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Full text of "A glossary of north country words in use. From an original manuscript, in the library of John George Lambton, with considerable additions"

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A 

GLOSSARY 



Sort!) Country 

IN USE. 



FROM AN ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPT, 

IN THE LIBRARY OF 

JOHN GEORGE LAMBTON, ESQ., M.P. 

WITH CONSIDERABLE ADDITIONS. 



BY 

JOHN TROTTER BROCKETT, F. S. A. 

LONDON AND NEWCASTLE. 



to ere pttp tljat gtirD particulars $$mtltr fce last 

Mirror for Magistrates. 



upon 

PRINTED BY T. AND J. HODGSON, FOR (B. CHARNLEY. 
M.DCCC.XXV. 



Les mots sont le lien des socie'tes, le vdhicule des lumieres, la 
base des sciences, les de'positaires des de'couvertes d'une Nation, de 
son savoir, de sa politesse, de ses ide'es : la connoissance des mots 
est done un moyen indispensable pour acqueVir celle des choses ; 
de-la ces Ouvrages appelle's Dictionnaires, Vocabulaires ou Glos- 
saires, qui offrent 1'etendue des connoissances de chaque Peuple. 

Gebetin. 



pe 



1771 

(508625 

5- TS- 







TO 



JOHN GEORGE LAMBTON, ESQ. M. P. 

FOR THE COUNTY OF DURHAM, 



IS INSCRIBED 

AS A SINCERE TESTIMONY OF RESPECT FOR THE PUBLIC PRIN- 

CIPLES AND PRIVATE VIRTUES FOR WHICH HIS CHARAC- 

TER IS DISTINGUISHED AND REGARDED ; 

AND IN 
GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF MANY ACTS OF PERSONAL 

KINDNESS, 
BY HIS MUCH OBLIGED AND FAITHFUL SERVANT, 

JOHN TROTTER BROCKETT. 

Albion Place, 31st. December, 1824. 




preface* 



THE elucidation of language, and the improvement of lexico- 
graphy, are investigations that have occupied the attention, 
and engaged the pens of many men distinguished for talents 
and learning. 

First impressions, and early associations, are difficult to re- 
move. In our youth we are instructed to regard the Greeks 
and the Romans as the greatest, the wisest, and the most 
polished of Nations ; and to associate with the name of Goths 
every thing that is ignorant, barbarous, and savage. To Gothic 
ancestors, however, it should be remembered, we are indebted 
for our existence, our language, and a part perhaps the most 
valuable of our laws. We should also recollect that, when 
these immense hordes forsook their native forests, and settled 
in the countries they subdued, the freedom of the individual 
was respected and supported. The authority he acknow- 
ledged, and the subordination he yielded, were not the will 
of a tyrant, or the aggrandizement of a chief j but the voice of 
b 



vi PREFACE. 

the nation at large, of which every member was a part : a 
system, though deficient in the elegancies of art, the researches 
of science, or the ingenious labours of industry, was still 
founded in friendship and benevolence, in protection and gra- 
titude. That there is an extensive, and much more intimate 
connexion than could have been imagined, between the lan- 
guage of the Goths, and that which was first spoken by the 
Greeks, and afterwards by the inhabitants of Italy, has been 
satisfactorily proved in the Hermes Scythicus of the author's 
friend Dr. Jamieson, a writer possessed of an accurate know- 
ledge of the different Gothic dialects. 

Amidst the contradiction, error, and confusion that prevail, 
not only in regard to the peopling of Great Britain but of 
Europe involving early literary history in great obscurity 
it is difficult to draw any authentic conclusions, from which to 
be enabled satisfactorily to trace the establishment of our pre- 
sent mixed language, and the means and gradations through 
or by which it was accomplished. The pure Saxon style 
which at one period predominated, became greatly adulterated ; 
partly by the barbarity and ignorance of the inhabitants, and 
partly by the sanguinary conflicts with the Danes j a people, 
who, though of kindred origin, and using a dialect derived 
from the same Northern source, were much inferior in civi- 
lization to the Saxons. Harassed by these Danish incursions, 
and often driven from their habitations, the people neglected 
learning, and a part of the language of their enemies gradually 



PREFACE. vii 

became incorporated with their own. The courtiers of Ed- 
ward the Confessor, priding themselves on the introduction 
of a foreign idiom, prevented any attempt to restore the energy 
of the original tongue ; and the system adopted after the 
Norman conquest gave rise to those changes, which the acci- 
dents of time, and the improvements of society, subsequently 
effected in the literature of England. 

To those acquainted with our literary history, it is evident 
that we have to look for our old English, where it only exists 
in its pure uncorrupted state, in the distant provinces of the 
North ; however much the phraseology, in many respects, may 
be disfigured by modern corruptions, cant terms, or puerilities. 
The land of " Cockaigne," as some wits have lately called the 
dwellers in the metropolis, has long lost its raciness of idiom ; 
but among the lower classes tradition has been faithful to its 
task ; and several of our vulgarisms are in fact the remains of 
genuine English. Consequently, many archaisms occurring 
in our numerous old Chronicles, and in Gower, Chaucer, 
Skelton, Shakspeare, Beaumont and Fletcher, Ben Jonson, 
and other early writers now totally disused in other parts of 
the kingdom are still preserved in the remotest places of the 
North. This may be easily accounted for. In these districts, 
until of late years, the inhabitants had little or no intercourse 
with the more Southern counties. They, therefore, retained 
their ancient manners, customs, and language ; unchanged by 
a mixture with those of their neighbours ; and freed from the 



viii PREFACE. 

arbitrary caprice of fashion as much an enemy to, and work- 
ing as great an inroad on a living language as barbarism itself. 
The distinctions of local dialects are now, however, becoming 
less conspicuous. The artizan and petty trader, no longer 
able to stem an overwhelming competition, are often compelled 
to emigrate from their native villages to larger towns ; neces- 
sarily leaving this decreasing population to be supplied from 
distant places. An interchange of inhabitants so frequent, 
must ultimately, however imperceptibly, destroy all provincial 
peculiarities of speech. 

Under these feelings, and with a view of preserving many 
ancient and emphatic terms, that were in danger of being 
totally lost, the author was induced to commence a collection 
of Provincialisms. In his earlier years he had frequent com- 
munications with different parts of the North, and accustomed 
himself to note down from time to time, all such words as ap- 
peared worthy of preservation, or were likely to afford an expla- 
nation of former manners or customs. His first effort was a 
mere outline, sketched solely for his own amusement, and with- 
out any intention of ever bestowing upon it the labour in which 
it has since involved him. In that state the manuscript passed 
into the library of Mr. Lambton, a gentleman \vho feels a deep 
interest in the preservation of whatever is connected with the 
Northern counties. By those to whose opinion and judgment 
the author is bound to defer, such an accumulation of ancient 
dialectical words (when properly described) was considered 



PREFACE. ix 

too interesting an addition to the history of our literature and 
of our language, and too valuable a portion of our local anti- 
quities to be withheld from the public. 

Mr. Lambton accordingly, with his accustomed liberality, 
again confided the manuscript to the care and revision of the 
original writer. One step brought on another, until the first 
compilation became so overwhelmed with new matter, and so 
altered by new arrangement, that few traces of the original 
are now discernible. The preparing of it for the press, in this 
enlarged form, has been the occupation of such short inter- 
vals of leisure as were not incompatible with, and could be 
spared from the almost unceasing duties of a laborious pro- 
fession, and which the author found it a greater relaxation 
to employ in this than in any other manner. 

To diversify the work the author has not confined it to an 
explanation of mere words. Under the heads which necessa- 
rily refer to them, he has occasionally inserted elucidations of 
the vulgar rites and popular opinions, which tradition has 
faithfully transmitted through many generations. In some 
instances, however, it has been found that these superstitions 
are of such remote antiquity, as to have actually outlived the 
knowledge of the very causes that gave them origin. " The 
" generality of men," as remarked by Brand, " look back with 
" superstitious veneration on the ages of their fore-fathers ; 
" and authorities that are grey with time seldom fail of com- 
" manding those filial honours claimed even by the appearance 
" of hoary old age." 



x PREFACE. 

The reader will readily suppose that in compiling this Glos- 
sary, the author was not unmindful of the labours of his pre- 
decessors. Prior Dictionaries and Vocabularies have been 
consulted to a great extent ; and references made to such of 
them as aided his enquiries or illustrated his views. Ray ap- 
pears to have been a man of learning, and a Saxon scholar 
Grose, a writer of a different description. Many of the words 
contained in the work of the former are now out of use ; 
while it is difficult to recognize several of those appropriated 
to the North in that of the latter, from the distorted spelling 
in which they are clothed the compiler not having a sufficient 
personal knowledge of the dialect he attempted to describe. 
As to Pegge's Supplement, a number of his Provincialisms 
are classical English, and very properly inserted in Mr. 
Todd's elaborate edition of Dr. Johnson's work. The Doctor 
himself was scarcely at all aware of the authenticity of ancient 
dialectical words ; and having an unaccountable prejudice on 
the subject, seldom gave them a place in his Dictionary. The 
List of Ancient Words used in the mountainous parts of the 
West Riding of Yorkshire, published in the Archaeologia by 
Dr. Willan, a native of that district, is a valuable contribution 
to our philology. Most of these words being old acquaint- 
ances, the work has been of great use to the author. There 
does not appear to this intelligent writer, sufficient ground for 
the idea entertained by Dr. Jamieson, and some others, who 
maintain that the lowland Scotch and the English are different 



PREFACE. xi 

languages. Any variations of accent, or in the mode of spel- 
ling, he remarks, do not contribute to establish the point, 
when we find on examination, that both the radicals and the 
grammar are precisely the same. Hence, as he observes, a 
person born in any of the Northern counties of England un- 
derstands ancient and modern Scotch poetry, and enjoys it as 
much as the Scots themselves. This is unquestionably true 
to a great extent ; and it is equally certain that similarity of 
language is one of the most convincing documents of national 
affinity. The reader, however, must decide for himself, after 
he has perused and considered Dr. Jamieson's perspicuous 
Dissertation on the Origin of the Scottish language. The 
West Riding words are also preserved in a little work recently 
published, under the title of Horce Momenta Cravente, or The 
Craven Dialect Exemplified, in Two Dialogues, with a copious 
Glossary ; a book that has not been overlooked. The only 
other provincial Glossaries, from which the writer has derived 
any material assistance, are those of, Cheshire Words by Roger 
Wilbraham, Esq., and Suffolk Words by Major Moor ; kindly 
sent to him by the respective authors. Many of the terms in 
both these publications, are radically the same as those col- 
lected orally by the writer, though they appear to be different 
from the dialectical variations which they have undergone. 

The National work of Dr. Jamieson has been of use to the 
author in almost every page. He is also materially indebted 
to that learned writer for many etymologies that might other- 



xii PREFACE. 

wise have escaped him. An enemy to all fanciful etymology, he 
has endeavoured to guard against such fascination. Knowing 
the extreme fallaciousness of the science when founded on a 
mere similarity of sound, however striking, he has abstained 
from all attempts at derivation where the sources did not seem 
clear and undeniable ; and he has, in particular, avoided any 
display of dexterity, by refraining from a reference to languages 
of which the people were entirely ignorant, or which bear no 
affinity to their own. His chief researches have been among 
the ancient Northern dialects ; where, if we are not always 
able to trace the primary ancestor, we may discover a resem- 
blance sufficient to satisfy us, that we are recurring to a very 
remote primogenitor. It is much to be regretted that trans- 
lators from, and interpreters of Saxon, should ever have pub- 
lished their works in Latin ; there being no natural analogy 
between the two languages. An English version would not 
only have preserved the original form, but have shewn the 
propriety of the present speech. A contrary method has oc- 
casioned many of our words to be considered as barbarous and 
obsolete, which, looking to the original tongue, are not only 
genuine but significant. By those who are conversant with 
the Saxon and Northern languages, the justice of this remark 
will be readily appreciated they who are ignorant of these 
philological treasures have slender pretensions to the name of 
a grammarian or a critic, an antiquary or a historian. 

In a few of his etymological speculations, and in some of 



PREFACE. xiii 

his definitions, the author has been under the necessity of 
differing in opinion from friends, whose learning he admires, 
and for whom he entertains a personal esteem ; but their com- 
mon pursuit being the same, he consoles himself with the 
pleasing anticipation that his observations, offered with due 
respect, will be taken in the light they are meant an anxious 
desire to be strictly accurate ; however seemingly unimportant 
the subject. 

Several of the words admitted into this collection are, un- 
doubtedly, mere vicious pronunciations ; but they are, in most 
cases, so truly characteristical of a local peculiarity beyond 
the mere corruption, that the author could not reconcile him- 
self entirely to omit them. The phrases within inverted com- 
mas, at the end of several of the explanations, are all genuine 
expressions; which have been either heard by himself, or 
communicated to him by friends on whose accuracy and 
fidelity he can implicitly rely : and in order to relieve, in 
some degree, the dryness of a mere explanation of a vocabu- 
lary of words, he has occasionally inserted illustrations from 
ancient, as well as from modern local writers. 

Although the author is a native of, and has spent the 
greater part of his life in this part of the kingdom, he feels it 
right to acknowledge, that he has often met with words, even 
in common use, the true meaning of which he has had the 
greatest difficulty to ascertain. Some were interpreted to 
him one way and some another, according to the peculiar ideas 



xiv PREFACE. 

attached to them by different individuals ; and in consequence 
of that indefinite character, which must always, more or less, 
mark expressions merely oral. In terms thus doubtful, he 
cannot presume that he has, in every instance, succeeded in 
his explanations; but whatever errors he may have com- 
mitted, in this or in any other respect, he will, on their being 
pointed out, be glad to rectify in another edition ; which has 
become necessary in consequence of the demand for the pre- 
sent far exceeding the number of copies printed. The authot 
takes this opportunity further to state, that he will be pecu- 
liarly indebted to any of his readers, who may be kind enough 
to transmit to him any authentic provincial words, which have 
escaped his notice, or any particular local customs to which he 
has omitted to allude, with the proper explanations. Such is 
the copiousness of our Northern vernacular speech, that the 
author is far from pretending that he has been able even 
aided as his own researches have been by the most liberal 
communications both of friends and of strangers to give by 
any means a complete view of it. 

It now remains to the author, and it is a pleasing part of 
his duty, to testify his sense of obligation for the assistance 
that has been afforded him ; and to return his acknowledg- 
ments for the condescension and politeness he has received at 
the hands of those not less distinguished by their literary 
acquirements than by their exalted rank who have patronized 
and encouraged the publication, and favoured the author with 
their advice and information on subjects connected therewith. 



PREFACE. xv 

To one of the learned Judges, eminently versed in our lite- 
rary history, whom the author had the honour of knowing 
when at the Bar, especial thanks are due for the partiality and 
kindness that prompted him to direct the author's attention to 
sources of information which were found highly advantage- 
ous to consult ; and to a Right Reverend Prelate, a liberal 
patron of literature, with whom the author had not the honour 
of a previous acquaintance, he is under a particular obligation 
for the unsolicited loan of a copy of Palsgrave, a work of ex- 
cessive rarity, and a great typographical curiosity. 

To the possessors of Collections of local words the author 
stands indebted, with one single exception, for the confiden- 
tial manner in which they intrusted to him their manuscripts ; 
allowing him the unrestrained use of them. This liberal con- 
duct, so gratifying to the author's feelings, has not only, in 
many instances, materially assisted him in the progress of his 
labours, but has enabled him to add several interesting parti- 
culars, which, without such unreserved communications, 
would, in all probability, have escaped his observation. These 
favours the author is desirous of acknowledging according to 
the order in which they were conferred. 

To the friendship of the Reverend John Hodgson, Vicar of 
Kirkwhelpington, and author of the History of Northumber- 
land, now in a course of publication, the writer is indebted 
for the use of a volume of memoranda connected with the 
historian's own enquiries, but which proved highly useful on 



xvi PREFACE. 

the present occasion. The author is much obliged to his 
learned friend, James Losh, Esq. for the loan of an extensive 
list of words still in use in the Northern parts of England, 
more particularly in the county of Cumberland, several of 
which are marked as occurring in Chaucer, Spenser, and other 
old writers. To the kindness of the Reverend John Brewster, 
Rector of Egglescliffe, the author owes the perusal of a large 
catalogue of Northern words collected by that respectable 
clergyman. From a Glossary obligingly put into the author's 
hands by his intelligent friend, George Taylor, Esq. many im- 
portant gleanings have been gathered ; nor has the collection 
of Mr. John Bell, a pains-taking antiquary, with which the 
author was favoured, been without its use. To the attention 
and friendship of the Reverend Anthony Hedley, author of 
the interesting Essay towards ascertaining the Etymology of 
the Names of Places in the County of Northumberland, pub- 
lished in the Archseologia ^Eliana, the writer is indebted for a 
curious collection of local words made by the late C. Machell, 
Esq. for Mr. Richardson, of Cheadle ; and intended by that 
gentleman for the great work of the late Reverend Jonathan 
Boucher ; which has hitherto, unfortunately, been confined to 
the first letter of the alphabet ; but the remainder of which, 
there is every reason to hope, will soon be given to the public. 
Innumerable obligations are due to the Rev. Henry Cotes, 
Vicar of Bedlington, for repeated acts of attention, and for 
many communications, which his extensive personal acquaint- 



PREFACE. xvii 

ance with the Northumbrian dialect rendered so acceptable. 
For various other communications made to the author in the 
course of the work, with great liberality and without solicita- 
tion, he is largely indebted to a number of other friends ; par- 
ticularly to Sir Cuthbert Sharp, Mr. Thomas Doubleday, Mr. 
John Stanton, Mr. Edward Hemsley, and an amiable female, 
whose retiring modesty leads her to derive most gratification 
when in her power to confer a benefit unnoticed. Nor is the 
author without obligation for some ingenious and sensible re- 
marks, as well as for several words, which have been sent to 
him without the writer's name. 

To the uninterrupted friendship of his early preceptor, the 
Reverend William Turner a name with which every thing 
benevolent is associated the author owes the perusal of some 
Danish books, which he could not obtain except through the 
kind offices of that obliging individual ; to whom he is further 
indebted for MS. notes on Verstegan's Restitution of De- 
cayed Intelligence. The author's thanks are also due to his 
friend, JMr. Murray, for the loan of an interleaved copy of 
Grose's Provincial Glossary with MS. additions. And to the 
liberality and friendship of his early associate, John Bowser, 
Esq. the author owes the possession of some curious Dic- 
tionaries, and several uncommon books connected with his 
enquiries. 

To Henry Ellis, Esq. of the British Museum, the author ten- 
ders his thanks for pointing out to him, among the Lansdowne 



xviii PREFACE. 

Manuscripts, the very curious and select Glossary compiled 
by Bishop Kennett, accompanied by the most obliging offers 
of assistance, which writers at a distance from the larger 
fountains of research and intelligence know so well how to 
appreciate. 

The author regrets that he has not, in this first edition, 
been able to benefit by the MS. Glossary just alluded to j or 
to avail himself of an " Explanation of several Terms made 
use of in the Lead Mines, &c. in Alston Moor," which he owes 
to the politeness of Anthony Easterby, Esq. of Coxlodge. 
These additions, however, shall appear in a future impression, 
incorporated with a " Vocabulary of provincial phrases used 
by the Miners in Teesdale," with which the author has been 
favoured by his friend, the Reverend George Newby. 

It still remains to mention the acknowledgments that are 
due to Mr. William Garret, not only for indefatigable atten- 
tion to the work through the press, which, from the author's 
other avocations, was confided to his management ; but for 
many local words which his unwearied zeal enabled him to 
collect in situations beyond the reach of, and from sources 
inaccessible to the author, in addition to several Newcastle 
expressions of which he was himself the living depository. 

The author has to regret that death should have deprived 
him of the pleasure of expressing his gratitude to his much 
respected friend, Matthew Gregson, Esq. for the interest he 
took in this publication ; and for various acts of attention 



PREFACE. xix 

and civility experienced at his hands. Acknowledgments 
would also have been due to the late Reverend J. J. Cony- 
beare, for offers of assistance, and for the promise of informa- 
tion ; but that eminent scholar has also sunk into the grave. 

Having already said so much of the mode and execution of 
the work, it is now left to its fate. The author has en- 
deavoured, by the means within his power, to be faithful and 
accurate ; but he has no wish, by any apology, to screen him- 
self from candid and liberal criticism. 






AN 

EXPLANATION 

OF THE 

PRINCIPAL CONTRACTIONS USED IN THIS 
GLOSSARY. 



LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS. 

BR Ancient British language. 

Celt Celtic language. 

Cumb Cumberland dialect. 

Dan Danish language. 

Dur Durham dialect. 

Dut Dutch language. 

Fr French language. 

Gael Gaelic language. 

Germ German language. 

Ir , Irish language. 

Isl Islandic (or Icelandic) language. 

Ital Italian language. 

Lane Lancashire dialect.* 

Lat Latin language. 

Mce.-Got.-- Moes.-Got. Moeso-Gothic language. 

Newc Newcastle dialect. 

North Northumberland dialect. 

Sax Anglo-Saxon language. 

Sc Scottish language. 

Span Spanish language. 

Su. - Got Suio- Gothic, or ancient language of Sweden. 

Sw Modern Swedish language. 

Teut Teutonic language. 

West Westmorland dialect. 

York Yorkshire dialect. 



CONTRACTIONS. XXI 



AUTHORS AND WORKS. 

BOUCH. Boucher. Glossary of Obsolete and Provincial Words, 
4to. Lond. 1807. 

Crav. Gloss Horas Momenta Cra venae, or the Craven Dia- 
lect exemplified, 12mo. Lond. 1824. 

Du Cange Glossarium ad Scriptores Mediae et Infimee La- 

tinitatis, 6 torn. fol. Paris, 1733. 

Grose Provincial Glossary, with a Collection of Local 

Proverbs, Svo. Lond. 1787. 

Grose Classical Dictionary of the vulgar Tongue, 

Svo. Lond. 1785. 

Ihre Glossariuin Suio-Gothicum, 2 torn. fol. Upsal. 

1769. 

Jam Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Lan- 
guage, 2 vols. 4to. Edinb. 1808. 
Jun. Junius. Etymologicum Anglicanum, Edid. Lye, fol. 

Oxon. 1743. 
Kilian Etymologicon Teutonics Linguae, 2 torn. 4to. 

Traj. Bat. 1777. 
Le Roux Dictionnaire comique, critique, burlesque, libre, 

et proverbial, 2 torn. Svo. Lion. 1752. 
Lye Dictionarium Saxonico et Gothico-Latinum. 

Edid. Manning, 2 torn. fol. Lond. 1772. 
Moor Suffolk Words and Phrases, by Edward Moor, 

F. R. S. F. A. S, &c. 12mo. Woodbridge, 1823. 
Nares.-Nares' Gloss. A Glossary; or Collection of Words, Phrases, 

Names, and Allusions to Customs, Proverbs, 

&c. 4 to. Lond. 1822. 
d 



XX11 CONTRACTIONS. 

Palsgrave L'Esclaircissement de la Langue Francoise, 

fol. BLACK LETTER. The two first books 
printed by Pynson, and the 3d (the most co- 
pious part) by lohan Hawkins the only 
work he ever executed. 

Ray Collection of English Words, 12mo. 2d edit. 

Lond. 1691. 

Roquefort Glossaire de la Langue Romane, 2 torn. 8vo. 

Paris, 1808. 

Skin. Skinner Etymologicon Linguae Anglicanae, fol. Lond. 

1671. 

Spelman Glossarium Archaiologicum, folio, London, 

1687. 
Suff. Words Suffolk Words and Phrases, by Edward Moor, 

F. R. S. F. A. S. 12mo. Woodbridge, 1823. 
Tooke Diversions of Purley, 2 vols. 4to. Lond. 1798, 

and 1805. 
Wachter Glossarium Germanicum, 2 torn. fol. Lips. 

1737. 
Wilb An attempt dt a Glossary of some words used 

in Cheshire. From the Archseologize, Vol. 

XIX. With considerable additions, 8vo. 

Lond. 1820. Privately printed. 

Willan A List of Ancient Words at present used in the 

Mountainous Districts of the West Riding of 
Yorkshire. Archa?ologia, Vol. XVII. 



The reader can have no difficulty in ascertaining the other books 
referred to, by the manner in which they are quoted. 



APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. 



SIX HUNDRED PRINTED. 
(EXCLUSIVE OF THIRTY-TWO ON LARGE PAPER.) 



His ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUKE OF SUSSEX, K. G. 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE EARL OF ELDON, Lord High 

Chancellor of Great Britain, F. R. & A. S. 

His GRACE THE ARCHBISHOP OF YORK. 
His GRACE THE DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, K. G. F. S. A. 

HER GRACE THE DUCHESS OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 

THE MOST HONOURABLE THE MARQUESS CORNWALLIS, late LORD 

BISHOP OF LICHFIELD & COVENTRY, and DEAN OF DURHAM. 

THE MOST HONOURABLE THE MARQUESS OF BUTE, 2 copies, 

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THE RIGHT HONOURABLE EARL SPENCER, K. G. F. R. A. S. 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE EARL GROSVENOR. 

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THE RIGHT HONOURABLE LORD JOHN RUSSELL, M. P. 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE LADY LOUISA LAMBTON. 
THE RIGHT HONOURABLE AND RIGHT REVEREND THE LORD BISHOP 

OF LONDON, F. R. & A. S. Private and Episcopal Libraries. 
THE HONOURABLE AND RIGHT REVEREND THE LORD BISHOP OF 

DURHAM. 

THE RIGHT REVERENDTHE LORD BISHOP OF ST. DAVIDS, F.R.& A.S. 

THE RIGHT REVEREND THE LORD BISHOP OF PETERBOROUGH, 

F. R. & A. S. 



APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE Loun GKANTHAM, F. S. A. 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE LORD STOWELL, President and Judge of 

the Ilight Court of Admiralty, F. R. & A. S. 3 copies. 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE LORI> RAVENSWORTH. 

THE HONOURABLE HENRY THOMAS LIODELL. 

THE HONOURABLE W. F. GRANT, OF GRANT, M. P. 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THOMAS WALLACE, M. P. Master of 

the Mint. 
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Master of the Rolls. 
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of the Court of Exchequer. 
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Justices of the Court of King's Bench. 
THE HONOURABLE JAMES ABERCROMBIE, M. P. 

LADY SMYTH. 

SIR HED WORTH WILLIAMSON, BART., Wliiibum Hall. 

SIR CHARLES M. L. MONCK, BART. Belsay Castle, 2 copies. 

SIR CHARLES LORAINE, BART. Kirkhark, 2 copies. 

SIR HENRY LAWSON, BART, flrough Hall, 2 copies. 

SIR JOHN EDWARD SWINBURNE, BART. F. R. & A. S. Capfieaton, 

2 copies. 

SIR MATTHEW WHITE RIDLEY, BART. M. P. Blagdon. 
SIR RICHARD COLT HOARE, BART. F. R. & A. S. Stourhead 

House. 
SIR JAMES GRAHAM, BART. M. P., F. S. A. Edmund Castle, 

3 copies. 

SIR WALTER SCOTT, Bart. Abbotsford, 3 copies. 

SIR DAVID WILLIAM SMITH, BART. Alnwick. 

SIR ROBERT CRAWFURD POLLOK, BART. Upper Pollok. 

SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH, KNIGHT, M. P., LL. D., Lord Rector 

of the University of Glasgow. 
SIR THOMAS E. TOMLINS, KNIGHT, one of the Benchers of the 

Inner Temple. 

SIK CUTHBERT SHARP, KNIGHT, F. S. A. Sunderland 

SIR THOMAS BURDON, KNIGHT, West Jesmond. 

THE ROYAL LIBRARY, COPENHAGEN. 



APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. XXV 

THE CORPORATION OF NEWCASTLE. 
THE LIBRARY OF THE LlTERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY,, 

NEWCASTLE. 
THE LIBRARY OF THE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY, NEWCASTLE. 

THE LIBRARY OF THE LONDON INSTITUTION. 

THE LIBRARY OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, LONDON. 

THE METROPOLITAN LITERARY INSTITUTION, LONDON. 

THE YORK SUBSCRIPTION LIBRARY. 

THE HULL SUBSCRIPTION LIBRARY. 

A. 

Mrs. Adams, Ridley Place. 

John Adamson, Esq. F. S. A. & F. L. S. Newcastle. 

Mr. Thomas Ainsworth, Manchester. 

Mr. John Akenhead, Newcastle, 4 copies. 

E. H. Alderson, Esq. Barrister at Law. 

John Alderson, Jun. Esq. Hull. 

Rev. Thomas Allason, Vicar of Heddon-on.-the- Wall. 

Mr. Frederick Martin Allerton, Liverpool. 

Mr. William Anderson, Westgate. 

Mr. George Andrews, Durham, 6 copies. 

Mr. John Lindsay Angas, Newcastle. 

Mr. George Angus, Newcastle. 

Mr. Henry Armstrong, Newcastle. 

Mr. William Armstrong, Towns C/iamler, Newcastle. 

Nat. Atcheson, Esq. F. S. A. Duke Street, Westminster. 

Robert Shank Atcheson, Esq. Duke Street, Westminster. 

Matthew Atkinson, Esq. Carr's Hill. 

General Aylmer, Walworth Castle. 

B. 8i ^i/ 

Edward Backhouse, Esq. Sunderland. 
John W. Bacon, Esq. Styford. 
George Bainbridge, Esq. Liverpool. 
Joseph Bainbridge, Esq. Newcastle. 
John Baird, Esq. Newcastle. 
Addison John Cresswell Baker, Esq. Cresswell. 



XXVI APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. 

Rev. Thomas Baker, Whitburn Rectory. 

John Barras, Esq. Kibbksworth. 

James Bateman, Esq. London. 

William Batty, Esq. London. 

Matthew Bell, Esq. Woolsington. 

Mr. Thomas Bell, Union Street, Newcastle, 2 copies. 

Mr. John Bell, Windmill Hills. 

Mr. Edward Bell, Newcastle. 

Rev. F. Benson, Chollerton, g copies. 

William Bentham, Esq. F. S. A. London. 

Calverley Bewicke Bewicke, Esq. Castle Eden. 

Henry Bickersteth, Esq. Barrister at Law, Lincoln's Inn. 

Charles William Bigge, Esq. Linden House. 

Thomas Hanway Bigge, Esq. Little Benton. 

Mrs. Bird, Chester-k- Street. 

Rev. James Birkett, Ovingham. 

John Blackburne, Esq. M. P. Hale Hall. 

Mr. Bohn, Bookseller, London, 6 copies. 

William Bolland, Esq. Barrister at Law, Adelphi Terrace. 

Major Bower, Welham. 

Richard Bowser, Esq. Bishop Auckland. 

William Boyd, Esq. Newcastle. 

James Brancker, Esq. Sell Vue, Kirkdale House. 

Charles John Brandling, Esq. M. P. Gosforth House. 

Rev. Ralph H. Brandling, Shotton Hall 

Rev. John Brewster, Rector of Egglescliffe. 

John Britton, Esq. F. S. A. London, 4 copies. 

John Broadley, Esq. F. S. A., F. L. S. Kirk Ella, Hull. 

Henry Broadley, Esq. F. S. A. Ferriby, Hull 

Mr. John Brockett, Gateshead. 

Mrs. John Trotter Brockett, Albion Place. 

Mr. William Henry Brockett, Newcastle. 

B. C. Brodie, Esq. London. 

Rev. J. H. Bromley, M. A. Vicar of Hull. 

Henry Brougham Esq. M. P. Brougham Hall. 

Dixon Brown, Esq. Newcastle. 

John Brown, Esq. Newcastle. 



APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. XX vii 

Mr. John Bruce, Newcastle. 
Henry Brumell, Esq. Morpeth. 
John Brumell, Esq. London. 
John Buddie, Esq. WalVs End. 
John Bulman, Esq. Newcastle. 
J. J. Burn, Esq. Gray's Inn. 
Mr. George Burnett, Newcastle. 
William Burrell, Esq. Broome Park. 
Robert Burrell, Esq. Durham. 
John Burrell, Esq. Durham. 

C. 

J. C. Cankrien, Esq. Hull. 

Mrs. Carr, Dunston Hill. 

John Carr, Jun. Esq. North Shields. 

Rev. Charles Charlton, Vicar of Tynemouth. 

Charles Charlton, M. D. North Shields. 

Mr. Edward Charlton, Newcastle. 

Mr. James Charlton, Gateshead. 

Mr, Thomas Charlton, Newcastle. 

Mr. Emerson Charnley, Newcastle, 25 copies. 

Rev. Robert Clarke, Walwick Hall, 3 copies. 

Mr. William Clarke, Newcastle. 

Charles Clavering, Esq. Greencroft. 

Nathaniel Clayton, Esq. Newcastle. 

William Clayton, Esq. Newcastle. 

George Clementson, Esq. Newcastle. 

John Clutterbuck, Esq. Warkwortfi. 

William Coates, Esq. Newcastle. ^ -j 

Charles Cockerill, Esq. South Shields. 

Jonathan Cockerill, Esq. Newcastle. 

Ebenezer John Collett, Esq. M. P. Locker's House. 

Rev. John Collinson, M. A. Rector of Gateshead. 

Archibald Constable, Esq. Edinburgh, 2 copies. 

Rev. Joseph Cook, M. A. Newton Hall, 2 copies. 

Isaac Cookson, Sen. Esq. Newcastle. 

Christopher Cookson, Esq. Barrister at Law Newcastle. 



XXV111 APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. 

Colonel Cookson, Ayton House. 

Rev. Henry Cotes, Vicar of Bedlington. 

Lieut. Colonel Coulson, Blenkinsopp Castle. 

Charles Cradock, Esq. London. 

Shaftoe Craster, Esq. Craster. 

Edmund Craster, Esq. Preston. 

C. Creswell, Esq. Barrister at Law. 

Mr. Crosland, Huddersfield. 

John Crosse, Esq. F. S. A. Hull. 

Matthew Culley, Esq. Copeland Castle. 

William Cuthbert, Esq. Benwell. 

Mr. John Cuthell, London, 4 copies. 

D. 

Henry Dale, Esq. North Shields. 

Rev. James Dalton, Rector of Croft. 

Robert Davidson, Esq. Sunderland. 

Mr. George Davidson, Rock. 

Thomas Davidson, Esq. Newcastle. 

Miss Davidson, Westgate Street, Newcastle. 

Alexander Davison, Esq. Swarland House, 2 copies. 

Thomas Davison, Esq. Whitefriars, London. 

John Dent, Esq. M. P. 

Mr. Francis Devereaux, London. 

Rev. Thomas Frognall Dibdin, F. R. & A. S. 

William Dickson, Esq. Alnwick. 

J. D' Israeli, Esq. London. 

John Dixon, Esq. Stockton. 

Mr. Ralph Dodds, Newcastle. 

Armorer Donkin, Esq. Newcastle. 

Henry Donkin, Esq. Durham. 

Mr. Thomas Doubleday, Newcastle. 

Francis Douce, Esq. F. S. A. London. 

Mr. Thomas Dove, Newcastle. 

Alexander Dudgeon, Esq. Leith Mount. 

Michael Dunn, Esq. Saltwdl Hall. 



APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. XXIX 



E. 



Anthony Easterby, Esq. Coxlodge. 

Rev. James Edmondson, Vicar of Newburn. 

Rev. Frederick Ekins, Rector of Morpeth. 

Henry Ellis, Esq. F. R. S., Sec. A. S., London. 

James Ellis, Esq. Otterbourne. 

Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. M. P. Hebburn HaJL 

Nathaniel Ellison, Esq. London. 

Rev. Noel Ellison, A. M. Huntspill. 

Richard Ellison, Esq. Severley. 

Gregory Elsley, Esq. Colonel North York Militia. 

F. 

Rev. George S. Faber, Rector of Long Newton. 
Thomas Henry Faber, Esq. Bishop Auckland. 
James Fairbank, Esq. Staple Inn. 
William Falla, Esq. Gateshead. 
Mr. Jacob Ralph Featherston, Newcastle. 
John Fenwick, Esq. Newcastle. 
Mr. James Finlay, Newcastle. 
Mr. William Fisher, Newcastle. 
William B. Flexney, Esq. London. 
Matthew Forster, Esq. Newcastle. 
Mrs. Forster, Greenfield Place. 
George Townsherwl Fox, Esq, Westoe. 
Charles Frost, Esq. F. S. A. Hull. 

G. 

Mr. Joseph Garnett, Newcastle. 
Mr. William Garret, Newcastle. 
Mr. John Gibson, Newcastle. 
Mr. George Gibsone, Newcastle. 
Mr. Robert Gillespie, Ferryhill. 
James Gooden, Esq. London. 
John Grace, Esq. CarvWe. 
Nathaniel Grace, Esq. London. 
Rev. Robert Gray, Snnderland. 

c 



XXX APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. 

E. M. Greenhow, M. D. North Shields. 

Robinson Robert Greenwell, Esq. Newcastle. 

Anthony Gregson, Esq. Lowlin. 

Thomas Gregson, Esq. JEssex Street, Strand, London. 

Matthew Gregson, Esq. F. R. S. Oveston Manor, Cheshire. 

John Grey, Esq. MUlfield Hill. 

Rev. Henry Deer Griffith, M. A. Newcastle. 

H. 

The Very Rev. Charles Henry Hall, D. D. Dean of Durham. 

William Hamper, Esq. Deritend House. 

Thomas Harrison, Esq. Stubb House. 

Mr. Cornelius Harrison, Stubb House. 

Mr. Whytell Harrison, Stubb House. 

Mr. John Harvey, Strawberry Place. 

Thomas Emerson Headlam, M. D. Newcastle. 

Mr. William Heaton, Newcastle. 

Richard Heb.er, Esq. M. P. Hodnet Hall. 

Rev. Anthony Hedley, Rector of Whitfield. 

Mr. Edward Hemsley, Newcastle. 

Mr. Thomas Hepple, BenwelL 

Mr. Ions Hewison, Newcastle. 

Henry Hewitson, Esq. Seaton Burn. 

Middleton Hewitson, Esq. Newcastle. 

Rev. John Hodgson, Vicar of Kirkwhdpiiigton* 

George Hodgson, Esq. Newcastle. 

Mr. Thomas Hodgson, Newcastle. 

Mr. John Hodgson, Petersburgh. 

Mr. James Hodgson, Newcastle. 

John Hudson, Esq. Manc/iester. 

Charles Hunter, Esq. London. 

I. 

Sanderson Ilderton, Esq. llderton. 
Mr. Henry Ingledevv, Newcastle. 

J. 

Edward John Jackson, Esq. Sheriff of Newcastle. 



APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. XXXI 

William James, Esq. M. P. Barrack Lodge. 

Rev. John Jamieson, D. D. F. R. S. E. & F. S. A. S., Edinburgh. 

J. C. Jobling, Esq. Newton Hall. 

Mr. John Jobling, Newcastle. 

Francis Johnson, Esq. Newcastle. 

Mr. William Johnson, Tyne Brewery. 

K. 

T. Waterhouse Kaye, Esq. Barrister at Law, London. 
Richard Keenlyside, M. D. Newcastle. 
John Keenlyside, Esq. Newcastle. 
Thomas W. Keenlyside, Esq. Newcastle. 
Mr. William Kell, Gateshead. 



Mr. Mark Lambert, Newcastle. 

John Geerge Lamb ton, Esq. M. P. Lambton Hall, 5 copies. 

William Lawes, Esq. Prudhoe Castle. 

William Lawson, Esq. Longhirst. 

Robert Leadbitter, Esq. Newcastle. 

Rev. George Lee, Hud. 

Rev. Henry George Liddell, Rector of Boldon. 

Rev. John Lingard, D. D. Hornby. 

William Linskill, Esq. Tynemouth Lodge. 

Mr. John Little, Gateshead. 

Edward Hawke Locker, Esq. F. R. & A. S. Greenwich Hospital 

Messrs. Longman, Hurst, Co. London, 12 copies. 

William Loraine, Esq. Lumhy Park. 

John Lambton Loraine, Esq. Newcastle, 2 copies. 

James Losh, Esq. Barrister at Law, Jesmond. 

M, 

Robert Machell, Esq. Severley. 

Mr. Eneas Mackenzie, Newcastle. 

Mr. John Major, London. 

John Martindale, Esq. Chester-h- Street. 

Mr. John Marshall Mather, New.castle. 

Francis Maude, Esq. Barrister at Law, Wahtfidd. 



XXX11 APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. 

Thomas Meggison, Esq. Wlialton. 

Holker Meggison, Esq. Barrister at Law, London. 

John Middleton Meggison, Esq. London, 2 copies. 

Rev. S. Meggison, Vicar of Bolam. 

Francis Mewburn, Esq. Darlington. 

Mr. George Milner, Newcastle. 

Major Edward Moor, F. R. & A. S. Woodbridge. 

Robert Moore, Esq. Doncaster. 

Richard Moorsom, Jun. Esq. Whitby. 

Mrs. Munby, Croft. 

Mr. John Murray, Newcastle. 

N. 

The Venerable Archdeacon Nares, A. M. F. R. S. F. A. S. 
Rev. George Newby, Witton-h-Wear. 
John Nichols, Esq. F. S. A. Lond. Edin. & Perth. 
John Bowyer Nichols, Esq. F. S. A. & F. L. S. 2 copies. 
Robert Nichols, Esq. Newcastle. 

O. 

Robert Ogle, Esq. Eglingham. 
Mr. Robert Oliver, Neivcastle. 
John Ord, Esq. Newcastle. 
Mr. Thomas Ord, Coatham House. 
William Orde, Esq. Nunnykirk. 
A. C. Orme, Esq. Temple, London. 
Robert Ormston, Jun. Esq. Newcastle. 
Rev. Edward Otter, Rector of Bothal 

P. 

James Parke Esq. Barrister at Law, London 
Samuel Walker Parker, Esq. Scots House. 
William Peters, Esq. Newcastle. 
Mr. Ralph Park Philipson, Newcastle. 
Mr William Pickering, London, 4 copies. 
Matthew Plummer, Esq. Newcastle. 
George Woolley Poole, Esq. London. 
Edward Potts, Esq. Morpeth. 



APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. XXX111 

dames Potts, Esq. Newcastle. 

Mr. Brough Pow, Newcastle. 

Mr. William Preston, Neivcastle. 

Mr. Richard Priestley, London, 12 copies. 

Rev. James Pringle, Newcastle. 

Mr. William Proctor, Dean Street, Newcastle. 

John A. Pybus, Esq. Newcastle. 

R. 

Fletcher Raincock, Esq. F. S. A. Liverpool. 

Rev. James Raine, Vicar of Mddon, 2 copies. 

James Ramsay, Esq. London. 

Rev. William Rawes, Houghton-le- Spring. 

Mr. Robert Reay, Tyne Brewery. 

Mr. Alexander Reed, Newcastle. 

Rev. William Reed, Warkworth. 

Owen Rees, Esq. London. 

Mr. W. K. Reid, Carey Street, London. 

Rev. Dr. Richardson, Witton Gilbert. 

Mr. John Richardson, Newcastle. 

Mr. William Richardson, North Shields. 

James Richardson, Esq. North Shields. 

Mr. Moses Richardson, Newcastle. 

Henry Richmond, Esq. Humshaugh. 

Mr. Edward Riddle, Royal Naval Asylum, Greenwich. 

Rev. Charles John Ridley. M.A. Professor of Anglo-Saxon, Oxford. 

Messrs. Rivingtons & Cochran, London, 12 copies. 

John Robson, Esq. Felling Hall. 

Mr. H. Rodd, London, 2 copies. 

Mr. I. Rodd, London. 2 copies. 

William Roscoe, Esq. Liverpool. 

John Russell Rowntree, Esq. Barrister at Law, Stockton. 

John Ruddock, Esq. Hexham. 

Mr. William Rymer, Darlington. 

S. 

William Thomas Salvin, Esq. Croxdale, 2 copies. 
Mr. J. Sams, Darlington. 



XXXIV APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. 

Mr. Jonathan Ward Sanders, Ayton. 

Thomas Saunders, Esq. London. 

John Scafe, Esq. Alnwick. 

James Scarlett, Esq. M. P. King's Counsel. 

The Venerable T. H. Scott, Archdeacon of New Soutii Walt*. 

Walter Scott, M. D. Stamford/tarn. 

Mr. Frederick Scroope, Darlington. 

Prideaux John Selby, Esq. Twizell House. 

Alexander Seton, Esq. Newcastle. 

Joseph Sewell, Esq. St. Anthony's. 

George Dalston Shaftoe, Esq. Bavington. 

John Sheepshanks, Esq. Leeds, 3 copies. 

Mr. Joseph Shield, Newcastle. 

George Skipsey, Esq. Birtley Hall. 

Mr. Thomas Small, Newcastle. 

John Smart, Esq. Trewitt House. 

Edward Smiles, Esq. Newcastle. 

Matthew Smillie, Esq. Leith, 5 copies. 

Rev. John Smith, M. A. Vicar of Neivcastle, 2 copies. 

Rev. John Smith, Hull 

Thomas Smith, Esq. and Alderman, Newcastle. 

William Smith, Jun. Esq. Haughton Castle. 

Rev. J. Hall Smyth, B. D. Liverpool. 

Mr. Thomas Snaith, Newcastle. 

Charles Snart, Esq. Newark. 

Benjamin Sorsbie, Esq. and Alderman, Newcastle. 

Mr. S. Sotheby, London, 2 copies. 

Robert Southey, Esq. LL. D. Poet Laureate. 

Mr. C. F. Springmann, Newcastle. 

George Waugh Stable, Esq. Newcastle. 

John Stanton, Esq. JBenwett. 

Mr. Philip Holmes Stanton, Newcastle. 

John Steavenson, Esq. Newcastle. 

Mr. John Straker, North Shields. 

Edward B. Sugden, Esq. King's Counsel, London. 

William Surtecs, Esq. Montagu^ Square, London. 

Aubone Surtees, Esq. and Alderman, NeweastU. 

Anthony Surtees, Esq. Hamsterley Hatt. 



APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. XXXV 

Robert Surtees, Esq. Mainsforth, 2 copies. 

T. C. Swanston, Esq. Barrister at Law, London. 

Daniel Sykes, Esq. M. P. Raywell. 

Mr. John Sykes, Newcastle, 3 copies. 

T. 

George Watson Taylor, Esq. M. P. Earlstohe Parti. 

Hugh Taylor, Esq. Earsdon. 

George Taylor, Esq. Witton-le- Wear. 

William Taylor, Esq. Hendon Grange. 

Edward Tewart, Esq. Southgate. 

Benjamin Thompson, Esq. Ayton Cottage. 

Mr. Benjamin Thompson, Newcastle, 2 copies. 

Mr. Robert Thompson, Newcastle. 

Samuel Thompson, Esq. North Shields. 

Rev. Charles Thorp, B. D. Rector of Ryton. 

Robert Thorp, Esq. Clerk of the Peace, Northumberland, 2 copies. 

Mr. Thomas Thorpe, London, 12 copies. 

Rev. E. S. Thurlow, Rector of Houghton-k- Spring. 

Mr. John Thwaites, Durham. 

Mr. Thomas H. Tilt, London. 

N. C. Tindal, Esq. M. P. King's Counsel. 

John Tinley, Esq. North Shields. 

Rev. Henry J. Todd, M. A. F. S. A. Settrington. 

Messrs. John and George Todd, Yorlt, 3 copies. 

Ralegh Trevelyan, Esq. Nether Witton. 

Walter Calverley Trevelyan, Esq. Wallington. 

Mr. Robert Triphook, London, 12 copies. 

John Trotter, Esq. Hallgarth. 

Rev. William Turner, Newcastle. 

Mr. Daniel Turner, Blagdon. 

Dawson Turner, Esq. F. R. A. & L. S. Yarmouth. 

Sharon Turner, Esq. F. S. A. London. 

Mr. Thomas Turner, London. 

U. 

William Upcott, Esq. London. 



XXXvi APPROBATION OF COPIES. 

W. 

The Very Rev. R. D. Waddilove, D. D. F. S. A., Dean of Ripon. 

Thomas Wailes, Esq. Newcastle, 2 copies. 

John Waldie, Esq. Newcastle. 

John Walker, Esq. Benwett. 

John Ward, Esq. Durham. 

John Watson, Esq. WiUington, 2 copies. 

Mr. William Watson, Liverpool. 

Mr. George Watson, Gateshead, 2 copies. 

Charles N. Wawn, Esq. Newcastle. 

George Weatherby, Esq. Tynemouth. 

Mr. Charles Weatherley, Low WiUington. 

Roger Wilbraham, Esq. F. R. & A. S. London. 

John Allan Wilkie, Esq. Lemington, 4 copies. 

Thomas Wilkinson, Esq. Town Clerk, Durham. 

J. J. Wilkinson, Esq. Temple, Lanflon. 

John Williams, Esq. M. P. Barrister at Law. 

Robert Hopper Williamson, Esq. Recorder of Newcastle, 2 copies. 

Rev. William Wilson, Rector of Wolsingham. 

Richard Wilson, Esq. V. P. Soc. Arts & F. S. A. London. 

Mr. William Wilson, Newcastle. 

Nathaniel John Winch, Esq. F. L. S. Newcastle. 

Rev. Thomas Cave Winscom, Warkworth Rectory. 

John Wood, Esq. BeadnelL 

Mr. Nicholas Wood, KUlingworth. 

Mr. Benjamin Woodman, Morpeth. 

The Venerable Archdeacon Wrangham, M. A. F. R. S. 

The Right Worshipful William Wright, Esq. Mayor of Newcastle. 

James A. Wright, Esq. Grange. 

Stephen Wright, Esq. North Shields. 

W. Wright, Esq. Stone Buildings, Lincoln s Inn. 

Y. 

Mr. Matthew Young, London, 



OF 

NORTH COUNTRY WORDS 

IN USE. 



A. 

A. It is a striking provincial peculiarity tenaciously to retain 
this letter in most of the words in which modern English 
substitutes o, as ain, own, bane, bone, &c. ; and in those 
ending in / /, the two last letters are generally omitted as 
' for all, cc for call, &c. 

AAC, AIK, YAK, YECK, the oak. Sax. c, aec. Su.-Got. ek. 
Germ, eiche. Dut. and Isl. eik. 

ABACK, behind. Isl. a-bak, backward. 

ABLINS, perhaps, possibly. V. Tooke and Bouch. 

ABOON, ABUIN, above. V. Jun. and Bouch. 

ABRAID, or BRADE, to rise on the stomach with a degree of 
nausea ; applied to articles of diet, which prove disagreeable 
to the taste, or difficult of digestion. 

ABREDE, in breadth. Sax. abred-an, to lengthen. 

ABSTRACT, to take away by stealth. Borders. 

ACKERN, an acorn. Isl. akarn. 
B 



2 ACKE 

ACKERSPRIT, the premature sprouting of a potatoe, the germi- 
nation of grain. V. Skin. Jam. and Wilb. 

ACRE-DALE LANDS, common fields in which different proprie- 
tors hold portions of greater or less quantities ; from acre, 
a word common to almost every language, and Sax. d&lan, 
to divide. In ancient tunes an acre did not signify any de- 
terminate quantity ; and when at length it came to mean a 
specific part, the measure still varied, until it was fixed by 
statute. 

ADDER-STONES, perforated stones, imagined by the vulgar to be 
made by the sting of an adder. They are suspended in 
stables as a charm. 

ADDIWISSEN, had I known it. An expression nearly obsolete, 
though still retained by some old persons. It appears to 
have been formed on that poor excuse, to which silly people 
are apt to have recourse, when, for want of thought, they 
have fallen into a difficulty : had I wist, or had I wissen 
(and in the pronunciation it is as one word, additvissen), I 
would not have done so and so. The phrase is of consi- 
derable antiquity, occurring in Gascoigne's Hermits Tale, in 
Gower, and in Holinshed. 

ADDLE, EDDLE, v. to earn by labour. ADDLINGS, s. labour- 
ers' s wages. Sax. edlean, recompense, or requital. Dif- 
ferent both in import and source from ADDLED, a. de- 
cayed, impaired, rotten ; as, " addle headed," " addled 
eggs," Sax. adlean, to be sick or languid. 

ADGE, adz, an addice. 

AE, EA, YEA, one, one of several, each. AEWAAS, always. 
Ac lad frae out below the ha' 
Ees Meggie wi' a glance. Rood Fair. 

APEAR'D, afraid. This word is repeatedly used by Shakspeare, 



ATRT 3 

in several of his plays, and I don't remember that afraid 

occurs more than once. Pure Sax. 
AFT, behind. The dictionaries call this a sea term, but it is in 

common use on the banks of the Tyne, and occasionally in 

other places, in the sense here given, without any relation 

to nautical subjects. Pure Sax. 
Ac, to cut with a stroke, adopted from Sc. hag, to hew, syno- 

nimous with hack. 
AGATE. Dr. Johnson says, " on the way, agoing," but it also 

means, as well a person recovered from a sick bed, as one 

who is employed in doing any thing. 
AGE, v. to grow old, as he ages, he begins to age. Old. 
AGEAN, against. -Old English, agen. 
AGEE, AJEE, AGYE, awry, uneven. " Let ne'er a new whim 

ding thy fancy ajee." A. Ramsay. Across, "it went 

all agee." Ajar, applied to a door a little open. Burns 

uses agley, for wrong. 

The best laid schemes o'mice and men 

Gang aft a-gley. 
AGIN, as if. 
AGOG, eager, desirous. " He's quite agog for it." Etymology 

uncertain. 

AHINT, behind. " To ride a hint." Sax. a-hindan. 
AIGRE, sour. Fr. aigre, hence ALE-AIGRE, Alegar, sour ale 

used as vinegar. West, alle/car. 
AIRD. This word as applied to the name of a place means 

high, as Airdley in Hexhamshire. Br. aird, height. Gael. 

and Ir. ard, mighty, great and noble. It is also used to 

describe the quality of a place or field, in which sense it 

means dry, parched, from Lat. aridus, hence arid. 
AIRTH, ARF, fearful. " He was airth to do it"" he's arfish," 

i. e. afraid. " An airthful night" a fearful night. Sax, 

yrhth y fear. 



4 AITJl 

AITH, an oath. Moes.-Got. and Sc 

AITS, YAITS, YETTS, oats. Sax. ala, ate. 

AIXES, AXES, a fit or paroxysm of an ague. Used by several 

old writers. Fr. accez, accez deficvrc. 
ALANTEM, at a distance. Ital. da lontano. Fr. lointain. 
ALE, a merry meeting, a rural feast. Bride-rc/e, and church- 

ale are of frequent occurrence in old documents. 

And their authorities at wakes and Aks, 

With country precedents, and old wives' tales Ben. Jon. 

ALGATES, an old word synonimous with always, or all manner 
of ways, and compounded of all and gates, which in the 
North denote ways. Not obsolete as stated in Todd's 
Johnson. 

ALL-A-BITS, all in pieces, in rags. 

ALL-ALONG-OF, ALL-ALONG-ON, sometimes pronounced Aw- 
LUNG, entirely owing to. Used by Skelton, Ben. Jonson, 
and others ; and may be referred to Sax. ge-langan. 

ALLAR. See ELLER. 

ALLEY, the conclusion of a game at foot-ball, when the ball has 
passed the boundary. Dur. Fr. oiler. Also a superior sort 
of marble, made from alabaster. In later times the potteries 
in the neighbourhood of Newcastle have made an imitation 
from white clay, termed Pot-alleys, but which are not es- 
teemed any way equal. 

ALL-HALLOWS, All Saint's day (1st Nov.). It is remarkable, 
that, whilst the old Popish names, for the other fasts and 
festivals, such as Christmas, Candlemas, &c. are generally 
retained throughout England, the northern counties alone 
continue the use of the ancient name for the festival of All- 
Saints. See HALLE E'EN. 

ALWAYS, however, nevertheless. Its use in this sense is com- 
mon in the North, and also in Scotland. 



ANEN 5 

ALL-IN-THE-WELL, a juvenile game in Newcastle and the neigh- 
bourhood. A circle is made about eight inches in diameter, 
termed the well, in the centre of which is placed a wooden 
peg, four inches long, with a button balanced on the top. 
Those desirous of playing give buttons, marbles, or any 
thing else according to agreement, for the privilege of 
throwing a short stick, with which they are furnished, at the 
peg. Should the button fly out of the ring, the player is 
entitled to double the stipulated value of what he gives for 
the stick. The game is also practised at the Newcastle 
races and other places of amusement in the North, with 
three pegs, which are put into three circular holes, made 
in the ground, about two feet apart, and forming a triangle. 
In this case each hole contains a peg, about nine inches 
long, upon which are deposited, either a small knife or 
some copper. The person playing gives so much for each 
stick, and gets all the articles that are thrown off so as to 
fall on the outside of the holes. 

A-MANY, a great number. 

AMBRY, or AUMRY, a cupboard, pantry, or place where victuals 
are kept. Old Fr. aumuire. 

AMELL, between or among. Sw. emellan. Dan. imellem. 

ANAN, NAN, NON, sir ! what ? what do you say ? Commonly 
used as an answer to questions not understood, or distinct- 
ly heard. Perhaps from a repetition of Fr. ain, noticed by 
Le Roux as, " Sorte d'interjection interrogative, commune 
aux petites gens, et fort incivile parmi des personnes 
polies." 

ANCHOR, the chape of a buckle, . e. the part by which it is 
fastened. Fr. ancre. Lat. anchora. 

ANCLET, ANCLETH, ANCLIFF, the ankle. Sax. ancleow. 

ANENST, against, towards, opposite. Used by Chaucer and 
Ben. Jonson. 



6 ANGN 

ANG-NAILS, corns in the feet. Cumb. 

ANGS, awns, the beard of barley or wheat. Su.-Got. agn. 

ANTERS, AUNTERS, needless scruples, mischances or misadven- 
tures. AnterSy inanters, ennanters, are also used for, in 
case, lest, it may be. Dut. anders. 

ANTRE, a cave or den. Lat. antrum. 

Ofantars vast, and desarts idle Shak. Othello. 

ANTRIMS, TANTRUMS, affected airs or whims, freaks, odd fan- 
cies, maggots. 

ARDER, fallow quarter, similar to aiiher, a course of ploughing 
in rotation. 

ARK, a large chest. The original and etymological sense. 
Same in Su.-Got. Dan. Gael, and Dut. 

ARLES, EARLES, ARNS, ALLS, or YEARLES, money given 
in confirmation of a bargain, or by way of earnest for 
service to be performed. Mr. Boucher seems to consider 
Aries to be the last and almost expiring remains, in our 
language, of a word of very remote antiquity, that was once 
in general use, which the Romans abbreviated into arm, 
and which the Latins in the middle ages changed into 
arrha. It denoted an earnest or pledge in general, and 
was often used to signify an espousal present or gift from 
the man to the woman on their entering into an engage- 
ment to marry. This, as we learn from Pliny, was a ring 
of iron, the ancient Romans being long prohibited from 
wearing rings of any other metal. The giving of arks for 
confirming a bargain is still very common in all the north- 
ern counties. It is an old custom, still kept up, for the 
buyer and seller to drink together on these occasions, 
without which the engagement would hardly be considered 
valid. Gael, iarlus. Welsh, ernes. 



ASS 7 

ARNUT, AWNUT, JURNUT, YERNUT, a pig-nut, or earth-chesnut. 
Sax. eard-nut. Dut. aarde-noot. 

ARR, a mark or scar ; hence POCK-ARRS, a common phrase for 
those marks on the face left by the small-pox. Su.-Got. 
aerr. Isl. aer. Dan. ar. 

ARSIE-VARSIE, ARSEY-WARSEY, topsy-turvy. Etymology ob- 
vious. 

All things run arsie-varsie. Ben. Jon. 

ART, quarter of the Heavens, a part of the country. Germ. 
ort, a place die vier orte, the four quarters. Gael, aird, a 
cardinal point. 

ARVEL-SUPPER, a funeral feast given to the friends of the de- 
ceased, at which a particular kind of loaf, called arvel-bread, 
is sometimes distributed among the poor. The practice of 
serving up collations at funerals appears to have been bor- 
rowed from the coenaferalis of the Romans, alluded to in 
Juvenal (Sat. V.), and in the laws of the twelve tables. It 
consisted of an offering of milk, honey, wine, &c. to the 
ghost of the departed. In the case of heroes and other 
illustrious men the same custom seems to have prevailed 
among the Greeks. With us, it was anciently a solemn 
festival made at the time of publicly exposing the corpse, 
to exculpate the heir, and those entitled to the effects, 
from fines and mulcts, and from all accusations of having 
used violence. Welsh, arwyl, funeral obsequies. 

Ass, ESSE, ashes. Sax. asce. Germ, asche. Isl. aska. Dan. 
aske. ASS-HOLE, a place for receiving ashes. ASS-MANNER, 
manure of ashes. ASS-MIDDEN, a heap of ashes. Ass- 
RIDDLIN, the riddling or sifting of the ashes on the hearth, 
on the eve of St. Mark. The superstitious notion is, that, 
should any of the family die within the year, the shoe will 
be impressed on the ashes. 



8 ASSI 

ASSIL-TREE, axle-tree. So invariably pronounced. Fr. assent. 
Gael, aisil, Ital. assile. 

ASSIL, or AXLE TOOTH, a grinder situated near the axis of 
the jaw. Isl.jaxlar, dentes molares, maxillares. 

ASK, ASKER, ESK, a water newt, a kind of lizard, believed, 
without foundation, to be venomous. Gael. cue. 

ASTITE, ASTY, rather, as soon as, sooner, literally as tide. 
Sax. and Isl. tid. 

ATTERCOP, North, and Dur. ; ATTERCOB, Cuinb. a spider's 
web. Sax. otter, poison and coppe, a cup ; receiving its 
denomination, according to Dr. Jamieson, partly from its 
form and partly from its character a cup of venom. The 
word is occasionally used to denote the spider itself; and 
a female of a virulent or malignant disposition is sometimes 
degraded with the appellation of an attercap. 

AUDFARANT, AuDFASHiNT, grave, sagacious, ingenious. Chil- 
dren are said to be audfarant when they are wiser or more 
witty than those of their age usually are. Dut. ervaren. 
Dan. erfaren, experienced. 

AUK, a stupid or clumsy person. From old Got. auk, a beast, 
or it may be from the northern sea birds called auks, of 
proverbial stupidity. 

AULD, AUD, old. Sax. eald. 

Then take auld cloak about thee Shak. Othello. 

AULD-LANG-SYNE, a favourite phrase in the North, by which old 
persons express their recollection of former kindnesses, 
and juvenile enjoyments in times long since past ; rendered 
immortal by the beautiful Scotch song, 

Should auld acquaintance be forgot. 

AUAI, the elm. Old Fr. oulme. Allum is also, in some places, 
pronounced aum. Br. aim. 



AWN 9 

AUN'D, ordained, fated. " I'm aun'd to this luck." 

AUNTS. " One of my aunts" is, in Newcastle, a designation 
for a lady of more complaisance than virtue. Shakspeare 
and other play writers use the term. 

AUP, a wayward child. Ape. 

AUTER, altar. Many of our old authors write aider, or awter. 
The high altar a term still retained in Cumb. where it is 
pronounced as one word heeautre was so called to distin- 
guish it from the Saint's altars, of which there were several 
in most churches. Old Fr. outer. 

AUWARDS. A beast is said to be auwards when it lies back- 
ward or downhill, so as to be unable to rise. Sheep, heavy 
in the wool, are often found so, in which case they soon 
swell and die, if not extricated. Sax. cewerd, perversus, 
aversus. 

AVER, an old worn out cart horse. V. Spelman, affri, affra, 
and Du Cange, averia. Nearly obsolete. 

AVERISH, average, the stubble and grass left in corn fields after 
harvest, winter eatage. Fr. hiver, and Eng. ealage. But 
see Ray. 

Aw, the pronunciation of I. MAW, my. Aws, I am. 

Aw was up and down, seekin for maw hinny, 
Azv was thro' the town, seekin for maw bairn. 

Song, Maw Cunny Hinny. 

Fareweel, fareweel, maw comely pet ! 

A-ufs fourc'd three weeks to leave thee ; 
Aws doon for parm'ent duty set, 

O dinna let it grieve thee ! Song, Bob Cranky' s Adieu. 

AVV-MACKS, all makes, all sorts. V. Bouch. 
AWN, own, to visit. " You never awn us now," i. e. you never 
visit, or call on us. 

c 



10 AX 

Ax, to ask. This, now vulgar, word is the original Saxoft 
form, and is used by Chaucer, Bale, Heywood, and Ben, 
Jonson. 

AYE, always, continually. An old word said in Todd's John, 
to be now rarely used, and only in poetry. For colloquial 
purposes, however, it is frequently made use of in many 
parts of the North. 

AYONT, beyond. " Ayont the hill." Sax. a-geont. 

A YOU A HINNY, a northern nurse's lullaby. V. Brand's Pop. 
Ant. 8vo. 1810, p. 204, and Bell's Northern Rhymes, p. 

296. 

There's Sandgate for aud rags, 

A you, liinny burd ; 
And Gallowgate for trolly bags, 
A you a. 

Song, A you a, liinny lurd. 

B. 

BABBLEMENT, silly discourse. From Heb. Babel, confusion of 
tongues. 

BACHELOR'S BUTTON, a well known flower, resembling a but- 
ton, and possessing a magical effect on the fortunes of 
rustic lovers. See Grey's Shak. v. L, p. 107. 

BACK-BY, behind, a little way distant. 

BACK-END, the autumnal part, or latter end, of the year. Origin 
obvious. 

BACKSTONE, a heated stone or iron for baking cakes. 

BACKY, tobacco. BACKY-FOB, a tobacco pouch. 

Come, dinna, dinna whinge and whipe, 

Like yammering Isbel Mackey ; 
Cheer up, maw hinny ! leet thee pipe. 

And tyek a blast o' backy ! 

Song, Bob Cranky^ Adieu. 



BANG 11 

BADGER, a cadger or pedlar ; but originally a person who pur- 
chased grain at one market and took it on horseback to 
sell at another. Before the roads in the North were pass- 
able for waggons and carts, this trade of badgering was 
very extensive. 

BAD, BADLY, sick, ill. SADLY BADLY, very much indisposed. 
BADLING, a worthless person ; a bad one. Sax. bcsdling> 
homo delicatus. 

BAG, udder. Isl. baggi, onus, sarcina. 

BAIL, BALE, a beacon or signal, a bon-fire. BAIL or BALE- 
HILLS, hillocks on the moors where fires have been. Isl. 
bat, pyra. See Crav. Gloss. Baal-hills. 

BAIN, near, ready, easy. A BAINER WAY, a nearer way. Isl. 
beinn, rectus. 

BAIRNS, children, Sax, beam. Moe.-Got. barn, a child. 
Written by old English writers beam, bearne. " They say 
beams are blessings." Shak. All's Well; and in the Win- 
ter's Tale, when the shepherd finds Perdita, he exclaims, 
" mercy on's a bearne ! a very pretty bearne." BAIRNISH, 
childish. BAIRN-TEAM, lots of bairns. Sax. beam-team, 
liberorum sobolis procreatio. BAIRNS' -PLAY, the sport of 
children, any sort of trifling. 

BAIST, or BASTE, to beat severely. Isl. beysti, a hard stroke, 

BALLERAG, BULLERAG, to banter, to rally in a contemptuous 
way. The Crav. Gloss, has bullokin, imperious. 

BA ! LOU ! a nurse's lullaby. Fr. bas, Id le loup, be still, the 
wolf is coming. 

PAN-FIRE, BON-FIRE, a fire kindled on the heights at appointed 
places in times of rejoicing. Notwithstanding what Mr. 
Todd has alleged as to the primitive meaning of the word, 
I am of opinion that bone-fire is a corruption. See BAIL. 

BANG, v. to thump, to handle roughly. " He bangs his wife." 



12 BANG 

Isl. banga. It also means to excel. " "Wellington bangs 
them a'." 

Onr parson says, " we bangVl them still, 

" And bang them still, we mun man, 
" For he desarves a coward's deeth, 

" That frae them e'er wad run man." 

Cuml). Ballad. 

Wor pockets lin'd wiv notes an' cash, 
Amang the cheps we'll cut a dash : 

For XYZ, that bonny steed, 

He bangs them a' for pith and speed, 

He's sure to win the cup, man Song, X. Y. Z. 

BANG, *. a leap, a severe blow. In a bang, suddenly. 

BANGING, large and jolly, as a banging wench ; or simply of 
great size when compared with things of the same kind, as 
a banging trout. Any thing large in proportion to the rest 
of its species is also called a BANGER. 

BANNOCK, a thick cake of oaten or barley meal kneaded with 
water; originally baked in the embers and toasted over 
again on a girdle when used. Gael, bonnack, a cake ; or 
it may be from Isl. baun, a bean, such cakes having for- 
merly been made of bean meal. V. Ray. 

BARGH, BERG, a hill, or steep way. Su.-Got. berg, mons. V. 
Ihre. 

BAR-GUEST, a local spirit or demon, haunting populous places, 
and accustomed to howl dreadfully at midnight, before any 
dire calamity. Perhaps from Dut. berg, a hill, and geest, 
a ghost. Grose, however, describes it as " a ghost all in 
white, with large saucer eyes, commonly appearing near 
gates or stiles, there called bars. Yorksh. Derived from 
bar and gheist." 

BARK, a box for holding candle ends. 



BAUK 13 

BARKED, BARKENED, covered with dirt like bark. Dirt, &c. 

hardened on the skin or hair. 
BARKHAAM, a horse's collar, formerly made of bark. See 

Braffam. 
BARLEY, to bespeak or claim. " Barley me that" I bespeak 

that let me have that. Similar to Cheshire ballow. V. 

Wilb. 

BARREL-FEVER, an illness occasioned by intemperate drinking. 
BASS, BAST, matting. Isl. bast, philyra. Bass, is also the 

name of a hassock to kneel upon at church. 
BAT, a blow or stroke ; in some places a stick. Fr. battre, 

to beat. LAST-BATT, a play among children. 

I'll try whether your costard or my tat be the harder. 

SJtak. Lear. 

BAT, also means state or condition ; " at the same bat," sig- 
. nifying in the same manner ; " at the old bat," as formerly. 
BATTEN, to feed, to bring up, to thrive. 

Could you on this fair mountain leave to feed, and 
lattcn on this moor Shdk. Hamlet. 

" The wife a good church going and a battening to the 
bairn" is a toast at christenings. 

BATTIN, the straw of two sheaves folded together. 

BATTOM, a board generally of narrow dimensions, but the full 
breadth of the tree it is sawn from. 

BATTS, flat grounds adjoining islands in rivers, sometimes used 
for the islands themselves. 

BAUK, balk, a beam or dormant. Dut. balk. Welsh, bale. 
Balked, disappointed or prevented, as if a beam were in the 
way. " To be thrown our? balk" is, in the west riding of 
Yorkshire, to be published in the church. " To hing ourt' 
balk," is marriage deferred after publication. Before the 



14 BAUK 

reformation the laity sat exclusively in the nave of the 
church. The balk here appears to be the rood beam, which 
separated the nave from the chancel. The expression 
would therefore seem to mean, to be helped into the choir, 
where the marriage ceremony was performed. V. Crav. 
Gloss. 

BAUKS, the grass ridges dividing ploughed lands, properly 
those in common fields. Also a place above a cow-house, 
where the beams are covered with wattles and turf, and 
not boarded. A hen-roost or hay-loft ; supposed by Mr. 
Wilbraham from its being divided into different compart- 
ments by balks or beams ; balk in the northern languages 
signifying a separation or division. 

BAY, to bend. Sax. bygan. 

BEAKER, a tumbler. Germ, becher, a cup. It also means any 
thing large. 

BEAKMENT or BEATMENT, a measure of about a quarter of a 
peck. Newc. 

BEAL, to roar or cry. Teut. betten, to bellow. 

BEASTLINGS, the milk of the cow shortly after calving, and of a 
peculiar nature fitted for the first food of the calf. Proba- 
bly, therefore, the calf's, that is, the little beast's or beast- 
ling's. Dut. biest. 

BEASTLING-PUDDING, a pudding made of this milk, and a favou- 
rite dish with many people. 

BECK, v. to nod the head ; properly to curtzy by a female, as 
contradistinguished from bowing in the other sex. Isl. 
beiga. Germ, beigen, to bow. A horse it said to beck, 
when its legs are weak. 

BECK, s. a mountain stream or small rivulet. Common to all 
northern dialects. See BURN. 

BEEAS, BEESS, cows, cattle. Beasts. 






BIGG 15 

BEE-BIKE, a bee's nest or hive in a wild state. Teut. lie-lock, 
lie-luyek, apiariuro. 

BEELD, shelter; hence BEELDING, a place of shelter for cattle, or 
any covered habitation.. Isl. boele, domicilium. 

BEET, to help or assist, to supply the gradual waste of any thing. 
Isl. letra. Dut. loeten y to mend. To BEET THE FIRE, is 
to feed it with fuel. The word in this latter sense is most 
applicable to straw, heath, fern, furze, and especially to the 
husk of oats, when used for heating girdles on which oaten 
cakes are baked. Teut. loeten het vier, struere ignem. 

BEET-NEED, assistance in distress. Sax. letan, to restore. 

BEEZEN, blind. See Todd's John, lisson. 

BELIVE, anon, by and by, quickly. An old word used by 
Chaucer, Spenser, and other early poets. Sax. belif-an. 

BELK, to belch. The old mode of writing it. 

BELLY-oo-LAKE-THEE,take your fill, satisfy your appetite. York. 

BELLY-WARK, the gripes or colick. Ache is pronounced WARK, 
as he'dd-wark, tooth-wark. 

BENSEL, to beat or bang. Teut. lenghelen. 

BENT, a long kind of grass which grows in Northumberland, 
near the sea, and is used for thatch. Dr. Willan has BENTS, 
high pastures or shelving commons, hence he says, BENT- 
grass, which from the soil is necessarily harsh and coarse. 

BERRY, to thrash corn. BERRIER, a thrasher. 

BE-TWATTLED, confounded, stupified, infatuated. 

BEVEL, a violent push or stroke. 

BICKER, v. to clatter, to quarrel. A very old word for skirmish. 

BICKER, s. a small wooden dish, made of staves and hoops like 
a tub. 

BIG, to build. Isl. lyggi. 

BIGG, a particular kind of barley, properly that variety which 
has four rows of grain on each ear, sometimes called bear. 
Isl. lygg, barley. Su.-Got. ling, Dan. lyg. 



16 BIGG 

BIGGEN, to recover after an accouchement. The gossips regu- 
larly wish the lady a good biggctiiug. 

BIGGIN, a building, properly a house larger than a cottage, but 
now generally used for a hut covered with mud or turf. 

BILDER, a wooden mallet with a long handle, used in husban- 
dry for breaking clods. Hence, observes the author of the 
Craven Glossary, balderdash, may with propriety be called 
dirt spread by the bilder, alias bildcrdasher. This etymon 
is certainly as happy as that of Mr. Malone the froth or 
foam made by the barbers in dashing their balls backwards 
and forwards in hot water. See, however, BLATHER. 

BINK, a seat in the front of a house made of stones or sods. 
Sax. benc. Dan. bcenk. 

BIRK, the birch tree. Teut. berck. 

BISHOP'S FOOT. When any thing has been burnt to the pan 
in boiling, or is spoiled in cooking, it is common to say, " the 
Bishop has set his foot in it." The author of the Crav. 
Gloss, under bishapped, says, " pottage burnt at the bottom 
of the pan. * Bishop's i' th' pot,' may it not be derived 
from Bishop Burnet?" That is impossible, the saying 
having been in use long before the Bishop was born ! It 
occurs in Tusser's " Points of Husbandry," a well known 
book ; and also in Tyndale's " Obedyence of a Chrysten 
Man," printed in 1528. The last writer, p. 109, says, 
" when a thynge speadeth not well we borowe speach and 
say the byshope hath blessed it, because that nothynge 
speadeth well that they medyll withall. If the podech be 
burned to, or the meate over rested, we say the byshope has 
put his fate in the potte, or the byshope hath played the coke, 
because the byshopes BURN who they lust and whosoever 
displeaseth them." I am well aware of what Dr. Jamieson, 
Grose, and other writers have stated on the subject, but I 
think this allusion to the episcopal disposition to burn here- 



BLAK 17 

tics, in a certain reign, presents the most satisfactory expla- 
nation that can be offered as to the origin of the phrase. 

BITTLE, a mallet to beat grain out of gleanings. From beetle. 

BIZON, shame or scandal ; a shew or spectacle of disgrace. In 
unguarded moments when the good women in certain districts 
of Newcastle, give way to acts of termagancy more congenial 
to Wapping or Billingsgate, it is common to fulminate the 
object of their resentment with a " Holy Bizon," obviously 
in allusion to the penitential act of standing in a white 
sheet, which scandalous delinquents are sometimes enjoined 
to perform in the church before the whole congregation. 

Wiv a' the stravaigin aw wanted a munch, 
An' maw thropple was ready to gizen ; 

So aw went tiv a yell-house, and there teuk a lunch, 
But the reck'ning, me saul ! was a bison. 

Song, Canny NetvcusseL 

BLACK- A-VIZ'D, dark in complexion. A black-a-viz' d man or 

woman. 

BLACK-PUDDINGS. Puddings made of blood, suet, &c. stuffed 
into the intestines of pigs or sheep, and a favourite dish 
among the common people. " A nice het pudden, hinnie !" 
" A nice fat pudden, ma hinnie !" Newcastle cries. 
Through they were lin'd with many a piece 
Of ammunition bread and cheese, 
And fat black-puddings, proper food 
For warriors that delight in blood But. Hudlb. 

BLAKE, yellowish, or of a golden colour, spoken of butter, 
cheese, &c. The yellow bunting (emberiza citrinella) is 
also, in some places, called a blakeling. Isl. blar. Dut. 
bleek, pale. 

Blake autumn. Chatterton. 



18 BLAR 

BLARING, crying vehemently, roaring loud, applied to peevish 

children and vulgar drunken noise. Dut. blaren. 
BLASH, to throw dirt ; also to scatter, as the " water Hashed all 

over." Germ, platzen. 
BLASHMENT, weak and diluting liquor. 

BLASHY, thin, poor, as blashy beer, &c. It also means wet and 
dirty. Dr. Jam. has blash, a heavy fall of rain. 
But aw fand maw sel blonk'd when to Lunnun aw gat, 

The folks they a' luck'd wishy washy ; 
For gowld ye may howk 'till ye're blind as a bat, 
For their streets are like wors brave and blashy ! 

Song, Canny NewcasseL 

BLAST, v. to blow up with gun-powder. BLAST, s. an explo- 
sion of foul air in a coal mine. 
And oft a chilling damp or unctuous mist, 
Loos'd from the crumbling caverns, issues forth, 
Stopping the springs of life. Jago's Edgehttl. 

BLATE, v. to bleat or bellow. Dryden uses blatant. 

BLATE, a. shy, bashful, timid. Su.-Got. blode. " A toom 
(empty) purse makes a blate merchant." Scot. Prov. 

BLATHER, to talk a great deal of nonsense. " He blathers and 
talks," is a common phrase where much is said to little 
purpose. A person of this kind is, by way of pre-eminence, 
styled a blathering hash. One of my correspondents de- 
rives the word from blatant, used by Spenser and others ; 
another ingeniously suggests that it may be " from the 
noise of an empty bladder ;" but it appears to me to be 
either from Teut. blceteren, to talk foolishly, or Su.-Got. 
bladdra, garrire. Hence BLATHERDASH, Balderdash, the 
discourse itself. See BILDER. 

BLAZE, to take salmon by striking them with a three pronged 



BLOW 19 

and barbed dart, called a leister. I have often seen it prac- 
tised in an evening, in the River Tees. In Craven, a torch 
was made of the dry bark of holly, besmeared with pitch. 
The water was so transparent that the smallest pebbles 
were visible at the bottom. One man carried the torch 
(when dark) either on foot or on horseback, while another, 
advancing with him, struck the salmon on the red, the 
place where the roe is deposited, with the leister. V, 
Crav. Gloss, bloazing. 

BLEA, a pale bluish colour, often applied to the discolouration 
of the skin by a blow or contusion. It is also sometimes 
used to denote a bad colour in linen, indicating the neces- 
sity of bleaching. 

BLEA-BERRY, BL AY-BERRY, the bilberry, or whortle berry. Isl. 
blaber, vaccinium vulgare myrtillus. 

BLEB, BLOB, a drop of water or bubble ; a blister or rising of 
the skin. 

BLEE, colour, complexion. An old word, not obsolete, as 
stated in Todd's Johnson. 

BLEED, to yield, applied to corn, which is said to " bleed wett? 
when on thrashing it happens to be very productive. 

BLENDINGS, peas and beans mixed together. 

BLINK, to smile, to look kindly, but with a modest eye, the 
word being generally applied to females. Dan. blinke. 

BLINKARD, BLENKARD, a person near sighted or almost blind. 
A fighting cock with only one eye is termed a blenker. 

BLIRT, BLURT, to cry, to make a sudden indistinct or un- 
pleasant noise. 

BLOACHER, any large animal. 

BLOUSY, or BLOWSY, wild, disordered, confused. Johnson has 
blowzy, sun burnt, high coloured. 

BLOW, the blossom of fruit trees. Sax. blowan, to bloom. 
The Crav. Gloss, has blume, blossom, from Germ. blum. 



20 BLOW 

BLOWN-MILK, skimmed milk. I suppose from the custom of 

blowing the cream off by the breath. 
BLUBBER, " the part of a whale that contains the oil," Todd's 

John. But it is the fat of whales. 
BLUE. To look blue, is to be disconcerted. 
BLUFFXESS, " surliness," Todd's John. Rather arrogance, or 

a self-confident manner. 
BLUSH, resemblance. He has a blush of his brother, i. e. he 

bears a resemblance. 

BLUSTERATION, the noise of a braggart. Blustering. 
BOB, to disappoint. Dry bob is an old word for a merry joke 

or trick. 

BOB, a bunch. Isl. bobbi, nodus. Fr. bube. 
BOBBEROUS, BOBBERSOME, elated, in high spirits. 
BOBBY, smart, neat, tidy. 

There was Sam, O zoons ! 
Wiv's pantaloons, 
An' gravat up owre his gobby-o ; 
An' Willy, thou, 
Wi' the jacket blue, 
Thou was the varry bobby-o. 

Song, Swahccll Hopping. 

BODWORD, an ill-natured errand. An old word for an ominous 
message. Su.-Got. and Isl. bodword, edictum, mandatum. 

BOGGLE, BOGGLE-BO, a spectre or ghost. Welsh, bugal, fear. 

BOGGLE about the stacks, a favourite play among young people 
in the villages, in which one hunts several others. For- 
merly barley break. 

She went abroad, thereby 
A larky break her sweet, swift feet to try Sidney, Arcadia. 

BOILING. The whole boiling means the entire quantity or 
whole party. 



BONN 21 

BOKE, BOUK, to nauseate so as to be ready to vomit, to belch. 

Perhaps from Sax. bealc-an. Jam. V. Ray. 
BOLL, BOLE, the body or trunk of a tree. Su.-Got. bol. 
BO-MAN, a hobgoblin or kidnapper. 

I'll rather put on my flashing red nose, and my flam- 
ing face, and come wrapped in a calf's-skin, and 
cry bo, bo ! Robin Goodfdlow. 

BONDAGERS, cottagers obliged to work for farmers, when called 

upon, at certain stipulated wages. 

BONNY, beautiful, handsome, cheerful. Dr. Johnson derives 
this word from Fr. bon, bonne, good ; but as it is so uni- 
versally in use in the North, I have little doubt it came 
originally from the Scotch. Shakspeare appears to have 
understood it in its different meanings. 
We say that Shore's wife hath a pretty foot, 
A cherry lip, a bonny eye, a passing pleasing tongue. 
Match to match I have encountered him, 
And made a prey for carrion kites and crows, 
Ev'n of the bonny beast he lov'd so well. 
Then sigh not so but let them go, 
And be you blithe and bonny. Shakspeare. 
O where is the boatman ? my bonny honey ! 

O where is the boatman ? bring him to me 
To ferry me over the Tyne to my honey, 
And I will remember the boatman and thee. 

The Water of Tyne. 
Whe's like me Johnny 
Sae leish, sae blythe, sae bonny ! 
He's foremost 'mang the mony 
Keel lads o' coaly Tyne. 

Song, The Keel Row. 



22 BOOD 

BOODIES or BABBY-BOODIES, broken pieces of earthen ware or 
glass, used by female children for decorating a play-house, 
called a boody-kouse, made in imitation of an ornamented 
cabinet. 

Then on we went, as nice as owse, 
Till nenst au'd Lizzy Moody 's ; 
A whirlwind cam an' myed a' souse, 
Like heaps o' babby-boodies. 

Song, Jemmy Jonesorfs Whurry. 

BOON, a service or bonus, done by a tenant to his landlord, or 
a sum of money as an equivalent. BOON-DAYS are those 
which the tenants are obliged to employ for the benefit of 
their lord gratis. Vast quantities of land in the Northern 
counties are held under lords of manors by customary 
tenure, subject to the payment of fines and heriots, and the 
performance of various duties and services on the boon 
days. 

BOOR, BOUR, the parlour, or inner room through the kitchen, 
in which the head person of the family generally sleeps. 
Isl. bouan, to dwell. Spenser uses bower,, a lady's apart- 
ment. Fair Rosamond's bower, at Woodstock, is familiar 
to every reader. 

BOORLY, boorish, rough, unpolished. Teut. boer, a boor. 

BOOSE, BUESS, BUSE, an ox or cow stall ; properly the place 
beside the stakes where the fodder lies. Sax. boslg. Isl. 
bas. 

BOOT, something given to equalise an exchange. Old Fr. 
bote. 

BOOTED, or BOLTED BREAD, a loaf of sifted wheat meal, mixed 
with rye ; better than the common household bread. V. 
Skin. bolt. 

BOOTHER, BOULDER, a hard flinty stone, rounded like a bowl. 



BOUK 23 

BORROWED-DAYS, the three last days of March. 
March borrowit fra Averill 
Three days and they were ill. 

Gloss. Compl. Scott. 

These days being generally stormy, our forefathers., as 
Dr. Jamieson remarks, have endeavoured to account for 
this circumstance by pretending that March borrowed them 
from April, that he might extend his power so much longer. 
The superstitious will neither borrow nor lend on any of 
these days, lest the articles should be employed for evil 
purposes. 
BOTHERATION, plague, trouble, difficulty. From bother, to 

perplex or puzzle. 

BOTTOM-ROOM, a single seat in a pew. 
BOUGHT, a fold where ewes are put at milking time. Teut. 

bocht. 

BOUK, to wash linen, or rather to steep it or soak it in lye, 
with a view of whitening and sweetening it. 

Then the thread is sod and bleaked, and bucked and oft 
layed to drieng, &c Barthol. 302 6, 1. 1 7, c. 97- 

Bvdt is used by Shakspeare, as well for the liquor in 
which clothes are washed as for the clothes themselves. 
Every body remembers Falstaff' s ludicrous adventure in 
the great buck-basket. The process of bouking linen, 
adopted by the older Northumbrian house-wives, would, 
I fear, be considered too homely for their more Southern 
neighbours to imitate, and therefore I refrain from particu- 
larizing it. 

BOUK, BOWK, bulk, quantity, or size ; the body of a tree. Su.- 
Got. bolk. Chaucer uses bouke, for the trunk of the hu- 
man body, which Mr. Tyrwhitt says, is probably from Sax, 
buce t venter. 



24 BOUN 

BOUN, to make ready, to prepare, to dress. Old Eng. boon, 

boun, boivne. 

BOURD, to jest. F. Todd's John. 

BOUT, a contest or struggle ; often applied to a jovial meeting 
of the legitimate sons of Bacchus, where 
The dry divan 

Close in firm circle ; and Set, ardent, in 
For serious drinking. Thomson. 

BOWDIKITE, a contemptuous name for a mischievous child, an 
insignificant or corpulent person. 

BOWERY, plump, buxom, and young ; applied to a female in 
great health. 

Box, a club or society instituted for benevolent or charitable 
purposes. It is customary for the members to have an 
annual dinner called the head-meeting day. The oldest 
institution of this kind, I have been able to trace, is that of 
the keelmen of Newcastle and the neighbourhood, who, on 
this occasion, after assembling at their hospital, walk in 
procession through the principal streets of the town, at- 
tended by a band of music, fiddles, &c. Much greater 
interest was formerly taken in this business by the parties 
concerned, who made it a point of honourable emulation to 
rival each other in the grandeur of their apparel, especially 
in the pea-jacket, the sky-blue stockings, the long-quartered 
shoes, and large silver buckles. Cold was the heart of 
that female, old or young, connected with the " Keel lads 
o* coaly Tyne," who could look unmoved on such a spec- 
tacle ; and if the fair ones did sometimes indulge in scenes 
which I neither wish to describe nor see repeated, their 
rencounters, generally commencing without any previous 
malice, were rarely again remembered. 

Box AND DICE. A game of hazard, formerly much practised 



BRAN 2; 

among the pitmen and keelmen at races, fairs, and hop- 
pings, but now very properly prohibited. The true pro- 
nunciation is box and dies. 

Close by the stocks, his dice and box, 

He rattled away so rarely -o, 
Both youth and age, did he engage, 
Together they played so chearly-o. 

Song, Wlnlaton Hopping. 

BRAAD-BAND, corn laid out in the field in band. 
BRABBLEMENT, a quarrel or wrangling. Dut. brabbelen, to 
mingle confusedly. 
This petty Irdblk will undo us all. Sluik. Tit. Andr. 

BRACKENS, or BRECKENS, fern. In Smoland, in Sweden, the 
female fern is called bracken. Sw. Stotbraakin, In is a 
termination in Gothic, denoting the female gender. 

BRADE, to resemble. To brade of, from Su.-Got. braa y de- 
notes a similarity characteristic of the same family. V. 
Ihre. 

BRAE, BROO, a bank or declivity, any broken sloping ground. 
Gael, and Welsh, bre, a hill. 

BRAFFAM, BRAUGHAM, a collar for an husbandry horse, some- 
times made of old stockings stuffed with straw. 

BRAID, BRADE, to nauseate, to desire to vomit ; hence the 
word upbraid. Braid is an old obsolete word for reproach. 

BRAKE, a harrow for breaking large clods of earth. V. Nares' 
Gloss, for other significations, &c. 

BRAN or BRAND-NEW, quite new ; any thing fresh from the 
makers hand. Often applied to clothes to denote the 
shining glossy appearance given by passing a hot iron over 
them. Dut. brand nieuw. Shak. uses "fire new arms," 
and "fire new fortune." 

E 



26 BRAN 

BRANDED, a mixture of red and black. Dut. branden. 

BRANDER, an iron over the fire. Dut. brander. 

BRANDLING, a species of trout caught in the rivers in North- 
umberland, where salmon is found, particularly in the Tyne. 
Early in the year they are seen about three inches long, but 
in the course of a few months increase to about six inches j 
after which, they are rarely found any larger. Like the 
salmon-smelt and whitling, they have no spawn in them. 

BRANDRETH, an iron tripod fixed over the fire, on which the 
kettle, or any cooking utensils are placed. Sax. brandred, 
a brand iron. 

BRANK, to hold up the head affectedly, to put a bridle or re- 
straint on any thing. " A bridled ewe." This word gives 
me an opportunity of mentioning another of kindred im- 
port, the BRANKS, an instrument kept in the Mayor's cham- 
ber, of , Newcastle, for the punishment of "chiding and 
scolding women." It is made of iron, fastens round the 
head like a muzzle, and has a spike to insert in the mouth 
so as effectually to silence the offensive organ. Ungallant, 
and unmercifully severe as this species of torture seems to 
be, Dr. Plot much prefers it to the cucking stool, which, 
he says, " not only endangers the health of the party, but 
also gives the tongue liberty 'twixt every dipp." See an en- 
engraving of Robert Sharp, an officer of the Corporation, 
leading Ann Bidlestone through the town, with a pair of 
branks on her head, in Gardiner's Englands Grievance dis- 
covered, orig. edit. p. 110. 

BRANT, steep, difficult of ascent, as a brant brow, a steep hill. 
It also means consequential, pompous in one's walk, as 
" you seem very brant this morning," i. e. you put on all 
your consequence. A game cock is said to be brant. Lof- 
tiness appears to enter into all the meanings of the word. 
Isl. brattr, acclivis, arduus, Sw. brant. 



BREM 27 

BRASH, or WATER-BRASH, a sudden sickness, with acid rising 

in the mouth, as in the heart-burn. V. Wachter, brassen. 

This word it also used in some places to denote twigs, and 

as an adjective for impetuous, rash. 
BRASHY, delicate in constitution, subject to frequent bodily 

indisposition. 
BRASS, money, riches. A wealthy person is said to have plenty 

of brass. 

The brass aw've getten at the race 

Will buy a patch for Jacob's face Song, X. Y. Z. 

BRAT, the film on the surface of some liquids, as on boiled milk 
when cooled. Also a child's bib or coarse apron. Is it in 
both these senses from Germ, breiten, to spread ? In the 
latter it may come from Sax. bratt y which Johnson tran- 
slates a blanket, when he notices it as a child in contempt. 

BRATCHET, a contemptuous epithet, generally applied to an ill 
behaved child. Fr. Bratchet, a slow hound. 

BRATTLE, to sound like thunder. BRATTLE of " tkunner" a 
clap of thunder. 

BRAW, finely clothed, handsome, clever. Teut. brawe, 
adorned. 

BRAWLY, BRAVELY, very well, finely, in good health. Sw. 
braf. 

BRAWM, a boar. 

Her grace sits mumping 
Like an old ape eating a Irawm. 

Beaum. fy Flet. Mad Lover. 

BRAY, to crush or bruise, to pound in a mortar. Fr. braier. 

BREEKS, breeches. Sax. brcec. 

BREDE or BREED, breadth or extent. An old English word 
from the Sax. See ABREDE. 

BREME, v. applied to a sow when maris appetens. BRIM, *, ar- 
dor, sestus. Sax. bryne. 



28 BRER 

BRERE, to sprout, to prick up as grain does when it first germi- 
nates. Hence BREWARD, BRUARTS, the tender blades of 
springing corn. Sax. brord. 

BREWIS, a large thick crust of bread put into the pot where salt 
beef is boiling and nearly ready : it attracts a portion of the 
fat, and when swelled out is no unpalatable dish to those 
who (like some of our northern swains) rarely taste meat. 
So says Mrs. Rundle, who, I believe, was long a resident 
in Northumberland. After this, I need hardly remark that 
Mr. Wilbraham is mistaken in thinking it is used only in 
Cheshire and Lancashire. The word occurs in Beaum. & 
Flet. but in the sense of broth. 

BREWSTER, a brewer. Hence, I conceive, the Brewster Ses- 
sions, when publicans receive their licenses. 

BRIAN. To brian an oven, is to keep fire at the mouth of it, 
either to give light or to preserve the heat. 

BRICKS, bread something like French rolls. 

BRIDE-ALE. The day of marriage has always been a time of 
festivity. Among the plebeians in Cumberland it glides 
away amidst music, dancing, and revelry. Early in the 
morning, the bridegroom, attended by his friends on horse- 
back, proceeds in a gallop to the house of the bride's father. 
Having alighted he salutes her, and then the company 
breakfast together. This repast concluded, the whole nup- 
tial party depart in cavalcade order towards the church, 
accompanied by a fiddler, who plays a succession of tunes 
appropriate to the occasion. Immediately after the per- 
formance of the ceremony the company retire to some 
neighbouring ale-house, and many a flowing bumper of home 
brewed, is quaffed to the health of the happy pair. Ani- 
mated with this earthly nectar, they set off full speed to- 
wards the future residence of the bride, where a handker- 
chief is presented to the first who arrives. In Craven, 



BR1D 29 

after the connubial knot is tied, a ribbon is proposed as the 
subject of contention either for a foot or a horse race. 
Should any of the doughty disputants, however, omit to 
shake hands with the bride, he forfeits the prize, though 
otherwise entitled to win. Whoever first reaches the 
bride's habitation, is ushered into the bridal chamber, and 
after having performed the ceremony of turning down the 
bed clothes, he returns, carrying in his hand a tankard of 
warm ale, previously prepared, to meet the bride, to whom 
he triumphantly offers his humble beverage, and by whom, 
in return, he is presented with the ribbon, as the honour- 
able reward of his victory. 

BRIDE-CAKE. It is customary after the bridal party leave the 
church to have a thin currant-cake, marked in squares, 
though not entirely cut through. A clean cloth being spread 
over the head of the bride, the bride-groom stands behind 
her, and breaks the cake. Thus hallowed, it is thrown up 
and scrambled for by the attendants, to excite prophetic 
dreams of love and marriage, and has much more virtue 
than when it is merely put nine times through the ring. 

BRIDE-WAIN, a custom in Cumberland where the friends of a 
new married couple assemble together in consequence of a 
previous invitation (sometimes actually by public advertise- 
ment) and are treated with cold pies, frumenty, and ale. 
The company afterwards join in all the various pastimes of 
the country, and at the conclusion, the bride and bride- 
groom are placed in two chairs, the former holding a pew- 
ter dish on her knee, half covered with a napkin. Into 
this dish every person present, how high or low soever, 
makes it a point to put something ; and these offerings 
occasionally amount to a considerable sum. I suppose it 
has obtained the name of wain, from a very ancient custom, 



30 BRIG 

now obsolete in the north, of presenting a bride, who had 
no great stock of her own, with a waggon load of furni- 
ture or provisions. On this occasion the horses were de- 
corated with ribbons. 

** There let Hymen oft appear 
** In saffron robe and taper clear, 
" And pomp, and feast, and revelry, 
** With mask and ancient pageantry." 

BRIGG, a bridge. Pure Saxon. 

BRISSLE, to scorch or dry very hard. Sax. brastlian, to make 

a crackling noise. BRUSSLE has the same meaning ; as brus- 

sled peas, peas scorched in the straw. 

He routeth with a slepie noyse, 

And Iroustkth as a monkes froyse. Gow, Cvnf. Anian. 

Break 'em more, they are but brustkd yet. 

Beaum. $ Flet. Wife for a Month. 

BROACH, a spire or steeple ; as Chester broach, Darlington 
broach, the broaches of Durham Cathedral. An instru- 
ment on which yarn is wound, is also called a broach. 

BROCK, a badger. Pure Sax. It is also a name given to a 
cow, or husbandry horse. BROCK-FACED, a white longitu- 
dinal mark down the face like a badger. Su.-Got. brokug, 
of more than one colour. 

BRODDLE, to make holes. 

BROKE. Sheep are said to be so, when lying under a broken 
bank. 

BROTCHET, BROTCHERT, or BRAGWORT, a thin liquor made 
from the last squeezings of honey-comb. 

BROTT, shaken corn. Sax. gebrode, fragments. 

BROWDEN, to be anxious for, or warmly attached to any ob- 
ject. To browden on a tking> is to be fond of it. Dut. broe- 
den, to brood. 



BULL 31 

BROWDIN, or BROWDANT, vain, conceited. 

As she delights into the low, 

So was I browdin of my bow. CJierry and the Stae. 

BROWN-LEEMERS, ripe brown nuts that easily separate from the 
husks. Probably from brown, and Fr. les meurs y the ripe 
ones. 

BRULLIMENT, broil. Fr. brouiller. 

BUBBLV, snotty. " The bairn has a bubbly nose." Grose. 
I thought to marry a sailor, 

To bring me sugar and tea ; 
But I have married a keelman, 

And that he lets me see. 
He's an ugly body, a bubbly body, 

An ill-fard, ugly loon ; 
And I have married a keelman, 
And my good days are done. 

Song, The Sandgate Lassie 1 1 Lamentation. 

BUBBLY-JOCK, a turkey cock. V. Jam. 
BUCKLE, to marry. Significant enough. 
BUCKLE-MOUTHED, a person with large straggling teeth. 
What a fyace, begok ! 
Had buckle-mouthed Jock, 
When he twined his jaws for the backey-o ! 

Song, Swaltoell Hopping. 

BUCK-STICK. See SPELL AND ORE, and TRIPPIT AND Co IT. 
BUDGE, to bulge, to move off, generally unwillingly. Also to 

abridge or lessen. " I wont budge a penny." 
BUER, a gnat. 

BULE, or BOOL, the bow of a pan or kettle. 
BULL-FRONTS, tufts of coarse grass, Aira capitosa. 
BULL-STANG, a dragon fly. 

BULLS AND Cows, the flower of the Arum maculalum, also called 
lords and ladies, and lam-lakens. 



32 BULL 

BULL-TROUT, a large fine species peculiar to Northumberland, 
and much esteemed. The larger kind of salmon-trout 
taken in the Coquet, are in the Newcastle market called 
bull trouts ; but these fish are larger than salmon-trout in 
the head, which is a part generally admired for its smallness. 

BULLY, the champion of a party, the eldest male person in a 
family. Now generally used among keelmen and pitmen 
to designate their brothers, as bully Jack, bully Bob, &c. 
Probably derived from the obsolete word boulie, beloved. 

BUM, v. to strike, to beat, to spin a top. Dut. bommen, to re- 
sound. 

BUM, s. the follower or assistant of a bailiff. Johnson has 
bum-bailiff, a well-known name for an unpopular officer of 
the law, but the north country bum, is a distinct personage, 
aiding and assisting the bailiff. It may be from bound, 
though more likely from bum, the buttocks, a word which 
Shakspeare never disdained to use, when he thought it 
best to call a thing by its most expressive name. 

BUMBLE, or BUMMEL-KITES, bramble-berries. Dur. BLACK- 
BOWWOWERS. North. BLACK-BERRIES. Newc. 

BUMBLER, a large wild bee, called sometimes bumble-bee, Teut. 
bommele, a drone. BUMBLER-BOX, a small wooden toy used 
by the boys to hold these insects. 

BUMP, a stroke, a blow received by running against any thing ; 
often applied to the rising of the flesh occasioned by a 
blow. Isl. bomps. <( Bump against Jarrow," is a common 
expression among the keelmen when they run foul of any 
thing. 

The laddie ran sweaten, ran sweaten, 

The laddie ran sweaten about ; 
Till the keel went lump against Jarrow, 
And three o' the bullies lap out. 

Song, The Little Pec Dec. 



BURT 33 

BUMPING, a peculiar sort of punishment amongst youngsters. 
Too many boys have reason to remember the school dis- 
cipline of bumping, admirably described by Major Moor. 
F. Suff. Words, p. 53. 

BUNCH-BERRY, the fruit of the ruins saxatilis, of which country 
people make tarts. 

BUNCH, PUNCH, to strike or kick. 

BUNTING, a large piece or balk of timber. Newcastle. 

BUR, any thing put under a wheel to stop its progress. 

BURN, a brook. A burn winds slowly along meadows, and ori- 
ginates from small springs ; while a beck is formed by wa- 
ter collected on the sides of mountains, and proceeds with 
a rapid stream, though never, I think, applied to rivers that 
become estuaries. Pure Sax. 

BURN-THE-BISCUIT. A youthful game. 

BURNT-HIS-FINGERS. When a person has failed in any object 
or speculation, or has been over-reached in any endeavour 
or undertaking, he is said to have burnt his fingers. 

BURR, a peculiar whirring sound, made by the natives of New- 
castle, in pronouncing, or rather in endeavouring to pro- 
nounce the letter R, derived from their ancestors. " He 
has the Newcastle burr in his throat." Prov. 

Refining in language, improving in notes, 
Letter R runs far smoother and glib through their throats ; 
Their Andrews, these sirnanies, bear better degrees, 
Ralphs, Richardsons, Rogersons, uttered with ease. 

Address of the Gnildhall-Crotes. 

BUR-TREE, the common elder. Perhaps bore-tree, from the 
quantity or size of the pith, which renders it capable of be- 
ing easily bored ; though Dr. Willan says, it is so called 
because the flowers grow in a cyme, close tdgether, like 

F 



34 BUSH 

those of the bur. A branch of this tree is supposed to pos- 
sess great virtue in guarding the wearer against the charm 
of witchcraft. I remember, when a little boy, during a 
school vacation in the country, carrying it in my own but- 
ton hole, with doubled thumb, when under the necessity of 
passing the residence of a poor decrepit old woman, sus- 
pected of holding occasional converse with the spiritual 
enemy of mankind. 

BUSH OF A WHEEL, that which is employed to fill up the two 
great vacancy either in the aperture of the nave or between 
the nave and the hurters, that is, knocking shoulder of the 
axle, from Fr. heurter, to knock. 

BUSKY, woody, bushy, Lat. boscus. Fr. bosquet, a thicket. 
How bloodily the sun begins to peer 
Above yon lusky hill. Shak. 1st. Hen. IV. 

Buss, to dress, to get ready. Germ, putzen, to deck or adorn. 
Sich aufs beste putzen, to dress to the best advantage. The 
Scotch have busk, to dress, and busks, dresses. 
For Geordy aw'd dee, for my loyalty's trig, 

And aw own he's a gued leuken mannie ; 
But if wor Sir Matthew ye buss iv his wig, 
By gocks ! he wad leuk just as canny. 

Song, Canny Newcassel. 

BUST, v. to put a tar mark upon sheep. BUST, s. the mark 
itself. 

BUT AND BEN, the outer and inner apartment where there are 
only two rooms. Many houses on the borders, where the 
expression is common, are so constructed. V. Jam. ben. 

BUTTER AND BREDE. While the Southerns say, bread and 
butter, bread and cheese, bread and milk, the Northum- 
brians place in the rear that great article the staff of life. 



CADG 35 

BUTTER-FINGERED, said of persons who are apt to let things 

fall, or slip through their fingers. 
BUZZOM, or BUSSOM, a besom or broom. 
Buy broom hissoms, 

Buy them when they're new, 
Buy broom lussoms, 

Better never grew Blind Willie's Song. 

BYAR, BYER, a house in which cows are bound up a cow- 
house. " The mucking of Geordie's byre." V. Jam. 

BYE-BOOTINGS, BY-BOLTINGS, or SHARPS, the finest kind of 
bran ; the second in quality being called TREET, and the 
worst CHIZZEL. 

BYSPELT, a strange, awkward figure, or a mischievous person, 
always acting contrary to reason, or propriety, as if labour- 
ing under the influence of a spell. 

C. 

CACK, alvum exonerare. Lat. cacare. Teut. Jtacken. CACK, 
CACKEY, from the verb. 

CACKLE, to make a noise like a hen, to giggle. 

CADGE, to carry. Cadger, to a mill. Teut. ketzen, discurrere. 
It also means to stuff or fill the belly. Hence a person is 
said to be CADGY, cheerful, merry, after good eating and 
drinking. 

CADGER, a packman or travelling huckster. Before the for- 
mation of regular turnpike roads from Scotland to North- 
umberland, the chief part of the commercial intercourse 
between the two kingdoms was carried on through the 
medium of cadgers. Persons who bring fish from the sea 
to the Newcastle market are still called cadgers. 
Here cadgers of commerce, commodities cart, 
With hucksters and hawkers, to Mayor Millar's mart. 
Song, Framlington Fair. 



36 , CAFF 

CAFF, chaff. Sax. ceaf. Germ, and Dut. leaf. 
CAINGY, peevish, ill-tempered, testy. 

CAIRN, a rude heap of stones found on the summit of hills and 
in other remarkable situations. Gael, carne. 
On many a cairn's gray pyramid, 
Where urns of mighty chiefs lie hid. 

Scott's Lay of the last Minstrel. 

CALF-LICK, or COW-LICK, a tuft on the human forehead which 
cannot be made to Her in the same direction with the rest 
of the hair. This term must have been adopted from a 
comparison with that part of a calf's or cow's hide, where 
the hairs, having different directions, meet and form a pro- 
jecting ridge, supposed to be occasioned by the animals 
licking themselves. 

CALF-YARD, a person's birth-place, a Newcastle-man's fireside. 
Aw've leern'd to prefer me awn canny calf-yaird ; 
If ye catch me mair frae't ye'll be cunnun. 

Song, Canny Ncwcassel. 

CALL, to abuse. They called one another ! 

CALL, to proclaim, or to give notice by the public crier. To 

be called at churchy to have the banns of marriage published. 

The ceremony of proclaiming every fair in Newcastle, 

which is attended by the officers of the corporation, in 

state, is denominated calling the fair. 
GALLANT, a stripling ; a man clever or much esteemed. Q. Fr. 

gallant ? 
CALLER, cool, fresh. " Caller herrings" " caller cocks," or 

" caller cockles" " caller ripe grosers" Newc. cries. Isl. 

kalldur, frigidus. 
CALLET, to scold. CALLETING, saucy, gossiping. A CALLET- 

ING HOUSEWIFE, a regular scold. 
A collet of boundless tongue Sliak. Winter's Talc. 



CANT 37 

CAM, a ridge, hedge, or old earthen mound. Sax. comb. 
CAMMERELL, a large stretcher used by butchers. 
CAMPLE, to argue, to answer pertly and frowardly when re- 
buked by a superior. Germ, kampfen, to contend. 
CANDLE-CAP, an old hat without a brim, with a candle in front, 

used by butchers. 

CANKER, rust. CANKERED, cross, ill-conditioned. 
CANNY, a genuine Newcastle word, applied to any thing supe- 
rior or of the best kind. It refers as well to the beauty of 
form as of manners and morals ; but most particularly is 
used to describe those mild and affectionate dispositions 
which render persons agreeable in the domestic state. 
" Canny Newcassel," par excellence, is proverbial. CANNI- 
NESS, caution, good conduct. 

God bless the king and nation ! 
Each bravely fills his station, 
Our canny corporation, 

Lang may they sing, wi' me. 

Song, The Keel Row. 
CANT, to upset, to overturn. 

Bob canted the form, with a kevel, 

As he was exerting his strength ; 
But he got on the lug such a nevel, 
That down he came all his long length. 

Tlie Collier's Pay Week. 
CANT-DOG, an handspike with a hook, used for turning over 

large pieces of timber. 
CANTING, a sale by auction, proclaimed publicly on the spot 

where it is to take place. Ital. incanto. 
CANTY, merry, lively, cheerful. Su.-Got. ganta, ludificare. 
* f Some canny wee boddie may be me lot, 
" And aw'll be canty wi' thinking o't." 



38 CAP 

CAP, to overcome in argument, to excel in any feat of agility. 

Tuet. kappe, the summit. CAPPER, one who excels. 
CAPSIZE, to overturn. 

CAR-HANDED, left handed. One of the ancient Kings of Scot- 
land was called " Kinath-Kerr," or Kinath the left handed. 
CARL, KARL, a country fellow, a gruff old man. Sax. ceorl. 

Isl. karl. Dut. kaerel. 

CARLINGS, grey peas steeped all night in water, and fried the 
next day with butter. They are served at table, on the 
second Sunday before Easter, called CARLING SUNDAY, 
formerly denominated Care Sunday, which is Passion Sun- 
day, as Care Friday and Care Week, are Good Friday 
and Holy Week supposed to be so called from that being 
a season of great religious care and anxiety. 
CARR, flat marshy land ; a pool or lake. 
CARROCK, or CURROCK, a heap of stones, used as a bounder 
mark or as a guide for travellers. Also a mountain, ap- 
pearing at a distance, by which, when the sun appears over 
it, the country people compute the time of the day. 
CARR Y-ON-THE- WAR, to keep up or continue fun or mischief 
after it has once commenced. 

Ah ! no ; in Heaton cellars they 

Would rather chuse to be, 
Most jovial, carrying-on-the-tvar, 
All under lock and key ! Song, Blacketfs Field. 

CASINGS, CASSONS, COW-BLADES, cow dung dried for fuel. 
CASSEN, cast off; as " cassen clothes." CASSEN-TOP, a top 

thrown off with a string. 
CAST, a twist or contortion. 
CASTER, or CASTOR, a little box ; as pepper caster. Wanting 

in this sense in Todd's John. 
CAST-UP, to upbraid, to reproach. 



CHAN 39 

CAT-HAWS, the fruit of the white thorn. The larger ones are 

called bull-haws. 
CAT'S-FOOT, ground-ivy. 

CATTERWAULING, wooing, courting ; or rather rambling or in- 
triguing in the night. 
CAT-WITH-TWO-TAILS, an earwig. 
CAUD, cold. Teut. fraud, frigidus. 
CAVE, or KAVE, to separate, as corn from the straw or chaff. 

Teut. kaven. 
CAVEL, or KAVEL, a lot. Teut. kavel. To CAST CAVELS, to 

cast lots. Teut. kavelen. 
CAWKERS, the hind parts of a horse's shoe sharpened, and 

pointed downwards, to prevent the animal from slipping. 

Also the iron plates put upon clogs, which see. Lat. calx. 
CERTEES, SARTIES, certainly. A good old Spenserian word, 

used also by Shakspeare and others. MY CERTES ! maw 

sartees, upon my faith ! in good truth. 

" Blue stockings, white clocks, and reed garters, 
" Yellow breeks, and my shoon, wi' lang quarters, 

" Aw myed wor bairns cry, 

" Eh ! sarties ! ni ! ni ! 
" Sic verra fine things had Bob Cranky." 

CHAFFS, CHAFTS, jaws, jaw-bones, chops. 

CHAMBERLYE, CHEMMERLEY, fetid or stale urine. Omitted 
by both Johnson and Todd, though found in a passage 
cited from Shakspeare under the wordjorden. 

CHANGELING, a child of a peevish or malicious temper, or dif- 
fering in looks from the rest of a family supposed to have 
been changed, when an infant, by the gipsies. The fairies 
of old were famous for stealing the most beautiful and 
witty children, and leaving in their places such as were 
ugly and stupid. 



40 CHAP 

CHAP, to knock, as at the door. Scotch. 
CHAP, CHEP, a customer. Also a general term for a man, used 
either respectfully or contemptuously. 
When aw was drest, 
It was confest 
"We shem'd the cheps frae Newcassel-o. 

Song, Swalwell Hopping. 

CHARE, a narrow lane or alley. Peculiar to Newcastle, where 
there are several, particularly on the Quay-side. Sax. 
cerre, diverticulum. Some, however, think from the word 
ajar, partly open. 

CHATTERED, bruised. Corruption of shattered. 
CHATTER-WATER, tea. I suppose from chattering or gossiping 
over it. 

Whyles, o'er the wee bit cup an* platie, 
They sip the scandal potion pretty, 

Burns, Twa Dogs. 

CHEERER, a glass of spirit and warm water. Not a bad meta- 
phor. 

CHEG, or CHEGGLE, to gnaw or champ a resisting substance. 

CHIEVE, to succeed, to accomplish any business. An old word 
used by Chaucer. Fi^ chevir, to master. 

CHILDER, children. The Saxon plural termination. 

CHILDERMASS-DAY, the feast of the Holy Innocents, a festival 
of great antiquity. An apprehension is entertained by the 
superstitious that no undertaking can prosper which is begun 
on that day of the week on which it last fell. Pure Sax. 

CHIMLAY, chimney. 

CHIMLAY-PIECE, mantel-piece. CHIMLAY-NEUK, chimney-cor- 
ner. 

CHIP, to crack or partly break ; said of an egg when the young 
bird cracks the shell. Dut. kippen, to hatch or disclose. 



CLAM 41 

CHIP-OF-THE-OLD-BLOCK, a child who in person or sentiments 
resembles its parents. BROTHER-CHIP, a person of the 
same trade. 

CHOPP'D, CHAPP'D, or HACK'D-HANDS, frost-bitten hands. 

CHOPPING-BOY, a stout boy. Dr. John., dissatisfied with Skin- 
ner's definition of lusty, says, " perhaps a greedy, hungry 
child, likely to live," which is certainly erroneous. 

CHOUL, or JOWL, the jaw. Sax. ceole. 

CHRISTIAN-HORSES, a nickname for sedan-chairmen. 

CHUCK, a shell. CHUCKS AND MARVELS, a game among chil- 
dren. 

CHUCKER, DOUBLE-CHUCKER. Terms well known among 
Northern topers. 

CHUCKLE-HEADED, stupid, thick-headed. 

CHURN, or KERN-SUPPER, harvest home. See MELL-SUPPER. 

CHUSE-BUT, avoid. 

CLACK, excessive talking, clamour. Teut. Mack. 

CLAG, to stick or adhere. Dan. klteg. CLAGGY, having the 
property of sticking. 

CLAGHAM, CLAGGUM, treacle made hard by boiling. Newc. 
Called in other places in the North, clag-candy, lady's taste, 
slittery, torn trot, and treacle ball. 

CLAM, to castrate a bull or ram. 

CLAM, to starve, to be parched with thirst. Dut. klemmen. 

. When my entrails 
Were clamm'd with keeping a perpetual fast. 

Massinger, Rom. Actor. 

CLAMMERSOME, greedy, rapacious, contentious. Dan. klawmcr- 

vorn. 
CLAMP, to make a noise, to tread heavily in walking. Dut. 

klompen. Sw. klampig. 
CLAMPS, pieces of iron at the ends of a fire-place. 



42 CLAN 

CL ANKER, a beating, a chastisement. 

That day aw Hawks's blacks may rue, 
They gat mony a very sair clanker, O ; 
Can they de owse wi' Crowley's crew 
Frev a needle tiv an anchor, O. 

Song, Swalwell Hopping. 

CLAP, to touch gently, to fondle, to pat. CLAP-BENNY, a re- 
quest made to infants in the nurse's arms, to clap their 
hands, as the only means they have of expressing their 
prayers. Isl. klappa, to clap, and been, prayer. 

CLAPPER, the tongue, especially when too voluble. 

CLART, to daub, to bemire. CLARTS, plural of dirt or mire. 
CLARTY, miry, dirty, wet, slippery. 

CLASH, to gossip. Germ, klatschen, to prattle. Also to throw 
any thing carelessly or violently. 

CLAUT, to scratch or claw, to scrape together. 

CLAVER, CLAVVER, to climb up ; mostly applied to children. 
It seems to be a corruption of cleavering, or adhering, mixed 
with the idea of climbing. ' 

CLAY-DAUBIN, a custom in Cumberland, where the neighbours 
and friends of a new married couple assemble and don't 
separate until they have erected them a cottage. From 
the number of hands employed it is generally completed in 
a day. The company then rejoice and make merry. 

CLECK, CLOCK, to hatch. Isl. klek. A hen sitting, or desirous 
of sitting on her eggs, is called a CLECKER, or CLOCKER. 

CLECK or CLOCK, CLECKING or CLOCKING, the noise made by 
a brooding hen, or when she is provoked. Isl. klak y clan- 
gor avium. 

CLECK, CLECKIN, the entire brood of chickens. 

GLEET, a stay or support in carpentry. 

CLEETS, pieces of iron worn by countrymen on their shoes. 



COAL 43 

CLEG, a fly, very troublesome in hot weather, particularly to 
horses. Dan. klaeg. 

CLEG, a clever person, an adept. 

CLEGNING, CLEANING, the after birth of a cow. 

CLEUGH, CLOUGH, a ravine, a valley, between two precipitous 
banks, generally having a runner of water at the bottom. 
Sax. dough. The admirers of old poetry are familiar with 
Clym of the Clough, a noted archer, and the companion of 
QUT celebrated Northern outlaws, Adam Bell nnd William 
of Cloudeslee. 

CLICK, to snatch hastily, to seize. Germ, klicken, to throw. 

CLIFTY, well managing, actively industrious. 

CLIP, to shear sheep. Dut. klippen. CLIPPING, a sheep- 
shearing. 

CLISH-CLASH, CLISH-MA-CLAVER, idle discourse bandied about. 

CLOFFEY, a slattern, a female dressed in a tawdry manner. 

CLOGS, a sort of shoes, the upper part of strong hide leather, 
and the soles of wood, plated with iron, often termed caw- 
kers. 

CLOINTER, to make a noise with the feet. A person treading 
heavily with shoes, shod with iron, is said to clointer. 

CLOIT, a clowr or stupid fellow. Teut. kloete. 

CLOUTERLY, clumsy, awkward. Dut. kloekte. 

CLUBBEY, a youthful game, something like doddart. 

CLUMP, a heavy mass. Germ. Mump. 

CLUMPY, CLUMPISH, awkward, unwieldy. 

CLUNG, closed up or stopped ; shrivelled or shrunk. 

CLUTHERS, in heaps. Welsh, cluder, a pile. 

COALS. To call over the coals, is to give a severe reprimand. 
Supposed to refer to the ordeal by fire. 

COALY, COLEY, a cur dog. Gael, culie, a little dog. Also a 
cant name among the boys for the lamp-lighter in Newcastle. 



44 COB 

COB, to pull the ear. A punishment among children. 

COBBY, COPPY, stout, hearty, lively ; also tyrannical, head- 
strong, or in too high spirits. 

COBLE, COABLE, COBBLE, a peculiar kind of boat, very sharp 
in the bow, and flat bottomed and square at the stern ; na- 
vigated with a lug sail. Used by the pilots and fishermen 
on the North-east coast of England. 

COBBLE, a pebble or stone that may be easily thrown or cobbled ; 
in some places confined to a large round stone. 

COBBLER' S-MONDAY, every Monday throughout the year a re- 
gular holiday among the " gentle craft." I am told this 
custom originated from the masters requiring the greater 
part of the day to cut out the week's work. 

COCK, a familiar salutation. " How are you, my cock ?" 

COCKER, a man addicted to cock-fighting ; a diversion still very 
prevalent among the lower orders, particularly the pitmen. 

COCKET, or COPPET, pert, apish. 

COCKS, a puerile game with the tough tufted stems of the rib- 
wort plantain. V. Moor, Suif. Words. 

CODD, a pillow or cushion. Sax. codde, a bag. Isl. kodde, a 
pillow. 

CODDLE, to indulge with warmth. Old Fr. cadeler, to bring 
up tenderly. 

COG, a wooden dish, a milk pail. Welsh, cawg y a bowl. 

She set the cog upon her head, 
An' she's gane singing hame ! 

Sail, of Cowdenknows. 

COCKERS, COGGERS, or HOGGARS, properly half-boots made of 
stiff-leather, or strong cloth, and strapped under the shoe ; 
but old stockings without feet, used as gaiters, are often 
so called. 



COGL 45 

COGLY, unsteady, moving from side to side, easily overturned. 
COKE, to cry peccavi. Ruddiman says, it is the sound which 

cocks utter, especially when they are beaten, from which 

Skinner is of opinion they have the name of cock. Dr. 

Jam. has to cry co/t, to acknowledge that one is vanquished, 

which he derives from O. Celt, coc, mechant, vile. 
COIL, a lump on the head from a blow ; also a great stir. In 

the latter sense it is used by Shak. and Ben. Jon. 
COIT, to throw. May be referred to the rural game of coils or 

quoits. 

COLD-FIRE, a fire made ready for lighting. 
COLLEY, butcher's meat. 
COLLOGUING, conversing secretly, plotting. Lat. colloqui. 

Old. 
COLLOP-MONDAY, the day before Shrove Tuesday, on which 

it is usual to have collops and eggs for dinner. 
COLT-ALE, an allowance of ale claimed as a perquisite by the 

blacksmith on the first shoeing of a horse. A customary 

entertainment given by a person on first entering into a 

new office, is called " Shoeing the colt.' 1 
COMB, COUM, a confined valley. Welsh, cwm. 
COME-THY-WAYS-HINNIE, come forward ; generally spoken to a 

person in kindness. 
COMFORTABLE, a covered passage boat on the river Tyne, so 

called from its containing superior accommodations to 

" Jemmy Joneson's Whurry ;" but little patronized since 

the introduction of steam-packets. 
COOK, to disappoint, to punish. " Aw'll cook you." 
COOM, the dust and scrapings of wood, produced in sawing. 
COMPETE, to rival, omitted by both John, and Todd. 
CON, to fillip. 
CORBY, a raven. Fr. corbeau. 



46 CORF 

CORF, a large basket made of strong hazle rods, called corf-rods, 

in which the coals are drawn from the pits. Lat. coring. 

Dut. korf. 

CORNEY, half tipsey. Allusion obvious enough. 
CORN-CRAKE, land-rail, or daker hen. 
COSEY, snug, warm, comfortable. Fr. cozzi. V. Le Roux. 
COT, a small bed or cradle. Old Fr. coite. 
COTTED, CLOTTED, entangled, matted together. The word is 

usually applied to hair or wool, as hankled is to silk, thread, 

worsted, &c. 

COTTERELS, Cash. 

The loss o' the cotterels aw dinna regaird, 

For aw've getten some white-heft o' Lunnun. 

Song, Canny NeiecasseL 

COTTERIL, a small iron bolt for a window. 

COUL, to scrape together dung, mud, dirt, &c. COUL-RAKE, 

the instrument by which this is performed. 
COUNGE, a large lump, as of bread or cheese. 
COUP, to empty, to overturn. To coup a cart to coup one's 

creils. Sw. guppa, to tilt up. 

COUP, COWP, to barter or exchange. Su.-Got. koepa. HORSE- 
COUPERS, horse dealers. 

A bonny sect when Tyne we saw, 

It set wor hearts a loupen, 
Is there a stream that's here belaw, 
That wiv it's fit for coupon. 

Song, % M. F., one of the Wultonian Club. 

COUP-CART, a short team, closed with boards. Teut. kuype. 
COUR, COWER, to stoop low, to crouch down by bending the 

hams. Su.-Got. kure. " Cooring o'er the hearth stone." 
COWE, Coo, to intimidate, to keep in subjection. Isl. kuga, 

adigere. COWED, COOED, daunted, dastardly, timid. 



CRAM 47 

COWED-COW, COWEY, a cow without horns. 

COW-PAW'D, left handed. 

COW-SHAREN, the leavings of the cow. Sax. scearn. Dung in 
Teutonic, is sharn, and in Suio-Gothic, skarn. We have 
also Skar-bud, an old word for a beetle ; supposed to be so 
called from its being continually found under horse or cow 
dung. It will astonish some of my South country readers 
when I inform them that fresh cow-sharen is occasionally 
applied, as a cooling poultice, to the faces of young dam- 
sels in Northumberland, if over flushed with any cutaneous 
eruption. 

COWSTROPPEL, a cowslip. Northumberland. 

COW-WA, or HOW-WAY, come away ! 

COYSTRIL, a raw inexperienced lad ; a contemptible fellow. 
He's a coward and a coyxtril that will not drink to my niece. 

Shak. Twelfth Night. 

CRACK, v. to brag or boast of any thing ; to praise it. Dut. 

kraaken. 

Ethiop's of their sweet complexion crack. 

Sfuik. Love's Lab. Lost. 

CRACK, s. chat, conversation, news. " What's your crack." 
CRACKER, a small baking dish. 
CRACKER, a small piece of glass shaped like a pear, and which, 

when the small end is broken off, flies into a thousand 

pieces ; Prince Rupert's drop. 
CRACKET, a low stool. 
CRACKS, an act of superiority. " I'll set you your cracks." 

IN A CRACK, quickly, immediately. 
CRAG, a rough steep rock. Pure British. 
CRAME, to mend by uniting, as joining broken china, or wooden 

bowls. V. Ray, cleam. CRAMER, the operator, generally 

a travelling tinker. 



48 CRAM 

CRAMMELLY, weak ; generally applied to walking. " The 

horse goes rather crammelly this morning." 
CRAMP, to contract, to crumple or pucker. Teut. krompen. 
CRANCH, to crush a hard substance between the teeth. Round 
sand thrown upon the floor is said to cranch under the 
feet. 

CRANKIES, a cant name for pitmen. See CRANKY. 
The Crankies, farrer back nor I naw, 
Hae gyen to Sizes to see trumpets blaw, 
Wi' white sticks, an' Sheriff, 
But warn't myed a sang of, 
Nor laugh'd at, like clever Bob Cranky. 

Song, Bob Cranky* s Complaint. 

CRANKLE, weak, shattered. Teut. krank. 

CRANKS, two or more rows of iron crooks in a frame, used as 
a toaster. 

CRANKY. That man in the village, who is most conspicuous 
for dress, or who excels the rest of the villagers in the 
sports and pastimes held in estimation amongst them, is 
called, by way of pre-eminence, the Cranky. Dur. and 
North. See CRANKIES. 

CRANKY, a. sprightly, exulting, jocose. It also means, ailing, 
sickly. Dut. krank. 

CRATE, a sort of basket made rectangularly of strong, upright 
rods inserted into cross pieces, and forming an open work 
side for packing glass and pottery ware. Lat. crates. 

CREE, to seeth ; hence creed wheat or barley. 

CREIL, a kind of semi-circular basket of wicker work, in which 
provender is carried to sheep in remote pastures, or on the 
mountains, during the distress of a snow storm. Its sides 
are stiff, and its bottom supple, serving for hinges. This is 
called a sheep cm/, and is strapped over a man's shoulders. 



CROS 49 

Baskets for fish and eggs, pens for poultry, and wicker uten- 
sils for various other purposes, are also called crcils in 
Newcastle and the neighbourhood. 

CREILED, placed or packed in a creil, as poultry or eggs. 

CREWEL, fine worsted of various colours, now chiefly confined 
to "what is used by females in learning embroidery. Lexi- 
cographers seem not to have understood the meaning of the 
word. One of the commentators on Shakspeare, quite 
ignorant of its sense, might have spared his remarks. 

CRIB, a child's bed. Not in Todd's John, in this sense. 

CRIMBLE-I'-TH'-POKE, to fly from an agreement, to act cow- 
ardly. 

CRINE, to pine, to shrink. Germ, kriechen. 

CRINKLE, to wrinkle, to bend under a load. 

CRIS-CROSS, the mark or signature of those who cannot write. 
The alphabet was formerly called the Christ-cross row, pro- 
bably from a superstitious custom of writing it in the form 
of a cross, by way of charm. 

CHOAKUM-SHIRE, a cant name for Northumberland, in which 
Newcastle may be included, from the peculiar croaking in 
the pronunciation of the inhabitants. 

CROCK, a flake of soot in an open chimney ; also short under' 
hair, in the neck ; and in some places an old ewe. 

CROOK, a disease in sheep, causing the neck to be crooked. 

CROON, CRUNE, to bellow like a disquiet ox. Dut. kreunen, to 
groan. CROONING, the cry of the beast. It is also fre- 
quently applied to the cowardly and petted roaring of a 
disappointed child. 

She can o'er cast the night and cloud the moon, 
And mak the deils obedient to her crune. 

Ramsay, Gent. Shepherd. 

CROSS-GRAINED, testy, ill-tempered. 



50 CROS 

CROSS-THE-BUCKLE, CROSS-OWRE-THE-BUCKLE, a peculiar and 
difficult step in dancing. Newc. To do it well, is con- 
sidered a great accomplishment. 

Bob Inez thee at lowpin and flingin, 
At the bool, foot-ball, clubby, and swingin : 
Can ye jump up and shuffle, 
And cross owre the buckle, 
When ye dance ? like the clever Bob Cranky. 

Song, Bob Crunky's 'Size Sunday. 

CROWDY, a mess of oatmeal a genuine Northumbrian dish ; 
especially when prepared and eaten, according to the ap- 
proved receipt of the author of " Metres, addressed to the 
Lovers of Truth," &c. See his admirable directions p. 
213, 2d Edit. 

CROWDY-MAIN, a riot, a mixture of high and low, any confu- 
sion. 

CRO\VLEY'S-CREW, sons of Vulcan attached to the extensive 
iron works, at Winlaton and Swalwell, in the neighbour- 
hood of Newcastle, established by Sir Ambrose Crawley 
about 130 years ago, and said to be governed by a peculiar 
code of their own. 

CRUDDLE, to curdle. It also means, to crouch, to shrink. 
Mr. Wilbraham has CREWDLE or CROODLE, to crouch to- 
gether like frightened chickens on the sight of a bird of 
prey. 

CRUICK-YOR-HOUGH, crook-your-hough, sit down a friendly 
invitation. 

Wiv huz i' the North, when aw ? m wairsh i' my way, 

(But t' knaw wor warm hearts ye yor-sell come), 

Aw lift the first latch, and baith man and dame say, 

Cruick yor fwwgh, canny man, for ye're welcome. 

Song, Canny Neivcassel. 



CUND ,51 

CRUMP, hard, brittle, crumbling ; as bread or cake of that 

quality. 
CRUSE, CROOSE, or GROUSE, brisk, lively. " As crowse as a 

new washen louse." Old Prov. 
CRUT, a dwarf, or any thing curbed in its growth. 
CRUTTLES, crumbs, broken pieces. 
CUCKOO-SPIT, white frothy matter seen on certain plants in the 

spring. 

CUDDLE, to embrace, to squeeze, to hug. Teut. kudden. 
Now aw think it's high time to be steppin, 

We've sitten tiv aw's about lyem ; 
So then, wiv a kiss and a cuddle, 

These lovers they bent their ways heym. 

Song, The Pitman's Courtship. 

CUDDY, or CUDDY-ASS, an ass. Teut. kudde, grex. CUDDY' s- 
LEGS, a barbarous unmeaning name for large herrings, pecu- 
liar to the Newcastle fish market. 

CULL, s. a fool. CULL, a. silly, foolish. " Thou'rt a cull" is 
often used by a Northumbrian to cheat the devil of his 
due, by avoiding the denunciation of calling his brother a 
fool. 

Some culls went hyem, some crush'd to town, 
Some gat aboot by Whickham-o. 

Song, Swalwell Hopping. 
Our viewer sez, aw can't de better, 
Than send him a story cull letter. 
But writing a'll let rest ; 
The pik fits maw hand best, 
A pen's ower sma for Bob Cranky. 

Song, Bob Crarikifs Complaint. 
CULLY-SHANGEY, a riot or uproar. 
CUNDY, CUNLIFP, a conduit. 



52 CUR 

CUR, a term of reproach ; as " ketty cur" a vile person. 

CURFEW, the evening bell. Its origin and purpose are too 
well known to need repetition here. I merely allude to it 
for the purpose of stating that its name is still retained in 
Newcastle, where it is rung at the original time eight in 
the evening. 

CURN-BERRIES, currants. CHURRY-RIPE-CURN-BERRIES, New- 
castle cry for currants. 

CUSHAT, the ring dove, or wild pigeon. Major Moor is dispos- 
ed to derive this pretty word from Coo-chat, that is cooing 
and chattering; but I have little doubt the true etymo- 
logy is Sax. cusceate, from cusc, chaste, in allusion to the 
conjugal fidelity of the bird. 

CUSHY-COW-LADY, a beautiful little scarlet beetle, with black 
spots; sometimes called Lady-bird. 

CUT, a quantity of yarn, twelve of which make what is called 
a hank, the same as skain in the South. 

CUT-AND-COME-AGAIN, a hearty welcome, plenty. 

CUTE, quick, intelligent, sly, cunning, clever. Mr. Wilbraham 
thinks this word is probably an abbreviation of acute, but 
is it not more likely direct from Sax. cuth, expertus ? 

CUTES, KUTES, the feet. 

Did ever mortal see sic brutes, 

To order me to lift my cutes. 

Ad smash the fool, he stands and talks, 

How can he leam me to walk, 

That's walk'd this forty year, man ? 

T/te Pitman's Revenge against Bonaparte. 

CUTTER, to fondle, to make much of. 

GUTTERING, the cooing of a pigeon. Also applied to private 

or secret conversation. Dut. Jcouten. 
CUTTY, short. Gael, cutach. CUTTY-GUN, a short pipe. 



DARK 53 

D. 

DAD, to shake, to strike. " A dad on the head." DAD-OF- 

BREAD, a large piece of bread. 
DADDLE, to walk unsteadily, to saunter or trifle. DAWDY, a 

slattern. Isl. dauda doppa. 

DADDLE, the hand. " Give us a shake of your daddleT 
DADGE, DODGE, to walk in a slow clumsy manner. 
DAFFLE, to betray loss of memory and mental faculty. Per- 
sons growing old and in their dotage, are said to dqffle, and 

to be dqffiers. 
DAFT, simple, foolish, stupid. Su.-Got. doef, stupidus. Daffie 

occurs in Chaucer, Peirs Ploughman, &c. 
DAG, v. to drizzle. DAG, s. a drizzling rain. " Daggy day." 

Isl. daugg. 

DAGGLE, or DRAGGLE, to bemire. DAGGLED, DRAGGLED, dir- 
tied. "Draggle-tailed Dorothy-o !" According to Ray, 

from dag, dew upon the grass. See DAG. 
DAINTY, pleasant, worthy, excellent. Isl. daindis. 
DAIRNS, small, unmarketable fish. 
DAKER-HEN, land rail, or corn-crake. 
DAME, DEAME, the mistress of the house. V. Note in Climb. 

Ball. p. 65. 

DANDY-CANDY, DOG'S-T*#D, candied sweetmeats. Newc. 
DANG, a foolish evasion of an oath. 
DANNAT or DONNOT, a good for nothing, idle person ; generally 

a female. Do-naught. The devil, in Cumberland. 
DAPPER-FELLOW, a pert, brisk, tidy little man. 
DARK, DART, v. to listen with an insidious attention. Allied 

to the old verb, dark, used by Chaucer, Spenser, and 

others. 
DARK, a. blind. ALMOST DARK, nearly blind. QUITE DARK, 

stone blind. 



54 DARN 

DARN, to mend stockings, &c. by chequering the threads. 
Welsh, darn, to patch. 

DASH-MY-EUTTONS, a moderated imprecation. 

DAUBER, a plasterer. The ancient style of a branch of the 
fraternity of bricklayers in Newcastle was Callers and Dau- 
bers. The cat was a piece of soft clay thrust in between 
the laths, which were afterwards daubed. 

DAVER, to stun, to stupify. DAVERED, benumbed, stupified. 
Teut. daveren, tremere. 

DAW, to dawn. Sax. dcegian, to grow light. 

The other side from whence the morning daws. 

Dray ton, Polyolbion. 

DAYTILMAN, DAYTALEMAN, a day labourer, chiefly in husbandry. 
One who tills by the day. 

DAZE, to dazzle, to stupify, to frighten. Teut. daesen, deli- 
rare, insanire. 

DAZED, blinded with splendour, astounded, benumbed with 
frost. 

DAZED-MEAT, meat ill roasted. DAZED-BREAD, bread not well 
baked. 

DEAD-HOUSE, a place in Newcastle for the reception of drowned 
persons. 

DEAD-NIP, a blue mark on the body, ascribed by the vulgar to 
necromancy. V. Kilian, dood-nepe. 

DEAF, rotten ; as a deaf nut. Teut. doove noot. Barren or 
blasted ; as deaf corn, which is pure Saxon. 

DEAN, DENE, properly a dell or deep wooded valley, with run- 
ning water at the bottom, but applied to any hollow where 
the ground slopes on both sides. Sax. den, a cave or lurk- 
ing place. 

DEAVE, to deafen, to stupify with noise. Isl. deyfa. 



DILL 55 

DEBATEABLE-LANDS, large tracts of wild country, on the con- 
fines of Northumberland, which were a continued source 
of feud and contention, until all disputes respecting them 
were compromised, under an arbitration, between the 
houses of Percy and Douglas. 

DEEDS, rubbish of quarries or drains. 

DEBT, or DIGHT, to dress or clean, to winnow corn. Sax. 
dihtan, parare, disponere. See KEEL-DEETERS. 

DEFT, pretty, neat, clever, handy. Stated in Todd's John, to 
be obsolete, but not so in the North. Sax. dceft, idoneus. 

He said I were a deft lass. Brome's Northern Lass. 

DEG, to moisten with water, to sprinkle. Sax. deagan, tingere. 
This word, used by Shak. in the Tempest, is not in Todd's 
John., nor in Nares. 

DESSE, v. to lay close together, to pile up in order. DESS, s. 
a truss of hay. Chaucer uses c?m, for a seat, and Spenser 
has desse, a desk or table, from old Fr. dais. 

DEUCE, the devil, or an evil spirit. " Deuce take him." St. 
Austin makes mention of some libidinous demons, or 
spirits, that used to violate the chastity of women, which 
spirits, he says, the Gauls called duses (quos dusios nuncu- 
pant Galli.) V. Aug. de Civit. Dei. 1. i. c. 23. 

DICKY-WITH-HIM, all over with him. Said of a person when 
ruined, or thwarted. 

DIDDER, to shiver with cold. Germ, zittern, to tremble. V. 
Skinner. 

DIFFICULTER, more difficult. A common comparative. 

DIKE, a ditch, hedge, or fence. Teut. dijck, agger. In a coal 
. mine, it means a large crack or breach of the solid strata, 
A depot for coals at the staith is also called a dyke. 

DILL, to soothe pain. Isl. dilla, lallare. 



56 DING 

DING, to dash with violence. Su.-Got. daenga, tundere. 
DING-DOWN, ding-doon, to overthrow. Very common. 

DING, to push or drive. Sax. denegan, to beat. 

DINMAN, or DINMONT, a female sheep after the first shearing. 

DINNEL, DINNLE, or DiNDLE, to be affected with a prickling or 
shooting pain, as if of a tremulous short motion in the par- 
ticles of one's flesh ; such as arises from a blow, or is felt 
in the fingers when exposed to the fire after frost. Dut. 
tintelen, to tingle. 

DIRDOM, DURDUM, a great noise, or uproar. Gael, diardan, 
anger. Welsh, dwrdd, a stir. 

DIRL, to move quickly, to thirl, to whiz. Sax. thirlian, per- 
forare. 

'Twas but yestreen, nae farther gaen, 

I threw a noble throw at ane ; 

Wi' less, I'm sure, I've hundreds slain ; 

But deil-ma-care, 
It just play'd dirl on the bane, 

But did nae mair. 

Burns t Death and Doctor Hon/hook, 

DISGEST, digest. Used by Beaum. and Flet. and others. 

DISH-FACED, hollow faced. 

DISHER, a maker of wooden bowls or dishes. 

DIPNESS, depth. Isl. diup. altum. 

DIZENED, BEDIZENED, dressed, decorated. 

I put m} r clothes off, and I dizcn'd him. 

Beaum. $ Flet. Pilgrim. 

DOBBIES, spirits or demons. They appear to be of different 
kinds. Some attached to particular houses or farms are 
of a good humoured disposition, and though naturally lazy, 
are said to make, in cases of trouble and difficulty, incre- 






DODD 57 

dible exertions for the advantage of the family ; such as 
stacking all the hay, or housing the whole crop of corn in 
one night. Others residing in low granges or barns, or 
near antiquated towers or bridges have a very different 
character imputed to them. Among other pranks, they 
will sometimes jump behind a horseman, and compress 
him so tightly, that he either perishes before he can reach 
his home, or falls into some lingering and direful malady. 
DOCKON, the dock, rumex obtusifolius. A charm is connected 
with the medicinal application of this plant. If a person 
be severely stung with a nettle, it is customary to collect 
a few dock leaves, to spit on them, and then to rub the 
part affected, repeating the incantation, " In dockon, out 
nettle," till the violent smarting and inflammation subside 
seldom exceeding ten minutes. These words are said to 
have a similar effect with those expressed in the old Monk- 
ish adage, "Exeat ortica, tibi sit periscelis arnica;" the 
female garter bound about the part which has suffered, 
being held a remedy equally efficacious. Mr. Wilbraham 
remarks that," In dock, out nettle" is a kind of proverbial 
saying, expressive of inconstancy. This observation will 
contribute to explain an obscure passage in Chaucer's 
Troilus and Creseide, b. iv. st. 66. 

'* Thou biddest me I should love another 

** All freshly new, and let Creseide go, 

" It lithe nat in my power, leve brother, 

" And though I might, yet would I nat do so, 

" But canst thou plaien raket to and fro, 

" Nettle in, dock out, now this, now that, Pandare ? 

" Now foule fall her for thy wo that care." 

DODD, to cut wool from and near the tails of sheep. BCD- 
DINGS, the cuttings. Dod, to lop, as a tree, is an old word. 
" Dodder'd oak." i 



58 DODD 

DODDART, a bent stick with which the game of doddart is play- 
ed. Two captains choose their party by alternate votes, 
when a piece of globular wood, called an orr or coit, is 
thrown down in the middle of a field, and each side endea- 
vours to drive it to the alley, hail, or goal. Same as 
cltibbey, hockey, shinney, shinneyhaw. 

DODDED, without horns, as dodded sheep. Perhaps an abbre- 
viation of doe-headed. 

DODDER, BOTHER, to shake, to tremble ; to nod, as in the 
palsy of decrepitude. DODDER-GRASS, quaking grass, briza. 

DODGE, to jog, to incite. 

DODY, a corruption of George, applied only to children, and 
originating in a childish pronunciation of Georgee, by the 
common infantile substitution of d for g, and the not un- 
common omission of r, especially in Newcastle, when a 
broad vowel precedes. 

DOFF, to undress, to put off. From do of. See DON. 

Thou wear'st a lion's liide. 

Doff" it for shame Sftak. King John. 

DOG, a wooden utensil in form of a dog, with iron teeth, for 
toasting bread. Also a piece of iron placed at each end of 
a fire place to keep up the fire. 

DOLE, to set out or allot ; applied to land. Sax. dcelan to di- 
vide. In Cumb. a narrow plot of ground in a common 
field, set out by land-marks, is called a DEAIL. 

DOLE, grief, sorrow, lamentation. Old Fr. dol, dole. Mod. 
Fr. deuil. By no means obsolete, as stated in Todd's 
John. Alms distributed at funerals are still called doles. 

DON, to dress, to put on. An old word froa do on. Stated 
in Todd's John, to be obsolete ; but it i common use 
in the North See DOFF 



DRAF 59 

DONCY, affectedly neat, accompanied with the idea of self-im- 
portance. 

DOOK, or DUCK, to bathe. Dut. ducken. 

DOOSE, DOUCE, DOUSE, snug, comfortable, clean, neat, tidy, 
sweet-looking applied to a beautiful and attractive wo- 
man. Lat. dulcis. Fr. doux, douce. 

DOOSE, DOUCE, a blow. " Doose-i'-the-chops," a blow on the 
face. DOOSEY, or DOOSEY-CAP, a punishment among boys. 

DOUBLE, to clench. " He doubled his neif." 

DOUP, DOWP, clunes. Isl. Dof. " As fine as F**ty-Poke's 
Wife, who dressed her doup with primroses." A New- 
castle comparison. 

DOUTSOME, hesitating, uncertain as to the event. 

Dow, Doo, a little cake. See YULE-DOW. 

DOWLY, lonely, melancholy, sorrowful. " A dowly place" 
" a dowly lot." 

DOWN-COME, a fall in the market, or indeed in any other sense. 

DOWN-DINNER, tea, or any afternoon's repast. V. Bouch. 
aandorn. 

DOWN-HOUSE, the back kitchen. 

DOWN-IN-THE-MOUTH, dispirited, dejected, disheartened. 

DOWN-LYING, an accouchement. 

DOWP, a carrion crow. 

DOWPY, the smallest and last-hatched of a breed of birds. 

DOXY, a sweetheart ; but not in the equivocal sense used by 
Shak. and other play writers. 

DOZENED, spiritless, impotent, withered. 

DRABBL'D, DRABBLE-TAILED, dirtied. Draggled. 

DRAFF, brewers' grains, with which cows amcl swine are fed. 
Teut. draf. Both Hanmer and Johnson have misinter- 
preted this Shakspearian word, and Nares hath perpetuated 
the error. 



60 DRAP 

DRAPE, a cow whose milk is dried up. Sax. drepen, to fail 
having failed to give milk. Drape sheep, oves rejiculae, 
credo ab A. S. drape, expulsio, draped, abactus. Skinner. 

DRAUP, DREAP, to drawl, to speak slowly and monotonously. 

DRAWK, DRACK, to saturate with water. Su.-Got. draenka, 
aqua submergere. 

DREAP, to drench. " Dreaping o' wet." 

DREE, to suffer, to endure. Sax. dreogan, to undergo. 

He did great pyne and meikle sorrow dree Ross, Helenore. 

DREE, weary, long, tediously tiresome. Apparently a rapid 
pronunciation of Germ, durre, dry, both in a physical and 
metaphorical sense ; but see Dr. Jam. In Northumberland, 
within the memory of old people, the farmers had a sort 
of cart without wheels, drawn by one horse, called a dree. 

DRESSER, a long chest of drawers about three feet high, with 
an opening in the centre for pots and pans, making a sort 
of kitchen table. Teut. dressoor. Fr. dressoir, a side-board. 

DRIBLET, " a small sum ; odd money in a sum." Dr. John. 
It, however, means a small inconsiderable thing of any sort. 

DRIP, stalactites, or petrefactions. 

DRONING, a lazy indolent mode of doing a thing. Dronish is 
a very old word. 

DROUGHT, DRAUGHT, a team of horses in a cart or waggon, 
both collectively taken. 

DRUMLY, DRUMMELY, muddy, confused. Misled by Hanmer 
and Pegge, to drumble is in Todd's John, misinterpreted 
to drone, to be sluggish. The example from Shale. Merry 
Wives of Windsor, " Look how you drumble" unquestion- 
ably means how confused you are. 

Then bouses drumly German water, 
To mak himsel look fair and fatter. 

Burns, Twa Dogs. 



DUNG 61 

DRUNKARD'S-CLOAK, a great tub or barrel of a peculiar con- 
struction, for the punishment of drunkards in Newcastle. 
V. Gardiner's Englands Grievance, p. in., and Brand's 
History of Newc. vol. ii, p. 192. 

DRUVE, DRUVY, dirty, muddy. Sax. ge-drefan, turbare. 

DDE, a small pool of water ; a piece of deep and smooth wa- 
ter in a rapid river. Mre.-Got. diep, deep. Celt, dubh, a 
canal. 

DUBLER, DOUBLER, a large dish of earthenware. Dobeler is in 
Peirs Ploughman. " Mugs and dublers, wives !" Newc. 
Cry. 

DUB-SKELPER, bog-trotter ; applied to the borderers. 

DUCKET, a dove-cot. 

DUCKS AND DRAKES, a pastime. Flat stones or slates are 
thrown upon the surface of a piece of water, so that they 
may dip and emerge several times, without sinking. " Nei- 
ther cross and pile, nor ducks and drakes, are quite so an- 
cient as handy-dandy." Arbuthnot and Pope, quoted in 
Todd's John. I do not know the age of handy-dandy, but 
the sport of ducks and drakes is of high antiquity, being ele- 
gantly described by Minutius Felix. 

DUD, a rag. Gael. dud. DUDS, clothes of a dirty or inferior 
kind. V. Jam. DUDMAN, a scare-crow. 

DULLBIRT, DULBURT, DuLBARD, a stupid person, a blockhead. 
Q-Dullbirth? 

DULL, hard of hearing. Same in Scotland. 

DUMFOUNDED, perplexed, confused. V. Jam. dumfounder. 

DUMPY, sullen. IN THE DUMPS, a fit of sullenness. Dut. 
dom, dull, stupid. 

DUNGEONABLE, shrewd, or as the vulgar express it, devilish. 
As Tartarus, signifies hell and a dungeon ; so dungeon is 
applied to both. Ray. 



62 DUNS 

DUNSH, DtmcH, to push or jog with the elbow. Teut. donsen. 

DUNTER, a porpoise. 

DUSH, to push with violence. Teut. doesen, pulsare cum im- 

petu. 
DUST, tumult, uproar. " To kick up a dust." Su.-Got. dyst, 

dusty tumultus, fragor. Also money. " Down with your 

dust." 
DWINE, to pine, to be in a decline or consumption. Sax. dwi- 

nan, tabescere. DWINY, ill thriven. DWAIN, a fainting 

fit, or swoon. 

And then hee sickened more and more, and dried and 
divined away. Hist. Prince Arthur, part 3, chap. 175- 

E. 

EALD, old age. Pure Saxon. Chaucer has elde, and Shak. 

eld. 
EAM, EAME, uncle. Sax. eame. 

Henry Hotspur, and his eame, 
The Earl of Wor'ster Drat/ton, Polyolbion. 
The nephues straight deposed were by the eame. 

Mirror for Magistrates. 

EAR, a kidney, as the ear of veal. It is supposed to be so 
called from its resemblance to an ear, and being a name 
more delicate than kidney j but it is probably a corruption 
of Germ, mere, a kidney. The old name, presenting a less 
familiar idea, might be retained from Delicacy, as the old 
French words mutton, veal, beef, and pork, are considered 
less offensive than sheep, calf, ox, and pig, when these 
animals are brought to table. 

EARN, YEARN, to coagulate milk. V. Ihre, ranna. 

EARNING, YEARNING, rennet. Sax. gerunning. 



EIGH 63 

EASINGS, eaves of a house* Sax. efese. Peirs Ploughman has 

evesynges. 
EATH, EITH, easy. Sax. eaih. 

Where ease abounds yt's eath to do amiss. Spenser, F. Q. 
EAVER, EEVER, a corner or quarter of the heavens. V. Wilb. 

and see ART. 
EDDER, the long part of fence wood put upon the top of 

fences. Dr. John, says, not in use ; but I have heard it 

in most of the Northern counties. 
Save edder and stake 
Strong hedge to make Tnsser, Husbandry. 

EE, singular of eye. Sax. eag. EEN, plural. Sax. eagan. 
Chaucer uses eyen, for the eyes. 

EE, a spout ; as the mill-ee. 

EELEATORS, young eels from two to five inches long. Hordes 
of little urchins wander about the shores of the Tyne, 
at low water, in search of them under the stones. When 
secured by the head, they use the following jargon, 
" Eele ! Eeleaator ! cast your tail intiv a knot, and aw'l 
thraw you into the waater." 

EEM, leisure. Seldom, I think, used, except in Cumb. V. 
Wilb. 

EGG, EGG-ON, to instigate, to incite. Sax. eggian. 

Wherfore, they that eggen or consenten to the sinne, 
been partners of the sinne, and of the dampna- 
tion of the sinner. Chaucer, Persones Tale. 

EGGLER, a person who goes about the country collecting eggs 
for sale. 

EIGH, EYE, AYE, yes. The use of this adyjerb is perhaps more 
characteristic of a Northern dialect than any other word 
that could be named, as it is nearly universal and uniform ; 



64 EKEO 

though it is probable it was at first merely a provincial 
mode of pronouncing the old ya. So far as I remember, 
it does not occur in Chaucer ; nor am I aware that it is to 
be met with in any publication, older than the time of 
Shakspeare. 

EKE-OUT, to use sparingly. Chaucer has eeke y to add to, to 
increase. 

ELBOW-GREASE, hard rubbing, or any persevering exercise 
with the arms. " Lucernum olere," old Prov. 

ELDIN, ELDING, fuel, such as turf, peat, or wood. Sax. eelet. 
Isl. elldr. Dan. ild. 

ELF-LOCKS, entangled or clotted hair. It was supposed to be 
a spiteful amusement of Queen Mab, and her subjects, to 
twist the hair of human beings, or the manes and tails of 
horses, into hard knots, which it was not fortunate to 

loose. 

This is that very Mab, 

That plats the manes of horses in the night ; 
And bakes the elf-locks in foul sluttish hairs, 
Which, once untangled, much misfortune bodes. 

ShaJc. Rom. and Jul, 

ELF-SHOTS, the name vulgarly given to the flint arrow heads 
of our ancestors, supposed to have been shot by fairies. 
There every herd, by sad experience knows 

How wing'd with fate, their elf-shot arrows fly, 
When the sick ewe her summer food foregoes, 
Or stretch'd on earth the heart-smit heifers lie. 

Ode, Pop. Superstit. Highlands , p. 10. 

ELL-DOCKENS, butter bur, great colts'-foot. Tusselago major. 

North. 

ELLEK, ELLICK, Alexander. 
EU.ER, ALLER, the alder, Sax. eelr. Germ, eller. This 



EVIL 65 

tree abounds in the North more than in any other part of 
the kingdom, and seems always to have been there held in 
great respect and veneration. A contrary notion coun- 
tenanced by Shakspeare has, however, prevailed, in con- 
quence of Judas, as it is said, having been hanged on a 
tree of this kind ; but for which I have in vain searched 
for an ancient authority. 

ELL-MOTHER, step mother. 

ELSE, already. Sax. dies. 

ELSIN, ELSON, an awl. Teut. aelsene, subula. " A cobbler's 
elson." 

ELSPITH, Elizabeth. 

END-IRONS, two large moveable iron plates used to contract 
the fire place. When a great fire is wanted they are placed 
at a distance; and nearer for a small one. V. Skinner, 
and-irons. 

ENOO, ENOW, by and by. " Aw'l come enoo." 

ESH, the ash tree. Teut. esch. 

ETOW, or ATOO, broken in two. 

ETTLE, to intend, to attempt, to take aim. V. Ihre. cetla. 

EVENDOON, even down, plain, honest, downright. " Even doon- 
thump." 

EVIL-EYE, an envious, malicious eye. 

You shall not find me, daughter, 
After the slander of most step-mothers, 
Evil-eyed unto you. Sliak. Cymleline. 

The superstitious supposed the first morning glance of a 
person with an evil-eye to be certain destruction to man 
or beast. Though the effect might not be instantaneous, 
it was eventually sure. If he, who had this unfortunate 
propensity, were well disposed, he cautiously glanced his 



66 EWEG 

eye on some inanimate object, to prevent the direfiil con- 
sequences. Connected with an evil-eye, is a common ex- 
pression in the North, " no one shall say black is your eye," 
i. e. no body can justly speak ill of you. 

Doll, in disdaine, doth from her heeles defie ; 
The best that breathes shall tell her Mack's far eye : 
And that it's true she speaks, who can say nay ? 
When none that lookes on't but will sweare 'tis gray. 

Old Epigram. 

Tho' he no worth a plack is, 
His awn coat on his back is, 
And nane can say that black is, 

The white o' Johnny's ee. 

Song, The Keel Row. 



EWE-GOWAN, the common daisy. 
EWER, URE, YURE, an udder. 



North Tindale. 



F. 

FAD, fashioned. " 111 fad." The Scotch have ill-faur'd, ill 
favoured, and weel-faur'd, well favoured. In Promptorium 
Parvulorum sive Clericorum,we find, "comlyorwell/an/?zge 
in shape ; elegans ;" and in Hormanni Vulgaria, we have, 
"he looked unfaringly, aspectu fuit incomposito." See 
FARAND. 

FAD, FAUD, a bundle of straw, twelve of which make a thrave. 
Sa\.feald, plica. 

FADGE, a bundle, as of sticks. Sw.fagga, onerare. 

FADGE, a small flat loaf, or thick cake. Fr.fouace. 

FAGGOT, a contemptuous epithet for a female. " Faggot of 
misery." " Idle Faggot." 

FA IKES ! FAIX ! faith, upon my faith. 



I 
FANT 67 

FAIN, glad. " Fair words make fools fain." Prov. Sax. 
fcsgan. Isl.feginn. 

Ah York, no man alive aojfaw'as I. 

ShaK. 2. Hen. VI. 

* . * " - 

FAIR, FAIRING, a present at or from a fair. " How are you 

for my fair ?" " How are you for mine, aw spoke first." 
FAIR-FALL-YOU, a blessing attend you. 

FAIRY-BUTTER, a fungus excrescence, sometimes found about 
the roots of old trees. After great rains, and in a certain 
degree of putrefaction, it is reduced to a consistency, which, 
together with its colour, makes it not unlike butter. 
FAIRY-RINGS, circles of dark green grass, frequently visible in 
meadow fields; round which, according to Fairy mytho- 
logy, these " pretty ladies" were accustomed to dance by 
moonlight. 

" Those rings and roundelayes 

which yet remaine, 

On many a grassy plaine." 

Fame's Farewell. 

They do request you now 
To give them leave to dance a fairy-ring. 

Randolph, Amyntas. 

The footseps of fairy and fay 
In the grassplot are plain to be seen, 

Where at midnight, in dancing the hay, 
They lighten the cares of their Queen. 

Derwent, an Ode, p. 12. 

FAMILOUS, relating to a family. " 'Tis a familous complaint." 
1 FAND, found. 

FANTOME-CORN, lank, light corn. FANTOME-HAY, light, well 
gotten hay, V. Ray. 



68 FARA 

FARAND, s. state of preparation for a journey fashion, man- 
ner, custom. FARAND-MAN, a traveller or itinerant mer- 
chant. FARANT, a. equipped for a journey fashioned, 
shaped ; as fighting-farant, in the fighting way or fashion ; 
well or ill-farant, well or ill looking. See AUD-FARANT. 
FARANTLY, adv. orderly, in regular or established modes. 
All these expressions may be traced to the old verb 
FARE, (from Sax.jfaraw,) to be on a journey. We may, as 
remarked by Dr. Willan, wonder at the ideas of foresight, 
preparation, and formal style, connected with a journey in 
our island ; but on reverting to the time of the Heptarchy, 
when no collateral facilities aided the traveller, we shall be 
convinced that a journey of any considerable extent, must 
have been an undertaking that would require much previous 
calculation, and nice arrangement. Indeed, within the last 
century, what we now call a trip from Newcastle to Lon- 
don, was considered so perilous an enterprize, that the 
traveller, as a necessary precaution, regularly made a will, 
and arranged his most important affairs. 

FARE, to near or approach. " The cow fares a-calving." 

FARLIES, trifles. " Spying farlies." FAROES, or FERLIES, 
strange things; properly sudden, or unexpected. Sax. 
ferlice. The word occurs in Peirs Ploughman, and in the 
writings of Chaucer, Drayton, and others. 

FARN, or FAREN-TICKLED, freckled, sun burnt. FARN-TICKLES, 
freckles on the skin ; said to be from resembling the seeds 
of the fern -freckled with fern; but perhaps, fair and 
tickled, fair and freckled. 

FASSENS-EEN, Fastings-even, Shrove Tuesday evening. The 
eve of the mass of the great feast, orfeasting's even. 

FASH. v. to trouble, to teaze. " I cannot be fash'd." Fr. 
facher. FASH, s. trouble, care, anxiety. Fr. facherie. 
FASIIIOUS, a. troublesome. ~Fr.facheiu',facheuse. 



FECK 69 

FAST AND LOOSE, or PRICK IN THE BELT, a cheating game^ still 
occasionally practised byfaws, and low sharpers at fairs. 
V. Nares. 

FAT-HEN, muck weed, or goose foot. Chenopodium album. 
FAUD, FAD, fold yard. PIN-FAD, pinfold. Sax.fald, stabulum. 
FAUGH, fallow. Mr. Wilbraham says an abbreviation of the 
word ; but is it not from Isl. faaga, polire, or Su.-Got. 
feia vel futia, purgare ? 

FAVOUR, to resemble, to have a similar countenance or appear- 
ance. " He favours his father." Cheshire has no exclu- 
sive claim to this word. V. Wilb. 
Good Faith, me thinks that this young Lord Chamont 
Favours my mother, sister, doth he not ? 

Ben Jon, Case is Altered. 

FAWS, itinerant tinkers, or venders of pottery ware ; generally 
accompanied by their wives and families. Like their an- 
cestors the gipsies, the female branches are still famous at 
palmistry and fortune telling. In Lodge's Illustrations of 
Brit. Hist. vol. i., p. 135, is a curious letter from the Jus- 
tices of Durham to the Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Presi- 
dent of the Council in the North, dated 19th Jan. 1549, 
concerning the gipsies and faws. FAW-GANG, a company 
of riffraff. 

FEAL, to hide. " He that feals can find." Prov. Isl.fel, 
occultare. 

FEARFUL, FEARFOO, very, exceeding. " Fearful sorry" very 
sorry. 

FEAT, neat, dextrous. Su.-Got. fatt, apt, ready. FEATLY, 
dextrously. 

She dances f catty Shak. Winter's Talc. 

FECK, might, activity, abundance. Perhaps Sax.faeck, space. 
In Scotland, Feck, is quantity; many feck, plenty; little 



70 FECK 

feck, scarcity. Germ. fach, a portion or compartment ; 
ein fach, single; twey fach, double; mehr fetch, many fold. 

FECKFUL, strong, powerful, brawny. 

FECKLESS, feeble, helpless, inefficient. 

FELL, s. a rocky hill, a mountain or common scarcely admit- 
ting of cultivation. Isl. fell, one mountain resting on 
another. Su.-Got. fiaell, a ridge of mountains. Germ. 
fels, a rock. 

FELL, a. sharp, keen. Hence fell, savage, cruel, &c. 

FELLON, a disease in cows, occasioned by cold. Skinner de- 
rives it from Sax. fette, cruel, on account of the anguish 
the complaint occasions ; and the author of the Crav. Gloss, 
from Dut. felen or feylen, to fail ; because milch cows, 
which are subject to it, fail of giving their milk ; or from 
hellen, to bow or hang down, as the udders of cows are 
frequently enlarged in this disease. A cutaneous eruption 
in children is also called the fellon. 

FELTERED, entangled. 

Hisfcltrcd locks that on his bosom fell. Fairfax. 

FEMMER, weak, slender. Isl./rawmr, mollis. 

FEN, to appear to do any thing neatly, or adroitly, not to be 
deterred by shame. FENSOME, neat, becoming, adroit. 
" I cannot fen," signifies I am restrained by a sort of awe 
arising from the presence of some person for whom I hare 
a respect or dread. 

FEND, to make a shift, to be industrious, to struggle with diffi- 
culties, to ward off. " He fends hard for a living." It is 
also used in allusion to the state of health, as "how fends 
it," z. e. how are you in health. FENDY, good at making 
a shift, warding off want. Fend, is an old word for sup- 
port. 



FETT 71 

FEND AND PROVE, to argue and defend. 

FERE, FIBRE, a brother, friend, or companion. Sax. gefera, 
socius. 

And here's a hand, my trusty fere, 

And gie's a hand o' thine : 
And we'll tak a right gude willie-waught, 

For auld lang syne. Burns, Auld Lang Syne. 

The word is used by Spenser for a husband. 
But faire Clarissa to a lovely fere 
Was lincked, and by him had many pledges dere. 

Spencer, Faerie Queene. 

FEST, to bind or place out an apprentice under an indenture.. 
Su.-Got. faesta, to fasten. FESTING-PENNY, money given 
by way of earnest, to a servant, at a hiring. 
FEST, or THE FEST, a place at the Quay, Newcastle, where 
keelmen generally receive their orders. 
There pitmen, with baskets and gay poesy waistcoats, 

Discourse about nought but whee puts and hews best ; 

There keelmen, just landed, swear may they be stranded ; 

If they're not shav'd first while their keel's at the /a*. 

Song, Quayside Shaver. 

FETTLE, v. to put in order, to repair or mend any thing that is 
broken or defective. Dr. John, explains this word " to 
do trifling business, to ply the hands without labour," and 
calls it a cant word from feel. Mr. Todd corrects this 
mistake, and quoting Grose's definition which is different 
from that here assigned to it, thinks it probably comes from 
Su.-Got.fykt, studium. The word has the same meaning 
in Cheshire as that which I have given, and Mr. Wilbra- 
ham says, " it appears to me to be derived with some de- 
flection of the word, faire, to do, which itself comes from 
the Latin facere. The nearest which occurs to me is the 



73 , FETT 

old French word faiture, which has exactly the same mean- 
ing as our substantive fettle, and is explained by Roque- 
fort, in his Glossaire de la Langue Romaine, by Fapon, 
mode, forme" fyc. 

FETTLE, s. order, good condition, proper repair. Used by 
Roger Ascham, in his Toxophilus. 

FEW, is used not only for a small number, but also for a little 
quantity ; as a " little few broth.'* 

FIDDLESTICK, an inter] ectional expression of disbelief or doubt, 
usually bestowed on any absurd, nonsensical conversation. 

FIDGING, uneasy, impatient. 

FIG, to supply ginger to a horse, to excite him to carry a fine 
tail. A common practice at fairs. 

FIKE, v. to fidget, to be restless or busied about trifles. Su.- 
Got.fika, cursitare. FIKE, s. restlessness, trifling cares. 
FIKEY, a. fidgetty, minutely troublesome. 

FILE, to soil, to foul, to defile. Sax. afylan, contaminare. 

FINNIKING, FINNIKY, trifling, scrupulously particular. Perhaps 
variations of 'finical. 

FIPPLE, the under lip. " See how he hangs his fipple^ V. 
Jam. faiple. 

FIRST-FOOT, the name given to the person who first enters a 
house on New Year's Day regarded by the superstitious 
and the credulous as influencing the fate of the family, espe- 
cially the fair part of it, for the remainder of the year. To 
exclude all suspected or unlucky persons, I find, it is cus- 
tomary for one of the damsels to engage, before hand, some 
favoured youth, who elated with so signal a mark of female 
distinction gladly comes early in the morning, and never 
empty handed. 

FISSLE, FISTLING, to make a rustling noise, to fidget. Tent, 
futselen, agitare. 



w 



FLEE 73 

FITT, to vend or load coals. FITTER, the vender or loader. 
RUNNING-FITTER, his deputy. 

FIX-FAX, a sort of gristle, the tendon of the neck. Germ. 
jftachse. 

Fizz, to scorch, to fly off, to make a hissing noise. Isl.fysa. 
FIZ-GIG, a comical person. FIZZLE, a jocular name for 
a mistake of the most offensive kind. 

FIZZOG, PHYSIOG, the face. Contraction of Physiognomy. 

FLACKER, to flutter, to vibrate like the wings of a bird under 
alarm, to quiver. Su.-Got. fieckra. Germ, flackern. 
Flicker is used by Chaucer and Shakspeare. 

FLAH, FLAW, a square piece of turf, dried and used as fuel. 
Sax./eaw, to flay off. 

FLAM, a fall also flattery bordering on a lie. 

FLAPPER-GHASTED, frightened, as if by a ghost. Moor has 
flabber-gasted, astonished, confused. 

FLAUT, FLOUGHT, a roll of wool carded ready for spinning. 

FLAY, to frighten. FLAY'D, affrighted, terrified, timorous. 
" Aw's flayed," I'm afraid. FLAYING, an apparition or hob- 
goblin. FLAY-SOME, frightful. FLAY-CRAW, a scare-crow. 

FLEA-BITE, FLEE-BITE, a ludicrous designation for any trivial 
pain or danger. 

FLECKED, spotted, streaked. Isl.Jlecka, discolor. 

FLEECH, to supplicate in a flattering manner, to wheedle. 
Teut.Jletsen. FLEECHING, flattering, supplicating. 

FLEE or FLY-BY-THE-SKY, a silly, flirting, absurdly dressed, gig- 
gling girl. 

FLEET, shallow ; as a fleet pan or vessel, fleet water. Sax. 
fading, fluxus. 

FLEET-MILK, milk without cream ; from the vedo fleet > to skim 
off the surface. 



74 FLEI 

FLEING-EATHER, flying-adder, the pond or marsh fly. The vul- 
gar are afraid of being stung by it. 
FLICK of bacon, a side or flitch of bacon. SzK.flicce. 

Another broughte a spycke 
Of a bacon flicke Skelton. 

FLIGGED, fledged. " Flig'd o'er the doup" Isl. fldgur ; 

hence fliggers, young birds that can fly. 
FLINDERS, shreds, broken pieces, splinters. Dut. flentern. 
FLING, to dance in a peculiar manner, as the Highland fling. 
Also to kick. 

The angry beast, 
Began to kick andfting. 

Butler , Hudibras. 

FLIRE, to laugh, or rather to have a countenance expressive of 
laughter, without laughing out. 1s\.Jlyra t subridere. 

FLISK, to skip or bounce. " She's v.flisky jade," Su.-Got. 
flasa y lascivire, or Sw.Jlasig, frolicksome. 

FLIRTIGIG, a wanton, giggling lass. 

FLIT, to remove from one habitation to another, Su.-Got. 
fiytta. FLITTING, the act of removing. MOONLIGHT-FLIT- 
TING, going away in debt to the landlord. 

FLITE, to scold, to make a great noise. Sax.^ztew, to brawl. 
FLITING, scolding, brawling. 

FLITY, giddy, light headed. " kflity body." 

FLOW, PLOUGH, cold, windy, boisterous, bleak. " Its flow 
weather." " Here's a flow day." 

FLOWTER, a fright. FLOWTERED, affrighted. 

FLUCK, FLOOR, FLUCKER, JENNY-FLUCKER, a flounder. Sax. 
floe, a flat fish. 

FLUMj^Mmwery, flattery. 

FLUNG, deceived, beaten. " He was sadly flung." 



FOUM 75 

FLUSTERATION, hurry, confusion, sudden impulse. 
FLY-BY-NIGHT, a worthless person who gets into debt, and runs 

off, leaving the house empty. 
FOG, the grass grown in autumn after the hay is mown. 

One with another they would lie and play, 

And in the deep fog batten all the day. Drayton. 

FOIST, to smell musty. Not in Todd's John, as a verb. 
FOOTING, an entertainment given on entering at a school, or on 

any new place or office. 
FOND, foolish. An old Northern word. FOND-AS-A-BUSSOM, 

remarkably silly, ridiculously good-natured. 
FORCE, or FORSE, a cascade or waterfall. Su.-Got. fors, a 

cataract. The High Force in Teesdale is an object of great 

sublimity. 

FOREBY, besides, over and above. Dan.forbi, by, past, over. 
FORE-ELDER, an ancestor. Sax. forealdian. 
FoRE-EiN 7 D, the beginning of a week, month, or year. 

I have lived at honest freedom ; pay'd 
More pious debts to heaven than in all 
The fore-end of my time. 

Shak. Cynibcline. 

FORE-HEET, forethought ; from FORE-HEED, to pre-consider. 
HAVING-TO-THE-FORE, having any thing ready or forth- 
coming. 

FOBENENST, opposite to, over against, towards as in part pay- 
ment of a debt. 

FORKIN-ROBBIN, an ear wig ; so called from its forked tail. 
Ray. 

FOUMART, FOOMART, a pole cat. Foulmart. Old Eng. fuli- 
mart. 



76 FOZY 

FOZY, FUZZY, light and spungy. Sax. wosig, humidus. Teut. 
voos, spongiosus. 

FOUT, FOWT, an indulged or spoiled child ; any foolish person. 

FOUTER, a despicable low fellow. FOUTY, FOOTY, base, mean. 
Old Fr.foutu, a scoundrel. 

FRAME, to attempt. " He frames well" he appears to do it 
well. " How does he frame" how does he set about it. 
Sax.fremman, efficere et formare. 

FRATCH, to scold, to quarrel. FRATCHER, a scold, or quarrel- 
some person. 

FRATISHED, perished, half frozen. 

FREELAGE, the freedom, or privilege, of a burgess. Ncwc. 
Germ, frilatz, free. 

FREET, FREIT, a spectre or frightful object, a superstitious ob- 
servance or charm. Isl.frett, an oracle. 

FREM'D, strange, foreign, not related to. FREM'D-PERSON, a 
stranger. Sax. and Germ, frem'd. Dan. fremmct. The 
word is also used to denote any thing uncommon. " It's 
rather frem^d to be ploughing with snow on the ground." 

FRESH, the swelling of a river, a flood, a thaw. 

The butter, the cheese, and the bannocks, 

Dissolved like snow in afresh, 
And still as they stuck in their stomachs, 

With liquor they did them down wash. 

Tlie Mitford Galloway's Ramble. 

FRESH, metaphorically, partly intoxicated. Fou, quite tipsey. 
DRUNK as Newgate, DRUNK as a lord, completely be- 
sotted. 

FRET, FREET, to lament, to grieve. " She freets dreadfully 
after the bairns." 

FRETTEN, spotted, marked ; as pock-fretten. Sax. frothian, 
fricare. 



FUDG 77 

FRIDAY. This in the calendar of superstition is a day of ill 
omen, on which no new work or enterprize must be begun. 
Marriages, I believe, seldom happen on it, from this cause. 
Dr. Buchanan, in his interesting paper on the religion and 
literature of the Burmas (Asiatic Researches, vol. 6. p> 172) 
informs us, that with them " Friday is a most unlucky day 
on which no business must be commenced." 

" Friday's moon, 
Come when it will, it comes too soon." Prov. 

FRIM, handsome, thriving, in good case. Sax./ra>w, fortis. 

FROATING, anxious, unremitting industry. 

FROUGH, loose, spungy, easily broken ; often applied to wood, 

as brittle is to mineral substances. 
FROW, FROWE, a slattern, a lusty female. Dut. mow. Germ. 

frau. 

Buxom as Bacchus' frocs. 

Beaum. $ FlcL Wit at scv. Weapons. 

FRUGGAN, the pole with which the ashes in an oven are stirred. 
FUDDER, FOOTHER, f other, as much as a two-horse cart will 

contain. Sax. /other, a wain-load. 

FUDDLE, food ale, drinking to excess, so as to make ale the 
chief food. 

Oh ! the rare virtues of this barley broth ; 
To rich and poor it's meat and drink and cloth. 

Praise of Yorkshire Ale, p. 6. 

" Merrily, merrily fuddle thy nose, 

" Until it right rosy shall be ; 
" For a jolly red nose, I speak under the rose, 

" Is a sign of good company." 

FUDDLE, to intoxicate fish. Unacknowledged by Waltonians. 
FUDGE, fabulous. Sax..ftzgan, according to Skinner, a merry 
story. FUDGY, a little fat person.-w-Crau. Gloss. 



78 FUFF 

FUFF, to blow or puff. Germ. pfuJfen.FvFFY, light and soft. 
FUR, a furrow. Sax. fur. RIG-AND-FUR, ridge and furrow. 

" Rig and furr'd stockings." 
1?usBA,fuzzball, a fungus found in fields, which, when pressed, 

emits quantities of dust, 
FUSOME, handy, handsome, neat. 

Fuss, to attempt to do any thing in a hurried or confused man- 
ner. 

G. 
GAB, v. to prate, to tattle. An old word. GAB, GABBING, GOB, 

s. idle talk, prating. 

GAD, GAED, a fishing rod. Sax. gad, stimulus. 
GADDING, gossiping going about from house to house. 
GAGER, GADGER, an exciseman. From to gauge, a part of his 

employment. 

GAILY, pretty well ; a common answer to the salutation, " How 
are you?" GAY, tolerable. " He's a gay sort of person.'* 
Also considerable. " A gay while." 

GAIN, a curious Northumbrian expression, of doubtful etymo- 
logy, and of various signification, generally attached to 
other words to express a degree of comparison ; as gain 
quiet pretty quiet; gain brave tolerably courageous; 
gain near conveniently near or at hand. 
GAITINGS, single sheaves of corn set up to dry. Isl. gat. for- 
amen. 

GALE, GEYAL, to ache with cold ; as the fingers do when frost 
bitten ; or when very cold water is taken in the mouth. 
Also to fly open with heat or dryness, as is often the case 
with particular kinds of wood, such as holly, box, &c. 
The first sense is perhaps from Lat. gelu, frost, cold ; or 
from Germ, gellcn, to tingle. 

GALLEY-BAUK, a balk in a chimney, with a crook, on which to 
hang pots, &c. 



GAUV 



79 



GAM, to make game of, to quiz. 

GANT, or GAUNT, to yawn. Sax. ganian. 

GAN, GANG, to go. Sax. gan. GANG, a row or set. GANG- 
WAY, a temporary passage or thoroughfare. Sw. gaang, a 
passage. 

GANTREE, GANTRY, a stand for ale or beer barrels. V. Jam. 

GAR, to make, to force, to compel. " I'll gar you do it." 
Dan. giore. 

GARS, GURSE, grass. Sax. gcers. GURSING, a grazing, a pas- 
ture. 

GARSIL, small branches cut for the purpose of mending hedges. 
Similar to rice. 

GARTH, a small inclosure adjoining to a house. Sax. geard, a 
yard. The church-yard is called the kirk-garth. 

GATE, GAIT, a right of pasturage for cattle. Their stray or 
grazing for any specified tune. 

GATE, GYET, a way, path, or street. In many of the Northern 
towns the names of streets which end with gate, as Bailiff- 
gate, Narrow-gate, &c. have no allusion to gates having 
ever been there. Isl. gala. 

GAUM, to comprehend, to understand, to distinguish, to consi- 
der. Moe.-Got. gaumgan. Teut. gauw. 

GAUMLESS, silly, ignorant, vacant. 

GAUP, to stare vacantly. " What are ye gauping at." Dut. 
gaapen, to gape. 

GAWKY, s. a vacant, staring, idiotical person. Sw. gaek. Germ. 
geek, a fool. 

GAWKY, a. awkward, stupid, foolish. See GOWK. 

GAUVE, to stare about in a clownish manner. Germ, gaffen, 
adspectare. V. Wachter. 

GAVELOCK, a strong iron bar used as a lever. Sax. gaveloc, 
catapulta. Su.-Got. gqfflak, jaculi genus apud veteres Sui- 
ogothos. 



80 GAVE 

GAVY, an ungainly female, " of a strange gait, and of unco man- 
ners." 

GAWVISON, a simpleton, a gaping silly fellow. 

GEAR, stock or wealth of any kind. " A vast o* gear." Sax. 
geara. GEARS, draught horse trappings. 

GECK, to toss the head scornfully. Teut. glecken, ludere. 

GED. In the Northern parts of Northumberland, anglers catt 
the pike a ged. 

We'll crack how mony a creel we've filPd, 

How mony a line we've flung, 
How mony aged and sawmon kill'd, 

In day's when we were young. 

Fither't Garland, 1824. 

GEE, an affront, stubbornness. " Took the gee? a common 
phrase. 

GELD, to deprive any thing female of the power of generation. 
This is its old sense, and is so used by Shak. in the Win- 
ter's Tale, when Antigonus threatens his three daughters. 
Its other sense, I believe, is general. 

GENTLES, maggots or grubs, used as bait for fishing. 

GESLING, a gosling. Su.-Got. gaasling. 

GEVV-GAW, a Jew's harp, the Scotch trump. 

GIBB, a hook. GIBBON, GIBBY, GIBBY-STICK, a walking stick 
with a hook, or the top bent down for a handle ; a nut 
hook. 

GIBBY-STICK, confectionary in that form. 

GIB-FISH, the milter of the salmon. See some very curious in- 
formation concerning it, in the North Country Angler, p. 
39 and seq. 

GIBRALTAR-ROCK, veined sweetmeat sold in lumps, resembling 
a rock. 



GIRD 81 

GIF, if. Pure Saxon. 

GIFF-GAFF, unpremeditated discourse. " Giff-gaff makes good 

fellowship." 
GIFTS, white specks on the finger nails, presages of felicity, 

not always realized. V. Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 639. 
GIGLOT, a giddy laughing girl. Shak. has it in a worse sense. 
GILDER, GILDERT, a snare, made of horse hair or small wire, for 

catching birds. See Bewick's cut of the Tawny Bunting. 

Giler, deceiver, occurs in Chaucer. 
GILL, a narrow glen with steep and rocky banks on each side, 

and with a runner of water between these banks. Isl. gil, 

fissura montium. 
GILLABER, to chatter nonsense. " What are you gillabering 

about," a true old Northumberland expression. 
GIMLICK, a gimlet. GIMLICK-EYE, a squint, vulgo, cock-eye. 
GIMMER, a female sheep from one to two years old. GELT- 

GIMMER, a barren ewe. A GIMMER-LAMB, a ewe lamb. 

The word gimmer is also used contemptuously among the 

lower orders of women in Newcastle. Q. Dut. gemalen? 
GIMP, or JIMP, spruce, nice in person or manner. 
GIN, if. Old. V. Ray. 

Gin a body meet a body, 

Coming through the rye $ 
Gin a body kiss a body, 

Need a body cry ? Scottish Ballad. 

GINGER-PATED, GiNGER-HECKL'D, red haired. 
GINNEY-TIV-A-SHILLING, the confident wager of the Knights of 

the Cleaver. 

GIRD, GURD, a hoop. Sax. gyrdel, cingulum. 
GIRDLE, a circular iron plate, with a bow handle, on which 

cakes are baked. In more simple times a slate, called a 

M 



82 GIRN 

backstone, was used for the purpose. Su.-Got. grissel. V. 
Eire. 

GIRNEGAW, the cavity of the mouth. From girn, the old word 
for, and present northern pronunciation of, grin. 

GISERS, GUISERS, persons who dance in masks. A custom of 
great antiquity, not yet obsolete. Teut. guysc-setter, 
sannio. 

GISTTNG, the feeding of cattle, which, in some places, are called 
gisements ; the tythe due for the profit made by such gist- 
ing, where neither the land nor the cattle otherwise pay 
any thing. Old Fr. giste, demeure, habitation, endroit ou 
1'on couche. Roquefort. 

GIVE, to menace or threaten. " I'll give it you." 

GIZENED, opened, cracked, pined ; as an empty cask exposed 
to the sun. Isl. gisinn, hiulcus . 

GIZZERN, the gizzard. Fr. gesier. Old mode of spelling. 

GLAKY, giddy, unsteady, playful. 

GLARE, GLAUR, dirt, filth. 

GLAVE, smooth. Hence, glavering, flattering. 

GLAVERING, GLAIVERING, talking foolishly or heedlessly. 
Germ. Uaffen. 

GLAZENER, a glazier. Very common. 

GLEAD, a kite. Sax. glida. Su.-Got. glada, milvus. 

GLEE, GLEY, GLEAD, to squint. V. Ray. 

GLEEK, to deceive or beguile. In this sense is to be read the 
expression from Shakspeare, " I can gleek upon occa- 
sion," misinterpreted by Hanmer and Pope, to joke, or scoff; 
&nd given as an example, in Todd's John, under " to sneer," 
to gibe, to droll upon. Mr. Lambe, on this passage, sen- 
sibly remarks, that, " a fool may utter rustic jokes or 
scoffs ; but it requires some small share of art or wisdom, 
to beguile or deceive." 



GOKE 83 

GLEG, v. to glance, to look sharp. GLEG, a. slippery ; smooth, 

so as to be easily moved. Also clever, adroit. Isl. gtiggr, 

acutus, perspectus. 

GLENT, to peep, to glance. Isl. glenna, pandere. 
GLIFF, a slight or transient view, a glimpse, a fright. " Eh ! 

what a gliff I'd getten in the kirk garth, the neet now ! 

He was sect a tenth in the cleevcrs that gard him rin se 

fast." 

GLIME, to glance slyly, to look out at the corner of an eye. 
GLINTIN, GLINTING, glancing, shining. 

The Shepherd he's whistling o'er BarraJwrn brae, 
And the sun beams are glintin far over the sea. 

Fisher's Garland, 1823. 

GLOPPEN, to startle, to surprize. GLOPPENED, astonished, 

frightened. Q. Germ, glupen ? 
GLOWER, v. to gaze or stare with dilated eyes. Teut. gluyeren, 

to look asquint. GLOWER, s. a broad impudent stare. 
GLUMPS, sulkiness. Chaucer has glombe, and Skelton glum, 

GLUMPY, sullen or sour looking. To sit GLOUPING, to 

sit silent or stupid. 
GOB, the mouth ; hence to gobble. " Mump your gob, " scum 

your gob," low expressions in Newcastle. GOB-STICK, 

a spoon. V. Moor, p. 146-7. 
GOB-AND-GUTS LIKE A YOUNG CRAW, a burlesque expression, 

dealt out to ignorant people, too fond of talking. Of the 

same kind is, No GUTS IN YOUR BRAINS gross stupidity. 
GOBBET, a lump of meat that which is put into the gob or 

mouth. RAW-GOBBIT, or GOLBURT, an unfledged bird. 

Figuratively, any uncultivated person. 

GOKE, GOWK, the core of an apple, the yoke of an egg, the in- 
ner part of any thing. 



84 GOLL 

COLLAR, GOLLER, to shout, to speak in a boisterous or mena- 

cing manner. 

GONEILL, GONNERIL, a half-wit, a dunce. 
GOODMAN, the husband or master of the house. GOODWOMAN, 

the wife or mistress. 
GOR, GORE, dirt, any thing rotten or decayed. Pure Saxon. 

Glaur, has the same meaning. 

GOSSAMER, down of plants, cobwebs, vapour arising from 
boggy or marshy ground, in warm weather. There is an 
excellent article on this word in the Crav. Gloss. 
GOT, a word called into action on almost every occasion. Ex. 
r - 

She got her bed, and soon got about again. 

He got to Newcastle, and got back before night. 

The ship had got on the rocks, and then she was got off, 

and got into harbour* 
He got bad, he got worse, he got better, and then he got 

well 
He got away at last. 

GOTHAM, a cant name for Newcastle. 

Heav'n prosper thee, Qotham ! thou famous old town, 
Of the Tyne the chief glory and pride; 

May thy heroes acquire immortal renown, 

In the dread field of Mars, when they're try'd. 

Song, Kiver Awa\ 

GOWD, GOWDY, a toy, or play-thing. V. Todd's John. gaud. 
GOWDER, an obscene term ; borrowed, I suppose, from the in- 
tercourse of foxes. Hence the name of Gowdy-chare, in 



GOWK, a fool or simpleton ; the cuckoo. Teut. gauck. 
, April fool. 



GREE 85 

GOWPEN, GOWPING, the hollow of both hands placed together. 

Isl. gaupn. Su.-Got. goepn, manus concava. GOWPEN- 

FULL, as much as both hands united can hold. " Gold in 

Gowpens." 

GOWSTY, GOVVSTLY, ghastly, frightful. Also dismal or uncom- 
fortable, as applied to a house without ceiling, &c. " What 

a gowtfy hole he lives in.'* 
GRADELY, decently, orderly. Sax. grad, ordo. 
GRAINS, branches ; as the grains of a tree, the grains of a fork. 

Su.-Got. gren, ramus. 
GRAITH, to clothe or furnish with any thing suitable. Sax. 

gercsdian. 

GRAITHING, clothing. From the verb. 
GRANGE, a barn, granary, or store-house. Originally that 

belonging to the lord of a manor, or to a monastery. Fr. 

grange. 
GRAPE, to feel. Sax. grapian. See, a good article in Moor, 

Grope. 
GRAPE, a dung fork with three or more prongs. Su.-Got. 

grepe, tridens. 

GRAVELLED, vexed, mortified, perplexed. 
GRAWSOME, GROWSOME, ugly> frightful. Derived by Dr. Wil- 

lan from growse, to be chill ; to shiver, or to tremble with 

horror. 

GRAY-STONES, coarse mill-stones. Fr. groz. rough. 
GREAT, GREET, intimate, familiar. 
GREE, to agree. Old Fr. greer. To " bear the gree" to be 

victorious. 
GREEDY-GUT, a voracious eater. GREEDY-HOUNDS, hungry 

persons. 
GREEN-TABLE, the large table in the Guildhall, of Newcastle. 



86 GREE 

The jailor, for trial, had brought up a thief, 

Whose looks seemed a passport for Botany Bay ; 
The lawyers, some with and some wanting a brief, 
Around the green tdbk were seated so gay. 

Song, My Lord 'Size. 

GREENEY, the green grosbeak. Le Ferdier, BufFon. 

GREET, to cry, to weep. An old word. GRAT, wept. 

GREY-HEN, a large stone bottle. Often used on the borders 
for holding smuggled whiskey. Fr. boutcille de gres, a 
stone bottle. V. Moor, grey-beard. 

GREY-HEN, the female of the black-cock. 

GRIME, to mark or daub with soot. This is the only proper 
meaning of this Shakspearian word. GRIMY, sooty. 

GRIP, to grasp fast by the hand. Sax. gripan, to gripe. 

GRIP, GRUAP, GROOP, the space where the dung lies in a cow 
house, having double rows of stalls ; that is, the opening 
or hollow between them. Sax. grcep, a trench or sink. 
Hence the Javel Groop, in Newcastle. 

GRIPPY, mean, avaricious, hardly honest. Sax. gripcnd, ra- 
piens. 

GROANING, an accouchement. Etymon plain. 

GROANING-CAKE, the cake provided in expectation of the ac- 
couchement. It seems from time immemorial to have been 
an object of superstition, and persons have been known to 
keep a piece for many years. 

GROANING-CHAIR, the chair in which the matron sits to receive 
visits of congratulation. 

GROANING-CHEESE, or the SICK WIFE'S CHEESE, a large Che- 
shire cheese provided on the same occasion as the cake. 
I understand a slice of the first cut laid under the pillow, 
enables young damsels to dream of their lovers, particularly 



GUMS 87 

if previously tossed in a certain nameless part of the mid- 
wife's apparel. In all cases it must be pierced with three 
pins, taken from the child's pincushion. 

GROATS, oats with the hulls taken off, but unground. Sax. 
grut, grout. Groats were formerly much used in the com- 
position of black puddings, which see. Hence the northern 
proverb, " blood without groats is nothing," meaning that 
family without fortune is of no consequence. A street in 
Newcastle is called the Groat-market. 

GROBBLE, to make holes. 

GROSER, GROZER, a gooseberry. Fr. groseille. Lat. grossula. 

GROVES, the refuse of tallow chandlers, made into thick cakes 
as food for dogs. 

GRUFF, rough, savage, imperious. Su.-Got. grof, crassus. 

GRUMPHEY, a species of jostling among school boys, in en- 
deavouring to hide any thing which one takes from another. 

GUEST, a ghost. Sax. gast. The streets of Newcastle, it is 
said, were haunted by a nightly guest, in the shape of a dog, 
calf, or pig, to the no small terror of such as were afraid of 
shadows. Their gambols were frequently performed in the 
neighbourhood of the old " Dog-loup-stairs." 

GUESTNING, an hospitable welcome a warm reception. Isl. 
gisting, hospitum. 

GUIL, or GUILE-FAT, or VAT, a wort-tub in which the liquor 
ferments. Dut. gyl-kuip. 

GULLEY, a large knife used in farm houses, principally to cut 
bread, cheese, &c. for the family. Perhaps, originally a 
butcher's-, for the gullet. 

GUMSHON, GUMPTION, common x sense, combined with energy ; 
shrewd intelligence; a superior understanding. Ao ex- 
cellent word, of high antiquity referred by Dr. Jamieson 
to Moe.-Got. gaum-jan, percipere. 






88 HAAM 



H. 

HAAMS, HAMES, HAME-STICKS, two pieces of crooked wood 
attached to a horse's collar. Isl. hals, collum. Teut. 
hamme koe-hamme, numella. 

HACK, a strong pick-axe or hoe used in agriculture. Dan. 
hakhe, a mattock. 

HAD AWAY ! HAD AWAY ! go away ; a term of encouragement, 
I believe, peculiar to the north. 

HAFFLE, to waver, to speak unintelligibly. Dut. hakkelen, to 
falter or stammer. 

HAG, a sink or mire in mosses, or any broken ground in a 
bog ; a white mist, similar to dag ; a wood into which cat- 
tle are admitted ; also a cutting of hanging wood. 

HAGGAR-MAKER'S SHOP, a public house. 

HAGGIS, HAGGISH, a dish j made sometimes of fruit, suet, and 
minced entrails, and sometimes only of oatmeal, suet and 
sugar stuffed into a sheep's maw and boiled. It was till 
lately a common custom in many country places, to have 
this fare to breakfast every Christmas-day ; and some part 
of the family sat up all night to have it ready at an early 
hour. It is now used at dinner on the same day. Sold 
in the Newcastle market. 

Ye powers, wha mak mankind your care, 
And dish them out their bill o' fare, 
Auld Scotland wants nae skinking ware 

That jaups in luggies ; 
But, if ye wish her gratefu* prayer, 

Gie her a Haggis ! Burns. 

HAGGISH, an opprobious epithet for a female partaking, as it 
were, of the nature of a hag. 



HALL 89 

HAGMENA, HOGMENA, a name appropriated to December, and 
to any gift during that month, especially on the last day. 
The poor children in Newcastle, in expectation of their 
kogmena, go about from house to house knocking at the 
doors, singing their carols, and wishing a merry Christinas 
and a happy New Year. " Please will you give us wor 
hogmena" The origin appears quite uncertain. Some 
pretend to derive the term from the two Greek words, 
as/ice, pyvv), holy moon, while others maintain that it is 
only a corruption from the French, homme est ne, in allu- 
sion to the nativity. 

HAG-WORM, the common snake. Coluber natrlx. 
HAIN, to save, to preserve. Haining wood ; Haining land. 
HAKE, to loiter, to lounge, to sneak. 

HALFERS ! an exclamation entitling the person making it to 
half, or half the value, of any thing found by his com- 
panion. If the finder be quick he exclaims " no halfers 
findee keepee, lessee seekee," to destroy the right of claim. 
And he who sees you stoop to th' ground, 
Cries luilves ! to ev'ry thing you've found. 

Savage, Horace to Scceva imitated. 
HALLABALOO, HILLEBALOO, a noise, an uproar, a clamour. 

" Kick up a hillebaloo" " My eye, what a hillebaloo /" 
HALLE E'EN, HALLOWEEN, All Hallow Even, the vigil of All 
Saints' Day, on which it is customary with young people 
to dive for apples, or catch at them when stuck upon one 
end of a kind of hanging beam, at the other extremity of 
which is fixed a lighted candle, and that with their mouths 
only, their hands being tied behind their backs. V. 
Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 300. 

HABLEN, the corner at the entry into the house by means of 
the heck-door the partition between the door and the 

N 



$0 HALL 

fire-place. Su-Got haell, the stone at the thresh-hold. 
V. Ihre. 

HALLEN-PIN, a pin fixed upon the hcdlen for the purpose of 
hanging up coats, hats, &c. 

HALLEN-POST, the post at the extremity of the sconce. 

HALLION, a term of reproach. " Ye lang hallion." 

HAME, HAAM, home. A pure old word. Sax. ham. 

HAMSHACKLE, to fasten the head of an animal to one of its 
forelegs. Vicious cows and oxen are often so tied, espe- 
cially when driven to slaughter. 

HAN, plural for have. This old contraction of haven is not 
obsolete, as stated by Dr. Johnson. 

HANDY, a small wooden vessel with an upright handle. 

HANG-GALLOWS, a very worthless fellow a prophetic allusion 
to an ignominious end. 

HANGMENT . To play the hangment, is to be much enraged 
to play the very deuce. 

HANK, v. to fasten, to form into hanks or skains.- HANK, s. a 
skain of thread, a rope or latch for fastening a gate. Isl. 
hank y a collar or chain. To keep a good hank upon your 
horse, is to have a good hold of the reins. To make a 
ravelled hank, to put any thing into confusion. 

HANK, a habit. From hankering, a strong desire. 

HANKLE, to twist, to entangle thread, silk, or worsted. 

HANNIEL, a loose, disorderly fellow one not to be trusted. 

HANSEL, HANDSEL, the first money received for the sale of 
goods. The fish women and hucksters in Newcastle re- 
gularly spit upon what they first receive in a morning to 
render it propitious and lucky that it may draw more 
money to it. Su.-Got. handsoel t mercimonii divenditi 
primitiae. V. Ihre. Hansel is also the first us'e of any 
thing ; in which sense, however, I am inclined to believe it 
is general. 



HARR 91 

HANSEL-MONDAY, the first Monday in the New Year; 
when it is customary to make children and servants a pre- 
sent. 

HANTLE, much, many. Sw. antal, number; or perhaps a 
handful. 

HAP, to cover up warmly, as in bed. Sax, hcapean, to heap 
upon. 

HAPPEN, perhaps, possibly. 

HAPPENNY, a half-penny. HAPPERTH, half-penny wprth. 

HAPPING, a coarse covering, a rug for a bed. Hap-karlot, a 
coverlet for a servant, is a very old word, 

At the West-gate came Thornton in, 

With a hap, and a half-penny, and a lamb skin. 

This is an old saying in Newcastle, in allusion to the cele- 
brated Roger Thornton one of its most wealthy merchants 
and greatest benefactors who, it is said, came there with 
only a half-penny in his pocket, and an old happing on his 
back. 

HARD-CORN, wheat or maslin. Probably from being sown 
before winter. 

HARDLEYS, HARDLEES, hardly. Universal among the vulgar. 

HARE, HARL, a mist or fog. V. Skinner, a sea harr. 

HARRY, to rob, to plunder, to oppress. Sax. hergian. The 
word, in this sense, is by no means confined to Scotland. 
V. Todd's Johnson. It is common in Northumberland 
and Durham, particularly as applied to a bird nest ; and 
being used by Milton, ought to be considered as classical 
English. 

The Saxons with perpetual landings and invasions 
Mrried the South coast of Britain. 

Hist. Eng. B. ii. 



92 HARR 

HARRYGAUD, HARRYGAD, a blackguard sort of person. Ray 
says, a wild girl, but I think I never heard it applied to a 
female. 

HARSTONE, HARSTANE, the hearth stone. 

HARUMSTARUM, HARUMSCARUM, wild, unsettled running after, 
you know not what. Germ, herum-schar, a wandering 
troop ; plural, scharen, vagabonds. 

HASH, a sloven, one who does not know how to act or be- 
have with propriety, a silly talkative person. It is also 
used in a different sense, though perhaps not local : 

Brave Prudhoe triumphant shall skim the wide main, 

The hash of the Yankees he'll settle, 
And ages hereafter shall serve to proclaim, 

A Northumberland free o' Newcassel. 

Song, Northumberland's free of Newcassel. 

HASK, coarse, harsh, rough, parched. Q. Lat. hiscere? A 
hask mind is keen and parching. Hask-lips are parched 
lips. The word is also applied to the sense of feeling, 
when any thing from its touch appears unpleasantly dry 
or hard. Coarse worsted is hask to the feeling. 

HASSOCK, a stool or cushion to kneel upon, formerly made of 
rushes. Sw. hwass a rush, and saeck a sack. There is a 
tract of land adjoining the Tyne, near Dunston, called the 
Hassocks, which, it is probable, was once covered with 
rushes of which hassocks were made. 

HATTER, to shake. " I'm all battered to pieces." 

HAUGH, flat or marshy ground by the side of a river. Isl. hagi, 
ager pascuus. 

HAUNCH, HAINCH, to throw ; as a stone from the hand, by 
jerking it against the haunch. 

HAUSE, the neck. A very old word. Sax. hats. 



HEAR 93 

HAVER, HAIVER, v. to talk foolishly, to speak without thought. 
Isl. gifra, blaterare. 

HAVER, or HAWER, s. oats. Dut. haver. HAVER, or HAVVER- 
MEAL, oatmeal. HAVER, or HAVVER-BREAD, large, round, 
thin oaten cakes, baked on a girdle. 

HAVERIL, HOVERIL, a fool, a half-wit. From haver, haiver, 
which see. " Parfitly redicclous is that haveril there" 

HAWK, to expectorate. Welsh, hochi, to throw up phlegm. 
" Hawking or spitting." ShaJc. 

HAWS. See CAT-HAWS. 

HAY-MAKING. When the grass is first cut, it is called a swede ; 
when spread out, a tedd or teed; when dried ready for 
gathering, a whin-row or wind-row. It is next, particu-* 
larly if the rain threaten, put into a small quantity called 
a cock ; afterwards into a kyle, consisting, perhaps, of two 
or three times as much as a cock ; and finally into a pike, 
containing about half a ton ; in which state it remains 
until taken from the field to stack. This practice may 
vary a little in different districts. 

HAZE, to drizzle, to be foggy. V. Ray. 

HAZE-GAZE, wonder, astonishment. 

HEALD, to incline, to bend laterally. 

HEAP, a wicker basket. Sax. hip, species. 

HEAP, a good many. " A heap of folks." 

HEARN, HARN, the name of coarse linen cloth, about New- 
castle. 

HEERIN, HERRIN, HARRIN, herring. " Fresh-heerin fresh- 
heerin : four twopence caller herrin four twopence 
caller herrin : here's yor cuddy 's-legs here's yor Dum- 
bar wethers here's yor Januwary harrin." Cry in the 
Newcastle market. 

HEART-SCAD, any thing disagreeable or contrary to your ex- 
pectation or wishes ; grieved. 



94 HEAR 

HEARTSOME, merry, cheerful, lively. 

HEATHER, heath or ling. " Heather buzzoms." 

HEAVISOME, dark, dull, drowsy. 

HECK, a rack for cattle to feed in. Su.-Got. haeck. 

HECK, a latch, the passage into a house. HECK-DOOR, the 
inner door the door from the mell-doors into the kit- 
chen. HALF-HECK, a half, or lower part of a door. 

HECK-BERRY, the bird cherry. Prunus padus. Sw. haegge- 
baer. 

HECK-BOARD, a loose board at the back part of a cart. 

HECKLE, to dress tow or flax. HECKLER, a tow or flax-dresser. 
Teut. hekelaer. 

HECKLE, HECKLE-FLEE, an artificial fly for fishing. 

HEFT, a haunt. Su.-Got. hacfda. 

HEIFER, a young cow until it has had a calf. 

HELM-WIND, a singular phenomenon so called. Besides other 
places in Cumberland and Westmorland, it rushes from an 
immense cloud that gathers round the summit of Cross- 
Fell a mountain encompassed with desolate and barren 
heights covering it like a helmet. 

HELTER-SKELTER, in great haste, disorderly. Skinner's deri- 
vation from Sax. heolster sceado (unless we reject Dr. 
Johnson's translation and adopt that of Dr. Jamieson), 
seems to me far fetched ; and that given by Grose, though 
thought by Mr. Todd a better, is, in my mind, equally 
fanciful. A friend suggests it may be from hie ct aliter. 
The Crav. Gloss, refers to the Dutch. Well may etymo- 
logy, in cases like this, be pronounced cruditio ad libitum. 

HEMMEL, a shed or covering for cattle. Germ. helm. 

HEMPY, mischievous having the qualities likely to suffer by 
cat o'nine tails, or by the halter. Applied jocularly to 
giddy young people of both sexes. 



HICK 95 

HEN-PEN, the dung of fowls. The country people sometimes 

use it in bouking linen. See BOUK. 
HEN-SCRATTINGS, small circular white clouds said to indicate 

rain or wind. 

HERD, a keeper of cattle. Sax. hyrd. Isl. hirdingi. 
HERONSEW, HERONSEUGH, a heron. Not merely a young one 
as stated by Mr. Tyrwhitt. V. Skinner, hernsues. 
I wol not tellen of hir strange sewes, 
Ne of hir swannes, ne hir heronsewes. 

Chaucer, Squieres Tale. 

HETTER, eager, earnest, keen. Perhaps from hot. 

HEUCK, hook, a crook or sickle. " The quorn (corn) is ready 

for the heuck." Dut. hoek. 
HEUCK-FINGERED, thievish. Perhaps only cant. 
HEUDIN, a piece of leather connecting the handstaff of a flail 

with the swingle. 
HEUGH, a dry dell, a ravine without water. 

Word went east, and word went west, 

And word is gone over the sea, 
That a Laidley worm in Sprndleston-Heugh, 
Would ruin the North country. 

The Laidley Worm. 

HEUPH, HUPH, a measure, something less than a peck. 
HICCUP-SNICKUP, the hiccough. Sneckup is used by Shak. 
and Beaum. and Flet. A repetition of the following in- 
cantation is said to cure this disagreeable convulsion T 
Hickup-snickup, stand up, straight up ; 
One drop, two drops good for the hiccup. 

Major Moor gives a different version of these lines. 
HICKLETY-PICKLETY, HIGGLEDY-PIGGLEDY, intermixed, irregu- 
lar, in the utmost confusion. 



90 HIDE 

HIDE, to beat. " I'll hide your jacket." 

HIGHT, called. An old word, used by Chaucer, Spenser, ami 
others. 

HIKE, to swing, to put in motion. A nurse kikes her child 
when she tosses it up and down in her arms. The hiking 
of a boat. 

HIKEY, a swing. HIKEY-BOARD, better represented in Bew- 
ick's tail piece of two monkeys engaged in the sport, Qua- 
drupeds, p. 484, ed. 1820, than 1 can pretend to describe it. 

HIND, a servant or bailiff in husbandry. Sax. hineman. 

HIND-BERRIES, rasps. Sax. hindberian. Lye mis-translated 
this into fragum ; and the suggestion in Todd's John, of 
bramble-berries, is also erroneous. 

HINDER-ENDS, refuse of corn such as remains after it is win- 
nowed. 

HINNEY, HINNY, a favourite term of endearment. Probably a 
corruption of honey, or it may be from Sax. Una, domes- 
ticus. " Hinney dear ! what were ye sayin ?" " Was te 
speaking, hinney ?" " Hinney bairns, be quiet." 
Where hest thou been, maw canny hinny ? 
An' where hest te been, maw bonny bairn ? 

Song, Maw Canny Hinny. 

HINNEY HOW ! an interjectional exclamation of surprize, ac- 
companied with gladness. 

HIP, to hitch or hop on one foot. HIP-STEP-AND-JUMP, a 
youthful gambol. HINCHY-PINCHY, something similar. 

HIPE, to rip or gore with the horns of cattle. 

HIPPINGS, cloths for infants. To put the hips in. 

HIRING, a fair or market at which country servants are hired. 
Those, who offer themselves, stand in a body in the market 
place, with a piece of straw or a green branch in their 
mouths to distinguish them. The engagement concluded, 



HOBT !>7 

the lasses begin to file off, and pace the streets in search 
of admirers, while the lads, with equally innocent designs, 
follow after. Having each picked up a sweetheart, they 
retire to different ale-houses, where they spend the re- 
mainder of the day in a manner that appears highly indeli- 
cate and unpleasant to a spectator, unaccustomed to these 
rural amusements. 

HIRPLE, HURPLE, to halt, to walk lame, to creep. Su.-Got. 
hwerfla. 

HIRST, HURST, a woody bank, a place with trees. Sax. hurst. 
V. Spelman, hursta, and Kilian, horscht, horst. Hirst and 
Long-hirst, in Northumberland. 

HITY-TITY, HOITY-TOITY, haughty, flighty. Fr. haute tete. 

HIVES, water-blebs, an eruption in the skin. Su.-Got. haefwa, 
to rise up. 

HIZEY PRIZEY, the court of Nisi Prius. 

HOB, the side of a fire place. Also a clown ; contracted from 
Robin. 

HOB OR NOB. Much has been written concerning this north- 
ern expression. See Grose's Class. Diet.; Brand's Pop. 
Ant. ; Todd's John. ; and Nares' Gloss. But is it any 
more than a burlesque translation of tete a tete? 
Haupt is the German word for the head, and knob the 
ludicrous English word from knob, a protuberance. 

HOBBLE, a scrape, a state of perplexity. Teut. hobbelen. 

HOBBLETY-HOY, an uncultivated stripling, " neither man nor 
boy." Hoyden, with which this term is evidently con- 
nected, was formerly applied to any rude ill-behaved per- 
son of either sex. Children call a large unmanageable top, 
a hobblety-hoy. 

HOBBLY, rough, uneven. " A hobbly road." 

HOBTHRUST, a local spirit, famous for whimsical pranks. In 
o 



08 HOCK 

some farm-houses a cock and bacon are boiled on Fassen's- 
eve (Shrove Tuesday); and if any person neglect to eat 
heartily of this food, Hobthrust is sure to amuse himself 
at night with cramming him up to the mouth with bigg- 
chaff. According to Grose, he is supposed to haunt 
woods only Hob o f hurst. 

HOCKEY. See DODDART. 

HOFF, hough, to throw any thing under the thigh. 

HOG, a one year old sheep. " Wether-hog ewe-hog." Nor- 
man Fr. hogetz. 

HOGGERS, upper stockings without feet, like gaiters. 

HOGH. Both a hill and a hollow. V. Johnson. 

HOLE IN THE COAT, a blemish in character or conduct. " Aw'l 
get a hole in yor coat." 

HOLM, in Saxon generally signifies the sea or a deep water ; 
but it is frequently used with an adjective to designate an 
insular situation. Dry grounds nearly surrounded by the 
course of rivers, or situated in low places by their edge, 
are often called Holms : The holms on Ullswater and 
Windermere. Dunholm, a name of Durham. 

HOLT, a peaked hill covered with wood. Sax. holt, lucus. 

HOLY-STONES, holed-stones, are hung over the heads of horses 
as a charm against diseases : such as sweat in their stalls 
are supposed to be cured by the application* I have also 
seen them suspended from the tester of a bed as well as 
placed behind the door of a dwelling-house, attached to a 
key to prevent injury from witches. The stone, in all 
cases, must be found naturally holed if it be made it has 
no efficacy. See ADDER- STONES. 

HONOUR-BRIGHT ! BET WATT ! a protestation of honour among 
the vulgar ; originating with, and still retained in com- 
memoration of, a late well-known Newcastle worthy. 

HOOR, a whore. Sax. hure, meretrix. 



HOT 99 

HOP, v. to dance. Sax. hoppan. Teut. happen. This is the 
original sense. Though unnoticed by the great Lexico- 
grapher, it has not escaped his able editor, Mr. Todd. 
HOP, s. a dance. See HOPPEN, HOPPING. 
HOPE, a small brook, or the valley through which a brook may 

run ; as Stanhope, Bollihope, &c. Durham. 
HOPPEN, HOPPING, a country wake or rural fair ; several of 
which are held in the immediate neighbourhood of New- 
castle. 

To horse-race, fair, or hoppin go, 

There play our casts among the whipsters, 

Throw for the hammer, lowp for slippers, 

And see the maids dance for the ring, 

Or any other pleasant thing ; 

F** for the pigg, lye for the whetstone, 

Or chuse what side to lay our betts on. 

Joco-serious Discourse between a Northumberland Gen- 
tleman and his Tenant, a Scotchman. 

HOPPLE, or HOFFLE, to tie the legs together. 

HORNEY, HORNEY-TOP, the end of a cow's horn made like a 
top for boys to play with. 

HORNEY, or HORNEY-WAY, an untruth, a hoax. " By the 
homey way." 

HORSE-COUPER. See COUP, COWP. 

HORSE-GODMOTHER, a large masculine wench, 

HORSE- SHOES, the game of coits, or quoits. 

HOT, a sort of square basket formerly used for taking manure 
into fields of steep ascent. The bottom opened by two 
wooden pins to let out the contents. I have heard old 
people say, that between the confines of Yorkshire and 
Westmorland, it was common for the men to occupy them- 
selves in knitting, while the women were engaged in the 
servile employment of carrying these hots on their backs. 



100 HOTP 

HoT-Pox, warmed ale with spirit in it. 

ROUGHER, the public whipper of criminals, the executioner of 
felons, in Neiucastle. He is still a regular officer of the 
town, with a yearly salary ; and is said to have obtained 
this name from a power he had formerly of cutting the 
houghs, or rather the sinews of the houghs, of swine that 
were found infesting the streets. In the Gloss, to Doug- 
las's Virgil, to hock, from Sax. hok, is rendered " suffragines 
succidere," to hamstring. 

HOWDON-PAN-CANT, an awkward fall, an overturn. How DON- 
PAN-CANTER, a slow ungraceful canter. 

HOUT ! HOUT-AWAY ! an exclamation of disbelief or disappro- 
bation. Pshaw ! 

HOWDY, HOWDY-WIFE, a midwife. Brand sneers at the de- 
rivation from " How d' ye midwives being great goss- 
ipers," but I think that which he supplies is far more ridi- 
culous. I have not been fortunate enough to discover any. 
original to my own satisfaction, but I may perhaps be per- 
mitted to observe, in defence of what has been so much 
ridiculed, that " How d' ye," is a natural enough salutation 
to a sick woman from the midwife ; who, by the way, is 
called in German die wehmutter, or the oh dear mother. 
As it is with antiquaries, so I fear with etymologists 
ancient woman, "whether in or out of breeches," will 
occasionally betray themselves. 

HOWK, to dig, to scoop. Su.-Got. holka, cavare. 

HOWL, a hollow or low place. "Wherever there's a hill 
there's sure to be a howl." Sax. hoi, latibulum. Howt- 
KITE, a vulgar name for the belly. 

HOWLET, JENNY-HOWLET, the common or tawny owl. FF. 
hulotte* Also a term of reproach. 

Adder's fork, and blind worm's sting, 
Lizard's leg, and liowkCs wing. Sluik. Macleth. 



HUNK 



101 



HOWSOMIVVER, HOWSOMNIVVER, however. 

How' WAY, come away ; a term of solicitation very common in 

Newcastle. 

HOY, to heave or throw, as a stone. 
HOYT, an awkward ill-bred youth. 

HUBBY-SHEW, HUBBY-SHOO, a disturbance, a noise, a state of 
confusion. Teut. hobbelen, inglomerare ; schowe, specta- 
culum. 
HUD, the side of the fire place within the chimney. Pans not 

in use are placed on the " hud stane" 

HUDDICK, HUDDOCK, the cabin of a keel or coal barge. Dut. 
hut. 

'Twas between Hebbron and Jarrow, 

There cam on a varry strang gale, 
The skipper luick'd out o' th' huddock, 
Crying, 'smash, man, lower the sail ! 

Song, The Little Pee. Dee. 

HUDDLE, to gather together, to embrace. Germ, hudeln. 
HUFF, v. to offend. " She's easily huffed? HUFF, s. offence. 

" He's in the huff." 

HUG, to carry, especially if difficult. " Had and hug't away." 
HUGGERMUGGERING, doing any thing in a confused, clandestine, 

or unfair manner. V. Todd's John, and Nares' Gloss. 
HULK, a lazy, clumsy fellow. Shak. has " the hulk Sir John." 

" You idle lazy pay-wife hulk." Newc. 
HULL, a place in which fowls, &c. are confined for the purpose 

of fattening. 
HUMBLE. To humble barley, to break off the beard or awns. 

Su.-Got. hamla, to mutilate. Allied to this, is a hummel- 

led-cow, a cow without horns. 

HUNKERED, elbowed, crooked. " This wheat is sadly hunker- 
ed." 



102 HUNK 

HUNKERS, haunches. This word seems used by the Northum- 
brian vulgar only in the sense of sitting on the hunkers, 
that is, with the hams resting on the back part of the an- 
kles, the heels generally being raised from the ground. 
Such is the position of a woman milking a cow, which in 
Durham is called hencowr fashion, probably from hen and 
couver y to sit on eggs from the position of a brooding hen. 
A friend of mine connected with a colliery, where a child 
had been injured, enquiring of the father how the accident 
happened, received the following answer, which I am in- 
duced to give as a specimen of Pit language : " It was 
sitten on its hunkers howking glinters fra mang the het ass, 
when the lowe teuck its claes, and brant it to the varry 
a*se," i. e. it was sitting on its haunches digging vitrified 
shining scoria from among the hot ashes, when the flame 
took its clothes, and burnt it to the very buttocks. 

HUNT-THE-HARE, a game among children played on the ice 
as well as in the fields. 

HURTER, the shoulder of the axle against which the nave of 
the wheel knocks, Fr. heurter, to knock. 

HURTLE, to contract the body into a round form, as through 
pain, severe cold, &c. 

HUSE, HAUSTE, a short cough, a hoarseness. Sax. hwosta, 
tussis. 

HUTCH, a chest. The Town's Hutch, in the Guildhall of 
Newcastle, is a fine old chest, on which the chamberlains 
transact their business. Fr. huche. 

Why dost thou converse with that trunk of humours, 
that bolting-fiutch of beastliness, that swollen 
parcel of dropsies, that huge bombard of sack. 
Shak. I. Hen. IV. 



INTA 103 

HUTHERIKIN-LAD, a ragged youth a sort of HOBBLETY-HOY, 

which see. 

Huz, Uz, we as well as us. Very common. 
HYEL, HALE, whole. Isl. heill. Su.-Got. hel, totus. 



ICE-SHOGGLE, an icicle. Sax. ice-icel. Dut. yskegel. Mr. 

Todd has admitted ickle, on the authority of Grose. 
PFAKINS, in faith a frequent asseveration. Shak. uses i 'faith, 

in the Merry Wives of Windsor. 
ILL, v. to reproach, to speak ill. ILL-WILLED, a. malevolent, 

ill-natured. Isl. illvUie, malevolentia. 
INCLING, INKLING, a desire, an imperfect hint or intimation 

written by Mrs. Hutchinson (Memoirs, 4to. p. 357) inclin. 

Etymologists have differed as to the derivation of this word. 

It may be from Fr. un din (d'oeil) a wink, if not from Su.- 
Got. wincka, connivere. 
INCOME, any swelling or other bodily infirmity, not apparently 

proceeding from any external cause or which has formed 

unexpectedly. Ancome, in the same sense, is an old word. 
INDIFFERENT, tolerably, in pretty good health. 
ING, a meadow. The word, however, seems to be chiefly ap-* 

plied to moist ground, or such as is subject to occasional 

overflowings. It also often occurs in the names of places. 

Common to the Sax. Dan. and other languages. 
INGLE, a fire, or flame. Gael, aingeal. V. Todd's John. 
INKLE, an inferior kind of tape. " Beggars inkle." 
INSENSE, to understand ; to have sense infused into the 

V. Nares' Gloss. 
INTACK, an inclosure. A part taken in from a common. 



104 IS 

Is, the third person singular of to be, is almost constantly used 
among the vulgar for ftie first and second persons. " Is 
sure, thou M" am sure, thou art. 

ISCA ! ISCA ! or ISKA ! ISKA ! a Northumbrian shepherd's 
call to his dog. Sc. isk, iskie. Mr. Lambe, in his Notes 
on Flodden Field, p. 66, fancifully observes, that this term 
is evidently an abbreviation of Lycisca, the name of the 
Roman shepherd's dog. 

multum latrante Lycisca Virg. Eel. 3. 

With greater verisimilitude it has been said, that it is from 
Fr. icy, hither ; the word used in France for the same 
purpose. Dr. Jamieson, however, remarks that Teut. aes, 
aesken, and Germ, ess, signify a dog. 

Iv, in. INTIV, into. Very general. 

IZZARD, the letter Z. 

J. 

JABBER, garrulity. From the verb, which is very old. 

JACK, a young male pike, under a foot in length. 

JACKALEGS, JOCKELEGS, a large clasped knife. Generally con- 
sidered to have obtained this name from Jacques de Liege, 
a famous Flemish cutler. 

JACKEY, English gin, of which some of the " good folks" in 
Newcastle partake rather freely. 

JAGGER-GALLOWAY, a pony with a peculiar saddle for carrying 
lead, &c. Jag, is a Scotch word for job; and Moor has 
jag, a waggon load. 

JAISTERING, swaggering. It is common to call a person of an 
airy manner, " a jaistering fellow" " a jaistering jade." 

JAM, v. to squeeze into ; to render firm by treading. 



JEWE 105 

JAM, JAUM, *. jamb. 

JANNOCK, leavened oat bread. See BANNOCK. 

JARBLE, to wet, to bedew ; as by walking in long grass after 
dew or rain. 

JAR-WOMAN, an occasional assistant in the kitchen a sort of 
char-woman. Called also a HEIGH-HOW, from a notorious 
propensity to all kinds of low gossip. 

JASEY, JAZEY, a worsted wig. A very old-fashioned article, 
still worn by some octogenarians. 

JAUNIS, JAUNUS, the jaundice. Fr. jaunisse. 

JAUP, v. to move liquid irregularly. " The water wentjauping 
in the skeel." Also to chip or break by a gentle, though 
sudden blow. It is customary at Easter, when paste-eggs 
are in vogue, tojaup two of them, by hitting the ends to- 
gether. " Auflljaup onny body narrow enders" He whose 
egg does not break is entitled to have the other. 

JAUP, *. the sound of water agitated in a narrow or irregular 
vessel. Isl. gialfur, a hissing or roaring wave. 

JAW, noisy speech, coarse raillery. " Had yor jaw" hold 
your tongue. 

JEE, JYE, wry, crooked. " Jee-wye" Sw. gaa, to turn 
round. 

JEEPS, a severe beating a sound thrashing. 

JENK, to jaunt, to ramble, from junket, to feast secretly. 

JEWEL, an expression of affection familiar regard. Fr. mon 
joie, my darling, maw jewel. f 

Ye jewels of our father, with wash'd eyes 
Cordelia leaves you. Shak. King Lear. 

With am'rous looks, he calls her jewel, 
And said, How can you be so cruel ? 

The Collier's Wedding. 



106 JIBL 

JIBLETS, or GIBLETS, " the parts of a goose which are cut off 
before it is roasted," Todd's John. But it is the inside as 
well. Old. Fr. gibelez. In Newcastle they call what is 
taken from one goose, a pair of jiblets. At Christmas, 
hardly any person, however poor, is without ajibletpie. 
JIFFY. " Iv ajijfy" in a moment, in an instant. 
JIGGER, an airy swaggering person. " A comical jigger." Per- 
haps, originally, one disposed or suitable to a jig. 
JIM, JIMMY, s. James. 
JIM, JIMMY, JIMP, . slender, neat, elegant. Q. Su.-Got. 

skampt ? 

JIMMER, a small hinge for a closet door or desk. See an expla- 
nation of jimmersy with which the gimmal ring is thought 
to be connected, in Brand's Pop. Ant. vol. ii. p. 27. Also 
Nares' Gloss, gimmal, and M.oor,jimmers. 
JIN, JINNY, JINNEY, Jane. 

JINGLE-CAP, shake cap. Much practised among the young pit- 
men and keelmen. 
JINKERS, BY JINKERS, a sort of demi-oath. A variation of 

jingo. 

JINNY-SPINNER, or LONG-LEGG'D-TYALYUR, a very long slender- 
legged spider or fly. 

JINNY-SPINNER, a play-thing among children. See a long list 
of juvenile games, many of which are common in the North, 
in Suff. Words, move all. 
JOBATION, JUBATION, a lecture or reprimand. 
JOCK AND JOCK'S-MAN, a juvenile sport, in which the follower 

is to repeat all the pranks the leader can perform. 
JOGGLE, to shake, to totter, to cause to totter. Teut. schocke- 

len, vacillare. 

JOG-TROT, an inactive, or any peculiar line of conduct, pertina- 
ciously adhered to. Perhaps adopted from the jog-trot pace 
of the Northumbrian farmers. 



JUMP 107 

JOLLIFICATION, a scene of festivity, or merriment. " A regular 

jollification." 
JOLLY, stout, large in person. " A jolly landlady." Also 

hearty, jovial. " A jolly fellow." 

JOOKINGS, corn beat put of the sheaf in throwing off the stack ; 
often a perquisite to those who assist in carrying the 
sheaves into the barn. 

JORUM, a pot or jug. Chaucer hasjordane, and Shakspeare 
jorden. 

The horrible crew, 
That Hercules slew, 

Were Poverty Calumny Trouble and Fear : 
Such a club would you borrow, 
To drive away sorrow, 
Apply for a jorum of Newcastle beer. 

Song, Newcastle Beer. 

JOSEPH, a riding coat or habit, with buttons in front ; worn by 
ancient dames not blue-stockings. 

JOUKREY-PAUKEREY, any sort of underhand trick or dexterous 
artifice; legerdemain. 

JOWL, v. to knock, or rather to give a signal by knocking. 

JOWL, s. the head. " Cheek by jowl" close together. 

JOWL OF SALMON, the head and shoulders. If split it is called a 
single jowl. 

JUMBLEMENT, confusion. From the verb. 

JUMPS, a kind of easy stays. Fr. juppe. 

JUMP-WITH, JUMP-IN-WITH, to meet with accidentally, to coin- 
cide. Jump occurs several tunes in Shakspeare ; mean- 
ing in some places to agree with, in others to venture at, or 
hazard. In one place it appears to be intended for just. 



108 KAE 

K. 

KAE ! a common interjectional expression of disbelief, con- 
tempt, or abhorrence. Newc. I can only refer to the lan- 
guage of jack-daws for its etymology. 

Jack-daws, kawing and fluttering about the nests, set 
all their young ones a-gaping ; but having no- 
thing in their mouths but air, leave them as 
hungry as before. Locke. 

KAIL, KALE, cabbage, greens ; also broth or pottage. North. 
IsL kal. Dan. kaal. Welsh, cawl. KAIL-POT, a large 
metal pot for culinary purposes. " As black as a kail-pot." 
KAIRN, a heap of stones, a rude monument. See CAIRN. 
We the adjacent mountains all discern, 
With each his head adorned with a kairn. 

Cheviot, a Poem, p. 5. 

KAMSTARY*, mad. Perhaps the same as Sc. camsterie, cams- 

tairie, fro ward, perverse, unmanageable; which Dr. Jam. 

derives from Germ, kamp, and starrig, stiff; or it may be 

a sort of pleonasm, from cam, which in Gael, is applied to 

any thing crooked or awry, and stary, staring, wild-looking. 

KARL-CAT, a male cat. Dut. kaerel, a fellow. 

KEDGE, to fill. Hence KEDGE-BELLY, a large protuberant body, 

a glutton. 

KEE, KEE-SIDE, emphatically the Newcastle Quay, extending 
from Tyne Bridge to the end of Sandgate. 
Fareweel Tyne Brig and cannie Kee^ 

Where aw've seen monny a shangey, 
Blind Willey, Captain Starkey, tee 
$old Archy and great Hangey. 

Voyage to Luttuin. 



KEEL 109 

KEEK, to peep, to look with a prying eye, to view. Su.-Got. 

keka. Dut. kyken. 
KEEL, to cool, to render cool. Sax. c&lan, algere. Sir Thos. 

Hanmer at best but a sorry expounder of our immortal 

bard in attempting an explanation of 

While greasy Joan doth keel tJie pot. 

Shak. Love's Labour's Lost. 

strangely says, " to drink so deep, as to turn up the bot- 
tom of the pot, like turning up the keel of a ship /" Ma- 
jor Moor is equally at fault : he thinks " scouring the 
pot with its bottom inclined conveniently for that opera- 
tion ; or keeling it in the position of a ship rolling so as 
to almost show her keel out of the water" V. Suff. Words, 
killer or keeler. The expression " keel the pot," really 
means neither more nor less than to render it cool ; that 
is, to take out a small quantity of the broth, &c. and then 
to fill up the pot with cold water ; a common practice in 
Northumberland. The word, however, as shewn by the 
examples from Gower and Chaucer, quoted by Mr. Todd, 
is not confined to the kitchen. 

KEEL, RED-KEEL, ruddle, decomposed iron used for marking 
sheep, &c. Gael. oil. Fr. chaille. Jamieson. 

KEELS, the vessels or barges in which coals are carried from 
the cottiery-staiths to the ships, in the Tyne and Wear. 
Keel is a very ancient name of Saxon origin for a ship or 
vessel ceol y navis. On the first arrival of the Saxons 
they came over in three large ships, styled by themselves, 
as Verstegan informs us, keeles. In the Chartulary of 
Tynemouth Monastery, the servants of the Prior who 
wrought in the barges (1378), are called kelers, an appella- 
tion plainly synonimous with the present keelmen. 



110 KEEL 

KEEL-BULLIES, keelmen, the crew of the keel the partners 
or brothers. See BULLY. 

KEEL-DEETERS, the wives and daughters of the keelmen, who 
sweep the keels, having the sweepings of the small coals 
for their pains. To deet, in northern language, means to 
wipe or make clean. 

KEELAGE, keel dues in port. This word is in Todd's John, 
but in too limited a sense. 

KEEN. The hands are said to be keened with the frost, when 
the skin is broken or cracked, and a sore induced. Kibe, 
explained by Johnson, " an ulcerated chilblain, a chap in 
the heel caused by the cold," occurs several times in 
Shakspeare. 

KEEP-THE-POT-BOILING, a common expression among young 
people, when they are anxious to carry on their gambols 
with spirit. 

KELDS, the still parts of a river which have an oily smooth- 
ness while the rest of the water is ruffled. I have only 
heard this word on the Tyne, and confined to the mean- 
ing here given ; but I am informed that in Westmorland 
and Cumberland old wells are also denominated kelds, 
and that there is a place in the parish of Shap called Keld, 
from a fine spring in it also Gunnerkeld. Isl. kelda, palus. 
Since this was written I find Jceld, a well, in Crav. Gloss. 

KELK, v. to beat heartily. KELK, KELKER, s. a severe blow. 

KELPS, iron hooks from which boilers are hung. 

KELTER, frame, order, condition. V. Todd's John. It also 
means money, cash. Germ. geld. 

KEMP, to strive against each other in reaping corn. Sax. 
campian, militare. Teut. kamjten, dimicare. KEMPERS, 
the competitors. According to Verstegan, the word is of 
noble descent. V. Rest. Decayed Intell. 8vo. p. 233. 



KERN 111 

KEMPS, hairs among wool, coarse fibres. 

KEN, to know, to be acquainted with. Su.-Got. kaenna. 

Sax. cennan. Dut. Jcennen. "Aw kent him wed" I 

knew him well. 

'Tis he, I ken the manner of his gait. 

Shak. Troilits and Vressida. 

KENNEN, KENNING, a measure of two pecks. 

KENSPECKED,KENSPACKED, KENSPECKLED,KENSPACKLED, con- 
spicuous, marked so as to be easily recognized or kenned. 
V. Skin, and Jam. 

KEP, to catch, to receive any thing in the act of falling. Sax. 
cepan. Teut. keppen, captare. 

KEPPY-BALL, hand-ball. In former times it was customary, 
every year at Easter and Whitsuntide, for the mayor, al- 
dermen, and sheriff of Newcastle, attended by the bur- 
gesses, to go in state to a place called the Forth a sort 
of mall to countenance, if not to join in the play tfkeppy- 
ball, and other sports. The Esprit de corps is gone, though 
the diversion is still in part kept up by the young people 
of the town ; but it would of course, in these altered times, 
be considered highly indecorous to " unbend the brow of 
authority" on such an occasion. Puerile, however, as it 
may seem, there was a time if we may credit Belithus, 
an ancient ritualist when the bishops, and even arch- 
bishops, of some churches, used to play at hand-ball with 
the inferior clergy. Tempora mutantur, et nos mutamur 
in illis. 

KERN, v. to churn. Sax. cernan. Teut. Jcernen. 

KERN, s. a churn. Teut. kerne. Also a hand-mill for grind- 
ing corn, from Teut. querne ; perhapg the right mode of 
spelling the word in this sense. 



112 KERN 

KERN-BABY, an image dressed up with corn at a harvest home. 
Something similar to the maiden described by Jam. See 

MELL-DOLL. 

KERN, KORN, or KURN-MILK, butter-milk. Teut. kern-melch. 
" Will you hev onny kern-milk," Newcastle cry ; nearly 
extinct. 
KERSEN, to christen. Dut. kerstenen. 

Pish, one goodman Caesar, a pump maker, 
Kerserfd him Beaum. $ Flet. Wit at sen. Weap. 

KERSMAS, CRISSENMAS, Christmas. 

KESH, KEX, the hollow stem of an umbelliferous plant. Kyx, 
a hemlock, occurs in Peirs Ploughman. 

KESLIP, KESLOP, the calPs stomach salted and dried for ren- 
net. Sax. ceselib, coagulum. Germ, kaselab, rennet. 
Kase is cheese, and laben is to help, strengthen or quicken. 
See YERNING. " Kittle yor Jceslop" a Newcastle trope 
for a chastisement. " Warm yor keslop" a metaphor for 
a hot-pot. 

KET, carrion, any sort of filth. Su.-Got. koett. KETTY, 
filthy, dirty, worthless. " A ketty fellow." 

KEVEL, a large hammer for quarrying stones. 

KICK, the top of the fashion quite the go. Q. Isl. kcekr, ges- 
tus indecorus ? " Jack-the-kick" a fellow just the thing. 

KIDNEY, disposition, principles, humour. 
A man of my kidney. 

Shak. Mer. Wives of Windsor. 

Talk no more of brave Nelson, or gallant Sir Sidney, 
'Tis granted they're tars of a true British kidney. 

Song, Newcastle Bellman. 

KIDNEY-TATIE, a long kind of potatoe, much cultivated in the 
neighbourhood of Newcastle. 



KIRK 113 

KILLICOUP, a summerset. Probably from Fr. cul-a-cap, tail 
to head head over heels. " Eh ! what a killicoup the 
preest has getten out o'is wee bit gig-thing there !" 

KILL-PRIEST, a jocular name for port wine from which a 
very irreverent inference is drawn. But, as Shakspeare 
says, . 

Come, come, good wine is a good familiar creature, 
if it be well used ; exclaim no more against it. 

Othello. 

KILT, to truss up the clothes to make them like the Scotch 
kilt. Dan. kilte-op. 

KIND, intimate not kind, at enmity. See THICK. 

KING'S-CUSHION, a sort of seat made by two persons crossing 
their hands, on which to place a third. 

KINK, v. to laugh immoderately, to labour for breath as in the 
hooping cough. Teut. kichen, kincken, difficulter spirare. 
KINK, s. a violent or convulsive fit of laughter or cough- 
ing, especially when the breath is stopped. See KIN- 
COUGH. 

KIN-COUGH, KINK-COUGH, Ching-cough, or King-cough, the hoop- 
ing-cough. Sax. cincung, cachinnatio. Teut. kinck-hoest, 
asthma. The ignorant and the superstitious have va- 
rious fooleries, for curing or alleviating this epidemic dis- 
order such as eating a mouse-pie, or hanging a roasted 
mouse round the neck dipping the persons affected nine 
times in an open grave, or putting them nine times under 
a pie-bald horse bread baked on a Good Friday before 
sun-rise and perhaps others that may have escaped my 
recollection. 

KIRK, a church. An old Eng. word from Sax. cyrce, still re- 
tained in Northumberland. KIRK-GARTH, the church 
Q 



114 K1ST 

yard. KIRK-MASTER, a church warden. Teut. kerk- 

maester. KIRK-FOLK, the congregation. 
KIST, a chest. Common to Sax. Su.-Got. Germ. Dut. and 

Welsh. 
KISSES, small confections or sugar plums. Perhaps the same 

as Shakspeare's kissing-comfits. See Merry Wives of 

Windsor, Act 5, Sc. 5. 
KIT, properly a covered milking pail with two handles, but 

often applied to a small pail of any sort. Also a wooden 

vessel in which pickled salmon are sent to London. Like- 
wise the stool on which a cobbler works. 
KIT, a set or company, generally in a contemptuous light. 

" The whole kit." Applied sometimes to things as well 

as to persons. 
KITCHEN PHYSIC, substantial fare good living opprobrium 

medicorum. 

Throw physic to the dogs, I'll none of it. 

Shak. Macbeth. 

In jest ; no offence in the world. 

Shak. Hamlet. 

KITE, the belly. Allied to Mos.-Got. quid, and Su.-Got. 
qwed, venter. Bag-kite and pod-kite, are ludicrously ap- 
plied to persons with larger capacities than common. 
" Running to kite" becoming corpulent. 

KITH, acquaintance. Sax. cythe. Not obsolete as stated 
in Todd's John, Kith and kin, friends and relations. 

KITTLE, v. to tickle, to enliven. Sax. citelan, titillare. Dut. 
kittelcn. Teut. kitzelcn. 

KITTLE, v. to bring forth kittens. A very old word, written 
in Palsgrave, kyttett* V. L'eclaircissement de la Lang. 



KIZO 115 

KITTLE, a. ticklish, difficult. kittle wark." 
" O mony a time, my lord," he said, 

I've stown a kiss frae a sleeping wench ; 
But for you I'll do as kittle a deed, 
For I'll steal an auld lurdane aff the bench. 

Christie's Witt. 

In witty songs and verses kittle, 
Who can compare with Thomas Whittle ? 

Henry Rdbson. 

This word has other meanings ; as kittle weather change- 
able weather ; a kittle question such as it is inconvenient 
or impolitic to answer ; a kittle horseone unsafe or not 
easily managed. 

KITTLING, a kitten. An ancient word. Palsgrave, kytlynge. 
Prompt. Parv. Cler. kytlinge, catellus. Juliana Barnes 
has kendel of cats, a litter of cats. 

KITT, KITTY, a diminutive of Christopher, as well as of Ca- 
therine. 

KITTY, the house of correction. Newcastle. Su.-Got. katta, 
includere. Germ, ketten, to fetter. 

KITTY-CAT, a puerile game, described by Moor. V. Suff. 
Words, kit-cat. Strutt mentions a game, which used to 
be played in the North, called tip cat, or more properly cat. 
V. Sports and Pastimes, p. 86. 

KITTY-WREN, or JENNY-WREN, the wren the reputed consort 
of the robin-red breast. 

" The robin and the wren 
" Are God's cock and hen." 

KIZONED, or KIZZENED, parched or dried. Children are said 
to be so, when, from a weakness or pampered appetite, 
they loathe their food. " Kizen'd meat" meat too much 
roasted. Q. Isl. gisna, hiascere ? 



1.16 KLIC 

KLICK-HOOKS, large hooks for catching salmon in the day 

time. V. Crav. Gloss. 
KNACK, to speak affectedly, to ape a style beyond the speaker's 

education. KNACKIT, NACKIT, one quick at repartee, a 

clever child. 
KNAOK-AND-RATTLE, a quick and noisy mode of dancing with 

the heels. 

He jumps, and his heels knack and rattle, 

At turns of the music so sweet ; 
He makes such a thundering brattle, 

The floor seems afraid of his feet. 

Tlic Colliers' Pay Week. 

KNACK-KNEE'D, in-kneed knees that knack or strike against 

each other in walking. 
KNAGGS, pointed rocks, or rugged tops of hills. V. Dire, 

knagglig. 

KNAGGY, testy, ill-humoured, waspish. 
KNAW, v. to know. " Aw knaw" I know. See KNOW. 
KNIFLE, to steal, to pilfer. Q. Celt, cneifio, to shear. 
KNOCKING-TROUGH, a conical trough in which the rind is beat 

off barley with a mallet. 
KNOLL, KNOWL, KNOWE, the top of a hill, a bare rounded 

hillock. Sax. cnolle. Teut. knolle. 
KNOW. " You know, you knaw." " D'ye ken I'll tell you 

now" u what's rny opinion to think I cannot say I 

dinna ken." " what does he say, good man ? where hez 

he been, good man ?" Here good man is not the case of 

calling, but is put in opposition to he. This is a mode of 

expression peculiar to the North. 
KNARL, a hunch-backed or dwarfish man. Old Eng. knurle, 

a knot. 



LAD 117 

KUN, CUN. " I cun you no thanks" I do not acknowledge 

myself obliged to you, Dur. Is it from Germ, konnen, 

to know, as savoir gre, in French ? 
Kuss, to kiss. Welsh cusan. 
KYE, plural of cows, kine. Sax. cy y vacca. 
KYLOE, a small Scotch breed of cattle, said to be from kyle, a 

Gaelic word for a ferry over which they are transported. 

But may it not be from Germ, kuh-klein, a small cow ? 



LADDERING, struggling in water, as a fish when caught. Jo- 
cosely applied to a great legal luminary, who unfortunately 
slipped into the watery element a few years ago. 
" Aw was setten the keel, wi' Dick Stavers an' Mat, 

An' the Mansion-house Stairs we were just alangside, 
When we aw three see'd sumthing, but didn't ken what, 

That was splashing and layering aboot ith the tide." 
" It's a flucker !" ki Dick ; " No," ki Mat, " its owre big, 

It luick'd mair like a skyat when aw first see'd it rise :" 
Kiv aw for awd getten a gliffo* the wig 

Odds mercy ! Wye, marrows, becrike it's Lord 'Size. 

Song, My Lord 'Size. 

LACE, to beat or flog. " I'll lace your jacket." LACING, a 
beating. " Aw 1 1 gie ye a good lacing just now.'* 

LACED, mixed with spirits, as tea or coffee, to which some 
" ancient dames" are partial. 

LACKITS, small sums of money any odd things. 

LAD, a boy j originally a man, from Sax. leode, people. Lang- 
land -the reputed author of the Visions of Peirs Plough- 
man one of our earliest writers, uses ladde, in its primi- 
tive sense ; from which no doubt proceeded lasse, lass. 
In Scotland, I have heard a person 50 years old, called a 
lad but he was in a state of single blessedness. 



118 LAD 

LAD, LADDIE, a lover, a sweetheart. " That's maw lad, izint 
he a bonny fellow." 

May aw the press-gang perish, 
Each lass her laddie cherish, 
Lang may the Coal Trade flourish, 

Upon the dingy Tyne. 

Song, The Keel Row. 

LAFTER, LAWTER, as many eggs as a hen will lay before she 
incubates. Teut. legh-tyd, tempus quogallinae ova pariunt. 
LAGGINS, staves. V. Ihre. lagg. 
LAIDLY, LAIDLEY, ugly, loathsome, foul. Sax. laithlic. 

" I will her liken to a laidley worm." 
LAINCH, a long stride. " What a lainch he has." 
LAIR, mire, dirt. To be laired, to stick in the mire. Isl. leir. 

Su.-Got. ler. 

LAIRD, " the lord of a manor in the Scottish dialect." Dr. 
John. This is its old meaning ; but it is now a common 
name in Northumberland and Cumberland for a proprietor 
of land, without any relation to manorial rights. " He 
rides like a Bambro'shire laird one spur, and a stick in 
his opposite hand." 
LAKE, v. to play. Sax. lacan, ludere. Moe.-Got. Icnkew, exul- 

tare. Peirs Ploughman, layke. LAKING, s. a play-thing. 
LAKE-WAKE, LATE- WAKE, the watching of a corpse previous to 
interment. Sax. lie, a body, and wacian, to watch. V. 
Jam. lyk-waik. 
LAM, LAMB, td beat soundly. " Aufl lamb yor hide" 

" Lbmb them, lads; lamb them !" a cant phraseof the 
time, derived from the fate of Dr. Lambe, an 
astrologer and quack, who was knocked on the 
head by the rabble in Charles the First's time. 
Pevertt of the Peak, vol. iv. p. 152. 



LAST 119 

The great known unknown trips a little here. The word 
is used in two or three of the plays of Beaumont and Flet- 
cher, written before the conjuring Doctor's catastrophe, 
which did not happen until 1628. Besides, the derivation 
seems obviously from Isl. lem, verberare, or Teut. lompen, 
infligere. 

LAM-PAY, to correct ; principally applied to children. 

LAM, or LAMB, and its diminutive LAMMIE, favourite terms of 
endearment. " Maw bonny lam" " maw canny lammie" 

LAMETEB, LAMITER, a cripple. " He'll be a lameter for life." 

LANG, long. LANG, LANGSOME, tedious, tiresome. Sax. lang- 
mm. LANGSOMNESS, tediousness. 

LANG-LENGTH, the whole length. " He fell down aw his lang 
length." 

LANG-SADDLE, or SETTLE, a long wooden seat, with a back and 
arms, usually placed in the chimney corner in country 
houses. 

LANGSYNE, long since. Sax. longe siththan, diu exinde. See 

AULD-LANG-SYNE. 

LANT, the game of loo. LANTERED, looed. LANTERS, the 

players. 

LAP, preterite of leap. See LOUP. 
LAP-UP, to give up, to relinquish. 

LAPSTONE, a cobbler's stone, on which he hammers his leather. 
LAKE, learning, scholarship. Pure Saxon. LAKE-FATHER, 

instructor. 
LASCHE, cold and moist not actually rain. V. Moor, lash or 

lashy. 
LASHIGILLAVERY, LUSHEYGILAVEY, plenty of meat and drink ; 

a superfluity. Probably from lavish. 
LAST, a measure of corn 80 bushels. Sax. nicest. Su.-Got. 

laest. 



120 LAST 

LASTENEST, most lasting. 

LAT, a lath. Sax. latta. Dut. lat. Fr. latte.Lw AND 
PLASTER, an ironical phrase for a tall and slender person 
as thin as a lat. LAT-RIVER or RIVE-ER, a maker of 
laths. 

LATCH, v. to catch, to lay hold of. Sax. l&ccan, prehendere. 
"When that he Galathe besought 
Of love, which he might not lache. 

Gower, de Confess. Amant. 
. But I have words, 
That would be howl'd out in the desert air, 
Where hearing should not latch them Shak. Macbeth. 

LATCH, s. a fastening ; especially a wooden latch or sneck 
sometimes lifted with a cord, at other times with the fin- 
ger. Ital. laccio. 

Love will none other birde catch,' 
Though he sette either nette or latch. 

Chaucer, Romaunt of the Rose. 

LATE, or LEAT, to seek, to summon, to invite. Isl. leyta, quae- 
rere. LATING, or LEATING, a summons or invitation. Dr. 
Willan mentions Leating, or Lating-row, a district from 
which matrons are invited by special summons to be present 
at a child-birth, or at the death of any of the inhabitants. 
Should a matron within the limits have been, through in- 
advertence or mistake, omitted on such an occasion, it is 
an affront not to be forgiven. 
LATHE, or LEATHE, a place for storing hay and corn in winter 

a barn. Used by Chaucer. V. Skinner, lath. 
LATHERIN, a drab, a trollop. " A lazy latherin." 
LATTEN, LATTIN, tin. Pistol's 

Challenge of the latten bilbo. 

S/tak. Merry Wives of Windsor. 



LAVE 121 

Has been " a stumbling block," not so much " to the gene- 
rality of readers," as Hanmer would express it, but to the 
commentators themselves. See the learned remarks of the 
" collective wisdom," in the last Varior. Edit, of Shak. vol. 
viii. p. 22-3 ; to which should be added Sir Thomas's own 
idea" a factitious metal." In Todd's John, the word is 
defined to be, " a mixed kind of metal, made of copper 
and calamine : said by some to be the old orichalc ;" 
though the authority quoted from Gower proves that 
" laton" and " bras" are two distinct things. In the Dic- 
tionaries of Bailey, Dyche, and Ash, latten is explained to 
be iron tinned over, which is in fact what is called tin : 
Pegge also states latten to be tin ; but on turning to Nares* 
Glossary, I find the worthy Archdeacon labouring hard at 
its transmutation into brass. The days of alchymy, how- 
ever, are past. In addition, it may be observed, that Rud- 
diman an authority entitled to consideration interprets 
lated, iron covered with fin. 

LAVE, v. to empty, to draw or take out water or other liquid. 
Fr. lever. An old word used by Chaucer. 

LAVE, s. the residue those who are left or omitted. A pure 
Saxon word, occurring in Peirs Ploughman. It also 
means a crowd. 

Of prektes proud, a populous lave, 

And abbots boldly there were known ; 
With bishop of St. Andrew's brave, 
"Who was King James's bastard son. 

Lambe, Battle ofFloddon. 

In ancient times the dignitaries of the church, holding the 
temporalities of their benefices of the King, as barons by 
the tenure of military service, were bound by the feudal 
law, to attend him in his wars. 



122 LAVE 

LAVERICK, LAVEROCK, LAVVORICK, a lark. Sax. laferc, lawerc. 
Flocks of turtles, and of laverockes. CJiaucer. 

Here hear my Kenna sing a song, 
There see a blackbird feed her young, 
Or a kverock build her nest. 
Here give my weary spirits rest. 

Walton, Angler's Wish. 

LAW, LOE, LOWE, a hill or eminence whether natural or arti- 
ficial. Sax. hlcew, hlaw, agger, acervus. Mce.-Got. hlaiw, 
monumerltum. The word is often found at the end of the 
names of vills or hamlets. 

LAWFUL ME ! LAW ME ! a frequent colloquial exclamation, 
implying either wonder or fear. 

LEA, LEE, rich meadow or pasture. Sax. leag. Used by 
Spenser, and several times by Shakspeare. 

LEAD, LEEAD, to carry. " He's leading coals." 

LEAGH, a scythe. From lea, meadow, and ag, to cut. 

LEAPING-THE-WELL, going through a deep and noisome pool 
on Alnwick Moor, called the Freemen's well a sine qua 
non to the freedom of the borough. On Saint Mark's 
day, the aspirants proceed in great state, and in equal 
spirits, from the town to the moor, where they draw up 
in a body, at some distance from the water, and on a signal 
being given, they scramble through the mud with great labour 
and difficulty. They may be said to come out in a con- 
dition not much better than " the heroes of the Dimciad 
after diving in Fleet Ditch." Tradition says, this strange 
and ridiculous custom rendered more ludicrous by being 
performed in white clothing was imposed by King John, 
who was bogged in this very pooL I witnessed the cere- 
mony about four years ago. 



LETC 123 

LEARN, to teach. V. Todd's John. This sense is not yet 

obsolete in the North. 
LEASH, to ply the whip. To lash. 

LEATHER, to beat soundly. Perhaps from the instrument 
originally employed a strap. For a copious vocabulary 
of a pugnacious import, see Suff. Words, aint. 
LEATHER-HEAD, LEATHER-HEED, a block-head, a thickscull. 
Lanthorn Leatherhead, one of the characters in Ben Jon- 
son's Bartholomew Fair, has been thought to have been 
meant for Inigo Jones ; but Mr. Giffbrd doubts it. 
LECK, to leak. Isl. lek, stillare. LECK ON AND OFF, to pour 

on, and drain off, gradually. 

LEE, v. to lie, to tell a falsehood. Sax. leogan. LEE, s. a lie. 
This word, vulgar as it is, occurs in Chaucer. LEE WITH 
A LATCHET, a monstrous falsehood, V. Nares. LEEAR, a 
liar. 

LEEMERS. See BROWN-LEEIHERS. 
LEET, v. to meet with, to alight. LEET, s. & a. light. " When 

than heart's sad, can mine be leet?" 
LEETS, lights, lungs. Also windows. 
LEETSOME, light, comfortable, cheerful. Lightsome. 
LEJSH, LISH, nimble, strong and active. 
LEISTER, a prong or trident. Su.-Got. liustra, percutere. See 
BLAZE. 

An awfu* scythe, out owre ae shouther, 

Clear dangling hang, 
A three-tae'd leister on the ither 
Lay, large and lang. 

Sums, Death and Doctor Hornbook. 

LETCH, a long narrow swamp in which water moves slowly 
among rushes and grass. 



124 LENN 

LENNERT, the linnet. The Grey Lennert.The Green Len- 

nert. The Brown Lennert. 
LET-LEET, to inform, to disclose. To let in light. 
LET ON, to mention. " He never let on" he never told me. 

Isl. laeta, ostendere. 

LET WIT, to make known. Dut. laaten weeten. 
LEUF, LOOP, the palm of the hand. A very ancient word. 

V. Jam. Outside the leuf, back of the hand equivalent to 

rejection and repulse. 
LEW, mild, calm. LEW-WARM, luke-warm. Teut. lauwen, 

tepefacere. 
LIB, to emasculate. Dut. liibben. Used by Massinger and 

others. LIBBER, Qui castrat. Lib is perhaps the same as 

glib in Shakspeare. 

They are cohe'irs, 

And I had rather glib myself, than they 
Should not produce fair issues. 

The Winter's Tale. 

LICK, to b^at, to chastise. Su.-Got. laegga, to strike. 
LICKING, LICKS, a beating. 

LICKLY, likely, probable. LICKLIEST, the superlative. 

LIEF, willingly, rather, as soon. Sax. leof. LIEFER, OR LE- 
VER, more willingly, sooner. Sax. leof re. Both Gower 
and Chaucer often use this comparative. Lief is common 
in Shakspeare. 

LIFT, assistance. To give a lift, to lend a helping han.d. 

Lie, to lie down. Common to Sax. and most Northern 
languages. Both Chaucer and Spenser use it. LIG-MA- 
LAST, a loiterer, the last. LIG-O-BED, one who lies long 
in bed. 

LIGGEE, a carved lignum vitae coit for playing at doddart. 



LIN 125 

LIKE, to please, to be agreeable to. Dr. John, is mistaken in 

thinking it disused. 

LIKEN'D. " I had likened" I was in danger of. 
LIKING, delight, pleasure. Sax. licung. An old Scotch word, 

occurring in that beautiful passage from Barbour's Bruce t 

quoted by Dr. Jamieson. 

A ! freedome is a noble thing ? 
Fredome mayss man to haiff liking ! 
Fredome all solace to man giffis ; 
He levys at ess, that frely levys. 

LILE, little. See LITE. 

LILL, to assuage pain. Lat. lallare, to lull. 

LILLY-WUNS ! LILLY-WUNTERS ! exclamations of amazement. 

LILT, to sing, by not using words of meaning, but tuneful syl- 
lables only. North. Su.-Got. lulla, canere, 

LIMBO, gaol. " He's gettin into limbo, up the nineteen steps" 

LIMMER, a female of loose manners, or easy virtue. 

LIMMERS, a pair of shafts for a cart or carriage. Isl, limar, ra- 
mi arborum. 

LIN, v. to cease, to stop. Isl. Una, enervare, frangere. 

Yet our northern prikkers, the borderers, notwith- 
standing, with great enormitie, (as thought me) 
and not unlyke (to be playn) unto a masterless 
hounde hougling in a hie wey, when he hath lost 
him he wayted upon, sum hoopyng, sum whistel- 
yng, and moste with crying a Berwyke ! a Ber- 
icyke! a Fcntcyke! a Fenivykc ! a Bulmer ! a 
Bulmcr ! or so ootherwise as theyr capteins 
names wear, never linnde those troublous and 
daungerotts noyses all the night long. 

Patten's Expedition of the Duke of Somerset. 



126 LIN 

Before which time the wars could never KM. 

Mirror for Magistrates. 

Set a beggar on horseback, he'll never lin till he be 
a gallop. Ben Jon. Staple of News. 

LIN, s. linen. Also the lime tree. 

LINN, a cascade, a precipice. Sax. htynna, a torrent Isl. 
lind, a cascade. Welsh, Uyn y a lake. 

The near'st to her of kin 

Is Toothy, rushing down from Verwin's rushy lin. 

Drayton, Polyolbivn. 

LING, heath. Isl. ling y spec, erica. 

LINGY, active, strong, able to bear fatigue. 

LINIEL, shoe-maker's thread. Fr. ligneul. The same as lingel, 
described in Nares' Gloss, as " a sort of thong used by shoe- 
makers and cobblers ; from lingula" 

LINKS, sandy barren ground sands on the sea shore. V. 
Jam. 

LIPPEN, to expect, to depend upon. " I lippened on you to 
join me." Sax. leafen, credere. 

LISK, the groin. " A pain in the lisk" Dan. and Sw. liuske. 

LISTEN, selvage. Sax. list. Dan. liste. 

LITE, to rely on, to trust to, to depend upon. 

LITE, little. An old word used by Chaucer, both as a substan- 
tive and an adjective. LALL and LILE, also mean little. 
I cannot pretend to reconcile these dialectical variations. 

LITHE, to listen. "Lithe ye" hark you. Lythe, Peirs 
Ploughman. Su.-Got. lyda, audire, lyda till, aures adver- 
tere. 

LITHE, to thicken ; as to lithe the pot. LITHINGS, thickenings 
for the pot ; such as oatmeal, flour, &c. V. Wilb. and 
Jam. 



LOON 127 

LITTLEST, least the regular superlative of little. 

Where love is great the littlest doubts are fear. 

Shak. Hamltt. 

LOAK, OR LORE, a small quantity ; as a loke of hay, a loke of 

meal, a loke of sand. V. Jam. 
LOAK ! LOAK-A-DAZIE ! LOAK-A-DAZIE-ME ! exclamations of 

surprize or pleasure, modulated to suit the occasion. 
LOANING, LONNIN, a lane or bye-road ; a place near country 
villages for milking cows. " Pelton lonnin." V. Jam. loan. 
I have heard of a lilting, at our ewes milking, 

Lasses a lilting, before the break of day ; 
But now there's a moaning, on ilka green loaning, 
That our braw forresters are a' wede away. 

Old Scotch Song, Battle of Floddon. 

LOB-COCK, a contemptuous epithet for a stupid or sluggish 
person. 

I now must leave you all alas, 
And live with some old lobcock ass. 

Breton, Works of a Young Wit. 

LOLLOCK, a lump. " Lottock wfat" 
LOLLOP, to walk in an undulating manner to move heavily. 
LOOK, LOUK, to weed, to clear. " Looking corn." V. Ray. 
LOON,LOUN,LOWNE, an idle vagabond, a worthless fellow, a ras- 
cal. The word is old ; but etymologists are not agreed in the 
derivation. Shakspeare has evidently taken the stanzas 
in Othello from the following ancient version ofj Take thy 
old Cloak about thee, published in Percy's Reliques, vol. i. 
King Stephen was a worthy peere, 

His breeches cost him but a crowne, 
He held them sixpence all too deere ; 
Therefore he call'd the taylor Lowne. 



128 LOOS 

LOOSE-I'-THE-HF.FT, a disorderly person a loose blade. 
LOOSING-LEATHER, an injury in a tender part, to which inexpe- 
rienced riders are subject ; and which makes them, what is 
elsewhere called, saddle sick. It is a rustic idea counte- 
nanced by some old authors that a sprig of elder, in which 
there is a joint, worn in one of the lower pockets, will 
operate as a charm against this galling inconvenience ; but 
whether 

To harden breech, or soften horse, 
I leave't to th' learned to discourse. 

Flecknoe, Diarium. 

LOP, LOPPE, a flea. Pure Saxon. 

LOPPERED, coagulated. Loppered milk milk that sours and 

curdles without the application of an acid. Isl. hlaup, coa- 

gulum. 
LOPSTROPOLOUS, mischievous, clamorous. Obstreperous. 

We shouted some, and some dung doon 
Lobstrop'ljis fellows, we kick'd them O. 

Song, Swalwell Hopping. 

LOUN, LOWN'D, calm, sheltered from the wind. Isl. logn, sens 
tranquillitas. 

LOUNDER, to beat with severe strokes. V. Jam. 

LOUP, v. to leap. Su:-Got. loepa, currere. Also to cover ; 
from Teut. loopen, catulire. 

LOUP, *. a leap or spring. LOUP-THE-LANG-LONNIN, the game 
of leap frog. 

LOUPY-DYKE, loup the dyke, a term of contempt conjoining 
the ideas of imprudence and waywardness. Sometimes ap- 
plied to one of those expeditions that maidens sigh for, 
but which prudent matrons deprecate as shameless and 
untoward. 



LUM 129 

LOUT, v. to bow in the rustic fashion. Su.-Got. luta, incli- 
nare. This is an old word used by Gower, Chaucer, and 
other ancient English writers. 

LOUT, s. a stupid awkward person. Teut. loete, homo insul- 
sus. In Shakspeare, lowt. 

LOVESOME, lovely. Sax. lossum, delectabilis. In Peirs Plough- 
man, Chaucer, &c. Indeed, in old Eng. some and ly are 
used indifferently as terminations of adjectives. 

Low, LOWE, to make a bright flame, as well as the flame itself. 
Su.-Got. loga, Isl. logi, flamma. LILLY-LOWE, a comfort- 
able blaze. " Had aboot the low." 

LOWANCE, LOOANCE, an allowance of drink to work people. 
" Noo, maister, ye'll sartinly give-us wor looance" V, 
Moor, lowans. 

LOWRY, LOOKING, overcast, threatening to be wet. Spoken 
only, I think, of the weather. 

LUBBARD, LUBBART, an awkward, clownish fellow, a calf- 
hearted person. Lubber may be found in Shakspeare and 
other authors. " D'ye ken that lubbard there ? hoo he 
tummiTd his creils ! he's all owre darts /" 

For hyem an' bairns an' maw wife Nan, 

Aw yool'd oot like a litbbart ; 
An' when aw thowt we aw shud gan 
To Davy Jones's cubbart. 

Song, Jemmy Joneson's Whurry. 

LUG, the ear. An old word both in England and in Scotland. 

Su.-Got. lugga. Sax. ge-luggian, to pull the ear being a 

part easily pulled or lugged. " Aw'l dad yor lug" " aw'l 

skelp yor gob" 
LUGGISH, an indolent, or idle fellow. LUGGISH-HEEDED, heavy 

headed, thick headed. 
LUM, a deep pool*of water, the still part of a river. 



130 LUM 

LUJSI, the chimney of a cottage. Welsh, llumou. Lover is in 
Lancashire, and also in some parts of Yorkshire, a chim- 
ney properly (like the lum) an aperture in the roof of old 
houses, where the fire was in the centre of the room. Fr. 
I'ouverte. I find lover in Peirs Ploughman, and also in 
the Faerie Queene. Sibbald, however, conjectures that 
lum may be from Sax. leom, light scarcely any other light 
being admitted, except through this hole. Brand, on the 
other hand, asks if it may not be derived from the lome or 
clay wherewith the wattle work is daubed over inside and 
out? 

LUM-SOOPERS, LUM-SWEEPERS, chimney-sweepers. North. $ 
Newc. 

LURDANE, a drone, a sluggard. Teut. loerd. Old Ital. lordone. 
Fr. lourdaud. Some old writers, however, pretend to de- 
rive this word from Lord Dane a name given (more from 
dread than dignity) to those Danes, who, when they were 
masters of the island, were distributed in private houses ; 
where they are said to have conducted themselves, or if 
the expression be permitted lorded over the inhabitants, 
with outrageous insolence and pride. 

In every house Lord Dane did then rule all ; 
Whence laysie lozels lurdanes now we call. 

Mirror for Mug istra tes. 

LURDY, lazy, sluggish. Fr. lourd, dull, stupid. Ital. lordo, 

dirty, filthy. 

LUSTYISH, rather stout, inclining to be plump, 
LYERY, the lean or muscular flesh of animals. Sax. lira, 

viscum. 
LYKA ! listen an exclamation of astonishment. Lyka man ! 

what do I hear you say. 



MAIN 131 

M. 
MAB, v. to dress carelessly. MAB, s. a slattern. Perhaps in 

derision of Queen Mob. 
MACK, to make. Preterite, myed. Germ, machen. MACK, 

kind, sort, a match or equal. MACKLESS, matchless. 
MACKS, makes, sorts, fashions. 

MACK-BOULD, to venture, or take the liberty. Make bold. 
MACKSHIFT, a substitute or expedient in a case of necessity or 

difficulty. 

MADDLE, to wander, to talk inconsistently, to forget or con- 
found objects, as if in a state bordering on delirium. 
MADPASH, a person disordered in the mind a madbrain. 

From mad and pash, the head. 

MAFFLE, to stammer, to be puzzled to act by means inade- 
quate to the attainment of the object or end proposed 
like one in dotage. Teut. maffelen, balbutire. MAFFLING, 
a state of perplexity. 

MAGGY, a magpie. Also called a Pyamiet. 
MAIL, rent or money exacted by Freebooters on the borders. 

Sax. mal, stipendium. 

MAILIN, or MAEYLIN, a sort of mop made of old rags, with a 
long pole, for cleaning out an oven metaphorically, a 
dirty careless wench. F. Todd's John, malkin and maukin. 
MAIN, might, strength, exertion. Sax. nuzgn. Shakspeare 
endeavours to be superlatively witty on the word. 
SAL. Then let's make haste away, and look 
Unto the main. 

WAR Unto the main ! O father, Maine is lost ; 
That Maine which by main force Warwick did win, 
And would have kept so long as breath did last ; 
jTfazwchance,father, you meant; but I meant Maine; 
Which I will win from France, or else be slain. 

Second Part of King Henry VI. 



132 MAIN 

MAIN of cocks, a cock-fighting match. Anathematized by 
Brand ; Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 480. 

MAINS, a farm, or certain fields, attached to a mansion house. 
Old Fr. manse. 

MAINSWEAR, MANSWEAR, to take a false oath. Sax. mansive- 
rian. " He's a manswearing fellow." 

MAIST, MAYST, almost. MAISTLY, MAYSTLY, mostly. Sax. 
maest, most, greatest. 

MAISTER, master. Sax. mcester. Used by Spenser. MAIS- 
TER-MAN, a husband. 

MAISTRY, power, superiority, mastery. Fr. maistrie. 

MAKE, a companion, or equal. An old word. Sax. maca. 
MAKELESS, matchless, without an equal. Su.-Got. maka- 
loes. This latter word, in the garb of MAKEA&S adopt- 
ed by the learned Christina of Sweden, on one of her 
numerous medals sadly perplexed the antiquaries at 
Rome. 

MAKE-COUNT, to calculate on, to mean or intend to do any 
thing. 

MALE, or MAIL, a travelling trunk. V. Nares' Gloss. 

MALL, MAUL, MALLY, MAULLY, POLLY, Mary. 

A bold virago stout and tall, 

As Joan of France, or English Mall. 

Butler, Hudibras. 

MAMMER, to hesitate, to be in doubt, to mutter. 

I wonder in my soul 

What you could ask me, that I should deny, 
Or stand so mammering on. Shale. Othfllo. 

Hanmer most unfortunately refers to Fr. m' 'amour, which, 
he says, " men were apt often to repeat when they were 
not prepared to give a direct answer !" 



MARK 133 

MAMMY, a childish name for mother. Teut. mamme. 

MANADGE, MANAUDGE, a box or club instituted by inferior shop- 
keepers generally linen-drapers for supplying goods 
to poor or improvident people, who agree to pay for them 
by instalments a mode of dealing extremely lucrative to 
one party, but sadly the contrary to the other. Of late, much 
of this deservedly disreputable trade has been in the hands 
of manadge-women, who become responsible to the dra- 
pers for what they impose on their deluded customers. 

MANG, s. barley or oats ground with the husks; given to 
dogs and swine. Perhaps from Sax. mengean, to mingle. 

MANG, preposition, among, amongst. 

MANNER, manure, dung, or compost. " Aitfve mannered the 
land. 11 

MANNIE, a man. " A tight little mannie but low." 

MAPPEN, perhaps. It may happen. 

MARCHES, the northern borders. Sax. mearc. Fr. marche. 
They of those marches, gracious sovereign, 
Shall be a wall sufficient to defend 
Our inland from the pilfering borderers. 

Shak. Hen. V. 

MARE, more. Pure Saxon. Germ. mehr. 

MARGIT, MEG, MEGGY, PEG, PEGGY, Margaret. 
MARROW, MARRA, v. to match, to equal. 

'Bout Lunnun then divent ye myek sic a rout, 
There's nowse there maw winkers to dazzle ; 
For aw the fine things ye are gobbin about, 
We can marra iv Canny Newcassel. 

Song, Canny Neiocassel. 

MARROW, s. a fellow, companion, or associate; an equal, a 
similar. 

Yet chopping and changing I cannot commend 
With thief or his marrow 9 for fear of ill end. Tusscr. 



134 MARK 

MARROWS, fellows ; two alike, or corresponding to each 
other ; as a pair of gloves, a pair of stockings, a pair of shoes. 

MARROW-BONES, the knees. " I'll bring him down on his 
marrow-bones" I'll make him bend his knees as he does 
to the Virgin Mary. Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 43. 
But see Grose's Class. Diet. 

MARROWLESS, without a match, incomparable. 

MARRY ! MARRY-COME-OUT ! MARRY-ON-US ! common inter- 
jections purposed disguises in favour of pious ears. 
Marry-gip, goody she-justice, mistress French hood. 

Sen Jon. 

MARRY AND SHALL, that I will. Often used by old people. 

MARSYCREE, to ill-treat, to butcher. Corruption of massacre. 

MART, MAYRT, a cow or ox slaughtered at Martinmas, and 
salted for the winter. It is customary in Newcastle and 
the neighbourhood, for a few families to join in the pur- 
chase of a mart, which is obtained at the Stones fair, held 
on old Martinmas day, and divided among them. 
And Martilmass Beefe doth beare good tacke, 
When countrey folke do dainties lacke Tusser. 

MASH, v. to bruise. " Mash'd up." MASH, s. confusion. 

MASK, to infuse. " Mask the tea." V. Jam. 

MASON-DUE, the vulgar name for an ancient hospital, on the 
Sandhill, Newcastle, lately taken down. Evidently a 
corruption of Fr. maison Dieu. 

MASSELGEM, a mixture of wheat and rye maslin. Teut. mas- 
teluyn, farrago. 

MATEN-CORN, corn damped and beginning to germinate. 
N North. V. Ihre, malt. 

MATTERS. " Naa girt matters," nothing extraordinary or to 
boast of. Crav. Gloss. 



MAY 135 

MAUGH, MEAUGH, brother-in-law. V. Lye, mag. 

MAUL, to beat soundly, to hurt severely. Moe.-Got. maul-jan. 

Upon the childe, but somewhat short did fall, 
And lighting on his horse's head, him quite did mall. 

Spenser, Faerie Queene. 

MAUMY, mellow, soft. Su.-Got. mogna, to become mellow. 
To maum a crust of bread, is to soften it in water. 

MAUNDER, to wander about in a thoughtful manner; to be 
tedious in talking ; to say a great deal, but irregularly and 
confusedly ; to lose the thread of a discourse. Q. Gael. 
mandagh, a stutterer ? 

MAUNT, MUNCLE, contractions of my aunt, my uncle. Bor- 
ders of North. Nuncle and Naunt occur in Beaum. & Flet. 

MAW, v. to mow. Preterite, mew. Sax. mawan. Germ. 
mahen. MAWERS, the mowers. 

MAW, s. the human stomach, as well as that of an animal. 
Sax. maga. V. Todd's John. 

MAW, pronoun, my, mine, belonging to me. 

MAWD, a plaid worn by the Cheviot shepherds. Su.-Got. 
mudd, a garment made of rein-deer skins. 

MAWK, a maggot, a gentle. Su.-Got. matk, madk. MAWKY, 
MAWKISH, maggotty, whimsical, proud, capricious. 

MAY, the sweet scented flower of the white thorn. See May- 
Day Customs, Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 179 & seq. 

Rise up, maidens, fie for shame, 
For I've been four lang miles from hame : 
I've been gathering my garlands gay ; 
Rise up, fair maids, and take in your May. 

Old Newcastle Song. 

Moor gives an inaccurate version of this homely canticle. 
V. Suff. Words, p. 225. 



18G MAZE 

MAZED, astonished, amazed Also stupified rendered in- 
sensible by a blow. " Aw stood quite mazed." 

ME, for I. A common grammatical error. Not without ex- 
amples in our old language. 

MEAL, the appointed time when a cow is milked, as well as 
the quantity of milk she gives at once. Sax. mcel, portio, 
spatium temporis. 

MEALY -MOUTHED, " using soft words, concealing the real in- 
tention ; speaking hypocritically." Todd's John. I 
should prefer Skinner's construction mild-mouthed or 
mellow-mouthed but derive the word from Fr. miele, 
honied, as we say honied words. 
Clayton was false, mealie-moutWd, and poore spirited. 
Life of Ant. a Wood, p. 165. 

MEANE, to complain, to lament. Sax. maenan, dolere. 
And thus she means SJtak. Mid. Night's Dream. 

MEANING, shrinking or feeling sore, indicative of pain or lame- 
ness. 

MEBBY, MEBBYS, MABEES, MAEBBIES, perhaps, probably. It 
may be. 

MEDDLE NOR MAKE. " He'll neither meddle nor make" 
he'll not interfere. 

MEER, a mare. Also an abusive term among the lower order 
of ladies in Newcastle. " Aw sae Peg, yah meer." 

MEET, fit, proper. Stated in Todd's John, to be rarely used. 
It is quite common in North, and Dur. 

MELDER, a making of meal. In some places the farmers hire 
the miller, and in turns have a winter stock of meal made. 
The meldering day used to be, and perhaps still is, a kind 
of feast among the yeomanry. Fr. moudre, to grind ; or, 
according to Dr. Jam. Isl. mal/dr, molitura, from mala, to 
grind. 



MELL 137 

MELL, v. to intermeddle, to engage in, to interfere with. Fr. 
meler. " I shall not well with your affairs." The com- 
mentators are not agreed on the expression, 

Men are to mell with. 

Shak. Airs Well that Ends Well 

It means men are to meddle with ; without the least al- 
lusion to the indecent idea surmised by Theobald. 

MELL, v. to pound or bruise, to crush. 

MELL, s. a wooden mallet, or hammer. Lat. malleus. 

MELL-DOLL, an image of corn, dressed like a doll, carried in 
triumph amidst the most frantic screaming of the women 
on the last day of reaping. In some places they call it 
a KERN (perhaps, properly, corn) BABY. There is also oc- 
casionally a harvest queen thought to be a representation 
of the Roman Ceres apparelled in great finery, and 
crowned with flowers ; with a scythe in one hand, and a 
portion of corn in the other. 

MELL-SUPPER, a supper and merry-making on the evening of 
the conclusive reaping day harvest-home. Besides a 
grand display of excellent old English cheer, with a mix- 
ture of modern gout, to enlarge the sphere of epicurean 
enjoyment, there is dancing, masking and disguising, and 
every other sort of mirth to expand a rustic heart to gaiety. 
According to Hutchinson, the Historian of Northumberland, 
the name of this supper is derived from the rites of Ceres, 
when an offering of the first fruits was made; the word 
mette being a provincial word, equivalent to mingle : imply- 
ing that the cakes used at this festival are mingled or made 
of new corn, and that it is the feast of the first mingling of 
flour of the new reaped wheat. I am, however, strongly in- 
clined to think, that we may safely refer to Teut. mael, 



138 MELL 

convivium refectio, pastus. Various other etymologies 
have been conjectured, which are noticed in Brand's Pop. 
Ant. vol. i., Chap. Harvest-Home ; where much curious 
matter relative to this subject is collected. 
MELL-DOORS, the space between the heck and outward door 

the entry. 
MELL-DROP, the least offensive species of mucus from the nose. 

" Mell-drop Tommy." 
MENDS, recompense, atonement. Amends. 

If she be fair, 'tis the better for her; an she be not, 
she has the mends in her own hand. 

Slutk. Troilus and Crcssida. 

MENNAM, the minnow. Gael, meanan. 

MENSE, v. to grace, to ornament, to decorate. " The pictures 
mense the room." 

MENSE, s. decency, propriety of conduct, good manners, kind- 
ness, hospitality. Sax. mennesc, humanus. It also means 
an ornament, or credit ; as he is " a mense to his family." 
The last of a dish of meat untaken is said to be left for 
mense's sake, perhaps pro mensa. See TAILOR'S MENSE. 

MENSEFUL, decent, graceful, mannerly, hospitable, creditable. 

MENSELESS, indecorus, graceless, inhospitable. 

MENSE-PENNY, liberality conducted by prudence. 
Would have their menscf id penny spent 
With gossips at a merriment. 

The Collier's Wedding. 

MERE, a lake. Pure Saxon. Buttermere, Windermere. 

MERRY-BEGOTTEN, filius nullius rather waggishly alluded to 
by old Brunne. 

Knoute of his body gate sonnes thre, 
Tuo bi tuo wifes, the thrid injolifie. 

LangtofCs Chronicle. 



MIDD 139 

MERRY-DANCERS, the glancings of the Aurora Borealis, or 
northern lights; when first seen, called burning spears, 
and which to persons of a vivid imagination still seem to 
represent the clashing of arms, in a military engage- 
ment : called also the Pyrrhy-dancers a name that may 
have been adopted from the Pyrrhica saltatio, or military 
dance of the ancients ; from which, no doubt, the sword- 
dance of the Northumbrian youths, in their white plow, at 
Christmas, has had its origin. 

MERRY-NIGHTS, rustic balls nights (generally about Christ- 
mas) appropriated to mirth and festivity. These homely 
pastimes, besides the eating and drinking, consist of danc- 
ing, in all the lower modes of the art ; of masked inter- 
ludes ; and occasionally of the ancient sword dance ; with 
an indispensable admixture of kissing and romping, and 
other " gallantry robust." 

MESSIT, a little dog, a cur. V. Jam. messan. 

METERLY, MEETERLY, tolerably well, moderately, within 
bounds. 

MICKLE, MUCKLE, much. Sax. micel, miclc. Isl. mikill. 

An oath of mickle might. Shalt. Hen. V. 
O, mickle is the powerful grace that lies 
In plants, herbs, stones, and their true qualities. 

Shak. Rom. and Jul. 

He had in arms abroad won muckel fame. 

Spenser, faerie Queene. 

MIDDEN, MUCK-MIDDEN, a dunghill. Sax. midding, sterquili- 

nium MIDDEN-STEAD, a place for dung. 
MIDDEN, a contemptuous term for a female conjoining the 

ideas of insipidity, inactivity, and dirt. 
MIDDENS, or BLACK-MIDDENS, dangerous rocks on the north 

side of the entrance into Shields harbour. 



140 MIDG 

MIDGE, a small gnat. Sax. micge. A diminutive mischiev- 
ous boy is often called a midge. MIDGE'S-EE, any thing 
very small. As a comparison very common. 

MIDLIN, MIDLING, tolerably well, indifferent. " Weel, Tom- 
my, hoo are yah ? Midlin, thenk yah ! Hoo are yee ? 
Wey, gayly, Joan /" 

MIGHTY, very. " Mighty great" " mighty high" " a mighty 
fine fellow." 

MILKER, a cow that gives milk ; not the person who milks. 
" She's a top milker." 

MILKUS, MILKHOUSE, a dairy. Sax. melce-hus. 

MIND, to remember, to be steady and attentive. Dan. minde, 
to remind. 

MINT, to aim at, to shew a mind to do something, to endea- 
vour, to make a feigned attempt. Sax. ge-myndian, in- 
tender. 

MINNY, a fondling term for mother. Sc. minnie. 

MIRE-DRUM, the Bittern or Bog-bumper. Ardea Stellaris, 
Linnaeus. There is a beautiful figure of this stately bird 
in Bewick's History. 

MIRK, MIRKY, dark. Sax. mirce. Isl. myrkr, tenebrosus. 
Old Eng. mirke. 

Gane is the day, and mirk's the night, 

But we'll ne'er stay for faute o' light. Burns. 

MIRTH, MORTH, or MURTH, abundance ; as a murth of corn, 

a murth of cold. 
MISCALL, to abuse, to call names to. " Yah cannot miscall me 

past me nyem" 

MIS-KEN, to be ignorant of, not to know. 
MISLIPPEN, to suspect, to neglect. 
MISSES, the matron or mistress of the house. " What will 

me misses say?" 



MOOR 141 

MISTETCH, an ill habit, property or custom ; perhaps from mis- 
teach. Chaucer uses tetch, for a spot or blemish. 

MITT AN, a glove ; generally made of thick leather or coarse 
yarn. Fr. mitaine. 

He that his hand wol put in his mttaine 
He shal have multiplying of his graine. 

Chaucer, Pardoneres Tale. 

MIXTY-MAXTY, MIXY-MAXY, any thing confusedly mixed, an ir- 
regular medley. Su.-Got. miskmask. 
MIZZLE, small rain. The substantive is neither in Ash's Diet. 

nor in Todd's John, though the verb is admitted in both. 
MOIDER, to puzzle, to perplex. MOIDERED, bewildered, con- 
fused, distracted. 

MOLTER, MOOTER, MOUTER, a portion of meal abstracted by 
the miller as a compensation for grinding ; the toll, as it 
were, of the mill. Fr. mouture. It is also used as a verb. 
It is good to be merry and wise, 
Quoth the miller, when he mouier'd twice. 

Sc. Prov. 

MOME, soft, smooth, conjoining the idea of sweetness. Hence 
the liquor mun ale brewed with wheat. 

MONNY, many. MONNY A TIME AND OFT, a common expres- 
sion for frequently. 

Moo, to low as a cow. Germ, mu, vox vaccae naturalis. 
Wachter. 

MOON-LIGHT, MOON-SHINE, a mere pretence, an illusive shadow. 
Also smuggled whiskey. Thanks to the malt and other 
taxes for this neologism. 

MOOR, a heath, a common or waste land. Sax. mor y ericetum. 
Isl. mor, terra arida inculta et inutilis. Dr. Jamieson er- 
roneously supposes that this word always implies the idea 



142 MOOT 

of water or marshiness. The same mistake occurs in 
Todd's Johnson. 

MOOT-HALL, the ancient hall of the castle of Newcastle the 
place of holding the assizes for the county of Northumber- 
land. Sax. moth-heal, conventus aula, comitium. 

MOP, " to make wry mouths or grin in contempt." Todd's 
John. In the North it means to prim or look affectedly. 
MOPPET, a child so acting. Also a term of endearment. 
Moppe, is an old word in the latter sense. 

MORAL, model. " The moral of a man." An archaism. 

MORE, a hill. Sax. mor. mons. 

MORN, morrow. THE MORN, to-morrow. Sax. morghen, mor- 
gen. 

MORTAL, very, exceeding, excessive, abounding. Perhaps from 
mort, a great quantity. 

So is all nature in love, mortal in folly. 

Shak. As You Like It. 

MOSS-TROOPERS, banditti, who inhabited the marshy borders of 
the two kingdoms, and subsisted chiefly by rapine. So 
called from living in mosses, and riding in troops to- 
gether. 

MOST. It is not unusual to prefix this superlative degree to 
the regular superlative form of another word' as " the most 
wickedest wretch that ever lived." *' The most plcasantest 
fellow I ever knew." There are examples for it in Shaks- 
peare and some of his cotemporaries. 

MOUDY-RAT, MOUDY-WARP, MOULEY-RAT, a mole. Sax. mold, 
mould, and weorpan, to cast up. Dan. mulvarp, a mole. 
Spenser and other old writers use mouldwarp. Shakspeare 
in allusion to the old prophecy which is said to have in- 
duced Owen Glendower to rebel against King Henry 



MUCK 143 

causes Hotspur, when taxed by Mortimer with crossing his 

father, thus to exclaim 

I cannot choose : sometimes he angers me 
With telling me of the moldwarp and the ant, &c. 
First Part of King Henry IV. 

MOUDY-HILL, MOULEY-RAT-HILL, a mole-hill. 

MOUNGE, to grumble lowly, to whine or complain. " What are 
ye mounging about." 

About him they aw throng'd, and ax'd what news frae 

under ground, 
Each tell'd about their blarin, when they ken'd that 

he was drown'd. 
Hoots !" Archy moung'd, " its nowt but lees to the 

Barley Mow let's e'en be joggin, 
Awl tyek my oath it wassent me, because aw hear its 

Archy Loggan." 

Song, Bold Archy Drownded. 

MOUNT, a large stone hewn into the shape of steps placed at 
the doors of public houses, to assist persons in mounting 
their horses. 

Mow, to converse unlawfully. I believe an old word. See the 
ancient ballad of Bonny Dundee. 

Mow, a distorted mouth. Fr. moue, a wry face. 

Mow, a stack. " The barley mow" Sax. mowe, acervus. 

MUCK, dung for manure. Sax. meox, fimus MUCK-MIDDEN, a 
heap of manure, a dunghill. MUCKY, dirty, filthy. The 
Crav. Gloss, has muck cheap, cheap as dirt : muck-heap, a 
very dirty person, " a girt muck heap :" muck-midden- 
breward, upstarts. Muck, however offensive to those 
whose affected gentility recoils at a vulgar phrase, is not 
without example in several of our best and most accom- 
plished writers. 



144 MUCK 

MUCKINGER, MUCKINDER, a pocket-handkerchief. 
Be of good comfort, take my muckindcr, 
And dry thine eyes. Ben Jon. 

MUDDLE, to confuse, to perplex. V. Suff. Words, muddle and 
muddled. 

MUDS, small nails used by cobblers. 

MUFFETTEE, a worsted covering or small muff for the wrist. Ap- 
parently a recent innovation. The Scotch have a kind of 
gloves worn by old men, called muffities, from which the 
term may have been borrowed. 

MUG, a low word for the mouth. " Shut your ugly mug." 

MUGGER, a hawker of pots, a dealer in earthen ware. This 
trade is carried on to a great extent among the gipsy tribes 
in the Northern counties. 

MUGGY, the white-throat. Motacilla Sylva. Linnaeus. 

MULL, dirt, rubbish, crumbs. Su.-Got. mull. Chaucer uses 
mvttok. The fragments and dust of a stack of peats are 
called peat-mull, and oaten bread broken into crumbs, is 
called mulled bread. 

MULLIGRUBS, bad temper, ill humour an indescribable com- 
plaint. 

What's the matter ? 

Whither go all these men-menders, these physicians ? 
Whose dog lies sick o' th' mulligrubs. 

Beaum. and Flet. Monsieur Thomas. 

MUMMER, a person disguised under a mask, a sort of morris 
dancer. Dut. mommen, to mask. Dan. mumme, mum. See 
as to the old custom of mumming, in Brand's Pop. Antiq. 
vol. i. p. 354. 

MUMP, to hit or slap to beat about the mouth. " I'll mump 
yor gob." A very low word. 

MUN, an expletive used on all occasions. Man. 



NAG 145 

MUN, MUNS, the mouth. Germ. mund. 

MUN, MOWN, must. " I mun gan." " You mun come." Isl. 

mun. Chaucer uses moun and mowen. 
MUNNIT, must not. MUSSENT, the same. 
MURDERING-PIE, the great ash-coloured shrike. Lanius excu- 

bitor. Linnaeus. 
MURL, to fall in pieces, to crumble. Welsh, mwrl, crumbling. 

Dut. mutten, to crumble. 
MUSH, the dust, or dusty refuse of any dry substance, any thing 

decayed or soft. " Dried to mush." 
MUTTON, a term for a courtezan. 

The duke, I say to thee again, would eat mutton on 

Fridays __ Shak. Meas.for Meas. 
Mutton's mutton now. Webster's Appius $ Virg. 

MUZZY, half stupified, bewildered -fatigued with liquor, as I 

once heard a friend express it. 
MY-EYE, a vulgar inter) ectional expression of exultation, in 

frequent use. 
MYSELL, myself. An universal corruption among the vulgar. 



NA, no. NAT, not. Both pure Saxon. Chaucer has given 
his Northern Clerks a northern dialect. V. Tyrwhitt's 
note on verse 4021. 

NAB, NABB, a protuberance, an elevated point, the rocky sum- 
mit of a hill. A steep and high precipice at the confluence 
of the Baulder and the Tees, is called the Nabb. Sax. 
cncep, vertex montis. Isl. gnop, prominentia. Su.-Got. 
kncepp, summitas montis. 

NAG, to gnaw at any thing hard. 
u 



146 NAGG 

NAGGY, irritable. See KNAGGY. 

NAKY-BED, NAKIT-BED, in puris naturalibus stark-naked. 

Nares observes, that, down to a certain period, those who 

were in bed were literally naked, no night linen being 

worn. Many of the Scotch thrifty souls and some of 

the English, still continue the custom. 
NANNY-HOUSE, NANNY-SHOP, a brothel. Newcastle. 
KAPKIN, a pocket handkerchief. Borders of North. Used 

by Shakspeare in several of his plays ; and by other 

writers. 
NAPPERN, an apron. This pronunciation is conformable to 

the old orthography. Fr. naperon, a large cloth. 
NAPPY, fine ale a little intoxicated with it. Sax. nappe, 

cyathus. Ital. nappo, a bowl. 

Nappy ale, good and stale. 

Ballad, Ring and Miller of Mansfield. 

NARRATE, to relate, to tell. Not confined to Scotland as 

stated by Dr. Johnson. 

NASH, NESH, tender, weak, fragile. Sax. nesc. 
NASTY, ill-natured, impatient, saucy. Its other meaning is 

universal. 
NATION, very, exceedingly. " Nation great"" nation wise" 

" nation foolish." 
NATTLE, OR KNATTLE, to hit one hard substance against another 

gently and quick, to make a noise like that of a mouse 

gnawing a board. 

NATTRY, ill natured, petulant. " Nattry faced" 
NATTY, neat, tidy. " How very natty he is." 
NAUP, to beat, to strike. Isl. knefa. See NEVEL. 
NAY-SAY, a refusal, a denial. Holinshed uses nay, v. to refuse. 
NAY THEN ! an exclamation implying great doubt, or wonder. 



NEED 147 

NE, no. NEBODY, nobody. " Whe was there ?" " Nebody r 
NEAGRE, a term of reproach, equivalent to a base wretch ; 
though often confined to a mean, niggardly person. Pro- 
bably from Fr. negre, a negro. 
NEAR-SIGHTED, short-sighted. Su.-Got. naarsynt. 
NEB, a point, a beak also the nose, the mouth. Sax. nebb. 
Isl. nebbi, nef. 

How she holds up the neb, the bill to him ! 

Shak. Winter's Tale. 

Give her a bus see how she cocks her neb Neiec. 

NECK-ABOUT, a woman's neck-handkerchief. Neckatce. 

NECK AND HEELS, topsy-turvy. Origin obvious. 

NECK-VERSE, a cant term formerly used by marauders on the 
borders adopted from the verse (generally thought to be 
the beginning of the 51st psalm) read by criminals claim- 
ing the benefit of clergy, so as to save their lives. 

Letter nor line know I never a one, 
"Wer't my neck-verse at Hairihee. 

Scott, Lay of the Last Minstrel 

NEP, NEDDY, Edward. " Neddy, maw dear" 

NEDDY, a certain place that will not bear a written explana- 
tion ,* but which is depicted to the life in the first edition 
of Bewick's Land Birds, p. 285. This broad piece of na- 
tive humour is somewhat refined in the subsequent im- 
pressions. 

NEED-FIRE, an ignition produced by the friction of two pieces 
of dried wood. The vulgar opinion is that an Angel 
strikes a tree, and that the fire is thereby obtained. Need- 
fire, I am told, is still employed in the case of cattle in- 
fected with the murrain. They were formerly driven 
through the smoke of a fire made of straw, &c. It was 



148 NEER 

then thought wicked to neglect smoking them. Sax. nyd, 
force, and^/r, fire ; that is, forced fire. 

NEER-DEE-WEEL, a graceless person one who seems never to 
do well. 

NEESE, NEEZE, to sneese. Sax. ncese, the nose. 

NEEST, NIEST, NEST, next. 

NEET, night. " Good neet, hinny" 

NEIF, the fist. Isl. knefi. Su.-Got. kruefve. Dan. nave. A 
good old Shakspearian word. Nares' display of authorities 
was unnecessary. The word is still in general use in all 
the northern counties. DOUBLE-NEIF, the clenched fist. 

NEIF-FULL, a handful. 

NELSON'S BULLETS, small confections in the shape of balls. In 
commemoration of the naval hero.' 

NENTS, against, towards. 

NERLED, ill-treated : often applied to the conduct of a step- 
mother. 

NESTLING, the smallest bird in the nest, the weakest of the 
brood. Sax. nestling. Something like the DOWPY. 

NETHER-STOCKS, stockings. Used by Shak. in King Lear, 
and in Henry IV. Nether is an old word for lower, from 
Sax. neother. 

NETHER-LIP, the under lip. 

That thou art my son, I have partly thy mother's 
word, partly my own opinion ; but chiefly a vil- 
lainous trick of thine eye, and a foolish hanging 
of the nether %, that doth warrant me. 

SJiak. First Part of Henry IV. 

NETTLED, provoked, irritated as if stung by a nettle. To 
water a nettle, in a certain way, has been said proverbially 
to cause peevish and fretful humour. See the proverb in 
Howell. 



NIFF 149 

NEUCK, NUIK, NOOK, a corner. " The chimlay neuck" the 

fire side. Gael. niuc. 
NEVEL, to beat violently with the fists, or neives. See NEIF. 

She'l nawpe and nevel them without a cause, 
She'l macke them late their teeth naunt in their hawse. 
Yorkshire Dialogue, j?. 68. 

Ni ! Ni ! a common exclamation in Newcastle. 

Waes ! Archy lang was hale an' rank, the king o' lad- 
dies braw 

His wrist was like an anchor shank, his fist was like 
the claw 

His yellow waistcoat flowered se fine, myed tailors 
lang for cabbage cuttins 

It myed the bairns to glower amain, and cry, " Ni! 
Ni ! what bonny buttons !" 

Song, Bold Archy Drownded. 

NICE, good, pleasant, agreeable, handsome. " A nice man" "a 
very nice woman." NICELY, in good health. 

NICK, to delude by stratagem, to deceive. 

NICK-STICK, a tally, or notched stick, by which accounts are 
kept. This simple mode of reckoning seems to have been 
the only one known to the Northern nations. V. Jam. 
When a woman, in a certain state, goes longer than her 
calculation, she is said among the vulgar to have lost her 
nick-stick. |- 

NICKER, to neigh, to laugh in a loud ridiculous manner. Sax. 
gncegan. " What are you nickering at." 

NICKER AND SNEER, a loud vulgar laugh apparently borrow- 
ed from the neighing and snorting of a horse. 

NIDDERED, starved with cold, hungered. V. Jam. 

NIFF-NAFFS, trifles, things of little value. Fr. nippes. 



150 NIFF 

NIFFY-NAFKY, a term for an insignificant or conceited person 
one whose attention is devoted to trifles. 

NIFFLE, to steal, to plunder. Perhaps by a metathesis from 
rifle. 

NIGH, to approach, to touch. Sax. nehwan, appropinquare. 
NIGH-HAND, hard by, NIGHEST-ABOUT, the nearest 
way. 

NIGHT-COURTSHIP, a Cumbrian mode of wooing; fully de- 
scribed in note 3, Anderson's Ballads. 

NIBI, to walk with short quick steps, to take up hastily. 

NINE-TRADES, nine trading companies in Newcastle three 
of wood three of thread and three of leather. " The 
meeting of the nine trades." 

NINNYHAMMER, a foolish, stupid person. Shak. frequently 
uses ninny. 

NIP-CHEESE, a contemptuous designation for a parsimonious, 
covetous person. 

NIP-UP, to wipe up, to move quickly, to pilfer. 

NIPPING, pinching ; as by frost or cold. 

It is a nipping and an eager air. SJuiJc. Hamlet. 

NITHING, much valuing, sparing of; as nithing of his pains: 
i. e. sparing of his pains. Ray. 

NITTLE, handy, neat, handsome. Sax. nytiic, utilis. 

NIVVER, never. " To-morrow come nivver when two Sun- 
days meet together." 

NOB, the head. Used ludicrously. 

NOBBIT, NOBBUT, only. None but. " Who's that ?" " Nob- 
bit I." 

NODDLE, a burlesque name for the nose. 

NO-FAR, near. Not far. A common North country phrase. 

NOODLE, a fool. A term often used in Newcastle sometimes 
ungallantly. 



NOUS 151 

NOOLED, checked, curbed, broken spirited. 

NOR, than. Very common among the vulgar; and occa- 
sionally used by people in Newcastle, in a sphere beyond 
the " mere ignoble." Gael. na. 

NOSE ON THE GRINDSTONE, a simile for the fate of an improvident 
person. See an illustration in a tail piece to Bewick's 
jEsop, p. 128. 

NOSE-WISE, acute, quick of perception. Germ, nase-weu, self- 
witted, presumptuous. 

NOTE, to push or strike with the horns ; as a bull or ram. 
Isl. hniota, ferire. 

NOTTAMY, OTTOMY, a skeleton. NOTTAMISED, OTTOMISED, 
dissected. 

NOUGHT, NOWT, nothing. " Cheese for half-nought, here !" 
Newcastle cry. 

NOUT, OR NOLT, neat, or horned cattle of the ox species. 
Isl. naut, bos. Old Eng. nowt. The nolt market, the 
ancient name of a street in Newcastle now the Bigg- 
market. 

NOUT-GELD, NEAT-GELD, cornage rent, originally paid in cattle 
horn tax. Cornage seems to have been peculiar to the 
border service against the Scots. The tenants holding 
under it were bound to be ready to serve, on horseback 
or on foot, at their own costs and charges ; and, being best 
acquainted with the passes and defiles, had the honour of 
marching in the vanguard, when the king's army passed 
into Scotland. 

NOUTH, the north. NOUTHERLY, northerly. " Past two 
o'clock, and a frosty mornin winds noutherly." NORRID, 
northward. " Several Greenlandmen passed nor rid" 

NOUTHER, NOWTHER, neither. Pure Saxon. 

NOUSE, judgment, understanding, sense. Lat. noscere. 



152 NOWS 

NOWSE, nothing ; contrary to owse. 

Wi' huz, mun, three hundred ships sail iv a tide, 

We think nowse on't aw'l myek accydavy ; 
Ye're a gowk if ye din't knaw that the lads o' Tyne-side, 
Are the Jacks that myek famish wor navy. 

Song, Canny Newcassd. 
As to that pedant Mr. Hall, 
By Jove I'll give him no-wse at all. 

The Vicar's Witt. 

NUDGE, to push, to jog. " What are ye nudging at." 
NUM, NUMB, clumsy, benumbed. Sax. benum, stupefactus. 
NUT-CRACK-NIGHT, All Hallows Eve ; on which it is customary 
to crack nuts in large quantities. They are also thrown 
in pairs into the fire, as a love divination, by young people 
in Northumberland, anxious to know then* future lot in 
the connubial state. If the nuts lie still and burn toge- 
ther, it prognosticates a happy marriage, or at least a hope- 
ful love ; if, on the contrary, they bounce and fly asunder, 
the sign is unpropitious to matrimony. Burning the nuts 
is also a famous charm in Scotland. 

The auld guidwife's weel hoordet nits 

Are round an' round divided, 
An' monie lads' and lasses' fates 

Are there that night decided : 
Some kindle couthie, side by side, 

An' burn thegither trimly ; 
Some start awa wi' saucy pride, 

And jump out-owre the chimlie. 

Burns, Halloween. 

See some curious notes, explanatory of the charms and 
spells of this evening, appended to the poem here quoted. 
NYEM, name. " Aw diwent ken his nyem." Broad Newcastle. 



OIL 153 



O. 
OAF, a fool, a blockhead, an idiot. " Oh ! yah oaf, yah /" 

V. Todd's John, and Will), 
OBSTROPOLOUS, vociferous, turbulent, obstreperous. 
Then rough-hewn tar, 
Who sail'd had far, 
" Cries out, my lads ! give o're ; 
" Since, body of me ! 
" You can't agree, 
" Cease such dbstrojflous roar." 

Benwell Village. 

ODDMENTS, ODDS AND ENDS, scraps, things of little value, 

odd trifles. 
ODDS-BOBS, a vulgar exclamation of surprize. ODD ROT IT, 

the same. 

ODDS-DEETH ! ODDS-LIFE ! ODDS-HEART ! ODDS-HEFT ! ODDS- 
WOWKS I ODDS-ZOOKS ! frequent palliative adjurations. 
As are also, ODDS-DAT-IT, ODDS-DRAB-IT. 
Oddsfaft ! we all know Skipper Clark, 
Has got a stomach like a shark, 
And can if he's a mind to try, 
Devour a bullock in a pie. 

Willy Wood, and Greedy Grizzle. 

ODDS-FISH ! an interjection a moderated diminutive of God's 



OFTENS, OFFENS, the plural of often. Quite common. OFT- 
ISH, OFTENISH, very often. 

OIL-OF-HAZEL, a sound drubbing. A piece of waggery is some- 
times practised by mischievous urchins in Newcastle, on 
raw inexperienced lads from the country in sending them 



154 OLD 

to a chymist's shop for a "pen'ortk of oti-of-kazel" An 
earnest application of a good thick hazel stick is often the 
result. Sending for pigeon's milk is a similar joke of old 
standing. 

OLD, great ; such as was practised in the " olden time." OLD- 
DOINGS, great sport, great feasting an uncommon display 
of hospitality. 

OLDISH, rather old. Very common. 

OLD-NICK, one of the most common of all the ludicrous names 
given to the devil ; or, as it is pronounced, the deevil. 
The Danes and Germans, according to the northern my- 
thology of elder times, worshipped Nocka or Nicken, a 
deity of the waters, represented as of a hideous shape, and 
of diabolical principles ; from which, no doubt, the popular 
name of old-nick has been derived. OLD-HARRY, and OLD- 
SCRATCH, are also designations appropriated to the same 
evil being by the vulgar in the North. 

OLD-PEG, AUD-PEG, an inferior sort of cheese, made of skim- 
med milk. It is also called, not inaptly, leather hungry. 
V. Moor, bang. 

OLD-SHOE. The ancient custom of throwing an old shoe af- 
ter a person for luck, is not yet disused in the North. In 
the case of marriages, it is often practised ; even among 
some of the great. See on this subject, Brand's Pop. 
Antiq. vol. ii. p. 490 ; and Nares' Gloss. " As easy as an 
old shoe" a common comparison. 

OMY, mellow ; spoken of land. V. Jam. oam. 

ONE-DAY, a favourite retrospection. " I remember it well 
it happened one-day when from home." 

ONGOINGS, conduct, doings, merriment. 

ONSET, a dwelling-house and out-buildings. Something ad- 
ded or set on. 



OUT 155 

ONSETTEN, dwarfish, curbed in growth. " An onsetten thing" 
a common term of derision. 

ONSTEAD, ONSTID, the buildings on a farm a station or stay 
near the house for cattle or stacks. Sax tw, and steel, 
locus. 

ONY, ONNY, any. ONNY-BIT-LIKE, tolerable, decent, likely. 

Oo, often pronounced ui ; as book, buik ; look, luik ; took, 
tuik. 

OOL, OWL, wool. Had the learned author of the Commen- 
taries on the Laws of England known this, he need not 
have gone so far to seek the meaning of what he calls 
owling. V. Blackstone, vol. iv. p. 154. 

OPPEN, to open. OPPENT, opened. 

ORNDORNS, " afternoon's drinkings, corrupted from onederins" 
Ray, who gives it as a Cumb. word. OWNDER is used in 
some parts of the North, for the afternoon j which may be 
the same as Chaucer's undern; and in a list of words 
communicated to me by a friend, a native of Cumberland, 
I find orndinner, afternoon's luncheon ornsupper, after- 
supper's refection. 

OSKEN, an oxgang of land varying in quantity. 

OTHERGAITS, OTHERGETS, otherwise, different. 

If Sir Toby had not been in drink, he would have 
tickled you othergates than he did. 

Shak. Twelfth Night. 

OUSEN, OWSEN, oxen. Moe.-Got. auhsne. 

He has gowd in his coffers, he has owsen and kine, 
And ae bonie lassie, his darling and mine. Sums. 

OUT-AT-THE-ELBOWS, in declining circumstances. 
OUT-BY, a short way from home, not far distant. 
OUT-FALL, a quarrel, a misunderstanding. To fall out. Sw. 
utfall, a hostile excursion. 



15G OtJTG 

OUTGOINGS, synonymous with OUTLAY, which see. 

OUTING, an airing, going from home. Sw. uttacg, an expedi- 
tion abroad. Also an entertainment or supper given by 
an apprentice to his shopmates, on the expiration of his 
servitude. 

OUTLAY, expenditure. Dr. Jam. refers to Sw. utlagga, to ex- 
pend ; whence utlaga, tax ; utlagor, expenditure. 

OUTOPONNER, OR OoT-UPON-iiER ! an inter] ectional term of 
reproach, or abhorrence. 

But out upon this half-fac'd fellowship. 

Shdk. First Part of King Henry IV. 

OUT o' THE WAY, uncommon, exorbitant, wayward. 
OUTRAKE, a free passage for sheep from inclosed pastures 
into open grounds or common lands. Sax. ut-rcecan, ex- 
tendere. Dr. Willan, however, thinks that, in writing the 
word out-track, we should perhaps exhibit the right mode 
of spelling, as well as the derivation of it. 
OUTSHOTS, projections of the upper stories of old houses, in 
Newcastle ; of which there used to be several. A few 
still remain. 

Oft in a house decay'd with age, 
Which scarce will bear the winter's rage ; 
Whose crazy outshots threat 'ning hing 
About their ears, a peal to ring. 

Description of Sandgate. 

OUTWALK, refuse. See WALE. 

OVER IT, to recover from an illness. " I'm sadly afraid she'll 

never over it" 
OVERGET, to overtake ower-take. " He is but a little before, 

you will soon over-get him." 
OVERMICKLE, OwERMiCKLE, overmuch. Sax. ofer-micel. 



PACK 157 

OWE, to belong to. An old sense of the word. 

Thou dost here usurp 
The name thou ow'st not. 

Sliak. Tempest. 

OWER, over. OUT-OWER, across. OWER-BY, over the way. 

OWSE, any thing ; contrary to nowse. 

OWT, OUGHT, any thing. ' Sax. owhit. 

OVVTHER, OWETHER, GATHER, either. An old word. " Ow- 

ther on us" either of us. 

OX-EYE, the greater titmouse. Parus major, Linnaeus. 
OXLIP, the greater cowslip. Sax. oxan-slippa. - 

I know a bank where the wild thyme blows, 
Where oxlips and the nodding violets grows. 

Shdk. Mid. Night's Dream. 

OXTAR, OXTER, the arm pit. Sax. oxtan. Pegge, however, 
thinks it should perhaps be written HOCKSTER, quasi the 
hock of the arm, or the lesser hock. 

OYE, a grandchild. V. Jamieson, oe. 

OYSTERS. EE-SHEE-KE-LE-KAUL-ER-OYSTEERS, the famous cry 
of the elder oyster-wenches, in Newcastle ; but now rarely 
carried to this musical extent. Bewick has figured two 
of these dames in a tail piece to his Land Birds, edit. 1821, 
p. 20. 

P. 

PACK, the warehouse of a pedlar. " Perish the Pack" was a 

well known character in Newcastle, a few years ago. See 

PACKMAN, and PEDDER. 
PACKING-PENNY-DAY, the last day of the fair ; when all the 

cheap bargains are to be had. Newc. 
PACKMAN, a pedlar a man who carries a pack on his back. 

Many persons in Newcastle, now enjoying otium cum 



158 PADD 

dignitate, are lineally descended from packmen through no 
very remote genealogy. 

Honour and shame from no condition rise ; 

Act well your part there all the honour lies. Pope. 

PADDICK, or PADDOCK, a frog. Sax. pad, pada. Never a 
toad. 

Paddockes, todes, and water-snakes. 

Chapman, Ccesar and Pompey. 

Paddock calls Shak. Macbeth. 

PADDLE, an iron instrument for clearing away dirt, a scraper. 

PADDOCK, a small field or park adjoining to, or surrounding a 
house. Sax. pearroc, parruc. In Westmorland, parruck, 
evidently the proper word, is a common name for an in- 
closure near a farm house. 

PADDOCK-STOOL, or STUYL, a fungus often mistaken for a 
mushroom. Teut. padden-stoel. 

PAD-THE-HOOF, to walk. " As aw cuddent get a ride, aw was 
'bliged to pad the hoof" 

PAFFLING, silly, trifling. " A paffling fellow." 

PAIK, to beat, to chastise. Germ, pauken. PAIKS, PAIKES, a 
beating, a drubbing. V. Jam. 

PAINCHES, tripe. From paunch. PA INCH-WIVES, PAINCHER- 
WIVES, tripe women. Newc. 

PALAVER, v. to use a great many unnecessary words. PALA- 
VER, s. needless talk. Span, palabra, a word ; palabrero, 
talkative, full of prate, loquacious. 

PALTERLEY, PALTEREY, paltry. 

PAN, to match, to agree, to assimilate. Dr. Willan seems to 
think this must be borrowed from cookery : the author of 
the Crav. Gloss, from Sax. pan, a piece of cloth inserted 
or agreeing with another. But see Ray. 



PARR 159 

PANCAKE-TUESDAY, Shrove Tuesday ; on which it is a general 
custom in the North to have pancakes. Formerly, in 
Newcastle, the great bell of St. Nicholas was tolled at 
twelve o'clock at noon ; when the shops and offices were 
immediately closed, and a little carnival ensued for the 
remainder of the day. It is still a sort of half holiday. 
PANG, to fill, to stuff. PANG-FULL, crammed with food. Teut. 
banghen, premere. 

Next, to the tents we hied, te get 
Sum stuffin for wor bags, man ; 
Wi* flesh we gaily panged wor hides 
Smok'd anowse but patten shag, man. 

Song, X. Y, Z. 

PANT, a public fountain. In Newcastle they are of a particu- 
lar construction, having a reservoir before them for retain- 
ing the water. According to Skinner, pond was anciently 
pronounced pand, which may be derived from Sax. pyndan, 
to inclose or shut up, and which might easily get changed 
to pant. See a representation of a North country pant, 
in Bewick's ^Esop, p. 334. 

PARCY-AND, the sign or contraction fy. 

PARFIT, perfect, entire. Fr. parfait. Used by Chaucer. 

PARGET, to plaster chimnies with a" mixture of cow dung,&c ; 
formerly the common term for plastering the roofs of rooms. 
V. Nares. 

PARLOUS, perilous, dangerous, wonderful also acute, clever, 
shrewd. An old word. PARLISH, a variation in dialect. 

A parlous boy ! go to, you are too shrewd. 

Shak. King Ricltard III. 

PARRISHED, perished, starved, much affected by cold. PAR- 
RISHMENT, a state of starvation. " He's gettin a parmft- 
ment at caud" 



160 PASE 

PASE, v. to raise, to lift up, to open with violence. Fr. peser, 
to weigh. PASE, s. a lever. 

PASH, v. to bruise, to crush, to dash in pieces. PASH, s. any 
thing decayed. " As rotten as pash" " As soft as posh." 

PASH, a fall of rain or snow. Dut. plas. 

PASTE-EGGS, eggs boiled hard, and dyed or stained various 
colours given to children to amuse themselves with about 
the time of Easter. The custom of presenting eggs at this 
season of the year is of great antiquity, and pervaded va- 
rious nations. Su.- Got. pask-egg. V. Ihre. vol. i. p. 390. 
Dan. paaske-teg, coloured eggs. See much curious matter 
relative to this subject, in Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. easier 



PATE, a brock or badger. F. Ray. 

PAUKV, saucy, squeamish, scrupulously nice also proud, in- 

solent, artful. Q. Sax. pcecan, mentiri ? 
PAUL, to puzzle. Poze is used in the same sense. 
PAUT, v. to paw, to walk heavily or awkwardly, to kick. 

PAUT, s. a stroke on the ground with the foot. Teut. 

pad, planta pedis. 
PAWP, the foot particularly a clumsy one. PAUPIN, PAUP- 

ING, walking awkwardly. 
PAWS, the hands. " Keep yor paws off" 
PAY, to beat, to drub. " The rascal pays his wife." PAYS, 

a beating, a drubbing. Welsh, pwyaw, to beat, to batter. 

Two, I am sure, I have paid. 

Shak. First Part of King Henry IV. 

PEA, or PEE-JACKET, a loose rough jacket or short covering ; 
much used in severe weather by mariners, and by watermen 
on the Tyne. It was formerly the holiday outer-dress of 
the keelmen. 



PEEN 161 

PEAS-STRAW, a rustic love charm. A Cumbrian girl, when 
her lover proves unfaithful to her, is by way of consola- 
tion, rubbed with peak-straw by the neighbouring lads; 
and when a Cumbrian youth loses his sweetheart, by her 
marriage with a rival, the same sort of comfort is adminis- 
tered to him by the lasses of the village. Note, in Ander- 
son's Ballads. 

PEA-SWAD, OR SWAD, the husk that contains peas. 
PEDDER, PETHER, or PJETHUR, a pedlar a travelling merchant. 
PEE, to squint, to spy with one eye to look through con- 
tracted eye-lids. PEED, blind of an eye. 
PEE-DEE, a young lad in a keel, who has charge of the rudder. 
In other respects, something similar to the cabin-boy of a 
ship. Often called by a name too coarse for insertion. 
PEEL, a place of strength a fortified building. Sax. pil t 
moles. 

Within my own recollection almost every old house 
in the dales of Rede and Tyne was what is called 
a Peel house, built for securing its inhabitants 
and their cattle in the moss-trooping times. 
Hedley, Archceologia jEliana, voli.p. 243. 

The Northumberland Peel houses were of two stories 
the first arched over, into which the cattle were driven ; 
but a Peel, according to the proper sense of the term, sig- 
nifies a Gothic strong-hold, the defences of which are of 
earth mixed with timber, strengthened with piles or pali- 
sades, such as was common on the Continent at a very 
early period. 

PEELINGS, parings. " Apple peelings"" Potatoe peelings." 
PEENGING, PINGING, uttering feeble, frequent, and somewhat 
peevish complaints. " A peenging bairn" a whining 
child. Teut. pynighen, affligere. 



162 PEEZ 

PEEZ-WEEP, PEE-WIT, the lapwing, or bastard plover. Tringa 
vanelhtSy Lin. V. Wilb. appendix. 

PEG, v. to beat with sharp knuckles. Isl. piaka, tundere. 
PEG, s. a blow or thump. 

PELCH, faint, indisposed, exhausted. 

PELL-MELL, quick. See its other meanings in Todd's John. 

PET, a domesticated lamb a spoiled, pampered child a fond- 
ling designation for a female favourite. Old play writers 
use peat, in the latter sense. 

PETTED, fondled, indulged. " What a petted child." 

PICK, to pitch, to throw. Su.-Got. picka y minutis ictibus 

tundere. 

I'd make a quarry 

"With thousands of these quarter'd slaves, as high 
As I could pick my lance Shak. Corlolanus. 

PICK-FORK, a hay fork, a sort of grape. See GRAPE. 
PICK-NIGHT, dismal, dark as pitch. Shakspeare and later 
writers use pitchy y in the same sense. 
Then aw met yor Ben, an' we were like to fight ; 
An' when we cam to Sandgate it was pick-night. 

Song, Maw Canny Hinny. 

PICKLE, a small quantity, a little. 

PICKLET, or PIKELET, a small round light cake a sort of 
muffin. 

PICKS, the suit of diamonds at cards. Grose erroneously says 
sjjades. Brand pretends to seek a derivation in the re- 
semblance which the diamond bears to a nnll-j)ick > as 
fusils are sometimes called in Heraldry. 

PlCKTREE, PlGCREE, Or PlGERY, a pig-Sty. 

PIECE, a little while. " Stay a piece and then aw will." 

PIFLE, to filch, to steal. From pilfer. 

PIKE, v. to pick, to select, to chuse. Dut. picken. 



PIPE 163 

PIKE, OR HAY-PIKE, s. See HAY-MAKING. 
PIN-CODD, or PRIN-CODD, a pin-cushion. See CODD. 
PINCH-GUT, a penurious person a covetous, miserable 

wretch. 

PINK, small. " Aw never saw sic a Pink-eed body." 
PINKEY, very small. Dut. pinkje. PINKEY-WINKEY, the 

smallest imaginable. 

PIN-PANNIEBLY-FELLOW, a miserable, covetous, suspicious fel~ 
low, one who pins up or fastens his paniers and baskets. 
-Grose. 

PIPER, a minstrel. Northumberland. Sax. pipere. The 
noble house of Percy still retain pipers in their service. 
They wear, on the right arm, a silver crescent, granted as 
a badge to the family, for having taken the Turkish stand- 
ard, in an expedition against the Saracens, in the Holy 
Land : attend the courts-leet and fairs held for the Lord : 
and pay suit and service at Alnwick castle. Their in- 
strument is the ancient Northumbrian bag-pipe, different 
in form and execution from the Scotch ; it being much 
smaller, and blown, not with the breath, but by a pair of 
bellows fixed under the left arm. 

With wassail, mirth, and revelry 

The castle rung around : 
JLord Percy calPd for song and harp, 

And pipes of martial sound. 
The minstrels of thy noble house, 

All clad in robes of blue, 
With silver crescents on their arms, 
Attend in order due. 

The Hermit of Warkworlh. 

PIPESTOPPEL, a fragment of the shank of a tobacco-pipe. 



164 PIPI 

PIPING-HOT, extremely hot. " Pies, piping-hot. 

The honour thou hast got 
To spick and span nevi t pijnng-fiot. 

Sutler, Httdibras. 

PIPKIN, or PIDKIN, a small earthen vessel with a handle from 
one side. 

p**##* G ON A GRAVE. Women transported with rage and 
wickedness sometimes threaten their deadly enemies in this 
manner. A clergyman, in Northumberland, informed me 
that he had heard of a person who was actually guilty of 
such a revenge. Many old customs are harmless ; but this 
is composed of nothing but horrible materials. 

PITMAN, a collier a man who works in a coal pit. 

PITTER-PATTER, to beat incessantly, like rain. 

PITTY-PATTY, palpitation, a quick movement of the heart. 
Pitapat is classical. 

PLASH, v . to splash. Su.-Got. plaska. PLASH, s. a small pool 
of water. PLASH OF RAIN, a heavy fall or severe shower. 
Dut. plasregen. 

PLEACH, to bind a hedge. V. Suff. Words, plash. 

PLEAN, to complain. An old word. 

PLEAN, or PLEANY-PYE, a tell-tale, or prating gossip. Pleig- 
nen occurs in Gower. 

FLEMISH, OR PLENNISH, to furnish a house. 

PLENISHING, OR PLENNISHING, household furniture. Q. Lat. 
plenus ? 

PLODGE, to wade through water, to plunge. 

PLOOKY, PLOOKY-FACED, pimpled. Gael.plucan, a pimple. 

Plooky, plooky, are your cheeks, 
And I'lwky is your chin. 

Ballad, Sir Hugh le Blond. 



POOM - , 165 

PLOTE, to pluck, to chide vehemently. " See how she plotes 

him." 

PLOUTER, PLOWTEB, to wade through water or mire, to be 
engaged in any dirty work. Teut. plotsen. Germ, pla- 
dern. 
PLOWDING, wading through thick and thin. Dut. ploegen. 

See PLOUTER. 

PLOY, a harmless frolic in which a party is engaged ; a merry 
meeting. Dr. Jam. is inclined to view this word as formed 
from Sax. plegan, to play. 

PLUFF, PLEUGH, a plough. Su.-Got. plog. Germ, pflug. 
This gives me an opportunity of presenting to the reader 
a genuine Northumbrian specimen of an agricultural re- 
proof; communicated to me by a friend. 

" Ye ill far'd body ye ! ye pretend to guide the fluff! 
to leeve a sSet a baaks in aa the faf quarter. I'll 
ha ne mair o' thee ! Se ye may gang at the Fair, 
honest man ! Thou mun de't better nor that, 
else thou may gang heame." 

POCK-ARRED, OR POCK-ARRD, pitted with the small-pox. It 
might be thought puckered, but the a is distinctly pro- 
nounced and accented. Germ, pockennarbig. See ARR. 

POCK-FRETTEN, marked with the small-pox. 

PO-HEAD, PO-HEED, POW-HEAD, a tad-pole, or young toad. 

POKE, to stoop. "To poke the head." 

POKE, a bag, a sack. " A pig in a poke" an old Northern 
idiom. Sax. pocca, a pouch. Isl. poJti, saccus. Teut. 
poke. 

POKED, offended, piqued. " Aw've poked him, sure." 

POKER AND TONGS, when a horse strikes the hind against the 
fore shoe. 

POOMER, any thing very large. " Ee ! what a poomer" 



166 POOR 

POOR BODY ! poor creature. A common colloquial expres- 
sion of sympathy. 

POORLY, indifferent in health. VERY POORLY, very unwell. 

POR, PORE, a poker for stirring the fire. Teut. porren, ur- 
gere, compellere. 

PORRAGE, PORRIDGE, hasty-pudding oatmeal mixed in boil- 
ing water, and stirred on the fire till it be considerably 

thickened. 

Porridge after meat ! 

Shak. Troilus and Cressida. 

PORTMANTLE, a portmanteau. Originally a bag for a cloak or 

mantle. 

POSEY, POSIE, a bunch of flowers, a nosegay. A genuine 
North country word. 

Now all prepared and ready stand, 
With fans and posies in their hand. 

The Collier's Wedding. 

Poss, to dash violently in the water. " To poss clothes" 

" A poss tub." " Aw poss'd him ower heed" 
POT-CLEPS, pot-hooks. Ray says, from clip or clap, because 

they, clap or catch hold of the pot. 

POTTICAR, POTECARY, PoTHECARY, an apothecary. In the 
ancient mode of writing this word, the A was omitted. See 
Bewick's ^Esop. p. 36. 

POTTINGER, a coarse earthen-ware pot, with a handle. Por- 
ringer. 

Pou, Poo, POOGH, to pull. " Poo away me lads" 
POUK, to strike ; or rather to push. 

He's grown sae weel acquaint wi' Buchan, 

An' ither chaps, 
The weans haud out their fingers laughin, 

And pouk my hips. 
Burns, Death and Doctor Hornbook. 



PUCK 167 

Pow, the pate, the head. " Aufl rattle yor pow" 

Albeit my poiv was bald and bare Ramsay. 

POWSODDY, suet pudding placed under a roast. 

PRENTICE, an apprentice. An ancient mode of contracting the 
word. Hey wood's play of the Four Prentices of London. 

PRICKLE, a basket or measure of wicker work among fruiterers. 
Formerly made of briers ; hence, perhaps, the name. 

PRICKT, decayed ; said of wine having a tendency to sour. 

PRIG, to plead hard in a bargain, to higgle in price. Dut. 
prachen, to beg. 

PRIGGISH, vain, conceited, affected, coxcomical. 

PRIME, a little intoxicated, ready for action or business. Both 
in a metaphorical sense. 

PRIN, a pin. Isl. prion, acus capitata. Dan. preen. Dr. 
Jam. has satisfactorily proved that this is no corruption. 

PRINCOX, a pert or forward fellow. V. Todd's John. 

PRITH ENOW ! a frequent supplication. Pray thee now. 
Away ! I prithee, leave me Rowe, Jam Shore. 

PROD, a prick, a skewer. Su.-Got. brodd, aculeus. 

PROG, PROGGLE, v. to prick, to prickle. Isl. brydda, pungere. 

PROG, s. a prick. PROGLY, a. prickly. 

PROSS, talk, conversation rather of the gossiping kind. " Let 
us have a bit ofpross" 

PROUD, luxuriant. " Corn's varra proud." Crav. Gloss. 

P's AND Q's, a nicety of behaviour ; an observance of all due 
formalities. Perhaps from a French injunction to make 
proper obeisances, " Soyez attentifs a vos pies et vos cues ; 
in other words, mind your P's and Q's." 

PUBBLE, full, plump ; usually spoken of corn or fruit in oppo- 
sition tofantome any thing fat, or distended. 

PUCKER, flutter, agitation, " What a pucker he's in." A fi- 
gurative application of the word. 



168 PUGG 

PUGGY, moist ; arising from gentle perspiration. " A puggy 

hand." 

PULK, a hole of standing water a puddle. 
PULLEN, poultry. An old word. V. Todd's John. The Pul- 

len market in Newcastle. 

PUMMEL, OR POMMEL, to beat severely, to chastise with the fist. 
For your pate I would pummel. 

Beaum. Q Flei. Four Plays in One. 

PUNCH, to strike with the feet. " Don't punch so." 
PUND, a pound. Welsh, punt. " One pund two.'* 
PUN-FAUD, or PIN-FAUD, a pinfold. Sax. pyndan, to inclose. 
PUNY, small, weak, sickly. " A puny bairn." Fr. puisne ; 

hence Eng. puisne, inferior, lower in rank. 
PUOY, PUY, or POUIE, a long pole, with an iron spike, or spikes, 
at the end, used in propelling keels in shallow water, or 
when it is inconvenient to use sails or oars. Span, apoyo. 
PURDY, a little thick-set fellow. I owe this word to the com- 
munication of a friend in the County of Durham, who first 
heard it at Barnard- Castle. On ascertaining the meaning 
the following dialogue took place. 
Q. What does purdy mean ? 
A. A little throstan up thing like a Jack at Warts. 
Q. What's that ? 
A. Something like a lime burner. 
Q. What is a lime burner ? 
A. Oh nobbit a Kcndal stockener. 
Q. What is that ? 
A. A little thick-set fellow. 

Moor has purdy, proud, ostentatious ; and I have been 
told, since this article was written, that powsey is used in 
nearly the same sense as purdy. 
PURELY, quite well. " How is tah ?" Purely, thcnk ye." 



QUER 1G9 

PURLICUE, a flourish in writing. " A spang and purlicue." 

Fr. pour le queue. V. Jam. 

Puss, PUSSEY, PUSSEY-CAT, a cat, a hare. " Poor little pussey." 
PUT, to push, to propel. Welsh, pwtiaw. " He puts weel." 
PUZZEN, poison. " That ruitfs sartinly puzzen." 
PYANNET, PYNET, a magpie. Welsh, pioden. See MAGGY. 
PFRRHY-DANCERS. See MERRY-DANCERS. 

Q. 

QUAIL, to fail, to fall sick, to faint. Teut. quelen, to languish. 
V. Nares, for examples of its ancient use. 

QUANDARY, a dilemma, an unpleasant predicament, a state of 
perplexity. Skinner's derivation from Fr. qiCen diraije, 
is adopted in Todd's John. But the pronoun (nominative) 
was often left out by old French writers, which would here 
make the derivation more accurate qiCen dirai ? 

QUEAN, a term of abuse to a female sometimes implying the 
most disgraceful name that can be applied to the sex. 
Mce.-Got. queins, quens. Sax. cwen, a wench though 
not primarily used in a reproachful sense. 

A witch, a quean, an old cozening quean. 

Sltak. Mer. Wives of Windsor. 

QUEER, a quire of paper. Old Eng. quaire. Old Fr. quayer. 
QUERN, a hand mill. One of our oldest words. Su.-Got. 
quern. Teut. querne. See KERN. 

Wheras they made him at the querne grind. 

Chaucer, Morikes Tale. 

Skim milk ; and sometimes labour in the quern, 
And bootless make the breathless housewife churn. 
Shak. Mid. Night's Dream. 

Capell ridiculously supposed that quern here meant churn. 



170 QUIS 

QUISEY, confounded, dejected. 

QUORN, QUOARN, corn. " The quorn's now gettln up, -carry 
fast." 

R. 

RABBLE, to speak in a confused manner. Teut. rabbelen, 

blaterare. 

RABBLEMENT, a crowd, the mob. A very old word. 
RACK, v. to care. " Never rack" never care. V. Ray. 

Cornish, rach, care. 

RACK, s. a trace. Our great dramatic poet, in a well-known 
passage in the Tempest, says, " leave not a rack behind" ; 
that is, not a trace whatever the commentators may be 
pleased to say to the contrary. x 

RACK, s. the clouds ; or rather the track in which they move. 
Sax. reCy vapour. Archdeacon Nares is mistaken in think- 
ing the word not now in use. 

But, as we often see, against some storm, 
A silence in the heavens, the rack stand still, 
The bold winds speechless, and the orb below 
As hush as death. Sfiak. Hamlet. 

RACKLESS, thoughtless, careless, improvident. Old Eng. 
retchless t reckeless. Sax, recce-leas. 

RAFF, a low fellow. RIFF-RAFF, an alliterate term of reproach 
the rabble. Dan. ripsraps, the dregs of the people. 

RAFF-MERCHANT, a timber-merchant. .K/-mercliant. 

RAFFLING, idle, worthless. " A raffling chap." 

RAG, to rate, to reproach. Isl. raega, to accuse. BULLY- 
RAG, the same. 

RAGABASH, low, idle people such as are generally in rags. 
Rubbish is used in the same sense. Both may be said to 
be synonymous with ragamuffins. 



RAPE 171 

RAGEOUS, in a rage, in excessive pain, violent. 

RAKE, to cover, to gather together. To rake the fire, is to 
supply it with coals, or to put it in such a condition that 
it may continue burning all night, so as to be ready in the 
morning a common practice in many kitchens in the 
North, where coals are plentiful. Shakspeare uses the 
word in this sense, when, in King Lear, he makes Edgar 

say, 

Here, in the sands 

Thee I'll rake up Act. IV. Sc. G. 

RAM, foetid, acrid, pungent. Isl. rammr, amarus. " A ram 
smell"" A ram taste." 

RAME, to cry, to ask over and over again in a teazing man- 
ner. Sax. hream, clamor. Su.-Got. raama, clamare. * 
RAWING, crying ; especially as denoting reiteration of the 
same sound. " What are yah ranting at yah little dirty 



RAME, OR RAWM, to reach any thing awkwardly or greedily, to 

stretch after. Teut. raemen, extendere, distendere. 
RAMLIN-LAD, a tall fast growing youth, a hobblety-hoy . 
RAMPADGE, to prance about furiously, to make a great noise 

or disturbance. 
RAMSHACKLE, RAMSHECKLE, to search narrowly, to ransack. 

RanshacJcle is an old word for plunder. 
RANDY, s. a vulgar, brawling woman, a termagant. 
RANDY, a. boisterous, obstreperous, disorderly. 
RANK, thick, or many things or people together. Sax. ranc. 
RANNEL-BALK, a beam or bar across a chimney on which 

boilers are hung. 
RANTY, riotous, in high spirits, disorderly. RANTY-TANTY, 

in great wrath, in a violent passion. 
RAPE, a rope. Moe.-Got. raip. Sax. rap. 



172 RAPI 

RAPIER-DANCE, nearly the same as the sword-dance of the 
ancient Scandinavians, or as that described by Tacitus 
among the Germans. See a full account of it, in Archaeo- 
logia, vol. xvii. p. 155. 

RASH, dry ; as rash-corn corn so dry in the straw that it falls 
out without handling. 

RASHER, a rush. Sax. resce.A rasher-cap, a rasher-ducket, 
a rasher-whip ; articles made of rushes. 

RASPS, both the bush and the fruit. 

RATCH, a straight line of a navigable river ; as the Long Ratch, 
in the Tyne. This word is politely, but impurely, pro- 
nounced Reach. The keelmen generally say Rack. It is, 
perhaps, properly Rack. 

RATHER To have rather is a common North country expres- 
sion, when a preference is desired. See Dr. Johnson's 6th 
sense of rather. The corruption may be thus traced. It 
is customary to contract both / would and / had into I'd. 
I had rather was probably first used as a false translation 
for Vd rather, written for I would rather; and when I had 
rather was once received, to have rather followed of course. 

RATLER, a great lie, an abominable falsehood. " That's a 
roller." 

RATTEN, RATTON, a rat. Span, raton. 

RATTLE, to strike or chastise. " Aw'll rattle yor cannister." 
Mere cant. 

RATTLEPATE, RATTLESCAP, RATTLESCAUP, a giddy, thought- 
less, volatile person. 

RAUK, to mark with lines, to scratch. " Dont rank the table?" 
I am told ratch is also used in the same sense. Q. Isl. 
raska, frangere ? 

RAW, a row of buildings, a sort of street. " Pether-Raw" 
" Shiney-Raw" Sax. r<ewa. Old Eng. rew. 



REEK 173 

RAX, to stretch out, to enlarge, to reach. To rax oneself, is 
to extend the limbs, after sleep or long sitting. Sax. 
rcEcean, porrigere. As applied to the weather, to rax out, 
means to clear up. 

READ, REDE, counsel, advice. Sax. reed. 
REAP, a bundle of corn, parcels of which are laid by the rea- 
pers to be gathered into sheaves, by the binders in harvest 
time. Sax. rlpa, ripe. 
REAST, restiveness. REASTY, restive, stubborn. Old Eng. 

restie. " A reasty horse." 
REASTY, rancid, Sax. rustian, to contract rust. 
And then came haltyng Jone, 
And brought a gambone 
Of bakon that was reasty. Skclton. 

REAVE, to take away, to bereave. Sax. reafian, to rob. 

REAVEL, OR RAFFLE, to entangle, to knot confusedly together, 
to ravel. " A reaveled hank" a twisted skain. 

RECKNING, the score at a public house. Reckoning. 

RECKON, to suppose, to conjecture, to conclude. " I reckon 
he'll come" " I reckon I shall." 

RED, to put in order, to clear, to disentangle. " To red up 
the house." Su.-Got. reda, explicare. 

REDDING-COMB, a comb for the hair. 

READE, a calf's stomach, used for rennet. Teut. roode. 

REED, a. red. Sax. reod. REEDER, redder. 

REEK, v. to smoke. Sax. recan. REEK, s. smoke. Sax. 
rec. REEK-PENNY, a modus paid to the clergy in many 
parts of Northumberland and Durham for fire wood. Cal- 
led also smoke-penny, and hearth-penny. See Tomlins* 
Law Diet, smoke-silver. Reek is also a term for money. 

REEKING-CROOK, a sort of crane or crook over the fire to sup- 
port boilers exposed to the smoke. 



174 REET 

REET, right. Both as substantive and adjective. 

REET, s. a wright, or carpenter. " A cart-reef " a mill-rect" 

Sax. wryhta. 
REET, sane in mind. Right. NOT REET, not in the exercise 

of sound reason. Not right. Germ, nicht recht. 
REINS, balks or portions of grass land in arable fields. 
RENCH, to rinse. Isl. hreinsa, to make clean. 
RENDER, to separate, to melt down, to dissolve any thing fat 

by the heat of the fire. V. Jam. rind; and Wilb. render. 
RENEGATE, a reprobate, a runagate ; applied to any unsteady 

character. The old way of writing renegado. 

A false knight, and a renegate. 

Cower, de Confess. Amant. 

RENTY, well shaped ; spoken of horses or horned cattle. 

RESPECTIVELY, for respectfully. I had a correspondent by 
no means deficient in learning who invariably subscribed 
himself " yours respectively." He, perhaps, relied on the 
authority of chak. and Beaum. and Flet. 

RHEUMATIZ, the rheumatism. Moor has rimmittis. 

RICE, brushwood for the purpose of hedging. Isl. hrys. Su.- 
Got. ris. Germ, reis, a twig. STAKE AND RICE, a sort of 
wattled fence. " Eh ! what a dike ! what a stake and 
rice he loupt." 

RIDDLE, a coarse sieve with large interstices; much used 
about farm-houses. Sax. hriddel. Welsh rhidyll. The 
vulgar, in many parts, have an abominable practice of 
using a riddle and a pair of shears in divination. If they 
have had any thing stolen from them, the riddle and shears 
are sure to be resorted to. A similar mode of discovering 
thieves, or others suspected of any crime, prevailed among 
the Greeks. V. Potter, Gr. Antiq. vol. i. p. 352. 



RIM 175 

RIFE, abounding, common, prevalent. Sax. ryf. Dr. John- 
son is mistaken in confining the use of this word to epi- 
demical distempers ; and Archdeacon Nares (who points 
out Mr. Dibdin's very erroneous explanation) is equally in 
error in thinking it obsolete. 

There is a brief, how many sports are rife. 

Shak. Mid. Night's Dream. 

This reading occurs in most of the old editions I be- 
lieve in all but one. The modern editors, however, 
without any sufficient reason, read ripe. 

RIFT, v. to belch. Dan. raever. RIFT, s. an eructation. 
Dan. raeven. 

RIFT, v. to plough out grass land. Su.-Got. rifwa. 

RIG, a wanton. To RUN THE RIG, to teize, to banter, to ridi- 
cule. 

RIG, a ridge, an eminence. Sax. hricg. Isl. hriggr. Su.- 
Got. rygg. 

RIG AND FUR, ribbed ; as rig andfur'd stockings. Midge and 
furrow. 

RIGGELT, RIGGOT, an imperfect ram, or any other animal half 
castrated. " A riggot-ram" " a riggot-horse" " a riggot- 
bulL" 

RIGGIN, the ridge of a house. Sax. hricg, fastigium. RIG- 
GIN-TEEE, the beam along the roof. " See, he's gettin him- 
sel seated across the riggin tree" 

RILE, to render turbid, to vex, to disturb. 

RIM, BELLY-RIM, the membrane inclosing the intestines. 
" Mind dinna brust yor belly-rim" a caution among the 
vulgar in Northumberland. 

For I will fetch thy rim out at thy throat, 

In drops of crimson blood. Shak. Hen. V. 



176 RINE 

The original reading, says Nares, is rymme, which Capell, 
judging from the main object of the speaker, boldly pro- 
nounced to signify money ; others have wished to read 
ryno, but that term is probably not of such antiquity : and 
the conjecture supposes the original word to be printed 
rym, which it is not. Pistol, with a very vague notion of 
the anatomical meaning of rymme, seems to use it in a 
general way for any part of the intestines ; his object be- 
ing to terrify his prisoner. 

RINE, FROST-RINE, frozen dew, hoar frost. Sax. ren, rain. 

RIP, a profligate any thing base or worthless. " A rip of 
a fellow"-" A rip of a horse." 

RIPE, to search, to steal privately, to plunder. " She riped 
my pockets" " He riped the nest." Sax. hrypan, dis- 
suere. 

RIPPLE, to clean ; applied to flax. Su.-Got. repa I'm, linuin 
vellere. Teut. repen, stringere semen lini. 

RIVE, v. to devour. " What are you riving and eating in that 
manner for?" 

RIVE, s. a rent or tear. Isl. ryf. The verb rive, to split, has 
long been used in our language. 

ROBIN, the popular name of the ruddock or red-breast. The 
innocence, tameness, and its approach in a season when 
its sustenance is precarious, may be the reason that this 
bird is so much pitied and respected. The author of the 
old ballad of The Children in the Wood, selected the red 
breast as an object of sympathy, no doubt for the causes 
here cited ; but I am informed that about Heworth, near 
Newcastle, it is considered as a bird of bad omen. 

ROGGLE, to shake, to jumble. 

ROISTER, to behave turbulently, to make a great toise, to in- 
dulge in jollity. 



ROUN 177 

ROISTERER, a turbulent, swaggering, and uncontroulable per- 
son. Junius refers to Isl. hrister, a violent man ; but 
I am inclined, with Dr. Jamieson, to look to Barb. Lat. 
Rustarii, the same with Rutarii(old Fr. Rentiers) free- 
booters who committed great devastation in France, in the 
eleventh century. This name was given to the stipendi- 
ary troops (perhaps some of the same sort of brigands) 
employed by King John in his exterminating expedition 
into the North where the castles, towns, and villages, 
were given to the flames by that wicked and pusillanimous 
monarch, and the miserable inhabitants abandoned to the 
murderous cruelty of his rapacious followers, without re- 
spect of age or sex, rank or profession. 

ROOK, ROUK, a mist, or fog. Teut. roock, vapor. ROOKY, 
misty, damp. 

ROOP, or ROUP, a hoarseness. Isl. hroop, vociferatio. ROOPY, 
hoarse. 

ROOTY, ROWTY, coarse, or over rank ; said of grass or corn 
when in that state. Old. Eng. roytish, wild, irregular. 

ROSEL, to heat, to roast, to bask over a fire. " To rosel 
one's shins." " To rosel the nose/' ROSELLED, decayed ; 
as a roselled apple. 

ROSSEL, rosin. " Rossel and Pick' 1 

ROUN-TREE, or ROWAN-TREE, the mountain ash, or witch-wood 
a tree of high consideration in the North, and considered 
by the superstitious peasantry of wonderful efficacy in de- 
priving witches of their infernal power. This notion has 
been handed down from early antiquity perhaps from the 
Druids. Skinner is uncertain whether the tree may not 
luive received its name from the colour called roan ; but, 
as observed by Dr. Jamieson, the term is Gothic Su.- 
Got. ronn, runn, sorbus aucuparia. Dan. ronne. Ihre 
z 



178 ROUT 

conjectures, with great probability, that the etymon may 
be from runa y incantation, because of the use made of it 
in magical arts. 

In my plume is seen the holly green, 

With the leaves of rowan tree, 
And my casque of sand, by a mermaid's hand, 

Was formed beneath the sea. The Court of Keeldar. 

ROUT, or ROWT, to make a bellowing noise. Isl. rauta. 
ROUTING, or ROWTING, the bellowing of an ox. V. Wilb. 
rule. . 

ROWLEY-POWLEY, a game at fairs and races. 

ROYAL-OAK-DAY (the 29th of May), the restoration of King 
Charles II. ; in commemoration of which it is customary for 
the common people, in many parts of the North, to wear oak 
leaves in their hats, and to place them on their horses' 
heads. Formerly, in Newcastle, 

When civil dudgeon first grew high, 

And men fell out they knew not why Hudibras. 

the boys had a taunting rhyme, with which they used to 
insult such persons as were not decorated with this remem- 
brance of the facetious monarch ; 

** Royal oak, 

" The whigs to provoke." 

It was not, however, to be expected that this sarcastic 
ebullition of party-spirit should escape the retort courteous. 
The contemptuous reply was, 

*' Plane-tree leaves ; 

" The church -folk are thieves." 

RUCK, a fold, or crease in cloth. V. Tooke. 

RUD, ruddle for marking sheep. Sax. rudu, rubor. See KLLL. 

RUDDILY, readily. " He cam varry ruddily" 



RUTT 179 

RUE, or REW, to repent. Sax. hreowian. RUE-BARGAIN, a 
bargain repented of, something given to be off an agree- 
ment. 

RUG, to pull roughly. Teut. rucken, detrahere. RUGGING AND 
RIVING, pulling and tearing. 

RUM, a common North country word for any thing odd or 
queer a comical person, for instance, being called a rum 
stick. May not Dr. Johnson's rumparsonbe what is called 
a hackney parson, and come from Germ, rum, which is 
from kerum, about, as herum laufer is a vagabond ? Herum 
parson or rum parson may, therefore, be a vagabond parson. 

RUM-GUMPTIOUS, forward and pompous. V f Cray. Gloss. 

RUMBUSTICAL, rude, noisy, overbearing. 

RUINATED, reduced to ruin, ruinous. Pegge erroneously .con- 
sidered this word as peculiar to Londoners. 

RULE-O'-THUMB, no rule at all guess work. 

RUNG, a spoke, the step or round of a ladder. Mce.-Got. 
hrung, virga. It is also a name for a cudgel. 

RUNNEL, pollard wood. Perhaps from running up apace. 

RUNT, a Scotch ox also a jocular designation for a person of 
a strong though low stature. " A runt of a fellow." 
Germ, rind, an ox or cow ; but figuratively, a dull-pated, 
stupid fellow. 

RUSH-BEARING, a rural feast or wake, now become nearly ob- 
solete. See Crav. Gloss, and Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. 
p. 436. 

RUTTLING, a noise occasioned by a difficulty in breathing. 
Teut. rotelen, murmurare. The dead ruffle, a particular 
kind of noise made in respiring by a person in the extre- 
mity of sickness, is still considered in the North as an omen 
of death. Levinus Lemnius (Occult Miracles of Nature, 
lib. ii. ch. 15.) is very learned on this subject. 



180 RUZE 

RUZE, to extol, to boast, to magnify in narration. Isl. rausa, 
multa effutirc. Cornish, ros, bragging. Hence, perhaps, 
roozer a great untruth. 

S 

SACKLESS, simple, weak, helpless, innocent. Dr. Willan con- 
siders that this epithet must have originated after the in- 
troduction of the favourite beverage, sack and sugar; but 
the word may evidently be traced to Sax. sacleas, quietus. 
Isl. saklausy innocens. 

SAD, heavy ; particularly applied to bread when the yeast has 
had no effect. 

SAFE, a. sure, certain. " He's safe to be hanged." 

SAFE, s. a place of security. " An iron safe." 

SAIM, SAME, hog's-fat, goose-grease. Welsh, saim, grease. 
Fr. sain-doux, lard. Shakspeare and other writers use 
seam. 

SAINT CUTIIBERT'S DUCK, the eider duck ; or great black 
and white duck. Anas mollhsima. Linnaeus. These birds 
are found on the largest of the Fern Islands on the 
Northumberland coast, which is the only place in Eng- 
land where they are known to breed. The feathers are 
remarkably soft and of great value. The popular name is 
obviously connected with the celebrated Saint Cuthbert ; 
who, regardless of all earthly pomp and vanity, resigned 
an episcopal, for an hermitical life retiring to this desert 
isle, where he died. 

SAINT SWITHIN'S DAY (the 15th of July). The old superstition 
that if it rain on this day, not one of the next forty 
will be wholly without, is not yet eradicated. V. Brand's 
Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 271, and Nares' Gloss. 

SAIRY, poor, pitiable, helpless. Sax. sari, sarig. 



SAUC 181 

SALLY, to move or run from side to side ; as is customary with 

the persons on board of a ship after she is launched. 
SAMCAST, two ridges ploughed together. tDur. Referrible 

to Germ, sammeln, to gather, zusammen, together. 
SAMPLETH, a sampler. V. Suff. Words. The author is mis- 
taken in thinking them not still worked. 
SANDGATE-CITY, a burlesque name for Sandgate, Newcastle ; 
a place of great antiquity, but described by a local poet as 

The devil's besom sure, 

With which oft times he sweeps the floor; 
The air's with glass-house smoke infected, 
Confusion of all kinds collected. 

SANDGATE-RATTLE, a peculiar step in vulgar dancing, consist- 
ing of a violent and very quick beating of the toes on the 
floor. 

SANDGATE-RING, a particular mode of lighting a tobacco pipe. 

SANG, a song. Pure Saxon. 

SANG ! MY SANGS ! frequent exclamations, sometimes equiva- 
lent to indeed, but generally implying a threat. " My 
sa?igs ! but aw will gee if it" 

SAPSCULL, a foolish fellow, a blockhead. 

SARE, sore, painful. Sax. sar. Su.-Got. saar. 

SARE, very much, greatly. Germ, selir. " It's sare worn." 
" He's sare afflicted." 

SARK, a shirt. Sax. syrc. Su.-Got. scerk. V. Jam. 

SARMENT, a sermon. " We'd a good garment the day" 

SARTIN, sure, positive. SARTINLY, certainly. 

SATTLE, to settle. This vulgar pronunciation is conformable 
to the Saxon origin of the word. Peirs Ploughman uses 
sahtle. 

SAUCE, insolence of speech, impertinence. Sauciness. " Don't 
set up yor sauce to me " 



182 SAUC 

SAUCER-EYED, having a large, full eye. 

SAUGH, SAFF, the sallow ; a species of willow. Fr. mule. 

SAUL, the soul. Pure Saxon ; and the ancient mode of writ- 
ing the word. 

SAUL, the solid substance in the inside of a covered button. 
Fr. saoul, soul, a filling. 

SAUT, SOTE, salt. Sax. seolt. In the pronunciation of many 
of the provincial dialects of the North, the sound of the / 
is omitted. 

SAVELICK, an excrescence from the brier, placed by boys in 
their coat cuffs, as a charm, to prevent a flogging. 

SAW, to sow. Moe.-Got. saian. Sax. sawan. Su.-Got. saa. 
Germ, s'den. 

SAY, authority, influence, sway. " She has all the say." 

SCABY, SCABIE, shabby, mean. " A scaby fellow." 

SCAD, to scald, SCADDING OF PEAS, a custom in the North 
of boiling the common grey peas in the pods, in a green 
state, and eating them with butter and salt. The company 
often pelt each other with the swads. It is sometimes 
called, in consequence, peas and sport. 

SCALE, to spread, to disperse. V. Jam. skail. 
I shall tell you 

A pretty tale ; it may be, you have heard it ; 
But, since it serves my purpose, I will venture 

To scalift a little more. 

SJiak. Coriolanus. 

Nearly all the commentators have mistaken the meaning 
of to scale' t. I am quite satisfied that it was the author's 
intention to have the tale spread or diffused a little more, 
though some of the hearers might have heard it. If Arch- 
deacon Nares will " weigh as in scales, to estimate aright," 
Mr. Lambe's observations on this passage, and on the 



SCOW 183 

means of acquiring a competent knowledge of the old En- 
glish tongue (Notes on the Battle of Floddon), I enter- 
tain a hope that the learned author of the elaborate and 
valuable Glossary may not be indisposed to alter, in more 
respects than one, the article To SCALE, in a future 
edition. 

SCALE-LAND, to break up clots of manure, and to spread them 
and other loose materials about the field. 

SCALE-DISH, a thin dish for skimming milk. 

SCALLIONS, a punishment among boys. To catch the scallion 
tails, is to get a good drubbing. 

SCAMP, a mean rascal, a fellow devoid of honour or principle. 

SCAMPER, to run off. Fr. escamper. Ital. scampare. Teut. 
schampen, to slip aside. 

SCANTISH, scarce. SCAN TLY, scarcely. 

SCAPE-GRACE, a term of reproach a graceless fellow. 

SCAR, a bare and broken place on the side of a mountain, or 
in the high bank of a river. Su.-Got. sheer, rupes. 

SCARN, SHARN, cow-dung. See COW-SHAREN. 

SCATHE, loss, spoil, damage. Pure Saxon. Used by Chau- 
cer, Spenser, and Shakspeare. 

SCATTER-BRAINED, light-headed. " A Scatter-brairf d body" 

SCONCE, a seat at one side of the fire-place in the old large 
open chimney a short partition near the fire upon which 
all the bright utensils in a cottage are suspended. 

SCONCE, a beating about the head sometimes the head itself. 

SCOOTER, a syringe. See SWIRT. 

SCOTCH MIST, a small soaking rain such, however, as will 
wet an Englishman to the skin. 

SCOUT, a high rock. V. Todd's John. 

SCOWDER, to mismanage any thing in cooking, to scorch it. 
Grose has scourder'd, overheated with working ; perhaps 
only a figurative sense of the word. V. Jam. 



184 SCRA 

SCRAB, a crub apple. SCRAB-TREE, the crab-tree. 
SCRAFFLE, v. to scramble, to climb up. SCRAFFLE, s. a 

scramble. 
Wey hinny, says aw, we've a Shot-Tower see hee, 

That biv it ye might scraffle to Heaven ; 
And if on Saint Nicholas ye once cus an ee, 
Ye'd crack on't as lang as ye're livin. 

Song, Canny Ncrvcassel. 

SCRAFFLE, to be industrious, to struggle. SCRAFFLING, work- 
ing hard to obtain a livelihood. 

SCRANCH, to grind any hard or crackling substance between 
the teeth. Dr. John, says, the Scotch retain it ; so do 
the people in the north of England. 

SCRANCHUM, thin squares of brittle spice, or gingerbread. 

SCRAT, SCRAUT, v. to scratch. An old word.- 1 SCRAT, s. the 
itch. 

SCRAT, an hermaphrodite. V. Todd's John. 

SCRIBE, to write. Lat. scribere. SCRIBE OF A PEN, a line by 
way of letter. 

SCRIMP, v. to spare, to scant. Teut. krimpcn, contrahere. 
SCRIMP, a. short, scanty, little. 

SCROG, a stunted bush or shrub. Sax. scrob, frutcx. SCROG- 
GY, full of stunted bushes, thorns, &c. 

SCRUDGE, v. to crowd thickly together, to squeeze. SCRUDGE, 
s. a crowd, a squeeze. On the laying of the foundation- 
stone of the new library of the Literary and Philosophical 
Society, by the Duke of Sussex, in 1822, there was the 
greatest scrudgc ever remembered in Newcastle. 

SCRUNTY, short, meagre, stunted. Su.-Got. shrin, dried. 
Dan. skranten, infirm. 

SCUDDICK, the lowest measure of value. " Not worth a scud- 
dick" Probably from scudo. 



SEGG 185 

SCUFF, OR CUFF, the hinder part of the neck. V. Wilb. Al- 
so a thump. " A cujfo* the neck." 

SCUMFISH, to smother, to suffocate. Wood embers, the snuf- 
fing of a candle, sulphur, &c. have scunifishing effluvia in 
close rooms. Ital. sconfiggere, to discomfit. 
SEAR, s. autumn the time of the drying and withering of 
leaves. Sax. searian, to nip, or dry. SEAR, a. dry ; op- 
posed to green. 

I have liv'd long enough : my way of life 
Is fall'n into the sear, the yellow leafl 

Shak. Macbeth. 

Dr. Johnson and some other of the commentators on 
Shakspeare object to way of life, and wish to substitue 
May ; but I must confess that I am not convinced by 
their arguments. 

SEAVES, rushes. SEAVY-GROUND, such as is overgrown with 
rushes. 

SECK, a sack. " A seek of flour." " A seek of saw-dust." 

SECRET, a term of contempt to a child. 

SEE-SAW, the same as hikey-board. See HIKEY. 

SEEA, so. SEEABETIDE, if so be. 

SEED, saw. Universal among the vulgar. " Aw seed it." 

SEEING-GLASS, a mirror, a looking-glass. 

SEEK, SEAK, sick. Sax. seoc. Chaucer uses seke. 

SEER, several, divers. Su.-Got. saer, an adverb denoting se- 
paration. 

SEER, sure. " Aw seer aw was smart." 

SEESTAH, SISTO, seest thou. " Seestah what tfiou's duin." 

SEGG, a bull castrated when full grown. 

SEGGING, the heavy laborious walking of a corpulent man. 
" What a segging gait he has." 



186 SELL 

SELL, self, in compounds of mysell, hissell, yoursell. Plural 
sells, selves. 

They dig out fro' the dells, 
For their bairn's bread, wives, and sells. 

Ben. Jon. 

SEBTANT, SEMMANT, slender, weak. 

SEMPLE, a person of low birth ; opposed to gentle. " Both 
gentle and semple were there." 

SEN, SYNE, since. SEN-SYNE, since then. " Its lang syne, 
sen he left us." 

SENG, shelter. " Under the seng of a hedge." 

SESS-POOL, an excavation in the ground for receiving foul 
water. Dur. I do not find this word in any Dictionary. 
Sus-pool is used in this sense, by Forster on Atmospheric 
Phcenomena. Perhaps from sous-pool, or pool below the 
surface. 

SET, to propel, to push forward ; as setting a keel. 

SET, to accompany. Used in a common expression " Set 
me a bit on the road." Bit, however, is not more misap- 
plied in the North than it is in some parts of the South. 

SET-TOO, an argument, a contest, a warm debate. " A fair 
set-too." 

SETTEN-ON, short in growth, ill thriven ; also applied to 
milk burnt in the pan. 

SEUGH, a wet ditch ; such as that out of which the contents 
of a sod dike have been cut any watery or boggy place. 
V. Jam. seuch. 

SIIAB-OFF, SHAB-AWAY, to sneak away. Dur. Germ, schaben, 
to scrape off; and by some gradations of meaning used 
with the preposition and in the imperative mood, schab ab, 
sneak away. 



SHAP 187 

SHAB-RAG, a mean person. SHAG-RAG, is the same. 

SHACK, to shake out or shed; as corn at harvest. SHAK- 

FORF, a hay fork. 

SHACKLE, an iron loop moving on a bolt. Teut. schaeckel. 
SHACKLE, the wrist. Sc. shackle-EWE. 
SHAFFLE, to move with an awkward or irregular gait ; to hob- 
ble. " A shuffling body." 

SHAG-HAT, a hat made very long in the down ; much worn by 
pitmen and keelmen. 

Maw good shag hat ne mair awl wave his canny 
feyce to see. 

Song, Lament, on the Death of Ccjit. Slarkie. 

SHALE, alum ore any other black slaty substance. 

SHALLY-WALLY, a sign of contempt. 

SHAM-A-STERNE, a vulgar phrase, equivalent to not one. This 

may serve to explain an obscure passage in the fine old 

heroic ballad of Chevy Chase, Fit. 2. 

Thorowe ryche male, and myne-ye-ple 
Many sterne the stroke down streght. 

Which may be read they struck down straight many a one, 
through rich coat of mail, and many folds. 
SHANDY, wild, frolicksome. V. Suff. Words, shanny. 
SHANGIE, or CULLEY-SIIANGY, a row, a tumult, a riot. 
SHANK, the projecting point of a hill. 
SHANKS, the legs. SHANKEY'S NAEGIE, on foot. 
And ay until the day he died, 
He rade on good shanks nagy. 

Ritson, Scotch So-ngs. 

SHANTY, gay, showy. Perhaps, as suggested by Mr. Todd, a 

corruption ofjanty. 
SHAP, SHAPE, to begin, to set about any thing. V, WILD, 



188 SHAR 

SHARD, a broken piece of any brittle or fragile substance. 
Sax. sceard, fragmen. Within my recollection, many of 
the common people, in the lower parts of Newcastle, used 
to resort to the Quayside and other places, where they 
gathered up coals with the half of a wooden dish, called a 
shard. I have been told that it was not unusual for two 
of them to purchase a new dish, and split it for the pur- 
pose of making these shards. Shard is also a North 
country word for the shell or hard outward covering of 
the tribe of insects denominated Coleoptera. 

Often, to our comfort, shall we find 
The sharded beetle in a safer hold 
Than is the full-wing'd eagle. 

Shak. Cymbdine. 

Ere, to black Hecate's summons, 
The shard-borne beetle, with his drowsy hums, 
Hath rung night's yawning peal, there shall be done 
A deed of dreadful note. Shak. Macbeth. 

These expressions of our dramatist sharded beetle, and 
shard-borne beetle are as correct as they are poetical. 
Dr. Johnson's ignorance of the latter meaning of the word 
completely misled him in his interpretation. His error, 
however, is not overlooked by the learned and indefati- 
gable Mr. Todd. 

SHARP, quick, active. " Be sharp" make all haste. 

SHARPS, coarse ground flour with a portion of bran. 

SHAW, a small shady wood in a valley. Sax. scua. Teut. 
schawe, umbra. Used by Gower and Chaucer ; and still 
common in many parts of England. 

SHAY, OR PO-SHAY, a post chaise. SHAY-DRIVERS, the post 
boys. 



SHIN 189 

SHEAR, to reap, or cut corn with the sickle. Su.-Got. skaera. 
Shear is not, provincially, applied to sheep. A sheep 
shearing is a clipping. SHEARERS, the harvest reapers. 

SHED, to put aside, to disperse, to make way. 

SHEELEY, SHEEL-APPLE, OR SHELL-APPLE, the chaffinch, 
Fringilla ccelebs. Linnaeus. 

SHEETING, applied to the slope or waterfall of a mill-dam. 

SHELD, party coloured, flecked or speckled. 

SHEBI, shame. SHEM-FU, shameful. " Its a shew, and a holy 
bizon" See BIZON. 

SHETH, a portion of a field, which is generally divided so as 
to drain off the water by the direction of the ploughings, 
called sheths. 

SHIEL, SHIELING, originally a temporary hut or cabin for 
those who had the care of sheep on the moors, in which 
they resided during the summer months ; but afterwards 
applied to fixed habitations. Isl. skiul. Su.-Got. skale. 

No more shall ruthless flames devour 
The trembling shepherd's lowly shiel, 

Nor fierce moss-troopers burst the door 
That strongly bars the shelt'ring peel. 

Roxby, Reed-water Minstrel. 

SHIFT, to remove from one dwelling to another. SHIFTING, 
the removal of the furniture. 

SKILL, to separate, to shell. " Shilling oats or barley" tak- 
ing off the hulls. " Shilling peas" cleaning them of their 
swads. 

SHILLY-SHALLY, hesitating, irresolute. Probably a corrupt 
reduplication of shall I. 

SHIMMER or SKIMMER, to shine, to glitter. Germ, schimmer, a 
dim or faint glare. 

SHINE, a row, a disturbance, mischief. " To kick up a shine." 



190 SHIN 

SHINNEY, a stick crooked or rounded at the end, with which 
to strike a small wooden ball or coit, in the game called 
Shinney, or Shinney-haw, played in the Northern counties. 
See DODDART. 

SHIPPEN, a cow-house ; originally, perhaps, a sheep-pen. Sax. 
scypen t stabulum. 

SHIRL, SHURL, to slide ; as on the ice. 

SHITTLETIUEE, a vulgar expression of disbelief or disapproba- 
tion. 

SHIVE, a slice ; as of bread or cheese. Old Eng. sheeve. 
Dut. schyf. 

SHOE-THE-COBBLER, a quick and peculiar movement with the 
fore foot when sliding on the ice. 

SHOGGLE, to shake, to joggle. S/iog is an old word. 

SHOO, SHUE, to scare birds, to drive away fowls. Germ. 
scheuchen, to frighten. 

SHOON, SHUN, the plural of shoe. Sax. sceon. Teut. schoen. 

Spare none but such as go in clouted shoon, 

For they are thrifty honest men. Shak. Hen. VI. 

SHOT, the score or reckoning at a public-house. V. Nares' 
Gloss, shot-clog. 

SHOT-OF, freed from. To get shot of a person to get rid of 
him. 

SHREW, a field mouse. A vulgar superstition once prevailed 
that this poor creature was of so baneful and venomous a 
nature that whenever it crept over a horse, cow, or sheep, 
the animal so touched became afflicted with cruel anguish, 
and threatened with the loss of the use of its limbs. To 
repel this imaginary evil, it was customary to close up the 
shrew alive in a hole bored in an ash tree. Since this 
was written, an intelligent friend has reminded me of an 






SIKE 191 

old notion, that the supposed malignity of this mouse is 
the origin of shrew, a vixen ; in regard to which much dif- 
ference of opinion exists among etymologists. But whether 
it be so or not, I feel myself incompetent to decide; 
though, from what is stated in Todd's Johnson, I strongly 
incline to the opinion entertained by the learned editor. 
The matter, however, is becoming less important ; as, to 
the honour of the females of the present day, we seldom 
encounter " a peevish, malignant, clamorous, spiteful, 
vexatious, turbulent woman," the characteristicks of a 
shrew. 

SHUFFLE AND CUT, a superior step in vulgar dancing. 

SHUGGY-SHEW, a swing a long rope fastened at each end, 
and thrown over a beam ; on which young persons seat 
themselves, and are swung backwards and forwards in the 
manner of a pendulum. See Bewick's ^Esop, p. 4. where 
his Satanic Majesty is amusing himself in this manner. 

SHULL, or SHUIL, a spade or shovel. Dut. school. V. Suff. 
Words, showl. 

SHULL-BONE, the shoulder bone. 

SIDE, to decide, to settle ; as well as to coincide, to agree. 

SIDE, a. long, wide, large. Pure Saxon. 

Cloth of gold, and cuts, and laced with silver ; set 
with pearls, down sleeves, side, sleeves, and skirts 
round. ShaJc. Much Ado about Nothing. 

SIDE-UP, to put in order. " Side up the house." 

SIDLE, to saunter, to take an oblique direction. 

SIR, SIKE, such. SIK-LIKE, SIKE-LIKE, such like. Spenser 

uses sike. 
SIKERLY, or SICKERLY, surely. Sicker is used by Chaucer and 

Spenser. 



192 SIKE 

SJKE, SYKE, a streamlet of water, the smallest kind of natural 

runner. Sax. sic, lacuna. 
SILE, v. to strain, to purify milk through a straining dish. 

Su.-Got. sila, colare. SILE, s* a fine sieve or milk strainer. 

Su.-Got. sil, colum. 
SILLS, strata of minerals. It also means, in some places, the 

shafts of a waggon ; the same as thills. 
SIND, to wash out, to rince also to dilute ; to sind it down, 

being to take a drink after meat. 
SINE, to percolate. Dur. Fr. saigner, to bleed, to drain or 

let out water. 
SINGIN, or SINGING-HINNY, akneaded spz'ceeake, baked on the 

girdle ; indispensable in a pitman's family. 

Ah hinnies ! about us the lasses did lowp, 
Thick as cur'ns in a spice singin hlnnlc. 

Song, Canny NeiecasseL 

Crossin the road, aw met wi' Bobby Swinney. 
Hing on the girdle, let's hev a singin hinny. 

Song, Maw Canny Hinny. 

My Grandy lik'd spice singin hinnies, 
Maw comely : aw like thou as weel. 

Song, The Pitman's Courtship. 

SINGLIN, a handful of gleaned corn a single gleaning. This 
word is doubtless the same as the'Cheshire songoiv, songal, 
so ably illustrated by Mr. Wilbraham in his Glossary. In 
a MS. addition to a copy of that interesting work, presented 
to me by the author, reference is made to Hyde, de Reli- 
gione Persarum, for the ancient use of songall. 

SIPE, to leak, to ooze or drain out slowly through a small cre- 
vice. Tent, sijpen. SIPINGS, oozings, the drainings of a 
vessel. 



SKIP 193 

SIRPLE, to sip often ; nearly allied to tippling. Sw. sorpla. 
SITE, SEET, a great deal, many. V. Suff. Words, sight. 
SIXES-AND-SEVENS, in a state of confusion, in disorder. V. 

Todd's John, and Nares* Gloss, six and seven. 
SKEEL, a cylindrical wooden vessel for carrying milk or water, 

with an upright handle in place of a bow. Isl. skiola, a 

milk-pail. 
SKELLY, v. to squint. Isl. skaela. Germ, schielen. SKELLY, 

s. a squinting look. Sax. sceoleage. 
SKELP, v. to slap or beat with the open hand ; particularly on 

the breech or the cheek. Isl. skelfa, to strike. Skelp 

also means to move rapidly. 
SKELP, SKELPER, s. a smart blow, or stroke. SKELPING, a 

hearty beating. 

SKELPER, any thing very large. Poomer is the same. 
SKEP, a basket made of rushes. A bee-sleep, a bee-hive of 

straw. Gael, sgeip. 

SKER, to slide swiftly, to skate. Su.-Got. skiuta. 
SKEW, to go aside, to walk obliquely to throw violently 

to squint. 

SKEW-THE-DEW, SHAW-THE-DEW, a splayfooted person. 
SKILL, to know. Isl. skilia, intelligere. Not obsolete as 

stated in Todd's John. 
SKIME, to look asquint. Sken has the same meaning. See 

SKELLY. 

SKIN-PLINT, a niggardly close-fisted person one so parsimo- 
niously mean that he would perform that operation, were 

it possible. 
SKIP-JACK, the merry-thought bone of a goose. V. Suff. 

Words. 
SKIPPER, the captain of a keel or coal barge. Sax. sciper, nau- 

ta. Dut. schipper, a shipmaster. 
Bb 



194 SKIR 

SKIRL, to cry excessively, to pierce the air with a shrill voice. 
Isl. skralla. SKIRL, a loud and incessant shriek a con- 
tinuation of childish rage and grief. Isl. sJcrall. Dan. 
zkraal, an outcry. 

SKIT, to throw reflections on, to banter. Sax. &citan t to cast 
forth. 

SKITTER, liquidum excrementum jaculare. Hence this vulgar 
name for a diarrhoea. Isl. skvetta. 

SKOGGER, the leg of an old stocking, applied to keep snow 
out of shoes. See HOGGERS. 

SKREENGE, OR SKRINGE, to squeeze violently. 

SKRIKE, to shriek. Dan. skrige. Su.-Got. skrika, vociferari. 

SKUG, v. to hide, to screen. Su.-Got. skygga, obumbrare. 
SKUG, s. a sheltered place. Isl. skuggi, umbra. 

SKURRY, haste, impetuosity. " What a hurry-skurry" Fr. 
escurer, to scour, 

SLAB, OR SLAP-DASH, a cheap mode of colouring rooms, in 
imitation of paper. 

SLABBY, dirty and damp. Teut. slabbcren, to slabber. 

SLACK, an opening between two hills, a valley or small shallow 
dell. Su.-Got. slak. 

SLACK, a long pool in a streamy river. 

SLADE, a breadth of green sward in ploughed land, or in plan- 
tations. 

SLADDERY, wet and dirty. " Sladdcry walking." Isl. sladda, 
squalide grassari. 

SLAIN, blighted ; as slain corn. 

SLAISTERING, doing any thing in an awkward, untidy manner. 
V. Dire, slask. 

SLAKE, v. to smear, to wet, to bedaub. Isl. sloka, delutare. 

SLAKE, *. an accumulation of mud or slime in a river. Jar row 
Slake, on the Tyne. Su.-Got. slak, laxus j as being soft 
and flaccid ; or Teut. slyck, coenum, Jutum. 



SLEU 195 

SLAM, to beat, to cuff, to push violently. 

SLANTS, sly jokes, or petty lies. " He slants a good deal" 
he is given to lying. V. Nares' Gloss, slent. 

SLAPE, slippery, smooth. 

SLASHY, wet and dirty. Sw. slask, wet. 

SLATTER, to pour awkwardly, to slop, to spill. Hence slattern. 

SLAVERING, SLAVVERING, foaming, talking fast, or unintel- 
ligibly. 

SLECK, to cool in water. Hence sleek-trough, the trough 
containing the water in which smiths cool their iron and 
temper steel. 

SLECK, or SLOCKEN, to quench thirst. Isl. slaecka. 

SLEE, sly, cunning. Chaucer uses slie, sligh. 

SLEEVELESS, unsuccessful, unprofitable. See Dr. Johnson's 
2d sense. It is often pronounced in Northumberland 
THREEVELESS, probably from thriveless or thriftless. 

SLEUTH, OR SLEUTH-HOUND, the northern name for the bloodr 
hound. These animals were held in great estimation by 
our ancestors ; particularly on the borders, where a tax 
was levied for maintaining them. Their scent was so re- 
markably fine, that they could follow, with great certainty, 
the human, footsteps to a considerable distance. Many 
of them were, in consequence, kept in certain districts for 
the purpose of tracing thieves and murderers through their 

secret recesses. 

Upon the banks 

Of Tweed, slow winding through the vale, the seat 
Of war and rapine once, ere Britons knew 
The sweets of peace 



There dwelt a pilfering race ; well train 'd and skill'd 

In all the mysteries of theft, the spoil 

Their only substance, feuds and war their sport. 

Somervile, Chase, Book I. 



196 SLID 

The poet afterwards beautifully describes the mode of pur- 
suing these arch felons by this sagacious dog; but the 
passage is too long for quotation here, and ought not to be 
abridged. See more, relative to the blood-hound, in Scott, 
Lay of the Last Minstrel, note 16, Canto I. 

SLIDDERING, sliding, slipping. SLIDDERY, slippery. 

SLINGE, to go creepingly away as if ashamed, to sneak. Sax. 
slincan, to creep. Hence slink, a sneak applied to any 
disreputable person. 

SLIP, a child's pinafore also a quantity of yarn. 

SLIPPY, slippery. Not an abbreviation, as Mr. Wilbraham 
supposes, but a pure Saxon word ; and, as shewn by Mr. 
Todd, of old English usage ; notwithstanding which the 
great lexicographer characterized it as a barbarous provin- 
cial term, from slip ! 

SLIR, SLUR, to slip, to slide. Slither is also to slide. Chau- 
cer uses slider. 

SLIVER, v. to cut off a slice, to tear away a part. 

She that herself will diver and disbranch. 

Shak. King Lear. 

Pope altered this to shiver, for which the Monthly Re- 
viewers wished to substitute sever. 

SLIVER, s. a slice. The word, in the sense of a branch torn 
off, occurs in Hamlet. 

~SLOCKEN, to slake, to quench. Su.-Got. slocJcna, extinguere. 

SLOGAN, the war cry or gathering word of a border clan. Still, 
traditionally, remembered in Northumberland. 

But ah, the slogan's fatal bray, 

The plundering raid, the war's alarms, 

CompelTd him from his love away, 
And tore him from his Mary's arms. 

Roxltj, Rccdwatcr Minstrel. 



SMAS 197 

SLOGGERING, loose, untidy. " His stockings are sloggering 

down." 

SLOPPY, loose, wide. Sax. slopen, laxus. 
SLORP, to make a noise when supping with a spoon, to swal- 
low ungracefully. Tent, slorpc, a glutton. 
SLOT, v. to fasten by a bolt. " Slot the door." 
SLOT, s. a small bolt or sliding bar. Teut. slot, sera. 
SLUDDERMENT, OR SLUTHERMENT, wet, dirt, mire. 
SLUMP, to slip or fall into a wet or dirty place. 
SLUSH, any thing plashy ; but most commonly applied to snow 
in a state of liquefaction. Su.-Got, slask, humor quicun- 
que sordidus. 

SLUSH, a reproachful term for a dirty person. 
SMACK, v. to kiss with a noise. SMACK, s. a loud kiss. 

He took 

The bride about the neck, and kiss'd her lips 
With such a clamorous smack, that at the parting 
All the church echo'd SJiak. Taming of the Shrew. 

SMALLY, little, puny. " A smaily bairn." 

SMARTLE, to waste or melt away. Su.-Got. smaelta, to melt. 

SkASH, v. to break in pieces, to shiver. SMASH, ,9. a crush, 
the state of being shivered, atoms. Gael, smuais, broken 
in shivers. 

SMASH, a kind of oath among the pitmen near Newcastle. > 
Nothing energetic can be said without it. " Smash, mar- 
row, where are yah gaun tee" " Smash maw pit sark, but 
I ken what aw* I dee !" " Smash yor brains, what hae yah 
won now?" " Smash, Geordy man, how is't! Eh ! but aw 
is pleased to see thee ! HOG'S Nan ?" 

SMASHER, a small standing pie, or raised tartlet ; generally 
made of gooseberries. Newcastle. This word also means 
any thing larger than another of the same sort. It is like- 



198 SMEL 

wise a cant name for a pitman ; in which I am told by an 

ingenious friend, we are to seek for the etymology of the 

word ; a smasher being originally such a tart as a pitman 

could smash or eat up at a mouthful ! 
SMELTS, the fry of the salmon ; generally called salmon-smelts 

different from Sparlings. 
SMIDDY, a blacksmith's shop. Sax. smiththa, fabri officina. 

Sw. smedia. 
SMIRK, to smile pleasantly, to laugh in the sleeve or secretly, 

but not satyrically. Sax. smercian, subridere. 
SMITTLE, v. to infect. Sax. smittan. SMITTLE, s. infection. 

SMITTLE, SMITTLISH, a. infectious, contagious. 
SMOCK, the under linen of a female. Sax. smoc. There used 

to be frequently, in my recollection, smock races among the 

young country wenches in the North. The prize, a fine 

Holland chemise, was usually decorated with ribbons. The 

sport is still continued at Newburn, near Newcastle, on 

Ascension Day. 

SMOKE-THE-COBBLER, a mischievous pastime among children. 
SMOOR, to smother, to suffocate. Sax. smoran. Teut. 

smooren. 

SMOUCH, to salute. An old word. 
SMUDGE, v. to laugh in a concealed manner. Germ, schmun- 

zeln, to laugh in one's sleeve. 
SMUDGE, v. to burn without a flame, or any appearance of fire, 

except smoke. SMUDGE, or SMUSH, s. a sulphureous smell 

occasioned by smoke and dust, close suffocating air. 

Germ, schmutz, smut, dirt. 

SNAG, to hew or cut roughly with an axe. F. Todd's John. 
SNAIL' S-GALLOP, a very slow pace ; resembling the motion of 

a snail. 
SNAP, a small round cake of gingerbread. " Nice brandy snaps, 

sixteen a penny." 



SNOT 199 

SNAP, or SNACK-APPLE, a kind of play. See HALLE E'EN. 
SNATHE, to prune, to lop. Sax. snitkan, to cut. 
SNAW, snow. Pure Saxon. SNA W-BROTH, melted snow. 
SNECK. s. the latch or fastening of a door or gate. It is also 

used as a verb to sneck the door, being to fit it by a latch. 

Teut. snacken, captare. 
SNOCK-SNURLED, entangled, much twisted, curled up like hard 

twined worsted. Snarl is an old word for entangle. 
SNECK-DRAWN, narrow minded, covetous, niggardly. V. Jam. 

sneck-drawer. 

SNED, the long shank or handle of a scythe. Sax. snced. 
SNELL, sharp, keen, piercing ; as a snell air. Sax. snithan, 

secare; or Teut. snel, acer. 
SNEW, snowed. The old preterite; used by Chaucer and 

others. 
SNEEZE -HORN, or SNEESH-HORN, a common sort of snuff-box 

made of a cow's horn. In Scotland this term is applied to 

any snuff-box. 

SNIFTER, to snuff' up the nose, to sniff. Su.-Got. snyfsta. 
SNIPPY, covetous. Teut. snippen, resecare. 
SNIVEL, SNEAVEL, to speak through the nose, to sniff. Su.- 
Got. snyfsta. 

SNOB, a common name for a cobbler. 
SNOD, smooth, neat, even, trimmed. Sax. snidan, to cut. 

Applied to persons, it means sly, cunning, demure. 
SNOKE, to smell, to pry about curiously, to look closely at anjr 

thing. 

SNORT, to laugh outright. SNORTING, laughing out. 
SNOT, a contemptuous epithet for a useless, insignificant fel- 
low. 
SNOTTER, v. to snivel, to sob or cry. Sax. snytan. SNOT, 

SNOTTER, s. mucus nasi. Sax. mote. 



200 SNUB 

SNUB, to check, to rebuke. Sw. snubba. 
SOA ! be quiet ! 

SOBBLE, to thrash, to beat. A very common word among the 
pitmen, 

Sae, Geordy, od smash my pit sank ! 
Thou'd best haud thee whisht about warik, 
Or aw'll sol>lk thee body, 
And myek thee nose bloody, 
If thou sets up thee gob to Bob Cranky. 

Song, Bob Cranky 1 s 'Size Sunday 

SOCK, a plough-share. Fr. soc. 

SODDY, SODDENT, heavy, sad. Perhaps from sod, a turf. 

SOFT, silly, simple, foolish. 

He made soft fellows, stark noddies. 

Burton, Anat. of Melancholy. 

SONCY, or SONSY, pleasant, agreeable, engaging ; as applied to 
a person's looks. Is it a corruption of Fr. sans souci, free 
from care ? 

SONSY, plump, fat, thriving also lucky. 

SOOTY-DOG, an opprobrious epithet for a dirty fellow. 

SOP, a piece of bread soaked in dripping under the roast. 

SORT, a lot, a parcel, a number. Nares is mistaken in think- 
ing the word out of use. 

But like a sort of sheep dispersed farre. 

Spenser, Faerie Queene. 

They can see a sort of traitors here. 

Shak. King Richard II. 

Soss, v. to lap like a dog. Soss, s. a call of dogs to their 

meat. 
Soss, s. a heavy, clumsy fall ; the sound caused by the act of 

falling. Perhaps a variation of souse. 



SPAN 201 

Soss, s puddle, any thing foul or muddy. " The beer's as 
thick as soss" 

SOTTER, to boil slowly. Sax. seothan, to seeth. 

SOUR-DOCKEN, sorrel. Rumex acetosa. 

SOUR-MILK, butter milk. Sw. sur mioelk. 

SOUSE, v. to fall upon, to fall with violence. This common 
North country word is, in Todd's Johnson, derived from 
Fr. sous, or dessous, upon. With deference, I submit that 
it comes from sus, the old French word for, above or upon, 
for which they now use sur y though still retained in 
some phrases ; as courir sus a quel qitun, to fall upon one. 
The modern preposition dessus, upon or above, is only a 
compound of de and the old sus. SOUSE, s. a great thump, 
a severe fall, a blow. 

Sow, an inelegant female, a dirty wench. I forbear to quote 
any illustration. 

SOWINGS, oatmeal flummery. Sc. sowens. 

SPANCEL, a rope to tie a cow's hinder legs. A cow-tie, 

SPANG, a measure by the hand extended. Span. 

SPANGHEW, or SPANGWHEW, to throw with violence. The 
word is sometimes used to express a barbarous operation 
pn the toad, to which rustics have a great antipathy. In 
performing it they rest one-half of a long wooden bar on a 
large stepping stone or over a cart, placing the toad at its 
extremity. An athletic youth, with a strong club, then 
strikes the unsupported end with all his force. The poor 
animal, in consequence, is driven into the air to an im- 
mense height ; and, falling to the ground with accumu- 
lated velocity, is bruised to a jelly. Toads, as observed 
by Dr. Willan, may perhaps do some slight injury in fields 
or gardens, but the above cruel practice is directed not so 
much against the animal as against its supposed inmate ; 
- c c 



202 SPAl 

for the clowns imagine, that by the process they shall give 

a coup de grace to a witch. 
SPAIT, or SPYET, a great fall of rain, a torrent. Gael, speid, 

a great river flood. 
SPALES, SPAILS, SPYELS, chippings of wood. Perhaps Fr. 

sjjolla, shavings. Spall is a very old word in our language 

for a chip. 
SPANE, SPEAN, to wean a child, to deprive a creature of its 

mother's milk. Germ, spcnen. An old word. 
SPANG, to leap with elastic force, to spring. Germ, spanneii, 

to extend. 
SPANG AND PURLEY QUE, a mode resorted to by boys, of 

measuring distances, particularly at marbles. 
SPANKER, one who walks with quickness and elasticity, a tall 

and active young person. 

SPAR, to dispute angrily. Germ, sperren, to resist. 
SPAR, SPARE, to shut, to close. A common word in North. 

Sax. spar ran. 

Whan the stede is stolen, sparre the stable dur. 

Sketton. 
SPARLING, the smelt of the Thames, but not so of the Tyne ; 

occasionally caught in the latter river. Pennant derives 

it from Fr. eperlan ; but which is not satisfactory to Dr. 

Jamieson. 

SPAVE, SPEAVE, to castrate, to spay. Lat. spadarc. 
SPEEL, SPEIL, to climb. Sc. spele. 
SPEER, OR SPEIR, to ask, to enquire. Sax. Spyrian, investi- 

gare. " Speer it out if you can." 
SPELDER, to spell. A mere corruption. 
SPELK, SPELL, a small splinter. Sax. spelc. 
SPELL AND ORE, a game. Dur. Teut. spel, a play or sport, 



SPRE 203 

and Germ. Jcnorr, a knot of wood or ore. The recreation 
is also called buckstick spell and ore ; the buck stick (with 
which the ore is struck) being broad at an end like the but 
of a gun, and probably derived from Germ, buchse, a firelock. 

SPENCE, an inner apartment, a country parlour. Meaning a 
larder, or store-room, this is a very old word, from Fr. 
despence. 

SPICE, gingerbread. Perhaps from the spice used in season- 
ing. 

SPICE-CAKE, a cake full of currants; generally baked on a 
girdle. See SINGIN, or SINGING-HINNY. 

SPIDDICK AND FAWCET, a wooden instrument used as a sub- 
stitute for a cock to let out liquors. Spigot andfawcct. 

SPILE, a peg in a cask of liquor. SPILE-HOLE, the receptacle 
for the same. 

SPILLING THE SALT, an ominous accident said to presage some 
future calamity, particularly, I believe, a domestic feud, if it 
fall towards a person ; but which may be averted by 
throwing a little of the fallen article over the shoulder, 
into the fire. Major Moor asks, if the Latin or Greek 
classical authors make any mention of it ? Unquestion- 
ably. From Festus, we learn that to spill the salt at table 
was esteemed ominous; and for the great care with 
which, on that account, a family salt-cellar was always 
kept, we have the authority of Horace. 

SPINNY-WYE, or SPINNY-WHY, a game among young persons in 
Newcastle. V. Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. il p. 305. 

SPLIRT, SPLUET, to spit out. 

SPRECKLED, speckled. Su.-Got. sprecklot. 

SPREE, sport, merriment, a frolic. Fr. esprit, spirit, vivacity. 

SPRENT, bespattered, splashed with dirt. Sax. sprcngan, 
spargere. Chaucer uses spreint. 



204 SPUN 

SPUNK, a spark, a small fire. 

SPUNK, mettle, spirit, vivacity ; naedjfgHratively for, life. In 

the North, this is considered a good and very expressive 

word, though abused in Todd's John. 
SPUNKY, sparkling, fresh, spirited. 
SPURLING, the deep track of a coach or cart wheel. Germ. 

spur, a rut ; plural spuren wagepspur, a cart rut. 
STACKER, to stagger. Sw. stagra. Chaucer uses stoker. 
STADDLE, the bottom of a corn or hay stack, a mark left in 

the grass by the long continuance of the hay in bad wea- 

ther. Sax. stadelj a foundation. Welsh, ystadledd, con- 

tinuous state. 

STAHAN, STAAN, a stone. Sax. stan. 
STAID, steady, sedate, advanced in years. 
STAIDLIN, a part of a corn stack left standing. 
STAITH, STEETH, a place to lay up and to load coals at, a sort 

of wharf. Sax. stath, ripa, littus, static navium. 
STALL, STAUL, to surfeit. See STAUD. 
STALWART, stout, strong, hale. 

A stalwart tinkler wight was he, 

And wee'l cou'd mend a pot or pan, 

An' deftly Wull cou'd thraw ajlce, 
An neatly weave the willow wan'. 

, Reedwater Minstrel. 



STAMMER, to stagger. Isl. stumra, collabi. 

STANCHIL, or STANNEL-HAWK, the Kestril or Windhover; 

inhabiting rocks and old buildings. Falco Tinnunculus. 

Lin. Shakspeare, in the Twelfth Night, calls it stanyel. 
STAND-STILL, a stoppage, a cessation. Etymology plain. 
STANG, v. to shoot with pain ; as in the tooth-ache. STANG, 

*. an acute pain, the sting of a bee. Isl. stanga, pungere. 



STAN 205 

STANG, s. a long bar, a wooden pole any piece of timber 
adapted for the shaft of a cart or carriage ; or for railing ; 
or for any other purpose requiring strength ; such as the 
circular piece of wood used by butchers, on which they 
hang the carcass of a bullock. Sax. steng, vectis. Dut. 
stang, a pole. RIDING THE STANG, a punishment among 
the vulgar ; inflicted upon fornicators, adulterers, severe 
husbands, and such persons as follow their occupations 
during particular festivals or holidays, or at prohibited 
times, when there is a stand or combination among work- 
men. Offenders of this description are mounted astraddle 
on a long pole, or stang, supported upon the shoulders 
of their companions. On this painful and fickle seat, they 
are borne about the neighbourhood, attended by a swarm 
of children, huzzaing and throwing all manner of filth. 
When they cannot lay hold of the culprit himself, a boy 
mounts the stang ; but he is unmolested, though attended 
with the same tumultuous cries, if not with increased 
shouts of acclamation. The proxy proclaims, that it is 
not on his own account that he is thus treated, but on 
that of another person whose crime he names. I have 
been witness to processions of this kind myself. School 
boys are stanged by the other scholars, for breaking, what 
they call, the rules or orders of the school. The cere- 
mony is also resorted to, when a woman has gained an 
improper ascendancy over her husband, so as to make him 
bear every species of indignity. In this case, it is called 
" Riding the stang for a neighbour's wife." A man is 
placed in the same uneasy situation as before described, 
so that he may be supposed to represent, or to sympa- 
thize with his henpecked friend, whose misery he some- 
times laments in doggrel rhime, applicable to the occasion. 



206 STAN 

He is carried through the whole hamlet, with a view of 
exposing or shaming the viraginous lady, and of thus pre- 
venting further outrages on the person of her pitiable 
partner. This mark of disgrace may be traced to very re- 
mote times. The Goths were wont to erect, what they 
called Nidstaeng, or the pole of infamy, with the most dire 
imprecations against the person who was thought to de- 
serve the punishment. He, who was subjected to this 
dishonour, was called Niding, or the infamous; being 
disqualified from ever giving evidence in any juridical mat- 
ter. Eric, King of Norway, was compelled to fly from 
his dominions, so great was the hatred against him, for 
having been the means of inflicting this tremendous stigma 
on Egill Skallagrim, a celebrated Islandic bard. 

STANGEY, a common North country name for a tailor. Ob- 
viously from the power of the needle. 

STANK, to sigh, to moan, to gasp for breath. Isl. and Su.- 
Got. stanka. 

STAP, the stave of a tub. Su.-Got. staaf. 

START, the tail, or handle of any thing. Sax. steort. 

STATESMAN, a person possessing an estate whether versed 
in the arts of government or not. See LAIRD, with which 
it is synonymous. 

STAUD, cloyed, saturated, fatigued. 

STAVELLING, or STAVERING, wandering about in an unsteady 
or uncertain manner ; as in the dark stumbling. 

STEAD, STED, STID, a place, a farm house and offices. Sax. 
sted. Su.-Got. stad, locus, situs. See ONSTEAD. 

STEAT.Y-CLOTHES, or WATCH-WEBS, a game. The players 
divide into two parties, and draw a line as the boundary 
of their respective territories. At an equal distance from 
this line, each player deposits his hat or some other article 



STID 207 

of his dress. The object of the game is to seize and convey 
these singly to your own store from that of the enemy ; 
but, if you are unfortunately caught in the attempt, you 
not only restore the plunder, but become a prisoner your- 
self. This evidently takes its origin from the inroads of 
the English and Scotch : indeed, it is plainly proved by 
the language used on the occasion, which consists, in a 
great measure, of the terms of reproach still common among 
the borderers. 

STEE, or STEY, a ladder. Sax. stager, gradus. Su.-Got. 
stege, scalae. Chaucer uses steye, to ascend, and steyers, . 
for stairs. 

STEEK, or STEIK, to shut, to close. Teut. stecken. " Steek 
the heck" shut the door. 

STEEPIN, very wet. " A steepin fall of rain." 

STEER, a three years old ox. Sax. styre. 

STEG, a gander. Isl. steggr, mas plurium ferarum. Applied 
ironically to a person ; as a stupid steg. 

STELL, a large open drain in a marsh. 

STENG. The pole of the old Northumbrian drees was called a 
steng. The post on which Winter was gibbeted, on Whis- 
kershields common Winter's Steng; and before that the 
place was called Steng Cross, from a cross with a tall shaft. 
Steng is a pure Saxon word. 

STEW. In a sad stew, in a state of great perplexity. 

STICK, or STRIKE, a stand or combination among workmen ; 
generally in regard to wages. 

STICKLE, a hurry, a bustle, 

STICKY-STACK, a game among young people in running up the 
face, or cut part, of a hay-stack. 

STIDDY, STITHY, an anvil used sometimes, but I think im- 
properly, for the smith's shop. Isl. stedi, incus. Stithe, 



208 STIL 

is old English. Shakspeare employs the word stithy, in 
both senses ; and he also uses the verb to stithy, to employ 
an anvil. Ray has, among his Northern words, stith, strong, 
hard, which is pure Saxon ; but it is not now in use, that 
I am aware of, except in Scotland. 

STILT, the handle of a plough. 

STIME, STYME, the most indistinct, or the faintest form of any 
object a glimpse, a whit. " I cannot see a stime" Welsh, 
ystum, figure, shape. Grose has stimey, dim-sighted. 

STINT, v. to stop, to cease, to desist. 

The pretty wench left crying, and said, Ay ; 
And pretty fool, it stinted and said, Ay. 

Shak. Rom. and Jul. 

STINT, s. grass for a season, a right of pasturage. From stint, 

to limit or restrain. 
STIRK, STURK, a young heifer, or bullock. Sax. styrc, juven- 

cus. 
STOB, a stump, a stake, a post. Teut. stobbe, truncus. Stob, 

is also used metaphorically, for an ignorant stupid fellow. 
STOB-FEATHERS, the short unfledged feathers that remain on a 

fowl after it has been plucked. 
STOOK, STOUK, a shock of corn, consisting of twelve sheaves. 

Ten of them are set up to dry, and the other two, which 

are called hoods, are placed on the top. Teut. stock, meta, 

a heap. Jam. 
STOOP, STOWP, a post fastened in the earth. Su.-Got. stolpe, 

fulcrum. 
STOOR, dust in motion. STOORY, dusty. Sax. styran, tur- 

bare movere. Dut. stooren, to disturb. Stoor also means 

a bustle ; as all in a stoor, all in a hurry. 
STOOREY, a mixture of warm beer and oatmeal with sugar. 






STRI 209 

STORE, estimation, regard, esteem. 

STORKEN, to cool, to stiffen. Germ. starken y to strengthen. 
STORM-STAID, delayed on a journey by reason of a storm. 
STOT, to rebound from the ground, to strike any elastic body 

so as to cause it to rebound. Dut. stuiten, to bounce, to 

rebound. STOTTING-BALL, a rebounding ball. 
STOT, a young ox. Su.-Got. stut, juvencus. Dan. stud, an 

ox. 
STOUND, v. to ache, to smart, to be in pain. Isl. styn, inge- 

mescere. STOUND, s. the sensation or first impression of 

sudden pain, arising from a knock or blow. 
STOWER, or DYKE-STOWER, a hedge stake. Su.-Got. stoer, 

palus. 
STRAMP, to tread upon, to trample. Germ, strampfen. " He 

st ramped upon my foot." 
STRANDY, restive, passionate. 
STRANG, strong. Pure Saxon. 
STRAPPING, tall. STRAPPER, a large man or woman. 
STRAVAIGING, strolling about; generally in a bad sense. Itul. 

stravagare. 

STREAMERS, the Northern lights* See MERRY-DANCERS. 
STREE, STREY, straw. Sc. strae. V. Wilb. streea. 

Ne how the fire was couched first with stre,, 
And then with dry stickens clovin athre. 

Chaucer, Knights Tale. 

STREEK,' to stretch or expand, to lay out a corpse. Sax. 
streccan, extendere. STREEKING-BOARD, a board on which 
the limbs of the deceased are stretched out and composed. 

STRETCHER, an untruth ; a softer term for a falsehood. 

STRICKLE, an instrument used in whetting scythes. 

STRIDDLE, to straddle. STRIDDLE-LEGS, astride. 

Dd 



210 STRI 

STRIP, to draw the after milking of a cow. STRIPPINGS, the 

last part of the milking. The same as strokings or after- 

ings, 
STROKE, used in the sense of considerable. " A good stroke 

of business." Meaning sway or influence, it is an old 

word. 

STRUNT, a sullen fit. STRUNTY, offended. V. Jam. 
STRUNT, the tail or rump. STRUNTY, any thing short or con- 

tracted. Fr. estreint, shrunk up. 
STUB, to grub up. STUBBED, grubbed up ; metaphorically, 

ruined. 
STUDDY, a smith's anvil. See STIDDY. 

Fling off their black duddies, 
Leave hammers and stnddies. 

Song, Bonny Geatsidcrs. 

STUMMER, STAMMER, to stumble. Isl. stumra, 

STUMP, a heavy, thick-headed fellow. STUMPS, legs. " Stir 



STUMP AND RUMP, entirely. 

STUNS AIL, a steering or studding sail. 

STURDY, a disease in the head of cattle. Old Fr. estourdi, 

dizzy-headed. 
STUT, to stutter. An old word, still in general use. 

She spake somewhat thicke, 

Her fellowe did stummer and stut, 

But she was a foule slut ! Skelton. 

STY, a troublesome and painful sAvelling on the eye-lid. 
Great relief, if not a perfect cure, is supposed to be effected 
by the application of a wedding ring, nine times repeated. 
The idea is ancient, however questionable the benefit. 



SWAM 21 1 

STYTH, foul air ; a black suffocating damp in a colliery. 

To cure this ill 

A philosophic art is us'd to drain 

The foul imprison'd air, and in its place 

Purer convey. Jagd's Edgehitt. 

SUBTERRANEOUS PASSAGES. Near every ancient castle, cathe- 
dral, abbey, or hall, the common people have tales of under- 
ground (vaulted) roads, sometimes to great distances ; such 
as from Tynemouth to Carlisle, from Newcastle to Tyne- 
mouth, from Hexham to Alnwick Castle, from Durham 
Abbey to various places. 

SUCKEN, an exclusive privilege of grinding, or other juris- 
diction attached to a mill ; the dues paid to the miller. 
Sax. socne. Su.-Got. sokn. This ancient word is still used 
in leases from the Bishop of Durham. See thirlage, a ser- 
vitude or tenure in Scotland, something similar, in Tom- 
lins' Law Diet. 

SUMMAT, SUMMET, somewhat, something. 

SUMMER-GOOSE, the vulgar name for GOSSAMER ; which see. 

SUMP, SUMPH, a bog, a swamp, a miry pool. Dan. sump. 
SUMPY, miry, dirty. Dan. sumpig. SUMPH, an epithet for 
a dirty person. 

SUN-DANCE. It was formerly a custom to rise early on Easter 
Sunday, and to go into the fields to see the sun dance, 
which, according to ancient tradition, it always does on 
this day. The practice, I have some reason to believe, is 
not yet entirely laid aside. 

SURE-AS-A-GUN, absolutely certain a common colloquial com- 
parison. 

SWAD, a peasecod, the husk of any kind of pulse. V. Skin- 
ner. 

SWAMISH, SWEAMISH, shy, bashful, squeamish. 



212 SWAN 

SWANKY, a strapping young country-man. 

SWAP, to exchange, to baiter. Isl. skipta, mutare. V. Jam. 

SWAPE, a long oar used in working a coal keel on the Tyne ; 

that at the stern acting as a rudder. Sivappe, to strike 

or throw down with violence, similar to the action of using 

the swape, occurs in Chaucer. Sax. sivapan, to sweep. 

IsL sweipa, percutere. 
SWARM, to climb a tree by the muscular action of the arms, 

thighs, and legs. 

SWARN, to warrant. " Sivarn ye, he'll come." 
SWARTII, SWATH, the ghost or apparition of a person, about to 

die. Derived by Ray from Sax. sweart, black, dark, pale, 

wan. See WAFF. 

SWATCH, v. to swathe, to swaddle. Sax. swedan, to bind. 
SWATCH, s. a pattern, a sample. V. Ray, swache. 
SWATTLE, to consume, to waste ; generally fluids. 
SWEAL, v. to melt, to waste or blaze, to burn away rapidly ; as 

a candle when exposed to the wind. Sax. swelan, to burn. 

An old English word. SWEAL, s. a blaze, an enlarged 

flame. 
SWEARLE, or SWEEVEL-EYE, an eye with a particular cast. 

SWEDDLE, tO Swell. SwEDDLED, puffed OUt. 

SWEEL, a sudden swell or burst of laughter. 

SWEETIES, sweetmeats or confections for children. 

SWELT, or SWELTER, to broil, to swoon, to faint. SWELTED, 
or SWELTERED, overcome with heat and perspiration. 
Sax. sweltan, to die. 

SWERLE, to roll from side to side in walking. It is also ap- 
plied to express the gliding of a stream of water. A small 
runner in Sandgate, Newcastle, was anciently called the 
Swede ; now corrupted into the Squirrel. 

SWEY, to poise, to swing. Isl, sweigia, inclinare. See HIKEY 
and SHUGGEY-SHEW. 



SYLE 213 

SWILL, a round basket of wicker work ; generally carried on 
the head. Hence its name Keyside umbrella, when re- 
versed in wet weather. 

SWILLINGS, washings of vessels hog-wash. Sax. swilgan, to 
drink largely, to swill. 

SWINGE, to chastise, to beat soundly. Sax. swingan y flagel- 
lare, castigare. 

SWINGLE-TREE, a moveable piece of wood to which the traces 
of husbandry horses are fastened. Teut. swinghelen, vi- 
brare. 

SWINKED, oppresed, vexed, fatigued. Sax. swincan, labrare, 
fatigari. 

SWIPE, to drink off to the very bottom. 

SWIPPER, nimble, quick. Sax. swipan, cito agere. 

SWIRT, a syringe. From squirt. See SCOOTER. 

SWIRTLE, to proceed with a moving motion like an eel. Su. 
Got. swarfwa, circumagere. 

SWITCH, to walk with a light quick step, to go with a sort of 
jerk. Su.-Got. swiga, loco cedere. 

SWORD-DANCE, an ancient Christmas custom ; still continued 
in many parts pf the North. It is fully described in 
Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 396 & seq. Connected 
with this subject, see Mr. Douce's interesting dissertation 
on the ancient English Morris Dance, in the 2d vol. of 
his Illustrations of Shakspeare. 

SWUPPLE, SOOPLE, or SOUPEL, the upper joint of a flail. Fr. 
souple ; or Isl. sweipa, to strike. 

SYLES, the principal rafters of a hojjse. 



214 



TAAD 



T. 

TAAD, TVED, a toad. Sax. tade. TVED-RED, the seed, 
or spawn of toads ; generally seen in a mass like a bunch of 
grapes. V. Bewick's ^Esop, p. 290. 

TACK, or TYAK, to take. TYAK-EFTER, to imitate or resemble. 
" The bairns tyak efter their dad" TYAK-UP, to reform. 
" He'll tyak up," said of an extravagant, thoughtless per- 
son likely to reform. 

TAFFY, a sort of candy made of treacle ; often by a company 
of young people in an evening by way of amusement 
called joining for taffy. V. Wilb. 

TAILOR'S MENSE, a small portion left by way of good manners. 
In some parts of the North it is the custom for the village 
tailor to work at his customer's house, and to partake of 
the hospitality of the family board. On these occasions 
the best fare is invariably provided; at least such was the 
case when I was a boy ; and the tailor to shew that he 
has had enongh, generally leaves a little on his plate, which 
is called tailor's mense. This term is also given to cut- 
tings sent home by such of this unfortunate fraternity, 
against whom the old imputation of loving too much cab- 
bage does not apply. 

TAISTREL, TESTRIL, a mischievous, ill behaved boy when ap- 
plied to an adult, an expression of great contempt, equi- 
valent to scoundrel. 

TAKE-OFF, to banter, to jeer. 

TAN, to beat. " I'll tan yor hide" 

TANE, T'AN, the one. " Gf me fan or tother" 

TANK, a piece of deep water, natural as well as artificial. 

TANTRUMS, high airs, a display of ill humour. " She's in her 
tantrums" 



TEEM 215 

TAPPY-LAPPY, as hard as you can ; applied to running. 

TARN, a pool on a mountain. Is]. Horn, stagnum. 

TATEE, a potatoe. V. Suff. Words, taters ; and Nares' Gloss. 
potatoes. TATEE-BOGLE, a scarecrow. TATEE-BEATMENT, 
a measure. Newc. 

TATEE AND POINT, a piece of fat meat said to be suspended 
over the family board nobody knows why, and equiva- 
lent to, nobody knows what. 

TATIIY-GRASS, short grass that has no seed, refuse grass, old 
and new mixed, the produce under trees or in old pastures 
not eaten by cattle. Perhaps, tufty grass. 

TATTER-WALLOPS, ragged clothes fluttering in the wind. 

TAVING, irregular motion ; picking the bed-clothes in febrile 
delirium. Willan. 

TAWM, TAM, a fishing line. " A lang twine tarn" 

TAWS, A PAIR OF TAWS, a leather strap used by schoolmasters 
for chastising children. Isl. taug, lorum. 

TAYLIOR, TEAYLEAR, a tailor. Old Eng. talyowre. See TAI- 
LOR'S MENSE. 

TEANGS, TYENGS, a pair of tongs. Sax. tangan, forcipes. 
" Tyeng legd Dick." 

TEARAN, tearing. A tearan fellow is a rough, hot headed 
person, who drives every thing before him, regardless of 
danger or of consequences. 

TEDDING, applied to the dressing of hair and flax, as well as 
to the spreading of hay. 

TEE, or TIE, a hair-rope with which to shackle cows in milk- 
ing. Cow-tie. 

TEEM, to pour out of one vessel into another. Isl. taema, to 
empty. " Teem out the tea hinny." 

TEEMING-WOMAN, one who is more prolific than every loving 
lord considers indispensably necessary to his happiness. 
Sax. team-full) prole plenus, foecundus. 



216 TEEN 

TEEN, s, sorrow, injury. An old word, used by Spenser and 
Shakspeare. TEEN. a. angry. V. Lye, teon. 

TEETHY, cross, fretful, peevish ; generally spoken of children. 
V. Todd's John, techy. 

TELL, to count, to reckon. Sax. telan. Moor observes, that 
the Tellers of the Exchequer retain the name ; though 
not, perhaps, the fact or practice. " He cannot tell to 
twenty." 

TELL'D, told. A common corruption. " Aw telFd him on V 

TEMSE, . and s. See TIMSE. 

TH, frequently changed into D ; as father, fader ; mother, 
moder ; Rothbury, Rodbury. 

THACK, THEAK, thatch ; both as verb and substantive. Sax. 
thaccan y to cover; thac, these, thatch. Chaucer uses 
thacke. 

THATADONNET, a good for nought, the devil.' Is it, that 
" adonne" (Fr.) abandoned one ? 

THAUF, THAUF-CAKE, a cake without yeast or any other fer- 
menting substance. Probably as conjectured by an inge- 
nious friend, from Sax. thearfan, opus habere, necesse ha- 
bere necessity cake, or cake made in urgent haste, as 
what used to be called soldier's bread at the time when sol- 
diers were quartered, during marches, on private families. 
But see Todd's John, therf-bread. 

THICK, intimate. " They are very thick just now," i. e. they 
are very familiar. " We are not thick at all at present" 
equivalent to not being on friendly terms. 

THIEF AND REEVER-BELL, the name given to the tolling of the 
great bell of Saint Nicholas, Newcastle, which is rung at 
8 o'clock of the evening preceding every fair as a sort of 
invitation to all rogues and thieves so enter that good town. 
Rcever, means robber ; from Sax. reafere. 



THIR 217 

THINGEMBOBS, nameless trifles. Thingcmbob, is also a vulgar 
substitution of a person's name when it is not immediately 
recollected. 

THINK-SHAME, to feel abashed, to have a sense of shame. 

THIRL, to pierce, to perforate. Sax. thirlian. A word used by 
Chaucer. 

THIS-EN, AND THAT-EN, in this manner and in that. 

THIVEL, a smooth stick, used for various purposes of domes- 
tic economy. Sax. thyfel, a stem or stalk. " He's a queer 
stick to make a thivel oP' said of an unsteady, wayward 
person. 

THOLE, to wait awhile. Su.-Got. tola, expectare. 

THOROUGH-GO-NIMBLE, a diarrhoea; the same as TEEZEY- 
WEEZV. This loose sort of jargon abounds in the North. 

THOU'S LIKE, you must. " Thou's fake to come" 

THRANG, v. to press, to thrust, to squeeze. Sax. thringan. 
Chaucer uses thring, a pronunciation still retained in some 
parts of Yorkshire. 

THRANG, s. a crowd, a throng. Pure Saxon 

THRANG, a. much engaged, busily employed. 

THRAVE, THREAVE, a certain number of sheaves of corn ; ge- 
nerally, I believe, twenty four a quantity of straw. Sax. 
threaf. 

THREAP, to persist vehemently, to aver pertinaciously in reply 
to denial. Sax threapian, redarguere. 

Itt's not for a man with a woman to threapc, 
Unless he first give o'er the plea. 

Ancient Version of, Take thy old Cloak 
about thce. 

THRIF or THRIFT-BOX, an earthen pot or box in which money 
is kept by young persons. 

E e 



218 



THRO 



THRODDEN, fat, well grown, in good case. 

THROPPLE, the windpipe, the throat. " A bull's thropple" 

THROWING-THE-STOCKING, an odd sort of love divination, on 
the first evening of a wedding. After the bride has retired, 
and while she is undressing, she delivers one of her stock- 
ings to a female attendant, who throws it at random among 
the company assembled on this festive occasion. The per- 
son on whom it happens to alight will, it is supposed, be the 
next to enter into the happy state. Another, and more 
curious, though perhaps now obsolete mode, was for the 
guests invited to repair to the bridal chamber, where it was 
customary for the happy pair to sit up in bed, in full dress, 
exclusive of their shoes and stockings. One of the bride's 
maids then took the bridegroom's stocking ; and, standing 
at the bottom of the bed with her back towards it, threw 
the stocking with the left hand over the right shoulder, 
aiming at the face of the bridegroom. This was done by all 
the females in rotation. When any of them were so fortu- 
nate as to hit the object, it was a sign that they were soon 
to be married. The bride's stocking was thrown by the 
young men at the bride in like manner ; from which a simi- 
lar prognostic was taken. 

THRUFF-STONE, a tomb stone. Sax. thrJi. V. Lye. 

THRUSTY, thirsty. A word used by Chaucer. 

THUD, the noise of a fall, a stroke causing a blunt and hollow 
sound. Sax. thoden, turbo. 

THUMPING, great, huge ; as a thumping bairn also notorious ; 
as a thumping lie. 

THUNNER, thunder. Wilb. has thunna, s. and v. 

THUR, these. Isl. theyr, illi ; thaer, illae. 

THWAITE, a level pasture field. V. Todd's John. 

TICE, to entice. Old English, tyce. 



TINK 219 

TID, MID, MIZZERAY, CARLING, PALM, PASTE-EGG-DAY, the 
last six Sundays in Lent. The first has no name. 

TIE-POT, or TYE-TOP, a garland. 

TIFFY-TAFFY, a difficult piece of work. 

TIFLE, TYFELL, to entangle, to mix and knot threads together, 
to ruffle. V. Jam. tuffle. 

TIFT, a fit of anger, or rather the act of quarrelling. TIFTY, ill 
natured, petulant. 

TIG, a slight touch ; as a mode of salutation a play among 
children, on separating for the night, in which every one 
endeavours to get the last touch ; called also, last bat. 

TIKE or TYKE, a person of bad character, a blunt or vulgar 
fellow. Also a name for a dog. 
If you can like, 
A Yorkshire tike Carey, Wonder, $c. 

TILL, to. Mr. Todd has shewn it to be old. 

TILLER, to send out shoots, as wheat. Dur. Germ, theilen, 

to separate into parts. 

TIMERSOME, TIMMERSOME, fearful. Timorous. 
TIMMER, timber. Sw. timmer. " A ship load of timmer" 
TIMSE, v. to sift. TIMSE, s. a sieve. Dut. teems. Fr. tamis. 
TINE, to shut, to inclose. Sax. tynan, claudere. 
TING-TONG, the little bell of a church. Fr. tintouin, a tingling ; 

or Teut. tinghe-tanghen, tintinare. 
TINKLER, a tinker. The celebrated Wull Allen was for many 

years the king of the tinklers in the North, He had a son, 

not less celebrated Jamie Allen, the Northumberland 

piper. 

Nae mair he'll scan wi' anxious eye 

The sandy shores of winding Reed, 
Nae mair he'll tempt the finny fry, 
The King o' Tinklers, Allen's dead ! 

Roxby, Reedwater Minstrel. 



220 TIPP 

TIPPY, smart, fine. " Tippy Bob." 

TIRL, to make a slight scratching noise ; to turn over the 
leaves of a book quickly. 

TITE, soon, easily, well. TITTER, sooner, rather. See As- 
TITE. 

TITLING, a small bird attendant on the cuckoo. 

Tiv, to. TIV-A-TEE, just the thing. 

TOAD-BIT, a disease among cattle, absurdly imputed to the 
poison of toads ; and against which lustration by need-fire 
is employed. Dr. Willan mentions a recent instance of 
the practice, as occurring near Sedbergh. 

To AD-I NDER-A-H ARROW, the comparative situation of a poor 
fellow, whose wife, not satisfied with the mere hen-peck- 
ing of her helpmate, takes care that all the world shall wit- 
ness the indignities she puts upon him. The expression 
is also applied to any other similar, if such there be, state 
of misery. 

TODLE or TODDLE, to walk, to saunter about, " Todling 
hame" Germ, trotteln, to trundle along. 

TOMMY, a little loaf. " A soldier's tommy" 

Too, shut, close. " Put the door too?"" It is too." Dut. 
toe. Is de deur toe ? 

TOOFALL, TWOFALL, or TEEFALL, a small building adjoining 
to, and with the roof resting on the wall of a larger one. 
This name is also given to a small shed at the end of a 
farm house, in which are usually placed implements of agri- 
culture. In the latter sense, however, it is often pro- 
nounced Touffa. Teut. toe-vallen y adjungere se. 

Toow, or TUAM. Dan. tommej to empty. " A toom purse." 
" A tuam cart." 

TOOZLE, to pull about ; especially applied to any rough dal- 
liance with a female. 



TEAS 221 

TOP, good, excellent. TOPPER, any thing superior a clever, 
or extraordinary person; but generally in an ironical 
sense. 

TOPSMAN, the head man or manager, the chief hind or bailiff. 

TORIOUS, notorious. " A 'torious liar that." 

TORMIT, TURMIT, a turnip. 

TOSH, a projecting or unseemly tooth a tusk. 

TOSSICATED, perplexed ; as if intoxicated. 

TOTE, the whole. " The whole tote" A common pleonasm. 
Lat. totus. 

TOTEY, bad tempered. " A totey body" 

TOTHER, TUTHER, the other. See TANE. 

TOUGH, TEUGH, tedious, difficult. " A tough journey." 
" Teugh wark" Apparently, the original sense of the 
word. 

TOWGHER, a portion or dowry, dower. Cumb. Toker, in 
other places, means the same. V. Jam. tocher. 

TOWLING, a mischievous amusement among the boys in New- 
castle, during the evenings of the horse-fairs. It consists 
of whipping up and down the different " choice tit bits" 
shewn on those occasions. From the enquiries I have 
made, I find it has been practised from time immemorial. 

TRAM, a small sledge. 

TRAMP, a mechanic travelling from place to place in search of 
work. 

TRAMPERS, beggars, who traverse extensive tracts of country, 
soliciting from door to door. 

TRANSLATORS, cobblers who buy old boots and shoes and make 
them up anew for sale. The Castle Garth, in Newcastle, 
is the Grand Emporium of this learned and gentle craft. 

TRANSMOGRIFIED, transformed, metamorphosed. 

TRASH, " to trample on in a careless manner," Todd's John. 
It is rather, to tramp about with fatigue. 



222 



TRIG 



TRICKY, artful, cunning. FuU of tricks. 
TRIG, v. to fill, to stuff. -TRIG, a. full. 

TRIG, neat, trim ; or rather tricked out, or what is called^we. 
TRIM, to chastise, to beat soundly. " I'll trim your jacket." 
TRIPPIT AND COIT, a game similar to spell and ore. Newc. 
Called Trippit and Rack in parts of North. The trippit 
is a small piece of wood obtusely pointed. See SPELL 
AND ORE. 

TRIST, TRYST, a fair for black cattle, horses, sheep, &c. Long 
Framlington trist, Felton tryst. North. Sc. tryst, an 
appointment to meet. V. Jam. 
TROD, a foot path through a field Isl. trod. 
TROLLIBAGS, tripe. V. Suff. Words, trullibubs. 
TRONES, a steel yard. Isl. trana, grus. 
TRUMPH, a trump at cards. Common among the vulgar. 
TUBBER, a cooper. A maker of tubs. 

TUB, to labour long and patiently, to fatigue by repeated or 
continued exertion. Fr. tuer, se tuer, originally to kill ; 
but used also for, to fatigue or weary. // se tue, he wea- 
ries himself; or, in North country language, he tues him- 
self. " Tuing on" toiling away. " A tuing life" a la- 
borious life. " A tuing soul" a hard working person. 
" Sare tues" great difficulty in accomplishing any thing. 
TUEL, a species of bantering ; or rather a tendency to squab- 
ble accompanied with it any troublesome intermeddling. 
" Dinna hand me sic a fuel." 
TUG, to rob, to destroy. " To tug a nest" 
TUIFFIT, or TEWFET, the lapwing. See PEEZ-WEEP. 
TUM, to separate or card wool. 

TUP, s. a ram. TUP, v. to give the ram. Shakspeare, in 
Othello, uses the verb in a more extended sense ; but the 
passage cannot well be quoted. 



UNCA 223 

TUSSEL, or TUSSLE, a struggle, a contest. 

TWANG, a quick pull, a tweak also pain. V. Moor. 

TWATTLE, to pat, to make much of, to fondle. See BE- 

TWATTLED. 
TWEA, TWEE, tWO. SaX. two. TWEASOME, TWOSOME, tWO ill 

company. 

TWEA-FACED, deceitful. Sax. twe-fealdy duplex. 
TWILL, a quill ; either for a pen, or on which to wind yarn. 

V. Ray. 

TWILT, a quilt or bed cover. V. Todd's John, to twill. 
TWINE, to cry. TWINY, fretful, uneasy. 
TWINTER, a beast of two winters old. Sax. twy-ivinter, duos 

annos natus. 

TWITCH-BELL, the earwig. 
TWITTER, to tremble, to be in a state of uneasiness. Germ. 

zittern, to shiver or quake. 



U. 

UG, to feel abhorrence at. UGSOME, disgusting, exciting ab- 
horrence. North. 

U'M H'M, or UMHIM, an indifferent careless manner of as- 
senting to what is said; pronounced with the mouth shut, 
the last syllable short : very common in Newcastle. A 
literary friend suggests a derivation from umpk, ascribed 
satirically to the Society of Friends. 

UN, one referring to an individual. " He's a bad un" 

UNACCOUNTABLE, s. a strange character; an unpromising per- 
son. 

UNCANNY, giddy, careless, imprudent. It is also applied by 
the superstitious to one supposed to possess supernatural 
influence. Sc. wo canny. UNCANNILY, unthinkingly, 
thoughtlessly. 



224 UNDE 

UNDERCUMSTAND, to understand. A mere vulgar change. 

UNDIGHT, undressed, undecked. V. Todd's John. 

UNFREM'D, unkind. See FREM'D. 

UNGEAR, to unharness. " Ungear the yoke." 

UNHONEST, dishonourable, dishonest. Stated in Todd's John, 
to be obsolete ; but it is not so in the North. 

UNKET, UNKID, strange, unusual. Sax. uncuth, alienus. UN- 
KETS, UNKIDS, news. 

UNLICKED-CUB, an ignorant, unpolished youth. 

UNMACKLY, ill-shapen, of a clumsy appearance. 

UNPOSSIBLE, for impossible. Not in Johnson but admitted by 
Mr Todd ; and well authorized. The word is frequent 
with the vulgar in the North. 

UNRID, to rid. Here the particle is of no force. UNRIP, a 
common word in the North authorized by some of our 
best writers is similarly circumstanced. 

UNSNECK, to lift a latch ; as of a door. 

UNSONCY, UNSONSY, careless, luckless, unpleasant, disagree- 
able. See SONCY. 

UPBRAID, to rise on the stomach, as well as to reproach. 

UPCAST, v. to upbraid. UPCAST, s. a taunt, reproach. 

UPCASTING, a rising of the clouds above the horizon, especi- 
ally as threatening rain. 

UPHAD, UPHAUD, to warrant against defects. Uphold. 

UPPISH, a sort of cant word for understanding. 

UPSIDES, quits. To be upsides ivith any one, is to threaten 
vengeance for an injury or affront. UPWITH, equal. 

URCHIN, a hedge-hog. Chaucer uses urchon. V. Nares' 
Gloss. 



WABB 225 



V. 

VAMPER, to vapour or swagger, to make an ostentatious ap- 
pearance. Welsh, gwemp y splendid. 

VARDIE, opinion, judgment. Perhaps a corruption of verdict. 

VARMENT, VERMENT, vermin also a term of reproach, par- 
ticularly to a child. 

VARRA, VARRY, VURRY, very. 

VENNEL, a sewer. Probably from kennel, an open water course. 

VENTERSOME, VENTURESOME, rash, adventurous. 

VERTER, a common corruption of virtue. 

VIEWLY, pleasant to the sight, striking to the eye, handsome. 

VINE-PENCIL, a black lead pencil. 

VIRGIN'S GARLAND. Many country churches in the North 
are adorned with these garlands ; in token, says Bourne, of 
esteem and love, and as an emblem of reward in the hea- 
venly Church. They are made of variegated coloured 
paper, representing flowers, fastened to small sticks cros- 
sing each other at the top, and fixed at the bottom by a 
circular hoop. From the centre is suspended the form of 
a woman's glove cut in white paper, on which the name 
and age of the deceased are sometimes written. 
To her sweet mem'ry flow'ry Garlands strung, 
On her now empty seat aloft were hung. Gay. 

VOKY, VOKEY, moist, juicy. Wokie occurs in Peirs Plough- 
man. 



W. 

WABBLE, to move easily, to reel, to wave ; as growing corn 
on a windy day. See WAFFLE, 

Ff 



226 WAD 

WAD, black lead. Cumb. Pure Saxon. " A wad pencil."" 

WAD, woad used by dyers. Sax. wad. " As blue as ivad." 

WAD, would. " He wad, at wad he" he would, that he 
would. 

WADEN, WAUDEN, young and active vigorous in limb. " A 
waden lad" 

WADLER-WIFE, the keeper of a register office for servants. 
Newcastle. 

WAE ME ! or WAE'S ME ! an exclamation of sorrow, equiva- 
lent to woe is me. Sax. wa is me. 

WAFF, WAITH, WRAITH, an apparition in the exact resem- 
blance of a person, supposed to be seen just before or soon 
after death. It may be from the airy form of the object j 
a waft or transient view being called a waff; but see Jam. 
wraith. I have conversed with persons who have gravely 
and unequivocally asserted that they have seen these spec- 
tral appearances of their deceased friends and relations. 

WAFFLE, to wave, to fluctuate. Sax. wajian, vacillare. 

WAG, to beckon with the hand. " Let's wag on him." 

WAG-AT-THE-WAW, WAGGER, a cheap wooden German clock. 
Perhaps from the pendulum being exposed ; or, provinci- 
ally, seen wagging against the wall. 

WAGE, pay for serv ice. Both Johnson and Nares say, used 
only in the plural. In the North, however, the singular 
is in common use. " What 1 s your wage?" 

WAIFINGER, an estray. Law Lat. waivium. 

WAIRSH, WEARSH, thin, watery, weak, insipid. It is also used 
to express a griping in the bowels. V. Todd's John. 
weerish. 

WAIT, wot. Sax. wat, from wltan. 

WAITER, WAATER, water. Sax. wcctcr. 

WAITER, or WATER-BRASH, a disease in the stomach. Per- 
haps from the bursting or discharge of aqueous humour. 



WALL 227 

WAITS, musicians who play by night in the streets about the 
time of Christmas and the new year ; originally a town- 
band of musicians. One of the old towers, in Newcastle, 
was formerly called the waits' tower, and was the place of 
their meeting. Their playing to Oliver Cromwell, while 
that extraordinary character was entertained at dinner, on 
his route to or from Scotland, is traditionally remembered. 
The term is apparently from Moe.-Got. wakts, vigilia, ex- 
cubiae ; these waits being anciently viewed as a sort of 
watchmen. 

WAKE, v. to watch by a corpse, to sit up with a person all 
night. See LAKE-WAKE. 

WAKE, s. a country feast, a rural fair. V. Hutchinson's His- 
tory of North, vol. ii. p. 26 ; and Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. 
i. p. 422. 

Tarts and custards, creams and cakes, 
Are the junketts still at Wakes Herrick. 

WAKE, a. weak. Sax. W<EC. " A wakely body." 

WALE, WEAHL, v. to select, to choose, to sort. Su.-Got. 
waclia, eligere. Germ, wahlen, to pick out. WALE, s. 
choice. 

WALK-MILL, a fulling-mill. Germ, walkmuhle. Before the 
introduction of machinery it was customary to use the 
feet in fulling cloth. 

WALL, WALLE, to boil. Su.-Got. waella, aestuare, fervere. 
WALM, a slight boiling. 

WALL-EYED. In those parts of the North, with which I am 
best acquainted, persons are said to be wall-eyed, when the 
white of the eye is very large, and to one side. On the 
borders," " sic folks" are considered unlucky. The term 
is also applied to horses with similar eyes. The author 



228 WALL 

of the Crav. Gloss, explains wall-een, to mean white or 
green eyes; and does not consider the etymology very 
satisfactory, either in Nares or Todd. Their ideas cer- 
tainly are at variance with the Northern signification of 
the word. Grose defines it, "an eye with little or no 
sight, all white like a plaistered wall." 

WALLOP, to move quickly and with much agitation of the body 
or clothes. Teiit. wal-oppe. WALLOPING, a slatternly 
manner. 

WALLOW, insipid. See Welsh. 

WALLUP, v. to beat. " Aw'l wattup yak" WALLUP, s. a blow. 

WAME, WEAM, WEIME, the stomach, the belly. Mce.-Got. 
wamba, uterus. Sax. wamb, venter. 

WAN, a corruption of wand. " A yard-wan" " A mill-wan" 

WANDY, long and flexible ; like a wand. 

WANG-TOOTH, dens molaris. Pure Sax. Before the use of 
seals in England, according to Verstegan, persons passing 
deeds bit the wax with the wang-tooth. 

WANKLE, WANKELLY, uncertain ; as ivankle or wanJcelly wea- 
ther. Sax. wanel, instabilis, vacillans. Germ, wanken, to 
change. It also means, weak, loose. 

WAR, worse. Sax. wcerra. A Spenserian word. " War 
and war" worse and worse. 

WARBLE, a sort of worm in cattle. F. Jam. 

WAR-DAY, every day in the week except Sunday. Working- 
day. " Sunday and war-day" 

WAR, beware. " War below." Sax. warian, cavere. 

WARE, v. to expend or lay out money ; originally, perhaps, on 
wares. 

WARE, s. sea-weed. Sax. war, alga marina. 

WARE, s. delf. " White tvare"" Broivn ware" 

WARK, v. to ache. " Maw heed warks" WARK, s. a pain or 
ache. " The belly wark" Sax. ware, dolor. 



WAX 229 

WARK, v. to work. " He can neither tvark nor want." 
WARK-FOLKS, labourers. 

WARM, to beat. " Aw* I warm yor hide" 

WARN, WARND, to warrant, " Aws warnd him" 

WARP, to open. A hen is said to warp when she lays. Sax. 
awarpan, ejicere. 

WARSE, worse. " Warsc and warsc." Moe.-Got. ivairs. 
Chaucer uses werse. WARST, the worst. 

WAIISEN, to grow worse. " He warsen'd sadly" 

WAISTING, a consumption, a decline. 

WA'T, indeed. " Weft wV indeed it is. 

WATCHING ON ST. MARK'S EVE. Young rustics will sometimes 
watch, or at least pretend to watch, through the night in 
the church porch, With a view of seeing the ghosts of all 
those who are to die the next year, pass by them ; which 
they are said to do in their usual dress. The persons 
making, or supposed to have made, this vigil, are a terror 
to the neighbourhood. On the least offence they are apt, 
by significant looks or hints, to insinuate to the credulous 
the speedy death of some valued friend or relative. 
Some of the young girls too follow the ancient method of 
sowing hemp-seed; while others prepare the dumb cake 
with ingredients traditionally suggested in witching dog- 
grel. 

WATH, WARTH, a water-ford. Sax. wadan, vadere. 

WATTLES, teat like excrescences that hang from the cheeks of 
some swine, as well as the meanings assigned in Todd's 
John. 

WAW, Wo, a wall. North. WOGH, Lane, antf York. Sax. 
wah. 

WAX, to grow. In general use. WAXEN, growing. Dut. 
wasting. " Hoot man ! He's just a half-wax 1 d lad ! Ifs 
sartin he's getten the waxen churnels" 



230 WAX 

WAX-END, the waxed thread used by cordwainers. 

WEA, WEHA, oppressed with woe, sorrowful. Sax. wa, afflic- 
tus. " I am weha for you" I pity you. " I am weka for 
your loss" I am distressed at your loss. 

WEAKY, juicy, moist, watery. V. Jam. wok. 

WEARY, vexatious, troublesome. " A weary fellow" " A 
weary bairn" " Oh ! she's a weary body" Sax. weerig, 
infestus. 

WEATHER-GALL, a phenomenon something like a second rain- 
bow said to indicate bad weather. Germ, wasssergalle. 
V. Nares' Gloss. Water-gall. 

WEATHER-GLEAM, clear sky near the horizon spoken of ob- 
jects seen on the ridge of a lofty hill, so as to appear as if 
in the sky. In this situation, as Dr. Willan observes, a 
man looks gigantic ; he seems to tread on air, and to be 
clad with radiance, like one of Ossian's departed heroes. 
Sax. wader, coelum, and gleam, splendor. 

WEBSTER, or WABSTER, a weaver. Sax. webbestrc, textrix, a 
female weaver. The use of this term, as remarked by Dr. 
Jam. indicates that, among our forefathers, the work of 
weaving was appropriated to women. This, it is well 
known, was the case among the Greeks and other ancient 
nations, who considered it an employment unworthy of 
the dignity of man. 

WEE, little, small. " A wee bit"" A little wee thing" V. 
Jam. 

A little wee face with a little yellow beard. 

Shak. Merry Wives of Windsor. 

WEENS, children. Little ones. " How are the weens ?" 
WEEL, well. WEEL-TE-DEE, well to do living comfort- 
ably. 



WERR 231 

WEEL-SUM-OA ! interjec. a blessing on you. 

WEEL'S-MON-THEE ! God bless you. 

WEET, v. to rain, to wet. WEET, s. slight rain. Sax. w<zta, 
humiditas. Chaucer uses wete, v. and a. 

WEEZE, a circular roll of straw, wool, or other soft substance, 
for protecting the head under the pressure of a load or 
burthen. Probably from Teut. wase, caespes ; or it may 
be from ease. Brand thinks it a corruption of wisp. 

WELK, to dry, to wither. V. Todd's John. 

WELL, to weld. Sw. wetta. Sax. wellen, to be very hot. 

WELLY, very near a contraction of well nigh. 

WELSH, insipid. Teut. gaelsch. Welsh and wallow are sy- 
nonyma. Broth and water, and pottage without salt, are 
wallow or welsh. A person whose face has a raw, pale, 
and unhealthy look whom a keen frosty morning pinches, 
and to whom it gives an appearance of misery and poverty 
has a welsh and wallow face. A welsh day, is the same 
as a sleety day, when it is neither thaw nor frost : but a 
wallow day is when a cold, strong and hollow wind pre- 
vails. Wallow, applied to the state of the weather, is per- 
haps only applicable in a rugged and mountainous country. 

WELTER, to reel or stagger. Teut. welteren, volutare. 

WEND, to go. Sax. wendan. Not obsolete, as stated by Dr. 
Johnson. 

WENT, for gone. Frequent in the North, as well as among 
the Cockneys. V. Pegge's Anecd. Eng. Lang. p. 233, 

WENT, WENTED, applied to milk when it has been kept till it 
be approaching to sourness. 

WERRIT, to teaze. If a person, extremely ill, were impor- 
tuned to any measure to which he felt reluctant or con- 
trary to his inclination, he would request not to be wer- 
rited so much about it. 



232 WESH 

WESH, v. to wash. WESH, s. stale urine, sometimes used in 
washing. Teut. wasch, lotura. 

WET-HAND, a drunken person; very properly termed by 
Bewick (Fables of ^Esop, p. 138), " an old filtering stone." 

WHACK, v. to strike, to beat. A variation of thwack. 

WHACK, s. appetite. " What a whack he's got." 

WHACKER, v. to tremble, to quake. WHACKERING, trembling. 

WHACKER, s. a lie. WHAPPER, the same. Both in a meta- 
phorical sense. 

WHANG, v. to flog, or chastise with a thong. WHANG, 
WHYENG, s a leather-thong. 

WHANG, a thick or large piece of any thing eatable ; especially 
bread or cheese. 

WHANGING-FELLOW, a stout lusty person. 

WHAP, v. to beat soundly. WHAP, s. a knock-down blow. 

WHAPPER, any thing uncommonly large. In many instances, 
as remarked by Dr. Willan, our forefathers seem to have 
estimated weights and magnitudes by the force of their 
blows. Thus, they employed in gradation the terms dap- 
per, smacker, banger, thumper, thwacker, swinger, and 
rattler. The word bumper, concerning which so much has 
been said and surmised, the Doctor thinks is not of a more 
exalted origin than what is here stated. 

WHATSOMIVVER, however, whatever. 

WHATTEN, what kind of, what. " Whatten o'clock is't?" 

WHAUP, a curlew. Scolopax arquata. Linnaeus. 

WHAZLE, WHEEZLE, v. to draw the breath with difficulty. 
Su.-Got. hwaesa.-t WHAZLE, s. an indication of asthma. 

WHE, who. " Whe's there." " Whe was ive yah." 

WHEAM, smooth, sheltered, impervious to the wind. Perhaps, 
as suggested to me by a skilful etymologist, a corrruption 
of Holm. 



WHIL 233 

WHEAN, to coax, to flatter. " What a wlieaning way she hez" 

WHELK, a thump or blow, the noise made by the falling of any 
thing heavy. 

WHEMMEL, or WHAMMEL, to turn upside down, to tumble over. 
Tent, wemelen, frequenter et leviter movere. 

WHET, WHIT, WHITE, to cut with a knife. " Whiting sticks" 
WHITTLE-TE-WHET, to sharpen, to set an edge on. 

WHETSTONE, a prize for lying. V. Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. 
p. 429, & seq. and Nares' Gloss. In the former work 
is mentioned a custom, now I think obsolete, among the 
colliers at Newcastle, of giving a pin to a person in com- 
pany by way of hinting to him that he is Jibbing. If ano- 
ther pitman outlie him, he in turn delivers the pin to him. 
No duels ever ensued on the occasion. 

WHEWT, to whistle. WHEW, or WHUE, a whistle. 

WHICK, quick, alive. " WJiick and a live" a common expres- 
sion in Newcastle, among certain ladies, who neither sell 
the best fish, nor speak the plainest English. 

WHICKS, plants or slips of the white thorn. " A rfc/>hedge" 
a, quickset-hedge. 

WHICKENS, couch grass, a general name for creeping weeds. 
WHICKENING, plucking them up. 

WHIDDER, WHITHER, to shake, to quake, to shiver ; hence a 
whither of cold, a shivering cold. " All in a ivhither" all 
in a tremble. 

WHIEW, to fly hastily, to make great speed. 

WHIFF, a transient view. In a whiffy in a short time. 

WHIG, sour whey. Sax. hw<sg, serum. WniGtiENN'D-wHEV, 
a pleasant liquor made by infusing various aromatic herbs 
in whey, and suffering it to undergo a fermentation, 

WHILE, until. " Stay while I come back." Nares quotes 
several examples for this misuse of the word. 
Go 



234 WHIL 

WHILK, which. Sax. hwilc. Dan. hvilke. Chaucer uses 
whilke. 

WHILT, an indolent person. " An idle whilt". 

WHINGEING, whining, sobbing or crying peevishly. Su.-Got. 
wenga, plorare. 

WHINNERNEB, a meagre, thin faced person, with a sharp nose. 
Grose, following Ray, says, perhaps from some bird that 
feeds, or is bred among whins ; but I think it is more likely 
from Welsh, wyneb, a face, a visage. 

WHINS, gorse or furze. An old word. 

WHIPPER and ROUGHER, an officer of the Corporation, New- 
castle. See ROUGHER. 

WHIPPER-SNAPPER, a diminutive, insignificant person. 

WHISHT ! hush ! be silent. " Whisht ! dinna mack sic a 
noise" This vulgarism, if such it be, is not without an- 
cient authority, being used by Latimer and others. 

WIIISKET, or WISKIT, a sort of basket. F. Nares' Gloss. 

WHISSONTIDE, Whitsuntide. WHISSON-SUNDAY, Whitsunday. 

WHISTLE, " the mouth ; the organ of whistling," says John- 
son ; quoting Walton's Angler. 

Let's drink the other cup to toet our whistles, and so 
sing away all sad thoughts. 

Here whistle surely means the throat. In the North, to 
wet one's whistle is a common phrase for, to take a good 
drink ; and, without charging the amiable old Izaac with 
tippling, that, in all probability, was his meaning. Indeed, 
its use in this sense is very ancient. 

I loete my -whystett as good drinkers do. Palsgrave. 

WHITE, to requite. " God white you !" V. Ray. 
WHITEHEFT, flattery, " Whiteheft o' Lunnun" 



WHIT 235 

WHITE-HERRING, a pickled, and not a fresh herring with all 
due deference to Archdeacon Nares. See his Glossary, 
where it is stated, in regard to Stevens's explanation (simi- 
lar to my own) and his reference to the Northumberland 
Household Book, that " there t/#ree are ordered for a young 
lord or lady's breakfast, and four for my lord's, which no 
lord or lady could possibly eat." This may be quite true ; 
but what does it prove ? From Bishop Percy's preface to 
the North. Household Book, it appears that the Earl was a 
nobleman of great magnificence and taste ; and consider- 
ing the splendid establishment detailed in that curious me- 
morial of the olden time, more white herrings might be pro- 
vided " for a young lord or lady's breakfast," as well as 
"for my lord's," than they actually did, or could possibly 
eat." 

WHITE-NEB'D-CRAW, a rook ; the carrion crow being called the 
black neb'd craw. 

WHITLING, a species of trout, the history of which is very lit- 
tle known. They are frequently taken in the river Tyne ; 
but like the brandling and the salmon-smelt, always with- 
out spawn. In some parts they are called whitings, and 
are generally supposed at last to become salmon. Sw. 
hwitling, a whiting. 

WHITTEE-WHATTEEING, speaking low and privately whisper- 
ing between two persons, to the exclusion of a third also 
indecision, or procrastination, on frivolous pretences. 

WHITTLE, a knife; generally a clasp-knife. Sax. whytel. 
"An harden sark, a guse grassing, and a whittle gait ," 
were all the salary of a clergyman, not many years ago, in 
Cumberland ; in other words, his entire stipend consisted 
of a shirt of coarse linen, the right of commoning geese, 
and the privilege of using a knjfe and fork at the table of 
his parishioners. 



236 WHIZ 

WHIZ, to hiss like hot iron in water. See Fizz. 

WHIZZER, a falsehood. More wind than truth. 

WIIUSSEL, a corruption of whistle. WHUSSEL-WOOD, the 

alder and plane-tree ; used by boys in making whistles. 
WHUTHERIN, WHUTHERING, a throbbing or palpitation at the 
heart. " De*ilsweU tha ! Thotfs maed me heaurt aa whu- 
ther agen /" 
WHY, or QUEV, the same as HEIFER ; which see. Dan. qule. 

WHY, or QUEY-CALF, a cow-calf. 

WHYLLYMER, a species of cheese remarkable for its poverty. 
In a note to Anderson's Ballads, its surface is said to be 
so hard, that it frequently bids defiance to the keenest 
edge of a Cumbrian gutty, and its interior substance so very 
tough, that it affords rather occupation to the teeth of a 
rustic than nourishment to his body, making his hour of 
repast the severest part of his day's labour. 
WIDDERSFUL, laboriously endeavouring, actively striving. 
WIDDEY, a tough band made of oziers, partially dried in the 
fire j used for many agricultural purposes. The iron ring, 
uniting the band of a cow and the post to which she is 
tied, is, in some places, still called a widdey, from its having 
been made of oziers before the common use of iron. " As 
tough as a widdey." The word seems evidently related to 
willow. Old Eng. ivithey. Sax. withig. 
WIDDLE, to fret. V. Jam. widdilL 
WIDE-COAT, an upper or great coat. 

WIFE, a woman, whether married or not. " An apple wife." 
" A Jish wife." " A tripe wife." Sax. wif, mulier, fce- 
mina. 
WIG, a cake or bun. " A plain tvig" " A spice wig." Teut. 

wegghe, panis triticeus. 

WIGGLE-WAGGLE, a tremulous undulating motion. See 
WABBLE. 



WIND 237 

WIGHTY, strong and active. V. Todd's John, wight. 

WIRE, WICKER, a mark used in setting out tithes j generally 

a small branch of a tree. 
WIKS, WICKS, corners j as the iviks of the mouth. Su.-Got. 

wik, angulus. 

WILL, for shall; and WOULD, for should ; passim " THE NORTH 
COUNTREYE." The Northumbrian gentry disrelish any 
admonition of these inveterate errors in language. Such 
mistakes, however, are incorrigible, both in them and in 
their neighbours, the Scots. Even such writers as Blair 
and Robertson are not always exempt from this disfigure- 
ment. 

WILLEY-WAND, a stem of the willow. Sax. welig, and wand, 
"A mere willey-wand" often applied to a tall, thin 
person. 

WIN, to dry hay by exposing it to the air, to get in harvest 
generally. Sax. windwian, ventilare. Teut. winnen, col- 
ligere fructus terrae. " Well won hay" 
Yt felle abowght the Lamasse tyde, 

Whan husbonds wynn ther haye, 
The dowghtye Dowglasse bowynd hym to ryde, 
In Ynglond to take a praye. 

Battle of Otterlournc. 

WIN, to raise, to get ; as coals from a mine, or stones from a 
quarry. Sax. winnan ; Su.-Got. winna, laborare, labore 
acquirere. 
WINDER, v. to winnow. WINDER, s. a window. V. Crav. 

Gloss. 

WINDLE, or WINNEL-STREE, a long kind of bent grass. Sax. 
windel-streowe. 

, noisy, verbose, marvellous in narration., " A windy 
."" Chow, Low, and Windy Jack." 



238 WINK 

WINKERS, the eyes. " Maw winkers to dazzle" 

WIXNA, WINNOT, will not. " He winna did" u He winnot 
come." 

WINSOME, WUNSOME, lively, cheerful, gay. Sax. winsum. 

WINTER, an instrument of iron hung against the bars of a fire 
place, used to heat smoothing irons upon. 

WIRDLE, to perform any thing laboriously and slowly. 

WISE, to shew or direct. North. Sax. ivisian, monstrare. 
" Wise him in."" Wise him out."" Wise the door open." 
It also means, to insinuate, to work into ; as to wise into 
company or into favour; that is, to do it cunningly. 

WISE, to let go. " Wise off that rope there" 

WISE-LIKE, possessing the appearance of wisdom or propriety. 
Sax. wis-lic, sapiens, prudens. 

WISE-MAN, a periphrasis for a conjurer, or wizard. Wretches 
of this description are still, I fear, occasionally consulted. 

WISHY-WASHY, poor looking, weak, not to the point. 

WIT, WITE, WYTE, v. to know. Mce.-Got. and Sax. tritan. 
Su.-Got. weta, scire. " Wyte onY' sure of it. " Pit 
ne'er let unt" I'll not inform, or I'll keep it secret. 

WIT, *. intelligence, information. Pure Saxon. " He got 
w it" he obtained intelligence. "Dorft let ivi?' don't 
give any information. 

WITE, blame, imputation. A Chaucerian word, used by 
Spenser. Sax. witan, imputare. Su.-Got. wite, poena. 

WITTE-WITTE-WAY, a game among boys which I do not re- 
member in the South. 

Wiv, with. North, and Dur. Wi, York. 

WIZZENED, WIZZENT, dry, parched, withered, wrinkled, shri- 
velled. Sax. wisnian, arescere. 

WOAD, mad, furious. Sax. w od, insanus, furiosus. Wode oc- 
curs several tunes in Chaucer. 



WORM 239 

WOMMEL, or WUMBLE, an auger. From wimble. 

WON, WUN, to dwell, to haunt or frequent. Not obsolete, as 
stated by Ash ; being common in Cumb. and Lane. Sax. 
wonian y wunian. Teut. woonen, habitare. Cornish, won- 
nen, to stay, to tarry. 

Woo, wool. A common pronunciation in many places. 

WOR, our. WORSELLS, ourselves. 

WORD. To take one's word again, to retract, to change one*s 
mind. 

WORM, a serpent of great magnitude, a hideous monster in 
the shape of a worm or dragon. Popular tradition has 
handed down to us, through successive generations, with 
very little variation, the most romantic details of the ra- 
vages committed by these all devouring worms, and of the 
valour and chivalry displayed by their destroyers. With- 
out attempting to account for the origin of such tales, or 
pretending in any manner, to vouch for the matters of fact 
contained in them, it cannot be disguised, that many of the 
inhabitants of the County of Durham in particular, still 
implicitly believe in these ancient superstitions. The Worm 
of Lambton is a family legend, the authenticity of which 
they will not allow to be questioned. Various adventures 
and supernatural incidents have been transmitted from 
father to son, illustrating the devastation occasioned, and 
the miseries inflicted by the monster and marking the 
self-devotion of the Knight of the Lambton family, through 
whose intrepidity the worm was eventually destroyed. 
But the lapse of centuries has so completely enveloped in 
obscurity the particular details, that it is impossible to give 
a narration which could in any degree be considered as 
complete. The story related in the recent, splendid, 
and elaborate History of Durham is incorrect in many 



240 WORM 

particulars. Those parts which allude to the profane fishing 
on a Sunday, and the consequences resulting from it, are 
mere modern disfigurements of the original tradition, ut- 
terly at variance with the state of the times amusements 
on the Sabbath, in those days, when Catholicism prevailed, 
not being regarded as an act of profaneness. A conical 
hill is still shewn on the banks of the Wear, about two 
miles from Lambton, which from time immemorial has 
been called the Worm HiM, and round which the serpent 
is said to have coiled itself. 

WORMIT, worm-wood, The wormit-hill, in High Friar Chare, 
Newcastle ; now removed. 

WORRY, to eat voraciously, to choak, to suffocate. V. Ray. 

Wou, the worst kind of swipes. " Thafs sorry won real rot 
gut." The word is also applied to weak tea, or any very 
worthless liquor. " Farthing won" 

WRACK, or WRACKRIDER, another name for the same species 
of trout as the brandling, which see. It is faintly barred 
or branded down the sides. 

WRANG, wrong. Pure Saxon. WRANGSLY, falsely. 

WRAT, WRATTEN.a wart. Dut. and Sc. wrat. 

WRECKLING, an unhealthy feeble child the youngest or weak- 
est of the breed among animals the smallest bird in the 
nest any ill-grown creature. See DOWPY. 

WRIDDEX, or WREEDEN, cross, ill-natured ; applied in particu- 
lar to children. 

WROUT, to bore, to dig up like a hog. Sax. wrotan, subigere. 
Chaucer has wrote. 

WUD, with. Cumb. " God be wudher" God rest her soul. 

WYE, well, yes. WYE WYE, very well j yes, yes. A com- 
mon expression of assent. Fr. oui. 

WYLECOAT, an under-vest; generally of flannel. 



YAUP 241 

WYLLKMENT, or WULLEMEXT, a pale, sickly looking person. 



Y. 

YAD, YAWD, a worn out cart horse an old mare. Jade . 

YAITINGS, YEATINGS, single sheaves of corn; especially of 
oats. 

YAITS, YETS, oats. " A poke o y yets" See the last article. 

YAMMER, to complain, to whine. Germ, jammern. YAM- 
MERING, making a continual noise ; such as proceeds from 
contentious women, or from fretful and peevish children. 
The word, indeed, stands for a very complex idea, into 
which enters a combination of habitual fretfulness, discon- 
tent, brawling, and anger. 

Come, dinna, dinna whinge an' whipe, 
Like yammering Isbel Macky. 

Song, Bol) Cranky's Adieu. 

YAN, YEN, one. YANCE, YENCE, once. 

YANSELL, YENSELL, one's self. 

YAP, apt, quick. Sax. gep, astutus. In Peirs Ploughman I 
find yep, which Dr. Whitaker considers of the same origin, 
and explains in the sense of alert and vigorous. 

YAP, YEP, an opprobrious epithet. " A twea-faccd yep" 
" Had yor tongue yah yep" 

YARR-, or YERK, to wrench or twist forcibly. 

YARK, to beat soundly. Isl. hreckia, pulsare. A favourite 
word among the vulgar. " Aw 1 1 yark yah, yah dirty bas- 
tard yah ; aufve had mairfash wahyce nor a 1 the bairns aw 
ever had, in aw me life ; there's ne sic thing as Iccving 
for yah!" 

YAUPING, crying, lamenting. Tent, galpen, gannire instar 
vulpis. Kilian. 

Hh 



242 YEAT 

YEATHER, a flexible twig used for binding hedges. 
YEBBLE, able. " As long as u?ar yebble." 
YEBLINS, YEABLESEA, YEBBLESEE, perhaps. See ABLINS. 
YELL, ale. Sax. eale. YELL-HOUSE, an ale-house. YELL- 
WIFE, the lady of " mine host" a hostess in her own 

right. 
YELLOW-YOVVLEY, YOLD-RING, the yellow bunting. Emberiza 

citrinella. Linnaeus. A vulgar prejudice exists in Scotland 

against this bird. V. Jam. yeldring. 
YELP, to cry out in a loud manner j as it were like a dog. 

YELPING, shouting. 

YEARTH, YEORTH, a common pronunciation of earth. 
YERNING, rennet. Germ. gerinnen, to coagulate. A plant 

used in North Tindale to curdle milk for cheese is called 

yerning grass. See KESLIP. 
YET, YETE, YAT, a gate. Both Chaucer and Spenser use 

yate. YET-STOOP, a gate post. 
YETLING, a small pan or boiler. So called, I suppose, from 

being made of cast metal. V. Jam. yetland. 
YEUK, v. to itch. Dut. jeuken. YEUK, s. a cutaneous disease 

-jocosely denominated the plague of Scotland. 
YISSERDAY, yesterday. YISSERNEET, yesternight. 
YOR, your. YOR-SELL, yourself. 
You, YOWE, a ewe. Sex. eowe, ovis fcemina. 
YOUL, YOWL, to cry, to howl. Isl. gola, ululare. 
YOUNGSTER, a novitiate in any thing. 

YOUTH, in the sense of vigorous age. " He's a fine old youth." 
YURE, the udder of a cow. Dut. utjer. 
YULE, YULL, the festival of Christmas the winter solstice of 

the Northern nations. - V. Hire, jul, Jam. yule and 

Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 364. 



YULE 243 

YULE-CLOG, or YULL-CLOG, a large block or log of wood laid 
on the fire on Christmas Eve; and, if possible, kept 
burning all the following day, or longer. A portion of the 
old clog of the preceding year is sometimes saved to light 
up the new block at the next Christmas, and to preserve 
the family from harm in the mean time. Many, otherwise 
sensible, persons, though ashamed to admit their belief in 
these ridiculous notions, would be uncomfortable, did they 
entirely neglect them. 

Come bring, with a noise, 
My merrie, merrie boys, 

The Christmas Log to the firing ; 
While my good Dame she 
Bids ye all be free, 

And drink to your heart's desiring. 

Herrick, Ceremonies for Christmatse. 

Part must be kept wherewith to teend, 

The Christmas Log next yeare ; 
And where 'tis safely kept, the Fiend 

Can do no mischiefe (there). 

Herrick, Ceremonies for Candlemasse Day. 

YULE-DOUGH, or YULL-DOO, a little image of paste, studded 
with currants ; baked for children at Christmas ; intended 
originally, perhaps, for a figure of the Child Jesus, with the 
Virgin Mary. V. Ihre, julbrod and Brand's Pop. Antiq. 
vol. i. p. 410. 



THE END. 



ERRATA. 

P. 2, line 6 from bottom, for adlean read adlian. 

P. 8, line 2 from bottom, for Allum read Alum. 

P. 34, line 9, for two read too. 

P. 64, bottom line, for ee/r read air. 

P. 67, line 9 from bottom, forfootseps read footsteps. 

P. 71, line 11, for Spencer read Spenser. 

P. 88, line 2 from bottom, for opprobious read opprobrious, 

P. 100, line 10 from bottom, for woman read women. 

P. 159, line 12, for anowse read wozt-se. 

P. 170, line 9 from bottom, for alliterate read alliterative* 

P. 175, line 14, for teize read <eaze. 

P. 176, line 2 from bottom, for toise read wotse. 

P. 185, line 13, for substitue read substitute. 

P. 220, line 4 from bottom, after tuam insert empty. 



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PE Brooke tt, John Trotter 

1771 A glosary of north century 

B73 words in use 



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