solo (Eotuma, Polynesia), a mountain. 
luSolo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river; in Yao 

(Nyassaland) this is luSulo, pi. nSulo. See Sulu. 
Somed (Arab.), a rocky round hill. 
Sommet (Fr.), summit (Som.) 
Sommo (It.), summit, top. 
Son (Cambodia), mountain, e.g. Long-Son, ' Flourishing 

Mountain,' in Bao-Hue, 
Son (Siam), confluence. 

S0nder (Da.), south (S r ). See Syd, None, for other points. 
Song (Annam), a river. 
Son-ni (Hainan), a path. 
Sono (Cent. Africa), grass. See Sore, Sote. 
Sopa (Lolo, China), a mountain. 
Sopak (Mentawei I., S.W. Coast Sumatra), a stream. 
So pan (Indian, U.S.A.), a valley. 


Sopi (Kiriwina, New Guinea), water. 

Sopka (Buss.), a small separate hill ; a volcano. 

Sopo (Sumatra). See under Bale. 

Sore (Mossi, French Sudan), a road. 
iSore (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass. See Sote. 

Sorgente (It.), a source (Sorg te ). 

Soro (Songhai), a minaret. 

Sosobi (Hausa), a ravine. 
iSote (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass. See Sore. 

Source (Fr.), source, spring, fountain. 

Speco (It.), a cave, cavern. 

Spelonk (Dck.), a cave; from Lat. spehmca=cave. 

Spi (Kurdish), white, e.g. Av-i-spi, * white water.' See Ava. 

Spiaggia (It.), the sea shore, coast. 

Spiti (Neo-Greek), a house. 

( summit ; top of a mountain, crest ; 

\ equivalent to Beak, Pike, Spit, e.g. Spitz- 
Spitze (Ger.) . _ ^ 

\ bergen, Oertler Spitz. 

Spo (Tibet), summit of a mountain ; same word as Po 

(q.v.) ; s is mute. See under Rdo, 
Sponda (It.), the bank of a river. 
Spoor (Dch.), track, trail. See next entry. Cf. Spur. 
Spoorweg (Dch.), railway. See Spoor, Weg. 
Spruit (Dch.), a small stream. Cf. Bivier; is cognate 

with Eng. Sprout. 
Spui (Dch.), a sluice, lock. 
Spur (Ger.), track, trail. Cf. Spoor. 
Squero (It.), a dockyard. 
Sra (Cambodia), reservoir, tank. 
Srok (Cambodia), a canton. 


Sron (Gaelic), a nose, promontory. 

Sronsron (Gold Coast), summit, highest point. 

Stable. See Staple. 

Stack (from Icel. Stakkr), a high isolated rock, usually 

columnar ; sometimes corrupted into Stag. 
Stad (Da., Nor., Dch., Sw.), a city, large town. Cf. 

Stadt, Stede. 

Stadhuis (Dck.), a townhouse, town hall. 
Stadt (Ger.), a city, town, e.g. Kronstadt. Cf. Stad, Stede. 
Staff (Scandinavian staphi), pillars, e.g. Staffa, properly 

Staffey, ' the island of pillars,' from the columnar 

formation of the basalt of which it is composed. 

Cognate with A. 8. staef= staff. See Ey. 
Stag. See Stack. 
Stagno (It.), a pool, marsh. 
Stab (Arab.), a plateau. Cf. Steihat. 
Staith (Anglo-Saxon staedh, bank, shore, Icel. stbdh, a 

harbour, roadstead), a landing-place, an elevated 

railway staging from which coal-trucks discharge 

their loads into cars or vessels beneath. 
Stak (Da., Nor.), a heap, stack (of stones). Cf. Stack. 
Stain (Dch.), a tribe, race ; cognate with Eng. stem. Cf. 

Ger. stamm. 
Stan (Pers.), a suffix of locative meaning, place, e.g. 

Hindustan, Kafiristan, Afghanistan. 
Stan (Buss.), a station, camp. 
Stanitsa (Buss.), a Cossack village. 
Stanitsa (Servian), a station, railway station. 
Stanovishche (Buss.), a station, camp. 
Stantsiya (Buss.), a station. 


Staple (England), a market, e.g. Barnstaple, Staplegrove, 

Stapleford ; Low Ger. stapel = a pile of goods for 

sale, a warehouse. 

Stari (Buss.) ) old (Str.), e.g. Stara Zagora, the 

Stary (Bohemian) j Turkish Eski Zagra. See Eski. 

Statte (Ger.), place, spot. Cf. Stead, Stede. 
Stazione (It.), a station (Staz e ). 
Stead (England), a place, e.g. Hampstead; from A.8. 

stede = a place. Cf. Stad, Stadt, Stede, Statte. 
Stede (Dch.), a town, place, spot. Cf. Stead. 
Steeg (Dch.), a lane, alley. 
Steen (Dch.) stone, rock, e.g. Steenbergen. Cf. Sten, 

Steep (Indian, U.S.A.), earth, land. 

Steg(Dc/i.), ) 

, > a narrow wooden bridge, path. 
Steg (Ger.), j 

Steig (Ger.), a path. 

Steiger (Dch.), a pier, quay, landing-place. 

Stei'hat (Arab., N. Africa), a plateau. (7/. Stah. 

Steil (Dch., Ger.), steep, precipitous. See next entry. 

Steilabfall (Ger.), escarpment. See Steil. Cf. Abhang. 

Stein (Ger.), stone, e.g. Ehrenbreitstein, ' broad stone of 
honour.' Cf. Steen, Sten. 

Steinbruch (Ger.), a quarry. 

Stelle (Ger.), place, site. 

Sten (Da., Nor., Sw.), stone, rock. Cf. Steen, Stein. 

Steno (Greek), narrow, e.g. Steno Pass. 

Steppe (from Russ.), a vast treeless plain, prairie ; the 
Euss. form is Step (pronounced ' stepp '), and is ap- 
plied generally to grassy, saline, and sandy tracts. 


Steptoes (U.S.A.), island-like areas in a sea of lava. 
Ster (Icel. stadr), a stead, seat, dwelling, e.g. Ulster. 
Stieng (Indo-China), savages, applied now to hillmen 

N.-E. of Saigon, though originally the name of a 

tribe of hillmen. 

Stiert (Da.), a spit of land. Cf. Stjert. 
Stift (Ger., Da., Nor., Sw.), diocese ; religious founda- 
tion, monastery, &c. 
Stirpeto (It.), a brake. 

Stjaert, Stjert (Da., Nor.), a tail or spit of land. Cf. Stiert. 
Stob (Scotland), stump, e.g. Stobo, properly Stobol, ' the 

hollow of stobs or stumps,' Stobs Castle. 
Stock. See Stoke. 
Stoep (Cape Dutch), a masonry platform with steps in 

front of a house. 
Stoke, Stock (England), a stockaded place; from A.S. 

stocc = post, stem ; e.g. Basingstoke, Woodstock. 

Cf. Stow. 

Stolp (Buss.), pinnacle rock. 
Stong, Tong (Tibet), a desert. The s is mute. 
Stoommolen (Dch.), a steam mill. 
Stor, Store (Da., Nor., Sw.), large, great (St.), e.g. Stor 

Aa, Store Belt. 
Stora (Sw.), large, great (st.), e.g. Stora Lulea Elf. See 

Stow (England), a place, a stockaded place, from A.S. 

stow = a place ; e.g. Chepstow. Cf. Norse sto ; 

Lithuanian stowe. 

Straat (Dch.), a street. See next entry. 
Straatweg (Dch.), a high road. See Straat, Weg. 
Strada (It.), a road. See next entry. 


Stradone (It.), a high road. See Strada. 

Strand (Dch., Eng., Ger.), beach, shore. 

Strasse (Ger.), a street. 

Strath (Gaelic), a broad valley with a river flowing 

through it, e.g. Strathclyde, Strathmore. See More. 

Of. Welsh Ystrad. 

Strauch (Ger.), shrub, bush, small tree. 
Strecke (Ger.), a stretch or reach of a river ; region. 
Strelka (Buss.), a sandspit. 
Stretto (It.), a strait, defile. 
Strom (Ger.), a stream. Cf. Fluss. 
Strom (Nor., Da., Sw.), river-current, stream of the 


Strombett (Ger.), the bed of a river. See Strom, Bett. 
Stromschnelle (Ger.), a rapid in a river. See Schnelle. 
Strudel (Ger.), an eddy, whirlpool. 
Struya (Buss.), eddy water, current. 
Stung (Cambodia), a rapid over sand or pebbles, river, 

e.g. Stung Treng, 

Su (China), a township, e.g. Kan-su. 
-Su (Ashanti), a suffix signifying ' on a river,' e.g. 

Prasu, ' the town on the Pra R.' Cf. Foa. 
Su (Maude, Fr. Sudan), an inhabited place of less im- 
portance than a capital. Cf. So, Tenga. 
Su (Turk.), water, river; e.g. Ak-su, 'white water' (the 

o Su (Fan, Fr. Congo) ; for meanings and pi. see Osu. 

Sua (Mandara, South Bornu), a well. 
chiSua (Bantu), an island in a river. 
nSua (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), an island; for 

other form see Nsua. 


uSua (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), grass. See Swa, Suwa, 

Suan (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), flint. 

Suba (Arab.), a province. 

Subs (Pers.), green, e.g. Kuba-i-Subs, 'green dome.' 

Subsolano (Sp.), south-east wind. See Solano. 

Suckanissing (Indian, U.S.A.), black stone place, e.g. 

Sud (Fr., Sp.), Slid (Ger.), south. 

Sudan (Arab.), blacks, thus Beled es Sudan, ' the land of 
the blacks,' Nigritia or Negroland. See Beled, El. 

Sudar (Hung.), & peak. Of. Sugar. 

Sudd (Upper Nile), a luxuriant growth of vegetation, 
which blocks the Bahr el Ghazal and Nile as far 
as Sobat K. junction annually from September to 
January, and at times for years together ; was 
cleared in 1900-1901, and measures are now being 
taken to keep the navigation open. 

Suduga (Mossi, French Sudan), a cascade, waterfall. 

Suf (Arab.), wool, e.g. Urn Suf, ' mother of wool,' i.e. 
the plant Vossia, tall reeds with white fluffy 
heads, which, with papyrus, cover an enormous 
area of the Ghazal swamps. 

Suf (Wolof), cultivable land, sand. 

Sugar (Hung.), a peak. Cf. Sudar. 

Sugur (Moro, E. Archipelago), a bay. 

Sun (Abbadi, Etbai, Upper Egypt), granite. 

Suhaili (Arab.), the much-feared south-west winds of 
the Persian Gulf.- 

Suheli (Swahili), south. See Kusini, Kibula. 


Suk (Arab.), a market. Another form of Sok (q<v.) 

Sukhaya voda (Buss.), low water. See Voda. 

Sukhoi (Buss.), dry. 
nSuku (Congo, dialect of Bantu), inlet, bay, gulf, creek. 

Sul (Port.), south, e.g. Rio Grande do Sul, ' great river 
of the south.' 

Sulagh (E. Turk.), a place where there is water. 

Suli (Kanarese, W. coast of Hindustan), south. For 

other points see Gi. 
kaSulo (Upper Congo, dialect of Bantu), a source of a 

nSulu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), brook, stream. See Solo. 

Sum (Mongol), monastery. 

Suma (Arab.), a minaret. 

Suma (S. Slav.), a forest, bush. 

Sumale (Bambaraj Fr. Sudan), fresh, e.g. Jisumale, 

1 fresh water ' ; ji= water. 

maSumba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the kraal or village 
of a chief. Cf. Boma, Zeriba, 

Sumbi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a lake. 
uSumbi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a river, stream. 

Sum-do (Tibet), a confluence. See Do. 

Sumpf (Ger.), a marsh, bog. 

Sun (Hainan), a path, road. 

Sund (Da., Sw.), a sound. 

Sung (China), pine tree, e.g. Sung-Hua-Chiang, 'Pine- 
flower river,' i.e. the Sungari in Manchuria ; Lao- 
Sung-Ling, ' old pine pass.' See Chiang, Lao, 

Sung (Chinbon), a hill, small mountain. 


Sungar (Afghanistan), a small stone erection, made for 
the purpose of obtaining cover. 

Sungi, Sungei (Malay), a river, stream. 
inSunguzi (Kafir), a path passing through a forest, over- 
shadowed by trees ; a path overgrown by luxuriant 
eSunsu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a cape or headland. 

Sunt (Upper Nile), the mimosa tree. 

Suong (Laos), high, lofty, upper. 

Super (Latin), above, upon, on, e.g. Weston-super-Mare, 
* Weston-on-Sea ' ; mare = sea. Cf. Sur. 

Supo (Gold Coast), an island. 

Sur (Arab.), a rampart, wall. 

Sur (Fr.)> on, upon, e.g. Chalons-sur-Marne. Cf. Super. 

Surkh (Pers.), red, e.g. Surkh-ab, ' red river.' See Ab, 

Susuka (Rubiana, Solomon Is.), a lagoon. 
nSuvila (Congo, dialect of Bantu), inlet, an arm of the sea. 

Suwa (dialect of Bantu). See Nsua. 

Svaty (Bohemian), saint (Sv.) Cf. Szent, Svent. 

Sveta (Bohemia), saint. 

Svoboda (Russ.), a suburb (Sv.) See Sloboda. 

Svyatoi (Russ.), holy, e.g. Svyato Island ; there are two 

of this name in the Caspian Sea. 

uSwa (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass. See Sua, 

Swade (Fula), bush, wood, underwood, grass. 

Swale (U.S.A.), a slight marshy depression in land 
which is generally level. This is really an Old 
English term, still current in many districts in the 
sense of low ground, valley, moor, &c. 


Swef (Lokub, Rudolf I/.), a hill, eminence. 

Swi (Hainan), a village. 

Syd (Da., Nor.), south. (7/. S0nder, See Norre for other 

Syever (Buss.), north. For other points see Polden, 

Yug, Vostok, Zapad, 

Syssel (Iceland), a district, a county, e.g. Strandir Syssel. 
Syug-salmak (Korea), grotesque sign-posts. 
Szallas (Hung.), a hamlet, village (Szl.), lit. lodgings. 
Szel (Hung.), breadth, end, boundary, limit. 
Szent (Hung.), saint (Szt.) Also Svent, 
Sziget (Hung.), an island (Szig.) Also island town, 

town at the confluence of rivers. 
Szuksen (Tangut), a river. 
Sych (Welsh), dry, e.g. Sychnant Pass. 
Syem, Syom (Korea), island, e.g. Syem-Gang, y mute. 

Ta (Burma), a wood, forest. 

Ta- (China), a prefix signifying 'great,' e.g. Ta-kiang, 
' Great Kiver,' i.e. the Yangtse ; Wu-ta-cha-shan, 
' the five great tea hills ' of the Shan tea district. 
See Kiang, Shan. 

Ta, Tah (China), a lofty tower, pagoda. 

Ta (Japan), rice-land. 

Ta (Miao-tse, Kwei Chau, South China), deep. 

Ta (Shan States), a ferry. 

Ta (Siam), a landing-place; mouth, estuary. 
mTa (Swahili), a district of a town; ioic pi. see Mta. 

Taarn (Da., Nor.), a tower. 


Taba (dialect of Bantu, Gallaland), a mountain. Cf. 

the Thaba of Basutoland. 

nTaba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a swamp, marsh. 
Tabarit (Tuareg, Berber), a road. 
Taberna (Sp., Port.), an inn; from Lat. taberna = booth, 

stall, inn. 

Tabia (Turk.), a battery. 
Tabo (Hausa), mud. 

Taboleicas (Brazil), 'platters,' very flat and dry her- 
baceous plains. Cf. Campos. 
Tada (Hind.), an island. 
Tadakt (Tuareg, Berber), a hill. 
Tademai't (Berber, N. Africa), a height, summit; a long 

Gara (q.v.) 
maTadi (Congo, dialect of Bantu), stones or rocks, hence 

the name of the town Matadi on the Congo estuary. 
Tafariki (Hausa), a road, way. 
Taftan (Persia), boiling, hence the name of the volcano 

Kuh-i-Taftan, ' boiling mountain,' known locally as 

Chehel-Tau, ' the mountain of the forty Beings.' 
Tafelberg (Dch.), tableland, a 'table mountain.' 
Tag (Tibet) , rock, a rocky mountain. Cf. Tagh, Dagh, Tail, 

for other forms. 

Tagama (Tuareg, Berber), a forest, wood. 
Tagaye (SoninJce, Fr. Sudan), a mud- wall surrounding 

an enclosure. 
Tagh (Turkestan), a mountain. See Tag, Dagh, Tau, for 

other forms. 
Tagit (Kabile), a plain. 
Tahama (Arab.), lowland. Cf. Nejd. 


Tahi (Polynesia). See Tai. 

Taho (Motu, New Guinea), west. 

Tahsil, Tehsil (India), a subdivision of a district, under 

a Tahsildar or sub-collector. 
Tahtani (Arab.), lower, e.g. Moghar Tahtani, 'Lower 

Moghar.' Cf. Asfal, Fukani. 
Tahune, pi. Tawahin (Arab.), a mill. 
Tai (China), a terrace, plateau, eminence, e.g. SM-tai, 

' market terrace.' 

Tai (China, Amoy dialect), great. See Typhoon. 
Tai (Japan), large, great ; equivalents are Dai, 0, Oki. 
Tai (Siam), south ; for other points see Nua. 
Tai, Kai, Tahi (Polynesia), sea. 
Tai (Tibet), a fort. 
Taiga (Siberia), the belt of ' virgin forest ' lying to the 

south of the Tundras (q.v.) 
Tak (Annam), a rapid over rocks in a river. 
Taka (E. Turk., from Pers.), the ibex, e.g. Min-taka pass. 
nTaka (Congo ; Brit. Cent. Africa, Bantu). In the former 

region this means * ground which is always moist ; 

marshy ground'; in the latter it means 'country.' 
Takai (Japan), high, lofty, tall. Cf. Take. 
Take (Japan), peak, ridge, hill, e.g. Yarigatake, 'the 

spear peak.' Other forms are Daka, Dake (q.v.) 

Cf. Takai. 

Takht (Pers.), throne, seat, e.g. Takht-i-Suleiman, ' Solo- 
mon's Throne,' a mountain in Afghanistan. 
Taki (Japan), a waterfall. Cf. Takai. 
Tako (Kamerun), a mountain. 
Taksibt (Kabile), a fortified position. 

B B 


Tal (India), lake, e.g. Naini-Tal. See Talab. 

Tal (New Guinea), a house. 

Tal (Welsh), front, end, e.g. Tal-y-bont, Tal-y-llyn, 

Tala, Talat (Arab.), a path up a mountain or ravine. 

Tala (Kabile), source, fountain, spring. 

Tala (Mongol), a plain. 

Tala (Tibet), a marsh. 
liTala (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), town. 

Talab (Pers.), a lake, pond, tank, reservoir. 

Talao (Hind.), tank, reservoir, is the Hind, form of the 
Pers. Talab (q.v.) 

Talaoro (Marovo, Solomon Is.), north wind. 

Ta-lat (Siam), a market. 

Talat (Arab.) See Tala. 

Taldik (E. Turk.), straight, e.g. the river of that name. 

Tale (Siam), a lake. 

iTali (Bantu), the side of a river, bank. 

Ta ling (Khas Chos, Indo-China), a rice-field. 

Tall (Arab.), a hill. Other forms are Tel, Tell. 

Talla (Indian, U.S.A.), a town. 

Talla (Punjab), low-lying land on which grass grows well. 
kiTalu (Swahili), an enclosure with a stone fence ; ioipl. 
see Kitalu. 

Taluk (Madras), a subdivision of a district. Cf. Tahsil. 

Tarn (Indo-China), a stream, torrent. 

Tarn (E. Turk.), a wall. 
eTam (Fan, French Congo), pond, small lake; see Etam. 

Tambaga (Malay), copper ; from Hind, tanba (pro- 
nounced tamba) = copper. 

Tamda (Kabile), a pond, pool. 

Tamozhnya, Tamojnya (Russ.), custom-house, 


Tampon (Fr.), buffer, e.g. Etat Tampon = buffer state. 

Tamurt (Kabile), country, region. 

Tarn-son (Hainan], a market. 

Tan (Berber). See In. 

Tan (Cambodia), new, e.g. Tan-Ki, in Bao-Duk. 

Tan (China), rapids in a river. In Laos Tang. 

Tan (Indian, Alaska), cape, point, used especially in the 

neighbourhood of Cook Inlet. 
Tan (Welsh), below, under, e.g. Tan-y-bwlch, 'below the 

Tana (Madagascar), used in composition for tanana, 

place, village, town ; thus antana = at the place, 

at the village, e.g. Antananarivo, at the place of 

thousands. See An. 
Tana (PoJcomo, E. Africa), a river, stream, e.g. the river 

of that name. 
Tanah (Malay), earth ; country, land, e.g. Tana Kaling, 

' the land of the Kaling,' i.e. Hindustan ; Tana Sa- 

brang, ' the land across the water,' i.e. Hindustan, 
Ta-nam (Pai, Shan States), a river. 
Ta-nan (Indian, California), water. 
Tanan (Alaska), mountain men, e.g. Tanana, ' the river 

of the mountain men,' properly Tanan-na. See Na. 
Tanao (Indo-China), lake, marsh, pond. 
nTando (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a mountain. 
Tang (China), lake, marsh; sea. 
Tang (Laos), a rapid in a river. Cf. Tan (China). 
Tang (Pers., Afghan), a defile, e.g. Bartang, ' narrow 

Tang (Shan States), a road, path. 

BB 2 


Tang (Tibet), a large flat valley ; steppe. 

Tang, Tangi (Kurdish, Kermanji dialect), a narrow 
defile or narrow place in a road. 

Tanga (Mossi, Fr. Sudan), village, place of cultivation ; 

Tanganyika (Cent. Africa), the shining plain or desert ; 

water ; hence the lake of that name. See Nyika. 
umTangala (Zulu, Kafir), a stone fence. 

Tange (Da., Nor.), a tongue or strip of land. 

Tangi (Icel.), a tongue of land. 

Tangik (Aleut.), island, dim. Tangidak. 

Tangkuban (Java), reversed, turned upside down, e.g. 
Tangkuban-prahu, ' an upturned canoe,' a name 
given to mountains because of their shape. 
u Tango (Kafir), a fence, hedge. 

Tangong, Tanjong (Malay), a point, cape; a contraction 
of tanah-ujong, lit. ' land's end ' ; tunah=land ; 
ujong= point, tip, end. 

Tangura (Kabile), a peak. 

Tangwani (Gurma, Fr. Sudan), a mountain. 

Tanh (Indo-China), a town of the second order, or pro- 
vincial capital. 

Tani (Japan), a valley. 

Tani (Madagascar), country, region, district. 

Tanimbari (Madagascar), a rice-field. 

Tanjong (Malay). See Tangong. 

Tank (U.S.A.), a pool or waterhole in a wash. 

Tano (Motu, New Guinea), earth. 

imiTantato (Zulu, Kafir), stones placed as stepping-stones 
for crossing a stream, 


umTantato (Kafir), a bridge, any contrivance for crossing a 

Tanut (Berber), wells. 

Tanya (Hung.), hamlet, halting-place, an inn (Tn.) 

Tanzuna (Madagascar), a cape, promontory. 

Tao (China), an island. Lit. mountain. See Tan. 

Tao (Korea), the head prefecture in a circuit. 

Taong-ji (Burma), a mountain. Cf. Taung. 
eTapa (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), forest. 

Tapera (Spanish S. America), a solitary dwelling, espe- 
cially in the middle of a field and completely iso- 

Taphos (Greek), a tomb. 

Tapki, Tepki (Hausa), swamp, pool, marsh. Cf. Tebki, 

Tappa (India), an assessment circle. 

Tapu (Hind.), an island, a shoal. 

Tar (Indian, U.S.A.), rock, stone. 

Tar (E. Turk.), narrow; strait; a narrow gorge. 

Tara (Maori), rock, stone, e.g. Tarawera, ' burnt rocks.' 

Tara (Mongol), desert, e.g. Kurban Tara, * the three 
(days) desert.' Cf. Taren. See Kurban. 

Taraf (India), a subdivision of a village. 

Tarai (Hind.), a marsh, meadow; an island. 

Taram (E. Turk), the dividing of a river into several 

Tarasham (Sahara), a house, dwelling. 

Tarbat, Tarbert (Gaelic tairbeart), an isthmus, e.g. 
Tarbat in N.E. of Boss and Cromarty, Tarbert in 

Taren (Mongol), cultivation, cultivated land. Cf. Tara. 


Tarf (Arab.), a cape, promontory, headland. 
Tari (Korea), bridge, e.g. Tari-Dong, Tari-Bahoi. 
Tarik, pi. Turuk (Arab.), a road, way. See Trik. 
Tarim (E. Turk.), cultivated ; probably from Taram, i.e. 

cultivated by means of irrigation. 
Tarim (Cent. Asia), river, stream, the river. 
Tarjam (Tibet), a posthouse = Chinese Cha. 
Tarn (England), a small mountain lake, especially one 

without affluents or effluent, e.g. Blentarn; from 

Norse tjarn = pool. 
Taru (Singalese), mouth of a river. 
Tasarnormeng, Taseraktedling, Tasiuza (Eskimo, Smith 

Sound), lake. 

Tasek (Malay), the sea, ocean ; lake. Cf. Danau. 
Tash, Tashrah (Turk.), outer, e.g. Tashlite in Bosnia. 
Tash (E. Turk.), stone, e.g. Tash Kurgan, * stone tower.' 
Tashkun (E. Turk.), inundation, flood. 
Tashlik (Turk.), stony, rocky, rough. 
Tashrah (Turk.) See Tash. 
Tasi (Songhai), sand. 
Tasik (Malay), late, marsh, pool. 
Tasili (Sahara, N. Africa), plateau, applied to several 

upland districts, e.g. the Tasili of the Azjer Tuaregs. 
Tat (Deccan), fortification of a city; environs. 
Tat (Punjab), declivity ; bank of a river. 
Tata (Fula, Mande, Serer, Wolof, West Sudan), a mud 

wall surrounding an enclosure. 
muTatago (Giryama), a bridge. 

Tatani. See Tahtani. 
inTatyana (Kafir), a small mountain. 


Tau (Cent. Asia, Caucasus), mountain, e.g. Ak-tau, 

1 white mountain ' ; mountain-top. Cf. Tagh, Tag, 


Tau (China), island, head. Same word as Tao. 
Taui (Nissan I., New Guinea), a plantation. 
Taung (Burma), mountain, hill. Cf. Taong-ji. 
Tau-tu (China), clay. 
Tawahin, pi. of Tahune (q.v.) 
Tawan-ok (Siam), east, lit. 'rising sun, sunrise'; for 

other points see Nua. 
Tawan-tok (Siam), west, lit. ' sunset ' ; for other points 

see Nua. 

Tawf (Upper Nile), an island of floating sudd (q.v.) 
Tawil (Arab.), long, e.g. Wadi el Tawile, * the long vale.' 
Tazirt (Kabile), a mill. 
Tcsu, Chsiu (Tangut), water. 
Tea (Hainan), a prefecture. 
Tea-gna (Hainan), mountain. 
Teawent (Tuareg, Berber), a ford. 
Tebbad (Turkestan), the violent hurricanes which sweep 

over the Turkoman steppe, carrying with them 

clouds of impalpable sand. 
Tebki (Sahara), a pond. Cf. Kulugu, Tepki. 
Techenie (Buss.), current, stream of tide. 
Tedrag (Tuareg, Berber), a little hill. 
Tefes (Serer, Senegal), shore, beach. 
Tefsedt (Kabile), a place in ruins. 
Tegift (Tuareg, Berber), a sandhill. 
iTegu (Zulu, Kafir), a bay ; estuary. 
Tehsil. See Tahsil. 


Teich (Ger.), a pond, ditch. 

Tei-haku (Japan), an anchorage. 
uTeka (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), grass. 

Tekan, Tekra (Hind.), a height, elevation ; rising 

Tekiye. See Tekke. 

Tekke, Tekiye (Turk.), a Mohammedan convent. 

Tel (Arab.), a hill ; another form of Tell (q.v.) ; e.g. Tel 
el Kebir. See Kebir. 

Telaga (Java), a lake. 

Telak (Malay), a bay. See Teluk. 

Tele (Samoa and Fallaofu), large, great, e.g. Nuutele L, 

S.E. of Upolu I. 

nTeleka (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a cascade or water- 
isiTeleti (Zulu, Kafir), a street. 

Tell, pi. Tellul (Arab.),& mound, especially one covering 
ruins ; e.g. Tell-Lo in Babylonia. See Tel. 

Teluk (Malay), a bay, haven, harbour, e.g. Teluk Bharu ; 
cf. Tillo ; the misspellings Telok, Tullok are also 
frequently found ; in standard Malay the word is 
pronounced t'luk. 
kuTemba. See Kutemba for meaning. 

Tembe (Bantu), a fortification built round a town, 
formed of two walls about 10 ft. high, 10 ft. apart, 
roofed, and divided into rooms facing inwards. 
The outer wall is covered with clay and is loop- 

Tembe (German East Africa, dialect o/ Bantu), a 
dwelling. See Kutemba. 


Tembladeral (Spanish S. America), bog, which presents 

the appearance of a pasture. 
Temborari (Sivahili), coastal plain. Cf. Sahel. 
Temdint (Mzabi, Berber), a town. 
Temir (Turk.) See Demir. 
Temura (Tripoli, Berber), a town, pi. Timdinin. 
Ten (Wolof), spring, fountain ; wells. 
Ten (Berber). See In. 
Tena odh lum me (Indian, California), town, village ; 

lit. many houses. 

inTendeleko (Zulu, Kafir), a fence round an enclosure. 
Tendru (Madagascar), summit, top. See next entry. 
Tendrumbuhitra (Madagascar), a mountain peak. See 

Tendru; Buhitra = Vohitra (q.v.) See also Bohi. 
Tenere (Tuareg, Berber), a desert plain. 
Tenga (Mossi, Fr. Sudan), country ; an inhabited place 

of less importance than a capital. Cf. Su, So, 
Tenghi (Cent. Asia), a narrow glen-path. 
Tengo (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), bush. Cf. 

T'hengo and next entry. 

mTengo, nTengo (Dialects of Bantu), a tree. See Tengo. 
Tengri (E. Turk.), heaven, e.g. Tengri Nor. Cf. Mongol 

Nam. See Nor. 

Tenia, Teniet (Arab.), a mountain path, defile; col. 
Tenkai* (Mossi, Fr. Sudan), village, place of cultivation. 
Tenne (Mossi, Fr. Sudan), kingdom. 
Tennusha (Arab.), a steep summit. 
eTenta (Congo, dialect of Bantu), brow, top of a hill. 
Tenuta (It.), a holding (Ten ta ). 
Tepe (Fula), junction, confluence. 


Tepe (Turk.), a hill, e.g. Ak-tepe, * white mountain.' 
See Ak. 

Tepetl (Aztek), mountain, e.g. Popokatepetl, ' the moun- 
tain of smoke,' Sitlaltepetl, ' star mountain.' See 
Popoka, Sitlal. 

Tepilaut (Malay), coast, seaboard ; lit. margin (tepi) of 
the sea (laut). Cf. Darat. 

Tepki (Hausa). See Tapki. 

Tera (Japan), a temple (Buddha). 

Terbia (Arab.), a bog, marsh. 

Terku (Tamul), south; for other points see Vadakku. 

Termino (Sp.), boundary, landmark ; district of a town. 

Terp (Dch.), an artificial mound. 

Terra (It., Port.), earth, land. 

Terrain (Fr.), ground. 

Terre (Fr.), earth, land. 

Terrein (Dch.), ground. 

Terreinhelling (Dch.), the slope of ground. 

Terrera (Sp.), a declivity, a sloping piece of ground. 

Terrontera (Sp.), a break in a mountain. 

Terumbe (Malay Pen.), a coral reef. 

Tet, pi. Tittawen (Tuareg, Berber), source. Cf. Thit. 
nTetele (Fan, French Congo) ; for meaning see Ntetele. 

Tethedderth (Kabile), a village. Cf. Themmurth, Ntama- 
zirt, Emizdegh, Amazagh. 

Teto (Hung.), a peak (T.) 

Teton (U.S.A.), a rocky mountain crest of rugged 

Tetsu (Japan), iron. 
muTha (Nika), a district or part of a town, a township. 


Thaba (Bechuana and Basuto lands), mountain, e.g. 

Thaba Nchu, Thaba Bosigo. 
Thak (Annam), a rapid in a river. 
Thake (Fiji), east. For other points see Vua liku. 
Thaksult (Berber), a plateau, pi. Thiksulin. 
Thai (Ger.), a valley, dale, e.g. Langenthal, 'long valley.' 
Thai (Punjab), dry land, ford, mound, sandhill (Th.) 
Thala (Berber), fountain, source, pi. Thiliwa. 
Thalassa (Greek), the sea, e.g. Mavri Thalassa, ' the Black 

Sea.' Mavri = black in Neo-Greek. 
Tha-le (Siam), sea, lake. 
Thalweg (Ger.), the line followed by the waters of a 

valley ; the middle line of a river. See Thai, Weg. 
Than (China), rapids in a river. 
Than (Tangut), a plain. 
Thanas (India), a subdivision of a Tahsil (q.v.), a 

police circle. 

Thang (Siam), a road, path. 
Thanh (Cambodia), thriving, prosperous, e.g. An-Thanh 

in Boa-An, an conveying the idea of tranquillity. 
Thanthan (Rotuma, Polynesia), sand. 
Theerofen, Therofen (Ger.), a tar-pit (T.O.) 
Themmurth (Berber), a town. Cf. Tethedderth. 
T'hengo (Cent. Africa), a forest. Cf. Tengo. 
Theva (Mbau, Fiji), south. For other points see Vua 

Thifnua (Siam), north. See Thit-tai, Thit-tawan-ok, 


Thing (China), sub-prefectural city. 
Thit (Berber), eye, source, pi. Thitawin. Cf. Tet. 


Thi-thort-samor (Siam), anchorage. 

Thit-tai (Siam), south. Cf. Thifnua for other points. 

Thit-tawan-ok (Siam), east. Cf. Thifnua for other points. 

Thit-tawan-tok (Siam), west. Cf. Thifnua for other points. 

Thniye, Tnie (Sahara), a winding mountain pass, 
a mountain top, e.g. Thniye Twennin. Cf. Kuleb, 
Keluba of other districts. 

Tho- (Nilotic Kavirondo, Uganda), a prefix signifying 
language, e.g. Tho-luo, the language of the negro 
tribe Ja-luo. See Ja. 

Thok (Tibet), a goldfield. 

Thorn (Cambodia), great, large. 

Thon (Ger.), clay. 

Thorpe, Thorp (England), a village, e.g. Althorp, Win- 
thorpe. From A.-S. thorp, cognate with Goth. 
thaurp, Icel throp, Ger. Dorf. Cf. Throp. Is per- 
haps cognate with Gr. crvp/3rj, rvp/3rj, Lat. turba. 
Cf. Nor. thyrpja = to crowd. 

Thrik (Hassania), a road, path. From Arab. Trik (q.v.) 

Throp, Trop (Icel.), a hamlet, e.g. Ibthrop. Cf. Thorpe. 

Thsuan (China), a streamlet, small river. 

Thsun (China), borough, village. See Tsun, Thun. 

Thui (Cambodia), water, e.g. Tien-Thui-Tai, 'Pure-water- 
west,' in Bao-Duk. See Tien, Tai. 

Thuk (Cambodia), water. 

Thun (China), borough, village. See Tsun, Thun. 

Thung (Chin Hills, E. of Mon R., Burma), hill, peak. 

Thurm (Ger.), tower, steeple. 

Thwaite (North of England), a forest clearing, e.g. 
Finsthwaite ; from Norse thveit, and cognate with 
A.-S. thwitan, thweotan=to cut off, lop, prune, 


whittle (perhaps from same root) ; a variant is 

Twaite= wooded land grubbed up for tillage. 
Ti (China), dam, dike. 
Ti (China), the ground. 
Ti (Indian, U.S.A.), water. 
Ti (Sahara), rock, e.g. Tibu, 'rock people,' see Bu ; 

Tibesti, 'rocky mountains.' 

mTi (Loango, dialect of Bantu), a tree ; tor pi. see Mti. 
muTi (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu), a tree ; for pi. see 


nTi (Swahili), country, region, district. 
Tia (Gold Coast), boundary, end, limit. 
Tialugel (Fula), a stream. 
Tian (Chinese), heaven, e.g. Tian-shan ; found also 

spelled Tien, e.g. Mo-tien-ling, ' heaven-reaching 

pass.' See Shan, Ling. 
Tiangol (Fula), equivalent to Marigot (q.v.) 
Tiazibin (Kabile), farms. 
Ti diete. See diegu. 
Tie (China), iron, e.g. Liao-tie-shan, ' old iron hill.' 

See Liao, Shan. 

Tief (Ger.), in sub-oceanic relief, a Deep (q.v.) 
Tien (China), fields, arable land ; village ; inn, shop. 
Tien (China), small lake, swamp. 
Tien (China). See Tian. 
Tien (Cambodia), pure, e.g. Tien-Thui, 'pure w r ater,' in 

Bao-Duk. See Thui. 
umuTienyi (Kossova, Uganda), a mountain, hill. 

Tierra (Sp.), earth, land, country, e.g. Tierra del Fuego, 

not Terra del Fuego. 
iTifa (Cent. Africa, Bantu), island. 


Tig (Indian, U.S.A.), a tree. 

Tiggert (Kabile), a field. 

Tigh, Ty (Gaelic), a house, e.g. Tighnabruaich, ' the house 

on the edge of the bank,' Tyndrum, 'the house on 

the ridge,' see Drum; cf. Lat. tugurium, for 

tegurium, from tego=to cover. Cognate with A.-S. 

thaec = thatch, Ger. Dach (roof), dekken (to cover), 


Tighilt (Kabile), a hill, small mountain. 
Tih (Arab.), a desert. 
Tik (E. Turk.), steep. 
Tikit (Hassania), house, cottage. 
in Tile (Zulu, Kafir), a flat strip of land, a small valley, 

parallel with a river and suitable for cultivation. 
Tilemmas (Tamahak, N. Africa), equivalent to Tsmai'd 


Tiliwa,>L of Tala (q.v.) 
Tilla (Punjab), a hill, mound. 
Tillo (Malay Peninsula), a bay. Cf. Teluk. 
Tilmas, pi. Tilmamis (Arab.), underground reservoirs in 

the beds of rivers. 

Tim (Gilyak, Sakhalin), cranberry, e.g. Tim R. 
Tim (Yayo, China), a mountain. 
Timagami (Canada), deep water. 
Timbila (Mossi, French Sudan), a hamlet. 
Timeri (Kabile), an observatory. 
Timor (Malay), east, hence Timor island. 
Timor laut (Malay), north-east, lit. ' seaward Timor,' a 

smaller island lying to seaward (eastward) of 

Timor, laut meaning ' sea.' 


Timto (Uganda). See Mto. 

Tin (Berber). See In. 

Tina (Buss.), ooze. 

Tindila (Mossi, French Sudan), a hill, small mountain. 

Ting (China), peak, hill. 

Ting (China), an independent sub-prefecture ; sub- 
prefecture, a provincial division subject to a pre- 
fecture. Cf. Fu, Chi-li-ting. 

Ting (China), a cape, promontory, headland. Cf. Ti-tau. 

Tinti, Tindi (Mande). See Tund. 

Tiobart (Gaelic), source, well, stream. 

Tir (Gaelic), land, e.g. Cantyre. Cf. Lat. terra. 

Tirath (Punjab), a sacred bathing-place ; a place of 

Tirilt (Kabile), a hill. 

Tirremt (Marocco), a small fortress, fortified village, 
pi. Tirrematin. 

Tisi (Marocco), hill, peak; pass; e.g. Tisi Nemiri, 'the 
hill of stones.' 

Ti-tau (China), a promontory. Cf. Ting. 

Titi (Malay), a bridge. 

Tiu (Roluma, Polynesia), great. 

Tivotaina (Maiva, New Guinea), west. For other 

points see Tototaina. 
liTiwa (Ketosh, Uganda), a lake. 

Tizi (Algeria), a col, saddle. 
uTlanga (Kafir), a tribe, nation. 

Tnie (Sahara). See Thniye. 

To (Fon, Dahome), a lake, lagoon, stream, e.g. Kotonu, ' the 
dead mouth of the lake,' properly Kutonu. See Nu, 


To (Hung.), a pond, pool, lake. 

To (Japan, Korea), an island, e.g. To-Yang, To-San. See Do. 

To (Japan), east, equivalent to Higasi. For other 

points see Hoku. 
To (Tibet), high, lofty. 
To (Upper Kushkokwim, Indian, Alaska), water, river, 

used especially in -the Copper river region, e.g. 

Nigato, ' Niga river.' Another form is Tu (q.v.) 
chiTo (Bantu), a ford in a river. 
mTo (Swahili), a river, e.g. Mto wa Tlmba ; for pi. see 

mu To (Mavia, Mozambique), a river. 

Toa (New Georgia, Solomon Is.), a mountain. 

Tobar, Tober (Gaelic, Irish), source, well, stream, e.g. 

Tobarcurry ; Tobermoney in co. Down. See Dobur. 
Tod (Tibet), upper, e.g. Singhtod and Po Tod in South- 
west and South-east Tibet respectively. 
Toft (Danelagh), an enclosure, e.g. Lowestoft, Wainfleet 

Tofts; from Dan. toft = an enclosed plot near a 


Tog (Tibet), above, summit ; gold-bearing land. 
Toga (Samoa), pronounced Tonga (q.v.) 
Togana (Nubia), flat land. 
Toge (Japan), a mountain pass, e.g. Harinoki-toge, ' the 

pass of the alder trees.' 
Toghri (E. Turk.), right, direct (of a road). 
Togoda (Sienre), village, place of cultivation. 
Togoro (A-Zande), a marsh, bog. 
To-hi (Hainan), a village. 
Toi (Cambodia), little. 


Toi-lea (Hainan), a mountain. 

Toka (Rarotonga, Polynesia), stone, rock. 

Tokai (Turkestan), bush, wood. 

Tokang (Malay), small islets with few or no trees. 

Tokelau (Tonga, Polynesia), north. For other points 

see Potutonga, Hahake, Hikifu. 

Tokilau (Niue, Polynesia), east. See Malanga, Mahifohifo. 
Tol (Deli.), toll-gate. 
Tol (Ebon, Polynesia), a mountain. 
Tol, Toll (Wolof, Mande), a field, garden, 
Toldilla (Sp.), a round-house. 
Toll (Wolof, Mande). See Tol. 
Tolkha (Mongol), head, source of a river. 
Tolts (Newfoundland), hummocks of granite protruding 

on the east coast of Newfoundland. 
Tom (Tibet), market, bazaar. 
umTombo (Kafir), a fountain, spring. 

Tomboka (Congo), ascent, hill. 

eTombwelo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), wharf, landing-place. 
Tomio (Japan), lighthouse. 
To-mu (China), wooded (country). 
Ton (Anglo-Saxon tun), an enclosure, hence a village, 

e.g. Taunton, ' the village on the Tone E. ' ; from 

A.-S. tynan, to tine, to enclose ; cognate with Celt. 

dun (q.v.) and with Old High Ger. zun, a hedge ; 

Mod. Ger. Zaun = an enclosure; Sw. tuna, e.g. 

Eskilstuna ; cf. Zeriba (q.v.) 
oTon (Fan, French Congo), stream, small watercourse, 

Cf. Lo, Su ; for pi. see Oton. 

Tondi (Songhai), rock, stone hilL See next entry. 

c G 


Tondiber (Songhai), a mountain (ber = * great '). See Tondi. 

Tong (Annam), a canton. 

Tong (China), openings for carrying off surplus water 

from a canal. 

Tong (China, Korea), east, another spelling of Tung. 
Tong (Siam), mountain. 
Tong (Tibet and W. Yunnan), town, village. 
Tonga (Samoa), south wind: hence Itu-i-Tong, north; 

lit. north side. For other points see Matu. 
Tonge (Jibu, New Guinea), village. 
Tong-cher (Tibet), a town. 
Tonle (Cambodia), river, large river, lake, e.g. Tonle Sap. 

See Sap. 
-Too (Indian, N. America), river (suffix), a misspelling 

of Tu (q.v.) 

Top (Anglo-Saxon, Da.), a tuft, crest, summit ; an 
elevation, e.g. Oldhay Top, Edgetop in the Peak 
district, cf. Cloud. See Edge. 
Topa (Turkestan), argillaceous fertile soil. 
Toprak (E. Turk.), clay. 
Tor (Arab.), an isolated mountain. 
Tor (Celtic), a tower-like rock, e.g. Mam Tor; Torphichen, 

'Baven's hill ' ; Yes Tor (Dartmoor). 
Tora (Motumotu, New Guinea), a tree. 
Torba (Arab.), fine dusty gypseous soil. 
Torfboden (Ger.), turf, ground. 
Torni (Fin.), a tower. 
Tor ok (Turk.) See Dorok. 
Torokai (Tibet), a path. Cf. Doroga, 
Torony (Hung.), a tower. 


Torovo (Giryama). See Rovo. 

Torp (Sw.), cottage, hamlet, village. Cf. Dorp, Thorp. 
Torre (It., Port., Sp.), a tower (T re ). 
Torrent (Fr.), a torrent (T nt ). 
Torrente (I*.), a torrent (T.) 
Torreon (Sp.), a round-tower. 

Tosu (Tibet), butter, e.g. Tosu Nor, butter lake.' See Nor. 
Tot (Normandy, Norse), an enclosure, e.g. Yvetot, Totnes. 
Tota (Singalese), the mouth of a river. 
Tote (Nine, Polynesia), small. 

nToto (Congo, dialect of Bantu), earth, land, ground. 
Toto (Jibu, New Guinea), a bridge. 
To to an (Indian, U.S.A.), a plain. 
Totolo (Marovo, Solomon Is.), tide. 
Tototaina (Maiva, New Guinea), east. For other points 

see Tivotaina, Ahidaina. 
Tour (Fr.), a tower (T r ). 
Tourbiere (Fr.), a peat bog. 
Tourelle (Fr.), a small tower, a turret. 
Town (England), see Ton. 
Toy am (Tamul), water. 
Tra (Irish), a strand, sandy beach, e.g. Tralee. Cf. 

Traigh, Trae, Traeth. 
Trab (Hassania), sand, cultivated land. 
Trace (Fr.), track, trail. 
Trae (from Gaelic traigh), shore, e.g. Ballantrae, ' the 

town on the shore.' See Bal. Cf. Traeth, Tra. 
Traeth (Welsh), sandy beach or shore, e.g. Pentraeth, 

See Pen. Cf. Trae, Traigh, Tra, Draeth. 
Trai (Annam), a village, 

c e 2 


Traigh (Gaelic), a strand, sandy beach, e.'g. Traigh 
Bhailanoais bay, in Islay. Of. Tra, Trae, Traeth. 

Traktir (Buss.), an inn. 

Tram (Tibet), bank (of a river). 

Trampal (Sp.), a quagmire, morass. 

Tran (Cambodia), a plain, e.g. Tran Ninh. 

Tranquera (Sp.), a palisade. 

,, (Spanish S. America), a cross-bar frame to 
be laid on soft ground for the passage of men, 
vehicles, or cattle. 

Tranzon (Sp.), part of a forest which has been cleared. 

Travessao (Port.), a rocky barrier. 

Traws (Welsh), across, beyond, e.g. Trawscoed. See Coed. 

Tre, Tref (Cymric), a village, e.g. Tredegar, Trefnant. 

Tremedal (Port., Sp.), marsh, morass. 

Trench (Eng.), used in sub-oceanic relief for an elon- 
gated Depression (q.v.), narrower than a Trough '(q.v.), 
with steeply sloping borders, one of which (the 
continental) rises higher than the other (the 
oceanic), e.g. the Cayman Trench. Equivalent to 
Ger. Graben, Fr. Ravin. 

Trepang (Cambodia), lake, marsh, pool. 

Tri- (Greek), three, e.g. Tripoli. See Polls. 

Tribu (Fr.), a tribe. 

Trichter (Ger.), a crater (of a volcano) ; properly a 

Trik (Arab.), a road, e.g. Trik ed Duesa, ' the road through 
the palms ' ; Trik es Safar, ' the stony road/ See 
El, Safar, Tarik. 

Trillo (Sp., Philippines), a track, trail. 


Trinchera (Sp.) t a trench. 

Troli (Cambodia), a stream. 

Troon (Cymric trwyn), a promontory = Ness, e.g. Troon 
in Ayrshire. 

Trossachs (Gaelic), scrubby territory. 

Trottoir (Fr.), a footpath. 

Trouee (Fr.), an opening, gap between heights, e.g. the 
Trouee of Belfort. 

Trough (Eng.), used, in sub-oceanic relief, for an 
elongated and wide depression, with gently slop- 
ing borders. A trough may be divided by 
transverse elevations into Basins (q.v.), as in the 
Atlantic. Equivalent to the Ger. Mulde, Fr. Vallee. 

Trumbu. (Malay), shoal. 

Trung (Cambodia), a canton, e.g. An-nga-trung. See An. 

Trusan (Malay), channel, passage, e.g. Trusan Treacher, 
Trusan Ligitan, both in the north of Sibuko bay, 
North Borneo. 

Trwyn (Welsh), snout, promontory. 

Tsa (Giryama), hill-top. 

Tsa (Tibet), salt ; hot, 

Tsa (Tibet), grass. 

Tsadaka (Indian, Alaska), moose, e.g. Tsadaka creek. 

Tsadhe, Tsad (Chad L. region), water ; merely another 
pronunciation of Saghe, Sara, and corrupted into 
Chad. See Isa. 

Tsagan, Tsahan (Mongol), white, e.g. Tsagan-deressu, 
Tsahan Ossu, ' white river.' See Ossu. 

Tsai (Hainan), a village. 

Tsaidam (Tibet), salt swamp ; a variant is Chaidam. 


Tsaka (Giryama), a forest. 

Tsakor (Mongol), flint, silica. 

Tsang-po (Tibet), 'the pure one,' the purifier, hence a 
river, the river (the Tsang-po, i.e. the upper course 
of the Brahmaputra). For other spellings see 

kuTsano (Giryama), the hot season. 
umTsantsa (Zulu, Kafir), a ravine, kloof. 

Tsao (China), grass, herbage. 

Tsara (Madagascar), good, beautiful, e.g. Tsaranoro, 
'beautiful shore,' Saratanana, 'beautiful village.' 
Tsararano, ' good water.' Cf. Soa. See Oro, Rano, 

Tsauni (Hausa), a hill. Cf. Tudu. 

Tse (China), a small lake, swamp. 

Tse (Tibet), a summit, top of a mountain. 

Tsela (Basuto, Bantu), a road, path. Cf. Zira. 

Tselim, Selim (Chad L. region), black, e.g. Nki Tselim, 
' black water.' 

Tsen (China), a village. 

Tserkov (Buss.), a church. 

Tsho (Tibet). See Tso. 

Tsi (China), a borough. 

Tsi (Giryama), country, land. 

Tsi (Japan), a plain. 

Tsi (Madagascar), that which has not, without, a 
negative prefix, e.g. Tsiala, ' the treeless place,' 
Tsiafak, ' not to be attained or approached/ 
' difficult of access,' e.g. Tsiafakantitra, Tsiafakarivo. 
See Ala. 


uTsi (Kamba, Bantu), a river. 

Tsiau-pi (China), cliff. Cf. Shan-tau. 
inTsimi (Zulu, Kafir), cultivated land. 

Tsingira (Lu-wanga, Uganda), crossways. 
loTsitsi (Bechuana, Bantu), a watercourse; pi. diTsitsi. 
Tsiu (Hainan), a sub-prefecture. 
-Tsiu (Japan}, a suffix meaning * middle,' e.g. Bitsiu. 
Tskhali (Caucasus), stream, secondary river. 
Tskharo (Caucasus), a spring, source. 
Tsmaid (Arab., N. Africa), holes dug in Wadis (q.v.) for 

procuring water. 

Tso (Tibet), a lake, e.g. Drolma-nam-tso, 'the heavenly 
lake Drolma.' Cf. Nor. See Nam. Tso is a variant 
of Cho (q.v.) 

Tsong kang (Tibet), a store, shop. 
Tson-nea (Hainan), a village. 
Tsoroha (Tso-o, Formosa), a river. 
Tsu (Japan), haven, harbour, port. 
Tsui (China), promontory, cape. 
Tsui-sha (China'), gravel. Cf. Sha. 
Tsui-wei (China), rocky, stony. 
kiTsulu (Giryama), a hillock. 

Tsun (China), a village, hamlet ; smaller than Hsiang ; 
an agricultural village. Cf. Pu, Tun, Thsun, Thun, 
Chwang, Cheng. 

Tsungwe (Zambezia), bamboo. 
maTswerero (Giryama), west ; also muTswerero. 
Tu (China), ford. 

Tu (China), a capital, e.g. Shang-tu, ' upper capital,' 
Tu (China), earth, 


Tu (Ingalik, Alaska), water, frequently misspelled Too, 

used especially in the Copper river region, e.g. 

Chititu, ' Copper water.' See To. 
Tu (Kirghiz), a mound of stones, with a branch fixed 

in it, on which are hung religious offerings, such 

as skulls, horns, &c. 
Tu (Mande, Fr. Sudan), dense vegetation, a forest. Cf. 


mTu (Swahili), man, person; to? pi. see Mtu. 
waTu (Swahili), people of the river. Cf. To. See Wa. 
muTua (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), chief; for another 

form see Mutua. 

Tuaija (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kaya. 
Tual (Arab). See Tuil. 
Tuat, Twat (Sahara), the oases. This was originally 

the name of a disease, which raged in the Sahara 

in the fourteenth century, and attacked the oases 

most virulently. Hence the Twat oases. 
Tua vela (Marovo, Solomon Is.), south wind. 
Tubber (Gaelic, Irish). See Dobur, Tobar. 
Tubk (Arab.), a terrace. 
Tubu oinan (Mentawei I., S.W. coast Sumatra), a 

Tucuru (Spanish S. America), small clay hills of 

conical or semi-conical shape on which are villages, 

especially near rivers and flooded land or in 

mountain dales. 
Tucutuzal (Spanish S. America), ground full of surface 

holes and pits, making transit difficult and 



Tudu, Tuddu, Kuduma (Hausa), hill, highland, upland, 
e.g. Gober Tudu, ' Gober upland,' as opposed to Gober 
Kafi, ' Gober valley.' Cf. Tsauni. 

Tufana (Hausa), flood. 

Tug (Somaliland), the bed of a river dry for a portion 
of the year; a sand river. Equivalent to the 
Arab. Wadi (q.v.), e.g. Tug Fafan. Cf. Selat. 

Tughai (E. Turk.), a grassy place. 

Tug-sa (Tibet), a camping-place, encampment. See Sa. 

' (Tt\ ( a co age; from Lat. tugurium, from 

(Port.)A Ital ~ Celtic r 0t teg ' C Ver ' r f> C g " 
' I nate with Teutonic dek ; cf. thatch 
Tugurio (Sp.), 

I from A.-S. thac. e0 Tigh and Ty. 

Tugurmen (E. Turk.), a mill. 

Tui (Chin Hills), water. 

Tuil, Tual, Tuilet (A rab.), elevations, heights, undulations. 

Tuilerie (Fr.), tilekiln (T ie ) ; see Ziegelei. 

Tuin (Dch.), a garden. 

Tuk (Cambodia), a boat. 

Tukos (Amis, Formosa), a mountain. 

Tuku (Polynesia). See Tuu. 

Tukul (Upper Nile), & round hut, with conical roof, 

made of straw. 

eTukulu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), headland, cape. 
Tul (Somali), a heap, mound; cf. Ghumbur, Bur. 
Tulde (Fula), a mountain, hill. 
Tulik, Tulig (Indian, Alaska), crack, cleft, fissure, e.g. 

Tulik volcano. 

,, (Eskimo), region, e.g. Tubuktuligmiut, ' the 
people of Tubuk region.' See Mute. 


Tulln (Indian, U.S.A.), high peak. 

Tulu (Galla), mountain, generally isolated, lit. a heel, 

e.g. Tulu Arba, ' elephant peak.' 
muTulu (dialect of Bantu), a fertile plain. 
Tulwenyo (Nandi, Uganda), mountain. 
Tulwet (Nandi, Uganda), a mound, hill. 
Tuman (Buss.), a fog. 
Tumniep (Siam), a rest-house. 
Tumta (Mongol), middle, e.g. Tumta Habsere, 'middle 

Habsere.' See Kurban. 
Tumu (Kiwai, New Guinea), a forest. 
Tumur (Mongol), iron. 
Tun (China), an outpost ; market village. Cf. Pu, 

Tsun, Chwang. 

Tunan (Mentawei), a cape, headland, point. 
Tund, Tundo (Wolof, Mande), a small mountain, hill, 

equivalent to Tindi, Tindila (q.v.) 

Tundra (Buss.), the barren northern country of Siberia, 
beyond the limits of forest growth ; generally, 
plains full of lakes, rivers, or bogs many parts 
permanently frozen below the surface. See Taiga. 
Tung (China), an alley, small street. 
Tung (China), copper. 
Tung (China), east, eastern, e.g. Kwang Tung, as 

opposed to Kwang Si. See Si, Pe, Nan, Kwang. 
Tung (Chin Hills, E. of Mon R., Burma), a hill, peak ; 
the same word as Taung, pi. Chung ; e.g. Pyung 
Horn Tung. 

Tung (Khas Chos, Indo-China), a forest. 
Tunga (Sw.), Tunge (Da., Nor.), a tongue or strip of land. 


Tungesi (Tangut), a stream. 
Tunika, pi. of Akanika (q.v.) 

kiTuntu (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), a peak, 
hill- top ; applied to villages built on high ground. 
Tupe (E. Turk.}, summit, top (of a mountain). 
Tupik (Indian, U.S.A.), a spring, well, source. 
Tura (Syriac), mountain, e.g. Tura Khwara, 'white 


Turaa (Arab.), a stream, river. 
Turbat (Arab., Pers.), a tomb. 
Turh (Min-kia, Yunnan), east. For other points see 


Turh la (Min-kia, Yunnan), a cave. 
Turo (Mande), a forest. Cf. Tu. 
Turuba (Hausa), a path. Cf. Hainya. 
Tusu (Marovo, Solomon Is.), an island. 
Tu sze (Tibet), a small district under a headman. 
Tutak (Turk.), the bar of a river. 

Tutan (China), a ferry. 

Tutu (Sara, Chad L.), water. Cf. Mane. 

Tuu, Tuku (Polynesia), a place, site. 

Tuvu (Maiva, New Guinea), grass. 

Tuwa (Bornu), place, locality, abode, e g. Nguru-tuwa 
' the place of the hippopotamus.' See Nguru. 

Tu wak (Pimo Indian, S.W. United States), a mountain. 

Tuz (Turk.), salt, e.g. Tuz Kul, ' salt lake.' See Kul. 
uTwa (Kafir), a deep place in a river. 

Twaite (N. of England). See Thwaite. 

Twat (Sahara). See Tuat. 

Twistle (Northumbria), a boundary, e.g. Entwistle. 


Twr (Welsh), tower, e.g. Twrcelyn. 

Ty (Welsh and Scotch), a house, e.g. Ty-Gwyn. Cf. 

Tigh ; see Tugurio. 

isiTya (Zulu, Kafir), a small garden. 
Tyap (Turkestan), a ravine. 

Tyn = Ty'n = Ty yn (Welsh), house in, e.g. Tyn-y-coed. 
Tyol (Turkestan), a steppe. 
Typhoons (Chinese), the violent circular storms which 

visit the Chinese seas ; lit. great wind, from tai, 

great, and fon, wind. 
Tyr = Ty'r = Ty yr (Welsh), house of the, e.g. Tyr-escob. 

See Escob. 

Tyre (Gaelic). SeeTir. 
umTyuba (Zulu, Kafir), brackish water. 
Tze (China). See Tse. 
Tzerg (Armenian), mud. 
Tzerkov (Buss.), a church. 


U- (Swahili). The names of countries are formed from 
the root by means of the prefix IT, e.g. Unyika, the 
country of the Wanyika. See Wa, Ki. The cor- 
responding form in the equatorial lake region is 
Bu. But Swahili influence has prevailed, and 
Uganda, Unyoro, &c. are now the accepted forms 
instead of Buganda, Bunyoro, &c. 

U (New Guinea). See Gu. 

Ua, pi. Nyua (Swahili), an enclosure, fence. 

TJai (Polynesia). See Vai. 

Uanja (Swahili). See Anja. 


Uar, War (Ealianwin dialect, South Somaliland), a water 

tank, an open trench, not intended for irrigation, 

but to collect drinking-water. 
TJato (Swahili). See Watu, Tu, To. 
Ub (Hottentot). See Ep. 
Ubityi (Zulu, Kafir). See Bityi. 

Ubuilaya Voda (Euss.), low water, low tide. See Voda. 
Ubuku (Kafir). See Buku. 
TIch, Uwch (Welsh), higher, Ucha, Uchaf, highest, e.g. 

Gwnnws Ucha. 

TJchau (Hu-ni, China), a wood, forest, bush. 
Uchma, Ujma (Chinese Turkestan), a post station. 
Uda, Uddak (Aleut), bay, gulf, e.g. Alimuda, ' Alim 


Udada (Kafir). See Dada. 
Udak (Aleut), dried fish, e.g. cape Udak. 
Uddak (Aleut). See Uda. 
Udgha (Berber). See Wadrar. 
Udherer (Shawia, Berber), a hill. 
Udsui (Fan, French Congo). See Dsui. 
Uduuru (S. Cape, New Guinea), a mountain. 
Udvar (Hung.), courtyard, manor, house, castle. 

u | (dialects of Bantu), forest, lit. grass. See Dzu. 

Ue nem to koi (Indian, California), island, lit. middle 

of water. 

Ufalme, Ufalume, Ufaume (Swahili), kingdom. 
Ufalume. See Ufalme. 
Ufaume. See Ufalme. 
Ufer (Ger.), bank of a river, beach shore. See Over. 


Ugau (Zulu, Kafir), a bend, curve, or inclination in a 
range of mountains ; a crooked, rocky, and difficult 
pass in a mountain. 
Ugu (Ibo, Nigeria), hill, mountain, e.g. Elu Ugu, 'top of 

the mountain.' 

Uguden (Jibali, Berber), a low hill. 
Uhua (laibo, New Guinea), east. 
Ui (E. Turk.), tent, house, dwelling, abode. 
Uin (Serer, Senegal), people. 
Uiterbuurt (DcJi.), the outskirts of a town; suburb. 

See Buurt. 

Uj (Arab. N. Africa), talus slope, lit. a face. 
Uj (Hung.), new, e.g. Uj Kigyos. 
Ujar (Berber). See Wadrar. 
TIjong (Malay). See Tangong. 
Uketo (Swahili). See Keto. 
Ukingo (Swahili). See Kingo. 
Ukreplenye (Buss.), a fort. Properly Ukryeplenie. 
Ukumkani (Zulu, Kafir). See Kumkani. 
Ula (China), stream, river. 
TJla, III (Mongol), a mountain, e.g. Bogdo Ul, 'God's 


wTJla (Giryama), rain. 

Ulad, Aulad, Awlad (Arab.), a district, tribe, tribal 
district, like the territory of the old Highland clans ; 
Aulad = son ; see Gaelic Mac ; cf. Walad, Wad. 
Ulak (Aleut), house or everybody's house, house for 

everybody, e.g. Ulak island. 

Ulalo (Ja-Luo, Uganda), bridge, especially a bridge of 


Ulan (Mongol, E. Turk.), red, e.g. Ulan Kuduk, * red 

wells.' See Kuduk. 
Ule (Bambara, Malinke), red, e.g. Baule, 'red river'; 

Manaule, ' red cliff.' See Ba, Mana ; cf. Fing, Khwa. 
Ulikowa (Lu-Wangu, Uganda), a wall. 
Ulo (Ibo, Nigeria), house. 
Ulo, Uloto (Bambara, Malinke), a forest. 
Ulongo (Giryama). See Longo. 
Ulu, Hulu (Malay), the interior or up-stream portion of 

a country, source of a river, e.g. Ulu Bernam, ' the 

source of Bernam E.' 
Ulu (Turk.), great, e.g. Ulu Chai, ' great river/ in Asia 

Minor. See Chai. 

Ulugh (E. Turk.), great, high, lofty. From Turk. Ulu. 
Ulunivanua (Mbau, Fiji), a mountain. 
Ulus (E. Turk.), a tribe, clan. 

Ulusingi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Singi. 
Uluzi (Lusinga and Chula, Uganda). See Zi. 
Ulwandle (Kafir). See Lwandle, Andle. 
Um (Arab.) See Umm. 
Um (Friesland), a home, e.g. Rysum. 
Uma (Kamerun), a place, site. 
Uma (Mentawei I., S.W. coast Sumatra), a house. 
Uma (New Guinea), garden. 
Uma (Zambezia), dry. 
Umai (Pa'i, South China), a wood. 
Umango (Kafir). See Mango. 
Umbana (Cent. Africa, Bantu). See Mumana. 
Umbolompo (Kafir). See Bolompo. 
Umbuso (Zulu, Kafir). See Buso. 


TJmbutiso (Zulu, Kafir), a mealie ground cultivated by 
the whole tribe of a chief. 

Umda (Amaxosa, Kafir). See Da. 

Umdiliya (Amaxosa, Kafir). See Diliya. 

Umen (Mongol), before, in front ; south. 

Umendo (Zulu, Kafir). See Mendo. 

Umfula (Zulu, Kafir). See Fula. 

TImfungi (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Fungi. 

Umgebungen (Ger.), environs. 

Umgegend (Ger.), environs, district surrounding any 

Umgxobozo (Amaxosa, Kafir). See Gxobozo. 

Umhlaba (Kafir). See Hlaba. 

Umhlahlo (Amaxosa, Kafir). See Hlahlo. 

ITmhlambo (Kafir). See Hlambo. 

TImi (Japan), the sea. Cf. Nada. 

Umieshi (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), sand. 

Tlmitsuru (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Mitsuru. 

Umlambo (Kafir). See Lambo. 

TTmlopu (Kiriwina, New Guinea), a valley. 

TJmin (Arab.), mother ; as a geographical term this 
signifies producing, containing, e.g. Urn er Rbia, 
' abounding in pasturage,' see El, Rbia ; used in a 
similar manner to Abu (q.v.) ; it is often joined to 
the following word by omitting the IT and simply 
prefixing M, e.g. Umm-gheir is contracted into 
Magheir. Frequently found in the form Unu 

TJmnquba (Zulu, Kafir). See Nquba. 

tlmqenqelezi (Zulu, Kafir). See Qenqelezi. 

tJmrotya (Zulu, Kafir) , a ravine, See Rotya, 


Umsala (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a tree. 

Umsetuluka (Kafir). See Setuluka. 

Umsingakazi (Kafir). See Singakazi. 

Umtangala (Zulu, Kafir). See Tangala. 

Umtantato (Kafir). See Tantato. 

Umtombo (Kafir). See Tombo. 

TJmtsantsa (Zulu, Kafir). See Tsantsa. 

Umtyuba (Zulu, Kafir). See Tyuba. 

Umuchi, Imichi (Kossova, Eastern Uganda). See Chi. 

Umusitu (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Mwitu, 


Umutienyi (Kossova, Uganda). See Tienyi. 
Umuzi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Musi. 
Umwalo (Lu-Wanga, Uganda). See Alo. 
Umwamba (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 


Umwene (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Mwene. 
Umzi (Zulu, Kafir), a village; a place of residence, 

e.g. TImzinyati K. = 'the buffalo haunt,' Umzimvubu 

K. = 'the hippopotamus haunt.' See Zi for prefix 

and root. 

Umzila (Kafir). See Zila. 
TJmzimandlela (Zulu, Kafir). See Zimandlela. 
Unajia (Mentawei I., S.W. coast Sumatra), a marsh, bog. 
Unaktak (Aleut), broken, rugged, e.g. Uniktak bay. 
ITncha (Sansc.), a height, elevation, hill. 
Ung (Taungtha, AraJcan), a valley. 
Ungala (Mandara, South Bornu), road, path, way. 
TIngunyek (Nandi, Uganda), sand. 
Ungur (E. Turk.), a cave, cavern. 

D D 


Ungwa (Hausa), a pagan village ; e.g. Ungwa Sammit, 
Ungwa-n-Bodo, ' Bodo's village.' Cf. Gimi. 

Ungwina (MeJceo, New Guinea), summit. 

Unjosho (Japan), custom-house. 

Unter (Ger.), under, lower (U.), e.g. Unter den Linden. 
See next entry. 

TJnterlauf (Ger.), lower course of a river. 

Unuwa (laibo, New Guinea), a forest. 

Tip (Hottentot). See Ep. 

TIpalla (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu). See 

Upavan (Deccan), a grove. 

Uprata (Deccan), the west. 

Uqampu (Zulu, Kafir). See Qampu. 

Uqato (Zulu, Kafir). See Qato. 

Ur (Hung.), a town, e.g. Keresztur, equivalent to Var (q.v.) 

Ura (Albanian), a bridge. 

Ura (Japan), bay. 

Urdian, Urjan (Fula), serpent, the name given to the 
four bends of the Senegal R. 

Urdu (Turk.), a camp, a market ; e.g. Urdu Zaban=the 
' Camp Language ' (Hindustani). 

Ureba (Nubia), a mountain, a large conspicuous moun- 

Urgebirge (Ger.), primitive mountains or rocks ; from 
Ur, prefix of originality, and Gebirge, extended form 
of Berg = mountain. 

Urgo (Mongol), an inhabited place ; e.g. Sam Beise Urgo, 
' seat of prince Sam.' Urga, the Kussian pronuncia- 
tion of this. 


Urir (Mzabi, Berber), a mountain. Cf. Ighil. 

Urjan (Fula). See Urdian. 

TIrma (Nestorian Christian), a church. 

Uro (Fula), a village, a farming village, as opposed to 

Rumde (q.v.) ; e.g. Uro Kanawachi. 
Urochi (Kossova, Uganda). See Rochi. 
Urochishche (Etcss.), boundary, limit. 
Urta (E. Turk.) See Utra. 
Urtang (E. Turk.), a post station. 
Urn, pi. Ullu (Telegu, Deccan), a village. 
Uruizi, Usumbi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See 

Izi, Sumbi. 

Usadba (Buss.), a farm, manor house. 
Usgik (Aleut), willow, e.g. Uski inlet. 
Ushar (Arab.), barren (land) ; a spot with saline soil. 
Usk. See Wysg. 
Usine (Fr.), a factory (Us e ). 
Ussi (Tamul, Deccan), top, summit. 
Ussu (Manchuria), river; e.g. Ussuri. There is also the 

Mongol form Ossu (q.v.) Cf. Usu. 
Ustang (Turkestan), a large canal. 
Ustun (E. Turk.), upper, higher, e.g. Ustun Tagh. See 

Ustye, Ust (E'uss.), entrance, mouth (of a river), e.g. Ust- 

Usu (Mongolia, Tibet), water, e.g. Tsagan-usu, otherwise 

Khaidikgol. Cf. Ussu, Ossu. 
Usua (Zambezia, dialect of Bantu). See Sua. 
Usumbi, Uruizi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu). See 

Sumbi, Izi. 

P D 2 


TJsuru (French Sudan), customs duty, a place at which 

customs duty is collected. 
Uswa (Cent. Africa, Bantu). See Isoa, Swa. 
Ut (E. Turk.), grass. 
TIta (Marocco), a plain. 

Titan (Malay), forest, wood, Titan Kimba= virgin forest. 
Utango (Kafir). See Tango. 

TIteka (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Teka. 
TItes (Buss.), bluff, cliff. 
TItiu (Hu-ni, China), water. 
TItlanga (Kafir), a tribe, nation. See Tlanga. 
TItra, Otra, Urta (E. Turk.), middle. Cf. MongolTumtz. 
TItsi (Ukamba, Brit. E. Africa, Bantu). See Tsi. 
TItswerero (Giryama), west. Another form is Muts- 

werero. See Akani. 
TIttar (Hind.), north. For other points see Dakhni, 

Junubi, Pachcham, Purab. 

TItwa (Kafir), a deep place in a river. See Twa. 
Tlvi (Motumotu, New Guinea), house. 
Uvra (Mandara, South Bornu), a mountain. 
Tlwatu (Swahili). See Tu. 
Uwch (Welsh). See TIch. 
Tly, Tli (Cent. Asia), tents, a collection of tents, an 


Tlyasd (Cent. Asia), a district. 
Uzo (Ibo, Nigeria), road, street. 
Tlzun (Turk.), long, far, far off; e.g. TIzun Taki, 'the 

distant Taki,' 


ovaVa (Bihe, Angola, Bantu), water. 
Vaag (Nor.), an inlet, small bay. 

Vaart (Dch.), way, course ; e.g. Dedemsvaart. Cf. Fahrte. 
Vadakku (Tamul), north, cf. Kuperan. For other 

points see Terku, Intiran, Mekaku. 
Vadera (Sp.), a shallow part of a river. Cf. Vado. 
Vaderqvarn (Sw.), a windmill. 

Vado (Sp.), a ford (V.) Cf. Vadera, Port, form is Vao. 
Vaeau (S. Cape, 'New Guinea), east. 
Vaerft (Da., Nor.), wharf, dockyard, shipyard. 
Vager (Da.) a beacon, buoy. 
Vague (Fr.), waste (land). 
Vahal (Punjab), long narrow depressions, probably old 

river channels. Cf. Nali. 
Vai, Uai, Wai, Voi (Polynesia), water. 
Vahau (Kerepunu, New Guinea), south-east wind. 
muVaka (Nika), a boundary. 
iVakavaka (Zulu, Kafir), a sandy country; damp 

country ; yielding ground. 
Vakuna (Kabadi, New Guinea), stone, rock. 
Val (Da.), the shore. 
Val (It., Sp.), vale, dale, valley. Cf. Valle. Obsolete in 

Fr. except in place-names, e.g. Val D'ante. 
Val, Vala (India), town, e.g. Naroval. 
Va-la (Hainan), a village. 
Vala (Madagascar), enclosure, field, farm ; e.g. Ivalanosi, 

'the goat field.' See I, Nosi. 
Valaka (Kerepunu, New Guinea), north wind. 


Vale (Rumanian), a valley (V.) See Val, Valea. 

Vale (Polynesia). See Fae. 

Valea (Russ.), valley, dale. 

Vali (Turk.), governor-general, the administrator of a 

Vilayet (q.v.) 

Valla (Port.), a ditch, trench. Cf. Valle. 
Valla (Sp.), a space or ground surrounded with stakes 

or palisades ; barrier ; entrenchment. 
Vallado (Sp.), palisade, fence. 
Valle (It.), a valley (V le ). See Val and next entry. 
Valle (Port., Sp.) A valley, dale, vale. See Val, Vale, 

Valea, Valla, Vallee, Vallei. 
Vallee (Fr.), a valley (V' e ). See Valle. For use as a 

form of sub-oceanic relief see Trough. 
Vallei (Dch.), dale, valley. See Valle. 
Valiza (Sp.), beacon, buoy. 
Vallon (Fr.) a small valley (V on ). See Vallee. 
Valu (Kiriwina, New Guinea), land, village ; Viloveaka, 

' big village ' ; Vilokikita, ' small village.' See under 


Vamakumanelo (Lomwe, Shir w a L.), a stockade, en- 

eVambu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), junction (of roads). 
Van (Sansc., Hind.), forest, wood, grove. 
Van-ant (Sansc., Hind.), the skirts of a wood. See Van. 
Vand (Da., Nor.), water ; a small lake ; Vandfald = 


Vandmplle (Da., Nor.), a watermill (V ml ). 
eVanga (Congo, dialect of Bantu), suburb, hamlet. 
luVanga (Nika), a cave. 
Vank (Sansc.), the bend of a river. 


Vanua (Kabadi, New Guinea), village. For other 

forms see Fenua. 

Vanuga (Kerepunu, New Guinea), a village. Cf. Vanua. 
Vapavai (N. Tepehuane Indian, Mexico), stone, rock. 
Vapi (Same.), pond, lake, pool. 
Vaqueria (Spanish S. America), an enclosure for cattle ; 

a cowhouse ; from vaca = cow. 
Var (Gaelic). See Barr. 
Var (Hung.), fortress, town round a fortress ; e.^.Temesvar, 

' fortress on the Temes K.' Cf. Ur, Varos. 
Var (N. Chin Hills, Burma), a stream. 
Varaigne (Fr.), a tide-sluice (of salt marshes). 
Varam (Tamul, Deccan), bank, shore. 
Varde (Da., Nor.), a beacon, cairn, landmark. 
Vareana (Kabadi, New Guinea), south-east wind. 
Varenne (Fr.), waste land. Cf. Warren. 
Vari (Sansc., Hind.), water. 
Vari-pravah (Sansc., Hind.), a cascade; a current of 


Varos (Hung.), a town. See Var. 
Varuru (Maiva, New Guinea), north-west wind. See 

Vaula, Vaura. 

Vas (Sansc., Hind.), a house, dwelling. 
Vase (Fr.), mud. 
Vasr (Hung.), a market. 
Vat (Cambodia), a Buddhisfc monastery or temple, 

e.g. Ankor Vat ; the same word as Wat (q.v.) 
Vat (Hebrides), a small lake, e.g. Ollevat. 
Vat (Hind.), a road, path ; from Sansc. vania. 
eVata (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a town, village. 


Vati, Bati (Sansc., Hind.), a house, building ; garden, 

plantation ; villa. 
Vato (Madagascar), stone, rock, e.g. Vodivato, ' at the 

foot of the rock.' See Vodi. 
Vatten (Sw.), Vatn, Votn (Iceland), a lake ; e.g. Vattenfall 

= waterfall ; Hvitarvatn, ' white lake ' ; Fiskivbtn, 

'fish lake.' 

Vatu (Mbau, Fiji), stone, rock. 
Vau (Kerepunu, New Guinea), stone. 
Vau (Vonum, Formosa), a village. 
Vaula (Maiva, New Guinea), south-east wind. See 

Varuru, Vaura. 

Vaura (Maiva, New Guinea), wind. See Vaula, Varuru. 
Vecchia, o (It.), old, e.g. Civita Vecchia. See Civita. 
Vedu, Vendu (Fula), lake, marsh, swamp. 
Veen (Dch.), bog, turf, e.g. Boerveen. 
Veer (Dch.), a ferry. 
Vega (Sp.), an open plain, a tract of level and fruitful 


,, (S. America), a valley. 
Vei (Maiva, New Guinea), water. 
Vei, Vej (Da., Nor.), a road. Cf. Weg. 
Veina (Kabadi, New Guinea), water. 
Veld (Dch.), an open plain ; field, ground. Also moun- 
tain range ; e.g. Roggeveld in Cape Colony. Cf. Fell. 

Frequently, but quite erroneously, spelled Veldt. 
Velho (Port.), old, e.g. Villa Velha. 

Velikii (Buss.), } great (Vk.), e.g. Veliki Stala, on 
Veliky (Bohemian},} the river Morava. 

Venaje (Sp.), the current of a stream. 


Vendaval (Sp.), a strong south-west wind. 

Vendu (Fula). See Vedu. 

Veni (Sansc.), confluence of rivers, junction. 

Venta (Sp.), a poor inn (Vta). 

Ventorillo (Sp.), a small inn (Vfto). 

Vera, Wera (German East Africa), white, e.g. Vera- 
nyange, the chief town of Karagwe. 

Verchne, Verchnoi (Buss.) See Verkhni. 

Verde (Port., Sp., It.), green, e.g. Cape Verde. 

Vereda (Sp.), path, narrow way, footpath. 

Verger (Fr.), an orchard. 

Verkh (Buss.), a peak. 

Verkhni (Buss.), upper, e.g. Verkhni Uralsk. 

Verrerie (Fr.), a glass factory (V rie ). 

Versant (Fr.), declivity, side (of a mountain) ; a water- 

Vertiefung (Ger.), used, in sub-oceanic relief, for a 
depression enclosed on all sides by elevations of 
the sea bed ; from Tief=deep. 

Vertiente (Sp.), cataract, waterfall, cascade. 

Vesna (Buss.), spring. 

Vest (Da., Nor., Sw.), west. 

Vest (Dch.), fortress ; wall, rampart. See Vesting. 

Vester, Vestre (Da., Nor.), west, western (V r ). 

Vesting (Dch.), a stronghold, fortress. See Vest. Cf. 
Ger. Festung. 

Vestra (Sw.), west, western. 

Vetta (It.), peak, summit, top. 

Vetu (Bubiana, Solomon Is.), house. 

Veu (S. Cape, New Guinea), stone. 


Via (It., Port., Sp.), road, route, street. 
eVia (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a field, plantation. 

Viani (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Kiani, Ani. 

Vicheadero (Spanish S. America), heaps of small stones, 
surrounded by a wall, found on the W. borders of 
Uruguay, where it is said the Indians place 
sentries to give notice of the approach of an 

Videk (Hung.), region, district, environs. 

Viejo (Sp.), old, ancient, e.g. Cabo Viejo. 

Vien (Siam), a town of the fourth order or sub-dis- 
trict capital. 

Vieux, Vieil, Vieille, Vielle (Fr.), old, ancient, e.g. Vieux 
Berquin, Vieilleville, Vielmur, Vielle-Segur. 

Vig, Vik (Da., Nor.), a bay, creek; e.g. Qualvig, ' whale 
bay.' Larvik. Of. Vik. 

Vigfa (Sp.), Vigie (Fr.), a look-out ; doubtful shoals, the 
existence of which in their exact locality is doubtful. 

Vigne (Fr.), a vineyard. 

Vijni (Buss.) See Vyshni. 

Vijver (DcJi.), a pond. 

Vik (Sw.), a bay ; (Icel.), a creek, inlet, or cove ; hence 
Vikingr (Eng. Viking) = creek-dweller, rover, corsair. 

Vil (Indo-China), a village. 
In Vila (Congo, dialect of Bantu), family, clan. 

Vilag (Hung.), world. 

Vilayet, Eyalet (Turk), government or province under 
a Vali, divided into Sanjaks ; land, country. 

Villa (It.), country house (V la ). 

Villa (Port., Sp.), a town. 


Village (Fr.), a village. 

Villar (Sp.), village, harnlet. In Port, farmhouse. 

Ville (Fr.), a town. 

Villeta (Sp.), a small town or borough. 

Villiers (France), an abode, house, e.g. Hardivilliers. 

Villino (It.), a small country house (V no ). 

Vinayo (Pazzelie, Pei-Po, Formosa), a mountain. 

Vire-vire (Fr.), a whirlpool. 

Viria (Mbau, Fiji), a place. 

Vives eaux (Fr.), spring tide. 

Vivier (Fr.), a fishpond (V er ). 

Viz (Hung.), water. 

Vladi (Buss., from the same root as vladika, ' a ruler '), 

rule, e.g. Vladikavkaz, ' rule the Caucasus.' 
Vlakte (Deli.), flats, a plain. 
Vlei (Cape Deli.), a hollow filled with water, frequently 

dry in the hot season, e.g. Zeekoe Vlei (lit. sea-cow 

vlei), Brand Vlei, ' burning vlei ' (a hot spring). 
Vlek (Deli.), a borough, market town. 
Vliet (Deli.), a brook, stream, e.g. Heenvliet. Cf. Fleet. 
Vloed (Deli.), stream, great river ; torrent, inundation, 

flood ; tide. 

Vlonder (Dch.), a narrow wooden bridge. 
Vnam (Cambodia), mountain, hill. 
Voda (Buss.), water. 
Vodi (Madagascar), foot, bottom, e.g. Vodivohitra, 'the 

foot of the mountain.' See Vohitra, Bodi. 
Vodopol (Buss.), the overflow of a river. 
Voe (Shetlands), a bay, a fiord, e.g. Dury Voe. For 
comparison with Geo and Wick see Geo. 


Voetpad (Dch.), a footpath. 

Vogelj (Albanian), little. 

Vohitra (Madagascar), a village ; also a mountain ; con- 
tracted to vohi in composition, e.g. Vohibahoak, 
' the village of the people ' ; Vohibe, ' great mountain.' 

Voi (Polynesia). See Vai. 

Voie (Fr.), way, road, track. 

Vokahal (Kuvarawan, Pei-Po, Formosa), a river. 

Voladero (Sp.), a precipice, abyss. 

Volastnoi (Cent. Asia), a native district chief. 

Vblgy (Hung.}, a valley (Vgy.) 

Volk (Dch.), people, nation, folk. 

Volkaan, Vulkaan (Dch.), a volcano. 

Volok (Buss.), an isthmus, a portage. 

Vom (Fan, French Congo), place, spot. 

Von (Ger.), from (direction of road) (v.) 

Vorder (Ger.), fore, in front (V.), opp. to Hinter. 

Vorgebirge (Ger.), a promontory ; foot-hills. 

Vorota (Buss.), gates, a channel. Found also in the 

form Varota. 
kiVosho (Giryama), ferry. 

Vostok (Buss.), east, e.g. Vladivostok, 'rule the east.' 
eeVladi; other points are Zapad, Syever, Polden, Yug. 

Vowisha (Makua, Ger. and Port. E. Africa), deep water. 

Vowoloa (Makua, Ger. and Port. E. Africa), damp 
ground fitted for the growth of rice. 

Vrchol, Vrch, Vrh (Bohemian), a mountain. 

Vrelo (S. Slav.), source, spring. 

Vrij, Vry (Dch.), free, e.g. Oranje Vrijstaat, ' Orange 
Free State,' now the Orange Kiver Colony ; 
Vryburg, * free town,' refuge, sanctuary. 


Vrijhafen (Dch.), a free port. 
Vrtache (Servian), valley, dale. 
Vry (Dch.) See Vrij. 
Vrysis (Neo-Greek), source, spring. 
muVu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a ditch or dike. 

Vua liku (Mbau, Fiji), north. For other points see Ka, 

Thake, Theva. 

Vuhitra (Madagascar). See Vohitra. 
Vuiselok (Buss.), settlement, colony. 
kiVuku (Swahili), ferry, ford, crossing-place. 

Vuli (E. Africa), the lesser rains, which continue for 

three or four weeks from the latter part of 

September nearly through October. 
Vulkaan (Dch.) See Volkaan. 
muVumbi (Giryama), the hot season. 
muVunbi (Giryama), the rainy season. 
Vung (Annam), a bay. 
Vuno (Neo-Greek), a mountain. 
eVwangi (Congo, dialect of Bantu), thicket, brushwood, 

jungle of brushwood. 
Vyed (Malta), a ravine, valley, or river ; from Arabic 

Wad (q.v.) 

Vyetrennaya melnitsa (Buss.), a windmill. 
Vyshny, Vishni (Buss.), upper, e.g. Vyshni Volochok. 
Vysoki (Bohemian, Buss.), high, great (Vsk.) 



Wa (Bantu), a prefix meaning 'people,' e.g. Uhehe the 
country, Wahehe the inhabitants; Uganda the 
country, Waganda the people of Uganda (in Ki- 
Swahili, but not in Lu-Ganda) ; see U, cf. A, Ba, 
-Bu, Im, Kel, Ahel, Nke. 

Wa (Hausa), a termination signifying* of ' or ' belong- 
ing to,' e.g. Nassarawa is equivalent to Nassara's, 
frequently found in place-names. -Awa is a com- 
mon Hausa pi. termination. 

Wachtposten (Ger.), a guard-post or station. 

Wad, Wadde (Dch.), a ford, a shallow. 

Wad (Arab.), contracted from Walad, son, e.g. Wad 
Medani. See Ulad. 

Wad, Wadi, pi. Widan (Arab.), a watercourse, dry in 
summer ; a valley. E.g. Wadi Haifa, ' the valley 
where the Haifa grass grows.' Cf. Wed, Selat, 
(Marocco), a river, not a dry river-bed. 

Wadrar (Berber), a corruption of Adrar, a mountain ; 
also written Udgha, Ujar. 

Wag (Sw.), a road. Cf. Weg, Vej. 

Wagenfahre (Ger.), a ferry for wagons (W.F.) 

Waha (Fin.), little. 

Wahaun (North Chin Hills, Burma), a valley. 

Wai (E. Archipelago, New Guinea), water, river, cf. 
Aki ; the word is current throughout the whole of 
Malaysia. See Vai. 


Wai (China), outer, beyond, e.g. Ku-Wai, ' beyond the 

passes.' Cf. Nei. 

Wai (Maori), water, e.g. Waikato, ' flowing water.' 
Waia (Kiriwina, New Guinea), river. 
Waiau (Aroma, Neiv Guinea), south-east wind. 
Waitui (Mbau, Fiji), the sea. 
Wakoba (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), a 

community = the Arabic Kabila. See Koba, Wa. 
Wai (Deli.), rampart, wall, e.g. Diepswal. Cf. Wall. 
Walad (Arab.), see Wad, Ulad. 
Walau (Aroma, -New Guinea), east. For other points 

see Bagiriwa, Gaburigo. 

Wald (Ger.), woodland, forest (W.) Cf. Weald, Wold. 
Waldweg (Ger.), a forest road. See Weg. 
Walien (Bismarck Archipelago). See Rawalien. 
Wall (Ger.), a wall, rampart ; dike, dam ; coast, shore ; 

is cognate with A.-S. weall=wall, and perhaps 

with Lat. vallus, vallum. Cf. Wai, 
Walo (Senegal), a riverain strip of country subject to 

annual inundation. Cf. Chamama. 
Wamerima (Swahili), the people who live on the coast. 

See Rima and Wa. 

Wan (China), a bay, e.g. Talien Wan. 
Wan (Shan States), a village. 
Wan (Chong Chia-tse, Yunnan), black, e.g. Tong Wan 

Tien in Western Yunnan. See Tong, Tien, 
i Wanda (Lu-Wanga, Uganda), a valley. 
Wangaras (Hausa), the cities of the Hausa merchants 

in the Bariba country. 
Wangicheng (Ja-Luo, Uganda), east. 


Wankonos (Indian, U.S.A.), a wall, e.g. Shawangunk, 
1 great wall.' See Sha. 

Wano (Kerepunu, New Guinea], earth. 

Wanua (Marovo, Solomon Is.), a house. Cf. Fenua. 

Wapentake (North [Danish] England), a name formerly 
given, in some of the northern counties of England, 
to a territorial division of the county, correspond- 
ing to the Hundred of the southern counties, from 
A. -8. w^epentac, which is from Norse vapnatak, lit. 
1 weapon taking ' (in homage of the district chief). 

Wapta (Rocky Mountain region, Canada), the Stony 
(Assiniboin) word for ' river ' in general. This has 
lately heen introduced for ' Kicking-horse B.' and 
should not be applied specifically to one of the 
minor rivers of the region. 

War, El War (Aral., N. Africa), difficult, difficult 

War (Raliamvin dialect, South Somaliland). See Uar. 

War (Galloppa, Abyssinia), a hill. 

Wara (Hind.), a quarter of a town where people of the 
same caste or trade live. 

Wara (Hind.), situated on this side (of a river), near, 
close by. Cf. Warla. From Scr. awara=near. 

Wara (Arab., Hind.), beyond, on the further side, 

Waraba (Somali), hyaena. See under Shabel. 

Warafiari (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu). See Rafiari. 

Waraya (Singalese), harbour. 

Ward (England), a territorial subdivision of some 
English counties as Westmoreland, Cumberland, 


and Durham, equivalent to the Hundred (q.v.) of 
the midland counties, from A.-S. weard =ward, 
guard, watchman, &c. ; a division of a forest, e.g. 
Wardley. See Ley. 

War la (Hind.), on this side (of a river). Cf. Wara. 

Warmbad (Ger.), hot springs, lit. warm bath. See Bad. 

Warshufti (Baluch), alluvial soil deposited by a river 
when in flood. 

Wartthurm (Ger.) a watch-tower (Wth.) 

Was (Slavonic), a village, e.g. Wasowetz. 

Wasa (Brazil). See Oyasa. 

Wash, Wath (England), a piece of ground washed by 
the action of the sea or a river, or sometimes over- 
flowed and sometimes left dry ; a shallow part of 
a river, or of the sea ; a ford ; also marsh, bog ; 
e.g. The Wash, Washbourne, Washford, Washwood, 

Washumba (German East Africa, dialect of Bantu), 
shepherds, e.g. TIshumba, a village with much 
pasture land in the neighbourhood. 
eWaso (Bantu). See Ewaso for meaning. 

Wassermuhle (Ger.), a watermill. 

Wasserscheide (Ger.), a water-parting, divide ; from 
scheiden =to separate, see Watershed. 

Waswanipi (Hudson Bay region), a torch, e.g. the lake 
and river of that name. 

Wat (Cambodia, Siam), a pagoda, monastery, temple. 
Cf. Vat. 

Watan (Arab.), a country, region, one's native land. 

Wate (Ubangi E. region}, people of the river. Cf. Tu. 

E E 


Watermolen (Dch.), a watermill. 

Watershed (English), a water-parting, divide ; is a 

popular etymology from Ger. Wasserscheide (q.v.) ; 

shed (A.-S. sceadan) is cognate with scheiden. 
Wath (England) . See Wash. 
Watlki (Indian, California), town, village. 
Watth (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a ferry. 
Watu (dialect of Bantu}. See Tu. 
Watu (Java), a stone or rock. 
Waturawa (Ceylon), swampy, undrainable ground. 
Wawalien (Bismarck Archipelago). See Rawalien. 
Wawarsing (Indian, U.S.A.), holy place, i.e. for feasts 

and dances. 

Waye (Sara, Chad L.), sand. 
Wayen (Tibet), a corruption of the Mongol Bayan (q.v.)> 

rich, prosperous, e.g. Wayen Nor. See Nor. 
We ah (Indian, California), earth, land. 
Weald (England), woodland, e.g. The Weald of Kent, 

Walden ; from A.-S. weald, wald= a wood, forest, 

cognate with Goth, walthus, and Gr. a\cros, grove. 

Cf. Wold, Wald. 
Webi, Web, Webbe (Somali), a large running river, as 

distinguished from a Tug (q.v.) ; e.g. Webi Shebeli, 

Wed (Arab.), the bed of a stream, dry for the greater 

part of the year ; another form of Wad, used in 

Marocco for a perennial stream. 

Weem (Gaelic uaimh), a cave, e.g. Weem in Perthshire. 
Weg (Dch.), | road route cf _ y . 
Weg (Ger.), f 


Wegttberfuhrung (Get-.), a bridge over a railway. 
Wegwijzer (Dch.) t a sign-post, lit. l way-pointer.' See 


Wehr (Ger.}, weir, dam. 
Wei (China), see Wai. 

Wei (China), a military station ; also a district. See So. 
Weide (Ger., Dch.), pasture land. 
Weiler (Ger.), an abode, house, village (Wlr.), e.g. Ber- 

weiler. Cf. Will. 
Weinberg (Ger.), a vineyard. 
Weine, Wein (Somali), big, e.g. Durie-weine, Gedwein, 

1 big-tree.' Cf. Yer. 

Weiss (Ger.}, white, e.g. Weisses Meer, the ' White Sea.' 
Wei (Dch.), spring, fountain, source, cognate with Eng. 

Weleshi (Congo), grassy marsh, where the Welewele 

grass grows. See Shi, Eshi. 

Weli (Arab.), Moslem saint (used for a saint's tomb). 
Well (England) . See Will. 
Welle (A-Zande), river, stream, e.g. the Welle or Upper 

Ubangi K. 

Welt (Ger.), world, earth. 
Wen (Berber). See In. 
Wendu (W. Sudan), a large sheet of water, frequently 

fringed with trees. 

Wene kame (Songhai), west. See Jiji, Diaman. 
Wera (German East Africa). See Vera. 
Werala (Singalese), sea-shore. 
Were (Fula), village, place of cultivation. 
Werft (Ger.), wharf, dock. Cf. Werp. 

E E 2 


Werp (Deli.), a wharf, e.g. Antwerp. Cf. Werft. 

Weru (Giryama). See Eru. 

Wesa (Brazil). See Oyasa. 

Wes a na (Indian. California), a valley. 

Watering (Dch.), outlet, canal, e.g. Overwetering, Oude 

Wheal (England], a mine, e.g. Nether Wheal in the 
Peak district ; the Cornish Huel, with which this 
may be cognate, has special reference to a tin 
mine ; cf. Huel-vor, ' great mine.' 

Whim (England), a hoisting device to wind a rope and 
draw a kibble or bucket from a mine ; used for the 
mine itself, e.g. Tilly Whim in the Isle of Purbeck 
= Tilly mine ; The Whim, in the Peak district. 
hiWi (Rua, Bantu), a river. 
oluWi (Bike, Angola, Bantu), a river, pi. olo Ndwi. 

Wick (Essex), a cheese made from the milk of sheep, 
the making of which was at one time a recognised 
Essex industry ; then the shed where the cheese 
was made, e.g. Lee Wick, Well Wick, Cocket Wick, 
Wigborough Wick, all in the parish of St. Osyth. 

Wick, Wich, Vic (England), an abode, village ; e.g. Sand- 
wich, Warwick, from A.-S. wic, a loan word from 
Lat. vicus, village ; a brine-pit, e.g. Nantwich. 

Wick (from Norse Vik), a bay, e.g. Greenwich, cf. Wyke. 
In the Shetlands ' a broad open bay,' e.g. Hoswick, 
see Geo, Vik. 

Wielki (Polish), great. 

Wies (Polish), village, country. 

Wiese (Gcr.), meadow, e.g. Wiesenthal. 


Wiki (Slavonic), a market. 

Wilbokbok (J-ibu, Nciv Guinea), a forest. 

Wilidi (A-Zande), a stream ; from will, son, and di, 
water. Cf. Pangwadi. 

Will, Well (England), an abode, house, e.g. Chiswill, 
Pegwell. Cf. Ger. Weiler. 

Willahk (Indian, California], a valley. 

Wi-mo-ti (China), an isthmus. 

Win (England), white, e.g. Winchester, white fort. 

Winde (Fula), a swamp. Cf. Wendu. 

Windgap (U.S'.A.), an elevated gap, not occupied by a 

Windi (Songhai), a house. 

Windmolen (Dch.), a windmill. 

Windmiihle (Ger.), a windmill. 

Woda, Voda (Slavonic), water, e.g. Oder, Krasnovodsk. 

Woest (Dch.), a desert, waste, e.g. Woestehoeve. Cf. Wiiste. 

Wold (England), woodland, e.g. Cotswolds. Cf. Weald, 

Wo les (Indian, California), sea. 

Worn (Yayo, China), water. 
luWongo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a market. 

Woro (Botel, Tobago Islands, Formosa), a mountain. 

Worth (Anglo-Saxon ; Ger.), an enclosure, e.g. Tarn- 
worth, from A.-S. worth (with variants worthi, 
worthig, weorthig), a field, close, farm. 

Woshe (Hausa), region, country. 

Woud (Dch.), forest, wood, e.g. Aartswoud, Hoogwoud. 

Woude (Dch.), woodland, e.g. Emswoude. 

Wu (Wakhan, Pamirs), a pass. 


Wild (Indian, U.S.A.], a mountain. 
Wuiri (Mossi, Fr. Sudan), a village, place of cultivation. 
Wuitka (Indian, U.S.A.), an island. 
Wuju (Indian, U.S.A.), a mountain. 
Wula (Giryama). See Ula. 

Wula, Wulo (Bambara, Malinke), grass, undergrowth. 
eWumba (Congo, dialect of Bantu), mine, quarry. 
Wun (Ingalik, Alaska), a lake. 
Wura (Gold Coast), grass; bush, forest. 
Wurau (Jibu, New Guinea), sea. 

Wuru, Wurro (Hausa), place, house of, e.g. Wurro Madi. 
Wtiste (Ger.), a desert, waste. Cf. Woest. 
Wy (Cymric), water, e.g. Wye. Wey, Minwy. 
Wyke (England), a small bay, e.g. Rumboldswyke. Cf. 

Wick (Norse), Wik and Vik. 
Wynd (Scotland), an alley, lane. 
Wysg (Celtic), running water, e.g. Usk, Axe, Exe. Cf. 

Irish uisgebeatha (usquebaugh) = ' water of life.' 
Wyzszy (Polish), upper, cf. Vyshny. 

isiXa (Zulu, Kafir), a very bushy country. 

Xaimaka (Jamaica). This word, from which ' Jamaica ' 

is derived, signifies 'island of fountains.' 
Xam (Annam), a village. Another form of Kam. 
iXandeka (Zulu, Kafir), the slope on either side of a 

valley ; hillside. 
isiXeka (Zulu, Kafir), a town or large village. 

Xieng (Siam), town of the second or third order, pro- 
vincial or district capital = Kieng, Chieng. 


Y (Welsh}, the, e.g. Bettws-y-Coed = < Bettws (of) the 
wood.' The position of the noun Coed after Bettws 
indicates the genitive case. See Bettws, Coed. 

Ya (China), an official residence. 

Ya (Indo-China), water. 

Ya (New Guinea), a house. 
aYa (Fan, French Congo), a dam ; for plural see Aya. 

Yabogot (Nandi, Uganda), an enclosure. 

Yaghach (E. Turk.), tree ; wood, forest. 

Yagach-nishan (Cent. Asia), a sign-post. See Nishan. 

Yagak (Aleut), firewood, driftwood, e.g. Cape Yagak. 

Yai (Siam), large, great, e.g. Koh Yai near Bangkok. 

Yaila (E. Turk.) See Yailak. 

Yai'lak (Turk.), summer pasturage ; E. Turk. Yaila. 

Yak (New Guinea), water. 

Yak (Pers.), ice, e.g. Kuh. Yak Ab, 'ice-water mountain.' 
See Kuh, Ab. 

Yaka (E. Turk.), boundary, extremity. 

Yaka- (Nilotic Kavirondo, Uganda), a prefix signifying 
clan or tribe, e.g. Yakagemi. Cf. Ja-, Ka-. 

Yakornoe Myesto .(Russ.), anchorage, 

Yalud (Pers.), the sea-shore. 

Yama (Japan), mountain, e.g. Fusi Yama, 'great moun- 

Yam pa (N. Arakan), a river. 

Yang (Miao-tse, Yunnan), a ford. 

Yang (China), blue, e.g. Yangtse Kiang, ' blue river/ 
See Kiang. 


Yanga (Mossi, French Sudan), east. 
eYanga (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a lake. 
Yangayanga (Congo), a small lake, reduplicated form of 

Yangi, Yani (E. Turk.}, new, e.g. Yangi Shahr, Shahr 

being another form of Shehr (q.v.) ; Yangi Su. See 

Shahr, Su, Yeni. 

Yannekat (New Guinea), water. 
Yao (China), small, e.g. Yao Chau. 
Yao (Ja-Luo, Uganda), a lake. 
Yapak (Wakhan, Gilgit), a river. 
Yar (Turk.), bluff, cliff ; ravine. 
Yara (Yoruba), a trench behind a fortification. 
Yard, Gard (England), an enclosed place, e.g. Fishguard, 

from A.-S. geard= enclosure, court; is cognate 

with Lat. hortus= garden. Cf. Garth. 
Yare. See Garw. 
Yari (Brazil). See Oyari. 
Yam (Tibet), upper, e.g. Yaru Tsang-po, 'the upper 

Tsang-po ' (q.v.) 

Yasa (Congo), a very rocky torrent bed. 
Yashiki (Japan), palace of a Daimio. 
Yashikichi (Japan), building land. 
Yasi, Kiasi (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), grass. See 


Yaya (Ceylon), a tract of paddy fields. 
Ydre (Da.), outer. Cf. Indre. 

Ye, pi. Be (Fan, French Congo), a slope or declivity. 
Yeilau (Ferghana, from Turk. Yai'lak), a summer camp, 

grazing ground ; there is also the form Yeilik. 
Yellang (Kirghiz), bare (of a mountain). 


Yen (China}, dam, dike ; lake, marsh, pond, pool, 

especially one formed by a dam. 
Yen (China] , a cavern. 
Yen (China), salt. 
Yen (Hainan), a sub-prefecture. 
Yena (Eskimo, Smith Sound), a peaked island. 
eYendelo (Congo, dialect of Bantu), path, course, track, 

eYenga (Congo, dialect of Bantu), chasm, gorge, abyss, 

Yeni (Turk.), new, e.g. Yeni Bazar (in Bulgaria), Yeni 

Zagra or Nova Zagora. Cf. Eski, Yangi. 
Yen-tun (China), a beacon. 
Yer (Somali), small, e.g. Ban Yero, 'little plain.' See 

Ban. Cf. Wein. 

Yer (Turk.), land, country ; place, spot. 
Yerbal (Spanish S. America), wooded lands, where the 

Paraguay tea (mate) plant grows. 
Yeru, pi. Yellu (Telegu, Deccan), a river. 
Yeshil (Turk.), green, e.g. Yeshil Kul, ' the green lake.' 

See Kul. 
Yet (Eng. and Scot.), a gate, passage, e.g. Yetholm, 

* the hamlet at the gate or passage,' i.e. between 

England and Scotland. 
Yezero (S. Slav.), a lake. Cf. Ozero. 
Yi (China), any centre of population ; post-town. 
Yike (Mongol), large. See Iki. 
Yilga (Cent. Asia), ravine, valley, e.g. Bos-Yilga, ' grey 

Yimbu (Hausa), clay. 


Yin (China), silver. 

Yin (M ongol)i a genitive suffix, e.g. Naichiyin Gol, 'the 

river of Naichi.' See Gol. 
Ying (China), a fortified military place ; camp. 
Yite (SoninJce), a tree. 
Ym, Yn (Welsh), in, at, e.g. Llanfihangel yn Nhowyn 


Yo (New Guinea), water. 
Yobu (Songhai), market. 
Yog (Tibet), down, below, lower. Cf. Tod. 
Yokara (Turk.), upper, e.g. Yokari Chauskoi. 
Yoki (Fin.), a river. 
Yol (Turk.), channel ; road. 
Yol (Welaung, Kwenam), small. 

Yo mi (Indian, California), town, village (mi = house). 
eYondi (Kamerun). See Jondi. 
Yort (Siam), a peak. 
You (New Guinea), water. 
Yowed (Bagirmi), a hamlet. 
Yowi (W. Australia), water. See Yui. 
Yr (Welsh), the ; Yr Aran (one of the peaks of Snowdon). 
Yspytty (Welsh), hospital, e.g. Yspytty Ystwyth, is a 

loan word from Lat. hospitium. 
Ystrad (Welsh), a paved road, street ; a vale, dale ; a loan 

word from Lat. strata = strewn, i.e. paved (way), e.g. 

Ystradgunlais. Cf. Gaelic Srath, Strath. 
Yttre (Sw.), outer, e-.g. Enhorna Yttre. 
Yu (China), a lofty bank. 
Yua (Burma), town of the fourth order, or sub-district 



aYua (Fan, French Congo), a lodging-place where one 

sleeps when on a journey ; for pi. see Ayua. 
Yuen (China), source ; also garden. 
Yug (Buss.), south. For other points see Syever. 
Yui (W. Australia), fresh water. Cf. Yurri, Yowi, other 

forms of the same word. 
Yuki (Japan), snow. 

Yukon (Indian, Alaska), river, the river, the Yukon. 
Yumdi (Mossi, French Sudan), rainy season. 
Yungo (Valovale, Barotseland), a river; sometimes 

misspelled Bungo. 
Yur-ba (Tibet), a canal. 
Yurri (W. Australia), water. Cf. Yui, Yowi, other forms 

of the same word. 

Yurt (Cent. Asia), tent, household, family. See Yurta. 
(Kamchatka), a wooden hut covered over w T ith 

sods and grass. See Yurta. 
(Mongol), tent made of felt. See Yurta. 
,, (Tibet), inhabited country. See Yurta. 
Yurta (Turk.), encampment ; this and Yurt are variants 

of Urdu (q.v.) 
Yuyal (Spanish S. America), land covered with Yuyo 

Yuyo (Spanish S. America), a poisonous grass which 

cattle will not touch. 


Za (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a pool left after the fall of 

a river, a hole in the bed of a river. 
nZa (Congo, dialect of Bantu), the world, earth. 


nZadi (Congo, dialect of Bantu}, l the great river,' i.e. 

f The Congo.' From this by change of d to r 

comes Zaire, the Port, name of the Lower -Congo. 
Zail (India), the jurisdiction of a zaildari, who is the 

representative of the headmen in several villages. 
Zair (Arab.) See Jezira. 
Za khon (Laos), a country, region. 
Zaki (Japan). See Saki. 
Zakol (Russ.), a weir. 

Zaliv (Buss.), a bay, gulf. Sometimes Zalif. 
nZam (Fan, French Congo) ; for pi. and meaning see 

Zamofka (Khiva), a mud- walled enclosure for storing 


Zam-pa (Tibet), a bridge. 
Zan (Japan), a mountain ; a loan word from Chinese 

San, Shan. 
Zand (Dch.), sand, e.g. Hienenszand, Hoogzand. See next 


Zandstuiving (Dch.), sand drift. See Zand. 
eZandu (Congo, dialect of Bantu), a market, market- 

Zang (Chad L. region), a halting-place. See Zango. 
Zang, Zanj (East Africa), black, e.g. Zangue Bar, Indian- 

ised Zanzibar. See Bar. 
Zango (Hausa), a camp, a station, e.g. Zango Ladan, ' the 

station where ladan, tax, is taken.' Cf. Sansanne ; 

for variants see Zongo, Zungo. 
Zanja (Spanish S, America), a channel formed by the 

rains between two heights or on a plain. 


Zanjon (Spanish S. America), a short Zanja (q.v.) 
nZanza (Congo, dialect of Bantu), flat hill-tops, a table- 
Zapad (Buss.), west. See Yug, Vostok, Polden, Syever, 

for other points. 
Zar (Pers.), a suffix meaning a place ' abounding in,' 

another form of Sar (q.v.) 
Zar-ba (Tibet), steep, as of a mountain pass. 
Zastyenk (Buss.) a farm. 
Zat (Shahpur, Punjab), a tribe, divided into Muhi, or 

clans. Cf. Kom. 
Zavel (Deli.), gravel. 

Zavod (Buss.), a bay ; Zavdd, a manufactory. 
Zawia (Arab., N. Africa), lit. angle, corner; a retreat, 

monastery, priory. 
Ze (Burma), a market. 

nZe (Fan, French Congo) ; for pi. and meaning see Nze. 
isiZeba (Kafir), a reach or deep pool in a river. 
Zebara (Arab., N. Africa), a sandy knoll. 
Zee (Dch.), sea, e.g. Zuyder Zee. 
Eeitun (Arab), olives, e.g. Mersa Zeitun, in Algeria. See 

Zemilet (Arab.), the summit of dunes of moderate height. 

Cf. Zemul. 

Zemla, pi. Zemul (Arab., N. Africa), a long dune. 
Zemlya (Buss.), the earth, the world ; land, e.g. Novaya 

Zemlya=-' Newland ' ; cf. Newfoundland. 
Zemul (Arab.), the lofty summit of a chain of dunes. 

Cf. Zemilet. 
Zemul (Arab., N. Africa). See Smala. 


nZen (Fan, French Congo), road, path; for pi. see Nzen. 
Zendeh (Pers.), man, living man, e.g. Kuh-i-Zendeh. See 


Zephyros (Greek), west, the west wiud=Lat. Favonius. 
Zerdeb (Arab., N. Africa), a precipice. 
Zeriba, Zariba (Northern Africa), lit. a fence, paling ; 

an enclosure ; a fortified village ; corresponds to 

the Boma of the Bantu races, and the Kraal ; from 

Egypt. Zerebak= thorn fence. Cf. Sumba. 
Zerkhof (Buss.), church, mosque. Properly Tserkov (q.v.) 
Zeughaus (Ger.), an arsenal. 
Zhang-sung (Korea), grotesque sign-posts. 
Zhelobina (Buss.), the deepest part of a channel. 
Zhelyezo (Buss.), iron. See Jelyezo, the difference lying 

simply in the representation of the Russian letter 

by zh or j. See next entry. 

Zhelyeznaya Doroga (Buss.), a railway. See Doroga. 
Zheng (Tibet), a plain. 
Zhi (Nupe, Nigeria). See Ji. 
Zhing (Tibet), cultivated ground. 

luZi] (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a river; other 
uluZij forms are nguZi, maZi, amaZi. 

muZi (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a town. See Musi. 
umZi (Zulu, Kafir), a place of residence, a village. See 

Zia, Sia (NiJca), a reservoir, lake; the forms kiZia, kiSia 

also occur. 
Ziarat (Pers.), sacrifice, e.g. Kuh-i-Ziarat, * Sacrifice hill.' 

See Kuh. 
iZibuko (Kafir), a ford. 


Ziegelei (Ger.), a brick kiln (Zgl.) ; from Ziegel= brick, 
tile, from Lat. tegula=tile ; whence also A.-S. 
tigel, Fr. tuile as in Tuilerie (q.v.) 
Ziehbrunnen (Ger.), a draw-well. 
Ziga (Mossi, French Sudan), a place. 
Ziko) (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), country; for 
maZikof other dialects see Dziko. 

inZila)' (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a road, path. 
nZila) Cf. Zira, Sila, Jia, Jira. 

umZila (Kafir], a cattle-track. Cf. inZila. 

Zima (Buss.), winter. 
um Zimandlela (Zulu, Kafir), the boundary of cultivated 


mZinda (Cent. Africa, dialect of Bantu), a town. 
Zippele (Mossi, French Sudan), a plain. 
Zira (Hassania), a hill. 

i Zira ] (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), a road, path, 
in Zira J Cf. Zila. 

Ziro (Japan), palace, castle ; white. 
Ziwa, Chisiwa (Cent. Africa, dialects of Bantu), island. 

Cf. Kilela. 
iZiwa (L using a and Chula, Uganda), a water-hole, a 


Ziya (Giryama), pool, pond, lake. 
Zmala, pi. Zmul (Arab.), a chief's camp ; a spahi's farm. 

See Smala, really the same word. 
Znak (Buss.), a beacon, a mark. 
Zollhaus (Ger.), a custom-house, from zoll= toll ; cf. to 

take toll. 
Zoma (Nestorian Christian), summer pasture grounds. 


Zongo (Hausa), a camping-place. Cf. Sansanne; sec 

Zango, Zungo for variants. 
nZonsa (Congo), a rough bridge. 
Zozan (Kurdish), summer pasturage. 
Zufluss (Ger.), a tributary stream. 
Zuid (Deli.), south. 

Zulumba (Mossi, French Sudan), a ravine. 
Zumbu (Songhai), a camp. 
Zungo (Hausa), a halting-place for the night ; another 

form of Zongo (q.v.) 

iZwa (Kafir), a nation or people. See Zwe. 
iliZwa (Zulu, Kafir), a country. 

Zwart (Dch.)j black, e.g. Zwartkops K. See Kop. Cognate 

with A.-S. sweart = swart, swarthy, black, 
i si Zwe (Kafir), a nation or people. See Zwa. 





Knox, itlexander 

Glossary of geographical 
and topographical ter:ns r .,