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Full text of "A glossary of mediaeval Welsh law, based upon the Black Book of Chirk"

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PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER 



CELTIC SERIES 
No. III. 



Glossary of Mediaeval Welsh Law 



SHERRATT & HUGHES 

Publishers to the University of Manchester 
Manchester : 34 Cross Street 
London : 33 Soho Square, W. 

Agents for the United States 

LONGMANS, GREEN & Co. 
443-449 Fourth Avenue, New York 



A GLOSSARY 



OF 




BASED UPON 



THE BLACK BOOK OF CHIRK 



BY 

TIMOTHY LEWIS, M.A. 

Assistant Lecturer in Celtic 
T/te University College of Wales, Aberystwyth 



MANCHESTER 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
1913 




UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER PUBLICATIONS 
No. LXXXVII. 




ALL UIGHTS RESERVED 



TO THE MEMORY 

OF 
JOHN STRACHAN, LL.D. 

ADRAWDD El DDAED AERDRIN NI ALLWN 
NI ALLAI DALIESSIN. 



INTRODUCTION 



The glossary here presented was undertaken at the 
suggestion of the late Dr. Strachan and his friend, Dr. 
J. Gwenogvryn Evans, both of whom felt very keenly the 
inadequacy of existing Dictionaries and the sore need of 
reliable information concerning the value of a large num- 
ber of words in Mediaeval Welsh. Apart from Dr. Kuno 
Meyer's complete glossary to the text of 'Peredur ab 
Evrauc,' and the short but interesting glossary by Canon 
Robert Williams to ' Y Seint Greal,' no effort had lately 
been made to collect material for a lexicon of Mediaeval 
Welsh and each scholar had to toil for himself. Dr. 
Gwenogvryn Evans very generously supplied me with 
an advance copy of his forthcoming facsimile of the 
' Black Book of Chirk ' when the original MS. was 
jealously guarded at Peniarth, and Dr. Strachan did all 
he could to put me on the right path to win from my 
text the greatest amount of information and of experience 
in research. At first, it was intended to rely mainly, if 
not solely, upon the ' Black Book of Chirk ' for means to 
establish the value of the words and terms employed in 
it, and this had already been finished before death so 
unexpectedly took Dr. Strachan away from us. We 
realised, however, that this was only beginning the work ; 
and it was decided to extend the scope of it very con- 
siderably and to treat the text as a part of Mediaeval 
Welsh literature seeking to explain some of its many 
enigmas by means of other texts in prose and poetry, 

A 



viii INTRODUCTION 

without disdaining to use even Modern Welsh and collo- 
quial forms when nothing else availed. 

The new task, though immeasurably more interesting, 
has also turned out to be much more difficult than I had 
foreseen, and in moments of despair, when besieged by 
crowding difficulties or exasperated because the lawyers 
gave more thought to folk-etymology than to law, I often 
wished I had chosen some other task for my apprentice 
hand ; for the more difficulties I thought I had solved the 
more remained to worry me. The need, however, was so 
great, that even at the risk of blundering oft and badly it 
was worth the trouble to arrange the words of this earliest 
vernacular law-text in alphabetical order and bring 
together as many pertinent quotations as possible from 
other texts. 

The Manuscript, as such, I leave to the experienced 
and learned Editor to describe and appraise. Suffice it 
to say that for the purpose of this glossary the ' Black 
Book of Chirk ' means Peniarth MS. 2g l with the lacunae 
filled from the British Museum Addl. MS. 1493 1 2 which 
Dr. Evans regards "as a direct transcript, in Dimetian 
orthography, of Peniarth MS. 29." This Peniarth MS. 
29 is written in a bewildering orthography, and I have not 
been able to devise an hypothesis to account for its 
peculiarities. If the scribe was a foreigner, as suggested, 
it is not clear to me how an alien could be such a master 
of faultless syntax, but on the other hand, how a native 
could be such a bungler in orthography is beyond my 
power to explain. His greatest originality is seen in his 
treatment of ch, th y dd and h ch is represented by c, cc> 
ch, ck, gh, h; th by th, dh, t, d, h, s ; dd by th, dh, dt, t, d, 

1. see Report on MSS. in the Welsh Language, I. p. 359. 

2. ibid. Vol. II. p. 944. 



INTRODUCTION ix 

h irrespective of position, and h is used also without any 
apparent regard for custom, accent, or etymology. 

Another difficulty that faced me at the outset was, what 
value to set on the Latin Codices of Welsh Laws, and to 
what extent they were to be trusted. Dr. Evans had 
suggested that the Laws were originally codified in Latin 1 
while the authors of the ' Welsh People ' infer that the 
Latin text was a translation. 2 Reverence for authority 
paralysed me. After a while I could not withstand the 
growing conviction that the Latin Laws as we have them 
are a patchwork, and in parts demonstrably translations 
from the Welsh. This is not the place for an exhaustive 
treatment of this subject but one or two points may be 
noted. In defining the perquisites of the court janitor the 
text says e lludyn a del yr porth kudha [e porthaur\ 
beuuyt 26. 6. This is not a chance gratuity, but a fixed 
part of his wages which was his by right of law. Out of 
every herd of swine brought in after a raid he was to have 
one which he could lift by the bristle as high as his hip ; 
so likewise he is to have one cwtta from every herd of 
cattle driven in after a successful raid. 

But if cwtta meant ' bobtailed ' as it generally does, I 
imagine that the janitor would often be without his share, 
unless he entered into a conspiracy with one of the raiders 
to improve upon niggard nature. One of the translators 
thought, not unnaturally, that the word cwtta could only 
mean 'bobtailed,' or 'tail-less' and translated it 'sine 
cauda' 3 ; another knew better and translated it as 
'ultimum.' 4 

Another word which points unmistakeably the same 

1. The Welsh People. Appendix D. 

2. ibid. 

3. Ancient Laws, II. 765. vi. 

4. ibid II. 762. vii. 



x INTRODUCTION 

way is enhorob (see under hanerhob}. According to Dr. 
Pughe this word means 'a flitch of bacon.' Aneurin 
Owen translates it so in the Ancient Laws 1 and 
the translation is confirmed in ' Mediaeval Law.' 2 But 
according to the tale of Math son of Mathonwy in the 
Red Book, the term means a ' pig.' The Latin Laws give 
the two meanings of ' a flitch of bacon ' and ' a three year 
old pig ' (see glossary). The word was perhaps confined 
to the dialect of Dyved and the translator who translated 
it as 'perna salsa' attempted what appeared to him a 
literal translation. Several other instances will be found 
in the glossary shewing that the Latin Laws are in part, 
at any rate, a translation and a mosaic. 

There was another difficulty that beset me at every 
step, how far was I justified in pitting reasonable scepti- 
cism against the definition of obscure words by lawyers 
who had a lurking sympathy with folk-etymology. There 
are abundant instances of this in the glossary, but let two 
suffice. The word briduw is used often to describe the 
most solemn oath known at the time. In some late 
codices long definitions are given, and it is almost impos- 
sible to avoid the conclusion as expressed in the glossary 
of " Mediaeval Law," p. 328, that " the term seems to be 
simply bri Duw y dignity of God." I have little doubt, 
however, that it was, at first, meant to describe a solemn 
oath taken 'pro Deo' Another instructive instance is the 
treatment of the expression maen dros iaen. It has 
always, I believe, been translated ' a stone over ice ' and 
there is a late text which seems to support this ; but in the 
light of the quotations brought together in the glossary it 
will be seen that nothing could be further from it. I hope 

1. Ancient Laws, I. 198. 

2. pp. 56. 20 and 207. 12. 



INTRODUCTION xi 

to find some means of fixing more definitely the import 
of maen and iaen but I believe that maen means ' lord ' 
and that maenawl is a compound of it meaning the ' land 
under dominion of a lord.' This process of delusion is 
well shown in the series addaw mab addaw maen quoted 
under maen. Long definitions are given of many a word 
in scattered texts, investing the delusion with MS. 
authority and sending it forth on its career of deceit. 

In spite of all these pitfalls the ' Black Book of Chirk ' 
contains an immense amount of invaluable information; 
and by the time it is exhausted much of the social history 
of Early Wales will have been re-written. One instance 
out of many may be cited as witness to its value in this 
respect. As far as I am aware, no one has published a 
serious study of the military organisation of Early Wales ; 
and one may echo the words of Eugene O'Curry about 
the Military Education of Early Ireland when he says 
" There is less of direct information on this subject to be 
found amongst the wreck of ancient national records 
which have come down to us, than could be wished ; and 
that much of what has been confidently taken for granted 
. . . belongs to the domain not of fact, but of mere 
assumption." 1 The Gododin that early song of mead 
and might says a great deal of armies and war but its 
rich vocabulary affords little definite information upon the 
subject. True, there is only one sentence in the B. B. Ch. 
which sheds additional light on our early military organi- 
sation, yet when that is cleared from the misconceptions 
clinging to it, the value of it becomes apparent at once. 
The text says Gvynwyr o wlat arall a trayano ac argluyd 
o delyir eu hot yn lladron gwerth (83.1). A. Owen says 
that this term gwynwyr " appears to signify ' religious ' or 

1. Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish, II. 353. 



xii INTRODUCTION 

' procurators ' who wandered about the country under the 
pretext of collecting alms for religious purposes." l Later 
MSS. manipulated the word so that it appeared to be the 
mutated form of cwynwyr - plaintiffs. I know of nothing 
to justify A, Owen's note, and the ingenuity of the scribes 
suggests that the term was no longer understood. When 
it is realised that the gwyn of gwynwyr is the Welsh word 
corresponding to the Irish fian it is seen that here we 
have some important material for that unwritten chapter 
on military organisation. O'Curry adds his authority to 
that of Keating when he speaks of " the famous Militia of 
the Third Century, commonly called the Fianna Eireann, 
who obtained such a lasting fame under the command of 
the celebrated Finn Mac Cumhaill"* Joyce says "At 
different periods of our early history the kings had in 
their service bodies of militia, who underwent a yearly 
course of training, and who were at call like a standing 
army whenever the monarch required them. The most 
celebrated of these were the ' Red Branch Knights ' of 
about the time of the Incarnation, and the 'Fianna or 
Fena of Erin ' who flourished in the third century." 3 

Dr. Kuno Meyer, however, in his ' Fianaigecht ' 4 has 
collected all the reliable information afforded by Irish 
MSS. and early native sources concerning the use and 
meaning of this word//w, its derivatives and compounds. 
He says " In its stricter sense fian denoted a larger or 
smaller band of roving warriors, who joined for the pur- 
pose of making war on their own account. This was 
called dulfor fianas (fenidecht). They were, however, not 
mere robbers or marauders. Indeed their mode of war- 

1. Ancient Laws, I. p. 255, Note a. 

2. Manners and Customs, II. p. 354. 

3. Social History of Ancient Ireland, I. p. 83. 

4. Todd Lecture Series, XVI. R.I.A. p. ix. 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

fare was considered honourable and lawful, and is so 
recognised in the laws." This description of them seems 
to correspond well with the entry in the B. B. Ch., and it 
is clear that the gvynwyr of the B. B. Ch. is the same as 
the kwynwyr of R.B. II. which was known to the trans- 
lator of Dares Phrygius as a technical term equivalent to 
the Latin conquisituri. Stokes l says that * vein which he 
regards as the prehistoric form of fian meant 'streben, sich 
rnuhen ' and connects it with the Latin venari (see also 
Walde under venor). Dr. Meyer, however, proves that 
originally it was the name of a tribe or race ; but that 
the usual meaning among the Irish was 'war.' It appears 
to me that this gwyn occurs often in our early literature 
and that it is the key to many words sadly misinterpreted. 
The word gwynyeith, or gwyniaeth (notwithstanding the 
assertion that it was borrowed from Latin) appears to me 
to be a derivative of this formed like the fenidecht above, 
and that it means ' a band of warriors joining in making 
war.' e.g. eingyl yghygor gwelattor arwydon. gwynyeith 
ar saesson. B.Tal. 2. 28. Gorau gwaith gwynniaeth ai 
gyweithyt Pan gedwis i ivy neb heb gywilyt. MA. 141 a. 38. 
By mistaking this gwyn for gwyn ' white, blessed ' Welsh 
translators have been making saints by violence ; and they 
have placed a halo round the head of Sir Kai though his 
whole life is in revolt against it. In our early literature 
Sir Kai is known as Kei guin or Kei wyn and it has 
usually been translated as ' Blessed Kai ' (see Lady Guest, 
Trans.), but if the numerous references to Sir Kai in the 
W.B. or R.B. be brought together it will be seen how 
unlikely it is that his contemporaries called him ' blessed* ; 
and how posterity has made him saintly beyond his 
dreams or desire perhaps. According to the R.B. Kei is : 
1. Urkeltescher Sprachsehat/, p. 265, 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

Churlish and is rebuked for discourtesy, p. 105, 1-4. 

Angry and stiff-necked towards Arthur and refuses to speak 
to him henceforth, or help him. p. 134. 

Very ill-mannered and churlish to Gwenhuyvar who tells him 
he deserves hanging, p. 170. 

Behaves brutally towards the defenceless dwarf couple. 

p. 198. 

He is sarcastic to Peredur. p. 198. 

Insults Gwalchmai in a disgraceful manner, pp. 212-3. 

And is censured by Arthur, p. 205. 

I can find nothing in his life to justify the epithet 'blessed' ; 
but everywhere we find him first in danger and snuffing 
battle from afar. Gentle, courteous, cavalierly Gwalch- 
mai might be called ' blessed ' but Sir Kai never ; and I 
have little doubt that by calling him 'Warrior Kai' or 
' Champion Kai ' I am restoring him the title he won 
through many a furious combat. A long list might be 
compiled of derivatives of this gwyn abstract nouns, 
diminutives, place-names, and names of persons from 
L.L., B.B.C., W.B., B.An., etc. to show how widely used 
this word was, but the above instances must suffice here. 
In preparing the glossary I have endeavoured to rely 
to the utmost on texts, published and unpublished, and 
little use has been made of the glossaries of Moses 
Williams and Anuerin Owen or the various attempts at 
translating the Welsh Laws. The dictionaries of Dr. 
Pughe and Dr. Davies were consulted and anything taken 
from them is duly noted. I made sparing use of Dr. 
Silvan Evan's dictionary, for I knew from experience that 
his selection of quotations was made upon, what appeared 
to me to, a very arbitrary plan, and was far from being 
exhaustive of any one text or period. It was inevitable 
that we should have quotations in common, for apart from 



INTRODUCTION xv 

some MSS. all my sources were open to him. This is not 
said to belittle one iod the work of previous labourers in 
this field ; for there are none I admire more, insomuch as 
my work has taught me to sympathise genuinely with 
them and appreciate their difficulties. I was anxious to 
add as much as possible to our knowledge of Mediaeval 
Welsh Law rather than to rearrange the work of previous 
labourers. The Irish words have been inserted for the 
sake of young students in the University of Wales who 
may use it, in the hope that it may lead some of them to 
explore for themselves this enchanting and fruitful field ; 
for the study of Welsh is impossible without it, and had I 
known my Irish better the glossary would be much 
improved. 

Because of the irregular orthography of the text, the 
glossary has been arranged according to the pronunciation 
of the words rather than their written form. The leading 
words in square brackets [ ] are not in the text but are 
taken from other mediaeval texts. 

Though the work is so slight, insomuch as it is my first, 
I want to couple with it my sincere gratefulness to all my 
teachers in Celtic, my gratitude to Prof. Sir E. Anwyl for 
allowing me to worry him often ; and to Dr. J. Gwenog- 
vryn Evans, not only for the text as a basis of my work, 
but for letting me plunder him often with always an 
encouragement to plunder him more. 

I desire also to record my obligations to the Publica- 
tions Committee for undertaking such a troublesome 
task ; and to their Secretary, to the Printers and Reader 
for taking such great pains themselves, leaving me 
nothing but my own mistakes to correct. 

Dr. Strachan while he was yet with us had expressed 
his willingness to have it dedicated to him. Now 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

this little record of apprenticeship seems so trivial to 
dedicate to the memory of one so great, but he loved the 
work so fervently, worked so mercilessly, succeeded so 
well, yet withal he was so humble that he was glad of the 
least help, and in that spirit it is dedicated to his memory. 

T. LEWIS. 

ABERYSTWYTH, 

12th November, 1913. 



INDEX TO ABBREVIATED TITLES 



A.B. The Four Ancient Books of Wales. W. F. Skene. 2 vols. 

Edinburgh. 1868. 
A.f.k.L. Archiv fur keltische Lexicographic. Wh. Stokes and K. 

Meyer. Halle. 

A.L. Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales. A. Owen. 2 vols. 1841. 
Altir. Handbuch des Alt-Irischen. R. Thurneysen. Heidelberg. 1909. 
AnwylCelt.Relig. Celtic Religion in Pre-Christian Times. Sir E. 

Anwyl. London. 1906. 

A.O. The English translation of the A.L. By Aneurin Owen. 
B.An. Facsimile and Text of the Book of Aneirin. Dr. J. Gwenogvryn 

Evans. Pwllheli. 1908. 
Barddas. Barddas; or ... The Bardo-Druidic System. Ab Ithel. 

2 vols. 1862, 1874. 
B.B.C. The Black Book of Carmarthen. Facsimile Reprint. Dr. J. 

Gwenogvryn Evans. Pwllheli. 1907. 
B.B.Ch. The Black Book of Chirk. The MS. upon which this glossary 

is based. 
B. Cwsc. Gweledigaetheu y Bardd Cwsc. J. Morris Jones, Bangor 

1898. 

Bede. Ecclesiastical History (quoted by book and chapter). 
Bezz.Beitr. Beitrage zur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen. 

Bezzenberger. 
B.L.G. Glossary to the Brehon Laws. Vol. vi. Ancient Laws of 

Ireland. Atkinson. 1901. 
Book of Lismore. Lives of the Saints from the Book of Lismore. 

(Index to Irish Words at the end). Wh. Stokes. London. 1890. 
Brecon Papers. Great Sessions Records. National Library of Wales. 
B.Tal. The Book of Taliessin (to be issued shortly). Dr. J. Gwenogvryn 

Evans. Pwllheli. 

CefnCochMSS. The Cefn Coch MSS. J. Fisher. Liverpool. 1899. 
Celt-Brit. Celtic Britain. 2nd Edit. Rhys. S.P.C.K. 1884. 
C.LI, or Cein.Llen.Cymr. Ceinion Llenyddiaeth Gymreig. Owen Jones. 

Blackie & Son. 1876. 

C.M. or Car. Mag. Ystoria De Carolo Magno (from the Red Book of 
Hergest). T. Powel. Cymmrodorion Soc. 1883. 



xviii INDEX TO ABBREVIATED TITLES 

Corm.Gloss. Cormac's Glossary. Ed. Wh. Stokes. Calcutta. 1868. 
Corn.Lex. Lexicon Cornu-Britannicum. Williams. Llandovery. 1865. 
Cronicl y Cymry. A modern Interlude in the " Ty Coch " collection of 

MSS. at the National Library of Wales. 

De Hib. De Hibernicis Vocabulis, etc. J. Vendryes. Paris. 1902. 
D.G. Barddoniaeth Dafydd ab Gwilym. London. 1789. (Cited by 

poem and line.) 

D.I. The Domesday Inquest. Ballard. London, 1906. 
Dineen. Irish-English Dictionary. Dineen. Irish Texts Society. 

1904. 

Diverres Med.M. Paris, 1913. 
Dottin. Manuel pour servir a 1'etude 1'Antiquite Celtique. Paris. 

1906. 

Dr.D. Dictionarium Duplex. J. Davies. London. 1632. 
Dr.D.Prov. The Alphabetical list of Proverbs at the end of the 

Dictionarium Duplex. 
D.S.E. A Dictionary of the Welsh Language. A E. D. S. Evans. 

Carmarthen. 1896. 
Eluc. The Elucidarium, etc. J. Morris Jones and John Rhys. Oxford. 

1894. 
Fianaigecht. Todd Lecture Series. XVI. K. Meyer. Royal Irish 

Academy. Dublin. 1910. 
Flor.Poet. Flores Poetaram Brittanicorum. Dr. J. Davies. MS. copy. 

National Library of Wales. 

Gerald. Giraldus Cambrensis. Wright. Bohn's Library. 
G.Mechain. The MSS. of the late Gwallter Mechain (Walter Davies) 

in the National Library of Wales. 
Gog. The Poetry of the Gogynfeirdd from the Myvyrian Archaiology. 

Anwyl. Denbigh. 1909. 
Gorch.Beirdd Cymru. Gorchestion Beirdd Cymru. Rhys Jones. New 

edit. Cynddelw. Carnarvon. 1864. 
G.Rh. Hanes Llenyddiaeth Gymreig. 13001650. Gweirydd ap 

Rhys. Liverpool. [1885.] 

Hanes Llan. History of Llangynwyd Parish. Cadrawd. 1887. 
Henry.Lex. Lexique Etymologique Des Termes Les Plus Usuels Du 

Breton Moderne. V. Henry. Rennes. 1900. 
H.G. Hen Gwyndidau. Hopcyn and Cadrawd. Bangor. 1910. 
H.MSS. The Hengwrt Manuscripts. Robert Williams and G. Hartwell 

Jones. 2 vols. London. 1876, 1892. 
HuwCowper. A MS. containing poetry, etc., in Mod. Welsh at the 

National Library. 
I.F. Indogermanische Forschungen. Brugmann u. "Streitberg. Strass- 

burg. 1892 sqq. 



INDEX TO ABBREVIATED TITLES xix 

I.G. Gweithian lolo Goch. Ashton. Cymmrodorion Society. 1896. 
Ignat.Wms. The " Ignatius Williams " MS. of Mediaeval Welsh Poetry. 

National Library of Wales, 
lolo MSS. The lolo Manuscripts. Welsh MSS. Society. Llandovery. 

1848. 

Ir.Text. Irische Texte. E. Windisch. 1880 sqq. 
Joyce. A Social History of Ancient Ireland. P. W. Joyce. London. 

1903. 
Kluge. An Etymological Dictionary of the German Language. F. 

Kluge. Engl. Trans. Davis. London. 1891. 

Korting. Lateinisch-romanisches Worterbuch. J. Korting. Paderborn. 
K.B. Keltoromanisches. B. Thurneysen. Halle. 1884. 
K.Z. Zeitschrift fiir Vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete 

der indog. Sprachen. Kuhn. 1852 sqq. 

L.G. Dictionnaire. Breton-Fran9ais. Le Gonidec. Saint-Brieuc. 1850. 
Lhuyd. Addit.Sec. The 2nd series of Welsh Words added in manuscript 

by E. Lhuyd to Dr. Davies' Welsh Dictionary in the Free Library, 

Cardiff. 
Lib. Hymn. The Irish Liber Hymnorum. J. H. Barnard and B. 

Atkinson. Henry Bradshaw Soc. 1898. (Glossary at the end of 

vol. i.) 
L.L. Llyvyr Teilo vel Liber Landavensis. J. G. Evans and J. Bhys. 

Oxford. 1893. 
Ll.MS. The Llanstephan Collection of MSS. now in the National 

Library of Wales. See "Beport on MSS. in the Welsh Language." 

Historical MSS. Commission. Vol. ii, Part ii. 1903. The follow- 
ing MSS. are referred to : 4, 10, 53, 68, 69, 117, 118, 174, 202, 209. 

MS. 116 since issued. Guild of Graduates Series of Welsh Texts. 

No. 1. 

Lloyd. A History of Wales. J. E. Lloyd. 2 vols. London. 1911. 
Loth. Les Mots Latins Dans Les Langues Brittoniques. J. Loth. 

Paris. 1892. 

Loth.Mab. Les Mabinogion. 

Loth.Vocab. Vocabulaire Vieux-Breton. J. Loth. Paris. 1884. 
L.W. Cyfreithjeu Hywel Dda. (Leges Wallicae.) Wotton. London. 

1730. 
M.A. The Myvyrian Archaeology of Wales. 1 vol. Denbigh. 1730. 

(Cited by page, column and line.) 
Macbain. An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language. 2nd 

Edit. Macbain. Stirling. 1911. 
M.C. Contributions to Irish Lexicography. (Supplement to A.f.c.L.) 

K. Meyer. Halle. 



xx INDEX TO ABBREVIATED TITLES 

M.D. Maigne D'Armis. Lexicon Mediae et Infringe Latinitatis. Paris. 

1890. 

Med.Law. Welsh Medieval Law. A. W. Wade-Evans. Oxford. 1909. 
Med.M. Meddygon Myddfai. Welsh MSS. Society. Llandovery. 

1861. 
Meister De Excidio. Daretis Phrygii De Excidio Troiae Historia. 

recens. F. Meister. Leipzig. 1873. 
Meyer. Peredur. Peredur ab Efrawc. K. Meyer. Leipzig. 1887. 

(Glossary at the end.) 
Meyer. Vis. Maccon. The Vision of Macconglinne. K. Meyer. London 

1892. (Glossary at the end.) 
Old Leech Book. An Old Welsh Leech Book. T. Lewis. Liverpool 

1914. 
O.M. Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish. E. O'Curry. 3 vols. 

1873. 
O.R. An Irish-English Dictionary. E. O'Reilly. Suppl. by J. 

O'Donovan. Dublin. (N.D.) 
Pass. Horn. The Passions and the Homilies from Leabhar Breac. Todd 

Lecture Series. Atkinson. R.I.A. Dublin. 1887. (Glossary at 

the end.) 
Ped. Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen. Pedersen. 

Gottingen. 1909, 1911. 
P.MS. The Peniarth Collection of MSS. now in the National 

Library of Wales. See " Report on MSS. in the Welsh Language." 

Historical MSS. Commission. Vol. i, Parts ii, iii. 1899, 1905. 

The following MSS. are referred to : 5, 14, 15, 17, 20, 23, 32, 35, 

36 A, B, C, 38, 39, 41, 49, 51, 54, 56, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 

68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 81, 86, 94, 118, 120, 122, 154, 158, 169, 189, 228. 
Pughe. A Welsh-English Dictionary. Pughe and R. I. Prys. Denbigh. 

1891. 
R.B. The Red Book of Hergest. Rhys and Evans. 2 vols. Oxford. 

1887, 1890. 

R.C. La Revue Celtique. Paris. 1870 to date. 
Rec.Carn. The Record of Carnarvon. H. Ellis. London. 1838. 
Rep. MSS. Report on MSS. in the Welsh Language. Dr. J. G. Evans. 

For the Historical MSS. Commission. 18981910. 
Schulz. Historia Regum Britanniae. Ed. A. Schulz. 1854. 
Skeat. An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. Skeat. 

Oxford. 1884. 
Str.Intr. An Introduction to Early Welsh. J. Strachan. Manchester. 

1909. 
Strat. A Middle English Dictionary. Stratman. Ed. H. Bradley. 

Oxford. 1891. 



INDEX TO ABBREVIATED TITLES xxi 

Sweet. The Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon. Sweet. Oxford. 

1897. 
Thes.Pal. Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus. Stokes and Strachan. 2 vols. 

Cambridge. 1901, 3. 

Th.Ir.Gl. Three Irish Glossaries. Whitley Stokes. London. [1861.] 
Transactions Guild Grad. Transactions of the Guild of Graduates of 

the University of Wales. 

Trib.Syst. The Tribal System in Wales. F. Seebohm. London. 1904. 
Trip. Life. The Tripartite Life of Patrick. Wh. Stokes. Rolls Series. 

1887. (Refs. to Glossary, vol. ii.) 

Urk.Spr. Urkeltischer Sprachschatz. Wh. Stokes. Gottingen. 1894. 
Walde. Lateinisches-etymologisches Worterbuch. 2 Aufl. Walde. 

Heidelberg. 1910. 

Walters. English and Welsh Dictionary. 
W.B. The White Book Mabinogion. J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Pwllheli. 

1907. 
W.P. The Welsh People. 3 edit. J. Rhys and D. Brynmor- Jones. 

London. 1902. 

W.S. W. Salesbury's New Testament. 
W.W. The Worterbuch at the end of Windisch. Irische Texte. 

Vol. i. 

Z J . Grammatica Celtica. 2nd edit. E. Ebel. Berlin. 1871. 
Z.f.c.P. Zeitscrift fiir celtische Philologie. K. Meyer and Sterne. Halle. 

1897 to date. 

Zimmer. Lectures on Celtic Philology delivered in Berlin. Winter- 
Semester. 1908-9. 
Zimmer Celt. Stud. Celtische Studien. H. Zimmer. 2 vols. 1881,1884. 



Index to the pages in the "Ancient Laws and 
Institutes of Wales" corresponding to the pages in 
the " Black Book of Chirk." 

(a, b refer to the upper and lower half of the page). 



B.B 


.Ch. A.L. 


B.B 


.Ch. A.L. 


B.B.Ch. 


A.L. 


i 


Vol. I. p. 2 


46 


i2oa i24a 


93 276 


a 2 80 a 


2 


2b 6 a 


47 


i26a 


94 


282b 


3 


8a 


48 


i3oa 


95 


286a 


4 


loa 


49 


i 34 b 


96 


288a 


5 


i2a 


5 


i 3 8a 


97 


29oa 


6 


i4a 


51 


i42b 


98 


292a 


7 


i6a 


52 


i46b 


99 


2g6a 


8 


i8a 


53 


i^ob 


IOO 


2g8b 


9 


22a 


54 


i54a 


IOI 


3oob 


10 


243. 


55 


i56a 


IO2 


34b 


n 


z6a 


56 


J 58b 


103 


308 a 


12 


28b 


59 


i66a i68b 


104 


3ioa 


13 


3ob 


60 


i72a 


105 


3i2a 


14 


34 a 


61 


i74b 


1 06 


3 r 4b 


15 


36b 


62 


a78a 


107 


3i6a 


16 


38a 


63 


i8ob 


1 08 


3I 6b 


17 


42a 


64 


i84b 


109 


3 i8b 


18 


44b 


65 


i88a 


110 


32oa 


19 


48a 


66 


igob 


III 


322a 


20 


5b 


67 


i92b 


112 


3 24 a 


21 


54a 


68 


i96a 


"3 


3^4b 


22 


56b 


69 


20oa 


114 


32oa 


2 3 


58 a 6ob 


70 


202b 


"5 


328a 


24 


64a 


71 


2o6a 


116 


33a 


25 


68a 


72 


2o8a 


117 


33 ob 


26 


7oa 


73 


2i2a 


118 


322a 


27 


72a 


74 


2i4a, 218 


119 


334 


28 


76a 


75 


222a 


1 20 Vol.11 


.2 4 


29 


78a 


76 


228a 


121 


6a 


3 


80 a, 1 08 


77 


2 34 a 


122 


8a 


31 


io8b noa 


78 


242 a 


123 


8b 


33 


8oa 82b 


79 


244b 


124 


i2a 


34 


8 4 b 


80 


248a 


125 


i4a 


35 


86b 


81 


25oa 


126 


i6a 


36 


goa 


82 


254a 


127 


i8a 


37 


92!) 


83 


254b 


128 


2oa 


38 


963. 


85 


254b 28a 


129 


22a 


39 


98b 


86 


26oa 


130 


24b 


40 


I02b 


87 


2620. 


I3 1 


28a 


41 


io4a 


88 


264b 


132 


30 a 


42 


io6b 


89 


268a 


133 


34 a 


43 


noa ii2b 


90 


27oa 


'34 


36 a 


44 


ii6b 


9 1 


272a 


135 


-38 


45 


i2oa 


92 


2?6a 







Glossary 



a relative part, llyn goreu a uo en e llys 6.13. bryu dyuenyon 
a hel dros deskel 23.15. e rey a uenno or teylu 6.8, etc. 

used for emphasizing a part of a sentence, nyny a devedun 
e diguith guistil 48.12. vynteu a allant kymeynnyau 59.27 etc. 

followed by poss. adj. expressing genitive relation of the 
corresponding personal pronoun, hucc a hallo ef . . . y derch- 
auael 26.4. 5.12; 6.11; 28.14; 30.8; 39.23; 55-2o; 61.29; 62.6; 
63-3; 70-13; 73-14, 16; 114-14, etc. 

followed by a prep, phrase or pron. prep, pop karcharaur 
a kyer e porth arnau 26.1 3.15; 9.16; 17.10; 28.16; 62.2; 74.1; 
119.20; 122.2. 

with 'r following prep, governing the implied antecedent. 
ar a 44.9; 130.7. or a 15.13; 19.4, 5, 28, 30; 23.5; 24.25; 61.10; 
74.4; 83.7; 110.27; 120.9, 20; 128.1, 3, 7, 16. yr a 18.4. or with 
prep, alone, with a 55. n. 

with antecedent not expressed, ar triskud ac a uo endau 
33.236.13; 8.22; 12.8; 18.27; i9-!9; 20.15; 21.8; 33.26; 42.27; 
53-14 etc. 

a a particle for infixing the infixed prons. 2 sg. beth ath 
wahanus 81.6. 3 sg. ay, ae, ai, au 118.4; 120.9. aey 36.19; 
86.21. 3 pi. ac ev 64.15; 105.20. 3 sg. and pl.'s ny dely eu 
descu ... a ked as desko 29.21. moruyn . . guedy as kafo 
ef en llegredic 35.2917.7; 31.10; 34.17; 35.29; 40.23; 53.19 (es) ; 
55.8, 9; 62.17; 74.13; 82.2; 115.5; n8.8 etc. 

a (i) interrog. part, (a) direct, ac ena may yaun er egnat 
gouin i'r haulur a dody kolli a kaffayl . . . dodaf heb ef 52.23. 
(b) indirect. gouenet udunt a uennant guellau 53.17 54.17; 
55.5, 17 etc. 

(2) (a) with present of copula. ae, ay. gouenet ... ay 
dygaun hyn 53.17. a guybot ae kefreith[a]ul he guahan 34.22. 
(b) ay ... ay. -whether ... or. ny vyr nep beth eu . . . 
ai moruyn ae gureic 36.4. un o try ederyn ay bun ay caran ay 
cryhyr 11.535.10; 40.16; 45.14; 46.30; 48.21, 39; 49.28; 54.27; 
61.7 ; 62.9 ; 67.17 ; 68.17 ; 70.5, n ; 72.12 ; 79.24 ; 80.9 ; 82.4 ; 108.15 ; 
117.22; 118.20, 22; 121.14; 122.4; 123.6; 126.25; 129.29; 132.26; 
134.14. 



2 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

a see def. art. y. 

abat m. an abbot, puybenac a guenel kam y uam ecluys talet 
.xii ii. punt er banner yr abat o byd duyuaul letherur ar llall 
erug er efeyryat ar clas 30.13. teyr gorsetua ysyd a allant 
gwneuthur eu cabydul ehun . . . sew yu y rey hynny abat ac 
escop ac hyspyty 60. 16 123.24; 124.10, u, 15. pi. abbadeu 
51.11, 16; 63.26. 

abbatyr m. land belonging to an abbey, ny dyly untyr bot 
yn dyurenhyn o byd ab. ew a dyly . . . dyruy a chamlvrvv 
ac amobyr ac ebedyw a llvyd a lledrat 60.8. 

abedyhu see ebedyu. 

aberfrau n. 1. The seat of the king of G-wynedd in Anglesey. 
Ny telyr eur namen y urenyn aberfrau 3.10. 3.5; 77.26. 

aber racuhedus n. 1. " The ground on the -west side of the 
river Seiont opposite the town of Carnarvon." A.L.I p. 105. 
ac vrt lat elidir en aber meuhedus en arvon e lloskasant aruon 
en rachor dial 41.31. 

abreyt difficulty, used advly. scarcely, with difficulty, duyn 
dyn a guenel kam hyd enyokel uo abreyt keleuuet lief y korn 
17.13. most MSS. have ' hyd eny uo .' cf. oni vo abraidd ei 
dynu a dwy law M.A. 940^47. ac escynnu ar y march o abreid 
W.B. col. 251.32. hyt na allei ymgynnal onyt o abreid. H.MSS. 
I 374-13 395-15- P-M.S. 396 p. 51.16. 

absent absence, seuyll e guasanaet e brenyn en y absen 15.16. 
sew yu aghyuarch pob peth a dycer yn amsent 83.7 23.30. Da 
i'm gwydd ysgwydd esgud/A drwg i'm habsen, a drud. D.G. 
cxxii.6. I Ddeo ni ellir absen. Rep. MSS. I 621 535. 

abuydau to feed, bait, ef a dely dernuet o canuyl guyr y kan 
e dysteyn y abuydau y adar ac y gueneuthur y huely n.i. ef 
gwnaeth a gwaedwaew gwaed abwyd y urein. M.A.i7oa.i7. 

ac, a conj. and. ac bef. vowels; ny, nyt etc.; often bef. 
'gwedy' and words with c or k as initial, af bef. p[h] 56.9 ; as 
bef. s 37.19. 'a' elsewhere with the article 'ar' but before words 
with initial r the r may not be doubled, er hen ran ar an perued 
ar an eueig 7.26 etc. with poss. adj. 2 sg. ath; 3 sg. m. and f. 
ay ; ae ; aj ; ae j ; ae y ; ac eu ; 3 pi. ac eu. 

Connecting two words or clauses, clust a corn a llegat 91.11. 
y gur ar gur such and such a man 72.7. ar triskud ac a uo 
endau 33.23 ; vrth vreynt e gur et da ac e dyhucyr ydhy 41.10 
etc. with vb. noun continuing another tense, o due dyn gureyc 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 3 

lathlud a deuod a hi y ty vab uchelur 36.14 ; kadued hyd e bore 
a tanu mantell arnau 96.17. 37.16; 40.14; 45.23; 46.1, 4; 47.26 
etc. joining a finite vb in a neg. clause with preced. vb. noun, 
ef a dely yean e porthaur agory e porth maur . . . ac nas ellecho 
uyth yr guychet 12.9. 7.10; 36.2; 37.32; 39.27; 108.14. intro- 
ducing a clause to amplify or explain, trederian saraet e 
brenyn a telyr ydhy hy am y saraet a hynne heb eur heb aryant 
3.1314.31; 17.24; 18.23; I9-I5; 27-8; 30-7; 36-1; 37-4J 40-2, 19; 
41.6; 42.1; 45-I4; 46.29, 36; 64.28; 69.14; 91.13, 14; 94.8; 107.14; 
108.1. a ... a both . . . and dyucher ar hyd ar escubaur 
114.23. after compar. of equal, or its equiv. rody y baub 
kemeynt ay kylyd 18.26 o bit keuryw gur ac deleo menet 
48.236.20; 36.16; 50.13; 131.15 etc. after y am-. 5.9, 19; 
11.27; J 5-29J 20.11 etc. y ar-. 24.14. erug-. 3.24; 12.2, 16; 
13.25; 14.10; 17.11; 21.5, 7; 22.10; 30.16; 47.8, 9; 52.7; 53-37J 
66.13; 86.12; 124.15. after amken. 34.19 etc. 

ac, a prep, (a) with ac bef . vowels ; before n ; and before huynt, 
huy, wy. a elsewhere, with def. art. ar. ruythau e ford er 
brenyn ay wirllisch 19.16 19.17; 23.13; 26.5; 27.12, 14, 20; 
37.19; 45.19; 59-14; 9 I - I 3> 112.3; 126.3; 129.24. after vbs com- 
pounded with ym-. ehmustelau ac enat llys neu ac arall 
12.2728.15; 50.17, 28; 64.14; 114.1; 123.3; 128.14; 135.8. vbs. 
cpd. with kyt-. etc. kyduuyta ac ef 9.31 7.3 ; 42.17 ; 74.11 ; 
75.26; 77.14; 78.16; 85.15; 110.19; 112. 21, 24. with vbs. exp. 
mutual intercouse or transaction, ny dely e brenyn ranh[u] ac 
arall 30.127.14; 17.5; 36.21, 22, 29; 50.1; 107.1; 131.9. with 
vbs. impl. separation, guedy ed escaro ar kandaf 35.5. guedy 
guahano ac ef 7.25. peytyer ac ef 76.1135.7; 37.4, 5; 38.16; 
39.2; 40.12, 28; 41.8; 129.19, 23; 125.20. with vbs. of motion, 
guedy e del yr dyfeyth a hy 31.7 (cf. cyt) 19.31; 20.20; 30.3; 
36.14; 40.13; 72.3; 132.21. achaus a hy (intercourse with her) 
31.7; 35.22. y kyt a together with 3.26, etc. see kyd. 

(b) a=mod. o. gueynydauc a caeth a bondmaid in domestic 
service, an embroidress. 38.28. cf. ys glut a beth yd ymdi- 
danyssam ni. R.B.I 7.4 

akasnat see kasnat. 
acgure see achwre. 
aklan see achlan. 

ach, ace lineage descent, ac o bit a ameuho ydau ef y uot en 
briodaur bot kanthau entheu a kathuo y briodolder o ach ac 
edriu hit emay digaun en e keureyth 53.5; 53.10; 60.20; 61.3. 
dangosset y ach hyt y kyf 61.4. L.W. achoedd cenedl=naw 



4 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

radd cenedl 197. 30. cf. Ir. aicme genus; aicned nature, see 
I.F.II 172. 
achaus, acaus, achus, accaus, ackaus, achavs m. 

(a) cause, reason, od a gur ar teylu ykan e brenyn o achaus 
yrllonet 7.2 ; ny dele ef talu ebedyu . . . sef achaus nas dele, 
urth y uod en aylaut yr brenyn 4.7. 1.8; 5.24; 8.6; 10.29; 
13.10-15 ; 27.12 ; 34.10 ; 36.5 ; 37.2, 31 ; 39.19 ; 40.7, 12 ; 46.32 ; 47.7 ; 
48.14, 25; 51.7, 30, 32; 52.9; 54-18; 70.6, 13; 72.24; 73.6; 75.6; 
81.6, 12; 85.6; 113.6; 114.12; 117.25; 121.16; 122.7; 124.8; 127.5; 
129.22; 130.4, 23, 24; 133.10; 134.28; 135.5. 

(6) purpose, pan del deu urenyn ar eu kydteruyn o achaus 
emaruoll 3.1 ; 85.16. 

(c) sexual intercourse, o deruyt y gur duyn moruyn lladh- 
llud, a guedy e del yr dyffeyth a hy a kyn bod achaus a hy 
31.7; 35.22. pi. achuysyon 13.17. 

[achlan] aklan, a elan ( = ach + glan of pure lineage) all, entire. 
ef a dele offrum ebrenyn peunyt ar eferen ac ofirum e suydguyr 
aclan 8.25; 33.23. so achwir=ach + gwir. M.A. 2583.39. 

[achwre] acgure, acure ( = ach + gwre?). The thatch on the 
roof of a house or the material for it as it grows in the field, to 
ty ay acgure trayan guert e ty a uyd arnadunt a trayan e to a 
uyd ar er acgure 99.11. Sef eu gogaur hyd guedy keueyryer 
yar etyr e tefho arnau. a perllan, a bressyc a llyn ... a gueyr 
syc. a to tey ac eu hacure a kennyn 114.7. The B.B.Ch. 
mentions tyglys and pethendo as the least inflammable material 
for roofing a smithy, and elsewhere there are references to 
tywarch and banadl. Bede (lib. iii, cap. x) describes a British 
house at Maserfield -with roof of -wattle and thatch and Historia 
Gwlat leuan Vendigeit (Eluc. 169.29) describes a hall in St. 
John's Country " toat yneuad a heny6 ory6 lysseu a e!6ir 
hebenus. O'Curry says (O.M.III 46) Udnacht -was the hurdle 
roof of a round house, upon which the thatch was laid. It also 
meant a palisade or hurdle fence which marked an inviolable 
sanctuary. The absence of an Udnacht implies that it was 
easily accessible to all, and as -visible as the apples in the 
orchard. To tai a'i hachwrau a ddylyir eu cau rhag eu llygru o 
ysgrubl : ac oni cheuir, cyd llyccrer, ni's diwygir. L.W. 286 
note. Yr eil [lledrad] yw o cheffir lledrad dan vn to ac vn 
achwre ac ef. LI. MS. 116, p. 95.33. cf. achure = ail cant ty 
P.MS. 169, p. 216. a. = eil kant=kribiarth. P.MS. 51, p. 192. The 
-gwre appears to be = Ir. fraig thatch, etc. There is a bre in 
B.Tal. 31.14 of the same meaning apparently, briwhawt bre a 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 5 

brwyn. Gwellt a tho tei. see Thurn K.R. see also Coilach. 
M.C. ; I.F. xxii, p. 334. 

adauacl distress, seizure. O deruyd y dyn duyn adauael yn 
aghyureythyaul traycheuyn ar haul yn hyr ew a dywedyr na 
dyly kyureyth nyu gwnel. am yr hyn y gwnaeth ew aghyureyth 
amdanau ew ryatueruyt tracheuyn ar haul yn yr ual kynt 133.3 ; 
adauael = pignus. A.L.II 772. vi; 842. vii. A gwedy nas gavs- 
sant : wynt a dalyassant llawer ac a dugassant gantunt yn 
attauel ev da. M.A. 6761x59. cf . Didyr deigr deifr a adafael o'm 
drem. D.G. ccxxxiii.i. Ir. athgabail distress, retaking. M.C.; 
B.L.G. 

adauaelha to distrain, nyny a deguedun na deley y ecchen 
a uo eg keuar nac eu guestau nac eu hadauaelha 110.16. neb. yn 
tyfaela am dda yn y byd ond am avr neu arian. P.MS. 86, 
P- J 59- y sswyddoc a ddaw yr tir ac a dyrr tywarchen or tir i 
afaelv y tir. P.MS. 67, p. 99. ac ny dylyir gauaelu y da ef y 
lie ny wneler drwy gwyn. A.L.II 320.2. 

adan prep, under, with pron. suffix. 3 pi. adanunt 40.9; 
adanadunt 33.17; 64.4, 6. keysyau beyc guelt adan ebrenyn 
14.14. gwyr a uo adan abbadeu a guyr a uo adan esgyp 63.26. 
het in oet mab seihisbluit a el adaii lau periglaut 49.35. nyt a 
svllt adan dyebryt 132.19. 15.14 ; 24.6 adn ; 25.19 ; 33.2, 17 ; 39.11 ; 
40.9; 51.18; 64.4, 6; 92.4; 126.11, 13; 132.27. against, adan 
tryheynt e deleyr uod am teyhy marc rac e dere ... a rac 
lien meyrc. 88.17 88.19. 

adar m. birds, llety [er hebogyt] eu er escubaur . . . rac 
dale muc ar y adar ef a dele duyn llestyr yr llys y dody guyraut 
endau kany dely ef namen tor y sechet sef acaus eu henny rac 
guander yu adar 10.27; n-i- sg. ederyn. ef a dele y anredethu 
o teyr anrec e dyt e lldho y hebauc un o try ederyn. ay bun ay 
caran ay cry hyr 11.15; n.i8; 85.11 ; ed ederyn 95.12. For Welsh 
names of birds see P.MS. 154, pp. 166-174. 

adaii see gadael. 

ade 20.23 see arderchauael. 

atucrur arbiter (see eturet.). O deruit y din kamrit bridiu 
hi can arall a deueduit paniv ar pedeir ar ugein e ma. ar Hall 
en adef bot bridu ar keniauc. essef a deueit e kefreiht delehti 
ohonau ef bot en atuerur pahar e mae e bridiu ef 49.27. cf. O 
deruyd y dyn gwneythur amot ac na mynno y gadw ac na watto 
yr amot yr arglwyd bieu kymell y gadw ual y daduero yr 
amodwyr. P.MS. 39, p. 23^17. 



6 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

adlamur a tribesman who has temporarily abandoned his 
status (?). guaesauur ac adlamhur ac asuinur od a guaesauur 
yhurt y guaesaf .Ix.lx. a tal adlainur .lx. a dal 41.24. o deruyd 
y dreftadawc hot yn atlamwr gyt a threftadawc arall vndyd a 
blwydyn yn diamot, ac yn y wassanaeth, a mynnu ohonaw 
mynet y wrthaw, ef a dyly talu idaw dec arhugeint ; a hwnnw 
a elwir yn atlamwr. A.L-II 42. ix. adlam v.l. treftad. L.W. 
355 clxii. adlam retreat, home. A.L.I 5i8.xv. atlameu ydeu 
barns. R.B.II 145.22. adlam = plas. P.MS. 169, p. 216. so P.MS. 
51.192, 194. Tri heli ryd yssyd. heit wenyn ar wrysgen a 
llwynawc a dyuyrgi sef achaws y maent ryd vrth eu hot ar 
kerdet yn wastat ac nat oes atlam udunt. P.MS. 39, p. io7a.i3- 
L.W. 254. diadlam = esdronawl. L.W. 7O.xlvii. ychenauc 
diatlam. A.L.I 788.xlvi ; II 130. ix ; destrowio adlam ag eglwysi. 
Ll.MS-53, p. 5.12. Or a gwreic yn llathryd o anvod y chenedyl : 
ny eill neb y hadwyn oe hanvod rac y gvvr. or lie y bo y 
hatlatn y telir y hamobyr. LI. MS. 116, p. 22.14. Heb na thai 
nag adlam. Cein.Llen.Cymr.I 1623.14. Collyssant oil coll 
kyflam / Cenetloed eu kein adlam. M.A. 2643.4. Dawn attlam 
dinam duw. Rep.MSS.I 605.101; 669.314; 749.75. M.A. 253b. 
destrowio adlam ag eglwysi. ibid. 544.512. cf. nag adlam i 
drigo ond crwydri. ibid. 757. Guendyd wen atlam kerdeu. 
M.A. 115.133. 

a (hi a bod to identify, recognize, edressaur ... a dely adna- 
bod suyocyon e llys. ac nas atalyho er uu onadunt en e porth 
19.8. 

adneu, atneu deposit, something committed to the charge of 
another for safe custody, chweford yd a da dyn y ganthau ac 
or teyr y gellyr damdug ac or teyr ereyll ny ellyr. Sew y v y teyr 
ny ellyr atneu a benfyc a Hoc a kymvynas. canys nyt yaun 
holy y lley mae a holy y nep yd aeth athau 81.9; puebennac a 
kamerho peth en adneu atau talet yr y losky val kynt 86.15; 
80.5; 81.20. o pedeir ford y dylyir talu adneu os yr godyr 
[gobyr ?] y kymyrth attaw. or gwnaeth amot am y cadw. os erchis 
y cadw. os yr lies y ketwis. P.MS. 35, f. i2b.23- Os keidwad 
a gyll adneu heb golli y da ehynan ef a dal y colled oil o gyfreith. 
llyfyr y kynawc a dweid bod yn haws y gredu ef or dygir y da 
ef yn lledrad gydar Hall. LI. MS. 116, p. 11.33. adne=cadwedi- 
gaeth. P.MS. 169, p. 215; =Perchenogaeth, ibid., p. 216. 
adnau = perchenogi. Rep.MSS.II, p. 802. see M.A. 409.100; 
8383.33; A.B. 37.30; 247.18. A.L.II 420 xii, xiii, xiv. gnaud 
adneu yn llan. Dr.D.Prov. gwartheg arall yn adnau pan fo 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 7 

chweccaf ny byd tau. Dr.D.Prov. Ir. aithne deposit, charge. 
B.L.G. property. Thess.Pal.II xxii.i and note. 

[adnewydu] to renew. 3 sg. pres. ind. act. atnewida. Ny 
dele y amdiffyn or naud e gnayth cam amau onis atnewida o 
naud arall oy newid 51.14. 

adref (a) homewards, guedy edel adref 27.10; 38.i4a; 96.15; 
109.16. (b) home, parth ac adref 123.2; 118.20. 

[adwneuthur] to undo. 3 sg. pres. ind. act. atwna. Canyt 
atwna y gyureyth a wnel 72.27. ni adwna da ei dangnef. D.G. 
lxxix.23- cf. a wnel duw ni ad yn adwaith. Rep. MSS. I 612.56; 
666.93. M.A. 3593. ni adwna Duw ar a wnel. M.A. loib ; 2o8b. 

a daw Adam. Ac nat oes dauyn oy waet ew yndau onyt o 
adaw 72.19. 

adau to promise. O deruit y din adau goruod peth y arall 
50.32. 3 sg. pres. subj. act. adauho. pret. 3 sg. edewys, 
etheuis, edeuis 54.7, n, 14, 23; 55.13 ; 61.10; 133.8. 

adet', adew to admit, confess, acknowledge. O deruyd y dyn 
or duybleyt . . . guadu y uraut ar Hall eny adef 30.28. 30.30 ; 
37.22; 74-27; 79-24J 1 34-5- 3 sg. pres. ind. act. adef 31.11; 86.1; 
pres. ind. pass, adeuyr 75.1, 4; 78.22. pres. subj. pass, adeuer 
115.7; II 7- 1 122.7. pret. pass, adeuuyt 30.32 ; 31.1. pass. part, 
adeuedic 45.15, 24; 46.3; 48-15, *9J 49-8, 15- 

adoed m. death, misfortune, sickness. O deruyd kau dol ar 
ecchen a maru vn onadunt pa adoed bennac ae decho yaun eu 
kafael y eru ohonau 108.6. Llyma vynghret. heb y gwr. nat 
agorir y ty ymma ragot ti yth oes. ac auory yggwydd dy 
genedyl mi a baraf dy lebyddyaw a mein. Llyma vynghret. 
heb hi. vot yn gynt y bwriwn neit. or lie ydwyf yn y 
bysgotlyn yma ym boddi. noc yd arhown yr adoet hwnnw arnafi. 
H. MSS. II 308.9; see ibid. 315.3. na saethutta ni bellach. namyn 
anaf ac adoet. a merthrolyaeth yssyd arnat. R.B.I 120.7. na 
uyn adoet ac anaf a merthrolyaet yssyt arnat. W.B. col. 479.19. 
see also 478.31. Meckyt llwuyr llawer adoet. A.B. 244.21. 
M.A. 363a. Ergryn llwfr lliaws addoed. Dr.D.Prov. atodev. 
A.B. 51.29. Hil maelgwn milcant adodeu. M.A. 1663.51; 1733. 
ymadoydi = to fight. R.B.I 192.1. see also A.L.II 100 xv. 
M.A. 6ia; 73b; 743; gib; 1153; 1273; 1433; 2463.2; 812 26. 

ael litter, teythy huyc na bo baedredauc . . . kemeynt eu 
guert y hael ay guert ehun. 93.7; so Pen. 39, p. 104^25. 
a. = Ir. al brood, litter of a hen, sow, bitch. M.C. see alu. see 
also Z.f.c.P. iv, p. 324. Ir.T. iv, p. 377. 



8 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

ana 1 1 apple tree, pop pren a arguetho fruyt vn guerth a 
kolluyn eu eythyr deru ac auall ymp 98.1. gorwyn blaen avail. 
M.A. 98a.i3. 

auallen, a. sur crab tree. a. sur .1111. a tal eny del fruyt 
a guedy del fruyd xxx. 98.4. 

aulonidn to trouble, disturb, eiste or brenihin ... ay keuen 
ar er eul neu ar er hin. Rac aulonidu er bin oy uyneb ef 52.13. 
3 sg. pres. subj. act. kanu ydy kerd en dyuessur. a hywny en 
yssel ual nat aflonetho e neuat kanthau 15.1. 

auon f. river, .xini. brein [guir aruon] . . . .vn. bod en 
rid peskodha ar e teyr auon essit endhi en kefredin 42.21 ; 121.15. 
a. guerit a river in Arvon 42.3. 

afu see au. 

auuyn, aiiyn rein, guastraut auuyn groom. 23.21, 25. see 
guastraut. a thynnu avwyneu eu flErwyneu attunt a wnaethant. 
H.MSS.I 353.24. a. < Lat. habena. 

affeyth, afeyt m. and f. an act accessory to a felony or crime. 
Nau afeyt tan kentaf eu roy kagor y losky e ty er eyl eu 
kesenyau ae losky tredet eu menet o achaus y losky pedueryt 
eu emduen e buellwr, etc. 85.14. 74.23, 26; 75.15; 78.15. pi. 
affeythyoed 75.6, 14; 78.27; 79.15. Beth bynhac a wnelher 
ygkylch y tri gweithret hyn. affeith yw wrth lad. neu lose neu 
letrat. P.MS. 36a, p. 7.20. y tri na6 affeith ach6ysson ynt 
tr6y y g6neir y g6eithredoed hyn tr6 gytsynya6. P.MS. 38, p. 7. 

aghauodredyn see aghyuodedyn. 
aghcueys see aghyfyeyt. 
agheuretyaul see aghyfreythyaul. 

agoret open, patent. Deu amser e bit agoret keureyth . . . 
a deu e bit kaiat 51.26, 33, 35. er escuboryeu a deleant eu bod 
en agoret or pan hel er escub kentaf endunt y ellug guy[n]t 
endunt hyd kalangayaf 114.14. efeyryat teulu ... a dele .1111. 
k. ani pop ynseyl agoret a rodher am tyr a dayar a neghesseu 
ereyll maur 8.22 ; 21.14. 

agory, agori, akory to open, dig. agory e porth 12.10. 
[Essef achaus e] may nau nieu guedi guilsanfreyt en agoret e 
keureyth. rac kayu e keureyth en undidiauc ... a nau nieu 
guedi aust en agoret. Rac agori eg ekeureith en undidauc 51.35. 
puebenac a teno annel ar tyr arall heb y kanyat .11 n. am akory 
e tyr 97.7. 3 sg. pres. subj. act. agoro 94.17, 20. pass, agorer 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 9 

26.28. part. pass, agoredic. kanis er amseroyd henny y bit a. 
keureith 51.37. see Fed. I 28.8. 

acos near, close by. ar neyll en mennu eredyc em pell ar 
Hall en acos no. 6. a = Ir. ocus, acus near, nearness. Thurn. 
Altir., p. 477. 

acgued (?) death (?). O deruyd ydau ef deueduyt bod dyn 
en kydleydyr ac ef am ledrat e dyenytyr ay kadarnau ohonau 
yracgued edath dyuu ydau. ac e mae enteu en rnenet 31.18. =er 
agued LI. MS. i74,p. 51. v.l. agheu death. A.L.I no note a. 
cf. Lleidr ni chaif oet rac y dyhenyt namyn tygv y dyhenyd ay 
agev vot yn wyr a dyvot. A.L.II 256.xiii. Eil yw llw 
cytleidyr, sef llw a dyry yr angeu y mae yn mynet idaw. ibid. 
664.11. It is possible that the expression is yr racgued. Racwed 
appears to mean the "grave" in Med.Welsh poetry and sometimes 
it is used as synonymous -with " death." Pell p6yll rac rihyd 
racwed. A.B. 110.12. Teyrned a bonhed eu gorescyn. g6yr 
gogled yg kynted yn eu kylchchyn. ymperued eu racwed y 
discynnyn. B.Tal. 13.14. yt lad yt gryc yt vac yt vyc. yt vyc 
yt vac yt lad yn rac. racwed rothit y veird y byt. B.Tal. 58.19. 
Porthloed vedin porthloed lain, a llu racwed en ragyrwed en dyd 
gwned yg kyvryssed. B.An. 21.7. a lluawr peithliw racwed. 
B.An. 25.5. It may, however, be a word formed like angeu with 
another termination, for it is probable, as Dr. Strachan suggested 
(R.C. xxviii.2O2), that angeu is in origin a plural, cf. Yn yng 
yn ehang yn y ngwedd / Ynghorph yn enaid yn hagwedd. M.A. 
8ib.i6. Twryf yn agweud/Erac menwed/Erac maryed. M.A. 
25b.i8. agde appears to be another derivative (notwithstanding 
Dr. D.). cf. Llyw llu agde. M.A. 2O4b.6. (The endings -wedd, 
-dde, are very common in Med.W., e.g., achwed. M.A. 256b; 
anwedd 275b; crogwed 2423; 245a; 256b; 267b ; dicued nsa, etc. 
brodyrde. Dr.D.Prov. haiarnde. A.B. 86.6. gwrwmde, etc.) 

aguedy, aguedhy, aguedu f. (a) a sum of money given with a 
woman in marriage, tejr aguethu kefreithjaul essit. aguedy 
tnerch brenjn pedejr punt ar ruckeynt. Aguedy merch gurda 
tejr punt . . . aguedy merch mab eyll punt 36.29. Os kyn e 
seythuet vullydjn edescarant taler y hj e haguedy ae harkefreu 
34.6; 33.2; 36.23. (b) paid by one who violated a maiden. O 
deruyt e gur adef duen treys ar gureyc. talet .xn. myu en 
dyruy yr argluyt ae hamobor yr argluyt. ac os moruyn vyt. e 
coguyll ae jhaguedhy en eueynt vueahf e deleho 37.24. see 
A.L.I 456.1xxii. Tri chewilyd morwyn . . . trydyd yw pan del 
or gwely ym plith dynyon . . dros y trydyd [y dyry y tat] y 



io GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

hegwedi yr gwr. also II 84.cxx. Ar nos honno y kyscwys genthi. 
A thranoeth y bore yd erchis y vorwyn y hag6edi am y chafiel 
yn vor6yn. ac ynteu a erchis idi nodi y heg6edi. A hitheu a 
nodes ynys prydein y6 that. W.B. col. 187.10. Tri chewilyd 
morvyn . . . Trydyd yv pan el gyntaf er gvely ymplith dynyon 
. . . dros y trydyd y dyry y hegvedi yr gvr. LI. MS. 69, 
p. 74.19-26. 

aguethyaul entitled to " aguedy." ny fara gureyc nac o 
ladhlud nac o rod ar vreynt e haguedhy nainen hjt epen e vii 
blenet ac nat aguethyaul hyteu open e vii blenet allan 36.24. 

agueyn see arweyn. 

ajt see niynet. 

[angeu] ageu death 120.13. see acgued. 

[anghen] necessity, need. pi. agheneu. O deruyd y dyn y 
gwlat arall ay o achaus dyhol ay o alanas ay o agheneu ereyll 
67.7. 

[anghcnawc] aghanauc a poor or needy person. Huyd 
penuarc brenyn mor dyfeyth aghanauc gulad arall, etc., 29.25. 
pi. aghanocyon. y gueysyon ay kerdhoryon ac aghanocyon a 
hene a elguyr goskorth e brenyn 3.19. =pauperes. A.L.II 
894 iv. a. = reudusson. P.MS. 363, p. 5.22. 

[anghenedyl] aghcnetyl a necessary or imperative journey ( ?). 
ny dely talu aryant e penguastraut kanys e brenyn ay guasan- 
aytha en e tri lie. pan ellecho y hebauc daly y uarc sef ual e 
dely daly y uarch tra dyskeno. a pan eskenho daly y guar- 
hauel. a dale y uarch pan el yu aghenetyl n.6=dum separet 
accipitres ab avibus captis. A.L.II 822.xxxv. Ac ar hynny 
nachaf dygyuor o wynt a glaw hyt nat oed hawd y neb vynet 
yr aghenedyl. R.B.I 146.3. W.B. col. 203.12. has agheuedyl. 
Eddyl appears to mean journey or visit and to be the same word 
as Ir. adall gen. adill. Hyn o dynyon a oetta kyureith udunt 
yn diodor . . . Neu gam6ynt y rhyda6 aeedyl. A.L.I 610 vii. 
so ibid. II 302V. etyl expedition, journey. M.A. i36b. 33-42. 
O dri achaws y cyll gwr drev ei dad : rhybuddiaw gorwlad rhag 
eddyl arglwydd a'i genedl. A.L.II 560. ccxxiv. 50 M.A. 937 229. 
The same meaning is seen in cywedyl. H.MSS.II 151.37. Ac 
yna ymdidan a wnaeth yr esgob ae nei. a dywedut y vot ef yn 
varchawc dewr. pan enillei ef y ryw was hwnnw. a menegi 
rydyuot y varwgywedyl ef. ae dienydu yn waradwydus or 
sarassineit. YSTORIA DARED R.B.II 6.9 has "yr hyn megys y 
kigleu a dechrewys ke6ethyl ac antenor=gm ut audi-vit coepit 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 11 

Antenorem obiurgare. MEISTER. DE EXCIDIO TROIAE HISTORIA, 
p. 7.20. so Dr. D., but I don't know -whether they are the same 
word. Angeneddyl occur s = f necessity' in M.A. SSab. 146, 147; 
883 19. loloMSS. 60.5. BARDDAS I 180, 182. 

aghubyl portion, part, kany bu en kabyl ar er hyd ac ny 
ellyr kubyl o a. 115.15. 

aghyuarch, achauarch (a) clandestine. Puybynnac a ardo tyr 
yn aghyuarch talet pedeyr ceynnyauc 68.28; 86.7; 89.11 ; 128.24. 
(b) covert act. puebennac a dyho tan en agheuarc talet ehun y 
gueytret ae aghauarc 86.7; 69.1; 81.12, 21; 89.20. (c) what is 
taken secretly, sew yu aghyuarch pob peth a dycer yn amsent 
ac ny water 83.7. cf. Petwar aghyuarch gwr ynt y varch ac 
arveu a thwng y dir ae wynebwerth. LI. MS. 116, p. 33.6. 
LI. MS. 67, p. 140.24. Try agcheuarch gwr [tria indubitata]. 
A.L.II 777-1. see kyuarch. 

[anghyflafan] aghaulauan crime, pop aghaulauan a guenel 
greic talet e kenedl trosdy 41.20. 

agheuodedyn, aghauodredyn, aghouodedyc unmoveable. Puy- 
bennac a deleho da y arall a keyssyau ohonau talu da aghauo- 
dredyn nys deleyr kemryd da agheuodedyn nac en tal nac en 
guystyl onyd na bo ar y helu dym amken Sef eu da aghouodedyc 
da ny allo e dyn e taler ydau y kycuuyn kanthau e for e rnenno 
122.12. da aghyfodedic = da ny aller y d6yn. ford y myner. 
P.MS. 35.ii3a.9- cf. credadun credited. A.L.I 372.26. 

agheureyth, achyureyth f . sin, trangression. na dotet pechaut 
nay achyureyth yn erbyn y mab am trew y tat 62.26; 51.9, 10, 
n, 14, 25; 115.22; 133.5. pl- yeu 68.6. 

aghyureythyaul, aghafreishiaul, agkaefreihaul unlawful. O 
deruit ir mach roy peht maur e gustil peht peccan kafresshiaul 
eu ir haullur kamrit e peht a roher idhau e guestel a kan kollo 
. . . e mach ae duic . . . kanis aghafreishiaul y due 46.10; 53.5, 
6; 55-i6; 99.6. without permission. O deruyd y dyuot ynteu 
yr dadleu ac adav ohanav y dadleu yn aghyureythyaul 131.2, 4. 

agkefruys untrained, ellgy brenyn punt en kefruys .xc. en 
agkefruys 94.16. written aghefuys 94.18. see D.G. xcviii.3i; 
ccxlv.79- see a l s cyfrwys. 

aghyfyeyt, agheueys, aghefyet, ageuyeyt (a) speaking a 
foreign language. Denyon aghefyeyt ny huyper bed a deue- 
teient ac ny huypuynt huerteu pa deueter 120.25 48.27; 121.6. 
(b) alien, foreign, teyr graget a dele eu meybyon vamuys . . . 
mab grueyc a gusteller e gulat aghefyet 39.24 85.8. Ry gelwir 



12 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 



gelyn agkyfyeith. M.A. I5ya.i3. -yeyth = Ir. icht tribe, etc. 
W.W. 50 B.Tal. 65.15. Teyrned pob ieith. 

aha see mynet. 
ahu see au. 
alancd see eleyn. 

alu to bring forth, give birth. Am lo or nos e ganer hyd 
kallangayaf .1111. k. o kalan gayaf allan .11. k. pop temmor 
hyd er auest a dele y hamol a nauuetyt auest e derkeyf .1111. k. 
am y llo ac o hene allan .11. pop temmor hyt .ix. vetyt mey ar 
dyt hunu alu a deuckeyii eu y guert ae y llo a dele ememdeyt 
nau cam. 90.18 91.4. yn yr amser y dylyeu alu gyntaf o k. 
ac alu or dauat ar deu oen. P.MS. 35, f. 60.17, A.L.II iga.i.ii. 
see Med.M. 7 27; yvet nus buch eil al 12 61. Hal y fuwch = 
time for calving. Pembr. see Alt.Spr., p. 326. cf. Bret, ala 
' to calve.' Henry Lex. 

allan, allant out, hence, (a) adv. of place, or pan dotho y 
hebauc emud enyu tenno allan 11.12; 12.11; 44.16; 52.15; 53.19; 
55.10; 67.5; 88.9; 117.10, ii. (b) adv. of time, hyteu byeu 
[meythrin e mab] . . . banner bluydyn ac o Kenny allan ni 
ellyr kernell arney hy y ueytryn 37.15. 39.28, 29; 40.5; 41.6, 7, 
14; 51.37; 61.17; 64.5; 70.20; 71.6, 8, 16, 17, 27; 73.18, 23; 86.18; 
90.14, 17, 21 ; 91.2, 9; 95-20; 98.16; 112. 10, 13, 18; 114.18; 127.21; 
134.20. (c) beyond, out. O ney uab gorchaw allan yd a 
ceynnyauc baladyr 76.6. 

allaur f. an altar, dyuot hy ar mab hyt yr egluys ... a 
dyuot hyt yr allaur a dody y llau deheu ar yr allaur ar creyryeu 
ar llau assu ar ben y mab ac y uelly tyghu y duv yn y blaen ac 
yr allaur honno ac yr creyryeu da y syd arney 72.4; 72.14, 15; 
80.14. 

alld a steep. Guert eboles .1111. . . y theyty tennu kar en 
alld ac eg guaeret 90.10. Ni bydd allt heb waeret. Dr.D.Prov. 

alltud, alldut, alldud (o) an alien, foreigner, one who is not 
a "Cymro" or a "bonhedyc canhuynol." Ual hynny y dylyir 
duyn mab y gymro. Ac ual hyn y dylyir duyn mab y alltud 
72.8. O deruyt roy camaraes y alldut vrth vreynt e gur et aha 
e saraet eny uo maru er alldut. a guedy bo maru er alldut eny 
uenno gur arall. kany demchel traykeuen ar e kenedel 39.13- 
O deruyt roy kamraes y alldud mab honno a dele ran o tref tat 
ac ny dele ran or tedyn breynyauc hyd e tredydyn ony bod er 
alldut en guahalyet seys neu en huydhel a hunnu ae keyf en 
dyannod 125.1. (b) one who has lost his proprietary rights. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 13 

Ptiybynnac ynteu a uynho holy tyr o ach ac edryu dangosset y 
ach hyt y kyf yd henyv ohonau ac ot ytyu ew yno yn petwarygur 
pryodaur yu canys yn petwarygur yd a dyn yn pryodaur. ac 
nyt y uelly y dysgyn dyn oe pryodolder yny uo yn alldut 61.6. 
37.17; 38.24, 32; 39.13, 14, 15, 18, 24, 26; 54.19; 61.27; 62.1, 5, 6, 
22; 73.8, 21 ; 74- I o; 7 8 - 8 ; 125.3, 16; 126.15; 182.6. f. -es 73.30. 
pi. -yon. O byd alldudyon gwlat arall yr brenhyn ay yn wyr 
ydau ay yn arhos gwynt 67.16. 63.29; 64.1, 3, 9; 67.19; 85.7. 

alldudct condition of alltud. y gyureyth eyssyoes a dyweyt 
bot teyr gwraged a dyly eu meybyon trew tat . . . trydyt yu 
gwreyc a rodho y chenedyl yguystyl alldudet ac yn yr vystlyry- 
aeth honno kael mab ohoney o alltud 62.4. 

am (i) prep, about, for. with pron. suffix. 3Sg. m. amdanau; 
amamdanau 6.1; amdau 131.6. 3 sg. f. amdaney. 3 pi. 
amdanunt 83.2, 4; amdanadunt 19.28; 75.15. amdanaunt 115.6. 
(o) about (of place), y dyllat a uo am e brenyn 8.28 9.16; 
13.16; 17.22; 19.28. (b) about, concerning, with respect to. ene 
bo dadeleu rug deugur or uaertref am tyr . . . neu am etnlat. 
24.2331.17; 38.6; 45.4, 25; 47- 2 4; 4 8 -4 etc. (c) because of. a 
hunnv a dyt dyaspat am y uot o pryodaur yn mynet yn 
ampryodaur 63.13. am henny therefore 31.14. 34.9; 38.2, 3; 
42.12; 48.3; 62.28; 68.3, 5; 97.19; 131.4. (d) for. trederian 
saraet e brenyn a telyr ydhy hy am y saraet 3.14. .1111. k. am 
pop ynseyl agoret 8.22 6.14, 25; 9.17; 12.15; 18.8; 38.1, 8, 9; 
51.11 ; 60.5 ; 68.29 J 69.11 ; 70.5, 6 ; 82.29 ; 83.2, 4 ; 90.13, 16, 23 etc. 

(2) y am, jam (a) from about, the other side of. y le en e 
neuat yam e tan ar brenyn 8.15 5.8, 9, 19, 20 ; 11.27 > *3-5 J x 5-29 ; 
20.11. (b) id est. nid amgen ef a dely arluyau e llys yam pery 
guellta a pery keneu tan 26.12. e dysteyn a dely y dyuallu o 
holl leseuoet yam pepyr a llesseuoet ereyll 20.3 26.23 ; 35.21 ; 
36.6; 41.5; 53.11; 54.5; 89.2. yam 35-2i=nid amgen. L.W. 
80.34; 81.42. so LI. MS. 69. 118.2. 

a ma lira ml speech, testimony, pop anauus a uo yac y lekeyt 
ay glustyeu ay tauaut kemeredyc eu y amadraud 120.21 ; 121.1. 

amaeth, a may Hi (a) ploughman. Puy bynnac a dorro teruyn 
yrug duydrew oy eredyc. y brenhyn a dyly yr ychen ay hardo 
ar gwyd ar heyrn a gwerth y troet deheu yr amaeth a gwerth y 
llav assv yr geylwat 68.26; 3.9; 107.17; 109.3, Io > J 2, 20; 111.23. 
(b) ploughmanship (?). ny dele nep kamryt amayath arnau 
ony huybyt gueneuthur aradar ay hoylyau 111.17. v.l. amaethj- 
aeth, amaethad. L.W. 283 31. amaethu. P.MS. 35, f. 833.21. 



14 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

amdyuenhedyc ( ? ). Rey a deueyt panyu dyn a. eu kauarch 
kyfyll. 128.22. cf. dyn amdineuedic yw kyuarch kiffyll. P.MS. 
37, p. 136. There is a passage in the " Kilhwch and Olwen " 
story containing a -word similar to this which means " spoiled," 
"ruined," from difwynaw to render valueless. Neu titheu pwy 
wyt. custenhin amhynwyedic vyf i. ac am uym priawt ym 
ryamdiuwynwys uym priawt yspydaden penkawr. W.B. col. 
473.14 = Neu ditheu pwy wyt. Custennin yn gelwir uab 
dyfnedic. ac am vyn priawt ym rylygnvys vym brawt yspa- 
daden. R.B.I 115.21. 

amdyffln to defend, protect. Ac ew a dyly tyghu dros dyr 
burth y llys ay hauot tyr o byd reyt eu hamdyfyn 68. n. guerth 
nau aylauyt gokefurt eu hyn . . . Guert e tauaut kemeynt ac 
eu gurt venteu oil. kanys ef ac eu hamdyfyn 105.21 ; 51.14, 18. 

amdyfynnvr, amdifenur, amdifuinur defendant in a lawsuit. 
jaunt yr haulur kenic y devnidieu . . . yaun ir amdifuinur 
gurtheb 54.6. 52.18, 28, 37; 53.9, 10; 54.15, 17, 21, 22; 55.3, 13; 
79.12, 14; 81.4, 17; 130.3, 9, 15; 131.4, 18, 22; 132.1. written. 
amdifennir 56.30. 

amgen, amkeii different, nys deleyr kemryd da agheuodedyn 
. . . onyd na bo ar y helu dym amken 122.16; 117.5. guedy e 
bart kadeyryau e bard, teulu byeu kanu trickanu o kerd amgen 
14.29. gl. by tria carmina varia. A.L.II 901 xvii.v. nyt 
amgen, nyt amgen a that is, viz. e brenyn byeu keysyau ofer 
ydau nyd amgen a telyn y hun a crud y arall 128.9 ; 34.19 ; 48.26 ; 
81.28; 82.13; 133.24. cf. R.B.I 71.27. Ac yna amgenu eu pryt 
a wnaethant. M.A. i54b. cyrn amgen. M.A. 1583. chwetyl a. 

amhcii to dispute, question, o deruyd y ynat barnu cam ay 
ahmeu amdaney 134.25. 55.7. 3 sg. pres. subj. act. ameuho, 
amheuho 42.27; 53.4, n, 13. pres. pass, amheuyr, amheuir 
55.19; 108.8; 134-1- 

[amhynyauc] pi. amhynyokeu door posts, sg. gl. by antes. 
A.L.II 804 vi. .1111. . . . am e doreu am er amhynyokeu .1111. 
99.7. a. = The two side posts of any dore and by metaphor trans- 
taon (sic) the word signifieth the people which do dwell on both 
sydes of a mans ground. Ll.MS. 68, p. 133. Rac bronn 
amhinogeu yn neuad ni=Ante foras palatii. Eluc. 170.3 and 
241.31. -hyn-=Ir. ind. top, head, see B.L.G. 

amobyr, amober, amobor, amaober, amamobcr a fee paid by 
the one who gave a woman away in marriage and varying in 
amount according to his status, ny dyly y tat talu amobyr dros 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 15 

y uerch onyt ehun a uyd rodyat arney canys pob rodyat ar 
wreyc a dyly talu y hamobyr 71.19; 36.11, 13. paid also on 
cohabitation -with or violation of a woman. O try mod e deleyr 
amobor y grejc. o rod ac estin keny kesker canthy. er eyl o 
keuelokac honneyt keny bo rod. e tredyt o uechyck 38.19. O 
deruyt e gur adef duen treys ar gwreyc. talet .xn. myu en 
dyruy yr arglujt ae hamobor yr argluyt 37.23. no amobyr was 
paid for the daughters of king, edling, or penteulu 127.8. n.ii ; 
13.20; 16.1; 24.22; 26.8; 28.17; 36.15; 37.23; 38.21, 22, 23, 24, 
25, 26, 27 ; 39.5-8 ; 40.21 ; 41.16, 17 ; 60.9 ; 66.17, 24 ; 68.7 ; 71.19-23 ; 
126.22-27; 127.1-24; 128.1-7; 133.22-29; 134.6. pi. amobreu 28.3. 
Tri chewilyd morvyn yssyd un yv dyvedut oe that vrthi mi ath 
rodeis y vr . . . Bros y kyntaf y rodir hamobyr y that. LI. MS. 
69., p. 74-I9-23- 

aniod, amoot, aniuot compact, contract made in the presence 
of witnesses. Puipenac a gnuel ammod detfaaul ae gilit doet e 
du amodur ygyt a deuedent eu amoot. val e mennoent y gueihiur 
a roden vnteu en llau er amoduuir kadu er amod ar e lun e 
deuedassant 50.1. amod a tir detef 50.23; 50.4, 5, 15, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 24; 108.5; 109.19; 110.2; 123.13; 132.19, 24. Rei a dweid am 
amod na ellir byth y dorri. Sef achaws yw mal gowuned yw 
amod. LI. MS. 116, p. 95.4. Trech ammod no chyvraith. M.A. 
792 165. goreu cyfraith ammod. ibid. 8463.24. 

[ainodi] to make a compact, pres. pass, amodyr. Ny dyleyr 
dody na meyrch na kessyc na bucc en arader ac o dodyr huy 
ked erthelo a kessyc a guarthec ny dyukyr ked anafo e meyrch 
ny dyukyr ac ykyd a henne ny deueyd e kefreyt onyd amodyr 
udunt deleu vn eru m.6. 

amodur m. (a) one of the parties to a contract, see amod 50.1. 
(b) witness to a contract, o deruid y dyn ay gilyd gunehur 
amuot heb amotwyr. ar llau eny gilid 50.15. see amod 50.1 ; 50.5. 
Pwybynhac a holo da trwy amot holet trwy amotwyr. P.MS. 
39, p. 24b.i6. amodwr yn y ammot [compactor de compacto suo]. 
A.L.II 841 x. 

amprydoaur one without title to land. Os nauuetdyn a dau 
y ouyn tyr dyfodedyc yn bryodolder a hunnv a dyt dyaspat am 
y uot o pryodaur yn mynet yn ampryodaur 61.14; 56.7,9; 61,19. 
but cf. Yr holl vrodoryon ieuhaf ampriodorion ynt ar gafiel 
datanud . . . ac wrth hynny y dywedir ny wrthlad ampriodawr 
ampriodawr arall. A. L. 1540.18. 

[amrygoll] emrecholl every kind of loss, loss. Pvypennac a 
kemero arall ar y oruodocgaith diguidet ef em pop kerit or a 



16 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

pot ar edyn . . . o myn entheu e diessiwau or dyn a kemmirth 
ef trosdau. kemeret enteu meichieu ykan e dyn ar y emrecholl 
50.27. nyt archaf i heb y gereint rodi ida6. namyn y dylyet 
ehun ae amrygoll yr pan golles y gyuoeth hyt hedi6. R.B.I 
257.20. cum perditione, id est, amregoll. A.L.II 839. iv. 

amryscoyv, amrescoeu aslant, oblique, dogyn keruyn o ued 
nau nyruet yn y hyt yn amryscoyv 69.8 ; 68.22 ; 69.18. messur e 
llaeth teyr modued eny guaylaut a .vi. em peruet e llest a .ix. 
enyhyd en amrescoeu 91.9. cf. naw dyrnnved vyd vchet y 
gerwyn pan vessurer ar wyr or cleis traw yr emyl yma. A.L.I 
532.il; 534-vii; 768.!. 

amresson dispute, ac ena e buant en hir. en amresson pui 
a heley en e blaen druy auon guerit 42.3, 18; 106.13; 109.19, 23; 
110.4; 114-26. oaniryson canguayt ahebguayt. L.L. 120.13. 
a.<Ir. imbressan. K.Z. xxxv.265. 

amryu, amreu of various kinds, o pop amryu ulaut 27.18. 
escrybyl . . . o bjt amreu nac kamesker 117.13. 

amser m. time, season. Deu amsser e bit agoret keureyth am 
tir a dayar . . . o nauuethid kalawgayaf . . . hit nauuethid o 
chewraur, etc., 51.26. Ryd uyd rannv tyr pob amser 59.6; 1.8, 
10 ; 16.23, 24 ; 46.25 ; 51.31 ; 56.4, 23 ; 59.7 ; 61.9, 20 ; 69.6 ; 70.24, 26 ; 
81.6; 112.14; 116.5, 9, " pl- -oyd 51.37; 52-iJ I33-I5- 

amuot see amod. 

ainiis. animus m. stallion, tri pheth ny eyll tayauc yu 
guerthu heb kanyat y argluyt amus a mel a mocch 29.17 ; 88.7, 8. 
pl. emys 127.11. amws yn pori allan kolly y vraynt a wna a 
chyt kollo ef vraynt amws ny cholles ef vraynt palfiray. A.L.II 
266. vii. Bum Amws ar Re. M. A. 373. 32. emys=Lat. admissus. 
Loth. p. 164. emys appears to be used as sg. in M.A. i7ob.22. 
see palfrey. 

amyd mixed corn (?). guert dreua keyrc .1111. . . . guert 
dreua amyd .vin. 103.26. Melinydd a feliff amyd a melin. 
Cefn Coch MS. 237.6. see D.G. xix.i2; xlii-44. 

amyn see namyn. 

ana (11 breath, clauur neu anadldreuedyc 34.10. 

anaf blemish, defect, pop anal" ar varch trayan y guert a 
atueryr y am y clust ae y koloren 89.2. see Z2. 1058.403 
iranamou. gl. mendae. 

[anafu] to injure, hurt. 3 sg. pres. subj. act. Ny dyleyr 
dody na meyrch na kessyc na bucc en arader ac o dodyr 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 17 

huy ket erthelo. a kessyc a guarthec ny dyukyr ked anafo 
e meyrch ny dyukyr 111.4. 

a ii anus maimed, pop anauus a uo yac y lekeyt ay glustyeu 
ay tauaut kymeredyc eu y amadraud 120.22. 

unkiiyn, aiichuyn livery, daily allowance of food and drink. 
y ankuyn eu teyr seyc a tri korneyt or llyn goreu 6.11. ay 
ankuyn en dyuessur ar uuyt a llyn 4.1; 7.18; 8.18; 14.1; 15-30; 
19.15. 3i.=refectio. A.L.II i52.viii; a. [cenarn]. Ibid. Sgg.xiii-vi. 
Goreu ancwyn bresych. M.A. 778 100; Goreu ancwyn perllan. 
Ibid. 101. a.<anticenium. Thurn.Altir 517.16. see M.A. 
1650.40; 1923.31 (medd ancwyn). 

anuab childless. Ny tal gwreyc anuab galanas ac nys tal 
wedy nat ymdyco 77.25. Huyd penuarc brenyw, mor. dyfeyth. 
aghanauc gulad arall. lleydyr. maru o anuab 29.26. Heb y 
wrach nyt oes blant ida6. Heb y urenhines. g6ae uinneu vyn 
dyuot at anuab. R.B.I 101.21. A llyma Elsbeth dy gefnithderw 
gwedi ymddwyn mab yn ei henaint a hwn yw y chweched mis 
iddi yr hon a elwir yn anfab. M.A. 3693.45. 

a nu od o a. against the will, pop kaflauan au guenel dyn oy 
anuod dyhuked oy uod 120.1 ; 64.16 ; 85.2. cf. Sef yu er anuod 
pob peth a dyccer er druc ac er guaratuyd er Hall. LI. MS. 174, 
p. 110.27. see bodd. 

[anuon] to send. 3 pi. imperat. anuonent 132.10. 

anhebkor, anepcor, anhebchor indispensable, (used as a 
noun m.) tredyt anepcor brenyn eu y teylu 8.7; 8.30; 12.20; 
29-1, 5, 6. -cor=Ir. cor a throw, throwing v.n. to cuirim. W.W. 

anhoydynt see hanuot. 

[anhuddo] to co-ver. pres. subj. pass, annuder. or pan a. 
etan eny dadanudher trances 36.26. A'r brenhin Dafydd oedd 
hen, ac a aethai mewn oedran er iddynt ei enhuddo ef mewn 
dillad, etto ni chynhesai efe. i Kings, i.i. 

anlloet[h] bed ( ?), home, place of retreat or refuge. Puebenac 
a cesko teyrnos gan gureyc or pan annuder e tan eny dadanudher 
tranches, a mennu ohonahu escar talet ydhy eydyon a talo .xx. 
ac os due ar ty ac anlloet ac y bod ekyd ac ef hjt empen vii 
blenet rannu a hy 36.28. O deruyd bot emurthryn e rug deu 
den am tyr a dayar ... Ac atteb or amdyffynnvr a dyweduyt 
. . . Ema yd vyf uy en eysted ar e tyr hun bluydyn a 
bluydyned, gan ty ac anlloed ac ar ac eredyc. A.L.II 138.7; 
Ffoawdr pan gaffer wedy y ceyssyer deirnos yn y anlloedd 
II 684 ix; II 140 xxvi; 142.1. yn cadw rac kyhoet anlloet 



i8 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

enlli. M.A. 2503. i. Breisc anlloet beirt borthloet berthyn. 
ibid. i66b.22 ; i73b.2. Anlloet kyrn teyrn teir ynys. ibid. 
1873.52. mawr anlloeth mor . . . dros dir. M.A. 285^3. 
eigiawn lloet. ibid. i^8b. Ll.MS. 116. 79.20 has lloyd (-written 
llowydd. M.A. 954^25) = bed. It is presumably the same as 
-lloedd of porthloedd (mod. porthladd) harbour. 

anlloethauc possessing a home or residence, .xiui. brein 
[guir arvon] . . . petuerit ar dec puybenac a esteho endi vn dit 
a bluyn o byt gur anlloethauc y uod en un breyn a gur or vlad 
42.26. O deruyd y dyn wneuthur cam ygkyrahwt ny hanfio o 
honaw ac ynteu yn anllwythawc ac ae da yno. A.L.II 52.1. 
O deruyd y wreic adeilat ar tir tref tadawc yn diannot, ac eisted 
ar y tir vn dyd a blwydyn yn anllwythoc II 104 xxvii. see 
II 52. v, viii ; II 638. iii. 

annel, anel m. and f. a spring trap, a trap, puebennac a 
tenno a. ar tyr arall . . . .1111. am akory e tyr a .1111. am 
y kayu ac a uo en er anel 97.6. O deruyd y aniueil mynet yn a. 
ac a honno wrthaw mynet yn arall. A.L.II 52.xiii. O deruyd 
y anyueil dyn arall mynet y mywn a. neu ymywn bratbwll, y 
dyn ae gwnaeth a dyly dieissywaw y dyn or clwyf ae gyfranu 
ae anyueil ; ac uelly ot a dynyon yndunt ony dodir not arnunt 
sef yw nodeu a dylyir y dodi arnunt, croes o bop tu udunt. 
ibid. io2.xxiv. Ai ben [The Swan] fal bwa annel. P.MS. 69, 
p. 304. an bwaeu nine n annel. P.MS. 67, p. 281. Fe ddaw 
[ange] ith nelu di yn dy gysgu. Ll.MS. 200, p. 633. a. = laqueus 
A.L.II 782.xxiii; a. = decipula. ibid. 880. xvi. a. = Ir. indell 
to set (a trap), harness (horses). B.L.G. see also airndil trap. 

:i 11110 1 respite, delay. O cheyf yn y maes ay cymero y ganthau 
ac ardelu ohanau o arwayssaw . . . roder oet ydau y geyssyau 
y arwayssaw. nyt amgen trydyeu yn un gymhut pytheunos 
ygwlat arall ac y uelly y cerda hyt y trydet lau. Ac or dryded 
lau kyureyth dyannot. Ac os y drydellau a geyf ay cymero 
ohoney gadael ydy eithyr nat oes annot. 82.15; 48.32; 130.13. 
annot respite. Ll.MS. 174, p. 75.5. annoter postpone. Ll.MS. 
116, p. 99.29 ; 100.6, 7. Paham na doeth yntev yn amsser y 
dedyf . . . Paham nat annodes yntev dyuot hyt yn diwed yr 
oes. Eluc. 17.12. cf. ac yna a phwmel y gledyf ef a drewis y 
porth yny yttoed v pwmel yn annodi yny dor yny dorres. 
H.MS. I 326.37. a gwascu y benn yny glyw y vyssed yn 
ymannodi yn y vreithell. R.B.I 38.i2.annodwn y frwydyr hyt 
y foru. M.A. 7273.37. 

annvvyn (annwfn) the deep, abyss. Os nauuetdyn a dau y 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 19 

ofyn tyr dyfodedyc yn bryodolder a hunnv a dyt dyaspat am y 
uot o pryodaur yn mynet yn ampriodaur . . . ar dyaspat honno 
a elwyr dyaspat uvch annvvyn. 61.17. cf. R.B.I 8.9 sqq. ; 
I 124.24. 

anodeu, annodeu -wrong done unintentionally. Sef eu anodeu 
pop peth a decker en ryd ( = rhith) arall 85.2; 70.18. neg. of 
godeu purpose, design, ny dylyir dyrwy am dym yr godev 
heb weithret. A.L.II 27o.xii. O deruyd y dyn yn taflu ryw 
beth, kyhwrd y ergyt oe atneit a dyn yny gaffo ae agheu; ac 
am hynny mynnu ae galanas ae sarhaet ; kyfreith a dyweit nat 
oes warthrud yn hynny; kanys anodeu yw. A.L.II 42.xi. 
Anodef yw anwahard tervysgva wylldineb meddwl heb y dovi. 
P.MS. 14.39. 

anolo void, -worthless, in-valid, ket darfo er amdiffenur rohi 
atheb kin oy holy ev or haulur bot en anolo er ateb eny 
warandao ef er haul 53.15. kanys anolo yu pob peth ny uo 
kyureythyaul 72.1. 53.31; 54.10; 72.1; 132.15. Tri aneueil 
yssyd gwerth y troet pop vn ohonunt ae eneit : march a milgi 
a hebawc : sef achos yw hynny, canys budyr yw pop vn or tri 
anyueil hynny, ac anyueil difwyn annolo vyd wedy na aller 
aruer o honaw. A.L.II 334-xxviii. golo or golof occurs = to 
hide ( ?). A bod y dywededeg N. yn dala hyny mewn golov a 
diebryd A.L.II 472^32. golo occurs often in poetry = to bury. 
see M.A. iga, b ; 2oa ; 853 ; 943 ; 1403. Fed. I 59.2. 

anostec disturbance, disorder, breach of peace, prompting in 
court, ac ena e may yaun ir egnat deuedut kosb er anostec 
esseu eu hene teir biu camluru a bot en anolo e geir a deueter 
54.9. Sef yw anostec dywedyd gair dysk neu ganhorthwy yr 
hawlwr neu yr amdiffynwr eithur y neb a vo sefydlawc. LI. MS. 
116, p. 43.17. see gostec. 

anostegu to prompt in court. O deruyd dody gostec yny maes 
ac odyna anostegu o un yny maes teyr buv camlurv arnau a bot 
yn anolo y geyr hunnv ac ydau ew ac yr kyghaus 132.14. 

anrec f. dish of meat, course, e koc . . . ef a dely decreu pop 
anrec or ardemero ef 19.30; 11.14; I9-3* J 20.1; 25.28; 28.24. so 
R.B.I 257.7. R-B.I 174.13 = W.B. col. 239.4., R.B.I 276.9 = W.B. col. 
426.17., R.B.I 293.6 = W.B. col. 448.27., 266.i4 = W.B. col. 408.27. 
A gwedy daruot udunt vwyta o vrenhinawl anregyon. R.B.II 
135.12; 177.10. 50 H.MSS.II 4.28; io.li. Ac yna y eisted yd 
aethant ac y vwyta. Ac y gyt ar anrec kyntaf y doethant 
marchogyon urdolyon y rei a daroed torri eu dwylaw . . . ac ar 
ol yr eil anrec y doethant marchogyon gwedy tynnu eu llygeit 



20 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

oe penneu . . . ac ar ol y dryded anrec . . . ac ar ol y bedwyred 
anrec . . . ac ar ol y bymhet anrec y doethant marchogyon 
urdolyon. H.MSS.I 255.26. Ac megys yd oedynt yn aros y 
bymhet anrec or gegin. H.MSS.I 131.16. ferem v.1. anrec. 
A.L.I 58.7. Llonaid llwy o ddwfr llinagr/yn anrheg, bid teg, 
bid hagr. D.G. xxi.7o. anregyon. R.B.II 202.25 = fercula. 
Schultz 202. 

anrechu to reward -with food. ac ena e dely e brenyn y 
anrechu ef o uuyd a dyaut 19.23 ; 28.3. Teir gweith y hanreca 
y brenhin ef y nos honno oe law ehunan ar uwyt kanys yn Haw 
y gennat yd anrecca beunyd ef. A.L.I 652.1. 

anreyth booty, spoil, cattle taken during a raid, property. 
bard teulu ... a deley bucc neu ycch or anreyth a guenel e 
teulu eghorgulad. guedy ed hel yr brenyn y trayan. enteu a 
dely pan ranoent er anreyth kanu unbeynyaet prydyn 15.2 ; 
12.13; 13.20; 25.18; 26.3. Pvybynnac y cafer ol lleydyr yn 
dyuot yu ty ac na allo y hebrug yurthau byt anreythodew ac 
ony byd anreyth dyholyer 80.2. pi. anreyth eu 7.12. a. grybdeyl 
confiscation of a homicide's property 80.7. a. odew 78.27; 80. i. 
vn yw godef o dyn orthrymder y swydoc arglwyd wneuthur 
aghyfreitJt arnaw yn lie kyfreith a hwnnw a eilw ky/mth. yn 
anreith odef. Ll.MS. 116, p. 64.36. 50 M.A. 949^34. Tri dyn 
a vydant anrhaithoddev : un na savo wrth varn cyvraith, ac na 
safo yn wyneb llys, ac a latho ei gywlad ; sev goddevadwy cyrch 
anraith arnynt; sev yw cyrch anrhaith, dwyn yn ngavael y 
tnaint a gafer o'u daod cynhwynawl heb werth heb dwng arnynt. 
M.A. 931. 148. a phan edrychyssant yford y guelyn y preideu 
ar anreith eu ar kyuanhed kyn no hynny ny 6elynt neb ry6 dim, 
etc. W.B. col. 64.29. see also L.W. 327 89; 339 cxxxiv. 
see godew. 

anreythyau to plunder, raid, paji uo reyt menet e teulu y 
anreythyau neu y neges arall [e penteylu] a dely ethol e rey a 
uenho. 7.4. 

anrydedu, anredethu to re-ward, honour -with gifts. Ac uynt 
a dylyant anrydedu y brenhyn pan del yr llys herwyd eu gallu. 
ay yn deueyt ay yn vyn ay yn uynneu. ay ar gaus ay ar 
emenyn ay ar laeth 68.17. 11.14; 67.14. 

anredethussaf, anredctussaf superl. highest in honour, best. 
fidlyg ... a dele bod en anredetussaf guedy e brenyn ar 
urenynes 3.22. er eyl seyc anredethussaf 6.10. 

ansaut f. condition, ny dely ef manelu e kenut or ansaut y 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 21 

doto ar e march 27.10. Ef a vynnassei gymryt ansawd a vei 
well noc a rodassei duw idaw. Eluc. 6.30. Ac yn yr amser 
gossodedic ygann duw ef a vwyttaei o brenn y uuched. Ac yn 
yr anssawd honno y bydei gwedy hynny. ibid. 11.30. see 
R.B.II 47.18; 58.3. H.MSS.I 365.8. -pi. M.A. 348^23. 

anudon perjury, ac os cam [y damdyghuyt] guneler amau 
cyureyth anudon 134.9; 44-2.6; 79.16; 80.13; 134.2. an-ud-on, 
ud=Ir. -oeth an oath. 

annual*, anguar undutiful, impious, uncivil, ny dele e claf 
kemennu djm namen e daeret . . a ked as kemenno e mab a 
eill tony e kemen a hunu a eluyr mab anuuar 34.18. puybenac 
a deueto geyr anguar en erbyn e bren[yn] talet kamlury 29.28. 

anuyd nature, natural quality. O deruyd bod dyn en 
kendeyryauc a bradhu dyn arall ac or brath hunnu deuod ageu 
yr dyn nys dyhuc e kenedel er enuyt ef kanys o anuyd er heynt 
e bu uaru 120.14. Talamon lief eglur oed idaw. a gwr greduawl 
creulawn yn erbyn y elynyon. ac annwyt mul gantaw. R.B.II 
12.27. anwyt mul hael oed idi. R.B.II 14.2. anwyd prophwyd 
prud ioli. M.A. i46a.5- Oer deni gwr garw ei anwydeu. M.A. 
8ob.48. 

unnlknn favourite dogs. Teyr merched ny deleyr amamobyr 
. . . narnyn eu hemys ac eu hanulkun. ac eu hebocheu 
ac eu harueu 127.11. a diwethaf ki a ellygvyd arnaw 
annwyl gi arthur. cauall oed y enw. W.B. col. 402.19. cf. 
Saith anwylddyn duw : Jeuan vyngylwr, etc. Rep.MSS.I 774.6. 
ehegyr y byd dryssaur y annwyl. P.MS. 17.31. i. anuones yr 
amherawdyr ar pilatus anwylwas idaw. yd ymdiredei yndaw 
yn vawr. H.MSS.II269.3. 

anyueyl, aniueil animal, usually one of the domestic animals 
(including dogs and geese), game. O deruyd tennu ruyd ay ar 
auon ay ar uor, a deuod ay guydeu ae anyueyl arall 121.16. O 
deruyd y dyn menet y hele a decreu hele ac ellug ar anyueyl pa 
anyueyl bennac uo 122.20. a. buder unclean beast 94.2. a. glan 
clean beast 94.1. a. petwartroydyauc quadruped 82.20. 9.15; 
25.19; 29.9-15; 42.16; 43.1; 81.16-23; 115.4, 12; 121.8, 20; 122.5, 
10, 20; 123.1, 5. pi. -eyt; -yeyt 8.2; n.6; 26.1, 22; 29.10; 97.10; 
121.13. 

anilis insecure, void, puipenwac a gusto gust adeuedic a 
tebiccu honau ef vrth na does vach arnau bot e guestel en anilis 
nini a deuedun dikutau hunu ae y vod en dilis 46.5 ; 47.31 ; 48.3 ; 
56.26. see llys. 



22 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

anilissu. anylcssu to render -void, annul. e guystyl a 
guystylho greyc ny dele y gur y anylessu 119.9. 47.32; 119.6. 

ar prep, on, upon, with pron. suffix. 3 sg. m. arnau, arnav, 
arnahu 92.7; arnauhu 49.19; arnauau 44.3. 3 sg. f. arney 
arnehy 40.14. 3 pi. arnadunt 52.35 ; 53.21 ; 68. u ; 75.23 ; 76.4, 5 ; 
81.10; 99.12; 103.17; 104.8, ii ; 119.25; 128.22. arnunt 12.18; 
76.17; 109.6. arnudunt 33.16. on, upon, pan dano e dyllat ar 
e guely 22.22. corflan ... ay phen ar e venwent 51.19. bod 
en rid peskodha ar e teyr auon 42.21. pob gulet e bo med arney 
18.25. argluyt a uo ar e wlat 51.22. vn guert vyt a pop llo vn 
ar pemdec ar y llaet[h] 90.23. o deruyt y dyn bot creireu arnau 
51.18. ny ellyr tystyolaeth ar uedul 121.4 5.18; 9.9; 24.25; 
26.7; 42.15; 48.18; 49.18; 51.18; 54.19; 60.22; 67.2; 70.8, 23; 
96.18 ; 101.3 ; 116.25 121.4 ; 129.13 ; 131.11, 12, etc. with vb. noun, 
ketner meychieu ykan e llourud ar i dieisivau 50.29 3.4; 35.12 ; 
37.26; 46.37; 56.7; 71.24; 76.27; 79.10; 134.2. with ord. nos. llu 
e kennogo[n] ar i sethuet . . . wee guir ac euo ehun seithuet 
44.1745.7; 47.21; 49.21, 25; 66.16; 73.26; 74.14. in cpd. nos. 
un ar ugeint 129.12; pedeyr ar dec ar ugeynt 61.22. 3.16, 17; 
6.1, 2; 10.16; 18.19; 20.8, 24; 36.30; 37.13; 42.25; 45.20; 59.2, 15; 
65.9, ii, 22, 29; 66.24, 29, etc. yar, jar from, with pron. suffix, 
i sg. yarnaw uy 133.18. 3 sg. m. yarnau 55.16. 3 sg. f. yarney 
62.2; 133.17, 27, 28. 3 pi. yarnadunt 26.10. kyuody yar e guely 
39.29. buyta jar un dyskyl ar brenyn 24.14. 26.10 ; 38.14 ; 47.10 ; 
53.6; 55.16; 56.11; 114.4; J 23.2. upon, puebennac a uenficyo 
march y arall a guenouy e bleu yar e keuen 89.9. 19.17; 51.13, 
14; 62.2; 123.5, 6; 133-17, 18, 24, 27, 28. 

ar tillage, tilth, arable land, mayr bysgueyl . . . byeu pery 
er ar a holl reydyeu e llys 24.20. Try ryu datanhud y syd 
datanhud ar ac eredyc, etc. 60.17, 21. O deruyd bod amresson 
am drecar edrecher eru er amayth a defnet y har ay 11 et 109.21. 
see gayauar, guahanuynar. cf. glasar. M.A. 3043.24. 

ar 16.16. see yar. 
ar abbrev. for aryant. 

aradcr, aradar plough, ny dele nep kamryt amayath arnau 
ony huybyt gueneuthur aradar ay hoylyau kanys ef a dele y 
gueneuthur en kubyl 111.18. 92.10; 104.12; 111.18. collect, sew 
yu turyw ac enwywet llosgy tey a thorry aradyr 63.8. The 
various parts of a plough, etc., are mentioned on p. 561 of LI. MS. 
209 in a satirical poem. Arnodd o wernen a chebyst banhadlen 
... a gwden o gollen . . . e chyrn eithin crinion ... a hoelion o 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 23 

helig. See a late drawing of a plough on the facsimile at the 
beginning of Ll.MS. 116. (Guild of Graduates, Edit. 1912.) 

arail see arheyl. 

arall (a) adj. other, another, menet e teulu y anreythyau neu 
y neges arall 75. nau nyr[n]vet yny hyt . . . ar gymeynt arall 
yn y llet twice as much 69.8. greyc en deuot or parthun yr 
lluen ar gur or parch arall 39.10. 5.10 ; 19.5 ; 29.26 ; 30.18 ; 33.19 ; 
35-6; 38-7, 28; 39.2, 14; 41.2, 20; 42.24; 48.22; 52.14; 59-I3; 6o- 6 ; 
61.7 ; 63.2, 21 ; 65.11, 28 ; 06.9 ; 67.17 ; 73.3, 5 ; 77.13 ; 79.2 ; 80.25 ; 
81.12; 85.9, 25; 121.20; 125.11; 128.5; 132.21; 134-15. l8 - P 1 - 
ereyll. 7.15; 8.7, 23; 12.22; 15.7; 20.4; 28.4, 30; 31.13; 38-26; 
61.8; 63.10; 66.15; 67.18; 68.5; 74.17; 76.27; 86.22; 88.3; 109.2; 
120.3, 4; 121.13; 129.18; 135-11- 

(b) pron. ef a dely corney[t] llyn ykan e brenyn ac arall 
ykan e urenynes arall ykan y dysteyn 13.31. 3-12; 12.4, 17; 
13.31 ; 15.18, 20, 31 ; 17.12 ; 28.12 ; 30.12 ; 36.27 ; 40.24 ; 45.9 ; 46.21 ; 
47.15; 47.26, 31; 48.28; 49.25; 50.6, 17, 18, 25, 30; 64.7; 71.22; 
72.26; 73.3; 75.16; 97.1; 106.10; 111.12; 122.12; 128.10; 129.24; 
134.13. pi. ereyll, ereill 4.11 ; 11.17 ; 12.1 ; 22.1 ; 25.24 ; 38.25, 27 ; 
54.4; 56.29; 59.15; 61.9, 18, 27; 64.14; 74.6; 77.13; 80.18; 82.19; 
103.15; 104.9; 113-16; 118.26; 128.23; 129.28; 130.17, 19. 

arbennyc, arpennyc chief, principal, ef a dele dody e delyn 
en llau e bart teulu en e teyr guyl arbennyc 6.4. 4.26 ; 6.7, 18 ; 
8.20; 9.17; ii. 16; 48.30. Ir. airchinnech gl. 'princeps.' Z2. 868. 

archenat any article of clothing, usually footgear, ef a dely 
trayan e kuyr . . . neu archenat a talo .IIII.K. 17.25 ; 26.18 ; 27.3. 
a phan welas yr ydeon y gwyrtheu hynny y tynnassant y prenn 
or llynn ac y dodassant yn bont ar auon y sathru ... a phan 
arganuu hi y prenn. estwg y phenn a wnaeth, ac adoli idaw. 
a diosc y harchennat. a dyrchauel y dillat. a mynet trwy y 
dwfr is y law. H.MSS.II 249.25. gwisgwch amdanawch ych 
dillat vy meibon .i. ach archennat ac adawn y lie hwnn. Eluc. 
1 2 1. 1. ac un waith yn y flwydyn y caiff Esgidjeu a Hosaneu. 
v.l. ac un waith ei archenad. L.W. 65 7. Morwyn ystauell 
. . . bieu kyfrwyeu y urenhines ae hen frwyneu ae harchenat. 
A.L.I 670 xxxii = Hi a geiff hen gyfrwyeu y vrenines ae henn 
ffrwyneu ae hen hescittyeu. ibid. 382.x. Archenad .i. dillad. 
gwyr yn cerdhed yn dhiarchen .i. yn droednoeth. P.MS. 118, 
p. 464. kyfarchen = esgidiav. P.MS. 169, p. 261. Corn, 
orchinat shoe. Bret, arc'hennad. archen = Lat. arcenda. Sir E. 
Anwyl. cf. diarchen. na roed farch kvl diarchen. P.MS. 72, 
p. 83. yn ddiarchen ben a thraed. loloMSS. 61.35. ae 



24 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

diarchenu a onigant. ac a dugassant idaw dillat ereill. H.MSS.I 
16.35. ymdiarchenu oe arueu. ibid. 86.19. Ac erchi a oruc y 
iarll y enyd diarchenu a chymryt g6isc arall ymdanei. W.B. 
col. 443.8 = ymdiarchenu. R.B.I 289.6. diarchenod draed y holl 
awyddussyon, etc. Rep.MSS.II 475 93. so p. 564 72. 

[archolli] to hurt, -wound, try arperykyl dyn dernaut em pen 
hyd er emenyd. a dernaut eny corf hyd er emescar a tory vn or 
peduar post teyr punt a keyf e nep a arkoller y kan enep ay 
arholleho. 106.2. 3 sg. pres. subj. act. archollo, arholleho 
106.2, 4. pres. subj. pass. archoller 106.2. pass. part, 
archolledyc 18.2, 13. 

[ardymheru] to cook, prepare food, season. 3 sg. pres. subj. 
ardemero. e koc ... a dely decreu pop anrec or ardemero ef 
19.30. py beth a wnaeth duw . . . y moroed . . . ar phynn- 
honnev y ardymerv y dayar yn galet ac yn vedal. Eluc. 130.1. 
Dysc i dempero ney y ardymhery lliwiau oil y sydd yn canlyn : 
. . . lliw dv a wnair or gals, etc. Rep.MSS.I 921 185. Z 2 . 1052. 
temperam. gl. condio. but see R.B.II 163.3; 33 1 - 1 - c *- 
erdymyr y llevad j rrwng yr havl ar ddaear. P. MS. 51, p. 162. 
Arthur yna a beris ardymheru lawnslot o enneint a dillat. 
H.MSS.I 431.30. O mynny adnabod ar dymherv tir ai 
dywyllodraeth. Rep.MSS.II 463 101. Arglwyd heb ef cam a 
wney na chymery ardymhereu ac asm6ythder. W.B. col. 436.2 
= R.B.I 283.22. 

ard see aru. 

ardelu (a) to claim, avouch, defend. O cheyf yn y maes ay 
cymero y ganthau ac ardelu ohanau o arwayssaw yn lie arall 
roder oet ydau y geyssyau y arwayssaw .82.11. Ni dele dyn 
kemrit macht kannogan kanes deu ardelu hint ac na keif enteu 
namuin dewis y ardelu os o vechny id ardelu nyd oes kanogon. 
os kannogon nyd oes vach. 46.27. 3 sg. pres. ind. act. ardelu 
46.27; 82.6. 3 sg. pret. ind. act. ardelus 49.16. see R.B.I 
253.10. 

(&) m. claim, defence, title to possession, y anyueyl y cefyr 
try ardelu geny a meythryn a chadu cyn coll ac arwayssaw. 
Os o eny a meythryn y ceys y ardelu gwnaet ual hyn. dodet 
ym pen ceytweyt bot yn eydau y uam ay eny ay ueythryn 
ganthau ac na aeth y ganthau er pan anet ar y berchennogaeth 
hyt y dyd hunnw. 81.23. 40.17 ; 46.26 ; 53.33 ; 56.31 ; 81.23 ; 82.1, 7. 
Sef ymdidan uu gan teirnon. menegi y holl gyfranc am y gassec 
ac am y mab. Ac megys y buassei y mab ar y hardelw hwy 
teirnon ae wreic ac y magyssynt. R.B.I 33.26. Tri gwaessaf 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 25 

yssyd : ardelw; neu warant; neu arndifiyn heb warant. A.L.I 
458.1xxxii. Trydyd [breint] yw, caffel lletrat yn Haw dyn, neu 
ar y geuyn, neu gwedy y vwrw yr llawr : am bop vn or tri hyny 
reit yw yr dyn keissaw ardelw kyureithawl y vwrw ywrthaw y 
lletrat. A.L.I 612. iii. see M.A. 9523.. 42 ; 955a. 19. Rep.MSS.I 
224 259. 

(c) m. a-voucher. Ny dele dyn ketnrit macht kannogon kanes 
deu ardelu hint. 46.26; 82.7. Teyr fiord y may cadarnach 
arddelw no cheitwat. arddelw a ryddha dyn oe hawl, ac ae 
cymer arnaw ehun . . . eil ny ellir llyssu arddelw . . . trydydd 
nyt rheit lliaws yn arddelw. A.L.II 634.xxix. see ibid. 638.xiii, 
xxix. Crist . . . cadarnaf arddelw. M.A. 253a. see kanhelu. 

arderchauael, ardcrauael, ardehauael, ardychauael to aug- 
ment, raise, increase fine or price usually by a third, y sarhaet 
eu .vi. byu a .vi.xx aryant kan y arderhauael ungueyth. y 
guerth eu .vi. byu a .vi.xx myu kan y arderhauael ungueyt. 
17.15. 11.23, 24; 13-1, 2; 14.4, 20; 15.24, 25; 17.15, 16, 29; 18.17, 
34, 35; 20.6, 23; 21.10; 22.6; 24.16, 32; 35.14; 37.26; 78.4. 
written ade 20.23. pres. pass, ardercheuyr 14.4. Gwerth 
racdant dyn yw pedeir arhugeint aryant gan tri drychauel sef 
val y drycheuir : y dyrchafel kyntaf yw wyth keinhawc ; ar eil 
drychauel [yw] dec keinhawc a dimeu a thrayan y dimeu; y 
trydyd yw pedeir ar dec a dimeu a thrayan dimeu ar nawued 
ran y dimeu ... a phwy bynac a vynno gwybod y drychafaelion 
ar yr aryant, reit vyd idaw drychaf yny drychafael kyntaf 
kymeint ar trayan y swmp i bo y drychafaelion o honaw a 
gossot hwnnw yn vn swmp ; ar eil drychafel yw kymryt y 
trayan ar y swmp hwnnw ay dodi yn vn swmp ; ar y trydyd 
yn yr vn mod kymryt kymeint ar trayan val y mae y kyfrif or 
blaen. A.L.I 504. ix. 

aredig see aru. 

aref m. weapon; aref buyall battle-axe 102.17. pi. arueu 
arms, e penguastraut ... a dele . . . emduyn arueu e brenyn 
13.22. 4.4; 6.19; 48.37; ar vieu; 127.12 cf. twryf=twrf. M.A. 
I56b. toryf=torf. M.A.i6oa; i6ib, etc. 

arucr use, wont, custom, eman e tray[t]hun or suyho[g]yon 
aruer o deuaut a uyd en llys 23.19. Suydocyon . . . arey 
kefreythyaul ar rey aruer 28.29. kanyt oes na reit nac aruer 
chonunt. P.MS. 38, p. 6. see H.MSS.I 31.21, 23. 

arueru to use. ac or messur hunnv yd ys yn arueru etwa 
65.6. see kamarueru. 

arvieu see aref. 



26 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

aru oil see ymaruoll. 

arvon n.l. The region -which lay opposite to Anglesey, from 
the summit of the Rivals to the river Cegin bet-ween Bangor and 
Llandegai, -was apparently known as Ar-fon. Lloyd, Hist, of 
Wales, I 233. Ac ena ed elleghus rudn kenat hid eghuynet y 
huybod puy byeufey e blaen. rey a deueyt panyu maeldaf henaf 
pgndeuic penart ai barnus y guir aruon. 42.6. 41.30, 31; 42.10, 
17, 19. 

arfet lap. troydyau[c] ... a dely daly trayt e bre[nyn] eny 
arfet or pan decreuho eyste eg keuedac eny hel y kesku. 24.10. 
24.13. cf. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw math nab mathonvvy ny bydei 
vyw. namyn tra uei y deutroet ymlyc croth morwyn. R.B.I 
59.8 ; 65.11 sqq. y rei truan a dihegys yn vydinoed y foynt dros 
y moroed gan gwynuan a drycymerth y dan arfiet yr hwyleu. 
R.B.II 252.17. byryei arffedeit or us am penn y tan. W.B. col. 
202.26. ef dydau lieu ym arfet. Ac y dygwydawd ynteu ar lin 
gwydyon. W.B. col. 108.16. yn arffed Mair ei heissorawd. 
M.A. 403.30. a achlessir yn arfiet yr eglwys. P.MS. 15, p. 95. 
see H.MSS.I 72.7; ef a dorres arfiet y grys 230.9. 

argluyd, argluyt lord, master. Ac o pen e pedeir blenet ar 
dec e mae jaun jr tat e duyn ar e argluyt. ac jdhau ynteu gurau 
jdhau ef. o hewny allan byt urth ossemchejth e argluyt. 37.14. 
Try chadarn byt argluyd a drut a dydym 134.28. .ix. 
tauyodyauc sef eu e rey hene argluyd erug y deu guas, etc., 
30.21. Puybynnac a urthoto yaun o achaus tebygu y uot yn 
argluyd ar haul a dylyu holy pan uynno gater ydau ynteu 
peydyau. 132.29. 12.20; 29.17,19, 21; 37- I 5"27; 39-24; 44-7; 
46.17-29; 47.13-20; 48.5-19; 50.5; 51.21; 52.1, 15; 66.27, 28; 70.23; 
71.1-7; 74.20; 75-14-17; 77-I5; 78-14; 83.3; 85.4-5; 106.22; 117.7; 
120.17; 121.2-5; 123.24; 124.2-16; 126.10; 127.3; 128.4; 129.26-28; 
130.10; 131.5; 132.29; 134.4-29. f. -es 41.16; 67.14. pi. -y 64.10; 
85-7- 

argluydyaeth (a) sovereignty, dominion. y gyureyth a 
dyweyt y dyly y meybyon uchelwyr kadu argluydyaeth ar eu 
halldudyon mal y dyly y brenhyn cadu y argluydyaeth ar y 
alltudyon vynteu. 63.29. 

(b) territory or dominion of king or lord. Saraet brenyn 
aberfrau uel hyn e telyr can myhu urth pop cantref eny 
argluydyaeth. 3.6; 76.20. 

arkefrcu m. personal property of a -wife, paraphernalia. O 
byt arkefreu jdhy byt hunnu en ditreul hit em pen vn blenet. 
36.18. 34.6; 36.10. argyvreu, id est, animalia que secum a 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 27 

parentibus detulerat. A.L.II 795-xxxiii; 847-xiv. argyureu 
[paraphernalia] II Sja.xx. cf. Tri phriodolion gwahanredawl 
pob gwr . . . gwraig, plant, ac argyvreu ; sev yw argyvreu, 
gwisg, ac arveu, a pheiriannau Celvyddyd vreiniawl. M.A. 
922 53 ; A.L.II 492.1iii. Argyfreu Gwraig yw ei gwaddawl. 
L.W. 83 48. argyfreu=gwadawl. L.W. 8348. cf. Car.Mag. 
25.4. Adarest6g yr holl yspaen aoruc y brenhin yr eg!6ys honno 
ar galis. ac a rodes yny hargyfreu pedeir keinya6c bop b!6ydyn 
yn drethaol o bop ty, etc. cyfreu appears to mean 'distinguish- 
ing qualities,' 'peculiar property.' see A.B. 8.17; 13.13; 109.6; 
I 5 I -3; 254.26. M.A. 2i4b.2. and looks like a pi. of cyfr-, cyfyr-, 
another form of 'cywir* ( ?). 

[arhacddu] ( ?)] to reach. 3 sg. pres. subj. act. arhaydo. a 
gwyalen gyhyt a honno yn llau y geylwat ... a hyt yr arhaydo 
a honno o bob parth ydau yn llet yr eru 59.14. 

arhaul, araaul f. counterclaim, surclaim. puebennac a archo 
benfyc tan deuet heb haul heb arhaul arnau 86.10. 118.6. Pa 
wahan y syd [y] rwg hawl ac aravvl ac arapawl. Hawl a holo 
dyn y arall a dywedvt or Hall ny wnaf vi yewn y ti or hawl hon 
yny wnelych dithev y myney or hawl hon hono yw arawl. A.L. 
II 252-xxv. cf. M.A. 956^32 sqq. Sev yw deall arhawl, or 
damchweiniai i ddyn venthyciaw march, neu beth arall ... a 
chyn dawed y march adrev at ei berchen cyvodi hawl o arall ar 
y march yn Haw benthyciwr, etc. 

arheyl to attend to, to care for. y maer bysweyl a dyly . . . 
eredyc a heu ac arheyl yscrybyl y brenhyn 68.4. 

arhollcho see archolli. 

arluyau to prepare, set in order, e porthaur a dely arluyau e 
llys yam pery guellta a pery kenneu tan 26.12. 

arnaut see racaruaut. 

aros, arhos to await, o byd alldudyon gwlat arall yr brenhyn 
ay yn wyr ydau ay yn arhos gwynt 67.17. guanaet enteu a 
uenno ay aros er oet ay talu kyn nor oet 122.4. 118.24. 

arpcrykyl very dangerous, fatal, ef a dele medhecynyaet rad 
pan ueno eythyr y guaet dyllat Onyt un or teyr guely ar perykyl 
uyt sef eu e rey heny. dernaut em pen hyt er emenyt dernaut 
hyt er emescar neu tory un or pedeyr kolouen 7.21. n. masc. 
tri arberygl 105.23. v.l. tair gweli angeuawl. L.W. 44 6. 

[aru ( ?)] to plough. (see A.L.II 5i4.1xxv; M.A. 406 56; 
7783.54 (?).) 3 sg. pres. ind. act. ard, art. y dody yn arader 



28 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

ac od ard or bore hyd hecuuyt 92.11. 92.13, 15. 3 sg. pres. subj. 
ardo 68.25, 28- artho 43.7. pres. subj. pass, arder 68.29; 
ardher 110.27. 3 S S- imperat. ardet. part. pass. eredyc = fowd 
that had been ploughed. Tri ryu datanhud y syd. datanhud 
ar ac eredyc, etc. 60.17; 60.21. (The verb. adj. aradwy occurs in 
much the same sense, a deil ac aradwy yw kyuanned. A.L. 
536.ii. aradvy tridieu . . . aradvyvndyd. LI. MS. 69, p. 158. trych- 
annerv aradvy. Ibid. 127.11. LI. MS. 116, pp. 27, 41. Med. Law 107.16. 
In medl. Welsh there is often no distinction in meaning between 
pass. part, and the verb. adj. see prof ad wy= tried, etc.) eredyc 
is also v.n. to plough, brynar duy wlynet y dylyir y eredyc 
63.18, 19, 20; 68.4, 25; 109.1; no.i, 3, 4, 5, 25. It is supposed 
that eredig is the v. noun formed from aradr and not the 
participle; then we should expect eredri corresponding to 
cyferedri -which occurs A.L. II 855. vii. 

arwayssaw (a) guarantee, -warrant, defence, protection, y 
anyueyl y cefyr try ardelu geny a meythryn a chadu cyn coll ac 
arwayssaw . . . os o arwayssaw yd ardelu dywedet puy a 
ardelu neu a arwayssaw hun [ac] o byt yny maes cymeret y 
ardelu atau y lledrat a byt ryd ynteu ac o deruyd yr arwayssaw 
y gymryt damdyghet yn y law ef, ac ynteu byeu os myn 
ceyssyau arwayssaw arall neu dyguydet ehun 81.24 sqq. ; 82.11, 
16. a. v.l. gwarant. L.W. 219 65. Tri gvaessaf yssyd ardelv 
neu warant neu amdifiyn heb warant. LI. MS. 69, p. 76.11. 
Arwaessaf. LI. MS. 174, p. 109.7 = ardelu. B.B.Ch. 82.7. O 
dervyd daly lledrad yn Haw dyn a phan damdygher y lledrad 
yn y Haw dala arwaessaf ohonaw ynteu o effeiriad neu o radwr 
arall ... a dyfod ohonaw y gyrnryd y lledrad o law y dyn y 
damdyghwyd gantaw. ny dylir y rodi attaw. kany dyly ynteu 
ymrodi y gyfreith arglwyd . . . wrth hyny na ad y gyfreith 
ydynt hwynteu bod yn arwaessaf y lledrad. LI. MS. 116, p. 98.3 
sqq. a.=porth. P.MS. 169, p. 213. gwaessaf=Ir. foesam = 
protection, see ecar. B.L.G. foessam. W.W. 

(b) to warrant, become surety. 82.6. see (a). 

(c) protector, one who becomes surety, ket roer mach ar peth 
ny deleyt e roy ac nit yaun e kecvvin or llau e may endy ene 
del ar ustel kestall ac ef ykan er arwaessaw 47.35. 82.8, 9, 12. 

[arwedd] to bear, carry. 3 sg. pres. subj. act. arhuedho, 
arguetho. pop pren a arguetho fruyt vn guerth a kolluyn eu 
97.23, 98.3. ac amouyn a wnaeth pawb ohonunt ae gilyd. pwy 
a arwedei y palym o flaen yr elor. Eluc. 81.17. see Eluc. 18.18, 
27. R.B. 197.30. H.MSS.II 63.19. Gwae ui gletyf glan 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 29 

gloewdrud yth arwein / oth arwet ossymud. M.A. 1645.27. 
Keigyeu or oliwyd a arwedassant yn eu dwyluaw. H.MSS.II 
76.8. cf. Rep.MSS.II 475 163 Saint Simon a saint Iwd o 
arweddiad yr ysbryd glan a ethant i . . . Persia. MA. 8o6b.48 
Goreu moesgarwch ymarwedd yn brydverth. W.B. p. 286.39. 
Keffylau ... a gywedei gynnut ac a gywedei bwyt a llynn. 

arweyn, argueyn to carry, lead, bear, e dressaur ... a 
dely argueyn pop neches or a deueter urthau or port hyd e 
neuat. 19.4, menyc y a[r]gueyn y hebauc 11.13, 78.7. 

aruyd, arujt symptom, token, o achaus redeuod arujt mab 
arney 36.5. cussan yu aruyd kerennyd 74.16. 

arusytyl pledge, pawn, ac os maru vyth er aniueil triget er 
a. en dilis en elle, 43.10. 

ary. see aryant. 

aryaneyt set with silver, silver-plated, fruyn aryaneyt 103.2, 
7, 21. cf. Si aurum vel argentum in eo fuerit appositum. A.L. 
II 865 Ixiii. 

aryant, uriant (a) silver; talu . . . heb eur heb aryant 
3.15; 30.12; 33.24; 103.14. (b) money; pan prenno dyn peth 
yr ariant 47.26. 10.13, 14; 11.2; 12.13; 13.18; 14.11; 19.3; 20.5, 
10 ; 21.6; 22.21,30; 23.11; 47.26,27,28; 48.36; 67.1; 78.3; 91.4; 
112.9, I 5> J 6; 118.14; 132.16, 18. (c) penny; y sarhaet eu.vi.byu 
a.vi. ugeyn aryant 11.23. 9.6; I3- 1 ', J 4-2, 35 J 5- 8 24; 17-15. 29; 
18.17; 19-22; 20.6, 22; 21.9; 23.7; 24.7, 15; 25.25; 71.12, 14; 
75.4, 18; 78.5, 8, 29; 104.23, 25; 105.2-27- 

aryantal payment in money, e guahannuynar o huylsanfreyt 
hyd kalanmey aryantal. O kalanmey allan dyuuyn llukyr. 
112. 12. cf. bwyttal. R.B.I 136.27. 

askellhcyt a swarm that leaves the hive after August, or a 
swarm that leaves the third swarm from the parent stock. O 
deruyd heydyau heyd guedy ahust .1111. a tal a honno a helguyr 
askellhyt. 95.18. er heyt kentaf a del or tredet heyt .1111. heb 
derkauael. a honno a elguyr askelleyt 98.14. 95.17, 21. see 
A.L. I 502.viii; 738.xxvii.ix. cf. Devddeg gwynt y ssydd 
ac o hynny pedwar privwynt ac wyth asgellwynt. P.MS. 51 
p. 165. ys gwae fi ! rhewi ar hynt,/ysgillwayw drwg asgellwynt 
D.G. cxciv.46. 

ascurn, ascrun bone. 89.10; 106.12. ascurn moruyl, ascurt 
m. see moruyl. 

asseth f. lath, scallop, stake for fastening thatch on roof. 
[guerth] asseth .1. 99.11. Da nithiodd dy do neithwyr . . . 



30 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

Hagr y torres dy essyth. D.G. 0x1.30. Degle'n nes, dwy glun 
esyth. Ibid. cxxi.3i. Coelbren y Beirdd ag fal hyn ai gwnelid 
Cynnull coed cyll neu gerdin ... a hollti bob un yn bedryran 
sef yn bedair asseth y prenn. lolo MSS. 207.2. Goreu oedd 
Ifor ai gorphsyth ein rhi/yn rhoi deifr ar esyth. D.G. xiii.io. 
aseth ni phlyco nit da M.A. 8403.57; Dr.D.Prov. a. = Swmbwl. 
W.S. II Cor. 12.7. Dwy asseth Iwyd vviwsyth Ian /dwy gromach 
no dav gryman (To the horns of a ram). P.MS. 69.52. Ei 
saeth wnias aseth anial. LI. MS. 209, p. 154. cf. Venedot esith 
'wattle made of hazel to strengthen the eaves and the top of the 
thatch.' Trans. Guild of Grad., 1909-11, p. 35. 

assu, assuy, assv left, dody y lau deheu ar yr allawr . . . ar 
llau assv ar ben y mab 72.15. 5.16; 6.5; 37.18; 52.14, 16; 68.26; 
72.5, 15; 81.15-18; 131.19. 

asuinur one under an " asswyn." guaesauur ac adlamhur ac 
asuinur oda guaesauur yhurt y guaesaf .lx. . . .lx. adal. asuin- 
hur. 41.24, 25. Tri ryw wrogaeth yssyd . . . eil yw, ot a 
treftadawc yn wr y dreftadawc arall, a mynnu mynet ywrthaw 
yw dreftat ehun, ef a dyly talu trugeint idaw ; a hwnnw a elwir 
asswynwr. A.L. II. 42. ix. Tair asswyn y sydd yn nghyvraith 
dros gwared cosp gadarn : anallu ; anwybod ; ac eisiwed 
angheuawl : ar tri pheth hyn a asswynant rhag cosp gadarn, ac 
a'i gwaredant. A.L. II 486.xxiv; M.A. 921 24. see R.B.I 113.8; 
B.B.C. 78. asswyn-. <Lat. assegn-o. Loth. 

astyr receiver (?). O deruyd y dyn cafael kyc anyueyl ny bo 
eydau ay can gun ay y cudua arall ay gymryt ohanau hep 
ganyat dyruy a uyd hyd yd el ... hyt y ganvet llau. ac urth 
hynny y gelwyr ew cyhyryn canhastyr 80.24. kyhyryn kan 
astyr [frustum carnis centum eventorum.] A.L. II 867.5. Tri 
chehyryn canastyr [yssyd : vn yw] lledrat [y fiord y kerdho 
kyurann o honaw . . .] a hyd brenyn . . . ac abo bleid. A.L. 
I 782.xxxii. O dervyd y dyn gaffel kic anifeil ny bo ynny 
eidaw ef . . . ae gymryd ohonaw hep genad dirwy vyd y kosp 
. . . hyt ymhen y ganved Haw : a with hynny y geilw kyfreith 
hwnnw ae gyffelybyon yn gehyryn kanastyr wrth vyned dirwy 
kyhyd a hyd y ganved Haw : a chyd el bellach hyny ni daw na 
dirwy nac astyr bellach y ganved Haw. LI. MS. 116, p. in. 
.4s far as we have seen, apart from two or three proper names 
(cilydd canhastyr a chanastyr canllaw. W.B. col. 461.5) this 
occurs only in the expression cyhyryn canastyr. This has been 
translated " hundred perplexities " (A.L.I 246; Med.Law. 270) 
"hundred recurrences or junctions/' Pughe ; but it appears to 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 31 

us, notwithstanding the Latin gloss quoted above, that the 
meaning was originally "receiver or taker (of the contraband 
meat)." Canastyr is evidently regarded in a general sense as 
equivalent to canllaw, and the fine for receiving or taking this 
contraband meat extended to the hundredth hand or receiver. 
The -word appears to have been borrowed from the Latin astur. 
According to Thurneysen (Walde, sub. astur) astur "a hawk," 
is from acceptor, and Korting (sub. astur) says that acceptor, 
"a receiver," appears in popular language for accipiter. Diez 
also says (sub. Astore) : Wohl mag die lingua rustica an 
acceptor von accipere gedacht haben, als sie das mit diesem 
verbum ganz unverwandte accipiter umformte. The astyr of 
cilydd canhastyr however looks more like the Irish astur "a 
journey." 

at prep. to. with pron. suffix. 3 sg. m. atau, attau, athau 
81.10. 3 sg. f. atey 21.16; 60.14; 68.4. 3 pi. atadunt 53.30; 109.3; 
atunt 86.22. puybennac a kyrho naud atau ef 12.24 ; paub a 
pertheno atey 21.16; ac o dau neb atadunt 53.30. 24.19; 46.9; 
50.26; 60.14; 68.4; 79.18; 80.10; 81.10; 82.7; 86.15, 18, 22; 
109.3, 16; 132.17. 

atafcl see adauael. 

atal, atacl to keep, detain, hold, ny dyly neb atal gardeu 
gantheu yn heruyd breynt teyl namyn un wluydyn 63.16. 
puebennac a dalyho escrybyl llauer ac atael un ar neylldu tros 
eu gueythret 118.15. 3 sg. pres. ind. act. eteyl 19.9. 3 sg. 
pres. subj. atalyho 19.9. imper. pass, atalher 89.17. 

atop, ateb, atheb (a) to answer, respond to, be responsible 
for. ny dely atep nep namen un or kydsuydocyon 11.21. O 
deruyt rody moruyn e gur ac na honner e couuyll ken e keuody 
tranoes. ny dele ef ateb ydhy hy o hene allan 39.26. Puybynnac 
a dyodeuo rannu y dyr . . . heb turyw . . . y gyureyth a dyweyt 
na dyly hunnv atep or tyr hunnv 63.7. 16.27; 45- 11 1 70.26; 
71.3; 72.1; 130.8; 133.8. Ir. aithesc answer. 

(b) an answer, claim. Ninni a dewedun ket darfo er amdiffenur 
rohi atheb kin oy holy ev or haulur bot en anolo er ateb 53.15. 
Dyn mud ny telyr ydau na saraet nac ateb o dym arall 120.16. 
48.33 ; 52-3 ; 53-9, 14 ; 54-7 ; 60.22, 26 ; 61.1 ; 131.7 ; 133-17- 

atestu to test, taste, e dysteyn ... a dely gossod nadhu 
[ = nawdd] ac atestu guyrodeu io.i = ardystu. P.MS. 37, p. 15. 

[attuyn] to withdraw, take away, withhold. 3 sg. pres. ind. act. 
aduc. O deruyd roy greyc y gur ac en guy da a cafael cubel hyt 



32 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

en oet vn kenyauc ac na cafer honno nyny a deuedun eckeyll e 
gur escar a hj ac na cafo dym or eydhy. a honno eu er vn 
cenyauc a aduc cant 40.29. cf. Or a morwyn wyra yn llathrud 
heb gygor y chenedyl y that a dichawn y hattwyn rac y gwr oe 
hanuod. A.L.I 518. xiv ; 748.xix. Or a gwreic hagen yn llathryd 
o anwod y chenedyl : ny eill neb y hadwyn oe hanvod rac y gwr. 
LI. MS. 116, p. 22.14. LI. MS. 117, p. 2. y vlwydyn honno nys 
attygy ygennym ot gwnn nac attygaf yrofy a duw heb ynteu 
bwyll. R.B.I 8.3. 

[athro, athraw] a teacher, pi. ahtraon. Ema e mai jaun jr 
enat gouin yr haulur may breint de destion dy . . . ae vnteu en 
venich neu en ahtraon 54.28. athrawon. M.A. 288a. athraon. 
M.A. i85b. The sg. athra6 occurs A.B.II i68.i = B.Tal., p. 42.6. 
D.G. cxxvii.26. Athro however is the usual Medl. form, see 
Fed. 88.2. a. = Ir. altram. 

[ail], aim liver, xn. goluys kefreythyaul esyd endau a .lx. 
ar pop vn onadunt ... ay heruth ay ahu, etc., 96.6. Yr Au 
sydd ai ffordd o lanhau rhwng y morddwydd ar korff. D.S. 
Hughes 35. 50 also pp. 12, 118, 123. a droe wayw fires drwy av 
firank. P.MS. 68, p. 47. tobacko . . . syn gwenwyno ac yn 
pudry yr afy yn ddrwg. P.MS. 65, p. 333. haner iau hwch. 
Ll.MS. 209, p. 173. au=Mod. North Wai. iau, which appears to 
belong to the same age as jach for ach. Bret, aii, avu. Old Ir. 
oa, oo. see I.F. xxvii.i65; xii.i92; Walde. sub. ovum. 

auat some disease of the liver (?), rot (A.O.). teythy dauat 
blys ac oen ay goruod hyd kalanmey rac er auat 93.13. The 
following is apparently the Latin equivalent : et sub llederu 
[morbo pulmonis] . . . usque ad kabendas Maii. A.L.II 812. vii. 
Mod. W. euod. Lumbria lati in hepate ouium. Dr.D. 

audurdaud authority, testimony. A guedy honny o nadunt 
e kefreythyeu a uarnassant eu cadu heuel a rodes y audurdaut 
uthut 1.19. Yoruert vab madauc druy audurdaud e keuarhuidyt 
ay kadarnha panyu ydno hen 42.7. 

audurdodus powerful, of authority, ar gur hunnv a oed vr 
audurdodus a doeth 64.21. 

aust, ahust, auest August. 29.15; 51.29, 34; 90.16, 95.17; 
98.14; 116.3, 7- 

auyn see afuyn. 

aylaut (a) a limb, organ of the body, guerth nau aylauyt 
gokefurt eu hyn. . . . deutroet . . . duylau . . . deulegat . . . 
duygueus . . . truyn . . . clust . . . duy keyll. 104.20. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 33 

(b) member, relative. Edlyg . . . urth y uod en aylaut yr 
brenyn Sef eu aylodeu e brenyn y ueybyon ay neyeynt ay 
keuenderw 4.7; 8.10. pi. aylodeu 4.9; 70.9. 

ayluyt hearth. Puybynnac y barner ydau dadanhud bvrn a 
beych oe ryuot ay wurn ac ay ueych ay dan ae ehun ay y dat 
kyn noc ew. yn kyuanhedu ayluyt ar y tyr. 60.29 ; 60.24. ac os it 
a ameho y yrru yn angcyfreithyawl bot iddaw digawn ae gwyr 
a dodi o honaw ynteu ar y cyfreith dly o honaw dyfot y 
ddadannuddaw yr aelwyt a anhuddhassei ef neu y dat cynnoc 
ef. A.L.II 738.xlvii. a. <Angl. Sax. aeled. see I.F. 1901, 
p. 158. see also Walde under adoleo; Fed. I 38. 

aythorth see hayd. 

[bach] hook. pi. baceu. pescaut . . . ony deruyd eu dody 
ar huden neu ar uaceu 123.21. 

baet boar, kemeynt eu guert baet a guert teyr or moch. 93.8 ; 
116.10; 121. n. 

baetredauc always brimming (of a sow), teythy huyc na bo 
baetredauc 93.4. baet redec [verripetentes]. A.L.II 863. xi. 

ballecruyd a drag net. [guerth] ballecruyd .1111. 102.9; b. 
[nassa]. A.L.II 8o5.1xvi; 866.xci. b.=Seine or dragnet. 
Habacuc iv.i5. cf. Tri pheth ymrwysgus dros ben : . . . 
meddwyn yn ei davarn tra bo grod yn ei valleg. M.A. 900 11. 
[Solicitor] gwr dall mawr i falleg. Interlude, Huw'r Cowper. 
Ty Coch. 

bancor f. a strip of wattle, wattle. O kalangayaf allant 
kayher er escubhoryeu val e deleher. Sef eu val e deleyr y kayu 
dody teyr bancor ar e llokyl a peth ar e drus a try ruym arnau. 
114.20. =et paries cum tribus bangvr [nexibus] sit contextus. 
A.L.II864.xvi. Tri anhebgor bwd havodwr : nenbren, nenfyrch ; 
a bangor : a rhyd vyd eu tori yn nghoed gwyllt a vyno. A.L.II 
562 237. Bangor=pleth rwysg. Rep.MSS.I 1108.2. = Pleth- 
wrysc dderi. Ibid. p. 1122. b. = Ir. Bunchuir a band of osiers 
interwoven between the stakes. B.L.G., Joyce II, p. 25. <bun 
root, trunk = W. bon; or bunne (?) (twig, shoot, a binding 
layer in wicker work. M.C.)+cuir=W. cor to put, etc. 

bancor n.l. 42.28. 

banu female, dynaguet guru vn kerdhed a dynauet vanu. 
92-3- 

banu a young pig between the time it has left off sucking and 
the time it goes to the woods, porchell . . . hyd tra uo en denu 



34 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

. . . ac o henne eny el e moch yr coet banu vyt. 92.28. cf. Ban 
oeddid gynt banw eiddil (i'r ysgyfarnog). D.G. Ixxvii.i2. 
Gnawd i vanw vagu hor/Gnawd i voch turiaw cylor. M.A. 
ioi.b-30. b. = Ir. banb a sucking pig. B.L.G. see Fed. I 31.2. 

bara bread, chwethorth o uara goreu a tyuo ar y tyr. o byd 
gwenythdyr chwech onadunt yn beyllyeyt. ony byd gwenythdyr 
chwech yn rynnyon. 69.19; 67.24; 69.15, 27. bryu uara crumbs 
23.14. bara eferen sacrament bread 72.10. 

baraf beard, amhunau meuel ar y uaraf 38.4. a common 
form of cursing, see meuel. 

baruut see braw. 

bard, bart minstrel, bard, bard teulu ... a dely eystej 
enessaf yr pewteulu . . . urth rody e telyw en y lau . . . pan 
uenher hcanu kerd e bard kadeyryauc a decreu ar kyntaf o duhu 
ar eyl or brenyn byeufo e llys. neu ony byt ydau. ef a kaner 
kanet o urenyn arall. guedy e bart kadeyryau[c] e bard teulu 
byeu canu tryckanu o kerd amgen 14.24. 5.13, 18; 6.6; 7.19; 
12.5; 14.21-30; 19.6. pi. beyrt 15.6; 128.20. 

bardhony minstrelsy, teyr keluydyt ny dely mab tayauc eu 
descu . . . escolectau[d] a gouanaet a bardhony. 29.4. 

barnu to judge, adjudge, administer the law. er egnat llys 
... a dely barnu ar llys ac ar teulu. 12.17. yaun yr egnat 
menet allan y barnu braut. 44.16. ar dadanhudyeu hynny ny 
dylyir eu barnu y nep 61.2. 24.3; 44.15 ; 45.7, 13; 55-15; 7- I 2J 
124.14, 16; 131.3, 7; 134-25- 3 s g- pres. ind. act. barn 49.21; 
62.25, 26; 63.2; 133.18. ist pi. barnun 79.12; 80.4. pres. ind. 
pass, bernir, bernyr 46.2; 50.9; 52.8; 134.3. 3 s g- pres. subj. 
barno 130.7. pres. subj. pass, barner 55.22; 56.22; 60.20, 23, 
2 7- 3 S S- P re t. act. barnus 12.28; 42.6. 3 pi. barnassant 1.18. 
3 pi. imper. barnent 132.9. part. pass. barnedic. oyt 
barnedic appointed time 52.10; 54.1. 

baut thumb, big toe. guerth bys llau buch ac vgeyii aryant. 
guert baut .11. byu a. XL. aryant 105.1. Gurt bys troet. bucch 
ac vgeyn aryant. Gurt e uaut duybyu a .XL. aryant 105.25. 
91.10; 106.18. kecuuin j vaut hit e saudel to move an inch. O 
deruit y vach a kanogon kauaruot ar pont vn pren ni dele bot 
enegit hep gueisur vn o trifeth ae talu ae gustlau ae kerccu 
keureis ac ny dele ef kecuuin j vaut hit e saudel he[p] gueihur 
hun or tri henne 48.40. so Ll.MS. 174, p. 60.20. P.MS. 35, 
p. 27b.5. = heb y sawdwl. P.MS. 35, p. 233.7. O bydd 
vwch bawd na sowdl. Dr.D.Prov. Codi bawd i sawdl. to stir, 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 35 

move; dim bawd i sawdl nes ymlaen no -whit further on. 
North Wales, cf. Na ddos chwaith dros dy esgid erddo. LI. MS. 
209, p. 1 66. 

bayol milk pail, pail, e llestr llaeth eyht[r] vn baeol yr 
grueyc ed a. 33.11. bayol yu 100.25. byol helyc 100.27. bayol 
guyn 100.29. b- [sinus]. A.L.II 865. Ac mal ydoed vreint yn 
treiclaw ym plith y reudusson. nachaf chwaer idaw yn dyfot 
allan or llys. a phayol yny Haw yn kyrchu dwfwr yr vrenhines. 
R.B.II 246.23. Pedair ffiolaid a wna un paeol sef chwart. 
Med.M. 295. Bret, beaul, beol. b. = Lat.bajula. Loth. 

b echo u see buch. 

becyckocky see beychyogy. 

bedyt baptism, tyghu y duv . . . ac yr allaur honno ac yr 
creyryeu . . . ac y uedyt. 72.6. cf. Myn y bedydd. D.G. 
lxx.45. 

[bedydyaw] to baptize, christen, pres. subj. pass, bedydyer, 
bedeter. ac na ellyr enwy nep erbynyhenwynyuedyder7o.i4. 
49-33J 70.12, 15; 71.14. mi a baraf uedydya6 h6nn . . . Sef en6 
a baraf arna6. dylan. R.B.I 68.15. Ac y bedydya6 or bedyd a 
6neynt yna a dodi blodeued arnei. W.B. col. 100.36= R.B.I 
73.24. b. = Lat. *batidio. Loth p. 137. 

bet grave. Rei a deueit o min e mab hunu guuadu e uechni 
e mae hue pen bet e tat e dele e guad 47.4. 

beleu marten, [guerth] croen beleu .xxiui. b.[martes}. 
A.L.II 773-viii. Peis dinogat . . . o grwyn balaot. M.A. i9a.6. 
see bele. K.R. p. 90. 

bendy kau to bless. Try anhebkor brenyn eu efeyryat urth 
uendykau y uuyt a kanu eferen 29.2. 5.11 ; 21.27. 

benedicamus the 'Benedicamus Domino' now said after the 
Mass, ac essef amser e kemerrir [e reith honno] er rug b. a 
bara eferen 44.23. so Ll.MS. 174, p. 53.31. It is sometimes 
forgotten in Welsh that the Psalms, etc., were known by their 
first word. Thus 'bwyad' or rather bwyaid is translated as 
eucharist, mass. Dr.D. (O.M.E.) consecrated wafers, mass 
D.S.E. It appears, however to be the 'beatus vir' but with a 
change of accent and a modified vocalisation as one sees in the 
Ir. biait. Bwyad occurs in B.B.C. 50.17. 

benfyc loan, puebennac a archo tan ae y roy ydau ef byeu 
talu y gueytret puebennac a archo benfyc tan deuet heb haul heb 
araaul arnau 86.9. Chweford yd a da dyn y ganthau ac or teyr 



36 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

y gellyr damdug ac or teyr ereyll ny ellyr. Sew yv y teyr ny 
ellyr atneu a benfyc a Hoc a kymwynas 81.9; 81.20; 89.22. 
Fob benfiyc yg cyfreith dyfot mal yr el A.L.II 598. v. ual y 
gallei gaff el kymwynas o arueu ae o venffic ae ar wystyl. 
R.B.I 250.6. b. = Lat. beneficium. Loth., p. 138. 

benfeckiau to lend, greyc tayauc ne eill rody djm namyn 
benfeckiau y goger 38.14; 38.13. 3 sg. pres. subj. act. benficyo 
89.8. 

benyw see banu. 

berua barrow, [guerth] berua .1. 102.2. berva=kartglwyd. 
P.MS. 51, p. 193. Ang.Sax. bearwe. 

berryeu, bereu f. short yoke, a four-foot measure. Sef eu 
messur er eru try hyt gronyn heyt en e uodued. try hyt 
modued ene palaf. try hyd e palaf en e troetuet. peduar 
troetuet en e uereu. 107.10. 59.11. 

[beryeuys] short-yoked, of the short yoke. Er amaeth a dele 
kemohorth e keylguat o dale er ecchen ac ny dele eu hellunt 
namyn deu bereuys. 109.14. 

beii see byu. 

bcuno pr.n. 42.28. 

beych (a) burden, -what a man may carry, y wadu huch neu 
dauat neu ueych ceuyn llv pymp wyr 79.5. 14.14. 

(b) a bundle of household goods (?). Puy bynnac y barner 
ydau dadanhud bvrn a beych oe ryuot ay wurn ac ay ueych ay 
dan ae ehun ay y dat kyn noc ew. yn kyuanhedu ayluyt ar y 
tyr 60.27. 60. 18. see WAI,DE. sub voc. fascia. 

beychauc, beycyauc, beichjauc pregnant. 37.4; 121.7; 134.4- 

beychyogy (a) to beget, procreate, beychyhochy 38.27. 3 sg. 
pres. subj. act. beychyoco 38.28. beychychoco 130.21. 

(b) pregnancy. 71.26; 133.25. ueychych 38.21. vecyckochy 

39-25- 

(c) foetus. Rey y syd ar pedrus am u. gwreyc o llygryr pa 
beth a dylyir amdanav ay uynepwerth ay ynteu galanas. 70.4 
Mair mad ymborthes y beichogi. M.A. 1423.36. 

bid 48.i4=bydd. 
bit 49.24 etc.=bydd. 

blaen, blayn (a) front, tip. taulburt . . . o byd blayii corn 
hyt 100.4. 

(b) precedence, ac ena ed elleghus rudn kenat hid eghuynet 
y huybod puy byeufey e blaen 42.5. 42.16. yn b. before, ef 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 37 

a dely uod em pob lie en eu blayn 7.10; 42.9; 91.17; 95-2; 
107.14. yn e b. first, ac ena e buant en hir en amresson 
pui a heley en e blaen dmy auon guerit 42.3. yn y b. 
forthwith, immediately, etc. od a enteu ir llu teghet i diou en 
e blaen 44.8. 72.5, 15. ar mab ehynan a twg ynny blaen. 
Ll.MS.n6, p. 112.7. y ma b ar y gystlwyn bieu dygu yny 
blaen. p. 112.16. a thygu vellu y duw ynny blaen. 114.23, 
32, etc. o b. before, ajt y da hy or blaen. 34.23. 20.21. 

(c) in genit. fore. deutroet ulaen 115.13. cf. blaynach. 
P.MS. 44, p. 76.2. 

blaut, balaut, bulaut meal, e popuryes ... a dely . . . 
teyssen dyuet poby o pop amryu ulaut a popo. 27.18. 33.31; 
69.7. bulaut keyrc 91.21. b. heyt 91.23. balaut rye 91.24. 

bledynt uab kynvyn. pr.n. Val hyn y dyly brodyr rannv 
tyr a dayar yrygthunt pedeyr erv urth pob tydyn a gwedy 
hynny y symuduys bledynt uab kynvyn. deudec yrv yr mab 
uchelwr ac vyth yr mab eyllt a pedeyr yr godayauc 59.9. 

bleu hair, puebennac a uenficyo march y arall a guenouy e 
bleu y ar e keuen .1111. a tal. 89.8. raf bleu. 101.13. 
= [funis cilicinus.] A.L.II 8o5.1iii. 

bleyt wolf, [guerth] croen b. .vin. 97. 13. 

blodeuau to menstruate, [ny] dele grejc couuyll guedy 
blodeuho . . . essef e dele blodeuau oy xiiu allan. 41.6. 36.4; 
71.24. 3 sg. pres. ind. blodeuha. subj. blodeuho 41.4. cf. 
Med.M. 29 170; I30i95. 

bluyd f. year, used in genit. or with card, numbers to express 
age. dinaguet bluyd 36.8. ef a dely trayan er ebolyon hyd en 
duyuluyd 22.313.19; 31.27; 69.9, 17; 70.16, 22, 28; 71.6-25; 
90.8; 94.16, 19. 

bluydyn, bluyn f. a year, with ord. numbers expressing one 
of a series of years, hyd em pen e bluydyn 8.5. e uluydyn 
kentaf e marchoco 7.1. e seythuet vullydjn 34.5. 2.12 ; 6.22, 23 ; 
8.13; 9.4; 10.4, 25; 11.9; 30.4; 34.8; 37-5-io; 63.5-26; 64.4-17; 
67.16 ; 69.16 ; 70.2, 27 ; 71.1 ; 81.23 ; 88.4, 19 ; 90.6 ; 91.15 ; 92.6, 16 ; 
93.11; 108.2; 118.1. undyd a bluydyn. O dyryd mab uchelwr 
y uab ar uab eyllt argluyd ar ueythryn gan y gannyat neu gan 
y dyodew undyd a bluydyn ohanav hunnv a dyly ran mab o tyr y 
mab eyllt ac oy da 68.20. 42.26; 63.5; 68.20; 73.17; 124.23; 
133.1. haul tra bluydyn -void, or ineffective claim. 63.7; 
125.10; 133.1. Hawl drablvyn. opp. to havl ir. Ll.MS. 116, 
p. 113.10, ii. 



38 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

blyghau to flay. 96.12. 3 sg. pd. imper. blyghet. b. er 
hyd 96.13. 

blenet, lenet year, (a) with card, numbers for a period of 
years, amaeth a 110 amaeth seyth lenet 3.9. 33.3 ; 36-16-28 ; 
41.7; 51.21; 63.18-20; 70.20; 92.24. 

(b) -with ord. seythuet blenet. 36.21. 33.3; 88.3. 
blys see blyth. 

bly[s]ckyn shell, blyckyn huy egg-shell, 'valueless trifle. O 
sereyr e rghyll eny eyste tra gueneler e dadeleu ny dely kaiael 
namyn gocreyt keyrc a blyckyn huy 25.22. Ll.MS. 174, 
p. 33.16. cf. Ac ony dialaf inneu y dyrnawt ny rodwn yrof wy 
piliedic. H.MSS.II 136.6. Ir. blaesc testa. W.W., M.C. 

blyth, blys milk, in genit. milch, godro escrybyl blyth 
119.23. blid43-6; 69.28; 93.21. blys 93.12. cf. dafad . . . dwy 
am y blith ac un am y hon. P.MS. 35, p. 1053.10. 

bod, bot to be, exist, ny dele mab uchelur uod en penteulu 
5.23. Reyt hiu yr egluys bot a katwo ydy e breynt hunnu o 
testoyn deduaul 51.23. puebewnac a guenel keuar ae kylyt yaun 
eu ydau rody bod vrthau 107.2. O demit idau enteu holi oe vot 
en eilgur neu en tredit 56.9. O deweduuant pot eu porth en eu 
kemmut eu hun . . . neu uot llanu a trey eregthun ac eu porth 
52.6. 3.4; 4.10; 7.29; 12.28; 16.6; 35.12; 46.33 both; 48.8; 52.6 
pot; 53.4; 66.14; 88.17; 98.22; 122.24, tc. i sg. pres. ind. 
uyf, vyw 53.10; 130.9; 133.18. 3 sg. may, raae yn tryoet y 
mae yaun talu galanas 76.22. yna mae reyt yr llowrud mynegy 
ydau y kyf ual y mae y gerenhyd 129.20. y nahud eu duyn 
dyn a guenel cam hyd ar e pewteul . . . ereyll a deueyt e may 
hyn eu y naud 9.25. Ena e mai jaun jr enat gouin yr haulur 
may breint de destion dy 54.26. 16.21; 31.2, 19; 35.25; 37.13; 
44.1, 5, 16; 45.14; 46.18, 40; 47.4, 12, 30, 34; 48.11; 49.27; 51-32; 
52-5, ii J 53-5. 6, 7, n, 12; 54.4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 25; 55.5, 10, 15; 
56.1; 59.15, 69.3; 70.15; 72.3, ii ; 77.3, 8; 80.10; 81.3, 4; 88.6; 
98.4; 105.21; H2.8, 9; 122.11; 129.19, 20; 130.5; 132.4, 5. 3 pi. 
maent 53.34; 58.18; 74.7. mae<ym + ae. K.R. p. 30. accepted 
by Zimmer but see Stokes. Celt. Decl., p. 252 (London, 1886). 
oes in negat. sent, canyd oes e gureyc abedyhu 39.6. urth 
nad oes vach arnau 46.4. 5.1; 10.2; 39.8, 20; 41.18; 42.12; 44.3; 
46.4, 12, 14, 17, 25, 27; 47.8, 9, 10, 29; 52-9; 62.6; 66.26; 71.9; 
72.18; 73.10; 75.11, 12; 76.12; 80.6; 81.5; 82.15; 86.24; 93-20; 
97.18; 119.21; 127.13; 130.13: 134.6. interrog. er amdifenur a 
eil gouin a oes breint yr rey hinny 54.17. yu, eu, yhu, hiu 3 sg. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 39 

copula. Galanas brenhyn aberfrau yu y sarhaet teyrgweyth 
77.26. reyt eu ydau rody llu e bukeyl 92.1. 70.11; 85.2; 97.24, 
etc. ydyu, ytyu, edyu, ediu 49.28; 51.22; 54.1; 61.4; 110.17; 
130.10. etheu 46.24=ethyw (?). kanyu since it is 134.22. see 
panyw. ynt 3 pi. Ny dyly yr yscolheygyon nar gwraged ran or 
alanas canyt ynt dyalwyr 77.17. un sarhaet ac unwerth ynt a 
bonhedyc canhuynaul 73.13. ac yna enwy puy ynt buy 132.2. 
62.8; 64.6; 78.24; 87.6; 105.15; 106.24; 121.19. hint 46.26. 
esyt, ysyd, essit, ese relat. Teir ouer vechni essit 47.25. 
ac ef esyd trydydyn a dely trayanu ar brenyn 17.4. 5.3. eyt 
9.9; 12.19; 36.30; 42.19, 21 ; 44.8; 47.25, 28; 53.3, 10 ; 60.14; 70.4; 
72.16; 74.6; 81.10; 96.3; 104.8, ii ; 106.9; 132-4; 134-6- ys 3 s g- 
pres. ind. essef, sew, sef (=ys + ef). essev achaus kanis 
er argluit a uid mach ar pop da 48.14. essef treftadauc 
mab a adauh[o] e tat guedi ef 56.12. esef ev triskud e llaucud 
33.2. aynttuy kan kanyat er egneyt hy eu keghor. ac essev ed 
ant e nyuer e buant en eu kehussuyth 53.28. see 4.7; 13.10; 
40.18; 41.6, 27; 48.14; 51.30; 52.11, 20; 53.7, 10 ; 56.12; 61.26; 
64.29; 76.6; 94.9; 114.23; 119.16; 126.7, 22; 130.12, 27; 134-2; 
I 35-7, etc. kunys (kan + ys). see kanys. os if it is, if. a 
guybot ae kefreithul he guahan ac os jaunt e guahan . . . 
ajt y da hy or blaen 34.23. os ef a deueit e mach guadu 
45.1. 12.30; 19.10, n ; 33.18; 34.2, 9; 35.11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 
19, 25, 29; 36.12, 19; 39-11 ; 44.11; 45.2, 4; 47.18, 27; 48.32; 49-7, 
20; 50.8, 28; 52.8; 53.38; 59.19; 61.12; 64.15; 72.13; 81.15, 16; 
87.4; 89.17, 20; 92.15; 93.6; 95.7, 8; 96.16; 115.7; 119.3; 129.26; 
130.6, 14; 134.9, J 4- osid if there is. a thitheu o buosty 
ema ty haychost en keureythaul odema. ac osid a hamehuo 
hinni e may ymy digaun ay guyr 53. 13. 53. 6, n. nyd, 
nyt, nit, njt neg. of copula. nit mach mach gureych 48.5. 
lloe ac huyn a meneu nyt reyt yr deylyat eu hellug 115.24. 
40.17, 29; 41.10; 47.34; 48.5, 17, 26, 36; 49-I4; 50.19; 54-25; 59-3; 
61.5; 62.27; 65.29; 71.29; 79.17; 81.9; 82.12; 115.9, 24; 116.6, 9, 
10 ; 117.15; 120.9; 123.7; 124.19, 20; 133.24; 134-21. onyt 
unless it is, except. ny dele gruereyc en e byt cafael 
ran or hyt onyt grueyc puych 34.14. Denyon aghefyeyt . . . 
nyd kemeredyc eu hamadraut onyd trugaret er argluyd 121.2. 
7.21; 29.22; 37.29; 48.32; 52.4; 56-28; 71.18, 19; 109.19; 110.2; 
120.7; 122.22; 127.17; 132.9, 24. canyt (can + nyt). canyt gyrr 
namyn gyrr perchennauc 79.10. 35.15; 50.19; 72.1; 118.1, n. 
nat. y gyureyth a dyvveyt nat gwaet tyr yr un namyn tyr 
llowrud 62.29. 44.9; 45- I 2i; 49-29,3; 52.9; 70.10; 74.7; 117.26; 
130.25. ys, ydys impers. ena e may jaun yr enat gouin ir 



40 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

duipleit a sauant huy hen er hen ed edis en y dodi en eu pen 
55.6. 65.6; 85.6 hys. ae, ay if it is. see a (2) interrog. part. 
byd, byt, bit, bid, bjt iterat. pres. and fut. 3 sg. heman e 
trayhun or suyho[g]yon aruer o deuaut a uyd en llys 23.30. ac 
o bit a ameuho ydau ef y uot en briodaur bot kanthau entheu a 
kathuo y briodolder 53.4. 34.20; 75.28; 132.27; 19.10 uydt, etc. 
3 pi. bydant, bcdant, bydan 33-25, 26; 54.3; 60.9; 64.4; 75.21; 
97.16, 17; 98.16; 103.20, 21, 23; 117.9; 122.23; 129.14; 4.21 
beduant. bydey 3 sg. impf. cany bu ymlad yno pey ymlad 
a uey yno dyruy yr argluyd a uydey 75.17. oed 3 sg. past, 
canys goreu messurur oed ew 64.26. 35.26; 55.14, 16, 23; 64.18, 
21 ; 75.17; 81.18; 113.6; 134.18. buost 2 sg. pret. 53.12. 3 sg. 
bu 30-27; 36.14; 37-28; 47.19; 54.3; 60.19; 73.6; 75.16; 113.4; 
115.14; 120.14; 122. i. 3 pi. buant 1.21; 42.2, 9; 53.28; 61.16. 
bo 3 sg. pres. subj. act. pob gulet e bo med arney 18.25 J 18-27. 
bot 50.25 for bo (?). ryfo 130.10. 3 pi. buynt 64.7; 97.16; 
112.22; 119.2. boent 42.22. bei, bey 3 sg. past. subj. kanes 
etheuis ef testion a vey guell 55.14. 47.13, 15; 75.17; 76.17; 
77.13; 113.5. pey 73-3; 75-rf. bit, byt, byd 3 sg. imperat. 
o henny allan byt urth ossetnchejth e argluyt 37.15. 29.18 ; 
36.10, 16, 17, 18; 37.15; 44.10; 45.4; 47.20; 48.5; 49.6, 24; 5i-4; 
54.17; 79.27; 80.1; 82.7, 17; 92.12, 18; 114.2; 115.3; 132.13 1 
I 33- I > 33- 3 pl- bynt 17.8. ac o hynny hyd e nodolyc bynt 
ar eu kylc. see A.L.II 86.cxxv. boet imper. with ' ket.' 
ket et buo 45.20; 47.7, n. ketuoth 73.20, 21 ; 86.4; 89.14; 108.21 ; 
123.2; 124.11. pl. boent 62.7. 

bod good-will, consent, nyny a deguedun nac o uod nac o 
kamell e del. 110.26. pop kaflauan au guenel dyn oy anuod 
dyhuked oy uod 120.2. cf.Ir. buidhe graciousness, thanks, etc. 
Dineen. 

bon base, e mon e kolouen. 5.9. 17.33. b. = Ir. bonn g. 
buinn the sole of the foot, the trunk of a tree, etc. Dineen. 

bonhed, bonhet descent, lineage, dyn a uo kyulaun o uonhet 
yg kymry o uam ac o tat 62.23. 71.9 ; 80.9. .ix. Gradd bonedd. 
Rep.MSS.I 824.8. cf. Ir. bunad n. origin, stock, root. 

bonhedyc, bonedyc a man of pure Welsh descent, bonhedyc 
canhuynaul yu dyn a uo kyulaun o uonhet yg kymry o uam 
ac o tat. 62.22. 62.22; 71.8, 10, ii ; 73.13, 22; 78.8; 106.17; 126.4. 
see A.L.I 5o8.xxix. cf. Rep.MSS.I 824 82. .ix. math ar wyr 
bonheddion, etc. 

bore morning, y naud eu or pan dechreuho y gueyth e bore 
eny darfo e nos 28.7. 92.11 ; 95.2; 96.13, 17. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIyEVAL WELSH LAW 41 

boreuuyt breakfast, e guylur ... a dely y tyr ... ay uuyt 
bres ay archenat y aythorth ay henlyn en uoreuuyt. 26.19 

botesseu greaves (?). [gwerth] b. ketthewlauc .1111. 103.10= 
ocree nexiles. A.L.II 888. xx. a bottasau pres oedd am ei 
draed ef. i Sam. xvii.6. cf. Ir. assa sandal, shoe. M.C. 

[bradwr] traitor, pi. bradwyr. Bradwyr argluyd a fyrnycwyr 
a phob dyn a uo eneyt uadeu o uraut y gyureyth ny dylyir 
galanas amdanunt 83.3. O ferw brwydr i fwrw bradwr. D.G. 
v.3i. brad.=mrath treachery. 

brae malt. Or maynolyd caeth y dylyr deu da ... a dogyn 
kervyn o wrac y bo nau dyrnued ym amryscoyv. 69.18. 70.1. 
de brae [brasio]. A.L.II 828. xiv. Ceraint feddw ab Berwyn, a 
wnaeth gwrw brag gyntaf, wedi berwi y Brecci, a berwi yndo 
flodau'r maes a mel, etc. loloMSS. 6 24. araf dan a wna brag 
melus. Dr.D.Prov. Ir. mraich malt, see further Fed. I, p. 163. 

bragaut, brachaut bragget. ef a dely lloneyt e llestry e 
guallouyer endunt o kuruf ac eu banner o urachaut ac eu trayan 
o ued. 25.6. 18.28; 68.23; 69.13. de bragaut [mulso]. A.L.II 
757. ix. raw/sura bracaut. Z 2 . 1061.423. mellig : turn (mellicatum) 
brachaut. Z2. 1063. cf. R.B.I 121.27. mel a uo chwechach naw 
mod no mel kynteit . . . y vragodi y wled. Conn. Gloss. 
Brocoit 'bragget' i.e. a Welsh (word). Braccat then, it is with 
the Britons : brae is a name for malt : braccat, however, (means) 
sain-linn i.e. goodly ale. Brocoit i.e. a goodly ale that is made 
from malt [and honey]. 

brandeyl (braen + teyl) land manured by animal droppings. 
brynar duy wlynet y dylyir y eredyc brandeyl guyr euelly. 
63.19. brandeil [novale'], ubi jacuerint animalia. A.L.II 856.x. 
Sef yw Braendail, lie y gnottao ysgrubl orwedd heb fuarth. 
L.W. 152 18. bran = Ir. bren stinking, rotten, etc. see brynar. 

bras thick, stout, puebennac a vryuho tey en agheuretyaul 
talet .1111. k. am pop pren bras. 99.7. 

brassct thickness, guyalen eur . . . kynurasset ac y uys 
becan. 3.7. .Ix. am pop [keyc] a bedant kambrasset. a keny 
buynt kembrasset o bedant o untu. 97.16. 

brath m. bite, -wound. O deruyd bod dyn en kendeyryauc a 
bradhu dyn arall ac or brath hunnu deuod ageu yr dyn. 120.12. 

brathv, bradhu to bite, [ky] kynevodyc ar vrathv dynyon. 
135.10. 120.12. 

bran m. fright. O deruyd y dyn gyrru brau ar arall ac or 
brau hunnv colly y eneyt. 134.13-16. 



42 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

1. braut m. brother, plant y uam gyntaf a uyd brodyr 75.28. 
27.22; 35.2; 41.11, 20; 59.19; 63.21, 24; 74.2, 8, ii ; 75.25; 77.29; 
124.26 ; 129.7. pl- brodyr 35.21 ; 36.7 ; 41.5 ; 59.7-29 ; 61.27 ', 62.18 ; 
77.10, ii, 19; 126.1, 25; 129.10, 17. 

2. braut f. judgment, legal decision, egnat llys . . . esyt 
tredyt anhebcor argluyt ef a dely. .xxim. y can pop enat a 
prouo ef ac ene lie e bo en kyd uarnu braut ykyd ac eneyt ereyll. 
12.22. wedy hynny datcanet y uraut 132.13. 1.25; 8.18; 12.28; 
21.20; 30.26-29; 44- I 5 l6 ; 45-5J 49-2o; 50.9; 56.4 baraut; 62.27; 
79.20, 26; 83.3; 130.4, 15; 131.2; 132.12. 

brautle judgment seat. O deruyd y ynat barnu cam ay 
amheu amdaney ac na kynykyer guystyl yn y erbyn kyn 
cyuody oy urautle 134.26. 52.16; 56.1; 131.15; 134.24. 

brecan, breckan f. a blanket, plaid. Try anhebkor gurda y 
telyn ay ureckan ay kallaur. 29.5. 33.20; 99.14, 22. A phan 
edrychwyt y dyle . . . Breckan Iwytgoch galetlom toll a dannwyt 
arnei. A llenlliein vrastoll trychwanawc ar uchaf y vreckan.a 
gobennyd ... a thudet . . . ar warthaf y llenlliein. R.B.I 
146.9. brecan [leges']. A.L.II 831. ix, etc. A bed made of 
rushes, and covered with a coarse kind of cloth manufactured in 
the country, called brychan, is then placed along the side of the 
room and they all in common lie down to sleep. Gerald. 493. 
tappin neu y brychan. P.MS. 363, p. 59.1, etc. b.<Ir. breccan 
plaid. 

breky wort, [guerth] breckycauan .11. 102.14. cf. bid gloyw 
ei frecci. M.A. 39a.6. 

brenhyn, brenyn, brennin, brrenhyn, brenihin, benyn, bnyn. 
brenynyn. abbrev, bre king. Ny telyr eur namen y urenyn 
Aberfra[u]. 3.10. 3.5; 77.26, etc. Try anhebkor brenynyn eu 
efeyryat urth uendykau y uuyt a kanu eferen. ar egnat llys 
urth dehospart pop ped pedms. ay teulu urth y negesseu. 29.1. 
brenhyn lloygyr. 64.19. 

brenhynes, brenynhes. abbrev. [e] ure. i. queen. 17.18; 22.24. 

brenhynyaeth f. kingship. Ac gwedy dyfody tadvys y u. y 
cauas ynteu hyhy o gogeyl 64.20. 

bres abbrev. for pressuyl. 

bressye cabbage. Sef eu gogaur hyd guedy keueyryer yar e 
tyr e tefho arnau. a perllan a bressye a llyn, etc., 114.5. Goreu 
ancwyn, bresych (v.l. Cenin). M.A. 7783.53. b. = Lat. brassica. 
Loth. p. 140. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 43 

brethyn, bredhyn, bredhen, bredyn, bretyn cloth, (always for) 
brethynwysc woollen clothing, e medyc a dely y tyr en ryd 
... ay lyeyn ykan e urenynes ay uredhyn ykan e brenyn. 
17.33. 20.9; 21.12; 22.8, 27; 23.2; 24.9. V 5 23.10. cf. brythyndy 
=syllty. P.MS. 51, p. 191. 

brethynguysc, brethenguysc, bredhenguys, brethynguyc, 
brethenguyes, breshenguys woollen clothing, e dysteyn ... a 
dele y tyr en ryd ... ay guysc teyr gueyt en e uuluyn sef eu 
henrty y urethenguysc ykan e brenyn ay lyeynguysc ykan e 
urenynes 9.5. 8.14; 11.26; 13.4; 14.7, 22; 15.11, 28; 17.18; 
18.20; 19.2; 20.29; 21.25; 22.8, 27; 23.2, 10 ; 24.9. 

breuan f. hand-mill, quern, e gur a dele e tnaen vchaf yr 
vreuan ar greyc er hyshaf. 33.16. [guerth] e ureuan .1111. 
102. ii. 42.22. brevan=melin vwstart ai melin bypyr. P.MS 
51, p. 193. Duo lapides mole, id est, brewari. A.L.II 8o6.viii, 
etc. cf. ac or byd breuaneu emenyn y gur a geifi vn. A.L.I 
752 38. Ll.MS. 116, p. 26.24. b. = Ir. bro. gen. bron. 
handmill. 

brcuandy m. mill-house, mill. guerth breuandy punt 
tryugeyn ar pop maen ydau. 102.5. 

breuanuod quern-booth, [guerth] breuanuod .1111. 102.14. 
v.l. breuanuuth. Ll.MS. 174, p. 135.7, e ^ c - 

breuanllyf grindstone, carnllyf a breuanllyf am pop vn o 
henne .im.k. 102.3. brianllif =maen llifo. P.MS. 169, p. 220. 
cf. Ir. liombron whetstone, sharpening millstone. Joyce II 319. 

brculyf grindstone (?). in genit. sharp, [guerth] cledyf o 
byd breulyf .xn. 102.18. breulim [exacutuus]. A.L.II 866. cvi. 
Cledyf breulifueit. A.L.I. 586.xcv. b. = Bret. breolima<breolim 
millstone, cf. Bret. Breo mill. Ir. bro. 

breyc arm. a hyd y kyrhaetho o hyd breyc a hyd e uyalen. 
107.15. 19.17. 

breychruy armlet, [guerth] breychruy damdung. 103.22. 
Breychrv {armilla}. A.L.II 888 33. 

breydd see abreyt. 

breynt, breint, brein m. status, pri-vilege, prerogative. 
Cymydauc uch y llau ac arall ys llau nyt amgen gur uch y 
ureynt ac arall ys y ureynt 82.29. m &b bedeyrbluyd ar dec allan 
... or oet hunnv allan y byd un ureynt a bonhedyc canhuynaul. 
canyt oes ureynt ydav namyn y uonhed. ac nat esgyn ynteu 
ymreynt y tat yny uo maru y dat 71.9. ac ena rac hid e 



44 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

trikassant en e lluyd . . . e rodhes rund vdut .xiiu. brein. 
41.13. pa le bennac ed emkafoent er efeyryat ar dysteyw ar enat 
ena e byt breynt e llys 30.3. 4.22, 25; 17.9; 20.24; 21.21; 24.4; 
28.29; 34.3; 35.1, 2; 36.17, 23; 39-I3; 40-20; 41.10-20; 46.3; 47.20; 
48-35; 5I-9-23; 54-I7-27; 55-I-25; 56-2, 15; 61.22; 62.3, 12; 63.17; 
70.15-29; 71-2-9; 72-29; 73-7-22; 87.19; 88.9; 103.13; 106.20; 
118.8; 119.21; 126.8, 23; 127.3-4; I 33- 2 3- pi- breynheu. 42.27. 
cf. y. Braint ychaf yw bod yn pen kenedl. P.MS. 86, p. 151. 
breynt [pri-vilegium]. A.L.II 761.2. 

brenyauc privileged. Teyr gorset breynyauc a dele bod 
gersed er argluyd a gorset escob a gorsed abat pop un onadunt 
a dele dale y orset truydau ehun 123.24. tydyn b. 125.1. 

breynyaul, breniaul privileged. Os e gur a uyt breynyaul 
dawgosset e breynt 34.2. ac ena e may jaunt yr haulur 
deueduit breint y testion . . . ae vnteu en efieriet neu en 
escoleicion ae vinteu en lleecion breniaul. 54.30. tydyn b. 
39.17. breinhiaul [officialis]. A.L.II 883.28. 

bron breast, rac b. before, in the presence of. seuyll rac y 
uron en y guassanaeth 4.15. 52.14; 131.13. pi. bronneu, 
broneu 36.3; 71.16. 

[bronkeghel] bronkegeghel breast girth of saddle, bronke- 
geghel vn kerthet ac vn guarthaual 103.26. Brongegyl [cingule 
pectoral!]. A.L.II 888. xi. cf. uentris lora [torcigel]. Z2. 1062. 43a. 
see Loth. p. 148. 

[bruydj. pi. bruydeu heddles of a loom (A.O.). [guerth] e 
bruydeu .vni. 102.18. b. = Bret. broued= instrument avec lequel 
un tisserand lisse sa toile. L.G. cf. hun dwyvrwyt . . . hun 
dribrwyt. Eluc. 101.3, 6. yn tryvrwyt peleidyr. A.B. 85.28. 
Brwyd o grwyn dyfrgi. M.A. 366^36. Ahon yw'r gaingc ar 
faingc fau . . .a brydais i a brwyd serch. D.G. cxxxvii.8. 
Gnawd yw honn om bron y brwydaf/Brydeu anaraf. M.A. 
1893.42. cf. Tryfrwyd. B.B.C. p. 1.6; 94.11 (?). M.A. i7oa.28; 
i88b.6. 

bruydryn battle, in genit. fierce. Ny tal un anyueyl bruy- 
dryn kaflauan sef eu anyueyl bruydryn, estaluyn nys t[al] y 
kylyd ac nys tal na baet na taru na bucc na keylyauc na 
keylauchuyd y kylyd. 121.9. cf. Ergyr waew brwydrin cyn 
rhewin rhawd. M.A. 1403.33. Cyn twrf dwyrein dwyre 
brwydrin. M.A. i46b.2i. Gwreidd teyrneidd taer ym tnrwy- 
drin. M.A. 2173.34. Yn Llongborth gwelais vrwydrin/Gwyr 
ynghyd a gwaed hyd ddeulin. M.A. 83b.i6. A.B. 78.8. cf. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 45 

also 'preidin' = preid. Med.Law, p. 32.9. M.A. i64b. 'gwydrin' 
= gwydr. M.A. 1043. 

bridiu, bridui a solemn oath or compact, with God invoked 
as -witness. Nini a deuedun nat bridiu eni kauarfo e teir llau 
ykit . . . er egluis ar brenin a dele kemell bridiu kanes diu a 
kemerhuit en lie mach. ar egluis bieu i guahrt am bridui ar 
brenin y kamell. kanes ykan pop din a uedeter e deleir kemrit 
bridiu. 49.29. 48.10; 49.18-35. Ac ony byd ygenedyl yn vn 
wlat ac ef. rodet y 16 ehunan uch pen seith alla6r kyssegyr yn 
vn gantref ac ef. kanys uelly yg6edir bri du6. Med.Law 85.11. 
A.O. takes this to mean 'the dignity of God' (A.L.II Gloss.) but 
there can be little doubt that bridiu is popular etymology for an 
oath taken " Pro Deo." cf. et ibi dicat sacerdos, ' Pro Deo ne 
me inducas in falsum testimonium.' A.L.II yyi.vi. 

bryc top branches of a tree, guert trauskeyg a kerho o kallon 
e pren .xxx. ac amyn hynne bryc vyd ac nydoes guerth arnau 
97.18. 

brynar fallow land, brynar duy wlynet y dylyir y eredyc. 
63.18. branar [no-vale]. A.L.II 856. ix. b. teyl fallow under 
manure, brynar teyl pedeir blynet heuyt 63.20. Mod.Ir. Branar, 
-air a fallow field. Dineen. see brandeyl. 

bryu, bryhu -wound, injury. O deruyt clofy marc emenfyc 
neu cafyael bryhu arall 89.22. 43.2; 108.16. cf. Medda6t . . . 
a briwaw yr o!6c a g6ahanu yr aelodeu. P.MS. 50, p. 283. 

bryu adj. broken, bryu uara crumbs, e bryuuara ar dyuen- 
yon a el tros e dyskyl ef ay dely 20.12; 23.14. b. dyuenyon 
23-15- 

bryuau to break, injure. O deruyd tewnu ruyd ... a bryuau 
e ruyd kaw er anyueyl 121.17; 121.20. 3 sg. pr. ind. bryhu. Er 
amaeth ny dele talu er ecchen onys bryhu 109.11. subj. bryuho 
puebennac a vryuho tey en agheuretyaul talet .1111. k. am pop 
pren 99.6; 43.4. Se-veral MSS. read taflu yr ychen for bryhu. 
P.MS. 35, p. 823.13. 3 sg. pret. ind. briuus 43.13. pass, briuhyt 
43-12. 

bual buffalo; corn bual drinking horn, try fedh ny dely e 
brenyn y ranh ac arall. eur ac aryant a kyrn bual 30.12. bwal 
[bubalind]. A.L.II 775-xxvii. Y ch6ech ereill a ymchoelant yn 
gyrn buelyn neu buffleit. R.B.II 149.31. b. = Lat. bubalus. 
Loth. p. 140. 

buarth a yard, paddock, cattle shed, val hyn e deleyr dale 
escrybyl ar hyd o bydant guyll[t] em buarth allan ac escrybyl 



46 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

dof en guarchae emeun 117.10. .1111. gurth duycluyt buarth 
103.25. in uno bostare, id est, buarth. A.L.II SoS.xix, etc. Glas 
fydd adladd hen fuarth. M.A. 3613. x. A mul mewn buarth dail 
maes. D.G. xcviii-52. Ble buost? hen bawl buarth. ibid. 
clxxi.5o. cf. Sycharth buarth y beirdd. Rep.MSS.I 560 20. 
cf. M.A. 2gb. ni bydd mwy yna tori kyssegyr no thori bvarth. 
P.MS. 58, p. 9. 

buarthdeyl farmyard manure, land dressed -with farmyard 
manure, buarthdeyl teyr blyned y dylyir y eredyc 63.9. buarth- 
teil [sterquilinio fecundata]. A.L.II 856.x. Tir gwydd a fo 
buarthdail arnaw. L.W. 152 19 al. 

buch, bucc, buc (a) cow. O deruyt prynu buc keflo 91.25. 
13.24; 15.1, 12; 16.13; 37-8; 97-iQ ; 98.4; 116.10. pi. bucc 111.2. 

(b) standard of -value. Gurth pop vn or daimet buch ac vgeyn 
aryant. 105.12. 15.22, 26. see ' bucc,' ' buw.' 

budyr unclean, pop anyueyl glan y banner guer[th] eu y 
teythy anyueyl buder y trayan guert 94.3. 

bucb.es cattle pen or yard, ef a dele emdeyth ene [u]enwent ar 
gorfflan. hep kreireu arnau ai escribil ygit ac escribil e clas ar 
abbadeu hit ed eluuint pellaw. ac ed ergeduynt e buches 
tracheuen 51.17. Mis lonawr . . . gwag Buches, duvres odyn. 
M.A. 213.4. Buch es= buarth. P.MS. 169, p. 220. Tair buwch 
mewn bvches ni welir. P.MS. 58, p. 23. cf. os cai . . . yboles 
och byches. Huw COWPER, p. 30. 

budelw cowhouse, cattle fold. O deruyd bod amresson am 
eredyc ar neyll en mennu eredyc em pell ar Hall en acos. Nyny 
a deuedun na deleant venet namyn val e kallont er ecchen 
keraydu eu budelu ac eu gued en guan val en kadarn 110.8= 
ac yd ergytyont eu buches drachefyn. Pen. 35, p. 3ob.u. cf. 
Gwell un crywyn no dau vuddelw. M.A. 848a.3g. Bydawt 
gwaeth budelw no chrowyn. A.B. 236.18. Buddel (later)=post 
to which cattle are tied in the cowshed, fel bustach wrth fuddel. 
LI. MS. 209, p. 36. I feudy hi gyfeirian fain/lie roedd yr ych 
wrth fuddel. ibid. 209, p. 676. but. Fel eidion at fuddel ir 
Efel yr awn. Ll.MS. 209, p. 183. cf. dellach .i. luighi (lying 
down). Th.Ir.Gl. p. 77. 

budey churn, [guerth] budey .11. 100.17. Budey [cirnea]. 
A.L.II 8o4.xxix. b. = Ir. buide=Lat. modius (?). see De Hib. 
p. 118; Ped.I p. 195, note 2. 

[buelyn] bueylyn, ucleny belonging to a buffalo, made of 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 47 

buffalo horn, ay corn a dely uod en bueylyn 16.6. ueleny 99.17. 
see bual. 

bukeyl herd, guardian. .ix. tauyodyauc . . . .vm. eu 
bukeyl trefkort o deruyd Had lludyn y dyn. o escrybyl. 
perchenokyon ereyll am henny geyr eu gejr e bukeyl ena ba 
eydyon ay lladaut 31.12. eskydred . . . bukeyl e danhet ynt 
105.15. 92.1. 

bukeylky herdman's dog. Bukeylky a el e bore emalaen er 
escrybyl ac a del e nos en eu hoi er eydyon teledyhuaf a tal 95.2. 

buria the carcase of an animal killed out of season. Or 
kalan eilgueis hit guil yeuan deuparth ar er eneit trayan ar 
ecchic ar croen kanys b. vit pop aniueil en er amser hunu 43.19. 

buruy cow spancel, fetter, [gureth] buruy fyrdling 101.7. 
bvrwy= Cwlm am wddwf anifail ag am y troed blaen. 
Rep.MSS.I 721. Grwth brau mewn burwy wrth hen bared. 
M.A. 3663.33. b. = Ir. buarach a spancel used to tie a cow's hind 
legs while being milked. Dineen. buarach gl. lora. cf. 
berwyog a slave in iron. LLUYD. ADD. SEC. penrhwy. M.A. 
43b.i5- aerwy. ibid. 16. see Fed. I 59.5. 

buw f. a head of cattle; a standard of value = 2O pence. Guerth 
bonhedyc canhuynaul yu teyrbuv a tryugeynmvu o warthec 
71.11. messur camluru teyr buv neu nauvgeint aryant 75.18; 
52.23. It is written also byu 9.6; 11.22, 24; 14.2; 15.7, 25; 17.1, 
4; 18.16-34; 19-22; 20.6; 21.5-10; 22.5-33; 23.7, 8; 24.7, 16, 32; 
26.15, 16; 27.1, 14, 15; 28.8, 9, 21 ; 37.23; 104.23, 24; 105.1-24. 
byhu 19.23; 96.9; 105.9, etc. buv 71.11, 12, 13; 75.18; 78.1, 4, 
7, 23; 132.14. buu 130.16. biu 18.33; 52-23- buy 53.22. 
3.6; 13.2; 14.3-20; 15.8-24; 15.25; 17.16-30; 19.23; 20.7-23; 25.25; 
52-23. 

buuch a cow. 69.7. see buch. 

bua bow. [guerth] bua a deudec saet .1111. 102.16. 

bucc a buck. Ny tal un anyueyl bruydryn kaflauan sef eu a. 
b. estaluyn . . . baet . . . taru . . . bucc 121.11. pi. bycheu 
116.12. 

bulch, buylc, bullch breach, notch, gap, (in genit.) cut, partly 
used, e buyd val hyn e renyr. e greyc byeu e kic eny hel[y] ar 
caus eny hely a guedy e croker e gur pyeu. e grueyc byeu e 
llestry emenyn buylc ar kic bullch ar caus buylch 33.30. 25.13. 
cf. cosyn torr, and torth ar dorr. Card. 

bun bittern, ef a dele y anredethu o teyr anrec e dyt e 



48 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

ll[a]dho y hebauc un o try ederyn. ay bun ay caran ay cryhyr 
11.15. bvn [ardeam stellarem] (ace.). A.L.II 822.xxxv. bubone 
(ace.) i. bun. Ibid, cpo.i. cf. Ir. bonnan bittern. M.C. 

burth table ; tyr burth demesne land, y maer bysweyl . . . 
a dyly tyghu dros dyr burth y llys ay hauot tyr o byd reyt eu 
hamdiffyn 68.10. Tri modd y gossymeithia brenin y deulu ae 
nifer : cyntaf o dda y faerdre e nun ae dir burdd. A.L.II 604. v. 
Terra domenica=Tir bordd. Rec.Carn. 65. 

burn bundle, bundle of household goods (?). Try ryu 
datanhud y syd. datanhud ar ac eredyc a datanhud kar. a 
datanhud burn a beych 60. 18; 60.27. Ac yna y kyuaru ac vynt 
glaswas ... a thwel am y uynwgyl. a bwrn a welynt yn y 
tywel. ac ny vydynt hwy beth oed. W.B. col. 425.9. i bwrn 
ai dyko yw bedd. Rep.MSS.I 680 499. 

burn, bury (a) to cast, throw, bum erkyd ay a mayn ay a 
sayth 123.5; 27-13- 

(b) to impute. O deruyd y dyn en duen tan o ty arall ehedec 
tan ykantau talet y gueytret ony eyll ar e tan bum ran ohonau 
87.14. 3 sg. pr. ind. bum 63.10. subj. buryho 27.20; 28.25. 
ind. pass, burir 55.25. imperat. pass, buryer 76.4. 

buy all, bvyall, byall f. axe. e brenyn a dely o pob myleyntref 
dyn a march a buyall y gueneuthur lluesteu 30.6. 25.15 ; 27.14, 
28; 30.6; 67.27; 78.13. b.kenud 33.20. [guerth] byall kenut .11. 
100.2. [guerth] buyall vecan .1. 100.3. v -l- Llawfwyall. L.W. 
268 55. [guerth] buyall ledan .1111. 100.1. aref buyall 102.17. 
v.l. bwyall arf. L.W. 272 182. pi. buyeyll 27.13. 

buyt, boet, voyd, uoyt meat, food, er efeyryat teylu urth 
uendygau y uuyt a kanu e pader 5.11. guasanaythu ar cuedyn 
ar uuyt a sey[th]uet ar llyn 9.28. dawn b. 69.16, 25. see 'dawn.' 
b seyc 25.1. see 'seyc.' 4.1 ; 5.11 ; 7.3 ; 8.1 ; 9.24, 28; 14.2 ; 15.13 ; 
18.9; 19.33; 20.30, 31; 21. 18; 22.12; 26.17; 27.3, 16, 25; 28.22; 
29.2; 33.28; 38.12; 67.14; 85.9; 106.4-7; 108.11. 

buylc see bulch. 

buyllur "viaticum, implements or means necessary to carry 
out some undertaking. Nau affeyth lledrat . . . yr eyl yu 
cyssynnyau ar lledrat. Trydyd yu rody buyllur yr lleydyr. 
Petweryd yu mynet yny gyweythas ac arweyn y buyllur 78.16. 
(LI. MS. 69, p. 46.10, has ymdwyn yr rvyll.) Ac odyna 
palamides a anuones agamemnon. y lespeus at teslus y rei a 
wnathoed agamemnon kyn no hynny yn genadeu idaw y 
gyweiryaw bwyllyrnev. ac y dwyn gwenith o voecia ... Ac 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 49 

ef a erchis udunt hwy baratoi bwyllyryeu a llenwi eu llogeu 
ohonaw. R.B.II 25.12. (The second -was in this quotation 
written bwytllyryeu but the t was deleted afterwards.) A 
thelephus a dywawt with achel bot yn nerthach yr llu rodi 
bwyllyryeu o wenith oe deyrnas ef . . . y ymlad ohonaw ef y 
droea ygyt ac wynt. R.B.II 17.5. Codi bvyllvrv y ledratta. 
LI. MS. 69, p. 47.4. bwyllwrw v.l. bwyd. L.W. 207.4. It was 
evidently regarded as from bwyd + llwrw ' food of a road or 
journey.' 

buyta, byta to eat. ef a dely buyta jar un dyskyl ar brenyn 
24.14. 14.12; 19.7, 19; 20.4, n, 21 ; 25.2. byta 18.29. 

buyty buttery, kitchen, e popuryes ... a dely . . . teyssen 
dyuet poby o pop amryu ulaut a popo. ay guely en e buyty 
27.19. 24.30; 30.9; 67.25. 

bvo 45-2o=bo. see ' bot.' 

bechan, beccan, pecan small, little, na deleir duin e peth 
maur en gustel peth pecan 46.18. dihu pa[s]c beccan Low 
Sunday 48.34. ty bychan privy 67.26. 3.8; 30.10, 31; 45.12, 
14; 46.6, 20; 51.1; 100.3; "Q-iSJ 127.16. pi. becheyn 113.2. 
beccheyn 112.3. 

bechanct smallness. 

byt, bit world. Try chadar[n] byt argluyd a drut a dydym 
134.28. bit hun this world 47.6. greyc byt for greyc en y byt 
any woman 126.21. 34.13; 40.6; 128.5. cf. dyn or byt any man. 
H.MSS.I 265.4. clefyt or byt. P.MS. 60, p. 37. 

bydaf f. a wild swarm of bees, puebennac a kafo bedaf k. a 
dele neu eckuyr ar bedaf yr neb pyeufo e tyr 97.4. pi. bydaueu 
67.12. Gwerth bydaf yny coet deuswllt. A.L.I 5O2.xiii. cf. 
Tri thrwyddedawg bydavawg y sydd : oedranus ; maban, . . . 
ac estron anghyviaith : sev yw bydavawg, un na vytho arno na 
swydd na gorchwyl, ai drwydded yn rhad gan gyswyn paladr. 
A.L.II 54S.cxcix. M.A. 934 199. see ' modrydaf.' 

bedar deaf, a deaf person. 121.6 pi. bedeyr. Bedeyr a 
deyllon ny muyneyr dym or a deuetoent edadaleu kany guelsant 
dym a kany keleusant 120.19. 

[bedin] pi. bedineu armies, bedineu guir aruon rudyon eu 
redyeu 42.10. Ir. buiden company, troop. 

[byrllysg] wirllisch staff of office, sceptre, baton, eff a dely 
ruythau e ford er brenyn ay wirllisch 19.16. cf. R.B.I 193.18. 
Ac yr fforest yd aei y mab beunyd y ch6are ac y taflu llysgyon 
ac yskyryon. =chware ac y daflu a gaflacheu kelyn. W.B. 



50 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

col. 117.28. kany orssauei vn kynllyskyn ohonei yr croen nac 
yr kic. W.B. col. 231.27. bwrw llysgyeu ida6. W.B. p. 288.20. 
Tair dyrnawd arglwydd ar ei wr . . . un ai vrysyll, sev ei 
swyddwialen. A.L.II 55o.ccii. cf. Ir. ech-laisc horse-rod. 

bys m. finger, toe. b. llau 105.25. b. troet 105.22. a llet 
tryuys yn y thewet 69.10. 3.8; 105.5, "; 106.17. 

bysweyl stale, dung, used only in the expr. maer bysweyl. 
maer b. bailiff 15.17 ; 19.27 ; 23.22 ; 24.17, 28 ; 41.17 ; 60.6 ; 67.13, 27 ; 
68.2-13. see W.B. col. 202.16. abreid y glynei dyn arna6 rac 
llyfnet y Ila6r gan viss6eil g6arthec ae tr6nc. Rep.MSS.II 
396.56. Ac oddiyna ef a ddiscynnawdd mewn Tommen yn y lie 
ydd oedd llawer o Ebodu Meirch a Biswail Gwartheg. cf. Ir. 
fual urin. 

bysguclyn piece of dung, e perchyll becheyn or pan emcuelo 
bysguelyn ay truyn un kefreyt ay uam ar hyd 113.2. Lletav 
vydd y bisweilyn o'i sathru. M.A. 8503. 12. Dr.D.Prov. 

byta 18.29 see bwyta. 

byth adv. for ever, ever. A chet doter y dyaspat honno o hynny 
allan ny werendewyr uyth 61.18. Ef a dely y can e porthaur agory 
e porth maur ydau . . . ac nas ellecho uyth yr guychet 12.11. 
40.4 (vyt); 40.24; 48.19 (vid); 71.28; 72-24-27; 73-i8; 77.18; 

132-13 ; 133-2 ; 134-27 

bytheyat hound. [guerth] bytheyat damdung 101.22. 
Butheiat [cams leporarius}. A.L.II 824.xxxi. b. = canis 
venaticus sagax. ibid. 779-xxxii. Bitheiad nyt oes werth 
kyureith arnaw kanyt oed y kyuryw gi hwnnw yn oes Hywel 
da. A.L.I 500. xxi. M.A. 872. Ll.MS. 116, p. 16.26. Erchuys= 
bytheiad. P.MS. 169, p. 234. (for erchwys see R.B.I 1.12.) 
Emlyniad= Bitheiad. ibid. p. 233. b. = Huad. Rep.MSS.I 
906. 267. Carw . . . y mae helwriaeth arno a bytheiaid ac a 
milgwn. Ceiliog coed a elwir yn helva gyvarthva, oblegid pan 
ddel y bytheiaid ar ei hynt ev ei ymlid a wnant. M.A. 872. 
Bitheiat . . . ar ol keir6 y 61at. P.MS. 70, p. i6b. Rhedais heb. 
Adail Heilin/Rhediad bloesg fytheiad blin. D.G. lxiii.33- 
for a description of the bytheuad see Gorch. Beirdd Cymru, 
pp. 211-2. Casbeth gan Eiddig fethiant Glywed bytheiaid a 
thant. D.G. lxxxix.24- 

byu, biu, byliu, beu, beuu (a) life, ac os o uaru a beu ed 
escarant ranet e claf a deuysset er yac 34.14; 34.20. cf. ny 
dodyw neb gwestei eiroet o heni ae uyw gan thaw. W.B. col. 
486.18. a da y6 it o dihengy ath uy6 genhyt. W.B. col. 476.36. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 51 

(b) living, nay guerthu nay rody tra uo byu 12.6; 47.14, 15; 
50.23; 70.29; 75.21; 77.10, ii ; 91.15; 98.19; 133.9. 

beuyt life, lifetime, guahanu dyn a tyr eny ueuyt 125.20. 

caboluaen a stone for polishing, [guerth] c. dym[eu] 101.10. 
caboluain [lapis levigatorius']. A.L.II 865.!. c. = Lat. capula. 
Loth p. 141. 

cab yd ill chapter, synod. Teyr gorsetua ysyd a allant 
g\vneuthur eu cabydul ehun yn y lie na llesteyryhoynt keureyth 
y brenhyn. sew yu y rey hynny abat ac escop ac [meystyr] 
hyspyty 60.15. cf. Ulcassar amperawdyr Rhufein gwedi 
gorescyn o honaw yr holl fyt ae wastattau o ymladeu, i 
lladdawdd seneddwyr Rhufain ef o frad a phwyntleu yngha- 
bidyldy Rhufein. M.A. 7253.45. Y vlwydyn rac wyneb y bu 
uarw maelgwn uab rys yn llanerch aeron. ac y cladwyt yny 
cabidyldy ynystrat fflur. R.B.II 365.29. c. = Lat. capitulum. 
Loth. p. 141. 

kabyl see kubyl. 

kad for kadw 27.6. written kadw. L.W. 65.4. A.L.I 70. 

kad see kath. 

kadaf see kyntaf. 

kadarn strong, firm, whole. Nyny a deuedun na deleant 
venet namyn val e kallont er ecchen keraydu eu budelu ... en 
guan val en kadarn 110.9. A guedy honny onadunt e kefreythyeu 
. . . heuel ... a orckemenus en kadarn eu kadu 1.20. superl. 
cadarnaw best established, a gwedy hynny y symuduys bledynt 
uab kynvyn deudec yrv . . . ac eyssyoys cadarnaw yu y mae 
pedeir yn y tydyn 59.10. 

kadarnet strength, guanet enteu y art en kyn kadarnet ac 
na allho escrybyl y tory 114.9. 

[kadarnhau] to declare, confirm. 3 sg. pr. ind. kadarnaha. 
Rey a deueyt panyu maeldaf . . . ai barnus . . . Yoruert vab 
madauc druy audurdaud e keuarhuidyt ay k. panyhu ydno 42.7. 

kadcll pr. n. father of Howel Dda. i.i. 

kadcyryauc having a chair or appointed seat, bard k. chief 
bard, or minstrel, pan uenher hcanu kerd e bard kadeyryauc a 
decreu ar kyntaf o duhu ar eyl or brenyw byeufo e llys . . . 
guedy e bart kadeyryau[c] e bard teulu byeu kanu 14.26. 5.14. 
cf. Petwar cadeyryawc ar dec esyt en y llys. A.L.I 10 vi= 
the fourteen persons who sat at the king's table, yngnad 
cadeiriawg. M.A. 957^13. cf. Pan gymerho bard cadeir y 



52 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

kymer yr ygnat y korn bual ar uodrwy ar gobennyd a dotter y 
danaw yn y cadeir. A.L.I 646. xxv. 

kadu to keep, maintain, support, confirm, observe. Ef a dele 
kadu ran e brenyn or anreyth 10.9. A guedy honny onadunt e 
kefreythyeu a uarnassant eu kadu heuel ... a orckemenus en 
kadarn eu kadu en craf 1.18. Os o gadu cyn coll y dewys y 
ardelu . . . dywedet ynteu y uot ganthau ay uythnos a nays ay 
tymor yn gynt no chan y Hall a hot ydau ew ay ceydu o 
gey[t]weyt cyureythyaul y uot ar y helu 82.3. ford a gatwo 
teruyn 69.5. guell[t] kadu hay for storing 117.5. 1.20; 10.9; 
14.8, 17; 19.13; 22.12; 26.13; 50.4; 63.29; 66.20; 67.21; 80.4, 5; 
81.24 ; 82.1 ; 86.24 ; 92.22 107.4 1 112.6, 7 ; 133.29 ; 134.1. 3 sg. pres. 
ind. keydu 42.28; 53.12; 82.3. subj. katwo, kathuo 51.23; 53.4; 
69.5. pres. ind. pass, keduyr 116.23. 3 s g- imper. kaduet 89.5; 
96.12, 14, 15, 17, 19; 114.2; 116.9; 117-8. 3 pi. katwent 51.6. 

kadyt remainder (?), mouthful (?). E porthaur ... a dely 
kadyt e kaus a popo 26.11. so Ll.MS. 174, p. 34.10. L.W. 
64 14 has Gadit. cf. Gau genau y geg annoeth, Gael atad beth 
gatyd boeth. (Cywydd i'r Tafod.) D.G. cxlvi.66. In this last 
it appears to mean 'a mouthful/ 'a bite.' It appears to be from 
the same root as the IT. caithim I consume, eat. 

cae, kay m. (a) circlet, ring. Nit reit kemrit mach ar diles- 
rujt ariant nac ar tlesseu treicledic cae a kallel a guregys 48.37. 
[guerth] kay damdung 103.17. 

(b) hedge, puybennac a guenel kay egkylc y eyd dalyet ar e 
guellt a uo endau 117.2. 115.9. 

(c) field. Ny dele nep guell[t] kadu amken a deuguell[t]. 
kay a gueyrclaud 117.6. 

kaeth, kaet, cahet, cayt (o) bound, captive, in serfdom. Ac 
ena rac hid e trikassant en e lluyd e keskus eu gruaket can 
eu gueyssion kaet 42.12. maynolyd c. bond maenols 69.16. 

(b) bondman, serf. Gwerth guaet ryd .xxim. Guerth guaet 
kaeth .xvi. 106.19. Gwerth caeth os or hynys hon. punt, os tra 
mor chweugeynt a phunt. Sarhaet caeth deudec ceynnyauc, 
chwech yr peys a teyr yr llaudyr, ac un yr tudleheu ac un y 
c[r]yman. ac un yr raf. . . . O sarhaa caeth ryd llader y llau 
deheu onys pryn y argluyd. kymeynt yu guerth llau y caeth a 
gwerth llau y brenhyn 78.10. Ny deleyr dyenythu caet os pryn 
y argluyt 85.4. 38.27, 28. cf. Punt a haner yw gwerth kaeth 
tra mor. Os or ynys hon yr henuyd punt vyd y verth or byd 
anafys neu ry hen neu Ifangk nid amgen llei vgeint mlwyd 
punt vyd y werth. Ll.MS. 116, p. 19.25. P.M.S. 363., p. 49.8. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 53 

kaydhet bondage, (used as equalise of) caeth. er kaydhet 
hachen e tyr a kafo ef a uyd kyn redhet a tyr mab uchelur 
127.19- 

kiiu;..i, kauen (a) vat, trough. [guerth] breckycauan .11. 
102.14. 

(b) kauan tract footstool (?). try anhepkor tayauc y kauen 
ay truydeu ay pentan 29.6. v.l. cauyn tract. A.L.I 438.xi. 
[guerth] kauan treat .1. 100.21. so P.MS. 35, p. io9b.2o. Cawyn 
[solium]. A.L.II 773-vi. cf. padell troedauc. L.W. 84 54al. 
cafan usually means 'a boat.' a gweisson yn pyscotta ymy6n 
kafyn ar y llyn. W.B. col. 127.9. I ofyn Cafn pysgotha. 
Rep.MSS.I 746 239. afonyd. cafyneu. pynt. llogeu. H.MSS.II 
190.6. cavbal = cabhn. P.MS. 118, p. 483. but cf. Ni cherais, 
iawngais angerdd/na'i chain botymog, na'i cherdd. (y Delyn 
Ledr.) D.G. cxxxix.38. Cafn latys ei nam flottai/Cafn rhisg 
gysegrwisg a sai. Ibid, ccxxx.47-8. Korn mawr nid vn or 
kyrn man/kafn krwn val kefn y kryman. P.MS. 67, p. 36. 

kafreys see kyfreyth. 

kalVayl, kafael, kael to get, obtain, win, find. Ef a dele 
kafael y guassanaet en rat 5.2. ny dely kafael namyn gocreyt 
key re a bly[s]ckyn huy 25.22. O rodjr morujn y hur ac j kafael 
en gureic 35.27. k. collet 37.2. k. beychyogy 133.25. Os 
guadu a gna e gur kafael [e gureic] erug e deu uordujt rodet e 
gur Iw. .L. 35.16. O deruyt y dyn kafael escrybyl ar hyd 114.25. 
4.25 ; 6.ii ; 9.1, 21 ; 19-18, 26 ; 25.20 ; 26.25 ; 28.14 ; 29.10 ; 34.11, 13 ; 
35-8 ; 37-2 ; 38.4 J 40.26 ; 41.9 ; 46.40 ; 47.-32 ; 52.3 ; 55.24 ; 60.5 ; 61.8 ; 
62.2, 5 [kael]; 69.11, 13; 72.23; 78-24, 26; 79.27; 80.15, 18; 89.22 
[caf y ael]; 108.7-22; m.io; 114.25; 115.8, n; 116.27; 119.11; 
121.24; 133.20-25. rekafael 36.1; 80.16. 3 sg. pres. ind. keyf 
12.24 ; 29.15 ; 38.6 ; 39.25 ; 46.26 ; 48.32, 33 ; 51.23, 24 ; 62.12 ; 63.22, 
23; 77-2o; 79.19, 28; 81.29; 82.5, n, 15; 88.2; 97.2; 106.1. 3 pi. 
kafaant 126.2. cahant 67.23. pass, kefyr 6.14; 16.15; 26.23; 
49.23; 68.22, 23; 81.23; 85.5; 88.1; 97.3; 116.17; 134-2. 3 sg. 
pres. subj. kafo 2.18; 29.13, 27; 34.3; 38.9; 40.1, 28; 71.17; 80.28; 
82.10; 93.14; 96.25; 97.1, 4; 116.24; 118.19; 127.19; 131.6. 3 pi. 
kafoent 4.22 ; 64.13. kafont 4.23. pass, kafer 25.7 ; 29.27 ; 40.27 ; 
79.23, 29; 80.2; 113.14; 115.18; 120.8. 3 sg. impf. subj. cafey 
38.1. 3 sg. pret. kauas 37.3; 47.36; 55.14; 64.20; 130.23. pret. 
pass, kafat 114.26. 

kagell f. chancel, tyghet yn gyntaw ar drus yr egluys ar eyl 
ar y gagell ar trydyd ar yr allaur 80.14. Ar gangell, sef yw 



54 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

hynny y cor. A.L.II 620. xv. Ath uendicco de egluis. a chagell. 
B.B.C. 35.3. k. = Lat. cancellus. Loth. p. 143. 

kagor see kygor. 

kalan m. first day, new year's day. Os diu nodolic e kefiry e 
haul ny keyflE . . . atep hyt tranoeth guedi calan 48.33. 93.2; 
96.2; 116.18. k. gayaf ist of November. 16.18, 20, 21 ; 25.8, 10; 
51.26, 30, 32, 36; 60.22; 90.13, 14, 21 ; 91-24; 93-10, ii J 95-20, 25; 
98.1, 16; 112.20; 114.16, 18; 116.13, 20, 23; 117.21; 119.17. k. 
mahurth ist of March 25.10. k. mey 29.15; 51.34; 93.13; 95-22; 
98.18; 112. 12, 25. k. mystacuet 16.25. 

kalcc enamel, [guerth] taryan .vm. o byt kalcc llasart neu 
eurgaltc .xxiiu. 102.22. e guastraut ... a dely kapaneu glau 
e brenyn ... ay hen esparduneu ay hen kefmyeu eurcalt 23.29. 
Scutum coloratum auricalco, vel argenteo, si-ve glauco colore 
.xxiiu. denarii. A.L.II 866. cix. llav escud. dan iscvd calch- 
wreith. B.B.C. 105.4. see Hassar. 

kale f. penis. 36.1; 37.18, 19; 105.19. 

kallell see kyllell. 

kallon heart, centre, womb. Ef a dely calorraeu er anyueylyeyt 
ar eskeueynt a ladher en e kekyn u.6. guert trauskeyg a kerho 
o kallon e pren .xxx. 97.18. ac y uelly tyghu . . . nas rycreus 
tat y callon mam y mab hun 72.7 ; 72.8, 17 ; 96.6. pi. kalonneu 
u.6; 109.7. 

kallaur a cauldron. Try anhebkor gurda y telyn ay ureckan 
ay kallaur 29.5. [guerth] e callaur .LX. 99.18. e gur pyeu e 
kallaur ar brecan . . . e greyc pyeu e badell 33.19. 27.27. 
kallowr=pair. P.MS. 51, p. 190. k. = Lat. caldaria. Loth. 
P- 143- 

kail out see gallu. 

1. cam m. a pace, step, three-foot measure. Ae y llo a dele 
ememdeyt nau cam 90.19. Try hyd gronyn heyd yny uoduet 
teyr moduet yn llet palyw. try llet palyw yny troetued. try 
troeduet yn y cam try cham yny neyt 65.4. swm y kamau o 
nef a ufiern, etc. Rep.MSS.II 463 96. 

2. kam (a) crooked, wrong, false. O keyll e dyn hunnu prouy 
uod en kam y uraut a uarnus er enat. kollet er enat y tauaut 
12.2844.7; 75.13; 81.4; 134-9- 

(b) an injury, a wrong. Sef achaus . . . urth delehu o paup 
bod en yaun en er amser glan hunnu. Ac na guenelhey kam en 
amser gleyndyt i.n. Od amheuyr y perchennauc na rekafo er 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 55 

hyc cam ykantau ef 108.9. 6.5 ; 9.20, 22 ; 12.23 > I 5-23 ; 17-13 ; 
18.4, 32; 19.12; 20.3, 18; 21.3; 22.3; 26.13; 30.14-18; 41.9; 48.4; 
51.13-18; 108.10; 120.5; 123.26; 134.9, 25. 

kamarueru to misuse, violate, abuse. Heuel . . .a uelles 
e kemry en kamarueru or kefreythyeu 1.2. Tredet [sarhaet] eu 
kamarueru oy gureyc 3.3 

kammec parer (A.O.) some tool used by a smith, [guerth] 
k. a kethrtraul a kuysyll . . . mi k. 102.1. cammegau occurs 
in i Kings 7.33 as pi. of cammog felly. 

[kamgylus] kankeluus liable to a fine, blameworthy. Huyd 
penuarch brenyn. mor dyfeyth ... a kankeluus e kafer dyruy 
a kawlury 29.27. Pony bydei ef gamgylus yna. bydei o dwy 
fford. vn amdremygv y arglwyd. ar Hall am adaw y gweith yn 
annorffen. Eluc. 15.5. y diruy hay camcul yndi didi yn 
hollaul. Lib. Land. 120.14. cf. celus blamable, culpable (?). 
M.A. 9423.37. 959b.i6, 57. kylus guilty. A.L.I 4i8.xviii. cwl 
fault. H.MSS.II 221.29. Llawer mod y damweinia y ddyn 
uneuthur cwl yn erbyn y arglwydd nyt amgen dwyn nythod 
adar, etc. A.L.II 6i2.xxxiv. Gwna fi, fam Geli, o gyliau yn 
rhydd. M.A. 3763.50. camcul. L.L. 120.14. cwl = Ir. col 
wickedness, vice, crime. 

camluru, camlurv, kamlury, camlure a fine paid to the king 
or his officers for the less serious wrongs, fixed at three head of 
cattle or 180 pence. This, however, might be doubled or trebled. 
Messur camluru teyr buv neu nauvgeynt aryant 75.8. Puybenac 
a deueto geyr anguar en erbyn e bre[nyn] talet kamlury 
deudeplyc yr brenyn 30.1. Puipenac a thorro e telleued honno 
teyrbiu camluru a tal ne[u] nau ugeint 52.23. O hynny yny uo 
seythmluyd y dyly y tat tyghu a thalu drostau. eythyr na dyly 
talu na dyruy na chamlurv yr brenhyn drostau. kany dyly y 
brenhyn na dyruy na chamlvrv am annodeu noc am weythret 
dyn ynvyt 70.17. Cam yu gwneuthur yr affeythyoed uchot ac 
urth hynny yr argluyd a dyly camlvrv amdanadunt. herwyd 
meynt yr affeyth. vn yn undyblyc arall yn deudyblyc arall yn 
try dyblyc. cany bu ymlad yno pey ymlad a uey dyruy yr 
argluyd a uydey 75.15. am ky neu ederyn ny deleyr na dyruy 
na dyhenyt namen camlure 85.12. 9.18; 13.29; 19.9; 24.21; 26.9, 
26; 29.27; 41-22; 49-24; 53-22, 30; 54.9; 60.9; 68.6; 69.5; 75.18; 
87.9; 89.14; 96.1, 8; 97.8, 20; 130.16; 131.1, 4; 132.15; 134.10. 
reddat . . . camlury [multam privatam]. A.L.II 759-1. Tair 
dirwy y sydd : dirwy ymladd, dirwy drais, dirwy ledrad. am 



56 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

bob gweithred a wnel dyn ni hanfo o'r tri hyny, camlwrw a dal 
amdano. M.A. 9543.55. 

carnyd 127.7 see cymryt. 

1. kan, gan prep, -with, by. with pron. suffix, i sg. kenyvi 
46.14; gennyw uy 81.5. 2 sg. kenjti 49.15. m. 3 sg. ganthau, 
kanthau, kantau, kandau, candhah 36.2; 49.4; kanhau 54.7. 
f- 3 s g- genthy, kanthy, canthu 37.28; 38.20; 41.9; 71.23; 130.18. 
3 pi. ganthunt 66.14 '> 67.21. ac y uelly am ford a gatwo y teruyn 
gan emyl y ford 69.5. Sef eu messur e uedecynyat . . . punt heb 
y uoyd neu .ix. vgeyn kan y voet ay guayd dyllat 106.5. keif 
n y y g ur g an gureic arall 38.7. o bit guell kantahu enteu 
kerchet keuereit 49.3. O deruyd tennu ruyd . . . ar uor a 
deuod . . . guydeu ... a bryuau e ruyd kan er anyueyl 121.17. 
a bot en edyuar kan perchen er ariant e kevnevid 47.27, etc. 
ykan from, with pron. suffix, i sg. ikanhaue 44.9. 2 sg. 
ikenniti 44.14. m. 3 sg. ykanthau, ykantau. f. 3 sg. ykenthy. 
3 pl- yganthun. chweford yd a da dyn yganthau 81.7. maer 
bysweyl ny dyly . . . namyn erbynnyau da y brenhyn ygan y 
meyrydyon 67.29. ef a dely yean e porthaur agory e porth 
12.9. 17.33; 19-15; 36-12; 37.7, 29; 45.8; 47.15; 86.5, etc. 

2. kan conj. since, because, a kan adeuuyt ef ny ellyr y 
guadu 31.1. yaun eu dyskennu can eskenhuyt 89.13. 30.31; 
36.17; 46.8; 47.19; 49.16; 56.26; 130.6. neg. 'cany.' bef. cons, 
'canyt.' bef. vowels, kany deleant huy guadu mach ny delleant 
huy roy mach 48.25. kany guelsant dym a kany keleusant vrth 
hene ny muyneyr dym onadunt 120.21. canyt atwna y gyureyth 
a wnel 72.27. 4.6; 8.10; 10.28; 37.3; 38.5; 39.3, 4, 5, 8, 14, 20; 
40.24 ; 44.2 ; 47.28, 30 ; 48.6, 17, 25 ; 49-28 ; 50.28 ; 52.9 ; 54.16 ; 59.4 ; 
60.20; 61.12, 22, 23; 62.3; 67.9; 70.11, 17; 71.9; 72.21; 73-I9; 
75.10, 16; 76.12; 77.17; 78.24; 79.8, 14, 28; 82.22; 86.1, etc. 
see canys. 

canastyr see astyr. 

kandhah see kan. 

candrechaul see kyndrychawl. 

canuet hundredth, canvet llau 80.23, 24. 

kanhelu see kyn-. 

canhuyr see canwyr. 

kanllau, canllaw f. support, one who assisted the Cynghaus 
in prosecuting or defending in cases of the value of sixty pence 
and over. Gwedi daruoft] eyste en keureithaul . . . ena may 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 57 

yaun ir egnat gouin yr haulur puy de keghaus di a puy de 
kanllau . . . ac guedi hinny e may yaun er egnat gouin er 
amdiffenvr puy de keghaus ditheu a puy de kanllau, ac ena e 
may yaun ydau entehu eu henwi 52.30. Ny dyly Cyghaus na 
chanllav Seuyll ygyt a nep am haul a uo lley no chywerthyd 
tryugeynt. neu am dyr a dayar a march ac eydyon 59.1. 52.18-32 ; 
131.17, 22; 132.1. cf. Gwent. ail law second in command. 

kanongnyr canons. Er argluyt pan uo maru er escob a dele y 
da ... Abat haken ny deleyr namen y ebedyu kanys keuoet 
maru er abat e clas ar kanonguyr a dele y da ef 124.12. Yr escob 
a gyghores idaw ef kymryt abit myneich neu gynhonwyr 
ymdanaw. H.MSS.II 195.39. Ac ar rei or byrdeu ydoed 
marchogyon urdawl yn eisted. Ar ereill rei ac abit myneich 
duon amdanadunt. Eieill a gwisc canonwyr amdanadunt. 
Ac yna y govynnws aygolant y charlymaen ansawd pob 
rei oil onadunt . . . Y rey a wely ditheu ar abit wenn 
amdanadunt. canonwyr y gelwir y rei hynny. ac syd yn 
daly wrth vuched seint etholedic. yn gwediaw drossom. ac yn 
canu offerenneu a phylgeinneu ac oryeu y dyd drossom. 
H.MSS.II 35.9. 

kant, can a hundred, canhur 100 men 74.26; 76.25. deu can 
wyr 75.1. canyeu 100 days 130.23, etc. 

kant rim, hoop ( ? ) . e gof llys ... a dely gueneuthur 
reydyeu e llys en rat. eythyr tryfed sef eu e rey heny guarth- 
aual kant kallaur a kyll kulldyr 27.27. pi. kantau. e trullyat 
... a dely guarchadu e uedkel. a kantau e fyoleu 18.22. 
A.L.II 582.xxxii has gwarthaf gant callawr. kant usually 
means 'side' in Medl. Welsh. Ty . . . heb ddor heb gant. 
M.A. 2753.4. Dinas Emreis amrygant. ibid. 2123.19. llogeil = 
cant ty. P.MS. 51.194. ys cubawr . . . ony byd bangor yntri 
lie ary cant ar drysseu yn gayat. A.L.I 578. xv. see also W.B. 
col. 180. see Loth p. 144 ; Skeat under cant. 

canthu see kan. 

cantref the largest division of land in a lordship or dominion. 
pedeyr yrv . . . ym pob tydyn . . . petwar tydyn ym pob 
randyr. pedeyr randyr ym pob gauael. pedeyr gauael ym pob 
trew. pedeyr trew ym pob maynaul. a deudeg maynaul a 
duydrew ym pob kymut ... A chymeynt ac a dywedassam ny 
uchot oil a uyd yny kymhut arall. Sew yu hynny o eyryw pum 
vgeyntrew a hynny yu y cantrew . . . Sew yu hynny o eyryw 
erwy yny cantrew chwcchant a pym myl arugeint 65.12. 3.6. 
66.9; 79.21. 



58 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

cauu (a) to sing, chant, recite. O deruyd yr urenynes mennu 
kerd aet e bard teulu y kanu ydy kerd en dyuessur. a hynny 
en yssel ual nat aflonetho e neuat kanthau ef 14.30. urth 
uendykau y uuyt a kanu e pader 8.16. kanu eferen 29.2. kanu 
y korn 26.27. 5.11; 14.25, 29; 15.3; 28.19. pres. subj. pass, 
kaner 14.27. 3 sg. imper. kanet 14.27. 3 sg. pret. kant 42.9. 

(b) singing, e bard teulu byeu kanu tryckanu o kerd amgen 
14.29. corn canu 104.4. 28.19. 

kanuyl an ornament for the forehead of horses (?). [guerth] 
kanuyl .1. 103.6. kanuil [frontale]. A.L.II 888.xvi. L.W. 
273 200 has canfyl. 

kanuyll a candle, er hebogyt ... a dely dernuet o canuyl 
guyr ykan e dysteyn y abuydau y adar ac y gueneusur y huely 
10.30. 20. 10, 13, 19, 20; 23.12. pi. kanuylleu. kanuyllyd . . . 
a del[y] pen e kanuylleu a tenh[o] ay dannet 23.13. 20.14, 15; 
23.14. hanuyelleu 20.17. c. = Lat. candela. Loth p. 144. 

kanuyllyd, canhuyllyt candle-steward. 10.20, 22; 20.8; 23.9. 
Tri dyn a fydd gar y fron . . . canhwyllyd yn cyweiriaw 
canwylleu. A.L.II 586.xiii. 

[canwyr] canhuyr press ( J), plane (A.O.). [guerth] canhuyr .1. 
100.17. cf. Cynnydd Mordaf, a Rydderch,/ Canwyr a synwyr y 
serch. D.G. cxiv.4. Cad taradr ceidwad tirion,/ Canwyr y 
synwyr a'r son. ibid, ccxxxv.26. Coelbren y Beirdd fal hyn 
ai gwnelid cynull coed . . . au hollti . . . yn bedair asseth y 
prenn, a'u cadw nis baint gan gyffaith amser yn sych o gwbl. 
yna eu canwyro'n bedryfal parth lied a thrwch, a gwedi hynny 
canwyro'r cornelau hyd led deg yn y fodfedd. lolo MSS. 207.1. 
cf. Ir. Cantair a press for straightening or forcing wood into 
certain shapes, gl. trochio. M.C. (addenda), so Joyce II 316. 

kunyat permission, consent, medyc a dely . . . nad el or 
llys en guastat onyt kan kanyat e brenyn 18.16. 4.5; 7.9; 9.2; 
29.17, 21 ; 38.11; 46.19; 48.28; 50.21; 53.27; 62.21; 63.25, 27; 
68.19; 80.27, 28; 87.8; 97.6; 109.18; iio.n; 111.14, 16; 119.25 
kany. 

[canyadu] to permit. 3 sg. pres. ind. Canada. O byt arkefreu 
jdhy byt hunnu en ditreul hit empen vn blenet. os hytheu 
aey c. y treulyau ef, etc. 36.19. cf. O'm treftad y caniadwn/ 
Ei hyd o'r ddaear i hwn. D.G. lxxxix-35. 

capel see sapel. 

i. kanys, kanes, kanas, kanjs, kanis(a)=kan + subs. vb. since 
it is. ny deleedi dim kanas adeuedic kenjti na deleidy dim 49.15. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 59 

llv deudeg wyr am uarch a try ugeynt aryant canys hunnv 
leyhaw march y werth o gyureyth 79.1. 11.3 ; 13.15 ; 37.2 ; 40.21 ; 
46.10; 48.8, 14; 49.31; 51.1; 61.6; 62.20; 66.23, 29; 74.7; 75.27; 
77.12; 79.1; 105.20; 111.19; 114-13; 130-27; 133-27- 

(b) conj. since, for, because, abat haken ny deleyr namen y 
ebedyu kanys keuoet maru er abat e clas ... a dele y da ef 
124.11. 63.11; 127.1; 132.27, etc. 

2. kanys conj. can + neg+infix. pron. 3 pers. Ni dele e 
amdyffin or creireu hinni kanis haydus 51.19. 35.26; 55.13; 
118.5. 

capan m. a cape, cope, cloak, kalan gayaf e dely [e ryghyll] 
kafael kapan. a kalan mahurth ne chueraur mantell 25.10. 
[guerth] pop mantell dynessyt pedeir ar ugeynt pop capan 
dynesyc .xxim. 104.16. 26.23. pi. -eu. k. glau e brenyn e 
marchoho endau 23.26. 13.20. =cappa pluvie. A.L.II 82i.xx. 
Ef bieu c. y brenhin orbyd cr6yn 6rthunt (see wrlys). Med.Law 
21.25. Ac offrymaw a wnaeth y brenhin ym mynyw deu gappan 
cor o bali ar vedyr cantoryeit y wassanaethu duw. R.B.I I 
328.34. yna y meudwy ieuanc a vwryawd y gapan ymeith. 
H.MSS.I 337.36. ef a welei varchoges yn dyuot atta6. ac yn 
kymryt y co!6yn yn llawes y chapann. R.B.I 241.26. cf. D.G. 
cxxx.13. Sidan gapan am gopa. ibid. Ixxxvii.i5. Cap o ddail, 
coppa ddulas. 

capel see sapel. 

kar, car kinsman, -member of a kenedl. Ot a devyr [affeyth 
galanas] rey a dyweyt dylyu or genedyl y da hunnv ar gwat 
ygyt ac ew. sew achaus yu urth dylyu onadunt huy uot yn 
achaus yr affeythyoed hynny y lad eu car vy dylyu onadunt 
huynteu hynny o da. ac y wadu gwaet a gwely a Had eu car 
dylyu onadunt y reyth rydywedassam ny uchot . . . kany dyly 
y genedyl namyn sarhaet eu car ay alanas 75.5. 66.26; 122.10; 
128.10, 29; 129.2. f. cares 66.24. pi- kereynt 35.19. see 
cydgarant, cerenyd. 

karr, car sledge, dray, e grueyc a dele e car a yeu e dvyn 
e deodreuen or ty. 33.13. [guerth] kar .n. 102.11. regarded as 
a sign of indisputable title to land. Try ryu datanhud y syd, 
datanhud ar ac eredyc. a datanhud karr. a datanhud burn a 
beych 60.17. 42.1, 15; 60.24; 90.10; 102.11. carr. gl. 'vehiculum. 
Z. 1053.53. 

karchar, kurear, karch. m. prison, fold, pen, stable. Ac ena 
e deleant er eneit datcanu . . euuaraut ac ena e brenin a dele 



60 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

redhau e gue[s]telon o eu carcar 56.4. 53.39. em pop amser y 
dylluc escrybyl o karcar ny deleyr namen aryant 112.14. Pa 
dyn a gwyn yn y maendy hwn ? Mabon uab Modron yssyd 
yma yg carchar. R.B.I 131.17. Meirch ar geirch yn garcharorion. 
M.A. I79b.i7. yn gyrru llionel . . . yngkarchar ar gevyn 
hacknei. H.MSS.I 102. kany eyll ef rac trymhet e karchar ar 
heyrn essyd arnav kerdet. P.MS. 44, p. 6.8. Ir. carcar = prison, 
a stall, stable. M.G., c. = Lat. *carcarem. Loth p. 144. 

karcharaur in. prisoner, e mayr bysgueyl ... a dyly. LX. 
o pop k. or a hel en y ehol 24.25 ; 25.31. 

carcharu (kyfreyth) to close (the legal session). Ac y uelly 
am tyr a dayar yn amseroed y dylyir eu carcharu 133.16. yna 
y dyweit kyfreith py le bynnac y carcharer kyfreith ual yn 
dydyeu dydon. A.L.II 68.1xxi. 

karrdeyl land dressed with carted manure, karrdeyl pedeir 
blynet y dylyii y eredyc 63.19. kardeil [terra fimo carro vecto 
colenda]. A.L.II 856. xii. y neb a garteilo tir gan ganhyat y 
perchenawc teir blyned y dyly ef ; ar pedwared yr perchenawc 
yn ryd. A.L.I 766. xiv. 

karrdychwel, cardecguel to return, to reclaim possession. O 
deruyt y gur mennu escar ay gureyc a mewnu ohonau gureyc 
arall dylis eu e cantaf cany dele vngur bod ydhau due graget 
pob gureyc a dele menet oy for e menno en ryd cany dele bod 
en cardecguel ac na deleyr ydhy dym amen by amobor 39.4. 
O deruyd y greyc duyn mab en kefreysyaul e gur ket as guadto 
e gur. ny a deuedun na dele hy guedy as tecgo y vngueys. na 
dele vyd et duyn y arall. kany bit cardecguel yvrth e nep 
redecpuet centaf 40.24; 72.27. cf. O deruyd y uonhedic 
treftadawc mynet y wassanaethu uchelwr a bot yspeit ygyt ac 
ef . . . ef a eill mynet y wrth yr uchelwr pan vynno dyeithyr 
adaw yr uchelwr a dylyo ual y dyweit kyfreith Howel : a 
hwnnw a elwir kar llawedrawc ; sef yw hynny, dyn a uo car 
gychwyn pan vynno. A.L.II o^S.cli. karlauedrauc [carrifractus]. 
A.L.II 876.xx. see M.A. i86b-7. see kar as a sign of possession 
of land. 

careyauc having thongs, [guerth] eskydyeu careyauc .11. 
103.11. cf. iallachran thong shoe. Joyce II 218. 

carreyt a car load, carreyt or hyt goreu 37.9. 

[caruan] beam. pi. -eu [weaver's'] beams, prenyal guedes 
. . . e caruaneu ar t[r]ohelleu 102.20. Mai yr eddi am y garvan. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL" WELSH LAW 61 

M.A. 8503.41. Dr.D.Prov. so Ir. garmain weaver's beam and 
heddles. W.W. 

earn hoof, ar y earn living, existing. Os kyn e seythuet 
vullydjn ed escarant taler ydj e haguedy ae harkefreu ae y 
couyll os en voruyn e rodyr er hyn a uo ar y earn or pheheu 
hene 34.7. Ny dyly dall damdwg. kany dylyr damdwg yn 
absen golwg da a vo ar garnn ac na wyl ynteu y da a damdygo. 
LI. MS. 116, p. 108.29. O deruyd duyn huch y dyn yn lledrat 
... a meythryn ohoney epyl ... a cheyssyau o honaw ay hy 
ay y hepyl nys dyly namyn hy ehun o byd ar garn ac ony byd 
ny dyly dym. A.L.II 30. xv. Kymro a vo gwr y uab vchelwr 
a dylyir talu deuparth y alanas y genedyl, ar trayan rwg yr 
arglwyd ar mab uchelur . . Sef a daw yr arglwyd y deuparth, 
ar trayan yr vchelwr, ae gyfarws or byd ar garn. A.L.II 
ioo.xvi.cf. Ger. Fleisch im Hufe. cf. ni yrrir y gwir oi garn 
nid a'n ys dan ei wasarn. see Gwasarn. Dr. D. March a 
syrth oddiar ei bedwar earn. M.A. 850^53. dan garn down- 
trodden. M.A. 363^7. so ar y droet living, (of corn) uncut. 
Nydyleyr yewn am yd ar y droet wedi kalangaeaf. A.L.II 
268. xxv. ar droed often in Mod. Welsh means ' in progress.' 
see Intro. LI. MS. 116. 

carnllyf hand-file (?). carnllyf a breuanllyf am pop vn o 
henne .1111. 102.3. 

carthpren plough staff (?). [guerth] carthpren .1. 104.17. 
carthu to clean, see Marc vii.ig. Ir. cartaim I cast out. K.Z. 

xxxvi. 456-7. 

karthur a working horse, the horse used with oxen in plough- 
i n ( ' ) guedy darfo e kaueyr paup byeu kercu y defnedyeu 
atau adref. karthur na march llefnu ny henyu or kefreyt 109.17. 
carthwr [fossori] (dat.). A.L.II 8o3.xxx; 856.viii. Sic debent 
aratores arare prima acra uomeri . . . postea v. bobus de meliore 
ad meliorem, postea karthur [fossori]. A.L.II 906.13. cf. kartor 
a march llyfyn ny heniw or kyfar. LI. MS. 116, p. 106.3. P.MS. 
35, p. 823.20. cf. cyn carthu y rhych o feddwl gwych. LI. MS. 
209, p. 230. 

[karu] stag. pi. keyru. tranoeht guedy guyl yeuan haner 
haf e dely menet y hele keyru 16.15. 

[kasnad] akasnat a lath or splinter of wood, the wood of a 
plough, plough, a guedy heny eru guyd a honno a elguyr 
akasnad 108.1. This is written kyueir e kasnat. A.L.I 316.5. 
kyueir cassnad. P.MS. 39b.5- cheueir asnaud. A.L.II 906.14. 



62 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

Another expression conveying the same meaning is kyueir 
asclaud. partem ligni sui debet arator habere, id est, 
keueir asclaud, id est unam acram, pef totum annum, 
quia ipse debet perficere aratrum a primo ligno usque ad 
ultimum. A.L.II 856. vii. It appears to be the same word as 
the IT. casnad -whit, particle, split wood, lath. M.C. see also 
Ir.T. iv-386. casnad occurs in Med. Welsh = flock of -wool, etc. 
a phei gellit llunyaw nev vedylyaw dwy yscubell o van adaued 
neu van gasnad o eur. Eluc. 92.24. cf. kysson i dwc kassnod 
evr (I wallt merch). P.MS. 54, p. 202. a chysnoden eurlliii 
yny vantell. W.B. col. 225.32. This last, however, seems to 
correspond to the mod. Venedot. casnach. asclawd usually 
means splinter, maes bambri n torri katerwen / osglawc yn 
asglod anghymen. P.MS. 54, p. 197. but it is used also for 
the plate of a coat of armour, yw'r wise ledr o ysglodion. 
P.MS. 70, p. 36a. 

kassec, casset mare. pi. kessyc. Ny deleyr dody na meyrch 
na kessyc na bucc en arader ac o dodyr huy ked erthelo. a 
kessyc a guarthec ny dyukyr m.i, 3. 87.21 ; 88.15 ; 115.16-20. 

[kastell] castle, fort. pi. kestyll. Paub a dyly gwneuthur 
gweyth kestyll pan uynho y brenhyn 67.8. E Portha6r a geifi 
ytir yn ryd. Yn y kastell trachefyn y dor ybyd yty. Med. Law 
p. 32-1. 

kat see gadu. 

(nth, kad a cat. Guerth cath .1111. y teythy guelet a clebot 
a Had llechod ac na bo tun eny heuyn a meythryn ac nad esso 
y kanaon 93.23. 33.27. pi. cadeu 25.14. 

kathuo see kadu. 
kail see kayu. 

kauad shower, k. uey a light shower, a gallu [or dauat] 
cudyau y hoen ay gluan rac kauad uey 91.14. Z 2 . 84oa. 

kauell hamper, pannier. k. teylau manuring pannier. 
guerth k. teylyau .1. 102.1. c. = Lat. cauella. Loth. 

caus cheese, c. en hely salt cheese, e buyd val hyn e renyr. 
e greyc byeu e kic eny hel[y] ar caus eny hely a guedy croker e 
gur pyeu 33 28. 26.11 ; 33.30. sg. cossyn a cheese 69.29. Y kic 
yny heli a heb halen ac velly y kaws yny heli a heb halen . . . 
y gwr bieu y kic ar kaws drychafedic. LI. MS. 116, p. 24.1. 

kauversit see kywerthyd. 

kayat to close, yn amser cayat kyureyth 61.20. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL" WELSH LAW 63 

kaiat closed, shut. Deu amser e bit agoret keureyth am tir 
a dayar a deu e bit kaiat 51.26. 51.28, 29, 30, 32. 

kayu, kail to close, shut, ar kenutey en keneu tan ac en kayu 
e dressou 3.27. Essef achaus e may . . . nau nieu guedi 
guilsanfreyt en agoret e keureyth rac kayu e keureyth en 
undidiauc 51.33. guanet enteu y art en kynkadarnet ac na 
dyucher ydau ef eythyr yeyr a guydeu sef achaus eu kany 
ellyr kau racdunt 114.12. kau dol ar ecchen to yoke the oxen 
108.5. 97-71 108.13; 109.6; 114.20. 3 sg. pres. ind. act. cae 
105.12. pres. subj. kyer 26.1. imperat. pass, kayhyer 114.18. 
part. pass, cayedic, kaedic 56.23 ; 59.4, 6, 7. 

kebystyr m. halter. e croysan ... a dely ruymmau e 
kebystyr am y keyllyeu yr run a uo em pen e march 13.16; 
21.27; 90.9. pi. kebestyryeu. cruyn y gueneutur k. 13.26. 
march du ei liw . . . [ai] dywysaw mewn cebystr o rawn du. 
A.L.II 472.1. Os a dyn a da o dyr. a chebystr i'r achybir. 
P.MS. 120, p. 595, col. 2. Atuyn Eddystr ynghebystr lledrin. 
M.A. 3ob-35. k. = Lat. capistrum. Loth. p. 146. 

kecvvin see kychuyn. 
kecuinuus see kychuyn. 

kedernit confirmation, pledge, ac ena e may yaun vdunt 
kemrit k. a bot urth e breint a kamrit mach ar eu gober 56.2. 

kcdor the hair of the pudenda muliebria. 36.3 ; 71.16. o caitor 
(gl. pube). Z 2 .io59.4ib. 

keditueit see keytueyt. 
keuechni see kyuechny. 
keuelokac see kyuelogaeth. 
kefoet see kyfoeth. 

ceuyn, keuen back, buyta ... ay keuen ar y tan 24.15. 
beych ceuyn 79.6. 52.12; 60.22; 89.9; 131.11. 

keuynderw, keuenderu, kauenderu cousin. 4.10 ; 59.17 ; 74.3 ; 
126.1 ; 129.8, 9. pi. keuyndyru. plant yr henvam a uyd k. 75.28. 
59.23 ; 62.18; 77.10. cf. Ir. derb 'certain' in derbrathir, derfethar. 

cegeyn see kyghanu. 
keghesaeh see kygheusaeth. 

kekyn a kitchen, one of the three principal divisions of the 
court, [e] dysetyn ... a dely . . . guasanaythu or estauell 
hyd e kekyn 21.2. crwyn e guarthec a lader en e kecyn yr 



64 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

suydguyr ar dysteyn edant 9.11 ; 9.16, 24; 11.7; 13-27; 19.26, 28; 
23.4; 67.25 keceyn. c. = Lat. coquina. 

kekyn k. derwen hedge oak (?), some small species of oak. 
guert deruen .cxx. . . . guerth kekyn deruen ny del fruyth 
arney .1111. 97.22. so LI. MS. 174, p. 130. 25. A.O. takes this as 
a derivative of kygwn ' joint ' and translates k. derwen by 
' gnarled oak.' K. derw occurs in Med. M. p. 28, but without 
any means of establishing its meaning. Kegyn occurs often in 
Welsh=' hedge' or 'ridge' and k. derwen might mean 'a small 
dwarfed oak growing on a hedge.' cf. bet cecin ir alt. L.L. 
174.6. i fos inihit bet i ford di crib ir allt i celli cecn i celli 
inihit bet pan discinn diguairet dir pull 268.22, etc. kegin=cefn 
(ridge). Powysland Club Papers, vol. v, p. 117. This cegyn appears 
to be borrowed from the Lat.cacumen (cf. testun<testimonium). 
cacumen translates the Ir. clad ' an earthen rampart or dyke.' 
(see Index of Hiberno-Latin Words. Trip, Life of St. Patrick) 
and was presumably borrowed in this sense into Welsh. This 
same cegin apparently is used metaphorically in W.B. col. 68. 
sef a wnaeth rei or cwn kerdet oe wlaen . . . ac ygyt ac ydaant 
yr berth kilyaw y gyflym a cheginwrych mawr aruthyr gantunt, 
i.e., -with bristle up. cf. wolf's ridge hair. Cockayne, Saxon 
Leechdoms I 361. 

keghel f. girth. Rey a adant vrth vreynt e kefruy e duy 
guartaual ar teyr keghel 103.15. see bronkeghel. torkeghel. 
A hwrd a rodes pob un onadunt y gilyd yny torres holl gegleu 
eu meirch. R.B.I 181.26. 

kegladur a reel to wind thread or yarn. D.S.E. [guerth] 
guerthyt iyrling kegladur fyrling 100.24. 

keleyn the human body, a man, corpse, dead body. Meyry- 
dyon ... a dylyant hanner o pob peth yn erbyn y brenhyn 
eythyr o trypheth gwerth tyr a gwerth lleydyr a gwerth keleyn 
66.12. Had k. homicide 80.7; 129.27. c. = Ir. colainn f. the body, 
flesh, corpse, carcase. M.C. 

keluy one of the two screens that divided the hall, the reredos 
in centre of the 'neuadd' ( ?) . e brenyn a dele eyste en nessaf yr 
keluy ac enessaf ydau enteu e keghellaur a guedy henny er 
hosb . . . ar medyc emon e kolouen yam e tan ac ef en essaf 
yr kelluy arall er efeyryat teylu . . . ar colouen uch y pen 
a dely er gostechur y maydu 5.5. e pew guastraut yam e 
keluy ar brenyn. e penkynyt yam e keluy ar efeyrat 5.19. lie 
[e medyc] en e neuat em[on] e post auo ykyd ar keluy e bo e 
brenyw en eys[te en y emyl] 17.34. 8.15 ; 13.5 ; 15.29. Teir rhan 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 65 

y dyly neuadd y brenin y chyfansoddi : un uch coryf yna y 
bydd y brenin yn eistedd yn gyntaf, sef yw uch coryf uch celfi 
ae gefyn wrth y celfi ydd eiste y brenin. A.L.II 586.1. so is 
coryf. i. is celfy. ibid. 586 xvi. isechelui [infra columnam]. 
A.L.II 904-viii. kyntaf ew y brenhyn. Ef a dely eysted yr 
colouyn ... en nessa yr keluy arall yr efieyryat teulu. LI. MS. 
174, p. 5.17. cf. a dyna y gur a dyry ydi enderic kyhyd y glyst 
a gorn wedy yraw y losgwrn a rodi yr enderic idi herwyd y 
losgwrn trwy gelui rwydrad. Ll.MS. 116, p. 21.17. =dorglwyt. 
Med. Law 96.18. dorcheluyth is gl. by crates porti. A.L.II 
804. ix. and in Med. Law 96.18; 102.8. it appears to be a kind 
of wicker-work or wattle door for the summer-booth or cowshed. 

keluydyt f. -vocation, teyr keluydyt ny dely mab tayauc eu 
descu heb kanyat y argluyd . . . escolectau[t] a gouanaet a 
bardhony 29.20. 

kelu to hide, conceal, kelu ar keep secret. Nauuet [affeyth 
lledrat] yu cymryt gwerth ygan y lleydyr yr kelu arnau 78.21. 
3 sg. pres. ind. eel 119.27. 

kelurn pitcher. [guerth] kelurn .1. 100.19. k. [hydria]. 
A.L.II 865-lvii. Pedwar galwyn a wna un k. Med.M. 295. 
k. = Bret. kelorn. cf. Ir. cilorn a pitcher with handle on its side. 
O.M.III p. 62. gl. cratura, Situla. M.C. 

cell storeroom, pantry, greyc e brenyn a heill rodhy . . . y 
buyt ae y dyaut a craun e cell 38.13. 33.31. kellell kell 103.19. 
= culter popinarius. A.L.II 888.xxviii. 

kell see kylch. 
kellky see gellgy. 
kemurth see kymryt. 

kenat messenger, embassy. Ac o byd reyt geyr kyuarch 
anuonent gennat y ouyn y mevn 132.10. ac ena ed elleghus 
rudn kenat hid eghuynet y huybod puy byeufey e blaen 42.4. 

kenedel f. (a) kindred, family from common ancestor to ninth 
degree of descent included. O deruid ena tnennu llessu un o 
reihtwyr henne. nit oys lis arnau namin na hanuo oy kenedel 
val na deleo vot en reyhur esew ual e dele uot en reythur ydau. 
en kennesset ac e gallo alanas 50.12. (see galanas.) O deruyd 
y tat gwadu mab o genedyl gwedy dycher ydau . . . y mab 
hunnv weythyon urth genedyl y uam yda y ureynt. Ac o Had 
ew dyn kenedyl y uam ay tal 72.28. 18.12; 21.21; 37.20, 28; 
39.15, 20, 21, 25; 41-21; 47-22, 24; 56.14; 61.25; 62.1, 4; 63.12; 



66 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

66.25; 72-23-29; 73-3-29; 74-1-19; 75-5-13; 76.9-28; 79.3; 120-4; 
122.6, 9; 125.7, 8; 126.26; 134.3. c f- Nid kenedl heb gyferddyr. 
P.MS. 54, p. 356. 

kcnedel (b) nature, quality, kind. O deruyt e gurejc huriauc 
gueneutaur kaflauan debrit . . . Os e hemreyn 1 a derujt e 
sarhaet honno a derkeuyr ar vod e haner en vuy kanes o kenedel 
helenyaet et henyu 35.12. LI. MS. 69, p. 121.13; 116, p. 103.23. 
have cenedlaeth elynyaeth. P.MS. 35, p. sgb.io. Ll.MS. 174, 
p. 42.7; 74.13. have kenedl. cf. kenedlaeth galanastra. A.L.II 
340, note c. M.A. 955^23. 

kenethyon see kynyt. 

[keneu] a -whelp, the young of certain animals, pi. kanaon. 
k. cath kittens 93.25. k. = Ir. cano, cana -wolf cub. Ped. I 121. 

kenflydhet see kynflyth. 
kengueys see kynweyth. 

kenhenlauc made like kynhugel (?). [guerth] botesseu 

kewhewlauc .1111. 103.10. Botasseu kenheglauc \_ocree nexiles}. 

A.L.II 888.XX. cf. gwallt yn cynnyglu (entangled). Med.M. 
160 332. see next word. 

kenhughel, kyghuyl an article of clothing made like a 
blanket (?). [guerth] crys a llauder .xxim. [guerth] 
kenhughel damdung 104.22. [guerth] panel kyghuyl .1. panel 
lyeyn .1. 103.4. see Conn. Gloss. 42. " Ceinticul [cintecal B] : 
i.e., Welsh was corrupted there, i.e., cenical [cainecal B] : it is 
to this then is the name of this thing among the Britons, i.e., 
to wool (d) whereof they make a blanket, etc." Panel kenhungil 
[dorsuale nexilel. A.L.II 888.xv. Ll.MS. 174, p. 135, has 
kynhugyl. see Loth. p. 157. 

kenuyn leeks. Sef eu gogaur hyd guedy keueyryer yar e tyr 
e tefho arnau. a perllan a bressyc a llyn ... a gueyr syc . . . 
a kennyn a pop peth a uo perthenas y arth ac ef 114.7. cipus 
gl. cennin. Z 2 . 1061.423. k. = Ir. caindenn garlic, leeks, onions. 
B.L.G. 

kcnt see ket. 

kenyatic see keynyauc. 

kerd song. pan uenher hcanu kerd e bard kadeyryauc a 
decreu ar kyntaf o duhu ar eyl or brenyn byeufo e llys . . . 
o deruyd yr urenynes mennu kerd. aet e bard teulu y kany 
ydy kerd en dyvessur 14.25. 7.19. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 67 

kerdawr minstrel, pop penkerd telyn a dele ykan e keroryon 
telyn guedj edemadauoent a telyn raun A menu bod en kerdaur 
keueyas ay uod en eyrcyat .xxuii. y ober 128.14. 28.15; 128.5. 
pi. kerdhoryon 3.19; 28.17; 128.13. 

kerdhct, cerdet (a) to go, proceed, puybennac a dalyho 
escrybyl llauer ac atael un ar neylldu . . . ac ellugu e lleyll y 
kerdhet 118.15. ac y uelly y geyll lledrat cerdet o lau y lau 
hyt tra y caffo yn y maes ay cymero 82.10. 23.32. 3 sg. pres. 
ind. kerdha. er eru kentaf yr amaeth ar eyl yr heyrn . . . ac 
euelly e kerdha er eruuy a oreu y oreu 107.20. 56.15; 75.27. 
subj. kerho. guert trauskeyg a kerho o kallon e pren 97.7. 
15.6. Ll.MS. 174, pp. 130.20; 131.10 has cyrcho calon. 

(b) course, treatment. Mylky mab uchelur vnguert a mylky 
brenyn. Pa ky bennac a uo y uab eyllt vn kerdhed ay kostauc 
torn. 94.25. bronkegeghel vn kerthet ac vn guarthaual 103.27. 
59.16. ; 92.3. 

ker[d]hedur -wayfarer. O deruyd y kerhedur alldud y 
cleuechu ar fort ay uaru. pa dyr benac e bo maru ef a tal .xxuii. 
ebedyu ay da namen hewny yr brenyn 126.15. 

kereih see kyfreyth. 
kereir 44.7 see kreyr. 

eerennyd, cerenhyt, cerenid (a) relation, kindred, relationship 
within the " nine degrees." Yna mae reyt yr llowrud mynegy 
ydau y kyf. ual y mae y gerenhyt . . . ac y gyt a hynny bot 
ydau o gyt garant a uo dygaun y gadu bot yn wyr a dyweyt 
. . . sew achaus y mae. da kyt garant cany dylyant yr 
estronyon na duyn dyn yg cerennyt nay wahanu ay gerenyt 
129.20. 50.14. naw ach cerhenyd . . . gorchau a chen ny ellyr 
ryuau kerennyd o henne allan talent ydau keynnyauc. Ll.MS. 
174, p. 99.3. Nav rhan cenedl nev nav ach cerennydd Tad, 
Brodyr, Cefyndyr, Cybhyrdyr, Plant y Cybhyrdyr, Gorchnieint, 
Ceibhyn, Gorchgeibhyn, Car, Clyd. P.MS. 118, p. 714. so 
P.MS. 122, p. 125. see Rep.MSS. I 724 714; 750 15. 

(b) friendship, amity (?). Cussan yu aruyd kerennyd 74.16; 
79.16 (?). 

kerner dormitory. Nautey a dely myleynyeyt e brenyn y 
gueneuthur nehuat estauell buyty estabel kenordy escybaur 
hodyn ; treuen uechan kerner 30.10. Cerner neu hundy. Ll.MS. 
*74i P- 39-3- L.W. 71 8. c.=Med.Lat. cernelium (?). 

kernyu n.l. Cornwall. Dywynwal moel mud oed urenhyn ur 



68 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

yr ynys hon. a mab oed hunnv yarll kernyv 64.19. penryn 
penwaed y kernyw 64.27. 

keru see gyni. 

keruyn f. tun, tub for brewing, dogyn keruyn o ued nau 
nyrued yny hyt yn amryscoyv ar gymeynt arall yn y llet 69.8. 
17.21, 23; 18.23; 68.22; 69.18. k. estellaut 100.8. k. unpren 
100.13. A chymeint y dyly y gerwyn vot ac y gall y brenhin 
ae henedyf eneinnav yndi. LI. MS. 69, p. 123.10. Gwneuthur 
enneint im ar Ian auon. A gwneuthur cromglwyt uch penn y 
gerwyn, etc. R.B.I 76.11. Gnawd cwrw lie bo keruyn. 
Rep.MSS.II 115.1.11. Ac ny ellit y dodi ef yn y bedydlestyr rac 
y veint. namyn kerwyn uawr a gyrchwyt. ae llenwi o dwfyr. 
H.MSS.II 152.20. Neidiodd y Wraig yn addwyn/Trawodd y 
Dyn dan gerwyn. D.G. clxxii.i4. see also D.G. clxxxi. k. 
dolium. A.L.II 753-xxiii. Dolium autem continebit iiiior. 
modia, duas amphoras in modio. A.L.II 784.x. k. = Lat. 
carenaria ' Gefass zum kochen de carenum ' susser Wein. 
Zimmer. K.Z. xxxiv. 167. 

kerit blame, failure. Pvypennac a kemero arall ar y oruodoc- 
gaith diguidet ef em pop kerit or a pot ar e dyn a kemmirth 
atau 50.25. Ac or maint y syd/Arnaf o geryd. M.A. i44b. 
see next. 

keredu to make good. Ef byeu kadu tresor e brenyn y fuoleu 
ay kyrn ... a keredu ydau a kollo 14.18. Ysgrefenodd ef yn 
ffals lawer iawn o eiriau a mi a geryddais lawer . . . ag a 
edewais le i ddodi rhai eraill i mewn. Rep.MSS.I in, note 
at foot, see cared. Loth, Vocab. ; carino. Walde. 

kesiau see keysyau. 

cesseyl-yeu a twelve-foot measure. Messur eru gyuvelthyaul 
petwar troetued yny uerryeu vyth yn yr eyl yeu. deudec yny 
gesseylyeu 59.12; 65.19; 107.11. 

kethraul a spike, bore. Orth a cammec a kethtraul ... a 
breuanllyf am pop vn ohenne .1111. 102.1. cf. Ef rwygei a 
chethrei. a chethrawr. A.B. 66.19. kethrawl. A.L.I 682.5. 

ketuoth see kyduot. 

keulau ( ?) curds, keulau llaeth a uo o ludyn blyth yny drew 
ac eu godro unweyth yny dyd ac na odroher namyn yr un weyth 
honno y cossyn a wneler or llaeth hunnv. 69.28. several texts 
read kynullaw to collect. LI. MS. 174, p. 89.21. L.W. 175 i6. 
Both are combined in Med. Law 57.7. A phrytllaetheu y 



tayogeu oil a gynullir yn vn dyd y wneuthur ka6s. The scribe 
of the Latin Laws accepted keulaw. et cum caseo, qui ex omni 
lacte tocius uille in unutn collecto mane vel meridie coagulari 
potest. A.L.II 785.vi. so II SaS.xv. see caul = Lat. coag'lum. 
Loth. p. 145. 
keyp mattock, [guerth] keyp .11. 100.10. 

keybreu rafters, puebennac a vryuho tey en agheureytyaul 
talet . . . am . . . e polyon seuac ar keybreu .1. 99.10. 50 
LI. MS. 174, p. 132.5, with final n crossed out and u added later. 
For derivation of the word see Loth p. 146 ; Loth Vocab. p. 70 ; 
Pederson I p. 192. 

ccytweyt, keythveid, ceyweyt, kedueueit, keditveit witnesses 
in disputes concerning title to land, concerning animals or 
lineage. Os o eny a meythryn y ceys y ardelu gwnaet ual hyn. 
dodet ym pen ceytweyt bot yn eydau y uam ay eny ay ueythryn 
ganthau ac nat aeth y ganthau er pan anet 81.25. 53.8, 34; 
54.5, n, 13, 21 ; 55-i7-2i; 56.7, 8; 81.25; 82.4. Teithi ceitwat 
yw tyngu bot yn eiddaw y dyn ae gal wo yn geitwat y da, ac na 
wahanws ac ef eyryoet o ffordd or byt or y gwahenir da a dyn, 
ac felly cadw gan y dyn y dda ; ac na yrr ef ddrwc ar neb : am 
hynny na lyssir ef mal gwybyddyat. A chyt boet all tut rheit 
yw bot ceitweit yn freinioc ac yn addwyn a digawn yw deu os 
ceir ceitweit ac ny ellir llai. A.L.II 694-xxxv. 

keyeuyn (?) full (of grass) (?). o byt kennen am y llaet y 
duen nauuetyd mey en lie keyeuyn ny el un lluden eny blaen 
91.17. A.O. (A.L. 27o.x) reads keveuyn which appears to be 
the more correct reading. This occurs several times and the 
meaning seems to be ' full/ ' complete.' dauat k. [ovis plena]. 
A.L.II 87o.xlix.ii. Caraf Rodri . . .gyfredin ei enw/yn Efrai 
yn Lladin/Ac ym mhob cyfieith yn gyfiewin. M.A. 146^30. 
Gnawd y doeth cyfoeth cyfyewin. M.A. 24ob.i6. It appears to 
be related to cyfiaw, a word which occurs side by side with 
didrif wild, uninhabited. Argoed nwy asswe aserw yndaw/Ail 
wydle didrif didwrf gyfiaw. M.A. i44a.5. cf. also Gogyfurt 
torment gogyfyaw toruoet. M.A. 2oib-5. iewin. M.A. 433. 
cynyeuin. M.A. a6a. goyeuin. M.A. n8a. 

keywneynt great-great-grandchildren, plant yr henvam a uyd 
keunyndyru. a plant yr orhenuam a uyd kyuyrdyru. plant y 
petwaret uam a uyd keywneynt 76.1. 

keyg, keycg, keyc f. branch, guert trauskeyg a kerho o 
kallon e pren .xxx. ac amyn hynne bryc vyd ac nyd oes guerth 
arnau 97.17. 97.15; 98.19. 



70 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

keylguat see geyluat. 

keylyauc a cock. Yar k. a tal keylyauc .11. [i]ar a tal.Q4.ii. 

121. II. 

keylyacuyt, keylachuyd a gander, guerth kuyt .1. gurth k. 
kemeynt a guert .11. huyt 94.4; 121.12. 

keyll testicle. 88.15; 93.19; 105.15. pi. keyllyeu 13.16. 
keyll 40.27 see gallu. 

keynyauc, usually kenyawc f. penny, usually the keynyauc 
cotta (curt penny) as dist.from keynyauc kefreyth (legal penny). 
c. baladyr lance penny. O ney uab gorchau allan yd a c. 
baladyr ac y sew yd a honno y gymhorth y llowrud . . . ac ny 
tal gwreyc c. baladyr canyt oes paladyr ydy namyn y chogeyl 
76.6. 63.2. 26.2; 34-24J 37- 1 ?, 19; 40-28; 45-23; 46-1-13; 49-26; 
51.13 ; 56.21 ; 68.8-29 J 6 9-24 J 70-24 J 75-22-24 ; 78.11-25 ; 82.18 ; 97.1 ; 
101.20; 112.16-19; 113.15, 17; 118.22, 23 ,etc. usually written k7. 
see dymeu. see also Celt. Stud. II. 

keynyon the first liquor drawn for the hall, and regarded as 
the best; one of the perquisites of the court smith. E gof llys 
... a dely e k. sef eu k. guyraut kentaf a del yr neuat 28.5. 
Pwy a dal y ceinon/ai Maelgwn o Von. M.A. 393.47. Am 
lugyrn am gyrn am geynyon/Yn untref yn untreul wledolyon. 
M.A. i79b-34. Eurdorchawc a ryt eurdal ym yr kert/am 
keinyon o vual. M.A. 1883.19. Ry dirllid uyg cert yg keinyon 
o uet/yg kyntet teyrnon. M.A. 1893.3. see also M.A. 2783, 
3O4a, 3i4b. keyn<*kenti corresponding to kynt in kyntheid, 
kyntedd (?), and like Mod.Ir. cead (O.Ir. cet) meant 'first,' 
then ' best,' ' choicest.' 

keyr see geyr. 

keyrc oats, [guerth] escub keyrc iyrdling 101.4. O sereyr e 
rghyll en y eyste tra gueneler e dsdeleu, ny dely ksfsel namyn 
gocreyt keyrc 3 blyckyn buy 25.22. (v.l. gograid eisin; gograid 
hilgeirch. L.W. 62 13.) 69.9; 91.21; 94.12; 101.4; 103.24. 
Hu Gadsrn ... 3 ddaeth gyntsf 3 Gwenith 3 Haidd i ynys 
Prydsin, lie nid oedd namyn Ceirch a Rhyg cyn no hynny. 
M.A. 407 56. 

keysyau to seek, fetch, provide. O deruyd ydy hytheu ceyssyau 
oet y geyssyau creyryeu ny dyly hy oet namyn trydyeu 72.20. 
y naud eu or pan hel un y keysyau beyc guelt adan e brenyn 
14.14. e brenyn byeu keysyau ofer ydsu 128.9. 35.24; 45.30; 
68.15; 72-19-21; 82.12; 85.17; 119.26; 122.2, 6, 13; 130.8; 132.26; 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 71 

134.18, 23. 3 sg. pres. ind. ceys 74.10; 81.25. ceys 36.21; 38.8 
for keyf. 

keythveid see ceytweyt. 

ceythywet bondage. O myn yr alltudyon mynet y urth eu 
hargluydy kyn noc eu bot yn priodoryon vynt a dylyant adau 
banner udunt . . . os tra mor yd henynt ny dylyant trygau 
yma . . .ac o thrygant ymgyuylent ac eu ceythywet ual kynt 
64.14. 

kfael see kafael. 

kicuin see kychuyn. 

kjr see gyrru. 

claf sick, damaged, ranet e claf ... a deuysset er yac 34.15. 
Ac o toryr [er escuboryeu] dyucher ar hyd ar escubaur. Sef e 
dyhuchyr escub yach en lie er claf 114.24. 34.16; 108.15. Ir. 
clamh mangy, despicable, etc. Dineen. see clemens. Walde 
p. 868. 

clauery scab, rot. yaun eu ydau y goruod rac try heyn e 
guarthec a rac clauery en racgor rac clauery hyd huyl patryc 
e nep ay preno a dele eu kadu en lie yac. ac en ty ny refo 
clauery entau .vn. blenet kynt 92.20. cf. Emptor non debet 
ducere eos inter agnos scabiosos septem annis ante. A.L.II 
812. vii. Tri meib ysydd ni ddylyant gafel rhan o drev eu 
tadeu ... ail yw mab clavwr a enniller gwedi gwahaner y 
wrth ei bobyl oblegyd clevri. M.A. 948^40. Clavorjon lepers. 
L.L. li. cf. Ir. clamhaire a lazar, leper, etc. Dineen. see claf. 

clauur leprous. Os e gur hitheu a uyt clauur neu anadldreue- 
dyc neu na hallo emreyn os o accaus vn or try feth hene y 
hedeu hy a dele cafael y kubyl or eydhy 34.10; 133.7. A.L.II 
795-xxxi. leprosus. see claf. klauery 

clas religious community. Ac o byt a amheuho vn or 
breynheu hene clas bawcor a rey [beuno] ae keydu 42.28. ef a 
dele emdeyth ene [v]enwent ar gorfflan. hep kreireu arnau ai 
escribil ygit ac escribil e clas ar abbadeu 51.16. puybenac a 
guenel kam y uam ecluys talet .xini. punt er hanner yr abat 
. . . ar Hall erug er efeyryat ar clas 30.16. Rei a dyweit na 
dylyir damtwgy creireu yr eglwys ae hoffer kyfreith a dyweit 
y dylyir : sef ae damtwg y clas ae phersonyeit canys wynt 
yssyd perchennogyon yr eglwys. A.L.II 98. v. 66.1x has 
claswyr ar personeit. Ac yna i cerddws Rhys ab Tudur brenhin 
Deheubarth Cymru ar Escob ar athrawon ae holl Clas yr 
Arglwydd Dewi, ac un eglwys Fynyw hyt y borth. M.A. 



72 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

726b.32. see R.B.I 309.2. M.A. 2i2b.i9. Rep.MSS.I 336 144; 
395 J 49- M.C. class 2. ' chorus/ 'choir/ cl. = Lat. classis. 

claud ditch, dyke, hedge. Sef eu gueyrclaud tyr dyuuynyant 
namyn y gueyr a claud en y kylc 116.22. c. offa. Offa's Dyke. 
Ac os or ynys hon yd henynt ny dylyant trygau yn un lie y 
tu yma y glaud offa 64.12. klawd y velin. R.B.I 230.24. 
dyfnhau y clodyeu ynghylch y castell. H.MSS.II 157.9. A 
ffan oed dyt yd oedynt yll petwar ar glawd y weirglawd yn 
seuyll. W.B. col. 396.39. kadarnhau castell troea o ffossyd 
achlodyeu. R.B.II 15.7. 

claur board, plank, plate, claur taulburt chess board 103.23. 
claur eur kefled ay huynep 3.8. c. poby 101.12. pi. cloryon 
102.17. ocloriou. gl. tabellis. Z*. 1055.383. 

keledren pillar, post, pole, puebennac a vryuho tey en 
agheuretyaul talet . . . am pop paul a guyalen a keledren .1. 
99.9. cf. cledren clod. D.G.III 24; C.L,. 19. argledrydd 
support. M.A. 25ob-37- see Fed. I p. 121. 

cledyf sivord. [guerth] cledyf o byd breulyf .xn. o byd 
grunseyt .xvi. o byd guenseyt .xxim. 102.18. pi. cledyueu 
67.22. 

cleuechu to become sick. O deruyd y kerhedur alldud y 
cleuechu ar fort ay uaru 126.15. see claf. 

clidno eydin pr. n. one of the princes of the north. 41.28. 

[do] bolt, lock. pi. -eu. ef a dely kadu cloeu kofres e 
ure[nynes] 22.13. Clo hayarn k. kyureith. Clo pren dimei. 
P.MS. 35, p. logb. 18.19. see Ped.I 42, note 3. 

clodchyd, clodyd chaplain, efeyryat teulu . . . y lety en ty 
clodyd ar escoley[gy]on ykyd ac ef 8.17; 21.19. A.L.II 819. iii. 
cappellanus. Ei letty yw ty y clochydd [aZ. ty y Caplan]. 
L.W. 18 4. 

clodyd see clochyd. 

clofy to become lame. O deruyt clofy march emenfyc neu 
cafyael bryhu arall roder march arall en y le 89.21. 

[cloren] koloren tail, pop anaf ar varch trayan y guert a 
atueryr yam y clust ae y k. puebennac a ladho raun march rodet 
varch arall en y le 89.3. nerth sarph yn ei chloren. M.A. 
76ob-36. cf. Cloren gl. cucumer. R.C. ix.228. ynawd i foch 
turiaw cylor. M.A. loib. see M.C. cularan. Mod.W. cloron 
'potatoes' appears to be a new pi. formed after the analogy of 
moron. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 73 

cludeyr anything harvested or collected together. O deruyd 
y dyn dyuot yn truydet dyn arall ac yscrybyl ganthau neu da 
arall pan el ymdeyth ny dyly uynet ganthau nac epyl na theyl 
na chludeyr na dym 132.23. Accumulo=cludeirio, dasyrnu, 
dyfylu, pentyru, angwanegu. P.MS. 228. Gnawd tanllwyth 
lie bo cludeir. C.L1.II 1053.27. Goglyt a oruc kei ym prenn 
or glud weir. W.B. col. 474.22. cludeir [messem] (ace.). A.L.II 
892.11. kludeir=das kynnvd. P.MS. 51, p. 192. Lie cododd 
tristwch trawster/a chluder o galedi. LI. MS. 209, p. 301. Kof 
sy ymhell kefes am hon/Klvdair o gyll kaledion (ref. to the 
custom of declining an offer of marriage by sending a hazel- 
twig). P.MS. 65, p. 39. Yn gorwedd yn gluder er garwed foi 
gledi (to the fox). Huw Cowper, p. 240. Aeth Tom allan ac 
eisteddodd ar y gledwair goed. Tywysydd y Plant, 1909 March, 
cf. The Glyders, N. Wales. 

dun leg. cyllell clun dagger, dirk, guerth kellell clun .1. 
103.19. k. clun [sicca]. A.L.II 888.xxvii. 

clust ear. guerth clust o lledyr .11. byu a .xi. aryant. O cae 
val na clehuo vi byu a .cxx. aryant 105.10. 81.16, 18; 91.11; 
93.16. pi. -yeu 120.23. 

clustoc, clustot cushion, pillow, y lety eu estauell e brenyn 
er hon e bo en kesc endy a clustot ykan e urenynes a llenllyeyn 
ar gobenyt ed eysteth e brenyn arnau 11.29; 104.9. ac amylder 
o glustogeu pali a rei sidan arei eurllin (ydanaw ac ynygylch 
ac ydan ydraet). Eluc. 97 footnote. 

cluyt f. hurdle. .1111. guerth duy cluyd buarth 103.25. 
drayn gluyt bush harrow. 104.19. Ac yna gwedy gorwed 
ohonaw ef ar traws yr auon. y byrywyt clwyteu arnaw ef . Ac 
yd aeth y luoed ef ar y draws drwod. R.B.I 36.28. cluit 
[crates}. A.L.II 864. iv. so Ir. cliath gl. crates, see clwyd. 
Loth p. 150. 

clebot to hear, teythy [cath] guelet a clebot a Had llechod 
93-23- 

keleuuet to hear, keleuuet lief y korn 17.14. 3 sg. pres. 
subj. cleuho 22.23; 105.13. pres. ind. pass, kleuyr 106.16. 
pass. subj. clguer 38.14. 3 sg. pret. ind. kikleu 42.9. 3 pi. 
kluassant 55.11; keleusant 120.21. 

cnaut flesh, body. Nyd oes kaflauan a u[n]el tan dyn ar 
cnaut dyn arall 87.1. 

coet wood, trees. Ac o henne eny el e moch yr koet banu vyt 
92.28. ny dyly braut bot yn goedur yr braut arall namyn talet 



74 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

ydau coet cystal ar hun a dyosges ew 63.21. moch c. -wild swine 
16.22, 25. 63.20-22 ; 78.13 ; 97.20. cf. gwythwch a hwch tref 
a wild pig and a tame one ( ?). Med. Law 80.2. 

coedur woodward, see coet 63.21. A choydwr ar y koet 
hwnnw yw. A thi a wely Mil o aniueileit gwyllt yn pori yny 
gylch. W.B. col. 228.27. cf. forestwr. W.B. col. 386. nachaf 
was gwineu hir yn dyuod y my vn a pheis a s6rcot o ball cayra6c 
ymdana6 achledyf eurd6rn am y uyn6gyl a d6y eskid issel o 
gordwal am y drayd ... a forest6r iti arg!6yd vyf i yn forest 
y dena. P.MS. 67, p. 36. contains an interesting description of 
a forester and his horn. 

[koes] leg. pi. coeseu, koesleeu ( ?). E penguastraut ... a dely 
coeseu e guarthec a lader en e kecyn 13.27. koesleeu ecchen a 
guarthec 25.6. all the other MSS. read koeseu, etc. cf. Ac o 
penn yd6ygoes a thai y deulin y waeret yn las. W.B. col. 204.12. 
a thai eu deulin a phenneu eu d6y goes yr meirch yn purdu. 
ibid. col. 210.8. Main fy nghoes nid oes ym drenyn. M.A. 
903.23. c. = Lat. coxa. Loth p. 150. 

[kofr] coffer, chest, pi. kofres treasury. Er edlyg ... a 
dele . . . ankuyn en dyuessyr ... ay holl treul o kofres e 
brenyn 4.2. guastauell ... a dely kadu cloeu kofres e 
ure[nynes] 22.13. koffrys. L.W. 12.6. cloeu coffrys. L.W. 
54.6. Ll.MS. 174, p. 28.23. 

koc cook. E koc ... a dely decreu pop anrec or ardemero 
ef . . . ef a dely ehun deuot ar anrec dyuedaf ay gossod rac 
bron e brenyn 19.14. 8.1; 9.13; 23.1, 6. pi. -eu 8.3; 10.17-21; 
21.7. 

kocled see gogled. 

kogeyl, koceyl distaff, the distaff side. Ny tal gwreyc 
ceynnyauc baladyr canyt oes paladyr ydy namyn y chogeyl 
76.12. Ac gwedy dyfody tadvys y urenhynyaeth y cauas ynteu 
hyhy o gogeyl urth uot yn vyr yr brenhyn 64.20. [guerth] k. 
fyr[lyng] 104.3. Ac Eidiol Gadarn, a laddes o'r Saeson . . . 
chwechant a thrigain a chogail gerdin. M.A. 407 60. ac yw 
uerchet y peris ef aruer o gogeil a gwerthyt a nytwyd. R.B.I I 
387.14. c. = Ir. cucel. Lat. concula distaff. M.C. 

koloren tail, see cloren. 

kolouen f. (a) pillar, post. Fob gauael a kanalyo e nen sef 
eu henne .vi. colouen 99.3. 5.9, n ; 99.1. see W.B. col. 54.1. 

(b) chief division, a heuel ar doythyon ... a ossodassant 
eu hemendyth ar er egnat a kamero dyofryt braut ac ar er 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 75 

argluyt ay rodhey ydau ar ny huypey teyr kolhouen kefreyth 
1.27- 

(c) limb. Teyr guely arperykyl . . . sef eu e rey heny. 
dernaut em pen hyd er emenyt dernaut hyd er emescar neu tory 
un or pedeyr kolouen 7.24. 

koluyden the chine ( ?) , one of the twelve golwython of the 
stag in season. Guerth hyd o kalan gayaf hyd guyl yeuan .LX. 
a tal . . . ac o huyl yeuan hyd eklan xn goluys kefreythyaul 
esyd endau ... sef goluythyon e duy vanec val e deucorn ay 
tauaut ay laubron ay kallon ay heruth ay ahu ay due leuen ay 
thumon ay hydkellen ay koluyden 96.7. In the list in the Latin 
Laws 'tria fercula colli' apparently correspond to this. A.L.II 
825. Pughe gives colwydd the neck parts ; colwydden a neck 
of venison. 

koluyn hound, spaniel, coluyn brenyn punt a tal 94.21. Tri 
chi bonheddic y sydd : olrheat ; a mylgi ; a cholwyn. A.L.II 
592.lv. kolen [canis Hispanici]. ibid. 907.7. cf.Llon colwyn 
ar arfed ei veistres. M.A. 8503.21. = Ir. culian (?). T.B.F. 
p. 445, where culian =dimin. of cu. 

coluyth see golwyth. 

coll loss. Os o gadu cyn coll y dewys y ardelu 82.1. gwely 
na choll eneyt 75.12; 81.24. 

kollet loss, thing lost, chweford yd a da dyn y ganthau . . . 
ar eyl collet o lesget 81.11. Ac y gyt ac nat oes beth ath 
wahanus dy ath gollet 81.6. 37.2; 46.35; 86.24. 

kollen hazel, guerth kolluyn .xxnii. o tenyr vn kollen or 
kolluyn .1111. 97.23. 

kolluyn hazel bush, see kollen. 

kolly (a) to lose, heb colly e breynt 40.19. 38.9; 46.37 ; 56.25 ; 
81.21; 91.25; 108.21; 134.14. 3 sg. pres. ind. kyll, kill 27.4, 8; 
29.9; 34.8; 48.32; 62.3; 67.20; 118.8; 131.8. subj. kollo 14.18; 
46.8. pass, collyr 133.15. 3 sg. pret. colles 36.17; 62.3; 82.5; 
92.2; 134.16. 3 sg. imper. collet 12.28; 55.21; 56.28; 133.23. 
verb. adj. kolledic having suffered loss. lleydyr ... a uo 
eneyt uadeu ny dylyir dym oy da cany dylyir dywuyn a dyal 
eythyr talu yr k. yr eydau 82.23. ny byd k. ynteu or eydau 
80.6. 46.20; 49.6; 70.19; 131.7. 

(b) loss, forfeit. Ac yna gouyn yr amdyfynnvr puy dy 
gyghaus puy dy ganllav. ac yna enwy puy ynt huy ac yna 
gouyner ydau a dyt ew colly neu gafael yn eu pen huy . . . ac 
yna y mae yaun ydau ynteu dyweduyt dodaw kolly a chafael. 



76 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

(/ do submit to "forfeit or win.") 132.5- 52-33, 3; 53-39; 
56.29; 132.6; 133.12-14. 

koquinyat see kychuynyad. 

cor th Ian land of the gwelygordd or family. Tyr corthlan ny 
dylyir yr rannv herwyd tydynneu namyn herwyd gardeu ac o 
byd tey arnau ny dyly y mab yeuhaw hunnv mvy nor hynaw 
63.14. There appears to be some confusion between corddlan and 
corfflan in Med.W. cf. Dygyrchu y gordlan a oruc y brenhin. 
g6elet y bed a vynnei. R.B.I 101.7. = corfflan. W.B. 2273.10. 
Corthlan. v.l. coflan, corfflan. A.L.I 180 viii. Gwelygordd 
is defined in P.MS. 169.242 as kenedl ne hynaif. cf. R.B.II 
42.14. c. = Ir. crod cattle, stock, wealth. Cymr. cordd M. 
'a group, collection, tribe' . . . Ags. heard. Ir.Text. iv.392. 

koret weir, fishpond. Try thlus kenedyl y gelwyr melyn a 
choret a pherllan . . . ny dylyir eu rannv . . . namyn rannv 
eu fruytheu 63.12. 63.10. pi. -eu. [y brenhyn] ... a dyly o 
myn gwneuthur coredeu ar eu dyuret 67.11. piscina .i. coret. 
A.L.II 906.18. see 'Cored' and 'Pawl y gored.' M.A. 23a. Rhag 
cau rhwydau coredwyr. D.G. lxxv.8. Ace. to Zimmer Ir. 
" foreth vadum ist idendisch mit kymr. gored. Wehr Fisch- 
reuse," etc. Celt.Stud.II 13. 

coref see corof. 
corescur see goryscur. 

korf m. the body, trunk, dernaut em pen hyd er emenyd a 
dernaut en y corf hyd er emescar 105.26. 18.7; 80.3; 93.19; 
105.25. 

corflan f. burial ground, churchyard, messur corflan era 
keuureithiaul en hit ay phen ar e venwent a henne e kelch e 
uenwent 51.19. 51.16. Or gwneir eglwys o genad y brenhin 
mewn tayawcdref ac effeiriad y fierenwy yndi ae bod yn gorfflan 
hi ryd vyd y dref o hynny allan. LI. MS. 116, p. 29.2. Tri 
pheth er cael y cyvan ni welant vyth eu digon. mor corflan ac 
arglwyd. M.A. 880.51. =mor. tnynwent ac arglwyd cyvoeth. 
M.A. 896.71. a hynny heuyt y6 meint myn6ent gorfflan. 
A.L.II 360 1. Diwarna6d yn hyly yr brenhin. dygyrchu y 
gorfflan a oruc. g6eled y bed auynnei tr6 yt gaffei wreicca. 
W.B. col. 453.10. =y gordlan. R.B.I 101.7. see corthlan. 

korn, cornt m. a horn. Try eydyon kehyt eu corn ac eu 
eskeuarn 36.16. corn eth efo e brenyn punt a tal ae y corn 
keueytas punt 99.26. naud [e guylur] eu or pan decreuho ef 
kanu y korn pan hel y huylyau eny agorer e porth 26.27. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 77 

16.11, 16; 17.14; 91-11; 93.16; 96.5; 99.14, 16; 100.4, 5! 104.4. 
pi. kyrn, cryn 16.5 cryn ; 17.6; 30.12; 99.20. 

corneyt m. a hornful. try corneyt llyn 15.30. 6.12; 7.16; 
8.18; 13.30 corney; 15.31; 19.14. 

[corofl coref pillar, post, -what divided the superior from the 
inferior part of the hall. Petuuaret ar dec esyt en llys peduuar 
onadunt ys coref a dec uch coref 5.4. O deruyd y dyn gueneu- 
thur cam ys koref a fo ohonau hue koref ay dale kyn kafael 
naut trayan y dyruy a dely e dysteyn 9.20. Teir rhan y dyly 
neuadd y brenin y chyfansoddi, un uch coryf . . . sef yw uch 
coryf uch celfi ae gefyn wrth y celfi ydd eiste y brenin . . . Eil 
is coryf . . . Tryded rhan y neuadd yw y tal issaf. A.L.II 
584. xi. cf. Kwmpas oed yny neuad. a diruawr golofyn y meint 
ar weith piler yny perued a gortho o eur didlawt cadarn yny 
gylch. a chywreint ysgwthyr yny teckau o diruawr ethrylith 
cann piler o varmor gwedus. cwmpas oedd yny gylch yn gynn 
bellet o vessur y wrth y piler perued. val y dygei y cwmpas 
mawr yr ystlysseu y wrthunt hwynteu. H.MSS.II 9.7. corof 
support. M.A. i64b.i6; 165^55; 239b.4- D.G. ccxxxii.76, 104. 
c.= saddle bow. R.B.I 186.10; 290.15. C.M. 48.3. H.MSS.I 
230.17, etc. c. is often used for celfi and vice versa, see celfi. 
see Loth. p. 152. 

coron royal crown, kyn no duyn coron lundeyn a theyrn- 
wyalen o sayson dywynwal moel mud oed urenhyn ar yr ynys 
hon 64.17. c. = Lat. corona, see Loth. p. 153. 

cosp, cosb fine, punishment. Yaun i'r egnat deuedut kosb er 
anostec esseu eu hene teirbiu camluru 54.9. Or pan anher mab 
yn argluyd arnav ac ny dyly cosp arnau namyn y dat 70.23. 
c. = Ir. cose to admonish, reprimand. 

cospy to fine, punish. Ac ew a dyly cospy gwyr y uaertrew 
am eu haghyureythyeu 68.5. see Walde under 'inquam.' 

kossy to scratch. E troydauc ... a dely daly trayt e 
bre[nyn] eny arfet or pan decreuho eyste eg keuedac eny hel 
y kesku ac a dely kossy e b[renyn] 24.11. ymgos (itch). 
Med.M. 112 120. 

cossyn see caws. 

kost expense. E brenyn a dely o pob inyleyntref dyn a 
march a buyall . . . ac uuenteu ar y kost ef 30.7. 

kost a no a mastiff (?), a bandog (?). Pa ky bennac a uo y 
uab eyllt vn kerdhed ay kostauc torn 94.26. 94.23 ; 95.1 (kostaut). 
koregi = kostoc. P.MS. 169, p. 262. O deruyd y wreic dywedut 
geir gwythlawn wrth y gwr val unaw mefyl ar y varyf . . . neu 



78 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

y alw yn gostawc. A.L.II 94-cxlviii. costauc [canis domesticus]. 
A.L.II 799.xxvi, etc. Tri rhyw costoc torn y sydd . . . 
bugeulgi ; a chostoc tal pentan . . . A.L.II 592. vi. 

costrel f. bottle, jlagon. [guerth] costrel dawdwng 102.4. 
dwy gostrel yn llawn o win. R.B.I 196.8; 206.4. c.=Med.Lat. 
"Costerellum Liquidorum mensura, vas vinarium certae capa- 
citatis." M.D. 

cowyll a sum of money varying from one to eight pounds 
payable by the husband to a maiden on becoming his wife. 
This had to be claimed by the -wife before the first morning 
succeeding the nuptials. Try pryurey greic y cowyll ae gouuen 
ae y sarahet esef achaus e geluuyr en try pryurey vrth e uod en 
try pryaut greic ac na ellir e duen o neb achaus y kenthy esef 
eu e couuyll er hyn a cafey am y guerendaut 37.32. O deruyt 
rody moruyn e gur ac na honner e couuyll kene keuody tranoes. 
ny dele ef ateb ydhy hy ohene allan 39.27. 34.6, 8; 36.31, 32; 
37.24; 39-28, 29; 41.4, 14; 130.19, 21 ; 133.21. Originally c.=veil, 
hood, mantle (?). Guiscaut kaet kein goruyll. v.l. Gowyll. 
M.A. 1193. 22. Tri chowyllawg llys : cerwyn fedd, a bragawd 
a chathyl cyn ei dangos ir brenin. M.A. 9423.15. cf. huyl am 
pen (y gerwyn). see huyl. cowyll =givisg. P.MS. 118, p. 484. 
cowyl\avfc=cooperta. A.L.II 776.xli. c. = Ir. caille (?). caille 
=-ueil. see M.C. 

[coylyaw] to credit, trust. 3 sg. pres. ind. coyllya. Ereyll a 
uynn gadu gwat ydau yr gyrr yr argluyd ual yr gyrr perchen- 
nauc a hunnv muyhaw y coyllya gwyr gvynet ydau 80.20. nit 
amgen vn pwngkc ar bymthec yr hwnn a geffir ynn lie arall yn 
Lladin val y mae haws y goylo, ae welet ynn ysgrifenedic. 
A.L.II 428-v. see etncoilhaam gl. aspicio, auspex. Z 2 . 1053. 6b. 

crach ulcers, scabs, scars. Ny dyukyr guaet deynt a guaet 
crac a guaet truyn 106.21. Hawdd tynnu gwaed o ben crach. 
D.D.Prov. 

crafell scraper, naud [e popuryes] eu hy[d] y buryho ay 
crauell 27.20. kravell = kravlech. P.MS. 51, p. 191. cf. kraber 
=hayarn cleis (cleis= corner). P.MS. 51, p. 192. 

craf strict, careful. A guedy honny onadunt e kefreythyeu 
. . . heuel a rodes y audurdaud uthunt ac a orckemenus en 
kadarn eu kadu en craf 1.20. A pholidamas . . . awnaeth y 
negesseu yn graf. R.B.II 36.22. 

crassu to dry corn in a kiln, menet y crassu y odyn arall 
87.15. 68.15. 3 sg. pres. subj. crasho 86.5. see Loth, Vocab. 86. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 79 

craun store, hoard, supply. Greyc mab ihuckellur e ejll rody 
. . . y buyt ae y dyaut a craun e cell 3813. Vy craun haw a 
mi nid im vend. B.B.C. 62.9. 

creedigaeth creation. tygu y duv . . . ac yr gur ay 
gwahanvs ew o creedigaeth tat a mam nas creus ew y mab 
72.17. 

cred oath, security. Puebenwac a keneuho tan en odyn 
keuoet kan arall e llosko ac na kamerho cred ykan e nep a 
crasho arney guedy ef talet trayan 86.5. 35.24. 

credu to believe. O deruyd bot rey o genedyl mab yn y 
wadu ac ereyl yn y gymryt yaunaw yu credu yr nep y syd yn y 
gymryt 74.6. regredu 46.37. pret. pass. (?) kredud 51.1. 
verb. adj. credaduy credible, to be believed, kan adeuuyt e 
mace credadwy eu pahar e roet 30.32. 

kreu, k. enllyn skimmer (A.O.). [guerth] k. eullyn fyrdling 
100.27. =kreuellyn. P.MS. 35, f. iogb-3. This last looks like 
a dimin. of kra veil = scraper. kravell=kravlech. P.MS. 51, 
p. 191. so MS. 169, p. 262. 

[creu] to create, beget. 3 sg. pret. tygu . . . nas creus ef y 
mab hunnv yg kallon gwreyc 72.17. rycreus 72.7. 

creuan skull, cranium. [am] pop kreyt kudyedyc .1111. 
creuuan [.mi.] 106.12. de" superiori parte creuuan [cranu]. 
A.L.II 844.xiv., etc. 

creyr, kereir a holy relic. Tygu . . . yr allaur honno ac yr 
creyryeu da yssyd arney 72.6. 37.18 ; 44.14 ; 76.8. pi. -eu 44.6-13 ; 
51.16-18; 72.5-22; 81.17; 134-11-23. ysgrin y kreiryeu the Ark 
of the Covenant. P.MS. 20, p. 19. cf. Duw mab meir yw kreir 
Cristnogyon. M.A. 288^55. ac escyrn y seint gantunt rac 
ofyn dileu or agkyfreitholyon baganyeit y sa61 greireu a oed 
gantunt. R.B. II 236.20. see M.A 1053.3. Rep.MSS.I 756 22 ; 
996 64; 1004 381. c. = Ir. cretair relic, see Ped.I 68. c. = Ir. 
crechtra. Stokes. Ir.Text. iv.392. 

creyrhau to swear upon a relic, to put on oath upon relics. 
Llema popun or duipleit en amheu guebjtied j kilit nas degant 
yr degin. ket as deuetoent ar eu tauaut leuerit jaun eu yr eneit 
ena ev kreirhau. ac guedi as creirhauont e may yaun vddunt 
menet allan 55.9. 3 pi. pres. subj. creirhauont 55.9. imper. 
pass, creyrhaer 108.9. 

kreyth f. scar, wound (?). teyr creyth okeuarch esyt vn ar 
uynep ac arall ar troet ac arall ar lau .xxx. ar troet .LX. ar lau 
,cxx. ar venep. pop kreyt kudyedyc .1111. 106.9. 



8o GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

crocn skin. 9.16; 10.7, 8; ii.n, 12; 13.23; 16.12, 13; 89.10; 
90.3; 96.14, 19; 97.10-14. pi. cruyn 8.2; 9.11, 14; 13.26; 16.26, 
28; 17.4; 19.20, 27; 24.27, 28; 26.1. ruyn 19.28. 

croes f. cross, special boundary mark or sign. Ny dele nep 
guell[t] kadu amken a deuguell[tj. kay a gueyrclaud ac os myn y 
kadu croes yean er argluyt a kaduet honno ef 117.7. ac os ew 
a wna yr haulur adau y maes doter croes racdau nat el ac od a 
galwet yr amdyffynnvr am uraut 130.14. Ny fiery kroes namyn 
blwyddyn. Nyt kroes kroes gwraic o byd gwr yddy. Val hyn 
y dylyeir gyrv kroes ay gwadv kymryt krayr a thygv yr krayr 
hynny deirgwaith arnaw tony y groes. A.L.II 254-xvii. 

croessan, croysan jester, buffoon. E penguastraut ... a 
dely .11 n. k. a pop march a rodho e brenyn. eythyr y try 
dyn sef eu e rey henny er escob ar penhebogyt ar croessan . . . 
sef acaus nas dely [e croysan]. kanys ef a dely ruymmau e 
kebyster am y keyllyeu 13.9. =joculator. A.L.II 760.3. y 
chwedyl hwn gwell yw ac odidogach kany cheir gan ueird iia 
chroessanyeit. C.M. 28.20. Gwr a gwreic croessan a phutein. 
Eluc. 116.20. kroessan=krasaren serthedd. P.MS. 169, p. 264. 
cf. Tri pheth anweddus ar gerddawr : frost, gogangerdd a 
chroesanaeth. M.A. 833 50. see D.G. ccxxx.27- P.MS. 49. 
f. 52b. Ni ddawr croesan pa gabl. Dr.D.Prov. Pob croesan a 
wna vydrwr, rhaid dysgedig i vod yn vardd. M.A. 785 128. 
c.=Ir. "crossan. a lewd, ribaldrous rhymer. The cross-bearers 
in religious processions who also combined with that occupation 
the profession of singing satirical poems against those -who had 
incurred Church censure, or were for any other cause obnoxious." 
M.C. see also Stokes Book of Lismore. Glossary. 

[croesu] to make the sign of the cross. 3 sg. imperat. croyset. 
ac ellwg yr efieyryat ygyt ac ew hyt ar drws yr egluys a 
chroyset racdau na tygho anudon 80.2. 

croc cross, gibbet, .ix. tauyodyauc . . . .ix. eu lleydyr urth 
e croc ar y kydlladron 31.15. see Loth p. 154. 

crogy to hang, gibbet, hang up, put aside. O deruyd y dyn 
Had arall a gwenuyn galanas deu dyblyc . . . neu ynteu yn 
eneyt uadeu ... ay dyhenyd ew yn ewyllys yr argluyd nay 
grogy nay losgy a uynno 129.26. e greyc byeu e kic eny hel[y] 
ar caus eny hely a guedy e croker e gur pyeu 33.29. 

croper a chisel (A.O.). [guerth] croper dymey 100.15. 
crud (crwth) the crowd. Ebedyu pop penkert or a estenho 
argluyd penkedyaed ydau e brenyn byeu keysyau ofer ydau 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 81 

nyd amken a telyn y hun a crud y arall 128.10. Ireland only 
uses and delights in two instruments, the harp and the tabor. 
Scotland has three . . . and Wales, the harp, the pipes, and the 
crowd. Gerald.Topogr.Hiber. cap. xi. 

cryb a comb, [guerth] cryb .1. 101.9. cr ip gl. pectens, ancilla 
capillos. Z2. 1059. cf. gwaith . . . rhod a chribau. M.A. 
778b.27; 912 233; 799 54. tal grib=morwyn troell. P.MS. 
169, p. 331. 

crybdeyl plunder; anreyth g. a seizure by violence of a 
homicide's property. Nyt oes y cyureyth lie y dylyer anreyth 
grybdeyl namyn am lad celeyn 80.7. see R.B.II 146. cf. Ir. 
crip (crib) quick, swift. M.C. grip. W.W. 

crybdeylyau to snatch, tear away. Teyr fordh y sereyr e 
urenynes. un eu tory y naud . . . e tredyt yhu grypdeylyau 
pedh oy llau 3.13. see H.MSS.I 296.13. cf. nyt digrif genhym 
dy welet yn ymgribyaw a gwrach. R.B.I 142.10. 

crybyn f. rake, [guerth] krybyn iyrdlyng 101.3. Da fu'r 
gribin ewinhir, Doe a'th gynullodd ar dir. (Y Mwdwl Gwair.) 
D.G. cxxxv.n. 

cryhyr heron. Ef a dele yanredethu o teyr anrec e dyt e 
ll[a]dho y hebauc un o try ederyn. ay bun ay caran ay cryhyr 
11.15. ardea, id est, crehyr. A.L.II 822.13. 

cryman m. bill. Sarhaet caeth deudec ceynyauc. chwech yr 
peys . . . ac un y c[r]yman . . . o byd yg coet roet yr buyall 
ceynnyauc y cryman 78.12. 33.21; 100.7. pi- cremaneu 33.21. 

kryn see corn. 

crenno compact, complete. Lema e gueles yoruerth vab 
madauc uod en krenno escryuennu guerth e tey 98.23. 

crys, kres shift, under- garment, ladher e kres en keuuc ae y 
guerdir 36.8. 25.8; 38.12; 104.20. pi. crysseu 22.19. see 
H.MSS.I 213.10. 'crys' is used often in Med.W. for 'girdle' like 
the corresponding Ir. criss. see M.C., W.W. 

cudua hiding place. O deruyd y dyn cafael kyc anyueyl ny 
bo eydau ay can gun ay y cudua arall ay gymryt ohanau hep 
gannyat dyruy a uyd ht yd el 80.21. 

kudyau to hide, conceal, a deleu dody mantell arnau oy 
ckudyau rac y guelet 128.25. 91.13. part. pass, kudyedyc 
hidden 106.12. 

eussan a kiss. Val hyn y dylyir kymryt mab yg kenedyl 
. . . y pen kenedyl byeu kymryt duylau y mab y rung y 

G 2 



82 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

duylau ynteu a roy cussan ydav. canys cussan yu aruyd 
kerennyd 74.16. 35.10-19; 74.16-18. 

[kuaran] shoe. pi. -eu. Ef a dely croen hyc e gayaf y 
gueneuthur kenleuaneu ac croen bucc er haf y gueneythr 
cuaraneu 16.13. cuaranneu . . . ny bydant vch no hyt y 
vffarned y tract. Ll.MS. 69, p. 34.17. gwnaythiir ohonaw 
giiranay o grwyn amrwd . . . tynny rhisc y prenn [derwen] 
y gypheithiaw y cyranay. Ll.MS. 34, p. 245.3. cf. The horsemen 
. . . either walk barefooted, or make use of high shoes, roughly 
constructed with untanned leather. Gerald. Descr. cap. viii. k.= 
Ir. cuaran "a foot covering formed of a loose piece of leather 
bound with a thong; a slipper, a sandal." Dineen. cuaran 
was often made of untanned or half-tanned hide. Joyce II 216. 

cubyl, kubel, kubil (a) whole, entire, complete, kanydoes did 
kubil ac nat yaun talu drill did en lie did 52.9. 35.15; 46.9; 
49.24; 61.10; 70.9; 71.7; 75.19; 85.24; 88.24; QI-5J 111.20; 115.14 
(kabyl) ; 118.25; "9-I3- 

(b) the whole, kubyl o henne a kill 34.8. 34.11 ; 39.18 ; 40.26 ; 
44.11; 45.22; 46.36, 37; 50.31; 62.9; 63.3; 80.15; 115.15; 135-15- 

cubylwat full denyal. Yaun yr amdyffynm;r dyweduyt 
cubyl wat nat oes dym or teu dy gennyw uy 21.5. 

kuc=uc 6.15. 

cuedyn see chue. 

kukyn knot, knuckle. gu[e]rt e kukyn vchaf or bys .xxvi. 
. . . guert e kukyn perved .xxxm. . . gu[e]rth e kukyn 
yssaf .LXXX. 105.4. cf. kygwn vn ascwrn yndaw. na mynnwes 
vn ewin . . . nyt oed ny bei gyflawn o garyat y uorwyn. R.B.I 
85.9. seith vgein kygwng yny aerwy. A.B.II 182.14. M.A. 
43b.i7. 

kiilym knot, band, kahyd e dely y dyllat a kulym y laudyr 
25.9. ny byd hyt yn y dillat namyn is penn y lin vrth glwm y 
lawdyr. A.L.I 392.27. P.MS. 36b, p. 12. Ll.MS. 69, p. 34.23. 
A.L.I 676. viii. cf . Tri argay gwaet yssyd mynwes ; a gwregys 
perued a gwregys Ila6d6r. A.L.I 784.xxxvi. 

kulldyr coulter. 27.28; 33.20. Tyr such a chulldyr arable 
land. 64.9. k. = Lat. cultrum. Loth. 

cumpas m. circle ; en cumpas about, around, niessur corflan 
eru keuureithiaul en hit ay phen ar e venwent a hewne e kelch 
e uenwent a dele bot en cumpas 51.20. see H.MSS.II 9.7-12. 

kvryw, kuruf beer. Ac ony chefyr y med duyn y bragaut ac 
ony chefyr y bragaut pedeyr o gvryw 68.23. 18.28; 2 5-5; 69.14. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 83 

see brae. Achau'r kwrw. Ef a gad o frag fab heiddfysg fab 
keirchgell fab odyn rhos fab nithdro, etc. Rep.MSS.II 170.92. 

kudha last ( ?). e lludyn a del yr porth k. [e porthaur] beuuyt 
26.6. There appears to be considerable doubt -whether kwtta in 
the expression eidion k. means 'last' or 'bob-tailed.' The scribe 
of the Latin Laivs regards it apparently as 'last' and not 'bob- 
tailed.' ' et de qualibet preda per portam intrante, ultimum 
animal [Janitor] debet habere.' A.L.II 762. vii. LI. MS. 69, 
p. 30.24, gives llvdyn divethaf. Med. Law 32.13-14 combines 
both. Or anreith warthec adel yr porth or byd eidon kota erni. 
y porthawr ae keiff. ar eidon diwethaf. a del yr porth. ef 
heuyt ae keiff. Cwtta, cotta usually mean, 'bob-tailed/ 'short,' 
'clipped' in Med. Welsh. O hoenyn i hoenyn yd a'r march yn 
gwtta. Dr.D.Prov. [ysgyfarnog] Gefnfain, gwtta geginfwyd. 
D.G. l.n. Ceiniog gotta curt penny, petris cwtta. H.MSS.II 
125.7. os rhownllaes os cwtta. Huw Cowper MS. p. 30. It 
appears also to mean 'last' Rhag ofn ir Gorucha dy ddal ar y 
gwtta. LI. MS. 209, p. 277. yn ola g\vt=last. Dimet. 

kuynau to complain, ac os maed gan g. or mab racdau ew 
a uyd dyruyauc 71.5. 

kuynos supper (?), dinner (?). Y uaynaul y taler tung 
ohoney ny dyly yr argluyd nay mel nay pyscaut canys med a 
delyr ohoney. ac y gyt ar med pedeyr arugeint o bop maynaul 
a delyr a hunnv a elwyr aryant y gvynnos 67.1. e dystein a 
dele rannu aryant e kuynos. ual hyn e renyr aryant e kuynos. 
sef eu henny .xxim. o pob guled o bo med arney. Ac o hyny 
.xvi. ir suydguyr e brenyn ac .vni. y suydguyr e urenynes 
10.13. 14-11 ; 18.21 ; 19.3; 20.5, 10 ; 21.7; 22.9, 21; 23.11. Arjant 
y gwynos [al. gwesdfaeu]. L.W. 50 3. melyna i dlawd ei 
gwynos. M.A. 3603.32. cwynos=swper. Rep.MSS.I 721.7. 
Trydydd yw ei gwynosawg, dyn a ddylyo ei borthi y nos hono. 
M.A. 94ob-36. deu ederyn gwendoleu . . . dwy gelein or kymry 
a yssynt ar eu kinya6 a dwy ar eu kwynos. P.MS. 16, p. 5ib. 
see M.A. 405 406. (kinya6 breakfast. W.B. 213, col. 425.31-4.) 

cwymvr see gwynwr. 

kuyr wax. puebenac a kafo bedaf k. a dele neu ec kuyr 97.4. 
kuyr e gulet ual hyn e renyr y trayan yr medyd kesseuyn 17.26. 
ii. i ; 17.25. medyd a geiff trayan y cvyr a tynner or gervyn. 
LI. MS. 69, p. 31.14. 

kvys furrow, keynnyauc am pob kvys a arder ar aghyuarch 
68.29. troetued vyd lied pob cwys. P.MS. 363, p. 81.15. k.= 
Ir. ceis. Urkelt. 76. 



84 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

kuysyll a groover (A.O.). kuysyll a troryd a carnllyf . . . 
am pop vn o henne .1111. 102.2. L.W. 272 166 reads cwynsyll. 

ky dog, hound. 85.11 ; 94.25. pi. kun. O deruyd y dyn 
mynet y hele a decrecu hele ac ellug ar anyueyl pa anyueyl 
bennac uo a kauaruod kun secur ac ef ay lad eccun kentaf ay 
kecuenus byeuyd 122.22. 4.3-20; 6.19; 8.9; 16.5; 17.6-10; 66.2; 
96.10-24; 122.21-23; 123.2-4. 

kychuyn tr. and intr. to start, take away, dispossess, ny dele 
kechuin odeno hyd empen .ix. uetyt 38.16. melyn a choret a 
perllan . . . ny dylyr eu rannv nac eu kychwyn 63.12. Pwy- 
bynnac a dyholyer o uraut y gyureyth yaun yu ydau uot yn ur 
kychwyn dranoeth 79.20. pryodaur a keuun tridet gur tridet 
gur a kicuin treftadauc . . . treftadauc a kecuin gur deuot 
56.12. 38.17, 18; 47.34; 48.40; 60.4; 61.12; 122.18; 123.2. 3 sg. 
pres. ind. kychwyn, kicuin, keuun 55.23; 56.9, 62.8, 9. 3 sg. 
pret. kecuinuus, kecuenus 55.16; 122.22. cf. c.=resurrection. 
Eluc. 133.13. 

[kychuynyad] removal. E da anilis redevedassam ny ema 
puy pennac a diguitho e cham am i koguinyat bit er argluit ene 
oil 48.4. cf. Dyma gychwyniadau meibion Israel yn ol eu 
lluoed. Num. x.28. see also LI. MS. 116, p. 70.7. 

ket, ked conj. though, ked kouenho yaun ydau ny dely y 
kafael 19.18. rei a uin ac vn seihuir guadu ked et bvo petuuar 
mach arrukein 45.20. 26.24; 29.21; 31.10; 34.17; 40.22; 41.18; 
47-7, 23, 33 ; 50-23, 28; 53.14; 55.8, 22; 61.17, 27; 62.17; 73.20, 24; 
79.11, 13, 15, 16; 80.3; 108.12; 110.21; 111.3, 114-10; 115.5, 7; 
117.1; 118.7 (ke); 119.2, 19; 122.7; 123.2, 4; 130.3, 10 ; 134.1. 
"written kent 62.7 ; keuoet 70.25 ; 86.4 ; 89.14 ; 108.21 ; 124. n ; cen 
canys cen bo eneytuadeu y lleydyr ny byd eneyt uadeu ew 
79.25. 35.24; 37.28. neg. keny. kanys k. deleho kyduuyta ac 
ef. ef a dely kydeuet 9.31. 38.20, 21 ; 53.41 ; 71.17; 76.3 ; 79.18; 
87.9; 88.11 ; 97.16; 113.5; 126.7; 127.6, 7; 128.18; 130.26. 

kyt, ykit together. O deruit y din kamrit macht jkan arall ar 
peth a deuot e duipleit ykit 45.9. 17.11; 49.29, 30; 50.1; 65.27; 
76.22; 117.14. ykyt a(c), ygyt a(c) together with, mynet yr 
drew y bo y dyn a ladher yndy ygyt ar llowrud 74.29. 5.17 ; 6.8 ; 
7.27 (y ky ac) ; 7.28 ; 8.4, 17, 29, 30 ; 9.9 ; 12.6, 22 ; 15.5, 6, 22, 29 ; 
16.3; 17.20, 34; 18.1, 29, 30; 19.7, 8, 20; 20.4, 5, 21, 32; 21. 18; 
22.30 ; 24.2 ; 25.3 ; 28.17 ; 34.15 ; 45.9 ; 48.9, n ; 53.20, 29, 30 ; 54.20 ; 
59.2; 66.26, 29; 74-29J 75-5, 20; 77.13, 18, 21 ; 78.18, 20; 80.12; 
81.5, 19; 87.2; 111.5; 129.11, 21 ; 130.27; 132.4, etc., etc. ac ygyt 
a hynny= moreover 54.20; 81.9; 111.5; 129.21. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 85 

kyduarnu sitting in judgment with, en lie e bo en kyduarnu 
braut ykyd ac eneit ereyll 12.21. 

[kyduot] ketuoth agreement ( ?) . Ac nidoes keureith erug egil 
a gilid namin evvlis diu ac urth hinni din a el yar a daear hon ni 
dois idau enteu keureith na[m]in ketuoth e neill rei on nadun 
hui 47.11. Llyma y prisie a wnaethbwyd yn gydvod hon ar bob 
anifail. P.MS. 86, p. 184. dan boen tor kydvod. P.MS. 86, 
p. 184. 

kyduuyta to eat together. 9.31. 

kytgarant kinsmen, kindred. Ac y gyt a hyny bot ydau o 
gyt garant a uo dygaun y gadu bot yn wyr a dyweyt. y llowrud. 
sew achaus y mae da kytgarant cany dylyant yr estronyon na 
duyn dyn yg cerenyd nay wahanu ay gerenyt 129.21. 

kydkaghor mutual ad-vice or counsel. Ac o kydkaghor a 
kydsynedycaeth e doython . . . er hen kefreythyeu a esteryasant 
1.13- 

kydleydyr participator in a theft. 31.17. pi. kydlladron 31.16. 

kydsuydocyon pi. co-officers. 11.22; 16.10, 24. 

kydsynedycaeth mutual agreement. Ac o kydkaghor a 
kydsynedycaeth e doython . . . er hen kefreythyeu a esteryasant 
1.13. 

cyssynyau to agree, to unite upon something. Nau affeyth 
lledrat . . . yr eyl yu eyssynyau ar lledrat 78.16. 74.25; 85.15. 

kydteruyn common boundary. Pan del deu urenyn ar eu 
kydteruyn o achaus emaruoll 3.1. 

kidtiriauc joint proprietor (?). Ni dele kidtiriauc talu oe 
killit tir ny bo suid ohonau en lie tir e bo suyd ohonau 56.27. 
see kyttir. LI. MS. 116, 82.2; 92.31. 

kydcuet to drink together. 9.31. 

kedymdeythas society, company. Brenyn a dele uod eny 
kedemdeythas undynarpemdec ar ueyrch 3.16. 

kedymdeython associates, company. E dysteyn ... a dely 
trayan ykan holl suydguyr e brenyn eregthau ay kedemdeython 
a duy ran ydau ef 21.4. 28.13. 

cyuadew to acknowledge, (in genit.) acknowledged, declared. 
Puybynnac a doto arwayssaw ym pen arall a phallu y arwayssaw 
ydau byt ehun leydyr cyuadew 82.17. part pass, kevadeuedic 
acknowledged. Tri pheth ni deleir naud racdunt kan eu bot en 
kevadeuedic 51.2. 



86 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

kauacos near, close by. guastraut auuyn ... a dely kerdet 
en kauacos by brenyn 23.33. 

kyuanned habitation, movable dwelling. Puy bynnac y cafer 
lledrat yn y dy gan uot y gyuanhed yndau ket bo ydav ew a 
gatwo y gorf rac y lledrat euo eyssyoes byeu cadu y ty 80.2. 
Puybynac y barner ydau dadannvd karr, ay ryuot ay garr ay 
gyuanned ac ay ayluyt ydau ehun neu oy dat kyn noc ew ar y 
tyr hunnv 60.24. Tri chyuanhed gwlat : meibon bychein ; a 
chwn ; a cheiliogeu. A.L.I 782.17. Adeil a aradwy yw kyfaned. 
LI. MS. 116, p. 27.3. Sef a gauas yn y chyghor fo ar mab y 
ynial6ch a diffeith6ch ac ymada6 ar kyuanned. W.B. col. 117.18 
= kyfannedeu. R.B.I 193.13. Ac wrth hynny i mudassant 
Arglwyddi Powys . . . ac eu hanneddeu ganthunt. M.A. 7313.31. 
dug eu Cyfannedd ir gwladoedd hynny. M.A. 7333.2. Peredur 
ynteu agerdawd . . . talym mawr o diffeith. heb gaff el k. Ac 
yn y diwed ef a doeth y g. bychan amdlawt. R.B.I 218.26. 

kyuanhedu to inhabit. Oe ryuot . . . ae ehun ay y dat kyn 
noc ew yn kyuanhedu ayluyt ar y tir 60.28. 7.6 ; 19.26. 

kyuar, kaueyr cotillage of land, coaration. Puebennac a 
guenel keuar ae kylyt yaun eu ydau rody bod vrthau a kauaruod 
e llau ae kylyt a guedy guenelynt hynny y kadu eny darfey e 
makal. Sef eu e makal .xn. em 107.1. pedeyr yru kyuar ym 
pob tydyn 65.21. 98.24; 108.12-19; 109.15; 110.11-24. See cyfeir. 

kyuarch appeal, protection ( ? ) ; geyr kyuarch an appeal, a 
supplementary question after the trial before the verdict. Ac 
odyna kymeret yr ynat ar effeyryat ar rygyll y duy gyghaussed 
a datcanent ac aent allan a barnent herwyd y duy gygheusaeth 
ac o byd reyt geyr kyuarch anuonent gennat y ouyn y mevn 
132.10. 53.26, 27, 32. Sef yv geir kyfarch pan ovyno yr ygnat 
pa le y bu yr anvaessaf neu y borth. A.L.II H4.1x. In kyuarch 
kyfyll k. = protection (?). cf. for snada (W. nawdd) i.e. 
comairce. B.L.G.. see kyfyll. 

kauaruot to meet, touch. O demit y vach a kanogon k. ar 
pont vnpren 43.38. k. e llau ae kylyt to touch hands in striking 
a bargain 107.3. 122.21. 3 sg. pres. subj. kyfarfo 49.30; 76.8. 
3 pi. kafarfoent 42.17. cyfarfod is from cyf+arfod (blow) but 
treated as if it were a cpd. of bod. Eveis y win a med e mordei. 
mawr meint e vehyr ygkyuaruot gwyr. B.An. 6.5. O bydd 
ynghyfarfod am garennydd. M.A. 48^14. Pedair prifgad ar ddeg. 
... A thri-ugain cyvarvod. M.A.o^b.25. Buant kyd yg gryd 
yg gretyf kyuaruod / Kyuaruogyon diletyf. M.A. 1863.35. er 
amot arvot arvaethi. M.A. 5b.i. O bydd a vynno dyfot/yr 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 87 

maes yn y arfot. P.MS. 67, p. n. Gwelais o arfod aeriab 
Gruffud/Rialluoed trwch. M.A. 1433.27. Ac yn hynny ymgy- 
varuot o peredur ar gwas melyn ae lad. R.B.I 217.22. so ibid. 
25. for 'arfod' see M.A. 1413, b; i48b; i6o,b ; i74b; i87b; 
pi. erfyd i64a ; iSsb. see cyfarfod. M.A. i2a ; 383, b ; 583 ; 
i6aa ; i68b ; 1773 ; i86a ; igib. kyfarfaeth. M.A. 2i6a. see also 
'diarfot.' H.MSS.I 200.18. 

kaiinru to make an agreement about cotillage. Puebennac a 
gnel keuar a guedy henny kauaru ac arall 110.18. kauaru hycc 
to supply an ox for the "kyuar" 117.7, IX > X 5- pres. subj. pass, 
kauarer 111.15. rekeuarer 108.19. 

kauarur a party to cotillage. O deruyd bod amresson er rug 
deu kauarur am tyr guyll ac arall faeth 109.23. pi. kauaruyr 
no.ii, 14, 16. 

kauarus a gift, present, an inheritance to which every innate 
Welshman was entitled. Penkerd ... a dele o pop dohouod 
. . . nac o erchy naco kauarus neythaur ran deurur. . . . Sef eu 
kauarus neytyaur .xxim. or neythawr a hene yr beyrt 128.17. 
Penteulu a dele ... teyr punt pop bluydyn ykan e brenyn en 
y kauaruus 6.24. Tri chyvarwys Cymro cynnwynawl : pum 
erwi rhyddion; cyvar gobaith; a helwriaeth. A.L.II 516.4. 
Tair braint gynhenid pob Cymro cynhwynawl ; ac eisoes dan 
enw Cymro y cauir ar Gymraes : cyvarwys a thrwyded pumerwi 
rhyddion yn mraint ei han o Gymro cynhenid; etc. M.A. 
924 65. Tair celvyddyd vreiniawl y sydd, a braint trwydded, 
nid amgen no phumerwi rhyddion tir a chyvarwys i bob un o 
naddynt ; sev i bob gwr a'u gwypont yn warantedig, ac au 
gwasanaethont, yn wahanred, ac yn amgen no'r tir a ddylit iddo 
yn mraint Cymro cynhwynawl : sev ydynt barddoniaeth, feryll- 
taeth, a llenoriaeth. M.A. 925 68. Tri pheth nyt reit mach ar 
dilysrwyd drostunt kynysgaeth gan vreic ; ac enill medic gan 
glaf; a chyfarws gwr gan y arglwyd. A.L.II 344.22. ydym 
wyrda hyt tra yn dygyrcher. yd yt uo m6yhaf y kyuar6s a 
rothom. M6yu6y uyd yn g6rdaaeth ninheu. W.B. col. 458.28 = 
R.B.I 105.4. Ygyt a hynny anuonwn idaw cann meirch. a 
chann pynn arnadunt o vyssaneu eur. y rei yssyd didlawt 
gennym ni wrth dalu kyuarwysseu yw wyrda. H.MSS.II 75.11. 
D.S.E., in his treatment of this word, suggests that it is a 
derivative of cyfar (co-oration), and this has generally been 
accepted. There is little doubt, however, that it is one of the 
series of words to which mamwys, tadwys, cynnwys, etc. belong, 
and that the cyfar=Ir. com-arba (heir). B.L.G. It appears 



then to mean " the rights which an innate Welshman 
inherited on becoming a member of the sept or tribe." For 
another view see W.P. p. 206, note 2, where it is derived from 
the root ues ' to abide.' For the variation cyfarws, cyfarwys 
cf. 'madws,' 'inadwys' (similarly formed). 

kauarussauc on entitled to cyfarws. Ebedyu bonedyc 
kanuynaul a mab uchelur a gur kauarussauc ebedyu a deleyr 
udunt keny bo tyr en eu llau 126.6. 

keuarhuidyt report, information. Rey a deueyt panyu maeldaf 
. . . yoruert vab madauc druy audurdaud e keuarhuidyt ay 
kadarnaha panyhu ydno hen 42.7. le heb y pryderi da oed 
gennym ni kael kyvarwydyt gan rei or gwyr eeinc racko. . . . 
Mi a dywedaf gyuarwydyt yn llawen. Ynteu wydon goreu 
kyuarwyd yn y byt oed. R.B.I 61.5. = W.B. col. 84.1. kyt 
kaffo y dywededic abat uchot gyuarwydyt y wrth gorff arthur o 
hen lyfreu. LI. MS. 4, f. 507b.22 = R.C. xxxiii-444. 

keuarvynep (ac) facing, opposite to. Ynat y kymut ar y 
neylltu ydav ac efeyryat or tu arall ydau a heol gyuarvynep ac 
ef 131.15. 52.15. 

keuepruyt foetus ; k. casset foetus or new-born foal, keuepruyt 
casset .mi. k. hyd em pen e peduaredyt ar dec guedy ganer 
87.21. 

keucchny f. surety. Ac vrth na eil[l] e mach kennal e 
keuechny ed aith en vach arney 48.2. 

keuedac wassail, entertainment, feast. Troydyauc ... a dely 
daly trayt e brenyn eny arfet or pan decreuho eyste egkeuedac 
eny hel y kesku 24.11. trededyn yu [er edlyg] a dele kanal 
kauedac en llys 4.14. naud [e trullyat] eu or pan decreuho 
llestry en llyn eny darfo e keuedac e nos honno 18.31. Arglwyd 
heb ef hi ath elwis di yn arglwyd ac yn urenhin yny ieith hi. 
Ac uelly yth anrydedwys. Yr hyn a dyly ditheu y wrtheb idi 
yw hyn. Sef yw hynny drinc heil. . . . Ac erchi yr uorvvyn 
yfet y gwin. Ac yr hynny hyt hediw y mae y deuot honno wedy 
hynny ym plith y kyfedachwyr yn ynys prydein. R.B.II 135.26. 
cyfedach yr holl seint. Eluc. 74.31. Yn eglwys . . . yssid 
gyfetach gan gyfeteu. M.A. 1963.32. cf. cyfedd companion, 
comrade (?). M.A. i63b. 

keuelyn f. a cubit. Teyr keuelyn en hyd y guaeu 25.17. 
101.13, J 5- A their kyuelin o lliein o pen y elin hyt ymlaen 
hiruys y wneuthur llawdwr idaw. A.L.I 676.2. 

keueylhorn deviation, a going astray, ar k. astray. O keyf 
anyueyl ar keueylhorn ef a dely .1111. Keynyauc manac 29.16. 
cf. anghyveilyorn misfortune (?). H.MSS.I 195.39. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 89 

keucyr day's ploughing of a yoke of oxen (?). [guerth] 
keueyr e gyaf .11. keueyr e guahanuyn .1. 104.10. =Aratio 
unius diet, n. denarii legates in yeme. In -vere, i. denarius 
legalis. A.L.II 866.1. cf. Ar dayar yg gyfeiryeu arnei yn 
holldi. C.M. 37.28. 

keuejr direction, opposite position ; egheuejr instead of, for. O 
deruyt e gur escar a gureic a hiteu en beichjauc pan escarer a 
hy gater jdhj or pan escarer a hy eny agho egheuejr banner 
bluydyn o ueytrjn e mab a gued[y] ganer e mab. hyteu byeu e 
ueythtrin ef ey[l] gueyt hyt emew e bluydyn 37.4. Tri llwdyn 
unwerth yn y genvain ... a hwch a gatwer yn nghyver gwestva 
arglwyd. M.A. 941^53. Ac odyna y holet ynteu o gernyw. 
ac y gyrrwyt yr mor yn y gyueir. R.B.I 141.19. Ir. fo chomhair 
for the use of. Pass. Horn. ; B.L.G. fo ch. over against, opposite. 
M.C. 

kef my saddle, guert kefruy .vm. 102.27. pi- kefmyeu. hen 
k. llyu eu pren 13.21. cf. Cyfr6y fa6yd. W.B. col. 253.17. Ir. 
clar sadall saddle tree. M.C. hen k. eurcalt 23.28. 

kut'ruyau to saddle, guastraut auuyn ... a dyly kufruyau 
march er egnat llys. ay duyn ydau urth eskenu arnau 24.3. 

kcfruys trained. Mylky o byt kefruys .cxx. o byt aghefmys 
.ix. 94.18. llamesten k. 12.18; 94.18. cwn cyfrwys. M.A. 
1073.14. 

kefryf to reckon, share, claim (?). Puybennac a kafo man 
lludyn ar hyd . . . deguysset e deylyat ay kefryf onadunt eny 
del e lludyn ehun ae enteu keynyauc ohoney hyteu guedy e 
dalyer pemgueyt 118.19. 118.24. ty r kyuryw land of equal 
share or claim, land divided by the bailiff in equal portions 
among the people of the " tref." Tyr kyllydus . . . maer a 
chyghellaur a dylyant rannu a rody y baup kystal ay gylyd yn 
y trevv. ac urth hynny y gelwyr yn tyr kyuryw 60.2. 66.19; 
68.24. tir kyfrif yw na bo mwy ran vn gwr noy gilyd or tir. 
LI. MS. 116, p. 90.31. Am tir gwelyawc y dywedassam ni. Tir 
kyllidus hagen ny dylyir y rannu herwyd brodyr namyn maer a 
chygellawr a dylyant y rannu a rodi y pawb kystal ae gilyd yn 
y tref ac vrth hynny y gelwir ef yn tir kyfrif. P.MS. 35, p. 423.19. 
cf . Ny dyleir kyt o vn lie onyt yn tref gyffrif ac yn y dref hono 
y dyly pawb gymynt ae gilid ac nyt kystal. Ac yn y dref hono 
y dyly meibion tir y mywyt eu tat eithyr y mab ievaf. A.L.II 
292.4. The rhif of tir cyfrif seems to mean 'share' or 'claim' rather 
than 'reckon' and rhifo appears to be used in this sense: am bob 
. . . swyddoc ... a ddalo da o fewn swydd arall os y perchen 



90 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

a ddaw kyn redec un dyd a blwyddyn arnunt ac enllibio or 
perchen y swyddoc am y da hunnw bod ir perchen rifo ar y 
swyddoc arno ac oni ddichon wadu bod ar y swyddoc sekysiwn 
ir perch, a thor ir brenin. P.MS. 86, p. 177. Os trwy venfyc y 
myn y holi yr hawlwr a dyly dangos hanuot y tir hwnnw oe 
dylyet ef a dyfot idaw yn rif a ran ygan y gyt tirogyon. A.L. 
II 380. vii. Riein nim rifei y ked am riuynt. M.A. i58a.3. ni 
riuafy ar vun vod yn galed. M.A. 1583.45. ac nym rify gwenn 
riein ryuet a weith. M.A. 158^19. 

kywlauan, kaflauan felony, a serious 'violation of fidelity, or 
serious injury to limb or life of man or beast. O deruyt e gurejc 
huriauc gueneutur kaflauan debrit ae rodhi chussan y hur ae 
gadel y gouessiau ay hemreyn 35.9. Nyd oes kaflauan a u[n]el 
tan dyn ar cnaut dyn arall a dyuecher heb gueytret dyn ykyd ac 
ef 87.1. puybe?mac a dalyho escrybyl ac eny dale ef gueynuthur 
kaflauan. pa kaflauan bennac au guenelhont e deytyat byeu yd 
talu 118.3. Pop kaflauan au guenel dyn oy anuod dyhuked 
oy uod 120. i. ky . . . kynevodyc ar vrathv dynyon nev 
ar wneythvr kyvlavanev ereyll 135.11. 38.6; 73.6, 19, 24; 74.12; 
86.24; H8.3; 120.1; 121.7, 9; 131-3; I35- 11 - 

kyiilaun complete. Dyn a uo kyulaun o uonhet 62.23. 66.9 ; 
70.9. 

cyuled, kcfled, kywlet as broad as. Claur eur kefled ay 
huynep 3.8. 63.9; 69.22, 25. 

keflo, buc keflo a cow in calf. 91.25. 

kaflodaut embryo-calf. O deruyt prynu buc keflo a kolly y 
kaflodaut 91.25. 

[kyfncssaf] kinsman, pi. kefnnesafyet, kefnessesuyejnt. Roet 
. . . gureic lu vii guraget. ar rejn hene oe kefnessesuyejnt 
earn e mam ay that ay brodyr ay chuorrit 35.20. 41.5. cf. Na 
ddynoetha noethni chwaer dydad : cyfnessaf dy dad yw hi. 
Levit. xviii.i2. Na vydd debyg i vlaidd wrth dy gyvnes. M.A. 
787b.22. Aiax kyfnessef y achelar6y. R.B.II 32.12. see Ir. 
coibnes gl. affinitas. Z%. 871.11. coibne, coibnius. M.C. 

[kyfnewid] keunevid bargain, barter. Pan prenno din peth 
ychan arall yr ariant ... a bot en edyuar kan perchen er araint 
e keunevid 47.28, 30. I dref plas cyfnewid plwydd. D.G. clx.20. 
Melin i gydau, llys i seigiau, Marchnad i gyvnewidiau. M.A. 
8i6b.27- byd cyfnewit o dynion megys o ddafat ac eidion. 
P.MS. 102,42 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 91 

kywnewydyau to traffic, barter. O deruyd y dyn rody aryant 
neu ysgrybyl ar arall ac or da hunnv kywnewydyau ac elwha or 
neb y doeth atau 132.17. Crin calaf a lliv yn nant / Cy vnewid 
Sais a'i ariant. M.A. io2a.8. 

kyunyueruc an eq^^al number. O deruyd na kafer kefynyueruc 
a hynne ar er hyd or moch 113.14. cf. Kyniuerwch a rif y ser. 
A.B. 225.23. M.A. ii2a.4 and note. L.W. 286.1 reads 'cyfnifer 
hwch.' P.MS. 35, p. jyb.n. kyfniuerwch. cf. amniuerwch rif. 
M.A. i65b. 59. 

keuody tr. and intr. to rise, raise, start. Urth y uod en 
peryglaur yr brenyn a keuody racdau ac eyste eny hoi 13.11. 
O deruit y din guneuthur cam keinauc yar e nodua a keuodi 
haul arnau ef am er agheureyth 51.13. Puybennac a uenno hele 
py[s]cgaut a keuodi pysc ohonau ay emlyd 123.10. 16.15; 27.19; 
36.1; 39.7; 51.10; 134.26. 3 sg. pret. ind. keuodes. 

[kyfoed] heiioed one of the same age. Dynaguet guru . . . 
onyd art en erbyn y heuoet kemeynt xxx a deleyr y talu eny 
tethy 92.13. Ac onid ard yn erbyn ei gydweddawg, . . . Sef yw 
ei gydweddawg, Ei gyfoed. L.W. 240 45. 

kefoet, k a north dominion, kingdom. Ny dele e brenyn menet 
ay lu or gulat namyn ungueys pop bluydyn. Huent a deleant 
menet en y kauoeth ef pan uenno 30.5. pop argluydhes a dele 
amobor graget e kefoet 41.16. hwn vydd yn y hen veddyant/ 
hytheu sy nghywoeth y sant (Heaven). P.MS. 67, p. 254. see 
R.B.I 1.30; 3.22, 26. M.A. 175^47, etc. 

kyuran, kefran f. portion, share, allotment. Ac y uelly o 
hynaw y hynaw hyt ar yr yeuaw ar gyvran honno a dyly bot 
yrygthunt yn eu hoes 59.25. Guedi barner tir a daear y din ui 
ellir lludias kefran jdau pan uenno 56.23. 56.24 ; 59.26. 

kyuran, cywran, kefrann to share, divide. Tryfet ny dely 
brenyn y kefrann e sullt ay hebauc ay leydyr 29.7. rac kyuran 
da 74.11. 59.28; 61.11. 

[kyvreyd] pi. kefreydyeu necessaries. E brenyn ... a dyly 
dyllallu (dywallu) or dysteyn oy kefreydyeu 23.3. kyvreit oed 
ym pleit oed ym plegyt vot. M.A. 1803.46. 

kefreytb, kyureyth laiv, the law of the land. Essef a guil e 
kefreis ena kanid oes nanin i un tauaut ef en gerru arnauau na 
dele namin vn tauaut e kennogon y guadu 44.2. k. hywel 62.25 ; 
78.29. kefreish e bit hun 47.6. kefreisth 36.4; kafreys 40.8; 
kareis 47.5; kereiht 49.11; kereih 49.11. 30.25, 27; 36.6; 37.2; 
40.16; 41.4; 44.17; 46.34, 38; 47-7-12; 48.29-40; 49-3-27; 5 -23; 



92 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

51.26-37; 52.4, 31; 53.5; 54.1 keuereit; 56.30; 59.4, 5; 60.15; 
61.1-20; 62.2, 8, 29; 63.6, 28; 69.3; 70.5, ii ; 72.27; 73.5, 29; 75.9; 
79.1, 16; 82.14; 83.4; 87.6; 91.1; 103.16; 109.17; 111.5; II3-3, 4; 
119.20; 123.12, 16 ; 126.22; 130.2-24; 131.2-9; 133.19; 134.9-22. 
"kefreyth (in genit. ) = legal, guert kefreyt 12.30. 48.1; 94.14; 
101.2. pi. cyureythyeu 1.2, 14; 30.20; 33.1; 64.22, 23. kyurey- 
thyau 66. 10 read 'keweyrya6.' LI. MS. 174, p. 85.6. 

kyureythyau 66.10. several MSS. read 'keweyryau.' A.L.I 
i88.i. see kyweyryaw. 

kefreythyaul legal, lawful, as fixed by law. messur guyraut 
kefreythyaul eu 18.27. kafresshiaul eu ir haullur kamrit e peht 
a roller idhau e guestel 46.7. .xn. coluyth kefreythyaul en et 
hedhod 16.19. kef rejsiaul 37.17; kef reihaaul 45.26 ; kereishiaul 
56.16. 19.14; 28.29534.22; 36.30; 40.4, 22545.25; 48.10; 52.11, 30; 
53-7, 13 ; 56-24, 25 ; 59.1 ; 60.5 ; 62.1 ; 63.1 ; 65.7 ; 71.28 ; 72.2, 12, 24 ; 
73-I7; 79-9J 82.4; 96.3; 118.13; 131.10. 

kywryuedy equal number, number. Sew yu hynny kymeynt 
ac un or k. y buant ar y tyr yn eysted yn y erbyn 61.15. 

keuryu (a) such, similar, of the same kind. Fob keuryu dyn 
or a deleher amober [y]dau kemeynt eu amober y uerch ay 
ebedyu 128.1. 48.23, 24. 

(b) m. equivalent, such kind. Ac ny tal e tat dros e mab e 
ke[u]ryu hunu 126.9. 43.8. 

kefuc k. ac. as high as, of such rank or dignity, derchauel 
. . . eny uo keuuc y tract a tal y deulyn 26.5. neu en keuuc gur 
ac e kaller penteylu ohonau 5.22. 25.7 ; 36.8. 

keuil proximity, presence. Ac ena e may yaun yr eneit erchi 
ydau enteu duyn y keditveit ay testion y eu muinhau. ac ena 
e mae yaun jdau enteu eu duin huy ene keuil ef ac eu dangos 
54.13. Ac yn hynny ny doethant 6y yngkyuyl y llys namyn 
trigya6 ygylcha6 y 61at a 6naethant. W.B. col. 90.12. Yr haf, 
ni chelaf fy chwyl/Ni chaf fyned iw chyfyl. D.G. clxiv.iS. 
yngkyfyl y twrneimant. H.MSS.I 207.15. erchi idaw nat elei 
ynghyfyl yr ysgrin. ibid. 241.32. see ymyl. 

kyfyewin see keyeuyn. 

cyfyll full, complete ( ?). Rey a deueyt panyu dyn amdyuen- 
hedyc eu kauarc kyfyll. Ereyll adeueyt panyu deruen aladher 
en hageuarc ar tref tat pryodaur a deleu dody mantell arnau 
oyckudyau rac yguelet a bod en guaraduyt yr tref tadauc 
yguelet. loruert mab madatic eyssyoes adeueyt panyu hun 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 93 

eu kauarc k. yaun. Sef eu henne pan uo karr en kyf 
yr llofryd . . . oy ran oe alanas. ac yn gouyn mae 128.22. 
a chroes y cymellir : bri duw ; a mechniaeth ; a cheynoc 
baladyr ; a chyfarch cyffyll ; a llw gweilydd ; a phob peth ny 
bo ffordd yw holi o gyrchu cyfreith. A.L.II 7i6.xxxi. This 
word appears to be confused -with cyffyll = brushwood, ciphillion 
gl. surculis. Loth. Voc. Bret. 72. ar ni wano en drayn ni wan 
en kyfyll. B.B.Ch. 32.28=ni wan yn gippyll. Dr.D.Prov. so 
Cyffylliog n.l. In A.L.II 19 kyfarch k. is translated ' inquiry 
as to a stock ' assuming that the word is a compound of cyff 
stock. Though the meaning is obscure there can be little doubt 
that it is borrowed from Med. Lat. cumulus. This appears in 
Ir. as comall fulfilling, performance of a vow. Pass. Horn, 
comallaim I keep (promises, land) ; fulfil (duties). B.L.G. see 
comull. De Hib. cumulus fori summa et ultima causae cognito. 
M.D. 

kyfyrderu second cousin, pi. kyuyrdyru. plant yr orhenuani 
a uyd kyuyrdyru 75.29. sg. 74.3; 129.9. P 1 - 59- 1 ?! 26; 62.18; 
77.10. cf. cyvyrdy. M.A. 923.20; 95^32; io2a.2. cywir ceinad. 
M.A. 273.39. cywires cyfrgein. M.A. i37b. 22; 1523.47; 170^32. 
kywrgryn. M.A. 137^25. kyfyrgoll. M.A. 170^32. kyfr a 
thad kyfraith ydych. P.MS. 64.145. see Meyer Peredur. 

kyf m. the trunk, stock. Sef eu kyf e pen ar corf ar gale 
kanys en henny e geyll er eneyt vot 105.17. Puybynnac ynteu 
a uynho holy tyr o ach ac edryu dangosset y ach hyt y kyf yd 
henyv ohonau 61.3; 129.19, 20. 

kefredyn impartial, general. O byd yr erv honno yndau y 
rannv or maer ar kyghellaur yn gyfredyn y baup kystal ay 
gylyd 60.4. puybennac a torro e naudh kefredyn a hossodho ef 
10.2. 39.30. cf. Teir fford y gellir gwrthod brawdwr teilwg. 
vn yw oe vod yn anghyffredin (partial, biassed) yn y dadyl kyn 
barn. Ll.MS. 116, p. 9.34. 

kefroi to move, commence ; k. haul to institute a claim. 
Puipenac a uenno kefroy haul am tir a dayar kefroet pan uenno 
o nauuethid kalangayaf allan . . . kanis er amseroyd henny y 
bit agoredic keureith 51.36. 3 sg. pres. ind. keffry 48.32. subj. 
kefroho 51.12. imperat. kefroet 51.36. 

kyc flesh, meat. O thyr e croen hyd e kyc 89.10. e greyc 
byeu e kyc en hely 33.28. 25.12 ; 33.30 ; 89.10 ; 96.14 ; 96.18 (hyc) ; 
96.20. 

kycdeskel a charger, meat-dish, [guerth] k. .1. 101.5. 



94 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

kycueyn, kychucyn flesh-hook, fork, [guerth] kychueyn [e 
brenyn] .xu. 99.17. 99.19, 26. 

[cyghanu] (?) to harmonize with, prevail, obtain (intr.) (?). 
3 sg. pres. cygeyn. ny chygeyn greyc en vach nac en test ar 
gur 39.8. ket ryfo yth dewys nyt ydyu cany chygeyn gwarthal 
gan dewys 130.10. Ac velly am bob hawl ni chyghano raith 
vuriedic nev geidwait amdanai ac ny chygayn keitwait onyt yn 
lie y kyghano damdvvg ac ny chygayn danidwg onit lladrat a 
thrais, etc. A.L.II 238. iv. Tri pheth a havl dyn yn lletrat ac 
ny chygein lletrat yndunt adeil a diot coet ac eredic. LI. MS. 
69, p. 65.7. cf. Tri pheth ni chein : hocked mewn llw ; esgys 
yghyffes ; ac ymdired y hireinoes. A.L.II 424-xxv. Ac ef a 
gyngheineu vod yn da y yarn ac yn briodawl. LI. MS. 116, 
p. 104.16. M.A. 95ib.56. see A.L.II 234.11; 238.5-8; 240.8; 
352.11. cf. cynghan full? Erbyn pan oed y dyd yn golehau yd 
oed gyni6eir ac utkyrn lleuein yny 61at yn gynghan. W.B. col. 
99.3. a duw yn gyngor/yw vab yn gyngan. P.MS. 67, p. 22. 
Eu cerdd a gyngein. M.A. 55b. cwdd gyngein hyn. M.A. 58b. 
ymgyghein. M.A. 46b. Prydein anghygein am gyngas galon. 
M.A. 2143. torf a. M.A. 226a.i6. 

kyghaus m. an advocate, counsel in cases involving value of 
sixty pence and over. Gwedi daruo eyste en keureithaul . . . 
ena may yaun ir egnat gouin yr haulur puy de keghaus di a puy 
de kanllau. ac ena e may yaun yr haulur ev henwi . . . ac 
gwedi hinny e may yaun er egnat gouin er amdifienvr puy de 
keghaus ditheu a puy de kanllau 52.30. Ny dyly cyghaus na 
chanllaw seuyll ygyt a nep am haul a uo lley no chywerthyd 
tryugeynt 59.1. 52.16-37; 131.16-22; 132.1, 16. see Loth p. 157. 

kyghaused f. a pleading. Ac odyna kymeret yr ynat ar 
efieyryat ar rygyll y duy gyghaused a datcanent ac aent allan 
barnent herwyd y duy gygheusaeth 132.9. 132.7. see kygheu- 
saeth. 

kyghellaur the principal steward under the king, seneschal. 
Meyrydyon a chyghelloryon a dylyant kyureythyau eu gvlat a 
gwneuthur y dadlei ac a dylyant hanner o pob peth yn erbyn y 
brenhyn . . . kyghellaur a dyly rannv y rygthau ar brenhyn a 
dewys yr brenhyn. maer y rygthav ar kyghellaur 66.10. maer 
a chyghellaur a dylyant rannu a rody y baup kystal ay gylyd 
yny trew 60. i. ny dylyir gossot ar y maynoleu ryd na maer na 
chyghellaur 67.3. Maer a chyghellaur a dylyant kylch dwyweyth 
yny bluydyn a cleuwas gan bop un ac yr kyghellaur dewys y ty 
70.2. 5.6 ; 24.19 ; 24.12 ; 60.1, 4 ; 66.14-21 ; 67.3 ; 68.2 ; 70.1, 3 ; 78.1 ; 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 95 

125.12, 13. pi. kyghelloryon 66.9; 67.29. kegheoron 54.28. 
c. = Lat. cancellarius. Loth p. 144. 

keghelloryaeth office of 'kyghellaur.' Or tir e bo suyd ohonau 
mal . . . disteinniat neu keghelorait 56.17. 55.26; 66.3. 

kegheusact f. a pleading. Ac ena e deleant er eneit datcanu e 
duy kegheusaeh a guedi hene datcanu e uuaraut 56.3. 42.23 ; 
53.16, 17, 19, 25. kehussuyth 53.28. kegkussaeith 54.4. cygheu- 
saeth 132.9. 

keghor, kagor advice, counsel, consultation. Ef a dely uod 
em pop lie en eu blayn ac na guenelynt dym namyn kan y 
kaghor ef 7.11. Nau afeyt tan kantaf eu roy kagor y losky e ty 
85.14. 53.28, 31 ; 74.25. 

[kyghori] to advise, to prompt. A guas yr argluyd y gyt ag 
uy y eu kadu rac deuod neb y eu keghor ygyt ac huy. ac o dau 
neb atadunt ay keghoro talet ef kamluru 53.29. 3 sg. pres. subj. 
keghoro. 

kehodyauc open, manifest. O try acaus e telyr amober un 
onadunt o rod ac estyn keny bo keuelocat o keuelogatc keho- 
dyauc keny bo rod ac estyn 127.7. Dirwy gaeth am y ladrat 
kyntaf chwevgain am yr ayl pvnt am y drydet trychv aylot 
iddo : a hwnnw a vyt lleidr kyhoeddoc. A.L.II 228. xi. =lleidir 
cyhoededic. A.L.II 4io.xxviii. cf. a chewilyd a sarhaet a 
chyhoed a chollet. P.MS. 35, p. 6a.i6. trichoet kenedyl [tria 
dampna generis]. A.L.II 835.1. 

kiihud accusation, complaint. E ryghyll ... a dely koesleeu 
echen a guarthec a kafer oe y kuhud ef 25.7. Cyhudh yw 
manegi gwyt neu drwc ar aralh gerbron brautwyr with y 
golhedu. H.MvSS.II 433.18. see M.A. i44b. k. = Ir. consaidim 
I set by the ears. Zimmer. see M.C. c.=J stir up. see also 
cossait. Fed. I p. 325. 

kyhyt, kihiit, kehyt (a) as long as. equative to 'hir.' guyalen 
eur kehyt ac ef ehun 3.7. 16.23 '> 24.12 ; 25.9; 36.16; 46.31 ; 59.13, 
15; 64.4; 65.10; 107.12. 

(b) noun f. Get galanas yu pytheunos . . . y gymhenv y tal 
ar gyhyt arall urth gymhell y tal 76.21. 

kyhydet equal length, something equivalent, ac od amheuir 
vintheu yaun eu eu creirhau ar nep a kellio y kedueit onatuunt 
y vrht e llu kollet e tir o seif e keitueit or duepleit kehedet yv. 
ar lie e bo kehedet deu banner vit 55.22. ac ny dyly nep 
kychwyn oy tydyn kyureythyaul o geyll cafael kyhydet 
amdanau o tyr arall 60.5. 61.11 ; 87.5, 6. 



96 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

kyhyryn muscle, piece of flesh, k. canhastr. 80.24. see 
canhastyr. Penwyn gyhyryn hiraeth ( = the heart). D.G. 
xxiii.6. Ac with hyny arueru a oruc breint o gelfydyt newyd. 
a thrychu dryll o gehyr y vordwyt. R.B.II 243.13. 

kylch, kylc m. (a) circle, a round. Ked gueneler keuar ac 
ecch ac nad el yr llauur . . . ac na darfo kylch na deu 108.12. 
en k. about, around. Sef eu gueyrclaud tyr dyuuynyant namyn 
y gueyr a claud en y kylch 116.21. 6.9; 51.20; 117.3; I 3 I - I 3- 
eg kell 52.14 read eg kylch. 

(b) a progress, e penteulu ... a d[e]le kylc ykan e brenyn 
guedy guahano ac ef e nodolyc ef ar teylu 7.24. or deudec 
maynaul a dyly uot yn y kymut. pedeyr a uyd o ueybyon 
eyllyon y borthy kun a meyrch a chylch a dooureth 66.2. 7.29; 
8.4; 11.9; 17.7, 8; 42.24; 66.16; 67.3, 4; 70.2. c. = Lat. circ'lus. 
Loth 156. 

kylyau to retreat, -withdraw. Puybynnac a holo peth a dyuot 
yr maes ac yn y maes kylyav ohanav a bot yn well ganthau tewy 
no holy 130.1. 130.4, 12. 3 sg. pres. subj. kellio. ar nep a 
kellio y kedueit onatuunt yvrth e llu kollet e tir 55.20. 

kilit, cylyd fellow, companion, the other, another. Ny dele 
neb deveduit nad el en vach tros y gilit 48.23. O deruid y dyn 
ay gilyd gunehur amuot heb amotwyr ar llau en y gilid 50.15. 
ac y uelly o petwareran buy gylyd y rennyr 66.6. 47.9 ; 50.1, 20 ; 
55.8; 61.12; 74.2; 107.1, 3; 109.18; 118.1; 121. 10, 12, 18; 131.9. 
used as pi. e neill rei noe gilit 55.12. 60.1, 4. ay kylyt 18.26; 
109.22. cf. awch kilyt. M.A. 2ooa. bwy gilyd. see R.C. vi-57- 
k. = Ir. cele companion. 

kyll (?) knife, blade (?). e gof llys ... a dely gueneuthur 
reydyeu e llys en rat eythyr try fed sef eu e rey heny guarthaual 
kant kallaur a kyll kulldyr. a tetyf buyall ... a pen guayu 
27.28. so A.L.II 582.xxxii. cf. culler gl. celeell. Z 2 . io62-42b. 

kella stomach (?). O deuant kyn defnetyau y kyc rodher 
. . . chuartaur rac y pop perchen kella 96.23. see cwll. Loth 
P- 155- 

kellell knife; k. clun dagger; k. kell kitchen knife 103.18, 19. 
Nit reit kemrit mach ar dilesruyt ariant nac ar tlesseu treicledic 
cae a kallel a guregis 48.37. 

killit m. rent, tax. ni dele kidtiriauc talu oe killit tir ny bo 
suid ohonau. en lie tir e bo suyd ohonau . . . ac os kemer 
collet e breint 56.28. Pan teruyno tref ar y gilyd yr uchaf y 
breint a dyly teruynu ar yr issaf, sef yw dyall hynny, rydit a 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 97 

teruyna ar gyllit. A.L.II 208.37. ar iarll gwedy rodi idaw 
onadunt kael y tir yn ryd heb na threth na chyllit na chastell 
yndau. R.B.II 293.24. Pwy bynhac a talho tir ygalanas kyllidet 
drostaw yr arglwyd kanys ryd y dyly y tir uot yr neb y talher 
idaw. A.L.I 794.1. O damwynia i uchelwr fforfedtio y dir . . . 
a myned y dir ir arglwyd ni ddly y deiliad a vo ar y tir golli 
dim er hyny eythyr talu kyllid yr hwn a oed amod ir deiliad i 
dalu ir vchelwr talu hwnw ir arglwydd. P.MS. 86, p. 161. see 
collot gl. tributatorio , tributario. Loth, Vocab., p. 79. 

kyllydus paying "kyllyd." tyr kyllydus hagen ny dylyir y 
rannv herwyd brodyr namyn maer a chyghellaur a dylyant 
rannu a rody y baup kystal ay gylyd yny trew. ac urth hynny 
y gelwyr yn tyr kyuryw 59.29. 59.28. 

cymell to force, compel, enforce. A gued[y] ganer e mab hyteu 
byeu e ueythtrin ef ey[l]gueyt hyt emen e bluydyn tnenho na 
uenho . . . o henny allan ny ellyr kemell arney hy y ueytryn 
37.11. yr argluyd a dyly trayan cymell y sarhaedeu mal trayan 
y galanasseu 77.1546.13; 47.14, 29; 49.9, 23, 31; 50.5; 68.7; 
76.15,21; 110.20; 134.29; 135.2. pres. ind. pass, cymellyr 76.7, 14. 
k. a dweid nad safedic dim a wneler trwy gymell kanys kystal 
yw kymell a thrais. Ll.MS. 116, p. 101.3. c. = Lat. compell-o. 
Loth 156. 

kamellur one -who enforces. A liana e lie e bit kamellur e 
mach ar da ydau ehun 47.1. 

kamenu see kymynnv. 

kymeynnyau (<cymeynt) to divide equally, ac ony byd da 
gan y kyuyrdyru y gyuran a uu y rug eu tat. vynteu a allant 
kymeynnyau mal y keuynderv. a gwedy rann honno ny dyly 
nep na cyuran na chymeynnyau tyr kyllydus 59.27. k.= 
kystadlu. P.MS. 39, p. 423.10. 

kymeynt, kammeint, cemeynt as much as, as many as. rody 
y baub kemeynt ay kylyt 18.26. vyth cant a deudeg myl a 
chymeynt a hynny oil yn y kymhut arall 65.28. kumeint a dim 
nothing 46.2. cemeynt a banner half as much 40.1, 2. kymeynt 
arall as much again 69.8. noun m. deu cymeynt 77.21, 22 ; 39-n. 

kymhcndaut pledge, security. Canys pob rodyat ar wreyc a 
dyly talu y hamobyr neu ynteu a gymero kymhendaut y gan y 
wreyc a roder y ur 71.21. cf. pob rodyat gureyc a dele talu y 
hamober ony kymer ueychyeu ar e talu or nep e rodher ydau. 
Ll.MS. 174, p. 91.28. cf. ar drindod kymhendod cv. P.MS. 72, 
p. 408. 



98 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

kymhonnv to fix. Get galanas yu pytheunos urth bop 
argluydyaeth y bo y cenedloed yndunt urth eu gwyssyau ygyt 
y gymhennv y tal ar gyhyt arall urth gymhell y tal 76.21. cf. 
pennu to fix. 

[kymheruedafl kemeruedaf most central, y lety yu e ty 
muyhaf en e tref kemeruedaf 6.8. see perued. 

kymot peace, reconciliation, a chymot tragywydaul a dyly 
bot rygthunt y dyd hunnv 77.1. 

kamody to reconcile. Od a gur ar teylu y kan e brenyn o 
achaus yrllonet ef a dele y guahaut urth y uuyt ay kamody ar 
brenyn 7.3. 

kemorth (a) to help, er amaeth a dele kemohorth e keylguat 
o dale er ecchen 109.13. 

(b) help, puybennac pyeufo er heyrn keueyryet ef uuent en 
dylesteyr yr geylguat ac yr amaeth ac ny deleant vn kemorth 
111.23. 

kymracc the Welsh language. Sew yu y tyr o gymraec 
newyd grvn 65.5. 

cymraes, camaraes a Welshwoman. O deruyt roy camaraes 
y alldut a bo[t] plant meybyon vthunt. e plant a dele trestat o 
uammuys 39.15. 39.12, 15, 23; 73.8, 22; 124.26. 

cyraro a Welshman. Ual hynny y dylyir duyn mab y gymro. 
ac ual hyn y dylyir duyn mab y alltud 72.9. pi. kemry 1.2. 

kymry, kemry, kamry Wales, i.i, 22 ; 62.23. 

kyraryt, kamrit to take, receive, accept, e penkenyt ... a 
dely kemryt y kun y cryn ay kenlleuaneu a menet y hele 
euychet 16.5. ay kymryt y mab yn gyureythyaul ay y wadu 
yn gyureythyaul 72.12. e macht ... a dele kamrit e fonnaut 
cantaf o bit emlat 45.28. kamyt 86.15 ; 127.17 ; cyryt 76.8. 17.7 ; 
18.12; 24.18; 44.5; 45.8, 15; 46.3, 7, 23, 25; 47.15, 26; 48.20; 49.24, 
33; 50.30; 53-27; 56.2, 25; 74-6, 7, 12, 13, 14, 15; 76-19; 78.20, 21 ; 
78.25; 79.4; 111.17; 122.14; 132.6; 134.27. 3 sg. pres. ind. kemer 
18.14; 41-15; 50-27, 29; 56.25, 28; 70.21; 71.23; 74.23. pres. ind. 
pass, kemerrir 44.23. subj. kemerho 29.23; 36.11, 14; 50.14, 25; 
51.15; 66.25; 71-20; 72.10; 82.10, n, 15, 86.5, 15. 3 pi. kemer- 
hoent 86.21. 3 sg. imperat. kemeret 36.9; 37.17; 50.27; 53.18; 
76.9; 80.27, 29; 82.7; 96.11; 106.14; 116.26; 132.8, ii. pass, 
kemerer 47.27; 50.20; 115.18; 119.3. 3 S S- P ret - kemirth 47.29; 
50.26; 56.26. kamyrth 128.28. pass, kamerhuit 49.31- part, 
pass, kemeredyc acceptable 120.24; 121.1. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 99 

kyniiit, kemud, kamut m. an artificial division of the country 
containing twelve " maynols " and two "trefs." Pedeyr trew 
ym pob maynaul. a deudeg maynaul a duydrew ym pob kytnut 
65.15. Sef yu hynny gwedy del oil ygyt o erwy yn y kymhud 
vyth cant a deudeg myl 65.27. Or deudec a dyly uot yn y 
kymuut. pedeyr a uyd o ueybyon eyllyon y borthy kun a 
nieyrch a chylch a dooureth ac un kyghelloryaeth ac un uayrony 
ar lleyll yn ueybyon uchelwyr rydyon 66.1. 1.3 ; 52.6, 13 ; 65.25 ; 
66.9; 72.22; 82.13; 110.9; 131-14- see cymydauc. 

kymvynas a favour. Chweford yd a da dyn y ganthau ac or 
teyr y gellyr damdug ac or teyr ereyll ny ellyr. Sew yv y teyr 
ny ellyr atneu a benfyc a Hoc a kytnwynas. canys nyt yaun 
holy y lie y mae a holy y nep yd aeth athau 81.9. cf. Sef yw y 
da a ellir y holi drachefn Hog; ac adneu a benfiyc; canys 
cymwynas ynt. A.L.II 598. v. ac nyt atwaenat ef neb na neb 
ynteu. ual y gallei ef gaff el kymwynas o arueu ae o venffic ae 
ar wystyl. R.B.I 250.8. canys mal cymwynas yw echwyn ac 
atneu a benffyc ac am hynny na ellir y damdwng yn y Haw y 
rhodder wynt. A.L.II 672.viii. 

cymydauc a. neighbour, one from the sawe.kymut. Os o eny 
a meythryn y ceys y ardelu . . . dodet ym pen ceytweyt bot yn 
eydau y uam. . . . Sew y ryv geytweyt a dyly bot ydau 
cymydauc uch llau ac arall ys llau 81.28. '-ydauc' appears to 
correspond to the IT. aitheth = plebeian, rentpaying classes. 
(B.L.G.) see also Urkelt. 49. seen also in com-aithec neigh- 
bour, stranger, etc. M.C. Thurneyson, however, regards this 
as a derivative from 'aith-fe' retribution, etc. Walde (under 
'potis'). 

tkymyn] kemcn will, testament. Ny dele e claf kemennu djm 
... a ked as kemenno e mab a eyll torry e kemen 34.16. 34.9. 
ket bei kymun keui dayret. B.An. 16.16. heb gymyn (authority) 
ygnat llys. Ll.MS. 69, p. 97.3. k.=Lat. commend-o. Loth 
P- 157- 

cymynnv, kemennu, kamenu to bequeath. Y da y ford y 
cymynno act ony byd plant ydau. O byd plant ny dyly 
cymynnv eythyr y dylyedyon a dayret yr egluys 82.27. 34- I 6, 
17; no.io, 12. 3 sg. pres. subj. cymynno 82.26. kemenno 34.16. 

cymyscu, kemescu to join, put together, vuen (wyn) tra 
uuynt en denu eu cuarchae ne or pryd buykylyt neu eu kemescu 
ac eu mam 112.23. ereyll a dyweyt gwedy y del y trayan yr 
wreyc dylyu cymyscu y deuparth ar alanas ay rannv 77.14. 
imper. pass, kamesker 117.12, 13. Addo = Rvrrw at, yngwanegu 



ioo GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

cymmyscu, dodi wrth. P.MS. 228. cf. Lie ydoed cwbwl o fiyrd 
y fforest yn ymgymysgu. H.MSS.I 282.19. A gwedy eu dyuot 
yr tir a gwisgau eu harueu . . . ymgymysgu a wnaeth y deu 
lu ar hynt. Ibid. 55.26. ryymgymysgu cleuyt ac ef druy 
ulinder. R.B.II 18.12. ymgymyscu eu teir bydin a orugant. 
Car.Mag.i5.24- A welei lywelyn lewenyt dragon/Yg gymysc : 
aruon ac eityonyt. M.A. 2403.4. 

1. kyn, kin, ken prep, before, ae dale ef kyn kafael naut 9.21. 
e guarthec a uo en y guarchadu ef teyr nos kyn eu Had euo 
byeu eu cruyn 24.27. 16.15 ; 31-75 34-3, 5, 71 35-22; 39.27, 28; 
47-I5; 52-7J 53-38; 54.16; 73.4; 82.1; 95.10; 96.20; 108.21; 119-7; 
121.24; 133.6, 12; 134.26. kyn noc, no. o niyn yr alltudyon 
mynet y urth eu hargluydy kyn noc eu bot yn pryodoryon 
64.10. 35.2; 46.8; 47.2; 50.31; 53.14; 56-14; 60.25, 28; 64.16, 17; 
77.29; 122.4; 127.22. 

2. kyn with equative. guanet enteu y art en kyn kadarnet ac 
na allho escrybyl y tory 114.9. 3-9; 127.20. 

3. kyn see kyt, ket. 

kyndeyryauc mad, rabid. O deruyd bod dyn en kendeyryauc 
a bradhu dyn arall ac or brath hunnu deuod ageu yr dyn 120.11. 
Ny dyukyr kaflauan un anyueyl kertdeyrya 121.8. see dere. 

kyndrychawl present. Ni dele macht duen guestel e kannogon 
onibit necketias kandrechaul eni vach 45.32. A'r barbariaid a 
ddangosasant ini fwyneidd-dra nid bychan : oblegid hwy a 
gynneuasant dan, ac a'n derbyniasant ni oil oherwyd y gawod 
gynnrychiol. Acts xxviii.2. 

kanflyth heifer; a cow after her first calving. 25.20. pi. 
kenflydhet. Nyd yaun dale e teyru o aust hyd huyl ueyr kentaf 
kanys ena e byt teruenyt e k. 116.8. Llo o hanner Mawrth . . . 
hyd galan Rhagfyr .vi. a tal . . . hyd Awst .xn. . . . hyt 
galan Racuyr .xiv. . . . hyt Awst .xx. . . . hyt galan Racuyr 
.xxvi. . . . nawuettyd Mei teithi kynfflith a dylyir y ovyn o 
honei ac ynny dyd hwnnw y achwanecceir vn ar bymthec arnei 
nyt amgen no gwerth y llaeth. A.L.I 564.xii. 

[kynurasset] kembrasset equally thick or stout, equative of 
' bras.' guert deruen .cxx. o byt duykeyc .ix. am pop vn o 
bedant kambrasset a keny guynt kembrasset o bedant o untu 
97.16. 3.7. 

kenayaf, kenhayf harvest time. O nauuethid o aust e bit 
kaiat e keureyth hit nauuethid guedi kalangayaf Essef achaus 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 101 

e bit kaiat keureyth he kenhayf . . . rac llesdeyrau e medi e 
kenhaf 51.29. 117.23. 

eynhengl see kenhugel. 

kanhelu to support (by counsel). Ac guedi heni e may yr 
eneit proui e kedueueit y edric a due pop rey onaduunt buy hot eu 
priodaur e bleit e maent en i kawhelu 55.18. y maent yny 
chynnelw. P.MS. 35, f. 36^24. kenhelu. Ll.MS. 174, p. 71.15- 
kynhelw. L.W. 128.29. cf. am kerd am kynhelu ohonau. M.A. 
1763.24. am kert am kynhelw om perchen. M.A. 1873.17. 
kynhelw neud kyndelw ae kynnal. M.A. 1883.14. see 
also M.A. i5ob ; i6aa, b; 1783; i86a; 1893; 2343, b; 1663.19. 
3 sg. kynhelweis. M.A. 144^27. cynnelwsf. M.A. 1893.54; 
1903.31. c. = Ir. condelgg counsel. See M.C. 

cuiihuynaul (a) innate, by birth, bonhedyc canhuynaul yu 
dyn 3 uo kyulaun o uonhet yg kymrry o uam ac o tat 62.23. 
62.22; 71.8, ii ; 73.13, 22; 78.8; 126.5. kymro vam tat vyd 
bonhedic c. heb gaeth heb alltut heb ledach. Ll.MS. 116, p. 19. 
cf. deillion cynhwynawl. M.A. 3o8b.i. da. c. H.MSS.II 240. ii. 

(b) a native. Csnhuynsul powys ny dyly msmuys y guynet 
52-13- 

kanllcuan a leash, [guerth] ksnllsusn mylky brennyn .1111. 
101.21. 101.23, 24. pi. kenlleuaneu. e penkenyt ... a dely 
croen hyc e gayaf y gueneuthur k. 16.12. 16.5, ii ; 17.6. -lleuan 
= Ir. loman rope, string. W.W. This is seen also in lliwsnen 
a coarse sack-cloth for carrying hay, etc. 

kenllust a kennel, ellgy brenyn punt en kefruys .cxx. en 
agkefruys .LX. en y bluyt .xxx. en y kenllust 94.16. 94.19. 
k. [aula]. A.L.II 824.111. This is written kynllusc. A.L.II 
798. iii ; 902.ii.xix. This appears to be the same as IT. lias fold, 
shed, see B.L.G. and the mod. Cardigan lluest sheep -walk, etc. 
with final s>st as in ialst. A.L.I 474.cxxii., tiglist see tyglys. 

kcnnal to hold, uphold, maintain, trydedyn yu 3 dele ksnsl 
k3uedsc en llys 4.13. roder dinsgued bluyd eny llsu geudi jrau 
e loscuert ac o geil hi kenal hunu kemeret 36.8. O deruit ir 
amdifenur readsu testion 3 uo guell no rei 3 edeuis er hsulur 
... 3 mennu o hon3u kannal hinni 54.24. k. pen er yeu to 
complete the cyfar 108.17, 22; 110.23. 48-2; 51.20. 3 sg. pres. 
subj. kanalyho 98.26; 99.2, 4. 

ken non dispute. O byt kennen am y llaet . . . dody en llestyr 
messur godro sc o byt llsunt duegueyt en e det dogen eu 91.16. 
see Loth p. 157. 



102 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

kennesset as near as. esew a dele uot en reythur ydau. en 
kennesset ac e gallo alanas e ket ac e\v 50.13. 79.3. 

kynncu to kindle, kaneu e tan eny eneno 85.17. 3.27; 26.12 ; 
70.1. 3 sg. pres. subj. kynneuho 69.23, 24; 86.2, 4. 

kennogon, kanogon, kanngon, etc. the original or principal 
debtor, essef a guil e kefreis ena kanidoes nanin i un tauaut 
ef en gerru arnauau na dele namin vn tauaut e kennegon y 
guadu ye hep e kenoken minneu ae guadaf ef . . . teghet [e 
kennogon] hit nat inacht ef ih i kanaue nac ar a deuaut nac ar 
dim oni urhtuc e mach arnau bit ryth e kannogen or haul a 
thalet e macht kubel ir haullur 44.2. Ni dele mach duyn guistel 
ar e kennogon ac ef en i nekesseu y argluit neu eny nekesseu e 
hun neu en guan ac ny dele er haullur duen gustel e mach eg 
kihit a hinni 46.29. 44.12, 17 ; 45-3"32 ; 45-3. 5 ; 46-2-38 ; 47- 16 - 1 ? \ 
48.38; 49.4, 17; 121.24, 25. kynogyn .i. perchennog. P.MS. 118, 
p. 485; 169, p. 263. but adprecor=attolygu, cynogni. P.MS. 
228. a arbetto ei fach arbetted ei gynnog. Dr.D.Prov. y dydd 
y diffygior cynnogyn taled y mach. cynogyn .i. perchennog. 
P.MS. 118, p. 485. c. = Ir. cintach criminal, offender, debtor. 
B.L.G. 

kannullau to collect, gather, ef a dely k. tuc e brenyn 15.21. 

cynnvys (re)-admission (to proprietary rights) (?). Os 
nauuetdyn a dau y ouyn tyr dyfodedyc yn bryodolder a hunnv 
a dyt dyaspat am y uot o pryodaur yn mynet yn ampryodaur 
ac yna y gwerendeu y gyureyth y dyaspat honno ac y ryd 
kynnvys ydau. sew yu hynny kymeynt ac un or kywryuedj r 
y buant ar y tyr yn eysted yny erbyn 61.5. Ev a damchweineu 
vot etifediaeth o dir gwedy disgin mewn man rannew rwg 
deigeint neu trygeint o git dylyedogyon a bod vn or welygord 
ef ae dat ae hendat ae orhendat y maes or wlat heb gaff el ran. 
Os hwnnw a delei a holi vn or welygord ar neillty od enillei ef 
dim yno ef a gaffei gystal a hwnnw. . . . Ac with hynny y 
gossodet yr hawl honno wrth y llys benatyr. . . . Ac os enill a 
wnelei ef yno rodi kynnwys ido ef gyda hwynt; sef vydeu 
hynny kymeint ac vn or kyfriuedi a vei yn kynnal y tir ynny 
erbynn. A.L.II 432.1 sqq. Admitto=Godhei, cynhwyso, dwyn 
y mewn derbyn y mewn neu at, cynnwys y dhyfod y mewn neu 
at. P.MS. 228. goreu rhan rhoddi cynnuys. Dr.D.Prov. Tri 
chynnhwyssuid ynys prydein gwyddar ap Pwn Owain ap maxen 
wledic a chowrda ap kradawc. P.MS. 51, p. 173. cynhwyswch 
le iddo chware/mae gyda fo wyr ag arfe. Cronicl y Cymry, 
p. 16. Tri pheth a distrywiod Loeger Cynwys dieithriaid, etc. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 103 

P.MS. 120, p. 439. c. home. Peris paradwys yn g. i'r rhai da. 
M.A. 773, b. Pan ddel fyngwaessaf/Cynwys a gaffaf/Or parth 
goreuhaf. M.A. 52b.6. see also Eluc. 133.12. W.B. col. 171.34. 
M.A. 2893.4; 291.33. A.B. 199.6. B.B.C. 40.8. R.B.II 99.19. 
Dr. P. and D.S.E. explain this -word as cyn + dwys, and this is 
accepted in Bardd Cwsc (Glossary) where it is further derived 
from the Latin con-densus. It appears, however, to belong to 
the same series as cyfarwys, mabwys, tadwys, etc., and to be a 
compound of *cyn as in cynydd (people, offspring) and the Ir. 
ciniud and meaning "the right to be one of the sept or tribe; or 
the rights of a tribesman." D.S.E. gives mab cynwys (adopted 
son), merch gynwys (adopted daughter), -which appears to be in 
keeping with our text, though as no refs. are given we do not 
know to what period they belong. 

kin nil', tir k. land held in common (?). ac ny dele kamrit 
tir k. en lie priodolder ac o kemmer ay kolli ohonau en 
kefreihaul ni dileir e ennill ydau 56.25. Ny da ebedyhu en hoi 
tyr kynnyf 125.19. see also A.L.II 658.xxvi. As far as the form 
of the word is concerned kinnif might well be a cpd. of gnif 
work. cf. Ni guru gnim molim trindaut. A.B. 1.15. guorgnim. 
ibid. 2.9. Nid over gniv i'm hogi maen. M.A. 96^13. hir 
gniv heb esgor lludded. M.A. 933.12. Cynnyf, however, usually 
means in Med.W. not 'joint-work' but 'war.' see M.A. 153.10; 
333.30, b.39; 1233.24; 134*. ii ; 143^.41; I47&.I (?); I53M9 J 
i56b.2 ; 1623.46; i75b.42 ; i8ob-56. so gnif. M.A. 1373.4; 1503.10; 
1623.46; i8ob.55; i89b.28. kynnifyad warrior. M.A. 87b ; 913; 
1483 ; 1613 ; i63b ; 1663 ; 1673 ; i76b ; 1923 ; 1993 ; 2O2b. R.B.I 38.23. 
B.A. 1.16. Several texts read tir cynnyd (see A.L.I i58.xxxv; 
II 12. ix ; II 4o8.xxi ; 422. xvi) and though these are later in date, 
it is possible that this is the more correct, with the interchange 
of f and dd as in negyf , negydd ; tyfyn, tyddyn ; cleddyfawg, 
cleddyddswg ; afon, addon; kaerdyf, k3erdydd, etc. This, 
however, does not help much for cynnydd has a great variety 
of meanings in Med.W. The more usual meaning is "conquest" 
or " what is acquired by conquest," and this is how one text 
understands it here trydyd [dyn a geiff estyn] yw dyn 3 dyly 
ystyn o dir k. 3 enillo trwydaw ehun. A.L.II 422. xvi; but the 
v.l. tir cyfrif, A.L. 12. ix, seems to express the meaning better. 
gwledychwys ynteu pryderi seith cantref dyuet. . . . Ac yn cl 
hynny y kynnydwys trichantref ystrat tywi. . . . Ac ar y 
kynnyd hwnnw y bu ef pryderi. R.B.I 25.14. ac o chollir ef mi 
aalM dywedut no. chynyds msrchswc vyth ar gret grist yngy- 
meint ac efo. H.MSS.I 428.25. Gwae ev 3 gynnydd (pile up) I 



104 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

gogan a chelwydd / cyn ei elorwydd. M.A. 793.16. Ynddi wedi 
mi ym hob modd/roy fy na ynghwr fy nayadd / genif nyd oedd 
ar gynidd/tranoedd ond yr ewinedd. P.MS. 65, p. 336. It 
means also leader, chief, etc. M.A. i5b-3 ; 443.19; 523.36; 533.32 ; 
8ib.i3; i27b.4o; 1323.32; 178^39; 193^2; i98b-4; 2oob.i5- W.B. 
col. 188.14; 395.2; p. 285.27. Rep.MSS.I 573 755 59 IQ 2 ', 
59i 134; 597 364; 606 140,157; 641 75; 677 323; 1030 115. 
P.MSS. 64, p. 233 ; 65, p. 24 ; 67, p. 168 ; 68, p. 19 ; 69, p. 44, etc. 
It appears to mean family, lineage, etc., and so corresponding to 
the Mod. Ir. cineadh race, generation, tribe (Dineen), Mid. Ir. 
ciniud. Arddelw Moesen hen hynaf ei gynnydd/Urddas llin 
Dafydd. M.A. 3083.24. 

[cynnyuer] cnyucr as many as. y gynuer gweyth y del y 
brenyn 68.16. 

[kynnysgaeth] cancscaeht marriage portion, nyt reyt mach 
ar dylesruyt da can greyc en c. 40.29. gwaddol .i. cynnysgaeth. 
P.MS. 118, p. 478. 

kenordy kennel. Nautey a dely myleynyeyt e brenyn y 
guneuthur nehust . . . kenordy, etc. 30.9. domus canum, id 
est, kynordy. A.L.II 828.xvi. cf. cynor, A.L.I 720.4, 'where it 
is part of the Gaysfdy. 

kynt adv. formerly. Cyweyryav y teruyn U3l kynt 68.27. 
28.17; 29.19; 37.29 (kyn) ; kent 43.12; 60.19, 20; 61.2; 64.14; 
73.12; 86.16; 89.6; 115.21. yn gynt no earlier than; y uot 
gsnthau . . . tymor yn gynt no chsn y Hall 82.2. 77.8; 82.5. 
adj. former, previous, ty ny refo clauery entau .vn. blenet 
kynt 92.24. 133.6. 

kyntaf (a) first, kentsf eu or rey henny guastraut auyn. 
er eyl eu troydyauc 23.20. 5.4; 6.11; 7.1; 12.8, 25; 15.22; 20.1, 
19, 27; 23.25; 28.5; 30.20; 35, 5, 6, 8; 38.7; 39.3; 40.25; 41-13; 
45.24, 28; 54.2 (kant); 54.11, 15; 64.13; 67.23; 70.6, 21; 74.23; 
75.28; 76.15; 78.15; 80.13; 92.16; 98.10, n, 24; 107.17; 110.21; 
113.22; 114.15; 122.22, 24; 123.12, 14; 131-9- 

(b) swiftest, e naud eu hyd e parhao talym e march kantaf 
13.28. 22.2. = quantum cursus -velocissimi equi. A.L.II 752.x. 
dwc gennyt y msrch kyntsf 3 wypych yny mses. R.B.I 9.27. 

kyntet the central or upper division of the hall, the part of 
honour in the " neuadd." trayan a ueneler ys e kyntet o kefyr 
dyruy amawdsmu ef ay dele. O deruuyd y dyn gueneuthur 
ksm kuc e kyntet sy dsle ohonau ef . . . en fo trayan y dyruy 
a dele penteulu 6.13. 9.19. in anteriori parte aule, id est, hue 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 105 

kyntet. A. L. II 755.29. =gwarthafdy. W.B. col. 459.1. Pedeir 
gradd llys arglwydd ysydd kyntedd ac radd a meink a 
lleithig kyntedd yr . . . iytnyn y radd yr yscwiereid, y 
feink yr magwyeid (marchogyon) lleithig yr teyrnedd. P.MS. 
55, p. 201. Cyn myned mab Cynan y dan dywawd. Ceffid yn 
i gyntet met a bragawd. M.A. 1403.30. see M.A. 173; I77b.37; 
1893.4, etc. 

kynteyt, kenteyd the first swarm that leaves the hive in the 
season. Guert henlleu .uiixx. guert kenteyd .xvi. taruheyt 
.xii. 95.14. 95.15; 98.9, n. Mel a uo chwechach naw mod no 
mel kynteit. R.B.I 121.26. dileeu mel kynnteit. Eluc. 99.29. 
94.17. Tad medd y kynteidiau mawr. Rep.MSS.I 661 57. 

ken nd firewood, ny dely ef [e kenutey] manelu e kenut or 
ansaut y doto ar e march guedy e del adref 27.9. 25.29; 27.6, 9; 
68.15. buyall k. axe for chopping firewood 27.38. 33.20; 100.2. 
k. = Ir. condud firewood or firebote. Joyce II 158. 

[kenutuuyall] axe for chopping firewood, pi. kenutuuyeyll 
27.13. 

kenuta to gather firewood e kenutey ... a dely march e 
kenut a kymryd ebran ydadau beunoeth or llys a marchokaet 
arnau en menet y kenuta 27.6. 27.4. Ac ydaeth peredur hyt lie 
ydoed keffyleu a gywedei gynnut udunt. R.B.I 195.6. 

kenutey firewood steward. Sey[th]uet [or suyhoyon aruer o 
deuaut a uyd en llys] eu e kenutey 27.2. 3.27 ; 23.23. see 
kenuta. 

kynwarchadu (a) to have priority of possession. 3 sg. pres. 
ind. kynwarchadu. Canys guell yu breynt pryodaur a g. tyr 
nogyt un newyd dyuot 62.12. 

(b) priority of possession, priodaur a keuun tridet gur tridet 
gur a kicuin treftadauc . . . ac uelly y kerda eu breint heruuit 
e bo eu kenuarccadu 56.15. 

[kynweith] kengueys working for the first season, dynaguet 
guru o henne hyd em pen e bluyn .11. pop temmor a derkeyf 
arnau ac ar hene e tryc hyd en .vi. ed gueyt ac o hene allan 
damdug ac en kengueys y dody en arader 92.10. 

kynyt huntsman, master of hounds. see penkynyd. k. 
kellky ; k. mylky 17.1, 2. pi. kanedyon, kenethyon, kenedyon 
10.6; 15.29; 16.1, 29; 17.1, 2, 3; 67.15; 96.19. 

kynyc to offer, present. A guedi er eisteter ena e mae jaunt 
yr haulur kenic y devnidieu jam e testion ay keidveit 53.5. 
121.15. pres. subj. pass, kynykyer 134.26 



106 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

kerchu to seek, fetch, have recourse to. talu ae gustlau ae 
kerccu keureis 48.39. ac ny dele er haulur duyn guestel e mach 
namen kerchu ell deuoet ar argluit 46.10. guedy darfo e kaueyr 
paup byeu kercu y defnedyeu atau adref 109.5. 5 1 - 10 - 3 sg- 
pres. subj. kyrho 12.23. imperat. kerchet 49.3. k. = Lat. circ-o. 
Loth 157. 

keraydu to reach. Nyny a deuedun na deleant venet nainyn 
val e kallont er ecchen keraydu eu budelu no.8. =ergytyont. 
P.MS. 35, f. 3ob.n. 3 sg. subj. a hyd y karaetho o hyd breyc 
a hyd e uyalen 107.15. karaydho 107.16. cf. haeddu ar nyth y 
caccwn. Dr.D.P. Mai haeddu awyr a bach. M.A. 30. 

kyrryr see gyrru. 

kyryauc (? ) [guerth] eynyau[n] vaur .uc. eynyaun kyryauc 
.vin. 102.25. bickorne anvil (A.O.). 

kyrye, gwyl g. June 16. 91.22. 

kescu to sleep. 9.27; 11.29; 24.11; 26.20, 23, 26; 28.18; 36.14; 
41.9; 71.22; 130.18. 3 sg. pres. ind. cusc 33.19. 3 sg. pres. subj. 
kasko 28.16; cesko 36.2, 25. pass, kesker 38.15, 20. 3 sg. pret. 
keskus 42.12. 

kysseuyn adj. first, original. O deruit y din guneuthur 
agkeureyth a rac er agkeureith ono kerchu naut ac ef ar e naut 
henno keuodi haul arnau. Ni dele er abbadeu nar efeireit y 
hebrug ef eni wnel yaun am er ageureyth kesseuin 51.11. 
kesseuyn wythnos o uys chueurawr. LI. MS. 174, p. 20.12. adv. 
first, kuyr e gulet ual hyn e renyr y tray an yr medyd kesseuyn 
17.2772.1. 

kyst chest, coffer, [guerth] k. damdug 101.14. see Fed. 200. 

cystadylhau to equalize, divide in equal portions. Sew y 
dylyant etyued y braut yeuaw cystadylhau ac edyuet yr hynaw 
dewyssav 59.24. 3 pi. imperat. cystadlent 59.23. 

kystal usual equative of da (see 'kynna' however. M.A. 2O2b ; 
2i3b) 05 good as. talet ydau coet cystal ar hun a dyosges 63.22. 
47-34J 55- T 3 24; 63.24. adv. as -well as. rody y baup kystal ay 
gylyd 60. i, 4; 89.16; 109.5, 22. noun, ef a dele or eydau ef 
deuod en y le y kastal kyn menet e Hall 119.5. 43-8; 63.22. 

keu chicken, the young of birds, keu yar 101.6. 94.7, n; 
95-5, 8- 

[kywelogaeth] to sleep together, cohabitation. O try acaus e 
telyr amober un o nadunt o rod ac estyn. keny bo keuelocat o 
keuelogatc kehoydauc keny bo rod ac estyn 127.7. 38.20. k. = 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 107 

kesgu en gohoedauc. LI. MS. 174, p. 46.21. cf. cywelyogach 
to lie or sleep together. A.L.II 6io.xxix; 336.xxxi. H.MSS.II 
281.22. Cywelogaeth. M.A. 9545.6, 8, 12, etc. kywely husband, 
wife. LI. MS. 209, pp. 23, 335, 483. see D.G. xliv.6 ; Hi. 36 ; 
lxxv.26. 

cywerthyd equal value, value. Ny dyly cyghaus na chanllav 
seuyll ygyt a nep am haul a uo lley no chywerthyd tryugeynt 
59.1. kauuersit 46.1. cywerthyd ceiniawg. L.W. 118 3. c. 
punt. ibid. 162 19. =cyfrifedu a. ibid. 146. cf . ac val hynny 
y kywerthydyei ef y gollet o gwerth yr irat. H.MSS.II 273.36. 
aestimor bod yn i gywerthydhiaw. P.MS. 228. 

keueyrcorn tuning key. [guerth] keueyrcorn [brenyn] .xxmi. 
99.21. kercorn 99.23. 100.1. 

kyweyryau to arrange, order, prepare, repair. Y maer bysweyl 
a dyly kyweyryau llys y brenhyn oy mevn ac a berthyno atey 
mal eredyc a heu ac arheyl y scry by 1 68.3. e koc ... or pan 
decreuho keueyryhoau er anrec kentaf 20.1. Puybynnac a dorro 
teruyn . . . cyweyryav y teruyn ual kynt 68.24. 66.18. 3 sg. 
pres. subj. keueyryho 23.5. pass, keueyryer 114.3. 3 S S- 
imperat. keueyryet 111.21. for kyureythyau 66.10 read kevvey- 
ryau. see LI. MS. 174, p. 85.6. 

kyweythas companionship, society, pymhet [afeyth galanas] 
yu kyweythas ar llowrud. chwechet yu mynet yr drew . . . 
gytar llowrud 74.28. 78.17. corn k. horn kept near its owner 
99.27. Tri chorn cyweithas y sydd i'r Brenin. ... i. y corn 
ydd yfo y Brenin ohonaw, 2. a'i Gorn cyweithas, 3. a chorn y 
Pencynydd. L.W. 3ii.xlii. = corn cychwyn a fo yn ei 
gyweithas yn wasdad. ibid. 266.14. kerdaur k. fully trained 
minstrel qualified to go on a cylch. pop pewkerd telyn a dele y 
kan e keroryon telyn guedj ed emadauoent a telyn rauw a menu 
bod en kerdaur keueyas ay uod en eyrcyat 128.14. 

kywyrau to make good. O deruyt y dyn uynet yn uach a 
chyn teruynu yr haul y uynet yn clauur neu yn uynach . . . ny 
tybyco ef dylyu ohanau atep nyny a dywedun dylyu ohanau 
kywyrau a edewys tra uo byw 133.6. 

chwacr sister. 74.11 ; 129.18. dual, duy chwyored 77.12, 23. 
pi. chwyoryd 77.19; 129.10, 17; chuarit 36.7; chuorrit 35.21; 
chuoryt 41.5. 

chvvant desire, kemrit mach ar dilisruid e guistil rac y 
guadu ohonau ef ay yr chvvant e da ay yr peth arall nas 
rodassey 48.21. Ir. sant. Urkelt. 321. 



io8 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

chuarthaur quarter, puebenac a kaffo lluden en uaru glan ar 
tyr ef byeu y cuarthaur ar nep byeufo e tyr byeu amen henne 
96.26. 96.20, 21, 22, 24. 

ehuarit see chwaer. 

chwech, wee six. 69.20, 21 ; 78.11, etc. chwebuv 78.3, 5. 
chwechant 65.29. cuedyn six men 9.27. chwegwyr 79.4. wee 
guir 44.7 six men. chweford six -ways 81.7. chwethorth six 
loaves 69.19, 27. chweugeynt 120 (pence) 69.15; 78.4, 5, 10, etc. 

chwechet sixth, a phlant yr orhenuam a uyd kyuyrdyru . . . 
plant y chwechet uam a uyd gorchau 76.2. Hhuechet 13.3. 
cchuehet 22.25; 74-28; 78.19. vyked 85.17. 

chuefraur February. 92.5. cuefraur 10.6. chueraur 16.3, 4; 
25.11 ; 92 (margin), chewraur 51.27. chuecraur 92.12. 

chuydued 26.17 = w3'thfed. 

ohuj nhokol a hoe. [guerth] ch. fyrling 100.20. cli. [sarculum]. 
A.Iy.II 865.xliii. Ai chunoc laeth ai chwynogl. I.G. 412.3. 

da (a) adj. good, holy, cyureytheu da 64.22. Hyuel da 64.23. 
tyghu . . . yr allaur honno ac yr creyryeu da y syd arney 
72.6. 42.9; 54.16; 59.26; 72.16. 

(b) noun masc.. goods, property, chattels. pop da heb 
perchanauc ydau dyfeyth brenyn 30.10. essef eu messur e da 
buch laethauc a peys ... a padell 37.8. 15.19; 21.17; 24.19; 
25.21; 34.23; 37.7; 38.9; 39.30; 40.26, 29; 46.31, 33, 40; 47.1, 19; 
47.20 (ta); 47.32; 48.3, 14, 15, 19, 20, 21 ; 60.13; 64.17; 67.20, 28; 
68.2, 21 ; 70.26; 71.4, 7; 73.24; 74.9, 10, ii ; 75.5, 7, 9, 10; 78.24; 
81.7; 82.26; 85.13; 121.23; 122.2-17; 124.7-12; 125.22, 23; 126.17; 
129.22; 130.4; 132.17-21; i33-!o; I35- 1 . 2. 

datanhud, dadannyd m. uncovering (the hearth) as a sign of 
taking possession; claim to possession. Try ryu datanhud y 
syd. d. ar ac eredyc a d. karr. a d. burn a beych. ar datanhudyeu 
hynny ny dylyir eu datanhudau namyn or tnab yn lie y bu y 
tat gynt neu yn lie y bu y ryeny ehun gynt kany dylyir d. o ach 
ac edryn 60.17. 60.21-27; 61.21. pi. datanhudyeu 60. 18; 61.1. 
d.=actio possessoria. A.L.II 852.xii, etc. d. gl. elicio. Z 2 . 
1052. see next. 

dadanhudau to uncover (the fire) in the morning, metaph. 
to claim possession. Puebennac a cesko teyrnos gan gureyc or 
pan anuder e tan eny dadanudher tranches 36.25. ar datan- 
hudyeu hynny ny dylyir eu datanhudau namyn or mab lie y bu 
y tat gynt 60. 18. pres. subj. pass, dadanudher 36.25. cf. er 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 109 

iddynt ei enhuddo ef mewn dillad etto ni chynhesai efe. 
I Kings i.i. 

da del f- dispute, pop d. a uo eregthunt ehun eneyt e clas a 
del barnu udunt. Pop d. a uo erug abat ac argluyd egneyt er 
argluyt a dele barnu hykyd ac huy 124.12. 

dadleu m. a pleading, court of law. Meyrydyon a chyghello- 
ryon a dylyant kyureythyau eu gvlat a gwneuthur y dadleu 
66.10. ef a keyf naut or pan decreuho dohosparth y dadeleu 
kewtaf eny darfo e dyguedaf en e dyt hunnu 12.24. maer 
bysweyl ny dyly daly dadleu namyn ar wyr y uaerdref 67.27. 
ef a dele . . . .xx. o pop punt a del yr brenyn am dadeleu tyr 
a dayar 6.24. 9.17; 12.16; 24.22; 25.21; 56.20, 22; 66.27; 80. 16; 
120.20; 130.29; 131.2; 134.17-22. Z2. 1054.83. dadl (gl. concio). 
Ir. dal assembly, etc. 

dauat sheep, n.8 ; 79.5 ; 91.12 ; 93.12, 15 ; 97.11 ; 113.12 ; 118.20. 
pi. deueyt 9.14; 33.6-8; 93.18; 112.26; 113.12. see Anwyl. Celt. 
Rel., p. 31. daf-=Ir. dam ox. 

dauyn drop. Ac nat oes dauyn oy waet ew yndau onyt o adaw 
72.18. 

dangos to show, present, tell, relate, declare. Ac guedy henny 
e penkynt a dely dangos e kun ar kyrn ar kenlleuaneu yr 
brenyw 17.6. Ac ena e may yaun yr eneit erchi ydau enteu duyn 
y keditveit ay testion y eu muinahu. Ac ena e mae yaun jdau 
enteu eu duin huy en e keuil ef ac eu dangos 54.12. dangosset 
y ach hyt y kyf 61.3. 54.8, 24. 3 sg. pres. subj. dangosso 17.7 ; 
54.24. 3 pi. dangossoent 67.19. 3 sg. imperat. dangosset 34.2 ; 
61.3. cf. Cas barn heb ddangosau. M.A. 7873.22. 

dala, dale, daly (a) to hold, seize, overtake, impound, yoke. 
Sef ual e dely daly y uarch tra dyskeno a pan eskenho 11.4. 
daly trayt e brenhyn en y arfet 24.10. ny dyly daly dadleu 
namyn ar wyr y uaerdref 67.28. O deruyd y dyn gueneuthur 
cam ys koref a fo ohonau hue koref ay dale ef kyn kafael naut 
9.21. y lety eu er escubaur e brenyn rac dale muc ar y adar 
10.27 > er amaeth a dele kemohorth e keylguat o dale er ecchen 
(to yoke) 109.13. dale pen er yeu to supply a new ox for the 
cyfar -when the first had died 111.9. dale . . . aryant to charge 
money 112.9. Ny deleyr dale [teirw] nac ar hyd nac ar guellt 
impound 116.4. 6.15; n-4, 51 i3- I 2J 20.10; 23.30; 24.19; 69.23; 
75.2; 80.25; 81.1 (taly) ; 112.8; 113.21; 115.10 (dalale) ; 115.13, 18; 
116.7-12; 117.9, J 6; 118.2; 123.25. 3 sg. pres. ind. deyly 115.21. 
subj. dalyho 118.2-15; dalyo 79.23; dalhyo 80.26; dalylo 23.12. 
pass, dalyer 82.18; 115.19; 118.23. 3 sg. imperat. dalyet 117.3. 



i io GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

(b) m. holding, impounding, ny dele neb godro escrybyl 
blyth ac uent en dale 119.3. de for dale n8.ii. see P.MS. 35, 
f. 8oa.6. xi [breint] . . . nad oes dala ar eu kegheusaet 42.23. 

daylo see dala. 

[da 11] blind, pi. deyllyon. Bedeyr a deyllyon ny muyneyr 
dym or a deuetoent 120.19. Ir. dall blind. B.L,.G. 

damdug, written also dad, da (a) to appraise a thing by oath. 
Y chyureyth hywel y bu tal am ledrat ar eyl tal. ac y symudus 
bledyn nab kynuyn talu y dyn y gollet urth y damdug 82.24. 
O deruyd damdug peth a gwerth arnaw o gyureyth a bot yn wy 
y damdug nor gwerth k[yfreyth]. yr yneyt a dylyant edrych ay 
cam y darndyghuyt ac os cam gwneler arnau cyureyth anudon 
134.8. 81.8-12; 91.7; 92.9; 99.21; 101.15-25; 102.2-26; 103.14-23; 
104.7, 22; 134.7, 8. 3 sg. pres. ind. damdug 81.15, 16. subj. 
damdygho 82.2. imperat. damdyghet 80.29; 81.15, 16; 82.1. 
pret. pass, damdyghuyt. 

(b) fixing of 'value by oath, pop pedh ny uo guerth kefreyt 
damdug a uyd arnau 101.1, etc., etc. cf. Pris y llafyr ywch 
Bybyl, i.e. upon oath. P.MS. 65, p. 262. 

[dainweinaw] to happen, befall. 3 sg. pres. damguenya. o d. 
y deu din bot kefreiht erughunt 49.9. Ac yny lie m6yaf vo y 
niuer mynycha y6 dam6eina6 y vudugolyaeth. R.B.II 56.32. 

[dant] tooth, pi. danhet. guerth pop vn or eskydred .11. byu 
a .XL. kanys bukeyl e danhet ynt 105.15. 20.14; 23.13; 105.12. 
see deynt. 

daruod to cease, be over or finished, to happen, come to pass. 
O deruit na bo mab idau sauet er a[r]gluit en e le 47.17. guedy 
darfo e kylc hunu deuet ar e brenyn 8.4. or pan decreuho e 
dohosparth y dadeleu kyntaf eny darfo e dyguedaf 12.25. 3 S S- 
pres. ind. deruyd, deruit, der, de 4.24; 6.14; 9.19; 12.26; 14.29; 
30.26, 29; 31.2-16; 33.1; 35.5-13; 3 6 -3-i5; 37-I-27; 38-27, 32; 
39.1-28; 40.6, 22, 25; 41-9-14; 45-8-29; 46.1-31; 47-i, 15, 3*> 34; 
48.10, 29, 38 ; 49.5, 18 ; 50.3-32 ; 51.3-20 ; 52.1 ; 53-8-32 ; 54-22 ; 55.12 ; 
61.7; 69.1; 71.21; 72.19-22; 73.18-25; 74.5; 80.20; 86.16; 87.2, 12; 

91.24; 95-*6; 96.10, 23; 108.2-17; 109.8-22; 110.4; i"-7 Io ; "3-13; 

114.25; 115.1, 8; 120.11; 121.23; 123.13-26; 124.21; 125.8; 127.17; 
129.24; 130.6; 132.20, 24; 133.6-22; 134.4-25. subj. darfo, daruo 
8.4 ; 12.25 ; 18.31 ; 28.8 ; 52.19, 30 ; 53.14, 15, 31 ; 55.1 ; 108.3, M, *9 > 
J 09-i5; 134-20. 3 sg. impf. subj. darfey 73.3; 107.5; 130.18. 

daremret to frequent, go back and fore. Odena ford yr eneyt 
keuarvynep ac eu daremret y eu braudle 52.16. =a heol 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW in 

gyuarvynep ac ew y uynet yu urautle 131.15. Llys y daw deon 
yw darymred. M.A. 1583.35 ; 2481x47. Pedeir ar ugeint a geifE 
ygan bob swydawc a darymreto bwyt a llyn yn y llys. A.L.I 
640. xi. dynion a dalio kolomennot y brenhin yn d. oi golo- 
mendei. P.MS. 41, p. 7. d.=ivalk, go about. M.A. 93a.5- 

das a heap, stack, puebennac a semuto hyd ar e souel hyd ar 
e guendun a gueneutur y das ar e guendun 19.17. Yny ymch- 
welo y geuyn ar y das = till harvest time is over 60.21. so Ll.MS. 
116, p. 78.14; 120.23; 174, p. 158.23. cf. y geniuer keinnauc a 
vei yn y das aryant. H.MSS.II 115.25. deisseu calaned. ibid. 
96.37. deissiev. P.MS. 41, p. 8. Ir. dais corn rick. 

datkanu to declare, recount, pop perchenauc tir llan a 
deleant deuot ar pop brenin newid a del y datkanu ydau ef eu 
breint ac eu delect 51.6. ac guedy e pader e may yaun yr egnat 
dadkanu e duy keghessaith eylweyth 53.25. a guedi hene 
datcanu euuaraut 56.4. 55.4 ; 56.3. 3 pi. pres. ind. datkanant 
51.7. 3 sg. pres. subj. tadkano 53.19. pi. datkanont 51.8. 3 sg. 
imperat. datkanet 52.2 ; 53.19; 132.12. pi. datkanent 53.32 ; 132.9. 

dau see dyuot. 

daun tribute ; davn buyt food-rent. Or maynolyd caeth y 
dylyr deu davn buyt pob bluydyn y gayaw huch deyrblvyd a 
llestyr emenyn ... a dogyn kervyn o wrac ... a dreua o hyd 
... a chwethorth o uara a dyn a geneuho tan yn y neuad yn 
y nos honno. . . . messur daunbuyt yr haw mollt teyrbluyd a 
mannat emenyn a chwethorth arugein . . . llaeth a uo o ludyn 
blyth yn y drew 69.16. d. ' attribute,' often in Med.W. see 
gwaewd. M.A. isgb; i7ob; haearnd. i6ga. cf. Ir. dan an 
allotted task. d. = Lat. donum. A.f.C.L.I p. 77. 

dayar, daear (a) the earth, earth, ket boet kefreis ae kilit ar 
a daear erug din ay gilid ac nid oes keureith erug diauul a gilid 
... a urth hinni din a el yar a daear hon nid ois idau enteu 
keureith 47.8. e gur a dele er escubaur as a uo vcch daear ac 
ys daear o hyd 33.26. 25.15; 51.31. 

(b) tir a dayar. hendiadys for 'land.' Deu amser e bit agoret 
keureyth am tir a dayar 51.26. 51.36; 52.1, 20; 53.4; 56.5 (dar) ; 
56.20 (diar) ; 56.22 (daira). 

dayret, daeret bequest to the church (?). ny dele e claf 
kemennu djm namen e daeret ecluys ae arglujt ae deleedyon 
34.16. efeyryat ... a dele a del eneu d. 8.22. puebennac a 
dorro kemen k[yfreith] ny amken ae jdaeret ae delehedyon 
eskemun vyt 34.19; 82.27. Eissoes ef a wnaethpwyt seith ragor 



ii2 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

yr eglwys rac llys y hot y pennaf : sef ynt y seith hynny degwm 
ac offrwm a daeret, etc. A.L.II 366.15 L.W. 173 3. It is used 
also for dawn bwyd and cwynos. cf. keinnawc a telir yr 
svydogyon gyt a phob daun bvyt. . . . Sef yv y rei hynny y 
daeretvyr ae kynullo. LI. MS. 69, p. 125. P.MS. 363, p. 66.1. 
Judex curie debet habere partem viri de nummis dayret [cene]. 
A.L.II Sai.xxii. cf. Bei cymun cein dayret/wedi cyffro cat. 
M.A. 143.6. B.A. 16.16. Daeredwyr is applied to the officers 
collecting the dawn-bwyd. et unus denarius ministris, id est 
yrdaeredwyr ae kynnwllo. A.L.II 785. v. There is a daered 
which appears to mean 'gave/ 'bequeathed.' M.A. iox>b.i2. 
daerawd was given, gave (?) seems to belong to the same verb. 
M.A. 164!). 45 ; iyob.34; 198^43 (?). daerawd=talu dros y 
meirw. W.Llyn. Gloss. It may, however, be the noun corres- 
ponding to the IT. 'daer,' 'doer' bound, unfree. 

de see deu. 

de n8.ii = d[al]e. 

decreu (a) to begin, e koc ... a dely decreu pop anrec or 
ardemero ef 19.30. 3 sg. pres. ind. decreu 14.25; 23.4; 28.11; 
53.2 ; 129.19 (decrecu) ; 130.7. i pi. decreuun 22.25. 3 pres. subj. 
decreuho 9.26; 12.24; 17-21 ; 18.30; 20.1; 24.4, 10; 26.27; 28.7, 18. 

(b) m. beginning. Lema decreu kefreythyeu e gulad 30.20. 
33-i- 

dekyr see dwyn. 

dedellu to suck ( ?). y llo a dele ememdeyt nau cam a dedellu 
groesyn oe phedeyr thet 90.19. cf. Nawfedydd Mai y dyly fod 
yn deithawl, dyfod llaeth o ben pob teth iddi ac ymdaith oi llo 
naw cam yn ei hoi. Leg. Wai. 239 29. cf. Ir. del dug of a cow. 
oc a diul sucking her. W.W. There appears to be a dyl 'teat' in 
Welsh too. The expression hwcharythyle occurs several times 
in the various codices=a sow with its farrow. A.L.I 454-lxiv. 
This is translated thus et partus suis dum site arethele [in suili]. 
A.L.II 777-lvii. Tyle=Ir. tolg (a bed, couch) occurs often= 
couch, house, outhouse (see Trawstyle), but then one would not 
expect 'ar y thyle' to be the literal equivalent of 'in suili.' Tyle 
in 'ar y thyle' is regarded as a pi. for the 'dug of a sow' in 
South Carm. In that case it is for dyle, but several instances of 
the provection of a medial to a hard occur in the B.B.Ch. 
cellgi for gellgi ; caran for garan ; taleith for dyleith, etc. 

dedurit decision, declaration, yaun eu er [e]gnat ena barnu 
ena bot en detuurit e macht pahar e mae e macht ae ar peht 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 113 

mauur ay ar pesh beccan 45.13. bit en pen e brewhin e gur a 
roes udunt buy e nodav en deturit pa delo e roes ef udunt buy e 
nodau honno 51.5. cf. deturyt gwlat gwirioned a dengys y 
mywn llys am yr hynn a fun en awssen y llys. A.L.I 588. iv. 
LI. MS. 116, p. 46.4. dedryd barn nev verdict. P.MS. 118, 
p. 473. (cf. daduer praise (?). M.A. i6o.b.n.) written often 
'dedryd.' LI. MS. 116, pp. 10.19; 11.10; 26.36; 45.34, etc. Like 
edfryd, diofryd, etc., it is a -v. noun and cpd. of -ber-, daduero 
yr amoduyr (yr amod). P.MS. 35, f. 24; daduer. P.MS. 36b.io. 
see eduret. 

detef law. Amod a tir detef. ket gueneler amod en erbin 
kefreis dir yv i guadu 50.23. see amod. 

deduaul legal, recognised by law. Reyt hiu yr egluys bot a 
katwo ydy e breynt hunnu o testoyn deduaul 51.23. ny dyly 
[e medyd] le detuaul en e lys 17.20. 50.1. 

deuaut custom, usage, heman e trayhun or suyhoyon aruer 
o deuaut a uyd en llys 23.30. 

[defnyd] m. pi. defnedyeu materials, requisites. Paub pyeu 
duyn y deueneyeu yr eredyc nac hyc na heryrn na petheu ereyll 
a uo ydau 109.1. A guedi er eisteter ena e mae jaunt yr haulur 
kenic y devnidieu jam e testion ay keidveit 54.4. 53.40; 54.7; 
109.16. Ny dyly gwir na chyureith vot heb y petwar defnyd 
hynn : arglwyd kyffredin ; ac ygnat cadeirawc ; a dwybleit 
kytrychawl. A.L.I 6i4.xiii. cf. Ir. damna in im damnae 
n-epscuip for the material of a bishop, etc. W.W. 

defnet see dyfnet. 

defnetyau to use, make use of. Ef a dele kadu ran e brennyn 
or anreyth . . . eny uenno e brenyn y defnetyau 10.9. ny dylyir 
dewnydyau tyr heb eu kanhyat 62.21. 62.15; 96.20. 3 sg. pres. 
ind. dewnydya 66.20. imperat. defnethet 96.18. 43.13. 

degiii see dygn. 

deg, dec m. ten. Sef yu hynny o eyryw pum ugyeyntrew a 
hynny yu y cantrew yn yaun dec degweyth a dyly bot ym pob 
cant ac nyt a ryw bellach dec 65.20. 

degarugeynt thirty. 

deguet tenth. 15.26. 

degucyt see dyueduyt. 

degweyth ten-times. 

degum tithe, efeyryat teulu ... a dely trayan degum e 



u 4 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

brenyn ef a dele degum e teulu 8.21. efeyryat e urenynes [a 
dele] trayan decum e urenynes 21.13. see Loth p. 159. 

deheu right (as opp. to left). Ar llau deheu yr amdyfynur ar 
y glust assv yr anyueyl 81.17. 37.18; 68.26; 72.4, 14; 74.17; 
81.17; 131.18. 

deleoynt see dyfod. 

delu form, manner, yaun er egnat edrich pa delu e dele ef i 
guadu 44.1. 51.5. 

denu to suck, vuen (wyn) tra uuynt en denu eu cuarchae or 
pryd buykylyt neu eu kemescu ac ' eu mam Sef hyd e deleant 
denu hyd kalanmey 112.21. cf. dyfnu = swcfe. o enau maibion 
yn dyfnu gwnaethost foliant. M.A. 3683.32. d. = Ir. dinim 
I drink, imbibe, suck. O.R. (quoted in W.W.) 

dere the staggers. Adan try heynt e deleyr uod am tey[t]hy 
march rac dere trygluyt. a rac dueskynt teirlloer a rac 
llenmeyrc blaiyn 88.17. sub dere [vertigine]. A.L.II 8o8.xvii. 
written often dera. cf. Cyw'r ddera. D.G. clix.28. knoi'r ddor 
val kenavr ddera. P.MS. 63, p. 95. cf. penddaru=pendro= 
vertigo. Dimet. see penddar. Med.M. p. 138 234. cynddaredd 
rabies. LI. MS. 116, p. 109.3. 

dere see dyroddi. 
derneneyt see dyrneyt. 

derit is related ( ?), belongs, ar guir hinny ni deleant hanuot 
o kenedel e mach. namin o genedel e brehenin kanis ni derit 
kenedel e mach ir brehenin 47.23. Arglwyd heb hi pwy yw dy 
enw di. Ef am gelwir i arthur o tindagol heb ynteu. A deirit 
ytti y brenhin arthur heb hi. mi a vum heb ynteu yny lys 
lawer gweith. H.MSS.I 352.23. It is often -written deiryd. O 
adrodd a hir edrych/y gwael sydd deiryd ir gwych. (End of 
Llyfr Silyn.) G.MechainMSS. Hen dir i honn a deiryd/hen 
drer beirdd ai henw drwyr byd. P.MS. 63, p. 14. Duw ai rhoes, 
mewn Daiar hen/a Ddeiryd ir Ddaiaren. Flor. Poet 27-8. Er 
hynn ll[ewely]n om 116/Ir tan i deiryt h6nn6. P.MS. 70, p. i5b. 
see also M.A. 29ib; 3O4b; 3o8b; 3i2b. cf. A thitheu a aethost 
yamdiffyn yr unbennes yr honn ny deirydei ytt o dim. H.MSS.I 
IO 5-39- see also aneiryd impertinens. Dr.D. derit appears to 
be one of the few survivals of the absolute form of the 3 sg. 
pres. ind. act.; the conjunct form is dawr or tawr which is used, 
as far as we have seen, only in compounds, or when preceded 
by negative particles nim dawr; dydawr, pathawr, etc. For the 
umlaut o>e. cf. coroticus = ceredig. ' deirid ' came to be 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 115 

regarded as the stem and some new forms were evolved. 
deirydei impf. deirydu v. noun. 

deru an oak, fruit tree ( ? ) . pop pren a argueto f ruyt vn 
guert a kolluyn eu eythyr deru ac auall ymp 98.1. Deru and 
derwen appear to be used as in Glamorgan, e.g. derwen fala 
apple tree ; d. gnau hazel tree. 

demon oak tree, a tree ( ?). guert deruen .cxx. 97.15. Ereyll 
a deueyt panyu deruen a ladher en hageuarc ar tref tat 
pryodaur a deleu dody mantell arnau oyckudyau 128.23. cf. 
Os avon a vyd not rvg tired deudyn a dygvydav derven ar travs 
yr auon perchen y tir y tyfuo y prenn ohonav bieuuyd y prenn. 
LI. MS. 69, p. 139.12. The Latin expression in the corresponding 
passage is ' arbor/ see A.L.II 779-xvii ; 854-xlii. kekyn d. 
97.21. see kekyn. 

dcthicauc see undydyauc. 
dctuuirt see dedurit. 

deii, du m. two. pi. deuoet. ny dele er haulur duyn guestel 
e mach namen kerchu ell deuoet ar argluyt 46.16. 

deudec twelve, deudeg wyr 78.29. d. guesty 3.18, etc. 
deudecuet twelfth. 17.31, etc. 
deuencyeu see defnyd. 
deuueredig see dyf-. 

deugeynt forty, dec guyr a deuckeyn 85.21 ; vueth a deuceyn 
88.3. a deuckeyn eu y guert forty pence. 90.18, etc. 

doulyn knees, ny dele eyste en e neuat namyn ar tal y 
deulyn 19.21. rac d. in the presence of. holet er haul rac 
deulun er ignat 45.2. 

deunau eighteen. 

do. u par fh two-thirds. ef a dely cruyn e man escryhyl . . . 
sef mal e dely trayan ydau ef ar deupart yr dysteyn 19.29. 
16.28, 29 JI7-27, 28; 77.14. deuphrt 35.15. 

doniir two men or persons, ef a dely ran deuur 12.22; 15.7, 
etc. deurur 128.18. deugur 7.12. 

deuaut see dyuedyt. 
deuet see dyueduyt. 

dewys, deuys; or douyssau (a) to choose, select, hunnu a 
dely rannu ar brenyn deuuys 17.12. e gureyc pyeu rannu e gur 
pyeu deuyssau 33.5. 7.28; io.ii; 59.18, 20; 70.3; 113.1. 



ii6 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

dewyssay 59.24. 3 sg. pres. ind. dewys 82.1. subj. deguysso 
12.15. imperat. deuysset 34.15. deguysset 118.20. 2 sg. pret. 
dewysseyst 130.11. 

(b) choice, a henny en deuys perchen y guelt 18.24. 1 7-24; 
46.26; 129.28; 130.3-11. 

deylyat detainer, impounder. puebennac a del y ellug 
escrybyl tros ereyll yaun eu yr deylyat gouyn ydau ef a seyf 
em popet trosdunt ac ony seyf ny dele eu kollug 118.25. "S- 1 ! 
24; 118.4, 6, 20; 119.25 (delyat). 

deynt tooth sg. or 'teeth' collect. Ny dyukyr guaet deynt 
a guaet crac a guaet truyn 106.21. Os hytheu ae y Canada ef. 
ny dyhukyr djm ydy o treul deynt ac jstlys 36.19. cf. dy clust 
dy trem di teint. B.B.C. 32.9. see M.A. 1163.5; 8503.46. Da 
deynt rac tauaut. B.B.Ch. 32.22 and Dr.D.Prov. see dant. 

di- see dy-. 
diou 44.8. see duw. 
ditimn see dyd. 
diuc see dywyn. 
djuunt see dywyn. 

doodreuen, deodreuen household furniture and utensils, imple- 
ments, arms, tools. Lema guert e dohodreuen brecan corn 
gobenyt peyr kychueyn telyn taulburt, etc., 99.13. 15-19; 
33.10, 14; 38.13; 42.1.5; 98.23; 99.13- 

[dodwy] to lay eggs. 3 sg. pres. subj. dotuho 94.13. 3 pi. 
dodount, dotuoent 94.8, 9. cf. Ir. doth act of hatching of eggs 
B.L.G. 

dody to put, place, ef a dele dody e delyn en llau e bart teulu 
en e teyr guyl arbewnyc 6.6. or pan decreuho e gof llys 
gueneutur .1111. pedhol ac . . . eu dody ad[a]n uarch e brenyr 
24.5. d. gostec yn y maes 132.14. d. em pen to submit, to 
appeal to. .ix. tauodyauc sef eu e rey hene argluyd e rug e 
deu guas . . . o byd un or rey a deuedassara ny huchof ny 
menho dody em pen e try tauodyauc ar Hall y uenhu. kef rey t 
a eyre y dody 30.21. (cf. datur arpen meichieu [in manus -vadium] 
A.L.II 875. xlix) 54.10; 55.6; 132.3; 133-14- d. ar y gyureyth 
to appeal to law 53.9. 10.28; 52.35; 53.8; 61.18; 72.4, 14; 7 6 -5I 
91.19; 109.18; 111.1,12; 114.20; 122.6; 123.21; 125.7; 128.25. 
i sg. pres. ind. dodau 52.34; 53.1; 130.11; 132.5. 2 sg. dody 
52-33- 3 sg. dyt 61.13; 132-2, 41 <*od 52.38. pass, dodyr 52.22; 
111.12; 117.14; 133-15- 3 sg. subj. doto, dotho 11.20; 18.10; 24.13; 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 117 

27.10; 82.16. pass, doter 15.17, 18; 61.17; 92.4; dotet for doter 
(?) 62.26. 3 sg. imper. dodet 81.25. pass, doter, doder 54.4; 
130.14. see dyroddi. 

doedant 41.27. see dyuot. 
doeht see dyuot. 

doeth wise, prudent, ar gur hunnv a oed vr audurdodus 
doeth 64.21. pi. doython, doythyon, doissihion 1,13, 21; 47.5. 
used as a noun. 

dof tame, broken (of animals). O deruyd y dyn tydau y 
Jtassec en emyl hyd ar ebaul en legry er hyd ac na cafer y dale 
kemerer e kassec ... a decher yr ty a dalyer er ebaul en e ty 
a deker e kassec eny lie ual kynt a llena e guyllt a deyly e dof 
115.16. 1.27; 42-14; ii?- 11 - 

dohouod m. a find, waif, thing found by chance, sea wrack. 
penkerd telyn ... a dele o pop dohouod or a kafoent nac o 
erchy nac o kauarus neythaur ran deuur keny bo en e lie os 
kouyn 128.16. 38.11. Ryd vyd y bawp hely y mor : a vwryo 
y mor hagen yr tir . . . y brenhin bieiuyd . . . hyt y trydyd 
dyd ; or trydyd dyd allan onys kytner y brenhin bit doouot yr 
nep ae kaffo. A.L.1I 52.x. Tri dowod yssyd ryd y dyn v 
kymryd yar y fford nodwyd a phedawl a cheinawc. LI. MS. 116, 
p. 81.21. Or dygwyd pren ar traws auon a thynu magleu ar y 
pren perchenawc y tir y bo bon y pren arnaw a dyly y douot pa 
tu bynhac y trosso yr auon uric y pren. A.L.I 792. xii. written 
dyuot. Eluc. 105.12. W.B. col. 420.39; 473.33. doefot. W.B. 
p. 210.38. This appears to be the same as dyfod to come; used 
in a particular sense. 

doourcth quarters, billeting during "_ progress." O byd 
alldudyon gwlat arall yr brenhyu ay yn wyr ydau ay yn arhos 
gwynt . . . ew a dyly os myn eu gossot yn dooureth ar y 
meybyon eyllyon 67.18. pedeyr [maynaul] a uyd o ueybyon 
eyllyon y borthy kun a meyrch a chylch a dooureth 66.2. ny 
dylyir gossot ar y maynoleu ryd na raaer na chyghellaur na 
chylch na doowreth 67.3. d. often=kylch. Maer a ran y teulu 
pan elon ar dofreth. LI. MS. 116, p. 13.5. LI. MS. 69, p. 99.4. 
A.L.I 488. iv L.W. 160 5. kerdonon o wlad arall a gant kylch 
ar y bileinied. . . . Beth bynac a dangoso y dofreth wyr yr 
tayogeu y delont oe ty ef ae tal. LI. MS. 116, p. 12.33. dofreth 
[domicenium] (accus.). A.L.II 766.31. Dobhraeth .i. herwa. 
P.MS. 118, p. 471. " Dobhreth was a kinde of taxation or rent 
upon peasants when the king or his officers made circuit or 



ii8 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

progress with dogs and horses." LI. MS. 68, p. 138. This 
appears to be formed from dof+rheith with dof = house. Prof. 
Thurneysen suggests (see Walde, under domo) that the Welsh 
dof, dofi spring from Lat. domare. It is possible however that 
dof is borrowed from domus and from its constant use in the 
genit. came like many other words to be used as an adj. It is 
difficult to say whether expressions like llysse dof, sage dof, 
etc. (Old Leech Book) preserve an earlier meaning or are a later 
development, dofaeth gentle, urbane ( ? ) if it is=dof+faeth 
would be similarly formed, see D.G. ccxxix.i3. 

dogyn, dogen (a) fill, sufficiency, dogyn keruyn o ued 69.7. 
69.18. 

(5) full, sufficient. Ac o byt Haunt duegueyt en e det dogen 
eu 91.20. 40.11; 80.6-16; 82.5; 91.20. Mi a welaf yn dogyn a 
dywedy heb y ka6r. Car. Mag. 22.2. 

doissihion see doeth. 

dol the bow or collar around the neck of the ox for fastening 
the yoke. O deruyd kau dol ar ecchen 108.5. 108.13. pi. doleu. 
e keylguat a dele dyguallu e pestelyeu ar yeuuedon ar gudyn os 
hyrguet vyd e torccheu beccheyn a guyeyll e doleu 112.3. c ^- 
Penffestr. ... A dolau mwyn adeilad. D.G. cc.24- dol on vydd 
hyd y liniav/ac ar vn korn gwr yn kav. P.MS. 67, p. 213. 

dohoduf increase, increment, the advance in price of cattle 
that fell due every season till they attained full value. A guedy 
et emholyer e derkeyf .1111. kefreyt en e dyt hunnu ac o hene 
allan .11. pop temmor hyd banner maurth . . . ac ena e dyle 
alu a dyguyau y haryant dohoduf eny uo kubyl y guert 91.4. 
cf. D.G. clxii.g. Ac eli twf, ddwdwf ddadl. 

doolew declaration, assertion, tnab d. a child imputed to a 
certain man as father. Sew yu mab doolew mab a dyweto 
gwreyc ar y thauaut leueryd y uot yn uab y ur ac nas dyco yr 

dygyn 73-14- 

[dor] door. pi. doreu. talet .11 n. k. am pop pren bras, 
am e doreu am er amhynyokeu 99.7. 

dohosparth to order, arrange, decide. Er egnat llys ... or 
pan decreuho d. y dadeleu kentaf eny darfo e dyguedaf 12.25. 
ar egnat llys urth dehosparth pop ped pedrus 29.3 . 

dracheuyn see tra. 

drayngluyt thorn-harrow, [guerth] d. .1. 104.19. Tra retto'r 
og y rhed y ddraenglwyd. Dr.D.Prov. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 119 

dreua a throve (of 16 sheaves!), guerth dreua keyrc .1111. 
103.24. cf. [guerth] escub keyrc fyrcUig 101.4. 69.9, 18, 103.26. 
dereua [thra-va]. A.L.II 783. ii. 

dreuedyc malodorous, stinking, anadl d. fetid breath 34.10. 
cf. Ir. dreoghaim I rot away, wither with age. Dineen. 

drut a fool, an idiot. Sew yu drut dyn ynvyt 134.29. 134.28. 
cf. Ny vir drud. nid yscrid iny timhyr. B.B.C. 31.7. Duw o 
nef gwae drut ny gret it. A.B. 306.11. cf. Drudaniaeth yw hir 
drigiat rnedhvvl ar y druc. H.MSS.II 431.18 (but see M.A. 
2i6b.). Llafar a mud a doeth a drud. M.A. 4ib-42; 2oib. Yn 
ol selyf . . . y gweldychawd roboam ... a hwnnw a dremy- 
gawd knygor y hynafyeid ac a erbynawd drudanaeth y rei 
eueing. P.MS. 20, p. 29. A mud a drud a drythyll/yn llwyr 
yu eu llawn ddeall. M.A. 250^57. d. = Ir. druth .i. oinmit. 
W.W. see ynfyt. 

druc (a) bad, evil. O deruyt e gur duen moruyn en lladhud 
e argluy[d] ae y kenedel a dele y duen yganhau ef ken bo druc 
canthu though she be unwilling 37.28. 

(b) injury, mishap, ac o deruyt druc udunt en henne o uessur 
ef ay tal 109.8. see Fed. I 27. 

drus door, entrance. 5.16, 18; 6.5; 80.12, 13; 114.21. pi. 
dressou 3.27. see taldrus. 

drycyn bad weather, weather. Sew mal y eystedyr yn 
gyureythyaul eysted or brenhyn ay geuyn ar yr heul neu ar y 
drycyn ual bo y uyneb ar y drycyn 131.11. cf. sychin opp. to 
drychin. P.MS. 62, p. 99. 

drych mirror, [guerth] drych iyrdlig 101.10. 

dreear bad tillage. O deruyd bod amresson am drecar 
edrecher eru er amayth a defnet y har ay llet 109.20. see ar, 
gwahanuynar, etc. 

drill a part, section, kanyd oes did kwbil. ac nad yaun 
talu drill did en lie did 52.9. 

dryssaur, dressaur porter, janitor, the fifteenth among the 
king's officers. ef a dely adnabod suyocyon e llys ac nas 
atalyho er un onadunt en e porth 19.8. 10.19, 22 I 9- 1 22.25-31 ; 
23.17. dryaur 8.1. cf. gwas y drws. M.A. 5ob-32. 

du see deu. 

dw black, dead. O deruyd kau dol ar ecchen a maru vn 
onadunt . . . yaun eu kafael yr eru ohonau ... a honno a 
elguyr eru er hecc dw 108.12. Rai yn chware karde brithion. 



120 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

Rai yn magy gwartheg dyon = misfortunes (?). P.MS. 65, 
p. 96. cf. yn 1403 y bu lhadhva dhu yn y Bewmares. Rep. 
MSS.I 1053 304. Ni sengis yr ych du ar dy droed; Hwyr y 
bydd dyn or diniewed du. Dr.D.Prov. Doe idd aeth dan y 
blaned ddv. P.MS. 63, p. n. Planed ddv misfortune. P.MS. 
72, p. 54. cf. Engl. "black ox" and Ger. "schwarzes Fohlen"= 
misfortune, etc. 

dueskeynt (=du ysgefeint. ...A.L.II 324) strangles (A.O.). 
Adan try heynt e deleyr uod am tey[t]hy march rac dere . . . rac 
dueskeynt teir lloer 88.17. dere yscheveyn a llynmeyrch[(sub) 
vertigine; morbo pulmonis; et aqua intercute]. A.L.II 
Sio.xxvii. 

(lulys black (?). [guerth] frueneu estayneyt a dulys ac 
euedeyt .1111. 103.4. 10 3-24. cf. Fruineu ereill euedeit a dulys ac 
ystaneit [frena alia, aenea, nigra et colorata']. A.L.II 887. xvi. 
Ef a dely . . . hen kefruyeu llyu eu pren ay hen fruyneu dulys 
ay hew esparduneu dulys 13.22. (or for dylys = to reject (?). 
cf. ysparduneu o bydant eureit neu efydeit pan dirmycker. 
A.L.I 65o.xvi). dulys occurs as the name of several plants. 
d. olus atrum. A.fcL.I 340. see Med.M. 28ia, 286b, 2Q3b. 
but I have seen no reference to these used for making colour 
or dye. 

1. dull m. form, manner. Ac o byd byv y uam kymeynt ydy 
ac y duy chwyored a hunnv yu y dull goreu 77.10. 104.10. 

2. dull a wisp, (this is written dul also.) escub keyrc fyrlyng 
dull llyn fyrlyng 101.5. Dul Hyvveth o lin. P.MS. 169, p. 228. 
wyth bleth wyth loweth loiwon . . . wyth ddyli o waith eiliad. 
P.MS. 66, p. 67. d. = Bret. dul a handful of tow. Henri. Lex. 
cf. Ir. dual brush. Joyce II 311. 

duu, duv God. (duhu) 14.26; (dyu) 28.12; (duo) 44.6; (diou) 
44.8; (duy) 53.24. 31.19; 47-io; 49.31; 72.5, 15. 

duuer water, d. suyn holy water, yr egluys y cymero d. 
suyn ay uara eferen 72.10. pi. dyuret. gwneuthur coredeu ar 
eu dyuret 67.12. 

dura fist, hand, pop kanuyll a dalylo (dalyho) en y durn 
23.12. ac yn gyulet ac o elyn hyt ar y durn 69.22. 

duruidhau see truy. 

duy f. two. due graget 39.3, etc. duy ran two-thirds, .vui. 
yr dysteyn ar cokeu ar dysteyn a dele duyran ac un yr cokeu 
10.18. 9.12; 12.3, 17; 13.7; 17.1, 3; 21-6, 7; 28.14. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 121 

duyuaul divine, er haner yr abat o byt d. letherur 30.15. 

duyn, duen to bring, take, convey, carry, ef a dele duyn 
llestyr yr llys a dody guyraut endau 10.28. naud e penkynyd 
eu d. dyn a guenel kam hyd enyokel uo 17.13. d. treys ar 
gureyc to commit a rape 37.23. dvyn kylch to go on a 
"progress" 66.16. d. mab en kefreysyaul e gur to affiliate. 
4.18; 6.4; 9.22, 27; 12.8; 14.16; 15.23; 17.22; 18-3, 31; 19.11; 
20.2, 17 ; 21.2, 27 ; 23.32 ; 24.3, 6, 30 ; 29.22 ; 31.6 ; 33.13, 31 ; 35.28 ; 
36.15; 37-23-29; 40.14, 24, 32; 45.30, 31; 46.16, 18, 29, 30; 54.13, 
14 ; 56.31 ; 62.19 ; 64.6, 17 ; 67.5 ; 68.23 ; 7*-2i ; 72-2-25 ; 73.4 ; 87.12 ; 
91.16; 109.1; 111.8; 132.24; 133.16, 24. -written d. 24.6, 14. 3 sg. 
pres. due 6.1; 36.13; 40.29; 55.17; 87.8; 132.9, 24, 25; 110.2. 
3 pi. degant 55.8. pass, digir 40.20; dekyr 41.11; 87.18. 3 sg. 
pres. subj. dyco, decho 20.2; 39.26 decko; 35.22 dhecco; 40.23 
tecgo; 62.2; 69.3; 73.15, 16; 74.13; 79.12; 86.6 dyho; 89.11; 
108.7; I 34- I 7- pass, decher, dycher, decker 7.12; 25.18; 26.10; 
41.18; 71.29; 72.23; 83.7; 85.1, 2; 133.28. 3 sg. imperat. decet 
87.8; dechet 96.15. pass, decher 115.19; deker 115.20. 2 sg. 
pret. dugost 133.18. 3 sg. due 35.26; 37.29; 40.15; 71.23; 72.24. 
pass, ducpuyt 133.27. reducpuet 40.25. 

duyran see duy. 

duyweyth twice 66.16; 68.14, tc. 

dyag to escape. O deruyd menet eydyon en ruyd neu anyueyl 
arall a bryuau e ruyd a dyag er anyueyl yaun eu y dyuyn 121.21. 
dyaghac 87.3. 3 sg. pres. dyeyc 121.4. 

dyal, dial (a) vengeance. Ac os am y cafael gan gur e maet. ny 
dele o djuunt namen henne. cany deleyr dyuunt a dyal am vn 
caflauan 38.5. 41.31; 82.23. 

(b) to avenge, ac guedi y lad e doeht guir e koclet ema oy 
dial 41.27. d. = Ir. digal vengeance. 

[dyalvvr] pi. dyalwyr avengers. Ny dyly yr yscolheygyon nar 
gwraged ran o alanas canyt ynt dyalwyr 77.16. gwell 
ymroddwr no dialwr. M.A. 7803.53. 

diamressoni to appease, pacify. O bit amresson eruc duy 
uaynaul or nau maynaul essit en aruon eu diamressoni or seyth 
42.18. see amresson. 

dyannot without delay, immediate. Ni deleir rody oet vrht 
porth am vach a kenogon kanes diannot e dele bot 49.3. 49.4; 
82.14; 125.5. see annot. 

dyaspat f. cry of distress. Os nauuetdyn a dau y ouyn tyr 



122 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

dyfodedyc yn bryodolder a hunnv a dyt dyaspat am y uot o 
pryodaur yn mynet yn ampryodaur ac yna y gwerendeu y 
gyureyth y dyaspat honno ac y ryd kynnvys ydau . . . ar 
dyaspat honno a elwyr dyaspat uvch annvvyn. a chet doter y 
dyaspat honno o hynny allan ny werendewyr uyth 61.12. O 
chlywi diaspat. dos wrthi. a diaspat gwreic anat diaspat or byt 
W.B. col. 120. i. see W.B. col. 440.32. A.L.II 276.xviii. diasb 
is gi-ven=llei. P.MS. 169, p. 226. 

dyateb not obliged to answer. Puybynnac y barner ydau 
dadanhud bvrn a beych . . . ew a dyly bot yno yn dyatep 
teirnos a trydyeu ac yna rody atep 60.27. 60.25. 

dyaut drink, greyc e brenyn a heill rodhy . . . y buyt ae y 
dyaut a craun e cell 38.12. 19.33 J 67.14. 

dinii ul devil, sg. or collect ( ? ) . ket boet kef reis ae kilit 
ar a daear erug din ay gilid. Nid ois keureith erug diauul a 
gilid 47.7. cf. haint anynad ywch adwy. holl diawl a el a huy 
yll dwy. Rep.MSS.I 129.12. 

dyblyc (in compounds) -fold. Yr argluyd a dyly camlurv 
amdanadunt. herwydmeyntyraffeyth. vn yn undyblyc arall yn 
deudyblyc ar all yn trydybdyc single double treble 75.15. 
deu d. 77.6; 129.24, 27; 130.17. try d. 75.16. y dabler yn i 
dyblic. Rep.MS.I 572 18; 649 216. deudyblic double. 
H.MSS.II 180.18. 

debrit ill-formed, ugly, shameful, infamous. O deruyt e 
gurejc huriauc gueneutaur kaflauan debrit ae rodhi chussan y 
hur ae gadael y gouessiau 35.9. cf. Ny welas erioet delw ar 
dyn kyn hacret. na chyn dybrytet a honno. ac nyt oed debic 
y dim onyt y gythreul. H.MSS.II 152.32. dybrydach. P.MS. 
44, p. 15. ny byd dim nac annwedeid na dybryt arnaw. Eluc. 
60.28. Tegwch absalon dybrydwch vyddei yno. kannys eu 
tegwch wy a uyd megys eglurder yr heul. Eluc. 68.23. see 
also 24.5; 60.22. d. = Ir. dochruth gl. turpis, inhonestus; 
dochrud gl. indecor. W.W. 

dydor to break loose or free, to flee. Puybennac a dalyho 
escrybl ac eu dydor hyd adref ny deleyr dym udunt kanyd yaun 
deu de (dale) am un lluguyr ii8.ii. Oes un lie y bo eneit uadeu 
lleidyr gwerth kyn y didor. oes. yny barner dyn yn lleidyr 
gwerth ac [ni] mynno ymprynnu gan y allu ohonaw k. a uarn y 
dihenydu. P.MS. 35, f. 76a.i. A.L.II 92.1 ; ii2.lv. Pwybynnag 
a a ddaljo ysgrubl. ac eu didor hyd atref. v.l. a'i diangc o'r 
gwarchae hyd eu cartref. L.W. 291 49. Didyrr deigr dioyr 
adavael om drem. Rep.MSS.II 814. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 123 

ditreul unused. O byt arkefreu jdhy byt hunnu en ditreul 
hit empew .vii. blenet 36.18. see treul. 

dyd, did, diu, dihu m. day, a day. ymdeyth dyd neu nos 
78.20. undyd a bluydyn 73.17; 133.1. erchi d. to fix time 52.2. 
banner d. mid-day 96.12. 10.8; 11.14; 12.1, 26; 16.20; 25.8; 
26.20; 28.24; 38.16; 46.24; 48.24, 32, 34, 35; 52.2, 7, 8, 9; 53.38, 
39, 40 ; 54.1, 2, 3, 15 ; 56.29 ; 60.26 ; 67.22 ; 77.1 ; 81.22 ; 88.2 ; 90.18 ; 
96.15; 110.25; 125.10; 131.5. pi. (with numerals) dyeu 34.22; 
5 I -32, 33. 34, 35J 88.11. dydyeu 133.13. dyeoeth 65.1. dithun 
=dydd hwn 52.3. 

dydon fast, fasting (?). dydyeu d. fast days (? ). O deruit 
y dyn rodi mach ar delect a diguitau er oet en vn or teirguil 
arpennic . . . yr cloy [ = hory] ohonau ny kyll onyt y annot 
... os e pasc vit tranoes guedi dihupa[s]c beccan. os e sulguin 
vit tranoes guedi sul nessaf jr sulguin ar teir vhehnos hinny a 
eluuir o eu breint en vn dit dethon 48.30. O deruyd y dyn yn 
dydyeu dydon na cholly na cafael ny byd yr hynny ony byd 
dody oet colly cafael yndunt ac os hynny a dodyr cubyl a gollyr 
133.13. Sef yw dydyev dydon o nos Nodolyc gwedy gosber hyd 
dvw Nodolic [kalan gwedi ySeren ac o nos Base gwedi gosber 
hyt duw Pasc bychan gwedi yfferen ac o nos Sadwrn y Sulgwyn 
gwedi gosber hyt duw Ssvl y Drindot wedi yfferen]. A.L.II 
272. ii. Hoedyl Dafydd megis dydd dyddon. M.A. 222a.8. 
Gwyn fyd Elise pan weler teulu. a meibion dyddon dysg 
weinyddu. loloMSS. 277.12. dyddyeu deduon. A.L.II 448.5. 
M.A. 96ib-58. dyddyeu duon. P.MS. 27. This word is usually 
translated 'blank' or 'holy' (A.L.I 131; II 273, 449; Pughe) 
because no legal business could be transacted during those days 
and because they were so closely associated with the great 
religious festivals. The variation in the written form of the 
expression suggests that the origin of the word was more or less 
forgotten. It appears to us that -on is the same word as the 
Ir. oin fasting (see Pass. Horn. p. 529) which was borrowed from 
Lat. ieiunium or rather from the form iaiunium or *ajunium 
(see De Hib. under oin, aoin, oine, p. 161, and Walde under 
jejunus) and that dydd-on is literally 'a day of fasting.' The 
vocalism of -on is not clear to me, but it is possible that it was 
influenced because dydon was evidently regarded as a plural. 
It appears to have survived in a curious form in colloquial Welsh 
till the last century. In the " Report of the Commissioner on 
Municipal Corporations in England and Wales," 1883, the 
following expression occurs in the report on Pwllheli, p. 123. 
"He takes from each boy i/- on the Dydd dan fawr on every 



i2 4 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

Great Thursday preceding Good Friday." For oin, etc., see Fed. 
I 134; M.C. p. 41 under ainim; Celt. Stud. II p. 146; B.L.G. 
p. 30; Pass. Horn. p. 642 under didin; Henry. Lex p. 175 under 
lun; Walde under jejunus. 

dydym -without goods or property. Sew yu dyn dydym dyn 
heb da ydau 135.1. 134.28. dyn d. poor. M.A. 1345.25. 

dyebryd m. to -withhold, -withholding, delay. O deruyd y dyn 
rody aryant neu yscrybyl ar arall ac or da hunnv kywnewydyau 
ac elwha or nep y doeth atau a cheyssyau or neb pyeufo yr aryant 
yr elu. Nyny a dywedun na dylyir onyt amot ay due ydau. 
canys nyt a svllt a dan dyebryt 132.19. cf. ni daim enecland 
anad honour price does not brook delay. B.L.G. (sub. eneclann.) 
Tri ryvdiepryt yssyd vn yv dvyn peth ac nas atuerer dracheuen. 
Eil yv adav argyved ar dyn . . . heb wneuthur iawn na hedwch. 
Trydyd yv diebryt dyn ae dylyet dros amser talu. LI. MS. 69, 
p. 80.23. tredet [meuyllwryayth mechniayth] dwyn dyebryt or 
mach gwedy taler ydaw . . . tertium est, moratorium se prebere 
postquam pecuniam recepit. A.L.II 772. ix. diebrit mach 
guedy roder [moratio sponsionis postquam detur] II 873.xxix. 
Am uymot yn diaberwr ac ar herw ar arthur ermoet. W.B. 
p. 289.29. see further LI. MS. 116, pp. 5.12, 15; 57.11; 86.5, 6, 
14, etc. 

dyeyssyuau, diessiwau to compensate, make up a loss. Sef eu 
anodeu pop peth a decher en ryd arall. Ny deleyr dym amyn 
d. e dyn oe da. 85.2. 50.26, 29; 70.19; 85.10; 91.21. 

dycythyr prep, outside, "without. O guerthyr march a tuyll 
enthau ac na bo dyeythyr e croen ny dyhucyr 90.1. 

[dyua] to annul. 3 sg. pret. dyuaus Hywel wedy hynny a 
wnaeth kyureythyeu ac a dyuaus rey Dywynwal 64.24. see 
M.A. 573.44 difa, etc. 

dyuach, dcuach -without legal surety, d. occurs only in the 
exp. guarthec d. meybjon e reu graget e telyr guarthec de vach 
onadunt. ac esef acaus e geluyr e guarthec hene en guarthec d. 
canyd oes kenedel tat ae talho. amen kenedel e uarn 39.20; 
73.11; 125.6. 

dyuarnu to condemn, con-vict. Puybynnac a holo peth a 
dyuot yr maes ac yn y maes kylyau ohanav . . . ac o achaus y 
uot ew yn kylyau mynnu y dyuarnu or da ny wyl y gyureyth 
bot yn yaun y dyuarnu or eydau nac oy haul 130.4. 3 pi. 
imperat. diuarnent 55.12. pass, diuarner 55.13. cf. y farn a 
roed yngharno ni ddifernir fyth ohono. Ll.MS. 53, p. 137. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 125 

[dyferedyg] deuueredyc irrational, not endowed -with reason. 
O deruyd deuot moch y ty a guaskaru e tan eny llosko e ty a 
dyaghac e moch talet e perckenau[c] e moch eu gueytret os e 
moch a lyst kehedet eu kanes deuueredyc ynt 87.5. 121.19. 
Pieu y gaer heb wynt Meredic a wyr ywch chwi nyt oes yn y 
byt ny wypo pieu y gaer hon. R.B.I 126. W.B. col. 486.13. 
R.B.I 115.18. dyfredic. P.MS. 35, f. H2b.i5. gwyddyl diefyl 
diferogion. M.A. 583.29. deivyr diuerogyon. A.B.II 68.26. 
cf. Dafydd gi merydd giw mall. Rep.MSS.I 748 26. cf. Ir. mer 
madman, merad act of maddening, see Loth.Mab. p. 343. see 
also mer-danacht. Meyer.Fianaigecht. Gloss. 

dyuessyr unlimited, indefinite, ay ankuyn en dyuessyr ar 
uuyt a llyn 4.1. kanu ydy kerd en dyuessur 14.31. 4.20 ; 18.32 ; 
20.17; 21.8 

dyueychyau to pledge, give security (?). A hunnv a eluyr 
yn warthec dyuach urth uot yn dyr d. ar y gwarthec hynny 
73.11. see dyuach. 

dci'net depth. O deruyd bod amresson am drecar edrecher 
eru er amayth a defnet y har ay llet 109.21. 

dyuot, dcuot, douot to come. Ac nas ellecho uyth yr guychet 
nac en menet nac en deuot 12.12. ac or brath humtu deuod 
ageu 120.12. d. ar e tir or d. yr tir to gain possession of land 
55.13, 15, 22. gur d. a squatter 56.13. 12.10; 19.31; 36.3, 14; 
39.9, 10, ii ; 45.9; 46.11, 12, 38; 47.2, 16, 32; 48.28; 51.6; 52.10; 
53.7, 20, 29, 40; 55.22; 56.1; 62.13; 72.1, 3, 4, 13; 87.2; 96.10; 
118.5; II9-5, 7! 121.15; 123.19; 124.18; 130.1, 28; 131.6. 3 sg. 
pres. dau 24.9; 45.18; 50.16; 53.30; 61.12; 69.14; 71.16, 22; 75.2; 
77.22; 78.22; 96.13. pi. deuant 96.18, 20. 3 sg. pres. subj. del 
6.24; 8.22; 9.16, 17; 10.10; 15.12, 20; 18.3; 19.28; 21. 18; 26.4, 6, 
14; 28.5; 31.6; 38.11; 40.10; 47.34; 51.7; 56.13, 20; 61.9; 65.27; 
66.26; 68.16, 17; 75.2; 77.14; 95-3, ii ; 98.5, 10, ii ; 110.26; 113-23, 
24; 118.18, 21, 25. 3 sg. imperat. deuet 8.4; 45.1; 52.2; 80.25; 
86.9. doet 50.1; 80.14; 132.11. 3 pi. deuent 17.9; 53.31. doent 
54.18. 3 sg. pret. doeth 131.3; 132.17, 23; 134.18. dath 31.18. 
doeht 41.27. doet 108.10. 3 pi. doythant 1.7. doyant 1.9. 
doytant 1.13. doedant 41.27. doetant 41.30. doethant 42.2. 

dyuotyat coming, d. y tir to come into possession of land. 
nyt dylys y dyn d. y tyr namyn [o] uraut 62.27. 

dyurenhyn without a king, not tributary to a king. Ny dyly 
untyr bot yn d. o byd abbatyr ew a dyly udunt o bydant 
leygyon dyruy a chamlvru 60.8. 



126 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

[difwynaw] dywuynau to spoil, render useless. sew yu 
fyrnygruyd d. y da ydau ehun ac yu berchennauc 83.5. 

dyuuynyant profitless, -void, idle. Ar geyr a deweter gwedi 
er ostec hot hunnu en d. er neb ay dewetto. ac yr keghaus e 
devether ir porth ydau 52.24. Sef eu gueyrclaud tyr d. namyn 
y gueyr a claud en y kylc 116.21. 

[difyn] a fragment, bit, crumb, pi. dyuenyon. kanuyllyd 
... a dely bryu uara a bryu d. a hel dros deskel e brenyn 
23.15. 20.12. Bwyta divyn val y rhuddo (sev ar lech yn pobi). 
M.A. 84ib.i. a phan vu digawn kic y mab ef a beris y dorri yn 
divynnyon man. H.MSS.I 235.10. see I 340.11. cf. dyhennyon. 
-fyn = Ir. benaim I cut. 

dyuynnu to call, summon. Yna y mae yau[n] yr argluyd d. 
yr effeyryat atau a dywedet urthau yr hyn a rydywedpuyt 
urthau ynteu 80.10. 3 sg. pret. deuenus 1.3. pass, uennuyt 1.6. 
dyfyn a gwys a rhyfel ar vrys. P.MS. 94, p. 20. 

deuerky otter, [guerth] croen deuerky .vni. 97.13. 

dyfeyth common land regarded as the king's property, waif, 
anything left -without acknowledged owner. pop da heb 
perchenauc ydau d. brenhyn 30.10. A deudeg maynaul a 
duydrew ym pob kymut. y duydrew a dyly bot yn reyt brenhyn 
vn onadunt a dyly bot yn tyr maertrew ar lleyll yn d. brenhyn 
65.15. 60.12. O deruyt gur duyn moruyn lladhllud. a guedy 
e del yr dyfeyth a hy 31.6. 29.25; 64.2; 65.16; 66.20; 124.9. 
Pob kyffaned a dyly hwylua yr dyffaith kySredyn y drev a 
thalv tyr arall amdanaw. A.L.II 27o.viii. cf. dinas a ddiffydd 
diffaith. Dr.D.Prov. M.A. ngb. see Loth p. 161. 

dyfody to extinguish. metaph. escheat. O deruyd duyn 
treys yar uoruyn . . . sew a dyweyt y gyureyth yna dyfody yr 
amobyr yr argluyd cany allus y chadu rac treys ac ef a dylyu y 
chadu 133.29. 64.19; 125.23. 3 sg. pres. dyfryt (for dyfyt) 61.8. 
subj pass, dyfoder. or pan enyither e kanuyll kentaf eny d. 
e dyuethaf 20.19. part, pass dyfodedyc escheated, ac ny byd 
erv d. yn tyr kyuryw 60.3. 61.13; 68.24; 128.2. ac o dyna 
mynet yny bed a wnaeth [moessen] a diffodi. H.MSS.II 246.35. 
dinas a ddiffydd diff^eth. M.A. ngb. 

dyfryt 61.8 read dyfyt. see A.L.I 756.x; II 276.xviii. see 
'dyfody' above. 

[dyfryd] to defend. 3 sg. pres. subj. dyfero. nauvet [afeyth] 
yu gwelet y lad yn y uyd ac nas dyfero 75.3. cf. ymddiffryd= 
ymddiffyn; ymddiffrais=ymdiffynais. P.MS. 189, p. 83. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 127 

dygaun (a) adj. sufficient, adequate. es[e]f eu a deueiht e 
kefrehit ony vrhtug arnauhu hot en digaunt e llu ehun 49.19. 
53.5, 17; 129.21. diguant 44.24. 

(&) noun. Ac osid a hamehuo hinni e may ymy digaun ay 
guyr 53.1353.12. 

[dygaun] to do, to make. 3 sg. pret. digones. bit rith e mach 
or haul am a guad a digones 45.4. digigones 45.6. redigones 
51-38. 

diguitau to fall, happen, lapse. O deruit y din rodi mach ar 
deleet ad. er oet en vn or teir guil arpennic 48.29. Rey a 
deveyt na diguith gustil o llau vach hyt e pen vndit a bluidin 
48.11. diguthauhau 46.1; dikutau 46.5; dyguyau 91.4. 3 sg. 
pres. dyguyd, diguith 48.11, 12, 15; 49.23 ; 62.17; 75- I 95 79- I 5J 
117.21; dicuit 46.8. subj. dygvydho 74.1; diguatho 47.24; 
diguitho 48.4. imperat. diguidet 50.25 ; 82.9. 

dygymot reconciliation, arrangement. Pa dyn! bynnac a 
dyholyer o uraut y gyureyth ay gafael yn y wlat tros yr oet 
. . . byt eneyt uadeu . . . cany dyly ew y wlat yn oes yr 
argluyd ay dyholyo onyt can dygymot ac ew 79.9. 

dygyn, dwyn yr d. to bring to the test, to affirm by oath. Sew 
yu mab doolew mab a dyweto gureyc ar y thauaut leueryd y 
uod yn uab y ur ac nas dyco yr dygyn 73.15. ket dyweto 
perchennauc lledrat ar y dauautleueryd ar arall ac nas dyco yr 
dygyn 79.12. 

dygyngoll m. severe loss. Ac o Had ew dyn kenedyl y uam 
ay tal y deuparth yr alanas arnau ynteu yn llourud ac o lledyr 
ynteu vynt a dylyant deuparth y alanas ew a hunnv a elwyr 
yn un o dygyngoll cenedel 73.2. Och arglwyd dygyn a thruan 
yw bot yn reit ytt vynet y diodef. H.MSS.I 259.12. For Tri 
dygyngoll kenedyl see A.L.II 4o.vii. 

dyhenyt death, forfeiture of life. Ay d. ew yn ewyllys yr 
argluyd nay grogy nay losgy a uynno 129.25. 85.12. hennyd 
life (?). B.A. 3.22. 

dyenydu to execute, inflict capital punishment. Ny dyly 
argluyd ebedyu dyn a dyenydyo. o dyenydyir ygwlat arall yr 
argluyd a dyly y ebedyu 82.27. 79-22 ; 83.1 ; 85.4 ; dyenyhu 85.9 ; 
129.29. pres. pass, dyenytyr 31.17; dyenydyir 82.28. 3 sg. 
subj. dyenydyo 82.27. 

dyhenyon pi. bits, fragments. Ar koceu a dele e guer ar d. 
ar emescar 8.3. 19.31. dihynnyon y gallavr. LI. MS. 69, p. 
31.18. d. fragmina. A.L.II 763. xxi; 827.xviii. 



128 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

dyheu certain 71.28. 

dyheurau to exonerate, plead for. Ny deleyr dyenythu caeth 
os pryn y argluyt ac ony kefyr dym eny lau y argluyt a eyll y 
dyheurau 85.4. O deruyd y dyn gyrru peth ar arall y greyryeu 
a gwedy y gyrr y dyheurau hunnv a elwyr yn gyureyth anudon 
134.11. 36.6, 7; 85.7. 3 sg. pres. ind. dyheura 41.4; 115.8. 
pres. pass, dyheuryr 115.11. see R.B.II 130.13. A.L.II 
4i2.xxxviii. 

dyho see duyn. 

dyhol to banish. Pa dyn bynnac a dyholyer o uraut y 
gyureyth ay gafael yn y wlat tros yr oet a roer ydau byt 
eneytuadeu . . . cany dyly ew y wlat yn oes yr argluyd 79.26. 
46.32 diol; 61.7; 78.25; 79.18; 129.29. 3 sg. subj. dyholyo 79.29. 
pass, dyholyer 79.20,26. imperat. pass, dyholyer 79.26; 80. 2,18. 

dyhol wr an exile. Puybynnac a dyholyer . . . dywyrnaut 
urth pob cantrew a uo yr argluyd ... a hunnv yu oet dyholwr 
79.21. 

dylath see tylath. 

dylesteyr unimpeded, unhindered, free. Ef a dely o pop pun 
kenud truy porth escheren a tenno en d. yr march 25.29. 
puybennac pyeufo er heryrn keueyryet ef uuent en d. yr 
geylguat 111.21. 38.30. llestyr, (apparently the same as 'llestr.' 
Ir. lestar vat, etc.,) is used for 'prison' in Med.W. (see W.B. col. 
255) but -whether this is the negative of it in that sense is not 
clear to me. 

[dyleu] to annul. 3 pi. pret. dyleassant. er hen kefreythyeu 
a esteryasant ar ey onadunt a adassant y redec ar ey a 
emendassant ac er eyll en kubyl a d. 1.16. 

dylur hind, back. O deruyd deuod chun e brenyn en hoi hyd 
ay lad . . . rodher chuarthaur yr nep pyeufo e tyr e cuartaur 
dylur y pop perchen penhecen ar chuartaur rac y pop perchen 
kella 96.21. 96.25. tyget y perchenawc . . . uynet [y bugeilgi] 
ym blaen yr ysgrybyl y bore, a chadw eu dilyryeit y diwedyd. 
A.L.I 730.xiv. cf. Ir. lorg track, frim lorg behind me. see 
W.W. 2 lorg. cf. Corn. dylarg, dellarch behind. Bret, 
dilerch. see dylyrbren. 

dylyet, delehet, delet claim, right, debt, service. Uchof e 
trayhuyd o ureynt a delehet er un suydauc ar pemdec 20.24. O 
deruit y din tebigu bot in rit tnacht oe wni o tallu peth or delet 
a hep talu kubel 45.22. 5.1; 24.4; 28.30; 45.29; 46.21; 47.2, 16; 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 129 

48.30; 49.9; 51.1; 62.3, 15; 82.24; 126.14; 127.15, 16; 128.5. pl- 
deleedyon 34.17; 47.3. delhedyon 34.20. deletdyon 34.4. 

dylyrbren last choice (?), last lot (?). Ony byd tey y mab 
yeuaw a dyly rannv holl trew tat ar hynaw dewyssau . . . os 
tey a uyd y braut eyl yeuaw a dyly rannv y tydynneu canys 
dylyrbren uyd ynteu yna ar yeuaw dewyssau ar y tydynneu 
59.20. 50 P.MS. 35, p. 423.1. cf. blaenbren first choice, great 
privilege, supreme luck, a blaenbren oed gan vn onadunt a 
gaffei vynet ar y croen hwnnw. W.B. col. 202.32. bwrw derwen 
blaynbren y blaid. P.MS. 71, p. 36. so 68, p. 100. Elisa oejd 
yn lys wenn vel i vnbrawd yn flaynbren. P.MS. 61, p. 37. Sef 
yw eu kynnefawt kynullaw holl wyr jeueingk y wlat rac bronu 
eu tywyssogyon a bwrw prenneu y rygthunt. Ac megys y del 
y coelbrenn udunt y deholir. R.B.II 131.31. The translation 
of 'dilerbren' as 'measuring rod or instrument/ etc. (see Pughe, 
L.W. ; D.S.E. ; A.O.) appears to us obviously untenable and 
based on a misapprehension of the whole text. When anything 
which belonged to two or more parties was to be divided one 
was to divide the other to choose, e.g. e gureyc pyeu rannu e gur 
pyeu deuyssau. A.L.I 80. i. etyued y braut yeuaw [a dyly] 
cystadylhau (divide in equal portions) ac edyuet yr hynaw 
dewyssaw i68.iv, etc. In the first part of the text the younger 
son divides first and so is the last to receive his share. In the 
second part the "next youngest" is to divide and so he is now 
to be the last to choose instead of last but one as before, see 
dylur. 

dylys, dilis valid, acceptable, free, secure, puipennac a gusto 
gust adeuedic a tebiccu honau ef vrth na does vach arnau bot e 
guestel en anilis. nini a deuedun dikutau hunu ae y vod en 
dilis 46.5. O deruyt y gur mennu escar ay gureyc a mennu 
ohonau gureyc arall dylis eu e cantaf 39.3. 43.10; 47.32; 56.26; 
62.27; I 32.i3- see llyssu, dillusu. 

dylysruyd, dilisruid (a) indisputable claim, property, integrity, 
validity, o llau argluid nac o llau vach nid reyt mach ar d. 
e guistil kani guadant buy y roi 48.16. nit reit kemrit mach 
ar d. ariant 48.36. cf. Eng. 'money has no ear-mar k' = unry\v vyd 
pop aryant ae gilyd. A.L.II 340.17. Nyt reyt mach ar d. da can 
greyc 40.29. 48.8, 17, 21, 36; 119.4. Sef yv d. bot yn warant yr 
neb ae prynho hyt na allo arall na dala na damdvg na phrofi 
meddyant namyn y uot yn eidav ef. A.L.II 741.1. 

(b) compensation for violating integrity (?). o deruyd c 
gur adef duen treys ar gureyc talet. xn. myu en dyruy yrarglujt 



130 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

ae hamobor yr argluyt ac os moruyn vyt. e coguyll aej 
haguedhy ... ay huenepuuert ae d. 37.25. 133.22=51 quis 
uoilenter puellam cognouerit, reddat domino mercedem el 
dyruy : puelle uero suam iniuriam, et egwedy [dotem]. ct 
edylysruyt [evictionem] del. A.L.II 794. xix. 

dillusu to give up, abandon, renounce. O derail y dyn 
kemrit arall ar i oruodogyaith ac oyt arnau a kin or oyt dillusu 
or llourud e goruodauc 50.31. a bot yn well ganthunt dilyssu 
eu teyrnget no hynny. R.B.II 121.10. 

dylyu, delehu, dclcu to be due, deserve, be obliged to, to oive, 
to merit. Gwynwyr o wlat arall a trayano ac argluyd o delyir 
eu bot yn lladron gwerth. ac o lledyr dylyu galanas amdanunt 
83.1. y lety eu e ty nessaf yr escubaur urth deleu ohonau ef 
rannu er ebran 13.6. Sew a dyweyt y gyureyth yna dyfody yr 
amobyr yr argluyd cany allus y chadu rac treys ac ew yn dylyu 
y chadu 133.29. ny dyly untyr bot yn dyurenhyn o byd abbatyr 
ew a dyly udunt o bydant leygyon dyruy a chamlvru . . . o 
byd escoptyr ew a dyly llvyd a lledrat 60. 10. 1.9; 13.13 ; 45-23 ; 
48.1, 18 ; 49.9, 27 ; 51.20 ; 52.5 ; 53.7 ; 54.11 ; 61.10, n ; 62.28 ; 73.7 ; 
75-5, 6, 7, 8; 110.23; m-6; 116.23; 120.17; 123.17; 130.17, 24; 
132.29; 133.8. i pres. deleauy 49.13; deleau 53.11. 2 sg. deleedi 
49.14; deleidy 49.15; dylyy 130.12. 3 sg. dly, deley, dele, dyly, 
dely 3.21, 22, 23; 4.4-16; 5.2-23, etc. 3 pi. deleant, dylyant 2.13; 
4.14; 7.7, etc. pass, deleyr 7.6; 8.10, etc. dylyir 59.29; 60. 18, 
etc. dylyr 69.16, etc. delyr 66.29. for dydyir 81.12 read dylyir. 
3 sg. pres. subj. deleho 9.31; 16.27; 37-25 J 38-3; 46-33 J 48-23; 
50.28; 51.12,25; 88.6; 117.22; 119.21; 122.12; dylyho 61.24; 62.6; 
63.14 ; 74.4. 3 pi. dylyoynt 64.8 ; dylyoent 75.23 ; dylyhoynt 79.3 ; 
deleoent (?) 44.20. pass, deleter 54.1; 113.20; 114.19; 128.1; 
dylyer 80.7. 3 sg. impf. dylyey 81.19; 130.19. pass, dyleyt 
47-33- 

dyllat clothes, ef a dely y dyllat a uo am e brenyn 8.28. pan 
dano d. ar e guely 22.22. guaet d. clothes of a wounded person 
given in return for medical attendance 7.20; 18.5. 7.9, 10; 8.28; 
14.11, 15, 24; 18.5; 21.16; 23-26; 25.9; 26.23; 27.17; 28.23; 33.16, 
17, 18, 19; 34.1; 104.7. I r - dillat garment, suit of clothes. 
B.L.G. see Ped.I 24. 

dyllallu 23.3 see dyuallu. 

dylluc to free, release, em pop amser y d. escrybyl o karcar 
ny deleyr namen aryant 112.14. 

dym, dim, djin a thing, bit, part, na guenelynt dym namyn 
kan y kaghor ef 7.11. ny vruernir ir kannogon kumeint a dim 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 131 

46.2. ny dele enteu roy d. o henne 4.4. 4.4; 13.24; 26.21; 27.5; 
34.16; 35.28; 36.2, 10, 20; 38.9, 14; 39.5; 40.4, 28; 44.10; 46.2; 
47.25; 49.13, 14, 15; 62.12; 63.1, 2; 64.17; 67.3; 75.13; 79.23; 
80.17 ; 81.5 ; 82.22 ; 85.3, 5, 9 ; 91.19 ; 106.16 ; 108.15 > 110.27 > n8.n ; 
120.9, 16, 21, 22; 122.16; 123.3, 22; 125.23; 132.23, 27; 133.10; 
134.29. 

dymcy halfpenny, half the curt penny and a third of the legal 
penny. 93.22; 94.8, 13, 20; 100.6, 14, 15, 16, 18. 101.10 dym ; 
IO 5-5 9 JI 2. 17; 129.6. a phan wnaethbwyd cyfreith Hywel 
nat oedd ffyrdling. canys wedy y gwahanwyt ceynyoc yn 
ddimeu a ffyrdling. A.L.II 596. ix. canys dymey yu traian e 
kennyauc keureyth. 1,1. MS. 174, p. 55.24. P.MS. 35, f. 2ib.6. 

dyn man, human being, llu .vn. nyn earn e mam ay tat 
36.6. o due dyn gureyc lathlud 36.13. O deruyt e gureic Hat 
dyn hy a dele cafael k. paladar a hunnu eu e dyn ae kemmer ac 
nys tal 41.15. 4.19; 6.4, 15; 9.19, 22, 26, 27; 12.26, 27, etc. pi. 
dynyon, denyon 8.7; 48.24; 53.20; 54.20; 59.1; 77.12; 88.20; 
120.2, 3, 24; 121.4; 123.13, 18, 19; 129.28; 135.8. 

dynaguet, dynauguet a steer, heifer, d. guru vn kerdhed a 
dynaued vanu 92.2. roder d. bluyd en y llau 36.8. 92.3, 18. 

dynessyt citizen ; (genit.) of best quality, pop mantell d. 
.xxnii. 104.14. 

dynesyc belonging to a city, of the best quality, [guerth] 
pop capan d. .xxuii. 104.16. Coch dynesic & coch tanesig yw 
coch y dre & coch y ddinas ne r coch gore. P.MS. 169, p. 224. 
cf. y colled llawer o bentrefydd Dinesig. loloMSS. p. 42. 
Anno. 353. cf. guerth tudedyn parawt ygkyfreith Howel da 
xxnii. aryant. A.L.I 792. xviii. see M.A. 927 77, 78. 

dynneu 88.2 read dyuuyn. LI. MS. 174, p. 113.13. 

dynot free (?), without any distinguishing mark. llv 
deudeg wyr am uarch a tryugeynt aryant ... a hartner hynny 
yn wyr not ar banner arall yn wyr dynot 79.2. 85.23. Reithwr 
not a dyly tygu bot yn Ian llw y neb y tygo ygyt ac ef. O 
ffalla un gwr onadunt palledic uyd y reith oil. Reithwr dinot 
a dyly tygu bot yn tebycaf gantaw bot yn wir a twng. ket 
pallo reith gyfiredin yn ol y deuparth y dylyir barnu. P.MS. 
35, f. 733.3. gwyr dynot = gwyr addfwyn. L.W. 208 14. cf. 
a heuyt hi a wydyat y vot yn oreu marchawc urdawl or holl 
vyt. ae vot yn dynodus o bop gwyd. H.MSS.I 273.8. tri dyn 
diouredawc a dylyant vot yny reith honno [o varchogaeth a lliein 
a gwreic], A.L.I 408.1, appears to describe the same persons 
as the gwyr not of 85.23. see not. 



132 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

[diot] to remove, displace, depose, clear, subj. pass, dyother. 
or pan d. e maer eny doter arall 15.18. 3 pret. rydyodes. ac 
ony cheyf o henuaes ardet yr hyn r. or koet pedeyr blynet ew 
63.23. aruer6ch . . oc a6ch nerthoed y diot ymein hyn. 
R.B.II 168.20. arho hep y gwalchmei mi a diodaf y arueu y 
am y gwr . . . yna y diodes gwalchmei y holl arueu. W.B. 
p. 289.17. cf. odi to cast. Meglyt a oruc yspadaden penka6r 
yn un or tri Ilechway6 g6enh6ynic . . . ae odi ar eu hoi. W.B. 
col. 477.23 = dodi. R.B.I 118.25. diodedic y wise. R.B.II 
I53-I5- 

dyodew to suffer, allow, submit to. O dyryd mab uchelwr y 
uab ar uab eyllt argluyd ar ueythryn gan y gannyat neu gan y 
dyodew undyd a bluydyn ohanav 68.20. mab d. yu mab a 
dyco gwreyc y ur yn gyureythyaul a dyodew or gur hep y wadu 
un dyd a bluydyn 73.16. a dyodew haul ac atep ohanav 131.6. 
35.27; 73.14, 16, 17, 20; 124.23. 3 sg. subj. dyodeuo 63.5. 

dioer, dioyr certain, excl. forsooth, surely, deueduit or 
haullur dioer mach a deleauy . . . dioyr hep e Hall nit mach ar 
ny vo mach 49.13. v.l. Duw a wyr. L.W. 97 2. duw a wyr 
and diohir or dioer are often used -without any apparent 
distinction in the Laws. 

dyofryt vow, oath. Ac a dodassant eu hemendyt ar er egnat 
a kamero d. braut ac ar er argluyt ay rodhey ydau ar ny 
huypey teyr kolhouen kefreyt 1.25. ae mynet yn vanaches ae 
y mywn diofryt arall. A.L.I 53o.liii. tri dyn dioureda6c a 
dylyant vot yny reith honno o varchogaeth a lliein a g6reic. 
A.L.I 408.1. This has nothing, at any rate directly, to do with 
'bryd'mind (B.Cwsc. Gloss.) but is rather a -v. noun corresponding 
to 'edryd,' 'cymryd.' The ist sg. pres. ind. occurs in B.Tal. 
65.20 (A.B. 196.8). Namyn ydu6 vchaf nys dioferaf. 

dyogel, dyhochel, dyhoghel, diokel safe, out of peril, naud 
e penkynyd eu duyn dyn a guenel kam hyd enyokel uo 17.13. 
4.19; 6.4; 9.23; 19.14; 21.4; 26.15; 45.28. superl. dyogelhaw 
best established 82.21. 

[dyosg] to strip, lay bare. 3 sg. pret. dyosges. ny dyly 
braud bod yn goedur yr braud arall. namyn talet ydau coet 
cystal ar hun a d. ew 63.21. 

dyr, dir due, necessary, certain, pob dyn a holer y alanas a 
dylyir y enwy erbyn y henv . . . ac ny ellyr enwy nep yny 
uedydyer ac urth hynny y mae dyr y uot ynteu ar ureynt gur 
yny uedydyer 70.15. 50.24; 73.11. A fo da gan Dduw ys dir. 
Dr.D.Prov. pechod . . . yw achos pob dir a chyny drwy'r tir. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 133 

LI. MS. 202, p. 167. cf. diryaw=o compel. W.B. col. 438.38. 
diryawc. M.A. 2153.13. Ir. dlir proprius, conveniens; dir 
congruum. Zimmer Celt.Stud.I 107. 

dyrchaw to attack, set on. kany dyly y genedyl namyn 
sarhaet eu car ay alanas. ac nat oes yn hynny na dyrchaw na 
gossot. na gwaet na gwely na choll eneyt 75.11. cf. diffryt 
dyn rac . . . drychaf arf. A.L.II 3i2.iv. pan ladher y gelein 
drychaf a gossot arnei. II 40. vi. drychaf law arnaw dyrnawt 
mawr. W.B. col. 124.29. =a dyrchauel Ila6 arna6. ae dara6 
dyrna6t ma6r. R.B.I 201.21. Sef yu er emlad dyrchaf a gossot 
a guaet a guely. LI. MS. 174, p. 97.20. 

derchauael, darcauacl to raise, enhance the value of, produce 
y sarhaet .vi. byu a vi.xx aryant kany darcauael 20.23. ef a 
dely . . . hucc a hallo ef erbyn y gurych y derchauael ay un 
llau 26.4. pa haullur pewnac a dercauo testestion en dit colli 
caffael a darchavael ereill or amdifennir eny erbin 56.29. 92.5 ; 
98.13. 3 sg. pres. ind. derkeyf, dyrcheyw 4.25; 77.7; 90.16; 
91.1; 92.7. pass, derckeuyr 3.4; 14.4; 35.12. 3 pres. subj. 
dercauo 56.29. see ardyrchauael. 

dernaut thrust, blow, ef a dely medhecynyaet rad . . . 
onyt un or teyr guely arperykyl uyd sef eu e rey heny. d. em 
pen hyd er emenyt d. hyd er emescar 7.22. 18.6; 105.23, 25. 

derneyt written derneneyt 25.29 handful, ef a del[y] o pop 
anrec a el truy e porth d. 25.29. written derneyt. Ll.MS. 174, 
P- 33-24- 

dernuct m. hand-breadth, kanuyllyd ... a dely d. o pob 
kanuyll a dalylo en y durn 23.12. keruyn . . . nau nyruet yn 
y hyt 69.8., =a chervyneit gvryf o nav ryvant. Ll.MS. 69, 
p 124.26. 10.30; 13.25; 20.13; 68.22; 69.10, 17, 18. deu uoel 
dyrnuet 69.26 = dyrnued . . . ae uawt yn y seuyll. A.L.I 
770. xi. 50 also L.W. 175 dau foel ddyrnf edd = dy rnfedd ai fawd 
yn ei sefyll. see moel. cf. Ir. mail-dorn. The dorn or "fist" 
with the thumb closed in (called mail-dorn bare fist) was 5 
inches; with the thumb extended (called airtem fist) 6 inches. 
Joyce II 373. see also Airtem. B.L.G. and M.L. 

dyrnii to thrash, vynt a dylyant dyrnu a chrassu a medy a 
llywnu 68.14. 

[dyrodi ( ?)] to give, put. 3 sg. pres. ind. dyry, dere, dyryd. 
O dyryd rnab uchelwr y uab ar uab eyllt 68.18. 54.7 ; 76.10, n. 

dyruy fine, the heaviest fine imposed by the law and was six 
times the simple 'camlwrw.' wrth hynny yr argluyd a dyly 



134 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

camlurv amdanadunt . . . cany bu ymlad yno pey yinlad a 
uey dyruy yr argluyd a uydey 75.3. Naw affeyth lledrat . . . 
Sew yu eu dyrwy deudec muw ney teyr punt 78.22. 6.14, 16; 
9.18, 19, 21 ; 11.10; 13.29; 15.12; 16.1; 20.31; 24.20; 26.9; 29.27; 
37.23; 41-23; 60.9; 68.6; 70.17, 18; 75.17; 78.22; 79.16; 80.22; 
87.21 ; 106.22. Tri ryw dirwy yssyd vn o ymlad ac arall o treis 
tryded o letrat. P.MS. 36b, p. 43.7. The usual expression in 
the Latin laws is multa publica. see camlurw. 

dyruyauc condemned to pay dyruy. Ac os maed gan guynau 
or mab racdau ew a uyd dyruyauc 71.5. 29.18. 

dyruyn to wind, estellaut d. 100.25 yam winder. (A.O.) 
dysc education, learning, training, e penkerd ... a dely 
ykan pop kerdaur guedy ed emadauh ay dysc .xxnii. 28.15. 

descu to learn, teyr keluydyt ny dely mab tayauc eu descu 
heb kanyat y argluyd 29.21. 

dyskyl, deskel dish, platter. troydau[c] ... a dely buyta 
yar un d. ar brenhyn 24.14. 5.8; 20.11, 12; 23.15; 24.14; 33.12; 
101.5, 6. pi. deskeleu 13.12. 

dyskennu to descend, dismount, lapse, puebenwac a decho 
march en aghauarc .1111. eskyn . . . ny deleyr am d. canys 
yaun eu d. can eskenhuyt 89.13. canys yn petwarygur yd a 
dyn yn pryodaur, ac nid y uelly y dysgyn dyn oe pryodolder 
yny uo yn alldut 61.6. 3 sg. pres. dysgyn 61.6. 3 sg. pres. 
subj. dyskenho 11.4; 23.31. 

dissiuit sudden, without warning. Ni dele y dithun kaifail 
ateb e dithun. kanis haul d. yu ar guercheidveith. ac urth 
hinni i guercheidveith a deleant oyt urth porth 52.3. d. = Lat. 
de subito. Loth p. 161. 

dysteyn principal steward over the household, e dysteyn . . . 
essyt pen ar er holl suydguyr 9.9. 6.2; 7.17; 9.3-27; 10.11-21; 
ii. i ; 14.1, 25; 15.14, 22; 17.20, 25; 18.30, 33; 19.15, 27, 29; 
20.3-27; 21. 1-8; 23.3, 6; 30.2; 56.21; 78.1; 127.24. d. = Ang. Sax. 
disc-thegn literally 'dish-servant.' W.P. p. 198. 

disteinniat office of "dysteyn." Gober kereishiaul e brenin 
. . . o tir e bo suyd ohonau mal penhebogyaet neu d. . . . punt 
56.17. 

dystryw to break down, destroy. 3 sg. pres. subj. dystreuho. 
puebennac a d. neuat e brenyn talet .xi. o pop gauael a 
kanalyho e nen 98.25. d. = Lat. destruo. Loth. 

dyuul see dywyll. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 135 

duun agreeable, ac erchi y paup deuot ay devnidev kanthau 
e did hynnu hit ar e tir kenebo d. kan e duybleyd hinny 53.41. 

dyundab agreement, compact. ew a dyguyd traygyuen 
eythyr un peth yny bo d. tat a brodyr a cheuyndyru . . . am 
talu tyr yn waetyr 62.18. 

dyguall unfailing, complete, careful, er amaeth ar keylguad 
byeu kadu ereyn hene en d. a gueneuthur ydau kestal ac yr 
eudun ehun 109.4. 

dyiiallu to furnish, supply. Pemdecuet eu e koc . . . e 
dysteyn a dely y d. o holl leseuoet 20.3. 12.7; 18.26; 22.13; 
68.12; 112. i. dyllallu 23.3. Ac yn ky6eirya6 y tei oil ac yn eu 
di6allu o wellt a than. R.B.I 256.17. 

dywarawun "without objection or obstruction, ac os keiff 
gather ydy en d. y breint 51.24. 

deueduyt, dyweduyt, deudeuit, deueduet, deuedut to say, 
declare, command, inform. O deruyd ydau ef deueduyt bod 
dyn yn kydleydyr ac ef 31.16. yaun ir egnat d. kosb er anostec 
54.9. d. ar to accuse, o deruyt e gureyc deueduyt ar gur duyn 
treys arney 37.15. 30.30; 31.3; 40.7, 14; 45.10; 45.11 (deueuit) ; 
46.13; 47.35; 48.32; 49.11, 12, 25; 51.3, 22; 52.31, 36; 53.1, 2, 3; 
54.5, 7, 22, 27; 55-3, 7, 8; 80.9; 81.2, 3, 5; 121.25; 130.8, 9; 132.5; 
133.16, 17, 26; 134.4; I35- 6 - J s g- P res - ind - dewedau 53.12. 
3 sg. deueyt, dyweyt 4.10; 9.25; 11.17; 12. i ; 16.10; 22.1; 26.21; 
36.4; 37.2 (deguejt); 40.13, 16; 41.4; 42.5; 45.1; 47-4 J 48-"; 
49.19 (deueiht); 49.26; 52.2; 56.30; 59.15; 61.6, 18, 25, 27, 29; 
62.3, 7, 8, n, 28, 29; 63.6, 28; 64.14; 68.17; 70.5, 10, ii ; 73.5; 
75-4, 9; 77-I3; 79-I9; 82.20; 104.6, 9; 111.5; 113-16; 120.16; 
123.17; 128.21, 23, 27; 129.1, 22; 130.19, 25, 28; 134-2; 135-4- 
i pi. deuedun 40.23, 27; 45.20, 22; 46.5, 22; 47.5, 36; 48.1, 7, n, 
12; 49.15,29; 50.18; 53.9,14; 110.6, 10; 110.14 (deguedun) ; 110.19, 
25 ; 111.9, 13 ; 130-20, 25 ; 132.18 ; 133.8 ; 134-19. 23- 3 pi- dewedant 
47-6; 53-34-36; deweduuant 52.5; dewant 53.35. pass, dewedyr 
13.14; dywedyr 133.4. 3 sg. pres. subj. deueto 29.28; 73.14; 
79.11; deuetho 22.24; 49.18; 51.20; 53.8; dewetto 52.24 ; teueto 
115.5; etuethyo 39.28. 3 pi. deuedoent 54.17; 55-8; 120.20; 
deueteien 120.25; deuedunt 54.16. pass, deueter 19.5; 52.24; 
54.10; 79.17; 120.26; devether 52.25. 3 sg. imperat. dywedet 
80.8, ii, 15; 82.2, 6; 132.3. 3 pi. deuedent 50.2. 3 sg. pret. 
deuaut 44.9; dywaut 133.21. i pi. duedassain 30.23; 34.5; 
dewethassam 45.7; rydywedassam 72.13; 73.12; 132.7. 3 pi. 
deuedassant 50.3; 53.17. pass, deueduet 40.19; dywetpuyt 
72.10; rydwetpuyt. 



136 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

dyuet end. hyd en d. e guahanuyn 10.7. e popuryes ... a 
dely . . . teyssen d. poby 27.18. Ir. diad end. B.L.G. 

dyuethaf, dyuedaf superl. fr. diwedd last, hindmost. Or hoel 
kentaf hyd e dyuethaf 12.8. 9.26; 11.18; 12.25; *5-23 > I 9-3 2 > 
20.2, 19; 28.19; 34-23; 38.17; 45-23; 70-8; 74.18, 22; 107.24 
(dyguedhaf) ; 123.15. 

[dywyll] dyuul training ( ?). Ac ena e may gueneuthur y dyuul 
a deleho amau nac amus na palfrey vo na gueynytuarc 88.6. 
L.W. 230 4. Ll.MS. 174, p. 113.18. have 'dywyll.' cf. Ll.MS. 
174, p. 102. ac os guarthec dywylyon uydant taru dewyl urth 
pob can muu onadunt. 

dewillau to till, cultivate. Essef achaus e bit kaiat keureyth 
he kenhayf ar guaiannun urht dewillau e dayar en e d[e]u 
amser hene 51.31. diwylh, diwylhio = aredig. P.MS. 118, 
p. 471. 

dywyn, dyhuyn, dyhuynt, dyuunt to atone for, make amends, 
give compensation or satisfaction for in kind rather than money. 
Am lukyr hyd . . . e may yaun dale ar e gayauar aryant hyd 
huel sanfreyt ac o hene allan dyimy llukyr 112.9. O deruyt 
kafael march tros kay en essu hyt. Nyt yaun y dalale namyn 
dyhuynt llukyr 115.8. yr hun a uo eneytuadeu ny dylyir dytn 
oy da cany dylyir dywuyn a dyal eythyr talu yr colledyc yr 
eydau 82.23. 74- I 2J 82.23; 112.13; 115.10; 117.1; 119.13 (dyun) ; 
119.16; 121.22. 3 sg. pres. dyhuc 120.3; diuc 46.9. pass, 
dyukyr, dyhuchyr. sef e d. escub yach en lie er claf 114.23. 
26.25; 36.20; 41.10; 86.10; 87.7; 90.3; 106.21; 111.4; ng^Q; 
120.7, 8; 121.7, 17; 134.16. 3 sg. pres. subj. dywyco 73.24; 
dyhuko 119.22. imperat. dyhuked 120.1. pass, dyucher 114.10, 
23; dyhucher 115.15; dyhuycher 114.17; dyuecher 87.1. 

dywuynau see [difwynaw]. 

dywyrnaut a day. Puybynnac a dyholyer . . . d. urth pob 
cantrew a uo yr argluyd ... a hunnv yu oet dyholwr 79.21. 

[eang] written 'yng' freedom, liberty, see yng. 

ebaul m. a colt, a young horse up to two years. 112.17; H5- I 7 
20; 116.15. see saeth. pi. ebolyon 13.19; 22.3. ny dylyir y 
difwyn y Iwgyr yny uo dwy vlwyd, canys hyt hynny y 
byd ebawl. A.L-II ii4.1vii. 

ebedyu, abedyu, ebedyhu death duty; a sum, ranging from 
16 to 1 20 pence, payable to the overlord. A pan uo maru e 
penteulu e brenyn a dele y uarch ay arueu ay cun ay hebauc a 
hyny en lie ebedyu. kany deleyr ebedyu y aylaut e brenyn 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 137 

namen hy barneys 8.10. O byt gur a deu aylaut a tyr ydau 
adan bob un onadunt enteu a dele talu ebedyu y bob un onadunt 
126.10. canyd oes e gureyc a. amen e hamobor 39.6. 4.7; 
24.21; 29.27; 38.31; 39.6, 7, 8; 60.10; 66.17; 68.6, 8; 70.28; 82.28, 
29; 124.11; 125.11-23; 126.2-21; 127.10-21; 128.2-7. 

eboles filly. 90.4; 112.17. 

ebolyauc capable of bearing a foal, teyty [eboles] tennu kar 
... a bot en ebolyauc 90.11. eboliauc [apta . . . parere]. 
A.L.II 892.1. 

eb-ran m. provender, the daily portion of provender for a 
horse, e dysteyn ... a dely deu ebran yu uarch 10.3. a seyth 
dreua o geyrch un ruym yn ebran 69.9. 4.19; 6.21; 12.3; 13.7; 
27.6; 69.19; 70.1. 

ebryll April. 88.9; 91.3; 116.14. 

ebyll peg, gimlet, [guerth] e. dymey 100.6. cf. Ar dannedd 
gwynnion fal hen ebillion. M.A. 3543.37. clauum epill. Z2. 
1061. o ebill i ebill lath, stave. loloMSS. 207.31 sqq. Bum 
ebill yngefel. M.A. 363. 

ec see yd. 

echam 48.4 see cam. 

echwng see hechuc. 

[echiiyd] hecuuyt dinner hour, time of leaving off -work before 
the mid-day rest, dynaguet guru . . . y dody en arader ac od 
ard or bore hyd hecuuyd nauuetyt chuecraur byt ryd e neb ay 
guertho 92.11. Beunyd yrwg e. a banner dyd disgynnei 
egylyon yn y llyn. H.MSS. 249.13. A thranoeth ygkylch awr 
echwyd ... yd oed charlymaen ae niveroed yn kymryt eu 
kinyaw. II 35.5. Echvydd=o 9 hyd 12 ar y gloch. Rep.MSS. 
I iii2. Diunner vcher ac echwyt. M.A. 1933.53. Echwyd a 
muchyd kymysgetor. A.B. 181.31. e. = Bret.Ec'hoaz Le repos 
du btail pendant la grande chaleur du jour. L.G. cf. e. 
evening milking time. L.W. 177 13. e. evening. M.A. 
786.29. Traferth ych hyd echuydd. M.A. 8593.16. 

eturet to claim, declare, restore. Guerth cath .1111. y teythy 
guelet a clebot a Had llechod . . . ac o byt vn en eyssyeu e. 
trayan y guerth 94.1. O deruit e din gueihur amot ac na menno 
y kadu. ac na guatho er amot er argluit bieu kemell y kadu 
val y hadueruero er amoduuir 50.5. pres. pass, atueryr 89.2. 
3 sg. pres subj. aduero (written adueruero) 50.5. pret. 
pass, ryatueruyt 133.5. Bvgayl trefgord y edvyryt ar y 



138 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

ryscrybyl o lledyr vn o nadvnt pwy ay lladod. A.L.II 256.viii. 
This is often written edryt. O byd gmrysson am derwyn y rwg 
dwydref vn vraynt . . . o byd kyhyt ev dav warchadw edryt o 
betwargwr arvgain ohynavyait y kantref os gwybyddant. A.L. 
II 294. ii. see II 378. iii ; 386. xxi ; 394. xli ; 4Oo.xviii. LI. MS. 116, 
2a.Q, 20; 5.29; 28.37; 39.16, etc. see ad-ber I say. B.L.G. 

edheyn 117.12 read y deudyn. as P.MS. 35, f. 7gb.8. 

edlyg m. heir apparent to the throne. Edlyg eu er hun a dele 
gleduchu guedy guedy e brenyn ac a dele bod en anredetussaf 
guedy e brenyn ar urenynes ef a dele y uod en uab neu en neu 
yr brenyn 3.21. 4.5-21 ; 5.7; 9.29; 28.18; 40.18; 77.27; 127.9, 23; 
133.19. see gwrthrychiad. 

edrych, edrich to see, examine, consider, declare (?). Ac 
guedi as creirhauont e may yaun vddunt menet allan ac edric 
er hen jaunaf a ueloent urth a gluassant 55.9. O deruyt y 
uoruyn dyweduyt ar vr duyn treys yarney ar gur yn gwadu 
. . . sew y barn y gyureyth y hedrech sew ay hedrych yr edlyg 
133.16. 44.2; 55.17; 134.8. imperat. pass, edrecher 109.20. 
edrycher 134.4. i pi. pret. kammeint ac a deuedassam ni 
vchod j guadu macht a dau j guadu pop vn onahunt vniteu 
heruit val edreckassam ni vchof j guadu macht 45.18. 

edrychyat spectator, looker on. Petweryd [afeyth galanas] 
yu bot yn e. . . . nauvet yu gwelet y lad yny uyd ac nas dyfero 
74.27. erdychiat [spectator]. A.L.II 833. iv. cf. Quartum est, 
esse spectator, id est, keuarwyd. A.L.II 767. iv. cf. W.B. col. 
253.4. va l y gal!6n vynet yn edrychyat ar y llu. The edrychyat 
who abstained from helping a man when attacked was regarded 
as a llygattrud if the man was killed; and like the sellach = 
'red-eyed looker on' of the Brehon Laws was punished, see 
A.L.I 404-xii sqq. Sellach. B.L.G. 

edriu to allot (?), allotment (?). ach ac e. hendiadys for, 
' descent.' Ac o bit a ameuho ydau ef y uot briodaur bot 
kanthau entheu a kathuo y briodolder o ach ac edriu 53.5. 
5.10; 60.20; 61.3. (written often ach ac edryd, ach ac edvryt.) 
cf. gwrth-riv-iad. A hawl g. sev hwnw etivedd cyssevin a 
wrthbrito dir e genedyl a brided dan gov a chadw a chlyw 
gwlad. M.A. 9283.55; ibid. b. 94. L.W. 375 213. A.L.II 
422. xx. Rhaid vydd i wr a ofynno tir ddwyn i ach ac edryd ir 
tir megys tad neu hendad neu orhendad yn berchen ir tir hwnw 
ai vod ynte yn dyfod o gorff y gwr hwnw ai vod yn dyfod ir tir 
hwnw yn ddibasdart ddigyswyn ar tir yn ddised ddifforfed 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 139 

hwnw a dichon gofyn estyn. P.MS. 86, p. 157. cf. gwrthriviad 
= etivedd. A.L.II 52o.xciv. L.W. 375.00x111-3. see cyfrif. 

edwyc see heduch. 

edyuar repentant, sorry. O deruyt y gur duyn moruyn 
lladhllud . . . ac guedy henny bod en e. kanthau ef heny 
31.10. 35.6; 47.27. 

edyu see bod. 
edeu see adaw. 
edhy 34.21. see eydau. 
edyl see anghenedyl. 

ueden brass vessel, [guerth] e. damdung 101.15. cf. presen 
brass vessel; copren copper vessel. Med.M. 156 317. 

euedeyt made of brass or bronze, guarthaualeu o bedant 
eureyt .vin. o bedant aryaneyt .1111. o bydant euedeyt neu 
dulys neu estavneyt .1111. 103.23. gl. by 'aena.' A.L.II 
887.xvi. 

euernyc a yearling goat in milk, ac euelle e keyuyr eythyr 
nad oes y he[s]byn namyn y bod en hesb ac euernyc eu vn 
blyth 93.21. Ac y euyrnyc e mae canys banner kerdet gauyr 
yu er eydy un keynnyauc am e blith a dymey am y myn. 
A.L.I 278.x and note d. 

eferen see oferen. 
eghuyt see guyt 2. 
egnat see ynat. 

egluys, ecluys f. the church, a church, church building. Er 
egluis ar brenin a dele kemell bridiu kanes diu a kemerhuit en 
He mach 49.31. O deruit bot egluys a dewetho deleu kenhal 
dyn ar e nodua ... a bot er argluyt a uo ar e wlat en 
gurthunebu ydy hynny 51.20. O byt ecluys ar y tyr 125.15. 
mam e. metropolitan church, puybenac a guenel kam y uam 
ecluys talet .xiiii. punt er hanner yr abat . . . ar Hall erug er 
efeyryat ar clas 30.15. cf. Nyt oes vn reith a dylyer kyrchu 
mam eglwys a hi mwy no llan arall, onyt am wadu mab neu y 
gymryt; y deu peth hynny ny dylyir namyn y mywn mam 
eglwys. A.L.II ii2.ll. yny kyuarffei teruyn llys arglwyd a 
theruyn esgobty y uam eglwys a teruyna. P.MS. 35, f. 743.16. 
(see A.L.II 772.viii; 842 .xx) 30.18; 34.17; 49-24. 32; 5 I -23 24; 
52-3; 594; 60.13; 72-3. 9. 13; 73-27; 80.13, 13; 82.27; 124.8; 
134.10. 



140 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

cghy to give birth. O deruyt beychyhochy gueynydauc a 
cayth. e nep ay beychyoco a dele roy greyc arall y guasanaethu 
eny lie eny agho . . . ac o byt maru en heghy talu e guert 
38.27. 3 sg. subj. pres. agho 37.5; 38.29, 30; 130.22. I helpu 
gwraig i engi. Old Leech Book, p. 84. 

cgil an angel, essef achaus yv ket boet kefreis ae kilit ar a 
daear erug din ay gilit. Nid ois keureith erug diauul a gilid ac 
nid oes keureith erug egil a gilid namin evvlis diu 47.9. so 
LI. MS. 174, p. 57.23, 24. cf. Aruolledigaeth y dia61 dros egyl 
goleuat. R.B.II 245.6. A Sande pryd angel ny dodes neb y 
way6 ynda6 yghamlan rac y decket pa6b adebygynt y uod yn 
engyl canhorth6y. W.B. col. 463.2. vy mam hep y peredur pa 
beth yw yrei rackaw engylyon vy map hep hi. Minheu aaf yn 
engyl ygyt ac wynt. W.B. p. 286.26. R.B.I 194.18. =egylyon 
uy mab heb hi yd an yn agel ygyt ac 6ynt heb y peredur. cf. 
y diefyl (sg.) gan howel davi. P.MS. 67, p. 67. It appears to 
be a new sg. formed from the new pi. engylyon or the old, pi. 
was kept as a sg. to distinguish it from the new pi. 

ehedec to fly. O deruyd y dyn en duen tan o ty arall ehedec 
tan ykantau 87.12. kanys ehedec a allant [e guydeu] 114.13. 

ehol see geol. 
elm see bot. 
eil see gallu. 

eleyn a fawn, vnguert yurc a buc a gauar a yerchel ac eleyn 
a myn 97.9. pi. alanet. e manescrybyl sef eu e rey heny 
deueyt ar huyn ar meneu ar yrch ac alanet 9.15. Sef tri llydyn 
oedynt carw ac ewig ac elein cryf. R.B.I 66.20. W.B. col. 
91.16. Elain do (doe) eilon hydh. P.MS. 118, p. 467. Ir. elit 
doe. W.W. 

eli see eyl, rudeli. 

elidir pr. n. Eman e lias elidir muhenuaur gur or kocled ac 
gnedi y lad e doeht guir e koclet ema oy dial 41.26. 41.30. 

eloy see holy. 

elu profit, gain. O deruyd y dyn rody aryant neu ysgrybyl 
ar arall ac or da hunnv kywnewydyau ac elwha ... a 
cheyssyau or neb pyeyfo yr aryant yr elu. Nyny a dywedun 
na dylyir 132.16. 89.19. see helw. 

ehvha to make profit 132.17. cf. R.B.II 148.27. yny dielweo 
y neill y Hall o arnylder y deil. 

elyn elbow, chwethorth o uara . . . yn gyulet ac o elyn hyt 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 141 

ar y durn 69.22. 106.15. cf. a thrigyaw elin yr geing ar y 
llawr. Eluc. 120.18. ac yn diannot ydiSrwythawd ydwylaw. 
hyt ympenn y elitied. Eluc. 82.20. Ir. ule. ace. uilinn elbow. 

ellwng see gollwng. 
emaruoll see ym-. 
emcuelo see ymchuelyd 
< i m 'ii see pen. 

[emendau] to amend, correct. 3 pi. pret. emendassant. er 
hen kefreythyeu a esteryasant a rey onadunt a adassant y redec 
a rey a emendassant 1.15. the vb. noun occurs as emendau, 
emendanav, emendenav. Eluc. 56.17; 29.20; 34.28. emendanav. 
P.MS. 15, p. 81. 

emendyth curse, a ossodassant eu hemendyth ar hon kamry 
holl ar e nep egkemry a lecrey heb eu kadu e kefreytheu 1.22. 
1.24. 

emkafocnt see ymgaffael. 
emrecholl see am-. 
emys see amus. 
ene see yny 
enanat 28.11 ynat. 

eneyt life. O deruyd y dyn gyrru brau ar arall ac ar brau 
hunnv colly y eneyt or dyn 134.14. 70.9; 75.12; 134.17. 

eneytuadeu doomed, life-forfeited. O deruyd y dyn Had arall 
a gwenuyn galanas deudyblyc a tal. canys fyrnyc yu neu ynteu 
yn eneyt uadeu. am y neyll alanas ay dyhenyd ew yn ewyllys 
yr argluyd nay grogy nay losgy a uynno 129.25. 79.17, 25, 27; 
80.17; 82.19, 20; 83.3; 129.25. see madeu. 

eneynt bath, try tan ny dyukyr tan godeyt maurth a tan 
geueyl ... a tan eneynt trefcort a uo seyth uryt yurth e tey 
ereyll 86.13. see R.B.I 76.11, 12. 

enguy see enwy. 

cnhorob 69.10. see hannerob. 

enlip m. scandal, reproach. O deruyt enllibyau gur ar greyc 
e treikil cantaf llu .vn. graget . . . o henne allan am pop 
enlip .1. 41.14. tri enllib yssyd ar vvreic. sef ynt. y chaffel 
yn dyuot o goet neu o wacty neu dan vn vantell. A.L.II 54.xix. 
cf. LI. MS. 202, p. 95. lladron na llibwyr. 

enllibyau to slander, reproach, see enlip. Tri argae gwaet : 



142 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

gwaet hyt rann ; a g. hyt gwll ; a g. hyt lawr : or deu y bydir 
digwyn ny dylyir dim ; am y trydyd ot enllibyir ef a dylyir 
am waetleu y daear. A.L.II 4o.iii. see I 690. xi. e. =hort. 
P.MS. 169, p. 232. 

enllyn companage, souling, anything eaten -with bread. Ac 
ny dylyant eyghyau narnyn y nos gyntaw o chahant bara ac un 
enllyn 67.23. Sew ual y rennyr y punt honno chweugeynt \r 
bara a tryugeynt yr llyn a tryugeynt yr enllyn 69.15. 25.17; 
26.18. Goreu un enllyn halen. M.A. 777b.i. pro enltyn 
[companagio]. A.L.II 783.xiii; 83o.xxii. pro dapibus aliis, id 
est, enlyn. II 827-v. enllyn trwyn snuff. Hanes Llan. p. 144. 
e. = Ir. anlann, annlann sauce, condiment, pickles; applied to 
fish, meat, etc., taken with bread. Dineen. see also Meyer. 
Vis.Maccon. 

henw name, pob dyn a holer y alanas a dylyir y enwy erbyn 
y henv 70.13. 70.14; 72.8. 

enwy to name, call, specify, ac yna gouyn yr amdyfynnvr 
puy dy gyghaus puy dy ganllav. ac yna enwy puy ynt 132.1. 
ny ellyr enwy nep erbyn y henw yny uedydyer 70.14. O deruyd 
roy greyc y gur ac enguy da 40.25. 52.33, 38 ; 70.13 ; 81.22. 3 sg. 
pret. enguis 54.15. 

enwy wet injury, damage. Sew y turyw ac e. llosgy tey a 
thorry aradyr 63.8. 63.5. Sef yw twrwf ac eniwed llosgi tei 
neu dori erydyr hyny yw twryf. Eniwed yw kwyn mynych 
wrth wlad ac arglwyd. LI. MS. 116, p. 84.11. 

enyll yield, produce, trayan a kafo o e. o tyr 2.18. Ir. indile 
cattle, property, mo-veables. B.L.G. 

ennill to restore. Ac ny dele kamrit tir . . . ac o kemmer ay 
kolli ohonau en kefreihaul ny deleir e ennill ydau 56.25. 

[ennynhu] to take fire, to burn. Nau afeyt tan . . . seysuet 
kaneu tan eny eneno 85.18. 86.16. 3 sg. pres. subj. eneno. 
pass, enynher 20.18. 3 sg. pret. ind. enenus 88.25. I f - 
ad-annaim to light. Pass. Horn. 

epyl offspring. O deruyd duyn huch y dyn yn lledrat a 
meythryn o honey epyl 132.24. 132.22. 

er see yd, yr. 

erbytyus ( ?) 86.17 read erbynnyws ( ?). Ll.MS. 174, p. 112. 12, etc. 

erbyn (a) prep, against, before, by. puybenac a deueto geyr 
anguar en erbyn e brenyn 29.28. ac erbyn e nodolyc deuent ar 
e brenyn 17.9. rodi naud en e un o tri peht 51.3. enwy nep 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 143 

erbyn y henw 70.14. hue a hallo ef erbyn y gurych y derchauael 
26.4. 21.17; 37.21550.23; 62.26; 69.23; 70.13; 72.8; 74.20; 80.16; 
92.13. 

(b) noun opposition, a bot pryodaur en eistet en i erbin 

56.11. ac vrth henne ene lie bo kehedet e kefreyth ny dyhucyr 
namen eu bot erbyn en erbyn 87.7. 51.5; 56.30; 61.11, 16; 
134.17, 18, 26. 

crbynnyau to receive, maer bysweyl ny dyly . . . namyn e. 
da y brenhyn ygan y meyrydyon 67.28. 78.19. 3 sg. pret. 
erbynnyus 81.12. erbytyus for erbynyus 86.17. 

crchy, erchi, erky to bid, request. Ac ena e may yaun yr 
eneit erchi ydau enteu duyn y keditveit ay testion y eu muinhau 

54.12. ny dyly erchy namyn penkerd 28.13. 52.2; 53.40; 54.8 
hercki; 117.19 hereby; 124.18 erky; 128.17. 3 sg. pres. ind. 
eyre 30.25; 40.8. 3 subj. archo 18.1; 86.8, 9. 

erkyd m. cast, thro-w. bum e. ay a mayn ay a sayth 123.6. 

[ergydyaw] to reach, ef a dele emdeyth ene uenwent ar 
gorfflan . . . ai escribil ygit ac escribil e clas ar abbadeu 
hit e deluuint pellaw ac ed ergeduynt e buches tracheuen 
51.17. 3 pi. pres. subj. P.MS. 35, f. 3ob.6 has ergytyont. 

erlyt, erlyd, erlit to pursue, chase. O deruyd y forthaul yar 
e fort gueled anyueyl ... ay erlyd enyhu godhyhuedho 123.5. 
47.6. e. cyureyth to institute legal action 79.16. 14.16; 20.18; 
123.8. 3 sg. imper. erlynet 44.26. erlyt vn. & erlynet imperat. 
LI. MS. 174, p. 54.2, 3, etc. 'erlyn' as a v.n. appears to be a new 
formation from the finite stem. 

[erthylu] to give birth out of time. Ny deleyr dody sa 
meyrch na kessyc na bucc en arader ac o dodyr ked erthelo a 
kessyc a guarthec ny dyukyr 111.3. 3 sg. pres. subj. erthylo. 

eru, yru f. an acre. Messur em gyureythyaul petwar troetued 
yny uerryeu vyth yn yr eyl yeu. deudec yny gesseylyeu. 
unarbymthec yn yr hyryeu. a gwyalen gyhyt a honno yn llau 
y geylwat. ar llau arall ar yr yscur peruet yr yeu. a hyt yr 
arhaydo a honno o bop parth ydau yn llet yr erw ay dec 
arugeyn yny hyt 59.11.. e. guyd the last acre of the cyfar for 
the maintenance of the plough 107.24. e. er hecc dw the acre of 
the ox that died before the end of the cyfar 108.12. 51.19; 59-8, 
9, ii, 15; 60.2; 65.7, n, 12, 21, 26; 66.7, 24; 107.6; 108.7, 21, 22; 
109.20; 111.7, I0 - pl- erwy, eruuy 65.20. 29; 107.21. un 
troetued ar pympthec a vyd yn hyt yr hirieu ac vn ieu ar 



144 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

pymthec a wnant yr erw o hyt a dwy vyd y llet. P.MS. 36a, 
p. 67.22. 

escop a bishop, teyr gorsetua ysyd allant gwneuthur eu 
cabydul ehun yn y lie na llesteyryhoynt keureyth y brenhyn 
sew yu y rey hynny abat ac escop ac hyspyty 60.14. ar eyl 
[suydauc] eu efeyryat teulu . . . ny del[e] escop persony nep ar 
sapeleu e brenyn heb y kanyat 9.2. 13.9, 10; 60.12; 121.5; 
123.24; 124.3, 5. 6 7- Pi- esgyp 63.27. see A.L.II 364-xiii; 40- 

escoptyr land belonging to a bishop, ny dyly untyr bot yn 
dyurenhyn . . . o byt e. ew a dyly llvyd a lledrat 60. 10. 

[eskyd] shoe. pi. eskydyeu. [guerth] e. careyauc .11. 103.11. 
22.20; 38.12 skjdyeu. Eskidieu carreiauc [calcei corrigiati]. 
A.L.II 888.xxi. 

eskyn see yskyn. 

eskenu, eskyn to ascend, mount, elevate, to roost, ef a dely 
. . . dyuuallu y uarch ... ay duyn ydau y eskennu arnau pan 
uarchoco 12.9. ac ony byd ereyll ar y tyr wedy eu hesgynnu 
yn bryodoryon 61.10. pop keu escub keyryc neu firdlyc [a tal] 
eny eskenno 94.12. 24.3; 89.12. 3 sg. pres. subj. eskenho 23.31; 
71.10; 94.12. pret. pass, eskenhuyt 89.13. see A.L.II 594-vi. 

eskerneehu see yx-. 
espodol see yspodol. 
esso see yssu. 

estraun a stranger, an outsider. Ac ny dyly y tat y uaydu 
[y mab] mvy noc estraun 71.4. pi. estronyon. cany dylyant 
yr e. na duyn dyn yg cerenyd nay wahanu ay gerenyt 129.23. 
Lat. extraneus. Loth. 

estyn to give, grant, bestow, invest, grant investiture, nyt 
dylys y dyuodyat y tyr namyn [o] uraut y gyureyth neu o 
estyn argluyd 62.27. O byt deu argluyt a llu kan pop un 
onadunt en e gulat a deuot dyn y erky estyn ydau ar peth 
ageuodedyn nyd rod eu rod ac nyd estyn eu hestyn eny hueper 
pyeufo e gulat 124.16. O trymod'e deleyr amobor y grejc o rod 
ac estin 38.20. 61.2; 127.6, 8. 3 sg. pres. subj. estenho 128.3. 
pass, estynher 68.19; estener 9.10; 16.2. 3 sg. irnperat. estynnet. 
Mod.W. ystum. as Ystumdwy earlier Ystyndwy; Ystyn kegid; 
Y. llyn, etc. 

estyuos (?). [guerth] due e. .1111. 103.9. ystywaws stays, 
a pair of stays. Pughe. A.L.II 888.xix has duo stuios [ ] 

with nothing to explain the word. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 145 

ct see yd. 

eto, etwa still, yet. Ony dugost ty treys y arnaw uy moruyn 
vyw y etwa 133.18. 65.6. 

etuethjo 39.28 read dyuetho. 

etyued, edyued parentela, sons, grandsons, and greatgrand- 
sons regarded collect., heir, y mab hynaw byeu mynegy edyuet 
y dat ay wely a hot ygyt a gwassanaythwyr yr argluyd yn 
kymryt yr alanas 76.18. O byd maru mab o bedeyr bluyd ar 
dec allan ac na bo edyuet ydau y argluyd byeuuyd y da 71.6. 
59.24; 62.29; 76.18; 77.19. Kid ettifedion ynt brodyr a chefen- 
derw a chyferderw. A.L.II 398.vi. etifedion dyn yw y rei a 
hanfio oe gorff megis mab a gwyr a gorwyr. II 426.xxix. 

eth see y. 
etheuo see yued. 
etheuis see adau. 

ethol to choose, select, pan uo reyt menet a teulu y anrey- 
thyau neu y neges arall. ef a dely ethol e rey a uenho ac ny 
deleyr y hornet ef 7.5. 

eur gold, gold coin, claur eur kyfled ay huynep 3.8. Saraet 
e brenyn a telyr ydhy hy am y saraet. a hynne heb eur heb 
aryant 3.15. 3.7; 4.18; 6.4; 30.12, 13; 33.24; 103.13. 

eureyt gilt, fruyn eureyt 103.1. 103.20. 

eurgaltc, eurgalt a kind of brass ; genit. brazen, brass mounted. 
[guerth] taryan .vm. o byt kalcc llasart neu eurgaltc .xxiin. 
102.21. 23.29. e. = Lat. orichalcum yellow copper ore. see calc. 

evvlis see euyllys. 

euyc hind, deer, [guerth] croen hyd .vm. croen buch .vn. 
croen euchyc .vii. 97.11. 10.7; 11.12. pi. euychet. ac or 
huysnos o uys chueraur . . . hyd huyl yeuan hanner haf hele 
euychet 16.8. 16.6. 

euellys will, wish, testament, carnal desire, ac nid oes 
keureith erug egil a gilid namin evvlis diu 47.10. Sew yu y 
drut dyn ynvyt ac ynuyt ny ellyr kymell dym namyn y 
ewyllys 134.29. Ac un or lleoed ny dyly y mab bot yn lie y tat. 
Sew achaus nas dyly canyt edewys dym oy da ydau namy 
wellys ny dyly ynteu seuyll trostau o dym namyn y ewyllys 
133.10. 40.10; 129.26; 134.25; 135.1. cyffroant ar y ewyllus. 
P.MS. 50, p. 175. ewyll=Ir. ail f. wish. Z.f.c.P. iv-323- see 
Urk.Spr. p. 23. 



146 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

euyn nail, claw, claur eur kefled ay huynep a kyntehet ac 
euyn amaeth 3.9. cath . . . na bo tun en y heuyn 93.24. 
105.3- 

eydin pr. n. one of the princes of the men of the North 41.28. 

eydyon m. a head of cattle. O deruyd Had lludyn y dyn o 
escrybyl perchenokyon ereyll am henny geyr ew gejr e bukeyl 
ena ba eydyon ay lladaut 31.14. 10.11 ; 12.15; 36.16, 27; 59.3; 
79.4; 95.4; 100.5; 101.23; 112.17; 121.19. 

eydau possession, property, bot yn eydau y tat y da 70.25. 
o byt eydau e brenyn 104.2. 47.33; 74.4; 81.26; 104.5. with 
personal endings=own. ef a dele or eydau ef deuod en y le y 
kastal 119.7. ac y f eydau ehun 89.16. 70.20; 74.4; 80.6, 21, 27; 
81.1, 13, 14; 82.5; 109.10; 118.17; 119.7; 122.3; i3-5- eskyn o 
byt eydau e brenyn punt o byt eydhy urenynes punt 104.4. 
34.12, 21 ; 38.9; 40.13, 28; 61.23; 71.18. gueneuthur ydau kestal 
ac yr eudun ehun 109.5. 

eydhecyc, eyheuyc best (?). er eru kentaf yr ammaeth. er 
eyl yr heyrn. E tredet yr eyheuyc teuarc. E peduaret yr 
eydhecyc guell 107.18. cf. Lloc yr amaeth yn gyntaf ; ac odyna 
Hoc yr swch [ar] cwlltwr ; ac odyna Hoc yr ych goreu ac odyna 
Hoc yr geilwat; ac odyna o oreu y oreu [or ychen]. A.L.I 
726. xix. L.W. 280 4 has eithewig, eithafig, eitheuyg, ethewig. 
M.A. 10033 reads eitevig. A.L.II 856.viii. prima acra vomeri, 
secunda cultro, tercia aratori, postea tribus melioribus bobus de 
meliore ad meliorem. Ethevigion jaith vevged Gwynedd pedwar 
kydwedd ked. P.MS. 64, p. 21. what appears to be the same 
word is used in B.Tal. 28.13 = swift ( ? ). pan yw mor redegawc. 
karr mor eithiawc (written eithiwawg. M.A. 283.32). ieitheuyc 
occurs in M.A. 230^47 but the meaning is not clear. Pughe 
has eithafig = extreme, ultimate. A.O. regards it as a cpd. 
eithaf+ ych = exterior ox. A.L.I 317. 

eyghyau to remain, dwell. Ac o byd alldudyon gwlat arall 
yr brenhyn . . . ny dylyant e. namyn y nos gyntaw o chahant 
bara ac un enllyn 67.23. nyt eigwys [bendigeit uran] y mywn 
ty eiryoet. R.B.I 37.20. nid aing dev vras dan las dir. P.MS. 
67, p. 262. 

eyht 33.11, 12. see eythyr. 

eyl the second (written also eli, heyl. eyll, eil). 21.11, 
88.3, etc. 

[eylwers] every other, a teyr ran e dele uod o teylu er henran 
ar an perued ar an eueig a pop eylguerth e dele uod y ky ac 
huynt 7.27. -v.l. eilwers. A.L.I 16. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 147 

eylwcyth the second time, talet y gur ydy hy cxx e treygyl 
kentaf. am er eylgueyt punt 38.8. 50.17; 53.25; 62.24; 72.26. 
eygueyt 37.6. 

eyllt, eyll a house ( ? ) . eyllt occurs only in the expression 
mab e. which is glossed by villanus. A.L.II 785-xv, etc. 
Ebedyu uchelur .LXLX. Ebedyhu mab eyll o byt ecluys ar y tyr 
.LXLX. ac ony byt .XLXL. Ebedyu alldut .xxim. 125.14. Val 
hyn y dyly brodyr rannv tyr a dayar y rygthunt pedeyr erv 
urth pob tydyn a gwedy hynny y symuduys bledynt uab 
kynvyn. deudec yrv yr mab uchelwr ac vyth yr mab eyllt. 
a pedeyr yr godayauc 59.10. O dyryd mab uchelwr y uab ar 
uab eyllt argluyd ay ueythryn gan y gannyat neu gan y dyodew 
undyd a bluydyn ohanav hunnv a dyly ran mab o tyr y mab 
eyllt ac oy da gwedy hynny 68.19. Maer a chyghellaur a 
dylyant kyweyryau meybyon eyllyon ar eu tyr kyuryw pan uo 
maru un onadunt 66.19. 36.32; 38.24; 94.22, 25; 99.4; 100.12; 
104.7; 124.22. pi. eyllyon or meibyon e. 66.2, 16, 17, 18; 67.9, 
12, 18, 24. As is suggested in W.P. (p. 191, note i) taeog, to 
"which mab eyllt generally corresponds, " is of the same origin 
as ty (house) and was probably suggested by villanus." Mab 
eyllt appears to be formed in the same way. There is a word 
eillt in Med. W. which appears to be quite distinct from allt, 
eillt (hill, cliff) and aillt (villanus) , and which appears to 
correspond to the Irish ailt house, (see M.C., Ir.T. iv, p. 378.) 
dyrllydei vedgyrn eillt mynydawc. B.An. 10.10. He dispensed 
the drinking horns of the hall of Mynyddawg, i.e., the neuad 
to which he refers to in 10.5, n. (eillt cannot be the subject of 
dyrllydei for the office would be performed by highly placed 
officers.) eillt wyned klywer e arderched. B.An. 19.1. cf. 
cyfranc allt a gallt ac Echwydd. M.A. 6ob.44. nac aillt nag 
ado. M.A. 573.34. 'm. eyllt' would then be 'son' or 'man of 
the house/ For the construction cf. mab keuyn a child of the 
back, i.e., a child carried on the back. Med. Law. 96.4. mab 
llwyn a perth bastard. IT. Mac orna son of bar ley = whisky. 
Celt.Stud.II 2i7b.26. cf. also Ir. ailt house ; in-aillt serva. 
I.F. iii.228. 

eynyaun f. anvil. Ofer gof .cxx. eynyau vaur .ix. eynyaun 
kyryauc .vui. 102.24. Dyrnawt a rodaf yt kymeint ac na 
ellych dywedut geir mwy nor einyawn. pan trawher ar ord 
hayarn. H.MSS.II 61.8. eingon. R.B.I 129.12. incudo einnian. 
22.1061.1.7. Ir. indeoin anvil. B.L.G. 

eyrcyat suppliant, a minstrel qualified to ask for gifts, pop 



148 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

penkerd telyn a dele ykan e keroryon telyn guedy ed emadau- 
oent a telyn raun a menu bod en kerdaur keuey[th]as ay uod 
en eyrcyat 128.15. cf. ny dely erchy natnyn penkerd 28.13. Ni 
af ar vyn deudecuet yn rith beird arglwyd y erchi y moch. 
R.B.I 60.26. 

eyryf number. Sew yu hynny o eyryw envy yn y cantrew 
chwecant, etc. 65.29. 65.18; 96.8. 

eyryonyn m. thong (?), margin on the side of a ploughed 
field, escur er hyryeu en y lau a hyd y karaetho ohyd breyc a 
hyd e uyalen val y karaydho deu eyryonyn e tyr 107.17. pi. 
eyryonennyeu 25.15. et si non fuerit talar [porca] habebit 
deuheyronyn [duos limites]. A.L.II 765. ii. cf. Messur fin ... 
rwg deu randir, pedeir troetued ; rwg dwy erw dwy gwys. 
I 764. Eirjonynneu = ymmyleu. L.W. 290 40. cf. eirionyn 
rhus. (Ir Fiaren.) D.G. clxxiii-37. It appears to be the same 
as the modern irionyn ' thong.' see Old Leech Book. 

eyssyoes yet, on the other hand, in spite of that. Rei or 
enejt ne at guad en erbin henne. Nyny eyssyoes a adun guad 
val e deuedassam ny vchot 37.21. Ac urth hynny y gat y 
gyureyth y reyn hynny yn pryodoryon ar gyureyth eyssyoys 
a dywet o byd suyd neu ureynt or tyr hunnv na cheyph ew 
dym o hunnv hyt y trydyt gur 62.11. 59.10; 75.9; 80.3; 82.20; 
128.27; 130.20. 

eyssywedyc in need, in want. Puybynnac a ueychychoco 
gureyc o luyn a perth namyn yny agho na orfo arney y 
ueythryn namyn y canyeu sew achaus yu cany chauas hy grym 
y gur na wyl y gyureyth dylyu ohoney hytheu bot yn 
eyssywedyc oy achaus ew 130.24. see dyeyssyuau. 

eysted, eysteth, eyste to sit, occupy, be in possession of land. 
keuody racdau ac eyste en y hoi 13.10. Puybynnac y barner 
ydau datanhud o ar ac eredyc ew a dyly eysted yno yny 
ymchwelo y geuyn ar y das a hynny heb atep 60.20. Puy 
bynnac a dyodeuo rannu y dyr un dyd a bluydyn heb turyw 
heb enwywet ac yn un wlat ac ew ac eysted arnau 63.6. 5.5, 15 ; 
11.30; 14.23; 17-34; 19-20; 22.28; 24.11; 25.3, 21 ; 52.11, 12, 20, 30; 
54.2; 56.10; 61.16; 63.6; 130.7; 131.10, ii. pres. pass, eystedyr 
131.10; estedyr 52.11. 3 sg. subj. pres. esteho 42.25. pi. 
eystedont 53.23. pass, eisteter 54.4. 3 sg. pret. ind. eystedus 
54-2, 3- 

eythaw extreme, farthest, e deu berchennauc haul yn y 
perued. ar duy ganllau yn eythaw 131.17. cf. y dyn eithaf. 
R.B.I 5.4, etc. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 149 

eithefyg see eydh-. 

eythyr (a) prep, outside, without, except, anreytheu a decher 
eythyr e gulad 7.13. nac en llys e bo nac eyhyr e llys 18.3. ef 
a dely guassanayth ar e urewynes eythyr e teyr guyl arbenyc 
22.11. e deskeleu eyht vn dyskyl 33.12. 4.24; 6.3; 7.20; 9.13; 
13.8; 14.13; 18.5; 25.18; 27.26; 33.11, 21, 24; 34.1 heyhyrt; 34.1, 
8, 13 ; 35-8 ; 38-2 ; 39.18 ; 60.13 ', 62.17 ; 66.11 ; 67.4, 8 ; 80.5 ; 82.23 ', 
97.24; 98.7, 18; 114.11; 119.20; 124.7. heyhyrt 34.1. eyht 
33-n, 12. 

(b) conj. but. Puybynnac byeufo tyr yglan traeth ew byeuyt 
kywlet ar tyr or traeth ... eythyr o buru y mor betheu yr tyr 
neu yr traeth hunnv byeuyt y brenhyn 63.10. 39.17; 67.21; 
70.16; 82.15; 93.19; 97.18; 107.22. 

faeth cultivated. O deruyd bod atnresson er rug deu kauarur 
am tyr guyll ac arall faeth 109.24. Eglwysau Bassa ynt faeth 
heno. -v.l. ynt tirion heno. M.A. 89a.7. dayar hoff yw yn 
dir ffaeth/oes man na wnawd yssmonaeth. P.MS. 69, p. 320. 
Med.Lat. Factum = Territorium, praedium rusticum. M.D. see 
Loth p. 166. 

ferem dish, mess of food, e koc a ... a dele decreu pop 
ferem or a keueyryho ef 23.4. v.l. anrec. A.L.I 58, note ii. 
Med.Lat. firma " Scriptoribus Anglicis, convivium et omnis 
mensae apparatus.". M.D. Ang.Sax. feorm feeding, provisions, 
food, etc. Sweet. 

fo to flee, to run away. O deruyd y dyn gueneuthur cam ys 
koref a fo ohonau hue koref 9.20. 6.16. see tonuo. 

fonnaut a blow, stroke, gustil e macht ... a dele kamrit 
e fonnaut cantaf o bit emlat 45.28. 

lor see ford. 

fore a fork, [guerth] f. iyrdling 101.2. 

ford, fort, forth, for f. road, path, -way, manner. A heol 
gyuarvynep ac ew y uynet yu urautle ac y dyuot ar duy bleyt 
o pob tu yr ford 131.16. Teyr fordh e sereyr e urenynes un eu 
tory y naud, etc., 3.11. 2.22; 19.16, 17; 22.19; 39.4 for; 52.15, 
16, 18; 69.5, 6; 82.26; 122.18; 123.5, 6 9! 126.16; 131.16, 18, 19. 
ff. = M.Eng. ford, forth (?). 

forthaul wayfarer. O deruyd y forthaul yar fort guelet 
anyueyl 123.5. 

fruyn bridle, mug march vn guer ae y fruyn 89.6. [guerth] 
fruyn eureyt .vni. fruyn aryaneyt .vi. frueneu estayneyt a 



i5o GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

dulys ac euedeyt .1111. 103.1. 4.2; 103.2. pi. -eu 13.22; 22.22; 
23.27; 103.3. see afwyn. 

fruyndof bridle-tame, answering the bridle, [wedi] e tredet 
bluydyn . . . e dele vod en fruyndof 88.5. 

fruyth, fruyt, fruyd fruit, produce, pop pren a arguetho 
fruyt 97.24. 97.21 ; 98.3, 5. pi. fruytheu. melyn a choret a 
perllan ar try hynny ny dylyir eu rannv . . . namyn rannv eu 
fruytheu 63.13. 

[ffrwythaw] to bear fruit, pop pren a planer en gasgautguyd 
.xxini. a tal pop pren ny fruyho .1111. eythyr heuen 98.7. 
3 sg. pres. subj. 

funen band, kerchief, [guerth] funen .1111. 104.1. fivnen= 
talaith. P.MS. 169, p. 237. ffun-=Lat. funis. W.Ph. p. 106. 

funud form, manner, jaun yu er ignat ar e macht barnu e 
llu ar isseisuet en un funud ac e dewethassam vchot 45.7. 51.34. 

fust flail, [guerth] f. iyrlyng 100.26. f. = Lat. fustis. Loth 
171. 

fyol, flol bowl, cup. [guerth] f. pren a el en llyn .1111. 100.23. 
fiol duuer fierling 100.19. pi- fuoleu, fyoleu. e guastauel . . . 
byeu kadu tresor e brenyn y fuoleu ay kyrn 14.17. 14.18 ; 18.22 ; 
99.19. R.B.I 289.21. kynnic ffioleit o lynn idi hi. yf heb 
ynteu y ffioleit honn 206.13. ac y uessur ffiol or llynn ef a 
rodes y bawp gystal ae gilyd. 

flrdlyc abbrev. ffer, fyr, fir 01 farthing. 94.12; 100.10-29; 
101.1-13 ; 104.1-6, etc. see dymeu. 

fyrnyc brutal, savage, atrocious. O deruyd y dyn Had arall 
a guenuyn galanas deudyblyc a tal. canys fyrnyc yu 129.25. 
f. = Lat. fornax (?). Loth p. 172. 

[fyrnycwr ( ?)] a savage, brute, pi. fyrnycwyr. f. o gwadant 
eu fyrnygruyd. guat a dylyant deudyblyc. sew yu fyrnygruyd 
dywuynau y da ydau ehun ac yu berchennauc 83.4. 83.3. 

fyrnygruyd atrocity 77.5 ; 83.5. see fyrnycwr. 

gadael, adau, gadu to leave, permit, allow, y uelly y dyly 
y maer bysweyl gwneythur am tyr y uaertrew can adael paup 
yn y dydyn 60.7. Ac os y drydellau a geyf ay cymero ohoney 
gadael ydy 82.15. a gadu yr nep pyeufo y tnaes a heb adael 
dym yr llo 91.18. ef a dele adau y ueyrc ay cun yr brenyn 4.6. 
a chamluru ar yr amdyfynvr am adau y maes yn aghyurey- 
thyaul 131.4. 4.6; 35.10; 47.3; 50.21; 53.33; 64-11; 80.19; 82.15, 
24; 91.18, 19; 129.21; 130.14; I3 1 - 1 - 3 sg. pres. ind. gad (kad) 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 151 

36.6 ; 37.21 ; 62.10 ; 77.18 ; 130.2 ; edeu 34.8, n. i pi. gadun 37.21. 
3 pi. gadant 103.12, 16. 3 sg. subj. adauha for adauho ( ?) 56.12. 
3 sg. imperat. gadet 63.24. pass, gater, gather 37.4; 51.24; 
53.18; 115.1; 132.29. 3 sg. pret. edewys 64.25; 133.10. 3 pi. 
adassant 1.15. 

i. gauael fork for supporting roof tree, ar pop gauael a 
kanalyo e nen. Sef eu henne .vi. colouen 99.2. 98.26; 99.4. 
cf. a pob fforch a gynhalyo y nenpren. LI. MS. 116, p. 40.2, 3. 
Yndi y kud y draena6c y auaeleu. R.B..II 150.16. Due anreith 
vffern yny affleu. M.A. 23ib.i5. g. = Ir. gabal, gabul a branch, 
balk, see Ped.I 28.7. 

2. gauael f. a measure of land containing 34 acres, pedeyr 
randyr ym pob gauael pedeyr gauael ym pob trew 65.13. 65.22. 
see atauael. 

gauar she goat. 97.9, 12; 118.20. pi. geyuyr 33.7; keyuyr 
93.9; 113.12; keuyr 112.26; 113.8. 

galanas fine paid for homicide by one kindred to another. O 
Had denyon enuyd denyon ereyll taler galanas trosdunt ual 
tros denyon ereyll kanys e kenedel a dele eu kadu rac gueuthur 
kam onadunt 120.3. Plant y seythuet uam a uyd neyeynt 
ueybyon gorchau. ac nyt a galanas bellach hynny 76.3. O 
deruid ena mennu llessu un oreihtwyr henne, nit oys lis arnau. 
namin na hanuo oy kenedel . . . esew ual e dele uot en reythur 
ydau en kennesset ac e gallo alanas 50.13. O deruyd y dyn 
llad arall a gwenuyn galanas deudyblyc a tal 129.24. g. 
vvasgarauc the galanas -which the kindred of the homicide from 
the parents to " ney uab gorchau " were to pay in defnite 
Proportions 35.3, 4; 40.1; 41.3, 20; 46.32; 50.13 ; 61.7; 63.4; 
70.5-13; 71.27; 73-1-9; 74-23; 75-H-20J 76-3, 19; 77-26-28; 78.1-8; 
82.29; 83-4; 86.18; 120.3-6; 122.6, 9; 129.2, 3, 25; i34- I 7- P 1 - -eu 
77.16. cf. Ir. fingal murder of a tribesman. W.W. B.L.G. 

galu to call, name, a hunu a elwyr mab anwar 34.18. g. am 
to demand, cet gallo yr amdyfynvr galu am uraut 130.3. galu 
(ychen) to sing to them while working, to drive (see geylwat) 
45.5; 131.2. pres. pass, geluyr, gelguyr 3.20; 34.18; 39.20; 
41.11; 48.3, 35; 60.2; 61.16; 63.12; 66.7; 67.1; 73.2, 10 ; 74.24; 
80.24; 95- l8 J 98-13; 108.1, 12; 116.16; 132.7; 134.12. 3 sg. 
imperat. galwet 49.20; 50.9; 130.15. galw ychen =cathrain. 
P.MS. 169, p. 224. Swmbwl gwialen alw hevyd o dhec troetvedh 
o hyd y vessuro a hi. P.MS. 228 under accena. see alu. 

gallu to be able to, to ha-ve power to. O deruid y personeu 
ir egluys deweduyt gallu onadunt huy rodi naud 51.3. ac uynt 



152 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

a dylyant anrydedu y brenhyn pan del yr llys herwyd eu gallu 
68.17. a kan adeuuyt ef ny ellyr y guadu 31.1. Teyr provedy- 
gaeth a ellyr ar anyveyl 135.3. esew ual e dele uot en reythur 
ydau. en kennesset ac e gallo alanas eket ac ew 50.13. ceny 
aller mach o wreyc 130.26. 67.19; 91.13. 3 sg. pres. geyll, geil, 
keyll 12.27; 29.16; 36.9, 10 ; 38.9, 10, 12, 14; 40.11, 12, 27; 46.25; 
48.2; 50.21, 22; 54.17-20; 55.23; 80.18; 81.13; 82.9; 85.5; 87.13; 
105.20; 122.8; 133.20; 134.12. 3 pi. gallant 59.27; 60.14; 63.27; 
78.24, 26; 108.4; ^4- I 3- P res - P ass - gellyr 31.1; 37- 11 . 29, 32; 
53.9; 56.22; 69.11, 13; 70.14; 73.16, 19; 74.10; 79.8; 80.17; 81.8; 
114.12; 115-4; 121.3; 134-29; 135-2, 3- 3 P res - sub J- gall, kallo 
26.4; 27.13; 33-3; 34- 10 ; 40-7; 48-28; 50.13; 60.8; 61.8 alho; 
81.1; 114.9; 122.17; 130.3. pass, galler 5.22; 130.26. 3 pret. 
ind. gallus 133.29. 

[garan] en ran crane, ef a dele y anredethu o teyr anrec e dyt 
e ll[a]dho y hebauc un o try ederyn ay bun ay caran ay cryhyr 
11.15. y na y due y wreic idaw bara peilleit ... a chic 
gwarthec. ac yn ol hynny kic garanot a hwyeit. H.MSS.II 
140.29. coes garan (i'r fieren). D.G. clxxiii.57. see clxxi.45- 

garth, gart field, bressyc a llyn guedy medy neu eghart heb 
uedy 114.6. 114.8, 9; 119.20. pi. gardeu 63.15, 16. see H.MSS. 
I 397.8, 25. gard=herber. ac o wedd llion (weddillion (?)) 
hen wenith ir heir i gardde o newydd. P.MS. 58, p. 17. 

gayaf, gyaf m. winter, kalan g. 51.27; 90.14; 93.10. see 
kalan. gayafar winter tilth 112.9. keueyr e g. winter co-tillage. 
104.10. kauafty winter residence, winter house for cattle (?). 
ar pop un or godey. hafty .1111. kauafty .vm. 99.5. 16.12; 
13-23; 67.4; 69.6-17; 104.10. gauafdy v.l. Hendref : ac anifail 
a gafiai yn ei Hendref. L.W. 399.cclxi. 

gcuel pincers, tongs, [guerth] geuel pren fyrling 101.2. 
geuel gof .un. 102.27. see Ped-I 28.7. 

geueyl smithy, try tan ny dyukyr tan godeyt maurth a tan 
geueyl trefcort a uo .vn. huryt eregthy ar tey ahytheu en 
pethendo neu en tyglys 86.11. 

geuyn a fetter or shackle, [guerth] geuyn .xxnn. 102.6. 
g. = compes. LI. MS. 55, p. 148. Mod.Ir. geibhinn fetter. 

gelef a knife, [guerth] gelef .1. 100.13. gylym [novacula]. 
A.L.H 865-xlvi. geleu yn ei galon. M.A. i6ia. cf. Geleurut 
ein gwyr gwedi lludet tnvm. M.A. igia.i. Oed amliw gelau 
oed ami gelor. M.A. isob.ig. Glyw lovrud geleurud gaur. 
M.A. i74b.n. Ef gogwyt galon geleurutyeid aer. M.A. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 153 

2033.25. (cf. aryfrud. M.A. 2583; 26oa; 2903. gwaewrud. 
M.A. 2463 ; 252b ; 2533 ; 25gb. Ilafynrud. M.A. 2523 ; 2593 ; 
26ia; 262b). 

[gelynyaeth] enmity, feud. Os e hemreyn a demjt e saraehet 
honno a derkeuyr ar vod e haner en vuy kanys o kenedel 
helenyaet et henyu 35.13. 

gellgy, kellky stag hound, ellgy brenyn punt en keuruys 
cxx 94.15. o deuparth e kenedyon duy ran y kynyt kellky ac 
un y kynyt mylky 17.1. pi. kellchun 17.3. megis gellgwn neu 
gallgwn yn hely ac yn dilyt carw blin. M.A. 7293.31. gellchy 
[molossus]. A.L.II 777-lvi. The Lot. Laws mention a gallicus 
canis, A.L.II 799-xxvii, and gellgy seems to be popular 
etymology for this. 

geneu the lips, mouth, tra uo e kannogen en rodi i eneu ir 
creir 44.13. 

geny to be born, bot yn eydau y uam ay eny ay ueythryn 
ganthau 81.26. 81.23, 24. pres. subj. pass, ganer, ganher 
37.6; 70.22, 27; 71.15; 87.27; 90.13; 93.10 (kaner); 94.17, 20; 
112.19, 20. pret. ind. pass, ganet 81.27. 

gohol f. gaol, dungeon, pop karcharaur or a hel en y ehol 
24.25. ae dodi yn yr eol gatarnaf yn y helw. H.MSS.II 131.23. 
Mi a baraf dy dodi ytn geol. ac y mae degwryt arugein o 
dyfynder yndi. H.MSS.II 133.31. W.B. col. 172.16. Ac ynteu 
a ellyga6d g6yr am pen peredwr oe dala ac y dodi y my6n geol. 
M.A. 7283.42. dodassant ef yng geol Gaer y csrchar gwsethaf. 
g. = Fr. geole. 

geudy see gueuty. 

geylwat ox driver, ploughboy. P3ub pyeu duyn y deueneyeu 
yr eredyc nac hycc na heryrn . . . e geylguat 3 dele ksyu arnunt 
val na bo rekeuyc ac na bo rehesg 3 galu V3l ns torhoent e 
ksloneu 109.5. 59.13 ; 65.10, n, 27; 107.13, 21; 109.3, J 3 J m-22; 
112. i. g. v.l. cathreawr. L.W. 280 4. "You may see one man 
put his hand to the plough, and another, as it were, goad on the 
oxen, mitigating their sense of labour, by the usual rude song. 
Gerald. 349. They seldom yoke less than four oxen to their 
ploughs; the driver walks before, but backwards, and when he 
falls down is frequently exposed to danger from the refractory 
oxen." Gerald, p. 506. Mis Msi difrydus geilwsd. C.L1.II 
105.3. Accena Swmbwl, gwialen 3lw. P.MS. 228. Yr ydym 
yn aredig. Wrth gywydd beunydd i ben. Er 3chub gwsith 
yr ychen. D.G. cc. 35-6. cf. gslu ychen = csthrain. P.MS. 169, 



154 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

p. 224. Os chwech [ychen] gogytrech a gaf/ar y kantor maer 
kyntaf. P.MS. 67, p. 212. 

geylyd see gweylyd. 

geyr, geir, gejr, keir m. word, mal e cleuho e keyr lleyaf a 
deuetho e urenynhes 22.24. O deruyd y dyn or duybleyt . . . 
guadu y uraut ar Hall en y adef geyr eu geyr er egnat ena ar y 
uraut=Jtis word stands, or is decisive 30.28. g. keuarch. see 
kyuarch. 29.28; 31.4, 11, 14, 19; 35.25; 52.23; 53.26, 32; 54.10; 
121.3; 132.10, 15. 

gladoet see gulat. 

1. glan shore, y glan y mor 64.28. glan guerit 42.1. 63.9. 

2. glan clean, pure, holy, a bot er aniuel en glan ual y galler 
jssu y kyc 43.3; 94.2. escrftur Ian 1.7. no; 73.28. linden en 
uaru glan 96.26=lluden glau en uaru. cf. P.MS. 5, f. xxviii-5. 
y daeth y heneit hitheu glann oe chorff . 0/50 A mor6yn gyr y 
Ila6 a chrys a llenlliein ymdenei gohen yn dechreu atueila6. 
R.B.I 251.8. 

glanau to clear, exonerate. O deruyd llugry hyd ac na 
hodyuedher er escrybyl ar er hyd. byd en llu e perchenau[c] 
eu glanau 115.4. O deruyd kafael na march nac anyueyl arall 
ay deutroet ulaen ar er hyd. ny deleyr y dale kany bu en 
kabyl ar er hyd ac ny ellyr kubyl o aghubyl ony leneyr 
dyhucher y luger 115.15. pres. ind. pass, gleneyr. 

glas green, llyn glas 25.14. 

glau rain, kapaneu glau e brenyn 23.26. 13.20. 

gleif see gelef. 

gleyndyt holiness, purity. Sef amser achaus e doyant e 
garauuys eno urth delehu o paup bod en yaun en er amser glan 
hunnu. Ac na guenelhey kara en amser gleyndyt 1.12. lie 
glendit y6 yr eg!6ys. P.MS. 35, f. I2b.i7. 

gleysyat m. a salmon, [guerth] g. .11. 102.10. Tri pheth a 
vyddant oreu pan a'u croger : gleisiad hallt, het wleb, a charn 
Sais. M.A. 903 31. Tri pheth goreu vydd eu crogi : eog hallt, 
etc. M.A. 895 28; 899 38. see M.A. 872b; 317^13. 

gleysyadec a salmon net. [guerth] g. .xxim. 102.7. 
gluyt see gulith. 

glin m. knee, e grueyc byeu ac allho e duyn o blaut er rug 
nerth y duylau ae y deu lin 33.31. 

[gnawd] usual, habitual, be wont, superl. gnotaw. O deruyd 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 155 

hot rey o genedyl mab yny wadu ac ereyl yny gymryt yaunavv 
yu credu yr nep y syd yny gymryt . . . canys gnotaw yu guadu 
mab yr trew y tat 74.8. Ir. gnath known, usual. 

gobenyt m. cushion, pillow, ar gobenyt ed eysteth e brenyn 
arnau e dyt 11.30. 99.15, 34. pan gymero bard cadeir y cymer 
yr ygnat y korn bual ar uodrwy ar gobennyd a dotter ydanaw 
yn y cadeir. A.L.I 646. xxv. gohenwreic yn eisted ar obennyd. 
R.B.I 251.4. ceruical gl. gubennid. Z2. 1063.1. 

gobyr, gober m. pay, fee, bribe, e guylur ... a dely kysku 
e dyt ac na guenel dym namyn yr y hober 26.21. Messur gober 
egneit am tir a dar .xxim. 56.5. yaunaw yu credu yr nep y 
syd yn y gymryt gan eu llv nat yr gobyr nat yr gwerth y 
maent yn y gymryt 74.7. 26.10; 56.2, 15; 128.15; 132.12. cf. 
yd oed yn ymoprau a gweisson y meirch am y adu oe dwyn yr 
dwfyr. R.B.I 21.26. a rnyneich a obryn beich o pechodau. 
M.A. io6b-42. 

godayauc under tayauc (?), -villein, deudec yrv yr mab 
uchelwr ac vyth yr mab eyllt a pedeyr yr godayauc 59.10. cf. 
gowr [villoni advene] (gen.) A.L.II 78g.xxiv. see tayawc. 

godro (a) to milk, gadu yr nep pyeufo y godro 91.19. 69.28; 
91.18; 119.22. 3 sg. pres. subj. godroho 92.2. imperat. pass, 
godroher 69.29. 

(b) the milk of one milking, a dody en llestyr messur y 
godro 91.19. 

[gody] small room or house, oiithouse. pi. godey. te ma[p] 
eyll .x. ar pop gauael a ganallyo e nen .xxx. ar pop vn or godey 
99.5. LI. MS. 174, p. 131.27, enumerates them y gell ae ueuty ae 
escubaur ae odyn ar keyl ar kreumoch ay hafty ay kynhayafty. 
so A.L.I 292. iii. Pro aliis domibus, id est, gotey. A.L.II 
8o3.xii. cf. kynn coller yn ranty. LI. MS. 69, p. 70.9. 

[glodew violence, force, theft (?). This occurs only in the 
expression anreyth odew, which was the fine for one of the nau 
affeyth lledrat. Puybynnac y cafer ol lleydyr yn dyuot yu ty 
ac na allo y hebrug y urthau byt anreythodew 80. i. O gallant 
vynteu gafael y tal ny dylyant uot yn dyholwyr nac yn anreyth 
odew 78.27. There' is an expression in the B.B.Ch. which 
appears to have much the same meaning as this, viz., anreith 
gribdeil. This was the penalty inflicted for homicide committed 
by a thief in search for booty. Later codices regard the word 
as goddef suffering. Un yw goddev o ddyn orthrymder gan 
swyddawg arglwydd yn gwneuthur anghyfraith arno yn lie 



156 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

cyfraith ; a hwnw a eilw cyvrailh yn anrhaith oddev. M.A. 
949b-30. see also M.A. 931 148. This may be only another of 
the numerous instances in the Laws of folk-etymology at work, 
and it is possible that the word is the abstract corresponding to 
odwr q.v. 'receiver of stolen goods.' Or is it possible that there 
was a form godef corresponding to the Ir. gataim ' I steal/ 
'take away' and that it became confused with goddef? 

[godeyth] f. gorse-, or heath-fire, pi. -yeu. pa dyn benac a 
loscho godeythyeu namen maurth ef ae tal 86.20. ignis godeith 
[accensus]. A.L.II 836. xi. see I.F. xxvii, p. 163. 

godyuues to overtake. A bod en ediuar gan e gur cantaf 
reescarassey ay grejc a godyuues ohonau hy ar neylltroet en e 
gueli ar Hall eythir e gueli 35.7. 3 sg. pres. subj. godhyhuedho 
123.7. pass, godyuedher 115.2. 3 sg. pret. ind. godyuaut 
116.27. odiwawd. W.B. p. 217, 1. 25; 284, 1. 18. P.MS. 45, 
p. 79. but cf. gordiwawd. W.B. col. 109, 1. 13. gordiwedawd. 
R.B.I 79.28; 282.9. W.B. col. 404.1; col. 405.2. godiwedawd. 
H.MS.I 370.9. 

gof smith, artificer, [lie] e gof llys em pen e ueyg rac deulun 
er efeyryat 5.14. 6.23; 10.4; 23.24; 24.5; 27.24; 102.23, 27. pi. 
goueyn 28.4. cf. gof pren. H.MSS.II 220.18. 

gouanaet the smith's craft, teyr keluydyt ny dely mab 
tayauc eu descu . . . . sef eu henny escolectau[d] a gouanaet a 
bardhony 29.22. 

gouuyn fine paid by husband to wife on being found with 
another woman, esef eu gouuyn o keif hy y gwr gan gwreic 
arall talet y gur ydy hy .cxx. y treigyl kentaf 38 :6. It is used 
also as 'agweddi.' Try pryf wrey gwreyc e chowyll ae hagwedy 
ae sarhaet. LI. MS. 174, p. 45. 21 = Try pryurey greic y couyll 
ae gouuen ae y sarahet 37-3o=Ei chowyll ei Hagweddi [v.l. a'i 
Gwarthrudd] a'i Sarhaad. L.W. 386.ccliii. Gofyn -v.l. Gwar- 
thrudd. ibid. 8 and note. : Os kin e seyhtuet bluyn ed edeu 
hy e gur. kubyl o hene a kill, eythyr e kouyll ac hunepuurth 
am e gooujn 34.9. gouin multa concupiscentie. A.L.II 872.xx. 
It is variously written gofyn, gouyn. and gowyn elsewhere. 
cf. diwyn. 

gouyn, gouin to ask, request, a gouyn ydau pedh a roy dy 
31.8. Os nauuetdyn a dau y ouyn tyr dyfodedyc yn bryodolder 
61.12. 52.5; 55.1; 55.2, 5, 32, 33, 36; 54.18, 26; 61.9; 118.1, 27; 
119.16; 129.2; 132.1. 3 sg. pres. ind. gofyn (kofyn) 128.18. 
3 sg. pres. subj. gouenho 117.24; 127.13; kouenho 19.18; 125.9. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 157 

pass, gouener 53.27; gouynner 71.3. 3 sg. imperat. gouynnet, 
gouenet 53.16, 17; 80.26; 81.1. pass, gouynner 132.2, 3. 

go-uessiau to finger, handle. O deruyt e gurejc huriauc 
gueneutur kaflauan debrit ae rodhi chussan y hur ae gadael y 
gouessiau ay hemreyn sarahet ehu gur eu hene 35.10. 35.13, 17. 
g. = palualu. A.L.I 442.xxii; II 795.xxvii. de govissiau 
[contrectata] 849-xxxv. g. = paluu. P.MS. 36b, p. 53.17. see 
palyf. 

gogaur anything harvested, a harvest. Sef eu gogaur hyd 
guedy keueyryer yar e tyr e tefho arnau a perllan a bressyc a 
llyn guedy medy neu eghart heb uedy a gueyr syc a to tey 
114.3. Pb gogawr oc yd ymogoryo dyn ac ef. catwet pawb y 
ogawr. Sef yd gogawr yt gwedy y kychwynner yar y tir, etc. 
P.MS. 35, f. 77b-33- Tri amryw gyireith y sydd am foch a 
ddalyer ar ymogor neu lafur dyn. A.L.II 5Q4.viii. gogor. f.= 
hay and straw. Dimet. cf. ymogor= annedd ne gyvannedd 
[ac a vo yntho (added later)]. P.MS. 169, p. 343. amogawr. 
M.A. 38b-36. This appears to be a compound of cor, as in 
hebgor=o put, place, cor the corresponding Irish word serves 
as a v.noun to fo-cherdaim / put, cast, see ymogoryaw. cf. 
gogor bee hive (?). B.B.C. 90.6. 

[gogled] kocled the North of Britain (?). Ac odhena [arvon] 
e lluydhaus rud uab maelcun a guir guinet kanthau ac e 
doethant hid eglan guerit en e kocled 42.2. 

gogor, goger sieve, e gur a dele e rydyl e gureyc a dele e 
goger man 33.14. 38.14; 101.7. see D.G. clxx.7. Myned (hir 
yw'r dynged hon)/Yr wyf a'r gogr i'r afon. 

gocreyt a sieve-full. O sereyr e rghyll . . . ny dely kafael 
namyn gocreyt keyrc a blyckyn buy 25.22. This appears to be 
equivalent to the modern 'farthing damages/ It is written 
g. eissin a chuccwy. Med.Law 31.1. also g. hilceirch and was 
evidently of no value. 

gokeuarc prominent, conspicuous, teyr creyt okeuarc esyt 
vn ar uynep ac arall ar troet ac arall ar lau .xxx. . . . pop kreyt 
kudyedyc .1111. 106.9. precio cicatricis conspicue. A.L.II 
786.xi. deudeg gogyfarch. R.B.II 209.8, etc. = d. gogyfurd. 
Car.Mag. 28.28; 2g.2o=twelve em = pares. Schultz 133-53. 
cf. poen ogyuarch. D.G. clxxxiv.n 

gokcfurt of equal value or rank, guerth nau aylauyt g. eu 
hyn. ar pop vn oy deutroet .vi. byu a .vi. ugeyn aryant . . . 



158 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

deu legat . . . duy gueus . . . truyn . . . clust 104.20. 105.17. 
see gokeuarc. 

golchbren washing beetle. naud [er holchuryes] hyd y 
buryho ay golchbren 28.25. colffon=golchbrenn. P.MS. 51, 
p. 191. 

golchuryes washer-woman, the eleventh among the customary 
servants of the court. 28.22. 

golchy to wash, tanu llenllyeyn guen adanunt neguyt olchy 
newly washed 40.9. 

goleuat light, a light. .1. a tal y oleuat pop nos 106.8. 
18.32. yn yr honn ny bu oleuat. namyn tywyllwch eiroet. 
H.MSS.II 222.39. 

goluyth m. a collop, a portion of meat for cooking, guerth 
hyd o kalan gayaf hyd guyl yeuan .LX. . . . ac o huyl yeuan 
hyd e k[a]lan .xn. goluys kefreythyaul esyd endau . . . sef 
goluythyon e duy vanec val e deu corn ay tauaut ay laubron ay 
kallon ay heruth ay ahu ay due leuen ay thumon ay hydkellen 
ay koluyden 96.3. pi. -yon 96.4. nawd e coc yv or pan decreuho 
troi y g. kynntaf. LI. MS. 69, p. 11.4. A.L.II 354-xxv. O 
galan gayaf hyt wyl yeuan ny byd golwython brenhinawl yn 
hyd y brenhin. A.L.I 494-v. a dyuot ... a lloneit y dwrn o 
vereu a golwython arnadunt. W.B. col. 224.17. see R.B.I 
103.17. g. = a heart thrown into the fire. Rep.MS.I 93, 11. 28, 
45. Ac ar dy frest mae g. per / a ffitiar Ber yn burion. 
LI. MS. 209, p. 238. The word is always used, as far as we are 
aware, for a piece of flesh, cooked or for cooking; but at the 
same time, a small piece as if the word were a compound of 
llwyth. Llwyth itself is used for portion tanllwytheu fireballs. 
H.MSS.I 329.15. Lib.Hym. gives lucht portion; lucht saille 
bit of bacon. There may be a suggestion of the Irish fulocht 
'hearth/ 'cooking place/ with which the word has been compared 
in Rof it bwyth golwyth y gof (?). Or is this = muscle (?). 
Rep.MSS.I 131. 

[glellug, ellugu to leave, give up, loose, send. Puybynnac 
a dalyo lleydyr a lledrat yn y lau ay ellug ay yr cerennyd ay yr 
gwerth 79.23. puybennac a dalyho escrybyl llauer ac atael un 
. . . ac ellugu e lleyll y kerdhet 118.17. e lie dyuedaf et hellegh 
y hebauc ar ederyn 11.18. Puybynnac a uynho gwneuthur 
dogyn uynac act ar yr argluyd . . . yna y mae yau[n] yr 
argluyd dyuynnu yr effeyryat . . . ac ellvg yr effeyryat ygyt 
ac ew hyt drus yr egluys 80.11. e dillat a vo adanadunt e gur 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 159 

pyeu eny greyckao. a guedy e greycaho ellugu e dyllat yr 
greyc 33.18. 40.10; 79.24; 96.23; 109.14 hellunt; 114.15; 118.26; 
119.1 kollug; 122.20. 3 sg. pres. subj. gellecho 11.3; 12.11; 
118.8 ellegho. imperat. pass, elleger 53.26. 3 sg. pret. ind. 
elleghus 42.4. verb. adj. golleghedyc apt or ready to flow. Ny 
dyukyr guaet deynt ... a guaet truyn . . . ac ny telyr yr 
nep pyeufo e guaet kanys golleghedyc ynt 106.23. 

geudy see gueudy. 

gomet to refuse, pan uo reyt menet y anreythyau . . . ef a 
dely ethol e rey a uenho ac ny deleyr y hornet ef 7.4. 130.28. 
past part, gomededyc having refused, pa dyn bynnac y bo 
haul arnau a gomet o hanav heb dyuot y wneuthur yaun am yr 
haul ym pob dadleu y bo gomededyc ew o hanav camlurv a 
tal 130.29. 

gor to brood, hatch. (in gen.) brooding, gurth guyt or 
kemeynt a guerth y nyt 94.5. 94.9. cf. deor, gori, and IT. 
guirid it warms, see Fed. I, p. 108. Mod.Ir. "gor 'Hitze; 
Briiten,' " etc. ; gor i. tine. W.W. 

gorchau one of the sixth generation, plant y uam gyntaw a 
uyd brodyr . . . plant y chwechet uam a uyd gorchau 76.2. 
76.3, 6; 129.12.3.- 

gorcheuyn, gorcheyuyn one of the fifth generation. 129.11. 
pi. gorcheyneynt. plant y bymhet uam a uyd g. 76.1. 

gorchymyn to command, commend, ym pen y petwaret ar 
dec wluydyn y dyly y tat duyn y uab ar yr argluyd ay 
orchymyn ydau 71.1. ac a orckemenus en kadarn eu kadu 1.19. 
3 sg. pret. 

gorduy violence. Nau afeyth galanas . . . seythuet yu bot 
yn porth orduy. vythuet yu daly y dyn yny del y llowrud yu 
lad 75.2. heb treis heb ordwy. A.L.II 2o6.xxiv. gordvy 
[opem ferre"]. II 881 ii, etc. porth ordwy {homicidium adju-vare'}. 
II 882. 

gored tent, a piece of lint to keep a wound open, e medyc 
a dely en e doto gorhet .xxim. 18.10. 106.6. LI. MS. 174, 
p. 23.4, has goreth. gyrru goraeth . . . i gadwr briw yn 
helaeth. Inter. Odl. dod [yr eli] ar y dolur, a phan fo addfed 
agor, a dod wareth ynddo, a iacha ef fel iachau brath arall. 
Med.M. 148. Efe a ddylai ddwyn yn ei gylch . . . ei gelfi 
cnawd, ai gyfodau, ai waredau gantho. ibid. 298. dod beth o 
hono ar oreth yn dwym, adod yn y brath. ibid. no. gwarethu'r 
clwyf. ibid. 148. This word is treated in later Medical MSS. as if it 



160 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

were borro-wed from the Engl. wreath, used in Medical treatises 
in a similar way. see Old Leech Book. Gloss. 

goresgin to take possession of land (by the descendants of an 
"alltud" who had qualified), to occupy. Tri peth ni deleir 
naud racdtmt kan eu bod en kevadeuedic Goruotdogaith a 
meichinaith a g. 51.2. O deruyd y alltut oe wlat gwrhau y 
uchelwr. ac y gan hwnnw mynet att arall ; a cherdet o honaw 
ae vab gwedy ef ae wyr, ae orwyr, ae oresgyennyd o vchelwr y 
gilyd, heb wastattau yn vn lie mwy noe gilydd; bint wynteu 
ar vreint alltutyon hyt tra vont heb wastattu uelly. A.L.1I 
86.cxxv. Tri chamwerescyn yssyd goresgyn yn erbyn perchen- 
nawc oe anuod heb vrawt neu weresgyn tnvy y perchen- 
nawc ac yn erbyn etiued oe anuod heb vrawt, etc. I 466. cvi. 
see II 374. iv. Yn amser benwyll athraw y doded Celfyddyd 
gyntaf ar ddwyn arfau bonedd, ag nis dylid arfau i neb onid 
a geffid yn wr o fonedd cynhenid sef ym mraint y nawfed ach 
neu ynteu y nawfed goresgyn. loloMSS. 74.16 sqq. Da was 
da dos ag entra/Y lawenydd Crist dy arglwydd/Cymer wres- 
gyn yn ddiderfyn/or hyfryd wledd sydd heb ddiwedd. LI. MS. 
202, p. 74- 

goreu best. sup. in use of da. or hyt goreu ar tref e tat 
37.9. mal e deleo oreu 51.25. ac euelley e kerdha er eruuy o 
oreu y oreu er ecchen 107.22. 6.3 ; 37.9; 53.11 ; 55.3 ; 60.8 ; 64.25 , 
69-7, 19; 77-12. 

goreuguyr nobles, llv canhur o oreugwyr y genedyl arall 
ar uod yn uadeuedyc eu car 76.25. Val hyn y dylyir kymryt 
mab yg kenedyl y tat ehun a eyll y gymryt gwedy as dico y 
uam ydau ony byd y tat y pen kenedyl ar y seythuet a eyll y 
gymryt o oreu gwyr 74.14. 73.27, 29; 74.19. 

goruod to guarantee, answer for, be obliged to, defeat. 
puebenac a guertho dynauguet yaun eu ydau y goruod rac try 
heyn e guarthec 92.19. puebennac a keneuho tan en ty ny uo 
eydau hyd em pen e teyrnos ar trydyeu goruod arnau y gueytret 
86.2. 50.32 ; 93.5, 13. 3 sg. pres. goruyt. O keyll e dyn hunnu 
prouy uod en kam y uraut a uarnus er enat kollet er enat y 
tauaut . . . Os enteu a oruyd talet ydau y saraet 12.30. 87.16. 
sbj. goruo 51.1; gorfo 130.22. cf. Parth yr oen gorfod im 
gossodych. M.A. 2743.26. Yn y mor y maer pysgod yn y 
kowrt y mayr gorvod. P.MS. 65, p. 77. Gwledig gwlad orfod. 
M.A. 1423. The translation of this as 'lord of the realm of fate' 
(Lloyd, p. 99) seems hardly possible, 'secure/ 'everlasting' 
convey the meaning better. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 161 

goruodauc guarantor. O deruit y dyn kemrit arall ar i 
oruodogyaith ac oyt arnau. a kin or oyt dillusu or llourud e 
goruodauc talet e goruodauc trosdau kubil 50.30. 49.30; 50.28. 
y neb a uo gorfodauc dros arall yw ellwng o garchar un dal a 
fydd arnaw ac ar y neb ydd aeth drostaw pes ceffit. A.L.II 
644-x. Trydydd achos yw gorfyddawc mach yw hwnnw dros 
dyn ar y ddyfot y atteb o hawl gysswyn. II 66o.xi. g. [-vas]. 
II 843. xiv. Os mar6 uyd ynteu gormod uyd agheu gvas kystal 
ac edern yn syrhaed mor6yn. ... Ac yna yd aeth arthur yn 
oruda6c drosta6. W.B. col. 406.18. 

goruodocgaith, goruodocaes bail, security. Pvypennac a 
kemero arall ar y o. diguidet ef em pop kerit or a pot ar e 
dyn a ketnmirt 50.25. 50.28, 30; 51.2. 

gorhenuam great-grandmother. 75.29. 

gorsaf m. a pause, stay, station, try g. greic pan gesker 
kenthy ny dele kechuin odeno hyd em p[en] e .ix. uetyt. a pan 
escaro ae gur ny dele kecuyn hyd em pen .ix. uetyt ... a pan 
vo maru e gur ny dele kechuyn or te hyt e pen e .ix. uetit 
38.15. Teir gorsaf gureic [stationes uxoris]. A.L.II 873-xxiv. 
but cf. sef yu gorsaf kyureyth peth a trosso e kefreyth y urth 
y peth y byder en emdyweduyt amdanau ac a dycco y peth 
arall a uo kystal ac ef neu a uo guell ual y bo reyt annot e 
kyfreyth. A.L.II 156.10. LI. MS. 174, p. 162.3. Sef yw 
Arddelw cyfheithjawl Gorsaf Cyfraith. L.W. 434.42. cf. 
diorssaf. M.A. 2823.9. see also A.L.II 154.6. 

gorsed f. tribunal, court. Teyr gorset breynyauc a dele bod 
gorsed er argluyd a gorset escob a gorsed abat pop un onadunt 
a dele dale y orset truydau ehun. O deruyd y hur onadunt 
gueutur cam [y] gur e Hall ny dele neb onadunt guenthur yaun 
namyn eghorset y argluyt ehun 123.23. 124.2, 5, 6. see A.L.II 
318. v; 332. xxi : 775-xxxviii. 

gorsetua f. (u.l. gorsedauc. A.L.I i7o.x) authority, president 
( ?) . teyr gorsetua ysyd a allant gwneuthur eu cabydul ehun 
yn y lie na llesteyryoynt keureyth y brenhyn sew yu y rey 
hynny abat ac escop ac [meystyr] hyspyty 60.14. 

gome (he) made, did. 134.16. usually employed as 3 sg. 
pret. ind. act. of gwneuthur. cf. however, gwreith. M.A. 
193.6; 32b.i9. goreu. M.A. 273.24. 

gorgulad border country, ef a dely bucc neu ycch or anreyth 
a guenel e teulu eghorgulad 15.2. 12.14. y neb a differo buch 
neu ych rac lladron yn vn wlat ar perchennawc .iv. k. a geiff 



162 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

ef os y gorwlat y differ .vin. geinhawc a geifi. A.L.I 
7o8.xxxiv. see yyo.xxxv. Caer offa . . . Kae ir wlad rrac 
gorwledydd. P.MS. 64 ,p. 239. cf. mon ai gorthir. Rep.MSS.I 
9 49J 290 173. 

[gorysgwr] cor-escur the yoke, the part crossing the neck. 
Ny dele nep dody c. ar hyc y kylyd heb y kanyat 109. see 
ysgwr. L.W. has gorysgwr 282 19. A.L-II 586.xi. gwrasgwr. 
LI. MS. 116, p. 106.4. see yscur. 

goskorth suite, retinue, brenyn a dele uod en y kedemdeythas 
un dyn ar pewdec ar ueyrch ar ugeyn en marchokaet e peduuar 
suydauc ar ngeyn a deudec guestey heb y teulu ay guyrda ay 
gueysyon ay kerdhoryon ac aghanocyon a hene a elguyr goskorth 
e brenyn 3.15. satellites gl. casgoord. Z2. 1062. g.= Cor. 
goscor family. 

goskemon fuel, tinder, pemmet [afeyt tan] eu Had tan vi. 
ked eu keysyau goskemon 85.17. wynt ae lladant nyt amgen 
y dievyl a wassanaytha. ac a ennyn gosgytnon y bechodeu. 
H.MSS.II 34.30. A gwedy kaffel or tan goskymon ny 
orfiowysswys hyt pan losges y castell. R.B.II 158.9. Ac 
annoc a wnaeth Jeuenctit llys arthur y walchmei gwneuthur 
gwrthgassed yn llys yr amherawdyr. Megys y gellynt gaSel 
gosgymonn y ymgyuaruot a gwyr rufein 214.4. cf. diskymon = 
tinder, fuel. R.B.I 114.4. gosgyman gvith. B.B.C. 11.5. 
M.A. 233b.22. Doeth un ysgymun osgymmon pobloedd. M.A. 
3243.4. 

gossot (a) to set, place, ef a dely ehun deuot ar anrec dyuedaf 
ay gossot rac bron e brenyn 19.31. ef a dely gossod nadhu 
(nawdd) ac atestu gwyrodeu 10.1. 67.2, 18. 3 sg. pres. subj. 
gossodho 10.2. 3 sg. pret. gossodes 64.21. 3 pi. gossodassant 
1.17, 21. 

(b) attack, onset, blow, kany dyly y genedyl namyn sarhaet 
eu car ay alanas. ac nat oes yn hynny na dyrchaw na gossot 
na gwaet na gwely 75.11. Taro ei phen cledren clod, Ag isarn 
ar un gosod. D.G. cl.2o. E neb a gnithyo dyn talet y sarhaet 
yn gyntaf kanys dyrchaf a gossot yw sarhaet. A.L.I 5o6.xviii. 
tr6y rynn a gosgrynn a drychaf a gossot a chledyf tri a6cha61. 
A.L.II 466.31. Ac ar y gossod kyntaf y g6r a oed yn lie ara6n 
a ossodes ar hafgan ym perued bogel y daryan. R.B.I 5.14. 
Ac ar hynny est6ng g6ae6 a oruc y blaenaf ohonunt a gossot ar 
ereint. R.B.I 271.11. Ac yn y lie gossot o rolond ar y cawr a 
dwrndard y gledyf. H.MSS.II 39.26. see M.A. 8o9a.i2. 
H.MSS.II 22.27. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 163 

[gossymdeyth] gossemchejth maintenance, support, e mab 
. . . o pen e pedeir blenet ar dec e mae jaun jr tat e duyn ar e 
argluyt. ac jdhau ynteu gurau jdhau ef. o henny allan byt 
urth ossemchejth e argluyt 37.15. 

[gossyradeythau] gossemtheitau to maintain. O deruyt 
beychochy gureyc o luyn a perth ef a dele g. e mab 37.1. 

gostee f. a proclaiming of silence in court. O deruyd dody 
gostec yn y inaes ac odyna anostegu o un yn y maes teyr buv 
camlurv arnau 132.14. 15.22; 52.22, 24. cf. Ir. fear-stuic 
trumpeter, whose duty it -was to sound his trumpet just three 
times (at the feast). Joyce II 106. For a description of the Stoc 
see O.M.III 336 sqq. 

gostccu to maintain order, silence, gostecur ... a dely 
guasanaythu a gostecu a tarau e post 15.14. 

gostecur silentiary, the ninth of the court officials, see 
gostecu. 5.12; 15.9; 66.8; 68.1. see gostec. 

gradell a griddle, [guerth] gradell dawdwng 101.17. g.= 
Lat. gratella. Loth p. 174. 

[grad] grade, degree, pi. -eu. hynny o dynyon yu y gradeu 
ny dylyir dewnydyau tyr hep eu kanyat 62.20. Lat. gradus. 
Loth. 

[gradwr] grahur one in holy orders, an ecclesiastic, er 
efeyryat . . . y sarhaet heruit braut senet . . . ac euelly pop 
grahur 21.22. O deruyd y radwr gaffel kam gan lye. diwgied 
val y dwetto yr eglwys. Ll.MSS. 116, p. 90.16. see A.L.II 
48.xxvi, xxvii. cf. Rep.MSS.II 911 79. Epithets of God : 
Celi . . . Gradur. Ir. aes grad clergy, see grad. 

graun corn, grain. Ac ny deleyr dale yeyr ar hyd namen e 
pedheunos kentaf ed heer ac o hyny eny del graun ny delyr 
113.23. 113.24. sg. gronyn a grain of corn. g. heyd lowest 
unit of lineal measure, try hyt g. heyt en e uodued 107.7. 
65-2, 3, 7- 

garauys Lent, sef amser achaus e doythant e garauys eno 
urth delehu o paup bod yn yaun en er amser glan hunnu 1.9. 
1.8; 8.28. see carawys. Loth p. 144. 

gremhaha see grymhau. 

gren 'a big vat or -vessel, [guerth] gren .11. 100.18. Melget 
pedeir tunell o fel a gassei pedeir mu ympob tunell, dwy 
grenneit ym pob mu llwyth deu wr ar drossol ym pob grenn. 
A.L.II 584-v. Rep.MSS.II 828.81. Un diwarnod wedi cael 



164 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

llonaid gren bridd o laeth ai dwyn adref, etc. loloMSS. 181.17. 
169.23. Pedwar galwyn a wna un celwrn. Pedwar celwrn a 
wna un gren. Med.M. 295. 

groesyn a drop ( ? ) . y llo a dele ememdeyt nau cam a 
dedellu groesyn oe phedeyrthet 90.20. -a. 1. dyfod llaeth o ben 
pob teth iddi. L.W. 239 29. This appears to be the sglt. 
masc. of a -word corresponding to the IT. fross rain. T.B.F. 42 = 
frass. W.W. Mod.Ir. frass a shower, hail, small shot, seed, 
any small round grain. Dineen. 

gmereyc see gwreyc. 

grugyll n.l. Ac o grugyll y mon hyt yn soram yglan y mor 
pym cant mylltyr. a hynny yu llet yr ynys hon 64.28. 

[grumseit] grunseyt with dark coloured blade. [guerth] 
cledyf o byd breulyf .xn. o byd grunseyt .xn. o byd guenseyt 
.xxiui. 102.19. Dwyn cledyf wrnach a wnaethpwyt attaw. 
kymryt agalen gleis a oruc kei y dan y gesseil. a gouyn or deu 
pwy oed oreu gantaw ae gwynseit ae grwmseit. R.B.I 127.7. 
grum=gwrm=bJtte, dark = lr. gorm blue. aZso=urdairc. W.W. 
see gurem, guenseit. 

grvn a ridge of land 27 feet broad, try troeduet yn y cam 
try cam yny neyt try neyt yn y tyr. Sew yu y tyr o gymraec 
newyd grvn 65.5. g. = Ir. ferann land. Urk.Spr. p. 271. see 
ferand land. B.L.G. 

grym power, substance. Puybynnac a ueychychoco gwreyc 
o luyn a perth namyn yny agho na orfo arney y ueythryn . . . 
sef achaus yu cany chauas hy grym y gur 130.23. 

[grymhau] to benefit, be of avail. 3 sg. pres. ind. gremhaha. 
ny deleyr llu geylyd amdanadunt kany r. ked adeuer 115.17. 
In H.MSS.I 355.21 the "v.n. is grymyaw. ni wdam ni pa delw y 
dichawn ef r. y ereill pryt na ellei y nerthau ehun. 

gwat, guad denial. Rei or enejt ne at guad en erbyn henne 
37.21. O gwedyr yr affeythyoed uchot cymeynt yu eu gwat a 
gwat llowrud 78.28. 37.22 ; 45.4; 47.5, 24; 75.5, 9, 10. ; 78.28; 
80.19; 83.5; 129.27; 134.6. 

gwadu, guadu to deny, a kan adeuuyt ef ny ellyr y guadu 
31.1. kammeint ac a deuedassam ni vchod j guadu macht a 
dau j guadu pop vn onahunt 45.17. 30.27; 35.15, 17, 25; 39.11 ; 
40.14; 44. i, 2, 17; 45.1, 3, 12, 16, 19, 20; 47.4, 18, 25; 48.6, 9, 10, 
21, 26; 49.21, 28; 50.7, 10 watdu; 50.16, 17, 18, 24; 71.28; 72.12, 
13, 22; 73-16-29; 74-i-ioj 75.4, 7; 77.2; 79-5; 85.20; 129.26; 133-17. 
20; 134-5- i sg. pres. ind. guadaf 44.1, 5. 3 sg. guata, guada 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 165 

35.19; 48.9, ii ; 74.26; 130.27. 3 pi. gwadant 48.17; 83.4; 129.29. 
pass, gwedyr, guedir 50.10 59.6 ; 74.26 ; 75.3 ; 78.27, 29. 3 sg. pres. 
subj. gwato 31.11; 40.23 guadto; 46.23; 47-23; 50.24 guatho; 
130.26. 3 pi. gwatoent 77.18. pass, gwater 74.5; 83.6; 85.1. 
3 sg. imperat. guadet 47.18, 21 ; 49.18; 50.19; 109.12. 3 sg. impf. 
subj. guatei 47.18. 3 sg. pret. ind. gwadus 72.25, 26. pass, 
gwaduyt 73.19. 

guadaut sediment, lees, e penguastraut a dely dernuet erug 
llyn a guadaut 13.25. 13.24. g. = Corn. godhas sediment. 

gwadaul division, distribution. O demyd y dyn cafael kyc 
anyueyl ny bo eydau ... ay gymryt ohanau hep gannyat 
dyruy a uyd hyt yd el nac o rod nac o wadaul nac o brynu hyt 
y ganvet llau 80.23. but g. = dowry see A.L.I 522.xxvi; 544-vi. 
g. = kynhysgaeth. P.MS. 169, p. 242, etc. godolei o heit meirch 
e gayaf. B.An. 37.20. Ir. fo-dail sub-division. B.L.G. 

gwaet blood, nas creus ew y mab hunnv . . . ac nat oes 
dauyn oy waet ew yndau onyt o adaw 72.18. 75.7, 12; 77.3; 
106.18, 19, 21, 24. 

guaet dyllad blood-stained clothes given as part payment of 
the doctor's fee. Am pob un or try perygyl henny e dely e 
medyc .LX.XX. ay uuyd neu punt heb y uuyd a heuyd y guayd 
dyllat 18.9. 7.20; 18.5; 106.5 

guaet tyr, gwaetyr the land of a homicide sold to pay the 
galanas. Y gyureyth a dyweyt nat g. yr un namyn tyr llowrud 
a talhel yn gyureythyaul wedy na bo dym ar helu y llowrud 
63.1. 62.19, 28. 

guacret a down-ward slope, tennu kar en alld ac eg g. 90.11. 
ni bydd allt heb waered. Dr.D.Prov. 

guacth worse. 109.10. guaethaf worst, ac o guelhant bot 
en veil testion e neill rei noe gilit diuarnent buy e guaethaf e 
testion 55.11. 

guacty empty house. O deruyt guelet greyc en deuot or 
parthun yr lluen ar gur or parch arall. neu en deuot o guacty 
39.10. g. = nebty. A.L.I 75o.xxxiv. 

guahan separation. Os o veuu e guahanant ... a guybot 
ae kefreithul he guahan 34.22. 34.23. 

guahanu (tr. and intr.) to separate, sever, create, vuent a 
allant os mennant g. ony byt ammod ae ruym 108.4. cany 
dylyant yr estronyon na duyn dyn yg cerennyd nay wahanu ay 
gerenyt 129.23. tygu y duv yny blaen ac yr allaur . . . ac yr gur 



166 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

ay gwahanus ew o creedygaeth tat a mam nas creus ew y mab 
hunnv yg kallon gwreyc 72.16. 108.3; 125.20 3 pi. pres. ind. 
guahanant 34.12, 20. 3 sg. pres. subj. guahano 7.24. i sg. 
pret. gweheneys 129.19. 3 sg. gwahanus 72.16; 81.6. pass, 
part, guahanedyc separated 38.10. A wahanodd cnawd g. 
ddolur. Dr.D. Prov. Ef a wahannawd pop peth ( = created). 
P.MS. 15, p. 63. g wahannawd =gwnaeth (?). Eluc. 5.5. 
gwahan *v.l. gwnahon. M.A. 58a. 

[guahard] guahrt to prohibit, forbid, ar egluis bieu i guahrt 
am bridiu ar brenin y kamell 49.32. 

guahaut to invite. Od a gur ar teylu ykan e brenyn o achaus 
yrllonet ef a dele y guahaut urth y uuyt ay kamody ar 
brenyn 7.3. 

guahrt see guahard. 

guala f. fill, sufficiency, satiety, eny kafo [dauad] teyr guala 
o tauaul neuuyd 93.14. Nid gwala gan gybydd meddiannu y 
ddaiaren. M.A. 7573.7. Bret, gualc'h. cf. diwala. neb ny 
due yny chetymdeithas namyn gwraged a meibon a dynyon 
didraha diwala. W.B. col. 117.21. Oia arglwydes dec. yr y 
duw y credy di idaw. dyro ym un walyeit o fwyt. H.MSS.I 
I39-36- 

guall lack, need, ef a dely guylyau e brenhyn rac pob guall 
24-13- 

guall 106.17. rea d guallt. see A.L.I 3i4.xxvi. 

guallau to serve liquor, to pour out. e guastauel ... a dely 
guallau ar e brenyn eithyr e teyr guyl arbenyc 14.13. subj. 
pass, lloneyt e llestry e guallouyer endunt o kurif 25.5. 18.28. 
Nam gwallaw oth law cast. M.A. 190^51. gwallau = llenwi. 
P.MS. 169, p. 245. gwallofiad=briwer. ibid. 241. cf. darllo= 
gollwng breci. P.MS. 50, p. 193. Ir. folam empty. Ped. 26.4. 

guan sick, ailing, -weak. Ni dele mach duyn guistel ar 
kennogon ac ef en i nekesseu y argluit . . . neu en guan 46.29. 

guanaf a layer (as of corn in a sack), e ryghyll a dely . . . 
kyc bulch . . . ar guanaf yssaf or hyd 25.14. =y do nessaf yr 
llawr. A.L.I 394. vii. cf. gwana 'the amount cut by one sweep 
of the scythe . . . reckoning breadthwise.' Trans. Guild of 
Grads. 1909-11, p. 28. 

guanant see guneuthur. 

guander -weakness, sickness, er hebogyt ... a dele duyn 
llestyr yr llys y dody guyraut endau kany dele ef namen tor y 



i6 7 

sechet sef acaus eu henny rac guander yu adar 10.30. cf. Ac 
ynyr amsser hwnnw y cleuychawd tat beuno o heint annobaith. 
ac anuon kennat at veuno y vab a oruc ac erchi idaw dyuot vrth 
y wenndit ae diwed. Eluc. 120.6. Rhag gwander ymenydd 
berw y beton. LI. MS. 82.10. 

guahanuyn springtime, o nauuethid cchewraur ebit kayat e 
hewreyth hit nauvethid o uey. . . . Rac llesdeyrau eredyc e g. 
51.31. 10.7; 11.12; 51.30; 104.11. guahanuynar land tilled in 
Spring 112. n. 

guaraduyt shame, disgrace. Ereyll a deueyt panyu deruen a 
ladher en hageuarc ar treftat pryodaur a deleu dody mantell 
amau oy kudyau rac y gueled a bod en guaraduyt yr treftadauc 
y gu[e]let 128.25. 

guarandau to listen, hear, eavesdrop. dechreu holy a 
gwarandau atep 130.8. a guedy es tadkano aynt er egneyt allan 
... a Righyll ygyt aguy hy eu kadv. Rac douot dynyon y 
warandu arnadunt 53.21. 52.2; 53.21; 61.19. 3 sg. pres. ind. 
gwerendeu 61.14. pass, gwerendewyr 61.17. 3 sg. pres. subj. 
guarrandaho 44.22. subj. pass, gwarandawer 53.9. 

gwarchadu to keep, impound, hold in custody. Mayr bysweyl 
... a dely g. e llys guedy er estyuart 24.17. e guarthec a uo 
en y guarchadu ef teyr nos kyn eu Had 24.27. o bydant yn 
gwarchadu tyr adanadunt kyhyt a hynny 64.4. 15.18 ; 18.22 ; 
53.11; 56.7; 70.26; 81.4. 3 sg. pres. ind. gwercheydu 80.26; 
81.2, 3. 3 sg. pres. subj .gwarchatwo 80.27. 

guarchac to confine, impound, have charge of. vuen (wyn) 
tra uuynt en denu eu cuarchae or pryd buykylyt neu eu 
kemescu ac eu mam 112.22. e kenutey ... a dely march e 
kenud . . . o kyll ac ef ar y guarchau ef ef a dely y talu 
27.8. 112. 20 guarhy; 116.2; 117.11; 119.2. pass. part, gwarch- 
aedyc barred ( ?) . Puy bynnac a dyodeuo rannu y dyr un dyd 
a bluydyn . . . y gyureyth a dyweyt na dyly hunnv atep or 
tyr hunnv. namyn y uot yn warchaedyc ac yn haul tra 
bluydyn 63.7. yn diannot gwedy gwarchae clusteu y meirch 
ac eu llygeit y kyrchassant yn hy. Car. Mag. 23.22. gwarchav 
bvn mewn arch a bedd. P.MS. 63, p. 85. 

guarthaual, guardhaual stirrup, sef ual e dely daly y uarch 
tra dyskeno a pan eskenho daly y guarhauel 11.5. 23.31 ; 27.27; 
103.1, 4. pi. guarthaualeu 103.19. 

guarthal re-di-vision. ceyssyau oet urth porth a dyweduyt 
or amdyfynm;r ket ryfo yth dewys nyt ydyu cany chygeyn 



i68 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

gwarthal gan dewys 130.10. so M.A. 85213.32. A.L.I 544-iii- 
Keveis gan dreth ortethol. Tarw tec tal garth yg gwarthal. 
M.A. 18413.4. Ny dyly neb gofyn atran onyd y neb ny chafas 
ran dewis. Odyna y diaereb yssyd nyd oes warthawl gan dewis. 
LI. MS. 116, p. 29.21. LI. MS. 69, p. 132.4. Med.Law 53.7. Dr. 
Pughe translated this 'what is given to boot' as if it were from 
gor+tal = 0T;er price; this is very unlikely for in every instance 
it is equal to adran. The proverb means 'it is not in keeping 
with the law to ask for re-division after having chosen at the 
first division.' 

guarthec pi. cows, cattle, e teyru o hanner haf hyd aust. 
Ny deleyr eu dale . . . kanys en er amser hunnu e byt teruen 
e guarthec prouaduy 116.5. deu hechen a uenho ar y guarthec 
42.15. 3.27; 9.11, 13; 24.26, 28; 25.7; 29.9, 12, 14; 39.19, 20; 
71.11; 73.10, ii, 12; 92.20; 111.13; 125.5. 

guas m. a servant, a page, maer a chyghellaur a dylyant 
kylch dvyweyth yn y bluydyn a deu was gan bop un 70.2. 
brenyn a dele uod eny kedemdeythas undyn ar pemdec ar 
ueyrch arugeyn en marchokaet . . . heb y teulu ay guyrda ay 
gueysyon 3.10. gueyssion kaet bondsmen 42.12. 30.22; 53.29; 
76.8. pi. gueysyon 3.19; 42.11. A.L.II 816 iii has ' pueros ' 
(ace. )*= gueysyon 3.19. gweisjon v.l. maccwyaid. L.W. u, cap. 
viii. A.L.I 348. iv; 626. iv. Ir. loss servant. 

guastauell chamberlain. 10.22; 14.5; 22.7, 17. pi. gueyssyon 
esteuyll 10.19. 

guassanayth service, a guasanaytuyr a deleant seuyll rac y 
uron en y g. 4.14. er efeyryat ... a dely seuyll eguasanaet e 
brenyn eny absen 15.15. 5.2; 8.27; 18.33; 108.11; 128.20. 

guasanaythu, guasanaeth to serve, minister. E djsteyn a 
dele guasanaythu ar cuedyn ar uuyd 9.27. ef a dely guassanayth 
ar e urenynes . . . ar uuyt a llyn 22.11. 13.13; 15-14; 20.30; 
21. i ; 22.11, 29; 23.33; 38.29; 47.12; 48.29 guassanaessu. 3 sg. 
pres. ind. guasanaytha 11.3. 3 sg. past. subj. guasanaethei 
47-13- 

guasanaethur servant. 5.1. pi. guasanaytguyr, gwassanay- 
thwyr 2.19; 4.14; 8.16; 68.1; 69.12; 76.18. 

guasgaranc distributed, divided, val hyn y rennyr galanas 
wasgarauc 129.3. see galanas. 

guaskaru to scatter, disperse. O deruyd deuot moch y ty a 
g. e tan 87.2. g. = Ir. -scaraim I divide, etc. W.W. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 169 

[gwasgaudwydd] sheltering-trees. pop pren a planer en 
gasgautguyd .xxim. a tal 98.6. yd oed charlymaen yn eistedd 
y dan gwascawt pren godowyll. H.MSS.II 83.19. g. = Ir. 
foscad shadow. 

gwastat even, constant, settled, nad el or llys en guastat 
18.16. ef a dely nod en guastat ykyd ar brenyn 8.30. 6.18; 
9.24; 25.28. 

guastraut groom, esquire, guastraut auuyn one of the 
customary servants of the court, ef a dely daly guardhaual e 
brenyn pan eskyrtho a pan dyskenho a duyn y uarch yu lety 
23.22. 23.25. pi. guastrodyon 12.13; 13.18, 19, 29. 

gwatdu see guadu. 
guatho see guadu. 

guaylaut bottom, messur e llaeth teyr modued en y guaylaut 
a .vi. em peruet e llestyr 91.8. 

guayssaw m. protection, guarantee, defence. O deruyt y ur 
dyweduyt bot gwreyc yn veychyauc ar wreyc yn gwadu ar gur 
yn adew ar argluyd yn mynnv yr amober talet y gur . . . canyt 
oes wat tros wayssaw 134.6. 41.25. Tri g. y syd : arddelw neu 
warant neu amddifyn heb warant. M.A. 942a-56. Tri ymdillvg 
o rvym havl yssyd gvir tvg neu waessaf neu ynvytrvyd. 
LI. MS. 69, p. 70.21. gwasaf yw gwarant. P.MS. 138, p. 496. 
gwaessaf is a warrantor. LI. MS. 68, p. 134.18. Pan ddel 
fyngwaessaf/Cynwys a gaffaf. M.A. 52b. Guaissaf pledge. 
L.L. li. see M.A. io6a; ii4b; 2483. g. = Ir. foessam protection. 
for foessam=tton (under) the protection of a person. Lib.Hym. 

guaesauur one who gives "gwayssaw." Od a g. yhurt y 
guaesaf .LX. 41.24. nawdwr y brenhin ... a hwnnw a elwir 
gwassafwr. LI. MS. 116, p. 14, 15. LI. MS. 69, p. 100.25. Tri ry6 
6rogaeth yssyd cletren wassaf6r ; ac ass6yn6r ; ac atlam6r : O 
deruyd y dreftada6c g6rhau y dreftada6e arall ac adeilat ac ar 
ac eredic yn diamot a bot yn ediuar gantha6 a mynnu mynet 
y6rtha6, ef a dyly talu ch6eugeint ida6 ; a honno a e!6ir cletren 
wassaf6r. A.L.II 42. ix. 

guaeu lance, spear, teyr keuelyn en hyd y guaeu 25.17. 
guerth guaeu .1111. 102.15. 27.29. 

guden withe, (in pi.) traces or harness made of twisted withes. 
O deruyd y dynyon hele pescaut ... a deuod dynyon ... a 
mennu ran or pescaut uent a deleant ony deruyd eu dody ar 
huden neu vac[h] 123.21. pi. gudyn harness 112.2. cf. cytleidyr 
a grocer a wydnyen am y wddyf yn ddiobeith oe eneit. A.L.II 



170 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

682. Gwden = miaren. D.G. clxxiii.67. see also lxvi.23 ; 
lxxiv.5o; ccxxx.66. Ac yn lie kyfrwy y rodes panyorec ac 
owdyn anwaredut yr hyn a welsei gan walchmei. W.B. p. 287.2. 
cf. .p. 288.14. I dreio i did wden nodedig. LI. MS. 209, p. 561. 
Gwtna ydyw'r wden a nyddir yn ir. ibid. p. 247. Bret. 
" gweden corde, lien d'osier." Henry Lex. 

[gwddf] neck. pi. gedueu. e kenuteu ... a dely gedueu er 
escrybyl a ladher en e llys 27.11. 

gudif, guedyf billhook, naud [e kenutey] eu hyd e kallo y 
uury ay uuyall neu ay hudyf 27.14. 33.22; 100.11. pro -vologio, 
id est, gwdyu [falce]. A.L.II 845-xiii. lignismus gl. uiidimm. 
Z2. 1061. g. = Ir. fidhba gl. falcastrum. W.W. see Urk.Spr. 
p. 280. Fed. I 389, note 4. 

gue yarn, web. pi. gueeu, gueheu. guedhesseu a kemer- 
hoent gueeu neu pellenneu ereyll 86.22. 33.25. so P.MS. 35, 
8Qb.3. y gweeu llin ar gwlan. P.MS. 363, p. 59.10. 

guebcthit see guybydyeit. 

guedy, wedy (a) prep, after, nauuethid guedi kalangayaf 
51.30. guedy hynny after that 134.27. 

(b) adv. after. Sew yu hynny gwedy del oil ygyt o erwy 
yn y kymhud vyth cant 65.27. 17.7. guedy = guedy+y 71.14; 
72.23 ; 87.22 (cf. 112. 18) ; 130.17. 

guet a yoke, taru neu anyueyl nyd el adan guet 25.19. pi. 
-eu. canys yna yda [mab] adan lau y beryglaur ac y cymer g. 
arnau 70.21. D.B.C.I.K. of A.L. read "gwed duw." 50 Ll.MS. 
174, p. 90.20. A.L.I 202. cymryt gued=o sttbmi=gwedu. 
W.B. col. 190.30. R.B.II 69.7. y dan wed mab duw. R.B.II 
107.8. carr ac vn or gvedeu. Ll.MS 69, p. 119.15. 

guedes see guyd. 

gucdu a -widow. 27.22. cf. Llawergweddwagwaeddamdanaw. 
M.A. 2O9a.22. Er pan ddelid Crist weddw athrist wedd. M.A. 
275b.26. ar mynwennoed yn llawn o vedeu. ar eglwysseu yn 
wedw. H.MSS.I 259.9. 

guedy /. prayer, ac ena guedy ed eystedont huy e may iaun 
yr effeyryat guedy a duy y dangos o duy er yaun udunt 53.24 
read guedyau (?) so Ll.MS. 174, p. 68.23. 

guedhyll remainder, ef a dyly guedhyll e kanuylleu holl 
23.14. kanyt oed neb yny phres6ylya6 eithyr ychydic wedillon. 
R.B.II 253.30. see Ped.I 66. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 171 

[gweddillio] to remain over. 3 sg. pres. subj. guethyllo. ef 
a dely a g. or kanuylleu 20.15. 

[gwefus] written gueus 105.4. f. the lip. [guerth] y duygueus 
.vi. byu a vi ugeyn aryant 105.4. 

guckyl neck; ar e g. = behind. kayher er escubhoryeu. . . . 
Sef eu val e deleyr y kayu dody teyr bancor ar e llokyl a peth 
ar e drus a try ruym arnau deu ar e guekyl ac un or tu rechy 
114.19. 

guahalyeth stock, nobility. O deruyt roy kamraes y alldud 
mab honno a dele ran o tref tat ac ny dele ran or tedyn 
breynyauc hyd e tredydyn ony bod er alldut en guahalyet seys 
neu en huydhel a hunnu ae keyf en dy annod 125.3. n y deleyr 
y hun guahalyeth abedyu. hyn heruyt y delet uaur ef e byt 
ryd enteu o pop delet uechan 127.14. Tri amryw ddyn a dal 
chwegein o abediwr : swyddogion y llys eithyr y pendefigyon ; 
a breyr diswydd a gwahalaeth, sef yw hwnnw mab arglwydd 
ny bo nac edling na phenteulu. A.L.II 6o8.xix. This is treated 
sometimes, and perhaps correctly, as a deri~vatii)e of gwely= 
family. Gwelieth holl gymrv . . . tri gweli klotheith. . . . 
Gweheliaeth holl kymr\ r . Rep.MSS.I 772. 

gweisur see guneuthur. 

guejsdret see gueythret. 

guel 37.2. see guneuthur; 111.16. see guellt. 

guelet to see, pro-vide, guelet greyc en deuot 39.9. teythy 
[cath] guelet a clebot 93.23. essef a guil e kefreish bod en 
nyaun rannu erreghunt en deu hanner e kollet 46.34. 75.2; 
85.20; 115.5; 123.5. 3 sg. pres. ind. gwyl, guil 44.2, 16; 46.34; 
51.8; 130.5, 12, 15; 131.3. 3 pi. guelhant 55.11. 3 sg. subj. 
pres. guelo 81.3. 3 pi. gueloent. pass, gueler 40.11. 3 sg. 
pret. ind. guelles 1.2; 98.22. 3 pi. guelsant 120.20. cf. kanys 
ny da6 [agheu] y neb namyn yr neb y g6elho du6. R.B.II 
222.16= providesset. Schultz 149.9. 

guelt 18.24. see guled. 

1. guely bed. pan dano y dyllat ar e guely 22.22. 11.2; 14.9, 
u, 15; 16.6; 22.14, 23; 35.8; 39.29. 

2. guely family. 76.18. pi. -eu. Plant y seythuet uam a 
uyd neyeynt ueybyon gorchau. ac nyt a galanas bellach 
hynny. keny vyper namyn duy neu teyr buryer yr alanas 
arnadunt. ac ar ny el arnadunt huy ranner ar y gwelyeu yd 
hanuo y tat onadunt huy a dody duyran ar y kyph 76.5. see 



172 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

corthlan. This is generally regarded to be the same as guely 
bed (W.P. p. 195, etc.). //, however, the equation gwely=Ir. 
full 15 correct, then it appears that the idea underlying this is 
'blood' rather than 'bed.' Gwely "bed" ace. to Loth. Rev. Celt. 
xx. 351 ; xxv-383 is a derivative of gwal = Ir. foil (05 in mucc-foil 
gl. hara, stabulum porcorum. 72.8543.). Peders. 147. The fact 
that guele is translated lectum in the Record of Carnarvon (see 
Seebohm, Trib. System, p. 33) is not insuperable, as may be 
seen from earlier instances of mis-translations from Welsh into 
Latin, some of -which are noticed in the preface, see next. 

3. guely f. wound, injury. Onyt un or teyr guely arperykyl 
uyt sef eu e rey heny-dernaut em pen hyd er emenyt, etc. 7.21. 
75.8, 12. g. = Ir. full blood. Fed. I p. 139. Stokes (?) suggests 
somewhere that this word corresponds to the Ir. fuil " blood," 
and the word rhedweli (course of blood ( ?)) " vein, artery/' 
seems to corroborate this. Walde, however, says it is related 
to the Lat. volnus. so Stokes, Urkelt.Spr. 285. 

guell (comp. in use of da) better, bu guell kanthau ef uunet 
en uab ir gur ragu ... no bot en argluit 47.19. 45.26; 47.26; 
49.2; 54.22, 23; 55.11, 14; 62.12; 112.12; 118.19; 140.2. 

guellau to better, improve, gouenet udunt a uennant g. eu 
kykeussayth 53.17. 

guclleu m. shears, [guerth] guelleu .1. 100.8. kymryt crip 
eur o arthur. a gwelleu a doleu aryant idaw. R.B.I 106.4; 
137.23. cf. forceps gl. guillihim. Z2.io62. 

guellt straw, grass, sward. keysyau beyc guellt a dan e 
brenyn 14.14. guell[t] paur 117.4. ny deleyr semudau hycc 
ahkauarer en e ryc[h] ar e guel[lt] heb kanyat y kauaruyr 
111.15. 68.15; 107.20 guell; 111.16 guel ; 116.4 guellth ; 117.2, 3. 
see gwyllt, gwlet. 

guellta to spread straw, e porthaur ... a dely arluyau e 
llys yam pery guellta a pery keneu tan 26.12. see W.B. col. 
203. a phan edrych6yt ar y dyle nyt oed arnei namyn byrwellt 
dysdlyt ch6einllyt a boneu g6rysc yn amyl tr6yda6. 

guendun sward, turf, puebennac a semuto hyd ar e souel 
hyd ar e guendun a gueneutur y das ar e guendun. ked lleger 
ena ef ny dyuckyr 119.18. cf. Ir. tond talman earth's surface. 
W.W. 

guenouy to cause to grow white, puebennac a uenficyo 
march y arall a g. e bleu yar e keuen .1111. a tal 89.9. gonoui 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 173 

[crines albifacere]. A.L.II Sio.xxxv. cf. cosi y Haw yny wenofo. 
Med.M. 27. see Diverres. Med.M. p. 125. 

gucnseit see guynseit. 

guenuyn poison. O deruyd y dyn Had arall a guenuyn 
galanas deudyblyc a tal 129.24. 129.28. g. = venenum. Loth 
P- 175- 

guenyn bees. 95.19; 98.5, 8. see kynteit, asgelleit. 

gwenythdyr land under wheat. 69.20. 

guer tallow, fat. ar koceu a dele e guer ar dyhenyon 8.3. 
19.31. g. = Ir. geir (which was much used as annlann. Joyce 
II 132.) 

guer see guerth. 

gwercheytwat trustee, guardian. O deruyd yn daly yr eydau 
dyuot g. a gurthuynebu ydav gouynnet ynteu puy a wercheydv 
hwn 81.1. pi. guercheidveith 52.3, 4. Gwercheitwat yw y neb 
a gynhalyo neu a warchattwo dylyet dyn arall. P.MS. 36a. 
79.14. 

guerdir the buttocks. 36.8. keuuc ae guerdir=kyfywch ae 
phedrein. LI. MS. 116, p. 21.13. g. the -vagina. Med.M. 
188 476; 296 m. cf. Ir. fordhronn. (p\.) = the loin, the womb. 
Dineen. 

guerit n.l. Ac odhena [aruon] e lluydhaus rud uab maelcun 
a guir guinet kanthau ac e doethant hid eglan guerit en e 
kocled ac ena e buant en hir en annesson pui a heley en e 
blaen druy auon guerit 42.2. 

guerth, guert, gurth, guer, guet value, price, bribe, mug 
march vn guer ae y fruyn vn guert ae y talkudyn y kebystyr 
89.6. Guerth e brenyn eu y saraet teyr gueyth 2.21. Nauuet 
[affeyth lledrat] yu cymryt gwerth ygan y lleydyr yr kelu arnau 
78.21. guerth kefreyth legal value 101.2. lleydyr gwerth 
a thief that could redeem himself by paying 4.17; 6.3; 79.24; 
80.18; 82.19; 83.2; 90.9; 94.22 guet, 24; 97.8; 105.21. 

guerthu to sell, ny dele grejc na prenu na guerthu 39.22. 
12.6; 29.17; 108.18. 3 sg. pres. ind. guerth 29.18. pass, 
guerthyr 90.1. sg. pres. subj. guertho 92.12, 18; guerho 88.22. 
pass, gwerther 82.21. 3 sg. imperat. guerdhet 29.19. 

guerthyd spindle, [guerth] g. iyrling 101.23. ac yw uerchet 
y peris ef aruer o gogeil a gwerthyd a nytwyd. R.B.II 387.14. 
cf. val y troes rot y velin ar y werthyt. H.MSS.II 9.25. 
gadael yr . . . olwyn goks yn ry dyn with y gwerthydyd. 



(Treatise on milling.) P.MS. 56, p. 75. gosod y werthid 
ynghanol y droell. ibid. p. 87. g. = Ir. fertas shaft, spindles 
of the axle-tree of a chariot, etc. W.W. 

guerendaut maidenhood, esef eu e couuyll er hyn a cafey 
am y g. 38.1. 

guestau see guystlau. 

guestey guest, brenyn a del uod eny kedymdeithas undyn- 
arpemdec ar ueyrch arugeyn en marchokaet e peduuar suydauc 
arugeyu a deudec gxiestey heb y teulu ay guyrda ay gueysyon 
3.18. pi. guesteyon. ac am henny e rodhes rund vdut .xini. 

brein xn. na thaler meirch guesteyon na gur ar kilc 

42.23. .xii. guestey=xn. hospites. A.L.II 751. iv; 8i6.ii. 
pawb o dynyon gwlat arall. nyt amgen. gwesteion. Eluc. 
168.23. cf. Na6 nos g6esty or g6estei. A.L.II 346.viii. 

guestua the foodrent of the free-maynols to the king. Messur 
g. y brenyn yn amser gay aw o uaynaul ryd. Sew yu hynny 
pun march or blaut goreu ... a buuch ... a dogyn keruyn 
o ued ... a seyth dreua o geyrch ... a llestyr emenyn . . . 
a hynny a dau o bop maynaul ryd yr brenhyn 69.6. 66.4. 

gucstuaeu to collect the "guestua." e mayr bysgueyl . . . 
a dely g. ar guyr e uaertref 24.25. or pi. of guestua ( ? ) v.l. 
ef a dely guestuaeu e gan guyr e uaertref. A.L.I 64. xi. 

gueuty for geuty ( ?) closet, y lety eu estauell e urewywes 
ay guely eny gueuty urth uod en paraut y gueneuthur nechesseu 
e brenyn ar urenynes 22.15. LI. MS. 174, p. 28.25 reads geuty. 
cf. A hi ae hanvedawd ef hyt yggeudy a oed gysselltedic wrth 
y castell. R.B.II 282.6. kystud dygyn geudy guely agheu 
the grave (?). M. A. 353.6. closet. Marc. vii. 199. 

gueylyd, geylyd an onlooker (?), voluntary -witness (?). O 
deruyd llugry hyd ac na hodyuedher er escrybyl ar er hyd byd 
en llu e perchenau[c] eu glanhau kany ellyr testyolaeth ar 
anyveyl ked as teueto paup y guelet ny remah ny deleyr llu 
geylyd amdanadunt. kany remhaha ked adeuer os e perchenauc 
ay dyheura 115.6. hyn o denyon a dyeyc rac lu gueylyd. escob 
ac argluyd a mud a bedar a dyn ageuyeyt a greyc ueycyauc 
121.5. Llw gweilid am dda arall nit godor ar ddyn nas roddo 
yn ywbarno kyfreith iddo yw roddi. sef yw llw gweylyd dyfot 
or kolledic a chrair gantho ar y dyn a typyo tyg yd Dvw ar 
crair hwn na ddvgost vy na a henwet y da a golles yna. A.L.II 
226. ix. Sef yw llw gweilydd Iw un dyn heb Iw neb y yrru nac 
y wadu eithyr un llw. II 718. iii. llw gueilit [juramentum 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 175 

Doluntarium]. II 795.xxxii; 849. xl cf. meirch gweilyd idle (?). 
A.B. 127.12. M.A. 1413.25. Bryssyaf lie y gwelaf brys gweilyd. 
M.A. 3iob.27- gwilym a roes gwlm ar wydd/nid vn gwlm a 
dyn gweilydd. P.MS. 67, p. 234. cf. Mab kadr kydwaladr 
kedweilydd. Rep.MSS.I 203 353. 

gueyny service, -work, er efeyryat teulu ... a dele . . . 
off rum e suydguyr aclan. a tray an gueyny 8.25. Guert eboles 
... en y teyr bluyt .ix. ac ena [y mae oed] gueyny arney 90.8. 

gueynydauc embroidress (?). O deruyt beychyhochy g. a 
cayt e nep ay beychyoco a dele roy greyc arall y guasanaethu 
en y lie 38.28. sef yw gwenydawc. caeth a vo yn ty mab 
vchelwr nyt el y raw nac y ureuan. A.L.II n8.1xxii. cf. 
gwenigawl . . . nid el nac yn rhaw nac ym mreuan. L.W. 
204 43. g\veniga61 ... sef y6 honno g6reic 6rth y notwyd. 
P.MS. 363, p. 50.12. It appears to be formed like Mod.Dimet. 
'gwinhidd-es' 'a sempstress' and not to be confused with 
'gweinidawc' 'servant/ 

gucynytuarch working horse, palfrey .cxx. a tal runcy neu 
summeruarc .cxx. a tal gueynytuarch [a lusco karr ac oc] .ix. 
88.13. 88.7. for [v.l.] see A.L.I 262.viii. 

gueyr hay. 68.15; 114.6; 116.22. 

gueyrclaud f. meadow. Puebennac a uenho gueyrclaut 
kadued o huyl padryc hyd kalangayaf. Sef eu g. tyr 
dyuuynyant namyn y gueyr a claud en y kylch 116.21. 116.18, 
25; 117.7. 

gueys see gueyth. 

1. gueyth f. time, turn, vynt a dylyant . . . keyssyau gwellt 
a chynnut y gnyuer g. y del y brenhyn yr llys 68.16. ungueyth, 
ungueys once 6.22; 10.4; 11.9; 15.25; 17-15. l6 2 9I 3-4; 6 7-5 
14, 16 ; 69.29 ; 78.2. eylgueyt, duygueyt 37.6 ; 38.8 ; 66.16 ; 68.14 ; 
91.20; 116.24. teyrgueyt 2.21; 8.13; 9.4; 10.25; 77.26. tredet 
gueys 38.8. .vi. ed gueyt 92.9. weython, weythyon now 52.31 ; 
53.2; 72.28. 

2. gueyth work, ef a dely guesyau guyr e uaertref y gueyth 
26.9. gwneuthur gweyth kestyll 67.8. 28.7. 

gueythret, gueytret, gueysret deed, collect, acts, kany dyly y 
brenhyn na dyruy na chamlvrv am annodeu nac am weythret 
dyn ynvyt 70.18. puebennac a keneuho tan en odyn keuoet 
kan arall e llosko . . . talet trayan y gueytret 86.6. 18.14 
gueytret; gueisret 43.6; 86.3, 7, 8; 87.1, 4; 118.16; 121.3; 122.10 
gueysret; 122.11. guejsdret 35.15. see Thurn.Altir. 264 



176 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

gwlat, gulat, gvlat, glad, gluad f. country, domain, kingdom, 
district, roder oet ydau y geyssyau y arwayssaw. nyt amgen 
trydyeu yn un gymhut pytheunos ygwlat arall 82.13 O byt 
deu argluyt a llu kan pop un onadunt en e gulat a deuot dyn 
y erky estyn ydau ar peth ageuodedyn ar tyr nyd rod eu rod 
. . . eny hueper pyeufo e gulat onadunt 124.21. Ny dele e 
brenyn menet ay lu or gulat namyn un gueys pop bluydyn 
30.4. 10.10 ; 25.19; 29.26; 30.20; 38.32; 39.24; 42.27; 46.33, 39; 
51.22; 53-37J 61.7, 8; 63.6; 64.7, 13; 66.10, 22; 67.5, 7, 17; 79.27, 
28; 83.1; 85.8; 124.18. pi. gladoet. teruenu ar e gladoet ac 
kauarfoent ac aruon 24.17. 

gulan, gluan wool, dauat ay hoen a gallu ohoney cudyau y 
hoen ay gluan rac kauad uey 91.13. 33.23. 

gleduchu to rule, reign. Edlyg eu er hun a dele g. guedy e 
brenyn 3.21. 

guled, gulet f. feast, meal, e trullyat ... a dely guyraut o 
pob g. e bo med arney 18.25. 10.14; I 7-24, 26; 18.24 guelt. 
Ir. fled feast. 

[gwlith] gluyt dew, a dewfall, a night, adan tryheynt e 
deleyr uod am tey[t]hy marc rac dere trygluyt. a rac dueskynt 
teirlloer 88.18. 

guneuthur, gueneutur, etc. to make, do. croen ewyc y gueneu- 
thur menyc 11.12. gueneutaur kaflauan 35.9. ena e may yaun 
gueneythur du pleit ac eyste en keureithiaul 52.11. gueneuthur 
guely ebrenyw 14.9. 6.10, 15; 9.20; 11.13; 13-26; 14.9, 15; 16.12, 
13; 17.21; 19.21; 22.10, 13, 15; 24-5; 27.25; 28.1; 30.6, 8; 43.2; 
48.39 gueisur; 49.1 gueihur; 50.15 gunehur; 50.20 guneyhtur; 
50.22 gueuthur; 51.13, 18, 19; 51.21 heythur; 60.14; 63.25 
gwneuthur for gwerthu; 66.10, 15; 67.7, n, 24, 27; 68.12; 72.11; 
73.6, 18; 80.8; 88.6; 97.19; 109.4; m-i8, 19; 118.3; Il8 -9 
gueneuth; 119.18; 120.5; 123.13; 123.26 gueutur; 124.1, 3; 130.13, 
28; 131.8. 3 sg. pres. ind. guna, guana, gna 35.15, 17, 29; 44.1; 
45.4, 29; 71.5; 74.27; 89.17; 108.20; 129.7. 3 pl- guanant 39.11. 
pres. pass, gueneyr 2.22; 30.16. 3 sg. pres. subj. gwnel, guenel 
6.5; 9.22; 12.14; 15.2, 23; 17.13,, 22; 18.13, 32; 20.2, 18; 21.3; 
22.2; 26.21; 30.13, 17; 41.21; 50.21; 51.11; 63.3; 72.28; 87.9; 
107.1; H0.2I, 23 ,24; 117.2; 120.1, 9; 129.28; 133.4. gnel 110.18; 
J 8-3 ( ?) ; guel 19.12 ; 38.2 ; 50.1. 3 pl. guenelhont 118.4. P ass - 
gwneler, gueneler 6.13; 9.19; 25.21; 50.23; 69.29; 87.10; 108.12; 
134.21. 3 sg. imperat. gwnaet 63.9; 81.25; gunayit 51.25; 
guanet 114.8; guanaet 122.3. imperat. pass gueneler 109.21; 
gwneler 134.9. 3 sg. past. subj. guenelhey i.n. 3 pl. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 177 

guenelynt 7.11; 107.4. 3 s g- pret. ind. gwnaeth 64.23; gnayth 
51.14; guanaeth 109.9; regunaeth 43.6; goruc 134.16. 3 pi. 
gwnaythant 65.6. pass. part, gueneuthuredyc done, regarded 
as done, nyd g. dym or au guenel dyn medu 120.9. 

gur man, husband, male, vassal, eu keuuc gur ac e kaller 
penteylu ohonau 5.22. o demyt e greyc deueduyt ar gur duyn 
treys arney 37.16. ac eghuyt e deu urenyn ar deulu Had o hur 
yr neyll gur yr Hall 3.2. cany wys beth yu ew ay gur ay 
gwreyc 70.10, etc., etc. pi. gwyr, guir, gujr, guir aruon 42.6, 
8, 10. g. guynet 6.1 ; 42.1 ; 61.22. g. powys 73.29. g. e pist 
pendu 42.8. 

gura to many, banner galanas y braut ay sarhaet yuelly 
kynn noy gura 77.29. 

gwrda nobleman, the highest class next to the royal house. 
Try anhebkor gurda y telyn ay ureckan ay kallaur 29.5. 29.12 ; 
36.31; 52.26; 101.19, 23. pi. gwyrda 3.18; 52.15; 131-13, 20. 

gwregys girdle, belt for carrying the sword. Nit reit ketnrit 
mach ar dilesruyt ariant nac ar tlesseu treicledic cae a kallell 
a guregis 48.37. [guerth] gurekys o byt eur neu aryant 
damdung ony byt .1. 103.13. 103.21. ac ymdanaw yr oed 
wregys o gywreinweith wedy rywehu o van adafed eur yn 
gyfulawn o werthfawrussyon emmev. a maen karbwnkulus 
llewychlathyr yn waec arnaw. a gwaell o rudeur yn kayu 
arnei. a men mererit disgleirwynn yn benn ar y gwregys 
Eluc. 96.30. kanys yr ystlys am arwedo i ny orvydir arna6 
. . . o chymer vynggwregis yr hwnn y dylyir vy arwein wrthaw. 
H.MSS.I 124.1. see Walde under rica. also Fed. I 30.1. 

gwreyc, greyc, grueic, gureych woman, wife, a female, ena 
e deuejt e kefreisth na vyr nep bech eu hy ai moruyn ae gureic 
36.4. o deruyt e gur escar a gueric 37.4. canys wys beth yu ew 
ay gur ay gwreyc 70.11, etc. pi. gwraged, graget, gruaget 
39-3, 23 ; 42.12, etc., etc. 

[gwreica] to take a wife. 3 sg. pres. subj. greyckao. e dillat 
a vo adanadunt e gur pyeu eny g. 33.17. 33-i8. 

gwreygyauc married (of a husband). 77.9. 

gurhau to pay homage, to marry (of a woman). Ac o pen e 
pedeir blenet ar dec e mae jaun jr tat e duyn ar e argluyt ac 
jdhau ynteu gurau jdhau ef 37.4. 71.2. 3 sg. pret. gurhaus. 
O digir treys ar gureyc vryauc ny deleyr talu amober canjs hy 
ae talus pan vrhaus 40.21. 

gvrucrnir 46.2. v.l. bernir, wrthveryr, atverir, diwygyr. 

M 



1 78 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

A.L.I 120. xvi. gwrthuerir occurs in P.MS. 35, f. 2ib, as a cpd. 
of -her- like adfer, dadfer, etc. 

1. [gwrth] urth, vrlh (prep.) by, to, for. with pron. sufi. 

3 sg. m. urthau. 3 pi. urthunt. .ix. [tauyodyauc] eu lleydyr 
urth e croc ar e kydlladron 31.15. or pan anher mab yny uo 
pedeyr bluyd ar dec y dyly uot urth noe y tat 70.22. ef a dely 
senyau "urth deodreuen 15.19. ac o bit reyt . . . urth kemyrit 
keghor 53.27. to, for naud [e medyc] eu or pan archo e brenyn 
ydau uenet urth dyn archolledyc . . . eny del y urthau 18.2. 
ceyssyau oet urth porth 130.8. because of, for ac vrt lad elidir 
en aber meuhedus en aruon e lloskasant aruon en rachor dial 
41.30. urth hynny for that, therefore 60.2. 5.10; 8.16; 14.24; 
15.19; 18.33; 19-21; 22.15; 23.33; 24-3; 274; 29-1, 3J 39-I3; 49-12, 
16; 52.4; 65.2; 80.11; 107.2; 108.10; 120.18; 121.1; 130.8. yurth 
from, away from, od a guaessauur yhurt y guaesaf 41.24. 
4.16; 18.3; 38.10; 40.25; 55.21; 64.5, 10 ; 80.1; 86.14. for i8.ii 
see -v.l. A.L.I 42. ix and 24.1. ibid. 60.22. 

2. [gAvrth] (conj.) because, neg. wrth na. essef pa achaus e 
geill ef gouin hinni vrth na eill alldut bot en vybitiat ar 
treftadauc 54.19. a tebiccu ohonau ef vrth nad oes vach arnau 
bot e guestel en anilis 46.4. 1.9; 4.8; 5.24; 13.10, 13; 27.12; 
37.31; 48.2; 54.19; 55.24; 73-10. 20; 75.6; 81.12; 82.23; 116.23; 
117.26. 

gurtheb to answer. A guedi er eisteter ena e tnae jaunt yr 
haulur kenic y devnidieu ... a deueduit y vot ef en paraut. 
Ac ena e inae yaun ir amdifinnur gurtheb ac esev ateb a dere 
54.6. 3 sg. imperat. gurthebet. medyg a dely kemryt telluet 
ykan kenedel er archolledyc o byt maru or uedhecynyaet a 
guenel ef ac onys kemer ef g. tros y gueytret 18.4. cf. Tri 
gwrtheb yssyd adef neu wad neu amdiffyn. LI. MS. 116, 
p. 10.10. 

gurthot to refuse, reject. O deruyd da y dyn ac am e da 
hunu roy oet ydau a kyn er oet kafael or kenogon e tal a kynyc 
ydau a deueduyt na dele y urthot 122.1. 49.5; 118.13. 3 sg. 
pres. ind. gwrthyt 49.8. subj. gurthoto 132.28. 3 sg. pret. ind. 
gurthodes 130.6. 

[gwrthrychyat] heirship, succession to the kingship, ereyll 
a deueyt nad edlyg neb namyn he neb e roho e brenyn gobeyth 
ydau a grurtrecyat ydaw 4.12. g. is used often as 'heir,' 'edlyg' 
and gwrthrych for the abstract idea. Eisted kyfrwg deu or 
milwyr a didangerd ragot a breint edling arnat gwrthrychyad 
teyrnas. W.B. col. 459.12. yr holl wrthrychyeit ar gwyr ryd 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 179 

ar kyllidusson yn llety yr edlig y bydant. A.L.I 625-vii. 
Gorthrychiad i dad ydyw i vap. P.MS. 169, p. 246. gorthry- 
chiad=ymaros [wynepryd later]. P.MS. 169, p. 246. gwrth- 
rych = edling. Ll.MS. 174, p. 4.1. L.W. 12 7, etc. neum 
llwydd tristyd prid prif wrthrychiad wyf. M.A. 27613.34. cf. 
Car.Mag. 26.8. yn y teir eistedua pennadur hynny y trychir ac 
teruynir yn deduaul. so H.MSS.II 47.22. 

gurthtug to counter-swear, teghet i diou . . . hit nat tnacht 
ef ih ikanhaue nac ar a deuaut nac ar dim oni urhtuc e mach 
arnau bit ryth e kannogen 44.11. 44.12 gurthuc; 45.5 gurhtun; 
45.6 gurtuc ; 49.20 gurhtug; 50.8 gvrhtun. 3 sg. pres. ind. 
gurthtug, gurhtuc 44.10; 49.19. 3 sg. pres. subj. gurthtegho 
45-3- 

gurthuynebu to oppose. O deruit bot egluys a dewetho deleu 
kenhal dyn ar e nodua seyth belenet ... a bot er argluyt a uo 
ar e vvlat en gurthuenebu ydy hyny 51.22. Si.i. 

guryauc married (of -wife), ac os moruyn vyt . . . ac os 
greyc vryauc vyt 37.26. 35.1, 9; 40.20; 41.22. see Rep.MSS.I 
678 382. I verch wriog. 

guryeth] bristle, ef a dely . . . hucc a hallo ef erbyn y guryc 
y derchauael ay un llau 26.4. G6rtheb a 6naeth grugyn g6rych 
ereint. mal adaned aryant oed y wrych oil y fford y kerdei. 
R.B.I 137.16. 

gurcsken branch of a tree, tredet hele ryd heyt guenyn ar 
guresken 95.23. O deruyd bot deu dyn yn kerdet trwy goet, 
ac ysgeinaw gwrysgen y gan y blaenhaf ar lygat yr olaf. A.L. 
II 46.xxiii. see R.B.I 145.15. D.G. xxxix.52. Foy (Idg.Forsch. 
vi-323) derives this from *vrdska but it appears to us that it is 
possibly borrowed from Lat. rusca or ruscum, with interchange 
of grw- and rhw- as in grwnigen and rhwnigen (see Med.M. 
2923). Rusca appears to be used in the sense of 'branch' in 
A.L.II 8o2.v. 

guru male, dynaguet guru vn kerdhet a dynauet vanu 92.3. 

guryt an ell. try tan ny dyukyr . . . tan geueyl trefcort a 
uo .vn. huryt eregthy ar tey 86.12. 86.14. v.l. a fo naw cam 
i wrth y dref. L.W. 415 288. geueil, si sit edificata in spatio 
nouem cubitorum a domibus uille. A.L.II 770. xiv. Messur 
fin y rwg dwytref . . . gwrhyt ahanher. A.L.I 764.v=tervyn 
dwytref pvmp troetved. A.L.II 268. iv. 

gurem dark-blue, best, splendid, [guerth] mantell gurem 
.xxnii. pop mantell dynessyt pedeyr ar ugeynt 104.13. Gwydi 



i8o GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

gurum a choch a chein. a goruytaur maur minrein in llan 
helet bet owein. B.B.C. 64.9. Duw mawrth gwisgassant eu 
gwrym dudet. A.B. 83.19. cf. a llenn o borffor glas ar warthaf 
hynny. R.B.I 247.17. g. = Ir. gorm = blue, urdairc. see 
grumseit. 

gust see guystl. 

guy 22,12. see guyl. 

guyaleu rod, goad, -withe, guyalen eur kehyd ac ef ehun a 
kynurasset ac y uys e becan 3.7. teyrn w. sceptre 64.17. 25.2 ; 
59.13, 15 ; 65.10; 99.9. pi. guyeyll ( ?). e keylguat a dele dyguallu 
. . . e torccheu a guyeyll e doleu 112.3. P.MS. 35, p. 43, has 
gwehyll y doleu pegs, splinters. Ac yn taraw galaath a gvvaew 
yny vyd yn weyll uch y ben. H.MSS.I 28.15. A gwalchmei ae 
trewis ynteu. a dryll paladyr y waew yny yttoed yn weyll. 
ibid. 208.34. LI. MS. 116, p. 107.8 reads gwieil. 

guybot to know, huybod puy byeufey e blaen 42.4. 34.22; 
54.16; 65.1; 81.7; 87.10 huybobod 132.25. 3 sg. pres. ind. guyr 
36.4; 53.6, 13. guybyt. ny dele nep kamryt amayth arnau ony 
huybyt gueneuthur aradar 111.18. pass. (?) guys 70.11; 98.19. 
3 sg. pres. subj. guypo 133.25; 134-4- 3 P 1 - guypuynt 120.26. 
pass, guyper 76.3; 120.25; 124.20. 3 sg. past. subj. guypey 1.26. 
3 sg. pret. guyyat 90.4. 

guybitiat a witness who testifies to what he has known or 
seen. Ac ena e may yaun yr eneit erchi ydau enteu duyn v 
keditveit ay testion . . . er amdifenur a eil gouin a oes breint 
yr rei hinny . . . esseu pa achaus e geill ef gouin hinni vrth 
na eill alldut bot en vybitiat ar treftadauc ac na eill gureic ar 
gur. ac ekid a hene ni heill llauer o denion bot en vibetiet nac 
en kedueit 54.19. pi. guybedyeid 53.8; gubideit 53.33; vibetiet 
54.20; guebethit 55.6; guebjtied 55.7. Nyt gwybydyeit namyn 
y dynyon a welho yn eu gwyd yr hynn a dotter yn eu penneu. 
A. L.I I 6o8.xlii. Tri gwahan yssyd rwg gwybydyeit a thystonn 
g. am yr hyn a fu kynn ymhawl y dygant eu tystyolaeth . . . 
g. bieu deturyt eu gwybot yghyureith tystonn kyny thyster 
vdunt . . . tryded yw g. bieu dwyn eu tystolyaeth yn erbyn 
gwat ac amdiffynn. A.L.I 46o.lxxxvii. 

guychet wicket, er egnat llys ... a dely yean e porthaur 
agory e porth maur ydau . . . ac nas ellecho uyth yr guychet 
12.12. Dot ti dy ben drwy wychet y porth. H.MSS.II 244.23. 

i. guyt f. goose, guyt or see 'gor. 94.9. 94.4. kuyt; 94.5 
huyt; for guyt 114.16 read guynt. pi. -eu 113.1, 9, 13; 114.11; 
117.17; 121.15. huydheu 42.14. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 181 

2. guyt presence, eguyt (yn + guyd) before, in the presence 
of, openly, ac eghuyt e deu urenyn ar deulu Had o hur yr neyll 
gur yr Hall 3.1. Sef eu treys popeth a decker eguyt o anuod 
85.1. guelet y lad yny uyd ac nas dyfero 75.3. 45.33. eny 
huet 87.19. 

3. [guyd] -weaver f. guedes. prenyal g. 102.15. guedhesseu a 
kemerhoent gueeu 86.21. mae eraill yn dwyn gwenholiaid . . . 
rai a ddywaid pam yw gwydd oedd hynaif y rrain. Rep.MSS.I 
782 205. 

4. guyt (a) wood, trees, pop keycg or man guyt k. a tal 
98.19. 

(b) the wood of a plough, a plough, yr ychen ay hardo ar 
guyd ar heyrn 68.25. eru guyd ploughbote 107.24. tyr guyd 
or guyd cultivated land. O deruyd bod amresson errug deu 
kauarur am tyr guy 11 [v.l. guyd] ac arall faeth ar neyll en 
menhu eredyc e guyt ar Hall heb y uennu no.i. tir gwyd 
[terra gramined]. A.L.II 856.x. neitiwr gwiw dros nawtir 
gwydd. D.G. lxix.32. Ado'r gerdd fal yn dir gwydd. ibid. 
p. xxxviii, 1. 26. na ddalied gwr ddeuled gwydd. Rep.MSS.I 
1115 65. myn gwydd erryd ychen. ibid. 664 55b. This is 
called clwyd in LI. MS. 116, p. 98. see kasnat. 

guydhel an Irishman. 125.4. 

guy diia a burial place, grave. Pa wreyc bynnac a uynno 
duyn mab yn gyureythyaul ual hyn y mae ydy y duyn. dyuot 
hy ar mab hyt egluys y bo y guydua yndy a dyuot hyt yr 
allaur 72.4. A gwedy marw dauid ae cladu ygwydua y 
brenhined. H.MSS.II 248.14. Guyd vynuent guydva brenhined. 
M.A. i77b-42. A'm gadael yma, buchedd dibara. A'm corph 
mewn gwyddfa terra toriad. D.G. ccxlv.i47. llann addfed a 
llawn wyddfa. P.MS. 61, p. 22. yr hwn o vewn serttein o 
amser ynnol gladdwyd o vewn mynnachlog aberkonwy o vewn 
gwyddua ne orweddua I dad. Rep.MSS.I 218.12. cf. Neud 
gwydd-fedd gwedi gwydd fod. M.A. 2463.52. see M.A. i74b; 
1823; 1983. 

guyl f . festival. O deruit y din rodi mach ar delect a diguitau 
er oet en vn or teir guil arpennic e pa[s]c ar sulguin ar nodolic 
48.31. 4.26; 6.7, 18; 8.20; 9.7; ii. 16; 14.13, 25; 17.19; 19-6; 
22.12. g. kyryc June i6th 91.22. g. ueyr kentaf August i$th 
116.7. vyhagel September zgth 91.22; 116.12; 10.6 vyhagh. 
g. patiyc March ijth 92.21 ; 116.20. g. sanfreyt February ist 
51.33; 112. 10, ii. g. yeuan June 2tfh 16.7, 14; 93.1, 2; 96.1, 2; 
116.18. g. = vigilia. Loth p. 176. 



1 82 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

guylur m. night -watchman, ny dely huyllyau namyn or pan 
heler yhkysku kyd e dyt 26.17. 23.23. 

guylyau to keep watch, naud [e guylur] eu or pan decreuho 
ef kanu y korn pan el y huylyau eny agorer e porth tranonoeth 
26.27. g . rac to guard, protect, guylyau e brenyn rac pob 
guall 24.12. 26.19, 24. 

guy 11 see guyllt. 

guyllt untamed, uncultivated, a llena e guyllt a deyly e dof 
115.21. written guyll 88.14; 97.3; 109.23; 117.10. guellt 1.27. 

guyn white. 70.7; 95.6; 100.29. f- guen 40.9. 

uynep face, teyr creyth okeuarc esyt vn ar uynep ac arall 
ar troet ac arall ar lau 106.9. 3-8; 52.13; 106.11; 123.1; 131.12. 
vyneb [yn vyneb] face to face 54.1. rac hueneb next 98.1. rac 
huneb 49.23. Ir. enech. see gwynepwarth. 

guynepwarth, guynepwerth honour price, a fine for insult. 
e dressaur. . . a dely adnabod suyocyon e llys ac nas atalyho 
er un onadunt en e porth ac os eteyl talet kamlury yr brenyn. 
ac os un uyd or pensuyocyon talet huynep guarth 19.10. O 
deruyt e gur adef duen treys ar gureyc. talet .xn. myu en 
dyruy yr arglujt ae hamobor yr argluyt. ac os moruyn vyt. 
e coguyll ... ay huenepuuert ae dylyssruyt 37.25. 33.19; 
34.9; 70.5; 133.21. Teir gweith y keyff gwreic y hwyneb werth. 
kyntaf y keiff wheigeint. yr eil punt y trydyd weith y dychawn 
adaw y gwr a rayned ae holl dylyed genthi. LI. MS. 116, p. 23.3. 
cf. Ll.MS. 116, p. 75.34. O rnyny gadw dy wyneb kadw dy eir. 
W.B. col. 241.33. Lunet heb yr iarlles py wyneb yssyd arnat ti. 
pryt na delut y edrych y gofut auu arnaf i. D.G. ccxlv.45- 
Meddwdod, diwyneb, Methiant, glythineb. Cof. Dr. Davies 
Caerdydd, p. 75. ni fu gwyneb erioed ar Llanelli cyn i Mr. 
Davies Siloam ddyfod yma. M.A. 2063.24. nyd vch wyneb nae 
lin. cf. Ir. enech-log and eneclann honour-price. 

guynet Venedotia, one of the three divisions of Wales. 
Canhuynaul powys ny dyly mamuys y guynet nac o vyned y 
powys. ac y uelly yn deheuparth 62.14. 42.1, 4, 16; 61.22; 
80.20. 

guenseit "with white or polished blade, cledyf obyd grunseyt 
xvi o byd g. .xxiin. 102.20. The quotation from R.B.I 127, 
given under grumseit, suggests that gwynseit=' polished side,' 
but some texts use it =' white or silver hafted.' gweynseyt 
[capulum album}. A.L.II 805. ii ; 866.cvii. Cledyf a uo eur neu 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 183 

aryant ar y dwrn xxiv atal. Med.Law 105.6. cf. Gomynyat 
gelyn ; ehanseit ervyn. B.An. 27.12. see grumseit. 

guynt m. wind, favourable wind for putting to sea. opp. to 
camwynt. Ac o byd alldudyon gwlat arall yr brenhyn ay yn 
wyr ydau ay yn arhos guynt 67.17. ny dylyant trygau yma 
namyn hyt ar y gwynt kyntaw y cafoent uynet y eu glat . . . 
ereyll a dyweyt na dylyant mynet hyt ar y trydygwynt 64.13. 
guyt 64.16. camwynt. A.L.II 3O2.V. 

guyntesseu buskins, [gwerth] g. .1. 103.12. Guintesseu 
[cothurni]. A.L.II 888.xxii. a dwy hossan o vreythyn gwyrd 
velyn teneu am y tract, ac ucKaf yr hossaneu dwy wintas o 
gordwal brith. a chaeadeu o eur am vynygleu y draet yn eu 
kaeu. W.B. col. 213.5. Gwintysseu o gordwal newyd am eu 
tract a llafneu o rudeur en eu caeu. W.B. p. 913.16. g. = high 
shoes worn by persons of quality. E.Lh. The -as of the sg. 
appears to be = Ir. as a shoe; see B.L.G., maelassa W.W. It 
also appears in botas. For gwynt- or gwent- cf. M.Lat. wantus. 
" tegumena 1 manuum, quae Galli wantos, i.e., chirothecas 
vocant." Bede quot. in Diez under ganto. 

gvynwyr soldiers, military officers ( ?) . Gvynwyr o wlat arall 
a trayano ac arglu'yd o delyir eu bot yn lladron gwerth. Ac o 
lledyr dylyu galanas amdanadunt 83.1. This is written 
gvynwyr, cwynwyr, gofynwyr, mynwyr, and appears not to be 
always understood by the scribes. A.O. [A.L/.I 255, note a] 
says: "This term appears to signify 'religious,' or 'procurators' 
who wandered about the country under the pretext of collecting 
alms for religious purposes." We do not know, however, of any 
text to support this. The word corresponds in form to the Ir. 
Fian, Fiana, which meant a 'band of roving warriors/ and the 
meaning suits the context here. It is almost certain that it is 
the same word as the kwynwyr 'recruiting officers' of Ystorya 
Dared, ef a anuones kwynwyr drwy holl roec. ac y gynnull 
kedymdeithon megys y gellynt hwy vynet yn hyborth y ymlad 
a gwyr troea. R.B.II 11.13 = Agamemnon postquam Spartam 
venit, fratrem consolatus est et placuit, ut per totam Graeciam 
conquisituri mitterentur ad convocandos Graecos et Troianis 
bellum indicendum. see Meister. De Excidio Troiae Historia, 
p. 13. cf. also Bendigaw gwynnwyr ae wyr ae wlad. M.A. 
24Qb. For the Ir. Fiana, Fianaigecht, see Dr. K. Meyer, R.I. A. 
Todd Lect., 1910, note 6, p. ix. see Introduction to this 
Glossary. 

guir, guyr truth, true, thus, also, ac vrht lu e reythuyr bot 



1 84 

en wir [a dyweyt] e gerenid 50.14 ( for v.l. see A.L.I 136. iv) 
53.12; 129.22; 134.2. thus (?), a/50 (?). brynar duy wlynet y 
dylyir y eredyc brandeyl guyr euelly buarthdeyl teyr blyned y 
dylyir y eredyc. karrdeyl pedeir blynet y dylyir y eredyc tyr 
coet gwyr euelly brynar teyl pedeir blynet heuyt 63.19. so 
P.MS. 35, f. 46b.n. cf. P.MS. 35, f. 383.4. a dec.k. yr distein 
wir y uelly. so ibid. 333. branteyl wyr e uelly ; tyr coet wyr 
euelly. Ll.MS. 174, p. 81.28. 

guyraut drink, liquor, allowance of drink, messur guyraut 
kefreythyaul eu lloney[t] e llestry e guallofyer endunt o kuref 
ac eu haner o uragaut ac eu trayan o ued 18.17. ef a dele duyn 
llestyr yr llys y dody guyraut endau 10.28. 18.24, 27 ; 22.27 ; 
28.5. gwirod=wassel. P.MS. 51, p. 192. 

guirion innocent. O deruit i din kamrit mach ar da a guedi 
henny diol e kenogon ... a minnu oe haullur et da . . . essef 
a guil e kefreish bod en nyaun rannu er reghunnt en deu banner 
. . . kanas hager yv talu or macE kubel ac ef en guirion 46.36. 

guysc f. garment, clothing, -vestment, e dysteyn ... a dele 
y tyr ... ay g. teyr gueyt en e uuluyn 9.4. try fedh ny dely 
e brenyn y ranh ac arall. eur ac aryant ... a guysc e bo- 
hurlys eur ydhy 30.12. guysgyoed yr egluys ay thlysseu 
60.13. 6.17; 8.13, 14; 9.5, 7; 124.7 guyst. pi. -yoed 60.13. -see 
brethyn, llyeyn. see also W.Ph. 10. 

guysgau to put on (an article of dress), kynn y keuody ar y 
guely a guycscau y kuaraneu 16.16. 

guyspren v.l. gwacspren, gwspren a binder (A.O.). [guerth] 
guyspren .1. asseth .1. 99.10. [guerth] guyspren .1. k. asseth .1. k. 
canys guyalen yu pob un onadunt. Ll.MS. 174, p. 132.6. 
L.W. 264 8. A.L.I 294. 

guyssyau to summon, call, e porthaur a dely guesyau guyr 
e uaertref y gueyth 26.8. 76.20. dyvyn a gvvys a rhyfel ar 
frys. Rep.MSS.I 580 20. peri a wnaeth y prior ganv kloch 
wys i wssio yr holl vrodyr. Ibid. 223 251. see Ped.I 87. 

gustlau to pledge, deposit a security, a mab grueyc a 
gusteller egluat aghefyet o keyf vecykochy ay gustellau hyteu 
oy kenedel 39.24. 48.39; 110.15, J 6 guesteau. i sg. pres. ind. 
gusthaf 46.15. 3 sg. pres. subj. gustho 46.3; 119.10; guystylho 
119.8. pass, gusteller 39.24. 

gvystlyryaeth f. suretyship, state of being a hostage, trydyt 
yw gvvreyc a rodho y chenedyl y guystyl alldudet ac yn yr v. 
honno kael mab ohoney 62.4. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 185 

guystyl, guestel m. pledge, security, hostage, essef eu gustul 
kefreshaul e traian en guell nor tal 45.26. gwreyc a rodho y 
chenedyl y guystyl alldudet 62.4. 45.25-32; 46.2-30; 47.34; 
48.12-21; 49.2; 117.19-21; 118.13; 119.4-8; 122.15; 125.11; 134.26. 
pi. guystlon, gustelon, guetelon 56.4; 52.20, 22; 53.39 ; 54.8. 
O.Ir. giall. Anglo Sax. gisel. see Gaesum. Walde. see also 
Ped.I 87. 

gylyf see gelef. 

gyrr legal preceding, prosecution, y reythyoed hynny nyt a 
namyn yn ol g. kyureythyaul. Seu yu gyrr c. llu y perchen- 
nauc ar y uot yn wyr ar y dyn racu y lledrat canyt gyrr namyn 
gyrr perchennauc 79.9. 80.19; 134.11. see however 'yr.' 

gyrru, germ, kerru to prosecute, accuse, send, dismiss, e 
dressaur ... a dely guedy buyta keru a uo yaun y eru or 
neuad 19.19. yaun yu gadayl udunt vintheu eu ardelu a germ 
deu y ouyn puy e gubideyt 53.33. cany dyly namyn perchen- 
nac gyrru lledrat 79.14. o deruyd y dyn gyrru brau ar arall 
134.13. 19.19; 37.17; 44.3; 50.6; 134.11. reherru 53.6; reerru 
53-5- 3 s g- P re s- ind. act. gyrr 64.15; kjr 35.25. pass, kyrryr 
85.22. 3 sg. pres. subj. gyrro 79.13. pret. pass, gyrruyt 134.14. 

hacure see achwre. 

hael, Mardaf h. 41.29; Nudh. 41.28; Retherc h. 41.29. 

haf summer, guyl yeuan banner haf 16.8. 13.24; 16.13, 14; 
69.25; 70.3; 90.24; 116.3. see hafdy. 

handy summer dwelling or cattle shed, teyr ruyd tayauc y 
uocch ay guardhec ay haafdy o kalanmey hyd ahust 29.14. 
[guerth] hafty .1111. 99.5. pi. hauodyd. y maer bysweyl a dyly 
kyweyryau llys y brenhyn ... ay hauodyd 68.4. Kanys y 
Jarll kyn no hynny a orchymynassei . . . anuon holl hafodyd 
ae anifeileit ae oludoed y blith y brytanyeit. R.B.II 277.5. 
calan gauav . . . gweddw havod. M.A. 993.7. ath hendref ath 
hauod. M.A. 2o8a. 'hafod' and 'hafdy' appear to mean the 
same. 

hauottyr summer pasture, y duy drew a dyly bot yn reyt 
brenyn vn onadunt a dyly bot yn tyr maertrew ar lleyll yn 
dyfeyth brenhyn ac yn hauot dyr ydau 65.17. 68.10. cf. Tti 
brodyr pen mynydd : havodwr, heliwr, a myvyrgar. M.A. 
914 23- 

hagen, haken on the other hand, however, kany dyly y 
brenhyn na dyruy na chamlvrv am annodeu nac am weythret 
dyn ynwyt . . . ef a dyly hagen dyeyssywau y colledyc or 



1 86 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

eydau 70.19. 59.29; 106.25; 124.10; 127.19 hachen. a. = M.Eng. 
agen ( ?). but see Loth Vocab. p. 150. 

hager, hegar unfair, kanas hag-er yv talu or mach kubel ac 
ef en guirion ac hegar kolli or haullur kubel ar e gredu ohonau 
ef e mach 46.36. 

halaucty defiled house. Puybynac y cafer lledrat yn y dy 
gan uot y gyuanhed yndau. ket bo ydav ew a gatwo y gorf 
rac y lledrat euo eyssyoes byeu cadu y ty. ac urth hynny y 
barnun ny y ty hunnv yn halaucty 80.4. for the form cf. Ir. 
salach dirty. 

hallo see gallu. 

hallt salted, pickled, huch teyrbluyd ac enhorob hallt a llet 
tryuys yn y thewed 69.10. see hely. 

liumol see ymol. 

hanuot [o] to spring [from], issue {.from}, ar guir hinny ni 
deleant hanuot o kenedel e mach namin o genedel e brehenin 
47.22. 3 sg. pres. ind. henyu. dangosset y ach hyt y kyf yd 
henyv ohonau 61.4. karthur na march llefny ny henyu or 
kefreyt 109.17. 35.13 ; 59.5; 76.9, 10; 126.8, 23. 3 pi. henynt 
64.11, 12. 3 sg. pres. subj. hanuo, hanfo 8.26; 50.12; 76.5. 3 pi. 
past. subj. anhoydynt 64.7. 

banner m. a half, middle, talet .xini. punt er h. yr abat 
. . . ar Hall erug er efeyryat ar clas 30.14. kin banner did 
52.7. 3.4;' 10.6; 16.8, 14; 18.26; 25.6; 27.21, 23; 30.14, 19; 33.4, 
5, 7; 35.2, 4, 12; 37.5, 10, 27; 40.1, 2; 46.35, 40; 52.8; 53.38; 
55.22; 64.11; 66.11, 17; 69.3; 77.29; 79.1, 5; 85.23; 88.10; 90.23; 
91.2, 3; 94.2; 96.12, 15; 116.3, Mi 123.18. 

[hanerob] a young pig ( ?) . messur gwestua y brenhyn . . . 
huch teyr bluyd ac enhorob hallt a llet tryuys yny thewet 69.10. 
Pwy eu henw wy heb ef. Hobeu arglwyd . . . aniueileit 
bychein guell eu kic no chic eidon . . . ac y maent yn 
symudaw enweu. Moch y gelwir weithon . . . ac etwa yd ys 
yn cadw or enw hwnnw. banner hwch. banner hob. W.B. 
col. 83.8. hanerob is always translated by A.O. as 'a flitch of 
bacon,' and one of the Latin translators has ' perna salsata,' 
A.Iv.II 784,33, 'perna salsa,' 828. xiv, but another understood it 
differently or had a different text. This one says porcus, triutn 
digitorum lardi in scapulis, et in clunibus, et in costis, et 
hujusmodi porcus dicitur buch triguan [sus trium annorum]. 
A.L.II 868.iii. cf. also the Dimet. Code : baccwn tri byssyg 
ynny hysgwydeu ac ynny heis ac ynny chlunyeu neu hwch teir 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 187 

blwyd vehineit. A.L.I 534. ix. Hanerob reminds one of the 
'word byrhwch ' small pig.' Cais floneg mochyn bychan a 
elwir mewn manau byrhwch. Med.M. p. 208 560. Byrhwch 
is translated by Pughe ' a badger,' etc. ; this is accepted by 
D.S.E. apparently on the authority of this text of Med.M. -which 
appears to us impossible. It reminds us also of the difficult 
word mannuclenn in a specification of a dawn bwyd. L.L. 
x l y 3-3- The Editors regard this, rightly -we think, as a dimin. 
of banw 'a sucking pig,' and the translation 'sheaf/ 'handful' 
(Lloyd 214, note 105) appears to us quite inadmissible. In that 
case it belongs to the same category as the English swine a 
dimin. of su and haner is confused with anner. Anner usually 
means in W. 'a young cow,' but the Ir. ainder 'a young -woman' 
suggests that it had a -wider application. 

hamvylleu see kanwyll. 

barneys harness, accoutrements, equipment of a soldier (?). 
pan uo maru e penteulu e brenyn a dele y uarch ay arueu ay 
cun ay hebauc a hyny en lie ebedyu. kany deleyr ebedyu y 
aylaut e brenyn namyn hy harneys 8.11. Ac ar vyrder o ennyd 
ynn ol J peris y brenin gyuodi llu mawr o bobyl mewn harnais 
J vyned J ddisdrowio gwyned. Rep.MSS.I 216.53. 215.54. 
Karw harneissioc (of an armed man). P.MS. 69, p. 292. cf. 
airneis cattle, wealth, possessions, household stuff. M.C. In 
old books ' harness ' almost always means ' body armour for 
soldiers.' Skeat. 

haul f. claim, legal action. O deruit yr haulur mennu holi 
tir en er amseroyt hinni deuhet ar er argluit y erchi did y 
guarandau y haul 52.2. O deruyt ydau ynteu dyuot yr maes a 
dyodew haul ac atep o honav 131.7. haul dra bluydyn a claim 
that has become invalid. Ac o pheyt un dyd a bl. byt yr haul 
yn h. dra bl. a honno ny dylyir yaun uyth arn daney 133.1. 
16.17 ; 44-n ; 45.2, 4, 31 ; 46.24 ; 48.32, 33 ; 49-4-17 ; 51-10-36 ; 52.2 ; 
53.2; 59.2; 61.20, 21 ; 63.7; 71.3; 86.10; 118.5; i3 -5-29; I3 1 - 1 ?; 
132.13, 29; 133.1-6. 16.9 hul; 49.4 huaul. cf. Ger. holen. 
Ang.Sax. holian. also hoi 'to fetch' (Dimet) which does not 
appear to have any connection with nol (yn ol) to fetch 
(N. Wales). 

haulur plaintiff. O deruit y din kamrit macht jkan arall 
ar peth a deuot y duipleit ykit er haulur ar kannogon ar mach 
a holi or haulur e macht 45.9. ac os ew a wna yr haulur adau 
y maes doter croes racdau nat el ac od a galwet yr amdyfynnvr 
am uraut 130.14. 44.11; 45.28; 46.12-37; 49.2 hullur; 49.5-12; 



1 88 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

50.9; 52.1; 52.4 halur; 52.16, 28; 53.3; 54.5, 10; 55.15; 56.29; 
81.3; 131.2-22; 132.4. 

ha yarn iron, hual hyarn 103.27. pi. heyrn the irons of the 
plough; ploughshare and coulter. Puybynnac a dorro teruyn 
y rug duydrew oy eredyc. y brenhyn a dyly yr ychen ay hardo 
ar gwyd ar heyrn. 68.26. 107.18; 109.1; 111.21 heryrn ; 102.8 
reyrnt. Ny nabt vyd aradyr. heb heyrn heb hat. B.Tal. 37.24. 

[haydu] to deserve, merit. 3 sg. pret. haydus. O demit y 
dyn bot creireu arnau a gwneythur cam ohonau adan e creireu. 
Ni dele e amdyffin or creireu hinni kanis haydus 51.19. 

haychost see mynet. 
[h]aythorth see heyd. 
he see def. art. 

1. heb, hep defect, vb. said (he, etc.}. ac ena may yaun 
yr haulur [dywedut] dodav heb ef 52.36. [Dyoer] heb [er] 
amdiffenur myuy essit briodaur o ace ac edriu 53.9. 31.4; 44-4! 
49-I3; 52.34; 53-i J 123.14, 15. see W.Ph. 94. 

2. heb, hep prep, -without, minus, in the absence of. sarhaet 
e brenyn a telyr ydhy hy am y saraet a hynne heb eur heb 
aryant 3.15. pop da heb perchennauc dyfeyt brenyn eu 124.9. 
e penteulu ... a dele keuanedu e neuat heb e brenyn ar 
suydguyr a deleant guasanaythu arnau ef ual ar e brenyn 7.7. 
O deruyd bot amresson errug deu kauarur am tyr . . . ar neyll 
en menhu eredyc e guyt ar Hall heb y uennu no.i. 49.1 he; 
45.12 haep. h. + suff. 3 sg. m. hebdau 60.11 ; 110.28. 3.18; 4.5, 
18; 7.7; 9.2; 14.16; 18.19; 20.18; 25.9; 29.17, 21 ; 30.10; 35- J 4; 
36.10; 37.16, 17; 38.9, ii ; 40.19; 41.9:42.19; 45.22, 30; 48.28, 39; 
50.15, 19; 51.16, 21 ; 53-29J 60.11, 13; 62.21; 63.5, 25; 69.11; 70.1; 
71.26; 73.17; 80.22; 86.10; 87.8, 10 ; 91.18; 96.12; 97.6;. 98.13; 
106.4; 109.18; no. n, 28; 111.16; 114.6; 118.5, 6; 119.25; 124.4; 
126.3; 130.6, 18, 28; 135.1. 

hebauc hawk, falcon. er hebogyt ... a dele . . . croew 
euyc y gueneuthur menyc y a[r]gueyn y hebauc ac y gueneutur 
tauelhualeu ef a dele y anredethu o teyr anrec e dyt e ll[a]dho y 
hebauc un o try ederyn ay bun ay caran ay cryhyr 11.13. 8.9; 
11.14, 18, 20; 12.19; 29.8; 95.5, 9. pi. hebokeu, hebogeu, 
hebocheu, heboheu 6.19, 20; n.8, 19; 127.12. hebawc like the 
Ir. sebocc is borrowed from Ang.Sax. heafoc. see habicht. 
Kluge. see also Zimmer.Celt.Stud.I 107 ; Fed. I p. 72. 

hebogyt falconer, the fourth among the principal officers of 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 189 

the king, see hebauc. 10.24. pi- hebokedyon 11.10; hebogydon 
67.15. 

hebrug to convey, conduct, dismiss. O deruit y din 
guneuthur agkeureyth a rac er agkewrith ono kerchu naut ac 
ef ar naut henno keuodi haul arnau. Ni dele er abbadeu nar 
efeireit y hebrug ef eni wnel yaun am er ageureyth kesseuin. 
O deruit na kefroho haul arnau ef. hepregken vintheu euo hit 
en lie e delehoint j heprug 51.11. Pvybynnac y cafer ol lleydyr 
yn dyuot yu ty ac na allo y hebrug yurthau byt anreythodeu= 
to trace him from there 80.1. 45.27; 68.2. 3 sg. imperat. 
hepreghet 51.24. 3 pi. hepregken 51.12. 

hebyn see hesb. 

hechuc narrowness, need, necessity (?) (in genit.) limited. 
Ac am henny e rodhes rund vdut .xiin. brein. . . . Nauuet 
na boent vreuan hechuc 42.22. cf. Eurged beirt neud echwg. 
M.A. i57b.24. Lleissyawn berchen benn ban fv ystwng, Dreic 
a dragon yn echwng. M.A. 2063.30. Rhoddi seirch a meirch 
marchogaeth, Echwng Lloegr lledgynt farwolaeth. M.A. 2423.4. 
Hiraeth am gwalaeth gweled arnaw flwng, Hirhebrwg echwg 
och or cutyaw. M.A. 2533.9. Echwng dan ais trais trahir 
3013. 23. see slso M.A. ziqb; 2763; 3023, b; 3043; 3763. 
echyngswdd. M.A. 3023. 

hedeuis see adau. 

[heddwch] peace, canys yr mab y prynwt edwyc [v.l. hedwch] 
o hunnw mal yr tat 62.20. 

heuectyt 41.8. see yeuenctyd. 

heiioed 92.13. see cyfoed. 

heuyt also, in addition, ac ny thai gwreyc gal3n3S . . . 3C 
nys tal yscolheygyon heuyt 76.13. am pop un or try perygyl 
henny e dely e medyc .ix.xx. ay uuyd neu punt heb y uuyd 3 
heuyd y gtmyd dyllst 18.9. 4.4; 48.37; 63.21; 64.8; 113.19- 

hel 33.28. see hely. 

helenyaet see gelynyseth. 

hclw possession, ownership. y gyureyth 3 dyweyt nst 
gwaettyr yr un namyn tyr llowrud a talhel yn gyureythysul 
vvedy n3 bo dym sr helu y llowrud nsc o geynnysuc baladyr 
nac o dym arall 63.2. O deruyd y dyn menet y hele 3 decrecu 
hele ac ellug 3r 3nyueyl ... 3 ksusruod kun secur 3C ef ay 
lad eccun kentaf 3y kecuenus byeuyd ... 3 liens hyd e dele 
er helyur kentsf bod er 3nyueyl sr y helu eny emchelo y huynep 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

parth ac adref 123.1. 46.12 ; 82.4; 122.16. see R.B.I 138.27; 
A.B. 85.25. H.MSS.II 131.23. ar h. = Ir. for seilb. see R.C. 
iv.469. see elw. 

hely, hele to hunt. O deruyd y dyn menet y hele a decrecu 
hele ac ellug ar anyueyl 122.20. hele pescaut 123.18. 16.6, 8, 
15; 16.21 kely; 16.22; 123.2, 10, 14, ig. pres. indie, pass, helyr 
10.9; 16.20, 25. 

hele game, hunt, tredet hele ryd heyt guenyn ar guresken 

95.23. see ystatvs hela. Rep.MSS.I 1048 916. see Selgovae. 
Celt.Brit. 306. 

heley see mynet. 

hely pickle, salt, brine, e buyd val hyn e renyr e greyc byeu 
e kic en y hel[y] ar caus en y hely a guedy e croker e gur pyeu 
33.28. h. = Ir. saill fat, bacon, pickle, brine, etc. 

helyc willow, byol helyc 100.27. 100.28. 
hellegh see gellug. 
hem an see yma. 
licmol see ymol. 

hen old. ef a dely capaneu glau e brenyn ay hen kefruyeu 
13.21. Ny dele greyc ene byt talu .j. paladar na hen na jeugan 
40.6. 7.26; 13.21, 22; 14.11; 22.19, 20, 21 ; 23.27, 28. henuaes 
land under cultivation 63.23. henvam grandmother 75.28. 
superl. hynaw, henaf, henau 33-io; 42-5; 52-13; 59-i8, 21, 24, 25; 

62.24, 25; 63.16; 74.17, 21 ; 76.18. eyl hynaw oldest but one 
74.21. o hynaw y hynaw from oldest to next oldest 59.25. 
see hyneif. 

hen=yn 127.15. 
hene=hynny 40.12. 

heneuid a senior, an elder, an ad-viser (metath, for henedyf 
old resident (?)). ac ena y may yaun guneythur du pleit ac 
eiste en keureithiaul . . . ac eg kell [v.l. kylch] er argluid e 
deu heneuid ay guirda o hinni allan 52.15. hyneyf, henadur 
and heneuid or henedyf are used much in the same sense. 
kymeret [y penteulu] yr heneuyd a uynho ar deheu idaw ac 
arall ar y asseu. A.L.I 636. ix. Si episcopus fuerit in iribus 
principalibus festis cum rege, ad dexteram regis debet sedere; 
et keghellaur [cancellarius] ad sinistram yn hynaf [ut senex]. 
A.L.II 832.xxv. see hyneif. 

henlleu the old stock of bees in a hive, guert modredaf 
guenyn .xxiiu. ac euelle e bedant hyd kalangayaf o kalan- 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 191 

gayaf allan henlleu vyd pop vn a .xxmi. y guert. eythyr 
askelleyt ny byd henlleu hyd kalanmey kany guys ena a uyd 
byhu 98.17. 95.14, 21, 22; 98.8, 18. 

heol passage, ynat llys rac y uron ac ynat y kymut ar y 
neylltu ydav ar efeyryat or tu arall ydau. a heol gyuarvynep 
ac ew y uyuet yu urautle 131.14. cf. Ir. seol a course. W.W. 

herbytyus 86.17. ^-l- erbynnyus, erbynnod. see erbynnyau. 

hermidiur a hermit, anchorite. kany deleant huy guadu 
mach ny delleant huy roy mach nyt amgen a manach hermidiur 
a dyn aghefieih ac scoleic escol 48.27. 

heruth rectum, the straight gut. (Pughe.) .xn. goluys 
kefreythyaul esyd endau . . . kallon ay heruth ay ahu, etc., 
96.6. herut {rectum}. A.L.II 800. iv. 

herwyd, heruuyd, heruit (a) (prep-.) according to, in respect 
of. tyr kyllydus hagen ny dylyir y rannv h. brodyr namyn 
maer a chygellaur a dylyant rannu a rody y baup kystal ay 
gylyd 59.29. saraet [efeyryat] heruut braut senet 21.20. heruyd 
rey pedey[r] keynyauc or .v. lledyn moch ereyll a deueyt panyu 
keynyauc o pop vn or mocch 113.15. 2.14; 8.18; 21.21; 25.23; 
38.25, 26; 46.38; 54.21; 56.15; 60.8; 61.21; 63.14; 66.27; 67.19; 
68.17; 74-22; 75.15; 82.17; 106.20; 119.21; 127.15; 128.5; 130.17; 
132.9; 134-16. 

(b) (conj.) as. yna mae reyt yr llowrud mynegy ydau y kyf 
ual y mae y gerenhyt herwyd ry dydywedassam ny uchow 
129.20. 45.18. 

(c) (noun) cause, reason. O deruyd y dyn gyrru brau ar 
arall edrycher pa herwyd y gyrruyt y brau ay yn herwyt. brau 
ay yn herwyt peth arall 134.15. 63.17. 

hesb dry, -without milk, eythyr nadoes y he[s]byn na myn y 
bod en hesb ac evernyc eu vn blyth 93.20. n.8; 93.15. cf. ac 
berw (springs) y tir yn hysb ac yr a y ffynhoniav yn issbydd 
P.MS. 58, p. 23. h. = Ir. sesc. Mod. Ir. seasc barren, fruitless, 
sterile, etc. Dineen. 

hesbyn a barren goat or sheep, see hesb. 

heskyn a bucket, -vessel, [guerth] heskyn eu .11. . . . heskyn 
helyc .1. 100.26, 28. Heschyn helyc [situlus saligneus]. A.L.II 
8o4.xxxiv. 

hestaur m. a measure of about two bushels. W.Ph. 25. 
[guerth] hestaur iyrling 104.2. naw hestawi* lliuat. R.B.I 
121.19. Tered, hestored= banner hobed = ^ krennoc. Rep.MSS. 



192 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

I ma. in sextario .i. hi hestaur tnel. h. = Lat. sextarius. 
W.Ph. 25. 

hcu to sow. 68.4. pres. subj. pass, heer 113.22. 

heul the sun. 131.11. eul 52.12. 

heyt f. swarm, swarm of bees, tredet hele ryd heyt guenyn 
ar guresken 95-23- 95- I 5> l6 J 7 "> 98-10 hey; 98.10, n, 13. see 
askellheyd, kenteyd, tarwheyd. h. = Ir. saithe swarm (of bees). 
B.L.G. 

heydyau to swarm. O deruyd h. heyd guedy ahust .1111. a 
tal 95.17. 98.14. 

heyd, heyt barley, corn, puebennac a uenel kay eg kylc y 
eyd dalyet ar e guellt a uo endau ual ar er yd 117.3. blaut 
heyt 91.23. gronyn heyd a barley-corn, a third of an inch 65.2, 
3, 7; 94.8; 107.7. aythorth barley loaf 26.18. cf. A glas ressa6u 
a wnaethant ar y g6yr. a chytmeu tan g6rysc udunt a mynet 
y pobi a oruc y wreic. a d6yn y b6yt udunt. bara heid a cha6s 
a glast6fyr llefrith. W.B. col. 203.9. 

hehyrt 34.1. see eythyr. 
heyl see gallu. 

heynt, heyn m. disease, a dan tryheynt e deleyr uod am 
teyhy marc rac e dere ... a rac dueskynt ... a rac llenmeyrc 
88.20. 90.4; 92.20; 120.14. 

hi see my. 

hober see gobyr. 

hodyn see odyn. 

hoel nail, peg. pi. hoelyon, hoylyon. ef a dele .mi. pedhol ac 
eu to hoelyon ungueys en e uuluydyn ykan e gof llys 6.22. 
10.4; 12.8; 24.5; 90.1. 

hoylyau to nail (?), to guide (?). ny dele nep kamryt 
amayath arnau ony huybyt gueneuthur aradar ay hoylyau 
111.19. v-1" hwylau y heyrn to guide the plough, cf. solas 
arddwr os hwylir (aradr.). Ignat.Wms.MS. p. 79. for "hoelion 
aradr." see quot. under aradr. 

holi, holy to claim, demand, prosecute. Puybynnac ynteu a 
uynho holy tyr o ach ac edryu dangosset y ach hyt y kyf yd 
henyv ohonau 6i..3 eyste yn y pleyt a dechreu holy a 
gwarandau atep 130.7. 45.10; 48.31 eloy; 52.1; 53.14; 5 6 - 8 . 91 
81.10; 130.2, 3, ii ; 132.29; 133.12. 3 pi. pres. ind. holan 59.5. 
3 sg. pres. subj. holo 80. 16; 130.1, 3. pres. subj. pass, holer 
70.13. 2 sg. imperat. act. haul 53.2. 3 sg. holet 45.2. see hawl. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 193 

holl, oil, ell all, every, holl before fiouns. holl suydguyr e 
brenyn 21.4. 4.1; 9.8, 9; 20.3; 21.8; 23.29; 24.20; 38.13; 59.17, 

21. after, guedhyll e kanuyllau holl 23.14 8.27; 25.21. oil 

after nouns, e man escrybyl oil 19.28. i.i; 33.21, 27; 60.12; 
65.18, 27, 28; 105.16, 20, 22; 118.16. ell. Ny dele er haulur 
duyn guestel e mach namen kerchu ell deuoet ar argluit 46.16 
but see ' yll,' Loth, Str.Intr. 67. 

hornet see gomet. 

honfcst a mantle, [guerth] honfest .xxni. 102.5. honphest 
mantel. P.MS. 169, p. 253. P.MS. 51, p. 192. 

honneyt open, declared, known, teyr gwraged a dyly eu 
meybyon trewtat . . . yr eyl yv gwreyc a dyco alldut treys 
yarney yn honneyt 62.2. 38.21. 

houny to declare, claim, a guedy honny onadunt e kefrey- 
thyeu a uarnassant eu cadu heuel a rodes y audurdaut uthunt 
1.17. pres. subj. pass, honner. O deruyt rody moruyn e gur 
ac na honner e couuyll ken e keuody trances ny dele ef ateb 
ydhy o hene allan 39.27. 

honsas dagger, dirk, [guerth] honsas .1. 103.20. mi dorra'r 
honsach arno (by beating a man). Ll.MS. 209, p. 407. h.= 
Lat. honsex. 

hosp see osp. 

hossaneu f. hose, leathern shoe, e guylur ... a dele y dyllat 
yam capan a h. 26.23. 23.27; 103.7. Tra geffit gantaw ef nac 
escit na hossan ny phrynit dim gan gryd yn yr holl dref. W.B. 
col. 68.1 ; 72.31. dwy hossan o vrethyn gwyrd velyn teneu am 
y tract. W.B. col. 213.2. hossanneu lledyr. A.L.I 386.1. see 
also Rep.MSS.I 346. Anno 1332. Hossaneu or ystinos teneu 
claerwyn. Eluc. 95.9. a d6y hossan am y draet o v6ckran g6yn 
teneu. Ac ar uchaf yr hossaneu d6y wintas o gordwal du am y 
draet. W.B. col. 214.8. Ac yna y kafas yn y gynghor tynnu 
un or torsseu kwyr oe ganhwyllbren. a roi y canhwyllbren 
yn y hossan ledyr. H.MSS.I 176.16. see Zimmer. Celt. Stud. 
I 108. 

hoseoaus v.l. hossyawr hose, [guerth] due h. .vi. 103.8. 
h. = Fr. houseaux (?). 

hual fetter, [guerth] hual hyarn .1. 103.27. 104.1. see 
taulhualeu. hual=cwlm ar ddevdroed vlaen anifail, anglice 
pastons. Rep.MSS.I 721. h. march [compedes equi]. A.L.II 
882.4. Sef y rhodded iddynt wisgaw hualeu euraid am eu 
breicheu, ac am eu glinieu, ac am eu gyddfeu. M.A. 403 28. 



194 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

h. = Lat. fibula (?). see Loth p. 178, -who regards it as native. 
For another form 'fuaP see Z2. 1062. 

huely ii. 2. see guely. 

hun, ehun self, him-, her-, itself, themselves, ny ellyr e duen 
egan e gur ae due en llathlud onyt ehun ae myn 37.29. y wadu 
eydyon chwegwyr ac ehun yn seyuet 79.4. talent ehun trosdunt 
40.5. pop dadel a uo eregthunt e hun 124.3. 3-75 9-8; 16.10; 
19.31; 24.29; 34.24; 36.12, 15, 17; 37.11, 30; 44.18, 19; 45.29; 
46.3. 30; 47-i, 18; 49.20, 22; 50.16, 19, 32; 51.1, 5; 52.6; 56.14, 
28 ; 59.4 ; 60.14, 19, 24, 28 ; 61.23 J 62.6, 15 ; 63.25 ; 66.24 ; 67.7, 32 ; 
70.20, 28; 71.3, 19; 74.13; 79.4, 7; 83.6; 86.7; 88.16; 89.15, 16; 
93-71 105.8, 17; 109.5; 118.21; 123.26; 124.2; 126.25, 28; 127.14; 
128.6; 129.15; 132.27; 134.2. cf. the use of Ir. 'oin' in oinar. 

hun. -in see unau. 

hundy dormitory. 67.26. h.=ty gwalae. P.MS. 51, p. 192. 
pan yttoedwn ym plith uygkedymdeithesseu yn yr hunty. 
R.B.II 142.22. dyuot yr neuad a 6naethant nyt oed neb. 
kyrchu y kastell ar hundy ny welynt neb. R.B.I 46.29. 

huch, hucc sow, pig. teythy huyc na bo baetredauc 93.3. 
en e kefreyt e bu hue or moch ac un or man escrybyl keny bey 
namew try lluden onadunt 113.3. 26.4; 69.9, 17; 79.5; 113.4, 7, 
9; 118.24, 25; 132.24. 

huet 87.19. see guyd 2. 

huiui 44-i4=wyf. 

hill see haul. 

hwn, hun, hvn, hunn demonst. pron. and adj. masc. sg. this. 
Puybynnac a uynno daly lledrat yn llau arall deuet uch pen y 
peth a dalhyo a gouynnet puy a wercheydu hun 80.26. kefreish 
e bit hun 47.6. Edlyg eu er hun a dele gleduchu guedy e 
brenyn 3.21. y dithun this day 52.3. 15.20; 21.16; 54.16; 63.22, 
23; 81.2; 128.28; 129.1. e tir hun ema 53.3. y mab hun yman 
72.7. hon. fern. sg. a hauel ar doythyon a uuant y kyd ac ef. 
a ossodassant eu hemendyth ar hon kamry holl ar e nep . . . 
a lecrey . . . e kefreythyeu 1.22. (see A.L.I 350.16; II 304.32; 
584.1 ; 588.1. Ll.MS.n6, p. 77.14.) yar a daear hon 47.10. 
11.29; 64.11, 18, 22, 29; 78.10. hyn. neut. and pi. guerth nau 
aylauyt gokefurt eu hyn 104.21. Saraet brenyn aberfrau uel 
hyn e telyr 3.5. hyn o denyon a dyeyc 121.4. 5.17 ; 9.25 ; 10.13 ; 
16.23; 17-26; 33.11, 28; 34.7; 37-32; 44-I4; 52-I3. 35 en; 55.6, 10; 
59.7; 65.20; 72.3, 9J 74-12; 75-I9; 76-14; 77-24; 104-21; 117-8; 
127.17; 129.2, 12; 132.6, 20; 133.4. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 195 

hun nu, hunu demonst. pron. and adj. masc. sg. that, a hunu 
a elguyr saeth ebaul 116.15. Y n oes y r argluyd hunnv 130.16. 
llv deudeg wyr am uarch a tryugeynt aryant canys hunnv 
leyhaw march y werth o gyureyth 79.1, etc, etc. fern. sg. 
honno, hono 18.31; 35.12, 14; 40.9, 27, 28; 41.11, etc.; henno 
51.10; ono 51.10. hynny. sg. neut. and pi. sew yw hynny 
naw can mylltyr 64.28. urth henny therefore 52.3 ; 60. n ; 122.10. 
henny 13.9; hinni 51.18. hynny 16.27 for y na (?) 

huryauc see guryauc. 

huryt see guryt. 

buy see hyr. 

huybyt see guybot. 

huyc see hucc. 

huyd 29.25. see uyth. 

huydheu see guyt i. 

huyedyc hawk, male hawk, goshawk (?). nyth hebauc punt 
a tal . . . huyedyc o byt hebauc .xxiin. 95.8. ef a dely 
llamesten kefruys neu h. hebauc ykan e penhebogyt 12.9. 
10.5. Eius sunt masculi accipitres, id est. hwyedyd. A.L.II 
758. vii. Precium accipitris masculi, id est, hwyedic. II 823-xii. 
Precium hwyedyd [macropteri], id est, gwalch [falconis]. II 
797. iv. Auceps debet habere masculum aucipitrem. i. huiedic. 
II 900. xv, v. .4s llemhysten appears to be an adaptation of 
gyrfalco, tafl-hualeu of Med. Lat. jactus (Eng. jesses) ; so 
hwyedyc or hwyedyd appears to be equivalent to the Eng. 
goshawk (=goosehawk. Skeat). Hwyad is invariably trans- 
lated in Welsh as 'duck' but the word itself = Lat. auca ; 
Fr. oie goose. (Fed. I 56. Walde p. 86.) The oldest law codices 
do not mention hwyad and the later ones only just mention it 
as a domestic bird without giving the detailed series of prices, 
etc., as in the case of the goose and the hen. see A.L.I 7i8.xv. 
There is no doubt, however, that hwyad was one of the birds 
caught by the falcon, the famous passage in Peredur (W.B. 
col. 140.19) establishes it; but Chretien says, in describing this 
scene, "Veues les a et oies/Qu'eles s'en aloient bruiant." (see 
extracts. Celt. Stud. II p. 201) and Wolfram, "Artus valke al 
mite streich; da wol tusent gense lagen." (Ibid. 202.) leaving 
little doubt that hwyad=wildgoose. There is in Welsh a 
hwyedig = longus, prolongatus (Dr.D.) and the macropterou 
above seems to be a translation of this but hwyedyd is a 
different word. It is possible, however, that hwyedyc is a 



1 96 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

translation of acceptor 'hawk' (confused -with accipiter) regard- 
ing that as a cpd. of auca rather than avis. 

huyl a sheet, covering, naud [medyd] eu or pan dechreuho 
ef gueneuthur keruyn uet eny ruymo y huyl am y pen 17.22. 
17.23 ; 18.23. h- = I r - se l gl- velum, carbasus. W.W. 
dwyn howel ddoeth dan hwyl ddv (funeral pall). P.MS. 67, 
p. 108. 

huysnos 16.4 wythnos. 
huyth see uyth. 
hyc see kyc. 

1. hyd m. length, depth, teyr keuelyn en hyd y guaeu 25.17. 
banner mey a mys heduuref ar y hyd 88.10. a llestyr emenyn 
try dyrnued yny hyt hep y uoel. a thry yny let 69.11. rac hid 
e trikassant en e lluyd e keskus eu gruaket can eu gueyssion 
kaet 42.11. 19.17; 51.19; 64.28; 65.3, 12; 68.22; 69.8-17 ;9i-9; 
107.8, 15, 16; 112.24; 122.24. 

2. hyd, hyt (prep.) to, up to, as far as. dyuot . . . hyt yr 
egluys 72.3. or porth hyd e neuat 19.5. o haner ebryll hyd 
banner mey 88.9. 26.20 kyd; 69.22; 117.21. hyt yn up to. o 
grugyll . . . hyt yn soram . . . pum can mylltyr 64.28. ar 
kyureythyeu hynny a barassant hyt yn oes hywel da 64.23. y 
nahud eu duyn dyn a guenel cam hyd ar e penteulu ac enteu hyd 
en dyhochel 9.234.19; 6.4; 8.5; 10.6; 13.19; 17-13; I9- X 4; 21.4; 
22.3; 26.15; 33.2; 34.21; 36.16, 17, 19, 23, 28; 37.7; 38.16, 17; 
41.7; 42.2, 4; 45.28; 48.12; 51.12; 64.27, 28; 71.22, 26; 82.18, 21 ; 
85.15; 86.26; 87.15, 21 ; 93.11. hyt ar up to, till, y naud eu hyd ar 
e urenynes 11.17. trygau yma . . . hyt ar y gwynt kyntaw 
64.13. 9.22 ; 11.17 J 12.23 ; 15-16 ; 19-12 ; 21.3, 8 ; 45.1 ; 53.41 ; 59.18, 
21, 25; 64.13, 15; 80.12; 117.22; 119.18. hyd guedy till after 
96.16; 98.14. hyt en oet even, urth hene e dele e gur a gurich 
roi bridiu. het in oet mab seihisbluit 49.35. 4.2. up to, 
except. O deruyt roy greyc y gur ac enguy da a cafael cubel 
hyt en oet vn keynyauc ac na cafer honno 40.26. hyt pan 28.19. 
hyt tra 7.29; 22.1; 73.6; 82.10; 92.26. 

3. hyt (conj . and adv.) as far as, as long as. naud [er holchuryes] 
hyd y buryho ay golcbren 28.25. ac o bit a ameuho . . . y uot en 
briodaur bot kanthau entheu a kathuo y briodolder o ach ac 
edriu hit e may digaun en e keureyth 53.5. hyt na that not. 
teghet i diou en e blaen . . . hit nat macht ef ih i kanhauc 
44.913.28; 27.13, 20; 45.21, 23; 51.15, 17; 59-I4; 80.22; 85.6; 
114.10, 26. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 197 

hyd 87.1. see yd. 5.17, etc. see kyd. 

hydref see hyduref. 

hyd stag. [guerth] taulburt ... o ... blayn corn hyt 
.xxiiii. 100.4. e * a dele y kanedyon o banner cuefraur hyd en 
dyuet e guahanuyn croen euyc. pan uenoent or dyd hunnu hyd 
haner heduref croen hyd kanys en e temoryeu henny ed helyr 
10.8. ii.n; 95.25; 96.10, 12, 14, 23; 97.10; 100.4. pl- hedhod 
16.19. 

hyduref (the rutting of deer), autumn, ef a dele croyn hyd 
en heduref ar guahanuyn croen euyc 11.12. 10.8; 88.10. P.MS. 
49-f.46b. see teruenyt. 

hydkyllen the stomach of a stag, one of the twelve legal 
portions of a stag in season. 96.7, 19. v.l. hydgylla. LI. MS. 
69, p. 102. hedgellen [stomachus], A.L.II 825. xiv. 

bin weather, bad weather, eyste or brenihin ... ay keuen 
ar er eul neu ar er hin. Rac aulonidu er hin oy uyneb ef 52.12, 
13. v.l. ar yr heul neu ar y gwynt. A.L.II 2O2.xiv. cf. 131.11. 
ual na bo y uyneb ar y drycyn. h. = Ir. sin weather, bad 
weather. O.R. 

hyneif elder, adviser, or pl. ( ?). e dystey n a dele guasanaythu ar 
cuedyn ar uuyd. ar seyued ar lyn sef eu e rey henny e brenyn 
ay heneyf ay hosb. ay edlyg. ay penhebogyt ay troydauc ar 
penguastraut en seythuet ar lyn 9.29. Sew mal y eystedyr yn 
gyureythyaul eysted or brenhyn ay geuyn ar yr heul ... ay 
deu hyneyw un o pob tu ydau 131. 13 dan heneuydd. A.L.II 
212. vii. 52.26 ( ?) ; 131.20. cf. ag yn amser Dyfnwal Moelmud 
yr oed [Idwal Falch] yn ben hynaif yn llys Dyfnwal, ag o hynny 
allan yr aeth ei eppil ef o Dywysogion yn Ben hyneifiaid yn yr 
holl Lysoed. loloMSS. 5 16. 

hir long, en hir a long time 42.3. compar. huy 51.21. 
superl. huy aw 59.16. 

hyrguet a long team of oxen, e keylguat a dele dyguallu e 
pestelyeu ar yeuuedon ar gudyn os hyrguet vyd e torccheu 
beccheyn a guyeyll e doleu 112.2. 

hyryeu long yoke, a measure of sixteen feet, pedwar troetued 
yn yr yeu ac vyth yn yr yeuyeu. a deudec yn y gesseylyeu un 
ar bymthec yn yr hyryeu 65.10. 107.12, 14. 

hys see bod. 
hyshaf see yssel. 
hyspyty see yspyty. 



198 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

hywel, heuel Hywel the good, i.i ; 6.2 ; 77.25 ; 82.18. 

ihuckellur see uchelur. 

jeugan see yeuanc. 

lekerus see llygru. 

lell see lie. 

lenet see blenet. 

leuen f. loin. .xn. goluys kefreythyaul esyd endau . . . 
kallon ay heruth ay ahu ay due leuen 96.7. edwylleuyn [duo 
lumbi]. A.L.II 8oo.lv. 

loscuert see lloscurn. 
lyst see llosky. 

Had, Hat (a) to strike, cut, cut off, slay, kill, pemtnet [afeyt 
tan] eu Had tan . . . seysuet kaneu e tan eny eneno 85.17. 
dyrnu ... a llywnu a Had gweyr 68.15. Had o hur yr neyll 
gur yr Hall 3.2. o deruyd y dyn llad arall a gwenuyn 129.24. 
24.27; 31.12; 41.14, 26, 30; 63.3; 73.3, 8; 74.25, 26; 75.2, 3, 7; 
80.7; 93.24; 96.11; 116.24; 123.19; 129.28; 135.5. 3 sg. pres. ind. 
llad 72.29; 120.2. 3 pi. lladant 121.12. pass, lledyr 41.20; 
62.28; 73.1; 83.2; 105.11; 135.9. 3 sg. pres. subj. lladho 11.14 
lldho; 72.24; 89.3; 120.6; 122.5; I 23-4- pass, lladher 8.2; 9.11; 
11.7; 13.27; 26.2, 22; 27.11; 74-24, 29; 77.7; 123.15; 135-3- 
imperat. pass, lladher, llader 36.8; 78.13. 3 sg. pret. ind. 
lladaut 31.15; 135.7. pret. ind. pass, lias 41.26; llads 123.16. 

(b) murder, homicide, greyc a dele trayan sarahet e gur nac 
o Hat e saraer nac o peth arall 41.1. 75.8; 77.3, 5. llad keleyn 
murder 80.7; 129.27. 

llad 30.19. read Hall. 

llads see llad. 

llaeth m. milk, the milk of one milking, keulau llaeth a uo 
o ludyn blyth yn y dref 69.28. messur e llaeth teyr modued eny 
guaylaut 91.8. 33.11; 68.18; 70.1; 91.16; 93.16. 

llaethauc milch. 37.8. 

llaueneu (?). tyna] e kant delyessin kikleu odures eu 11. 
42.10. 

llauur m. labour, -work, e gof llys ... a dely tal y lauur 
28.1. ked gueneler keuar ac ecch ac nad el ef yr llauur a kau 
dol arnau 108.13. 28.3. 

llavvrau (?) to labour, suffer trouble (?). O deruit ydyn 
torri troeth aniueil . . . yaun yu er dyn ay briuho kymryt er 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 199 

aniueil . . . eni uo yach kani dele perkennauc er aniueil 1. tros 
gueisret eneb regunaeth cam ydau 43.5. 

Hall the other. O deruyd y dyn or duybleyt . . . guadu y 
uraut ar Hall en y adef 30.26. ar neyll banner yn wyr nod ar 
Hall o wyr dynot 79.6. 3.3 ; 30.15, 19, 25; 28, 31; 31.4; 35.8; 
46.36; 47.29; 49.1, 13, 26; 55.14; 59-I7; 60-6; 79-6; 82.3; iio.i. 3; 
119.8; 123.15, 26; 133.20; 134.17. pi. lleyll. e gur a dele er eyr 
oil ac vn kad ar lleyll yr grueyc 33.27. 6.9 ; 66.3 ; 118.17 ; 119.11. 
lleyll (sg.). y duydrew a dyly bot yn reyt brenhyn vn o 
nadunt a dyly bot yn tyr maertrew ar lleyll yn dyfeyth brenhyn 
65-15- 30-17; 69.2 (?); 85.23. 

llamysten see llemysten. 

Han church. O deruit y din guneuthur cam keinauc yar 
nodua a keuodi haul arnau ef am er agheureyth redigones yar 
nodua. Ny dele y amdiffin or naud e gunayth cam arnau onis 
atnewida o naud arall oy newid en llan arall puipennac a 
kemero naud ef a dele emdeyth ene [u]enwent ar gorfflan 51.15. 
tir llan church-land pop perchenauc tir llan a deleant deuot 
ar pop brenin newid . . . y datkanu ydau ef eu breint ac eu 
delect 51.6. en e llann e guarrandaho ef eferen 44.22. see 
Urk.Spr. p. 239. ll. = Ir. land, lann open space, etc. = Eng. land 
(Macbain). The original meaning appears to be kept in llanerch 
'a green glade' ; for erch 'green/ 'grey' see M.A. 203a.i7. Yn 
erchlyfyn yn erchliw gleissyeid. R.B.I 2. march erchlas mawr. 

llanu tide, llanu a trey the sea. 52.7 ; 53.37. 

llasart blue enamel, [guerth] taryan .vin. o byt kalcc llasart 
neu eur galtc .xxmi. 102.22. Pretium scuti, si sit coloratum 
auricalco, uel argenteo colore, uel glauco, id est, calchlassar. 
A.L.II 805. iv. a dechreu a wnaeth ef uanawydan llunyaw 
corfeu ac eu lliwaw ar y wed y gwelsei gan lasar llaesgygwyd 
a chalch llasar. a gwneuthur calch lasar racdaw ual y 
gwnathoed y gwr arall. R.B.I 47.15. Y dan llafnawr lleith 
wotew. Y dan llassar glas lias Hew. M.A. 184^15. cf. ballassar. 
Eluc. 94.27. diiw lasar. Rep. MS. II 311.12. ll. = Ger. lasur, 
lazur=Med.Lat. lazur< (lapis) lazuli blue stone. 

Hathlut, lladhlud abduction, theft, kanes ny fara gureyc 
nac o ladhlud nac o rod ar vreynt e haguedhy namen hjt e pen 
e .vn. blenet 36.22. O deruyd duyn gwreyc lathlut o dy y that 
hyt yn ty arall ac yno kysgu genthy 71.23. 31.6; 35.22; 36.14, 
I 5> 37-27, 29; 71.21, 24. 11. often -written elsewhere llathrud. 
gl. rapina. A.L.II 793-xi; 874-vi. cf. R.B.II 10.19. Ac yna 
alexander a orchymynna6d y ba6b vot yn bara6t yn eu llogeu. 



200 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

megys y gellynt h6y Ilathrudya6 elen ae d6yn gantunt or demyl 
honno. ll. = Ir. slatratu (?) boldness, urging to crime. B.L.G. 
co slatra. gl. co m-brassi. W.W. sub. voc. slatra. also 
co slatra no co solam. ibid. sub. voc. brasse. 

Haw, llau hand, power, ilau assu 81.15. o llau argluid nac 
o llau vach nid reyt mach ar dilissruid e guistil 48.16. Sew y 
ryv geytweyt a dyly bot ydau cymydauc uch llau ac arall ys 
llau nyt amgen gur uch y ureynt ac arall ys y ureynt 81.28. 
vrth hene e dele e gur a gurich roi bridiu het en oet mab 
sehisbluit a el adan lau periglaut 49.35. 3.13; 5.16; 6.5, 6; 
14.24; 20.13; 25.2, 31; 26.5; 36.9; 37.18; 44.6, 9; 47.34; 48.12, 13, 
15, 16; 49.29, 30; 50.3, 15; 52.14, 16, 17; 59.13, 16; 61.23; 65.10, 
ii ; 68.13, 26; 72.4, 5, 14, 15; 71.1, 17, 18, 21, 22; 78.14, I5;8i.i6; 
105.26; 106.10, n, 15; 107.13; 126.7; 131.18. 

llaubron the breast (?). Sef goluythyon e duy vanec val e 
deu corn ay tauaut ay laubron, etc., 96.5. Ai llai'r corfi nor 
larll ar cawg/neur llawfron no larll efrawc. P.MS. 68, p. 3. 
vn wydd davydd pan dyfynt/vn lawvron ac einion gynt. P.MS. 
67, p. 190. 

llaudkaut lees ( ?). Ac am henny e rodhes rund vdut .XIIIT. 
brein[t] . . . Nauuet na boent vreuan hechuc .x. na euoent 
laudkaut 42.22. O derfyd bod dyn yn dywedud na ddylyai yfed 
llacawd, a bod amryson am lonaid llacawd sef yw maint y 
llesdr [al. llacawd] cyhyd a chygwn ewin hirfys. L.W. 449 23. 
Cynnetyf y Bowys benn ymadrawt gwyr, Vch gwiraud eur 
gymlawt; Yn nep llys yn nep lie anhawt, nad ef daw ar eu 
Haw lledcawt. M.A. 1863.52. (Breinyeu Gwyr Powys.) A.L. 
II 744.xi. cf. diletcawt. M.A. 157^34. (gwaetkawd. M.A. 
1653.54. catgaud. M.A. 1703.) A Owen says, " Literally 
'annoyance* ; this measure was the depth of the nail joint of 
the middle finger in the drinking vessel." A.L.I 107, note e. 
There is no mention in the laws, as far as we can find, of any- 
drinking vessel so shallow; and a drinking cup an inch deep 
was not likely to be employed. The laws, however, fix the 
depth of the lees in the cup. Penguastraut debet habere 
longitudinem digiti medii de seruisia super feces, et de bragaut 
usque ad extremum nodum. A.L. II Soxj.xiii.v. see also Med. 
Law 14.10; 15.3. LI. MS. 116, p. 90.25. 

llaudyr trousers, a .ix. uedtyt kalangayaf [e ryghyll a dely] 
peys ac krys a llahudyr heb tenllyf. kahyd e dely y dyllat a 
kulym y laudyr 25.9. 104.20. a their lladh o liein o ben y elin 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 201 

hyt pen y bys perued y wnneuthur llawdyr idaw. A.L.I 392. v. 
llowdr=tyn bais. P.MS. 169, p. 271. see Fed. I p. 324. 
llaueneu see llafn. 

llauer, llawer many, much, llawer o keuryw dennion 48.24. 
papeth a oruo arnau ay bichan ay llawer 51.1. 45.16; 54.20; 
118.15. Ir. loor, lour. Altir. p. 122. 

[llawes] a sleeve, pi. lleuys. sef achaus nas dely [.mi. k.] 
ykan er escob. urth y uod en peryglaur yr brenyn a keuody 
racdau. ac eyste enyhol a dale y lleuys tra emolcho 13.12. cf. 
cwni llewish to encourage. Glam. ar mab a ddywat wrth y 
dat. bot y brein yn dywedut y byddei da gan y dat gaffel daly 
blaenau y lewys tra ymolchei. ae vam yn taly twel iddaw. 
H.MSS.II 322.13. Kymryt y co!6yn yn llawes y chapann. R.B.I 
241.26. a botytnev o eur perffeithgoeth ar bop 11. o ardwrnn hyt 
ym pennelin. Eluc. 95.13. [doeth] y wynvydedig wyry a bwrw 
y 11. tros y wreic. P.MS. 5-xli b.36. 

llauoruyn handmaid, maid. 10.22; 22.18. 

Ilaiicud m. casket, coffer, -work-box, e greyc pyeu e badell 
. . . ar triskud ac a uo endau eythyr eur neu aryant . . . esef 
ev triskud e llaucud 33.25. cf. Sef a wnaeth y mab dodi diaspat 
uchel ... a ... guydyon ay kymerth . . . ac ae cudyawd. 
Sef y cudyawd ymywn Haw gist is traed y wely. W.B. col. 
93.30. see triskud. 

Ilet m. width, breadth, try llet palyw yn y troetued 65.8. 
59.14; 64.29; 65.3, 8; 69.9, 10, ii, 17; 109.21. 

lledrat robbery, theft, stolen goods, service. Nau affeyth lledrat 
kyntaw yu mynegy y lledrat 78.15. Puybynnac a dalyo lleydyr 
a lledrat yn y lau 79.13. Sew yu lledrat pob peth a water or a 
dycer 83.6. ny dyly untyr bot yn dyurenhyn. . . . o byd 
escoptyr ew a dyly llvyd a lledrat ac o byd yspytyr ew a dyly 
lledrat 60. 10. 24.24; 31.16, 17; 41.3; 46.32; 60. 10; 78.16, 29; 
79.11, 13, 14, 17, 21 ; 81.12 ; 82.7, 10, 17 ; 111.8 ; 132.24. see lleydyr. 

lief voice, sound, lief y korn 17.14. 38.14. 

lleueryd utterance, tauaut 1. verbal evidence but not given 
on oath. Sew yu mab doolew mab a dyweto gwreyc ar y thauaut 
leueryt y uot yn uab y ur ac nas dyco yr dygyn 73.15. 55.9. 

llcger see llygry. 

llemysten, llamesten sparrowhaivk, merlin, hawk, [guerth] 
nyth llemesten .xxnii. llemysten keny menet emud .xn. a 
guedy edel emud .xxim. 95.10. 11.20; 12.8. Precium nidi 



202 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

lemysten [accipitris merularii]. A.L.II 823. xii. Barcut gynt a 
edrychawd ar y vreicheu ae ylyf ae ewined ac a dywawt. 
Ponyt yttwyfi yn gyn gryfet ac yn gyn rymusset o gorfi ac 
aelodeu ar llamystaen. Rep.MSS.II 397 64. llymysten. 
sparehawk. Nisus. Rep. MS. II 41. see R.B.I 252.20. Several 
of the terms of falconry are borrowed or modelled on foreign 
terms and llemysten, or as it is usually written, llamysten, 
seems to be a Welsh adaptation of gyrfalcon or gyrofalco, which 
was so named from its circling flight (Skeat). Llamysten is 
several times glossed by gwiba which appears to be another 
attempt at translating the same original, see Rep.MSS.I 424. 

llaun full, a dody en llestyr messur y godro ac o byt Haunt 
duegueyt en e dyt dogen eu 91.19. 

llaur m. the ground, floor, dodet pen y elyn ar e llawr ay 
lau hue pen e cauc 106.15. 

He (a) m. place, position, em pob lie en eu blayn 7.10. y le 
en e llys eu pedua[r]egur nessaf yr brenyn 10.25. bot Y n ^ e 
mab ydau 05 his son 71.7. cf. mynwch wybod yn lie gwir/pwy 
dir y mae fo yrowran. P.MS. 65, p. 150. so H.MSS.I 1.23; 
9.10; 22.10. Rep.MSS.II 427.9. Med.M. 114.126. yn lie marvv. 
M.A. 677b-56. provedic yw yn He gwir for a fact. Old Leech 
Bk. 2693.24; 6.5; 8.15; 10.25; -3f 18, 27; 12.21 ; 13.5; 15-28; 
17.9, 20, 25, 33; 18.1; 19.5, 7; 23.29; 28.5; 30.1; 35.26; 36.10; 
38.29 ; 46.1, 38 ; 47.1 ; 49.32 ; 50.19 ; 51.12 ; 52.5, 12 ; 53.7, 34 ; 54-2 ; 
55-22, 25; 56.25; 60.15, 19; 61.24; 74.9; 75- I 2; 78-26; 80.7; 81.9, 
15; 82.12; 87.6; 89.18; 91.17 92.23 110.23; 111-12; 115. 19, 21 ; 
122. ii lieu; 132.26; 133.9; J 35-2. pi. -oed 133.9. 

(b) where. Nyt oes cyureyth lie y dylyer anreyth grybdeyl 
80.7. 

llenllyeyn linen sheet, sheet, tanu llenllyeyn guen adanunt 
40.8. 11.30; 40.8, 10, ii ; 104.24. pi. -eu 22.20. 

llesget f. neglect, carelessness, sloth, chweford yd a da dyn 
yganthau ac or teyr y gellyr damdug ac or teyr ereyll ny ellyr 
. . . y teyr ereyll ysyd yaun damdug arnadunt. vn onaduut 
lledrat. ar eyl collet o lesget ar trydyt yu aghyuarch 81.12. 
sef yu llesget da a gollo gan dyn ay ar ford ay yn lie arall. 
A.L.II 240.xii. ehudruydh (neu esgudruydh) yssydh wrthwyneb 
y Lesgedh. H.MSS.II 437.11. Kyn no hynn ofyn a ryfu arnaf i. 
rac gorfot o lesged y brytanyeit o hir hedwch. R.B.II 205.14. 
eiriol dwyslawn i ochelud beic Ihesgedh a syrthni. Rep.MSS.I 
276.15. 11. R.B.II 205.i3=otium. Schulz 135.39; R.B.II 205.23 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 203 

= segnitia. Schulz 136.46. Ir. lesc gl. piger. W.W., adlesc 
very slow, lazy. Pass. Horn. 

llesdeyrau to hinder, impede. Essef achaus e bit kaiat 
keureyth he kenhayf ar guaiannun . . . rac 11. eredyc e 
guayanuhin a rac 11. e medi e kenhaf 51.31. 3 pi. pres. subj. 
llesteyryhoynt 60.15. H.MSS.I 243.3. A phan weles gwalchmei 
hynny ef a gyrchawd y porth ac a doeth yr castell heb neb ryw 
lesteir arnaw. 

llestyr vessel, cup, pan. ef a dele duyn 11. yr llys y dody 
guyraut endau 10.28. llestyr emenyn try dyrnued yny hyt hep 
y uoel 69.10. 69.11, 17; 91.9, 10, 19. pi. llestry 18.28, 31 ; 25.5; 
33.11, 14, 29. Ir. lestar. 

lletaw broadest, -widest, mannat emenyn cyvlet ar dysgyl 
letaw a uo yn y trew 69.25. 

Hety m. chamber, room, lodging, stable, y lety eu estauell e 
urenynes ay guely en y gueuty 22.14. y lety yu e ty muyhaf en 
e tref a kemeruedaf ac y kyd ac ef e rey a uertno or teylu 6.7. 
ef a dely . . . duyn y uarch yu lety a tranoyth y duyn ydau 
23.22 (cf. lletyeu y meirch v.l. ystableu. A.L.I 65o.xiii) 3.25; 
6.9; 8.16; 10.27; 11-28; 12. i ; 13.6; 14.24; 15.5, 29, 30; 17.20; 
18.30; 20.5, 21, 32; 21. 18, 27; 22.14, 30; 24.1, 30; 26.14; 42.24. 
pi. lleteu 9.8. 

llewyg see lluyc. 

lleuys see llawes. 

lley (comp. in use of 'bach') less, smaller, haul a uo lley no 
chywerthyd tryugeynt 59.2. nyt mvy nyt lley 66.1. superl. 
lleyhaw 22.24; 79- 1 - I r - laigiu. see Altir. 226. 

lleydyr m. thief, burglar, servant, soldier (?). y cyureyth 
hywel y mae hyt ym pedeyr ceynnyauc y uot yn lleydyr gwerth 
ac o hynny allan yn eneyt uadeu . . . y lleydyr a werther seyth 
punt yu y werth 82.19. try fet ny dely brenyn y kefrann e 
sullt ay hebauc ay leydyr 29.8. 29.26; 31.15; 66.12; 78.17, 20, 
21 ; 80.17; 82.17. pi. lladron 83.2; kydlladron 31.16. lleidr 
appears to have meant a f minister,' ' servant,' and used in a good 
sense. The quotation given above from 29.8 is found also in 
Ll.MS. 69, p. 61.7. In M.A.68, 59 lladron is used= ordinary 
soldiers (?). Ni ddodai lew ar ladron/Ni roddi guir y alon. 
In Rep.MSS.I 1038 40 lladron those who minister at the 
celebration of the Mass. Tri dyn a gar Duvv, Lleidr offeren/ 
a meddylgar oi ddioddefaint/ac edrychwr delw Grist. Lladron 



is given as sg. in Rep.MSS.I 275.12. see quot. from 60.10 under 
lledrat. 

[lleyg] layman, pi. lleygyon, lleycyn. Ac ena e may jaunt 
yr haulur deueduit breint y testion ae vntoe en veirri neu en 
keghe[ll]oron ae vnteu en venich neu en ahtraon ae vnteu en 
efferiet neu en escoleicion ae vinteu en lleecion breniaul 54.29. 
p[e]duuar en lleycyon ar deu en scolecyon . . . rac gossod or 
lleycyn dym a uey en erbyn er escrftur 1.5. 60.9. Tri rhyw 
briodorion y sydd : cynhwynolion anianawl, gwyr llys, a gwyr 
Hen; sew y cyntav or tri a elvvir lleygion. M.A. 934 193. 

Ho calf. 90.13, 16, 19, 20; 91.6, 19; 92.16; 98.4; 112.13. pi. 
Hoe 115.23. 

lloer the moon, a month, adan tryheynt e deleyr uod am 
tey[t]hy marc rac e dere trygluyt a rac dueskynt teir lloer 88.18. 

Hour ml (a red-handed man), a murderer, homicide. Ac o Had 
ew dyn kenedyl y uam ay tal y deuparth yr alanas arnau ynteu 
yn llounid 73.1 Pvybynnac a uo llowrud galanas cubyl a 
dyguyd arnav 75.19. 50.29, 31; 63.1-4; 74.28, 29; 75.2-26; 76.75 
77.19; 122. ii ; 128.29; 129.2-22. pi. llowrudyeyt 78.24. see 
tauaut. cf. Ir. fer laime derge red-handed. B.L.G. sub. derg. 

llowrudyaeth (red-handedness) , murder, homicide, llv try- 
chanvr a dau o genedyl y wadu 11. gwaet a gwely a Had dyn 
77.2. cf. ac 6rth hynny kyttsynnya6 y6 yr holl affeitheu rei o 
honynt tr6y o!6c ereill tr6y eireu ereill tr6y weithredoed megys 
llygattrudyaeth neu tauodrudyaeth. A.L.I 404. vii. 

Hoc hire, wage, ny dele namen y lu ehun gueneuthur ydau 
kestal ac yr eydau enun os y loky a guana atalher ydau y loc 
89.17. 81.9. see next. 

lloky to hire, take on hire, rent. O deruyd y dyn lloky hyd 
en lie ac os tros henne ed a talet trayan er elu y perchenauc e 
march 89.17. ny dyly nep [gwerthu] tyr nay brydau . . . 
namyn lloget pob bluydyn 63.26. 3 sg. imperat. lloget. 11.= 
Lat. loc-o. Loth, for Ir. loc see De.Hib. p. 151. B.L.G. 537. 

llokyl a wattle, a wall, side of a building, o kalangayaf allant 
kayher er escuboryeu val e deleher. Sef eu val e deleyr y kayu 
dody teyr bancor ar e llogyl a pheth ar e drus 114.20. cf. ony 
byd bangor yn tri lie ar y cant. Ll.MS. 69, p. 156.11. llogail = 
kant ty. P.MS. 169, p. 273 P.MS. 51, p. 187. llogeil -v.l. 
cant, pared. L.W. 287 17, 18. 11. paries. A.L.II 864-xvi. 
cf. Drud dy tihenit. dy imtuin ar llogylwit. B.B.C. 19.10. 
see bancor. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 205 

lloneyt the fill. 11. e kar or dohodreuen 42.15. 18.27; 25.5. 

lloscurn tail, dauad . . . y llegat ay clust ay cornt ay 
lloscurn ay thet[h] .1. k. am pop vn o nadunt 93.16. 92.16; 
36.9 loscuert. 

Husky to burn, set on fire, puebennac a losko ty a losky 
ohunu ty arall 85.24. ay dyhenyd ew yn ewyllys yr argluyd 
nay grogy nay losgy a uynno 129.26. 25.2 ; 68.3. 3 sg. pres. 
ind. llyst 87.5. subj. llosko 85.24; 86.19; 87.3; 86.20 loscho. 
3 pi. pret. ind. lloskasant 41.31. 

Mostly dan (broad-tail), beaver, [guerth] croen llosledan .cxx. 
97.14. 11. fiber. A.L.II 773.viii. see wrlys. for Host cf. 
arllost, bonllost spearshaft. 

Hoygyr England, mab oed hunnv [dywynwal moel mud] y 
aril kernyv o uerch brenhyn lloygyr 64.19. 

lln ni. a host, an army. Ny dely e brenyn menet ay lu or 
gulat namyn ungueys pop bluydyn 30.3. 124.7. deu-lu 3.2. 

lludias to refuse, yaun yu ir ha[u]lur y ludyas [oyt urth 
porth] ndunt onit e keureyth ay deweyt y deleu 52.4. 45.27 ; 
56.22. 

[lluest] a hut, temporary dwelling during a campaign, pi. 
lluesteu. y brenhyn a dyly o pob byleyndrew gvr a bvyall y 
wneuthur llesteu yn y lluyd 67.27. 30.7. cf. lluestu to encamp. 
C.M. 16.15, etc. 

llumcnitiah ensignship. Gober kereishiaul e brenin o tir ni 
bo suid ohonau .vi. ugeint. o tir e bo suyd ohonau mal pen 
hebokeyaet neu disteinniat neu keghelloriat neu lumenitiah neu 
varony punt 56.18. v.l. lumanyaeth. A.L.I i58.xxxiii. for 
Human ' standard' see M.A. 2113.57. O.R. gives ' Ionian an 
ensign, banner, etc.' but one of the meanings given by O.R. 
and those given by Dineen ' a bare, bark-stripped log, etc.' 
suggest that it is a derivative of 'lorn' W. llwtn 'bare' and it is 
difficult to see how loman 'ensign' could come from this, but 
see Meyer Vis. Maccon. 186; Joyce II 195-6. 

Hun form, manner, kadu er amod ar e lun e deuedassant 
50.3. 82.1. 

llundcyn London, kyn no duyn coron lundeyn a theyrn 
wyalen o sayson dywynwal moel mud oed urenhyn ar yr ynys 
hon 64.17. 

lluryc f. cuirass, coat of mail, [guerth] taryan .viix. . . . 
luryc damdung 102.24. Ar marchawc ynteu a drawawd y 



206 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

brenhin y adan y daryan yny rwygaw modrwyeu y luryc. 
H.MSS.I 18.15. ac y na y hurdawd ermin ef yn varchawc 
urdawl. ac y gwiscawd arueu ymdanaw. nyt amgen actwn 
da dilis ysgafyn. a lluryc dwy dyplyc. yr hon ni ffwysei dec 
arugeint o fwnei y wlat. ac nyt oed aryf a allei argywedu un 
o hynny trwy y lluryc. H.MSS.II 126.35. ll. = Lat. lorica. 

lluyd m. hosting, foray, raid, ny dyly y brenhyn duyn lluyd 
or wlat allan. namyn vn weyth pob bluydyn. ac ny dyly bot 
yn hunnv namyn pytheunos a tnys yn y wlat ehun ryd yu ydau 
lluyd pan uynho 67.5. Ny dyly untyr bot yn dyurenhyn o byd 
abbatyr ew a dyly udunt o bydant leygyon dyruy a chamlvru 
ac amobyr ac ebedyv a llvyd a lledrat 60. 10. 42.11 ; 67.27. pi. 
lluedeu, lluydeu 18.15; 42.16; 67.13. see L.L. 120.11, 29. 11.= 
Ir. sluagad hosting. 

[lluydau] to go on a military expedition. 3 sg. pret. ind. 
lluydhaus. ac odhena y 11. rud ... a guir guinet kanthau ac 
e doethant hid eglan guerit 42.1. Ha 6yr heb y g6ydyon ni a 
gyrchwn kedernit g6ynet ar aniueileit hynn. yd ys yn lluydaw 
yn an hoi. W.B. col. 86.21. 

llu, llv m. an oath, yaun yr eregnat kamret e kereir en e lau 
a deueduit vrth e kenogen naut duo racod a naut pap ruuein a 
naut de argluit na dos en llu cam od a enteu ir llu teghet i diou 
. . . ac ir kereir 44.5. 35.16-20 ; 37.16; 39.11; 41.13, 14; 44.8, 17; 
45.7; 49.20, 21 ; 50.9-19; 55-2i; 71.15, 27; 72.19; 73.27, 28; 74.7, 
26; 75-i, 3J 76.9-13; 77-2, 55 78.29; 79.6; 89.15; 90.4; 92.1; 109.9; 
115.1, 3; 119.14; 129.27, 29; 134.2, 12. llu gueylyd see 'gueylyd.' 

linden m. a beast, domestic animal. puybenac a kafo man 
lludyn ar hyd ay dauad ay gauar 118.19. llaeth a uo o ludyn 
blyth yny drew 69.28. 26.6; 31.13; 91.17; 96.25; 97.1, 2; 116.2; 
118.18, 21. pi. llydyn, lledyn (?) 113.11, 16, 18. see Bret. loen. 
Henry Lex. 

lluecha see lluyg. 

llugyr, llukyr m. damage, loss, injury, puebennac a uo 
llugyr maur ar y hyd a kafael escrybyl arnau a mennu ohonau 
y gan er escrybyl henne dyun kubyl 119.11. 98.24; 112.5, J1 
13; 115.10, 16; 117.1, 23; 118.12; 119.16, 22. 

lluyf elm, elm-bark, [gurth] raf luyf .xn. kauelyn .1. 101.15. 
=funis ulmeus. A.L.II 805. liv. see Fed. I 105. 

llnyc resti-veness. adan try heynt e deleyr uod am tey[t]hy 
marc . . . ac adan y luyc eny uarckocer en terua denyon a 
meyrc ac ony lluecha ena byt ryd e nep ae guer[t]ho ac o lluyka 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 207 

aduerer y trayan guerfth] 88.19. cf. llwygus [restivus]. A.L.II 
86i.iv. 

[lluygau ( ? )] to be restive. 3 sg. pres. ind. lluyka, lluecha 
88.21, 22. cf. palinus gwn pa lyniaeth, dull o nych dallu a 
wnaeth ; gwnaeth dewi roddi ar hynt, i lygaid fal na Iwygynt. 
loloMSS. 299.4. minne Iwyga maban morwyn. Rep.MSS.II 
507 125. 

lluyn bush, grove, wood. O deruyt guelet greyc en deuot or 
parthun yr lluen ar gur or parch arall 39.9. Puybynnac a 
ueychychoco gwreyc o luyn a perth to beget an illegitimate 
child 130.21. 37.1. cf. mab a gafer yn llwyn ac yn mherth 
illegitimate child. M.A. 9413.14. cf. also Ir. merdrech muine 
bush strumpet. B.L.G. loinou (gl. frutices : aucupibus noti 
frutices). Z*. 1055.2. see Loth p. 183. 

lluynauc a fox. guert croen .vin. 97.12. 

lly abbrev. for llyeyn. 

llydan, lledan -wide, broad, buyall ledan 33.22. 100.1. 

llyeyn linen, linen clothes, panel lyeyn 103.5. f r ' Hyey 11 - 
guysc.' efeyryat teulu ... a dele . . . y guysc teyrgueyt en 
euuluydyn y lyeyn ykan e urenynes ay uredhenguys ykan e 
brenyn 8.13. 17.32; 18.20; 19.2, 25; 20.9 ly; 20.28; 21.12, 24; 
22.8; 22.26 ly; 23.2; 24.8; 23.10 1. see penllyeyn, llenllyeyn. 

llyeynguysc linen clothing, y urethynglysc ykan e brenyn ay 
1. ykan e urenynes 9.5. 6.21; 11.26; 13.3; 14.6, 22; 15.10, 27; 
17.18. 

[llyfassu] to dare, risk. 3 sg. pres. ind. lleueys. Puybynnac 
a uynho gwneuthur dogyn uynac act ar yr argluyd a dywedet 
rywneuthur lledrat o dyn ny leueys y dyweduyt arnau ay rac y 
uonhed ay rac y uedyant 80.9. Nodua dewi yw. pa le bynnac 
y bo tir kyssegredic y dewi sant. ac na lauasso na brenhin . . . 
nac escob . . . rodi nawd idaw ymblaen dewi. Eluc. 115.29. 
ny Iyuass6ys dyn uynet yr fforest yr ys b!6ydyn. R.B.I 241.17. 
Kanys blwg vu gan wyr groec . . . llyuassu o honunt wynteu 
anuon y ryw lythyr hwnnw attunt hwy. R.B.II 44.19. see 
M.A. 248b. 44-50. 11. = Corn, lavasy to dare, venture, attempt. 
Lex. Cor. 

Hywnu, llefnii to harrow, vynt a dylyant dyrnu a chrassu 
a medy a llywnu 68.15. 109.17. 

tllyur] book, pl.lleuereu. Er argluyt pan uo maru er escob 
a dele y da. eytyr guyst er egluys ay lleuereu ay thyr 124.8. 



208 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

llegat m. eye. nau aylauyt gokefurt . . . deu legat . . . 
truyn . . . clust, etc., 104.20. 88.24; So,- 1 ; 91.11; 93.16. pi. 
llegeyt 26.22; 94.17, 20; 120.23. 

llygod mice. teythy[cath] guelet a clebot a Head llechot 93.24. 
S S- Nyg (corr. to Ir. luch. gen. lochad) now means ' shrew 
mouse.' 

llegry, llugry to damage, impair, violate. O deruyt y dyn 
tydau y kassec en emyl hyd ar ebaul en legry er hyd 115.17. O 
deruit y dyn roi kauuersit punt en lie vn keniauc a diguthau 
hau[l] e gustel ny uernir ir kannogon kumeint a dim kanas hef 
ehun a lekerus brein i gustel 46.3. 115.1. 3 sg. pres. ind. act. 
lluger 54.21. pass, llygryr 70.4; llegryr 114.16. pres. subj. 
pass, lleger 119.19. 3 sg. past subj. llecrey 1.23. 3 sg. pret. 
ind. llekerus 46.3. pass. part, llegredic. defiled, violated. O 
rodjr morujn y hur ac j kafael en gureic . . . ac guedy as kafo 
ef en llegredic 35.29. 36.2. 

llema here, now. Lema decreu kefreythyeu e gulad 30.20. 
llema paup or guebethit en deueduit e sauahant. llema popun 
or duipleit en amheu then . . . next 55.6. 33.1 ; 53.3 ; 98.22 ; 
99-13- 

1. llyn drink, liquor, buyt a llyn 15.13. e percguastraut a 
dely dernuet erug llyn a guadaut 13.25. e grueyc a dele e car 
. . . e gur a dele holl llestry e lyn 33.14. 4.1; 6.13; 8.19; 9.24, 
28, 30; 13.30; 15.31; 19-15; 20.30; 22.12; 69.15; 100.23. Ir. lind 
fluid. 

2. llyn flax, llyn guedy medy neu . . . eghart heb uedy 
114.5. 25.14; 33.23; 101.5; 119-20. ll. = Lat. linum. Loth p. 182. 

llyna, llena there, that, a lena e tredit le er ran kefreis 46.37. 
a llena er achaus kanys tredyt anepcor brenyn eu 8.6. 47.1 ; 
70.6, 13; 115.21; 122.23. 

Ilynat linseed, flax-seed, e greyc pyeu e badell ar trebed 
. . . ar llyn aklan ar llynad 33.23. Pan gyuaruum gysseuin a 
mam y uorwyn honno. yd hewyt naw hestawr llinat yndaw na 
du na gwyn ny deuth ohonaw ettwa. R.B.I 121.19. see 132.25, 
27. H6ynt6y wedy hynny a doethant ar na6 hesta6r llinat. a 
nodes yspadaden pennka6r . . . eithyr un llinhedyn. 

llenmeyrch farcy (A.O.). adan try heynt e deleyr uod am 
tey[t]hy marc rac e dere ... a rac dueskynt ... a rac 
llenmeyrc bluy[dy]n 88.19. 11. [aqua intercute]. A.L.ll 
Sio.xxvii. et de llyn meirch [pano]. II 86i.iii. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 209 

1. ilys f. court, royal residence, court of la-jo, y maer bysweyl 
a dyly kyweyiyau llys y brenhyn oy mevn ac a berthyno atey 
mal eredyc a heu 68.3. y le en e llys en tal e ueyg 28.6. pa le 
bennac ed emkafoent er efeyryat ar dysteyn ar enat ena e byt 
breynt e Uys 30.2. 3.24; 4.14; 5.3, 13, 14; 6.11, 13; 8.8, 27; 9.8; 
10.26, 28; 12.11; 13.17; 14.27; 15.13, 20, 28; 17.9, 20; 18.2, 3, 4; 
19.8; 20.14; 23.19, 21 ; 24.17-30; 25.1, 27; 26.2,11, ia, 22; 27.4-26; 
28.1-28 ; 29.2 ; 52.13 ; 56.6 ; 65.26 ; 67.11 ; 68.4-17 ; 78.3 ; 126.4 ; 131.13. 
Hen wan tan : Palas pab/llys Emerodr neu frenin/kastell 
Tywysog neu arglwydd/Nevadd Marchog neu esgwier. Rep. 
MSS.II 170 94. 

2. llys, llis rejection, objection, strife. O deruid ena mennu 
llessu un or reihtwyr henne. nit oys lis arnau namin na hanuo 
oy kenedel val na deleo vot en rey[t]hur 50.11. ny byd galanas 
am leydyr ac ny byd llys yrug duy genedyl yr y dyenydu 82.29. 
cf. non erit llys [rejectio] inter gentes, quia odium inter gentes 
est deletum. A.L.II 892.1iii. see dylys, anilis. 

Ilesseu pi. herbs, pot herbs, medhechynyat llesseu 18.11; 
106.7. double pi. llesseuoet. e dystej ? a dely y dyuallu o toll 
leseuoet yam pepyr a llesseuoet ereyll 20.3. 18.11 ; 106.7. Yr 
heul aoed yn disgleiryaw trwy berfed y ffenestri gwydyr. ar 
hyt y neuad. yr honn oed wedy bwrw blodeu tec a llysseuoed 
ar y hyt. H.MSS.I 191.15. 

llessu to reject, object to. a guedi dagosso ef e testion njt 
jaun yr haulur eu llessu ventheu 54.24. 50.10; 54.15. 3 sg. 
pres. subj. llesso 54.16. 

llithyaw to bait, feed, ac ony dan e kanedyon blygyet er hyd 
a kaduet y kyc ar croen a llydhyet e kun a dechet cantau adref 
96.14. 3 sg. pres. imper. llydhyet. ac onny deuant paret y 
breyr y vligaw a llithiet y kwn or kic. A.L.I 492.1!!. gwae 
Iwth a lithir ar Wenerau. Gogyn. 223a-36. Llith=Blawd Ceirch 
ffres mewn llaeth efrat. Cyfaill yr Aelwyd V. 134.3. Llaeth gafr 
nid oes 11. gyfriw. Rep.MSS.I 190 463. Llith anian yw llaeth 
enwun. Huw Cowper p. 90. Ef llithyeu wydgwn oe anghat. 
B.An. 8.22. Llithiaist ath ron aer feryfon ar fore fwyd. M.A. 
2983.27. llith=Ir. littiu Porridge. R.C. xii.i22. see however 
Ped.I 974. 

llethemr graduate, a learned man. puybenac a guenel kam 
y uam ecluys. talet .xiui. punt er banner yr abat o byd 
duyuaul letherur 30.15. cf. Abadeu Telia w a Theulydawc ac 
Ysmael a Degman a dylyant vot yn lythyrawl vrdolyon. A.L.I 



210 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

558.viii. Ar alvryt hwnnw a vagyssit ygan leo bab. a gwr 
llythyrawl oed. R.B.II 386.4. 

llyu m. colour, hue. ef a dely e capaneu glau e brenyn ay 
hew kefruyeu llyu eu pren -with -wood in its natural colour 13.21. 
A gwybydwch chwi yn wir na liwyssit eiryoet dim or prenneu 
hynny. namyn y lliw a rodes duw udunt oc eu hanyan 
ehunein. H.MSS.I 127.5. 

lleucroen guiding thong (A.O.). [guerth] lleucroen fyrling 
101.9. cf. llawlyw = braich aradr. P.MS. 51, p. 187. 

Heuyadur palm-iron (A.O.), rule (?). [guerth] 11. fyrling 
101.8. cf. yn lie iren y gymell yrychen y eredic. yd oed wialen 
eur. kyn vuanet y tynhei y kwysseu. a chynn tecket. a llinyeu 
a tynnit wrth lywyawdyr gyfyawn. H.MSS.II 7.39. 

mab son, child, minor, tat erug deu uab 30.23. ena e deuejt 
e kefreish na vyr nep bech eu hy ai moruyn ae gureic o achaus 
redeuod arujt mab arney 36.4. or pan anher mab yny uo 
pedeyr bluyd ardec y dyly uot urth noe y tat 70.22. O deruyt 
roy camaraes y alldut a bo[t] plant meybyon vrthunt 39.16. 
3.23 ; 5.21, 23, 25 ; 29.20 ; 30.23 ; 34.17, 18 ; 36.14 ; 37.2, 3, 6 ; 38.11, 
29; 39.18, 23, 24; 40.22; 41.29; 42.1; 47.3, 4, 12, 13, 14, 17, 20, 21 ; 
49-35J 56.12; 59.9, 17; 60.19; 62.2, 3, 5, 15, 19; 64.15, 18; 66.25, 
27; 68.19, 20; 70.22, 28; 71.1, 5, 6, 7, 28; 72,2-28; 73-8-25; 74-I-I7; 
76.14; 78.5; 82.25; 94-24; 95-7J 98-22; 99.2, 22; 100.11; 125.24; 
126.5, 9; 127.18, 20; 128.27; 129.13; I33-9; I34-3; 129.13 a; 41.28 
vad. pi. meybyon 4.9; 33.25; 39- 18 , 23; 61.24, 25, 28, 29; 62.6, 
7; 63.28; 64.3, 5; 76.3, 13. see eyllt, vchelwr, llwyn. see also 
map brethinnou (gl. in cunis) ; bin map diiob (gl. love dignus : 
in cunis iam love dignus erat). Z2. 1057. 

[macuyf] a youth, a page. pi. macuyueyt. Edlyg . . . y 
lety en e neuat ar mackuyueyt ykyt ac ef 3.26. 67.15 cum co 
debent hospitari pueri, id est, makwuieit. A.L.II 8i6.viii. 
iuuenes, i., machuiueid. II 894. iv. [De succesore] . . . cuius 
socii sunt filii optimatis, i., macuiueid. II 895. vi. m. = Ir. 
maccoem a youth, lad. coem is here not the Irish coem = W. cu 
'dear" but coem<Lat. comes, see De.Hib. p. i28a. Maccwyon 
berries, etc. (Med.Myd. pp. 201, 268, etc.) has nothing to do with 
this, but is rather a pi. of bagwy, etc.<Lat. baccae. see 4 A.B. 
250.13, 253.2. see guas. It corresponds in meaning to knight 
= youth, servant, man at arms. 

nuich, macht m. bail, one -who held the debtor responsible for 
his debt, security. O deruit y din kamrit mach jkan arall ar 
peth a deuot e duipleit ykit er haulur ar kannogon ar mach a 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WSH LAW 211 

holi or hullur e macht a deueduit e uod en vach ar peht iiiauur 
ac atep or kannogon a deueduit y vod in vach ar peth beck an 
a haep guadu e uechni yaun eu er egnat ena barnu ena hot en 
detuurit e macht pahar e mae macht ae ar peht mauur ay ur 
pesh beccan 45.8. 30.29, 32; 36.15; 39.9; 40.29; 41.3; 44-I-14J 
45.1-32; 46.4-37; 47-1-33; 48-2-38; 49-2-32; 52-20; 56.2; 71.23; 
117.22; 119-4; 120.10; 126.27, 28; 129.2; 130.7-27; 131.9; 132.12; 
133.6. pi. meychieu, meychyeu, meckieu 36.12; 45.16; 48.18; 
50.27-30; 52.30; 73.3. see Fed. I p. 128. 

raudauc pr. n. Lema e gueles yoruerth vab m. uod en krenno 
escryuennu guerth e tey, etc., 98.22. 128.27. 

in .id m to give up, abandon, forfeit, eneyt uadeu life-forfeited, 
doomed. O deruyd y dyn Had arall a gwenuyn galanas 
deudyblyc a tal. canys fyrnyc yu neu ynteu yn eneyt uadeu 
am y neyll alanas ay dyhenyd ew yn ewyllys yr argluyd nay 
grogy nay losgy a uynho 129.25. 79.18, 19. pass. part, 
madeuedyc forgiven, absolved, yaun talu galanas ac yn try 
trayan . . . yn yr oet cyntaw a uo y genedyl y tat y talu vn oc 
eu trayaneu. y dylyant llv canhur o oreugwyr y genedyl arall 
ar uot yn uadeuedyc eu car 76.25. 76.27, 29. cf. yr edling a 
allan ovyn i vraint wrthvnt yn y lie na madevhei dim oy vraint 
pan el i bedu i gyvoeth. A.L.II 306.3. Dioer heb y pryderi 
ny madeuaf i uyg kwn. W.B. col. 69.32. O hynuy allan y 
dygyuores vyg kyuoeth am vym pen y erchi im ymvadeu nc 
wynt. R.B.I 33.19. a phei as caffei hi efo odyno nas madeuei. 
Kanys hi a vynnei gaeu ystauell arnaw. H.MSvS.I 283.29. 

maydu, macthu to buffet, beat, strike, esef euu y sarahet 
pop maedhu a gu[n]el e gur arney eythir am try phes . . . esef 
eu e try phec e dele y maethu am rodhy pehec ny deleho y roy, 
etc., 38.1. ar colouen uch y pen a dely er gostechur y maydu 
5.12. 71.4. 3 sg. pres. ind. maed, maet 38.5; 71.4. pres. ind. 
pass, meythyr 26.25. pres. subj. pass, mayher 26.24. cf. Ir. 
maidid breaks. 

mayher see maydu. 

maeldaf pr. n. rey a deueyt panyu maeldaf henaf pendeuic 
penart ay barnus y guir aruon 42.5. 

maclcun pr. n. ac odhena e lluydhaus rud uab m. a guir 
guinet ac e doethant hit eglan guerit 42.1. 

1. maen m. a stone, e maen vchaf yr vreuan 33.15. buru 
erkyd ay a m. ay a sayth 123.6. 25.13; 69.4; 102.6, 12, 13. 

2. maen lord, man of power. Tri chadar[n] byt argluyd -a 



212 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

drut a dydym. Sef achaus yu m. dros iaen yu argluyd 134.29. 
O deruyd y dyn rodi mach y arall ar da. ac na bo gantaw dim 
a talho namyn da kyt. kyfreith a dyweit nas dyly. Eissoes 
yr arglwyd a digawn hot yn uaen tros iaen a chanhadu yr mach 
ranu y da a gwystlet y mach ohwnnw. P.MS. 35, f. 24b.i. 
kyfreith a dyweit na dyly y mach rodi gwystyl or kyt da yny 
ranher ; ar arglwyd a dyly bot yn vaen tros y gymhell y rannu. 
A.L.II 68.1xvi. Maestr rosser a bryderwyd/maen dros iaen man 
dyrys wyd. P.MS. 67, p. 268. Maen dros iaen has been 
translated "a stone along ice/' A.L.II 37; Pughe; Med.Law 
281 ; then the meaning implied is the direct contrary to the 
context which is : that the lord is regarded as responsible for 
the weak ones; and the proverb, Ni bydd gwan heb ei gadarn 
(M.A. 359b; Dr.D.Prov.) appears to convey the same meaning. 
There are several proverbs -where Maen = 'a lord' or 'man of 
power' but their form shew that they were used when no longer 
understood. Addaw mab addaw vaen. M.A. 838b = Addaw 
maen addaw mab. P.MS. 12, p. i27=Addo mab addo maon. 
P.MS. 54, p. i38 = Addaw fab addaw faen. Dr.D.Prov. i.e., 
the son's promise is the lord's promise (?). (Maon occurs often 
in mediceval poetry, meaning 'lords' or 'leaders.' see M.A. 3b ; 
5a ; I4b ; 253 ; 3ia ; 38b ; 5ib ; 62b ; 1173 ; uga ; I46b ; 1533 ; I55b ; 1563 ; 
i79b ; 1853 ; 1923 ; 2o6b ; 2O7b ; 222a ; 2343 ; 2463 ; 2673). Da yw'r 
maen gyda'r Efengyl. Dr.D.Prov. Maen here is supposed to 
have reference to the druidical stones, but it no doubt means that 
'it is good to have power with the gospel.' maen and mein occur 
frequently in Med.W. poetry with the meaning 'powerful,' 
'great,' and appear to be cognate with or borrowed from the 
Lat. magnus. It may, however, be a native word; for we 
have magni with some such meaning in Ecenimagni. mein 
uchel medel y alon. M.A. 533.44. O fynyw hyd faen gaer 
lleon. M.A. 2223.4. caer uyrtin vein (?). M.A. 2263.23. 
yg goleuad gwlad gwledic veinyon (pi. ?). M.A. i6ia.2O. 
magna itself is similarly used in Med.W. A dewi ae goruc 
gwr bieifyt/ Magna vab (= Jesus) yn vyw ae varw deudyt. 
M.A. 1953. ii. see also meinyeu (under yeuyeu), and maynawl. 

maynaul f. an arbitrary division of the country containing 
4 trefs. Pedeyr trew ym pob m3ynaul a deudeg m. a duy drew 
ym pob kymut 65.14. ny dylyir gossot ar y maynoleu ryd na 
mser na chygellaur na chylch na doowreth na dym namyn a 
dywedassam ny uchot eythyr kylch maer yr teulu y gayaf 67.2. 
or deudec maynaul a dyly uot yny kymut. pedeyr a uyd o 
ueybyon eyllyon y borthy kun a meyrch a chylch a dooureth. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 213 

ac un kyghelloryaeth ac un uayrony ar lleyll yn ueybyon 
uchelwyr rydyon 66.1. m. ryd free maenol 67.2 ; 68.21 ; 69.6, 14. 
m. caeth bond maenol 69.16. 42.18; 65.14-25; 66.1, 6, 28; 67.1. 
pi. maynoleu 67.2; maynolyd 69.16. As suggested in W.P., 
p. 218, maenawl is probably a compound of maen but most likely 
it is maen=Zord; and not maen 'stone } ; so that literally 
m.=' domain/ 'lordship. cf. Odwy vaenawl/Daear a nef. 
M.A.3iib.i6. The -aul is < awr (r > 1, as cythrawl < Lat. 
contrarius; cadafel<Lat. cadaver, (late borr. etc.)<or district, 
country, border. see M.A. I2b.i6; i62b.io; goror. M.A. 
823.29; 1413.31; i5ob-37; pedror, or pedeiror. M.A. 26b-39, 42; 
i5ob-3, etc. see maen 2. for or see 'orlo.' K.R. p. 70. 

maer, mayr m. steward, reeve, one of the two principal 
stewards that superintended the king's estates, and next to the 
chancellor in dignity, kyghellaur a dyly rannv yrygthav ar 
brenhyn. a dewys yr brenhyn. maer yrygthav ar kyghellaur 
66.13. Meyrydyon a chyghelloryon a dylyant kyureythyau eu 
gvlat a gwneuthur y dadlei 66.9. ny dyly na maer na 
chychellaur bot yn benkenedyl narnyn o uchelwyr eu gwlat 
66.21. 9.13; 24.19; 25.12; 38.22; 60.1, 3; 66.13, 14, 18, 21 ; 67.3, 
4; 70.1; 78.5; 125.13. maer keghellaur seems to have been over 
the maer and kyghellaur. Ebedyu maer k. punt Ebedyu maer 
.LXLX. Ebedyhu keghellaur .LXLX. 125.12. 38.22; 127.25. maer 
bysweyl the third of the ten minor servants who was responsible 
for the king j s furniture and property and the affairs of the 
maerdref. pop maer bysweyl ... a dely . . . guarchadu e 
llys ef a dely senyau urth deodreuen ac urth da e brenyn en e 
llys 15.17. 19.27; 23.22; 24.17, 28; 41.17; 60.6; 67.12, 27; 68.2, 
3; 68.9, 13. pi. meirri 54.28; meyrydyon 66.19; 67.29. m. = Lat. 
maior. Loth p. 183. 

maertref f. a tref set aside in every kwmwd for the king's use. 
deudeg maynaul a duydrew ym pob kymut. y duydrew a dyly 
bot yn reyt brenhyn. vn onadunt a dyly bot yn tyr maertrew 
ar lleyll yn dyfeyth brenhyn ac yn hauot dyr 65.15. e porthaur 
... a dely guesyau guyr e uaertref y gueyth 26.8. gwyr y 
uaertrew a dyly gwneuthur odyn ac yscubaur yr brenhyn ac 
... a dylyant dyrnu a chrassu a medy a llywnu a Had gweyr 
a cheyssyau gwellt a chynut y gnyuer gweyth y del y brenhyn 
yr llys 68. n. 24.21, 23, 26; 26.7, 9; 41.17; 60.7; 67.8, 28; 68.5. 

mayrony, maerony f. the maer's office. 55.26; 56.18; 66.3; 
68.1. 

mat's, mays law court out in the open, place of meeting of the 



214 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

court. Puybynnac a holo peth a dyuot yr maes ac yn y maes 
kylyati ohanav a hot yn well ganthau tewy no holy 130.1. 
adau y maes to abandon the case. 131.3. 52.14, 22; 53.22, 34; 
54.8; 82.10, ii ; 130.14; 131.14; 133.21, 23. cf. llanerch o faes. 
W.B. col. 120.16= llanerch dec wastat. R.B.I 195.29. 

maeth nurture, fosterage, tnab m. foster son. O deruyd y 
huchelur roy y uab ar uab eyllt argluyt ay dyhodef undyt a 
bluyn . . . y uab y maeth byeuyt y tyr 124.24. 

makal f. a noose, a fence (?), a measure of land containing 
twelve acres, puebennac a guenel keuar ae kylyt yaun eu ydau 
rody bod vrthau a karuaruod e llau ae kylyd a guedy guenelynt 
hynny y kadu eny darfey e makal. Sef eu e makal .xn. eru 
107.5. 108.3. teilwg oed . . . y guduc y doeth y brat ohonaw 
y dagu or magyl ef yn yr awyr vry (Historia Judas.) 
H.MSS.II 274.9. O r dygwyd pren ar traws auon a thynu 
magleu ar y pren ; perchenawc y tir . . . a dyly y douot. 
A.L.I 792.xii. see Loth p. 183. 

maharncn a ram. 93.18. pi. meheryn ii6.n. 

1. mal, val, mel, uel, mall (a) (conj.) as. talet e kenedl 
trosdy mal tros gur 41.21. jaunt jv y paup eistet en e lie mal 
er eystedus e did kint 54.2, etc. 

(b) so that, -with the result that, e geylguad a dele . . . galu 
val na torhoent e kaloneu 109.7. cae [dust] val na clehuo .vi. 
byu a .cxx. aryant 105.12. 3.5; 7.8; 9.1; 10.13; 11.4; 14-31; 
17.26; 19.29; 30.17; 31.2; 33.11, 28; 34.4; 37.22; 38.14; 40.8, ii ; 
41.21; 44.13; 45.18, 24, etc. 

(c) (noun) manner, form, yn yr ual kynt 133.6. ac y ual hyn 
y dylyir duyn mab y alltud 72.9. y uelly thus, so. Guedi 
darvo eiste euelly 52.20. 56.15, 21; 59.18; 60.6; 61.5; 62.14, 16; 
63.19, 20; 64.3; 66.6, 9, etc. 

2. mal tribute ( ?), resources ( ?). sew y messvrus ew hyhy yr 
guybot y mal ay mylltyryeu ay hymdeythyeu yn y dyeoeth 
65.1. cf. er gwybod mod yr ynys ay milltireu. LI. MS. 116, 
p. 72.23. Nyt oes na mal na threth a dylyom ni y talu y 
charlymaen. H.MSS.II 95.10. heb val a heb ardreth a heb 
vedyant ydyn or byt na haul arnei. Eluc. 124.14. 121.27. 
mal = Rhent, banner tal. Rep.MSS.II 933.4. It is probably /or 
'eur mal' milled gold, money. Eluc. 97.11. D.G. xxvi.6. but 
cf. Ir. mal tax, tribute. Dineen. 

mall see mal i. 

mam f. mother, vuen (wyn) tra uuynt en denu eu cuarchae 
. . . neu eu kemescu ac eu mam 112.24. mam egluys 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 215 

metropolitan church (see eglwys) 30.14. 33.10; 35.21; 36.6; 
37.13; 39.21; 41.5; 44.19; 47.25; 49.22; 62.23; 72-7, 17, 29; 734, 
9, 23; 74-9, 12, 13; 75.20, 25, 26; 79.3; 93.3; 112.24, 26; 116.15; 
125.7; 129.5, 10, 16; 134.3. 

mamuys, mamvys right of inheritance through mother, 
mother, rey a dyweyt na dyly meybyon un wreyc trewtat o 
uamvys 61.25. n yt oes un wreyc ynteu a ymrodho ehun y 
alltud a dylyo y meybyon uamvys 62.6. ac y uelly y cerda yr 
alanas o uamuys y uamvys hyt y seythuet uamvys 75.27. 
39.16, 23; 62.3, 5; 66.23; 75-27- see A.L.II isS.xxiv; 286.iii. 
see cynwys, pwys. 

man small, little, fine, e man escrybyl sef eu e rey heny 
deueyt ar huyn ar meneu ar yrch 9.14. goger man 33.15. 9.14, 
16; 19.27; 97.3; 98.19; 113.5; 118.19. 

manach a monk, kany deleant buy guadu mach ny delleant 
huy roy mach nyt amgen a manach [ac] hermidiur a din 
aghefiei[t]h ac scoleic escol a fop dyn ni hallo deuot hep cannat 
arall 48.27. 30.22 manac; 133.7. pi- menich 54.28. 

manac, mynac information, o key! anyueyl ar keueylhorn 
ef a dely .1111. keynawc manac 29.16. dogyn uynac. complete 
information of a crime given to the lord, and affirmed on oath 
in the church before a priest, when the informer dared not make 
the accusation publicly through fear. Puy bynnac a uynho 
gwneuthur dogyn uynac aet aryrargluyd a dywedet rywneuthur 
lledrat o dyn ny leueys y dyweduyt arnau ay rac y uonhed ay 
rac y uedyant . . . tyghet yn gyntaw ar drus yr egluys . . . 
ac yn erbyn hynny ny ellyr dym 80.6-16. ual y keffit manac 
ar ved arthur y gossodassant wy y groes ar llythyr yndi. 
Ll.MS. 4, f. 5o8b.i9. 

nianec f. glove, gauntlet, pi. menyc. croen euyc y gueneu- 
thur menyc y a[r]gueyn y hebauc 11.12. 67.23. menyc gleision 
a roesswn yn Haw y clochyd eu cadw pan yttoed yn ymparattoi 
y gladu y corff. P.MS. 5.xxviii. m.<Lat. manica. Loth p. 184. 

mancc (?) chaps (A.O.). sef goluythyon e duy vanec val e 
deu corn ay tauaut, etc. 96.5. deriv. of mant gums ( ? ). 

mum-In to chop, cut. ny dely ef manelu e kenut or ansaud y 
doto ar e march 27.9. manylu y cynnud. L.W. 65 5. am 
orchwyl manyledd (delicate). Ll.MS. 209, p. 478. ar gorff y 
fanwl fun (slender, pretty). ibid. p. 629. yd oed esgyrn 
gwenhwyuar yn vanolach smaller. Ll.MS. 4, f. 5063.5. 

mannat a mass, lump, mannat emenyn cyvlet ar dysgyl 



216 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

letaw a uo yn y trew a chyndewet ac y bo deu uoeldyrnuet 
yndau 69.25. manhat emenyn, id est, [vets]. A.L.II 784-xiv. 
written also menneit. A.L.I 770. xi. 

man tell f. a mantle. O deniyt guelet greyc en deuot or 
parthun yr lluen ar gur or parch arall . . . neu en deuot neu 
adan vn vantell 39.11. 11.16; 25.11; 38.12; 96.17; 104.12, 14; 
128.25. pi. mentyl 34.2; mentil 34.1. see dynnesyt, gurem. 

march m. a horse of two years and upwards. 4.20; 6.21 ; 8.9; 
9.1, 3; 10.3, 24; 11.4, 5; 12.2, 7; 13.5, 7, 8, 17, 28; 14.6, 21 ; 15.10, 
27; 17.17, 32; 18.21 ; 19.1, 24; 20.9, 28; 21.12, 24, 26; 22.2,8, 18; 
23.1, 10, 26, 32; 24.2, 6, 9; 25.30; 27.6, 10; 30.6; 46.12, 14; 47-36; 
48.1, 2; 59.3; 69.7; 78.29; 79.1; 88.14, 17, 23; 89.23; 90.2; 109.16; 
112. 16; 115.9, 12. pi. meyrch 3.16; 4.2; 6.18; 29.8, 12; 42.14, 23; 
66.2; 88.21; in. i, 4. meyr 4.2. 

ma rebuilt' m. a horseman, one of the king's bodyguard (?). 
ac or oet hunnv allan y byd un ureynt a bonhedyc canhuynaul. 
canyt oes ureynt ydav namyn y uonhed. ac nat esgyn ynteu 
ymreynt y tat yny uo mam y dat. ac na byd marchauc nep 
yny esgynno 71.10. cf. brenyn a dele uod eny kedemdeythas 
undyn ar pemdec ar ueyrch arugeyn en marchokaet e peduuar 
suydauc arugeyn a deudec guestey heb y teulu ay guyrda ay 
gueysyon, etc., 3.15. 

marchty a stable. 67.26. 

marchokaet riding, ef a dely march ... a marchokaet 
arnau en menet y kenuta 27.7. 3.17. 

[marchocau] to ride. 3 sg. pres. subj. marchoco 7.1; 11.16; 
12.9; marchoho 23.27. pass, markocer. 

mardaf pr. n. one of the princes of the north, ac guedi y 
lad [elidir muhenuaur] e doeht guir e kocled ema oy dial sef 
guir a doedant en tehuishocyon vdhunt clidno eydin. a nud 
hael ... a mardaf hael vab seruari 41.29. 

maru (a) dead, puebennac a kaffo lluden en uaru glan ar tyr 
96.25. 4.5; 8.8; 18.13; 38.18, 30; 38.32 emru; 39.13, 14; 47-12; 
59.23; 60.12; 66.19; 70.25, 27; 71.6, 10573.25; 89.15; 97.1; 116.2; 
118.14; 119-2, 27; 120.15; 121.16; 124.7, ii, 25; 128.11; 134.16. 
a dead person 29.26. 

(b) death, os o uaru a beu ed escarant 34.14. 34.12. 

(c) to die. O deruyd kau dol ar ecchen a maru vn onadunt 
108.6. 47.2, 16; 125.20; 126.15. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 217 

marwaul inanimate, dead. Os peth m. a damdug damdyghet 
ay lau assu ar y lie mynno ydau. Os anyueyl a damdug 
etc., 81.15. 

marudy extinct house, the house of an intestate. O byd 
maru tnab o bedeyrbluyd ar dec allan ac na bo edyuet ydau y 
argluyd byeuuyd y da yn gubyl a marudy uyd y ty 71.7. 25.12 ; 
70.25. Llyma wyth bvnvarch ... a marwdy kanys o byd 
marw dyn heb gymynv y da yr arglwyd biev y da oil. A.L.II 
258. v. Tri marw dy cyfreithiawl a ddyly brenin : un ty maru 
o angeu deisyfyt, . . . ty ringyll brenhin . . . trydyd llys 
esgob canys diffeith brenhin yw y dda am na eill gymynnu. 
II 6o8.xxiii. 

niaur big, great, ae ar peht mauur ay ar pesh beccan 45.14. 
hossaneu maur 103.7 8.23; 12.10; 30.31; 45.11; 46.6, 17, 18,19; 
102.24; 119-11, 14; 127.15. cotnpar. muy. nyt mvy nyt lley 
66.1. ny dyly y tat y uaydu mvy noc estraun 71.4. 3.4; 35.12 ; 
52.21; 53.29; 56.6; 63.15; 124.24; 134.8. superl. muyhaf, mueahf 
6-7J 37-25; 80.20; 126.14. 

maurth, mahurth March. 25.10; 86.11, 21; 91.3. 

mechni f. suretyship. Nini a deuedun na dyle naut rac hinny 
ac e dely e mach rodi gustel yr haullur neu enteu a guato e 
uechny 46.23. 44.17 wecni ; 45.12 wni ; 45.22. see mach. 

[mcchnyaeth] suretyship. Tri peth ni deleir naud racdunt. 
. . . Goruotdogaith a mechinaith a goresgin 51.2. 30.29, ,50 
uecnyaeth. 

[raedru] to hit, strike. 3 sg. pres. ind. meder. O deruyd y 
forthaul yar e fort gueled anyueyl . . . nyd yaun ydau y saythu 
nay erlyt onys meder yar e fort 123.28. sef a wnaeth y mab y 
vwrw ai uedru y rwng giewyn y esgeir ar asgwrn. R.B.I 71.2. 
ae wreic a vedrawd arnaw yno his wife came upon him there. 
Eluc. 108.26. (see note.) medru modrydaf ar heid. M.A. 
2033.41. yna y brenhin ar vrenhines aaethant y ymolchi ac 
aaethant y eisted A phawb y am hynny a vedrawd y gyfle. 
H.MSS.I 191.7. cf. Fr. mettre to put, etc. (?). 

medy (a) to reap, harvest, bressyc a llyn heb uedy neu 
eghart heb uedy 114.5. 68.15. see Old Leech Bk. ; Walde meto. 
(b) harvest, rac llesdeyrau e medi e kenhaf 51.32. 

med mead. messur guyraut kefreythyaul eu lloney[d] e 
llestry e gualloyer endunt o kuref. ac eu haner o uragaut ac 
eu trayan o ued 18.29. 10.14; 17.22; 18.25; 22.28; 25.6; 66.29; 
68.23 ; 69-8. see Ped.I 28.2. 



218 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

med says, declares, decrees, defect, vb. 3 sg. pres. ind. 
y naud eu med rey hyd ar penguastraut e brenyn ereyll a 
deueyt panyu, etc., 21.28. 25.24. cf. Breutuyd ae dyweid a 
duw ae met. M.A. ig8b. Moesen ai dywawd a Duw ai medd. 
M.A. 2423.47; 2453. 18. Duw a vedd, dyn a levair. M.A. 8443.41. 
Dr.D.Prov. with. Dyn a ddywaid Duw a farn. M.A. 359^37. 
Dyn a lefair Duw a farn 3613.21. see Walde meditor; cf. 
gomedd refuse. 

medkell f. cellar, e dysteyn a dele medhu en guastat e buyt 
en e kecyn. ar llyn en e uedkell 9.25. 18.22, 26. 

medhu to possess, to have, be responsible for. ac ny dyly 
medu un geynnyauc yn hynny o amser namyn a uedho y tat 
70.24. e dysteyn ... a dely medhu buyd a llyn er estauel 
20.29. Nyny a deuedun na deleyr kemenu hyc a uo egkauar 
. . . kany dele nep kamenu namen e ped a uedho ac ny med 
enteu ar hunnu 110.13. 9.24; 15.13; 71.4. 3 sg. pres. ind. med 
110.13. subj. medho 70.25; 110.13. 



medu drunk. 
medu 120. 10. 



Nyd gueneuthuredyc dym or au guenel dyn 



medul m. a thought. Testylaeth a ellyr ar eyr a gueytret ac 
ny ellyr testyolaet ar uedul 121.4. cf. Ir. midiur. see Walde 
meditor. 

medyant m. power, possession, kany dele guestau namen a 
uo en y uedyant 110.17. Puy bynnac a uynho gwneuthur dogyn 
uynac aet ar yr argluyd a dywedet ry wneuthur lledrat o dyn 
ny leueys y dyweduyt arnau ay rac y uonhed ay rac y uedyant 
80.10. 52.21 ; 55.23. yssawl ae kymerth ef a rodes medyant 
vdunt y vot yn veibon yduw. Eluc. 74.5. kanys dyn a dylyei 
vot yn vfyd y veddyant duw ac oe ewyllys. Eluc. 13.29. yna 
ydywat peder vrthaw. nyt oes yn ni veddyant yny byt. Eluc. 
83.1. 

medyanus having power or authority, pop pewkerd telyn a 
dele ykan e keroryon telyn . . . .xxuii. ac enteu a dele y 
guasanaet ual gur m. arnadunt 128.21. mwyhaf ydachwaneco 
y medyant mwyaf y chwennych y medyannus. Car.Mag. 80.19. 

medyd mead-steward, mead-brewer, naud [e medyd] eu or 
pan dechreuho ef gueneuthur keruyn uet. eny ruymo y huyl 
am y pen 17.21. 17.27. 

medyc a leech. Deudecuet [suydauc] eu e medyc . . . y naud 
eu or pan archo e brenyn ydau uenet urth dyn archolledyc 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 219 

nac en llys e bo nac eyhyr e llys . . . ef a dely medhecynyat 
rad yr a uo en e llys 18.2. 5.9; 18.8, 10, 12; 106.8, 14. 

medhecynyat medicament, medical treatment, e penteulu 
... a dele m. rad pan ueno 7.20. medyc a dely kemryt telluet 
ykan kenedel er archolledyc o byt maru or uedhecynyat a 
guenel ef 18.13. 18.4, 10, n; 43.4; 106.3, 5, 6, 7. Mwyaf m. 
yw tynnv asgwrn twnn i ar bilionen etnennydd. Rep.MSS.I 
17 35- 

meuel disgrace, shame, unau m. ar uaraf to curse, esef eu 
e try phec e dele y maedhu am rodhy pehec ny deleho y roy ac 
am y cafael can gur. am hunau meuel ary uaraf 38.4. rygueusur 
meuel a ssarhaet 37.19. meuyl barueu. A.B. 289.12. M.A. 
913.3. Mefl ar dy farf yn Arfon. Ac ar dy vvefl mefl ym Mon 
D.G. cxxv-3. Ar gwr llwyt a dywawt. mevyl ar varyf vym 
porthawr. R.B.I. 216.14. O deruyd y wreic dywedut geir g6yth- 
Ia6n wrth y g6r val una6 mefyl ar y varyf neu ua6 yny danned 
neu y a!6 yn gosta6e. A.L.II 94-cxlviii. bar mefyl bar sarhayt 
bar cam bar ennuet. L.L. 120.23, etc. m. = Ir. mebul, mebol 
shame, disgrace. 

mekyneu bellows, [guerth] e mekyneu .vin. 102.26. a 
chwythu y megineu yny vyd y ty yn burwenn. R.B.I. 33.1. see 
begin. Loth p. 137. 

megys as. rannu deuhanner a by megis a gureyc 36.21. 
vrth henne vegis na dele gur talu amen vn abedyu vegis henne 
ny dele greyc talu amen vn amobor 39.6. 4.15 ; 36.21, 29 ; 47.16 ; 
62.25; 71.24; 72.10. 

mehcfyn June. 116.14. 

mel honey, try pheth ny eyll tayauc y guerthu heb kanyat 
y argluyt amus a mel a moch 29.17. 66.28; 67.10. 

mel 34.4. see mal. 

mclyn a mill, try thlus kenedyl y gelwyr melyn a choret a 
perllan 63.12. For a description of a mill -with illustrations of 
some of the implements used see P.MS. 56. 

mena see mynnu. 
meneclauc see mynyglauc. 

menney a trough, [guerth] menney .1. [hep ardyrchaval sef 
achavs ew vrth nat oes clawr ydy] 100.20. for v.l. see A.L. 
296.xxxvii. m. [alveus], A.L.II 8o4.xxxvii. mennei=moil 
vawr. P.MS. 51, p. 192. m.=meil vawr. P.MS. 169, p. 286. 

mcntil see mantell. 



220 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

merch daughter. Ny dele merch o da e tat namen cemeynt 
a banner a cafo e braut 39.30. 36.30-32; 38.22-24; 64.19; 71.14, 
19; 77.29; 127.9-24; 128.2, 3. pi. merchet ii.n; 13.30; 16.1; 
24.22; 28.3, 17; 66.18; 68.7; 126.19; 127.8. 

meredig see dyferedyg. 

messur m. measure, amount, allowance, extent. messur 
guyraut kefreythyaul eu lloney[t] e llestry e gualloyer endunt 
o kuref ac eu haner o uragaut ac eu trayan o ued 18.27. niessur 
corflan eru keuureithiaul 51.19. 37.8; 56.5, 19; 59.11; 65.2, 6; 
69.6, 24; 75.17, 18; 91.7; 106.3; 107.6; 109.9. pl- messuryeu 
64.24. 

messurau to measure, sef baut a dele m. e llestyr baud er 
enat 91.10. 3 sg. pret. ind. messurus 64.26, 29; 65.2. 

messurur measurer, ac ny symudus hywel messuryeu y 
tyred yr ynys hon namyn ual y hedewys dywynwal canys goreu 
m. oed ew 64.26. 

meu mine. poss. pron. i sg. cam yu y ty gwarchadu y meu 
y 81.4. see teu. 

meuhedus n.l. aber m. en aruon 41.31. 

lueun inside, y maer bysweyl a dyly kyweyryau llys y 
brenyn oy mevn 68.3. ymeun mynwent 134.21. 12.11; 25.27; 
132.11. emeun 30.18; 117.11. o ueun inside 25.27. 

mey the month of May. 51.28, 37; 88.10; 90.17; 91.16. kauad 
uey a slight shower 91.14. see kauad. 

mey see yeuyeu. 

[meychyau] to give bail, security. 3 sg. pret. ind. meychyus. 
Arall yu bey darfey y ur Had gur arall a rneychyeu o genedyl y 
llowrud ar yr alanas. a chyn talu yr alanas duyn oy uam y 
llowrud y tat arall. y gyureyth a dyweyt panyv y genedel a 
ueychyus ar yr alanas byeu y talu 73.5. 73-7- 

meychyeu see mach. 

meyg f. a bench, y le en e llys en tal e ueyg en emyl er 
efeyryat teulu 28.6. 5.14. pedeir gradd llys arglwydd ysydd 
kyntedd ac radd a meink a lleithig . . . y feink yr magwyeid. 
Rep.MSS.I 414 199. see tal 2. 

meyl a bowl, cup. [guerth] meyl tyrling 101.13. noe bren 
noe meil. P.MS. 51, p. 191. Cyrn a meiliau. L.W. 48 13. 
see menney. 

meynholy to question closely ( ?) . poe bennac a dhecco moruuyn 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 221 

en lladlud a kin bod achaus a hi gouin beth a roy dy emy a 

meynnyholi ohonau ef e mejnt a rodhey a hene ar e gred 35.23 

31.8. see A.L.I 793-xi. P.MS. 35, p. gib.iS has meintoli. 
Ll.MS. 174, p. 42.18; 51.11. meynholy. P.MS. 228. aestimo= 
Cywerthyddiaw . . . meintoli . . . dwysvedhyliaw. 

meynt size, amount, talet . . . e coguyll ae jhaguedhy en e 
ueynt vueahf a deleho 37-35- 35-23 ; 75.17; 82.17. 

meyr St. Mary. Gwyl ueyr kentaf August i^th. 116.7. 
meyr see march. 

meythryn to rear, foster, a gued[y] ganer e mab hyteu byeu 
e ueythtrin ef 37.6. O dyryd mab uchelwr y uab ar uab eyllt 
argluyd ar ueythryn gan y gannyat 68.19. 37-3- J 2 ; 38.29; 41.7; 
73.25; 81.24; 93-24J 130-22; 132.25. 

mi see my. 

modi, mocc swine, teyr ruyd gurda y ueyrch ay guarthec ay 
uocch eny kafo dyn anyueyl en eu plyt[h] huy talet .1111. 29.12. 
Gwerth porchell or nos e ganer hyd eny el en tonuo k. hyd tra 
uo en denu .11. k. esef eu hene trymys ac ohenne eny el e moch 
yr koet banu vyt a .1111. k. e guert 92.28. 26.3; 29.12; 33.5; 
42.12; 87.2; 92.28; 93.9; 112.26; 113.4, 7, 9, n, 15, 16, 17; 116.17; 
117.15. moch koet wild swine, a .ix. uetyt kalangayaf e may 
yaun ydau uenet y kely (hely) moch koet ac oheny e dely uod 
en eu hely hyd kalan mystacuet 16.21-25. 

mocherya (of a boar) pursuing a sow. Nyd yaun dale baeth 
yn amser en mocherya ii6.n. 

moduet f. an inch, the length of three barleycorns, try hyt 
gronyn heyd yn y uotued. teyr modued yn lied palyw 65.7. 
65-3; 91-8; 107.7, 8. 

modruy a thumb-ring, a ring. 15.5; 103.16. pi. modruyeu. 
pop tlus brenyn y fuoleu ay uodruyeu 99.18. 4.3 ; 14.18. 

mod red ai', m. guenyn the stock swarm, a mother swarm. 
guerth m. guenyn .xxim. ac euelle hyd kalangauaf o k. allan 
henlleu vyd a .iinxx. a tal 95.19. 98.15. Modrydaf gwedy 
ydel y gyntheit ohonei vgeint a tal. A.L.I 502. ix. Heit heb 
uodrydaf hu byd. A.B. 270.15. cf. Un mab Mair modrydaf 
teyrnedd. M.A. 267^15. see M.A. 140^35; 2033.41. m.= 
modr+ bydaf. There is an interesting variant in A.L.II 871.8. 
Modredaf [mater] apum, id est, wrach. bydaf is apparently a 
compound of *byg ( = Ir. bech a b^e) + *daf=Ir. dam retinue, 
company. (W.W.) (notwithstanding Walde, where bydaf is = 



222 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

Ir. beth-samain.) The same byg is seen in bygegyr (drone) = 
*byg + hegyr. The force of hegyr ( = Lat. securus (?)) is seen 
in the neg. ehegyr= quick. 

mod m. manner, fashion, -way. O try mod e deleyr amobor y 
grejc. o rod ac estyn, etc., 38.19. a dyall modd i sodiak . . . 
ar 7 Waned. P.MS. 22, p. 309. m. = Lat. modus. Fed. 122. 

moel f. heap, head, llestyr emenyn try dyrnued yn y hyt 
hep y uoel 6g.n = Tjas butyri trium palmarum sit in longo et in 
lato sine moyl [summitate]. A.L.II 784. iii. riscen emenyn 
. . . teir dyrnued o let a their dyrnued o tewhet heb voel. 
P.MS. 363, p. 65. 3. cf. et butirum ad modum mole formatum 
unius pugni spissitudinem habens. A.L.II 828. xv. m. is 
probably borrowed from the Med.Lat. mola or rather the genit. 
mole 'millstone,' 'handmill.' It appears to be the same as moel 
hill, eminence, moil y wydfa. Rep.MSS.I 343. Ll.MS. 209, 
p 21. Bron y voel. Rep.MSS.I 1086 392. ban .i. moel o 
bhynydh. P.MS. 118, p. 465. (cf. Ir. mescan lump of butter, 
a earn on a mountain top.) Also the same as the moel of 
moelrhon, moelrhawn, moeirhoniaid seal. M.A. 725^28. D.G. 
clxvi-38. i.e., the f rhon' or 'animal' with the head globular 
like the upper quernstone. It is often used in the genit. 
meaning 'bare/ and the transition can be seen in -words like 
breuan dinvoel. M.A. 8513.36. The Manx inney-veayl quoted 
in Trib.Syst., p. 119, appears to mean 'the girl of the mill' and 
not 'bald or cropped girl' for, the Irish and Welsh Laws define 
the gwenigawl, or higher kind of bond-servant, as 'one who 
goes neither to shovel or quern (see gweynydawg; Joyce II 
330). The Engl. expression 'bushel without a heap' preserves 
the same meaning as the 'llestyn hep y uoel' above, see 
dyrnuet. 

moelmud pr. n. 64.18. 

niollt a wether, fat sheep, messur daunbuyt yr haw mollt 
teyrbluyd, etc., 69.25. In estate uero, aries trium annorum 
uiuus, et crassus, pro uno dono, quern nos dicimus maharayn. 
A.L.II 785-vi. cf. Eng. multones fat sheep. D.I. 171.- Ir. molt 
wether, ram = Med.Lat. multo sheep, mutton. But see Skeat 
who regards it as Celtic. 

mor m. the sea. O bum y mor betheu yr tyr neu yr traeth. 
hunnv byeuyt y brenhyn canys pynuarch y brenhyn yv 63.11. 
29.25; 64.12, 29; 78.10; 85.8. 

morduyt m. the thigh. 35.16; 43.7. morduith 43.1. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 223 

moruyl a sea monster, a whale, ascurn moruyl a kind of 
ivory obtained from the sperm-whale, narwhale or walrus. 
[guerth] taulburt o ascurn moruyl .LX. o byd blayn corn hyt 
.xxiin. 100. i. m. itself is used in this sense, ef a dely yr 
brenyn talburd o uoruyl 15.4. 12.4. Tavlborth [abacus'} de 
ossibus marine belue LX. denarios -valet. A.L.II 775. xxx. A 
bwa o asgwrn eliphant . . . ae saetheu ac eu pelydyr o asgwrn 
moruil. R.B.I 163.30. karneu eu kylleill o asgwrn m. I 216.8. 
cyfrwy o asgwrn m. H.MSS.I 191.19; II 333.22. corn [canu] 
o asgwrn m. H.MSS. 32.32; 275.9. C.M. 15.30. cetus gl. 
moruil. Z 2 . 1074. ascurn morfil ebur. P.MS. 169, p. 285. 

mortuyl a hammer, [guerth] m. damdung 101.21. 

moruyn f. a virgin, o rodjr morujn y hur ac j kafael en 
gureic 35-27- 3i-5, 6; 34.6; 35.22; 36.5; 37.24, 27; 39.26, 28; 
40.13-18; 41.9; 130.17, 18; 133.16-25. 

moruyndaut virginity, maidenhood, puybynnac a dorro m. 
gwreyc dyly ohanav talu ydy y chowyll 130.20. 31.5. 

moruyngreic virgin-wife. O deruyd roy moruyn e gur a heb 
kesku kanthy a cafael cam ohoney vrth vreynt e gur et da 
... a honno a geluuyr moruyngreyc 41.11. H.MSS. II 151.14. 
m. a young woman. 

mryt 36.12. see ymrodu. 

1. mud dumb, dyn mud ny telyr ydau . . . saraet . -. . kany 
deueyt ehun y deleu 120.15. 121.6. 

2. mud a cage or mews (for birds during the period of 
moulting). Or pan dotho y hebauc emud enyu tenno allan 
ii. 21. 95.11. cf. na golwc hebawc mut. na golwc gwalch 
trimut nyt oed olwc degach nor eidi. R.B.I 117.24. m.<Med. 
Lat. muta. Loth p. 188. see mudteyr. 

3. mud. Dywynwal moel mud 64.18. 

mudteyr to mew. Nyth hebauc punt a tal en keu rud .cxx. 
guedy bo mudteyr a gwyn punt os brenyn byeuuyt. os mab 
vchelur .cxx. o byt muteyr 95.6. Postquam de [muta] extractus 
fuerit, si albus fuerit, id est ,muter libram valet. A.L.II 823. xii. 
Korting gives a prov. form mudar from Lat. mutare and 
mudteyr, muteyr appear to be from the muter of the Lat. text 
quoted above likewise from mutare. mudteyr appears to have 
been resolved into the two words mud + teyr and regarded^ 
termud, tremud, trimud, (tre-, ter-, tri=try. Ir. tar-). In the 
famous passage in R.B.I 117.24 gwalch trimut has always, I 
think, been translated 'thrice mewed falcon'; but so far as I 



224 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

have seen the Laws in the detailed regulations concerning 
falcons nowhere recognise this 'thrice-mewed falcon.' Tennud 
in M.A. 2oib ; 2O2a ; aSab (notwithstanding Dr.D.) appears to 
be formed from these same elements; so also tremid M.A. aoab; 
2373 and apparently trimud which has the same meaning, see 
M.A. 22ia; 252b; 257b; 2673. (With this last cf. triuawr. M.A 
254b. trillit. M.A. 2903. triphoeneu. M.A. 3133). trimud 
then means 'thoroughly mewed.' see mud 2. 

[muryaw (?)] to fix, decide, part. pass, muryedyc fixed. 
nyt oes gobyr muryedyc y uab uchelwr yn dadleu namyn 
herwyd y mynho yr argluyd y rody ydau 66.26. O derfydd i 
ddyn ladd y Hall a digwyddaw [al. murjaw] galanas arnaw. 
L.W. 500 5. muryedic yv [yny] kyfreith pvy bynnac a lysso 
yn anamser ef a gyll y amser. A.L.II i86.iii. ac vrth hynny 
can aethost ti yn erbyn yr hyn yssyd uuryedic yny gyfreith 
[ny dylyy titheu caffel herwyd kyfreith]. II iSS.iii. see also 
II 176. vi; II 238. iv; II 430. vii; II 652.ix; II 7i2.iii. muredic. 
P.MS. 35, f. 3b.i3; 43.5, 6, n, 23. [mi] a furiaf fur fel na chafto 
hi ei llwybrau. Hosea II 6. dryllio mvriav'r wal. Rep.MSS. 
I 743 116. cf. difurio to undo, duw rren dvc edwart vrenin/ 
di fvrio llwyth dufr a llin. P.MS. 61, p. 40. 

muc m. smoke, llety [er hebogyt] eu er escubaur e brenyn 
rac dale muc ar y adar 10.27. cf- a phan delei annwyt arnei y 
byryei arffedeit or us ampenn y tan hyt nat oed hawd y dyn 
or byt diodef y muc hwnnw y mywn y dwy ffroen. W.B. col. 
202.29. 

[mwng] mug mane, mug march vn guer ae y fruyn vn guert 
ae y talkudyn y kebystyr 89.7. 90.9. Precium mung \jube] 
equi. A.L.II Sgi.xliii. 

muynau, mueuhau to use, employ, enjoy, ac ena e mae jaun 
ir haulur dodi em pen er eneyt pan niu effo adedeuis en kentaf 
testion a kitueit a deleu ohonau enteu muenhau en kentaf ac 
ena e may yaun yr eneit erchi ydau enteu duyn y keditveit ay 
testion y eu muinahu 54.10. 43.14; 47.28. pres. pass, muyneyr. 
Bedeyr a deyllyon ny muyneyr dym or a deuetoent e dadaleu 
kanys guelsant dym a kany keleusant vrth hene ny muyneyr 
dym onadunt 120.19. imperat. pass, munaher. y lleidir James 
wyt ti yna . . . y cnewest hi ag ti nodest hi ag ti mwynest hi 
ag ti pitchmarkest hi. Brecon Papers, II Sessions, 759. 

muynyant profit, benefit, ny dele neb godro escrybyl blith 
ac uent en dale yr uod en perchennauc yr escrybyl nac un 
muynyant arnadunt 119.23. 37.3; 43.8. Tri th!6s kenedyl. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 225 

melin. a choret. a pherllan. a rei hynny ny dylyir y ranu 
nae kychwyn namyn rannu eu m6ynyant yr neb ae dylyo. 
P.MS. 35, p. 75b.y. Kynllyuan o uaryf dissull uarcha6c . . . ac 
ny ellir m6ynnyant a hi. onyt ac ef yn vy6 y tynnir oe uaryf 
R.B.I 124.16. cf. Ceneu milgi a morwyn ni cheif eu mwyn a'u 
maco. see Milgi. Pughe. 

mi, my /, me. pers. pron. i sg. bef. vb. mi, my; immediately 
foil, vy, uy, y 44.5, etc. ; 2 sg. ty, dy, ti, (a)thy 53.2, 12 ; 129.19, 
etc. 3 sg. m. ef, ew. sometimes used impers. = Mod. fe, ef a 
deleyr talu couuyll ydhy 41.12. i pi. ni, ny 4.21, etc. 2 pi. 
chwi. nys talaf ycgui ; ycguic 46.14. 3 pi. huynt, huent, uynt, 
vynt, uent usually before a verb 63.27; 64.10; 68.16, etc. buy, 
uy, vy after a vb. 132.2. after pron. prep. 51.4, 5; 53.37; 55- l8 J 
76.5, etc. 

my, my poss. adj. i sg. fy; y 81.4. 2 sg. dy, de 44.7; 52.32, 
37J 53-2J 54-26; 132.1. 3 sg. m. and f. y, i, e, j, hy, hi 3.9, 25; 
8.12; 38.4, 15, etc. i pi. an 59.5. 3 pi. eu, y, e, yu 53.33, etc. 

myuy I myself, emphat. pers. pron. i sg. myuy 53.10. 
3 sg. m. euo, effo 24.27; 51.12; 54.11 ; 80.3; 81.9; 126.3. 3 sg. f. 
hyhy, hihe 35.26; 64.20; 65.1. i pi. nyny, ninni, nini, njni 
37.21; 40-27; 45.20, 22. 

minimi / also, conjunct, pers. pron. i sg. tninneu, mynheu, 
myneu, uynheu 44.1, 5; 123.16; 130.11. 2 sg. titheu, tytheu 
52-37; 53-12; 130.11, 12. 3 sg. m. ynteu, enteu, entheu, entehu. 
(see ynteu. conj.) 3 sg. f. hytheu, hyteu, hiteu 34.9; 36.7, 12, 
19-24; 37-4, 6, 10, 17; 40.19; 48.7. i pi. nynheu 59.5. 3 pi. 
huynteu, vynteu, uuenteu, vnteu, huintheu 4.24 ; 28.2 ; 30.7 ; 
45.18; 48.18; 50.2; 51.5, 12; 52.34, 36; 53.21, etc. 

myhagel St. Michael the Archangel, guyl vyhagel. Septem- 
ber 29, Michaelmas 91.23; 116.12. guyl uyhagh 10.6. 

myhu see buv. 

myl a thousand. 65.5, 28, 29. 

[mylcyn] pi. myleynyeyt villeins. er hebogyt ... a dely 
dauat hesb neu .1111. k. ykan uyleynyeyt e brenyn ungueyt 
en e uluydyn e dely kylc ar e byleynyeyt n.8. e penkynyt a 
dely . . . menet y kemryt kylc ar uyleyneyt e brenyn hyd e 
nodolyc bynt ar eu kylc 17.7. 11.10; 30.8. kylc debet haberc 
super uillanos regis semel in anno. A.L.II 758.x. 

mylcyntref, byleyntref the "vill of the villeins, e brenyn a 
dely o pob m. dyn a march a buyall y gueneuthur lluesteu ac 
uuenteu ar y kost ef 30.6. 67.26. 



226 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

myleyndyr. O deruyd [er edlyg, etc.] kafael myleyndyr 
breynt e tyr a dercheyf eny uo tyr ryt 4.25. 

mylky a hound for hunting the hare. O deuparth e kenedyon 
duy ran y kynyt kellky ac un y[k]ynyt mylky 17.1. [guerth] 
mylky o byt kefruys .cxx. o byt aghefuys .LX. 94.18. 17.2; 

94.18, 24; 101.17, J 9> 21. pl- mylchun 17.3. Precium torch 
[milli] leporarii. A.L.II 8o5.1vi, etc. ; but cf. R.B.I 225.25. A 
thi a wely y milg6n goreu or a weleist eiryoet a gle6haf ar 
hydot. cf. Ir. mil maige hare. 

niylltyr a league, try troeduet yn y cam try cham yn y neyt 
try neyt yn y tyr ... a myl or tyr yu mylltyr 65.25. 64.27, 
29. pl. mylltyryeu 65.1. cf. milltir kymreic. H.MSS.I 188.11 ; 
189.31; 195.21. 

myn (in oaths) by. Ac esseu val e gurhtug men e creir esset 
ena 44.14. m. = Ir. mind holy relic, an oath. Str.Intr. 180. 

myn a kid. vnguert yurc a buc a gauar a yerchel ac eleyn 
a myn 97.9. pl. mynneu, meneu 9.15; 68.18; 115.23. 

mynet, menet to go, set out, become, ef a dely yean e 
porthaur agory e porth maur ydau en deuot yr llys. ac emenet 
y meun ac allan. ac nas ellecho uyth yr guychet. nac en 
menet nac en deuot 12.11. O deruyt y dyn uynet yn uach a 
chyn teruynu yr haul y uynet yn clauur 133.6. mynet a to take. 
pan hel e br[e]nyn yr ystauell ef a dely menet a kanuyl kantau 
20.20; 30.3; 40.13. mynet gyta to go -with, accompany. 
chwechet [afeyt] yu mynet yr drew y bo y dyn a ladher yndy 
ygytar llowrud 53.19; 74-29; 78.18. mynet gan to accompany 
132.22. 4.6; 5.24; 7.4; 8.5; i2.ii; 16.21; 17.7; 18.15; 27.7; 30.5: 
31.19; 38.32; 40.4, 9; 42.24; 44.16; 46.21; 47.19; 48.23, 24; 55-io; 
61.14, 19 ; 64-5, 10, 13, 15 ; 71.15 ; 74.28 ; 78.17 ; 85.16 ; 87.15 ; 95.10 ; 
no. 6; 117.26; 119.7; 121.19; 122.19; 123.11; 127.18; 130.6; 131.15; 
132.22; 133.6. 3 sg. pres. ind. a 5.25; 7.2; 33.12, 13; 39.13 aha; 
41.10 da ; 41.24 ; 44.8 ; 61.5 ; 64.1 ; 65.20 ; 70.21, 28 ; 71.27 ; 72.29 ; 75.25 ; 
76.3, 6; 79.8; 80.24; 81.7; 86.19; 88.5 ha; 89.19; 95.22; 125.18, 
21, 23; 130.15; 132.19, 27. 3 pl. ant 9.12; 52.22; 53.28; 64.3; 
98.21. 3 sg. pres. subj. el, hel 9.26; n.6; 12.14; 13.17; 14-14; 
15.2, 20; 18.15; iQ-iSJ 20.12, 16, 19; 23.15; 24.11, 14, 25; 25.16, 
19, 29; 26.27; 28.18; 47.10; 48.23; 49.35; 66.7; 76.4; 77.24; 80.22; 
91.17; 92.26, 28; 95.2; 100.23; 108.13; 114-15; iS -^; 132-22. 
3 pl. eluuint 51.17. pass, heler 26.19. 3 sg. impf. ind. aey 113-7, 
9. aey 4.23 for a. 3 sg. impf. subj. eley, heley 42.3; 70.29 v.l. 
el. 2 sg. pret. ind. haychost 53.12. 3 sg. aith, aeth, ath 31.18; 

47.19, 21 ; 48.3; 81.10, 20; 127.5. 3 pl- aethant 42.8. 2 sg. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 227 

imperat. dos 44.7. 3 sg. aet 14.30; 34.23 ajt; 34.24; 80.8, 28; 
82.26; 124.3. 3 P 1 - a y nt aent 53^9, 27; 132.9. 

mynegy, menegy to declare, point out, tell, kerchu ell 
deuoet ar argluit a meneky yr argluit nad oes racu namen peth 
maur 46.17. Nau afeyth galanas. kyntaw yu onadunt mynegy 
y dyn a ladher yr dyn ay lladho 74.23 = virum occidendum 
monstrare. A.L.II 882.14. Nau afieyth lledrat kyntaw yu 
mynegy y lledrat 78.16 (cf kyntaf yw o naw affeith lletrat 
amkanu wrth gedymdeith yr hyn a geisser yn lletrat. P.MS. 
363, p. 15.5) 53.3; 76.18; 129.19. 3 sg. pres. subj. mynaco 
80.28. 

inyniiu, mennu, menhu to wish, -will, choose. O byd un or 
rey a deuedassam ny huchof ny menho dody em pen e try 
tauodyauc ar Hall en y uenhu 30.24. O deruyt y gur mennu 
escar ay gwreyc a metinu ohonau gureyc arall 39.2. puebennac 
a dalyho escrybyl a gurthot guyst[l] kefreythaul yr mennu 
aryant 118.13. 14.30; 35.6; 36.26; 39.2; 40.7; 45.16; 46.33; 50.6, 
ii, 16, 17; 52.1; 54-24; 108.2; no.i, 5; 119.12; 123.20; 128.14; 
130.4; 133.26; 134.5. i sg. pres. menna 44.15. 3 sg. myn, min, 
men 4.17; 35.4; 36.7; 37.11, 30; 45.3, 19; 47.4, 18, 28, 30; 50.26 
nyn; 56.28; 63.10, 26; 64.9; 67.11, 18; 71.18; 72.13; 73.24; 80.19; 
82.9; 117-7; I 34-27- 3 P 1 - mynnant, mennant 53.17; 59-23; 
63.28; 108.4. pres. pass, mynnyr 79.16. 3 sg. pres subj. 
menno, menho, mynno, mynho. menho na uenho willy nilly 
37.7. 5.17; 6.8; 7.5, 19, 20; 10.10, ii ; 16.4; 29.20; 30.5, 24; 37.7; 
39.4, 14 ; 42.15, 16 ; 50.4 ; 51.36 ; 53.18 ; 56.23 ; 61.3 ; 66.24, 27 ; 66.7, 
8; 71.28; 72.2; 73-21 ; 80.8, 25; 81.14; 85.20; 116.19; 122.3, l8 ; 
123.10; 129.26; 131.7; 132.29. 3 pi. mennoent 10.7; 50.2. pass, 
mynher, menher 14.25; 73.16. 

mynwent, memvent f. a churchyard, sanctuary ground round 
a church ( ?). Messur corflan era keuureithiaul en hit ay phen 
ar e venwent a henne e kelch e uenwent e dele bot en cumpas 
51.19. Nyt reyt creyryeu yn dadleu a wnelher ymeun mynwent 
canyv plas y creyryeu 134.21. 30.16; 51.16. Sef yw meint y 
plas, erw gyfreith, a hynny yn gwmpas : a hynny heuyt yw 
meint mynwent gorfflan. A.L.II 360. i. ac a gladher ymynnwent 
y lie hwnnw. Eluc. 108.17. ac agory y mynwennoed a llawer 
o gorfforoed seint a gyuodassant. H.MSS.II 257.15. A guedy 
y gemryt y hymachludus y meun llyeyn glan ac y gossodes y 
mevn y wynwent ehvn. a dorassey or garrec. Rep.MSS.I 331 79. 
see Eluc. 49.19; 84.8. ac ar warthaf yr ysgrin yr oed kyvyrlit 
tec. ac yn y chylch ogylch yd oed mynwent vechan dec. 
H.MSS.I 241.20. m. = Lat. monumentum. Loth p. 189. 



228 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

[mynyglauc] some disease in swine, quinsey (A.O.). teythy 
huyc (hwch) na bo baetredauc ac nad esso y perkyll ae goruod 
teyrnos a trydyeu rac e ueneclauc 93.5. de mynyclauc [morbo 
strumarum]. A.L.II 862. xi ; II Sn.xiv. Rac y vynygloc kymer 
fenegyl y kwn, etc. Ll.MS. 10, p. 22.8 sqq. Rep.MSS.II 
443 20. Deriv. of mwnwgl throat* 

mys m. a month, m. chueraur 16.3; m. maurth 25.10; m. 
ebrill 116.14; m - me y 51-28; m. mehefin 116.14; m - aus t 29.15; 
m. heduuref 88.10; m. tacuuet 16.25. 1 6-4, 23; 67.6; 70.6, 7, 8; 
81.22; 82.4. 

myu see buu. 

na, nad, nat neg. part in dependent clauses, na bef. cons, 
nad bef. vowels, with infix, pron. 3 sg. and pi. nas. vegis na 
dele gur talu amen vn abedyu vegis henne ny dele greyc talu 
amen vn amobor 39.6. creyrhaer hyd na doet y cam y vrthau 
ef 108.10. en kyn kadarnet ac na allho escrybyl y tory 114.9. 
a meneky yr argluit nad oes racu namen peth maur 46.17. o 
deruyt roy pedh em puyth ac nas kouenho dranoeth 125.9. 
75.9; 81.12, etc. see also bod. 

nac, na (a) neg. with imperat. na dos en llu cam 44.7. nac 
aet ohoney 124.3. II 7- I 3> e tc. 

(b) neg. answers, nac [e] heb e Hall e my 31.3. 

nac, na disjunctive particle, with poss. adj. 3 sg. and pi. 
nay, nae. with def. art. nar. ny dyly ef nay guerthy nay rody 
12.6. ny chegeyn greyc en vach nac en test 39.9. na . . . na 
nac kaedic uo er amser nac ef ni vo 56.23. i.n ; 12.6, 12 ; 17.11 ; 
18.2, 3; 24.29; 27.22; 36.22; 39.9, etc. 

nad see bod. 

[nadolyg] nodolyc Christmas day. [e penteulu] a d[e]le kylc 
ykan e brenyn guedy guahano ac ef e nodolyc 7.25. a diguitau 
ar oet en vn or teirguil ar pewnic e pasc ar sulguin ar nodolic 
48.31. 16.3; 17.8, 9; 48.32. 

namyn, namen, naniin, amyn, amen but, except, only, ny 
dyly braut bot yn goedur yr braut arall namyn talet ydau coet 
cystal ar hun a dyosges 63.21. kany dele nep kamenu namen 
e ped a uedho 110.12. puebenac a kaffo lluden en uaru glan ar 
tyr ef byeu y cuarthaur ar nep byeufo e tyr byeu amen henne 
96.27. 3.10; 38.14; namuin 46.12; nanin 44.3; nain 47.11; nam 
123.16, etc. 

nau nine, naunieu nine days 51-34, etc. nau nyruet, n. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 229 

dyrnuet nine palm breadth 68.22; 69.8. nau ugeynt 180. 52.23, 
etc. n. can 900. 64.27, etc. 

naiid, naut, nahud, naudh sanctuary, protection, e naud eu 
or ostec kenstaf hyd e dyuedaf duyn e dyn a guenel kam 15.22. 
kararet e kereir ene lau a deueduit vrth e kenogen naut duo 
racod a naut pap ruuein a naut de argluit na dos en llu cam 

44.6. puybenac a torro e naudh kefredyn a hossodho ef nyd oes 
y huwnu un naud 10.2. naud [e porthaur] eu kadu e dyn a 
guenel kam eny del e pewteulu yu lety druy e porth 26.13. 
3.12; 4.19; 6.4; 9.10 nadhu; 9.21, 22, 25; 10.3; 11.17; 12.23, 24; 
13.27; 14-14; 15-5 nud; 17.12, 21 ; 18.1, 30; 19.11, 33; 20.17; 21.2, 
19, 28; 22.16, 22, 31; 23.5, 16; 24.4, 29; 26.26; 27.13, 20; 

28.7, 18, 25; 46.21, 22; 50.29; 51.2, 3, 10, 14, 15. Ir. snadud 
act of protecting, the protection itself. B.L.G. snadim I protect. 
Lib.Hym. 

nuuuet ninth (writ, also navued, ix ued). 

n ;ui uc (hid ninth day (writ, also nauuetyt 91.16, etc., 
nahuuetyt 92 (margin) ix uetit, ix uettit, ix vetyt) 34.23 ; 
38.17, 18; 51.26, 27, 28, 29, 36, 37J 60.25, 26; 90.15, 17; 91.16; 
92.5, ii. 

iiaun afternoon, the third quarter of the day. os bore uyd 
[kadued hyd banner dyd] . . . os banner dyt kaduet hyd naun. 
Os naun kaduet hyd guedy gosber os guedy gosber kaduet hyd 
e bore 96.16. 

neb, nep any. (a) indef. pron. anyone, anybody, with neg. 
no one. Rac deuod nep y eu keghor 53.29. yaun eu eu 
creirhau ar nep a kellio y kedueit onatuunt 55.20. 4.11, 12; 
9.2; 11.21; 13.24; 16.9, 17, 24; 17.24; 25.23; 27-19; 36-4; 38-28, 
30 ; 39.1 ; 40.25 ; 42.19 ; 46.23 nepth ; 47.24 ; 48.22 ; 50.20 ; 52.12, 24 ; 
53-29, 30; 56-I4, 3i; 59-2, 28; 60.4; 61.2; 63.13, 16; 68.27-29; 
70.14; 71.10; 72.1; 73.7; 74.1, 4, 6; 75.9; 78.24; 79.22; 80.26; 
81.10; 85.10; 86.5; 87.8, 10, 18; 88.21 ; 91.18; 92.12, 22; 96.21, 26; 
97.2, 5; 106.2,4, 23; 109.17; 110.12; 117-5; 119-22; 124.1; 126.24; 
132.17- 

(b) adj. any. nyt oes delehet y nep guassanaethur 5.1. o 
neb achaus 37.32. 

neckeias see negydyaeth. 

necektias see negydyaeth. 

nedyf an axe, adze, [guerth] ne( jyf .j. 100.12. Tyfiad heb 
naddiad neddyf. D.G. xlvi.4i. ascia gl. nedim. Z2. 1061. 
Nedif [dolabella]. A.L.II 8o4.xxii ; 865.xlv. 



230 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

nef heaven, nac e nef ed el nac vfern 47.6. 

ncges f. business, transaction, affair, message, pan uo reyt 
menet e teulu y anreythyeu neu y neges arall 7.5. ef a dely 
argueyn pop neches or a deueter urthau or port hyd e neuat 
19.4. 25.16. pi. nekesseu, nechesseu, negesseu. pop ynseyl 
agoret a rodher am tyr a dayar a neghesseu ereyll maur 8.23. 
8.6; 14.10; 22.10, 15; 26.10; 29.4; 46.29; 66.15. 

neguyt see newyd. 

negit, neget a denier. O deruit y vach a kanogon kauaruot 
ar pont vnpren ni dele hot enegit hep gueisur vn o trifeth ae 
talu ae gustlau ae kerccu keureis 48.39. 49.1. written also 
elsewhere negyf, negef. 

[negydyaeth] necketias a denial, ni dele macht duen guestel 
e kannogon onibit necketias kandrechaul eni vach 45.32. 43.25 
neckeias. written also elsewhere negyfyaeth. 

nen roof, roof tree, puebennac a dystreuho neuat e brenyn 
talet .XL. o pop gauael a kanalyho e nen sef eu henne .vi. 
kolouon 98.26. 99.1, 2, 4. o bop fforch a gynnhalyo y nenbren. 
LI. MS. 69, p. 155.15. see A.L. II 777-lix. 

nepth 46.23. see neb. 

nerth strength, power, e grueyc byeu ac allho e duyn o 
blaut errug nerth y duylau ae y deu lin 33.31. 

ncsiauruir see neythyauruyr. 

nessaf nearest (used as superl. of agos). y naud eu hyd er 
egluys nessaf 21.20. eyste en nessaf yr keluy 5.5. 5.5, 9, 13 ; 
8.15; 9.8; 10.26; 11.27; I 3- 6 ; 14-23; 48-34; 52-18; 86.17; 131.16. 

nesset nearness (used as comp. of equality), so near, ac esseu 
eu nesset a deleant e guir henne bot ydau ac e deleoent talu 
galanas 44.19. v.l. gynesset. A.L.I 114.21. 

neu, ne conj. or. ef a dely llamesten kefruys neu huyedyc 
hebauc 12.19. kollet er enat y tauaut neu enteu ay pryno yean 
e brenyn 12.29. 4.23; 5-22; 6.16; 7.5, 23; n.8; 12.27; 14.27; 
15.1; 17.23, 25; 18.23; I9-5; 24-23, 24; 25.11, 19, 20; 27.14; 28.12; 
34.10, etc. neur v.l. for neu 130.11. neut. neu + sbs. vb. 
puybertnac a roder hoet ydau neud eydau er oet guanaet enteu 
a uenno ay aros er oet ay talu kyn nor oet 122.2. 

neuat f. hall, the principal chamber in the court, the king's 
residence. Nautey a dely myleynyeyt e brenyn y gueneuthur 
nehuat estauell buyty, etc., 30.8. y le en e neuat yam e tan ar 
brenyn enessaf yr keluy urth uendykau y uuyt a kanu e pader 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 231 

8.15. puebewnac a dystreuho neuat e brenyn talet .XL. o pop 
gauael a kanalyho e nen. Sef eu henne .vi. kolouon 98.25. 
3.26; 5.16; 7.6; 12.2; 14.10; 15.1; 17.20, 28, 33; 19.5, 19, 21 ; 
22.ii ; 25.4; 28.5; 42.25; 67.25; 69.21, 23. deressawr e newat 
[ianitoris aule\. A.L.II 753-xvii. cf. am henwau tail : Palas- 
pab ; llys-Emerodr neii frenin ; kastell-Tywysog neu arglwydd ; 
nevadd-Marchog neii Esgwier. Rep.MSS.II 170 94. Teir 
rhan y dyly neuadd y brenin y chyfansoddi : un uch coryf yna 
y bydd y brenin yn eistedd yn gyntaf . . . . Eil is coryf yna yr 
eiste yr edling. . . . Trydedd rhan yr neuadd yw y tal issaf : 
yno y dyly y penteulu eiste. A.L.II 584. xi sqq. 

newyd new, late, hywel wedy hynny a wnaeth kyureythyeu 
newyd 65.23. Sew yu y tyr o gymraec newyd grvn 65.5. tanu 
llenllyeyn guen adanunt neguyt olchy 40.9. 51.7, 15; 62.13. 

ney m. a nephew. Edlyg eu er hun a dele gleduchu guedy e 
brgnyn . . . ef a dele y uod en uab neu en neu yr brenynes 
3.23. With a qual. word in apposit. it can denote the son of any 
relat. up to the ninth degree. Ney [u]a[b] gorchau 129.13. 
5.22; 76.6; 129.13. pi. neyeynt. Plaut y seythuet uam a uyd 
neyeynt ueybyon gorchau 76.2. 4.9. Nei yw vab brawt neu 
whaer neu geuenderw neu gyferderw neu gefnitherw. A.L.I 
4io.xxviii. 

neyt m. a leap, a measure of 9 feet, try troeduet yn y cam 
try cam yn y neyt try neyt yn y tyr 65.4. 

neyll one of two; neyll . . . Hall one . . . other, ar neyll 
en deueduyt bod e uecnyaeth ar pet maur ar Hall ar pedh 
bechan 30.30. ar neyll hanner o wyr nod ar Hall o wyr dynot 
79.6. O deruyd y dyn Had arall a gwenuyn galanas deudyblyc 
a tal. canys fyrnyc yu neu ynteu yn eneyt uadeu. am y neyll 
alanas ay dyhenyd ew yn ewyllys yr argluyd 129.25. 3.2 ; 
30.18 ; 33.6, 9 ; 35.7 ; 46.35 ; 47.11 ; 49.10 ; 50.15 ; 55.11 ; 69.2 ; 85.23 ; 
109.24; 110.5; I 23-i4J 134.12. neylldu one one side, ac os 
e neylldu et art talet .xv. 92.15. on either side (?). kani 
min ef muynau e mach essit ydau. ar peth a kemirth ac nad 
ois vach ir Hall a kemello jdau e keunevid vrth hinni e may 
ouer e mach or neildu 47.30. 118.16; 131.14. neyllau one side. 
y lie eu ar neyllau er enanat llys 28.11. 5.18. 

neythaur a wedding feast, e penkerd ... a dele o pop 
dohouod or a kafoent nac o erchy nac o kauarus neythaur ran 
deurur. . . . Sef eu k. neytyaur .xxim. or n. a hyne yr beyrt 
128.17. a gwedy y rodi y weiryd mwy y karei ef hi nor holl 
uyt. ac wrth hynny y mynnwys ef enrydedu y lie kyntaf y 



232 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

kysgwys gyt a hi ... ac erchi a wnaeth . . . gwneuthur dinas 
yny lie hwnnw y gadw kof ry wneuthur neithoreu kymeint ar 
rei hynny. R.B.II 96.25. neithiawr leuan yn Galilea. M.A. 
7?t>-33- Ac yna y gwnaethbwyt priodas llywelyn ac elianor 
ygkaer wynt. ac etwart vrenhin lloeger yn costi y wled ar 
neithawr yn ehalaeth. R.B.II 381.25. n. = L,at. noptialia. Loth 
p. 190. 

neythyaurgujr wedding-guests who remained in the same 
house as the newly married the first night, poebennac a dhecco 
moruuyn en lladlud . . . ena e inae gejr y geir hi canjs due ef 
hihe en lie nad oet n. 35.26. 36.1. nesiauruir 36.1. see Loth 
p 190. 

no, noc than, no bef. cons. ; noc bef. vowels ; with def . art. 
nor; with poss. adj. noe, noy or noc eu. nat yaunach talu 
galanas gur no galanas gwreyc yo.io=nogyt. LI. MS. 174, 
p. 90. a kan kollo hunu kin nor oet 46.8. kyn noe rodhy y 
hur 35.2. testion a vey guell noc a oet kan e Hall 55.13. kin 
noc ef 56.14. noc eu bot yn pryodoryon 64.10. 45.26; 47.2, 20; 
50.31; 54.22; 55-I4; 60.25, 28; 63.16; 64.16, 17; 71.4; 77.8; 82.3; 
109.10; 118.9; 122.4; 127.22; 134.8. with part. -yt. guell yu 
breynt pryodaur a gynwarchadu tyr nogyt un newyd dyuot 
62.13. ny dyly y tat dewnydyau dylyet y mab am tyr a dayar 
. . . nogyt a dyly y mab treyssyau y tat . . . am tyr 62.16. 
82.5. see H.MSS.I 86.38. Rep.MSS.II 475 93. 

not mark, gwyr not seems to mean both 'men of distinction' 
as -well as 'marked or branded men. 1 y wadu huch neu dauat 
neu ueych ceuyn 11 v pymp wyr ar neyll hanner yn wyr nod ar 
Hall o wyr dynot ac ehun yn pymhet 79.6. 79.2, 5. Llw gwr 
nod yw trwy lith y perchen y rheith tygy y gyfryw Iw ac a 
dygno y llofryd yn y blaen llw reithwr arall yw heb lith vod 
yn debygaf gantaw vod yn wir yr hyn a dygod yr enllibwr yn 
y blaen yn y dadyl honno. LI. MS. 116, p. 76.11. Reithwr not 
a dyly tygu tebygu bot yn glan llw y dyn y tygo ygyt ac ef. 
ae o palla un gwr or gwyr not. palledic uyd y reith ef . Reithwr 
arall a dyly tygu bod yn tebykaf gantaw uot yn wir yr hyn a 
twng a chet pallo trayan y reith gyffredin yn ol y deuparth y 
dylyir barnu. P.MS. 35, f. 4oa.8. cf. Sef yu fal y mae ei 
gymryd : Ei gymryd o'r pencenedl yn ei law, ai roddi yn llaw 
y gwr hynaf o'r gwyr ac y felly o hynaf i hynaf hyd ymhen y 
seithfed gwr. A'r gwyr hynny nid oes nod j ad arnaddunt 
namyn eu bod yn [oreugwyr o'r] genedl, a'r ni ddylynt rannu 
daear ag ef. L.W. 313 lvii 4. It is used in contrast with 
'men of nobility.' llw deudegwyr am uarch . . . hanner henne 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 233 

en wyr nod ar banner arall or guyr a gaffer o wyr aduuyn. 
LI. MS. 174, p. 104.18. O deruyd i ddyn ymliw am ledrad, o 
ddywedud ei weled yn gwneuthur lledrad a'i wadu ohanaw 
rhodded Iw pedwargwyr ar hugaint heb Gaeth heb Alldud heb 
wr nod. L.W. 469 4. heb alldudjon heb wyr nod v.l. heb 
gaeth a heb alldud. L.W. 85 57. cf. nid a cosp ar ynvyd, 
eithr rhybudd gwlad yn ysgriven ar byst neu veini y brenin 
yn waedd gadarn er i bawb ymochel a'r ynvyd. ac a'r mud 
a bydar geni ; a'u dodi dan eu nodan gan gorn a gwaedd 
gwlad a chywlad. A.L.II 486. xxv. Gwell enw nod no nerth 
unben. M.A. 8093.13. see dynot. 

nodav see nodua. 

nodolyg see nadolyg. 

nodua f. sanctuary. O deruit y din guneuthur cam keinauc 
yar nodua a keuodi haul arnau ef am er agheureyth redigones 
yar nodua 51.13. 51.4 nodav; 51.5 nodau; 51.9-21. see naud. 

noe platter, dish, vessel, [guerth] noe .1. 101.10. bod urth 
noe y tat to be his father's ward, or pan anher mab yny uo 
pedeyr bluyd ar dec y dyly uot urth noe y tat. ay dat yn 
argluyd arnav 70.23. 71.16, 18. cf. meithryn ederyn drytwen 
a wnaeth hitheu ar dal y noe gyt ahi. W.B. col. 49.9. cf. nue 
wooden platter. Carm. n. = Ir. nau boat (?). 

nos f. night, evening. Bukeylky a el e bore emalaen er 
escrybyl ac a del e nos en eu hoi 95.3. Ny dele menet unnos 
yurth e brenyn 4.16.' nos a dyd always, try pheth a dylyant y 
gadv ganthunt ehun nos a dyd sew yu hynny eu llodreu ac eu 
cledyueu ac eu menyc 67.22. 12.1; 18.31; 24.27; 28.8; 33.3; 
34.22; 36.21; 67.23; 69.24; 78.20; 85.11; 90.13; 92.25; 93.10; 
106.8. 

nud hael pr. n. one of the leaders of the men of the North. 
see mardaf 41.28. 

ny, ni negat. part. bef. principal and relat. clauses, ny, ni, 
ne before cons, and vowels where init. g. is dropped by lenation. 
nyd, nyt before vowels, ac ny thai gwreyc alanas 76.12. try 
pheth ny eyll tayauc yu guerthu 29.16. ac nyt hemchuel en 
aghefreyth arnau 115.22. ef a dely taru neu anyueyl nyd el 
adan guet 25.29. ny+s. infix, pron. 3 sg. and pi. a hunnu 
eu e dyn ae kemmer. ac nys tal 41.16. ny tal gwreyc 
ceynnyauc baladyr . . . ac nys tal yscolheygyon 76.12. kanes 
etheuis ef testion a; vey guell noe a oet kan e Hall ac nis 
cauas 55.14. -s anticipating the object, nys dele namyn talu 
ydau urth lu 119.13. 13.14; 46.15; 55.14; 72.19; 76.13; 77-25; 



234 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

116.27; IJ 7-25; 120.13; 121.10; 122.7, I 4'> 125.10; 132.26. nyu 
neg. + infix, pron. 3 sg. in relat. clause, ew a dywedyr na dyly 
kyureyth nyu gwnel 133.4. ar n y ne g- f ar a. dioyr hep e 
Hall nit inach ar ny vo mach ar dim 49.14. 1.26. for nid 
see bod. 

ny see my. 

nychdaut disease. O deruit ydin torri troet aniueil . . . neu 
guneuthur briu edel n. yr aniuel ohonau 43.2. 

nyuer m. number, ac essev ed ant e nyuer e buant en eu 
kehussuyth 53.28. 

nyn 50.26 read myn. 
nyn see dyn. 
nyt see bod. 

nyth a nest, the brood in the nest, gurth guyt or kemeynt a 
guerth y nyt esef a dele vod en y nyt .xxiin. kyu 94.6. nyth 
hebauc punt a tal 95. 5 = nyth luyth hebauc. A.L.I 454-lxiv. 

95.9. pi. nedhod 11.19. see Corm. Gloss. 124. 

nytlen a winnowing sheet. Sac a n. .1111. ar pop vn 100.15. 
n. = linteum ventilatoris. A.L. 865.1xviii. Ef a dylyir 
ymgeffelybu ac wynt yny del duw ehun ar nithlen gantaw y 
dethol y grawn o blith y peisswynn. Eluc. 26.20. n. = Cor. 
nothlen a winnowing sheet. 

o, od if. o bef. cons. ; od, ot bef. vowels, o thyr e croen 

89.10. ac o bit a ameuho 53.4. od amheuyr y perchennauc 
108.28. ac ot ytyu ew yno 61.4. written oc bef. kleuyr 106.15. 
7.2; 44.8; 55.19; 82.11; 92.11; 130.15, 18; 133.1. (see deruyt.) 
o with infix, pron. 3 sg. and pi. os, ot. ef a dely adnabot 
suyocyon e llys ac nas atalyho er un onadunt . . . ac os eteyl 
talet kamlury 19.9. Reyt hiu yr egluys bot a katwo ydy e 
breynt hunnu o testyon deduaul ac os keiff gather ydy 51.23. 
am pob un ohynny dyruy a dau ot adeuyr 78.22. 4.17; I9-9J 
29.18 ; 31.11 ; 36.28 ; 38.8 ; 40.18 ; 51.23 ; 56.28 ; 63.10, 26, 28 ; 67.18 ; 
71.4; 73.24; 75.1, 4; 82.9; 85.4; 87.8, ii ; 108.4, 20; 109.11; 
119.27; 123.7; 128.18; 129.29. but os occurs often as a conjunc- 
tion, ac os deueyd a geyuyr a uyd 33.7. os kyn e seythuet 
vullydjn ed escarant taler y hj 34.5. 33.7 ; 34.6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 20 ; 
36.7; 37.24, 26; 38.4; 41.22; 46.27; 48-34; 52-7; 53-38; 64.11, 12; 
71.12; 74.27; 77.9; 78.10; 79.24; 81.24; 82.1, 5, 14; 85.22; 88.1; 
89.18; 92.10; 96.13, 15; 112.2; 108.22; 122-29; 134.15,16. see ony. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 235 

o, oc (prep.) of, from, by, to. a bef. cons. ; oc bef. pron. 
beginning with a vowel ; or with art. o grugyll . . . hyt yn 
soram 64.28. un or teyr guely 7.21. gan guynau or mab 
racdau 71.5. menet a kanuyl gantau oy ulaen 20.20. Had o 
hur yr neyll gur yr Hall 3.2. ac a wna yaun ydau oy sarhaet 
71.5. ac guedi y lad y doeht guir e koclet etna oy dial 41.27. 
er amaeth a dele kemohorth e keylguat o dale er ecchen 109.13. 
abedyhu estauellauc o greyc a woman dwelling in a cell, lit. 
a cell-dweller of a woman 38.31. 38.32.; 47.32; 48.7, 9; 50.16; 
53.26; 73.29; 74-25J 75-4J 76.22; 77.4, 5, etc., etc. o+poss. adj. 
3 sg. oy, oe 20.20 ; 39.25 ; 85.4 ; 90.20, etc. oc bef. i and 3 pi. 
oc an 59.5; oc eu; o eu 35.19; 64.16; 76.24, etc. o + pron. 
suff. 3 sg. m. ohonau, ohanau 48.21 ; 80.22, etc. 3 sg. f. 
ohoney 62.5, etc. 3 pi. onadunl 69.21, etc. onnadun 47.11 ; 
onaduunt 55.18; onaunt 50.15. 

odures (?). kikleu odures eu llaueneu 42.10. v.l. urth wres. 
A.L.I 104.24. 

odwr ( ?) receiver (of stolen goods), abettor, chwechet [aifeyth 
lledrat] yu bot yn odwr ay erbynnyau atau 78.19. This is 
written oddwr, no6d6r and cynghorwr is given as a v.l. L.W. 
207. vi ; and it appears that the scribe was not always sure of the 
form. It is clear from W.B. col. 477.23 = 6.8.! 118.25 that there 
was a verb odi 'to put.' There is a corresponding odfa 'a place 
to put or hide stolen property.' Arglwydi heb y marchawc y 
mae udunt wy ryw otua yny fforest yn y lie y rodynt wy eu 
lletrat ac eu hyspeil. ac eu trysor. H.MSS.I 303.10. marchawc 
a vei uaeth no od gur. M.A. 54b ; 7ob. nir gwell yr otwr nor 
lleidyr. M.A. looa. cf. nid gwell gott na lleidr. Dr.D.Prov. 
cler ag oedion ( ?) a lladron. M.A. 2gb. see godew. 

odyn a kiln. O deruyd y dyn menet y crassu y odyn arall 
87.15. 15.30; 30.10; 80.9; 86.4. odyn fara. loloMSS. 5.14. 
Mis lonawr . . . diwres odyn. M.A. 2ia.4. cf. Ir. aith a kiln, 
an eminence. Dineen. 

odema from here, ty haychost en keureythaul odema 53.13- 

odyna, odhena, odena from there, from that time, then, o 
keill kaffael tu a tal ydau en er un lie ... vrth na burir odena 
ef 55.25. Ninni a dewedun . . . bot en anolo er ateb eny 
warandao ef er haul, ac odena atebet 53.15. 42.1; 52.15, 22; 
53-I5; 63-24; 80.14; 113-10; 131-13; 132-7, 8, 13, 14. 

odeno from there, ny dele kechuin odeno 38.16. 

oet, oit, oyt m. apointed time, age, alloted time. Ac o byt 



236 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

[plant ydhy] ac eu menet en oet kefreysyaul. talent ehun 
clrostunt o henne allan 40.4. 71.8, 17. oet galanas yu pythennos 
76.19. o deruit y din rodi mach ar delect a diguitau er oet en 
vn or teirguil arpetmic 48.30. oyt urth porth time to seek help 
49.4, 12, 16; 52.4; 130.8. hyt en oyt even, as far as. vrth hene 
e dele e gur a gurich roi bridiu het in oet mab seihisbluit a el 
adan lau periglaut 49.35. O deruyt roy greyc y gur ac enguy 
da a cafael cubel hyt en oet vn Vieynyauc ac na cafer honno 
40.26. 4.2. 46.11, 28; 47.2, 16; 48.13; 49.17, 22; 50.10, 30, 31; 
52.4, 6, 8, 10 ; 53.35, 36, 37; 72.19, 21 ; 75.23; 76.22, 24; 79.22, 27; 
82.12; 117-19; 121. 24; 122. i, 2 hoet; 122.3, 41 130.6, 18; 133.12, 
14; 134.23. 

oed see bod. 

oen a lamb. 91.12, 13; 93.10, 13, 15. pi. vyn, huyn 9.15; 
68.18; 115.23; vnen 112.21. 

1. oes lifetime, age, time, cany dyly ew y wlat yn oes yr 
argluyd ay dyholyo 79.28. ar kyureythyeu hynny a barassant 
hyt yn oes hywel da 64.23. 50.21 oyis ; 59.22, 26; 62.15; 130.16; 
131.5. Ir. aes, ais. Altir. 63. 

2. oes see bod. 

ouer vain, void, kani min ef muynau e mach essit ydau ar 
peth a kemirth ac nad ois vach ir llall ... vrth hinni e may 
ouer e mach 47.30. ac vrth na eil e mach kennal e keuechny 
. . . am hinni e gelvir en ouervach 48.3. 47.25. ouer tlesseu 
official regalia or instruments of office 12.5. read ofer ( ? ) q.v. 

offa pr. n. claud offa Of fa's dyke. O myn yr alltudyon 
mynet y urth eu hargluydy kyn noc eu bot yn pryodoryon vynt 
a dylyant adau hanner udunt. ac os or ynys hon yd henynt 
ny dylyant trygau yn un lie y tu yma y glaud offa 64.12. 

ofer pi. tools, instruments, pop penkert . . . e brenyn byeu 
keysyau ofer ydau nyd amken a telyn y hun a crud y arall a 
pybeu yr tredyt 128.9. f er gf 102.23. 

eferen the mass. Try anhebkor brenynyn eu efieyryat urth 
uendykau y uuyt a kanu eferen 29.2. ef a dele offrum e brenyn 
peunyt ar eferen ac offrum e suydguyr aclan 8.24 (v.l. ar yr 
eferen. A.L. iS.xi). bara e. -wafer, dyuot yr egluys y cymero 
duuyr suyn ay uara eferen 72.10. o=Lat. ofierenda. Loth 
p. 191. 

efeyryat a priest, puybenac a guenel kam y uam ecluys 
talet .xini. punt er hanner yr abat . . . ar llall erug er 
efeyryat ar clas . . . puebennac a guenel kam emeun ecluys 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 237 

arall talet .vn. punt e neyll banner yr efeyryat ar Had (Hall) 
yr person 30.16. Nau tauyodyauc . . . efeyryat erug y deu 
uanach 30.22. ef. teulu family priest, the second of the sixteen 
principal officials, y le en e neuat yam etan ar brenyn enessaf 
yr keluy urth uendykau yuuyt akanu epader . . . ef a dely uod 
en guastat ykyd ar brenyn. kanys tredyt anhebchor eu 8.12. 
5.10, 15, 20; 8.7; 11.28; 15.15, 29; 21. ii, 18; 28.6; 29.1; 30.22; 
52.27; 53-24; 80.10, 12, 14; 131-14, 21 ; 132.8. pi. effeyryhet, 
efeireit 51.11; 53.20; 54.27. cf. Eluc. 119.26. ac y kymerth 
vrdeu ac y bu offeirat. 

offrum an offering, a gift, efeyryat teulu ... a dele offrum 
e brenyn peunyt ar [yr] eferen ac ofrum e suydguyr aclan 8.24. 
ef a dele ofrum e brenyn a paup yr odho ef ofrum ydau en e 
teyr guyl ar bennyc 8.20. 21.15. 

og a harrow, [guerth] og .1. 104.19. cf. ocet gl. raster. 22. 
1062. Tra retto'r og rheded y freuan. Dr.D.Prov. see drayn- 
gluyt. cf. Ger. Egge. Mid.H.G. Egede harrow. 

ol track, trace. Pvybynnac y cafer ol lleydyr yn dyuot yu ty 
79.29. ar ol after, ar ol e kenjauc djuethaf act hehun 34.24. 
38.19. en ol after, according to. a keuody racdau ac eyste en 
y hoi 13.11. y gyureyth a dyweyt bot yn yaunaw barnu yn ol 
y peth [penaf] a bot galanas gur arnau 70.12. 38.17 ; 48.5 oil ; 
79.9; 95.3; 96.10; 116.10, 15; 125.19; 22. bit er argluit ene oil 
let the lord prosecute him 48.5. ar egluys yn y ol the church 
prosecuting him 134.10. so A.L.II 74-xc; nS.lxxiii. LI. MS. 
116, p. 87.23. 

olreat a hound, a dog that can follow a track, [guerth] 
kawlleuan olreat .vin. 101.24. kynlleuan olreat [retinaculum 
canis sagacis}. A.L.II 805. lix; 866.1xxxiii. Tri chi bonheddic 
y sydd : olrheat; a mylgi; a cholwyn. II 592. iv. cf. olrewys 
he tracked. W.B. col. 469.21. gwell cadw nag olrhein. M.A. 



[oluyn] a -wheel, pi. -eu. [guerth] oluyneu .11. plough- 
wheels 104.13. olwyn yn rhych ych yn y waith. M.A. 359a.v. 
v.l. aradr yn rhych ych yngwaith. M.A. 36i.xxii. 

oil see holl, ol. 

ony, oni neg. of o. ony bef. cons, onyd bef. vowels, ac od 
ard or bore hyd hecuuyt . . . ac ony dart en erbyn y heuoet 
92.13. ac ony chefyr y bragaut pedeyr o gvryw 68.23. 7-91 
8.6; 18.5, 16; 16.24; 72.18; 74.11; 79.29; 111.6, etc. with infix. 
pron. 3 sg. and pi. onys. o sarhaa caeth ryd llader y llau 



238 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

deheu onys pryn y argluyd 78.14. kefreyth a deueyt na dele 
grejc couuyll guedy blodeuho onys dyheura hy kefnenesafyet 

41.4. try pheth ny eyll tayauc yu guerthu hep kanyat y 
argluyt . . . ac onys pryn y argluyt guerdhet ef 29.19. 18.14; 
37.11; 46.24; 50.27; 51.14, 24; 61.28; 76.10; 109.11; 123.8; 134.27. 
eni 49.28; ene 49.29; 50.18. 

onyt see bod. 
or see gor. 

[ord] a sledge-hammer, orth a kamec a kethtraul . . . am 
pop vn o henne .11 n. 102.1. gwell vn dyrnod a'r ordd na dau 
a'r morthwyl. Dr.D.Prov. Ir. ord hammer. 

orduyn mallet (?). [guerth] o. iyrling 100.28. cf. llynwyn 
puddle<\\yn ; clogwyn<clog, etc. 

orles see wrlys. 

OS if it is, if. see bod. 

osid see bod. 

osp a stranger, a visitor, e brenyn a dele eyste en nessaf yr 
keluy ac enessaf ydau enteu e keghellaur a guedy henwy er 
hosb 5.6. 3.24; 9.29. Py uoes yssyd y osp a phellenhic y 
diskynnu yuy gaer honn. Ha vnben duw ach notho. ny 
dodyw neb gwestei eiroet o heni ae uyw ganthaw. W.B. col. 
486.16. Glewlwyt gauaeluawr oed yno hagen ar ureint porthawr 
y aruoll ysp a phellennigyon. W.B. 112, col. 223.19. gnawd 
osp er nas gwahodder. Dr.D.Prov. M.A. 2ia. o. = Lat. hospes. 
Loth p. 191. 

oyis see oes. 

p 23.16, etc. abbr. for pressuyl. 

pa (a) interrog. adj. what, -which, gouin pa le e may eu porth 

52.5. esseu pa achaus e geill ef gouin 54.18. pa beth a dylyir 
amdanav 70.4. pa dyu to whom, to which. O deruyd y dyn 
roy pedh a deu dyn en deueduyd ymy e roet nac e heb e Hall 
emy geyr eu y eyr pa dyu y rodes 31.4. 31.14; 44.2; 51.1, 4; 
53.34; 70.4; 81.6. pa ... bynac whatever, whichever. Pa dyn 
bynnac a dyholyer o uraut y gyureyth 79.26. pa rev varch 
pennac vo 48.1. 19.17; 56.29; 61.9; 72.2; 86.20; 94.25; 95.12; 
108.6, 7; 118.7; 120.6; 122.5; 126.16. see paham, pahar, 
paherwyt. 

(b) interrog. pron. Denyon aghefyeyt . . . ny huypuynt . . . 
pa deueter urthunt 120.26. 

pap the Pope, naud duo racod a naut pap ruuein 44.7. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 239 

pac see pasc. 

padell f. a pan. y greyc pyeu e badell ar trebed 33.22. 
guerth padell medyc .1. 18.11. 37.8; 200.22. 

pader the paternoster, efeyryat teulu . . . y le en e neuat 
yam e tan ar brenyn . . . urth uendykau y uuyt a kanu e pader 
8.16. 5.11 ; 53.25. 

pa ha in -why. Sef eu paham e keduyr hyd kalangayaf urth 
deleu y Hat 116.22. 

pahar on what, on which. O deruyd y adef ar neyll en 
deueduyt bod e uecnyaeth ar pet maur ar Hall ar pedh bechan. 
kan adeuuyt e mace credaduy eu pahar e roet 30.32. 45.13; 
49.27. 

paherwyt why, how. O deruyd y dyn gyrru brau ar arall oc 
or brau hunnv colly y eneyt or dyn edrycher pa herwyd y 
gyrruyt y brau 134.14. 

paladyr shaft, spear, lance, ny tal gwreyc ceynnyauc baladyr 
canyt oes paladyr ydy namyn y chogeyl 76.11. keynyauc 
baladyr spear-penny. O ney uab gorchau allan yd a c. baladyr 
ac y sew yd a honno y gymhorth y llowrud a sew mal y 
kymhellyr honno cy[m]ryt or llowrud gwas yr argluyd y gyt 
ac evv. a chreyr ganthau ac yny kyuarfo ac ew dyn or seythued 
dyn allan cymeret lu na henyw or pedeyr kenedyl yd henyv ew 
onadunt ac onys dyry talhet c. baladyr 76.10. 40.6; 41.15; 63.2. 
For the connecting link between p. and Mod. pladur scythe 
see paladurwyr reapers. W.B. col. 424.42. see Walde under 
clades, culter. 

palaf, palyw the palm of the hand, a hand-breadth, try hyt 
modued en e palaf. try hyt e palaf en e troetued 107.8. 65.3, 8. 

palfrey a palfrey, an extra post-horse, ammus . . . punt a 
tal. palfrey .cxx. a tal runcy . . . cxx a tal 88.12. ac yn 
diannot y doethant dec ar y deu hynny. a gwiscaw eu harueu. 
a dodi eu cledyfeu ar eu hystlys. a chymryt eu gleiueu. ac 
adaw y palffreiot a chymryt eu hemys aruawc cadarn. H.MSS. 
II 95.4. see Walde. reda. 

pallu to fail. Puybynnac a doto arwayssaw ym pen arall a 
phallu y anvayssavv ydau 82.16. 3 sg. pres. subj. pallo 50.18; 
56.31; 79.15, 17. 

pan when, whenever, canjs hy ae talus pan vrhaus 40.21. ef 
a dele kerth ykan e bard teulu pan uenno ef 7.19. 4.5; 7-4, 20; 
8.8 ; 9.10 ; 10.7, 10 ; 11.3, 5, 6 ; 12.9 ; 14.25 ; 15.3, 17 ; 16.4 ; 20.16, 19 ; 
22.28; 23.31; 24.1, 33; 25.20, 28; 26.27; 27.3, 17, 25; 28.23; 30.5; 






240 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

37.4 ; 38.15, 16, 18 ; 40.10 ; 47.26 ; 51.36 ; 55.16 ; 56.23 ; 60.12 ; 66.19, 
20 ; 67.7, 8 ; 68.1, 9, 12, 17 ; 73.16 ; 74.9 ; 77.7 ; 92.4 ; 124.7 J 128.11 ; 
129.1; 130.26; 132.22. pan whence, or lie pan hanfo 8.26. or 
pan from the time -when, or pan dotho y hebauc emud enyu 
tewno allan 11.20. 9.26; 12.24; I 4- I 45 I 5- 1 ^, 20; 17.21; 18.1, 30; 
20.1, 18; 22.22; 24.4, 10, 13; 26.19, 26; 28.7, 18; 36.25; 37.5; 
70.22; 71.15; 94.17, 20; 112.20; 113.2, 24; 114.15. er pan since 
81.27. hyt pan until 28.19. 

panel a caparison, [guerth] panel kyghuyl .1. panel lyeyn 
.1. 103.4, 5. y gyfrwy oed gristal. ae hoelon oedynt aryant. 
ar panel oed ball mawrweirthiawc. ar gwarthauleu oed eur 
coeth. H.MSS.II 56.33. Car.Mag. 35.13. Panel lliein [dorsuale 
linteum], . . . Panel kenhungil [dorsuale nexile]. A.L.II 
888.xiv. [Haf] Panelog, pwy un eiliw. D.G. xiv.7- Appendix. 
p.=Med.Lat. panellum. 

panyu (pan + yw) that it is. y naud eu med rey hyd ar 
pewguastraut e brenyn ereyll a deuyt panyu hyd tra parhao 
redec e march kentaf 22.1. 11.17; 42.5; 49.25; 70.5; 73.5; 81.3; 
104.7; 113.16; 128.21, 23, 27; 129.1. panyhu 42.7; 104.9. P au 
niu 54.11. 

par 8.26. see parth. 

paraut ready, prepared, urth uod en paraut y gueneuthur y 
nechesseu 22.15. 54.6, 7. 

parch see parth. 

[pared] wall, er egnat llys . . . y uarch ef a dele uod erug 
march e brenyn ar paraet 12.3. 

parh see parth. 

[parhau] to last, remain, canys ny fara amot namen oyis e 
din a gunel 50.20. 3 sg. pres. ind. para, parha 36.22 ; 49.7 ; 
59.22. subj. parhao, parraho 13.28; 22.1; 49.7. 3 pi. pret. ind. 
paraassant 64.22. 

parth part side, direction, region, ny dely tarau e post e 
parth e bo e brenyn 25.4. greyc en deuot or parthun yr lluen 
ar gur or parch arall 39.10. peduuar o par[t]h e tat a deu o 
par[t]h e uam 49.22. 5.18; 39.10; 44.18, 19; 59.14. parth ac 
towards, to. parth ac adref 123.1. popet a pertheno par[t]h ar 
llys 8.26; 69.21. deuparth two-thirds, ac os gwreygyauc uyd 
y gur roer trayan y sarhaet ydy ar deuparth yr brodyr ar 
ceuyndyru 77.9. 17.1 ; 79.2 ; 105.8. 

pasc Easter. O deruit y din rodi mach ar deleet a diguitau 
er oet en vn or teirguil ar pennic e pasc ar sulgvin ar nodolic 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 241 

48.31. efeyryat e urenynes ... a dely dyllat e urenynes er 
hun y penytyo endau erbyn e pasc 21.17. 48.33. p. beccan 
Little Easter, Low Sunday. 48.34. cf. Ir. Min-chasc. 

patryc St. Patrick, guyl p. March iyth. 92.21. 

paup (indef. pron.) everyone, ef a dele ofrum e brenyn a 
paup y rodho ef ofrum ydau 8.19. kaduet paup y ogaur 114.2. 
16.26; 18.26; 21.15; 5340; 54.2; 55.6; 60.4, 7; 67.7; 108.23; 
109.15, 22; 112.8; 115.5; 134-20. see pob. 

paul a pole, stake, am pop paul a guyalen a keledren .1. 
99.9. pi. polyon 99.10. p. = Lat. palus. Loth p. 193. 

paur pasture. guell[t] paur pasture grass. puybennac a 
uenel kay egkylch y eyd dalyet ar e guellt a uo endau ual ar 
er yd kany deleyr guell paur ena 117.5. Y bore Mai ar bawr 
maes. D.G. lxx.3. 

peccan see bychan. 
pech see peth. 

pechaut fault, offence, kyureyth hywel ... a uarn na dotet 
p. nay achyureyth yn erbyn y mab am trew y tat 62.26. 

pedeyr f. four. 

pedeyrardec fourteen. 37.12, 13; 71.6, 26, etc. 

pedeyrardec ar ugeynt thirty-four. 3.17; 6.1; 49.28; 65.22; 
66.23, 24, etc. 
pedeyrthet four teats, see teth. 

pedhol f. a horseshoe, e naud eu or pan decreuho e gof llys 
gueneutur .1111. pedhol ac eu tho hoylyon ac ydau enteu eu 
dody ad[a]n uarch e brenyn 24.5. 6.22; 10.3; 90.1. 

pedholy to shoe (a horse), ef a dely pedholy march e brenyn 
24.1. 

peduuar, petwar m. four, petwargwyr 79.8, etc. 

peduaret f. fourth. 5.3; 66.6; 71.1; 75.29; 107.19, etc. m. 
peduaredyt ar dec 87.22; 112.18. 

pedwartroydyauc four-footed, pop anyueyl p. 82.20. 

petwarugeyn eighty, eighty pence. 71.13, 14; 7 8 -7 ete - 

petwarygur fourth man. 61. 4, 5; 64.2, 4. 

petweryd m. fourth. 10.24; 22.7; 23.21; 24.33; 42-25; 66.16; 
74.27; 78.17; 85.16. pdgueredyt ar dec fourteenth day 90.5. 
ar eu petweryd 66.16. 

pehec see peth. 



242 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

pell far, distant, ar neyll en mennu eredyc empell ar Hall 
en acos 110.5. comparat. pellach. nyt a galanas bellach hynny 
76.3. nyt a ryw (rhif) bellach dec 65.20. 80.24. superl. 
pellavv. hid ed eluuint pellaw 51.17. 

[pellen] a ball of thread or yarn ready for knitting, pi. -eu. 
guedhesseu a kemerhoent gueeu neu p. ereyll atunt 86.22. 
33-25- 

pen m. head, top, joint, end, chief, mouth, dernaut em pen 
hyt er emenyt 7.22. pen guayu 27.28. hyd em pen e bluydyn 
8.5. ef essyt pen ar er holl suydguyr 9.9. y naud eu or pan 
dechreuho ef gueneuthur keruyn uet eny ruymo y huyl am v 
pen 17.22. uch pen above, over. hue pen bet e tat 47.4. 
opposite 131.9 (see uch). en e pen ehun [ed a] pabeth a oruo 
arnau ay bichan ay llawer he himself is to decide 50.32. O 
deruit y personeu ir egluys deweduyt gallu onadunt huy rodi 
naud en erbin un o tri peht bit epen e gur aroes udunt huy e 
nodav en deturit pa delo e roes ef . . . e nodau. let the one 
who gave them the power of sanctuary decide 51.4. dodi em 
pen to submit to. ac ena e mae jaun ir haulur dodi em pen er 
eneyt panniu effo adedeuis en kentaf testion a kitueit a deleu 
ohonau enteu muenhau en kentaf 54.10, see dody; 52.33, 38; 
81.25. 5.12, 14; 13.16; 15.15; 18.6; 30.24; 33.3; 34-21, 23; 36.16, 
20, 23, 24, 28; 37.7, 9, 12; 38.16, 17, 18; 41.7; 48.12; 51.19; 59.16; 
61.1; 70.20, 29; 72.5, 15; 80.25; 87.22; 92.4; 105.18, 24; 106.14, 
15; 108.17, 23; 110.23; 111-9; 112. 18; 131.19; 132.4. pi. -eu 20.14. 
superl. adj. penaf chief 24.18. 

penart pr. n. maeldaf henaf pendeuic penart 42.6. 
penkenedlaeth headship of the "cenedl." 66.22. see next. 

pcnkenedyl the head of the "kenedl." ny dyly na maer ua 
chychellaur bot yn b. namyn o uchelwyr eu gwlat. ny dylyir 
penkenedlaeth o uamvys. p. a dyly pedeyrarugeint gan pob 
gvr a uynho cares ydau . . . ac a dyly pedeyrarugeyn ygan 
pob mab a gymero y kenedyl ac a dyly ymyrru ygyt ay gar 
ym pob reyt a del arnav 66.21. 38.23; 73.26, 28; 74.14, 19; 78.1 ; 
127.24. 

penkcrd chief minstrel, minstrel, the tenth of the ten officers 
attached by custom and habit to the court, e penkerd ... a 
dely decreu o dyu ar eyl or brenyn byeufo e llys neu o arall ny 
dely erchy namyn. penkerd . . . ef a dely ykan pop kerdaur 
guedy ed emadauh ay dysc .xxmi. 28.10. Pop penkert or a 
estenho argluyd penke[r]dyaed ydau e brenyn byeu keysyau 
ofer ydau nyd amken a telyn y hun a crud y arall a pybeu yr 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 243 

tredyt 128.7. 23.24; 28.10; 99.22; 128.3, 12. Sef vyd pennkerd 
bard gwedy ennillo cadeir. A.L.I 388.viii; 6y8.viii. LI .MS. 
69, p. 32.9. L.W. 68 2, etc. 

[penkerddyaeth] office of "penkerdd." ebed3>-u pop penkert 
or a esteno argluyd penkedyaed ydau 128.8. 128.4. 

pcnkynyt chief huntsman and tenth of the twenty-four 
principal officers, e penkynyt a dely dangos e kun ar kyrn ar 
kenlleuaneu yr brenyn ac guedy as dangosso menet y kemryt 
kylc ar uyleyneyt e brenyn 17.5. 5.20; 15.26; 17.2-13. 

pen chuc see pengwch. 

pendeuic chieftain, prince. Maeldaf henaf p. penart 42.5. 

pendhu black-headed (?). rey a deueyt panyu maeldaf henaf 
. . . ai barnus y guir aruon yoruert ... ay kadarnha panyhu 
ydno hen y guir epist pendhu 42. 

pcnffest plough-head ( ?) A.O. [guerth] penfest aredar .1. 104. 12. 
guerth aradyr neu penffest iv keynyauc. A.L.I 308. g. cf. 
Penffestr glanwaith, mydriaith mad, Addail cur a ddeil cariad. 
D.G. (Arddwnaeth y Bardd.) cc.2i. cf. penwast halter. 
Dimet. 

penffestyn helmet, a hood of mail, [guerth] p. damdug 
102.15., Ac ar hynny owein a drewis dyrnawt ar y marchawc 
trwy y helym ar penffestin ar penguch pwrgwin. W.B. col. 
236.22. A chymryt heingyst a oruc herwyd baryfle y benfestin. 
R.B.II 162.14. a gossot ar vwyel arnaw ynteu ar warthaf y 
helym. yny holltes yr helym ar penffestin. R.B.II 55.19. 
penffestin eureit yskythredic ac arwyd dreic a adasswyt oe 
benn. R.B.II 189.28. auream galeam. Schultz, p. 125. a 
phei na ry by lei y cledyf ar vodrwyeu y benffestin. R.B.II 
i98.ii = cassidis mucronem. Schultz, p. 130. penphestin wssur, 
saylet. P.MS. 169.309. 

penguastraut chief groom, the sixth of the principal officers 
of the king and the third of the queen's. 5.19; 9.30; 11.2; 12.7; 
13-3. 25; 21.23, 27, 28; 22.4; 23.30; 24.2. 

pengwch a head-band, coif, greyc tayauc ne eill rody djm 
namyn benfeckyau y goger ... a rody y phenchuc 38.15= Vxor 
uillani nil potest dare . . . nisi mitram. A.L.II 794. xvi. 104.1. 
Am y ben y dodet penguch bwrkwm a ffaylet. ac ar warthaf 
hynny helym eureit H.MSS. 127.2. A gweuyl mab gwastat y 
dyd y bei drist y gellyngei y lleill weuyl idaw ywaeret hyt y 
uogel ar Hall a uydei yn bennguch ar y benn. W.B. col. 468.3. 



244 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

see H.MSS.I 269.27. W.B. col. 236.22. Corn, penguch a head 
covering, an upper garment. Lex. Corn. 

penhebogyt chief falconer, gur ar teylu . . . eu e trededyn 
a deley trajanu ar brenyn e deu ereyll eu e urenynes ar p. 
7.15. 3.24; 5.8; 9.29; 10.5; 12.19; 13.9, 12. 

penhebokeyaet office of chief falconer. Gober kereishiaul e 
brenin . . . o tir e bo suyd ohonau mal p. neu disteinniat 56.17. 

penhecen the paunch, belly ( ?) . O deuant kyn defnetyau y 
kyc rodher chuarthaur yr nep pyeufo e tyr e cuartaur dylur y 
pop perchen pewhecen ar chuartaur rac y pop perchen kella 
95.22. Nid ilawnach yr enaid er llenwi y benygen. M.A. 
7603.19. Newydd bennyg yn henfon the thick and, fatty part 
of a beeve, a fat tripe. Walters. Dr.D.Prov. gelyn cod wen 
a phenig. P.MS. 72, p. 286. " pennyg entrails = Lat. pantices 
bowels, paunch." Z.f.c.P. vii-47i. 

penlluydec grayling-net, [guerth] p. .vin. 102.8. penlluy- 
dech [rete pro salmonibus griseis]. A.L.II Sos.lxiv. 

penllyeyn a wimple, head-cloth, greyc mab ihuckellur a ejll 
rody y mantell ay cris a eskjdyeu ae penlliejn 38.12. [guerth] 
p. .vin. 104.25. ar llinat hwnnw a uynnaf i y gaffel y heu yn 
y tir newyd draw, hyt pan uo ef a uo penlliein gwynn am 
penn uym merch i ar dy neithawr di. R.B.I 121.23. "The 
women . . . cover their heads with a large white veil, folded 
together in the form of a crown." Gerald. Descr. Cap. xi. 

pennaeth chief. O deruyt roy camaraes y alldut a bo[t] plant 
meybyon vthunt. e plant a dele trestat o uammuys. eythir na 
deleant ran or tetyn breynyaul hyd e tredet din eythyr mab 
alldut o pennaet. hunn a dele ran o cubel. 39.18. 

penryn headland, dywynwal ... a uesurus yr ynys hon o 
benryn blathaon ym prydeyn hyt y penryn penwaed y kernyu 

64.27. 

pensuydauc chief officer. amoBer [merch] pop p. heruuyt rey 
punt . . . amobor suydyochyon ereyll heruuyt rey .cxx. 38.25. 

pentan a hearth-stone, hearth-stool (?), trivet (?). try 
anhepkor tayauc y kauen ay truydeu ay pentan 29.7. am e 
pentan .1111. [keynyauc] 99.8. v.l. talbren. Ll.MS. 69, p. 61.5. 
P.MS. 36a, p. 124.18. penthan [focarius]. A.L.II 775-xxxvi r 
etc. cf. pentan [tripod]. II 865.1xvii. tudhedyn pentan a 
garment of homespun 104.18. Or tereu dyn ryd caeth talet 
deudec keinawc [idaw] chwech dros teir kyuelin o urethyn gwyn 
tal pentan wrth lad eithin idaw yn defnyd peis. A.L.I 696.xxxi, 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 245 

P.MS. 360, p. 75. cf. gwyl bentan. M.A. 1863.44. A.L.II 
744. ix. chwedleu pentan. M.A. 8253.18. see also A.L.II 
873.xxxi ; 877.1.1. 

penteulu chief of the household, penteulu a dele bod en uab 
yr brenyn neu eney neu en keuuc gur a e kaller penteulu 
ohonau. ny dele mab uchelur uod en pewteulu . . . urth benny 
e due guyr guynet e penteulu o ryf .1111. suydauc arugeyn 
yadan e dysteyn 5.21. Ny deleant e teylu rody eu dyllat onyt 
kan kanyat e p. ef a dely uod em pop lie en eu blayn ac na 
guenelynt dym namyn kany kaghor ef 7.8. 5.15, 19, 24; 6.1, 17; 
8.8; 9.7, 23; 14.23; 15.5, 6, 32; 18.1, 5; 19.3; 26.14; 56.20; 77.27; 
127.10. penteul 9.23. p. [paterfamilias], A.L.II 897, 898. 

penwaed pr. noun, see penryn. 

pcnyt penance. Had o fyrnygruyd 11 v chwechanvr oy wadu 
canys deudyblyc yu y alanas ay benyt 77.6. Penyd sef yw 
hwnnw poeni o dyn o arch y periglawr. P.MS. 15, p. 35. p.= 
Lat. poenitet. Loth p. 194. 

[penydyau] to do penance. 3 sg. pres. subj. er efeyryat . . . 
a dely dyllat e urenynes er hun y penytyo endau erbyn e pasc 
ai.z6. 

penyll paddock. Ammus e try temmor ny kyll nay guer[th] 
nay vreynt yr pory allan o haner ebryll hyd banner mey a mys 
heduuref ar y hyd ac odena kenybo amyn teyr nos a trydyeu 
em penyll punt a tal 88. n. v.l. pyll. Ll.MS. 174, p. 113.22. 
A.L.I 262. iv. aduwyn march penhill ebrill ebrwyt. M.A. 
232b-37. meirch penyll. A.L.II 264.6. Gorwytawd pen keirw 
pennhilluaeth an ryt. M.A. 1623.33. cf. gwell car cell, na char 
pennill. Dr.D.Prov. 

percguyn crest (A.O.). [guerfh] p. damdung 102.26. ac ar 
hynny owein a drewis dyrnawt ar y marclmwc trwy y helm ar 
penffestin SLT penngwch pwrgwin. R.B.I 172.12. Ll.MS. 174, 
p. 134.6 has pyrchuyn. see penguch. 

perchen m. owner, pop perchen hyd 112.5 18.24; 47-28; 
48.20; 69.4; 96.22, 23; 112.6. 

perchcnauc owner, perchensuc e tyr 96.24. 30.11; 43.4; 
47.30, 32; 48.14; 51.6; 60.13; 79.9, 13; 80.19; 81.18; 85.13; 89.4, 
14, 19; 96.24; 97-20; 108.8, 16; 113.8; 115.3, 7; 119.5, 23, 26; 
124.9; 131-17; 132-25; 135.6. pi. perchenocyon 31.13; 98.20. 

percheimogaeth ownership, possession. 3C n3t aeth yg3nthau 
er pan anet ar y b. hyt y dyd hunnv 81.27. 



246 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

periled (a) middle, central. Or meybyon dueran ir tat ac 
vn yr vam. er henaf ar yeuhaf yr tat ar perued yr vam 33.10. 
tarader perued middle-sized auger 100.5. 7-26; 59.14; 65.11; 
105.7. 

(b) middle, centre. Ar haulur enessav ydau en e perued ar 
kanllau ar e llau arall ydau 52.17. 52.19; 91.9; 131.17. p.= 
Lat. pennedius. Loth p. 194. 

pergyn small cauldron (?), settle (A.O.). e gur pyeu e 
kallaur . . . ar tarader ar pergyn ar cremaneu oil 33.21. v.l. 
llawgallawr. L.W. 74, note. 

pcrllan an orchard, try thlus kenedyl y gelwyr melyn a 
choret a perllan 63.12. 114.4. 

person parish priest, puybennac a guenel kam y uam ecluys 
talet .xi 1 11. punt er hanner yr abat . . . ar Hall erug er 
efeyryat ar clas . . . puybentiac a guenel kam emeum ecluys 
arall talet .vii. punt e neyll hanner yr efeyryat ar Had (Hall) 
yr person 30.19. pi. -eu. O deruid y personeu ir egluys 
deweduyt gallu onadunt huy rodi naud 51.3. cf. Eluc. 117.5. 
kwyn y personnyeit yn dywedut. pwy an kanhorthwya ni. 
p. = Lat. persona. ( = curio, parochus. M.D.) 

persony to present to a living. Ny del[e] escob persony nep 
ar sapeleu e brenyn heb y kaynat 9.2. 

perth hedge. beychyogy o luyn a perth to beget out of 
wedlock 130.22. plentyn trw'r berth or trw'r llwyn= bastard. 
Card, priodu drwyr berth. Hanes Llan. 147. see llwyn. 

[perthynu] (ar or at) to pertain or belong to. 3 sg. pres. ind. 
perthyn. or huyth a perthyn ar er estauell 10.20. 20.25, 26; 
21.13; 23.18; 28.28; 65.25; 101.18. 3 sg. pres. subj. pertheno. 
popet a pertheno parth ar llys 8.26. paub a p. atey 21.15. 
12. 18; 15.13; 60.14; 68.3, n. perthynv. Rep.MSS.I 782 205. 

perthenas what pertains to. kennyn a pop peth a uo 
perthenas y arth ac ef 114.8. 

pery to cause, order, e tnayr bysgueyl . . . byeu p. er ar a 
holl reydyeu e llys 24.20. ef a dely arluyau e llys yam pery 
guellta a pery keneu e tan 26.12. p. = Lat. pario. Loth. 

peryglaur confessional priest, mass priest, e penguastraut 
... a dely .1111. k. a pop march a rodho e brenyn eythyr y 
trydyti sef eu e rey hewny er escob ar penhebogyt ar croessan 
sef achaus nas dely ykan er escob urth y uod en peryglaur yr 
brenyn 13.11. o ben y seyth blyned allan ew ehun a dyly 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 247 

tyghu dros y weythre[t] ay dat byeu talu canys yna yd a adan 
lau y beryglaur ac y cymer gwedeu arnau 70.21. os o uaru a 
beu edescarant ranet e claf ay peryglauer ekit ac ef 34.15. 
49.36 periglaut. cf. ac vrth yr ysgin o ball fflamgoch yr oed 
pan or ermin manurith yn arwydockav y perigloryon. Eluc. 
96.23. Sef yw hwnnw. poeni o dyn o arch y periglawr trwy 
gwbyl ediueirwch. Eluc. 145.16. Rac yn periglaw heb 
periglawr. M.A. 2i6a.n. see A.L.II 384-xvii ; 6io.xxxi; 
666. iii. A.B.II 117.20. Eluc. 143.1. Periglawr = The priest 
who reads the "Oratorio periculosa" at Mass. Stokes. Bezz. 
Beitr. ix, p. 91. 

pcrygyl m. dangerous bodily injury, dernaut em pen hyd er 
emenyt. a dernaut egkorf hyd er eniyscar a tory un or peduuar 
post, am pob un or try perygyl henny e dele e medyc .ix.xx. 
18.8. 18.5. see arperykyl. 

pedrus (a) doubtful, obscure. Try anhebkor brenyn . . . 
egnat llys urth dehosparth pop ped pedrus, etc. 29.3. 

(b) doubt. Rey y syd ar pedrus am ueychyogy gwreyc o 
llygryr pa beth a dylyir am danav 70.4. Amryssoh ath gyfielyp. 
pedrus yv it. Rep.MSS.I 312.32. 

peth, pedh, ped, pesh, peht m. a thing, object, circumstance, 
reason, ar neyll en deueduyt bod e uecnyaeth ar pet maur ar 
Hall ar pedh bechan 30.31. nac o Hat e saraer nac o peth arall 
41.2. pop ped pedrus 29.3. claf ae o bryu ae o phet arall 
108.16. sef eu treys popeth a decker eguyt o anuod 85.1. pa 
beth, beth what 35.23; 36.4 pech; 38.3 pehec; 70.4, u ; 120.25. 
peth ii4.20 = pleit. P.MS. 35, f. 783.19. Ll.MS. 174, p. 143.26. 
pi. -eu 27.29; 28.30; 34.7; 63.10; 67.18; 68.5; 109.2. Ir. cuit 
bit, portion. 

pcunoeth e-very night, nightly, always, e kenutey a dely 
march e kenut a kymryd ebran ydau beunoeth or llys 27.6. 
yo uoyt peunoet yr medyc 106.7. see W.Ph. 153. 

pcimyt e-very day, always, ef a dele off rum e brenyn peunyt 
8.24. 

pey if. bey darfey y ur Had gur arall 73.3. cany bu ymlad 
yno pey ymlad a uey yno dyruy yr argluyd a uydey 75.16. 
see bod, bey. 

peydyau, p. ac to cease. Puybynnac a urthoto yaun o achaus 
tebygu y uot yn argluyd ar haul a dyly holy pan uynno gater 



248 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

ydau peydyau ac o pheyt un dyd a bluydyn byt y haul yn 
haul dra bluydyn 133.1. peydyau ac emduen 41.8. 3 sg. pres. 
ind. peyt 133.1. imper. pass, peytyer 76.11. 

peyllyeyt fine wheaten flour. A chwethorth o uara goreu a 
tyuo ar y tyr o byd gwenythdyr chwech yn beyllyeyt ony byd 
gwenythdyr chwech yn rynnyon 69.20. sex de illis debent esse 
peillieit [similaginei]. A.L. SaS.xiv, etc. mi a rodwn y march 
am holl arueu yr banner un dorth o vara gwenith peilleit. 
H.MSS.II 139.30. Pill o liw gorwyn peilliaid (y gaseg eira). 
D.G. vii.33, Appendix, eiry peill-liw. D.G. xv.3i. see paill. 
Med.M. pp. 103, 106. peill- = Lat. polio or poli-re. Loth p. 194. 

peyr a cauldron, [guerth] e peyr .cxx. 99.16. Mi a rodaf it 
peir. a chynnedyf y p. yw. y gwr a lader hediw it. y vwrw 
ynypeir. R.B.I 31.10. W.B. col. 56. Precium lebetis regis est, 
id est, peir, libra. A.L. II 822.x. p. = Ir. coire a cauldron, a 
large pot or boiler. 

peys f. coat, tunic, blouse, jacket. Sarhaet caeth deudec 
ceynnyauc. chwech yr peys a teyr yr llaudyr 78.11. 25.8 ; 37.8. 
y Hew arall ae achubawd yn llitiawc wenwynic. ac a rwygawd 
lluric bown. hyt nat oed well hi no hen beis lorn doll dreuledic. 
H.MSS.II 148.16. ac ar vchaf y beis glaerwenn honno . . . 
ydoed ysgin o bali. Eluc. 95.20. baryf . . . y wneuthur 
peissyeu rawn yr meudwyeit. H.MSS.I 254.29. p. = Lat. pexa. 
Loth p. 192. 

pethendo roof of -wooden quarrels, try tan ny dyukyr tan 
godeyt maurth a tan geueyl trefcort a uo .vn. huryt eregthy 
ar tey a hytheu en pethendo neu en tyglys 86.13. Peithyneu e 
neuad a debygei eu bot en eur oil. W.B. col. 9ob.39=toat y 
neuad a tebygei y vot yn eur oil. R.B.I 84.1. p. = small 
diamond quarrels ( ?). o myn garwriaeth or mav a fiwyth honn 
ai ffeithynav (Descr. of Pais haiarn.). P.MS. 64, p. 156. p.= 
plates of armour ( ?) . moes d own arthur a than d own beithynav 
dvr. P.MS. 63, p. 16. cf . Tyrfai rac llafnau pennau peithwyt. M.A. 
1413.45. Hyrddaw tre bergaw bargawd peithynben. M.A. 345a.52. 
but H.MSS.I 333.7. (Eluc. 169.28.) Pyst y neuadd ae hystyfiyleu 
ae phethyneu a hennynt o ryw brenn a elwir cethim. Toat y 
neuadd a henyw o ryw lysseu a elwir hebenus. sef achaws yw 
hynny hyt na aller o neb modd yn y byd y llosci = Lo^Mearia 
vero et tigna et epistylia sunt de lignis, etc. Eluc. 241.8. 
crombeithinen gutter tile. E.Lh. cf. Ir. slind=pecten = imbrex 
a flat stone or tile. W.W. peithyn = Lat. pectinem. Loth 
p. 194. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 249 
pcythyneu pi. reeds of a loom. [guerth] e p. ar cloryon 

.VIII. I02.l6. 

pheheu see peth. 

plant children. O deruyt roy camaraes y alldut a bo[t] plant 
meybyon vthunt 39.16. 40.3; 71.27; 75.23, 28; 77.17; 82.26; 
124.25; 129.13, 15. p. = Lat. planta=Ir. eland. Altir. 909. 

[planu] to plant, pres. subj. pass, planer, pop pren a p. en 
guasgautguyd 98.6. 

plas m. place, enclosure. Nyt reyt creyryeu yn dadleu a 
wnelher ymeun mynwent canyv plas y creyryeu 134.22. Sef 
yw meint y plas, erw gyfreyth a hynny yn gwmpas. A.L.II 
360.1. LI. MS. 116, p. 43.12. gwaetlidiaw tir y brenhin o vywn 
y plas yr orssed. A.L.II 362. vi ; 472.xvi. Ac ef a beris y 
gymeint ohedwch yny deyrnas a pheri crogi modrwyeu ar hyt 
yr heolyd ar plassoed. ac nyt oed neb a lauassei eu kymryt. 
R.B.II 386.16. see D.G. cclxv-78. Ibid. vi.8. (appendix), plas 
y ur6ydyr. Car.Mag. 13.14. 

pleyt, pleit f. side, party. O deruyd y dyn or duy bleyt e bu 
e kefreyt eregthut guadu y uraut 30.26. Ac ena y may yaun 
guneythur du pleit ac eiste en keureithiaul 52.11. Os ew a 
deruyd roy mach ar a uarno y gyureyth ac eyste yny pleyt 
130.7. 45.9; 52.31; 53.9, 27, 41; 55.4, 5, 18, 21 ; 131-15, i7, 18; 
132.4; 134.18. Tri attavodogyon llys : plaid, tyst, a gwaedd 
gwlad. M.A. 931 144. nid plaid heb gefndyr. P.MS. 54, 
P- 356. yny vyd y pleit hayarn yn wenn. R.B.I 33.3. 

plyth, em plyth among. O kyll dyn anyueyl ay kafael em 
plyth anyueylyeyt e brenyw ef a dely .mi. k. 29.10. 29.13 plyt. 

pob, pop every, pop keycg or man guyt 98.19. e penteulu 
a dely uod em pob lie en eu blayn 7.10. popet (pob peth) 
everything 8.26; 34.12. pop rey all, everyone, val hyn e deleyr 
dale escrybyl ar hyd . . . ac 6 dodyr ykyd ruymher pop rey 
Onadunt 117.14. pop un everyone, each 9.10. pob tu on both 
sides, ay dey hyneyw un o pob tu ydau 131.12. 4.10; 55.17, 
19; 69.3, etc. see paub. 

poburyes, pophuryes a bakeress. e p. ... a dely . . . 
teyssen dyuet popy o pop amryu ulaut a popo 27.16. 23.23; 
28.26. 

poby to bake, toast, claur poby a board for baking 101.12. 
27.18, 20. 3 sg. pres. subj. popo. e porthaur ... a dely kadyt 
e kaus a popo 26.11. 27.18. pilio yr wy cyn ei bobi. M.A. 
8583.1. 



250 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

pont a bridge, p. un pren a one-tree bridge. O demit y vach 
a kanogon kauaruot ar pont vn pren 48.38. Ac ygyt ac y 
gwybu yr idewon y gwyrtheu hyn : kymersant y pren bendigeit 
maes or llyn. ac y dodyssant yn pont vn pren ar dyfwr. 
P.MS. 32, p. 249.20. 

porchell m. a young pig up to three months. Gwert p. ... 
hyd tra no en denu .11. k. esef eu heny try mys ac ohenne eny 
el e moch yr koet banu vyt 92.25. pi. perkyll 93.4, 6; 113.2. 

1. porth m. gate, entrance, er egnat llys ... a dely yean e 
porthaur agory e porth inaur ydau en deuot yr llys. ac emenet 
y meun ac allaw. ac nas ellecho uyth yr guychet 12.10. Pemet 
[suydauc] eu e porthaur ef a dely y tyr en ryt ay ty o ueun e 
porth 25.26. 19.5, 9, 13 ; 25.29, 30, 31 ; 26.1, 4, 6, 14, 28. see 
Loth p. 197. 

2. porth help, aid, succour. Ac ena e may [yaun] er eneyt 
ev guarandau a gouin pa le e may eu porth. O deueduuant 
pot eu porth en eu kemmut eu hun. Roy oyt trideu udunt 52.5. 
rody oet urth porth to grant a respite to get aid. Ni deleir rody 
oet vrth porth am haul vach a kenogon kanes diannot e dele bot 
49.4. porth orduy aid to -violence or murder. Nau afeyth 
galanas. . . . Seythuet yu bot yn porth orduy 75.1. 49.12, 16; 
52.4, 7, 10, 25; 59.1. see Loth p. 197. 

porthaur porter, gate-keeper and the fifth of the minor 
officials, ef a dely or anreyth o uoc a del truy e porth hucc 
a hallo ef erbyn y gurych y derchauel ay un llau eny uo keuuc 
y tract a tal y deulyn 26.4. 12.10; 19.7, 12; 22.31; 23.22; 25.26; 
68.7, 9. see porth i. 

porthy to support, maintain, feed, ny dyly meybyon eyllyon 
y brenyn y porthy na porthy y teulu 67.10. ef a dely cakwneu 
er anyueylyeyt . . . y porthy y hebogeu 11.7. vynt a dyly ant 
talu tvng eu tyr yn llau y maer bysweyl. ac a dylyant y 
borthy duyweyth yny wlvydyn 68.14. 66.2; 67.9, 15. 

pory to graze. Ammus e try temmor ny kyll nay guerfth] 
nay vreynt yr pory allan 88.9. 118.8. see paur. 

post m. pillar, post, limb, e ryghyll ... a dely seuyll erug 
e de post a guyalen en y llau rac llosky e ty . . . ny dely tarau 
e post e parth e bo e brenyn 25.1. try arperykyl dyn dernaut 
em pen ... a tory un or peduar post 106.1. 15.15; I7-34J 25.4. 
pi. pist. guir e pist pendhu ( ?) 42.8. 

pot 50.25. read bo. see also bod. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 251 

powys n.l. Powys, one of the three kingdoms in Wales. 
canhuynaul p. ny dyly mamuys y guy net nac o vyned y p. ac y 
uelly yn deheubarth 62.14. 73.29; 74.22. 

pren m. a tree, -wood, pop pren a argueto fruyt 97.23. 
puebennac a vryuho tey en agheuretyaul talet .1111. k. am pop 
pren bras 99.7. 13.21 ; 98.5, 6. p. (in genit.) -wooden, rau bren 
loi.i. keruyn unpren a vat made of one piece of wood 100.13. 
pont unpren a one-tree bridge 48.38. (see Rep.MSS.I 365.19. 
cf. Ger. Delbriick plank-bridge.) 48.38; 100.7, 2 3 > 101.1, 12; 
104.1. 

prenyal a trough (?). p. guedes 102.15 a -warping trough 
(Pughe). -weaver's loom (A.O.). cf. p. = coffin, grave. 
Prennyal dywal gal ysgwn : . . . Bed gwen uab llywarch hen 
yw hwnn. A.B. 264.4. dymgwallaw gwledic dal. oe brid 
brennyal. B.A. 18.11. prenial=yssgrin. P.MS. 51.122. Rep. 
MSS.I 400 see. M.A. I4ib.i2 ; 159^52; 1883.31. 

pressuyl a stay, continuance, in genit. al-ways in attendance. 
e guylur ... a dely y tyr en ryd ay uuyt bres[uyl] 26.18. e 
dysteyn ... a dely y tyr en ryd ay uarch bresguyl 9.3. 13.5; 
17.18; 18.21 ; 23.10; 24.9; 27.3, 25. en bressuyl in attendance. 
e guastauel ... a dely y tyr en ryt ay uarch en bressuyl 14.6. 
14.22; 15.10, 27; 17.32; 19.2, 25; 22.18, 26; 23.2. cf. Ni bydd 
presuyl pasc. M.A. 8523.21. Mi a gigleu doethon yn dywedut 
na dichawn dyn ymoglyt y drwc yn wastat. . . . Nat mynych 
ydianc yn yach yn bresswyl. H.MSS.II 69.28. cf. presswylder 
habitation. R.B.II 253.27. yn b. always. M.A. 28a.io. 

probuyllyeu stilts of a plough (?). [guerth] p. ar racarnaut 
.1. 104.14. 

prouy, provy to prove, test, try. O keyll e dy hunnu prouy 
uod en kam y uraut a uarnus er enat kollet er enat y tauaut 
12.27. Ac guedi heni e may yr eneit proui e kedueueit y edric 
a due pop rey onadunt huy bot en priodaur e bleit 55.17. 40.8, 
16, 18; 133.24. pres. ind. pass, prouyr 40.8. 3 sg. pres. subj. 
prouo 12.21. verb. adj. prouaduy proved, tried, guarthec p. 
cows that have calved before, e teyru o hanner haf hyd aust. 
Ny deleyr eu dale . . . kanys en er arnser hunnu e byt teruen[yt] 
e guarthec prouaduy 116.6. a phrofadwy yw ry golli ohonafi 
vynggolwc . . . am na elleis edrych ar seint greal. H. MSS.I 
83.10. yr awr honn y mae profadwy dy vot ti yn oreu 
marchawc. I 312.6. a thitheu am gwrthodeisti vegys bilein 
profadwy. II 129.32. cf. y ferch a ddel i'w phrofi hwyr y daw 
i'w phriodi. Dr.D.Prov. 



252 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

pryaut one's own. essef achaus e geluuyr en try pryurey 
vrth e uod en try pryaut greic ac na ellir e duen o neb achaus 
ykenthy 37.31. gwreyc bryaut a married woman, y gyureyth 
a [dyweyt] eylweyth na dyly mi mab trew tat namyn y mab 
hynaw yr tat or wreyc bryaut 62.24. 39.22. see H.MSS.II 
173.1. p. = Lat. privatus. Loth p. 199. 

pryd, pryt m. time, day. or pryt buykylyt from one hour till 
the corresponding hour next day 112.21, 23 ; 116.1, 2. cf. Dirwest 
Duw bu deugain pryd. M.A. 242^4. Ar tradoeth gyfod y 
pryd trydydd. M.A. 353a.6. 

prydau to lease, demise. ny dyly nep gwneythur [v.l. 
gwerthu] tyr nay brydau hep gannyat argluyt namyn lloget 
pob bluydyn os rnyn 63.25. 63.27. cf. Tri ryw prid yssyd ar 
dir. vn yw gobyr gwar[ch]adw. Eil yw yr hyn a roder er 
chwanackau tir neu vreint. Trydyd yw llafyr kyfreithawl a 
wneler ar dir y bo gwell y tir ohonaw. LI. MS. 116, p. 31.2. 
[de] prit [pretio terre}. A.L.II 884. xiv. os y dir a roir ar sal 
yn y llys y pridwr a ddly i gael o flaen arall. P.MS. 86, p. 155. 

prydeyn Scotland, ew a uesurus yr ynys hon o benryn 
blathaon ym prydeyn hyt y penryn penwaed ykernyu. sew yu 
hynny nau can mylltyr a hynny yu hyt yr ynys hon 64.26. 
see prydyn. 

pryduerth free Ac ykyd ac ef. e rey a uenno or teylu ar 
lleyll en y kylc y lety ef ene bo preduerth ydau ef y gueneuthur 
y reyt 6.9. O deruyd y dyn ygwlat arall ay o achaus dyhol ay 
o alanas ay o agheneu ereyl mal na alho cafael y wlat yn 
bryduerth na dyfryt y priodolder ew. 61.8. cf. a breid vu o 
chauas y brenhin hun brytuerth y nos honno. yn achubeit 
vynych vedylyeu am ymadrodyon y kennadeu. H.MSS.II 
77.21. ac amhryduerth oet y ereint yinwan ac ef rac y uychanet 
ac anhawset craffu arnavv a chalettet y dyrnodeu a rodei ynteu. 
W.B. col. 434.31. kyrnryt alltudes hediw yn wreic ytt ny wdost 
o pa le pan henyw. a gvvrthot vy inerch ineu. Ednebyd nat 
prytuerth itt hynny. tra vo nerth yny vreich deheu hon. 
R.B.II 61.9. Prydaf yn ddyfnaf ytt ddeifnyawc powys/ 
Pryduerth dy gynnwys gennhyf nerthawc. M.A. 238a.i6. 
Dioddefodd yn brydferth dros filoedd farwolaeth. LI. MS. 209, 
p. 359. Am ei Bridwerth ni pherthyn ymliw a duw fal a dyn. 
Flor.Poet. 38. O Wysc yr ddisserth os kaiff yn brydverth / bob 
rrandir ar werth nid an oi wrthaw. P.MS. 67, p. 175. see also 
M.A. 2063.28; 213^32; 225b.i7; 2383.16. prytuerthrvydd opp. 
to caledi. Med.M. 30.3. berth fair, fine, rich, open ( ? ) (see 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 253 

M.A. 593.16; i36b ; 1473.21; i52b.i, 58; 1783.32-36; 2153.23; 
2i6a.i; 2175.49; 286a.8; 2965.11; 2995.32; 3o85.)aears to be 
formed from a5erth 'riches/ 'wealth,' etc. 5orr.<Lat. apertus. 
The meaning of apertus is, however, preserved best in prydferth. 
The Eng. pert for apert plain, clever, bold, publicly, etc. (Strat.) 
has presumably a similar history. This a5erth appears to have 
become confused with a5erth offering-O.lr. id5art, ed5art gl. 
o51atio. see Z. p. 1055. Walde connects 5erth with Ger. 
5eraht, etc. prydferth and prydwerth are used as two entirely 
different words in Mod. Welsh. 

prydyn Britain ( ? ) . e 5ard teulu ... a dely pan ranoent 
er anreyth kanu un5eynyaet p. 15.4. Vn5eynayth Predeyn 
[Monarchia Britannic]. A.L.II 763-xxii ; 830. ix. see however 
Lloyd II 530, where it is translated 'The Monarchy of Pictland.' 

pryd earth, clay, [guerth] esten p. .1. 102.3. 

pryurey ( ?) exclusive or private property. Try p. greic y couyll 
ae gouuen ae y sarhaet esef achaus e geluuyr en try p. vrth e 
uod en try pryaut greic ac na ellir e duen o ne5 achaus ykenthy 
37.30. This appears as privraid in M.A. 9763.1 ; priuei P.MS. 
35, f. 943.19, 21 ; f. 985.7; A.L.II 346, note a; prifoi A.L.II 
580. xxv ; prif-fraint L.W. 386.ccliii; v.l. prif jeu. ; prif rei 
A.L.II 578. xx ; 668. v; pryf urey LI. MS. 174, p. 45.20. Pimt 
riuei gureic [quinque precipua uxoris]. A.L.II 872. xx. Prif rei 
seems an unlikely expression and is probably nothing more 
than an attempt to make privei look like a Welsh word, priuei 
= O.Fr. prive; M.Eng. priue, priuee. 

prynu, prenu to buy, redeem, hy a dele prenu a gu[e]rthu 
39.22. O sarhss cseth ryd llsder y llsu deheu onys pryn y 
argluyd 78.14. 39.21 ; 80.23; 81.19; 91.24; 117.23; 126.3. 3 sg. 
pres. ind. pryn 29.19; 85.4. 3 sg. pres. su5j. pryno, preno 12.29; 
47.26; 79.28; 92.22. pret. ind. p3ss. prynvt 62.19. 

pryodaur a proprietor, the free tribesman who had proprietary 
right to the land. Puy5ynnsc ynteu o uynho holy tyr o 3ch ac 
edryu dangosset y sch hyt y kyf yd henyv ohonsu sc ot ytyu 
ew yno yn petwsrygur pryodsur yu canys yn petwarygur yd a 
dyn yn pryodaur. ac nyt yuelly y disgyn dyn oe pryodolder 
yny uo yn alldut 61.3. 53.3, 4, 10; 55.18, 19; 56.8, 10, n ; 61.12, 
J 3 19; 62.8, 9, 12; 128.24. pi. pryodoryon 61.11 ; 62.8, 10; 
64.2-16. 

pryodolder proprietary right, title to share of land. Ac o 5it 
a 3meuho ydau ef y uot en 5riod3ur 5ot kanthau entheu a 
kathuo y 5riodolder o ach ac edriu 53.4. Os nauuetdyn a dau 



254 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

y ouyn tyr dyfodedyc yu bryodolder 61.13. 53.5, 6; 56.8, 25; 
61.6, 8, 21 ; 64.6, 7. 

p's abbr. for pressuyl. 

pump jive. 

punt f. a pound of 240 pence, sew ual y rennyr y punt hoiino 
chweugeynt yr bara a tryugeynt yr llyn a tryugeynt yr enllyn 
69.15. punt tung the pound that might be paid by the free 
maenol instead of the " gwestva." Messur gwestua y brenhyn 
yn amser gayaw o uaynaul ryd . . . ac ony ellyr kafael hynny 
punt am daney. a honno yu y punt tug 69.12. 66.7; 67.2. 

puteyn a harlot, nyd oes breynt j puteyn 41.18. 

pun a load, pun inarch or blaut 69.7. 25.29. 

puy (interrog. pron.) who gouynnet puy a wercheydu huii 
80.26. 42.3; 52.32, 37; 53.33; 81.2; 132.1, 2; 133-26; 134-4- 
puy + bynac whoever, whosoever. puybenac a torro e naud 
kefredyn a hossodho ef 10.1. 50.25, etc. 

puych read puys ( ?) espoused, betrothed, ny dele gruereyc 
en e byt cafael ran or hyt. onyt grueyc puych 34.14. v.l. puys. 
A. I,. I 84. xi. Megys y daw gwr pwys ac anneiryf lussogrwyd 
varchogyonn gantaw yn erbyn y wreic pwys ae dwyn gantaw 
gann ganuev a llewenyd. Eluc. 49.31. Crist a self y ymlad 
dros y wreic bowys. Eluc. 62.3. yr ecclwys Ian Catholic, 
yr honn yssydh wraic bwys briawt y un mab Duw dat. H.MSS. 
II 439.23. 50 P.MS. 21, p. 4ib. The reading main bwys (M.A. 
i6b.i3) in two of the Gododin MSS. for the usual mamwys 
suggests that mabwys, mamwys were regarded as cpds. of buys 
or pwys, and gwreyc puys appears to have been formed on the 
analogy of these words. This is corroborated by the use of it in 
gwenith-bwys (1.0.487; Gorch.BeirddCymruIII) 'of the quality 
of wheat.' see, however, Eluc. 258, where p.< is derived from 
Lat. sponsus. see further kynwys, mamwys, tadwys, cyfarwys. 

pybeu pipes, bagpipes, pop penkert ora estenho argluyd 
penke[r]dyaeth ydau e brenyn byeu keysyau ofer ydau nyd 
amkew a telyn y hun a crud y arall a pybeu yr tredyt 128.10. 
cf. pan y dirmygai y Cymry ymarver a phibau, ac mewn rhan 
a waherddid gantynt, etc. M.A. 734, note 33. see crud. see 
also pipai. O.M.I dxxxii sq. ; III 335. but cf. Cor. pib gl. 
Musa; piphit gl. Tibicen. Z2. 1070. 

pcpyr pepper, e dysteyn a dely y dyuallu o holl leseuoet 
yam pepyr a llesseuoet ereyll 120.3. For the medicrval idea of 
how pepper was obtained see Eluc. 166.16. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 255 

[pyeu] has, owns, is obliged to. e gur pyeu e kallaur . . . 
e greyc pyeu e badell 33.19. guedy e bart kadeyryauc e bard 
teulu byeu kanu tryckanu 14.29. Puebennac a rodo gureic i gur 
ef pieu talu e hamtnobor 36.11. 3 sg. pres. pyeu 8.27; 9.14; 
14.17; 24.3, 20, 27; 28.3; 33.5, 17, 22, 29, 30; 34-i ; 37-6; 45-27; 
49-32; 50.5; 60.12; 71.3, 4; 73.6; 74.15; 76.18; 80.4; 82.8; 86.8; 
96.24, 26, 27; 108.23; I0 9-4i J 5J H2-5; 118.4; 128.9. 3 sg. iterat. 
pres. ind. pyeuyt. Puybynnac byeyfo tyr yglan traeth ew 
byeuyt kywlet ar tyr or traeth 63.9. O byd maru mab o 
bedeyrbluyd ardec allan ac na bo edyuet ydau y argluyd 
byeuuyd y da 71.7. 63.11 595. 7; 100.9; 122.22; 123.4, 12 ; 124.24; 
26.6 beu uyt. 3 sg. pres. subj. pyeufo 14.27; 17.24; 25.24; 28.12 ; 
38.30; 39.1; 63.9; 68.27, 29; 78.24; 85.10; 91.18; 95.1; 96.11, 21, 
23, 26 ; 97.2, 5 ; 104.4 ; 106.23 ; 111-20 ; 124.21 ; 131.5 ; 132.18. 3 pi. 
pyeufoent 113.7. 3 S S- past. subj. pyeufey 42.5. 

pyglauer see peryglaur. 

pymp, pym five, pymp uyr 79.6. pum vgeyntrew 65.18. 
pumgueyt five times 118.23. 64.29; 65.29; 79.6. 

pymhet, pemhct fifth. 11.25; 22.18; 23.22; 25.26; 74.28; 76.1; 
78.18; 79.7; 85.17; 91.6; 107.20, etc. 

pymthec, pcmdec fifteen 20.8, 24; 65.10; 90.22; 113.10, etc. 
pcmdccuet fifteenth. 19.1, 14. 

pynac -whoever, -soever, pa le bennac ed emkafoent 30.1. O 
deruyd ellug ar hyd pyeufo benac e chun 96.23. corn canu 
pyeufo bennac 104.4. panaac 44.26; 60.26; 61.9; 72.2; 79.26; 
108.7; 120.6; 130.28. see pa, pwy. 

pynuarch a packhorse, (metaph.) source of revenue. Huyd 
penuarch brenyn. mor. dyfeyth. aghanauc gulad arall. 
lleydyr. maru o anuab. maru e kafo ebedyu. a kankelus e 
kafer dyruy a kamlury 29.25. 63.11. These eight were called 
packhorses because : semper enim cumulant bona ad opus regis. 
A.L.II 783. xii. pi. pynueyrch. vynt a dylyant roy p. yr 
brenhyn yr lluydeu 67.13. cf. Pyniarch = mill-race. Dyfed. see 
also L.L. 134.26. y penn y pynmarch=ond (?), mill-race (?). 

pysc m. a fish. Puybennac a uenno hele pyscgaut a keuody 
pysc ohonau 123.10. 123.11, 14 pys. pi. -aut 66.29; 67.10; 
123.10; 123.14 pycsckaut; 123.18, 20. 

peskodha to fish, bod en rid p. ar e teyr auon 42.20. 

pyst (? ). guir e pyst pendhu 42.8. 

pystyl the bow of the yoke ( ?). [guerth] pop yeu ae pestel yeu 



256 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

.1. pystyl fyrling 104.16. pi. (?) pestelyeu 104.15; 112.1, cf. 
Hiryeu ar pistyllyon [jugum longum cum subjugiis suis]. A.L. 
II 865-lxxv. antella gl. postoloin. 72. 1062. Siccra i'r allt 
yw'r pystolwyn. C.L1.II 104.31. M.A. 858a.2. pistolwyn= 
postula. LI. MS. 55, p. 148. cf. pystylwyn = Lat. postilena. 
Loth. 

pytheunos a fortnight, ac ny dyly hot yn hunnv namyii 
pytheunos a mys 67.6. 49.22 ; 52.8; 53.37, 38; 76.19; 82.13; 
113.22. 

rad, rat (in genit.) free, gratis, ef a dele medhecynyaet rad 
pan ueno eythyr y guaetdyllad 7.19. enteu byeu barnu y ureynt 
ay delehet en rad 24.4. 5.2; 18.4; 17.26; 28.2. Ir. rath gnade, 
gratia. W.W. see Thurn.Altir., p. 129. 

raf rope, [guerth] raf bleu .xn. keuelyn .1. raf luyf .xn. 
kauelyn .1. 101.13. 78.12. 

rac (prep.) before, from, with pron. suffix. 2 sg. racod 44.6. 
3 sg. m. racdau 13.11; 25.18; 56.9; 71.5; 80.12; 110.2; 130.14. 
3 sg. f. rechy 114.22. 3 pi. racdunt 51.2; 54.18; 114.13. urth y 
uod en peryglaur yr brenyn a keuody racdau ac eyste en y hoi 
13.11. teyr keuelyn en hyd y guaeu duy draykeuen ac un 
racdau 25.18. e gof llys empen e ueyg rac deulun yr efeyryat 
5.14. ef a dely guylyau e brenyn rac pob guall 24.12. gan 
guynau or mab racdau 71.5. yaun yr eregnat kararet e kereir 
en e lau a deueduit vrth y kenogon naut duo racod a naut pap 
ruuein . . . na dos en llu cam 44.5. e kenedel a dele eu kadu 
rac gueuthur cam onadunt 120.4. rac bron before 4.14. rac 
hueneb next, deru ac auall ymp .1111. k. hyd kalan gayaf rac 
hueneb guedy et ymper 98.1. 1.6; 4.15; 10.27, 3; 19-32; 20.2, 
10 ; 24.12; 25.2; 27.19; 42.11, 13; 45.2; 46.20, 21, 22; 48.21; 49.5, 
23; 51.2, 8, 10, 30, 35; 52.12, 13; 53.29; 54.18; 56.9; 61.12; 62.9; 
74.3, n, 12; 80.3, 6, 12; 86.24; 88.18, 19; 91.14; 92.19, 21 ; 93.5, 
13; 107.20; 110.2; 114-13. 22; 120.4; 121.5; 130.14; 131.13; 133-29, 
etc. racu yonder, y dyn racu 79.10. o deruyd ymderuynu 
yrug deu ur gymreynt am tyr ar neyll rey yn teruynu hyt racu 
ar lleyll hyt yma 69.2. 46.17; 47.20. 

rac fore, cuartaur dylur . . . ar chuartaur rac 96.22. 

racarnaut a ploughbeam. [guerth] probuyllyeu a r. .1. 104.14. 
cf. Ni fynn farn eithr i arnawdd. Ni chair yn i gyfair gawdd. 
I.G. (Cowydd y Llafurwr) 634.1. Arnol or arnodd ploughbeam. 
Dimet. 

ragod, rachod to waylay, y naud eu duyn e dyn a guenel 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 257 

kam heb erlyt heb rachot or pan enynher e kanuyll kentaf eny 
dyfoder e dyuethaf 20.18. 14.17. y diruy hay camcul yndi didi 
yn hollaul o dorri naud ynn lann ac yn dieythyr lann o rachot 
ynn luhyn hac dieithyr luhyn. L.L. 120.15. Gwaith teg yw 
marchogaeth ton, I ragod pysg or eigion. D.G. (I'r Alarch.) 
cxc.20. Yna yderchis ynteu y gadwr tywyssawc kernyw 
kymryt whechant marchawc a their mil o bedyt ... a mynet 
yn eu herbyn. Ac eu ragot y nos honno y fford y doynt. 
R.B.II i86.i4=obviare. Schulz. 122.23. see R.B.II 76.15; 160.2; 
364.20. cf. (sine) ragot [impedimenta]. A.L.II 752. iv; 8i6.v. 
M.A. 73ob.33; 847^36. Rhagodua Insidiae, ambushe. P.MS. 
169, p. 316. Crynhoi i gyd ynghyd a wnaethai/I'r cae lle'r 
oedd y tarw creulon/Dechreu rhagod o bob ochor/Nes ei gael i 
mewn i'r sgubor/. Hanes Llan. 116. cf. racgwch y lleidar a 
ddary ngholledy. Huw Cowper MS. p. 23. 

rachor precedence, superiority, advantage. Ac am henny e 
rodhes rund vdut .xiui. brein .1. rackuys rac gureyc a sef eu 
eu rachor e meyrc dof ai uoch ay huydheu a kar a deu hechen 
42.14. en racgor in addition puebennac a guertho dynauguet 
yaun eu ydau y goruod rac tryheyn e guarthec a rac clauery en 
racgor rac clauery hyd huyl patryc 92.21. 41.31. Dyro i'th well 
ei ragor. M.A. 359.5. Mwy lawer yw eu ragor hwy no hynny. 
Eluc. 68.22. Ac yna yd erchis ef yr vorwyn kymryt ragor or 
blaen . . . ar uorwyn a gedwis y ragor. R.B.I 279.25. Llyma 
y ragoreu a geiff y neb a welo corff Crist. P.MS. 5-f.xlixb. 

rackuys precedence ( ? ) . ac am henny e rodes rund vdut 
.xi in. brein .1. rackuys rac gureyc 42.13. see rachor. r. = 
praemonitis. Dr.D. see mamuys, puych. 

ran f. part, share, division, ef a dely ran deugur or anreytheu 
7.12. ac o henny allan ni ellyr kemell arney hy y ueytryn 
namen erran ehun 37.12. vynteu a allant kymeynnyau mal y 
keuynderv a gwedy rann honno ny dyly nep na cyuran na 
chymeynnyau tyr kyllydus 59.28. duy ran two-thirds. Or 
meybyon dueran ir tat ac vn yr vam 33.9. so 12.17 ; 17.1, 2 ; 
28.14; 56.6; 76.16. 7.25, 26, 27; 10.9, 21 ; 12.13, 17, 22; 14.11; 
15.7, ii ; 16.27; i7-i, 2; 18.21; 19.3, 20; 20.5, 10 ; 22.9, 31; 22.30; 
23.11; 34-14; S 6 -^; 39- 1 ?; 39-*& rar; 51.6; 56.21; 66.6, 7; 68.20; 
74.10; 77.16; 78.20; 123.20; 124.26; 125.1, 2, 6; 128.17; 129.2. 

randyr f. a measure of land containing sixteen acres, a 
phedeyr yrv o honno ym pob tydyn a dyly bot petwar tydyn ym 
pob randyr. pedeyr randyr ym pob gauael 65.13. 56.19; 65.22 ; 
89.12. cf. Deudec erw athrychant avyd ynny rantir kyureithawl. 



258 



A.L.I 536. vii. In randir [particula] continentur ccc. et xn. 
acre. II 852. v. 

rannu to divide, share, allot, e gureyc pyeu rannu e gur 
pyeu deuyssau 33.5. try fedh ny dely e brenyn y ranh ac arall 
eur ac aryant a kyrn bual a guysc e bo hurlys eur ydhy 30.12. 
ef a dele ranhu er lleteu 9.8. 10.13; I 3-75 16.26, 28; 33.7, 24, 25; 
34.2; 34.3 ran; 36.21, 29; 46-34! 59-6, 7, i? iQ, 29: 60.1, 3; 63.4, 
5, 13, 14, 16; 69.3; 77.15; 123.17. 3 sg. pres. ind. ran 25.11; 
46.38. pass, rennyr, renyr 10.13; 17-26; 33- 11 * 28; 66.5, 7; 67.2; 
69.14; 75.19; 129.3, 12. 3 pi. pres. subj. ranoent 15.3. pres. 
subj. pass, ranher 74.9. 3 sg. imperat. ranet 34-15- 3 pi. 
rannent, ranent 33.4; 36.25. pass, ranner, raner 34.3; 76.5. 

rannyat m. division, a sharing. Os tey a uyd y braut eyl 
yeuaw a dyly rannv . . . ar rannyat hunnv a barha yn oes y 
brodyr 59.22. 

rar see ran. 

raskel a scraper or chisel, [guerth] r. dymey 100.14. Raschil 
[radula]. A.L.II 804. xxv; 865.xlvii. sartum gl. rascl. Z2. 
1061. r. = Lat. rasc'lus. Loth p. 201. see Fed. 136.3. 

rail a spade, [guerth] rau .1. 100.9. rau bren firling 101.1. 
Ir. rama spade, oar. Z.f.c.P. ^.365. 

raun horse-hair, the hair of a horse's tail, tail, pop anaf arall 
ar varch trayan y guert a atueryr yam y clust ae y koloren 
puebennac a ladho raun march rodet varch arall eny le . . . eny 
teuo y raun 89.3. telyn raun a harp strung with hair 128.14. 
see telyn. [march] ai rawn ai fwng yr un fodd. P.MS. 69, 
p. 255. llwdn teg rhownllaes (of a lamb). Rep.MSS.I 726 7. 
Roniav fal gwallt Rianod. P.MS. 69, p. 13. see Ped.I 32.3. 
cf. H.MSS.I 254.29. baryf . . . y wneuthur peissyeu rawn. 

redec (a) to run, continue, a rey [kefreythyeu] onadunt a 
adassant y redec a rey a emendassant 1.15. 

(b) course, running, y naud eu med rey hyd ar penguastraut 
e brenyn. ereyll a deueyt panyu hyd tra parhao redec a march 
kentaf 22.1. see talym. 

rey, reyn some, y naud eu ined rey hyd ar pgwguastrawt e 
brenyw. ereyll a deueyt panyu hyt, etc. 21.28. as pi. of hwnnw 
with, or -without hynny. un or rey a deuedassam ny 33.23. ac 
urth hynny y gat y gyureyth y reyn hynny yn pryodoryon 
62.10. 18.6; 35.20; 61.21; 63.28; 67.25; 68.8; 109.4; 123.4. PP 
rey every one. rey a deueyt bot en edlyg pop rey o rey henne 
4.10. O dodyr [escrybyl guyllt ac escrybyl dof] ykyd ruymher 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 259 

pop rey onadunt 17.14. 55.17, 19; 69.3. 4.10, 21 ; 5.17; 6.8; 7.5, 
18, 22; 8.1; 9.14, 28; 13.9; 14.1; 16.10, 27; 23.20; 25.23; 26.21; 
27.27; 28.28, 29; 30.21; 37-20; 38.26; 42.5, 28; 45.19; 47.3, ii ; 
48.11; 52.21; 53.8; 54.3, 14, 15, 18, 23; 55-12; 60.16; 61.25; 62.7, 
9, 28 ; 64.24 ; 69.2 ; 70.4 ; 75.4 ; 77.18 ; 103.12 ; 104.6 ; 113.15 ; 122.23 ; 
128.21; 130.19, 25. 

reyt necessity, a necessary. Ac a dyly ymyrru ygyt ay gar 
ym pob reyt a del arnav 66.26 canyt reyt y nep atep 72.1. ef 
a dely y holl reyt ykan dysteyw e brenyn 21.8. y duydrew a 
dyly hot yn reyt brenhyn vn onadunt a dyly bot yn tyr 
maertrew ar lleyll yn dyfeyth brenhyn ac yn hauot dyr ydau 
65.15. Ninnev a devedun bot en reid mach ar dilisruith 48.7. 
6.10; 7.4; 24.1; 27.4; 40.29; 47-I4; 48-17, 36; 5!-23; 53-26, 32; 
66.20; 68.5, n, 13; 71.29; 92.1; 115.24; 122. i ; 129.19; 132.10; 
134.21. pi. -yeu 19.26; 24.20; 27.26; 28.2. 

[reyd] a spear, lance, pi. redyeu. guir aruon rudyon eu 
redyeu 42.11. r.<Lat. radius. Loth p. 201. 

reyth, reiht f. compurgation, body of compurgators. y wadu 
hue neu dauat . . . 11 v pymp wyr ar neyll hanner yn wyr nod 
ar Hall o wyr dynot ac ehun yn pymhet. ac yna y byd 
deuhanner y reyth . . . y reythyoedd hynny nyt a namyn yn 
ol gyrr kyureythyaul. Sew yu gyrr cyureythyaul llu y 
perchennauc ar y uot yn wyr ar y dyn racu y lledrat 79.7. ac 
essef eu oet e reis honno vithnos or sul nessaf ac essef le eroder 
er reihis honno yhdhauef ene llann e guarrandah ef eferen 44.21, 
22. 41.2, 3; 49.22, 23; 75.8; 79.15, 17. pi. reythyoed 79.8. Tri 
gvvahan y sydd rhwng ceitweit a rheith : rheith a gwbyl 
ddiheura dyn o hawl, ac ny ddyweit drwc . . . rheith ny ellir 
y haineu . . . rheith ni ddyly tyngu bot yn eiddaw dyn yr 
anifeil a ddamdyger yn Haw namyn bot yn wirion y dyn or 
lledrat. A.L.II 636.xii. 

reythur a compur gator, esew ual e dele uot en reythur ydau. 
en kennesset ac e gallo alanas eket ac ew ac e kemero ac vrht 
lu e reythuyr bot en wir e gerenid 50.13. 50.12. pi. reythuyr, 
reihtwyr 50.11, 14. cf. Tri phriv anhebgor gwr rhaith : bod yn 
Gymro cynhwynawl, . . . bod yn wr cyfallwy ; a bod yn 
benteulu. M.A. 932 164. 

rod gift, tyghet yr haulur . . . nat aeth yganthau nac yn 
rod nac yn benfyc nac yn adneu nay werthu 81.20. ny fara 
gureyc nac o ladhlud o rod ar vreynt e haguedhy 36.23. 31.2; 
38.20, 21 ; 61.2; 124.19; 127.6, 7. 



260 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

rody, roy to gi~ue, grant, put. ny deleant e teylu rody eu 
dyllat onyt can canyat e penteulu 7.9. roy pedh em puyth 
125.8. tra uo e kannogon en rodi i eneu ir creir 44.13. O 
deruyd roy kamraes y alldud 124.26. Puebennac a guenel keuar 
ae kylyt yaun eu ydau rody bod vrthau a karuaruod e llau e 
kylyt 107.2. 4.4; 12.6; 14.24; 18.25; 21.27; 31.2; 35.2, 10, 19; 
38.3, n, 12, 14, 15, 28; 39.12, 26; 40.25; 41.9; 45.25, 27; 46.1, 6, 
19, 21, 22; 47.31; 48.10, 17, 25, 26, 29; 49-3, ii, 18, 35; 5i-3; 52-6; 
53.14; 60.1, 26; 61.1, 24; 66.27; 67.23; 7i-i7; 73-7, 24; 74-i6, 17, 18, 
21, 25; 78.16; 85.14; 86. 8; 92.1 ; 107.2; 117.20; 121.23; 124.22, 26; 
126.25 ; 130.7 ; 132.16. 2 sg. pres. ind. roy 31.8 ; 35.23. 3 sg. ryd, lit 
35.18; 61.15, 28; 76.13; 87.11; 120.18. pass, rodyr 34.6; 35.27. 
3 sg. pres. subj. rodho, rodo, roho 2.23; 3.12; 4.12; 8.19; 13.8; 
21.15, 26; 24.19 rho; 31.9; 36.11; 48.8; 51.6; 61.26, 27; 62.1, 4; 
85.26; 120.10 rodh ; 130.26. pres. subj. pass, rodher, roder, roer 
8.23; 13.17; 39-24; 43-7J 46-7; 47-235 71-21; 79-27; 122.2; 130.18. 
3 sg. imperat. act. rodhet, roet, rodet 35.16, 19 ; 37.16 ; 49.2 ; 78.13 ; 
85.21; 87.10; 89.4. 3 pi. roden, roent 50.2; 129.29. imperat. 
pass, rodher, roder, roer 36.8; 53.35, 36; 77.9; 82.12 ; 89.22 ; 96.22. 
3 sg. past. subj. rodhey 35.24. 3 sg. pret. indie, act. roes, 
rodhes, rodes 31.4; 42.13; 46.9; 51.4, 5; 132.20. pret. pass, roet 
30.32 ; 31.3. 3 sg. plup. ind. rodassey 48.2. 

rodyat m. a giver, one who bestows a -woman in marriage. 
.vi. [tauodyauc] eu rodyat ar y rod 31.1. pob rodyat ar wreyc 
a dyly talu y hamobyr 71.20. 36.13; 71.19. pi. rodeyt. O 
deruyt e greic bod rodyeyt ydy [v.l. arnei] adan e haguedy e die 
wod hyd epen e .vii. blenet 33.2. 36.22, 29. Ny uynhaf .i. heb 
ynteu namyn bot y uorwyn ual y may yny del y lys arthur. 
ac arthur a gwenhwyuar a uynhaf eu bot yn rodyeit ar y 
uorwyn. W.B. col. 402.10. Ac arthur a uu rodyat ar y uor6yn 
y ereint. W.B. col. 408.16. Pob rodyat gwreyc a dele talu y 
hamobor ony kymer ueychyeu ar e talu or nep e rodher ydau. 
LI. MS. 174, p. 91.28. 

roho 31.9- see rody. 

rue a mantle, [guerth] rue mab eyllt neu yskyn .ix. 104.7, 8. 
written much three times. Ll.MS. 174, p. 137. cf. a heusawr 
yn cadw y deueit ar benn gorsetua Aruchen o grwyn amdanaw. 
W.B. col. 472.20. ruchen leathern jerkin. E.Lh. cf. also Bret, 
roched chemise d'homme ; Roched-houarn Cotte-de-mailles. 
L.G. and Ang.Sax. rocc, rooc upper garment. (Sweet.) 

rud red, ruddy. Nyth hebauc punt a tal en keu rud .cxx. 
95.5. 70.8. pi. -yon 42.11. Gwerth hebauc koch kyn y rodi 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 261 

mewn mwd haner punt yw Gwedy y tyner or mut mal yn wen 
punt a dal. Ll.MS. 116, p. 17.4. see tauaut, llofrud. 

run son of Maelgwn Gwynedd. 42.1. 

riitlhcly (?) red ointment (A.O.), artery (?). medekynyaet r. 
stanch wounds ( ?). Sef eu messur e uedecynyat y kan e nep ay 
archollo punt. . . . Medekynyat gored .xxim. medekynyaet 
rudely .xn. medekynyat llesseu .nil. 106.6. 18.10. I can find no 
reference to this red ointment anywhere though it forms a third 
part of the practice of medicine. There are many references, 
however, to rhyd well = artery, and that is what is meant here 
probably. I stopio gwaed os tyrr gwythen . . . un arall os tyr 
Rhydweli fawr. Old Leech Book. I stopio gwaed or Rwydweli 
(sic) fawr. Ibid. Torri i Rydweli teilwng (referring to the 
piercing of Christ on the Cross). P.MS. 66, p. 71. There is 
also a rhuddweli bleeding wound. Goreu yw fy llyw llafn 
rhuddweli. M.A. 2990.51. 

rudher (?). 42.10. 

rutiein Rome, naut pap ruuein 44.7.. 

run pr. n. son of Maelgwn Gwynedd. Ac odena e luydhaus 
rud uab maelcun a guir guinet kanthau . . . ac am henny e 
rodhes rund vdut .xnii. brein 42.1. 42.4 rudn; 42.13 rund. 

rug, yrug, erug, eruc between, among, with pron. suff. 3 sg. 
m. regthau 12.16; eregthau 21.5; ereghau 17.11; eregtau 21.7. 
3 sg. f. eregthy 86.12. 3 pi. yrygthynt 77.1, 2; eregthunt 53-37; 
eregthun 52.7; erreghunt 107.23; erreghunnt 46.34; erughuunt 
49.10; eregthut 30.27; 124.13. seuyll erug e depost 25.1. 
dadeleu rug deugur 24.22. e grueyc byeu ac allho e duyn o 
blaut errug nerth y duylau ae y deu lin 33.31. pop dadel a uo 
eregthunt ehun eneyt or clas a del barnu udunt 124.13. 3.24; 
12.2; 13.25; 14.10; 22.10; 25.1, ii ; 30.15, 21, 22, 23; 35. 16; 69.4; 
74-I5; 79-7; 109-23; 124-14, etc. 

rump an auger, [guerth] rump .11. tarader peruet .1. 100.4. 
Terebrum, id est, rumb. A.L.II 864.xxxviii. Rump tarader 
mawr. P.MS. 169, p. 315. P.MS. 118, p. 95. cf. ungulum gl. 
rump. Z2. 1061. see Loth p. 203. 

runcy a sumpter-horse. palfrey .cxx. a tal runcy neu 
Surnmeruarc .cxx. a tal gueynyluarc .LX. 88.12. ac ymdidan 
aoruc ef ae varch. a dywedut wrthaw. March heb ef. beth a 
daruu it. drwc myn duw y kerdeis hyt hyn. canys pann 
erlityassant y rwnssieit clotuorus . . . yna ti ae hedeweist. 



262 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

H.MSS.II 163.22. Rwmsi = march cryf. P.MS. 169, p. 315. 
r.=Med.Lat. runcinus. 

ruyd f. a net. O deruyd tennu ruyd ay ar auon ay ar uor 
121.14. 101.4; 121. 16, 17, 20, 21, 22. used metaph. teyr ruyd 
gurda y ueyrch ay guarthec ay uocch eny kafo dyn anyueyl en 
eu plyt buy talet .1111. 29.11. 29.8, 14. 

ruythau to clear, make free, e dressaur ... a dely ruythau 
e ford er brenyn ay wirllisch 19.16. 

ruyll a clasp, buckle (?). [guerth] ruyll .1. gurekys .1. 103.21. 
Rwyl [fibula']. A.L.II 888.xxxi. but cf. rwyll cresset. A.L.I 
414.14; II 770. iv. LI. MS. 174, p. 111.14. P.MS. 363, p. 14.10. 
Rep.MSS.I 719 175. r. = a spear, see I.G. 212.18. 

ruyni m. binding, band, dreua o geyrch un ruym 69.9. Sef 
eu val e deleyr y kayu dody teyr bancor ar e llokyl a peth ar e 
drus a try ruym arnau 114.21. 69.19. 

ruymau to bind, fasten, e niocc nyd yaunt eu ruymau namyn 
. . . eu dale 117.16. 13.15; 117.18. 3 sg. pres. ind. ruym 108.5. 
subj. ruymo 17.22. imperat. pass, ruymher 117.14 

ry preverbal particle, (a) with v. noun giving it a past sense. 
Puy bynnac a uynho gwneuthur dogyn uynac aet ar yr argluyd 
a dywedet rywneuthur lledrat o dyn ny leueys y dyweduyt 
arnau 80.8. O deruit ir amdifenur readau testion a uo guell no 
rei a edeuis er haulur 54.22. 36.1, 5 ; 37.19 ; 46.37 ; 53.5, 6 ; 54.22 ; 
60.24, 27; 80.8, 16; 135.8, 9. 

(b) with pres. subj. changing it into a past, a dyweduyt or 
amdyfynnvr ket ryfo yth dewys nyt ydyu 130.10. O deruyd y 
dyn mennu guerthu hycc or keuar rekeuarer ny dele y guerthu 
108.18. 92.23; 108.9. 

(c) with pret. Huchof retraythassam ny or suydocyon a 
perthyn ar e llys . . . eman e trayhun ny o pedeu ereyll 28.27. 
4.21; 23.i8;43.6; 48.4; 51.14, 25; 52.30; 53.7; 55.4; 63.23; 72.7. 
13, 26; 73.12; 75.8; 77.4; 82.1; 126.20; 129.20; 132.6; 133.5. 

(d) with plupf. O deruyt e gureic escar a menu ohono vr 
arall a bod en ediuar gan e gur cantaf reescarassey ay grejc 35.7. 

ryeh a furrow. Ny deleyr semudau hycc ahkauarer en ryc[h] 
ar e guel[lt] heb kanyat y kauaruyr 111.15. see Ped.I 122. 

rydyll a riddle, sieve, e gur a dele erydyl e grueyc a dele e 
goger man 33.15. 101.8. 

ryd, ryt, rit, reth free, not bound, unrestricted. O deruyd 
udunt kafael myleyndyr breynt e tyr a dercheyf eny uo tyr ryt 
4.26. e dysteyn a dele y tyr en ryd ay uarch bresguyl 9.3. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW^ 263 

gurth guaet ryd .xxim. Guerth guaet kaeth .xvi. 106.18. 
8.12; 10.25; 11-25; I3-3; 14-21; 15-9, 26; 17.17, 31; 18.19; 19-1. 24; 
20.28; 21.12, 24; 22.8, 26; 23.1, 10, 25, 26; 26.11, 17; 27.2,24; 
28.10; 35.15; 39.4; 40.18; 42.20; 44.10; 45.4, 21, 23; 49.6; 59.3, 6; 
67-3> 7J 68.21; 69.6; 78.13; 82.7; 88.21; 92.12; 95-23J 114-2. pi. 
-yon 66.4. comparat. redhet. ef a uyd kyn redhet a tyr mab 
uchelur 127.20. 

retherc pr. n. Eman e lias elidir . . . ac guedi y lad e doeht 
guir e koclet ema oy dial sef guir a doedant en tehuishocyon 
vdhunt, clidno ... a nud ... a retherc hael vab tudaual 
tutclit 41.29. 

retheryc in heat continually (of animals), buch . . . o byt 
retheryc .xxx. pop bluydyn tra vo byu 91. 14= semper tauri- 
petens. A.L.II 859-xix. dafad ryderic. P.MS. 35, f. io3b.io. 
cf. cathderic. o deruyd y dyn prynu buch y gan arall a mach 
ar teithi y genti, ae hymol yny vlwydyn gyntaf, a bot llo a 
llaeth genti kyt bo ryderic wedy hynny byth ny dyly y neb y 
doeth gantaw teithi ohynny allan. A.L.II io4.xxvi. cf. Ir. 
dair heat (in cattle), see B.L.G. 

redhau to free, liberate, ac ena e brenin a dele redhau e 
gustelon o eu carcar 56.4. 

redit privilege, privileged liberty, ac ni deleir talu tir 
ambreinaul en lie tir a breint ohonau vel kegkallorais neu 
vaerony neu redit [arall v.L] 55.26. Pan teruyno tref ar y gilyd 
yr uchaf y breint a dyly teruynu ar yr issaf. Sef yw dyall 
hynny. Rydit a teruyna ar gyllit. P.MS. 35, f. 743.20. 

reheag too loose, kayu arnunt val na bo rekeuyc ac na bo 
reheag 109.7. 

ryeny ancestors, ar datanhudyeu hynny ny dylyir eu datan- 
hudau namyn or mab yn lie y bu y tat gynt neu yn lie y bu y 
ryeny ehun gynt 60.19. kanys rieni dyn yw y dat ae hendat ae 
orhendat. A.L.II 426.xxix. LI. MS. 116, p. 58.13. 



ryf, ryw number. 6.1 ; 65.20. see edryf. 

rye rye. dody en llestyr tnessur y godro ac o byt Haunt . . . 
dogen eu ac onybyt y dyeyssyuau o vulaut keyrc hyd uuel kyryc 
ac o hynne hyd guyl vyhagel o ulaut heyt ohynny hyd kalan 
gayaf o ualaut rye 91.24. cf. Ger. Roggen. 

rycreus see creu. 

rekeuyc too close, narrow. 109.26. see reheag. 



264 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

ryghyll, rigyll an apparitor, a beadle, the fourth of the minor 
court officers, e ryghyll ... a dely . . . o pob ty ed hel ar 
neges e brenyn torth ay henllyn 25.16. a guedy es tadkano 
aynt er egnat allan ar effeyryhet ygyt ac vy a Righyll ygyt ag 
uy hy eu kadv rac douot dynyon y warandau arnadunt 53.20. 
23.22; 24.23; 25.20, 21 ; 26.7; 42.20; 52.17, 19, 29; 53-2o; 131.19, 
23; 132.8. 

rynnyon oatmeal, chwethorth o uara goreu a tyuo ar y tyr o 
byd gwenythdyr chwech onadunt yn beyllyeyt ony byd 
gwenyththyr chwech yn rynnyon 69.21. A.L.II 784. rynnyon 
[de farina avanacea crassiori]. r.= groats. Dimet. 

rysken a small pan, dish, [guerth] r. fyrliwg ioi.ii. ryschen 
[patella-m.]. A.L.II 784-xi. risgen emenyn a delir drostaw teir 
dyrnued o led a their dyrnued tewed heb voel. LI. MS. 116, 
p. 26.11; 69, p. 124.24. cf. ysswingbren=Rissgen i gadw 
ssaethev. P.MS. 51, p. 192. see K.R. p. in ; Loth p. 202. 

ridh, ryd form, guise. Sef eu anodeu pop peth a decker en 
ryd arall 85.3. O deruit y din rody mach y arall ar anilis en 
ridh dilis 47.31. Bvtn yn lliaws rith kyn bum disgyfrith. 
B.Tal. 24.9. yny llannerch y gwelei bebyll. ac ef agant y 
bader wrthaw yn rith eglwys. W.B. col. 287.17. y rei hynny 
a rythassei ef or madalch. R.B.I 62.13. tre6is ynteu hi a 
hudlath ac y datrith6ys hi. W.B. col. 80.35. Ir. richt form, 
shape. 

ryth see ryd 

ryu, reu m. kind, nature. Try ryu datanhud ysyd datanhud 
ar ac eredyc, etc. 60.17. often r. = such. or ryw uara a 
dywedassam ny uchot 69.27. pa rev varch pennac vo 48.2. 
39.19; 62.7, 9, 21 ; 81.27; 116.25; 126.19; 134.3. unryu of the 
same kind 119.15. r. = Ir. re. Fed. I 159.2. 

sac a sack, sac a nytlen .1111. ar pop vn 100.15. 

1. saet, sayth an arrow, [guerth] bua a deudec saet .1111. 
102.16. 100.21 ; 123.6. 

2. saeth mischief, -wantonness ( ?), (in gen.) sportive, saetebaul 
young colt, ny delyr ebaul en hoi y uam a hunu a elguyr s. 
116.16. kyfreith a dyweit na dylyir talu [llwgyr] saeth ebawl, 
sef yw hwnnw, ebawl a retto yn ol y vam ; ny dylyir y difwyn 
y Iwgyr yny [uo] dwy vlwyd canys hyt hynny ybyd ebawl. 
A.L.II ii4.1vii. The Latin laws appear to have this in -view in 
the following triad. Tria jacula sunt pro quibus nichil 
redditur : scilicet, cani, cervo, et pullo lascivo yn hyt [in segete]. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 265 

A.L.II xlvi.iv. There is a seith, sayth in Med.W. which 
appears to mean 'deceit' or 'wickedness.' Ef a welit ym. heb 
hi. eskor ohonaf at 1 vab bonhedic. . . . Ae datkannyat a 
prophydy di. heb y ruben. Ae o duw ae drwc yspryt. ae o 
seithuc y duwyt yr arwein hynny. Os beichogy a geueis. heb 
y wreic diamheu nat seith yw namyn gweledigaeth. H.MSS.1I 
271.30. Ffo ymdeith herlot rubalt truant, bychan vvyti. a 
mawr yw dy druansayth. a mab i buttein wyt. Ibid. 122.24. 
ni thelir saeth i ebawl (i.e., no compensation is to be paid for 
the mischief a colt does). M.A. 853^12. Dr.D.Prov. Nyd 
abar y gwnaeth nyd saeth salwder. M.A. 1673.42. Kyvyt vu 
vinheu heb suyseu saeth. M.A. iSia.i ; 2i6b. saethutta. R.B. 
I 119.21; 120.7. W.B. col. 478.30; 479.18 appears to be a cpd. 
of this rather than saeth 'arrow,' and should be translated 'do 
not worry us' instead of 'do not shoot us.' 'seithug' is another 
derivative, seithuc pla. M.A. 263^12, 39. Can it be borrowed 
from Ir. saith = W. hoed trouble, etc. (?). 

sauedc see seuyll. 

saythu to shoot, hit. o deruyd y forthaul yar e fort guelet 
anyueyl a burn erkyd ay a mayn ay a sayth . . . nyd yaun 
ydau y saythu nay erlyt onys rneder yar efort 123.8. 

sanfreyt pr. n. St. Bride, guyl sanfreyt. Feb. i. 

[sapel] pi. -eu chapels. Ny del escob persony nep ar s. e 
brenyn teb y kanyat 9.2. cf. serubin. M.A. 3473; 369^ 
sambyr. Eluc. 122.17. syaret (chariot). H.MSS. 89, 92. 
Melsisedec. P.MS. 5-la, etc. sapel. LI. MS. 174, p. 39.15. 
s.=ecluys arall of B.B.Ch. 30.18 as distinguished from Mam 
eglwys. O deruyd y vn a swydogyon y llys gwadu mach, neu 
y wr or teulu a vo ar vwrd y brenhin ygkapel y brenhin y dyly 
y wadu; kanys yno ydyly ef y dwfyr swyn ae vara offeren. 
A.L.II 68.1xix. 

sarhaet, saraet, saraeht, saraehet, sarhat f. (a) insult, con- 
tempt, act of violation or wrong. O teyr forth e gueneyr saraet 
yr brenyn un eu pan torrer y naud pan roho naud y dyn ay lad. 
arall eu pan del deu urenyn ar eu kydteruyn o achaus emaruoll 
ac eghuyt e deu urenyn ar deulu Had o hur yr neyll gur yr Hall 
tredet eu kamarueru oy gureyc 2.22. esef eu y sarahet pop 
maedhu a gu[n]el e gur arney eythir am try phes 38.1. 3.14; 
35.11; 37.20; 38.2; 71.6; 87.18, 20. 

(b) the fine paid for the insult or injury. Saraet brenyn 
aberfrau uel hyn e telyr can myhu urth pop cantref eny 
argluydyaet a guyalen eur keyhyt ac ef ehun a kynurasset ac y 



266 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

uys e becan a claur eur kefled ay huynep a kyntehet ac euyu 
amaeth a uo amaeth seyth lenet 3.5. a trederian saraet e brenyn 
a telyr ydhy hy am y saraet 3.14. 3.13; 4.18; 6.3; 8.17; 11.22; 
12.31 ; 14.2, 4, 19 ; 15.7, 23 ; 17.14, 28 ; 18.16, 33 ; 19.22 ; 20.6 ; 21.9, 
20; 20.22; 22.5 sarhat, 16, 32; 23.6, 16; 24.6. 15; 25.23; 26.15, 
28; 27.20, 21, 22; 28.18, 20, 25; 34.24; 35-i, 2; 35.25; 35.3, n, 14, 
15; 37-26, 30; 39.13; 41.1, 19; 71.11, 13; 75.11, 13; 77.7, 
9, 13, 26; 78.2, 6, ii ; 106.19, 25; 120.7, 15. pi. -eu 77.15. s.= 
Ir. sarugad act of wronging, violating, overcoming. B.L.G. 

[sarhau] to insult. 3 sg. pres. ind. sarhaa. O sarhaa caeth 
ryd llader y lau deheu 78.13. pres. pass, sereyr, serheyr 3.11; 
25.21; 41.19; 77.7. pan ladher dyn y serheyr. pres. subj. pass, 
saraer 25.24; 41.2. past. subj. act. 3 sg. sarhaey 77.13. see 
saraigim. W.W. 

sand til heel, kecuuin y vaut hit e saudul 49.1. see baut. 
skjdyeu see eskyd. 

seuyll to stand, ef a dely seuyll eguasanaet e brenyn en y 
absen 15.15. Ny dely cyghaus na chanllav seuyll ygyt a nep 
am haul a uo lley no chyvverthyd tryugeynt 59.2. 4.14; 9.26; 
22.29; 25.1; 36.1; 46.28; 47.3; 52.18; 133.11. 3 sg. pres. ind. 
seyf, seif 55.21; 118.27; II 9- I 2. i pi. sauun 52.36. 3 pi. 
sauant, sauahant 52.35 ; 55.5, 7. 3 sg. imperat. sauet 47.17. 
part. pass. saued[i]c. bit s. hunu let that one stand. Ni dele 
er amdifennur llessu yr un onatunt kani vir na bo da jdau a 
deuedunt ar hun a llesso onatuunt kin guibot bet a deuedoent 
bit s. hunu 54.17. sauedic opp. to llyssedic rejected. P.MS. 
35-39*. 

segur disengaged, not occupied. O deruyd y dyn rnenet y 
hele a decrecu hele ac ellug ar anyueyl ... a kauaruod kun 
secur ac ef ay lad eccun kentaf ay kecuenus byeuyd onyd cun 
e brenyn uydant e rey segur 122.1. 123.4. a segur y digawn 
pwb ohonawch vot eithyr gadu y ryngtunt wy elldeu. R.B.I 
5.11. s. = Lat. securus. Loth p. 206. 

senet synod, ecclesiastical court, efeyryat e urenynes . . . y 
saraet heruut braut senet 21.20. Kans kabidwl yr abad yssyd 
drydyd kabidwl kyfreithawl kans kyfreith a deweid na ellir 
kymell vn dyn eglwyssic rwymedic wrth vrdeu kysygredic neu 
wrth grefyd arall y atteb y neb o vaes oe sened or dwedir dryc 
weithred arnaw. A.L.II 404.4. cf. Eluc. 113.24 sqq. 

[senethvr] a member of a synod, pi. senedguyr. efeyryat 
teulu . . . y sarhaet eu heruyd braut senedguyr 8.18. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 267 

senillt pr. n. nud hael vad senillt 41.28. see retherc. 

ser billhook (?), saw (?). guerth canhuyr .1. ser dymey 

100.18. uoscera gl. serr. Z2. 1061. gl. falce. luv. 409. sserr 

kleddyf. P.MS. 169, p. 319. P.MS. 118, p. 496. see Walde 
under sarpio. 

seruari pr. n. mardaf hael veb seruari 41.29. see retherc. 

seyc f. dish of food, mess, choice food, penteulu . . . er eyl 
seyc anredethussaf en e llys a dele y kfael 6.10. Edlyg . . . 
en .vi. het gur ar seyc e brenyn 3.25. a pan uo e brenyn en y 
llys [e ryghyll] a dely buyt seyc 25.1. 6.12; 10.26; 14.2; 15.31; 
I 9- I 5; 25.28; 27.3, .17, 25; 28.23. cf. M.A. 8i6b.27. Melin i 
gydau, llys i seigiau. Marchnad i gyvnewidiau. s. = gwledd. 
Rep.MSS.I 748 28. s. = Ir. seach (?) a turn, the quantity taken 
at a time. Dineen. 

seyn sound, ac oc kleuyr y s. 106.16. 

seys a Saxon, an Englishman. O deruyt roy kamraes y 
alldud mab honno a dele ran o tref tat ac ny dele ran or tetyn 
breynyauc hyd e tredydyn ony bod er alldut en guahalyet seys 
neu en huydhel a hunnu ac keyf en dyannod 125.4. pi- sayson 
64.18. 

seyth seven, seyth tey 67.25. s. lenet seven years 3.9. 
50.21 ; 70.20. seythmluyd seven years old 70.16. seihisbluit 
49.35. seihuir, seythwyr seven men 45.19; 73.27. seythuryt 
seven fathoms 86.14. 

seythuet seventh (writt. also) seyduet, seyhtuet, seihuet, seyuet, 
seysuet, seisuet. ar i sethuet together -with six others 44.17. 
45.7; 47.21. 

souel stubble, puebennac a semuto hyd ar e souel hyd ar e 
guendun 119.17. s. = Lat. stipula. Loth p. 207. 

soram pr. n. Ac o grugyll ymon hyt yn soram yglan y mor 
pym cant mylltyr a hynny yu llet yr ynys hon 64.28. O grygyll 
ymon hyt yn soram y glan mor yd 500 milldir. LI. MS. 116, 
p. 72.21. L.W. 155 2. Soram (ace. sg. of Sore), llyr ... a 
adeilwys dinas ar auon soram. ac ae gelvvis kaer lyr . . . 
leissestyr. R.B.II 64.27. see also M.A. 3883 ; 561 153 ; 562 176. 

speit see yspeyt. 

sudher housings, sweater. [guerth] sudher .1111. 103.3. 
suder [sudaria]. A.L.II 888.xiii. 

sul Sunday. 48-341 49-23- 



268 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

sulguin Whit-sunday. a diguitau er oet en vn or teir guil 
arpennic e pa[s]c ar sulguin ar nodolic 48.31. 

sur sour, auallen sur crab-apple. 98.4. 

such a ploughshare. 33.23. tyr s. a chulldyr arable land. 

64.9. cf. R.B.II 86.30. a gwneuthur kudyedic sycheu heyrn ar 
hyt canawl temys . . . wrth dyllu y eu llogeu. see R.B.I 27.7, 
K.R. p. 112 

sullt treasure, hoard, try fet ny dely brenyn y kefrann e 
sullt ay hebauc ay leydyr 29.7. 132.19, 27. see dyebryd, 
brethyn. s.=Lat. soldus. 

summeruarc a sumpter horse, .cxx. a tal runcy neu s. 88.13. 
Nachaf ynteu yn dyuot ar uarch coch mawr ... a swmer mawr 
telediw gantaw. a disgyn a oruc y gwas coch ... a thynnu 
kadeir o eur or swmer a lien o pali kaerawc. R.B.I 152.24. 
a chynnullaw y gyt eu daoed gwasgarawc a dodi eu swmereu 
ar eu meirch. H.MSS.II 91.1 ; see also 173.39. 

suyd f. of '/ice, commission, service, y maer bysweyl a dyly 
pedeyrarugein ygan y porthaur pan estynher y suyd ydau 68.10. 
Gober kereishiaul e brenin . . . o tir e bo suyd ohonau mal 
pewhebokeyaet neu disteiniat neu keghelloriat 56.16. 9.11, 26; 
16.2; 24.9; 56.16, 17, 18, 27, 28; 62.11; 66.21. y dyn y rotho y 
brenhin vn or pedeir swyd arhugeint llys breinhawl idaw. 
A.L.I 444-xxviii. Sef oed y s6yd ef yn wastat ymd6yn peir 
arthur a dodi tan y dana6. R.B.I 136.10. 

suydauc officer, an official. 3.17; 6.2; 20.24; 126.4. pi. 
suydhocyon, suyocyon, suyhoyon, suydychon, suydyochyon 

16.10, 26; 19.8; 23.19; 28.1; 38.26. suydguyr is also used as pi. 
of suydauc 7.7, 29; 8.1, 25; 9.9-18; 10.15, 16, 17; 12.7; 15.12; 
18.29; 19-8, 20; 20.4, 21, 32; 21.4; 25.3; 78.3, 6. 

suyn blessing, duuyr s. holy water, dyuot yr egluys y 
cymero duuyr s. ay uara eferen 72.10. s. = Lat. signum. Loth. 

syc dry. gueyr sych harvested, hay. 114.6. 

sechct thirst, er hebogyt ... a dele duyn llestyr yr llys y 
dody guyraut endau kany dely ef namen tor y sechet . . . rac 
guander ar y adar 10.29. 

seuac weather poles (A.O.). [guerth] e polyon seuac ar 
keybren 99.10. polyon syuageu. LI. MS. 174, p. 132.5. P.MS. 
35, f. io8b.8. [Messyr] tervyn dwy erw dwy gwys a hwnw a 
elwyr synach (rect. syuach?). A.L-II 268. iv. amhynyogeu 
( = door posts), and Eng. Balk are likewise used in a similar 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 269 

manner as divisions between two holdings of land, etc. cf. 
Mod.Ir. stabhac a stick, lifeless trunk. Dineen. 

semudau to remove, change, alter. Ny deleyr semudau hycc 
ahkeuarer en rych ar e guel[lt] heb kanyat y kauarwyr 111.15. 
Val hyn y dyly brodyr rannv tyr a dayar yrygthunt pedeyr erv 
urth pob tydyn a gwedy hynny y symuduys bledynt . . . deudec 
yrv yr tnab uchelwr 59.8. 111.13. 3 s g- pres. subj. semuto 119.17. 
3 sg. pret. ind. symudus, symuduys 59.8; 82.25. pret. ind. 
pass, semuduyt 113.10. 

senyau (urth) to look after, e gostecur ... a dely s. urth 
deodreuew ac urth da e brenyn 15.19. cf. y seith hynny a 
drigwys yn seith kyn ueissat y synyaw ar yr ynys hon. W.B. 
col. 50.12. s. = Lat. sent-io. Loth. 

t' see try, teyr. 

t" see tra. 

tacuet November. 16.23, 25. 

tat, tad father. 30.23; 33.9, 10; 35.21; 36.7; 37.9, 12, 14; 
39.21, 30; 41.5; 44.18; 47-3-25; 49-22; 50.21; 56.12; 60.19; 61.27; 
62.15, 24, 27; 70.16-29; 71.4, 22; 72-7-25 73-5-25; 744-13; 77-io; 
79-3 ; 125.6-25 ; 129.5, 16, 17 ; 133.26. 

tadvys male-succession, a mab oed hunnv y [y]arll kernyv o 
uerch brenhyn lloygyr. ac gwedy dyfody tadvys y urenhyny- 
aeth y cauas ynteu hyhy o gogeyl urth y uot yn vyr yr brenhyn 
64.19. see mamwys, racuys. 

tauaut tongue, guerth nau aylauyt gokefurt eu hyn ar pop 
vn or deutroet .vi. byu a .vi. ugeyn aryant. . . . Guert e 
tauaut kemeynt ac eu gurt venteu oil kanys ef ac eu hamdyfyn 
105.18. essef e guil e kefreis ena kanid oes nanin i un tauaut ef 
en gerru arnau na dele namin vn tauaut e kennogon y guadu 
44.3. O key 11 e dyn hunnu prouy uod en kam y uraut a uarnus 
er enat kollet er enat y tauaut neu ynteu ay pryno y can e 
brenyn yr yguert kefreyt 12.29. cf- P an dygwydo brawdwr 
swydawc llys neu gwmwd neu gantref ygwerth y tafawd tri 
pheth a gyll ef yna kyntaf y kyll y swyd eil breint brawdwr 
o eisseu swyd. Trydyd gwerth y dafawd. LI. MS. 116, p. 7.25. 
96.5. 105.18; 120.24. tauaut leueryd. see lleueryd, tauaut rud 
red-tongue, one who points out another man to be murdered. 
kyntaw [afeyth galanas] yu . . . mynegy y dyn a ladher yr 
dyn ay lladho a hunnv a elwyr yn tauaut rud 74.25. see 
llowrud. see also Walde under lingua. 



270 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

t annul the dock plant; t. newydd new grass (?). teythy 
dauat blys ac oen ay goruod hyd kalanmey rac er auat eny 
kafo teyrguala or tauaul neuuyt 93.14. yny gaffont eu gwala 
teir gweith or gwellt newydd. A.L.I 716.3. yr aelwyt honn 
neus cud tauawl. A.B.II 273.4. M.A. 860.31. cf. yr aelwyd 
hon neu's cud dynad. M.A. 86b.i3. 

tauelhualeu jesses, er hebogyd ... a dele croyn hyd en 
heduref ar guahanuyn croen euyc y gueneuthur menyc y 
a[r]gueyn y hebauc ac y gueneutur tauelhualeu 11.13. tauel 
seems to be a trans, of jactus or O.F. jects<Lat. jactare. tauel 
= Ir. taball sling, see O.M.II 289. so W. fiondafl sling, see 
hual. 

tauodyauc an advocate, attorney, arbiter, .ix. tauyodyauc 
sef eu e rey hene argluyd erug y deu guas efeyryat erug y deu 
uanac tat erug y deuuab. O byd un or rey a deuedassara ny 
huchof ny menho dody em pen e try t. ar Hall en y uenhu 
kefreyt a eyre y dody 30.21. 31.16. Pwy bynac a vo g\vell 
gantaw arall y dadlay drostaw yn y llys noc ehynan kenad yw 
idaw tewi heb dadleu dim tra myno gynal tafodiawc. y neb a 
vyno tysty gwall tnewn datyl yn erbyn perchen t. tysted ar y t. 
kany ellir profi vn gwall ar y perchen. Ll.MS. 116, p. 11.19. 
t.- prolocutor. Ll.MS. 68, p. 147. see rodyat. 

1. tal pay, reward, value, pop un or try fed heny ef a dely tal 
y lauur 28.1. essef eu gustul kefreishaul e traian en guell nor 
tal 45.26. 73.12; 78.26; 82.24; 121.25; 122.15. see aryantal. 

2. tal end, extremity, e penteylu a dele eyste ar e tal yssaf 
yr neuat ay llau assuy ar e tal drus 5.15. (see neuat.) tal y 
deulyn knees 19.21 ; 26.5. y le en ellys ental eueyg upper end 
28.6. (cf. gwyr talbeing. M.A. loa.) E vydd llewenydd 
llowned ywr dalvaink. P.MS. 64, p. 148. kroessewir ffraink 
ar dal vaink ddewi. Rep.MSS.I 862 9. hen neuad purdu tal 
unyawn. W.B. col. 202.10. ty . . . un dal nevaddai kalais. 
P.MS. 67, p. 234. 

3. tal a plot of land, tu a thai hendiadys for 'a plot of land' 
given in exchange for another plot which had been taken 
without sufficient title and upon which houses had been built. 
ked barner ydau deuod yr tirr ni kecuuin e gur a oet ene 
mediant kynt erdau o keill kaffael tu a thai ydau en er un lie 
ac en kestal e deudir 55.24. so Ll.MS. 174, p. 71. It is assumed 
in later codices that this is the same as tal 'end,' 'extremity' ; 
and that tu = side. O deruyd y vrawt adeilat ymlaen y Hall, ny 
dyly kychwyn or lie yd adeilho ; namyn rodi yr Hall tu a thai 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 271 

yr lie hwnnw : sef yw tu a thai wrth ystlys neu wrth dal y tir 
y bo y Hall yn eisted arnaw. A.L.II 48.xxv. ny ellir y yrru 
odyno namyn rodi tu athal ymdanaw or neill tu idaw neu or 
neill tal. A.L.II 2~io.xxxiii. They may be the same word 
historically, but in this expression both tu and tal mean 'a plot 
of land/ and tal appears to be = Ir. talam earth, Lat. tellus. It 
occurs in several proper names. Brys uab bryssethach o dal y 
redynawc du. R.B.I iii.25- Tal ebolyon (the explanation in 
the R.B. text can hardly be accepted as correct). R.B.I 31.19. 
cf. Tal y llycheu, Talacham, etc. Paradwys i bob prydydd/yw 
tal y rain ai tir rydd. P.MS. 70.43^ 50 also in ardal district. 
Edeyrniawn ardal. M.A. 277^15. ardaleu. M.A. 2063.9; 2403. 
It is written "tir a thai." L.W. 391. 

talar headland in a ploughed field, e ryghyll ... a dely or 
marudy kyc bulch . . . ar guanaf yssaf or hyd . . . ar uuyall 
ar dalar o byt en e dayar ac ony byt talar eyryonennyeu 25.15. 
cf. Ir. "Aircend of the end as contrasted with the sides of a plot 
of ground." B.L.G. (where the exact size of the aircend is 
given), t. porca. A.L.II 765. ii. 

taldrus end door, the door at the lower end of the neuadd. 
e pen teylu a dele eyste ar e tal yssaf yr neuat ay llau assuy 
ar e tal drus ar hyn a uynno or teylu y hyd ac ef 5.16. Trydedd 
ran yr neuad yw y tal yssaf : yno y dyly y penteulu eiste, ae 
lau asseu ar y tal ddrws ay deulu ganthaw. A.L.II 586.xvi. 
cf. talbord yn y neuad. W.B. col. 222.4. tal ffenestr gable 
window. Cardigansh. see tal 2, neuat. 

taleith see tylath. 

talkudyn the forelock of a horse, mug march vn guerfth] ae 
y fruyn vn guert ae y t. y kebystyr 89.7. precium t. [antiarum]. 
A.L.II Sgi.xliv. 

talu to give, pay, restore, compensate, to be -worth, ac ni 
deleir talu tir ambreiniaul en lie tir a breint ohonau 55.25. 
dyly ohonau talu ydy y chowyll 130.21. e kenutey ... a dely 
a uo reyd urth kenuta en llys ac o kyll enteu dym hoheny ef a 
dyly y talu 27.5. Os guedi banner did petheunos o trannoyth. 
ac essev achaus yu henne kanyd oys did kubil ac nat yaun talu 
drill did en lie did 52.9. Er amaeth ny dele talu er ecchen onys 
bryhu 109.11. talu tyr yn waetyr 62.18. 4.7 ; 11.2 ; 13.18 ; 16.26 ; 
27.9 ; 36.11, 12 ; 38.31 ; 39.7 ; 40.1, 4, 6, 21 ; 41.12 ; 45.22, 25 ; 46.35, 
36; 47.36; 48.1, 39; 53.22, 23; 56.27; 67.20; 68.13; 70.10, 16, 17, 
20, 21, 28; 71.19, 24; 73.4, 6, 7; 75.24; 76.21, 22; 77.13, 17, 22; 
78.23 ; 82.23 ; 86-8, 23 ; 92.14 ; 112.16 ; 118.4, 6 ; 119.13 ; 122.4, 8, 13 ; 



272 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

126.1, 7, n, 13, 24, 28; 133.28. taly 8i.i = daly. i sg. pres. ind 
talaf, taluaf 46.15. 3 sg. tal .cxx. a tal gueynytuarch 88.13. 
41.16, 25; 42.16 talh; 52.23; 66.24; 70-29; 72-29; 76.12; 77-24. 25; 
79.18; 88.12; 93.11, 12; 94.9, n, 21 ; 95.2, 4, 5, 17; 98.3, 4, 6, 20; 
99.14, 15, 26; 106.8; 109.9; 118.14; 121.8; 125.24; 126.17; 127.2, 9, 
21 ; 128.7; 131.1. 3 pi. talant 77.20; 99.20; 121.14. pres. ind. 
pass, telyr 3.5, 10, 14; 35.14; 106.20, 22, 23, 25; 119.3; 120.15; 
122. ii ; 125.5; J 27-5- 39-19 for delyr. i sg. pres. subj. taloef 
46.14. 3 sg. talo, talho 17.26; 36.27; 37.8; 39.21; 40.2; 73.10; 
79.18; 125.8; 127.22. 3 pi. talhoent 76.26. subj. pass, taler 
66.28; 122.17; talher 42.23 ; talhel 63.1. 3 sg. impf. ind. taley 
127.23. impf. pass, telyt 73.12. 3 sg. imp. subj. taley 127.23. 
3 sg. pret. ind. act. talus 40.21. 3 sg. imperat. talet 12.31; 
19.9, 10 ; 26.26; 29.13; 30.1, 14, 18; 33.19; 36.12, 15, 27; 37-23; 
38.7; 39-i; 4r-2i, 22; 44.11; 45.29; 47.18; 49.18, 24; 50-31; 53-30; 
63.21, 22; 68.28; 69.4; 74.27; 76.10; 79.24; 85.24, 25; 86.1, 6, 7, 
15, 17; 87.4, 9, ii ; 89.19; 92.15; 98.25; 99.6; 109.12; 119-27; 
120.6; 127.1; 129.15; 133.20; 134.6. 3 pi. talent 34.4; 40.5. 
imperat. pass, taler 34.5; 35.13; 41.19; 120.3; 134.17. see 
teledyw. 

talym course, y naud eu hyd eparhao t. e march kantaf 13.28. 
t.=redec 22.1. cf. daideg gyfra march. Rep.MSS.I 1053 259. 

telyessin pr. n. ac ena eth aethant guir aruon en e blaen ac 
e buant da eno. ac e kant delyessin kikleu odures eu llaueneu 
kan run en rudh bedineu guir aruon rudyon eu redyeu 42.9. 

tan fire. Puybynnac y barner ydau dadanhud bvrn a beych 
oe ryuot ay wurn ac ay ueych ay dan ae ehun ay y dat kyn noc 
ew en kyuanhedu ayluyt ar y tyr 60.28. 3.27; 5.9; 8.15; 11.27; 
24.15; 26.13; 36.26; 69.23; 70.1; 85.14, 17, 26; 86.4, n, 13; 
87.1, 3, 10. 

tan, adan under, adan + pron. sufi. 3 pi. adanunt, adanadunt 
14.14. gwyr a uo adan esgyp 63.27. yna yd a adan lau y 
beryglaur ac y cymer guedeu arnau 70.21. o deruyt e greic bod 
rodyeyt ydy adan e haguedy e die wod 33.2. a guneythur cam 
ohonau adan e creireu 51.18. adan try heynt e deleyr uod am 
teyhy marc rac e dere try gluyt, etc. 88.17. 14.14; 24.6; 40.9; 
49-35; 63.26; 64.4, 6; 92.4, etc. amdan for. ac ony ellyr cafael 
hynny punt am daney 69.11. yadan. .1111. suydauc arugeyn 
yadan e dysteyn 6.2. 

tanu to spread, gwneythur y guely. atanu y dyllad arnau 
14.15. 22.22; 40.8; 96.17. 3 sg. pres. subj. tano 22.22. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 273 

tarader an auger, [guerth] t. perued .1. 100.5. 33-20. Ir. 
tarather. see Z 2 . 1061. 

tarau to strike, smite, gostecu a tarau e post 15.14. 3.12; 
2 54- 3 S S- pres. subj. traho 19.17. 

taru a bull. Nyd yaun dale taru un amser en hoi bucc 
teruenyt 116.9. 25.19; 121.11. pi. teyru 116.3, 7- 

taruheyd the second swarm of bees that leaves the parent 
hive. guerth henlleu .xxini. guerth kynteyt .xvi. guerth 
taruheyt .xn. e tredet hey[t] .vni. 98.9. 95.15, 16; 98.11. It is 
written tarwheit. P.MS. 35, f. 107^23; io8a.i. t. = Bret. 
tarvhed. cf. Ir. tarbha 'profit/ 'gain,' etc. Dineen. 

taryan a shield, [guerth] taryan .vin. o byt kalcc llasart 
neu eur galtc .xxiiu. 102.21. Scutum coloratum auricalco, vel 
argenteo, sive glauca colore. A.L.II 866.civ. 

taulburt gaming board, chess-board, [guerth] t. o byd o 
ascurn moruyl .LX. o byd blayn corn hyd .xxiiu. o byd corn 
eydyon .xn. o byt t. bren .1111. k. 100.2. 12.3; 15.4 talburd; 
99.24 taluburt. clauur t. 103.23. Tawlbort brenhin chweugeiut 
adal, ac ual hyn y rennir : trugeint ar werin wynnyon ; a 
thrugeint ar y brenhin ae werin; ac ual hyn y rennir, dec 
arhugeint ar y brenhin, a dec arhugeint ar y werin, sef yw 
hynny, teir keinhawc a their ffyrllig ar bop vn o werin y 
brenhin ar gymeint ar bop vn or werin wynnyon sef achaws 
y gedir vrenhin gymeint ac ar ar wythwyr, with chware ac 
ef kymeint ac arwythwyr. A.L.II 94-cxlix. In P.MS. 158 
there is a rough sketch of the tawlbwrdd or talbwrdd as it 
is called there " divided into no squares in 5 white columns 
and 5 shaded columns of n squares each." see Rep.MSS.I 943. 
taulborth [abacus]. A.L.II 775-xxix, etc. 

tayauc a villein. Try anhepkor tayauc y kauen ay truydeu 
ay pewtan 29.6 (v.l. cauyn trothyv talbren. P.MS. 363.124, 
etc.) teyr keluydyt ny dely mab tayauc eu descu heb kanyat 
y argluyd . . . sef eu hewny escolectau[t] a gouanaet a bardhony 
29.30. try pheth ny eyll tayauc yu guerthu heb kanyat y 
argluyt amus a mel a moch ac os guerth byt dyruyauc ual kynt 
29.17. 38.13; 95.12; 104.8. see W.P. p. 191, note. 

te see ty. 

[tebygu] to surmise, suppose. puipennac a gusto gust 
adeuedic a tebiccu honau ef vrth na does vach arnau bot e 
guestel en anilis nini a deuedun dikutau hunu ae y vod en dilis 
46.4. 45.21; 132.28. 3 sg. pres. subj. tybyco 133.7. te byg- and 



274 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

tybyg- are often used -without any apparent distinction, tybygei 
W.B. col. 442-38=tebygei. Ibid. p. 222.1. so col. 447.39, p. 
224.41, etc. 

tetyf (?) (axe)head (?). e gof llys ... a dely gueneuthur 
reydyeu e llys en rat eythyr tryfed sef eu e rey heny guarthaual 
kant kallaur a kyll kulldyr a t. buyall kenut a pen guayu 27.28. 
L.W. (66, note) suggests nedyf. 

tec fair, just, ynteu a eyll kymryt teyr ceynnyauc yn lie y 
teyr punt ac yn dec y gyureyth 78.26. 

tec go see dwyn. 

tegh see tyghu. 

teguarchen see tyuarch. 

[teledyu] complete, super, teledyhuaf best. Bukeylky a el e 
bore emalaen er escrybyl ac a del e nos en eu hoi er eydyon t. 
a tal 95.4. 43.11. teledyw \_integra}. A.L.II 8o7.xii; 859. xx. 
t.=taladwy. P.MS. 169, p. 329. cf. A.L.I 568.xvi. Buch a 
uyd taladwy oe heil llo hyt y pyinhet [ac] ych or trydet ieu hyt 
y whechet. so P.MS. 36a, p. 94.7. ni bu wreic delediwach no 
hi. R.B.I 45.9. cylch y lleuad taladwy (full moon?). D.G. 
ccviii.5i. eithr ei chariad taladwy. Ibid, xiv.ig. teledyw 
appears to be the same as taladwy, verb. adj. of talu 'vendible,' 
possessing the full teithi necessary before full price could be 
asked for anything on sale. cymynedyw ( = Mod.Dimet. 
cymadwy[e] ?) appears to have much the same history, telaid 
seems to be formed from this teledyw. see M.A. 355b; 362b ; 
37ia. 

teledyuruyt prime, ac euelly hyd e perahed lo a hyd hynne 
e tryc y teledyuruyt 91.6. 101.24. f- telediwet. R.B.I 45.18. 

telyn a harp, pop penkerd telyn a dele ykan e keroryon 
telyn guedj edernadauoent a telyn raun a menu bod en kerdaur 
keueyas, etc. 128.14. 6.6; 29.5; 99.20, 22, 27; 128.9. see crud. 

Icnh see tennu. 

tenllyf lining (?). e ryghyll ... a dely . . . .ix. uedtyt 
kalangayaf peys ac krys a llahudyr heb tenllyf 25.9. Righill 
. . . ny byd tennllif yny lawdyr. LI. MS. 69, p. 35.12. Precco 
non debet habere tenlyf [duplicatunim] in braccis suis. A.L.II 
765. v. II 83i.iv. Tenllif linostema. Sir T. Williams (quoted 
L.W. 61.5, note). 

teruyn m. limit, boundary. Puy bynnac a dorro t. y rug duy 
drew oy eredyc y brenhyn a dyly yr ychen ay hardo ar gwyd 
etc. 68.24. 24.30; 68.28; 69.4, 5. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 275 

teruynu to define or mark the limits, to end. O deruyd 
ymdemynu yrug deu ur gymreynt am tyr ar neyllrey yn t. hyt 
racu ar lleyll hyt yma 69.2. or pan decreuho ef kanu en e llys 
hyd pan terueno ef e kanu dyuedhaf 28.19. 42.17; 59.3. cf. 
R.B.I 264.4. Ae gyttirogyon o wybot hynny yn camderwynnu 
wrthaw. ac yn chwenychu y dir. 

teruenyt in heat, tufty (of cows). Nyd yaun dale taru un 
amser en hoi bucc teruenyt 116.10. 116.6 teruen; 116.8. 
terwenyd. P.MS. 35, f. 793.1. LI. MS. 174, p. 144.21. Admissum. 
pryt cydio, tervenydh buwch, marchogiat cassec, rhid geiir, 
llawd moch, hydref ceirw neu hychot hydhvref, dyre ar veirch. 
P.MS. 228. cf. aitnsir dara, echmarta, latha, and reithe for 
cows, mares, sows, and ewes respectively. B.L.G. p. 285, note. 

tet f . teat, a dug. y llo a dele ememdeyt nau cam a dedellu 
groesyn oe phedeyrthet 90.20. 91.12; 93.17. see dedellu. 

tethy see teythy. 

ten poss. pron. 2 sg. nat oes dym or teu dy gennyvv uy 81.5. 

teulu, teylu household, retainers, pan uo reyt menet e teulu 
y anreythyau neu y neges arall 7.4. Try anhebkor brenyn eu 
efeyryat . . . ar egnat llys ... ay teulu urth y negesseu 29.3. 
gur ar teulu = pen teulu. Galanas gur ar deylu pedeyr buv a 
petwar ugeyn mvu. . . . Galanas bonhedyc canhuynaul ac 
alldut brenhyn teyr buv a tryugeynmvu 78.7. 3.18; 5.17; 6.8, 
16; 7.1, 2, 4, 9, 25, 26; 8.7, 21 ; 11.28; 12.14, 17; 15.2; 29.3; 67.4, 
9; 71.2. a dywedut 6rthunt a wnaethp6yt. nat yr amharch 
arnunt y dodit is Ila6 y teulu. W.B. col. 159.25. 

tewed thickness, llet tryuys yn y thevvet 69.10. kyn tehet, 
kyndewet as thick as 3.9; 69.22, 26. 

tewy to be silent. Puybynnac a holo peth a dyuot yr maes ac 
yny maes kylyau ohanav a bot yn well ganthau t. no holy 130.2. 

teyl dung, manure, ny dyly nep atal gardeu ganthau yn 
herwyd breynt teyl namyn un wluydyn. canys pop bluydyn y 
dylyir y theylav 63.17. 63.20; 132.22. see brandeyl, buarthdeyl. 
a wely di y garth mavvr draw. . . . Diwreidaw hwnnw or dayar 
a uynnaf ae losgi ar wyneb y tir. hyt pan uo yn lie teil idaw. 
R.B.I 120.20. 

teylau to manure, kauell teylyau pannier for carrying manure. 
102.1. see teyl, kardeyl, brandeyl. 

teyr, teir three (fern, of) try, teyrgweyth three times 9.4; 
10.25; 77.26. teyr deueyt 93.18, etc. 



276 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

teyrmvyalen sceptre, kyn no duyn coron lundeyn a theyrn- 
wyalen o sayson 64.17. 

teyspan a coverlet, [guerth] t. .vin. 104.23. teisban=torssed 
ne garthen. P.MS. 169, p. 330. see Mecl. Law 94.16. 

teyssen a cake. e popuryes ... a dely . . . seyc ... a 
theyssen dyuet poby o pop amryu ulaut a popo 27.17. 

teythy (a) legal or standard qualities. Guerth cath .1111. y 
teythy guelet a clebot a Had llechod ac na bo tun en y heuyii a 
meythryn ac nad esso y kanaon 93.23. y theyty tennu kar en 
alld ac egguaeret a bot en ebolyauc 90.10. 88.17 teyhy; 92.14 
tethy; 93.3, 12, 15; 94.2. t. = kybhiownder. P.MS. 118, p. 497. 
t. = Ir. techte law, right, legal, due. W.W. see also techta 
lawful, proper, right. B.L.G. 

(b) price of special qualities, euernyc eu vn blyth. Sef eu y 
teythy .1. a dymey 93.21. 

t'uo = tra vo 27.19, etc. 
t'fed = try pheth 27.26, 29. 
t'ket see trygau. 
tir see tory. 

tlus m. precious thing, treasure, jewel, pop tlus brenyn y 
fuoleu ay uodruyeu ay kyrn 99.18. try thlws kenedyl y gelwyr 
melyn a choret a pherllan 63. 12 = trio cimelia generis. A.L.II 
780. xi. pi. tlesseu 4.3 ; 48.37 ; tlysseu 60.14. ouer tlesseu 
official regalia ( ?). ef a dely tahulburth o ascurt moruyl ykan 
eurenynes ac arall yean e bart teulu ar ouer t. henne ny dele ef 
nay guerthu nay rody 12.5. see ouer. tlws=tryssor. P.MS. 
169, p. 330. Ir. tlus i. spreid, cattle. W.W. beothlus live 
cattle. M.C. 

t'nohes see tranoeth. 

1. to thatch, roof, to ty ay acgure trayan guert e ty 99.11. 
geueyl trefcort ... en pethendo neu en tyglys 86.13. in.6. 
see achwre. 

2. to a set. .1111. pedhol ac eu to hoelyon 6.22. 10.4; 24.5; 
90.1. cf. to o beleidyr. R.B.I 254.7. to generation, age. M.A 
i4ib.2i. W.B. col. 285.6. 

torn (a) mound, dunghill, greyc tayauc ne eill rody djm 
namyn benfeckyau y goger val e clguer y lef jar e torn yeu duen 
atref 38.14. torn ty dunghill 101.25. cf. gwnaeth Afloedd 
gastell Cadarn ae torn ae ffos ettwa yn amlwc. M.A. 7223.3. 



277 

(b) t. in genit. or cpds.= domestic, rustic, powerful, kostauc 
torn a mastiff (?) 49.23, 26. 95.1 kostaut t. = [canis domesticus]. 
A.L.II 873. xxx. cf. March torn neu Gaseg dom, un werth ac un 
ddyrchafel ynt ag Eidon, eithr eu teithi. Teithi March torn neu 
Gaseg yw, Dwyn pwn, a llusgaw carr yn alld ac yng ngwaered. 
L.W. 233 36. Tri thorn etystir inis pridein. B.B.C. 28.1. 
marchawc y ar caduarch mawr tomlyd. W.B. col. 390.11. 
Llawedrawc yn hen Gymraec yw tomawc. A.L.II 96.cli. 
precium cujuslibet eque est, sive grewys [prolifere] sive torn 
[operantis.]. A.L.II 86i.xxvi. 

tonuo to turn up the earth (with the snout) ( ? ) . guerth 
porchell or nos e ganer hyd eny el en tonuo .k. hyd tra uo en 
denu .11. 92.26. v.l. donuoy, donnau (A.L.I 276). A.O. 
translates this : "from the night it is farrowed until it dung." 
A.L.I 277 ; the Latin laws however imply "going out of the sty" 
as the meaning. Porcellus, quamdiu sit in hara, foras non 
exiens. A.L.II 862.xxxiv. Tonuo seems to be a compound of 
ton = turf, skin, etc., and mo which appears to mean 'to stir,' 
'shed/ 'cast,' etc. There is another expression in the B.B.Ch. 
which appears to convey the same meaning as this, e perchyll 
becheyn or pan emcuelo bysguelyn ay truyn 113.3. cenfo 
(W.B. col. 252.26) 'shedding scales,' etc., appears to be a word 
similarly formed, though R.B.I 185.11 has kennoc. Rhuduoa\vc 
which ace. to Dr.D. means ' qui terram post se rubricatam 
relinquit . . . vel effusio hostium sanguine," appears to be 
another compound of this, (see M.A. i55b ; i87b ; 2153; 2243; 
2373, b ; 2393 ; 25ib ; 257b ; 26ob. R.B.I 303.5 sqq.) As for cenfo 
it must be remembered, however, that fo (=ffo) is used inMed.W. 
in a trans, sense. Soes=put to flight. M.A. 7273.. cretttfo 
renegade (?). M.A. 287b. 

torr, ar torr against, against the will of. Ni eill e tat adau 
amod ar mab naman kan y kaniat e mab ac ni eill e mab 
gu[n]euthur amod ar tor e tat ar tat en byu 50.22. v.l. treissavv 
y tat. P.MS. 35, f. 45^3. cf. Dioer heb hi ni chawn welet lliw 
y weilgi gan bop Hong ar torr y gilyd W.B. col. 99.14. Ac 
yna nys gohiryassant neb oe wyr namyn mynet ymywn ar tor 
ykysgaduryeit a rodi dyrnodeu agheuawl udunt. R.B.II 48.12. 
ac yn menegi bot ymor yn eu kymell yr tir ar dorr eu gelynj r on 
y eu Had. R.B.II 124.7. can n i ddyly anvreiniawg dervynu ar 
dor dyn a breint iddo. M.A. 952^43. see R.B.II 97.31 ; 138.24; 
157-23; 235.3. A.L.I 778.x. cf. (erbyn<)ar+pen. Ir.ta.Tr 'lower 
part,' 'bottom,' etc. see Fed. I p. 83. 

tor see tory. 



278 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

tore a band, collar, ring. t. mylky gurda .iv. keynyauc 
101.19. 101.17. pl- torccheu. e keylguat a dele dyguallu e 
pestelyeu ar yeuuedon . . . os hyrguet vyd e t. beccheyn a 
guyeyll e doleu 112.3. Amws yn pori allan a milgi heb y dorch 
colli eu breint a wnant. Ll.MS. 116, p. 16.12. t. = Lat. torquis. 
Loth p. 211. 

torkeghel f. saddle-girth, [guerth] t. .11. 103.2. uentris lora 
gl. torcigel. Z 2 . 1062. 

torth a loaf, chwethorth o uara . . . o byd gwenythdyr 
chwech onadunt yn beyllyeyt ony byd gwenythtyr chwech yn 
rynnyon . . . ac yn gyulet ac o elyn hyt ar y durn ac yn 
gyndewet ac na plycey yr eu daly erbyn y deuemyl 69.19. 
25.16. see Loth p. 211. 

tory, torri to break, violate, llosgy tey a thorry aradr 63.8. 
Teyr fordh e sereyr e urenynes un eu tory y naud a rodho 3.11. 
kany dely ef namen tor y sechet 10.29. ( see A.L. 484. iii ; 
6o4.xxviii.) puybynnac a dorro moruyndaut gwreyc 130.20. 
ac euelly ekerdha er eruuy o oreu y oreu er ecchen eythyr na 
torryr er yeu er reghunt no distinction is made bet-ween the two 
oxen under the same yoke 107.23. 7.23; 34.18; 43.1; 78.17; 
106.1 ; 114.10. 3 sg. pres. ind. tir 50.23; tyr 89.10. pres. ind. 
pass, torryr 107.23; 114.22. 3 sg. pret. torres 43.7. 3 sg. pres. 
subj. torro 10.1; 52.23; 68.24; 130.20. 3 pi. torhoent 109.7. 
pass, torrer 2.23; 114.10. 

tra prep, beyond, over, os or ynys hon . . . os tra inor yd 
henynt 64.12. haul tra bluydyn 133.1. 63.7; 64.12. 

trachefyn behind, back, back-wards, again. Ar kanllau ar e 
llau arall ydau. ar rigyll en seuill trakeuen e keghaus ... ay 
kanllau or tu arall ydau a rigill traigeuen entheu 52.18. kanyd 
einchel traykeuen ar e kenedl 39.15. with poss. adj. 3 sg. m. 
tra-i-geuen behind him. traygyuen 62.17. 3 sg. f. tra-y-chefyn 
133-3- 3 pl- trac-eu-keuen 56.1. 25.17; 29.22; 46.9, 39; 51.17; 
53.7562.17, 19; 72.27; 133.3, 5- 

tra conj. while, ef a dely seuyll erug e depost a guyalen en 
y llau rac llosky e ty tra uo e brenyn en buyta ac euet 25.2. 
hyd tra -while, ac hyd tra uo ef ar e kylc hunu e dele uod 
suy[d]guyr ydau 7.29. 8.28; 11.4; 13.12; 20.11 ; 25.3, 21; 44.12; 
49-7J 73- 6 ; 82.10; 91.15; 92.26; 112.22; 133-9- 

traeth m. beach, strand, eythyr o bum y mor betheu yr tyr 
neu yr traeth hunnv byeuyt y brenhyn 63.11. 63.9. 

trafnydrau to exchange, barter, traffic. O deruyd y dyn 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 279 

mennu guerthu hycc or keuar rekeuarer ny dele y guerthu eny 
darfo e keuar nae y trafnydrau 108.20. trafnidraw. P.MS. 35, 
f. 8ib.23- so P.MS. 8ib.23- Ll.MS. 174, p. 140.3. a chet ys 
trafnitro tat y tir. P.MS. 35, f. 74b.iy. 

tragywydaul everlasting. Ac yna y dylyant vynteu ygan y 
genedyl arall llv canhur ar uot yn uadeuedyc eu car a chymot t. 
a dyly hot yrygthunt y dyd hunnv 77.1. 77.1 ; 131.8. cf. cywydd 
which appears to mean 'this world' in B.Tal. 7.3; 31.22. 

tranoeth, tranoes the morrow, the next day after any fixed 
time, ny keif atep hyt tranoeth guedi calan 48.33. 14.16; 
16.13; 22.22; 23.32; 26.27; 35.28; 36.2, 3; 39-27; 48-34; 52-3; 
53.38; 72.20; 73.23; 79.21; 88.1; 96.18; 125.9. 

trauskeyg a lateral branch. guert[h] t. a kerho o kallon e 
pren .xxx. 97.17. cf. erchis ynteu trychu y coet or parth h6nn6 
yr 116yn. A chymryt y kyffyon hynny ar tra6sprenneu ac eu 
gossot yn eu kylch. R.B.II 188.8. 

traustele cubicle, alcove ( ?). e gur pyeu e kallaur ar brecan 
a gobenyd traustele 33.20. A.L.I 752.4 has y gwr bieu y bryccan 
ar nithlen ar gobenyd tyle. tyle couch, bed. W.B. col. 203.16. 
t. = house. A.L.I 522.xcix. Tri pheth a gadwant gov tir a tyle 

. . . pentanvaen; meini odyn; ac esgynvaen. cf. A.B. 171.4. 
Tei a threfneu a thyleeu. tyle=Ir. tolg bed. B.L.G. 

trayan m. a third, trayan ar e llowrud a deuparth ar y plant 
129.4. 4.18, 6 - I 3 16; 10.11; 11.10; 12.15; 13.20, 29; 15.3; 16.28, 
29; 17-3, 5. 24, 27; 18.29; 19-29; 20.31; 21.4; 22.3; trayn 86.1; 
etc, pi. -eu 76.24. see deuparth. 

trayanguerth one-third of the value, y guerth eu t. e brenyn 
6.3. 4.17. 

trayanu to divide into three, to go thirds. Ac o trayan e 
brenyn ef a dely trayan. ef eu e trydedyn a deley trjayanu ar 
brenyn. e deu ereyll eu e urenynes ar penhebogyt 7.14. cany 
ellyr trayanu petwargwyr 79.8. 3 sg. pres. subj. trayano 83.1. 

trayn see trayan. 

traythu to narrate, ema e decreuun ny traythu o huyth a 
perthyn ar e urenynes 20.26. i pi. pres. ind. trayhun 23.19; 
28.30. pret. pass, trayhuyd 20.24. 

tref, trew f . the fourth part of a "maynaul" consisting of 256 
acres, hamlet, pedeyr gauael ym pob trew. pedeyr trew ym 
pob maynaul. a deudeg maynaul a duydrew ym pob kymut. y 
duydrew a dyly bot yn reyt brenhyn. vn onadunt a dyly bot 



280 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

yn tyr maertrew. ar lleyll yn dyfeyth brenhyn 65.14. O 
deruyd ennunhu ty emeun tref talet ef e deudy nessaf herbytyus 
atau 86.17. 6.7; 59.16; 60.2; 65.9, 15, 23, 25; 66.6; 68.25; 6 94, 
26, 28; 74.29; 86.17. see byleyndrew, maertrew, treftat. 

trefcort a hamlet, try tan ny dyukyr tan godeyt maurth a 
tan geueyl t. . . . a tan eneynt t. a uo seyth uryt yurth e tey 
ereyll 86.1 1. bukeyl trefcort 31.12. Llyma fessur trefgordd 
cyfreithiawl : naw tei ac un aradyr, ac un odyn r ac tin gordd, ac 
un gath, ac un ceilyawc, ac un tarw, ac un bugeil. A.L.II 
692. ix. pastor communis viUe, id est, trefgord. A.L.II 84i.viii. 
see corthlan. cf. preidord gwarthec. P.MS. 36b. 46.1. 

trcuen a closet, privy. Nautey a dely myleynyeyt e breityn 
y guneuthur nehuat . . . treuen uechan kerner, etc. 30.10. -v.l. 
ty bychan. A.L.I 78.xvi. cf. Eil pla llyffeint lluossawc. 
Llewyssynt ffronoed. Tei a threfneu. a thyleeu. A.B.II 171.3. 
Treiddieis ni ohiriais hur/trefnav medelav dolur. P.MS. 67, 
p. 56. Lle6ych drefyneu I gymrye g61ed. M.A. 2733.53. 
muda6 trefneu dy dy ac el!6g dy loi ath berchyll allan. Ignat. 
Williams MS. f. 31. trefneu tryth. M.A. 148^41. It appears 
at times to be used as a dimin. of tref a house. 

treftat, trewtat, trew y tat patrimony, inheritance. y 
gyureyth a [dyweyd] eylweyth na dyly un mab trew y tat namyn 
y mab hynaw yr tat or wreyc bryaut. kyureyth hywel ay barn 
yr mab yeuaw megys yr hynaw 62.24. O deruyt roy Camaraes 
y alldut a bo[t] plant meybyon vthunt. e plant a dele trestat o 
uamuys 39.16. 37.9; 59.17, 21; 61.22-29; 62.5, 26; 74.4, 8; 125.1; 
128.24. 

treftadauc an inheritor, one who has come into a patrimony. 
essef t. mab a adauha e tat guedi ef 56.11. ni eill alldut bot en 
vybitiat ar t. 54.19. gwreyc a rodHo y chenedyl yn gyureythyaul 
y alldut . . . greyc a dyco alldut treys yarney . . . gwreyc a 
rodho y chenedyl yguystyl alldudet . . . rey a dyweyt am 
ueybyon y ryu wraget hynny kent boent trew tadogyon nat ynt 
bryodoryon 62.8. 56.12, 13. 128.26 pi. tref tadogyon 62.7. 

trestat see treftat. 

treul wear, consumption, cost, ny dyhukyr djm ydy o treul 
deynt ac jstlys 36.20. ay holl treul o kofres e brenyn hyt en 
oet e fruyn ay ueyr[ch] ay kun 4.1 20.17. With treul deynt cf. 
Hur yr en a byta fyno. H.G. p. 119,. v. 7. 

treulyau to consume, spend, -wear. O byt arkefreu jdhy byt 
hunnu en ditreul hit empen .vii. blenet. os hytheu aey canada 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 281 

y treulyau ef ny dyhukyr djm 36.19. 3 sg. pres. subj. 
treuyho 9.1. 

trey ebb. Harm a trey the sea. roy oyt . . . naunieu o bit 
en e tredit [kemut] neu uot llanu a trey eregthun ac eu porth 
52.7. 53.37. Ir. tragud ebb. see Walde p. 788. 

[treyglau] to go about, change, circulate, vb. adj. treicledic 
circulating, going from one hand to another. Nit reit kemrit 
mach ar dilesruyt ariant nac ar tlesseu t. cae a kellel a guregis 
nac arvieu heuit 48.37. =ar dylyseu kerdedic. LI. MS. 116, 
p. 89.34. =tlysseu redegoc. A.L.II 240. xi. Fob pentre pob 
tre pob tir a dreiglant. M.A. 293.41. see treygyl. 

treygyl course, journey, turn, time, esef eu gouuyn o keif hy 
y gur gan gureic arall talet y gur ydy hy .cxx. e treygyl kentaf. 
am er eylgueyt[h] punt 38.7. 41.13. yr anniueil hynaf yssyd 
yn y byt hwnn a mwyaf a dreigyl . . . ac ny chiglef i dim y 
wrth y gwr a ouynnwch chwi. onyt un treigyl yd euthum y 
geissaw uym bwyt hyt yn llynn llyw. R.B.I 130.14, 22. 

treys f. rape, abduction, anything taken by 'violence, sef eu 
treys popeth a decker eguyt o anuod 85.1. greyc e decko alldut 
treys arney 39.26. 37.16, 19, 23; 40.14, 15, 19, 20; 41.11, 
18; 62.2; 87.17; 130.19; 133.16, 18, 25, 27, 28; 134.1. Teithi 
tereis : lief; a chornn; a chwyn. A.L.I 614. xiv. 

troet a foot. guer[th] troet inarch y guer[th] en kubel 88.23. 
35.7 ; troeth 43.1 ; 68.28 ; 105.22 ; 106.10, n. pi. tract, trayt 24.10, 
10 ; 26.5; 100.21. 

troydauc, troydyauc a footholder. er eyl [suydauc] eu 
troydyau[c] . . . ef a dely daly trayt e btenyn en y arfet or pan 
decreuho eyste egkeuedac eny hel y kesku ac a dely kossy e 
brenyn 24.8. 5.8; 9.30; 23.21. troyauc 5.8. 

troetucd m. a foot measure of nine inches, teyr moduet yn 
llet palyw. try llet palyw yn y troetued 65 14. 59.11; 65.4, 8; 
107.9, 10, ii. 

[troell] pi. trohelleu wheels, [guerth] prenyal guedes . . . e 
caruaneu ar tohelleu .vin. trayan ar e trohelleu 102.20. cf. 
gwerthydu y troylle. (Treatise on Milling.) P.MS. 56, p. 83. 

troryt a vice ( ?). orth a kamec ... a kuysyll a troryt 102.2. 
v.l. trooryd, tryforydd. 

tros prep, over, beyond, for. tros + pron. suff. 3 sg. m. 
trosdau, drostau 47.18; 50.27, 31; 66.20; 69.24; 70.16, 17, 26; 
73.24; 120.18; 133.11. 3 sg. f. trosty 41.21; 126.24. 3 pi. 



282 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

trosdunt 40.5; 119.1; 120.3. y naud eu duy?t dyn dros teruyn 
tyr e llys 24.30. alldudyon tros vor neu o gulad arall 85.7. o 
deruit na.bo mab idau sauet er argluit en e le a talet trosdau 
47.18. tros y euellys against his will 116.1. 10.12 ; 20.11 ; 23.15, 
30; 24.24; 40.3; 47.12, 25; 48.23; 50.20, 28; 68.10; 70.20; 71.19; 
77.17; 79.27; 89.18; 115.9; 118.16, 26; 120.3; 126.9; 134.6, 28. 

trotheu threshold, am e trotheu .1111. 99.8. 
troyauc 5.8. see troydauc. 

trugaret grace, favour. Denyon aghefyeyt ny huyper bed a 
deueteient . . . nyd kymeredyc eu hamadraut onyd trugaret er 
argluyd 121.2. Ir. trocaire. 

[tmgarhau] to pity, favour, dyn mud ny telyr ydau na saraet 
nac atep . . . onyd er argluyd a drukarhaa urthau ac a ryd dyn 
a deueto drostau 120.17. 

trullyad a butler. Tredyt [suydauc] ar dec eu e trullyat . . . 
ef a dely guarchadu e uedkel 18.19. cf. trvll=bwtri. P.MS. 
169, p. 330. see trull. Loth p. 213. 

trullyau to serve liquor, e trullyat ... a dely trullyau e 
llyn a rody y baub kemeynt ay kylyt 18.25. 

trudeu see truydeu. 

truy, dmy through, by means of. truy+pron. suff. 3 sg. m. 
truydau 123.25. duruidhau 56.13. pop anrec a el truy e porth 
25.29. yoruerth .... druy audurdaud e keuarhuidyt ay 
kadarnhaa 46.7. sef ev gur douot din a del duruidhau ehun ar 
tir 56.13. gorset escob a gorsed abat pop un onadunt a dele 
dale y orsed truydau ehun 123.25. 25.30; 26.4, 14; 42.3. 

truydet guest, visit, hospitality. O deruyd y dyn dyuot yn 
truydet dyn arall ac ysgrybyl ganthau neu a da arall pan el 
ymdeyth ny dyly uynet ganthau nac epyl . . . na dym namyn 
kymeynt ac a doeth ganthau 132.21. llyma y corr yn dyuot y 
mywn ar dothoed oed blwydyn kyn no hynny y lys arthur ef ae 
corres y erchi trwydet y arthur. W.B. col. 123.4. cf. Ac yn 
hynny wedi bot Gruffudd blwyddynedd yn Iwerddon megis yn 
trwyddet gyda Diermit. M.A. 726^23. Tri chyfredin cenedl : 
pencenedl ; teisbantyle ; a mab gwraig a rother o vodd cenedl 
i estron : sev cafant bob un or tri eu trwydded o ereidr y genedl. 
A.L.II 530.cxxxi. Kan pen teyrnet poed hir eu trwyted. M.A. 
1923.41. Tair celvyddyd vreiniawl y sydd, a braint trwydded, 
nid amgen no phumerwi rhyddion tir a chyvarwys i bob un o 
naddynt. M.A. 925^14. Duw a brofed ynn yn drwydded, 
Drwy ei drallawd. M.A. 2683.43. see also A.L.II 546.cxciii. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 283 

M.A. 927 80. B.B.C. 105.12. cf. trwyddedawg guest. M.A. 
8443.21. A.L.Il548.cxcvii;cxcviii. Homo truidedauc [permissus'}. 
A.L.II 892.11. Ar drydet allawr a anlloued o nef/Gwynn y uyd 
y thref gan y thrwyted. M.A. 2493.4. ath groeso sy vry ar 
vron/a thrwydhed fyth ath rodhion. P.MS. 120, p. 592. 

[truydeu] trudeu an auger, lance, try anhepcor tayauc y 
kauen ay tru[y]deu ay pentan 29.6. 100.16. v.L Tri anhebgor 
taiawg : pentan ; glaiv ; a chavn. A.L.II 562.00x1. Truan 
mor glaf yw Dafydd ;/Tr\vyddew o serch trwyddo sydd. D.G. 
cxx.2. cf. trwyddo to pass through. Pughe. Galen peirian a 
arverent y llawvedycon a elwid hefyd Terebra, Trwydhew. 
sub. voc. Abaptistum. P.MS. 228. Ll.MS. 174, p. 37.4 has 
trotheu. P.MS. 363, p. 124.18 has trothyw. 50 Ll.MS. 69, p. 61.5. 

truyn the nose. Ny dyukyr guaet deynt a guaet crac a guaet 
truyn 106.22. 105.8; 113.3. 

try, tri three, try thlus 63.12. try cham 65.4. try trayan 
76.22. try fedh 30.11. trifeth 48.39, etc. trynau ugeyn 75.4. 
trydyblyc 75.16. 

trebet a trivet, [guerth] t. damdung 101.16. 33.22. 

trychannvr three hundred men. trychanvr 77.2, 3 ; trychan- 
nvyr 75.3. 

trydyt, tredyt, tredet, tedet third, one of three, telyn y hun 
a crud y arall a pybeu yr tredyt 128.10. tredyt anepcor brenyn 
eu y teylu. e deu ereyll efeyryat teulu ac egnat llys 8.7. 8.29; 
12.20. tredet f. is also used as masc. tridet gur 56.11. 3.3; 
3.12 ; 7.17 ; 9.3 ; 12.20 ; 15.32 ; 21.23 ; 23.21 ; 24.17 ; 38.18, 21 ; 46.38 ; 
48.5; 52.7; 56.8, 10, ii ; 62.14; etc. trydyt ar dec thirteen 18.19. 
trededet third day 54.1. trededyn one of three men 4.13; 7.14; 
17.4; 125.12. drydellau third hand 82.14. tryderian third part 
3-13- 

trydyeu, tridyeu, trideu a space of three days. 52.6; 53.35; 
60.29; 72-21; 83.13; 86.3; 87.16; etc. 

tryuys three-finger, a llet tryuys yn y thewet 69.10. 

try gall to remain, dwell, ac os tra mor yd henynt ny dylyant 
trygau yma namyn hyt ar y gwynt kyntaw 64.12. ac o hynny 
duy ran yr tat ac un yr uam. ac or hyn a dryc yr plant . . . 
duy ran arnunt 76.17. 64.11. 3 sg. pres. ind. tryc 76.17; 91.6; 
92.8; 113.8. 3 pi. trygant 64.14. 3 sg. impf. ind. trykey 113.10. 
3 pi. pret. ind. trikassant 42.11. 3 sg. imperat. tryket 8.4; 43.10. 

triskud m. a satchel, -woman's -work-bag, e greyc pyeu e 
badell . . . ar trisktid ac auo endau eythyr eur neu aryant a 



284 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

hunu o byt eu rannu sef ev triskud e llaucud 33.23. -v .1. tritkud. 
A.L.I 82.9. trychwt [loculum], A.L.II 793.1.4. Sef yu e 
trythkut e llaukydeu ac a uo endunt. LI. MS. 174, p. 40.15. 
Tri pheth ni wnant les iddeu perchenogion : gwybodan diriaid, 
trythgwd cybydd. a thavod gwraig. M.A. 896 53. cf. 
trefnau tryth. M.A. i48b-4i. for trys- cf. Ae arueu gwedy eu 
trwssyaw yn trvvssa ar y gefyru H.MSS.I 214.37. trussad. 
B.B.C. 78.5. trwssa brag. Rep.MSS.I 672 78. For the contents 
of these see O.M. Hi. 114. tris<trus=M.Eng. trusse truss, pack, 
bundle ( ?) . see Strat. 

tryugeynt sixty, (often=) sixty pence. Sew ual y rennyr y 
punt honno chweugeynt yr bara a tryugeynt yr llyn a tryugeynt 
yr enllyn 69.15. 59.2; 66.5; 71.11, 12; 78.9, 29; 88.5; 102.6, 8, 9. 

tu side, plot of land, pop tu yr ford 131.16. ny dylyant 
trygau yn un lie y tu yma y glaud off a 64.12. tu a thai, see 
tal. 52.19, 24; 114.22; 131.12, 14, 16. tu plot of land has pi. 
tued. M.A. i76a; 2513; 2573; 294b ; 3343.53. tuoedd. Rep. 
MSS.I 215.49. o untu straight, guerth deruen. cxx. o byt duy 
keyc .ix. am pop vn o bedant kambrasset a keny buynt 
kembrasset o bedant o untu 97.17. Ef a barhaus yn ymlad 
saith mlyned o'r untu. cf. ar untu straight. Ac uelly y bu 
lawnslot yn yr ysgraff. rnis ar untu heb vynet ohonei allan. 
H.MSS.I 151.26. ac yno y bu deudeg mlyned ar vntu. R.B.I 
195.12. ac wynteu ae trawssant ef ar untu yny torres eu 
pelydyr. H.MSS.I 415.12. ac yno y bu teir wythnos ar vn tu. 
W.B. col. 140.12. R.B.II 22.16. cf. anodd yved yn vnawr/og 
vn llwy y vyrnwy vawr. P.MS. 64, p. 236. so R.B.II 33.18. 
A g6edy menegi y ba6p o ty6yssogyon freinc ar neilltu (one by 
one (?)). R.B.II 74.3. 50 Med.M. 23 141. 

in da ual pr. n. see retherc. 
tudclit pr. n. see retherc. 

tudleheu brogues ( ? ). Sarhaet caeth deudec ceynnyauc 
chwech yr peys a teyr yr llaudyr ac un yr tudleheu 78.12. v.l. 
kvaraneu. A.L.I 238.xxxiii. cf. sex \_denarios] tribus ulnis ad 
faciendam ei camisiam, et .111. pro braccis, et pro peronibus ct 
cyrotecis unus. A.L.II 787-xix. 

tudhedyn a garment, [guerth] pop t. pentan .viii. 104.18. 
see pentan. Dylyet gwasystauell yw caff el dillat y brenhin oil 
eithyr un tudet. A.L.I 658.xvii. guerth tudedyn parawt 
ygkyfreith Howel da pedeir arhugeint aryant. A.L.I 792.xviii. 

(union hip, haunch, .xn. goluys kefreythyaul esyd endau 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 285 

. . . e duy vanec val e deu corn ... ay tumon 96.7. tummyon 
[coxa]. A.L.II 800. iv ; 825. xiv. annhumon an invertebrate. 
Pughe. 

tunejell ( = tunell) f. a fun. [guerth] tunejell damdung 101.20. 
Melget pedeir tunell o fel a gassei .iv. mu ym pob tunell .n. 
grenneit ym pob mu, llwyth deu wr ar drossol ym pob grenn. 
A.L.II 584. v. Llygoden gynt a oed yn rodyaw mywn tafarn 
gwin ... a gwympawd my\vn pylleid or gwin geir bron y 
tunnelleu. LI. MS. 4, fol. 5i6b. ay sud yn ehelaeth a uyryat" 
yn y tunelleu gwin. H.MSS.II 144.36. 

tung, tug, tuc, or punt t. the tribute money from the "free 
maenols " paid instead of " gwestva." Messur guestua y 
brenhyn yn amser gayaw o uaynaul ryd . . . pun march or 
blaut goreu . . . ac ony ellyr cafael hynny punt am daney a 
honno yu y punt t. 69.12. y uaynaul y taler t. ohoney ny dyly 
yr argluyd nay mel na pyscaut, etc. 66.28. 15.24 tuc ; 66.8 ; 
67.2; 68.13. Ny dylyir talu t6ng o dir kyfrif, sef acha6s y6, 
6rth na dylyir rodi k6ynos o hona6. A.L.II 48.xxviii. It 
appears to correspond to Ir. to-bong- / levy (taxes, etc.). see 
B.L.G., doboing collects, etc. Altir. 321. 

tull hole, break, guert deruen .cxx. . . . am gueneuthur 
tull arney .xxim. 97.19. cf. R.B.II 224.17. nachaf gereint 
garanwys a boso o ryt ychen ac eii bydin yn eu kyrchu yn 
deissyfyt o rydec eu meirych ac yn tyllu eu gelynyon. 

tun a flaw, break. Guerth cath .1111. y teythy guelet a clebot 
a Had llechod ac na bo tun en y heuyn 93.24. pop ascurn tun 
106.13. 

[turf] turyw m. riot, disturbance. Puybynnac a dyodeuo 
rannu y dyr un dyd a bluydyn heb t. heb enwywet . . . sew 
yu t. ac eu. llosgy tey a thorry aradyr 63.8. Pwybynnac y 
dyccer tref i dat y ganthaw gwaeth no chyfraith, ac na chafo 
yaun o honai yaun idau wneuthur un o dri thwryf kyveraith o 
myn dyvot idi eilwayth nyt amgen Had kelein nev llosgi ty neu 
dori aradyr. A.L.II 3O4.xxxix. t. = Lat. turbo. Loth. 

turnen a turner's -wheel ( ?), a turning wheel (A.O.). [guerth] 
t. iytling 100.21. turnen [tornus]. A.L.II 865-lx. cf. twrnen, 
buruy, vehipos. Ll.MS. 55, p. 148. Hi a fu'n tarnu turnen 
wraig fab Pyll. M.A. 3673.53. Torrod d'Onnen gennyd/Tyrnen 
gron taer u u gryd. I.G. 221.9. Rwymo y maen issa a chav y 
pedair kilvach yn dda o vewn yr hidil ai dwrnennv. (Treatise 
on Milling.) P.MS. 56, p. 78. gadel yr yd i golli drwyr durnen. 
Ibid. p. 81. tri throed pic i durnen y rolbren. Ibid. p. 83. 



286 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

tuyll deject, fault. O guerthyr march a tuyll enthau ac iia 
bo dyeythyr e croen ny dyhuchyr 90.2. 

tuyllau to deceive, cheat, pop perchenauc tir llan a deleant 
deuot ar pop brenin newid a del y datkanu ydau ef eu breint 
ac eu delect, ac essew achaus e datkanant ydau ef rac tuyllau 
e brennin 51.8. 

ty m. a house, a dwelling-house. Nau tey a dely myleynyeyt 
e brenyn y gueneuthur nehuat estauell buyty estabel kenordy 
eschbaur hodyn treuen uechan kerner 30.8. y lety yu e ty 
inuyhaf en e tref a kemeruedaf 6.7. 7.28; 8.17; 13.6; 21.19; 
22.31; 25.2, 16, 27; 33-I4; 34-2i; 38.18 te; 36.14, 28; 67.26; 70.3; 
71.8, 22; 85.15; 86.17; 87.12; 92.23; 99.1 te; 99.3, ii ; 101.25; 
102.10; 115.19, 20. ty bychan privy 67.26. march ty stable 
67.26. pi. tey 30.8; 59.17, 19; 63.8, 15; 67.25; 86.14; 98.23; 
99.6; 114.7. 

tydau to tether. O deruyt y dyn t. y kassec en emyl hyd 
115.16. cf. A thidau cerdd blethedig. see D.G. cc.25- E flina'r 
ych aflonydd/Ar ei Did cyn hanner dydd. Flor.Poet. p. 20. 
othyrr heb nidr i thidrafi (bell-rope). P.MS. 63, p. 144. cf. Ir. 
buan-tith a lasting line. Trip. Life. 

tydyn, tedyn m. homestead, a plot of ground of four acres 
given to each son at the distribution of the patrimony, val hyn 
y dyly brodyr rannv tyr a dayar yrygthunt pedeyr erv urth pob 
tydyn a gwedy hynny y symuduys bledynt uab kynvyn deudec 
yrv yr mab uchelwr ac vyth yr mab eyllt a pedeyr yr godayauc 
59.8. Ony byd tey y mab yeuaw a dyly rannv holl trewtat ar 
hynaw dewyssaw . . . os tey a uyd y braut eyl yeuaw a dyly 
rannv y tydynneu . . . ar yeuaw dewyssau ar y tydynneu 
59.19. 59.11 ; 60.5, 7; 65.12, 13, 21 ; 66.7; 125.2. pi. -eu 59.19; 
63.14; 64.8. iunior debet habere tygdyn, id est, edificia patris 
sui et vin acras de terra. A.L.II 78o.xi. Quilibet fratrum 
debet habere .vin. acras et locum tygdyn [edificii]. II 781. iv. 
tydyn breynyauc 125.2 seems to be the same as the t. arbennic 
which contained the buildings of the homestead, as distinguished 
from the ordinary tydyn or eissydyn. Pan ranno brodyr tref y 
tad yrydynt yr ieuaf a geiff tydyn a holl adail y tad . . . odyna 
kymeret pop brawd eissydyn ac wytherw. LI. MS. 116, p. 29.10. 
so LI. MS. 69, p. 131.16. P.MS. 363, p. 72.20. cf. gwelitin. 
M.A. 66 9; 2iob.i. 

[tyfu] to grow, puebewnac a ladho raun march rodet varch 
arall . . . eny teuo y raun val kynt 89.5. 3 sg. pres. subj. 
tyuo, teuo 69.7, 19; 89.5; 114.4. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 287 

tyglys tiles, try tan ny dyukyr tan godeyt maurth a tan 
geueyl trefcort a uo seythuryt eregthy ar tey a hytheu en 
pethendo neu en tyglys 86.13. cf. A'i doi a dail manwiail 
mwyn, Mai teylys y'mol tewlwyn. D.G.clxxix.i6. Pa le y bu 
babel ? yn y lie ymae babilon vawr yr awr honn. a adeilawd 
semiramis vrenhines o diglist. a phridgist mal y gwrthwynebei 
y tiglist yr tan. Eluc. 44.16 = quam de later e et bitumine 
construxit Semiramis regina, ut lateres igni, bitumen aquae 
resisterent 205.36. t. = Lat. tegulis. 

tyghu, teghu, tygu to swear, take oath, dody y law deheu 
ar allaur ar creyeu a uo arney ar llau assv ar ben y mab ac y 
uelly tygu y duv yn y blaen 72.15. a chroysed racdau na tygho 
anudon 80.12. 10.12 tegh; 16.11 ; 24.24; 40.3; 66.20; 68.10; 69.2; 
70.16; 72.5; 80.13, 15. 3 sg. pres. subj. tygho tegho 44.13; 
80.12. 3 sg. imperat. act. tyghet, teghet 37.18; 44.8; 80.13; 
81.18. see Zimmer.Celt.Stud.I 117. 

[tylath] cross-bar behind the door, a bar or beam for fastening 
doors, puebennac a vryuho tey en agheuretyaul talet .1111. k. 
am pop pren bras am e doreu am er amhynyokeu .1111. am e 
taleyt 99.8. v.l. dyleith. L.W. 264.8. This is usually written 
in the pi. dyleith, but the B.B.Ch. prefers often projected forms 
like caran, cellgi, etc. It is written delehid as a gloss 'on sera. 
Z 2 . 1062. 44a. kayator y dyleith / arna6ch yn vffern lleith. A.B. 
123.13. Torret drws pob twr hyd draw/Torret tylaith tir teilaw. 
P.MS. 67, p. 301. Deinioel am keid6 a d6yn6enn. Dylaith tre 
uachynlleith 6enn. P.MS. 70, p. 173. Tylath air bob talaith 
uyd. P.MS. 71, p. 66. dylaith=dol drus. P.MS. 51, p. 193. 
cf. Val y byd ynteu yn dodi y dulath yn y fyrch. W.B. col. 
393.19. Bros bryd na ad drws heb bren. Flor.Poet. drws 
Wiliam! a drosoliwyd = bolted. P.MS. 61.23. Doors were 
fastened by a wattle or bar or twig below and above, see O.M. 
Ill 27. 

tyle see trawstyle, dedellu. 

tyllued, telleued f. a pledge or oath, compact, dodi ty. to put 
parties at law under pledge of silence or order. Odena guedi 
henne e dodir tellued essev yu hene. Gostec ar e mays 52.22. 
medyc a dely kemryt telluet ykan kenedel er archolledyc o byt 
maru or uedhecynyaet a guenel ef. ac onys kemer ef. 
gurthebet tros y gueytret 18.12. v.l. kymeret diogelr6yd am 
awnel. A.L.II 56.xxiii. ac yna y mae yaun kymryt yganthun 
bot urth colly neu gafael am yr hyn rydywedassam ny uchot 
a honno a elwyr yn dyllued 132.7. 77.1, 4. eil yw rhoddi da 



288 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

henwedfedic y arall drwy dyllued neu drwy feichieu cannys 
grym un tyst mewn tyllued, canys tyllued y\v twng lliaws. 
A.L.II 588. iii; II 7o.lxxvi ; 76.xcvi ; 244. iii. celhwedh. a 
tylhwedh a gostec doe signifie silentium which is given by the 
crier of the court. L.MS. 68, p. 145. P.MS. 35, f. 32b.i2. 
LI. MS. 116, p. 116.3. This appears to be a compound of llyed 
pi. of llw oath. cf. ac yn h6nn6 6ynt a ymgydarnhayssant dr6y 
gyflyet. Car.Mag. 28.33. M.A. 256b ; 294!). 

tymor, temtnor m. season, ac enwy y dyd yn yr uythnos ar 
vythnos yn y mys ar mis yn y tymor ar tymor yn 3^ wluydyn 
81.23. 82.3, 4; 88.8; 90.15, 17; 91.2; 98.2; 117.26. pi. -yeu 10.8. 

tennu to draw, pull, set. O deruyd tennu ruyd ay ar auon ay 
ar uor 121.14. puebennac a teno annel ar tyr arall 97.6. tennu 
cruyn to skin, flay 26.1. 121.22. pres. ind. pass, tenyr 97.22. 
3. sg. pres. subj. tenho, tenno 11.21; 14.6; 20.14; 22.22; 25.30; 
23.13 tenh; 97.6. 

tyr, tir m. land, a ridge of land. O bum y mor betheu yr tyr 
neu yr traeth 63.10. try troeduet yn y cam try cham yn y neyt 
try neyt yn y tyr. Sew yu y tyr o gymraec newyd grvn a myl 
or tyr yu mylltyr 65.5. neitiwr gwiw dros nawtir gwydd. D.G. 
lxix.32. tyr a dayar. hendiadys for 'land.' pop ynseyl agoret 
. . . am tyr a dayar 8.23 see under burth, corthlan, kyuryw, 
kyllydus, kynnyf, dyfodedyc, egluys, guyd, llan 4.22, 23, 25 ; 
6.25; 8.12; 9.3, 17; 10.25; 11-25; 12. 16; 13.3; 15.26; 17.17, 31; 
18.19; 19.24; 20.8, 37; 21. ii, 24; 22.7, 25; 23.1, 9, 25; 24.8, 9, 23, 
24, 30, 33J 26.17; 27.2, 24; 25.24, 26; 28.10; 39.1; 51.6, 26, 36; 
52.1, 20; 53.3; 55.15, 21, 23; 56.5, 7, 14, 16, 20, 22, 27; 59.3, 4, 6, 
7; 60.5, 7, 8, 10 ; 61.3, 9, 16, 20; 62.13, 16, 21, 28; 63.1-27; 64.4-9; 
65.16; 66.12; 68.13-29; 69.2, 4, 7; 74.1; 96.11-27; 97-1-7; 107.17, 
24; 110.3; II4-4; 116.21; 124.8, 19, 24; 125.15-22; 126.7-23; 127.3, 
20; 133.15. pi. tyred 64.25. cf. terra modus agri, forte tantus, 
qui uni pari bourn possit sufficere. M.D. 

terua a throng, crowd, am tey[t]hy marc . . . ac adan y 
luyc eny uarckocer en t. denyon a meyrc 88.20. 

test a witness, one who declares what had been testified to 
him previously, ny chegeyn greyc en vach nac en test ar gur 
39.9. O deruid y din emadau ac arall am beth eguyd testyon 
a mennu eylweyht e watdu. Nynny a dewedun na dele ew e 
wadu ene pallo e testyon 50.17. pi. testion, testyon, testoyn 
50.19; 51.23; 54-5-27; SS- 1 -^; 56-29 testestion. Tyst yu den e 
tyster ydau er emadraud a dywetter en y vyd. A.L.II i32.xiii. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 289 

Llw tyst yu tystu ydau gynt erhyn e mae en e tygu. II i34.xvii. 
see M.A. g^zb. A.L.II 636.viii. 

testu to assert, declare, a testu vthunt buy e rekafael hy en 
llegredic 36.1. 

testyolaet evidence, testimony, t. a ellyr ar eyr a gueytret 
ac ny ellyr t. ar uedul 121.2. 115.4. 

teuarc turf, greensward. 107.19. sg. teguarchen. marw t. 
the grave. O deruyt e alldut o gureyc menet true glad ac eu 
emru [maru] talet yr nepyeufo e tyr .xvi. en j maru t. 39.1. 
Nid hysbys i neb b'le bydd ei dywarchen. M.A. 7603.14. cf. 
cyn tywarch. M.A. 1393.17. towarch meirwon. H.G. p. 41, 
v. 47. Ibid, y dywarchen farw, p. 248, v. 29. Tywarchen Ercal 
ar ar dywal. M.A. 9ob.6. Dor warchae ywr dywarchen. P.MS. 
6> p. 13. glebis .i. tuorchennou. Loth. Voc. Bret. p. 226. 
Tywarchen usually means a turf covering or roofing of a house, 
and in the Laws it is one of the three chief roofing materials. 
Can it be for *tywrach ? gwrachan, gwrachen is used for a thin 
layer. Kymer vel a dod mewn padell ar dan . . . ac yna tyn 
ymaith y wrachan a fydd ar yr wyneb. Old Leech Book. 

tywyll darkness, in genit. blind. O deruyt y dyn uynet yn 
uach a chyn teruynu yr haul y uynet yn clauur neu yn uynach 
neu yn dywyll 133.7. tywyssawg yn nhywyll. M.A. 6ib.2i. 
o dywyll trydwll trefred. M.A. 190^5. yn nhywyll. M.A. 
346b.34. t. = Ir. temel darkness. 

[tywysawe] leader, prince, king. Heuel da uab kadell 
teuyhauc kemry oil i.i. pi. tehuishocyon 41.28. 

[tywysogaeth] principality, kingdom. Heuel da ... a deuenus 
atau .vi. guyr o pop kemud en y tehuyokaet 1.4. 

uch, huch prep, above, uch + pron. sufif. i sg. uchof, uchow 
2.13; 4.21; 20.24; 23.18; 28.27; 30.24; 77.5; 129.20. 2 sg. uchot 
34.4; 37.22; 38.10; 45.8, 17; 52.30; 60.6; 65.18; 67.4; 71.25; 72.11, 
14; 73.12; 75.8, 14; 78.28; 79.15; 82.2; 126.20 uchoc; 132.7. 
uchof and uchot are both used adverbially 'above' ; without ref. 
to pers. er edlyg a rey redeuedassam ny huchof 4.21. uchof e 
trayhuyd o ureynt a delehet 20.24. val e deuedassam ny vchot 
37.22. peduuar onadunt ys coref a dec uc koref 5.4. uch pen 
opposite, behind (?) 131.19. cf. dyuot o hona6 vch pen y kawr 
= opposite. W.B. col. 488.32. uch llau above, superior to 
81.28. 5.4, ii ; 6.15 kuc; 9.19, 20; 15.15; 33.26; 47.4; 59.16; 
61.17; 80.25; 81.29; 106.15. uchaf superl. adj. uppermost, upper. 
e maen u. yr vreuan 33.15. 102.4; i5-4- 



2QO GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

uchelur or mab u. a free tribesman who was a landed 
proprietor. Val hyn y dyly brodyr rannv tyr a dayar yrygthunt 
pedeyr erv urth pob tydyn a gwedy hynny y syrauduys bledynt 
uab kynvyn .xn. yrv yr mab uchelwr ac .vin. yr mab eyllt 
a .iv. yr godayauc 59.9. Ny deleyr y him guahalyeth abedyu. 
. . . Onyd hyn a deruyd ydau kam[r]yt tyr ohonau a menet 
em breynt mab uchelur yr kaydhet hachen e tyr a kafo ef a uyd 
kyn redhet a tyr mab uchelur 127.17 5.23; 36.14; ihuckellur 
38.12; 38.23; 68.19; 78.5; 94.24; 95.7; 99.2,22; ioo.ii; 104.6; 
124.22; 125.14; 126.5; 127.18. pi. uchelwyr. meybyon uchelwyr 
63.29; 64.3; 65.5; 66.3, 22. 

ufarneu anxles. ef a dely koesleeu echen a guarthec a kafer 
oe y kuhud ef kefuc ay ufarneu 25.8. kuaranneu . . . ny bydan 
vuch no vffarneu y tract. P.MS. 36b, p. 11.15. vfiarned y 
tract. LI. MS. 69, p. 34.17. A.L.I 392. vffarnned -v.l. vffarneu. 
I 674. v. ucharned v.l. vffernet. see Fed. I 26. 

vfern hell, e doissihion a deuedant nad erlit kefreish e bit 
hun din nac e nef e del nac vfern 47.7. 

ugeynt twenty, (writt. vgeyn, ugejn, vgyen, ugein, .xx.). 
un ugein ar dec 69.4. 

un (a) one, the same, nyt oes un tyr hebdau 60. n. ac un 
funud a hinny 51.34. buyta jar un dyskyl ar brenyn 24.14. vn 
sarhaet ac un guerth eu ar pophuryes 28.25. 4.20; 6.19; 22.16, 
i7, 3i; 23.5; 28.25, 26; 69.19; 71.8; 73.13, etc. 

(b) pron. O deruyd tennu ruyd ... a deuod ay guydeu ae 
anyueyl arall ay uaru o acaus e ruyd a bryuau e ruyd . . . ny 
dyucyr un yu kylyd onadunt 121.18. 65.15, etc. 

unau to wish, desire, esef eu e try phec e dele y maethu am 
rodhy pehec ny deleho y roy ac amycafael can gur. amhunau 
meuel ar y uaraf 38.4. am unau. Ll.MS. 174, p. 45.29. A.L.II 
94.cxlviii. L.W. 386.ccliii Al. see meuel. 

unarbymthec sixteen. 65.9, etc. unarbymthec a deugeynt a 
deucant=256. 65.22. 

unarugeynt twenty-one, un gur arugeynt 73.28; 74.19. 

unbeynyaet chieftainship, supremacy, e bard teulu ... a 
dely pan ranoent er anreyth kanu u. prydyn 15.4. 

vndy t one day, a continuous period ( ? ) . undyd a bluydyn 
45.25; 48.12; 68.20; 124.23; 133.1. ar teir vhechnos hinny a 
eluuir o eu breint en vndit dethon 48.36. see dydon. 

undidiauc (in) one day. Essef achaus e may nau nyeu guedi 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 291 

kalangayaf en kaiat or keureyth . . . rac kayu e keureyth en 
undidiauc 51.34. 46.24; 51.35. un dethicauc = vn dydyauc. 
LI. MS. 116, p. 115.10, 12. 

umlyn anyone. 

vnen 112.21. see oen. 

vnuet one (in cpd. ordinals), vnuet ar dec eleventh 28.22. 
17.17. vnuet ar pemdec sixteenth 20.8; 90.22. 

vnguerth of equal value, vnguert yurc a buc 97.8. 90.9; 
94-22, 24; 105.21. 

unpren see pren. 

uuryu of the same kind, a hunnu a dele uod en unryu e 
deutyr 119.15. 

untu see tu. 

unweyth, vngueyt once. 10.4; 11.9; 40.24 vngueys; 67.5, 15; 
69.25, 29; 78.2, 4; 91.14; 108.2. see gueyth . 

urtheu holy orders, escoleyc guedy e kemerho urtheu 29.23. 
wirllisch see byrllysg. 
wni 45.22. see mechny. 

urlys m. orles, fur. try fedh ny dely e brenyn y ranh ac arall 
. . . guys[c] e bo hurlys eur ydhy 30.13. Tri wrllys a ddyly y 
frenines : croen beleu; a llostlydan a charlwng. A.L.II 578.xvi. 
y brenhin a dyly o bop anreith onvlat y traean ar eur ar aryant 
ar swllt ar kyrn buelyn ar mein gwyrthuawr ar gwiscoed y bo 
urlys wrthunt. II 46.5. cf . Tri phryf a dyly y brenhin eu gverth 
pytubynnac y llather llostlydan a beleu a charlvg kannys 
ohonunt y gvneir amaervyeu y dillat y brenhin. LI. MS. 69, 
p. 68.12. Wrlys gwyn ar eur lewys gwiw. I.G. 459.6. cf. Ir. 
bile (rim, border) gl. orlus. see bile. M.C. see further K.R. 
p. 70. 

vrvernir 46.2. see gvrvernir. 

vrth i8.n=uyth. 

vullydyn 34.5. see bluydyn. 

wy an egg. blyckyn huy an egg-shell, a worthless trifle. 
25-23. 

uydt see bod. 

uyncb see guyneb. 

vyth eight, (-written also vueth, veth, huyth, huyd.) 

vyt[h]uet eighth, (written also huyduet, huethuet, chuyduet.) 



292 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

uythnos a week. 82.3, 4. 16.4 huysnos; 48.35 vhvehnos; 
81.22 vythnos. 

y> c, i> j P re P- t> f or - with def. art. yr, ir. with pron. suffix. 
3 sg. m. ydau, ydav, ydhau, jdhau. 3 sg. f. ydhy, ydy, jdhy. 
3 pi. udunt, vthunt, vtunt. with poss. adj. i sg. ym. 2 sg. 
yth. 3 sg. m. and f. yu, yhu, y. 3 pi. y eu, yhu, y. 6.20; 8.6; 
10.3; n.6; 13.7; 16.11; 20.16; 23.32; 24.14; 26.14; 2y.6ydadau; 
35.1; 40.22; 53-I9; 54-135 61.9; 63.24; 64.13; 72.8; 75.2; 76.21-; 77.1, 
ii ; 80. i ; 83.6; 108.16; 127.10; 131.15; 133.22. exp. dat. relation, 
ef a dele adau y ueyrc ay kun yr brenyn 4.6. o deruyd y 
dynyon hele pescaut 128.13. exp. purpose, pan uo reyt menet 
e teulu y anreythyau 7.4. heb urac heb ebran heb dyn y 
gynneu tan 70.1. often = Ir. di from, of. e gur a dele a maen 
vchaf yr vreuan 33.16. y tu yma y glaud oSa 64.12. 5.21 ; 
28.1, etc. 

y, yr def. art. (-written also e, he, er, her, ir, ec, a.) yr bef. 
vowels ; h ; y and words in fern. sg. with init. g. ; sometimes 
bef. init. r. ; often attached as -r to a prec. conj. or prep, ending 
in a vowel irrespective of init. of succeeding word, ec several 
times bef. init. c. elsewhere y. In some cases it is used 
irregularly, er eyl eu er efeyryat e urenynes 21.11. y lety 
ykyd ar dryssaur e brenyw 22.30. 64.24. 

y, yd preverbal part, (written also i, e, ed, id, it, yr, er.) y, 
e bef. cons, yr, er a few times bef. r-. er rennyr 33.11. ec bef. 
c 96.2; 97.5. 52.11; 46.38; 33.28 (?). yd bef. vowels and h. 
unless y=yd + y infix, pron. 3 sg. and pi. Saraet brenyn aber- 
frau vel hyn e telyr 3.5. see 17.26; 25.24; 27.10; 31.3, 4, 17; 
33.11, 28, 29; 34.6, ii ; 37.31; 38.8; 40.11; 46.10; 48.3; 50.5; 60.2; 
66.7 ; 75.19 ; 77.7 ; 81.13 ; 112.19. ac urth hynny y mae dyr y uot 
ynteu ar ureynt gur 70.15. eydyon guedy yd emadauho ay 
teledyuruyt 101.23. pop gokaur or ed emokoryo dyn ac ef 114.1. 
Rei a uin ac vn seihuir guadu ket et bvo petuuar mach arruken 
45.20. 5.22; 8.19; 11.29; 16.20; 24.22; 28.15, etc. 

yach, yac whole, complete, sound, healthy, ranet e claf . . . 
a deuysset er yac 34.16. sef e dyhucher escub yach en lie er 
claf 114.22. 43.4; 89.23, 24; 92.23; 120.23. llafurya y iachau vy 
enryded i ar morynyon ath eneit titheu. H.MSS.I 322.4. Ef a 
dyly hagen tygu adynyon yty gantaw oil yuot ef yn iach or da 
hwnnw. Med.Law. 63.15. 

yaen a ward (?), one who has no disposable property (?). 
for quots. see maen. yaen usually means f a sheet of ice' (see 
Eluc. 53.17. M.A. 25a; 8ja; io2b, etc.) but it occurs several 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 293 

times as a proper name and in connections where such a 
meaning seems improbable even as a metaphor, llary lywyd 
lluyd lliaws y echen. Teyrnas kyfadas cas o iaen. B.Tal 78.4. 
M.A. 33b. perchen meirch a gwrymseirch ac ysgwydawr yaen 
gyuoet, etc. B.A. 18.14. M.A. 15!). It occurs as a proper 
name six times in R.B.I 107. goyaen (Dr.D.Prov. M.A. 846!)) 
in goyaen a wel ynghyfyng seems also to belong to it. It 
appears to be = ~Lat. iuen-is. see maen. 

yar, ar a hen. yar k. a tal keylyauc .11. ar a tal 94.11. 
95.13; 101.6. pi. yeyr 25.14; 33.27 eyr; 113.1, 12, 19, 21; 
114.11 ; 117.17. 

[yarll] an earl, dywynwal moel mud . . . mab oed hunnv y 
aril kernyv 64.19. 

yaun, jaun, yaunt (a) right, equity, amends, pa dyn benac 
a dalyho escrybyl ke[t] as ellegho y pory ny kyll y ureynt yr 
gueneuthwr guell nor yaunt 118.9. ac ena guedy ed eystedont 
buy e may iaun yr efieyryat guedy a duy y dangos o duy er 
yaun udunt 53.24. O deruyd y hur un onadunt gueutur cam 
[y] gur e Hall ny dele neb onadunt gueuthur yaun namyu 
eghorset y argluyt ehun 124.1. 16.9, 17; 19.18; 41.19; 50.28; 
51.11; 130.29; 131-6; 132.28; 133.2. 

(b) right, just, equitable, yn try oet y mae yaun talu galanas 
76.22. set amser achaus e doyant e garauuys eno urth delehu 
o paup bod en yaun [en] er amser glan hunnu 1.9. yoruerth 
... a deueyt panyu hun eu kauarc kyfyll yaun 128.28. 19.19; 
65.19; 129.1. 51.8 aun ; 80.10 yau, etc. compar. yaunach 70.10. 
superl. yaunaw, jaunaf 55.10; 70.11; 74.6. 

ycch, hycc, hyc m. an ox (for ploughing). O deruyd y dyn 
mennu guerthu hycc or keuar rekeuarer ny dele y guerthu eny 
darfo e keuar 108.18. eru er hecc dw acre of the dead ox 108.12. 
see du. 13.23; 16.12; 69.7; 108.9, 13, 15; IO9- 1 , 18; 111.7, 8, n, 
15. pi. ecchen, ychen. a kar a deu hechen a uenho ar y 
guarthec 42.15. 25.7; 68.25; 107.14, 22; 108.8; 109.11, 13; 110.7, 
15, 20. cf. A.L.I 569. xvi. Buch a uyd taladwy oe heil lo hyt y 
pymhet [ac] ych or trydet ieu hyt y whechet. LI. MS. 216, 
p. 253. cfhwech ychen yn y gwaith sydd Efydde [ = uffudda?). 
P.MS. 67, p. 214. bob chwech y kydymdrechant bob ddav yr 
vniav yr ant. (oxen ploughing). 

ycguic, ycgiu=y chwi 46.14, 15. 

yd, hyd, hyt corn, crop, ac ny deleeyr dale yeyr ar hyd 
namen e pedheunos kentaf ed heer ac o hynny eny del graun 



294 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

113.22. guanaf yssaf or hyd 25.14. 33.27 ; 34.13, 14 ; 37.9 ; 69.18 ; 
112.5, 6 hd; 113.4, 8, 15; 114.23, 25; 115.2, 3, 9, 13, 14, 17, 18; 

116.4, J 7> 26; 117.4-23; 118.19; 119.11, 17, 21. see Ped.I 29.1. 
ydadau see y prep. 

ydno pr. n. rey a deueyt panyu maeldaf henaf . . . ai barnus 
y guir aruon yoruert . . . druy audurdaud y keuarhuidyt ay 
kadarnaha panyhu ydno hen y guir epist pendhu 42.7. 

ye yea, yes. 44.4. 

yeii f. yoke, a measure, [guerth] pop yeu ae y pestel yeu .1. 
104.15. messur eru gyureythyaul .iv. troetued yn y uerr yeu 
vyth yn yr eyl yeu .xn. yn y gesseylyeu .xvi. yn yr hyryeu 
59.11. vyth yn yr yeuyeu 65.9. torry yr yeu to differentiate 
between the oxen of the same yoke ( ?) 107.23. 

yeuan St. John, see guyl. 

[yeuanc] young. Ny dele greyc en e byt talu .1. paladyr na 
hen na jeugan 40.6. pi. eueig 7.26. superl. yeuaw, yeuhaf 
33.10; 59.17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24; 62.25; 63-15- 

[yeuenctit] youth, prime, esef e dele bloedeuau oy .xnii. 
allan ac o henne allan hyt ewpen .XL. e dele meythryn sef eu 
henny .L.IIII. edele vot eny heuectyt 41.8. 

yeuyeu ( ?) the second yoke, a measure of 8 feet. 65.9. It 
corresponds to the eyl yeu of 59.11. The great -variety of forms 
by which this yoke is called suggests that the original name 
was no longer quite intelligible to the scribes. Several MSS. 
have veieu as v.l. for 59.11 ( = A.L.I 166) 50 for 65.9 (A.L.I 186). 
Meiau. L.W. 122; 139.3. mey yeu. Ll.MS. 174, p-. 76.15. 
yn neiav (leg. ueiav (?)). Rep.MSS.I 954 63. There is a ref. 
to y fevav a dolav in Ll.MS. 2O2.1xxix, while Ll.MS. 116, p. 

105.5, ks veinieu. This is always translated 'field yoke' (A.L.I 
167, 186. W.P. 249, etc.) where mei would correspond to Ir. 
mag 'field/ 'plain' ; we know, however, of very little evidence 
to support this. There appears to be a mei 'great' or 'greater' 
in Welsh unconnected with Mai 'May' or mai 'a field,' and 
corresponding rather with Ir. mag, maige 'great.' Mei is often 
applied in poetry to horses, and, as far as we can see, it means 
'great' or 'powerful,' 'fit for war.' Meckid meibion Meigen 
meirch mei. M. A. 67^31. ineirch mei meindwn. M.A. i7ob.n; 
2153.50. Meiwyr 'soldiers,' may be another compound, though 
cad ar faes, and maes are common expressions for 'war' in Med. 
Welsh. Mei appears to be used in the sense of mawr with mwy 
as comparative. Atvyd mei ar venei crei gyflogawt. / Atvyd 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 295 

tnwy ar gonwy creith gwynyeith gwnahawt. B.Tal. 31.3. (see 
M.A. 56b.2.) Erfai seems to be a cpd. of this, see M.A. 1493.9. 
A.B. 89.30. D.G. iii.3o; xlvi.26; Ix.iS; Ixxxii.g; cxvii.i4, 31; 
ccxxix.i. cf. llydanfai. D.G. ccxxx.i. Gwalchmei. The 
meinieu of LI. MS. 116, if it is correct, appears to be a cpd. of 
maen (2) + yeu = 'the great yoke.' 

euet to drink. 25.2. kydeuet 9.31. corn ethefo e brenyn 
punt a tal 99.5. 3 sg. pres. subj. efo 99.25. 3 pi. euoent 42.22. 

yg distress, trial. Mab dyodew yu mab a dyco gwreyc y ur 
yn gyureythyaul a dyodew or gur hep y wadu un dyd a bluydyn 
ny eyll y wadu o hynny allan yn yr yg byth ac o deruyd y 
hunnv gwneuthur kywlavan ny ellyr y wadu yn yr yg cany 
waduyt ar yr yng 73.19. ac or diwed yn y lie y bei reit yn 
vynych yn y vlaen yd eynt yn yr ig ac yr kalet yn y vrwydyr. 
R.B.II 240.6. yn nef yn dayar yn diwed. yn yg yn ehag yn 
ygwed. A.B. II 110.10. Yn yg yn ehag ym pob reit. Bwynt 
dinas in corff ac yn heneit. A.B. II 112.5. P an vo ingav gan 
ddyn, ehangav vydd gan Dduw. M.A. 857b.i6. 

yng v.l. eyng freedom, liberty, (see above.) L.W. 183 26 
has : ni ellir ei wadu yn yr ing, can ni wadwyd yn yr ehag. 
A.L.I 2io.xiii. yg . . . eang. H.MSS.II 247.19. Ar nos honno 
y dodes wynt y mewn gogof o garrec a oed ger Haw dwfyr. 
val y gallei tranoeth ar ehag eu plannu. 

yma, yman here. Huchof retraythassam ny or suydocyon 
. . . eman . . . o pedeu ereyll 28.30. y mab hun yman 72.7. 
y tu yma y glaud offa 64.12. 20.25 ; 41.26, 27 ; 48.4 ; 49.26 ; 53.12 ; 
64.7, 13; 69.2. heman 23.19. 

emadau (ac) to leave, ked boet e cun en hele ac enteu guedy 
emadau ay cun ny dely dym ked lladho cun segur ef 123.3 
3 sg. pres. subj. emadauho 101.24. emadauh 28.15. v.l. 
emadauho. 3 pi. emadauoent 128.13. 

emadau (ac) to promise. O deruid y din emadau ac arall am 
beth eguyd testy on a mennu eylweyht e watdu. Nyny a 
dewedun na dele ew e wadu ene pallo e testyon 50.16. 50.18. 
3 sg. pret. ind. emedewis 50.28. 

emaruoll to confer, treat, negotiate, pan del deu urenyn ar 
eu kydteruyn o achaus emaruoll 3.1. a gwedy hynny yd 
ymaruolles yr holl gymry ar ymwrthlad a cheitweit y ffreinc. 
R.B.II 323. 27. cf. aruoll. ac arthur ae haruolles ynteu or enryded 
y gwedei aruoll gwr kyfurd a hwnnw. R.B.II 187.19. A hynny 
a gadarnhawn trwy aruoll. II 171.8. A gwedy kymryt kedernit 
gantaw ac aruoll yd ellwgyt gwrtheyrn. II 141.1. ac yd aeth 



- 



296 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

y loegyr a rei oe aruollwyr ygyt ac ef. II 377.7. O rydd 
cyngaws arfoll, neu gret, neu fach, nat elei yn erbyn y dadyl 
hwnn . . . ef a ellir y lyssu drwy brofi yr arfoll. A.L.II 
734-xxvi. nid arfollir gwad. M.A. 743.41. 

emporth food, ef a dely y e. or llys en guastat a seyc pan 
uo e brenyn 25.27. 

[emchoelud ( ? )] to revert, turn back, overturn. 3 sg. pres. 
ind. emchuel. O deruyt y dyn tydau y kassec en emyl byd ar 
ebaul en legry er hyd . . . dalyer er ebaul en e ty a deker e 
kassec en y lie ual kynt a llena e guyllt a deyly e dof ac nyt 
hemchuel en aghefreyth arnau 115.22. emchel 39.15. 3 sg. 
pres. subj. ymchwelo. yny y. y geuyn ar y das 60.21. perchyll 
becheyn or pan emcuelo bysguelyn ay truyn 113.2. 123.1 
emchelo. 

ymdcruynu to define boundaries. O deruyd y. yrug deu ur 
gymreynt am tyr ar neyll rey yn teruynu hyt raccu ar lleyll 
hyt yma 69.1. 

ymdeyth to journey, walk. Seythuet [affeyth lledrat] yu 
ymdeyth dyd neu nos ygyt ar lleydyr 78.20. 51.15; 90.19 
ememdeyt. 132.22. pan el ymdeyth v.l. el y ymdeyth; el 
ymeith. A.L.II 31.1. 

[ymdeyth] a stage, day's journey. Sew y messvrus ew hyhy 
yr guybot y mal ay mylltyryeu ay hymdeythyeu yn y dyeoeth 
65.1- 

ymduyn, emduen to carry, to bear children, pedueryt [afeyt 
tan] eu emduen e buellur 85.26. ac oy deudec mluyd hyt y 
.xiv. y dyly uot heb ueychyogy. ac o .xiv. hyt yn deugeynt 
y dyly ymduyn 71.26. Sef oed y s6yd ef yn wastat ymd6yn 
peir arthur a dodi tan ydana6. R.B.I 136.10. 

[ymddywedyd] to discuss, argue. 2 pi. imperat. emdeveduch. 
Gwedi daruo eyste en keureithaul mal y redewessam ny vchot 
ena e may yaun yr egnat deveduit urth e dupleyt emdeveduch 
o keureith weithion 52.31. Sef yu gorsaf kyfreyth peth a trosso 
e kefreyth y urth y peth y byder en emdyweduyt amdanau. 
A.L.II 156.11. ym dywedwch. P.MS. 35, f. 32^23. 

emenyt the brain, dernaut empew hyd er emenyt 7.22. 
18.6; 105.24. Ir. inchinn. 

emenyn butter, e. bulch a pat of butter partly used. 25.13. 
33.29; 68.18; 69.10, 17, 25. 

[ymgaffael] to meet. 3 pi. pres. subj. emkafoent. pa le 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 297 

bennac ed em. er efeyryat ar dysteyn ar enat ena byt breynt e 
llys 30.1. 

ymgyuylent ( ? ) . O myn yr alltudyon mynet yurth eu 
hargluydy . . . vynt a dylyant banner udunt . . . ac o thrygant 
ym. ac euceythywet ual kynt. v.l. emchuelent. A.L.I 182. xxv. 
so P.MS. 35, f. 47b.g. 

ymlad to fight, .ix. afeyth galanas . . . catnlurv amdanadunt 
herwyd meynt yr affeyth . . . cany bu ymlad yno 75.16. 24.23 ; 
45-29; 75- l6 J JSS-S. see Had. 

einlyd to pursue. Puybennac a uenno hele py[s]caut a keuodi 
pysc ohonau ay emlyd. ac ar y emlyd ef mened e pysc en ruyd 
123.11. see erlyt. 

[ymogoryau ( ? )] to house, harvest. 3 sg. pres. subj. pop 
gokaur or ed emokoryo dyn ac ef 114.1. ymogor neu lafur dyn. 
A.L.II 594-xiii. Os yfir chwaith nemor o fewn yr ymogor /cyn 
gwybod rhoi bargod ar ddiod yn dda. LI. MS. 209, p. 314. 
ymogor 'home/ 'dwelling' (?). Bydd addvwyn a gwar nid val 
blaidd i'th ymogor. M.A. 758 8. Na vydd vleiddig i'th dy 
a'th ymogor 758b-4i. Gwae'r hen a gollo'i mogor. lolo MSS. 
253 38. ymogor =annedd ne gyvannedd (ac a vo yntho added 
later). P.MS. 169, p. 343. Rep. MSS. I 940.7. ymogor =annedd 
ne gyvannedd. // gogor is a dervv. of cor then ymogor =Ir. 
imochur carrying. Pass. Horn, see gogor. 

emol, amol. to take bull, ac o henne allan vn guert vyt a 
pop llo vn ar peradec ar y llaet a pedeyr k. am y llo o hanner 
haf allan a dele y hemol a guedy et emholyer e derkeyf .1111. 
90.24. 90.15. LI. MS. 174, p. 115.23. pres. subj. pass, emholyer 
90.24. 50 P.MS. 35, f. 103. A.L.II io4.xxvi. cf. Bret, hemolc'hi 
said of a cow in heat. L.G. 

[ymolchi] to wash oneself. 3 sg. pres. subj. emolcho. urth y 
uod en peryglaur yr brenyn ... a dale y lleuys tra emolcho 
13.12. 

ymp a scion, graft, [guerth] deru ac auall ymp .1111. k. hyd 
kalan gayaf rac hueneb guedy etymper 98.1. 

[ympio] to graft, pres. subj. pass, ymper 98.2. see ymp. 

emreyn to beget, impregnate, procreate, violate. O deruyd o 
achaus mennu escar deueduyt na allo gur emreyn. kafreys a 
eyre prouy 40.7. 34.10; 35.10, n. Teir gweith y dyrcheif ar 
sarhaet gwr a ymreher y wreic y treis. A.L.I 5io.xxxix ; 
I 526.1; I 752. xli; I 778.xiii. LI. MS. 116, p. 19.32; 24.18. 
emreyn=Lat. impregn-are. Loth p. 215. see also Ped.I p. 237. 



298 GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 

[ymrody, ymroi] to give oneself. 3 sg. pres. ind. [y]mryt. 
Puebennac a rodo gureic i gur ef pieu talu e hammobor . . . os 
hytheu a mryt talet e hammobor 36.12. 3 sg. pres. subj. 
ymrodho. nyt oes un wreic a ymrodho e hun y alltud 62.6. 

ymurthryn to eject, dispossess, ny dylyir guarandau yr un 
or teyr haul am tyr a dayar yn amser cayat kyureyth sew yu y 
reyn hynny haul bryodolder a haul dadannud ac ym. 61.21. 

emhustelau to challenge a legal decision. O deruyt y dyn e. 
ac enat llys neu ac arall. O keyll e dyn hunnu prouy nod en 
kam y uraut a uarnus er enat 12.26. Tri dyn y telir gweli 
tavawd iddynt . . . brawdwr, pan ymwystler ag ev am ei iawn 
vrawd. M.A. 9423.10. Os y dadleuwr a ebryvyca ymwystlaw 
a brawdwr, nid amgen pan y datgano gyntav iddo, ni cheif 
ymwystlaw ag ev am y varn honno byth gwedi hyny, cyd boed 
cam ei varn. M.A. 943^22. see guystyl. 

yinyl m. edge, rim, margin, torth . . . yn gyndewet ac na 
plycey yr eu daly erbyn y deu ymyl 69.23. en emyl close to 
28.6. 17.34; 69-5; II 5- I 7- see kyfyl. cf. Dimet. bil lip, rim. 
IT. bil rim, etc. 

ymyrru to engage or exercise oneself, pen kenedyl ... a 
dyl ymyrru ygyt ay gar ym pob reyt a del arnav 66.25. 

ernyscar entrails, bowels, dernaut eg korf hyd er emyscar 
18.7. 7.23 ; 8.3 ; 105.26. 

yn, en, hen, jn, in (a) prep. in. bef. c=yg, eg, ey. bef. t=en. 
bef. p=ym, em, e, y. bef. g=y, e. bef. d=yn. bef. b = em, 
ym, e, y. bef. m=e, y. bef. vowels yn, en. with pron. suffix. 
3 sg. m. endau, entau, enthau. 3 sg. f. yndy, endy, endhi, endi. 
3 pi. endunt. canhuynaul powys ny dyly mamuys y guynet 
nac o vyned y powys 62.14. hyt ernen e bludyn 37.7. en e 
neuat emon e post 17.33. try hyt gronyn heyd yn y uoduet 65.3. 
ac eghuyt e deu urenyn 3.1. en erbin against, ket gueneler 
amod en erbin e kefreis 50.23. em blaen before 42.3. en ol 
after, according to 70.12 ; 96.10. en emyl beside 17.34. emeun 
in 86.16, etc. 

(b) with verb nouns = pres. part. Ef a dely yean e porthaur 
agory e porth maur ydau en deuot yr llys. ac en menet y meun 
ac allan 12.10. 3.27; 74.5, etc. 

(c) predicative part, with nouns and adj. bot yr amser yn 
gauedyc 59.7. eu tyr ... en dyr such 64.9. ny chygeyn greyc 
en vach nac en tyst ar gur 39.9. 6.18; 26.18; 50.14; 61.10, 13; 
75.1; 85.24; 96.25, etc. 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 299 

yna then, thereupon, ew a dyly yno yn dyatep teirnos a 
trydyeu. ac yna rody atep 61.1. yna . . . yna then . . . next. 
ac yna gouyn yr amdyfynnwr puy dy gyghaus . . . ac yna 
enwy puy ynt buy ac yna gouyner ydau . . . ac yna dywedet 
ynteu 132.1. 60.22; 61.14; 69.3; 70.7, 21; 71.2, 17; 72.10, n; 
79.7; 80.10; 81.4; 129.19; 130.9, 15; 1324; *tt-20, 29, etc. 

enat, egnat a judge. Try anhebkor brenynyn eu efeyryat 
. . . ar egnat llys urth dehosparth pop ped pedrus 29.2. pa le 
bennac edemkafoent er efeyryat ar dysteyn ar enat ena e byt 
breynt e llys 30.2. Nyny a dywedun na dylyir oet y geyssyau 
y creyryeu namyn tra gatwo yr ynat y uraudle 134.24. egnat 
llys 1.25; 5.13; 8.8; 11.25; 12.27; 24.2; 28.11 enanat; 52.13; 
131.13. egnat kemut 52.13; 131.13. 12.21, 28, 29; 30.2, 26, 28; 
49.6; 52.14, 30, 31; 53.1, 16, 18, 19, 25; 54.9; 55.1, 4, 5; 80.28, 29; 
131.21; 132.8; 134.25. pi. eneyt, yneyt, eneit, egneyt 12.16, 22; 
37.21; 52.14, 15; 53.19, 28, 32; 54.11, 12; 56.1, 3, 5; 59.9, 15, 17; 
77.18; 105.20; 124.13 eneyt or clas ; 134.8. 

ynuyt or dyn ynuyt a fool, a madman, pa dyn puyllauc 
benac a ladho enuyt talet y alanas uel galanas dyn puyllauc 
120.5. sef yu y drut dyn ynuyt ac ynuyt ny ellyr kymell dym 
namyn y ewyllys 134.29. 70.18; 120.2,8, 13. see A.L.II m.xliv. 
P.MS. 35, f. H2a.2. O Had dynyon ynuyt dynyon p6yllaoc. 
y. = Ir. oinmit o fool, see Ped. I 20, -where y. is compared -with 
O.Eng. unwitti. see also drud. 

yno there. 42.9; 60.21; 61.4; 71.22; 75.16, 17; 92.2. 

ynseyl seal, charter, efeyryat teulu ... a dele .1111. k. am 
pop y. agoret a rodher am tyr a dayar a neghesseu ereyll maur 
8.22. 21.14. y. agoret letter patent (?). cf. A.L.II 658.xxvi. 
Tri ryw wassanaeth sydd reit yr offeiryat teulu y wneuthur yn 
y llys . . . trydydd yw bot . . . yn barawt y wneuthur 
llythreu yr brenhin . . . ac am bob llythyr egoret am dir a 
daear a wnel lie y rhoddo y brenhin dir cynn[y]f pedeir ceinioc 
a geiff. R.B.II 104.14. ymchoelut a wnaeth parth ac ynys 
prydein ae neges gantaw drwy gedernit yscriueneu a Hythyreu 
agoret ac inseileu senedwyr rufein wrthunt. Eluc. 97.1. ac nyt 
oet [vrth y gwregys] namyn ynseil o eur wedy yr ysgythrv yndi 
tarian. 

ynteu conj. or. pa beth a dylyir amdanav ay uynepwerth ay 
yntau galanas 70.5. 109.9. see m y- 

yny, eny (o) conj. until. yny + infix, pron. 3 sg. and pi. 
enyhu, enyu, eny=eny + y. or paw dotho y hebauc emud enyu 
tenno allan 11.21. or pan dano y dyllat ar e guely enyu tenho 



300 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

dranoeth 22.22. or pan annuder e tan eny dadanudher tranches 
36.26. 14.16. eny with pres. subj. breynt e tyr a dercheyf eny 
uo tyr ryt 4.26. 4.22, 26; 9.26; 10.10; 12.25; JS- 1 ^, 20; 17.22; 
18.3, 31 ; 19.13 ; 24.11 ; 26.5, 14, 28 ; 28.8 ; 33.17 ; 37.5 ; 38.29 ; 51.11 ; 
53.15; 60.21; 66.7; 70.12, 14, 15, 16, 22; 71.10, 14, 15, etc. with 
past. subj. y kadu eny darfey e makal 107.4. 

(b) -when, e medyc a dely ene doto gorhet .xxim. 18.10. 
enekerho ykyd abeyrt ereyll ef a dely ran deuur 15.6; 15.16; 
24.22; 29.12; 62.17; 76.8; 123.17. see ony. 

yoruerth pr. n. Lema e gueles yonierth vab madauc uod en 
krenno escryuennu guerth e tey ar deodreuen, etc. 98.22. 42.6; 
128.27. see ydno. 

ynys f. island, ac os or y. hon yd henynt ny dylyant trygau 
yn un lie y tu yma y glaud offa 64.10. 64.18, 22, 25, 29; 78.10. 

yr, er, jr (prep.) for, on account of. er+pron. stiff. 3 sg. m. 
erdau 55.23. kollet er enat y tauaut neu enteu ay pryno yean 
e brenyw yr y guert kefreyt 12.30. ni kecuuin e gur a oet ene 
mediant kynt erdau o keill kaffael tu a tal 55.23. 12.30; 26.21; 
37.7, 10 ; 46.6; 47.19, 26, 36; 48.21; 65.1; 69.15; 74.3, 7, 8; 76.15; 
78.11, 12, 21 ; 79.17; 81.27; 83.1; 87.17; 116.2; 118.8, 13; 122.2; 
127.10; 129.28; 133.24. yr hynny in spite of that, yet. Ny byd 
eneytuadeu ew yr hynny namyn lleydyr gwerth 80.17. 133.14, 
24. 

yr though. Ryd uyd rannu tyr pob atnser . . . yr bot yr 
amser yn gauedyc 59.7. 48.31; 69.23; 88.9; 118.8; 119.23. 

yr fresh, -valid. O deruit jr haullur gurthot kefreiht rac 
deulun er [e]gnat bit rit e mach a bit kolledic entehu oy haul 
kanjs ny para y haul namen tra parraho e mach. Os e kenogon 
a vrthyd kefreis bot e mach en vach adeuedic ar haul en yr a 
kamell or mach jr haulur e delet 49.8. 133.3 hy r - Ny eill neb 
rydhau alltut, namyn yny oes ehun, ... a chyt rydhao ynydyd 
ef, ir vyd hawl y mab arnaw gwedy y dat pan vynho holi. 
A.L.II 76-xcv. cf. Pei kawn beth o gic y baed coet yn ir mi a 
gawn iechyt. H.MSS.II 120.11. P.MS. 35, f. 27b.i7 has yrr as 
from gyrr prosecution. 

jrau to smear, roder dinaguet bluyd en y llau guedi j. e 
loscuert (loscurn) ac o geil[l] hi kenal hunu kemeret en lie yr 
ran or arkefreu 36.9. 

yre goad, [guerth] yre .1. 104.18. irei=ierthi. P.MS. 51, 
p. 192. gwerthur cledde a chario yr ire. LI. MS. 209, p. 618. 

yrllonet f. anger, enmity. Od a gur ar teylu ykan e brenyn 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIAEVAL WELSH LAW 301 

achaus y. ef a dele y guahaut urth y uuyt ay kamody ar 
brenyn 7.2. A gwedy nat ufudaei wrlois idaw . . . llityaw yn 
vawr a oruc y brenhin. a heb un gohir ar racdywededic irlloned 
honno yn parhau yrydunt. R.B.II 177.25. 

yrv see erw. 

ys beneath, below, peduuar onadunt ys coref a dec uch coref 
5.4. ys llau beneath, inferior. Sew y ryv geytweyt a dyly bot 
ydau cymydauc uch llau arall ys llau nyt amgen gur uch y 
ureynt ac arall ys y ureynt 81.29. 6.13; 33.27. 

yssel loiv, soft, aet y bard teulu y kanu ... a hynny en 
yssel ual nat aflonetho e neuat 14.31. superl. yssaf. ar guanaf 
yssaf or hyd 25.14. e tal yssaf yr neuat 5.16. 25.13; 102.13; 
105.10. hyshaf 33.16. 

escar to separate. O deruyt e gur escar a gueric (gureic) 
37-4- 33-3; 35-5J 36.26; 38.9; 39.2; 40.7, 12, 27. pres. ind. 
3 pi. escarant 34.5, 14. pres. subj. 3 sg. escaro 35.5; 38.16. 
pres. subj. pass, escarer 37.4, 5. 

escol school, college, monastery (?). llavver o keuryv 
dennion ni dele menet en vach na rody mach . . . scoleic escol 
a fop din ni hallo deuot hep cannat arall 48.28. cf. Scol 
monastery. Lib.Hym. p. 266. 

escoleyc clerk, priest, scholar, teyr keluydyt ny dely tnab 
tayauc eu descu heb kanyat y argluyd a ked as desko ef a dely 
y duyn traykeuen onyt escoleyc guedy e kemerho urtheu 29.22. 
48 . 28 . pi . y scolhey gyon , escoleicion . ac ena e may j aunt y r haulur 
deueduit breint y testion ae vntoe ... en venich neu en ahtraon 
ae vnteu en efferiet neu en escoleicion ae vinteu en lleecion 
breniaul 54.29. 1.5*, 6; 8.17; 76.12, 13; 77.16. ac odyna kymryt 
or yscolheic vrdeu offeiradaeth. A.L.I 444-9- hyt pan rother 
corun yr yscolheic. LI. MS. 69, p. 60.17. P an doy di yr yscolheic 
heb ef. pan doaf arglwyd o loygyr o ganu . . . punt a geuis 

1 o gardotta. W.B. col. 76.24 sqq. see Eluc. 121.21. M.A. 
9493.27. R.B.II 386.24. A.L.I 338.15. 

cscolcctau[t] learning, teyr keluydyt ny dely mab tayauc eu 
descu heb kanyat y argluyd . . . escolectau[t] a gouonaet a 
bardhony 29.23. 

escraf f. boat, [guerth] escraf ac a perthyn arney damdug 
101.18. par weithon wahard y llongeu ar yscraffeu ar corygeu 
ual nat el neb y gymry. W.B. col. 49.3. ac ny safei pont yn y 
dwfyr. ny allei na Hong nac ysgraff arnaw ynteu. H.MSS.II 
139.5. Ac a arganuu yno ysgraff heb na rwyfeu na hwyl arnei. 



302 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

H.MSS.I 149.31. A phan adnabu ynteu na allai ymddian y 
felly yd aeth yn yscraff y Canhonwyr yn Aberdaron ac yn honno 
a dan rwyf ydd aethant yn Iwerddon. ... Ac oddyno wedi 
cymmeryd cynghor i cerddws o hwyl a rhwyf hyt yn ynyssed 
Denmarc. M.A. 7293.34. yskreff porthaethwy. Rep.MSS.I 
649 199; 674 150. 

escrybyl, escribil a head of cattle, cattle. O deruyd Had 
lludyn y dyn o escrybyl perchenokyon ereyll am henny geyr eu 
gejr e bukeyl ena ba eydyon ay lladaut 31.13. ny dele neb 
godro escrybyl blyth ac uent en dale 119.23. 19.27 ; 27.11 ; 51.16; 
68.4; 95-3J 112.6, 7, 14; 113.5; 114.2, 9, 25; 115.2; 116.24; H7-9. 
10, 12 (escryl) ; 118.2, 5, 10, 12, 14, 15, 26; 119.11, 12, 14, 24, 26; 
132.16, 21. e. = Lat. scrupulum. Loth p. 215. 

eseryuennii to write, put on record. Lema e gueles yoruerth 
uab madauc uod en krenno e. guerth e ley ar deodreuew 98.23. 

[ysgrythyr] escrftur the scripture, sef achaus e uewnuyt er 
escleycyon rac gossod or lleycyn dym a uey en erbyn er escrftur 
Ian 1.7. y. = Lat. scrittura. Loth p. 216. 

eseub a sheaf, guerth pop un onadunt dymey neu eskub 
heyt 94.8. 94.11; 101.4; 114.24. e. = Lat. scopa. Loth p. 216. 

eseubaiir a barn, granary, er escuboryeu a deleant eu bod 
en agoret or pan hel er escub kentaf endunt y ellug guynt 
endunt hyd kalangayaf 114.13. 10.27; J 3-6; 30.9 eschbaur; 
68.12; 114.23; 116.17. pi. escuboryeu 114.13, 18. e. = Lat. 
scoparium. Loth p. 216. 

yscur a splinter, bar of wood, a guyalen gyhyt a honno yn 
llau y geylwat ar yscur perued yr yeu honno yn y llau arall yr 
geylwat a dec ar ugeint o honno yu hyt erv 65.11. 59.14 ; 107.14. 
cf. illo tenente medium medii jugi in aratro. A.L.II 856.xvi. 
ac ar yscwr or auallen yd oed corn canu inawr. R.B.I 293.23. 
megys manwrychyon a gyfodynt o safwyrdan sychyon yskyryon 
pedryholl ffynidwyd. Eluc. 94.15. Ni bu . . . nac ysgwr nac 
ysgwydd gorwydd ... a gyff 'lybwn . . . i'th gryfder di. D.G. 
xli.i5. Oes bren ffyr nas gyr yn ysgyrion. C.L1.I i62b.6. 
Yn ei sgrin ysgirionwn, Esgyrion holl esgyrn hwn. (G. 
Hiraethog.) G.Rh. p. 301. yscur = Bret, skour. Corn, scor-en. 
see goryscur ; ysgyren. 

eskeuarn ear. Try eydyon kehyd eu corn ac eu eskeuarn 
36.16. es. = Corn. scovarn, scevarn ear. 

eskeueynt lungs. er hebogyt ... a dely calonneu er 



GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 303 

anyueylyeyt ar eskeueynt a ladh'er en e kekyn 11.7. es. = Ir. 
seaman lung, seedueskynt; also Fed. I 49.2. 

eskemun accursed, banned. puebennac a dorro kemen 
kyfreythyaul nj[t] amken ae y daeret ae delhedyon eskemun 
vyt 34.20. e. = Lat. excommunis. Loth p. 165. 

eskyn robe, mantle, eskyn o byt eydau e brenyn punt . . . 
o byt eydau huchellur neu y gureyc .cxx. rue mab eyllt neu 
yskyn .LX. 104.2. a s6rcot o ball eureit amdanei ac ysgin 
gyvryu a hi a thac de o rudeur en kennal yr ysgin am danei. 
W.B. p. 91, col. a. 38. ysgin ysgarlad. M.A. 226a. ysginawr 
goruawr . . . ysgarlad. M.A. 2113.27. ac ar vchaf y beis 
glaerwenn honno ... yd oed ysgin o bali fflamgoch. Eluc. 
95.20. a gwedi hynny y cymmerwys Ritta yr holl farfau hynny. 
ac a wnaeth o honynt ysgin helaeth o benn hyd sawdl. lolo 
MSS. i94.i = pilis o uarueu brenhined. R.B.II 213.34. so P.MS. 
46, p. 305. ysgwn daith dan ysgin dail. D.G. lxxxiv.8. ysgin 
deil. P.MS. 49, f. 8b. eskyn = late Ang.Sax. *skinn skin, 
fur (?). Sweet, cf. pilis = Lat. pellis hide, garment. 

escheren a splinter, ef a dely o pop pun kenud . . . escheren 
a tenno en dylesteyr yr march ay lau ar e porth 25.30. ac ae 
trewis . . . yny hyll y daryan yn dwy esgyren. H.MSS.I 
381.16. Fe aiff drosoch i Rufen i bwyo'r Pab milen/a chloben 
o ysgyren os gyrrwch. LI. MS. 209, p. 173. cf. Merthyr rrwng 
dwy ysgyr dec. P.MS. 67, p. 170. stella (for 'astella') gl. 
scirenn. Z2. 1063. 44b. see Loth. Voc. V.Bret, p. 217. see yscur. 

eskernechii to cut up. e kenutey ... a dely gedueu er 
escrybyl a ladher en e llys sef achaus eu henny urth y 
eskernechu ay kenut uuyeyll ef 27.12. Ceisiwch filgwn hirgwn 
hu/I scyrnygu ysgyfarnogod. Interl.Odl. 

[ysgythr] m. a fang, canine tooth, tusk. pi. eskydred. 
Gu[e]rth pop vn or dannet buch ac vgeyn guerth pop vn or 
eskydred .11. byu a .XL. kanys bukeyl e danhet ynt 105.13. hwy 
oed y danned noc ysgithred y baed coed hwyaf y ysgithred. 
H.MSS.II 148.34. yskithyr yskithyrwyn penn beid a uynnaf y 
eillaw ym. W.B. col. 482.15-23. 

[espardun] f. spur. pi. esparduneu. [guerth] espartuneu 
eureyt .11 n. es. aryanyeyt .11. es. dulys ac estayneyt ac euedeyt 
.1. 103.6-11. 13.22; 23.28. a roos o rinuel a 6isg6ys am y draet 
d6y yspardun oedynt gy6yrthyd a ry6 gastell. ae gyfr6y a 
ossodet ar Migadros vuan. Kynt y redei pann dosturyit ac 
ysparduneu noc yd ehedu saeth or llinin. Car.Mag. 36.30 sqq. 

yspeyt, esbeyt a space of time. O demit bot egluys a dewetho 
deleu kenhal dyn ar e nodua seyth melenet hep heythur yaun 



. 

304 GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL WELSH LAW 

neu yspeyt a uo huy 51.21. 16.8, 18 ; 24.12; 46.31 speit. ys.= 
Lat. spatium. Loth. 

espodol f. c satM/o....[guerth] es. iyrdling 100.29. CI - a ff n 
hayarn brafi oed yn y law. . . . Ar yr ystlys yd oed yspodol 
drom unuiniawc . . . ac ar hynt dodi y law ar dwrn y yspodol 
a wnaeth ef ar uessur taraw bown. H.MSS.II 148.29. 149.27. 
ysbodawl .i. cledh. P.MS. 118.500. see Loth p. 216. 

hyspyty hostel, hospital. teyr gorsetua ysyd a allant 
gwneuthur eu cabydul ehun . . . sew yu y rey hynny abat ac 
escop a [meystyr] hyspyty 60. 16. see Loth p. 191. 

yspytyr hospital- or hostel-land. ny dyly untyr bot yn 
dyurenhyn . . . o byd escoptyr ew a dyly llvyd a lledrat o byd 
yspytyr ew a dyly lledrat 60.11. 

essu to eat, consume. O deruyt kafael march tros kay en 
essu hyd 115.9. 43-3- 3 sg. pres. ind. ys 93.6. 3 sg. pres. subj. 
esso 93.4. 

estauell chamber, the queen's chamber, bed-chamber, parlour. 
dysteyn [e urenynes] ... a dely medhu buyd a llyn er estauel 
. . . ny dely eyste en er estauel nanyn guasanaythu or estauell 
hyd e kekyn 20.30. y lety eu estauell ebrenyn er hon ebo en 
kescu endy 11.28; 20.16, 20; 21.2, 14, 18. e. = Lat. stabulum. 
Loth p. 217. 

estaucllauc chambermaid (?). abedyhu e. ogreyc xny 38.31. 
In this text ' est. o greyc ' appears to be equivalent to 
' gueynydauc,' i.e., ' embroideress,' one who -worked in the 
house and went neither to mill or outdoor work. cf. however 
uir . . . stauellauc [cameram habens]. A.L.II 797.xiii ; stauellauc 
[cameram inhabitans] 885-xxvii. see Med.Law 100; Lloyd p. 
218, note 120. 

estaluen a stallion, estaluen kemeynt eu guer[th] y due keyll 
a due kassec 88.14. 

estarn saddle, harness. guastraut auuyn ef a del . . . 
esparduneu ay hen kefruyeu ... ay holl estarn 23.29. see 
Loth p. 217. 

estarn u to saddle, harness, ef a defy ykan e pe?iguastraut 
dyuuallu y uarch or hoel kentaf hyd e dyuethaf ay estarnu ay 
duyn ydau y eskennu arnau pan uarchoco 12.8. see Loth p. 217. 

yu yew. [gwerth] bayol yu .1111. heskyn yu .u. byol helyc 
.11. 100.25. s gl- heuen. pop pren aplaner en g[w]asgautguyd 
.xxiin. a tal pop pren ny fruyho .1111. eythyr heuen 98.7. 

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