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Liturgical and Kc- 

iticul Trrir- .;mn>MS illustra- 

!vth. -. 187: 






D.C.L., F.S.A. 

" Iii truth, a repertory 

Of quaint words and unknown, culled here and there 
From ancient scribe, old tome and manuscript ; 
From church and cloister and from garrulous crone ; 
Brought forth, with painful lore and curious art, 
Into the sunshine of the present day." 











CI)tsi Wa Unite 



jfttie tt tottsttatttta. 


I HIS volume was commenced many 
years ago, in the year 1854, when 
the Author was at Oxford, by the 
gathering together of materials, notes 
and memoranda, made in the course 
of reading and inquiry. The valu- 
able Libraries of Sir Thomas Bodley, 
the Oxford Architectural Society, and St. Edmund Hall, 
enabled him to provide a vast amount of information 
and many curious details of ecclesiastical lore, simply for 
his own information and instruction. At the same time 
the facts gathered and gained were carefully tabulated 
and arranged ; and, as time and opportunities were ob- 
tained, very considerable additions were made, year by 
year, through personal inquiry and labour. Many of the 
facts put on record have been obtained by the Author in 
most pleasant and edifying visits to certain of the old 
churches of England. Several of the sacred edifices of 
Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire have been explored 
more than once, and the results of inquiry and investi- 
gation carefully noted down and preserved. His pencil 
as well as his pen has also been called into requisition, 
so that several of the woodcuts with which this volume 
is illustrated are from his own drawings. 


It has been his aim to bring together, in a compara- 
tively small compass, as much information as possible 
concerning the meanings and applications of the many 
Liturgical Terms and other Ecclesiastical Words bearing 
on the study of Ritual, a detail of Liturgiology to 
which much attention is now being directed. With 
this aim, the Author has consulted nearly two hundred 
MS. Church and Churchwardens' Accounts of the 
period of the Reformation, which tend to throw so 
much light both on the statute law and custom of 
our National Church in bygone times. Neither ordi- 
nary nor extraordinary sources of information have 
been overlooked ; both Latin and Eastern terms being 
included in the compilation. The illustrations are 
mainly taken from Ornamenta and Instruments Eccle- 
siastica existing and used in the Church of England; 
while the explanations of pre-Reformation ceremonies, 
rites, and observances have been selected from English 
rather than from foreign examples and authorities. 

It should be specially remarked that the book is not 
intended for the learned, but for the unlearned ; it is 
addressed ad populum. Moreover, let it be further noted 
that it is not an Encyclopedia, but a Glossary. Through- 
out its preparation, the Author's aim has been to give 
as much accurate information as was possible in a few 
sentences and a short space. He has aimed at concise- 
ness and brevity. Whether he has at all succeeded 
others must judge. In many cases, where one word 
bears several meanings, each explanatory meaning has 
been set forth, even though one may appear to con- 
tradict another. And nothing has been put forth without 
what was judged by the Author to be good and sufficient 


authority. In a very few cases the authorities for certain 
statements appear in the text ; but these are exceptions 
to the general rule. About six thousand explanations of 
Liturgical and Ecclesiastical terms are here provided. 
In order that those who wish to study the subject of 
Christian archaeology for themselves a most agreeable, 
delightful, and profitable study may do so with success, 
a considerable List of Authors has been prefixed, to all of 
which, having been constantly consulted, the Compiler 
is greatly indebted for the varied information contained in 
the following pages, authors, whose books he earnestly 
recommends to inquiring students. 

He is under obligations to the Rev. Dr. Littledale for 
permission to make use of certain semi-obsolete Oriental 
terms explained in the " Glossary " of that valuable 
compilation, The Offices of the Eastern Church (London : 
Williams & Norgate, 1863) ; to the late Very Rev. 
Eugene Popoff, Chaplain to the Russian Embassy, for 
his patience evinced, and information bestowed, in the 
explanation of details of Eastern Archeology ; anct also 
to Mr. James Parker, of Oxford, for the use of some 
illustrations which the Author made some years ago for 
the Gentleman's Magazine, and which were so cleverly 
engraved on wood by Mr. 0. Jewitt. 

The late Bishop Wilberforce, at whose hands the 
Author received ordination, accepted the dedication, but 
circumstances prevented the publication of the book 
upon completion. Since the lamented death of that 
eminent ecclesiastical statesman, Bishop Harold Browne 
has been called upon to fill the episcopal chair of this 
ancient diocese. His Lordship having allowed me to 
inscribe the book to him, I take this opportunity of 



expressing my respectful acknowledgment for that and 
every other act of kindness received at his hands; 
adding at the same "time, that neither the late Bishop 
Wilberforce nor his Lordship read the book or knew any- 
thing of its contents; so that by consequence neither 
of them should be supposed to be responsible for 
accuracy of any statement, fact, judgment, opinion, c 
conclusion contained in it. 

Feast of the Transfiguration, 1876. 



Drawn ly 

Engraved by 


Agnus Dei , 

F. G. Lee 

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H.S. Barton 

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C. C. Irons 
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Alms-dish, 1 6th century 

F. G. Lee 

Altar, Old, Parish Church of 
Arundel, Sussex. 
Altar under a Baldachino 

F. G. Lee 

A. W. Pugin... 
F. G. Lee 

Altar, English, Vested, from a MS. 
Altar Bread (Armenian, Coptic, 
Latin, and Greek). Four illus- 
A Itar-Bread box 

F. G. Lee 

F. G. Lee 


A. W. Pngin... 

Altar- Frontal (Precious) 

A. W. Pugin... 
A. W. Pugin... 
A. W. Pugin... 
F. G. Lee 



Altai'-Tomb of Sir John Clerke, 
St. Mary's, Thame, Oxon 
Amice. (Three illustrations) 

A. W. Pugin... 
A. "W. Pugin... 
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C. C. Irons... 

Branch. A. ~W. Piicrin . . 

(Burial) Ancient stone coffins 

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From a brass . . . 
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Cantoral Staff 

Cappa Choralis 



Chasuble. fig. I. Most ancient 


Win 3 f!VmmV>lp nf Rf 

Thomas of Canterbury. 
Fig. 4. Old English chasu- 
ble of the 14th century. 

Lee' a Glossary . 



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Engraved by 


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Chrisom Child (Brass of Benedict 
Ciboriuni of the 1 4th century 

From a brass . . . 

A. W. Pugin... 
A. W. Pugin... 
A. W. Pugin... 
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F. G. Lee 

Coluraba suspended from the roof . 
Columba on a basin or dish , 

Columba, the dove opened 

Consecration Cross 

C. C. Irons 

Corona Lucis 

A. W. Pugin... 
A. W. Pugin... 
F. G. Lee 

Cross on a chancel-screen 

Cross (Pectoral). Spanish example 

A. W. Pugin... 
A. W. Pugin... 
C. C. Irons 


Dalmatic . . , 


A. W. Pugin... 

Elevation of the Host 

A. W. Pugin... 
A, W. Pugin... 
A. W. Pugin... 
F. G. Lee 

Flabellum of ivory 

Frithstool, Beverley Minster 

Funeral-pall of the 1 6th century . . . 
Fylfot (Four examples of the) 

C. C Irons ... 

C. C Irons 

Gospels (Ancient Book of the) 
Gremiale of purple silk 

A. W. Pugin... 
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Head-stone. (Three examples) ... 

F. G. Lee 
A. W. Pugin... 
C C Irons... 

Holy- Water Stoup 


C. C. Irons 

Incense-boat (Old English) 

C. C. Irons 

Incised Slab from Thame Church . 
Inscription from the Catacombs ... 
Knife (Eucharistic) 
Labarum (Three examples of the) . . . 

C. C. Irons 

C. C. Irons 

F. G. Lee 
F. G. Lee 

F. G Lee 

Lamp from the Roman Catacombs . 

F. G. Lee 

F. G. Lee 


F G Lee 


A. W. Pugin... 
C C Irons . 



A. W. Pugin... 
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C. C. Irons 

Mitre. Fig. 1. Head-dress of a 
Pagan Pontiff. 

F. G. Lee 

F. G. Lee 
F. G. Lee 



Subject. Drawn ly 

Engraved ly 


Mitre. Fig. 4. Thirteenth-century 
== Fig. 5, Mitre from a Brass, 
A.D. 1417. 
Fig. 6. Mitre of William of 
Monograms, Lollards' Tower, Lam- 
Monstrance, Tower-shaped 

F. G, Lee 
C. C. Irons 
F. G. Lee 

G. C, Irons 
C. C. Irons 
C. C. Iron* 
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F. G. Lee 

A. W. Pugin... 
F G Lee 

Morse of the 1 4th century 

A. W. Pugin... 
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Morse (Copper-gilt) 


C. C. Irons 


F. G. Lee 

Notarial Mark 

F. G. Lee 

Osculatorium. (Two illustrations) 

C. C. Irons 

A. W. Pugin... 
C. C. Irons. ... 

Pall (Funeral) 


C. C. Irons 
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C. C. Irons 


C. C. Irons 


A. W. Pugiii... 
E. Sedding 
A. W. Pugin... 
A. W. Pugin... 
A. W. Pugin... 
F. G. Lee 

Pastoral Staff 

Pastoral Staff 


Pax. (Two illustrations) 

Pectoral. (Two illustrations) . . . 

Pectoral Cross 

A. W. Pugin... 
A. W. Pugin... 
A. W. Pugin... 
A. W. Pugin... 
A. W. Pugin... 
C. C. Irons... 

Praecentor's Staff 

Processional Canopy 

Processional Cross 


Quarry (Flowered) 

Rebus in stained glass ] C. C. Irons 

Re^num or Tiara (Early form) . F. G. Lee 

Reliquary Cross. Fig. 1 

A. W. Pugin... 
C. C. Irons 
C. C. Irons... 

Reliquary. Fig. 2 

Fig 3 

Ring (Episcopal). Fig. I F. G. Lee 

Fia. 2 

E. Sedding 
F. G. Lee 
F. G. Lee 
F. G. Lee 
A. W. Pugin... 
F. G. Lee 
A. W. Pugin... 

Screen, Panel of, Handborough . . . 
Scutum Fidei 
Shrieval Seal 

Shriving Pew 
Spire Cro c s 




Draivn by 

Engraved by 

Tabernacle ' F. G. Lee 

Tabernacle (Kintore) ! F. G. Lee 

Tabernacle (Kinkell) F. G. Lee 

Thurible of Silver Gilt 

Thurible of Copper Gilt 


Tiles from Woodperry 

Tiles from Thame 



Well from the Catacombs 

Window (Warmington) \ O. Jewitt 

Window (New College) O. Jewitt 

Window (Thame) F. G. Lee 

A. W. Pugin. 
F. G. Lee .... 
C. C. Irons.... 
F. G. Lee .... 
F. G. Lee .... 
A. W. Pugin. 
F. G. Lee .... 
F. G. Lee ., 

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H. S. Barton 



BOUT forty years ago a small band 
of able and energetic Cambridge 
men originated and set on foot the 
Cambridge Camden Society. They 
were mostly unknown, and without 
any great social or literary influ- 
ence ; but their powers and deter- 
mination were soon to be made manifest, and their 
work crowned with abundant success. Their broad 
and general object was the repair and restoration of 
dilapidated churches ; their field of labour was nothing 
less than the Church of England, and their motto : 
" Surge igitur et fac, et Dominus erit tecum." How they 
have succeeded, what has been effected, the extent of 
the great artistic and architectural revolution which has 
taken place, may be learned from what is now com- 
pleted or still going on around us. All these are, to 
a considerable degree, due to the efficient and energetic 
labours of the members of what was subsequently 
termed the " Ecclesiological Society." Mr. Beresford 
Hope, M.P., the late Dr. J. M. Neale, Mr. F. A. 
Paley, and the Kev. Benjamin Webb are four of the 
able and distinguished men, who, side by side with 
the late Mr. Welby Pugin, though wholly independent 


of him, through evil report and good report have 
stuck to their text and carried their point with regard 
to Church restoration and the advance of ecclesi- 
astical art. Nor have their followers confined their la- 
bours to the particular question of Church restoration. 
On the contrary, hymnology, fresco-painting, stained 
glass, careful and reverent order in public worship, artistic 
metal-work of different sorts on ancient models, church 
embroidery, and various other collateral works, have 
been Undertaken in a true spirit of artistic devotion, 
and with an equally marked success ; while the ancient 
plain song of the Church has been most practically 
restored to use, mainly by the instrumentality of one of 
their most efficient coadjutors, the Rev. Thomas Hel- 
more. They coined a new word, calling themselves 
" Ecclesiologists," and began work in earnest. For 
things external they effected just such a change for the 
better as did the early Oxford Tractarians of 1833 with 
reference to doctrine. There was much to be done, but 
there was, likewise, much to be undone. To the in- 
tense horror of the timid and the cautious at Oxford, 
Mr. Richard Hurrell Froude, of Oriel (who at that 
period knew more about the subject than most people), 
had declared, for example, that the " Reformation " 
was a " limb badly set," which needed to be broken 
again ; and how faithfully as yet members of his 
theological school the school of Newman, Pusey, 
Keble, Isaac Williams, and Marriott have studiously 
laboured to accomplish that object, present facts may 
tell. Those who remember the Church of England at 
that period, and who now see the work she does, the 
position she occupies in Christendom, and the great and 


striking hold she has been permitted to gain upon a 
considerable number of the people, will allow that not 
words only but deeds tell of a singular and almost 
miraculous change. 

Before proceeding to point out what has been done, 
it may not be out of place to call to mind what, from one 
cause or another, was imdone during the religious 
revolution of three centuries ago. On these points and 
on many others, by the bye such one-sided and unfair 
books as the late Professor Blunt's and Chancellor 
Massingberd's Histories of the Reformation are, in 
several respects, untrustworthy. They gloss over many 
of the gravest and most palpable scandals of the time ; 
they ignore the incredible amount of destruction which 
was then effected. They are even made to palliate the 
worst excesses and the strongest proceedings of the fana- 
tical. Recently-formed Societies, antiquarian and others, 
however, have unearthed so large an amount of un- 
known information with reference to this period, while 
original documents have been so considerably consulted 
by writers like Mr. Pocock and the late Dr. Maitland, 
that new light is thrown upon old facts, and the blind 
prejudices of partisan historians are exposed and their 
evils pointed out. With regard to the spoliation of 
churches and monasteries under Henry VIII. and 
Edward VI., facts of the most damning character have 
been brought to light and placed beyond the possibility 
of denial. The Records and Inventories of church 
"ornaments" the Lists of the plate, vestments, and 
other valuables which were sacrilegiously stolen from the 
houses of God in this land make one literally blush for 
the work of the Reformers ; while, at the same time, 


something accurate with regard to the position which 
every parish occupied in its capacity for celebrating the 
services of the old Church of England with solemnity 
and grandeur may be certainly gleaned from the perusal 
of them. Persons who have been hitherto styled " our 
pious Reformers," " our judicious Reformers," " our 
single-hearted and unselfish Reformers " may here be 
proved to have not only connived at the scandals com- 
plained of, but to have privately enriched themselves and 
their families by the abundant spoils of rifled churches 
and chantries. Then again, the fanaticism of such per- 
sons as Hooper, bishop of Gloucester, did still greater 
damage. His " Visitation Book " of the years 1551-52 
contains statements and insinuations which are posi- 
tively astounding, and with which the writer takes leave 
to hope a very small number of the promoters of a 
statue to his memory at Gloucester were acquainted 
when they proposed its erection. With regard to altars, 
" communion-tables," chancel-screens, pews, and stained 
glass, he writes thus : 

" ITEM, whereas in divers places some use the 
Lord's board after the form of a table, and some 
of an altar, whereby dissension is perceived to 
arise among the unlearned ; therefore, wishing a 
godly unity to be observed in all our diocese, and 
for that the form of the table may more move 
and turn the simple from the old superstitious 
opinions of the Popish Mass, and to the right use 
of the Lord's Supper, we exhort you to erect and 
set up the Lord's board after the form of an 
honest table, decently covered, in such place as 
shall be thought most meet [1], so that the 


ministers and communicants may be seen, heard, 
and understood of all the people there being 
present [2] ; and that ye do take down and 
abolish all the altars or tables (?). _Further,/t^ 
that the minister, in the use of the communion Q^** 
and prayers thereof, turn his face towards the / 
people [3]. 

iTEir, that you .... take down all the chapels, /> t 
closets, partitions, and separations within your 
churches whereat any Mass has been said, or 
any idol, image, or relic used to be honoured, 
and to make the church a house appointed to 
serve God in without all closures, unparting (?), 
and separations between the minister and the 
people [4], to avoid all Mosaical and Jewish im- 
perfection, and such typical separation as showed 
Christ yet to come, and not already now come 
and past as touching the imperfection of the law. 
Provided notwithstanding, that in case any 
honest man, of what state soever he be, that 
hath a seat within the church for his quietness 
for himself and his to hear the Common Prayer, 
that it stand, and no man meddle with it [5j. 

ITEM, that when any glass windows within any of 
the churches shall from henceforth be repaired or 
new made, that you do not permit to be painted 
or purtured* therein the image or picture of any 
saint; but if they will have anything painted, 
that it be either branches, flowers, or posiesf 
taken from Holy Scripture [6], and that ye cause 
to be defaced all such images as yet do remain 

* Portrayed. t Posies, i.e. mottoes, or legends. 


painted upon any of the walls of your churches 
[7], and that from henceforth there be no more 

From this extract several important facts may be 
gathered. First, that the mean and common deal tables 
which so recently disfigured our churches, and tended 
to make our national communion appear like a mere 
Protestant sect, were set up by one of the chief Anglican 
Eeformers ; and moreover, that the present Presbyterian 
practice as regards so-called " communion " is identical 
with that which Hooper so strongly recommended. 
Secondly, that the presence of non-communicants was 
the rule in 1551, as recommended by Bishop Hooper.* 
Thirdly, that the practice of saying the prayers towards 
the people originated apparently with, or at least was 
specially recommended by, the same Reformer. Fourthly, 
that chancel-screens were to be utterly abolished and 
swept away, for the reasons already set forth in the 
quotation. Fifthly, that private pews were to be care- 
fully retained. Sixthly, that figures in stained glass 
were to be discountenanced ; and seventhly, that fresco 
and other wall-paintings were to be utterly defaced and 
destroyed. Thus we learn from an authentic official 
document what a thorough destruction was effected by 
a personage who bore the office and character of a chief 
minister of religion. 

* In King James's Prayer-book (London : Robert Barker, A,D, 
1620), the exhortation to the Communicants .in the service for Holy 
Communion ran as follows : " Drawe neefe and take this Hollie Sacra- 
ment to yoxlr comfort, make your humble confession to Almighty God, 
before this Congregation gathered together in His Holy Name" thereby 
proving the legality of the presence of the whole congregation at the 
Christian Sacrifice. 


Now in all these particulars there can be little doubt 
that the main body of the Reformers practically went 
with him. Hooper led, and they followed. Yet it must 
be admitted that the largest amount of destruction was 
effected during the Great Rebellion. That which had 
been accomplished at the Reformation in a spirit that 
savoured rather of the fiercest Iconoclasm or Mahomet- 
anism than of Christianity, was done with such sweeping 
and cruel success that it caused the many important 
rebellions of Cornwall, Devonshire, and the North to 
break out amongst the faithful peasantry in favour of 
the ancient religion. Oliver Cromwell and his fanatical 
followers completed what Thomas Cranmer and John 
Hooper had commenced ; the difference being that the 
former was a sworn foe of the Church, while the latter 
were her consecrated officials. Cromwell and Dowsing 
had certainly very distinguished precedents in the work 
of Archbishop Cranmer and his allies, while the latter 
unless Mahometan spoliation and robbery in the East 
had furnished them had to make precedents for them- 

Now, on six out of the seven points specified above, 
the promoters of the Catholic Revival of our own time 
have made a very decided and successful stand. Knowing 
well and accurately what the Reformation had effected 
(their writings indicated this), they saw what was needed 
to be done, where both the strength and the weakness of 
the foe resided, and they acted accordingly. There were 
no fair words and soft sayings, where truth had to be set 
forth and justice done. They were plain, bold, outspoken, 
uncompromising, deliberate. They used the true epithet 
and the right word in condemning a Tudor or Hanoverian 


corruption, though professors frowned, and university 
authorities stood aloof or condemned. There was a grand 
mission to accomplish, and an arduous work to complete, 
even to expose and root out the " fond things vainly 
invented" three centuries ago ; so neither must they fail 
nor falter. They were reformers of a true stamp ; their 
reformation was not a work of destruction ; they strove 
not to pull down, but to build up. So onward they went, 
turning neither to the right hand nor to the left ; and now 
their work is silently and steadily progressing far on to 
completion. Corporate Reunion will be its coping-stone. 

Let the six points condemned by the reforming Bishop 
Hooper, already quoted from, be taken up one by one to 
prove the assumed position by facts : 

1. Tables of the most ordinary material and shape 
were no doubt used, more or less, in place of the de- 
stroyed altars of the ancient Church, until the time of 
the Caroline Revival. Then, through the instrumentality 
of Archbishop Laud's school, altars were here and there 
once more set up. It has been reserved, however, for 
the present restoration of Catholic feeling and practice 
in the Church of England to reintroduce them more 
generally. It is computed that during the past thirty 
years upwards of seven thousand churches have been 
more or less restored in the Anglican communion, some, 
of course, only partially, and not altogether satisfac- 
torily, others with a sumptuousness and completeness 
worthy of the Ages of Faith.* In almost all these the 
altar has taken the place of the red baize-covered table 
"the honest table," as Hooper calls it, which he so 

* See Parliamentary Return, Church Building and Restoration, 
ordered by the House of Commons to be printed, March 23, 1876. 


strongly recommended as a valuable and efficient anti- 
dote to the Catholic doctrine of the Holy Eucharist. The 
altars at Lichfield, Hereford, Worcester, and Ely Cathe- 
drals, all recently erected, are quite of the ancient type ; 
and similar instances may be found in every locality of 
England, from Berwick-on-Tweed to the Land's End. 
Every weekly issue of the Church newspapers contains 
accounts of the refitting of the ancient sanctuaries of the 
Church of England, in exactly that manner which pro- 
voked the censure of Bishop Hooper ; and this, notwith- 
standing the completely unsuccessful attempt which the 
Puritan party recently made, through suits in the courts 
of law, to cast out altars from the national communion. 
We have merely to look around us to mark that in every 
diocese changes for the better in this particular have 
been made of late years. In some favoured localities, 
owing to the praiseworthy energy of the diocesan, the 
work is progressing more rapidly than in others ; but in 
one and all Bishop Hooper's advice is certainly not now 
being taken. This important restoration, moreover, is 
not merely aesthetic, but flows from the active existence 
of a less vague and more Cafcholic conception of the Sacra- 
ment of the Altar. For these changes we have to thank 
on the one hand the coadjutors, successors, and followers 
of the late Mr. R. H. Froude, Dr. Newman, the late Mr. 
Keble, Dr. Pusey, and the Oxford reformers ; and on the 
other the plain-spoken and resolute founders of the Cam- 
bridge Camden Society, already referred to. 

2. The second point remarked upon by Hooper, viz. 
the presence of the faithful generally during the offering 
of the Christian Sacrifice, is a crucial question which is 
being thoroughly sifted and considered just now, owing 


in a great measure to the valuable researches of the late 
Mr. J. C. Chambers, Mr. Perry,* Mr. Edward Stuart, 
and the late Dr. W. H. Mill, and the practice of which 
is becoming daily more common in every place where the 
general Catholic revival is largely advancing. 

3. A consideration of the third point, viz. that " the 
minister turn his face towards the people" "in the use 
of the communion," is one which of all others the pro- 
moters of the Catholic revival have done so much to 
discountenance and condemn. The Protestant faction 
in the Church of England has invariably violated such 
rules and directions as either relegated her ministers to 
ancient customs, or expressly ordered the former rules 
to be observed ; and, with reference to the mode of cele- 
brating the Holy Communion, any careful student of 
the Directorium Anglicanum will have found not only 
important collateral evidence and valuable directions on 
the subject, but various direct and complete rules for 
ascertaining and realizing the true principles of the 
Church, and so for avoiding unintentional irreverence 
and the following of corrupt traditions. 

4. On no point are the Reformers practically so much 
at variance with the promoters of the Catholic revival as 
with reference to the importance of chancel-screens. It 
has been shown in what manner Hooper and his allies 
ordered them to be treated, and the documents to which 
allusion has already been made prove how cordially and 
generally that command was obeyed. Anciently, in almost 
every Anglican church, there was a rood-screen, that is, 
a screen dividing the nave from the chancel, upon which 

* See Mr. T. W. Perry's able tractate on the subject (London : 


stood an image of our Divine Redeemer crucified [a rood], 
with the images of our Blessed Lady and St. John on 
each side. In several instances the following beautiful 
inscriptions were placed near : 

" Effigiem Christ! dum transis pronus honora, 
Sed non Effigiem sed Quern designat adora." 

" Attendite ad Petrum unde excisi estis." 

" Per Crucem et Passionem Tuam, 
Libera nos Domine Jesu. Amen." 

These roods and images, however, were taken down in 
several parts of England in the autumn of 1547, being 
hacked to pieces or burnt amid the yells and execrations 
of the fanatical innovators;* though in many instances 
the lower portions of the screen were permitted to 
remain. So important were these thought to be by the 
prelates of the Laudian school, that more than two hun- 
dred were then erected after the ancient model under 
their directions. How many have been restored, or re- 
placed by new screens, during the last thirty years it is 
impossible to determine ; but much has been done in this 
particular, not only to restore dilapidations, but to carry 
out both the letter and spirit of that most important 
rubric of the Prayer-book : " Chancels shall remain as 
they have done in times past." f 

This was the crucial principle with the earlier ecclesi- 

* St. Margaret's Westminster, 1559. 
Etem, paid to John Rial, for his three days' work to take 

down the Rood, with Mary and John 2s. 8d. 

Item, for cleaving and sawing up of the Rood, Mary and 

John Is. Od. 

t Rood-crosses have been recently erected in several churches, and in 
at least two of our ancient cathedrals ; these, without figures, are at best 
imperfect ; but the figures will no doubt come in clue time. 


ologists in all church restorations ; they insisted most 
distinctly and pertinaciously on a marked and palpable 
division, after the ancient type, between the nave and 
chancel, and in many cases they carried their point. In 
later works, produced by the younger race of architects 
trained in their school, some small modification of this 
principle has been adopted, and a slightly foreign feature 
introduced in the shape of low or dwarf screens, such 
as those at All Saints', Margaret Street ; St. Alban's, 
Holborn ; All Saints', Lambeth ; and All Saints', Boyne 
Hill, an adaptation well enough suited, however, to the 
altered services of the Anglican Church. Thus Bishop 
Hooper's work is again undone by the allies of a new 
and better Reformation. 

5. But in no particular have the directions of the 
quondam Bishop of Gloucester been so universally con- 
demned as in the case of pews. The National Society 
for the Promotion of the Freedom of Worship has fol- 
lowed in the groove that was first formed by the Cam- 
bridge Ecclesiologists ; the two organizations together 
have so far influenced public opinion, that a dislike of 
large private pews for particular families, from which 
other people are excluded, is now almost universal. 
No detailed proof need be attempted, therefore, of so 
generally-recognized and patent a fact. 

6. The use of figured stained glass, likewise, is so 
very general even the Presbyterians of Glasgow have 
adopted it in the Cathedral of that city that the sixth 
of the selected Injunctions of Bishop Hooper may be 
truly said now to be wholly ignored. And if we call to 
mind, for example, what an outcry was raised twenty-five 
years ago against the thoroughly Catholic treatment of 


certain subjects in the glass for St. Saviour's, Leeds, 
and the now commonly-received practice of representing 
all the various details of the Incarnation, in accordance 
with the true principle of mediaeval art and of the Catholic 
religion, we shall be better able to judge faithfully of our 
wonderful progress in matters of this character during 
the past thirty years. 

7. Wall and panel-paintings of every sort were like- 
wise to be defaced ; they gendered profaneness and su- 
perstition, and so stank in the nostrils of the " godly." 
How well and efficiently that part of the " reforming " 
business was performed the walls of our ancient parish 
churches might tell. The axe and whitewash-pail, as we 
learn from Churchwardens' Accounts, were soon brought 
into general and extensive use, and that peculiar " neat- 
ness, cheapness, and simplicity" of which some super- 
ficial people speak so much, were thus easily and com- 
pletely obtained. Carved tabernacle-work, rich in gold 
and vermilion, which must have cost hundreds of pounds 
and years of patient labour to have executed, was thus 
deliberately destroyed in a morning's work of wanton 
and fanatical fury. On the other hand, the reformation 
that has been effected at Ely by the late Mr. Styleman 
Le Strange, together with the efficient works of Mr- 
Gambier Parry at Highnam, near Gloucester ; All Saints' 
and St. Alban's, London ; Worcester College Chapel ; 
All Souls' and Keble Colleges, Oxford not to speak of 
the "Albert Memorial Chapel" at Windsor; All Souls', 
Halifax a mere tithe of what has been effected in other 
places, are sufficient to prove that Hooper's injunctions 
on this, as on many other particulars, are now simply a 
dead letter. 

Lee't Glossary. Q 



But it is not in these particulars only that the Catholic 
movement has succeeded ; the whole range of subjects 
and details included in the term " Ecclesiology " have 
received a systematic impetus, which has resulted in a 
sure but steady progress most remarkable to contem- 
plate. If we look to the influence for good which the 
republication of such books as the Sarum Missal, the 
Aberdeen Breviary, Mr. J. D. Chambers's English version 
of the Salisbury Hours, . and other similar works, has 
had, we can certainly see some reason not to despair as 
to the future. All such publications are in the first in- 
stance mainly theoretical, as far as the ecclesiological 
revival is concerned ; but soon they become eminently 
practical in their bearing on the progress of true 

Again : notwithstanding .the criticism which it re- 
ceived, the Directorium Anglicanum must have more 
than realized the hopes of its original compilers. 

Some will say that the great revival of Christian art 
in this country is a work purely aesthetic, and very con- 
siderably independent of the restoration of Catholic truth, 
and that little or nothing is to be drawn from the facts 
to which allusion has been made, as indicating any 
change of sentiment in the people of England with regard 
to ancient prejudices. But this is a criticism at once 
shallow and one-sided. The external improvements tell 
of the internal. The ancient churches of this country, 
in their dejected state of decay and desolation, spoke 
of a state of feeling which indicated an almost absence 
of faith on the part of the people. Negative systems of 
doctrine had done their work well. As some believed, 
the candlestick was about to be removed ; the light had 


burnt low in the socket, and only flickered with a spas- 
modic glare. Soon, as appeared not unlikely, the gloom 
and darkness of indifference and unbelief were about to 
overshadow the land ; but when the night was blackest 
the first streak of dawn appeared. Independently of each 
other, men were moved strangely but strongly to labour 
for a restoration of the ancient truths, and to seek out 
the old paths. There came an outpouring of new life and 
power. One urged on the other, as each discovered for 
himself the truth and beauty of the Church of bygone 
times, to " arise, therefore, and labour," promising that 
the Lord would bless the work. Helpers were found who 
had never been sought, and unlooked-for results flowed 
as a matter of course from the simplest causes ; so that 
difficulties which appeared insuperable were overcome 
with a strange simplicity that often astonished and some- 
times awed those who had waited and watched. 

And now once more the National Church of England 
comes forth to do a great work, and to accomplish her 
Divine mission. Her time of slumber is over. There 
is no more folding of the hands, nor sleep. The stately 
cathedrals, once almost bare and useless wrecks of their 
former greatness, are empty and desolate no longer. 
Crowds throng them for the worship of Almighty God, 
with ancient song and solemn canticle. The procession 
again goes forth, as of old, with cross and chant; for the 
present but a shadow thrown forwards of the future and 
final triumph of the Church of God, but still a work of 
progress. Once more the altars of the Lord, which were 
thrown down, are rebuilt, and the symbols of the Presence 
of His Anointed are lit in the restored sanctuary. Pictured 
pane and saintly picture speak with silent eloquence of the 

f. 2 



communion of saints, and jewelled cross and chalice have 
their solemn symbolism too. Niggardly gifts are again 
the exception, and men of every rank emulate the not 
deeds of charity of their Catholic forefathers. It IB not 
now the work of a mere school or section in the Ohurch, 
it is the work of the whole body, slowly but surely drawn 
on by a supernatural Power to prepare for the resto- 
ration of Visible Unity and the second advent of 
Church's Divine Head. Should any who read these lines 
be inclined to fail or falter, to remain with folded hands 
and passive energies, thinking that the labours of one or 
two or even of more, can accomplish but little, let them 
take courage by the history and work both of the Oxford 
Reformers as well as of the Cambridge Ecclesiologists, 
who realized the need of working for a given end, and 
then laboured accordingly. Men of restlessness and im- 
patience sometimes look for autumn fruit ere the summer 
has arrived, expecting occasionally to gather flowers m 
their full bloom, even before the seeds have been planted. 
Work done in faith and patience, however, will not, in 
the long run, be done altogether in vain. Even winds 
and storms are reputed to make the roots of a tree take 
a more downward and deeper hold. The Christian 
patriot, by consequence, can afford to wait; for the 
persecuted of one generation sometimes become the 
heroes of that which follows. What has been done-and 
this is neither a small nor unimportant work is but an 
earnest of what may be done if only the Truth be sought 
out in sincerity, and singleness of heart and faith be 
graces which are exercised in its promulgation. For He 
Who hath promised to bless will bless assuredly, and 
with power. Pomitflwnina in desertum, et exitus aqua- 


rum in sitim ; terrain fructiferam in salsuginem, a malitid 
inhabitantium in ea. Posuit desertum in stagna aquarum, 
et terrain sine aqua in exitus aquarum. Et collocavit illic 
esurientes ; et constituerunt civitatem habitationes. 

This volume, which has been compiled because of the 
desire for information springing from the movement 
referred to, aims at rendering practical assistance in 
imparting information with regard to ecclesiastical terms 
in the widest sense of the phrase. It must be left to 
the reader to determine how far the Compiler of it has 
done his work efficiently. 

of 329 or it* 


ABBEYS OF TEVIOTDALE. Quarto. Edinburgh : 1832. 

ACTA SANCTORUM. The Collection of the Bollandists. Folio. Antwerp : 

various dates. 


Romse: 1625. 

AMBROSII SANCTI OPERA. Folio. Basle : 1567, 

Octavo. Paris: 1544. L :.;. 
ANTIQUITES DE L'EMPIRE DE RUSSIE. Folio. St. Petersburg : various 

ARCH^OLOGIA. Published by the Society of Antiquaries. Imperial 

quarto. London : various dates. 

ARCH^OLOGIA CAMBRENSIS. Octavo. London : various dates. 
ARINGHI. ROMA SOTTERRANEA. Folio. Romae : 1651, 

ASSEMANI. BIBLIOTHECA MEDiCEA. Folio. Florentine : 1742 
AUGUSTINI S. OPERA. Ed. Migne. Quarto. Paris : 1841. 

Paris : 1708. 

BAPTISMAL FONTS. Octavo. London : 1844. 
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BASILII S. OPERA. Octavo. Paris : 1839. 




BED^E YENERABILIS OPERA. Octavo. London : 1843. 
BELLARMINI OPERA OMNI A. Folio. Colonise : 1620. 

London: 1688. 

Octavo. Bonn : 1866. 

BOOK OF FRAGMENTS. Compiled by Rev. John Roxvse Bloxano, D.D. 

Octavo. Privately printed at Oxford. 


C.ELESTINUS PAPA. Apud Labbe Concil., torn. iii. 1618. 
CALENDAR OF THE- PRAYER-BOOK. Illustrated. i*>inall octavo. London: 


OAMDEN'S BRITANNIA. Folio. London: 1607. 

SUFFRAG ANT DE QUEBEC. Octavo. Pai-is : 1856. 
CHRYSOSI-OMI S. OPERA. Quarto. Paris : 1735. 
CLEMENTIS ALEXANDR'INI OPERA. Potter. Folio. Oxon. : 1715. 

CODEX THEODOSI ANUS. Ritter. Folio. Lipsise : 1741. 
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GARTER. Octavo. London: 1714. 

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DE Eossi. ROMA SOTTERRANEA. Folio. Romse : 1864. 



DIDRON. ANNALES ARCHEOLOGIQUES. Quarto. Paris: 1844, etc. 
DONATUS. Apud Wetstenium, Nov. Test. Grsec. Amsterdam: 1752. 

Paris: 1628. 



Folio. Oxford: 1682. 

quarto, Lugduni : 1672. 


BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. Octavo. London and Oxford : 1849. 

OXFORDSHIRE. Octavo. London : 1850. 

ECCLESIOLOGIST, THE. Octavo. London : various dates. 

Octavo-decimo. Rome : 1833. 

Rome: 1833. 

EPIPHANII OPERA. Folio. Paris: 1622. 



Quarto. London : 1836. 




Oxford: 1851. 


DENARII. Quarto. Ronue : 1734. 


MONUMENTS. Octavo. Oxford: 1852. 

CELL, Sir W. POMPEIANA. Quarto. 1832. 



GLOSSARY OF ARCHITECTURE. Fifth Edition, Octavo. Oxford: 1850. 
GLOSSARY OF HERALDRY. Octavo. Oxford: 1847. 



GREGORII S. OPERA. Folio. Paris : 1705. 

Quarto. Paris : 1642. 


Augsburg ; 1837. 

HANDBOOK OF ECCLESIOLOGY. Duodecimo. London: 1847. 

bingen : 1864. 

Quarto, Frankfurt: 1840-1854. 

decimo. London : 1866. 

HERALDRY, A SYNOPSIS OF. Duodecimo. London: 1682. 
HIERONYMI,. S. EUSEBH OPERA. Folio. Paris: 1693. 
HIERURGIA AjyGLiCANA. Octavo. Cambridge : 1844. 
HISTOIRE LiTTERAiKE DE LA FRANCE. Quarto. Paris: 1733-52, 


HISTORY OF THE STUARTS. Quarto. London: 1795. 


Coloniaa: 1568. 


HOOK, W. F. A CHURCH DICTIONARY. Octavo. London : 1852. 
London: 1860. 

HONE, W. THE EVERYDAY BOOK. Octavo. London : 1826-1827. 
HUGO DE S. VICTORE. Apud Migne, P. C. C., torn. 175-177. 

London: 1867. 

DONCASTER! Imperial Folio. London : 1828. 


q. v. 


Antwerpise : 1757. 


JOSEPH: FLAVII OPERA. Folio. Oxon. : 1720. 

RUSSIA. Quarto. London: 1772. 



London : 1842. 

KNOX, ALEX., REMAINS OF. Octavo. London: 1837. 


LEE, F. G. DIRECTORIUM ANGLICANUM. Fourth Edition. Octavo. 

London: 1870. 

LEE, F. G. ECCLESIASTICAL VESTMENTS. Octavo. London : 1865. 

Royal Quarto. London : various dates. 


London: 1863. 

LIVES OF LELAND, HEARNE, AND WOOD. Octavo. Oxford: 1772. 

LUPTON'S HISTORY OF THAME. Small Octavo. Thame : 1860. 



1529-1641). Octavo. Thame: 1852. 
MABILLOX. MUSEUM ITALICUM. Quarto. Paris: 1689. 

Oxford : 1853-1863. 

ENGLAND. Octavo. London: 1846. 
MANSI. SACROSANCTA CONCILIA. Fo'io. Venet. et Lucse : 172* 




Paris: 1865. 
MARTINI EPI. BRACARENS. CAPITULA. Apud Labbe (q. v.), torn. v. 

p. 912. 

London : 1846. 

Octavo. London: 1846. 

MEDIEVAL EMBROIDERY. Octavo-decimo. London : 1848. 

Quarto. Paris: 1642. 

MENOLOGIUM GR^CORUM. Folio. TJrbini : 1727. 

Paris: 1844-1864. 
MILLES'S CATALOGUE OF HONOR. Folio. London: 1610. 


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decimo. London. 

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Quarto. 1823. 

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REES, R. ESSAY ON WELCH SAINTS. Octavo. London: 1836. 

torn. 132. 


RITUAL INACCURACIES (Preface signed " H. D. G."). Octavo. London : 


RITUALE ROMANUM. Octavo-decimo. Mechlin: 1856. 
ROCK, DANIEL. HIERURGIA. Octavo. London: 1851. 



Folio. Berlin: 1854. 

perial folio. London : 1841. 

SPELMAN, H. CONCILIA, DECRETA, ETC. Folio. London : 1639. 
OF OXFORD. Octavo. Oxford : 1853. 

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SUSONIS D. HENRICI OPERA. Duodecimo. Colonise : 1615. 
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London : 1848. 


Stuttgart: 1864. 

IRISH MANUSCRIPTS. Folio. London: 1868. 





BAMURUS. A term used in mediaeval 
Latin, signifying a buttress. 

ABBA. The Syriac term for "fa- 
ther" (St. Mark xiii. 36). A title 
given to priests and to the superiors 
of religious monks in certain portions 
of the Eastern Church. 

ABB ACY. Theofficeof abbot. See 

ABBAAION ('A/3/3agtop). A Greek term for an obscure 

ABBAAOnPESBYTEPOS ('A|3|3aSow/>e<r|36/joc). A Greek 
term for a monk who is in priest's orders. 

ABBAS ('Aj3j35e). A Greek term for (1) a father; (2) a 
monk ; (3) an abbot. 


ABBATEIA ('A/3/3arefu). A Greek term for an abbey or 

ABBE. A title of courtesy and honour given in France to 
secular priests, and sometimes to the superiors of monasteries. 

ABBESS. The head or chief of an abbey of nuns. In 
the Roman Rite for the Benediction of an abbess, during mass, 
after the Sursum cor da, &c., the consecrating prelate places 
both his hands upon the head of the elected person and prays. 
After which he delivers to her, kneeling before him, the Rule of 
the Order (whatever it may be), and a veil which has been pre-' Glonary. B 


viously blessed. After the post-communion the abbess is formally 
enthroned, and power to govern the inmates of the abbey speci- 
fically conferred. 

ABBEY. A religious house, where persons of either sex 
retire from the world to spend their time in devotion, pious 
exercises, and good works. The abbey buildings consist of 
church, cloister, cells, dormitory, guest-chambers, chapter-house, 
writing-room (scriptorium), &c. Some abbeys were founded as 
early as the sixth century. They were governed by superiors 
under the title of abbot or abbess ; other officers being called 
Priors, Sub-priors, Masters of Novices, &c. Abbeys were the 
repositories as well as seminaries of the vast learning of the 
middle ages. Some of our historians confess themselves eminently 
indebted to the " religious," so called, for the knowledge they 
possess of the records of past times. The " chronicles " of the 
various abbeys contained not only an account of events peculiarly 
interesting to members of their respective communities, but often 
well-authenticated facts concerning public affairs. Abbeys fre- 
quently possessed great privileges, granted both by kings, the 
Pope, and ecclesiastics. They were often legal sanctuaries for 
criminals, who fled thither to save themselves from the punish- 
ment of the laws. Thus, through the Church, mercy was ever 
being proclaimed. In too many cases in England, when the 
monastic system flourished, the Pope filled the highest offices with 
foreigners, which naturally created great prejudice and distrust ; 
for, during the middle ages, material changes were made, and 
the abbeys, in some instances, considerably degenerated from 
their original institution. Previous to the Reformation, one third 
of the benefices in England belonged to abbeys and other religious 
houses. In Scotland, more than one half were so subject. In 
the year 1069 the English abbeys were pillaged of their plate and 
jewels by William the Conqueror ; in the following summer the 
authorities were compelled to change their tenures. In the year 
1414 a hundred abbeys, or other religious houses, were sup- 
pressed by order of council, and in the reign of Henry VIIL, 
first the lesser and then the greater were abolished altogether. 
At this period, in England and Wales, there were suppressed in 
total 643 monasteries, 90 colleges, 2,374 churches, chantries, or 
chapels, and 110 hospitals for the poor and sick, the yearly 
proceeds of which, amounting to 2,853,000, were taken by the 
king. Several post- Reformation writers have lamented this great 
national loss : most of the families enriched by these spoils have 
ceased to exist ; and the attempt at the restoration of the 
religious life by Nicholas Ferrar, in the reign of King Charles I., 
was a testimony to the loss which the Anglican Church had sus- 


tained, and which has never yet been recovered, at the dissolution 
of the abbeys. A few of the larger buildings were erected into 
cathedral churches ; e.g., amongst others, Gloucester, Ely, Peter- 
borough, and temporarily, Westminster. Abbeys have been again 
founded in England of late years by Roman Catholics. St. Ber- 
nard's Abbey, a remarkable building, incomplete as yet, tenanted 
by Cistercians, stands amongst the Charnwood hills of Leicester- 
shire. It was founded by Ambrose de Lisle, Esq., and built from 
the designs of the late Mr. A. Welby Pugin. 

ABBOT, OR ABBAT. The governor or spiritual ruler of an 
abbey. In the earliest ages abbots were not unfrequently 
laymen, subject in jurisdiction to the bishop of the diocese 
where the religious house existed. Afterwards the inmates of 
abbeys were allowed, for convenience sake, to have a priest of 
their own for ordinary spiritual duties, who, in later periods, 
was not unfrequently the ruler or director. At the solemn 
benediction of an abbot, the ring and the pastoral staff were 
formally bestowed. In some instances, too, the mitre was 
likewise given. Abbots carried the pastoral staff with its 
crook turned inwards, towards the bearer of it, to symbolize 
and indicate their limited power and authority. Eventually, 
abbots, having obtained the privilege of both ordinary and 
peculiar jurisdiction within the limits of their own houses, 
became very powerful, especially when the possessions and pro- 
perty of the abbeys increased ; and were in England summoned 
to Parliament. There were different kinds of abbots; e.g. (1) 
Mitred abbots, those who wore the mitre ; (2) Croziered abbots, 
those governing very distinguished houses, who, by particular 
permission of the Pope, were allowed to bear, or to have a crozier 
borne before them ; (3) CEcumenical abbots, abbots exercizing 
an extended jurisdiction over the houses of their order in any 
particular ecclesiastical province or country ; corresponding, in a 
measure, to the generals of the more recent religious orders. 
Twenty-six abbots and priors sat in the English Parliament up 
to the period of the Reformation. 

ABIOS ("Aj3toe). A Greek term for a monk. 
ABLUTION. A washing. 

ABLUTION OF HANDS. The washing of the priest's hands 
with water; (1) before his assumption of the sacred vestments, 
preparatory to offering the Christian Sacrifice. The Roman 
Prceparatio ad Missam contains the following prayer : ' ' Cum lavat 
manus dicat: Da, Domine, virtutem rnanibus meis ad abster- 
gendam omnem maculam ut sine pollutione mentis et corporis 

B 2 


valeam tibi servire." (2) The washing of the priest's hands 
during the celebration of the Divine mysteries. See LAVABO. 

the chalice and paten by the priest after offering the Christian 
Sacrifice. Two of the ancient English rites ordered : 1st, wine 
to be poured into the chalice ; 2ndly, wine and water over the 
celebrant's fingers ; and 3rdly, water only ; in each of which case 
the rinsings were partaken of by the priest. An almost similar 
rule is observed in the Latin Communion, as may be seen from 
the concluding portion of the Canon Missce. 

ABSOLUTION. The act of absolving. A loosing from sin. 
This power was bestowed by our Blessed Saviour upon His 
apostles and their successors by a special and formal commission. 
It has been given to priests of the Church Universal ever since. 
It is bestowed in the Church of England by a form, at once 
precise, definite, and efficient, at the Ordination of a Priest, and 
is exercized by the Declaratory Absolution in Matins and Even- 
song ; by another more definite form in the service for Holy 
Communion; as well as by a third specifically sacramental, 
standing in the first person found in the Order for the Visitation 
of the Sick. In private confessions this latter form is invariably 

ABSOLVO TE (" I absolve thee"). The form used in the 
Western Church in the remission of sins after private confession. 
Its English equivalent, " I absolve thee from all thy sins," 
is found in the " Order for the Visitation of the Sick " in the 
Book of Common Prayer. 

AB UNA (" Our Father") .A title commonly given to the chief 
or patriarch of the Abyssinian Christians. 

ABUTMENT. That which abuts or borders on another ; 
hence that solid part of the pier or wall of a church or other 
building, from which an arch springs, or against which it abuts, 
supporting and strengthening the lateral pressure. 

ACCENDITE. A short antiphon anciently chanted in the 
Roman Catholic Church on lighting the tapers for any particu- 
larly special solemn service. 

ACCENTUATION. A term used in ecclesiastical music to 
indicate the pitch and modulation of the voice. The accentua- 
tion is either (1) simple, (2) moderate, or (3) strong. Some 
writers use other terms, but the division in most of them is 


ACCIDENTS. A philosophical term signifying the non- 
essential qualities of a substance ; e.g., that which is received of 
the faithful in the Sacrament of the Altar is the Body and Blood 
of Christ ; the bread and wine being held by theologians to be 
the accidents. 

ACE ERA THURARIA. A Latin term for the ecclesiastical 
vessel used in vestries and sacristies, in which incense was 
kept. The term acerra was sometimes applied to portable 
incense-altars amongst the ancient Romans. 

ACGEMET^E CAeofjUtirot). Monks in whose convents perpetual 
prayers and intercessions are made by various selected members 
of the community, who take duty in turn. 

ACOLYTE ('AicoAoufloe). The Acolyte is the highest of the 
four minor orders of the Western Church, an office which can 
certainly be traced up to the records of the third century. 
St. Cornelius (Epist. Iv.) and St. Cyprian (apud Euseb., c. 43, lib. 
vi.) both mention the Acolyte. The fourth Council of Carthage, 
A.D. 398, gives specific directions regarding the ordination of 
acolytes. The Sacramentary of St. Gregory likewise instructs 
the archdeacon officially present at the ordination to give the 
person to be ordained a candlestick with a wax taper, that he 
may know that to him has been consigned the particular duty of 
kindling the lights of the church ; and also an empty cruet, with 
which to indicate his duty of supplying wine for the Eucharistic 
sacrifice. (Statuta Eccl. Ant., c. vi.) Acolytes were the pecu- 
liar attendants of the bishops when f unctionizing in church, and 
were also assistants of the subdeacons. St. Isidore, in his book 
Origines, lib. vii. c. xii., writes : " Those who are called Acolytes 
in the Greek language, are called Taper-bearers in the Latin, be- 
cause they bear wax-tapers at the singing of the Gospel, or when 
the Sacrifice is about to be offered, tapers are lit and held by 
them." The form for the ordination of acolytes in the Latin Church 
is in strict harmony with that set forth by St. Gregory the Great. 
A candlestick, wax-taper, and empty cruet are given by the 
ordaining bishop, together with solemn injunctions, during the 
above-mentioned form, and then four special benedictions. The 
minor orders were unhappily abolished in the Church of England 
in the middle of the sixteenth century. In the same way, how- 
ever, that it has been customary in the Roman Church to permit 
young laymen, and even boys, to minister in the sanctuary, without 
having received the ordination of Acolytes, so in the recent 
Catholic revival in the Church of England a similar practice has 
become quite general. Such persons wear a black cassock, and 
surplice or cotta, in serving at the altar. 


ACT. A technical term given to certain short prayers first 
commonly used in the fourteenth century, in which particular 
graces are specifically sought, and a special intention made in the 
saying of the prayer. Thus, there are acts of Faith, Hope, and 
Charity, &c. The following is an Act of Faith : " O my God, 
I firmly believe all that Thou hast revealed, and which the Holy 
Catholic Church proposes to me to be believed, because Thou art 
Truth itself, which can neither deceive nor be deceived. In this 
faith I desire to live and die/' 

AAEA$ATON (*A&X0arov) . A Greek term for (1) a brother- 
hood ; (2) a convent. 

AAEA<PH ('A&X^T/). A Greek term for a nun. 

AAYTON ("ASurov). A Greek term for the sanctuary of a 
church. See ADYTUM. 

ADVENT (Adventus). That season, commencing the eccle- 
siastical year, in which the Church commemorates the coming of 
our Blessed Saviour in the flesh, and looks forward to His second 
coming for judgment. 

ADVENT ANTIPHONS. Those ancient vesper Antiphons 
used before and after the Magnificat, which begin with the letter 
0. That for the 1 7th of December is retained in the kalendar 
of our Book of Common Prayer, and there stands thus : " 
Sapientia," indicating, of course, that their use was not in- 
tended to be dropped. They are as follows: "December 16. 
Sapientia. O Wisdom, Which earnest forth out of the mouth 
of the Most High, and readiest from one end to the other : 
mightily and sweetly ordering all things. Come, and teach us the 
way of prudence. December 17. Adonai. O Lord and Ruler 
of the House of Israel. Who appearedst unto Moses in a flame 
of fire in the bush, and gavest unto him the Law in Sinai : Come, 
and redeem us with a stretched-out arm. December 18. Radix 
Jesse. O root of Jesse, Who standest for an ensign of the people, 
at Whom Kings shall shut their mouths, unto Whom the Gentiles 
shall pray : Come, and deliver us, and tarry not. December 19. 
Claws David. O Key of David, and Sceptre of the House of 
Israel, Thou that openest, and no man shutteth, and shuttest 
and no man openeth : Come, and loose the prisoner from 
the prison-house, and him that sitteth in darkness, from 
the shadow of death. December 20. O Oriens. O Orient, 
Brightness of the Eternal Light, and Sun of Righteousness: 
Come and lighten them that sit in darkness and in the shadow 


of death. December 21. Rex Gentium. O King of the Gen- 
tiles, and their Desire, the Corner-stone, Who madest both 
one : Come and save man, whom Thou hast made out of the 
dust of the earth. December 22. O Emmanuel. O Emmanuel, our 
King and Lawgiver, the Desire of all Nations, and their Saviour : 
Come, and save us, O Lord our God. December 23. 
Virgo Virginum. O Virgin of Virgins, how shall this be ? For 
neither before thee was any like thee, nor shall there be after : 
Daughters of Jerusalem, why marvel ye at me ? The thing 
which ye behold was a divine mystery." 

ADVERTISEMENTS. Certain statements of principles, 
rules, suggestions, and directions, drawn up by the Bishops 
during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and issued for the 
guidance and direction of their clergy. They had little moral 
weight, and no legal authority. 

ADYTUM. A term, from the Greek, applied to the inner- 
most and secret part of a temple, where oracles were delivered ; 
hence used of old for the chancel, or sometimes for the sanc- 
tuary of a Christian church. 

AEIPARTHENOS ('AeiTra/oflsvoc, "ever Virgin ") .The title 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary. A German carol, translated into 
English, thus runs : 

" As the sunbeam through the glass 

Passeth, but not staineth ; 
Thus the Virgin as she was 
Virgin still remaineth." 

AFFUSION. The act of pouring : " Baptism by affusion " 
is Baptism effected by the pouring of water upon the subject, 
in contradistinction to "Baptism by dipping," or "Baptism 
by sprinkling." 

AFA90N ("AyaOov). A Greek term used by St. Basil the 
Great for the Holy Eucharist. 

AGAP^E ('AyaVij). A feast of charity or festal banquet in 
the primitive Church, at which a liberal contribution was made 
by the rich for the poor, where both feasted. It was origi- 
nally observed in remembrance of the Last Supper of our 
Blessed Lord, at which the Sacrifice of the Eucharist was 
instituted. The holding of love-feasts in churches, however, 
on account of abuses which had sprung up, was forbidden at 
the Council of Carthage, A.D. 397. 

AGENDA. A technical term for the actions performed in 


a public ecclesiastical service or function. A term for the 
things done, in contrast to the things believed credenda. 

AITEAIKOS ('AyyfXoco'e). 1. Angelic j 2. monastic. 

APIA ("Aym, ra). A Greek term for (1) the Eucharistic 
species ; (2) the Sanctuary. 

API ASM A ('Aytacrfjia), A Greek term for (1) anything 
blessed ; (2) the Temple of Jerusalem ; (3) the Sanctuary of 
a church ; (4) any Sacrament ; (5) the Eucharistic species ; 
(6) the Blessed Bread ; (7) Holy Water. 

AFIOKAAAON ('AyioK\a^ov). A Greek term for a blessed 

AGNUS DEI ("the Lamb of God"). (1) A symbolical re- 
presentation of our Blessed Saviour under the form of a Lamb, 
holding with its right foot a small white flag, charged with a red 
cross. It is frequently found in ancient paintings, sculptures, and 
embroidery. St. John the Baptist is often represented point- 
ing to such a symbol. (2) A round cake of virgin wax, 
stamped with the above-mentioned device, solemnly blessed 
and worn with a religious object. The Pope consecrates the 
Agnus Dei the first year of his pontificate, and afterwards every 
seventh year, on the Saturday in Easter week, according to 
the Roman Ritual, with many solemn ceremonies. The use of 
the Agnus Dei is ancient. The example of the symbol given in 
the engraving is from the Romanesque tympanum of the now- 


destroyed church of Tetsworth, in Oxfordshire, sometime a 
chapelry of the prebendal church of Thame. The tympanum 
itself having been deliberately broken, this engraving of the 
Agnus Dei on it becomes all the more interesting. (See Illus- 

AGNUS BELL. A sacrying bell, that is, the hand-bell 
anciently used in the Church of England to notify to the con- 
gregation the exact period when the priest was consecrating the 
Holy Sacrament. 


AGONIZANTS. A confraternity whose chief duty it was 
to intercede for the dying, more especially for criminals under 
sentence of death. 

AI9PION (AiOptov). A Greek term for the court in front 
of a church. 

AISLE, OR AILE (Ala, a wing). The lateral division of a 
church, or its wings, so called : separated from the main body 
or nave of the building by arches supported on pillars. In the 
ordinary parochial churches of England there are usually not 
more than two aisles, one on each side ; but in foreign churches 
there are more. In some cathedral and collegiate churches there 
are aisles to the choir and Lady Chapel. 

AKAKIA ('AKOKUI). A Greek term for a purple bag, filled 
with dust or earth, which the Greek emperor anciently carried, 
in token of humility, at his coronation. 

AKOIMETONA ('AKot^roi/a). A Greek term for the light 
which burns continually before the Blessed Sacrament when 

AKOINQNHSIA ( Aicoivwvriaia) . A Greek term for excom- 

ALB. The Alb, although not unlike a surplice, is nevertheless 
a distinct vestment. It was anciently made of fine linen, the 
sleeves being tight, in order that the hands of the priest might 
be at liberty when ministering at the altar. In several cases, 
silks, satins, and damasks were used as materials for the Alb, 
more especially when worn by prelates and dignitaries ; and the 
many still-existing inventories in Dugdale's Monasticon, and 
other similar works, show how rich our cathedrals and churches 
formerly were in these sacred treasures. The Alb of St. Thomas 
a Becket is preserved with his other vestments at Sens Cathedral. 
It is long, full, and ornamented with apparels of purple and gold. 
It was customary, as such records testify, to affix to the skirts, 
both before and behind, as well as to the cuffs, pieces of embroi- 
dery, often enriched with pearls, precious metals, and jewels, 
known as " Apparels," which were also occasionally placed on 
the breast and back of the Alb representations of which may 
be found in existing mediaeval MSS.; and, in some instances, 
the whole sleeve-border and lower edge of the garment were 
ornamented with embroidery. Bishop Watson, of Lincoln, in 
the reign of Queen Mary, thus gives the symbolic meaning of 
these ornaments in' his " Sermons " : " And as Christe was 
crowned with thorne, and had His Hands and Feete nailed to 


the Crosse, so in amysse and Alb of the prieste there be tokens 
of these Five Woundes." According to the ancient Sarum Use, 
an alb was ordered to be always worn at mass, not only by the 
priest, deacon, and subdeacon, but by others employed at the 
altar. At penitential seasons, especially on Good Friday, the 
Alb was worn without any apparels or embroidery, and this is 
the unornamented vestment the " white Albe plain " alluded 
to in the First Prayer-book of Edward VI., still prescribed for 
the priest and his assistants at the celebration of the Eucharist, 
according to the Reformed English Prayer-book. 

ALBUM. (1) A book, as its name implies, of plain white 
paper. (2) The "Liber albus " of the ancient monasteries and 
guilds contained a personal history of visitors or benefactors, 
frequently recorded in the handwriting of the persons themselves 

AAEITOYPFHSIA (' AXetrov/Dytjffi'a) . A Greek term for a 
suspension from clerical functions. 

ALEXANDRIAN LITURGY. That ancient liturgy to 
which the name of St. Mark the Evangelist is usually prefixed, 
believed to be at least as old as the second century. Its litur- 
gical peculiarity is the prefixing the Great Intercession for the 
living and departed to the words and Institution, instead of 
affixing them to the Invocation of the Holy Ghost, as is the 
case in liturgies of the Antiochene family, or inserting them 
between the words of Institution and Invocation, as is the 
case with the Nestorian. On this liturgy were subsequently 
founded those of St. Cyril, St. Gregory, and the Coptic com- 
munity ; all of which bear a certain resemblance to the more 
simple liturgy of Alexandria. 

ALIEN PRIORIES. Offshoots of foreign religious houses, 
both extra-diocesan and wholly independent of the particular 
jurisdiction of the highest monastic authorities in England. 

ALLELUIA. A Hebrew term for " Praise ye the Lord," 
ofttimes repeated in the worship of the Jewish temple, and 
adopted at a very early period into the services of the Christian 
Church. Its introduction has been assigned to Pope St. Da- 
masus. In mediaeval times the use of the word was common 
in the services of festal times, more especielly during Easter- 

ALLELUIA SATURDAY. The Saturday before Septua- 
gesima Sunday, on which day " Alleluia " was sung for the last 
time prior to the Lenten season. 


ALLELUIATIC PSALMS. The five last psalms in the 
" Psalter of David/' which commence with terms in English 
which are equivalent to the Hebrew " Alleluia." 

ALLELUIATIC SEQUENCE. That ancient hymn of which 
the burden corresponds with the Hebrew term from which it is 
named. In English hymnals the translation commences, " The 
strain upraise of joy and praise, Alleluia/' 

ALL HALLOWS. This is another name for All Saints' Day. 
There are several churches in England dedicated to God under 
this invocation ; of which no less than eight are found in the 
City of London. Few feasts were anciently more popular in 
England than this. All the faithful remembered and invoked 
their patron saints on this day, and the public services were of a 
most solemn character. The link between the saints and the 
saved was declared by the ringing of peals upon the church bells 
on All Saints' Day, and by a constant tolling of the heaviest bell 
in a steeple during All Souls' Day. 

ALL SAINTS' DAY. A feast which occurs on November 
1st. The institution of this festival is believed to have originated 
from the dedication of the Pantheon at Rome, in honour of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary and all Christian martyrs, November 1st, 
A.D. 607, by Pope Boniface IV. ; afterwards, first in one Italian 
diocese and then in another, the custom arose of honouring and 
commemorating all the known and unknown saints of the Uni- 
versal Church on this day. Gregory IV., who found the festival 
commonly observed in Italy, introduced it into France, A.D. 837. 
Anciently, a feast in honour of all the Apostles and their disci- 
ples was observed in some parts, more especially in the diocese 
of Milan, on May 1st. But by degrees, the feast of All Saints 
on the 1st of November, as We learn from Johannes Belethus 
and Durandus, Bishop of Mende, became more or less universally 
solemnized on that day. The Greeks keep their feast of All 
Saints on the Sunday after Whit-Sunday. In England there 
are no less than eleven hundred and fifty-two churches dedicated 
to God in honour of All Saints* 

ALL SOULS. A term used to designate the faithful de- 
parted, i.e. those who have departed this life in the faith and fear 
of Christ. All Souls' Day is November 2nd, the day following 
the feast of All Saints, when the prayers of the living, in union 
with the Christian Sacrifice, are publicly and commonly offered 
for the departed. 

ALMOND-BLOSSOMS. The flowers of the almond-tree. 
Archaic representations of alinondiblooms are constantly found 


illuminated in the MS. Hours of the Blessed Virgin, and were 
often represented on embroidered vestments, on wall-patterns of 
the Lady Chapel, and in churches dedicated to Our Lady, This 
was so in allusion to the rod of Aaron blossoming in a night, a 
symbol of Mary's part in the work of the Incarnation. 

ALMONER. A dispenser of gifts and alms. The officer 
who directs the distribution of charitable doles in connection 
with religious communities, hospitals, and alrnshouses. In 
England, France, and other Christian countries, there is a Royal 
Almoner, whose duties, in the former, are denned by the ancient 
and unaltered constitutions of the Royal Chapels. 

ALMONRY. That portion of a religious house where the 
alms of the monastery, convent, or community are regularly 
distributed. This part of the building is usually found near the 

ALMS. The voluntary gifts of the faithful, freely given to 
the poor in Christ for their temporal benefit. 

ALMS-BAGS. Small bags, burses, or purses, of velvet, 
silk, damask, or cloth, made use of for collecting the alms of the 
faithful during Divine service. 

ALMS-BASIN. A basin or dish of metal, in which to 
receive the bags containing the "alms for the poor and other 
devotions of the people," for presentation on the altar. They 

are made of brass, latten, or even 
of costlier metals. Ancient ex- 
amples frequently contain repre- 
sentations in relief of the Tempta- 
tion of Eve or the Return of the 


specimens are commonly adorned 

with texts of Scripture. That represented in the accompanying 
woodcut is from an English example of the sixteenth century. 
(See Illustration.) 


ALMS-CHEST. A chest or box, fastened to the wall, or 
standing on a pillar, in a church, into which the general offerings 
of the faithful for the poor are placed at any public service. 
There is a fine and remarkable specimen of the age of the 
fifteenth century remaining in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. 

ALMS-DAY. Saturday, because weekly benefactions and 


alms were here in England commonly then distributed in 
ancient times. 

ALMS-DISH. A vessel of brass, latten, copper, silver, or 
gold, into which the alms of the faithful, gathered at the 
offertory, are placed, prior to their being formally and solemnly 
offered to God Almighty upon the altar. Many ancient examples 
of such vessels exist in London churches, mostly of Flemish 
manufacture. There are good specimens of this kind at 
St. Mary's Church, Aberdeen, and St. Mary's, Prestbury, in 
Gloucestershire. The alms-dishes at St. James's, Piccadilly, and 
at the Chapel Royal St. James's, are of silver gilt, richly en- 
graved and embossed. 

ALMS-MEN. Male inmates of an almshouse, or house of 
charity. Some of the sixteenth-century almshouses were erected 
out of the spoils of the suppressed monastic institutions. 

ALMS-SATURDAY. The Saturday in Passion-week, i.e. 
the Saturday before Palm-Sunday. It is called " Alms Satur- 
day" because the alms of the faithful contributed during Lent 
are sometimes given to the poor on that day; so as not to 
interfere with the solemnities of the coming Holy Week The 
Secret in the Sarum Office for this day referred both to the alms- 
giving and alms' distribution. 

ALMUTIUM (an Amess). The Amess is often confounded 
with, but is wholly distinct from, the Amice (Amietus). The 
Amess was a hood of fur worn anciently whilst reciting the 
offices by canons, and afterwards by other distinguished ecclesi- 
astics, as a defence against the cold. At times it fell loosely on 
the back and shoulders, and was drawn over the head when 
occasion required ; the ends, becoming narrower and usually 
rounded, hung down in front like a stole, for which, by some 
modern writers, it has been mistaken. The Amess has a certain 
similarity to some of the academical hoods now in use. There 
are very many specimens of this vestment represented on 
memorial brasses, one of the best of which a figure of Sir John 
Stodeley remains in the church of St. Mary Magdalen, Upper 
Winchendon, Bucks. This garment is still used in the Latin 
Church, some of the bishops and abbots of which wear amesses 
of ermine lined with purple. In the Church of England its use 
appears to have been wholly discontinued. 

ALOUD (loudly; with a loud voice). A term used in the 
Book of Common Prayer, where the officiating cleric is directed 
thus to say certain prayers aloud in contradistinction to secreto, 

14 ALTAR. 

as was anciently the case with the Lord's Prayer and Hail Mary 
at the beginning of the various Hours. 

ALTAR (Ara, altare). That table-like construction in the 
Christian church, whether of wood, stone, or marble, upon which 
the Christian Sacrifice is offered. The earliest altars no doubt 
were like to tables in their form and general character, in re- 
membrance of the Jewish solemnity at which our Saviour 
instituted the Holy Eucharist. After the public persecutions, 
however, when Christians were driven to the Catacombs, the 
Christian Sacrifice was commonly offered at and upon the tombs 
of the martyrs. Hence, when the Church afterwards had peace, 
the form of a tomb was sometimes preserved ; or, at all events 
altars of stone or marble were erected over the sleeping-places of 
the martyrs. Pope St. Sixtus II. is said to have erected the first 
stone altar, A.D. 257. St. Wolstan is believed to have introduced 
stone altars into England, where before, as in the Eastern Church, 
so generally in the Western, they were commonly of wood. 
The use of wood as the material for their construction, connected 
the solemn act there wrought upon them with the offering on 
Calvary ; the use of stone symbolized the sure foundation of the 
faith. "That Rock was Christ." But for many years the 
custom neither of East nor West was uniform. St. Gregory of 
Nyssa mentions stone altars in the East ; Pope St. Damasus, his 
contemporary, alludes to wooden altars in the West, as do also 
St. Augustine and Optatus. There are wooden altars existing 
in the churches of St. John Lateran and St. Praxedes at Rome. 
In the church of St. Cecilia, in the same city, there is a remark- 
able example of a stone altar supported on a single pillar. 
Throughout Italy generally the earliest examples are found to 
stand on five or seven pillars. In the East the wooden tables 
had five supports, representing our Lord and the four Evangelists. 
Occasionally in the West large slabs of stone built into a wall 
were supported by brackets of the same material ; but after the 
twelfth century solid constructional altars were mainly erected. 
At Venice an altar still exists, believed to be of the fifth century, 
of one solid block of marble. Of 'old, as in the Greek Church 
now, there was but one altar in a church ; the general addition 
of others being, comparatively speaking, of later introduction. 
Exceptions to this rule, however, existed even in the time of 
Constantine. At Milan the old altar, detached from the wall, 
as when there was but one in the cathedral, still stands and is 
used. When altars were erected of solid stone, their coverings 
were often of gold, silver, copper, latten, or bronze, and the 
jeweller's art was enlisted to bestow upon them the greatest 
artistic finish and beauty. In the Hotel Cluny there is an altar- 
frontal or covering of gold; at Milan an altar-facing of silver 



richly enamelled ; at Florence there are two of bronze and 
copper, most elaborately embossed, engraved, and adorned 
with enamels. (See ALTAR- 
FRONTAL " and the accom- 
panying Illustration.) On 
the other hand, the altars 
of country churches were 
commonly of stone, without 
any carving or ornamenta- 
tion ; English examples of ,/ ; 
which exist at Arundel (Ste 
Illustration), Abbey Dore in 


Herefordshire, standing on 
shafts ; in the chapel of the 
Pix, Westminster; at Chip- 
ping Norton, Enstone, and 
Burford, Oxfordshire ; at 
Warrington and Shottes- 
well, "Warwickshire ; at 
Christ Church, Hampshire ; 
at Claypole, Lincolnshire ; 
at Mallwyd, Merioneth- 
shire ; at Forthampton, 
Gloucestershire ; at Dun- 
ster, Somersetshire; and at 
the Magdalene Hospital at 
Ripon. A simple example 
of an English mediaeval 
altar, with a dossal behind, 
charged with a cross and 
powdered with stars, with 
altar-cross and two burning 
tapers, represented in the 
accompanying woodcut, is 
taken from a MS. in the 
author's possession. The 
stoles of the altar, hanging 




in front, are noteworthy. Anciently the altar stood away from 
the east wall, and in later apsidal churches it was placed in the 
chord of the apse, (tiec Illustration, representing an altar under 
a baldachino.) Afterwards, in mediaeval times, from the thirteenth 
century, it was almost universally found in a more easterly position 

this was particularly the case here 
in England if not at the extremity 
of the church. Cathedrals, from the 
nature of their construction, having 
chapels around the eastern end, were 
usually exceptions to this rule. At 
the religious changes here, which were 
made during the sixteenth century, 
there was an almost universal de- 
struction of such altars ; so much so 
indeed that those ancient examples 
which exist throughout the whole 

*^U 1,1411 AUlAfL * ES&I.CJIJ* -| n t>, 

wo t*i. ictn, n 4 country scarcely exceed titty m num- 
From a MS. of the 16th Centum. J ... *. . J 

ber. In lieu of stone altars, wooden 

tables on trestles were substituted, to the great loss of the faithful, 
and ordinarily only one was placed in each church. During the 
Commonwealth these tables were frequently removed into the 
body of the nave at the celebration of the Eucharist, and 
carried back again afterwards. In later years, however, the 
older and better customs have prevailed, and modern altars have 
been erected both in cathedrals and parish churches more in 
accordance with sound ancient precedent and the magnificent 
examples existing abroad; of which the like no doubt were 
known in England. In the first Prayer-book of Edward VI. 
the altar was called " God's board/' During the Laudian 
Revival, and afterwards at the Restoration, more than one altar 
was set up again in certain of our cathedrals. In the present 
day a second, and even a third altar, may be found in most of our 
cathedrals, and also some of our parish churches. 

AATAPION ('AArapiov). An altar. See ALTAR. 

ALTARAGE. The dues tendered at the altar during the 
offertory, specially provided- for the maintenance of the priest. 
They became less in amount, and were more frequently omitted 
in England, when specific endowments were provided for the 
clergy. At funeral celebrations altarage was given almost uni- 
versally during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 

ALTAR-BREAD. The bread made use of in the Christian 
Sacrifice. At the institution of the Holy Eucharist, unleavened 
bread was no doubt used by our Divine Redeemer (See St. Luke 



xxii. 15), and this custom, which is a matter of discipline, and 
does not touch the essence of the Eucharist, is still observed by 
the whole Latin Church, by the Armenians, and by the Maro- 
nites. The Ethiopian Christians also use unleavened bread at 
their mass on Maundy- Thursday, but leavened bread on other 
occasions. The Greek and other Oriental churches use leavened 
bread, which is especially made for the purpose with scrupulous 
care and attention. The Christians of St. Thomas likewise make 
use of leavened bread, composed of fine flour, which by an an- 
cient rule of theirs ought to be prepared on the same day upon 
which it is to be consecrated. It is circular in shape, stamped 
with a large cross, the border being edged with smaller crosses, 
so that, when it is broken up, each fragment may contain the holy 
symbol. In the Roman Catholic Church the bread is made thin 
and circular, and bears upon it either the impressed figure of the 
crucifix, or the letters I.H.S. Pope St. Zephyrinus, who lived in 
the third century, terms the Sacramental Bread " Corona sive 






oblata sphericse figuree," "a crown or oblation of a spherical 
figure" (Benedict XIV., De Sacrifido Misses, lib. i. cap. vi. sec. 
iv.), the circle being indicatory of the Divine Presence after con- 
secration. The Orientals occasionally make their altar-breads 
square, on which is stamped a cross with an inscription. The 

Lee't Glotsary. 


square form of the bread is a mystical indication that by the 
sacrifice of Christ upon the cross salvation is purchased for the 
four corners of the earth for north, south, east, and west ; and, 
moreover, that our Blessed Saviour died for all men. In the 
Church of England unleavened bread was invariably made use 
of until the changes of the sixteenth century. Since that 
period, however, with but, few exceptions, common and ordinary 
leavened bread has been used. The ancient rule has never been 
theoretically abolished, for cne of the existing rubrics runs as 
follows : " It shall suffice that the bread be such as is usual to 
be eaten ; but the best and purest wheat bread that conveniently 
may be gotten." 

ALTAR-BREAD BOX. A box to hold the wafers or altar- 
breads, before consecration. Such receptacles were anciently 


of boxwood or ivory. The example given in the illustration is 
of ivory mounted in silver. (See Illustration.) 

ALTAR-CARD. A modern term used to describe a printed 
or written transcript of certain portions of the service for Holy 
Communion ; more especially those parts which, having to be 
said by the officiating priest in the midst of the altar, he requires 



to have placed immediately before him. The altar-card, there- 
fore, is placed in that position. 

ALTAR- CARPET. A carpet spread in front of the altar, 
over the steps of the deacon and subdeacon, as well as over the 
whole of the upper platform or predella, on which the officiant 
stands to minister. In medigeval times Eastern carpets were 
commonly used for this purpose. Modern changes have not, as 
yet, produced anything superior or more fitting. Green is the 
proper colour for use, as harmonizing with any other shade of 
green, and as contrasting duly and well with all the other eccle- 
siastical colours. 


ALTAR-CLOTH. An ordinary term for that covering of the 
altar which, made of silk, vel- 
vet, satin, or cloth, is placed over 
and around it. The altar-cloth is 
usually made in two portions; 
first, the antependium, which 
hangs down in front, and is often 
richly embroidered ; and, second- 
ly, the super-frontal, which covers 
the slab, and hangs down about 
six inches, both in front and at 
the sides. See ANTEPENDIUM and 

ALTAR-CROSS. A cross of 
precious or other metal placed 
behind the centre of an altar, to 
signify that every grace and bles- 
sing bestowed upon the faithful 
is given for and through the death 
of our Lord upon the Cross of 
Calvary. In recent times, a figure 
of Jesus Christ has been some- 
times affixed to the altar-cross. 
See CRUCIFIX. (See Illustration.) 


Hangings of silk, damask, satin, 
or other fitting material, sus- 
pended on rods, so as to inclose 
the ends of an altar. In large 
churches they are found very 
convenient for protecting the 

c 2 




altar- tapers from currents of air and draughts, 
varies with the ecclesiastical season. 

Their colour 

ALTAR, DOUBLE. An altar so constructionally erected that 
it might serve for two chapels. In some old examples a pierced 
screen divided it from north to south, in which case the two offi- 
ciating priests would have faced each other had they celebrated 
contemporaneously. In most cases, however, the division was 
made by a screen which stood east and west, that is, supposing 
the altar to have been placed in its customary position. A double 
altar still exists, and is used at Bologna, without any screen to 
separate it ; at which altar the officiants face the congregation. 

ALTAR-FRONTAL. Another name for an altar-cloth. 
Sometimes, however, frontals were made of wood in panels, 
richly painted, representing figures of saints or angels, as in 
the accompanying woodcut, under tabernacle-work. In other 
cases the most elaborate mosaic-work was introduced for the 
permanent adornment of altar-frontals, on which symbols and 


representations of types of the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar 
were appropriately placed. There were also frontals made of 
the precious metals, in which beaten-work, chasing, and em- 
bossing were discreetly and tastefully adopted for their greater 
beauty and richness. For a most remarkable example of a 
precious altar- frontal, Sec Illustration. 

ALTAR-HERSE. A term sometimes used to describe the 
frame on which a temporary canopy was erected over an altar 
on special solemnities and festivals of the highest rank. They 


were sometimes used at funerals of royal 
and noble persons. Their hangings were 
often adorned with heraldic devices. (See 

ALTAR, HIGH. That altar which 
is the chief, cardinal, or principal altar 
in a Christian church. The altar which 
is ascended by a large number of steps, 
and the level of which is raised, ele- 
vated, or heightened above that of other 
altars. The altar which stands in the 
eastern part of the choir or chancel. 
The altar at which High Mass is com- 
monly sung on Sundays and chief fes- 

ALTAR-HORNS. The horns, or 
corners of the altar which are on its 
western side. The north corner is 
called the " Gospel horn *' (Cornu 
Evangelii), the south the " Epistle 
horn" (Cornu Epistolce). 

ALTARIST^. A term used to 
designate those priests other than the 
parochus, who were specially appointed 
to say mass for specific intentions, at 
private, chantry, or privileged altars. 

ALTAR-LANTERN. A term occa- 
sionally found in old records describing 
the lanterns which were used in lieu of 
simple wax-tapers for the altar, when 
erected temporarily and out of doors. 
Abroad they are found in the sacristies 
of many churches, and are frequently 
used, carried on either side of the cru- 
cifix, at funerals, solemn processions of 
the Blessed Sacrament, in those parts 
of the Church where reservation of the 
Holy Eucharist is practised. (See Illus- 

ALTAR-LEDGE. A step or ledge 
behind an altar, on which the o-rnamenta, 
i.e. the cross, candlesticks, and flower- 
vases, are placed. Behind some altars 



there are more than one step, especially in those of Roman 
Catholic churches, from which Benediction with the Blessed 
Sacrament is given. 

ALTAR-LIGHTS. Those lights which are placed either upon, 
or immediately behind, the altars of our churches, to symbolize, 
generally, the Light of the Gospel, and the twofold nature of 
our Blessed Lord, who in the Nicene Creed is called " Light of 
Light," and is the true Light of the World. At the offering 
of the Christian Sacrifice two lights are commonly used; but 
the Law of the Church of England is that they must not be 
placed upon the altar. They may stand behind it, or at its sides. 

ALTAR-LINEN. Those linen cloths, three in number, which 
are used to cover the altar-slab. The first is a cloth duly prepared 
with melted wax (hence, called the altar cerecloth) ; the second 
is a cloth to protect this first cloth ; and the last is the cloth of 
linen which, placed over the top of the altar, hangs down to 
the ground, or nearly so, at either end of the altar. 

ALTAR OF OUR LADY. That altar which stands in the 
Lady-chapel of cathedrals, or in the side-chapel (one of which in 
most parish churches was anciently dedicated in honour of Mary) . 
Here " Mary Mass " was said. See MARY MASS. 

ALTAR OF THE ROOD. That altar which, in England, 
anciently stood westward of the rood-screen in large churches, 
and at which ordinarily the parish Mass was sung. 

ALTAR-PIECE. A technical term for the picture which is so 
commonly found behind the altar or Holy Table in Christian 
churches. The most appropriate subject for representation in it 
is the Crucifixion ; but the Ascension and other of the Divine 
mysteries of Our Lord's life, are frequently depicted. Numerous 
examples of the altar-piece exist in the Church of England, 
many erected during the Laudian Revival : others in Queen Anne's 

ALTAR, PORTABLE. A small tablet of marble, jasper, 01- 
precious stone, used for Mass when said away from the parish 
altar, in oratories or other similar places. It was termed " super 
altare," because commonly placed upon some other altar, or on 
any decent and fitting construction of wood or stone. A special 
license was needed to enable a cleric to possess and use a portable 
altar, which license was anciently given by the diocesan, but was 
afterwards reserved to the Pope. Examples of such licenses are 
common in certain medieval documents, and are frequently 


referred to in the last testaments of the clergy. A most inter- 
esting example of a portable altar, which was in the possession 
of the Rev. Dr. Rock, sometime Canon of the Roman Catholic 
Cathedral of Southwark, is of oriental jasper, enclosed in silver, 
and adorned with nielli and engraved ornaments. Its dimensions 
are 12 inches by 7j. This portable altar is in all respects of the 
same form as an altar, being constructed, as it is believed, for relics. 
The slab is of serpentine, supported on pillars of silver, between 
which there 'are representations of our Blessed Lord throned in 
glory, with the Apostles SS. James, Jude, Peter, Andrew, 
Philip, and Simon the Canaanite. The ends are of wrought 
scroll-work. On the slab are the four Evangelistic symbols 
in enamel, with figures of Abel and Melchisedec ; thus linking 
the old dispensation with the Gospel. The inscription stands 
thus : 

" Qnidquid in altari ponctatnr spiritual!, 

Illud in altari completur materiali. 

Ara crncis, tumuli calix, lapidisque patena, 

Sindonis officinm Candida bissns habet." 

ALTAR-PROTECTOR. The name given to a covering of 
green cloth, baize, or velvet, which, exactly fitting the top of the 
altar, is placed on it at all times when the altar is not being 
used, to protect the sacred linen from dust and defilement. 

ALTAR-RAILS. Low rails of wrought iron or wood, placed 
north and south towards the west end of the sanctuary, (1) firstly, 
for the better protection of the altar and its furniture ; and (2) 
secondly, as a support for the communicants when they come to 
receive the Body and Blood of their Lord. 

ALTAR- SCREEN. That screen which in collegiate and 
cathedral churches separates the choir either from the Lady- 
chapel or the ambulatory, and against which the choir or high 
altar stands. Examples occur at York Minster and Durham 

ALTAR-SIDE. That part of the altar which faces the con- 
gregation. In correctly-orientated churches this is of course 
the western side ; but where altars are placed against the north 
and south walls of collegiate or cathedral churches, as is con- 
stantly the case on the Continent and in the Anglo-Roman 
communion, its side will be that against which the priest stands 
when ministering at the same. 

A.LTAR-STEPS. The steps round and about the altar in a 
Christian church. They are usually at least three in number, 
independent of, and in addition to, the platform, predella, or 
dais, on which the altar is actually placed. Sometimes there are 


more in number than three ; if so, they are either five, seven, 
or fourteen. The latter would pertain to the high altar of a 
collegiate church or cathedral. 

ALT AE- STOLE. A mediaeval ornament, in shape like the 
ends of a stole, hanging down over the front of the antependium 
of the altar, indicating that the altar itself is constantly used, 
and symbolizing the power and efficacy of the Christian sacrifice. 
(Sec Illustration under ALTAK, p. 16.) 

ALTAK-STONE, OR SLAB. That stone which should be 
without spot or blemish, and consequently entire, which forms 
the upper and chief part of a Christian altar. In the Church of 
England, the law requires that the lower portion of the altar be 
of wood. At Westminster Abbey, and in hundreds of other 
churches, the slab is found of stone or marble. 

ALTAR -TAPER. The wax tapers 
so called because they taper in shape 
used in those candlesticks which are 
placed on or about the altar ; ordinarily 
those tapers which are lighted during 
the offering of the Christian sacrifice. 
Custom in the West expects that at 
least two be lighted, even at low cele- 
brations ; at high celebrations, in the 
Latin Church, as also in some English 
churches, six tapers are then ordinarily 
lit. They symbolize (1) the fact that 
our Blessed Saviour, " God of God, 
Light of Light, Very God of Very 
God," is the True Light of the World. 
They are also (2) symbols of joy and 
gladness on the part of the faithful, 
that Christ is born into the world (o) 
naturally, i.e. by nature, ()3) sacrament- 
ally, i.e. in the Eucharistic mystery. 
(See Illustration.) 

ALTAR-TOMB. A monumental 
memorial, of marble or freestone, in 
form and construction similar to an 
altar, and frequently owning a canopy. 
Such erections were often placed over 
the vault or burying-place of noble and 
distinguished families in mediaeval and 
later times, and frequently on the north 
ALTAR-TAPER. and south walls of choirs, aisles, and 





chantry chapels. Examples may be seen in almost all large and 
important parish churches. It is very doubtful whether they 
were ever used as altars. The accompanying illustration repre- 
sents the altar-tomb of Sir John Clerke, Knt., of North Weston, 
near Thame, Oxfordshire, which stands on the south side of the 
choir of that church. This tomb, which was erected about the 
middle of the sixteenth century, is of Purbeck marble. It was 
much damaged during the Great Rebellion. The figure of Sir John 
Clerke, a good late example of a memorial brass, and the enamelled 
shields of armorial bearings on the front of the tomb, are at once 
artistic, bold, and effective. (See Illustration.) 

ALTAR-VASES. Vases of latten, brass, china, or earthen- 
ware, specially made for holding flowers to decorate the altar. 
This custom does not appear to be of any very great antiquity, 
beautiful and appropriate as it is. Churches were anciently 
decorated with boughs and branches, and their floors strewn 
with rushes, bay and yew boughs ; but the formal introduction 
of flowers in vases on the altar-ledge is of no higher antiquity 
than the early part of the last century. 

ALTAR- VESSELS. Those vessels which are ordinarily 
used in the Sacrament of the Altar; viz. (1) the Chalice, (2) the 
Paten, and (3) the Ciborium. The chalice is a cup of precious 
metal, the paten a plain circular plate of the same, and the 
ciborium used to contain the Sacramental species under the 
form of bread is a covered cup surmounted with a small cross, 
from which the faithful are communicated when the communi- 
cants are numerous, and in which the Holy Sacrament is re- 
served for the communion of the sick. The cruets for wine 
and water, and the bread-box, in which, or the plate on which, 
the breads are placed, are not actually " altar- vessels/' being 
found on the credence-table, their proper place, during the 
Christian sacrifice. See CHALICE, CIBORIUM, and PATEN. 

ALTAR -WALL. The wall behind an altar against which 
the reredos or altar-piece stands. See ALTAR-PIECE and 

ALTAR -WINE. Wine used in the Sacrament of the Altar, 
This should be of the pure juice of the grape. Our twentieth 
canon orders it to be " good and wholesome/' Tentwine is 
ordinarily used in England, as being more appropriate in its 
symbolism, but light*coloured wine is not uncommonly adoptedi 
Claret, wanting in some particulars the true nature of wine, is 
forbidden by several Western decrees. 

ALTAR, WOODEN. An altar made of wood. Anciently 


the altar was usually constructed in the form of a table, and 
hence was called the " Divine " or " Holy Table." The wooden 
altar-table on which St. Peter offered the Christian sacrifice is 
still preserved at Rome. In the Eastern churches the altars are 
commonly of this material. And the same has been the case in 
the Church of England since the religious changes of the six- 
teenth century. Slabs of stone should be, as they frequently 
are, placed on the top of the table, which slabs, being marked 
with five crosses, are that part which is specially consecrated 
with prayer and unction. 

ALTERNATION. The act of following and being followed 
in succession : hence the response of a congregation praying or 
praising alternately, with the cleric or clergy officiating. This 
commonly occurs in Litanies, singing of Psalms, and chanting 
of Canticles. 

AMBO (AMBONE, Ital. ; "A^/3ovac, "Aju/3wv/A/x/3wi;oc, Greek). 
A rostrum, desk, or pulpit, with a large desk before it, in a 
choir, whereon anciently the officiating clerics stood to chant 
the Lections, Epistle, and Gospel. The ambo had two series of 
steps, one turned to the east and the other to the west. At 
Rome, where used, there are now commonly two ambones : that 
for the Gospel is found on the south side j that for the Epistle 
on the north. Large candlesticks for tapers are placed near the 
former, and during the Easter season the Paschal candle stood 
near it likewise. There are three existing examples of the 
ancient ambo at Rome \ viz. in the churches of St. Clement, 
St. Lawrence, and St. Mary in Cosmedin. In the latter there 
is a mosaic candelabrum near the ambo, both of which are still 
used. See ROOD-LOFT. 

' AMBROSIAN LITURGY. That form for celebrating Mass 
drawn up by St. Ambrose, used to the present day in the diocese 
of Milan. While substantially identical with the Roman rite, it 
has many peculiarities of its own, indicating at once its veritable 
antiquity, and the Eastern origin of certain of its distinctive 

AMBULATORY (EXTERNAL). A covered walking-place at- 
tached to a religious house or cathedral precinct. Hence a 
cloister : more particularly a cloister, one side of which is open 
to the weathef, and the windows, or apertures, of which are 

AMBULATORY (INTERNAL). An aisle or covered walk in a 
church, college, or religious house, in which there are no benches, 
seats, nor chairs ; but which is left perfectly free for solemn and 


other processions. Many examples of such occur in our cathedrals 
and some of our large parish churches. 

AMEN. An ecclesiastical response, indicating agreement, 
assent, or consent. The term itself is originally Hebrew, and 
its exact meaning, "So be it," or "So let it be"; but it has 
been retained in common use in all parts of the Christian family. 
In the Book of Common Prayer it is sometimes printed in 
Roman letters, thus "Amen," and then the officiant says it apart 
from the congregation ; when printed in italics, thus, " Amen," 
the congregation say it independently of the priest, and as 
outwardly affirming their agreement with what he has just 
uttered or declared. 

AMERICAN LITURGY. A form for celebrating the Holy 
Communion peculiar to the Protestant Episcopal Church of the 
States of America. It is substantially identical with the service 
used by the Scottish Episcopalians, but differs in certain unim- 
portant particulars. Both forms contain an invocation of the 
Holy Spirit after the words of consecration, their speciality : in 
other respects they follow the form in the first Liturgy of King 
Edward VI. 

AMERICAN PRAYER-BOOK. That service-book, corre- 
sponding to the Book of Common Prayer in the Church of 
England, which is used by the non-Roman Episcopalians in 
America. This Church, which is an offshoot of the Churches of 
England and Scotland, was formally organized when Dr. Seabury 
received episcopal consecration from three Scottish prelates in 
1 784. Afterwards other bishops were consecrated at Lambeth 
by Moore, Archbishop of Canterbury, and others, and a due 
and regular episcopate bestowed upon the American community. 
The Prayer-book mainly follows our own, but the service for 
Holy Communion is formed after the model of the Scotch rite, 
with certain features borrowed from Edward VI. 's First Prayer- 
book. On the other hand, the Athanasian Creed is omitted, the 
form for conferring orders altered, and the form of absolution 
in the service for the Visitation of the Sick, is absent. The 
practical additions made do not atone for the presence of these 
unfortunate changes. 

AMICE. The amice (Amictus) was an oblong piece of fine 
linen, with strings (tfee Illustration No. I.), worn by all clergy 
above the minor orders over the cassock, and was placed first 
on the head, then being adjusted round the neck, formed the 
collar, sometimes ornamented with a strip of embroidery, as 
represented on ancient brasses. In several of the Anglo-Saxon 



Pontificals it is alluded to as being one of the vestments used 
at the altar, and in that respect is supposed to have been peculiar 
to England, for it was not until the beginning of the ninth 
century that it was formally recognized by the whole Western 
Church as the first of the sacrificial garments. Amalarius says : 
" Amictus est primum vestimentum nostrum, quo collum undique 
cingimus." (See Illustration No. II.) It was anciently worn 

No. II. 

over the head by the priest when vesting for Mass, and only 
turned back just as he was preparing to go to the altar (See 
Illustration No. III., taken from a memorial brass) ; hence the 
Church began to look upon it as symbolizing the Helmet of Sal- 
vation. By the Sarum Ritual its use was not always confined to 
the higher clergy, the minor clerks and choristers who officiated 
about the altar being not only allowed, but required, at special 
seasons to be vested both in alb and amice. It was also one of 
the garments with which the monarch was anciently invested at 
his coronation. King Edward VI. was the last on whose head 
it was placed, since which period its use at coronations has been 


AMPHIBALUM. A term used to designate the sacrificial 
vestment of the Christian Church, i.e. the chasuble. It is 



also called Casula, Pcenula, Planeta, <atvwXiov, <eXoviov. See 

AMPULLA. 1. A vessel for holding holy, consecrated, or 
blessed oil, used in unction (See Illus- 
tration). 2. The term is sometimes ap- 
plied to the large flagons which are 
used instead of cruets for the wine and 
water for the Blessed Sacrament. 3. A 
leathern pouch worn by pilgrims. 

with which to wipe away the blessed 
oil used for the Sacrament of Extreme 
Unction, so called because in England 
the oil was anciently kept in an "Arn- 
ulla." This vessel is still referred to 
y that name in the Order for the 
Coronation of our kings, as is also the 
ampulling-cloth or towel. 

ANABATA. A term for a hooded 
cope, usually worn in outdoor proces- 
sions ; frequently larger and longer 
than the closed cope. Anciently the 
hood was one that could be actually 

drawn over the head for use, and not the mere flat ornamental 

appendage found on the ordinary cope. 

ANAKAMHTHPIA ('AvaKa/xTrr^oto). The small cells or re- 
ceptacles for strangers within the precincts of an Eastern 

ANAAABOS ('AvaAa/3oc). A Greek term for the monastic 
girdle or scapular. 


of our Blessed Lord. 

. A Greek term for the Ascension 

ANAAOFION ('AvaXfrytov or 'AvaXo'yttov). A Greek term 
for a reading-desk, lectern, elevated stall, or pulpit. 

ANAPHOBA ('Avatf.opd). 1. An oblation; 2. the Canon of 
the Mass ; 3. the Host in the Christian sacrifice ; 4. the reci- 
tation of the names on the Diptychs at Mass. 


. The solemn curse or ban of Holy 


Church, exercised in the Name, and by the authority, of our 
Blessed Lord : " Whosesoever sins thou retainest, they are 

ANATHEMATA. A term used to designate the coverings 
of the altar in the early Church. 

ANCHORESS. A nun : a solitary religious, who, apart from 
any companion, lived in a desert place, exercizing the monastic 
virtues without being attached to any particular community. 

ANCHORET. A monk unattached to any specific religious 
house, who sought a retreat away both from the cloister as well 
as from the haunts of men, there practising the known duties of 
a religious. 

ANGEL ("AyyeXog). 1. A messenger; 2. a spiritual intelli- 
gent being created by God to do His will, and to declare it to 
mankind. Angels are frequently represented in old Christian 
art clothed in albs, amices, and stoles. When the Pagan renais- 
sance arose, this dress was altogether discarded, and they appeared 
as nude children with wings in pictures and stained glass. They 
bear trumpets, declaring the voice of God ; flaming swords, 
indicating the wrath of God ; sceptres, the power of God ; 
thuribles, as presenting incense, which represents both the 
prayers of the Saints and the worship of the faithful. 

ANGELIC DOCTOR (THE). St. Thomas Aquinas. 

ANGELIC HABIT. The habit in which ancient Christian 
artists usually represented angels was the alb, apparelled and 
girded, over which was the crossed stole of gold. A zone of 
gold on the forehead, with a star or cross, is also commonly 

ANGELIC HYMN. That hymn which the Angels sang in 
the presence of the shepherds of Bethlehem when announcing to 
them the birth of Jesus Christ, the Redeemer of the world. It 
is always sung in the Liturgy, because Christ is as it were born 
anew in the Eucharistic mystery each time that the Holy Sacrifice 
is offered. 

ANGELIC SALUTATION. The salutation, " Ave Maria, 
gratia plena, Dominus tecum," with which the Archangel greeted 
the Blessed Virgin Mary when he announced to her that she 
was to become the Mother of our Lord and God. 

ANGELS, NINE ORDERS OF. The following are given 
as comprising the Angelic orders : 1. Angels ; 2. Archangels ; 


3. Principalities ; 4. Powers ; 5. Dominations ; 6*. Virtues ; 7. 
Thrones ; 8. Cherubims ; and 9. Seraphims. (See Colos. i. 16.) 
The nine orders of Angels are represented in painted glass in 
the chapel of New College, Oxford. No uniform emblems or 
symbols are traditionally common to each order, they being 
found very diversely portrayed in different places. 

ANGELUS. A solemn devotion, in memory of the Incarna- 
tion of the Eternal Word, consisting mainly of versicles and 
responses, the Angelic Salutation three times repeated, and a 
collect. This pious devotion, which arose in the early part of 
the sixteenth century, is now used three times a day by Catholics. 
(See Acta Sanct. Boll, vii.) The exact form runs as follows : 
I. The angel of the Lord announced unto Mary, and she con- 
ceived of the Holy Ghost. Hail, thou that art highly favoured, 
the Lord is with thee; blessed art thou among women, and 
blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. [Holy Mary, Mother 
of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death.] 
Amen. II. Behold the handmaid of the Lord ; be it done unto 
me according to thy word. ^Hail, Mary, &c. III. And the 
Word was- made flesh, and dwelt among us. Hail, Mary, &c. 
Collect : We besech Thee, Lord, pour Thy grace into our 
hearts; that, as we have known the Incarnation of Thy Son 
Jesus Christ by the message of an angel, so by His Cross and 
Passion we may be brought unto the glory of His Resurrection ; 
through the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. See ANGELUS 

ANGELUS BELL. A bell specially dedicated in honour of 
the Blessed Virgin, called t( the Ladye-bell," rung three times 
a day, at morning, noou, and night, during which the faithful in 
England, before the Reformation, piously recited the Angelus or 
"Memorial of the Incarnation." This custom, which is still 
common in Roman Catholic countries, has been restored in some 
parts of England, and likewise in certain Church of England 
convents. See ANGELUS. ' 

ANGLICAN. A member of the Church of England. A term 
which indicates that the person using it, or applying it, does so 
in order to describe one who is in visible communion with the 
See of Canterbury. A Catholic believer, who is neither a Roman 
nor an Oriental. 

ANGLICAN MUSIC. That specific type of music which, in 
contradistinction to the ancient plain song of the Church Uni- 
versal, has been specially written for the services of the Church 
of England since the Reformation. It is more florid, and less 


solemn and dignified, in its character than plain song, and for a 
considerable period entirely superseded it. 


ANKER-HOLD. The cell or place of abode of an anchoret 
or anchoress. 

ANKER-HUT. A North-country term for the hut of an 


ANNALIST. An officer in a religious house who was au- 
thoritatively and solemnly commissioned by its ruler or by the 
chapter to write the Annals of the institution, and to record such 
public events as bore upon religious or ecclesiastical questions. 
Many such annals and records have been preserved and printed. 

ANNALS, OE ANNUALS. 1. A term used to describe 
anniversary Masses for the faithful departed in general, which 
were commonly said on All Souls' Day ; or for the souls of 
particular individuals upon the anniversary of their decease. 
These latter were sometimes solemnized half-yearly, or on the 
festival of the departed person's patron saint. Other terms for 
Annals were " Year-minds" and "Obits." 2. The written 
records of religious houses. 3. This term was also secondarily 
applied to Masses said for deceased persons, either daily or 
weekly, throughout the year succeeding their decease; or 
annually, on the anniversary of their decease, for the space of 
three, seven, or twenty-one years. 

ANNATES. A year's income of a spiritual living : the first- 
fruits formerly in England given to the Pope on the decease of 
a bishop, abbot, or parish priest, and paid by his successor. 
Henry VIII. appropriated them, but Queen Anne restored them 
to the Church, to form a fund for the augmentation of poor 
livings, commonly called " Queen Anne's Bounty." 

ANNIVER S ARIE S . 1 . Stated or fixed days, returning with 
the revolution of the year. 2. Appointed days, occurring once 
a year, on which the death or martyrdom of Christian saints is 
specially commemorated. 3. Days on which dedication feasts 
are annually observed. 4. Masses for the dead, said once a 
year, on the return of the day on which the person for whose 
special benefit they are offered departed this life. 

ANNUALIA. The fees paid to a priest for annually com- 
memorating the death of certain persons, and for saying Mass 
for the repose of their souls. 

Let't Glotiary. I) 


\ XNUELLAR. The priest permanently appointed to a 
chantry chapel, whether connected with a parish church, a re- 
ligious house, or a cathedral, Avho annually, as the various anni- 
versaries return, says Mass or recites prayers for the benefit of 
the faithful departed. 

ANOINTING. The act of unction ; i.e. the smearing with oil. 
The pouring on either of oil, or of oil and balsam, or of any 
oleaginous matter duly prepared and solemnly set apart and 
blessed for religious purposes. 

ANOINTING IN CORONATION. The act of anointing the 
sovereign at the time of his crowning. This rite, originating 
under the older dispensations, has been adopted by the Christian 
Church, and is commonly practised now. In the form used for 
the coronation of our kings it is duly performed by the Arch- 
bishop, with many of the ancient solemnities. See AMPULLA and 



ANOINTING THE SICK. A religious Christian rite, en- 
joined by the Apostle St. James, practised by the whole Church, 
and ordered to be observed in the first Prayer-book of King 
Edward VI., which book was compiled, as was asserted, under 
the direct help of the Holy Spirit. There is no form for unction 
in our present Prayer-book, but old uses are frequently followed. 
In the West, the oil for anointing the sick is consecrated by one 
bishop ; in the East, by seven priests. 

ANTE-CHAPEL. 1. A transeptal building at the west end 
of a collegiate or conventual chapel, by which access is mainly 
gained to the building itself. 2. The outer portion of a chape), 
which lies west of the rood-screen in the same. 

ANTE-CHURCH. A term used to designate an approach 
to a church, situated at the extreme west end of the building, 
of which it forms the main entrance. 

ANTE-COMMUNION. 1. An Anglican term, used to desig- 
nate that portion of the Liturgy or Communion Service, which 
commencing with the Introit, or the Lord's Prayer, closes with the 
end of the Nicene Creed. 2. This term is also used to the intro- 
ductory part of the eucharistic office, when it only, and nothing 
further, is intended to be used. Its use alone is a very repre- 
hensible custom, and an extremely " corrupt following of the 


ANTE-LUCAN SERVICE. A term used to designate a 
service which was frequently said in the early Church before 
break of day, or ere it was light : hence its name. It was usuallv 
made the preparation for the offering of the Christian Sacrifice/ 

ANTE MINSIA. The Greek term for an altar-cloth which 
has been duly blessed, and is only used at the time of the offer- 
ing of the Christian Sacrifice, when there is no consecrated 

ANTE-PANE. An antependium. Sec ANTEPEXDICM. 

ANTEPENDIUM. 1. A frontlet, forecloth, frontal, or 
covering for an altar, of silk, satin, damask, or velvet ; so called 
because it hangs down before it. Sometimes these antependia 
were richly embroidered with figures of saints, Scripture sub- 
jects; or were powdered with stars, cherubim, pomegranates, 
peacocks, or conventional flowers. 2. A cloth used to hide 
the rood, or any other image. 3. A curtain used to hang in 
front of a chantry chapel. 

ANTHEM. This term is a corruption of the ancient word 
Antiphona. It originally meant anything sung antiphonally : 
therefore an alternate chant. In the Breviary it has several sig- 
nifications. It is ordinarily applied to a short sentence, generally 
taken from Scripture, sung before and after one or more psalms 
of the day. The same term is given to the prayers or ejacula- 
tions in the commemorations used at the end of various services, 
and also to the metrical hymns at the end of Compline and other 
offices. In the present English office the rubric relating to the 
anthem dates from the final revision of the Book of Common 
Prayer in 1661. The place of its performance seems suggested 
by that which the autiphons occupy in commemorations and con- 
cluding parts of the service of the Breviary. In respect to the 
anthem in connection with the Litany in the time of St. Gregory 
the Great, the service (Litany) during the procession consisted 
in chanting a number of anthems. 

ANTHOLOGIUM. -- 1. A selection of private devotions. 
2. A collection of the chief sayings of holy men and women 
which have been preserved either in writing or tradition, and 
are gathered together into one consistent record for the benefit 
of the faithful. 


ANTIDORON (Eulogice). Bread originally contributed by 
the faithful of the Eastern Church for use in the Christian 

D 2 


Sacrifice, blessed at that service, and afterwards distributed to 
non-communicants at its close. It is, of course, not consecrated 
sa cramentally, but simply blessed. 

ANTI0EOS ('Avrt06oc). A Greek term for Satan. 

ANTILEGOMENA. Those parts of the sacred writings of 
the ancient Jewish Church, the genuineness and authenticity of 
which have been disputed, and are called apocryphal which are 
distinguished from the " Homologomena " or canonical books. 

ANTIMINSIOS ('AvTtjutWjoc). A Greek term for the Church 
officer who arranges the faithful in proper order prior to their 
receiving Holy Communion. 

ANTI-PASCH ('Avrura<rxa). Low Sunday. The Sunday 
after Easter-day. Dominica in albis. The Sunday within the 
Octave of Easter. 

ANTII1ANON ('AvT'nravov). A Greek term for a border or 
edge-band, corresponding with the Latin " apparel." 

ANTIPHON. A verse, versicle, or part of a verse peculiar 
to the special season at which it is used, either before or after 
the Psalms of the day, or the Canticles in the Divine Office, 


ANTIPHONAEIUM. A Western service-book, containing 
all those portions both of the Offices and the Mass which are 
used by the cantors at the antiphon-lectern. 

ANTIPHON-LECTERN. A lectern which stands in the 
centre of the floor of a choir, chancel, or chapel, facing the altar, 
at which the antiphons are solemnly chanted. Here the cantors 
stand at certain periods of the service in order to command a 
full view of the choir, and so as to enable the choir to follow them 
both in time, tune, and due regularity. See LECTERN. 

ANTI$&NON ('Avrtywi/ov) . 1. The alternate chant of the two 
sides of a choir. 2. A verse or versicle used as a keynote to a 
psalm or canticle. 3. An anthem sung during the Liturgy in 
the Eastern Church. 

.ANTITYEIA (Avrtrvira). Antitypes. The correlatives of 
types. A term used in the Lituagy of St. Basil to designate 
the oblations. 

('A7ro7ra7r<rc). A Greek term for an ex-priest. 


APOSTASY. 1. The abandonment by a person of what he 
has previously professed. 2. A forsaking of the true religion. 
3. The forsaking of a religious order, without due and authori- 
tative legal dispensation. 

APOSTATE. One who has forsaken the true religion. Sec 

APOSTLE. 1 . Generally, a person sent or deputed to do 
some especial work or business. 2. Specially, a disciple or 
follower of our Blessed Lord, holding immediate relations with 
Him. 3. This term is also applied to a book containing portions 
of the Epistles of Holy Scripture, as recited during Mass. It 
was also called " Lectionarium }i and " Epistolarium." See 

APOSTLES' COATS. A term frequently found in parish 
and churchwardens' accounts, indicating the garments worn by 
performers in the mediaeval miracle or mystery plays. 

APOSTLE SPOONS. A series of twelve spoons in precious 
metal, the handles of which are adorned with representations of 
the Apostles. Anciently they were frequently given as baptismal 
gifts by godparents of the upper classes to their godchildren. 
Several ancient examples of single spoons exist, in which the 
Blessed Virgin or the patron saint of the child is also repre- 

APOSTOLICAL SEE. I. An episcopal seat founded by 
an apostle. 2. A title given to the three sees of Antioch, Ephe- 
sus, and Rome. 

APOSTOLUS. 1 . An apostle. 2, A bishop of the Apostolic 
period. See APOSTLE. 

APOTACTITE. One of a community of ancient Christians, 
who, in imitation of the first followers of our Lord, renounced 
possession of all their goods. 

AnOTAEAMENOS ('A7roT<ia/uei;oe). 1. A Greek term for 
one who has renounced the world ; 2. a monk. 

APPAREL. An ornamental piece of embroidery, with which 
the amice and the alb are enriched. The apparels are placed on 
the wrists of the alb, as well as at the bottom of it, both before 
and behind, and the amice round the neck is adorned with a 
similar corresponding ornament. These five apparels are said 
by some to symbolize the five wounds of Christ. In England, 
anciently, the amice and alb Avere worn without apparels on 


Good Friday, and sometimes also in masses 'foi % the dead. 
ISec ALB. 

APPARITOR. The officer of an archiepiscopal, episcopal, 
archidiaconal, or other ecclesiastical court, who formerly sum- 
moned persons to appear before the judge. He was anciently 
styled " Sunmionitor." 

APPEAL. The formal removal of a suit from an inferior to a 
superior tribunal. Hence a term used in ecclesiastical cases. 

APSE. The semicircular or polygonal termination of a 
church, commonly vaulted with a half-dome. The idea was 
borrowed from pagan temples. When adopted, the altar was 
placed in the chord of the apse, and the bishop's seat in the 
centre of the apse behind the altar. Ancient apses were semi- 
circular ; later forms, when Pointed architecture obtained in 
Europe, were polygonal in form. Many examples both of 
Romanesque as well as of polygonal apses exist in England. Of 
these, Tewkesbury, the crypts of Winchester and Gloucester 
Cathedrals, St. Michael's, Coventry, and Peterborough Cathedral, 
are very remarkable. There are many examples amongst our 
parochial churches. " Concha" and " Exedra" were terms 
sometimes used to designate the apse. 

AQU^E BAJULUS. The Holy-water carrier. This person 
was frequently a clerk in minor orders, or at least a tonsured 
person. He walked at the head of the solemn procession before 
High Mass -every Sunday, bearing the vessel of Holy water, 
from which, with the Aspergillum (See ASPEROULLUM), the cele- 
brant of the Mass blessed the people as he took his way to the 
altar. Occasionally this blessing of the people took place imme- 
diately before the procession to the sanctuary, and not during 
the procession. 

AQtLEMANILE. A term used to designate the hand-basin, 
or dish, in which the priest washes his fingers at the offertory 
in the Mass. 

ARCH. A curved construction of stones or bricks over a 
window, door, or other aperture, so arranged and banded 
together that, by mutual pressure, they may support each other 
and sustain the superincumbent weight of the upper part of the 
wall over it. 

ARCHANGELS. The seven principal angels or rulers of the 
heavenly choir. Holy Scripture gives us the names of four, viz. 
of SS. Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel; tradition supplies 


the other three, viz. Chamuel, Jophiel, and Zadkiel. St. Michael 
is represented as the guardian and protector of the Jewish Church, 
and when the Synagogue gave place to the Church of Christ he 
became the patron of the Church Militant. He is mentioned in 
Scripture five times. St. Gabriel was the archangel who an- 
nounced to Mary the conception of our Blessed Lord, and to 
Zacharias the birth of St. John the Baptist. St. Raphael was 
the guardian and protector of Tobias. Tradition says that it was 
St. Raphael who appeared to the shepherds by night, announcing 
our Blessed Lord's nativity. St. Uriel, who appeared to Esdras 
to interpret God's will to him (2 Esdras iv.) . It was St. Chamuel 
who wrestled with Jacob. Tradition also says it was he who 
appeared to our Lord in the garden of Gethsemane. St. Jophiel 
was guardian of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, and 
drove out Adam and Eve from Paradise. It was St. Zadkiel 
who stayed the hand of Abraham when about to offer up Isaac. 

ARCHBISHOP. The chief bishop of a group of dioceses or 
province, who exercises such a jurisdiction over the bishops of 
the same dioceses as to give him the power of hearing appeals, 
either from their judgments, or the judgments of their officials 
or chancellors. 

ARCHBISHOPS CROSS. A cross, affixed to a staff, borne 
before an archbishop, primate, or metropolitan, to signify and 
symbolize archiepiscopal jurisdiction. See CROZIEE. 

ARCHBISHOP'S MITRE. A mitre similar in kind to that 
worn by a bishop. In England, for the last hundred and fifty 
year's, the fillet or band round the head has been made after the 
model of a duke's coronet, to signify the high and lofty temporal 
rank of 'the wearer. 

ARCHBISHOP'S MORSE. A cope-brooch or cope-clasp, 
on which the arms of the see of an archbishop are engraved. 
Anciently the archbishops of Canterbury commonly left their 
personal vestments and ornamenta for the use of their successors 
in their see. 

written to the faithful of his province by an archbishop, re- 
lating either to those general or particular subjects of which he 
can properly and legally treat ; or else of some public event 
or religious duty, to be considered by the Christian people 
under him. 

ARCHBISHOP'S VISITATION. 1. A visitation by an 
archbishop of any particular place, church, religious house, or 
college within his own diocese and jurisdiction of which he is 


the ecclesiastical ordinary. 2. A visitation in the diocese of one 
of his suffragans, to reform, amend, correct, or reverse a judg- 
ment or determination of the said suffragan in any ecclesiastical 
question. 3. The visitation of any college out of his own diocese, 
of which he is the legal and customary visitor and the acknow- 
ledged ordinary, for a similar purpose. 

ARCHDEACON. 1. Anciently the chief or senior of the 
deacons when the diacoiiate was a distinct order. 2. A priest, 
with this title, who is oculus episcopi, and possesses by law and 
custom a certain power and jurisdiction, delegated by the bishop, 
to supervise a portion of his diocese, and to hold courts for in^ 
quiries into various defects, omissions, needs, and irregularities. 

ARCHES, COURT OF THE. A court, now no longer 
existing, of the Archbishop of Canterbury, so termed from 
having anciently been held in the parish church of St. Mary- 
le-Bow (Sancta Maria de Arcubus). In this court, which was 
abolished by Act of Parliament in 1874, appeals were received 
from diocesan consistory courts of the province. The Dean of 
the Arches had special jurisdiction for, and on behalf of, the 
Archbishop in several parishes in other dioceses known as 
peculiars. See PECULIARS. 

APXIEPEYS ('Ajox"jOve) A Greek term for a bishop. 

ARCHIMANDRITE ('A/>x/juai^m'^) ] A Greek term for 
an Oriental abbot or superior of a religious house. 2. A priest 
who, having once occupied the above office, has for sufficient 
reasons retired from it, but who is allowed by custom to retain 
the title. 

ARCH-PRESBYTER. An officer first mentioned in the 
fourth century, and sometimes termed " archi-presbyter " or 
" proto-presbyter." (Vide S. Leo. Epist. Ixxv. ; Socrates, Eccle- 
siastical History, vi. 9 ; Statuta Ecclesias Antiqua, c. xvii.) His 
duties were not unlike those of the modern archdeacon or the 
English rural dean. He assisted his bishop in governing those 
whom his superior was personally unable to superintend ; e.g. the 
widows, their pupils and strangers journeying. 

ARCH-PRIEST. 1. A term given to a priest of the Anglo- 
Roman communion in the seventeenth century, to whom the 
Pope delegated certain specific powers, as regards jurisdiction, 
when that religious communion had no bishops. 2. An ancient 
term for a rural dean. 3. The senior priest of a convent. 

ARCUL/E. Small boxes of gold or other precious metal, 


found in the catacombs of Rome, in which the faitliful are 
believed to have earned home the Blessed Sacrament. They 
open in front, and have the sacred monogram or other religious 
symbol engraved on either side. A ring of the same precious 
metal was fastened to the top, by which a cord might be passed, 
so as to suspend them round the neck. They are judged to be 
of as early a date as the second century. 

ARENA. The floor of an amphitheatre : a term sometimes 
used in Italian ritualistic treatises to designate the body of a 

ARENARIA. One of the names applied by pagan writers 
to the catacombs of ancient Rome. They are also called Crypfce, 
Concilia Marty t-um, and Coemcteria. 

ARK. A chest. The term is so used in the Chronicle of 
Peter Langtoft. 

ARMILLUM (Armill). An embroidered band of cloth of 
gold, jewelled, sometimes, but not invariably, used at the 
coronation of our sovereigns. In the form for the Coronation 
of King George ILj the following direction occurs : " Then 
the king arising, the Dean of Westminster taking the Armill 
from the Master of the Great Wardrobe, putteth it about his 
Majesty's neck/' &c. Its symbolism was the Divine mercy of 
the Great Ruler of all things encompassing the sovereign being 

ARMORIUM. An ancient term, sometimes applied to a 
shrine or temporary receptacle for the Blessed Sacrament, in 
the form of an architectural recess or niche without doors ; not 
to be confounded either with the tabernacle or aumbrye. 

ARRAS. A mediaeval term for the hangings used to decorate 
rooms. It was of stuff and silk mixed, though superior kinds 
were of silk exclusively, and was decorated with archaic patterns 
in flowers, figures of animals, &c. It was so called because first 
made at Arras, in France. 

ARTICLES. 1. The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion are 
certain theological propositions and ecclesiastical opinions, con- 
firmed and approved by the Anglican Convocation in 1572, and 
afterwards ratified and confirmed as valuable by the same 
authority nine years later. They are not articles of faith, nor a 
creed, but merely " Articles of Religion." 2. A technical term 
for the formal written charges brought against any person 
prosecuted in an ecclesiastical court. 


APTO<K)PIOX ('A/oro^o/ojoi; ; Latin, Panarium). A Greek 
term for a pix or pyx. 

ASCETICS. 1. A term by which those who had separated 
themselves from the world, and with stern self-discipline fol- 
lowed the counsels of perfection, were known in the earliest ages 
of the Christian Church. 2. The title of certain books on the 
religious life and devout exercises. 

ASCETICISM. 1. The practice of self-discipline. 2. The 
state or practice of ascetics. 

ASPERGES (THE). A short service introductory to the Mass 
in the Roman Catholic Church, consisting of portions of the 
Fifty-first Psalm, certain versicles and responses, and a collect, 
during which the congregation is sprinkled with Holy water by 
the Priest-officiant. 

ASPERGILLUM. All instrument with which to sprinkle 
Blessed or Holy water, sometimes called a " Sprinkler." It 
consists of a short handle of wood or metal, at the top of which 
is a circular brush of horse-hair, which, being dipped into the 
Holy-water vessel, is shaken towards, or over, the congregation 
or subject to receive it. 

ASPERSION (A*pergo)> The act of sprinkling. 

ASPERSORIUM. 1. The stone stoup or Holy-water basin 
commonly found at the right-hand entrance of our ancient 
churches, from which the faithful, taking Holy water on enter- 
ing, blessed themselves, making the sign of the Cross. Many 
of these stoups, however, were destroyed, both by the Reformers 
and the Puritans. In the accounts of All Souls' College, Oxford; 
in 1548, there is a charge pro lapidibus ad aspersorium in in- 
troitu ecdesice, the remains of which may still be seen. 2. The 
term is also sometimes applied in church inventories to the 
Aspergillum, or Holy-water brush. See ASPEHGILLLM. 

ASSUMPTION (B.V.M.). The act of taking to oneself; 
also, the act, on the part of the Almighty, of taking up the 
Blessed Virgin into heaven. This festival, observed annually 
on the 15th of August, is that on which the Western Church 
commemorates the Divine work in question, viz. the departure 
from this world of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Mother of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and her Assumption to glory. 
The historical tradition, that after her death, at Ephesus, not 
only her soul, but also her body, preserved from corruption, 
and raised from death by Divine power, \v;\s translated to 


heaven, is very ancient; but this pious belief has hitherto been 
left by the Church an open question, and is not an article of 
faith in any portion of the one Christian family. 

ASTERISCUS ('AffTtjoio-icoe, 'AcrE/ota/to^, 'Aari/p). 1. An 
ornament, in shape like a star, hence its name, used in the 
Greek Church, with which to cover the chalice during the Liturgy, 
on which the linen veil is afterwards placed to encircle the chalice. 
2. Asteriscus, an asterisk [*], or printer's sign, used in late 
editions of the Psalter to mark the division of the verses in 
psalms or canticles for chanting. 

ATRIUM. 1. The hall or entrance-court of a Roman palace 
or dwelling-house. 2. The entrance of a Christian church, 
immediately adjacent to its chief door. The custom of following 
Roman types in building churches with the atrium was followed 
here and there in the West until the eleventh century, since 
which period it has ceased to be. 3. The term is sometimes 
used by later writers for the churchyard. 

AUDIBLE VOICE. A term found in the rubric of the Book 
of Common Prayer to indicate in what manner certain public 
prayers are to be sung or said. Anciently the " Our Father " 
and the " Hail, Mary," at the commencement of the Hours, were 
said secretly j now, however, the former prayer is directed to be 
said " with an audible voice." 

AUDIENTES, OR HEARERS. An order of penitents in the 
early Church, who, after due penance and preparation, were 
allowed to hear the Liturgy at some distance from the altar. 

AUGUSTUS CLAVUS. The term for a stripe of purple 
bordering the tunic of the ancient Romans. The senators always 
wore it broad (clavus latus), the knights narrow, though in the 
period of the Empei'ors these latter sometimes Wore the broad 
stripe. Being a mark of position and dignity, some have seen 
in the orphreys, or bands of colour on early and mediaeval vest- 
ments, the natural development of the davit*. Other writers 
have derived the stole the specific symbol of ministerial 
authority and rank from this ornament. 

AUMBRYE. A locker, cupboard, or sacrament-hatch for 
the sacred vessels, sacramental plate, altar-breads, altar-wine, 
cruets, altar-linen, and service-books, commonly found on the 
north side of the wall in old English sanctuaries. 

AUREOLE. A circular glory placed in religious pictures 
round the head of our Blessed Lord, our Blessed Lady, or the 


angels and saints, found depicted in most ecclesiastical paintings. 
That of our Lord contains a cross within the circle of glory, that 
of our Lady seven stars, while that of the saints and angels is 
plain. Examples exist on early Christian art of the fourth 
century. See NIMBUS. 

AYTOKE*AAO2 (AuroictyaXoe). The Greek term for a 
bishop who is subject to no patriarch, examples of which occur 
both in East and West. 


AVOIDANCE. An English legal term to signify the want 
of a pastor or priest of any parish, either by the death, depri- 
vation, or resignation of its rector or vicar. 

AZYMITE. A Greek term for a priest who says Mass with 
unleavened bread. 


AION, BAIS (BaVov, Bate), Greek terms 
for a palm-branch. 

BALDACHINO. An Italian term 
for the canopy, dome, or tabernacle 
erected immediately over an altar. In 
very ancient times it was surmounted 
by a cross, but afterwards the cross 
was placed immediately behind or 
upon the altar. See ALTAR. 

BALDRIC, OR BALDRY. 1. A band of leather. 2. A 
bell-rope. 3. The girdle of a person of distinction. 

BAMBINO. An Italian term for the image of our Divine 
Lord as a child, publicly used in Roman Catholic churches 
during the season of Christmas to stimulate the devotions of 
the faithful. 

BANDS. Two falling pieces of lawn, edged with a hem of 
the same material, worn in front of the neck by ecclesiastics, 
judges, and other lawyers. Some persons imagine them to 
be a development of the seventeenth-century falling collar. 
In France bands are usually of black cloth or crape, edged 
with white. 

BANGOR USE. 1 . Ancient rites, according to the use of 
the Church of Bangor. 2. A form for celebrating Holy Com- 
munion, substantially agreeing with the ancient Sarum Missal, 
but yet having several liturgical peculiarities of its own, com- 
monly used in the diocese of Bangor and some parts of Wales 
prior to the Reformation. MS. office-books containing this rite 
appear to have been all destroyed ; only fragments of the same, 
and those imperfect, exist. None were printed. A rare vellum 
copy, small folio, of a Bangor Pontifical is preserved in the 
Cathedral library there. 

BANKERS. 1. Coverings for ecclesiastical fald-stools. 2. 
Hangings for church walls or screens. 3. Specially, the curtains 
placed at the ends of an altar. 


BANNER. A flag, ensign, or standard. Their use in churches 
and ecclesiastical ceremonies originated with the Labarum of 
Constantino. In England they have been used since the time of 
St. Augustine, numberless examples of such use being on record. 
Ancient inventories constantly record their existence. Religious 
banners were commonly disused at the Reformation, though 
heraldic banners were frequently borne, especially at funerals. 

BANNS. The notice of an intention of marriage publicly 
given in a church or chapel. They were first ordered to be 
" put up " as the phrase remains by that Lateran Council, 
which was held A.D. 1139. In the succeeding century, a Council 
held at Westminster ordered the notice to be given three times, 
and this direction became soon afterwards generally followed in 

BAIITI2IMIA (BairTKTifjila) . A Greek term for a godmother. 
BAIITI2IMIO2 (Bairrt(T//iioc). A Greek term for a godfather. 

BAPTISM (Baptismus fluminis). The formal and solemn 
application of water to a person, performed as a sacramental 
act, by which he becomes a member of the One Visible Church. 
Baptism is held to be generally necessary to salvation. Anciently 
baptism was usually administered at Easter and Whitsuntide, and 
in some parts of the W T est on the feast of the Epiphany. Infants 
were not uncommonly baptized at Christmas. The services for 
baptism in the Church of England are founded both on ancient 
principles and ancient models. Baptism cannot be reiterated. 
Such an act theologians hold to be sacrilege; for, as the Creed 
declares, "There is one baptism for the remission of sins." 


BAPTISMERIUM. The medieval title of a Latin service- 
book containing the ritual used in administering baptism. A 
printed copy of such a volume, juxta ritum Cenetensis Ecclcsice, 
was some time in the possession of the Rev. W. Maskell. 


BAPTISM OF BLOOD (Baptismus sanguinis}. Theologians 
hold that martyrdom, for the sake of Christ and His religion, 
even in the case of infants, may supply the defect of ordinary 
baptism in those who have not received it. 

BAPTISM OF DESIRE (Baptismus flnminis}, The desire 
experienced by an unbaptized person, living in a heathen country, 
or bevond the influence of the Visible Church, to receive tho 


of Regeneration, which desire, with a sincere intention 
and hearty repentance, is regarded by theologians as standing 
in the place of, or as equivalent to, actual baptism baptismus 

BAPTISM OF TEARS. That repentance in which the shed- 
ding of tears forms a part, and by whch a sinner is restored to 
the favour of God and to communion with His Church. 

BAPTISTERY. A place where the Sacrament of Baptism is 
solemnly and publicly administered. Originally Christian bap- 
tism was given by the river-side, or at founts where springs of 
waters flowed. Constantino erected baptisteries, which are re- 
ferred to by several contemporary Church writers. These 
buildings were very often distinct from the church or basilica, 
being connected with it only by a passage or cloister. After- 
wards they formed a constructional part of the church, towards 
the west end. Provision in all ancient examples was made for 
baptism by immersion. There are several old specimens of bap- 
tisteries in England ; amongst others, at St. Peter's Mancroft, 
Norwich, St. Mary's. Lambeth, and at Luton, in Bedfordshire. * 
Baptisteries were usually dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and 
very frequently altars were erected in them, because children, 
immediately after baptism, were communicated of the Blessed 
Sacrament. In almost all cases aumbryes are found to contain 
the ornament a proper for the due celebration of the Sacrament 
of Baptism. 

BARTOXER. The overseer of the barton, grange, or farm- 
stores of a religious house. 

BASILIAN LITURGY. That form for celebrating the Holy 
Eucharist drawn up towards the close of the fourth century by 
St. Basil the Great ; one of the three rites still used in the Holy 
Eastern Church on all Sundays in Lent except Palm Sunday, on 
Maundy-Thursday, Easter-eve, the vigils of Christmas and the 
Epiphany, and on January 1st, the feast of St. Basil. 

BASILICA. The ancient Roman public halls were so named. 
Their ground-plan, though varying in details, was usually 
rectangular, the buildings having been divided into aisles by 
columns, with a semicircular apse at one end. When the 
Roman empire became Christian, many of these were turned 
into churches by solemn consecration ; and so convenient were 
they found, that new edifices for Christian worship were built, 
as regards their ground-plan, on a similar model. The apse of 
the ancient basilica formed the sanctuary a feature exactly 
reproduced in early Xorman churches in England, in which, no 


doubt, tho altar was placed in the chord of the apse. The seats 
for the clergy were ranged round the apse in the ancient basilica, 
that for the bishop, called the " Tribune," being in the centre. 

BASIN. 1. A vessel to receive the alms of the faithful, 
called " a Decent Basin " in the Prayer-book. 2. A basin, or 
dish, to hold the cruets for wine and water. 3. Basins were 
used to hold tapers, where, from the centre of the basin, sprang 
a pricket on which the taper was placed. 

BATON. A precentor's staff of office, in ancient times 
commonly adorned in the head with a Tau cross, more recently 
with a fleur-de-lys. See CANTORAL STAFF. 

BAWDYKIN. A mediasval term for cloth of gold or silver; 
so called because it came from Bagdad or Bawdacca. 

BEADLE. 1 . Certain university officials are known as beadles 
or bedells of divinity, arts, and law, who formally attend the 
authorities upon public occasions to perform certain prescribed 
duties. 2. A lay officer who preserves order in churches and 

BEADS. A string of beads made use of by the faithful, by 
which to reckon the number of prayers intended to be repeated, 
according to the custom both of the Eastern and Western 
Churches. See EOSABY. 

BEAM-LIGHT. The light hanging from the rood-beam, or 
from one of the chancel timbers, west either of the high altar 
or the altar of the Blessed Sacrament, to indicate the Presence 
of our Blessed Lord, Who is the Light of the World, in the 
Sacrament there reserved. 

BEAM-ROOD. The beam crossing the chancel arch, on which 
the rood or crucifix is fixed. Sometimes the top of the chancel 

BEATIFICATION. An act by which the Roman Catholic 
Church, through the personal instrumentality of the Pope, for- 
mally decrees a person to be blessed or beatified after death. 
This is tho first and an essential step towards canonization, or 
the solemn and formal raising of a person to the dignity of a 
saint. No person can be beatified until at least fifty years after 
his or her death. All certificates, attestations, or direct personal 
proofs of the virtues, grace, and miracles of the person proposed 
to be beatified are carefully examined by the Congregation of 
Rites, an examination which frequently extends over a long 
series of years. It may be dropped for a long or short period, 


and resumed again. If found to be satisfactory, a report is issued 
certifying that fact. In due course, the Pope decrees the beati- 
fication of the subject under consideration, when the relics of 
the person beatified are exposed for the respect and veneration 
of the faithful. 

BEDE-HOUSE. An almshouse, so called because in ancient 
times the statutes by which such institutions were governed 
usually provided that the inmates should piously recite their 
beads daily for the well-being, whether alive or departed this 
life, of the founder or founders. 


BEDERA. 1. A hospital. 2. An ancient name for the 
dwelling-house or room of the chaplain to a religious com- 
munity. 3. A residence for bedesmen. 

BEDES, OR BEADS. 1. A term for certain intercessory devo- 
tions anciently used in the Church of England, in connection 
with the rosary, or string of beads or bedes, both for the quick 
and dead, a practice still common to the Eastern and Latin 
communions. 2. A rosary. 

BEDESMAN, An almsman, i. c. one who says his bedes, or 
recites his rosary, by obligation, for the founders and bene- 
factors of the institution or religious community of which he is a 

BEGUINAGE. The religious house of the Beguines. 
BEGUINE. One of a religious order of women in Flanders. 

BELFRY. 1. In mediaeval military writers, a tower of wood 
erected by the besiegers of a fortress to overlook the place 
besieged, in which watchmen were placed to prevent a surprise 
on the enemy's part, or to give notice of any danger by the 
ringing of a bell. 2. That portion of the tower or steeple of a 
church in which the bells are hung ; more especially that part 
which sustains the timbers supporting the bells. 

BELL (pelvis, a bowl; nola, campana, tintinnabulum) . A 
vessel or hollow body of cast metal used for making sounds. 
Its constituent parts are a circular body contracted at one end 
and expanded towards the other, with a projection by which it 
may be suspended to a beam. A clapper or hanging hammer 
for sounding it is hung from its interior in the upper part. The 
bell was first used by Chi'istians for church purposes A.D, 400, 

Left Qloaary. E 


and various regulations concerning the ringing of them were 
made from time to time. They were rung in mediaeval times at 
the reciting of the Hours, at Mass, whether High or Low, but 
especially at the eight o'clock Mass in England, and at the times 
of saying the Augelus. Pope Gregory IX., A.D. 1235, ordered 
them to be rung at the Elevation at Mass.. They were also rung 
during processions, and when any of the faithful departed this 
life. During the last three days of Holy Week they were un- 
used. Bells were solemnly blessed and consecrated in honour of 
God, and were named after certain saints. Hand-bells have also 
been used in the rites of the Christian Church. The ancient Irish 
and Celtic bishops possessed hand-bells, some of which are still 
preserved. Anciently small bells, hung upon a beam, supported 
at each end by an upright wooden support, were used in English 
churches at the midnight Mass at Christmas. The custom of 
ringing them, in conjunction with itinerant carol-singers, is not 
even now obsolete. 


This was to pronounce the greater excommunication against a 
person who had been regularly and formally convicted of any 
of the heaviest crimes ; only done after the most careful inquiry, 
and by the highest ecclesiastical authority. A bell was rung in 
a peculiar mode, a book containing the anathema was used in its 
delivery, and a candle was solemnly extinguished after the act, 
to indicate that the person excommunicated and anathematized 
was put out of the pale of the Church. 

BELL-COTE. A small-open turret for 
a single bell. That represented in the 
accompanying woodcut is sketched from 
the west end of the chancel gable at 
St. Mary's, Prestbury, Gloucestershire. 

BHAO0YPON (BrjAoflupoi/). A Greek 
term for the curtain at the entrance of a 

BEMA (Bi}/ja). 1. A technical term 
used to distinguish and describe the 
chancel amongst Christians of the Ori- 
BETJ..IOM:. ental rites. 2. Anciently the term was 

used to signify a stage, platform, or 
pulpit, from which public speakers addressed an assembly. 

BHMO0YPON (Biyioflupov). A Greek term for the curtain 
or veil of the holy doors. 


BENATURA. The Italian term for a Holy-water stoup, or a 
vessel in which Holy water is placed, 

BENEDICITE. The Latin title of the hymn which was sung 
by Ananias, Azarias, and Misael or, as they are called in the 
Book of Daniel, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego in the fur- 
nace of fire into which they were cast. It occurs in our English 
service for Matins, and should be sung instead of the Te Deum 
from Septuagesima to Easter, and also during Advent. 

BENEDICTINES. An oriler of monks of great celebrity and 
renown, who follow, or profess to follow, the rules of St. Bene- 
dict. They wear a loose black gown of serge or coarse woollen 
cloth with wide sleeves, and a cowl or hood, the hooded portion 
of which terminates in a point. In the Canon Law they are 
termed " Black Friars." 

BENEDICTION.]. A blessing. 2. Any benediction given 
by a superior to an inferior, more especially by a priest to one of 
the faithful. In the West the sign of the cross is made, during 
the act of blessing, with the thumb and the two first fingers of 
the right hand extended, and the two remaining fingers turned 
down. In the Oriental Church the thumb and the third finger 
of the same hand are conjoined, the other fingers being stretched 
out. Some Eastern: writers see in this position a representation 
of the Eastern sacred monogram of our Lord's name. 

BENEDICTIONAL. 1 . The name for an ancient Service- 
book, commonly containing those rites of benediction exclusively 
used by a bishop and given during Mass. The Benedictional, 
properly so called, may be found in the well-known Exeter Pon- 
tifical of Bishop Lacey. The rite of episcopal benediction during 
Mass is not found in the Latin Church. 2. A term for the 

BENEDICTION OF BANNERS. A Christian rite, in which 
a bishop blesses flags and banners to be used in war. The form 
is as follows : The flag is held before him : standing, without . 
his mitre, he says certain versicles, responses, and a prayer ; and 
then, having sprinkled the flag with Holy water, he delivers it, 
with the kiss of peace, to the banner-bearer of the soldiery. The 
recipient kisses the episcopal ring. 

BENEDICTION OF BELLS. A solemn Christian rite by 
which bells were blessed with Holy water, anointed with oil, and 
formally dedicated to God for ecclesiastical purposes by a bishop. 
In England the practice was discontinued at the Reformation, 


but has been restored of late years. The rites in this expressive 
and devout ceremony varied in different countries, though they 
retained a common likeness. This blessing was sometimes termed 
the " Baptism of the Bell." See BELL. 

BENEDICTION OF CANDLE. A Christian rite by which 
wax candles are solemnly blessed, by the use of prayers and 
Holy water, before being used in the service of the Sanctuary. 
This rite is performed prior to the feast of Candlemas, and also 
on Easter-eve, when the Paschal candle is formally blessed. 

BENEDICTION OF CHURCHES. A Christian rite, accom- 
panied with prayer and certain external forms and ceremonies, 
by which churches are solemnly set apart for the worship of 
Almighty God. A church which is blessed is not necessarily 
consecrated, benediction being an act done with regard to 
buildings the freehold of which does not belong to the Church ; 
consecration a solemnity performed by which the building is for 
ever made over to the Church. 

BENEDICTION OF OIL. A Christian rite by which oil is 
blessed for various religious uses. It is blessed for use in con- 
firmation, for use in the consecration of a church, and for extreme 
unction. The forms in each case vary : they also vary generally 
in East and West. A bishop blesses the oil in the West, whereas 
seven priests in the Oriental Church perform the act. The 
Western rites are given in the Rituale Romaniim. 

MENT. A solemn devotional rite of the Latin Church, of no 
great antiquity, practised with the object of giving adoration, 
praise, and thanksgiving to God for His great love and goodness 
shown towards us in the institution of the Holy Eucharist, and 
also to obtain the benediction of our Blessed Lord present in 
that sacrament. The rite, very simple in itself, is as follows : 
When the priest opens the tabernacle and incenses the Blessed 
Sacrament, -the hymn, Salutaris Hostia, is sung ; after which 
follows the Litany of the Blessed Virgin, or some psalm, anti- 
phon, or appropriate hymn. Then is sung the hymn, Tantum 
ergo Sacramentnm, followed by a versicle, response, and collect ; 
after which the priest gives the Benediction with the Blessed 
Sacrament, turning to the faithful and making the sign of the 
Cross with It, while the people profoundly adore. This rite is 
observed after Mass, or at any later period of the day. In many 
parts it is the most popular public devotion. 

which those vestments to be used in Divine service are solemnly 


blessed. Anciently this was done by a priest, who offered prayers 
over them and sprinkled them with Holy water; but in the 
Roman Catholic Church this act of benediction has been reserved 
to the bishop. The form for blessing vestments is given in the 
Rituale Romanum. Anciently forms differed in various dioceses. 
In the Latin Church (a) the blessing of altar-linen, (/3) of the 
corporal, (y) of a tabernacle, (8) of a new cross, as well as (e) of 
images of our Lord, our Lady, and the saints, is, with other 
benedictions, reserved to the bishop of the diocese. 

BENEDICTION OF WATER. A Christian rite by which 
water, into which salt is put in order to preserve it from cor- 
ruption, is solemnly blessed, by which it becomes a sacramental. 
The Ordo ad faciendam aquam bencdictam consists of prayers, 
an exorcism, and a blessing. Water so blessed is called " Holy 
water," and is used by the clergy as well as by the faithful. 

BENEDICTUS. The Canticle of Zacharias, composed at the 
miraculous birth of St. John the Baptist. It occurs, and has 
occurred ever since the twelfth century, in the service for Lauds, 
and is found after the Second Lesson in Matins of the Church 
of England. 

BENEFICE. An ecclesiastical living ; a church endowed 
with a fixed income for the maintenance of that cleric who is 
legally responsible for conducting Divine service. 

BENEFICE COLLATIVE. 1. A benefice of which the 
patron may freely dispose, the nomination not needing the con- 
firmation of any superior authority. Most Benefices Collative 
are in the gift of the bishop of the diocese. 2. A benefice of 
that character to which a bishop is bound to give immediate 
institution, though in the gift of some independent patron. 

BENEFICE COMPATIBLE. A benefice which the law will 
permit a clerk to hold in conjunction with another benefice. 

BENEFICE CONSISTORIAL. A term used in the Latin 
Church to designate certain clerical positions of eminent rank 
and importance, which are customarily and formally filled up by 
the Pope in solemn consistory. 

BENEFICE DONATIVE. A benefice which is exempt from 
the jurisdiction of the ordinary, and the giving of which is com- 
pleted by a deed under the hand and seal of the patron. Very 
few of such now exist. 

BENEFICE ELECTIVE. A term used to designate a 
benefice to which the clerk in orders of it is elected. Such 


arc generally in the gift of the two great English universities, 
or sometimes in that of the parishioners. 

BENEFICE INCOMPATIBLE. A benefice which the law 
will not permit a clerk to hold, either in conjunction with another 
benefice, or with any other position or dignity ecclesiastical. 

BENEFICIARY. The clerk in orders who receives the 
temporal benefit of an endowment. 

BENEFIT OF CLERGY. A valuable right and privilege 
anciently belonging to all clerics, by which, considering their 
sacred office, character, and position, it was deemed proper and 
seemly that they should have exemption from the jurisdiction 
of secular functionaries by appealing to their ecclesiastical 
superiors. This right, curtailed under Henry VIII., has since 
been so modified as to have become practically abolished. 

BERYL. 1. A precious yellow stone of fire-like crystal. 
2. A red cornelian stone. 

BETROTHAL. The promise of marriage solemnly and re- 
ligiously made between a man and woman in the presence of 
witnesses and in the face of the Church. Anciently this was 
done some time previously to the marriage-rites j now it is in. 
England a part of them. 

BIBLIOMANCY. A kind of divination first practised by the 
Puritans, performed by means of the Bible ; consisting in selecting 
passages of Scripture at hazard, and drawing from them indica* 
tions of events to happen in the future. 

BIBLIOTHECA. 1. A library. 2. A technical term given 
to the Holy Scriptures. 3. A book of Scripture readings. 

BID (TO), (Saxon, bidden). To ask, request, or invite. : Hence 
" to bid beads " is to pray with, or by the help of, beads. 

BIDDING OF BEDES OR BEADS. The public asking of 
prayers from the faithful at the time of publicly saying the 
Rosary, or at any other period when the beads are Commonly 
made use of. 

BIDDING PRAYER. A form of prayer ordered to be used 
by authority of the fiftieth canon of the Reformed Church of 
England, before all sermons which are preached apart from, and 
independent of, the daily service or Holy Communiop. It con- 
tains petitions for king, lords, commons, nobility, clergy, magis- 
trates, &c., as well as for tho faithful departed. 


BIER. A carnage or frame of wood for bearing the bodies 
of the faithful departed to their last resting-place. Ancient 
examples of the bier can be found in many places. The old 
forms have been almost universally followed in the Church of 
England during the last three centuries, even when the parish 
officers have provided them. 

BIRETTA, OR BIRRETTA. An Italian term for an official 
ecclesiastical cap worn by Western ecclesiastics of all grades. 
A covering, similar in many respects to that represented in the 
illustration provided, was universally used 
by clerics about the sixteenth century, but 
afterwards was changed and modified in 
different countries, though retaining all 
its main and marked features. The ordinary 
Roman biretta is a square stiff-sided cap, 
with curved ridges and a tassel at the top, 
commonly made of black cloth or stuff, and BIKETTA. 

of the same material as the cleric's cassock. 
Hence it is usually of black for priests, violet for bishops, and 
scarlet for cardinals. Birettas with four ridges are sometimes 
assumed by professors of theology ; and those worn by doctors 
of Canon law in some parts of Spain and Germany are made of 
black velvet. (See Illustration.) 


A term used to designate the Thursday in Holy Week when the 
Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist was instituted by our Blessed 

BIRTHDAY OF A MARTYR, 1. The day on which the 
martyr obtained his crown, a,nd first received his celestial reward 
in the Church triumphant. 2. The anniversary of the same day 
observed on earth by the Church militant. 

BISHOP ('ETrfencoTrdc)- ! An overseer or superintendent. 
2. The first of the orders of the Christian ministry, (a) Chief 
bishops, in rank and jurisdiction, are patriarchs and (/3) primates ; 
bishops next in rank are (7) metropolitans and (S) archbishops ; 
then follow (t) bishops of dioceses, () bishops-suffragan, (TJ) and 
lastly, bishops-titular or bishops in partibus infideliuin. It per- 
tains to the office of a bishop to govern, judge, ordain, confirm, 
consecrate churches, &c., as well as to assist in the work of 
legislating for the Church in conjunction with his fellow-prelates. 
The bishop's vestments are cassock, alb, girdle, rochet, amice, 
tunic, dalmatic, chasuble, cope, mozette, chimere, gremial, and 
buskins. His distinctive ornament a are the mitre, ring, 'and 


pastoral staff. He is consecrated to his office by three bishops. 
Though consecration by one bishop is valid, yet, because of the 
proper enactments of ancient canons, consecrations by less than 
three bishops are deemed irregular. 


BISHOP-COADJUTOR, A bishop duly elected and conse- 
crated, but without a see, acting for and with another bishop 
who is in possession of his diocese, but who, by reason of age, 
infirmity, or other cause, is unable to act for himself. 

BISHOP-DESIGNATE. A priest who, having been desig- 
nated by a superior authority to receive the grace of the episco- 
pate, has not yet been consecrated. 

BISHOP-ELECT. A priest who, by competent authority, 
has been designated as bishop of a particular diocese, and who 
has been formally and duly elected bishop by the members of 
the chapter of the cathedral in which a vacancy exists. 

BISHOP IN PARTIBUS. An ecclesiastic who has duly 
received the character of the episcopate ; who, however, has no 
actual diocese, but takes the name of a city in partibus infidelium, 
as his supposed see. 

BISHOPING. An ancient term, still used by the common 
people in some parts of England, to designate the sacramental 
rite of Confirmation. 

BISHOP-NOMINATE. A priest nominated by competent 
authority to be consecrated bishop, but who has not yet received 
the grace of the episcopate by the laying on of hands. 

BISHOPRIC. The see of a bishop. 

BISHOP'S CHARGE. The directions, instructions, and 
advice, customarily given amongst ourselves in a written form 
by the bishop of a diocese to the clergy and faithful of the same, 
either at an ordinary or extraordinary visitation. 

BISHOP'S GLOVES. Official coverings for the hands of 
a bishop, and part of his episcopal insignia. Their use has 
varied greatly. Durandus holds that it has come down from the 
Apostles' times : other writers more accurately maintain that the 
ceremony of publicly investing a bishop with them first occurred 
in the twelfth century. Purple gloves, fringed with gold thread, 
were officially worn by our English bishops until quite recent 


BISHOPS PASTORAL. A formal letter written to the 
faithful of his diocese by a bishop, relating either to those general 
or particular subjects of which he can properly and legally treat ; 
or else of same public event or religious duty, to be considered 
by the Christian people under him. 


BISHOP'S RING. A circle of pure gold, large and massive, 
with a sapphire, emerald, or ruby set in its midst, and sometimes 
enriched with a fitting inscription or arms used by a bishop. It 
is formally blessed, and worn on the last finger but one of the 
right hand. The following is the form of benediction from the 
Roman Pontifical : " Turn aspergit ipsmn annulum aqua benc- 
dicta, sedet cum mitra et solus annulum in digitum annularem 
dexterce manus consecrati immittit dicens : ' Accipe annulum ; 
fidei scilicet signaculum : quatenus sponsam Dei, sanctam vide- 
licet ecclesiam, intemerata fide ornatus, illibate custodies. 
Amen.' " 

BISHOPS SUFFRAGAN. A consecrated bishop without 
a see, or with only a nominal see, appointed to assist and help 
the legal bishop of an ordinary see in a particular portion of his 

BISHOPS THRONE. The bishop's formal seat of dignity 
in the choir of his cathedral church. Sometimes it is found on 
the south side of the stalls at the extreme east end ; frequently, 
however, at the north side. In many cathedrals the throne is 
an erection distinct from the stalls, and is placed on the north 
side of the sanctuary. 

BISHOPS VISITATION. 1. The visitation by a bishop of 
any particular place, church, religious house, or college within 
his own diocese and jurisdiction, of which he is the legitimate 
ecclesiastical ordinary. 2. The visitation of any college or reli- 
gious house out of his own diocese of which he is the legal and 
customary visitor, and the acknowledged ordinary for a similar 

BLACK. One of the ecclesiastical colours of the Western 
Church, used on Good Friday and at funerals. 


BLACK FRIDAY. An old English term for that Friday on 
which, in the Western Church, the vestments of the clergy and 
altar are black, i, c. Good Friday. 


BLACK LETTER. A term applied to the old English or 
modern Gothic letter in which the later early English manuscripts 
were written, and the lirst English books were printed. 

BLACK-LETTER DAYS. 1. Holy days recorded in the 
kalendars of our service-books in " black letter " type, so called, 
rather than in the same type printed in red ink ; therefore holy 
days of an inferior character and dignity. 2. In the modern 
Church of England holy days ordered to be observed, but for which 
there are no special collects nor service. 


BLACK SUNDAY. The Sunday before Palm Sunday, i. e. 
Passion Sunday j so called because in England black, dark blue, 
or dark violet, were the ecclesiastical colours used in the services 
for the day. 

BLIND STORY. A mediaeval term used to distinguish the 
triforium of a cathedral, in which the arches and arcades being 
frequently like windows, were without glass, and let in no 



BOSS. Originally a bunch, a tuft, a protuberance* Hence 
an architectural term for a projecting ornament, either in stone 
or wood, placed at the intersections of the ribs or ceilings, and 
in other similar situations. 

BOUNDS THURSDAY. Ascension Day, which always 
occurs on a Thursday. This day was so called because the old 
parish custom of marking or beating the bounds was observed 
annually either upon this day or on one of the Rogation days. 
By this act the bounds of the various parishes remained matters 
of personal knowledge and individual repute; 

BOURDON. An ancient terni for a precentors staff of 

feOYflSTHS (Boimfft/jc)- A Greek term to distinguish the 
person who dips the Candidate for holy baptism while the priest 
repeats the baptismal formula. 

external worship common to the whole Western Church, by 
which, during the saying or singing of the Gloria Patri, the 
sublime mystery of the Trinity is acknowledged and ndored. 

w ~ w * 


BOWING AT THE HOLY NAME. An external act of 
worship enjoined upon Christians out of reverence to our Lord's 
incarnation, by the Apostle St. Paul in his Epistle to the Philip- 
pians ; and expressly ordered to be publicly observed by the 
eighteenth of the canons of the Church of England. 

act of external worship, in which, during the recitation of the 
Creed at Mass, both priest and people testify to their thankful- 
ness and gratitude for being participators in the blessings 
accruing to mankind because of the Incarnation of the Eternal 

BOY-BISHOP. A custom as old as the thirteenth century 
existed for some time, by which the people belonging to a 
cathedral or collegiate church, and in some cases a parish church, 
elected from the choristers, acolytes, or altar-servers, a boy who 
for a certain period was regarded as a bishop. The election took 
place on December 6th, St. Nicholas's day, after which he was 
vested in the episcopal garments, with mitre, ring, and pastoral 
staff. In some cases he entered the church, and performed 
episcopal functions there, even going through a form not un- 
like what has been called " Table Prayers " in the Church of 
England; that is, Celebration of Mass, without any consecration. 
Coupled with these religious observances, a series of festal 
gatherings, or " gaudies," were held in honour of St. Nicholas. 

BRACKET. An ornamental pro- 
jection from the face of a wall to sup- 
port an image or figure of a saint. 
They are frequently found in old 
English churches at the east end of a 
chancel or chapel. They are frequently 
termed " corbels." 

BRANCH. A technical term, often 
found in churchwardens' accounts and 
other ancient documents, for ecclesi- 
astical candlesticks used in the services 
of the Church. They were affixed in 
large numbers to walls, screens, and 
sides of altars on great and solemn 
festivals. That in the accompanying 
illustration is placed before the conse- 
cration-cross on the wall of a church. 

on which branches of palms, willows, 


11 * ft* 

and other trees are carried in procession by the clergy, clerks, 
and the faithful before High Mass, in order to commemorate 
the triumphal entry of our Blessed Saviour into Jerusalem before 
His Passion; i.e. Palm Sunday, Dominica in palmis. 

BRASS MEMORIAL. These are memorial monumental 
plates of brass or mixed metal called " latten 3> inserted in slabs 
of marble or granite, and representing in their form and outline 
the figure of the deceased. Their adoption may be dated from 
the thirteenth century. They abundantly illustrate the costume 
both civil as well as ecclesiastical of the Middle Ages, and are most 
valuable as setting before us the forms and figures of past days. 
Some of the finest specimens existing in England are of foreign 

BRAWLING. 1. The act of quarrelling, noisy contention, 
or loud speaking. 2. An ecclesiastical offence, consisting of 
unauthorized speaking or talking during divine service. The 
law forbidding it equally applies to the clergy as well as to the 
laity, and the offence is a misdemeanour. 


BREAD, THE BREAKING OF. An expression repeatedly 
Used in the New Testament, e. g. in Acts ii. 42, for the celebra- 
tion of the Holy Eucharist. 


BREVIARY (Breviarium). That volume which contains at 
length the daily services of the Roman Catholic Church, so 
called because anciently it consisted of the breve orarium. At 
one period the whole Psalter was recited daily ; afterwards this 
was spread over a week. The services of the Breviary obtained 
their present form after many years of change, and several revi- 
sions and additions. 

BRIEF. 1. An epitome; a short or concise writing. 2, An 
apostolical brief is a letter from the Pope to a prince or other 
magistrate, relating to public affairs. It is written on paper, 
sealed with red wax, and impressed with the seal of the Fisher- 
man, representing St. Peter in a boat. 

BROACH, OK BROCHE SPIRE. An old term, still com- 
monly used in some of the midland counties of England, to sig- 
nify a spire which springs from a tower without any intermediate 



BRUGES. A mediaeval term for satin, so called because 
manufactured at the city of that name. 

BUGIA. An Italian term for a metal candlestick to contain 
a wax taper, held during divine service by an attendant on bishops 
and other persons of ecclesiastical dignity, both as a sign of dis- 
tinction, and also in order to throw additional light upon the 
book from which they read. 

BULL (Bulla). A technical term for a formal and official 
apostolic rescript or document signed and issued by the Pope, to 
which is affixed either a seal of wax or of lead (bulla), on one 
side of the seal being represented the heads of the apostles 
SS. Peter and Paul, and on the other the name of the Pope who 
issued it. The name was originally given to the seal appended 
to the papal edicts or briefs, but afterwards applied to the edict 
itself. The bull contained a decree or command concerning some 
affair of justice or of grace. If the former, the seal was hung by 
a hempen cord ; if the latter, by a silken thread. The inscrip- 
tion was in the round Gothic character, and around the seal 
a cross, with some text of Scripture or religious motto, was 

BURIAL. 1. Sepulture. 2. Interment. 3. The act of 
burying a deceased person. The present rites of burial amongst 
Christians, all teaching the doctrines of the immortality of the 
soul as well as the resurrection of 
the body, are very ancient, though 
some expressive customs have been 
dropped. The vigil of the day of 
burial was observed, when prayers 
were said for the departed, and 
anthems sung in thanksgiving of 
God's past mercies. When a Chris- 
tian died, his body was in some 
places sprinkled with ashes, in the 
form of a cross, and those near said, 
" Remember, O man, that thou art 
but dust and ashes." Afterwards 
the body was washed and perfumed 
with sweet spices and burnt incense. 
Anciently bodies were placed in 
tombs in the catacombs, having 
been swathed in fine linen, in re- 
membrance of our Lord's burial. 
This detail was varied in past years. 
Stone coffins were anciently used, ANCIBXT STONK COFFINS. 


afterwards coffins of wood. The clergy and religious were buried 
respectively in the dress of their office, or in the habit of their 
order. Priests had a chalice and paten buried with them ; bishops 
and abbots a pastoral staff. Lights were used in great number, 
to symbolize the victory or triumph attained, and the light of 
the world to come. Flowers were borne on coffins, to declare 
that "man cometh up and is cut down like a flower," and 
that though the flower fades in the winter, the plant revives 
again in the spring. Intramural burials arose from the true 
and beautiful idea expressed in the common saying, ' ' The 
nearer the church, the nearer to God." Bishops, founders and 
benefactors of churches, the nobility, knights, and distinguished 
members of the upper classes, were buried in churches. The 
laity were placed with their heads towards the west, and their 
feet towards the east, so at the second coming of the Son of Man 
they might rise and face Him in the general resurrection. The 
clergy were buried in an opposite position, because they are 
rulers with Christ. People were sometimes interred with written 
pardons, sacred relics, or the Agnus Dei, in their cerecloths or 
coffins. Mass for the departed was said, prayers for the soul 
offered, and doles or gifts bestowed upon those who came thus 
to charitably celebrate the rites of Christian burial. 

BURIAL-PLACE. 1. The place appropriated to the burial 
of the dead. 2. A graveyard. 3. A churchyard. 4. A ceme- 
tery, or Christian sleeping-place. 

BURIAL SATURDAY. A term frequently applied in me- 
diaeval times to Easter-eve, the day of our Blessed Saviour's 
atonement. Ecclesiastically, the services of Easter-eve begin 
on Good Friday evening, and end on Saturday, in time for the 
first evensong or vespers of Easter-day. Alauus^ide Insulis, in 
the thirteenth century, alludes to Easter-eve being called " Burial 
Saturday," because many, buried with Christ in baptism, received 
the Sacrament of Regeneration on that day. 

BURIAL SERVICE. The religious service used at burials, 

BURSAR. One who holds the "burse" or "purse"; i.e., 
an officer who superintends the bursary or money department 
of a collegiate or conventual foundation, and manages the finan- 
cial affairs of the same. * 

BURSARY. 1 . The exchequer in collegiate and conventual 
communities. 2. A term used to signify a grant of money for a 
short period of years, to enable students in the Scottish uni- 
versities to prosecute their studies. 


BURSE. Anciently a purse to hold that which was valuable; 
retained even now amongst the official insignia of the Lord High 
Chancellor of England. In ecclesiastical phraseology a burse is 
.the purse or receptacle for the corporal and chalice-cover. It is 
a square and flat receptacle made of cardboard, covered with rich 
silk or cloth of gold, embroidered and studded with jewels, open 
on one side only, and placed over the chalice veil when the sacred 
vessels are carried to the altar by the celebrant. 

BUSKINS (caligce, anciently called campagi). Stockings of 
precious stuff satin, cloth of gold, or silk embroidered worn by 
bishops when celebrating, being the first vestment assumed; also 
by kings at their coronation, and on other solemn occasions. 
Anciently their use was confined to the Bishop of Rome, but by 
the ninth century they were generally worn by all bishops. The 
buskins used at the coronation of King James II. were made 
of cloth of tissue. Those belonging to Bishop Waynflete, the 
founder of St. Mary Magdalene College, Oxford, are preserved 
in the library of that society. 

BUTTRESS. A solid projection from a wall to create and 
afford additional support to the building of which the wall is a 
part ; common to all the detailed styles of Pointed architecture. 

BYE- ALTAR. A sixteenth-century term for a side-altar, 
or for any altar other than the chief altar in a church. 

BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. A style of church-build- 
ing originated during the fifth century at Byzantium. It was 
founded on the ancient Roman architecture, though distinctly 
marked off from it both by plan and elevation. The dome, one of 
its distinctive features, was no doubt of Eastern origin, while the 
ground-plan, a Greek cross, was peculiarly Christian. The arches 
used for windows were generally either semicircular or of the 
horse-shoe form, the top of the doorway being rectangular. This 
style, which is closely connected with that commonly known as 
Norman, exercized a considerable influence on the ecclesiastical 
architecture of the south-eastern and southern countries of Europe 
for many centuries. 



^EREMONIARIUS. A church officer, 
either a cleric or laic, deputed to direct 
and attend exclusively to the ceremonial 
of public services. In many foreign 
dioceses bishops appoint to this office 
priests who have studied the subject of 
Ritual and Ceremonial, and who officially 
instruct those preparing for holy orders 
as to performing the proper outward 
actions of religious rites. 

CALAMUS. 1. A reed. 2. Hence a tube of precious metal 
anciently used for communicating the faithful of the chalice in 
the Eucharist. This use was not uncommon in England, speci- 
mens of such reed being referred to in ancient writers. The 
kings of France used it at their coronation, when they partook 
of both kinds in the Sacrament. It is sometimes termed 
" Siphon," and also " Fistula." 

CALEFACTORY. The withdrawing-room of a monastery or 
religious house. 


CALVARY. 1. A representation in carving of the Cruci- 
fixion of our Blessed Saviour between the two malefactors. 2. 
An artificial rock or hill on which three crosses are erected, to 
represent and bring to the mind of onlookers the hill of Calvary 
an adjunct to religious houses. 

CAMAIL. A tippet or mozetta of black silk, edged with fur. 


CAMEO. An onyx-stone carved in alto rilievo. They are 
formed as ornaments of reliquaries, chalices, morses, and other 
church jewellery in the Middle Ages. 

CAMERALISTIC. Pertaining to finance. 
CAMERARIUS, The bursar or steward of a religious house, 


A term derived from camera, an arched roof ; hence a chamber 
with an arched roof, and so signifying a chamber strongly built 
and carefully guarded. 

CAMISIA. 1. A shrine in which the Book of the Gospels 
used at High Mass was anciently preserved. It was fre- 
quently made of gold, richly jewelled. Many such existed in 
our cathedrals and parish churches before the Reformation. 
2. An alb. 

CAMLET. A stuff made of camel's hair, used anciently for 
the garments of certain religious orders. It is frequently spelled 
" Camelot." 


CAMPANILE. A term adopted from the Italian for a small 
detached clock- or bell-tower. This kind of construction, though 
common enough abroad, is not altogether singular in England. 
There are examples at Ledbury, Herefordshire, Berkeley, Glou- 
cestershire, and a very remarkable specimen, constructed solely 
of timber, at Pembridge, in Herefordshire. 

CANCELLI. 1. A term used to designate the chancel 
skreens, whether at the west end or on the north and south 
sides of a chancel. 2. The rails which enclose the sanctuary of 
a church. 

CANDLE (Ital. candela). A long cylindrical body of wax, 
either in its natural colour or bleached, used for the purposes of 
giving light. When they taper in form towards the top they 
are called "tapers." The most fitting mode of lighting a 
church is by wax tapers. In public ecclesiastical services, 
specially during Mass, Vespers, and the administration of the 
Sacraments, it is customary to burn tapers, as symbolizing 
Christ, the head of the Church, Who is the Light of the world. 
(See Illustration, under the title CANDLESTICK.) 

CANDLE-BEAM. 1. A beam for placing candles over or 
about an altar. On this beam, upon particular occasions, reli- 
quaries were anciently placed and relics exposed for veneration. 
2. A rood-beam. 

CANDLEMAS. That mass at which many candles are used 
and lighted, i.e. the High Mass on Candlemas-day (Feb. 2). 

CANDLEMAS -DAY. The feast of the Purification of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. 

life' Qlowary. F 



CANDLESTICK. An instrument or 
utensil for holding a candle. That re- 
presented in the accompanying woodcut 
is an ecclesiastical specimen of the fif- 
teenth century, consisting of bowl, 
knop, and base, the latter bearing the 
inscription, " Dominus illuminatio mea," 
and supported by lions coucliant. 

CANISTER (canistrum). A recent 
term, descriptive of the metal vessel 
used to contain the altar-breads. See 

CANON. 1. A law, enactment, or 
rule of doctrine or discipline. 2. In 
religious houses, a book containing the 
rules of the order or community. 3. A 
clerical dignitary belonging to a cathe- 
dral, so called because his name has been 
inscribed on the roll or canon of digni- 
taries a canon secular. 4. A canon 
regular is a religious bound to the pro- 
fession of certain vows over and above 
those enjoined by the rules of his com- 
munity. 5. A catalogue of canonized 
saints. 6. The genuine books of Holy 
Scripture universally received by the 

CANON LAW. A digest of the formal decrees of councils, 
oecumenical, general, and local; of national and diocesan synods, 
as well as of patriarchal decisions in regard to doctrine, discipline, 
order, and Church extension. 

sometimes used to designate the altar-card. See ALTAR-CARD. 

CANON OF THE MASS. 1. The most solemn part of the 
Christian Liturgy. 2. That portion of the Eucharistic service 
which does not vary, in which the consecration of the bread and 
wine is effected. 

CANONESS. A religious woman who enjoys an ecclesiastical 
benefice, or position attached to a cathedral, convent, or religious 

CANONICAL HOURS. 1. The eight periods of daily prayer. 


2. The eight offices to be recited at the above periods ; viz. 
Matins, Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sext, Nones, Evensong (or 
Vespers), and Compline. 

CANONICAL LETTERS. Letters from Church rulers, 
passing between the clergy travelling or sojourning in a foreign 
country, as testimonials of their faith, and by which communion 
is obtained. 

CANONICAL LIFE. The rule of living prescribed to clerics 
and religious living in community. 

CANONICAL MISSION. 1. Legal authority to act as a 
cleric an/1 exercise cure of souls. 2. Mission which is founded 
on the canons, i.e. legal mission. 

CANONICAL OBEDIENCE. Submission to the canons of 
the Church. 

CANONICAL PUNISHMENTS. Punishments inflicted by 
ecclesiastical authority, in accordance with the canons of the 

CANONICALS. A modern term to designate that dress or 
habit which a cleric assumes, as prescribed by canon. 

CANONIST. A cleric or lay person skilled in canon law. 

CANONIZATION.!. The formal act of declaring a person 
who has departed this life to be a saint, and to be so regarded 
and reputed by the faithful for ever afterwards. 2. The state 
of being made or constituted a saint. 

CANONRY. An ecclesiastical benefice in a collegiate, cathe- 
dral, or conventual church. 

CANONS REGULAR. Ecclesiastics holding positions of 
rank and dignity or emolument, bound by certain specific rules 
and vows over and above those of ordinary clerics. 

CANONS SECULAR. Ecclesiastics holding positions of 
rank, dignity, or emolument, bound only by the ordinary vows. 

CANONS OF THE CHURCH. Those decrees, enactments, 
or decisions which have been formally put forth and generally 
acknowledged to be of force and weight in that particular part 
of the Church where the synod or council met which published 
them. Canons are universal, national, local, and peculiar. 


F 2 



CANOPY (conopeum, the tester of a bed, from KWVOI//, a 
gnat). 1. Hence any projecting covering over an altar, image, 
^ slirine, throne, tomb, or stall. 2. In Pointed archi- 

tecture, an ornamental projection over doors and 
windows, &c. Ancient specimens of canopies of 
different periods exist in numberless old English 

CANTALIVER, An architectural term for a 
bracket to support cornices. 


CANTERBURY GALLOP. The moderate move- 
ment of a horse, so called because the pilgrims to 
Canterbury rode their horses at such a pace. Hence 
the word " Canter." 

CANTICA CANTICORUM. A technical term 
for the book of the Song of Solomon or Canticles. 

CANTICLES. 1 . Unmetrical hymns of a poetical 
character, taken from Holy Scripture, arranged for 
chanting, and so used in Divine service. 2. The 
Song of Solomon. 

CANTO FERMO. A term for plain chant, 

CANTOR. An officer whose duty it is to lead 
the singing in a cathedral, collegiate, or parish 
church. According to the ancient Sarum rite, the 
office of cantor was one of considerable dignity and 
importance. He was invariably in minor, frequently 
in holy orders. He bore a staff of office during 
solemn services, and occupied a position in the 
centre of the choir at the antiphon-lectern, in order 
to beat time and direct the choirmen and choristers 
in their duties. 

CANTORAL STAFF. The official staff of a 
cantor or precentor, borne in his right hand, to 
indicate his office, and with which he keeps time in 
the singing of the sanctuary. (See Illustration.) 

CANTORIS STALL. The westernmost or first 
return-stall on the north side of a choir. The second 
place of dignity in a parish, cathedral, or collegiate 




CAP. 1. A covering for the head. 2. Caps of various kinds 
have been used by ecclesiastics : (a) skull-caps, (/3) square caps 
of flexible materials, (y) circular caps of silk and velvet, (8) caps 
like black bags reversed, (e) square caps of substantial material 
with a tassel at the top. See BIRETTA and ZUCHETTO. 

CAPITULARY. 1 . A chapter of religious clerical canons or 
Christian knights. 2. The statutes of such a chapter. 3. The 
members of such a chapter. 4. The laws enacted by Charlemagne 
and other early French kings have been styled " Capitularies." 

CAPITULUM. A short reading from Holy Scripture, which 
occurs in the services of the Canonical Hours. 

CAPPA. 1. A cape or tippet. 2. A hood to a cape or tippet 
fastened to the back of the same, so that the hood maybe drawn 
over the head as a protection against the weather. 3. A cope, 
i.e. a choir and processional vestment. See COPE. 

cope; i.e. a cope of rich material, 
such as velvet, silk, satin, or cloth of 
gold, richly embroidered, and used in 
the solemn services of the choir or 
sanctuary. The figure in the accom- 
panying woodcut is from the brass of 
Abbot Beauforest, circa A.D. 1508, at 
Dorchester Church, Oxon. He is re- 
presented vested in cassock, surplice, 
alniess (almutium), the two furred 
ends of which hang down in front, 
and choral cope. He also bears the 
pastoral staff (but with the crook 
turned outwards) ; and a label, with a 
pious prayer inscribed on it, is placed 
over his head. See COPE. 

CAPPA MAGNA. A rich flowing 
cloak or covering of silk, in some 
respects resembling the cope, worn 
by bishops .and other dignitaries on 
state occasions. For bishops, the 
colour of it is purple ; for cardinals, 
scarlet. Its use has been abandoned 
in the Church of England, though the 
archbishops still sometimes assume a 
cope with a train borne by pages. 



CAPPA MINOR. A small cape or tippet covering the 
shoulder. These capes or tippets are commonly worn abroad 
over the surplice, and are regarded as a necessary part of the 
choir habit. They were anciently worn in the English Church, 
and are still ordered by the seventy-fourth canon of the Canons 
of 1603. The incongruous and absurd mode of wearing muti- 
lated hoods and tippets, hanging round the neck by a ribbon 
and falling down the back, is a modern innovation, dating from 
the seventeenth century. 

CAPPA PLUVIALIS. A cope to be worn out of doors in 
processions, funerals, &c., usually of a coarser material than that 
worn in choir (Cappa choralis), and intended to protect the 
wearer from the weather. See COPE. 

CAPUCHIN. A monk of the order of St. Francis, who 
protects his head with a capuchon, or cowl. 

CAPUTIUM. 1. An university hood. 2. The hood of a 
monastic habit. 3. The hood of a cope. 4. The hood of a 
chasuble. It was the custom of certain religious orders in the 
Middle Ages to turn the hood of their habit over the back of 
the chasuble when the latter was assumed. Hence, for con- 
venience-sake, a hood was sometimes attached to the back of 
the chasuble, some examples of which still remain in Germany. 

CAPUT JEJUNIL A Latin term for Ash- Wednesday. 

CARD-CLOTH. A long piece of rich Indian silk, held over 
a bride and bridegroom at their marriage during the Middle 
Ages. This rite obtains in Ireland, in the Tyrol, and in parts 
of Spain still. 

CARDINAL. 1. Chief, principal, eminent, or fundamental. 
2. A dignitary of the Roman Catholic Church. Their number 
is seventy, after that of our Lord's disciples. Cardinals are 
divided into three orders cardinal-bishops, cardinal-priests, and 
cardinal-deacons, and with them rests the election of the Pope, 
whose privy council, senate, and advisers they are. The Pope 
makes a cardinal in a solemn consistory, by delivering to him a 
scarlet hat, and saying, Esto cardinalis " Be thou a cardinal." 
The cardinal's official dress is a scarlet cassock with gold-fringed 
cincture, scarlet shoes and stockings, and a cappa magna of the 
same colour. 3. A term given to certain clerical officers in a 
cathedral or collegiate church. Such still exist at St. Paul's 
Cathedral, London, at Compostella, and in other continental 



CARILLON. A French term for (1) a little bell j (2) a 
simple air in music. 

CABLING SUNDAY. An English term for the fifth Sunday 
in Lent, or Passion Sunday, so called because a certain sort of 
peas, termed " Carles," were made into cakes and eaten on that 
day. A rhyming couplet, designating the Sundays in Lent, is 
still commonly quoted in certain parts of England. The abbre- 
viated words in it refer to portions of the old services of the 
Church : 

"Tid, Mid, and Misera, 
Carlinfj, Palm, and Pasch-egg day." 

CARNARIE. A skull- or bone-house attached to a church 
or burial-place, several examples of which occur in England. 

CARNIVAL (Garni vale, "Adieu to flesh"). A period of 
unusual feasting on the seven days immediately before Ash- 
Wednesday, in which various amusements forbidden during the 
season of Lent are practised, and visits made to friends pre- 
paratory to the coming season of self-denial, retirement, and 
repose. The carnivals at Rome, Venice, Madrid, and Milan are 
still remarkable. 

CAROL (Ital. carolare). 1. A song. 2. A jubilant song of 
exultation and delight. 3. A song of devotion, commemorating 
or bringing to mind the blessings of the Christian revelation. 

CARRYING-CLOTH. A robe or cloth in which children 
were anciently enveloped when taken to church for baptism. It 
was made of various materials satin, silk, or lawn, richly and 
appropriately embroidered. 


CARTULARY (French, cartulaire). 1. A monastic register- 
book. 2. A book containing the substantial and important parts 
of the charters and other legal documents of a religious house. 
3. A conventual muniment-room. 

CASSIA. The name of a plant of the Laurus species, the 
bark of which, known as cinnamon, is employed in the making 
of incense. 

CASSOCK. The cassock or pellicia, so called because in 
ancient times it was lined with fur (pellis), is a tightly-fitting 
garment as regards the body, but loose and flowing below, 
common to ecclesiastics of all orders ; and is the ordinary dress of 


the clergy. From .several specimens which exist on ancient 
brasses at St. Martin's Church, Birmingham, for instance 
it appears to have differed little, or not at all, from the cas- 
sock usually worn by clerics now. It varied in colour, how- 
ever. Priests, deacons, and sub-deacons, with persons in the 
minor orders, wore black cassocks ; bishops wore purple cas- 
soeks, a remnant of which custom still exists in the diocese of 
London, when the bishop of that see gives a dinner to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and his suffragans annually, about Easter, 
at which they all appear in apron, or short cassock, of purple 
silk, with dress-coat of purple cloth. Scarlet cassocks are worn 
by doctors of divinity and law in several of the foreign univer- 
sities, and by cardinals ; the bishop of Rome alone, according to 
the present rule of the Western Church, wears a white cassock. 
To some archbishops in the Middle Ages the use of the latter 
colour was granted, but it appears since to have been discon- 
tinued. The cassock, which in the medieval Church of England 
was without buttons, was usually gathered in at the waist with 
a girdle or cincture of the same material, very similar to that 
now in use. Several examples of cassocks on brasses exist : 
amongst others, Geoffrey Hargrave, Xew College Chapel, Oxoii ; 
St. Mary's, Harrow, Middlesex ; Ralph Vawdrey, M. A., St. Mary 
Magdalene College, Oxon. William Dye, A.D. 1567, is repre- 
sented at St. Mary's, Westerham, Kent, in cassock, surplice, 
and stole. 


CATACOMB (from K aru and KI'/Z^OC). The Christian in 
contradistinction to the classic appellation for the subterranean 
chambers and corridors, in which the early Christians sought 
refuge in time of persecution, worshipped and were buried. No 
traces of the use of this word can be found prior to the fourth 
century ; afterwards it came to be applied to Christian burying- 
places in all parts of Europe. The catacombs are approached by 
stairs, either from open spaces round about Rome, or, in some 
cases, from the interior of a church built over the entrance. The 
chambers and passages contain recessed graves some for a 
single individual, others for a family group. Altars, erected 
over the tombs of martyrs, and sometimes chapels, with choir and 
xedilia, exist. Paintings, restored from time to time, adorn the 
walls ; and lamps placed in recesses are numerous. The cata- 
combs ceased to be places of sepulture about the fifth century ; 
later on, the knowledge of them was almost forgotten ; but their 
influence on the internal arrangement of basilicas for Christian 
worship, as well as in the adoption of crypts, was marked, and is 
not extinct even now. 


CATAFALQUE (Ital. catafalco) .A large hearse-like con- 
struction erected over a coffin, used in the lying in state of dis- 
tinguished persons, as well as during the solemnization of the 
services for the departed. 


CATECHISM (KaTrj^iffjuoe). A form of instruction regarding 
religion in question and answer. 

CATECHIST (KaTrjxt<Tr//c)- One who instructs by question 
and answer. 

CATECHIZE (Karrjx/w). To instruct by question and 

CATECHUMEN (Kartxoujutva). One who, convinced of the 
truths of Christianity, is under instruction in preparation for 



CATENA. 1. A chain. 2. A continuous chronological series 
of extracts from writings, to prove historically or theologically 
the existence of an uniform tradition regarding faith and morals. 

CATENA AUREA. 1. A golden chain. 2. The well-known 
Commentary on the Gospels by St. Thomas Aquinas. 

CATHEDRA. 1. A chair. 2. The chair of a person in au- 
thority ; hence an episcopal chair or seat ; and so " Cathedral." 

CATHEDRAL. 1. That building in which is placed the 
bishop's cathedra, or chair. 2. The chief or principal church 
in any diocese. 

CATHEDRATICUM. A term to designate that periodical 
payment to the general fund, which is made at one or more 
stated times annually, for the advantage and honour of a 

CATHOLIC. 1. (adjective). Belonging to the Church Uni- 
versal. 2. (noun). A term used to designate the chief bishop of 
certain schismatical communities in the East. 3. A baptized 
person who accepts those creeds promulgated before the visible 
division of the Christian family, which are received and believed 
by the Church Universal throughout the world. 

CAUTEL (Latin, cautela; French, cautel). A traditionary 
caution or written direction regarding the due and proper man- 
ner of administering the sacraments. The Cautelw Hissce are 
cautions regarding the due and careful celebration of the Holy 

CAVEAT. 1. A caution formally urging an authorized legal 
authority to be careful in granting a license. 2. A process by 
which the granting of a license is regularly prevented by warn- 
ing the proper legal authority to delay or refuse its issue. 

CELEBRANT. 1. One who performs a public religious act. 
2. That cleric who celebrates the Holy Communion. 3. A mass- 

CELEBRATION. 1. A technical term, currently used in the 
Church of England to signify the Mass, or the offering of the 
Christian sacrifice. 2. Any solemn performance of religious 


CELESTINES. 1. A branch of the Benedictines founded 


by St. Peter Damian in the eleventh century. Their habit was 
of blue and "white serge. 2. A religious order founded by Pope 
Celestine V. in the thirteenth century, and so called after him. 

CELIBACY (Latin, ccelibatus) . 1 . A single life. 2. An 
unmarried state. 

CELL. 1. A small apartment. 2. The dwelling of a hermit 
or a Carthusian monk. 3. A dormitory of a religious house. 

CELLARAGE. Those chambers in which were stowed away 
the provisions belonging to a religious house. 

CELLARER. The officer having charge of the cellarage; 

1. e. the bursar, manciple, or caterer for the general community. 

CEMETERY (Latin, coemeterium). A Christian burial-place. 

CENSE (French, encenser] . To perfume with odours arising 
from burning gums and spices. 

CENSER (French, encensoir). A vessel, vase, or pan in which 
incense is burnt. See THURIBLE. 

CERE-CLOTH (Latin, cera). See ALTAE-LINBN. 

CEREMENT. A waxed cloth in which dead bodies were 
anciently swathed, either with or without enbalming. 

CEREMONY. An external religious rite or custom. 

CESSION. The vacancy in a benefice brought about by the 
promotion of the clerical beneficiaire to the episcopate. 

CHALCEDONY. 1. An uncrystallized translucent variety 
of quartz having a whitish aspect and rich lustre. 2. A kind 
of agate. 

CHALICE. 1. A cup or small bowl with a stem and foot. 

2. More especially the cup. used in the celebration of the Holy 
Communion. In a chalice there are four parts, the foot, the 
stem, the knop, and the bowl. The foot should extend consi- 
derably beyond the bowl, to prevent the possibility of its being 
upset. On one division of the foot it is usual to engrave a repre- 
sentation of our Lord's Passion, which should be always turned 
towards the celebrant. The stem unites the foot to the bowl, 
and on it is fixed the knop for the convenience of holding the 
chalice. The knop is variously enriched with enamel, jewels, 
tracery, and tabernacle - work, whilst the stem is frequently 
engraved or enamelled. The height of the stem is generally 
about four inches, and seldom exceeds six. The bowl should 



vary from three to six inches in dimension, and of a proportion- 
able depth ; it should have a plain rim of about an*inch, below 

which it may be enriched with en- 
gravings, inscriptions, and chasings. 
The chalice should never have turn- 
over lips, which are extremely liable 
to cause accident in communicating 
the faithful. The ancient chalice 
given by Sir Thomas Pope to Trinity 
College, Oxford, is a very fine speci- 
men of the work of the latter part 
of the fourteenth century. That 
in the accompanying woodcut was 
made from a design by the late 
Mr. A. Welby Pugin. (See Illus- 


covering for a chalice. Anciently 

chalices were without covers, the paten being slightly indented, 
so as to form a cqver. At the period of the Reformation such 
came into use, and so continued for a considerable period. 

CHALICE-PALL. A covering for a chalice when in use. 
This is commonly made of a piece of stiff cardboard, covered 
with silk on the top, and with lawn underneath, and is placed 
on the chalice after the consecration. 

CHALICE VEIL. A lawn or linen cover for the chalice, 
used after the communion of the faithful, about twelve inches 
square, mentioned in the English Prayer-book as a " fair white 
linen cloth." 

CH AMBERLAIN (French, chamMlau) . 1 . An officer ap- 
pointed to direct and manage the private apartments of a 
monarch or nobleman. 2. The chief official provider of the 
temporal needs of a religious house. 3. A term sometimes 
given to the paymaster of the rents of a monastery. 

CHANCEL. 1. The choir of a parish church in which 
divine service is sung, and where the Holy Eucharist is cele- 
brated; so calted because enclosed with cancelli. 2. An English 
term applied to the chapel or chantries adjoining or surrounding 
the choir. The present law, set forth in the reign of Edward VI., 
is that " chancels shall remain as they have done in times past." 

CHANCELLOR. I . The judge of a bishop's diocesan court, 
very frequently the vicar-general of the diocese. He is fre- 


quently a layman. 2. This term is sometimes given to the official 
of a cathedral chapter, who advised the members of it in legal 
questions and disputes. 

CHANT. 1. Song. 2. Melody. 3. The musical recitation 
of public service. The chants of the Christian Church were 
certainly borrowed from the Jews. Chanting was regulated 
by the decrees of councils, amongst others those of Carthage 
(I. and II.) and Laodicea. St. Gregory the Great and St. Am- 
brose were both distinguished for their promotion of church 
plain chant. Milan, Lyons, Tours, Rome, Metz, York, and Salis- 
bury were noted for their schools for teaching the art of chanting. 


CHANTRY. A chapel founded with the express purpose of 
insuring the constant chanting of masses, either for the good 
estate of the living, or for the repose of the souls of the faithful 

CHANTRY PRIEST. 1. A priest specially appointed to say 
mass at the altar of a chantry chapel. 2. The priest responsible 
for the religious services of a chantry. 

CHAPEL. A small building attached or added to various 
portions of large churches or cathedrals belonging to private 
individuals or corporations, and separately dedicated. Before 
the Reformation nearly all castles, manor-houses, courthouses, 
and the granges of religious houses, had their private chapels. 
Most of the chapels were attached to, or dependent on, the 
mother-church. Some, however, were exempt, and a few were 
wholly extra-diocesan. 

CHAPELLANY. A place, as Aylifie declares, "founded 
within some'church, and dependent thereon." 

CHAPEL ROYAL. The chapel attached to a royal palace, 
in which divine service is daily performed for the benefit of the 
residents therein. 

CHAPELRY. The nominal or legal territorial district which 
is assigned to a chapel dependent on a mother-church. 

CHAPLAIN (French, chapelain). 1. An ecclesiastic who 
performs divine service in a chapel. 2. An ecclesiastic retained 
to perform'divine service for a king, a nobleman, a college, hos- 
pital, religious house, or family of position. 3. The priest of a 
regiment. 4. The priest of a ship. 



CHAPLET. 1. A rosary. 2. A wreath of beads. 3. A 
little chapel. 4. A shrine. 5. A cap of dignity. 

CHAPTER. 1. A community of ecclesiastics belonging to a 
cathedral or collegiate church. 2. A decretal letter. 3. A divi- 
sion of a book or treatise. 

CHAPTER-HOUSE. That apartment attached or conti- 
guous to a cathedral college, or religious house, in which the 
members meet fbr the formal transaction of such public business 
as is of common interest to the corporation. Chapter-houses are 
of different forms, some being parallelograms, others octagonal, 
others decagonal. Many were provided with a vestibule : crypts 
were sometimes formed under them, and chapter-houses were 
not uncommonly used as the burial-places of clerical dignitaries. 

CHAPTER, LITTLE. That short lesson, usually a text or 
portion of Scripture, which is read during the divine office. 

CHASTE WEEK. An old English term for the period 
immediately following Ash-Wednesday ; so called because the 
faithful, having just received absolution on Shrove-Tuesday, 
were expected to remain pure and chaste at the commencement 
of Lent. 


CHASUBLE. The chasuble, chesible, or chesuble (casula 



vel planeta) was worn as well by laymen as ecclesiastics in very 
early ages ; but in later times its use has been confined exclu- 
sively to bishops and priests, and it has become the distinctive 
sacrificial vestment of the Holy Eucharist. Its primitive form 
was perfectly round, with^an aperture in the centre for the head, 
and this we find figured in the Benedictional of St. Ethelwold. 
(See Illustration, Fig. 1.) If intended for use in processions, a 
hood was sometimes affixed to the back, for at that period the 
chasuble was not restricted to the ministry of the altar. There 
is another form of this vestment too, almost circular, which 
appears to be the oldest in existence, figured in the mosaic of 
St. Vitalis's church at Ravenna, the date of which is A.D. 547. 
In England its shape continued 
to be nearly circular for about 
six centuries after the mission 
of St. Augustine. (See Illus- 
tration, Fig. 2.) A chasuble dis- 
covered about thirty years ago 
in a walled-up aumbrye at 
Waterford, in Ireland, is also 
of this form. When a change 
was made, the only alteration 
seems to have been that two 
opposite parts of the circum- 
ference were made to come to 
a point. This form was in use 
for many ages, and is that fre- 
quently represented on memo- 
rial brasses ; but, for about 
three hundred years before the 
Reformation, the chasuble was 
likewise made in the shape of 
a vesica piscis, and the orna- 
ments with which it was then 
decorated became far more ela- 
borate, and consequently richer 
and more beautiful. This shape 
must likewise be very old, for it 
is figured on the recently-dis- 
covered frescoes at St. Clement's, at Rome, where the wearer, 
with outstretched arms, is giving the pax. Another shape, 
differing from those depicted in the other illustrations, is that 
of the ancient and precious vestment of St. Thomas of Canter- 
bury, still preserved at the cathedral of Sens. (See Illustration, 
Fig. 3.) It has the Y-cross both before and behind. The 
aperture for the head is almost square, and the sides are un- 




usually long and deep. The chasuble of St. Boniface, apostle 
of Germany, preserved at Mayence, is also very like that of 


Preserved at Sens Cathedral. 

St. Thomas. The chasuble was usually made of silk, satin, 
velvet, or damask, though sometimes of inferior materials. It 




is now necessary to describe the Orphrey (anrifrigium) and the 
"Flower," as it was called, of the chasuble, which in the 
Middle Ages were so elaborately decorated by embroiderers. 
The former was a band, which ran up behind and before 
through the middle. Properly speaking, there was no cross 
upon the old English chasuble, but at the breast sprang out, 
in the shape of the forked part of a large Y, two other bands, 
which went over the shoulders, until in the same form from 
behind they met. (See Illustration, Fig. 4.) In more modern 
times this Y-shaped figure has been trans- 
formed into a cross ; while sometimes a 
crucifix is embroidered on the back of this 
vestment. The illustration of the flowing, 
old English chasuble in the accompanying 
woodcut (See Illustration, Fig. 5) is from 
an ancient memorial brass in the author's 
possession. Here the whole of the Eucha- 
ristic vestments are depicted, while the 
position of the priest, in the act of bless- 
ing the chalice, is remarkable, for it is 
unknown in the case of any other brass in 
existence. The Flower (flos casiilce) of the 
chasuble was a splendid piece of floriated 
embroidery round the neck, which spread 
itself down the front and the back, repre- 
sentations of which may be seen in the 
cathedrals of Exeter, Peterborough, and 
Lincoln. Three brasses remain of bishops 
in full Eucharistic vestments of post-Re- 
formation periods ; viz., Thomas Goodrich, 
A.D. 1554, at Ely Cathedral; John Bell, 
Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 1556, from St. 
James's, Clerkenwell, in possession of the 
late J. G. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A.; and 
Robert Pursglove, Suffragan Bishop of Fi 9- S.-FLOWING CHASUBLE, 

rr 11 A Tk t K>7f i. rp'J 11 T 1. FROM AN ENGLISH BRASS 

Hull, A.D. 1579, at Tideswell, in Derby- IX THE AUTHOR'S POSSES. 
shire. - 

CHECQUER. The office, or place of business, of a monastic 
bursar or financial officer. 

CHERUBIC HYMN. A hymn solemnly chanted in the 
Greek Chnrch immediately prior to the solemn entrance in the 

CHERUBIM. The eighth, or highest officer but one, jpf the 

Lee'g Glossary. G 


angelical hierarchy. The cherubim are represented in ancient 
art winged, covered with feathers, with undraped legs and feet, 
and holding an open book. Such a representation may be found 
in the windows of the chapel of New College, Oxford. See 

CHILDERMAS-DAY. That day on which the Mass of the 
Children is said: that is Holy Innocents' day (Dec. 28). These 
innocents, slain by Herod's command, were martyrs in deed but 
not in will. The parish church of Lamarsh, Essex, and that 
of Great Barton, Suffolk, are dedicated in honour of the Holy 
Innocents. Anciently this day was kept as a solemn feast in 
the last-named parish. 

CHIMERA, OK CHIMERE. A short sleeveless cloak, worn 
over the rochet as the ordinary dress of prelates. Anciently it 
was violet, or sometimes scarlet, as it is still abroad. The 
Anglican form of it is a corruption, perpetuated either by the 
bishops and their robemakers, or by both. It is now of black 
satin. The Anglo-Roman prelates wear the purple silk chimere. 
With them it is called the episcopal mantle, and is larger than, 
and distinguished from, the mozette. Cardinals w r ear it of 
scarlet. See MANTLE. 

CHOIR, QUIRE, QUERE, OR QWERE. 1. Any collection 
of singers. 2. That body of men appointed to chant Divine 
service and render musically the offices of the Church. 3. That 
part of a cathedral, collegiate or parochial church, eastward of 
the nave, and separated from it constructionally as well as by a 
screen, in which the above singers are placed. The choir is 
commonly raised above the level of the nave by one or more 
steps, and is frequently fitted up with stalls, placed laterally, for 
the occupation of the clerical officials and choir. 

CHOIR OFFICE. 1. A service or office chanted or recited 
in the choir or chancel of a church : hence morning or evening 
prayer. 2. In the Roman Catholic Church, any one of the seven 
canonical hours. 3. The breviary office. 



CHOIR- WALL. That wall which divides the choir or pres- 
bytery from the side aisles. It is commonly pierced, or, if low, 
has a gcreen of wood on the top. 


CHORAGUS. 1. Amongst the ancient Greeks, the super- 
intendent of a theatrical representation. 2. In the Christian 
Church, an officer who directs or superintends the singing or 
musical details of Divine service. This name and office are still 
retained in the University of Oxford. 

CHOREPISCOPAL. Pertaining to the power of a local or 
suffragan bishop. 

CHOREPISCOPUS. A suffragan or country bishop; a 
bishop appointed by the ordinary bishop of a diocese to help 
him in taking care of the country lying 1'ound the city in which 
he. himself lived and worked. These suffragans, or helpers, 
were therefore called " Chorepiscopi," or country bishops ; and 
their mission in the early part of the Church's life was to the 
" pagani," or country people, who remained in heathenism long 
after the people in the towns had been evangelized. A suffragan 
differed from a coadjutor, because the latter was appointed to 
take the work off the shoulders of an old and infirm bishop ; 
while the former was appointed to assist a bishop while he was 
strong and hearty, but had a larger area to look after than he 
could attend to alone. The suffragans recently consecrated for 
the dioceses of Lincoln and Canterbury were like the " Chor- 
episcopi " of olden times, except that they would have a whole 
county to take care of, instead of a few villages around a 
single town. 


CHORISTER. 1. A singer. 2. More especially, one who 
is appointed to sing the praises of God in Divine service in the 
Christian Church. 3. A singing man or boy employed in 
cathedrals and parish churches. 

CHRISM (X|t>fo/ia). 1. Unguent. 2. Unction. :J. Holy oil, 
blessed on Maundy-Thursday by a bishop, and used in various 
sacramental and other solemn rites of the Christian Church ; 
e. g. in consecration of churches, baptism, confirmation, ordi- 
nation, coronation of kings, and when the faithful are in 

CHRISMARIUM. The place of sealing. A particular part 
of a church set apart for the administration of confirmation. 

CHRISMATORY. 1. A case, box, or receptacle for the 
chrism or holv oil used in the services of the Church Universal. 



In the Latin communion it usually contains three separate 
vessels : one, the blessed oil for use in baptism ; a second, for 


the oil used in confirmation ; and a third, that used in the 
visitation and anointing of the sick. (Sec Illustration.) 

CHRISOM. A white baptismal robe with which, in 
mediaeval times, a child, when christened, was enveloped. 
The custom of iising this has not been altogether dropped 
even now. 

CHRISOM CHILD. A child who dies within a month of 
his baptism, and is buried in his chrisom in lieu of a shroud. 
The engraving here given is that of a memorial brass of the 
sixteenth century, at Chesham Bois Church, in Buckingham- 
shire. It represents Benedict Lee, chrisom child, in his chrisom 
cloth. This was ordered to be used in the Church of England 


up to the year 1552. The custom was that, if a child died within 
a month of his baptism, this baptismal cloth 
or " white vesture " served for a shroud. The 
inscription underneath the figure engraved 
stands thus : 

Of Rog 1 ' Lee gentilma. here lyeth the Son Benedict 
Lee crysoin who 3 soule ihu pdo. 

(See Illustration.) 

CHRISTEN (TO). 1. To baptize and to 
name. 2. To initiate, by baptism, into the . 
Visible Church. 

CHRISTENDOM. 1. Those countries 
which are inhabited by Christians. 2. The 
general body of the faithful in Christ. 

CHRISTIAN. 1. One who has been 
baptized. 2. A believer in the religion of 
Christ. 3. In a more general sense, those BRASS OF BENEDICT 
who are born of Christian parents in a LEE. 

Christian country. No one, however, can be 
a Christian until he has been made one by baptism, in accord- 
ance with the command of Christ. 

CHRISTIANITY. The religion of Christ Jesus, Who is both 
God and Man. 

CHURCH (Kvpiaxii, Kit'che, Kirle). The House of the 
Lord. That sacred building dedicated to Almighty God, in 
which the Christian sacrifice is offered, and Divine service 
said. The place where Christians meet in public to worship 

CHURCHING OF WOMEN. A term found in ihe Prayer- 
book to designate the purification and blessing of women after 
childbirth. The practice^ borrowed from the Jews, has been 
universally adopted in the Catholic Church. 

CIBORIUM. 1. A canopy, dome-shaped or otherwise, usually 
supported on four pillars^ erected over the altar of a church. 
Anciently this construction was covered in with side-hangings 
and curtains, by which, at the time of the consecration in the 
Divine Liturgy, the priest-celebrant was hidden from the sight 
of the faithful. In Italy this ciborium is common. 2. A vessel 
of precious metal, like a chalice or cup in shape, with a covering 



surmounted by a cross. It is used in the Roman Catholic Church 
to contain the Blessed Sacrament, under the species of bread, 
when being distributed to the faithful. (See Illustration.) 

CIDARIS. A term used to 
distinguish a low-crowned episcopal 

CINCTURE. 1. A band or 
girdle. 2. That flat band, usually 
about three yards long and four 
inches broad, used to confine the 
clerical cassock round the waist. 
It is made of silk, serge, or stuff, 
and is commonly fringed at the 
ends with silk fringe. 

CINGULUM. A girdle. The alb 
is gathered in at the waist by the 
girdle, properly so called (cingii- 
luni), ornamented at its ends with a 
fringe or tassels. This was com- 
monly made of white thread, twisted 
in some cases, but in others flat like 
a band. Amongst the inventories of 
the larger mediaeval churches, how- 
ever, many are mentioned of silk, 
adorned with gold and jewelled. If like a cord, it was made 
fast round the loins by a knot ; if otherwise, with a buckle, 
and the fringed or tasselled ends hung down on the cleric's 
left side. 

CLEPPER, OR CLAPPE. A wooden rattle, anciently used 
to summon the faithful to church on the three last days of Holy 
Week, when it was customary for the church bells to remain 
silent. Anthony a Wood, in his MS. " Notes on the Oxfordshire 
Churches/' mentions one that in his day remained at Thame, in 
that county, of which, however, no trace can be now discovered. 

CLERESTORY. The uppermost row of windows in the nave 
of a church. Those windows by which in a church with aisles 
the light is cast upon the aisles of the same. That range of upper 
windows which is distinguished from the blind-story. 


CLERGY (KX^/ooc, a lot or inheritance). The great body of 
ecclesiastics, bishops, priests, and deacons. 

CLERICULUS. A term to designate a child destined by its 


parents for holy orders and the ministry of the altar, who 
has received the clerical tonsure as an earnest and sign of 
his hope and intention so to serve Almighty God in the clerical 

CLINICAL BAPTISM. A term to designate private bap- 
tism, when administered on the couch to sick or dying 

CLOCHIER. A detached bell, spirelet, or campanile. 

CLOVE-GILLYFLOWER. The carnation piiik, a species 
of the Dianthus. This flower, archaically drawn, is frequently 
found in mediaeval MSS. symbolizing the graces of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. 


CODEX. 1. A MS. 2. A book, and especially The Hook, 
i.e. the Bible. 3. A code, i.e. a digest of legal documents, laws, 
acts of parliament, or records. 


CCENACULUM. 1. A term to designate the representa- 
tion of our Lord's Last Supper, commonly found in the 
refectory or eating-room of a religious house. 2. The refectory 


CCENA DOMINI. The Latin term for Maundy-Thursday. 

CCENOBITES. Members of a religious order, living by rule 
in their appointed house or monastery. 

COIF. A cowl, cap, hood, or head-dress. 

COLET. An old English designation for an acolyte. The 
term "acolyte'* vulgarly abbreviated. 

COLLATION. 1. A legal term to designate the presenta- 
tion by a bishop to a rectory, vicarage, canonry, or prebend in 
his own gift. 2. A modern term to signify the chief meal on 
an abstinence-day. 

COLLECTA. 1, A collect or short prayer., A prayer in 
which the leading speciality of a public service is collected into a 
few terse sentences. 2. A collection of alms and oblations. The 
offerings of the faithful at Mass. 3. Tin; Liturgy. 

M. A book of collects or short prayers, 
anciently, called a *' coucher." The latter word appears to be 
thus derived, Collectarium, collectier, colctier, coulctier, couc- 
tier, couchier, coucher. The term " coucher " is frequently found 
in English mediaeval MSS., and occasionally in church inven- 
tories and churchwardens' accounts. 

COLLEGE. 1. A community. 2. Several persons collected 
into one corporate body. 3. A society of men invested with 
certain rights a,nd powers, engaged in a common work, and per- 
forming certain prescribed duties. 4. A range of buildings iu 
which such a society is located. 

COLLEGIAN. The inmate of a college. 
COLLEGIATE. Pertaining to a college. 

COLLEGIATE CHURCH. 1. A church belonging to a 
college. 2. A church which, having no bishop's seat nor see, 
has the ancient retinue of dean or provost, together with canons, 
prebends, and chanters. 

COLLOP MONDAY. The Monday after Quinquagesima 
Sunday : so called because on that day the faithful began to 
leave off the use of flesh-meat j "collop" being a name descrip- 
tive of a piece of meat or flesh. 

COLOBIUM. 1. The sleeveless dress of a monk. 2. An 
episcopal vestment, similar in kind to the tunic, only without 
sleeves. 3. A dress worn by the king at the time of his corona- 
tion, corresponding to the clerical dalmatic. The use of the colo- 
bium is still retained at our English coronations. 

COLOURS ECCLESIASTICAL. Various colours have been 
used in the public services of the Church Universal, a custom 
borrowed from the Jews, even from the first centuries of its 
existence. They have varied, and still vary, in different parts of 
Christendom. No uniformity has been arrived at. The Greeks, 
Romans, Milanese, and the ancient Church of England differed in 
custom. At present, in the Western Church, the following rale 
is observed : White is used from the evening of Christmas-eve 
to the Octave of Epiphany, inclusive (except on the two feasts 
of St. Stephen and the Holy Innocents) ; at the celebration 
of Maundy-Thursday and on Easter-eve, from the evening of 
Easter-eve to the Vigil of Pentecost, on Trinity Sunday, on 
Corpus Christi day and its Octave, on the feasts of the Purifica- 
tion, Conversion of St. Paul, Annunciation, St. John Baptist, 
St. Michael, All Saints, on all feasts of our Lady, and of Saints 



and Virgins not Martyrs, at weddings, and on the anniversary 
feast of the Dedication of the Church. Red on the Vigil of Pen- 
tecost to the next Saturday, Holy Innocents (if on a Sunday), and 
all other feasts. Violet from Septuagesima Sunday to Easter- 
eve, from Advent to Christmas-eve, Ember- week in September, all 
vigils that are fasted, Holy Innocents (unless on Sunday). Black 
on Good Friday and funerals. Green on all ferial days. 

COLUMBA. A dove ; a vessel shaped like a dove. Anciently 
the Blessed Sacramentwas 
reserved within a vessel of 
precious metal made in the 
form of a dove, which 
was suspended before the 
High Altar by a chain 
from the roof of the 
church. To this chain 
was hung a corona-like 
dish, basin, or disk, en- 
closed by other chains, 
on which the dove itself 
was placed. This vessel 
opened on the back ; while 
in the body of it was 
formed a receptacle for 
the Host, as represented in 
the woodcut upon page 
90. The custom of re- 
serving the Sacrament in 
such a vessel was origin- 
ally common to East and 
West. Perpetuus, Bishop 
of Tours, A.D. 474, left 
in his will a silver dove to 
Amalarius, a priest. It is 
recorded of St. Basil the 
Great that he reserved the Lord's Body in a dove made of gold. 
The smaller example, illustrated by the engravings here given, 
is from the celebrated French collection of M. le Comte de 
Bastard. The " peristerium," however, occurs in several old 
English inventories of Church omamenta. Figures of doves, as 
appropriate ecclesiastical symbols, were likewise suspended over 
English baptisteries, and are sometimes found carved on the 
canopies of fonts. As symbolic representations of the Holy 
Spirit, they are likewise carved over altars ; and sometimes, as 
on the brass corona at Thame Church, Oxfordshire, they sym- 



bolize the Light and Glory of God. Examples of this custom 
are found in illuminated MSS., and such vessels exist in several 



foreign sacristies, though their use has lately given place to 
the ordinary tabernacle (See Illustrations). See TABERNACLE. 

COMB ECCLESIASTICAL (Saxon, camb) . A comb of 
ivory or precious metal was one of the omamenta found in ancient 
sacristies, for the practical use of the clergy. Each cleric had 
his own. The comb was usually buried with the priest on his 
decease. St. Cuthbert's, of ivory, found in his tomb when opened, 
remains in the Library of Durham Cathedral. See IVORIES. 

COMFORTABLE WORDS (THE). A modern feature in the 
existing Anglican form for the celebration of the Holy Commu- 
nion, first introduced in the second Prayer-book of Edward VI., 
A.D. 1552, consisting of four texts of Scripture, which the priest 
is directed to address to the people. These words follow the 
Absolution, and precede the Preface. 

COMFORTER (THE). The English term found in the 
Prayer-book and in the English Bible for the Third Person in 
the Trinitv. 


COMMANDERY. A cell of the Knights Templars, to which 
incapacitated members of the parent house retired in their old 

COMMEMORATION. 1. The act of calling to remembrance 
by some public and formal solemnity. 2. The private remem- 
brance of the names and needs of the faithful by the priest-cele- 
brant in the Sacrament of the Altar. 3. The use in the services 
of the day-hours on any particular day, of the collect of some 
other day, which latter day is to be commemorated. 4. Com- 
memoratioii-day in the University of Oxford is an annual solem- 
nity in remembrance of the founders and benefactors of the 
University, when speeches are made, prize compositions recited, 
and honorary degrees conferred upon distinguished persons. 


The solemn remembrance of the faithful in Christ who have 
passed from hence with the sign of faith, and now rest in the 
sleep of peace. A prayer substantially containing such a com- 
memoration is found in every ancient Liturgy. Prayer for the 
dead has been pronounced legal by the highest ecclesiastical 
court in England. 

COMMENDAM (IN). A term u.sed in ecclesiastical law to 
signify a benefice commended by the king to the care of a cleric 
to hold until a proper pastor is provided. 

COMMENDATION. 1. The act of commending; a favour- 
able representation in words. 2. The act of commending the 
dying to the mercy and favour of God. 

COMMENDATORY LETTERS. 1. Letters which present 
to favourable notice or reception. 2. More especially certificates 
of a formal nature given by bishops and other ecclesiastical 
authorities io travellers, in order to obtain for them due con- 

COMMENDATORY PRAYER. A prayer in which a special 
person or particular cause is commended to Almighty God in 

COMBINATION. I. A threatening. 2. The recital of God's 
threatenings by means of a public service, so called, in the Church 
of England, used on the first day of Lent. 3. A denunciation of 

COMMISSARY. In ecclesiastical law, the officer of a bishop 
who has been formally appointed to exercise spiritual jurisdiction 
in the bishop's name, and on his behalf. 


COMMON OF SAINTS. A festal service in honour of a 
particular kind or class of saints, e.g. a martyr, a virgin, or con- 
fessor ; suitable consequently for any festival commemorating 
one of the class in which the name of the saint commemorated is 
introduced in the collect and at the other appointed places. 

COMMONER. At Oxford a student who is not dependent on 
the foundation for support, but who pays for his own board or 
commons, together with all other collegiate charges. 

COMMUNICANT. One of the faithful in Christ who, 
having become a communicant, abides by the injunction of the 
Church, and communicates at least three times a year, of which 
Easter is one. 


COMMUNIO, COMMUNION. 1. The celebration of the 
Holy Eucharist. 2. The partaking of our Lord's body and blood 
in the Sacrament of the Altar. 3. A hymn sung during the 
distribution of the Holy Sacrament. This latter practice is 
referred to in the Apostolical Constitutions. 

COMMUNIO PEREGRINA. 1. The communion of a so- 
journer. 2. The admission to the Church's offices and sacra- 
ments of a bearer of letters commendatory. 

on Good Friday by the priest of the Reserved Sacrament in the 
Roman Church, as follows : The celebrant places It on the 
paten, and then on the corporal. In the mean time the deacon 
puts wine and the subdeacon water into the chalice, which, how- 
ever, are neither blessed nor consecrated on this day. The cele- 
brant then places the chalice on the altar, the deacon covering it 
with the pall. The celebrant then incenses the offerings and 
altar, washes his hands, and recites the Orate Fratres and Pater 
Noster. Then all kneel to worship the Blessed Sacrament, which 
the celebrant, without any prayer, divides into three parts, placing 
one in the chalice. He then communicates himself of both sacra- 
ment and chalice (with the particle), and proceeds to receive the 
ablutions in the ordinary way. 

COMMUNION-CLOTH. A long cloth of white linen spm.d 
over the altar-rails at the time of communion, held at each end 
by an acolyte, and supported by each of the faithful who come 
to communicate, so that no irreverence by accident or otherwise 
may occur to the Blessed Sacrament. 


COMPLINE, OR COMPLETORIUM (French, compile). The 
seventh and last of the clay -hours of the Western Church, com- 
monly recited at 9 P.M. 

COMPEOVINCIAL. One belonging to the same province 
or arcbiepiscopal jurisdiction. 


It is a pious opinion in the Church Universal that the Vii-gin 
Mary was conceived without any stain of original sin. In the 
Roman Catholic Church this doctrine has of late years been 
accepted as an article of faith. In St. Anselm's time the 8th of 
December was set apart as a feast commemorating this miracu- 
lous Conception, it having previously been observed in France. 
This festival is still retained in the calendar of the Prayer-book 
of the Church of England. The same Church, in her collect for 
Christmas-day, seems to teach openly that Mary, like Jeremiah 
and St. John the Baptist, was at least torn without sin. 

CONCHA. A mediaeval term for an apse. Sec APSE. 

CONCILIA MARTYRUM. A term applied to the Roman 
catacombs. See AEENAPJA. 

CONCLAVE. The assembly of the seventy cardinals of the 
Roman Church for the election of a Supreme Pontiff. 

CONCORDAT. 1. An agreement made with the Bishop of 
Rome by a temporal sovereign, relating to matters ecclesiastical. 
2. In canon law a compact, agreement, or covenant concerning 
some beneficiary matter, e.g. promotion, resignation, &c. 

CONCURRENCE OF HOLIDAYS. Festivals are said to 
" concur" when one feast is succeeded by another feast, so that 
the second evensong of the former concurs with the first even- 
song of the latter. 

CONDUCTUS. 1. A conduct. 2. An unendowed chaplain. 
The name and office are both retained at Eton. 

CONFESSIO. 1. A confession. 2. A receptacle or crypt 
for the relics of the saints under an altar. This term is common 
in Roman Catholic countries. The making of such receptacles 
for relics arose from the fact that several ancient churches were 
built over the tombs of the martyrs and confessors of Christ. 

CONFESSIONAL. 1. That place in a church where the 
priest receives the private confessions of the faithful. 2. A 
stone sedile in the catacombs. In England anciently the priest 


sat in the chancel to receive confessions. Very few old construc- 
tional confessionals exist. That figured in the woodcut under 
the term " Shriving-seat " (Sec SHRIYING-SEAT), almost unique, 
still remains at Tanfield church, near Ripon, and is deserving 
of the careful attention of the ecclesiologist. 

CONFESSOR. 1. A priest who hears confessions. 2. A 
saint who lias confessed Christ by temporal loss, suffering, im- 
prisonment, or exile. 

CONFIRMATION. A sacrament by which the faithful, who 
have already been made children of God in holy baptism, receive 
the Holy Ghost by the prayer and laying on of the hands of the 
bishops, the successors of the Apostles, in order to their being 
made strong and perfect Christians, and valiant soldiers of Jesus 
Christ. It is called confirmation from its effect, which is to 
confirm or strengthen those who receive it in the profession of 
the true faith ; to give them such courage and resolution as to be 
willing rather to die than to turn from it ; and to arm them in 
general against all their spiritual enemies. 

CONFIRMATION OF A BISHOP. The public act by 
which the archbishop of a province formally recognizes the elec- 
tion of one of his suffragan bishops. 

CONFITEOR, " I confess." A technical term for the con- 
fession in the Latin Church. 

CONGE D'ELIRE. A royal document 'authorizing the elec- 
tion of a bishop in England. 

CONSECRATION. 1. The act or ceremony of separating 
from a common to a sacred use. 2. An act by which a priest 
elected receives the grace of the episcopate by the imposition of 
the hands of three bishops. 3. The act by which, when a priest 
says Mass, our Blessed Lord vouchsafes, through the opera- 
tion of the Holy Ghost, to become present under the species of 
bread and wine. 4. The act of a bishop or priest setting any- 
thing apart e.g. a church, an altar, sacred vestments for the 
service of God. 

CONSECRATION CROSS. According to the directions of 
the ancient Western Pontificals, twelve crosses should either be 
sculptured or painted in different parts of a new church. 
Generally, they are found inside ; but sometimes (as at Uffing- 
ton Church, in Berkshire) outside the sacred edifice. Occa- 
sionally a recessed stone quatrefoil is charged with a floriated 
brass cross; but ordinarily, consecration crosses are painted 
either on the walls or pillars. An example of a painted cross 



may be found under the word " Branch " (See page 59) ; another 
specimen of a consecration cross sculptured within a circle is 
given from the old cathedral church of Brechin, in Scotland (See 
Illustration). In the act of consecrating a church, a Catholic 
bishop anoints the twelve crosses with Holy chrism, "in the 
Name of the Blessed Trinity, to the honour of God and of 


the glorious Virgin Mary and of all Saints," and specially of the 
Saint whose name the Church is to bear. Then the crosses are 
incensed. A branch for a taper is usually placed opposite each 
consecration cross, and the taper is lit dui'ing the service of con- 
secration ; as also, in some places, on the anniversary of that 

CONSECRATOR. One who consecrates, whether a bishop 
or a priest. 

CONSISTENTES, OR STANDEES. The third or highest 
order of penitents in the Primitive Church. They were permitted 
to assist at the divine mysteries, but were not allowed either to 
join in making oblations or to receive the Holy Communion. 

CONSISTORY COURT. The ordinary court of a bishop, 
which, of old, was commonly presided over by his chancellor. 

CONSUETUDINARIUM. A consuetudinary, i.e. a book 
containing a description of the customary ritual common to 
any particular diocese or religious order. 

CONVENT. 1. A monastic building for monks, canons 
regular, or nuns. 2. A nunnery. 

CONVENTUAL CHURCH. The church attached or be- 
longing to a convent. 

COPE. The cope (Cappa pluvial is) is an exact semicircle, 
like a cloak, attached to which is a hood, anciently used as such, 
but now a mere ornamental appendage covered with decoration. 
Along the straight edge of the semicircle runs the orphrey, a 
band of embroidery, often of the most magnificent and costly 


description, usually representing figures of saints, heraldic or 
symbolical devices, and adorned with jewels, pearls, or precious 
metals. Anciently it was used chiefly in procession, at vespers, 
during mass by some of the assistant clergy, at consecrations, 
confirmations, and other solemn occasions. On our Lord's festi- 
vals, on Corpus-Christi day, on the feasts of our Lady, and at 
other special seasons, copes were worn by all the clergy during 
the recitation of divine service, the colour, of course, being 
regulated by that for the day. This vestment was one of the 
chief ornaments which the reformers thought fit practically to 
retain, and in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth, King James, and 
Charles the First, seems to have been always worn, as the rubric 
directs, in cathedrals and the larger parish churches ; of which 
fact the most satisfactory proofs exist. Innumerable instances 
are given in the Hierurgia Anglicana that this vestment has'been 

worn even down to this present period. Within the memory of 
persons living, the use of copes at the altar has been laid aside at 
Durham, while at the coronations of all our monarchs since 
the Reformation copes have been worn. Their form, however, 
recently has been a sad departure from that of the ancient shape, 
especially in that they have trains borne by pages, making them 
appear very unlike the ancient vestment. If the rubrics of the 
Prayer-book be followed, the cope should be worn by the priest 
at the altar on G-ood Friday, when there is no celebration, and 
by a bishop in every function, except the ministry at the altar, 
when, of course, he will wear the proper sacrificial robe. Of 
ancient copes several remain. There are five at Durham, two of 
which are much injured, one at Ely, one at Carlisle, two 'at Salis- 
bury, one at Lichfield, several at Westminster Abbey, and very 


many in the hands of private individuals ; besides some at the 
Eoman Catholic College of St. Mary, Oscott, and at St. Chad's 
Birmingham, amongst other of their cathedrals. Fragments also 
exist in many places; at Birchani St. Mary's, Norfolk; at East 
Langdon, Kent ; and at Eomsey Abbey Church, Hants. Ancient 
brasses furnish numerous artistic and beautiful patterns. That 
of a former warden of Merton, south-west of the altar in the 
chapel of that college, is remarkable for an orphrey of tabernacle- 
work of a good ecclesiastical design. 



COKOXA LUCIS. (See next 

COPE-CHEST. A deep and broad wooden chest, semicir- 
cular in shape, for containing copes unfolded, an ordinary piece 
of furniture in the sacristies of our largest and most important 
churches in past years. Examples are to be seen, amongst other 
places, at Wells Cathedral, at Salisbury Cathedral, at York 
Minster, at Lockinge, Berkshire, and at Church Bramptou, 

CORNU EPISTOL^E. The Epistle horn of a Christian altar, 
i. e. the right-hand corner ; so reckoned when the face of the 
onlooker is directed towards the east. 

Lee't Glotea\-y, \\ 


CORNU EVANGELIL The Gospel horn of a Christian 
altar, i.e. the left-hand corner; so reckoned when the face of 
the onlooker is directed towards the east. 

CORONA CLERICALIS.The clerical crown, ic. the 

CORONA LUCIS. A crown of light. A circular hanging 
construction for lighting a church or chapel. A circlet single, 
double, or treble containing rings of candlesticks for wax tapers, 
sometimes for the purpose of lighting the church, but more 
frequently used at Easter and other special feasts, as symbolical 
of Christ the Light of the World. Corona3 were placed before 
altars : before the rood, and before reliquaries : or they were 
hung in single or double rows, from east to west, in a choir. 
Every church or cathedral owned many such of old ; and some 
few examples exist,, from which, in England, excellent modern 
specimens have been made. (See Illustration, preceding page.) 

CORONA NUPTIALIS. The nuptial crown, i.e. the wreath 
or ornament placed on the head of the bride in the Western, as 
well as on the head of the bridegroom in the Eastern Church, at 
the time of marriage. 

CORPORAL. A square piece of linen, so called because the 
Corpus, or Sacramental Body of Christ, is placed on it during 
the Holy Sacrifice. Anciently it was much larger than it is at 
present. St. Isidore of Pelusium, in the beginning of the fifth 
century, compares it to the clean linen cloth in which St. Joseph 
of Arimathea wrapped the Body of our Lord, 

duties, as follows : To feed the hungry, To give drink to the 
thirsty, To clothe the naked, To shelter the outcast, To visit the 
sick, To visit the captive, and To bury the dead. 

CORPUS CHRISTI. 1. The Body of Christ, i. e. the Blessed 
Sacrament of our Lord's Body and Blood. 2. A feast in honour 
of the Blessed Sacrament, held on the Thursday after Trinity 
Sunday, first observed about the middle of the thirteenth century. 
Colleges at Oxford and Cambridge are dedicated in honour of 
Corpus Christi. 

COSTERE. A mediaeval term for the side-hangings which, 
suspended on rods, anciently enclosed the altar, or, stretched 
upon frames, stood at either end, to protect the lighted tapers 
from draughts. 

COTTA. The Italian term for a short surplice, whether with 
or without sleeves. 



COUNCIL. ^An assembly of the Church's rulers, i.e. of the 
bishops. The seven (Ecumenical Councils are : (a) Nicaea 
A.S. 325; (/3) first of Constantinople, A.S. 381 ; (y) Ephesus,' 
A.S. 431 ; (S) Chalcedon, A.S. 451 ; (t) second of Constantinople' 
A.S. 553; () third of Constantinople, A.S. 680: ( n ) second of 
Nicoa, A.S. 787. 

COWL.- A capacious hood attached to the back of the neck 
of the ordinary monastic habit. 

CRAMP-RINGS. Rings of precious metal, first blessed by 
St. Edward the Confessor as preservatives against cramp. 
Many of his successors on the throne of England continued the 
practice. James II. was the last king who observed it. 

CREDENCE (Ital. credenza).A table, either of stone or 
wood, placed on the north or south side of the sanctuary, to 
receive the oblations of bread and wine, the sacred and other 
vessels for the Mass, and the Service-books. Sometimes the 
credence is formed by a recessed cavity in the wall of the 
church, and this most frequently on the north side of the sanc- 
tuary. The credence, when constructional, is often conjoined 
with the piscina. 

CREDO (Latin, " I believe "} . The belief, or form of sound 
words, containing the Apostles' doctrine. 

CRESSELLE. The French term for a wooden rattle, used 
in some parts of Western Christendom instead of bells, to 
summon the faithful to church during the last three days of 
Holy Week. See CLAPPE. 

CRESSET. An oil-lamp in which the wick floats about upon 
a small circle of cork. Anciently our English churches were 
often lighted with cressets, and the side-chapels of our cathedrals 
were likewise so illuminated. 

CROSS. 1. A gibbet, consisting of two pieces of timber 
placed across each other, either in the form of a + , a T, or an 
x . 2. The sign of the Christian religion, because our Blessed 
Lord died upon the cross. The ancient Christians prayed with 
their arms extended in the form of a cross. The sign of the 
cross has been long used, even from Apostolic times, as a mark 
of Christianity and as an extern*! expression of devotion. It is 
practised in the administration of all the Sacraments. It is 
found on the tombs of the martyrs, in the ancient basilicas, over 

H 2 



baptisteries and altars. It surmounted the cap of the patriarch 
and the crown of the emperor. It was borne in processions, 
and placed over the graves of the faithful departed. In the 
fifth century it was everywhere used amongst Christians. Later 
on, when the Church had driven back heathenism, it was erected 
by the wayside, in the market-place, on hill-tops, in the cloister, 

and in the churchyard. Various 
forms of it came into use from 
time to time, more especially 
at the period of the Crusades. 
There was the Latin Cross and 
the Greek Cross, the Cross of 
Jerusalem, the Cross boltonnee, 
the Cross of Calvary, the Cross 
fleury, the Cross fourchee, the 
Cross inoiline, the Cross mill- 
rind, the Cross ermine, the 
Cross formee, with many others. 
Crosses are found both as ex- 
ternal and internal ornaments 
in the churches of the English 
Establishment. A cross on or 
above the altar is one of the 
legal ornameiita of the same; 
and the Cross, with the figure 
of our Lord attached, can be 
erected in sculpture over the 
altar, or as an important part 
of the rood-screen. Anciently 
almost every English church 
owned its Rood Cross, with the 
figures of Mary and John on 
either side. No sermon, or re- 
cord of the Passion, could have 
taught the " doctrine of the 

Cross" more strikingly or efficiently. The rood has been recently 
restored in some places, and its use and advantage are obvious. 
Thus Christians are reminded of the great Founder of Chris- 
tianity, and of the lofty precepts of the doctrine of the Cross. 
(See Illustration.) 

CROSS CROSSLET. A cross with equal arms, each of the 
ends of which is terminated by another cross. 

CROSS, GREEK. A cross in which the vertical and trans- 
verse parts are of an equal length. 



CROSS, LATIN. A cross the transverse beam of which is 
placed at one-third distance from the top of the perpendicular 

CROSS, MARKET. An erection of stone, commonly vaulted, 
supported on four or more pillars, and entered by arched aper- 
tures on each side, surmounted by a cross. Many curious and 
remarkable ancient specimens exist; e.y. at Glastonbury, Chi- 
chester, Malnicsbury, and Winchester. All these are of Pointed 

CROSS OF CALVARY. A cross on three steps. These 
steps are said by some writers to signify the three theological 
virtues Faith, Hope, and Charity. 

CROSS OF MALTA. A cross of eight points, the badge of 
the Knights of Malta. The points are said to symbolize the eight 
Beatitudes (St. Matthew vi.). 

CROSS, PAPAL. A cross with three transverse beams, the 
upper one less wide than the second, and the second less wide 
than the third. 

CROSS PECTORAL. A cross of precious metal worn round 
the necks of Roman Catholic and Greek bishops, attached to a 
chain, symbolizing to the faithful authority 
and jurisdiction. It was worn by St. 
Alphege in the eleventh century. The 
example in the accompanying woodcut is 
taken from a sketch of an ancient Pectoral 
Cross preserved in the larger sacristy of 
the cathedral of Salamanca. (See Illustra- 

cross attached to a staff borne in solemn 
processions. Anciently, on one side was 
sculptured a representation of our Lord 
in His Passion, and on the other the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. Some modern 
specimens are similarly adorned. 

CROSS, RELIQUARY. A box of precious metal in the 
form of a cross, so arranged as to receive particles of the rel 
of the saints. 

tall slight cross, to the top of which is affixed a floating pennon 
of white, charged in its turn with a ecarlet or crimson cross. 



CROSS (THE SIGN OF THE). A sign current amongst 
Christians, made in the West by drawing the three fingers of 
the right hand from the forehead to the breast, and from the 
left to the right shoulder. The use of this sign is a very ancient 
Christian practice, possibly as old as Christianity itself. Minutius 
Felix asserts it to have been a badge of faith among the primitive 
disciples ; and Tertullian, long before material crosses were in 
use, tells us that " upon every motion, at their going out or 
coming in, at dressing, at their going to bath, or to meals, or to 
bed, or whatever their employment or occasion called them to, 
they were wont to mark their foreheads with the sign of the 
Cross ; adding that this was a practice which tradition had 
introduced, custom had confirmed, and which the present genera- 
tion received upon the credit of that which went down before 
them;" (Tertullian. de Coron. Mil., c. iii.) The following is 
the ordinary Oriental mode of making the sign of the Cross. 
The tips of the thumb and the two fore-fingers of the right 
hand are brought together (the third and fourth fingers being 
folded in the palm of the hand). The hand is then lifted, 
and the three finger-tips brought into contact with the middle 
of the forehead ; it is then brought down to the chest, and moved 
transversely upwards to the right shoulder; and lastly, hori- 
zontally to the left. The meaning of the act is thus explained 
by certain mystical Eastern writers. The conjunction of the 
three finger-tips signifies in one action the equality and unity of 
the Three Persons of the Holy Trinity ; the raising of the hand 
to the forehead signifies that God the Word was in heaven 
glorified together with the Father and the life-giving Spirit from 
all eternity. The descent of the hand to the waist or breast 
denotes that this same God came down from heaven to the earth, 
and Was incarnate by the Holy Spirit in the womb of the ever- 
Virgin Mary, thus becoming man for our salvation ; the motion 
upward to the right shoulder symbolizes that He has reascended 
into heaven, and is sitting at the right hand of God the Father ; 
the horizontal motion from right to left, that our Blessed Saviour's 
arms were stretched out on the Cross to make atonement for the 
sins^f the world ; that He is gathering together into one body the 
faithful outtof all nations, and that at the last day He will set the 
righteous on His right hand and the wicked on His left. After 
the joined fingers have touched the left shoulders, some Easterns 
lay the open palm on the left breast over the heart and bow the 
head. This is reputed as a declaration of devotion to the cause, 
and submission to the will, of the Divine Master. 

CROSS WEEK. Holy Week. 



CROZIER. The term for a cross mounted on a staff, borne 
before archbishops and patriarchs, symbolizing their jurisdiction 
and authority. The use of the crozier is A 

ancient, for it was borne before Pope Leo IV., XT' vy 

St. Anselm, and Archbishop Peckham. (See 
Illustration.) IQ 

CRUCIFIX (Latin, crucljixus). 1. A cross 
on which a representation of our Blessed 
Lord is fastened. 2. A representation in 
painting or statuary of our Lord fastened to 
the cross. The oldest examples of crucifixes 
are of the latter part of the seventh century, 
Byzantine in character. 

in which the arms of our Lord are not ex- 
tended at right angles with His sacred body, 
but are contractedly suspended from" the 
cross-beam parallel with the upright portion 
of the cross. The symbolism of the out- 
stretched arms is that Christ died for all 
men; that of the Jansenist crucifix, that 
Christ died only for the elect. 

crucifix placed on 'a staff, and used in lieu of 
a cross in processions. 

CRUCIFIXION. The nailing or fasten- 
ing of a person to a cross, with the object of 
putting him to death. Crucifixion, reputed 
to be the most ignominious and shameful 
death to which any one could be exposed, 
was that which only the most useless and 
abandoned slaves suffered. At the period 
of oui* Blessed Lord's earthly life, it was 
a punishment peculiarly Roman; though 
Egyptians, Persians, Greeks, and Carthagi- 
nians had practised it previously. Prior to 
being fastened to the cross, either by ropes 
or nails, the condemned malefactor was 
stripped, being deprived of everything but a 
slight covering round the loins. In this state 
he Was severely beaten with rods, and then CROZIER. 

compelled to carry the cross himself to the 
place of execution. The crime for which the person suffered was 


inscribed on a transverse piece of wood attached to the top of the 
cross. Sometimes a wedge of wood was placed under the feet, 
or at the back portion of the body, in order to aid in supporting 
its weight. After the cross was furnished with name and crime 
(for the criminal was affixed to it in a horizontal position, lying 
on the ground), it was lifted, dropped into a socket of wood in 
the earth, and then securely wedged by small stakes. At this 
crisis, a portion of strong wiiie and. myrrh, to soothe pain, was 
offered to the sufferer. A party of soldiers always kept guard 
until he had breathed his last ; and if the criminal's agony was 
unusually prolonged, the captain had a traditional authority to 

break his limbs, and otherwise put him out of his misery. 

CRUETS. Two small vessels or flagons for containing the 
wine and water used in the celebration of Holy Communion. 


They are found existing made of crystal, silver, glass, latten, and 
sometimes of gold. When in pairs, the letter V (vinum) was 
engraved on one, and A (aqua) on the other. The specimens 
engraved are of the fifteenth century. (Sec Illustration.) 

CRUSADE. A Portuguese coin, on which a representation 
of the Crucifixion appears. 

CRYPT (Greek, K/OUTTTW, I hide). 1. An underground cell 
or cave, more especially such as are found in churches and cathe- 
drals for the interment of the faithful. 2. A subterranean 
chapel or oratory. 3. The resting-place underground of the 
relics of a martyr. 


CRYPT^E. A name given to the Catacombs or burial- 
places of the primitive Christians in Rome and elsewhere. See 


CURATE. A cleric licensed to the cure of souls in a par- 
ticular district. 

CURE. 1. A spiritual charge. 2. A cure of souls. 
CURIALITY. The prerogatives of a court. 

CURSARIUS. 1. A manuscript containing the ordinary 
course of daily service. 2. A missal. 3. A breviary. 

CURS US. A course : a rule of service. Hence a term to 
designate the peculiar Missal of any particular diocese, province, 
or national church. It is likewise sometimes applied to the 
MS. Ceremoniale in mediaeval writers. 

CUSP. In Pointed architecture, a projecting point in the 
foliation or carved foliage of tracery. 

CUSTODIA.. 1. This word signifies a shrine of precious 
metal, in the shape of a cathedral, in which, as in a tabernacle, 
the Blessed Sacrament was carried in procession on Corpus- 
Christi day and other solemn occasions. 2. It is also sometimes 
used to designate the processional shrine containing the relics 
of a saint. 

CUSTOS ECCLESLE. 1. The keeper of a church; the 
sexton or sacristan. 2. The preserver of order in a church. 
3. In some cathedrals, the Gustos puerorwn was also Gustos 

CYMOPHANB. A mineral, known also as chryso-beryl. 


term, signifying the diurnal offering of 
the Christian sacrifice, a practice as 
old as the times of Tertullian, or even 
of the Apostles themselves. (Acts ii. 

DAILY PRAYER. An Anglican 
term for the Matins and Evensong of 
the Established Church of England. 

There are about 1,500 churches in which daily service is said 

throughout the whole of the United Kingdom. 

DAILY PREFACE. The Preface used on all ferial days in 
the Church of England, immediately before the Sanctus in the 
service of the Holy Communion. 

AAIMONAPIOS (Aaijuova/otoe). The Greek term for a 

DAIS. A raised floor or platform at the upper end of a 
refectory or dining-hall, where the high table is placed, 

DALMATIC (Latin, dalmatica vel tunica; Greek, 3aX/xcmoj 
vel BfeAiiafuc^). The Dalmatic, so called, probably, because it 
was originally worn as an ordinary dress in Dalmatia, is a long 
robe with sleeves, open up the sides about two feet, for many 
centuries regarded as the peculiar garment for deacons at the 
Christian sacrifice. In regard to this vestment and the Tunicle 
or Tunic, the former is the dress of the deacon, the latter that of 
the sub-deacon ; their general shape being very similar, except 
that the Dalmatic has longer sleeves than the Tunic, was occa- 
sionally fringed, it reached nearer to the feet, and was more 
profusely ornamented. Throughout the Latin communion there 
is now no distinction between the vestments of the deacon and 
sub-deacon at Mass. In the earlier ages of the Church the 
Dalmatic was probably made of linen, but in later times this 
was laid aside for silks, satins, and other costlier materials. It 
was always adorned with coloured stripes, which ran over the 
shoulders; and, falling before and behind, were linked together 



on the breast and back by two other stripes. These, in the 
Middle Ages, were mostly embroidered with symbolic devices, 
and often adorned with gems and plates of precious metals. 
But the use of it was not wholly confined to deacons, for it was 
anciently the custom of the Holy See to permit this vestment to 
be worn by bishops as a peculiar privilege. The Dalmatic was 
sometimes worn by prelates as early as the fourth century. 
St. Cyprian, just before his martyrdom, " cum se Dalmatica 
exspoliasset, et diaconibus tradidisset, inlineastetit." (Ruinart, 


Adta Martyntm, fol. 1713, p. 218.) And that it was used by them 
in England is evident; for when the body of St. Cuthbert, buried 
A.D. G87, was disinterred A.D. 1004, it is recorded that amongst 
other vestments was found his Dalmatic of purple. The ancient 
Sarum use required a bishop, when saying Mass, in addition to 
other garments, to be vested both in 'Tunic and Dalmatic, the 
former of which was usually sky-blue in colour, and the latter 
fringed. Such is the custom abroad now. According to Georgiiis, 
a distinguished and learned Italian ritualist of the early part of 


the last century, the Dalmatic was at one time proper to the 
deacons of Rome, and conceded gradually to ministers of that 
order in other parts of the Church. Later, the privilege of 
wearing the Tunic and Dalmatic was granted to abbots. The 
use of the latter was also permitted to kings and emperors, both 
at their coronation and when solemnly assisting at the Holy 
Sacrifice. It still forms a portion of the vestments used by 
English sovereigns at their coronation. At certain solemn 
seasons, the Sarum Rite directed the thurifers, candle -bearers, 
and singing-clerks to be vested in Tunics ; for instance, at the 
Eucharist on Resurrection Sunday, and during the solemn pro- 
cession on the feast of Corpus Christi. Our present rubric 
regarding the " ornaments of the minister " relegates us to that 
which directs the gospeller and epistoler ' ' to have upon them the 
vestures appointed for their ministry, that is to say, albs with 
Timicles," innumerable specimens of which can be seen on ancient 
monuments and memorial brasses. 

DAMASK (Ital. dommasco, from Damascus). 1. A woven 
stuff of silk, having certain parts raised above the ground, repre- 
senting flowers and other figures, used very frequently in the 
making, of ecclesiastical vestments. 2. A kind of wrought 
linen, manufactured in Flanders, in imitation of damask silk, 
used in the services of the Church for towels, baptismal 
cloths, &c. 

DEACON (Latin, diaconus). A cleric in the lowest degree of 
holy orders. The office of a deacon is to baptize, to assist the 
priest at the altar, to minister the chalice at communion, and to 
preach, if licensed by the bishop. His distinctive official dress 
is cassock, amice, alb, girdle, maniple, stole placed over the left 
shoulder, and dalmatic. 

DEACONESS. 1. A female deacon in the primitive Church. 
2. The term for a kind of quasi- Sister of Mercy amongst certain 
Continental and other Protestants. 

DEAD, PRAYERS FOR THE. Prayers offered by the 
Church Militant, whether in the Mass or on other occasions, for 
the faithful who have departed this life in the faith of Christ, 
that God may grant unto them eternal rest and perpetual light. 

DEADLY SINS, THE SEVEN. Those wilful transgres- 
sions of the law of God which put the offender out of His favour. 
They are as follows: 1. Pride; 2. Covetousness ; 3. Lust; 
4. Anger; 5. Gluttony; 6. Envy; 7. Sloth. 

DEAN (French, doyen; Spanish, decano). 1. In the Church 
of England, the chief ecclesiastical dignitary of a cathedral or 


collegiate church, and the president or head of the chapter of 
the same. 2. An officer exercising jurisdiction over the junior 
inmates in either of the colleges of our universities. 

DECADE. Every tenth bead of a rosary. See ROSARY. 

DECALOGUE (Greek, & Ka and Xo'yoc). The Ten Command- 
ments or precepts given by Almighty God on Mount Sinai to 

DECANI STALL. The south-west stall in a cathedral or 
collegiate church, placed at the right-hand side on entering the 
choir, pertaining to the Dean or Provost. The Dean's Stall. 

DECOLLATION. A beheading. 

DECREES. 1. Edicts, ordinances, or proclamations. 2. 
Ecclesiastical constitutions or decisions made without any suit 
by the Roman curia ; a complete collection of which was made 
by Gratian in the twelfth century. 

DECRETALS. I. Authoritative orders or decrees. 2. Letters 
of the Popes determining some point or question in ecclesiastical 
law. 3. A formal collection of Papal decrees. 

DEDICATION. 1. The act of consecrating to Almighty God 
or to a sacred use by religious ceremonies. 2. Solemn appro- 
priation of a person or thing to the service of religion. 3. The 
act of devotion or giving to some person or thing. 

DEESIS. A Greek term for a petition or suffrage. 

DEGRADATION. The act, done by a bishop or metropolitan, 
by which criminous clerks are formally and publicly deprived of 
all the privileges and immunities attached to their order. The 
Apostolical Constitutions, as well as the canons of Nicasa, St. Basil, 
and St. Peter of Alexandria, prove the universality of the practice. 
There is a distinction, which should not be unnoticed, between 
deposition and degradation. The latter always included the 
former. Simple deposition, however, only prohibited a clerk 
from exercising the powers of his order, or any inferior eccle- 
siastical office ; whereas degradation removed him from spiritual 
and subjected him to civil jurisdiction. (Vide Martene, T)u Ant. 
Eccl. Ritibus, ii. p. 317; Van Espen, Jus Eccles., parsiii. tit. xi.) 

DEGREE. The steps of an altar. 

DEIPARA. A title given by Catholics to the Mother of God, 
and so signifying the position of Mary in the economy of grace ; 
indicating that He to Whom she gave birth at Bethlehem is God 
as well as Man, 


DEMYTY. Dimity, a kind of fustian, of which ecclesiastical 
vestments of an inferior character were sometimes made in 
England during inedireval times. Possibly so called, because 
it was first manufactured at Damietta. 

DENARII DE CANTATE. Offerings made at Pentecost 
for the benefit of the clerics, singing-men, and choristers of a 
cathedral church. 

DEODAND. A term, founded on the Latin, signifying " a 
gift to Almighty God." 

DEOSCULATORY. A pax ; that is, an ornament by which 
the kiss of peace is given in the Mass. See PAX. 

DEPOSITION. The burial of a saint, signifying the tempo- 
rary consignment to the earth of a body, to be raised at the 
Resurrection of the Just. See DEGRADATION. 

DEPRECATION. 1. A praying against. 2. A petitioning 
or entreating that a present evil may be removed and a future 

DE PROFUNDIS (" Out of the deep "). The two first words 
of the 130th Psalm, found in the Western Church in the Service 
for the Burial of the Dead. 

DESK. 1. A stand, whether of wood or metal, placed on 
the altar for the Service-book or Missal. 2. A chancel-stall or 
bench at which clerics chant the Divine office. 

DESPONSATE. To betroth. 

AE2IIOTIKO2 (A<TTTOT/KOC). A Greek term appropriated to 
our Blessed Lord. 

DEUS MISEREATUR ("God be merciful "). The title of 
the 67th Psalm, which occurs in Evensong of the Church of 
England, and is permitted to be there used in lieu of the Nunc 
Dimittis. , 

DEUTEROCANONICAL (Greek, ^rtpocand KawSv). 1. An 
epithet recently applied to the books of the Apocrypha. 2. That 
which is second, or inferior to that which is canonical. 3. Sacred 
books read in the services of the Christian Church, not found in 
the Hebrew canon of Holy Writ. 

DEUTEROGAMY. A second marriage after the death of a 
first husband or wife. 

DEUTEROON, A Greek term for a "sub-dean." 


AESAMENH (Ae^a/xe'vij). A Greek tenn for the pool of a 

DIACONICUM. 1. The place for the deacons. 2. An inner 
sacristy, where the deacon prepares the ornamenta and sacred 
vestments for the Christian Sacrifice. 

AIAKONIA (AuzKovt'a). A Greek term for any ecclesiastical 
function, especially the diaconate. 

DI APS ALMA (Greek, SmtyaAjua). A term used to signify a 
peculiar manner of chanting the Psalms, in which the chief singer 
sang the first portion of an appointed division, and the people 
joined in the concluding part. 

DIATAXEIS. A Greek term, sometimes applied to the more 
solemn portions of the Oriental Liturgy. 

DIES IR^E ("Day of Wrath")- The first words of the 
well-known Latin hymn used in the Burial Service of the 
Western Church. Various texts of it exist ; that in the Missalu 
Bomanum, that found at Zurich, and the Mantuan form. It has 
been attributed to various writers, but Lucas Wadding, in his 
Annales Minorum, gives the authorship to Thomas of Celano 
(A.S. 1230), the pupil and attached friend of St. Francis of 
Assisi. This sublime hymn is held in the highest veneration 
throughout the whole Western Church, and is found in almost 
every hymnal of the Church of England. 

DIGAMY. Second marriage. 

DIGESTS. Short statements of, experts and recognized 
authorities upon both the principles and details of civil law. 

DIGNITARY. A high ecclesiastical officer; e.g. the dean, 
sub -dean, canon, chancellor, treasurer, prebendary, and pre- 
centor of a cathedral, as also an archdeacon. 

DIGNITY. True honour ; an elevated office, civil or eccle- 
siastical, giving rank in society. 

AIKANIKION (AiKav'tKiov). A Greek term for a pastoral staff. 

DILAPIDATION. A voluntary wasting or suffering ^to 
go to decay any ecclesiastical building in possession of an in- 

DILAPIDATOR, One who creates or causes dilapidation. 

DIMISSORY LETTERS. Letters given by the bishop 01 
one diocese to a candidate for ordination, to enable him to 
receive orders at the hands of a bishop of another diocese, 



DIOCESAN. 1. A bishop : one in possession of a diocese, 
and exercising ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the same. 2. Per- 
taining to a diocese. . 

DIOCESAN SYNOD. A gathering of the clergy of a diocese, 
presided over by the bishop, assisted by his chancellor, to enforce 
canons of a superior council, or to confer on matters concerning 
the good estate of the diocese. 

DIOCESE (Greek, 3to'icrj<nc). 1. The extent of a bishop's 
jurisdiction. 2. An ecclesiastical division of any kingdom or 
state, subject to the authority of a bishop. 

DIPPING. 1. The act of plunging or immersing. 2. Bap- 
tism by dipping was commonly practised by the ancient Church, 
is still the written rule of the Western Church, though the 
pouring of water upon the subject is allowed, and has become 
almost universal. 

DIPTERAL. Two-winged; a term sometimes applied to the 
double transepts of a cathedral church. 

DIPTYCH (Greek, TU $ixTv\a). 1. Amongst the ancients, 

a book or tablet, usually having 
tw r o leaves or portions. This 
term was applied to a public re- 
gister of the names of consuls 
and other magistrates amongst 
the heathens, and of bishops and 
martyrs amongst the Christians. 
2. A folded religious picture, 
either of carved work or paint- 
ing. 3. In mediaeval times a 
volume in which the names of 
benefactors to a church, cathedral, 
DIPTYCH. or religious house were recorded, 

in order that they might be duly 

remembered before God during certain religious services and 



giving spiritual advice. 

act of governing. 2. The act of 

DIRECTOR. One who superintends, manages, or governs. 
One who gives spiritual advice to those who seek for it. 

DIRGE. A funeral song, intended to express sorrow, grief, 
and mourning. Anciently, in England, a groat was paid to a 
chantry priest for singing a dirge. 


DIRIGE. The first Latin word of a verse in the funeral 
psalms, commencing, " Direct my steps," which anciently stood 
as an antiphon to those psalms in the old English service for the 
dead : hence the term <( Dirge." 

DISCHURCH. To deprive of the rank of a church. 

DISCIPLE (Latin, discipulus). A follower, learner, adherent, 
or supporter. 

DISCIPLINA ARCANI ("the discipline of the secret "). 
A term used to signify the reserve practised by the Primitive 
Church towards those who were unbaptized, with regard to the 
faith, sacraments, and practices of Christians. 

DISCIPLINE (Latin, disciplina). 1. The execution of the 
laws by which the Church is governed. 2. Self-chastisement, 
or bodily punishment enjoined by another on a delinquent in any 
Christian church where such powers are still exercised. 3. An 
instrument of self -punishment. 

DISH. A broad, open vessel, sometimes used in ecclesiastical 
ceremonies for the purpose of symbolical lavations. See ALMS- 

DISK (Greek, Sio-tcoe). A Greek term for the paten. 

AI2KAPION (AuTKapiov) . A Greek term for a paten or plate 
used in the Christian Sacrifice. 

DISORIENTATED. Turned from the east turned from 
the right direction. Some churches are built otherwise than 
with their altars towards the east; i.e. at variance with the 
general rule of the Church. 

DISPENSATION. 1. Exemption. 2. The granting by- 
proper authority of a formal license to do something which is 
forbidden by canons or laws, or to omit that which is commanded 
by the same authority. 3. That which is dispensed or bestowed : 
a system of principles and regulations; e.g. the Christian Dis- 

phrase, signifying the bestowal of the Body and Blood of Christ 
in the Holy Eucharist under the form of bread and wine. 

DIVINE OFFICES. 1. The seven Canonical hours; i.e. 
Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, Nones, Vespers, and Compline. 2. 
In the Church of England, Matins and Evensong. 

DIVINE SERVICE. A to signifying that service which 

Lee'* Glossary. I 


is Divine, i.e. the Eucharistic service. This term is loosely 
applied to any sacred service. 

DOCTOR. A cleric skilled in theology, or the laws of the 

DOCTOR OF GRACE (THE). St. Augustine of Hippo. 

SS. Augustine, Ambrose, Jerome, and Gregory. 

DOCTRINE. The formal teaching of the Church Universal. 

DOGMA. A specific and authoritative proposition or state- 
ment concerning revealed religion. 

DOGMATIC THEOLOGY. Authoritative scientific teaching 
of what is known to be true as regards the Christian religion. 

DOLE (Saxon, dal). 1. The act of dealing or distributing. 
2. A part, a share, a portion. 3. A gift in money or kind at a 
funeral or elsewhere. 

DOLESTONE. A stone at which doles are distributed. 
DOM (Latin, dominica). A cathedral. 

DOME (French, dome). 1. A fabric. 2. A spherical roof; 
a cupola. 

DOMINICAL. Pertaining to Sunday. 

DOMINICAL ALTAR. The altar on which the high or 
parish Mass is celebrated on Sundays ; that is, the high or chief 
altar. In cathedrals it is sometimes one of the altars to the 
west of the choir-screen, but usually the chief or high altar 
within the choir. 

DOMINICALE. The Sunday dress, which usually included 
a special veil, anciently worn by women when receiving the 
Holy Eucharist. This custom, as far as regards the veil, even 
now called " Dominicale," is still retained in England amongst 
some of the Roman Catholic nobility and gentry. 

DOMINICAL LETTER (Latin, dominicalis) . The first 
seven letters of the alphabet, one of which marks Sunday in 
the calendar. 



DOMINICANS. An order of monks founded by St. Dominic, 
in 1205, called also Black Friars or Friar Preachers. 

DOMINICUM. 1. A name given to the Lord's Day; 2. to 
the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper; 3. to the House of the 
Lord; and 4. to the services of Sunday. 

DONATIVE. The term for a benefice, bestowed by its 
founder or patron, without either presentation or institution by 
the bishop of the diocese in which the same is located. 

DOORKEEPER (Latin, osttarius). One of the minor or 
inferior orders of the Latin Church, ordained without the im- 
position of hands. 

DORNEX. An inferior kind of damask, anciently used for 
church vestments, altar-hangings, &c., originally manufactured 
at Doornick (Tournai), in Flanders. 

DOSSAL (Latin, dorsum; French, dos). A hanging of silk, 
satin, damask, or other stuff placed 
at the back of an altar or stall. The 
altar-dossal should have a representa- 
tion of the Crucifixion embroidered 
on it; or, if there be a crucifix on 
the altar, there should be depicted one 
of the Joyful Mysteries. 

DOUBLE. A term used to specify 
certain holy days, on which the Anti- 
phons are doubled, i. e. repeated both 
at the beginning and the end of the 
solemn Canticles. 

holy days on which the Antiphon is 
repeated entire before and after the 
Canticles. Greater doubles have both 
a first and second Evensong. 

DOUBLE (LESSER). Those holy 
days on which the first words only 
of the Antiphon are sung before the 
Canticles, and the Antiphon in its 
entirety is sung after it. 

DOVE. 1. The Christian symbol 
of the Holy Ghost. 2. A vessel shaped DOV E. 

like a dove, in which, during mediaeval 

times, the Blessed Sacrament was reserved. The example in the 

i 2 


accompanying woodcut a dove standing in a dish, and sus- 
pended by chains is of thirteenth-century French work, and is 
said to be preserved in a private museum of mediaeval antiquities 
in Paris. See COLUMBA. 

DOXOLOGY (Greek, So^oXo-ym). 1. The Gloria in Excelsis. 
2. The Gloria Patri. 3. The ascription to the Holy Trinity after a 
sermon. 4. The concluding part of the Lord's Prayer, occurring 
in St. Matthew's Gospel. 5. The end of some of the Apostolic 
and Patristic epistles. 

DRAIN. A channel through which water or other liquid 
flows off : hence a Piscina. See PISCINA. 

DRAPERIE. Hangings, curtains, tapestry. 

DRAPET. A cloth, a coverlet. Hence the covering of a 
hearse, or stall-desk in a church. 

DUPLICATION. 1. The act of doubling. 2. A second 
offering of the Christian sacrifice by the same priest on the 
same day. On Christmas-day alone is it canonical or right to 
celebrate more than once. 


AGLE. A term used to designate a 
brazen or wooden lectern, the upper 
portion of which represents an eagle 
with outstretched wings, on the back 
of which is a book-rest. Many ancient 
examples of such lecterns remain in our 
collegiate and cathedral churches, and a 
great number of new specimens have 
been made for use after the old models. 

EAST (TURNING TO THE). A practice current both 
amongst the clergy and laity at the time of service, more 
especially during the singing of the Creeds, the Gloria Patri, 
and the Gloria in Excelsis. 

EASTER ANTHEMS. An Anglican term for certain special 
sentences appointed for use, instead of the Invitatory Psalm, 
Venite, on Easter-day, and by inference, during the Octave of 
that festival, beginning, " Christ our Passover is sacrificed 
for us." 

EASTER CANDLE. This is otherwise called the Paschal 
Candle, a type of the pillar of fire which led the Israelites 
through the wilderness. It is a large wax candle, solemnly 
felessed and lighted on Easter-eve, placed on the north side of 
the sanctuary, and re-lighted at every High Mass during the 
Easter season. Its use is said to have been enjoined by Pope 
Zosimus, A.D. 418. Many constructional paschal candlesticks 
exist ; e. g. at St. Agnes's at Rome, St. Anthony's at Padua. 

EASTER IMAGE. A figure of a dead Christ in wood or 
precious metal, in the breast of which the Blessed Sacrament 
was anciently placed on Maundy-Thursday in a receptacle spe- 
cially prepared for it. Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum con- 
tains a description of such an Easter image, " silver and gilte, 
having a berale before and a diadem behind," formerly belonging 
to the cathedral church of Lincoln. 

EASTER OFFERINGS. Donations anciently given to the 
parish priest, by the faithful at Easter, on occasion of making 
their paschal communion. 


EASTER SEPULCHRE. -A recess in the north wall of cer- 
tain old English churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament was 
solemnly reserved for worship from the Mass of Maundy- 
Thursday. There is a good example of an Easter sepulchre, a 
remarkable specimen of thirteenth-century work, in the north 
chapel of Haddenharn church, Bucks. 

ECCLESIASTIC. A clerk in orders, consecrated to the ser- 
vice of the Church and to the ministry of religion. 

ECCLESIASTICAL. Relating to the Church. 

ECCLESIASTICAL CENSURE. A censure pronounced 
by an eclesiastical judge, i.e. by a bishop or by a bishop's chan- 
cellor or duly-appointed official. 

fittings, sacred vessels, or anything employed in the due render- 
ing of the services of the Church. 

ECCLESIASTICAL YEAR. The year as reckoned by the 
Church kalendar, commencing on the first Sunday in Advent. 

ECCLESIOLOGIST. A person versed in ecclesiology. 

ECCLESIOLOGY. The science of church-building, arrange- 
ment, and decoration. 

ECTENE. Certain solemn intercessions in the services of the 
Eastern Church. 

book in English, issued by authority of Convocation and Parlia- 
ment; first printed and published in the year 1549- 

edition of the former, much mutilated and disfigured through 
the influence of foreign meddlers ; published in 1552. 

EIKIiN (EtKwi/). The Greek term for a religious picture. 

EILETON (Greek, ?Xrjrov) . The Greek term for an un- 
blessed corporal. 

EIPHNH (Ei/oTjvrj). A Greek term for the kiss of peace. 

EIPHNHKA (ElprivrtKa). A Greek term for the collects for 
peace in the Oriental Church. 

EISODOS MEGALE (Greek, rfcroSoe M 7 aXr,). The formal 
entrance of the celebrant, in the Oriental Liturgy, into the sanc- 
tuary with the sacred oblations. 


EISODOS MIKRA.-(Greek, rfdo&c pucpi) .-In the Oriental 

Liturgy, the formal entrance of the celebrant into the sanctuary 
with the Book of the Gospels. 

EJACULATORY. Suddenly darted out ; words uttered in 
short sentences. 

EJACULATORY PRAYER. Devotional utterances of a 
brief, sudden, and hearty character. 

ELECTION OF BISHOPS. The election by members of a 
cathedral chapter of a bishop-designate to a vacant see. 



ELEEMOSYNARIUS. The almsgiver or almoner of a reli- 
gious house or body. 

ELEMENTS. The bread, wine, and water used in the cele- 
bration of the Holy Eucharist. 

ELEVATION OF THE HOST. The solemn uplifting of 
the Blessed Sacrament of. our Lord's body and blood imme- 
diately after the act of consecration ; first, for the formal offer- 
ing of It to the Eternal Father ; and, secondly, in order that It 


may be adored by the faithful present. The example in the ac- 
companying illustration is curious. There appears to be a kind 
of canopy over the sanctuary. The altar is of stone; and a 
bishop, wearing his mitre, elevates the Host. The deacon in alb 
and dalmatic, with wide embroidered girdle, is using the 
flabellutn or fan. The subdeacon stands behind. 

ELIZABETH'S PRAYER-BOOK. A third form of the Book 
of Common Prayer, revised once again in some unimportant 
particulars, and published in 1559. 

EMBER DAYS. The Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday of 
the four Ember seasons. These are all days of fasting. 

EMBER WEEKS (" Quatuor tempora") .The weeks begin- 
ning with the first Sunday in Lent, Whit- Sunday, the Feast of 
the Exaltation of the Cross (Sept. 14), and the Feast of St. Lucy 
(Dec. 13). Ordinations are commonly held in the Church of 
England on the respective Sundays following these weeks. By 
publicly observing them, the Church intends to remind the faith- 
ful that they are bound, by prayer and fasting, to remember those 
about to receive the grace of ordination. 

EMBLEM (Greek, /i/3X7jjua). A typical representation, in- 
tended to set forth some moral or religious instruction : a typical 

EMBLEMATICAL. Pertaining to or comprising an emblem. 

EMBOLISMUS A prayer against temptation, amplifying 
the petition in the Lord's Prayer, added to that prayer in the 
Eastern Liturgies. 

EMINENCE (Latin, eminentia) . 1 . Elevation, exaltation, 
high rank, distinction. 2. A title of honour given to Roman 
cardinals and to certain Russian prelates. 

EM*OTION ('E/u^wrtov). A Greek term for the white bap- 
tismal robe. 

ENAMEL. 1. A substance of the nature of glass, rendered 
opaque by an admixture of oxide of metal with a flux. 2. Inlaid 
metallic colourings, burnished smooth, and with a glossy sur- 
face, constantly used in the adornment of sacred vessels for the 

ENCAUSTIC. Pertaining to the art of painting in heated 
wax or clay, by which bright colours are rendered permanent. 
Encaustic tiles are those which have undergone this process. 
See TILE. 


ENCHIRIDION. An ecclesiastical manual, containing 
prayers, litanies, and rubrical directions of the Oriental Church. 

ENCCENIA (Greek, tyKoivta). Festivals anciently observed in 
commemoration of the building of cities or churches. In later 
times, ceremonies renewed annually at Oxford, commemorating 
founders and benefactors of the colleges of that university. 

ENGLISH LITURGY. The service for Holy Communion in 
the Book of Common Prayer. 

ENOPIAKO2 ('EvoptaKog). A Greek term, signifying 
" parochial." 

ENTHRONIZATION. The formal placing of a tfewly-conse- 
crated bishop into his episcopal seat in the cathedral of his 
diocese, by which act he obtains possession of the temporalities 
of his see. 

ENTOAH fEvroXTj). A Greek term, signifying the com- 
memoration of the departed. 

ENTOMBMENT. Burial : depositing in a tomb. "The 
Entombment " is a technical term for the representation of the 
burial of our Blessed Lord. 

EPICLESIS (Greek, 7n' K Ar)<7ic) A Greek term for an in- 

EPIGONATION. An ornament of gold or silver tissue, in 
shape like a diamond, worn by Oriental prelates, suspended from 
the right side of their zone. 

EPIMANIKION. The Greek term for a priest's maniple. 

EPIPHANY ("Manifestation"). A feast observed on Jan- 
uary 6th to commemorate the finding of our Blessed Lord by 
the three kings of the East in the stable of Bethlehem. Their 
names are said to have been Jaspar, Melchior, and Balthazar. 
In later life St. Thomas is believed to have baptized them, and 
they spent their lives in preaching the Christian religion. After 
death their sacred relics were preserved, and eventually removed 
to Cologne Cathedral, where they now remain. 

EPISCOPAL. 1. Belonging to bishops. 2. Governed by 


EPISCOPAL VESTMENTS. The official ecclesiastical dress 
and ornamenta pertaining to a bishop; viz. purple cassock, 
amice, alb, rochet, stole, tunicle, dalmatic, maniple, chasuble, 
mitre, gloves, episcopal ring, sandals, buskins, and pastoral staff. 
To these are added, for an archbishop, the pall, and a crozier 
borne before him. 

EPISCOPALIAN. One who belongs to an episcopal com- 

EPISCOPATE. 1. A bishopric. 2. The office and dignity 
of a bishop. 3. The order of bishops. 

EPISTLES. Letters written by the Apostles and Primitive 
Fathers to certain persons or churches. 

EPISTLE SIDE OF A CHURCH. Supposing the altar to 
be placed at the east end, the south side of a church. 

EPISTOLARIUM. A Latin term for the Book of the Epistles 
as used in the Communion Service. 

EPISTOLER. 1. A subdeacon. 2. The assistant of the 
celebrant, who reads the Epistle at High Mass. 

EPITRACHELION (Greek, iirirpaxijAtov) . A Greek term 
for a priest's stole. 

EOIXYTHS ('Eirixurijc) . A Greek term for a water-stoup. 

EJITAIIAnAAON ('Eirrairmra^ov). A Greek term for the oil 
used in the unction of the sick. 

ERASTIAN. A term used to designate a follower of Thomas 
Erastus, a German physician, who maintained that the Church 
should be wholly dependent on the State for its interpretation of 
doctrines, as well as for government and discipline. 

ESCALLOP. A bivalved shell of the genus Pecten, its surface 
marked with ribs radiating from the hinge outward. The shell 
worn in the caps of pilgrims. These shells are sometimes used 
for pouring on the water in the administration of holy baptism. 

EUCHARIST (Greek, wxapurrta) .1 . The act of giving or 
returning thanks. 2. A term used to designate the service of 
Holy Communion, both in the Eastern and Western parts of the 
Christian family. 

EUCHARISTIC ADORATION. The adoration of our 
Blessed Lord, present in the Eucharist under the species of 
bread and wine.' 


EUCHELAION (Greek, euxr/Aatov). A Greek term for the 
oil used in the unction of the sick. In the Oriental Church it is 
not consecrated by a bishop, but by seven priests. 

EUCHOLOGION (Greek, tv X o\6yiov). A Greek term for & 
Service-book which comprises the Liturgy of the Eastern Church, 
forms for administering the Holy Sacraments, and for other 
services, rites, and ceremonies, Joseph Gear's edition of this 
book is highly renowned. 


EVANGEL. An old English term for the Gospel. 

EVANGEL OF THE MASS. That Gospel which is always 
read at the conclusion of the Latin Mass, i.e. St. John i. 1 15. 

EVANGELICAL. According to the Gospel. 

EVANGELICAL COUNSELS (THE). Christian precepts 
not universally binding on the faithful. They are as follows : 
voluntary poverty, chastity, and obedience. 

' EVANGELIST. A writer of the history of our Blessed 
Saviour Jesus Christ. 

EVANGELISTERIUM. A term used to designate the Book 
of the Gospels which is used in the Mass. 

EVANGELISTIC SYMBOLS. Four pictorial illustrations 
emblematical of, and respectively assigned to, the four Evan- 
gelists; i.e., the man to St. Matthew, because in his Gospel he 
begins with the human genealogy of our Lord; the lion to 
St. Mark, because he commences his Gospel with the record of 
the voice of one crying in the wilderness ; the ox to St. Luke, 
because he recorded the sacrifice of Zacharias ; and the eagle to 
St. John, because he treats dogmatically of the incarnation. 
Sometimes St. Matthew is symbolized by an angel. These 
symbols are found depicted as early as the fifth century. 

EVE, OR EVEN. 1. The latter part or close of the day and 
beginning of the night. 2. The evening of the day before a 
festival, whether a vigil or not. 

EVENSONG. The Anglican term for vespers ; that is, for 
the daily evening prayer of the Church of England. 

EVITERNAL (Latin, ceviternus}. In duration infinitely long. 

EWER (Saxon, huer). A kind of pitcher used to bring water 
for washing the hands. 


EWER (BAPTISMAL). A vessel for holding the water with 
which to fill the font. 

EWERY. A mediaeval term for the scullery of a religious 

EXALT ATION. The act of raising high. 

EXALTATION OF THE CROSS. The act of elevating the 
Cross on which our Lord suffered, found at Jerusalem by the 
Empress St. Helena, for the veneration of the faithful. A 
festival in honour of this act, still observed in the Church of 
England on September 14th, was first instituted A.S. 335. 

EX ANIMO. Literally, "from the mind," i.e. sincerely, or 

EXARCH. 1. A viceroy of the Byzantine emperors. 2. In 
the Oriental Church, a title assumed by certain bishops and 
patriarchs. 3. In more recent times, an overseer of the clergy 
appointed by the Eastern bishops. 

EX CATHEDRA (Latin, literally, "from the chair"). A 
statement made from the chair of authority. Hence an authori- 
tative judgment is said to be given " ex cathedra." 

EXCOMMUNICATION. The act of ejecting from a church. 

which deprives the person on whom it is inflicted of all services 
and sacraments of the Church, as well as of any kind of commu- 
nication with the faithful. 

deprives the person on whom it is inflicted of the sacraments and 
services of the Church. 

EXEDRA. A mediaeval term for an apse. See APSE. 

EXHORTATION. 1. The act of exhorting; incitement; 
the act of inciting to laudable deeds. 2. A term given in the 
Church of England to certain addresses in Matins, Evensong, 
the Communion, and other services. 

prior to Septuagesima Sunday ; so called because the services 
contain exhortations to the faithful to prepare duly for Lent. 

EXOMOLOGESIS (Greek, ^ojuoAoyrjaie) . A Greek term for 
sacramental confession. 


EXORCISM. 1. The act of expelling evil spirits from certain 
persons or places by the instrumentality of religious rites and 
prayers. 2. A deliverance from the influence of malignant 
spirits by the divine power of Holy Church. 

EXORCISTS (Greek, tiropKiffTai or lop K i<TTai) .Officers in 
the ancient Church whose ministrations concerned the possessed, 
over whom they were to pray. (Vide St. Cyprian, Epist. Ixxv. 
Ixxvi.) Formerly this office or order was looked upon as a free 
gift of the Spirit, or charisma, in which light it was regarded in 
the Eighth of the " Apostolical Constitutions "; but at a later 
period it became a formally-constituted office, of which the duties 
were extended to the care of the catechumens. (Vide Statuta 
Eccl. Ant., c. 7 ; Thorpe's Ancient Laws, vol. ii. p. 379.) In the 
pre-Reformation English Church, as amongst Roman Catholics, 
the exorcist was the third of the minor orders. He was ordained 
by the delivery of a book and prayer. 

EXPECTATION WEEK. 1. The week before Whit- 
Sunday ; so called because the Apostles looked for or expected 
the coming of the Holy Ghost. 2. This term is sometimes 
applied by medigeval writers to the week before Christmas, when 
the Blessed Virgin looked for the birth of her Divine Child. 

solemn service of the Roman Catholic Church, in which the 
Blessed Sacrament is exposed for the adoration of the faithful. 

EXPOSITORIUM. A sacred vessel of precious metal, most 
commonly jewelled and enamelled, in which the Blessed Sacra- 
ment is exposed. See MONSTRANCE. 

EXTRA-MUNDANE. Beyond the limits of the material 

EXTRA-MURAL. Literally, " outside a wall." 
EXTRA-PAROCHIAL. Outside the legal limits of a parish. 

EXTREME UNCTION. The smearing with oil or anointing 
a sick person when afflicted with some grievous bodily disease, 
and at the point of death, i.e. unction in extremis. 

EX-VOTO. " In consequence of a vow," applied in religion 
to votive offerings ; as a picture, a chalice, &c. ; and also to a 
Mass for a special object. 



A.CADE. The front view or elevation of 
a building. 

FACULTY. A written dispensation 
granted by the bishop of a diocese, or 
his chancellor, to enable certain things 
to bo done which, without such per- 
mission, the law would not authorize to 
be performed. 

term used in the Anglican Communion 

service to designate that cloth with which the celebrant veils the 
Blessed Sacrament after the communion of the faithful. 

the rubrics of the Anglican Communion service to designate the 
cloth required to cover the top of the altar at the time of the 
Christian Sacrifice. Anciently there were three white linen cloths 
spread, and this custom is often followed in the present day. 

FAITHFUL (THE) (Latin, fideles). All Christian people, 
i.e. all the baptized. Those who by the Sacrament of Regenera- 

tion have 

been regenerated, and have accepted the faith of 

FAITHFUL DEPARTED (THE) .Dead Christians; those 
who have departed this life in the faith and fear of Christ. 

FALDSTOOL (French, faldistoire; Italian, faldistorio) . A 
portable ecclesiastical seat or chair, made to fold up in the 
manner of a camp-stool, the seat of which was richly embroi- 
dered. Anciently, when a bishop officiated in any other than 
his own cathedral, a faldstool was placed for him in the choir, 
and he frequently carried one with him in his journeys. Exam- 
ples of such often occur in ancient MSS. A faldstool of great 
antiquity is preserved at Paris, and called the throne of Dago- 
bert. Likewise there are specimens in England at York and 

FAMILIAR. 1. An intimate friend ; a close companion. 2. 
In the court of the Inquisition, an officer who undertook to 
apprehend and lodge in prison those who were accused of being 
heretics and offenders against the Church. 



FANNEL, OR PHANNEL. The fanon or maniple. See 

FAN-TRACERY. A kind of vaulting used in late Pointed 
work, in which all the ribs which rise from the springing of the 
vault have the same curve, and diverge equally in every direc- 
tion, producing an effect not unlike that of the stiff portions of 
a fan. 

FARSE. A mediaeval term to designate certain explanations 
of the Epistle in the Mass, as given in church. 

FASCICULUS (Latin). 1. A little bundle. 2. The division 
of a book. 

FAST (Saxon, faestan). 1. Abstinence from flesh-meat and 
certain other kinds of food. 2. A special period of abstinence 
from food enjoined by ecclesiastical authority. 3. The time of 
fasting, whether a day, week, or more. 

FASTERN NIGHT. The night between Shrove-Tuesday 
and Ash-Wednesday. 

FASTING-. The act of abstaining from food in obedience to 
ecclesiastical command. 

FATALISM. The dangerous heretical dogma that all things 
are subject to fate ; or that they happen by inevitable necessity. 

FATALIST. One who believes that all things happen by 
inevitable necessity. 

FATHER. 1. One who has begotten a child. 2. A title 
given to dignitaries of the Church ; superiors' of religious 
houses ; regular clergy, and confessors. 

FATHER IN GOD. A title of honour given to bishops, as 
being rulers in or under God of the faithful. 

FATHER (THE ETERNAL). A term given to the First 
Person of the adorable Trinity. 

FATHER (THE HOLY). A term to designate the Bishop 
of Rome. 

FEAST. 1. A ceremony of feasting. 2. A special period 
of religious joy. 3. An anniversary, periodical, or stated cele- 
bration of some happy event; e.g. the death of a saint, the 
working of a miracle, or the conversion of heathen people. 


FEASTS OF OBLIGATION. Special periods of rejoicing, 
which in particular churches are ordered by authority to be 
solemnly observed by the faithful ; days on which they are 
bound to be present at the Christian Sacrifice. These are chiefly 
Christmas-day, Easter-day, Whit-Sunday, and all the Sundays 
of the year. 

FEMERELL (Latin, fumarium ; French, furnerelle). A 
lantern or cover placed on the roof of the kitchen of a mo- 
nastery for the purposes of ventilation, and to allow the escape 
of smoke without admitting rain. 

FERETARIUS. The keeper or exhibitor of a shrine. 

FERETORIUM, OR FERETORY. 1. A standing shrine. 
2. A shrine which is carried about in processions by means of 
staves and rings. 3. The place where a shrine stands or is kept. 

FERIA. Any day of the week which is neither a fast nor 
a festival. 

FERIAL. Of or belonging to any day of the week which is 
neither a fast nor a festival. 

FERMORY. A mediaeval abbreviation for an infimary. 


FETE DIEU. The French term for the annual festival of 
Corpus Christi. This feast occurs on the Thursday after Trinity 
Sunday, and was instituted by the Western Church in honour 
of the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar, which is the Body of 
Christ : hence its name. In the ancient Church of England it 
was observed with great solemnity and devotion. A service 
proper for the day may be found in the Sarum Missal. It is still 
kept in some Church-of -England parishes. 

FIG-SUNDAY. The sixth Sunday in Lent, so called because, 
in the old service for this Sunday there occurred the record of 
our Lord's cursing the fig-tree. 

FILLET. 1. In Pointed architecture, a small band cut into 
two or more narrow faces, with sharp edges between them. 2. 
A confirmation ornament used to bind the chrisom-cloths, which 
latter were taken at confirmation by children to be presented for 
the use of the church. In England, chrisom-cloths were fre- 
quently given for making albs and surplices for the singers. 

FINIAL, OR FINYAL. In Pointed architecture, a bunch of 
foliage which terminates canopies, pinnacles, pediments, &c. It 
was sometimes called a " Pomell." 


FIRST-FRUITS. A term to signify the first payments or 
incomings of a benefice or other ecclesiastical preferment. 
Anciently in England they were given to the 
Pope. Henry VIII. reclaimed them. They 
were, however, restored to the Established 
Church under Queen Anne. 


FLABELLUM. An ecclesiastical fan, 
formed in Rome of peacock's feathers, and 
elsewhere of metal, anciently used to drive 
away flies from the chalice during the Chris- 
tian Sacrifice. At the ordination of deacons 
in the Oriental Church, amongst other instru- 
ments, a flabellum is given to them for their 
ministry at the altar. Fans are a mark 
of distinction in the Latin Church, and are 
carried before the Pope, the Grand Prior of 
the Knights of Malta, the Bishop of Troja 
in Apulia, and the Archbishop of Messina. 
The fan of ivory and silk, represented in the 
accompanying woodcut, is of considerable 
antiquity. (See Illustration.) 

FLAGONS. An Anglican term for the 
vessels in which the wine and water for the 
Holy Communion are placed on the Credence- 
table, prior to the period of their solemn 
oblation. See CKUETS. 

FLAMBOYANT. A term used by French 
antiquaries to designate that style of French 
architecture contemporary in that country 
with the Perpendicular or Third Pointed 
of England, so called from the flame-like 
wavings of its tracery. 

FLENTES, OB WEEPERS. Certain peni- 
tents in the early Church : persons who, 
having lapsed to paganism after their con- 
version to Christianity, were in the first stage 
of penitential preparation for a return to 
Church communion. FLABELLHM OF IVORY 


The latest of the English forms of Gothic or Pointed archi- 
tecture, commonly termed "Perpendicular." In France, the 

Lee't Glouary. K 


Flamboyant style, which corresponds in some measure with the 
Perpendicular of England, is certainly " Florid." 

FLOWER OF THE CHASUBLE (Latin, Flos casula-). 

FONT (Latin, fons; Ital. fonte). A large basin or stone 
vessel placed on a substantial pillar or foot, in which water is 
contained for the administration of baptism. When not used, a 
cover of wood is placed over the bowl and securely fastened, 
a practice first formally authorized in England by St. Edmund, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1236. Fonts are commonly made 
o stone, the bowl being lined with lead or latten. No Saxon 
font remains in England. There is an ancient wooden font at 
Evenechtyd, in Denbighshire. In English churches the font is 
usually placed near the west door, or principal entrance of the 
church, and is raised on a solid stone platform of one or more 

FOOTPACE. The upper step or platform of an altar ; that 
step on which the altar stands. The step for the priest-cele- 
brant when offering the Christian Sacrifice. 

FORCER. A mediaeval term for a muniment-chest : some- 
times applied to a box for keeping church vestments. 


FOREIGN COURT. That court in a monastery to which 
strangers were admitted. 

FORM. The words used contemporaneously in connection 
with the matter in administering the Sacraments. 


FORMULARY. A volume comprising the forms, ceremonies, 
rites, and ritual of any particular or local church. 

FORTH FARE. An English term to designate a passing 
bell tolled in such a manner as to indicate, by its manner of 
being rung, whether the person departed this life was a man, 
woman, or child. 

FOSSORES, OR DIGGERS. An ancient minor order of 
clerics, who dug and prepared the graves for the faithful in 
the catacombs. Their dress was a long white robe ; in shape 
like a dalmatic, 



Athanasius, St. Basil the Great, St. Gregory of Nazianzum, and 
St. John Chrysostom. 


St. Ambrose, St. Jerome, St. Augustine, and St. Gregory. 

FRACTION. A breaking. 

FRACTION OF THE HOST. A technical term to indicate 
the breaking of the Bread in the sacrifice of the Eucharist. The 
" Fraction of the Host " is the phrase current amongst English 
Roman Catholics. In the Church-of- England rite the act occurs 
before the consecration ; in the Roman rite, immediately after- 


FRANK ALMS. Free alms. In English law, a tenure by 
which a religious corporation holds lands to them and their 
successors for ever, on condition of praying for the soul of 
the donor. 


FRATER-HOUSE. 1. An English mediaeval term for that 
portion of a religious house where the brothers (fralres) assemble 
together, i.e. the Chapter-house. 2. This term is also not un- 
frequently applied to the dining-room or refectory, as also to 
the common sitting-room of a monastery. 

FRATERNITIES (Latin, fraternitates) . Brotherhoods: so- 
cieties formed for a benevolent, philanthropic, or religious 
object; e.g. for prayer in common, for practising the corporal 
or spiritual works of mercy. The higher types of fraternities 
are for the worship of Almighty God. 

FREE CHAPEL. A chapel which is not within the ordinary 
jurisdiction of the bishop of a diocese. A chapel placed within 
the limits of a royal manor, the clerics of which, however, are by 
custom subject to ordinary episcopal jurisdiction. 

FRESCO (Ital. fresco, coolness, shade).!. A picture drawn 
in dusk, and not in glaring light. 2. A mode of decorating 
walls, effected by the use of water-colours applied to wet plaster, 
or upon a wall covered with fine mortar not yet dry. 

FRET. An architectural term for an ornament consisting of 
small fillets intersecting each other at right angles. 

K 2 



FRIAR. A corruption, as is supposed by some, of the word 
frater. The term is usually applied to members of the mendicant 
order, that is, to those orders the brethren of which maintain 
themselves by begging; e.g. the Carmelites, Trinitarians, Fran- 
ciscans, Dominicans, Religious Minims, Bethlehemites, &c. 

FRIARY. A religious house belonging to an order the 
members of which maintain themselves by mendicancy. 

FRITHSTOOL (Saxon, frid). A chair of sanctuary, a peace- 
stool ; that is, a chair placed in the most sacred part of a church 
or cathedral, to which the guilty fugitive, in mediaeval times, 
flying, was enabled by custom to obtain protection and security, 
a practice indicating the exercise of mercy on the part of Holy 


Church. The frithstool represented in the accompanying woodcut 
is in Beverley Minster. According to Sir Henry Spelman, this 
chair had the following inscription : " Hsec sedes lapideafreedstoll 
dicatur, i.e. pacis cathedra, ad quam reus fugiendo perveniens 
omnimodam habet securitatem." (See Illustration.) 

FRITILLARY. The crown imperial flower, used as a symbol 
of our Blessed Lord by mediaeval church decorators. 

FRONTAL. 1. A hanging of silk, satin, damask, or cloth 
of gold, richly embroidered, for a Christian altar. Anciently in 
England this covered the whole of the front of the altar, and 
corresponds with what is now known as the antependium. In 
modern times, the frontal or superfrontal has covered only the 


top of the altar, hanging down about eight or ten inches. There 
is a fine specimen of an ancient frontal at Steeple Aston, in 
Oxfordshire, and another at Forest Hill, in the same county. 

FRUITS OF THE SPIRIT (THE). Love, Joy, Peace, 
Long-suffering, Gentleness, Goodness, Faith, Meekness, and 


FUNERAL (Ital. funerale) . 1. The ceremony of burying a 
dead body; interment, obsequies, burial. 2. The procession of 
clergy; clerks and laity attending the burial of the departed. 
3. Pertaining to burial. 

FUNERAL DOLE. A gift given to the poor and needy on 
occasion of the burial of the dead. 

FUNERAL ORATION. An address or sermon delivered on 
the occasion of the burial of a distinguished person, whether 
cleric or laic, commemorating the character and work of the 

FUNERAL PALL. A covering for the coffin during the 
procession to church, during the service in church, and until the 
coffin is afterwards placed in the grave. 
Anciently palls were either of violet or 
black, adorned with a cross, and some- 
times richly embroidered with flowers, 
heraldic devices, or figures of saints. A 
splendid old example belongs to the 
Ironmongers' Company in London. The 
specimen given in the accompanying 
illustration is v taken from a sketch by 
a local artist, Mr. J. Kidman, of a 
parish pall, supposed to have been made 
during the reigu of Queen Elizabeth, 
which is reported to have been used in 
the church of Thame, Oxfordshire, until 
the beginning of the present century. 
The material was purple velvet, on which IUNKHAL PALL 

was a cross with rectangular arms, made OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 
of white satin, sewn down and edged 

with silver thread. A tradition asserts that it was first used at 
the obsequies of John, Lord Williams of Thame. No traces of 


it are now to be found. A remarkable foreign example of the 
fifteenth century, of black velvet, with double crosses of white, 
covered with skulls, cross-bones, and the legend, " Memento 
Mori," which formerly belonged to the church of Folleville, is 
now preserved in the museum at Amiens. See PALL. 

FUNERAL SERVICES. Services said by the officiating 
cleric at the burials or funerals of departed Christians. The 
Service for Burial, as used in the Church of England, is formed 
on the old Sarum model, but is in some respects defective, as 
lacking a direct prayer for the departed, and as wanting a 
celebration or mass for the dead. 

FUNERATE (Latin, funeratus). A mediaeval term, signifying 
"to bury." 

FYLFOT, OB FYTFOT. A term used to describe a mystical 
cross, made from the combination, in a cruciform arrangement, 

1 , 

of four Greek gammas, thus, |, j h- j 


i ] C i T 

, ' Occasionally the small 7 V. / 

as ' f rf . j was employed, thus, ^Hl"""S 

It was also called Gammation (Fa^/ian'ov), the Greek term for 
this mystical device. Its use formed a part of the ancient Dis- 
cipline of the Secret in the primitive Church. See FAMMATION. 



ABLE. An architectural term, anciently 
applied to the whole of the end wall of 
a pointed building, the top of which 
conforms to the slope of the roof which 
abuts against it, but is now only applied 
to the upper part of such a wall above 
the level of the eaves, the entire wall 
being described as a gable-end. 

TAAIAAIA (Ta\t\aia). A Greek term 
for Easter week, based on the use of a 
lesson from St. Matthew xxviii. 10. 

GALILEE. A porch or chapel at the entrance of a church. 
This term is likewise applied sometimes to! the nave of a large 
church, or to the west end of the nave of it, divided off from the 
rest of the nave by some architectural division, or by a rise in 
the floor. It corresponded with the ancient atrium, and was 
considered less sacred than the church itself. 

GALLICAN. A term used to designate a member of the 
Church of France. 

^ GALLICAN LITURGY. That form for celebrating the Holy 
Communion anciently used in France, prior to the general intro- 
duction of the Roman Missal by the authority of the Pope. 

GAMMADION. The Greek form of the Fylfot. See FYLFOT. 

TAMMATION (FajUjuarfov). A peculiar arrangement, symbo- 
lical, as some maintain, of the Greek letter F, placed in the form 
of a cross, used sometimes on the alb and other sacred vestments 
of the Oriental churches. This figure, sometimes termed " Gamma- 
dion," was made out of the four capital Greek gammas. In these 
forms it was anciently woven into various fanciful combinations 
and shapes, graceful, effective, and symbolical references to, 
and explanations of, which may be found in the Liber Ponti- 
ficalis of Anastasius, and in the works of Du Gauge and other 
liturgical writers. See FYLFOT or FYTFOT. 

GANG-DAYS. Going days, i.e. Rogation days, when pro- 
cessions take place. 



GARLAND. 1. A wreath of flowers. 2. Technically, "gar- 
lands " of old were semicircles, or sometimes circles, of precious 
metal, made for the arrangement either of natural or artificial 
flowers, to be placed before an altar or sacred image on high-days 
and holidays. 3. Circlets of precious metal jewelled, made after 
the pattern of various flowers ; several examples of which are 
mentioned by Dugdale in his record of Lincoln Cathedral, and are 
therein termed " garlands." 4. Funeral garlands were carried 
before the corpse of young virgins, and afterwards suspended at 
the tomb or about the grave, a custom still continued in many 
parts of England and Wales. 

GARTH. The greensward or grass area between, or within, 
the cloisters of a religious house. 

GENUFLECTION. A bending of the knee. This term 
indicates a temporary rather than a permanent act of kneeling ; 
even as it describes a bending of one knee and not a bending 
of both. 

TEPONTOKOMEION (rtpovroKojuetoi/). A Greek term for a 
hospital or refuge for old persons. 

TEPONTOKOMOS (rtpovrofcojuoe). The ruler or head of such 
a hospital. 

TEPliN (n/owv). A Greek term signifying (1) A ruler; (2) 
a monk ; (3) an abbot ; (4) an Oriental primate ; (5) a chief 
priest ; (6) the supreme spiritual officer in a cathedral. 

are as follows : Wisdom, Understanding, Counsel, Fortitude, 
Knowledge, Piety, and the Fear of the Lord. 

GIRDLE. A cord of linen, silk, worsted, or other material, 
with tassels at the extremities, by which the alb is bound round 
the waist of him who assumes it. It is fastened on the left 
side. When putting it on, the cleric says the following prayer, 
or one equivalent to it in terms : " Praecinge me, Domine, zona 
justitiae, et constringe in me dilectionem Dei et proximi." 

GLEBE. Land left by Christian benefactors for the general 
benefit of the cleric who is rector or vicar of any particular parish. 

GLORIA IN EXCELSIS. The Greater Doxology. The 
first words of the Latin version of the Angels' hymn at Beth- 
lehem, always used since the sixth century in the service of 
Holy Communion. It is very ancient, and its composition, as it 
now stands, is attributed by some to Pope Telesphorus. Others 


maintain that it was left to the Church by our Divine Redeemer 
Himself. It stands at the beginning of Mass in the Roman 
communion : its position symbolizing the mystical birth of Christ 
in each new celebration at the Sacrament. 

GLORIA PATRI. The opening words of the Latin form of 
the Doxology, used after the Psalms and Canticles throughout 
the whole Western Church. 

The Resurrection of our Blessed Lord ; (2) the Ascension ; (3) 
the Descent of the Holy Ghost ; (4) the Assumption of the 
Blessed Virgin ; (5) the Coronation of the Blessed Virgin. 

GLOSS (Latin, glossd). A commentary, an exposition. 

GLOVES. Part of the habit of a bishop or abbot when vested 
for Mass and other solemn functions. The use of gloves is of 
considerable antiquity, but their general adoption as a formal 
part of the dress of a bishop did not take place until about the 
twelfth century. William of Wykeham's gloves are preserved 
at New College, Oxford. The jewelled ornament often found on 
the back of the episcopal glove is represented, on a memorial 
brass in the chapel of the same college at Oxford. 

GOAT. A common and well-known ruminating quadruped 
with long hair and horns. This animal is sometimes represented 
in, or introduced into, ecclesiastical pictures, frescoes and others, 
as a type or emblem of lust. It also occurs more than once 
carved under seats or choir-stalls in churches and cathedral 
churches, and is there put as a mark of dishonour. 

GOD'S BOARD. A term used by early Anglicans, especially 
those of the latter part of the sixteenth century, for the Altar or 
Holy Table. See HIGH ALTAR. 

GOLDEN FRIDAY. The Friday in each of the Ember weeks. 

GOLDEN NUMBER. The number of the Paschal full moon ; 
so called because in ancient MS. kalendars it was not painted in 
black, but illuminated in letters of gold. 

GOLDEN PREBENDARY. The penitentiary of a cathedral 
who holds a valuable prebend. 

GOLDEN STAR. A kind of monstrance or ciborium used 
at Rome in the Papal High Mass on Easter-day. 

GOOD FRIDAY. The day on which Jesus Christ, True 
God and True Man, died on the cross for the salvation of the 
whole world. 



GOOD THURSDAY. 1. Maundy-Thursday; i.e. that day 
on which our ' ' Good Lord " instituted the Blessed Sacrament. 
2. That day on which the goodness of the Son of God was 
manifested to His apostles by special promises of divine grace. 

GOSPEL (THE). 1. The history of our Lord's Incarnation, 
life, and acts. 2. God's spell or God's message. 3. Glad tidings. 
4. Good news. 5. A divine revelation. 

west corner or horn of a Christian altar. 

GOSPELLER. That cleric who solemnly chants the Gospel 
at High Mass ; the deacon of the Mass. Such officers were 
formerly retained in the Reformed Church of England, and are 
still recognized. 


GOSPEL LECTERN. A lectern placed on the north side 
of the sanctuary in certain churches, on which the book of the 
Gospels reposes, and from which the Gospel is sometimes chanted. 

GOSPEL LIGHTS. Two lighted tapers borne by acolytes 
during the solemn chanting of the Gospel at High Mass, 

GOSPEL SIDE OF A CHURCH (THE), The north side 
of a church or chapel. 

GOSPELS (BOOK OF THE). A volume, in ancient times, 


richly illuminated, containing the history of our Lord's Life, 
Mission, Death, Kesurrection, and Ascension. These volumes were 
often written in letters of gold, and bound sumptuously in precious 
metal, adorned with the choicest imagery and the richest jewels. 
Sometimes they were kept in shrines, and only brought out for 
use in the Mass at the highest and most important festivals. 
References to such exist in large numbers in early writers, and 
many remarkable examples are known in the sanctuaries of the 
Continent; two of which, at Aix-la-Chapelle and Mayence, are 
known to antiquaries. Numerous rich examples are reckoned up 
amongst the treasures of old St. Paul's, London, Lincoln Minster, 
and Salisbury Cathedral. That in the woodcut on p. 138 is 
from an early Flemish specimen, drawn by the late Mr. A. Welby 

GOSSIP. An old English term for one who stands as 
sponsor for a person to be baptized. 

GRACE. 1. Favour. 2. Spiritual gifts from God. 3. A 
technical term for the blessing of food. An old form is found 
in the " Apostolical Constitutions." Modern forms differ. There 
are several Latin varieties, all founded more or less on ancient 
examples, used at the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge. 

GRACE-CUP. A standing cup, often of precious metal, 
anciently used on solemn commemorations at meals, from which 
each of the guests assembled drank to the memory of founders 
or benefactors, or gave the health of living friends. Sometimes 
the grace-cup was made of maple or walnut-wood, lined and 
edged with gold or silver. Ancient examples exist at Oriel 
College, Oxford, the Ironmongers' Company in London, and in 
many private families. Round the grace-cup of Sir Henry Lee, 
K.G. (temp. Queen Elizabeth), ran the following inscription : 

" Helthe to y c lyvyng and grace ; 
And reste to y c ffaythfull departyd & lyght." 


GRADIN. 1. A French term for a step behind and above 
the level of the altar-slab, for placing the cross and candlesticks 
upon, so as not to interfere with the altar itself. In mediaeval 
illuminations examples are often found of the two candles during 
Mass being placed near the western corners of the altar, and they 
are almost always represented as standing on the altar (See Illus- 
tration, p. 16), but commonly at its easternmost side, at the 
corners. 2. The term "gradine" has been recently introduced 
into the Church of England. It corresponds with that already 


and GRAIL). 1. A volume containing all the musical portions 
of the service for Mass, i.e., amongst other parts, the Introits, 
Kyries, Graduals, Alleluias, Sequences, Creeds, Offertories, and 
Gloria in excelsi^s are set out at length and in detail. 2. That 
portion of the Latin service of the Mass which immediately follows 
the Epistle, and is sung as the deacon returns to the steps of the 
altar : hence its name. Or this may have been derived from the 
fact that it was sung during the ascent of the deacon up the steps 
leading to the rood-loft, in order to chant the Gospel at solemn 
High Mass. 

GRADUAL PSALMS (THE). The following are the Gra- 
dual Psalms: cxx. Ad Dominum ; cxxi. Levavi oculos; cxxii. 
Lcctatus sum ; cxxiii. Ad Te levavi oculos meos ; cxxiv. Nisi 
quia Dominus ; cxxv. Qui confidunt ; cxxvi. In convcrtendo ; 
cxxvii. Nisi Dominus ; cxxviii. Beati omnes ; cxxix. Scepe 
expugnaverunt ; cxxx. De profundis ; cxxxi. Domine, non est ; 
cxxxii. Memento Domine ; cxxxiii. Ecce, quam bonum ! cxxxiv. 
Ecce nunc. They were anciently chanted from the steps of the 
choir, more especially during the Advent season. 


GRANGE. A term for the house or residence of the granger 
who takes charge of the garners and barns of a religious house. 


GRATE. 1. A metal basket for holding lighted wood and 
other fuel on the hearth of a room. 2. Hence any iron screen 
or grille round a tomb, before a door, or for the protection of a 
choir, chapel, or chantry. 3. A mediaeval English term for a 
grill or metal screen of ornamental work. 

GRAYLE. An old English term, formed by contraction, for 
Gradual. It is sometimes spelt " Greale," and " Grail " or 
" Graile." Sec GRADUAL. 


GREAT ENTRANCE (THE). A term by which the solemn 
act of bringing in of the elements for the Christian Sacrifice in 
the Oriental churches is described. 

GREAT FAST (THE). An Oriental term for Lent, that 
being the chief or longest fast of the ecclesiastical year. 


GREAT MARTYR (THE). An Oriental expression applied 
to St. George of Cappadocia, one of the most popular of those 
saints who are venerated in the Greek Church. 

GREAT NIGHT (THE). This term is sometimes applied 
by foreign writers to Christmas, and sometimes to the night of 

GREAT OBLATION (THE). An Eastern term for the 
solemn presentation of the Christian Sacrifice, " Christ's precious 
Body and Blood in a mystery/' to the Eternal Father. 

GREAT THURSDAY. An Oriental term for Maundy- 
Thursday. For the West, Georgius applies it to Ascension-day. 

GREAT TITHES. The tithes of corn and fruits are so 
called in England. 

prohibiting a person from taking any part in Divine service ; 
from the sacraments ; and, by consequence, from any communion 
with the faithful. This excommunication is always pronounced 
and promulgated by the bishop of the diocese or his personal 

GREEK CHRISTIANS. A modern technical term for those 
members of the Oriental Church who are in communion with the 
Patriarch of Constantinople, and whose theological language is 

GREEK CHURCH (THE). A technical term by which to 
designate those Christian bodies in the East who are in 
communion with the See of Constantinople, anciently called 
" New Rome." They are found in Turkey, Asia Minor, Greece 
proper, Syria, and Egypt, together with Russia, Siberia, 
Poland, Servia, and parts of Austria : they have also their 
representatives in other European nations. Though they 
separated from visible and actual communion with Rome in the 
eleventh century (A.D. 1059), their faith is substantially the 
same ; as the leading doctrines of the Tridentine Council were 
formally adopted at the Oriental Synod of Bethlehem in the 
seventeenth century. Dogmatically they reject the doctrine of 
the double procession, that is, the procession of the Holy Ghost 
from the Father and the Son (Filioque), and repudiate the juris- 
diction of the See of Rome. Their strong and devotional lan- 
guage regarding the Blessed Virgin is a marked feature in their 
prayers. The Church of Russia is governed by a Synod nomi- 


nated by the Emperor, but subject, theologically, to the Patriarch 
of Constantinople, who is regarded as the ecclesiastical head of 
the whole Greek Church. 

GREEK DOCTORS (THE FOUR). There are (1) St. 
Athanasius ; (2) St. Basil the Great ; (3) St. Gregory the 
Nazianzene ; and (4) St. John Chrysostom. 

GREES. A mediaeval term, which some assert to be derived 
from Gradus, signifying a a step." It is frequently employed by 
old English writers to designate the altar-steps, which anciently 
were two only ; but others were added later, until, in more recent 
times, high altars have been elevated on at least seven steps. 
There are some examples of this both in old and modern 

GREETING-HOUSE. A term sometimes applied in me- 
diaeval times to the chapter-house of a cathedral, where a newly- 
appointed bishop or dean received the greetings respectively of 
his flock, or the members of his cathedral. Such greetings, 
however, were as frequently given at the entrance of the choir, 
or in the sacristy. To an abbot they were sometimes tendered in 
the refectory, or even in the choir after the rites of installation. 

GREGORGIAN CHANTS. A series of eight solemn chants 
or tones for the Psalms and Canticles, reputed to have been ori- 
ginally arranged for Christian worship by St. Gregory the Great, 
from the traditional music of the Jewish synagogue, possibly 
handed down from the temple- worship. Four of these tones 
(a) the Dorian, ()3) the Phrygian, (7) the Lydian, and (8) the 
Mixo-Lydian are <styled " authentic," and the remaining four 
" plagal." These latter have their origin in the former, and in 
their present position stand alternately with them as regards 
order. There is a ninth tone, of Gallican origin, the Tonus 
Peregrinus, very beautiful and popular, to which Psalm cxiv. is 
commonly sung. In the course of time many other special and 
peculiar endings have come into use in various parts of the 
Western Church, all more or less alike in their general character 
for grandeur, stateliness, and solemn dignity, but all differing 
slightly from the original pure and more severe forms. 

GREGORIAN STYLE (THE). That mode of computation 
which was first introduced into Europe by Buoncampagno, 
Pope Gregory XIII. (A.D. 15721585). This change abolished 
the Julian calendar, which derived its name from Julius Caasar, 
though it was not effected in England until the year 1 752, ancl 
is disregarded in Russia even now. 



GREMIALE. An episcopal ornament for the breast, lap, 
and shoulders ; originally a plain towel of fine linen, used in 
ordination to protect the sacred vestments from any drops of 
unction that might fall in the act of anointing candidates for the 
priesthood. In later times it was made of silk or damask, to 
match the episcopal vestments, and was used in certain French 
dioceses both at Solemn and High Mass. The accompanying 
woodcut is from a French example of the sixteenth century, 
made of purple silk, embroidered and tasselled in gold and silver 
thread. (See Illustration.) 


GRILLE. 1. A metal screen, to enclose or protect any par- 
ticular spot, locality, shrine, tomb, or sacred ornament. 2. A 
gate of metal enclosing or protecting the entrance of a religious 
house or sacred building. 3. The wicket of a monastery. 4. A 
small screen of iron bars inserted in the door of a monastic or 
conventual building, in order to allow the inmates to converse 
with visitors, or to answer inquiries without opening the door. 

GRITHE- STOOL. 1. An old term for a frith-stool. 2. The 
seat of sanctuary ; reaching which, in certain favoured spots or 
places, criminals lost their legal liability to punishment, an 
example of the mercy evidenced in practice by the mediaeval 
Church. See FEITHSTOOL. 

GUBERNATOR (Latin). 1. Any ruler or governor, secular 
or ecclesiastical. 2. Sometimes the dean or provost of a cathe- 
dral. 3. Occasionally the abbot or prior of a religious house. 
4. "Parochialis Gubernator" in an ancient deed has been rendered 
the " parson or priest of a parish." 5. A bishop. 6. " Collegii 
Gubernator " is the master or head of a college. 



GUEST-HOUSE. 1. Primarily any room or building set 
apart for the reception of guests. 2. Ancient secular corpora- 
tions often owned a special building for the purpose of receiving 
and housing visitors and travellers, whether official or private, 
called, by consequence, the " guest-house," or " guestern-hall." 
Of this latter a remarkable example has recently been destroyed 
at Worcester. 3. A suite of rooms or house attached to a con- 
vent or monastery for the exercise of that hospitality to all ranks 
and classes, which was regarded as a duty by so many of the 
religious orders. It was presided over by a guest-master or hos- 
pitaller. In ancient times abbeys were often used as hostels by 
persons travelling, from royalty downwards, and visitors were 
always entertained free of charge. Alms bestowed in return 
were voluntarily given. Guests were both received and bidden 
" God speed " with due and expressive religious ceremonies, 
which differed with the various orders. 4. It is implied in his- 
tory that in Anglo-Saxon times both bishops and parochial clergy 
owned their guest-house, being " given to hospitality." 

The mediaeval term for an ornamental projecting spout to 
throw off water from the wall beneath or below it ; frequently 
used in Pointed architecture. Gurgoyles are commonly found 
in the shape of heads of monsters, dragons, daemons, fabulous 
animals, and exaggerated human faces. They abound in the 
First-Pointed style, and usually stand out from the cornice of a 
tower or other building ; but are also found in each succeeding 
style of Pointed architecture, varying, however, in character 
and position ; for occasionally they may be seen projecting from 
buttresses. Some writers have regarded these gurgoyles as 
symbolizing heretics and others who have been cast out of the 

GYPCER, OR GYPSYRE (French, gibeciere).!. The medi- 
aeval term for a hanging bag. 2. A pouch or flat burse or purse, 
with a mouth or opening of metal, strung to the girdle, often 
represented in English monumental brasses. 




A.BIT (Latin, habitus). 1. Any dress, or 
specially any official dress. 2. The dress 
of a monk or nun. 3. The ordinary 
dress of a cleric. 

HABITACLE (Latin, habitaculum). 
1. A place of residence. 2. An official 
dwelling-house. 3. The niche or re- 
ceptacle for an image : hence, by some 
writers, " the habitacle for God's Body" 
is a tabernacle. 

HABITUAL GRACE. That grace, or gift of God, which 
the faithful are in the habit of receiving by and through the 
Sacraments, mercifully given by the Almighty, and not per- 
sonally acquired or merited by themselves. 

HADES. 1. The hidden or invisible place where the souls 
of the faithful departed await rest and light everlasting. 2. The 
place of preparation for the celestial joys, to which all go who 
require to be cleansed and prepared for the Beatific Vision. 

HAGIASCOPE. An opening frequently found on one side, 
and sometimes on both sides of a chancel arch, arranged 
obliquely, and converging towards the altar, in order to enable 
worshippers in the side aisles of a church to witness the eleva- 
tion of the Host during the Christian Sacrifice. Good examples 
occur at Bridgewater, Somersetshire ; Minster Lovell and Great 
Haseley, Oxfordshire. 

HAIL ! MARY ( Ave Maria) . The first words of the angelical 

HAIR SHIRT. An undergarment of coarse hair, painful 
and irritating to wear ; sometimes worn as a suitable penance. 

HALF- COMMUNION. A popular, but inexact and inaccu- 
rate, term for communion in one kind ; for, as theologians teach, 
" whole Christ is received under either species." 

HALIDOME, OR HALLYDOME. An old term for the Last 
Day the general judgment. 

HALLOW (TO). 1. To make holy. 2. To sanctify. 3. To 
bless. 4. To make sacred. 5. To set apart for religious uses. 

Lee's Glostary. L 


HALLOWE'EN. The Scotch term for the eve of the feast of 
All Saints. 

HALLOWMASS. 1. All Saints' day. 2. The mass or 
communion of the feast of All Saints. 

HALLOWMASS-TIDE. The time of the feast of All Saints, 
i.e. All Saints' day and its octave. 

HALLYMOTE. 1. A sacred or holy court, presided over by 
an ecclesiastic. 2. A visitation by a bishop of some particular 
parish or church. 

HAMPULLING-CLOTH. 1. A towel of fine linen with 
which to remove the superfluous oil or unction in the adminis- 
tration of the Sacrament of anointing'. 2. Also a cloth to spread 
over the person of a monarch during the act of anointing in 
coronation. It is sometimes spelled ( ( Ampulling-cloth." See 

HANAP. A mediaeval term for a drinking-cup. 

HAND (Saxon, hand, liond}. 1. The extremity of the arm, con- 
sisting of the palm, thumb, and fingers, joined to it by the wrist. 
2. A hand technically represented in the act of benediction, 
surrounded by a cloud, was an ordinary and common representa- 
tion of God the Eternal Father. It is also found engraved in the 
inside of pyxes and on the disks of mediseval patens, where it is 
used both as an emblem of the sacerdotal power, and of the 
presence of God. 8. The Hands of our Blessed Lord, wounded, 
were often represented in sculpture ; the right Hand was termed 
" the Well of Mercy " ; the left, " the Well of Grace." 

HAND-BELL. 1. A small' bell rung by the hand. 2. A bell 
used in some parts of the Church to indicate the approach of a 
priest bearing the Blessed Sacrament with which to communicate 
the sick or dying. 3. The Sanctus bell was of old often a simple 
hand-bell, sometimes made of silver, and rung by the server at 

HANDS (WASHING OF THE). A ceremonial act, bor- 
rowed from the Jewish ritual, observed after the offertory, but 
prior to the offering of the Holy Sacrifice by the celebrating 
priest. This rite is referred to in the Apostolical Constitutions. 
In England the old custom was to use the Piscina for this 
rite. In the Church of Rome, acolytes bring basin, water, and 
napkin to the celebrant, at the south corner of the altar. 

HANDS (IMPOSITION OF). 1. An external rite, made use 
of by a bishop in confirmation and ordination, indicating the 


bestowal of special gifts of grace to the person undergoing it. 
2. An act, similar in character, used by many in the bestowal of 
a blessing or formal commission. 

HANGINGS (Panni). Stuffs, silks, satins, velvets, damasks, 
and other similar materials, made use of for the decoration of 
churches on special festivals. 

HARSA, HERCIA, OR HERSA. A mediseval term, some- 
times employed to describe any triangular candlestick for tapers, 
but more especially used to designate that which is employed in the 
offices of Tenebrae in Holy Week. In it, at this service, are placed 
fourteen unbleached wax candles to represent the Apostles and 
the three Marys, with one bleached wax candle to represent our 
Saviour. They are all extinguished in the course of the service, 
save the last-named. See HERSE. 

HATCHMENT. The painting of a coat of arms hung over 
the tomb of a person recently deceased. 

HEAD- STONE. A stone placed at the head of a grave, as a 
memorial of the departed. Anciently, the cross in some form or 
another was invariably used, either simply ; with floriated ends ; 

Fig. 1. HEAD-STONE, Fig. 2. HEAD-STONE, Fig. 3. HEAD-STONE, 


within a circle ; or in some other obvious form (see Fig. 1). A 
second illustration, with the upper portion coped, from an old 
example still existing at Handborough, in Oxfordshire, serves to 
set forth another type ; while a third, from the parish church of 
Folkestone (Fig. 3), is remarkable for its stern and severe sim- 
plicity. During the fifteenth century the cruciform shape was 
displaced by other forms less Christian, neither artistic nor 

HEALING-COIN. That piece of money which was anciently 
given by our kings to those persons who were ' ( touched " for 

L 2 


the cilre of the king's evil, was so called. The coin was pierced 
and worn round the neck with a string or ribbon. 

HEALING-OIL. The sacred unction, made of oil of olives 
and balm, for use in the Sacrament of Extreme Unction. 

HEALING-PYX. The pyx or box containing the sacred oil 
for anointing the sick. 

HEARERS (Andientes). A class of catechumens in the early 
Church permitted to hear only a portion of the services. 

HEAR MASS (TO). A term to describe the act of being 
present at the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. 

HEART. The primary organ of the blood's motion in an 
animal body ; the seat of the will, affections, and passions. 
Hence a symbol of our Blessed Lord's humanity and love, often 
introduced into ecclesiastical decorations in conjunction with His 
wounded Hands : sometimes the Heart is drawn with too great 
carnal grossness. It is often depicted as surrounded with a 
crown of thorns, a radiated cross, and frequently it is crowned. 
The more conventionally it is treated, the more spiritual its 
teaching becomes. A representation of the Heart of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary has, in recent years, been often represented in 
churches of the Latin rite. 

HEATHEN. Those who, in their naturally unregenerate 
state, have not been baptized, and know not God revealed in 

HEAVEN. 1. The Home of God the Trinity and the un- 
fallen angels. 2. The place of reward for the blessed. 3. That 
locality where the Presence, Glory, and Majesty of the Eternal 
are more especially manifested. 

HEBDOMADA CRUC IS. Literally "the week of the 
Cross " : hence, Holy Week. 

HEBDOMADA EXPECTATION^. 1. This term is applied 
to the last week in Advent, because at that season preachers 
have discoursed on the expectation of the Saviour's birth ex- 
perienced by His Mother, the Blessed Virgin Mary. 2. It has 
also been applied to the week before Pentecost, when the Apostles 
tarried in Jerusalem waiting for the gifts of the Holy Ghost. 

HEBDOMADA MAJOR. The greater week of Lent : hence, 
Holy Week. 

HEBDOMADA PASSIONIS D.N.J.C. 1. The week of the 
Passion, i. e. Holy Week. 2. By some later writers, Passion 


Week, i. e. the week before Holy Week, the week commencing 
on the fifth Sunday in Lent. 

HEBDOMADARIUS. 1. A Latin term for any official whose 
duties are confined to a single week. 2. A weekly chaplain. 
3. A weekly lecturer or college tutor. The Anglicised form of 
the word, still retained in some of our ancient colleges and 
schools, is Hebdomadary. 

HEGIRA. A term to designate the date of the flight of 
Mahomet (the false prophet and founder of Mahometanism) from 
Mecca to Medina, i.e. 10 July, 622. 

HEGUMEN. 1. A Greek term to designate the abbot of an 
inferior religious house. 2. The second person in authority in a 
superior convent. 3. The ruler of any religious community. 

HELL. 1. The place of punishment for the lost, where the 
presence of God is unknown. 2. The prison-house of the fallen 
angels. 3. A term sometimes used in old ecclesiastical docu- 
ments to designate a prison. 

HELLENISTIC. Pertaining to those Jews who spoke 

HELLENISTS. Jews who spoke Greek. 

HEPTATEUCH. A Greek term to designate the first seven 
books of the Old Testament Scriptures. 

HEREFORD USE. A term employed to designate that rite 
which, taking its name from the cathedral of Hereford, was com- 
monly used in some of the north-west counties of England, and 
in parts of Wales, prior to the Reformation. It differs only 
slightly from the use of Salisbury in the prayer of Oblation and 
in the communion of the priest. The service-books of these rites 
are extremely rare. MSS., no doubt, were everywhere destroyed. 
Only one printed edition is known that of Rouen, dated 1502. 

HEREMITE. A hermit. 

HERESIARCH. 1. A leading heretic. 2. A chief teacher 
or disseminator of false doctrine. 3. One who chooses a new 
religion for himself, and actively propagates it. 

HERESY. 1. A choice. 2. The act of choosing for oneself 
in matters of revealed religion. 

HERETIC. One who having chosen for himself in matters 
of revealed religion, absolutely persists in remaining in error. 



HERMIT, OR HEREMITE. A religious person devoting 
himself to contemplation, recollectedness, and prayer, who lives 
apart from the rest of the world and the dwellings of mankind. 

HERMITAGE. The cell or residence of a hermit. 
HERMITORY. The oratory or chapel of a hermit. 

HERSE, OE HEARSE (Herecius, a hedgehog). 1. A frame 
of wood or metal, originally constructed to support temporarily 
the pall at solemn and important funeral obsequies. The 


temporary herse used at the time of funerals was generally a 
lofty canopy of wood, covered with hangings and wax tapers, 
arranged variously for persons of different rank, often made with 
considerable architectural care and pretensions, and generally 
adorned with niches, tabernacle-work, images, and flowers of 
wax, together with heraldic and religious banners, crosses, 
scutcheons, and fringes of velvet, silk, or satin. The plan was 
generally square, but not unfrequently a parallelogram in shape. 
2. Sometimes the herse over tombs was arched in construction, as in 


the case of that in the Beauchamp Chapel at Warwick ; and some- 
times rectangular ; and, in some cases, when intended to be per- 
manently placed over a tomb, was carefully and characteristically 
designed and wrought with great care and at a considerable cost. 
Examples in metal exist at Tanfield and Bedale churches, in 
Yorkshire, as also at Hurstpierpoint, in Sussex. The accom- 
panying is a fine example of a permanent herse, from the pencil 
of the late Mr. A. W. Pugin. (See Illustration.) 

HERSE-LIGHT. The light placed near or upon a herse. 

HIGH ALTAR. The chief, central, or principal altar of a 
church. Other altars in old documents are often called " low 
altars," to distinguish them from that which is the chief altar. 
When there are many chapels in a church, clustering on either 
side of the chief chapel or chancel, the principal chancel contain- 
ing the high altar is sometimes called the " high chancel." 


HIGH DAY. 1. A holiday* 2. A commemoration-day of 
an university, college, school, or religious house. 

HIGH TOMB. A term used by Camden, Leland, and other 
writers for an altar-tomb. See ALTAR-TOMB. 

HILE. 1. An old English word, signifying to put on a roof 
or cover. In old documents it is sometimes spelled " helye," 
" hylle," and " hyle." 2. The covering of a church roof. 

HOLY FRIDAY. 1. Ordinarily a term to designate Good 
Friday. 2. It is also sometimes applied to the Friday in each of 
the Ember weeks. 

HOLY GHOST. 1. A term applied to designate the Third 
Person in the Blessed Trinity the Comforter, the Paraclete, God 
the Holy Spirit. 2. The customary type of the Holy Ghost a 
type as old as the sixth century is a dove, either painted or 
sculptured. This is often found over or about altars. (See the 
Illustration, "Altar under a Baldachino," p. 15, where a dove is 
represented suspended under the Canopy.) This symbol is like- 
wise found at the top or head of the royal sceptre, as also on 
vergers' staves. 3. Churches and chapels dedicated in honour 
of the Holy Ghost are remarkable for their rarity. Amongst 
the former are Newtown, in the Isle of Wight (though some local 
authorities believe its dedication to be in honour of the Blessed 
Trinity), and Basingstoke ; while, amongst the latter, are side 
chapels in Peterborough, St. David's, and Exeter Cathedrals. 

HOLY NIGHT.l . Christmas-eve (as some writers affirm), 


because at that time the Holy Child Jesus was born. 2. Georgius 
mentions this term as applied by some liturgical writers to the 
night of Holy Thursday, i. c. Thursday in Holy Week, because, 
at that time, the Holy Eucharist was instituted. 3. The same 
term has been applied to the night of Easter even. 

HOLY ROOD. 1. The Cross of our Blessed Lord. 2. Any 
representation of the Cross. 3. A church or abbey dedicated in 
honour of the Cross o our Blessed Lord ; examples of which were 
anciently known in England, Scotland, and Ireland. 4. The 
Rood cross in a Christian church. 

HOLY THURSDAY. 1. A term ordinarily applied to the 
feast of our Lord's Ascension. 2. Some French writers appear 
to have designated Corpus Christi day, the Thursday after 
Trinity Sunday, when the institution of the Blessed Sacrament 
is commemorated, by this term. 3. It has also been applied (as 
Georgius points out) to the Thursday in Holy Week Maundy- 

HOLY WATER. Water into which, after exorcism, blessed 
salt has been placed, and then duly sanctified with the sign of the 
cross and sacerdotal benediction. Its use in the Christian 
church has probably come down from the time of the Apostles. 
The ancient canon law gives directions as to its blessing ; while 
certain of the older rituals provide appropriate services for the 
act. Holy water is used by Christians of the Latin, Greek, and 
other Oriental rites throughout the world. 


HOLY- WATER STOUP. A small stone font or receptacle 
for Holy water^ commonly placed in or near 
the chief porch of a Christian church, and fre- 
quently supported by a projecting stone pillar. 
The "Rites of Durham" refer in detail to the 
existence of such. Sometimes the Holy-water 
stoup was lined with lead or latten ; and oc- 
casionally another vessel, exactly fitting the 
hollowed basin of the stone font, was placed 
within it. These were commonly destroyed 
either at the Reformation or during the Great 
HOLY-WATER STOUP, Rebellion, between which events the use of 
TKOM THE OLD CHURCH Holy water died out in England. Many ex- 
OF TETSWORTH, oxoN. amples of stoups, however, still exist, though 
damaged and imperfect. That in the accompanying illustration 
is from the now-destroyed old church of St. Giles, Tets worth, 


Oxfordshire, for many centuries a chapelry of the Prebendal 
church of St. Mary, Thame, in the same county. 

HOLY-WATER VAT (Fas, Benetier.).A portable vessel 
of brass, bronze, latten, ivory, wood, or some precious metal, to 
contain blessed or Holy water ; for use at the introduction to 
Mass, pr on other customary occasions. Many old examples of 
such vessels exist, both in sacristies and museums. There is a 
fine specimen of an ivory Holy-water vat at Milan Cathedral, and 
several in the Museum of Bruges. 

HOOD-MOULDING. An architectural and ecclesiastical 
term to signify that projecting moulding commonly found over 
the heads of arches ; so called because it forms a kind of hood 
to them. 

HOSPITAL (Hospitium). 1. A term anciently used to desig- 
nate a house of charity for poor, sick, or aged persons or pilgrims. 
In modern times it has been more commonly limited to places of 
refuge for the sick. Hospitals existed at Rome and Lyons in 
the fifth century ; for the care of their poor was a distinguishing 
feature of the charity of the early Christians. 2. This term is 
also applied to the guest-house of a religious community. 3. A 
collegiate institution for poor and infirm people. Hundreds of 
these existed before the Reformation, but were then suppressed. 
A few old examples exist still : St. Cross's Hospital, near Win- 
chester ; Christ's Hospital, a school for the poor in London ; 
Emmanuel Hospital, Westminster ; while during the past three 
centuries some new institutions of this kind have been founded ; 
e.g., Sackville College, Sussex, &c. 4. Hospitals were also 
founded for lepers and demoniacs, as well as for particular trades- 
people, by the guilds of which they had been members. 

HOST (Hostid). 1. The name given to the altar-breads used 
in the Holy Eucharist. Panis ad sacrificium Eucharisticum dcsti- 
natus (Du Cange). 2. The Blessed Sacrament under the form 
of bread, from the Latin term for victim. 

HOUR-GLASS STAND. A stand or frame of iron or brass 
to support an hour-glass affixed to the pulpit, and first used in 
Queen Elizabeth's reign, when tedious sermons of an hour's or 
two hours' length were first introduced by the foreign Reformers 
from abroad. Its use was current under Archbishop Parker, 
and it continued more or less until the period of the Restoration. 
The stand remained in many English country churches until the 
recent Catholic revival, but has recently been removed as useless 
and not ornamental, though examples are still to be found. 
The hour-glass and stand remain perfect at Wiggenhall, in the 
diocese of Norwich. 


HOUSEL. 1. An ancient term to designate the Blessed 
Sacrament. 2. As a verb it was used to signify " to give com- 

HOUSELLING BELL. 1. A hand-bell anciently used to 
summon the communicants to the altar. 2. The Sanctus bell. 

HOUSELLING BREAD. An old term for the sacramental 

HOUSELLING CLOTH. A long strip of linen used to 
spread over the altar-rails when the faithful are being commu- 
nicated. Anciently, as illuminated MSS. indicate (See MS. Brit. 
Mus. 2. B. vii.), this cloth was sometimes held before the com- 
municants by two acolytes. Its use has been traditionally pre- 
served in various churches in England; amongst others, St. Mary's, 
Oxford ; St. Mary's, Prestbury ; and All Saints', Lambeth. 

HOUSELLING FOLK. Those amongst the faithful in 
church who are prepared to receive the Holy Sacrament. Some- 
times they knelt apart from the rest of the congregation. 

HOUSING. An old English term for a canopy, niche, or 

HOVEL. An old English term for a receptacle for protec- 
tion ; hence a constructional covering ; and so a canopy for an 
image, &c. 

term to describe a comparatively modern composition, viz., that 
prayer beginning " We do not presume." This prayer was first 
placed in the English Liturgies of 1548 and 1549 between the 
Prayer of Consecration and the Communion (technically so 
called), and is also so found in the Scottish Prayer-book of 
Archbishop Laud. Some persons have seen in it a resemblance, 
not very remarkable, to an old Latin " Oratio," which occurs 
both in the Sarum and York Uses. 

HUMERAL VEIL. A long narrow veil of silk, of the same 
colour and material as the sacred vestments of the clergy, with 
which the subdeacon during Mass covers his hands while bear- 
ing the paten, to indicate reverence for the hallowed vessels of 
the sanctuary, a custom borrowed from the ancient Jewish 
Ritual (Numbers iv. 7). A similar veil is also used during the 
service of Benediction with the Blessed Sacrament, to enfold 
the hands of the officiant before he takes the Ostensorium into 
his hands when blessing the faithful. 


HUTCH. 1. A mediaeval term for a chest, box, or hoarding- 
cupboard, found in use in the "Vision of Piers Plowman." 
Hence, (2) this word was sometimes applied to an aumbrye for 
the sacred vessels of the altar, as in the " Accounts of Louth 
Spire " ; or (3) to one for the sacramental oil, baptismal shell, 
stoles, and towel used in baptism. 4. Any locker for books, 
Church music, sconces, &c. 

HYMN. A sacred song, metrical composition, or chant, in 
honour of God the Trinity. Such are both referred to and men- 
tioned in the Scriptures, and their use, taken from the services of 
the Temple and Synagogue, was obviously adopted by Christians 
from the earliest times. Writers and Fathers of the Christian 
Church declare that hymns were constantly used, specially on high 
feasts ; and that such were certainly addressed to Jesus Christ, 
the Second Person in the Blessed Trinity, in the third century, is 
clear from the decrees of the Council of Antioch, and those of 
other councils which sanctioned their being sung. The use of 
the Gloria in Excelsis, and the Ter Sanctus in the Mass are 
of the highest antiquity. Many of the saints of the undivided 
Church composed hymns which are still chanted in Divine ser- 
vice. These were severally adopted by different local Churches 
from time to time, here one and there another, until at last there 
came to be used a certain number of those best known and most 
highly regarded throughout the chief dioceses of Eastern and 
Western Christendom. When the changes of the sixteenth cen- 
tury were made in England, the old office hymns were abolished, 
and nothing formally put into their place. Various modern 
Hymnals, containing translations of the ancient hymns, both 
from Eastern and Western sources, as well as modern composi- 
tions, have been recently compiled, issued, and adopted, and their 
use in England is very general. 

HYMNAL. A book of hymns. 

HYMNARY (Hymnamum). A book of hymns. 



ICHTHYS. A technical term for a sym- 
bolical representation of our Blessed Lord, 
which appears to have been derived from 
a common acrostic of His name and 
office, contained in this Greek term 
ICHTHYS or IX0T2, which is inter- 
preted 'ITJCTOUC Xptoroc 0ou Ttoc 2u>r/)jO, 
i. e. " Jesus Christ the Son of God the 
Saviour." In allusion to this very ancient 
emblem of our Blessed Saviour, Tertullian 
and other early Christian writers speak of 

the faithful as Pisciculi. Hence the use of the Vesica Piscis as 
an emblem. Ecclesiastical seals, as well of corporations as of 
persons, were of old commonly made of this shape. 




. A Greek term for a benefice. 
. A Greek term for a religious of lay 

IEPA, f H ('le/oa, 17). A Greek term for the clergy in sacred 

IEPATIKOS ('Ifpcmico'e). A Greek term for a priest. 

IEPOAIAKONO2 ('lepo&aicovoe). A Greek term for a 
religious in deacon's orders. 

1EPOAOTEIN ('hpoAo'ym;). A Greek term signifying 
"to make blessed," "to make holy," or "to pronounce a 

I EPOM APTTP ('hpofiapTvp) . A Greek term used to designate 
a martyr in either of the three sacred orders. 

IEPOMONAXO2 ('l/>o/iovaxoe). A Greek term for a monk 
in sacred or holy orders. 

IEPOTPFEIN ('lepovytiv). A Greek verb, signifying "to 
celebrate Holy Communion," or " to offer the Holy Sacrifice." 

lEPOYPFIA ('Itpovpyia}. A Greek term for the Liturgy. 

lEPO^AATHS ('hpo^a'Xrr/c). A Greek term for a chorister 
who has been formally set apart for the office of singing. 



I. H. S. 1. An abbreviation, borrowed from the Greek word 
IH2OT2. Some assert that St. Bernardino of Sienna invented 
it as a devotional emblem about the year 1400, from which date 
it was introduced, and its use greatly, and almost generally, 
extended. Prior to that period the monogram XP had been 
ordinarily adopted to symbolize the Name of our Blessed Saviour. 
2. Sometimes, as early writers of the Society of Jesus main- 
tained, the capital letters of the Latin words "Jesus Hominum 

IAA2THPION ('l\a<TTr,ptov}. A Greek term for theBema. 
ILLUMMINAEE. An ancient term signifying " to baptize/' 
ILLUMINATL An ancient term signifying ' ' the baptized." 

ILLUMINATION. 1. The act of illuminating. 2. The art 
of illuminating books with ornamental letters and pictures was 


extant for generations, and has been current in the Christian 
Church for the purpose of multiplying service-books of all kinds, 
from very early periods. Examples exist of MSS. of various 
kinds and dates, from the earliest Byzantine MSS. to those of 
the seventeenth century, full of interest, curious in themselves, 
and illustrating in a remarkable manner the rites, customs, and 
tastes of our ancestors. Any cathedral library will supply speci- 
mens. That in the accompanying woodcut (See Illustration) 
represents Moses at the burning bush, and is taken from a MS. 


page in the possession of the author, from an old service-book 
of the fifteenth century, which belonged to the church of Thame. 

ILLUMINATOR. One whose work it is to illuminate books 
and MSS. with ornamental letters, pictures, and illustrative 

IMAGE (Latin, imago). 1. A representation or similitude of 
any person or thing formed of a material substance. 2. A statue. 
3. An idol. 4. Soon after the accession of Constantine and the 
triumph of Christianity, representations of Scriptural and Gospel 
subjects, often under allegorical and typical forms, i.e. images, 
came into use amongst Christians. This appears to have been 
so from the time of Calixtus. In principle their use is at one 
with that of sculpture. And although, in the earliest times, so 
long as Pagan idols remained, the rulers of the Christian Church 
hesitated, for obvious reasons, to sanction the introduction of 
images into her sanctuaries, yet, at a later period, such were 
judiciously and wisely made use of ; for Art is the handmaid of 
Religion. The iconoclastic heretics of the eighth century, how- 
ever, were almost successful in stifling Christian sculpture in its 
birth. But, guided by a formal decree of the second Council of 
Nicaea, A.D. 787, and influenced by faith and devotion, the 
Christian artists aimed at embodying a record of the life and 
sufferings of our Blessed Lord in sculpture, and were often sin- 
gularly successful. Christian art may be said to have widely 
flourished from the middle of the eleventh to the beginning of the 
fifteenth century ; and, notwithstanding the destruction which 
for various reasons and at different periods had been wrought, 
the remains of that art are sufficient as well to indicate its beauty 
as to perpetuate its power and the skill of those who made it 
what it was. The sole defects of the sculptors of this period was 
their neglect of anatomy and the due proportions of the human 
frame ; for, as regards position, dignity of bearing, expression 
of form and figure, and more particularly beauty of drapery, the 
Christian images of the period defined could not be surpassed. 
They told their story with singular effect and most undoubted 
power ; and many of the faithful learnt by the eye that which 
perhaps a dulled ear might have ever hindered them in hearing 
so well or accurately. At the close of the fifteenth century a 
marked change for the worse ensued. The novelties of a Pagan 
renaissance took the place of old Christian principles of art and 
true traditions ; until, in due course, the image-makers chiefly 
regarded their most sacred subjects as means to exhibit their 
pictorial skill or anatomical knowledge. Thus for several cen- 
turies ecclesiastical art in sculpture has exhibited little more than 
posturing angels, winged cupids, and undraped men and women, 


without the least dignity, devotional characteristics, or repose. 
In England, during the past forty years, Christian sculpture has 
been widely restored, and there is scarcely a church or cathedral 
in which creditable, and in some cases very commendable, work 
is not to be seen. Images are made of (a) silver and gold, (b) 
copper or copper-gilt, (c) latten, (d) brass, (e) ivory, (/) wood, 
(g) stone, (h) marble, or (/) alabaster ; various examples of all 
of which exist. Sacred images are profitable for (1) remem- 
brance, (2) instruction, (3) for the honour of God, (4) as a con- 
fession of faith, (5) as an expression of our love, (6) for imita- 
tion, (7) for the invocation of the saints, (8) to confute and 
repress heresy, (9) to excite the devotion of the faithful, (10) 
to bring before the eye representations of the celestial kingdom. 
The number of images of all kinds which existed in our ancient 
cathedrals can only be properly realized by a study of those 
inventories of sacred treasures which were drawn up prior to the 
Reformation. The destruction which then took place was great ; 
but even that destruction left many devotional images to be finally 
destroyed during the Great Rebellion. 

INCENSE. A mixture of aromatic wood and gums, mainly 
gum thus, gum benzoin, cascarilla bark, and other sweet- 
smelling spices, used for burning in a thurible or censer during 
divine service ; more especially at the 
offering of the Christian Sacrifice, 
and at the time, and during the 
office, of Evening Prayer; or, in the 
Roman Church, during the rite of 
Benediction; at funerals, the conse- 
cration of churches, and other reli- 
gious solemnities. 

INCENSE-BOAT. A vessel for 
containing incense, often formed like 
a boat : hence its name. Examples of 

these are numerous in old inventories O LD~EXGLISH INCENSE-BOAT. 
of church furniture. That in the 

illustration is said to have belonged to the Prebendal church of 
Thame, Oxon. It is made of brass, and is probably of the 
sixteenth century. (See Illustration.) 

INCISED SLABS. These are slabs of marble, stone, or 
alabaster, on which figures and inscriptions, as memorial records, 
are engraved. They were boldly, deeply, and artistically cut, and 
then filled up with black mastic. The most ancient discovered 
in England are probably of about the same age as the earliest 
engraved brasses ; i. e. of the fourteenth century j e. g., Adam 



de Franton, at Wyberton, Lincolnshire, A. D. 1325. In England 
engravings on brasses seem to have been more popular than 
those on stone slabs, which brasses, if more expensive, were 
certainly, as experience has proved, more durable than the latter. 
Many incised slabs, however, placed on floors of churches, may 
have been destroyed by ordinary use, that is, by the feet of the 
worshippers; and so, when the incisions were worn away, 
removed, turned upside down, or destroyed. There is a fine 
and curious example of a Bishop Bylton in Wells Cathedral, and 
another of a knight of the same name at Bilton Church, in 
Somersetshire. The figure of a priest, William de Tracy, repre- 
sented in Eucharistic garments, on a slab of Pembroke marble, 


remains at Merthoe, in Devonshire, and is both bold and striking 
in its design and character. Excellent specimens have been dis- 
covered and marked in many churches of England ; for instance, 
at Tettenhall, Standon, and Ridware Malveysyn, in Staffordshire ; 
at Duffield and Chellaston, in Derbyshire ; at Banbury, Drayton, 
and Thame, in Oxfordshire ; and at Graf ton Regis, in Northamp- 
tonshire. The practice of using incised slabs, though of a very 
inferior type and style, was continued until quite recent times ; 
and numerous specimens can be readily examined in every diocese 
of England. The debased example of the seventeenth century, 
in the accompanying woodcut, is of white marble. (See Illustra- 


INCLUSE. 1. One who lives in an enclosed community. 
2. A religious who is shut up. 3. An anchoret or hermit. 4. A 
religious, either male or female, belonging to an enclosed order. 

INDUCTION (THE ACT OF). The formal mode of induct- 
ing a clerk to the benefice to which he has been presented. It 
consisted commonly of some symbolical and expressive act by 
which right of possession and jurisdiction were indicated. Some- 
times it is now performed by the bishop of the diocese, or by the 
bishop's vicar-general, archdeacon, or commissary; sometimes, 
by a warrant or mandate, a simple clerk in orders is commissioned 
to act for the bishop. The person acting, holding the warrant in 
his hand, and placing the right hand of the vicar- or rector- 
designate on to the key of the chief church door, says : " By 
virtue of this mandate I induct you into the real, actual, and 
corporal possession of the rectory or vicarage of - , with all 
its profits, privileges, members, and appurtenances." The vicar 
then enters the church alone, locks the door, and rings a bell. 
These ceremonies, perfectly traditional, handed down from 
mediaeval times, and dependent for their force and value on con- 
venience, suitability, and custom, are still commonly observed. 

INDULGENCE. 1. An act of favour. 2. A formal giving 
of graces, gifts, or advantages. 3. Technically an indulgence is 
a remission of the temporal punishment which often remains due 
to sin after its guilt has been forgiven. Now mortal or deadly 
sin consists in its being an act of rebellion against God. The 
forgiveness of this guilt must, on God Almighty's part, be an act 
of free grace, because it is a kind of infinite evil, for which no 
creature can ever adequately atone. But, even when this guilt 
has been forgiven, there still remains a debt of temporal punish- 
ment. The justice of God requires that every sinner shall him- 
self pay that portion of the debt which he is able to pay, even 
when that which he is unable to pay has been forgiven. This is 
evident from Holy Scripture. Hence the Church, in executing 
her office of remitting sins, having always borne in mind the 
temporal punishment due to them, exercises her authority by 
granting what are termed "indulgences" suitable to times, 
states, and circumstances. These are either partial or complete. 
Partial indulgences have reference to the duration of canonical 
penance, common in the Primitive Church. Complete or plenary 
indulgences are those in which the whole of the temporal punish- 
ment due to sin is remitted. In order that the indulgences of 
Holy Church may be advantageously received, the faithful seeking 
them must be in a state of perfect charity towards God, and 
of detachment from sin. Cardinals and bishops are enabled to 

/,>' Glonarft M 


grant partial indulgences ; plenary indulgences being reserved to 
the Pope. 

INFALLIBILITY. 1. The property of being wholly inca- 
pable of error or mistake. 2. Perfect exemption from the 
smallest liability to error or heresy. 3. A Divine gift, believed 
by Roman Catholics to belong to the Pope in his official capa- 
city, as the human mouthpiece of the Church ; so that the World 
may not be left without a living guide as regards the revealed 
Will of the Almighty. 

INFALLIBLE. Not capable of error. Not liable to deceive 

INFERNAL (Latin, infernus}. 1. Originally pertaining to 
the regions of the dead, or the place of the departed; i.e. the 
Tartarus of the ancients. Hence, (2) pertaining to hell ; wicked, 
detestable, fiendish, malicious, Satanic, or diabolical. 

INFIDEL. 1. Anciently and specially a term applied to the 
followers of Mahomet; and (2) by old writers to Pagans. 3. One 
who disbelieves in the inspiration of the Holy Scriptures. 4. A 
sceptic. 5. A Deist. 6. An unbeliever. 

INFIDELITY. 1. In general, a want of faith. 2. Scepticism. 
3. A withholding of credit. 

INFINITE (Latin, infinitus). Without limits; not circum- 
scribed, either in duration, extent, or attributes. 

INFIRMARER. The person in charge of a hospital. 

INFIRMARY. A hospital or place in a religious house where 
the sick are tended and cured. The position of the hospital 
(which of old, in Benedictine houses, was often a mere cloister) 
varied. Often it adjoined the chapel ; and sometimes, when this 
was not the case, a small chapel was attached to the hospital 
itself for the benefit of the patients. 

IN FORO CONSCIENTLE. Literally, "before the tribunal 
of conscience." 

INHIBITION. 1. Prohibition, restraint. Hence, in law, (2) 
a document forbidding a judge to proceed any further in a case 
or dispute before him. 

IN PETTO. 1. An Italian term, signifying "in tjie breast " 
(in pectore) . Hence, (2) in reserve ; in secret ; confined to oneself. 
3. A term used with regard to the first selection of a person for 
the honour and dignity of the cardinalate by the Pope, of his own 
motion, will, and choice. 


INQUISITION. 1. Inquiry; an act of searching; a formal 
examination by authority. 2. Hence, judicial inquiry. 3. A 
spiritual Court, set up about the middle of the thirteenth century 
at Rome, in France and Spain, for the examination of persons 
suspected of theological error, disobedience, contumacy, sacrilege, 
sorcery, unnatural offences, and schism, was called by this name. 
In Spain this important work was intrusted to the Dominicans ; 
in other countries, delinquents, after being judged by the ordi. 
nary ecclesiastical authorities in open court, were handed over to 
the secular arm for punishment. The Inquisition in Spain was 
only abolished in the year 1820. 

INQUISITOR. One who inquires judicially, or who examines 
.another by authorization, order, or commission. 

INSCRIPTION (Latin, i wripHo). Something marked, 
written, incised, cut in or engraved, to communicate information 
to after-ages, or to commemorate some act, event, or person. 
Any line, sentence, petition, statement, or words written or 
engraved on a solid substance for duration. Many such occur 

in the catacombs of Rome, of which the example given, of tha 
commemorating Pope St. Cornelius, is very remarkable. (See 
Illustration.) Inscriptions on tombs, official chairs, stalls, altars, 
books of the Gospels, sacred vessels, pastoral staves, are nurne - 
rous, and serve to aid in the study of history, and to provide an 
accurate knowledge of Christian antiquities. 

INSTALLATION (THE ACT OF}. The induction or in- 
stalling of a canon or prebendarj into his stall in choir, and his 
seat in chapter. Anciently this rite was solemnly performed by 
a particular service, which, though varying materially in different 
Prebendal or Cathedral Churches, was substantially common in 
form and feature in all. It took place anciently before Mass, and 
was either performed by the provost or dean, or else by the sub- 
dean, precentor, or two other canons ; and in some cases, by the 
bishop or his delegate. Various traditional .-ervices and rites exist 
in the English cathedrals, both for the installation of a dean and 
canon ; but they are not embodied in the Prayer-book ; and if 
some modern ideas of legality prevail, are of doubtful legal oblir 

M 2 


gation. The possession of the letters patent, and their public 
exhibition to the proper cathedral authority, seems to be all that 
is legally necessary to enable a new canon or prebendary to 
secure his temporal emoluments. 

articles of church furniture, such as altars, fonts, rails, candle- 
sticks, chalices, pyxes, paxes, lecterns, bells; stalls, &c., used in 
and during Divine service, are often designated by this general 

INSTRUMENTS OF OFFICE. Tokens, signs, or emblems 
of rank, state, or official condition. Of these the following, as 
often occurring in Ecclesiastical art, may be given : For the 
Pope, a triple cross and cross keys sometimes a tiara and cross 
keys ; for an archbishop, a crozier ; for a bishop, a pastoral staff ; 
for an emperor, a sword, a sceptre, and an orb ; for a king, two 
sceptres crossed behind a crown ; for an abbot, a pastoral staff 
and an open book ; for a pilgrim, a staff and shield ; for a monk 
or hermit, a book, a staff, and a rosary ; for a priest, a chalice 
and host ; for a deacon, a book of the Gospels ; for a sub- 
deacon, a chalice and cruets ; for an acolyte, a candlestick and 
taper ; for lectors and exorcists, books ; for an ostiarius, a key ; 
for a knight, a sword ; for a doctor, an open book. In mediasval 
times, goldsmiths, jewellers, brassfounders, sculptors, masons, 
mariners, soldiers, and even agricultural labourers, each had 
their instruments of office, which are not unfrequently found 
sculptured on their monumental memorials. 

INSTRUMENTS OF TORTURE. The wheel, the flail, the 
rack, the cross, the gridiron, the sword of the executioner. All 
these, and others of a like character, are introduced into pictures 
and representations of the martyrs, in order to designate their 
particular sufferings, or to secure for all a suitable emblem or 
symbol by which they could be easily distinguished. 

1IINO2 ("JTrvoe). A Greek term for the Piscina. 

I2AITOSTOAO2 ('I<ra7ro<yroAoe). A Greek term with various 
significations. 1. A bishop consecrated by the Apostles, e.g. 
Timothy or Titus. 2. Holy women, like St. Mary Magdalene, 
who were conversant with the Apostles. 3. An original mis- 
sionary of Christianity. 

ISTOPIA ('laropm). A Greek term for (1) a picture; (2) for 
any religious picture. 

I2TOPITH2 (\aToplTr\q). A Greek term for the painter of 
(1) any picture ; but more particularly for (2) a sacred picture. 


IVORIES. A technical term for pieces of the tusk of an 
elephant or parts of the tooth of a walrus, carved into figures, or 
indented with devices and forms. Carvings on bone, not unlike 
that still practised by the Esquimaux, are sometimes found, which 
some authorities believe to be of the pre-fcistcric period. These are 
either in outline or in relief ; and it is abundantly evident that 
carvings similar in character have been found amongst Egyptian, 
Persian, and Roman antiquities. Praxiteles and Phidias both 
carved in ivory ; while the British Museum contains some im- 
portant specimens of such Roman work of the period of the 
Republic. Those prior to the time of Constantino are rare, and 
consist mainly of caskets or fragments of furniture-decoration. 
From this period, however, the art of ivory-carving declined, as 
may be seen from existing specimens of that period to the end of 
the fifteenth century. Several examples of consular diptychs 
exist ; preserved, no doubt, by the Christians, who had made use 
of them for their own purposes, and applied them to pious uses, 
recording on these ivory tablets the names of saints, confessors, 
and martyrs, anciently recited at Mass. Mention is made of them 
in the Liturgy of St. Mark. They seem to have been used for 
four purposes : Firstly, for enshrining the names of all the 
Christian people, as in the case of modern registers. Secondly, 
for preserving the names of benefactors, whether dead or living. 
Thirdly, for recording the venerated names of the martyrs, 
names read out on particular occasions during the Christian 
Sacrifice, as a token of communion between the Church triumph- 
ant and the Church militant. Fourthly, for the purpose of com- 
memorating the faithful departed belonging to any particular 
local church or district. One of the most celebrated ivory 
carvings is the chair, still preserved at Ravenna Cathedral, of 
Maximian, Archbishop of that see from A.D. 546 to 556. An 
ivory and silver vase of the sixth century, belonging to the 
Blacas collection, is in. the British Museum. The diptych of the 
Carlovingian school, preserved at Milan Cathedral, is also of great 
beauty and interest. Later on, statuettes, Christian diptychs, 
triptychs, crucifixes, figures of the Blessed Virgin Mary and 
the Apostles, were made ; though the use of ivory-carving was 
not confined to sacred objects or church purposes. Caskets, 
combs, chessmen, jewel-boxes, mirror-frames, book-covers 
were made on the one hand, together with pyxes, pastoral staves, 
altar-crosses, sceptres, and other sacred instrnmcnta on the other. 
(See on p. 18, the representation of an Altar-Bread box.) 

IVORY (French, ivoire). The tusk of an elephant. That 
modification of dentine, or tooth-substance, which, in transverse 
sections or fractures, shows lines of different colours, proceeding 

166 IVY. 

in the arc of a circle. The walrus, the narwhal, and the hippo- 
potamus likewise supply ivory ; for their teeth are so called. 

IVY. A plant of the genus licdera, which in growth creeps 
along the ground, or climbs trees, walls, and other buildings. 
It was commonly used in church decoration in England in olden 
times ; and, from its evergreen nature, came to be regarded as a 
symbol of Eternal Life. As such it is frequently introduced into 
sculpture, both stone and wood. 



A.CINTH. A species of pellucid gem. 

JACK-RAFTER. A mediaeval term 
for a short rafter, such as those affixed to 
the hips of a timber roof. 

JACOBITE. One of a sect of Mono- 
physite Christians in Syria and Mesopo- 
tamia, so called from .Jacob Baradei, their 
founder and leader in the ninth century. 

JACOB'S LADDER. A term used to designate a repre- 
sentation either in sculpture, painting, or embroidery, of the 
vision of angels ascending and descending a ladder which 
reached to heaven, seen by the patriarch Jacob in his vision 
in the desert. A sculpture of this subject is represented on 
the west front of the Church Abbey at Bath. 

JACOB'S STAFF. A mediaeval term to designate the staff 
of a pilgrim. 

JADE. a mineral of a greenish colour; sometimes termed 
" ox-stone." 

JAMB. In Pointed architecture, the side of a window, door, 
or chimney. 

JANITOR. A porter or doorkeeper in a collegiate esta- 

JANSENISM. The doctrine of Cornelius Jansen in regard 
to the grace of God and the free-will of man. 

JANSENIST. A follower of Jansen, who denied the exist- 
ence of free-will in man, and held to irresistible grace and 
limited atonement. 

JAPE. To jest. 
JAPER. A jester. 

JASPER. An opaque impure variety of quartz of a bright 
red or yellow colour ; frequently used in the adornment of eccle- 
siastical sacred vessels. 


JASPONYX. The purest horn-coloured onyx. 

JAWE-PIECE. A mediaeval term used by carpenters in 
written contracts, the meaning of which is not quite certain. 
Most probably it described the braces of a roof. 

JAZERANT. A mediaeval term for a frock or tunic of tinted 
or twisted mail, without sleeves, somewhat lighter than the 

JEAN. A twilled cloth of a satin-like texture, of which 
church vestments are sometimes made. 

JEHOVAH. The Scripture name of the Supreme God. 

JESSE, OR TREE OF JESSE. 1. A representation either 
in painting, embroidery, sculpture, or stained glass, of the gene- 
alogical descent of our Blessed Lord, in which the different 
persons depicted are placed upon scrolls of foliage, branching 
out of each other, and representing a tree. It was anciently 
painted on the western wall of our churches, fragments of which 
have been discovered in several places of late years. At Llan- 
rhaiadr-yn-Kinmerch, in the county of Denbigh, is an example 
of the Tree of Jesse in stained glass, of the date 1533; and 
another has been set up in one of the windows of St. George's 
Church, Hanover-square. At the church of Dorchester- on- 
Thame, in Oxfordshire, a Tree of Jesse is most curiously formed 
in the stone- work of one of the chancel windows. (Vide Skel- 
ton's Antiquities of Oxfordshire.) Dossals of altars or hangings 
of chapels sometimes contained an embroidered Jesse. In Carter's 
Ancient Sculpture and Painting it is stated that Adam of Sod- 
bury, Abbot of Glastonbury, gave to the church of his convent 
a dossal embroidered with this subject, and another similar in 
kind for the abbot's hall. In the Rites of Durham, p. 36, it 
is recorded that a magnificent window in stained glass existed 
in the Galilee. 2. The Tree of Jesse was sometimes wrought 
into a branch candlestick, of which a very fine specimen existed 
of old at St. Augustine's monastery in Canterbury. 

JESUIT. A member of the Society of Jesus, founded by 
Ignatius Loyola in 1534, and confirmed by Pope Paul III. 
The superior of the order is known as the " General of the 
Jesuits " ; his coadjutors in different countries are known as 
" Provincials." 

JOPE, OK JOPY. A medieeval term to designate the struts 
of a roof. 


JOURNAL. 1. A written record of the daily expenses in a 
religious house. 2. An old term for the seven Day-hours of 
the Church. 3. A cathedral or monastic account : book. !. A 

JUBE (French, jube). The roodloft or narrow gallery placed 
over the entrance into a choir ; so called, it is believed, from 
the words " jube, Domine, benedicere," which occur in certain 
parts of the ancient services, which were not unfrequently sung 
from the roodloft whenever the bishop or chief clerics of a 
church formally officiated. 

JUBILATE. The first word in the Latin version of the 
Hundredth Psalm, which psalm occurs in the Matins of the 
Church of England. The rubric, which stands immediately 
after the Bencdictus, permits the Jubilate Deo to be used 

JUBILEE. 1. A season of great public joy or festivity. '2. 
Amongst the Jews every fiftieth year, on which occasion slaves 
were liberated, and alienated lands returned to their original 

JUDAISM. The religious rites and doctrines of the Jews, 
as enjoined by Almighty God through the mouth of His servant 

JUDAS-CUP. A wooden bowl used anciently on Maundy- 
Thursday evening both at monastic and domestic refections. 

JUDAS-LIGHT. A wooden imitation of the paschal candle. 

JUDAS-ROBE. A yellow garment used in mediaeval miracle 
plays by the person who represented Judas Iscariot. 

JURE DIVINO (Latin, " by Divine right "). Kings and 
priests rule by Divine right, the former in the State, the latter 
in the Church. 

JURIDICALLY. 1. With legal authority. 2. According to 
forms of law. 

JURIS - CONSULT (Latin, juris cotisultu*). I. A male 
person learned in the law. 2. A master of Roman juris- 

JURIST (French, juriste}.!. A male person versed in the 
science of law. 2. One who is thoroughly versed in the study 
of civil law. 


JURISDICTION (Latin, jurisdictio}.!. The legal power or 
authority of doing justice in cases of complaint. 2. The power 
of governing. 

JURISDICTION, EPISCOPAL. 1. The spiritual power 
vested in a bishop, by virtue of his legal appointment and con- 
secration, to govern and direct his diocese according to the 
canons and customs of the Church Universal, and in accord- 
ance with the law of the laud. 2. The diocese itself, in which 
a prelate exercises his spiritual power and authority. 

JUS CONCILIL The law of a council. 

JUS ECCLESLE. The law of the Church, i.e. the law of 
God as set forth by Holy Church. 

JUS GENTIUM. The law of nations. 
JUSTICIAR. An administrator of the law. 

JUSTICIARY. 1. An administrator of justice. 2. Officers 
deputed by high regal authority to investigate the true state 
of a nation's religious position. 

JUSTIFICATION. 1. The act of justifying. 2. Remission 
of sin, and absolution from guilt and punishment. 

JUSTIFICATOR. One who justifies. 

JUSTINIAN CODE. That system or body of civil law 
arranged and set forth by the jurists of Justinian I. 

JUTTY . 1 . That part of a building which juts from the 
main portion. 2. The inferior offices or rooms of a religious 

JUT- WINDOW. A bay-window ; that is, a window which 
juts or projects from the line of a building-. 



AGE. A mediaeval term applied to certain 
chantry-chapels enclosed with lattice- or 
screen -work. 

KALENDAR. A register of the year, 
in which the months, weeks, and days are 
set down in due and proper order, together 
with the feasts, fasts, and ferial days of 
the Catholic Church. 

KAMELANCHIOtf. A Greek term 
for the cap of an Oriental monk. 

KATAPETASMA. 1. A Greek term for the veil of the holy 
doors. 2. The veil with which the chalice and paten in the 
Oriental Church are covered. 3. The veil of the baldachino or 
canopy which stands over an Eastern altar. 

KATHARINE-WHEEL. The wheel upon which St. Katha- 
rine was martyred, A.D. 307. She was of royal descent, and 
with great grace and learning silenced several heathen philo- 
sophers, some of whom confessed Christ and were put to death 
by fire. Maximinus the emperor, struck with her beauty, sought 
her as his mistress ; but she refusing his offers, he became en- 
raged, and ordered her to be tortured on a wheel with spikes. 
This instrument of suffering is said to have been miraculously 
destroyed, and the saint afterwards was put to death by the 
sword. In England about sixty churches are dedicated in her 
honour, and the wheel, an emblem of her martyrdom, is found 
not only in stained glass, MSS., and church decorations, but in 
English armorial bearings and as a sign for inns. 

KEEL-VAT. A mediaeval term for a large wooden tub or 
vessel, frequently found in monastic inventories. 

KEEP. The principal tower or chief dungeon of a castle or 
episcopal palace. 

KENDAL-GREEN, A species of coarse green cloth, manu- 
factured at Kendal, in Westmoreland, of which church vestments 
Were sometimes made. 


KEYSTONE. The central stone at the top of an arch, placed 
last in order in position, so as to complete the construction of 
the arch. 

KILLESSE. A mediaeval term for a groove or channel. 

KINDRED. 1. Blood relationship. 2. Relationship by 

KING-POST. That portion of a roof between the ridge and 
the beam. 

KING'S-TABLE. A mediaeval term to designate a peculiar 
kind of table-moulding in Pointed architecture. Some writers 
affirm, however, that its precise meaning is not known. 

KIRK, OR KIRKE. The Scotch term for a church. 

KIRKMAN. The Scotch equivalent for the term " Church- 

KIRTLE. 1. An upper garment. 2. A short gown, either 
with or without sleeves. 3. A mantle. 

KISS OF PEACE (THE). A rite following the Apostolic 
command given in 1 Cor. x. 1 7, still observed in the service for 
Holy Communion. It is described in several of the most ancient 
Christian writers, e.g. Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and St. Cyril of 
Jerusalem, as well as in the Apostolic Constitutions. In the 
Roman Mass the kiss of peace is given just before the communion 
of the priest-celebrant ; in the East it is given at the time of the 

KITCHEN. An important part of a religious house. It was 
commonly placed near the refectory. In shape it differed. 
Ordinarily, it was either square or like a parallelogram ; some- 
times it was round, as at Chartres ; and occasionally octagonal, 
as at Glastonbury. 

KITCHENER. The superintendent of a monastic kitchen. 
He provides all that is needful for the requirements of the house, 
and looks after the buttery, butchery, and fishponds. He is 
admitted to his office by a special form, and with a solemn 
admonition against waste. 

KAAAEOPTH (KAaSeoVn). A Greek term for Palm-Sunday. 
KA ASM ATA (KXa'^ara). The Antidoron, or Blessed Bread. 

KAHPO2 (KAij/ooe). 1. The body of the clergy. 2. Eccle- 
siastical rank. 



KLOBOUK. A term used to designate the cowl or hood worn 
by Russian prelates. 

KNEELER. One who kneels. 

KNEELERS, OR SUBSTRATL A class of penitents in 
the primitive Church who were permitted to join in the public 

KNEELINGLY. In the posture of one who kneels. 

KNEE-RAFTER. A crooked rafter in the principal truss 
of a roof. 

KNEE-TIMBER. A bent piece of wood formed out of a 
tree which has grown crooked, so that the fibre of the wood 
shall follow the curve. Knee-timbers are found 
frequently employed in mediasval carpentry, 
in the posts supporting the end of the tie-beams 
of Malvern Hall. 

KNEE-TRIBUTE. 1. Tribute rendered by 
the act of kneeling. 2. Obeisance or worship 
by the act of genuflection, or a bending of the 

KNELL (Saxon, cnyll).!. A tolling. 2. 
The sound of a bell rung at a funeral, at a dirge, 
or at a funeral Mass, or Mass for the departed. 

which to prepare the Sacramental Bread and 
for dividing the Eulogia3, was anciently found 
in most sacristies. An example of such is pre- 
served at St. Andrew's, Vercelli. (See Illustra- 

KNITTLE. A term to designate the string 
which draws or knits together the official purse 
or burse of the Lord Chancellor or other official. 

KNOB, OE KNOPPE. In Pointed archi- 
tecture, a carved bunch of leaves or foliage. 


KNOLL (Saxon, cnoll}. 1. To ring a bell ST. ANDREW'S, 
, ,. v ,, ' , n rrn. f v. li VERCELLI. 

for a dirge or funeral. 2. The ringing or a bell. 

KNOLLED. Rung or tolled as a bell at a dirge or funeral. 


KNOLLER. 1. One who rings or tolls a bell at a dirge or 
funeral. 2. A sexton or sacristan. 

KNOLLING. The ringing of a bell at a dirge or funeral. 

KNOT. 1 . A carved boss, formed like a knot in the vaulting 
of a stone roof. 2. A wooden boss in a roof of oak is also called 
by this name. 3. A badge of a guild or confraternity. 

KNOT. A mediaeval term used to designate the carved foliage 
on the capitals of pillars. It is also applied to the ornamental 
carvings by which a string-course is not unf requently terminated. 

KOIMH2IS (Ko/'/n^c). 1. Death. 2. The festival of the 

KOIMHTHPION (Ko^nV'oi'). A cemetery. 

KOAIANTA, TA (KoA/Wa, ra) . A Greek term for Christmas- 

KOAI ANTON (KoX/avrov). A cake given to children in the 
Eastern Church, who, at the season of Christmas, go from house 
to house singing " Christ is born." 

KOAAABO2 (KoAXa/3oc). Boiled wheat distributed as a dole 
at funerals in the Eastern Church. 

KOMBO2KOINION (Koju)3o<ricoa//ov) .A rosary. See 


KOPJ1NETA (Ko/)wi/Ta). A rosary. See ROSARY. 
KO2MOKPAT&P (KoanoicpdTup). An epithet of Satan. 

KOYBOTKAEI2IO2 (KoojSouKAaWe). The staff-bearer of 
an Oriental prelate. 

KOYKOTKAAA (Koujcoik-AAa). A chrisom-veil. See 

KPATHP (KpaTijp). A chalice. See CHALICE. 
KPHDIS (Kpipric). The footplace of an altar. 
KYKAION (KfoXtov). The apse of a church. 

KYRIAKE (Greek, KvpiaKi'i). 1. A Greek word signifying 
the Lord's Day, or Sunday. 2. A church : the Lord's House. 

). The Sunday Gospels for the year. 


KYRIAKON (Greek, KvpiaKov). A Greek term signifying 
the Lord's House or a church. 

KYRIE ELEISON (Greek, Kvpie IXetaov), "Lord, have 
mercy upon us." The Lesser or Minor Litany, as St. Benedict 
terms it, found as well in the Day-Offices of the Church as in the 
service for the celebration of the Holy Communion, and some 
other occasional services. It was first introduced into the West 
from the East by St. Sylvester, A.D. 321. In the Ambrosian 
Rite it is thrice sung after the Gloria in Excel sis. 

KTPOnPESBTTPIA (Ku/ooTr/ofajSur/ota). An epithet for the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. 



ABARUM (Greek, Aaj3a/Dov). A standard 
or banner, having the monogram of the 
Name of Christ, X P, conjoined, woven 
in gold upon purple silk, adopted by 
Constantine as his sign, and as a token 
of his conversion to the Christian re- 
ligion. Amongst the learned there seems 
to be some doubt as to the exact form 
and characteristics, both of the banner 
and its symbol. Two of the examples of 
the Labarum in the accompanying wood- 
cuts are from the Roman catacombs. (See Illustrations, figs. 1 
and 2.) The third is from a coin of Constantine. (See Illustra- 
tion, Fig. 3.) 


Fig. 3. LABARUM 



LABEL. 1. A term used to designate a ceiling ; sometimes 
a separate panel in a ceiling. 2. A dripstone or hood-mould. 
3. A band of carved stone to receive an inscription, or one upon 
which a legend is already engraved or painted. 

AABI2 (Aa/3/c). The holy spoon used in the Liturgy. See 


LACE. A term used in Christian architecture to designate a 

LACHRYMATORIES. Small vessels of glass or earthenware, 
commonly found with a long and narrow neck, wherein were 
placed the tears which the surviving relations of a departed 
person wept on behalf of the same. These, 
with their contents, were sometimes buried with 
the ashes of the deceased. Though belonging 
peculiarly to Pagan times, they were frequently 
found in the monastic collections of ancient 
curiosities, as they are still in modern cabinets. 
(See Illustration.) 



LADY-CHAPEL. A chapel specially dedi- 
cated to Almighty God in honour of Our Lady, j 
where in ancient times the Holy Sacrifice was 
offered daily, as a constant memorial of the 
essential and important part which the Mother CATACOMBS. 
of Jesus took in the work of the Incarnation. 
In cathedral and collegiate churches the Lady-chapel was fre- 
quently built eastwards of the choir and high altar ; in parish 
churches the eastern extremity of an aisle was commonly used 
as the Lady- chapel. 


LADY-CROWN. The crown of precious metal and jewels 
placed upon the head of an image or statue of the Blessed 

LADY-DAY. The feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, who is known as " Our Lady," and is so called in 
the Kalendar of the Book of Common Prayer. This feast, at 
least as ancient as the Council of Trullo, A.D. 680, occurs on 
the 25th of March. The Synod of Worcester, A.D. 1240, the 
decrees of which were accepted by many of the English southern 
dioceses, forbade all servile work on this festival. 

LADY-DAY IN HARVEST. In the north of England this 
term was anciently given to the feast of the Nativity of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, commemorated on the 8th of September. 
Sometimes in southern counties it was applied to the festival of 
her Assumption, observed on the loth of August. 

Lte's Glossary. N 


LADY-FAST. A fast voluntarily undertaken as a penance 
in honour of Mary, frequently commenced on Lady-day, and 
observed once a week for several months or years. 

LADY-HOUSE. 1. A niche or tabernacle in which the 
image of the Blessed Virgin Mary is placed. 2. The Lady- 
chapel of a cathedral or parish church. 


LADY-MASS. The Mass said in honour of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. The statutes of many of our ancient cathedrals 
and colleges ordered this to be said daily in the Lady-chapel. 

LADY (OUR). The Blessed Virgin Mary is so called both 
by Christians in the East as well as the West, because by Divine 
operation she gave birth to our Blessed Lord, and so fulfilled the 
ancient prophecy that the Seed of the woman should bruise the 
serpent's head. She is called Our Lady because of her intimate 
relation with Our Blessed Lord, being His true Mother. 


LADY-ROBE. A dress or tunic of satin, silk, velvet, or 
cloth of gold, richly embroidered, placed over an image of the 
Blessed Virgin, when set up in a church or chapel, in some parts 
of the Western Church. 

LADY-ROD. 1 . The sceptre, surmounted with a dove, which 
is frequently found represented in the right hand of the Blessed 
Virgin both by painters and sculptors. 2, A stem of the 
almond-tree in blossom. 

of the announcing to Mary by Gabriel, the archangel, that she 
should become the Mother of God, is one of the most popular 
subjects both of ancient and modern Christian art. Mary is 
commonly depicted kneeling at a prayer-desk ; a white lily stands 
growing beside her ; from the mouth of the archangel proceeds 
the angelical salutation, " Hail Mary, full of grace ! " while the 
sacred symbol of God the Holy Ghost a dove broods over her. 

LADY'S BOWER (OUR). A plant of the genus clematis. 
LADY'S COMB (OUR). A plant of the genus scandrix. 

LADY'S CUSHION (OUR). A plant of the genus saxi- 


LADY'S FINGER (OUR). The common kidney-vetch. 

LADY'S MANTLE (OUR). A plant of the genus alche- 


LADY'S SEAL (OUR). A plant of the genus tamus. 

LADY'S SLIPPER (OUR). A plant of the genus cypn- 

LADY'S SMOCK (OUR). A plant of the genus cardamine. 
LADY'S TRACES (OUR). A plant of the genus neottia. 

L^ETARE SUNDAY. The fourth Sunday in Lent, so called 
because the following is the " Officium " of the ancient Sarum 
rite : " Laetare Hierusalem, et conventum facite omnes qui 
diligitis Dominum : gaudete cum laetitia qui in tristitia fuistis : 
ut exultetis et satiemini ab uberibus consolationis vestrae." 

LAETARE WEEK. The week following the fourth Sunday 
in Lent. 

LAIC (Greek, Xa'ocoe). 1. Any one of the faithful who has 
not received either minor or sacred orders. 2. A layman. 3. A 
baptized person, not a cleric. 

LAICAL. Of, or belonging to, a layman, or to the laity. 

LAITY (Greek, Aaoe). 1. The people, as distinguished and 
marked off from the clergy; the ordinary body of Christian 
people, neither in sacred or holy, nor in minor orders. 2. The 
state of a layman. 


LAMB ALE. A term used to designate a feast, which was 
anciently observed in England with certain religious ceremonies, 
at the shearing of lambs. 

LAMBETH DEGREES. Honorary degrees in Divinity, 
Arts, Law, and Medicine, conferred by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, a privilege enjoyed and exercised ever since the 

LAMMAS (Saxon, Hlmmcesse). The 1st day of August in 
the Christian kalendar. The name of this feast arose from the 
pious custom of presenting a lamb as the first-fruits of the flocks at 
the offering of the Christian Sacrifice on this day. Peter's pence, 
that is money for the Pope, was collected at this festival. This 

N 2 




custom is said to have originated with Ina, a Saxon monarch, 
who desired to acknowledge the benefits derived by his subjects 
from a Saxon hostel at Rome founded for pilgrims. 

LAMP. 1. A vessel used for the burning of liquid inflam- 
mable bodies for the purpose of producing artificial light. 2. 
The use of lamps and tapers in Divine service, more especially 
of the former, is very ancient. The accompanying 
is a woodcut representing an example of an ancient 
lamp, such as were used for burning over the tombs 
of the martyrs in the Roman catacombs. It has the 
X P conjoined, the well-known Greek monogram of 
the Name of Christ. Anastasius, in his treatise De 
Vitis Romanorum Pontificum, declares how Constan- 
tine enriched the churches of Rome with lamps of 
precious metal, for the greater dignity of Divine 
service. In all cathedral, collegiate, and parochial 
churches it was ordered by a Synodal Constitution, 
having force throughout the province of Canterbury, that a lamp 
should be kept burning before the high altar day and night. 
The Constitutions of Oxford, A.D. 1222, confirm this pious and 
symbolic custom. (See Illustration.) 

AAMHAAAPIOS (A.afjnra$dptos). A candle-bearer 
in the Eastern Church. 

AAMIIPA HMEPA (AajuTrpo riplpa). Easter-day. 
AAMFIPON, TO (AajUTrpov, ro). Fire. 

LANCE A liturgical instrument in use amongst the 
Eastern Christians to separate that part of the bread 
to be consecrated in the Liturgy from that which has 
been offered. It is symbolical of the lance with which 
our Blessed Saviour's side was pierced. (Gear's Liturgy, 
pp. 60 and 116.) The accompanying example, of silver 
and steel, is from a specimen in possession of the late 
Very Rev. Eugene Popoff, sometime chaplain to the 
LANCE. Russian Embassy. (See Illustration.) 

LANCET WINDOWS. Narrow windows of the Frst Pointed 
style of architecture, shaped like a lancet, and so called. They 
are found in that Christian style which succeeded the Norman or 
Romanesque form. See WINDOW. 

LANDCHEAP. A feudal fine paid at the alienation of land 
lying within some manor or liberty of a borough. 


LANTERN (Ital. lanterna). 1. In Italian and French archi- 
tecture, a small structure at tho top of a dome, either as an orna- 
ment, a ventilator, or to admit light; e.g., those on the top of 
St. Paul's Cathedral, London, or the Radcliffe Library, Oxford. 
In Gothic architecture the term is applied to louvres on the roofs 
of halls, or to lantern-towers of cathedral churches. Examples 
of the latter exist at Ely, York Minster, Rouen, and Coutances. 
2. The term is also applied to a vessel for holding and enclosing 
a wax-taper, so that light may be carried with safety in funeral 
and other processions. (See Illustration, p. 21.) 

LAPSI. The lapsed, or fallen ; a term used to designate 
apostates from the Christian religion in the days of persecution. 

LARDOSSE. A mediaeval term for the screen or dossal at 
the back of an altar ; very probably a corruption of La Reredos. 
The word occurs at page 6 of the " Ancient Rites of Durham." 

LAST GOSPEL (THE). A Gospel usually and commonly 
consisting of St. John i. 1 14, found at the end of the Roman 
Mass, immediately after the Benediction and the Dominus vobis- 
cum, with its response. At the words, "And the Word was 
made Flesh," both priest and people genuflect, in memory and 
honour of the Incarnation. When a saint's day falls on a Sunday, 
the Gospel for the saint's day is read in the Mass, and the Gospel 
for the Sunday substituted for that of St. John. 

AATEINO2 (Aaravoe). A Greek term to designate a Roman 

AATINO<J>PQN (AaTivtypuv). An obsolete Greek term to 
designate a Roman Catholic. 


LATTEN. A mixed metal resembling brass both in its 
nature and colour. The modern latten is made of copper and 
calamine. Much of it is prepared at Aix-la-Chapelle. In the 
will of King Henry VII. this kind of metal is spoken of as 
copper, by which term it is directed to be used about his tomb ; 
but it is almost universally termed " latten." Some ancient monu- 
mental brasses are made of it, as well as the great majority of 
ancient ecclesiastical ornameida ; e.g., lecterns, candlesticks, thu- 
ribles, banner-staves. 

LATTICE. A window or other open space having narrow 
bars crossing it, and each other, diagonally. 



LAUDS. A terra for the first in order of the canonical hours. 
It begins with an invocation of the Holy Trinity, the Lord's 
Prayer, and some versicles and responses ; after which follow 
certain psalms or canticles, of which Psalms cxlviii. cxlix. cl. 
conclude the group. Then follow an antiphon, a chapter, a hymn, 
with a collect and memorials. Certain portions of the service 
change with the season, but the general parts are commonly used 

version of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, drawn up in 
1637 by Archbishop Laud for the use of the Scottish Episco- 
palians. It differs in several particulars from the present Prayer- 
book, following rather that of 1549, but with certain specific 
characteristics of its own; more especially remarkable in the 
service for Holy Communion. It is believed that Maxwell, 
Bishop of Ross, and Wedderburn, Bishop of Dunblane, suggested 
its form to the archbishop, who, in conjunction with Juxon, 
Bishop of London, and Wren, Bishop of Norwich, finally revised 
and approved of it. King Charles I. had formally expressed a 
wish that certain royal and distinguished saints, e.g. SS. George, 
Margaret, and Patrick, should be restored to the Kalendar ; and 
this was done. 

LAUNCEGrAYS. Offensive and dangerous weapons used in 
the Middle Ages ; formally prohibited by a statute passed in the 
reign of King Richard II., as well to laics as to ecclesiastics. 

LAVABO (Latin, " I will wash ") .The act of washing the 
priest-celebrant's fingers prior to the celebration of Mass. This 
occurs in the English rite, by custom, after the offertory. The 
act is performed as a sign of the purity with which he should 
approach the altar. In the Roman rite, before the priest assumes 
the sacerdotal vestments, he washes the tips of his fingers. This 
custom seems to have been almost universal. Whenever sacrifice 
was about to be offered, the minister of the altar performed 
special ablution's. Such customs were current amongst the Jews, 
having been expressly enjoined by the law of Moses. (See Exodus 
xxx. 17 21.) In the Western Church priests ordinarily recite 
the six last verses of Psalm xxvi. during the act of washing, 
a practice which is referred -to by several fathers, amongst 
others St. Clement and St. Cyril, and which became common 
throughout the whole Church about the eighth century. In St. 
Cyril's " Catechetical Lectures," that holy bishop remarks : 
" You have seen the deacon provide water for the priest of sacri- 
fice and presbyters around to wash their hands That 

Washing of hands is a symbol indicating that you ought to be 
pure from every sin and prevarication/' 


LAVABO-DISH. A dish of latten, copper, brass, or precious 
metal, in which the celebrant washes his fingers at the offertory. 
Many ancient examples exist, of one of which a representation 
is given in the accompanying woodcut. (See Illustration.) 


LAVACRUM. 1. A term used to designate the font. 2. 
The same term is frequently applied to a lavatory, and sometimes 
(3) to the piscina. 4. It has also been used by recent writers to 
designate the Holy -water vat or font, found at the entrance of 
churches of the Roman rite. 

LAVATORY. 1. A cistern or trough of stone, marble, or 
lead to wash in. There was commonly a lavatory in the cloisters 
of all ancient monastic institutions, some of which still exist ; as, 
for example, those at Worcester, Gloucester, Lincoln, and Nor- 
wich. 2. The conduit for conveying water. 3. This term was 
sometimes given to the piscina (Sec PISCINA) ; and (4) also to a 
room or apartment where the dead belonging to religious houses 
were washed immediately after their decease. 

LAYER. 1. A lavatory-basin. 2. A vessel in which to wash. 
3. Frequently that part of a religious house in which the lavatory 
was erected. 

LAW AND THE KYRIE (THE). A feature peculiar to 
the service for celebrating the Holy Communion in the modern 


Church of England. The rite is preparatory to the more solemn 
and essential part of the service, and consists of the recitation of 
the Ten Commandments by the priest-celebrant, after each of 
which the choir and faithful respond, " Lord, have mercy upon 
us, and incline our hearts to keep this law." After the tenth 
commandment the response is, " Lord, have mercy upon us, and 
write all these Thy laws in our hearts, we beseech Thee." 

LAY BAPTISM. A baptism administered in the absence of 
a cleric by a lay person. Such baptism duly performed, with 
the appointed form and matter, has been accepted by the 
Church as valid and good, and ought not to be reiterated. 

LAY BROTHER. A member of a religious order or com- 
munity, neither in minor nor sacred orders'. 

LAY CLERK. A clerk neither in holy nor in minor orders ; 
that is, a layman who in the Church of England, by the tacit 
consent of the bishop or ordinary, or by the direct authority of the 
parish priest, assists in divine service, either by singing, serving 
at the altar, reading the lessons, making the responses in the 
occasional services, or other duties anciently performed by those 
who were in minor orders. See ACOLYTE. 

LAY COMMUNION. The communion of the laity. In the 
Roman Catholic Church the laity receive communion only under 
one species ; in the Eastern Church they receive under both 
kinds in one act ; in the modern English Church they are first 
communicated of the Body and then of the Blood of Christ. 

LAY SISTER. A sister of a religious house who has not 
bound herself for life to observe poverty, chastity, and obedience 
the evangelical counsels. 

LAY VICAR. A term used in the statutes of some of our 
Cathedrals to designate the superior grade of singing-men. 

of a layman reading the lessons has been observed in the Church 
of England ever since the changes effected three centuries ago. 
This is especially the case in the college chapels of our uni- 

LAZAR-HOUSE. A hospital or sanatorium for lepers. 

LEANING-PLACE OF A WINDOW. The thin wall or 
window-sill which is often placed below the sill in the inside of 
a window, and which serves to lean upon in looking out of the 



LEAN-TO. The English mediaeval term for a penthouse, or 
secondary structure, with a slanting roof attached to a larger 

LEAVES. A medieval term ap- 
plied to the shutters or folding- doors 
of windows, almeries, cupboards, and 
lockers ; as also to the sides of trip- 

LEBETONARIUM (Greek, X f /3,- 
i').- See COLOBIUM. 

desk or stand for the service-book of 
a church or cathedral. Anciently the 
chief lectern stood in the middle of 
the choir, facing the east, or altar, and 
flanked by a pair of tall candlesticks. 
Lecterns are made of wood, latten, 
brass, iron, and sometimes of stone or 
marble. One is figured in the Bene- 
dictionalof St. Ethelwold. A marble 
lectern exists at Crowle, Worcester- 
shire, and another at Wenlock Abbey, 
in Shropshire. Examples of wooden 
lecterns are very numerous in Eng- 
land; e.g., at Wednesbury, Stafford- 
shire ; Crendon, Bucks ; Astbury, 
Cheshire ; ; Wells and Norwich Cathe- 
drals; at the Church of the Holy 
Cross, York; and at St. Thomas's, 
Exeter. There are brass lecterns in 
many of the colleges both at Oxford 
and Cambridge; at Trinity Church, 
Coventry ; at Yeovil, Somersetshire ; 
at Eton; at Long Milton, Lincoln- 
shire ; and at Campden, in Gloucester- 
shire. Their restoration in the Church 
of England has been very common of 
late years. The example in brass, LECTKR.V. 

represented in the accompanying en- 
gravings, is from a design by the late Mr. A. Welby Pugiu, 
which he executed for John, the late Earl of Shrewsbury. (See 



LECTION. 1. In the Church of England a paragraph, col- 
lection of sentences, or short chapter from Holy Scripture, read 
during Divine service. 2. In. other parts of the Church an extract 
from some treatise of a Catholic father, or a record of the deeds 
and labours of a canonized saint. 

LECTIONARIUS. 1. A term used to signify a collection of 
readings from Holy Scripture, which some assert to have been 
first compiled and arranged by St. Jerome. 2. A volume con- 
taining the lections of the Brev-iarium, written in a clear hand for 
the practical use of religious. 

LECTIONARY. A volume of readings from Holy Scripture 
from the writings of the fathers, or from the lives of the saints, 
used both in public and private services. 

LECTOR, OR READER. One of the minor orders in the 
Church of Rome. The lector is ordained by the delivery of a 
book, after the bishop has addressed him as to the formal duties 
of his office. The actual words of ordination are as follows : 
<c Accipite et estote Yerbi Dei relatores, habituri, si fideliter, et 
utiliter impleveritis officium vestrum, partem cum iis, qui Yerbum 
Dei bene administraverunt ab initio." This office has been 
restored in the English Church of late years : the person set 
apart for it being ordained by an authorized form, and receiving 
letters of orders duly signed and sealed. 


LEDGER, OR LIGGER. Terms anciently used, and not alto- 
gether lost, to describe a large flat stone, such as is found placed 
over a tomb. 

LEDGMENT. A string-course or horizontal course of mould- 
ings, more especially that found at the basis of a church or 
monastic building. 

LEGATE. An ambassador or envoy from the Pope to a 
foreign prince or state ; a cardinal or bishop sent as the Pope's 
commissioner or deputy to a sovereign prince. There are three 
kinds of legates : legates a later e, or counsellors to the Pope ; 
legates de latere, who are not cardinals ; and legates by office. 

LEGATUS A LATERE. A cardinal or prince of the Church, 
possessing by delegation the same power of hearing causes and 
deciding disputes as the Sovereign Pontiff. He frequently sum- 
moned councils, proclaimed interdicts, and punished kings and 


^ LEG-END (Latin, Agenda). I. A book of lessons from Holy 
Scripture to be read in Divine service. 2. A chronicle or register 
of the lives of. the saints, read as lections at Matins, and in the 
refectories of religious houses. Hence, by the perverse and 
wrong-headed, the word came to mean a fabulous, vain, unau- 
thentic story. 3. An inscription, either carved or painted. 

LEGEND ARIUS. The term to designate a volume contain- 
ing the lives of the saints. 

. AEITOTPrEI20AI (AttTovp-yiiffOai) . To assist at offering 
the Christian Sacrifice. 

AEITOTPriA (AsiTovpyia). 1. Any Ecclesiastical function. 

2. Specifically, the Holy Eucharist. 3. A Mass-book or Missal. 
4. The Liturgy. 

LENT. The spring fast in the Christian Church. Tertullian 
and St. Augustine point out that Lent originated with our Lord's 
apostles. The length of the fast varied in different countries, as 
did also the period of its commencement and close. Generally, 
however, it was so placed that it ended at Eastertide, at all events 
after the time of St. Gregory the Great. In the tenth century 
Ash- Wednesday was formally appointed, and its observance as 
the first day of Lent generally accepted and followed in the West. 
Anciently festivals were not observed during the Lenten fast, being 
either transferred to the following Saturday or Sunday. 

LENTEN COLOUR. Black or violet. 

LENTEN DISPENSATION. A dispensation with regard to 
the observance of Lent, by which ancient rules are in a measure 
relaxed. The following is the form of relaxation and the rule of 
fasting in the Anglo-Roman communion, as put forth by au- 
thority : 1. " Flesh-meat is allowed at a single meal of those who 
are bound to fast, and at the discretion of those who are not so 
bound, on all days except Wednesdays, Fridays, Ember- Saturdays, 
and the four days in Holy Week. Oil Sundays, even those who 
are bound to fast may eat flesh-meat at their discretion. 2. Eggs 
are allowed at the single meal of those who are bound to fast, 
and at the discretion of those who are not so bound, on all days 
except Ash- Wednesday, and the three last days of Holy Week. 

3. Cheese, under the same restrictions, is allowed on all days 
except Ash- Wednesday and Good Friday. 4. The use of drip- 
ping and lard is permitted at dinner and collation on all days 
except Good Friday. On those days, Sundays included, whereon 
flesh-meat is allowed, fish is not permitted at the same meal/' 



LEPA. A mediaeval measure, which, as Du Gauge maintains, 
contained the third part of two bushels. 

LEPER WINDOW. A low side-window, sometimes unglazed, 
and commonly protected by a shutter of wood and bars of iron, 
usually found on the north side of the 
chancel, through which lepers, gathered in 
the churchyard, could hear and participate 
in Divine service. (See Illustration.) 

A modern Church-of -England term for an 
address to those of the faithful who are 
about to communicate, immediately pre- 
ceding the confession and absolution in 
the Communion service, beginning with the 
words, "Ye that do truly and earnestly," 
&c., and called the lesser exhortation, in 
contra- distinction to that which precedes 
it in order, and commences, " Dearly Jbe- 
loved in the Lord." 

LESSER LITANY. The three peti- 
tions, " Lord have mercy upon us ; Christ 
have mercy upon us ; Lord have mercy 
upon us," which occur both in the ordinary 

LEPER WINDOW, SOUTH SIDE Litany of the Church of England, in some 
OF CHOIR, NORTH HiNCKSEY, o f the day Hours of the Church, as also in 

NEAR OXFORD. , ,1 i 

certain or the occasional services. 

LESSONS (THE). Those chapters and portions of chapters 
taken out of Holy Scripture which in the Church of England 
are ordered to be read both at Matins and Even-song. 

LETTER DIMISSORY. A document taken out of the vicar- 
general's office, by which one bishop formally licenses another 
bishop to confer orders upon a person who does not reside in, or 
belong to, the officiating bishop's diocese. 



LETTERS OF ORDERS. A document duly signed and 
sealed, by which a bishop makes it known to all whom it may 
concern, that at a certain time and place, under the protection of 
the Almighty, and in accordance with the canons, he formally, 
regularly, and solemnly ordained a certain person either as priest, 
deacon, or reader, &c. 


LETTERS OF SALUTATION. This term was applied by 
the Council of Orleans to letters given by any bishop to a pres- 
byter travelling, in order that he might receive a welcome by 
the bishops of those dioceses through which he passed in his 

LIBERATIONS. Free gifts, that is alms, or their equivalents, 
food and clothing. Parish liberations were anciently distributed 
in England after the parish Mass every Sunday, on the first 
Sunday in the month, or on the first Sunday of the quarter, as 
the case might be. 

LIBER FESTIVALIS. A collection of sermons for saints' 
days, issued in the reign of Henry VIII., but little used at that 
period, and altogether neglected since. 

LIBER VIT^E. A term, as Du Cange declares, signifying 
the written martyrology of any particular order of religious. 

LIBER VIVENTIUM. A term, as Du Cange declares, to 
signify that book in which the ordinary allowances or daily com- 
mons of a religious community were regularly entered. 

LIBRARY (Italian, libraria] . A room or suite of rooms appro- 
priated to the keeping of books. Books are generally believed 
to have been anciently preserved in large chests, as was the case 
with those which belonged to the University of Oxford prior to 
the formation of Duke Humphrey's Library. In the larger reli- 
gious houses there was a special room provided for books, which 
was fitted up with shelves ; the more ponderous having particular 
lecterns or sloping book -boards, to which they were chained. 
This custom was adopted in churches, as was that. of attaching a 
library to a church, examples of which are found at the present 
day. In the reign of King James I. libraries were commonly 
placed at the top of the houses of the nobility and gentry, e.g., as 
is still the case at Hartwell House, near Aylesbury, and at Sur- 
renden, in Kent. 

LICENSE. A document issued by a bishop, duly signed and 
sealed, granting permission to a cleric to minister or perform 
other ecclesiastical functions. 

LIGHTS. 1. In Pointed architecture, the openings between 
the mullions of a window are so called. 2. Tapers placed in 


prickets or in candlesticks either for actual use or for symbolical 
purposes in the services of the sanctuary, near the altar, 
, lectern, or episcopal throne. (See 


custom of using lights on the altar at 
the time of Mass is very ancient. St. 
Jerome refers to it. They were so used, 
and are still lighted, to signify that 
Christ is the True Light of the World. 
Anciently, in the West, there were two, 
and seldom more, as old illuminations 
testify. Later, the number was increased 
to six and when a prelate celebrated, 
to seven. Prior to the Reformation, they 
appear to have been placed on the altar. 
Now, in England, they commonly 
stand on a ledge or shelf behind it. 

LIGHT SCOT. A term to desig- 
nate a small quantity of wax, or its 
equivalent in money, given of old on 
Easter-eve towards lighting the parish 

LIGNAGIUM. 1. In the Middle 
Ages, a term used to designate the right 
of cutting fuel in woods, frequently 
found in monastic accounts. 2. The 
term is sometimes applied to the 
tribute due for the exercise of the same 


begging or mendicant friar, who had 

a formal license to beg for his order within a particular limit, 
granted by the head of his religious house, and counter- 
signed by the bishop of the diocese, in whose jurisdiction he had 
assigned to him a certain limited district. 

LINCOLN USE (THE). A term in vogue to designate cer- 
tain service-books anciently made use of in the cathedral church 
of Lincoln, and within the jurisdiction of the bishop of that see. 
The service-books were mainly those adopted and followed in 
offering the Christian Sacrifice; e.g., the Missal, the Gradual, 
the Evangelisterium. The Lincoln Use was a variation from 
that of the old church of Sarum, as arranged by St. Osmund. 


At the Eeformation this use, with all its variations, was entirely 

LINEA. An ancient term, found in the writings of certain of 
the Latin fathers, to designate the long white garment of the 
Christian clergy, adopted by them from the Jewish rite. It no 
doubt formed the original of the present alb and surplice. Linea 
alba was the mediaeval term adopted by some writers for the 
former of these vestments. See ALB and SURPLICE. 


LITANY (Greek, \iTavtta). A short form of supplication, 
with alternate petitions uttered by a cleric, and responses made 
by the faithful ; of great antiquity in the Catholic Church. 

in which our Lord is invoked under the various scriptural and 
patristic types of the Blessed Sacrament. 

LITANY OF THE DYING. A litany in which, by invo- 
cations, intercessions, and responses, prayer is sent up to God on 
behalf of a dying person or persons, containing supplications to 
the saints in glory to intercede for him. 

LITANY OF THE HOLY ANGELS. A litany in which 
the archangels and angels are invoked by the faithful, by the 
remembrance of previous acts of charity to the Church done by 
God's angelic ministers at His command. 

in which the various types and forms of the Holy Name of Jesus 
are introduced one by one in the petitions of the same, with appro- 
priate responses on the part of the faithful. 

the details of the Incarnation are set forth as pleas for an out- 
pouring of God's mercy and grace. 

LITANY OF PENANCE. A litany in which the work of 
repentance effected on previous occasions in the history of the 
Church is pleaded as a ground for asking for the grace of penance. 

LITANY OF REPARATION. An Eucharistic litany, 
framed so as to express by various petitions and invocations a 
desire to offer reparation for any dishonour, intentional or other- 
wise, done to our Lord Jesus Christ in the Sacrament of the Altar. 



LITANY OF THE SAINTS. A form of devotion addressed 
to the Blessed Trinity, to which are added petitions to the various 
saints of the Church to intercede for the faithful. This devotion 
is peculiar to the Church of Rome, and to Churches in outward 
and visible communion with the same. 

AITH (Am}). A procession, with prayers and hymns. 

LITER^E FORMATS .A technical term to signify those 
letters which are given by a bishop to a presbyter of his diocese 
to introduce and commend him to the bishop, clergy, and faith- 
ful of another diocese. 

LITERATE. Any ordained person who has prepared himself, 
or who has been prepared, for the reception of holy orders without 
having had the advantage of being educated at a university. 

AITON (A/rov). A Greek term for an Altar-cloth. 

LITRE. A mourning badge anciently placed round private 
mortuary chapels for the space of a twelvemonth after the decease 
of the person thus remembered. It was usually a band of purple 
or dark paint, charged with armorial bearings, interchanged with 
inscriptions, such, for example, as " Jesu, mercy," " Mary, 
help," as well as with the name of the departed, for whom prayers 
were asked. Examples of these bands, placed round monu- 
mental tablets or inscriptions, since the Reformation- period, are 
often found. They occur in many old churches, where the 
random energy of the " restorer " has not been experienced. 
Since that time they have been usually black. 

LITTLE OFFICE. A short service, consisting of psalms, 
canticles, versicles and responses, a hymn, collects, and occa- 
sionally of intercessory prayers. 


A short service in honour of the mystery of the Incarnation, 
and of the part taken in that work by Mary, the Mother of God. 
It is peculiar to the Roman Catholic Church. 

private service, in which the work and office of our Blessed 
Saviour as Redeemer of the World is specially set forth. 

LITURGIC. Pertaining or belonging to a liturgy. 
LITURGICAL. Of or belonging to a liturgy. 

LITURGIOLOGY. A term recently invented, and adopted 
in England to signify the study of liturgies. 


LITURGY (Latin, liiurgia). 1. In a general but not very 
precise sense, the established customary formulas for public 
worship. 2. A technical term to designate that form by which 
the Holy Eucharist is celebrated : a word frequently, but incor- 
rectly, applied to the whole Prayer-book of the Church of 


LITURGY OF ST. AMBROSE. A form for celebrating the 
Holy Eucharist used at Milan, following very ancient traditions 
there. This rite differs in several particulars from the Roman 
Mass, having several Oriental and some local peculiarities. The 
colours of the sacred vestments are the same as those of the 
Roman rite. (See Visconti, De Hit. Mis., c. xxii.) 


LITURGY OF ST. BASIL. The liturgy bearing this name 
is a modified form of that of St. James. It is used in the 
Eastern Church on all Sundays in Lent, except Palm-Sunday, 
on Maundy-Thursday, Easter-eve, the vigils of Christmas and 
Epiphany, and on January 1st, being the festival of St. Basil. 


CHURCH. A modern liturgy, drawn up about thirty years 
ago by the chiefs of a new community, calling themselves simply 
"the Catholic and Apostolic Church." It was compiled and 
arranged on a purely eclectic principle, parts being taken from 
the service of the Anglican Church, and others from the Oriental 
liturgies and the Roman Missal. It is a solemn and appropriate 
composition, but not wanting in certain novelties. 

LITURGY OF ST. CHRYSOSTOM. This Liturgy is derived 
and abbreviated from that of St. Basil, as the latter was from that 
of St. James. It is almost universally in use throughout Russia, 
except on certain days when the Liturgy of St. Basil is said. 

LITURGY OF ST. CLEMENT. A Liturgy usually assigned 
to the third century. Dr. Neale holds it to be that very liturgy 
provided by St. Paul for the Churches founded by him. The 
specific peculiarity of this Liturgy is the omission of the Lord's 
Prayer, which some canonists have somewhat rashly affirmed 
render it invalid. 

Lee i Gloitary. C 


Liturgy of St. Basil, sometimes called the Liturgy of St. Cyril. 
It appears to have been drawn up in the middle of the sixth 
century, though when the expressions and terms containing im- 
plicit Eutychian statements were first inserted remains uncertain. 
Eutyches denied the distinction of two natures in our Blessed 





LITURGY OF ST. MARK. This Liturgy is commonly 
assigned to the Evangelist whose name it bears. It had, no 
doubt, assumed its present form at the end of the second cen- 
tury. Its liturgical peculiarity is the prefixing the great inter- 
cession for the living and departed to the words of institution, 
instead of affixing them to the invocation of the Holy Ghost. 

the ancient Liturgy of the Apostles. Some writers, however, 
affirm that this title was given to it after the rise of the Nestorian 

LITURGY OF ST. PETER. 1. That service used in the 
Roman Catholic Church for the offering of the Christian Sacrifice. 
2. The Roman Mass. Many authors affirm it to be of apostolic 
antiquity ; some give it to St. Peter himself, though changes and 
additions have been made from time to time in some of its 
details. Its Canon is almost exactly identical with that of the 
Church of Sarum. It differs only in one or two immaterial 

Liturgy arranged in the early part of the eighteenth century, 
mainly founded on the form for celebrating the Holy Communion 
in the Book of Common Prayer, but in some respects like that 
in King Edward VI/s first Prayer-book. It contains an invo- 
cation of the Holy Spirit, placed after the words of consecration, 
"This is My Body"; "This is My Blood," &c. It differs in 
several particulars from that in Archbishop Laud's Prayer-book. 
No authorized copy of the Scotch Liturgy exists. As many as 
fourteen different versions have been printed, all varying. 




An impure version of the Liturgy of St. James, used by the 
Christians of St. Thomas, i.e. the Christians of Malabar. It is 
believed to have been altered in the tenth century in some 
important particulars, and again in the sixteenth century by 
" Gregory, Catholicos of the East." 

LIVER-STONE. A brown species of barytes, anciently used 
to decorate shrines, &c. 

LIVERY. The official garments of members of religious con- 
fraternities and guilds. 

LOCELLUS. A medieval term for a portable shrine. 

LOCKER. A small cupboard found on the north side of the 
sanctuaries of our ancient churches. They were formerly pro- 
tected with doors, but these in many cases have been removed. 
They are used to preserve the sacred vessels, the Reserved Sacra- 
ment, sacred relics, or the linen for the altar. See AUMBRYE. 

LODGE. A term given to the chamber of an abbot, prior, or 
head of a college. 

LOFT. 1. A room in the roof of a building. 2. A small 
chamber. 3. A gallery raised within a larger apartment, as a 
singing-loft, a rood-loft, a music-loft. 

LOGGIA. In Italian architecture, a covered space, gallery, 
or corridor. 

given by some recent English writers to the Romanesque or 
debased Roman style of architecture, as found in parts of North 
Italy. 2. Norman architecture as found in England and else- 
where. See ROMANESQUE. 

LORD'S DAY (THE). A term of great antiquity, used to 
designate the first day of the week, on which our Blessed Saviour 
completed and sealed the work of the new creation. As the 
seventh day, that day of the week on which God rested after the 
work of the first creation, was observed of old, so now the first 
day is commemorated every week throughout the w^ole of 
Christendom in honour of our Lord's Resurrection, 



LORD'S PRAYER (THE). That prayer which our Blessed 
Saviour enjoined His disciples to use. It has been embodied in 
most of the sacramental and other public services of the Church 
Universal, and is commonly used by all Christians throughout 
the world in their private devotions. 

LORD'S SUPPER (THE). 1. The Paschal Supper of the 
Jews, partaken of by our Blessed Lord, to fulfil the law, on the 
night before He suffered. 2. A term most incorrectly applied 
to the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist, which was instituted 
after the Paschal Supper already referred to. 

LORD'S TABLE. A term given to the altar, holy table, or 
construction of stone and wood upon which the Christian Sacrifice 
is offered, and from which the Holy Sacrament is dispensed by 
the priest and his deacon and subdeacon to the faithful. An- 
ciently, in the Church of England, it was almost invariably called 
an altar. See ALTAR. 

LORT MONDAY. A term sometimes used for Plough 

LORYMER. 1. The eave of a house. 2. The slanting brow 
or coping of a wall, serving to throw off the rain. This term is 
not unfrequently found in churchwardens' accounts and similar 

LOTIO MANUUM. 1. A washing of the hands. 2. Tech- 
nically, that washing of the fingers or hands done by the priest- 
celebrant after the oblations have been offered in the Sacrament 
of the Eucharist, and immediately before the most solemn part 
of the Liturgy. 

LOTIO PEDUM. 1. A washing of the feet. 2. Technically, 
that washing of the feet of twelve poor men by the Pope and by 
certain Christian kings, in remembrance of our Blessed Lord's 
act of washing the Apostles' feet on Maundy-Thursday. In Eng- 
land this custom, followed here as elsewhere on each recurring 
Maundy-Thursday, was observed until the time of William the 
Third, since which period, with many other pious and sym- 
bolical customs, it has been discontinued. 

LOUD VOICE (WITH A). A term found in the rubrics of 
the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England to indi- 
cate in what manner certain prayers are to be said. This term 


stands in antithesis to " secreto," or to the mediaeval mode of 
saying certain collects, &c., silently, or in a low voice. 

LOUVRE. A small turret of wood, &c., or small lantern, 
placed on the roofs of old halls, kitchens, and other rooms, to 
promote ventilation, and to carry off the smoke. When fires were 
made on open hearths without flues or chimneys, these louvres 
were indispensable. There is a good specimen, though of late 
date, on the roof of the library of Lambeth Palace. 

LOUVRE WINDOW. An unglazed window in a church or 
monastic building, so contrived and planned, by the arrange- 
ment of slanting boards, placed one above the other, as to admit 
air, but to exclude rain. Such are frequently found in belfries 
at the present day. 

LOW CELEBRATION. A modern Anglican term, which 
has come into use since the Oxford movement of 1831, descrip- 
tive of the simple celebration of the Holy Communion, without 
deacon and subdeacon, as well as without music and incense. It 
is equivalent to the ordinary term " Low Mass " of the Roman 
Catholic Church. 



LOW SUNDAY. The first Sunday after Easter, or the 
Sunday within the octave of Easter ; so called because the cere- 
monies then observed are, in comparison to those carried out on 
Easter-day, more akin to the ceremonies of Low Mass. A Sunday 
lower in dignity than Easter Sunday, the queen of festivals. 

AQBEIA (Aw/Sej'a). Leprosy. 

AGBO2 (Awj3oe). A leper. 

AQBOTPO4>EION (AwjSoT/ao^ttov). A leper- or lazar-house. 

LUCARNE. A dormer or garret window. This term is fre- 
quently found in churchwardens' accounts and similar ancient 


ATXNA^IA (Avxva^la). Seven collects said before the 
prefatory Psalm in the vespers of the Eastern Church. 

ATE IN (Avciv). To break a fast. 


LUGENTES, OB MOURNERS. An order of penitents in 
the primitive Church, whose religious privileges were exceed- 
ingly limited, and whose penances were of a strict and severe 

LUMACHEL. A brown limestone containing fossil shells, 
commonly known as fire-marble. It is frequently used in the 
internal decoration of churches. 

LUMINARE. A mediaeval term for the lamp or taper placed 
or hung before a shrine or altar of any church or chapel, for the 
perpetual maintenance of which lands and rent-charges were 
frequently given. 

LUNETTE (French, lunette). I. A little moon. 2. A kind 
of case of crystal formed either in shape of a circle or like a half- 
moon, which is placed in the centre of the monstrance, in which 
the Blessed Sacrament, under the species of bread, is placed for 
the adoration of the faithful in the Roman Catholic Church. See 


LUP. The mediaeval term for a dark sapphire, frequently 
used in episcopal and abbatial rings of office. 

LUSTRAL. Used in purification. A term found in sixteenth- 
century writers with this meaning. 

LUSTRAL CLOTH. A church napkin or towel. 
LUSTRICAL. Pertaining to purification. 

LUTHERN. A term to designate a kind of dormer window in 
debased Palladian architecture. 

LYCH-GATE. A term signifying " the gate of the dead." 
The lych-gate frequently stands at the common entrance of our 
country churchyards, and is usually protected by a broad out- 
spreading gable-roof, in order that those who accompany the 
bodies of the faithful to their last resting-place may meet before 
going to the church, and may be protected from the weather 
in so doing. 

LYCHNOSCOPE. A term used to designate a window- 
aperture constructed in the buttress of a chancel-arch, or in the 
angle formed by the walls of a chancel and aisle, to enable those 
worshipping in the aisle to witness the celebration of the Holy 
Eucharist, when it is taking place at the chief or choir altar. 



LYCH-SLAB. A large stone, frequently erected under a 
lych-gate, on which to place the corpse for the temporary relief 
of the bearers, prior to its being borne into the churchyard. 


LYCH-WALL. The wall of a churchyard or burying- 

LYRA. A harp, anciently used in Divine service, the use of 
which is being restored. See NABLUM. 



ADONNA. Literally "My Lady." A 
name given to the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
who was Mother of Jesus Christ, True 
God and True Man, our only Lord and 
Saviour. The term "Our Lady" is 
found in the Prayer-book of the Church 
of England, and eminently well expresses 
the Blessed Virgin's dignity and pre- 

MAGI. The Three Wise Men who 

came from the East to worship our Lord at Bethlehem. Many 
writers affirm that they were Three Kings, and they are so repre- 
sented in several mediasval drawings. Their names are reported 
to have been Jasper, Melchior, and Balthazar. On the shrine of 
the Three Kings at Cologne, however, their names stand as 
Amerus, Apellius, and Damascus. They are usually depicted as 
swarthy in colour, robed as monarchs, offering crowns, money, 
and spices. The offering of a crown is said to represent the 
royalty of Jesus, the golden money His power, and the spices are 
said to signify His burial. This tradition is not altogether 
uniform, because St. Chrysostom refers to twelve kings having 
gone to Bethlehem, and Georgius the Ritualist to four. 

MAGISTER OPERIS. The master of the works of a church 
or a religious house. He was also termed sometimes " Supervisor 

MAGNIFICAT. The Canticle of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
sung throughout the whole Western Church at Vespers or Even- 
song, corresponding with " Benedictus " in the office of Matins. 

MAKAPI2MOI (MaKapr/uoQ. A Greek term for the Beati- 

MANCHET. 1. A small dole of bread. 2. A term sometimes 
used to designate the wafer-bread used in the Christian Sacrifice. 

MANDATE. 1. A command. 2. A Papal rescript. 
MANAPITH2 MavSiYrjc. A Greek term for a monk. 


MANDYAS (Greek, uavSuac). 1. The cloak or outer covering 
of an Eastern monk. 2. The ordinary mantle of an Oriental 
ecclesiastic. 3. A kind of cope. 4. A hooded covering for a monk 
or hermit, girded in at the waist. 5. A kingly robe. 

MANICULARIA. A term found in English inventories 
of ecclesiastical vestments, descriptive of the ornamental apparels 
placed round the neck and wrists of the alb. 

MANIPLE (Latin, manipulum). Originally, doubtless, the 
maniple was nothing more than a strip of the finest linen 
anciently attached to the left arm of the priest by a loop, with 
which to wipe the chalice previous to the first oblation, that is, at 
the offertory. In very early ages, however, it began to be 
enriched with embroidery, like the stole, and finally became 
merely an ornament worn by the priest and his assistants, just 
above the left wrist, at the celebration of the Eucha- 
rist. It is now of the same width and colour as the 
stole and the vestment or chasuble, fringed at the 
ends, and generally about a yard and a quarter in 
length. Its use has been kept up in the English 
Church ever since the alterations in the sixteenth 
century, ordinarily in the shape of a napkin folded 
like a band, for use at the Eucharist ; but at St. ANCIE NT 
George's Chapel, Windsor, at Durham and West- MANIPLE OF 
minster, some of the ancient maniples can still be seen, THE TWELFTH 
and have been occasionally worn. In very many CENTURY 
, , PIT-IT! -i -L- v. (FRENCH). 

churches 01 the English communion it has been re- 

stored, and it has now become a recognized portion of the sacred 
vestments. The example given in the accompanying woodcut 
is the representation of an ancient maniple of the twelfth cen- 
tury, formerly preserved at the cathedral church of the diocese 
of St. Quintin, in France. (See Illustration.) 

MANNARY. The name for a glove given to a pilgrim, after 
it had been duly blessed with hallowed water and prayers. 

MANOYAAION (Mai/ouaXtor). The Greek term for a hand 

MANSE. The Scotch term for a parsonage or minister's 

MANSIONARIUS. 1. A term used to designate the resident 
keeper of the fabric of a church. 2. The sacristan or verger in 
residence at or near a church. 3. The porter or doorkeeper of a 
religious house. 4. The keeper of a churchyard. 



MANTHAION (Mavr'/Xtoi>) . The Greek term for a maniple or 

MANTELLETUM. A large cape of silk reaching from the 
neck to below the waist, with open spaces for the arms on each 
side. It is commonly worn over the rochet, 
and is no doubt the foreign equivalent to the 
English chimere. Anciently it was of scarlet 
satin in England. Foreign bishops com- 
monly wear a mantelletum of purple silk, 
lined with silk of the same colour, only 
lighter in shade. Abroad, in some places, 
monsignori, canons, vicars-general, aposto- 
lical protonotaries, and doctors in canon law 
wear the 'mantelletum; in which case it is 
usually of black, though sometimes of scarlet 
or brown silk. The mantelletum is by some 
affirmed to be the same as the mozette. 

That figured in the accompanying woodcut 

MANTELLETUM op VIOLET is from a French example of the last century. 
SILK (FRENCH). ($ ee Illustration.) 


MANUAL (Latin, Manuale). A small portable Service-book, 
containing certain Sacramental and other services, administered 
or performed by a priest. 

MARONITES. An ancient body of Christians who speak the 
Arabic language, and reside on Mount Lebanon. They take 
their appellation from one Maron, who lived in the sixth century, 
and was charged with having adopted the Monothelite heresy, 
though this charge they repudiate. For the last six centuries 
they have been in visible communion with the See of Rome, 
without having repudiated or renounced their own national 
peculiarities or traditional rites. 

MARTYR (Greek, jua/oru/o). A witness; more properly speak- 
ing, one who suffers death for the sake of Jesus Christ and His 
cause. A sufferer by death for the truth of the Christian religion. 
One who witnesses by death for the truth that Christ Jesus is the 
Eternal and only-begotten Son of God. 

MARTYRDOM. The death of a martyr. 

MARTYRED. Put to death on account of one's faith in 
the Truth of God. 


MAPTYPEIN (UapTvpuv). A Greek term signifying "to 

ii- i i o / o 

sutler martyrdom. 

MAPTYPIKON (Maprfy/Kov). The Greek term for the hymn 
in praise and honour of a martyr. 

MARTYRIUM (Greek, naprvptov) . 1 . A church dedicated 
in honour of a martyr. 2. That portion of a church or chapel in 
which the body of a martyr is buried and preserved. 3. The 
shrine of a martyr. 4. The chapel of a martyr, where the whole 
or part of his relics are preserved. 

MARTYRIZE. To offer as a martyr. 

MAPTTPOrPA4>ION (Maprvp<rypa<t>tov).A Greek term for 
the acts of one or more martyrs. 

MARTYROLOGIST. A writer of martyrology. 

MARTYROLOGIUM. The name for a book containing an 
authentic record of the acts and deeds of the martyrs. These 
were anciently compiled from the records or statements of eye- 
witnesses, or from the common traditions of that part of the 
Church in which the martyrs were privileged to suffer. 

MARTYROLOGY. 1. A list or catalogue of martyrs, 
arranged either alphabetically or according to the days of the 
year on which their triumph is commemorated by the Church. 
2. A history or account of martyrs, with their sorrows, suffer- 
ings, and deaths. 

MARTYRS' INSCRIPTIONS. Inscriptions on or over the 
tombs of the Christian martyrs, many of which are found in the 
Roman catacombs. The example given in the woodcut on 
p. 168 represents the inscription on the tomb of St. Cornelius, 
a bishop and martyr, and is a fair type of those generally exist- 
ing. Emblems, monograms, and devices are frequently found 
on such tombs. (See Inscription.) 

MARY-BUD. An old English name for the marygold. 

MASORA. A Jewish critical work on the text of the Hebrew 
Scriptures, composed by Rabbis in the eighth and ninth 

MASSARIUS. 1. A chamberlain. 2. An officer of a 
prelate's household. 

MASS AT COCK-CROW. Mass in, aurora. See MIDNIGHT 


MASS-BOARD.- The altar-slab. 
MASS-BOOK. A Missal. 
MASS-BOY. An acolyte or server. 

MASS (CANDLE-). The Mass said on the feast of the Purifi- 
cation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

MASS-CHILD. A child who serves the priest at Mass. 

MASS (CHILDREN'S, OE CHILDER-). That Mass which is 
said on the feast of the Holy Innocents. 

MASS-CLERK. A clerk who serves the priest at Mass. 

MASS-COIN. Money given in payment for the saying of 

MASS (CONVENTUAL). 1. In the Latin communion this 
term signifies a Mass for the general community of a religious 
house, at which all are expected to attend and assist. 2. The 
term is also applied to a Mass at which special remembrance is 
made of the benefactors to a particular religious house, when the 
general chapter is assembled to join in offering the Holy Sacrifice. 

MASS (DRY). A rite in which there is neither consecration 
nor communion. This, which obtains occasionally in the Church 
of England, has not unreasonably been termed " a corrupt follow- 
ing of the Apostles." 

MASS-FEE. The charge for a Mass ; usually in England, 
amongst the Roman Catholics, the sum of five shillings. 


MASS FOR THE DEPARTED. 1. A funeral Mass, or 
Mass for the faithful in Christ who have departed this life in the 
fear of God, and now rest in the sleep of peace. 


MASS (HIGH). A peculiarly grand and ornate mode of 
celebrating the Holy Communion, with all the formal solemnities 
of music, ritual, ceremonies, and incense, by a priest-celebrant, 
assisted by a deacon and subdeacon, together with crucifer, 
acolytes, taper-bearers, thurifer, and incense-boat bearer. At 
High Mass communion is seldom received by other than the 


celebrant, for the obvious reasons (1) That High Mass usually 
takes place late in the day ; and (2) that the laity are not com- 
monly fasting at such a period. 

MASS-HOUSE. A vulgar title, given formerly to a' Roman 
Catholic church or chapel. 


MASS (LAMB-, OR LAMMAS). The Mass said on the feast 
of St. Peter ad Vincula, August 1. 

MASS-LIGHTS. The altar-tapers. 

MASS (LOW). A simple mode of celebrating Holy Commu- 
nion in the Roman Catholic and other churches. Both Low and 
High Mass are the same in essence, differing only in the cere- 
monies. Low Mass is said by a priest with a single acolyte or 
attendant. There is neither music nor incense used. The great 
majority of masses are "Low." 

MASS (MATIN). A term used in the old Church of England 
to designate the first Mass which was said, usually that offered at 
the ' ' matin altar." 

MASS (MIDNIGHT). That Mass which is said at midnight 
on Christmas-eve. At Christmas three Masses are said : the 
first, In node, in honour of the eternal generation of our Divine 
Lord ; the second, In aurora, in honour of His birth in time, of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, His mother; and the third, In die 
Nativitatls Domini, in remembrance of His birth in our hearts by 
grace. A midnight Mass is usually a High Mass, though it may 
be a Solemn Mass, or a Missa cantata. 


MASS OF CHRIST. The Masses said on Christmas-day. 

on November llth, St. Martin's day. 

MASS OF MARY, OR MARY MASS. The daily offering to 
Almighty God of the Holy Eucharist in honour of Mary, the Mother 
of our Blessed Redeemer, a custom which almost universally 
obtained in England during the ages of faith. The Statutes of 
St. Mary Magdalene College, Oxford, for example, decree as 
follows : " We enact, ordain, and will that every day for ever, 
saving on Good Friday, certain Masses be devoutly celebrated 
in the chapel. The second Mass shall be that of St. Mary, after 
the practice of the Church of Sarum." (Vide also Sir Thomas 
More's Works, in loco.) 



the Mass of Good Friday, said with a Host consecrated on the 
previous day. Anciently, such a celebration of the Christian 
Sacrifice was made during Lent, except on Saturdays, Sundays, 
Lady-day, and Maundy-Thursday. 

said on May 3rd and September 14th. 

MASS OF ST. MICHAEL. That Mass said on Michaelmas- 
day, September 29th. 

MASS-PENNY. The sum given in a burse or purse, by the 
mourners or attendants at a funeral, during the saying or singing 
of Mass. 

MASS (PONTIFICAL HIGH). High Mass sung by a 
bishop. At this the bishop's vestments and mitre are placed on 
the altar. Eleven clerks or servers assist at the function, inde- 
pendent of the clergy ; and the rites and ceremonies are exceed- 
ingly grand and imposing. They are given at length in the 
Ceremoniale Episcoporum. 

MASS-PRIEST. 1. A priest who says Mass. 2. A term of 
reproach, by which the vulgar designated Roman Catholic clergy- 
men in former days. 3. A secular, in antithesis to a regular, 


MASS (PRIVATE). An offering of the Christian Sacrifice 
in private, with only one acolyte or attendant, for some special 
private aim or intention on the part of the person or persons 
who have arranged for its offering. 

MASS-ROBE. The chasuble. 

MASS (SARUM). Mass celebrated according to the rites of 
the ancient, honoured, and venerated use of the ancient Church 
of Salisbury. 

MASS (SOLEMN). A Mass which is in many respects like 
a High Mass in the nature and character of its ceremonial 
adjuncts ; but in which some few of the ceremonies are either 
abbreviated or omitted. 

MASS (SOLITARY). A Mass celebrated by a priest alone, 
with only one server, and with no other worshipper, or proposed 
communicant, present. 


MASS (SOUL). The Mass said on All-Souls'-day, Novem- 
ber 2nd. 


MASS (THE) (Saxon, mcesa, masse ; French, messe ; Latin, 
missa). A term by which, in the Western Church, the offering 
of the Holy Sacrifice is designated. The origin of the word is 
still under discussion, though it is of considerable antiquity, 
having been used by writers of the first, second, and third cen- 
turies. Some have derived the name from tnisclia, an oblation 
of fine flour ; others from missio ; others, again, from missa, 
because in the Latin rite the words " lie missa est " occur towards 
the close of the service. The term has been united with many 
of our chief feasts; e.g., Christmas, Michaelmas, Childermas, 
Martinmas, Lammas, Marymass, &c. In the Prayer-book of 
1549, the sub-title of the service for Holy Communion retained 
the words " commonly called the Mass." One mass only should 
be said by a priest during the day, except on Christmas-day, 
when it is lawful in the Western Church to say three : (1) in 
honour of the eternal generation of the only-begotten of the 
Father ; (2) in honour of the birth of Jesus Christ of His Mother 
Mary ; and (3) in remembrance of the spiritual birth of Christ in 
the hearts of the faithful. Mass is said at the altars of parish 
churches and chapels licensed for Divine service ; and when said 
in private houses, there should be a portable altar taken by the 
priest for use on the occasion. Mass should be said from day- 
break, after matins, until noon, and should not be commenced 
after that hour. The Mass may be divided into six parts : (1) 
The general preparation made at the foot of the altar ; (2) a second 
more particular preparation which begins with the Introit and 
ends with the Creed; (3) the preparation and offering of the 
bread and wine for the Sacrifice, which includes the offertory up 
to the end of the preface ; (4) the canon of the Mass, or chief 
action of the Sacrifice, up to the end of the Lord's Prayer ; (5) 
the Communion or sacramental portion of the Mass ; (6) the public 
thanksgiving from the Communion unto the end. 

MASS (TO). To celebrate Mass. 

MASS (VOTIVE). A special Mass, over and above those 
ordinarily said in a cathedral or parish church, for some particular 
grace, blessing, object, or aim ; and provided by the desire and 
charity of some private individual or individuals, with the inten- 
tion of gaining the above-named favours. 

MASTER, One who rules or governs. 


MASTER (GRAND). A term given to the chief of the 
ancient military and knightly orders, still retained in those which, 
having lost their religious character, still exist as confraternities 
of honour and dignity. 

MASTER OF THE CEREMONIES. A person thoroughly 
instructed in the ritual and ceremonial of the Church, formally 
appointed to arrange the plan and details of Divine service, care- 
fully following and observing both the written law and solemn 
tradition of the Church. 

MASTER OF THE CHORISTERS. An officer, usually in 
holy orders, who has charge of the choristers attached to any 
cathedral, collegiate church, or royal chapel. 

MASTER OF THE CHURCH. 1. A dean. 2. A rector. 
3. A canon residentiary. 4. An ordinary. 

MASTER OF THE FACULTIES. An officer attached to 
the Arches' Court and vicar-general's office of the province of 
Canterbury, possessing delegated power to grant faculties, 
licenses, and dispensations in the archbishop's name. 

Pope's household. 

MASTER OF THE SENTENCES. A term used to desig- 
nate the great schoolman, Petrus Lombardus. 

MASTER OF THE SHRINE. That officer appointed to 
take charge of the shrine of any saint, and to receive the offer- 
ings of the faithful, and pilgrims who visit it. See FERETRARIUS. 


RASTER OF THE TABLE. A monk having authority in 
the kitchen and refectory of a religious house. 

MASTER OF THE TEMPLE. The chief religious officer 
of the Temple, or community of advocates in London ; always a 
cleric in priest's orders. 


MASTLIN. An old English term for a kind of inferior brass 
or latten. (Vide Shaw's Staffordshire, vol. ii. p. 160.) 

MATINS. 1. One of the seven canonical hours, usually 
sung between midnight and daybreak. 2. The daily morning 
service of the Church of England, compiled from the ancient 


Hours at the Reformation, with sundry omissions, alterations, 
interpolations, and additions. 

MATITUNALE. A book containing the service for Matins 
throughout the year. 

MATRICULA. 1. A list of licensed or heneficed clergy. 
2. A list of the members of a collegiate institution. 3. A list of 
the members of a corporation. 4. A list of bedesmen. 

MATRICULARIUS. The person having charge of the list 
of clerics, bedesmen, and others, set forth and recorded upon 
a Matricula. 

MATRICULATION. The act of enrolling the name of a 
person on the list of the names of members of a university, 
college, or hall. 

MATRICULATION-PAPER. An extract from the Matricula 
of a university or college, testified as true by the Registrar. 

MATRIMONY (COMMUNION AT). The offering of the 
Holy Sacrifice at a marriage ; after which the newly-married 
couple receive the Holy Communion. 

MATRIMONY (SACRAMENT OF). This Sacrament or 
Mystery was instituted by our Blessed Saviour in order to bestow 
upon those who enter the married state a particular grace to 
enable them to discharge properly all the duties required of them. 
It enables them to live together in unity, peace, and love. It 
strengthens and purifies that natural affection, which, founded on 
virtue and sanctioned by religion, can alone constitute the happi- 
ness of a married life. It corrects the inconstancy of the human 
heart ; it softens down the asperities of temper, and enables each 
party to bear with each other's defects, with the same indulgence 
as if they were their own. It causes them to entertain senti- 
ments of mutual respect, to preserve inviolable fidelity towards 
each other, and to vanquish every unlawful desire. Moreover, it 
gives them grace to discharge well that most important duty of 
training up their children in the faith, fear, and love of God. For 
these duties, annexed to the married state, cannot be fulfilled 
without great exertions ; nor will those exertions be successful 
without the blessing and grace of God. Marriage is defined as 
"the conjugal union of man and woman between legitimate 
persons, which is to last undividedly through life." There must 
be an outward public expression of mutual consent on the part of 
each person coming together to be united, and for Christians 
the blessing and sanction of the Church. 

Lee't Glouary, P 


of the ecclesiastical year in which marriage may be properly 
celebrated. Ancient tradition and the common custom of the 
Western Church, forbid their being solemnized from the First 
Sunday in Advent till after the Epiphany, and from Ash 
Wednesday until after Low Sunday. These rules are often found 
embodied in the MS. Church books of the seventeenth century, 
and were scrupulously followed until quite recent times. 

MAUNDY-THURSDAY. 1. The Thursday in Holy Week. 

2. Dies Mandati. The Day of the Commandment ; i.e. the day 
when the new commandment was given by our Blessed Saviour. 

3. That day on which the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist was 

MAZER. The mediaeval term for a large drinking-bowl or 
cup of maple, boxwood, or walnut-wood, used on feasts, both 
secular and ecclesiastical. Mazers were commonly bound with 
silver bands. Existing specimens of them can be seen amongst 
the plate of several colleges, both at Oxford and Cambridge, as 
also amongst that of the Ironmongers' Company in the City of 
London. Many exist likewise in private collections. A remark- 
able specimen in maple -wood, presented to King James I. at his 
coronation, is in the possession of Henry Bode, Esq., J.P., of 
Dinton, near Aylesbury. 

MELLIFLUOUS DOCTOR (THE). A term sometimes used 
to designate St. Ambrose. 

MEAAO<J>QTI2TO2 (MeXXo^wrterro?) . A Greek term for a 

MEMORIAL COLLECT. A collect used after the collect 
for the day, as a memorial of some saint. 

MEMOPIOX (Me/io/oiov). A Greek term (1) for a church built 
over a martyr's grave ; (2) the tomb of a martyr; (3) any tomb. 

MEN^EON (Greek, /Ltijvatov) . A book in the Eastern Church, 
which contains the daily offices for the space of a month. 

MENDICANT ORDERS. (1) The Dominicans; (2) the 
Franciscans ; (3) the Carmelites ; and (4) the Augustinians. 

MENOLOGION (Greek, /^voXo'ytov) . 1 . The Martyrology. 
2. A kalendar for a month, containing the names and comme- 
morations of the saints. 

MENOTPIOI (Mtvovpioi). A Greek term for Franciscan 


MENSA. 1. The top of an altar. 2. Almost universally, 
likewise, the altar itself. 

MENSA DEI. The altar in a Christian church. 
MENSA DEIPAR^E. The altar in a Lady-chapel. 
MENSA DOMINI. The altar in a Christian church. 

MENSA MARTYRIS. The altar set up in honour of a 

MENSA PROPOSITIONIS. That table on which the sacred 
elements are prepared and arranged, prior to their being solemnly 
offered on the altar at the offertory in the Mass. It usually stands 
on the north side of the sanctuary. See CREDENCE-TABLE. 

MENS^E LECTOR. 1. The reader at a refection or meal in 
a religious house. 2. The cleric who says grace at meals in a 
community of monks or friars. 3. A collegiate chaplain. 

MENTAL PRAYER. Prayer not uttered by the lips, but 
that which passes through the mind. 

MERENDA. A term sometimes used to designate the chief 
meal at noon (mendies) in a religious house. 

MESATGPION (Metrtmupiov) . A Greek term (1) for a ver- 
ger's house ; (2) a sacristy. 

ME2ONAOS (Metroi/aoe). A Greek term for the centre of a 

MESSIAH (Hebrew, signifying ' 'Anointed ") . Christ Jesus 
the anointed One, Who is the Saviour of the world. 

MESSIAHSHIP The character, work, and office of the 

MESSIANIC. That which relates or refers to the Messiah. 

MESSIANIC PSALMS (THE). Those Psalms of David 
which distinctly refer to the Office, Work, and Person of Jesus 
Christ our Lord. 


METAAO2I2 (Mfra'Soenc). A Greek terra for Scramental 

METAAAMBANEIN (MtTaXajujSaVftv). A Greek term signify- 
ing- " to receive the Holv Communion/'' 

p 2 


METANOEIN (Mtravouv). A Greek term signifying "to do 

METANOIA (Miravota). A Greek term for (1) repentance; 
(2) penance ; (3) a penitentiary. 

METAOOIHSIS (MmiTrofyffte). A Greek term for Eucharistic 

METEOROMANCY (Greek, ptTtwpov and /mvTtt'a) .Divina- 
tion by meteors, or more especially by thunder and lightning. 

METHODIST. 1. One who observes method. 2. A modern 
sect of Christians, which was founded in England by the Rev. 
John Wesley, an Anglican priest ; so called from the method or 
regularity of their lives, and the strictness of their principles and 

METHODISTIC. Of or belonging to a Methodist. 

METOTSIG2IS (MtTovaluaie) A Greek term for transub- 

METOXION (MtTotov . A Greek term for a convent. 

METROPOLIS (Greek, ^rpoTroAie) . 1 . A mother city. 2. 
The chief city or capital of a kingdom, state, or country. 

METROPOLITAN (adjective). Belonging to a metropolis; 
(noun) that bishop who presides over the other bishops of a 
province or group of dioceses. His rights and privileges vary in 
different countries and parts of the Church. All archbishops are 
metropolitans, except archbishops in partibus infidelium ; but all 
metropolitans are not archbishops. Many changes in archiepisco- 
pal jurisdiction have been made in England. 

METROPOUTE. A metropolitan. 

METROPOLITIC. 1. Pertaining to a metropolis. 2. Of, or 
belonging to, a metropolitan. 

MHEOMHAON (M7,oV,Xov). A Greek term for the pyx, 
used in the communion of the sick. 

MIDDLE AGES. That period which intervened between 
the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of Pagan and other 
literature in the fifteenth century. 

MID-LENT. The middle of Lent. 

MID-LENT SUNDAY. The fourth Sunday in Lent. 


MID-PENTECOST SUNDAY. The fourth Sunday after 

MIDSUMMER SAINT (THE). St. Edward, king and 
martyr, whose death took place on March 18, 978, by the com- 
mand of his mother-in-law, Elfrida, but whose relics were 
removed from Wareham, where he was first interred, to Shaf tes- 
bury, on June 20, A.D. 982. 

MILITANT (Latin, militans) (1) Fighting; (2) combating; 
(3) serving as a soldier. The Church militant is the Christian 
Church on earth, which is engaged in a constant warfare against 
its enemies ; thus distinguished from the Church triumphant 
in Heaven, as well as from the Church patient or waiting in 

OF). An ancient practice in certain parts of the Church Uni- 
versal existed, by which the newly -baptized had given to them 
milk and honey, symbolizing an entrance through that sacrament 
into the " goodly land " of the Church " flowing with milk and 

MILLENARIAN. One who believes in our Lord's personal 
reign on earth for a thousand years. 

MILLENARIANISM. The doctrine of millenarians. 
MILLENIST. One who believes in a future millennium. 

MILLENNIUM (Latin, mille and annus). A thousand years. 
Millennium is a word used to denote the thousand years men- 
tioned in Revelation xx., during which period it is declared that 
Satan will be bound, and holiness become triumphant throughout 
the world. During this period some believe and maintain that 
our Blessed Lord will personally reign on earth with His saints. 

MILL-SIXPENCE. An old English coin issued in the year 
1561, being one of the earliest coins which was milled. 

MINARET. In Saracenic architecture, a slender, lofty, cir- 
cular turret attached to a mosque, having a balcony, from which 
the followers of Mahomet are called to prayer. 

MINIM. One of a certain order of reformed Franciscan 

MINISTER. 1. A chief servant. 2. An agent, o. One 
who serves at the Christian altar; I.e. an acolyte, a mass-boy, 


a deacon or subdeacon, an epistoler or a gospeller. 4. In a 
loose and general sense, a cleric, a priest, a parson, a clergyman. 

MINISTER OF THE ALTAR. The server at Mass. 

MINISTER (TO). To attend, serve, or wait upon the priest 
celebrant in the sacrament of the altar. 

MINISTERIAL. Pertaining to ministers who serve in Chris- 
tian churches. 

MINISTERIUM. A term sometimes used to designate the 
epistle corner of a Christian altar, because there the server or 
minister assists the priest-celebrant in making preparation for 
offering the Eucharistic Sacrifice. 

MINISTRAL. Pertaining to a server or mass-boy. 

MINISTRY. 1. Ecclesiastical profession. 2. The office and 
duties of a cleric. 3. Agency or service of a pastor or cler- 

MINOR CANON. A cleric in holy orders, attached to a 
cathedral or collegiate church, in order to assist the canons in 
singing Divine service. He is sometimes called " a petty canon." 
Anciently, minor canons at some cathedrals were expected to 
sing the Lady Mass, and sometimes the Parish Mass. Several 
minor canonries were suppressed under King Charles I., and 
others again, more recently, by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
of England and Wales. 

MINOR ORDERS. These, in the Roman Catholic Church, 
are, (1) subdeacon; (2) acolyte; (3) exorcist j (4) lector or reader ; 
and (5) doorkeeper. The minor orders in the Eastern Churches are 
somewhat different, practically resolving themselves into three: 
(1) subdeacon, (2) singer, and (3) reader. Anciently, there were 
several other church officers who received minor orders, but their 
offices have either been abolished or have lapsed. 

MINORITE. 1. A Franciscan. 2. A friar Minor. 

MINSTER (Saxon, rninstre or mynster). 1. A church of 
canons regular. 2. A cathedral church. 3. A church to which 
a monastery has once been attached. 4. In some cases^ as at 
Southwell and Beverley, in England, a church of canons secular. 

MINSTER HAM. A house or place of sanctuary j the prac- 
tice of using which has long been abolished. 



MIRACLE (Latin, miraculum). 1. A supernatural event. 2. 
An effect contrary to the established constitution' and course 
of things. 3. A deviation from, or suspension of, the known laws 
of nature. 

MIRACLE-PLAY. A dramatic representation of certain 
Christian acts, miracles, or traditions. 

MISBELIEF. 1. Wrong or erroneous belief. 2. False 

MISBORN. Born to evil. 

MISCHNA. 1. The text of the Jewish Talmud. '2. The 
ancient code of the Jewish civil and common law, or an expla- 
natory comment on the law of Moses. See TALMUD. 

MISERERE (Latin, "Have mercy "). The first word of the 
Latin version of the fourth of the Penitential Psalms Psalm li. ' 

MISERERE-DAY. Ash- Wednesday. 

MISERERE-STALLS. A projecting bracket of wood fixed 
on the underneath portion of the seats of certain stalls in churches 
by hinges, so that the seat may be turned up and down at plea- 
sure. When turned up, the religious occupying the stall finds in 
it sufficient projecting support to enable him to lean against it. 
They are commonly adorned with carved work, animals, birds, 
leaves, fruit, and flowers, the sacred monogram, &c. A good 
example of the thirteenth century remains in Henry VIL's chapel 
at Westminster Abbey. 

MISERERE-WEEK. The first week in Lent. 

MISERICHORD. 1. A term used to designate the folding- 
seat of the stall in the choir of a cathedral, collegiate, or parish 
church. 2. A merciful remission of penitential discipline, o. 
The name of a chamber in religious houses, in which those mem- 
bers who were sick were permitted to relax the ordinary rule. 
4. This term was sometimes applied to the country hospital of a 
town or city monastery. 


MISS A. The Latin term for the service at offering tho 
Christian Sacrifice. See MASS. 

MISSA CANTATA. 1. A sung Mass. 2. A Mass which 
is chanted throughout. 3. A technical name for a Mass which 


is sung, at which the priest -celebrant is assisted, not by a deacon 
and subdeacon, but only by two acolytes or servers. 

MISSA CATECHUMENORUM. The introductory part of 
the service at offering the Christian Sacrifice ; that is, the part 
which immediately precedes the Offertorium, at which introduc- 
tory part those who were being prepared for holy baptism in the 
early Church were alone permitted to be present. 

MISSA FIDELIUM. 1. The Mass for the faithful; i.e. the 
chief or Parish Mass, celebrated in its integrity and entirety, with- 
out abbreviation or addition. 2. The ordinary Parish Mass, said 
for the general body of the faithful, in contradistinction to a 
Votive Mass, or a Mass for the faithful departed. 

MISSA NAUTICA. A term given to a service sometimes 
used by priests on board ship, when there would be danger, by 
reason of storm or other difficulty, in duly and regularly offer- 
ing the Christian Sacrifice. 

MISSA SICCA. 1. A service for Holy Communion, con- 
taining no consecration. 2. A Dry Mass. 3. A term some- 
times given to the first part of the Anglican Communion ser- 
vice when said alone, and concluded with the Blessing, without 
any consecration. 

MISS^E CANON. The Canon of the Mass. 

MISS^E ORDINARIUM. The Ordinary of the Mass ; those 
portions of the service for offering the Christian Sacrifice which 
change with the seasons ; i. e. the whole of the introductory 
part port of the Mass up to the end of the Sanctus. 


MISSAL. 1. A Mass-book. 2. A volume containing the 
Ordinary and Canon of the Mass. The Roman Missal is said to 
have been first arranged by Pope Zachary, and afterwards 
revised and completed by St. Gregory the Great, Pope Celes- 
tine, and Pope St. Leo. It was then called a Sacramentary. 
The Sarum Missal was arranged by St. Osmund. This was 
commonly used throughout the southern dioceses of England 
prior to the Reformation ; and on this the service for Holy Com- 
munion in our Prayer-book is founded. The introduction of 
Introit, Gradual, and Offertory to the Missal took place about 
the seventh century. Prior to this, the rites for the Christian 
Sacrifice were, comparatively speaking, simple. Additions and 


changes were made in different parts of the Church ; though the 
common or unvarying rule remained substantially the same, 
having been handed down from the earliest ages as of apostolic 
authority. Various bishops and particular councils arranged 
special Sacramentaries, which in modern times, in the Latin 
Church, have been set aside, with the exception of the Milanese 
rite, for the Missale Romanum, as formally approved by the 
Council of Trent, and further solemnly sanctioned by "Pope 
Pius V., Pope Clement VIII., and Pope Urban VIII. Sen 


MISSION. 1 . A sending or being sent. 2. A being delegated 
by authority. 

MISSIONARY. One sent to propagate religion. 

MISSIONARY APOSTOLIC. A priest of the Roman obe- 
dience sent into a country where that Church is not formally or 
regularly organized, to do missionary work. He receives a direct 
commission from the Pope ; and, though not possessing the cha- 
racter of the episcopate, has and exercises several powers which 
commonly and ordinarily pertain to, and are used by, a bishop. 

MISSIONER. An old English term for a missionary. 


MITRAL. Of or pertaining to a mitre. 

MITRALE. 1. That which pertains to a bishop. 2. A kind 
of Ceremoniale Episcoporum, drawn up by Sicardus of Cremona. 
3. According to Georgius, that part of a Sacramentale peculiar to 
the office, work, and functions of a bishop. 

MITRE. An hierarchical head-covering, used, in one shape 
or another, from the earliest ages of Christianity, borrowed 
originally from the Jews. St. John the Evangelist was accus- 
tomed to wear a plate of gold on his forehead (See Eusebius, 
Hist. Eec., lib. v. cap. 24), as no doubt were the other Apostles. 
Epiphanius, on the authority of St. Clement of Alexandria 
(Epipli. Hcer., xxix. 2), states that St. James, the first bishop of 
Jerusalem, wore a similar golden fillet or band. Pellerinus dis- 
tinctly states that the mitre was borrowed by Christians from the 
head-dress of the high priest of the Jews. Oriental kings and 
Pagan pontiffs wore a similar ornament. An illustration of such 
a head ornament, from an early Byzantine MS. in the Vatican 



Library, is given iii the accompanying woodcut. (See Illustration, 
Fig. 1.) The mitre had below a flat border, which surrounded it and 
covered a part of the forehead, whence it was elevated in the form 

Flf). 1. HEAD-DRESS 



of a cone, and terminated in a point. After the time of Constantiue 
the mitre became generally adopted in the Christian Church, and 
was not unlike the Oriental crown of the Greek emperors. This 

shape it still retains in the Eastern 
Church. (See Illustration, Fig. 2.) 
About the tenth century all bishops 
had adopted it. For some period 
the crown was divided at the top, 
and made to look like a crescent. 
The earliest mitres, shaped like 
the cloven tongues of Pentecost, 
were very low. An example of 
such a one is provided under 
the term " Pectorale." Later on, 
they were made more elevated. 
Its shape at that period may be 
seen from Anglo-Saxon manu- 
scripts, more especially the Bene- 
dictional of St. Ethel wold. An 
Anglo-Saxon example is given 
on p. 119, under the term "Ele- 
vation of the Host." A some- 
what later specimen, from a MS. 
"Life of St. Edward the Con- 
fessor," written in Anglo-Nor- 
man verse, circa A.D. 1240, in the Public Library at Cambridge, 
is given here. (See Illustration, Fig. 4.) From the eleventh 
century the use of the mitre spread, and this was granted by 



Popes Alexander II. and- Urban II. to various abbots. Later on, 
it was given sometimes to priors and canons. The English 
mediaeval mitre can be seen from representations on ancient 
brasses. A jewelled or precious mitre from the 
brass of Thomas Cranley, Archbishop of Dublin, 
A.D. 141 7, is represented in the accompanying 
woodcut. (See Illustration, Fig. 5.) The mitre of 
St. Thomas of Canterbury, preserved at Sens, is 
of this shape likewise, and deserves attention 
from the simplicity and good character of its orna- 
mental decorations. There is a fine specimen of a 
fourteenth-century mitre preserved at Beauvais. 
William of Wykeham's mitre figured in the ac- 
companying illustration (See Illustration, Fig. 6), is 
still preserved at New College, Oxford, together 
with his choice and elaborate pastoral staff. On the 
Continent, and with Roman Catholics, in recent 
times, the mitre has been enlarged and elevated to a very prepos- 
terous size and height, and its ancient elegant shape almost 
entirely lost; but the old shape is being nearly everywhere restored. 
Attached to the hinder portion of the mitre are two bands or fillets, 

Fig. a. 


called vittce,, slightly widened at the ends, and fringed, which hang 
over the shoulders, and can be seen represented in illuminations 
and brasses. The vittse of the mitre may be seen on the brasses of 
Archbishop Greenfeld, A.D. 1315, at York Cathedral; of Bishop 


Bowthe, A.D. 1478, at East Horsley ; and on that of Archbishop 
Harsuett, A.D. 1631, at Chigwell, in Essex. There are three 
kinds of mitres the Plain Mitre (Simplex), made of white linen, 
the only ornamentation being gold or crimson lining or fringe to 
the vitta? or hanging lappets. This mitre is used for processions. 
The Gold Embroidered Mitre (Anrifrigiata) has no gems nor plates 
of gold or silver upon it, but owns for its ornament a few small 
pearls, and is made of white silk wrought with gold, or of simple 
cloth -of -gold. The Precious Mitre (Pretiosa) is decorated with 
gems and precious stones, and often adorned with sheets of gold 
and silver. It was anciently worn on high and solemn festivals. 
Of the latter class, one, figured in vol. ii. of Shaw's Dresses and 
Decorations, known as "the Limerick mitre," is a most elaborate 
and beautiful example ; others exist, and it seems in some cases 
were worn by English bishops, even more than a century after 
the Reformation. It was so in the American Church at all 
events, for Bishop Seabury's mitre is still preserved in the 
Library of Trinity College, New York. Moreover, Bishop Hacket, 
of Lichfield, is represented, on a tomb in his cathedral, vested 
in mitre, rochet, and chimere, with a pastoral staff. So also, 
amongst several others, the effigies of Bishop Creyghton, in 
Wells Cathedral, subsequent to the Restoration, has mitre and 
pastoral staff; while Archbishop Sharpe, who died A.D. 1718, 
appears represnted in a similar dress. Our bishops are said to have 
worn their mitres so lately as the coronation of George III., and 
their use has been restored, both by several Colonial bishops as 
well as in the American Church, during the recent Catholic 

MITRED ABBOTS. Certain abbots who wore the mitre by 
favour and dispensation, and to whom were given the power and 
privilege of sitting as spiritual lords in Parliament. In the reign 
of Edward III., twenty-five abbots enjoyed this privilege. At 
other periods of our history more than twice that number were 
summoned. The prior of St. Mary's Abbey, at Leicester, sat in 
Parliament, as did likewise the abbots of secondary abbeys ; such 
as those of Thame, Burton, and Middleton. But the rule of 
summons was not uniform, either to abbots or priors. 

MITRED PRIORS. Priors who wore the mitre by favour 
and dispensation, and were occasionally summoned as spiritual 
lords to sit in Parliament. 

MIXED CHALICE (THE). The chalice duly prepared for 
the Eucharistic sacrifice, containing pure wine made from the 
juice of the grape, to which a " little pure and clean water " has 
been added. The mixing of wine and water is as old as Chris- 


tianity. Our Lord instituted the Holy Eucharist with the mixed 
cup, as the most learned Ritualists allow. And this has been the 
general practice of the Church Universal since that period. The 
use of wine and water is symbolical, representing the Blood and 
Water which flowed from the pierced side of our Blessed Lord on 
the Cross. It likewise sets forth the two natures of our Saviour ; 
the Divine being represented by the wine, the human by the 
water. Other writers have found a -symbolism with regard to 
the two chief Sacraments, Baptism and the Holy Eucharist, in 
the mixed chalice. 

^ MODUS DECIMANDI. A term for the land given for ever 
for religious purposes in lieu of annual tithes. 

MOLINISM. A term for the theological system of Molina, 
respecting freewill, grace, and predestination, a system which, 
in many particulars, corresponds with that of the Arminians. 

MOLINIST. A follower of Molina. See MOLINISM. 

MONACHAL. Pertaining or belonging to monks, or to the 
religious life. 

MONACHISM. The state of monks. 

MONASTERY (French, monastere ; Spanish, monasterio ; 
Latin, monasterium ; Greek, /*oi>oc, alone). A house of religious 
retirement or seclusion. The first Christian monks imitated 
St. John the Baptist, devoting themselves entirely to God by 
solitude, prayer, fasting, self-denial, and mortification. After- 
wards changes took place, contemporaneously with certain de- 
velopments, and monks were divided into three classes (1) 
Coenobites, those who lived in common in a certain manastery, 
under the guidance and jurisdiction of a single ruler, afterwards 
called ( ' Regulars " ; (2) Anchorites or Eremites (AnachortiiP. et 
Eremitce), those monks who lived on bread and water, or on roots 
and fruits in the desert ; and (3) Sarabaitae, or monks living under 
a relaxed rule, and wandering in different countries the germ 
of the mendicant friar. The first community of monks was 
founded in Italy, A.D. 320 ; the first in France, near Poitiers, 
by St. Martin of Tours, A.D. 359 ; and the first in England 
by St. Augustine, founded on the Roman model, in 596. The 
earliest written rules of monastic life were from St. Basil, Bishop 
of Caesarea, who was followed in changes, amendments, and 
reforms, by Cassianus, St. Martin (already referred to), and by 
St. Isidore of Seville. St. Benedict's rule eventually became 
the most popular. Monasteries, as we see, thus rose in the fourth 
century, and flourished in the centuries immediately succeeding. 


In medieval times they were the sanctuaries of learning and the 
home of the greatest scholars, blessing the people and lands 
wherever they arose. In them princes were educated, who, in 
turn, gave benefactions, and bestowed privileges upon certain 
monasteries where religion flourished and learning was deep. 
Monasteries eventually became exempt from ordinary episcopal 
jurisdiction, the chief of the order, or, in later times, the Pope, 
being regarded as supreme. This fact possibly led to the 
eventual downfall of monasteries in England ; for the English 
were always jealous of foreign interference, and many gross and 
palpable abuses in patronage and other details grew up and 
increased, The decay of discipline and the accumulation of 
wealth were two of such. Pope Clement VII., at Cardinal Wolsey's 
suggestion, on April 23, 1524, approved of suppression, and 
issued a Bull authorizing it. Afterwards, the stone thus set 
rolling could not be stopped. The chief building in a monastery 
was the church or chapel, where Mass was said constantly every 
morning, and where the Divine services of the Church were 
solemnized with regularity, devotion, and dignity. The chief 
rooms in a monastery were the refectory, the sleeping-chambers, 
the kitchen, the guest-hall, the chapter-house, and the parlour. 
There were cloistered passages connecting one part of the build- 
ing with another. The plans of a monastery differed in arrange, 
ment, though all were substantially similar. In addition to the 
above rooms there was a library, a scriptorium, a miserichord, an 
exchequer-chamber, an almonry, a kitchen, a bake-house, and a 
granary, together with special apartments, separate from the rest, 
for the abbot, with a chapel, sleeping-apartment, oratory, buttery, 
pantry, auditory-chamber grouped together. (For an account of 
the extent to which the robbery of religious nouses went under 
Henry VIII. See ABBEY.) Since that reign monks and religious 
have been altogether banished from England. The principle of 
religious toleration, however, having become recognized, the 
Roman Catholic Church is restoring to some extent what was 
so entirely destroyed then. In Great Britain alone there were 
(A.D. 1870) sixty-seven communities of men and two hundred 
and twenty convents, in addition to twenty-one colleges, for the 
instruction and education of the young. In the National Church 
of England likewise, the religious life has been restored, mainly, 
as yet, however, amongst women, there being nearly sixty houses 
of nuns existing in various parts of the country. The religious 
life for men has likewise now had a good and successful be- 

MONASTIC. 1. Pertaining to monasteries. 2. Belonging 
to monks and nuns. 3. A monk. 


MONASTIC ALLY, 1, Reolused, 2. In a retired manner, 
MONASTICISM, Monastic life, 

MONASTICON. A book on, op description of, monasteries, 
MONH (Movfi), A convent, 

MONEY-STONE The slab of a tomb on which donations 
for church purposes were given, or payments in alms made. In 
Thame Church, Oxon, this is also called " the Poor Stone." 

MONION. A term used in Bishop Montague's Articles of 
Visitation, signifying a mullion. See MULLION. 

MONISH (TO). 1. To admonish. 2. To warn. 

MONITION (Latin, monitio).l. Warning. 2. Instructions 
or directions given by way of caution. 3. A form in an Eccle- 
siastical court, giving to a person bringing a charge or complaint, 
a written order or monition requiring the person against whom the 
complaint has been lodged, to obey a decision of that or of some 
other superior court. 4. A formal letter or document issued from 
an archiepiscopal or episcopal court, ordering any person under 
the bishop's jurisdiction to do, or leave undone, some act or 
course of proceeding in which the bishop has an interest. 

MONK (Greek, //ova^cc) . A man who formally retires from 
the ordinary temporal concerns of the world, and devotes himself 
by vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience to the special service 
of God and of religion. Monachism arose very early in the 
Christian Church (See MONASTERY), since which period various 
orders of monks have existed and flourished. 1 . The monks of 
St. Anthony, who wore a habit of black and russet, were called 
after their founder, whose rule was sanctioned by Pope St. 
Marcellus, who was ordained to the Pontificate May 12, A.D. 
308, and died two years afterwards. The monks of St. Basil, 
founded A.D. 358, under the patronage of Pope Liberius, A.D. 
352-365, wore a black habit. Their rule was severe, but much 
followed in many parts of Europe. The Benedictines were 
founded nearly two hundred years later, by the saint whose name 
they bear. Like the monks of St. Basil, their habit was black. 
Felix IV., who reigned from A.D. 526 to 530, was Pope when 
St. Benedict's rule was drawn up. Between this period and the 
institution of the order of Carthusians in the eleventh century, 
monks of the order of Camaldoli, A.D. 1009, of the order of 
Vallis Umbrosa, A.D. 1070, and of the order of Grandmont, A.D. 
1076, were respectively made. The Carthusians were originated 
by St. Bruno, under Pope St. Gregory VII. , who reigned from 


A.D. 1073 to 1085. Their habit was white. The Cistercians 
arose fourteen years later, founded by St. Robert. Their habit, 
too, was white. Some of the most distinguished religious houses 
of the Middle Ages belonged to this renowned order. The 
Celestines originated in 1275, under Gregory X., and were 
founded by Pietro di Morone of Apulia, afterwards Pope St. 
Celestine V., surnamed " the Solitary." The rules of this order, 
with slight variations, were those of St. Benedict. Other orders 
were founded; e.g. the monks of St. Pachomius about 324, the 
monks of the order of Vallis Umbrosa in the latter part of the 
eleventh century, as well as those of Fontrevaud, of the Mount of 
Olives, and the Silvestrins. In later years religious orders and 
congregations have been commonly set up in the Western 
Church, in some respects distinct from monks, though the ancient 
monkish communities still have efficient representatives. 

MONKISH. 1. Like a monk. 2. Pertaining to monks. 
3. Monastic. 

MONO CHORD (Greek, /HOVOQ and xppSi)). A musical instru- 
ment of a single string, sometimes used of old in Divine service. 

MONODY (Greek, juovtuSm). A kind of poem of a mournful 
character, in which a single mourner is supposed to bewail 

MONOGAMIST. One who disallows second marriages. 

MONOGAMY. 1. The marriage of only one wife. 2. The 
state of such as are restrained to a single wife. 3. The Christian 
teaching regarding marriage. 

MONOGRAM (Greek, /udvoe and ypa/jifjia). A cipher or cha- 
racter composed of one, two, or more letters interwoven, either 
with or without the mark of contraction, and forming the abbre- 
viation of a name. 

MONOGRAM (SACRED). The monogram of the Name of 
Christ (Christus, X/otaroe), formed of the two first letters of that 
Name in Greek, is the sign which appeared in the heavens to the 
Emperor Constantine, and was afterwards adopted for his symbol 
and standard. (See LABARUM.) From that period it became a lead- 
ing Christian emblem. It appears on the tomb of Pope St. Caius, 
who suffered martyrdom in the reign of Diocletian. Another 
monogram is the contracted abbreviation I H S, of the Greek 
IH2OYS. This is found constantly, in every variety of form, 
shape and design, during the Middle Ages. The earliest example 
occurs on a gold coin of Basileus I., who lived A.D. 867, the 
inscription of which stands thus : + IHC'CHRS-REX'REG . 



REGNANTIVM. At the present day this monogram is con- 
stantly used. Two examples are provided in the accompanying 
woodcuts, from the Lollard's Tower in Lambeth Palace, of the 
Sacred Name, and a third in embroidery, from the mitre of 
William of Wykeham, preserved at New College, Oxford, is 
given under the term " Mitre." There is, however, scarcely a 
Christian college or church in which this form of monogram 

may not be found. A third, the 
figure of a fish, IX0YS, a word 
composed of the initial letters of the 
Sacred Name and title of our Blessed 
Lord, 'Irjaouc Xpiarug 0fou 


2am'//o, Jesus Christ the Son of God, our Saviour, is very ancient. 
As early as the time of St. Clement (A.D. 194) the Christians of 
Alexandria had adopted both this symbol and monogram. St. 
Optatus contra Parmeu., lib. 3, cap. ii., gives an explanation of 
the same. Other monograms and badges were adopted in later 
times. In the case of the Jesuits, the I H C in a circle, sur- 
rounded with rays of glory, with the Three Nails of the Passion 
converging towards the central letter, has been long adopted as 
the peculiar and distinctive badge of that renowned order. (<SV<? 

life's (rloxnar. 



MONOGRAMMIC. Pertaining or belonging to a monogram. 

MONOPHYSITE (Greek, ]uc5voe and ^<ne). One of a sect 
of heretics in the early Church, who maintained that the divine 
and human natures in Christ became so blended and confounded 
as to constitute but one nature. 

MONOS (Movoe). A monk. 

MONOTONE. 1. A succession of sounds on precisely the 
same line of pitch. 2. The reciting musically upon one note any part 
of Divine service, either by the priest or people singly or together. 

MONOTONIC Pertaining to monotone. 

MONSEIGNEUR. A title given to bishops and other pre- 
lates as, for example, Papal chamberlains, assistants of the 
Pontifical throne, and others in France and other foreign 
countries, corresponding to the term " my lord/' addressed to 
Anglican bishops. 




MONSTRANCE (Latin, monstrare). A vessel of precious 
metal, in which the Blessed Sacrament is carried in solemn pro- 
cession, and exposed on the altar. It is on this account some- 


times termed an ostensory (ostensorium). Under that word a 
very remarkable example, from the pencil of the late Mr. A. 
Welby Pugin, is given on another page. (See OSTENSORY.) 
Anciently their form varied ; sometimes they were made in the 
shape of a tower, as in the accompanying woodcut, or a covered 
chalice ; sometimes in the form of images carrying silver pyxes, in 
which the Sacrament was placed. The accompanying specimen, 
from a German example of the sixteenth century, is circular in 
shape, placed on a stand like the foot of a chalice, and surmounted 
by a cross. The circular part, which encloses the Blessed Sacra- 
ment, is surrounded by rays of glory, and the whole vessel is 
jewelled. (See Illustrations, Figs. I and 2.) 

MONUMENT. 1. Anything by which the memory of a 
person or event is preserved and perpetuated. 2. An erection of 
stone, marble, or metal, in memory of a person dead. See ALTAK- 

MORALITY. A kind of medieval play, full of allegory and 
hidden teaching; so termed because it usually consisted of moral 
discourses between such presumed characters as Faith, Hope, 
Charity, Valour, Discretion, Life, and Death. Moi'alities in the 
sixteenth century took the place of the old Christian Miracle 
Plays, and became very popular during the seventeenth century. 
The London Guilds and Confraternities, which had anciently con- 
ducted the Miracle Plays, at that period rendered the popular 
" Moralities " with some art and splendour : King James fre- 
quently attended them. They soon, however, ceased to exercise 
any good influence, having been deliberately denuded of that 
Christian character which rendered the old Miracle Plays both 
attractive in themselves and useful for public instruction. 

MORROW MASS. An expression frequently occurring in 
old English writers, signifying " Early Mass." " The said clerke 
shall attend in his rozett [rochet] at Morrow Mass, and at High 
Mass to apparell the altars." (Jacob's History of Feversham, 
Appendix, p. 166.) 

MORROW-MASS PRIEST. A priest who celebrates the 
first or earliest Mass in a church or cathedral. 

MORROW OF A FESTIVAL (THE). The day which 

succeeds it. 

MORSE (Latin, morsus, from warded). The metal fastening 
of a cope, usually made of precious metal, ornamented with 
pearls, crystals, and enamel. It is sometimes called a "pec- 
toral." The design of this ornament varied, but one of the 

Q 2 


most favourite subjects with mediaeval artists was the Annun- 
ciation of St. Mary, represented 
on a morse amongst the jewels 
of William of Wykeham at New 
College, and often seen on ancient 
brasses. A morse of silver, re- 
presenting the offerings of the 
Three Kings, is preserved in 
Lord Londesborough's collection. 
The Crucifixion, was frequently 
depicted; it occurs on an old 
copper-gilt morse, lately dis- 
covered at Thame, in Oxford- 
shire, of which the accompany- 
ing woodcut is an illustration. 
Sometimes a band was used to 
case with those at Westminster 
Abbey, worn occasionally by our bishops; 
if so, it was commonly richly decorated 
with jewels and embroidery, (Sec Illus- 


fasten the cope, as is 


MORTAR. A broad bowl of brass, 
latten, or copper, either with a pricket 
for a thick lighted taper, or else filled^ 
with a mixture of perfumed wax and oil, 
in which a broad wick was kept burn- 
ing both at festivals and funerals. Such 
are placed round the shrine of SS. Peter 
and Paul at Rome on their festival. The accompanying illustra- 
tion is from an old English example, 
which anciently belonged to St. Mary 
Magdalene College, Oxford, and from 
which the recently-made sconces or mor- 
tars in the chapel there were designed. 
(See Illustration.) 

MORTIFICATION. The act of sub- 
duing the passions and carnal appetites 
by penance, abstinence, or unpleasant 
severities deliberately inflicted on the 

MORTMAIN (French, mart and 
main) . In law, the possession .jpf lauds 
or tenements in dead hands, or hands 
that cannot alienate. Alienation in mort- 



main is an alienation of lands, tenements, or hereditaments to 
any corporation, sole or aggregate, guild, or confraternity. 

MORTMAIN (STATUTE OF). A statute passed in the 
reign of Henry VIII., by which it was declared illegal for any 
one, either directly or indirectly, to give his lands to any religious 

MORTUARY (French, mortuaire). A customary fee, or gift, 
claimed by and given to the priest of a parish on the decease of 
one of his flock. In England, anciently, a fourth part of the 
goods of an intestate person went half to the fabric fund of the 
parish church, and the remaining half to the poor. The same 
rule, to a great extent, was followed both in France and 

MORTUARY CHAPEL. A chapel erected for the special 
purpose of receiving the bodies of the departed in vaults below. 
Anciently, these mortuary chapels were side chapels, or chapels 
belonging to a particular family; e.g. that of the founder of the 
church, or the lord of the manor. Now such chapels are some- 
times built in cemeteries. 

MOST CATHOLIC. A customary title given to the kings 
of Spain. 

MOST CHRISTIAN. A customary title given to the kings 
of France. 

MOST REVEREND. A customary title given to arch- 
bishops in England. 

^ MOST SACRED. A customary title given to the Queen of 

MOST WORSHIPFUL. A customary title given to certain 
mayors and municipal officers of cities in England. 

MOTE. A Saxon word, used in the Middle Ages, to signify a 
meeting. The term " mote-house" sometimes signifies a " town- 

MOTETT. 1. A little anthem. 2. A short piece of sacred 
music arranged in harmony. 3. A musical composition of a sacred 
character, consisting of from one to eight parts. 

MOTHER CHURCH. 1. Any church in which missionary 
eiforts.fiave been so successfully made as that the Catholic reli- 
gion has been carried to, and planted in, foreign lands. 2. That 
church which is first set up in a heathen country. 3. The cathe^ 


dral church of any diocese. 4. A parish church owning district 
churches attached to it, which latter are still under the care of 
its chief pastor. 

MOTHER OF GOD (Latin, Mater Dei ; Greek, 
A term precise, definite, and very important in its bearing 011 
Christian doctrine, formally given by the Council of Nicasa to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. 

MOULDING (Italian, modanatura) . A general term applied 
to all the varieties of outline or contour given to the angles of 
the various subordinate parts and features of buildings, whether 
projections or cavities, such as cornices, capitals, bases, door and 
window jambs, heads, &c. In Pointed architecture the mould- 
ings were a feature of great importance ; those of the Second 
Pointed style possessing the greatest variety and character. 

MOULD-STONES. An ancient English term to designate 
the carved stones of a window or doorway upon which mouldings 
were afterwards to be cut. 

MOURNE. 1. That part of a lance to which the steel or 
ferrule is fixed. 2. The point or lower end of a pastoral staff or 


MOYSA (Mouo-a). The term for a piece of sponge fastened to 
the maniple, used for cleaning the paten in the Eastern Liturgy. 

MOVABLE. That which may or does change from one 
time to another. 

MOVABLE FEASTS. Those feasts which are not. annually 
observed on the same day, and the position of which, year by 
year in the Kalendar of the Church, depends upon the day on 
which Easter falls. 

MOZARABIC LITURGY. The ancient Liturgy, founded on 
the old rite of Ephesus, used sometime in Spain. This is believed 
to have been universally followed for many centuries, though addi- 
tions, reforms, and alterations were made in it, both in the sixth 
and ninth centuries. In the sixteenth century, Cardinal Ximenes 
restored it to its ancient position, from which it had been removed 
by some who favoured both the Roman and Gallican forms. 

MOZETTA (Italian). A tippet or cape, with a small hood 
hanging from that portion which touches the back of the neck, 
worn by archbishops, bishops, prelates, doctors of canon law, 
deans, canons, and prebendaries in various parts of the Western 


Church. The mozetta of a bishop and prelate is purple, of a 
doctor of canon law scarlet and black. In other cases the colour 

MULLION. The slender pier which forms the division be- 
tween the lights of windows, screens, &c., in Pointed archi- 

MUNDATORY, OK PURIFICATOR. A term used to signify 
that strip of white linen which is made use of in the celebration 
of the Holy Eucharist by the priest, with which to wipe the 
sacred vessels prior to the offertory, and afterwards to cleanse 
them, when the ablutions have been taken at the close of the 

MUNDIFICATION (Latin, mundits and facio). A purifica- 

MUNIMENT (Latin, munimentum).!. A legal record. 2. 
A writing by which claims and rights are maintained and de- 
fended. 3. The archives of a diocese, family, person, or corpo- 

MTPOAOTHS (Mu/oo&Jrtjff). The keeper of the Holy Chrism. 
MTPON (Mtpov). The Holy Chrism. 
MTSTArarEIN (Mwaraywym;). To baptize. 
MT2TIKOS TMNOS (Mu<m.c6c fyivoc). The Trisagiou. 
MTSTIKQ2 (MwffriKwc). -Secretly, inaudibly. 
MYNCHEN. A Saxon name for a nun. 

MYNCHERY. 1. The Saxon name for a nunnery. 2. A 
term still used to designate a religious house for women. 

MYRRH. The sap of a tree, chiefly growing in Arabia, which 
oozes out in the form of globules of gum, of various sizes and 
colour, of a strong but pleasant odour, but of a bitter taste. 


MYSTAGOGIA (Greek, nvaraywyia). 1. The Greek Liturgy, 
2. The Holy Eucharist. 3. Instruction before baptism. 

MYSTAGOGICAL. Belonging to the interpretation or 
explanation of mysteries. 

MYSTAGOGUE (Greek, JUI'XTTOC and aywyoc). 1. One given 
to the interpretation of mysteries. 2. A shrine-keeper, or the 
keeper of the relics in a cathedral or church; 


MYSTERIES. 1. Things which relate to God or to the 
economy of Divine Providence. 2. Secret things which have 
been revealed to mankind. 3. A term used to designate all the 
Sacraments of the Christian Church, but specially the Holy 
Eucharist. 4. Certain dramatic representations of Christian acts 
or traditions. 

MYSTERY (THE). A patristic term for the Holy Com- 

MYSTICISM. 1. Obscurity of doctrine, 2. The method of 
discovering a fanciful or mystic meaning in Scripture. 3. The 
system of the Mystics. 

MYSTICS (THE). A class of religious people who profess 
to have direct intercourse with the Spirit of God in calm and 
holy contemplation, and to receive in the process such impres- 
sions as are true religious knowledge. 

MYSTIC VOICE.l. A voice of mystery, i.e. a silent or 
suppressed voice. 2. A low voice. In Liturgical writers, 
" secrclo." 



NABLE. A kmd of .small psaltry. 

NABLUM. An instrument of musk- 
used amongst the Jews of old. It had 
strings like the harp, and was played upon 
with both hands. Its form was that of a 
Greek delta; thus, A. In the Septuagint 
and Vulgate it is styled Lyra, Psalterion, 
and sometimes Cithara. Josephus speaks of it as having twelve 
strings. Kircher, in his Musuryia, represents it, from an early 
Vatican MS., as very like the modern psaltery. It was either 
struck by a small hammer, or played with the fingers. Its use 
appears to have come down to mediasval times, if we may judge 
from existing MS. representations of it. 

NAOS. 1. A temple. 2. A church. 3. The inner portion 
of a church or temple. 

NAPERIE, OB N APERY. Napkins or cloths of liueu : hence 

NARI) (Latin, nardus). An aromatic plant usually called 
spikenard, splca nardi, highly valued by the ancients, both as an 
article of luxury and of medicine. 

NAPAION (Na/o&ov). Unconsecrated chrism. 

NAPAO2 (Na/oSoc). A Greek term for the chrism-box 01- 


NARTHEX. The western portion, near the main entrance, 
>of an Oriental church, divided from the rest by a screen or rail- 
ing, to which the catechumens and penitents were admitted. 
Bingham, in the eighth chapter of his book on Christian Anii- 
HiiiUes, writes thus ; -" In a larger sense there was another ante- 
temple or n^rthex without the walls, under which was comprised 
the vestibuhlm or outward porch ; then the atrium or area, ^the 
court leading from that to the temple, surrounded with porticos 
Or cloisters, in the middle of which was commonly a fountain or 


cistern of water for people to wash their hands and face before 
they went to church/' 

NATALITIA (Latin) .Birthdays : hence the days on which 
the early Christian martyrs suffered, and so secured for them- 
selves life everlasting. 


NATIONAL SYNOD. A synod consisting of the patriarchs, 
archbishops, primates, bishops, and representatives of the clergy, 
belonging to any particular nation, assembled for the purpose of 
making canons for the better government of the Church, or other 
needful ecclesiastical business. 

NAYTOAOrOS (Nauro'Xoyoc) . A Greek term for a catechist. 

NAVE (Italian, nave di Chiesa ; Saxon, nafa, nafu; Latin, 
navi-s). The chief part or body of a church, extending from the 
western entrance to the chancel-screen, or constructional division 
marking off the part occupied by the faithful from that in which 
Divine service is sung, and the Holy mysteries celebrated. It 
was so called as representing the ark or ship of the Church. 

NAVETTE. 1. A French term for the navicula, or vessel for 
holding incense, made of metal, and shaped like a boat. " Item, 
a navette, with a spone all gilt, weying xxij unces of Robert 
Alchurch's gyft." (Inventory of Plate belonging to Worcester 
Priory, 1540, in Green's Worcester. Vide also, Church Furni- 
ture, by Edward Peacock, Esq., F.S.A., p. 80. London : Hotten, 
1866.) 2. That vessel in which the incense is kept. It is com- 
monly borne by an acolyte, who attends the thurifer, and fills 
the thurible or censer as often as occasion may require. Sec 

NAVICULA. Literally "a little boat." See INCENSE-BOAT 

NAZAPAIO2 (Naa/oeuoe). A Greek term signifying 
primarily a Nazarene, and secondarily a monk. 

NE ADMITTAS. An ecclesiastical document, issued by a 
Church court, intended to restrain a bishop or ordinary from 
instituting a certain clerk to a vacant benefice, until the right of 
presentation shall have been fully determined. 

NECROLOGIST. One who records deaths. 

NECROLOGIUM (Greek, v^/ooc and Aoyoc). The name of 
a MS. volume in which the religious of any particular community 


registered the names of benefactors to the same, together with 
the days of their departure from the flesh. This volume con- 
tained likewise a list of all the deceased members of the commu- 
nity, out of which a list was made, month by month, or week by 
week, for the sacristy ; so that those priests who said Mass might 
specially remember the departed. 

NECROMANCER. One who pretends to a revelation of the 
future by intercourse with the dead. 

NECROMANCY (Greek, V e K pbc and /uaiWa). The art of 
revealing future events by means of a communication with the 

NECROMANTIC. Of or belonging to necromancy, or the 
acts of a necromancer. 

NECROPOLIS (Greek, v , Kp ^ and irdXif). 1, A city of the 
dead. 2. A cemetery. 

NEKP122IMON (NtKpwatfjiov}. A Greek term for a hymn for 
the dead. 

NENIA. A funeral song ; an elegy. 

NEOCORUS (Greek, VOKO>OC). The Greek term for a verger 
or doorkeeper. 

NEOGAMIST (Greek, vsoc and yaf*ia>). A person who has 
been recently married. 

NEOLOGICAL. Pertaining to Neology. 

NEOLOGIST. An innovator in theology; an introducer of 
Rationalistic impieties. 

NEOLOGY (Greek, vtoQ and Xoyoc). Literally, the introduc- 
tion of a new word or system : hence Rationalistic views in 
theology, subversive of the revealed Truth of God. This term 
is applied especially to the new philosophico-theology of the 
German and English sceptics. 

NEONOMIAN (Greek, vt'oc and vojuoe). One who advocates 
new laws, or desires that God's laws should be changed. 

NEOPHYTE (Greek, viog and <J>VTOV). 1. A new convert or 
proselyte from Heathenism, Mahomet anism, or Unitarianism. 
2. One recently admitted into the Family of Christ by the Sacra- 
ment of Holy Baptism. 3. A novice in a religious house. 4. A 
person raised to the episcopate without going through the 
inferior grades in the ministry. 


NESTORIAN. A follower of Nestorius, patriarch of Con- 
stantinople in the fifth century, who was solemnly deposed and 
condemned as a heretic for maintaining that the two Natures of 
our Blessed Lord were not conjoined (a) indivisibly, (/3) immu- 
tably, (7) unconfusedly, and (S) inseparably. 

NEUMA. 1. A musical term to signify the varied prolonga- 
tion of tone in the last syllable of the word " Alleluia/' when 
occurring in the Day Offices of the Church. Some writers assert 
that the technical " sequence " took the place of the old 
" Neuma," about the tenth century. 2. A prolonged tone of 
jubilation. 3. The closing notes of a mediaeval anthem. 

NEWEL. The central stone column round which a circular 
uiedigeval stone staircase winds. 

NICENE CREED. The traditional baptismal Creed of the 
Eastern Church, adopted and formally promulgated, with the 
addition of the word " coiisubstantial," on the authority of the 
tirst General Council of the Church Universal, A.D. 325, in the 
reign of the emperor Constantiiie, and during the Papacy of 
St. Sylvester. It was afterwards enlarged at the second General 
Council, held at Constantinople, A.D. 381, when fresh errors, 
then recently sprung np, had to be condemned. The object of 
the Council in putting forth this Creed was to destroy the poison 
of the heresy of Arius, and to establish the Catholic faith con- 
cerning the Son of God. 

NICHE. A recess in a wall for a statue or other similar orna- 
ment. In the Middle Ages such were almost invariably termed 
" tabernacles," and were frequently used ; in fact, scarcely any 
chapel or church was without its niche, either for the figure of 
the patron saint of the place, or else of some other saint specially 
honoured and venerated. 

NIELLO. A species of ornamental engraving used by the 
Italians, resembling damask- work, made by enchasing a black 
composition, said to have been composed of silver and lead, into 
cavities of wood or metal. 


NIGHT OF OUR LADY. Christmas-night, because on that 
night our Lord, her Divine Son, was born. 

NIGHT OF SONG. Christmas-night, because the angels 
then sang the Gloria in excelsis. 

NIGHT-WATCH. 1. A period in the night, distinguished 
as by a change in the watch. 2. An hour of prayer ; 


NIHIL-PREBENDS, Honorary prebends, or probentU with- 
out any endowment, i.e. from which nothing was derived by tho 

NIMBUS (Latin). A circle or disk of rays of light around 
the Head of representations of tho Almighty Father, of God the 
Son, and of God the Holy Ghost, as well as round the heads of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, the saints, martyrs, and confessors. 
Du Cange defines this Nimbus, or Corona, thus : " Nimbus 
circulus, qui circa Sanctorum capita depingitur." These were 
commonly circular, and the nimbi of our 
Lord were charged with a cross. That in 
the accompanying illustration is from a late 
example in the Roman Catacomb of St. 
Calixtus. Some archaeologists believe it 
to be of the eighth century. The nimbus 
symbolizes and represents glory. In that 
of the Eternal Father some sign or symbol 
of the Trinity was often introduced ; e. fj., 
the rays of light diverged into a threefold vwy i 1 , 

form. The nimbus of the Blessed A"irgin f \ f f 
Mary is bordered by a circle of stars. A 
circlet of pearls is often represented on the nimbus of angels ; 
while small roses, or other conventional flowers, are depicted 
round the border of that of the Apostles ; though, in the six- 
teenth century, the practice of writing the name of the apostle 
or saint, to distinguish one from tho other, round the nimbus was 
very common, both with artists, illuminators, and glass-painters. 
Sometimes the nimbus was adorned with representations of 
different jewels. It is commonly believed that a square nimbus 
round the head of a person indicated that he was ntill living. 
(See Illustration.) 

NIPPERKIN. An English name for a small cup or drinking- 
vessel. A term sometimes found in old churchwardens' accounts, 
or in the records of religious houses. 

NOCTURNS. A term to designate the Night-office which is 
recited in monastic and conventual chapels. 

NOGGEN. A small bowl or wooden cup ; a term frequently 
found in monastic accounts. 


NOMBRIL. The centre of an heraldic escutcheon. 

NOMENCY (Latin, now en; Greek, /zavrefo) . The art of 
divining the destiny of persons by considering the letters which 
form their name. 


NOMIKOS (NO/UIKOC). The judge in the Eastern Church of 
the meaning and intent of the rubric. 

NOMINAL. 1. Titular. 2. Existing in name only. 
NOMINALISM. The principles of the Nominalists. 

NOMINALISTS. A sect of mediaeval philosophers who 
maintained that generals, or the terms used to denote the genera 
and species of things, are not properly designations of things 
that exist, but mere names (nomina) for the resemblances and 
evidences of things. 

NOMINATION. 1. To name; to mention by name. 2. 
Hence, technically and ecclesiastically, to formally appoint a 
priest to a benefice by the legal and reputed patron. 3. The 
state of being nominated. 

NOMOCANON (Greek, VO/UOKOKUV). 1. A book of canons. 
2. The MS. rules of a Greek monastery. ;3. A Greek term for 
a Penitential. 

NOMOAOTH2 (NojuoSdrrjc). The almoner of the Greek 

NON-COMMUNICANT. An Anglican term, descriptive 
(1) of one who has not yet received the Holy Communion; 
and (2) more especially of one of the faithful, who, though 
assisting at the offering of the Christian Sacrifice, does not 
receive the Sacrament. 

term, invented, or at all events commonly brought into use, since 
the Oxford Revival, to designate the presence of the faithful at 
the offering of the Christian Sacrifice, a practice which, having 
grown into disuse since the changes of the sixteenth century, has 
been restored during the present revival of Catholic principles 
and external decency. 

NON-COMMUNION. Neglect or failure of communion. 

NON-CONFORMIST. One who does not conform to the 
Established Church; particularly in England, one who rejects 
the political settlement of the Church under King Charles II., 
effected by the Act of Uniformity. 

NON-EPISCOPAL. Not of the Episcopal Church. 

NON-EPISCOPALIAN. One who does not belong to the 
Episcopal Church. 


NONES. The Divine office for the Ninth Hour of prayer, 
viz. that which is commonly said at 3 p.m. 

NON-EXCOMMUNICABLE.- Not liable to excommunica- 

NON-JURING (Latin, non and/tiro). Not swearing allegiance; 
an epithet applied to the Nonjurors. See NONJUROR. 

NON JUROR. In England and Scotland, one who refused to 
take the oath of allegiance to William the Hollander, when 
the lawful King, James II., abdicated the throne of Great Britain. 

office drawn up by the episcopal leaders of the Nonjurors, founded 
partly on the Eastern liturgies, and more especially the Liturgy 
of St. James partly on that of the first Prayer-book of 
Edward VI., and partly on the service for Holy Communion in 
the Book of Common Prayer. Its use has long ago ceased. 

ancient Catholic practices, which having been laid aside by the 
National Church of England in the sixteenth century, were 
restored in the eighteenth by the clerical Nonjurors. They were 
as follows : (1) The use of the sign of the cross, with a corre- 
sponding formula in giving Confirmation ; (2) the use of the mixed 
chalice of wine and water at the Christian Sacrifice ; (3) a com- 
memoration of, and prayer on behalf of, the faithful departed ; 

(4) an invocation of the Holy Ghost in the Canon of the Liturgy; 

(5) a formal oblation of the Blessed Sacrament in the Eucharist ; 
and (6) the unction of sick people by blessed oil and balsam, with 
prayer and due ceremonies. 

NOON-SONG. A term used to designate that service which 
is said daily at noon-tide, viz. Sext, or the Sixth Hour of prayer. 

NORMAN ARCHITECTURE. That style of architecture 
introduced into this country A.D. 1066, by the Normans at the 
period of the Conquest. Its main features are the semicircular 
arch, massive pillars, and very simple mouldings, together with 
zig-zag ornamentation, interlacing bands, and intersecting arches. 
One of the earliest, and possibly the most perfect and most 
remarkable example of Norman architecture, is the chapel in the 
White Tower of London. The church of Iffley in Oxfordshire, 
and the desecrated church of St. Nicholas at Caen, are full of 
interest; because, from either, the severe and simple charac- 
teristics of this style can even now be readily apprehended. 


NORTH (Saxon, north ; Danish, nord ; Italian, norte}. One 
of the cardinal points of the compass, being that point of the 
horizon which is directly opposite to the sun in the meridian. 
Symbolically, the north is the region of darkness, gloom, sin, 
and suffering. 

NORTH END OF AN ALTAR. That end of an altar, in a 
duly-orientated church, which faces the south. 

NORTH SIDE OF AN ALTAR, That portion of the 
western side of an altar, in a duly-orientated church, which is 
found between the midst of the altar and its north-west corner. 

church to be duly orientated, that portion of a sanctuary north 
of a line drawn from the centre of the altar to the westernmost 
part of the choir, 


NOTARIAL MARKS. Marks, devices, or signs, which, 
together with the signature of their name, were made by public 
notaries for several generations, on at- 
testing any deed, document, or copy of 
the same. These marks are frequently 
found in papers amongst cathedral and 
collegiate archives. An example of such 
a mark is given from a seventeenth-cen- 
tury document in the Library at Worcester 
Cathedral. (See Illustration.) 


officer of the Court of Rome, commonly 
an ecclesiastic, who attests deeds and 
other instruments for safe preservation in 

NOTARIAL MAUK. n T 1 >i i 

the Papal or other archives. 

NOTARY PUBLIC. A legal officer who attests deeds and 
other instruments. 

' NOTE. 1. A mark. 2. A token. 3. A sign. 4. An indi- 

Sanctity. 3. Catholicity. 4. Apostolicity. The four visible 
signs of the characteristics of the Family of Christ on earth : 


diviuc principles essential to the well-being of the Universal 
Church of Christ. 

XOVENA. A devotion practised in the Roman Catholic 
Church, lasting nine days, in honour of some Mystery of our 
redemption, to obtain a particular request; or in honour of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, or some of the saints, to beg their prayers 
and intercessions in obtaining it. It may be performed with any 
forms of prayer. 

NOVICE (Lathi, uovitius). I. One who is new in any busi- 
ness. 2. Hence, one who has entered a religious house, and is 
under probation or trial, before being accepted to take the required 
vows. 3. A person newly-converted to the Faith of Christ. 
4. Persons undergoing preparation for one of the holy or minor 
orders in the Christian Church. 

NOVICES (MASTER OF THE). A religious, frequently, 
but not invariably, in holy orders, whose duty it is to superintend 
the instruction and progress of the novices in a religious house, 
and to fit them for taking the required vows. 

NOVICES (MISTRESS OF THE). A nun whose duty it 
is to superintend the instruction and progress of the novices in a 
religious house, and to fit them for taking the prescribed vows. 


NOVICIATE. That period of time between the formal entry 
of a person into a religions house and his actual joining the com- 
munity, after having taken the appointed vows. 

NO WELL, OR NO WEL. .1 . An old English term for 
Christmas, used, amongst other writers, by Chaucer. 2. A song 
regarding the birth of Christ. 3. A Christmas carol. 4. A 
shout of joy, because of the blessings of the Incarnation. 5. The 
burden or refrain of a Christmas canticle. 

NUMBERS (SACRED). Certain numbers in which medieval 
and other writers saw represented either natural or revealed 
truths; e.g., one represented the Eternal Father; two, the In- 
carnation ; three, the Blessed Trinity ; four, the four quarters of 
the world ; five, the five wounds of Christ ; six, the glorious 
work of creation effected in six days or periods of time ; seven, 
the Sacraments, as also Rest, because God rested on the seventh 
day, and Perfection; eight, Beatitude; nine, the Angelic 
Choirs ; ten, the Moral Law ; and twelve, the Apostles of our 
Lord. Other and larger numbers have been similarly treated. 

NUMERALE. A medieval term for a church kalendar. 

Left Qlonarj. R 


NUN-CHAPEL. The chapel of a nunnery. 

NUN-COLLAR. The linen neck-covering or wimple of 
a nun. 

NUNC DIMITTIS The first words of the Latin version of 
the Song of Simeon a song or canticle framed at the Presenta- 
tion of our Blessed Lord in the Temple. It is used in the Com- 
pline service of the Western Church, as well as in the Evensong 
of the Church of England. 

NUNCIATURE. The office of a nuncio. 

NUNCIO (Latin, nuncius). 1. A messenger. 2. One who 
brings intelligence. 3. An ambassador from the Pope to an 
emperor or king. The Pope's envoy to republics and small states 
is an intermmcio. 

NUNNERY. 1. A house in which nuns dwell and labour. 
2. A convent for nuns. 

NUNNISHNESS. The habits, practices, or manners of 

NUN-ROBE. The religious habit of a nun. 

NUNS. Women who have taken religous vows, and live 
apart from the world. St. Jerome used the word nonna to 
describe a religious widow, or a holy matron, performing works 
of mercy. Such were likewise known as "the handmaidens of 
the Lord" by other writers. Anciently, nuns made a profession 
of their intent and wish in the face of the congregation, and were 
formally admitted to office by religious rites and ceremonies. 
The oldest order of nuns is that of St. Augustine of Hippo, of 
whom but little is known. The modern nuns of St. Augustine 
were founded in the middle of the eleventh century by Pope 
Eugenius III., a disciple of St. Bernard, and a monk of Clairvaux. 
Their religious habit was white, with a black outer garment. The 
Benedictine nuns, whose habit is black, were set up in the sixth 
century by a disciple of St. Bernard, and possessed very great 
influence and considerable temporal grants, gifts, and oblations 
during the Middle Ages. The Cistercians were founded in 
France by St. Stephen, under Pope Gelasius II. (John of Gaeta), 
who ended his days at the Abbey of Cluny. The habit of the 
Cistercian nuns was white, with a black scapular. The Gilber- 
tine nuns, whose habit was white, were founded about the middle 
of the twelfth century, by St. Gilbert of Sempringham, under 
Pope St, Eugenius III., who died at Rome, July 8, 1153. The 

NUNS. 213 

Dominicanesses were formed by St. Dominic, under Conti, who 
took the title of Innocent III. This order possessed considerable 
land in England. St. Francis of Assisi originated the Poor 
Clares, under the same Pope, and at about the same period. 
Their habit was of a light brown or earth-colour. The Carthu- 
sians arose about 1233, founded at Grenoble by Beatrix of Mont- 
serrat. Their habit was white. The Bridgetines by St. Bridget, 
under Pope Clement VI. (Pierre de Roger, a Benedictine). The 
Carmelites arose in France in 1542; the Order of the Annun- 
ciation in 1500. The Ursulines arose in Italy, founded by St. 
Angela. They were patronized by Pope Paul III. (Alexander 
Farnese). The Capuchinesses were founded at Naples in 1583. 
The Theatines of the Conception of Mary arose in the same year, 
and in the same city. In the seventeenth century were founded 
the Order of the Visitation of Mary (A.D. 1610) by St. Francis 
of Sales ; the Order [of Our Lady of Calvary (A.D. 1614) by 
Le Clerc, in France ; and the Order of Our Lady of Charity in 
1666. Other orders, mainly branches of some of the above 
with the rules modified or amended have arisen since, the most 
popular being the Sisters of Charity and the Little Sisters of the 
Poor. In the Church of England, during the past forty years, 
several orders have been founded, most of them based on the 
religious life as set forth by the mediaeval originators of houses 
and communities for religious; e.g., that of Lydia Sellon, at 
Plymouth, which has many important and influential branches ; 
that of Clewer, Berks ; that of St. Margaret's, East Grinstead, 
Sussex, founded by Dr. Neale; that of Horbury, Yorkshire; 
that at All Saints', Margaret Street, London ; that at Ditching- 
ham ; St. Thomas's, Oxford ; St. George's-in-the-East, London ; 
and many others. Several of these societies are active in their 
work : some, however, are contemplative : all have won the 
respect of Christian men in England by the charity and devo- 
tion of their members, and appear likely to become once again 
an important organization for extending the Church's influence 
in this country. The form in the Roman Pontifical, De Bene- 
dictione et Consecratione Virginum, embodies most of the ancient 
and mediaeval traditions regarding the rite of setting apart 
women for the religious life ; and this rule has been followed, 
with necessary variations, in the Anglican revival. 


JATH (Saxon, alh). A solemn affirmation 
or declaration, made with an appeal to 
God for the express truth of that which is 
so affirmed. Ducange lias put on record 
the various modes in which an oath was 
taken in the Middle Ages. Oaths were 
generally taken on the altar-cross and 
Mass-book, or else on the altar itself. 
The hands of the person taking the oath 
were stretched out upon the altar in the 
form of an x cross. The person receiving 

the oath held the Book of the Gospels, or the Missal, for the 
person to kiss who was taking the oath, and a third witness cer- 
tified what had been done. Many of the oaths w r hich w T ere taken 
by Christians at this period had been borrowed from Pagan 
nations ; c-g., sw r earing on a sword or the hem of a garment, on 
an altar, and on the tomb of a person dead. 

OATH OF ALLEGIANCE (THE). A declaration made by 
English ecclesiastics, denying that any ecclesiastical or spiritual 
authority or jurisdiction in this realm belongs by explicit divine 
right to any foreign prince, prelate, or potentate. 

OATH OF SUPREMACY (THE). A declaration in which 
English ecclesiastics, when appointed to benefices and ecclesias- 
tical positions, promise fidelity to the sovereign as supreme head 
of the national communion. 

OBIT (Latin, obiit, olrivit). See ANNALS. 

OBLATI. Secular persons who, in the Middle Ages, because 
of religious zeal, resigned themselves and their estates to some 
monastery, where they were admitted as lay brothers. Some 
gave up their families and dependents for the use of the religious 
house, obliging their descendants 'likewise to abide in the same 
state of servitude. The dependents became inferior kind of 
brethren, working for the general good of the house and com- 

OBLATION (Latin, oblaiio) .-^-\ . Any solemn offering, whether 
of bread and wine for the Mass, of the fruits of the earth, or of 
alms for the poor. 2. A sacrifice. :. A gift for the maintenance 
of the clergy. 



OBLATION (THE GREATER). A Greek term for the 
offering of the Bread and Wine in the Liturgy of the Oriental 

OBLATION (THE HOLY). The Holy Communion. 

OBLATION (THE LESSER). The ottering of the alms and 
oblations of the faithful in the early part of the Liturgy. 

OBLATION OF THE ELEMENTS. The offering of bread 
and wine on the altar, preparatory to their becoming, in a mystery, 
the Body and Blood of Christ by the power of the Holy Ghost, 
and through the act of consecration. First, the altar-breads art: 
placed OIL the paten, and then the priest-celebrant, with silent 
prayer, offers them to God, raising the chalice with the thuiub> 
and index-fingers of both hands. Then the wine and water are 
placed in the chalice, and offered in a similar mode, with another 
silent prayer. After which, the chalice being placed behind the 
paten, the former is covered with the altar-card, and the latter 
with the nearest right-hand corner of the corporal turned over at 
an angle. 

OBLATION (PRAYER OF THE). That portion of the 
Divine Liturgy in which the offerings are solemnly presented 
before Almighty God. 


OBLATIONER. 1. The ofiicial in a church who receives the 
voluntary oblations of the faithful. At the great and most noted 
shrines of saints, the oblationer sat at a table near, or sometimes 
at, a tomb, the slab of which served as such, to accept the dona- 
tions of the pilgrims to it. Hence a shrine -keeper. (See MONKY- 
STONE.) 2. One who makes an ottering as an act of worship. 

OBLATIONES A.LTARIS. Gifts bestowed by the faithful 
for the priest who said Mass, or for the community (if a regular) 
to which he belonged. 

OBLATIONES DEFUNCTORUM. Gifts bestowed by the 
last will and testament of any person dying, to the church of his 

OBLATIONES FUNERALES. Gifts bestowed by the 
friends of a person who has departed this life, on the occasion of 
the funeral solemnities. 


cost, anciently to spread the faith amongst the pagans, either by 
preaching the Gospel, or by the action of the Crusades. 

OBLATIONES PCENITENTIUM. Gifts bestowed upon the 
Church, or for the use of religious persons, in gratitude for the 
grace of contrition, sealed to the donors after confession by the 
ministry of the priest. 

given four times a year to the parish priest, and solemnly offered 
on the altar, for keeping up Divine service. The customary gift 
was three pence at Christmas, two pence at Easter, and a penny 
at the two other quarters. 

used to describe the fact of two festivals falling upon the same 

OCTAVE OF A FESTIVAL (THE). The eighth day after 
the feast itself. Octaves are enjoined to be observed in the 
Church of England by the rubrics relating to the proper prefaces 
in the service for Holy Communion. 

OCULI SUNDAY. The Third Sunday in Lent, anciently so 
called in England because " the Office }) in the Sarum Mass con- 
tained a part of Psalm xxv., and the Tract a portion of Psalm 

OCULUS. A mediaeval term to designate a rose or round 
window, sometimes termed simply an O. (See the Ely Roll, 
thirteenth year of King Edward III.) 

(ECUMENICAL (Greek, otjoou/usvticoc) 1- General or uni- 
versal. 2. A title given to the general councils ; and also (3) 
to the patriarchs of Rome and New Rome, or Constantinople. 

OFFERTORIUM, OFFERTORY. Part of a psalm or 
sentence of Holy Scripture, said or sung during the time when 
the offerings of the faithful are made at the Christian Sacrifice. 
These offerings now generally consist of bread, wine, and alms. 
The bread and wine are solemnly offered by the celebrant, the 
latter being mixed with a little pure water. Anciently, however, 
other offerings were given, vestiges of which remain in several 
Latin rites; e. g. in the offering of wax tapers by clergy in their 
ordination, bread and wine by bishops at their consecration, and 
of bread, wine, water, doves and other birds, at the canonization 
of saints. 


OFFICE (Latin, officium). 1. A particular duty, trust, or 
charge conferred by public or proper authority. 2. That which 
is performed. 3. A function, or religious act or devotion. 4. A 
service of the Church, and more especially one of the Day Hours. 
5. In the canon law, a benefice having no jurisdiction attached 
to it. 

OFFICIAL. An ecclesiastical judge appointed by a bishop to 
perform certain judicial functions exercising on the bishop's 
behalf ordinary jurisdiction. 

OFFICIAL (PRINCIPAL). A law-officer of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, exercising his Grace's delegated jurisdiction. The 
Dean of the Court of Arches once held this office. 

OFFICIANT. 1. One who officiates. 2. In ecclesiastical 
language, the chief cleric at a public service. 3. The adminis- 
trator of the sacraments. 4. The celebrant at the Christian 
Sacrifice. 5. The reciter of Matins or Evensong in the Church 
of England. 

OFFICIATE. To perform a public act or service. 

OG-EE. A term in Pointed Architecture to designate a 
moulding formed by the combination of a round and hollow, 
one part being concave, and the other part convex. This is 
seldom found in Norman work, but continually in Third Pointed. 

OIKIA (OiKia). The cell of a monastic official. 

OIKI2KOS (OtKiffKoe). A side chapel. 

OIKONOMEION (Oticovojmov) . The store-room of a convent. 

OIKONOMIA (OiKovo/ifo). 1. Providential plan of govern- 
ment. 2. Proper reserve in teaching points of dogma. 3. 

OIL (Saxon, eel; Italian, olio; Latin, oleum). An unctuous 
substance expressed or drawn from various animal and vegetable 

OIL (HOLY). Oil and balsam, properly mixed according 
to Church tradition and custom, and solemnly blessed by the 

OIL-STOCK. A vessel for containing the various kinds of 
blessed oils, which are used in the services of the Church. They 
ought to be of silver, or at least of tin or pewter, and not of 
glass or any other brittle material. In most cases, as in that 
of the Chrismatory represented in the woodcut at page 84, there 


should be three distinct vessels to receive the oils : one for the 
" Oleum Infirmorum " ; a second for the " Oleum Cateehunie- 
norum," and a third for the " Chrisma." St. Charles Borromeo 
recommended the following to be engraved on the various vessels, 
so that no confusion nor mistake in their use might be made : 
EXT. UNC. CAT. and CHR. The oil for baptism should be 
kept near the baptistery ; that for the sick may be retained in the 
priest's residence. Oil-stocks in the Middle Ages were, like all 
other sacred vessels, of great beauty of form, and often made 
of precious metal. Many examples exist, though their destruction 
at the Reformation was great. See AMPULLA and CHKISMATORY. 

OINOXOH (Oivo^oi/). The cellarer of a religious house. 
OLIVE-SUNDAY. An Italian name for Palm-Sunday. 
OPHITE. Green porphyry. 

OPINE (TO). To have a religious opinion; to hold a reli- 
gious sentiment. 

OPINION. (1) In theology, that which is the antithesis of 
faith; (2) a surmise ; (3) a sentiment; (4) a notion. 

OPTIMISM (Latin, optimus). 1. The doctrine that everything 
in nature is ordered for the best. 2. A belief that the order of 
things in the Universe is calculated and adapted to produce the 
greatest good. 

OPUS ALEXANDRICUM. A kind of mosaic pavement made 
in squares, and circles interwoven, of porphyry, marbles, precious 
stones, and precious metals, very remarkable, and most popular 
with church-decorators in mediaeval times. 

OPUS ANGLICUM. Embroidery 011 silk, satin, damask, or 
other stuff j for which, in the Middle Ages, England was greatly 

OPUS ANTIQUUM. Roman brick-work. 

OPUS COSMATIUM. Mosaic-work, originated by Cosmati, 
a distinguished Roman artist. Some of his pupils came over to 
England in the Middle Ages, and left specimens here. 

OPUS GR^ECUM. Mosaic-work of a Grecian type, in which 
the principles and details of Greek ornamentation are introduced 
to give it a definite character. 

OPUS INCERTUM. Rubble- work. 

OPUS OPERATUM (Latin, "the thing done"). 1. In theo- 


logy, an expression applied to the mere external administration 
of the Sacraments, which many suppose to be in all cases 
attended with a spiritual effect. 2. The doctrine that some of 
the Sacraments take effect apart from the state of the recipient 
of them. 

OPUS TEUTOXICUM. A technical term for metal-work. 

OPUS VERMICULATUM. 1. Chequered work in em- 
broidery. 2. Work in which two designs aro counterchanged. 

ORAISON (Latin, oratio ; French, oraiaoit). Prayer, sup- 

ORALE. A Papal ornament for the neck, made of silk, and 
worn about the shoulders on some occasions, instead of the 
amice; on others, together with the amice. It is square in 
shape, edged with gold lace, and embroidered in the corner with 
a Papal tiara and cross-keys. It was first adopted in the thir- 
teenth century : its origin and symbolism are uncertain, (feorgius 
holds that it signifies the power of intercessory prayer ; Bauldry, 
the strength of faith. Jansseus maintains that, like the amice, 
it symbolizes the helmet of salvation. 

OR ANTE. The technical term for the representation of a 
woman praying, with outstretched arms, as represented in the 
Roman catacombs. 

ORARIUM. An Eastern name for the stole. The orarium 
is supposed by Merati to have anciently covered the whole body. 
It signifies mystically the cords by which our Blessed Lord was 
bound on the Cross, "which was laid on His shoulders. Morally, 
it signifies the yoke of Christ, and the virtue or grace of obedi- 
ence. Sec STOLK. 

ORATE FRATRES. That part of the Mass before the 
" Secret/' so called, in which the celebrant asks the people to 
pray, that he may otter worthily and acceptably to (n>d:- 
" Brethren, prav that my sacrifice and yours may be acceptable 
to God the Father Almighty." To which the response is 
"May the Lord receive the Sacrifice from thy hands to the praise 
and glory of His Xame, to our benefit, and to the benefit of J 
Holy Church." 

ORATIONES. 1. A Latin term tor prayers. '2. In some 
liturgies, a technical term for certain concluding prayers, cor- 
responding in number to the collects of the day, i.e. the post- 

ORATORIO. A sacred musical composition, consisting of 


airs, recitatives, duets, trios, &c., the subject of which is com- 
monly taken from Scripture. 

ORATORY. 1 . The art of speaking well. 2. A small apart- 
ment for private or domestic worship, attached to a private 
house. The oratory differs from the chapel, inasmuch as the 
former has no altar in it. 

ORATORY (PRIESTS OF THE). A community of clerics 
and laymen, founded by St. Philip Neri, branches of which 
congregation are found in England. 

ORDAIN (TO) (Latin, ordino). 1. Properly, to set, to estab- 
lish in a particular office. 2. Hence, to invest with a ministerial 
function or sacerdotal power. 3. To bestow holy or minor orders 
in the Christian Church. 

ORDER. 1. The degree or rank of clergymen. 2. A body 
of clerics and laics living under a rule of life. 3. The rule of a 
religious house. 

ORDERS (HOLY). In the Church of England, the orders of 
bishop, priest, and deacon. Amongst Roman Catholics, the sub- 
deacon is the first of the sacred or holy orders. 

ORDERS (MINOR). In the Latin Church: (1) Door- 
keeper, (2) reader, (3) exorcist, (4), acolyte. In the Eastern 
Church these offices practically exist under other names. In the 
Church of England, (1) the sacristan, (2) clerk, (3) doorkeeper, 
(4) verger, and (5) acolyte, are now either retained or restored. 
Readers were formally ordained after the Reformation, and are 
now set apart for their office by a public rite. 

ORDINAL. An Anglican term for the appendix to the 
Prayer-book, containing the forms, finally revised A.D. 1662, 
for making, ordaining, and consecrating bishops, priests, and 
deacons. They are substantially identical, as regards essentials, 
with those used in other parts of the One Christian Family. 

ORDINANCE (Italian, ordinanza). 1. A lasting rule of 
action. 2. A rule established by authority. 

ORDINANCES OF THE CHURCH. Established rites or 
ceremonies. Rules, regulations, and practices which do not 
alter nor vary in their mode of being performed; e.g. prayer, 
fasting, the observance of holy days, the administration of 
the sacraments, chanting, preaching, catechizing, and burial 
of the dead. 

ORDINAND. One about to be ordained. 


ORDINANT. One who ordains. 

ORDINARY (Latin, ordinarily). I. According to an esta- 
blished rule or order; regular, customary. 2. That ecclesiastical 
officer who has ordinary jurisdiction of reputed and common 
right. 3. A bishop. 4. In some cases in England, deans of 
Peculiars are ordinaries; e.g. at Westminster, Battle Abbey, &c. 
5. In the common and canon law, one who has ordinary or 
immediate jurisdiction in matters ecclesiastical. 

ORDINARY OF THE MASS. That part of the Roman 
Missal containing the preparatory portion of the form for offering 
the Christian Sacrifice, beginning with the Invocation of the 
Blessed Trinity, which follows immediately upon the Asperges, 
and ending with the closing part of the Sanctus. 

ORDINATE.l. To appoint. 2. To bestow holy orders. 

ORDINATION (Latin, ordinatio) . 1 . The state of being 
ordained or appointed. 2. The act of conferring holy or minor 
orders in the Christian Church. 

ORDINATOR. One who ordains or confers orders. 

ORDO. An ecclesiastical kalendar, in which the general rules 
for saying the Divine office day by day are carefully considered, 
and duly applied to the various feasts, ferias, and holy days as 
they occur. This book is issued for the special advantage and 
convenience of ecclesiastics, who are thus saved the trouble 
of consulting and applying the general rules to the necessities 
of each day. 

OREMUS (Latin, "Let us pray' J ). The invitation of the 
priest-officiant to the .faithful, to join with him in presenting the 
prayers of the congregation to Almighty God. 

ORGAN (Latin, organum). The largest and most harmonious 
of wind instruments of music, consisting of pipes, which are filled 
with wind, and of stops and keys touched with the fingers. 
Some suppose them to be of Oriental origin ; others, that the 
Greeks invented them. Vitruvius describes one, and so does 
St. Jerome. At first they were small and portable, but soon 
were made of a very large size. Sir Henry Spelman maintains 
that some, at all events, were in use in England so early as the 
tenth century. St. Dunstaii is said to have given one to the 
church at Malmesbury. St. Wulstan, in the prologue to his Life 
of St. Swithin, mentions a large one with twenty-six pair of 
bellows, and four hundred large pipes. ID the fourteenth cen- 
tury most large abbeys in England possessed an organ ; but 


they were not common in parish churches even iu the seven- 
teenth century, though in many they were then found. Under 
the usurpation of Oliver Cromwell their use was condemned, and 
many were destroyed by his fanatical and brutal soldiery. Since 
the Restoration their use has become very general, there being 
scarcely a parish church in which they may not be found. 

ORGANIST. One who plays an organ. The ancient 
English names for this church-officer are Glcricus Co-pellce, clerk 
of the organs, song-school master, instructor of the choristers, 
and music-clerk. (See Bloxam's Register of the College, of /S'L 
^fa^l/ Magdalene, Oxford, pp. 181-220.) 

ORGAN-LOFT. A construction erected in a church, on which 
1<> place an organ. These usually occur either on the side of the 
choir at its west end, over the screen, or else at the extreme 
west end of the nave. In St. Paul's Cathedral, London, the 
organ is placed on each side of the chancel arch. 

ORGAN- STOP. The stop of an organ, or any collection of 
pipes under one general name. 

ORIEL. A bay window, either resting on the ground, as 
in the Vicar's Close at Wells, or supported by a long corbel or 
bracket. The origin of the term is lost in obscurity. Fuller, in 
his Church Histoi-y, distinctly speaks of the bay window as an 
oriel. (See Archceologia, vol. xxiii., and Willis's Nomenclature of 
the Middle Ages, p. 60.) 

ORIENT (Latin, orient). 1. Eastern, Oriental. 2. The 

OR1ENTAL1TY. The state of being Oriental. 

ORIENTATION. A term to designate the relation, bearing, 
or inclination of the ground-plan of a church towards the east. 
It has been a common custom amongst Christians to build their 
churches so that the chancel might stand in the direction of the 
east; that part in which the sun rises, and from which light 

ORIFLAMME. A red Hag, banner, or standard of St. Deirys, 
the patron saint of France. It was anciently preserved at the 
Abbey of St. Denys, and removed only in time of war, when it 
was borne amid the soldiers of France in their marches. Con- 
temporary writers mention its existence in the middle of the 
seventeenth century ; but its whereabouts, if it exists, does not 
appear to be now known. 


ORIOJENISM. Tho religious opinions of Origen, a distin- 
guished philosophical writer of Alexandria, who maintained, 
amongst other singular conceptions, that human souls existed 
before their union with bodies; that "they were originally holy, 
but became sinful in their pro-existent state; that all men will 
probably at- last be saved ; and that our Blessed Saviour is again 
to die for the salvation of the fallen angels. 

ORKiENIST. A follower of Origen. 

ORNAMENT A. (Latin). Those things which embellish; 
those things which, added to other things, render the latter 
more beautiful to the eye. 

ORNAMENTS OK THE CHURCH. The sacred vessels, 
vestments for the priests, choir, altar, and sanctuary ; the fittings 
of the chancel, including the altar ornaments, such as crucifix or 
cross, candlesticks, tabernacle, lecferns, .taper-stands, Paschal 
candlestick, font, crowns-of-light or coronce, and all other similar 
utensils made use of in the services of the Church. 

ORPHRAY (French, oi-froi). Bauds of rich embroidery, 
placed on the sacred vestments of the clergy. They are so placed 
on copes, chasubles, dalmatics, and tunicles, and are those parts 
upon which the skill of the embroiderer is commonly exercised. 
In the Middle Ages English embroiderers had a European 

ORPHRAY OK AMICE. That embroidered part which was 
attached to the amice, and formed, when duly arranged, a sort of 
collar to the chasuble. See AMICK. 

ORPHRAY OF CHASUBLE. The pillar on the front, the 
cross on the back, and the edgings on both sides of the chasuble. 

ORPHRAY OF COPE. The broad band which stands on 
the straight side of a cope, and the border which is placed round 
the edge of the semicircular portion of it. See COPK. 

ORPHRAY OF DALMATIC. The bands of embroidery 
which, commencing on each shoulder, fall down perpendicularly, 
both before and behind, and are joined together on either side 
by other bands. Sec DALMATIC. 



ORTHODOX. 1. Sound in the Christian faith. 2. One who 
firmly adheres to the teaching and traditions of the Church 
Universal. 3. Believing in the dogmas taught in Scripture, 
preserved by the One Family of Christ, and explained by Chris- 
tian authority. 

ORTHODOX CHURCH (THE) .An ordinary title for what 
is also known as the Holy Eastern Church; that is, the Church 
in communion with the see of Constantinople. 

ORTHODOXLY. With soundness of faith. 

ORTHODOXNESS. The state of being sound in the Chris- 
tian or orthodox faith. 

ORTHODOXY (Greek, opBoSoZia). 1. Soundness in the 
Christian faith. 2. The firmly adhering to the teaching and 
traditions of the Church Universal. 3. 'Op6oo%ia is the Greek 
epithet for the first Sunday in Lent, on which the defeat of the 
Iconoclasts is celebrated. 

OP0POS ("OpOpoe). A Greek term for the office of Dawn or 
Daybreak, answering to the Western Lauds. 

OP4>ANOS ("OjO^avoe). I. A Greek term for any orphan. 2, 
A chorister-boy. 


SALUTARIS HOSTIA. The first words of a Latin hymn 
sung in the Roman Catholic Church at the service of Exposition 
and Benediction of the Most Holy Sacrament. It stands as 
follows : 

O Salutaris Hostia 
Quaa coeli panclis ostium : 
Bella preinunt hostilia, 
Da robnr, fer auxilinrn. 

Uni trinoque Domino 

Sit sempiterna gloria, 

Qui vitam sine termino 

Nobis donet in patria. Amen. . 

After which follow the Litany of the Blessed Virgin, the Tantum 
ergo, a versicle and response, and the Collect for Corpus - 
Christi day. 


OSCULATORIUM. An ornament by which the kiss of 
peace was given to the faithful in mediaeval times. In 
England it was termed the " Pax-Brede." The rule of Sarum 


was to send the Pax just before communion to all the faithful 
present, and it was given by kissing a small plate of ivory, or 
precious metal, with a handle behind. On this was commonly 
engraved, either a representation of the crucifixion of our Lord, 
or a figure of the Agnus Dei. The osculatorium was found in 
every church sacristy, and numerous records of the donation of 
such are preserved. The two examples here given are of old 
English work. That with the crucifix represented upon it is of 
latten gilded (See Illustration, Fig. I) the other, on which 
the Agnus Dei is engraved, is of silver (See Illustration, 
Fig. 2). See PAX. Sometimes the kiss of peace was given 



with a small hand-crucifix, and not unfrequently with that book 
of the Gospels used at High Mass. At some periods it was 
customary to give the kiss of peace at Low Mass ; but afterwards 
it was confined to High Mass. 

OSCULUM PACIS. The kiss of peace. See OSCULATORIUM. 

O2IOMAPTYP ('OaiofjiapTvp}. A Greek term for a title of 
certain eminent martyrs, whether men or women. 

OSTENSION. The act of showing or exhibiting. 

showing of the Blessed Sacrament to the faithful, in order that 
It may receive their worship and adoration, a rite connected 


OSTENSORY (Latin, ostensorium). A species of vessel, as 
its name implies, used for showing the Blessed Sacrament to the 
faithful to receive their worship. It is composed of a crystal 
case, usually circular, framed in gold, and surrounded with rays 
of light or glory, and placed on a stem and foot, like the stem 
and foot of a chalice. Inside the crystal case is a figure of gold, 
shaped like a crescent, and 'called a "lunette," in which to hold 

( )ST .1 A 1M U S OT T AY A R 1 M A . 

the Sacred Host. Theword Ostensoryis now seldom uscd,the vessel 
in question l)eiug commonly called a Monstrance. The example 
in the accompanying woodcut, from the pencil of the late Mr. A. 

\Velby Pugin, represents an 
ostensory made with a large 
tube of crystal, mounted in 
metal, fixed on a stem, with 
a knop, and a spreading base, 
like that of a chalice. It is 
surmounted by a cover, cano- 
pied and buttressed, with an 
image of our Blessed Lord 
under the cross, and two 
cherubim on either side of 
the part where the Blessed 
Sacrament reposes. Six silver 
bells are attached to it. An 
ostensory of silver-gilt, some- 
what similar in character to 
this, is to be seen in the 
sacristy of St. Mary's, Oscott. 

the minor orders in the 
Roman Catholic Church. The 
.ostiarius is set apart by the 
bishop, who delivers to the 
person being ordained, kneel- 
ing before him, the keys of 
the church, saying at the 
same time : " Sic agite, quasi 
reddituri Deo rationem pro 
iis rebus, quas his clavibus 



law which efiected the 
tion of married priests from 
country cures, and the 
troducing into churches 


their stead of monks, a law enacted for his diocese by Oswald, 
Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 964. 

OTTAVA RIMA. A kind of verse, consisting of eight lines 
to a stanza, which has been attributed by competent judges to 


Boccacio. Several popular sixteenth-century hymns were com- 
posed in this metre in Germany. 


OUR LADY. A term of honour and distinction given to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, because of the part she took in the work of 
the Incarnation, and because she is the Mother of our Lord God 
Jesus Christ. 

OUTERMOST CHURCH. 1. The western part of the nave. 
2. That portion of a church which adjoins the chief entrance. 

OUT-GATE. 1. A lych-gate. See LYCH-GATE. 
OUT-PORCH. The outer part of a church porch. 

OVER-CANOPY. The canopy placed over that tabernacle 
in which the Blessed Sacrament is reserved or exposed for 

OVER-STORY. The clere-story or upper story in a cathedral 
or church. 

OWCHE. 1. A clasp or brooch. 2. A morse of precious 
metal. 3. A link or fastening. See MORSE. 

OXG-ANG. This term, in the feudal ages, signified a plot of 
ground, commonly reckoned at about fifteen acres, or as much as 
one ox could plough in a year. Six oxgaugs a common division 
were such a quantity as six oxen could plough. 


OYEZ. The word used by the sheriff or his inferior officer, 
or by the usher of an ecclesiastical court, to command silence and 
obtain attention in making a proclamation in court. 

OYNTING. The administration of extreme unction. 

OYNTING-CLOTH. A towel or napkin used in the adminis- 
tration of extreme unction. 

Let's Oloitary. 


ACE. The Osculatorium or Pax-brede. 


PACE-AISLE. The ambulatory round 
the back of a high altar. 

PACE-BOARD. A platform of wood 
before an altar. 

PACE-GREETING. The kiss of peace. 

PACE-HAUT. 1. A broad platform of 
stone before an altar. 2. A predella or footpace. 3. That 
step on which an altar is placed. 


PAIN-BENI. A French term for Blessed Bread. Anciently, 
there were offerings of bread for the Holy Eucharist, of which a 
part was consecrated for use in the Sacrament ; the rest being 
simply blessed and distributed to the faithful as a token of 
good-will and Christian fellowship to those who were not com- 


PALACE (Latin, palatium). A large house, in which an 
emperor, a king, or other distinguished person resides. 

PALACE (BISHOP'S). A residence of a bishop, anciently 
called the minster-house, or the bishopry or bishopric. Many 
ancient examples exist, either in whole or part ; e. g. } at Wells, 
Ely, Lincoln, Hereford, Chichester, and Lambeth. 

IIAAIITENESIA (IlaXtyytvecna). 1. Regeneration. 2. New 
birth. 3. Holy baptism. 

PALIMPSEST (Greek, Tro'Xtv and ^aw}.A MS. on vellum, 
which has been written over a second time, the former writing 
having become obliterated or been erased. 

PALL. A square piece of millboard, from six to eight inches 
either way, covered with linen, and embroidered with a cross and 
border on the upper side, used to place over the chalice at certain 
portions of the Mass. The under part, which touches the rim of 



the chalice, is removed from time to time and burnt by a priest, 
the ashes, being cast down the piscina. 

PALL-BEARER. A term used to designate those friends of 
the deceased who attend the corpse at a funeral, and hold the 
pall or covering of the coffin, in order to testify their respect. 

PALL (FUNERAL). A covering of velvet, charged with a 
cross, placed over a hearse or over the coffin itself at the time 
of burial. In ancient times such an " orna- 
ment" existed in every parish for the 
general benefit of the faithful. It was 
frequently purple, but no one colour was 
generally adopted. Examples of frag- 
ments of such palls exist, but perfect 
specimens are rare. There are some fine 
examples belonging to the London Com- 
panies, rich with embroidery, tabernacle- 
work, and heraldic devices. A plain foreign 
example is figured in the accompanying 
woodcut. (See Illustration.) 

PALLIUM (PALL). The archiepi- 
scopal pall is an ancient ecclesiastical 
vestment made of white lambs' -wool after 
the following custom : The nuns of St. 
Agnes at Rome every year, on the anni- 
versary of their saint, anciently offered two lambs on the altar 
of their church during the Agnus Dei of a High Mass. Now this 
oblation is made after Mass. These 
lambs, taken by two of the canons of 
the Lateran Church, are given to the 
Pope's subdeacons, who put them out to 
pasture until shearing-time, when they 
are duly shorn, and the palls are made of 
their wool. The pall thus made is carried 
to the Lateran Church, and there placed 
on the high altar by the deacon of that 
church over the shrine of the bodies of 
St. Peter and St. Paul on the festival of 
those saints. The pall, when given to an 
archbishop, signifies metropolitical juris- 
diction. Pope Innocent III. endeavoured 
to impose the receipt of the pall as an essential before the exercise 
of any jurisdiction, on all archbishops, and more particularly on 
the Eastern patriarchs. In the False Decretals a passage exis 
indicating the plenitude of apostolic authority, and maintaining 

& 2 



that neither the title, position, place, or dignity of an archbishop 
should be assumed without it. All archbishops are buried in 
their pall. The pall is not left behind for transmission; but 
each new archbishop in communion with Rome sues for it after 
his nomination. (See Disqvisitio Historica de PaUio Archiepi- 
scopali.) In England, Pope St. Gregory the Great sent a pall to 
St. Augustine, and in A.D. 734 Archbishop Ecgbrighte, of York, 
petitioned for and obtained a similar distinction. In the fifteenth 
century the archbishops of St. Andrew's, previously subject to 
York, became independent, and obtained the pall, indicating 
jurisdiction over Scotland. The four Irish Roman Catholic 
archbishops obtained the pall in the tenth century. The pall was 
granted by the Pope to the new English Roman Catholic see 
of Westminster in 1850. Our two English archbishops, though 
retaining their armorial bearings, have not used it since the 
Reformation. (See Illustration.) 

PALM-BRANCH. 1. A branch or bough of the palm-tree, 
2. A symbol of triumph. 

PALMER. 1 . A pilgrim who had successfully visited the Holy 
Places in Palestine, and who bore a palm-branch in token of that 
fact. 2. A pilgrim to the Holy Land, having taken vows to 
visit the Holy Places. 

PALM-SUNDAY (Dominica in ramis palmarum}. The Sixth 
Sunday in Lent. The entrance of our Lord into Jerusalem, when 
the people met Him with palm-branches, became an annual com- 
memoration as early as the fourth century in parts of the Eastern 
Church, to which commemoration St. Ambrose twice refers in 
his Epistles. It was observed in the Venerable Bede's time, and 
is said by Amalarius to have become general in the reign of 
Charlemagne. Palms and other boughs were formally blessed, 
and delivered to the faithful who took part in the annual pro- 
cession. In some places during the Middle Ages the Most Holy 
Sacrament was carried at the head of this, a practice current for 
some generations at St. Alban's Abbey and at Canterbury Cathe- 
dral. Anciently every village church in England had its proces- 
sion of palms. The Rite of Sarum was mainly followed; but several 
independent customs, curious in themselves, and illustrating the 
faith and piety of the faithful, obtained ; many of which are 
observed, after a fashion, even to the present day. In the later 
editions of the Directorium Anrjlicanum, a form for blessing the 
palms at Low Mass, and for arranging the procession, is given. 
First a lesson from Exodus xv. and xvi. is read by the sub- 
deacon, then a versicle and response, and afterwards the Gospel 
of St. John xii. 12 19. Then the palms and branches, having 


been blessed by a priest, after exorcism, with prayer and Holy 
Water, are incensed, and then distributed. The clergy receive 
them first, then the men, and finally the women. Daring their 
distribution the choir should sing the anthem Pueri Hebrceorum. 
The procession takes place before High Mass. It should be 
arranged in the sacristy ; those forming it should go out into 
the churchyard or church enclosure, passing through which they 
should enter the church by the western door thus : First, two 
thurifers, attended by the boat-bearer ; second, cross-bearer, 
attended by two acolytes ; third, choir-boys; fourth, choir-men; 
fifth, the cantors ; sixth, the ceremoniarius ; seventh, deacon and 
subdeacon ; eighth, the priest-celebrant. To the v tiled proces- 
sional cross a palm-branch should be attached. All should hold 
the palms in the right hand. The hymn Gloria, laus, et honor 
should be sung. Anciently the priest, arid not the cross-bearer, 
taking the cross in his right hand, opened the western door ; and 
when the procession had altogether passed into the choir, those 
forming it knelt down, and the priest, uncovering the crucifix, 
chanted a versicle and antiphon, closing the rite with certain 

PANAGIA (Greek, Travayia) . Literally, "All-Holy/' an 
epithet commonly given amongst Eastern writers to the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, because she is the Mother of God. 

PANARIUM. See ' ApTofvpiov, and Pix or PYX. 

PANDECTS (Latin, Pandectat) . That digest or collection of 
civil or Eoman law made by order of the Emperor Justinian. 

PANE. A flowered quarry ; that is, a diamond-shaped piece 
of glass, on which some flower, bird, beast, monogram, or other 
device is painted and burnt in. The accompanying illustration, 
from a pane in the author's possession sometime in a window 
at Westlington House, near Aylesbury depicts a fox or wolf 
preaching in a friar's habit, standing in a movable pulpit, and 
holding a scroll in its right paw. Scratched on the glass on 
either side, in the style of writing of the latter part of the six- 
teenth century, are the words, "The People's Chaplain. 
Although examples of the idea set forth in this quarry are not 
uncommon both in carving and painting, possibly this device 
on quarry may be unique. In Christian symbolism the fox is an 
emblem of cunning, fraud, and deceit. Sometimes he is em- 
ployed in art to typify the Evil one. Examples in France are 
given by Guilhermy, in his interesting paper, Iconographie des 
Fabliau*, and in Didron's Annales Arclteologitjues, iii. p. 23. 



second volume of the same interesting record provides nume- 
rous instances of the existence of similar representations. In 
England, one or two examples may be indicated. There is a fox 
preaching to geese on a misericorde in Beverley Minster. On 
another, in the same place, two foxes hold pastoral staves, and 


wear cowls. At Eipon Cathedral, on a misericorde, is a repre- 
sentation of the fox and stork. At York, there is a fox preach- 
ing : he leans his forepaws on the edge of the pulpit, and a 
smaller fox stands below, holding the preacher's pastoral staff. 


At St. Martin's, Leicester, there was, until the church was 
restored, a representation in stained glass of a fox preaching to 
a flock of geese, from the text, " Testis est mihi Deus quam 
cupiam vos omnes visceribus meis " (Philip, i. 8). In the parish 
church of Boston a fox is represented vested as a bishop, and is 
preaching to a cock and some hens. On the elbow of a stall at 
Christ Church, Hampshire, a fox in a cowl is preaching from a 
pulpit a small cock perched on a stool acting as clerk. Carved 
on a bench-end at Nantwich, a fox in monastic habit holds a 
dead goose in his right hand, and bears a hare on a stick over 
his left shoulder. A fox preaching to geese occurs at Etching- 
ham, in Sussex. In the Ladye Chapel of Westminster Abbey is 
a misericorde with a fox mounted on a cock's back, and a cock 
mounted on a fox's back, tilting at each other. In the church 
of Houghton Conquest, Bedfordshire, there is the representation 
in stained glass of a fox mounted on a dog's back, blowing a 
horn. These and other delineations appear to have their key in 
various passages of Holy Scripture, in which the fox never 
appears except as a spoiler and a foe. They are enemies of the 
vineyard. From the circumstance of the fox being clothed in 
the monastic habit, and placed in a pulpit, some have maintained 
that such representations were intended as a satire of the 
"secular" upon the "regular" clergy, between whom it is 
notorious that there were constant and lasting feuds. It may be 
more reasonably maintained, however, that the object of the 
mediaeval architects, carvers, and glass-painters was to show that 
the devil employed his craft everywhere, appearing even in the 
guise of a professed " religious," in order to dupe, beguile, and 
lead astray, just as the Apostle declares that Satan is transformed 
into an angel of light. Representations such as these were not 
originally intended to cast scorn and ridicule on any class of 
people ; nor were they profane and meaningless jests, but were 
intended to set forth the obvious or mystical meanings of Scrip- 
ture phrases, and this in a forcible and expressive mode, easily 
comprehended, but not easily forgotten. See QUARRY. (Sec 

PANEGYRICAL. Containing praise or eulogy. 

PANEGYRICUM. -1. A book of sermons on the lives of the 
saints, or in honour of popes and kings who have served the cause 
of religion by great deeds. 2. A panegyric is an oration or eulogy 
in praise of some distinguished person. 3. An encomium. 

PANEGYRIS (Greek, iravfiyvpt?). A festival; a public cele- 
bration in honour of a distinguished person. 



PANEL. 1. A piece of board whose edges are let into a frame 
of a thicker and stouter boarding. 2. A compartment sunk in a 
wall, skirting-board, or building. 3. The pierced 
partition of a screen. (See Illustration.) 

MYSTERIUM. The first line of a hymn in 
honour of the Blessed Sacrament, composed as a 
sequence for the Office of Corpus-Christi day by 
St. Thomas Aquinas, A.D. 1250 1274. 

CERTAMINIS. A sequence for Passion-tide, 
composed by Venantius Fortunatus, A.D. 595 




PANNAGE. 1. The food of swine in the 

woods; as beech-nuts, acorns, &c. 2. That food 
for cattle found in the woods which yields tithe. 

PAPA. 1. The Holy Father, or Bishop of Rome; the Patri- 
arch of Old Rome and of the Western Church. 2. A term used 
to designate a Greek parish priest. 

PAPACY. 1 . The office and dignity of the Pope or Patri- 
arch of Rome. 2. Hence the Popes taken collectively. 3. 
Popedom. 4. Papal authority. 5. Papal jurisdiction, as exer- 
cised over the whole body of ecclesiastics in the Western 

nAriAAETMA (riaTra&ujuti). The ordination of a priest. 
OAHAAIA (IlaTraSfa). A priest's wife. 
IIAIIAAISSA (ria7ra&<T<ra). A priest's wife. 

IIAflAAOnOYAA (naTracWoDAa). The issue, whether son 
or daughter, of a priest. 

PAPAL. 1. Of or belonging to the Pope. 2. Annexed to the 
bishopric of Rome. 3. Romish. 


nAOAAH0PA (naTra\i]6pa). 1. A priest's cap. 2. Azuchetto, 
3. The tonsure. 

PAPALIN. A seventeenth-century term for a Roman 

PAPALIZE (TO). 1. To make Papal or Popish, 2. To 
convert to the Roman Catholic communion. 


PAPB. The Pope. 

PAR AB EM A. A Greek terra, descriptive of the recesses or 
side-chapels in an Eastern church, to the right or left of the 

PARABOLANI (Greek, TrapafioXavot). Visitors of the sick 
and infirm in the ancient Church of Alexandria. See MINOR 

PARACLETE (Greek, Trapa^Xrjroc) . 1 . Properly, an advo- 
cate; one invoked to support, aid, or comfort. 2. Hence, the 
Third Person in the Ever-Blessed Trinity ; the Consoler, Com- 
forter, or Intercessor. 3. God the Holy Ghost. 

^ PARACLETICE (Greek, 7ra/>a K Xi,r/ico'v). The name for a 
Greek service-book, containing the ferial hymns arranged to their 
proper and appointed melodies. 

PARADISE (Greek, Tra/oaSfKroc) . 1. A term for the Garden 
of Eden, in which Adam and Eve were placed immediately after 
their creation. 2. A place of happiness. 3. Heaven, that is, 
the eventual and blissful home of sanctified and saved souls. 4. The 
portico or porch of a church (Parvis). 5. A book of the lives of 
the Saints. 6. A Christian cemetery. 7. A volume of Catholic 
devotions. 8. A mediaeval term for the choir or sanctuary of a 
cathedral or church. 9. The intermediate state. 

ITAPAKATA0HKH (UapaKaraOfiKrt} . The reserved Sacrament 
for the sick. 

PARAPET. A low wall or breastwork, used to protect the 
ramparts of military structures, churches, houses, and other 
buildings. In the First- Pointed style parapets are embattled, 
but straight at the top, and are usually plain. In later styles, 
they are both battleniented and otherwise ornamented. 

PARASCEVE. 1. Friday in any week. 2. Good-Friday. 

PARATORIUM. 1. A place of preparation. 2. Hence, a 
Vestry, sacristy, or robing-chamber for ecclesiastics. 

PARATORY. An old English term for a vestry. See 

PARCLOSE (French). A term used to designate a low screen 
of wood, stone, marble, or brick, marking off the choir, Lady- 
chapel, or other chapels, from the rest of the building ; as also 
when enclosing a tomb. It is either of open or solid work. 


PARDON-BELL. A name given to the " Angelus-bell," 
because special grace and pardons were bestowed upon those who 
recited the Angelus with devotion, recollectedness, and regularity. 

PARDON-CHAIR. A confessional. 
PARDONER. A dealer in indulgences. 

PAKDON-SCREEN. A slight screen, erected in a church, 
to hide the penitent, during the act of confession, from public 

PARDON-STALL. 1. The stall from which, as some writers 
affirm, notices of pardons and indulgences were solemnly and 
formally read. 2. Other writers appear to signify by this term 
that stall in which confessions were received ; oftentimes, in the 
old Church of England, a bench placed in some public place in a 
side-aisle or transept for this purpose. 

PAREMENT. The furniture, ornaments, and hangings of the 
chief room in a religious house. 

PARGE-BOARD. A term in Pointed architecture, to 
designate that board commonly used on gables of roofs where 
the covering of the roof projects from the wall, and either covers 
the rafters, which would otherwise be exposed, or occupies the 
place of a rafter. 

PARGETING-. A term anciently used in several senses. 
Commonly it designated plain plastering on walls, but more 
frequently ornamental plasterwork, consisting of mouldings, 
foliage, figures, heraldic devices, monograms, and borders. 
Timber houses were almost always so adorned, and several speci- 
mens of such exist at Oxford, Chester, Bristol, and other ancient 


PARIAN MARBLE. A very pure and white marble, ob- 
tained in the isle of Paros, one of the Cyclades, in the Greek 
archipelago. The greater part of the most beautiful ancient work 
was made of this, and it is generally believed that of this marble 
the temple of Solomon was largely constructed. 

PARIS BREVIARY. The ancient breviary of the old French 
Church, which differed very considerably from the Roman 
breviary, and contained an almost perfect series of Latin hymns. 

PARISH (French, paroisse). 1. An ecclesiastical district, 
assigned to the spiritual care of the person solemnly commissioned 


to attend to the souls of the faithful. 2. The precinct or terri- 
torial jurisdiction of a secular priest, the inhabitants in which 
belong to the same communion. 

PARISH CLERK. An officer who assists the priest during 
Divine service, by making the appointed responses, &c. 

PARISHIONER. One who belongs to a parish. 

PARISIAN GREGORIAN. A chant founded on the model 
of one of the eight Gregorian tones, but of a more florid charac- 
ter, and with an ending in harmony with the general melody of 
the same. 


PARIS MISSAL. The Missal anciently used in the arch- 
diocese of Paris, as well as in most French churches. It was 
founded upon the old Sacramentaries current in France until the 
twelfth century, and differed in several respects from the Latin 
rite. During the present century, the Roman Missal has been 
universally adopted, though ancient traditional customs are still 
preserved and followed at Rheims, Rouen, Orleans, and else- 

PARLATORIUM (French, parloir ; Italian, parlatorw). The 
Latin term for that room in a religious house where persons were 
allowed to talk (parler) with the inmates. 

PARLE. 1. Talk. 2-. Conversation. 3. Oral discussion. 
4. Intercourse by words. 

PAROCHIAL. Of or belonging to a parish. 
PAROCHIALITY. The state of being parochial. 

PAROCHIAL STONE. A term for any tomb, at or near 
which the clergy and parish officers distribute doles left by the 
persons buried there. See POOR-STONE. 

PAROCHIAN. A parishioner. 

PAROCHUS. 1. A parish priest. 2. A parson. See 

PARSON (Latin, persona). The person, that is, the chief 
person in the parish. The officer, whether rector, vicar, or 
curate, in sole charge, who has the cure of the souls of the faith- 



ful, and who is bound to give an account thereof to Almighty 
God, whose servant and ambassador he is. 

PARSONAGE. The freehold dwelling-place of the parson of 
a parish. 

PARTIBUS INFIDELIUM (IN). Literally, "in the parts 
of the unfaithful." Nominal bishops of a see in which there are 
no, or only few, Christians ; sees made use of for titular bishop- 
rics in heathen countries. 

PARTICLE (Latin, particula) . 1 . A minute part or portion 
of matter. 2. Any very small portion of any substance. 3. In 
Church phraseology, a crumb or small fragment of the Blessed 
Sacrament under the form of bread. 4. The smaller altar-breads 
(in contradistinction to that used by the priest) which are used to 
communicate the faithful. 

PARTICULAR FESTIVALS. Local feasts, peculiar to 
individual parishes, not generally observed in the diocese. 

PARTICULARISM. The doctrine that particular individuals 
only are elected to salvation. 

PARTICULARIUS. The carver or divider of food in the 
refectory of a religious house. 

PARVISE, OE PARVIS (French). 1. A church-porch over 

which is erected a chamber. 
2. The chamber over a church- 
porch. The example represented 
in the accompanying woodcut is 
the parvise over the south porch 
of the Prebendal Church of our 
Blessed Lady of Thame, Oxon. 
Internally, the parvise shows 
signs of having been the residence 
of a sacristan, shrine-keeper, or 
general custodian of the church. 
Reached by a newel staircase, it 
contains a fireplace, and is lighted 
by four lancet windows. (Sec 


^ (Greek, 

The Passover. 2. Easter-tide. 

PASCHA FLORIDUM. "The Easter of Flowers," a term 
for Palm- Sunday. 



PASCHAL. 1. Pertaining to the Passover, or (2) to the 
feast or solemnity of Easter. 

PASCHAL CANDLE. A large wax 
candle, often thirty-three pounds in 
weight, to represent the years of our 
Blessed Lord at the time of His Cruci- 
fixion, placed on the candlestick, usually 
on the north side of the sanctuary, 
lighted at Mass and other services 
during the Easter season, to signify the 
Resurrection of our Blessed Saviour. 
Anciently, its use was confined to 
basilicas: more recently, all churches 
have used it. When unlighted, it is 
said to represent the pillar of cloud 
which went before the Egyptians ; when 
lighted, the pillar of fire which guided 
the followers of Moses. It symbolizes 
the true leader of the Christian host 
through this their land of pilgrimage 
and sorrow. The candle is blessed on 
Holy Saturday by a deacon vested in 
white, attended by a subdeacon and an 
acolyte. Five grains of incense, sym- 
bolizing the five sacred wounds of Christ, 
are placed in the wax candle. The 
canticle Exultet a composition of St. 
Augustine is chanted. Afterwards, 
the taper is lighted, which burns dur- 
ing the chief offices of the Church, 
until the Ascension festival ; indicating 
how our Lord, remaining with the 
Apostles, and speaking to them of the 
things pertaining to the Kingdom of 
God, extended their knowledge, and 
cheered them as to the future. The 
Paschal candle is not lighted again 
after the Gospel in the Mass of Ascen- 
sion-day. (See Martene, DC Ant. Rit. 
EccL, torn. iii. p. 155.) The example 
of a Paschal candlestick and candle in 
the accompanying woodcut is from 
the able and graceful pencil of the 
late Mr. A. Welby Pugin. (See Illus- 
tration.) PASCHAL CANDLE. 


PASCHAL CANDLESTICK. That candlestick on which 
the Paschal candle is placed. See PASCHAL CANDLE. 

PASCHAL FLOWER. A kind of anemone, growing in parts 
of Europe and Asia, which ordinarily flowers about Easter, and 
is frequently used in Easter decorations, more especially in the 
Holy Land and in Asia Minor. 

PASCH-COLUMN. The Paschal candlestick. 

PASCH-EGG. An egg stained and ornamented, presented to 
young persons as a gift about Easter-time. 

PASCH-EGG DAY. Easter-day. 

PASCHITES. A name given in the second century to those 
Christians who celebrated the feast of Easter on the fourteenth 
day of the moon, on whatever day it happened, in imitation of 
the Jews. In a Council held at Rome, A.D. 196, Pope Victor 
excommunicated those who kept Easter on any day but a Sunday. 
This dispute was permanently and altogether settled by the 
Council of Nicsea, A.D. 325, which ordered (a) that the feast of 
Easter should never be observed until after the vernal equinox; 
(/3) that the vernal equinox should be fixed to the 21st of March ; 
(y) that Easter Sunday should always be that which immediately 
followed the fourteenth day of the moon ; and (8) that if the 
fourteenth day of the moon happened on a Sunday, then Easter- 
day should be observed on the following Sunday. 

PASCH-LIGHT. The Paschal candle. See PASCHAL CANDLE. 

PASCH OF THE CROSS. An ancient term to designate 

PASCH-SUNDAY. Easter-day. 
PASCH-WEEK. Easter-week. 

PASSING-BELL. A bell anciently rung during the passing 
away of a Christian soul, to ask the prayers of the faithful on its 
behalf. This rite is enjoined by the sixty-seventh canon of 1603, 
as follows : " Morte vero jam ingruente, aliqua campana pulsa- 
bitur, neque minister supremo officio suo hac in parte deerit. 
Cum autem expiraverit (si utique expirare eum contingat) cam- 
pana per breve tantummodo spatium utrinque pulsabitur, quod 
idem tarn ante, quam post sepulturam observandum decernimus." 



PASSIONARIUM. 1. A MS. volume containing a record of 
the martyrdom or sufferings of the saints of any particular order. 
2. A martyrology. 3. A kalendar of the martyrs, with brief 
lives of those who have suffered for the cause of Christ. 4. A 
book containing an account of the sufferings undergone by the 
martyrs of any particular part of the One Family of Christ. 


PASSIONARY. The English equivalent of " Passionarium." 

PASSION-FLOWER. A flower and plant so named from 
being supposed to represent, in the appendages of the flower, the 
Passion of our Blessed Lord. 

PASSION-SUNDAY. The Fifth Sunday in Lent, in England 
called also Judica Sunday, because the " Officium " in the service 
ran as follows : " Judica me, Deus, et discerne causam meam de 
gente non sancta, ab homine iniquo et doloso eripe me : quia tu 
es Deus meus et fortitudo mea." 

PASSION-TIDE. The season at which the Church com- 
memorates the sufferings and death of our Blessed Lord. 

PASSION-WEEK. The week between Passion- Sunday, or 
Judica, and Palm- Sunday. It is sometimes called Suffering- week. 
The whole season, from Passion- Sunday to Easter-even is called 
" Holy-tide/' " Still-tide/' or " Passion-tide." 

PASSORY. A mediaeval term for the wine-strainer used in 
preparing the elements for the Christian Sacrifice. 

PASTOPHORION. A Greek term (1) for a sacristy or 
vestry ; and also (2) for a pix or pyx. 3. It is also sometimes 
used for a table of prothesis. 

PASTOR (Latin, from pasco, pastwni). 1. A shepherd. 2. 
One who has care of a flock of sheep. 3. A priest of the Church 
Universal, who has the oversight of a congregation. 

PASTOR (CHIEF).-A bishop. 

PASTOR (UNIVERSAL). A Roman Catholic term, used to 
designate the Pope, or Holy Father. 

PASTORAL (Latin, pastoralis). Anything relating to the 
cure or care of souls. 


PASTORAL LETTER. An official letter, addressed by an 
archbishop or bishop to the clergy and laity of the archdiocese 


or diocese, on any subject of interest to them as members of the 

PASTORAL STAFF (Latin, Camlucca, camluca, pedum, 
crocia t cambuUa,fenila,baculu8]i>a8torali8). The official staff of an 
archbishop or bishop, formed on the model of a shepherd's crook. 
Its use is of great antiquity, being probably borrowed in the 
first Christian age from the rod of Moses, the staff of office of 
the ancient judges, or the sceptre of the king. St. Isidore of 
Seville, who flourished at the end of the sixth century, writes as 
follows, in his treatise De Ofticiis Ecclesiasticis : " On the 
bishop is bestowed a staff at the time of his consecration, that he 
may, as this sign suggests, both govern and rebuke the people 
committed to his charge, and support the infirmities of such as 


are weak." St. Caesarius of Aries is said, by the author of his 
Life, to have used the pastoral staff on all occasions ; it having 
been borne before him by one of his clerks. St. Csesarius 
flourished A.D. 502. Pope Innocent III. refers to its use gene- 
rally, when explaining why the Roman pontiffs did not adopt it. 
In France, Italy, and Spain it was adopted in certain dioceses 
about the seventh century : universally in these countries about 
three centuries later. Its use was ordinary amongst the Anglo- 
Saxons, as appears by the (a) Pontifical of 'Egbert, (j3) the 
Anglo-Saxon Pontifical at Rouen, and (y) the Pontifical of St. 
Dunstan at Paris. Its original shape is not easily determined. 
It was no doubt commonly curved like a simple crook, but some- 
times it had a knob or ball for its head, and occasionally the top 


was like a Tan-cross, J; an example of which, taken from an 
ancient specimen at Limburg, is figured in the accompany wood- 
(See Illustration, Fig. 1.) An example of the Tan-cross 
pastoral staff may be seen in the hands of a figure, evidently that 
ol a bishop, m the sculpture at the entrance of the Kound Tower 
of the Cathedral church of Brechin, in Scotland. Ancient Irish 
examples are of great simplicity of outline, and are seldom 
ornamented to any extent, being almost always simply curved 


at the top. About the eleventh century, the use of the pastoral 
staff became general, and it was always given at episcopal conse- 
crations. It was commonly made of wood, ornamented with 
precious metal, tabernacle-work, and jewels, the richness of 
which was developed in later times. Sometimes it had two 
inscriptions upon it, " Homo " and " Parce/' reminding its 
possessor that being but a man himself, he ought to watch over 
his own heart, and while administering necessary discipline 
against transgressors of God's law, to be mild, patient, and 

Lee'st Glossary. T 



merciful in so doing. In the thirteenth century, 
precious stones, enamels, and beaten work were 
added to the general skill of the designer ; and 
this was the custom in England for many genera- 
tions afterwards. An example, after the model 
and in the spirit of twelfth-century work, is 
given in the drawing of the late Mr. Sedding, 
accompanying this. (See Illustration, Fig. 2, 
on the preceding page.) Bishop Fox's pastoral 
staff at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, is a very 
rich and curious specimen. William of Wyke- 
ham's staff is preserved at New College, Oxford, 
and is still used by the Bishop of Winchester, 
his successor, and the Visitor of the College, 
whenever he officiates there. There are also 
some fine examples in the British and South 
Kensington Museums, That in the accompany- 
ing woodcut (Se Illustration, Fig. 3) is from 
the late Mr. A. Welby Pugin's pencil. To the 
pastoral staff, just below where the crook ter- 
minated, was attached a silk or linen napkin, 
known technically as the ' c Vexillum," which the 
i \ holder wrapped round the metal staff, in order 
/ I not to stain it by the moisture of the hands. 
' (See VEXILLUM.) Bishops and archbishops car- 
ried the staff in their left hand, in order to leave 
the right free for giving their blessing. The 
head of the crook in their case was always 
turned outwards, to signify external jurisdiction ; 
i.e. ' the ordinary jurisdiction possessed over a 
certain diocese or province. Anciently, in Eng- 
land, both abbots and abbesses received the 
pastoral staff at their consecration; but it seems 
to be doubtful for evidence on the subject is 
conflicting, if not contradictory whether those 
who were not mitred had this honour. Special 
privileges, however, were given by the Pope. 
According to the modern Roman rite, abbots do 
receive, and abbesses do not receive, the pastoral 
staff. In some English Roman Catholic con- 
vents, however, the staff is affixed to their stall 
or chair of office, a remnant of tradition of the 
influence of the Sarum rite. Since the Refor- 
mation, though its formal delivery has been 

' g PA8TORAL abolished in the Consecration service, many 

bishops have traditionally used it; amongst 


I /!>* 



others, Laud, Goodman of Gloucester, Wren, Montague, Cosin, 
Juxon, Trelawney, Morley ; and many others in the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. Laud's staff is preserved at 
St. John's College, Oxford. A staff of silver-gilt remains at 
York Minster, said to have belonged to a post-Reformation 
Roman Catholic bishop. On the tombs of our departed prelates 
many examples occur; e.g. at York, Lichfield, Chichester, 
Bristol, Durham, and Westminster. Anglican bishops, since the 
Catholic revival, have largely re-adopted the pastoral staff; e.g., 
at home, the Bishops of Winchester, Chichester, Salisbury, 
Oxford, Rochester, Lincoln, Lichfield, and Ely ; in the colonies, 
the Bishops of Cape-town, Quebec, Bombay, Grahams-town, 
Peter-Maritzburg, St. Helena, Honolulu, and several others. 
Abbots carry the pastoral staff with its crook turned inwards, to 
symbolize and indicate a confined and limited jurisdiction ; that 
is, a jurisdiction not extended beyond the walls and enclosures 
of the religious house over which they preside. 

PASTORATE. The office, estate, or jurisdiction of a spiritual 

PASTORLESS. Without or wanting a spiritual pastor. 
PASTORSHIP. The office or rank of a spiritual pastor. 

PATAND. In old English church-building Accounts this 
term is used to designate the lower rail of timber in any construc- 
tion of timber. 

PATEN (Latin, patina). I. A plate. 2. The metal dish- 
circular in form used for the offering of the Bread in the 
Christian Sacrifice. In the Western Church 
it is commonly small ; made, however, in 
proportion to the chalice, to which it ordi- 
narily forms the cover. The simple speci- 
men in the accompanying illustration is 
\ ^L^Sffi!^ J ) from the pencil of the late Mr. Welby Pugin. 
It is better for practical use notwith- 
standing the contrary in old examples that 
PATEN tne disk or centre be not engraved, but 

be left quite plain. Comparatively speaking, 
little old English plate remains, because the wanton and wilful 
destruction at the Reformation was so great and universal. There 
are some ancient specimens at York Minster, but of inferior 
metal ; possibly taken out of the tombs of bishops or pnests 
with whom they were buried. Two examples in silver remain at 
Chichester, and a third of latten or pewter. A paten matching 
the chalice belonging to Trinity College, Oxford, belongs to that 

T 2 


society; another, with a chalice to match, remains at West 
Drayton, Middlesex ; a third, at Nettlecombe, Somersetshire. 
Most of the older Clmrch-of- England plate is of post-Reforma- 
tion character, and of very poor design. The ancient forms 
and types are, however, being generally restored. 

PATERESSA (Greek, iraripiiaaa, irarfpiZa). 1. The pastoral 
staff of an Oriental prelate. 2. The pastoral staff of a Greek 

PATERNOSTER. 1. The first words of the Latin version of 
the Lord's Prayer. That prayer in Latin stands thus : " Pater 
noster qui es in coelis. Sanctificetur nomen tuum. Adveniat 
Regnum tuum. Fiat voluntas tua, sieut in crelo et in terra. 
Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie. Et dimitte nobis 
debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. Et ne 
nos inducas in tentationem. Sed libera nos a malo. Amen/' 
2. A rosary. 3. A chaplet of beads. 


PATRIARCH (Greek, Tror/ota'/ox'fC ; Latin, patriarcha). 1. A 
patriarch. This term was anciently and strictly applied only to 
the Bishop of Antioch, a see founded by St. Peter, where the 
faithful followers of Christ were first called Christians ; but was 
afterwards applied to the bishops of Rome, Constantinople (New 
Rome), Alexandria, and Jerusalem. In the Latin Chui'ch patri- 
archs have a cross of honour and office borne before them. 2. An 
Eastern legate, with special powers, sent through suffragan 
dioceses, at particular times, on special occasions. >. A dignitary 
superior to the order of archbishops. 

PATRIARCHAL. Of or belonging to patriarchs. 

PATRIARCHAL CHURCHES. The five .patriarchal 
churches of Rome are those of St. John Lateran (the Pope's 
cathedral), St. Mary the Greater, St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. 

PATRIARCHAL CROSS. In heraldry, a cross in which the 
shaft is twice crossed, the lower arms being longer than the 
upper ones. 

PATRIARCHATE. 1. The office, dignity, or jurisdiction of 
a patriarch. 2. The house of residence or palace of a patriarch. 

PATRIARCHISM. The being governed by a patriarch. 

PATRIARCHS OF SCRIPTURE. The fathers or heads of 
families of the Jewish people, together with the most distinguished 


rulers of the same. The chief personages of aucieiit Jewish 
history, often represented in Christian art. On the paintings 
carvings, sculpture, and stained glass of medieval times, the 
Scripture patriarchs are generally represented by some particular 
act recorded in Bible history. Noah looks out of the ark at the 
dove with an olive-branch Abraham grasps a huge sword ready 
to kill his son Isaac, who is kneeling on an altar, an angel holding 
the sword, while beside is the ram caught in some bushes ; Esau 
comes to Isaac, who is seated, with a bow and arrows ; Joseph is 
represented talking with his brethren ; Moses kneels before an 
altar, to whom God Almighty speaks as out of a cloud; David is 
kneeling, an angel above holds a sword; Solomon, in a rich 
tunic, stands under an arch, while in the distance is a represen- 
tation of the Temple at Jerusalem. 

PATRIARCHSHIP. The office, position, dignity, or juris- 
diction of a patriarch. 

PATRIPASSIANS. An ancient heretical sect, which taught 
that God the Father suffered with the Sou in making the atone- 

PATRISTIC. Pertaining to the ancient fathers of the Church 


PATRON. 1. A protector. 2. A supporter, o. One whu 
has the gift and disposition of a benefice. 

PATRON SAINT (Latin, jjatronim). A patron saint is one 
who is regarded as the peculiar protector of (n) a country, (/3) a 
community, (y) a profession, or (S) an individual. In the Middle 
Ages almost every trade or calling, having its guild or confra- 
ternity, had likewise its patron saint ; a custom not quite extinct 
amongst the rich and ancient guilds of the City of London. So 
likewise, individuals had their patron saints, chosen at baptism, and 
ratified at confirmation, under whose spiritual protection and in- 
tercession they lived. Churches, likewise, were dedicated to God, 
in honour of some particular saint or saints, and the day of the 
annual recurrence of the dedication was observed as a solemnity. 
Cities, too, had their patron saints ; in some cases, because the 
cathedral church of the same was dedicated to a particular saint. 
Dioceses, likewise, were anciently placed under the patronage of 
certain saints, a custom universally followed in England by our 
ancient churchmen, and observed by Anglo-Roman Catholics 
when their new hierarchy was created by the Bishop of Rome* 
The following are patron saints of countries: (1) Austria, St. 



Leopold ; (2) Bavaria, the Blessed Virgin Mary ; (3) Bohemia, 
St. John Nepomucene ; (4) Burgundy, the Blessed Virgin 
Mary; (5) Denmark, St. Finnan; (6) England, our Lady and 
St. George of Cappadocia ; (7) France, our Lady and St. Denis ; 
(8) Germany, St. Boniface; (9) Hanover, the Blessed Virgin 
Mary; (10) Hungary, St. Lewis; (11) Ireland, our Lady 
and St. Patrick; (12) Italy, St. Anthony [some say St. 
Ambrose] ; (13) Naples, St. Januarius ; (14) Norway, our 
Lady and St. John; (15) Parma, St. Hilary; (16) Poland, 
St. Stanislaus Kotska; (17) Portugal, St. Sebastian; (18) 
Prussia, St. Adalbert; (19) Russia, our Lady and St. Vladimir 
[some say St. Nicholas] ; (20) Sardinia, our Lady ; (21) Scotland, 
St. Andrew; (22) Sicily, St. George; (23) Spain, St. James; 
(24) Sweden, Our Lady and St. Bridget ; (25) Wales, St. David, 
Archbishop of Caerleon. The following are the patron saints of 
certain cities: (1) Aberdeen, St. Nicholas; (2) Antwerp, St. 
Norbert ; (3) Brussels, St. Gudule; (4) Cologne, St. Ursula ; 
(5) Edinburgh, St. Giles; (6) Genoa, St. George; (7) Ghent, 
St. Bavon; (8) Lisbon, St. Vincent; (9) Mechlin, St. Eomuold; 
(10) Milan, St. Ambrose; (11) Mentz, St. Boniface ; (12) Naples, 
St. Januarius ; (13) Nuremberg, St. Sebald; (14) Oxford, St. 
Frideswide; (15) Paris, St. Genevieve; (16) Rome, St. Peter; 
(17) Vienna, St. Stephen; (18) Venice, St. Mark. (See Husen- 
beth's Emblems of Saints, second edition, Longmans ; and The 
Kalendar of the Prayer-book, Oxford, 1866.) 



PAX. A small tablet of ivory, of wood overlaid with gold or 
silver, or of some inferior metal, used in the Western Church for 


giving the kiss of peace during the offering of the Christian 
Sacrifice. It is sometimes adorned with a representation of the 
Annunciation, the institution of the Blessed Sacrament, the 
Crucifixion, the Resurrection of our Lord, or of His Ascension. 
Several old examples exist. That in the engraving here given, 
a remarkable specimen of beaten and engraved work, is from 
the pen of the late Mr. Welby Pugin. See OSCULATORIUM. 


PAX YOBISCUM. A greeting or salutation, frequently 
made by the bishop, priest, or officiant in the public services of 
the Church. At Pontifical High Mass, this occurs after the 
Gloria, in excelsis, and again after the Pater Nosier, before the 
Agnus Dei. 

PAYNIM. 1. Pagan. 2. Infidel. 3. Heathen. 

PEARL. A term sometimes used to designate a particle of 
the Blessed Sacrament. In the Oriental Church this term is still 
current. It occurs in a rubric of the Liturgy of St. Chrysostom, 
as also in one of the Catechetical Lectures of St. Cyril of Jeru- 
salem. (See Goar's Euchologion, p. 86, ed. Paris; St. Cyril, 
Catechet. Myst., 21.) 

PECTORAL (Latin, pedorale). 
A square plate of gold or silver, 
either jewelled or enamelled, some- 
times worn by English and other 



bishops on the breast, over the chasuble, at Mass. It is 
sometimes called a Rationale or Rational. Its use appears 


to have been common during the Middle Ages, for several ex- 
amples occur on monumental effigies ; but since the fourteenth 
century it seems to have been disused. It was placed round the 
neck, and hung 011 the breast, either by a chain of gold, or by 
three or more silver-gilt pearl-headed pins. It may be seen on 
the effigy of Bishop Gyffard, in Worcester Cathedral ; also on 
that of another bishop, whose name is unknown, in the Ladyc 
chapel of the same. It also appears on the effigy of Laurence 
St. Martin, Bishop of Rochester, A.D. 1274, in Rochester Cathe- 
dral. The examples given in the accompanying illustrations are 
taken, one from sculpture at Rheims, in which the pectoral is 
fastened by a chain 011 the breast of an archbishop, who wears the 
pallium ; the other, from an incised slab at Freiburg, represent- 
ing a bishop or abbot, in which the pectoral, springing from the 
top of the pillar of the chasuble, seems to be formed of em- 
broidery. (See Illustrations, Figs. 1 and 2.) 

PECTORAL CROSS. A cross worn round the neck by a 
golden chain, by Roman Catholic bishops and others, indicating 
jurisdiction. Most Roman Catholic writers 
of authority allow that the pectoral cross 
was not commonly used until the middle 
of the sixteenth century, though some 
earlier examples of its being worn 
amongst others, by St. Alphege, of Can- 
terbury are occasionally quoted by foreign 
writers on Ritual. Abroad, however, its 
use, in some shape, commenced earlier ; for 
it is found occasionally in Flemish and 
Italian illuminations, and in one or two 
instances in Spanish sculpture ; e.g., at 
the Cathedral of Salamanca. Durandus, 
Bishop of Mende, enumerates it amongst 
episcopal ornaments (Rationale, lib. iii. 
cap. 3). It possibly came into use, in 
the h'rst instance, as a reliquary, formed 
in the shape of a cross. (See Illustration.) 

PECTORAL CRUCIFIX. A crucifix worn round the neck 
of a bishop instead of a pectoral cross. Such crucifixes were 
commonly of the nature of reliquaries, opening at the back, so 
that the relics could be at once preserved and seen. There is a 
representation of a pectoral crucifix probably a reliquary in 
the portrait of a German bishop of the fifteenth century, in the 
style of Hans Holbein, if not from his pencil, in rochet, black 
mozetta, and biretta, in the author'* possession. 



PECULIARS (DEANS OF). Deans of collegiate or paro- 
chial churches, which are extra-diocesan, exercising supreme 
jurisdiction over the same churches. Westminster Abbey is n 
example of the former case. Battle, Wolverhainpton, Guernsey, 
and St. Stephen's, Launceston, were examples of the latter 1 . 

PEDALES. 1. An old English term for carpets placed 
before the altar in churches. 2. Also for ornamental mats and 
rugs spread before the bishop's throne, on the floor of the pulpit, 
or at the lectern. :j. This term is also used to designate shoes 
of cloth or velvet, used by clerics in Divine service. 

PEDAL1A. Foot-cloths for spreading in churches, anciently 
made of the skins of animals killed in the chase ; but these were 
forbidden in the mediaeval age, and Eastern carpets were not 
unfrequeiitly substituted. 

PEDANES. A name for the shoes or sandals of pilgrims. 

PEDELARIUM.-'-A term to designate the solemn washing of 
the feet of twelve poor men on Maundy-Thursday. 


PEDE-PACE. 1. A predella. 2. An altar foot-pace. :j. 
That step immediately in front of an altar, on which the priest 
stands during the offering of the Christian Sacrifice. 


PKG -TANKARD. A peculiar kind of medieval drinking- 
cup, usually of silver, with pegs to regulate the amount of drink 
taken by each person who partook of it. These tankards were 
referred to in some ancient English canons, which say " ut 
Presbyteri uon eaut ad potationes, nee bd pinna* bibant." 

PELAGIANS. A sect of heretics who arose in the fifth 
century. They denied the doctrine of original sin, affirming that 
sin descended to Adam's issue, not by propagation, but by imi- 
tation ; that Adam was mortal by nature and condition before 
the Fall ; that our being as men was from God, but our being 
just was from ourselves. They likewise denied the reality and 
power of the grace of God. 

PELICAN IN HER PIETY (THE). A medieval symbol 
or Christian emblem, representing a pelican feeding her young 


from the blood of her own breast, a symbol of our Blessed 
Saviour giving Himself for the ransom and redemption of the 
whole world. This symbol is frequently found represented both 
in sculpture and painting in ancient churches, and is now very 
commonly used in chapels dedicated in honour of the Blessed 
Sacrament in the Roman Catholic Church. 

PENANCE. 1. The work, suffering, or labour to which a 
person voluntarily subjects himself, or which is imposed upon 
him by authority as a punishment for his faults, or as an expres- 
sion of repentance. 2. An act imposed by a confessor or director 
upon his penitent to test the reality of the contrition and good 
resolutions of the latter. 

PENANCE (SACRAMENT OF) .The Sacrament of Penance 
is a sacrament instituted by Christ, in which, by the ministry of 
a priest, actual sins are remitted, and the conscience is released 
from all bonds by which it may be bound. In this sacrament the 
eternal punishment due to sin is also remitted, and part, or the 
whole, of the temporal punishment, according to the disposition 
of the penitent. 

PENCILS. Small streamers or banners fixed to the end of 
a lance in mediaeval times, adorned with the coat-armour of the 
esquire by whom it was borne. 

PENITENT. 1. A person who is sorry for his past sins. 2. 
A technical term for one making a special confession to God's 
ambassador, the parish priest, or to any other priest formally 
licensed to receive confessions. 

PENITENTIAL. A volume containing directions and instruc- 
tions for confessors, with cases of conscience stated, solved, and 
answered, together with a large collection of precedents for the 
guidance of the confessor. 

PENITENTIALLY. In a penitent manner. 

PENITENTIAL PSALMS. They are as follows : Psalm vi., 
Domine, ne in furore ; xxxii., Beati quorum ; xxxviii., Domine, 
ne in furore ; li., Miserere ; cii., Domine, exaudi ; cxxx., De pro- 
fundis, and Psalm cxlviii., Domine exaudi. They are all appointed 
to be used in the services for Ash-Wednesday in the Church of 

PENITENTIARY. 1. One who prescribes the rules and 
measures of penance. 2. An ecclesiastic appointed by some com- 


inunity or bishop of a diocese to consider special cases of con- 
science, and to deal with those which ordinary parish priests 
are held to be ordinarily nn authorized to determine. 3. A 
reformatory for penitents. 

PENITENTIARY (CANON). The canon of a cathedral 
chapter, duly appointed to consider reserved cases of conscience, 
and to deal with them according to the laws and precedents of 
the Church. 

PENITENTIARY (CARDINAL). A cardinal at Rome, to 
whom, all special reserved cases are finally referred, in order that 
he may pronounce judgment thereupon, in accordance with the 
laws and precepts of the Latin Church. His decision, and the 
decree embodying it, are binding on those who refer the case or 
cases to Rome. 

PENITENTS. 1. A term used to designate certain religious 
confraternities in Roman Catholic countries. 2. In the early 
Church this term was given to a large class of people who, having 
lapsed from Catholicism, returned in sorrow and contrition to the 
fold. They were divided into the following divisions : (a) weepers, 
(/3) hearers, (y) kiieelers, and () standers. 

PENNY (Saxon, penig). The current silver money of our 
Anglo-Saxon ancestors. It was equal in weight to our silver 
threepence now. Five of these pennies made a Saxon shilling, 
and thirty made a mark. It was commonly stamped with a 

PENSILE TABLES. 1. Tables in a church on which a list 
of miracles wrought therein are registered for the public benefit. 
2. Tables containing a list of benefactions to a church or reli- 
gious house. 3. Tables containing a list of those who have 
enriched by gifts any shrine or altar of a patron saint. 

PENTECOST (Greek, TrevreicotrT/;) . 1 . A solemn feast of the 
Jews, so called, because it was celebrated on the fiftieth day after 
the Passover. It was also called ' ' The Feast of Weeks/' from 
its being seven weeks from the third day of the Passover. 2. 
The feast of Whit- Sunday, a festival of the Church Universal, 
observed annually, in remembrance of the Descent of the Holy 
Ghost in the form of a dove upon the Apostles. 

PENTECOSTAL. Of or belonging to the feast of Pentecost. 

PENTECOSTALS. Offerings anciently made on the feast of 
Pentecost to the parish priest. 


PENTECOSTARION (Greek, nvrnKoaraptov) . The name 
of an Oriental service-book, containing the special offices of tho 
Church from the feast of Easter to the octave of Whit- Sunday. 

I1ENTHKOSTO2 (IIiri|ico<Tro t -) .A Greek term for the fifty- 
first Psalm. 


PERFECTIONISM. The doctrine of the Perfectionists. 

I'KRFECTIONIST. 1. One who pretends to perfection here 
below. '1. An enthusiast in religion. 


PERISTERION. The Greek term for a sacred vessel or 
hanging tabernacle, formed like a dove, suspended over a high 
altar, to contain the Blessed Sacrament both for the worship and 
adoration of the faithful as well as for the communion of the sick. 

PERNOCTATION. A devotional exercise continued through 
the night. 

designate the Third Pointed style ; named " Perpendicular " on 
account of the arrangement of the tracery, which consists of 
perpendicular Hues, and forms one of its most striking features. 
The mouldings of this style are not equal to those of previous 
stylos, but the enrichments are effective. The use of transoms 
crossing the mullions of windows at right angles is a feature of 
this style, which gradually deteriorated until it gave place to 
restored Pagan types. 


PERTICA. 1. The term sometimes used to describe a cross- 
beam placed parallel with the altar, either above it or before it; 
upon which beam permanent shrines rested, or reliquaries were 
exposed, on special anniversaries and particular occasions. 2. 
It was sometimes also used to designate a beam across a chancel 
arch, or in front of an altar high up in the roof, from which 
depended on chains candlesticks, corona?, or mortars. See 

PETER'S PENCE. Gifts voluntarily made to the successor 
of St. Peter, that is, to the Pope. Anciently, in England, as in 
other Catholic countries, one penny was given every year to the 

PETITION IQT A ra\ I K A . 285 

fund known by this name, for collecting and transmitting which 
the Holy Father had many earnest, hard-working, and eminent 
agents in all his spiritual dominions. This tribute is said to have- 
been given first by Ina, king of the West Saxons, in his pilgrimage 
to Rome, A.D. 798. The giving of the tribute was prohibited 
in the reign of King Kdward III., and abrogated altogether in 
the twenty-fifth year of the reign of Xing Henry VII F. 


PETRINE LITURGY. 1. The Liturgy of St. Peter. 2. 
That Liturgy used at Rome, which tradition maintained to hnve 
been drawn up by St. Peter. 



PEW. 1. A stall in a church or choir. 2. An enclosed stall 
with a door in a church for any particular family. .'}. An erec- 
tion of wood of considerable height, commonly square, or in 
shape like a parallelogram, which came into use for undevotional 
purposes during the Great Rebellion, or immediately after that 

PHANOX. The Greek term for a maniple. 

PHELONION (Greek, ^Xtiwoi', ^Aiii-iic). 1. The chief 
Oriental garment of the sacrificing priest. '2. The Greek term 
for a chasuble. 

PHIBLA (Greek, <j>fft\a). A word borrowed from the Latin 
tihula, sicmifvino' a brooch or morse. tee MORSK. 

r*> t- <j 

4>IAAKOAOT0OS (ftiXanoXovOoe) . 1. A worshipper at 
church. 2. A devoted attendant at Christian services. :{. A 
church-goer. 4. A devotee. 

PHYLACTERIUM (Greek, <j>v\aKTiiptov). 1. A reliquary. 
2. An amulet. 3. A charm. 4. A Jewish phylactery. 

PHYLACTERY (Greek, ^uAnm-di/). 1. A linen border, on 
which texts of Holy Scripture or other writings were inscribed, 
worn by certain of the Jews across the forehead on solemn occa- 
sions. *2. An Eastern term for a reliquary, pectoral cross, ur 
little shrine, containing the relics of the saints and martyrs. 

4>OTA, TA (<Kra, TO). The Epiphany. 

4>OTAF&2NIKA (Oxora-y arnica'). Short hymns in honour of 
God, the Giver of Light and Life. 


PIE (Latin, pica). A term used to designate certain rubrics 
which had been added to from time to time during the Middle 
Ages prefixed to the Salisbury Breviary, containing instruc- 
tions, not very clearly set forth, as to the mode of reciting the 
Divine service in the ancient Church of England. 

PIED FRIABS. Members of a religious order, called ex- 
pressly " Fratres de Pica," from their habit being black and 
white, like a magpie. There was anciently a convent of Pied 
Friars in Norwich, at the north-east corner of the church of St. 
Peter per Mountergate. The second Council of Lyons, held in 
1274, suppressed several mendicant orders, as their number had 
excessively increased ; although their undue multiplication had 
been previously prohibited by the thirteenth canon of the fourth 
Council of Lateran in 1215. In the sixth and last session of 
the second of Lyons, the first decree alluded to the former pro- 
hibition, and complained that nevertheless the number of orders 
had gone on increasing ; and that some individuals had had the 
temerity to introduce several orders, especially of mendicant 
friars, without approbation. Wherefore the decree proceeds to 
revoke all mendicant orders introduced since the fourth General 
Council of Lateran, which had not been confirmed by the Holy 
See. Among these were the Friars of the Sack " Fratres de 
Sacco, sive de Poenitentia," who had a convent in Norwich ; 
and also the Pied Friars " Fratres de Pica." The above decree, 
however, expressly permits the Carmelites to remain. 

PIENTANTIA. A small portion of a superior kind of food 
to that generally eaten in religious houses, distributed to the 
brethren on the recurrence of special solemn anniversaries and 
high religious festivals. 

PIETA. 1. An Italian term for a piece of sculpture represent- 
ing our Blessed Saviour as dead, and reclining in the arms of 
His Mother. 2. This term is likewise given to a picture repre- 
senting the same sorrowful mystery. 


PISCINA (Italian). A water-drain, sometimes termed a 
lavatory, consisting of a shallow stone basin or sink, commonly 
circular, with a hole in the bottom, to carry off the water. It is 
commonly found in England under an arch, in a recess on the 
south side of the sanctuary, so placed that it may conveniently 
receive the water in which the officiating priest washes his hands 
before the celebration of the Holy Communion, or after the Offer- 


tory, or in which the sacred vessels are finally washed at the close 
of the service, before they are put away. Sometimes the credence- 
ledge for the cruets is likewise placed under the same arch, by 
means of a narrow stone bracket. Several Norman or Roman- 
esque piscinas exist ; e.g. at Towersey, Bucks ; Ryarsh, Kent ; 
St. Martin's, Leicester ; Cromarsh, Oxon, and in the crypt of 
Gloucester Cathedral. 

PITY (OUR LADY OF). A representation of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary bearing the sacred Body of her Divine Son after It 
was taken down from the Cross. 

FIX. See PYX. 

PLACEBO. A term to designate the old English vespers for 
the dead, so called because the antiphon commenced with placebo. 

PLAIN SERVICE. A modern Anglican term designating a 
service, whether Eucharistic or of the choir ; that is, an office in 
contradistinction to a sacramental act, which is (a) simply read, 
(|3) sung on one note, or (-y) ' ' pronounced " without any musical 
or choral accompaniment. 

PLAIN SONG (Latin, cantu* plauus). Ancient Church 
music, which tradition declares to have been arranged by Pope 
St. Gregory the Great for use in Divine service. It is marked 
by great solemnity and simplicity in its characteristics, and is 
full of dignity. 

PLANETA (Latin). 1. A term for a chasuble. 2. Also used 
to designate the folded chasuble which the deacon and subdeacon 
at High Mass use at certain solemn periods in place respectively 
of the dalmatic and tunicle. 

PLATFORM. 1. That highest step above those for the deacon 
and subdeacon, on which an altar stands. 2. The priest's step 
at a Christian altar. 3. A construction on which an episcopal 
chair, and the chair of a king or queen at coronations, is placed. 

PLENARY INDULGENCE. An indulgence is a remission 
granted by the Church to those who are already free from the 
guilt of all mortal sin, of the whole or of a part of the temporal 
pains due for sins already, forgiven. By temporal, as distin- 
guished from eternal punishment, is meant punishment which 
is due for sin, and which is to be undergone either in this world 
or in the next. Repentance for past sin may be so great as to 


obtain from God the remission, both of the guilt aud of the 
punishment ; but often, through the imperfection of our repent- 
ance, some punishment remains due for sin after the guilt has 
been removed. Indulgences are granted on the condition of the 
performance of certain specified good works ; and they cannot 
be gained by any one who is not free from the guilt of all 
grievous sin. 

PLICATA. A term used to designate the folded chasuble, 
worn instead of the dalmatic and tunic respectively, by the 
deacon and subdeacon at certain penitential seasons. 

PLOUGH ALMS. Alms given upon the use of a plough for 
church purposes in Anglo-Saxon times. 

PLOUGH MONDAY. The first Monday after the feast of 
the Epiphany, upon which, in early times, alms were offered to 
God for the good of the Church, at the time of ploughing the 
land, and to obtain a blessing upon the tilling and seeding of it. 

PLURALITY. The holding of more than one benefice, with 
cure of souls, by one cleric. This was an abuse, exceedingly 
common in England during medieval times, and became the 
cause of the sorest dissatisfaction amongst the faithful. Many 
foreign ecclesiastics obtained preferments of dignity, but never 
fulfilled the corresponding obligations, several of them being 
inducted or instituted by deputy, and never corning to England 
at all. Dispensations were given by the Popes for these abuses, 
but such dispensations were exceedingly disliked. Pluralities 
were abolished by Act 1 & 2 Victoria, 106. 

PLUVIALE (Latin, cappa 'pluvialis] . A term for an out-door 
cope ; such a cope as is worn at funerals or similar external pro- 
cessions. This word was also applied to the dark cloth or serge 
copes commonly worn by the canons of our ancient cathedrals, 
which, at ordinary times, were plain, and wholly, or almost 
wholly, unadorned. See CAPPA CHOBALIS. 

POCULARY. 1. A domestic drinking-cup. 2. A beaker. 

PODERIS. Any vestment which reaches to the feet. Hence, 
(I) a cassock, (2) a surplice, (3) an alb. 

PfENULA ((fteXwviov) . The Eastern term Latinized and 
adopted in the West, for the chasuble or sacrificial garment of 
the Christian priesthood. See CHASUBLE. 

POLYPTYCH. 1. A set of tablets or portable writing-tables. 
2. A collection of miscellaneous memoranda on various sheets of 
vellum or paper. 


POME (Latin, pomum). A ball of precious metal, brass, or 
latten, about six or eight inches in diameter, shaped like an 
apple, with a small hole and screw at the top, by which the 
vessel was filled with hot water, so that the priest at Mass, 
during the winter months, might so warm his fingers that all the 
manual actions could be performed with decency, exactness, 
care, and reverence. 

POMEGRANATE. A device, signifying the richness of 
Divine grace, frequently found on ancient embroidery, painting, 
and illuminations. 


POMET-TOWER. A tower capped with a circular covering 
resembling an apple ; hence its name. 

PONCER. An episcopal thumbstall, apparently peculiar to 
the Church of England, made of gold or silver, and richly 
jewelled. It was placed over the thumb of the right hand of the 
bishop, after he had dipped his thumb into the Holy Oil, so as to 
avoid soiling the episcopal vestments. This ornament is specified 
in a Sarum Pontifical, still existing, thus : " Postea lavet 
[episcopus] manus suas si voluerit, vel imponatur digitale vel 
ponsir quousque lavat manus suas." See THUMBSTALL. 


PONTIFF. A title of some of the chief bishops of the 
Christian Church, and, commonly speaking, of all bishops. This 
term, however, is usually applied exclusively to the Bishop of 

PONTIFICAL. A volume containing all the services in 
which a bishop takes the chief or particular part. 


PONTIFICALIA. The official insignia of a Christian bishop, 
i.e. mitre, ring, pectoral cross, pastoral staff, &c. 

PONTIFICALLY ASSISTING. A term used to designate 
that part which a bishop takes in any solemn function in which 
he himself is not the celebrant, but the chief ecclesiastical person 

PONTIFICATE (THE). The authority of the bishops, in 
contradistinction to that of the king or the state. 

PONTIFICATE (TO). (1) To act or assist as a bishop ; (2) 
to say mass ; (3) to confirm ; (4) to ordain. 

Lte' CHottarj/. 


POOR MAN'S ALMSBOX. A box used in ancient times, 
before the days of the Poor Laws, into which the alms of the 
rich faithful for the help and sustenance of their poorer brethren 
were placed. 

POOR-STONE. A stone, most commonly a tomb of some 
known benefactor, from which doles to the poor are given away 
in a church week by week, or period by period, as custom or 
necessity determines. 


POPE (Latin, papa). An ecclesiastical title for (1) the Bishop 
of Rome, or Holy Father ; (2) the Patriarch of Constantinople ; 
(3) the Patriarch of Alexandria ; (4) an Oriental parish priest. 

POPIE-HEED. A term found in Hearne's Appendix to tJie 
History of Glastonbury. See POPPY-HEAD. 

POPIS. 1. Poppy-heads. 2. The carved terminations of 
bench- or stall-ends. 

POPPY-HEAD. A technical term for the carved finial or 
end of an upright stall or bench-end, so called, as some writers 
assert, from the fact that the head of a poppy or open pome- 
granate was frequently carved thereon. More commonly these 
finials are in the form of a fleur-de-lys or lily. No examples 
are known to exist of an earlier date than that of Second Pointed 
Christian architecture. 

PORCH (French, porche ; Italian, portico) . 1 . The entrance 
or vestibule of a church. An adjunctive erection placed over 
the doorway of a larger building. They were not uncommon in 
Romanesque buildings, though frequently shallow, as at Iffley, 
Oxon, and Umngton, Berks. First-Pointed porches are also to be 
found in considerable numbers. Grood examples may be seen at 
Thame, Great Tew, and Middleton Stoney, in Oxfordshire. 
Wooden porches for village churches are usual in the Second- 
Pointed style. In some cases there is a room over a porch, con- 
taining a fireplace, and occasionally a piscina, showing either 
that it has been used for a vestry or for a chapel. This is the 
case at St. Mary's, Thame, Oxon, with the south porch against 
the south aisle. Many porches are groined in stone, and some, 
especially those of cathedrals, are ornamented with great thought, 
care, and effect. 2. The term porch, like its original porticus, is 
occasionally used to designate a chapel in the interior of a church, 
and for other interior constructions. (See Durham Wills, p. 105.) 



PORTCULLIS. A massive frame of wood, arranged rec- 
tangularly, and covered with iron bars, nails, and spikes, used in 
mediaaval times to defend the gateways of castles and other 
fortified places. It was made so as to slide up and down in a 
groove, formed for the purpose in each jamb, and was com- 
monly kept suspended above the gateway, to be let down when- 
ever an attack was apprehended. Each entrance appears to have 
been so guarded. 

PORTIFORIUM. A mediaeval term for a Breviary. 


PORTIONIST. A prebendary, who, with his brother pre- 
bendaries, received a portion of a certain endowment. 

POST. An upright timber in a building. The vertical 
timbers in the walls of wooden houses are called posts, as are the 
corner-posts, which are sometimes called principals. The posts 
in a roof are styled king-posts, queen-posts, side-posts, &c. 


POST-COMMUNION. 1. That portion of the service for 
offering the Christian Sacrifice which follows the communion of 
the people. 2. A technical term for an antiphon, sung after the 
faithful have been communicated. 

POSTER-GULE. The Italian term for a reredos. 

POSTERN. 1. A back door or gate. 2. A private entrance. 
3. Hence, the private door or entrance by the side of the chief 
gate of a religious house. 


POSTIL. 1. A marginal note. 2. A written side-comment 
on a book or MS. 3. A homily. 4. A comment on Scripture. 

PO STILL A. 1. A sermon or homily, explanatory of the 
Grospel in the Mass. 2. Any sermon. 

POSTILLER. 1. One who comments. 2. A preacher. 3. A 


u 2 


POSTULATE (TO). 1. To invite or solicit. 2. To assume. 
3. To take without positive consent. 4. Technically, 
to ask legitimate ecclesiastical authority to admit a 
nominee by dispensation, when a canonical impedi- 
ment is supposed to exist. 


PRECENTOR. 1. The director of the music in 
a cathedral or church ; in the former a cleric, in the 
latter, ordinarily a layman. 2. A minor canon in a 
cathedral. 3. A chaplain in a cathedral church, 
charged with the management of the musical service. 

PRECENTOR'S STAFF. A staff or baton of 
office, of wood or precious metal, used by a pr^ecen- 
tor or cantor, (a) to designate his rank and office, and 
also (]3) to enable him to beat time and keep time in 
the sight of the whole choir. Such were ordered to 
be used by the rulers of the choir in the old Salis- 
bury Consuetudinary, and were no doubt found in 
the Sacristies of our old cathedrals and chief parish 
churches. The elaborate example here given is from 
the late Mr. A. Welby Pugin's pencil, representing 
a staff of the fourteenth century. (See Illustration.) 

PRECEPTOR. 1. The procurator or proctor in 
a house of the Templars. 2. A teacher or instructor. 

PRECEPTORY. The official residence of a 
praeceptor. See PRECEPTORY. 

PRELECTOR. 1. A reader. 2. A tutor. 3. An 
instructor in theology. 4. A professor in a college 
or university. 

PREMUNIRE. A penalty or punishment the 
exact nature of which is not known against clerics 
and others for certain supposed acts of disobedience 
and disloyalty to the supreme power of the king. 

PREPOSITA.l. An abbess. 2. A prioress. 3. 
The mother superior of a convent. 

PREPOSITUS. 1. A provost. 2. A prior. 3. 
The chief of a monastery or non-mitred abbey. 4. A 
dean. 5. An archdeacon. 

PRAYED. Supplicated. 


PRAYER. 1. In a general sense, the asking for a favour; 
and particularly the asking of a favour with earnestness. 2. In 
worship, a solemn address to Almighty God. 3. A formulary 
of worship, church-service, or adoration, whether public or 
private. 4. The practice of supplication. 5. The thing asked or 

PRAYER-BOOK. 1. A book containing prayers or devo- 
tions, whether public or private. 2. The Prayer-book in England 
is " The Book of Common Prayer," the public Service-book of 
the Established Church. 

prayer, peculiar to the Communion-service of the Reformed 
Church of England, ordered to be said by the priest-celebrant 
alone kneeling before the altar, immediately before the Canon or 
Prayer of Consecration. It is of comparatively modern origin. 

PREBEND (Italian, prebenda). The stipend or maintenance 
granted to a prebendary out of the common estate of a Cathedral 
or Collegiate church. 

PREBEND AL HOUSE. The house of a prebendary. A 
remarkable specimen exists at Thame, Oxon, in which many 
ancient features are destroyed, but in which some remain. It 
is now occupied as a private mansion. 

PREBENDARY. An ecclesiastic who enjoys the honour, 
dignity, and advantage of a prebend. 

PRECEPTOR, 1. A teacher. 2. Amongst the Knights 
Templars, the head of a pre'ceptory. 

PRECEPTORY. A manor or estate of the Knights Templars, 
on which were erected a church and a dwelling-house. It was 
subordinate to the chief house of the Templars. 

as follows : 1. To be present at the offering of the Christian 
Sacrifice on Sundays and on all holy-days of obligation. 2. To 
fast and abstain on the days commanded so to be observed. 3. 
To confess our sins at least once a year ; /. e. before Easter. 4. 
To receive the Holy Communion at least three times a year, of 
which Easter shall be one. 5. To contribute to the support 
our pastors by the regular payment of tithe and other free obla- 
tions and gifts. 6. Not to solemnize marriage at the forbid 
times, nor to marry persons within the forbidden degrees, c 
otherwise prohibited by the Church, nor clandestinely, 


PRECES (Latin). 1. Literally, prayers. 2. Technically, 
those versicles and responses in the intercessory portion of the 
Matins and Evensong of the Church of England, as also in the 
concluding part of the Anglican Litany. 

PRECULAR. A prayer-man ; a bedesman ; one bound to pray 
periodically for the founder or founders of the religious bene- 
faction which he himself enjoys. 

PREDELLA. 1. The Italian term for the platform or altar, 
i. e. of that upper step on which the priest-celebrant stands when 
ministering the Eucharist. 2. This term is sometimes used 
by foreign; writers, as, for example, by Catalani, to signify the 
ledge on which the candlesticks and reliquaries stand behind an 

PREFACE. That 'portion of the form for celebrating Holy 
Communion from the " Lift up your hearts " to the Canon, or 
Prayer of Consecration. 

PREFACE PROPER. A Preface peculiar to some great or 
leading festival. Some of these were abolished in the Church 
of England at the Reformation : five, however, were suffered to 
remain in our Prayer-book ; viz., those for Christmas-day and 
its octave, Easter-day and its octave, Ascension-day and its 
octave, Whit- Sunday ajid six days after, and for the feast of 
Trinity only. 


PRELATE (Latin, prcelatus). 1. Any bishop. 2. A mitred 
abbot. 3. A papal chamberlain. 4. The ordinary of any reli- 
gious house or community. 

PRELATURA. An Italian term, used to designate an officer 
of the Roman curia, whose position is that of a bishop, sometimes 
(a) without episcopal consecration, and (j3) generally without 
a see. 

PRESANCTIFIED (THE). A term for the Blessed Sacra- 
ment when used either for oblation or for the communion of the 
priest on a day when the Eucharistic Service is not gone through 
in its integrity; e. g. on Good Friday in the Latin Church. 

PRESBYTER (Greek, Tr/oe^vrf/ooc). 1. One of the second 
order of the Christian clergy. 2. A priest. 3. A parson. 

PRESBYTERY. 1. That part of a church especially set 
apart for the clergy ; that is, the sanctuary : hence, a choir or 
chancel. 2. The general body of the priests of a diocese or arch- 


deaconry assembled in .synod. :J. A clergy -house. 4. A par- 

PRICK. A pricket ; that is, a brass or latten point, on which 
were placed tapers. " Item, paid to Thomas Hope for Pricks 
that the Tappers stand 011 viij d." (Churchwardens' Accounts of 
the Church of the Blessed Virgin of Thame, Oxon.) 

PRICK-CIRCLE. 1. A corona, or crown of light. 2. A 
ring of metal, with a series of pricks, on which to place wax- 
tapers for lighting a church or chancel. 

PRICKET. 1 . A spike in the centre of a candlestick or 
mortar, on which to place a wax-taper (&ee MORTAR). 2. An 
instrument consisting of a spiked revolving wheel, with a handle, 
by which the bars of music in church musical manuscripts were 
mechanically made at due and accurate intervals. 

PRICK-SONG. An ancient English name for ornate Plain 
Song ; so called, in all probability, because the vellum leaves on 
which the MS. music was written were marked with an instru- 
ment called a pricket, so as to enable the stave of four lines to 
be drawn thereupon. John Barett, of Bury St. Edmund's, willed 
as follows , " I will y* on the day of my intirment be songge a 
messe of prickked Song at Seynt Marie Auter in wurshippe of 
our Lady at vii of y e cloke." (Wills of Bury St. Edmund's, 
p. 17.) 


PRIE-DIEU. A term used to designate a chair, movable 
stall, or kneeling-desk for prayer. 

PRIEST (Saxon, preost ; Danish, prceat; French, pretre}. 
1. One of the second order in the Christian ministry. 2. A 
parson. 3. A parish priest or pastor. 4. One who sacrifices. 

PRIESTCRAFT. The proper knowledge of the duties of a 
priest. [N.B. This word has been altogether perverted from 
its true and original meaning.] 

PRIESTHOOD. 1. The office or character of a priest. 2. 
The order of men set apart for sacred offices. 3. The order 
composed of priests. 

PRIESTIMONY. The customary dues of a priest. 

PRIESTLINESS. The appearance, bearing, and manner of 
a priest. 


PRIESTLY. 1. Becoming a priest. 2. Of or belonging to 
a priest. 

PRIEST-RIDDEN. Governed, guided, reined-in, or driven 
by a priest. 

PRIESTS' ROOM. Resident chaplains sometimes had a 
room over a porch of a church, examples of which, with fire- 
places in them, &c., are to be seen at St. Mary's Church, Thame, 
Oxon, and St. Peter's in the East, Oxford. See PARVIS. 

PRIMACY (Italian, priwazia) . The office, position, or dig- 
nity of a primate. 

PRIMATE. 1. The chief metropolitan of any country or 
group of dioceses. 2. The office, position, or dignity of an arch- 

PRIMATESHIP. The office or dignity of a primate or arch- 

PRIMATIAL. Of or pertaining to a primate or archbishop. 

PRIME. 1. The second of the Day Hours of the Church, 
anciently said at six A.M. 2. The dawn of day. 

PRIME FUNCTION. A modern Anglican term to describe 
that portion of the Communion office from the Creed unto the end 
of the service. It is that part at which the faithful are bound to 
be present, in order to satisfy the requirements of the Church in 
assisting, on Sundays and holy days of obligation, at the offering 
of the Christian Sacrifice. 

PRIMER. 1. A small prayer-book. 2. A book of instructions 
in religious duties and teaching ; hence, (3) any elementary book 
for teaching children to read. 

PRIMEVAL. 1. Original. 2. Primitive. 3. That which 
is Catholic, having come down from the first ages of Chris- 

PRIMIGENIAL.l. Original. 2. First-born. 3. Primary. 
4. Catholic. 

PRINCIPAL. A name for the chief timbers in the construc- 
tion of a roof. 

PRIOR. 1. An official next in rank and position to the abbot 


in a monastery. 2. The head of a religious house, subject to the 
jurisdiction of the abbot or a superior of the same order. 

PRIORESS. -Any religious house for women, having a 
prioress as its chief officer. 

PRIOR OF CLOISTERS An officer in a large religious 
house having charge of, or special jurisdiction in, the cloisters of 
the same. 

PRIOR'S STAFF. A staff of office, of precious metals, borne 
before the prior of a cathedral, which staff was commonly called 
a " Bourdon." This instrument of dignity was granted by Pope 
Urban V., A.D. 1363, to John of Evesham, Prior of the Church 
of Worcester. (See "Priv. Ecclesire Wigorns," in Wilkins'. 
Concilia, vol. iii. p. 201.) 

PRIORY. Any religious house for men, having a prior as its 
chief officer. 


PROANAPHORAL SERVICE. The introductory part of 
the Greek Liturgy. That portion which precedes the more solemn 
part, which latter begins with the " Lift up your Hearts." 

PROCESSION (Lathi, processio). 1. The act of proceeding 
or issuing forth. 2. A regular march or moving with ceremonious 
solemnity in due and appointed order. 3. A formal movement 
of the clergy and their assistants in due and proper order, on 
public ^occasions, in church or elsewhere. 

PROCESSION-AISLE. 1. The aisle in a cathedral or colle- 
giate church behind the high altar, round which a procession 
could take its way. 2. The north and south aisles, bpth of a 
cathedral nave and choir. 3. A cloister attached to a cathedral 
or monastery. 

PROCESSIONAL. 1. A book containing those services 
which are said and sung in processions. 2. A book of litanies. 
3. A book of intercessions. 4. A volume containing the custo- 
mary and authorized services for Rogation-tide or Gang-days. 

PROCESSIONAL CANOPY. A canopy of silk, satin, 
velvet, cloth of gold, or other costly material, often richly em- 
broidered, supported at the four corners of it by staves, and 
carried over (1) the Blessed Sacrament on Corpus-Christi day 
and other solemn occasions; or sometimes over (2) the bishop 
of a diocese, (3) a king, or (4) the Pope. The example here 



given is powdered alternately with representations of the chalice 
and Host, and the sacred monogram 11)8. At the heads of the 
staves are rings, on which little silver bells depend. (See Illus- 


PROCESSIONAL CROSS. Across placed on a staff for use 
in processions, at the head of which it is commonly borne. It is 
frequently made of precious metal, though ordinarily of latten, 
copper- gUded, or brass. It is also sometimes jewelled, and not 
unfrequeutly has a figure of our Lord placed on one side, and a 
representation of our Lady and her Divine Son on the other. 
Sometimes the stem is of ebony, and sometimes of oak ; jewels 
are also introduced for its adornment on the knob. The example 
on the apposite page is from the late Mr. Pugin's pencil. 


PROCTOR, 1. This word is contracted from the word " Pro- 
curator, 7 ' and bears the same meaning. 2. One employed to 
manage the affairs of another. 3. A person authorized to manage 
another's cause in certain courts in England, more especially the 
Ecclesiastical courts. 4. In the English universities, an officer, 
elected by the various colleges in turn, who possesses consider- 
able powers of jurisdiction, received from the university, attends 


to the conduct of members in statu 
pupillari, and enforces obedience to 
the University regulations. 5. A de- 
legate to one of the two Convocations 
of Canterbury and York, sent either 
by a cathedral body or by the clergy* 
of an archdeaconry or diocese. 

PROCTORAGE. Management. 

PROCTORIAL. 1. Magisterial. 
2. Belonging to a proctor. 

PROCTORSHIP. The office, posi- 
tion, or dignity of a proctor. 

PROCURATIONS. Certain sums 
of money paid yearly by the inferior 
clergy to the bishop or archdeacon for 
the charges of visitation. The pro- 
curations were anciently made by ob- 
taining victuals and other provisions 
in specie; but the demands of these 
in kind being thought to be exorbi- 
tant, and complaints being made of 
this abuse to provincial and national 
synods, it became at last the universal 
rule to pay a fixed sum in money in- 
stead of a procuration. Procurations 
only suable in the spiritual court are 
now being given up. 


PROFESSION. A technical term 
to signify the taking of vows, and 
entering into a religious order. 

PROFESSOR. An officer in a 
university, who publicly teaches any 
science or branch of learning ; particu- 
larly an officer in a university, college, 
or other seminary, whose business it 
is to instruct students in a particular 
branch of learning. 

Thomas Bradwardine, Archbishop of 



PROHIBITION. 1. Interdict. 2. Disallowance. '3. Inhibi- 
tion. 4. The act of forbidding or interdicting. 

PROLOCUTOR. The speaker, chairman, or president of a 
convocation of the clergy. 

PRONAOS (Greek). The porch, entrance, or vestibule of a 
temple or church. 

PROPER PREFACE. That part of the Preface in the Liturgy 
before the words "Holy, holy, holy," which is inserted on 
certain great festivals and their octaves. See PREFACE PROPER. 

PROSARIUM. A book of proses or Christian hymns. 

PROSE. 1. A term to designate the sequence in Latin 
metre. 2. A Latin hymn for use in the service of the Christian 

PROSEUCHA (Greek). 1. A place where prayer is wont to 
be made. 2. A small chapel. 3. An oratory. 

nPO2*EPEIN (Upootfpuv).!. To make an offering. 2. To 
celebrate the Liturgy. 3. To say Mass. 

nPO2<i)EP2IS (n/ocJfffepaic). 1. An offering. 2. An obla- 

PROSPHORA (Greek). 1. An offering. 2. The presenta- 
tion of a candidate for Holy or minor orders. 3. The act of 
offering a person for the religious life, its vows, obligations, and 
duties. 4, The antidorou or Blessed Bread. 

nP02<K)PAPIO2 (flpoaQopapiog). The official who, in the 
Eastern Church, provides the altar-bread. 

PROSTRATES, OR KNEELERS. One of the four orders of 
penitents in the Early Church. 

PROTEVANGELIUM. That apocryphal Gospel containing 
the life of the Blessed Mary from her birth unto the adoration 
of the three kings or wise men. 

PROTHESIS (Greek, TrptOtme). 1. The Eastern service for 
solemnly preparing the bread and wine prior to being used in the 
Christian Sacrifice. 2. An Eastern or Greek term for a credence- 

PROTONOTARY. 1. A public officer who attests deeds 
and other documents. 2. In the Eastern Church, the chief 
secretary of the Patriarch of Constantinople. 


PROTONOTARY APOSTOLIC. A public officer of the 
Roman curia, employed to take notes of the decisions of con- 
gregations, the acts of conciliar assemblies, and other official 

PROTOPAPAS (Greek). 1. A chief priest. 2. A priest the 
first in order amongst several priests. 3. An Eastern dignitary, 
corresponding in some particulars to our deans, in others to our 
archdeacons. 4. A term given amongst the Syrian Christians 
to an official of the bishop, whose office is like that of the West-- 
ern " Vicar- General." 5. A dean. 

riPi}TO0PONO2 (n/owrd^ovoc). A Greek term for (1) a 
primate; (2) a metropolitan. 

I1PQTOS (UpuTog). A Greek term for (1) an abbot; (2) a 
chief priest; (3) a rector; (4) a parish priest. 

nPQTO^AATHS (IIpwroi/'aArrje). A Greek term for a 
chief precentor or ruler of the choir. 

PROVOST (Prcepositus) . In a general sense, one who pre- 
sides over or superintends any community or place. When applied 
to an ecclesiastic, the term usually designates an officer whose 
position in a collegiate or cathedral church is equivalent to that 
of a dean; i.e. one who is placed before or over others. 

PSALM. A sacred song or hymn, composed on a divine or 
sacred theme, having for its object the praise and honour of 
Almighty God. 

PSALMELLUS. 1. A mediaeval term for the singing-clerk, 
praecentor, cantor, or leader of the music in the public services 
of the Church Universal. 2. A MS. of music used in the services 
of the Church. 

PSALMIST.- -A writer or composer of psalms. 
PSALMODY. The act of singing or chanting psalms. 
PSALTER. The Book of the Psalms of David. 

PSALTERY (Greek, ^aXn'ipiov) . A stringed instrument of 
music, used by the Hebrews, the exact form of which is not now 
known. It is generally believed to have been a kind of lyre. 

PULPIT (Latin, pulpihini ; Italian and Spanish, jndpito). 
An elevated place or enclosed stage in a church, from winch 


sermons are delivered. They are usually placed in the nave, 
attached to a wall, pillar, or screen. Anciently, clerics, who ordi- 
narily occupied the choir, moved into the nave on occasions when 
sermons were preached. Many ancient pulpits exist, both of 
stone and wood, some of which are remarkable. A First-Pointed 
specimen at Beaulieu, Hampshire, A.D. 1255, is almost unique. 
There is a good specimen of a Second- Pointed stone pulpit at 
Coombe, in Oxfordshire, A.D. 1360. A large number of Third- 
Pointed pulpits, both of wood and stone, are to be found in our 
cathedrals and churches, as well as many of a Jacobean type. 
Of the former, that at Fotheringay, Northamptonshire, of wood, 
attached to a pillar, is an excellent specimen, as also are those at 
Handborough and Wolvercot, Oxon. Of the latter, an example 
at Castle Ashby, Northamptonshire, is remarkable, being superior 
in design and execution to the general character of such. Some- 
times pulpits were placed outside buildings, as at St. Paul's Cross 
and St. Mary Magdalene College, Oxford; and occasionally in the 
refectories, cloisters, and chapter-houses of monasteries. Some- 
times they were movable, as at the Roman Catholic Church of 
St.Mary of the Assumption, Aberdeen. "Pulpitum " is frequently 
used in mediaeval documents for a rood-loft. 

PULVER-DAY. Ash- Wednesday. 

PULVER-DISH. A vessel of latten, in which the ashes were 
placed, in order to the sprinkling of the faithful with ashes on the 
first day of Lent. 

PULVER-WEDNESDAY. Ash- Wednesday, the first day of 

PURBECK STONE. A limestone from the Isle of Purbeck, 
very frequently used in mediaeval times for slabs of monumental 
memorials, or for the steps of a chancel or altar. 

PURFILE. A kind of ancient trimming, sometimes attached 
to the official dresses of members of Christian guilds and religious 
confraternities . 

PURFLE. A flowered border of embroidery ; e.g., like that 
often found on albs and surplices. 

PURFLED. Ornamented with a flowered border. 

PURGATION. The act of cleansing : hence, the cleansing 
from a crime. 1. Vulgar purgation was anciently performed by 


the ordeal of fire, water, or single combat. 2. Canonical purga- 
tion was performed before a bishop or his deputy and twelve 
clerics, before whom the person accused took an oath of his inno- 
cence, and the twelve clerks an oath that they believed he had 
sworn to the truth. 

PURGATORIAL. Relating to purgatory. 

PURGATORY. A doctrine which has been defined by the 
Council of Trent in the following Decree touching Purgatory : 
" Whereas the Catholic Church, instructed by the Holy Ghost, 
has, from the sacred writings and the ancient traditions of the 
fathers, taught, in sacred councils, and very recently in this 
oecumenical synod, that there is a Purgatory, and that the souls 
there retained are relieved by the suffrages of the faithful, but 
chiefly by the acceptable sacrifice of the altar ; the holy synod 
enjoins on bishops that they diligently strive that the sound 
doctrine touching Purgatory, delivered by the holy fathers and 
sacred councils, be believed, held, taught, and every where "pro- 
claimed by the faithful of Christ. But let the more difficult and 
subtle questions, and those which tend not to edification, and 
from which for the most part there is no increase of piety, be 
excluded from popular discourses before the uneducated multi- 
tude. In like manner, such things as are uncertain, or which 
labour under an appearance of error, let them not allow to be 
made public and treated of. But those things which tend to a 
certain kind of curiosity or superstition, or which savour of filthy 
lucre, let them prohibit as scandals and stumbling-blocks of the 
faithful. And let the bishops take care that the suffrages of the 
faithful who are living, to wit, the sacrifices of masses, prayers, 
almsgivings, and other works of piety, which have been wont to 
be performed by the faithful for the other faithful departed, be 
piously and devoutly performed, according to the institutes of 
the Church ; and that what things soever are due on their behalf 
from the endowments of testators, or in other way, be discharged, 
not in a negligent manner, but diligently and accurately, by the 
priests and ministers of the Church, and others who are bound 
to render this service." 

PURIFICATION. The act of purifying. The operation of 
cleansing ceremonially by the removal of any defilement or 

PURIFICATOR. A narrow strip or square piece of fine lawn 
or linen, used both for preparing the chalice and paten for the 
Christian Sacrifice, prior to receiving the bread and wine, as well 



as for cleansing the same vessels after the service, when they 
have been duly rinsed by the ordinary ablutions. The purificator 
is commonly marked with an embroidered cross. 

PURL ACE. A mediaeval term for a main timber or beam in 
the lower part of a building. 

PURLINGS. 1. The embroidered portions of an ecclesias- 
tical vestment. 2. The ornamental divisions between the sepa- 
rate parts of church-hangings or tapestry. 3. Fringes and 
borderings of altar-coverings. 

PYNON-TABLE.A term probably taken from the French 
pignon, descriptive of the coping-stones of a gable. 

II YE ION (riyiov). A Greek term for a pyx or pix. 

PYX. A box or vessel of precious metal in which the Sacra- 
ment of the Holy Eucharist, under the form of bread, is reve- 
rently preserved, for the purpose of giving 
communion to the sick and infirm at other 
times and places than at the general com- 
munion of the faithful in church. The 
example in the accompanying illustration, 
representing a thirteenth-century pyx of 
great beauty, is from the pen of the late 
Mr. A. Welby Pugin. (See Illustration.) 
A somewhat similar pyx may be seen in 
the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. In re- 
cent times the pyx has been of a much 
smaller size, for the convenience of the 
clergy, and is now often round and flat in 
shape, like a watch-case, to contain a few 
Hosts. Old examples of this kind of pyx 
are occasionally found in some of the 
foreign sacristies, and first came into use 
in the seventeenth century. Such a pyx 
is preserved in a case of silk or velvet, 
and when used is often hung round the 
neck of the priest by a ribbon. 

PYX-CLOTH. A cloth of silk, satin, 
or cloth of gold, richly embroidered, in 
which the pyx was either wrapped, or which 
was sometimes placed over it as a veil. It is also called in ancient 


documents "pyx-kerchief," " pyx-veil/' and "pyx-cloth." Two 
ancient examples exist, which previously belonged to John, Earl 
of Shrewsbury, on each of which the Agnus Dei is embroidered. 


Lfe'i Qloaary. 


UADRAGESIMA. The fortieth. 1. Qua- 
dragesima Sunday is about the fortieth 
day before Easter. 2. A term often ap- 
plied to the whole season of Lent, because 
it is of forty days' duration. 


dress worn by the laity in Lent. Anciently 
this was always black. In many parts 
the custom still obtains. 

QUADRAGESIMALE. A series of sermons for Lent has 
had this term applied to them on several occasions ; in foreign 
countries, however, and not in England. 

QUADRAGESIMALS. Certain payments, sometimes volun- 
tary, but frequently such as could be legally demanded by custom, 
and recovered in the ecclesiastical courts whichi payments were 
made by daughter Churches to the mother Church on Mid-Lent 

QUADRANGLE. A square or court surrounded by build- 
ings. The buildings of monasteries were generally arranged in 
quadrangles ; as, for example, the cloisters. Colleges, likewise, 
and large houses were frequently erected upon the same plan. 

QUADRIGATA TERR^E. In Anglo-Saxon times a team of 
land, or as much ground as four horses could till. The term was 
also current in mediaeval times. 

. In the Middle Ages, a term for an indulgence 
or remission of penance. At one period these appear to have 
been sold to those able to pay for them. 

QU^ESTIONARIUS. 1. A disposer of the qusesta (See 
QD^STA). 2. Monks and other religious who were privileged 
to sell dispensations, as Matthew of Westminster has put on 

QUARANTANA. The Christian name for the desert which 
lies between Jericho and Bethel, not far from the river Jordan, 
in which our Blessed Saviour passed His fast of forty days. 
It is said to be a remarkably dreary and cheerless solitude, 


with great masses of rock rising out of barren land, and a high 
mountain towering in the midst of all. It is still spoken of as 
" the desert " to those who go towards it, as our Lord did, from 
the river Jordan. Particular caves in the rocks are pointed out 
as spots hallowed by our Saviour's presence. 

QUARANTE ORE. A Roman Catholic devotion, originated 
by St. Charles Borromeo, consisting of prayers throughout forty 
hours, in honour of the Blessed Sacrament, which is exposed 
for the veneration of the faithful during that period. 

QUARE IMPEDIT. A writ which lies where one hath an 
advowson, and the parson dies, and another presents a cleric, or 
disturbs the rightful patron to present ; in which case the writ 
commands the disturber to permit the plaintiff to present a proper 
cleric, or otherwise to appear in court, and show cause qnare 
it, why he hinders him. 

QUARE INCUMBRAVIT. A writ wliich lies where two 
are in plea for the advowson of a church, and the bishop admits 
the cleric of one of them within the appointed six months : then 
the other shall have this writ against the bishop, that he appear 
and show cause why Tie hath encumbered the church. And if it be 
found by verdict that the bishop has encumbered the church, 
after a ne admittas delivered to him, and within six months after 
the avoidance, damages are to be awarded to the plaintiff, and 
the bishop is directed to disencumber the church. 

QUARE NON ADMISIT. This is a writ which lies where 
a man hath recovered an advowson, and sends his cleric to the 
bishop to be admitted, and the bishop will not receive him ; then 
he shall have this said writ against the bishop, and may recover 
against him ample satisfaction in damages. 

QUARREL. 1. A diamond-shaped pane of glass, more com- 
monly styled a " quarry " or ' ' pane/' used in the windows of 
churches, religious houses, and private mansions. 2. This term 
is likewise applied to a small square or diamond-shaped brick, 
tile, or piece of marble used in paving. Scs PANE and QUARRY. 

QUARRY. A diamond-shaped piece of glass, with some 
monogram, motto, rebus, or device painted upon it. The word 
is probably derived from the French carre, a four-sided figure, 
although some maintain that it comes from quarrel (>jitadrellum, 
" a small square "). Quarries are said to be " flowered," when on 
each a flower is represented, or a floral device conventionally 

x 2 



treated. Some are found of a First-Pointed character, examples 
of which occur at Lincoln Cathedral, Stauton Harcourt, Oxford- 
shire, and Little Chigwell, Essex. These all contain an oak or 


other leaf very conventionally and boldly drawn. Fleurs-de-lys, 
single flowers, stars, floriated crosses, sprays of ivy, broom, lilies, 
roses, birds, beasts, monograms, mushrooms (as at Ockham 


Church, Surrey), inscriptions, short legends, and other devices, 
are very numerous. Quarries were largely used in churcli 
windows, as well as in those of religious houses. That repre- 
sented is from the old church of Tetsworth, Oxon. (.S'ec Illus- 

QUARTELA1S. The upper garments of knights, warriors, 
and sometimes of bishops, on which their armorial insignia were 
embroidered or painted. 

QUASIMODO SUNDAY. The first Sunday after Easter. 

QUATREFOIL. A square panel or piercing in the tracery of 
a window, divided by cusps or featherings into four equal divi- 
sions or leaves. Bands of small quatrefoils are very commonly 
used in the Third-Pointed style ; occasionally, too, in the Second. 
The term "quatrefoil" is not ancient; it is applied to a panel 
or piercing of any shape which is feathered into four leaves or 
lobes ; and sometimes to flowers and leaves of similar form, carved 
as ornaments on mouldings. 

QUATUOR NOVISSIMA. The four last things; viz., (1) 
Death, (2) Judgment, (3) Hell, and (4) Heaven. 

QUATUOR PERSON^. The four chief officers in a cathe- 
dral church; viz., (1) Dean, (2) Subdean, (3) Chancellor, (4) 
Treasurer. This term is also applied to the four chief clerics 
at a High Mass : (1) Priest-celebrant, (2) Deacon, (3) Sub- 
deacon, (4) Assistant Priest. 

QUATUOR TEMPORA. The four Ember seasons ; viz., the 
Wednesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, (1) next after the first 
Sunday in Lent ; (2) in Whitsun week ; (3) next after the 
14th of September (the feast of the Exaltation of the Holy 
Cross) ; and (4) next after the third Sunday of Advent. 

QUEEN ANNE'S BOUNTY.-A society set up through the 
munificence and justice of Queen Anne for the endowment and 
augmentation of small benefices, who restored the first-fruits and 
tenths (which had been taken by the Crown) for this express pur- 
pose. First-fruits were the value of every spiritual benefice by the 
year, which the Pope anciently reserved out of every living. 
These first-fruits, together with the tenths, were claimed by the 
Popes as due to themselves by divine right, a claim recognized 
and acknowledged in the reign of King Edward I. The Popes, 
sometimes finding it difficult to collect these, granted them to 
the King, who could more easily enforce payment. At the Re- 
formation, however, they were taken from the Pope and annexed 
to the Crown. By the Act 2 & o of Queen Anne, these reve- 


nues are appropriated to the augmentation of small livings, and 
from thence have received the name of Queen Anne's Bounty. 

QUEEN-DAY. The feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. 

QUEEN OF HEAVEN. A scriptural term to designate 
Mary, the Mother of God (Psalm xlv. 10). 

QUEEN OP FESTIVALS. A term for Easter Sunday. 

QUEEN-POST. A term for an upright beam in a roof or 
in a timber house. 


QUESTMAN. One who is legally empowered to make quest 
or search for anything : hence, one who searches for that which 
pertains to the custody of the churchwardens of a parish ; a 
churchwarden's coadjutor or assistant. 

QUICUNQUE VULT. The first words of the Latin version 
of that creed which is commonly called " the Creed of St. 

QUILLETS. A term used to designate a payment made in 
mediaeval times as a composition for corn-rents. 

QUINISEXT COUNCIL. A council held by order of Jus- 
tiniaii II. at Constantinople, in a tower of the palace called Trullus, 
A.D. 692, to supplement the fifth and sixth general councils. It 
was called Quiuisextum because the Greeks considered its decrees 
as necessary to the completion of the acts of the fifth and sixth 
councils. In this council the Greeks made various enactments 
respecting religious rites and forms of worship, in which there 
were several deviations from the Roman usage. The council 
passed one hundred and two canons. The Roman Church does 
not reckon it amongst the general councils. 

QUINQUAGESIMA. The Sunday before Lent, being that 
Sunday which occurs on or about fifty days before Easter. 


QUIRK. A term to designate a moulding, or part of a mould- 
ing, in which a convex curve meets the soffit that carries it. 

QUISSHION. 1. A cushion. 2. In the ancient Church of 
England it seems to have been the universal custom to have a 
cushion on the altar for the Missal, a custom represented in 
illuminations, and still continued in many places. 



QU1TTIDE. A medieval term to signify the period at which 
tenancies expired. Some authorities consider that Quittide is 
Whitsuntide ; " quite " and " white " being held to be synony- 
mous. Others maintain that Michaelmas-day is Quittide, and 
the Sunday after Michaelmas-day " Quit-Sunday," because in 
some places they are still so called. 


the defendant to permit the plaintiff to abate the nuisance com- 
plained of, quod perm/ittat prosier nere, or otherwise to appear in 
court and show cause why he refuses. On this writ the plaintiff 
shall have judgment to abate the nuisance, and to recover 
damages ; but the proceedings on this writ being tedious and 
expensive, it is now disused, and has given way to a special 
action on the case. 

QUOIN. 1. The external angle of a building. In mediaeval 
architecture, when the walls were constructed of flint or rough 
stone-work, the quoins are most commonly ashlar : brick build- 
ings, likewise, have similar quoins. Occasionally they are plastered, 
in imitation of stone- work, as at Eastbury House, Essex. 2. 
The stones of which the quoins are built are sometimes themselves 
termed " quoins "; and (3) the word is not uncommonly applied, 
likewise, to any vertical angular projections on the face of a wall 
for ornament. 

QUOTIDIAN. Occurring or returning daily ; hence, in eccle- 
siastical language, (1) both a cleric or church officer who does daily 
duty, and (2) the payment given him for doing it. The word is 
anciently found bearing both these meanings. 




RAB AS. The French term for a pair 
of bands, or for a falling collar. 


RABBIN. A title assumed by the 
Jewish teachers, signifying " Lord " or 
" Teacher." 

RABBINIST. Amongst the Jews, one who adhered to the 
Talmud and to the tradition of the Rabbins. 

PABAO2 ( r Paj3Soe). The Greek term for a pastoral staff. 

RADDOCK. An old English term for the redbreast. An- 
cient tradition taught that one of these birds obtained its red 
breast from having drawn a thorn of the Crown out of the fore- 
head of our Blessed Lord when He was dying on the Cross ; and 
that all birds of the same kind have been ever afterwards so 

RAFT. A term sometimes applied in mediaeval works to the 
timbers which supported the rood and its accompanying figures 
over a rood-loft. 

RAFTERS. Parallel timbers so placed as to support tho 
planks which form the roof of a church or building. 

RAINES. An English mediaeval term for linen or lawn of 

PAKO2 ('Pajcoc). A Greek term signifying the threadbare 
garment of a monk. 

RAMADAN. The great annual fast or Lenl of the followers 
of Mahomet, kept through their ninth month, which is so called. 

PANTIZEIN ('Pavn'&tv). A Greek term signifying to 
sprinkle with Holy water. 

RASKOLNICKS. The name given to the largest and most 
important body of dissenters from the Greek Church in Russia. 


RASTRUM. An English mediaeval term to designate a 
herse. See CATAFALQUE and HERSE. 


RATHOFFITE. A. species of garnet brought from Sweden, 
not uncommonly used in the ornamentation of sacred vessels. 

RATIONAL. An ornament of gold, precious metal, or some- 
times of embroidery, worn over the chasuble by bishops, boiTowed 
from the breastplate of the Jewish high-priest; also called a 
" pectoral." See PECTORAL. 

RATIONALE. 1. A detail with reasons ; a series of reasons 
assigned. 2. An account of the principles of some opinion, 
action, phenomenon, or hypothesis. 

RATIONALISM. The principles of a Rationalist ,SW RA- 

RATIONALIST. One who considers the supernatural events 
recorded in Holy Scripture as having happened in the ordinary 
course of nature, but described by the writers, without any real 
ground, as supernatural ; and who subjects the dogmas and morals 
of Scripture to the test of unlicensed human reason. 

RATIONALISTIC. Belonging or pertaining to Rationalism, 
or a Rationalist. 


RATTLE. An instrument used in mediaeval times at certain 
seasons for summoning the faithful to church when the bells 
were silent; e.g. in Passion and Holy weeks. The same kind 
of instrument is still used in France. 

RAVYELL. The mediaeval term for a long cloak of black 
serge worn by female mourners who went to the grave with a 

READ (TO). 1. To utter or pronounce written words. '1. 
"To read service" is a technical English term for saying the 
Divine office in church, according to the rites and rules of the 
Established Church. 

READER, OR LECTOR. One who reads ; particularly one 
whose official duty it is to read publicly in a church. That eccle- 
siastical office ranking immediately below that of the subdeacon, 
to which fit persons are solemnly appointed. St. Cyprian refers 
to their public ordination in his time, as if it had been long 
customary. For a few years after the Reformation they were 


appointed and ordained ; but since then the practice has become 
extinct in England. Archbishop Longley recently restored it. 

READERSHIP. The office of reading prayers in a church. 
Such appointments, filled by clerks in holy orders, are made to 
certain churches where endowments exist, with the view of thus 
specially providing assistance for the rector or vicar. These 
offices are usually held for life. 

READING-DESK OR PEW. 1. A chancel stall, from which 
anciently Divine Service in the Church of England was inva- 
riably said by the clerks and clergy. 2. After the Reformation 
boxes were erected of some height and size, into which the mi- 
nister placed himself before reading prayers. Since the Catholic 
revival in England, reading-pews of a large, lofty, and extensive 
size have been generally abolished, having given place to the 
more ancient and fitting chancel- stall. 

READING-IN (THE ACT OF). The first formal saying or 
singing of Divine Service by a newly-instituted or inducted 
beneficed clerk, an act which it is essential he should perform 
in the presence of a competent witness to seal and secure the 
reality and efficacy of the act of induction of institution. 

READING-STALL. The priest's stall in a choir or chancel. 

REBUS. An old and quaint mode of expressing words or 
phrases by pictures of objects whose names bear a resemblance 
to the words or to the syllables of which the words are com- 
posed. Thus an eye and a ton, or barrel, represent the family 
name Eyton. The accompanying woodcut represents a piece of 
fifteenth-century glass, originally in Westlingtoii House, near 
Aylesbury, but now in the author's possession. The rebus repre- 
sented by the letter R, a park, and the word HVRST below, 
stands for " Richard Parkhurst." This family, which belonged 
originally to Surrey, is of considerable antiquity. John Park- 
hurst, Bishop of Norwich in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was 
a member of it. The representation of this rebus is at once 
artistic and interesting, and serves to show that the fifteenth- 
century, artists in glass were neither devoid of taste nor quaint 
ability. (See Illustration, next page.) 

RECANTATION. The act of recalling. A retraction : henct?, 
in ecclesiastical phraseology, the act of retracting or recanting 
theological errors. A formal recantation was made in the pre- 
sence of the bishop or ordinary of the diocese, and signed in the 
presence of witnesses by the person recanting. 


RECANTED. 1. Recalled. 2. Retracted. 


RECAST. 1. To cast again. 2. To mould anew: hence, 
(o) to cover with plaster an old building. This term is fre- 
quently found in church, cathedral, and churchwardens' 


RECENSION (Latin recet'o).l. Review. 2. Enumeration. 
3. Examination. 

RECEPTION. The act of receiving, as applied to any sacra- 
ment; but more especially to the Holy Eucharist. 


RECEPTORIUM. The guest-cliamber or parlour of a r-eli- 
gious house. 

RECESS. 1. A niche. 2. A tabernacle. 3. An auiubrey. 
4. An Easter sepulchre. 

RECIPIENT. 1. A receiver: hence, (2) technically, a com. 

RECLUSE. 1. Any person who lives in retirement or seclu- 
sion from the world, as a hermit or monk. 2. One of a class of 
religious devotees who live in single cells, commonly and ordi- 
narily attached to monasteries. 

RECLUSE (TO). To shut up. 
RECLUSELY. In retirement. 

RECOLLECT. The technical term for a nioiik of a reformed 
order of Franciscans. 

RECOMMENDATORY. That which commends to another. 


RECONCILIATION. 1. The act of reconciling. 2. Propi- 
tiation. 3. Atonement. 

by a bishop, as in the case of consecration, for restoring to 
sacred uses a church which has been profaned either by murder 
or adultery committed in the same. 

restoring to communion one who has lapsed into Paganism, heresy, 
schism, or unbelief, by a formal adt of open contrition on the part 
of the penitent, and by the use of absolution on the part of the 
bishop, or priest delegated by the bishop. 

RE-CONSECRATE. To consecrate a second time, or anew. 
RE-CONSECRATING. Consecrating again. 
RE-CONSECRATION. A renewed consecration. 

crating a church anew. This act is legally necessary and essential 
when the walls of the choir of the church have been removed so 
as to take in more space, or when the position of the altar has 
been changed; also where the sanctuary and altar have been 
violated by murder or adultery. For, as the canonists declare, 


"If the fabric of a church becomes wholly ruinous, and is rebuilt 
from the foundation, it ought to be reconsecrated ; but if the walls 
by degrees decay, and are gradually repaired, it ought not. Or 
if a church be enlarged either in length, breadth, or height, it 
ought not to be reconsecrated, unless the sanctuary containing the 
high altar be lengthened, because the part already holy sanctifies 
that which is annexed to it. Churches once consecrated ought 
never to be re-consecrated unless they have altogether decayed, 
or been consumed by fire, or been desecrated by the spilling of 
blood, or by the commission of fornication or adultery, because 
as an infant who has once been baptized ought never again to be 
baptized, so, as the most renowned canonists declare, ought it 
to be with churches. These are the leading principles to be con- 
sidered in the re-consecration of a church." 

RECORD. 1. A register. 2. An authentic memorial. 
RECORDATION. Remembrance. 

RE-CREATION. 1. Forming anew. 2. Regeneration. 3. 
Giving new life. 4. The act of Christian baptism. 

RECTOR. 1. The parish priest, pastor, parson, or incum- 
bent of a parish who possesses and receives the great tithes. 2. 
The head of a college, seminary, school, or religious society. 

RECTOR CHORI. One who rules, governs, or directs the 
choir of a church. In our ancient cathedrals they were often 
persons of dignity, and on great occasions were seldom less than 
four in number. They stood at the antiphon-lectern, facing 
eastwards, bearing staves of office to beat time, and moved, as 
necessity arose, from that position to their own seats and fald- 
stools. At Lincoln Minster a slab remains in the chancel pave- 
ment marked " Cantate Hie." 

RECTOR (LAY). A layman who possesses and receives the 
great tithes of a parish. 

RECTORES CHORI. Under the chief Rector Ghori were 
others, commonly in cathedrals and large churches four in number, 
to superintend the singing. While the former stood at the anti- 
phon-lectern, which faced the altar, the other " rectors " were 
placed, two on each side, in alb and cope, and with staff of office, 
to walk to and fro from their seats to the lectern. The rule as 
to their duties varied in different cathedrals. On great festivals 
the inferior dignitaries not unfrequently became rulers of the 
choir ; generally, however, they were minor canons, and some- 
times subdeacons, who specially devoted their attention to the 


RECUSANT (Latin, recusant). One who refuses: hence, a 
term employed in the early part of the seventeenth century to 
designate those clergy and laity who declined either to approve 
of the religious changes effected by the Reformation ; to acknow- 
ledge what was called " the Supremacy of the Crown in questions 
Ecclesiastical " ; to conform to the rites of the Reformed Church 
of England ; or to attend her public services. 

REDDENDUM. In law, that clause of a lease by which rent 
is reserved. 

REDEEMER. One who redeems or ransoms: hence, our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

REDEEMING. 1. Ransoming. 2. Procuring deliverance 
from captivity. 

REDEMPTION (Italian, redfimzione ; Latin, redemptio). 1. 
The act of procuring deliverance. 2. Ransom. 3. Release. 4. 
The ransom or deliverance of sinners from the bondage of sin 
and the penalties of God's violated law by the atonement of 

An order founded in the Middle Ages for the deliverance of 
Christian slaves detained in captivity by the barbarians, and 
also to enter into servitude for the redeeming of Christians. It 
was first' founded by Peter, king of Arragon, in conjunction 
with Raymond de Rochfort, and many Popes bestowed high 
dignities and privileges on the order. 

REDEMPTIVE. Pertaining to redemption. 

REDEMPTORISTS. A congregation founded at Naples in 
the eighteenth century by St. Alphonsus Liguori, in honour of 
our Most Holy Redeemer : hence so called. 

REDEMPTOR MUNDL Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
True God and True Man. 

REDEMPTORY. Paid for ransom. 

RED-LETTER DAYS. 1. Those days which are marked in 
the kalendar of the Book of Common Prayer in red letters : 
hence, the chief festivals of the Christian Church, which are 
retained in, and ordered to be publicly observed by, the Church 
of England. 2. A term used to designate fortunate or auspicious 


REFECTION (Latin, refectio). A monastic term fora spare 
meal ; a refreshment. 

REFECTIONARIUS. That monastic or collegiate officer 
whose particular duty it is to provide food for the members of 
his community or society. The person who superintends the 
preparation of the refections in such institutions. 

REFECTION CLERK. The clerk who reads during the 
meals of religious. 

REFECTION HOUR. Noontide; i.e. twelve of the clock. 

REFECTION SONG-. A hymn or prose sung either before 
or after meals. This custom is retained in some of the colleges 
at Oxford even to the present day. 

REFECTION SUNDAY. Refection is a refreshment ; hence 
Refection Sunday is Refreshment or Mid-Lent Sunday, because 
on that day more food than usual, and that of a more palatable 
character, is customarily allowed to the faithful. 

REFECTIVE. 1 . Refreshing. 2. Restoring. 

REFECTORY (French, refectolre) . 1 . A room for refresh- 
inent. 2. The dining-hall of a monastery. 

REFECTORY - BOOK. That volume which, in religious 
houses, is read by the reader during meals. 

REFECTORY-CLERK. The reader at a refection, or meal, in 
a religious house. 

REFERENDARY. An officer of the royal court who deli- 
vered the formal answer of the monarch to petitions which had 
been presented to him. 

REFERMENT. Reference for decision. 

REFORMATIO LEGUM. The title of a book of rules and 
canons modelled on the ancient canon law of the Church, which 
was drawn up at the period of the Reformation for the removal 
of abuses, but was never sanctioned either by Convocation or 
Parliament. It is said to have been mainly compiled and arranged 
by Archbishop Cranmer. 

REFORMATION. 1. Amendment. 2. Correction. 3. Rec- 
tification. A term used to designate the changes in religion 
effected in several countries during the sixteenth century. 


REFRESHMENT. That which gives strength or vigour, 
as food. 


REGAL. 1. A hand-organ. 2. A musical instrument played 
by the fingers being moved about upon the keys. 

REGALIA. The ensigns of royalty; e.g., crown, tunic, san- 
dals, stole, spurs, buskins, ring, sceptre, orb, robe of purple 
ermined, and sword of state. 

REGALIA OF A CHURCH. The privileges granted by 
kings ; frequently a term to designate its patrimony. 

REGALITY. 1. Kingship. 2. Royalty. 3. Sovereignty. 

REGENERATE (TO). 1. To produce anew. 2. To change 
a nature by Divine operation. 

REGENERATED. 1. Born again. 2. Renewed. 3. Repro- 
duced. 4. Renovated. 

REGENERATION. 1. Reproduction. 2. A new birth 
effected by Divine operation. 

The Sacrament of Holy Baptism. 3. Any vessel from which 
Christian baptism is administered. 

ment of Holy Baptism. 

REGISTER. A written account of acts, judgments, or pro- 
ceedings for preserving and conveying to future times an exact 
knowledge of transactions. 

REGISTER (TO). To record. 

REGISTER-BOOK. The book in which a record or register- 
roll is kept ; as a diocesan register, an episcopal register, a church 
register, a parish register. In every parish a register-book is to 
be kept, wherein the births, marriages, and burials in such parish 
are to be recorded. This was first enjoined A.D. 1537, and again 
enforced by the 26 George II. c. 33. 

REGISTRAR (Latin, registrarius) . A secretary or recorder. 
An office of a diocese, church, college, seminary, or university, 
who has the keeping of those documents, archives, registers, or 
records pertaining respectively to the afore-mentioned societies. 

REGISTRARSHIP. The office of registrar. 
REGISTRATION. The act of registering. 

REGIUS PROFESSOR. A name given to the holders of 
those professorships in our two ancient English universities 
which have been founded by royal bounty. 

REGNUM. A mediaeval term for the tiara or 
triple crown of the Popes. At first this was a tall, 
round, cone-like cap or crown topped with a ball, 
and with a coronet round its lower portion. An 
example of this is provided in the accompanying 
illustration, which is taken from an early German 
MS. This crown symbolized the spiritual power 
and jurisdiction of the See of St. Peter. A 
second coronet, signifying temporal jurisdiction, 
was added by Boniface VIII. (Caietau), and a 
third, indicating universal empire, by Benedict 
XII., who had been a Cistercian monk. See REGNUM OK TIARA 
TIARA. (*^ *<>*) 

REGULA. The term for the book of rules or regulations, 
orders, decrees, customs, and statutes in a religious house. 
Regulars were so called because they lived under certain rules. 

REGULAR. A member of any religious order who has taken 
the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, and who has been 
solemnly admitted by authority to the office he holds, living by 
rule, and recognized by the Church. 

REGULAR CANONS. Monks who lived and laboured in a 
town or city, first under the ordinary authority of the bishop, 
and eventually, independent of the bishop, under the chief of 
their own order, and afterwards under the protection of the 
Pope. The earliest regular canons were those of St. Augus- 
tine of Hippo, founded about A.D. 394, under Pope St. 
Siricius, the great enemy of the Novatians, Donatists, and 
Manichees. Their habit was black, with a white cincture folded 
and fastened on the breast. At a later date they became 
cloistered. Then followed the canons of St. John Lateran, 
founded by St. Gelasius, A.D. 492 49G, remarkable as being the 
compiler of the Sacramentary bearing his name. The habit of 
this order was a white alb or rochet, over a long robe or cassock. 
No new order of regular canons was set up until the close of 
the eleventh century, when, under the Benedictine Pope, Urban 
II. (A.D. 1008, 1009), the canons of St. Anthony were formed 
in the diocese of Vienne. Their habit was black, with the Tau 

Lee'i Glonary. Y 


cross, the sign or symbol of their patron saint, marked in blue 
on their left breast. Twenty years later, the canons of the Holy 
Sepulchre at Jerusalem were founded by Godfrey de Bouillon. 
Pope Paschal II. (Rainieri) approved of this order, and blessed 
it. The habit adopted was a black cloak, with a white shield on 
the left side, charged with a large red cross, surrounded by four 
smaller ones of the same pattern' and shape. The canons of St. 
Victor were founded in the early part of the twelfth century, in 
France. Those of the Holy Cross of Coimbra were set up 
A.D. 1132, under the patronage of Pope Innocent II. (Gregory 
de Passis). They wore a white habit, with a hooded mozetta or 
tippet of black. The canons regular of St. Genevieve at Paris 
were founded under Pope Eugenius III., who was a disciple of 
St. Bernard, and was previously abbot of St. Anastasius at Rome. 
Their habit is likewise white, with a sleeveless rochet and furred 
almutium. The Premonstatensians were founded in France, by 
St. Norbert, under Pope Calixtus II. They take their name 
from the place where they were set up, Premontre. Their habit 
was entirely white. The Gilbertines were founded in England, 
by St. Gilbert of Sempringham, under the sanction of Pope 
Eugenius III., A.D. 1148. Their habit, of white, with a furred 
cloak or long tippet, was well known in England, where they 
were very much respected and loved for their devotion, sanctity, 
and labours. The distinction between canons regular and secular 
was no doubt finally drawn in the eleventh century, when regular 
canons followed a rule common to all, while secular canons had 
their special revenues and private dwelling-places. After this, 
those who did not retain the common life and abide by the three 
rules of St. Augustine, were termed secular canons. Practice, 
however, differed greatly in different countries, and no unvary- 
ing principle seems to have been adopted for any length of time 
in any place. 

REGULAR CLERKS. Confraternities of priests, bound 
together by rule, mainly founded to assist, by working independ- 
ently, the ordinary priests of a parish, district, or diocese. They 
are mainly : Theatines, founded at Rome in 1525; Barnabites, 
founded at Milan in 1533; Jesuits, founded at Paris in 1534; 
Oratorians, founded at Rome in 1564 ; Lazarites, founded in 
1624, by St. Vincent de Paul ; and Redemptorists, by St. 
Alphonsus Liguori. 

REGULAR PARLOR. The withdrawing-room of a religious 

REGULAR PRIESTS. Priests living under a rule of life, 


over and above, in strictness, that by which they are bound 
through their ordination vows. 

RELIC-BEAM. The beam on which reliquaries are placed in 
a church. 

RELIC- HOURS. Those devotions used during the formal 
solemn exposition of relics. 

RELIC-LAMP. A lamp burning before relics. 

RELIC-SONG. A hymn in honour of the translation of the 
relics of a saint. 

RELIC SUNDAY. The Sunday after St. Michael's day. 

RELIEVO (Italian). 1. Relief. 2. The prominence of figures 
in statuary and architecture. 3. The apparent prominence of 
figures in painting. 

RELIGIOUS (Latin, religiosus). 1. Pertaining or relating to 
religion. 2. Loving and reverencing Almighty God the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost ; and obeying the precepts of Divine revela- 
tion through the influence, and by the means of, Divine grace. 
3. A technical term for men and women bound for life by the 
vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. 

RELIQUARY (French, reliyuaire). A small box, casket, or 
chest in which relics are preserved. It is not easy to say when 
their use was first adopted in the Church ; but it was evidently 
at a very early period, if not, as some people believe, in the days 
of 'the Apostles themselves. The handkerchiefs and aprons, of 
which an account is given in the record of St. Peter's miracles, 
in the Acts of the Apostles, lead to the conclusion that such were 
preserved, as well because of their miraculous powers, as for the 
belief in the same of those who preserved them. In mediaeval 
times Christian churches were very rich in relics, and by conse- 
quence, of reliquaries. These latter were made in various forms ; 
e.g., of a cross, a lantern, a monstrance, a tower or [spire, a 
covered chalice, a coffer, an image, or a shrine. The splendid 
specimen of a reliquary in the form of a cross, in the accompany- 
ing woodcut, is from the late Mr. Pugin's able pencil. Not un- 
frequently they were of the form and shape of that portion of 
the saint's body enclosed within them ; e.g., a head, an arm, or a 
hand. Sometimes the reliquary consisted of a figure of the saint, 
of whom a relic was preserved, in which figure there was a recess 
made in the body, over which a piece of crystal was placed, in 

y 2 



order that thefaith- 
ful might be ena- 
bled to see the relic 
for veneration at 
certain times. The 
most popular form 
was that of a rec- 
tangular shrine, 
gabled like the roof 
of a church, with 
finials, crockets, and 
pinnacles. The 
shrine itself was 
commonly made of 
woodj covered with 
plates of precious 
metals, richly em- 
bossed, engraven, 
enamelled, or jewel- 
led. These shrines 
were carried in pro- 
cession by means 
of rings and staves, 
like the ark of the 
elder dispensation. 
The decrees of 
Spanish councils, 
as early as the sixth 
century, refer to 
this custom ; and 
it appears certain 
that at Rogation- 
tide the practice of 
so carrying shrines 
had obtained in 
England in the 
early part of the 
eighth century. 
Reliquaries belong- 
ing to a church 
were commonly 
placed on a ledge, 
beam, or shelf, con- 
siderably elevated, 
behind the high 
altar ; but on special 



occasions were brought forward, for the veneration of the faith- 
ful, to the rood-beam or to the front of the rood-screen, or 
else were solemnly borne in procession. In some cathedrals, as 
for example at Canterbury, Ely, and Exeter, there were special 
chambers for the reception of relics and reliquaries, all carefully 
guarded and protected, on account of their value. Private and 
personal reliquaries were almost universally obtained and used 
by Christians in all past ages, since the days of the Apostles. 
Bishops, long before the adoption of the Pectoral Cross, woro 
reliquaries of a cross-like form. Eddius, in his Life of 67. 
Wilfrid, mentions that Queen Ermenburga wore the reliquary of 
St. Wilfrid with great veneration. St. Willebord likewise wore 
a reliquary. The custom became so general, that in the time of 
Bishop Lacey, of Exeter (A.D. 1350), there is "Modus induendi 



episcopum ad solemniter celebrandum," according to which 
" Induat [Episcopus] amictum, albam et stolam et reliquias circa 
collum." (Liber Pontificals E,con.) There are two examples of 
such reliquaries given in the accompanying woodcuts, one of 
medigeval times, from the South Kensington Museum ; and a 
second, of the present day, after a mediaeval type, made for the 
author. (See Illustrations, Figs. 1, 2, and 3.) 

RELIQUE, OR RELIC. 1. That which remains, or is left be- 
hind, after the decay or loss of the rest. 2. The body or remains 
of a deceased person, especially of a Christian saint. Christian 
relics are divided into two classes, primary or secondary. Pri- 
mary relics are those which are a part of any particular saint. 
Secondary relics are those things which the saint has used, worn, 
or touched; e.g., his clothes, the instruments of his martyrdom 


(if a martyr), his books, sacred vessels, &c. St. Gregory the 
Great sent to St. Augustine, our Apostle, the relics of a saint, 
which were placed under the altar of a new church, a custom 
long followed and observed in England. 

REMINISCERE SUNDAY. The second Sunday in Lent, 
so called because the " Office " in the Sarum Mass anciently stood 
as follows : " Reminiscere miserationum tuarum, Domine, et 
misericordise tua3 quae a seculo sunt : ne unquani dominentur 
uobis inimici nostri, libera nos, Deus Israel, ex omnibus angustiis 

REMISSION THURSDAY. A term used to designate 

REMIT (TO) (Latin, remitto).!. To lessen in intensity. 2. 
To release. 3. To restore. 

RENEWAL SUNDAY. A popular name for the second 
Sunday after Easter, so called because of the post-communion 
of the Mass, according to the Sarum rite, anciently used on 
that day. , 

RENUNCIATION (Latin, renuudatio) .1 . The act of re- 
nouncing. 2. Abjuration. 3. Rejection. 4. Abandonment. 

service for Holy Baptism, as used in the Church of England, in 
which the candidate, either in person or by his sureties, renounces 
the world, the flesh, and the devil. 

REPOSITORIUM. An ancient term for a tabernacle for the 
Eucharist. See TABERNACLE. 

REPROACHES (THE). A selection of solemn anthems 
chanted on Good Friday, in lieu of the Introit. They are chiefly 
taken from the remarkable Messianic prophecies of the Jewish 
Keer Micah, intermingled with an ancient form of the Kyrie 
Eleison, common in the Greek Church. They set forth, plain- 
tively and forcibly, the ingratitude of the Jews in having rejected 
and crucified our Blessed Lord ; and likewise that of those Chris- 
tians who, by their deliberate sins, crucify Him afresh. 


REQUIEM. An office for the repose of a Christian soul, 
departed in the faith and fear of God. 

REQUIEM MASS. A Mass offered for the repose of a 
Christian soul departed in the faith and fear of God. 


REREDOS (Latin, Posticum, Retrotalukirium, Rctroalture, 
Postaltare). The wall or screen at the back of an altar. In 
village churches these were commonly recessed stone panels sur- 
rounded by sculptured ballflowers, conventional marygolds, and 
other devices ; but in large churches and cathedrals they were 
of a most ornate character, enriched with a mass of most intri- 
cate and beautiful tabernacle-work, with crockets, buttresses, 
niches, statues, pinnacles, and other adornments. Many of these 
extended across the whole east end of the church, and were 
sometimes carried up to the ceiling, as at St. Alban's Abbey ; 
St. Saviour's, Southwark ; St. Mary Magdalene College, Oxford ; 
Gloucester Cathedral ; Ludlow, &c. In large parishes they were 
also of great magnificence and dignity. At Bampton, Oxon, the 
reredos, containing images of our Blessed Lord and His Apostles, 
still remains in a perfect state. At St. Thomas's, Salisbury, another 
exists equally perfect. There is a most elaborate reredos of carved 
wood in the north chapel of the church of Pocklington, York- 
shire, and a third of stone at Enstone, in Oxfordshire. At St. 
Michael's, in Oxford, an ancient reredos likewise exists. Some- 
times, in lieu of the reredos, a dossal of rich. silk or hanging was 
used, and the altar was enclosed at the north and south ends by 
curtains of the same materials hanging on rods. The destruc- 
tion of the ancient altars at the Reformation led likewise to the 
destruction of the reredos. Both these, however, were restored 
in the revival under the great Archbishop Laud. Since the more 
recent Catholic revival in the Church of England, reredoses have 
been very generally erected, some of a most sumptuous character. 
Of these, those at Ely, Hereford, and Lichfield Cathedral, are 
very remarkable. In parish churches, the reredoses of Hallow 
and Madresfield, Worcestershire ; of All Saints', Margaret-street, 
London ; of St. Michael's, Shoreditch, and of All Saints', Lam- 
beth, are exceedingly grand and rich. 

RESCRIPT (Latin, rcscriptum). Anciently, the answer of 
the Roman emperor, when consulted by particular persons on 
some difficult question; which answer had, to all intenta and 
purposes, the force of an edict. 

RESCRIPT (PAPAL). An answer delivered iii writing by 
the Bishop of Rome on some question of canon law, doctrine, 
or morals. 

RESERVATION (Latin, reserco). The act of reserving, 
keeping, or concealing. 


The careful reserving of the Blessed Sacrament under the form 


of bread, (1) for the worship of the faithful, and (2) for the com- 
munion of the absent and sick. It seems to be uncertain when 
this pious custom first came into general use. Locally, it seems 
to have been observed from the earliest ages of the Church. The 
most ancient reason for reservation was that the Sacrament might 
be given as a viaticum to the sick. In the times of persecution, 
ancient authorities tell us that the faithful were likewise permitted 
to take It to their own houses. This was more particularly the 
case in times of great trial and suffering, when attendance at the 
Christian Sacrifice was almost impossible, except to the very few. 
Some writers affirm that It was reserved in order to be buried 
with the faithful departed ; but this, again, is doubted by many 
writers, and disputed by not a few. It appears to have been 
reserved with the special object of carrying It in procession at 
times when the Hand of God was heavy on the Church, and in 
order to ask pardon and forgiveness from Him. About the 
fifteenth century though the custom had been current in cer- 
tain dioceses of South Italy, Venice, Spain, and France, in some 
of which the devotion had become veiy popular, the Blessed 
Sacrament appears to have been reserved in a ciborium, ark, or 
tabernacle, in order that the faithful might render It worship. 
The Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament did not come into 
general use in the Roman Catholic Church until the early part of 
the seventeenth century ; while in some parts of that communion 
it does not appear to have been practised for several generations 
afterwards. Reservation of the Blessed Sacrament in private 
houses was the most ancient custom ; but this seems to have 
been forbidden, first by local councils, and afterwards by the 
general custom and practice of the Church. In England It was 
reserved either in a dove before the altar suspended from a beam, 
in a tower of metal-work placed over and behind the altar, or 
else in an aumbrey or tabernacle in the wall of the choir-sanc- 
tuary. This tabernacle was commonly on the north side of the 
altar, but sometimes behind it. Reservation is now very uni- 
versally practised by the Roman Catholics both of England and 
Ireland. In the Church of England reservation has been for- 
bidden in parish churches since the Reformation. In the chapels 
of religious houses for women our bishops appear to have allowed 
it for purposes of worship, as some likewise have done in order 
that the dying should be communicated in times of great sick- 
ness. Some persons have petitioned Convocation to obtain the 
restoration of reservation. The need of such an improvement is 
great and pressing. See COLUMBA, DOVE, and TABERNACLE. 

RESIDENCE. The act of abiding or dwelling in a place for 
some continuance of time. 


RESIDENCE ON A BENEFICE. Personal residence is 
required of ecclesiastical persons upon their cures. By a statute 
of Queen Elizabeth it is decreed, that if any beneficed clergyman 
be absent from his cure for more than fourscore days in one year, 
he shall not only forfeit one year's profit of his benefice, to be dis- 
tributed amongst the poor of his parish, but all leases, covenants, 
and agreements made by him shall cease and be void, except in 
the case of licensed pluralists. 

RESIGNATION. The act of resigning or giving up. 

RESIGNATION OF A BENEFICE. This takes place when 
a parson, vicar, or other beneficed clei'gyman, voluntarily gives 
up and surrenders his charge and preferment to those from whom 
he hath received it. Resignation is of no avail until accepted by 
the ordinary ; and therefore all presentations made to benefices 
resigned, before such acceptance has taken place, are void. 

RESPOND (A). A technical term for a short anthem, chanted 
by a choir at intervals during the reading of a capitulum or chapter. 

RESPOND (TO) (Latin, respondere). 1. To give an answer. 

2. To reply. 3. To rejoin. 4. To make the responses or an- 
swers in a Church Service. 5. To serve at Mass. 

RESPONSAL. A sixteenth-century term for a respond. 

RESPONSE (Latin, vesponsum). 1. An answer, particularly 
an oracular answer ; hence, (2) and more especially the answer 
of a congregation to the priest or celebrant in Divine Service. 

3. A kind of anthem or antiphon sung after certain lessons in 
the service of the Church, and some other liturgical offices. 

RESPONSION. The act of answering or replying to ques- 

RESPONSION S. A term used in the University of Oxford 
for the first university examination of those in statu pu pillar I. 

RESPONSIVE. 1. Answering. 2. Making reply. 

RESPONSORIES. 1. Answers of the people to the priest 
in Divine Service. 2. Versicles chanted by the choir and faith- 
ful in answer to the previous versicle which has been chanted 
solely by the priest. 

RESPONSORY. 1. A response. 2. A respond. 3. An 

RES S AUNT. An old English term for an ogee moulding. 


RESTITUTION. !. The act of restoring to a person any 
thing or right of which he has been irregularly or unjustly 
deprived. 2. The restoring to the Crown rights which have 
been either informally given away, or have through negligence 
lapsed. 3. Restitution is effected by duly restoring a specific 
thing given away or lost. 

RESURRECTION (Latin, resurrectio).~l. A rising again'; 
(2) more especially the revival of the dead of the human race on 
their return from the grave, particularly at the last or general 

RESURRECTION-FLAG. A streamer or pennon of white, 
charged with a red cross, and attached to a spear. In repre- 
sentations of our Lord's rising from the dead, He is commonly 
depicted bestowing a benediction with His right hand, and hold- 
ing such a flag or pennon emblem of His triumph over death 
in His left. 

RESURRECTIONIST. One whose very unpleasant and 
sacrilegious business it is to steal bodies from the grave. 

RESURRECTION-MASS. The first Mass on Easter-day. 

RE-TABLE. The ledge or shelf behind the holy table or 
altar in an Anglican church. As descriptive of this ledge, the 
term in question is, comparatively speaking, modern, not being 
often found either in ancient documents in general, or in church 
inventories or churchwardens' Accounts and Records in particular. 

RETICULATED WORK. An architectural term descriptive 
of a certain kind of masonry in which diamond- shaped or square 
stones are constructionally placed in a diagonal position. This 
term is derived from the Latin reticulatus, from retc, a net. 

PHTfiP ('P/',/>). A Greek term for a preacher. 

RETREAT. 1. The act of retiring; a withdrawal of oneseii 
from any place ; (2) hence the technical term for a period 'of 
retirement, chosen with a view to religious self-examination, 
meditation, and special prayer. Religious " retreats " last com- 
monly either for three or seven days, during which specific reli- 
gious exercises of a personal and private nature are conjoined 
with public devotions. 




RETRO-CHOIR. 1. That portion of a choir which is found 
between the east side of an altar standing in the chord of an 
apse, or away from the east wall, and the east wall itself. 2. It 
is occasionally given to the Lady-chapel behind a cathedral choir ; 
and (3) also to a series of chapels sometimes existing immediately 
behind the high altar of a cathedral or collegiate church. 4. In 
some mediaeval writers the ambulatory behind or at the east end 
of a choir is called the retro-choir. 


RETURN. In architecture, a term used to designate the end 
or termination of a hood-moulding ; frequently a device carved 
in stone, representing leaves, flowers, fruits, and sometimes 
heraldic figures, or heads of bishops and princes. 

RETURN-STALL. Any stall in a cathedral, collegiate or 
parish church or chapel, which, standing at right angles with the 
ordinary stalls, facing respectively north and south, is returned 
towards the west end of the chapel ; and, being so placed, has its 
back against the rood-screen, and faces the altar and east end 
of the sanctuary; e.<j., the dean's and subdean's in a cathedral 

REUNION. 1. A second union. 2. Union formed anew, 
after disagreement, separation, or discord. 

the prophecies of old under the older dispensation, and the hope 
of the saints under the new, lead the faithful to believe will 
take place before the close of this present Christian dispensation, 
by which all separated members of the One Christian family will 
be formally and visibly reunited into one compacted whole, and 
under one visible head ; for that which is possessed by (a) a parish, 
()3) a diocese, and (7) a province, may be expected in the latter 
days for the whole Church Universal. 

REVEREND (Latin, reoercndus) . Worthy of reverence or 
respect. A title given to the ordinary clergy or ecclesiastics of 
the various portions of the Christian family, as well as to the 
teachers of religious opinions amongst the modern sects, 
nitaries of the Church obtain an addition or prefix to^this term. 
Deans invariably, and sometimes canons, are styled " Very Reve- 
rend " ; a bishop is styled " Right Reverend " ; an archbishop 


" Most Reverend." In this particular, however, customs now 
current are of no great antiquity. 

REVESTIARY (French, revesiiatre) . See RE-VESTRY. 

RE- VESTRY. A terra for the vestry or sacristy where the 
clergy and those publicly engaged in Divine Service assume the 
official vestments proper to their orders and offices, which are 
there preserved. Sec VESTRY. 

RIB. A projecting band in the internal portion of a vaulted 
roof, marking the divisions of the masonry, and dividing the roof 
into proportionate parts. 

RIDGE. 1. The upper part of the roof of a building in the 
Pointed style of architecture. 2. The upper angle of a roof, 
along which a stout piece of timber is commonly placed. 

RIDGE-CRESTING. An ornamented crested tile for com- 
pleting externally the ridge of a roof. 

RIDGE-CROSS. The cross placed at the end of a ridge in 
a Pointed roof, both as a symbol and ornament. 

RIDGE-PIECE. The upper rib, which runs at right angles 
with the ordinary ribs in a vaulted roof, from end to end in the 
centre of the same. See RIB. 

RIDGE-TILES. Ornamental tiles which crown the ridge of 
the roof of a Pointed building. 

RIGHT HONOURABLE. A title given to peers, bishops, 
and privy councillors. 

RIGHT OF COMMUNION (THE). A term used to desig- 
nate the right of the faithful i. c. of the baptized, who have 
received con6rmatioii to partake of the Holy Communion. 
This right is, according to the Church of England, likewise a 
duty to be observed at least three times a year, of which Easter 
shall be one. 

RIGHT REVEREND. A title given to bishops, prelates, 
and certain ecclesiastical officers of the papal court. 


RING (Saxon, ring or hring) . 1 . A circle or circular line, 
or anything in the form of a circular line or hoop ; (2) more 
especially, a small circlet of metal worn on the finger or thumb. 

RING (EPISCOPAL). A ring generally adopted in about 
the fourth century of the Christian era by bishops, as part of 
their official insignia, though used by some before that period. 

RING. 333 

It is mentioned by several early writers, as likewise in the Sacra- 
mentaries of Gelasius and of Pope St. Gregory the Great. The 
Council of Orleans, in the early part of the sixth century, the 
Council of Rome, held a century later, and that of Rheims, in the 
eighth century, refer to its use. Anciently it was worn on tho 
middle finger of the right hand that hand which is used in 
imparting benediction, but in the Middle Ages it was custom- 
ary to place it on the fourth finger of the same hand instead. 
Pope Innocent III., A.D. 11981216, required the episcopal 
ring to be of pure gold, solid in make, and set with a plain 
precious stone, usually an uncut sapphire, ruby, or amethyst. 
The ring, according to some authors, symbolized the union of 
the Bishop, Christ's delegate, with the Great Head of the 
Church. Others saw in it the duty of sealing and revealing the 
Truth of God according to time, circumstances, and opportunity. 
Others, again, made the ring and its jewel a symbol of the grace 
of God the Holy Ghost. Bishops commonly wore more rings 
than one, but that alone was the episcopal or pontifical ring, 
properly so called, which was given at consecration, and worn 
on the fourth finger in pontifical acts. The ring, when placed 
over the gloves, which was customary, of course could only be 
passed down below the first joint of the finger ; so that some 
writers have affirmed that bishops always wore their official ring 
on this joint, and not below the second joint, like other people. 
In Anglo-Saxon times the ring was commonly worn, for several 
examples of such exist, having been found in tombs and coffins. 
The ring of St. Birinus was found, on opening his grave, at the 
beginning of the thirteenth century, at Dorchester-upon-Thame. 
The ring of St. John of Beverley was similarly discovered and 
preserved, as have been at various periods certain ancient 
episcopal rings at Ely, Canterbury, Sherborne, Ramsbury, and 
Exeter. The bishops of England had a custom, which is re- 
corded by several writers, of leaving one of their rings to the 
King, as a token of good-will. In a list existing of those be- 
queathed to King Edward I., the jewels adorning them are either 
a ruby or a sapphire. Bishops commonly left their pontifical 
ring to their successors for the benefit of the diocese ; and a 
large catalogue of such is found in the various lists ofoniamenta 
existing in our cathedrals before the Reformation. Many ancient 
examples exist of greater or less interest and value. There is a 
ring of Bishop Althelstane's in the British Museum, two at the 
Society of Antiquaries ; St. Cuthbert's ring is preserved at 
Ushaw College ; the late Mr. Waterton, of Yorkshire, possessed 
several of great interest. At Chichester there are two rings 
of gold with uncut sapphires. At Winchester a ring of William 
of Wykeham is preserved, as also that of Bishop Gardiner ; at 


Hereford there are two episcopal rings, at York three ; in the 
Ashmoleau Museum two ; and a ring traditionally said to have 
belonged to Archbishop Edward Lee, of York, is in the author's 
possession. (See Illustration, Fig. 1.) Amongst bishops of the 
Church of England the use of the episcopal ring has been 
generally restored. Colonial bishops likewise have re-adopted 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

this ornament. The Scottish bishops of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church also frequently wear them. The ring in the accom- 
panying woodcut is from a design of the late Mr. Edmund Sed- 
ding. (See Illustration, Fig. 2.) 

RING AND STAFF INVESTITURE. The ancient form of 
appointing bishops in England was by the act of the King, who 
delivered a ring and pastoral staff to a priest, and so designated 
him bishop. This custom, checked and curtailed from time to 
time by the Pope, was nevertheless of great antiquity, and was 
found to be acceptable to the Church for many centuries, having 
worked well and efficiently. The confusion and disorder which 
arose abroad when the people elected their own bishops, creating 
grave scandals, led to the Emperor appointing the bishops in 
the manner specified. And as the Kings of England were the 
founders of some of the most ancient bishoprics here (See 
Ayliffe's Parergon), the appointments became donative per tradi- 
tioneni baculi pastoralis et annuli. This was the case until King 
John, by Magna Charta, granted that they should be eligible ; 
after which came in the conge d'eslire, now little better than a 
profane farce, if not something worse. Lord Coke points out at 
length, in his Institutes, the right of donation by ring and staff 
investiture, both on the principle of foundation and property ; 
and both his facts and learned arguments appear to be simply 

R. I. P. (Latin, Requiescat In Pace). " May he (or she) rest in 
peace " ; an inscription common to the conclusion of inscriptions 
on the monuments of Christian people. 


RIPIDION (Greek). A fan for use in the celebration of 
Mass. The nineteenth of the Apostolical canons directs that a 
deacon on each side of the altar shall use a fan or brush of 
peacock's feathers to keep the place free from flies and insects. 
St. Hildebert of Tours, in his seventh Epistle, refers to their use. 
The fan is also mentioned in the Liturgies of St. Basil and St. 
John Chrysostom, and in several other Greek and Syriac docu- 
ments. See FLABELLUM. 

RITE. 1. The mode of celebrating Divine service, as esta- 
blished by law, precept, or custom. 2. A formal act of religion, 
either public or private. 3. A solemn religious duty. 4. A 
ceremonial action. 5. An order customarily observed in pub- 
licly performing a religious office. 

RITUAL. 1. Pertaining to rites. 2. Prescribing rites. 3. 
Consisting of rites. 

RITUALE. A volume containing the services and directions 
for the various rites, ceremonies, and sacraments administered in 
any part of the Christian Church. 

RITUALE ROMANUM. A volume containing the rites 
and services of the Church of Rome ; amongst which are the fol- 
lowing : The rite for Administering Baptism to Children and 
Adults, the Benediction of the Font, the Order for administering 
the Sacrament of Penance, the Order for giving Communion, the 
Order for administering Extreme Unction, the Seven Penitential 
Psalms, Litanies, mode of Assisting the Dying, the Order for Com- 
mending a Departing Soul, Office for the Dead, the Burial of 
Children and Adults, the form for celebrating Marriage, the 
Blessing of Women after Childbirth, form for blessing Holy 
Water, mode of Blessing Tapers for Candlemas, various Bene- 
dictions ; e.g., of houses, places, of a riew house, of a ship, fruits 
of the earth, travellers, bread, oil, sacred vestments, linen, a 
cross or crucifix, images, a church, a sacristy ; various rules for 
processions, and forms for exorcisms, &c. 

RITUALISM. 1. The system of rituals or prescribed forms 
of religious worship. 2. The observance of prescribed forms in 

RITUALIST. 1. One who is versed in ritual. 2. A term 
popularly used to designate one who promotes the progress of 
the present Catholic revival in the Church of England. 

RITUALLY. By rites. 

ROCHET. A frock of fine lawn, with tight sleeves, worn by 


cardinals, bishops, abbots, prelates, deans, and doctors of canon 
law. It is mentioned by the Venerable Bede, but was no doubt 
introduced long before his time, having been obviously borrowed 
from the linen vestment of the Aaronic priesthood. It generally 
was made so as to fall a little below the knee, and was always 
worn over a cassock of purple for bishops, of scarlet for cardinals 
and doctors of law, and of black for deans. About the eleventh 
century, various canons were passed in France, Germany, and 
England, enjoining a bishop to wear his rochet whenever he 
appeared in public, a custom which seems to have been scrupu- 
lously followed until the time of the Reformation. Over the 
rochet was commonly worn the " mantelletum." The rochet 
was granted to some canons in the Middle Ages ; but in the 
Church of Rome this privilege has been sometime withdrawn. The 
modern Anglican rochet is sleeveless, the bulbous sleeves having 
been wholly detached from it by the Caroline tailors or robe- 
makers, and sewn on to the arm-holes of the black satin chimere. 
This form of the dress is as frightful and ugly a contrivance as it 
is possible for the most perverted taste to invent. 

ROCK. 1. An ancient English term, borrowed from the 
German, for the tunicle, the subdeacon's vestment at Mass. 2. 
It is likewise applied to the rochet, or tight-sleeved surplice 
worn by bishops, prelates, and doctors of canon law ; and (3) 
sometimes also to the alb. 


ROGATION DAYS. These are the Monday, Tuesday, and 
Wednesday before Ascension-day Feria Secunda, ct Tertia in 
Rogatlonibuft, et Vigilia Ascensionis Domini. They were anciently 
called " Gang-days," because processions went out on those 
days ; hymns and canticles being sung, and prayers offered at 
various halting-spots or stations for a blessing on the fruits of 
the earth. Since the Reformation, no special services have been 
appointed ; but for some years the old rites, services, and cere- 
monies were used, while one of the Homilies put forth in the six- 
teenth century is even now enjoined to be read an injunction, 
however, which is almost universally disregarded. 


ROGATION SUNDAY. The Sunday before Ascension-day, 
so called from rogare, " to ask/' because on that day the Gospel 
contained the record of our Blessed Lord's promise that what- 


ever His disciples asked of His Father in His Name should bo 
given to them. 

^ ROGATION-TIDE. The three days following immediately 
Rogation Sunday. 

ROGATION- WALKS. Those paths or ways along which the 
Rogation processions went year by year. 

ROMAN. 1. A native of Rome. 2. A member of the Roman 
Catholic communion ; viz. of that portion of the One Christian 
Family in communion with the Patriarch or Pope of Rome. 


ROMAN COLLAR. This collar is made of lawn or fine 
linen,, in shape a parallelogram, bound at the edge, and stitched. 
It is worn by priests over a black collar, by bishops and prelates 
over a purple collar, and by cardinals over one of scarlet. 
It is comparatively modern, having been in use abroad a 
little more than a century. It is the offspring of a worldly 
ornament in secular dress, and not of ecclesiastical attire ; being 
originally nothing else than the shirt-collar turned down over 
the clergyman's every-day common garb, in compliance with a 
fashion which arose towards the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. None of the older religious orders ever wear it, nor do 
the clergy of the Eastern Church. 

ROMANESQUE. A term applied to that style of architec- 
ture which is sometimes called Norman, and which was, in many 
important particulars, an imitation of the ancient Roman forms 
and types ; though in many cases of a debased character. It is 
equivalent to the Architecture Romano of De Caumont. Dr. 
Whewell, in his Notes on Gei-man Churches, thus describes it : 
" Its characters are more or less a close imitation of the features 
of Roman architecture. The arches are round, are supported on 
pillars retaining traces of the classical proportions ; the pilasters, 
cornices, and entablatures have a correspondence and similarity 
with those of classical architecture; there is a prevalence of 
rectangular faces and square-edged projections ; the openings in 
the walls are small, and subordinate to the surfaces in which they 
occur ; the members of the architecture are massive and heavy ; 
very limited in kind and repetition, the enrichments being intro- 
duced rather by sculpturing surfaces than by multiplying and 
extending the component parts. There is in this style a pre- 
dominance of horizontal lines, or at least no predominance and 
prolongation of vertical ones. For instance, the pillars are not 
prolonged in corresponding mouldings along the arches; the 

Lee't Olonary. 7, 


walls have no prominent buttresses, and are generally terminated 
by a strong horizontal tablet or cornice." This kind of archi- 
tecture, varying of course as regards details in different countries, 
but with similar features everywhere, has been called Lombardic, 
Saxon, and Norman. 

ROMANISM. A vulgar word, used popularly, to designate 
the tenets of the Church of Rome. 

ROMANIST. A vulgar word, used chiefly by the uneducated, 
to designate a member of the ancient and venerable Church of 

ROMANIZE (TO). To convert to the Roman Catholic 

ROMANIZING-. Conforming to the faith and practice of the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

ROMAN LITURGY. 1. That Liturgy which is used for the 
celebration of the Holy Eucharist throughout the whole of that 
part of the Christian family which is in visible communion with 
the Roman Patriarch. 2. The Mass of the Roman Catholic 
Church. This Mass is called the Mass of St. Peter. It is founded 
on very ancient traditions, handed down both by St. Gregory 
and St. Gelasius, from the times of the Apostles. Of course its 
rites have varied during the progress of years ; but they are 
almost all founded on customs and practices of very great 
antiquity. See MASS and MISSAL. 

ROMANZOVITE. A species of garnet, used in the decora- 
tion of church ornaments. 


ROMESCOT. A tax of a penny on a house, called conse- 
quently " Rome-penny/' formerly paid by the people of England 
to the court of Rome. 

ROMISH. Of or belonging to the Church of Rome. 

ROOD (Saxon, rode or rod). A cross or crucifix. This term 
is ordinarily applied to that figure, or series of figures, consisting 
of our Divine Redeemer, His Holy and Blessed Mother, and St. 
John the Divine, placed in a loft or gallery at the entrance of the 
chancel, in cathedral and parish churches. Such are frequently 
very large in size, so that they can be plainly seen from all the 
western parts of the church. Lights are frequently placed in 
front of the screen and rood. Occasionally roods or crucifixes 
are found sculptured outside churches, on churchyard crosses, 


on wayside crosses, and at the entrance of chantries and oratories. 
There is a much-defaced external example at Sherborne Minster, 
in Dorsetshire. 

ROOD-ALTAR. An altar standing under the rood-screen. 
In large churches there were generally two, one on each side of 
the entrance into the choir. 

ROOD-ARCH. The arch which separates the choir from the 
nave of a cathedral or church, under which the rood-screen and 
rood were anciently placed. 

ROOD-BEAM. The rood or crucifix, with its appurtenances, 
is sustained either by a beam or by a loft or gallery, and some- 
times by both. The plain rood-beam appears to have been very 
commonly used in England for this purpose ; and although few 
remains of such are to be now found in their original and com- 
plete state, yet traces in the chancel-arches of several churches 
can be seen of the place where the beam was formerly fixed. A 
good modern example has been erected at St. Peter and Paul's, 
Worminghall, Bucks; and a still finer and more remarkable 
modern specimen at the church of St. Mary, Aberdeen. On 
the last-named the following appropriate and beautiful inscrip- 
tion was placed : 

Effigiem Christi dam transis pronus honors, 
Sed non effigiem sed Quein designat adora. 

ROOD-BOWL. A bowl of latten or other material, with a 
pricket in the centre, to hold a taper for lighting the rood- 
screen. See MORTAR. 

ROOD-CHAINS. Those chains by which, in the case of large 
figures placed on and beside the rood, the said figures were 
supported. These chains were inserted in the roof in front of 
the chancel arch, and supported the roof, &c. Remains of such 
chains are to be seen at Collumpton parish church, Devonshire. 

ROOD- OR RODE-CLOTH. The veil by which the large 
crucifix or rood, which anciently stood over the chancel-screen, 
was covered during Lent. Its colour in England was usually 
either violet or black, and it was frequently marked with a 
white cross. We find examples of this cloth figured in mediaeval 

ROOD-DOORS. The doors of the rood-screen, separating 
the nave from the chancel. 


z 2 


ROOD-GAP. The space under a chancel arch. 

ROOD-LIGHT. A light, whether from a mortar with taper, 
or from oil-lamps or cressets, placed on or about the rood -beam. 
Such were kept continually burning in our ancient parish 
churches. See MORTAR. 

ROOD-LOFT (Jube, amlo, tribune, pulpitum). A narrow 
long gallery over the rood-screen of a cathedral or parish church, 
approached by a small stone staircase in the wall of the building. 
In this loft were placed, raised on a frame or erection of orna- 
mental work, first the rood, or figure of our Blessed Lord on 
the cross, together with figures of the Blessed Virgin Mary and 
St. John on each side. The front of the loft, like the screen 
below, sometimes of wood and sometimes of stone, was richly 
panelled and ornamented with tracery and other carvings, while 
before it depended one, three, five, or seven lamps or mortars, 
with prickets and tapers, according to the resources of the church. 
Sometimes tall candlesticks stood on pillars on each side of the 
figures, which candlesticks wei*e frequently surrounded with 
clusters of lesser lights on great festivals. Though the great 
majority of the rood-lofts have been destroyed in England, yet 
some remain; e.g., at Bradwich, Collumpton, Dartmouth, Hart- 
land, Kenton, Uffendon, and Plymtree, in Devonshire ; at Barn- 
well, Dunster, Kingsbury Episcopi, Long Sutton, Timberscombe, 
Minehead, and Winsham, in Somersetshire ; at Newark, Not- 
tinghamshire ; at Charlton-on-Otmoor and Handborough, in 
Oxfordshire ; and at Worm-Leighton, in Warwickshire. Of 
these one of the most complete examples is that at Charlton-on- 
Otmoor, which was erected about A.D. 1485. It is most elab- 
orately carved, and very complete. A temporary cross, covered 
year by year with evergreens, still surmounts the screen. Another 
specimen, somewhat later in date, remains in almost a perfect 
state at Llanegrynn, in Merionethshire. The panels in front of 
the loft are remarkable for their variety of design. Though 
seventeen in number, the pattern of carving in each is different, 
while the whole range serves to make the general effect exceed- 
ingly rich and striking. A third, at Handborough, in Oxford- 
shire, already referred to, is likewise a good specimen of early 
Third-Pointed work in wood. Examples of screens, with the 
beam above, also remain at St. Mary's, Thame, Oxon, and at 
Chinnor, in the same county ; both of good Second-Pointed work. 
The priest stood in the rood-loft to read the Gospel, Epistle, and 
sometimes for the delivery of the sermon at High Mass. From 
it important official documents were read to the faithful; peni- 
tents were absolved, and when the bishop visited a parish, he 
gave his episcopal benediction from it to the people. 

/ii -nr .*. 


ROOD-MASS. 1. This term is sometimes found applied to 
the daily Parish Mass said in large churches at the altar under 
the rood-screen ; and (2) sometimes to the Mass said on Holy- 
Cross day, or on the feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. 

ROOD SAINTS. Images of the Blessed Virgin Mary and 
John, the beloved disciple, which were placed on each side of 
the rood. 

ROOD-SCREEN. A screen of open-work of stone or wood 
in England more commonly of the latter, with panels below, 
connecting the floor of the chancel entrance with the rood-beam 
or gallery above it, and so marking off the division between chancel 
and nave with a distinctness which no worshipper could fail to 
observe. Though almost all the rood-lofts have been destroyed in 
England, owing to the ignorant violence of the Reformers, yet 
rood-screens are to be found in abundance. That of St. Mary, 
Thame, Oxon, is a very remarkable specimen of Second-Pointed 
work. Screens have been erected at Bristol, Stoke-Roduey, 
Somersetshire ; Sunningwell, Berkshire ; St. Catherine Cree, 
London ; and at Durham, since the Reformation. 

ROOD- STAIR. A staircase of stone, usually constructed 
in the wall near the chancel arch, by which the rood-loft was 
approached. Many such examples exist, but many, likewise, are 
blocked up, though the door remains visible. 


ROOD- STEPS. The steps into a choir or chancel, commonly 
found under or immediately before the rood-screen. 

ROOD-TOWER. A name sometimes applied to the tower 
built over the intersection of a cruciform church. 

ROOTS. A name sometimes found in the Inventories of 
English church furniture, by which were designated richly- 
embroidered copes, which had the stem of Jesse and the gene- 
alogy of our Blessed Lord embroidered upon them. 

ROSARY (THE). 1. A chaplet of beads. 2. A devotion. 
This devotion is said to have been instituted by St. Dominic, 
after having had a special revelation from the Blessed Virgin, in 
the year 1206. It consists of fifteen Pater Nosier* and Glorias, 
and one hundred and fifty Ave Marias, divided into three parts. 
Each part contains five decades : a decade consists of one Pater 
Nosier, ten Avc, Marias, and one Gloria Patri. To each of the*e 
decades is assigned for meditation one of the principal events in 


the life of our Lord or of His Blessed Mother five Joyful, five 
Sorrowful, and five Glorious Mysteries. 

ROSE WINDOW. A name sometimes given to a circular 
window in Pointed architecture, in which both shape and tracery 
together bore some resemblance to a rose. 

ROTE. A medieval musical instrument, not unlike the 
ancient psalterium. 

POTXAPIO2 ('Pouxa/otoe). A Greek term signifying the 
wardrobe-keeper of a convent. 


RUBBLE-STONE. A name given by quarryinen to the 
upper fragmentary and decomposed portions of a mass of stone ; 
a term sometimes applied to water-worn stone. The name is 
old, as it frequently may be found in ancient church Accounts 
and Inventories. 


RUBICEL. A kind of inferior ruby of a pale red colour, 
found in Brazil. 

RUBRIC. 1. A title, heading, or leading line in certain old 
law-books, which, marking the divisions of subjects, or their sub- 
divisions, was for convenience' sake written in red ink. 2. The 
term used to set forth and describe the rules and directions for 
the performance and celebration of Divine Service, commonly 
printed in red. Hence, " to rubricate " is " to distinguish by, 
or to mark with red." 

RUBY (Latin, rubino). A crystallized mineral of a carmine 
colour ; a precious stone, frequently used in adorning church 

RUBY (ROCK). A fine variety of red garnet. 

RUFF. 1. A piece of plaited linen worn round the neck. 2. 
A falling collar. 3. An academical robe of silk worn over the 
dress gown of certain graduates. 4. A name sometimes given 
in the seventeenth century to the hood or tippet worn by clerics 
in church. 

RURAL DEANERY. A certain number of parishes placed 
under the supervision of a rural dean. 

RURAL DEANS. Very ancient officers of the Church, who, 


being parish priests, execute the bishop's processes, inspect the 
lives and manners of the clergy and people within their district, 
and report the same to the bishop ; to which end, that they 
might have knowledge of the state and condition of their re- 
spective deaneries, they had power to convene rural chapters. 
Much of their authority at the present day rests on custom and 
precedent. Their duties and powers vary in different dioceses. 

RURIDECANAL CHAPTER. A chapter consisting of the 
parish priests of a rural deanery, assembled for consultation, 
under the presidency of the rural dean. These chapters are of 
considerable antiquity, and were commonly summoned in me- 
dieval times once a year, at or about Whitsun-tide. After the 
Reformation they were seldom gathered together, and so for 
many generations have practically ceased to exist. Since the 
Catholic revival in 1830, they have been restored, according to 
ancient precedent, and in the great majority of English dioceses 
are in full working order. English Roman Catholics have 
restored this ancient machinery, and now have their own ruri- 
decanal chapters in several Anglo-Roman dioceses. 

RUSTICI. A term used in the feudal ages to designate the 
inferior country tenants, who held cottages and lands of the 
bishops, peers, gentlemen, and abbots by the service of plough- 
ing, and other labours of agriculture for the lord of the manor, 
whoever he might be. The land thus held was called rusticorum 




ABANON (Zdfiavov). 1. A linen robe. 2. 
A shroud. 

SABAOTH. A Hebrew term signify- 
ing " armies/' occasionally found in Holy 

SABBATARIAN. 1. An observer of 
the Sabbath. 2. A person who regards 
the seventh day of the week as holy, 
agreeably to the letter of the fourth com- 
mandment. Some Christians in the Early 

Church adopted this view ; and a modern English sect of 
heretics, known as Seventh-day Baptists, do the same now. 

SABBATH (Latin, Sablatum; Greek, o-aj3/3arov) . The seventh 
day of the week, which God appointed to be observed as a day of 
rest, in remembrance of His rest after the work of creation. 
This day, Saturday, is still observed by the Jews. 

SABBATH (THE CHRISTIAN). The first day of the 
week, substituted by the Christian Church as a day of rest 
instead of Saturday, because on the first day of the week our 
Blessed Lord rose from the dead, and completed the work of the 
new creation. 

SABBATUM IN ALBIS. Saturday in Easter-week. 

SABBATON TOT AAZAPOT (2Sa'/3/3arov rov Aa&pov). A 
Greek term for the eve of Palm Sunday. 

SABELLIAN (adjective). Of or belonging to the heresy of 

SABELLIAN (A) . A follower of Sabellius, a heretic priest 
of Ptolemais, who taught that there is but One Person in the 
Godhead, and that God the Son and God the Holy Ghost are 
only different powers, influences, or offices of God the Father. 

SABELLIANISM, The heresy of Sabellius. 
SABLE. 1. Black. 2. Dark. 



SACERDOTAL (Latin, sacerdotalis) . 1. Pertaining to prints. 
2. Priestly. 

. SACERDOTALE. A Sacerdotal, i.e. a Manual for Priests. 
This term lias been applied to various books ; amongst others to 
(1) a Manual of private devotions for a priest; (2) a portable 
book, now called a Rliuale, or " Ritual," containing those offices 
and sacramental services which the priest alone can say and use ; 
(3) a book of rubrics and directions with regard to the adminis- 
tration of the sacraments; (4) a Missal; (5) a Manuile Cleri- 
corum ; (6) the York Ritual. 

SACERDOTALISM. The spirit of the priesthood. ' 

SACKCLOTH. 1. A coarse cloth used for making sacks. It 
has also been adopted as a garment for those who wish honestly 
to irritate, chafe, and subdue the flesh. At some periods it has 
been worn as an external garment, to indicate that the person 
wearing it is undergoing a life of discipline and penance. 2. 
Cloth made of hair, i.e. haircloth. 

SACRAMENT (Latin, Sacrament urn). 1. Anciently this 
term signified a military oath. 2. According to the Church of 
England's definition, which is substantially that both of the Latin 
and Greek Churches, a Sacrament is "an outward and visible 
sign of an inward and spiritual grace given unto us, ordained by 
Christ Himself, as a means whereby we receive the same [grace] , 
and as a pledge to assure us thereof." According to the general 
teaching of the Church Universal, there are seven sacraments. 
The Church of England teaches not that there are less than 
seven ; but that there are two only as generally necessary to salva- 
tion, and in the Articles the whole seven are enumerated. 
" Sacraments of the Gospel " and " Sacraments of the Church/' 
though phrases used by certain schoolmen, and apparently 
adopted by the Reformers, are, to all intents and purposes, dis- 
tinctions without a difference. 

SACRAMENT (THE). The chief Sacrament, i.e. the Holy 


SACRAMENT OF CHRISM. 1. Confirmation. 2. Extreme 

SACRAMENTAL COMMUNION. The actual reception, in 
the enjoined and appointed way, of the Blessed Sacrament of our 
Lord's Body and Blood. 


SACRAMENT ALE. 1. A volume containing the rites, ser- 
vices, and ceremonies for the administration of the sacraments. 
2. This term is sometimes applied to the iron instrument used in 
making altar-breads. 

SACRAMENTALE ROMANUM. A volume containing the 
rites, services, and ceremonies for the administration of the 
sacraments according to the use of the Church of Rome. This 
volume, which was first printed and issued in 1492 at Milan, is 
now called the Ritnalc Romanian. 

SACRAMENTALLY. After the manner of a sacrament. 

SACRAMENT ALS. A technical term to designate certain 
rites, ceremonies, and religious observances, by means of blessed 
water, oil, salt, &c., which are adopted as valuable adjuncts to 
the sacraments, and practised in the Church Universal. 

SACRAMENTARIAN. A technical term and name of re- 
proach used in the sixteenth century, by Catholics, for those who 
rejected the true faith regarding the sacraments. 

SACRAMENTARY. A book containing the prayers, offices, 
rites, and ceremonies used in the celebration of the sacraments, 
and on certain solemn occasions. See MISSAL. 

of sacramental rites and offices, drawn up either by, or under the 
direction of, Pope St. Gelasius, who ruled at Rome from A.D. 
492 to 496. Many of the prayers still used in the Latin Church 
were composed by him, and several proper prefaces, hymns, and 
anthems were either composed or arranged for the use of the 
Church of Rome in his day. He enjoined communion in both 
kinds, in opposition to a fancy of the Manichees, and was the 
first to fix the Ember weeks as proper and desirable periods for 
ordination. His Sacramentary has been largely drawn upon by 
all Ritualistic writers for many generations. 

GREAT. That volume of sacramental rites and offices which it 
is believed was compiled and arranged by Pope St. Gregory the 
Great (A.D. 590-604). It appears to have been founded on that 
which had been drawn up from traditional knowledge by St. 
Gelasius a century before, and is the foundation of the present 
customs, rules, rites, orders, and observances of the whole 
Western Church. 

A sacramentary or collection of rites, services, and ceremonies, 


very similar to that which is believed to have been drawn up 
afterwards by St. Gelasius. It is commonly reputed to have 
been first made from collections gathered together by St. Leo, 
and afterwards added to and rendered more available for use by 
St. Gelasius. These two, the earliest sacramentaries, are full of 
most interesting and valuable materials for judging of the doc- 
trine and practice of the Church in the fifth century. 

SACRAMENTS (THE SEVEN). (1) Baptism, (2) Con- 
firmation, (3) the Holy Eucharist, (4) Penance, (5) Holy Orders, 
(6) Matrimony, and (7) Extreme Unction. 

SACRARIA. A term for the Holy Oil stock. 

SACRARIUM. This term is found used in no less than nine 
different senses in medigeval documents, as follows: (I) A 
sanctuary ; (2) a piscina ; (3) an auinbrey for reserving the 
Blessed Sacrament ; (4) a receptacle for the oils used in baptism, 
found in large and well-regulated baptisteries ; (5) a choir ; (6) a 
wayside chapel where mass is said; (7) the enclosed part of a 
religious house ; (8) an altar-slab j (9) a vestry. (Vide Dumndi 
Rationale, in loco.) 

SACRARY. A vestry (as in Lydgate's Boole of Troy). See 

SACRED ACTION (THE). The celebration of Holy Com- 

SACRED COLOURS. Those which are used in the services 
of the Church to mark the difference to the eye between fast 
and festival, as well as between feasts of different degrees of 
importance, according to the saint or subject commemorated. 
They are commonly five : red, white, green, violet, and black. 
But greater variety was found in the old English customs, for 
blue, yellow, and brown were not unfrequently used. 

SACRED PLACE (THE). 1. The sanctuary of a Christian 
church. 2. The choir of a church set apart for the clergy. 

SACRED VESSELS. Those vessels used in the celebration 
of the Holy Communion, i.e. the chalice or cup, the paten or 
plate, together with the ciboriurn. See CHALICE, CIBORIUM, and 

SACRIFICATORY. Offering a sacrifice. 

SACRIFICE (A) (Latin, sacrificium). 1. An animal or other 
thing presented to God, and burned on an altar. 2. Anything 


offered to God or immolated by an act of religion. 3. An ancient 
term for the Holy Eucharist. 

SACRIFICE (TO). 1. To immolate or consume wholly or 
partially 011 an altar, either as an atonement for sin or to procure 
favour or express thankfulness to God. 2. To make offerings to 
Go$ of things placed or consumed on an altar. 

SACRIFICER. One who sacrifices. 

SACRIFICIAL. 1. Performing sacrifice. 2. Included in 
sacrifice. 3. Employed in sacrifice. 

SACRIFICIANT. One who offers a sacrifice. 

SACRILEGE (Latin, sacnlegium). The crime of violating 
or profaning sacred things, or the alienating to laymen or to 
common purposes that which has been solemnly appropriated or 
consecrated to religious purposes or uses. 

SACRILEGIOUS. 1. Pertaining to sacrilege. 2. Violating 
sacred things. 3. Polluted with the crime of sacrilege. 

SACRILEGIST. One who is guilty of sacrilege. 

SACRING. 1. Consecrating. 2. Making sacred. 3. Some- 
thing that is holy. 

SACRING-BELL. A small hand-bell used in the Western 
Church to call the attention of the faithful, who are worshipping, 
to the more sacred and solemn parts of the Christian Sacrifice. 
It is rung by the server at Mass. 

SACRING-BREAD. The breads for use in the Christian 

SACRING-CARD. A table or tablet on which the Canon of 
the Mass is. .written out, so as to be placed immediately before 
the priest when celebrating the Sacrament of the Altar. 

SACRING-TABLET. Another name for the " Sacriug- 
card." Sec SACRING-CAKD. 

SACRING-TIME. 1. The most sacred part of the service 
for the offering of the Christian Sacrifice. 2. That period during 
Mass when the Canon is said by the priest-celebrant. 

SACRIST. 1. A sacristan or subsacristan. 2. A sexton. 

3. A deputy of the treasurer in a cathedral or collegiate church. 

4. That officer of the Church who has the charge of the vestry. 

5. The keeper of the sacred vessels in a parish church. 


ployed in certain cathedrals and colleges to copy out the music 
needed for Divine Service, and to take charge of the music used 
in the same. 

SACRISTA. That nun in a religious community for 
women who has the charge of the sacristy. 

SACRISTAN (French, sacristain ; Italian, sacrlstano] . An 
officer of a church having charge of the sacristy and all its con- 
tents. Anciently he kept the church keys, plate, furniture, arna- 
mc-nta, vestments of all kinds, and in parish churches the relics. 
He marshalled the ordinary procession before High Mass on 
Sunday, overlooked the bell-ringers, attended to the more solemn 
funerals in the church, and superintended the keeping of the 
churchyard in good and decent order. At all solemn offices and 
functions it was his duty to see that everything relating to the 
sacristy, likely to be required, was placed in due order and prepa- 
ration. His office in cathedral churches is recognized by the 
statutes, and his duties carefully defined. In cathedrals he was 
invariably, or almost invariably, in holy orders. Anciently in 
parish churches the sacristan was very frequently in minor orders. 
Of late years in the Church of England this office has been 
restored, and efficiently filled in many churches where the Catholic 
revival exercises an influence. 

SACRIST-TABLE. 1. A table from which the clergy vest 
themselves preparatory to Mass. 2. A table in the sacristy, on 
which the Mass-garments are placed for the clergy to robe before 

SACRISTY (Latin, sacra rium). A room or chamber near 
the choir or chancel in a church, containing cupboards, presses, 
aumbreys, altar-hangings, banners, and all the ornamenta for the 
due celebration of Divine Service. In large sacristies there was 
always an altar, or quasi-altar, from which the clergy vested for 
Mass, and at which those preparing for the priesthood were 
instructed in the ritual and manual actions of the Mass. In 
most sacristies there was a lavatory for the priest to wash his 
hands ; in some a fireplace and oven for baking the altar-breads ; 
and in others a piscina, at which the sacred vessels were cleansed 
after the accustomed ablutions. There are some fine specimens 
of sacristies in our old English cathedrals ; e.g., at Lichfield, with 
a priest's chamber above ; at Chichester, with a lavatory in the 
wall ; at Bristol, with a fireplace and oven for baking the altar- 
breads ; at Hereford and at Durham : these are mainly at the 
side of the choir. In later times sacristies were frequently con- 


structed behind the choir, especially in cathedrals ; as at Durham, 
York, Chichester, and Westminster Abbey. Many examples of 
sacristies exist in our parish churches, mainly placed on the 
north side of the chancel. At Thame, Oxon, the sacristy and 
muniment-room, in one, is over the south transept, where large 
vestment-chests still remain. In the Eastern Church the sacristy 
is commonly on the south side of the choir. 

SACRISTY (PREFECT OF THE). A canon appointed in 
certain cathedrals to superintend the work of the sacristy and 
those employed there. 

SACRO GATING. An Italian term to designate the Holy 

SACROSANCT. 1. Sacred. 2. Inviolable. 

SADDLE-BACK ROOF. A covering to a tower, constructed 
like the roof of an ordinary church. Some examples of this 
roof, though uncommon, exist in England; e.g. at Brookthorpe, 
Northamptonshire ; at Stone, near Aylesbury, Bucks ; at 
Ickford, in the same county ; and at the parish church of St. 
Nicholas, Emmington, Oxfordshire. A good modern example 
may be seen in the church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Free- 
land, near Eynsham. 

SAFH (Soyn), SAFION (Soyiov). Greek terms for a cloak. 

SAGRESTIA. An old and obsolete Italian term for a 

"SAID OR SUNG." An expression used in the Book of 
Common Prayer to indicate that certain parts of the services 
are to be chanted according to the old Church method. " To 
say," technically used, is to recite musically on one note, or, in 
other words, simply to intone. " To sing " is to recite musically 
on several notes, as is done in plain chant. The expression 
" said or sung " gives liberty to the officiating clergyman to 
adopt either the one kind of singing or the other. There is no 
Church authority for either " preaching " or ' ' pronouncing " the 
services of the Church of England. 

SAIE. A thin, well-made serge of delicate texture, used in 
the making of ecclesiastical vestments. 

SAINT (Latin, sanctus). This term has various meanings; 
e.g. (I) a name given to all the baptized, i.e. to the faithful, or 
the members of Christ (Ephesians iii. 5). 2. The same name is 
given to those who have lived and died in a state of grace, and 


now sleep in the rest of Christ. 3. It is particularly and spe- 
cially bestowed upon those who have been generally reputed to 
be saints, as well as those who have been formally and regularly 
canonized by authority in the Roman Catholic Church. 

SAINT (TO). To canonize. 

SAINT ANTHONY'S FIRE. A common name for the 
disease known as erysipelas ; so called because it was frequently 
cured by St. Anthony. 

SAINT JOHN'S BREAD. The name of a foreign plant. 

SAINT JOHN'S WORT. The name of a plant of the genus 


SAINT-LIKE. Resembling a saint. 

SAINTS' DAYS. Certain days set apart by Church autho- 
rity for commemorating those holy men and women whose repu- 
tation of goodness, Christian wisdom, sanctity, and other graces 
is never doubted in the Church. Sometimes the day of a saint's 
birth is commemorated, more frequently, however, his death ; 
because, like his Master, through death he passed to the portals 
of everlasting life. Hooker says of the saints, " They are the 
splendour and outward dignity of our religion, forcible witnesses 
of ancient truth, provocations to the exercise of all piety, shadows 
of an endless felicity in heaven, on earth everlasting records and 
memorials, wherein they which cannot be drawn to hearken unto 
that we teach, may, only by looking upon that we do, in a manner 
read whatsoever we believe." (Ecclesiastical Polity, book v. 
chap. 51.) 

2AKKOS (SoKicoe). A Greek term for sackcloth. 

SAKKOS (Greek). 1. Sackcloth or hair-cloth. 2. A tight, 
sleeveless vestment, commonly made of rich woven or embroi- 
dered silk, worn by Oriental patriarchs and metropolitans during 
Divine Service, corresponding in some degree to the Western 

SALLOW SUNDAY. A Russian term for Palm Sunday. 

SALT. 1 . Ordinary salt is chloride of sodium. 2. Salt is 
used for the making of Holy Water, in order to preserve it. There 
is a blessing of the salt before it is dissolved in the water which 
is to be hallowed. 

SALTIRE (French, sautoir). In heraldry, one of the greater 
ordinaries, in the form of a cross of St. Andrew, or the letter X. 


SALUT. The French, term for the service of the exposition 
of the Blessed Sacrament, a ceremonial service which was first 
originated in the seventeenth century, and not generally adopted 
in the Roman Catholic Church until even a later period. See 


SALUTATION. 1. The act of saluting. 2. The act of 
paying reverence by the customary words and actions. 3. A 
technical term by which certain modern writers define the short 
exclamation, " The Lord be with you," and its response, " And 
with thy spirit," which frequently occur in the services of the 

SALUTATION (THE ANGELIC). The words which wore 
addressed to the Blessed Virgin Mary by the archangel Gabriel, 
when he announced to her that she should become the Mother of 
God : " Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee, blessed art 
thou amongst women." In its use as a devotion, this formula 
has had the words, " Blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus," 
added to the former. 

SALUTATORIUM. 1. The saluting-room. 2. The place 
for salutations, i.e. the meeting-room or parlour of a religious 

SALVABILITY. The possibility of being saved or admitted 
to life everlasting. 

SALVATION. 1. The act of saving. 2. In theology, the 
redemption of man from the bondage of sin and liability to 
eternal death, and the conferring upon him of everlasting happi- 
ness. This was done by the Saviour of the World, Jesus Christ. 

SAMISIA. An Oriental term for the alb or surplice. 
SAMYT. Rich brocade, like in kind to satin. 

SANCTA SANCTORUM. A term to designate (1) the 
presbytery of a church ; (2) the chancel ; as also (3) the sanc- 


SANCTUARIA. A term to designate relics. See RELICS. 

SANCTUARY. That portion of a church or chapel in which 
the altar is placed, and which corresponds with the Holy of 
Holies of the Jewish temple. The Christian sanctuary may be 


said most commonly to extend from the east wall in a westerly 
direction unto the steps where the faithful kneel to receive the 
Holy Sacrament. 


SANCTUARY-CLOTH. The carpet placed on the steps 
before an altar. 

SANCTUARY-CROSS. A cross erected with the express 
purpose of defining specifically the limits of a place of sanctuary 
in ancient times. 

SANCTUARY-LAMP. A lamp of precious metal, latten, or 
brass, suspended before the altar in Roman Catholic churches, 
to indicate that the Blessed Sacrament is reserved there. 

SANCTUARY-LIGHTS. Candles placed on large candle- 
sticks, on each side of the altar in a sanctuary. 

SANCTUARY-RING. A ring fastened to the door of a 
church or religious house, by holding which those who in times 
past fled from their persecutors or from justice, were enabled, 
by a holy and blessed Christian custom, to obtain mercy and 

SANCTUS-BELL. A bell rung at the Sanctus in the Mass. 
The practice of so ringing a bell arose in the Middle Ages. By the 
Constitutions o Walter de Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 
1240, it is ordained that, " cum in celebratione Missas Corpus 
Domini per manus sacerdotum in altum erigitur, campanella pul- 
setur, ut per hoc devotio torpentium excitetur, ac aliorum 
charitas fortius inflammetur." By the Constitutions of John Peck- 
ham, Archbishop of Canterbury, A.D. 1281, "In elevatione vero 
ipsius Corporis Domini pulsetur campana in uno latere, ut popu- 
lares, quibus celebrationi Missarum non vacat quotidie interesse, 
ubicunque fuerint, seu in agris, seu in domibus, flectant genua." 
It appears from these two directions each of which is but a 
specimen of other similar canons that within the church the 
little hand-bell (campanella) was to be rung for the edification 
of the congregation ; while (at least in parish churches) another 
and larger bell (cavipana) was to sound at the same time for the 
use of parishioners who were prevented from being present in 
the body. No doubt, in many churches one bell, audible both 
within and without the church, served for both purposes ; but 
very generally, or at least frequently, both were made use of. 
Either or both of these customs are still a portion of our canon 
law. If not during St. Osmund's days, soon after at least, the 
custom was, as the priest said the Sanctiis, &c., to toll three 

Lee'i Oloaary. 2 A 


strokes on a bell. This was not universal then, but practised in 
certain places. For hanging it so that it might be heard outside, 
as well as within the church, a little bell-cote often may yet be 
found built on the peak of the gable, between the chancel and 
the nave, that the bell-rope might fall at a short distance from 
the spot where knelt the youth or person who served at Mass. 
From the first part of its use, this bell obtained the name of the 
" Saints," " Sanctys," or ' ' Sanctus " bell ; and many notices 
concerning it are to be met with in old Church Accounts. At the 
other Masses in the chantry chapels, and at the different altars 
about the church, a small hand-bell was employed for this, 
among other liturgical uses. In some very likely in most places 
there were two distinct bells, one for the " Sanctus," the other 
for the elevation : thus, in the inventory of the goods, plate, &c., 
gathered together for King Edward VI.'s use in the county of 
Durham, we find, very often, such an entry as this : " Three 
bells in the stepell, a lyttell san'ce-bell, a sacring-bell, and a 
hand-bell " (Ecc. Proceedings of Bishop Barnes, ed. Surtees 
Society, p. lii.). The Council of Exeter, A.D. 1287, decreed 
that in every church there should be " Campanella deferenda 
ad infirmos, et ad elevationem Corporis Christi" (Wilkins's 
Condi., ii. 139). "In the church of Hawsted, Suffolk," says 
Cullum, "there still hangs a little bell on the rood-loft ; it is 
about six inches diameter. On hearing the sacring-bell's first 
tinkle, those in church who were not already on their knees knelt 
down, and, with upraised hands, worshipped their Maker in the 
holy housel lifted on high before them." The sanctus-bell 
remains in many churches ; amongst others, at St. Mary's, Thamc, 
Oxon, and at St. Mary's, Prestbury, Gloucestershire. 


SANDALS. The official shoes of a bishop or abbot ; so called 
because the leather of which they were made was dyed with sandal- 
wood. (See G-eorgius, De Lit. Horn., vol. i. p. 119.) In Anglo- 
Saxon times they were commonly worn by all clergymen in holy 
orders, but soon after St. Osmund's time began to be reserved 
to bishops. These were commonly of a red colour ; and when 
leather gave place to silk or velvet, richly embroidered, the colour 
usually remained red. Priests were forbidden to wear coloured 
sandals by several provincial councils (Wilkins's Concilia, vol. ii. 
p. 703), the decrees of which were embodied in the Statutes both 
of St. Mary Magdalene and Corpus Christi Colleges, Oxford. 


SAROHT. An old name for Rochet, See ROCHET, 


SARUM USE. A Liturgy drawn up, compiled,, or arranged 
by St. Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury, and commonly used in the 
dioceses of the province of Canterbury. The other English 
(< Uses " were those of Lincoln, Hereford, York, and Bangor, 




S CALL AGE (Latin, scallus). A low bench or stool. 


SCAPULARY, OE SCAPULAR. A vestment common to 
certain religious, consisting of two bands of woollen stuff, one 
hanging down the back, and the other down the breast. It was 
first introduced by St. Benedict, and was intended by him to 
take the place of the ancient ample cowl formerly used. 

SCARF. A stole-like vestment of silk, about a foot wide and 
ten feet in length, of which various sorts are in use by custom 
in the Church of England : (1) The episcopal scarf of black silk, 
worn over the chimere, anciently part of the domestic dress of 
English bishops ; (2) the scarf of the Doctor of Divinity, similar 
to the former; (3) the scarf of the nobleman's chaplain, anciently 
of the colour of his livery, but now commonly black ; (4) the 
custonjary funeral scarf of black silk, worn by clergy and laity 
alike at the funerals of the upper classes. This latter is placed 
over the left shoulder, and tied under the right arm. 

SCHAFTE. 1. A term to designate a maypole, anciently 
used on the feast of St. Philip and St. James. 2. A candlestick. 

SCHAFTE OF AN ALTAR. An altar- candlestick. 
SCHAFTE (PASCHAL). A paschal candlestick. 
SCHEMA (Greek, o-^jua). 1. Any state, condition, or habit. 

2. An ecclesiastical grade. 3. The monastic dress, distinguished 
as UKbv and 

SXHMATOAOriON (Sx^aroXdyiov). The office for con- 
ferring the monastic habit. 

SCHOLASTIC DOCTORS (THE). St. Thomas Aquinas, 
Dun Scotus, Gabriel Bill, and Roger Bacon. 

SCHRAGE. The German term for a screen or skreen.* 

SCONCE, A movable candlestick of brass, latten, or other 



metal, sometimes affixed to a wall, placed against a pillar, or let 
into the rail-moulding of a pew. Sconces were likewise arranged 
along the top both of the rood-screen and of the side-screens of 
choirs and lateral chapels, in which, on great festivals, such as 
Christmas and Candlemas, lighted tapers were placed. See 

SCREEN. An enclosure, partition, or parclose, separating a 
portion of a church, a hall or a room, from the rest. In churches 
screens are used in various positions, mainly to separate the nave 
from the choir, to enclose the chancel from the side aisles or 
chapels, to separate subordinate chapels, to protect tombs, and 
enclose baptisteries. Generally screens were close, only about 
four feet from the ground, the upper parts being of open-work. 
They were both of stone and wood. In the former case they 
commonly enclosed entirely the sides of a cathedral choir, in the 
latter they were found in the places already enumerated. The 
most ancient wooden screen known to exist in England is at 
Compton Church, in Surrey. Another, less ancient, is to be 
seen in the chancel of Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire. Of 
Second-Pointed screens some very fine and superior examples 
exist at Cropredy and Dorchester-upon-Thame, in Oxfordshire, 
as well as at Thame, in the same county. Both the 
chancel-screen and that which separates the north 
transept from the space under the tower are speci- 
mens of great beauty and excellence of design, 
though the latter has been somewhat damaged 
by neglect and change. Of Third-Pointed screens 
there are a very large number existing, of many 
designs, some of the panels in which have been 
most elaborately painted. Superb metal screens 
exist in many 1 places both in French and Spanish 
churches. This material has been used in many 
P .VNEL OF SCREEN, E Hsh churches since the Catholic revival. One 

n.VXDBOROUGH. & ri i TT J J 

oi great beauty has been set up at Hereford ; and 
metal screens of considerable excellence have also been put up 
in Lichfield and Ely Cathedrals. The example of the tracery 
in a wooden -screen in the accompanying illustration is from 
the parish church of Handborough, Oxfordshire. (See Illus- 



SCRIPTORIA. The desks of religious houses at which the 
monks wrote in the Scriptorium. 



SCUOPHY-LACIUM. A recess near the altar, corresponding 
with the mediaeval " aumbrye," in which the chalice, paten, and 
every utensil employed in offering the Eucharistic Sacrifice, were 
anciently deposited immediately after Mass. The Councils of 
Laodicea and Agatha both refer to this appropriate custom of 
thus depositing the sacred vessels in such a receptacle. 


SCUTUM FIDEL A sacred device, frequently represented 
in stone and wood - carving, on 
monumental brasses, in stained glass 
and ancient paintings, in which the 
doctrines of the Trinity in Unity 
and the Unity in Trinity were set 
forth for the instruction of the faith- 
ful. The example in the accompany- 
ing woodcut is from stained glass 
which existed in the south window of 
the south transept of Thaine Church, 
Oxfordshire, in the year 1829, but 
which has since disappeared. (See 
Illustration.) SCUTUM FIDEI. 

SEAL (Sax. sigel, sigle ; Latin, sigillum ; Ital. sigillo). 
1. A piece of metal or other hard substance; e.g. bone, ivory, 
usually round or elliptical, on which is engraved some device 
used for making impressions on wax. 2. The wax set or affixed 
to an ecclesiastical or legal instrument, duly impressed or stamped 
with a seal. 3. That which ratifies, confirms, or makes stable. 
4. The small stone which is placed over the cavity containing 
relics in an altar. The use of seals as a mark of authenticity 
to letters and other instruments in writing is very ancient, and 
was allowed to be sufficient without signing the name, which 
few could do of old. Amongst our Saxon ancestors usually those 
who could write signed their names, and whether they could 
write or not, affixed the sign of the cross, which custom for persons 
who cannot write is kept up for the most part to this present 
time. The use of the seal alone was customary with the 

SEAL (ABBATIAL). The official formal seal of an abbot. 

customary in many parts of the Church during the Middle Ages 
to consecrate the seal of a newly-made bishop, with his vestments 



and other episcopal insignia. The form of consecration was 
simple, the seal being blessed with Holy Water. At the death 
of the bishop his seal or seals (for there were usually more than 
one) were carefully broken up and destroyed. 

SEAL (DECANAL). The official formal seal of the dean of 
a cathedral or collegiate church. 

SEAL (EPISCOPAL). The official formal seal of a bishop, 
attached to letters of orders, licenses, deeds of institution, induc- 
tion, degradation, and other documents. They represent the arms 
of the diocese, impaled with the personal arms of the bishop. 
Bishops commonly have two official seals, a large and small one. 
These, in England, on their death, are sent to Lambeth Palace to 
be defaced and destroyed under the direction of the Archbishop's 

SEAL OF CONFESSION. The obligation incurred by a 
confessor not to reveal, under any circumstances, that which has 
been mentioned in the Sacrament of Penance. 

SEAL (SHKIEVAL). The official 
seal of a sheriff, which first came into use 
in the fourteenth century. The docu- 
ments sealed by such were generally of 
minor importance. The earliest known 
example of a shrieval seal is one the 
matrix of which belongs to the author. 
It is that of Gilbert Wace, Sheriff of 
Oxford, A.D. 1372 and 1375, and again 
in 1379 and 1387. (See Illustration.) 


SEAL (TO). 1. To fasten with a seal. 2. To affix or set a 
seal as a mark of authenticity. 

SEALED BOOKS. Certain printed copies of the revised 
Anglican Prayer-book, as settled at the Savoy Conference, issued 
A.D. 16"62, which, having been examined by the commissioners 
appointed for that purpose, were certified by them to be correct, 
and ordered by Act of Parliament to be preserved in certain 
cathedral and collegiate churches. A folio reprint of the Sealed 
Book was issued by Pickering in 1844, and again, in 16mo, by 
Masters in 1848. 

SEASON. 1. A fit or suitable time. 2. A short period. 3. 
A time of some continuance. 


SEASONS (ECCLESIASTICAL). The chief portions of the 
ecclesiastical year. 

SEASONS (THE FOUR). The four divisions of the year- 
Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter. According to W. Lynde- . 
wode, Winter began on the 23rd of November, Spring on the 
22nd of February > Summer on the 25th of May, and Autumn on 
the 24th of August. 

SECONDARY. J. The technical term for a cathedral dig- 
nitary of second or secondary rank and position. 2. A minor 
canon. 3. A prsecentor. 4. A singing- clerk. 

SECONDARY CLERK. A lay clerk or singing-man, occu- 
pying in cathedral or collegiate churches the secondary row of 
stalls : hence the name. 

SECRET. Those Prayers in the Mass immediately following 
the Orate, Fratres ; so called because they are recited by the cele- 
brant in a low voice audible to himself, but not heard by the con- 
gregation. The " Secret" varies according to the Sunday, festival, 
or-feria. " Deinde, manibus extensis, absolute sine Orernus, sub- 
jungit Orationes Secretas " (Missale Romanum), " Et reversus ad 
altare, saccrdos Secretas Orationes clicat, juxta numerum et ordinem 
ante dictaturn ante Epistolam, ita incipiens, Oremus " (Missale 
Sarum) . 



SECRET OF THE MASS. A Prayer in the Mass imme- 
diately preceding the Preface ; so called because it is said by the 
celebrant secretly, after the address " Orate, Fratres." It is styled 
by St. Gregory the " Canon of the Secret." See SECRET. 


SECRET^E. Any prayers said secretly and not aloud. An- 
ciently, at the commencement of the Divine Office, the " Lord's 
Prayer " and " Hail Mary " were said silently, as also other 
portions of the same Office. But this rule was abolished in the 
English Church during the changes which took place three cen- 
turies ago, though it still obtains in the Latin communion. 

SECRETARIUS. 1. A secretary. The confidential corre- 
spondent of a bishop, abbot, head of a college, or other ecclesi- 
astical dignitary. 2. A term sometimes applied to a sacristan. 


SECRETLY. 1. Privately. 2. Privily. 3. Not openly. 4. 
Without the knowledge of others. 5. Not aloud. 

SECRETO. The mode of a priest-celebrant's saying certain 
" Secretae " ; namely, silently or secretly, and not aloud. 

SECT. A body of persons united in religious or philoso- 
phical opinions, but without faith, constituting a school or party 
by holding certain views. 

SECTARIAN. 1. Of or belonging to a sect. 2. One of a 
sect or party. ^ 

SECTARIANISM. The disposition to dissent from and 
reject the unchangeable Creed of the Church Universal. 

SECULAR. 1. Pertaining to this present world. 2. Not 
regular; i.e. not bound by monastic vows or rules. 3. Not 
subject to the rules of a religious community. 4. A church 
officer. 5. A verger or sacristan in a conventual church. 

SECULAR PRIESTS. Priests who are not members of any 
religious order or monastic community, as opposed to " regu- 
lars " or " regular priests," who are members of such orders. 

SECULARIZATION. The act of converting a regular 
person, place, or benefice into a secular one. 


SEDILIA. Three seats for the officiating clergy at the Holy 
Sacrifice, on the south side of the sanctuary, sometimes placed 
against the wall, but in England more frequently recessed in it. 
When they are each level either with the other, the celebrant sits 
in the centre, with the deacon or gospeller to his right, and the 
subdeacon or epistoler to his left. When they are arranged on 
three steps, however, the celebrant sits on the highest, the deacon 
on the next, and the subdeacon on the lowest. There is a re- 
markable example of a single sedile at Lenham, in Kent, and 
another not less so at Beckley, in Oxfordshire. The earliest spe- 
cimens are not later than the latter part of the twelfth century, 
and the later are exceedingly numerous. Of Norman work, with 
zigzag mouldings, there is a fine specimen, A.D. 1140, at St. 
Mary's, Leicester ; another in the same style, only plainer and 
more severe, at Wellingore, in Lincolnshire. A fine specimen of 
sedilia, with piscina placed eastwards of it, occurs at Rushden, 
Northamptonshire, and another, with the ballflower ornament 
placed in a hollow moulding, at Chesterton, Oxfordshire. There- 
are likewise remarkable examples at Merton, Oxfordshire, and 
at St. Mary's (the University church), in Oxford. 


SEE (Latin, scdes). 1. The seat of episcopal authority and 
jurisdiction : a diocese. 2. The seat, place, or office of a Pope 
or Patriarch. 3. The throne of a bishop being placed in his 
cathedral, and the cathedral in the chi^f city of the diocese, the 
name of the see is frequently that of the chief city in question. 

SEEDED. A phrase indicating that tapestry, hangings, or 
church vestments were, for their greater ornamentation, sprinkled 
over at regular intervals with pearls, anciently called " seeds// 

SEELING. A mediaeval mode of spelling ".ceiling." 

SEEL-STONE. A mediaeval mason's term for that stone 
which was placed on the top of a niche or tabernacle to crown 
and complete it. "Item, for garnyshiug y e seel-stone iis ivd." 
(Cliurclm-anlcns' Accounts of Thame, Oxon.} 


2EKPETON (Slicptrov). A Greek term (1) for a private 
chamber attached to a church, and also (2) for a sacristy. 

SELOURE. A mediaeval term for a canopy. 

SEMANTRON (Greek, afaavrpov}. 1. A kind of wooden 
rattle or hammer used in some Oriental churches instead of a 
bell. 2. An instrument of brass used for the same purpose. 3. 
An instrument for signalling to persons at a distance. 4. A bell. 
5. A metal drum. 

2HMEIO*OPO2 (Srjjusjo^o/ooe). A Greek term for a worker 
of miracles. 

SEMI-COPE. An inferior kind of cope. This term is some- 
times applied to a small cope ; occasionally to the old black Sarum 
choral copes, like cloaks without sleeves ; and occasionally to a 
cope of linen, serge, or buckram, unornamented with embroidery. 

SEMI - DOUBLE. An inferior or secondary ecclesiastical 
festival, ranking next above a simple feast or bare commemo- 

SEMI-FRATER. A layman, but sometimes a secular cleric, 
who, having benefited a religious house by gifts, alms, or per- 
sonal service, was regarded as in some measure belonging to the 
order or fraternity, having a share in its intercessory prayers and 
masses both before and after death. 


SEMINARIST. A Roman Catholic priest who has been 
educated in a seminary. 

SEMINARY (Latin, scminarium). 1. A seed-plot; ground 
where seed is planted for producing plants for transplantation. 
2. A place of education. 8. A school, college, or academy in 
which young persons are instructed in the several branches of 

SEMINARY PRIEST. A name given in England to Roman 
Catholic clergy during the seventeenth century, on account of 
their having been educated and prepared for holy orders in one 
of the foreign seminaries ; e.g., Rheims, Douay, or Toulouse. 

SEMINED. 1. Covered with seeds. 2. Seeded. See 

2EMNH (2fjuvn). A Greek term for a nun. 
SEMNION (2e,uwov). A Greek term for a monastery. 
2EMNO2 Sfuvof. A Greek term for a monk. 

SEMPECTA. A term to designate any monk who had passed 
fifty years in a monastery, and was excused from regular duties 
because of age and infirmity. 

SENDEL. A kind of taffeta, frequently used of old in the 
making of ecclesiastical vestments. 

SENESCHAL. A steward. 

SENIOR. 1. The title in some continental cathedrals and 
collegiate churches for the dean or provost. 2. The head of a 
college. 3. A monk more than fifty years old, who by custom 
was excused from serving certain monastic offices because of his 
age. 4. An arch-priest. 5. A chief canon. 

SENTENCE (DEFINITIVE) .A sentence pronounced by an 
ecclesiastical judge, which closes and puts an end to a contro- 
versial suit, and has reference to the chief subject or principal 
matter in dispute. 

SENTENCE (INTERLOCUTORY) .A sentence pronounced 
by an ecclesiastical judge, which determines or settles some 
incidental question which has arisen in the progress of an 
ecclesiastical suit. 

SENTENCE OF DEPRIVATION. A sentence by which 
the vicar or rector of a parish is formally deprived of his prefer- 


ment, after due hearing and examination before, and by the 
authority of, an ecclesiastical judge. 

' SENTENCES. The unarranged texts of Scripture, or preli- 
minary antiphons, which in the Prayer-book of the Anglican 
Church form a part of the introduction to Matins and Even- 

SENTENCES (OFFERTORY). The texts of Scripture 
either said or sung at the time of the Offertory in the Anglican 
form for the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. See OFFER- 

SEPTFOIL. An architectural ornament which has seven 
cusps or points. 

SEPTUAGESIMA. 1. The seventieth, t. e. the Sunday 
which falls about seventy days before Easter-day. 2. The 
period intervening between that Sunday and the season of 

SEPTUAGESIMAL. Consisting of seventy. 

SEPTUAGINT (Latin, septuaginta). The Greek version of 
the Holy Scriptures made by seventy-two persons at Alexandria, 
about two hundred and eighty years before the Christian era, and 
hence so called. 

SEPTUARY (Latin, septem}. Something composed of seven; 
a week. 

SEPTUM. A term used by certain seventeenth-century 
Anglican writers for the fixed or movable rail, placed on each 
side of the entrance of the sanctuary, to support the communi- 
cants when they knelt to receive the Lord's Body and Blood. 

SEPULCHRE. A receptacle for the Blessed Sacrament, 
which is reserved amongst the Latins from the Mass of Maundy- 
Thursday. There is a good example of an Eastern sepulchre 
in the north chapel of the church of St. Mary, Haddenham, in 
Buckinghamshire. See EASTER SEPULCHRE. 

SEQUENCE. 1. A term used to designate the pneuma or 
prolonged melodious tone or note of the " Alleluia " in the ser- 
vices of the Church. 2. A term describing the formal announce- 
ment of the Gospel for the day in the Mass. 3. A hymn in 

SEQUESTRATION. 1. This term signifies the separating 
or setting aside of a thing in controversy from the possession of 


both parties who contend for it ; and it is twofold, (a) volun- 
tary and (/3) necessary. Voluntary sequestration is that which 
is done by consent of each party ; necessary, is that which the 
judge, of his authority, does, whether the party will consent or 
not. 2. A sequestration is also a kind of execution for debt, 
especially in the case of a bcneficed clerk, of the profits and 
proceeds of the benefice, to be paid over to him who obtained 
the judgment, until the debt is satisfied. 

SERAPH. An angel of the highest order. 
SERAPHIC. Pertaining to a seraph. 

SERAPHIC DOCTOR (THE). A title commonly given to 
St. Bonaventure, of the order of St. Francis ; born at Bagnarea, 
in Tuscany, A.D. 1221 ; died at Lyons, July 14th, 1274. 

SERAPHIC HYMN. A term for the Ter-Sanctus, or 
" Holy, Holy, Holy," which concludes the Preface in the Com- 
munion Service. Its basis is found in Isaiah vi. 3. The hymn 
itself occurs in every ancient Liturgy. 

SERAPHIM. The Hebrew plural of seraph ; angels of the 
highest order in the celestial hierarchy. See ANGELS, NINE 

SERAPHINA. A keyed wind instrument, the tones of 
which are produced by the play of wind upon metallic reeds, as 
in the accordeon. It consists, like the organ, of a key-board, 
wind-chest, and bellows. 

SERJEANT-AT-ARMS. An officer attending on the person 
of the king, to arrest offending subjects of high rank and con- 

SERJEANT-AT-LAW. The highest degree taken in the 
common law. 

SERJEANT-AT-MACE. An officer who bears the mace 
before a mayor, or chief officer of a city. 

SERJEANT- SERVITOR. A servant in a monastic house. 

SERMOLOGUS. 1. A volume containing various sermons 
by Fathers, Popes, and Doctors of the Church, forming a portion 
of the book commonly known as " Legenda." 2. Any volume 
of sermons. 3. A commentary, in the form of a sermon, on the 

SERMON. A discourse delivered in public, more frequently 
during Divine service in church, by a cleric having authority 


to preach, with the object of imparting religious instruction to 
the faithful, commonly founded on some specific text or portion 
of Holy Scripture. Sermons are either written or extemporary, 
and may be divided into (1) dogmatic, (2) moral, (3) simple, (4) 
expository, (5) familiar, (6) argumentative, and (7) hortatory. 

SERVE (TO). A technical expression for ministering to a 
priest during his act of saying Mass, or offering the Christian 

SERVER (Latin, ailjutor). One who assists the priest at the 
celebration of the Holy Eucharist by lighting the altar tapers, 
arranging the books, bringing the bread, wine, and water for the 
Sacrifice, and by making the appointed responses, in the name 
and behalf of the assembled congregation. Sometimes called 
"Adjutor." Since the minor orders have been practically 
dropped in the Western Church, any Christian boy, duly trained, 
has been permitted, by custom and tacit ecclesiastical authority, 
to serve at the altar. 

SERVICE. A technical term to describe certain English 
musical compositions for the Canticles in the Morning and 
Evening Services of the Book of Common Prayer. 

Book of Common Prayer, and Administration of the Sacraments, 
arid other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church, &c. 

The Euchologion or Missal. 2. The Menosa or Breviary. 3. 
The Pentecostarion or Service-book for Whitsuntide. 4. The 
Paracletice or Ferial Office for two months ; and (5) the Triodion 
or Lenten volume. 

Missal. 2. The Pontifical. 3. The Day Hours. 4. The Bre- 
viary. 5. The Ritual. 6. The Processional. 7. The Ceremonial 
.for Bishops. 8. The Benedictional. 

SERVICE (DIVINE). 1. Any religious service; but (2) 
more especially the Holy Eucharist. 

SERVICE (THE). The Holy Christian Sacrifice. 
SERVING-ROBE. A surplice. 

SERVITES. A mendicant order, founded towards the close 
of the thirteenth century, by a Florentine physician. They were 


pledged by their vows to serve and minister to the poorest of 
the flock of Christ, and regarded themselves as servants of Mary, 
and under Her especial protection. Their dress was a cassock of 
serge, a cloak, a scapular, and an alms-bag. They were extremely 
popular during the sixteenth century, because of their many works 
of charity, when some of the more ancient religious orders were 
satirized and condemned. 


SET-OFF. A technical term in architecture for the project- 
ing part of a buttress. 


SEVEN CHIEF VIRTUES (THE). (I) Faith, (2) Hope, 
(3) Charity, (4) Prudence, (5) Temperance, (0) Chastity, and (7) 

SEVEN DAYS AFTER. The term by which the octave of 
a festival is described in the Book of Common Prayer. Thus 
the Proper Prefaces in the Communion Service, except that for 
Trinity Sunday, are to be said upon certain days, and likewise 
during seven days afterwards. 

SEVEN DEADLY SINS (THE). (1) Pride, (2) Anger, (3) 
Envy, (4) Sloth, (5) Lust, (6) Covetousuess, and (7) Gluttony. 

Wisdom, (2) Understanding, (3) Counsel, (4) Ghostly Strength 
or Fortitude, (5) Knowledge, ((>) True Godliness or Piety, (7) 
the Fear of the Lord. 

SEVEN SACRAMENTS (THE). (1) Baptism, (2) Con- 
firmation, (3) the Holy Eucharist, (4) Penance, (5) Holy Orders, 
(6) Matrimony, and (7) Extreme Unction. 

SEVERIE. An ancient term, used to designate a single bay 
or vault of a ceiling. 

SEXAGESIMA. The sixtieth, i.e. the Sunday which falls 
about the sixtieth day before Easter Sunday. 

SEXAGESIMAL. Pertaining to the number of sixty. 

SEXT. The fifth of the Seven Canonical Hours of Prayer, 
usually recited at noon. 

SEXTARY. A sacrist, sacristan, or sexton. 

SEXTON, OE SACRISTAN. The church official appointed 


to take charge 'of the ornamenta and holy things used in Divine 
service, usually preserved in the sacristy. He is a person so 
far regarded by the common law as one who has a freehold in 
his office ; and therefore, though he may be punished, yet he 
cannot be deprived by ecclesiastical censures. 

SEXTONSHIP. The office of a sexton. 

SEXTUS. A term, in the ancient canon law, to signify a 
collection of Decretals made by Pope Boniface VIII. ; thus called 
from the title, Liber Sextus, and being an addition to the five 
volumes of Decretals collected by Gregory IX. The persons 
reputed to have been commissioned to draw it up were William 
de Mandegotte, archbishop of Ambrun, Berenger, bishop of 
Bezieres, and Richard, bishop of Sienna. 

SHAFT. That portion of a pillar between the capital and 
base. It is sometimes called a " virge." 

SHALLOON. A mediaeval texture, chiefly made of silk, thick 
and lasting in its substance, frequently used for ecclesiastical 
vestments and church hangings. It was so called because it 
originally came from Chalons. The term is in use in parts of 
England to the present day. 

SHAVING-MAN. The officer frequently a doorkeeper, as 
at St. Mary Magdalene College, Oxford whose duty it was to 
shave the beards of the clerics in a college or religious house. 

SHAWM. 1. A musical instrument. 2. A pipe or hautboy. 

SHEER - THURSDAY. A terra to designate Maundy- 
Thursday. Some derive it from the custom which was current 
of cutting, trimming, and shearing the beard on that day, prepa- 
ratory to Easter. 

SHEMITIC. Of or pertaining to Shem, the son of Noah. 

SHEMITIC LANGUAGES. The Chaldee, Arabic, Syriac, 
Hebrew, Samaritan, Ethiopic, and Ancient Phoenician. 

SHINGLES. A term used to designate square pieces of oak 
used in lieu of tiles in covering church spires. 

SHIP (Latin, navis, navicula) . A term used to designate the 
vessel, formed like a ship, in which incense is kept. It was also 
called a boat. See INCENSE-BOAT. 


SHRIFT. The act of absolving a penitent, 

SHRIFT-HAND. The priest's right hand; that is, the hand 
used in shriving a penitent. 


SHRIFT-SIGN. The sign of the cross used by the priest in 
shriving a penitent. 

SHRINE (Saxon, serin; German, schrein ; Latin, scrl nium) . 
The receptacle of the body or relics of a saint ; a case or box : 
hence a reliquary, a tomb, or a special construction for reljcs. 
Shrines were either (1) portable or (2) stationary, and there are 
several existing examples of each. 1. There are two ancient 
stationary coped shrines of Norman character at Canterbury and 
Peterborough, and three of a later date at Chester and West- 
minster. Anciently there were shrines in almost every cathedral 
and large parish church ; e. y., St. Cuthbert's, at Durham ; St. 
Frideswide's, at Oxford ; St. William's, at York ; St. Thomas 
of Canterbury's, at Canterbury ; St. Chad's, at Lichfield ; St. 
Osmund's, at Salisbury ; St. Paulinus's, at Rochester ; St. Ethel- 
bert's, at Hereford ; St. Richard's, at Chichester ; St. Hugh's, at 
Lincoln ; St. Wilfred's, at Ripon, and many others. The relics 
of St. Cuthbert remain at Durham, and those of St. Edward the 
Confessor at Westminster. As Dr. Neale wrote : 

" Yet two at least in their holy shrines have escaped the spoiler's hand, 
And Saint Cntlibert and Saint Edward might alone redeem a land." 

2. Portable shrines containing saints' relics were commonly shaped 
like coped boxes, covered with precious metal, enamels, and en- 
graving. They were arranged above and behind an altar, on rood 
or other beams, and lamps were suspended before or around them. 
Three examples remain in the British Museum, four at South 
Kensington, one in the collection of the Society of Antiquaries, 
one at Shipley, in Sussex, and several in the collections of private 
individuals. Abroad examples of both kinds are very numerous 
of almost every age, date, and character. Specimens of good 
design and considerable beauty may be seen at Cologne, Rouen, 
Paris, Bruges, Florence, Metz, Nuremberg, Aix-la-Chapelle, 
Evreux, and Drontheim. The example of a portable shrine 
here given, is from the pencil of the late Mr. Welby Pugin. It 
is in shape like a chapel, with aisles and clerestory. Each side 
is divided into six panels, cusped and crocketed, with ornamental 
buttresses between, and flowing buttresses above to connect the 
upper and lower portions. Figures of saints are represented in 
each lower panel. In the centre of the roof is a rectangular 
canopied fleche, in which stands the figure of the saint whose 

SHRINE. 369 

relics are preserved within. The shrine consists of beaten, en- 


graved, and embossed metal-work, richly jewelled and ornamented. 
(See Illustration.) 

Lee's Glossary. 2 B 



SHRINE-CLOTH. The curtain hanging before a shrine. 

SHRIVE (TO). 1. To absolve a penitent after private con- 
fession. 2. To take or receive a confession. 3. To enjoin, give, 
or impose a penance after confession. Originally, merely "to 
enjoin/' from the Saxon serif an. 

SHRIVER. A confessor. 

SHRIVING-CLERK. 1. A parish priest. 2. A confessor. 
8. A penitentiary. 

SHRIVING-HAND. That hand by which the sign of the 
cross is made by the priest over the 
penitent in pronouncing absolution, i. e. 
the right hand. 


SHRIVING-PEW. A term some- 
times applied to a confessional. The 
accompanying illustration represents an 
ancient constructional confessional or 
shriving-pew at Tanfield, near Ripon, 
Yorkshire, supposed by competent au- 
thorities to be almost unique. Only the 
interior is here represented. (Sec Illus- 

SHRIVING-SIGN. That sign used 
or made by the priest with his right 
hand in giving absolution, i. e. the sign 
of the cross. 

SHROUD. A protection ; a cover : 
sHBmjTG-pEw. hence a covering or dress for the grave ; 

i. c. a winding-sheet. 

SHROUDS (THE). A term for a covered walk or cloister in 
the Old Cathedral of St. Paul, London. 


SHRO VE-HAND. The hand with which a penitent is shriven; 
i.e. the right hand. 


SHROVE-SIGN. The sign of the cross, made by the priest 
over the penitent when shriving him. 

SHROVE-SUND AY. Quinquagesima Sunday; i.e. the Sun- 
day before Shrove-Tuesday. 

SHROVE-TIDE. 1. The period between the evening of the 
Saturday before Quinquagesima Sunday and the morning of 
Ash- Wednesday ; i.e., that time when, preparatory to the Lenten 
season, the faithful were shriven. 2. Confession-tide. 

SHROVE (TO). To join in the festivities of Shrove-tide. 

SHROVE-TUESDAY. The Tuesday before Ash-Wednesday, 
Confession-Tuesday. The day on which the faithful of the West- 
ern Church are expected to make their private confession in 
preparation for the right use of Lent and Easter. To shrive is 
technically to forgive, though anciently it signified to enjoin, i.e. 
to enjoin a penance : hence Shrove-Tuesday is the day on which 
people go to confession or penance, and are shriven. 

SHROVINGL The festivity of Shrove-tide. 

SHRYVING-CLOTH. Some antiquaries hold that this was 
the veil which was hung before the rood-loft in Lent ; others 
believe it to have been a head-veil assumed by women when 
they went to confession in church ; for, as confessionals probably 
did not generally exist in the ancient Church of England, a 
" shryving- cloth " may have been found convenient in protect- 
ing the penitent, i. e. the person confessing, from the public 
gaze. The latter explanation seems at least reasonable and 

SIBYL (Latin, sibylla). In Pagan antiquity the sibyls were 
certain women endowed with the spirit of prophecy. It is asserted 
that twelve sibyls, in various parts of the world, foretold the 
advent and history of our Divine Lord ; consequently, these sibyls 
are not only referred to in Christian writers, e.g. St. Clement of 
Alexandria, St. Jerome and St. Augustine, but their prophecies 
are alluded to in the Dies Tree. They are represented as women 
of tall and commanding mien, robed in long tunics jewelled and 
embroidered. Both in sculpture and illuminations representa- 
tions of them may be seen. The sibyls were as follows : (1) 
Libyan, (2) Persian, (3) Egyptian, (4) Cumsean, (5) Samian, (6) 
European, (7) Cimmerian, (8) Tiburtine, (9) Delphic, (10) Italian, 
(11) Hellespontine, (12) Phrygian. 



SIGILL. A seal or signature. 

SILENT SERVICES. 1. The special services of Holy Week. 

2. Meditations. 


SIMONIAC. One who buys or sells preferment in the 

SIMONY. The sin of officially bestowing the gift or grace 
of holy orders for money, temporal gain, or their equivalents. 
(See Acts viii. 20.) It is so called from Simon Magus, here 
referred to. Simony is sometimes defined as a corrupt contract 
for a presentation to any benefice of the Church for money, gift, 
or reward. Simony has been formally forbidden by the Western 
Church as well as by the Church of England both before and 
after the Reformation. 

SIMULACHRE (Latin, simulaciiim) . 1. An image. 2. A 
representation. 3. A picture. 

SIN-BORN. 1. Derived from sin. 2. Born in sin. 

SINDON. 1. A napkin. 2. A cloth for holding and enclosing 
the bread offered for the Holy Eucharist in the Eastern Church. 

3. A term sometimes applied to the communion-cloth which the 
faithful in certain parts of the Church hold before them when 
partaking of the Blessed Sacrament. 4. In the Liturgy of the 
Church of Milan this term is applied to the linen cloth which 
covers the altar-slab. 


SINECURE. 1. A benefice of pecuniary value, sometimes 
a rectory, otherwise a vicarage, in which there is neither church 
hor population. 2. A benefice in which a rector (clerical or lay) 
receives the tithes, though the cure of souls, legally and ecclesi- 
astically, belongs to some clerk. 3. A benefice in which there 
is both rector and vicar ; in which case the duty commonly rests 
with the vicar, and the rectory is what is called a sinecure ; but 
no church in which there is but one incumbent is properly a sine- 
cure. A church may be down, or the parish become destitute of 
parishioners, but still there is not a sinecure, for the incumbent 
is under an obligation of performing Divine service if the church 
should be rebuilt, or the parish become inhabited. 

SINECURIST. One who enjoys a sinecure. 

SINGERS. Those who officially take part in singing the 


services of the sanctuary. In the early Church they were a dis- 
tinct order in fact, one of the minor orders, and were solemnly 
set apart by a rite of ordination or solemn appointment. The 
fourth Council of Carthage, A.D. 398, enjoined their public ordi- 
nation by a specific form of words, and they are mentioned by 
name in the ancient Liturgy of the Church of Alexandria. In 
the Middle Ages special schools were set up for the regular in- 
struction of ecclesiastical singers, a useful rule still observed in 
our ancient cathedrals and collegiate foundations. Some modern 
Church of England institutions have followed the ancient rule and 
custom in this particular. 


SINGING-CAKES. The ancient term for the priest's bread 
or wafer used in the Christian Sacrifice. In Queen Elizabeth's 
Injunctions it is ordered that they be round as heretofore, but 
somewhat thicker, and without the usual imprint of a crucifix, 
a cross, or the sacred monograms, I.H.S. or XPS. See ALTAR- 

SINGING-MAN. A clerk or man-chorister in a cathedral, 
collegiate, or parish church. 


SI QUIS (Latin, " If any one "). These words give the name 
to a public notification by a candidate for orders of his intention 
to make inquiry if any legal impediment can be justly, duly, and 
properly alleged against him. 

SIE. A title of honour, equivalent to the Latin " Dominus," 
anciently given to priests, who were in England commonly called 
" Sir Johns." This title is found on certain monumental brasses 
and other inscriptions of an early date, though the term "Magister" 
is also very often and more commonly applied to the clergy in the 
century immediately preceding the Reformation. 

SISTERHOOD. A body of women living together under rule 
or vows, and sometimes under both, united in one faith and wor- 
ship, and engaged in practising the corporal works of mercy. 


SKAPAMAFKON (SKapa/jayicov) . A Greek term, not com- 
monly used, to designate an out-door cope. The cappa pluvialis. 


SKEPTIC. A person who doubts the existence of God, or 
the special truths of the Christian religion. 

2KEYO*TAAKION (2fcew>0uXaioi;). A Greek term (1) for 
the vestry of a church ; as also (2) for an aumbrey. 

2KETO<I>TAAH (2icuo0uAa). A Greek term for the sacristan 
or keeper of the sacred vessels. 

2KIAAION (Sicm'Stov). A Greek term for an ecclesiastical cap. 

2KOT4>IA (SKOU^IO). A Greek term for the official cap of an 
Oriental priest. 


SOCINIAN. A follower of Socinus, a native of Sienna, in 
Tuscany, who founded the heretical sect of Socinians. 

SOCINIANISM. The heretical opinions of Faustus Socinus, 
who maintained our Blessed Saviour to have been a mere man 
specially inspired, who denied His divinity as well as the all- 
sufficient and perfect atonement made by Him, and who wholly 
repudiated the fact of man's original sin. 

SOLA. A term used in old English registers to designate 
a spinster. 

SOLAR. 1. The medigeval term for an upper chamber, with- 
drawing-room, state sleeping-room, or gallery in a country resi- 
dence. 2. A terrace over the side-aisles of an Oriental church. 
3. An open gallery overlooking a cloister or chapel in a religious 
house for women. 

SOLEMN SERVICE. A modern Anglican term used to 
signify a choral celebration of the Holy Eucharist, with priest, 
deacon, and subdeacon, or with music. It is equivalent to the 
" High Mass " or " Solemn Mass " of the Roman Catholics, and 
if used of Evening Service, is the same as " Solemn Vespers." 

SOLEMNITIES (THE). An ancient term to designate the 
Holy Eucharist. 

SOLEMNIZATION. The act of solemnizing. 

SOLEMNIZE (TO). 1. To celebrate; to signify or honour 
by ceremonies. 2. To perform religiously at stated periods and 
for particular purposes. 4. To make reverential^ grave, or serious. 

SOLEMNLY. (1) With gravity, (2) with religious reverence, 
(3) with seriousness. 


SOLE OF WINDOW. A window-sill. 

SOLIFIDIAN (Latin, solus and fides). One who maintains 
that faith alone without works is all that is necessary to justi- 

SOLIFIDIANISM. The tenets of Solifidians. 

SOLITARY. 1. A hermit. 2. A religious of a contemplative 


SOLUS. A term used in old English registers to designate 
a bachelor. 

SOLUTA, A term sometimes used in old English registers 
to designate a spinster. 

SOMATIC (Greek, <rwjuemicoc) . Pertaining to a body. 

SOMATIST. 1. One who admits the existence of corporeal 
or material beings only. 2 . One who denies the existence of 
spiritual substances. 

SOMATOLOGY. The doctrine of bodies or material sub- 

SOMMERBEAM. A chief beam or girder in a floor. A 
term frequently found in monastic inventories. 

SONG (Saxon, song; Dan. za'ng ; German, sang). 1. In 
general that which is sung or uttered with musical modulations. 
2. A poetical composition. 3. Poetry. 4. A little poem. 5. 
Hymns. 6. Canticles. 7. Verse. 

SONG OF SONGS. The Book of the Canticles, or the Song 
of Solomon, one of the mystical books of Holy Scripture not 
often read in Divine Service. 

SONGS OF DEGREES. The technical title for the fifteen 
psalms, beginning with Psalm cxx., Ad Dominum, to Psalm 
cxxiv., Ecce Nunc, known also as the Gradual Psalms. See 

SOUL-BELL. The passing-bell, rung on the decease of a 

SOUL-CAKES. -A term used for the doles of sweetened 
bread, anciently distributed at the church doors on All- Souls' 
day (November 2) by the rich to the poor, They were frequently 


stamped with the impression of a cross, or were triangular in 
form, and were given away with inscriptions on paper or parch- 
ment, soliciting the prayers of the receivers for the souls of cer- 
tain departed persons, whose names were thus put on record. 
Some of the earliest specimens of block-printing consist of 
" soul-papers," as they were termed. 

SOUL-CHIME. The ringing of the passing-bell. 
SOUL-MASS. Mass for the dead. 

SOUL'S-COT, OR SOUL-SCOT. A term for the payment 
made at the grave to the parish priest, in whose church the 
service for the departed had been said. 

. SOUL- SEAT. That place where the friends of a departed 
Christian in the Middle Ages offered alms, at or near the high 
altar, for the use of the clergy, the benefit of the Church, and for 
the good estate of the departed soul. While offering, they recited 
the Psalm De Profundis, and then a versicle and response, asking 
for eternal rest and peace for the person passed away. 

SOUL-SERVICE. Mass for the departed. 

SOUND-HOLES. Perforations in the wooden shutters of 
the belfry windows in church towers for allowing the sound of 
the bells to be heard. In early times they were simply horizon- 
tal divisions, obtained by the arrangement of the planks used ; 
afterwards, the perforations were ornamental in character, shaped 
like a trefoil or quatrefoil, and harmonized with the character of 
the structure. 

SOUNDING-BOARD. A board or structure, canopy or 
tester, with a flat surface, suspended over a pulpit, to prevent the 
sound of the preacher's voice from ascending, and thus propa- 
gating it further in a horizontal direction. 

SOUSE. An ancient English term for a corbel. 

SOUTH END. The end of an altar 011 the south or epistle 
side ; that is, on the right-hand side of a person looking east- 
wards towards it. 

SOUTH SIDE. The side of an altar on the south or epistle 
side ; that is, on the right-hand side of a person looking east- 
Ward towards it. That part of the altar at which the priest, 
during the Mass, says or sings the Collects and the Epistle for 
the day. 


SPANDREL. The triangular space included between the 
arch of a doorway and the rectangle formed by the outer mould- 
ings over it. 

SPAN OF AN ARCH. The breadth of the opening between 
the imposts. 

SPAN-PIECE. The name given in parts of England to the 
collar-beam of a pointed roof. 

SPAR. 1. A mediaeval term for the timbers of various kinds 
used in the construction of houses, monasteries, churches, and 
other buildings. 2. A wooden bracket which supports the som- 
merbeam by the sides of a doorway. 

SPATULARIA. A term found in English inventories of 
Ecclesiastical vestments, descriptive of the ornamental apparels 
placed round the neck and wrists of the alb. 

SPECIAL CONFESSION. A confession of sin made by a 
particular person to a particular priest, in contradistinction to the 
general confession made by a congregation repeating a form of 
public confession after the priest or minister. 

SPECIAL INTENTION. 1. The act of specially intending. 
2. The celebration of the Christian Sacrifice with the object of 
gaining some particular gift or grace. 3. The act of receiving 
the Holy Communion with the object of obtaining some parti- 
cular grace. 

SPECIAL PSALMS. An Anglican term to designate the 
fact that " Proper Psalms on certain days " are appointed to be 
used in the Matins and Evensong of the Church of England. 
These days are, Christmas-day, Ash- Wednesday, Good Friday, 
Easter-day, Ascension-day, and Whitsun-day. 

SPECIES. 1. Sort. 2. Kind. 3. Appearance to the senses. 
4. Visible or sensible representation. In Eucharistic theology 
the " species " is the outward and visible part in the Blessed 
Sacrament of the Altar. 

SPEKE-HOUSE. A room for conversation. See PABLOUK. 

SPERE. A term for the screen across the lower end of a 
monastic hall. 


SPERVER. A term for the tester, canopy, or covering of an 
altar or shrine. 


SPIKENARD. A precious ointment or balm, so called from 
spica nardi, a vegetable ear or spicy shrub, growing in India 
and Syria. Much difference of opinion exists as to what this com- 
position was. Some hold that it was made from lavender, called 
spica in the East, because among all the verticillated plants this 
alone bears a spike. Pliny has described the lavender plant 
under the name nardus. There seems, consequently, consider- 
able reason to coincide in this supposition. Amongst the 
Romans, at the time of the introduction of Christianity, the art 
of making odorous balms and sweetly- spiced ointments appears 

to have been considerable. 

SPIRE. A body that shoots up to a point; a tapering body, 
An acutely-pointed termination given to turrets and towers 
forming their roof, and usually carried up to a great height. 
Spires came in, as is generally admitted, soon after the introduc- 
tion of the Norman style of architecture. These were generally 
circular or octagonal, and in comparison with later examples, low* 
They were usually constructed of stone. First- Pointed examples 
which exist show great elevation given to spires, though they 
were less acute than those of a later period. The spire of the 
Cathedral church of Christ at Oxford is a fine and remarkable 
example. Under the Second-Pointed style the spires were very 
acute, having parapets and gutters around them, but did not 
materially differ from those of an earlier date. Examples of 
this style occur at Newark, St. Mary's Church, Oxford, and at 
Heckington, Lincolnshire. In the Third-Pointed style the same 
general arrangement and design was carried out, though broach 
spires that is, spires which rose from the exterior of the tower 
walls- were generally abandoned. The churches of St. Michael, 
Coventry, and Louth, Lincolnshire, are remarkable examples of 
this style. Those referred to were all of stone, Anciently, 
spires were sometimes made of timber, and covered either with 
lead or shingles. Many examples of the latter occur in Essex, 
Sussex, and Kent. A dwarf spire, covered with lead, stands on 
the tower of St. Mary's Church, Aylesbury. Small spires of open 
work, made of timber, are sometimes placed at the east end of 
the naves of large foreign churches. In some of these the Lady- 
bell or Sanctus-bell is placed. 

SPIRE CROSS. In mediaeval times every church spire was 
crowned and surmounted by an ornamental cross. Its form was 
very varied, and frequently the representation of a cock was 
placed at the top, while at the foot of the cross was a globe, 
signifying here, as in the case of the royal orb, surmounted by 
the emblem of Christianity, the influence and power of the cross 



over the world. The richest examples of spire-crosses are found 
in France and Germany. That from the pencil of the late Mr. 
Pugin, in the accompanying woodcut, is not unlike the cross 
surmounting the spire of Amiens Cathe- 
dral. Formed of bands of iron, with a 
quatrefoil at the juncture, it has two 
archaic fleurs-de-lys at the extremity of 
the arms, and is adorned with trefoils 
along its edges throughout. (See Illus- 

mental act of holding communion with 
our Blessed Saviour in the sacrament 
of the Eucharist, without actually par- 
taking of It. 


spiritual corporation is one, the mem- 
bers of which are entirely spiritual per- 
sons > as bishops, archdeacons, parsons, 
and vicars, who are sole corporations ; 
also deans and chapters, as formerly ab- 
bots and convents, are bodies aggregate, 

A relationship effected through some 
religious or spiritual act, such, for ex- 
ample, as that between godparents and 


bishop is the guardian of the spiritualities during the vacancy of 
a bishopric ; and when an archbishopric is Vacant, the dean 
and chapter of his diocese are guardians of the spiritualities, who 
exercise all ecclesiastical jurisdiction during the vacancy. 

SPITAL. A hospital, usually a place of refuge for lepers. 

SPLAY. The expansion given to doors, windows, and other 
openings in walls, by which means, in the case of windows, light 
is extended considerably in the interior of Pointed architectural 

SPONGE (HOLY). A sponge used in the Oriental Church 
for cleansing the chalice or paten in the Sacrifice of the Holy 


SPONSA CHRISTI. The first words of a hymn for All- 
Saints' day, an English version of which runs as follows : 

" Spouse of Christ in arms contending 

O'er each clime beneath the sun. 
Mix with pfayers for help descending, 

Notes of praise for triumphs won. 
As the Church to-day rejoices 

All her Saints in one to join, 
So from earth let all our voices 

Eise in melody divine." 

SPONSAGE (TOKEN OF). That which is given and re- 
ceived by the witnesses or contracting parties in the case of 
espousals, as a token of such act or witnessing to such act. 

SPONSALIA. 1. Espousals. 2. Contract either of present 
or future marriage. 

SPONSOR. 1. A surety; one who binds himself to answer 
for another, and is responsible for his default. 2. A name given 
to those who, at the baptism of infants^ accept and profess the 
Christian faith in their name, and guarantee then religious 
education in the faith and fear of God. 3. A godfather or 

SPOON. A vessel used both in preparing the chalice for the 
Christian Sacrifice, and also for distributing the Blessed Sacra- 
ment to the faithful generally, to the infirm and to the sick. In 
the first case, the bowl is perforated, in order that any impurities 
in the altar wine may be easily and simply removed ; in the 
other the bowl is solid, and the handle usually made in the form 
of a cross. Many ancient examples exist. The spoon is like- 
wise used in the ceremonies of a coronation. 


SPURR MONEY. A term for a fine levied by custom on 
behalf of the choristers of certain old foundations, on persons 
entering the church. 

SPY-WEDNESDAY. An old term for the Wednesday in 
Holy Week, so called because of the work which Judas Iscariot 
carried on upon that day, when he went forth to make prepara- 
tions for the betrayal of his Lord and Master. 

SQUILLERY. An old English term for scullery ; e.g., for 
the scullery of a monastic house or episcopal palace. 

SQUINCH. A term to designate a small arch formed across 


the corner angle of a tower in Pointed architecture, to support 
the alternate sides of octagonal spires, lanterns, &c. 


STABAT MATER. The first words of a lofty, dignified, 
and grand Latin hymn on the Crucifixion, commonly attributed 
to Jacobus or Jacopone, an Italian noble, born at Todi, in 
Umbria. He was a Franciscan, and noted for his piety and 
devotion. He died at his birthplace in 1306. His epitaph runs 
as follows : " Ossa B. Jacoponi de Benedictis, Tudertini, qui, 
stultus propter, nova mundum arte delusit et coalum rapuit/' 

STAGE. In architecture a step, floor, or storey. 

STALL. A fixed wooden seat, enclosed either partially or 
wholly at the back and sides. In all large churches of old there 
was a range of wooden stalls on each side, as well as at the west 
end of the choir, which seats were separated from each other 
by large projecting elbows with fixed desks before them. In 
cathedral, collegiate, prebendal, and other large churches the 
stalls were enclosed at the back with ornamental panelling, and 
were surmounted by overhanging canopies of tabernacle- work, 
often carried to a considerable height, and enriched with pin- 
nacles, pierced tracery, crockets, and other rich carving. Such 
specimens can be found in most of our ancient cathedrals. In 
ordinary parish churches the stalls were without canopies, and 
frequently had no panelling at the back above the level of the 
arms ; but in some instances the walls over them were lined with 
wooden panels and a cornice above, as may be seen in the church 
of St. Mary, Thanie, Oxon. 


STANCHION. The upright iron bar, ornamented with a 
spike or a fleur-de-lys between the mullions, either of a window 
or of a screen. They were also termed "staybars" and "stay- 

STANDARD. This term appears to have been given to divers 
articles of furniture in mediaeval times, amongst others, to (1) 
large chests for books or vestments, (2) to the vertical iron bars 
of a window, as also (3) to large standard candlesticks placed 
before altars ; e.g., " Two great standards of laten to stande 
before the High Altar of Jesu." (Lysons 5 Magna Britannia, 
vol. i. p. 716.) 

STANDEES (Latin, consislentes) . One of the orders of peni- 
tents in the Primitive Church. 


STANDING-CUP. A cup with a bowl, stem, and foot, in 
contradistinction to a cup, shaped like a modern tumbler. Many 
ancient examples of such exist in the plate belonging to the 
colleges of our great universities, 


STANDISH. A. mediaeval term for the inkstand found in 
the scriptorium of a monastery, and in the vestry or sacristy of 
a church. 


STAR CHAMBER. A chamber so called because the ancient 
roof thereof was garnished with gilded stars. It was a court, the 
original of which was very ancient, but remodelled from time to 
time by several successive statutes. It consisted of several of 
the great lords, spiritual and temporal, five being councillors, 
together with two judges of the courts of Common Law, without 
the intervention of any jury. Their legal jurisdiction extended 
over riots, perjury, misbehaviour of public officers and other 
notorious misdemeanours. Afterwards, the power of this court 
being unduly stretched, as is affirmed, it was abolished in the 
middle of the seventeenth century. 

STATIONS. 1. Places of assembly used by the Primitive 
Christians on Sunday, Wednesday, and Friday. 2. The steps or 
stages of the Passion of our Blessed Lord, represented in churches 
and cloisters by painting, sculpture, and embroidery. 3. The 
halting-places of solemn religious processions ; e.g., on the Roga- 
tion-days, Corpus Christi, the reception of a legate or of a 
bishop, or the dedication-feast of a church. 4. This name is also 
given to a service which is used at the steps or stages of the 
Passion of our Blessed Lord in churches or cloisters, at or about 
the period of Passion and Holy weeks. 

STAYPOANASTA2IMA, TA (^Tavpoavaordo^a, TO). A. 
Greek term for hymns commemorative of the cross and of the 

2TAYPOrA9ANA (SraupoyaOava). A Greek term for the 
crosses made of red and white ribbons, which are attached for 
eight days to the dress of the newly baptized. 

2TAYPO6EOTOKION (ZravpoOtoroKiov) . A Greek term for 
a hymn commemorating the Blessed Virgin at the cross, corres- 
ponding to the Latin Stabat Mater, 


STAYPOrmriON (SraupoTn/ytov). 1. The rite of fixing a 
cross in token of direct patriarchal jurisdiction. 2. A church 
or convent where a cross has been so fixed, and exempt from 
ordinary diocesan jurisdiction. 

2TAYPOIIPO2KYNHSI2 (SraupoTrpoaKuv^/e). A Greek 
term for the office of the cross on Quadragesima Sunday. 

2TAYPOS (2rau/>oc). A Greek term for (1) the cross; (2) a 

STAYPO<i>OPOI (Srau/oo^opot). A Greek term for the six' 
great dignitaries of the Oriental Church who wear a cross on 
their caps. 

2TATPPQNEIN (2rav/o/oovv) . A Greek word signifying 
either to crucify, or to make the sign of the cross. 

STAYNED. Painted. 

STAYNED CLOTHS. Altar-cloths of linen, painted with 
Scripture or other appropriate subjects, commonly in use in the 
ancient Church of England. 


STELE. A medieval term to describe a stem, stalk, or 

STEP OF PARDON. That step in a church quire on which 
a penitent publicly knelt for absolution. 


2TE<ANO2 (Srtyavoe). A Greek term for the nuptial 

STEWARD. One who manages the domestic concerns of a 
family, religious house, or episcopal estate. 

STICHARION (Greek, <rn X a>ov). 1. An alb. 2. A tunic 
worn by deacons, sub deacons, and readers in the Oriental 

STILTED ARCH. An arch which has the capital or impost 
mouldings of the jambs below the level of the springing of the 


curve, the mouldings of the arch being continued vertically 
down to the impost mouldings. 

STILL-TYDE. Holy Week. 

STILL WEEK. A term used in Northumberland to desig- 
nate Holy Week ; possibly because both bells and organs were 
anciently silent during that sacred season. Sec HOLY WEEK. 

STIPEND (Latin, stipendium). 1. Settled pay for services, 
whether daily, monthly, or annually. 2. Allowance. 3. Com- 
pensation. 4. Salary. 5. Hire. 6. Wages. 

STIPENDIARY (Latin, stipendiarius) . One who performs 
services for a settled compensation, whether by the day, month, 
or year. 

STIPENDIARY PRIEST. 1. A priest who officiates for a 
determined compensation, whether in a church, chapel, or 
chantry. 2. A priest who is appointed in certain foreign ca- 
thedrals to make arrangements for the saying of masses for 
deceased persons. 

2TIXHPON (Srt'xn/ooi;). A Greek term for a short hymn or 

2TIXOAOFEIN (2rtxoAoyai>). A Greek term signifying "to 
chant the Psalms verse by verse." 

STOC. A brazen tube, formed like a cow's horn, used in the 
Middle Ages as a speaking-trumpet on the tops of church towers 
to assemble the faithful to worship, and to proclaim new moons, 
quarters, and ecclesiastical festivals. The Marquis of Drogheda 
possesses a remarkable Irish specimen of the stoc. 

STOCK. 1. A vessel containing a store or supply. 2. A 
vessel containing oils blessed for use in the Christian sacraments 
is so called in ordinary parlance. See OIL-STOCK. 

STOCKING. A covering for the leg or foot. Bishops and 
prelates wear official stockings of cloth of gold or purple. Local 
councils have approved of this practice both in Italy and 

STOLE. The stole (orarium) is a narrow band of silk or stuff, 
fringed at the ends, adorned with embroidery, and even jewels, 
worn on the left shoulder of deacons, and round the neck of 
bishops and priests, pendent on each side nearly to the ground. 
The Council of Laodicea, A.D. 364, forbade the use of the stole 
to subdeacons. (Vide Krazer, de Liturg. p. 301 ; also Compen- 


dium Cceremoniarum, Antwerpice, p. 122.) It was used in the 
administration of the Sacraments and other sacred functions. 
Anciently, the stola, adorned with stripes of purple and gold, 
formed part of the ordinary dress of the Romans, and probably 
was adopted as a ministering vestment by the early Christians ; 
while in after-ages and by degrees the band or ornamental part 
only was retained, which would of course present much the same 
appearance as that worn at the present time. Georgius remarks 
" that St. Augustine of Canterbury is said to have given to St. 
Livinus a purple stole and chasuble on the day of his ordination." 
It is recorded that St. Thomas of Canterbury always wore his 
stole ; in fact, such a practice was ordinary with ecclesiastics in 
the Middle Ages, but is now solely confined to the Bishop of 
Rome. It was usually so long as to have reached nearly down 
to the feet, and in all the existing brasses on which it is figured, 
there is not one example of the short shovel-like stole which, in 
many parts of the Latin communion, it is now the fashion to wear ; 
on the contrary, we learn that stoles were anciently all long. Mr. 
Welby Pugin, a very competent authority, suggested that they 
should be invariably made three yards in length. In the Western 
Church, it is the custom for the priest when ministering at the 
altar to cross the stole on his breast, and put the ends through 
the girdle of the alb. Although this might occasionally have 
been done in early times, it did not become a general custom 
until about the thirteenth century. The deacon at Mass wears 
his stole over the left shoulder, fastened under the right arm. 
Amongst other vestments which have been retained in the 
Reformed English Church, without any direct injunction for 
their being worn, this is one. A few specimens 'of the Early 
English stole still exist ; there are two in the possession of Lord 
Willoughby de Broke, one of which is ornamented with the in- 
scription, In hord mortis succurre nobis, Domine, and the other 
with heraldic devices of the Lincoln family. 

2TOAH (SroATj). A Greek term for (1) a vesture or vest- 
ment ; (2) a vestment reaching to the feet, and worn by bishops 
and priests. This word does not describe the vestment corres- 
ponding with the Western stole. 

STOAIZEIN (2roAietv). A Greek term signifying "to put 
the chrisom robe on a person." 

STOOL. 1. A seat without a back. 2. A little form, con- 
sisting of a board with three or four legs for a single person. 
3. A seat for acolytes, servers, and attendant clerks in the solemn 
services of the Church. 

Lee't Glouary. 2 C 


STOOL OF REPENTANCE. An elevated seat in a Scottish 
kirk, on which persons were formerly compelled to sit as a punish- 
ment for having committed certain of the deadly sins. 

STOOLE. An old English form of spelling the word stole 
(orarium) . See STOLE. 


STOUP FOR HOLY WATER. A vessel of stone for hold- 
ing Holy or Blessed Water, placed at the entrance of churches in 
many parts of Western Christendom, into which all the faithful 
who enter dip the fingers of their right hand, blessing themselves 
with the sign of the cross. This practice was unfortunately 
abolished at the Reformation. Examples of such stoups of 
various kinds are very common in this country, though the great 
majority have been chipped, mutilated, or destroyed. Roman- 
esque examples may be found at St. Peter's, Oxford, and Stanton 
Harcourt, in the same county ; First-Pointed specimens at Mel- 
rose Abbey, in Scotland, and at Horsepath, Oxfordshire; 
Second-Pointed at Burbage, Wiltshire, and Thame, Oxfordshire; 
Third-Pointed at Ewelme, Minster Lovell, and Ricot Chapel, 
Oxfordshire, and at St. Giles's, Oxford. Occasionally, in ancient 
times, vessels of lead or latten appear to have been placed on 
stands at the entrance of churches for holding the Holy Water, 
an example common in parts of the Continent. There are some 
church porches in which the stoup for Holy water is found on the 
right-hand side of the inner door. See HOLY- WATER STOUP. 

STRAW-DAY. A term used in certain parts of England 
to designate St. Stephen's feast, because on that day straw was 
anciently blessed. 


STRING-COURSE. A projecting horizontal band or line of 
mouldings in a building. 


2TYAITHS (SruAfrrje). A Greek term for a pillar monk. 

STYLITES. An order of men so called by the Greeks of the 
whole empire, because they stood upon the top of pillars expressly- 
erected for the exercise of their patience. They were called Sancti 
Coiumnares, or Pillar Saints, by the Latins, and appear to have 
arisen in the East during the fifth century. The inventor of this 


strange discipline was Simeon, a Syrian, who is said to have 
passed thirty-seven years of his life in this manner. In the suc- 
ceeding century another saint of the same name is said to have 
remained on his pillar no less than sixty-eight years. 

SUBARRHATION. A term used to designate the delivery 
by the bridegroom to the bride of the ring and other gifts at the 
time and during the act of marriage. 

SUB-CANON. An inferior or minor canon. 

SUB-CHANTER, A term to designate the precentor or sub- 
precentor of a cathedral or collegiate church. 

SUB-DEACON. 1. The first of the holy orders in the West- 
ern Church. This order was abolished in the Church of England 
at the Reformation ; it is now, however, desired by many that 
the order should be restored. 2. The epistoler at High Mass 
is so called. 

SUB-DEAN. An official in a cathedral church, who is a 
dean's deputy, and is frequently second in rank to the dean, 
though this order does not always obtain. 

SUBLAPSARIAN. One of that class of Calvinists who con- 
sider the decree of election as contemplating the apostasy of men 
as past, and the elect as being in a fallen and guilty state. The 
Sublapsarian regards the election of grace as a remedy for exist- 
ing evils, while the Supralapsarians view it as a part of God's 
original purpose in regard to men. 

SUB-PREBENDARY. A prebendary in inferior orders. 

SUB-PRECENTOR. An assistant to and substitute for the 
precentor of a church or cathedral, whose duty it is to attend 
to and guide the singing in the absence of the precentor. 

SUB-PRIOR. An official in a priory, who is the prior's 
deputy, and is ordinarily second in rank to the prior. 

SUB-SACRIST. An assistant to or deputy of the ordinary 
sacrist or sacristan of a church. 


SUBSELLIA. 1. The lower range of stalls usually occupied 
by the choristers or choir-boys in a cathedral or collegiate church. 
2. The two lower steps in a sedilia ; i.e., those for the deacon 

2 c 2 



SUBSTRATI. Kueelers ; one of the four orders of penitents 
in the early Church. 

SUCCENSUM. An old term for a censer. See THUKIBLE. 

SUCCENTOR. 1. A precentor's assistant in a cathedral 
church. 2. A singer in a collegiate church or chapel. 3. A 
sub -precentor. 4. A cantor. 

SUCCINCTORIUM. An ornament peculiar to the Pope, 
resembling a maniple, upon which is embroidered the figure of a 
lamb and flag (See AGNUS DEI). It hangs to his left side, being 
fastened by a cincture, and is a substitute, according to some 
writers on ritual, for a purse or burse, formerly carried for hold- 
ing money to be distributed as alms ; according to others, it was 
only a resemblance of the ends of a ribbon, formerly worn by 
most bishops as a cincture over the alb, and which was called 
balteum pudidtioe, or " belt of modesty." 

SUFFERING-DAY. Good-Friday. 

SUFFERING-PSALM. Psalm xxii., " Deus, Deus meus " ; 
used in the services of the Church Universal on Good Friday. 


SUFFRAGAN BISHOPS. 1. Bishops who have been con- 
secrated to help or assist other bishops in ordinary confirming 
and administering their dioceses. 2. Ordinary bishops ; that is, 
bishops exercising ordinary jurisdiction in their own proper dio- 
ceses, are also called suffragans, being under the archiepiscopal 
jurisdiction of the chief bishop of the province. 


STAAEITOTPrOS (SuAAttVoivryoe). A Greek term to desig- 
nate the assistant during the offering of the Christian Sacrifice. 

2YMBOAON (Sfyi/BoAov). A Greek term for (1) the Holy 
Eucharist ; (2) a creed ; (8) a bell. 

SUMMER-HOUSE SILVER. A payment made in the me- 
diaeval ages by certain tenants of abbeys to the abbot or prior, in 
lieu of providing a temporary summer habitation for them when 
they came from a distance to inspect their property. 



2YMIIA0EIN (2u/i7ra0tv). A Greek term signifying "to 

STM^PH^OS (Swju^oc). A Greek term for a bishop-elect. 

2YNAHTEIN (Svvairretv) . A Greek term signifying "to say 
the offices of various hours together/' or " to recite the Divine 
offices by accumulation." 

2YNAEAPION (2vva%dpiov). A Greek term for a book con 
taining an abbreviated form of the Menologion, containing an 
account of the various festivals read in the public office. 

designate the Fourth Sunday in Lent, on which it is customary 
for the Roman Patriarch to bless a jewel in the form of a rose, 
for presentation to some royal personage who, by the exercise 
of grace and virtue, has merited the distinction. 

SUNDAY OF THE LILIES. A term used to designate the 
Fifteenth Sunday after Trinity, so called because of our Lord's 
allusion to the lilies of the field, which occurs in the Gospel for 
that day. 

designate Septuagesima Sunday. 


term used to designate the First Sunday after Trinity. 

SUNDAY OF THE SOWER. A term used to designate 
Sexagesima Sunday. 


In the Oriental Church the Sunday after Ascension-day, when 
the work of the 318 Fathers gathered at the Council of Nicsea, 
A.D. 325, is formally commemorated. 

designate Palm- Sunday. 

SUNDAYS AFTER PENTECOST. The terms given to the 
Sundays from Whit- Sunday to Advent in the Roman Church* 
In England, anciently as now, these Sundays were called ( ' Sun- 
days after Trinity." 

2YNEI2AKTOI (Sui/t/Wrot). A Greek term for "concu- 

SUPER ALTAR. 1. This term is applied ordinarily and 
commonly to the ledge behind the altar, on which relics, flowers, 


candlesticks, and the altar-cross stand. It was very frequently so 
applied in the ancient Church of England. 2. It is also given 
to a portable altar placed on the altar itself at the time of the 
offering of the Christian Sacrifice. See ALTAR (PORTABLE). 

.SUPER-FRONTAL. A covering for the top of the altar, 
which commonly hangs down about six inches all round, and is 
fringed. It is ordinarily made of silk velvet, satin, or damask, 
and is placed over the three white linen cloths which customarily 
cover and preserve the altar-slab. 

SUPER-HUMERAL CLOTH. A term used to designate 
the amice (amictus), that vestment which before being placed 
over the neck is put on the shoulders and then on the head of 
the person wearing it. See AMICE. 

SUPERHUMERALE. A name for the archiepiscopal pall. 

SUPER-INSTITUTION. The institution to a benefice over 
the head of the beneficiary, supposed to be dead after prolonged 

SUPERIOR. 1. Higher. 2. Upper. 3. More elevated. 4. 
More exalted in dignity or authority. 5. An official exercising 
jurisdiction. 6. The chief of a confraternity, brotherhood, sister- 
hood, monastery, or convent. 


SUPERPELLICEUM. The Latin term for a surplice. #ee 

SUPER-PURGATION. More purgation or cleansing than is 


SUPERTOTUS. A long garment like a modern great-coat, 
resembling a straight-cut cloak in some particulars, worn over 
the seculai* and religious dress in mediaeval times as a protection 
against the weather. 

SUPERVISOR CANTORUM. The master of the choristers, 

SUPERVISOR OPBHI8, The overlooker of works, 



SUPPLICATIONS. 1. Litanies. 2. Short prayers, with 
brief petitions and responses. 

SUPRALAPSARIAN. One of that class of Calvinists who 
believe that God Almighty's decree of election is a part of His 
original plan, by which He determined to create man, in order 
that he should fall, and be redeemed by the life and death of 
our Blessed Saviour. 

SUPREMACY (PAPAL). A term for the opinion, which is 
commonly accepted as an article of faith in the Roman Catholic 
Communion, that the Bishop of Rome possesses by Divine right, 
and not only by ecclesiastical necessity or arrangement, an in- 
herent right of jurisdiction throughout the whole of the Church 

SUPREMACY (ROYAL). A term for the modern and novel 
opinion, which is accepted by some persons in the Church of 
England, that supreme ecclesiastical jurisdiction belongs to the 
king, bestowed by the authority and power of Parliament. 

SURCINGLE. 1. A cincture or band. 2. A band of black 
silk or stuff, fringed at the ends, and bound round the waists of 
the clergy, so as to confine and keep in place the cassock, or 
ordinary clerical garment. 

SURPLICE. The mention of the surplice (superpelliceum) 
which first occurs is amongst the laws of St. Edward the Con- 
fessor. See vol. i. p. 460, of Thorpe's Ancient Laws and Insti- 
tutes of England, thus : " Et postea justicia episcopi faciat venire 
processionem cum sacerdote induto alba, et manipulo, et stola, et 
clericis in superpelliciis, cum aqua benedicta et cruce et cande- 
labris et thuribulo, cum igne et incenso." " Linea" "alba," 
and " alba tunica," were ancient names for the surplice. Of old, 
as at present, it was a loose flowing vestment of linen, reaching 
almost to the feet, having sleeves broad and full. With a round 
hole at the top, large enough to let the head go through with 
ease, it had no kind of opening at the chest whatsoever. Our 
modern practice of having it made open in front arose, no doubt, 
in the seventeenth century, when it was the custom to wear large 
wigs, and when the putting on of an old surplice would have 
disarranged their appearance and endangered their position. The 
ancient form is far to be preferred, From the Regulations drawn 
up by St. Gilbert of Sempringham, for his Order, A.D. 1131, the 
surplice appears under certain circumstances to have had a hood 
of the same material attached to the back of it, to be worn over 
the head in choir during the recitation of the Divine Offices ; 
quite distinct^ however, from the modern academical hood both 


in shape and colour. Foreign surplices are much shorter than 
those used in England. In Italy the short surplice is called a 

SURROGATE (Latin, surrogatus). 1. The deputy of an eccle- 
siastical judge. 2. A layman or cleric appointed to grant mar- 
riage licenses to those desirous of marrying, but who have not 
had their banns put up in church. 

SURSUM CORDA The Latin form of the words " Lift up 
your hearts," which occur in the Communion Service of the 
Church of England, and their equivalent in every Christian 
Liturgy extant. This rite is described in detail in the eighth 
book of the Apostolical Constitutions, where it is said that the 
high-priest, or celebrant, at Mass says " Lift up your hearts," 
and the faithful respond " We lift them up unto the Lord." See 
also St. Cyprian's treatise On the Lord's Prayer, chap. xiii. 

SUSPENSION. An ecclesiastical act of two kinds : (1) One 
relating solely to the clergy ; (2) the other extending to the 
laity. (1) That which relates solely to the clergy is suspension 
from office and benefice jointly, or from office or benefice singly, 
and may be termed a temporary degradation or deprivation, or 
both. (2) The other sort of suspension, which extends also to 
the laity, is suspension from entering a consecrated building, 
church or chapel, or from hearing Divine service, " commonly 
called the Mass," and from receiving the Holy Sacrament, which 
therefore may be called a temporary excommunication. 

SUTHDURE. A compound Saxon word, " south door," 
the place where canonical purgation was performed. When a 
fact charged against a person was unproved, the accused was 
brought to the south door of his parish church, and then, in the 
presence of the faithful, made oath of his innocency. This is 
one reason why large south porches are found in ancient churches. 

SYDESMEN More properly synodsmen, who are church 
officers, anciently appointed to assist the churchwardens in making 
presentments of ecclesiastical offences at the bishop's synods or 
visitations. By the 90th canon they are to be chosen yearly in 
Easter week by the parish priest and parishioners, if these can 
agree ; otherwise they are to be appointed by the ordinary of the 
diocese. Of late years this office has devolved on the church- 
wardens. " Sithcondmen " or " Sithcundmen " were old Eng- 
lish terms for Sydesmen. 

SYLLABUS. An abstract; a compendium containing the 
heads of a lecture or sermon. 


SYMBOL (Latin, symbolum; Greek, o-w/ujSoXov). 1. The sign 
or representation of any moral thing by the images or properties 
of natural things. 2. Amongst Christians, an abstract or com- 
pendium ; hence the Creeds of the Church are termed " symbols," 
or a summary of the articles of faith founded on the Creeds. 

SYMBOLIC. 1. Eepresentative. 2. Figurative. 3. Kepre- 
senting by signs or resemblance. 

SYMBOLICALLY. By representation. 
SYMBOLICS. The science of creeds. 

SYMBOLIZE (TO). To make a representation or resem- 
blance of something. 

SYMBOLOGY. The art of expressing by symbols. 

SYNAPTE (Greek, avvairrri). 1. A Greek term for a collect, 
more especially for the Ectene. 2. This term is likewise used to 
designate the Holy Communion. 

SYNAXIS (Greek, avva^ig). An Eastern term, signifying 
respectively, (1) a Collect, or short prayer; (2) the Holy 
Eucharist, or the Christian Sacrifice ; (3) an Assembly for 
Worship : and (4) the joint commemoration of saints. 

SYNCELLUS. An ancient officer attached to the patriarchs 
or prelates of the Oriental Church. The Patriarch of Constan- 
tinople had a syncellus who was a witness of his conduct ; whence 
this officer was termed the patriarch's eye. Other prelates had 
similar officers, who acted as clerks and stewards. Eventually it 
became a mere title of honour. 

SYNOD (Greek, (ruvodoc). 1- -A- meeting or assembly of 
ecclesiastical persons, to determine questions relating to doctrine 
and ecclesiastical discipline, as well as to the general principles 
and details of religion. 2. An ecclesiastical council. 

SYNOD, DIOCESAN. A Diocesan synod is the assembly 
of the bishop and delegated priests of a particular diocese, 
either to determine questions relating to the well-being of re- 
ligion in the same ; to give effect, by promulgation, to the canons 
of general councils, national or provincial synods, or to consult 
together for the general good of the diocese or National Church. 

SYNOD, NATIONAL. A meeting or assembly of the 
archbishops, bishops, and delegated clergy of all the provinces 
of a National Church; to consider and determine questions 


relating to the well being of religion in the same. In England, 
at present, there is no national synod, properly so called; but 
there are two convocations for the two Provinces of Canterbury 
and York, which appear to be together equivalent to the same. 

SYNOD, PROVINCIAL. A meeting or assembly of the 
archbishop, bishops, and delegated clergy of a single Province, 
to consider and determine questions relating to the well-being 
of religion in the same. In England there are two provincial 
synods, the Convocations of the provinces of Canterbury and 

SYNODALES TESTES. Persons anciently summoned out 
of every parish in order to appear at the episcopal synods, and 
there attest or make preferment of the disorders of the clergy 
and people. In after-times they were a kind of empanelled 
jury, consisting of two, three, or more persons in every parish, 
who were upon oath to present all heretics and other irregular 
persons. And these in process of time became standing officers 
in several places, especially in great cities ; and hence were 
called Synodsmen or Sydesmen. They are also called Questmen, 
from the nature of their office in making inquiry concerning 
offences. But for the most part this office, and the duties of it, 
now devolve upon the churchwardens. 

SYNODAL S. A term used to designate the payments made 
to a bishop by his clergy in virtue of his holding a synod. 

SYNOD ATICUM. 1. Something given to the bishop in 
return for his holding a synod. 2. Synodals. See SYNODALS. 

SYNTHRONUS. A Greek term to designate the seats of a 
bishop and his clergy, in the bema of an Oriental church. 



lABERNACLE (Tabernaculum, custodia, 
repositorum, sacrarium, repositorium). 
A special constructional receptacle for 
the Blessed Sacrament. The practice of re- 
serving the Sacrament of the Eucharist both 
for the hale and the sick is of very ancient 
date. Justin Martyr alludes to it, and 
Eusebius in the Sixth Book of his Ecclesi- 
astical History, chap. 44, gives still 
further information as to the practice. It 
is likewise mentioned by St. Optatus (Opera, torn. ii. p. 55), and 
St. John Chrysostom (Ep. ad Innocent., torn. iv. p. 681). The 
Council of Constantinople, under Mennas, is probably the first 
public and recognized authority which lays down rules to be 
observed in reservation, for in the Acts of that Council allusion 
is made to the gold and silver receptacles, formed into the 
shape of doves, which, it appears, were even then commonly 
used for this purpose, suspended over the altar (Cone, sub 
Menna, Act V. torn. V. p. 159). The decrees of the Second 
Council of Tours refer in such a way to various independent 
ancient authorities as to leave no doubt that the custom of 
reservation was almost of Apostolic origin. Tertullian (Allat. 
de Miesa Prcesanct., s. x.) ; St. Cyprian (De Lapsis, p. 132) ; 
St. Gregory Nazianzen (Or at. XI. dc Goryonid) ; St. Basil 
(Epist. 289, ad Cwsarium Patriciam) ; St. Jerome (Ep. ad 
Pammac.) ; and St. Ambrose (Orat. de Obitu Fratris, torn. iii. 
p. 19) all mention the subject with singular distinctness ; so 
when this is borne in mind it is not to be wondered at that the 
Mediaeval Church, following the practice of the Church of the 
Fathers, continued the custom, and that it has actually come 
down to us in the present day. See COLUMBA. It is, no doubt, 
quite a modern practice, comparatively speaking, to reserve 
the Holy Sacrament in a constructional tabernacle placed upon 
the altar or immediately behind it ; the universal, or almost 
universal, practice having been to make use of the dove, sus- 
pended over the altar. Still, there are instances of tabernacles 
existing, which point out that the practice just referred to was 
at least known in the latter part of the fifteenth century in some 
parts of Great Britain. The author has collected notes of more 


than thirty examples of mediaeval altars represented in illumi- 
nated MSS., in only one of which a Book of Hours of Flemish 
origin is a tabernacle, or anything like a tabernacle, repre- 
sented as placed upon the altar. In the Harleian MSS., No. 2,278, 
the Holy Sacrament is represented placed in a glass vessel, over 
which a crown is suspended, both being hung immediately 
above the altar. But the dove of precious metal is the usual 
form. Perpetuus, Archbishop of Tours, left a silver dove to a 
priest, Amalarius, for this purpose : " Peristerium et columbam 
argenteam ad repositorium." The same practice is referred to 
in the Uses of the ancient monastery at Cluny. Up to the 
French Revolution the same custom was in observance at the 
churches of St. Julien d' Angers, St. Maur des Fosses, near 
Paris, St. Paul at Sens, and St. Sierche, near Chartres. In the 
Rites or Uses of the Church of Durham, in loco, the same 
practice is referred to, and described at length. De Moleon, in 
his Voyage Liturgique, mentions the following additional 
churches in France in which the Sacrament was suspended in a 
pyx over the high altar : St. Maurice d' Angers, Cathedrale de 
Tours, St. Martin de Tours, St. Siran en Brenne, St. Etienne de 
Dijon, St. Sieur de Dijon, St. Etienne de Sens, Cathedrale de* 
St. Julien, Notre Dame de Chartres, St. Ouen de Rouen, and 
Notre Dame de Paris. Sometimes It was reserved in a metal 
tower, of which St. Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers, makes 
mention in recording the good deeds of St. Felix, Archbishop 
of Bruges, who ordered a tower of gold to be constructed, with 
jewelled ornamentations, for this sacred purpose. Landon, 
Archbishop of Rheims, is also recorded to have done the same 
for the high altar of his noble cathedral. See MONSTRANCE. 
In England it may be gathered from churchwardens' and 
parochial Registers, though they were not kept with any regu- 
larity or care until about the Reformation period, that the prac- 
tice of reserving the Sacrament in an adjacent recess or aumbrey 
was by no means uncommon. This is referred to in the Accounts 
of the parish church of St. Mary, at Thame, Oxfordshire, where 
an "aumbreye for the Lordes Boddye" is mentioned. A 
similar fact is recorded at p. 410 of Rudder's " History of 
Gloucester," where a quotation is given from Waterman's trans- 
lation of the "Fardle of Facions" (A.D. 1555), thus : -"Upon 
the right hande of the highe aulter, that there should be an 
almorie either cut into the wall or framed upon it, in the whiche 
thei would have the Sacrament of the Lorde's Bodye ; the Holy 
Oyle for the sicke, and chrismatorie, alwaie to be locked." In 
places where art was nourishing, and where the custom of con- 
tinental cities was likely to be known, the tabernacle, properly 
so called, seems to have been introduced. Or perhaps the con- 



venience of having a receptacle for the purpose of reservation 
permanently fixed upon the altar, led our ancestors to adopt the 
custom in times immediately preceding the Reformation. In 
the account of St. Mary Magdalene's parish, Oxford, given in 
PeshalPs History, the following occurs : " A.D. 1547, 1st Edw. 
VI. Eight tabernacles were sold out of the Church, which 
were, for the most part, over the altars," which certainly goes 
to prove that in Oxford, at least, the use of the tabernacle had 
been customary. So great and efficient was the general destruc- 
tion at the Reformation, that few records of the practices of the 
preceding time with regard to this point are in existence. That 
the Sacrament was kept constantly reserved we know, and that 
it was customary to keep a light burning before It is patent from 
the many allusions thereto in 
ancient documents ; but as re- 
gards the place of reservation 
no doubt the customs differed. 
Some years ago, before the an- 
cient Prebendal-house of Thame, 
Oxon., was adapted for a modern 
dwelling-place, the Chapel of 
that building in its principal 
features remained almost as it 
had been at the time of the Re- 
formation. In the refectory of 
the above building there stood 
a small cupboard, in great pro- 
bability the ancient tabernacle 
from the chapel. Since then this 

has been lost or destroyed. It was somewhat over a foot in height, 
rounded at the top, and opened by a panelled door. The mould- 
ing had been painted in vermilion and gold; but was much 
worn and defaced. There was no Sacramental device on any 
part of it, but the symbol of the Holy Trinity inlaid above the 
door, with the letters A and on either side the device. The 
material was oak, or some wood very like oak. Possibly the 
aumbreys in our ancient parish churches (e.g. that at Buckland, 
Berkshire, immediately under the east window) were used for 
this purpose ; even where, as was generally the case before the 
Reformation, one or two pyxes were found even in the inven- 
tories of the poorest parishes. The two accompanying woodcuts 
are from sketches of ancient tabernacles for the Holy Sacrament 
in Aberdeenshire. The first, which represents a tabernacle be- 
longing to the ancient church of Kintore, is evidently of foreign 
work. The tabernacle, which is between four and five feet in 
height, is placed outside, against the west wall of the present 




parish kirk, a building erected in the place and with the 
materials of the old building. The upper part consists of a 
sculptured representation of a monstrance containing the 
Blessed Sacrament, which is supported by winged angels in 
albs and crossed stoles. Above the monstrance, which is of 
good design, is a crucifix, very fairly perfect. Below, under a 
cord-moulding, is the tabernacle proper. The door is gone, but 
the place where the hinges and fastening were fixed can easily 


be discerned. The sculptured flowers in the recess are exceed- 
ingly sharp and perfect. The pillars on either side are ruder in 
style, and seem to be of a later date than the early part of the 
sixteenth century. The inscription " Jesus Maria " runs along 
the base. The second woodcut represents a tabernacle on the 
north wall of the ruined church of St. Michael and All Angels, 
Kinkell. The whole design is peculiarly Scotch, The inscrip- 



tion " Hie. est. svatv. corps, de. vgie. natvm " (Hie est 
servatum Corpus de Virgine natum), leaves no doubt that the 
receptacle was a tabernacle for the Blessed Sacrament. It 
contains the initials A. G-. for Alexander Galloway a Prebendary 
of Aberdeen and friend of Bishop Elphinstone, who was vicar 
of Kinkell in the early part of the sixteenth century. Under- 
neath, likewise, the. initials are repeated, with the word MEOEAKE 
(Memorare), and the date ANNO D.M. 1528. The stone 
panel above no doubt contained a bas-relief of the Crucifixion, 
or of some religious subject. (See Illustrations.) 


TABLE (CREDENCE). A small side table, commonly 
placed on the south side of the altar, for the altar-breads, cruets 
of wine and water, offertory-dish, Service-books, lavabo-dish, 
and other things necessary for the solemn or low celebration of 
the Holy Eucharist. 

TABLE (HOLY). The Lord's table or altar. See ALTAR. 

TABLE OF COMMANDMENTS. A representation of the 
two tables of stone on which the Commandments were graven, 
ordered by a post-Reformation canon to be placed on the east 
wall of the church or chancel. 

TABLE OF DEGREES. A formal list of relationships, both 
by blood and affinity, within which degrees the Church of Eng- 


land authoritatively prohibits marriage. This table, usually 
printed at the end of the Anglican Prayer-book, is ordered to be 
hung up in a prominent place in the nave of every church or 
chapel, by the authority of various Visitation articles, especially 
those of Archbishop Parker, in 1563. 

TABLE OF LESSONS. A tabular arrangement of Scrip- 
ture lections for Matins and Evensong daily throughout the 
year. This table was first drawn up in the year 1549, altered 
in the revision of 1661, and again amended by Convocation in 

TABLE OF THE LORD. A phrase taken from Holy Scrip- 
ture, used to designate the Holy table or altar of the Christian 
Church (1 Cor. x. 21). In the Old Testament the words table 
and altar appear to have been applied indifferently to the same 
thing (Ezekiel xli. 22). See ALTAR. 

TABLE OF MOVABLE FEASTS. A list of movable 
festivals prefixed to the Book of Common Prayer for the guid- 
ance and instruction both of the clergy and laity. 


TABLE-TOMB. A tomb shaped like a table or altar, erected 
over a grave or place of interment. See ALTAR-TOMB. 

TABLET (MEMORIAL). A tablet placed on the floor of a 
church or cloister, inscribed with a legend in memory of some 
person deceased. 

TABLET (MURAL). A tablet on which an inscription has 
been placed, affixed to the wall of a church or cloister, &c. 

TABULA DEL The table of the Lord God; that is, the 
Holy Table or Christian Altar. See ALTAR. 

TABULA EUCHARISTI^B. The Christian altar. 
TAKTIKA (TaicnKa). A Greek term for Rituals. 

TALMUD. The body of the Hebrew laws, traditions, and 
explanations, consisting of two parts : 1st. The Mischa or text of 
the law ; and 2ndly. the Gemera or commentary on the same. 

TALMUDIC. Pertaining to the Talmud. 

TALMUDIST. One versed in the Talmud. 

TANTUM ERGO. The concluding part of the hymn for 


Corpus Christ! day, entitled Pancjc lingua, which is sung in the 
Latin Church when the Blessed Sacrament is exposed for the 
worship, and elevated for the Benediction of the faithful : 

Tantum ergo Sacramentum Genitori, genitoque 
Veneremur cernm : Laus et jnbilatio, 

Et antiquum docnmentnm Salas, honor, virtus quoqne, 
Novo cedat ritai : Sit et benedictio : 

Praestet fides supplementum Procedenti ab utroque 

Sensaum defectui. Compar sit laadatio. Amen. 

TAPER. A wax candle, so called because of its shape ; i.e. 
because it tapers. See ALTAR-TAPEE. 

TAPER-FRAME. A frame for holding tapers. 

TAPER-HERSE. A construction for adding an additional 
number of tapers at the corners or other parts of a tomb, when 
Mass is said for the departed. 

TAPER-STAND. 1. A sconce, socket, or mortar for holding 
a taper. Such were anciently placed permanently near the 
consecration crosses in old churches. 2. A candlestick for tapers. 

TAPIS. A mediaeval- form of the word "tapestry." 

TARQUIN. A name whereby the Jews call the Chaldee para- 
phrases or expositions of the Old Testament in the Chaldee lan- 
guage. After the Captivity, the Jewish doctors, in order to make 
the people comprehend the Scriptures, which were read in 
Hebrew in their synagogues, were obliged to explain the law to 
them in a language they understood, which was the Chaldean, or 
that used in Assyria. The Tarquins now remaining were com- 
posed by different persons upon various parts of Scripture, and 
are eight in number. 

TARS (CLOTH OF). A rich mediaeval material composed 
of woollen and silk, manufactured at Tarsus. It was frequently 
used for church vestments. 

TASSEL (Italian, tassello). 1. A sort of pendent ornament 
attached to the corners of cushions or curtains and the like, 
ending in loose threads. In mediaeval times the Sacred vest- 
ments of the ministers of the Church were adorned with tassels, 
to which, in the case of dalmaticks and tunicks, balls of crystal 
were attached. 2. A thin plate of gold jewelled, and sewn on 
the back of episcopal gloves, also bore this name. 

Lee't Grlostary. Z D 


TAU CROSS. A cross formed like the letter T or Tau 
(Greek), one of the most ancient forms of the Cross. Sec 

TAWBUTTE. A talbot ; a hunting-dog, frequently used in 
mediaeval heraldic devices. " Item, a vestment powdered with 
stars and tawbuttes." (Inventory of church goods at Easington, 

TAWDRY. 1. Any slight ornament. 2. An ornament with 
greater show than taste. 3. The necklace worn of old by 
English peasant girls in memory and honour of St. Etheldreda 
or Awdry, patroness of the diocese of Ely ; who, after she had 
become a religious, mourned for the vanity in which she had 
indulged by wearing gold necklaces. 

TE DEUM LAUDAMUS. The first words of the Latin 
form of a Christian canticle, the authorship of which is uncertain. 
It is found in the Matin-service of the Church of England. It 
is frequently used as a, separate service of thanksgiving ; e.g., for 
victories, preservation from pestilence, good and prolific harvests, 
and coronations. 

TE I GIT UR. The two first words of the Canon of the Latin 
Mass. This part of the Eucharistic service is said to have been 
drawn up under the direction of St. Gregory the Great ; though 
portions of it are doubtless of a much earlier date, if not of the 
time of the Apostles. 

TEL A STRAGULA. A term used to designate the upper 
covering for the Holy Table when not being used for the Sacri- 
fice, commonly called ' ( altar-protector." See ALTAR-PROTECTOR. 

TEAETAPXH2 (TtXera/ox^). A Greek term for a conse- 

TEAETAPXIKO2 (TtXtrapxiKoc;). A Greek term signifying 
" consecrating." 

TELETE. A term in the Latin Church for the Holy 

TEMPORALITIES OF A BISHOP. Such things as the 
bishops have, possess, and enjoy by livery from the king; e.g., 
castles, manors, farms, tenements, and such other certainties of 
which the king is answered during the vacation of the see. On 
the filling of a vacant bishopric, not the bishop but the king by 
his prerogative has the temporalities thereof up to the time that 
the new bishop receives them of the king. 


TEMROPES (TtjuTro/ofc). A Greek term for theEmber seasons. 

TENEBR^E. An office for the Wednesday, Thursday, and 
Friday of Holy Week, commemorating the sufferings and death 
of our Blessed Saviour. The name of the office is said by some 
to have originated from the fact that it was anciently said at 
midnight. Others aver that it is derived from the solemn cere- 
monial extinction of lights, which, during its recitation, is done 

TENTHS. A temporary aid anciently granted to the king by 
Parliament, and was the real tenth of all the movables belong- 
ing to the subject, such movables being much less considerable 
than they are at present. The clergy also, in Convocation, taxed 
themselves in a similar way, granting the tenths of all their 
ecclesiastical livings. 

TERCE. The office ordered to be recited at the Third of the 
canonical hours ; that is, at nine A.M. 

TERMINATION. A word sometimes used by mediaeval 
writers for the master of the ceremonies or " ceremoniarius." 

TERRAR. A name peculiar to the locality and place for the 
hostillar at Durham. 

TERRIER. A formal survey and plan or schedule of Church 
property, enjoined by canon to be made for every parish, in order 
to be preserved in the archives of the diocese as a testimony of 
its extent, character, and value. 


TER SANCTUS (Latin, "thrice holy "}. The hymn, "Holy, 
Holy, Holy," which immediately follows the Preface in the Mass. 
St. Cyril of Jerusalem refers to its use in his day. In parts of 
the West, during the Middle Ages, it was commonly sung by the 
people as a portion of their looked-for duty and devotions when- 
ever Mass was said. 

TE22APAKON9HMEPON (TfaaapaKovOfj^pov). 1. A Greek 
term for the forty days of Lent. 2. The forty davs of Lent 
before Christmas. 

TE22APAKO2TH (Twaa power i,) . A Greek term for Lent. 

TESSARESDECATIL^E. A term to designate those who 
observed Easter on the fourteenth day of the moon, with the 
J owi sh Pa sso ver. 

2 T> 2 


TESSELAR. Formed in squares. 

TESSELATED. Formed of tiles; chequered. Hence, a 
" tesselated pavement " is a pavement formed of tiles. 


TESSERAIC (Latin, tessera}. Diversified by squares; tesse- 

TEST ACT. An Act of Parliament passed in the reign of 
Charles II., since abolished, whereby it was enacted that every 
person admitted to any office, civil, military, or secular, should 
within three months receive the Holy Eucharist, according to the 
Anglican rite, in some public church on the Lord's day. And 
in the court where he was appointed to take the oaths of allegi- 
ance, supremacy, and abjuration he was enjoined at the same 
time to deliver a certificate of his having done so, under the 
hand of his parish priest and the churchwardens. He was also, 
at the same time, compelled to subscribe a declaration denying 
the doctrine of Transubstantiation. 

TESTAMENT (Latin, tcstamentum) . l.'A solemn authentic 
instrument in writing, by which a person declares his will as to 
the disposal of his estates and effects after his death. 2. The 
name of each general division of the canonical books of the 
Scriptures, as the Old Testament and the New Testament. 3. 
The book of the Covenant, " Old and New." 

TESTER. 1. A canopy of cloth, silk, or satin placed over an 
image, shrine, tomb, or altar. 2. The covering of a chest or 

TESTES SYNODALES. Sidesmen, synodsmen, or quest- 
men, chosen to help and co-operate with the churchwardens in 
fulfilling their duties, and in promoting order, quiet, and decorum 
at visitations, synods, and clerical meetings. 

TETPABHAON (Ter/oa/3r,Soi>). A Greek term for the curtain 
of the altar-canopy. 

TETRAGRAMMATION (Greek, rtrpa and ypd^a). A term 
to designate the Sacred Name of the Deity, Jehovah, in four 

TETRAPLA (Greek, rirpa and an-Aou*). A term used to 
designate a certain edition of the Holy Scriptures, being four 
independent and separate Greek versions, ranged side by side ; 


viz., those of Aquila, Symmachus, the Seventy-two, and Thco- 

TETPAROAION (T r/otnro'tW) . A Greek term for a portable 
table in churches, for exhibiting images (or Icons), and for 
receiving fruits, &c., for benediction. 

TETPAQAION (Ter/oawStov). A Greek term for a canon of 
four odes. 

TEXTEVANGELIUM. A term to designate the Book of the 
Gospels as used in the Liturgy. 

TEXTUS. A. technical term for the Book of the Gospels as 
used at the Christian Sacrifice. Copies of the Gospels,- richly 
illuminated, and bound in gold and silver, are often exposed on the 
high altars of Continental churches. See GOSPELS (BOOKOPTHE). 

TEXTUS RECEPTUS. That text of the Greek Testament 
which is ordinarily received as uninterpolated, correct, and true. 

THECA. 1. A medieval term for the burse or purse, used to 
contain the corporal in saying Mass. 2. Also for a portable 
shrine. See BURSE, 

THEOCRACY (Greek, Otbg and icparoe) .Government of a 
people by the immediate direction of Almighty God. 

THEOLOGIAN. 1. A divine. 2. A person versed in theo- 

THEOLOGICAL. Pertaining to divinity or God's revelation. 

2. Hope. 3. Charity. 

THEOLOGICUS PRELECTOR. A reader in theology. 

THEOLOGUE. AJI old form of the word " theologian." 

THEOLOGY (Greek, e oXo 7 i'a). The science of God, God's 
revelation, and Divine things. That science which teaches the 
existence, nature, and attributes of God, His laws and govern- 
ment, together with the dogmas to be believed, and the duties to 
be practised. 

THEOMANCY (Greek, Otbe and ^avrda}. A kind of divina- 
tion, drawn from the responses of the oracles amongst heathen 



THEOPHANY (Greek, te and ^aivofiai). A manifestation 
of God to man by actual appearance. 

THEOPHORI. A term applied to the sacred writers as being 
moved to write by God the Father, God the Son, and God the 
Holy Ghost, the Three Persons of the Divine Trinity. 


THERAPEUT^E. 1. A religious body or community de- 
scribed by Philo. 2. The contemplative Esseiies. 3. An order 
of Christian monks in Egypt, founded, as Eusebius maintains, 
by St. Mark the Evangelist, who was the first bishop of Alex- 


THESAURARIUS. 1. The treasurer of a cathedral or col- 
legiate church. 2. The bursar of a college. 3. The keeper of 
a shrine-house or treasury. 4. A superior sacristan. 5. A mo- 
nastic bursar or treasurer. 

THOROUGH- OR THROUGH-STONE. A stone, set in the 
Construction of a wall, which extends from one side to the 

THRONE (Latin, tlironus ; Greek, Opovog). 1. A royal scat. 
2. A chair of state. 3. The seat of a bishop. 4. In Holy 
Scripture a term for sovereign power and dignity. 


THRONE (EPISCOPAL). The official seat placed in the 
cathedral, or chief seat of a diocese, which is occupied by the 
bishop on public occasions. Anciently it stood at the east end 
of the choir or sanctuary, that is in churches which were built in 
the form of basilicas, and were apsidal. This is still the case at 
Milan and Augsburg. In mediaeval times the bishop's seat was 
frequently the best and most exclusive stall on the south side, 
almost invariably occupied by him during the solemn recitation 
of Divine Office. During Mass, and on occasions when services 
took place at the altar, his throne was placed against the north 
Wall within the sanctuary. Most of the English thrones are of 
Wood, richly carded. Abroad they are frequently of stone ; and 
stone seats remain at Rome traditionally regarded as episcopal 
thrones. At St. Mark's, Venice, the cathedral of Malta, and at 
the cathedral of Verona, the episcopal thrones are of marble. 
At Ravenna, Spalatro, and Torcello they are of alabaster. At 
St. Peter's, Rome, the throne is of bronze. At Ravenna, St. 
Maximian's throne is of ivory. In Portugal and Spain the epis- 


copal throne is commonly that one which in England is occupied 
by the dean, the first on the decani side. In the Eastern churches 
more particularly in the chief buildings there are thrones both 
for the bishop and chief magistrate, both of which are commonly 
surmounted with domes. At the old Danish church in Wellclose 
Square, London, there was a large double throne for the chief 
minister and the king of Denmark. In some of the Lutheran 
churches in Germany the superintendent occupies the ancient 
episcopal throne. 

THRONED. 1. Placed on a royal or episcopal seat. 2. Ele- 
vated. 3. Exalted. 


THUMBSTALL. A ring anciently worn by the bishop on 
the thumb of his right hand, to cover that part which, during 
the administration of confirmation, had been dipped in the chrism 
or holy oil, and kept there until that part of the service took 
place, when he washed his hands. This ring was anciently called 
a "poncer," though more frequently a thumb stall. The word 
occurs in the will of William of Wykeham, in which he refers to 
the fact of preserving several. It is believed by competent 
authorities to have been peculiar to England. See PONCER. 

THURIBLE (Latin, thuribuhtm ml succcnsum}. A vessel of 
metal, sometimes of gold or silver, but more commonly of brass 
or latten, in the shape of a covered censer, vase, or cup, per- 
forated so as to allow the fumes of the burning incense to escape. 
Thuribles were used under both the patriarchal and Mosaic dis- 
pensations, and were in due course adopted into the services of the 
Christian Church. Distinct rules are laid down in Holy Scrip- 
ture (Numbers iv. 14 ; Leviticus xvi. 12) for the use of the 
censer by the Aaronic priesthood. On the great Day of Atone- 
ment incense was offered in a golden thurible by the High 
Priest, within the Holy of Holies. . Besides this, it was offered 
twice daily. In the eighth century thuribles were commonly 
used, and directions for their 1 due adoption enjoined by the au- 
thority of local synods. In the lists of ornaments belonging to 
our ancient parish churches three or four thuribles are invariably 
found ; whereas, in the inventories of our larger churches, e. <j. 
cathedrals, a considerable number of these vessels were enu- 
merated amongst the ornamenta. At Rome there are thuribles 
of gold in the treasury of the Church of St. John Lateran, reputed 
to have been given by the Emperor Constantine. There is an 
old silver censer at Louvain, more than twelve at Milan Cathe- 
dral, seven at Metz Cathedral, four of silver-gilt at Notre Dame, 
Paris, of the fourteenth century ; and some very remarkable 



specimens at Rheims aud at Treves. In England there are a few 
examples still in use, and several at the South Kensington Mu- 
seum, the British Museum, and in private collections. Some are 
round, others octagonal. There are, or were, specimens of 
ancient thuribles still in use at St. Chad's Cathedral, Birming- 
ham ; the chapel of Ushaw College, near Durham ; the Roman 
Catholic Church of Buckland, Berkshire ; the chapel of Stonor 


Park, Henley-on-Thames; and the College of Downside, near 
Bath. Frequently thuribles were made in shape like a church 
tower or spire, and sometimes like a shrine. The thurible is used 
at High Mass, at Vespers, at the Benediction with the Blessed 
Sacrament, at funerals, in solemn processions, and at formal 
public thanksgivings. The thurible has often been used in the 
Church of England since the Reformation ; some of our bishops 
having formally blessed them. Thuribles have been swung at 
coronations and other public religious rites ; and their use restored 




recent times. The examples given in the accompanying illus- 
trations are believed to be of English work. The thurible, 
Fig. 2, has lost the chains and rings by which it was swung. 
(See Illustrations.) 


THURIFER. The officer who carries the thurible or censer, 
and swings it at the appointed times during Divine service. He 
is ordinarily a chorister or acolyte, but on great occasions a sub- 
deacon, deacon, or even a priest. 

THURIFICATE. 1. To perfume with incense. 2. To use 
the thurible in Divine service. 3. To incense a person or thing. 
4. To officiate as thurifer in a function, or at a ceremony. 

THURIFICATION (Latin, thus and facia}. 1. The act of 
incensing. 2. The act of burning incense. 

THURIFEROUS. Producing or bearing frankincense. 

phrase for the Thursday after Trinity Sunday. 

THUS (from Ova, to sacrifice). Frankincense. The resin of 
the spruce fir, so called from its use. 

TIARA (Greek, rtapac, ru'ipaq, TO'J/BIJC). A term borrowed 
from the Persians, and used to designate the triple crown of the 
Pope. Anciently it is supposed- to have been only a band of 
gold, to which was attached a cap of linen, as tradition affirms 
St. John to have worn. Afterwards it seems to have been a sort 



of cap or inverted bowl of gold, engraved with an inscription. 
Then the upper part was prolonged, and rose like a cone or 
sugar-loaf ; examples of which Papal coverings are to be seen in 

some of the earliest existing illumina- 
tions, and are referred to by St. Jerome 
On EzeJclel and On Daniel. Later, a 
crown or border of crosses was affixed 
to this cap, which crown is said to 
have represented the spiritual autho- 
rity of the wearer. See REGNUM. A 
second crown was introduced by Pope 
Boniface VIII., A.D. 12991303, and 
a third crown by Pope Urban V., A.D. 
13621370. The three crowns on 
the tiara are said to represent (1) 
spiritual authority, (2) kingly or tem- 
poral authority, ami (3) universal so- 
vereignty. This tiara or triple crown 
TIAKA. of the Popes is only worn on solemni- 

ties and occasions of the greatest 

dignity and importance. The illustration accompanying this 
represents a Pope wearing the tiara. (See Illustration.) 

TILE. A thin plate or piece of baked clay or earthenware, 
used either for the covering of roofs or for pavements. 

TILE (ENCAUSTIC). A tile on which patterns have been 
burnt in. Anciently these patterns were usually heraldic figures, 
sacred emblems, and symbolic ornaments. Most of these tiles in 
England were made in the county of Worcester. Examples may 
be found in almost every parish church. In great probability 
the practice of their manufacture was borrowed from Normandy. 
The origin of the making of such tiles for decorative pavements 
is to be sought in the mediaeval imitations of Roman mosaic- 
work, by means of coloured substances inlaid upon stone or 
marble. Of this kind examples still exist at Canterbury Cathe- 
dral. Sometimes the tiles were glazed. Specimens of this kind 
were discovered in the ruined priory church of Castle Clere, 
Norfolk, ornamented with escutcheons of arms. Occasionally 
the patterns were alternately raised and sunk, so that the surface 
of the tiles was irregular. Examples of this sort were found at 
St. Alban's Abbey, and have been recently reproduced, and laid 
before the High altar. Of thirteenth-century examples perhaps 
the most remarkable are those which were found on the site of 
the ruined church of Woodperry, Oxfordshire, of which a speci- 
men is given in the accompanying woodcut. (See Illustration, 



1.) Tiles of the same date exist in the restored chapter- 
house of Westminster Abbey. From the period of the thirteenth 
century until the beginning of the sixteenth century encaustic 
tiles were commonly used for the floors of churches and religious 
houses. A good example from Thame Church, Oxon, is also 
provided. (See Illustration, Fig. 2.) Remarkable specimens 
may be seen in the cathedrals of Gloucester and Winchester ; at 
the church of St. Cross, near Winchester ; at Tintern Abbey ; 


at Bredon and Malveru, Worcestershire ; at Great Bedwin, 
Wiltshire ; in the Library of Merton College, Oxford ; and at 
New College, Oxford. An uncommon example, representing a 
rabbit, found in the choir of Cuddington Church, near Ayles- 
bury, is in the keeping of the Vicar of that parish. A very 
curious but miscellaneous collection, from various parts of St. 
Albaii's Abbey- Church have been gathered together, and relaid 
in the eastern part of the north transept. Tiles have been used 
for wall-decorations, and for the adornment of tombs on the Con- 



tinent ; and this custom has likewise been restored in England. 
Since the manufactory of tiles has been carried out so efficiently 
in Worcestershire, their use has been common for all restored 
churches in this country. Modern specimens, in some cases, are 
remarkably fine, though sometimes wanting in that grace and 
character which were so remarkable in the old examples. They 
can be seen, of various kinds of merit, in almost every parish 
church in the kingdom. 


TINSEL (Latin, scintilla}. A material made of satin or silk, 
into which gold threads have been woven. 

TIPPET (Saxon, tappet ; Latin, liripipium or collipendium} . 
A narrow garment or covering for the neck and shoulders ; a 
kind of hood worn over the shoulders, which was fastened round 
the neck by a long pendent appendage called the liripipe. This 
latter portion was generally dropped during the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and only the hood was worn. From this date the hood or 


tippet frequently assumed the shape of the mozetta (See MOZETTA), 
as can be gathered from such portraits as those of Cardinal 
Wolsey, at Oxford, and Cardinal Pole, at Lambeth Palace. 
Abroad, about the same period, the hood, the cape, the mozetta, 
and the tippet became identical. Anciently, when properly worn, 
the old hood was evidently very like the modern ecclesiastical 
tippet, as may be seen from examples figured on monumental 
brasses. The manner of wearing the modern hood or the lite- 
rate's tippet over the back, depending from the neck by a ribbon, 
is a corruption, and a practice eminently unmeaning. 

TIPSTAFF. An officer of the Court of Queen's Bench, 
attending the judges, with a wand or staff of office tipped with 
silver, to take prisoners into Custody. A similar officer was 
attached to the ancient Star Chamber Court. 

TITHES. The tenth part of the increase yearly arising and 
renewing from the profits of lands, the stock upon lands, and 
the personal industry of the inhabitants. This tenth part is due 
because of God's law, and was formally imposed by the civil law 
of England as early as the middle of the ninth century. 

TITHES (COMMUTATION OF). A pecuniary composition 
equivalent to the tithes, which composition is paid under statute. 

TITHES (GREAT). Commonly the great tithes are praedial 
tithes, being of the highest and greatest value, and producing 
the largest amount. Bee TITHES (PREDIAL). 

TITHES (MIXED). Mixed tithes are those which do not 
arise immediately from the ground, but from things mediately 
from the ground, or its fruits ; e.g., colts, calves, lambs, chickens, 
eggs, milk, &c. 

TITHES (PERSONAL). Such tithes as arise by the honest 
labour and industry of man, employing himself in some personal 
work, artifice, or negotiation, being the tenth part of the clear 
profit after charges are deducted. 

TITHES (PREDIAL). Such tithes as arise merely and 
immediately from the ground ; as grain of all sorts, hay, wood, 
fruits, herbs ; for a piece of land being termed prcedium, the 
fruit or produce thereof is called " prasdial/' and consequently 
the tithe obtains this prefix. 

TITHES (SMALL). The tithes of an inferior sort, toge- 
ther with those which are commonly known as mixed and 

TITLE (Latin, titulus). 1. An inscription put over any- 
thing. 2. The inscription in the beginning of a book. 3. In 


the canon law, a chapter or division of a book. 4. An appel- 
lation of dignity. 5. A name. 6. A denomination. 7. That 
which is the foundation of ownership. 8. In the canon law, 
that by which a cleric holds a benefice. 9. In Church records 
and deeds, a church to which a cleric was ordained, and where 
he was to reside. 10. The cure of souls. 11. A ministerial 

TITULAR. 1. Existing in name or title only. 2. Having 
the title to an office without discharging its duties. 

TITULAR BISHOP. 1. A bishop duly consecrated, but 
having only a nominal see. 2. A bishop who has borrowed the 
name of a see commonly in partibus infideliitm, by which to 
designate himself, though he has no actual jurisdiction over those 
residing within its limits. 

TITULARITY. The state of being titular. 

TOMB. 1. A grave. 2. A vault. 3. A monument over a 
grave or vault. 

TOMBSTONE. A stone erected over a grave to preserve 
the memory of a deceased person. From the earliest ages of 
Christianity the Christian symbol, i. e. the cross, has been used 
as a design or device for the tombs of the faithful ; and stones, 
on which crosses were cut, have been from time immemorial 
placed at the heads of graves in the old churchyards of England. 
Examples occur in many places at Prestbury, near Cheltenham ; 
Bredon, in Worcestershire ; Towersey, in Bucks ; and at Folke- 
stone, two specimens of which are engraved on page 147. 

TOMOS (To/joe). A Greek term for (1) the minutes of a 
Council ; (2) the decrees of a Council ; (3) the judgment of St. 
Leo the Great against Eutyches ; (4) the deed testifying to the 
formal and regular election of a bishop. 

TONE (Latin, tomts ; French, ton; Spanish, iono ; Italian, 
tuono). 1. Sound, or a modification of sound. 2. Accent, or a 
particular inflection of the voice to express emotion or passion. 
3. In ecclesiastical phraseology, a tone is either a monotone or 
plain chant, with unisonic inflections, or figured and harmonized 

TONES (THE GREGORIAN). Certain tones employed in 
chanting the Psalter in Divine service are called Gregorian, 
because it is generally believed that St. Gregory the Great either 
composed, arranged, or finally settled them. They are usually 


reckoned eight in number ; some of which the odd numbers, 
1st, 5th, 6th, and 7th are attributed to St. Ambrose. A ninth 
has been added, called the " Tonus Peregrinus," or Foreign 
Tone. The first tone is called grave, the second mournful, the 
third excellent, the fourth hwmonious, the fifth gladsome, the 
sixth devout, the seventh angelical, and the eighth sweet. There 
are various endings to these tones which give great variety to 
them, and they are all of singular beauty and divine force 
and character. For some time they gave place to modern 
services in the Church of England ; but through the influence of 
the Catholic Revival the use of Gregorian music has been 
restored. This has been mainly effected by the issue of the Rev. 
Thomas Helmore's Psalter Noted. 

TONSURE (Latin, tonsura). 1. The act of clipping the hair, 
or of shaving the crown of the head ; or the act of being shorn. 
2. In the Roman Church the first external rite in devoting a 
person to the service of God is the bestowal of the tonsure. 3. 
The tonsure is a mark of the priesthood or of the religious state 
amongst Roman Catholics. Its origin is very ancient. St. 
Athanasius, St. Ambrose, and St. Jerome allude to it, and other 
writers point out that it has been borrowed from the Jews. By 
some writers it is regarded as representing the crown of thorns. 
The Greek form of the tonsure varies from that of the Latin. 
The former shave their heads from the front to the ears, the 
latter on the crown. This custom has varied in details, but 
councils and Church authorities have from time to time ordered 
it to be carefully observed and followed ; and this was the case 
in England until the Reformation. Since then the old canons 
have been unobserved. Several old English councils condemn 
long hair and beards for the clergy, both modern innovations. 


TOOTHING- STONES. A term applied to those large stones 
which are purposely left to project beyond the building, so as to 
enable additional buildings to be joined on to it, and to obtain a 
hold upon the same. 

(TOTTOC). A Greek term for a form or rite. fiec 

TOnOTHPHTHS (ToTror^rTje). The Greek term for a vicar 
or deputy (Latin, locum tenens). 

TORCH (Latin, torcin). 1. Alight or luminary formed of 
some combustible substance. 2. A large candle or flambeau. 
Torches of this last-mentioned kind are frequently used in the 


services of the Church : sometimes at the Elevation of High 
Mass; at the rite or service of Benediction with the Blessed 
Sacrament ; at the Exposition of the Sacrament for the worship 
of the faithful ; at funerals and other solemnities. Two such 
torches were enjoined by the Synod of Exeter, A.D. 1287, to be 
held burning before the high altar at High Mass. Candlesticks 
for torches are frequently found in cathedral and collegiate 
churches. Torches are frequently made of wood, at the top of 
which is a cavity for a wax-candle. This is fastened in by a 
screw, through which the top of the candle appears, being forced 
up by a spring, which is attached to the bottom of the cavity. 

TORCHBEAEER. The acolyte or attendant in the sanc- 
tuary, who holds or carries the torch at religious functions. 

TOTUM. A technical term to designate a breviary or porti- 
forium for the whole year. 

the cure of scrofula by the touch of the King or Queen, for which 
a special service existed from the fifteenth to the eighteenth cen- 
tury. This form was founded on services of a more ancient date. 
The Collect runs as follows : " Almighty God, Who art the 
giver of all health, and the aid of them that seek to Thee for 
succour, we call upon Thee for Thy help and goodness mercifully 
to be shown upon these Thy servants, that they being healed of 
their infirmities may give thanks unto Thee in Thy holy church. 
Through Jesus Christ our Lord. R. Amen." 

TOUCHSTONE. A term to designate a hard, black granite, 
which was anciently used for tombs and monumental memorials. 
Irish touchstone is the basalt, a well-known stone which com- 
poses the Giants' Causeway. 

TOWEL (French, toitaille). 1. A linen cloth used for wiping 
the hands. 2. A cloth used in Divine service ; e. g., at the altar 
and at the font, or in the giving of confirmation by a bishop. 3. 
A term for a covering laid on the top of the altar-linen to protect 
it from dust. 4. A cloth used for wiping the fingers after the 
Lavdbo in the Mass. 5. A cloth used at the hallowing of the font 
on Easter-eve. 6. A term given to the napkin used by the bishop 
when anointing those upon whom he is conferring the character 
of the priesthood. 

TOWER (Saxon,' for; Irish, tor; French, tour ; Portuguese, 
torre) . A building, either round or square, raised to a consider- 
able elevation, and consisting of several stories. The tower of a 

TOWER. 417 

church is that part which contains the bells, and from which the 
spire springs. These towers are of all dates, and are greatly 
diversified, not only in their details, but in their general charac- 
ter, proportions, and form. Sometimes they are detached from 
the building to which they belong ; ordinarily, however, they are 
annexed to it, and are to be found placed in almost every possible 
position, except at the east end of the chancel. Large churches, 
especially those which are cathedrals, have several towers. This 
is the case more particularly when their plans are cruciform. Then 
there is a tower at the intersection of the transept, and generally 
two at the west end. Occasionally the transept -gables are flanked 
with towers. Ordinary parochial churches, however, have but 
one tower. Saxon towers are almost invariably square, massive, 
plain, and very seldom of any great height. Exceptions exist 
as regards plainness in the churches of Earl's Barton and 
Barnack, Northamptonshire. In some parts of England circular 
towers exist, which are commonly of Romanesque or First-Pointed 
style. The former, however, are generally square, low, not 
rising above the roof of the church, and have broad flat buttresses 
at the angles. Examples exist at Iffley, Oxfordshire ; Stewkley, 
Bucks ; and the Cathedrals of Winchester, Exeter, and Norwich 
contain much most interesting work of that period. Of First- 
Pointed towers, there are numerous examples, all indicating a 
much greater variety of design. They are generally square, 
though occasionally octagonal; and frequently an octagonal 
upper portion is placed on a square base. The belfry windows 
are large and deeply recessed, with numerous bold mouldings in 
the jambs. Many of these towers are surmounted with spires, 
though in several cases the existing spires are of a later date than 
the tower. The tower and spire of Oxford Cathedral is a fine 
example, as is that of Middleton Stoney, Oxfordshire. In the 
Second-Pointed style towers differ very considerably, both in 
proportion, enrichment, and detail. In their general composi- 
tion they do not differ greatly from those of a previous style. 
Many are crowned with parapets, pierced or otherwise, and have 
usually a pinnacle at each corner. The church of St. Mary, 
Oxford (the University church), has a very fine example of a 
spire of this character one of the glories of that noble city. 
Third-Pointed towers are common in every part of the kingdom, 
and are known by the presence of those characteristics which 
generally distinguish the style. Canterbury, York, and Glouces- 
ter Cathedrals have each most beautiful and striking Third- 
Pointed towers ; and there are very fine examples at Louth and 
Boston, in Lincolnshire. The College of St. Mary Magdalene, 
Oxford, has a tower in this style, which is remarkable for its 
dignity and proportions. Throughout England the towers of the 

Lee i Qlonary. 2 


churches are a striking and beautiful feature deserving of admi- 

TRACERY. 1. Ornamental stonework. 2. Ornamental di- 
vergence of the mullions in the head of a window into arches, 
curves, and flowing lines, enriched with foliations ; also (3) the 
subdivisions of groined vaults. The use of tracery arose as fol- 
lows : When two or three small arches were grouped together 
under one large one, as was commonly the case in windows of the 
twelfth century, a blank space was necessarily created, which 
space was relieved by the piercing of one or more openings or 
circles. From this rose the beautiful tracery of later times. In 
the early part of the thirteenth century the bar principle was in- 
troduced, examples of which may be seen in Westminster Abbey. 
Tracery has been divided into Geometrical and Flowing. In the 
first, circles, trefoils, quatrefoils, and cinquefoils are made use 
of ; in the second, the lines of the pattern spread out and ramify 
like leaves, flowers, and branches. The tracery of the Third- 
Pointed style is remarkable for the introduction of both vertical 
and horizontal lines. In this, as in every other style, there are 
great varieties. Specimens and examples of one kind of tracery 
or another may be found in almost every ancient church in the 
kingdom. See WINDOW. 

TRACT (from tractim, "without ceasing"). A part of one 
of the Psalms of David, sung in the Latin Mass instead of the 
Gradual, on ferial days, from Septuagesima to Easter, after the 
Epistle. It is called the Tract, as some Ritualistic writers affirm, 
because it is drawn out in a slow and solemn strain. At the 
time at which the Church is commemorating the Passion of our 
Lord, this Tract is slowly chanted in lieu of the joyous Gradual. 

TRADITION (Latin, traditw).!. Delivery. 2. The act of 
delivering into the hands of another. 3. The delivery or trans- 
mission of opinions, faith, customs, doctrines, rites, and cere- 
monies from father to son, or from ancestors to posterity. 4. The 
Church's unwritten doctrines and practices are so called. 

TRADITIONALLY. By transmission from age to age. 

TRADITIONARY. Transmitted from age to age without 

TRADITIONER. One who adheres .to tradition. 


TRADITOR (Latin). 1. A deliverer. 2. A term of infamy 


applied to certain Christians in the Early Church, who delivered 
up the Sacred writings or vessels of the Church to their heathen 
oppressors and persecutors, in order to save their own lives, 3. A 

TRAITOR. One who betrays his trust. See TRADITOB. 
TRAMEZZO. The Italian name for a screen or skreen. 

TRAMONTANE (Literally trans and mons). 1. Lying or 
being beyond the mountain. 2. Foreign. 3. Barbarous. The 
Italians sometimes use this term of those who dwell north of the 
Alps ; and especially apply it to the ecclesiastics and canon 
lawyers of Germany and France. 

TRANSALPINE (Latin, trans andAlpinus). Lying or being 
beyond the Alps in regard to Rome ; i.e. on the north or west 
of the Alps. Opposed to Cisalpine, "on this side the Alps." 

TRANSELEMENTATION (Latin, trans and elementum). A 
term used to signify the change of the elements in one body into 
those of another. 

TRANSEPT (Latin, trans and septum}. 1. The transverse 
portions of a cruciform church, being one of the arms projecting 
each way on the side of the stem of the cross. 2. Any part 
of a church which projects at right angles from the body, and is 
of nearly equal height to it, is so termed. 

TRANSEPTAL ALTAR. An altar placed against the east 
portion or side of a transept. 

TRANSEPTAL CHOIR. The chapel of a transept, a feature 
common in the majority of Continental cathedrals, as it anciently 
was in those of the Church of England. 

TRANSITION. 1. Passing from one stage or state to 
another. 2. A term employed in reference to mediaeval archi- 
tecture while it was in progress of changing. There are three 
chief periods of transition : (a) from Romanesque to First 
Pointed, (/3) from First Pointed to Second Pointed, and (j) from 
Second Pointed to Third Pointed. Buildings erected at these 
periods frequently have the features of the two styles cleverly 
blended, so that it is not easy to say to which they properly be- 
long. Sometimes the details of the later style are associated 
with the general forms and arrangements of the earlier, and 

TRANSITORIUM. A term for a short anthem or respond 

2 E 2 


in the Rite of Milan, chanted after the communion of the 

TRANSITORY (Latin, transitorius). !. Passing, without 
continuance. 2. Fleeting. 3. Speedily vanishing. 4. Con- 
tinuing a short time. 

TRANSLATION (Latin, translat 10) . The art of removing or 
conveying from one place to another. 

TRANSLATION OF A BISHOP. The removal of the 
bishop of one see to another, a practice which, except in the case 
of promotion to archbishoprics, has been on several occasions 
condemned by Church councils. 

TRANSLATION OF A FESTIVAL. The postponement of 
the observance of a feast to some future day, when another 
festival of superior rank has occurred upon the day of its ordi- 
nary observance. This principle is fully sanctioned in the Latin 
Church, and is constantly put into practice in the observance of 
Saints' days, and the commemorations of the saints. 

TRANSLATION OF RELICS. The solemn removal of the 
body, or portion of the body, of a saint from one place to another. 
Such translations are still observed by the Church of England ; 
e.g., the translation of the relics of St. Edward from Wareham 
to Shaftesbury (June 20th) ; the translation of St. Martin, Bishop 
of Tours (July 4th) ; the translation of St. Swithin's remains 
(July 15th) ; and the translation of St. Edward the Confessor 
(October 13th), 

TRANSLATION TO HEAVEN. The removal of a person 
to heaven without subjecting him to death, as in the cases of 
Enoch and Elijah. 

TRANSOM. 1. In Ecclesiastical architecture a horizontal 
mullion or crossbar in a window. 2. Also a lintel over a door. 

TRANSUBSTANTIATE (TO). To change to another sub- 

TRANSUBSTANTIATED. Changed to another substance. 

TRANSUBSTANTIATING. Changing to another sub- 

TRANSUBSTANTIATION. 1. A change of substance. 2. 
In Western theology the change effected through consecration, 
by which the substance of the bread and wine becomes the Body 
and Blood of Je*sus Christ our Lord. 


TRANSUBSTANTIATOR. 1. One who maintains the doc- 
trine of Transubstantiation. 2. A priest of the Western 

TRANSVERSALS. A mediaeval term, current abroad for a 

TPAIIEZA (T/OOTTE^O). A Greek term for the nave of a 

TPATIEZA IEPA (Tpdw^a hpd}. A Greek term for (1) the 
altar, (2) for the Credence, and for (3) the act of communion. 

TRAPPINGS. 1. Ornaments. 2. Dress. 3. External and 
superficial decorations. 4. Church hangings used on solemnities 
and festivities of a religious character. 

TRAPPISTS. A branch of the old Cistercian order, founded 
in the twelfth century, at La Trappe. 

TRAVERSES. A seventeenth-century term for the hangings 
placed at the ends of an altar to protect the tapers from draught. 

TREASURER. The keeper of the treasures ; e.g., the muni- 
ments, sacred vessels, relics, and valuables of a church, cathe- 
dral, or religious house. Anciently, all that was necessary for 
Divine service was provided by him, and his dignity and posi- 
tion were recognized and defined in the old cathedral statutes. 
In order he usually succeeded the chancellor, and had a stall 
appointed to himself. This dignity has been commonly pre- 
served and exercised since the Reformation, both in our colleges 
and cathedrals. 

TREASURE-HOUSE. 1. A house or building where trea- 
sures are kept. 2. That part of a religious house where the 
treasurer resides and exercises his office. 

TREASURY. That part of the buildings adjoining and be- 
longing to a cathedral, in which the muniments and treasures 
were preserved, and near or in which, of old, the treasurer rer 


TRELLIS -WORK. A structure or frame of cross-barred 
wood or stone work, sometimes used in Ecclesiastical architecture. 

TRENCHER. A wooden plate, anciently used in monastic 
and religious houses. 

TRENCHER- CAP, A square cap, such as is used by choris* 


ters and the clergy, as well as by all members of our ancient 


TRENDLES. Long thin wax candles, twined round a staff 
or ball, and unwound for use iu church, as occasion required. 

TRENT ALS (French, trcnte). An office for the dead in the 
Latin Church, consisting of thirty Masses said on thirty days 

TRIBUNAL. A medieval term for (1) the courthouse of a 
monastery; and likewise (2) for a pulpit, elevated lectern, or ambo. 

TRIBUNE. 1. A pew in an elevated position. 2. A 
minstrel's gallery. 3. A singing-loft in a cathedral. Sec 

TRICANALE. A term used to designate the sacred vessels 
having three feet, which Bishop Andrewes adopted for contain- 
ing the wine and water used in the Eucharistic sacrifice. 

TRICENNALIA. A term signifying trentals. See TRENTALS. 

TRIDENTINE (from Latin, Trideittum).!. Of or belong- 
ing to Trent. 2. Relating to the celebrated Council held in the 
city of Trent in the sixteenth century. 3. Having reference to 
that part of the Church Universal which accepts the decrees and 
canons of the Council of Trent. 

TRIENNIAL VISITATION. A Visitation which is held 
once in three years. In England it is the custom to hold epis- 
copal Visitations at such an interval. 

TRIFORIUM (Latin). 1. The gallery or open space between 
the vaulting and the roof of the aisles of a church. 2. The 
second story in a cathedral or collegiate church. 

TRIGINTALS (Latin, triginta). A Latinized form of the old 
word "trentals.'" See TKENTALS. 

TPIFQNIAf TA (T/oiywvm, TO). A Greek term for a pattern 
of triangles, placed on the an\apiov. 

TRIKERION. A three-branched taper, so arranged that the 
wicks of each, though distinct, blend into one flame > with which 
the Oriental bishops sign the book of the Gospels during certain 
services of the Greek Church. 

TPIKHPION (TptKiipiov). A Greek term for a candlestick 
with three branches. 



TRINE IMMERSION. The dipping a subject into water 
three times at Christian baptism in the Name of the Blessed 
Trinity, a practice which the great majority of Oriental Christians 
regard as essential to the validity of the rite. It is very fre- 
quently practised in the Church of England. 

TRINITARIANS. An order for the redemption of Christian 
captives, founded by Robert Rokesby in the middle of the twelfth 

TRINITY SUNDAY. The Octave day of the Feast of 
Pentecost. It was established by Pope Benedict XI., A.D. 
1305, to be regarded as a feast in honour of the adorable Mystery 
of the Trinity. It was not generally observed in England until 
the thirteenth century. 


TRIPLET. A window of three lights. Many such occur in 
the First-Pointed style, the centre light being usually longer or 
more elevated than the two side-lights. See WINDOW. 


TRIPTYCH. A folding picture of three panels, the centre of 


which contains the chief subject represented, flanked by two 
doors, which commonly close and shut up. The example in the 
accompanying illustration is from the pencil of the late Mr. A. 
Welby Pugin. It is a good specimen of 4iia*fc-Pointed work in 
carved wood. Here the triptych is a kind of cupboard, with 
folding doors, containing a throned figure of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary crowned, holding her Divine Child on her lap. A figure 
of St. Peter on one side, and of St. Paul on the other, is painted 
on the inner panels of each door. (See Illustration.) 

TRIQUETRAL. A seventeenth-century term for a censer 
with three feet, used by Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester. 

TRISAGION (THE). The Eastern hymn, which commences 
" Holy God, Holy and Mighty, Holy and Immortal, have mercy 
upon us." It should not be confounded with the " Ter Sanctus." 

TRISANTIA. A mediaeval term for (1) a cloister; or (2) a 
place of retreat for religious persons where meditations were 

TRITHEISM (Greek, rptlg and Oeoc). The opinion that the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are three Gods. 

TRITHEIST. One who holds the opinion that the three 
Persons in the Godhead are three distinct and independent beings 
or Gods. 

TPOnAIO*OPO2 (T/ooTraio^o'/JOc). A Greek epithet for St. 
George the Martyr. 

TROPARION (Greek, Tpoirapiov}. The generic name for a 
short hymn, so called from turning to the sip/tog, on which it is 
rhythmically modelled. 

TROPERIUM. A volume containing the tropes or sequences 
used in the services of the Church. 

TROPES. Tropes or sequences are verses sung before the 
Holy Gospel in the Mass. The sequence is a kind of prose, 
written in a species of verse, though unfettered by any recog- 
nized laws of metre. They were introduced into use at the close 
of the ninth century. Four only are found in the Roman Missal. 

TROPOLOGICAL. 1. Varied by tropes. 2. Changed from 
the original import of the words. 3. The mystical application of 
Scripture to the particular requirements of individuals. 

TROPOLOGY (Greek, T^OTTOC and Ao'yoc). A rhetorical mode 


of speech, including tropes, or change from the original import 
of the word. 

TROTH (Saxon, treothe).l. Belief. 2. Faith. 3. Fidelity. 
TROTH-PLIGHT. 1. Betrothed. 2. Espoused. 3. Affianced. 

TPOTAA02, OB TPOTAAA (T/ooDAAoe, or rpovXXa). A Greek 
term for the dome of a church. 


TUDOR ROSE. A conventional representation of the rose, 
found in Third-Pointed architectural work, both in wood and 
stone carvings, adopted in honour of the Tudors. 

Pointed or Perpendicular style. 

TUFF-TAFFETA. A kind of inferior silk used in church- 


TUNICLE-BALL. A ball of crystal to which tassels were 
attached, hanging from the shoulders of mediaeval dalmatics. 

TUNICLE-CHEST. A chest for holding the tunic and 
dalmatic, differing in shape from those chests which contained 
the copes and chasubles of a sacristy. 

TTniKON (Tvirueov). A Greek term for (1) a book of Rubrics; 
(2) a selection from the Psalter; (3) a Sunday service in the 
Oriental Church. 

TURKACE. A turquoise. 

TURQUOISE. A Persian gem of a peculiar bluish-green 
colour, the finer specimens of which are much admired. They 
were very generally and largely used in the Middle Ages for the 
adornment of every species of sacred vessel; e.g., the chalice, 
ciborium, altar-cross, mitre, and pastoral staff. 

TUTELAR. Having the guardianship or charge of protecting 
a person or thing. 

TUTELAR ANGEL. A guardian angel. 


TWELFTH-DAY. 1. The feast of the Epiphany. 2. Old 

TWELFTH-NIGHT. 1. The Eve of the festival of the 
Epiphany, which occurs exactly twelve days after the feast of 
Chi'istmas. 2. Old Christmas-night. 

TWELFTH-TIDE. The season commencing on the twelfth 
day after Christmas-day ; i.e. the feast of the Epiphany. 

TYMBAL. A kind of kettledrum. 

TYMPANUM. 1. A term to designate the space between 
the lintel of a door and the arch over it. 2. When an arch is 
surmounted by a gable-moulding, or rectangular hoodmould, the 
space between the hoodmould and arch is so called. 

TYPE (Greek, TVTTOQ ; Latin, typus}. 1. A mark of something. 
2. An emblem. 3. That which represents something else. 4. A 
sign, symbol, or figure of something to come. 5. A canopy over 
a pulpit sometimes bore this name. 

TYPIC. 1. Emblematic. 2. Figurative. 3. Eepresenting 
something future by a form, model, or resemblance. 

TYPICUM. 1. An Eastern book of rubrics. 2. A collection 
of prayers. 3. A book of anthems. 

TYRIAN. 1. Pertaining or belonging to the city of Tyre. 
2. Of a purple colour, as " Tynan dye." 



APOnAPASTATAl (rSpoTrapaaTtiTai). A 
Greek term for those who anciently 'pre- 
tended to celebrate the Holy Communion 
with water. 

ULTRAMONTANE, adj. (Latin, ultra 
and montanus). Being beyond the moun- 
tains or Alps, in respect to one who in 
speaking purposely adopts the term. It 
was variously applied and used in ancient 
times ; but now it is more particularly used 
in respect to religious subjects. Ultramontane doctrines, when 
spoken of by those north of the Alps, mean the extreme views 
of the Pope's Divine rights and supremacy, as maintained by the 
most consistent and able opponents of the Gallican theologians, 
and by the general Italian theologians and canonists. 

ULTRAMONTANE. 1. A foreigner. 2. One who resides 
beyond the mountains. 

ULTRAMONTANISM. A term used to designate that theo- 
logical school amongst Roman Catholics who regard the Pope as 
superior to a General Council. 

ULTRAQUIST. A term of reproach, current in the sixteenth 
century, against certain persons who were permitted by their 
Ecclesiastical rulers, in opposition to Roman custom, to com- 
municate under both kinds in the Sacrament of the Altar. 

UMBRELLA (Latin, , umbra). 1. A shade, guard, or screen, 
carried in the hand for sheltering the person from the rays of the 
sun, or from sun, rain, or snow. 2. An Ecclesiastical umbrella 
is borne over bishops and priests during solemn processions, at 
Councils, and at other high solemnities. This is especially the 
case during processions of the Blessed Sacrament. 

TMN02 C"fyi/oc). A hymn. 

UNBAPTIZED. 1. Those who have not received the Sacra- 
ment of Holy Baptism. 2. Those who are not Christians. 

UNBLOODY SACRIFICE. A theological term to designate 
the Holy Sacrifice of the Altar. 


UNCANONIZB (TO). 1. To deprive of canonical authority. 
2. To reduce from the rank, dignity, and position of a saint. 

UNCHRISTENED. Not baptized. 

UNCHRISTIAN. 1. Contrary to the laws of Christianity. 
2. Infidel. 3. Unconverted to the faith of the Gospel. 4. Un- 

UNCHRISTIANIZE (TO). 1. To turn from the Christian 
faith. 2. To cause Christianity to be repudiated. 

UNCIAL (Latin, tincialis). Of, or belonging to, or denoting 
letters of a large size, used in ancient manuscripts. 


UNCTION. 1. An anointing. 2. A smearing with oil. 

UNCTION OF AN ALTAR. The anointing with Holy Oil 
of the five crosses of an altar-slab by the bishop who consecrates 
it. The Latin formula is as follows : " Consecretur et sanctifi- 
cetur hoc sepulchrum. In Nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus 
Sancti. Pax huic domui." This rite has been abolished in the 
Church of England since the Reformation, at which period it was 
the custom rather to desecrate than to consecrate altars. 

UNCTION OF THE CONFIRMED. The anointing with 
Holy Oil those being confirmed. In the Roman Church, the 
formula runs thus : " Signo te signo crucis : et confirmo te 
chrismate salutis. In Nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. 
Amen." In the Church of England this beautiful and expressive 
rite was abolished at the Reformation. In the Scottish Episcopal 
Church the formula is very like that given above ; but at the 
present day no unction is used. 

UNCTION OF A PRIEST. The anointing with Holy 
Oil a person being promoted to the priesthood. This rite is 
peculiarly Latin. When using the Holy Oil, the bishop who 
ordains thus prays : " Consecrare et sanctificare digneris, 
Domine, manus istas per istam unctionem, et nostram benedic- 
tionem. Amen. Ut qugecumque benedixerint benedicantur, et 
quaecumque consecraverint consecrentur, et sanctificentur, in 
Nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi. Amen," There is no such 
consecration in the Greek form for bestowing the priesthood. 

UNCTION OF THE SICK. The anointing with oil sick 
persons in extremis, in accordance with the injunction of St. 
James (St. James v. 14, 15), and the practices of the Church 


UNDERSONG. 1. An ancient name for Terce. 2. The 
chorus, burden, or refrain of a hymn or song. 

UNENDOWED.] . Not endowed. 2. Not furnished with 

UNEPISCOPAL. Not episcopal. Almost all Christian sects 
and modern communities have no bishops. 

UNERRING. 1. Committing no mistake. 2. Infallible. 3. 
Incapable of error. 

UNEVANGELICAL. Not according to the Gospel. 

UNEXORCISED. 1 . Not cast out by exorcism. 2. Not 

UNFROCKED. 1. Divested of a gown. A common term 
for the suspension or degradation of an Ecclesiastic. 

UNGOWN (TO). To strip offagown from a clergyman. See 

UNGUENT (Latin, unguentum). Oil, balsam, or ointment. 

UNGUENT (HOLY). Oil blessed for use in the Sacraments 
of Holy Church. 

UNIAT. A member of the Uniat churches of the East. 

UNIAT CHURCHES. Oriental churches in almost all their 
characteristics, like those in communion with the Patriarch 
of Constantinople, but which are in visible union with the See 
of Rome. 

UNICULUS. A low Latin term for an alms-box, with a 
perforated cover. 

UNIFORMITY. 1. Agreement. 2. Consistency. 3. Same- 
ness. 4. Consonance. 

UNIFORMITY (ACTS OF). Those various Acts of . Parlia- 
ment which ratified and sanctioned the Reformed Prayer-book of 
1549, and its subsequent versions of 1552, 1559, 1604, 1629, and 
1662; e.g., 1 Eliz. and 13 and 14 Car. II. 

UNIGENITUS (Latin). The state of being the only-begotten. 
A term applied to our Blessed Lord as the one Eternal Son of 
His Eternal Father. 

UNIGENITUS (THE BULL). The Papal Bull directed by 
Pope Clement XI. (John Francis Albani) against the Jesuits. It 


condemned a hundred and one propositions of the Jansenist 
Quesnel in 1713; and Benedict XIII. convened a Council at Rome 
to confirm it in 1725. 

UNINCARNATE. Not incarnate. 

UNION (Latin, unto ; Italian, unione). 1. The act of joining 
two or more things into one, and thus forming a compound body 
or a mixture. 2. The junction or coalition of things united. 

UNION, HYPOSTATIC (THE). A technical theological 
term to designate the union of our Blessed Lord's Divine and 
Human natures in one person. 

UNISON (Latin, unus and sonus). 1. In music an accord- 
ant coincidence of sounds. 2. Consonance of sounds equal in 
respect to acuteness or gravity. 3. A single unvaried note. 

UNITARIAN. One who rejects the Catholic doctrine of the 
Trinity, ascribing Divinity to God the Father only. 

UNITARIANISM. The doctrine of Unitarians. 

UNIVERSALISM. An opinion current amongst certain 
persons who believe that all men will be saved, and eventually 
made happy in a future life. 

UNIVERSALIST. One who holds the opinion of Univer- 

UNIVERSITY. 1. An universal school. 2. A city or town 
in -which there exists an assemblage of colleges instituted for the 
education of youth by tutors, and where degrees in Divinity, Law, 
and Medicine are formally and legally conferred. 

rnANAPETEIN (riravSptveiv) . A Greek term signifying 
" to give in marriage." 

THAN API A ('TTrarS/ota). A Greek term for matrimony. 
TITAN APO2 fTirav8/ooc) A Greek term for a wife. 

TITANTH ('TTravrij). A Greek term for Candlemass-day, or 
the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

TIIEPETAOrHMENH CTTrf/oeuXoy^eVr,). A Greek term for 
" pre-eminently blessed," a title given by Eastern Catholics to 
the Blessed Mother of God. 

TITHPETHS ('T7rr//oTj^. A Greek term for a subdeacon. 

TIlEPilON USE. 431 

TITEPQON ('TirtpMov). A Greek term for the women's gallery 
in an Eastern Church. 

mOBOAETS ('TTrojSoXfuc). A Greek term for a succentor. 

mOAIAKONOS CTiroSttKovoc). A Greek term for a sub- 

rnOKAMISION ('T7roKa/i(rtop). A Greek term for a species 
of cassock worn immediately under the Oriental alb. 

mOMNHMATOrPA<I>02: ('rTrofiv^aT^pa^.A Greek 
term for the secretary of the College of Bishops. 

('r7ro0a>i'/T>}c). A Greek term for a suc- 

Y4>A2MATA, TA ('T>a<rjuara, ra) .A Greek term to designate 
the four pieces of cloth embroidered with the Evangelistic 
symbols, placed on the corners of an altar before the 
is put on. 

. A Greek term (1) for the elevation of the 
Host, and also (2) for Holy-Cross day. 

URBS BEATA HIERUSALEM. The first words of a Latin 
hymn for the dedication of a church, which is attributed by some 
critics to St. Ambrose of Milan. 


URDELL. An old English form of the word "ordeal." 

URIM AND THUMMIM. These terms amongst the Israelites 
signify " lights and perfections." They are believed to have 
been connected with a kind of breast-ornament belonging to the 
high priest, by consulting which, in a mode now unknown, the 
Will of the Most High was made manifest to God's chosen people. 

URSULINES. Nuns of an order founded by, or at all events 
named after, St. Ursula of Naples. They are neither purely con- 
templative nor purely active, but combine some of the duties of 

USE. 1. The form of external worship peculiar to any par- 
ticular church. 2. The Ritual as arranged by authority, and duly 
followed in any diocese or national communion. There were the 
use of Bangor, the use of York, the use of Durham, the use of 
Lincoln, the use of Hereford, and the use of Sarum in the ancient 


Church of England. All were practically abolished in the six- 
teenth century. 

. USURPATION OF A BENEFICE. A usurpation of a 
Church benefice is when a stranger, who has no right to do so, 
presents a clerk, who is thereupon admitted and instituted. 
Anciently, such an act deprived the legal patron of his advow- 
son; but it is not so now, as no usurpation can displace the 
estate or interest of the patron, nor turn it to a mere right ; but 
the true patron may present upon the next avoidance, as if no 
such usurpation had occurred. 



ACATION. 1. The act of making void. 
2. In law courts, the period between the 
end of one term and the beginning of 


(THE). This occurs when a benefice, 
whether rectory, vicarage, or perpetual 
curacy is made void by the death, resig- 
nation, or deprivation of its legal holder. 

when a bishopric is made void by the death, resignation, or 
deprivation of its legal holder. 


VACCAEY (Latin, vacca). An old monastic term for a cow- 

VACHEEY. A pen or enclosure for cows : a term not un- 
frequently found in monastic inventories and domestic MSS. 

VADE MECUM (Latin, " Go with me "). A book of prayers 
which a person carries with him as a constant companion. 


VANNEL. 1. An old English term for a f anon or napkin, 
used sometimes round the neck instead of the amice (amicfas). 
2. Also a word for the amice itself. 


VAT. A cistern or vessel : a term frequently found in the 
Inventories of religious houses. 

VAT FOR HOLY WATER. A Holy Water vessel. 

VATICAN (THE). A magnificent palace of the Pope's on 
the Vatican hill at Rome. 

VAULT. 1. A continued arch, or an arched roof. 

Lee'i Glouary. 2 F 

2. Are- 


pository for the dead. 3. In architecture, vaults are of various 
kinds, circular, pointed, single, double, diagonal, elliptical, &c. 

VAULT (TO). 1. To arch. 2. To build with an arch. 
VEIL. A covering. 

VEIL FOR A BRIDE. That covering for the head and 
shoulders of a person who is about to be married. 

VEIL FOR THE CHALICE. 1. A covering of silk em- 
broidered, and of the colour of the season, used for placing over 
the chalice and paten when prepared for the Christian Sacrifice ; 
and also for the same purpose when the Sacrifice is completed. 
2. The " white linen cloth " of the Church of England Commu- 
nion-service is likewise so called. 

covering for the head and shoulders of persons about to be con- 

VEIL FOR THE TABERNACLE. A veil or curtain of silk, 
satin, velvet, or cloth of gold or silver, with which to shroud and 
enclose the tabernacle for the Blessed Sacrament when reserved 
in the Roman Catholic Church. It is commonly hung both 
before the doors of the Tabernacle, as well as at the sides. Its 
use most probably came in when the setting up of tabernacles 
for reservation became general. 

designate the carrying out of the following rubric in the Prayer- 
book of the Church of England : " When all have communicated, 
the minister shall return to the Lord's Table, and reverently place 
upon it what remains of the consecrated elements, covering the 
same with a fair linen cloth." 

VENERABLE. 1. A title given to Bede. 2. A title given 
to archdeacons in the Church of England. 

VENIA. An ancient term signifying a monastic token of 
reverence, respect, or greeting, with which strangers and digni- 
taries were received on visiting the monastery. 

VENIAL SIN. A sin of infirmity. A sin of an inferior 
kind, by which the faithful are not excluded from the grace of 
God, and into which people most constantly fall. 

VENI CREATOR. The first Latin words of a hymn used at 
Whitsuntide, as also in the form for the ordination of priests. 


VENI SANCTE SPIRITUS. The first Latin words of a 
hymn used at Whitsuntide. 

VENITE ADOREMUS. The refrain or burden of the hymn 
Adeste Fideles, sung at Christmas-tide. 

VENITE EXULTEMUS DOMINO. A psalm or canticle 
appointed to be sung in the Matins-service of the Church of 
England, immediately before the Psalms of the day, except on 
Easter-day, and on the nineteenth day of the month, when the 
canticle in question is sung in the ordinary course of the Psalms. 

VERDOUR. 1. An old English word signifying hangings 
for a room, on which are represented trees and flowers. 2. An 
altar-hanging powdered with green leaves and flowers. 

VERGrE. 1. A staff of wood or metal, surmounted with a 
figure, emblem, or device, borne before a bishop, dean, rector, or 
vicar in entering or leaving church, and on other public occa- 
sions. Several examples of verges in precious metals, of the 
period of the Restoration, exist in churches within the City of 
London. 2. A rod or staff carried as an emblem of authority. 
3. The stick or wand with which people are admitted tenants, 
by holding it in the hand, and swearing fealty to the owner. 

VERGE-BOARD. A barge-board. 

VERGER. 1. An officer who, on public occasions, bears the 
verge or staff of office before a bishop, dean, canon, or other 
dignitary or Ecclesiastic. 2. An attendant at a church. 

VERNACLE. An old English term for the Vera Icon, or 
true representation of our Lord's Pace and features as miracu- 
lously delineated on the napkin of St. Veronica. 


VERSE (Latin, versus). 1. In poetry, a line consisting of a 
certain number of long and short syllables. 2. Poetry : metrical 
language. 3. A short division of any composition, particularly 
of the chapters in the Scriptures. 4. A part of an anthem sung 
in Divine service by a choir. 5. A short sentence said in the 
recitation of the Hours, to which there is a suitable response. 

VERSICLE. A little verse. 

VERSICLES (THE). Brief and terse exclamations, com- 
monly consisting of a single sentence, with a corresponding re- 
sponse by the faithful to each, which occur in various services of 

2 F 2 


the Church, but more especially in the Matins and Evensong of 
the Church of England, immediately after the Apostles' Creed. 

VERSION. 1. A turning. 2. The act of translation. 3. The 
rendering of thoughts or ideas in one language into words of a 
like signification in another. 4. A term applied to the various 
modern translations of the Bible. 

VERY REVEREND. A title given by custom to certain 
clergymen in priests' orders, who have attained to positions of 
dignity. In the Church of England it is usually reserved for 
deans and provosts of cathedrals and collegiate churches. In 
the Anglo-Roman Communion it is given to canons of cathe- 
drals, to certain doctors of Divinity, and others. 

VESICA PISCIS (Latin, literally "the bladder of a fish"). 
A name applied by certain mediaeval writers to a pointed oval 
figure, formed by two equal circles, cutting each other in their 
centres, which is a common form given to the aureole, or glory 
by which the representations of the Three Persons of th'e Blessed 
Trinity, and of our Blessed Lady are surrounded in the paintings, 
sculptures, and carvings of the Middle Ages. Some have seen 
in the use of this form or symbol a reference to the 'I^flu^, a 
word containing the initial letters of the name and titles of our 
Lord, 'Irjaove X/o/aroc, 0tou Tt'oe SWTTJ/O. This form is that in 
which a large number of Ecclesiastical seals were made in 
England in olden times a form not lost even now. 

VESPER AL. That part of the Antiphonarium which con- 
tains the proper chants for vespers. 


VESPERS. The last but one of the seven canonical hours. 

VESPERTINE. Pertaining to the evening when vespers are 



VESSELS OF THE ALTAR. The chalice, paten, ciborium, 
and monstrance. 

VESTMENT (THE). This term is usually applied to the 
Eucharistic vestment, i.e. the chasuble ; just as the expression 
" the Sacrament " is made use of with reference to the Holy 
Sacrament of the altar. When so applied, however, in mediaeval 
times, it included a complete Eucharistic set of vestments 


chasuble, amice, stole, and maniple, as the following extract, by 
no means singular in its language, sufficiently proves : " Item 
lego eidem Ecclesiae unum vestimentum integrum rubei coloris 
melius quod habeo de panno velveto aureo, id est unam casulam 
cum II dalmaticis, in albis, in amictis, II stolis, in manipulis, n 
torvaillis cum toto ornamento pro altare." (From Will of Thomas 
Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, ob. 1426. Nichol's Royal Willy, 

VESTMENT-BOARD. 1. A table sometimes placed in the 
sanctuaries of our churches in ancient times, on which a bishop's 
vestments were placed before assuming them, and after taking 
them off. 

VESTMENTS. Those official garments which are used by 
the clergy in Divine service. In reciting the Hours, or saying 
Matins and Evensong, the clergy wear a cassock, a surplice, a 
hood, tippet or almuce ; and in some places a stole. At Mass the 
priest celebrant wears a cassock, amice, alb, girdle, stole, maniple, 
and chasuble ; the deacon and subdeacon wear cassock, amice, 
alb, girdle, stole (for the deacon only), maniple, and dalmatick. 
The bishop when he pontificates wears cassock, amice, alb, girdle, 
stole, maniple, dalmatick, tunic, chasuble, mitre, ring, and pas- 
toral staff. At solemn vespers, funerals, and in processions, the 
clergy wear a cope. In the administration of the Sacraments, 
a cassock, surplice, and stole are ordinarily worn. 

VESTRY. 1. A chamber in the church for keeping the vest- 
ments of the clergy, commonly found at the north-east corner of 
the chancel, so as to allow of free access to the sanctuary. 2. A 
meeting of the ratepayers of a parish, held in the vestry, and 
hence so called. 


VESTRY- PRESS. A cupboard to hold the eucharistical 
and other vestments belonging to a church. 

VESTRY-TRUNK. A box originally made out of the trunk 
of a tree hollowed, in order to contain the ecclesiastical vestments 
belonging to a church. 

VESTURER. 1. A sacristan. 2. A sexton. 3. A keeper 
of the vestments. 4. A sub-treasurer of a collegiate church or 

VETHYM. An old form of the word " fathom " ; i.e., a- 
measure of six feet in length. 



YEXILLA REGIS. The first words of a Latin hymn, com- 
posed by Venantius Fortunatus (A.D. 530 609) on occasion of 
the reception of certain relics by St. Gregory of Tours and St. 
Radegund, prior to the consecration of a new church at Tours. 
It is strictly a processional hymn, but was afterwards adapted 
for use in the Western Church during Passion-tide, and is 
now, in our English version, commonly used in the Church of 

VEXILLUM. A flag or pennon of silk or linen, attached to 
the upper part of a bishop's pastoral staff by a cord. This 
pennon is then folded round the staff in 
question, so as to avoid the inconvenience 
which might arise from the moisture of the 
hand staining the metal of which the staff 
is made. Many examples of the vexillum 
are represented in illuminated MSS., and 
some are to be found both on memorial 
brasses and on incised slabs. (See Illus- 

VIANAGIUM. A term frequently found 
in Dugdale's Monasticon to designate the 
payment of a certain quantity of wine in 
lieu of rent to the chief lord of the vine- 

VIATICUM (Latin). 1. A term used to 
designate the giving of the Holy Eucharist 
to the dying. 2. The Holy Eucharist when 
given to the dying. 

VICAR (Latin, mcarius). One who 
VEXILLUM. supplies the place of another. Anciently, 

when a church was appropriated to any of 
the religious houses, the monks supplied the cure by one of their 
own brotherhood, and received the revenues of the church to their 
own use. Afterwards, in almost all appropriated churches, it 
became customary that they should be supplied by a secular clerk, 
and not a member of their own house j from which fact and duty 
he received the name of vicarius, as it were vicem gerens, supply- 
ing the place of the religions society } and for the maintenance 
of this vicar about a third part of the tithes hence and still 
called the vicarial or small tithes was set apart, the rest of the 
tithes being reserved to the use of those houses which, for a 
similar reason, were called the rectorial or great tithes. After 
the religious houses were dissolved, the king became possessed 
of that share which belonged to the monasteries, who granted 


them to divers persons, now termed lay impropriators, to whom 
ordinarily belong the whole of the great tithes. 

VICAR-APOSTOLIC. This term is used to designate a 
bishop who possesses no diocese, but who exercises jurisdiction 
over a certain appointed district by direct authority of the Pope. 
Such have been appointed from time to time in various parts of 
the Latin communion. There were vicars-apostolic in France, 
Spain, and Italy in the seventh and eighth centuries, and officers 
possessing similar powers have been appointed by Rome in 
different countries ever since. In England, Dr. William Bishop 
was consecrated by the title of Bishop of Chalcedon on June 4, 
1623. In 1688 Pope Innocent XI. created four districts, the 
London, Midland, Northern, and Western. To these, four more- 
the Eastern, the Welsh, Lancashire, and Yorkshire were added 
by Pope Gregory XVI. July 30, 1840. In place of these a new 
hierarchy was set up in England by Pope Pius IX. in 1850. 

of the Roman communion possessing certain episcopal jurisdic* 
tion in Orkney, Shetland, Iceland, and the adjacent islands. 

VICAR-CHORAL,-!. A minor canon attached to a cathe- 
dral or collegiate church. 2. A layman appointed to assist in 
chanting Divine service in cathedral and collegiate churches. 

VICAR-EPISCOPAL. An office corresponding in some 
particulars to the English archdeacon, as well as to the Greek 
" Chorepiscopus." 

VICAR-GENERAL. An officer under a bishop having cogni- 
zance of spiritual matters, such as correction of manners and the 
like, as the Official Principal has jurisdiction of temporal matters ; 
e. g. of wills and administrations ; and both of these offices are 
ordinarily united under the name of Chancellor. 

VICAR OF CHRIST. A term by which Roman Catholics 
sometimes designate the Pope or Patriarch of the Latin 

VICAR OF PETER. A term by which the Pope or Bishop 
of Rome is sometimes designated. 

VICAR OF THE HOLY SEE. An officer who has been 
from time to time appointed by the Pope to exercise quasi- 
episcopal jurisdiction in certain dioceses. His functions and 
duties are almost precisely similar to those of the Vicar-apostolic; 



VICARAGE-HOUSE. The official house of residence for the 
vicar of a parish. 

VICARIAL. Pertaining or belonging to a vicar. 

VICARIAL TITHES. The lesser tithes belonging to a 
benefice. See TITHE. 

VICARIATE. Having delegated power as a vicar. 

VICARS' COLLEGE. The house of residence of those 
members of a cathedral corporation who do not belong to the 
chapter. Anciently such a building appears to have been attached 
to most of our cathedrals. 

VTCARSHIP. The office of a vicar. 

VICE-CHANCELLOR. The officer chief in authority of an 
university; usually one of the heads of the colleges, who is selected 
from time to time to manage the government of the same in the 
absence of the chancellor. . 

VIE-DEAN. An officer appointed by the chapter of a cathe- 
dral, or in some cases by the dean alone, to act as the deputy of 
the latter. In other cases he is elected by the residentiaries. 
He acts as the locum tenens of the dean, and commonly occupies 
the chief north- westernmost stall on the cantoris side. In some 
Italian and Spanish foundations he is termed " prefect of the 

VICE-LEGATE. An officer of the court of Rome, who acts 
as spiritual and temporal governor in certain cities where no legate 
or cardinal resides. 

VICE-RECTOR. The second in authority to the rector, 
governor, master, or ruler of a college. 

VICE-SACRISTAN. A sacristan of inferior rank and posi- 
tion, who acts during the absence of the ordinary sacristan. 

VIDAME (Latin, vice dominus). In French feudal jurispru- 
dence, (1 ) The steward of a bishop not unf requently was called 
by this name ; as also (2) the provost or collector of episcopal 
and capitular rents ; (3) likewise the heir of the founder of a 
religious house. 

VIDUITY (Latin, wduitas). Widowhood. 

VIGIL (Latin, vigilia; French, vigile). 1, Watch, 2. Devo- 


tions performed in the customary hours of rest or sleep. 3. A 
fast observed on the day preceding a holiday. 4. The evening 
or eve before any fast, anciently observed by public watching, 
prayer, and meditation on sacred things. 

VIGIL OF LIGHTS. An old English term to designate 
" Candlemas-eve." 

VIGILLE MORTUORUM. 1. Watches for the dead. -2. 
Watching by rule, with prayers and intercessions, beside the body 
of a departed Christian after death and before burial. 

VI LAIC A REMOVENDA. A writ which lies where a 
clerk intrudes into an ecclesiastical benefice, and holds the same 
with a strong hand and by the great power of the laity. By 
this writ the sheriff is enjoined to remove by force and to arrest 
and imprison any persons who make a resistance. The writ is 
returnable into the Queen's Bench, where the offenders are 
punished, and restitution granted to the sufferer. 

"VIOLENT HANDS." A phrase in the rubric of the 
English service of the Burial of the Dead, which declares that 
those who have laid violent hands upon themselves are not to be 
admitted to Christian burial. 

VIRGA. A virge. 

VIRGATORES. Serjeants at mace ; i. e. bearers of the 
official mace before official persons, whether ecclesiastical or 

VIRGE. 1. A name for that portion of a pillar between the 
capital and base. 2. A rod or staff of office. 

VIRGIFER. A verger who bears a staff of office. 

VIRGIN CHIMES. 1. The first chimes rung after twelve of 
the clock on Christmas-eve. 2. The first chimes rung on a peal 
of bells newly blessed or consecrated. 

VIRGIN MARY. Our Blessed Lady, daughter of St. Joa- 
chim and St. Anne, the Mother of our Lord and God Jesus 
Christ, the Saviour and Redeemer of mankind. In Christian art 
no subject has been more popular with painters than representa- 
tions of Mary. Her features are usually copied from the written 
description of her by Epiphanius. She is commonly depicted in 
a blue mantle, with a white veil for the head. There is a repre- 
sentation of her though, as some declare, of an ordinary orante 
in the catacomb of St. Agnes. She is veiled, and her Holy 


Child Jesus stands near her. In the seventh century she is re- 
presented as a queen, crowned. This is the case both in the East 
and West, and testifies to the dignity and position anciently 
granted her by all Christians at that period. She is styled 
" Queen of Angels," " Queen of Martyrs," " Queen of Prophets/ 7 
in the devotions of the later Roman Church epithets borrowed 
in many cases from St. Ephrem and other Orientals, and in 
others from mediaeval saints and Christian writers. 

VIRGO VIRGINUM. A devotional title in the Latin Church 
for the Blessed Virgin Mary. 


VIRTUES (THE FOUR CARDINAL). Prudence, Justice, 
Fortitude, and Temperance. 

and Charity. 


VISITATION. The authoritative inspection of a parish 
church, rural deanery, archdeaconry, diocese, or province by the 
legal and recognized visitor. An archdeacon's visitation is an- 
nual, a bishop's triennial ; a rural dean's is at lesser intervals. 

VISITATION B. V. M. A festival observed in the Western 
Church on July 2nd. It commemorates the Visit of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary to her cousin St. Elizabeth immediately after the 
annunciation of the birth of Jesus Christ. This feast was insti- 
tuted by Pope Urban VI. A.D. 1389, and confirmed by the 
Council of Basle forty years afterwards. 

VISITATION (ORDER OF THE). A congregation of reli- 
gious women founded in the early part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury by St. Francis of Sales. This community was instituted to 
receive women, who, by reason of bodily or mental infirmities, 
were debarred from entering other orders. 

VISITATORIAL AUTHORITY. That legitimate authority 
possessed by the visitor of a corporate body or ecclesiastical 

VISITOR. An inspector of bodies politic^ ecclesiastical, or 
civil. With respect to ordinary ecclesiastical corporations, the 
bishop is their visitor, so constituted by the canon law. The 
archbishop is the supreme ecclesiastical visitor in his province ; 
he hath no superior. The bishops are visitors in their several 
dioceses of all deans and chapters, parsons, vicars > and all spiri- 


tual corporations. Visitors of colleges and other eleemosynary 
corporations are generally independent of the diocesan, being 


VOCAL PRAYER. 1. Prayer which is uttered by the 
voice in contradistinction to mental prayer. 2. Prayer which is 
said aloud. 3. Public prayer. 

VOCATION (Latin, vocatio}. 1. Amongst theologians a 
special calling by the Will of God ; (2) also the bestowal of God's 
special or distinguishing grace upon a person or community, by 
which that person or community is put into the way of salvation. 

VOICE-TUBE. A tunnel or tube placed in the walls of the 
choir, by which means, as soine assert, the faithful kneeling in 
the nave could communicate with the clergy seated in the church 

VOID. 1. Not occupied. 2. Clear. 3. Free. 

VOID BENEFICE. 1. A benefice which is vacant. 2. A 
benefice void by the death, resignation, or deprivation of its 
legal incumbent. 

VOLO. The Latin term for " I will " ; an ancient response 
in the services for Christian baptism and marriage. 

VOLO-ER. The priest who administered baptism was some- 
times so called. 

VOLUNTARY. A piece of music played upon the organ at 
certain portions of the service in the Church of England; e. g., 
before and after the Lessons, at the Magnificat, or before or after 
service ; so called because the selection of the music is made by 
the organist. 

VOLUNTARY JURISDICTION. A term to describe and 
define that jurisdiction which is exercised in questions which 
require no judicial proceedings ; e. g. } in the granting probate of 
wills and letters of administration. 

VOUSSOIR. The wedge-shaped stones or other materials 
with which an arch is constructed, the upper or central one being 
termed the keystone. - 

VOUSSURE. A French term, not unfrequently found in 
English MSS., signifying a vault. 

VULGAR. That which is common* 


VULGAR TONGUE. The ordinary common language of the 
people of any country. This " phrase " vulgar tongue occurs in 
two or three of the rubrics and exhortations of the Book of 
Common Prayer ; e. g., in the services for baptism. 

VULGATE. An ancient translation of the Holy Scriptures, 
asserted by competent authorities to have been taken from the 
Hebrew about the latter end of the fourth century and the begin- 
ning of the fifth, which the Tridentine Council authorized as the 
only true and legitimate version, and which the Popes Sixtus V. 
(Felix Peretti) and Clement VIII. (Hippolitus Aldrobandini) took 
great pains to have published correctly. The first edition was 
issued in 1590; but, upon examination, it was found imperfect; 
and therefore, in 1592 the first year of Pope Clement's reign 
another edition was published, which is regarded as the model of 
all that have since been published. This edition the Roman 
Catholic authorities hold to be authentic and authoritative, and 
agreeable to the determination and mind of the Roman Catholic 

VYSE. An old English term for a screw : hence, a spiral 
staircase, the steps of which wind round a perpendicular shaft 
or pillar called a swivel. 



AFER-BREAD. Unleavened bread, made 
thin, and in the form of round wafers, 
used for the Holy Eucharist. In the 
Church of England such wafers have been 
used from the earliest times of Christi- 
anity, and are still not uncommonly used. 
But the rubric of our present Prayer- 
book maintains that the best and purest 
wheaten bread that may be conveniently 
gotten will suffice. See ALTAR-BREAD. 

WAFER (Danish, raff el) . A thin cake of bread or paste, com- 
monly made unleavened. 

WAITS. Anciently, these were minstrels or musical watch- 
men who sounded the watch at night. They have now degene- 
rated into itinerant musicians, who give notice of the approach of 

WAKE. 1. The annual commemoration of the dedication of 
a church, formerly kept by watching all night. 2. The watching 
by a dead body prior to burial, and offering prayers for the 
repose of the departed soul. 

WALLET. A bag for carrying the necessaries for a journey. 
This anciently always formed part of the dress of the Christian 

WALL-PLATE. A piece of timber laid horizontally on the 
top of a wall, on which joists rest. 

WARDEN. 1 . The head of a college, community, or alms- 
house; as also sometimes the head of a religious congregation. 
2. A keeper. 3. A guardian. 

WARDERSHIP. The office or jurisdiction of a warder. 

WATER-DRAIN. That hole or drain for water, which is 
found both in a font for carrying off the water when used; and in 
a piscina, into which latter the water with which the priest washes 
his hands is poured away ; as also the second ablutions of the 
sacred vessels after having been rinsed and cleansed by the 
celebrant upon the offering of the Christian Sacrifice. 



WATER-SAPPHIRE. lolite ; a kind of blue precious stone, 
used in Ecclesiastical ornaments. 

WAX CANDLE, A candle made of wax. See TAPEE. 

WAYSIDE CROSS, A cross erected on the public way, 
either to commemorate some remarkable event, to indicate 
the boundary of an estate, to designate a customary station 
for a public religious service, or the temporary resting-place 
of the corpse on a royal or noble funeral, or to mark the 
confines of a diocesan, monastic, or parochial boundary. An- 
ciently, in England, as abroad in the present (Jay, wayside 
crosses were abundant, and reminded the faithful of the duty of 
prayer. But thousands have perished, yet the remains of those 
which once existed are somewhat numerous, and examples may 
be found in every diocese, They were often of stone, standing on 
steps, though no doubt wooden wayside crosses were frequently 
set up. Stone crosses partook of the distinct architectural fea- 
tures of the age and time in which they were erected. A figure 
of our Lord was no doubt attached to the cross j and sometimes 
on the back of it our Lady and the Divine Child were likewise 
represented. Prayers, legends, sentences from Scripture, or short 
invocations, were also set forth for edification, 

WEATHERCOCK. 1. A weather-vane, on which is the 
metal or wooden representation of a cock, placed on the top of a 
spire, which vane turns by the force and direction of the wind. 

WEEK-DAY. Any day of the week except Sunday. 

WEEPERS (Latin, lugentes). One of the order of penitents 
in the early Church. 


WELL (Saxon, well; Danish, wellen}. 1. A receptacle for 
water. 2. A spring. 3. A cylindrical hole, made perpendicularly 


into the ground, to such a depth as to reach water, walled round 
with stone or brick to prevent the earth falling in. The most 
ancient examples of Christian baptismal wells are to be seen in 
the catacombs. That in the accompanying engraving is from 
the catacomb of St. Domitilla at Rome; and no doubt those 
which, often found in crypts, are still used in connection with 
cathedrals and other churches, were originally made for the 
purposes of supplying the baptismal font. The older Welsh 
churches, as well as several in Somersetshire and Cornwall, have 
wells. St. Winefrid's in North Wales, St. Keyne's in Cornwall, 
St. Aldhelm's at Shepton Mallet, amongst others, are well 
known. Some of these are believed to be of the fifth or sixth 
century. Many possess healing properties, and the sacred waters 
are often sought after by the sick and suffering. Throughout all 
Christendom such wells exist, and rules concerning them have 
been made from time to time by canonical decrees, because of 
abuses which arose in past ages. 

WESLEYAN. A person who belongs to the sect of Ar- 
minian Methodists founded by John Wesley. 

WESLEYANISM. The doctrine and discipline of the 

WHEEL OF BELLS. An instrument consisting of a broad 
wooden wheel, to which from eight -to twelve silver bells are 
affixed, rung by a rope at the elevation of the Host in certain 
foreign churches, remarkable examples of which exist at Manresa 
and Gerona. The former, placed against the wall of the choir-aisle, 
is contained in an ornamental eight-sided wooden case with 
Gothic sound-holes ; the latter, hung against the north wall, is 
all of wood, its frame being corbelled out from the wall. 


WHOSOEVER PSALM. A local term, current in parts of 
England for that creed commonly called the Creed of St. Atha- 

WILLOW- SUNDAY. A term used to designate Palm- Sun- 
day in some parts of England ; so called because boughs of the 
willow-tree are used instead of palms. 

WIMPLE (German, ivimpel). 1. A hood or veil. 2. A veil 
of white linen bound round the forehead, and covering the necks 
of nuns. 

WINDING-SHEET. A sheet in which a corpse is wrapped. 



WINDOW. An opening in a wall by which to admit light. 
In Mediaeval Church architecture windows vary most materially 
in the different styles. In Saxon Church architecture they are 
generally small, and usually single, except in church towers and 
places where glazing was not required. In the Norman or 
Romanesque work they are commonly headed with a semicircle, 
and occasionally are double, divided by a shaft or small pier. 
Occasionally, as at Lambourne, Berks, they are circular. In the 
First-Pointed style, the proportions of a window vary greatly ; 
but most are usually long and narrow, in shape like a lancet, and 
hence are so called. Sometimes, in the later work of this style, 




they are combined in groups of two, three, five, and seven lights, 
divided by shafts or mullions, in which case they are generally 
contained under a large arch. An admirable and graceful 
example of a three-light First-Pointed window, with a string- 
course over the head, is given in the accompanying illustration, 
from the church of Warmington, Northamptonshire, a window 
put in about the year 1240, of very graceful and striking pro- 
portions. (See Illustration, Fig. 1.) Windows of this style, often 
quite plain in the exterior, are decorated in the inside by small 
shafts of Purbeck or other marble, with carved bases and capitals. 
In late examples the head is cusped. Five early examples of this 



style may be seen on the north side of the choir of Thame Church, 
Oxfordshire. In the Second-Pointed style the windows are con- 
siderably enlarged and divided by mulh'ons into separate lights 
filled with tracery. The example of this style, given in the 
accompanying woodcut, circa 1320, is from the south aisle of 
Thame Church, immediately east of the southern porch. It is a 
three-light window, with graceful geometrical tracery in the 
head, possibly designed for the special representation of parti- 
cular subjects in stained glass. (See Illustration, Fig. 2.) In 


the Third-Pointed style, the tracery consisted mainly of per- 
pendicular mullions, crossed by horizontal transoms. Of these 
there are good and fine specimens in the north and south tran- 
septs of Thame Church. The example an early one, about A.D. 
1386 of this style, in the accompanying engraving, is from one 
of the side windows of New College Chapel, of four lights, the 
tracery of which is bold and effective, while the heads of each 
of the chief lights, as well as those smaller ones in the upper 
portion of the window, are cusped. (See Illustration, Fig. 3.) 

Lee't Glossary. 2 G 


There is a peculiar kind of window, which has been termed a 
"low-side window," found in chancels (See Low SIDE-WINDOW) ; 
and another, circular in shape, known as a rose window or a 
catherine-wheel window. Examples of almost all kinds are 
within easy reach of any inquirer in any part of England. 

WORDS OF INSTITUTION. Those words which were 
used by our Blessed Saviour when He instituted the Blessed 
Sacrament of His Body and Blood, the essential parts of which 
are commonly held to be " This is My Body," and " This is My 
Blood of the New Testament," words found in all the ancient 

WORKS OF CORPORAL MERCY. The corporal works of 
mercy are: (1) To feed the hungry; (2) to give drink to the 
thirsty ; (3) to clothe the naked; (4) to visit and ransom the cap- 
tives ; (5) to shelter the harbourless ; (6) to visit the sick ; (7) 
to bury the dead. 

WORKS OF SPIRITUAL MERCY. The spiritual works 
of mercy are : (1) To correct the sinner ; (2) to instruct the 
ignorant ; (3) to counsel the doubtful ; (4) to comfort the sorrow- 
ful; (5) to bear wrongs patiently; (6) to forgive all injuries; 
(7) to pray both for the quick and the dead. 

WORSHIP. The act of paying Divine honours to the 
Supreme Being, or the honours thus paid. Anciently, this term 
had a wider signification than it bears at present. There are 
several kinds of worship, one of which the highest may be 
given only to Almighty G-od ; inferior worship is given to angels, 
saints, and men still in the flesh ; e.g., to kings, magistrates, &c. 

WREATH (Saxon, wreoth, wraeth}. 1. A circular garland 
of flowers, intertwined. 2. A chaplet. 3. That which is inter- 
woven or entwined. Such symbols were made use of to designate 
certain saints, and are found represented both in old MSS., 
stained glass, and on the lower panels of rood-screens. A wreath 
of flowers, sometimes designated a " marriage crown," was often 
placed on the head of a virgin bride. Wreaths were also carried 
at funerals. One, of the seventeenth century, remains suspended 
in the south aisle of St. Alban's Abbey. And they were anciently, 
and are now not uncommonly, put upon graves and memorial 

WRENNING-DAY. A term used in certain parts of England 
to designate St. Stephen's day, because on that day a wren was 
stoned to death in commemoration of the Christian proto- 



T. An abbreviation for the word " Christ." 

XTIAN. An abbreviation for the word 
" Christian." 

XTMAS. An abbreviation for the 
word " Christmas." 

XYLON. The wood, i.e. the Cross on 
which Our Lord was crucified. 

XTLOLATEES. Literally "Worship- 
pers of the wood." A term of reproach applied by the Icono- 
clasts of old to orthodox Christians who reverenced both the 
symbol of their faith and representations of sacred persons and 

CROSS. A cross on a chasuble, in shape 
like the letter Y. See CHASUBLE and CROSS. 



YEW- SUNDAY. A term used in some 
parts of England to designate Palm-Sun- 

TEW-TEEE. An evergreen tree of 
the genus taxus, allied to the pines, valued for its wood or 
timber. The yew-tree is very commonly found planted in our 
ancient churchyards. It was used of old to decorate churches at 
Christmas, Palm-Sunday, and Easter. 

YLE. An old form of the word "aisle." 
YMAGrE. An old form of the word " image." 

YMBEE. An ancient mode of spelling " ember ; " so written 
in the statutory enactments of King Alfred and Canute. 

YOEK USE. A term employed to designate that rite which, 
taking its name from the Cathedral of York, was commonly used 
in the northern province of England prior to the Eeformation. 



Printed editions of the York Ritual were issued A.D. 1516, 1518, 
and 1532. In tie main it differs only slightly from that of 
Salisbury ; first, in the manner of making the first oblation, and, 
secondly, in the words used by the Priest in partaking of the 
Sacrament. Other minor differences exist, but they are unim- 

YULE-BOUGHS. Branches of holly, ivy, yew, and mistletoe 
used to decorate churches and private houses at Christmas. 

YULE FESTIVAL (Saxon, iule, geohal, gehul). A name 
anciently given to Christmas. 

YULE-MASS. The three Masses of Christmas-day. 

ION. 1. A hill in the city of Jerusalem, 
which, after the capture of that city, be- 
came the royal residence of David and his 
successors. Hence (2) the theocracy or 
Church of God. 

ZONE (Latin, zona; Greek, oij). 

1. A belt or girdle worn by religious. 

2. The girdle of an alb is sometimes so 

ZOOLATRY (Greek, woi/ and Aenym'a). The worship of 

ZUCHETTO. The Italian term for a skull-cap. The Pope's 
is of white ; a cardinal's is of scarlet ; a bishop's is purple ; a 
priest's black. 

ZUFFOLO. A little flageolet or flute, used in outdoor reli- 
gious services by the Italian peasantry. 

ZYMITE. A Greek term for a priest who celebrates with 
unleavened bread. 


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