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FROM AN ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPT,
IN THE LIBRARY OF
JOHN GEORGE LAMBTON, ESQ., M.P.
WITH CONSIDERABLE ADDITIONS.
JOHN TROTTER BROCKETT, F. S. A.
LONDON AND NEWCASTLE.
to ere pttp tljat gtirD particulars $$mtltr fce last
Mirror for Magistrates.
PRINTED BY T. AND J. HODGSON, FOR (B. CHARNLEY.
Les mots sont le lien des socie'tes, le vdhicule des lumieres, la
base des sciences, les de'positaires des de'couvertes d'une Nation, de
son savoir, de sa politesse, de ses ide'es : la connoissance des mots
est done un moyen indispensable pour acqueVir celle des choses ;
de-la ces Ouvrages appelle's Dictionnaires, Vocabulaires ou Glos-
saires, qui offrent 1'etendue des connoissances de chaque Peuple.
JOHN GEORGE LAMBTON, ESQ. M. P.
FOR THE COUNTY OF DURHAM,
AS A SINCERE TESTIMONY OF RESPECT FOR THE PUBLIC PRIN-
CIPLES AND PRIVATE VIRTUES FOR WHICH HIS CHARAC-
TER IS DISTINGUISHED AND REGARDED ;
GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF MANY ACTS OF PERSONAL
BY HIS MUCH OBLIGED AND FAITHFUL SERVANT,
JOHN TROTTER BROCKETT.
Albion Place, 31st. December, 1824.
THE elucidation of language, and the improvement of lexico-
graphy, are investigations that have occupied the attention,
and engaged the pens of many men distinguished for talents
First impressions, and early associations, are difficult to re-
move. In our youth we are instructed to regard the Greeks
and the Romans as the greatest, the wisest, and the most
polished of Nations ; and to associate with the name of Goths
every thing that is ignorant, barbarous, and savage. To Gothic
ancestors, however, it should be remembered, we are indebted
for our existence, our language, and a part perhaps the most
valuable of our laws. We should also recollect that, when
these immense hordes forsook their native forests, and settled
in the countries they subdued, the freedom of the individual
was respected and supported. The authority he acknow-
ledged, and the subordination he yielded, were not the will
of a tyrant, or the aggrandizement of a chief j but the voice of
the nation at large, of which every member was a part : a
system, though deficient in the elegancies of art, the researches
of science, or the ingenious labours of industry, was still
founded in friendship and benevolence, in protection and gra-
titude. That there is an extensive, and much more intimate
connexion than could have been imagined, between the lan-
guage of the Goths, and that which was first spoken by the
Greeks, and afterwards by the inhabitants of Italy, has been
satisfactorily proved in the Hermes Scythicus of the author's
friend Dr. Jamieson, a writer possessed of an accurate know-
ledge of the different Gothic dialects.
Amidst the contradiction, error, and confusion that prevail,
not only in regard to the peopling of Great Britain but of
Europe involving early literary history in great obscurity
it is difficult to draw any authentic conclusions, from which to
be enabled satisfactorily to trace the establishment of our pre-
sent mixed language, and the means and gradations through
or by which it was accomplished. The pure Saxon style
which at one period predominated, became greatly adulterated ;
partly by the barbarity and ignorance of the inhabitants, and
partly by the sanguinary conflicts with the Danes j a people,
who, though of kindred origin, and using a dialect derived
from the same Northern source, were much inferior in civi-
lization to the Saxons. Harassed by these Danish incursions,
and often driven from their habitations, the people neglected
learning, and a part of the language of their enemies gradually
became incorporated with their own. The courtiers of Ed-
ward the Confessor, priding themselves on the introduction
of a foreign idiom, prevented any attempt to restore the energy
of the original tongue ; and the system adopted after the
Norman conquest gave rise to those changes, which the acci-
dents of time, and the improvements of society, subsequently
effected in the literature of England.
To those acquainted with our literary history, it is evident
that we have to look for our old English, where it only exists
in its pure uncorrupted state, in the distant provinces of the
North ; however much the phraseology, in many respects, may
be disfigured by modern corruptions, cant terms, or puerilities.
The land of " Cockaigne," as some wits have lately called the
dwellers in the metropolis, has long lost its raciness of idiom ;
but among the lower classes tradition has been faithful to its
task ; and several of our vulgarisms are in fact the remains of
genuine English. Consequently, many archaisms occurring
in our numerous old Chronicles, and in Gower, Chaucer,
Skelton, Shakspeare, Beaumont and Fletcher, Ben Jonson,
and other early writers now totally disused in other parts of
the kingdom are still preserved in the remotest places of the
North. This may be easily accounted for. In these districts,
until of late years, the inhabitants had little or no intercourse
with the more Southern counties. They, therefore, retained
their ancient manners, customs, and language ; unchanged by
a mixture with those of their neighbours ; and freed from the
arbitrary caprice of fashion as much an enemy to, and work-
ing as great an inroad on a living language as barbarism itself.
The distinctions of local dialects are now, however, becoming
less conspicuous. The artizan and petty trader, no longer
able to stem an overwhelming competition, are often compelled
to emigrate from their native villages to larger towns ; neces-
sarily leaving this decreasing population to be supplied from
distant places. An interchange of inhabitants so frequent,
must ultimately, however imperceptibly, destroy all provincial
peculiarities of speech.
Under these feelings, and with a view of preserving many
ancient and emphatic terms, that were in danger of being
totally lost, the author was induced to commence a collection
of Provincialisms. In his earlier years he had frequent com-
munications with different parts of the North, and accustomed
himself to note down from time to time, all such words as ap-
peared worthy of preservation, or were likely to afford an expla-
nation of former manners or customs. His first effort was a
mere outline, sketched solely for his own amusement, and with-
out any intention of ever bestowing upon it the labour in which
it has since involved him. In that state the manuscript passed
into the library of Mr. Lambton, a gentleman \vho feels a deep
interest in the preservation of whatever is connected with the
Northern counties. By those to whose opinion and judgment
the author is bound to defer, such an accumulation of ancient
dialectical words (when properly described) was considered
too interesting an addition to the history of our literature and
of our language, and too valuable a portion of our local anti-
quities to be withheld from the public.
Mr. Lambton accordingly, with his accustomed liberality,
again confided the manuscript to the care and revision of the
original writer. One step brought on another, until the first
compilation became so overwhelmed with new matter, and so
altered by new arrangement, that few traces of the original
are now discernible. The preparing of it for the press, in this
enlarged form, has been the occupation of such short inter-
vals of leisure as were not incompatible with, and could be
spared from the almost unceasing duties of a laborious pro-
fession, and which the author found it a greater relaxation
to employ in this than in any other manner.
To diversify the work the author has not confined it to an
explanation of mere words. Under the heads which necessa-
rily refer to them, he has occasionally inserted elucidations of
the vulgar rites and popular opinions, which tradition has
faithfully transmitted through many generations. In some
instances, however, it has been found that these superstitions
are of such remote antiquity, as to have actually outlived the
knowledge of the very causes that gave them origin. " The
" generality of men," as remarked by Brand, " look back with
" superstitious veneration on the ages of their fore-fathers ;
" and authorities that are grey with time seldom fail of com-
" manding those filial honours claimed even by the appearance
" of hoary old age."
The reader will readily suppose that in compiling this Glos-
sary, the author was not unmindful of the labours of his pre-
decessors. Prior Dictionaries and Vocabularies have been
consulted to a great extent ; and references made to such of
them as aided his enquiries or illustrated his views. Ray ap-
pears to have been a man of learning, and a Saxon scholar
Grose, a writer of a different description. Many of the words
contained in the work of the former are now out of use ;
while it is difficult to recognize several of those appropriated
to the North in that of the latter, from the distorted spelling
in which they are clothed the compiler not having a sufficient
personal knowledge of the dialect he attempted to describe.
As to Pegge's Supplement, a number of his Provincialisms
are classical English, and very properly inserted in Mr.
Todd's elaborate edition of Dr. Johnson's work. The Doctor
himself was scarcely at all aware of the authenticity of ancient
dialectical words ; and having an unaccountable prejudice on
the subject, seldom gave them a place in his Dictionary. The
List of Ancient Words used in the mountainous parts of the
West Riding of Yorkshire, published in the Archaeologia by
Dr. Willan, a native of that district, is a valuable contribution
to our philology. Most of these words being old acquaint-
ances, the work has been of great use to the author. There
does not appear to this intelligent writer, sufficient ground for
the idea entertained by Dr. Jamieson, and some others, who
maintain that the lowland Scotch and the English are different
languages. Any variations of accent, or in the mode of spel-
ling, he remarks, do not contribute to establish the point,
when we find on examination, that both the radicals and the
grammar are precisely the same. Hence, as he observes, a
person born in any of the Northern counties of England un-
derstands ancient and modern Scotch poetry, and enjoys it as
much as the Scots themselves. This is unquestionably true
to a great extent ; and it is equally certain that similarity of
language is one of the most convincing documents of national
affinity. The reader, however, must decide for himself, after
he has perused and considered Dr. Jamieson's perspicuous
Dissertation on the Origin of the Scottish language. The
West Riding words are also preserved in a little work recently
published, under the title of Horce Momenta Cravente, or The
Craven Dialect Exemplified, in Two Dialogues, with a copious
Glossary ; a book that has not been overlooked. The only
other provincial Glossaries, from which the writer has derived
any material assistance, are those of, Cheshire Words by Roger
Wilbraham, Esq., and Suffolk Words by Major Moor ; kindly
sent to him by the respective authors. Many of the terms in
both these publications, are radically the same as those col-
lected orally by the writer, though they appear to be different
from the dialectical variations which they have undergone.
The National work of Dr. Jamieson has been of use to the
author in almost every page. He is also materially indebted
to that learned writer for many etymologies that might other-
wise have escaped him. An enemy to all fanciful etymology, he
has endeavoured to guard against such fascination. Knowing
the extreme fallaciousness of the science when founded on a
mere similarity of sound, however striking, he has abstained
from all attempts at derivation where the sources did not seem
clear and undeniable ; and he has, in particular, avoided any
display of dexterity, by refraining from a reference to languages
of which the people were entirely ignorant, or which bear no
affinity to their own. His chief researches have been among
the ancient Northern dialects ; where, if we are not always
able to trace the primary ancestor, we may discover a resem-
blance sufficient to satisfy us, that we are recurring to a very
remote primogenitor. It is much to be regretted that trans-
lators from, and interpreters of Saxon, should ever have pub-
lished their works in Latin ; there being no natural analogy
between the two languages. An English version would not
only have preserved the original form, but have shewn the
propriety of the present speech. A contrary method has oc-
casioned many of our words to be considered as barbarous and
obsolete, which, looking to the original tongue, are not only
genuine but significant. By those who are conversant with
the Saxon and Northern languages, the justice of this remark
will be readily appreciated they who are ignorant of these
philological treasures have slender pretensions to the name of
a grammarian or a critic, an antiquary or a historian.
In a few of his etymological speculations, and in some of
his definitions, the author has been under the necessity of
differing in opinion from friends, whose learning he admires,
and for whom he entertains a personal esteem ; but their com-
mon pursuit being the same, he consoles himself with the
pleasing anticipation that his observations, offered with due
respect, will be taken in the light they are meant an anxious
desire to be strictly accurate ; however seemingly unimportant
Several of the words admitted into this collection are, un-
doubtedly, mere vicious pronunciations ; but they are, in most
cases, so truly characteristical of a local peculiarity beyond
the mere corruption, that the author could not reconcile him-
self entirely to omit them. The phrases within inverted com-
mas, at the end of several of the explanations, are all genuine
expressions; which have been either heard by himself, or
communicated to him by friends on whose accuracy and
fidelity he can implicitly rely : and in order to relieve, in
some degree, the dryness of a mere explanation of a vocabu-
lary of words, he has occasionally inserted illustrations from
ancient, as well as from modern local writers.
Although the author is a native of, and has spent the
greater part of his life in this part of the kingdom, he feels it
right to acknowledge, that he has often met with words, even
in common use, the true meaning of which he has had the
greatest difficulty to ascertain. Some were interpreted to
him one way and some another, according to the peculiar ideas
attached to them by different individuals ; and in consequence
of that indefinite character, which must always, more or less,
mark expressions merely oral. In terms thus doubtful, he
cannot presume that he has, in every instance, succeeded in
his explanations; but whatever errors he may have com-
mitted, in this or in any other respect, he will, on their being
pointed out, be glad to rectify in another edition ; which has
become necessary in consequence of the demand for the pre-
sent far exceeding the number of copies printed. The authot
takes this opportunity further to state, that he will be pecu-
liarly indebted to any of his readers, who may be kind enough
to transmit to him any authentic provincial words, which have
escaped his notice, or any particular local customs to which he
has omitted to allude, with the proper explanations. Such is
the copiousness of our Northern vernacular speech, that the
author is far from pretending that he has been able even
aided as his own researches have been by the most liberal
communications both of friends and of strangers to give by
any means a complete view of it.
It now remains to the author, and it is a pleasing part of
his duty, to testify his sense of obligation for the assistance
that has been afforded him ; and to return his acknowledg-
ments for the condescension and politeness he has received at
the hands of those not less distinguished by their literary
acquirements than by their exalted rank who have patronized
and encouraged the publication, and favoured the author with
their advice and information on subjects connected therewith.
To one of the learned Judges, eminently versed in our lite-
rary history, whom the author had the honour of knowing
when at the Bar, especial thanks are due for the partiality and
kindness that prompted him to direct the author's attention to
sources of information which were found highly advantage-
ous to consult ; and to a Right Reverend Prelate, a liberal
patron of literature, with whom the author had not the honour
of a previous acquaintance, he is under a particular obligation
for the unsolicited loan of a copy of Palsgrave, a work of ex-
cessive rarity, and a great typographical curiosity.
To the possessors of Collections of local words the author
stands indebted, with one single exception, for the confiden-
tial manner in which they intrusted to him their manuscripts ;
allowing him the unrestrained use of them. This liberal con-
duct, so gratifying to the author's feelings, has not only, in
many instances, materially assisted him in the progress of his
labours, but has enabled him to add several interesting parti-
culars, which, without such unreserved communications,
would, in all probability, have escaped his observation. These
favours the author is desirous of acknowledging according to
the order in which they were conferred.
To the friendship of the Reverend John Hodgson, Vicar of
Kirkwhelpington, and author of the History of Northumber-
land, now in a course of publication, the writer is indebted
for the use of a volume of memoranda connected with the
historian's own enquiries, but which proved highly useful on
the present occasion. The author is much obliged to his
learned friend, James Losh, Esq. for the loan of an extensive
list of words still in use in the Northern parts of England,
more particularly in the county of Cumberland, several of
which are marked as occurring in Chaucer, Spenser, and other
old writers. To the kindness of the Reverend John Brewster,
Rector of Egglescliffe, the author owes the perusal of a large
catalogue of Northern words collected by that respectable
clergyman. From a Glossary obligingly put into the author's
hands by his intelligent friend, George Taylor, Esq. many im-
portant gleanings have been gathered ; nor has the collection
of Mr. John Bell, a pains-taking antiquary, with which the
author was favoured, been without its use. To the attention
and friendship of the Reverend Anthony Hedley, author of
the interesting Essay towards ascertaining the Etymology of
the Names of Places in the County of Northumberland, pub-
lished in the Archseologia ^Eliana, the writer is indebted for a
curious collection of local words made by the late C. Machell,
Esq. for Mr. Richardson, of Cheadle ; and intended by that
gentleman for the great work of the late Reverend Jonathan
Boucher ; which has hitherto, unfortunately, been confined to
the first letter of the alphabet ; but the remainder of which,
there is every reason to hope, will soon be given to the public.
Innumerable obligations are due to the Rev. Henry Cotes,
Vicar of Bedlington, for repeated acts of attention, and for
many communications, which his extensive personal acquaint-
ance with the Northumbrian dialect rendered so acceptable.
For various other communications made to the author in the
course of the work, with great liberality and without solicita-
tion, he is largely indebted to a number of other friends ; par-
ticularly to Sir Cuthbert Sharp, Mr. Thomas Doubleday, Mr.
John Stanton, Mr. Edward Hemsley, and an amiable female,
whose retiring modesty leads her to derive most gratification
when in her power to confer a benefit unnoticed. Nor is the
author without obligation for some ingenious and sensible re-
marks, as well as for several words, which have been sent to
him without the writer's name.
To the uninterrupted friendship of his early preceptor, the
Reverend William Turner a name with which every thing
benevolent is associated the author owes the perusal of some
Danish books, which he could not obtain except through the
kind offices of that obliging individual ; to whom he is further
indebted for MS. notes on Verstegan's Restitution of De-
cayed Intelligence. The author's thanks are also due to his
friend, JMr. Murray, for the loan of an interleaved copy of
Grose's Provincial Glossary with MS. additions. And to the
liberality and friendship of his early associate, John Bowser,
Esq. the author owes the possession of some curious Dic-
tionaries, and several uncommon books connected with his
To Henry Ellis, Esq. of the British Museum, the author ten-
ders his thanks for pointing out to him, among the Lansdowne
Manuscripts, the very curious and select Glossary compiled
by Bishop Kennett, accompanied by the most obliging offers
of assistance, which writers at a distance from the larger
fountains of research and intelligence know so well how to
The author regrets that he has not, in this first edition,
been able to benefit by the MS. Glossary just alluded to j or
to avail himself of an " Explanation of several Terms made
use of in the Lead Mines, &c. in Alston Moor," which he owes
to the politeness of Anthony Easterby, Esq. of Coxlodge.
These additions, however, shall appear in a future impression,
incorporated with a " Vocabulary of provincial phrases used
by the Miners in Teesdale," with which the author has been
favoured by his friend, the Reverend George Newby.
It still remains to mention the acknowledgments that are
due to Mr. William Garret, not only for indefatigable atten-
tion to the work through the press, which, from the author's
other avocations, was confided to his management ; but for
many local words which his unwearied zeal enabled him to
collect in situations beyond the reach of, and from sources
inaccessible to the author, in addition to several Newcastle
expressions of which he was himself the living depository.
The author has to regret that death should have deprived
him of the pleasure of expressing his gratitude to his much
respected friend, Matthew Gregson, Esq. for the interest he
took in this publication ; and for various acts of attention
and civility experienced at his hands. Acknowledgments
would also have been due to the late Reverend J. J. Cony-
beare, for offers of assistance, and for the promise of informa-
tion ; but that eminent scholar has also sunk into the grave.
Having already said so much of the mode and execution of
the work, it is now left to its fate. The author has en-
deavoured, by the means within his power, to be faithful and
accurate ; but he has no wish, by any apology, to screen him-
self from candid and liberal criticism.
PRINCIPAL CONTRACTIONS USED IN THIS
LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS.
BR Ancient British language.
Celt Celtic language.
Cumb Cumberland dialect.
Dan Danish language.
Dur Durham dialect.
Dut Dutch language.
Fr French language.
Gael Gaelic language.
Germ German language.
Ir , Irish language.
Isl Islandic (or Icelandic) language.
Ital Italian language.
Lane Lancashire dialect.*
Lat Latin language.
Mce.-Got.-- Moes.-Got. Moeso-Gothic language.
Newc Newcastle dialect.
North Northumberland dialect.
Sax Anglo-Saxon language.
Sc Scottish language.
Span Spanish language.
Su. - Got Suio- Gothic, or ancient language of Sweden.
Sw Modern Swedish language.
Teut Teutonic language.
West Westmorland dialect.
York Yorkshire dialect.
AUTHORS AND WORKS.
BOUCH. Boucher. Glossary of Obsolete and Provincial Words,
4to. Lond. 1807.
Crav. Gloss Horas Momenta Cra venae, or the Craven Dia-
lect exemplified, 12mo. Lond. 1824.
Du Cange Glossarium ad Scriptores Mediae et Infimee La-
tinitatis, 6 torn. fol. Paris, 1733.
Grose Provincial Glossary, with a Collection of Local
Proverbs, Svo. Lond. 1787.
Grose Classical Dictionary of the vulgar Tongue,
Svo. Lond. 1785.
Ihre Glossariuin Suio-Gothicum, 2 torn. fol. Upsal.
Jam Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Lan-
guage, 2 vols. 4to. Edinb. 1808.
Jun. Junius. Etymologicum Anglicanum, Edid. Lye, fol.
Kilian Etymologicon Teutonics Linguae, 2 torn. 4to.
Traj. Bat. 1777.
Le Roux Dictionnaire comique, critique, burlesque, libre,
et proverbial, 2 torn. Svo. Lion. 1752.
Lye Dictionarium Saxonico et Gothico-Latinum.
Edid. Manning, 2 torn. fol. Lond. 1772.
Moor Suffolk Words and Phrases, by Edward Moor,
F. R. S. F. A. S, &c. 12mo. Woodbridge, 1823.
Nares.-Nares' Gloss. A Glossary; or Collection of Words, Phrases,
Names, and Allusions to Customs, Proverbs,
&c. 4 to. Lond. 1822.
Palsgrave L'Esclaircissement de la Langue Francoise,
fol. BLACK LETTER. The two first books
printed by Pynson, and the 3d (the most co-
pious part) by lohan Hawkins the only
work he ever executed.
Ray Collection of English Words, 12mo. 2d edit.
Roquefort Glossaire de la Langue Romane, 2 torn. 8vo.
Skin. Skinner Etymologicon Linguae Anglicanae, fol. Lond.
Spelman Glossarium Archaiologicum, folio, London,
Suff. Words Suffolk Words and Phrases, by Edward Moor,
F. R. S. F. A. S. 12mo. Woodbridge, 1823.
Tooke Diversions of Purley, 2 vols. 4to. Lond. 1798,
Wachter Glossarium Germanicum, 2 torn. fol. Lips.
Wilb An attempt dt a Glossary of some words used
in Cheshire. From the Archseologize, Vol.
XIX. With considerable additions, 8vo.
Lond. 1820. Privately printed.
Willan A List of Ancient Words at present used in the
Mountainous Districts of the West Riding of
Yorkshire. Archa?ologia, Vol. XVII.
The reader can have no difficulty in ascertaining the other books
referred to, by the manner in which they are quoted.
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John Adamson, Esq. F. S. A. & F. L. S. Newcastle.
Mr. Thomas Ainsworth, Manchester.
Mr. John Akenhead, Newcastle, 4 copies.
E. H. Alderson, Esq. Barrister at Law.
John Alderson, Jun. Esq. Hull.
Rev. Thomas Allason, Vicar of Heddon-on.-the- Wall.
Mr. Frederick Martin Allerton, Liverpool.
Mr. William Anderson, Westgate.
Mr. George Andrews, Durham, 6 copies.
Mr. John Lindsay Angas, Newcastle.
Mr. George Angus, Newcastle.
Mr. Henry Armstrong, Newcastle.
Mr. William Armstrong, Towns C/iamler, Newcastle.
Nat. Atcheson, Esq. F. S. A. Duke Street, Westminster.
Robert Shank Atcheson, Esq. Duke Street, Westminster.
Matthew Atkinson, Esq. Carr's Hill.
General Aylmer, Walworth Castle.
B. 8i ^i/
Edward Backhouse, Esq. Sunderland.
John W. Bacon, Esq. Styford.
George Bainbridge, Esq. Liverpool.
Joseph Bainbridge, Esq. Newcastle.
John Baird, Esq. Newcastle.
Addison John Cresswell Baker, Esq. Cresswell.
XXVI APPROPRIATION OF COPIES.
Rev. Thomas Baker, Whitburn Rectory.
John Barras, Esq. Kibbksworth.
James Bateman, Esq. London.
William Batty, Esq. London.
Matthew Bell, Esq. Woolsington.
Mr. Thomas Bell, Union Street, Newcastle, 2 copies.
Mr. John Bell, Windmill Hills.
Mr. Edward Bell, Newcastle.
Rev. F. Benson, Chollerton, g copies.
William Bentham, Esq. F. S. A. London.
Calverley Bewicke Bewicke, Esq. Castle Eden.
Henry Bickersteth, Esq. Barrister at Law, Lincoln's Inn.
Charles William Bigge, Esq. Linden House.
Thomas Hanway Bigge, Esq. Little Benton.
Mrs. Bird, Chester-k- Street.
Rev. James Birkett, Ovingham.
John Blackburne, Esq. M. P. Hale Hall.
Mr. Bohn, Bookseller, London, 6 copies.
William Bolland, Esq. Barrister at Law, Adelphi Terrace.
Major Bower, Welham.
Richard Bowser, Esq. Bishop Auckland.
William Boyd, Esq. Newcastle.
James Brancker, Esq. Sell Vue, Kirkdale House.
Charles John Brandling, Esq. M. P. Gosforth House.
Rev. Ralph H. Brandling, Shotton Hall
Rev. John Brewster, Rector of Egglescliffe.
John Britton, Esq. F. S. A. London, 4 copies.
John Broadley, Esq. F. S. A., F. L. S. Kirk Ella, Hull.
Henry Broadley, Esq. F. S. A. Ferriby, Hull
Mr. John Brockett, Gateshead.
Mrs. John Trotter Brockett, Albion Place.
Mr. William Henry Brockett, Newcastle.
B. C. Brodie, Esq. London.
Rev. J. H. Bromley, M. A. Vicar of Hull.
Henry Brougham Esq. M. P. Brougham Hall.
Dixon Brown, Esq. Newcastle.
John Brown, Esq. Newcastle.
APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. XX vii
Mr. John Bruce, Newcastle.
Henry Brumell, Esq. Morpeth.
John Brumell, Esq. London.
John Buddie, Esq. WalVs End.
John Bulman, Esq. Newcastle.
J. J. Burn, Esq. Gray's Inn.
Mr. George Burnett, Newcastle.
William Burrell, Esq. Broome Park.
Robert Burrell, Esq. Durham.
John Burrell, Esq. Durham.
J. C. Cankrien, Esq. Hull.
Mrs. Carr, Dunston Hill.
John Carr, Jun. Esq. North Shields.
Rev. Charles Charlton, Vicar of Tynemouth.
Charles Charlton, M. D. North Shields.
Mr. Edward Charlton, Newcastle.
Mr. James Charlton, Gateshead.
Mr, Thomas Charlton, Newcastle.
Mr. Emerson Charnley, Newcastle, 25 copies.
Rev. Robert Clarke, Walwick Hall, 3 copies.
Mr. William Clarke, Newcastle.
Charles Clavering, Esq. Greencroft.
Nathaniel Clayton, Esq. Newcastle.
William Clayton, Esq. Newcastle.
George Clementson, Esq. Newcastle.
John Clutterbuck, Esq. Warkwortfi.
William Coates, Esq. Newcastle. ^ -j
Charles Cockerill, Esq. South Shields.
Jonathan Cockerill, Esq. Newcastle.
Ebenezer John Collett, Esq. M. P. Locker's House.
Rev. John Collinson, M. A. Rector of Gateshead.
Archibald Constable, Esq. Edinburgh, 2 copies.
Rev. Joseph Cook, M. A. Newton Hall, 2 copies.
Isaac Cookson, Sen. Esq. Newcastle.
Christopher Cookson, Esq. Barrister at Law Newcastle.
XXV111 APPROPRIATION OF COPIES.
Colonel Cookson, Ayton House.
Rev. Henry Cotes, Vicar of Bedlington.
Lieut. Colonel Coulson, Blenkinsopp Castle.
Charles Cradock, Esq. London.
Shaftoe Craster, Esq. Craster.
Edmund Craster, Esq. Preston.
C. Creswell, Esq. Barrister at Law.
Mr. Crosland, Huddersfield.
John Crosse, Esq. F. S. A. Hull.
Matthew Culley, Esq. Copeland Castle.
William Cuthbert, Esq. Benwell.
Mr. John Cuthell, London, 4 copies.
Henry Dale, Esq. North Shields.
Rev. James Dalton, Rector of Croft.
Robert Davidson, Esq. Sunderland.
Mr. George Davidson, Rock.
Thomas Davidson, Esq. Newcastle.
Miss Davidson, Westgate Street, Newcastle.
Alexander Davison, Esq. Swarland House, 2 copies.
Thomas Davison, Esq. Whitefriars, London.
John Dent, Esq. M. P.
Mr. Francis Devereaux, London.
Rev. Thomas Frognall Dibdin, F. R. & A. S.
William Dickson, Esq. Alnwick.
J. D' Israeli, Esq. London.
John Dixon, Esq. Stockton.
Mr. Ralph Dodds, Newcastle.
Armorer Donkin, Esq. Newcastle.
Henry Donkin, Esq. Durham.
Mr. Thomas Doubleday, Newcastle.
Francis Douce, Esq. F. S. A. London.
Mr. Thomas Dove, Newcastle.
Alexander Dudgeon, Esq. Leith Mount.
Michael Dunn, Esq. Saltwdl Hall.
APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. XXIX
Anthony Easterby, Esq. Coxlodge.
Rev. James Edmondson, Vicar of Newburn.
Rev. Frederick Ekins, Rector of Morpeth.
Henry Ellis, Esq. F. R. S., Sec. A. S., London.
James Ellis, Esq. Otterbourne.
Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. M. P. Hebburn HaJL
Nathaniel Ellison, Esq. London.
Rev. Noel Ellison, A. M. Huntspill.
Richard Ellison, Esq. Severley.
Gregory Elsley, Esq. Colonel North York Militia.
Rev. George S. Faber, Rector of Long Newton.
Thomas Henry Faber, Esq. Bishop Auckland.
James Fairbank, Esq. Staple Inn.
William Falla, Esq. Gateshead.
Mr. Jacob Ralph Featherston, Newcastle.
John Fenwick, Esq. Newcastle.
Mr. James Finlay, Newcastle.
Mr. William Fisher, Newcastle.
William B. Flexney, Esq. London.
Matthew Forster, Esq. Newcastle.
Mrs. Forster, Greenfield Place.
George Townsherwl Fox, Esq, Westoe.
Charles Frost, Esq. F. S. A. Hull.
Mr. Joseph Garnett, Newcastle.
Mr. William Garret, Newcastle.
Mr. John Gibson, Newcastle.
Mr. George Gibsone, Newcastle.
Mr. Robert Gillespie, Ferryhill.
James Gooden, Esq. London.
John Grace, Esq. CarvWe.
Nathaniel Grace, Esq. London.
Rev. Robert Gray, Snnderland.
XXX APPROPRIATION OF COPIES.
E. M. Greenhow, M. D. North Shields.
Robinson Robert Greenwell, Esq. Newcastle.
Anthony Gregson, Esq. Lowlin.
Thomas Gregson, Esq. JEssex Street, Strand, London.
Matthew Gregson, Esq. F. R. S. Oveston Manor, Cheshire.
John Grey, Esq. MUlfield Hill.
Rev. Henry Deer Griffith, M. A. Newcastle.
The Very Rev. Charles Henry Hall, D. D. Dean of Durham.
William Hamper, Esq. Deritend House.
Thomas Harrison, Esq. Stubb House.
Mr. Cornelius Harrison, Stubb House.
Mr. Whytell Harrison, Stubb House.
Mr. John Harvey, Strawberry Place.
Thomas Emerson Headlam, M. D. Newcastle.
Mr. William Heaton, Newcastle.
Richard Heb.er, Esq. M. P. Hodnet Hall.
Rev. Anthony Hedley, Rector of Whitfield.
Mr. Edward Hemsley, Newcastle.
Mr. Thomas Hepple, BenwelL
Mr. Ions Hewison, Newcastle.
Henry Hewitson, Esq. Seaton Burn.
Middleton Hewitson, Esq. Newcastle.
Rev. John Hodgson, Vicar of Kirkwhdpiiigton*
George Hodgson, Esq. Newcastle.
Mr. Thomas Hodgson, Newcastle.
Mr. John Hodgson, Petersburgh.
Mr. James Hodgson, Newcastle.
John Hudson, Esq. Manc/iester.
Charles Hunter, Esq. London.
Sanderson Ilderton, Esq. llderton.
Mr. Henry Ingledevv, Newcastle.
Edward John Jackson, Esq. Sheriff of Newcastle.
APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. XXXI
William James, Esq. M. P. Barrack Lodge.
Rev. John Jamieson, D. D. F. R. S. E. & F. S. A. S., Edinburgh.
J. C. Jobling, Esq. Newton Hall.
Mr. John Jobling, Newcastle.
Francis Johnson, Esq. Newcastle.
Mr. William Johnson, Tyne Brewery.
T. Waterhouse Kaye, Esq. Barrister at Law, London.
Richard Keenlyside, M. D. Newcastle.
John Keenlyside, Esq. Newcastle.
Thomas W. Keenlyside, Esq. Newcastle.
Mr. William Kell, Gateshead.
Mr. Mark Lambert, Newcastle.
John Geerge Lamb ton, Esq. M. P. Lambton Hall, 5 copies.
William Lawes, Esq. Prudhoe Castle.
William Lawson, Esq. Longhirst.
Robert Leadbitter, Esq. Newcastle.
Rev. George Lee, Hud.
Rev. Henry George Liddell, Rector of Boldon.
Rev. John Lingard, D. D. Hornby.
William Linskill, Esq. Tynemouth Lodge.
Mr. John Little, Gateshead.
Edward Hawke Locker, Esq. F. R. & A. S. Greenwich Hospital
Messrs. Longman, Hurst, Co. London, 12 copies.
William Loraine, Esq. Lumhy Park.
John Lambton Loraine, Esq. Newcastle, 2 copies.
James Losh, Esq. Barrister at Law, Jesmond.
Robert Machell, Esq. Severley.
Mr. Eneas Mackenzie, Newcastle.
Mr. John Major, London.
John Martindale, Esq. Chester-h- Street.
Mr. John Marshall Mather, New.castle.
Francis Maude, Esq. Barrister at Law, Wahtfidd.
XXX11 APPROPRIATION OF COPIES.
Thomas Meggison, Esq. Wlialton.
Holker Meggison, Esq. Barrister at Law, London.
John Middleton Meggison, Esq. London, 2 copies.
Rev. S. Meggison, Vicar of Bolam.
Francis Mewburn, Esq. Darlington.
Mr. George Milner, Newcastle.
Major Edward Moor, F. R. & A. S. Woodbridge.
Robert Moore, Esq. Doncaster.
Richard Moorsom, Jun. Esq. Whitby.
Mrs. Munby, Croft.
Mr. John Murray, Newcastle.
The Venerable Archdeacon Nares, A. M. F. R. S. F. A. S.
Rev. George Newby, Witton-h-Wear.
John Nichols, Esq. F. S. A. Lond. Edin. & Perth.
John Bowyer Nichols, Esq. F. S. A. & F. L. S. 2 copies.
Robert Nichols, Esq. Newcastle.
Robert Ogle, Esq. Eglingham.
Mr. Robert Oliver, Neivcastle.
John Ord, Esq. Newcastle.
Mr. Thomas Ord, Coatham House.
William Orde, Esq. Nunnykirk.
A. C. Orme, Esq. Temple, London.
Robert Ormston, Jun. Esq. Newcastle.
Rev. Edward Otter, Rector of Bothal
James Parke Esq. Barrister at Law, London
Samuel Walker Parker, Esq. Scots House.
William Peters, Esq. Newcastle.
Mr. Ralph Park Philipson, Newcastle.
Mr William Pickering, London, 4 copies.
Matthew Plummer, Esq. Newcastle.
George Woolley Poole, Esq. London.
Edward Potts, Esq. Morpeth.
APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. XXX111
dames Potts, Esq. Newcastle.
Mr. Brough Pow, Newcastle.
Mr. William Preston, Neivcastle.
Mr. Richard Priestley, London, 12 copies.
Rev. James Pringle, Newcastle.
Mr. William Proctor, Dean Street, Newcastle.
John A. Pybus, Esq. Newcastle.
Fletcher Raincock, Esq. F. S. A. Liverpool.
Rev. James Raine, Vicar of Mddon, 2 copies.
James Ramsay, Esq. London.
Rev. William Rawes, Houghton-le- Spring.
Mr. Robert Reay, Tyne Brewery.
Mr. Alexander Reed, Newcastle.
Rev. William Reed, Warkworth.
Owen Rees, Esq. London.
Mr. W. K. Reid, Carey Street, London.
Rev. Dr. Richardson, Witton Gilbert.
Mr. John Richardson, Newcastle.
Mr. William Richardson, North Shields.
James Richardson, Esq. North Shields.
Mr. Moses Richardson, Newcastle.
Henry Richmond, Esq. Humshaugh.
Mr. Edward Riddle, Royal Naval Asylum, Greenwich.
Rev. Charles John Ridley. M.A. Professor of Anglo-Saxon, Oxford.
Messrs. Rivingtons & Cochran, London, 12 copies.
John Robson, Esq. Felling Hall.
Mr. H. Rodd, London, 2 copies.
Mr. I. Rodd, London. 2 copies.
William Roscoe, Esq. Liverpool.
John Russell Rowntree, Esq. Barrister at Law, Stockton.
John Ruddock, Esq. Hexham.
Mr. William Rymer, Darlington.
William Thomas Salvin, Esq. Croxdale, 2 copies.
Mr. J. Sams, Darlington.
XXXIV APPROPRIATION OF COPIES.
Mr. Jonathan Ward Sanders, Ayton.
Thomas Saunders, Esq. London.
John Scafe, Esq. Alnwick.
James Scarlett, Esq. M. P. King's Counsel.
The Venerable T. H. Scott, Archdeacon of New Soutii Walt*.
Walter Scott, M. D. Stamford/tarn.
Mr. Frederick Scroope, Darlington.
Prideaux John Selby, Esq. Twizell House.
Alexander Seton, Esq. Newcastle.
Joseph Sewell, Esq. St. Anthony's.
George Dalston Shaftoe, Esq. Bavington.
John Sheepshanks, Esq. Leeds, 3 copies.
Mr. Joseph Shield, Newcastle.
George Skipsey, Esq. Birtley Hall.
Mr. Thomas Small, Newcastle.
John Smart, Esq. Trewitt House.
Edward Smiles, Esq. Newcastle.
Matthew Smillie, Esq. Leith, 5 copies.
Rev. John Smith, M. A. Vicar of Neivcastle, 2 copies.
Rev. John Smith, Hull
Thomas Smith, Esq. and Alderman, Newcastle.
William Smith, Jun. Esq. Haughton Castle.
Rev. J. Hall Smyth, B. D. Liverpool.
Mr. Thomas Snaith, Newcastle.
Charles Snart, Esq. Newark.
Benjamin Sorsbie, Esq. and Alderman, Newcastle.
Mr. S. Sotheby, London, 2 copies.
Robert Southey, Esq. LL. D. Poet Laureate.
Mr. C. F. Springmann, Newcastle.
George Waugh Stable, Esq. Newcastle.
John Stanton, Esq. JBenwett.
Mr. Philip Holmes Stanton, Newcastle.
John Steavenson, Esq. Newcastle.
Mr. John Straker, North Shields.
Edward B. Sugden, Esq. King's Counsel, London.
William Surtecs, Esq. Montagu^ Square, London.
Aubone Surtees, Esq. and Alderman, NeweastU.
Anthony Surtees, Esq. Hamsterley Hatt.
APPROPRIATION OF COPIES. XXXV
Robert Surtees, Esq. Mainsforth, 2 copies.
T. C. Swanston, Esq. Barrister at Law, London.
Daniel Sykes, Esq. M. P. Raywell.
Mr. John Sykes, Newcastle, 3 copies.
George Watson Taylor, Esq. M. P. Earlstohe Parti.
Hugh Taylor, Esq. Earsdon.
George Taylor, Esq. Witton-le- Wear.
William Taylor, Esq. Hendon Grange.
Edward Tewart, Esq. Southgate.
Benjamin Thompson, Esq. Ayton Cottage.
Mr. Benjamin Thompson, Newcastle, 2 copies.
Mr. Robert Thompson, Newcastle.
Samuel Thompson, Esq. North Shields.
Rev. Charles Thorp, B. D. Rector of Ryton.
Robert Thorp, Esq. Clerk of the Peace, Northumberland, 2 copies.
Mr. Thomas Thorpe, London, 12 copies.
Rev. E. S. Thurlow, Rector of Houghton-k- Spring.
Mr. John Thwaites, Durham.
Mr. Thomas H. Tilt, London.
N. C. Tindal, Esq. M. P. King's Counsel.
John Tinley, Esq. North Shields.
Rev. Henry J. Todd, M. A. F. S. A. Settrington.
Messrs. John and George Todd, Yorlt, 3 copies.
Ralegh Trevelyan, Esq. Nether Witton.
Walter Calverley Trevelyan, Esq. Wallington.
Mr. Robert Triphook, London, 12 copies.
John Trotter, Esq. Hallgarth.
Rev. William Turner, Newcastle.
Mr. Daniel Turner, Blagdon.
Dawson Turner, Esq. F. R. A. & L. S. Yarmouth.
Sharon Turner, Esq. F. S. A. London.
Mr. Thomas Turner, London.
William Upcott, Esq. London.
XXXvi APPROBATION OF COPIES.
The Very Rev. R. D. Waddilove, D. D. F. S. A., Dean of Ripon.
Thomas Wailes, Esq. Newcastle, 2 copies.
John Waldie, Esq. Newcastle.
John Walker, Esq. Benwett.
John Ward, Esq. Durham.
John Watson, Esq. WiUington, 2 copies.
Mr. William Watson, Liverpool.
Mr. George Watson, Gateshead, 2 copies.
Charles N. Wawn, Esq. Newcastle.
George Weatherby, Esq. Tynemouth.
Mr. Charles Weatherley, Low WiUington.
Roger Wilbraham, Esq. F. R. & A. S. London.
John Allan Wilkie, Esq. Lemington, 4 copies.
Thomas Wilkinson, Esq. Town Clerk, Durham.
J. J. Wilkinson, Esq. Temple, Lanflon.
John Williams, Esq. M. P. Barrister at Law.
Robert Hopper Williamson, Esq. Recorder of Newcastle, 2 copies.
Rev. William Wilson, Rector of Wolsingham.
Richard Wilson, Esq. V. P. Soc. Arts & F. S. A. London.
Mr. William Wilson, Newcastle.
Nathaniel John Winch, Esq. F. L. S. Newcastle.
Rev. Thomas Cave Winscom, Warkworth Rectory.
John Wood, Esq. BeadnelL
Mr. Nicholas Wood, KUlingworth.
Mr. Benjamin Woodman, Morpeth.
The Venerable Archdeacon Wrangham, M. A. F. R. S.
The Right Worshipful William Wright, Esq. Mayor of Newcastle.
James A. Wright, Esq. Grange.
Stephen Wright, Esq. North Shields.
W. Wright, Esq. Stone Buildings, Lincoln s Inn.
Mr. Matthew Young, London,
NORTH COUNTRY WORDS
A. It is a striking provincial peculiarity tenaciously to retain
this letter in most of the words in which modern English
substitutes o, as ain, own, bane, bone, &c. ; and in those
ending in / /, the two last letters are generally omitted as
' for all, cc for call, &c.
AAC, AIK, YAK, YECK, the oak. Sax. c, aec. Su.-Got. ek.
Germ, eiche. Dut. and Isl. eik.
ABACK, behind. Isl. a-bak, backward.
ABLINS, perhaps, possibly. V. Tooke and Bouch.
ABOON, ABUIN, above. V. Jun. and Bouch.
ABRAID, or BRADE, to rise on the stomach with a degree of
nausea ; applied to articles of diet, which prove disagreeable
to the taste, or difficult of digestion.
ABREDE, in breadth. Sax. abred-an, to lengthen.
ABSTRACT, to take away by stealth. Borders.
ACKERN, an acorn. Isl. akarn.
ACKERSPRIT, the premature sprouting of a potatoe, the germi-
nation of grain. V. Skin. Jam. and Wilb.
ACRE-DALE LANDS, common fields in which different proprie-
tors hold portions of greater or less quantities ; from acre,
a word common to almost every language, and Sax. d&lan,
to divide. In ancient tunes an acre did not signify any de-
terminate quantity ; and when at length it came to mean a
specific part, the measure still varied, until it was fixed by
ADDER-STONES, perforated stones, imagined by the vulgar to be
made by the sting of an adder. They are suspended in
stables as a charm.
ADDIWISSEN, had I known it. An expression nearly obsolete,
though still retained by some old persons. It appears to
have been formed on that poor excuse, to which silly people
are apt to have recourse, when, for want of thought, they
have fallen into a difficulty : had I wist, or had I wissen
(and in the pronunciation it is as one word, additvissen), I
would not have done so and so. The phrase is of consi-
derable antiquity, occurring in Gascoigne's Hermits Tale, in
Gower, and in Holinshed.
ADDLE, EDDLE, v. to earn by labour. ADDLINGS, s. labour-
ers' s wages. Sax. edlean, recompense, or requital. Dif-
ferent both in import and source from ADDLED, a. de-
cayed, impaired, rotten ; as, " addle headed," " addled
eggs," Sax. adlean, to be sick or languid.
ADGE, adz, an addice.
AE, EA, YEA, one, one of several, each. AEWAAS, always.
Ac lad frae out below the ha'
Ees Meggie wi' a glance. Rood Fair.
APEAR'D, afraid. This word is repeatedly used by Shakspeare,
in several of his plays, and I don't remember that afraid
occurs more than once. Pure Sax.
AFT, behind. The dictionaries call this a sea term, but it is in
common use on the banks of the Tyne, and occasionally in
other places, in the sense here given, without any relation
to nautical subjects. Pure Sax.
Ac, to cut with a stroke, adopted from Sc. hag, to hew, syno-
nimous with hack.
AGATE. Dr. Johnson says, " on the way, agoing," but it also
means, as well a person recovered from a sick bed, as one
who is employed in doing any thing.
AGE, v. to grow old, as he ages, he begins to age. Old.
AGEAN, against. -Old English, agen.
AGEE, AJEE, AGYE, awry, uneven. " Let ne'er a new whim
ding thy fancy ajee." A. Ramsay. Across, "it went
all agee." Ajar, applied to a door a little open. Burns
uses agley, for wrong.
The best laid schemes o'mice and men
Gang aft a-gley.
AGIN, as if.
AGOG, eager, desirous. " He's quite agog for it." Etymology
AHINT, behind. " To ride a hint." Sax. a-hindan.
AIGRE, sour. Fr. aigre, hence ALE-AIGRE, Alegar, sour ale
used as vinegar. West, alle/car.
AIRD. This word as applied to the name of a place means
high, as Airdley in Hexhamshire. Br. aird, height. Gael.
and Ir. ard, mighty, great and noble. It is also used to
describe the quality of a place or field, in which sense it
means dry, parched, from Lat. aridus, hence arid.
AIRTH, ARF, fearful. " He was airth to do it"" he's arfish,"
i. e. afraid. " An airthful night" a fearful night. Sax,
yrhth y fear.
AITH, an oath. Moes.-Got. and Sc
AITS, YAITS, YETTS, oats. Sax. ala, ate.
AIXES, AXES, a fit or paroxysm of an ague. Used by several
old writers. Fr. accez, accez deficvrc.
ALANTEM, at a distance. Ital. da lontano. Fr. lointain.
ALE, a merry meeting, a rural feast. Bride-rc/e, and church-
ale are of frequent occurrence in old documents.
And their authorities at wakes and Aks,
With country precedents, and old wives' tales Ben. Jon.
ALGATES, an old word synonimous with always, or all manner
of ways, and compounded of all and gates, which in the
North denote ways. Not obsolete as stated in Todd's
ALL-A-BITS, all in pieces, in rags.
ALL-ALONG-OF, ALL-ALONG-ON, sometimes pronounced Aw-
LUNG, entirely owing to. Used by Skelton, Ben. Jonson,
and others ; and may be referred to Sax. ge-langan.
ALLAR. See ELLER.
ALLEY, the conclusion of a game at foot-ball, when the ball has
passed the boundary. Dur. Fr. oiler. Also a superior sort
of marble, made from alabaster. In later times the potteries
in the neighbourhood of Newcastle have made an imitation
from white clay, termed Pot-alleys, but which are not es-
teemed any way equal.
ALL-HALLOWS, All Saint's day (1st Nov.). It is remarkable,
that, whilst the old Popish names, for the other fasts and
festivals, such as Christmas, Candlemas, &c. are generally
retained throughout England, the northern counties alone
continue the use of the ancient name for the festival of All-
Saints. See HALLE E'EN.
ALWAYS, however, nevertheless. Its use in this sense is com-
mon in the North, and also in Scotland.
ALL-IN-THE-WELL, a juvenile game in Newcastle and the neigh-
bourhood. A circle is made about eight inches in diameter,
termed the well, in the centre of which is placed a wooden
peg, four inches long, with a button balanced on the top.
Those desirous of playing give buttons, marbles, or any
thing else according to agreement, for the privilege of
throwing a short stick, with which they are furnished, at the
peg. Should the button fly out of the ring, the player is
entitled to double the stipulated value of what he gives for
the stick. The game is also practised at the Newcastle
races and other places of amusement in the North, with
three pegs, which are put into three circular holes, made
in the ground, about two feet apart, and forming a triangle.
In this case each hole contains a peg, about nine inches
long, upon which are deposited, either a small knife or
some copper. The person playing gives so much for each
stick, and gets all the articles that are thrown off so as to
fall on the outside of the holes.
A-MANY, a great number.
AMBRY, or AUMRY, a cupboard, pantry, or place where victuals
are kept. Old Fr. aumuire.
AMELL, between or among. Sw. emellan. Dan. imellem.
ANAN, NAN, NON, sir ! what ? what do you say ? Commonly
used as an answer to questions not understood, or distinct-
ly heard. Perhaps from a repetition of Fr. ain, noticed by
Le Roux as, " Sorte d'interjection interrogative, commune
aux petites gens, et fort incivile parmi des personnes
ANCHOR, the chape of a buckle, . e. the part by which it is
fastened. Fr. ancre. Lat. anchora.
ANCLET, ANCLETH, ANCLIFF, the ankle. Sax. ancleow.
ANENST, against, towards, opposite. Used by Chaucer and
ANG-NAILS, corns in the feet. Cumb.
ANGS, awns, the beard of barley or wheat. Su.-Got. agn.
ANTERS, AUNTERS, needless scruples, mischances or misadven-
tures. AnterSy inanters, ennanters, are also used for, in
case, lest, it may be. Dut. anders.
ANTRE, a cave or den. Lat. antrum.
Ofantars vast, and desarts idle Shak. Othello.
ANTRIMS, TANTRUMS, affected airs or whims, freaks, odd fan-
ARDER, fallow quarter, similar to aiiher, a course of ploughing
ARK, a large chest. The original and etymological sense.
Same in Su.-Got. Dan. Gael, and Dut.
ARLES, EARLES, ARNS, ALLS, or YEARLES, money given
in confirmation of a bargain, or by way of earnest for
service to be performed. Mr. Boucher seems to consider
Aries to be the last and almost expiring remains, in our
language, of a word of very remote antiquity, that was once
in general use, which the Romans abbreviated into arm,
and which the Latins in the middle ages changed into
arrha. It denoted an earnest or pledge in general, and
was often used to signify an espousal present or gift from
the man to the woman on their entering into an engage-
ment to marry. This, as we learn from Pliny, was a ring
of iron, the ancient Romans being long prohibited from
wearing rings of any other metal. The giving of arks for
confirming a bargain is still very common in all the north-
ern counties. It is an old custom, still kept up, for the
buyer and seller to drink together on these occasions,
without which the engagement would hardly be considered
valid. Gael, iarlus. Welsh, ernes.
ARNUT, AWNUT, JURNUT, YERNUT, a pig-nut, or earth-chesnut.
Sax. eard-nut. Dut. aarde-noot.
ARR, a mark or scar ; hence POCK-ARRS, a common phrase for
those marks on the face left by the small-pox. Su.-Got.
aerr. Isl. aer. Dan. ar.
ARSIE-VARSIE, ARSEY-WARSEY, topsy-turvy. Etymology ob-
All things run arsie-varsie. Ben. Jon.
ART, quarter of the Heavens, a part of the country. Germ.
ort, a place die vier orte, the four quarters. Gael, aird, a
ARVEL-SUPPER, a funeral feast given to the friends of the de-
ceased, at which a particular kind of loaf, called arvel-bread,
is sometimes distributed among the poor. The practice of
serving up collations at funerals appears to have been bor-
rowed from the coenaferalis of the Romans, alluded to in
Juvenal (Sat. V.), and in the laws of the twelve tables. It
consisted of an offering of milk, honey, wine, &c. to the
ghost of the departed. In the case of heroes and other
illustrious men the same custom seems to have prevailed
among the Greeks. With us, it was anciently a solemn
festival made at the time of publicly exposing the corpse,
to exculpate the heir, and those entitled to the effects,
from fines and mulcts, and from all accusations of having
used violence. Welsh, arwyl, funeral obsequies.
Ass, ESSE, ashes. Sax. asce. Germ, asche. Isl. aska. Dan.
aske. ASS-HOLE, a place for receiving ashes. ASS-MANNER,
manure of ashes. ASS-MIDDEN, a heap of ashes. Ass-
RIDDLIN, the riddling or sifting of the ashes on the hearth,
on the eve of St. Mark. The superstitious notion is, that,
should any of the family die within the year, the shoe will
be impressed on the ashes.
ASSIL-TREE, axle-tree. So invariably pronounced. Fr. assent.
Gael, aisil, Ital. assile.
ASSIL, or AXLE TOOTH, a grinder situated near the axis of
the jaw. Isl.jaxlar, dentes molares, maxillares.
ASK, ASKER, ESK, a water newt, a kind of lizard, believed,
without foundation, to be venomous. Gael. cue.
ASTITE, ASTY, rather, as soon as, sooner, literally as tide.
Sax. and Isl. tid.
ATTERCOP, North, and Dur. ; ATTERCOB, Cuinb. a spider's
web. Sax. otter, poison and coppe, a cup ; receiving its
denomination, according to Dr. Jamieson, partly from its
form and partly from its character a cup of venom. The
word is occasionally used to denote the spider itself; and
a female of a virulent or malignant disposition is sometimes
degraded with the appellation of an attercap.
AUDFARANT, AuDFASHiNT, grave, sagacious, ingenious. Chil-
dren are said to be audfarant when they are wiser or more
witty than those of their age usually are. Dut. ervaren.
Dan. erfaren, experienced.
AUK, a stupid or clumsy person. From old Got. auk, a beast,
or it may be from the northern sea birds called auks, of
AULD, AUD, old. Sax. eald.
Then take auld cloak about thee Shak. Othello.
AULD-LANG-SYNE, a favourite phrase in the North, by which old
persons express their recollection of former kindnesses,
and juvenile enjoyments in times long since past ; rendered
immortal by the beautiful Scotch song,
Should auld acquaintance be forgot.
AUAI, the elm. Old Fr. oulme. Allum is also, in some places,
pronounced aum. Br. aim.
AUN'D, ordained, fated. " I'm aun'd to this luck."
AUNTS. " One of my aunts" is, in Newcastle, a designation
for a lady of more complaisance than virtue. Shakspeare
and other play writers use the term.
AUP, a wayward child. Ape.
AUTER, altar. Many of our old authors write aider, or awter.
The high altar a term still retained in Cumb. where it is
pronounced as one word heeautre was so called to distin-
guish it from the Saint's altars, of which there were several
in most churches. Old Fr. outer.
AUWARDS. A beast is said to be auwards when it lies back-
ward or downhill, so as to be unable to rise. Sheep, heavy
in the wool, are often found so, in which case they soon
swell and die, if not extricated. Sax. cewerd, perversus,
AVER, an old worn out cart horse. V. Spelman, affri, affra,
and Du Cange, averia. Nearly obsolete.
AVERISH, average, the stubble and grass left in corn fields after
harvest, winter eatage. Fr. hiver, and Eng. ealage. But
Aw, the pronunciation of I. MAW, my. Aws, I am.
Aw was up and down, seekin for maw hinny,
Azv was thro' the town, seekin for maw bairn.
Song, Maw Cunny Hinny.
Fareweel, fareweel, maw comely pet !
A-ufs fourc'd three weeks to leave thee ;
Aws doon for parm'ent duty set,
O dinna let it grieve thee ! Song, Bob Cranky' s Adieu.
AVV-MACKS, all makes, all sorts. V. Bouch.
AWN, own, to visit. " You never awn us now," i. e. you never
visit, or call on us.
Ax, to ask. This, now vulgar, word is the original Saxoft
form, and is used by Chaucer, Bale, Heywood, and Ben,
AYE, always, continually. An old word said in Todd's John,
to be now rarely used, and only in poetry. For colloquial
purposes, however, it is frequently made use of in many
parts of the North.
AYONT, beyond. " Ayont the hill." Sax. a-geont.
A YOU A HINNY, a northern nurse's lullaby. V. Brand's Pop.
Ant. 8vo. 1810, p. 204, and Bell's Northern Rhymes, p.
There's Sandgate for aud rags,
A you, liinny burd ;
And Gallowgate for trolly bags,
A you a.
Song, A you a, liinny lurd.
BABBLEMENT, silly discourse. From Heb. Babel, confusion of
BACHELOR'S BUTTON, a well known flower, resembling a but-
ton, and possessing a magical effect on the fortunes of
rustic lovers. See Grey's Shak. v. L, p. 107.
BACK-BY, behind, a little way distant.
BACK-END, the autumnal part, or latter end, of the year. Origin
BACKSTONE, a heated stone or iron for baking cakes.
BACKY, tobacco. BACKY-FOB, a tobacco pouch.
Come, dinna, dinna whinge and whipe,
Like yammering Isbel Mackey ;
Cheer up, maw hinny ! leet thee pipe.
And tyek a blast o' backy !
Song, Bob Cranky^ Adieu.
BADGER, a cadger or pedlar ; but originally a person who pur-
chased grain at one market and took it on horseback to
sell at another. Before the roads in the North were pass-
able for waggons and carts, this trade of badgering was
BAD, BADLY, sick, ill. SADLY BADLY, very much indisposed.
BADLING, a worthless person ; a bad one. Sax. bcsdling>
BAG, udder. Isl. baggi, onus, sarcina.
BAIL, BALE, a beacon or signal, a bon-fire. BAIL or BALE-
HILLS, hillocks on the moors where fires have been. Isl.
bat, pyra. See Crav. Gloss. Baal-hills.
BAIN, near, ready, easy. A BAINER WAY, a nearer way. Isl.
BAIRNS, children, Sax, beam. Moe.-Got. barn, a child.
Written by old English writers beam, bearne. " They say
beams are blessings." Shak. All's Well; and in the Win-
ter's Tale, when the shepherd finds Perdita, he exclaims,
" mercy on's a bearne ! a very pretty bearne." BAIRNISH,
childish. BAIRN-TEAM, lots of bairns. Sax. beam-team,
liberorum sobolis procreatio. BAIRNS' -PLAY, the sport of
children, any sort of trifling.
BAIST, or BASTE, to beat severely. Isl. beysti, a hard stroke,
BALLERAG, BULLERAG, to banter, to rally in a contemptuous
way. The Crav. Gloss, has bullokin, imperious.
BA ! LOU ! a nurse's lullaby. Fr. bas, Id le loup, be still, the
wolf is coming.
PAN-FIRE, BON-FIRE, a fire kindled on the heights at appointed
places in times of rejoicing. Notwithstanding what Mr.
Todd has alleged as to the primitive meaning of the word,
I am of opinion that bone-fire is a corruption. See BAIL.
BANG, v. to thump, to handle roughly. " He bangs his wife."
Isl. banga. It also means to excel. " "Wellington bangs
Onr parson says, " we bangVl them still,
" And bang them still, we mun man,
" For he desarves a coward's deeth,
" That frae them e'er wad run man."
Wor pockets lin'd wiv notes an' cash,
Amang the cheps we'll cut a dash :
For XYZ, that bonny steed,
He bangs them a' for pith and speed,
He's sure to win the cup, man Song, X. Y. Z.
BANG, *. a leap, a severe blow. In a bang, suddenly.
BANGING, large and jolly, as a banging wench ; or simply of
great size when compared with things of the same kind, as
a banging trout. Any thing large in proportion to the rest
of its species is also called a BANGER.
BANNOCK, a thick cake of oaten or barley meal kneaded with
water; originally baked in the embers and toasted over
again on a girdle when used. Gael, bonnack, a cake ; or
it may be from Isl. baun, a bean, such cakes having for-
merly been made of bean meal. V. Ray.
BARGH, BERG, a hill, or steep way. Su.-Got. berg, mons. V.
BAR-GUEST, a local spirit or demon, haunting populous places,
and accustomed to howl dreadfully at midnight, before any
dire calamity. Perhaps from Dut. berg, a hill, and geest,
a ghost. Grose, however, describes it as " a ghost all in
white, with large saucer eyes, commonly appearing near
gates or stiles, there called bars. Yorksh. Derived from
bar and gheist."
BARK, a box for holding candle ends.
BARKED, BARKENED, covered with dirt like bark. Dirt, &c.
hardened on the skin or hair.
BARKHAAM, a horse's collar, formerly made of bark. See
BARLEY, to bespeak or claim. " Barley me that" I bespeak
that let me have that. Similar to Cheshire ballow. V.
BARREL-FEVER, an illness occasioned by intemperate drinking.
BASS, BAST, matting. Isl. bast, philyra. Bass, is also the
name of a hassock to kneel upon at church.
BAT, a blow or stroke ; in some places a stick. Fr. battre,
to beat. LAST-BATT, a play among children.
I'll try whether your costard or my tat be the harder.
BAT, also means state or condition ; " at the same bat," sig-
. nifying in the same manner ; " at the old bat," as formerly.
BATTEN, to feed, to bring up, to thrive.
Could you on this fair mountain leave to feed, and
lattcn on this moor Shdk. Hamlet.
" The wife a good church going and a battening to the
bairn" is a toast at christenings.
BATTIN, the straw of two sheaves folded together.
BATTOM, a board generally of narrow dimensions, but the full
breadth of the tree it is sawn from.
BATTS, flat grounds adjoining islands in rivers, sometimes used
for the islands themselves.
BAUK, balk, a beam or dormant. Dut. balk. Welsh, bale.
Balked, disappointed or prevented, as if a beam were in the
way. " To be thrown our? balk" is, in the west riding of
Yorkshire, to be published in the church. " To hing ourt'
balk," is marriage deferred after publication. Before the
reformation the laity sat exclusively in the nave of the
church. The balk here appears to be the rood beam, which
separated the nave from the chancel. The expression
would therefore seem to mean, to be helped into the choir,
where the marriage ceremony was performed. V. Crav.
BAUKS, the grass ridges dividing ploughed lands, properly
those in common fields. Also a place above a cow-house,
where the beams are covered with wattles and turf, and
not boarded. A hen-roost or hay-loft ; supposed by Mr.
Wilbraham from its being divided into different compart-
ments by balks or beams ; balk in the northern languages
signifying a separation or division.
BAY, to bend. Sax. bygan.
BEAKER, a tumbler. Germ, becher, a cup. It also means any
BEAKMENT or BEATMENT, a measure of about a quarter of a
BEAL, to roar or cry. Teut. betten, to bellow.
BEASTLINGS, the milk of the cow shortly after calving, and of a
peculiar nature fitted for the first food of the calf. Proba-
bly, therefore, the calf's, that is, the little beast's or beast-
ling's. Dut. biest.
BEASTLING-PUDDING, a pudding made of this milk, and a favou-
rite dish with many people.
BECK, v. to nod the head ; properly to curtzy by a female, as
contradistinguished from bowing in the other sex. Isl.
beiga. Germ, beigen, to bow. A horse it said to beck,
when its legs are weak.
BECK, s. a mountain stream or small rivulet. Common to all
northern dialects. See BURN.
BEEAS, BEESS, cows, cattle. Beasts.
BEE-BIKE, a bee's nest or hive in a wild state. Teut. lie-lock,
BEELD, shelter; hence BEELDING, a place of shelter for cattle, or
any covered habitation.. Isl. boele, domicilium.
BEET, to help or assist, to supply the gradual waste of any thing.
Isl. letra. Dut. loeten y to mend. To BEET THE FIRE, is
to feed it with fuel. The word in this latter sense is most
applicable to straw, heath, fern, furze, and especially to the
husk of oats, when used for heating girdles on which oaten
cakes are baked. Teut. loeten het vier, struere ignem.
BEET-NEED, assistance in distress. Sax. letan, to restore.
BEEZEN, blind. See Todd's John, lisson.
BELIVE, anon, by and by, quickly. An old word used by
Chaucer, Spenser, and other early poets. Sax. belif-an.
BELK, to belch. The old mode of writing it.
BELLY-oo-LAKE-THEE,take your fill, satisfy your appetite. York.
BELLY-WARK, the gripes or colick. Ache is pronounced WARK,
as he'dd-wark, tooth-wark.
BENSEL, to beat or bang. Teut. lenghelen.
BENT, a long kind of grass which grows in Northumberland,
near the sea, and is used for thatch. Dr. Willan has BENTS,
high pastures or shelving commons, hence he says, BENT-
grass, which from the soil is necessarily harsh and coarse.
BERRY, to thrash corn. BERRIER, a thrasher.
BE-TWATTLED, confounded, stupified, infatuated.
BEVEL, a violent push or stroke.
BICKER, v. to clatter, to quarrel. A very old word for skirmish.
BICKER, s. a small wooden dish, made of staves and hoops like
BIG, to build. Isl. lyggi.
BIGG, a particular kind of barley, properly that variety which
has four rows of grain on each ear, sometimes called bear.
Isl. lygg, barley. Su.-Got. ling, Dan. lyg.
BIGGEN, to recover after an accouchement. The gossips regu-
larly wish the lady a good biggctiiug.
BIGGIN, a building, properly a house larger than a cottage, but
now generally used for a hut covered with mud or turf.
BILDER, a wooden mallet with a long handle, used in husban-
dry for breaking clods. Hence, observes the author of the
Craven Glossary, balderdash, may with propriety be called
dirt spread by the bilder, alias bildcrdasher. This etymon
is certainly as happy as that of Mr. Malone the froth or
foam made by the barbers in dashing their balls backwards
and forwards in hot water. See, however, BLATHER.
BINK, a seat in the front of a house made of stones or sods.
Sax. benc. Dan. bcenk.
BIRK, the birch tree. Teut. berck.
BISHOP'S FOOT. When any thing has been burnt to the pan
in boiling, or is spoiled in cooking, it is common to say, " the
Bishop has set his foot in it." The author of the Crav.
Gloss, under bishapped, says, " pottage burnt at the bottom
of the pan. * Bishop's i' th' pot,' may it not be derived
from Bishop Burnet?" That is impossible, the saying
having been in use long before the Bishop was born ! It
occurs in Tusser's " Points of Husbandry," a well known
book ; and also in Tyndale's " Obedyence of a Chrysten
Man," printed in 1528. The last writer, p. 109, says,
" when a thynge speadeth not well we borowe speach and
say the byshope hath blessed it, because that nothynge
speadeth well that they medyll withall. If the podech be
burned to, or the meate over rested, we say the byshope has
put his fate in the potte, or the byshope hath played the coke,
because the byshopes BURN who they lust and whosoever
displeaseth them." I am well aware of what Dr. Jamieson,
Grose, and other writers have stated on the subject, but I
think this allusion to the episcopal disposition to burn here-
tics, in a certain reign, presents the most satisfactory expla-
nation that can be offered as to the origin of the phrase.
BITTLE, a mallet to beat grain out of gleanings. From beetle.
BIZON, shame or scandal ; a shew or spectacle of disgrace. In
unguarded moments when the good women in certain districts
of Newcastle, give way to acts of termagancy more congenial
to Wapping or Billingsgate, it is common to fulminate the
object of their resentment with a " Holy Bizon," obviously
in allusion to the penitential act of standing in a white
sheet, which scandalous delinquents are sometimes enjoined
to perform in the church before the whole congregation.
Wiv a' the stravaigin aw wanted a munch,
An' maw thropple was ready to gizen ;
So aw went tiv a yell-house, and there teuk a lunch,
But the reck'ning, me saul ! was a bison.
Song, Canny NetvcusseL
BLACK- A-VIZ'D, dark in complexion. A black-a-viz' d man or
BLACK-PUDDINGS. Puddings made of blood, suet, &c. stuffed
into the intestines of pigs or sheep, and a favourite dish
among the common people. " A nice het pudden, hinnie !"
" A nice fat pudden, ma hinnie !" Newcastle cries.
Through they were lin'd with many a piece
Of ammunition bread and cheese,
And fat black-puddings, proper food
For warriors that delight in blood But. Hudlb.
BLAKE, yellowish, or of a golden colour, spoken of butter,
cheese, &c. The yellow bunting (emberiza citrinella) is
also, in some places, called a blakeling. Isl. blar. Dut.
Blake autumn. Chatterton.
BLARING, crying vehemently, roaring loud, applied to peevish
children and vulgar drunken noise. Dut. blaren.
BLASH, to throw dirt ; also to scatter, as the " water Hashed all
over." Germ, platzen.
BLASHMENT, weak and diluting liquor.
BLASHY, thin, poor, as blashy beer, &c. It also means wet and
dirty. Dr. Jam. has blash, a heavy fall of rain.
But aw fand maw sel blonk'd when to Lunnun aw gat,
The folks they a' luck'd wishy washy ;
For gowld ye may howk 'till ye're blind as a bat,
For their streets are like wors brave and blashy !
Song, Canny NewcasseL
BLAST, v. to blow up with gun-powder. BLAST, s. an explo-
sion of foul air in a coal mine.
And oft a chilling damp or unctuous mist,
Loos'd from the crumbling caverns, issues forth,
Stopping the springs of life. Jago's Edgehttl.
BLATE, v. to bleat or bellow. Dryden uses blatant.
BLATE, a. shy, bashful, timid. Su.-Got. blode. " A toom
(empty) purse makes a blate merchant." Scot. Prov.
BLATHER, to talk a great deal of nonsense. " He blathers and
talks," is a common phrase where much is said to little
purpose. A person of this kind is, by way of pre-eminence,
styled a blathering hash. One of my correspondents de-
rives the word from blatant, used by Spenser and others ;
another ingeniously suggests that it may be " from the
noise of an empty bladder ;" but it appears to me to be
either from Teut. blceteren, to talk foolishly, or Su.-Got.
bladdra, garrire. Hence BLATHERDASH, Balderdash, the
discourse itself. See BILDER.
BLAZE, to take salmon by striking them with a three pronged
and barbed dart, called a leister. I have often seen it prac-
tised in an evening, in the River Tees. In Craven, a torch
was made of the dry bark of holly, besmeared with pitch.
The water was so transparent that the smallest pebbles
were visible at the bottom. One man carried the torch
(when dark) either on foot or on horseback, while another,
advancing with him, struck the salmon on the red, the
place where the roe is deposited, with the leister. V,
Crav. Gloss, bloazing.
BLEA, a pale bluish colour, often applied to the discolouration
of the skin by a blow or contusion. It is also sometimes
used to denote a bad colour in linen, indicating the neces-
sity of bleaching.
BLEA-BERRY, BL AY-BERRY, the bilberry, or whortle berry. Isl.
blaber, vaccinium vulgare myrtillus.
BLEB, BLOB, a drop of water or bubble ; a blister or rising of
BLEE, colour, complexion. An old word, not obsolete, as
stated in Todd's Johnson.
BLEED, to yield, applied to corn, which is said to " bleed wett?
when on thrashing it happens to be very productive.
BLENDINGS, peas and beans mixed together.
BLINK, to smile, to look kindly, but with a modest eye, the
word being generally applied to females. Dan. blinke.
BLINKARD, BLENKARD, a person near sighted or almost blind.
A fighting cock with only one eye is termed a blenker.
BLIRT, BLURT, to cry, to make a sudden indistinct or un-
BLOACHER, any large animal.
BLOUSY, or BLOWSY, wild, disordered, confused. Johnson has
blowzy, sun burnt, high coloured.
BLOW, the blossom of fruit trees. Sax. blowan, to bloom.
The Crav. Gloss, has blume, blossom, from Germ. blum.
BLOWN-MILK, skimmed milk. I suppose from the custom of
blowing the cream off by the breath.
BLUBBER, " the part of a whale that contains the oil," Todd's
John. But it is the fat of whales.
BLUE. To look blue, is to be disconcerted.
BLUFFXESS, " surliness," Todd's John. Rather arrogance, or
a self-confident manner.
BLUSH, resemblance. He has a blush of his brother, i. e. he
bears a resemblance.
BLUSTERATION, the noise of a braggart. Blustering.
BOB, to disappoint. Dry bob is an old word for a merry joke
BOB, a bunch. Isl. bobbi, nodus. Fr. bube.
BOBBEROUS, BOBBERSOME, elated, in high spirits.
BOBBY, smart, neat, tidy.
There was Sam, O zoons !
An' gravat up owre his gobby-o ;
An' Willy, thou,
Wi' the jacket blue,
Thou was the varry bobby-o.
Song, Swahccll Hopping.
BODWORD, an ill-natured errand. An old word for an ominous
message. Su.-Got. and Isl. bodword, edictum, mandatum.
BOGGLE, BOGGLE-BO, a spectre or ghost. Welsh, bugal, fear.
BOGGLE about the stacks, a favourite play among young people
in the villages, in which one hunts several others. For-
merly barley break.
She went abroad, thereby
A larky break her sweet, swift feet to try Sidney, Arcadia.
BOILING. The whole boiling means the entire quantity or
BOKE, BOUK, to nauseate so as to be ready to vomit, to belch.
Perhaps from Sax. bealc-an. Jam. V. Ray.
BOLL, BOLE, the body or trunk of a tree. Su.-Got. bol.
BO-MAN, a hobgoblin or kidnapper.
I'll rather put on my flashing red nose, and my flam-
ing face, and come wrapped in a calf's-skin, and
cry bo, bo ! Robin Goodfdlow.
BONDAGERS, cottagers obliged to work for farmers, when called
upon, at certain stipulated wages.
BONNY, beautiful, handsome, cheerful. Dr. Johnson derives
this word from Fr. bon, bonne, good ; but as it is so uni-
versally in use in the North, I have little doubt it came
originally from the Scotch. Shakspeare appears to have
understood it in its different meanings.
We say that Shore's wife hath a pretty foot,
A cherry lip, a bonny eye, a passing pleasing tongue.
Match to match I have encountered him,
And made a prey for carrion kites and crows,
Ev'n of the bonny beast he lov'd so well.
Then sigh not so but let them go,
And be you blithe and bonny. Shakspeare.
O where is the boatman ? my bonny honey !
O where is the boatman ? bring him to me
To ferry me over the Tyne to my honey,
And I will remember the boatman and thee.
The Water of Tyne.
Whe's like me Johnny
Sae leish, sae blythe, sae bonny !
He's foremost 'mang the mony
Keel lads o' coaly Tyne.
Song, The Keel Row.
BOODIES or BABBY-BOODIES, broken pieces of earthen ware or
glass, used by female children for decorating a play-house,
called a boody-kouse, made in imitation of an ornamented
Then on we went, as nice as owse,
Till nenst au'd Lizzy Moody 's ;
A whirlwind cam an' myed a' souse,
Like heaps o' babby-boodies.
Song, Jemmy Jonesorfs Whurry.
BOON, a service or bonus, done by a tenant to his landlord, or
a sum of money as an equivalent. BOON-DAYS are those
which the tenants are obliged to employ for the benefit of
their lord gratis. Vast quantities of land in the Northern
counties are held under lords of manors by customary
tenure, subject to the payment of fines and heriots, and the
performance of various duties and services on the boon
BOOR, BOUR, the parlour, or inner room through the kitchen,
in which the head person of the family generally sleeps.
Isl. bouan, to dwell. Spenser uses bower,, a lady's apart-
ment. Fair Rosamond's bower, at Woodstock, is familiar
to every reader.
BOORLY, boorish, rough, unpolished. Teut. boer, a boor.
BOOSE, BUESS, BUSE, an ox or cow stall ; properly the place
beside the stakes where the fodder lies. Sax. boslg. Isl.
BOOT, something given to equalise an exchange. Old Fr.
BOOTED, or BOLTED BREAD, a loaf of sifted wheat meal, mixed
with rye ; better than the common household bread. V.
BOOTHER, BOULDER, a hard flinty stone, rounded like a bowl.
BORROWED-DAYS, the three last days of March.
March borrowit fra Averill
Three days and they were ill.
Gloss. Compl. Scott.
These days being generally stormy, our forefathers., as
Dr. Jamieson remarks, have endeavoured to account for
this circumstance by pretending that March borrowed them
from April, that he might extend his power so much longer.
The superstitious will neither borrow nor lend on any of
these days, lest the articles should be employed for evil
BOTHERATION, plague, trouble, difficulty. From bother, to
perplex or puzzle.
BOTTOM-ROOM, a single seat in a pew.
BOUGHT, a fold where ewes are put at milking time. Teut.
BOUK, to wash linen, or rather to steep it or soak it in lye,
with a view of whitening and sweetening it.
Then the thread is sod and bleaked, and bucked and oft
layed to drieng, &c Barthol. 302 6, 1. 1 7, c. 97-
Bvdt is used by Shakspeare, as well for the liquor in
which clothes are washed as for the clothes themselves.
Every body remembers Falstaff' s ludicrous adventure in
the great buck-basket. The process of bouking linen,
adopted by the older Northumbrian house-wives, would,
I fear, be considered too homely for their more Southern
neighbours to imitate, and therefore I refrain from particu-
BOUK, BOWK, bulk, quantity, or size ; the body of a tree. Su.-
Got. bolk. Chaucer uses bouke, for the trunk of the hu-
man body, which Mr. Tyrwhitt says, is probably from Sax,
buce t venter.
BOUN, to make ready, to prepare, to dress. Old Eng. boon,
BOURD, to jest. F. Todd's John.
BOUT, a contest or struggle ; often applied to a jovial meeting
of the legitimate sons of Bacchus, where
The dry divan
Close in firm circle ; and Set, ardent, in
For serious drinking. Thomson.
BOWDIKITE, a contemptuous name for a mischievous child, an
insignificant or corpulent person.
BOWERY, plump, buxom, and young ; applied to a female in
Box, a club or society instituted for benevolent or charitable
purposes. It is customary for the members to have an
annual dinner called the head-meeting day. The oldest
institution of this kind, I have been able to trace, is that of
the keelmen of Newcastle and the neighbourhood, who, on
this occasion, after assembling at their hospital, walk in
procession through the principal streets of the town, at-
tended by a band of music, fiddles, &c. Much greater
interest was formerly taken in this business by the parties
concerned, who made it a point of honourable emulation to
rival each other in the grandeur of their apparel, especially
in the pea-jacket, the sky-blue stockings, the long-quartered
shoes, and large silver buckles. Cold was the heart of
that female, old or young, connected with the " Keel lads
o* coaly Tyne," who could look unmoved on such a spec-
tacle ; and if the fair ones did sometimes indulge in scenes
which I neither wish to describe nor see repeated, their
rencounters, generally commencing without any previous
malice, were rarely again remembered.
Box AND DICE. A game of hazard, formerly much practised
among the pitmen and keelmen at races, fairs, and hop-
pings, but now very properly prohibited. The true pro-
nunciation is box and dies.
Close by the stocks, his dice and box,
He rattled away so rarely -o,
Both youth and age, did he engage,
Together they played so chearly-o.
Song, Wlnlaton Hopping.
BRAAD-BAND, corn laid out in the field in band.
BRABBLEMENT, a quarrel or wrangling. Dut. brabbelen, to
This petty Irdblk will undo us all. Sluik. Tit. Andr.
BRACKENS, or BRECKENS, fern. In Smoland, in Sweden, the
female fern is called bracken. Sw. Stotbraakin, In is a
termination in Gothic, denoting the female gender.
BRADE, to resemble. To brade of, from Su.-Got. braa y de-
notes a similarity characteristic of the same family. V.
BRAE, BROO, a bank or declivity, any broken sloping ground.
Gael, and Welsh, bre, a hill.
BRAFFAM, BRAUGHAM, a collar for an husbandry horse, some-
times made of old stockings stuffed with straw.
BRAID, BRADE, to nauseate, to desire to vomit ; hence the
word upbraid. Braid is an old obsolete word for reproach.
BRAKE, a harrow for breaking large clods of earth. V. Nares'
Gloss, for other significations, &c.
BRAN or BRAND-NEW, quite new ; any thing fresh from the
makers hand. Often applied to clothes to denote the
shining glossy appearance given by passing a hot iron over
them. Dut. brand nieuw. Shak. uses "fire new arms,"
and "fire new fortune."
BRANDED, a mixture of red and black. Dut. branden.
BRANDER, an iron over the fire. Dut. brander.
BRANDLING, a species of trout caught in the rivers in North-
umberland, where salmon is found, particularly in the Tyne.
Early in the year they are seen about three inches long, but
in the course of a few months increase to about six inches j
after which, they are rarely found any larger. Like the
salmon-smelt and whitling, they have no spawn in them.
BRANDRETH, an iron tripod fixed over the fire, on which the
kettle, or any cooking utensils are placed. Sax. brandred,
a brand iron.
BRANK, to hold up the head affectedly, to put a bridle or re-
straint on any thing. " A bridled ewe." This word gives
me an opportunity of mentioning another of kindred im-
port, the BRANKS, an instrument kept in the Mayor's cham-
ber, of , Newcastle, for the punishment of "chiding and
scolding women." It is made of iron, fastens round the
head like a muzzle, and has a spike to insert in the mouth
so as effectually to silence the offensive organ. Ungallant,
and unmercifully severe as this species of torture seems to
be, Dr. Plot much prefers it to the cucking stool, which,
he says, " not only endangers the health of the party, but
also gives the tongue liberty 'twixt every dipp." See an en-
engraving of Robert Sharp, an officer of the Corporation,
leading Ann Bidlestone through the town, with a pair of
branks on her head, in Gardiner's Englands Grievance dis-
covered, orig. edit. p. 110.
BRANT, steep, difficult of ascent, as a brant brow, a steep hill.
It also means consequential, pompous in one's walk, as
" you seem very brant this morning," i. e. you put on all
your consequence. A game cock is said to be brant. Lof-
tiness appears to enter into all the meanings of the word.
Isl. brattr, acclivis, arduus, Sw. brant.
BRASH, or WATER-BRASH, a sudden sickness, with acid rising
in the mouth, as in the heart-burn. V. Wachter, brassen.
This word it also used in some places to denote twigs, and
as an adjective for impetuous, rash.
BRASHY, delicate in constitution, subject to frequent bodily
BRASS, money, riches. A wealthy person is said to have plenty
The brass aw've getten at the race
Will buy a patch for Jacob's face Song, X. Y. Z.
BRAT, the film on the surface of some liquids, as on boiled milk
when cooled. Also a child's bib or coarse apron. Is it in
both these senses from Germ, breiten, to spread ? In the
latter it may come from Sax. bratt y which Johnson tran-
slates a blanket, when he notices it as a child in contempt.
BRATCHET, a contemptuous epithet, generally applied to an ill
behaved child. Fr. Bratchet, a slow hound.
BRATTLE, to sound like thunder. BRATTLE of " tkunner" a
clap of thunder.
BRAW, finely clothed, handsome, clever. Teut. brawe,
BRAWLY, BRAVELY, very well, finely, in good health. Sw.
BRAWM, a boar.
Her grace sits mumping
Like an old ape eating a Irawm.
Beaum. fy Flet. Mad Lover.
BRAY, to crush or bruise, to pound in a mortar. Fr. braier.
BREEKS, breeches. Sax. brcec.
BREDE or BREED, breadth or extent. An old English word
from the Sax. See ABREDE.
BREME, v. applied to a sow when maris appetens. BRIM, *, ar-
dor, sestus. Sax. bryne.
BRERE, to sprout, to prick up as grain does when it first germi-
nates. Hence BREWARD, BRUARTS, the tender blades of
springing corn. Sax. brord.
BREWIS, a large thick crust of bread put into the pot where salt
beef is boiling and nearly ready : it attracts a portion of the
fat, and when swelled out is no unpalatable dish to those
who (like some of our northern swains) rarely taste meat.
So says Mrs. Rundle, who, I believe, was long a resident
in Northumberland. After this, I need hardly remark that
Mr. Wilbraham is mistaken in thinking it is used only in
Cheshire and Lancashire. The word occurs in Beaum. &
Flet. but in the sense of broth.
BREWSTER, a brewer. Hence, I conceive, the Brewster Ses-
sions, when publicans receive their licenses.
BRIAN. To brian an oven, is to keep fire at the mouth of it,
either to give light or to preserve the heat.
BRICKS, bread something like French rolls.
BRIDE-ALE. The day of marriage has always been a time of
festivity. Among the plebeians in Cumberland it glides
away amidst music, dancing, and revelry. Early in the
morning, the bridegroom, attended by his friends on horse-
back, proceeds in a gallop to the house of the bride's father.
Having alighted he salutes her, and then the company
breakfast together. This repast concluded, the whole nup-
tial party depart in cavalcade order towards the church,
accompanied by a fiddler, who plays a succession of tunes
appropriate to the occasion. Immediately after the per-
formance of the ceremony the company retire to some
neighbouring ale-house, and many a flowing bumper of home
brewed, is quaffed to the health of the happy pair. Ani-
mated with this earthly nectar, they set off full speed to-
wards the future residence of the bride, where a handker-
chief is presented to the first who arrives. In Craven,
after the connubial knot is tied, a ribbon is proposed as the
subject of contention either for a foot or a horse race.
Should any of the doughty disputants, however, omit to
shake hands with the bride, he forfeits the prize, though
otherwise entitled to win. Whoever first reaches the
bride's habitation, is ushered into the bridal chamber, and
after having performed the ceremony of turning down the
bed clothes, he returns, carrying in his hand a tankard of
warm ale, previously prepared, to meet the bride, to whom
he triumphantly offers his humble beverage, and by whom,
in return, he is presented with the ribbon, as the honour-
able reward of his victory.
BRIDE-CAKE. It is customary after the bridal party leave the
church to have a thin currant-cake, marked in squares,
though not entirely cut through. A clean cloth being spread
over the head of the bride, the bride-groom stands behind
her, and breaks the cake. Thus hallowed, it is thrown up
and scrambled for by the attendants, to excite prophetic
dreams of love and marriage, and has much more virtue
than when it is merely put nine times through the ring.
BRIDE-WAIN, a custom in Cumberland where the friends of a
new married couple assemble together in consequence of a
previous invitation (sometimes actually by public advertise-
ment) and are treated with cold pies, frumenty, and ale.
The company afterwards join in all the various pastimes of
the country, and at the conclusion, the bride and bride-
groom are placed in two chairs, the former holding a pew-
ter dish on her knee, half covered with a napkin. Into
this dish every person present, how high or low soever,
makes it a point to put something ; and these offerings
occasionally amount to a considerable sum. I suppose it
has obtained the name of wain, from a very ancient custom,
now obsolete in the north, of presenting a bride, who had
no great stock of her own, with a waggon load of furni-
ture or provisions. On this occasion the horses were de-
corated with ribbons.
** There let Hymen oft appear
** In saffron robe and taper clear,
" And pomp, and feast, and revelry,
** With mask and ancient pageantry."
BRIGG, a bridge. Pure Saxon.
BRISSLE, to scorch or dry very hard. Sax. brastlian, to make
a crackling noise. BRUSSLE has the same meaning ; as brus-
sled peas, peas scorched in the straw.
He routeth with a slepie noyse,
And Iroustkth as a monkes froyse. Gow, Cvnf. Anian.
Break 'em more, they are but brustkd yet.
Beaum. $ Flet. Wife for a Month.
BROACH, a spire or steeple ; as Chester broach, Darlington
broach, the broaches of Durham Cathedral. An instru-
ment on which yarn is wound, is also called a broach.
BROCK, a badger. Pure Sax. It is also a name given to a
cow, or husbandry horse. BROCK-FACED, a white longitu-
dinal mark down the face like a badger. Su.-Got. brokug,
of more than one colour.
BRODDLE, to make holes.
BROKE. Sheep are said to be so, when lying under a broken
BROTCHET, BROTCHERT, or BRAGWORT, a thin liquor made
from the last squeezings of honey-comb.
BROTT, shaken corn. Sax. gebrode, fragments.
BROWDEN, to be anxious for, or warmly attached to any ob-
ject. To browden on a tking> is to be fond of it. Dut. broe-
den, to brood.
BROWDIN, or BROWDANT, vain, conceited.
As she delights into the low,
So was I browdin of my bow. CJierry and the Stae.
BROWN-LEEMERS, ripe brown nuts that easily separate from the
husks. Probably from brown, and Fr. les meurs y the ripe
BRULLIMENT, broil. Fr. brouiller.
BUBBLV, snotty. " The bairn has a bubbly nose." Grose.
I thought to marry a sailor,
To bring me sugar and tea ;
But I have married a keelman,
And that he lets me see.
He's an ugly body, a bubbly body,
An ill-fard, ugly loon ;
And I have married a keelman,
And my good days are done.
Song, The Sandgate Lassie 1 1 Lamentation.
BUBBLY-JOCK, a turkey cock. V. Jam.
BUCKLE, to marry. Significant enough.
BUCKLE-MOUTHED, a person with large straggling teeth.
What a fyace, begok !
Had buckle-mouthed Jock,
When he twined his jaws for the backey-o !
Song, Swaltoell Hopping.
BUCK-STICK. See SPELL AND ORE, and TRIPPIT AND Co IT.
BUDGE, to bulge, to move off, generally unwillingly. Also to
abridge or lessen. " I wont budge a penny."
BUER, a gnat.
BULE, or BOOL, the bow of a pan or kettle.
BULL-FRONTS, tufts of coarse grass, Aira capitosa.
BULL-STANG, a dragon fly.
BULLS AND Cows, the flower of the Arum maculalum, also called
lords and ladies, and lam-lakens.
BULL-TROUT, a large fine species peculiar to Northumberland,
and much esteemed. The larger kind of salmon-trout
taken in the Coquet, are in the Newcastle market called
bull trouts ; but these fish are larger than salmon-trout in
the head, which is a part generally admired for its smallness.
BULLY, the champion of a party, the eldest male person in a
family. Now generally used among keelmen and pitmen
to designate their brothers, as bully Jack, bully Bob, &c.
Probably derived from the obsolete word boulie, beloved.
BUM, v. to strike, to beat, to spin a top. Dut. bommen, to re-
BUM, s. the follower or assistant of a bailiff. Johnson has
bum-bailiff, a well-known name for an unpopular officer of
the law, but the north country bum, is a distinct personage,
aiding and assisting the bailiff. It may be from bound,
though more likely from bum, the buttocks, a word which
Shakspeare never disdained to use, when he thought it
best to call a thing by its most expressive name.
BUMBLE, or BUMMEL-KITES, bramble-berries. Dur. BLACK-
BOWWOWERS. North. BLACK-BERRIES. Newc.
BUMBLER, a large wild bee, called sometimes bumble-bee, Teut.
bommele, a drone. BUMBLER-BOX, a small wooden toy used
by the boys to hold these insects.
BUMP, a stroke, a blow received by running against any thing ;
often applied to the rising of the flesh occasioned by a
blow. Isl. bomps. <( Bump against Jarrow," is a common
expression among the keelmen when they run foul of any
The laddie ran sweaten, ran sweaten,
The laddie ran sweaten about ;
Till the keel went lump against Jarrow,
And three o' the bullies lap out.
Song, The Little Pec Dec.
BUMPING, a peculiar sort of punishment amongst youngsters.
Too many boys have reason to remember the school dis-
cipline of bumping, admirably described by Major Moor.
F. Suff. Words, p. 53.
BUNCH-BERRY, the fruit of the ruins saxatilis, of which country
people make tarts.
BUNCH, PUNCH, to strike or kick.
BUNTING, a large piece or balk of timber. Newcastle.
BUR, any thing put under a wheel to stop its progress.
BURN, a brook. A burn winds slowly along meadows, and ori-
ginates from small springs ; while a beck is formed by wa-
ter collected on the sides of mountains, and proceeds with
a rapid stream, though never, I think, applied to rivers that
become estuaries. Pure Sax.
BURN-THE-BISCUIT. A youthful game.
BURNT-HIS-FINGERS. When a person has failed in any object
or speculation, or has been over-reached in any endeavour
or undertaking, he is said to have burnt his fingers.
BURR, a peculiar whirring sound, made by the natives of New-
castle, in pronouncing, or rather in endeavouring to pro-
nounce the letter R, derived from their ancestors. " He
has the Newcastle burr in his throat." Prov.
Refining in language, improving in notes,
Letter R runs far smoother and glib through their throats ;
Their Andrews, these sirnanies, bear better degrees,
Ralphs, Richardsons, Rogersons, uttered with ease.
Address of the Gnildhall-Crotes.
BUR-TREE, the common elder. Perhaps bore-tree, from the
quantity or size of the pith, which renders it capable of be-
ing easily bored ; though Dr. Willan says, it is so called
because the flowers grow in a cyme, close tdgether, like
those of the bur. A branch of this tree is supposed to pos-
sess great virtue in guarding the wearer against the charm
of witchcraft. I remember, when a little boy, during a
school vacation in the country, carrying it in my own but-
ton hole, with doubled thumb, when under the necessity of
passing the residence of a poor decrepit old woman, sus-
pected of holding occasional converse with the spiritual
enemy of mankind.
BUSH OF A WHEEL, that which is employed to fill up the two
great vacancy either in the aperture of the nave or between
the nave and the hurters, that is, knocking shoulder of the
axle, from Fr. heurter, to knock.
BUSKY, woody, bushy, Lat. boscus. Fr. bosquet, a thicket.
How bloodily the sun begins to peer
Above yon lusky hill. Shak. 1st. Hen. IV.
Buss, to dress, to get ready. Germ, putzen, to deck or adorn.
Sich aufs beste putzen, to dress to the best advantage. The
Scotch have busk, to dress, and busks, dresses.
For Geordy aw'd dee, for my loyalty's trig,
And aw own he's a gued leuken mannie ;
But if wor Sir Matthew ye buss iv his wig,
By gocks ! he wad leuk just as canny.
Song, Canny Newcassel.
BUST, v. to put a tar mark upon sheep. BUST, s. the mark
BUT AND BEN, the outer and inner apartment where there are
only two rooms. Many houses on the borders, where the
expression is common, are so constructed. V. Jam. ben.
BUTTER AND BREDE. While the Southerns say, bread and
butter, bread and cheese, bread and milk, the Northum-
brians place in the rear that great article the staff of life.
BUTTER-FINGERED, said of persons who are apt to let things
fall, or slip through their fingers.
BUZZOM, or BUSSOM, a besom or broom.
Buy broom hissoms,
Buy them when they're new,
Buy broom lussoms,
Better never grew Blind Willie's Song.
BYAR, BYER, a house in which cows are bound up a cow-
house. " The mucking of Geordie's byre." V. Jam.
BYE-BOOTINGS, BY-BOLTINGS, or SHARPS, the finest kind of
bran ; the second in quality being called TREET, and the
BYSPELT, a strange, awkward figure, or a mischievous person,
always acting contrary to reason, or propriety, as if labour-
ing under the influence of a spell.
CACK, alvum exonerare. Lat. cacare. Teut. Jtacken. CACK,
CACKEY, from the verb.
CACKLE, to make a noise like a hen, to giggle.
CADGE, to carry. Cadger, to a mill. Teut. ketzen, discurrere.
It also means to stuff or fill the belly. Hence a person is
said to be CADGY, cheerful, merry, after good eating and
CADGER, a packman or travelling huckster. Before the for-
mation of regular turnpike roads from Scotland to North-
umberland, the chief part of the commercial intercourse
between the two kingdoms was carried on through the
medium of cadgers. Persons who bring fish from the sea
to the Newcastle market are still called cadgers.
Here cadgers of commerce, commodities cart,
With hucksters and hawkers, to Mayor Millar's mart.
Song, Framlington Fair.
36 , CAFF
CAFF, chaff. Sax. ceaf. Germ, and Dut. leaf.
CAINGY, peevish, ill-tempered, testy.
CAIRN, a rude heap of stones found on the summit of hills and
in other remarkable situations. Gael, carne.
On many a cairn's gray pyramid,
Where urns of mighty chiefs lie hid.
Scott's Lay of the last Minstrel.
CALF-LICK, or COW-LICK, a tuft on the human forehead which
cannot be made to Her in the same direction with the rest
of the hair. This term must have been adopted from a
comparison with that part of a calf's or cow's hide, where
the hairs, having different directions, meet and form a pro-
jecting ridge, supposed to be occasioned by the animals
CALF-YARD, a person's birth-place, a Newcastle-man's fireside.
Aw've leern'd to prefer me awn canny calf-yaird ;
If ye catch me mair frae't ye'll be cunnun.
Song, Canny Ncwcassel.
CALL, to abuse. They called one another !
CALL, to proclaim, or to give notice by the public crier. To
be called at churchy to have the banns of marriage published.
The ceremony of proclaiming every fair in Newcastle,
which is attended by the officers of the corporation, in
state, is denominated calling the fair.
GALLANT, a stripling ; a man clever or much esteemed. Q. Fr.
CALLER, cool, fresh. " Caller herrings" " caller cocks," or
" caller cockles" " caller ripe grosers" Newc. cries. Isl.
CALLET, to scold. CALLETING, saucy, gossiping. A CALLET-
ING HOUSEWIFE, a regular scold.
A collet of boundless tongue Sliak. Winter's Talc.
CAM, a ridge, hedge, or old earthen mound. Sax. comb.
CAMMERELL, a large stretcher used by butchers.
CAMPLE, to argue, to answer pertly and frowardly when re-
buked by a superior. Germ, kampfen, to contend.
CANDLE-CAP, an old hat without a brim, with a candle in front,
used by butchers.
CANKER, rust. CANKERED, cross, ill-conditioned.
CANNY, a genuine Newcastle word, applied to any thing supe-
rior or of the best kind. It refers as well to the beauty of
form as of manners and morals ; but most particularly is
used to describe those mild and affectionate dispositions
which render persons agreeable in the domestic state.
" Canny Newcassel," par excellence, is proverbial. CANNI-
NESS, caution, good conduct.
God bless the king and nation !
Each bravely fills his station,
Our canny corporation,
Lang may they sing, wi' me.
Song, The Keel Row.
CANT, to upset, to overturn.
Bob canted the form, with a kevel,
As he was exerting his strength ;
But he got on the lug such a nevel,
That down he came all his long length.
Tlie Collier's Pay Week.
CANT-DOG, an handspike with a hook, used for turning over
large pieces of timber.
CANTING, a sale by auction, proclaimed publicly on the spot
where it is to take place. Ital. incanto.
CANTY, merry, lively, cheerful. Su.-Got. ganta, ludificare.
* f Some canny wee boddie may be me lot,
" And aw'll be canty wi' thinking o't."
CAP, to overcome in argument, to excel in any feat of agility.
Tuet. kappe, the summit. CAPPER, one who excels.
CAPSIZE, to overturn.
CAR-HANDED, left handed. One of the ancient Kings of Scot-
land was called " Kinath-Kerr," or Kinath the left handed.
CARL, KARL, a country fellow, a gruff old man. Sax. ceorl.
Isl. karl. Dut. kaerel.
CARLINGS, grey peas steeped all night in water, and fried the
next day with butter. They are served at table, on the
second Sunday before Easter, called CARLING SUNDAY,
formerly denominated Care Sunday, which is Passion Sun-
day, as Care Friday and Care Week, are Good Friday
and Holy Week supposed to be so called from that being
a season of great religious care and anxiety.
CARR, flat marshy land ; a pool or lake.
CARROCK, or CURROCK, a heap of stones, used as a bounder
mark or as a guide for travellers. Also a mountain, ap-
pearing at a distance, by which, when the sun appears over
it, the country people compute the time of the day.
CARR Y-ON-THE- WAR, to keep up or continue fun or mischief
after it has once commenced.
Ah ! no ; in Heaton cellars they
Would rather chuse to be,
Most jovial, carrying-on-the-tvar,
All under lock and key ! Song, Blacketfs Field.
CASINGS, CASSONS, COW-BLADES, cow dung dried for fuel.
CASSEN, cast off; as " cassen clothes." CASSEN-TOP, a top
thrown off with a string.
CAST, a twist or contortion.
CASTER, or CASTOR, a little box ; as pepper caster. Wanting
in this sense in Todd's John.
CAST-UP, to upbraid, to reproach.
CAT-HAWS, the fruit of the white thorn. The larger ones are
CATTERWAULING, wooing, courting ; or rather rambling or in-
triguing in the night.
CAT-WITH-TWO-TAILS, an earwig.
CAUD, cold. Teut. fraud, frigidus.
CAVE, or KAVE, to separate, as corn from the straw or chaff.
CAVEL, or KAVEL, a lot. Teut. kavel. To CAST CAVELS, to
cast lots. Teut. kavelen.
CAWKERS, the hind parts of a horse's shoe sharpened, and
pointed downwards, to prevent the animal from slipping.
Also the iron plates put upon clogs, which see. Lat. calx.
CERTEES, SARTIES, certainly. A good old Spenserian word,
used also by Shakspeare and others. MY CERTES ! maw
sartees, upon my faith ! in good truth.
" Blue stockings, white clocks, and reed garters,
" Yellow breeks, and my shoon, wi' lang quarters,
" Aw myed wor bairns cry,
" Eh ! sarties ! ni ! ni !
" Sic verra fine things had Bob Cranky."
CHAFFS, CHAFTS, jaws, jaw-bones, chops.
CHAMBERLYE, CHEMMERLEY, fetid or stale urine. Omitted
by both Johnson and Todd, though found in a passage
cited from Shakspeare under the wordjorden.
CHANGELING, a child of a peevish or malicious temper, or dif-
fering in looks from the rest of a family supposed to have
been changed, when an infant, by the gipsies. The fairies
of old were famous for stealing the most beautiful and
witty children, and leaving in their places such as were
ugly and stupid.
CHAP, to knock, as at the door. Scotch.
CHAP, CHEP, a customer. Also a general term for a man, used
either respectfully or contemptuously.
When aw was drest,
It was confest
"We shem'd the cheps frae Newcassel-o.
Song, Swalwell Hopping.
CHARE, a narrow lane or alley. Peculiar to Newcastle, where
there are several, particularly on the Quay-side. Sax.
cerre, diverticulum. Some, however, think from the word
ajar, partly open.
CHATTERED, bruised. Corruption of shattered.
CHATTER-WATER, tea. I suppose from chattering or gossiping
Whyles, o'er the wee bit cup an* platie,
They sip the scandal potion pretty,
Burns, Twa Dogs.
CHEERER, a glass of spirit and warm water. Not a bad meta-
CHEG, or CHEGGLE, to gnaw or champ a resisting substance.
CHIEVE, to succeed, to accomplish any business. An old word
used by Chaucer. Fi^ chevir, to master.
CHILDER, children. The Saxon plural termination.
CHILDERMASS-DAY, the feast of the Holy Innocents, a festival
of great antiquity. An apprehension is entertained by the
superstitious that no undertaking can prosper which is begun
on that day of the week on which it last fell. Pure Sax.
CHIMLAY-PIECE, mantel-piece. CHIMLAY-NEUK, chimney-cor-
CHIP, to crack or partly break ; said of an egg when the young
bird cracks the shell. Dut. kippen, to hatch or disclose.
CHIP-OF-THE-OLD-BLOCK, a child who in person or sentiments
resembles its parents. BROTHER-CHIP, a person of the
CHOPP'D, CHAPP'D, or HACK'D-HANDS, frost-bitten hands.
CHOPPING-BOY, a stout boy. Dr. John., dissatisfied with Skin-
ner's definition of lusty, says, " perhaps a greedy, hungry
child, likely to live," which is certainly erroneous.
CHOUL, or JOWL, the jaw. Sax. ceole.
CHRISTIAN-HORSES, a nickname for sedan-chairmen.
CHUCK, a shell. CHUCKS AND MARVELS, a game among chil-
CHUCKER, DOUBLE-CHUCKER. Terms well known among
CHUCKLE-HEADED, stupid, thick-headed.
CHURN, or KERN-SUPPER, harvest home. See MELL-SUPPER.
CLACK, excessive talking, clamour. Teut. Mack.
CLAG, to stick or adhere. Dan. klteg. CLAGGY, having the
property of sticking.
CLAGHAM, CLAGGUM, treacle made hard by boiling. Newc.
Called in other places in the North, clag-candy, lady's taste,
slittery, torn trot, and treacle ball.
CLAM, to castrate a bull or ram.
CLAM, to starve, to be parched with thirst. Dut. klemmen.
. When my entrails
Were clamm'd with keeping a perpetual fast.
Massinger, Rom. Actor.
CLAMMERSOME, greedy, rapacious, contentious. Dan. klawmcr-
CLAMP, to make a noise, to tread heavily in walking. Dut.
klompen. Sw. klampig.
CLAMPS, pieces of iron at the ends of a fire-place.
CL ANKER, a beating, a chastisement.
That day aw Hawks's blacks may rue,
They gat mony a very sair clanker, O ;
Can they de owse wi' Crowley's crew
Frev a needle tiv an anchor, O.
Song, Swalwell Hopping.
CLAP, to touch gently, to fondle, to pat. CLAP-BENNY, a re-
quest made to infants in the nurse's arms, to clap their
hands, as the only means they have of expressing their
prayers. Isl. klappa, to clap, and been, prayer.
CLAPPER, the tongue, especially when too voluble.
CLART, to daub, to bemire. CLARTS, plural of dirt or mire.
CLARTY, miry, dirty, wet, slippery.
CLASH, to gossip. Germ, klatschen, to prattle. Also to throw
any thing carelessly or violently.
CLAUT, to scratch or claw, to scrape together.
CLAVER, CLAVVER, to climb up ; mostly applied to children.
It seems to be a corruption of cleavering, or adhering, mixed
with the idea of climbing. '
CLAY-DAUBIN, a custom in Cumberland, where the neighbours
and friends of a new married couple assemble and don't
separate until they have erected them a cottage. From
the number of hands employed it is generally completed in
a day. The company then rejoice and make merry.
CLECK, CLOCK, to hatch. Isl. klek. A hen sitting, or desirous
of sitting on her eggs, is called a CLECKER, or CLOCKER.
CLECK or CLOCK, CLECKING or CLOCKING, the noise made by
a brooding hen, or when she is provoked. Isl. klak y clan-
CLECK, CLECKIN, the entire brood of chickens.
GLEET, a stay or support in carpentry.
CLEETS, pieces of iron worn by countrymen on their shoes.
CLEG, a fly, very troublesome in hot weather, particularly to
horses. Dan. klaeg.
CLEG, a clever person, an adept.
CLEGNING, CLEANING, the after birth of a cow.
CLEUGH, CLOUGH, a ravine, a valley, between two precipitous
banks, generally having a runner of water at the bottom.
Sax. dough. The admirers of old poetry are familiar with
Clym of the Clough, a noted archer, and the companion of
QUT celebrated Northern outlaws, Adam Bell nnd William
CLICK, to snatch hastily, to seize. Germ, klicken, to throw.
CLIFTY, well managing, actively industrious.
CLIP, to shear sheep. Dut. klippen. CLIPPING, a sheep-
CLISH-CLASH, CLISH-MA-CLAVER, idle discourse bandied about.
CLOFFEY, a slattern, a female dressed in a tawdry manner.
CLOGS, a sort of shoes, the upper part of strong hide leather,
and the soles of wood, plated with iron, often termed caw-
CLOINTER, to make a noise with the feet. A person treading
heavily with shoes, shod with iron, is said to clointer.
CLOIT, a clowr or stupid fellow. Teut. kloete.
CLOUTERLY, clumsy, awkward. Dut. kloekte.
CLUBBEY, a youthful game, something like doddart.
CLUMP, a heavy mass. Germ. Mump.
CLUMPY, CLUMPISH, awkward, unwieldy.
CLUNG, closed up or stopped ; shrivelled or shrunk.
CLUTHERS, in heaps. Welsh, cluder, a pile.
COALS. To call over the coals, is to give a severe reprimand.
Supposed to refer to the ordeal by fire.
COALY, COLEY, a cur dog. Gael, culie, a little dog. Also a
cant name among the boys for the lamp-lighter in Newcastle.
COB, to pull the ear. A punishment among children.
COBBY, COPPY, stout, hearty, lively ; also tyrannical, head-
strong, or in too high spirits.
COBLE, COABLE, COBBLE, a peculiar kind of boat, very sharp
in the bow, and flat bottomed and square at the stern ; na-
vigated with a lug sail. Used by the pilots and fishermen
on the North-east coast of England.
COBBLE, a pebble or stone that may be easily thrown or cobbled ;
in some places confined to a large round stone.
COBBLER' S-MONDAY, every Monday throughout the year a re-
gular holiday among the " gentle craft." I am told this
custom originated from the masters requiring the greater
part of the day to cut out the week's work.
COCK, a familiar salutation. " How are you, my cock ?"
COCKER, a man addicted to cock-fighting ; a diversion still very
prevalent among the lower orders, particularly the pitmen.
COCKET, or COPPET, pert, apish.
COCKS, a puerile game with the tough tufted stems of the rib-
wort plantain. V. Moor, Suif. Words.
CODD, a pillow or cushion. Sax. codde, a bag. Isl. kodde, a
CODDLE, to indulge with warmth. Old Fr. cadeler, to bring
COG, a wooden dish, a milk pail. Welsh, cawg y a bowl.
She set the cog upon her head,
An' she's gane singing hame !
Sail, of Cowdenknows.
COCKERS, COGGERS, or HOGGARS, properly half-boots made of
stiff-leather, or strong cloth, and strapped under the shoe ;
but old stockings without feet, used as gaiters, are often
COGLY, unsteady, moving from side to side, easily overturned.
COKE, to cry peccavi. Ruddiman says, it is the sound which
cocks utter, especially when they are beaten, from which
Skinner is of opinion they have the name of cock. Dr.
Jam. has to cry co/t, to acknowledge that one is vanquished,
which he derives from O. Celt, coc, mechant, vile.
COIL, a lump on the head from a blow ; also a great stir. In
the latter sense it is used by Shak. and Ben. Jon.
COIT, to throw. May be referred to the rural game of coils or
COLD-FIRE, a fire made ready for lighting.
COLLEY, butcher's meat.
COLLOGUING, conversing secretly, plotting. Lat. colloqui.
COLLOP-MONDAY, the day before Shrove Tuesday, on which
it is usual to have collops and eggs for dinner.
COLT-ALE, an allowance of ale claimed as a perquisite by the
blacksmith on the first shoeing of a horse. A customary
entertainment given by a person on first entering into a
new office, is called " Shoeing the colt.' 1
COMB, COUM, a confined valley. Welsh, cwm.
COME-THY-WAYS-HINNIE, come forward ; generally spoken to a
person in kindness.
COMFORTABLE, a covered passage boat on the river Tyne, so
called from its containing superior accommodations to
" Jemmy Joneson's Whurry ;" but little patronized since
the introduction of steam-packets.
COOK, to disappoint, to punish. " Aw'll cook you."
COOM, the dust and scrapings of wood, produced in sawing.
COMPETE, to rival, omitted by both John, and Todd.
CON, to fillip.
CORBY, a raven. Fr. corbeau.
CORF, a large basket made of strong hazle rods, called corf-rods,
in which the coals are drawn from the pits. Lat. coring.
CORNEY, half tipsey. Allusion obvious enough.
CORN-CRAKE, land-rail, or daker hen.
COSEY, snug, warm, comfortable. Fr. cozzi. V. Le Roux.
COT, a small bed or cradle. Old Fr. coite.
COTTED, CLOTTED, entangled, matted together. The word is
usually applied to hair or wool, as hankled is to silk, thread,
The loss o' the cotterels aw dinna regaird,
For aw've getten some white-heft o' Lunnun.
Song, Canny NeiecasseL
COTTERIL, a small iron bolt for a window.
COUL, to scrape together dung, mud, dirt, &c. COUL-RAKE,
the instrument by which this is performed.
COUNGE, a large lump, as of bread or cheese.
COUP, to empty, to overturn. To coup a cart to coup one's
creils. Sw. guppa, to tilt up.
COUP, COWP, to barter or exchange. Su.-Got. koepa. HORSE-
COUPERS, horse dealers.
A bonny sect when Tyne we saw,
It set wor hearts a loupen,
Is there a stream that's here belaw,
That wiv it's fit for coupon.
Song, % M. F., one of the Wultonian Club.
COUP-CART, a short team, closed with boards. Teut. kuype.
COUR, COWER, to stoop low, to crouch down by bending the
hams. Su.-Got. kure. " Cooring o'er the hearth stone."
COWE, Coo, to intimidate, to keep in subjection. Isl. kuga,
adigere. COWED, COOED, daunted, dastardly, timid.
COWED-COW, COWEY, a cow without horns.
COW-PAW'D, left handed.
COW-SHAREN, the leavings of the cow. Sax. scearn. Dung in
Teutonic, is sharn, and in Suio-Gothic, skarn. We have
also Skar-bud, an old word for a beetle ; supposed to be so
called from its being continually found under horse or cow
dung. It will astonish some of my South country readers
when I inform them that fresh cow-sharen is occasionally
applied, as a cooling poultice, to the faces of young dam-
sels in Northumberland, if over flushed with any cutaneous
COWSTROPPEL, a cowslip. Northumberland.
COW-WA, or HOW-WAY, come away !
COYSTRIL, a raw inexperienced lad ; a contemptible fellow.
He's a coward and a coyxtril that will not drink to my niece.
Shak. Twelfth Night.
CRACK, v. to brag or boast of any thing ; to praise it. Dut.
Ethiop's of their sweet complexion crack.
Sfuik. Love's Lab. Lost.
CRACK, s. chat, conversation, news. " What's your crack."
CRACKER, a small baking dish.
CRACKER, a small piece of glass shaped like a pear, and which,
when the small end is broken off, flies into a thousand
pieces ; Prince Rupert's drop.
CRACKET, a low stool.
CRACKS, an act of superiority. " I'll set you your cracks."
IN A CRACK, quickly, immediately.
CRAG, a rough steep rock. Pure British.
CRAME, to mend by uniting, as joining broken china, or wooden
bowls. V. Ray, cleam. CRAMER, the operator, generally
a travelling tinker.
CRAMMELLY, weak ; generally applied to walking. " The
horse goes rather crammelly this morning."
CRAMP, to contract, to crumple or pucker. Teut. krompen.
CRANCH, to crush a hard substance between the teeth. Round
sand thrown upon the floor is said to cranch under the
CRANKIES, a cant name for pitmen. See CRANKY.
The Crankies, farrer back nor I naw,
Hae gyen to Sizes to see trumpets blaw,
Wi' white sticks, an' Sheriff,
But warn't myed a sang of,
Nor laugh'd at, like clever Bob Cranky.
Song, Bob Cranky* s Complaint.
CRANKLE, weak, shattered. Teut. krank.
CRANKS, two or more rows of iron crooks in a frame, used as
CRANKY. That man in the village, who is most conspicuous
for dress, or who excels the rest of the villagers in the
sports and pastimes held in estimation amongst them, is
called, by way of pre-eminence, the Cranky. Dur. and
North. See CRANKIES.
CRANKY, a. sprightly, exulting, jocose. It also means, ailing,
sickly. Dut. krank.
CRATE, a sort of basket made rectangularly of strong, upright
rods inserted into cross pieces, and forming an open work
side for packing glass and pottery ware. Lat. crates.
CREE, to seeth ; hence creed wheat or barley.
CREIL, a kind of semi-circular basket of wicker work, in which
provender is carried to sheep in remote pastures, or on the
mountains, during the distress of a snow storm. Its sides
are stiff, and its bottom supple, serving for hinges. This is
called a sheep cm/, and is strapped over a man's shoulders.
Baskets for fish and eggs, pens for poultry, and wicker uten-
sils for various other purposes, are also called crcils in
Newcastle and the neighbourhood.
CREILED, placed or packed in a creil, as poultry or eggs.
CREWEL, fine worsted of various colours, now chiefly confined
to "what is used by females in learning embroidery. Lexi-
cographers seem not to have understood the meaning of the
word. One of the commentators on Shakspeare, quite
ignorant of its sense, might have spared his remarks.
CRIB, a child's bed. Not in Todd's John, in this sense.
CRIMBLE-I'-TH'-POKE, to fly from an agreement, to act cow-
CRINE, to pine, to shrink. Germ, kriechen.
CRINKLE, to wrinkle, to bend under a load.
CRIS-CROSS, the mark or signature of those who cannot write.
The alphabet was formerly called the Christ-cross row, pro-
bably from a superstitious custom of writing it in the form
of a cross, by way of charm.
CHOAKUM-SHIRE, a cant name for Northumberland, in which
Newcastle may be included, from the peculiar croaking in
the pronunciation of the inhabitants.
CROCK, a flake of soot in an open chimney ; also short under'
hair, in the neck ; and in some places an old ewe.
CROOK, a disease in sheep, causing the neck to be crooked.
CROON, CRUNE, to bellow like a disquiet ox. Dut. kreunen, to
groan. CROONING, the cry of the beast. It is also fre-
quently applied to the cowardly and petted roaring of a
She can o'er cast the night and cloud the moon,
And mak the deils obedient to her crune.
Ramsay, Gent. Shepherd.
CROSS-GRAINED, testy, ill-tempered.
CROSS-THE-BUCKLE, CROSS-OWRE-THE-BUCKLE, a peculiar and
difficult step in dancing. Newc. To do it well, is con-
sidered a great accomplishment.
Bob Inez thee at lowpin and flingin,
At the bool, foot-ball, clubby, and swingin :
Can ye jump up and shuffle,
And cross owre the buckle,
When ye dance ? like the clever Bob Cranky.
Song, Bob Crunky's 'Size Sunday.
CROWDY, a mess of oatmeal a genuine Northumbrian dish ;
especially when prepared and eaten, according to the ap-
proved receipt of the author of " Metres, addressed to the
Lovers of Truth," &c. See his admirable directions p.
213, 2d Edit.
CROWDY-MAIN, a riot, a mixture of high and low, any confu-
CRO\VLEY'S-CREW, sons of Vulcan attached to the extensive
iron works, at Winlaton and Swalwell, in the neighbour-
hood of Newcastle, established by Sir Ambrose Crawley
about 130 years ago, and said to be governed by a peculiar
code of their own.
CRUDDLE, to curdle. It also means, to crouch, to shrink.
Mr. Wilbraham has CREWDLE or CROODLE, to crouch to-
gether like frightened chickens on the sight of a bird of
CRUICK-YOR-HOUGH, crook-your-hough, sit down a friendly
Wiv huz i' the North, when aw ? m wairsh i' my way,
(But t' knaw wor warm hearts ye yor-sell come),
Aw lift the first latch, and baith man and dame say,
Cruick yor fwwgh, canny man, for ye're welcome.
Song, Canny Neivcassel.
CRUMP, hard, brittle, crumbling ; as bread or cake of that
CRUSE, CROOSE, or GROUSE, brisk, lively. " As crowse as a
new washen louse." Old Prov.
CRUT, a dwarf, or any thing curbed in its growth.
CRUTTLES, crumbs, broken pieces.
CUCKOO-SPIT, white frothy matter seen on certain plants in the
CUDDLE, to embrace, to squeeze, to hug. Teut. kudden.
Now aw think it's high time to be steppin,
We've sitten tiv aw's about lyem ;
So then, wiv a kiss and a cuddle,
These lovers they bent their ways heym.
Song, The Pitman's Courtship.
CUDDY, or CUDDY-ASS, an ass. Teut. kudde, grex. CUDDY' s-
LEGS, a barbarous unmeaning name for large herrings, pecu-
liar to the Newcastle fish market.
CULL, s. a fool. CULL, a. silly, foolish. " Thou'rt a cull" is
often used by a Northumbrian to cheat the devil of his
due, by avoiding the denunciation of calling his brother a
Some culls went hyem, some crush'd to town,
Some gat aboot by Whickham-o.
Song, Swalwell Hopping.
Our viewer sez, aw can't de better,
Than send him a story cull letter.
But writing a'll let rest ;
The pik fits maw hand best,
A pen's ower sma for Bob Cranky.
Song, Bob Crarikifs Complaint.
CULLY-SHANGEY, a riot or uproar.
CUNDY, CUNLIFP, a conduit.
CUR, a term of reproach ; as " ketty cur" a vile person.
CURFEW, the evening bell. Its origin and purpose are too
well known to need repetition here. I merely allude to it
for the purpose of stating that its name is still retained in
Newcastle, where it is rung at the original time eight in
CURN-BERRIES, currants. CHURRY-RIPE-CURN-BERRIES, New-
castle cry for currants.
CUSHAT, the ring dove, or wild pigeon. Major Moor is dispos-
ed to derive this pretty word from Coo-chat, that is cooing
and chattering; but I have little doubt the true etymo-
logy is Sax. cusceate, from cusc, chaste, in allusion to the
conjugal fidelity of the bird.
CUSHY-COW-LADY, a beautiful little scarlet beetle, with black
spots; sometimes called Lady-bird.
CUT, a quantity of yarn, twelve of which make what is called
a hank, the same as skain in the South.
CUT-AND-COME-AGAIN, a hearty welcome, plenty.
CUTE, quick, intelligent, sly, cunning, clever. Mr. Wilbraham
thinks this word is probably an abbreviation of acute, but
is it not more likely direct from Sax. cuth, expertus ?
CUTES, KUTES, the feet.
Did ever mortal see sic brutes,
To order me to lift my cutes.
Ad smash the fool, he stands and talks,
How can he leam me to walk,
That's walk'd this forty year, man ?
T/te Pitman's Revenge against Bonaparte.
CUTTER, to fondle, to make much of.
GUTTERING, the cooing of a pigeon. Also applied to private
or secret conversation. Dut. Jcouten.
CUTTY, short. Gael, cutach. CUTTY-GUN, a short pipe.
DAD, to shake, to strike. " A dad on the head." DAD-OF-
BREAD, a large piece of bread.
DADDLE, to walk unsteadily, to saunter or trifle. DAWDY, a
slattern. Isl. dauda doppa.
DADDLE, the hand. " Give us a shake of your daddleT
DADGE, DODGE, to walk in a slow clumsy manner.
DAFFLE, to betray loss of memory and mental faculty. Per-
sons growing old and in their dotage, are said to dqffle, and
to be dqffiers.
DAFT, simple, foolish, stupid. Su.-Got. doef, stupidus. Daffie
occurs in Chaucer, Peirs Ploughman, &c.
DAG, v. to drizzle. DAG, s. a drizzling rain. " Daggy day."
DAGGLE, or DRAGGLE, to bemire. DAGGLED, DRAGGLED, dir-
tied. "Draggle-tailed Dorothy-o !" According to Ray,
from dag, dew upon the grass. See DAG.
DAINTY, pleasant, worthy, excellent. Isl. daindis.
DAIRNS, small, unmarketable fish.
DAKER-HEN, land rail, or corn-crake.
DAME, DEAME, the mistress of the house. V. Note in Climb.
Ball. p. 65.
DANDY-CANDY, DOG'S-T*#D, candied sweetmeats. Newc.
DANG, a foolish evasion of an oath.
DANNAT or DONNOT, a good for nothing, idle person ; generally
a female. Do-naught. The devil, in Cumberland.
DAPPER-FELLOW, a pert, brisk, tidy little man.
DARK, DART, v. to listen with an insidious attention. Allied
to the old verb, dark, used by Chaucer, Spenser, and
DARK, a. blind. ALMOST DARK, nearly blind. QUITE DARK,
DARN, to mend stockings, &c. by chequering the threads.
Welsh, darn, to patch.
DASH-MY-EUTTONS, a moderated imprecation.
DAUBER, a plasterer. The ancient style of a branch of the
fraternity of bricklayers in Newcastle was Callers and Dau-
bers. The cat was a piece of soft clay thrust in between
the laths, which were afterwards daubed.
DAVER, to stun, to stupify. DAVERED, benumbed, stupified.
Teut. daveren, tremere.
DAW, to dawn. Sax. dcegian, to grow light.
The other side from whence the morning daws.
Dray ton, Polyolbion.
DAYTILMAN, DAYTALEMAN, a day labourer, chiefly in husbandry.
One who tills by the day.
DAZE, to dazzle, to stupify, to frighten. Teut. daesen, deli-
DAZED, blinded with splendour, astounded, benumbed with
DAZED-MEAT, meat ill roasted. DAZED-BREAD, bread not well
DEAD-HOUSE, a place in Newcastle for the reception of drowned
DEAD-NIP, a blue mark on the body, ascribed by the vulgar to
necromancy. V. Kilian, dood-nepe.
DEAF, rotten ; as a deaf nut. Teut. doove noot. Barren or
blasted ; as deaf corn, which is pure Saxon.
DEAN, DENE, properly a dell or deep wooded valley, with run-
ning water at the bottom, but applied to any hollow where
the ground slopes on both sides. Sax. den, a cave or lurk-
DEAVE, to deafen, to stupify with noise. Isl. deyfa.
DEBATEABLE-LANDS, large tracts of wild country, on the con-
fines of Northumberland, which were a continued source
of feud and contention, until all disputes respecting them
were compromised, under an arbitration, between the
houses of Percy and Douglas.
DEEDS, rubbish of quarries or drains.
DEBT, or DIGHT, to dress or clean, to winnow corn. Sax.
dihtan, parare, disponere. See KEEL-DEETERS.
DEFT, pretty, neat, clever, handy. Stated in Todd's John, to
be obsolete, but not so in the North. Sax. dceft, idoneus.
He said I were a deft lass. Brome's Northern Lass.
DEG, to moisten with water, to sprinkle. Sax. deagan, tingere.
This word, used by Shak. in the Tempest, is not in Todd's
John., nor in Nares.
DESSE, v. to lay close together, to pile up in order. DESS, s.
a truss of hay. Chaucer uses c?m, for a seat, and Spenser
has desse, a desk or table, from old Fr. dais.
DEUCE, the devil, or an evil spirit. " Deuce take him." St.
Austin makes mention of some libidinous demons, or
spirits, that used to violate the chastity of women, which
spirits, he says, the Gauls called duses (quos dusios nuncu-
pant Galli.) V. Aug. de Civit. Dei. 1. i. c. 23.
DICKY-WITH-HIM, all over with him. Said of a person when
ruined, or thwarted.
DIDDER, to shiver with cold. Germ, zittern, to tremble. V.
DIFFICULTER, more difficult. A common comparative.
DIKE, a ditch, hedge, or fence. Teut. dijck, agger. In a coal
. mine, it means a large crack or breach of the solid strata,
A depot for coals at the staith is also called a dyke.
DILL, to soothe pain. Isl. dilla, lallare.
DING, to dash with violence. Su.-Got. daenga, tundere.
DING-DOWN, ding-doon, to overthrow. Very common.
DING, to push or drive. Sax. denegan, to beat.
DINMAN, or DINMONT, a female sheep after the first shearing.
DINNEL, DINNLE, or DiNDLE, to be affected with a prickling or
shooting pain, as if of a tremulous short motion in the par-
ticles of one's flesh ; such as arises from a blow, or is felt
in the fingers when exposed to the fire after frost. Dut.
tintelen, to tingle.
DIRDOM, DURDUM, a great noise, or uproar. Gael, diardan,
anger. Welsh, dwrdd, a stir.
DIRL, to move quickly, to thirl, to whiz. Sax. thirlian, per-
'Twas but yestreen, nae farther gaen,
I threw a noble throw at ane ;
Wi' less, I'm sure, I've hundreds slain ;
It just play'd dirl on the bane,
But did nae mair.
Burns t Death and Doctor Hon/hook,
DISGEST, digest. Used by Beaum. and Flet. and others.
DISH-FACED, hollow faced.
DISHER, a maker of wooden bowls or dishes.
DIPNESS, depth. Isl. diup. altum.
DIZENED, BEDIZENED, dressed, decorated.
I put m} r clothes off, and I dizcn'd him.
Beaum. $ Flet. Pilgrim.
DOBBIES, spirits or demons. They appear to be of different
kinds. Some attached to particular houses or farms are
of a good humoured disposition, and though naturally lazy,
are said to make, in cases of trouble and difficulty, incre-
dible exertions for the advantage of the family ; such as
stacking all the hay, or housing the whole crop of corn in
one night. Others residing in low granges or barns, or
near antiquated towers or bridges have a very different
character imputed to them. Among other pranks, they
will sometimes jump behind a horseman, and compress
him so tightly, that he either perishes before he can reach
his home, or falls into some lingering and direful malady.
DOCKON, the dock, rumex obtusifolius. A charm is connected
with the medicinal application of this plant. If a person
be severely stung with a nettle, it is customary to collect
a few dock leaves, to spit on them, and then to rub the
part affected, repeating the incantation, " In dockon, out
nettle," till the violent smarting and inflammation subside
seldom exceeding ten minutes. These words are said to
have a similar effect with those expressed in the old Monk-
ish adage, "Exeat ortica, tibi sit periscelis arnica;" the
female garter bound about the part which has suffered,
being held a remedy equally efficacious. Mr. Wilbraham
remarks that," In dock, out nettle" is a kind of proverbial
saying, expressive of inconstancy. This observation will
contribute to explain an obscure passage in Chaucer's
Troilus and Creseide, b. iv. st. 66.
'* Thou biddest me I should love another
** All freshly new, and let Creseide go,
" It lithe nat in my power, leve brother,
" And though I might, yet would I nat do so,
" But canst thou plaien raket to and fro,
" Nettle in, dock out, now this, now that, Pandare ?
" Now foule fall her for thy wo that care."
DODD, to cut wool from and near the tails of sheep. BCD-
DINGS, the cuttings. Dod, to lop, as a tree, is an old word.
" Dodder'd oak." i
DODDART, a bent stick with which the game of doddart is play-
ed. Two captains choose their party by alternate votes,
when a piece of globular wood, called an orr or coit, is
thrown down in the middle of a field, and each side endea-
vours to drive it to the alley, hail, or goal. Same as
cltibbey, hockey, shinney, shinneyhaw.
DODDED, without horns, as dodded sheep. Perhaps an abbre-
viation of doe-headed.
DODDER, BOTHER, to shake, to tremble ; to nod, as in the
palsy of decrepitude. DODDER-GRASS, quaking grass, briza.
DODGE, to jog, to incite.
DODY, a corruption of George, applied only to children, and
originating in a childish pronunciation of Georgee, by the
common infantile substitution of d for g, and the not un-
common omission of r, especially in Newcastle, when a
broad vowel precedes.
DOFF, to undress, to put off. From do of. See DON.
Thou wear'st a lion's liide.
Doff" it for shame Sftak. King John.
DOG, a wooden utensil in form of a dog, with iron teeth, for
toasting bread. Also a piece of iron placed at each end of
a fire place to keep up the fire.
DOLE, to set out or allot ; applied to land. Sax. dcelan to di-
vide. In Cumb. a narrow plot of ground in a common
field, set out by land-marks, is called a DEAIL.
DOLE, grief, sorrow, lamentation. Old Fr. dol, dole. Mod.
Fr. deuil. By no means obsolete, as stated in Todd's
John. Alms distributed at funerals are still called doles.
DON, to dress, to put on. An old word froa do on. Stated
in Todd's John, to be obsolete ; but it i common use
in the North See DOFF
DONCY, affectedly neat, accompanied with the idea of self-im-
DOOK, or DUCK, to bathe. Dut. ducken.
DOOSE, DOUCE, DOUSE, snug, comfortable, clean, neat, tidy,
sweet-looking applied to a beautiful and attractive wo-
man. Lat. dulcis. Fr. doux, douce.
DOOSE, DOUCE, a blow. " Doose-i'-the-chops," a blow on the
face. DOOSEY, or DOOSEY-CAP, a punishment among boys.
DOUBLE, to clench. " He doubled his neif."
DOUP, DOWP, clunes. Isl. Dof. " As fine as F**ty-Poke's
Wife, who dressed her doup with primroses." A New-
DOUTSOME, hesitating, uncertain as to the event.
Dow, Doo, a little cake. See YULE-DOW.
DOWLY, lonely, melancholy, sorrowful. " A dowly place"
" a dowly lot."
DOWN-COME, a fall in the market, or indeed in any other sense.
DOWN-DINNER, tea, or any afternoon's repast. V. Bouch.
DOWN-HOUSE, the back kitchen.
DOWN-IN-THE-MOUTH, dispirited, dejected, disheartened.
DOWN-LYING, an accouchement.
DOWP, a carrion crow.
DOWPY, the smallest and last-hatched of a breed of birds.
DOXY, a sweetheart ; but not in the equivocal sense used by
Shak. and other play writers.
DOZENED, spiritless, impotent, withered.
DRABBL'D, DRABBLE-TAILED, dirtied. Draggled.
DRAFF, brewers' grains, with which cows amcl swine are fed.
Teut. draf. Both Hanmer and Johnson have misinter-
preted this Shakspearian word, and Nares hath perpetuated
DRAPE, a cow whose milk is dried up. Sax. drepen, to fail
having failed to give milk. Drape sheep, oves rejiculae,
credo ab A. S. drape, expulsio, draped, abactus. Skinner.
DRAUP, DREAP, to drawl, to speak slowly and monotonously.
DRAWK, DRACK, to saturate with water. Su.-Got. draenka,
DREAP, to drench. " Dreaping o' wet."
DREE, to suffer, to endure. Sax. dreogan, to undergo.
He did great pyne and meikle sorrow dree Ross, Helenore.
DREE, weary, long, tediously tiresome. Apparently a rapid
pronunciation of Germ, durre, dry, both in a physical and
metaphorical sense ; but see Dr. Jam. In Northumberland,
within the memory of old people, the farmers had a sort
of cart without wheels, drawn by one horse, called a dree.
DRESSER, a long chest of drawers about three feet high, with
an opening in the centre for pots and pans, making a sort
of kitchen table. Teut. dressoor. Fr. dressoir, a side-board.
DRIBLET, " a small sum ; odd money in a sum." Dr. John.
It, however, means a small inconsiderable thing of any sort.
DRIP, stalactites, or petrefactions.
DRONING, a lazy indolent mode of doing a thing. Dronish is
a very old word.
DROUGHT, DRAUGHT, a team of horses in a cart or waggon,
both collectively taken.
DRUMLY, DRUMMELY, muddy, confused. Misled by Hanmer
and Pegge, to drumble is in Todd's John, misinterpreted
to drone, to be sluggish. The example from Shale. Merry
Wives of Windsor, " Look how you drumble" unquestion-
ably means how confused you are.
Then bouses drumly German water,
To mak himsel look fair and fatter.
Burns, Twa Dogs.
DRUNKARD'S-CLOAK, a great tub or barrel of a peculiar con-
struction, for the punishment of drunkards in Newcastle.
V. Gardiner's Englands Grievance, p. in., and Brand's
History of Newc. vol. ii, p. 192.
DRUVE, DRUVY, dirty, muddy. Sax. ge-drefan, turbare.
DDE, a small pool of water ; a piece of deep and smooth wa-
ter in a rapid river. Mre.-Got. diep, deep. Celt, dubh, a
DUBLER, DOUBLER, a large dish of earthenware. Dobeler is in
Peirs Ploughman. " Mugs and dublers, wives !" Newc.
DUB-SKELPER, bog-trotter ; applied to the borderers.
DUCKET, a dove-cot.
DUCKS AND DRAKES, a pastime. Flat stones or slates are
thrown upon the surface of a piece of water, so that they
may dip and emerge several times, without sinking. " Nei-
ther cross and pile, nor ducks and drakes, are quite so an-
cient as handy-dandy." Arbuthnot and Pope, quoted in
Todd's John. I do not know the age of handy-dandy, but
the sport of ducks and drakes is of high antiquity, being ele-
gantly described by Minutius Felix.
DUD, a rag. Gael. dud. DUDS, clothes of a dirty or inferior
kind. V. Jam. DUDMAN, a scare-crow.
DULLBIRT, DULBURT, DuLBARD, a stupid person, a blockhead.
DULL, hard of hearing. Same in Scotland.
DUMFOUNDED, perplexed, confused. V. Jam. dumfounder.
DUMPY, sullen. IN THE DUMPS, a fit of sullenness. Dut.
dom, dull, stupid.
DUNGEONABLE, shrewd, or as the vulgar express it, devilish.
As Tartarus, signifies hell and a dungeon ; so dungeon is
applied to both. Ray.
DUNSH, DtmcH, to push or jog with the elbow. Teut. donsen.
DUNTER, a porpoise.
DUSH, to push with violence. Teut. doesen, pulsare cum im-
DUST, tumult, uproar. " To kick up a dust." Su.-Got. dyst,
dusty tumultus, fragor. Also money. " Down with your
DWINE, to pine, to be in a decline or consumption. Sax. dwi-
nan, tabescere. DWINY, ill thriven. DWAIN, a fainting
fit, or swoon.
And then hee sickened more and more, and dried and
divined away. Hist. Prince Arthur, part 3, chap. 175-
EALD, old age. Pure Saxon. Chaucer has elde, and Shak.
EAM, EAME, uncle. Sax. eame.
Henry Hotspur, and his eame,
The Earl of Wor'ster Drat/ton, Polyolbion.
The nephues straight deposed were by the eame.
Mirror for Magistrates.
EAR, a kidney, as the ear of veal. It is supposed to be so
called from its resemblance to an ear, and being a name
more delicate than kidney j but it is probably a corruption
of Germ, mere, a kidney. The old name, presenting a less
familiar idea, might be retained from Delicacy, as the old
French words mutton, veal, beef, and pork, are considered
less offensive than sheep, calf, ox, and pig, when these
animals are brought to table.
EARN, YEARN, to coagulate milk. V. Ihre, ranna.
EARNING, YEARNING, rennet. Sax. gerunning.
EASINGS, eaves of a house* Sax. efese. Peirs Ploughman has
EATH, EITH, easy. Sax. eaih.
Where ease abounds yt's eath to do amiss. Spenser, F. Q.
EAVER, EEVER, a corner or quarter of the heavens. V. Wilb.
and see ART.
EDDER, the long part of fence wood put upon the top of
fences. Dr. John, says, not in use ; but I have heard it
in most of the Northern counties.
Save edder and stake
Strong hedge to make Tnsser, Husbandry.
EE, singular of eye. Sax. eag. EEN, plural. Sax. eagan.
Chaucer uses eyen, for the eyes.
EE, a spout ; as the mill-ee.
EELEATORS, young eels from two to five inches long. Hordes
of little urchins wander about the shores of the Tyne,
at low water, in search of them under the stones. When
secured by the head, they use the following jargon,
" Eele ! Eeleaator ! cast your tail intiv a knot, and aw'l
thraw you into the waater."
EEM, leisure. Seldom, I think, used, except in Cumb. V.
EGG, EGG-ON, to instigate, to incite. Sax. eggian.
Wherfore, they that eggen or consenten to the sinne,
been partners of the sinne, and of the dampna-
tion of the sinner. Chaucer, Persones Tale.
EGGLER, a person who goes about the country collecting eggs
EIGH, EYE, AYE, yes. The use of this adyjerb is perhaps more
characteristic of a Northern dialect than any other word
that could be named, as it is nearly universal and uniform ;
though it is probable it was at first merely a provincial
mode of pronouncing the old ya. So far as I remember,
it does not occur in Chaucer ; nor am I aware that it is to
be met with in any publication, older than the time of
EKE-OUT, to use sparingly. Chaucer has eeke y to add to, to
ELBOW-GREASE, hard rubbing, or any persevering exercise
with the arms. " Lucernum olere," old Prov.
ELDIN, ELDING, fuel, such as turf, peat, or wood. Sax. eelet.
Isl. elldr. Dan. ild.
ELF-LOCKS, entangled or clotted hair. It was supposed to be
a spiteful amusement of Queen Mab, and her subjects, to
twist the hair of human beings, or the manes and tails of
horses, into hard knots, which it was not fortunate to
This is that very Mab,
That plats the manes of horses in the night ;
And bakes the elf-locks in foul sluttish hairs,
Which, once untangled, much misfortune bodes.
ShaJc. Rom. and Jul,
ELF-SHOTS, the name vulgarly given to the flint arrow heads
of our ancestors, supposed to have been shot by fairies.
There every herd, by sad experience knows
How wing'd with fate, their elf-shot arrows fly,
When the sick ewe her summer food foregoes,
Or stretch'd on earth the heart-smit heifers lie.
Ode, Pop. Superstit. Highlands , p. 10.
ELL-DOCKENS, butter bur, great colts'-foot. Tusselago major.
ELLEK, ELLICK, Alexander.
EU.ER, ALLER, the alder, Sax. eelr. Germ, eller. This
tree abounds in the North more than in any other part of
the kingdom, and seems always to have been there held in
great respect and veneration. A contrary notion coun-
tenanced by Shakspeare has, however, prevailed, in con-
quence of Judas, as it is said, having been hanged on a
tree of this kind ; but for which I have in vain searched
for an ancient authority.
ELL-MOTHER, step mother.
ELSE, already. Sax. dies.
ELSIN, ELSON, an awl. Teut. aelsene, subula. " A cobbler's
END-IRONS, two large moveable iron plates used to contract
the fire place. When a great fire is wanted they are placed
at a distance; and nearer for a small one. V. Skinner,
ENOO, ENOW, by and by. " Aw'l come enoo."
ESH, the ash tree. Teut. esch.
ETOW, or ATOO, broken in two.
ETTLE, to intend, to attempt, to take aim. V. Ihre. cetla.
EVENDOON, even down, plain, honest, downright. " Even doon-
EVIL-EYE, an envious, malicious eye.
You shall not find me, daughter,
After the slander of most step-mothers,
Evil-eyed unto you. Sliak. Cymleline.
The superstitious supposed the first morning glance of a
person with an evil-eye to be certain destruction to man
or beast. Though the effect might not be instantaneous,
it was eventually sure. If he, who had this unfortunate
propensity, were well disposed, he cautiously glanced his
eye on some inanimate object, to prevent the direfiil con-
sequences. Connected with an evil-eye, is a common ex-
pression in the North, " no one shall say black is your eye,"
i. e. no body can justly speak ill of you.
Doll, in disdaine, doth from her heeles defie ;
The best that breathes shall tell her Mack's far eye :
And that it's true she speaks, who can say nay ?
When none that lookes on't but will sweare 'tis gray.
Tho' he no worth a plack is,
His awn coat on his back is,
And nane can say that black is,
The white o' Johnny's ee.
Song, The Keel Row.
EWE-GOWAN, the common daisy.
EWER, URE, YURE, an udder.
FAD, fashioned. " 111 fad." The Scotch have ill-faur'd, ill
favoured, and weel-faur'd, well favoured. In Promptorium
Parvulorum sive Clericorum,we find, "comlyorwell/an/?zge
in shape ; elegans ;" and in Hormanni Vulgaria, we have,
"he looked unfaringly, aspectu fuit incomposito." See
FAD, FAUD, a bundle of straw, twelve of which make a thrave.
FADGE, a bundle, as of sticks. Sw.fagga, onerare.
FADGE, a small flat loaf, or thick cake. Fr.fouace.
FAGGOT, a contemptuous epithet for a female. " Faggot of
misery." " Idle Faggot."
FA IKES ! FAIX ! faith, upon my faith.
FAIN, glad. " Fair words make fools fain." Prov. Sax.
Ah York, no man alive aojfaw'as I.
ShaK. 2. Hen. VI.
* . * " -
FAIR, FAIRING, a present at or from a fair. " How are you
for my fair ?" " How are you for mine, aw spoke first."
FAIR-FALL-YOU, a blessing attend you.
FAIRY-BUTTER, a fungus excrescence, sometimes found about
the roots of old trees. After great rains, and in a certain
degree of putrefaction, it is reduced to a consistency, which,
together with its colour, makes it not unlike butter.
FAIRY-RINGS, circles of dark green grass, frequently visible in
meadow fields; round which, according to Fairy mytho-
logy, these " pretty ladies" were accustomed to dance by
" Those rings and roundelayes
which yet remaine,
On many a grassy plaine."
They do request you now
To give them leave to dance a fairy-ring.
The footseps of fairy and fay
In the grassplot are plain to be seen,
Where at midnight, in dancing the hay,
They lighten the cares of their Queen.
Derwent, an Ode, p. 12.
FAMILOUS, relating to a family. " 'Tis a familous complaint."
1 FAND, found.
FANTOME-CORN, lank, light corn. FANTOME-HAY, light, well
gotten hay, V. Ray.
FARAND, s. state of preparation for a journey fashion, man-
ner, custom. FARAND-MAN, a traveller or itinerant mer-
chant. FARANT, a. equipped for a journey fashioned,
shaped ; as fighting-farant, in the fighting way or fashion ;
well or ill-farant, well or ill looking. See AUD-FARANT.
FARANTLY, adv. orderly, in regular or established modes.
All these expressions may be traced to the old verb
FARE, (from Sax.jfaraw,) to be on a journey. We may, as
remarked by Dr. Willan, wonder at the ideas of foresight,
preparation, and formal style, connected with a journey in
our island ; but on reverting to the time of the Heptarchy,
when no collateral facilities aided the traveller, we shall be
convinced that a journey of any considerable extent, must
have been an undertaking that would require much previous
calculation, and nice arrangement. Indeed, within the last
century, what we now call a trip from Newcastle to Lon-
don, was considered so perilous an enterprize, that the
traveller, as a necessary precaution, regularly made a will,
and arranged his most important affairs.
FARE, to near or approach. " The cow fares a-calving."
FARLIES, trifles. " Spying farlies." FAROES, or FERLIES,
strange things; properly sudden, or unexpected. Sax.
ferlice. The word occurs in Peirs Ploughman, and in the
writings of Chaucer, Drayton, and others.
FARN, or FAREN-TICKLED, freckled, sun burnt. FARN-TICKLES,
freckles on the skin ; said to be from resembling the seeds
of the fern -freckled with fern; but perhaps, fair and
tickled, fair and freckled.
FASSENS-EEN, Fastings-even, Shrove Tuesday evening. The
eve of the mass of the great feast, orfeasting's even.
FASH. v. to trouble, to teaze. " I cannot be fash'd." Fr.
facher. FASH, s. trouble, care, anxiety. Fr. facherie.
FASIIIOUS, a. troublesome. ~Fr.facheiu',facheuse.
FAST AND LOOSE, or PRICK IN THE BELT, a cheating game^ still
occasionally practised byfaws, and low sharpers at fairs.
FAT-HEN, muck weed, or goose foot. Chenopodium album.
FAUD, FAD, fold yard. PIN-FAD, pinfold. Sax.fald, stabulum.
FAUGH, fallow. Mr. Wilbraham says an abbreviation of the
word ; but is it not from Isl. faaga, polire, or Su.-Got.
feia vel futia, purgare ?
FAVOUR, to resemble, to have a similar countenance or appear-
ance. " He favours his father." Cheshire has no exclu-
sive claim to this word. V. Wilb.
Good Faith, me thinks that this young Lord Chamont
Favours my mother, sister, doth he not ?
Ben Jon, Case is Altered.
FAWS, itinerant tinkers, or venders of pottery ware ; generally
accompanied by their wives and families. Like their an-
cestors the gipsies, the female branches are still famous at
palmistry and fortune telling. In Lodge's Illustrations of
Brit. Hist. vol. i., p. 135, is a curious letter from the Jus-
tices of Durham to the Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Presi-
dent of the Council in the North, dated 19th Jan. 1549,
concerning the gipsies and faws. FAW-GANG, a company
FEAL, to hide. " He that feals can find." Prov. Isl.fel,
FEARFUL, FEARFOO, very, exceeding. " Fearful sorry" very
FEAT, neat, dextrous. Su.-Got. fatt, apt, ready. FEATLY,
She dances f catty Shak. Winter's Talc.
FECK, might, activity, abundance. Perhaps Sax.faeck, space.
In Scotland, Feck, is quantity; many feck, plenty; little
feck, scarcity. Germ. fach, a portion or compartment ;
ein fach, single; twey fach, double; mehr fetch, many fold.
FECKFUL, strong, powerful, brawny.
FECKLESS, feeble, helpless, inefficient.
FELL, s. a rocky hill, a mountain or common scarcely admit-
ting of cultivation. Isl. fell, one mountain resting on
another. Su.-Got. fiaell, a ridge of mountains. Germ.
fels, a rock.
FELL, a. sharp, keen. Hence fell, savage, cruel, &c.
FELLON, a disease in cows, occasioned by cold. Skinner de-
rives it from Sax. fette, cruel, on account of the anguish
the complaint occasions ; and the author of the Crav. Gloss,
from Dut. felen or feylen, to fail ; because milch cows,
which are subject to it, fail of giving their milk ; or from
hellen, to bow or hang down, as the udders of cows are
frequently enlarged in this disease. A cutaneous eruption
in children is also called the fellon.
Hisfcltrcd locks that on his bosom fell. Fairfax.
FEMMER, weak, slender. Isl./rawmr, mollis.
FEN, to appear to do any thing neatly, or adroitly, not to be
deterred by shame. FENSOME, neat, becoming, adroit.
" I cannot fen," signifies I am restrained by a sort of awe
arising from the presence of some person for whom I hare
a respect or dread.
FEND, to make a shift, to be industrious, to struggle with diffi-
culties, to ward off. " He fends hard for a living." It is
also used in allusion to the state of health, as "how fends
it," z. e. how are you in health. FENDY, good at making
a shift, warding off want. Fend, is an old word for sup-
FEND AND PROVE, to argue and defend.
FERE, FIBRE, a brother, friend, or companion. Sax. gefera,
And here's a hand, my trusty fere,
And gie's a hand o' thine :
And we'll tak a right gude willie-waught,
For auld lang syne. Burns, Auld Lang Syne.
The word is used by Spenser for a husband.
But faire Clarissa to a lovely fere
Was lincked, and by him had many pledges dere.
Spencer, Faerie Queene.
FEST, to bind or place out an apprentice under an indenture..
Su.-Got. faesta, to fasten. FESTING-PENNY, money given
by way of earnest, to a servant, at a hiring.
FEST, or THE FEST, a place at the Quay, Newcastle, where
keelmen generally receive their orders.
There pitmen, with baskets and gay poesy waistcoats,
Discourse about nought but whee puts and hews best ;
There keelmen, just landed, swear may they be stranded ;
If they're not shav'd first while their keel's at the /a*.
Song, Quayside Shaver.
FETTLE, v. to put in order, to repair or mend any thing that is
broken or defective. Dr. John, explains this word " to
do trifling business, to ply the hands without labour," and
calls it a cant word from feel. Mr. Todd corrects this
mistake, and quoting Grose's definition which is different
from that here assigned to it, thinks it probably comes from
Su.-Got.fykt, studium. The word has the same meaning
in Cheshire as that which I have given, and Mr. Wilbra-
ham says, " it appears to me to be derived with some de-
flection of the word, faire, to do, which itself comes from
the Latin facere. The nearest which occurs to me is the
73 , FETT
old French word faiture, which has exactly the same mean-
ing as our substantive fettle, and is explained by Roque-
fort, in his Glossaire de la Langue Romaine, by Fapon,
mode, forme" fyc.
FETTLE, s. order, good condition, proper repair. Used by
Roger Ascham, in his Toxophilus.
FEW, is used not only for a small number, but also for a little
quantity ; as a " little few broth.'*
FIDDLESTICK, an inter] ectional expression of disbelief or doubt,
usually bestowed on any absurd, nonsensical conversation.
FIDGING, uneasy, impatient.
FIG, to supply ginger to a horse, to excite him to carry a fine
tail. A common practice at fairs.
FIKE, v. to fidget, to be restless or busied about trifles. Su.-
Got.fika, cursitare. FIKE, s. restlessness, trifling cares.
FIKEY, a. fidgetty, minutely troublesome.
FILE, to soil, to foul, to defile. Sax. afylan, contaminare.
FINNIKING, FINNIKY, trifling, scrupulously particular. Perhaps
variations of 'finical.
FIPPLE, the under lip. " See how he hangs his fipple^ V.
FIRST-FOOT, the name given to the person who first enters a
house on New Year's Day regarded by the superstitious
and the credulous as influencing the fate of the family, espe-
cially the fair part of it, for the remainder of the year. To
exclude all suspected or unlucky persons, I find, it is cus-
tomary for one of the damsels to engage, before hand, some
favoured youth, who elated with so signal a mark of female
distinction gladly comes early in the morning, and never
FISSLE, FISTLING, to make a rustling noise, to fidget. Tent,
FITT, to vend or load coals. FITTER, the vender or loader.
RUNNING-FITTER, his deputy.
FIX-FAX, a sort of gristle, the tendon of the neck. Germ.
Fizz, to scorch, to fly off, to make a hissing noise. Isl.fysa.
FIZ-GIG, a comical person. FIZZLE, a jocular name for
a mistake of the most offensive kind.
FIZZOG, PHYSIOG, the face. Contraction of Physiognomy.
FLACKER, to flutter, to vibrate like the wings of a bird under
alarm, to quiver. Su.-Got. fieckra. Germ, flackern.
Flicker is used by Chaucer and Shakspeare.
FLAH, FLAW, a square piece of turf, dried and used as fuel.
Sax./eaw, to flay off.
FLAM, a fall also flattery bordering on a lie.
FLAPPER-GHASTED, frightened, as if by a ghost. Moor has
flabber-gasted, astonished, confused.
FLAUT, FLOUGHT, a roll of wool carded ready for spinning.
FLAY, to frighten. FLAY'D, affrighted, terrified, timorous.
" Aw's flayed," I'm afraid. FLAYING, an apparition or hob-
goblin. FLAY-SOME, frightful. FLAY-CRAW, a scare-crow.
FLEA-BITE, FLEE-BITE, a ludicrous designation for any trivial
pain or danger.
FLECKED, spotted, streaked. Isl.Jlecka, discolor.
FLEECH, to supplicate in a flattering manner, to wheedle.
Teut.Jletsen. FLEECHING, flattering, supplicating.
FLEE or FLY-BY-THE-SKY, a silly, flirting, absurdly dressed, gig-
FLEET, shallow ; as a fleet pan or vessel, fleet water. Sax.
FLEET-MILK, milk without cream ; from the vedo fleet > to skim
off the surface.
FLEING-EATHER, flying-adder, the pond or marsh fly. The vul-
gar are afraid of being stung by it.
FLICK of bacon, a side or flitch of bacon. SzK.flicce.
Another broughte a spycke
Of a bacon flicke Skelton.
FLIGGED, fledged. " Flig'd o'er the doup" Isl. fldgur ;
hence fliggers, young birds that can fly.
FLINDERS, shreds, broken pieces, splinters. Dut. flentern.
FLING, to dance in a peculiar manner, as the Highland fling.
Also to kick.
The angry beast,
Began to kick andfting.
Butler , Hudibras.
FLIRE, to laugh, or rather to have a countenance expressive of
laughter, without laughing out. 1s\.Jlyra t subridere.
FLISK, to skip or bounce. " She's v.flisky jade," Su.-Got.
flasa y lascivire, or Sw.Jlasig, frolicksome.
FLIRTIGIG, a wanton, giggling lass.
FLIT, to remove from one habitation to another, Su.-Got.
fiytta. FLITTING, the act of removing. MOONLIGHT-FLIT-
TING, going away in debt to the landlord.
FLITE, to scold, to make a great noise. Sax.^ztew, to brawl.
FLITING, scolding, brawling.
FLITY, giddy, light headed. " kflity body."
FLOW, PLOUGH, cold, windy, boisterous, bleak. " Its flow
weather." " Here's a flow day."
FLOWTER, a fright. FLOWTERED, affrighted.
FLUCK, FLOOR, FLUCKER, JENNY-FLUCKER, a flounder. Sax.
floe, a flat fish.
FLUNG, deceived, beaten. " He was sadly flung."
FLUSTERATION, hurry, confusion, sudden impulse.
FLY-BY-NIGHT, a worthless person who gets into debt, and runs
off, leaving the house empty.
FOG, the grass grown in autumn after the hay is mown.
One with another they would lie and play,
And in the deep fog batten all the day. Drayton.
FOIST, to smell musty. Not in Todd's John, as a verb.
FOOTING, an entertainment given on entering at a school, or on
any new place or office.
FOND, foolish. An old Northern word. FOND-AS-A-BUSSOM,
remarkably silly, ridiculously good-natured.
FORCE, or FORSE, a cascade or waterfall. Su.-Got. fors, a
cataract. The High Force in Teesdale is an object of great
FOREBY, besides, over and above. Dan.forbi, by, past, over.
FORE-ELDER, an ancestor. Sax. forealdian.
FoRE-EiN 7 D, the beginning of a week, month, or year.
I have lived at honest freedom ; pay'd
More pious debts to heaven than in all
The fore-end of my time.
FORE-HEET, forethought ; from FORE-HEED, to pre-consider.
HAVING-TO-THE-FORE, having any thing ready or forth-
FOBENENST, opposite to, over against, towards as in part pay-
ment of a debt.
FORKIN-ROBBIN, an ear wig ; so called from its forked tail.
FOUMART, FOOMART, a pole cat. Foulmart. Old Eng. fuli-
FOZY, FUZZY, light and spungy. Sax. wosig, humidus. Teut.
FOUT, FOWT, an indulged or spoiled child ; any foolish person.
FOUTER, a despicable low fellow. FOUTY, FOOTY, base, mean.
Old Fr.foutu, a scoundrel.
FRAME, to attempt. " He frames well" he appears to do it
well. " How does he frame" how does he set about it.
Sax.fremman, efficere et formare.
FRATCH, to scold, to quarrel. FRATCHER, a scold, or quarrel-
FRATISHED, perished, half frozen.
FREELAGE, the freedom, or privilege, of a burgess. Ncwc.
Germ, frilatz, free.
FREET, FREIT, a spectre or frightful object, a superstitious ob-
servance or charm. Isl.frett, an oracle.
FREM'D, strange, foreign, not related to. FREM'D-PERSON, a
stranger. Sax. and Germ, frem'd. Dan. fremmct. The
word is also used to denote any thing uncommon. " It's
rather frem^d to be ploughing with snow on the ground."
FRESH, the swelling of a river, a flood, a thaw.
The butter, the cheese, and the bannocks,
Dissolved like snow in afresh,
And still as they stuck in their stomachs,
With liquor they did them down wash.
Tlie Mitford Galloway's Ramble.
FRESH, metaphorically, partly intoxicated. Fou, quite tipsey.
DRUNK as Newgate, DRUNK as a lord, completely be-
FRET, FREET, to lament, to grieve. " She freets dreadfully
after the bairns."
FRETTEN, spotted, marked ; as pock-fretten. Sax. frothian,
FRIDAY. This in the calendar of superstition is a day of ill
omen, on which no new work or enterprize must be begun.
Marriages, I believe, seldom happen on it, from this cause.
Dr. Buchanan, in his interesting paper on the religion and
literature of the Burmas (Asiatic Researches, vol. 6. p> 172)
informs us, that with them " Friday is a most unlucky day
on which no business must be commenced."
" Friday's moon,
Come when it will, it comes too soon." Prov.
FRIM, handsome, thriving, in good case. Sax./ra>w, fortis.
FROATING, anxious, unremitting industry.
FROUGH, loose, spungy, easily broken ; often applied to wood,
as brittle is to mineral substances.
FROW, FROWE, a slattern, a lusty female. Dut. mow. Germ.
Buxom as Bacchus' frocs.
Beaum. $ FlcL Wit at scv. Weapons.
FRUGGAN, the pole with which the ashes in an oven are stirred.
FUDDER, FOOTHER, f other, as much as a two-horse cart will
contain. Sax. /other, a wain-load.
FUDDLE, food ale, drinking to excess, so as to make ale the
Oh ! the rare virtues of this barley broth ;
To rich and poor it's meat and drink and cloth.
Praise of Yorkshire Ale, p. 6.
" Merrily, merrily fuddle thy nose,
" Until it right rosy shall be ;
" For a jolly red nose, I speak under the rose,
" Is a sign of good company."
FUDDLE, to intoxicate fish. Unacknowledged by Waltonians.
FUDGE, fabulous. Sax..ftzgan, according to Skinner, a merry
story. FUDGY, a little fat person.-w-Crau. Gloss.
FUFF, to blow or puff. Germ. pfuJfen.FvFFY, light and soft.
FUR, a furrow. Sax. fur. RIG-AND-FUR, ridge and furrow.
" Rig and furr'd stockings."
1?usBA,fuzzball, a fungus found in fields, which, when pressed,
emits quantities of dust,
FUSOME, handy, handsome, neat.
Fuss, to attempt to do any thing in a hurried or confused man-
GAB, v. to prate, to tattle. An old word. GAB, GABBING, GOB,
s. idle talk, prating.
GAD, GAED, a fishing rod. Sax. gad, stimulus.
GADDING, gossiping going about from house to house.
GAGER, GADGER, an exciseman. From to gauge, a part of his
GAILY, pretty well ; a common answer to the salutation, " How
are you?" GAY, tolerable. " He's a gay sort of person.'*
Also considerable. " A gay while."
GAIN, a curious Northumbrian expression, of doubtful etymo-
logy, and of various signification, generally attached to
other words to express a degree of comparison ; as gain
quiet pretty quiet; gain brave tolerably courageous;
gain near conveniently near or at hand.
GAITINGS, single sheaves of corn set up to dry. Isl. gat. for-
GALE, GEYAL, to ache with cold ; as the fingers do when frost
bitten ; or when very cold water is taken in the mouth.
Also to fly open with heat or dryness, as is often the case
with particular kinds of wood, such as holly, box, &c.
The first sense is perhaps from Lat. gelu, frost, cold ; or
from Germ, gellcn, to tingle.
GALLEY-BAUK, a balk in a chimney, with a crook, on which to
hang pots, &c.
GAM, to make game of, to quiz.
GANT, or GAUNT, to yawn. Sax. ganian.
GAN, GANG, to go. Sax. gan. GANG, a row or set. GANG-
WAY, a temporary passage or thoroughfare. Sw. gaang, a
GANTREE, GANTRY, a stand for ale or beer barrels. V. Jam.
GAR, to make, to force, to compel. " I'll gar you do it."
GARS, GURSE, grass. Sax. gcers. GURSING, a grazing, a pas-
GARSIL, small branches cut for the purpose of mending hedges.
Similar to rice.
GARTH, a small inclosure adjoining to a house. Sax. geard, a
yard. The church-yard is called the kirk-garth.
GATE, GAIT, a right of pasturage for cattle. Their stray or
grazing for any specified tune.
GATE, GYET, a way, path, or street. In many of the Northern
towns the names of streets which end with gate, as Bailiff-
gate, Narrow-gate, &c. have no allusion to gates having
ever been there. Isl. gala.
GAUM, to comprehend, to understand, to distinguish, to consi-
der. Moe.-Got. gaumgan. Teut. gauw.
GAUMLESS, silly, ignorant, vacant.
GAUP, to stare vacantly. " What are ye gauping at." Dut.
gaapen, to gape.
GAWKY, s. a vacant, staring, idiotical person. Sw. gaek. Germ.
geek, a fool.
GAWKY, a. awkward, stupid, foolish. See GOWK.
GAUVE, to stare about in a clownish manner. Germ, gaffen,
adspectare. V. Wachter.
GAVELOCK, a strong iron bar used as a lever. Sax. gaveloc,
catapulta. Su.-Got. gqfflak, jaculi genus apud veteres Sui-
GAVY, an ungainly female, " of a strange gait, and of unco man-
GAWVISON, a simpleton, a gaping silly fellow.
GEAR, stock or wealth of any kind. " A vast o* gear." Sax.
geara. GEARS, draught horse trappings.
GECK, to toss the head scornfully. Teut. glecken, ludere.
GED. In the Northern parts of Northumberland, anglers catt
the pike a ged.
We'll crack how mony a creel we've filPd,
How mony a line we've flung,
How mony aged and sawmon kill'd,
In day's when we were young.
Fither't Garland, 1824.
GEE, an affront, stubbornness. " Took the gee? a common
GELD, to deprive any thing female of the power of generation.
This is its old sense, and is so used by Shak. in the Win-
ter's Tale, when Antigonus threatens his three daughters.
Its other sense, I believe, is general.
GENTLES, maggots or grubs, used as bait for fishing.
GESLING, a gosling. Su.-Got. gaasling.
GEVV-GAW, a Jew's harp, the Scotch trump.
GIBB, a hook. GIBBON, GIBBY, GIBBY-STICK, a walking stick
with a hook, or the top bent down for a handle ; a nut
GIBBY-STICK, confectionary in that form.
GIB-FISH, the milter of the salmon. See some very curious in-
formation concerning it, in the North Country Angler, p.
39 and seq.
GIBRALTAR-ROCK, veined sweetmeat sold in lumps, resembling
GIF, if. Pure Saxon.
GIFF-GAFF, unpremeditated discourse. " Giff-gaff makes good
GIFTS, white specks on the finger nails, presages of felicity,
not always realized. V. Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 639.
GIGLOT, a giddy laughing girl. Shak. has it in a worse sense.
GILDER, GILDERT, a snare, made of horse hair or small wire, for
catching birds. See Bewick's cut of the Tawny Bunting.
Giler, deceiver, occurs in Chaucer.
GILL, a narrow glen with steep and rocky banks on each side,
and with a runner of water between these banks. Isl. gil,
GILLABER, to chatter nonsense. " What are you gillabering
about," a true old Northumberland expression.
GIMLICK, a gimlet. GIMLICK-EYE, a squint, vulgo, cock-eye.
GIMMER, a female sheep from one to two years old. GELT-
GIMMER, a barren ewe. A GIMMER-LAMB, a ewe lamb.
The word gimmer is also used contemptuously among the
lower orders of women in Newcastle. Q. Dut. gemalen?
GIMP, or JIMP, spruce, nice in person or manner.
GIN, if. Old. V. Ray.
Gin a body meet a body,
Coming through the rye $
Gin a body kiss a body,
Need a body cry ? Scottish Ballad.
GINGER-PATED, GiNGER-HECKL'D, red haired.
GINNEY-TIV-A-SHILLING, the confident wager of the Knights of
GIRD, GURD, a hoop. Sax. gyrdel, cingulum.
GIRDLE, a circular iron plate, with a bow handle, on which
cakes are baked. In more simple times a slate, called a
backstone, was used for the purpose. Su.-Got. grissel. V.
GIRNEGAW, the cavity of the mouth. From girn, the old word
for, and present northern pronunciation of, grin.
GISERS, GUISERS, persons who dance in masks. A custom of
great antiquity, not yet obsolete. Teut. guysc-setter,
GISTTNG, the feeding of cattle, which, in some places, are called
gisements ; the tythe due for the profit made by such gist-
ing, where neither the land nor the cattle otherwise pay
any thing. Old Fr. giste, demeure, habitation, endroit ou
1'on couche. Roquefort.
GIVE, to menace or threaten. " I'll give it you."
GIZENED, opened, cracked, pined ; as an empty cask exposed
to the sun. Isl. gisinn, hiulcus .
GIZZERN, the gizzard. Fr. gesier. Old mode of spelling.
GLAKY, giddy, unsteady, playful.
GLARE, GLAUR, dirt, filth.
GLAVE, smooth. Hence, glavering, flattering.
GLAVERING, GLAIVERING, talking foolishly or heedlessly.
GLAZENER, a glazier. Very common.
GLEAD, a kite. Sax. glida. Su.-Got. glada, milvus.
GLEE, GLEY, GLEAD, to squint. V. Ray.
GLEEK, to deceive or beguile. In this sense is to be read the
expression from Shakspeare, " I can gleek upon occa-
sion," misinterpreted by Hanmer and Pope, to joke, or scoff;
&nd given as an example, in Todd's John, under " to sneer,"
to gibe, to droll upon. Mr. Lambe, on this passage, sen-
sibly remarks, that, " a fool may utter rustic jokes or
scoffs ; but it requires some small share of art or wisdom,
to beguile or deceive."
GLEG, v. to glance, to look sharp. GLEG, a. slippery ; smooth,
so as to be easily moved. Also clever, adroit. Isl. gtiggr,
GLENT, to peep, to glance. Isl. glenna, pandere.
GLIFF, a slight or transient view, a glimpse, a fright. " Eh !
what a gliff I'd getten in the kirk garth, the neet now !
He was sect a tenth in the cleevcrs that gard him rin se
GLIME, to glance slyly, to look out at the corner of an eye.
GLINTIN, GLINTING, glancing, shining.
The Shepherd he's whistling o'er BarraJwrn brae,
And the sun beams are glintin far over the sea.
Fisher's Garland, 1823.
GLOPPEN, to startle, to surprize. GLOPPENED, astonished,
frightened. Q. Germ, glupen ?
GLOWER, v. to gaze or stare with dilated eyes. Teut. gluyeren,
to look asquint. GLOWER, s. a broad impudent stare.
GLUMPS, sulkiness. Chaucer has glombe, and Skelton glum,
GLUMPY, sullen or sour looking. To sit GLOUPING, to
sit silent or stupid.
GOB, the mouth ; hence to gobble. " Mump your gob, " scum
your gob," low expressions in Newcastle. GOB-STICK,
a spoon. V. Moor, p. 146-7.
GOB-AND-GUTS LIKE A YOUNG CRAW, a burlesque expression,
dealt out to ignorant people, too fond of talking. Of the
same kind is, No GUTS IN YOUR BRAINS gross stupidity.
GOBBET, a lump of meat that which is put into the gob or
mouth. RAW-GOBBIT, or GOLBURT, an unfledged bird.
Figuratively, any uncultivated person.
GOKE, GOWK, the core of an apple, the yoke of an egg, the in-
ner part of any thing.
COLLAR, GOLLER, to shout, to speak in a boisterous or mena-
GONEILL, GONNERIL, a half-wit, a dunce.
GOODMAN, the husband or master of the house. GOODWOMAN,
the wife or mistress.
GOR, GORE, dirt, any thing rotten or decayed. Pure Saxon.
Glaur, has the same meaning.
GOSSAMER, down of plants, cobwebs, vapour arising from
boggy or marshy ground, in warm weather. There is an
excellent article on this word in the Crav. Gloss.
GOT, a word called into action on almost every occasion. Ex.
She got her bed, and soon got about again.
He got to Newcastle, and got back before night.
The ship had got on the rocks, and then she was got off,
and got into harbour*
He got bad, he got worse, he got better, and then he got
He got away at last.
GOTHAM, a cant name for Newcastle.
Heav'n prosper thee, Qotham ! thou famous old town,
Of the Tyne the chief glory and pride;
May thy heroes acquire immortal renown,
In the dread field of Mars, when they're try'd.
Song, Kiver Awa\
GOWD, GOWDY, a toy, or play-thing. V. Todd's John. gaud.
GOWDER, an obscene term ; borrowed, I suppose, from the in-
tercourse of foxes. Hence the name of Gowdy-chare, in
GOWK, a fool or simpleton ; the cuckoo. Teut. gauck.
, April fool.
GOWPEN, GOWPING, the hollow of both hands placed together.
Isl. gaupn. Su.-Got. goepn, manus concava. GOWPEN-
FULL, as much as both hands united can hold. " Gold in
GOWSTY, GOVVSTLY, ghastly, frightful. Also dismal or uncom-
fortable, as applied to a house without ceiling, &c. " What
a gowtfy hole he lives in.'*
GRADELY, decently, orderly. Sax. grad, ordo.
GRAINS, branches ; as the grains of a tree, the grains of a fork.
Su.-Got. gren, ramus.
GRAITH, to clothe or furnish with any thing suitable. Sax.
GRAITHING, clothing. From the verb.
GRANGE, a barn, granary, or store-house. Originally that
belonging to the lord of a manor, or to a monastery. Fr.
GRAPE, to feel. Sax. grapian. See, a good article in Moor,
GRAPE, a dung fork with three or more prongs. Su.-Got.
GRAVELLED, vexed, mortified, perplexed.
GRAWSOME, GROWSOME, ugly> frightful. Derived by Dr. Wil-
lan from growse, to be chill ; to shiver, or to tremble with
GRAY-STONES, coarse mill-stones. Fr. groz. rough.
GREAT, GREET, intimate, familiar.
GREE, to agree. Old Fr. greer. To " bear the gree" to be
GREEDY-GUT, a voracious eater. GREEDY-HOUNDS, hungry
GREEN-TABLE, the large table in the Guildhall, of Newcastle.
The jailor, for trial, had brought up a thief,
Whose looks seemed a passport for Botany Bay ;
The lawyers, some with and some wanting a brief,
Around the green tdbk were seated so gay.
Song, My Lord 'Size.
GREENEY, the green grosbeak. Le Ferdier, BufFon.
GREET, to cry, to weep. An old word. GRAT, wept.
GREY-HEN, a large stone bottle. Often used on the borders
for holding smuggled whiskey. Fr. boutcille de gres, a
stone bottle. V. Moor, grey-beard.
GREY-HEN, the female of the black-cock.
GRIME, to mark or daub with soot. This is the only proper
meaning of this Shakspearian word. GRIMY, sooty.
GRIP, to grasp fast by the hand. Sax. gripan, to gripe.
GRIP, GRUAP, GROOP, the space where the dung lies in a cow
house, having double rows of stalls ; that is, the opening
or hollow between them. Sax. grcep, a trench or sink.
Hence the Javel Groop, in Newcastle.
GRIPPY, mean, avaricious, hardly honest. Sax. gripcnd, ra-
GROANING, an accouchement. Etymon plain.
GROANING-CAKE, the cake provided in expectation of the ac-
couchement. It seems from time immemorial to have been
an object of superstition, and persons have been known to
keep a piece for many years.
GROANING-CHAIR, the chair in which the matron sits to receive
visits of congratulation.
GROANING-CHEESE, or the SICK WIFE'S CHEESE, a large Che-
shire cheese provided on the same occasion as the cake.
I understand a slice of the first cut laid under the pillow,
enables young damsels to dream of their lovers, particularly
if previously tossed in a certain nameless part of the mid-
wife's apparel. In all cases it must be pierced with three
pins, taken from the child's pincushion.
GROATS, oats with the hulls taken off, but unground. Sax.
grut, grout. Groats were formerly much used in the com-
position of black puddings, which see. Hence the northern
proverb, " blood without groats is nothing," meaning that
family without fortune is of no consequence. A street in
Newcastle is called the Groat-market.
GROBBLE, to make holes.
GROSER, GROZER, a gooseberry. Fr. groseille. Lat. grossula.
GROVES, the refuse of tallow chandlers, made into thick cakes
as food for dogs.
GRUFF, rough, savage, imperious. Su.-Got. grof, crassus.
GRUMPHEY, a species of jostling among school boys, in en-
deavouring to hide any thing which one takes from another.
GUEST, a ghost. Sax. gast. The streets of Newcastle, it is
said, were haunted by a nightly guest, in the shape of a dog,
calf, or pig, to the no small terror of such as were afraid of
shadows. Their gambols were frequently performed in the
neighbourhood of the old " Dog-loup-stairs."
GUESTNING, an hospitable welcome a warm reception. Isl.
GUIL, or GUILE-FAT, or VAT, a wort-tub in which the liquor
ferments. Dut. gyl-kuip.
GULLEY, a large knife used in farm houses, principally to cut
bread, cheese, &c. for the family. Perhaps, originally a
butcher's-, for the gullet.
GUMSHON, GUMPTION, common x sense, combined with energy ;
shrewd intelligence; a superior understanding. Ao ex-
cellent word, of high antiquity referred by Dr. Jamieson
to Moe.-Got. gaum-jan, percipere.
HAAMS, HAMES, HAME-STICKS, two pieces of crooked wood
attached to a horse's collar. Isl. hals, collum. Teut.
hamme koe-hamme, numella.
HACK, a strong pick-axe or hoe used in agriculture. Dan.
hakhe, a mattock.
HAD AWAY ! HAD AWAY ! go away ; a term of encouragement,
I believe, peculiar to the north.
HAFFLE, to waver, to speak unintelligibly. Dut. hakkelen, to
falter or stammer.
HAG, a sink or mire in mosses, or any broken ground in a
bog ; a white mist, similar to dag ; a wood into which cat-
tle are admitted ; also a cutting of hanging wood.
HAGGAR-MAKER'S SHOP, a public house.
HAGGIS, HAGGISH, a dish j made sometimes of fruit, suet, and
minced entrails, and sometimes only of oatmeal, suet and
sugar stuffed into a sheep's maw and boiled. It was till
lately a common custom in many country places, to have
this fare to breakfast every Christmas-day ; and some part
of the family sat up all night to have it ready at an early
hour. It is now used at dinner on the same day. Sold
in the Newcastle market.
Ye powers, wha mak mankind your care,
And dish them out their bill o' fare,
Auld Scotland wants nae skinking ware
That jaups in luggies ;
But, if ye wish her gratefu* prayer,
Gie her a Haggis ! Burns.
HAGGISH, an opprobious epithet for a female partaking, as it
were, of the nature of a hag.
HAGMENA, HOGMENA, a name appropriated to December, and
to any gift during that month, especially on the last day.
The poor children in Newcastle, in expectation of their
kogmena, go about from house to house knocking at the
doors, singing their carols, and wishing a merry Christinas
and a happy New Year. " Please will you give us wor
hogmena" The origin appears quite uncertain. Some
pretend to derive the term from the two Greek words,
as/ice, pyvv), holy moon, while others maintain that it is
only a corruption from the French, homme est ne, in allu-
sion to the nativity.
HAG-WORM, the common snake. Coluber natrlx.
HAIN, to save, to preserve. Haining wood ; Haining land.
HAKE, to loiter, to lounge, to sneak.
HALFERS ! an exclamation entitling the person making it to
half, or half the value, of any thing found by his com-
panion. If the finder be quick he exclaims " no halfers
findee keepee, lessee seekee," to destroy the right of claim.
And he who sees you stoop to th' ground,
Cries luilves ! to ev'ry thing you've found.
Savage, Horace to Scceva imitated.
HALLABALOO, HILLEBALOO, a noise, an uproar, a clamour.
" Kick up a hillebaloo" " My eye, what a hillebaloo /"
HALLE E'EN, HALLOWEEN, All Hallow Even, the vigil of All
Saints' Day, on which it is customary with young people
to dive for apples, or catch at them when stuck upon one
end of a kind of hanging beam, at the other extremity of
which is fixed a lighted candle, and that with their mouths
only, their hands being tied behind their backs. V.
Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 300.
HABLEN, the corner at the entry into the house by means of
the heck-door the partition between the door and the
fire-place. Su-Got haell, the stone at the thresh-hold.
HALLEN-PIN, a pin fixed upon the hcdlen for the purpose of
hanging up coats, hats, &c.
HALLEN-POST, the post at the extremity of the sconce.
HALLION, a term of reproach. " Ye lang hallion."
HAME, HAAM, home. A pure old word. Sax. ham.
HAMSHACKLE, to fasten the head of an animal to one of its
forelegs. Vicious cows and oxen are often so tied, espe-
cially when driven to slaughter.
HAN, plural for have. This old contraction of haven is not
obsolete, as stated by Dr. Johnson.
HANDY, a small wooden vessel with an upright handle.
HANG-GALLOWS, a very worthless fellow a prophetic allusion
to an ignominious end.
HANGMENT . To play the hangment, is to be much enraged
to play the very deuce.
HANK, v. to fasten, to form into hanks or skains.- HANK, s. a
skain of thread, a rope or latch for fastening a gate. Isl.
hank y a collar or chain. To keep a good hank upon your
horse, is to have a good hold of the reins. To make a
ravelled hank, to put any thing into confusion.
HANK, a habit. From hankering, a strong desire.
HANKLE, to twist, to entangle thread, silk, or worsted.
HANNIEL, a loose, disorderly fellow one not to be trusted.
HANSEL, HANDSEL, the first money received for the sale of
goods. The fish women and hucksters in Newcastle re-
gularly spit upon what they first receive in a morning to
render it propitious and lucky that it may draw more
money to it. Su.-Got. handsoel t mercimonii divenditi
primitiae. V. Ihre. Hansel is also the first us'e of any
thing ; in which sense, however, I am inclined to believe it
HANSEL-MONDAY, the first Monday in the New Year;
when it is customary to make children and servants a pre-
HANTLE, much, many. Sw. antal, number; or perhaps a
HAP, to cover up warmly, as in bed. Sax, hcapean, to heap
HAPPEN, perhaps, possibly.
HAPPENNY, a half-penny. HAPPERTH, half-penny wprth.
HAPPING, a coarse covering, a rug for a bed. Hap-karlot, a
coverlet for a servant, is a very old word,
At the West-gate came Thornton in,
With a hap, and a half-penny, and a lamb skin.
This is an old saying in Newcastle, in allusion to the cele-
brated Roger Thornton one of its most wealthy merchants
and greatest benefactors who, it is said, came there with
only a half-penny in his pocket, and an old happing on his
HARD-CORN, wheat or maslin. Probably from being sown
HARDLEYS, HARDLEES, hardly. Universal among the vulgar.
HARE, HARL, a mist or fog. V. Skinner, a sea harr.
HARRY, to rob, to plunder, to oppress. Sax. hergian. The
word, in this sense, is by no means confined to Scotland.
V. Todd's Johnson. It is common in Northumberland
and Durham, particularly as applied to a bird nest ; and
being used by Milton, ought to be considered as classical
The Saxons with perpetual landings and invasions
Mrried the South coast of Britain.
Hist. Eng. B. ii.
HARRYGAUD, HARRYGAD, a blackguard sort of person. Ray
says, a wild girl, but I think I never heard it applied to a
HARSTONE, HARSTANE, the hearth stone.
HARUMSTARUM, HARUMSCARUM, wild, unsettled running after,
you know not what. Germ, herum-schar, a wandering
troop ; plural, scharen, vagabonds.
HASH, a sloven, one who does not know how to act or be-
have with propriety, a silly talkative person. It is also
used in a different sense, though perhaps not local :
Brave Prudhoe triumphant shall skim the wide main,
The hash of the Yankees he'll settle,
And ages hereafter shall serve to proclaim,
A Northumberland free o' Newcassel.
Song, Northumberland's free of Newcassel.
HASK, coarse, harsh, rough, parched. Q. Lat. hiscere? A
hask mind is keen and parching. Hask-lips are parched
lips. The word is also applied to the sense of feeling,
when any thing from its touch appears unpleasantly dry
or hard. Coarse worsted is hask to the feeling.
HASSOCK, a stool or cushion to kneel upon, formerly made of
rushes. Sw. hwass a rush, and saeck a sack. There is a
tract of land adjoining the Tyne, near Dunston, called the
Hassocks, which, it is probable, was once covered with
rushes of which hassocks were made.
HATTER, to shake. " I'm all battered to pieces."
HAUGH, flat or marshy ground by the side of a river. Isl. hagi,
HAUNCH, HAINCH, to throw ; as a stone from the hand, by
jerking it against the haunch.
HAUSE, the neck. A very old word. Sax. hats.
HAVER, HAIVER, v. to talk foolishly, to speak without thought.
Isl. gifra, blaterare.
HAVER, or HAWER, s. oats. Dut. haver. HAVER, or HAVVER-
MEAL, oatmeal. HAVER, or HAVVER-BREAD, large, round,
thin oaten cakes, baked on a girdle.
HAVERIL, HOVERIL, a fool, a half-wit. From haver, haiver,
which see. " Parfitly redicclous is that haveril there"
HAWK, to expectorate. Welsh, hochi, to throw up phlegm.
" Hawking or spitting." ShaJc.
HAWS. See CAT-HAWS.
HAY-MAKING. When the grass is first cut, it is called a swede ;
when spread out, a tedd or teed; when dried ready for
gathering, a whin-row or wind-row. It is next, particu-*
larly if the rain threaten, put into a small quantity called
a cock ; afterwards into a kyle, consisting, perhaps, of two
or three times as much as a cock ; and finally into a pike,
containing about half a ton ; in which state it remains
until taken from the field to stack. This practice may
vary a little in different districts.
HAZE, to drizzle, to be foggy. V. Ray.
HAZE-GAZE, wonder, astonishment.
HEALD, to incline, to bend laterally.
HEAP, a wicker basket. Sax. hip, species.
HEAP, a good many. " A heap of folks."
HEARN, HARN, the name of coarse linen cloth, about New-
HEERIN, HERRIN, HARRIN, herring. " Fresh-heerin fresh-
heerin : four twopence caller herrin four twopence
caller herrin : here's yor cuddy 's-legs here's yor Dum-
bar wethers here's yor Januwary harrin." Cry in the
HEART-SCAD, any thing disagreeable or contrary to your ex-
pectation or wishes ; grieved.
HEARTSOME, merry, cheerful, lively.
HEATHER, heath or ling. " Heather buzzoms."
HEAVISOME, dark, dull, drowsy.
HECK, a rack for cattle to feed in. Su.-Got. haeck.
HECK, a latch, the passage into a house. HECK-DOOR, the
inner door the door from the mell-doors into the kit-
chen. HALF-HECK, a half, or lower part of a door.
HECK-BERRY, the bird cherry. Prunus padus. Sw. haegge-
HECK-BOARD, a loose board at the back part of a cart.
HECKLE, to dress tow or flax. HECKLER, a tow or flax-dresser.
HECKLE, HECKLE-FLEE, an artificial fly for fishing.
HEFT, a haunt. Su.-Got. hacfda.
HEIFER, a young cow until it has had a calf.
HELM-WIND, a singular phenomenon so called. Besides other
places in Cumberland and Westmorland, it rushes from an
immense cloud that gathers round the summit of Cross-
Fell a mountain encompassed with desolate and barren
heights covering it like a helmet.
HELTER-SKELTER, in great haste, disorderly. Skinner's deri-
vation from Sax. heolster sceado (unless we reject Dr.
Johnson's translation and adopt that of Dr. Jamieson),
seems to me far fetched ; and that given by Grose, though
thought by Mr. Todd a better, is, in my mind, equally
fanciful. A friend suggests it may be from hie ct aliter.
The Crav. Gloss, refers to the Dutch. Well may etymo-
logy, in cases like this, be pronounced cruditio ad libitum.
HEMMEL, a shed or covering for cattle. Germ. helm.
HEMPY, mischievous having the qualities likely to suffer by
cat o'nine tails, or by the halter. Applied jocularly to
giddy young people of both sexes.
HEN-PEN, the dung of fowls. The country people sometimes
use it in bouking linen. See BOUK.
HEN-SCRATTINGS, small circular white clouds said to indicate
rain or wind.
HERD, a keeper of cattle. Sax. hyrd. Isl. hirdingi.
HERONSEW, HERONSEUGH, a heron. Not merely a young one
as stated by Mr. Tyrwhitt. V. Skinner, hernsues.
I wol not tellen of hir strange sewes,
Ne of hir swannes, ne hir heronsewes.
Chaucer, Squieres Tale.
HETTER, eager, earnest, keen. Perhaps from hot.
HEUCK, hook, a crook or sickle. " The quorn (corn) is ready
for the heuck." Dut. hoek.
HEUCK-FINGERED, thievish. Perhaps only cant.
HEUDIN, a piece of leather connecting the handstaff of a flail
with the swingle.
HEUGH, a dry dell, a ravine without water.
Word went east, and word went west,
And word is gone over the sea,
That a Laidley worm in Sprndleston-Heugh,
Would ruin the North country.
The Laidley Worm.
HEUPH, HUPH, a measure, something less than a peck.
HICCUP-SNICKUP, the hiccough. Sneckup is used by Shak.
and Beaum. and Flet. A repetition of the following in-
cantation is said to cure this disagreeable convulsion T
Hickup-snickup, stand up, straight up ;
One drop, two drops good for the hiccup.
Major Moor gives a different version of these lines.
HICKLETY-PICKLETY, HIGGLEDY-PIGGLEDY, intermixed, irregu-
lar, in the utmost confusion.
HIDE, to beat. " I'll hide your jacket."
HIGHT, called. An old word, used by Chaucer, Spenser, ami
HIKE, to swing, to put in motion. A nurse kikes her child
when she tosses it up and down in her arms. The hiking
of a boat.
HIKEY, a swing. HIKEY-BOARD, better represented in Bew-
ick's tail piece of two monkeys engaged in the sport, Qua-
drupeds, p. 484, ed. 1820, than 1 can pretend to describe it.
HIND, a servant or bailiff in husbandry. Sax. hineman.
HIND-BERRIES, rasps. Sax. hindberian. Lye mis-translated
this into fragum ; and the suggestion in Todd's John, of
bramble-berries, is also erroneous.
HINDER-ENDS, refuse of corn such as remains after it is win-
HINNEY, HINNY, a favourite term of endearment. Probably a
corruption of honey, or it may be from Sax. Una, domes-
ticus. " Hinney dear ! what were ye sayin ?" " Was te
speaking, hinney ?" " Hinney bairns, be quiet."
Where hest thou been, maw canny hinny ?
An' where hest te been, maw bonny bairn ?
Song, Maw Canny Hinny.
HINNEY HOW ! an interjectional exclamation of surprize, ac-
companied with gladness.
HIP, to hitch or hop on one foot. HIP-STEP-AND-JUMP, a
youthful gambol. HINCHY-PINCHY, something similar.
HIPE, to rip or gore with the horns of cattle.
HIPPINGS, cloths for infants. To put the hips in.
HIRING, a fair or market at which country servants are hired.
Those, who offer themselves, stand in a body in the market
place, with a piece of straw or a green branch in their
mouths to distinguish them. The engagement concluded,
the lasses begin to file off, and pace the streets in search
of admirers, while the lads, with equally innocent designs,
follow after. Having each picked up a sweetheart, they
retire to different ale-houses, where they spend the re-
mainder of the day in a manner that appears highly indeli-
cate and unpleasant to a spectator, unaccustomed to these
HIRPLE, HURPLE, to halt, to walk lame, to creep. Su.-Got.
HIRST, HURST, a woody bank, a place with trees. Sax. hurst.
V. Spelman, hursta, and Kilian, horscht, horst. Hirst and
Long-hirst, in Northumberland.
HITY-TITY, HOITY-TOITY, haughty, flighty. Fr. haute tete.
HIVES, water-blebs, an eruption in the skin. Su.-Got. haefwa,
to rise up.
HIZEY PRIZEY, the court of Nisi Prius.
HOB, the side of a fire place. Also a clown ; contracted from
HOB OR NOB. Much has been written concerning this north-
ern expression. See Grose's Class. Diet.; Brand's Pop.
Ant. ; Todd's John. ; and Nares' Gloss. But is it any
more than a burlesque translation of tete a tete?
Haupt is the German word for the head, and knob the
ludicrous English word from knob, a protuberance.
HOBBLE, a scrape, a state of perplexity. Teut. hobbelen.
HOBBLETY-HOY, an uncultivated stripling, " neither man nor
boy." Hoyden, with which this term is evidently con-
nected, was formerly applied to any rude ill-behaved per-
son of either sex. Children call a large unmanageable top,
HOBBLY, rough, uneven. " A hobbly road."
HOBTHRUST, a local spirit, famous for whimsical pranks. In
some farm-houses a cock and bacon are boiled on Fassen's-
eve (Shrove Tuesday); and if any person neglect to eat
heartily of this food, Hobthrust is sure to amuse himself
at night with cramming him up to the mouth with bigg-
chaff. According to Grose, he is supposed to haunt
woods only Hob o f hurst.
HOCKEY. See DODDART.
HOFF, hough, to throw any thing under the thigh.
HOG, a one year old sheep. " Wether-hog ewe-hog." Nor-
man Fr. hogetz.
HOGGERS, upper stockings without feet, like gaiters.
HOGH. Both a hill and a hollow. V. Johnson.
HOLE IN THE COAT, a blemish in character or conduct. " Aw'l
get a hole in yor coat."
HOLM, in Saxon generally signifies the sea or a deep water ;
but it is frequently used with an adjective to designate an
insular situation. Dry grounds nearly surrounded by the
course of rivers, or situated in low places by their edge,
are often called Holms : The holms on Ullswater and
Windermere. Dunholm, a name of Durham.
HOLT, a peaked hill covered with wood. Sax. holt, lucus.
HOLY-STONES, holed-stones, are hung over the heads of horses
as a charm against diseases : such as sweat in their stalls
are supposed to be cured by the application* I have also
seen them suspended from the tester of a bed as well as
placed behind the door of a dwelling-house, attached to a
key to prevent injury from witches. The stone, in all
cases, must be found naturally holed if it be made it has
no efficacy. See ADDER- STONES.
HONOUR-BRIGHT ! BET WATT ! a protestation of honour among
the vulgar ; originating with, and still retained in com-
memoration of, a late well-known Newcastle worthy.
HOOR, a whore. Sax. hure, meretrix.
HOP, v. to dance. Sax. hoppan. Teut. happen. This is the
original sense. Though unnoticed by the great Lexico-
grapher, it has not escaped his able editor, Mr. Todd.
HOP, s. a dance. See HOPPEN, HOPPING.
HOPE, a small brook, or the valley through which a brook may
run ; as Stanhope, Bollihope, &c. Durham.
HOPPEN, HOPPING, a country wake or rural fair ; several of
which are held in the immediate neighbourhood of New-
To horse-race, fair, or hoppin go,
There play our casts among the whipsters,
Throw for the hammer, lowp for slippers,
And see the maids dance for the ring,
Or any other pleasant thing ;
F** for the pigg, lye for the whetstone,
Or chuse what side to lay our betts on.
Joco-serious Discourse between a Northumberland Gen-
tleman and his Tenant, a Scotchman.
HOPPLE, or HOFFLE, to tie the legs together.
HORNEY, HORNEY-TOP, the end of a cow's horn made like a
top for boys to play with.
HORNEY, or HORNEY-WAY, an untruth, a hoax. " By the
HORSE-COUPER. See COUP, COWP.
HORSE-GODMOTHER, a large masculine wench,
HORSE- SHOES, the game of coits, or quoits.
HOT, a sort of square basket formerly used for taking manure
into fields of steep ascent. The bottom opened by two
wooden pins to let out the contents. I have heard old
people say, that between the confines of Yorkshire and
Westmorland, it was common for the men to occupy them-
selves in knitting, while the women were engaged in the
servile employment of carrying these hots on their backs.
HoT-Pox, warmed ale with spirit in it.
ROUGHER, the public whipper of criminals, the executioner of
felons, in Neiucastle. He is still a regular officer of the
town, with a yearly salary ; and is said to have obtained
this name from a power he had formerly of cutting the
houghs, or rather the sinews of the houghs, of swine that
were found infesting the streets. In the Gloss, to Doug-
las's Virgil, to hock, from Sax. hok, is rendered " suffragines
succidere," to hamstring.
HOWDON-PAN-CANT, an awkward fall, an overturn. How DON-
PAN-CANTER, a slow ungraceful canter.
HOUT ! HOUT-AWAY ! an exclamation of disbelief or disappro-
bation. Pshaw !
HOWDY, HOWDY-WIFE, a midwife. Brand sneers at the de-
rivation from " How d' ye midwives being great goss-
ipers," but I think that which he supplies is far more ridi-
culous. I have not been fortunate enough to discover any.
original to my own satisfaction, but I may perhaps be per-
mitted to observe, in defence of what has been so much
ridiculed, that " How d' ye," is a natural enough salutation
to a sick woman from the midwife ; who, by the way, is
called in German die wehmutter, or the oh dear mother.
As it is with antiquaries, so I fear with etymologists
ancient woman, "whether in or out of breeches," will
occasionally betray themselves.
HOWK, to dig, to scoop. Su.-Got. holka, cavare.
HOWL, a hollow or low place. "Wherever there's a hill
there's sure to be a howl." Sax. hoi, latibulum. Howt-
KITE, a vulgar name for the belly.
HOWLET, JENNY-HOWLET, the common or tawny owl. FF.
hulotte* Also a term of reproach.
Adder's fork, and blind worm's sting,
Lizard's leg, and liowkCs wing. Sluik. Macleth.
HOWSOMIVVER, HOWSOMNIVVER, however.
How' WAY, come away ; a term of solicitation very common in
HOY, to heave or throw, as a stone.
HOYT, an awkward ill-bred youth.
HUBBY-SHEW, HUBBY-SHOO, a disturbance, a noise, a state of
confusion. Teut. hobbelen, inglomerare ; schowe, specta-
HUD, the side of the fire place within the chimney. Pans not
in use are placed on the " hud stane"
HUDDICK, HUDDOCK, the cabin of a keel or coal barge. Dut.
'Twas between Hebbron and Jarrow,
There cam on a varry strang gale,
The skipper luick'd out o' th' huddock,
Crying, 'smash, man, lower the sail !
Song, The Little Pee. Dee.
HUDDLE, to gather together, to embrace. Germ, hudeln.
HUFF, v. to offend. " She's easily huffed? HUFF, s. offence.
" He's in the huff."
HUG, to carry, especially if difficult. " Had and hug't away."
HUGGERMUGGERING, doing any thing in a confused, clandestine,
or unfair manner. V. Todd's John, and Nares' Gloss.
HULK, a lazy, clumsy fellow. Shak. has " the hulk Sir John."
" You idle lazy pay-wife hulk." Newc.
HULL, a place in which fowls, &c. are confined for the purpose
HUMBLE. To humble barley, to break off the beard or awns.
Su.-Got. hamla, to mutilate. Allied to this, is a hummel-
led-cow, a cow without horns.
HUNKERED, elbowed, crooked. " This wheat is sadly hunker-
HUNKERS, haunches. This word seems used by the Northum-
brian vulgar only in the sense of sitting on the hunkers,
that is, with the hams resting on the back part of the an-
kles, the heels generally being raised from the ground.
Such is the position of a woman milking a cow, which in
Durham is called hencowr fashion, probably from hen and
couver y to sit on eggs from the position of a brooding hen.
A friend of mine connected with a colliery, where a child
had been injured, enquiring of the father how the accident
happened, received the following answer, which I am in-
duced to give as a specimen of Pit language : " It was
sitten on its hunkers howking glinters fra mang the het ass,
when the lowe teuck its claes, and brant it to the varry
a*se," i. e. it was sitting on its haunches digging vitrified
shining scoria from among the hot ashes, when the flame
took its clothes, and burnt it to the very buttocks.
HUNT-THE-HARE, a game among children played on the ice
as well as in the fields.
HURTER, the shoulder of the axle against which the nave of
the wheel knocks, Fr. heurter, to knock.
HURTLE, to contract the body into a round form, as through
pain, severe cold, &c.
HUSE, HAUSTE, a short cough, a hoarseness. Sax. hwosta,
HUTCH, a chest. The Town's Hutch, in the Guildhall of
Newcastle, is a fine old chest, on which the chamberlains
transact their business. Fr. huche.
Why dost thou converse with that trunk of humours,
that bolting-fiutch of beastliness, that swollen
parcel of dropsies, that huge bombard of sack.
Shak. I. Hen. IV.
HUTHERIKIN-LAD, a ragged youth a sort of HOBBLETY-HOY,
Huz, Uz, we as well as us. Very common.
HYEL, HALE, whole. Isl. heill. Su.-Got. hel, totus.
ICE-SHOGGLE, an icicle. Sax. ice-icel. Dut. yskegel. Mr.
Todd has admitted ickle, on the authority of Grose.
PFAKINS, in faith a frequent asseveration. Shak. uses i 'faith,
in the Merry Wives of Windsor.
ILL, v. to reproach, to speak ill. ILL-WILLED, a. malevolent,
ill-natured. Isl. illvUie, malevolentia.
INCLING, INKLING, a desire, an imperfect hint or intimation
written by Mrs. Hutchinson (Memoirs, 4to. p. 357) inclin.
Etymologists have differed as to the derivation of this word.
It may be from Fr. un din (d'oeil) a wink, if not from Su.-
Got. wincka, connivere.
INCOME, any swelling or other bodily infirmity, not apparently
proceeding from any external cause or which has formed
unexpectedly. Ancome, in the same sense, is an old word.
INDIFFERENT, tolerably, in pretty good health.
ING, a meadow. The word, however, seems to be chiefly ap-*
plied to moist ground, or such as is subject to occasional
overflowings. It also often occurs in the names of places.
Common to the Sax. Dan. and other languages.
INGLE, a fire, or flame. Gael, aingeal. V. Todd's John.
INKLE, an inferior kind of tape. " Beggars inkle."
INSENSE, to understand ; to have sense infused into the
V. Nares' Gloss.
INTACK, an inclosure. A part taken in from a common.
Is, the third person singular of to be, is almost constantly used
among the vulgar for ftie first and second persons. " Is
sure, thou M" am sure, thou art.
ISCA ! ISCA ! or ISKA ! ISKA ! a Northumbrian shepherd's
call to his dog. Sc. isk, iskie. Mr. Lambe, in his Notes
on Flodden Field, p. 66, fancifully observes, that this term
is evidently an abbreviation of Lycisca, the name of the
Roman shepherd's dog.
multum latrante Lycisca Virg. Eel. 3.
With greater verisimilitude it has been said, that it is from
Fr. icy, hither ; the word used in France for the same
purpose. Dr. Jamieson, however, remarks that Teut. aes,
aesken, and Germ, ess, signify a dog.
Iv, in. INTIV, into. Very general.
IZZARD, the letter Z.
JABBER, garrulity. From the verb, which is very old.
JACK, a young male pike, under a foot in length.
JACKALEGS, JOCKELEGS, a large clasped knife. Generally con-
sidered to have obtained this name from Jacques de Liege,
a famous Flemish cutler.
JACKEY, English gin, of which some of the " good folks" in
Newcastle partake rather freely.
JAGGER-GALLOWAY, a pony with a peculiar saddle for carrying
lead, &c. Jag, is a Scotch word for job; and Moor has
jag, a waggon load.
JAISTERING, swaggering. It is common to call a person of an
airy manner, " a jaistering fellow" " a jaistering jade."
JAM, v. to squeeze into ; to render firm by treading.
JAM, JAUM, *. jamb.
JANNOCK, leavened oat bread. See BANNOCK.
JARBLE, to wet, to bedew ; as by walking in long grass after
dew or rain.
JAR-WOMAN, an occasional assistant in the kitchen a sort of
char-woman. Called also a HEIGH-HOW, from a notorious
propensity to all kinds of low gossip.
JASEY, JAZEY, a worsted wig. A very old-fashioned article,
still worn by some octogenarians.
JAUNIS, JAUNUS, the jaundice. Fr. jaunisse.
JAUP, v. to move liquid irregularly. " The water wentjauping
in the skeel." Also to chip or break by a gentle, though
sudden blow. It is customary at Easter, when paste-eggs
are in vogue, tojaup two of them, by hitting the ends to-
gether. " Auflljaup onny body narrow enders" He whose
egg does not break is entitled to have the other.
JAUP, *. the sound of water agitated in a narrow or irregular
vessel. Isl. gialfur, a hissing or roaring wave.
JAW, noisy speech, coarse raillery. " Had yor jaw" hold
JEE, JYE, wry, crooked. " Jee-wye" Sw. gaa, to turn
JEEPS, a severe beating a sound thrashing.
JENK, to jaunt, to ramble, from junket, to feast secretly.
JEWEL, an expression of affection familiar regard. Fr. mon
joie, my darling, maw jewel. f
Ye jewels of our father, with wash'd eyes
Cordelia leaves you. Shak. King Lear.
With am'rous looks, he calls her jewel,
And said, How can you be so cruel ?
The Collier's Wedding.
JIBLETS, or GIBLETS, " the parts of a goose which are cut off
before it is roasted," Todd's John. But it is the inside as
well. Old. Fr. gibelez. In Newcastle they call what is
taken from one goose, a pair of jiblets. At Christmas,
hardly any person, however poor, is without ajibletpie.
JIFFY. " Iv ajijfy" in a moment, in an instant.
JIGGER, an airy swaggering person. " A comical jigger." Per-
haps, originally, one disposed or suitable to a jig.
JIM, JIMMY, s. James.
JIM, JIMMY, JIMP, . slender, neat, elegant. Q. Su.-Got.
JIMMER, a small hinge for a closet door or desk. See an expla-
nation of jimmersy with which the gimmal ring is thought
to be connected, in Brand's Pop. Ant. vol. ii. p. 27. Also
Nares' Gloss, gimmal, and M.oor,jimmers.
JIN, JINNY, JINNEY, Jane.
JINGLE-CAP, shake cap. Much practised among the young pit-
men and keelmen.
JINKERS, BY JINKERS, a sort of demi-oath. A variation of
JINNY-SPINNER, or LONG-LEGG'D-TYALYUR, a very long slender-
legged spider or fly.
JINNY-SPINNER, a play-thing among children. See a long list
of juvenile games, many of which are common in the North,
in Suff. Words, move all.
JOBATION, JUBATION, a lecture or reprimand.
JOCK AND JOCK'S-MAN, a juvenile sport, in which the follower
is to repeat all the pranks the leader can perform.
JOGGLE, to shake, to totter, to cause to totter. Teut. schocke-
JOG-TROT, an inactive, or any peculiar line of conduct, pertina-
ciously adhered to. Perhaps adopted from the jog-trot pace
of the Northumbrian farmers.
JOLLIFICATION, a scene of festivity, or merriment. " A regular
JOLLY, stout, large in person. " A jolly landlady." Also
hearty, jovial. " A jolly fellow."
JOOKINGS, corn beat put of the sheaf in throwing off the stack ;
often a perquisite to those who assist in carrying the
sheaves into the barn.
JORUM, a pot or jug. Chaucer hasjordane, and Shakspeare
The horrible crew,
That Hercules slew,
Were Poverty Calumny Trouble and Fear :
Such a club would you borrow,
To drive away sorrow,
Apply for a jorum of Newcastle beer.
Song, Newcastle Beer.
JOSEPH, a riding coat or habit, with buttons in front ; worn by
ancient dames not blue-stockings.
JOUKREY-PAUKEREY, any sort of underhand trick or dexterous
JOWL, v. to knock, or rather to give a signal by knocking.
JOWL, s. the head. " Cheek by jowl" close together.
JOWL OF SALMON, the head and shoulders. If split it is called a
JUMBLEMENT, confusion. From the verb.
JUMPS, a kind of easy stays. Fr. juppe.
JUMP-WITH, JUMP-IN-WITH, to meet with accidentally, to coin-
cide. Jump occurs several tunes in Shakspeare ; mean-
ing in some places to agree with, in others to venture at, or
hazard. In one place it appears to be intended for just.
KAE ! a common interjectional expression of disbelief, con-
tempt, or abhorrence. Newc. I can only refer to the lan-
guage of jack-daws for its etymology.
Jack-daws, kawing and fluttering about the nests, set
all their young ones a-gaping ; but having no-
thing in their mouths but air, leave them as
hungry as before. Locke.
KAIL, KALE, cabbage, greens ; also broth or pottage. North.
IsL kal. Dan. kaal. Welsh, cawl. KAIL-POT, a large
metal pot for culinary purposes. " As black as a kail-pot."
KAIRN, a heap of stones, a rude monument. See CAIRN.
We the adjacent mountains all discern,
With each his head adorned with a kairn.
Cheviot, a Poem, p. 5.
KAMSTARY*, mad. Perhaps the same as Sc. camsterie, cams-
tairie, fro ward, perverse, unmanageable; which Dr. Jam.
derives from Germ, kamp, and starrig, stiff; or it may be
a sort of pleonasm, from cam, which in Gael, is applied to
any thing crooked or awry, and stary, staring, wild-looking.
KARL-CAT, a male cat. Dut. kaerel, a fellow.
KEDGE, to fill. Hence KEDGE-BELLY, a large protuberant body,
KEE, KEE-SIDE, emphatically the Newcastle Quay, extending
from Tyne Bridge to the end of Sandgate.
Fareweel Tyne Brig and cannie Kee^
Where aw've seen monny a shangey,
Blind Willey, Captain Starkey, tee
$old Archy and great Hangey.
Voyage to Luttuin.
KEEK, to peep, to look with a prying eye, to view. Su.-Got.
keka. Dut. kyken.
KEEL, to cool, to render cool. Sax. c&lan, algere. Sir Thos.
Hanmer at best but a sorry expounder of our immortal
bard in attempting an explanation of
While greasy Joan doth keel tJie pot.
Shak. Love's Labour's Lost.
strangely says, " to drink so deep, as to turn up the bot-
tom of the pot, like turning up the keel of a ship /" Ma-
jor Moor is equally at fault : he thinks " scouring the
pot with its bottom inclined conveniently for that opera-
tion ; or keeling it in the position of a ship rolling so as
to almost show her keel out of the water" V. Suff. Words,
killer or keeler. The expression " keel the pot," really
means neither more nor less than to render it cool ; that
is, to take out a small quantity of the broth, &c. and then
to fill up the pot with cold water ; a common practice in
Northumberland. The word, however, as shewn by the
examples from Gower and Chaucer, quoted by Mr. Todd,
is not confined to the kitchen.
KEEL, RED-KEEL, ruddle, decomposed iron used for marking
sheep, &c. Gael. oil. Fr. chaille. Jamieson.
KEELS, the vessels or barges in which coals are carried from
the cottiery-staiths to the ships, in the Tyne and Wear.
Keel is a very ancient name of Saxon origin for a ship or
vessel ceol y navis. On the first arrival of the Saxons
they came over in three large ships, styled by themselves,
as Verstegan informs us, keeles. In the Chartulary of
Tynemouth Monastery, the servants of the Prior who
wrought in the barges (1378), are called kelers, an appella-
tion plainly synonimous with the present keelmen.
KEEL-BULLIES, keelmen, the crew of the keel the partners
or brothers. See BULLY.
KEEL-DEETERS, the wives and daughters of the keelmen, who
sweep the keels, having the sweepings of the small coals
for their pains. To deet, in northern language, means to
wipe or make clean.
KEELAGE, keel dues in port. This word is in Todd's John,
but in too limited a sense.
KEEN. The hands are said to be keened with the frost, when
the skin is broken or cracked, and a sore induced. Kibe,
explained by Johnson, " an ulcerated chilblain, a chap in
the heel caused by the cold," occurs several times in
KEEP-THE-POT-BOILING, a common expression among young
people, when they are anxious to carry on their gambols
KELDS, the still parts of a river which have an oily smooth-
ness while the rest of the water is ruffled. I have only
heard this word on the Tyne, and confined to the mean-
ing here given ; but I am informed that in Westmorland
and Cumberland old wells are also denominated kelds,
and that there is a place in the parish of Shap called Keld,
from a fine spring in it also Gunnerkeld. Isl. kelda, palus.
Since this was written I find Jceld, a well, in Crav. Gloss.
KELK, v. to beat heartily. KELK, KELKER, s. a severe blow.
KELPS, iron hooks from which boilers are hung.
KELTER, frame, order, condition. V. Todd's John. It also
means money, cash. Germ. geld.
KEMP, to strive against each other in reaping corn. Sax.
campian, militare. Teut. kamjten, dimicare. KEMPERS,
the competitors. According to Verstegan, the word is of
noble descent. V. Rest. Decayed Intell. 8vo. p. 233.
KEMPS, hairs among wool, coarse fibres.
KEN, to know, to be acquainted with. Su.-Got. kaenna.
Sax. cennan. Dut. Jcennen. "Aw kent him wed" I
knew him well.
'Tis he, I ken the manner of his gait.
Shak. Troilits and Vressida.
KENNEN, KENNING, a measure of two pecks.
KENSPECKED,KENSPACKED, KENSPECKLED,KENSPACKLED, con-
spicuous, marked so as to be easily recognized or kenned.
V. Skin, and Jam.
KEP, to catch, to receive any thing in the act of falling. Sax.
cepan. Teut. keppen, captare.
KEPPY-BALL, hand-ball. In former times it was customary,
every year at Easter and Whitsuntide, for the mayor, al-
dermen, and sheriff of Newcastle, attended by the bur-
gesses, to go in state to a place called the Forth a sort
of mall to countenance, if not to join in the play tfkeppy-
ball, and other sports. The Esprit de corps is gone, though
the diversion is still in part kept up by the young people
of the town ; but it would of course, in these altered times,
be considered highly indecorous to " unbend the brow of
authority" on such an occasion. Puerile, however, as it
may seem, there was a time if we may credit Belithus,
an ancient ritualist when the bishops, and even arch-
bishops, of some churches, used to play at hand-ball with
the inferior clergy. Tempora mutantur, et nos mutamur
KERN, v. to churn. Sax. cernan. Teut. Jcernen.
KERN, s. a churn. Teut. kerne. Also a hand-mill for grind-
ing corn, from Teut. querne ; perhapg the right mode of
spelling the word in this sense.
KERN-BABY, an image dressed up with corn at a harvest home.
Something similar to the maiden described by Jam. See
KERN, KORN, or KURN-MILK, butter-milk. Teut. kern-melch.
" Will you hev onny kern-milk," Newcastle cry ; nearly
KERSEN, to christen. Dut. kerstenen.
Pish, one goodman Caesar, a pump maker,
Kerserfd him Beaum. $ Flet. Wit at sen. Weap.
KERSMAS, CRISSENMAS, Christmas.
KESH, KEX, the hollow stem of an umbelliferous plant. Kyx,
a hemlock, occurs in Peirs Ploughman.
KESLIP, KESLOP, the calPs stomach salted and dried for ren-
net. Sax. ceselib, coagulum. Germ, kaselab, rennet.
Kase is cheese, and laben is to help, strengthen or quicken.
See YERNING. " Kittle yor Jceslop" a Newcastle trope
for a chastisement. " Warm yor keslop" a metaphor for
KET, carrion, any sort of filth. Su.-Got. koett. KETTY,
filthy, dirty, worthless. " A ketty fellow."
KEVEL, a large hammer for quarrying stones.
KICK, the top of the fashion quite the go. Q. Isl. kcekr, ges-
tus indecorus ? " Jack-the-kick" a fellow just the thing.
KIDNEY, disposition, principles, humour.
A man of my kidney.
Shak. Mer. Wives of Windsor.
Talk no more of brave Nelson, or gallant Sir Sidney,
'Tis granted they're tars of a true British kidney.
Song, Newcastle Bellman.
KIDNEY-TATIE, a long kind of potatoe, much cultivated in the
neighbourhood of Newcastle.
KILLICOUP, a summerset. Probably from Fr. cul-a-cap, tail
to head head over heels. " Eh ! what a killicoup the
preest has getten out o'is wee bit gig-thing there !"
KILL-PRIEST, a jocular name for port wine from which a
very irreverent inference is drawn. But, as Shakspeare
Come, come, good wine is a good familiar creature,
if it be well used ; exclaim no more against it.
KILT, to truss up the clothes to make them like the Scotch
kilt. Dan. kilte-op.
KIND, intimate not kind, at enmity. See THICK.
KING'S-CUSHION, a sort of seat made by two persons crossing
their hands, on which to place a third.
KINK, v. to laugh immoderately, to labour for breath as in the
hooping cough. Teut. kichen, kincken, difficulter spirare.
KINK, s. a violent or convulsive fit of laughter or cough-
ing, especially when the breath is stopped. See KIN-
KIN-COUGH, KINK-COUGH, Ching-cough, or King-cough, the hoop-
ing-cough. Sax. cincung, cachinnatio. Teut. kinck-hoest,
asthma. The ignorant and the superstitious have va-
rious fooleries, for curing or alleviating this epidemic dis-
order such as eating a mouse-pie, or hanging a roasted
mouse round the neck dipping the persons affected nine
times in an open grave, or putting them nine times under
a pie-bald horse bread baked on a Good Friday before
sun-rise and perhaps others that may have escaped my
KIRK, a church. An old Eng. word from Sax. cyrce, still re-
tained in Northumberland. KIRK-GARTH, the church
yard. KIRK-MASTER, a church warden. Teut. kerk-
maester. KIRK-FOLK, the congregation.
KIST, a chest. Common to Sax. Su.-Got. Germ. Dut. and
KISSES, small confections or sugar plums. Perhaps the same
as Shakspeare's kissing-comfits. See Merry Wives of
Windsor, Act 5, Sc. 5.
KIT, properly a covered milking pail with two handles, but
often applied to a small pail of any sort. Also a wooden
vessel in which pickled salmon are sent to London. Like-
wise the stool on which a cobbler works.
KIT, a set or company, generally in a contemptuous light.
" The whole kit." Applied sometimes to things as well
as to persons.
KITCHEN PHYSIC, substantial fare good living opprobrium
Throw physic to the dogs, I'll none of it.
In jest ; no offence in the world.
KITE, the belly. Allied to Mos.-Got. quid, and Su.-Got.
qwed, venter. Bag-kite and pod-kite, are ludicrously ap-
plied to persons with larger capacities than common.
" Running to kite" becoming corpulent.
KITH, acquaintance. Sax. cythe. Not obsolete as stated
in Todd's John, Kith and kin, friends and relations.
KITTLE, v. to tickle, to enliven. Sax. citelan, titillare. Dut.
kittelcn. Teut. kitzelcn.
KITTLE, v. to bring forth kittens. A very old word, written
in Palsgrave, kyttett* V. L'eclaircissement de la Lang.
KITTLE, a. ticklish, difficult. kittle wark."
" O mony a time, my lord," he said,
I've stown a kiss frae a sleeping wench ;
But for you I'll do as kittle a deed,
For I'll steal an auld lurdane aff the bench.
In witty songs and verses kittle,
Who can compare with Thomas Whittle ?
This word has other meanings ; as kittle weather change-
able weather ; a kittle question such as it is inconvenient
or impolitic to answer ; a kittle horseone unsafe or not
KITTLING, a kitten. An ancient word. Palsgrave, kytlynge.
Prompt. Parv. Cler. kytlinge, catellus. Juliana Barnes
has kendel of cats, a litter of cats.
KITT, KITTY, a diminutive of Christopher, as well as of Ca-
KITTY, the house of correction. Newcastle. Su.-Got. katta,
includere. Germ, ketten, to fetter.
KITTY-CAT, a puerile game, described by Moor. V. Suff.
Words, kit-cat. Strutt mentions a game, which used to
be played in the North, called tip cat, or more properly cat.
V. Sports and Pastimes, p. 86.
KITTY-WREN, or JENNY-WREN, the wren the reputed consort
of the robin-red breast.
" The robin and the wren
" Are God's cock and hen."
KIZONED, or KIZZENED, parched or dried. Children are said
to be so, when, from a weakness or pampered appetite,
they loathe their food. " Kizen'd meat" meat too much
roasted. Q. Isl. gisna, hiascere ?
KLICK-HOOKS, large hooks for catching salmon in the day
time. V. Crav. Gloss.
KNACK, to speak affectedly, to ape a style beyond the speaker's
education. KNACKIT, NACKIT, one quick at repartee, a
KNAOK-AND-RATTLE, a quick and noisy mode of dancing with
He jumps, and his heels knack and rattle,
At turns of the music so sweet ;
He makes such a thundering brattle,
The floor seems afraid of his feet.
Tlic Colliers' Pay Week.
KNACK-KNEE'D, in-kneed knees that knack or strike against
each other in walking.
KNAGGS, pointed rocks, or rugged tops of hills. V. Dire,
KNAGGY, testy, ill-humoured, waspish.
KNAW, v. to know. " Aw knaw" I know. See KNOW.
KNIFLE, to steal, to pilfer. Q. Celt, cneifio, to shear.
KNOCKING-TROUGH, a conical trough in which the rind is beat
off barley with a mallet.
KNOLL, KNOWL, KNOWE, the top of a hill, a bare rounded
hillock. Sax. cnolle. Teut. knolle.
KNOW. " You know, you knaw." " D'ye ken I'll tell you
now" u what's rny opinion to think I cannot say I
dinna ken." " what does he say, good man ? where hez
he been, good man ?" Here good man is not the case of
calling, but is put in opposition to he. This is a mode of
expression peculiar to the North.
KNARL, a hunch-backed or dwarfish man. Old Eng. knurle,
KUN, CUN. " I cun you no thanks" I do not acknowledge
myself obliged to you, Dur. Is it from Germ, konnen,
to know, as savoir gre, in French ?
Kuss, to kiss. Welsh cusan.
KYE, plural of cows, kine. Sax. cy y vacca.
KYLOE, a small Scotch breed of cattle, said to be from kyle, a
Gaelic word for a ferry over which they are transported.
But may it not be from Germ, kuh-klein, a small cow ?
LADDERING, struggling in water, as a fish when caught. Jo-
cosely applied to a great legal luminary, who unfortunately
slipped into the watery element a few years ago.
" Aw was setten the keel, wi' Dick Stavers an' Mat,
An' the Mansion-house Stairs we were just alangside,
When we aw three see'd sumthing, but didn't ken what,
That was splashing and layering aboot ith the tide."
" It's a flucker !" ki Dick ; " No," ki Mat, " its owre big,
It luick'd mair like a skyat when aw first see'd it rise :"
Kiv aw for awd getten a gliffo* the wig
Odds mercy ! Wye, marrows, becrike it's Lord 'Size.
Song, My Lord 'Size.
LACE, to beat or flog. " I'll lace your jacket." LACING, a
beating. " Aw 1 1 gie ye a good lacing just now.'*
LACED, mixed with spirits, as tea or coffee, to which some
" ancient dames" are partial.
LACKITS, small sums of money any odd things.
LAD, a boy j originally a man, from Sax. leode, people. Lang-
land -the reputed author of the Visions of Peirs Plough-
man one of our earliest writers, uses ladde, in its primi-
tive sense ; from which no doubt proceeded lasse, lass.
In Scotland, I have heard a person 50 years old, called a
lad but he was in a state of single blessedness.
LAD, LADDIE, a lover, a sweetheart. " That's maw lad, izint
he a bonny fellow."
May aw the press-gang perish,
Each lass her laddie cherish,
Lang may the Coal Trade flourish,
Upon the dingy Tyne.
Song, The Keel Row.
LAFTER, LAWTER, as many eggs as a hen will lay before she
incubates. Teut. legh-tyd, tempus quogallinae ova pariunt.
LAGGINS, staves. V. Ihre. lagg.
LAIDLY, LAIDLEY, ugly, loathsome, foul. Sax. laithlic.
" I will her liken to a laidley worm."
LAINCH, a long stride. " What a lainch he has."
LAIR, mire, dirt. To be laired, to stick in the mire. Isl. leir.
LAIRD, " the lord of a manor in the Scottish dialect." Dr.
John. This is its old meaning ; but it is now a common
name in Northumberland and Cumberland for a proprietor
of land, without any relation to manorial rights. " He
rides like a Bambro'shire laird one spur, and a stick in
his opposite hand."
LAKE, v. to play. Sax. lacan, ludere. Moe.-Got. Icnkew, exul-
tare. Peirs Ploughman, layke. LAKING, s. a play-thing.
LAKE-WAKE, LATE- WAKE, the watching of a corpse previous to
interment. Sax. lie, a body, and wacian, to watch. V.
LAM, LAMB, td beat soundly. " Aufl lamb yor hide"
" Lbmb them, lads; lamb them !" a cant phraseof the
time, derived from the fate of Dr. Lambe, an
astrologer and quack, who was knocked on the
head by the rabble in Charles the First's time.
Pevertt of the Peak, vol. iv. p. 152.
The great known unknown trips a little here. The word
is used in two or three of the plays of Beaumont and Flet-
cher, written before the conjuring Doctor's catastrophe,
which did not happen until 1628. Besides, the derivation
seems obviously from Isl. lem, verberare, or Teut. lompen,
LAM-PAY, to correct ; principally applied to children.
LAM, or LAMB, and its diminutive LAMMIE, favourite terms of
endearment. " Maw bonny lam" " maw canny lammie"
LAMETEB, LAMITER, a cripple. " He'll be a lameter for life."
LANG, long. LANG, LANGSOME, tedious, tiresome. Sax. lang-
mm. LANGSOMNESS, tediousness.
LANG-LENGTH, the whole length. " He fell down aw his lang
LANG-SADDLE, or SETTLE, a long wooden seat, with a back and
arms, usually placed in the chimney corner in country
LANGSYNE, long since. Sax. longe siththan, diu exinde. See
LANT, the game of loo. LANTERED, looed. LANTERS, the
LAP, preterite of leap. See LOUP.
LAP-UP, to give up, to relinquish.
LAPSTONE, a cobbler's stone, on which he hammers his leather.
LAKE, learning, scholarship. Pure Saxon. LAKE-FATHER,
LASCHE, cold and moist not actually rain. V. Moor, lash or
LASHIGILLAVERY, LUSHEYGILAVEY, plenty of meat and drink ;
a superfluity. Probably from lavish.
LAST, a measure of corn 80 bushels. Sax. nicest. Su.-Got.
LASTENEST, most lasting.
LAT, a lath. Sax. latta. Dut. lat. Fr. latte.Lw AND
PLASTER, an ironical phrase for a tall and slender person
as thin as a lat. LAT-RIVER or RIVE-ER, a maker of
LATCH, v. to catch, to lay hold of. Sax. l&ccan, prehendere.
"When that he Galathe besought
Of love, which he might not lache.
Gower, de Confess. Amant.
. But I have words,
That would be howl'd out in the desert air,
Where hearing should not latch them Shak. Macbeth.
LATCH, s. a fastening ; especially a wooden latch or sneck
sometimes lifted with a cord, at other times with the fin-
ger. Ital. laccio.
Love will none other birde catch,'
Though he sette either nette or latch.
Chaucer, Romaunt of the Rose.
LATE, or LEAT, to seek, to summon, to invite. Isl. leyta, quae-
rere. LATING, or LEATING, a summons or invitation. Dr.
Willan mentions Leating, or Lating-row, a district from
which matrons are invited by special summons to be present
at a child-birth, or at the death of any of the inhabitants.
Should a matron within the limits have been, through in-
advertence or mistake, omitted on such an occasion, it is
an affront not to be forgiven.
LATHE, or LEATHE, a place for storing hay and corn in winter
a barn. Used by Chaucer. V. Skinner, lath.
LATHERIN, a drab, a trollop. " A lazy latherin."
LATTEN, LATTIN, tin. Pistol's
Challenge of the latten bilbo.
S/tak. Merry Wives of Windsor.
Has been " a stumbling block," not so much " to the gene-
rality of readers," as Hanmer would express it, but to the
commentators themselves. See the learned remarks of the
" collective wisdom," in the last Varior. Edit, of Shak. vol.
viii. p. 22-3 ; to which should be added Sir Thomas's own
idea" a factitious metal." In Todd's John, the word is
defined to be, " a mixed kind of metal, made of copper
and calamine : said by some to be the old orichalc ;"
though the authority quoted from Gower proves that
" laton" and " bras" are two distinct things. In the Dic-
tionaries of Bailey, Dyche, and Ash, latten is explained to
be iron tinned over, which is in fact what is called tin :
Pegge also states latten to be tin ; but on turning to Nares*
Glossary, I find the worthy Archdeacon labouring hard at
its transmutation into brass. The days of alchymy, how-
ever, are past. In addition, it may be observed, that Rud-
diman an authority entitled to consideration interprets
lated, iron covered with fin.
LAVE, v. to empty, to draw or take out water or other liquid.
Fr. lever. An old word used by Chaucer.
LAVE, s. the residue those who are left or omitted. A pure
Saxon word, occurring in Peirs Ploughman. It also
means a crowd.
Of prektes proud, a populous lave,
And abbots boldly there were known ;
With bishop of St. Andrew's brave,
"Who was King James's bastard son.
Lambe, Battle ofFloddon.
In ancient times the dignitaries of the church, holding the
temporalities of their benefices of the King, as barons by
the tenure of military service, were bound by the feudal
law, to attend him in his wars.
LAVERICK, LAVEROCK, LAVVORICK, a lark. Sax. laferc, lawerc.
Flocks of turtles, and of laverockes. CJiaucer.
Here hear my Kenna sing a song,
There see a blackbird feed her young,
Or a kverock build her nest.
Here give my weary spirits rest.
Walton, Angler's Wish.
LAW, LOE, LOWE, a hill or eminence whether natural or arti-
ficial. Sax. hlcew, hlaw, agger, acervus. Mce.-Got. hlaiw,
monumerltum. The word is often found at the end of the
names of vills or hamlets.
LAWFUL ME ! LAW ME ! a frequent colloquial exclamation,
implying either wonder or fear.
LEA, LEE, rich meadow or pasture. Sax. leag. Used by
Spenser, and several times by Shakspeare.
LEAD, LEEAD, to carry. " He's leading coals."
LEAGH, a scythe. From lea, meadow, and ag, to cut.
LEAPING-THE-WELL, going through a deep and noisome pool
on Alnwick Moor, called the Freemen's well a sine qua
non to the freedom of the borough. On Saint Mark's
day, the aspirants proceed in great state, and in equal
spirits, from the town to the moor, where they draw up
in a body, at some distance from the water, and on a signal
being given, they scramble through the mud with great labour
and difficulty. They may be said to come out in a con-
dition not much better than " the heroes of the Dimciad
after diving in Fleet Ditch." Tradition says, this strange
and ridiculous custom rendered more ludicrous by being
performed in white clothing was imposed by King John,
who was bogged in this very pooL I witnessed the cere-
mony about four years ago.
LEARN, to teach. V. Todd's John. This sense is not yet
obsolete in the North.
LEASH, to ply the whip. To lash.
LEATHER, to beat soundly. Perhaps from the instrument
originally employed a strap. For a copious vocabulary
of a pugnacious import, see Suff. Words, aint.
LEATHER-HEAD, LEATHER-HEED, a block-head, a thickscull.
Lanthorn Leatherhead, one of the characters in Ben Jon-
son's Bartholomew Fair, has been thought to have been
meant for Inigo Jones ; but Mr. Giffbrd doubts it.
LECK, to leak. Isl. lek, stillare. LECK ON AND OFF, to pour
on, and drain off, gradually.
LEE, v. to lie, to tell a falsehood. Sax. leogan. LEE, s. a lie.
This word, vulgar as it is, occurs in Chaucer. LEE WITH
A LATCHET, a monstrous falsehood, V. Nares. LEEAR, a
LEEMERS. See BROWN-LEEIHERS.
LEET, v. to meet with, to alight. LEET, s. & a. light. " When
than heart's sad, can mine be leet?"
LEETS, lights, lungs. Also windows.
LEETSOME, light, comfortable, cheerful. Lightsome.
LEJSH, LISH, nimble, strong and active.
LEISTER, a prong or trident. Su.-Got. liustra, percutere. See
An awfu* scythe, out owre ae shouther,
Clear dangling hang,
A three-tae'd leister on the ither
Lay, large and lang.
Sums, Death and Doctor Hornbook.
LETCH, a long narrow swamp in which water moves slowly
among rushes and grass.
LENNERT, the linnet. The Grey Lennert.The Green Len-
nert. The Brown Lennert.
LET-LEET, to inform, to disclose. To let in light.
LET ON, to mention. " He never let on" he never told me.
Isl. laeta, ostendere.
LET WIT, to make known. Dut. laaten weeten.
LEUF, LOOP, the palm of the hand. A very ancient word.
V. Jam. Outside the leuf, back of the hand equivalent to
rejection and repulse.
LEW, mild, calm. LEW-WARM, luke-warm. Teut. lauwen,
LIB, to emasculate. Dut. liibben. Used by Massinger and
others. LIBBER, Qui castrat. Lib is perhaps the same as
glib in Shakspeare.
They are cohe'irs,
And I had rather glib myself, than they
Should not produce fair issues.
The Winter's Tale.
LICK, to b^at, to chastise. Su.-Got. laegga, to strike.
LICKING, LICKS, a beating.
LICKLY, likely, probable. LICKLIEST, the superlative.
LIEF, willingly, rather, as soon. Sax. leof. LIEFER, OR LE-
VER, more willingly, sooner. Sax. leof re. Both Gower
and Chaucer often use this comparative. Lief is common
LIFT, assistance. To give a lift, to lend a helping han.d.
Lie, to lie down. Common to Sax. and most Northern
languages. Both Chaucer and Spenser use it. LIG-MA-
LAST, a loiterer, the last. LIG-O-BED, one who lies long
LIGGEE, a carved lignum vitae coit for playing at doddart.
LIKE, to please, to be agreeable to. Dr. John, is mistaken in
thinking it disused.
LIKEN'D. " I had likened" I was in danger of.
LIKING, delight, pleasure. Sax. licung. An old Scotch word,
occurring in that beautiful passage from Barbour's Bruce t
quoted by Dr. Jamieson.
A ! freedome is a noble thing ?
Fredome mayss man to haiff liking !
Fredome all solace to man giffis ;
He levys at ess, that frely levys.
LILE, little. See LITE.
LILL, to assuage pain. Lat. lallare, to lull.
LILLY-WUNS ! LILLY-WUNTERS ! exclamations of amazement.
LILT, to sing, by not using words of meaning, but tuneful syl-
lables only. North. Su.-Got. lulla, canere,
LIMBO, gaol. " He's gettin into limbo, up the nineteen steps"
LIMMER, a female of loose manners, or easy virtue.
LIMMERS, a pair of shafts for a cart or carriage. Isl, limar, ra-
LIN, v. to cease, to stop. Isl. Una, enervare, frangere.
Yet our northern prikkers, the borderers, notwith-
standing, with great enormitie, (as thought me)
and not unlyke (to be playn) unto a masterless
hounde hougling in a hie wey, when he hath lost
him he wayted upon, sum hoopyng, sum whistel-
yng, and moste with crying a Berwyke ! a Ber-
icyke! a Fcntcyke! a Fenivykc ! a Bulmer ! a
Bulmcr ! or so ootherwise as theyr capteins
names wear, never linnde those troublous and
daungerotts noyses all the night long.
Patten's Expedition of the Duke of Somerset.
Before which time the wars could never KM.
Mirror for Magistrates.
Set a beggar on horseback, he'll never lin till he be
a gallop. Ben Jon. Staple of News.
LIN, s. linen. Also the lime tree.
LINN, a cascade, a precipice. Sax. htynna, a torrent Isl.
lind, a cascade. Welsh, Uyn y a lake.
The near'st to her of kin
Is Toothy, rushing down from Verwin's rushy lin.
LING, heath. Isl. ling y spec, erica.
LINGY, active, strong, able to bear fatigue.
LINIEL, shoe-maker's thread. Fr. ligneul. The same as lingel,
described in Nares' Gloss, as " a sort of thong used by shoe-
makers and cobblers ; from lingula"
LINKS, sandy barren ground sands on the sea shore. V.
LIPPEN, to expect, to depend upon. " I lippened on you to
join me." Sax. leafen, credere.
LISK, the groin. " A pain in the lisk" Dan. and Sw. liuske.
LISTEN, selvage. Sax. list. Dan. liste.
LITE, to rely on, to trust to, to depend upon.
LITE, little. An old word used by Chaucer, both as a substan-
tive and an adjective. LALL and LILE, also mean little.
I cannot pretend to reconcile these dialectical variations.
LITHE, to listen. "Lithe ye" hark you. Lythe, Peirs
Ploughman. Su.-Got. lyda, audire, lyda till, aures adver-
LITHE, to thicken ; as to lithe the pot. LITHINGS, thickenings
for the pot ; such as oatmeal, flour, &c. V. Wilb. and
LITTLEST, least the regular superlative of little.
Where love is great the littlest doubts are fear.
LOAK, OR LORE, a small quantity ; as a loke of hay, a loke of
meal, a loke of sand. V. Jam.
LOAK ! LOAK-A-DAZIE ! LOAK-A-DAZIE-ME ! exclamations of
surprize or pleasure, modulated to suit the occasion.
LOANING, LONNIN, a lane or bye-road ; a place near country
villages for milking cows. " Pelton lonnin." V. Jam. loan.
I have heard of a lilting, at our ewes milking,
Lasses a lilting, before the break of day ;
But now there's a moaning, on ilka green loaning,
That our braw forresters are a' wede away.
Old Scotch Song, Battle of Floddon.
LOB-COCK, a contemptuous epithet for a stupid or sluggish
I now must leave you all alas,
And live with some old lobcock ass.
Breton, Works of a Young Wit.
LOLLOCK, a lump. " Lottock wfat"
LOLLOP, to walk in an undulating manner to move heavily.
LOOK, LOUK, to weed, to clear. " Looking corn." V. Ray.
LOON,LOUN,LOWNE, an idle vagabond, a worthless fellow, a ras-
cal. The word is old ; but etymologists are not agreed in the
derivation. Shakspeare has evidently taken the stanzas
in Othello from the following ancient version ofj Take thy
old Cloak about thee, published in Percy's Reliques, vol. i.
King Stephen was a worthy peere,
His breeches cost him but a crowne,
He held them sixpence all too deere ;
Therefore he call'd the taylor Lowne.
LOOSE-I'-THE-HF.FT, a disorderly person a loose blade.
LOOSING-LEATHER, an injury in a tender part, to which inexpe-
rienced riders are subject ; and which makes them, what is
elsewhere called, saddle sick. It is a rustic idea counte-
nanced by some old authors that a sprig of elder, in which
there is a joint, worn in one of the lower pockets, will
operate as a charm against this galling inconvenience ; but
To harden breech, or soften horse,
I leave't to th' learned to discourse.
LOP, LOPPE, a flea. Pure Saxon.
LOPPERED, coagulated. Loppered milk milk that sours and
curdles without the application of an acid. Isl. hlaup, coa-
LOPSTROPOLOUS, mischievous, clamorous. Obstreperous.
We shouted some, and some dung doon
Lobstrop'ljis fellows, we kick'd them O.
Song, Swalwell Hopping.
LOUN, LOWN'D, calm, sheltered from the wind. Isl. logn, sens
LOUNDER, to beat with severe strokes. V. Jam.
LOUP, v. to leap. Su:-Got. loepa, currere. Also to cover ;
from Teut. loopen, catulire.
LOUP, *. a leap or spring. LOUP-THE-LANG-LONNIN, the game
of leap frog.
LOUPY-DYKE, loup the dyke, a term of contempt conjoining
the ideas of imprudence and waywardness. Sometimes ap-
plied to one of those expeditions that maidens sigh for,
but which prudent matrons deprecate as shameless and
LOUT, v. to bow in the rustic fashion. Su.-Got. luta, incli-
nare. This is an old word used by Gower, Chaucer, and
other ancient English writers.
LOUT, s. a stupid awkward person. Teut. loete, homo insul-
sus. In Shakspeare, lowt.
LOVESOME, lovely. Sax. lossum, delectabilis. In Peirs Plough-
man, Chaucer, &c. Indeed, in old Eng. some and ly are
used indifferently as terminations of adjectives.
Low, LOWE, to make a bright flame, as well as the flame itself.
Su.-Got. loga, Isl. logi, flamma. LILLY-LOWE, a comfort-
able blaze. " Had aboot the low."
LOWANCE, LOOANCE, an allowance of drink to work people.
" Noo, maister, ye'll sartinly give-us wor looance" V,
LOWRY, LOOKING, overcast, threatening to be wet. Spoken
only, I think, of the weather.
LUBBARD, LUBBART, an awkward, clownish fellow, a calf-
hearted person. Lubber may be found in Shakspeare and
other authors. " D'ye ken that lubbard there ? hoo he
tummiTd his creils ! he's all owre darts /"
For hyem an' bairns an' maw wife Nan,
Aw yool'd oot like a litbbart ;
An' when aw thowt we aw shud gan
To Davy Jones's cubbart.
Song, Jemmy Joneson's Whurry.
LUG, the ear. An old word both in England and in Scotland.
Su.-Got. lugga. Sax. ge-luggian, to pull the ear being a
part easily pulled or lugged. " Aw'l dad yor lug" " aw'l
skelp yor gob"
LUGGISH, an indolent, or idle fellow. LUGGISH-HEEDED, heavy
headed, thick headed.
LUM, a deep pool*of water, the still part of a river.
LUJSI, the chimney of a cottage. Welsh, llumou. Lover is in
Lancashire, and also in some parts of Yorkshire, a chim-
ney properly (like the lum) an aperture in the roof of old
houses, where the fire was in the centre of the room. Fr.
I'ouverte. I find lover in Peirs Ploughman, and also in
the Faerie Queene. Sibbald, however, conjectures that
lum may be from Sax. leom, light scarcely any other light
being admitted, except through this hole. Brand, on the
other hand, asks if it may not be derived from the lome or
clay wherewith the wattle work is daubed over inside and
LUM-SOOPERS, LUM-SWEEPERS, chimney-sweepers. North. $
LURDANE, a drone, a sluggard. Teut. loerd. Old Ital. lordone.
Fr. lourdaud. Some old writers, however, pretend to de-
rive this word from Lord Dane a name given (more from
dread than dignity) to those Danes, who, when they were
masters of the island, were distributed in private houses ;
where they are said to have conducted themselves, or if
the expression be permitted lorded over the inhabitants,
with outrageous insolence and pride.
In every house Lord Dane did then rule all ;
Whence laysie lozels lurdanes now we call.
Mirror for Mug istra tes.
LURDY, lazy, sluggish. Fr. lourd, dull, stupid. Ital. lordo,
LUSTYISH, rather stout, inclining to be plump,
LYERY, the lean or muscular flesh of animals. Sax. lira,
LYKA ! listen an exclamation of astonishment. Lyka man !
what do I hear you say.
MAB, v. to dress carelessly. MAB, s. a slattern. Perhaps in
derision of Queen Mob.
MACK, to make. Preterite, myed. Germ, machen. MACK,
kind, sort, a match or equal. MACKLESS, matchless.
MACKS, makes, sorts, fashions.
MACK-BOULD, to venture, or take the liberty. Make bold.
MACKSHIFT, a substitute or expedient in a case of necessity or
MADDLE, to wander, to talk inconsistently, to forget or con-
found objects, as if in a state bordering on delirium.
MADPASH, a person disordered in the mind a madbrain.
From mad and pash, the head.
MAFFLE, to stammer, to be puzzled to act by means inade-
quate to the attainment of the object or end proposed
like one in dotage. Teut. maffelen, balbutire. MAFFLING,
a state of perplexity.
MAGGY, a magpie. Also called a Pyamiet.
MAIL, rent or money exacted by Freebooters on the borders.
Sax. mal, stipendium.
MAILIN, or MAEYLIN, a sort of mop made of old rags, with a
long pole, for cleaning out an oven metaphorically, a
dirty careless wench. F. Todd's John, malkin and maukin.
MAIN, might, strength, exertion. Sax. nuzgn. Shakspeare
endeavours to be superlatively witty on the word.
SAL. Then let's make haste away, and look
Unto the main.
WAR Unto the main ! O father, Maine is lost ;
That Maine which by main force Warwick did win,
And would have kept so long as breath did last ;
jTfazwchance,father, you meant; but I meant Maine;
Which I will win from France, or else be slain.
Second Part of King Henry VI.
MAIN of cocks, a cock-fighting match. Anathematized by
Brand ; Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 480.
MAINS, a farm, or certain fields, attached to a mansion house.
Old Fr. manse.
MAINSWEAR, MANSWEAR, to take a false oath. Sax. mansive-
rian. " He's a manswearing fellow."
MAIST, MAYST, almost. MAISTLY, MAYSTLY, mostly. Sax.
maest, most, greatest.
MAISTER, master. Sax. mcester. Used by Spenser. MAIS-
TER-MAN, a husband.
MAISTRY, power, superiority, mastery. Fr. maistrie.
MAKE, a companion, or equal. An old word. Sax. maca.
MAKELESS, matchless, without an equal. Su.-Got. maka-
loes. This latter word, in the garb of MAKEA&S adopt-
ed by the learned Christina of Sweden, on one of her
numerous medals sadly perplexed the antiquaries at
MAKE-COUNT, to calculate on, to mean or intend to do any
MALE, or MAIL, a travelling trunk. V. Nares' Gloss.
MALL, MAUL, MALLY, MAULLY, POLLY, Mary.
A bold virago stout and tall,
As Joan of France, or English Mall.
MAMMER, to hesitate, to be in doubt, to mutter.
I wonder in my soul
What you could ask me, that I should deny,
Or stand so mammering on. Shale. Othfllo.
Hanmer most unfortunately refers to Fr. m' 'amour, which,
he says, " men were apt often to repeat when they were
not prepared to give a direct answer !"
MAMMY, a childish name for mother. Teut. mamme.
MANADGE, MANAUDGE, a box or club instituted by inferior shop-
keepers generally linen-drapers for supplying goods
to poor or improvident people, who agree to pay for them
by instalments a mode of dealing extremely lucrative to
one party, but sadly the contrary to the other. Of late, much
of this deservedly disreputable trade has been in the hands
of manadge-women, who become responsible to the dra-
pers for what they impose on their deluded customers.
MANG, s. barley or oats ground with the husks; given to
dogs and swine. Perhaps from Sax. mengean, to mingle.
MANG, preposition, among, amongst.
MANNER, manure, dung, or compost. " Aitfve mannered the
MANNIE, a man. " A tight little mannie but low."
MAPPEN, perhaps. It may happen.
MARCHES, the northern borders. Sax. mearc. Fr. marche.
They of those marches, gracious sovereign,
Shall be a wall sufficient to defend
Our inland from the pilfering borderers.
Shak. Hen. V.
MARE, more. Pure Saxon. Germ. mehr.
MARGIT, MEG, MEGGY, PEG, PEGGY, Margaret.
MARROW, MARRA, v. to match, to equal.
'Bout Lunnun then divent ye myek sic a rout,
There's nowse there maw winkers to dazzle ;
For aw the fine things ye are gobbin about,
We can marra iv Canny Newcassel.
Song, Canny Neiocassel.
MARROW, s. a fellow, companion, or associate; an equal, a
Yet chopping and changing I cannot commend
With thief or his marrow 9 for fear of ill end. Tusscr.
MARROWS, fellows ; two alike, or corresponding to each
other ; as a pair of gloves, a pair of stockings, a pair of shoes.
MARROW-BONES, the knees. " I'll bring him down on his
marrow-bones" I'll make him bend his knees as he does
to the Virgin Mary. Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 43.
But see Grose's Class. Diet.
MARROWLESS, without a match, incomparable.
MARRY ! MARRY-COME-OUT ! MARRY-ON-US ! common inter-
jections purposed disguises in favour of pious ears.
Marry-gip, goody she-justice, mistress French hood.
MARRY AND SHALL, that I will. Often used by old people.
MARSYCREE, to ill-treat, to butcher. Corruption of massacre.
MART, MAYRT, a cow or ox slaughtered at Martinmas, and
salted for the winter. It is customary in Newcastle and
the neighbourhood, for a few families to join in the pur-
chase of a mart, which is obtained at the Stones fair, held
on old Martinmas day, and divided among them.
And Martilmass Beefe doth beare good tacke,
When countrey folke do dainties lacke Tusser.
MASH, v. to bruise. " Mash'd up." MASH, s. confusion.
MASK, to infuse. " Mask the tea." V. Jam.
MASON-DUE, the vulgar name for an ancient hospital, on the
Sandhill, Newcastle, lately taken down. Evidently a
corruption of Fr. maison Dieu.
MASSELGEM, a mixture of wheat and rye maslin. Teut. mas-
MATEN-CORN, corn damped and beginning to germinate.
N North. V. Ihre, malt.
MATTERS. " Naa girt matters," nothing extraordinary or to
boast of. Crav. Gloss.
MAUGH, MEAUGH, brother-in-law. V. Lye, mag.
MAUL, to beat soundly, to hurt severely. Moe.-Got. maul-jan.
Upon the childe, but somewhat short did fall,
And lighting on his horse's head, him quite did mall.
Spenser, Faerie Queene.
MAUMY, mellow, soft. Su.-Got. mogna, to become mellow.
To maum a crust of bread, is to soften it in water.
MAUNDER, to wander about in a thoughtful manner; to be
tedious in talking ; to say a great deal, but irregularly and
confusedly ; to lose the thread of a discourse. Q. Gael.
mandagh, a stutterer ?
MAUNT, MUNCLE, contractions of my aunt, my uncle. Bor-
ders of North. Nuncle and Naunt occur in Beaum. & Flet.
MAW, v. to mow. Preterite, mew. Sax. mawan. Germ.
mahen. MAWERS, the mowers.
MAW, s. the human stomach, as well as that of an animal.
Sax. maga. V. Todd's John.
MAW, pronoun, my, mine, belonging to me.
MAWD, a plaid worn by the Cheviot shepherds. Su.-Got.
mudd, a garment made of rein-deer skins.
MAWK, a maggot, a gentle. Su.-Got. matk, madk. MAWKY,
MAWKISH, maggotty, whimsical, proud, capricious.
MAY, the sweet scented flower of the white thorn. See May-
Day Customs, Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 179 & seq.
Rise up, maidens, fie for shame,
For I've been four lang miles from hame :
I've been gathering my garlands gay ;
Rise up, fair maids, and take in your May.
Old Newcastle Song.
Moor gives an inaccurate version of this homely canticle.
V. Suff. Words, p. 225.
MAZED, astonished, amazed Also stupified rendered in-
sensible by a blow. " Aw stood quite mazed."
ME, for I. A common grammatical error. Not without ex-
amples in our old language.
MEAL, the appointed time when a cow is milked, as well as
the quantity of milk she gives at once. Sax. mcel, portio,
MEALY -MOUTHED, " using soft words, concealing the real in-
tention ; speaking hypocritically." Todd's John. I
should prefer Skinner's construction mild-mouthed or
mellow-mouthed but derive the word from Fr. miele,
honied, as we say honied words.
Clayton was false, mealie-moutWd, and poore spirited.
Life of Ant. a Wood, p. 165.
MEANE, to complain, to lament. Sax. maenan, dolere.
And thus she means SJtak. Mid. Night's Dream.
MEANING, shrinking or feeling sore, indicative of pain or lame-
MEBBY, MEBBYS, MABEES, MAEBBIES, perhaps, probably. It
MEDDLE NOR MAKE. " He'll neither meddle nor make"
he'll not interfere.
MEER, a mare. Also an abusive term among the lower order
of ladies in Newcastle. " Aw sae Peg, yah meer."
MEET, fit, proper. Stated in Todd's John, to be rarely used.
It is quite common in North, and Dur.
MELDER, a making of meal. In some places the farmers hire
the miller, and in turns have a winter stock of meal made.
The meldering day used to be, and perhaps still is, a kind
of feast among the yeomanry. Fr. moudre, to grind ; or,
according to Dr. Jam. Isl. mal/dr, molitura, from mala, to
MELL, v. to intermeddle, to engage in, to interfere with. Fr.
meler. " I shall not well with your affairs." The com-
mentators are not agreed on the expression,
Men are to mell with.
Shak. Airs Well that Ends Well
It means men are to meddle with ; without the least al-
lusion to the indecent idea surmised by Theobald.
MELL, v. to pound or bruise, to crush.
MELL, s. a wooden mallet, or hammer. Lat. malleus.
MELL-DOLL, an image of corn, dressed like a doll, carried in
triumph amidst the most frantic screaming of the women
on the last day of reaping. In some places they call it
a KERN (perhaps, properly, corn) BABY. There is also oc-
casionally a harvest queen thought to be a representation
of the Roman Ceres apparelled in great finery, and
crowned with flowers ; with a scythe in one hand, and a
portion of corn in the other.
MELL-SUPPER, a supper and merry-making on the evening of
the conclusive reaping day harvest-home. Besides a
grand display of excellent old English cheer, with a mix-
ture of modern gout, to enlarge the sphere of epicurean
enjoyment, there is dancing, masking and disguising, and
every other sort of mirth to expand a rustic heart to gaiety.
According to Hutchinson, the Historian of Northumberland,
the name of this supper is derived from the rites of Ceres,
when an offering of the first fruits was made; the word
mette being a provincial word, equivalent to mingle : imply-
ing that the cakes used at this festival are mingled or made
of new corn, and that it is the feast of the first mingling of
flour of the new reaped wheat. I am, however, strongly in-
clined to think, that we may safely refer to Teut. mael,
convivium refectio, pastus. Various other etymologies
have been conjectured, which are noticed in Brand's Pop.
Ant. vol. i., Chap. Harvest-Home ; where much curious
matter relative to this subject is collected.
MELL-DOORS, the space between the heck and outward door
MELL-DROP, the least offensive species of mucus from the nose.
" Mell-drop Tommy."
MENDS, recompense, atonement. Amends.
If she be fair, 'tis the better for her; an she be not,
she has the mends in her own hand.
Slutk. Troilus and Crcssida.
MENNAM, the minnow. Gael, meanan.
MENSE, v. to grace, to ornament, to decorate. " The pictures
mense the room."
MENSE, s. decency, propriety of conduct, good manners, kind-
ness, hospitality. Sax. mennesc, humanus. It also means
an ornament, or credit ; as he is " a mense to his family."
The last of a dish of meat untaken is said to be left for
mense's sake, perhaps pro mensa. See TAILOR'S MENSE.
MENSEFUL, decent, graceful, mannerly, hospitable, creditable.
MENSELESS, indecorus, graceless, inhospitable.
MENSE-PENNY, liberality conducted by prudence.
Would have their menscf id penny spent
With gossips at a merriment.
The Collier's Wedding.
MERE, a lake. Pure Saxon. Buttermere, Windermere.
MERRY-BEGOTTEN, filius nullius rather waggishly alluded to
by old Brunne.
Knoute of his body gate sonnes thre,
Tuo bi tuo wifes, the thrid injolifie.
MERRY-DANCERS, the glancings of the Aurora Borealis, or
northern lights; when first seen, called burning spears,
and which to persons of a vivid imagination still seem to
represent the clashing of arms, in a military engage-
ment : called also the Pyrrhy-dancers a name that may
have been adopted from the Pyrrhica saltatio, or military
dance of the ancients ; from which, no doubt, the sword-
dance of the Northumbrian youths, in their white plow, at
Christmas, has had its origin.
MERRY-NIGHTS, rustic balls nights (generally about Christ-
mas) appropriated to mirth and festivity. These homely
pastimes, besides the eating and drinking, consist of danc-
ing, in all the lower modes of the art ; of masked inter-
ludes ; and occasionally of the ancient sword dance ; with
an indispensable admixture of kissing and romping, and
other " gallantry robust."
MESSIT, a little dog, a cur. V. Jam. messan.
METERLY, MEETERLY, tolerably well, moderately, within
MICKLE, MUCKLE, much. Sax. micel, miclc. Isl. mikill.
An oath of mickle might. Shalt. Hen. V.
O, mickle is the powerful grace that lies
In plants, herbs, stones, and their true qualities.
Shak. Rom. and Jul.
He had in arms abroad won muckel fame.
Spenser, faerie Queene.
MIDDEN, MUCK-MIDDEN, a dunghill. Sax. midding, sterquili-
nium MIDDEN-STEAD, a place for dung.
MIDDEN, a contemptuous term for a female conjoining the
ideas of insipidity, inactivity, and dirt.
MIDDENS, or BLACK-MIDDENS, dangerous rocks on the north
side of the entrance into Shields harbour.
MIDGE, a small gnat. Sax. micge. A diminutive mischiev-
ous boy is often called a midge. MIDGE'S-EE, any thing
very small. As a comparison very common.
MIDLIN, MIDLING, tolerably well, indifferent. " Weel, Tom-
my, hoo are yah ? Midlin, thenk yah ! Hoo are yee ?
Wey, gayly, Joan /"
MIGHTY, very. " Mighty great" " mighty high" " a mighty
MILKER, a cow that gives milk ; not the person who milks.
" She's a top milker."
MILKUS, MILKHOUSE, a dairy. Sax. melce-hus.
MIND, to remember, to be steady and attentive. Dan. minde,
MINT, to aim at, to shew a mind to do something, to endea-
vour, to make a feigned attempt. Sax. ge-myndian, in-
MINNY, a fondling term for mother. Sc. minnie.
MIRE-DRUM, the Bittern or Bog-bumper. Ardea Stellaris,
Linnaeus. There is a beautiful figure of this stately bird
in Bewick's History.
MIRK, MIRKY, dark. Sax. mirce. Isl. myrkr, tenebrosus.
Old Eng. mirke.
Gane is the day, and mirk's the night,
But we'll ne'er stay for faute o' light. Burns.
MIRTH, MORTH, or MURTH, abundance ; as a murth of corn,
a murth of cold.
MISCALL, to abuse, to call names to. " Yah cannot miscall me
past me nyem"
MIS-KEN, to be ignorant of, not to know.
MISLIPPEN, to suspect, to neglect.
MISSES, the matron or mistress of the house. " What will
me misses say?"
MISTETCH, an ill habit, property or custom ; perhaps from mis-
teach. Chaucer uses tetch, for a spot or blemish.
MITT AN, a glove ; generally made of thick leather or coarse
yarn. Fr. mitaine.
He that his hand wol put in his mttaine
He shal have multiplying of his graine.
Chaucer, Pardoneres Tale.
MIXTY-MAXTY, MIXY-MAXY, any thing confusedly mixed, an ir-
regular medley. Su.-Got. miskmask.
MIZZLE, small rain. The substantive is neither in Ash's Diet.
nor in Todd's John, though the verb is admitted in both.
MOIDER, to puzzle, to perplex. MOIDERED, bewildered, con-
MOLTER, MOOTER, MOUTER, a portion of meal abstracted by
the miller as a compensation for grinding ; the toll, as it
were, of the mill. Fr. mouture. It is also used as a verb.
It is good to be merry and wise,
Quoth the miller, when he mouier'd twice.
MOME, soft, smooth, conjoining the idea of sweetness. Hence
the liquor mun ale brewed with wheat.
MONNY, many. MONNY A TIME AND OFT, a common expres-
sion for frequently.
Moo, to low as a cow. Germ, mu, vox vaccae naturalis.
MOON-LIGHT, MOON-SHINE, a mere pretence, an illusive shadow.
Also smuggled whiskey. Thanks to the malt and other
taxes for this neologism.
MOOR, a heath, a common or waste land. Sax. mor y ericetum.
Isl. mor, terra arida inculta et inutilis. Dr. Jamieson er-
roneously supposes that this word always implies the idea
of water or marshiness. The same mistake occurs in
MOOT-HALL, the ancient hall of the castle of Newcastle the
place of holding the assizes for the county of Northumber-
land. Sax. moth-heal, conventus aula, comitium.
MOP, " to make wry mouths or grin in contempt." Todd's
John. In the North it means to prim or look affectedly.
MOPPET, a child so acting. Also a term of endearment.
Moppe, is an old word in the latter sense.
MORAL, model. " The moral of a man." An archaism.
MORE, a hill. Sax. mor. mons.
MORN, morrow. THE MORN, to-morrow. Sax. morghen, mor-
MORTAL, very, exceeding, excessive, abounding. Perhaps from
mort, a great quantity.
So is all nature in love, mortal in folly.
Shak. As You Like It.
MOSS-TROOPERS, banditti, who inhabited the marshy borders of
the two kingdoms, and subsisted chiefly by rapine. So
called from living in mosses, and riding in troops to-
MOST. It is not unusual to prefix this superlative degree to
the regular superlative form of another word' as " the most
wickedest wretch that ever lived." *' The most plcasantest
fellow I ever knew." There are examples for it in Shaks-
peare and some of his cotemporaries.
MOUDY-RAT, MOUDY-WARP, MOULEY-RAT, a mole. Sax. mold,
mould, and weorpan, to cast up. Dan. mulvarp, a mole.
Spenser and other old writers use mouldwarp. Shakspeare
in allusion to the old prophecy which is said to have in-
duced Owen Glendower to rebel against King Henry
causes Hotspur, when taxed by Mortimer with crossing his
father, thus to exclaim
I cannot choose : sometimes he angers me
With telling me of the moldwarp and the ant, &c.
First Part of King Henry IV.
MOUDY-HILL, MOULEY-RAT-HILL, a mole-hill.
MOUNGE, to grumble lowly, to whine or complain. " What are
ye mounging about."
About him they aw throng'd, and ax'd what news frae
Each tell'd about their blarin, when they ken'd that
he was drown'd.
Hoots !" Archy moung'd, " its nowt but lees to the
Barley Mow let's e'en be joggin,
Awl tyek my oath it wassent me, because aw hear its
Song, Bold Archy Drownded.
MOUNT, a large stone hewn into the shape of steps placed at
the doors of public houses, to assist persons in mounting
Mow, to converse unlawfully. I believe an old word. See the
ancient ballad of Bonny Dundee.
Mow, a distorted mouth. Fr. moue, a wry face.
Mow, a stack. " The barley mow" Sax. mowe, acervus.
MUCK, dung for manure. Sax. meox, fimus MUCK-MIDDEN, a
heap of manure, a dunghill. MUCKY, dirty, filthy. The
Crav. Gloss, has muck cheap, cheap as dirt : muck-heap, a
very dirty person, " a girt muck heap :" muck-midden-
breward, upstarts. Muck, however offensive to those
whose affected gentility recoils at a vulgar phrase, is not
without example in several of our best and most accom-
MUCKINGER, MUCKINDER, a pocket-handkerchief.
Be of good comfort, take my muckindcr,
And dry thine eyes. Ben Jon.
MUDDLE, to confuse, to perplex. V. Suff. Words, muddle and
MUDS, small nails used by cobblers.
MUFFETTEE, a worsted covering or small muff for the wrist. Ap-
parently a recent innovation. The Scotch have a kind of
gloves worn by old men, called muffities, from which the
term may have been borrowed.
MUG, a low word for the mouth. " Shut your ugly mug."
MUGGER, a hawker of pots, a dealer in earthen ware. This
trade is carried on to a great extent among the gipsy tribes
in the Northern counties.
MUGGY, the white-throat. Motacilla Sylva. Linnaeus.
MULL, dirt, rubbish, crumbs. Su.-Got. mull. Chaucer uses
mvttok. The fragments and dust of a stack of peats are
called peat-mull, and oaten bread broken into crumbs, is
called mulled bread.
MULLIGRUBS, bad temper, ill humour an indescribable com-
What's the matter ?
Whither go all these men-menders, these physicians ?
Whose dog lies sick o' th' mulligrubs.
Beaum. and Flet. Monsieur Thomas.
MUMMER, a person disguised under a mask, a sort of morris
dancer. Dut. mommen, to mask. Dan. mumme, mum. See
as to the old custom of mumming, in Brand's Pop. Antiq.
vol. i. p. 354.
MUMP, to hit or slap to beat about the mouth. " I'll mump
yor gob." A very low word.
MUN, an expletive used on all occasions. Man.
MUN, MUNS, the mouth. Germ. mund.
MUN, MOWN, must. " I mun gan." " You mun come." Isl.
mun. Chaucer uses moun and mowen.
MUNNIT, must not. MUSSENT, the same.
MURDERING-PIE, the great ash-coloured shrike. Lanius excu-
MURL, to fall in pieces, to crumble. Welsh, mwrl, crumbling.
Dut. mutten, to crumble.
MUSH, the dust, or dusty refuse of any dry substance, any thing
decayed or soft. " Dried to mush."
MUTTON, a term for a courtezan.
The duke, I say to thee again, would eat mutton on
Fridays __ Shak. Meas.for Meas.
Mutton's mutton now. Webster's Appius $ Virg.
MUZZY, half stupified, bewildered -fatigued with liquor, as I
once heard a friend express it.
MY-EYE, a vulgar inter) ectional expression of exultation, in
MYSELL, myself. An universal corruption among the vulgar.
NA, no. NAT, not. Both pure Saxon. Chaucer has given
his Northern Clerks a northern dialect. V. Tyrwhitt's
note on verse 4021.
NAB, NABB, a protuberance, an elevated point, the rocky sum-
mit of a hill. A steep and high precipice at the confluence
of the Baulder and the Tees, is called the Nabb. Sax.
cncep, vertex montis. Isl. gnop, prominentia. Su.-Got.
kncepp, summitas montis.
NAG, to gnaw at any thing hard.
NAGGY, irritable. See KNAGGY.
NAKY-BED, NAKIT-BED, in puris naturalibus stark-naked.
Nares observes, that, down to a certain period, those who
were in bed were literally naked, no night linen being
worn. Many of the Scotch thrifty souls and some of
the English, still continue the custom.
NANNY-HOUSE, NANNY-SHOP, a brothel. Newcastle.
KAPKIN, a pocket handkerchief. Borders of North. Used
by Shakspeare in several of his plays ; and by other
NAPPERN, an apron. This pronunciation is conformable to
the old orthography. Fr. naperon, a large cloth.
NAPPY, fine ale a little intoxicated with it. Sax. nappe,
cyathus. Ital. nappo, a bowl.
Nappy ale, good and stale.
Ballad, Ring and Miller of Mansfield.
NARRATE, to relate, to tell. Not confined to Scotland as
stated by Dr. Johnson.
NASH, NESH, tender, weak, fragile. Sax. nesc.
NASTY, ill-natured, impatient, saucy. Its other meaning is
NATION, very, exceedingly. " Nation great"" nation wise"
" nation foolish."
NATTLE, OR KNATTLE, to hit one hard substance against another
gently and quick, to make a noise like that of a mouse
gnawing a board.
NATTRY, ill natured, petulant. " Nattry faced"
NATTY, neat, tidy. " How very natty he is."
NAUP, to beat, to strike. Isl. knefa. See NEVEL.
NAY-SAY, a refusal, a denial. Holinshed uses nay, v. to refuse.
NAY THEN ! an exclamation implying great doubt, or wonder.
NE, no. NEBODY, nobody. " Whe was there ?" " Nebody r
NEAGRE, a term of reproach, equivalent to a base wretch ;
though often confined to a mean, niggardly person. Pro-
bably from Fr. negre, a negro.
NEAR-SIGHTED, short-sighted. Su.-Got. naarsynt.
NEB, a point, a beak also the nose, the mouth. Sax. nebb.
Isl. nebbi, nef.
How she holds up the neb, the bill to him !
Shak. Winter's Tale.
Give her a bus see how she cocks her neb Neiec.
NECK-ABOUT, a woman's neck-handkerchief. Neckatce.
NECK AND HEELS, topsy-turvy. Origin obvious.
NECK-VERSE, a cant term formerly used by marauders on the
borders adopted from the verse (generally thought to be
the beginning of the 51st psalm) read by criminals claim-
ing the benefit of clergy, so as to save their lives.
Letter nor line know I never a one,
"Wer't my neck-verse at Hairihee.
Scott, Lay of the Last Minstrel
NEP, NEDDY, Edward. " Neddy, maw dear"
NEDDY, a certain place that will not bear a written explana-
tion ,* but which is depicted to the life in the first edition
of Bewick's Land Birds, p. 285. This broad piece of na-
tive humour is somewhat refined in the subsequent im-
NEED-FIRE, an ignition produced by the friction of two pieces
of dried wood. The vulgar opinion is that an Angel
strikes a tree, and that the fire is thereby obtained. Need-
fire, I am told, is still employed in the case of cattle in-
fected with the murrain. They were formerly driven
through the smoke of a fire made of straw, &c. It was
then thought wicked to neglect smoking them. Sax. nyd,
force, and^/r, fire ; that is, forced fire.
NEER-DEE-WEEL, a graceless person one who seems never to
NEESE, NEEZE, to sneese. Sax. ncese, the nose.
NEEST, NIEST, NEST, next.
NEET, night. " Good neet, hinny"
NEIF, the fist. Isl. knefi. Su.-Got. kruefve. Dan. nave. A
good old Shakspearian word. Nares' display of authorities
was unnecessary. The word is still in general use in all
the northern counties. DOUBLE-NEIF, the clenched fist.
NEIF-FULL, a handful.
NELSON'S BULLETS, small confections in the shape of balls. In
commemoration of the naval hero.'
NENTS, against, towards.
NERLED, ill-treated : often applied to the conduct of a step-
NESTLING, the smallest bird in the nest, the weakest of the
brood. Sax. nestling. Something like the DOWPY.
NETHER-STOCKS, stockings. Used by Shak. in King Lear,
and in Henry IV. Nether is an old word for lower, from
NETHER-LIP, the under lip.
That thou art my son, I have partly thy mother's
word, partly my own opinion ; but chiefly a vil-
lainous trick of thine eye, and a foolish hanging
of the nether %, that doth warrant me.
SJiak. First Part of Henry IV.
NETTLED, provoked, irritated as if stung by a nettle. To
water a nettle, in a certain way, has been said proverbially
to cause peevish and fretful humour. See the proverb in
NEUCK, NUIK, NOOK, a corner. " The chimlay neuck" the
fire side. Gael. niuc.
NEVEL, to beat violently with the fists, or neives. See NEIF.
She'l nawpe and nevel them without a cause,
She'l macke them late their teeth naunt in their hawse.
Yorkshire Dialogue, j?. 68.
Ni ! Ni ! a common exclamation in Newcastle.
Waes ! Archy lang was hale an' rank, the king o' lad-
His wrist was like an anchor shank, his fist was like
His yellow waistcoat flowered se fine, myed tailors
lang for cabbage cuttins
It myed the bairns to glower amain, and cry, " Ni!
Ni ! what bonny buttons !"
Song, Bold Archy Drownded.
NICE, good, pleasant, agreeable, handsome. " A nice man" "a
very nice woman." NICELY, in good health.
NICK, to delude by stratagem, to deceive.
NICK-STICK, a tally, or notched stick, by which accounts are
kept. This simple mode of reckoning seems to have been
the only one known to the Northern nations. V. Jam.
When a woman, in a certain state, goes longer than her
calculation, she is said among the vulgar to have lost her
NICKER, to neigh, to laugh in a loud ridiculous manner. Sax.
gncegan. " What are you nickering at."
NICKER AND SNEER, a loud vulgar laugh apparently borrow-
ed from the neighing and snorting of a horse.
NIDDERED, starved with cold, hungered. V. Jam.
NIFF-NAFFS, trifles, things of little value. Fr. nippes.
NIFFY-NAFKY, a term for an insignificant or conceited person
one whose attention is devoted to trifles.
NIFFLE, to steal, to plunder. Perhaps by a metathesis from
NIGH, to approach, to touch. Sax. nehwan, appropinquare.
NIGH-HAND, hard by, NIGHEST-ABOUT, the nearest
NIGHT-COURTSHIP, a Cumbrian mode of wooing; fully de-
scribed in note 3, Anderson's Ballads.
NIBI, to walk with short quick steps, to take up hastily.
NINE-TRADES, nine trading companies in Newcastle three
of wood three of thread and three of leather. " The
meeting of the nine trades."
NINNYHAMMER, a foolish, stupid person. Shak. frequently
NIP-CHEESE, a contemptuous designation for a parsimonious,
NIP-UP, to wipe up, to move quickly, to pilfer.
NIPPING, pinching ; as by frost or cold.
It is a nipping and an eager air. SJuiJc. Hamlet.
NITHING, much valuing, sparing of; as nithing of his pains:
i. e. sparing of his pains. Ray.
NITTLE, handy, neat, handsome. Sax. nytiic, utilis.
NIVVER, never. " To-morrow come nivver when two Sun-
days meet together."
NOB, the head. Used ludicrously.
NOBBIT, NOBBUT, only. None but. " Who's that ?" " Nob-
NODDLE, a burlesque name for the nose.
NO-FAR, near. Not far. A common North country phrase.
NOODLE, a fool. A term often used in Newcastle sometimes
NOOLED, checked, curbed, broken spirited.
NOR, than. Very common among the vulgar; and occa-
sionally used by people in Newcastle, in a sphere beyond
the " mere ignoble." Gael. na.
NOSE ON THE GRINDSTONE, a simile for the fate of an improvident
person. See an illustration in a tail piece to Bewick's
jEsop, p. 128.
NOSE-WISE, acute, quick of perception. Germ, nase-weu, self-
NOTE, to push or strike with the horns ; as a bull or ram.
Isl. hniota, ferire.
NOTTAMY, OTTOMY, a skeleton. NOTTAMISED, OTTOMISED,
NOUGHT, NOWT, nothing. " Cheese for half-nought, here !"
NOUT, OR NOLT, neat, or horned cattle of the ox species.
Isl. naut, bos. Old Eng. nowt. The nolt market, the
ancient name of a street in Newcastle now the Bigg-
NOUT-GELD, NEAT-GELD, cornage rent, originally paid in cattle
horn tax. Cornage seems to have been peculiar to the
border service against the Scots. The tenants holding
under it were bound to be ready to serve, on horseback
or on foot, at their own costs and charges ; and, being best
acquainted with the passes and defiles, had the honour of
marching in the vanguard, when the king's army passed
NOUTH, the north. NOUTHERLY, northerly. " Past two
o'clock, and a frosty mornin winds noutherly." NORRID,
northward. " Several Greenlandmen passed nor rid"
NOUTHER, NOWTHER, neither. Pure Saxon.
NOUSE, judgment, understanding, sense. Lat. noscere.
NOWSE, nothing ; contrary to owse.
Wi' huz, mun, three hundred ships sail iv a tide,
We think nowse on't aw'l myek accydavy ;
Ye're a gowk if ye din't knaw that the lads o' Tyne-side,
Are the Jacks that myek famish wor navy.
Song, Canny Newcassd.
As to that pedant Mr. Hall,
By Jove I'll give him no-wse at all.
The Vicar's Witt.
NUDGE, to push, to jog. " What are ye nudging at."
NUM, NUMB, clumsy, benumbed. Sax. benum, stupefactus.
NUT-CRACK-NIGHT, All Hallows Eve ; on which it is customary
to crack nuts in large quantities. They are also thrown
in pairs into the fire, as a love divination, by young people
in Northumberland, anxious to know then* future lot in
the connubial state. If the nuts lie still and burn toge-
ther, it prognosticates a happy marriage, or at least a hope-
ful love ; if, on the contrary, they bounce and fly asunder,
the sign is unpropitious to matrimony. Burning the nuts
is also a famous charm in Scotland.
The auld guidwife's weel hoordet nits
Are round an' round divided,
An' monie lads' and lasses' fates
Are there that night decided :
Some kindle couthie, side by side,
An' burn thegither trimly ;
Some start awa wi' saucy pride,
And jump out-owre the chimlie.
See some curious notes, explanatory of the charms and
spells of this evening, appended to the poem here quoted.
NYEM, name. " Aw diwent ken his nyem." Broad Newcastle.
OAF, a fool, a blockhead, an idiot. " Oh ! yah oaf, yah /"
V. Todd's John, and Will),
OBSTROPOLOUS, vociferous, turbulent, obstreperous.
Then rough-hewn tar,
Who sail'd had far,
" Cries out, my lads ! give o're ;
" Since, body of me !
" You can't agree,
" Cease such dbstrojflous roar."
ODDMENTS, ODDS AND ENDS, scraps, things of little value,
ODDS-BOBS, a vulgar exclamation of surprize. ODD ROT IT,
ODDS-DEETH ! ODDS-LIFE ! ODDS-HEART ! ODDS-HEFT ! ODDS-
WOWKS I ODDS-ZOOKS ! frequent palliative adjurations.
As are also, ODDS-DAT-IT, ODDS-DRAB-IT.
Oddsfaft ! we all know Skipper Clark,
Has got a stomach like a shark,
And can if he's a mind to try,
Devour a bullock in a pie.
Willy Wood, and Greedy Grizzle.
ODDS-FISH ! an interjection a moderated diminutive of God's
OFTENS, OFFENS, the plural of often. Quite common. OFT-
ISH, OFTENISH, very often.
OIL-OF-HAZEL, a sound drubbing. A piece of waggery is some-
times practised by mischievous urchins in Newcastle, on
raw inexperienced lads from the country in sending them
to a chymist's shop for a "pen'ortk of oti-of-kazel" An
earnest application of a good thick hazel stick is often the
result. Sending for pigeon's milk is a similar joke of old
OLD, great ; such as was practised in the " olden time." OLD-
DOINGS, great sport, great feasting an uncommon display
OLDISH, rather old. Very common.
OLD-NICK, one of the most common of all the ludicrous names
given to the devil ; or, as it is pronounced, the deevil.
The Danes and Germans, according to the northern my-
thology of elder times, worshipped Nocka or Nicken, a
deity of the waters, represented as of a hideous shape, and
of diabolical principles ; from which, no doubt, the popular
name of old-nick has been derived. OLD-HARRY, and OLD-
SCRATCH, are also designations appropriated to the same
evil being by the vulgar in the North.
OLD-PEG, AUD-PEG, an inferior sort of cheese, made of skim-
med milk. It is also called, not inaptly, leather hungry.
V. Moor, bang.
OLD-SHOE. The ancient custom of throwing an old shoe af-
ter a person for luck, is not yet disused in the North. In
the case of marriages, it is often practised ; even among
some of the great. See on this subject, Brand's Pop.
Antiq. vol. ii. p. 490 ; and Nares' Gloss. " As easy as an
old shoe" a common comparison.
OMY, mellow ; spoken of land. V. Jam. oam.
ONE-DAY, a favourite retrospection. " I remember it well
it happened one-day when from home."
ONGOINGS, conduct, doings, merriment.
ONSET, a dwelling-house and out-buildings. Something ad-
ded or set on.
ONSETTEN, dwarfish, curbed in growth. " An onsetten thing"
a common term of derision.
ONSTEAD, ONSTID, the buildings on a farm a station or stay
near the house for cattle or stacks. Sax tw, and steel,
ONY, ONNY, any. ONNY-BIT-LIKE, tolerable, decent, likely.
Oo, often pronounced ui ; as book, buik ; look, luik ; took,
OOL, OWL, wool. Had the learned author of the Commen-
taries on the Laws of England known this, he need not
have gone so far to seek the meaning of what he calls
owling. V. Blackstone, vol. iv. p. 154.
OPPEN, to open. OPPENT, opened.
ORNDORNS, " afternoon's drinkings, corrupted from onederins"
Ray, who gives it as a Cumb. word. OWNDER is used in
some parts of the North, for the afternoon j which may be
the same as Chaucer's undern; and in a list of words
communicated to me by a friend, a native of Cumberland,
I find orndinner, afternoon's luncheon ornsupper, after-
OSKEN, an oxgang of land varying in quantity.
OTHERGAITS, OTHERGETS, otherwise, different.
If Sir Toby had not been in drink, he would have
tickled you othergates than he did.
Shak. Twelfth Night.
OUSEN, OWSEN, oxen. Moe.-Got. auhsne.
He has gowd in his coffers, he has owsen and kine,
And ae bonie lassie, his darling and mine. Sums.
OUT-AT-THE-ELBOWS, in declining circumstances.
OUT-BY, a short way from home, not far distant.
OUT-FALL, a quarrel, a misunderstanding. To fall out. Sw.
utfall, a hostile excursion.
OUTGOINGS, synonymous with OUTLAY, which see.
OUTING, an airing, going from home. Sw. uttacg, an expedi-
tion abroad. Also an entertainment or supper given by
an apprentice to his shopmates, on the expiration of his
OUTLAY, expenditure. Dr. Jam. refers to Sw. utlagga, to ex-
pend ; whence utlaga, tax ; utlagor, expenditure.
OUTOPONNER, OR OoT-UPON-iiER ! an inter] ectional term of
reproach, or abhorrence.
But out upon this half-fac'd fellowship.
Shdk. First Part of King Henry IV.
OUT o' THE WAY, uncommon, exorbitant, wayward.
OUTRAKE, a free passage for sheep from inclosed pastures
into open grounds or common lands. Sax. ut-rcecan, ex-
tendere. Dr. Willan, however, thinks that, in writing the
word out-track, we should perhaps exhibit the right mode
of spelling, as well as the derivation of it.
OUTSHOTS, projections of the upper stories of old houses, in
Newcastle ; of which there used to be several. A few
Oft in a house decay'd with age,
Which scarce will bear the winter's rage ;
Whose crazy outshots threat 'ning hing
About their ears, a peal to ring.
Description of Sandgate.
OUTWALK, refuse. See WALE.
OVER IT, to recover from an illness. " I'm sadly afraid she'll
never over it"
OVERGET, to overtake ower-take. " He is but a little before,
you will soon over-get him."
OVERMICKLE, OwERMiCKLE, overmuch. Sax. ofer-micel.
OWE, to belong to. An old sense of the word.
Thou dost here usurp
The name thou ow'st not.
OWER, over. OUT-OWER, across. OWER-BY, over the way.
OWSE, any thing ; contrary to nowse.
OWT, OUGHT, any thing. ' Sax. owhit.
OVVTHER, OWETHER, GATHER, either. An old word. " Ow-
ther on us" either of us.
OX-EYE, the greater titmouse. Parus major, Linnaeus.
OXLIP, the greater cowslip. Sax. oxan-slippa. -
I know a bank where the wild thyme blows,
Where oxlips and the nodding violets grows.
Shdk. Mid. Night's Dream.
OXTAR, OXTER, the arm pit. Sax. oxtan. Pegge, however,
thinks it should perhaps be written HOCKSTER, quasi the
hock of the arm, or the lesser hock.
OYE, a grandchild. V. Jamieson, oe.
OYSTERS. EE-SHEE-KE-LE-KAUL-ER-OYSTEERS, the famous cry
of the elder oyster-wenches, in Newcastle ; but now rarely
carried to this musical extent. Bewick has figured two
of these dames in a tail piece to his Land Birds, edit. 1821,
PACK, the warehouse of a pedlar. " Perish the Pack" was a
well known character in Newcastle, a few years ago. See
PACKMAN, and PEDDER.
PACKING-PENNY-DAY, the last day of the fair ; when all the
cheap bargains are to be had. Newc.
PACKMAN, a pedlar a man who carries a pack on his back.
Many persons in Newcastle, now enjoying otium cum
dignitate, are lineally descended from packmen through no
very remote genealogy.
Honour and shame from no condition rise ;
Act well your part there all the honour lies. Pope.
PADDICK, or PADDOCK, a frog. Sax. pad, pada. Never a
Paddockes, todes, and water-snakes.
Chapman, Ccesar and Pompey.
Paddock calls Shak. Macbeth.
PADDLE, an iron instrument for clearing away dirt, a scraper.
PADDOCK, a small field or park adjoining to, or surrounding a
house. Sax. pearroc, parruc. In Westmorland, parruck,
evidently the proper word, is a common name for an in-
closure near a farm house.
PADDOCK-STOOL, or STUYL, a fungus often mistaken for a
mushroom. Teut. padden-stoel.
PAD-THE-HOOF, to walk. " As aw cuddent get a ride, aw was
'bliged to pad the hoof"
PAFFLING, silly, trifling. " A paffling fellow."
PAIK, to beat, to chastise. Germ, pauken. PAIKS, PAIKES, a
beating, a drubbing. V. Jam.
PAINCHES, tripe. From paunch. PA INCH-WIVES, PAINCHER-
WIVES, tripe women. Newc.
PALAVER, v. to use a great many unnecessary words. PALA-
VER, s. needless talk. Span, palabra, a word ; palabrero,
talkative, full of prate, loquacious.
PALTERLEY, PALTEREY, paltry.
PAN, to match, to agree, to assimilate. Dr. Willan seems to
think this must be borrowed from cookery : the author of
the Crav. Gloss, from Sax. pan, a piece of cloth inserted
or agreeing with another. But see Ray.
PANCAKE-TUESDAY, Shrove Tuesday ; on which it is a general
custom in the North to have pancakes. Formerly, in
Newcastle, the great bell of St. Nicholas was tolled at
twelve o'clock at noon ; when the shops and offices were
immediately closed, and a little carnival ensued for the
remainder of the day. It is still a sort of half holiday.
PANG, to fill, to stuff. PANG-FULL, crammed with food. Teut.
Next, to the tents we hied, te get
Sum stuffin for wor bags, man ;
Wi* flesh we gaily panged wor hides
Smok'd anowse but patten shag, man.
Song, X. Y, Z.
PANT, a public fountain. In Newcastle they are of a particu-
lar construction, having a reservoir before them for retain-
ing the water. According to Skinner, pond was anciently
pronounced pand, which may be derived from Sax. pyndan,
to inclose or shut up, and which might easily get changed
to pant. See a representation of a North country pant,
in Bewick's ^Esop, p. 334.
PARCY-AND, the sign or contraction fy.
PARFIT, perfect, entire. Fr. parfait. Used by Chaucer.
PARGET, to plaster chimnies with a" mixture of cow dung,&c ;
formerly the common term for plastering the roofs of rooms.
PARLOUS, perilous, dangerous, wonderful also acute, clever,
shrewd. An old word. PARLISH, a variation in dialect.
A parlous boy ! go to, you are too shrewd.
Shak. King Ricltard III.
PARRISHED, perished, starved, much affected by cold. PAR-
RISHMENT, a state of starvation. " He's gettin a parmft-
ment at caud"
PASE, v. to raise, to lift up, to open with violence. Fr. peser,
to weigh. PASE, s. a lever.
PASH, v. to bruise, to crush, to dash in pieces. PASH, s. any
thing decayed. " As rotten as pash" " As soft as posh."
PASH, a fall of rain or snow. Dut. plas.
PASTE-EGGS, eggs boiled hard, and dyed or stained various
colours given to children to amuse themselves with about
the time of Easter. The custom of presenting eggs at this
season of the year is of great antiquity, and pervaded va-
rious nations. Su.- Got. pask-egg. V. Ihre. vol. i. p. 390.
Dan. paaske-teg, coloured eggs. See much curious matter
relative to this subject, in Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. easier
PATE, a brock or badger. F. Ray.
PAUKV, saucy, squeamish, scrupulously nice also proud, in-
solent, artful. Q. Sax. pcecan, mentiri ?
PAUL, to puzzle. Poze is used in the same sense.
PAUT, v. to paw, to walk heavily or awkwardly, to kick.
PAUT, s. a stroke on the ground with the foot. Teut.
pad, planta pedis.
PAWP, the foot particularly a clumsy one. PAUPIN, PAUP-
ING, walking awkwardly.
PAWS, the hands. " Keep yor paws off"
PAY, to beat, to drub. " The rascal pays his wife." PAYS,
a beating, a drubbing. Welsh, pwyaw, to beat, to batter.
Two, I am sure, I have paid.
Shak. First Part of King Henry IV.
PEA, or PEE-JACKET, a loose rough jacket or short covering ;
much used in severe weather by mariners, and by watermen
on the Tyne. It was formerly the holiday outer-dress of
PEAS-STRAW, a rustic love charm. A Cumbrian girl, when
her lover proves unfaithful to her, is by way of consola-
tion, rubbed with peak-straw by the neighbouring lads;
and when a Cumbrian youth loses his sweetheart, by her
marriage with a rival, the same sort of comfort is adminis-
tered to him by the lasses of the village. Note, in Ander-
PEA-SWAD, OR SWAD, the husk that contains peas.
PEDDER, PETHER, or PJETHUR, a pedlar a travelling merchant.
PEE, to squint, to spy with one eye to look through con-
tracted eye-lids. PEED, blind of an eye.
PEE-DEE, a young lad in a keel, who has charge of the rudder.
In other respects, something similar to the cabin-boy of a
ship. Often called by a name too coarse for insertion.
PEEL, a place of strength a fortified building. Sax. pil t
Within my own recollection almost every old house
in the dales of Rede and Tyne was what is called
a Peel house, built for securing its inhabitants
and their cattle in the moss-trooping times.
Hedley, Archceologia jEliana, voli.p. 243.
The Northumberland Peel houses were of two stories
the first arched over, into which the cattle were driven ;
but a Peel, according to the proper sense of the term, sig-
nifies a Gothic strong-hold, the defences of which are of
earth mixed with timber, strengthened with piles or pali-
sades, such as was common on the Continent at a very
PEELINGS, parings. " Apple peelings"" Potatoe peelings."
PEENGING, PINGING, uttering feeble, frequent, and somewhat
peevish complaints. " A peenging bairn" a whining
child. Teut. pynighen, affligere.
PEEZ-WEEP, PEE-WIT, the lapwing, or bastard plover. Tringa
vanelhtSy Lin. V. Wilb. appendix.
PEG, v. to beat with sharp knuckles. Isl. piaka, tundere.
PEG, s. a blow or thump.
PELCH, faint, indisposed, exhausted.
PELL-MELL, quick. See its other meanings in Todd's John.
PET, a domesticated lamb a spoiled, pampered child a fond-
ling designation for a female favourite. Old play writers
use peat, in the latter sense.
PETTED, fondled, indulged. " What a petted child."
PICK, to pitch, to throw. Su.-Got. picka y minutis ictibus
I'd make a quarry
"With thousands of these quarter'd slaves, as high
As I could pick my lance Shak. Corlolanus.
PICK-FORK, a hay fork, a sort of grape. See GRAPE.
PICK-NIGHT, dismal, dark as pitch. Shakspeare and later
writers use pitchy y in the same sense.
Then aw met yor Ben, an' we were like to fight ;
An' when we cam to Sandgate it was pick-night.
Song, Maw Canny Hinny.
PICKLE, a small quantity, a little.
PICKLET, or PIKELET, a small round light cake a sort of
PICKS, the suit of diamonds at cards. Grose erroneously says
sjjades. Brand pretends to seek a derivation in the re-
semblance which the diamond bears to a nnll-j)ick > as
fusils are sometimes called in Heraldry.
PlCKTREE, PlGCREE, Or PlGERY, a pig-Sty.
PIECE, a little while. " Stay a piece and then aw will."
PIFLE, to filch, to steal. From pilfer.
PIKE, v. to pick, to select, to chuse. Dut. picken.
PIKE, OR HAY-PIKE, s. See HAY-MAKING.
PIN-CODD, or PRIN-CODD, a pin-cushion. See CODD.
PINCH-GUT, a penurious person a covetous, miserable
PINK, small. " Aw never saw sic a Pink-eed body."
PINKEY, very small. Dut. pinkje. PINKEY-WINKEY, the
PIN-PANNIEBLY-FELLOW, a miserable, covetous, suspicious fel~
low, one who pins up or fastens his paniers and baskets.
PIPER, a minstrel. Northumberland. Sax. pipere. The
noble house of Percy still retain pipers in their service.
They wear, on the right arm, a silver crescent, granted as
a badge to the family, for having taken the Turkish stand-
ard, in an expedition against the Saracens, in the Holy
Land : attend the courts-leet and fairs held for the Lord :
and pay suit and service at Alnwick castle. Their in-
strument is the ancient Northumbrian bag-pipe, different
in form and execution from the Scotch ; it being much
smaller, and blown, not with the breath, but by a pair of
bellows fixed under the left arm.
With wassail, mirth, and revelry
The castle rung around :
JLord Percy calPd for song and harp,
And pipes of martial sound.
The minstrels of thy noble house,
All clad in robes of blue,
With silver crescents on their arms,
Attend in order due.
The Hermit of Warkworlh.
PIPESTOPPEL, a fragment of the shank of a tobacco-pipe.
PIPING-HOT, extremely hot. " Pies, piping-hot.
The honour thou hast got
To spick and span nevi t pijnng-fiot.
PIPKIN, or PIDKIN, a small earthen vessel with a handle from
p**##* G ON A GRAVE. Women transported with rage and
wickedness sometimes threaten their deadly enemies in this
manner. A clergyman, in Northumberland, informed me
that he had heard of a person who was actually guilty of
such a revenge. Many old customs are harmless ; but this
is composed of nothing but horrible materials.
PITMAN, a collier a man who works in a coal pit.
PITTER-PATTER, to beat incessantly, like rain.
PITTY-PATTY, palpitation, a quick movement of the heart.
Pitapat is classical.
PLASH, v . to splash. Su.-Got. plaska. PLASH, s. a small pool
of water. PLASH OF RAIN, a heavy fall or severe shower.
PLEACH, to bind a hedge. V. Suff. Words, plash.
PLEAN, to complain. An old word.
PLEAN, or PLEANY-PYE, a tell-tale, or prating gossip. Pleig-
nen occurs in Gower.
FLEMISH, OR PLENNISH, to furnish a house.
PLENISHING, OR PLENNISHING, household furniture. Q. Lat.
PLODGE, to wade through water, to plunge.
PLOOKY, PLOOKY-FACED, pimpled. Gael.plucan, a pimple.
Plooky, plooky, are your cheeks,
And I'lwky is your chin.
Ballad, Sir Hugh le Blond.
POOM - , 165
PLOTE, to pluck, to chide vehemently. " See how she plotes
PLOUTER, PLOWTEB, to wade through water or mire, to be
engaged in any dirty work. Teut. plotsen. Germ, pla-
PLOWDING, wading through thick and thin. Dut. ploegen.
PLOY, a harmless frolic in which a party is engaged ; a merry
meeting. Dr. Jam. is inclined to view this word as formed
from Sax. plegan, to play.
PLUFF, PLEUGH, a plough. Su.-Got. plog. Germ, pflug.
This gives me an opportunity of presenting to the reader
a genuine Northumbrian specimen of an agricultural re-
proof; communicated to me by a friend.
" Ye ill far'd body ye ! ye pretend to guide the fluff!
to leeve a sSet a baaks in aa the faf quarter. I'll
ha ne mair o' thee ! Se ye may gang at the Fair,
honest man ! Thou mun de't better nor that,
else thou may gang heame."
POCK-ARRED, OR POCK-ARRD, pitted with the small-pox. It
might be thought puckered, but the a is distinctly pro-
nounced and accented. Germ, pockennarbig. See ARR.
POCK-FRETTEN, marked with the small-pox.
PO-HEAD, PO-HEED, POW-HEAD, a tad-pole, or young toad.
POKE, to stoop. "To poke the head."
POKE, a bag, a sack. " A pig in a poke" an old Northern
idiom. Sax. pocca, a pouch. Isl. poJti, saccus. Teut.
POKED, offended, piqued. " Aw've poked him, sure."
POKER AND TONGS, when a horse strikes the hind against the
POOMER, any thing very large. " Ee ! what a poomer"
POOR BODY ! poor creature. A common colloquial expres-
sion of sympathy.
POORLY, indifferent in health. VERY POORLY, very unwell.
POR, PORE, a poker for stirring the fire. Teut. porren, ur-
PORRAGE, PORRIDGE, hasty-pudding oatmeal mixed in boil-
ing water, and stirred on the fire till it be considerably
Porridge after meat !
Shak. Troilus and Cressida.
PORTMANTLE, a portmanteau. Originally a bag for a cloak or
POSEY, POSIE, a bunch of flowers, a nosegay. A genuine
North country word.
Now all prepared and ready stand,
With fans and posies in their hand.
The Collier's Wedding.
Poss, to dash violently in the water. " To poss clothes"
" A poss tub." " Aw poss'd him ower heed"
POT-CLEPS, pot-hooks. Ray says, from clip or clap, because
they, clap or catch hold of the pot.
POTTICAR, POTECARY, PoTHECARY, an apothecary. In the
ancient mode of writing this word, the A was omitted. See
Bewick's ^Esop. p. 36.
POTTINGER, a coarse earthen-ware pot, with a handle. Por-
Pou, Poo, POOGH, to pull. " Poo away me lads"
POUK, to strike ; or rather to push.
He's grown sae weel acquaint wi' Buchan,
An' ither chaps,
The weans haud out their fingers laughin,
And pouk my hips.
Burns, Death and Doctor Hornbook.
Pow, the pate, the head. " Aufl rattle yor pow"
Albeit my poiv was bald and bare Ramsay.
POWSODDY, suet pudding placed under a roast.
PRENTICE, an apprentice. An ancient mode of contracting the
word. Hey wood's play of the Four Prentices of London.
PRICKLE, a basket or measure of wicker work among fruiterers.
Formerly made of briers ; hence, perhaps, the name.
PRICKT, decayed ; said of wine having a tendency to sour.
PRIG, to plead hard in a bargain, to higgle in price. Dut.
prachen, to beg.
PRIGGISH, vain, conceited, affected, coxcomical.
PRIME, a little intoxicated, ready for action or business. Both
in a metaphorical sense.
PRIN, a pin. Isl. prion, acus capitata. Dan. preen. Dr.
Jam. has satisfactorily proved that this is no corruption.
PRINCOX, a pert or forward fellow. V. Todd's John.
PRITH ENOW ! a frequent supplication. Pray thee now.
Away ! I prithee, leave me Rowe, Jam Shore.
PROD, a prick, a skewer. Su.-Got. brodd, aculeus.
PROG, PROGGLE, v. to prick, to prickle. Isl. brydda, pungere.
PROG, s. a prick. PROGLY, a. prickly.
PROSS, talk, conversation rather of the gossiping kind. " Let
us have a bit ofpross"
PROUD, luxuriant. " Corn's varra proud." Crav. Gloss.
P's AND Q's, a nicety of behaviour ; an observance of all due
formalities. Perhaps from a French injunction to make
proper obeisances, " Soyez attentifs a vos pies et vos cues ;
in other words, mind your P's and Q's."
PUBBLE, full, plump ; usually spoken of corn or fruit in oppo-
sition tofantome any thing fat, or distended.
PUCKER, flutter, agitation, " What a pucker he's in." A fi-
gurative application of the word.
PUGGY, moist ; arising from gentle perspiration. " A puggy
PULK, a hole of standing water a puddle.
PULLEN, poultry. An old word. V. Todd's John. The Pul-
len market in Newcastle.
PUMMEL, OR POMMEL, to beat severely, to chastise with the fist.
For your pate I would pummel.
Beaum. Q Flei. Four Plays in One.
PUNCH, to strike with the feet. " Don't punch so."
PUND, a pound. Welsh, punt. " One pund two.'*
PUN-FAUD, or PIN-FAUD, a pinfold. Sax. pyndan, to inclose.
PUNY, small, weak, sickly. " A puny bairn." Fr. puisne ;
hence Eng. puisne, inferior, lower in rank.
PUOY, PUY, or POUIE, a long pole, with an iron spike, or spikes,
at the end, used in propelling keels in shallow water, or
when it is inconvenient to use sails or oars. Span, apoyo.
PURDY, a little thick-set fellow. I owe this word to the com-
munication of a friend in the County of Durham, who first
heard it at Barnard- Castle. On ascertaining the meaning
the following dialogue took place.
Q. What does purdy mean ?
A. A little throstan up thing like a Jack at Warts.
Q. What's that ?
A. Something like a lime burner.
Q. What is a lime burner ?
A. Oh nobbit a Kcndal stockener.
Q. What is that ?
A. A little thick-set fellow.
Moor has purdy, proud, ostentatious ; and I have been
told, since this article was written, that powsey is used in
nearly the same sense as purdy.
PURELY, quite well. " How is tah ?" Purely, thcnk ye."
PURLICUE, a flourish in writing. " A spang and purlicue."
Fr. pour le queue. V. Jam.
Puss, PUSSEY, PUSSEY-CAT, a cat, a hare. " Poor little pussey."
PUT, to push, to propel. Welsh, pwtiaw. " He puts weel."
PUZZEN, poison. " That ruitfs sartinly puzzen."
PYANNET, PYNET, a magpie. Welsh, pioden. See MAGGY.
PFRRHY-DANCERS. See MERRY-DANCERS.
QUAIL, to fail, to fall sick, to faint. Teut. quelen, to languish.
V. Nares, for examples of its ancient use.
QUANDARY, a dilemma, an unpleasant predicament, a state of
perplexity. Skinner's derivation from Fr. qiCen diraije,
is adopted in Todd's John. But the pronoun (nominative)
was often left out by old French writers, which would here
make the derivation more accurate qiCen dirai ?
QUEAN, a term of abuse to a female sometimes implying the
most disgraceful name that can be applied to the sex.
Mce.-Got. queins, quens. Sax. cwen, a wench though
not primarily used in a reproachful sense.
A witch, a quean, an old cozening quean.
Sltak. Mer. Wives of Windsor.
QUEER, a quire of paper. Old Eng. quaire. Old Fr. quayer.
QUERN, a hand mill. One of our oldest words. Su.-Got.
quern. Teut. querne. See KERN.
Wheras they made him at the querne grind.
Chaucer, Morikes Tale.
Skim milk ; and sometimes labour in the quern,
And bootless make the breathless housewife churn.
Shak. Mid. Night's Dream.
Capell ridiculously supposed that quern here meant churn.
QUISEY, confounded, dejected.
QUORN, QUOARN, corn. " The quorn's now gettln up, -carry
RABBLE, to speak in a confused manner. Teut. rabbelen,
RABBLEMENT, a crowd, the mob. A very old word.
RACK, v. to care. " Never rack" never care. V. Ray.
Cornish, rach, care.
RACK, s. a trace. Our great dramatic poet, in a well-known
passage in the Tempest, says, " leave not a rack behind" ;
that is, not a trace whatever the commentators may be
pleased to say to the contrary. x
RACK, s. the clouds ; or rather the track in which they move.
Sax. reCy vapour. Archdeacon Nares is mistaken in think-
ing the word not now in use.
But, as we often see, against some storm,
A silence in the heavens, the rack stand still,
The bold winds speechless, and the orb below
As hush as death. Sfiak. Hamlet.
RACKLESS, thoughtless, careless, improvident. Old Eng.
retchless t reckeless. Sax, recce-leas.
RAFF, a low fellow. RIFF-RAFF, an alliterate term of reproach
the rabble. Dan. ripsraps, the dregs of the people.
RAFF-MERCHANT, a timber-merchant. .K/-mercliant.
RAFFLING, idle, worthless. " A raffling chap."
RAG, to rate, to reproach. Isl. raega, to accuse. BULLY-
RAG, the same.
RAGABASH, low, idle people such as are generally in rags.
Rubbish is used in the same sense. Both may be said to
be synonymous with ragamuffins.
RAGEOUS, in a rage, in excessive pain, violent.
RAKE, to cover, to gather together. To rake the fire, is to
supply it with coals, or to put it in such a condition that
it may continue burning all night, so as to be ready in the
morning a common practice in many kitchens in the
North, where coals are plentiful. Shakspeare uses the
word in this sense, when, in King Lear, he makes Edgar
Here, in the sands
Thee I'll rake up Act. IV. Sc. G.
RAM, foetid, acrid, pungent. Isl. rammr, amarus. " A ram
smell"" A ram taste."
RAME, to cry, to ask over and over again in a teazing man-
ner. Sax. hream, clamor. Su.-Got. raama, clamare. *
RAWING, crying ; especially as denoting reiteration of the
same sound. " What are yah ranting at yah little dirty
RAME, OR RAWM, to reach any thing awkwardly or greedily, to
stretch after. Teut. raemen, extendere, distendere.
RAMLIN-LAD, a tall fast growing youth, a hobblety-hoy .
RAMPADGE, to prance about furiously, to make a great noise
RAMSHACKLE, RAMSHECKLE, to search narrowly, to ransack.
RanshacJcle is an old word for plunder.
RANDY, s. a vulgar, brawling woman, a termagant.
RANDY, a. boisterous, obstreperous, disorderly.
RANK, thick, or many things or people together. Sax. ranc.
RANNEL-BALK, a beam or bar across a chimney on which
boilers are hung.
RANTY, riotous, in high spirits, disorderly. RANTY-TANTY,
in great wrath, in a violent passion.
RAPE, a rope. Moe.-Got. raip. Sax. rap.
RAPIER-DANCE, nearly the same as the sword-dance of the
ancient Scandinavians, or as that described by Tacitus
among the Germans. See a full account of it, in Archaeo-
logia, vol. xvii. p. 155.
RASH, dry ; as rash-corn corn so dry in the straw that it falls
out without handling.
RASHER, a rush. Sax. resce.A rasher-cap, a rasher-ducket,
a rasher-whip ; articles made of rushes.
RASPS, both the bush and the fruit.
RATCH, a straight line of a navigable river ; as the Long Ratch,
in the Tyne. This word is politely, but impurely, pro-
nounced Reach. The keelmen generally say Rack. It is,
perhaps, properly Rack.
RATHER To have rather is a common North country expres-
sion, when a preference is desired. See Dr. Johnson's 6th
sense of rather. The corruption may be thus traced. It
is customary to contract both / would and / had into I'd.
I had rather was probably first used as a false translation
for Vd rather, written for I would rather; and when I had
rather was once received, to have rather followed of course.
RATLER, a great lie, an abominable falsehood. " That's a
RATTEN, RATTON, a rat. Span, raton.
RATTLE, to strike or chastise. " Aw'll rattle yor cannister."
RATTLEPATE, RATTLESCAP, RATTLESCAUP, a giddy, thought-
less, volatile person.
RAUK, to mark with lines, to scratch. " Dont rank the table?"
I am told ratch is also used in the same sense. Q. Isl.
raska, frangere ?
RAW, a row of buildings, a sort of street. " Pether-Raw"
" Shiney-Raw" Sax. r<ewa. Old Eng. rew.
RAX, to stretch out, to enlarge, to reach. To rax oneself, is
to extend the limbs, after sleep or long sitting. Sax.
rcEcean, porrigere. As applied to the weather, to rax out,
means to clear up.
READ, REDE, counsel, advice. Sax. reed.
REAP, a bundle of corn, parcels of which are laid by the rea-
pers to be gathered into sheaves, by the binders in harvest
time. Sax. rlpa, ripe.
REAST, restiveness. REASTY, restive, stubborn. Old Eng.
restie. " A reasty horse."
REASTY, rancid, Sax. rustian, to contract rust.
And then came haltyng Jone,
And brought a gambone
Of bakon that was reasty. Skclton.
REAVE, to take away, to bereave. Sax. reafian, to rob.
REAVEL, OR RAFFLE, to entangle, to knot confusedly together,
to ravel. " A reaveled hank" a twisted skain.
RECKNING, the score at a public house. Reckoning.
RECKON, to suppose, to conjecture, to conclude. " I reckon
he'll come" " I reckon I shall."
RED, to put in order, to clear, to disentangle. " To red up
the house." Su.-Got. reda, explicare.
REDDING-COMB, a comb for the hair.
READE, a calf's stomach, used for rennet. Teut. roode.
REED, a. red. Sax. reod. REEDER, redder.
REEK, v. to smoke. Sax. recan. REEK, s. smoke. Sax.
rec. REEK-PENNY, a modus paid to the clergy in many
parts of Northumberland and Durham for fire wood. Cal-
led also smoke-penny, and hearth-penny. See Tomlins*
Law Diet, smoke-silver. Reek is also a term for money.
REEKING-CROOK, a sort of crane or crook over the fire to sup-
port boilers exposed to the smoke.
REET, right. Both as substantive and adjective.
REET, s. a wright, or carpenter. " A cart-reef " a mill-rect"
REET, sane in mind. Right. NOT REET, not in the exercise
of sound reason. Not right. Germ, nicht recht.
REINS, balks or portions of grass land in arable fields.
RENCH, to rinse. Isl. hreinsa, to make clean.
RENDER, to separate, to melt down, to dissolve any thing fat
by the heat of the fire. V. Jam. rind; and Wilb. render.
RENEGATE, a reprobate, a runagate ; applied to any unsteady
character. The old way of writing renegado.
A false knight, and a renegate.
Cower, de Confess. Amant.
RENTY, well shaped ; spoken of horses or horned cattle.
RESPECTIVELY, for respectfully. I had a correspondent by
no means deficient in learning who invariably subscribed
himself " yours respectively." He, perhaps, relied on the
authority of chak. and Beaum. and Flet.
RHEUMATIZ, the rheumatism. Moor has rimmittis.
RICE, brushwood for the purpose of hedging. Isl. hrys. Su.-
Got. ris. Germ, reis, a twig. STAKE AND RICE, a sort of
wattled fence. " Eh ! what a dike ! what a stake and
rice he loupt."
RIDDLE, a coarse sieve with large interstices; much used
about farm-houses. Sax. hriddel. Welsh rhidyll. The
vulgar, in many parts, have an abominable practice of
using a riddle and a pair of shears in divination. If they
have had any thing stolen from them, the riddle and shears
are sure to be resorted to. A similar mode of discovering
thieves, or others suspected of any crime, prevailed among
the Greeks. V. Potter, Gr. Antiq. vol. i. p. 352.
RIFE, abounding, common, prevalent. Sax. ryf. Dr. John-
son is mistaken in confining the use of this word to epi-
demical distempers ; and Archdeacon Nares (who points
out Mr. Dibdin's very erroneous explanation) is equally in
error in thinking it obsolete.
There is a brief, how many sports are rife.
Shak. Mid. Night's Dream.
This reading occurs in most of the old editions I be-
lieve in all but one. The modern editors, however,
without any sufficient reason, read ripe.
RIFT, v. to belch. Dan. raever. RIFT, s. an eructation.
RIFT, v. to plough out grass land. Su.-Got. rifwa.
RIG, a wanton. To RUN THE RIG, to teize, to banter, to ridi-
RIG, a ridge, an eminence. Sax. hricg. Isl. hriggr. Su.-
RIG AND FUR, ribbed ; as rig andfur'd stockings. Midge and
RIGGELT, RIGGOT, an imperfect ram, or any other animal half
castrated. " A riggot-ram" " a riggot-horse" " a riggot-
RIGGIN, the ridge of a house. Sax. hricg, fastigium. RIG-
GIN-TEEE, the beam along the roof. " See, he's gettin him-
sel seated across the riggin tree"
RILE, to render turbid, to vex, to disturb.
RIM, BELLY-RIM, the membrane inclosing the intestines.
" Mind dinna brust yor belly-rim" a caution among the
vulgar in Northumberland.
For I will fetch thy rim out at thy throat,
In drops of crimson blood. Shak. Hen. V.
The original reading, says Nares, is rymme, which Capell,
judging from the main object of the speaker, boldly pro-
nounced to signify money ; others have wished to read
ryno, but that term is probably not of such antiquity : and
the conjecture supposes the original word to be printed
rym, which it is not. Pistol, with a very vague notion of
the anatomical meaning of rymme, seems to use it in a
general way for any part of the intestines ; his object be-
ing to terrify his prisoner.
RINE, FROST-RINE, frozen dew, hoar frost. Sax. ren, rain.
RIP, a profligate any thing base or worthless. " A rip of
a fellow"-" A rip of a horse."
RIPE, to search, to steal privately, to plunder. " She riped
my pockets" " He riped the nest." Sax. hrypan, dis-
RIPPLE, to clean ; applied to flax. Su.-Got. repa I'm, linuin
vellere. Teut. repen, stringere semen lini.
RIVE, v. to devour. " What are you riving and eating in that
RIVE, s. a rent or tear. Isl. ryf. The verb rive, to split, has
long been used in our language.
ROBIN, the popular name of the ruddock or red-breast. The
innocence, tameness, and its approach in a season when
its sustenance is precarious, may be the reason that this
bird is so much pitied and respected. The author of the
old ballad of The Children in the Wood, selected the red
breast as an object of sympathy, no doubt for the causes
here cited ; but I am informed that about Heworth, near
Newcastle, it is considered as a bird of bad omen.
ROGGLE, to shake, to jumble.
ROISTER, to behave turbulently, to make a great toise, to in-
dulge in jollity.
ROISTERER, a turbulent, swaggering, and uncontroulable per-
son. Junius refers to Isl. hrister, a violent man ; but
I am inclined, with Dr. Jamieson, to look to Barb. Lat.
Rustarii, the same with Rutarii(old Fr. Rentiers) free-
booters who committed great devastation in France, in the
eleventh century. This name was given to the stipendi-
ary troops (perhaps some of the same sort of brigands)
employed by King John in his exterminating expedition
into the North where the castles, towns, and villages,
were given to the flames by that wicked and pusillanimous
monarch, and the miserable inhabitants abandoned to the
murderous cruelty of his rapacious followers, without re-
spect of age or sex, rank or profession.
ROOK, ROUK, a mist, or fog. Teut. roock, vapor. ROOKY,
ROOP, or ROUP, a hoarseness. Isl. hroop, vociferatio. ROOPY,
ROOTY, ROWTY, coarse, or over rank ; said of grass or corn
when in that state. Old. Eng. roytish, wild, irregular.
ROSEL, to heat, to roast, to bask over a fire. " To rosel
one's shins." " To rosel the nose/' ROSELLED, decayed ;
as a roselled apple.
ROSSEL, rosin. " Rossel and Pick' 1
ROUN-TREE, or ROWAN-TREE, the mountain ash, or witch-wood
a tree of high consideration in the North, and considered
by the superstitious peasantry of wonderful efficacy in de-
priving witches of their infernal power. This notion has
been handed down from early antiquity perhaps from the
Druids. Skinner is uncertain whether the tree may not
luive received its name from the colour called roan ; but,
as observed by Dr. Jamieson, the term is Gothic Su.-
Got. ronn, runn, sorbus aucuparia. Dan. ronne. Ihre
conjectures, with great probability, that the etymon may
be from runa y incantation, because of the use made of it
in magical arts.
In my plume is seen the holly green,
With the leaves of rowan tree,
And my casque of sand, by a mermaid's hand,
Was formed beneath the sea. The Court of Keeldar.
ROUT, or ROWT, to make a bellowing noise. Isl. rauta.
ROUTING, or ROWTING, the bellowing of an ox. V. Wilb.
ROWLEY-POWLEY, a game at fairs and races.
ROYAL-OAK-DAY (the 29th of May), the restoration of King
Charles II. ; in commemoration of which it is customary for
the common people, in many parts of the North, to wear oak
leaves in their hats, and to place them on their horses'
heads. Formerly, in Newcastle,
When civil dudgeon first grew high,
And men fell out they knew not why Hudibras.
the boys had a taunting rhyme, with which they used to
insult such persons as were not decorated with this remem-
brance of the facetious monarch ;
** Royal oak,
" The whigs to provoke."
It was not, however, to be expected that this sarcastic
ebullition of party-spirit should escape the retort courteous.
The contemptuous reply was,
*' Plane-tree leaves ;
" The church -folk are thieves."
RUCK, a fold, or crease in cloth. V. Tooke.
RUD, ruddle for marking sheep. Sax. rudu, rubor. See KLLL.
RUDDILY, readily. " He cam varry ruddily"
RUE, or REW, to repent. Sax. hreowian. RUE-BARGAIN, a
bargain repented of, something given to be off an agree-
RUG, to pull roughly. Teut. rucken, detrahere. RUGGING AND
RIVING, pulling and tearing.
RUM, a common North country word for any thing odd or
queer a comical person, for instance, being called a rum
stick. May not Dr. Johnson's rumparsonbe what is called
a hackney parson, and come from Germ, rum, which is
from kerum, about, as herum laufer is a vagabond ? Herum
parson or rum parson may, therefore, be a vagabond parson.
RUM-GUMPTIOUS, forward and pompous. V f Cray. Gloss.
RUMBUSTICAL, rude, noisy, overbearing.
RUINATED, reduced to ruin, ruinous. Pegge erroneously .con-
sidered this word as peculiar to Londoners.
RULE-O'-THUMB, no rule at all guess work.
RUNG, a spoke, the step or round of a ladder. Mce.-Got.
hrung, virga. It is also a name for a cudgel.
RUNNEL, pollard wood. Perhaps from running up apace.
RUNT, a Scotch ox also a jocular designation for a person of
a strong though low stature. " A runt of a fellow."
Germ, rind, an ox or cow ; but figuratively, a dull-pated,
RUSH-BEARING, a rural feast or wake, now become nearly ob-
solete. See Crav. Gloss, and Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i.
RUTTLING, a noise occasioned by a difficulty in breathing.
Teut. rotelen, murmurare. The dead ruffle, a particular
kind of noise made in respiring by a person in the extre-
mity of sickness, is still considered in the North as an omen
of death. Levinus Lemnius (Occult Miracles of Nature,
lib. ii. ch. 15.) is very learned on this subject.
RUZE, to extol, to boast, to magnify in narration. Isl. rausa,
multa effutirc. Cornish, ros, bragging. Hence, perhaps,
roozer a great untruth.
SACKLESS, simple, weak, helpless, innocent. Dr. Willan con-
siders that this epithet must have originated after the in-
troduction of the favourite beverage, sack and sugar; but
the word may evidently be traced to Sax. sacleas, quietus.
Isl. saklausy innocens.
SAD, heavy ; particularly applied to bread when the yeast has
had no effect.
SAFE, a. sure, certain. " He's safe to be hanged."
SAFE, s. a place of security. " An iron safe."
SAIM, SAME, hog's-fat, goose-grease. Welsh, saim, grease.
Fr. sain-doux, lard. Shakspeare and other writers use
SAINT CUTIIBERT'S DUCK, the eider duck ; or great black
and white duck. Anas mollhsima. Linnaeus. These birds
are found on the largest of the Fern Islands on the
Northumberland coast, which is the only place in Eng-
land where they are known to breed. The feathers are
remarkably soft and of great value. The popular name is
obviously connected with the celebrated Saint Cuthbert ;
who, regardless of all earthly pomp and vanity, resigned
an episcopal, for an hermitical life retiring to this desert
isle, where he died.
SAINT SWITHIN'S DAY (the 15th of July). The old superstition
that if it rain on this day, not one of the next forty
will be wholly without, is not yet eradicated. V. Brand's
Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 271, and Nares' Gloss.
SAIRY, poor, pitiable, helpless. Sax. sari, sarig.
SALLY, to move or run from side to side ; as is customary with
the persons on board of a ship after she is launched.
SAMCAST, two ridges ploughed together. tDur. Referrible
to Germ, sammeln, to gather, zusammen, together.
SAMPLETH, a sampler. V. Suff. Words. The author is mis-
taken in thinking them not still worked.
SANDGATE-CITY, a burlesque name for Sandgate, Newcastle ;
a place of great antiquity, but described by a local poet as
The devil's besom sure,
With which oft times he sweeps the floor;
The air's with glass-house smoke infected,
Confusion of all kinds collected.
SANDGATE-RATTLE, a peculiar step in vulgar dancing, consist-
ing of a violent and very quick beating of the toes on the
SANDGATE-RING, a particular mode of lighting a tobacco pipe.
SANG, a song. Pure Saxon.
SANG ! MY SANGS ! frequent exclamations, sometimes equiva-
lent to indeed, but generally implying a threat. " My
sa?igs ! but aw will gee if it"
SAPSCULL, a foolish fellow, a blockhead.
SARE, sore, painful. Sax. sar. Su.-Got. saar.
SARE, very much, greatly. Germ, selir. " It's sare worn."
" He's sare afflicted."
SARK, a shirt. Sax. syrc. Su.-Got. scerk. V. Jam.
SARMENT, a sermon. " We'd a good garment the day"
SARTIN, sure, positive. SARTINLY, certainly.
SATTLE, to settle. This vulgar pronunciation is conformable
to the Saxon origin of the word. Peirs Ploughman uses
SAUCE, insolence of speech, impertinence. Sauciness. " Don't
set up yor sauce to me "
SAUCER-EYED, having a large, full eye.
SAUGH, SAFF, the sallow ; a species of willow. Fr. mule.
SAUL, the soul. Pure Saxon ; and the ancient mode of writ-
ing the word.
SAUL, the solid substance in the inside of a covered button.
Fr. saoul, soul, a filling.
SAUT, SOTE, salt. Sax. seolt. In the pronunciation of many
of the provincial dialects of the North, the sound of the /
SAVELICK, an excrescence from the brier, placed by boys in
their coat cuffs, as a charm, to prevent a flogging.
SAW, to sow. Moe.-Got. saian. Sax. sawan. Su.-Got. saa.
SAY, authority, influence, sway. " She has all the say."
SCABY, SCABIE, shabby, mean. " A scaby fellow."
SCAD, to scald, SCADDING OF PEAS, a custom in the North
of boiling the common grey peas in the pods, in a green
state, and eating them with butter and salt. The company
often pelt each other with the swads. It is sometimes
called, in consequence, peas and sport.
SCALE, to spread, to disperse. V. Jam. skail.
I shall tell you
A pretty tale ; it may be, you have heard it ;
But, since it serves my purpose, I will venture
To scalift a little more.
Nearly all the commentators have mistaken the meaning
of to scale' t. I am quite satisfied that it was the author's
intention to have the tale spread or diffused a little more,
though some of the hearers might have heard it. If Arch-
deacon Nares will " weigh as in scales, to estimate aright,"
Mr. Lambe's observations on this passage, and on the
means of acquiring a competent knowledge of the old En-
glish tongue (Notes on the Battle of Floddon), I enter-
tain a hope that the learned author of the elaborate and
valuable Glossary may not be indisposed to alter, in more
respects than one, the article To SCALE, in a future
SCALE-LAND, to break up clots of manure, and to spread them
and other loose materials about the field.
SCALE-DISH, a thin dish for skimming milk.
SCALLIONS, a punishment among boys. To catch the scallion
tails, is to get a good drubbing.
SCAMP, a mean rascal, a fellow devoid of honour or principle.
SCAMPER, to run off. Fr. escamper. Ital. scampare. Teut.
schampen, to slip aside.
SCANTISH, scarce. SCAN TLY, scarcely.
SCAPE-GRACE, a term of reproach a graceless fellow.
SCAR, a bare and broken place on the side of a mountain, or
in the high bank of a river. Su.-Got. sheer, rupes.
SCARN, SHARN, cow-dung. See COW-SHAREN.
SCATHE, loss, spoil, damage. Pure Saxon. Used by Chau-
cer, Spenser, and Shakspeare.
SCATTER-BRAINED, light-headed. " A Scatter-brairf d body"
SCONCE, a seat at one side of the fire-place in the old large
open chimney a short partition near the fire upon which
all the bright utensils in a cottage are suspended.
SCONCE, a beating about the head sometimes the head itself.
SCOOTER, a syringe. See SWIRT.
SCOTCH MIST, a small soaking rain such, however, as will
wet an Englishman to the skin.
SCOUT, a high rock. V. Todd's John.
SCOWDER, to mismanage any thing in cooking, to scorch it.
Grose has scourder'd, overheated with working ; perhaps
only a figurative sense of the word. V. Jam.
SCRAB, a crub apple. SCRAB-TREE, the crab-tree.
SCRAFFLE, v. to scramble, to climb up. SCRAFFLE, s. a
Wey hinny, says aw, we've a Shot-Tower see hee,
That biv it ye might scraffle to Heaven ;
And if on Saint Nicholas ye once cus an ee,
Ye'd crack on't as lang as ye're livin.
Song, Canny Ncrvcassel.
SCRAFFLE, to be industrious, to struggle. SCRAFFLING, work-
ing hard to obtain a livelihood.
SCRANCH, to grind any hard or crackling substance between
the teeth. Dr. John, says, the Scotch retain it ; so do
the people in the north of England.
SCRANCHUM, thin squares of brittle spice, or gingerbread.
SCRAT, SCRAUT, v. to scratch. An old word.- 1 SCRAT, s. the
SCRAT, an hermaphrodite. V. Todd's John.
SCRIBE, to write. Lat. scribere. SCRIBE OF A PEN, a line by
way of letter.
SCRIMP, v. to spare, to scant. Teut. krimpcn, contrahere.
SCRIMP, a. short, scanty, little.
SCROG, a stunted bush or shrub. Sax. scrob, frutcx. SCROG-
GY, full of stunted bushes, thorns, &c.
SCRUDGE, v. to crowd thickly together, to squeeze. SCRUDGE,
s. a crowd, a squeeze. On the laying of the foundation-
stone of the new library of the Literary and Philosophical
Society, by the Duke of Sussex, in 1822, there was the
greatest scrudgc ever remembered in Newcastle.
SCRUNTY, short, meagre, stunted. Su.-Got. shrin, dried.
Dan. skranten, infirm.
SCUDDICK, the lowest measure of value. " Not worth a scud-
dick" Probably from scudo.
SCUFF, OR CUFF, the hinder part of the neck. V. Wilb. Al-
so a thump. " A cujfo* the neck."
SCUMFISH, to smother, to suffocate. Wood embers, the snuf-
fing of a candle, sulphur, &c. have scunifishing effluvia in
close rooms. Ital. sconfiggere, to discomfit.
SEAR, s. autumn the time of the drying and withering of
leaves. Sax. searian, to nip, or dry. SEAR, a. dry ; op-
posed to green.
I have liv'd long enough : my way of life
Is fall'n into the sear, the yellow leafl
Dr. Johnson and some other of the commentators on
Shakspeare object to way of life, and wish to substitue
May ; but I must confess that I am not convinced by
SEAVES, rushes. SEAVY-GROUND, such as is overgrown with
SECK, a sack. " A seek of flour." " A seek of saw-dust."
SECRET, a term of contempt to a child.
SEE-SAW, the same as hikey-board. See HIKEY.
SEEA, so. SEEABETIDE, if so be.
SEED, saw. Universal among the vulgar. " Aw seed it."
SEEING-GLASS, a mirror, a looking-glass.
SEEK, SEAK, sick. Sax. seoc. Chaucer uses seke.
SEER, several, divers. Su.-Got. saer, an adverb denoting se-
SEER, sure. " Aw seer aw was smart."
SEESTAH, SISTO, seest thou. " Seestah what tfiou's duin."
SEGG, a bull castrated when full grown.
SEGGING, the heavy laborious walking of a corpulent man.
" What a segging gait he has."
SELL, self, in compounds of mysell, hissell, yoursell. Plural
They dig out fro' the dells,
For their bairn's bread, wives, and sells.
SEBTANT, SEMMANT, slender, weak.
SEMPLE, a person of low birth ; opposed to gentle. " Both
gentle and semple were there."
SEN, SYNE, since. SEN-SYNE, since then. " Its lang syne,
sen he left us."
SENG, shelter. " Under the seng of a hedge."
SESS-POOL, an excavation in the ground for receiving foul
water. Dur. I do not find this word in any Dictionary.
Sus-pool is used in this sense, by Forster on Atmospheric
Phcenomena. Perhaps from sous-pool, or pool below the
SET, to propel, to push forward ; as setting a keel.
SET, to accompany. Used in a common expression " Set
me a bit on the road." Bit, however, is not more misap-
plied in the North than it is in some parts of the South.
SET-TOO, an argument, a contest, a warm debate. " A fair
SETTEN-ON, short in growth, ill thriven ; also applied to
milk burnt in the pan.
SEUGH, a wet ditch ; such as that out of which the contents
of a sod dike have been cut any watery or boggy place.
V. Jam. seuch.
SIIAB-OFF, SHAB-AWAY, to sneak away. Dur. Germ, schaben,
to scrape off; and by some gradations of meaning used
with the preposition and in the imperative mood, schab ab,
SHAB-RAG, a mean person. SHAG-RAG, is the same.
SHACK, to shake out or shed; as corn at harvest. SHAK-
FORF, a hay fork.
SHACKLE, an iron loop moving on a bolt. Teut. schaeckel.
SHACKLE, the wrist. Sc. shackle-EWE.
SHAFFLE, to move with an awkward or irregular gait ; to hob-
ble. " A shuffling body."
SHAG-HAT, a hat made very long in the down ; much worn by
pitmen and keelmen.
Maw good shag hat ne mair awl wave his canny
feyce to see.
Song, Lament, on the Death of Ccjit. Slarkie.
SHALE, alum ore any other black slaty substance.
SHALLY-WALLY, a sign of contempt.
SHAM-A-STERNE, a vulgar phrase, equivalent to not one. This
may serve to explain an obscure passage in the fine old
heroic ballad of Chevy Chase, Fit. 2.
Thorowe ryche male, and myne-ye-ple
Many sterne the stroke down streght.
Which may be read they struck down straight many a one,
through rich coat of mail, and many folds.
SHANDY, wild, frolicksome. V. Suff. Words, shanny.
SHANGIE, or CULLEY-SIIANGY, a row, a tumult, a riot.
SHANK, the projecting point of a hill.
SHANKS, the legs. SHANKEY'S NAEGIE, on foot.
And ay until the day he died,
He rade on good shanks nagy.
Ritson, Scotch So-ngs.
SHANTY, gay, showy. Perhaps, as suggested by Mr. Todd, a
SHAP, SHAPE, to begin, to set about any thing. V, WILD,
SHARD, a broken piece of any brittle or fragile substance.
Sax. sceard, fragmen. Within my recollection, many of
the common people, in the lower parts of Newcastle, used
to resort to the Quayside and other places, where they
gathered up coals with the half of a wooden dish, called a
shard. I have been told that it was not unusual for two
of them to purchase a new dish, and split it for the pur-
pose of making these shards. Shard is also a North
country word for the shell or hard outward covering of
the tribe of insects denominated Coleoptera.
Often, to our comfort, shall we find
The sharded beetle in a safer hold
Than is the full-wing'd eagle.
Ere, to black Hecate's summons,
The shard-borne beetle, with his drowsy hums,
Hath rung night's yawning peal, there shall be done
A deed of dreadful note. Shak. Macbeth.
These expressions of our dramatist sharded beetle, and
shard-borne beetle are as correct as they are poetical.
Dr. Johnson's ignorance of the latter meaning of the word
completely misled him in his interpretation. His error,
however, is not overlooked by the learned and indefati-
gable Mr. Todd.
SHARP, quick, active. " Be sharp" make all haste.
SHARPS, coarse ground flour with a portion of bran.
SHAW, a small shady wood in a valley. Sax. scua. Teut.
schawe, umbra. Used by Gower and Chaucer ; and still
common in many parts of England.
SHAY, OR PO-SHAY, a post chaise. SHAY-DRIVERS, the post
SHEAR, to reap, or cut corn with the sickle. Su.-Got. skaera.
Shear is not, provincially, applied to sheep. A sheep
shearing is a clipping. SHEARERS, the harvest reapers.
SHED, to put aside, to disperse, to make way.
SHEELEY, SHEEL-APPLE, OR SHELL-APPLE, the chaffinch,
Fringilla ccelebs. Linnaeus.
SHEETING, applied to the slope or waterfall of a mill-dam.
SHELD, party coloured, flecked or speckled.
SHEBI, shame. SHEM-FU, shameful. " Its a shew, and a holy
bizon" See BIZON.
SHETH, a portion of a field, which is generally divided so as
to drain off the water by the direction of the ploughings,
SHIEL, SHIELING, originally a temporary hut or cabin for
those who had the care of sheep on the moors, in which
they resided during the summer months ; but afterwards
applied to fixed habitations. Isl. skiul. Su.-Got. skale.
No more shall ruthless flames devour
The trembling shepherd's lowly shiel,
Nor fierce moss-troopers burst the door
That strongly bars the shelt'ring peel.
Roxby, Reed-water Minstrel.
SHIFT, to remove from one dwelling to another. SHIFTING,
the removal of the furniture.
SKILL, to separate, to shell. " Shilling oats or barley" tak-
ing off the hulls. " Shilling peas" cleaning them of their
SHILLY-SHALLY, hesitating, irresolute. Probably a corrupt
reduplication of shall I.
SHIMMER or SKIMMER, to shine, to glitter. Germ, schimmer, a
dim or faint glare.
SHINE, a row, a disturbance, mischief. " To kick up a shine."
SHINNEY, a stick crooked or rounded at the end, with which
to strike a small wooden ball or coit, in the game called
Shinney, or Shinney-haw, played in the Northern counties.
SHIPPEN, a cow-house ; originally, perhaps, a sheep-pen. Sax.
scypen t stabulum.
SHIRL, SHURL, to slide ; as on the ice.
SHITTLETIUEE, a vulgar expression of disbelief or disapproba-
SHIVE, a slice ; as of bread or cheese. Old Eng. sheeve.
SHOE-THE-COBBLER, a quick and peculiar movement with the
fore foot when sliding on the ice.
SHOGGLE, to shake, to joggle. S/iog is an old word.
SHOO, SHUE, to scare birds, to drive away fowls. Germ.
scheuchen, to frighten.
SHOON, SHUN, the plural of shoe. Sax. sceon. Teut. schoen.
Spare none but such as go in clouted shoon,
For they are thrifty honest men. Shak. Hen. VI.
SHOT, the score or reckoning at a public-house. V. Nares'
SHOT-OF, freed from. To get shot of a person to get rid of
SHREW, a field mouse. A vulgar superstition once prevailed
that this poor creature was of so baneful and venomous a
nature that whenever it crept over a horse, cow, or sheep,
the animal so touched became afflicted with cruel anguish,
and threatened with the loss of the use of its limbs. To
repel this imaginary evil, it was customary to close up the
shrew alive in a hole bored in an ash tree. Since this
was written, an intelligent friend has reminded me of an
old notion, that the supposed malignity of this mouse is
the origin of shrew, a vixen ; in regard to which much dif-
ference of opinion exists among etymologists. But whether
it be so or not, I feel myself incompetent to decide;
though, from what is stated in Todd's Johnson, I strongly
incline to the opinion entertained by the learned editor.
The matter, however, is becoming less important ; as, to
the honour of the females of the present day, we seldom
encounter " a peevish, malignant, clamorous, spiteful,
vexatious, turbulent woman," the characteristicks of a
SHUFFLE AND CUT, a superior step in vulgar dancing.
SHUGGY-SHEW, a swing a long rope fastened at each end,
and thrown over a beam ; on which young persons seat
themselves, and are swung backwards and forwards in the
manner of a pendulum. See Bewick's ^Esop, p. 4. where
his Satanic Majesty is amusing himself in this manner.
SHULL, or SHUIL, a spade or shovel. Dut. school. V. Suff.
SHULL-BONE, the shoulder bone.
SIDE, to decide, to settle ; as well as to coincide, to agree.
SIDE, a. long, wide, large. Pure Saxon.
Cloth of gold, and cuts, and laced with silver ; set
with pearls, down sleeves, side, sleeves, and skirts
round. ShaJc. Much Ado about Nothing.
SIDE-UP, to put in order. " Side up the house."
SIDLE, to saunter, to take an oblique direction.
SIR, SIKE, such. SIK-LIKE, SIKE-LIKE, such like. Spenser
SIKERLY, or SICKERLY, surely. Sicker is used by Chaucer and
SJKE, SYKE, a streamlet of water, the smallest kind of natural
runner. Sax. sic, lacuna.
SILE, v. to strain, to purify milk through a straining dish.
Su.-Got. sila, colare. SILE, s* a fine sieve or milk strainer.
Su.-Got. sil, colum.
SILLS, strata of minerals. It also means, in some places, the
shafts of a waggon ; the same as thills.
SIND, to wash out, to rince also to dilute ; to sind it down,
being to take a drink after meat.
SINE, to percolate. Dur. Fr. saigner, to bleed, to drain or
let out water.
SINGIN, or SINGING-HINNY, akneaded spz'ceeake, baked on the
girdle ; indispensable in a pitman's family.
Ah hinnies ! about us the lasses did lowp,
Thick as cur'ns in a spice singin hlnnlc.
Song, Canny NeiecasseL
Crossin the road, aw met wi' Bobby Swinney.
Hing on the girdle, let's hev a singin hinny.
Song, Maw Canny Hinny.
My Grandy lik'd spice singin hinnies,
Maw comely : aw like thou as weel.
Song, The Pitman's Courtship.
SINGLIN, a handful of gleaned corn a single gleaning. This
word is doubtless the same as the'Cheshire songoiv, songal,
so ably illustrated by Mr. Wilbraham in his Glossary. In
a MS. addition to a copy of that interesting work, presented
to me by the author, reference is made to Hyde, de Reli-
gione Persarum, for the ancient use of songall.
SIPE, to leak, to ooze or drain out slowly through a small cre-
vice. Tent, sijpen. SIPINGS, oozings, the drainings of a
SIRPLE, to sip often ; nearly allied to tippling. Sw. sorpla.
SITE, SEET, a great deal, many. V. Suff. Words, sight.
SIXES-AND-SEVENS, in a state of confusion, in disorder. V.
Todd's John, and Nares* Gloss, six and seven.
SKEEL, a cylindrical wooden vessel for carrying milk or water,
with an upright handle in place of a bow. Isl. skiola, a
SKELLY, v. to squint. Isl. skaela. Germ, schielen. SKELLY,
s. a squinting look. Sax. sceoleage.
SKELP, v. to slap or beat with the open hand ; particularly on
the breech or the cheek. Isl. skelfa, to strike. Skelp
also means to move rapidly.
SKELP, SKELPER, s. a smart blow, or stroke. SKELPING, a
SKELPER, any thing very large. Poomer is the same.
SKEP, a basket made of rushes. A bee-sleep, a bee-hive of
straw. Gael, sgeip.
SKER, to slide swiftly, to skate. Su.-Got. skiuta.
SKEW, to go aside, to walk obliquely to throw violently
SKEW-THE-DEW, SHAW-THE-DEW, a splayfooted person.
SKILL, to know. Isl. skilia, intelligere. Not obsolete as
stated in Todd's John.
SKIME, to look asquint. Sken has the same meaning. See
SKIN-PLINT, a niggardly close-fisted person one so parsimo-
niously mean that he would perform that operation, were
SKIP-JACK, the merry-thought bone of a goose. V. Suff.
SKIPPER, the captain of a keel or coal barge. Sax. sciper, nau-
ta. Dut. schipper, a shipmaster.
SKIRL, to cry excessively, to pierce the air with a shrill voice.
Isl. skralla. SKIRL, a loud and incessant shriek a con-
tinuation of childish rage and grief. Isl. sJcrall. Dan.
zkraal, an outcry.
SKIT, to throw reflections on, to banter. Sax. &citan t to cast
SKITTER, liquidum excrementum jaculare. Hence this vulgar
name for a diarrhoea. Isl. skvetta.
SKOGGER, the leg of an old stocking, applied to keep snow
out of shoes. See HOGGERS.
SKREENGE, OR SKRINGE, to squeeze violently.
SKRIKE, to shriek. Dan. skrige. Su.-Got. skrika, vociferari.
SKUG, v. to hide, to screen. Su.-Got. skygga, obumbrare.
SKUG, s. a sheltered place. Isl. skuggi, umbra.
SKURRY, haste, impetuosity. " What a hurry-skurry" Fr.
escurer, to scour,
SLAB, OR SLAP-DASH, a cheap mode of colouring rooms, in
imitation of paper.
SLABBY, dirty and damp. Teut. slabbcren, to slabber.
SLACK, an opening between two hills, a valley or small shallow
dell. Su.-Got. slak.
SLACK, a long pool in a streamy river.
SLADE, a breadth of green sward in ploughed land, or in plan-
SLADDERY, wet and dirty. " Sladdcry walking." Isl. sladda,
SLAIN, blighted ; as slain corn.
SLAISTERING, doing any thing in an awkward, untidy manner.
V. Dire, slask.
SLAKE, v. to smear, to wet, to bedaub. Isl. sloka, delutare.
SLAKE, *. an accumulation of mud or slime in a river. Jar row
Slake, on the Tyne. Su.-Got. slak, laxus j as being soft
and flaccid ; or Teut. slyck, coenum, Jutum.
SLAM, to beat, to cuff, to push violently.
SLANTS, sly jokes, or petty lies. " He slants a good deal"
he is given to lying. V. Nares' Gloss, slent.
SLAPE, slippery, smooth.
SLASHY, wet and dirty. Sw. slask, wet.
SLATTER, to pour awkwardly, to slop, to spill. Hence slattern.
SLAVERING, SLAVVERING, foaming, talking fast, or unintel-
SLECK, to cool in water. Hence sleek-trough, the trough
containing the water in which smiths cool their iron and
SLECK, or SLOCKEN, to quench thirst. Isl. slaecka.
SLEE, sly, cunning. Chaucer uses slie, sligh.
SLEEVELESS, unsuccessful, unprofitable. See Dr. Johnson's
2d sense. It is often pronounced in Northumberland
THREEVELESS, probably from thriveless or thriftless.
SLEUTH, OR SLEUTH-HOUND, the northern name for the bloodr
hound. These animals were held in great estimation by
our ancestors ; particularly on the borders, where a tax
was levied for maintaining them. Their scent was so re-
markably fine, that they could follow, with great certainty,
the human, footsteps to a considerable distance. Many
of them were, in consequence, kept in certain districts for
the purpose of tracing thieves and murderers through their
Upon the banks
Of Tweed, slow winding through the vale, the seat
Of war and rapine once, ere Britons knew
The sweets of peace
There dwelt a pilfering race ; well train 'd and skill'd
In all the mysteries of theft, the spoil
Their only substance, feuds and war their sport.
Somervile, Chase, Book I.
The poet afterwards beautifully describes the mode of pur-
suing these arch felons by this sagacious dog; but the
passage is too long for quotation here, and ought not to be
abridged. See more, relative to the blood-hound, in Scott,
Lay of the Last Minstrel, note 16, Canto I.
SLIDDERING, sliding, slipping. SLIDDERY, slippery.
SLINGE, to go creepingly away as if ashamed, to sneak. Sax.
slincan, to creep. Hence slink, a sneak applied to any
SLIP, a child's pinafore also a quantity of yarn.
SLIPPY, slippery. Not an abbreviation, as Mr. Wilbraham
supposes, but a pure Saxon word ; and, as shewn by Mr.
Todd, of old English usage ; notwithstanding which the
great lexicographer characterized it as a barbarous provin-
cial term, from slip !
SLIR, SLUR, to slip, to slide. Slither is also to slide. Chau-
cer uses slider.
SLIVER, v. to cut off a slice, to tear away a part.
She that herself will diver and disbranch.
Shak. King Lear.
Pope altered this to shiver, for which the Monthly Re-
viewers wished to substitute sever.
SLIVER, s. a slice. The word, in the sense of a branch torn
off, occurs in Hamlet.
~SLOCKEN, to slake, to quench. Su.-Got. slocJcna, extinguere.
SLOGAN, the war cry or gathering word of a border clan. Still,
traditionally, remembered in Northumberland.
But ah, the slogan's fatal bray,
The plundering raid, the war's alarms,
CompelTd him from his love away,
And tore him from his Mary's arms.
Roxltj, Rccdwatcr Minstrel.
SLOGGERING, loose, untidy. " His stockings are sloggering
SLOPPY, loose, wide. Sax. slopen, laxus.
SLORP, to make a noise when supping with a spoon, to swal-
low ungracefully. Tent, slorpc, a glutton.
SLOT, v. to fasten by a bolt. " Slot the door."
SLOT, s. a small bolt or sliding bar. Teut. slot, sera.
SLUDDERMENT, OR SLUTHERMENT, wet, dirt, mire.
SLUMP, to slip or fall into a wet or dirty place.
SLUSH, any thing plashy ; but most commonly applied to snow
in a state of liquefaction. Su.-Got, slask, humor quicun-
SLUSH, a reproachful term for a dirty person.
SMACK, v. to kiss with a noise. SMACK, s. a loud kiss.
The bride about the neck, and kiss'd her lips
With such a clamorous smack, that at the parting
All the church echo'd SJiak. Taming of the Shrew.
SMALLY, little, puny. " A smaily bairn."
SMARTLE, to waste or melt away. Su.-Got. smaelta, to melt.
SkASH, v. to break in pieces, to shiver. SMASH, ,9. a crush,
the state of being shivered, atoms. Gael, smuais, broken
SMASH, a kind of oath among the pitmen near Newcastle. >
Nothing energetic can be said without it. " Smash, mar-
row, where are yah gaun tee" " Smash maw pit sark, but
I ken what aw* I dee !" " Smash yor brains, what hae yah
won now?" " Smash, Geordy man, how is't! Eh ! but aw
is pleased to see thee ! HOG'S Nan ?"
SMASHER, a small standing pie, or raised tartlet ; generally
made of gooseberries. Newcastle. This word also means
any thing larger than another of the same sort. It is like-
wise a cant name for a pitman ; in which I am told by an
ingenious friend, we are to seek for the etymology of the
word ; a smasher being originally such a tart as a pitman
could smash or eat up at a mouthful !
SMELTS, the fry of the salmon ; generally called salmon-smelts
different from Sparlings.
SMIDDY, a blacksmith's shop. Sax. smiththa, fabri officina.
SMIRK, to smile pleasantly, to laugh in the sleeve or secretly,
but not satyrically. Sax. smercian, subridere.
SMITTLE, v. to infect. Sax. smittan. SMITTLE, s. infection.
SMITTLE, SMITTLISH, a. infectious, contagious.
SMOCK, the under linen of a female. Sax. smoc. There used
to be frequently, in my recollection, smock races among the
young country wenches in the North. The prize, a fine
Holland chemise, was usually decorated with ribbons. The
sport is still continued at Newburn, near Newcastle, on
SMOKE-THE-COBBLER, a mischievous pastime among children.
SMOOR, to smother, to suffocate. Sax. smoran. Teut.
SMOUCH, to salute. An old word.
SMUDGE, v. to laugh in a concealed manner. Germ, schmun-
zeln, to laugh in one's sleeve.
SMUDGE, v. to burn without a flame, or any appearance of fire,
except smoke. SMUDGE, or SMUSH, s. a sulphureous smell
occasioned by smoke and dust, close suffocating air.
Germ, schmutz, smut, dirt.
SNAG, to hew or cut roughly with an axe. F. Todd's John.
SNAIL' S-GALLOP, a very slow pace ; resembling the motion of
SNAP, a small round cake of gingerbread. " Nice brandy snaps,
sixteen a penny."
SNAP, or SNACK-APPLE, a kind of play. See HALLE E'EN.
SNATHE, to prune, to lop. Sax. snitkan, to cut.
SNAW, snow. Pure Saxon. SNA W-BROTH, melted snow.
SNECK. s. the latch or fastening of a door or gate. It is also
used as a verb to sneck the door, being to fit it by a latch.
Teut. snacken, captare.
SNOCK-SNURLED, entangled, much twisted, curled up like hard
twined worsted. Snarl is an old word for entangle.
SNECK-DRAWN, narrow minded, covetous, niggardly. V. Jam.
SNED, the long shank or handle of a scythe. Sax. snced.
SNELL, sharp, keen, piercing ; as a snell air. Sax. snithan,
secare; or Teut. snel, acer.
SNEW, snowed. The old preterite; used by Chaucer and
SNEEZE -HORN, or SNEESH-HORN, a common sort of snuff-box
made of a cow's horn. In Scotland this term is applied to
SNIFTER, to snuff' up the nose, to sniff. Su.-Got. snyfsta.
SNIPPY, covetous. Teut. snippen, resecare.
SNIVEL, SNEAVEL, to speak through the nose, to sniff. Su.-
SNOB, a common name for a cobbler.
SNOD, smooth, neat, even, trimmed. Sax. snidan, to cut.
Applied to persons, it means sly, cunning, demure.
SNOKE, to smell, to pry about curiously, to look closely at anjr
SNORT, to laugh outright. SNORTING, laughing out.
SNOT, a contemptuous epithet for a useless, insignificant fel-
SNOTTER, v. to snivel, to sob or cry. Sax. snytan. SNOT,
SNOTTER, s. mucus nasi. Sax. mote.
SNUB, to check, to rebuke. Sw. snubba.
SOA ! be quiet !
SOBBLE, to thrash, to beat. A very common word among the
Sae, Geordy, od smash my pit sank !
Thou'd best haud thee whisht about warik,
Or aw'll sol>lk thee body,
And myek thee nose bloody,
If thou sets up thee gob to Bob Cranky.
Song, Bob Cranky 1 s 'Size Sunday
SOCK, a plough-share. Fr. soc.
SODDY, SODDENT, heavy, sad. Perhaps from sod, a turf.
SOFT, silly, simple, foolish.
He made soft fellows, stark noddies.
Burton, Anat. of Melancholy.
SONCY, or SONSY, pleasant, agreeable, engaging ; as applied to
a person's looks. Is it a corruption of Fr. sans souci, free
from care ?
SONSY, plump, fat, thriving also lucky.
SOOTY-DOG, an opprobrious epithet for a dirty fellow.
SOP, a piece of bread soaked in dripping under the roast.
SORT, a lot, a parcel, a number. Nares is mistaken in think-
ing the word out of use.
But like a sort of sheep dispersed farre.
Spenser, Faerie Queene.
They can see a sort of traitors here.
Shak. King Richard II.
Soss, v. to lap like a dog. Soss, s. a call of dogs to their
Soss, s. a heavy, clumsy fall ; the sound caused by the act of
falling. Perhaps a variation of souse.
Soss, s puddle, any thing foul or muddy. " The beer's as
thick as soss"
SOTTER, to boil slowly. Sax. seothan, to seeth.
SOUR-DOCKEN, sorrel. Rumex acetosa.
SOUR-MILK, butter milk. Sw. sur mioelk.
SOUSE, v. to fall upon, to fall with violence. This common
North country word is, in Todd's Johnson, derived from
Fr. sous, or dessous, upon. With deference, I submit that
it comes from sus, the old French word for, above or upon,
for which they now use sur y though still retained in
some phrases ; as courir sus a quel qitun, to fall upon one.
The modern preposition dessus, upon or above, is only a
compound of de and the old sus. SOUSE, s. a great thump,
a severe fall, a blow.
Sow, an inelegant female, a dirty wench. I forbear to quote
SOWINGS, oatmeal flummery. Sc. sowens.
SPANCEL, a rope to tie a cow's hinder legs. A cow-tie,
SPANG, a measure by the hand extended. Span.
SPANGHEW, or SPANGWHEW, to throw with violence. The
word is sometimes used to express a barbarous operation
pn the toad, to which rustics have a great antipathy. In
performing it they rest one-half of a long wooden bar on a
large stepping stone or over a cart, placing the toad at its
extremity. An athletic youth, with a strong club, then
strikes the unsupported end with all his force. The poor
animal, in consequence, is driven into the air to an im-
mense height ; and, falling to the ground with accumu-
lated velocity, is bruised to a jelly. Toads, as observed
by Dr. Willan, may perhaps do some slight injury in fields
or gardens, but the above cruel practice is directed not so
much against the animal as against its supposed inmate ;
- c c
for the clowns imagine, that by the process they shall give
a coup de grace to a witch.
SPAIT, or SPYET, a great fall of rain, a torrent. Gael, speid,
a great river flood.
SPALES, SPAILS, SPYELS, chippings of wood. Perhaps Fr.
sjjolla, shavings. Spall is a very old word in our language
for a chip.
SPANE, SPEAN, to wean a child, to deprive a creature of its
mother's milk. Germ, spcnen. An old word.
SPANG, to leap with elastic force, to spring. Germ, spanneii,
SPANG AND PURLEY QUE, a mode resorted to by boys, of
measuring distances, particularly at marbles.
SPANKER, one who walks with quickness and elasticity, a tall
and active young person.
SPAR, to dispute angrily. Germ, sperren, to resist.
SPAR, SPARE, to shut, to close. A common word in North.
Sax. spar ran.
Whan the stede is stolen, sparre the stable dur.
SPARLING, the smelt of the Thames, but not so of the Tyne ;
occasionally caught in the latter river. Pennant derives
it from Fr. eperlan ; but which is not satisfactory to Dr.
SPAVE, SPEAVE, to castrate, to spay. Lat. spadarc.
SPEEL, SPEIL, to climb. Sc. spele.
SPEER, OR SPEIR, to ask, to enquire. Sax. Spyrian, investi-
gare. " Speer it out if you can."
SPELDER, to spell. A mere corruption.
SPELK, SPELL, a small splinter. Sax. spelc.
SPELL AND ORE, a game. Dur. Teut. spel, a play or sport,
and Germ. Jcnorr, a knot of wood or ore. The recreation
is also called buckstick spell and ore ; the buck stick (with
which the ore is struck) being broad at an end like the but
of a gun, and probably derived from Germ, buchse, a firelock.
SPENCE, an inner apartment, a country parlour. Meaning a
larder, or store-room, this is a very old word, from Fr.
SPICE, gingerbread. Perhaps from the spice used in season-
SPICE-CAKE, a cake full of currants; generally baked on a
girdle. See SINGIN, or SINGING-HINNY.
SPIDDICK AND FAWCET, a wooden instrument used as a sub-
stitute for a cock to let out liquors. Spigot andfawcct.
SPILE, a peg in a cask of liquor. SPILE-HOLE, the receptacle
for the same.
SPILLING THE SALT, an ominous accident said to presage some
future calamity, particularly, I believe, a domestic feud, if it
fall towards a person ; but which may be averted by
throwing a little of the fallen article over the shoulder,
into the fire. Major Moor asks, if the Latin or Greek
classical authors make any mention of it ? Unquestion-
ably. From Festus, we learn that to spill the salt at table
was esteemed ominous; and for the great care with
which, on that account, a family salt-cellar was always
kept, we have the authority of Horace.
SPINNY-WYE, or SPINNY-WHY, a game among young persons in
Newcastle. V. Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. il p. 305.
SPLIRT, SPLUET, to spit out.
SPRECKLED, speckled. Su.-Got. sprecklot.
SPREE, sport, merriment, a frolic. Fr. esprit, spirit, vivacity.
SPRENT, bespattered, splashed with dirt. Sax. sprcngan,
spargere. Chaucer uses spreint.
SPUNK, a spark, a small fire.
SPUNK, mettle, spirit, vivacity ; naedjfgHratively for, life. In
the North, this is considered a good and very expressive
word, though abused in Todd's John.
SPUNKY, sparkling, fresh, spirited.
SPURLING, the deep track of a coach or cart wheel. Germ.
spur, a rut ; plural spuren wagepspur, a cart rut.
STACKER, to stagger. Sw. stagra. Chaucer uses stoker.
STADDLE, the bottom of a corn or hay stack, a mark left in
the grass by the long continuance of the hay in bad wea-
ther. Sax. stadelj a foundation. Welsh, ystadledd, con-
STAHAN, STAAN, a stone. Sax. stan.
STAID, steady, sedate, advanced in years.
STAIDLIN, a part of a corn stack left standing.
STAITH, STEETH, a place to lay up and to load coals at, a sort
of wharf. Sax. stath, ripa, littus, static navium.
STALL, STAUL, to surfeit. See STAUD.
STALWART, stout, strong, hale.
A stalwart tinkler wight was he,
And wee'l cou'd mend a pot or pan,
An' deftly Wull cou'd thraw ajlce,
An neatly weave the willow wan'.
, Reedwater Minstrel.
STAMMER, to stagger. Isl. stumra, collabi.
STANCHIL, or STANNEL-HAWK, the Kestril or Windhover;
inhabiting rocks and old buildings. Falco Tinnunculus.
Lin. Shakspeare, in the Twelfth Night, calls it stanyel.
STAND-STILL, a stoppage, a cessation. Etymology plain.
STANG, v. to shoot with pain ; as in the tooth-ache. STANG,
*. an acute pain, the sting of a bee. Isl. stanga, pungere.
STANG, s. a long bar, a wooden pole any piece of timber
adapted for the shaft of a cart or carriage ; or for railing ;
or for any other purpose requiring strength ; such as the
circular piece of wood used by butchers, on which they
hang the carcass of a bullock. Sax. steng, vectis. Dut.
stang, a pole. RIDING THE STANG, a punishment among
the vulgar ; inflicted upon fornicators, adulterers, severe
husbands, and such persons as follow their occupations
during particular festivals or holidays, or at prohibited
times, when there is a stand or combination among work-
men. Offenders of this description are mounted astraddle
on a long pole, or stang, supported upon the shoulders
of their companions. On this painful and fickle seat, they
are borne about the neighbourhood, attended by a swarm
of children, huzzaing and throwing all manner of filth.
When they cannot lay hold of the culprit himself, a boy
mounts the stang ; but he is unmolested, though attended
with the same tumultuous cries, if not with increased
shouts of acclamation. The proxy proclaims, that it is
not on his own account that he is thus treated, but on
that of another person whose crime he names. I have
been witness to processions of this kind myself. School
boys are stanged by the other scholars, for breaking, what
they call, the rules or orders of the school. The cere-
mony is also resorted to, when a woman has gained an
improper ascendancy over her husband, so as to make him
bear every species of indignity. In this case, it is called
" Riding the stang for a neighbour's wife." A man is
placed in the same uneasy situation as before described,
so that he may be supposed to represent, or to sympa-
thize with his henpecked friend, whose misery he some-
times laments in doggrel rhime, applicable to the occasion.
He is carried through the whole hamlet, with a view of
exposing or shaming the viraginous lady, and of thus pre-
venting further outrages on the person of her pitiable
partner. This mark of disgrace may be traced to very re-
mote times. The Goths were wont to erect, what they
called Nidstaeng, or the pole of infamy, with the most dire
imprecations against the person who was thought to de-
serve the punishment. He, who was subjected to this
dishonour, was called Niding, or the infamous; being
disqualified from ever giving evidence in any juridical mat-
ter. Eric, King of Norway, was compelled to fly from
his dominions, so great was the hatred against him, for
having been the means of inflicting this tremendous stigma
on Egill Skallagrim, a celebrated Islandic bard.
STANGEY, a common North country name for a tailor. Ob-
viously from the power of the needle.
STANK, to sigh, to moan, to gasp for breath. Isl. and Su.-
STAP, the stave of a tub. Su.-Got. staaf.
START, the tail, or handle of any thing. Sax. steort.
STATESMAN, a person possessing an estate whether versed
in the arts of government or not. See LAIRD, with which
it is synonymous.
STAUD, cloyed, saturated, fatigued.
STAVELLING, or STAVERING, wandering about in an unsteady
or uncertain manner ; as in the dark stumbling.
STEAD, STED, STID, a place, a farm house and offices. Sax.
sted. Su.-Got. stad, locus, situs. See ONSTEAD.
STEAT.Y-CLOTHES, or WATCH-WEBS, a game. The players
divide into two parties, and draw a line as the boundary
of their respective territories. At an equal distance from
this line, each player deposits his hat or some other article
of his dress. The object of the game is to seize and convey
these singly to your own store from that of the enemy ;
but, if you are unfortunately caught in the attempt, you
not only restore the plunder, but become a prisoner your-
self. This evidently takes its origin from the inroads of
the English and Scotch : indeed, it is plainly proved by
the language used on the occasion, which consists, in a
great measure, of the terms of reproach still common among
STEE, or STEY, a ladder. Sax. stager, gradus. Su.-Got.
stege, scalae. Chaucer uses steye, to ascend, and steyers, .
STEEK, or STEIK, to shut, to close. Teut. stecken. " Steek
the heck" shut the door.
STEEPIN, very wet. " A steepin fall of rain."
STEER, a three years old ox. Sax. styre.
STEG, a gander. Isl. steggr, mas plurium ferarum. Applied
ironically to a person ; as a stupid steg.
STELL, a large open drain in a marsh.
STENG. The pole of the old Northumbrian drees was called a
steng. The post on which Winter was gibbeted, on Whis-
kershields common Winter's Steng; and before that the
place was called Steng Cross, from a cross with a tall shaft.
Steng is a pure Saxon word.
STEW. In a sad stew, in a state of great perplexity.
STICK, or STRIKE, a stand or combination among workmen ;
generally in regard to wages.
STICKLE, a hurry, a bustle,
STICKY-STACK, a game among young people in running up the
face, or cut part, of a hay-stack.
STIDDY, STITHY, an anvil used sometimes, but I think im-
properly, for the smith's shop. Isl. stedi, incus. Stithe,
is old English. Shakspeare employs the word stithy, in
both senses ; and he also uses the verb to stithy, to employ
an anvil. Ray has, among his Northern words, stith, strong,
hard, which is pure Saxon ; but it is not now in use, that
I am aware of, except in Scotland.
STILT, the handle of a plough.
STIME, STYME, the most indistinct, or the faintest form of any
object a glimpse, a whit. " I cannot see a stime" Welsh,
ystum, figure, shape. Grose has stimey, dim-sighted.
STINT, v. to stop, to cease, to desist.
The pretty wench left crying, and said, Ay ;
And pretty fool, it stinted and said, Ay.
Shak. Rom. and Jul.
STINT, s. grass for a season, a right of pasturage. From stint,
to limit or restrain.
STIRK, STURK, a young heifer, or bullock. Sax. styrc, juven-
STOB, a stump, a stake, a post. Teut. stobbe, truncus. Stob,
is also used metaphorically, for an ignorant stupid fellow.
STOB-FEATHERS, the short unfledged feathers that remain on a
fowl after it has been plucked.
STOOK, STOUK, a shock of corn, consisting of twelve sheaves.
Ten of them are set up to dry, and the other two, which
are called hoods, are placed on the top. Teut. stock, meta,
a heap. Jam.
STOOP, STOWP, a post fastened in the earth. Su.-Got. stolpe,
STOOR, dust in motion. STOORY, dusty. Sax. styran, tur-
bare movere. Dut. stooren, to disturb. Stoor also means
a bustle ; as all in a stoor, all in a hurry.
STOOREY, a mixture of warm beer and oatmeal with sugar.
STORE, estimation, regard, esteem.
STORKEN, to cool, to stiffen. Germ. starken y to strengthen.
STORM-STAID, delayed on a journey by reason of a storm.
STOT, to rebound from the ground, to strike any elastic body
so as to cause it to rebound. Dut. stuiten, to bounce, to
rebound. STOTTING-BALL, a rebounding ball.
STOT, a young ox. Su.-Got. stut, juvencus. Dan. stud, an
STOUND, v. to ache, to smart, to be in pain. Isl. styn, inge-
mescere. STOUND, s. the sensation or first impression of
sudden pain, arising from a knock or blow.
STOWER, or DYKE-STOWER, a hedge stake. Su.-Got. stoer,
STRAMP, to tread upon, to trample. Germ, strampfen. " He
st ramped upon my foot."
STRANDY, restive, passionate.
STRANG, strong. Pure Saxon.
STRAPPING, tall. STRAPPER, a large man or woman.
STRAVAIGING, strolling about; generally in a bad sense. Itul.
STREAMERS, the Northern lights* See MERRY-DANCERS.
STREE, STREY, straw. Sc. strae. V. Wilb. streea.
Ne how the fire was couched first with stre,,
And then with dry stickens clovin athre.
Chaucer, Knights Tale.
STREEK,' to stretch or expand, to lay out a corpse. Sax.
streccan, extendere. STREEKING-BOARD, a board on which
the limbs of the deceased are stretched out and composed.
STRETCHER, an untruth ; a softer term for a falsehood.
STRICKLE, an instrument used in whetting scythes.
STRIDDLE, to straddle. STRIDDLE-LEGS, astride.
STRIP, to draw the after milking of a cow. STRIPPINGS, the
last part of the milking. The same as strokings or after-
STROKE, used in the sense of considerable. " A good stroke
of business." Meaning sway or influence, it is an old
STRUNT, a sullen fit. STRUNTY, offended. V. Jam.
STRUNT, the tail or rump. STRUNTY, any thing short or con-
tracted. Fr. estreint, shrunk up.
STUB, to grub up. STUBBED, grubbed up ; metaphorically,
STUDDY, a smith's anvil. See STIDDY.
Fling off their black duddies,
Leave hammers and stnddies.
Song, Bonny Geatsidcrs.
STUMMER, STAMMER, to stumble. Isl. stumra,
STUMP, a heavy, thick-headed fellow. STUMPS, legs. " Stir
STUMP AND RUMP, entirely.
STUNS AIL, a steering or studding sail.
STURDY, a disease in the head of cattle. Old Fr. estourdi,
STUT, to stutter. An old word, still in general use.
She spake somewhat thicke,
Her fellowe did stummer and stut,
But she was a foule slut ! Skelton.
STY, a troublesome and painful sAvelling on the eye-lid.
Great relief, if not a perfect cure, is supposed to be effected
by the application of a wedding ring, nine times repeated.
The idea is ancient, however questionable the benefit.
SWAM 21 1
STYTH, foul air ; a black suffocating damp in a colliery.
To cure this ill
A philosophic art is us'd to drain
The foul imprison'd air, and in its place
Purer convey. Jagd's Edgehitt.
SUBTERRANEOUS PASSAGES. Near every ancient castle, cathe-
dral, abbey, or hall, the common people have tales of under-
ground (vaulted) roads, sometimes to great distances ; such
as from Tynemouth to Carlisle, from Newcastle to Tyne-
mouth, from Hexham to Alnwick Castle, from Durham
Abbey to various places.
SUCKEN, an exclusive privilege of grinding, or other juris-
diction attached to a mill ; the dues paid to the miller.
Sax. socne. Su.-Got. sokn. This ancient word is still used
in leases from the Bishop of Durham. See thirlage, a ser-
vitude or tenure in Scotland, something similar, in Tom-
lins' Law Diet.
SUMMAT, SUMMET, somewhat, something.
SUMMER-GOOSE, the vulgar name for GOSSAMER ; which see.
SUMP, SUMPH, a bog, a swamp, a miry pool. Dan. sump.
SUMPY, miry, dirty. Dan. sumpig. SUMPH, an epithet for
a dirty person.
SUN-DANCE. It was formerly a custom to rise early on Easter
Sunday, and to go into the fields to see the sun dance,
which, according to ancient tradition, it always does on
this day. The practice, I have some reason to believe, is
not yet entirely laid aside.
SURE-AS-A-GUN, absolutely certain a common colloquial com-
SWAD, a peasecod, the husk of any kind of pulse. V. Skin-
SWAMISH, SWEAMISH, shy, bashful, squeamish.
SWANKY, a strapping young country-man.
SWAP, to exchange, to baiter. Isl. skipta, mutare. V. Jam.
SWAPE, a long oar used in working a coal keel on the Tyne ;
that at the stern acting as a rudder. Sivappe, to strike
or throw down with violence, similar to the action of using
the swape, occurs in Chaucer. Sax. sivapan, to sweep.
IsL sweipa, percutere.
SWARM, to climb a tree by the muscular action of the arms,
thighs, and legs.
SWARN, to warrant. " Sivarn ye, he'll come."
SWARTII, SWATH, the ghost or apparition of a person, about to
die. Derived by Ray from Sax. sweart, black, dark, pale,
wan. See WAFF.
SWATCH, v. to swathe, to swaddle. Sax. swedan, to bind.
SWATCH, s. a pattern, a sample. V. Ray, swache.
SWATTLE, to consume, to waste ; generally fluids.
SWEAL, v. to melt, to waste or blaze, to burn away rapidly ; as
a candle when exposed to the wind. Sax. swelan, to burn.
An old English word. SWEAL, s. a blaze, an enlarged
SWEARLE, or SWEEVEL-EYE, an eye with a particular cast.
SWEDDLE, tO Swell. SwEDDLED, puffed OUt.
SWEEL, a sudden swell or burst of laughter.
SWEETIES, sweetmeats or confections for children.
SWELT, or SWELTER, to broil, to swoon, to faint. SWELTED,
or SWELTERED, overcome with heat and perspiration.
Sax. sweltan, to die.
SWERLE, to roll from side to side in walking. It is also ap-
plied to express the gliding of a stream of water. A small
runner in Sandgate, Newcastle, was anciently called the
Swede ; now corrupted into the Squirrel.
SWEY, to poise, to swing. Isl, sweigia, inclinare. See HIKEY
SWILL, a round basket of wicker work ; generally carried on
the head. Hence its name Keyside umbrella, when re-
versed in wet weather.
SWILLINGS, washings of vessels hog-wash. Sax. swilgan, to
drink largely, to swill.
SWINGE, to chastise, to beat soundly. Sax. swingan y flagel-
SWINGLE-TREE, a moveable piece of wood to which the traces
of husbandry horses are fastened. Teut. swinghelen, vi-
SWINKED, oppresed, vexed, fatigued. Sax. swincan, labrare,
SWIPE, to drink off to the very bottom.
SWIPPER, nimble, quick. Sax. swipan, cito agere.
SWIRT, a syringe. From squirt. See SCOOTER.
SWIRTLE, to proceed with a moving motion like an eel. Su.
Got. swarfwa, circumagere.
SWITCH, to walk with a light quick step, to go with a sort of
jerk. Su.-Got. swiga, loco cedere.
SWORD-DANCE, an ancient Christmas custom ; still continued
in many parts pf the North. It is fully described in
Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 396 & seq. Connected
with this subject, see Mr. Douce's interesting dissertation
on the ancient English Morris Dance, in the 2d vol. of
his Illustrations of Shakspeare.
SWUPPLE, SOOPLE, or SOUPEL, the upper joint of a flail. Fr.
souple ; or Isl. sweipa, to strike.
SYLES, the principal rafters of a hojjse.
TAAD, TVED, a toad. Sax. tade. TVED-RED, the seed,
or spawn of toads ; generally seen in a mass like a bunch of
grapes. V. Bewick's ^Esop, p. 290.
TACK, or TYAK, to take. TYAK-EFTER, to imitate or resemble.
" The bairns tyak efter their dad" TYAK-UP, to reform.
" He'll tyak up," said of an extravagant, thoughtless per-
son likely to reform.
TAFFY, a sort of candy made of treacle ; often by a company
of young people in an evening by way of amusement
called joining for taffy. V. Wilb.
TAILOR'S MENSE, a small portion left by way of good manners.
In some parts of the North it is the custom for the village
tailor to work at his customer's house, and to partake of
the hospitality of the family board. On these occasions
the best fare is invariably provided; at least such was the
case when I was a boy ; and the tailor to shew that he
has had enongh, generally leaves a little on his plate, which
is called tailor's mense. This term is also given to cut-
tings sent home by such of this unfortunate fraternity,
against whom the old imputation of loving too much cab-
bage does not apply.
TAISTREL, TESTRIL, a mischievous, ill behaved boy when ap-
plied to an adult, an expression of great contempt, equi-
valent to scoundrel.
TAKE-OFF, to banter, to jeer.
TAN, to beat. " I'll tan yor hide"
TANE, T'AN, the one. " Gf me fan or tother"
TANK, a piece of deep water, natural as well as artificial.
TANTRUMS, high airs, a display of ill humour. " She's in her
TAPPY-LAPPY, as hard as you can ; applied to running.
TARN, a pool on a mountain. Is]. Horn, stagnum.
TATEE, a potatoe. V. Suff. Words, taters ; and Nares' Gloss.
potatoes. TATEE-BOGLE, a scarecrow. TATEE-BEATMENT,
a measure. Newc.
TATEE AND POINT, a piece of fat meat said to be suspended
over the family board nobody knows why, and equiva-
lent to, nobody knows what.
TATIIY-GRASS, short grass that has no seed, refuse grass, old
and new mixed, the produce under trees or in old pastures
not eaten by cattle. Perhaps, tufty grass.
TATTER-WALLOPS, ragged clothes fluttering in the wind.
TAVING, irregular motion ; picking the bed-clothes in febrile
TAWM, TAM, a fishing line. " A lang twine tarn"
TAWS, A PAIR OF TAWS, a leather strap used by schoolmasters
for chastising children. Isl. taug, lorum.
TAYLIOR, TEAYLEAR, a tailor. Old Eng. talyowre. See TAI-
TEANGS, TYENGS, a pair of tongs. Sax. tangan, forcipes.
" Tyeng legd Dick."
TEARAN, tearing. A tearan fellow is a rough, hot headed
person, who drives every thing before him, regardless of
danger or of consequences.
TEDDING, applied to the dressing of hair and flax, as well as
to the spreading of hay.
TEE, or TIE, a hair-rope with which to shackle cows in milk-
TEEM, to pour out of one vessel into another. Isl. taema, to
empty. " Teem out the tea hinny."
TEEMING-WOMAN, one who is more prolific than every loving
lord considers indispensably necessary to his happiness.
Sax. team-full) prole plenus, foecundus.
TEEN, s, sorrow, injury. An old word, used by Spenser and
Shakspeare. TEEN. a. angry. V. Lye, teon.
TEETHY, cross, fretful, peevish ; generally spoken of children.
V. Todd's John, techy.
TELL, to count, to reckon. Sax. telan. Moor observes, that
the Tellers of the Exchequer retain the name ; though
not, perhaps, the fact or practice. " He cannot tell to
TELL'D, told. A common corruption. " Aw telFd him on V
TEMSE, . and s. See TIMSE.
TH, frequently changed into D ; as father, fader ; mother,
moder ; Rothbury, Rodbury.
THACK, THEAK, thatch ; both as verb and substantive. Sax.
thaccan y to cover; thac, these, thatch. Chaucer uses
THATADONNET, a good for nought, the devil.' Is it, that
" adonne" (Fr.) abandoned one ?
THAUF, THAUF-CAKE, a cake without yeast or any other fer-
menting substance. Probably as conjectured by an inge-
nious friend, from Sax. thearfan, opus habere, necesse ha-
bere necessity cake, or cake made in urgent haste, as
what used to be called soldier's bread at the time when sol-
diers were quartered, during marches, on private families.
But see Todd's John, therf-bread.
THICK, intimate. " They are very thick just now," i. e. they
are very familiar. " We are not thick at all at present"
equivalent to not being on friendly terms.
THIEF AND REEVER-BELL, the name given to the tolling of the
great bell of Saint Nicholas, Newcastle, which is rung at
8 o'clock of the evening preceding every fair as a sort of
invitation to all rogues and thieves so enter that good town.
Rcever, means robber ; from Sax. reafere.
THINGEMBOBS, nameless trifles. Thingcmbob, is also a vulgar
substitution of a person's name when it is not immediately
THINK-SHAME, to feel abashed, to have a sense of shame.
THIRL, to pierce, to perforate. Sax. thirlian. A word used by
THIS-EN, AND THAT-EN, in this manner and in that.
THIVEL, a smooth stick, used for various purposes of domes-
tic economy. Sax. thyfel, a stem or stalk. " He's a queer
stick to make a thivel oP' said of an unsteady, wayward
THOLE, to wait awhile. Su.-Got. tola, expectare.
THOROUGH-GO-NIMBLE, a diarrhoea; the same as TEEZEY-
WEEZV. This loose sort of jargon abounds in the North.
THOU'S LIKE, you must. " Thou's fake to come"
THRANG, v. to press, to thrust, to squeeze. Sax. thringan.
Chaucer uses thring, a pronunciation still retained in some
parts of Yorkshire.
THRANG, s. a crowd, a throng. Pure Saxon
THRANG, a. much engaged, busily employed.
THRAVE, THREAVE, a certain number of sheaves of corn ; ge-
nerally, I believe, twenty four a quantity of straw. Sax.
THREAP, to persist vehemently, to aver pertinaciously in reply
to denial. Sax threapian, redarguere.
Itt's not for a man with a woman to threapc,
Unless he first give o'er the plea.
Ancient Version of, Take thy old Cloak
THRIF or THRIFT-BOX, an earthen pot or box in which money
is kept by young persons.
THRODDEN, fat, well grown, in good case.
THROPPLE, the windpipe, the throat. " A bull's thropple"
THROWING-THE-STOCKING, an odd sort of love divination, on
the first evening of a wedding. After the bride has retired,
and while she is undressing, she delivers one of her stock-
ings to a female attendant, who throws it at random among
the company assembled on this festive occasion. The per-
son on whom it happens to alight will, it is supposed, be the
next to enter into the happy state. Another, and more
curious, though perhaps now obsolete mode, was for the
guests invited to repair to the bridal chamber, where it was
customary for the happy pair to sit up in bed, in full dress,
exclusive of their shoes and stockings. One of the bride's
maids then took the bridegroom's stocking ; and, standing
at the bottom of the bed with her back towards it, threw
the stocking with the left hand over the right shoulder,
aiming at the face of the bridegroom. This was done by all
the females in rotation. When any of them were so fortu-
nate as to hit the object, it was a sign that they were soon
to be married. The bride's stocking was thrown by the
young men at the bride in like manner ; from which a simi-
lar prognostic was taken.
THRUFF-STONE, a tomb stone. Sax. thrJi. V. Lye.
THRUSTY, thirsty. A word used by Chaucer.
THUD, the noise of a fall, a stroke causing a blunt and hollow
sound. Sax. thoden, turbo.
THUMPING, great, huge ; as a thumping bairn also notorious ;
as a thumping lie.
THUNNER, thunder. Wilb. has thunna, s. and v.
THUR, these. Isl. theyr, illi ; thaer, illae.
THWAITE, a level pasture field. V. Todd's John.
TICE, to entice. Old English, tyce.
TID, MID, MIZZERAY, CARLING, PALM, PASTE-EGG-DAY, the
last six Sundays in Lent. The first has no name.
TIE-POT, or TYE-TOP, a garland.
TIFFY-TAFFY, a difficult piece of work.
TIFLE, TYFELL, to entangle, to mix and knot threads together,
to ruffle. V. Jam. tuffle.
TIFT, a fit of anger, or rather the act of quarrelling. TIFTY, ill
TIG, a slight touch ; as a mode of salutation a play among
children, on separating for the night, in which every one
endeavours to get the last touch ; called also, last bat.
TIKE or TYKE, a person of bad character, a blunt or vulgar
fellow. Also a name for a dog.
If you can like,
A Yorkshire tike Carey, Wonder, $c.
TILL, to. Mr. Todd has shewn it to be old.
TILLER, to send out shoots, as wheat. Dur. Germ, theilen,
to separate into parts.
TIMERSOME, TIMMERSOME, fearful. Timorous.
TIMMER, timber. Sw. timmer. " A ship load of timmer"
TIMSE, v. to sift. TIMSE, s. a sieve. Dut. teems. Fr. tamis.
TINE, to shut, to inclose. Sax. tynan, claudere.
TING-TONG, the little bell of a church. Fr. tintouin, a tingling ;
or Teut. tinghe-tanghen, tintinare.
TINKLER, a tinker. The celebrated Wull Allen was for many
years the king of the tinklers in the North, He had a son,
not less celebrated Jamie Allen, the Northumberland
Nae mair he'll scan wi' anxious eye
The sandy shores of winding Reed,
Nae mair he'll tempt the finny fry,
The King o' Tinklers, Allen's dead !
Roxby, Reedwater Minstrel.
TIPPY, smart, fine. " Tippy Bob."
TIRL, to make a slight scratching noise ; to turn over the
leaves of a book quickly.
TITE, soon, easily, well. TITTER, sooner, rather. See As-
TITLING, a small bird attendant on the cuckoo.
Tiv, to. TIV-A-TEE, just the thing.
TOAD-BIT, a disease among cattle, absurdly imputed to the
poison of toads ; and against which lustration by need-fire
is employed. Dr. Willan mentions a recent instance of
the practice, as occurring near Sedbergh.
To AD-I NDER-A-H ARROW, the comparative situation of a poor
fellow, whose wife, not satisfied with the mere hen-peck-
ing of her helpmate, takes care that all the world shall wit-
ness the indignities she puts upon him. The expression
is also applied to any other similar, if such there be, state
TODLE or TODDLE, to walk, to saunter about, " Todling
hame" Germ, trotteln, to trundle along.
TOMMY, a little loaf. " A soldier's tommy"
Too, shut, close. " Put the door too?"" It is too." Dut.
toe. Is de deur toe ?
TOOFALL, TWOFALL, or TEEFALL, a small building adjoining
to, and with the roof resting on the wall of a larger one.
This name is also given to a small shed at the end of a
farm house, in which are usually placed implements of agri-
culture. In the latter sense, however, it is often pro-
nounced Touffa. Teut. toe-vallen y adjungere se.
Toow, or TUAM. Dan. tommej to empty. " A toom purse."
" A tuam cart."
TOOZLE, to pull about ; especially applied to any rough dal-
liance with a female.
TOP, good, excellent. TOPPER, any thing superior a clever,
or extraordinary person; but generally in an ironical
TOPSMAN, the head man or manager, the chief hind or bailiff.
TORIOUS, notorious. " A 'torious liar that."
TORMIT, TURMIT, a turnip.
TOSH, a projecting or unseemly tooth a tusk.
TOSSICATED, perplexed ; as if intoxicated.
TOTE, the whole. " The whole tote" A common pleonasm.
TOTEY, bad tempered. " A totey body"
TOTHER, TUTHER, the other. See TANE.
TOUGH, TEUGH, tedious, difficult. " A tough journey."
" Teugh wark" Apparently, the original sense of the
TOWGHER, a portion or dowry, dower. Cumb. Toker, in
other places, means the same. V. Jam. tocher.
TOWLING, a mischievous amusement among the boys in New-
castle, during the evenings of the horse-fairs. It consists
of whipping up and down the different " choice tit bits"
shewn on those occasions. From the enquiries I have
made, I find it has been practised from time immemorial.
TRAM, a small sledge.
TRAMP, a mechanic travelling from place to place in search of
TRAMPERS, beggars, who traverse extensive tracts of country,
soliciting from door to door.
TRANSLATORS, cobblers who buy old boots and shoes and make
them up anew for sale. The Castle Garth, in Newcastle,
is the Grand Emporium of this learned and gentle craft.
TRANSMOGRIFIED, transformed, metamorphosed.
TRASH, " to trample on in a careless manner," Todd's John.
It is rather, to tramp about with fatigue.
TRICKY, artful, cunning. FuU of tricks.
TRIG, v. to fill, to stuff. -TRIG, a. full.
TRIG, neat, trim ; or rather tricked out, or what is called^we.
TRIM, to chastise, to beat soundly. " I'll trim your jacket."
TRIPPIT AND COIT, a game similar to spell and ore. Newc.
Called Trippit and Rack in parts of North. The trippit
is a small piece of wood obtusely pointed. See SPELL
TRIST, TRYST, a fair for black cattle, horses, sheep, &c. Long
Framlington trist, Felton tryst. North. Sc. tryst, an
appointment to meet. V. Jam.
TROD, a foot path through a field Isl. trod.
TROLLIBAGS, tripe. V. Suff. Words, trullibubs.
TRONES, a steel yard. Isl. trana, grus.
TRUMPH, a trump at cards. Common among the vulgar.
TUBBER, a cooper. A maker of tubs.
TUB, to labour long and patiently, to fatigue by repeated or
continued exertion. Fr. tuer, se tuer, originally to kill ;
but used also for, to fatigue or weary. // se tue, he wea-
ries himself; or, in North country language, he tues him-
self. " Tuing on" toiling away. " A tuing life" a la-
borious life. " A tuing soul" a hard working person.
" Sare tues" great difficulty in accomplishing any thing.
TUEL, a species of bantering ; or rather a tendency to squab-
ble accompanied with it any troublesome intermeddling.
" Dinna hand me sic a fuel."
TUG, to rob, to destroy. " To tug a nest"
TUIFFIT, or TEWFET, the lapwing. See PEEZ-WEEP.
TUM, to separate or card wool.
TUP, s. a ram. TUP, v. to give the ram. Shakspeare, in
Othello, uses the verb in a more extended sense ; but the
passage cannot well be quoted.
TUSSEL, or TUSSLE, a struggle, a contest.
TWANG, a quick pull, a tweak also pain. V. Moor.
TWATTLE, to pat, to make much of, to fondle. See BE-
TWEA, TWEE, tWO. SaX. two. TWEASOME, TWOSOME, tWO ill
TWEA-FACED, deceitful. Sax. twe-fealdy duplex.
TWILL, a quill ; either for a pen, or on which to wind yarn.
TWILT, a quilt or bed cover. V. Todd's John, to twill.
TWINE, to cry. TWINY, fretful, uneasy.
TWINTER, a beast of two winters old. Sax. twy-ivinter, duos
TWITCH-BELL, the earwig.
TWITTER, to tremble, to be in a state of uneasiness. Germ.
zittern, to shiver or quake.
UG, to feel abhorrence at. UGSOME, disgusting, exciting ab-
U'M H'M, or UMHIM, an indifferent careless manner of as-
senting to what is said; pronounced with the mouth shut,
the last syllable short : very common in Newcastle. A
literary friend suggests a derivation from umpk, ascribed
satirically to the Society of Friends.
UN, one referring to an individual. " He's a bad un"
UNACCOUNTABLE, s. a strange character; an unpromising per-
UNCANNY, giddy, careless, imprudent. It is also applied by
the superstitious to one supposed to possess supernatural
influence. Sc. wo canny. UNCANNILY, unthinkingly,
UNDERCUMSTAND, to understand. A mere vulgar change.
UNDIGHT, undressed, undecked. V. Todd's John.
UNFREM'D, unkind. See FREM'D.
UNGEAR, to unharness. " Ungear the yoke."
UNHONEST, dishonourable, dishonest. Stated in Todd's John,
to be obsolete ; but it is not so in the North.
UNKET, UNKID, strange, unusual. Sax. uncuth, alienus. UN-
KETS, UNKIDS, news.
UNLICKED-CUB, an ignorant, unpolished youth.
UNMACKLY, ill-shapen, of a clumsy appearance.
UNPOSSIBLE, for impossible. Not in Johnson but admitted by
Mr Todd ; and well authorized. The word is frequent
with the vulgar in the North.
UNRID, to rid. Here the particle is of no force. UNRIP, a
common word in the North authorized by some of our
best writers is similarly circumstanced.
UNSNECK, to lift a latch ; as of a door.
UNSONCY, UNSONSY, careless, luckless, unpleasant, disagree-
able. See SONCY.
UPBRAID, to rise on the stomach, as well as to reproach.
UPCAST, v. to upbraid. UPCAST, s. a taunt, reproach.
UPCASTING, a rising of the clouds above the horizon, especi-
ally as threatening rain.
UPHAD, UPHAUD, to warrant against defects. Uphold.
UPPISH, a sort of cant word for understanding.
UPSIDES, quits. To be upsides ivith any one, is to threaten
vengeance for an injury or affront. UPWITH, equal.
URCHIN, a hedge-hog. Chaucer uses urchon. V. Nares'
VAMPER, to vapour or swagger, to make an ostentatious ap-
pearance. Welsh, gwemp y splendid.
VARDIE, opinion, judgment. Perhaps a corruption of verdict.
VARMENT, VERMENT, vermin also a term of reproach, par-
ticularly to a child.
VARRA, VARRY, VURRY, very.
VENNEL, a sewer. Probably from kennel, an open water course.
VENTERSOME, VENTURESOME, rash, adventurous.
VERTER, a common corruption of virtue.
VIEWLY, pleasant to the sight, striking to the eye, handsome.
VINE-PENCIL, a black lead pencil.
VIRGIN'S GARLAND. Many country churches in the North
are adorned with these garlands ; in token, says Bourne, of
esteem and love, and as an emblem of reward in the hea-
venly Church. They are made of variegated coloured
paper, representing flowers, fastened to small sticks cros-
sing each other at the top, and fixed at the bottom by a
circular hoop. From the centre is suspended the form of
a woman's glove cut in white paper, on which the name
and age of the deceased are sometimes written.
To her sweet mem'ry flow'ry Garlands strung,
On her now empty seat aloft were hung. Gay.
VOKY, VOKEY, moist, juicy. Wokie occurs in Peirs Plough-
WABBLE, to move easily, to reel, to wave ; as growing corn
on a windy day. See WAFFLE,
WAD, black lead. Cumb. Pure Saxon. " A wad pencil.""
WAD, woad used by dyers. Sax. wad. " As blue as ivad."
WAD, would. " He wad, at wad he" he would, that he
WADEN, WAUDEN, young and active vigorous in limb. " A
WADLER-WIFE, the keeper of a register office for servants.
WAE ME ! or WAE'S ME ! an exclamation of sorrow, equiva-
lent to woe is me. Sax. wa is me.
WAFF, WAITH, WRAITH, an apparition in the exact resem-
blance of a person, supposed to be seen just before or soon
after death. It may be from the airy form of the object j
a waft or transient view being called a waff; but see Jam.
wraith. I have conversed with persons who have gravely
and unequivocally asserted that they have seen these spec-
tral appearances of their deceased friends and relations.
WAFFLE, to wave, to fluctuate. Sax. wajian, vacillare.
WAG, to beckon with the hand. " Let's wag on him."
WAG-AT-THE-WAW, WAGGER, a cheap wooden German clock.
Perhaps from the pendulum being exposed ; or, provinci-
ally, seen wagging against the wall.
WAGE, pay for serv ice. Both Johnson and Nares say, used
only in the plural. In the North, however, the singular
is in common use. " What 1 s your wage?"
WAIFINGER, an estray. Law Lat. waivium.
WAIRSH, WEARSH, thin, watery, weak, insipid. It is also used
to express a griping in the bowels. V. Todd's John.
WAIT, wot. Sax. wat, from wltan.
WAITER, WAATER, water. Sax. wcctcr.
WAITER, or WATER-BRASH, a disease in the stomach. Per-
haps from the bursting or discharge of aqueous humour.
WAITS, musicians who play by night in the streets about the
time of Christmas and the new year ; originally a town-
band of musicians. One of the old towers, in Newcastle,
was formerly called the waits' tower, and was the place of
their meeting. Their playing to Oliver Cromwell, while
that extraordinary character was entertained at dinner, on
his route to or from Scotland, is traditionally remembered.
The term is apparently from Moe.-Got. wakts, vigilia, ex-
cubiae ; these waits being anciently viewed as a sort of
WAKE, v. to watch by a corpse, to sit up with a person all
night. See LAKE-WAKE.
WAKE, s. a country feast, a rural fair. V. Hutchinson's His-
tory of North, vol. ii. p. 26 ; and Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol.
i. p. 422.
Tarts and custards, creams and cakes,
Are the junketts still at Wakes Herrick.
WAKE, a. weak. Sax. W<EC. " A wakely body."
WALE, WEAHL, v. to select, to choose, to sort. Su.-Got.
waclia, eligere. Germ, wahlen, to pick out. WALE, s.
WALK-MILL, a fulling-mill. Germ, walkmuhle. Before the
introduction of machinery it was customary to use the
feet in fulling cloth.
WALL, WALLE, to boil. Su.-Got. waella, aestuare, fervere.
WALM, a slight boiling.
WALL-EYED. In those parts of the North, with which I am
best acquainted, persons are said to be wall-eyed, when the
white of the eye is very large, and to one side. On the
borders," " sic folks" are considered unlucky. The term
is also applied to horses with similar eyes. The author
of the Crav. Gloss, explains wall-een, to mean white or
green eyes; and does not consider the etymology very
satisfactory, either in Nares or Todd. Their ideas cer-
tainly are at variance with the Northern signification of
the word. Grose defines it, "an eye with little or no
sight, all white like a plaistered wall."
WALLOP, to move quickly and with much agitation of the body
or clothes. Teiit. wal-oppe. WALLOPING, a slatternly
WALLOW, insipid. See Welsh.
WALLUP, v. to beat. " Aw'l wattup yak" WALLUP, s. a blow.
WAME, WEAM, WEIME, the stomach, the belly. Mce.-Got.
wamba, uterus. Sax. wamb, venter.
WAN, a corruption of wand. " A yard-wan" " A mill-wan"
WANDY, long and flexible ; like a wand.
WANG-TOOTH, dens molaris. Pure Sax. Before the use of
seals in England, according to Verstegan, persons passing
deeds bit the wax with the wang-tooth.
WANKLE, WANKELLY, uncertain ; as ivankle or wanJcelly wea-
ther. Sax. wanel, instabilis, vacillans. Germ, wanken, to
change. It also means, weak, loose.
WAR, worse. Sax. wcerra. A Spenserian word. " War
and war" worse and worse.
WARBLE, a sort of worm in cattle. F. Jam.
WAR-DAY, every day in the week except Sunday. Working-
day. " Sunday and war-day"
WAR, beware. " War below." Sax. warian, cavere.
WARE, v. to expend or lay out money ; originally, perhaps, on
WARE, s. sea-weed. Sax. war, alga marina.
WARE, s. delf. " White tvare"" Broivn ware"
WARK, v. to ache. " Maw heed warks" WARK, s. a pain or
ache. " The belly wark" Sax. ware, dolor.
WARK, v. to work. " He can neither tvark nor want."
WARM, to beat. " Aw* I warm yor hide"
WARN, WARND, to warrant, " Aws warnd him"
WARP, to open. A hen is said to warp when she lays. Sax.
WARSE, worse. " Warsc and warsc." Moe.-Got. ivairs.
Chaucer uses werse. WARST, the worst.
WAIISEN, to grow worse. " He warsen'd sadly"
WAISTING, a consumption, a decline.
WA'T, indeed. " Weft wV indeed it is.
WATCHING ON ST. MARK'S EVE. Young rustics will sometimes
watch, or at least pretend to watch, through the night in
the church porch, With a view of seeing the ghosts of all
those who are to die the next year, pass by them ; which
they are said to do in their usual dress. The persons
making, or supposed to have made, this vigil, are a terror
to the neighbourhood. On the least offence they are apt,
by significant looks or hints, to insinuate to the credulous
the speedy death of some valued friend or relative.
Some of the young girls too follow the ancient method of
sowing hemp-seed; while others prepare the dumb cake
with ingredients traditionally suggested in witching dog-
WATH, WARTH, a water-ford. Sax. wadan, vadere.
WATTLES, teat like excrescences that hang from the cheeks of
some swine, as well as the meanings assigned in Todd's
WAW, Wo, a wall. North. WOGH, Lane, antf York. Sax.
WAX, to grow. In general use. WAXEN, growing. Dut.
wasting. " Hoot man ! He's just a half-wax 1 d lad ! Ifs
sartin he's getten the waxen churnels"
WAX-END, the waxed thread used by cordwainers.
WEA, WEHA, oppressed with woe, sorrowful. Sax. wa, afflic-
tus. " I am weha for you" I pity you. " I am weka for
your loss" I am distressed at your loss.
WEAKY, juicy, moist, watery. V. Jam. wok.
WEARY, vexatious, troublesome. " A weary fellow" " A
weary bairn" " Oh ! she's a weary body" Sax. weerig,
WEATHER-GALL, a phenomenon something like a second rain-
bow said to indicate bad weather. Germ, wasssergalle.
V. Nares' Gloss. Water-gall.
WEATHER-GLEAM, clear sky near the horizon spoken of ob-
jects seen on the ridge of a lofty hill, so as to appear as if
in the sky. In this situation, as Dr. Willan observes, a
man looks gigantic ; he seems to tread on air, and to be
clad with radiance, like one of Ossian's departed heroes.
Sax. wader, coelum, and gleam, splendor.
WEBSTER, or WABSTER, a weaver. Sax. webbestrc, textrix, a
female weaver. The use of this term, as remarked by Dr.
Jam. indicates that, among our forefathers, the work of
weaving was appropriated to women. This, it is well
known, was the case among the Greeks and other ancient
nations, who considered it an employment unworthy of
the dignity of man.
WEE, little, small. " A wee bit"" A little wee thing" V.
A little wee face with a little yellow beard.
Shak. Merry Wives of Windsor.
WEENS, children. Little ones. " How are the weens ?"
WEEL, well. WEEL-TE-DEE, well to do living comfort-
WEEL-SUM-OA ! interjec. a blessing on you.
WEEL'S-MON-THEE ! God bless you.
WEET, v. to rain, to wet. WEET, s. slight rain. Sax. w<zta,
humiditas. Chaucer uses wete, v. and a.
WEEZE, a circular roll of straw, wool, or other soft substance,
for protecting the head under the pressure of a load or
burthen. Probably from Teut. wase, caespes ; or it may
be from ease. Brand thinks it a corruption of wisp.
WELK, to dry, to wither. V. Todd's John.
WELL, to weld. Sw. wetta. Sax. wellen, to be very hot.
WELLY, very near a contraction of well nigh.
WELSH, insipid. Teut. gaelsch. Welsh and wallow are sy-
nonyma. Broth and water, and pottage without salt, are
wallow or welsh. A person whose face has a raw, pale,
and unhealthy look whom a keen frosty morning pinches,
and to whom it gives an appearance of misery and poverty
has a welsh and wallow face. A welsh day, is the same
as a sleety day, when it is neither thaw nor frost : but a
wallow day is when a cold, strong and hollow wind pre-
vails. Wallow, applied to the state of the weather, is per-
haps only applicable in a rugged and mountainous country.
WELTER, to reel or stagger. Teut. welteren, volutare.
WEND, to go. Sax. wendan. Not obsolete, as stated by Dr.
WENT, for gone. Frequent in the North, as well as among
the Cockneys. V. Pegge's Anecd. Eng. Lang. p. 233,
WENT, WENTED, applied to milk when it has been kept till it
be approaching to sourness.
WERRIT, to teaze. If a person, extremely ill, were impor-
tuned to any measure to which he felt reluctant or con-
trary to his inclination, he would request not to be wer-
rited so much about it.
WESH, v. to wash. WESH, s. stale urine, sometimes used in
washing. Teut. wasch, lotura.
WET-HAND, a drunken person; very properly termed by
Bewick (Fables of ^Esop, p. 138), " an old filtering stone."
WHACK, v. to strike, to beat. A variation of thwack.
WHACK, s. appetite. " What a whack he's got."
WHACKER, v. to tremble, to quake. WHACKERING, trembling.
WHACKER, s. a lie. WHAPPER, the same. Both in a meta-
WHANG, v. to flog, or chastise with a thong. WHANG,
WHYENG, s a leather-thong.
WHANG, a thick or large piece of any thing eatable ; especially
bread or cheese.
WHANGING-FELLOW, a stout lusty person.
WHAP, v. to beat soundly. WHAP, s. a knock-down blow.
WHAPPER, any thing uncommonly large. In many instances,
as remarked by Dr. Willan, our forefathers seem to have
estimated weights and magnitudes by the force of their
blows. Thus, they employed in gradation the terms dap-
per, smacker, banger, thumper, thwacker, swinger, and
rattler. The word bumper, concerning which so much has
been said and surmised, the Doctor thinks is not of a more
exalted origin than what is here stated.
WHATSOMIVVER, however, whatever.
WHATTEN, what kind of, what. " Whatten o'clock is't?"
WHAUP, a curlew. Scolopax arquata. Linnaeus.
WHAZLE, WHEEZLE, v. to draw the breath with difficulty.
Su.-Got. hwaesa.-t WHAZLE, s. an indication of asthma.
WHE, who. " Whe's there." " Whe was ive yah."
WHEAM, smooth, sheltered, impervious to the wind. Perhaps,
as suggested to me by a skilful etymologist, a corrruption
WHEAN, to coax, to flatter. " What a wlieaning way she hez"
WHELK, a thump or blow, the noise made by the falling of any
WHEMMEL, or WHAMMEL, to turn upside down, to tumble over.
Tent, wemelen, frequenter et leviter movere.
WHET, WHIT, WHITE, to cut with a knife. " Whiting sticks"
WHITTLE-TE-WHET, to sharpen, to set an edge on.
WHETSTONE, a prize for lying. V. Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i.
p. 429, & seq. and Nares' Gloss. In the former work
is mentioned a custom, now I think obsolete, among the
colliers at Newcastle, of giving a pin to a person in com-
pany by way of hinting to him that he is Jibbing. If ano-
ther pitman outlie him, he in turn delivers the pin to him.
No duels ever ensued on the occasion.
WHEWT, to whistle. WHEW, or WHUE, a whistle.
WHICK, quick, alive. " WJiick and a live" a common expres-
sion in Newcastle, among certain ladies, who neither sell
the best fish, nor speak the plainest English.
WHICKS, plants or slips of the white thorn. " A rfc/>hedge"
WHICKENS, couch grass, a general name for creeping weeds.
WHICKENING, plucking them up.
WHIDDER, WHITHER, to shake, to quake, to shiver ; hence a
whither of cold, a shivering cold. " All in a ivhither" all
in a tremble.
WHIEW, to fly hastily, to make great speed.
WHIFF, a transient view. In a whiffy in a short time.
WHIG, sour whey. Sax. hw<sg, serum. WniGtiENN'D-wHEV,
a pleasant liquor made by infusing various aromatic herbs
in whey, and suffering it to undergo a fermentation,
WHILE, until. " Stay while I come back." Nares quotes
several examples for this misuse of the word.
WHILK, which. Sax. hwilc. Dan. hvilke. Chaucer uses
WHILT, an indolent person. " An idle whilt".
WHINGEING, whining, sobbing or crying peevishly. Su.-Got.
WHINNERNEB, a meagre, thin faced person, with a sharp nose.
Grose, following Ray, says, perhaps from some bird that
feeds, or is bred among whins ; but I think it is more likely
from Welsh, wyneb, a face, a visage.
WHINS, gorse or furze. An old word.
WHIPPER and ROUGHER, an officer of the Corporation, New-
castle. See ROUGHER.
WHIPPER-SNAPPER, a diminutive, insignificant person.
WHISHT ! hush ! be silent. " Whisht ! dinna mack sic a
noise" This vulgarism, if such it be, is not without an-
cient authority, being used by Latimer and others.
WIIISKET, or WISKIT, a sort of basket. F. Nares' Gloss.
WHISSONTIDE, Whitsuntide. WHISSON-SUNDAY, Whitsunday.
WHISTLE, " the mouth ; the organ of whistling," says John-
son ; quoting Walton's Angler.
Let's drink the other cup to toet our whistles, and so
sing away all sad thoughts.
Here whistle surely means the throat. In the North, to
wet one's whistle is a common phrase for, to take a good
drink ; and, without charging the amiable old Izaac with
tippling, that, in all probability, was his meaning. Indeed,
its use in this sense is very ancient.
I loete my -whystett as good drinkers do. Palsgrave.
WHITE, to requite. " God white you !" V. Ray.
WHITEHEFT, flattery, " Whiteheft o' Lunnun"
WHITE-HERRING, a pickled, and not a fresh herring with all
due deference to Archdeacon Nares. See his Glossary,
where it is stated, in regard to Stevens's explanation (simi-
lar to my own) and his reference to the Northumberland
Household Book, that " there t/#ree are ordered for a young
lord or lady's breakfast, and four for my lord's, which no
lord or lady could possibly eat." This may be quite true ;
but what does it prove ? From Bishop Percy's preface to
the North. Household Book, it appears that the Earl was a
nobleman of great magnificence and taste ; and consider-
ing the splendid establishment detailed in that curious me-
morial of the olden time, more white herrings might be pro-
vided " for a young lord or lady's breakfast," as well as
"for my lord's," than they actually did, or could possibly
WHITE-NEB'D-CRAW, a rook ; the carrion crow being called the
black neb'd craw.
WHITLING, a species of trout, the history of which is very lit-
tle known. They are frequently taken in the river Tyne ;
but like the brandling and the salmon-smelt, always with-
out spawn. In some parts they are called whitings, and
are generally supposed at last to become salmon. Sw.
hwitling, a whiting.
WHITTEE-WHATTEEING, speaking low and privately whisper-
ing between two persons, to the exclusion of a third also
indecision, or procrastination, on frivolous pretences.
WHITTLE, a knife; generally a clasp-knife. Sax. whytel.
"An harden sark, a guse grassing, and a whittle gait ,"
were all the salary of a clergyman, not many years ago, in
Cumberland ; in other words, his entire stipend consisted
of a shirt of coarse linen, the right of commoning geese,
and the privilege of using a knjfe and fork at the table of
WHIZ, to hiss like hot iron in water. See Fizz.
WHIZZER, a falsehood. More wind than truth.
WIIUSSEL, a corruption of whistle. WHUSSEL-WOOD, the
alder and plane-tree ; used by boys in making whistles.
WHUTHERIN, WHUTHERING, a throbbing or palpitation at the
heart. " De*ilsweU tha ! Thotfs maed me heaurt aa whu-
ther agen /"
WHY, or QUEV, the same as HEIFER ; which see. Dan. qule.
WHY, or QUEY-CALF, a cow-calf.
WHYLLYMER, a species of cheese remarkable for its poverty.
In a note to Anderson's Ballads, its surface is said to be
so hard, that it frequently bids defiance to the keenest
edge of a Cumbrian gutty, and its interior substance so very
tough, that it affords rather occupation to the teeth of a
rustic than nourishment to his body, making his hour of
repast the severest part of his day's labour.
WIDDERSFUL, laboriously endeavouring, actively striving.
WIDDEY, a tough band made of oziers, partially dried in the
fire j used for many agricultural purposes. The iron ring,
uniting the band of a cow and the post to which she is
tied, is, in some places, still called a widdey, from its having
been made of oziers before the common use of iron. " As
tough as a widdey." The word seems evidently related to
willow. Old Eng. ivithey. Sax. withig.
WIDDLE, to fret. V. Jam. widdilL
WIDE-COAT, an upper or great coat.
WIFE, a woman, whether married or not. " An apple wife."
" A Jish wife." " A tripe wife." Sax. wif, mulier, fce-
WIG, a cake or bun. " A plain tvig" " A spice wig." Teut.
wegghe, panis triticeus.
WIGGLE-WAGGLE, a tremulous undulating motion. See
WIGHTY, strong and active. V. Todd's John, wight.
WIRE, WICKER, a mark used in setting out tithes j generally
a small branch of a tree.
WIKS, WICKS, corners j as the iviks of the mouth. Su.-Got.
WILL, for shall; and WOULD, for should ; passim " THE NORTH
COUNTREYE." The Northumbrian gentry disrelish any
admonition of these inveterate errors in language. Such
mistakes, however, are incorrigible, both in them and in
their neighbours, the Scots. Even such writers as Blair
and Robertson are not always exempt from this disfigure-
WILLEY-WAND, a stem of the willow. Sax. welig, and wand,
"A mere willey-wand" often applied to a tall, thin
WIN, to dry hay by exposing it to the air, to get in harvest
generally. Sax. windwian, ventilare. Teut. winnen, col-
ligere fructus terrae. " Well won hay"
Yt felle abowght the Lamasse tyde,
Whan husbonds wynn ther haye,
The dowghtye Dowglasse bowynd hym to ryde,
In Ynglond to take a praye.
Battle of Otterlournc.
WIN, to raise, to get ; as coals from a mine, or stones from a
quarry. Sax. winnan ; Su.-Got. winna, laborare, labore
WINDER, v. to winnow. WINDER, s. a window. V. Crav.
WINDLE, or WINNEL-STREE, a long kind of bent grass. Sax.
, noisy, verbose, marvellous in narration., " A windy
."" Chow, Low, and Windy Jack."
WINKERS, the eyes. " Maw winkers to dazzle"
WIXNA, WINNOT, will not. " He winna did" u He winnot
WINSOME, WUNSOME, lively, cheerful, gay. Sax. winsum.
WINTER, an instrument of iron hung against the bars of a fire
place, used to heat smoothing irons upon.
WIRDLE, to perform any thing laboriously and slowly.
WISE, to shew or direct. North. Sax. ivisian, monstrare.
" Wise him in."" Wise him out."" Wise the door open."
It also means, to insinuate, to work into ; as to wise into
company or into favour; that is, to do it cunningly.
WISE, to let go. " Wise off that rope there"
WISE-LIKE, possessing the appearance of wisdom or propriety.
Sax. wis-lic, sapiens, prudens.
WISE-MAN, a periphrasis for a conjurer, or wizard. Wretches
of this description are still, I fear, occasionally consulted.
WISHY-WASHY, poor looking, weak, not to the point.
WIT, WITE, WYTE, v. to know. Mce.-Got. and Sax. tritan.
Su.-Got. weta, scire. " Wyte onY' sure of it. " Pit
ne'er let unt" I'll not inform, or I'll keep it secret.
WIT, *. intelligence, information. Pure Saxon. " He got
w it" he obtained intelligence. "Dorft let ivi?' don't
give any information.
WITE, blame, imputation. A Chaucerian word, used by
Spenser. Sax. witan, imputare. Su.-Got. wite, poena.
WITTE-WITTE-WAY, a game among boys which I do not re-
member in the South.
Wiv, with. North, and Dur. Wi, York.
WIZZENED, WIZZENT, dry, parched, withered, wrinkled, shri-
velled. Sax. wisnian, arescere.
WOAD, mad, furious. Sax. w od, insanus, furiosus. Wode oc-
curs several tunes in Chaucer.
WOMMEL, or WUMBLE, an auger. From wimble.
WON, WUN, to dwell, to haunt or frequent. Not obsolete, as
stated by Ash ; being common in Cumb. and Lane. Sax.
wonian y wunian. Teut. woonen, habitare. Cornish, won-
nen, to stay, to tarry.
Woo, wool. A common pronunciation in many places.
WOR, our. WORSELLS, ourselves.
WORD. To take one's word again, to retract, to change one*s
WORM, a serpent of great magnitude, a hideous monster in
the shape of a worm or dragon. Popular tradition has
handed down to us, through successive generations, with
very little variation, the most romantic details of the ra-
vages committed by these all devouring worms, and of the
valour and chivalry displayed by their destroyers. With-
out attempting to account for the origin of such tales, or
pretending in any manner, to vouch for the matters of fact
contained in them, it cannot be disguised, that many of the
inhabitants of the County of Durham in particular, still
implicitly believe in these ancient superstitions. The Worm
of Lambton is a family legend, the authenticity of which
they will not allow to be questioned. Various adventures
and supernatural incidents have been transmitted from
father to son, illustrating the devastation occasioned, and
the miseries inflicted by the monster and marking the
self-devotion of the Knight of the Lambton family, through
whose intrepidity the worm was eventually destroyed.
But the lapse of centuries has so completely enveloped in
obscurity the particular details, that it is impossible to give
a narration which could in any degree be considered as
complete. The story related in the recent, splendid,
and elaborate History of Durham is incorrect in many
particulars. Those parts which allude to the profane fishing
on a Sunday, and the consequences resulting from it, are
mere modern disfigurements of the original tradition, ut-
terly at variance with the state of the times amusements
on the Sabbath, in those days, when Catholicism prevailed,
not being regarded as an act of profaneness. A conical
hill is still shewn on the banks of the Wear, about two
miles from Lambton, which from time immemorial has
been called the Worm HiM, and round which the serpent
is said to have coiled itself.
WORMIT, worm-wood, The wormit-hill, in High Friar Chare,
Newcastle ; now removed.
WORRY, to eat voraciously, to choak, to suffocate. V. Ray.
Wou, the worst kind of swipes. " Thafs sorry won real rot
gut." The word is also applied to weak tea, or any very
worthless liquor. " Farthing won"
WRACK, or WRACKRIDER, another name for the same species
of trout as the brandling, which see. It is faintly barred
or branded down the sides.
WRANG, wrong. Pure Saxon. WRANGSLY, falsely.
WRAT, WRATTEN.a wart. Dut. and Sc. wrat.
WRECKLING, an unhealthy feeble child the youngest or weak-
est of the breed among animals the smallest bird in the
nest any ill-grown creature. See DOWPY.
WRIDDEX, or WREEDEN, cross, ill-natured ; applied in particu-
lar to children.
WROUT, to bore, to dig up like a hog. Sax. wrotan, subigere.
Chaucer has wrote.
WUD, with. Cumb. " God be wudher" God rest her soul.
WYE, well, yes. WYE WYE, very well j yes, yes. A com-
mon expression of assent. Fr. oui.
WYLECOAT, an under-vest; generally of flannel.
WYLLKMENT, or WULLEMEXT, a pale, sickly looking person.
YAD, YAWD, a worn out cart horse an old mare. Jade .
YAITINGS, YEATINGS, single sheaves of corn; especially of
YAITS, YETS, oats. " A poke o y yets" See the last article.
YAMMER, to complain, to whine. Germ, jammern. YAM-
MERING, making a continual noise ; such as proceeds from
contentious women, or from fretful and peevish children.
The word, indeed, stands for a very complex idea, into
which enters a combination of habitual fretfulness, discon-
tent, brawling, and anger.
Come, dinna, dinna whinge an' whipe,
Like yammering Isbel Macky.
Song, Bol) Cranky's Adieu.
YAN, YEN, one. YANCE, YENCE, once.
YANSELL, YENSELL, one's self.
YAP, apt, quick. Sax. gep, astutus. In Peirs Ploughman I
find yep, which Dr. Whitaker considers of the same origin,
and explains in the sense of alert and vigorous.
YAP, YEP, an opprobrious epithet. " A twea-faccd yep"
" Had yor tongue yah yep"
YARR-, or YERK, to wrench or twist forcibly.
YARK, to beat soundly. Isl. hreckia, pulsare. A favourite
word among the vulgar. " Aw 1 1 yark yah, yah dirty bas-
tard yah ; aufve had mairfash wahyce nor a 1 the bairns aw
ever had, in aw me life ; there's ne sic thing as Iccving
YAUPING, crying, lamenting. Tent, galpen, gannire instar
YEATHER, a flexible twig used for binding hedges.
YEBBLE, able. " As long as u?ar yebble."
YEBLINS, YEABLESEA, YEBBLESEE, perhaps. See ABLINS.
YELL, ale. Sax. eale. YELL-HOUSE, an ale-house. YELL-
WIFE, the lady of " mine host" a hostess in her own
YELLOW-YOVVLEY, YOLD-RING, the yellow bunting. Emberiza
citrinella. Linnaeus. A vulgar prejudice exists in Scotland
against this bird. V. Jam. yeldring.
YELP, to cry out in a loud manner j as it were like a dog.
YEARTH, YEORTH, a common pronunciation of earth.
YERNING, rennet. Germ. gerinnen, to coagulate. A plant
used in North Tindale to curdle milk for cheese is called
yerning grass. See KESLIP.
YET, YETE, YAT, a gate. Both Chaucer and Spenser use
yate. YET-STOOP, a gate post.
YETLING, a small pan or boiler. So called, I suppose, from
being made of cast metal. V. Jam. yetland.
YEUK, v. to itch. Dut. jeuken. YEUK, s. a cutaneous disease
-jocosely denominated the plague of Scotland.
YISSERDAY, yesterday. YISSERNEET, yesternight.
YOR, your. YOR-SELL, yourself.
You, YOWE, a ewe. Sex. eowe, ovis fcemina.
YOUL, YOWL, to cry, to howl. Isl. gola, ululare.
YOUNGSTER, a novitiate in any thing.
YOUTH, in the sense of vigorous age. " He's a fine old youth."
YURE, the udder of a cow. Dut. utjer.
YULE, YULL, the festival of Christmas the winter solstice of
the Northern nations. - V. Hire, jul, Jam. yule and
Brand's Pop. Antiq. vol. i. p. 364.
YULE-CLOG, or YULL-CLOG, a large block or log of wood laid
on the fire on Christmas Eve; and, if possible, kept
burning all the following day, or longer. A portion of the
old clog of the preceding year is sometimes saved to light
up the new block at the next Christmas, and to preserve
the family from harm in the mean time. Many, otherwise
sensible, persons, though ashamed to admit their belief in
these ridiculous notions, would be uncomfortable, did they
entirely neglect them.
Come bring, with a noise,
My merrie, merrie boys,
The Christmas Log to the firing ;
While my good Dame she
Bids ye all be free,
And drink to your heart's desiring.
Herrick, Ceremonies for Christmatse.
Part must be kept wherewith to teend,
The Christmas Log next yeare ;
And where 'tis safely kept, the Fiend
Can do no mischiefe (there).
Herrick, Ceremonies for Candlemasse Day.
YULE-DOUGH, or YULL-DOO, a little image of paste, studded
with currants ; baked for children at Christmas ; intended
originally, perhaps, for a figure of the Child Jesus, with the
Virgin Mary. V. Ihre, julbrod and Brand's Pop. Antiq.
vol. i. p. 410.
P. 2, line 6 from bottom, for adlean read adlian.
P. 8, line 2 from bottom, for Allum read Alum.
P. 34, line 9, for two read too.
P. 64, bottom line, for ee/r read air.
P. 67, line 9 from bottom, forfootseps read footsteps.
P. 71, line 11, for Spencer read Spenser.
P. 88, line 2 from bottom, for opprobious read opprobrious,
P. 100, line 10 from bottom, for woman read women.
P. 159, line 12, for anowse read wozt-se.
P. 170, line 9 from bottom, for alliterate read alliterative*
P. 175, line 14, for teize read <eaze.
P. 176, line 2 from bottom, for toise read wotse.
P. 185, line 13, for substitue read substitute.
P. 220, line 4 from bottom, after tuam insert empty.
Newcastle : Printed by
T. & J. Hodgson, Union- Street.
PE Brooke tt, John Trotter
1771 A glosary of north century
B73 words in use
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