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H.INST.C.E., F.G.S., M.N.E.I.M.E., M.I.. AND 8.I., M.S.E., A.I.N.A., ETC. 


THE Compiler of the following Glossary of Terms 
used in connection with the mining of coal and other 
minerals had at first no intention of publishing his work. 
He merely collected, arranged, and classified the 
various local and provincial mining terms and phrases 
as they came under his notice, for his own personal 
curiosity and use. At the request of several friends, 
however, he has decided to go more minutely and 
carefully into the subject, and has made an attempt to 
give to the mining community, and others interested 
in the science of coal mining, the result of a much 
closer investigation into the study of the provincialisms 
and technicalities of the mining districts of this country ; 
and although conscious of its many defects, he now 
ventures to offer to the scientific public the accom- 
panying compendium of the terms employed in the 
mining of coal and other stratified minerals. 

It is also hoped that many of the terms have been 
explained in such a manner as not only to give a 
meaning, as clear and concise as is possible under the 
circumstances, but also to convey to students and others 


engaged in the mining profession some information, in 
detail, as to the several methods, operations, systems, 
appliances, statistics, &c., used in connection with the 
winning, working, and disposal of Coal, which has so 
often been described as the " Mainspring of Civilisation," 
and which, owing to the bountiful munificence of the 
Creator and Giver of all good things, has made Great 
Britain what she is, viz. by far the largest producer, 
hitherto, of that mineral in the world. 


December, 1882. 


IN introducing the reader to the contents of this little 
work, it may be well in the first place to give some ex- 
planation of the method adopted in compiling it, and 
to mention some of the sources from whence many of the 
words and phrases have been obtained. 

As many of the terms treated of have been gathered 
from journals, reports, and transactions of mining insti- 
tutes, &c.. it is not improbable that several inaccuracies 
may be met with, the meaning given not being in all 
cases so explicit as the Compiler could have wished ; but 
by the exercise of much care and considerable labour, 
he believes that they have been reduced to a very few. 

Any one who will be good enough to favour the 
Compiler with terms, &c., omitted or hitherto unknown 
to him, or with corrected and more accurate information, 
will be greatly assisting to improve, complete, and 
enhance the value of a subsequent edition, should it be 
called for. 

It has been thought well to insert many terms which 
now are or are rapidly becoming obsolete, because it 
seemed unnecessary and impossible to draw a hard and 


fast line between them obsolete words being interest- 
ing if not instructive to many. 

To some terms a historical fact or addition has been 
included, by way of imparting information to the 

As to words made use of in great number and variety 
in reference to Strata, or the names given to various 
beds of rock met with in the course of mining, these 
are so intimately mixed up with many of the terms 
used underground, that to exclude them would have 
been unfair. 

With reference to the fact that very many terms have 
more than one, in some instances eight or ten, separate 
meanings, and that a single article, &c., may have as 
many as twelve or fourteen different names by which it 
is called, it must be understood that the numbers 
(1, 2, 3, &c.) placed immediately after a word refer to 
corresponding numbers under the head of which the 
explanation of the particular term will be found, e. g. 
" The box at the head (1) end has only one garland (2) 
upon it." By looking out the word head under No. 1 ex- 
planation, and garland under No. 2 meaning, will at 
once give the reader an idea of the system upon which 
the whole book is drawn up. 

Again, with regard to machinery and mechanical 
appliances generally, it has been thought proper to 
exclude all technical terms applied to the various parts 
of such things as do not refer especially to mining, 
for instance : the words pump, boiler, donkey, fly- 


wheel, points, spann&r, cotter, &c., are none of them 

A number of terms have been obtained from the coal 
districts of Pennsylvania and elsewhere in America, but 
some of them are clearly traceable to the north of 
England, whence doubtless they originally came. Many 
Belgian, French, Prussian, German, Italian, &c., terms 
have been inserted, it being thought the better plan to 
leave out nothing that might in any way contribute to 
the usefulness of the work. 

Turning to the sources of information of which the 
compiler has been so far able to avail himself, he 
hereby desires to acknowledge his thanks to various 
authors for giving many technical and local terms, in 
their various papers, addresses, books, and so forth, 
which he has ventured to make use of. The figures 
accompanying the text have, with only one or two 
exceptions, been drawn up by the writer expressly for 
the work, and he only regrets that this portion of 
his labours has been so imperfectly performed. The 
following are the principal works and authors con- 
sulted: The Transactions of the North of England 
Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers ; the 
Proceedings of the South Wales Institute of Engi- 
neers ; the Transactions of the Chesterfield and Derby- 
shire Institute of Engineers; the Transactions of the 
Mining Institute of Scotland ; the Transactions of the 
Manchester Geological Society ; the Transactions of 
the Midland Institute of Mining, Civil, and Mechanical 



Engineers; the Annual Keports of H. M. Inspectors of 
Mines; the Colliery Guardian newspaper ; Mine Engi- 
neering, by G. 0. Greenwell; Mine Engineering, by 
G. E. Andre; the Journal of the British Society of 
Mining Students ; as well as numerous smaller works 
chiefly relating to coal mining. It should, however, 
be remarked that the compiler has himself, in the 
course of his professional duties, visited nearly all the 
coal-fields of Great Britain, thus enabling him to 
acquaint himself pretty well with many of the terms 
commonly made use of. To compile a complete glossary 
of such terms would, it is believed, occupy many years, 
even if it were possible to do it at all. 

In conclusion it should be said, that besides the 
terms and phrases used in coal mining, those used in 
connection with the working of ironstone, shale, fireclay, 
rock-salt, stone, &c. in short, stratified mines, have 
been freely dealt with. 


B. Bristol Coal-field. 
Belg. Belgium. 

C. Cumberland Coal-field. 
Ch. Cheshire Salt Districts. 
01. Cleveland Iron Districts. 

D. Derbyshire Coal-field. 

F. France. 

F. D. Forest of Dean Coal-field. 

G. Gloucestershire Coal-field. 
I. Ireland. 

In. India. 

It. Italy. 

L. Lancashire Coal-field. 

Lei. Leicestershire Coal-field. 

M. Midland Coal-field. 

N. North of England (Northumberland and 


N. S. North Staifordshire. 

N. S. W. New South Wales. 

N. W. North Wales. 

Pa. Pennsylvania, U. S. A. 

Pr. Prussia. 

S. Scotland. 

Sh. Shropshire. 

Som. Somersetshire. 

S. S. South Staffordshire. 

S. W. South Wales. 

Sw. Sweden. 

U. S. A. United States of North America. 

W. Warwickshire. 

Y. Yorkshire. 





ABATTIS (Lei.). Walls or ranges of branch or rough 
wood (cord- wood) placed cross ways to keep the under- 
ground roads open for ventilation, &c. 

ABTHEILUNG (Pr.). A fixed part or district of a 
mine assigned to the care of a fire-man or deputy. 

ACREAGE KENT. Eoyalty or rent paid by the lessee 
for working and disposing of minerals at the rate of so 
much per acre. Very frequently this rent is calculated 
at so much per foot thick of the seam or mine per acre, 
the measurements being taken on the slope or plane of 
the coal, &c., and at right angles to the dip. 


ADDLE (N.). To earn. 

ADDLINGS (N.). Earnings or wages. 

ADIT. An underground level to the surface from 
the level of the mine workings, or from part of the way 



down the shaft (Fig. 1), generally used for drainage 

Fig. 1. 

ADVENTURERS. The original promoters or specu- 
lators in a search for coal, &c. 

AEROMETERS. The air pistons of a Struve ventilator. 

AEROPHORE. The name given to an apparatus which 
will enable a man to enter places in mines filled with 
explosive or other deadly gases, work there with 
freedom, take with him a light, and remain for an 
indefinite time. 

AFTER-DAMP. The deadly gases resulting from an 
explosion of fire-damp. Chiefly composed of carbonic 
acid gas. C0 2 or carbon 27 per cent. + oxygen 73 
per cent. 

AGENT. One to whom the general laying out and 
supervision of the workings is entrusted by the owner or 
lessee. He may have a number of separate collieries 
under his care. The wages and contractor's prices are 
regulated by him. Any addition or alteration in the 
various departments connected both with the under- 
ground and surface works, machinery, &c., must 
generally be sanctioned by him. He is responsible to 
the owner as well as under the Coal Mines Regulation 
Act for the appointment of competent managers, 
engineivrigJits, deputies, surveyors, &c. See Viewer. 


AIR. 1. The current of atmospheric air circulating 
through and ventilating the workings of a mine. 
2. To ventilate any portion of the workings. 

AIR-BOX. A rectangular wooden pipe or tube made 
in lengths of say 9 to 15 feet for ventilating a heading 
or a sinking pit. 

AIR-COURSE. Any underground roadway used for 
the special purpose of ventilation. 

AIR-CROSSING. A bridge which carries one air-course 
over another. In collieries liable to heavy explosions, 
in order to prevent as far as possible the Hast from 
destroying these air-crossings and deranging the venti- 
lation, it is better to avoid the use of the ordinary 

Fig. 2. 

timber or even masonry bridge, and to make an entirely 
isolated air-course several yards above the underneath 
road, and if a seam of coal be conveniently situated in 
which to construct it, it will not be an expensive plan. 
See Fig. 2. (The dotted lines show the position of an 
ordinary crossing.) 

AIR-END WAY. Headways or levels driven in the 
coal seam parallel with a main level, chiefly for the 
purpose of ventilation or for the return air. They are 
connected with the main level by openings or thirls. 

B 2 


AIR-GATES (M.). Underground roadways used prin- 
cipally for ventilative purposes. 

AIR-HEAD. See Air-way. 

AIRLESS END. The extremity of a stall in long-wall 
workings in which there is no current of air, or circula- 
tion of ventilation, but which is kept sweet by diffusion, 
and by the ingress and egress of tubs, men, &c. 

AIR-LEVEL. A level or air-way (return air-way) of 
former workings, made use of in subsequent deeper 
mining operations for ventilating purposes. 

AIR-PIT. A pit-shaft used expressly for ventilation. 

AIR-SLIT (Y.). A short head (1) driven more or less at 
right angles to, and between other F . 3 

two heads or levels for ventilation 

AIR-SOLLAR. A Irattiee carried 
beneath the tram-rails in a heading, 
a, Fig. 3. 

AIR -WAY. Any underground 
gallery or passage through which a portion of the venti- 
lation travels or passes. 

ALLOWANCE. 1. Kefreshment in the shape of bread 
and cheese and beer supplied by the lessees or owners of 
a mine to surveyors who dial the workings periodically. 

2. Ale sometimes given to workmen on having to 
perform work under unusual conditions, e. g. when they 
are wet through. 

ALLOWANCE COAL. See Colliers coals. 

ALL-UPS (Lei.). A mixture of every quality of coal, 
excepting fine slack, raised from one seam, and sold as 


ALL WORK (D.). Term formerly used for Long- 
wall, which see. 

ALTOGETHER-COAL. Large and small mixed. 

ALUM SHALE. Earth containing the mineral alum, 
beds of which occasionally occur in the coal measures, 
sometimes as an underday. 

ANEMOMETER. An instrument for measuring the 
velocity of the ventilating current in mines. 

ANTHRACITE. A hard, clean, bright, smokeless, and 
very pure variety of coal, having a conchoidal fracture, 
and burning with little or no flame, but containing very 
great local heating properties. It is much esteemed 
for malting and steam raising. It frequently contains 
over 90 per cent, of carbon ; some of the anthracites of 
Pembrokeshire contain as much as 9-i per cent. This 
coal weighs from 85 to 99 5 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

APPARATUS (N.). The screening appliances upon the 
pit bank. 

ARCHING. Brickwork or stonework forming the roof 
of any underground roadway. 

ARLES OR EARLES (N.). Earnest money formerly 
allowed to colliers at the time of hiring them. 

the ventilating currents in such-wise that the heated 
air shall continuously rise until reaching the bottom of 
the upcast shaft. Particularly applicable to steep seams 
or rearers. 

ASH-BALL (Sh.). Mixed small fragments of greenish 
clay, quartz, &c. 



ATTLE (N.). To arrange or settle. 

AUGER-NOSE SHELL. A clearing tool used in boring 
for coal, &c., having an auger-shaped end. 

AVERAGE CLAUSE. One which, in granting leases of 
minerals (coal, ironstone, and clay in particular), pro- 
vides that lessees may, during (say) every year of the 
term, make up any deficiency in the quantity of coal, 
&c., stipulated to be worked, so as to balance the dead 
or minimum rent. 

AWARD (F. D.). A grant or lease of certain mine- 
rals. See Gale. 


BACK. 1. A plane of cleavage in coal, &c., having 
frequently a smooth parting and some sooty coal in- 
cluded in it. 

2. The inner end of a heading where work is going 
forward or is stopped. 

3. (Lei.) "To throw back into the gob or waste, the 
small slack, dirt, &c., made in holing. 

4. (Lei.) To roll large coals out of a waste for 
loading into trams. 

BACK-BOARD (Y.). A thirl communicating with the 
return air-course often fitted with a regulator. 

BACK-BYE (N.). Work performed underground by 
the deputies after examining their districts in the pit, in 
drawing timbers in abandoned or worked-out places, 
repairing brattices, doors, &c., and attending and keep- 
ing in order the roadways, &c. 

BACK-CASING. A wall or lining of dry bricks used 
in sinking through drift deposits, the permanent walling 


being built up within it. In the north of England the 
use of timber cribs and planking serves the same 

BACK-COMING (S.). Working away the pillars left 
in, when getting coal inbye. 

BACKEN (S. S.). See Back (4). 
BACK-END (K). A portion of a jud. 

BACKING-DEALS. Deal boards or planking placed at 
the back of curbs for supporting the sides of a shaft 
liable to run (7). 

BACK-LASH. The return or counter blast (1) ; recoil 
or backward suction of the air-current produced after 
an explosion of fire- damp. 

BACK-LYE (S.). A siding or shunt on an under- 
ground tramway. 

BACK-OVERMAN (N.). A man whose duty it is to see 
to the safety of a district of underground workings, and 
of the men working in it daring the back-shift. 

BACK-SHIFT (N.). A second shift or relay of hewers 
in each day, usually commencing work a few hours after 
the drawing (3) of coals begins. 

BACK-SPLINTING (S.). A system of working a seam 
of coal over the goaf and across the packs of a lower 
one got in advance upon the long-wall method. Sack- 
splinting consists in taking out the upper bed of coal on 
either side of a gate road in short faces of say three or 
four yards, leaving stoops to protect the roof and roads. 

BACK-STAY (Y.). A wrought-iron forked bar attached 
to the back of trams when ascending an inclined plane, 


for throwing the trams off the rails in the event of a 
rope or coupling giving way* See Fig. 4. 

Fig. 4. 

BAFF-ENDS. Long wooden wedges for adjusting 
tubbing plates or cribs in sinking pits during the opera- 
tion of fixing the tubbing. 

BAFFLE (M.). To brush out or mix fire-damp with 
air in order to render it non-explosive; a dangerous 
practice, and not now allowed. 

BAFFLER (N. S.). The lever with which the throttle- 
valve of a winding engine is worked. 

BAFF-WEEK (N.). The week next after the pay 
week, if wages are paid fortnightly. 

BAG (S. S.). A quantity of fire-damp suddenly given 
off from the coal. 

BAG COAL. Coal put into coarse canvas bags and 
sold in small quantities. 

BAG OF FOULNESS (N.). A cavity in a coal seam 
filled with fire-damp under a high pressure, which, 



Fig. 5. 

when cut into, is given off with much force, and danger 
of causing an explosion. 

BAILIFF. Name formerly used for manager of a mine. 

BAIT (N.). Food taken by a collier during his shift. 

BAIT-POKE (N.). A bag for lait. 

BALANCE. The counterpoise or weights attached to 
the drum of a winding engine, to assist the engine in 
lifting the load out of the pit bottom, and in helping it 
to slacken speed when 
the cage reaches the sur- 
face. It consists often of 
a bunch of heavy chains 
suspended in a shallow 
shaft, the chains resting 
upon the pit bottom as 
unwound off the balance- 
drum attached to the 
main shaft of the engine. 

beam or lever attached 
to the main rods of a 
Cornish pumping engine, carrying, 
on its outer end, a counterpoise. 
See Fig. 5, a. 

BALANCE-BROW (N. S.). A self- 
acting inclined plane in steep seams, 
which is driven on the full rise of 
the mine, and down which the tubs 
of coal are lowered and the empties 
elevated upon a kind of carriage or platform on wheels 
actuated by a rope or chain from above. See Fig. 6. 



BALANCE-PIT. The pit or shaft in which a lalance 
rises and falls. 

BALK. 1. A more or less sudden thinning out of a 
seam of coal, not unfre- Fig. 7. 

quently 100 yards in 
width. See diagram, 
Fig. 7. 

2. A bar of timber for supporting the roof of the 
mine, or for carrying any heavy load. 

BALL IRONSTONE (S. S.). Strata containing argilla- 
ceous ironstone in the form of nodules, which range in 
weight up to 15 or 20 cwt. 

BALLSTONES (N. S.) Ancient term for ironstone. 

BALNSTONE (N.). Stone or rock forming the roof. 

BAND (S. S.). 1. A winding rope or chain. 

2. A seam or thin stratum of stone, &c., often inter- 
stratified with coal. 

3. (C.) A bed or seam of coal. 

BANDFUL (S. S.). A cage or strictly speaking a 
rope load, e.g. a handful of men, by colliers com- 
monly pronounced ~bontle. 

BANDSMAN (S. S.). A loader or filler of coal, &c., 


BANK. 1. The top of the pit, or out of the pit. 

2. The surface around the mouth of a shaft. 

3. To manipulate coals, &c., on the bank. 

4. The whole or sometimes only one side or one end 
of a stall or working place underground. 

5. (C.) A large heap or stack of mineral on surface. 



BANK-HEAD. The upper end of an inclined plane 
next to the engine or drum (2), made nearly level. 
See Fig. 8. 

Fig. 8. 

BANK-HOOK (M.). An iron hook with which the 
banksman pulls the full tubs off the eagres. 

BANKING. 1. (M.) Sorting and loading of coals at 
lank (2). 

2. (C.) Heaping up minerals on surface for future sale. 

BANK LEVEL (Y.). The level heading out of which 
banks (4) are worked. 

BANK OUT (N.). To stack or stock coals at surface 
when short of wagons, &c., to load into. 

BANK PLATES. Cast-iron sheets with which a heap- 
stead or pit bank is laid or floored for the more expedi- 
tious manipulation of the tubs. 

BANK-WORK (Y.). A system of working coal in 
South Yorkshire (shown in plan in Fig. 9). 

Fig. 9. 

BANKSMAN. The man in attendance at the pit top 
for superintending the work of banking. 


BANKSWOMAN (S. & N. W., S., L.). A female 
employed at lank (1) to pick the stones from and 
to clean the coals for the market. 

BANK TO BANK. A period occupied by a collier 
between leaving the lank (1) and returning to same. 
A shift. 

BANNOCK (Sh.). Brownish grey clay suitable for 
making into firebricks. 

BANNOCK (S. S.). To hole on the top of a seam. 

BANT (U.). A certain number of men, usually three 
or four, who in former times, prior to the introduction 
of cages and conductors, used to ride up and down in a 
pit-shaft, sitting in short loose pieces of chain attached 
to a hemp rope in a cluster, with their knees pointing 
inwards toward the centre of the shaft. There were 
usually two "bants, the lower or "bottom lant which was 
composed of men, and the upper or foaley "bant which 
was made up of a cluster of lads fastened a few feet 
above the heads of the men. There was only one rope 
used for raising and lowering men ; the second was a 
chain, which was sent up empty, or without anything 
attached to it, when men were descending, and vice versa. 

When the lant was used, at some collieries the 
winding-ropes or rather chains were pulled close up to 
the sides of the shaft, and the man-rope drum (1) was 
put in gear, the lant working over a third pulley in the 
pit frame. See Hold out! and Tucklers. 

BAK. A length of timber placed horizontally for 
supporting the roof. In some cases bars of wrought 
iron, about 3" X 1" X 5', are used. 

BAEE. To strip or cut by the side of a fault, 
boundary hollows, &c. 


BAEFE SATURDAY (N.) The word larfe = off. The 
Saturday upon which wages are not paid. 

BARGAIN-WORK (N.). Underground work done by 
contract, e. g. heading, road laying, &c. 

BARING. 1. The surface soil and useless strata over- 
lying a seam of coal, clay, ironstone, &c., which is being 
worked by open-hole, which has to be removed or bared 
preparatory to. working the mineral. 

2. (Y.) Holing, which see. 

3. (Y.) Using a stout iron bar to get the Cleveland 
ironstone down, after blasting. 

BARITELS (F.). See Horse-grin. 

BAROMETER HOLIDAY (D.). Any day on which, 
owing to the very low state of the barometer (for 
instance, when it sinks below say 29 inches), much fire- 
damp may naturally be expected to be given off in the 
mine, causing risk of explosion, no work is carried on 

BARREN GROUND. Strata unproductive of seams of 
coal, &c., of a workable thickness. 

BARRIER. A solid block or rib of coal, &c., left un- 
worked between two collieries or mines for security 
against accidents arising from the influx of water from 
one to another; in width often as much as 100 yards. 

BARRIER SYSTEM (N.). The most modern and ap- 
proved method of working a colliery by pillar and stall, 
where solid ribs or "barriers of coal are left in between 
a set or series of working places ; the width of such 
barriers being from 40 to 50 yards. See plan, Fig. 10. 

BARRING. 1. The timbers in the workings for keep- 
ing up the roof. 

2. (S.) The timber walling or casing of pit-shafts. 



BARROW-MAN. One who, in former times, used to 
convey coals underground in a wheelbarrow from the 
working places to the rolley-ways. 

Fig. 10. 

BARROW- WAY (N.). The underground roads along 
which the barrow-men worked. 

BASH (S. W.). To fill with rubbish the spaces from 
which the coal has been worked away. 

Fig. 11. 

a, Coal Measures. b, Millstone Grit. c, Carbonaceous Limestone. 

BASIN. A coal-field having some resemblance in 
form to that of a basin. The Forest of Dean coal- 


field is perhaps the most perfectly basin-shaped one 
in Great Britain. See diagram, Fig. 11. 

BASKET (L.). A measure of weight = 2 cwt. occa- 
sionally used in East Lancashire. 

BASKETS (S. S.). Shallow pans into which small is 
raked by fillers for loading into tubs. 

BASS. Black carbonaceous shale. 

BASSET. 1. Outcrop, which see. 
2. Shallow or rise side of a working. 

BASSET-EDGE. The actual outcrop or boundary of 
a seam, where it appears at the surface. 

BAT (L., S. S.). See Baffle. Batting out gas was 
formerly a regular though unsafe thing to do. 

BATE (S. S.). To excavate or cut away the floor of 
a mine. 

BATE BARREL (Lei.). After drawing a number of 
barrels of water out of a sump, the first barrel that 
there is not sufficient water to fill is called the late 

BATE-WORK (N.). Short work. 
BATT. See Bass. 

BAUM-POTS (Y.). Calcareous nodules found in the 
shale forming the roof of the "Halifax Hard" coal 

BAY. 1. An open space for a goblin or waste between 
two packs in a long-wall working. 
2. (L.) A loard, which see. 

BAYSHON (Som.). An air stopping, which see. 


BEANS (N.). All coal which will pass say a half- 
inch screen or mesh. 

BEARERS (S.). Women formerly employed to bear 
or carry coals out of the mines upon their backs in 
creels, for which they were paid from Is. to Is. 2d. per 
day, finding their own creels and candles. 

BEARING DOOR. A door placed for the purpose of 
directing and regulating the amount of ventilation 
passing through an entire district of the mine. 

BEARING IN (S.). The depth or distance under, of 
the holing or kirving. 

BEARING-UP PULLEY. A pulley wheel fixed in a 
frame and arranged to tighten up or take up the slack 
rope in endless rope haulage. 

BEARING SYSTEM. The employment in former times 
of females to carry out upon their backs the produce 
of the mine. 

BEARS (D.). Calcareous clay-ironstone in nodules. 

BEATER. 1. (N.) An iron rod for stemming the hole 
preparatory to firing a shot. 

2. (M.) A wooden mallet for consolidating, or 
making air-tight, the clay, when building wax walls or 

Fig. 12. 

BECHE or BITCH (N. E.). A hollow conical-headed 
iron rod for extricating boring rods from lore holes (1). 
See Fig. 12. 


BED. 1. The level surface of rock upon which a 
curb or crib is laid. 

2. A stratum of coal, ironstone, clay, &c. 

BELL. 1. To signal by ringing a bell. 

2. (F. D.) See Sell-mould. 

BELLED. The widened out portion of a pit shaft at 
the inset in order to give plenty of room for running 
the trams past the shaft, and for changing them in the 

BELL-MOULDS, BELL-MOUTHS (Som.). Conical-shaped 
patches of the roof, being probably the bases of the 
fossils called sigillaria, or the roots of trees. 

BELL-PIT (D.). Pits working argillaceous ironstone 
by the system called Bell-work, which see. 

BELL-SCREW or SCREW BELL. An internally 
threaded bell-shaped iron bar, for recovering broken or 
lost rods, &c , in a deep lore hole (1). See Beche. 

BELL WORK (D.). A system of working ironstone 
rake measures by underground excavations, around the 
pits or shafts in the form p . 13 

of a bell or cone. Pits 
are sunk about 20 to 40 
yards apart, the iron- 
stone is then worked 
away between the pits 
and lastly taken from 
the sides of the shafts, thus forming them into bells. 
See diagram, Fig. 13. 

BENCH (Pa.). 1. A small tram or car of about 7 cubic 
feet capacity used in the breasts for carrying coal from 
the face of the workings to the shoot or chute down 




Fig. 14. 

which it is dumped to the gangway platform for reload- 
ing into larger cars. 

2. (Lei.) To wedge the bottoms up below the holing. 

3. A stratum of coal forming portion of a seam ; some 
seams are made up of a number of benches separated by 
strata of shale, &c. 

BENCHERS (S.). Men who are employed at the 
bottom of inclined planes in the mine. 

BENCHING. 1. See Eoling. Also to break up with 
wedges the bottom coals 
when the holing is done in 
the middle of the seam. 
See Fig. 14. 

2. (Ch.) The lower por- 
tion of the rock-salt bed 
worked in one operation (up 
to 12 feet in thickness). 

BENCH WORKING. The system of working one or 
more seams or beds of mineral by open working in 
stages or steps as shown in diagram, Fig. 15. 

Fig. 15. 

" BEND AWAY " or " AWAY ! " (N.) Raise the cage 
in the shaft. 

BENK (D.). See Sank (4). 

BENT (S.). Subsidence of roof having taken place 
to rear of working face, e.g. a bent roof. 


BERGMEISTEE (Pr.). An Inspector of mines. 

BETRIEBSFUHRER (Pr.). The mining engineer or 
Manager of a coal mine, who is personally responsible 
for the safety of the workings. He sometimes acts as 
an Obersteiger. 

BETRIEBSPLAN (Pr.). A sketch or rough plan of 
underground workings, proposed to be executed during 
the next 12 months, submitted for approval to the 

BIAT or BYAT. A timber stay or beam in a pit 

BIBBLEY KOCK (S.S.). Conglomerate or pebbly rock, 

BIGGIN (N.). A built-up pillar of stone or other 
debris in a working place or heading for a support to 
the roof, e.g. ligging the gob means, building a pack in 
a worked-out place in a pit. 

BILL DAY (N".). That on which viewers examine 
the colliery accounts, &c. 

BILLET (Som.). A short prop or tree of timber. 

BILLY. 1. (F. D.) A box for holding ironstone, 
carried by a boy in the mine. 

2. See Billy Play/air. 

BILLY BOY (S. W.). A lad who attends to the work- 
ing of a Billy Playfair. 

name given to a mechanical contrivance for weighing 
coal, consisting of an iron trough with a sort of hopper 
bottom, into which all the small passing through the 
screen is conducted and weighed off and emptied from 
time to time. 

c 2 


BINCHING. 1. (Som.) The stone upon which a vein 
of coal rests. 

2. See Benching, also Undercutting. 

BIND or BINDS. 1. Indurated argillaceous shale or 
clay, very commonly forming the roof of a coal seam 
and frequently containing clay ironstone. 

2. (N.) To hire. 

BINDER. See Bind (1). 

BINDING (N.). Hiring of men for pit work. 

BING. 1. (S.) A place where coals, &c., are stocked, 
or debris tipped at surface. 

2. (S.) To put coals on one side in wagons or in 
stacks at surface. 

BIT. A piece of steel placed in the cutting edge of a 

BITUMINOUS COAL. A clear and free-burning variety 
of coal, or a flaming coal of a fuliginous character. 

BLACKBAND. Carbonaceous Ironstone in beds, 
mingled with coaly matter sufficient for its own 

BLACK-BATT. Black carbonaceous shale. 

BLACK COTTON (In.). Soil from 6 to 10 feet in 
thickness overlying the coal measures, which in dry 
weather opens and cracks up like fissures. 

BLACK-DAMP. Carbonic acid gas, much the same as 
after-damp. It will not support combustion, and is 
very deadly. 

BLACK DIAMONDS. A term frequently applied to 
signify coal. 

BLACK-JACK (D.). A kind of cannel coal. 


BLACK MUCK or BLACK MOULD (L.). A dark-brown 
powdery substance, consisting of silica, alumina, and 
iron ; found in iron mines. 

BLACK-RING (S. S.). In a sinking-pit, it means a 
thin bed or shed of coal as seen running round the 
shaft sides, having the appearance of a black circle 
or ring. 

BLACKS (Som.). Soft dark-coloured shale. 
BLACKSTONE (N.). Highly carbonaceous shale. 

BLAST. 1. The sudden rush of fire and gas and dust 
of an explosion through the underground workings and 
roadways of a colliery. 

2. To cut or bring down coal, rocks, &c., by the 
explosion of gunpowder, dynamite, &c. 

BLAES or BLAIZE (S.). A hard-bedded sandstone, 
free from joints ; also a kind of under clay with balls of 
ironstone ; also ordinary bind. 

BLECK (N.). Pitch or tar upon ropes. 

BLEED. A coal or other stratum is said to Heed when 
it gives off water or gas. 

BLIND. 1. (F. D.) See After-damp. 

2. (S.) To erect a stopping in a bolt-hole or other 
underground roadway. 

BLIND COAL. Coal altered by the heat of a trap 
dyke into something resembling anthracite. 

BLIND-PIT (L.). See Drop-staple. 

BLIND-ROAD or BLIND- WAY (M.). Any underground 
roadway not in use either for drawing coals, &c., ven- 
tilation, or for travelling along, having stoppings placed 
across it. 


BLOCK COAL. Coal in large lumps. 
BLOCKY (B.). See Block Coal. 

BLOW. 1. To blast with gunpowder, &c. 

2. A dam or stopping is said to How when gas escapes 
through it. 

3. (Y.) A roof is said to Now when it commences to 
break in or weight. 

BLOWER. 1. A sudden emission or outburst of fire- 
damp in a mine, the gas generally coming out of the 
coal. They frequently continue to How (2) for many 
days or weeks. The pressure of the gas is at first not 
unfrequently as high as 300 or 400 Ib. per sq. in., 
but gradually decreases. The quantity of gas given off 
is sometimes of enormous volume, filling a great portion 
of the workings of an extensive colliery in a few seconds 
only, and extinguishing nearly every lamp in the mine. 

2. A man who blasts or fires shots in a pit, or who 
drills the holes and charges them, ready for firing. 

BLOW-GEORGE. A small centrifugal fan worked by 
hand, for airing or ventilating a heading or pit. 

BLOWING KOAD (S. S.). Intake or fresh-air road in a 

BLOWN-OUT SHOT. In blasting, when it occurs that 
the coal or rock bears the strain of the ignited explo- 
sive longer than the stemming in the hole, the result is 
called a Uown-out shot, or one that has gone off but not 
done its work. 

BLOWS (L.). Frequent and sudden risings of quick- 
sand in sinking through watery ground. 

BLOW-UP. 1. An explosion of fire-damp in a mine. 


2. To allow atmospheric air to get access to certain 
places in coal mines, so as to generate heat, and ulti- 
mately to cause gob fires. This is to How up a 
fire (4). 

BLUE BIND. See Bind (I). 

BLUE CAP. The blue or brownish-coloured halo of 
ignited gas (fire-damp and air) on the top of the flame 
of a safety lamp. To carry on work in an atmosphere 
which shows a cap is unsafe. 

BLUE GROUND (S. S.). Strata of the coal measures, 
consisting principally of beds of bind (1). 

BLUE METAL (N.). See Bind (I). 

BLUFT (Lei.). To extinguish or put out of sight a 
candle or other light. 

BLUE STONE (S. W.). In Caermarthenshire it is a 
name for "bind (1). 

BOARD or BORD. 1. (N.) A wide heading, usually 
from 3 to 5 yards. 

2. ( Y.) When a seam of coal is worked parallel to the 
natural joints or faces intersecting it, it is said to be 
worked loard. 

3. A plane of cleavage in coal, the line of which is 
generally more or less north and south. 

4. A piece of board with the word Fire or Danger, or 
some other notice in reference to gas, safety lamps, 
shot-firing, dangerous roof, &c., painted upon it, to 
warn the men and boys in the workings. It is hung 
by a nail to a prop, or fixed in some other con- 
spicuous position, beyond or behind which the danger 



Fig. 16. 

BOAED AND PILLAE. A system of working coal 
where the first stage of exca- 
vation is accomplished with 
the roof sustained by coal. 
The coal is worked out to the 
extent of from say 30 to 60 
per cent, of the whole seam. 
Of course, this system is 
capable of very great modifi- 
cation, and the size of pillars 
is determined by the circum- 
stances under which the system 
is carried out. Fig. 16 is a 
sketch plan, showing an arrangement of the workings. 

BOAED COAL. Coal having a fibrous or woody 
appearance. Of the Secondary 
and Tertiary eras. 

BOAED GATES (Y.). Head- 
ings driven in pairs generally 
to the rise, out of which banks 
(4) or stalls are opened and 
worked. See plan, Fig. 17. 

Board and Pillar. 

BOAED-EOOM (S.). A head- 
ing driven board (2). 

planes of cleavage of the coal. 

BOAT COAL (Pa.). Coal which is loaded into boats 
on canals, rivers, &c. 

Fig. 17. 

At right angles to the 
See Face on. 


BOB. An oscillating bell-crank or lever, through 
which the motion of an engine is transmitted to the 
pump-rods in an engine or pumping-pit. 
(See elevation of L ' bob/ % 18. J? g ' 18 * 
There are J_ bobs, L bobs, and V bobs. 

BOGIE. 1. (Y.) A small truck or 
trolly upon which a kibble is carried 
from a sinking pit top to the spoil "bank. 

2. A weighted truck run foremost 
or next to the rope in a set or train. 

BOLL (N.). An ancient measure for coal, containing 
9676 * 8 cubic inches, or -^ part of a Ten. 

BOLT or BOLT-HOLE (S. S.). A short narrow heading, 
connecting two others. 

BOND. 1. (N.) Agreement for hiring workmen. 

2. (F. D.) A wind (5) made by a winding engine. 

3. (N. S.) A bed, band, or seam of ironstone. 

BONE (Pa.). Hard slaty carbonaceous beds of rock. 

BONNET. 1. The overhead cover of a cage or Swing- 
ing lont usually constructed in the form of a ridge tile 
/\ so as to ward off the blows from anything acci- 
dentally falling down the shaft. 

2. (S.) See Sett-mould. 

See Eat Boiler. 

BONT or BOND. The cage and winding rope with 

BONTLE (M.). A cage-full of men. 
BOOBEY (Som.). A kind of box holding 6 to 8 cwt. 
of coal in which dirt or rubbish is sent to lank (1). 


BOOLIES (N.). A collier's term for brothers. 

BOOT LEG (L.). A short pipe of leather through 
which the water is drawn from a pot-hole into a pump 
of a sinking set (1). 

BORD (Y.). A road or heading in a pit in loard and 
pillar workings. 

BORDS AND LONGWORK (Y.). A system of working 
coal in the manner shown in Fig. 17. The modus 
operandi is briefly as follows : 

Firstly, the main levels are started on both sides of 
the shafts and carried towards the boundary. 

Secondly, the loardgates are set away in pairs to the 
rise and continued as far as the boundary, or to within 
a short distance of a range of upper levels and other 

Lastly, the whole of the pillars and remaining coal 
are worked out downhill to within a few yards of the 
levels, and ultimately the coal between the levels is 
worked away. 

BORE. 1. To prove, by boring vertical holes, the 
character and thickness of strata. 

2. The proportion of the sectional area of a pipe 
filled with running water. When a pipe is discharging 
water to its greatest capacity, i.e. when the pipe is 
quite full, it is said to be running full lore. 

3. A Borehole (1), (2), (3). 

BORE-HOLE. 1. A hole made with a drill, auger or 
other tools, from 1 in. to as much as 30 ins. diameter, 
and to a depth of several thousand feet (5500 feet 
having been attained at Potsdam in America), for ex- 


ploring strata in search of minerals, for water supply, 
and other purposes. 

2. A hole bored into the face of a coal Fi s- 
wall or stone drift, &c., for blasting purposes. 

3. Holes bored in ribs and pillars for prov- 
ing the position of old workings, proving 
faults, letting off accumulations of gas or of 

BORE MEAL. Mud or finely chopped-up 
debris out of a lore-hole. 

BORIXG-HEAD. The group of chisels or 
cutters by which the strata are cut through 
in boring. See Bore (1), Fig. 19. 

BORING EODS. Square iron rods of 
Swedish iron of the toughest quality, made 
in lengths of 4 or 5 yards, having male and 
female screws at the extremities for con- 
necting them together in a bore-hole. See 
Fig. 20. 

BOSH (Water Bosh) (S.W.). A tank or 
tub out of which horses drink. 

Fig. 20. 

BOTTLE-JACK. An appliance for raising heavy 
weights in a pit. 

BOTTOM. The bottom of the shafts and roadways, 
&c., near the shafts. 

BOTTOMER. The person who loads the cages at the 
pit bottom, and gives the signals to bank (1). 


BOTTOM PILLARS. Large blocks of solid coal or 
mine (1), left un worked round about the pit shaft. See 
Shaft Pillar. 

BOTTOM STEWARDS (Y.). Underground officials. 

BOTTOMS (M.). The lowermost portion or natural 
division of a seam of coal, &c. The holing is sometimes 
done above the bottoms, and then they are benched (2), up. 

BOTJLEUR (Belg.). Small girls who collect the coals 
into heaps in the working places underground to be 
filled into trams by older girls. 

BOUTONS (S.). Masses of roof stone or shale. 

BOUT. 1. (M.) A coil of rope upon a drum. 

2. (Lei.) A dinner or other jollification given by 
the owners or lessees of a colliery to their colliers and 
other workmen in honour of some special event, e. g. 
finding of coal, a coming-of-age, &c. 

Bow. The bent iron bar or handle suspending the 
body of a kibble. 

BOWK. An iron barrel or tub in which the debris 
from a sinking pit is raised. See Fig. 21. It is 
attached to the rope by three short 

Fi? 21 

chains with hooks, and holds about 
half a ton of stuff. 

Box. The vehicle in which coals, 
&c., are conveyed from the working 
places along the underground roadways 
up the shaft and to the unloading 
places at bank (1). 

It has a capacity of from 8 to 20 cwt., varying 
according to the thickness of the seam worked, and the 
height and width of the roads ; and weighs from 3 to 



6 cwt. The wheels are from 10 to 15 inches in diameter 
and made of cast steel, the framework and bodies are 
of ash and elm strengthened with iron ribs and plates. 

Fig. 22. 

Fig. 23. 

Fig. 24. 

Figs. 22 and 23 show a side and an end elevation of a 
box as commonly constructed. 

Box BELL. See Bell-screw. 

Box BOTTOMS (Lei.). The small coal or slack which 
falls to the bottom of the loxes or tubs. It is produced 
by breakage in transit underground, and by sorting on 
the lank (1). 

BOXED OFF. Enclosed or protected by a wooden 
pipe or partition. 

BOXES (Pa.). "Wooden parti- 
tions for conducting the ventila- 
tion from place to place. 

BRACEHEAD. Wooden handles 
or bars for raising and rotating 
the rods when boring deep holes. 
(See Fig. 24.) The handles are 
firmly set in an iron socket, 

forming the uppermost end of the top rod, a short chain 
being attached to the ring on the top by which the 
rods are suspended from the Irake staff. Sometimes 
four handles are employed set cross- ways. 



BRAKE. 1. A stout wooden lever to which boring 
rods are attached, and is worked by one or more men. 

2. (N. S.) To lower trams down dips (4) by means 
of a wheel and rope. 

BRAKESMAN (N.). The man who works the winding 

BRAKE-STAFF. See Brake (I). It has an up-and- 
down motion, imparted to it either by machinery or by 

BRAKING (N.). Working a winding engine. 

BRANCH. 1. (Som.) An underground road or head- 
ing driven in measures. See diagram, Fig. 25. 

2. A roadway under- 
ground branched off from a 
level, &c. 

BRA SHY. Short and ten- 
der, as Irashy bind, &c. 

BRASS. Iron pyrites in 
coaL Occurs generally in 
lenticular patches, small 
veins, and scaley partings. 

BRAT (N.). A thin bed or band of coal mixed with 
lime and iron pyrites. * 

BRATTICE. 1. A division or partition in a shaft, 
heading, or other underground working place, for pro- 
viding for ventilation, &c. It divides the place into 
two parts, one for the ingress of the fresh air, and one 
for the egress of the vitiated air. A brattice may be 
constructed of brick or stone work, of coarse clothing 



nailed to timbers, or of sheet-iron tubes about 18 inches 
in diameter, or of boarding. Figs. 26 and 27 show 

Fig. 27. 

cross sections of four ways of making a brattice in a 
heading. Strictly speaking the iron pipe system is not 
a brattice. 

2. (M.) A built-up pillar of cordwood something 
like a large chock (which see), and serving a similar 
purpose. Called also brettice and brittice. 

BRATTICE-ROAD. A gateroad through the goaf sup- 
ported by brattices (2) or timber packs. Fig. 28 gives a 
cross section of a roadway of this description. 

Fig. 28. 

BRATTICE WALL. The bratticed side of an aircourse 
or other road. 

BRAZZIL (M.). See Brass. 

BREAK. 1. A crack or small natural cavity or 
fracture in the coal seam. 


2. A crack, often several inches in width, proceeding 
from old workings or hollows. 

BREAK IN (S.). To commence to hole. 

BREAKAGE CLAUSE. A clause inserted in some 
mining leases providing for an abatement of royalty or 
allowance on weight for a certain weight of small coal or 
breakage sent out in every ton of large coal, e.g. 
120 Ibs. in every 2640 Ibs. or collier's ton. 

BREAKER. 1. (N.) A large crack formed in the roof 
next to the goaf. See Break (1). 

2. (Som.) A coal getter or "hewer." 

3. (I.) A collier who wedges down coal and fills it 
into tubs. 

BREAKER BOY (Pa.). A lad who attends to a coal- 
breaking machine. 

BREAKING BAND (S.). A method of setting or fixing 
props in the workings, in lines running diagonally to the 
line of the face or wall. 

BREAKING-DOWN MACHINES. Mechanical appliances, 
such as wedges, &c., worked by compressed air or by 
hydraulic power, for bringing down the coals after they 
are holed. 

BREAKING UP (CL). A system under which a 
skilled miner engages an unskilled man, the former 
paying the latter a mere labourer's wages until he 
becomes able to demand the wage that experience has 
made him worth. 

BREAK OFF. To drive a thirl or bolt-hole, &c., out of 
a gate-road, level, &c. 

BREAK UP (M.). To cut away and remove the floor. 


BREAST. 1. (Pa.) A stall 10 yards in width. 

2. (I.) A stall in a steep seam from 12 to 18 yards 
wide. They are carried one above another from the 
lowest level to the rise. Fig. 

29 shows a section of three Breasts Fi s- 29 - 

with the unworked coal between 


3. (Lei.) To take down or get 
a buttock of coal end on [i.e. 
working it off in a direction at a 

right angle with the line of the Face (1)] in a long-wall 
stall when the roof has fallen in close up to the working 
face, thus preventing work going on in the ordinary 

BREAST AND PILLAR (Pa.). A system of working 
anthracite coal by boards 10 yards in width, with 
narrow pillars 5 yards wide between them, holed 
through at certain intervals. See Board and Pillar. 
The breasts are worked from the dip to the rise. 

BREAST-BORE (S.). A borehole (3) put in parallel 
with the seam, made and kept in advance of a working- 
place, for the purpose of ascertaining the position of 
old works, tapping water, letting off gas, &c. 

BREAST-EYES (L.). See Day, Day-hole. 

BREAST-HEADS. Natural joints in rock, coal, &c. 

BREASTING. 1. (N. S.) A short leading stall, worked 
at right angles to, and forming the face (1), of the main 

2. Wide heading or level. 

BREATHER. An apparatus brought out by a Mr. 
Fleuss for use in impure atmospheres, enabling a man 



Fig. 30. 

to enter and explore underground workings filled with 

noxious gases. It consists of a mask or mouthpiece, a 

knapsack, and an elastic air-reservoir 

or bag, and is charged with oxygen gas, 

which the wearer inhales, and, by an 

ingenious arrangement, breathes over 

and over again ; and consequently can 

remain in gas for several hours at a 

time (Fig. 30). A special form of 

safety-lamp is used with the breather, 

constructed upon the same principle. 

BREECHING (M.). Drawing loaded 
trams down hill underground. 

taneous combustion in a mine. See Gob Fire. 

BREESE (S.). Fine slack. 

BRICK COAL. Small and rough quality of coal 
suitable for brick kilns and similar purposes. 

BRICK FUEL (S. W.). Patent Fuel. 

BRICKING. The walling or casing of a pit-shaft. 

BRIDAL (S.). A contrivance for preventing tubs 
from overturning upon steep inclined planes (1 in 3 or 4). 

BRIDGE. 1. See Air Grossing. 

2. A platform on wheels running upon rails, for 
covering the mouth of a pit-shaft when landing coal, 
debris, or men at surface. 

BRIDLE CHAINS. Short chains by which a cage is 
attached to a winding rope. Either four or six are used. 
BRIERS (N.). Beams or girders fixed across a shaft 


BRIGHT-HEADS (Y.). Backs (1) or slines. 

BRING-BACK. To work away the pillars of coal or 
the Iroken from the boundary towards the pit bottom. 

BRIQUETTES (Belg.). See Brick Fuel. 

BRITCHING (S.). Horse's tackle used when the tub 
precedes the horse upon a steep incline. 

BRITISH (S.). A kind of pack or luilding. 

BROADSTONE BIND, &c. Bind (1) which breaks up 
into large blocks or slabs. 


BROBS (M.). Short thick 
timber props or sprags for 
supporting the coal whilst 
it is being holed. They are set about half way under 
the Ming. See Fig. 31. 

BROKEN. That part of a mine where the mineral 
has already been partially worked away, and where the 
remainder is in course of being extracted. See Fig. 10. 

BROKEN GROUND. Faulty or unproductive measures. 

BROKEN JUD (N.). A jud in course of being worked 
off from the whole. 

BROW. 1. (L.) An underground roadway leading to 
a working-place, driven either to the rise or to the dip. 

2. A low place in the roof of the mine, giving 
insufficient head-room. 

BROW-BAR (M.). A massive curl or beam of timber 
fixed in the walling of the shaft across the top of the 



BROWN COAL. Woody or peaty-looking coal of a 
brown or black colour found in the Secondary and 
Tertiary rocks. 

BROW UP (L.). An inclined roadway driven to the 
rise. See Brow (1) and Upbrow. 

BRUSH. 1. (M.) To mix gas with air in the mine by 
buffetting it with a jacket, &c. This is done to render 
it inexplosive. It is a very dangerous practice, and not 
now allowed. 

2. (F. D.) A rich brown haematite iron ore. 

3. (Som.) See Altogether Coal. 

4. (S.) To take down or rip the roof. 

BRUSHERS (S.). Men who brush (4) the roof, build 
packs and stoppings, which work is called Crushing. 

BRUSHING-BED (S.). The stratum Irushed or ripped. 

BRUSKINS {M.). Small coal in lumps about a pound 
in weight each. 

BUCKET. The top valve or clack of a lifting set (1) 
of pumps. It is attached to the lower end of the rods, 

Fig. 32. 

and works within a long pipe or barrel. 
Fig. 32 is a plan and side view of an 
ordinary pump bucket. 

BUCKETING. The operation of taking 
out a worn-out pump bucket or clack, and 
replacing it with a new one, in connection 
with pumps fixed in an engine-pit, or 
belonging to the Cornish system of pump- 

BUCKET SWORD. A wrought-iron rod 
to which a pump bucket is attached, having at its upper 
end a knock ing-off joint. 


BUCKET-TREE. The pipe between the working barrel 
and the windbore. 

BUCK WHEAT (Pa.). Anthracite which will pass a 
screen varying in width between -J and J of an 

BUGGIED (Pa). Trammed or put, which see. 

BUGGY (Pa.). A small car or tram of about 7 cubic 
feet capacity, used in the breasts for conveying the coal 
from the faces to a shoot, or chute, down which it is 
dumped to the gangway platform for reloading into 
larger cars. 

BUILDERS-UP. Men who make packs, set timber, &c., 
in some ironstone mines. 

BUILDING (S.). A built up block, or pillar of stone 
or coal to carry the roof. 

BUILDING-STONE (S.). Sandstone or bind (1) suit- 
able for pack building. 

BULK. 1. (B.) See Dip. 

2. Coal in large and small lumps in large quantities. 

BULKHEADS. See Chock. 

BULL (N.). 1. An iron rod for preparing a shot-hole 
in watery ground, and when the hole has to be lined 
with clay. Using a bull is called bulling. 

2. See Backstays. 

BULL ENGINE. A single-acting pumping engine 
constructed upon the direct-acting principle, that is to 
say, it has no beam or toothed gearing, the cylinder 
being inverted and fixed directly over the pit-shaft, the 
pump-rods forming a continuation of the piston-rod. 


BULLER SHOT (S.). A second one put in close to 
and to do the work not done by a llown-out shot, loose 
powder being used. 

BULLIONS (L.). Nodules of clay ironstone, iron 
pyrites, shales, &c., which generally enclose a fossil. 

BULL- WHEEL (Pa.). A wheel upon which the rope 
carrying the boring rods is coiled when boring by steam 

BUMP. A very sudden breaking, sometimes accom- 
panied by a settling down, or upheaval of, the strata, 
during the working away of the mineral, accompanied 
by a loud report or bumping noise heard in the mine. 

BUMPERS (M.). See Catches (3). 

BUNKERS (S.W.). Steam coal consumed on board ship. 

BUNTON, or BUNTEN. See Biat. 

BURDEN (Pa.). A charge of gunpowder, dynamite, 
&c., used in blasting coal or rock. 

BURE (F., Belg.). A coal-pit. 
BURGT (L.). Slack, or small coal. 

BURNT-STUFF (M.). The contents of a spoil lank 
which has been thoroughly burned by spontaneous 
combustion. [A good material, when broken up and 
riddled, for stowing into the sites of gob-fires, and for 
packing in solid behind clay dams or stoppings.'] 

BURR (L.). Yery compact siliceo-ferruginous sand- 

BUSTER (really BURSTER). A machine for breaking 
down coals, &c., without the employment of blasting 


BUSTLE (Y.). Hurry in getting or working coal, or 
in performing other colliery work. 

BUSTY (N.). 

BUTTERFLY VALVE or CLACK. Pump valves con- 
structed to open as shewn by dotted lines in Fig. 32. 
See Bucket. 

BUTTOCK. That portion of a working face of coal, 
&c., next to be taken down. 

BUTTOCKERS. Men who work at the buttock, or break 
out the coal ready for the filers. 

BUTTY. 1. (M.) A man who works a stall. He is a 
contractor, and performs or pays for the whole of the 
work done in getting and sending out the coal, &c., and 
keeping the stall in proper and safe working order. 
He sets the timber, rips the gates, holes, packs, fills coal 
into tubs, and is responsible to the manager for every- 
thing connected with his place (1), including the quality 
of the coal sent out. Sometimes as many as ten butties 
work a stall; they divide the money which is left over 
after paying the holers, fillers, and boys. They also 
pay for their own candles, smith's and carpenter's work, 
and find their own picks and other tools. Often termed 
a "Butty Collier." See First Man, Joey. 

2. (M.) A man who sorts and fills into trucks, boats, 
&c., the coals upon the lank (1), for which he is paid 
by the ton. Known as a " Butty Banksman." 

3. (M.) A mate, partner, friend, or fellow- workman. 
BUTTYMAN (Y.). Contractors for getting coal, &c. 

See Butty. 

BUTTYSHIP (S. S.). The prevailing mode of raising 


the Ten- Yard coal seam. The contractor gets, fills in 
pit, and delivers coals to place of sale (masters finding 
timber, engine-power, and loaders into boats, &c.), 
finding all tools, horses, skips, corn, candles, powder, 
pit-beer, &c. 

BUTTY SYSTEM (S. S., N. S., M.). When a pit is 
worked by contract, it is said to be worked upon the 
butty system. 

BYARD. See Biat. 

BYE CHAINS (S. W.). Hauling ropes (?) for dip in- 
clined planes. 

BYE-WORK (M.). Odd work, or that which is paid 
for by the day, in connection with the underground 
roads, &c. The men who perform it are called Bye- 


CABIN. A small room fitted with wooden benches, 
a table, &c., in which the Manager, and other under- 
ground officials meet for consultation, writing reports 
on the state of the mine workings, having their 
bait, &c. In many large collieries there are several 
cabins, viz. underviewer's cabin, men's cabin, lamp 
cabin, &c. Also on the pit bank there is always a 
banksman s cabin. 

CAGE. The apparatus in which the tubs of coal, the 
men, horses, and materials are raised and lowered in 
the shaft. Cages are constructed to carry from one to 
eight tubs or from 10 to 90 cwt. of coal, and are generally 



made of steel, and run up to 3J tons in weight. A cage 
for holding four tubs is shown in Fig. 33. 

Fig. 33. 

Fig. 34. 




CAGE GUIDES. Vertical rods of pine, rails or rods 
of steel or iron fixed to luntons in pit-shafts ; or wire 
cables fixed or suspended and weighted at pit bottom 
to prevent oscillation, between which the cages run, and 
whereby they are prevented from striking one another 
or against any portion of the shaft and the fittings con- 
tained therein. Fig. 31 is a plan showing a good 
arrangement of such guide when wire rope ones are 

CAGE SEAT. Scaffolding, sometimes fitted with 
strong springs or with indiarubber blocks, to take off 
the shock, upon which the cage drops on reaching the 
pit bottom. 

CAGING (N. S.). The operation of changing the 
tubs on a cage. 


CAGE SHUTS (S.). Short props or catches upon which 
cages stand during caging. Fig. 35. 


Fig. 35. 

of a bituminous nature, 
and has the property of 
agglomerating. It is not 
a free or open burning 
coal, and requires much 
poking on the fire. 

CALE (M.). A specified number of tubs taken into a 
working place during the shift. 

CALING (M.). Conveying tubs into the stalls out of 
turn irregularly so that each is not supplied with an 
equal number during the day from each train or set. 

CALLER (N.). A miner who goes round the villages 
two hours or so before work commences, to call up the 
men who first descend the pit to examine it in a 

CALLEY-STONE (Y.). A kind of gannister, which 

CALLIARD or GALLIARD (N.). A hard, smooth, flinty 

CALLOW. The "baring or cover of open workings. 

CANCH or CAUNCH (N.). That part of the roof of an 
underground roadway, which has to be taken down, or 
of the floor to be broken up, in order to equalize the 
gradient of such roadway. Fig. 36 is a diagram show- 
ing the bottom canch I, and the top one a, which are 



produced in consequence of the fault slip throwing the 
level of one roadway above the other. 

Fig. 36. 

CANK or CANKSTONE (D. Lei.). See Burr. 

CANKER. The ochreous sediment in coal-pit waters, 
being bicarbonate of iron precipitated by the action of 
the air upon that mineral. 

CANNEL. A coal rich in hydrogen, produces much 
gas, and has a hard, dense structure. This word is 
derived from Canwyl, meaning a candle, from the 
readiness with which it lights and gives off a steady flame. 

CANNON-SHOT, See Blown-out Shot. 

CANNONIER (F.). See Fireman. 

CANT. To slip or heel over to one side. 

CANTEEN (N.). A small wooden barrel in which a 
collier takes his tea, &c., for refreshment during his skiff. 

CAP. 1. See Blue Cap. 

2. See Bar. Fig. 37. 

3. An attachment between a rope end and a chain, 
&c. : it te riveted on to the rope. See Fig. 37. 
CAPPING. See Cap (3). 


CAB. I. (N. S.) See Canter. 

2. (Pa.) A box or tram (holds 75 to 140 cubic feet of 

CARBONATES. Black imperfectly crystallised form 
of diamond used for rock boring ; the abrasion of the 
diamond removes the rock in an annular form, pro- 
ducing cores, which see. 

CARRIAGE. See Cage. 

CARROT. A solid cylindrical specimen or core cut 
in a lorehole (1). 

CART (Som., S. W.). A tram with or without wheels 
for conveying coals underground in thin seams. 

CARTING (Som.). Hauling coals underground in 
thin seams. 

CART TRADE (Som.). See Land Sale. 

CARTRIDGES. 1. Paper or water-proof cylindrical 
cases filled with gunpowder, forming the charge for 
blasting. They are usually about 1 inches in diameter, 
and contain a quarter, half, and three-quarters of a 
pound of powder. 

2. Short cylinders (about 4 inches long and 2 J inches 
in diameter) of highly compressed caustic lime made 
with a groove along the side, used in breaking down 
coal. See Lime Cartridge. 

CARVING. 1. (Lei.) A wedge-shaped vertical cut or 
cutting at the fast end of a stall. 

2. (Lei.) The air-way formed along the side of the 
goaf between the solid coal and a pack wall. See 
Cutting, Fig. 50. 

CASE BOOK (N.). A book kept at a colliery in 
which the name and description of every horse or pony 


which is off work for 24 hours or longer, and the 
driver's name, is entered. It is examined periodically 
by the viewer, the reason and cause of every animal 
being off work being fully enquired into. 

CASH (S.). Soft shale or Und. 

CAT, or CATCH-EARTH (S. S.). A clunchy rock. 

CATCHER. 1. A safety or disengaging hook for over- 

2. (L.) See Cage Shuts. 

3. Very strong beams in pit-shafts (of oak or wrought 
iron) to catch the rods, &e., of pumps in case of a 
break down, to prevent them falling downwards. 

CATCHES. 1. Iron levers or props at the top and 
bottom of a pit shaft. See Cage Shuts. 

2. Iron stops fitted on a cage to keep trams from 
running off. 

3. Projecting blocks of wood attached to pump spears 
for preventing damage in case of a break down. 

CATCH SCAFFOLD. A platform or cradle in a pit- 
shqft, placed a few feet beneath a working scaffold in 
case of accident. 

CATHEADS (N.). Nodular or ball ironstone. 

CATRAKES. Cataracts of a Cornish pumping engine, 
first introduced by Boulton and Watt. 

CAVILLING KULES (N.). Kules or bye-laws in 
reference to cavils and wages. 

CAVILS (N.). Lots, drawn for quarterly by hewers 
for every working place in the pit : in the broken or in 
splitting pillars, one pillar equals a cavil. 

CAULDRONS (S. W.). See Bed Moulds. 


GAUM (CuM.). 

CERTAIN BENT. See Dead Eent. 

CHAIN-BROW WAY. An underground inclined plane 
worked by an endless chain. 

CHAIN KOAD. An underground wagon-way worked 
upon the endless chain system of haulage. 

CHAIR. See Cage. 

CHALK and PIPE-CLAY (N.). An expression used 
by sinkers and borers for gypsum. 

CHAMBER AND PILLAR (Pa.). See Breast and Pillar. 

CHALDER WAGON (N.). A railway truck holding 
53 cwt. of coals. 

CHALDRON (N.). An ancient measure (Ghalder) 
equal to 2000 Ibs., but 53 cwt. is now customary, 
though seldom used. 

CHALKING-ON (N.). Keeping an account of the 
number of tubs sent out of a stall, &c. 


CHANCE MEASURE. Any seam or bed of coal or 
other rock occupying an unusual or foreign position in 
the strata. 

CHANGER AND GRATHER (N.). A man whose duty it 
is to keep the pump buckets and clacks in working order 
about a colliery. 

CHAP. 1. (S.) A customary and rough mode of judging 
from the sound, of the thickness of solid coal existing 
between two places near to each other. The sound is 
produced by knocking with a hammer on the solid coal. 

2. (S.) To examine the face of the coal, &c., for the 
sake of safety, by knocking on it lightly. 


CHARGEMAN (M.). A man specially appointed by the 
manager to fire shots and to look after the blowers (2). 

CHARGEUE (Belg.). A woman or girl who loads coal 
into trams in the mine. 

CHARTER (M.). A price per ton paid to butties. 

CHARTER MASTER. Head butty or contractor. 

CHECK. A. fault, which see. 

CHECK-WEIGHMAN. A man appointed and paid by 
the colliers (1) to weigh the coals on reaching the 
surface. He must have been employed in the mine, 
and must not interfere with the ordinary weighman. 

CHEEK. A projecting mass of coal, &c. 

CHEESES (D.). Clay ironstone in cheese-shaped no- 

CHEMIST'S COAL (S.). An ancient term given to a 
particular kind of hard splint coal which used to be 
carried by women in their shifts or chemises out of the 
mines. The word chemise became changed into chemists. 

CHERKERS (F. D.). See Catheads. 

CHERRY COAL. A soft, velvet-black, caking, bright 
resinous coal. 

CHEST (S.). A tank or barrel in which water is 
drawn from the sump. 

CHIMNEY. A spout or pit in the goaf of vertical 

CHIMNEY WORK (M.). A system of working a great 
thickness of beds, or pins of clay ironstone, in patches 
or areas of from 10 to 30 yards square, and 18 or 20 
feet in thickness. The bottom beds are first worked 
out, and then the higher ones, by the miners standing 



upon the fallen debris; and so on upwards in lifts (3). 
See Bake. See Fig. 38. 

Fig. 38. 

CHINGLE (S.). Portion of the coal-seam used for 
stowing purposes. 

CHINKS (S.). Holes in Irattices. 

CHITTER. 1. (L.) A seam of coal overlying another 
one at a short distance. 

2. (D.) A thin band or pin of clay ironstone. 

CHOCK. A square pillar constructed of short rec- 
tangular blocks of hard wood, for supporting the roof. 

They are generally built upon a few inches of slack, or 
rubbish. See Fig. 39. 


CHOGS (Y.). Blocks of wood for keeping pump-trees 
or other vertical pipes plumb. See Fig. 40. 

CHOKE DAMP. See Black Damp. 

CHOP (Som.). See Fault. 

CHUMP. To drill a sliot-hole by hand. 

CHURNS (F. D.). Ironstone workings in cavern- 
shaped excavations. A kind of rough chamber and 
pillar system of working. 

CHUTE (Pa.). A lolt or thirl connecting a gangway 
with a heading. 

CINDER COAL. Coal near to a trap or whin dyke, of 
altered nature, due to the heat of the lava. 

CIRCLES (Ch.). Wavy, undulating lines of various 
colours frequently seen in the sides of shafts, on the 
pillars, faces, and roof of rock-salt mines. They vary 
from a few feet to a few yards across, and are caused 
by the form of the stratification of the rock salt, which 
is usually spheroidal, or wavy and undulating, being 
cut through or dressed to a plane. 

CIRCLE SPOUTS. See Garland (1). 

CLACK. The lower valve of a lifting or forcing set 
(1) of pumps, made something like a bucket, without 
the central rod. 

CLACK-DOOR PIECE. A cast-iron pipe, having a door- 
way made in the side of it for giving access to the 
clack. The clack-door is an iron plate bolted to the 

CLAGGY. Sticky. 


CLAMS or CLAMMS. Strong iron clamps for firmly 
holding pipes, ropes, &c., in shafts, or on inclined 

CLANNY. A safety-lamp, the invention of one Dr. 
Clanny. First exhibited in Sunderland in the year 
1813. The lower part of the lamp- top around the 
flame is constructed of a thick glass ring, above which 
is the wire gauze chimney. It is a lamp which gives 
a good light, aDd indicates freely the presence of fire- 
damp, but is not so safe a lamp as some others. 

CLAY. In mining language usually means tender 
shale, or indurated clay. 

CLAY BAND (S. W.). Argillaceous ironstone in thin 
beds, very numerous in the lower coal measures. 

CLAY DAM. 1. (M.) A stopping made of puddled and 
well-beaten clay, from 12 in. to 36 in. thick, and well 
rammed into the roof, floor, and sides of the excavation 
made to receive it. 

2. A stopping consisting of two walls of stout planks 
placed 18 to 24 inches apart, and supported on the 
outsides by upright props ; good strong clay well 
beaten and puddled into the space between the walls 
of planks forms a tolerably strong barrier against water 

CLAY-HOG (M.). Kind of wash faults, or lows. See 
Fig. 70 (No. 2). 

CLAYING. Lining a borehole (2) with clay, to keep 
the powder dry. 

CLAYING IRON. See Butt (1). 


CLAY-IRONSTONE. A dull brown or black compact 
form of siderite, with a variable mixture of clay, and 
usually also organic matter. Occurs in the carbo- 
niferous and other formations in the form of either 
nodules, where it has usually been deposited round 
some organic centre, or of beds interstratified with 
shales and coals. 

CLEADING. Deal boarding for Itratticing or lagging. 

CLEAN. 1. (N.) Free from firedamp or other noxious 

2. A coal-seam is said to be clean when it is free 
from dirt partings. 

CLEANSER, or CLANSER. An iron tube or shell, with 
which the lore-meal is extracted from a bore-hole (1). 

CLEAR. See Clean. 

CLEARERS (I.). Colliers who hole the coal, working 
at distances of say three or four yards apart along the 


CLEAT. 1. Natural jointing of coal seams, with 
generally a north and south direction, irrespective of 
dip or strike. 

2. (M.) A wooden wedge four or five inches square 
placed between the head of a puncheon and the under- 
side of a lar or cap. 

CLEATS (N.). A system of natural joints or fissures 
running through the great northern coal-field of Dur- 
ham, &c., ranging N.N.W. 

CLEAVINGS. Horizontal divisions of beds of ccal, &c., 
or in the direction of the laminae. 

E 2 


CLEEK. 1. (S.) To load cages at the pit-bottom, or at 

2. (S.) A haulage clip. 

CLIFF or CLIFT (S. W.). Shale which is laminated, 
splitting easily along the planes of deposition. See 

CLINKER. See Cinder Coal. 
CLIP. See Haulage Clip. 

CLIP PULLEY. A wheel containing clips in the 
groove for gripping a wire rope. 

CLIVVEY. A Q-shaped iron ring, by which a chain 
is attached to a rope cap (3). 

CLOD (D. Lei.). Indurated clay, not flaky. 

CLOD-TOPS (F. D.). Overclays, or clayey beds over- 
lying seams of coal. 

CLOG-PACK (Y.). See Chock. 

CLOGS (M.). Short pieces of timber about 24" x 6" 
X 3" fixed between the roof and a prop. 

CLOSE WORK. 1. Driving a tunnel, or drifting be- 
tween two coal-seams. 

2. (S.) See Narrow Work 

CLOSING APPARATUS. Sliding-doors or other me- 
chanical arrangement at the top of an upcast shaft for 
allowing the cages, &c., to pass up and down without 
disturbing the ventilation of the mine. Fig. 41 shows 
a side elevation of a self-acting arrangement, in which 
horizontal iron doors or slides are actuated by long 
levers or arms worked to and fro by the cages. 


Fig. 41. 


CLOT. See Clod. 

CLOTHING. Brattice constructed of a coarse canvas 
specially prepared. 

CLUMPEB (F. D.). A large mass of fallen stone in the 

CLUNCH (M.). A kind of hard earthy Fireclay. 

COAL. 1. All vegetable matter which has been 
changed under the influence of ages of time, and which 
is capable of undergoing combustion in contact with 
oxygen. It is fossil fuel fuel produced and stored up 
in bygone ages, which by chemical and physical 
agencies, with and without the presence of heat and 
moisture, has been modified or resolved into the various 
forms which bear this name. It is a compact black 


rock or mass, having a fracture usually of resinous 
lustre, usually friable, inflammable, burning with flame, 
smoke, and smell. The substance of coal is principally 
carbon, viz., 74 to 97 per cent. The sp. gr. varies 
between 1 3 and 1 * 5. The weight of a cubic foot of 
solid coal equals 74 to 82 Ibs. ; heaped coal from 
45 to 55 Ibs. It occupies from 40 to 50 cubic feet per 
ton in the heaped or broken state. It occurs in beds or 
seams intercalated between strata of shale clay, sand- 
stone, &c., in geological formations of Palaeozoic, 
Secondary, and Tertiary age. The thickness of coal- 
seams ranges from mere sheds (3) to between 100 and 
200 feet. 

2. Coal in large lumps, as distinguished from slack or 

COAL BEARING (S.). The ancient custom of em- 
ploying women to carry out on their backs the produce 
of the mine. 

COAL BED. A formation in which there are one or 
more strata of coal : the stratum or strata of coal them- 

COAL BRASSES (S. W.). Iron pyrites in coal seams. 

COAL BREAKER (Pa.). Machinery consisting of iron 
rolls, shoots, and screening apparatus for preparing 
anthracite for the market. 

COAL-CUTTING MACHINE. An engine with mechanism 
combined, generally worked by compressed air, for 
holing or undercutting a seam of coal. 

COAL-DRAWING. The operation of raising or winding 
(1) coals at a colliery. 


COAL-DROP. Broad shallow inclined trough, down 
which coals are discharged from waggons into the holds 
of colliers (2) and other vessels. 

COAL DUNS (F. D.). Coal measure shales, &c. 

COAL DUST. Very finely-powdered dust suspended 
in the air-currents in mines, composed of coal and other 
finely-divided substances. It is capable of extending 
and aggravating an explosion of fire-damp. When 
mixed with even less than 1 per cent, of this gas, an 
explosive mixture is obtained under certain conditions. 

COAL FACE. The working face or wall of a stall, 
composed wholly of coal. 

COAL-FIELD. A district containing workable mines 
of coal ; generally applied to areas composed chiefly of 
the coal measures, though rocks of more recent date 
may overlie them, or they may be partially submarine. 
The thickness of some coal-fields is very great, that of 
Saarbrucken in Germany being 20,000 feet, South 
Wales, 14,000 feet. The number of separate coal-fields 
in England is sixteen, Scotland six, Ireland five, 
covering an aggregate area of something like 5000 
square miles. The following figures represent the total 
thickness of coal measures and of the various coal beds 
contained therein, in some of the principal dis- 
tricts : 

Coalfield. Feet. Feet. 

North of England . . . . 2 , 100 of measures, 50 of Goal 

Midland 3,000 45 

Scotland 4,344 95 

Lancashire and Cheshire .. 7,000 70 

N.Staffordshire 5,000 140 

S- 1,800 50 

Warwickshire 3,000 26 


Coalfield. Feet. Feet. 

Leicestershire 1 , 800 of measures, 45 of Coal. 

5,000 81 

2,300 27 

10,000 179 

1,800 17 

7,218 294 

2,750 70 

Bristol and Somerset . . 
Forest of Dean . . 

South Wales 




India 12,000 350 

China (10, 000 sq. miles) .. 40 

Although Great Britain has during the last thirteen or 
fourteen years been producing over 100,000,000 tons of 
coal annually (156,500,000 during 1882) from about 
3,800 collieries, it has been estimated that there 
remains something like 135,000,000,000 tons still 
available, which includes all coal seams above 2 feet in 
thickness to a depth of 4000 feet, after deducting 40 
per cent, for loss and other contingencies. 

COAL-GETTEK. One who cuts, holes, hews, or lloivs 
coal in the mine. 

COAL HAGGER (N.). One who is employed in 
cutting or hewing coal in the pit. 

COAL HEUGHS (S.). Mounds of refuse about old 
pits. They date as far back as 1545. 

COALING (M.). Engaged in cutting [see Cut (2)] 
and getting coal. 

COAL-MASTEE. The owner or lessee of a coal-field or 
colliery, who works it and disposes of its produce. 

COAL MEASURES. The upper division or series oi. the 
carboniferous system of rocks, containing almost exclu- 
sively the whole of the coal of the earth. 

COAL PIPE. 1. The carbonised annular coating or 
bark of a fossil plant. 


2. A very thin seam of shed of coal. 

COAL PRINTS (N.). Thin films or patches of coal- 
like matter interbedded with shale, &c. 
COAL-RAKE (D.). A seam or bed of coal. 

COAL EOAD. An underground roadway or heading, 
made or driven entirely within the seam, or one having 
a coal roof and floor as well as coal sides. 

COAL SALAD (S. W.). A mixture of various sorts of 

COAL SEAM. See Coal Bed. 

COAL SHALE (F. D.). See Coal Measures. 

COAL SHED. A bed of coaly matter only a few 
inches in thickness, and therefore unworkable. 

COAL SMITS (Y.). Worthless, earthy coal. See 
Coal Smut. 

COAL SMUT. A black, earthy coaly stratum at or 
near the surface. The outcrop of a coal seam. 

COAL-STONE. A kind of cannel. 

COAL WARRANT (N. W.). A kind of elunch or fire- 
clay forming the floor of a coal seam. 

COAL WASHING. See Washing Apparatus. 

COAL WORK (N.). Headings, &o., driven in a seam 
of coal. 

COB (D.). A small solid pillar of coal left in a waste 
as a support for the roof. 

COBBLES. Mound coal in smallish lumps. 
COBBLING. Cleaning the roads in the pit of coals 
which have fallen off the trams during the turn (I). 


COCKERMEGS. Timber props fixed in the manner 
shown in Fig. 42, to support the coal during holing. 

Fig. 42. 

COCKERPOLE. A piece of timber placed horizontally 
between two inclined pieces which abut against the 
roof &&& floor. See Fig. 42, Cockermegs. 

COCKERS. See Cockermegs. 
COCKERSPRAGGS. See Cockermegs. 

COCKHEAD (D.). A description of pack or support 
to the roof of a waste, consisting of a goblin of slack or 
rubbish about 12 feet in width, surmounted by a few 
lumps of coal. 

COFFEKING. Watertight casing or walling of a shaft 
without the employment of metal tubbing. It consists 
in lining the shaft to stop the influx of feeders of water 
where the head of water is not great by means of brick- 
work set in hydraulic mortar backed with puddled clay 
or with soil ; the water being allowed to escape down a 
wooden pipe called a plug-box during the putting in of 
the coffering. 

COG. 1. See Chock. 

2. (S. S.) A pack, which see. 

COG AND KUNG-GIN. One of the earliest appliances 


for raising the coals and water from coal pits.- It was a 
kind of windlass fitted with a cog-wheel and pinion 
arrangement, and worked by a horse in much the same 
way as our nineteenth century horse-gins are worked. 

COGGER. One who builds up cogs (I) (2). 

COGGING (S. S.). The propping up of the roof in 
longivall stalls. 

COKE-COAL (N.). Carbonised or partially burnt coal 
found on the sides of whin dykes. 

COKING COAL. A coal having the property of 
being converted into large and hard cokes, free from 
sulphur, &c. 

COLD FURNACE (N.). A drift driven up into an upcast 
shaft to convey the return air into it instead of passing 
it over the furnace fire. This is done to guard against 
any gas in the return air firing (3) from the heat of 
the furnace. 

COLD PIT (Lei.). A downcast pit. Called cold because 
the fresh or cold air comes down it. 

COLLAR (N.). The mouth of a pit-shaft. 

COLLAR-CRIB (N.). A strong oak polygonal frame 
fixed in a shaft, upon which the wooden wedying crib of 
solid wood tubbing is bedded. 

COLLARING. Timber framing for steadying and sup- 
porting pump trees in a shaft. See Chogs, Fig. 40. 

COLLIER. 1. Strictly speaking, a man who cuts or 
hews coal with a pick, though commonly applied to any 
one who works in or about a colliery. 


2. A steam or sailing vessel carrying a cargo of coals 
from staithes and drops (2) coastwise. 

COLLIEK'S COALS. A certain weight of coals allowed 
periodically (once in a month or six weeks) by the 
owners to the cottiers (1) and other men employed on 
the works, who are in most cases householders, as a 
perquisite. The colliers, however, are not as a rule 
paid for cutting and hauling these coals. 

COLLIEK'S (1) TON. A weight of often several cwt. 
in addition to the standard ton or 2240 Ibs. In former 
times as much as 28 cwt. was reckoned as one ton. 

COLLIERY. A place where coal is mined, with its 
machinery and plant. 

COLLIERY CONSUMPTION. The amount of fuel con- 
sumed in generating steam and for other purposes in 
and about a colliery establishment. 

COLLIEEY WARNINGS. Telegraphic messages de- 
spatched from the Government meteorological stations 
to the principal colliery centres to warn the managers 
of mines when any sudden fall of the barometer is 
taking place, in order that extra vigilance and care may 
be taken in guarding against the effects of possible 
sudden outbursts of fire-damp, or of unusually large 
quantities of that gas being given off from old workings, 
&c., as a consequence of a reduced atmospheric 

COLUMN. 1. The rising main (either fixed vertically 
or inclined) or length of pump-trees or pipes conveying 
the water from the mine to the surface. 

2. Ventilating column, which see. 


3. See Carrot. 

COME (Come Water). The constant or regular flow 
of water in a mine proceeding from old workings or 
from watery rocks. 

COMET (S. W.). An open-burning hand lamp with a 
long torch-like flame. 

common term used by miners for the word Basset. 

COMPANY. A number of butty colliers who work 
and carry on a stall, &c. 

COMPOUND VENTILATION (N.). The system, first 
practised by Buddie, of dividing up or splitting the air, 
and of ventilating the workings of a coal mine by giving 
to each district or panel a separate quantum of fresh air, 
and conveying away the return air to a main return 
direct from each panel. 

CONDUCTORS. See Cage Guides. 

CONE-IN-CONE COAL. Steam or anthracite coal 
exhibiting a peculiar fibrous structure passing into a 
singular toothed arrangement of the particles called 
cone-in-cone coal or crystallised coal. 

CONICAL DRUM. The rope roll or drum of a winding 
engine constructed in the form of two truncated cones 
placed back to back, the outer ends or sides being 
usually the smallest in diameter. See Fig. 43. The 
winding ropes are wound and unwound in a spiral form, 
and rest in channels or grooves of iron riveted upon the 



Fig. 43. 

lagging. Drums of this description are in use chiefly 

at deep pits where a large output is required and a high 

speed of winding is a necessity. 

They range from say 12 feet to 

32 feet in diameter, and, together 

with the main shaft, weigh as 

much as 60 tons. The object of ^ 

the spiral or scroll form is to 

equalise the load upon the engines 

at all points during the lift or 

run, without the employment of any special balancing 

arrangements, such as chains, &c. 

CONSEY (S.). A branch underground road in stoop 
and room workings. 

CONVERTING COAL (M.). A local name given to a 
coal suitable for steel-making purposes at Sheffield, &c. 


CORES. The cylindrical-shaped samples of strata 
produced by the Diamond system of boring (1). They 
vary in diameter from 1 to 18 inches, and are obtained 
whole in lengths of many feet under favourable cir- 

CORF-BATTER or CORF-BITTER (N.). A lad who cleans 
the dirt or mud off corves. 

CORF, CORFLE, or CORVE (N.) (from the Dutch Korf, 
a basket). See Sox. But when used for bringing up the 
debris from a sinking pit they are made without wheels, 
and are more like a basket. In bygone days corves 
were wicker baskets, having wooden lows or handles : 
they held about 4J cwt. of coal. 


CORNERS (S. W.). Bands of clay ironstone. 

CORNISH PUMPS. Pumps arranged and worked upon 
a system very common in Cornwall, and very frequently 
applied to colliery drainage. The system consists in 
having a lifting pump at the bottom of the pit to raise 
the water out of the sump, and a series of force pumps, 
placed one above another, to drive it up by stages to 
the surface or adit, the whole of the pumps being 
worked simultaneously from the main rod. 

CORPORAL (M.). An overlooker of the pony boys 
and others upon the underground ways in a district. 

CORROIS (F.). Clay or wax dams and walls built up 
to isolate the place of a gob-fire. 

CORVERS (N.). Carpenters who make corves. A 
corver was formerly paid ^d. per score of corves 
brought up out of the pit, being bound to find the pit 
in corves and keep all in repair. 

COUNTER CHUTE (Pa.). An empty, or worked out 
breast, down which coals are dumped to a lower level, 
or gangway. 

COUNTER COAL (Pa.). Coal worked from breasts or 
boards to the rise of a counter gangway. 

COUNTER GANGWAY (Pa.). A level or gangway 
driven at a higher level than the bottom of the shafts, 
or foot of the slope. 

COUNTER HEAD (M.). An underground heading 
driven parallel to another, and used as the return air 



COUP (N.). To exchange cavils with the consent of 
the overman. 

COUPLE (M.). To conduct water which runs down 
the sides of shafts into water curbs or garlands (1). 

COUPLING (Y.). The cap (3) of a rope. 

COUPLINGS. See Double Timber. 

COURSE. 1. To conduct the ventilation of the col- 
liery backwards and forwards through the workings, 
by means of properly arranged stoppings and regulators. 

Fig. 44. 


In Fig. 44, which gives a plan of two panels, or blocks 
of board and pillar workings, that set marked A shows 
the system of coursing known as two and two, whilst in 
B, the workings are coursed three and three] that is 
to say, the ventilation is conducted up and down two 
and three boards respectively, as indicated by the 

2. (Som.) A seam of coal. 

COURSING THE WASTE. Threading the ventilation 
up certain workings and down others. 


COVER (N.). The total thickness of strata overlying 
the workings of a seam of coal, &c. If a mine is 
1800 ft. deep at the shafts, the cover will be 1800 ft., 
but if the workings are level and extend underneath 
rising or falling ground at the surface, then the cover 
will be greater or less as the case may be. 

COVERING BOARDS (Y.). A series of boards and 
thirls formed on the side of a shaft pillar, out of which 
long-wall working is commenced on No. 1 method. 
See Fig. 92, Long-wall. 

Cow (N.). See Backstay. 

COWLS (N.). Wrought-iron water-barrels, or tanks, 
attached to the winding ropes, and emptied at the 
surface, used when the engines are not winding (I) 

CRACKS (S.). Vertical planes of cleavage in coal, 
&c., running at right angles to backs. 

CRACKET (N.). A tool used by colliers in getting 

CRADLE. 1. A moveable platform or scaffold sus- 
pended by a rope from the surface, upon which repairs or 
other work is performed in a shaft. 

2. (M.) A loop made of a chain in which a man is 
lowered and raised in a shaft not fitted with a cage. 

CRANE BOARD (N.). A return air course connected 
directly with the furnace. 

CRANK (N. W.). Small coal. 

CREASE (F. D.). - Mountain limestone of ironstone 

CREEL (S.). A kind of basket in which coals and 


debris were conveyed from the pit. They were carried 
on the backs of bearers, being steadied by a strap round 
the forehead. 

CREEP. 1. The gradual Fi s- 45 - 

upheaval of the floor of 
a mine towards the roof, 
due to the weight of the 
cover and a tender floor. 
The working away of a 
seam of coal will often 
produce creep in an underlying seam, as well as a cor- 
responding subsidence or creep in one overlying it at 
no great distance. See Fig. 45. 

2. A very slow movement of a winding engine, when 
the brake is not sufficiently applied to hold it quite 

CREEPING. The settling down, or natural subsidence, 
of the surface and buildings, &c., thereon, caused by 
the extraction of mines to such an extent as to produce 
such settlement. Workings shown in Fig. 16 will not 
create any creeping of the surface, but as soon as the 
posts or pillars are worked away a subsidence may be 
expected, the extent of which will depend upon the 
depth to the coal worked, its thickness, dip, the nature 
of the overlying measures, and the way in which the 
building or stowing is done. 

CREESHY (^GREASY) BLEAS (S.). Nodules of bitu- 
minous shale met with in the soft roofs of some of the 
Scotch collieries. So called from the sort of unctuous 
smoothness, which causes them to fall out when the 
coal is worked away from beneath them. 


CREPT-BOARDS. Boards more or less filled up from 
the effects of creep. See Fig. 45, a a' a". 

CRESSET. Afire-lamp, which see. 

CRIB. 1. A cast-iron ring in a shaft upon which 
tubbing is built up. See Wedging Crib. 

2. A wood ring upon which the brick lining or walling 
of a shaft is built. It is Fig. 46. 

constructed in segments (six 
or eight to the circle) which 
are bolted together as shown 
in Fig. 46, which gives a 
plan and elevation of one segment with joint blocks 
and bolts complete. 

CRIBBING (N. E.). See Tubbing. 

CROOK (B.). A self-acting apparatus for running 
the liudges on inclines in steep seam workings. 

CROP. 1. See Outcrop, Bassett. 

2. The roof coal or stone which has to be taken down 
in order to secure a safe roof in the workings. 

CROPPER. A shot placed at the edge or rise side in 
a sinking pit bottom. 

CROSS (S. W.). See Cross-cut (2). 

CROSS-CUT. 1. A drift or heading driven through 
or across the measures from one coal seam to another. 
See Branch. 

2. A headway which is driven at an angle to the 
vertical planes of cleavage. 

CROSS GATES (Y.). Short headings driven on the 
strike right and left out of and at right angles to the 
main gates. 

F 2 


CROSS-HOLE (S. W.). A short lolt hole or cut through 
communicating with two headings, for ventilation pur- 

CROSSING. 1. See Air crossing. 

2. (N. W.) A Cross-cut. 

CROSS-MEASURES. A line drawn horizontally or 
nearly so, through or across inclined strata: e.g. a 
branch or crutt is a cross-measures drift or heading. 

CROSS OFF (CL). See Stack out. 

CROW COAL. See Anthracite. 

CROWN IN (Ch.). The surface or cover of a rock 
salt mine is said to crown in when it falls in or pro- 
duces creep. 

CROWN or CROWN-TREE (K). See Bar. 

CROWNINGS IN (S. S.). The strata forming the roof 
or cover. 

CROW'S FOOT. An iron claw or fork, forming part 
of the boring tackle for deep boreholes, 
to which a rope is attached, and by 
which the rods are lowered and raised 
when changing the cutting tools, &c. 
See Fig. 47, which is called an open 
runner (3). 

CROW-STONE (D. Y.). See Gannister. 

CROZLE (D.). To cake or harden. 

CROZZLING. Aggregation of coal 
when burning. 

CRUSH. The breaking up or weighting of pillars of 
coal due to the pressure of the overlying rocks and to 
the hardness of the floor. 



Fig. 48. 

CRUST (Sh.). Whitish fine sandstone. 
CEUTT (N. S.). See Branch. 

CRTS GROUND (F. D.). Carboniferous limestone 
strata containing beds of iron-ore. 

CUBE (S.). See Furnace. 

CUBE COAL. Coal broken up into cubes of about 
one foot square to suit the trade. 

CUFF AT (F.). A vessel in which coals are sometimes 
raised in the shaft, consisting of a 
kind of shallow tub fitted with 
4 wheels and attached to chains 
at the sides, the coals being piled 
up in a conical form and kept 
from falling off by iron rings 
placed round them one above 
another. See Fig. 48. Some 
Cuffats are made as much as 
9 feet deep and more like the 
English Boivk. 

CUILLER (F.). A long wrought-iron cylindrical 
bucket in which the debris made by the boring in the 
kind-chandron system of shaft sinking, is brought to 
the surface. Whilst the larger of the two cutting tools 
employed in boring out the shaft is at work, the cuiUer 
remains in the bottom of the small bore in the centre 
of the shaft, which it nearly fits, and catches the stuff 
as it falls from the upper or fully bored out portion of 
the pit. Are made up to 12 tons capacity. 

CULBUTEURS (Belg.). Tippers which turn com- 
pletely over or round. 



CULM (S. W.). Inferior anthracite, and the small or 
slack of smokeless coal. The Kilkenny coal of Ireland. 

CUNDIE (S.). The spaces from which coal has been 
worked out, partially filled with dirt and rubbish 
between the buildings or packs. See Waste. 

CUPOLA. 1. The offtake for smoke and return air 
erected at or near to the top of the upcast shaft. 
2. See Furnace. 

CURB. See Crib. 

CURB TUBBING. Solid wood tubbing. 

CURBING. See Back-casing. 

CURP (Som.). The floor of an underground way 
which is being taken or broken up. See Caunch. 

CURLEY CANNEL. Cannel coal which breaks with a 
conchoidal or curly fracture. It is often used for oil 

CURL-STONE (Sh.). Ironstone exhibiting cone-in- 
cone formation, 

CURRY-PIT (Lei.). A 
hole or very shallow pit 
sunk from an upper to a 
lower portion of a thick 
seam of coal through 
which the return air 
passes from the stalls to 
the air way, which is 
carried alongside and 
parallel to the side of the 
stalls, and sometimes underneath the goaf. See plan, 
Fig. 49. 



CUT. 1. (Som.) A staple or drop-pit, which see. 

2. To hew or hack coal, &c., with a pick. 

3. (S.) See Buttock. 

4. The depth to which a drill hole is put in for 

CUT-CHAIN (S.). A system of working underground 
self-acting inclined planes from several different levels 
communicating with such incline, by means of chains 
of various lengths which are regulated according to 
the level from which it is intended to lower the 

CUT-OUT. 1. (F. D.) See Crutt or Branch. 

2. When a fault which dislocates a seam of coal more 
than its entire thickness, the seam is then said to be 

CUT-OVER (M.). To cut or nick the seam of coal 
in a long-wall working, over or beyond the first joint or 
cleat, running more or less parallel with the face line. 
This is done in order to extract the coal in as large 
lumps as possible without the use of powder and with 
a minimum of labour in getting. 

CUT-THROUGH (N. S.). Bolt-holes put through be- 
tween headings every 18 to 20 yards in mines having 
a steep inclination. See Dip (4). Fig. 54. 

CUTTER. 1. (S.) A fissure or natural crack in 

2. (Pa.) Joints at right angles to backs. 

CUTTING-OFF ROAD. A slant road in long-wall work- 



Fig. 50. 

ings, out of which the stall-gates are branched parallel 
to the main road, and which at certain distances cut 
off a range of stalls to the rear. See Long-wall, 
Fig. 92. 

CUTS (S.). Strips of coal worked off the sides of 

CUTTING. The end or side 
of a stall next to the solid 
coal, where the coal is cut 
with a pick in a vertical line 
to facilitate breaking down. 
See plan of a cutting, Fig. 50. 

CUT-UP (S.). The break- 
ing down of the roof to a 
considerable height. 

CUVELAGE (F.). Tubbing, which see. 


D. C. Down cast (1), which see. 

D LINK. A flat iron bar attached to chains, and 
suspended from a hemp rope to a windlass at surface. 
It is a loop in which one man is lowered and raised in 
an engine-pit. He sits upon the flat bar, the chains 
passing up in front of him, and the leather strap or 
belt is fastened round the back under the arms. See 
Fig. 51. He is free to move his legs and arms, and to 
turn himself about in any direction, and to perform 
work with a spanner or hammer, &c. Fig. 52 is a 



sketch of a form of hook commonly used for suspending 
the D link to the rope. 

Fig. 51. 

Fig. 52. 


DADDING (N.). Mixing firedamp with atmospheric 
air to render it incapable of ignition. See Brwh (1). 

DAM. 1. An underground stopping or wall constructed 
of masonry or of clay, by means of which gas or damp, 
and spontaneous combustion, are prevented from es- 
caping and breaking out. 

2. A solid brick or timber stopping for keeping back 
accumulations of water. 

DAMP. (From the German, Dampf.) Carbonic acid 
gas, or a mixture of gas (fire-damp) and air, incapable 
of supporting combustion, and therefore unfit for 

DAMPED. Suffocated by gas or foul air in a mine. 

DAMPY (M.). A pit is said to be dampy when the 
air in it is mixed with so much carbonic acid gas as to 
cause the lights to burn badly or to go out. 


DAN. 1. (M.) A tub or barrel, sometimes with and 
sometimes without wheels, in which mine water is con- 
veyed along underground roadways to be discharged 
into the sump or lodge, or raised in the cage to the 

2. A small "box or sledge for carrying coal or debris 
in a mine. 

DANGER-BOARD. See Fire-board. 

DANES (S.). See Sat. 

DANT (N.). Sooty, worthless coal. 

DANTY (N.). Disintegrated coal. 

DARG (N.). A specified quantity or weight of mi- 
neral agreed by masters and men to be worked during 
a shift for a certain sum of money. 

DASH (N.). See Dadding. 

DATALLING. Blowing down roof in a mine. 

DATLERS (L.). Men who work underground, not 
being contractors, and are paid by the day. 

DAUGH (S.). Underclay, or holing dirt. 

DAVY. A safety lamp, invented by the late Sir 
Humphrey Davy in 1815. It will indicate the presence 
of fire-damp in a mine, which, when mixed with certain 
proportions of atmospheric air, becomes ignited within 
the gauze cylinder forming the "top," or upper part 
of the lamp. The flame, however, cannot pass through 
the wire gauze and set fire to the gas outside. There 
is no glass used in the construction of this lamp; it 
consists simply of a brass cistern for the oil, with wick, 
&c., surmounted by a chimney or cap of iron, or copper 
wire gauze, having not less than 784 (28 x 28) aper- 


tures to the square inch. Diameter of gauze is about 
1^ inch, and about 8 ins. in height. The Davy is not 
a safe lamp to work with under certain conditions. 

DAY (Pa.). The entrance to a mine on a hill-side. 

DAY-EYES (N. W.). Inclined planes driven from 
the surface to win and get the mines. 

DAY-HOLE. Any heading or level from the surface 
communicating with the mine. 

DAY-MEN (Y.). Men employed in building packs, 
and performing other work in the mine, for which they 
are paid by the day, or by time. 

DAY-SHIFT. When a colliery is worked by two shifts, 
or relays of men, that which works during the daytime 
is called the day-shift. 

D. C. Downcast Shaft. See Downcast. 

DEAD. 1. An unventilated or airless heading or 

2. The creep after subsidence or upheaval has taken 
place to the full extent. 

DEAD GROUND. A faulty or barren piece or area of 
coal strata. 
DEADING (G., Som.). See Deadwork. 

DEAD KENT. A certain, fixed, or minimum rent paid 
at specified times by a lessee of a mine, whether minerals 
are worked and sold or not. 

DEAD-SMALL (N.). The smallest coal which passes 
through the screening or separating apparatus, being 
almost as fine as dust. 

DEAD- WORK. The work of driving out into a mine 


for the purpose of proving and preparing to work it, or 
work which at the time produces little or no profit. 

DECK. The platform or level upon which the tubs 
and men ride on a cage. Cages are occasionally made 
with as many as four decks. 

DECKING. The operation of changing the tubs on 
a cage at top and bottom of a shaft There are 
several very ingenious contrivances for performing this 
by mechanical means. One is Fowler's hydraulic load- 
ing and unloading apparatus, whereby each deck is 
operated upon simultaneously. The loaded tubs are at 
some collieries withdrawn from the cages by steam 
power, whilst the empties run into them by gravity. 
See Onsetting Machine. 

DEEDS (N.). Debris of pit refuse tipped upon the 

DEEP. Workings below the level of the pit bottom 
or main levels extending therefrom. 

DEEP COAL. Coal seams lying at a depth below the 
surface of over, say, 600 or 700 yards. 

DEEP PIT. A pit-shaft exceeding 400 or 500 yards 
in depth. 

DELF (F.D., L.). A vein, seam, mine, or bed of coal 
or ironstone. 

DEPUTY. 1. (N.) A man who fixes and withdraws the 
timber supporting the roof of a mine, and who attends 
to the safety of the roof and sides, builds stoppings, puts 
up bratticing, and looks after the safety of the hewers, 
&c., generally one deputy to every 12 workmen. 

2. (M.) An underground official who sees to the 



general safety of a certain number of stalls or of a 
district, but who does not set the timber himself 
although he has to see that it is properly and suffi- 
ciently done. He will often have the overlooking of as 
many as 100 men and boys. 

DEPUTY SYSTEM (K). The plan of having all the 
timbering or propping of the working places performed 
by deputies (1) specially appointed. 

DERRICK. A high frame or head gear constructed of 
timber poles, placed over a, lore-hole (1), upon which is 

Fig. 53. 

fixed or hung a pulley or sheaf for 
carrying the rope by which the rods 
(2) are lifted. 

DETACHING HOOK. A self-acting 
mechanical contrivance for setting 
free a winding rope from a cage, &c., 
when the latter is raised beyond a 
certain point in the head gear; the 
rope being released, the cage re- 
mains suspended in the frame. 

There have been a number 
invented, and a variety of them 
are in use. Fig. 53 is a sketch 
showing the action of one which 
has been much used. 

DEVIL. A lack-stay, also a kind of jockey. 

DIAGONAL STAPLE (N.). A shallow pit or shaft sunk 
in a sloping or diagonal direction at the back end of 
the main beam of a pumping engine in which the 
lever-beam works, so that the work of pumping may be 
divided between the two ends of the main beam. 

Walker's Hook. 


DIAL. 1. A circumferentor or compass fitted with 
sights, spirit levels, and vernier, for making under- 
ground surveys. 

2. To survey with a dial (1) and chain. See 

DIALLING. The operation of making a survey with 
the dial. There are two ways of using the instrument 
known as loose needle and fast needle dialling. The 
former is practised when all the angles or bearings of the 
different roads are taken (when such roads are free from 
iron tram-rails, &c., which attract the needle of the dial 
and give erroneous readings), by " reading the needle" 
as it is called. In the latter method the needle is only 
consulted in the first sight or at the commencement of 
the survey (all iron being removed from near the 
instrument), all subsequent angles being read off from 
the vernier, so that the presence of iron has no effect 
upon the work. See Latch. 

DIAMOND CHISEL. A cutting chisel used in boring 
for coal, &c., having a diamond or V shaped point. 

DIAMOND SYSTEM. Boring for coal, &c., with 
diamonds or carbonates, which are stones of a coarse 
quality and of a black colour. In this system the rock 
is cut or removed by abrasion, the boring rods or 
rather tubes, for they are hollow, are caused to revolve 
or rotate very rapidly (there being no percussive action 
whatever) up to 250 revolutions per minute. Entire 
cores are secured whereby the precise character of the 
various beds bored through are determined. The 
debris or bore meal is rein-oved from the hole, as fast as 
it is made, by the constant flow of a stream of water 


forced down inside the rods and carrying up the stuff 
to the surface. The work is performed by steam 
machinery, and a very rapid progress is often made, 
say 10 feet per day as an average for a hole 1000 feet 
deep; but of course everything depends upon the 
nature of the strata bored through and the care be- 
stowed upon the working of the machinery. 

DIBHOLE (L.). The lowest part of a pit shaft below 
the scaffold on which the cages drop. It forms a water 
lodge for the drainage of the mine, out of which it is 
raised to the surface. See Sump. 

DICE (Lei.). The layers in a coal seam of a glossy 
bituminous nature which naturally break or split up 
into small square pieces resembling dice in shape. 


direct-acting pumping-engine, generally of the hori- 
zontal class, and usually fixed at the pit bottom for 
forcing the water direct to surface. So called, because 
it is fitted with differential valve gear of a very effec- 
tive and ingenious type, the invention of a Mr. Davey 
of Leeds. 

DILLY (N.). A counter-balance mounted upon two 
pairs of tram wheels by means of which the empty tubs 
are carried up an underground incline of a greater 
inclination than 1 in 3. 

DILSH (S. W.). Inferior culm in the shape of a thin 

DIP. 1. To slope downwards from the surface. 

2. A heading or other underground way driven to 
the deep. 

3. Inclination of strata when viewed in the direction 



of the fall The amount of dip is said to be 1 in so 
much, a g. 1 in 4. Or, so many inches in the yard 
(9" in the yard), or, in degrees (14). 

4. (N. S.) A heading driven to the full rise in steep 
mines. It is usual to drive a pair of dips about 
10 yards apart every 180 yards or so, out of the levels 
which run at right angles to the crvts, and out of these 
dips are driven cross headings right and left on the 
strike, about 10 yards apart, commencing at the upper 
end first and working downwards (see Drifting Back) 
Fig. 54. 

Kg. 54. 

a, Shafts. 6, Crnt. c, Levels in coal, d, Dips (pair of) rising 1 in 1. 
e, Cross headings. /, Face of drifting back, g, Return airway. 
A, Goaf. 

DIP JOISTS (Pa.). See Backs. 

DIPPER (N.). A downthrow, fault, which see. 

DIPPING (S. W.). A dip (2). 

DIPPLE. See Dip (2). 

DIP SPLIT. A current of intake air directed into or 
down a dip or deep district of a mine. 

DINT (M.)- See Bate. 

DIET. 1. day, bind, or other useless rubbish pro- 
duced in mining, and which accidentally is sent out of 
the pit mixed with the coal. 


2. (N.) Foul air or fire damp. 

DIET BED or BAND. A thin stratum of soft earthy 
refuse interbedded with coal seams. 

DISH (N.). The length or portion of an underground 
engine plane nearest to the pit bottom, upon which the 
empty set stands before being drawn inbye. 

DISLOCATION. A fault of fracture of the strata as 
shown in Fig. 60. 

DISTANCE BLOCKS. Pitch pine blocks placed in 
between the main spears and the 
side pump-rods by which the proper 
distance between them is adjusted. 
See Fig. 55. 

DISTRICT. A limited area of 
underground workings. Collieries 
are usually divided into several dis- 
tricts. As far as is possible each 
should be provided with a separate 
split of fresh air and a distinct 
return air- way leading to the upcast shaft. There is 
generally a deputy (2) or overman for every district. 

DITCH (Lei.). To go stiff. To clog. To impede. 

DITCHED TOP (Lei.). A coal-seam which has a 
hard unyielding top, and is with difficulty separated 
from the roof, is said to have a ditched top. 

DOB BY WAGON (Y.). A cart into which dirt out of 
the mine is tipped. 

Do (doo) (Lei. D.). See Bout. 
DOCK (X.). 



DOG. An iron bar, spiked at the ends, with which 
timbers are held together or steadied. 

DOG AND CHAIN. An iron lever with a chain attached 
by which props are with- 
drawn from the goaf. Fig. 56. 
Fig. 56 is a sketch show- 
ing the way in which a 
dog and chain is used. 

strong broad piece of 
leather buckled round / 

the waist, to which a 
short piece of chain is attached, passing between the 
legs of the man or boy drawing a dan (2) in the 

DOGGEE (01.). A bed of inferior ironstone overlying 
the main seam. 

DOGGY (S. S., N.). An overlooker of a certain 
number of boys and men in a pit. See Corporal. 

DOGS (Som.). See Cage Shutes, but generally made 
longer than in Fig. 35. 

DOLLY (S. S.). A cast-iron weight suspended over 
the men when riding in the shaft, to act as a counter- 
balance to the winding engine. 

DOMED. Dipping away in all directions from a centre. 

DOOK (S.). An underground inclined plane to the 

DOORS. Wooden doors, either single or double, fixed 
in underground roads of all descriptions to serve as 
stoppings. They are always fixed so as only to open 



towards the intake air. Every door in a pit should be 
so hung and otherwise adjusted that it will close of itself. 

DOUBLE-BANK CAGES (S. W.). Cages having two 
decks, or a multiple of two, so that decking may be per- 
formed at two levels or banks. 

DOUBLE CRIB. Two wedging cribs placed one on the 
top of another. 

DOUBLES (Som.). The repeated folds or overlaps of 
the coal strata in the Kadstock district. Fig. 57 is a 
section of a coal seam exhibiting doubles in a very marked 

Fig. 57. 

DOUBLE SHIFT. A colliery is said to be working 
double shift when there are two shifts of colliers (1) 
employed in getting coal. 

DOUBLE STALL (S. W.). A system of working coal 

Fig. 58. 

F ofS^ 








fact <f Stalk 







: - ! 





in which the roof falls within chambers or banks (4) 
of a limited width. See plan, Fig. 58. 

G 2 



Fig. 59. 

DOUBLE TIMBER (S. W.). Two props and a bar 
placed across the tops of them, in the form shown in 
Fig. 59, for giviDg support to 
the roof and sides of a heading 
or way. 

hewers working togethei^in the 
same heading. 

DOUCE. To beat out or ex- 
tinguish an accidentally ignited 
jet of firedamp. 

DOWN. Underground. In the pit. 

DOWN BROW (L.). A dip incline underground. 

DOWN-CAST. 1. The shaft through which the intake, 
or fresh air, enters a mine, and the one used for winding 
coals in, and in which the pumps are generally fixed. 
It is usually circular in form, though sometimes rec- 
tangular and oval. Shafts are now sunk up to 18 and 
20 ft. in diameter within the walling. The deepest in 
Great Britain is 939 yards (Ashton Moss, near Man- 
chester). See Signs. 

2. A. fault which throws 
a coal-seam downwards. 
See Down-leap. 

DOWNER (Som.). A rest 
or cessation from work, say 
half an hour taken during 
a shift or turn (1). 

DOWN-LEAP (M.). A dis- 
location of strata which has caused a coal seam to be 
abruptly cut off and be brought below its original level. 

Fig. 60. 


In going from A to B in Fig. 60 the line c d will 
represent a down-leap. 

DOWN SPOUTS (L.). Pipes fixed down the sides of 
a shaft for conducting water from one garland (1) to 

DOWN-THROW. See Down-leap. 

DOWZING KOD (Som.). The virgula divinitoria or 
divining-rod. Formerly commonly used in attempting 
to discover minerals. It consisted of a forked branch off 
a hazel tree in the form of a Y. One ,end of the rod 
was supposed to point in the direction of the mine when 
carried in a particular way over the ground to be 
examined. The person carrying the stick was called 
the dowzer, and the practice of using it was known as 
doivzing. A remnant of ancient superstition. 

DRAFT (S. W.). Allowance coal. About 360 Ibs. 
per week to every householder. 

DRAG. 1. The frictional resistance produced by the 
current of air circulating in a mine, the amount of 
which depends upon the extent of rubbing surface as it 
is called i. e. the length x the perimeter of the air 
ways. The ventilating pressure necessary to overcome 
the drag increases and decreases in proportion as the 
extent of rubbing surface increases or decreases, and 
varies in proportion as the square of the velocity of the 
air current increases or decreases. Therefore in order to 
double the quantity of air passing through an air-way 
the power to produce it would have to be increased 
fourfold, because there would be a fourfold resistance 
in the shape of friction (drag) to be overcome. In the 


same way half as much air would only take one quarter 
the pressure. 

2. See Back-stay. 

3. A scotch (either a short wooden or an iron bar) 
placed between the spokes of the wheels of trams to 
check their speed upon an inclined way. 

DRAGON (S. S.). A kind of barrel in which water 
is raised from a gin pit. 

DRAGS-MAN (N.). A man employed as a putter or 
pusher of tubs about underground in the working 

DRAG-TWIST. A scraper with a spiral hook at one 
end with which the lore meal is extracted from a bore 

DRAW (S. S.). Strictly speaking, the distance on 
the surface to which the subsidence or creep extends 
beyond the workings. See Creeping. 

DRAWER (S.). One who pushes trams underground, 
or drives a horse or pony drawing minerals to the pit 
bottom, or on to an engine plane or jig. 

DRAWING. 1. Eecovering the prop ivood, chocks, &c., 
from the goaves for using over again. This work is 
commonly performed with the use of the Dog and Chain, 
which see. 

2. Knocking away the sprags from beneath the coal 
after holing. 

3. Kaising coal, &c., up a pit shaft, or up a slope or 
inclined plane. 

DRAWING A JUD (N.). Bringing down the face of 
coal, previously set free to fall by withdrawing the 
sprags after kirving. 



Fig. 61. 

DRAWING ENGINE. The engine by which the minerals 
are raised from the mine, by which the men and materials 
are lowered and raised, and by which the water pro- 
duced in the workings is sometimes raised either by 
pumps worked from the same engine, or in tanks or 
barrels attached to the winding rope or riding in the 
cages. See also Winding 

winding rope, from the effects 
of wear and tear, has become 
less in diameter or in 
thickness from that cause, 
it is said to be drawing 

small reservoir at the bottom 
of a pumping shaft, in which 
the water collects and deposits any sediment or debris, 
and is pumped up clear. Fig. 61. 

DRESSANTS (F.). Bearers or very steep lying seams 
of coal, &c. Fig> 62 . 

DRESSER (M.). A tool used by 
colliers and banksmen for splitting up 
large lumps of coal, and for dressing 
off dirt or brasses when cleaning coals 
for the market. See Fig. 62. 

DRESSING (M.). Trimming and 
cleaning up a stall face after the loaders have left off 
work, and before the holers commence work. This 
work is performed at night. 


DRIFT. 1. An underground gallery driven across or 
obliquely to the planes of stratification. See Branch. 

2. An inclined plane driven entirely in a coal seam. 
The work of making a drift is known in mining language 
as drifting. 

3. (F. D.) A hard shale. 

4. (N.) A head (1) driven on the strike of the coal 

DRIFT AND PILLAR (N. S.). A system of working 
coal not unlike the bankwork of Yorkshire. 

DRIFTING BACK (N. S.). The operation of working 
away the pillars towards the pit bottom in rearers. 
Drifting lack commences as soon as the cross headings 
are driven out. 

DRIFTING CURB. An oak curb forced downwards 
through quicksand, having a circle of planks driven 
down all round at the back of it to keep out the sand 
and water. 

DRILLING (U. S. A.). Boring deep holes in search of 

EEIVE. To excavate horizontally, or at an inclination, 
places not more than a few yards in width under- 

DRIVERS (M.). Men who break down the coal in the 
stalls with hammers and wedges, after the holing is 

DRIVING. 1. A long narrow underground excavation 
or heading (1). 

2. (B.) A stone head (1) driven through a fault, &c. 

DRIVING BY LINES. Keeping the axis of the heading 
being driven exactly true to a certain bearing or degree 



of the dial. Two lines, or strings, steadied by weights 
are suspended from stomps fixed in the roof from 
three to six feet apart ; the prolongation of the line 
drawn between them being the bearing or proper direc- 
tion, or point as it is commonly called, of the heading. 

DROP. 1. To lower coals down from a higher to a 
lower level on the pit bank, or at pit bottom, when the 
decking is performed in one operation, or when the cage 
is only moved once during decking. 

2. (N.) A shoot down which coals are run into keels 
or boats. 

3. To allow the upper lift of a seam of coal, &c., being 
worked, to fall or drop down, when the lower portion is 
first gotten. See Fig. 63. 

Fig. 63. 

4. A general reduction of wages in the coal trade. 

DROP PIT. A shallow pit shaft in a mine, in which 
coals are lowered in tubs upon cages by means of a clip 
pulley, or brake-wheel, from one seam to another, or, 
where & fault exists, from the higher to the lower level. 
The principle upon which it is worked is similar to that 
of a self-acting inclined plane, viz. the weight of the 
coals dropped being greater than that of the rope, and 
friction of the empty tub and appliances. 



DROP SHEETS (N.). Doors made of canvas, by which 
the ventilating current is directed and regulated through 
the workings. 

DROSS (S.). Very small coal-dust, or slack. 

DROSSY COAL (D.). Coal with iron pyrites. 

DROWNED-OUT. Flooded. Mines under water. 

DROWNED WASTE. Old workings full of water. 

DRUB (Y.). 

DRUM. 1. That part of the winding engines upon 
which the winding-ropes are coiled or wound. They 
are constructed in various forms (see end views or plans, 
Fig." 64), of diameters ranging from 5 to 32 feet, ac- 
cording to depth of shafts and size of ropes, &c. See 

Fig. 64. 



9 TV r> 


<5. Serm> ComcaL 

Conical Drum. The usual number of revolutions made 
per run is from 20 to 30. 

2. The barrel or roll upon which a self-acting incline 


rope is coiled, generally made in the form of No. 1, 
Fig. 64 

3. (L.) A brick, iron, or wooden cylinder, with which 
beds of sand are sunk through. See Running the Drum. 

DRUM-HEAD (N.). A short heading formed to the rise 
of a level, or bank-head, in which the drum of a self- 
acting inclined plane is fixed. 

DRUM-HORNS. Wrought-iron arms or spokes pro- 
jecting beyond the surface or periphery of flat-rope 
drums, between which the ropes coil or lap, the tips 
being often connected by a ring of iron riveted on. 

DRUM-PULLEY. A pulley-wheel used in place of a 
drum (1). See Koepe System, Fig. 89. 

DRUM-RINGS. Cast iron wheels, with projections, to 
which are bolted the staves or laggings forming the 
surface for the ropes to lap upon. The outside rings 
are shrouded, to prevent the ropes from slipping off the 
sides of the drum. 

DRY (S.). A joint in the roof of a coal-seam, which 
cannot usually be discovered until the roof falls. They 
frequently exist in connection with lypes. 

DRY COAL. That which contains but little hydro- 
gen. For instance, the "Aberdare 4 Feet" seam of 
Glamorganshire, a first-class steam coal. 

DRY SEPARATION. The systems upon which coal is 
screened and further separated by taking out the small 
pieces of shale, pyrites, &c. (dirt, 1), by what is called 
the wind method, i. e. the force of a blast of air is di- 
rected upon the screened coal, and thereby separates it 
into various sizes due to their specific gravity. See 
Wind Method. 


DUAL-ROPE (Y.). A hemp capstan rope upon which 
men ride in an engine-pit. 

DUFF. See Dross. 

DUKEY (Som.). 1. A large carriage or platform 
running upon wheels on rails working on a dip inclined 
plane underground, upon which a number of small 
trams of coal are raised by engine-power at one opera- 
tion. So named alter the double coach called the 
" Duke of Beaufort." 

2. (S. W.) An inclined plane worked by engine- 

DUKE-WAY (Som.). The plan of drawing coals up a 
dip incline to the pit-bottom by a .rope worked by the 
winding -engine at surface, the other rope working the 
cage in the shaft simultaneously, i. e. whilst the cage is 
going up, the empty trams are running down the 
incline, and vice versa. 

DUKEY-RIDER (S. W.). A boy who accompanies the 
train of trams running upon a dukey (2). 

DULL (B.). Slack ventilation. Insufficient air in 
a pit. 

DUMB DRIFT. A short tunnel or passage connecting 
the main return airways of a mine with the bottom of 
the up-cast shaft, in order to prevent the return air 
from passing through and over the ventilating furnace. 

DUMB FURNACE. See Dumb Drift and Cold Furnace. 

DUMP (Pa.). To throw coals, &c., by tilting up the 
car into, or shooting them down a dip road in a pit, or 
upon the inclined plane of a breaker to a loading stage. 

DUMMY (N. S.). A low truck on four wheels running 


upon rails, and loaded with pig iron or some other 
heavy material ; employed in steep seams or rearers as 
a balance-weight to bring up an empty tub (1) on an 
inclined plane or a dip (4) ; the weight of the coals, 
(fee., in the tub being sufficient to overcome the resist- 
ance of the dummy when being braked down, 

DUNN BASS (L.). A description of Bass. 

DUNS (G-.). Argillaceous shale. See Cliff. 

DUNSTONE. 1. (D.) Ironstone in beds or seams. 
2. (S. W.) Hard kind oi fire-clay, or under-day. 

DUN- WHIN (N.). A rock commonly met with in the 
coal measures. 

DUST. 1. Fine black powdery substance adhering 
to the timbers, &c., in a coal mine. See Coal Dust. 
2. See Dross. 

DUSTERS (S. W.). Men employed in cleaning trams 
of dust and dirt in and about mines. 

DUST EXPLOSION. An explosion of coal-dust mixed 
with a small percentage of fire-damp. 

DUTY (of a Cornish pumping engine). The number 
of pounds weight of water raised one foot high with 
a consumption of 112 Ibs. of coal. 

DYKE or DIKE. An intrusive band or vein of hard 
rock, usually of igneous origin. In the north of Eng- 
land a fault is often called a dyke. They are not 
always accompanied by a dislocation of the strata 
probably have their origin in some deep-seated con- 
nection with the molten interior of the earth, out of 
which they have doubtless been ejected in the shape of 
lava, at a period subsequent to the deposition of the 


coal measures extend in almost straight lines through 
the country, in one case upwards of 70 miles. Though 
generally taking a vertical line, like a wall, frequently 
are discovered lying at different angles, and even inter- 
bedded with seams of coal, &c., and in almost all cases 
when in proximity to a trap dyke, the coal and other 
rocks are partially coked and calcined from the heat of 
the lava when first injected into the fissures it occupies. 


EARS (D.). Small iron loops or rings fixed on the 
sides of tubs, &c., to which side-chains are attached. 

EARTH. A term used for soft shaly or clayey ground 
met with in sinking through the coal measures. 

EARTH COAL. A name sometimes given to Lignite 
earthy brown coal. 

EAT OUT (N.). To turn a heading or "holing to one 
side in order to win the coal on the other side of a 
fault without altering the level course of the heading. 
In Fig. 65 is given a plan and section showing two 
cases of eating out a fault. The side to which the 
heading must be driven on meeting with the fault a b 
depends entirely upon two things the nature of the 
fault (whether an up-throw or a down-throw), and the 
dip of the coal on the far side of it. In No. 1 case the 
fault is a down-throw, coal dipping to the right ; and in 
No. 2 the fault is up, and the dip to the left ; and so, 
in order to win the coal beyond a b, the eating -out must 
be done in both cases on the left. Had, however, the 



dip in No. 2 been reversed, the eating -out heading must 
have been on the right at or about C. The fault being 
of 4 yards throw, and the dip 1 in 4, it follows that the 

Fig. 65. 



distance to be followed alongside the fault before 
meeting with the coal again, or from d to e, will be 
16 yards. 

Highly inclined seams 
of coal, or those having Fi s- 66> 

a dip greater than say 
30 degrees. See Fig. 66. 

EGG COAL (Pa.). An- 
thracite which passes 
over a 2J inch screen. 

EMPTIES. Empty trams. 

EMPTY EOPE. Any winding or hauling rope from 
which the load upon it has been remove 


\AJ f_-rtv 


END. The inner extremity of a head (1) or stall. 

END or END-ON. Working a seam of coal, &c., at 
right angles to the cleat, or natural planes of cleavage. 

ENDING (M.). See Bolthole. 

ENDLESS CHAIN. A system of underground haulage, 
(used also on the surface) in which the trams are drawn 
along the ways by a chain worked by an engine from 
and to the shafts to the branch roads or gates leading 
to the working places. They are attached separately to 
the main chain at intervals of from 10 to 30 yards ; the 
speed of the chain being about three miles an hour. 
Applicable to mines not having much inclination. 

ENDLESS HOPE. 1. A system of haulage carried out* 
and arranged in much the same way as the endless 
chain, and especially applicable to seams having a 
moderate inclination. The trams are attached to the 
rope either singly, in pairs, or in sets of 30 or 40, and 
the speed is slow. For different ways of attaching 
trams to endless chains and ropes see Haulage Clip. Fig. 
67 is a plan showing the endless rope system as applied 

Fig. 67. 

to moving the trams about in the vicinity of a shaft 

2. A new system of winding, in which the rope 


passes through the cages being secured beneath them by 
wrought iron clamps, by shifting which the distance 
between each cage can be altered at will, thus making 
it possible to hoist at different times from different 
levels without losing the advantage and economy of 
balanced cages. The endless rope runs in a deeply 
grooved pulley driven by a pair of engines. 

ENDS (Y.). Headings which are driven on the end or 

ENGINE. A collier's term for engine-house or build- 
ing, arching, &c., within which a steam-engine is 

ENGINEER. 1. (N.) The person at a colliery having 
charge of the whole of the machinery both on surface 
and underground, and of the workshops. 

2. (S. W.) The "brakesman or engine-man. 

3. (M.) The mining engineer or viewer. 

ENGINE PIT. A shaft used entirely for pumping 

ENGINE-KEEPER (S.). See Brakesman. 

ENGINE-MAN. One who works a winding, hauling, 
fan, pumping or other engine. 

ENGINE PLANE. An underground ivay either level or 
dipping iribye or outlye or both (undulating) along 
which the tubs are conveyed to and from the workings 
to the pit bottom by engine power. See Endless Chain, 
Endless Rope, Main Eope, Tail Eope. 

ENGINE TENTER (N. S.). See Brakesman. 

ENGINEWRIGHT (M.). A thoroughly practical man, 
whose duty about a colliery is to daily inspect the 
external parts of the machinery, ropes, and other 


appliances, and to see that the same are kept in efficient 
working order who has the control of the smiths, and 
other surface workmen, and takes the leading part in 
superintending the erection or fitting up of most of the 
machinery and other matters connected with the 
mechanical engineering of collieries. 

ESCAPE. A second or additional shaft by which the 
men are got out of the mine in case of accident to the 
other shafts. Also an upcast. 

STAGES (F.). See Face, Mouthing, Level 

ETTLE (N.). See Attle. 

EVERLASTING LAMPS (N.). Natural jets of fire-damp 
or small blowers set fire to and continuing to burn as 
long as gas was given off. One of these lamps is said 
to have been burning for 19 years in the Newcastle coal 
field. The gas was conveyed to the surface in pipes and 
there set fire to. 

EXPLOSION. The sudden ignition of a body of fire- 
damp in a mine (often aggravated by an admixture of 
coal dust), so often carrying death and destruction all 
before it. The^fearful blowing up of the Oaks Colliery 
in South Yorkshire, on the 12th December, 1866, when 
371 men and lads were lost, is the most disastrous one 
which has ever taken place. 

There appear also to be two other causes of explosions 
in coal mines, though fortunately probably seldom 
taking place, viz. 1. The ignition of inflammable gases 
evolved from a standing fire or burning or mouldering 
coal. 2. The sudden ignition of bisulphuret of carbon, 
which is given off by coal and explodes at a very low 
temperature, even in the absence of flame. 


EXTINCTEUR (F.). A machine of rather recent inven- 
tion which discharges on to a burning mass of coal, 
water charged with carbonic acid under a very high 
pressure a sort of soda-water. A man carries the 
apparatus on his back and projects the gaseous water 
by means of a hose like that of a fire-engine. 

EYE (Y.). The mouth or top of a, pit-shaft. 


FACE. 1. The place at which the coal is actually 
being worked away either in a stall or in a heading. 

2. A cleat or lack. 

3. (L.) To place a full tub in position for being 
lowered down a brow or jig. 

FACE AIKING (N.). That system of ventilating the 
workings which excludes the airing of the goaves ; that 
is to say, nearly the whole of the air is made to sweep 
through the pit, ventilating the working faces and main 
roads only. 

FACE ON. The reverse of end on, or working a mine 
parallel to the cleat or face (2). In order to extract the 
coal in the largest possible lumps it will generally be 
found advisable to keep the face line of the stall neither 
fully face on nor end on, but say half-and-half, or 
any other convenient angle. See Horn Coal. 

FACING. See Cleat. 

FAHRKUNST (Belg.). An apparatus for lowering and 
raising the colliers, &c., in a shaft. See Man Engine. 

FAIRS (N. and S.). Shaley and slatey strata more 
or less gritty. 

H 2 


FAIRING (C.). Kindly treating pit ponies by boys. 

FAKE. See Faiks. 

FALL. 1. A mass of roof or side which has fallen in 
in any subterranean working or gallery, resulting from 
any cause whatever. Immense falls take place gene- 
rally immediately after a heavy explosion of fire-damp. 

2. To blast or wedge down coal, &c., in the process 
of working it. 

3. A length of face undergoing holing or breaking 
down for loading up. 

4. To crumble or break up small from exposure to 
the weather ; clays, shales, &c., fall. 

FALLEES (L.). See Cage Shuts. 

FALLING (N.). Thin shaley beds of stone, &c., taken 
down with the coal, above which a good roof may be 
met with. 

FALLS (F.). Working by Falls. A system of 
working a thick seam of coal by falling or breaking 
down the upper part after the lower portion has been 

FAN. A centrifugal mechanical ventilator driven by 
steam power. They are made up to about 46 feet in 
diameter. Several kinds are in use, the Guibal, 
Eammel, Waddle, Schiele, and others ; some of them 
being able to produce a ventilation, under favourable 
conditions, of between 200,000 and 300,000 cubic feet 
per minute. The principle of the fan is that 
exhaustion or suction of the air out of the mine is 
produced by the rapid revolution of the blades of the 
machine, whereby a partial vacuum is created, and the 
air from the mine rushes in to fill it. Sometimes two 


fans are placed side by side and both kept running, 
or one in reserve in case of accident. The engine also 
to drive a fan is generally in duplicate. See Ventilator. 

FAN DRIFT. A short tunnel leading from a short 
distance from the top of the upcast shaft to the fan 
chamber or casing in which the /aft runs, along which 
the whole of the return air is drawn by the fan. In it, 
opening upwards, are occasionally fixed some wooden 
doors, intended to blow open in the event of a serious 
explosion taking place, and so save the fan from 
becoming seriously damaged. 

FANGING (M.). Bratticing much the same in form 
as trumpeting, which see. 

FANNERS (S.). A kind of rude form of Uow-george, 

FANS, and sometimes FANGS (S. W.). See Cage Shuts. 

FAN-SHAFT. 1. A shallow pit-shaft sunk beneath a 
fan connecting it with the fan drift. 

2. The iipcast shaft where a fan is in use. 

FARE (S.W.). Standing coal, or coal unholed or uncut 

FAREWELL ROCK. The Millstone Grit, embracing a 
series of strata unproductive in coal, and in which con- 
glomerate and coarse siliceous grits often preponderate. 

FAR-SET (M,). To timber up and spray the far end 
of a stall, preparatory to holing. 

FAST. 1. (L.) The first hard bed of rock met with 
after sinking through running sand or quick ground, 
upon which a wedging crib is generally laid. 

2. When a heading or board end is not in com- 
munication with another one by a bolt or thirl, but has 
only one open end, it is said to be fast or called a 
fast place. 



Fig. 68. 


FAST END. The limit of a stall in one direction, or 
\\here the face line of the adjoining stall is not up 
or level with, nor in advance 
of it. See Fig. 68. Three 
stalls are here shown ; the face 
of the middle one is represented 
by the line a I ; the end a is a 
fast end ; that at b is called 
the loose end. 

FAST NEEDLE. See Dialling. 

FAST SHOT. A heavy or miss-shot. See Shooting 

Fig. 69. 

which contain volatile 
oily matters; for ex- 
ample, the celebrated 
Cannel of Wigan. 

ING-BOARDS (S.). Cage- 
catches or shuts in mid- 
workings. Fig. 69 is a 
side elevation, showing 
the action of the catches. 

FAULT. Generally 
means a fracture or dis- 
turbance of the strata 
breaking the continuity 
of the beds. There are 
several kinds of faults, e. g. Faults of Dislocation, 
Fig. 70 (1) ; of Denudation (2) ; Upheaval (3) ; Trough 



Fault (4) ; Keverse or Overlap Fault (5) ; Step Fault 
(6) ; Thinning out (7). Faults of displacement (1) are 
sometimes of many hundred yards throw, and run 
through the country for many miles. Those of type (2) 


are frequently of great extent, being several hundred 
yards in width, and running through miles of country ; 
(3), (4), and (5) are not of common occurrence ; but 
(6) and (7) are types of faults met with in most coal- 

FAULT-SLIP. The smooth surface of the fractured 
rocks at a fault of No. (1), (4), and (6) types, always to 
be found in the lines a &. 

FEATHERS. Two long wedge-shaped pieces of steel 
or iron which are inserted at the back of a drill hole in 
coal, between which a long wedge is driven up, forcing 
the feathers apart, and thereby breaking down or 
loosening the coal. 

FEE (M.). To load up the coal, &c., in a heading 
into tubs. 



FEED. Forward motion imparted to the cutters or 
drills of rock-drilling or coal-cutting machinery, either 
hand or automatic. 

FEEDER. 1. An underground spring or regular flow 
of water proceeding from the strata or from old coal or 
other workings. 

2. A small blower. 

FEER (M.). One who fees. 

FEEL (S. S.). To examine the roof of a thick seam 
of coal with a long stick or rod by poking and knocking 
upon it. 

FEIGH. Kefuse coal or waste slack. 

FENCE-GUARDS (S. S.). Kails fixed round the mouth 
of a pit-shaft, or across the shaft at an inset or at mid- 
workings to keep people and things from falling in. 

FEND OFF BOB. A beam hinged at one end and 

Fig. 71. 

having a free reciprocating motion, fixed at a bend in a 
shaft or upon an inclined plane, to regulate the motion 


of and to guide the pump rods passing round the bend. 
See Fig. 71. 

FETTLING (N.). Cleaning up and putting tidy any 
underground roadway, &c. 

FIEG (S. W.). A crack in the roof, often letting in 

FIELD. 1. A term used to signify a large tract or 
area of many square miles of coal. See Coalfield. 

2. A colliery, or firm of colliery proprietors. 

3. The immediate locality and surroundings of an 

FIELD Box (S. S.). A colliery accident club. 

FIELD CLUB. A sick or accident club or society 
supported and managed by the Owners or Lessees of a 

FIERY. Containing the explosive gas called fire- 
damp, which see. 

FIERY MINE. A colliery in which the seam or seams 
of coal being worked give off considerable quantities of 
light carburetted hydrogen gas. Mines subject to 
blowers are specially fiery. In England the mines of 
Lancashire, South Wales, Durham, and Yorkshire, are 
the most fiery. 

FIGHTING. When the weight or pressure of the 
ventilating current of air in a mine becomes equal or 
nearly so in both the downcast and upcast shafts, and no 
appreciable movement is caused in the air, that is to 
say, when the motion of the air is first in one direction 
and then in another, the pit is said to be fighting. 


FILL. To load trams in the mine. 
FILLER. One who fills at a working place or in a 

FILLING. The places where trams are loaded in the 

FILTY (Som.). A local term for fire-damp. 

FIND. A sinking or driving for coal, &c., attended 
with success. 

FINGER GRIP. A tool used in boring for gripping 
the upper end of the rods. 

FIRE. 1. A collier's term for the explosive gas met 
with in mines. 

2. To blast with gunpowder. 

3. To explode or blow up. The expression " the pit 
has fired " signifies that an explosion of fire-damp has 
taken place. 

4. A gob fire. 

5. A word painted upon a piece of board and fixed in 
the workings to indicate the presence of gas or other 
danger beyond it. 

6. A word shouted out by colliers to warn one 
another when a shot is fired. 

FIRE BANK (M.). A spoil-bank which takes fire 

FIRE-BOSSES (U. S. A.). Underground officials who 
examine the mine for gas, and inspect every safety 
lamp taken into the colliery by the men. 

FIRE-BOARD. A piece of board with the word fire 
painted upon it, and suspended to a prop, &c., in the 
workings, to caution men and lads not to take a naked 


light beyond it, or to pass it, without consent of the 
underviewer or his deputies. 

FIRE BREEDING (S. S.). Any place underground 
showing indications of a gob-fire. 

FIRE-CLAY. Any clay that will withstand a great 
heat without vitrifying. They contain from 60 per 
cent, to 95 per cent, of silica, and 2 per cent, to 30 per 
cent, alumina; lime or alkalies which act as a flux, 
being entirely absent. 

FIEE-CUBE (S.). A rude kind of furnace, about 
2 feet by 3 feet. 

FIRE-DAMP. The explosive gas of coal mines. Light 
carburetted hydrogen. The chemical formula is C 2 H 4 . 
In every 100 parts of this gas there are generally 96 of 
fire-damp, 3 5 of nitrogen, and 5 of carbonic acid gas. 
Being of very light specific gravity (air being 1 fire- 
damp = *562 only), it is naturally- always to be found 
in the highest points in the workings, that is to say, in 
the cavities of the roof in the goaves, &c. Unless 
mixed with four or five times its volume of air it will 
not take fire but extinguishes a light. It sometimes 
exists in the coal under the enormous pressure of 300 
to 400 Ibs. per square inch. 

FIRE-ENGINE. A pump worked by hand for playing 
upon gob-fires. 

" FIRE HEAVY." Words marked upon the scale of a 
mercurial barometer to indicate when much fire-damp 
may be expected to be given off in the mine, and to 
show that extra vigilance is required to keep the venti- 
lation up to its full power. 


FIRE-LAMP. 1. A rough description of iron basket 
on three legs or hung by chains from posts, in which 
coals are burnt to give light to banksmen where gas is 
not used. Fig. 72. 

Fig. 72. 

2. An iron bucket or basket of fire suspended in a 
pit-shaft (shallow mine) to create a draught or ventila- 
tion through the workings. 

FIRE-MAN. A man whose duty it is to examine with 
a safety lamp the underground workings and ways, to 
ascertain if gas exist, to see to doors, bratticing, stop- 
pings, &c., being in good order, and generally to ascer- 
tain that the ventilation of the mine is efficient. 

FIRE-PAN (Y.). A kind of fire-lamp (2). 

FIRE KIB (S. S.). A solid rib or wall of coal left 
un worked between sides of work to keep off gob fires. 

FIRE-STINK. Smell, indicating spontaneous combus- 
tion in a coal pit. 

FIRE-STONE (Som.). Synonymous with Fire-day. 

FIRE-TRIER (M.). See Fireman. 

FIRING A MINE. Maliciously setting fire to a coal 

FIRING-LINE. A lighted candle attached to a string 
and drawn up over a long pole stuck in loose rubbish 
on the floor of the mine, until it came in contact with 


fire-damp, which was thereby exploded or fired in order 
to get rid of it. [A very objectionable way of clearing 
the workings of gas commonly practised in former 

FIRING-POINT. That at which fire-damp mixed with 
atmospheric air ignites or explodes. When there is 
four times as much air as gas the explosion is very 
feeble indeed, but increases in force as more air is 
added. 9 of air and 1 of gas causes the most violent 
explosion. When the proportion is 14 of air to 1 of 
gas the mixture ceases to ignite. 

FIRST MAN (Lei.). The head butty or coal getter in 
a stall, who is appointed by the manager and is respon- 
sible for the safety of the men working under him, and 
for the proper working of the coal, which includes 
holing, getting, filling, pack building, timbering, &c. He 
maintains order and regularity amongst his fellow- 
workmen and in carrying on the work of stalling. 

FIRST-WEIGHT. The first weight (2) which takes 
place after commencing to excavate any large area of 
coal, &c., without leaving pillars. 

FIRST WORKING. Winning and proving a seam of 
coal, &c., by heading out into it and preparing to work 
the coal out by longwall, banks, stalls, broken, &c. First 
working is chiefly paid for by measurement, an allow- 
ance or charter being added, upon the tonnage. See 
Second Working, Yardage. 

FISH-HEAD. An apparatus for withdrawing the 
clacks of pumps through the column (1). 

FISSLE or FISTLE (N.). To make a faint crackling 


noise, which takes place when creep begins in the 

FITTING (S.). The shafts and plant of a colliery. 

FLAG (Ch.). A bed of hard marl stone overlying the 
rock head in salt mines. 

FLAIKES (S.). Shaly or fissile sandstone. 
FLAMPER (D.). Clay ironstone in beds or seams. 

FLANCH (N.). The flange or broad ends of pump 
trees or other iron pipes where joined to one another. 

FLANK HOLES. Holes bored into the sides of head- 
ings or other underground workings, to test the thick- 
ness of a rib or barrier, or the position of old workings 
likely or known to contain water or gas, or both. 

FLANNELS. Suits of stout white flannel clothes pro- 
vided by the masters for the enginewright and his 
assistant for wearing in an engine-pit or other wet place 
when doing repairs, &c. ; also a flannel coat is often 
allowed to a lottomer, a night watch, &c. 

fitted with a double door or valve giving direct com- 
munication between the two air currents when forced 
open by the blast of an explosion. The flappers or doors 
being so arranged that they should fall to or close of 
themselves immediately the blast is passed, and so restore 
the ventilation to its ordinary course. The object of 
the doors is to preserve the overcast from damage in the 
event of the pit firing. 

FLAPS. Eectangular wooden valves about 24 inches 
X 18 inches x 1J inch thick, hung vertically to the 


framework of the air chambers of the Nixon Ventilator. 
See Ventilator. 

FLASH (Ch.). A subsidence of the surface due to 
the working of rock salt and pumping of brine. 

FLAT. 1. (N.) A place underground at which corves 
are put upon the volleys, or where tubs are run off and 
on into cages. 

2. (D.) A district or set of stalls separated by faults, 
old workings, or barriers of solid coal. 

FLAT COALS (S.). Seams of coal lying horizontal or 
at a low angle. 

FLATMAN (N.). One who links the tubs together at 
the flats (1) or levels. 

FLAT -NOSE SHELL. See Cleanser. 

FLATS. 1. Subterraneous beds or sheets of trap rock 
or whin. 

2. (N. S.) Tracts of coal-seams which lie at a mode- 
rate inclination in districts containing rearers. 

FLAT SHEETS. Iron plates laid as a floor of the pit 
bank (2), upon which the coal tubs are easily moved 

FLAT SHUTS (Y.). Heavy iron plates forming part 
of the Jieapstead. 

FLATTING (D.). Drawing or leading coals under- 
ground with horses and lads. 

FLEEK (M.). Coal or other rock is said to fleek off 
when humps or masses of it fall off from a slip or fault 
in the workings without giving warning, or without 
. much labour in cutting, &c. 


FLINT (Sh.). Fine grained sandstone suitable for 
building purposes. 

FLITCHING (N. S.). Widening the sides of a heading. 

FLOAT. A clean rent or fissure in strata unaccom- 
panied by dislocation. 

FLOOR. 1. The stratum of rock, &c., upon which a 
seam of coal, &c., immediately lies. 

2. That part of any subterraneous gallery upon which 
you walk or upon which a tramway is laid. 

FLOTZ. The German for seam or led. 

FLUE (S. W.). A furnace, which see. 

FLUSH (M.). A small quantity of ignited fire-damp. 

FLY-DOORS (N.). Doors in working roadways, opening 
either way. 

FLYING KEED (S. S). The thinning out or splitting 
up in a northerly direction of the " Thick coal " seam. 

FOAL (N.). A small boy who assists a putter. 

FOALEY BANT (D.). A cluster of three or four boys 
sitting in chain loops attached to a hemp rope a few 
feet above the heads of a bunch of several men (also 
riding in chains attached to the same rope) in which 
position they used formerly to ride up and down a pit 

FOLLOWING DIRT (L.). Loose shale, &c., in a thin 
bed forming the roof of a coal seam, which has to be 
taken down in the workings in order to prevent it falling 
and thereby causing accidents. 

FOLLOWING-IN. A shift arriving at a working place 
before the previous one has finished work. 


FOLLOWING-UP BANK (Y.). A breadth of about 6 
yards of coal taken off on either side of a leading lank. 

FOOT. That part of the face of a heading next the 

to a mine by means of a level driven into a hill-side, 
or a dip road, up which coal is brought. 

FOTHER (N.). A measure of coals, 17f cwt., being 
an ordinary cartload for one horse. 

FORCER. A pump by which the water is raised with 
a ram or plunger ; in short, a force-pump. 

FOUDROYAGE (F.). See Falls. 

FOUL. A condition of the atmosphere of a mine, so 
mixed by any gases as to be unfit for respiration or 
working in. 

FOUL COAL. Faulty, or otherwise unmarketable 

FOULS. Where seams of coal disappear for a certain 
space and are replaced by some foreign matter. 

FOUND. When sinking or driving to find or prove a 
mine of coal, &c., as soon as it is met with it is said to 
have been found, or ascertained to lie and be. 

FOUNDATION (M.). The shafts, machinery, build- 
ings, railways, workshops, &c., of a colliery, commonly 
called a plant. 

FOSSE (F. and Belg.). A colliery or coal pit. 

FOSSIL (M.). A local term formerly used for a par- 
ticular kind of rock bed met with in sinking. Cank, 
lignite, &c., were called by this name. 

FRAME-DAM. A solid stopping or dam in a mine 



constructed of timber balks in a watertight manner so 
as to entirely keep back and resist the pressure of a 
heavy head of water. 

FRAME TUBBING. Solid wood tubbing, entirely com- 
posed of rings or curls of wood about 8" X 6" square 
built up in segments and wedged to keep it water- 


FREE MINER (F. D.). A man born within the 
hundred of St. Briavel*, in the county of Gloucester, 
who has worked a year and a day in a mine. 

FREE SHARE (Som.). A certain proportion of a 
royalty on coal, &c., paid to lessor by lessee. 

FRENZIED (S. S.). Crushed by the creep or subsi- 
dence of the cover. 

FUR. A deposit of lime and other minerals upon the 
sides of pumps, boilers, &c. 

FURNACE. A large coal fire at or near to the bottom 
of an upcast shaft for producing a current of air for 
ventilating the mine. The power of a furnace where 
the shafts are 600 yards deep and over, is probably 
greater than that of a fan as ordinarily constructed. 
As much as 400,000 cubic feet of air per minute have 
been passed up a single shaft by furnace ventilation. 
It has its disadvantages, however, viz. the chief being, the 
liability of sparks fcom it to ignite an explosive mixture 
in the upcast r and thereby cause an explosion in the 
mine attended with terrible consequences. The excessive 
heat in the shaft, rendering it in many cases unlit for 
winding in, or for any other than ventilating purposes. 
The liability of the tires to get low through the negli- 


gence of the fumaceman. Of the heat of the furnace 
to set fire to the coal, &c., in the locality ; of the shaft- 
fittings to take fire; the tubbing, &c., to become 
dangerously weak from the effects of heat, wet, &c. 

FURNACEMAN. One whose sole occupation is to keep 
the furnace going. 

FURTHERANCE (N.). An additional sum of money 
paid per score to hewers, putters, &c., as an allowance in 
respect of inferior coal, a bad roof, & fault, &c. 

FUSE or FUZE. A small train of gunpowder en- 
closed in a hollow cord of hemp, &c., for firing off shots. 


GAD. An iron wedge used for breaking down coals, 

GAGING (8. S.). A small embankment or heap of 
slack or rubbish, made at the entrance to a heading, &c., 
as a nv,-ans of foncmg it off. 

GAGS. Chips of wood in a sinking pit bottom, or 

GAILLETINS (Belg.). Bound coal 

GAIN (M,). A transverse channel or cutting made 
in the sides of a roadway underground for the insertion 
of a dam or close permanent stopping, the object being 
to prevent any gas escaping or any air entering, and 
to retain the dam in a firm position. 

GALE (F. D.). A specified tract of mineral property 
granted by the Crown to a colliery proprietor or com- 
pany for working the mines. 

I 2 



GALEE (F. D.). The owner of a Gale. 

GALLOWS (N.). A crown tree with a prop placed 
underneath each end of it. See Fig. 59. 

GANG. 1. (M.) To go ; to move along. 

2. A train or set of pit tubs or trams. 

GANGER (M.). One who is employed at conveying 
minerals along the gangways in or about a mine, which 
employment is known as ganging. 

GANG-RIDER. A lad who rides with or upon the 
trams upon underground engine planes, to give signals 
when necessary, and to work any clips, &c. See Haulage 

GANGWAY (Pa.). The main haulage road or level, 
which is driven on the strike of the mine. 

GANNEN (N.). A "board down which coals are con- 
veyed in tubs running upon rails. 

GANNISTER. A very hard and compact, extremely 
siliceous fire-clay, being the floor of 
some of the lower coal seams of the 
Midland coalfield. It is often crowded 
with the fossil Stigmaria, and is largely 
made use of for lining the interiors of 
steel furnaces, converters, &c. 

GARLAND. 1. A wooden or cast-iron 
curb set in the walling of a pitshaft to 
catch and conduct away into a pipe 
or lodge, any water which runs down 
the shaft sides. See cross section 
of a garland or water curb, Fig. 73. 

2. A wooden frame, rectangular in 
form, and strengthened with iron corner-plates, for 

Fig. 73. 

a. small blocks 
of wood placed at 
intervals round the 
curb to support the 
upper ring 6. 



Fig. 74. 

keeping the coals together upon the top of a tram, &c., 
when heavy loading is practised in a mine. Some- 
times two, and even three are used 
upon one load. See end view, Fig. 74. 

GAS. See Fire-damp. Generally any 
mixture of this gas and air in an ex- 
plosive condition is called gas. 

GAS COAL. That which yields a 
large quantity of illuminating gas on 
distillation, together with freedom from 
sulphur and other impurities. Cannel coal is generally 
a good sort for gas-making purposes. 

GAS DRAIN. A heading driven in a mine for the 
special purpose of carrying off or draining away^re- 
damp from a goaf or other working. Sometimes a 
bore-hole put down from an upper to a lower seam of 
coal with a similar 
object, or a bore-hole put 
into the floor to liberate 
gas, which is known in 
some places to exist in 
coal under the enormous 
pressure of over 300 Ibs. 
to the square inch. 

GAS-MAN (U. S. A.). 
See Fireman, Fire-losses. 

short wooden pipe about 4" x 4" inside, having its upper 
end open to the roof in the cavity to which it is applied, 
and the lower end opening into the bratticing (see 
Fig. 75), so that any gas given off in the roof is, by the 

Fig. 75. 


air drawn up the pipe, diffused and carried away as 
formed, and no fall of roof at that point can suddenly 
force out gas previously accumulated, upon naked 

GATE (from the Saxon verb Gangum, to go). An 
underground road connecting a stall with a main road 
or inclined plane, worked either by horses and ponies 
or by self-acting incline ropes or chains. 

GATE-END. The inbye end of a gate. 

GATE-END PLATE (M.). A large iron plate or sheet 
about 4' 6" square and J" thick, upon which trams are 
turned round upon coming out of the stall face to be 
taken along the gate. Smaller plates are sometimes 
used, one laid between the tram-rails and one on either 
side of it. 

GATE-ROAD (M.). See Gate. 

GATE-WAY (M.). See Gate. 

GATHER (D.). To drive a heading through disturbed 
or faulty ground in such a way as to meet with the 
seam of coal, &c., sought, at a convenient level or point 
on the opposite side. See Eat-out. 

GAUGE-DOOR. A "wooden door fixed in a mine in an 
airway for regulating the supply of ventilation neces- 
sary for a certain district, or number of men, &c. Its 
opening is adjusted by various means, and is solely con- 
trolled by the underviewer or manager. 

GAD TON (S.). A narrow channel or ricket, cut in the 
floor of an underground roadway. 

GAUZE LAMP (S.). A (so-called) safety-lamp, for- 
merly commonly used in the Scotch coal-pits. It is 


a kind of Davy lamp, with a gauze top about 3 inches 
in diameter, and has no brass frame to strengthen it, 
and no glass. 

GAVELLER (F. D.). The Crown agent, or gale giver , 
who has power to grant gales to free miners. 

GAWL (L.). An unevenness in a coal wall. 
GAYETTE (Belg.). Large picked coals. 
GAYLETTEBIE (Belg.). Second quality coals. 
GEAR (N.). A collier's tools, consisting of picks, 
drills, wedges, hammer, shovel, &c. 

GEARS. 1. (N.) See Double Timber. 
2. (N.) Staging and rails erected at quays over coal 

GEODES (Lei.). Large nodules of ironstone, hollow 
in the centre. 

GEORDIE. A safety-lamp invented by "the father 
of the railway system " (George Stephenson) in 1815. 
He, although quite independently of Sir H. Davy (who 
also invented a safety-lamp, the Davy), is said to have 
been the first to produce a lamp which would indicate 
an explosive mixture of gas and air in a mine without 
causing an explosion. The Geordie lamp is extinguished 
by the presence of firedamp. The flame of this lamp 
is surrounded by a glass cylinder fitted with a per- 
forated metal cap, a wire gauze cylinder forming the 
outer or essential part of the arrangement. The gas 
enters the lamp through a number of small holes in the 
base of the lamp-top, takes fire at the flame, and the 
aft&r-damp (the products of combustion) puts out the 
light. It, however, gives a miserable light, and is un- 


safe when exposed to a high velocity in an air-current 
charged with much gas. 

GERMAN. A straw filled with gunpowder to act as a 
fuze in blasting operations. 

GET. 1. To work away or excavate by mining either 
under or above ground. 

2. The produce or output, in tons, of a colliery or 
mine during a certain period, e. g. 125,000 tons in six 

GETTING. Cutting, falling, and loading up of the 
coals, &c., in a mine. 

GETTING BOCK (S. S.). Clay ironstone in the roof 
of a coal-seam, which is worked in conjunction with the 

GHOST (S. S.). A Hue cap on a candle or lamp. 

GIB. A short prop of timber by which the coal is 
supported whilst being holed, or undermined. See 

GIN or HORSE GIN. A drum and framework carry- 
ing small pulleys, &c., by which the minerals and dirt 
are raised from a shallow pit, not exceeding say 35 
yards, or from a dip incline from surface, or one in the 
workings. A gin is also used for raising the materials, 
&c., in building tall chimneys, &c. 

GIN-BEAM (S. S.). A timber cross-bar carrying the 
pulley- wheels over the top of a gin-pit. 

GINGING (D.). The walling or lining of a pit-shaft. 

GINNEY. See Jinney. 

GIN-PIT. A shallow mine or a pit-shaft, say from 
10 to 35 yards deep, worked by a gin. The coal is 


hoisted in small wooden tubs or boxes without wheels, 
carrying about 3 cwt. each, and swinging loose in the 
pit-shaft, one up and one down. 

GIN-RACE or GIN-RING. A wide excavation near 
the top of an underground inclined plane to the dip in 
which a gin is fixed. When on the surface it means 
the circular space occupied by the gin, &c. 

GIRDLES (N.). Thin beds of sandstone, &c., exposed 
in a sinking-pit or in a lore-hole. 

GLANCE COAL. Another term for Anthracite, which 

GLASS. A collier's word for a dial. 

GOAF, or GOAVE. That part of a mine from which 
the coal, &c., has been worked away and the space more 
or less filled up. See Double Stall, Fig. 58 ; also Head 
(8), Fig. 80. 

GOB. 1. Another word for Goaf. 

2. To leave behind in the mine coal and other 
minerals which are not marketable. 

3. To stow or pack full of rubbish any useless under- 
ground roadway. 

GOBBIN or GOBBING (Lei.). See Goaf. 

GOB-FIRE. Spontaneous combustion underground. 
It would seem in a great measure to be due to the 
action of iron pyrites becoming oxidized by the co- 
operation of moisture. During the decomposition the 
coal becomes split up, and exposes a larger surface to 
the air ; the ferrous salt is then oxidized into the ferric 
salt, which gives up its oxygen to the coal. In order 
to prevent gob-fires it would appear necessary to exclude 


all currents of air, unless passed through the place from 
the commencement in a strong current, so as to act as 
a cooling agent. 

GOB ROAD. A gallery or way in the mine carried 
through a goaf. Many seams of coal, &c., are worked 
by what is known as the gob-road system that is to 
say, all the main and branch roadways are made and 
maintained through the exhausted portions of the 
mine, the regular workings in which are opened out and 
carried forward from the sides of the shaft-pillar. Mines 
worked upon the long wall system are generally worked 
gol-road, particularly in the Midland counties of 
England, where the mines are very flat. 

GOB-WALL (S. W.). A rough kind of wall constructed 
of the stone from the roof, &c., built up and carried on 
along either side of a gob road in order to keep up the 
roof and maintain a good roadway through the pit. 

GOING. Being worked forward or advanced in any 
direction, e.g. headings in course of being worked or 
cut are said to be going. 

GOING BOAKD (N.). A board down which coals are 
trammed, or one along which the stuff from several 
working places is conveyed into the main wagon-way. 

GOOSE (F. D.). A water-barrel or tub. 


GOT-ON-KNOBS (S. S.). A system formerly practised 
of working the Thick coal, being a kind of board and 
pillar plan, the main roadways being first driven up to 
the boundary. 

GOTTEN (M.). Worked out or exhausted mine 
(1 and 2). 


GOUTWATEK (F. D.). Mine water containing sul- 
phuretted hydrogen. 

GOWL (D.). Roof and sides are said to gowl or gowl- 
out when they break down and cause trouble. 

GRABS (Pa.). A tool for extricating broken boring 
tools out of a borehole (1), consisting of two iron side- 
rods fitted at the lower ends with half arrow-headed 
points facing inwards. 

GRAFTING SPADE. A long narrow-plated spade for 
digging clay. 

GRAITH (S.). Tools used by a collier (1). 

GRAPIN (F.). A tool used in the Kind-Chandron 
system of sinking shafts. It is in form like a gigantic 
pair of scissors, the points of which cut away and trim 
up the edges of the shaft in preparing a seat or bed for 
the moss-box to rest upon. 

GRAPPEL. A cutting tool for obtaining a solid 
specimen of the rock bored into. See Carrot. 

GRASS. The surface. The pit bank (1). The ex- 
pression " gone to grass " means gone up the pit or 
gone to bank (1). 

GRATHE (N.). To replace, repair, dress, or put in 

GRATHELY (N.). Tidy, orderly. 

GRATHER (N.). See Changer. 

GRAVEL WALL (W.). The junction of a coal-seam 
with overlapping or unconformable Permian, &c., rocks. 

GREEN KOOF. A miner's term for a roof which has 
not broken down or weighted at all. 

GREYS (Som.). Hard siliceous sandstone. 


GRIDAW (S. W.). Pulley Frames or Head Gear, 
which see. 

GRIMES (S. W.). See Bell-mould. 

GRIST (S. W.). A black coaly stratum indicating a 
probable vein of coal not far off. 

GRISOU (F.). See Fire-damp. 

GRIZZLE. Inferior coal with an admixture of specks 
and patches of iron pyrites, and often sooty. 

GROS MORCEAUX (Belg.). Coal in very large lumps. 

GROUND. Strata or measures. When strata do not 
contain coal or other mines of sufficient thickness or 
value to make them workable at a profit, they are said 
to be barren or unproductive ground. The terms hard 
ground, soft ground, faulty ground, broken ground, &c., 
are very commonly made use of. 

GROUND BAILIFF (M.). Old term for Manager. 
His duties were to look after the getting and sending to 
bank (1) of the coal, keep the ventilation right, &c. ; 
but had generally nothing to do with the machinery 
or mechanical department of the colliery. 

GROUND BLOCKS. Pulley blocks to which the 
ground spears are hung. 

GROUND CRAB. A species of capstan used for 
lowering the sinking set of pumps as the shafts get 

GROUND KENT. Bent paid for surface occupied by 
the plant, &c., of a colliery ; generally double the 
usual agricultural or surface-rent. 

GROUND BOPES. Hemp ropes for passing through 
the ground blocks to the ground crabs. 


GROUND SPEARS. Wooden pump-rods (one on each 
side of the set or pump trees), to which the pumps in a 
sinking-pit are suspended. 

GROWL (M.). Coal pillars, &c., are said to growl 
when they are undergoing a crushing weight. 

GUELL (I.). CoaL 

GUG (Som.). A self-acting inclined plane under- 
ground ; sometimes a dip incline. 

GUIDES. 1. See Cage Guides. 

2. A boring-rod having an enlargement or wings fitted 
to it to suit the size of the borehole (1) for steadying 
the rods when a considerable depth has been attained. 

GUIDING BED. A thin band or seam of coal, &c., in 
a nip leading to the regular seam on either side of 
it. See Fig. 70 (2). 

GULCHING (N. S.). The moving and crackling noise 
made by a weight coming on underground. 

GUM (S.). Free-burning small slack or duff. 

GUNBOAT (Pa.). A car or wagon holding from 5 to 
8 tons of coal, used upon inclined planes or slopes. They 
are filled by emptying the trams into them at the foot 
of the slope, and empty themselves on reaching the 
surface, when the coal runs down on to screens for sepa- 
ration and cleaning. 

Guss (B.). A short piece of rope by which a boy 
draws a tram or sled in a pit. 

GUTTER. 1. (F. D.) An air-way through a goaf. 

2. Candles or dips, when subjected to the warm air 
of a mine, waste away very rapidly, and are said to 
gutter or sweal. 


GUTTERING (Pa.). A channel or pipe cut along the 
side of a pit shaft to conduct the water not tubbed lack 
into a lodge or sump. 

GUTTER-UP (M.). See Cut-up. 

GUYS. Strong wire ropes or cables attached near the 
top of headstocks, and anchored at the ground to keep 
them steady. 

GWYTHYEN (S. W.). A vein or seam. 


H-PiECE. A strong pipe cast in the form of a 
letter H containing the Fj ?6 

bottom clack of a forcing 
sett (1) of pumps. One 
side communicates with 
the plunger, the other 
with the suction and 
delivery, and has a clack 
door on it. See Fig. 76. 

HACK (N.). A. pick or tool with which colliers cut or 
hew the coal, and use in 

Fig. 77. 

sinking and stone drifting. 
It weighs about 7 Ibs. 

HADE. The dip, incli- 
nation, or underlie of a 
fault, measured by the 
angle between a vertical 
plane and the plane of the fault. In Fig. 77 the dotted 
line a b represents the hade as distinguished from the 


throw or amount of displacement which is the length 
of the line a c. 

HAGGED (S.). Hewn or cut. 

HALF-CO UESE. Half on the level and half on the dip. 

HALF- END. See Horn Coal. 

HALF-END AND BOARD (Y.). See Horn Coal. 

HALF-MARROW (N.). A butty or partner. 

HALF-MOON. A scaffold nearly filling up one half 
the sectional area of a pit-shaft, or in plan the form of a 
half-moon, upon which repairs are done. 

HAND DOG. A kind of spanner or wrench for 
screwing up and disconnecting the joints of loring rods 
at the surface. 

HANDFUL (B. and Som.). A length of four inches. 

HAND or HANDLE. To work a winding, pumping, 
hauling, or other engine. 

HANDLING (M.). Reloading coals underground from 
one tub to another. 

HANG (B.). The He or hade of o, fault. 

HANGER ON. The man who runs the full trams 
upon the cages and gives the signals to lank (1). 

HANGING ON. The pit bottom, level, or inset, at 
which the cages are loaded. 

HANGING SPEAR-RODS. Wooden pump-rods adjustable 
by screws, &c., by which a sinking sett of pumps is 
suspended in a shaft. 

HARD-HEADING. A heading, tunnel, or drift, driven 
in stone or measures. 

HARDS (M.). Coals of a hard and close-grained 


HARP (S.) To fill a hutch with coal at the face. 
HATCH (B.). See Door. 

HATCHING (B.). An underground way or self-acting 
inclined plane, in a thin seam of coal, carried up from 
60 to 80 yards to the rise. 

HAT KOLLERS. Cast iron or steel rollers, shaped 
like a hat, revolving 
upon a vertical pin, for FIG. 78. 

guiding incline hauling 
ropes round curves. See 
Fig 78, 

The drawing or convey- 
ing of the produce of the mine from the working places 
to the bottom of the winding pit. This work may be 
performed in the following ways : By pushing the 
trams by hand, as is done in very small pits ; by horses 
or ponies drawing several trams at a time ; by self-acting 
inclined planes driven of course to the rise ; by 
stationary engines worked by steam, compressed air, or 
hydraulic power working wire ropes, or chains, and by 
locomotives working with compressed air. In most 
mines some kind of mechanical haulage is to be found, but 
horses are invariably used as well, to convey the trams 
from the stalls, &c., on to the main roads. Hauling 
coals a distance of about three miles is occasionally 
performed. Horses to the number of 80 are sometimes 
to be found assisting in hauling in one colliery, and over 
2000 tons of mineral are sometimes conveyed to the pit 
bottom in one day. 



HAULAGE CLIP. Levers, jaws, wedges, &c., by which 
trams, singly or in trains, are connected to the hauling 
ropes. There are several ingenious and simple arrange- 
ments in use, some of which are given in Fig. 79. 

Fig. 79. 

HAULIEE. A boy or man who goes with a pony or 
horse in the pit, or who attends the trains upon engine 
planes, &c. 

HAUNT (Som.). See Landsale. 

HAZLE (N.). A tough mixture of sandstone and 

HEAD. 1. Any road, level, or other subterraneous 
passage driven or formed in the solid coal, &c., for the 



purpose of proving and working the mine. A common 
size for an ordinary head is 6 feet by 6 feet, though the 
sectional area depends entirely upon circumstances, 
some being as much as 70 to 80 square feet, the 
smallest about 8 or 10 square feet. 

2. That part of a face nearest to the roof. 

3. (Som.) Any length of working faces. 

4. (S. S.) A shift or day's work by the stint in 
heading (2) out, or driving of deadwork. 

5. The top end of the "boring rods above the surface. 

6. Pressure of water in pounds per square inch, or, of 
so many feet. 

7. To cut or otherwise form a narrow passage or head 


8. A lift (3). See Fig 80, showing a seam being 
worked in three "heads. 

Fig. 80. 

9. See Motive Column. 

HEAD-COAL (S.). The upper portion of a thick seam 
of coal which is worked in two or more lifts (3). 

HEADER (M.). A collier or coal cutter who drives a 
head (1) ; he is paid by the yard and also receives so 
much per ton upon the large coals sent out. 

HEAD-GEAR. The pulley-frame erected over a wind- 
ing shaft constructed of iron or timber or both, and 


sometimes reaching to 72 feet in height. For boring 
work it is generally from 30 to 40 feet high, though 
as much as 80 feet are occasionally employed, Norway 
fir being the kind of timber used. 
HEADING. 1. See Head (1). 

2. The operation of driving a head (1). 

3. (Pa.) A level driven parallel to a gangway and 
usually the return airway of the mine. 

4. (S.) The top portion above the tub sides of the 
load carried. 

HEAD-ROOM. Height as between the floor and the 
roof anything above 6 feet is considered good head-room 
in a pit. 

HEAD-SIDE (N. S.). The rise side of a heading (1) 
driven on the strike. 

HEADSMAN (N.). A putter or haulier, which see. 
HEADSTOCKS. See Headgear. 

HEAD-TREE (N.). A portion of a crown-tree about .12 
inches in length. 

HEADWAYS (N.). The direction of the cleat or 
a place (1) driven parallel with the cleat, that is, 

HEADWAYS COURSE (N.). When a set of headings or 
walls extend from side to side of a set of boards they are 
said to be driven headways course. 

HEAP (S.). To load up a tub above the top of 
the sides. 

HEAP-KEEPER (N.). The head lariksman who looks 
after the sorting and cleaning of the coals, and keeps 
order about the pit top, &c. 

K 2 


HEAP -STEAD. The entire surface works about a 
colliery shaft; includes the headgear, loading and 
screening- arrangements, winding and pumping engines, 
&c., with their respective houses. The workshops, 
stores, &c., being sometimes built into the same block 
surrounding the pit top. Fig. 81 is a plan of a neap- 
stead of a large colliery. 

HEAT. The elevated temperature produced by spon- 
taneous combustion. 

HEATH or YERTH (S. S.). Earth. 

HEAVE. 1. See Creep. 
2. A fault of dislocation. 

HEAVY. The hollow sound produced when knocking 
on a roof, &c., which is giving way. An unsound or 
dangerous roof is said to knock heavy. 

HEAVY^FIRE (N.). An extensive and severe explo- 

HEIVER. A coal cutter or hewer. 
HELVE or HELVER. The handle of a pick or maun- 

HESS (S. S.). Clinker from furnaces of boilers. 

HEUGHS or HEUCHS (S.). Ancient term for coal 
seams or coal workings. 

HEWER. A collier who cuts coal. 

HIGH PILLAR. See Shaft Pillar. 

HILL (N. M.). An underground inclined plane. 

HINGING (Y.). See Cap, re Ropes. 

HIT. To find, prove, or cut into a coal seam, fault, 




HITCH. 1. (S.) A. fault of dislocation of less throw 
than the thickness of the seam in which it occurs. 

2. (S. W.) To attach trams to hauling ropes by short 
chains, &c. 

HITCH AND STEP (S. W.). A system of regulating 
the distance between 
the faces of stalls in 
long-wall work. See 
Fig. 82. 

HITCHER. The man 
who runs trams into or out of the cages, gives the 
signals at lank (1), and attends at the shaft when men 
are riding in it. 

HOD (F. D.). A cart or sled for conveying coals in 
the stalls of thin seams. 

HOG-BACK. Sharply rising of the floor of a coal 

HOGGER. 1. (N.) Stockings without feet, chiefly 
worn by hauliers. 

2. The uppermost pipe of a pumping sett, through 
the side of which water is discharged through a wide 
leather pipe. 

HOIST. An elevator or lift, either single or double 
acting, worked by steam or hydraulic power, for 
raising the tubs of coal on to the screening stage from 
the lank (1) level. 

HOLD OUT ! (D.) This was shouted by the 
"banksman down a pit-shaft to the bottomer when a bant 
of men were about to descend the shaft, to let him 
know that he was not to send up a load of coals 


against the bant, but merely the empty rope or chain, 
in order to avoid accident by collision known as 
a wedding, which see. 

HOLE. 1. To undercut a seam of coal, &c., -by 
chipping away the coal, &c., with a pick, or by the 
employment of a machine worked by compressed air to 
do the same work. 

2. A borehole, which see. 

3. To make a communication from one part of a 
mine to another. 

HOLES (N.). The different fiats (1) or stages from 
which the cages are loaded at the pit bottom. 

HOLES OF SAWYER (S. S.). Blocks of the Thick or 
Ten-yard coal-seam formed by holing, and then cutting 
the sides upwards by forming vertical grooves between 
the mass to be brought down and the sides of the pillars 
to be left unwrought to support the roof. [The term 
sawyer refers to a particular band or layer forming 
portion of the Thick coal.] 

HOI-ING. 1. The wedge-shaped portion of a seam 
or floor removed from beneath the coal before it is 
broken down. Sometimes the holing is made in the top 
of the seam, sometimes in or about the middle. It is 
only in hard or moderately hard coals that holing to any 
considerable depth or distance under is necessary ; but 
in order to produce coals in the best possible shape or 
size deep holing is indispensable. A hard seam should 
be holed to a depth of not much less than the thickness 
of the seam, e. g. a six feet seam holed five to six feet 
under. See Bannocking. 

2. A short passage connecting two roads. 


HOLLOW KEAMEE (Pa.). A tool for straightening 
a crooked borehole (1). 

HOLLOWS. Old abandoned workings. 

HOME (N.). In the direction of the shafts. When 
a certain quantity of air has circulated through a 
sufficient length of workings it is sent home or direct to 
the upcast. 

Hoo CANNEL. Impure earthy cannel coal. 

HOOKEE ON. See Hanger on. 

HOPES (N.). Valleys formed by denudation in the 
coal measures of the County of Durham. 

HOPPITT. See Bowk. 

HOEN COAL. Coal worked partly end-on and partly 
face-on. This is the proper way to work a hard seam 
to the best advantage. " 

HOEN-SOCKET (Pa.). See Bellscrew. 

HOESE. See D-Link. 

HORSE-BEANS (Ch.). A stratum of a granular struc- 
ture immediately overlying the rock salt beds, in which 
the rock-head brine runs. 

HOESE-FETTLEE (S. S.). A man who looks after the 
underground horses and ponies. 

HOESE GIN. See Gin. 

HOESE-HEIGHT (M.). Distance between the floor and 
the roof, for a horse to travel without knocking his 
head, &c. 

HOESE-LOAD (L.). A measure of weight used in 
some parts of East Lancashire. 1 horse load = 4 cwt 
or 5 horse loads to a ton. 


HORSE-ROAD. An underground way worked by 

HORSES or HORSEBACKS. Natural channels cut, or 
washed away by water, in a coal seam, and filled up 
with shale and sandstone. Sometimes a bank or ridge 
of foreign matter in a coal seam. 

HORSE -TREE. A strong timber beam to carry 
pumps, &c. 

HORSING. Drawing trams underground by horses 
and ponies. 

hard fracture and in burning leaves little ash, and that 
of a reddish-brown colour. 

HOWDIE HORSE (N.). A pit horse kept on the 
surface for use in cases of emergency. 

How WAY ! (N.) Lower the cage down. 
HUDDOCK (N.). The cabin of a Jceel, which see. 

HUDGE (Som.). See Bcnvk. Also a small lox or 
tram without wheels running on timber slides, drawn 
by a boy in thin and steep seams. 

HUGGER (N.). A Back or Cleat. 

HUNCH (D.). 

HUND (Pr.), meaning dog. A rectangular iron tram 
or wagon on four small wheels with a projecting pin 
beneath it to run between the rails (wooden), and thus 
guide the movement. Used as long ago as 1550. 

HUNDRED. Hundredweight (cwt). 

HUNKER (In.). Yellowish clay containing concre- 
tionary nodules. 


HUNTING COAL (T.). Eils and posts of coal left for 
second working. , 

HURDLE SCREEN (S.). A temporary screen or 
curtain for clearing gas out of a pit. 

HURLEY (S.). A Hutch. 

HURRIER. See Haulier. Generally small boys. 

HURRY. To haul, pull, or push trams of coal, &c., in 
a mine. 

HUTCH (S.). See Box. 

HUTCH KUNNER (S.). Boy who draws hutches. 

water as its motive power, for draining such portions of 
the underground workings as are below the level, or to 
the dip of the shafts ; for pumping water up a shaft to 
the surface pumping engine, or to a steam engine placed 
part way down the shaft. The principle of its action 
is that of employing water at a given head (6) to raise 
a larger quantity against less head. 


IN. When a stall or other working place in a mine 
is blocked up with fallen roof, &c., it is said to be in, or 
to have come in. 

INBYE. Going into the interior of a mine, away from 
the shafts or other openings. Fresh air and empty 
tubs go iribye. 

INCLINE. 1. Short for Inclined Plane. Any under- 
ground roadway which is driven at an angle to the 
horizon. If to the rise it is worked by a self-acting 
arrangement, if to the deep by a steam or other engine. 


2. To dip sufficiently to form a self-acting incline (1). 

INCLINE EOPE HAULAGE. A system of haulage in 
which, a single rope is used, or where the inclination of 
the plane is such as to allow of the empty tiibs drawing 
the rope in after them. 

INCLINE DRAW-ENGINE. A stationary surface in- 
clined-plane engine. 

INDICATOR. 1. A mechanical contrivance attached 
to winding, hauling, or other machinery which shows 
the position of the cages in the shaft or the trams upon 
an incline during its journey or run. 

2. An apparatus for showing the presence of fire- 
damp in mines. The temperature of goaves. The 
speed of a ventilator, &c. And also for calculating the 
power of an engine. 

IN-DOOR CATCHES. Strong beams in Cornish pump- 
ing engine-houses, to catch the beam in case of a 
smash, and prevent damage to the engine itself. 

IN-DOOR STROKE. That stroke of a Cornish pump- 
ing engine which lifts the water in the bottom or 
drawing lift. 

IN FORK. When pumps are working with the water 
having receded below some of the holes of the wind- 
lore, they are said to be in fork 

INGATE (N.). See Inset. 

IN-GOING. That which is going iribye. 

IN-OVER. See Iribye. 

INSET. The entrance to a mine at the bottom or 
part way down a shaft where the cages are loaded. See 
Fig. 69. 


INSPECTOR. 1. (N.) A man appointed to overlook 
the 'banking and screening department. 

2. Her Majesty's Inspector of Mines, of whom, there 
are several. 

INTAKE. 1. The fresh air airway or road going iribye, 
commencing at the bottom of the downcast. 
2. The fresh air descending into a colliery. 

INTERBEDDED. When patches or layers of strata or 
of trap (having no true relation to the coal measures) 
lie between two beds, the rocks are said to be inter- 
bedded, e.g. the sheet of intrusive dolerite in the 
Leicestershire coal-field. 

IRON MAN. A collier's term for a coal-cutting 

IRONSTONE. A term usually applied to argillaceous 
or clay ironstone, containing from 20 per cent, to 
40 per cent, of iron. It is very commonly met with in 
the coal measures, and takes the form of thin beds or 
layers and of nodules or balls of various sizes and 
shapes is interstratified with the shales and clays 
throughout the entire series of the measures. Sp. gr. 
about 3. A cubic foot weighs from 170 to 190 Ibs. 
The ironstones or ores of the Lias and Oolite series of 
rocks are found in beds as much as from 10 or 20 feet 
thick, these ironstones are of less specific gravity than 
the clay or llackland varieties. Great Britain produces 
annually something like 15,000,000 tons of ironstones 
of various kinds. 

IXOLITE. A mineral found in certain bituminous 



JACK 1. (N.) A lantern-shaped case made of tin 
in which safety lamps are carried in strong currents of 

2. (S.) One who works underground at odd 

JACKANAPES. The small guide pulleys of a whim. 

JACK ENGINE (N.). The engine for raising men, 
debris, &c., in a sinking pit. 

JACK HOLES (N. S.). See Cut through. 

JACK LAMP. A Davy lamp with the addition of a 
glass cylinder outside the gauze. 

JACK PIT (N.). A shallow pit-shaft in a mine com- 
municating with an overcast, or at a fault. 

JACK-ROLL. A windlass worked by hand. 

JACKS. 1. (N.) Large fissures or cracks in the 

2. (Lei.) Wood wedges 6" x 4" tapered at one broad 
edge, so that when driven up they cannot start 

JACKY PIT. See Jack Pit. 

JAD (Som.). A long and deep holing, cutting, or 
jud, made for the purpose of detaching large blocks 
of stone from their natural beds at the Bath-stone 
(Oolitic) quarries, or rather underground workings, at 


JADDING. The operation of forming &jad. 

JADDING PICK. The tool employed to cut a jad. 
They are made in sets of about three or four, with 
helves ranging from three to six feet in length, to enable 
thejads to be cut to a great depth. 

JAILER (Som.). A small tub or box in which water 
is carried in a mine. 

JAM OUT (S. S.). To cut or knock away the spurns 
in "holing. 

JARS (Pa.). A sliding joint in "boring rods for deep 
holes, consisting of two long loops of iron or steel, 
sliding one within the other. 

JAY (D.). Koof coal. 

JENKIN (N.). An opening cut into or a slice taken 
off a pillar from six to eight feet in width, in the board 
and pillar system of working coal. 

JET. A compact, black, lustrous, resinous variety 
of lignite, susceptible of a high polish. It occurs chiefly 
in the Upper Lias clays of Yorkshire, &c., in lenticular 
patches or beds, nodules, and irregularly shaped masses. 
Is believed to be formed of the fossilized stems of coni- 
ferous trees. The Romans used it. Some 1500 hands 
are employed in the jet trade (mining, cutting, polish- 
ing, &c.), and the value in 1872 is stated to have been 
88,OOOZ. Jet is mined by driving levels and systema- 
tically exploring the strata by a kind of stoping or 
overhead excavating. English jet is worth from 300Z. 
to 1300?. per ton. 

JIDDY (L., N. S.). See Eunner (1). 



JIG. A self-acting incline worked by a drum (2) or 
by wheels, with hemp or steel wire ropes. Fig. 83 
shows a useful and in- 
expensive arrangement 7/MM 
for lisrht loads and short 

Fig. 83. 




Fig. 84. 


JIGGER. 1. (S.) A 
kind of coupling hook 
for connecting trams, 
upon an incline. 

2. (Lei.) See Onsetter. 

JIG RUNNER (T.). The man who works 
JINNEY. See Jig. 


JITTY (Lei.). A short slit 
along which empties, horses, or 
workmen travel. 

JOCKEY (M.). A self-acting 
apparatus carried on the front 
tub of a set, for releasing it 
from the hauling rope at a 
certain point. See Fig. 84. 

JOEY (M.). A man specially 

appointed to set timber in a stall during the turn (1). 
He is a "butty, and is not paid for doing this work, but 
takes his turn at it with the other butties in his stall 



JOINTS. Natural divisions, cracks, or partings in 

JOURNAL. A carefully kept diary, schedule, or 
statistical account of the various operations connected 
with the putting down of a borehole (1) in search of 
coal, &c. The following arrangement of the page for 
such a book may be taken as a guide in preparing the 
journal ; it is taken from the work on ' Mine Engineer- 
ing ' by G. G. Andre. 

tion of 

No. of 





tion of 
Tool em- 



X io ,l 

mains. | 


JOURNEY (S. W.). A train or set of trams all coupled 
together running upon an engine plane: as many as 
forty sometimes. 

JOWL or JOWELL (N.). See Chap. 

JUD. 1. (N.) A block of coal about four yards 
square kirved and nicked ready for breaking down. 

2. (Som.). See Jad. 

JUDGE. A staff used for gauging the depth of the 
holing. Formerly a 
boy who proved the 
holing. Fig. 85. 

upper end of the ver- 
tical arm of a judge. 
See Fig. 85. 

JUMP (Jump-up, Jump-down). 1. An up-throw or a 
down-throw, fault. 

Fig. 85. 


2. To raise boring-rods in a bore-hole (1) and allow 
them to fall of their own weight. 

JUMPER. A hand drill used in blasting, having at 
each end a chisel edge and a swell or bead in the middle 
to give it more weight. 

JUNKING (N.). A passage through a pillar of coal. 

JUSTICE-MAN (S.). See Check-weighman. 


KANK (M.). A twist or snick-snarl in a rope. 

KEEKER (N.). An inspector over hewers or other 
workmen underground. 

KEEL (N.). (A Saxon word for a long ship). An oval 
shaped strong and clumsy flat-bottomed vessel for 
carrying coals from staithes or drops to ships; about 
20 tons capacity. 

KEEL-BULLIES (N.). Men who navigate and ply the 
puys of keels. 

and girls who sweep out keels and have the sweepings 
as a perquisite. 

KEELERS (N.). See Keel-bullies. 

KEEPER. (Engine-keeper, Horse-keeper, &c.) See 

KEEPS or KEPS. See Cage Shuts. 

KELF (D., Lei.). The vertical height of the back 
cutting of the holing at any time during the operation 
of holing a stint. 




KELVE (I.). See Bat. 

KENNEL (M.). A collier's term for cannel, which 

KENNER ! (N.) An expression meaning time to leave 
off working, conveyed into the workings by shouting, 
rapping, &c. 

KEP. See Kip. 

KEROSENE SHALE (N. S. W.). Oil-producing shale. 

KETCHES (S. W.). See Backstays. 

KETTLE (S.). A barrel in which men ride in a shaft. 

KEVILS (N.). The weights of coals sent out by the 
various hewers during a certain period. 

KEY. A kind of spanner used in boring by hand. 
Two kinds of keys are employed, one for taking the 
weight off the rods (2), at the 
top of the lorehole (1), when Fig. 86. 

taking them off or putting them 
on; it fits the rods, which are 
lowered back until a box (screw 
joint enlargement) rests upon it ; p 
it usually has an arm on each 
side to assist in screwing off the j, 
rods. The other is an ordinary 
key which is used for screwing 
and unscrewing the rods as well. 
See Fig. 86. 

KIBBLE. See Bowk, but often made with a bow or 
handle and carrying over a ton of debris. 

ETC. 147 

KIBBLES (S. S.). See Crank. 

KICKER. A liberating catch made in the form of a 
bell crank lever rocking on a horizontal axis. Used in 
Kind's system of deep boring. 

KICK-UP (N.). See Tipper. 
KIDING (N.). See Holing. 

KILKENNY COAL (L). See Anthracite. This Irish 
coal weighs 99 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

KILL. To mix atmospheric air with fire-damp or 
other gases so as to make them harmless. 

KIND. Generally signifies tender, soft, or easy to 
work, e. g. a parting is said to be "kind when it allows 
of an easy separation. Blue bind is called kind Hue 
bind when it is soft and jointy and easy to sink 

KIND-CHAUDRON (Belg.). A system of sinking pit- 
shafts through water-bearing strata. It consists in 
boring out the shaft from the surface by means of 
apparatus very similar in kind to that used for pro- 
spective borings. Not only is the pit bored out but it is 
lined with metal tubbing, and pumped dry without a 
man ever going down the shaft after the water is met 
with until it is passed through. The modus operandi 
is somewhat as follows. By means of a very large 
boring tool a shaft about 5 feet in diameter is first 
bored out to a certain depth which forms the centre of 
tire pit when fully enlarged. The second operation is 
to bore out the shaft to the full size with a still larger 
cutting tool (see Trepan) which follows the central 

L 2 


hole 10 or 20 yards behind. The debris is cleared by 
means of a large sheet iron sludger called a cuiller. 
The boring head is actuated through a lever by steam 
power, making from eight to ten strokes per minute, 
and the rate of advance averages about 8 feet per day 
in ordinary ground. When a suitable stratum has been 
found upon which to rest the tubbing, a watertight ring 
packed with moss is lowered into position and upon 
this are built up the rings of tubbing placed one upon 
another at surface, and gradually lowered into the shaft, 
until the whole of it (in some cases 800 tons) presses 
and squeezes down upon the moss, forcing it against 
the sides in such wise as to form a thoroughly water- 
tight joint. The annular space between the rings and 
side of the pit is filled by means of huge spoons dis- 
charged by pistons, with beton or concrete, which when 
set the water is drawn out of the interior of the pit, and 
ordinary, or open-bottom sinking commenced. 

KIND'S PLUG. An ovoid-shaped block of oak fixed 
to a boring rod for jamming into a lining tube of a bore- 
hole (I) in order to withdraw it. 

KINK. See Kanh 

KIP (N.). A level or gently sloping roadway going 
cuibye at the extremity of an engine plane, upon which 
the full tubs stand ready for being sent up the 

KIEVE (N.). To hole. Kirving is the same as 

KIST (N.). A workman's tool box. A cabin in a 




KITCHENS. Coal prepared and sold expressly for 
cooking purposes in ranges, stoves, &c. 

KITTY (N.). A length of about 4 inches of straw 
filled with gunpowder by which flame is communicated 
to the blasting charge for firing it off in a drill 

KNOCK. See Chap. 

KNOCKINGS (S. W.). Signals made underground by 
knocking oijowling on the coal. 

KNOCK OFF. (1.) The point upon an engine plane 
at which the set is disconnected from 
the rope, or where a jockey comes into 

2. A joint for disconnecting the 
bucket sword from the pump rods. See 
Fig. 87. 

3. To do away with. 

4. See Kenner. 

Fig. 87. 

Hoep to 

KNEELER. A quadrant by which 
the direction of pump rods is re- 

KOEPE SYSTEM. Winding coals in shafts without 
drums, a pulley being fixed upon the main shaft instead. 
The main winding rope has a cage at each end, and 
merely passes half round this drum pulley. Under the 
cages ordinary balance or tail ropes (2) are suspended. 
Two additional, or safety ropes, are used, of about one- 
half the length of the main rope the cages being 
attached to each end and small pulleys placed in the 



head stocks carrying them. Fig. 88 is a rough diagram 
of this system. 

Fig. 88. 


LACING. 1. (N. S.) Timbers placed across the tops 
of lars or caps to secure the roof between the gears. 

2. Strips or light bars of wrought iron bent over at 
the ends and wedged in tight between the lars and the 



roof, as shown in the sketch Fig. 89. Great elasticity 
is in this way given to the iron rods, enabling a roof 
to be very efficiently and economically secured. In 

Fig. 89. 

place of wooden bars or head pieces, wrought-iron rail- 
way rails are sometimes employed. 

LADDERS (Som.). Wooden slides with cross bars 
placed between them to give steadiness, on which hudges 
run in steep seams. 

LADE-HOLE (Lei.). A shallow hole cut in the floor 
to receive the drainage, out of which it is laded in 

LAGGING. See Lacing (1). 

LAGS. Long pieces of timber closely fitted together 
and fastened to oak curbs or rings forming part of a drum 
(3) used in sinking through quick (1) ground. 

LAID OFF. When operations at a pit are entirely 
suspended by reason of accident or trade exigencies, 
the pit is said to be laid off. 

LAM or LAMB (W.). A kind of fire-clay. 

LAMB-SKIN (S. W.). See Culm. It is sold as such at 

LAME (F.). The bar to which the cutting teeth of 
a trepan are attached. 


LAMESKIRTING (N.). Widening or cutting off coal, 
&c., from the sides of underground roads in order to give 
more room. 

LAMINGS (N.). Collier's word for accidents of almost 
every description to men and lads working in or about 
the mines. 

LAMP MEN. Cleaners, repairers, and those who have 
charge of the safety lamps at a colliery. 

LAMPS. Signifies Safety-lamps, which see. 

LAMP STATIONS. Certain fixed places in a mine at 
which safety lamps are allowed to be opened and re- 
lighted by men appointed for that purpose, or beyond 
which on no pretence is a naked light allowed to be 

LAND (F. D.). Kising in the direction of the surface 
or outcropping. Workings to the rise of a drainage 

LANDER. The man who receives the loaded lowJc or 
trunk at the mouth of the shaft. 

LANDING. A level stage for loading or unloading 
coals upon. 

LANDINGS (S. W.). Coals, &c., sent to lank the 
output, which see. 

LANDING SHAFT (S. W.). A pit shaft in which coals, 
&c., are raised. 

LANDRY Box (N.). A wooden spout at the top of a 
pumping sett (1) for carrying off the water delivered by 
the pumps. 

LAND-SALE. The sale of coal, &c., loaded into carts 
or wagons at the pit's mouth_for local consumption. 


LAND-SALE COLLIERIES (N.). Those situated in 
out-of-the-way districts, being unconnected with rail, 
canal, or sea, and generally working thin or inferior 

LAND-WEIGHT (L.). The pressure exerted by the 
subsidence of the cover. 

LAP. One coil of rope upon a drum or pulley. 

LARGE. The largest lumps of coal sent to lank (1), 
or all coal which is hand-picked or does not pass over 
screens, also the largest coals which do pass over screens. 
Lumps weighing upwards of a ton are occasionally sent 
out at some of the hard or house-coal collieries of 

LAST LIFT (N.). The last rib or jud to come off a 

LATCH. To make an underground survey with a 
dial and chain ; or to mark out upon the surface with 
the same instruments, the position of the workings under- 

LATCHTNGS. Diallings or surveys made at a mine. 

LAT u E ! or LATTH ! (M.). " Lower the cage down ! " 
or, " Lower down more rope ! " 

LATHS. See Lacing (1). 

LAUNDER or LAUNDRY. A wooden or iron cistern or 
channel in which mine-water is pumped or tipped and 
conducted away from the pit-top to a water-course or 

LAYERED (X.). Choked up with sediment or mud. 

LAY Our (X.). To set out, or put on one side, trams 
of coals, &?., which have been improperly filled and for 


which the coal-getters are fined, and the coals in them 
are forfeited. 

LEAD. 1. To haul or draw coals, &c., either by animal 
or engine power. 

2. (Pa.) A stage worked by a mule or by a loco- 
motive engine, of a maximum distance of say three- 
quarters of a mile. 

LEADER. 1. A cast or wrought-iron ring or shoe, 
bolted to the bottom (often round the outside) of a 
brick cylinder, a wooden drum, or a wrought-iron 
cylinder when used for sinking through quicksand or 
gravel. It enables the drum or cylinder to force its way 
through the ground. 

2. (Som.) The slip of a, fault. 

3. Any particular or constant bed or band of coal, 
ironstone, &c., in connection with certain workable beds, 
serving as a kind of datum line, so to speak, in a 

4. (N.) A BACK (1) or fissure in a coal seam. 

LEADING BANK (Y.). A breadth of about 18 yards 
of coal taken out between pairs of loardgates to the rise 
commencing from the lank level. See Fig. 9 [Bank- 

LEADING MAN. See First Man. 

LEAN (D.). Thin, poor ; of inferior quality. 

LEAP. A fault of dislocation or throw. There are 
Leap-ups and Leap-downs. See Down-leap and Up-leap. 

LEA-STONE (L.). Laminated sandstone. 


LEATHER-BED (M.). A tough leather-like clayey 
substance running in a fault slip, composed of the 
ground-up and squeezed fractured ends of the coal 
measures. Seldom more than a few inches in thick- 

LED (N.). A led tub means a spare one, or one which 
is being loaded whilst another is being emptied. 

LEG. 1. (S.) A wooden prop supporting one end of 
a bar. 

2. (Y.) (Cleveland.) A stone which has to be 
wedged out from beneath a larger one. 

LEVEL. A road or way running parallel or nearly so 
with the strike of the seam, and often used as a water- 
level for drainage purposes. 

LEVEL-FREE (W.) Old coal or ironstone workings at 
the outcrop, worked by means of a day level driven into 
the hillside. 

LEVEL TONS. Weight of mineral wrought in tons, 
any odd cwts. not being taken into account. 

LEYS or BLUE-LEYS (L.). See Bind. 

LTD. 1. A short piece of timber about 2 feet long 
placed atop of a prop to support the roof. 
2. (F. D.) The roof of an Ironstone working. 

LIDSTONE (F. D.). The roof-stone of an iron mine. 
LIE. Having reference to the dip of the strata. 

LIE-TIME (S). A period of rest or cessation from 
work during a shift or turn (1). 

LIFE. When in cutting or getting coal it makes a 


crackling or bursting noise and works easily, it is said 
to have life in it, or to be alive. 

LIFT. 1. The vertical height travelled by the cage 
in a pit-shaft. 

2. A column or sett (1) of pumps. 

3. A certain thickness of coal worked in one opera- 

4. (N.) To clear gas out of a working place. 

5. To creep, as when the floor rises up towards the 
roof or lifts. 

6. A broken jud (1 ). 

7. (Pa.) A block of coal measuring three-quarters of 
a mile on the strike by 1000 yards to the rise. 

8. (F. D.) A rise in the price of coal or in miners' 

9. To break up, "bench (2), or blast coals from the 
bottom of the seam upwards. 

10. A certain vertical thickness of coal seams and 
measures, having considerable inclination, between or in 
which the workings are being carried on to the rise, 
all the coals being raised from one pit "bottom. A 
colliery may be composed of several lifts. See Eelevee, 
Fig. 110. 

LIFTING (S.). Drawing hutches out of the working 
places into the main roads. 

LIFTING DOGS. See Crow's foot. 

LIFTING GUAKDS. Fencing placed round the mouth 
of a pit-shaft, which is lifted out of the way for decking, 
by the cages as they reach the surface. 


LIFTING WICKET (S. W.). See Lifting guards. 
LIG (N.). To lie down. 

LIGNITE. A coal of a woody character, containing 
about 66 per cent, of carbon, found in the Secondary 
and Tertiary rocks. 

LIGHTNING EXPLOSION. An explosion of firedamp 
caused by an electric current during a thunderstorm 
going into a mine and igniting the gas. 

LILLYCOCK (M.). See Kenner. 

LIME CARTRIDGE. A charge or measured quantity of 
compressed dry caustic lime made up into a cartridge (2), 
and used instead of gunpowder and in a somewhat 
similar manner for breaking down coal. The cartridge 
is first placed in the lore-hole and stemmed, and then 
water is injected into the hole and on to the lime. 
Heat or steam is immediately produced, and, expansion 
taking place, the coal is thereby broken down in a very 
safe manner, as there is no flame to cause an explosion 
of gas, and in a less shattered condition than with the 
use of powder. 

LIME COAL. Small coal suitable for lime burning. 

LIME PROCESS. The method of getting coal by the 
use of the lime cartridge. 

LIMMERS or LIMBERS. Light wooden or iron shafts 
for attaching pit ponies to the trams, especially useful 
in seams having a considerable inclination. 

LINER (Lei.). A bar put up between two other bars 
to assist in carrying the roof. 


LINES. Pieces of twine about two or three feet in 
length weighted at the bottom end with a small lump 
of clay or with a bit of iron, &c., to steady them, and 
suspended from hooks driven into wooden plugs called 
stomps (which see). Not less than two (called a pair of 
lines) are put up, their object being to keep the head- 
ing, &c., in which they may be placed in the proper 
course or point. A line drawn between the centres of 
these two strings represents the bearing or point of the 
compass to be driven by, which is determined by the 

LINING (D.). Clay Ironstone in beds or bands. 
LINN and WOOL (L.). Streaky grey sandstone. 

LINSEED EARTH (Sh.). Blackish grey clay suitable 
for making into firebricks. 

LINSEY (L.). Strong Bind, also streaky sand- 

LIP. 1. (M.) The low part of the roof of a gate-road 
near to the face ; taken down or ripped, as it is called, 
as the face advances. 

2. The edge of & fault slip. 

IJIPEY BLAES (S.). Lumpy Bind or shales. 
LIPPEN (N.). To calculate, guess, reckon upon, &c. 

LIST. Mine Inspector's term for the schedule of 
particulars of accidents enumerated in his annual 
Keport to the Government. 

LOADER. One who fills the trams in the working 


LOADER OFF. A man who regulates the sending out 
of the full tubs from a long-wall stall, gate end. 

LOADINGS. Pillars of masonry carrying a drum or 

LOAM. Any mixture of sand and clay which is 
neither distinctly sandy nor clayey. 

LOCKER (M,). A short iron or wooden bar for 
scotching tram wheels on inclined roads. 

LODE (S. S.). A seam or mine. 

LODGE. A subterraneous reservoir for the drainage of 
the mine, made at the pit bottom, in the interior of the 
workings, or at different levels in the shaft. 

LODGMENT (S.). See Sump and Lodge. 

LOFTHEAD (N. S.). A cavity or vacant space in the 
roof produced by a/oZZ. 

LOFTING. 1. (S. W.) An old or disused heading 
over the top of another one. 
2. (N.) See Lacing. 

LOG (N. S.). See Dolly. 

LOGGED up. Supported by trees, props, or puncheons. 

LOOKING (N.S.). Examining the strata which is 
not walled up in a sinking-pit. 

LONG PAY (S. W.) A system of paying wages. 
LOLLEY (M.). See Locker. 

LONG PILLAR WORK. A system of working coal 
seams in three separate operations. First, large pillars, 
one of which is represented by the square a, &, c t d, 
Fig. 90, are formed. Secondly, a number of parallel 
headings are driven through the block ; and, lastly, the 



ribs or narrow pillars are worked away, commencing in 
the middle at e and working both ways. 

Fig. 90. 

LONG-SHIFT (S.). From say 6 A.M. on Sunday till 6 
A.M. on Monday, the time during which the furnaceman 
and horse-tender has to be underground under certain 

LONG-TON. A weight of more than 20 cwt. In canal 
trade sometimes 25 or more cwt. of coals are allowed to 
the ton. 

LONGUES TAILLES (F.). See Long-wall. 

LONG-WALL. A system of working coal and ironstone 
in which the whole of the seam is gotten or worked 
away, and no pillars left in excepting the shaft pillars, 
and sometimes main road pillars, the goaves being more 
or less filled up to prevent large accumulations of fire- 
damp. There are two modes of working under the long- 



wall plan. No. 1, to work outwards, commencing near 
the shafts and taking out all the coal, carrying the 
roads in the goaf* by pack walls ; or, secondly (No. 2), 

Fig. 91. 

by driving out the main roads to the boundary and then 
Iringing lack the faces and leaving all the goaf behind.* 
See plan, Fig. 91. 

* In the Long-wall system the weight assists greatly in extracting the 
coal, an advantage lost by other systems of working. See Fig. 92, 

Fig. 92. 

showing how the subsidence of the roof helps to break down the coal 
at the face. 


LONG-WEIGHT. See Long-ton. 

LONG-WORK. 1. (Y.) A system of working coal some- 
what in the manner shown in Fig. 17.* 

2. (Lei.) Ancient plan of working the Main coal of 
Moira. Each stall or long-work was about 150 yards in 
length (usually two in a pit), and was worked by about 
twenty butties, the coal being got on the gob-road 

LOOKING (N. S.). Examining the un walled sides of 
a sinking pit. 

LOOPS. See D links. 

LOOSE ! or LOOSE ALL ! (N.) See Kenner. 

LOOSE END. The limit of a stall next to the goaf, 
or where the adjoining stall is in advance. 

LOOSE NEEDLE. See Dialling. 

LOOSING (S. S.). Lowering a cage, &c., into or down 
a shaft or pit. 

LORDSHIP (S.). Royalty or acreage rent. 

LORRY (Y.). A running bridge over a sinking pit 
top upon which the bowk is placed after it is brought up 
for emptying. 

LOSE. 1. To work a seam of coal, &c., up to where 
it dies out or is faulted out of sight. This is called losing 
the coal. 

2. To be unable to work out a pillar on account of 
thrust, creep, gob-fire, &c. 

3. A pit-shaft is said to be lost when it has run in or 
collapsed beyond recovery. 

LOUGHS (L.). Irregular cavities in iron mines. 
Low. 1. (N.) A candle or other naked light carried 
by a miner. 


2. (F. D.) Minor channels communicating with 
horses, are termed lows. 

Low ROPE (N.). A piece of rope used as a torch. 

LUM. 1. (N.). A chimney placed on the top of an 
upcast shaft to carry off the smoke, &c., and to increase 
the ventilating current. 

2. (D.) A basin or natural swamp in a coal seam s 
often running several hundred yards in length. 

LUMBEKINGS (D.). Bumps over old workings. 
LUMPS (S. S.). Coal of largest size by one. 

LURRY. 1. (Y.) A tram to which an endless rope is 
attached, fixed at the iribye end of the plane, forming 
part of an appliance for taking up the slack rope. See 
Fig. 93. 

Fig. as. 

2. A movable platform on wheels, the top of which 
is made on a level with the lank (1) or surface. It is 
run over the mouth of a pit-shaft for a bowk to be lowered 
down upon when reaching the pit top. 

LYE (S.). A siding for tubs in a mine. 

LYPES (S.). Irregularities in the roof indicating 
danger from falls. 

M 2 



MACHINE. A weighbridge or weighing machine upon 
which wagons, trams, carts, &c., are weighed, either with 
or without their loads of coals, &c. 

MACHINE-MAN. One who weighs coals, &c., and 
keeps an account of the number of tubs sent to "bank (1). 

MACHINE WALL. The face at which a coal-cutting 
machine works. 

MAIDEN FIELD or GROUND. A coalfield, &c., which 
has not been tapped. 

MAIN DOOR. See Bearing Door. 

MAIN BOARD-GATE (Y.). The heading which is 
driven to the rise of the shaft. It is usual to make it 
larger in sectional area than an ordinary board-gate. 
See a, Fig. 9 [Bank-work]. 

MAIN ENGINE (N.). The surface pumping engine, 
usually of the Cornish type. 

MAIN KOAD. The principal underground way in a 
district along which the produce of the mine is conveyed 
to the shafts, generally forming the main intake air 
course of each district. 

MAIN HOPE. A system of underground haulage in 
which the weight of the empty tubs is sufficient to draw 
the rope inbye. 

MAIN SUIT (B.). A heavy spring or feeder of water. 

MAINTENAGE (F.). The face of workings in rearing 
or vertical seams, consisting of a series of little steps 


each about six feet in height, and forming the working 
place of one man. 


MAKE GAS (M.). A seam of coal which gives off fire- 
damp is said to make gas. 

MAKINGS (N.). The slack and dirt made in holing. 

MALM (Som.). Loam. 

MANAGER. An official who has the daily control and 
supervision of a colliery or mine, both under and above 
ground. He usually has the appointment of all the 
sub-officials employed underground ; has the setting out 
and superintendence of all new works ; is responsible to 
the Owner or Agent for carrying out the requirements 
of the Act of Parliament, &c.; for keeping up an adequate 
amount of ventilation ; for having the plans, books, &c., 
made and kept up from time to time ; and for the general 
maintenance of order, regularity, and efficiency of every- 
thing connected with the getting and output of the coal, 
&c. He must hold a Certificate of Competency or of 
Service from the Government. 

MAN HOLE. A refuge hole constructed in the side 
of an underground engine plane or horse road, placed 
20 yards apart on engine planes and 50 yards on horse- 

MAN HUDGE (G.). A kind of barrel or box in which 
men ride in a pit-shaft. 

MAN-O'-WAR (S. S.). A small auxiliary pillar of coal 
left un worked in the Thick coal-seam workings, as an 
additional support, or having some special service in 
regard to faulty coal, &c. 


MAN EOPE. A winding rope used exclusively for 
lowering and raising men and animals at the time when 
tucklers and swinging lont were used and cages unknown. 
When used, the coal-drawing ropes were drawn out of 
the way up against the shaft sides, and the man rope 
was then swung into the centre of the pit, having its 
own pulley in the head gear fixed between the other 
two. A separate drum (1) was employed for this rope, 
put into gear when required. 

MAN WAY (Pa.). A lolthole between two chutes. 

MARCH (S.). The boundary of the coal or colliery. 

MARCHING (S.). Boundary workings. 

MARCH PLACE (S.). A heading working up to or 
alongside the march. 

MARK. Word applied to a band of hemp, &c., 
wrapped round a winding rope to indicate to the engine- 
man the position of the load in the shaft. 

MARL. Indurated clay or shale, sometimes fire-clay. 

MARROW (N.). A mate, lutty, or partner. 

MARSH GAS. In mining language synonymous with 

MASSIFS LONGS (F.). Pillars in long-wall workings. 

MASTER CHARGEMAN. The head sinker of a shift. 
He prepares and fires (2) the shots, and looks after the 
work being properly done, and the safety of the pit and 
men under him. 

MASTERS. Colliers' term for the owners of the works. 
A pit is said to be worked by the masters when the butty 
system is not in vogue. Coals cut by men who are paid 
by the time and not by the ton or score are called 


masters 9 coals, and are marked or chalked in a particular 
way in the pit to distinguish them. 

MATCH. Gunpowder put into a piece of paper 
several inches long, and used as effuse. 

specting for coal, &c., by steam machinery with a flat 
hemp rope instead of rigid rods. The cutters or boring- 
head and rope are raised by a vertical steam cylinder, 
and have a free fall, varying in height from 2 feet 
6 inches upwards. The weight of the cutting tools 
with guide bar and mechanism for rotating the same is 
about a ton, but heavier for larger holes. Solid cores, 
showing the dip and character of the strata bored 
through, can be brought to surface, and holes up to 
2 and 3 feet in diameter bored to a great depth. 

MAUL (N.). A drivers hammer. 

MAUNDKIL. A pick with two shanks and points used 
in getting coal, &c. 

MAVIES (N.). Possibly, perhaps. 

MEASURE (Sh. S. S.). A bed or pin of ironstone. 

MEASURES. Strata. See Ground. 

MEASURES HEAD. A heading or drift made in various 
strata. See Grut. 

MEEND or MEAND (F. D.). Old ironstone workings 
at the outcrop, some of which were worked by the 

MEET. To keep pace with : e. g. to keep up the 
supply of coals at the pit bottom as fast as the winding 
engine can raise them, which is commonly called 
meeting the turn. 


MEETING. 1. A siding or pass-by on underground 

2. The point in the shaft at which the cages pass 
one another or meet. 

MEND. To load or reload trams at the gate-ends out 
of smaller trams used only in the working faces in thin 

MENDITS (F.). See Putters. 

MENU (Belg.). Slack. 

METAL (N.). Indurated clay or shale. See Bind. 

METAL DBIFT (L.). A heading driven in stone. See 

METAL MAN (L.). One who repairs underground 

METAL EIDGES (N.). Pillars forming themselves into 
supports to the roof, formed by 
the creep in the boards. See 
Fig. 94. 

METALS. 1. (Ch.) Marl beds 
more or less indurated. 

2. (S.) Coal seams, or mines -^^ 
of coal, &c. 

METAL STONE (N.). Sandstone and shale mixed. 
METAL TUBBING. See Tubbing. 

MIDGES (N.). Lamps (not safety) carried by putters 

MID-WORKINGS (S.). Workings with other workings 
above and below in the same mine (3) or colliery. 


MINE. 1. Ironstone, either in thin bands, or in one 
bed several inches in thickness. 

2. A seam of coal. 

3. A coal-pit or colliery, or a pit or place where iron- 
stone, clay, shale, rock-salt, stone, &c., are worked or 

4. (S.) A cross-measures drift or incline communi- 
cating with two or more seams of coal, &c. 

5. (S.) A trial heading to prove minerals, &c. 

MINE EAETH (N. S.). Synonymous with ironstone in 
beds : a term used as much as 200 years ago. 

MINE GROUND. Strata containing ironstone in 

MINE MEASURES (F. D.). See Mine ground. 
MINERS' COAL TON. In Wales, 21 cwts. of 120 Ibs. 

MINE WORK. An ironstone mine (3) or workings. 
MINGE or MINGY COAL. Coal of a tender nature. 

MINGLES (S.). The vertical timbers of the upper 
part of a pulley frame, on the top of which the pulleys 
are fixed. 

MINIMUM KENT. The certain, dead, or fixed rent 
payable by the Lessee of a colliery, &c., each half-year, 
whether he shall have worked or disposed of any 
minerals or not during that period. The amount pay- 
able during the sinking of the shafts and opening out 
the underground workings is usually less than when the 
mine has become fully developed. 

MISTRESS (N.). A wooden or tin box, having the 
front open, in which a candle is carried in a pit. 


MIZEB. The chief tool used in certain systems of 
sinking the cylinders of small shafts through water- 
bearing strata, to remove the ground from beneath them. 
It consists of an iron cylinder, varying in diameter from 
1 foot 6 inches to 6 feet, with an opening on the side 
and a cutting lip, and which is attached by a box-joint 
to a set of boring rods, and turned from above. 


MONITOR (U. S. A.). See Gunboat. 

MONKEY (Lei.). An iron catch or scotch (1) fixed in 
the floor of a way. 

MONKEY GANGWAY (Pa.). An air course driven 
parallel with a gangway and heading at a higher level, 
and generally in the top-rock or roof, and connected 
with them by cross cuts. 

MORTS TERRAINS (F.). Barren or dead ground. The 
water-bearing strata overlying the coal measures. 

MOSH (Lei.). Synonymous with smash. Coal which 
is very nesh or tender is liable to mosTi down, or break 
up into slack, if roughly handled, conveyed long 
distances, or allowed to stand exposed to the weather 
for a considerable time. A collier's term only. 

Moss Box. A cast iron annular open-topped box or 
ring, placed in watertight ground for making a water- 
tight seat or bed for the tubbing of a Kind-Chaudron 
system sinking pit. The box is filled with dry moss 
and is lowered into the pit with, or suspended from, the 
tubbing, the pressure of which, as it settles down, causes 
compression of the moss to the perfect exclusion of 


water from behind. It is practically an enormous 
stuffing-box, and serves the purpose of a wedging crib. 

MOTE or MOAT. A straw filled with gunpowder for 
igniting a shot. 

MOTHEK OF COAL. Sooty coal. 

MOTHERGATE (N.). A road in the workings to be 
eventually converted into a main road. 

MOTIVE COLUMN. The length of column of air in 
the downcast shaft which would be equal in weight to 
the difference of the weight of the air in downcast and 
upcast shafts. The power obtained by furnace ventila- 
tion is measured by the difference between the weight 
of the air in the two shafts. To find the motive column 
the following formula is given : 

M = Motive column. 

T= Temperature of upcast. 

t= Temperature of downcast. 

D = Depth of downcast. 

MOTTY (Y.). See Tally. 

MOUTH. The top of a pit-shaft at the surface. 

MOUTHING (S. S.). See Inset. 

MOVE (N. W.). A roof which is just about to fall or 

MUCK (Y.). See Dirt. 

MUESELER LAMP. A safety lamp brought out and 
exclusively used in the collieries of Belgium. It is 
considered the safest lamp of all the many different 
forms hitherto constructed. Its chief features consist 


in the horizontal gauze and conical metallic chimney 
with which it is fitted, making it very sensitive to fire- 
damp, self-extinguishing in an explosive mixture or when 
not placed perfectly upright, and is a 
lamp which will withstand a con- 
siderable current of air or explosive 
mixture without going out or causing 
the flame to pass through the gauze 
and thereby cause an explosion. 

MULNIELLO (It.). A kind of quarry 
or place in a coal mine where stone 
and debris are obtained for the purpose 
of stowing or filling up goaves. 

MUSH [rhyming with push] (Lei.). 
Soft, sooty, dirty, earthy coal, &c. 

MUSHY COAL (Lei.). Where a sooty 
substance pervades coal, or where it is 

MUSSEL BAND. A bed of clay ironstone containing 
fossil bivalve shells, anthraeosia, &c. 

MUTHUNG (Pr.). A concession of mines from the 
State, generally about 612 acres, described in plan by 
straight lines and in depth by vertical planes. 

NAGER (B.). A drill for boring holes for shots. 

NAKED LIGHT. A candle or any form of lamp which 
is not a safety lamp. 



NANNIES (Y.). Natural joints, cracks, or slips (2) in 
the coal measures. See Cleat (1). 
NAPPES (Belg.). Water-bearing strata. 

NARROWS (N.). Galleries or roadways driven at right 
angles to drifts (4), and not quite so large in area. 

NARROW WORK. 1. (Pa.) Headings, chutes, cross-cuts, 
gangways, &c., or the workings previous to the removal 
of the pillars. 

2. A working-place in coal only a few yards in width. 

3. See Deadwork. 

4. A system of working coal in Yorkshire. See plan, 

Fig. 96. 

Fig. 96. 

NATTLE (N.). See Fissle. 

NATURAL VENTILATION. Ventilating a mine without 
either furnace or other artificial means ; the heat im- 
parted to the air by the strata, men, animals, and 
lights in the mine, causing it to flow in one direction, 
or towards the deepest shaft. 

NEEDLE. A sharp-pointed copper or brass rod with 


which a small hole is made through the stemming to 
the cartridge in blasting operations. 

NESH. Friable, soft, crumbly, powdery, dusty. 

NEST-WEISE (F. D.). Iron ore which occurs in pockets 
is said to lie Nest-weise. 

NETHER COAL (M.). The lower division of a thick 
seam of coal. 

NICK (N.). To cut or shear coal after holing. 

NIGHT SHIFT. The set of men who work during 
the night. 

NIGHT WATCH (Lei.). A trusty old collier who keeps 
guard on the surface during the night. 

NIP. 1. (S. W.) A kind of fault, the roof and floor 
coming nearly together. 

2. To cut grooves at the ends of "bars, to make them 
fit more evenly. 

NIPPING-FORK. A tool formed something like a 
spanner, for supporting or hanging boring-rods at the 
surface during the screwing on and off of the rods. 
See Key. 

NIPPLE (M.). See Fissle. A word used to express 
the crepitant noises made by the settling down or 
weighting of the roof. 

NITCH WHEELS (S. S.). Drums or pirns upon which 
the wood-chain winding bands coil. 

NOG. See Cog and Chock. 

NON-SEAT (M.). See D Link 

NOOK (N.). A corner of a pillar of coal. 

NOOPER (Lei.). A Dresser, which see. 


NORTH END (Y.). The rise side of the coal in North 

NOSE IN. A stratum is said to nose in when it dtps 
beneath the ground or into a hill-side in a V or nose 

NOSE OUT. A nose-shape stratum cropping out. 

NOTCH STICKS (F. D.). Short pieces of stick notched 
or nicked, used by miners as records of the number of 
tubs of coal, &c., they send out of the pit during the day. 

NUBBER (M.). A block of wood about twelve inches 
square, for throwing tubs off the road in case the 
couplings or ropes break. A boy places it between the 
rails as soon as the full train has passed oufbye. 

NUTS. Small lumps of coal which will pass through 
a screen the bars of which vary in width apart between 
J inch and 2J inches. 


OBERBERGAMT (Pr.). A board or council consisting 
of six or seven members, which sanctions colliery rules, 
prescribes as to the duties of inspectors, fiery mines, 
safety lamps, &c. The State has appointed five mining 
boards, or Olerbergdmter. 

OBERSTEIGER (Pr.). An underground overman, who 
acts under the guidance of the Betriebsfuhrer, or 

OCEAN COAL (C.). Coal-seams lying beneath the sea. 

OCHRE. See Canker. 

ODD-KNOBBING (S. S.). Breaking off the coal from 
the sides in the Thick-coal workings. 


ODD MAN. One who works by time at sundry jobs 
in the mine. 

ODD WORK. Work other than that done by con- 
tract, such as repairing roads, constructing stoppings, 
dams, &c. 

OFF (N.). Worked out, gotten, wrought. 

OFF-GATES (N.). Goaf roadways in long-wall work- 
ings about 120 yards apart. 

OFF-TAKE. 1. The raised portion of an upcast shaft 
above the surface, for carrying off smoke and steam, 
&c., produced by the furnaces and engines underground. 

2. The length of boring-rods unscrewed and taken off 
at the top of the lore-hole (1), depending upon the 
height of the head-gear and depth of the staple, or well. 

OFF-TAKE KODS. Auxiliary wooden rods at the top 
and bottom of a winding-shaft, by means of which the 
cages are guided and steadied during decking. 

OIL-SHALE. Shale containing such a proportion of 
hydrocarbons as to be capable of yielding mineral oil 
on slow distillation. Occurs in layers or seams inter- 
stratified with other aqueous deposits, as in the Scottish 
coal-fields. It consists of fissile argillaceous layers, 
highly impregnated with bituminous matter, passing 
on one side into common shale, on the other into cannel 
or parrot coal. The richer varieties yield from 30 to 
40 gallons of crude oil to the ton of shale. 

OLD MEN. The former workers of a mine. The 
workings left by them are called old men's workings, or, 
as in Derbyshire, The old man. 

ON-COST (S.). Dead work expenses, being costs in- 
curred at a mine, whether minerals are raised or not. 


ONE WAY (S. S.). A particular class of house coaL 

ON-SETTEB. See Bottomer. Also the man who changes 
the tubs in the cages at bank (2). 

ON-SETTING MACHINE. A mechanical apparatus fixed 
at the top and at the bottom (or only at the surface) of 
a pit-shaft, on a level with the cages, for loading them 
with the full tubs, and discharging the empties, or vice 
versa, at one operation, thus effecting a great saving of 
time and manual labour. There are several machines 
for performing this important operation, viz., Fowler's 
hydraulic apparatus, by which cages having three or 
four decks can be loaded and unloaded in a few seconds 
without moving the winding -engine or decking, as it is 
called, in the ordinary sense of the word. Another 
machine takes the form of an inclined framework, 
carrying the tubs, which the cage actuates on being 
lowered on to the props or keeps. A third is worked by 
a small steam cylinder, which tilts a platform carrying 
the trams, thus causing them to run forward on to the 
caqe. A fourth consists in withdrawing the full trams 

V O 

from the cages by means of a light rod and a chain 
worked by a small steam-engine fixed near the top of 
the screens, which are directly opposite the pit-top, 
thereby avoiding almost all the heavy work of pushing 
heavily loaded trams about on surface, which occasion- 
ally carry 25 cwt. of coals, the tram being 9 cwt. 

ON THE KUN (Pa.). The ability to work a seam of 
coal which has sufficient inclination to cause the coal, 
as worked away towards the rise, to fall by gravity to 
the gangways for loading up into cars, is called working 
coal on the run. 



OPEN BOTTOM. The bottom of a sinking-pit open 
directly to the atmosphere or surface. 

OPEN-CAST WORKING (S.). A coal-working having 
no roof. See Open Hole. 

OPEN HOLE. Coal or other mine workings at the 
surface or outcrop, sometimes carried to a depth of 50 
or 60 feet, forming a kind of quarry. See Bench Work- 
ing (Fig. 15). 

OPENINGS. 1. Short "heads (1) driven at certain in- 
tervals between two or more parallel heads or levels for 
ventilation. As each opening is cut, the last one is 
built up with bricks and mortar, to drive the air-current 
forward to the face (1) of working. 

2. (N.) Backs (1). 

OPEN LIGHT. See Naked Light. 

OPEN OFF. To commence the working away of a 
seam of coal, &c., upon the long-wall system from the 
shaft pillar, or it may be the far end of the royalty (1), 
or from any headings previously driven out for the 
purpose of commencing such system, or a modification 

OPEN OUT. To drive headings out, or commence 
working in the coal, &c., after sinking the shafts. 

OPEN EOCK. Any stratum capable of holding much 
water, or conveying it along its bed by virtue of its 
porous or open character. 

OPEN SHELL-AUGER. A coal-boring tool for extract- 
ing clay and other debris from the hole : it has no valve 
at the lower end. 


OPEN-TOP TUBBING. A length of tubbing having no 
wedging-crib oil the top of it. 

OPEN WORKINGS. Workings carried on by open hole. 

OUTBREAK COAL. An old term for outcrop of a coal 

OUTBURST. 1. (N.) A Slower. 

2. See Crop. 

OUTBYE. In the direction of the pit bottom. 

OUT-CROP. 1. The surface-edge of any inclined 

2. To incline upwards, so as to appear at the surface. 

OUT-DOOK STROKE. That stroke of a Cornish pump- 
ing-engine by which the water is forced upwards by the 
weight of the descending pump-rods, &c. 

OUT-FALL. A seam cropping out at a lower level. 
OUT-OVER. See Outbye. 

OUT-PUT. The quantity of coal, &c., raised during 
a certain period for instance, 6000 tons per week. 

OUT-SET. 1. (N.) The walling of shafts built up 
above the original ground-level. 

2. A brick or stone shaft walling built up within 

OUT-STROKE. The privilege of breaking a barrier, 
and working and conveying underground the coal from 
an adjoining royalty. 

OUTSTROKE BENT. Payment made for the privilege 
of working through a barrier, &c., and conveying the 
produce of the mine from an adjoining property. 

OVERBURDEN. Cover in open workings. See Baring. 

N 2 


OVERCAST. See Air-crossing. 
OVER-CROSSING. See Air-crossing. 
OVERGATE. See Air-crossing. 

OVERGETTINGS. Minerals worked and sold from a 
royalty in excess of the certain quantity upon which a 
rent or royalty at per acre is paid. 

OVERHAND STOPING. A system of working thick 
seams of coal in Germany. The upper divisions are 
wrought first and then the lower. The word stoping is 
one having special reference to metalliferous mining, 
and not to coal. 

OVERLAP FAULT. A peculiar kind of fault where a 
seam is reversed or doubled back over itself. See 
Fig. 70 (5). 

OVERLIE (Sorn.). The Triassic or other later for- 
mation of strata overlying the coal measures. 

OVERLYING. Eock beds having no true connection 
with the coal measures, but which have been deposited 
at a subsequent date : e. g., some of the traps of the 
South Staffordshire and Shropshire coal-fields. 

OVERMAN, also OVERSMAN. One who has charge of 
the workings whilst the men are in the pit. He gets 
his orders from the underviewer. 

OVER-ROPE. The winding rope which passes from 
the pulley over the top of the drum (1). 

OVERTHROW. 1. (Pa.) Wooden air pipes for con- 
necting headings for ventilation. 
2. (Y.) See Air-crossing. 

OVER-VENTILATION. Too much air in the workings. 


OVER- WIND. To draw ^a cage or bowk up into the 
OXTER (S.). 


PACK. A rough wall or block of coal or stone built 
up to support the roof. Fig. 97. 

PACK BUILDER. One who builds packs. 
PACKER. A man who builds or constructs packs. 

Fig. 97. 


PACK WALL. A wall of stone or rubbish built on 
either side a gate road, to carry the roof and keep the 
sides up. See Fig. 97. 

PADDY (Y.). An open or non-safety lamp carried 
by men and lads in the mines. 

PADDY PAN (Lei.). Skeps formerly used in swinging 

PAIR OF GEARS (N.). See Gears. 

PAIR OF TIMBERS (S. W.). See Gears. 

PAIRS (S. S.). Two pit-shafts sunk to the Thick 
coal seam about 100 yards apart. 

PAN. 1. (Som.) Fire or underclay of the Kadstock 
coal seams. 



Fig. 98. 



2. (M.) Sheet-iron vessels holding, say, J-cwt., into 
which fillers rake the small. 

PANE (S. S.). A lift (3) or stint of coal measuring 
2 feet 6 inches high, 6 feet in width, and 6 feet under 
or forward. 

PANEL. A large rectangular block or pillar of coal, 
measuring, say, 130 by 100 yards. 

PANEL WORKING. A system of working coal seams 
which came into use 
about 1810 in the North 
of England. See Fig. 98. 
The colliery is divided 
up into large squares or 
panels, isolated or sur- 
rounded by solid ribs of 
coal, in each of which a 
separate set of boards and 
pillars is worked, and the 
ventilation is kept dis- 
tinct that is, every panel 


has its own intake and 

return, the air of one not passing into the adjoining one, 

but being carried direct to the upcast shaft. 

PAPER COAL. Finely laminated coal of the Tertiary 
era, resembling highly compressed leaves. 

PARACHUTE. 1. K thin leather washer placed 
between two stops on the lower end of boring-rods, 
to break the fall of the rods in case they are acciden- 
tally dropped or break, by preventing the water in the 
borehole getting past it beyond a certain velocity. It 
acts as a kind of cushion or brake. 


2. (F.) A safety cage fitted up with an ingenious 
arrangement by which, on the breaking of the winding- 
rope, a wedge is, by the action of springs, inserted 
between the wooden guides and a part of the cage, so 
as to bring the latter immediately to a standstill. 

PARCEL (S. S.). An old term for a ton ; really 27 cwts. 

PARROT COAL (S., N.). A description of cannel coal, 
so called because when on the fire it splits and cracks 
up with a chattering noise, like a parrot talking. 

PART CANDLES. The use of candles as well as 
safety lamps in a mine. 

PARTING. 1. (S. W.) The double roads (2) laid in 
an inset or pit-bottom arching. 

2. Any thin interstratified bed of earthy material. 

PASS-BY. A siding in which tubs pass one another 
underground. In Fig. 99 is shown a plan of a pass- 
by as sometimes constructed upon a self-acting inclined 

Fig. 99. 


PASS-PIPE. An iron pipe connecting the water at 
the back of one set of tubbing with that of another, or a 
pipe only in communication with one tub, and open 
to the interior of the shaft. 

PATCHING (S. W.). Workings carried on at the 
outcrop or by open hole, their depth and extent being 
limited by the quantity of water met with and the 
amount of baring required. 


PATCHWORK (D.). Synonymous with Patching. 

PATENT FUEL. Small coal, with an admixture of 
from 8 to 10 per cent, of pitch or tar, compressed by 
machinery into bricks or blocks of a convenient size for 
use in the furnaces of boilers, &c. 

PAVEMENT. 1. (S.) The floor of a mine. 
2. (S.) A kind of fireclay, cluncli, &c. 

PAY. The day upon which, or the place where, wages 
are made up or paid. Going to draw wages is called 
" going to the pay.' 9 

- PEACOCK COAL (L.). Iridescent coal. 

PEAT COAL. A soft earthy variety of coal, of 
Secondary or Tertiary era. 

PEAS. Small coals about J-inch or f-inch cube. 
PECK. See Pick 

PECKING UP (S. S.). Elevating or propping up with 
rough stones, bricks, rubbish, &c. 

PEGGY (Y.). Synonymous with pick, which see. 
PEGS (F. D.). See Notchsticks. 

PELDON (S. S.). Hard and compact siliceous rock. 
See Cank. 


PENITENT (F.). A fireman who, in early coal mining 
days, was employed to explode (purposely, in order to 
get rid of it) the fire-damp. So called on account of the 
resemblance of his dress to that of certain religious 
orders in the Roman Catholic Church. 

PENNYSTONES. Bands of clay ironstone. 



PENTHOUSE or PENTHUS. A wooden hut or covering 
for the protection of sinkers in a pit bottom. 

PFEILERBAU (Pr.). See Board and Pillar. 

PICK. 1. A tool for cutting and holing coal, gene- 
rally weighing about 5 Ibs. Fig. 100 shows several kinds. 

Fig. 100. 

2. To dress with a pick the sides of a shaft or other 

3. To remove shale, dirt, &c., from coals. 
PICK AWAY (M.). To dip rapidly. 

PICKEE. 1. A sharp-pointed cutting tool used as an 
accessory to a mizer. It is fixed upon the same rods 
and above the mizer, and indicates the exact position 
of the latter when in operation. 

2. (S.) See Pricker (3). 

PICKMAN (S. S.). See Hewer. 



Fig. 101. 

PICK-UP (M.). To reduce the stock, which see. 

PICK-UPS (M.). See Tipper. 

PICKWORK. Cutting coal with a pick Heading is 
chiefly done by it. 

PIECE (S.). See Bait. 

PIER-STONE (S.). A very 
hard variety of freestone. 

PIKE. See Pick (1). 

PIKEMAN. See Hewer. 

PILING. Driving down 
into quick ground iron-shod 
3-inch battens of 12 feet or 
14 feet in length, supported 
by curbs, and forming a 
circle larger than the ulti 
mate size of the shaft when <r q> Q uick ground, 
walled up within. Fig. 101. 

PILLAR. A solid block of coal, &c., varying in area 
from a few square yards to several acres. 

PILLAR AND STALL. A system of working coal and 
other minerals where the first stage 
of excavation is accomplished with 
the roof sustained by coal, &c. 
Fig. 102 shows in plan one of the 
many various modes of working in 
this manner. 

Drifting Sack. 

PILLAR MAN (I.). A man who builds stone packs in 
the workings. 


Fig. 102. 


PILLAR KOADS. Working-roads or inclines in pillars 
having a range of long-wall faces on either side. 

PILLAR WORKING. Working coal on much the same 
plans as Long-pillar and Pillar and Stall systems. 

PIMPLEY (Sh.). Bind (1) containing ironstone nodules. 

PINCH. A kind of crowbar used for breaking down 
coal, &c. 

PIN-CRACKS (Lei.). Small fissures in coal seams 
filled with water and gas. 

PINDY (I.). See Kelve. A term used in the South of 

PINNINGS (N. S.). Bratticing in headings. 

PINS. Thin beds of ironstone of the coal measures. 

PIPED AIR. Ventilation carried into the working 
places in pipes. See Brattice. 

PIPER (L.). A feeder of gas. 

PIPES. See Coal Pipes. 

PIRNS (S.). Flat-rope winding (1) drums (1). 

PIT. 1. A colliery, a pit-shaft, a shallow hole, &c. 
2. The workings, inclusive of all roads, &c., situated 

PIT BANK. The raised ground or platforms upon 
which the coals are sorted and screened at surface. 

PIT BARRING (S.). Timbers supporting the sides of 
a shaft. 

PIT BOTTOM. The inset and underground roads, 
&c., in the immediate vicinity of the shafts. 

PIT-BOTTOM STOOP (S.). A large solid block or 


pillar of mines left ungotten around and in support of 
the pit-shafts. 

PIT BROW (L.). See Pit Bank 

PITCH. Dip or rise of a seam. 

PITCHER BRASSES (Sh.). Indurated schistose clay. 

PITCHERS (N.). Loaders in the pit (2), and men who 
take up and relay the rails in the workings and long-wall 

PIT COAL. Generally signifies the bituminous 
varieties of coal. 

PIT-EYE. Pit bottom, or the entrance into a shaft. 

PIT-GATE (Y.). Any place in the immediate 
neighbourhood of a colliery at which colliers hold 
meetings of their own in reference to wages, &c. 

PIT-HEAD MAN. The banksman who has charge of 
the pit-top. 

PIT HEAP. See Heapstead. 
PIT HILL. See Pit Bank. 
PIT Loa (S. S.). 

PITMAN. A collier (1) ; also one who looks after 
pumps, &c. 

PIT-PROP. A piece of fir timber, being part of the 
stem of a tree, varying in length according to the 
height of the workings, and about one inch in diameter 
for every foot in length : used as a temporary support 
for the roof. 

PIT BAILS. Iron or steel railway rails upon which 
trams or tubs ran in a mine. 


PIT-ROOM. The extent of the underground workings 
in use or available for use. 

PIT KOPE. Winding rope. 

PITS (S. W.). Long open-air fires for converting 
coal into rude coke for blast-furnace purposes. 

PIT-SHAFT. See Shaft. 

PITTER. A horse or pony suitable for underground 

PIT-TIP. A bank or heap upon which rubbish out of 
the mine is tipped. 

PIT-TOP. The mouth of a pit-shaft. 

PIT WOOD. The timber used for propping the 
roof, &c. 

PIT WORK. The whole system of pumps and pump- 
rods, &c., in a pumping or engine-pit. 

PLACE. 1. A working place, or a point at which the 
cutting of coal, &c., is being carried on. 

2. A kind of cabin in which tools, &c., are kept in 
the mine, and in which a deputy gets his bait or snap. 

PLAX. 1. The system upon which a mine is worked, 
e. g. long-wall 

2. A map or plan of the underground workings, 
which in Great Britain must be drawn to a scale of not 
less than 44 yards to an inch, and must show the whole 
of the workings, accurately marked thereon, at least 
every six months. The term plan also includes a 
section of the mines and of the underground works. 

PLANE. A main road, either level or inclined, along 
which coals, &c., are conveyed by engine-power or by 


PLANE BACKS (S.). See Back (1). 

PLANK (S. W.). Strata drained of gas. 

PLANK DAM. A watertight stopping fixed in a head- 
ing, constructed of balks of fir placed across the passage, 
one upon another, sideways, and tightly wedged. 

PLANK TUBBING. Shaft lining of wooden planks 
driven down vertically behind wooden cribs all round 
the shaft, all joints being tightly wedged to keep back 
the water. See Fig. 101. 

PLANT. The shafts, engine-houses, railways, ma- 
chinery, workshops, &c., of a colliery or other mine. 

PLASTER (D., N.S., &c.). Gypsum. A fine granular 
to compact, sometimes fibrous or sparry aggregate of 
the mineral gypsum. Normally white, but may be 
coloured grey, brown, yellow, or red. It occurs in beds, 
lenticular intercalations and strings usually associated 
with beds of red marl or clay. 

PLASTER-PIT (D., &c.). A mine in which gypsum is 
worked. The system of working is usually a rough 
kind of pillar working, the pillars be ing left sufficiently 
large to keep the surface from falling in. Plaster is 
often worked by open hole. 

PLATE. See Bind (1). 

PLAY. 1. Signifies not at work or standing. 

2. (N.) To work a steel mill. 

3. Idle not at work on account of idleness, or for 
some other particular cause. 

PLAY DAY. A day on which, on account of shortness 
of trade, from accident, or from other causes, minerals 
are not worked and raised. 



Fig. 103. 

PLAYER. A man who used to work a steel mill. 

PLAY-IN (Lei.). To commence holing and getting a 
face of coal out of the side of a heading. 

PLENUM. A mode of ventilating a mine or a heading 
by forcing fresh air into it. 

PLIES (S.). Layers of coal or other rocks. 

PLUG Box. A wooden water- 
pipe used in coffering. See 
Fig. 103. 

PLUGGED Cms (Y.). A walling 
crib carried by iron plugs (two to 
each segment) fixed in the rock 
two or three feet in depth. 

PLUGGING. Supporting a crib 
upon iron bars fixed in a shaft a> Shaft side> 6j Watcr . 

Side. bearing ground, c, Solid 

ground, d, Walling of shaft. 

PLUGMAN. An old term for , Plug box. /, Water crib 
engineman. or garland (i). 

PLUM-BULKING (S.). The full dip of the coal seam. 

PLUM HATCHING (S.). The lull rise of a coal bed. 

PLUM PITCH (B.). The full rise or full dip of the strata. 

PLUMB END (Y.). See End. 


PLUNGER CASE. The barrel or cylinder in which a 
solid piston or plunger works in a forcing sett (1) of 

PLUNGER POLE. The solid ram working up and 
down within a plunger case. 

PLY (S. S.). A thin bed or band of shale, &c., lying 
immediately over a coal seam. 




POCKET. 1. See Bag. 

2. See Swelly. 

POINT. The bearing or direction, in reference to the 
magnetic meridian, in which an underground road is 
driven. See Driving ~by Lines. 

POLE CASE. See ^Plunger Case. 

POLL (S. W.). To clean the shale, &c., off ironstone, 
ready for weighing into stock. 

PONY-PUTTER (N.). A boy who drives a pony in the 
workings. He is paid at per score, put 200 yards. 

POPPET-HEAD. A shallow pit pulley-frame. 

toRCH (Y.). The arching at the pit bottom inset. 

PORTEUR (F.). See Hurrier. 

POST. 1. (N.) A solid block or pillar of coal. 

2. (N.) Sandstone (fine grained). 

POST AND STALL (Y.). A system of working a coal 
seam much the same as pillar and stall. 

POSTING (Y.). Extracting the posts (1) or working 
the broken. See Fig. 104. 

Fig. 104. 

POSTING-HOLE (Y.). See Bolt. 
POST-STONE. Sandstone rather fine grained. 


POT-BOTTOMS (S.). See Bell-moulds. 

POT HOLE (L.). A small temporary lodge in a 

POT HOLES. See Pot-bottoms. 

POT MIZER. A boring tool occasionally used in clays 
mixed with pebbles. It is made in the form of a spiral 
cone, which is open at the top to receive the pebbles 
carried up by the worm on the outside and falling over 
the edge into the cone. 

POUND. 1. An underground reservoir of water. See 

2. A large natural fissure or cavity in the 

POUNDSTONE (Sh.). A kind of underday. 

POUNSON (N. W.). Dense soft clay under- 
lying coal beds. 

POUT (N.). A tool used by deputies for knock- 
ing out or drawing timbers in the workings. 

POXON KOCK (Lei.). A red gravelly 
stratum (Permian ?) overlying coal measures. 

PRICKER. 1. A thin brass rod for making a 
hole in the stemming when blasting, for the 
insertion of a fuze or touch, and through which 
aperture the flame obtains access to the car- 

2. (S. S.) A long iron rod or poker used for 
loosening and bringing down the coals from 
overhead in the Thick coal workings. See 
Fig. 105. 

3. A piece of bent wire by which the size of the 
flame of a safety lamp is regulated, without removing 



the top of the lamp. It passes up into the lamp 
through the oil reservoir in a tube. 

PRICKING (Lei.). Soft coal or earth for holing in. 

PRIZE (Lei.). To lift or loosen with a lever . 

. 7 Fig. 106. 

or a pick. 

PROP. A wooden or cast-iron temporary 
support for the roof, reaching from the floor. 
When of timber they are generally used of as 
many inches in diameter as they are feet in 
length. Fig. 106 shows a cast-iron prop. They 
are not much used. 

PROPPING. The timbering of a mine. 
PROPS. See Keeps. 

PROP-WOOD. Timber suitable for cutting, or 
already cut into props. See Prop. 

PROSPECTING. Examining (by boring, sink- 
ing trial pits, &c., and geologically surveying) 
a tract of country in search of minerals. 

PROTECTOR LAMP. A safety lamp the flame of which 
it is impossible to expose to the outward atmosphere, as 
the fact of unlocking or rather unscrewing it extin- 
guishes the light. (A Mr. Teale of Manchester was the 
inventor of this self-extinguishing appliance.) 

PROUD COAL (S.). That which naturally splits off in 
flakes or slabs when worked in a particular manner, 
producing waste and deterioration. 

PROVE. 1. To ascertain by boring, driving, &c., the 
position and character of a coal seam, a fault, &c. 

2. (S.) To examine a mine in search of fire-damp, 
&c., known as proving the pit. 


FUCKING or PUCKS (S. W.). See Creep. 
PUDDING BOCK (Y.). Conglomerate or breccia. 

PUDLOCKS. Cross timbers resting upon horse-trees 
against which rubbing-boards work. 

PUISAKD (F.). See Sump. 
PUITS (F.). Shafts or pits. 

PULL. 1. To subside or settle down. See Creep. 
2. The drag in ventilation of mines. 

PULLER-OFF (M.). A man who takes the loaded trams 
off the cages, or who withdraws the empties from them at 
the bottom. 

PULLEY. The wheel over which a winding rope 
passes at the top of the head-gear. 

PULLEY FRAME. See Head-gear. 

PULLEYING. Overwinding or drawing up a cage or 
kibble into the pulley-frame. 

PULLING BACK. See Posting. 

PULLING-OVER HOPE. A short light hemp rope for 
drawing the ends of winding ropes over the pulleys off 
the drum (1). 

PUMP FIST. The lower end of a plunger case. 

PUMPING. The operation of filling a sludge pump by 
an up-and-down motion of the rods or rope, called 
pumping the sludger. 

PUMP-STOCKS (L.). See Pump-trees. 

PUMP-TREES. Cast (wrought iron were formerly often 
used) iron pipes, generally nine feet in length, of which 

o 2 


the column or sett (1) is formed, conveying the water 
from the pump up the shaft. They run up to say thirty 
inches in diameter, and are bolted together and steadied 
by chogs. Fig. 40. 

PUNCH (N.). See Pout. 

PUNCH AND THIRL (S. S.). A kind of pillar and stall 
system of coal-getting. 

PUNCHEON (M.). See Prop. 

PUNCH PROP (N.). A short timber prop set on the 
top of a crowntree or used in holing as a sprag. 

PUT. 1. To haul coal, &c., underground. 
2. (Som.) A box of a capacity of from 3 to 6 cwt. of 
coal, used in thin seams. 

PUTTER. See Haulier. Age from 15 to 20 years ; 
paid by the score of tubs, put, say 100 yards. Putters 9 
places are cavilled for. 

PUTTING. See Haulage. 

PUTS (N.). Great oars by which keels are pulled and 
steered about. 

PUT TO STAND (S. S.). Stoppage of coal drawing on 
account of firestink. 

QUAR or CLIFF QUAR (F. D.). A kind of Bind (1). 
QUARLS (N.). Fire-bricks. 

QUARRY. An underground excavation formed in the 
roof stone or shale or in a fault, for the purpose of 


obtaining material for stowage or pack-watts. A plan 

only followed when it is less costly than to leave coal in 

the mine, or to bring 

material from surface for Fi s- 107< 

such purposes. Fig. 107 

is a vertical section. 

Colliers' Coals. 


plan of building or putting 

together tubbing plates from the top downwards, the 
rings and segments being bolted together as the work 
of excavation proceeds 

QUICK. 1. Soft watery strata, such as running sand. 

2. (S. S.) Solid or ungotten coal forming the roof of a 
roadway in a Thick coal colliery. 

3. Blasting powder is said to be quick when it burns 
or goes off very rapidly. 

QUOICENECK (Sh.). Greyish black clay with shining 
surfaces, and streaked. 


RACE. 1. (S.) See Journey. 

2. The space in which a drum (1) revolves. 

RADDLE (Y.). Earthy Hematite occurring in the 
coal measures. 

RAFF- YARD (N.). A walled-in yard on the surface, 
in which the smiths, wrights, carpenters, &c., work. 

RAG AND CHAIN PUMP. One of the earliest contri- 
vances for draining coal pits, consisting of a tube or pipe 


in which a chain, to which bunches of rags were at 
intervals attached, was caused by manual labour to 
carry up water in much the same way as our nineteenth 
century chain pumps do. These pumps were in use 
250 years ago. 

KAILS. The iron or steel portion of the permanent 
or temporary way (2). They weigh from 15 to 35 Ibs. 
per yard run; are usually from 6 to 15 feet in length; are 

either ot 9 9 f% or _ section; are 

laid with a gauge of from 1 foot 8 inches to 2 feet 
6 inches. Main engine plane rails are generally fished. 

Angle iron sJ rails are still in use, but are rapidly 

BAIN (M.). An underground place is said to rain 
when water drops freely from the roof. 

KAISE. To wind (3) coals, &c., to the surface. 

KAISINGS (F. D.). (See Get (2). 

BAIT or BATE (M.). To split off. Coal roads, &c., are 
said to rait themselves when the sides keep splitting or 
peeling off. Boads driven on the end are more liable 
to rait than when driven face on. 

BAKE (D.). A series of pins of clay ironstone lying 
within a few feet or yards of one another in a seam of 
bind, making a workable ironstone. 

BAKE. 1. (M.) To smother a ventilating furnace 
with fuel, so that it smoulders for many hours, and allows 
the upcast shaft to cool, for the purpose of doing repairs 
therein, or for other special purposes. 


2. (M.) An iron rake with a short handle, with 
which fillers fill baskets or pans. 

BAKERS. Shots placed round sumpers. 

BAKING-COAL. A large lump of hard coal placed 
upon a fire or ventilating furnace, for the purpose of 
just keeping it burning, or rather smouldering, when a 
larger fire is not required. 

BAKING PROPS. Short wooden props used in sinking 
for supporting the curbs during the excavation of the 
sides of the shaft. 

BAM. See Plunger Pole. 

BAMBLE. See Falling. 

BAMMELLY (M.). Mixed argillaceous and sandy 

BANCE (S.). A pillar of coal a rarge stoop. See 
Room and Ranee. 


BAP(S.W.). SeeJtomp. 

BAP IN (Som.). To wedge down blocks of stone in 
underground quarries. 

BAPPER. 1. A lever with a hammer attached at one 
end, fixed at the pit top or top of an inclined plane, by 

Fig. 108. 

\ \ 

\\ Bade \ 

which signals are given to and from banksman or 
engineinan.- See Fig. 108. 


2. (M.) The upper end of the vertical arm of a 

RASH (M.). Synonymous with rait. 

BASHINGS (S. W.). Loose dirt or shaley beds of rock. 

BATCHES (L.). Lifts (3) of 5 yards in length along a 
working face. 

BATTLE (Lei.). To work (drive into or sink through) 
with great vigour and energy. 

BATTLE-JACK (M.). Carbonaceous shale; also Eoo 


BATTLERS (Y.). Cannel coal. 

BEARER (N. S.). See Edge Coals. 

BECEIVING BODS. Auxiliary cage guides at insets 
and at pit tops. 

BECK (L.). Chips of wood and other debris. 

BED MEASURES. Generally refers to the strata of 
Permian or Triassic age. 

KEDD. 1. (S.) To scour through, take down, or to 

2. To clear out pillars of coal. 

3. Pit rubbish or debris. 

BEDD BING (S.). A spoil heap on the surface. 
BEDDSMAN (S.). One who redds (1), or works at 
night in cleaning up and repairing roadways, &c. 

BEED (S.). See Cleat (1). 

BEFUGE HOLE. A place formed in the side of an 
underground plane or horse road, about three feet square 
and five or six feet high, in which men can take refuge 



during the passing of a train, or when firing shots. 
They may not be put in more than 20 yards apart on 
engine planes, or 50 yards where horses are employed. 

KEGULATOR. A door in the mine, the opening or 
closing of which regulates the supply of ventilation to a 

KELEVEE (Pr.). A certain thickness of coal beds and 
intervening measures (varying between 88 and 160 
yards) in inclined strata, which forms a lift (10) or 
series of workings being prosecuted to the rise at one 
time. They are carried on on both sides of the shafts 
and there are generally three in course of being worked 
one above another simultaneously, viz. the uppermost 
which is nearly worked out, the middle one in full 

swing, and a lower one in course of being formed to take 
the place of the upper one. See Fig. 109. 


REMBLAIS. 1. (F.) A system of working a very 
thick (sometimes 80 ft.) seam in Central France. A 
horizontal slice is first taken out 6 feet 6 inches in 
height across the seam, and the space filled up with 
stone, &c., brought from the surface. A second lift (3) 
is then extracted, and so on. 

2. (F.) Synonymous with long-wall. 

3. (F.) Synonymous with goaf. 

RENK or KANK (N.). A standard measurement of 
length employed underground, being 60 to 80 yards, 
measured off periodically by an overman. 

KENT (S.). See Back (1). 

REPAIRER. A man who works in the mine, generally 
at night, setting timbers, jpae&-building, road (2) laying, 

RETURN. The air-course along which the vitiated 
air of the mine is returned or conducted back to the 
upcast shaft. 

RETURN AIR. The air or ventilation which has 
been passed through the workings. 

REVERSE FAULT. See Overlap. See Fault, Fig. 70 

REVIERBEAMT (Pr.). ^The chief Inspector of a dis- 
trict who gives actual decisions, subject to appeal, in 
reference to mining questions, rules, &c. He receives 
every year from the coal master a plan of the workings 
proposed to be carried out during the following year, to 
which he may object within 15 days. He acts under 
the authority of the Oberlergamt. 


KHONE (S.). A trow or gutter, generally 12 feet 
in length. 

EIB. 1. A narrow strip or block of solid coal. 

2. (S.) A seam or stratum. 

KIB AND PILLAR (S. S). A system upon which the 
Thick coal seam was formerly extensively mined, being 
a kind of pillar and stall plan. 

KIBAND -STONE. Sandstone in thin layers alternating 
in colour, generally light and dark grey. 

RIBBING. 1. (L.) A strip of coal three yards in width. 

2. Enlarging a heading or drift. 

EIBS (Pa.). The sides of a rectangular pit-shaft. 

EICE (B.). See Lacing and Lagging. 

EICING (N. S.). See Lacing. 

EICKET or EICKETING. 1. (M.) A narrow brattice 
for ventilation. See Fig. 27 (right-hand side of). 

2. (M.) A channel formed along the floor of a mine 
for drainage purposes. 

EIDDING. 1. (N.) See Redd. 

2. (N.) Separating ironstone from coal shale. 

EIDDING PUCKING (S. W.). Cutting up a crept floor. 

EIDE. To be in a cage or bowk whilst descending or 
ascending a pit-shaft, or to ride in trams on planes or 

EIDER. 1. A guide-frame for steading a bowk in a 
sinking pit. 

2. (S. W.) Lads who ride upon the trams on engine 

3. A name commonly given to a thin seam of coal 
overlying a thicker one. 


RIFLING (S. S.). Working the upper portion of a coal 
seam over a waste or goaf. 

RING. 1. A complete circle of tubbing plates placed 
round a pit-shaft. 

2. (N.) See Garland (1). 

KING-CRIB. A wedging crib upon which tubbing is 
placed, having a gutter or ring cast round the inner 
edge, to collect any water that may run down the walls 
of the shaft. 

RINGER (D.). A hammer for driving wedges. 

KINGER AND CHAIN (M.). See Dog and Chain. 

BINGES (N.). See Cowls. 

KIP (M.). To cut or blast down the roof or top. 

RIPPER. A man who rips. 

KISE. 1. The inclination of strata when viewed in 
the direction opposite to the dip. 

2. An increase of wages paid to colliers, &c. 

RISER (K). An upthrow fault. 

KISE SPLIT. A proportion of the ventilative current 
sent into a rise district of a mine. 

KISE WORKINGS. Underground workings carried on 
to the rise or high side of the shafts. 

RISING MAIN. See Column in re water. 
RIVELAINE (Belg.). A pick much used by colliers (1). 
RIVES IN. Cracks open, or produces fissures. 

ROAD. 1. Any underground passage, way, or gal- 
lery. See Main Road. 

2. The iron rails, &c., or Permanent Way of under- 
ground roads (1). 


EOAD-HEAD (S.). See Gate-end. 

KOADING. Eepairing and maintaining roads. 

ROB. To cut away or reduce the size of pillars of 
coal, &c. 

BOBBED OUT (C.). Worked away. See Hollows. 

EOBBLE. A fault. See Horses. 

ROCK. Generally means sandstone. 

ROCK AND RIG (S. S.). A sandstone full of little 
patches and shreds of coal, sometimes mixed up in a 
very singular way. 

ROCK BIND or ROCK BINDEKS. Sandy shale. 

ROCK DRILL. A rock-boring machine worked by 
hand or by compressed air or by steam. Very exten- 
sively employed in tunnelling, sinking, and driving stone- 
drifts in mines. 

ROCK FAULT. A replacement of a coal seam over a 
greater or less area, by some other rock, usually sand- 
stone. They may be regarded as ancient stream 
courses. Are narrow as compared with their length, 
and turn and wind about as do rivers. See Fig. 70 (2), 
which is a rock fault in cross section. 

ROCK HEAD (Ch.). The uppermost stratum of the 
rock-salt beds. 

ROCKING LEVER. See BraJcestaff. 

RODDING. The operation of fixing or repairing 
wooden cage guides in shafts. 

RODS. 1. Vertical or inclined timbers for actuating 

2. Long iron bars of Swedish iron of the toughest 
quality, for boring through rocks, &c. 


3. See Cage Guides. 

KOLL. 1. An inequality in the roof or floor of a 

2. (S. W.) The drum of a winding engine. 

3. See Bump. 

ROLLER. Small steel, iron, or wood wheel, upon 
which a hauling rope is carried just above the floor. 
They are placed every 8 or 10 yards along an engine 
plane. They are from 4 inches to 12 inches in 
diameter, and in length or width from 1 inch to 24 

ROLLEY (N.). A kind of truck running upon wheels 
for carrying tubs or corves, drawn by horses along under- 
ground ways. 

ROLLEY-WAY (N.). The underground road along 
which rolleys are conveyed. 

ROOF. The top of any subterraneous passage or 

ROOFING (Ch.). The upper 5 or 6 feet of the rock-salt 

ROOM. 1. (S.) A heading or short stall. 

2. A weight of 7 tons of coal, or 5J- chaldrons by 

ROOM AND RANGE (S.). A system of working coal 
somewhat similar to double stall, which see. 

ROOVE. To rub or knock against the roof. 

ROPE-ROLL. The drum of a winding engine. 

ROSH (Lei.). See Rait. 

ROTCHE or ROCHE (S. S.). A softish and moderately 
friable sandstone. 


KOUND COAL. Coal in large lumps, either hand- 
picked or after passing over screens to take out the 

Kow (N. S.). A seam or bed (2), e. g. the " Bow- 
hurst " and " Two Kow " coals. 

KOTALTY. 1. The mineral estate or area of a colliery, 
or a portion of such property. A field of mining 

2. A rent payable on coal, &c., worked from a 
Royalty (1). See Acreage Rent. 

BUBBING SURFACE. An expression used in reference 
to ventilation, meaning the total area of a given length 
of airway, i. e. areas of sides, top, and bottom, all added 

KUBBISH. Fallen stone from the roof, holing dirt and 
debris made in sinking, dinting, &c. 

BUBBLE. A coarse gravelly loose stone or bed of rock. 

BUBBLES. 1. (F. D.) See Kibbles and Nuts. 
2. (S.W.) Slack or small. 

BUCK (L.). The stock of coals on the bank (1). 
BUDDING (N.). See Redd. 
BUN. 1. See Journey. 

2. To brake orjig. 

3. A breakaway upon an inclined-plane. 

4. (Pa.) The sliding and crushing of pillars of coal, 
producing falls of roof. 

5. A word commonly made use of to express the 
degree of leverage or breaking-down power of a shot. 
When a considerable length of wall face is brought down 


by the action of a single shot, the shot is said to run 

6. To work a winding or hauling engine. 

7. Soft ground is said to run when it becomes mud and 
will not hold together or stand. 

RUN COAL. Soft bituminous coal. 
RUNNER. 1. A movable bridge or platform over the 
mouth of a sinking pit. 

2. A fault slip. 

3. A Crow's-foot, which see. 

4. (Y.). A flat piece of timber placed above bars, 
and connecting them. 

5. (Lei.) The piece of timber placed in a horizontal 
position between the two inclined sprags in cocJcermegs. 
See Fig. 42. It is cut from two to four feet in length, 
and assists greatly in steadying the sprags and to 
keep up the coal wall. 

RUNNER ON. See Bottomer. 

RUNNING AMAIN (S.). The breaking and running of 
a winding rope down into the pit-shaft. 

RUNNING A MINE (S.). Forming a drift (2). 
RUNNING GUG (Som.). A self-acting jig. 

RUNNING LIFT. A sinking sett (1) of pumps con- 
structed to lengthen or shorten at will, by means of a 
sliding or telescopic windbore. 

RUNNING MEASURES. Sands and gravels containing 
much water. 

RUNNING THE DRUM. The lowering or sinking of a 
cylinder or drum through quick ground, to secure the 
upper part of a coal shaft. 


RUN RIDER. A. lad who goes with a train on an 
engine plane. 

RUN THE Tow (S.). Sliding down the pit-shaft on 
the winding rope. Running the tow is a common practice 
in shallow mines. 

RUSH (S.). The sudden weighting of the roof when 
robbing the pillars begins, and the roof is a strong 

RUSKS (NV). Small slack, or that next larger than 
dust or dead small. 

BUTTLES (Y.). Shattered and faulty ground running 
roughly parallel to the plane of & fault. 


SADDLEBACK. A depression or valley in strata. See 

SAFETY CAGE. A cage fitted with an apparatus for 
arresting its motion in the shaft in case the winding 
rope breaks. 

SAFETY DOOR. A strongly-constructed door hinged 
to the roof of the mine, and always kept open and hung 
near to a main door, for immediate use in case of 
damage by explosion or otherwise to the main door. 

SAFETY LAMP. A miner's lamp which reveals the 
presence of fire-damp when the proportion of this gas in 
the atmosphere of the mine is such that the mixture 
is already very dangerous, and the moment of explosion 
is near at hand. The flame is generally surrounded by 




Fig. 110. 

a cylindrical covering of wire gauze, which protects the 
surrounding atmosphere from being fired, even though 
the gases within the lamp have reached the explosive 
proportions. See Clanny, Davy, Geordie, 
Mueseler (Fig. 110). 

SAFETY TOOLS. Consist of Catching 
Hooks, Grappling Tongs, Fish-heads, Bell- 
screws, and the like, for recovering broken 
boring tools, picking up material, &c., at 
the bottom of boreholes (1) and Kind- 
Chaudron sinking pits. 

SAGGER or SEGGER. A kind of fireclay. 

SALTING. Sprinkling salt upon the 
floors of underground ways in very dry 
mines, in order to lay the dust. See Coal 

SAMPSON POST (Pa.). A stout wooden .post carrying 
the working beam of a boring apparatus. 

SAW. A tool for removing irregularities from the 
sides of boreholes (1). 

SAWNEY (M.). To lower full trams down a road or 
face that dips, with a rope or a chain for a brake, or 
drag, passing round a prop, &c. 

SCALE. A small portion of the ventilative current 
in a mine passing through a certain-sized aperture. 

SCALE DOOE. See Regulator. 

SCALLOP. To cut or break off the sides of a heading 
without holing them, or using powder. 

SCAMMED (N.). Sooty. 


SCAMY-POST (N.). Soft, short, jointy freestone, 
thinly laminated and much mixed with mica. 

SCAEES (N.). Thin laminae of iron pyrites or spar in 

SCATTER (Y.). A rumbling or falling noise in a pit- 

SCISSORS FAULT. A fault of dislocation in which the 
beds are thrown somewhat as shown in Fig. 111. 

Fig. 111. 

SCOOP (Y.). A barrel or box used in a gin pit. 

SCORE. 1. (N.) A standard number of tubs of coal 
upon which hewers 1 and putters prices for working are 
paid. The score generally varies between 20 to 26 

2. A bill run up by a collier (1) in " bad times " for 
the necessaries of life. 

SCOTCH. 1. A wooden stop-block or iron catch 
placed across or between the rails of underground road- 
ways, to keep the tubs from running loose, or to hold 
them when standing upon an inclined plane. 

2. (Lei.) The lower lift (3) of coal which is wedged 
up in driving a heading a few yards from the lack (2). 
By having a scotch formed, it enables four hewers to work 
together in driving a heading, say 7 feet by 6 feet. 


p 2 


SCOUR (M.). To excavate or brush a roadway 
through a goaf. 

SCOVENS (S. S.). Forks (?) for filling coal into tubs. 

SCOWL A BROW (F. D.). To drive a heading or 
level by guesswork. 

SCOWLES or SCOULES (F. D.). See Meend. 

SCRAPER. A light wooden rod for clearing boremeal 
out of a drill hole. 

SCRATCHER. A boring tool for scraping or scratching 
np the debris, to be afterwards removed by a mizer. 

SCREEN. 1. A mechanical apparatus (a sort of grid- 
iron) for separating small from large coals. It is erected 
on the surface. 

2. A cloth brattice or curtain hung across a road in a 
mine to direct the ventilation. 

SCRIN (D.). Ironstone in irregular-shaped nodules. 
SCROLL DRUM. See Conical Drum. 

SCRONGE (S. W.). The loosened or broken strata 
overlying and produced by workings underneath. 

SCUD. 1. (Lei.) Very thin layers of soft matter, 
such as clay, sooty coal, &c. 

2. (M.) Iron pyrites embedded in coal seams. 

SEA COAL. That which is conveyed away from the 
collieries by sea ; be it house, steam, or manufacturing 

SEALING. Shutting off a pit or part of a mine after a 
fire or an explosion by means of stoppings. 

SEAM. Synonymous with bed, mine, vein, row, band, 


&c. Some seams are made up of a number of beds in- 
terstratified with shale, &c. 

SEAT (Y.). The bottom or floor of a mine. 

SEAT EARTH (Y.). Generally a kind of hard fire- 
day forming the floor. 

SEATING. The masonry in which a steam boiler is 

SEAT STONE. See Seat Earth. 

SECOND WORKING. The operation of getting or 
working out the pillars of coal formed by the first 
working; e. g. long-wall, working home, working the 
broken, drifting back, &c. Second working is paid for by 
the ton or by the score (1). 

SECTION. 1. A term usually applied to a vertical 
exposure of strata. 

2. A drawing or diagram of the strata sunk through 
in a pit-shaft or inclined plane, or proved by boring. 

SEED BAG (Pa.). A stout leather tube passed with 
the tubing or lining of a borehole (1) into water-bearing 
ground. The annular space between the tube and the 
leather is filled with flax seed, which, becoming moist 
with the water, expands, and thus effectually stops out 
the water. 

SEG (N.). To bend down in the middle. 

upon which the weight or force of gravity acting upon 
the full tubs is sufficient to overcome the resistance of 
the empties ; in other words, the full set (1) draws the 
empty set up the hill. See Incline. 

SELF-DETACHING HOOK. See Detaching Hook 


SEPAEATION COAL. Coals of various sizes loaded 
separately into wagons, &c. See Dry Separation and 
Wet Separation. 

SEPARATION BOOKS. Doors fixed underground 
(generally two, sometimes three), between the intake 
and the return, near the pit bottom. 

SEPARATION VALVE. A massive cast-iron plate sus- 
pended from the roof of a return air war/, through 
which all the return air of a separate district flows, 
allowing the air to always flow past or underneath 
it ; but in the event of an explosion of gas the force of 
the Uast closes it against its frame or seating, and pre- 
vents a communication with other districts. The Uast 
being over, the weight of the valve causes it to return 
to its normal position, aud allows the district to breathe 

SEBVE (N.). Gas is said to serve when it issues more 
or less regularly from a fault slip, a break (1), &c. 

SET. 1. (N.) See Journey. 

2. (S. S.) To get the sides off and trim up a heading. 

3. (N.) To load a tub unfairly by placing the 
greater part of the coals on the top of it and leaving 
the bottom part comparatively empty. 

4. (N.) The natural giving way of the roof for want 
of support. 

5. To fix in place a prop or sprag. 

6. Timbers fixed in a heading, &c., as in Double 
Timber, which see. 

7. To set or make an agreement with miners to do 
certain work by the bargain : e.g. to set a stall. 


SET COAL (Lei.). Coal near to hollows having a hard 
dead nature. 

SET OUT (K). See Lay Out. 

SETT. 1. A column of pump trees, with buckets or 
ram, &c., complete. 

2. The area of mines worked (4) by a separate colliery 
or firm. 

3. (M.) A measure of length along the face of a 
stall, usually from say 6 to 10 feet, by which holers and 
drivers work aud are paid. A certain number of setts 
comprise a day's work. 

4. Setting up a dial for taking a bearing or sight (2). 
SETTERS (N.). Large lumps of coal placed round 

the sides of coal dealers' carts, for the purpose of piling 
up a good load in the centre. 

SETTINGS (S. S.). Timbers set as shown in Fig. 59. 
See Double Timber. 

SETTLE BOARDS. 1. (N.) Iron plates or sheets form- 
ing the floor of a heapstead, to admit of the tubs being 
pushed and turned about with facility. 

2. (N.) See Cage Shuts. 

SETTS OFF. See Distance Blocks. 
SHAB (Som.). Friable shaley rock. 

SHAFT. 1. A vertical pit or hole made through 
strata through which the produce of the mine is 
brought to the surface, and through which the ventilation 
is passed into and out of the workings. It is generally 
the only outlet from the mine to the surface. Shafts 
are usually constructed in a circular form, though oval 
and rectangular ones are not uncommon. They vary 


iu diameter from say 7 to 20 feet. The deepest shaft 
in Great Britain is 2817 feet, and 16 feet in diameter 

2. A wooden handle of a pick, &c. 

3. (S. W.) To pull or draw at a tub. 
SHAFT FOOT (S.). See Pit Bottom. 
SHAFT KIP. See Kip. 

SHAFT LAMP. See Comet. 

SHAFT PILLAR. Solid coal left unworked beneath 
colliery buildings and around the shafts, to support them 
against subsidence and creep. The size and form of 
shaft pillars are regulated by the depth to, and thick- 
ness and inclination of, the seam of coal to be worked. 

SHAFT BENT. 1. Eent paid for the use of a shaft (1) for 
raising the minerals from another royalty by outstroke. 
2. Interest on capital invested in sinking a shaft (1). 

SHAFT-TUNNEL (N. S.). Crutts or levels driven across 
the measures from shafts (1) to intersect rearers. 

SHAGGY METAL (Ch.). See Horse Beans. 

SHALE. Strictly speaking, all argillaceous strata 
that split up or peel off in thin laminae. In mining 
language it is generally indurated clay or bind (1). 

SHAM DOOR. A check or regulator door. 
SHANK (S.). A shallow shaft (1) underground. 

SHARP (M.). Hard and compact in re rock or sand- 

SHARP GAS. Fire-damp which explodes suddenly 
within a safety lamp without showing any perceptible 
cap (1). 


SHEAKEK. See Saw. 

SHEARING. Cutting a vertical groove in coal similar 
to holing at the bottom of the seam. 

SHEAR LEGS. A high wooden frame placed over an 
engine or pumping shaft (1), fitted with small pulleys 
and rope for lifting heavy weights in the pit. 

SHEARS (S.). A haulage clip, which see. 

SHED. 1. (Pa.) A kind of long car or trolley. 

2. A thin smooth parting in rocks, having both sides 

3. A very thin layer of coal. 

SHEETS. Coarse cloth curtains or screens (2) for 
directing the ventilative current underground. 

SHELL BAND. See Mussel Band. 
SHELL DOOR. A temporary door. 

SHETH. 1. (N.) To course the air in the workings. 
2. A set or panel of boards (1). 

SHETH DOOR (N.). A door fixed in a working going 
headway course, for temporary purposes only. 

SHETHING THE AIR (N.). Ventilating the goaves in 
a systematic way. 

SHETHS (N.). The ribs of a chaldron wagon. 

SHE'S FIRED ! An explosion of fire-damp has taken 
place in the pit ! See Squat Lads ! 

SHEUGH or COAL-SHEUGH (S.). A shaft (1) or coal 

SHIDES (B. S.). Pumps for draining mines. 

SHIFT. 1. A certain number of hours of work; a 


certain proportion or change of workmen. See Double 

2. A fault of dislocation. 

SHIFTER. 1. See Runner on. 

2. (N.) One who repairs roadways in a mine. 

SHIFTWORK. Work performed underground : e.g. 
timbering, way (1) cleaning, &c. 

SHIVER. See Bind (1). 

SHIVERED. Knocked to small by blasting. 

SHIVERY. Short and tender; easily broken up or 
worked (5). 

SHOE-NOSE SHELL. A cleanser specially constructed 
for working in hard ground. 

SHOES. Steel or iron guides fixed to the ends and 
sides of cages, to fit and run upon the conductors. 

SHOE SHELL. A tool used in deep boring for cleans- 
ing out the boremeal. It has a valve at the bottom, 
opening upwards. 

SHOOTING. Blasting in a mine. 

SHOOTING FAST (L.). Blasting without previously 
holing or shearing the coal. 

y / 

SHOOTING THE GOB (N. S.). Working the coal in 
the pillars of rearers by blasting. 

SHORN. Cut with a pick. 

SHORT (N. S.). Coal is short when of a very friable 
or tender nature. 

SHORTS. 1. The contents of trams filled with coal, or 
coal and dirt mixed, otherwise than in accordance with 
the colliery regulations. 


2. Deficiency of mineral worked under a lease during 
any year or other period agreed upon. In granting a 
lease of coal, &c., it is customary to insert a clause 
which provides that if the quantity of coal raised from 
the estate during any year at an acreage or tentale rent 
does not amount to the certain or minimum rent, the 
lessee may in any subsequent year get and raise such 
quantity of minerals as shall make up the deficiency 
without paying any more rent than the minimum. 
Exercising this right is commonly known as making up 

SHOUT STALL (M.). See Single-road Stall (Fig. 113). 
SHORT- WORKINGS. See Shorts (2). 

SHOT. The firing off of a cartridge of gunpowder, 
dynamite, &c., in blasting. 

SHOT FAST. Coal which is worked by blasting, and 
has had a fast shot in it. 

SHOT HOLE. The borehole (2) in which the explo- 
sive substance is placed for blasting. It is usually 
from 18 inches to 3 feet in depth, according to the 
nature of the rock (including coal) being operated upon 
and from 1 inch to If inches in diameter. These holes 
are put in either by hand or by machinery. There are 
hand-power rock perforating machines, both percussive 
and rotary in action, also similarly acting machines 
worked by steam and compressed air. Hand-made 
holes with the ordinary drill or jumper are always more 
or less three-cornered in shape. 

SHOT LIGHTER or SHOT FIBER. A man specially 
appointed by the manager of a mine to fire off every 


phot in a certain number of stalls or heads during the 
shift He shall not fire until he has examined the 
immediate neighbourhood of the shot and found it free 
from gas and otherwise safe. 

SHOULDER CUTTING (S. S.). Cutting the sides of the 
upper lift of a working place in a Thick-coal colliery next 
the rib, preparatory to falling the coal. 

SHOW. When the flame of a safety lamp becomes 
elongated or unsteady, owing to the presence of fire- 
damp in the air, it is said to show. 

SHUT or SHUTT. 1. (S. S.) The crushed and broken- 
down roof or overlying rock of a seam of coal. 
2. Old workings. See Goaf. 
SHUTERS (S. S.). Slue Bind. 

SHUTTER. 1. A movable sliding door having balance 
weights attached, fitted within the outer casing of the 
Guibal fan, for regulating the size of the opening from 
the fan, to suit the ventilation and economical working 
of the machine. 

2. The vibrating arm or door of the Cooke Ventilator. 
See Ventilator. 

SHUTS (S.). See Keps. 

SHUTTLES (L.). Natural cracks running at right 
angles to the dip of the strata. 

SHUTTING. See Shooting. 

SIDDLE (N.). The inclination or dip of a bed of coal, 

SIDE. 1. The more or less vertical face or wall of 


coal or goaf forming one side of an underground working 

2. (L.) A district. 

SIDE CHAIN (M.). A chain hooked on to the sides 
of tubs when running upon an engine-plane or jig, to 
keep all the tubs together in case a coupling 

SIDE OF WORK (S. S.). A kind of chamber or 
panel in the Thick-coal workings containing from two to 
twenty pillars. Fig. 112 shows a plan of a side of work. 

Fig. 112. 

SIDE-OVER (N.), To cut or drive in a line with the 
cleat through a pillar of coal when working the 

SIDE-WAFER or SIDE-WAVER (N.). 1. Overhanging 
stones or roof in underground roads liable to drop. 
2. A fall of sagger, &c. 

SIDING-UP (N.). Width of a tub and room for gears (1). 

SIGHT (Eye-sight). 1. On reaching a pit bottom, 
the eyes require to be allowed time to adjust themselves 
to the darkness. This period is known as taking time 
to get your sight. 



2. A bearing or angle taken with a dial when making 
an underground survey. 

SIGNS (employed upon colliery working plans) : 

Air crc&iFuup. sh&vn, OVUA 

Coal worked/ . 

J}ips of move 

Direction, cftiieJlir current. 



Doers ... ....... 

Downcast shaft .... shewn thus 
Faults ............ 


Staple or Drop-pit 

Upcast shaft 



SILL. 1. (N.) A face of hard rock: e. g. the Great 
Whin Sill. 

2. (C. Y.) Much the same as Clunch, Spavin, 
Warrant &c. 



SlNG. When a freshly cut-into seam of coal gives 
off gas and water with a hissing noise resembling the 
boiling of a tea-kettle, it is said to sing. 

SINGING COAL. A bed of coal from which gas is 
ordinarily issuing from the partly-exposed face in the 
mine, producing a hissing sound, particularly if the 
surface be wet. This is the usual manner in which gas 
is given off in mines. 

SINGING LAMP. A safety lamp which, when placed 
in an atmosphere of explosive gas, gives out a peculiar 
sound or note, the strength of the note varying in pro- 
portion to the percentage of fire-damp present, 

SINGLE-ROAD STALL (S. W.). A system of working 
coal as shown in plan, Fig. 113. 

Fig. 113. 

SINGLE-KOPE HAULAGE. That system of under- 
ground haulage in which a single rope is used, the 
empty set (1) running iribye by gravity. 

SINK. 1. To excavate strata downwards in a vertical 
line, for the purpose of winning and working minerals. 

2. To lore (1) or put down a borehole (1). 


SINKER. A man who works at the bottom of a shaft 
in course of being sunk. He bores the shot-holes, 
charges them and fires them off, sends the debris to bank, 
and assists in putting in tubbing, walling, pumps, &c. 

SINKING. A pit-shaft or shafts (1) being put down in 
order to work coal, &c. 

SINKING PIT. A shaft in course of being sunk. 
See Sink. 

SINKS (L.). Natural cavities met with in iron 

SIT (M.). A coal face (1) or buttock is said to sit 
when, after the sprags have been drawn, it will not fall 
over and break up, but merely cracks off and rests in 
that position until pulled over. 

SITS. 1. (S.) Creeps or subsidences of cover. 

2. A fall of roof. 

SIZE. In reference to a fault ; this word means the 
extent of the displacement or the throw, which see. 

SKEEL (Som.). A kind of cage in which coals are 
lowered down the cuts or staples. 

SKEP. A bucket or tub a pit-horse drinks out of. 

SKERRIES (W.). Greenish-white micaceous sand- 

SKERRYSTONE (M.). Hard, thin-bedded sandstone. 

SKEWS (S.). See Lypes. 

SKID (B.). See Eudge. 

SKIDS. Slides or slippers upon which certain coal- 
cutting machines travel along the faces (1) whilst at 

SKIP, sometimes SKEP. 1. (S. S.) Acoaltfraw or box. 


2. See Cu/at. 

3. (S.W.) 

SLABS. Lagging placed over bars. 

SLACK. Small coal which will pass through a 
screen (1). There is no standard size distinguishing 
coal (2) from slack. 

SLAG (N.). See Brat. 

SLANT. An underground roadway driven more or 
less on the rise or dip of the mine. 

SLAP (Som.). See Slack. 

SLATCH (Som.). See Lathe. 

SLATE COAL. A hard, dull variety of coal, not 
unlike Cannel. 

SLED, properly SLEDGE. See Cart. 

SLEEK (B.). Soft and troublesome, as applied to 
the state of the floor in steep seams. 

SLEW (D.). See Lum. 

SLICKENSIDES. The smooth striated surface of joints 
on opposite walls of a fault or fissure. 

SLICKS. Smooth partings or mere planes of division 
in strata. 

SLIDE. A fault. 

SLIDES. See Cage Guides. Made either of wood or 
rolled iron. 

SLIDING JOINT. A boring rod made in two portions, 
one sliding within the other, to allow of the concussion 
or shock produced by the weight of the falling rods 
being modified or taken off the cutting tool in very 
deep boreholes (1). 



SLIDING SCALE. A mode of regulating the amount 
of wages in mining districts by taking as a basis for 
calculation the market value of coal or iron, the 
amount rising and falling with the state of the trade. 
For example, when pig-iron sells for (say) 60s. per ton, 
the wages of underground men to be (say) 5s. a day ; but 
when pigs are at 70s., miners' wages shall be (say) 5s. Qd. 
a day, or rising Qd. a day for each rise of 10s. in the 
price of iron. 

SLIDING WINDBORE. The bottom pipe or suction- 
piece of a sinking sett of pumps (pumps used in a sinking 
pit), having a lining made to slide or telescope within 
it, to give length without altering the adjustment of 
the whole column of pumps. 

SLIG or SLIGGEN (I.). Shale. 

SLINE or SLYNE. 1. A facing or smooth parting or 
joint in coal, &c. 

2. (M.) Potholes in the roof. 

SLIP. 1. A fault. See Fig. 70 (1). 

2. A smooth joint or crack in strata. 

SLIP CLEAVAGE (S. W.). The cleat of the coal run- 
ning in planes parallel with slips (1). See Fig. 114. 

SLIP-DYKE (N.). See Slip and Fault. 

SLIPE (S. S.). A skip without wheels, a sledge. 


SLIPPERS. See Shoes. 

SLIP& (M.). Full of slips (2). 

SLIPPY BACKS (N.). Vertical planes of cleavage 
occurring every four or five inches in the seam of coal. 

SLIP SPEAR (Pa.). A tool for extracting tubing 
from a borehole (1). 

SLIP-THINGS (S. S.). The more or less vertical 
planes of cleavage in coal, &c. 

SLIP-TROUBLE (S.). See .Slip (1). 

SLIT. A short heading put through to connect two 
other headings. 

SLITTER. See Pick 

SLIVERS. Strips of wood or iron fitted in between 
the edges of boards in wooden bratticing, to make the 
joints air-tight. 

SLOOM (M.). A softish earthy clay or shale often 
underlying a bed of coal. 

SLOPE. 1. See Slant. 

2. (Pa.) The main engine-plane or inclined road- 
way driven in the seam of coal worked from the surface 
outcrop, up which the whole of the produce of the mine 
is raised by the winding engine. 

SLOT (Y.). To Me (1). 

SLOTTINGS (Y.). Coal cut away in the process of 

SLUDGE PUMP. A short iron pipe or tube fitted 
with a valve at the lower end, with which the boremeal 
is extracted from a borehole (I). 

SLUDGER. See Sludge Pump. 

Q 2 


SLUM, SLUMS, SLUMBS. 1. (N. S.) A blackish, 
slippery, indurated clay. 

2. A soft clayey or shaley bed of coal. 

SLYPE (S.). See Sawney. 

SMALL. See Slack. 

SMART FIRE (N.). A severe though small explosion. 

SMART MONEY (N.). A weekly allowance of money 
given by employers to workmen who get injured whilst 
at work. 

SMELL. The early indication of a fire-stink percep- 
tible to the nose. 

SMIFT. A bit of touch-paper, touch-wood, greased 
candlewick, or paper or cotton dipped in molten sulphur, 
attached by a bit of clay or grease to the outside end 
of the train of gunpowder when blasting. Its object is 
to ignite the shot after giving the miner sufficient time 
to retire to a place of safety. 

SMITHEM or SMYTHAM. 1. (M.) Fine slack. 

2. Clay or shale between two beds of coal. 

SMITH ORE (F. D.). See Brush (2). 

SMOKY PIT (M.). An upcast shaft with a furnace at 
the bottom of it. 

SMOOTH (S.W.). The line of face (1) of a stall 

SMOOTH-HEADS (Y.). See Bright-heads. 

SMOOTHS (S. W.). Planes of cleavage more or less 

SMUDGE. See Smithem (1). 

SMUT. See Coal Smut. 

SMUTH or MUCKS. Very inferior coal. 


SNAP (M.). See Bait. 

SNAPPING TIME (M.). A short period of rest during 
a shift in which a collier takes his snap. 

SNAPS (M.). A haulage clip. See Fig. 79 for tail 
rope clip. 

SNECK Y. A carving (2) ? 

SNECKS (S,). Appliances for diverting wagons from 
the main line into a siding. 

SNIBBLE (N.). See Locker. 

SNOREHOLES. The holes at the bottom of a snore- 
piece through which the water enters to the pump. 

SNOREPIECE. The lowest end of a pump sett (I) 
through which the water passes. 

SNUFF. See Smift. 

SOAPSTONE (Y., N.W.). A variety of fireclay, some- 
times applied to Bind (1). 

SOAMS (N.). A pair of cords about three feet in 
length, by which foals and half marrows pull tubs along 
the roads. 

SOCKET. The innermost end of a shot hole not blown 
away after firing. 

SOCKET BAR. See Beche. 

SODS (Lei.). Clay beneath coal seams. 

SOFT. Tender, full of slips and joints, friable. 

SOFTS (M.). Coals which easily break up. 

SOLE. A piece of timber set underneath a prop. 

SORTING (M.). Turning over by hand and examin- 
ing the round coal as it comes from the mine ; dividing 
it up according to size and quality into various sorts to 


suit the trade, carefully throwing aside all inferior or 
stony coal. 

Sos (S. S.). To sink into the floor under great 
pressure from overlying strata. 

SOUFFLARD (F.). See Blower. 

SOUNDING. Knocking on the roof, &c., to ascertain if 
it is sound or safe to work under. 

SOUTENEMENT (F.). Propping and packing the roof. 

SPAN-BEAM. A long wooden beam supporting the 
head pivot of the drum axle of a gin, and resting at 
the extremities upon inclined legs. 

SPARE (N.). A deal wedge from 6 to 8 inches long, 
for driving behind tubbing plates when adjusting them 
to the circle of the shaft. 

SPAVIN (Y.). Clunch, or ordinary bottom or under- 


SPEAR PLATES. Wrought-iron plates bolted to the 
sides of spears where joined together. See Fig. 115. 

Fig. 115. 

SPEARS. Wooden pump-rods of Memel or pitch pine 
timber cut into lengths of about 40 feet, and, for heavy 
work, often measuring 16 inches square. Wrought-iron 
pears are also used. 

SPIDERS (U. S. A.). See Drum Rings. 

SPIKING CURBS. Light rings of wood to which 


planks are spiked, bevelled to suit the sweep of the 
shaft, when plank tubbing is used in sinking through 
water-bearing ground. 

SPILES. 1. Narrow-pointed tubbing wedges. 

2. See Lacing. 

SPILING (N.). See Spiles (1). 

SPIRAL DRUM. See Conical Drum. 

SPIRES (Lei.). Coal of a hard, dull, slaty nature, 
and difficult to break up. 

SPIRAL WORM. A tool for extricating broken 
boring rods. Fig. 116. 

Fig. 116. 

SPLINT or SPLENT (S.). A laminated, coarse, 
inferior, dull-looking, hard coal, producing much white 
ash ; intermediate between eannel and common pit coal. 

SPLIT. 1. A division of the air-current underground. 
Each separate district should have its own split of fresh 

2. To divide the ventilative current after it reaches 
the pit bottom. 

3. To divide a pillar or post (1) by driving through 
it one or more roads. 

SPLITTINGS (L.). Two horizontal level headings 
driven through a pillar in pillar workings, in order to 
work away the coal in the pillar. 

SPOIL. Debris [stone, shale, bad coal, dirt, and all 
rubbish] raised from the mine and thrown on one side. 


2. A stratum of coal and dirt (1) mixed. 

SPOIL-BANK or SPOIL-HEAP. The place on the sur- 
face where spoil (1) is deposited. 

SPOUT (S. S.). A short underground passage in the 
Thick-coal workings connecting a main road with an 

SPOUT-HOLE (S. W.). 1. A short siding upon which 
trams are loaded in the pit. 
2. See Bolt. 

SPRAG. A short wooden prop set in a slanting 
position for keeping up the coal during the operation of 
holing. It is a general rule that sprags shall be set not 
more than 6 feet apart. 

SPRING BEAMS. Two stout parallel timber beams 
built into a Cornish pumping-engine-house, nearly on a 
level with the engine beam, for catching the beam, &c., 
and preventing a smash in case of a break down in the 
pit work 

SPRING DART. An arrow or fish-headed boring tool 
for extricating a lost implement, or for withdrawing 
lining tubes. Fig. 117. 

Fig. 117. 

SPRING HOOK. An iron hook attached to the end of 
a winding, capstan, or crab rope, fitted with a spring 
for closing the opening, and thus preventing the kibble, 
&c., from falling off. 


SPRING POLE. A fir pole having considerable 
elasticity, to which the boring rods are suspended when 
boring for coal, &c. Also sometimes employed for 
shallow pumping, when it is actuated by cams or cranks 
from an engine. 

SPUNNEY (L.). See Jinney. 

SPUKNS (S. S.). Narrow pillars or webs of coal 
between each holing, not cut away until the last thing 
before withdrawing the sprags. 

SPUE KOAD (S.). A branch way leading from a 
main level. 

SPURT (F. D.). A peculiar kind of stone, much 
disintegrated and mixed with colouring matter. 

SQUANDER (Y.). To beat or kill (extinguish) an 
underground fire. 

SQUARE WORK. 1. (S. S.) An old system of working 
the Thick coal by getting the upper beds first and then 
the lower ones. 

2. A system of working a seam of coal by cutting it 
up into square blocks or pillars. See Stoop and Room. 

SQUAT, LADS ! " Fall flat down on the floor I " 
In the early days of coal mining, before safety lamps 
were much used and ventilating was little understood, 
setting fire to gas was a very common thing ; so, when- 
ever an explosion took place, the colliers shouted to one 
another, " Squat, lads I " so that by lying close to the 
floor they were often able to escape the fire and Hast 
in a great measure, as it passed over them. See She's 


SQUEEZE. 1. See Creep. 

2. See Nip. 

SQUIB. A straw, rush, paper, or quill tube filled 
with a priming of gunpowder, which is passed through 
the touch-hole into the cartridge or charge in blasting, 
and ignited by means of a smift. 

S-ROPE. The winding (2) rope which passes round the 
under side of the drum (1) from or to the pulley ; so 
called because it takes the form of the letter S. 

STACK. To build up coals, ironstone, &c., into heaps 
on the surface for winter or other use 

STACKER. 1. One who stacks coals, &c. 

2. (Lei.) A butty out of the pit who looked after 
the unloading of the boxes on the bank (on behalf of the 
coal-getters) in the earlier days of mining. 

STACK OUT (M.). To dam off or shut up the 
entrance to a goaf by building a wall of stone or coal 
in front of it. 

ST ADDLE (M.). The foundation of a pack in iron- 
stone workings. 

STAGE. 1. A platform upon which trams stand. 

2. The pit bank. 

3. A certain length of underground roadway worked 
by one horse. 

STAGE PUMPING. Draining a mine by means of two 
or more pumps placed at different levels in the shafts or 
workings in such wise that each intermediate pump 
receives its water from the pump next below it, and 
raises it to the next above ; and so on to the surface or 



STAGE WORKING. A system of working minerals 
by open hole in which the various beds are removed in 
steps or stages in manner shown in section, Fig. 118. 

Fig. 118. 

STAIR PIT (S.). A shallow shaft or staple in a mine 
fitted with a ladder or steps. 

STAITHES (N.). Depots in which coals are placed 
when they come from collieries by wagons, to be ready 
to be loaded into keels. They date from 1709. Timber 
forms the chief material of construction of statthes, and 
they are fitted up with an arrangement of shoots or 
spouts, down which the coals run into the vessels. See 
cross-section, Fig. 119. In South Wales hydraulic 
drops and hydraulic shoots are employed at the staithes. 
When the former are used, the coals, in boxes, are 
jibbed out, lowered over the vessel's hatchway, and 
withdrawn again when empty : sometimes a counter- 
balance weight is employed alone for raising the empty 
boxes. With the hydraulic shoots, a full wagon is run 
on to a stage at the top of the shoot, the rear end of the 
stage is raised or the front end lowered, as the case may 
be, so as to incline the wagon and cause the coal to fall 
out at the end door (with which the wagons are all 
fitted) on to the shoot. Counterbalance shoots also are 
commonly employed upon staithes, wherein all the 



movements are regulated by counterbalance weights, 
the action being very similar to that of the hydraulic 
apparatus above referred to. The coals are sometimes 

Fig. 119. 

lowered from the mouth of the shoots into the bottoms 
of the vessels by means of an endless band or chain 
carrying iron buckets, which are fed from a hopper and 
descend into the hold. 

STAKE (Lei.). To fasten back or prop open with a 
piece of chain or otherwise the valves or clacks of a 
water barrel (1), in order that the water may run out of 
it back into the sump when necessary. 


STALACTITES (Y.). Icicle-shaped formations upon 
the roof, produced by droppings of water of a saline 

STALL. A working place in a mine, varying in 
length from a few feet to 80 yards or more, according 
to the thickness of the seam and system of working 

STALL AND EOOM WORK. Working the coal in 
compartments, or in isolated chambers or pillars. 

STALL GATE. A gate road along which the mineral 
worked in a stall is conveyed to the main road. 

STALLING. Working in a stall, in the capacity of a 
butty or contractor. 

STALLMAN. See Butty. 

STALL WORK. Working coal, &c., in stalls. 

STAMPING MAUNDRIL (Lei.). A heavy pick 

STANCH AIR (Som.). See Choke-damp. 

STANCHION. See Puncheon. 

STAND. Does not break down or require timbering. 
A rock or coal roof generally stands better than one 
composed of shale or clay. 

STANDAGE. An underground lodge or reservoir for 
water on its way to the sump or pumps. 

STANDARD. The fixed rate by which colliers' wages 
are from time to time regulated. See Sliding Scale. 

STANDARD AIR-COURSES (N.). The various quan- 
tities or supplies of fresh air allowed to pass through 
each district or split. 

STANDING. Not at work, not going forward, idle, 
at play (1, 2), laid off. 


STANDING BOBBY (N".). An exploded shot which 
rips the coal but does not blow the stemming out, and 
expends itself in lacks (1) without doing its wo,rk. 

STANDING FIRE. A fire in a mine continuing to 
smoulder for a long time ; often many years. 

STANDING GAS. A body of fire-damp known to exist 
in a mine, though fenced off. 

STANDING SET. A fixed lift of pumps in a sinking 

STANK (M.). A water-tight stopping ; generally a 
well built brick wall. 

STANKING (Ch.). See Stank. 

STAPLE or STAPLE PIT. A shallow shaft within a 

STAR REAMER (Pa.). A tool for regulating the 
diameter of or straightening a borehole (1), made star- 
shaped at the base. 

START (N.). A lever for working a gin to which 
the horse is attached. 

STATION. 1. Any fixed point underground beyond 
which naked lights may not be carried. 

2. Any fixed point in a mine where deputies meet to 
report upon the condition of their respective districts 
and to consult together. 

3. An opening into a level heading out of the side of 
an inclined plane. 

STEAM COAL. A hard, free-burning, non-caking, 
white ash variety of coal. The finest steam coals of 
South Wales are moderately hard and almost smoke- 



Fig. 120. 

STEAM JET. A system of ventilating a mine by 
means of a number of jets of steam at high pressure 
kept constantly blowing off from a series of pipes in the 
bottom of the upcast shaft. Ventilating by this system 
gives only about 30 per cent, at most of the useful 
effect produced by a fan or furnace. 

STEEL MILL. An apparatus for obtaining light in 
the workings of a mine where 
naked lights were considered un- 
safe. It was brought out by one 
Spedding, of Whitehaven, in 1760, 
and used up to 1815, when the 
safety lamp was invented. Its 
object was to produce a shower of 
sparks by holding a piece of flint 
against the rapidly-revolving periphery of a wheel 
about six inches in diameter, the rim of which was 
steel. See Fig. 120. 

STEEP SEAMS. See Edge Coals and Bearers. 
STEER (Lei.). Steep, highly inclined, dips fast. 

STEIGER (Pr.). See Fireman. He has the super- 
vision of only one fixed part or district of a mine. 

STEINING. The brick or stone lining of a pit shaft, 

Fig. 121. 

to prevent the loose strata of the sides from falling in. 
Three methods of steining are shown in Fig. 121. 


STEMMER. A copper rod used for stemming (2). 

STEMMING 1. Fine shale or dirt put into a shot-hole 
after the powder, and rammed hard. 

2. Ramming or beating the stemming (1) solid. 

STENTING (N.). See Stenton. 

STENTON (N.). A short heading at right angles to a 
cross cut (2). 

STEP BANKS (S. W.). Working places having re- 
gular distances along the carvings or cuttings between 
the ends of the stalls in the long -wall system. 

STEPPING (N.). The system of working faces of 
coal one in advance of the next to it. See Fig. 91 
(upper range of workings). 

STEPS. See Step Banks. 

STERIL COAL. Black shale or clay on top of a coal 

STEWARD (Y.). See Underviewer. 

STIFFENER (S. W.). A door for regulating the 

STILLING (N.). The walling of a shaft within the 
tubbing above the stone head (2). 

STIMPLES (S. W.). Small timbers. See Lacing. 

STINT. 1. (M.) A . measure of length by which 
colliers hole and cut coal. A stall face is usually 
measured off into a number of stints or holing setts (3), 
varying between 4 feet and 6 feet, and each collier holes 
a certain proportion of them for his day's work, 
according to the length and depth of the stint, and 
hardness of the seam. 


2. (GK) A certain number of trams filled per man 
per day. 

3. (S. S.) A collier's day's work. 

4. (B.) To fix upon, or agree to, a certain number 
of trams being filled per stall per day. 

STIRRUPS. A screw joint suspended from the brake- 
staff or spring -pole, by which the boring rods are adjusted 
to the depth of the borehole (1). 

STOBB. A long steel wedge used in bringing down 
coal after it has been holed. See Feathers. 

STOQK. 1. Coals laid down at surface during slack 
trade, or in reserve for an extra demand at any 

2. The average tonnage sent out of a working place 
in one day. 

STOCKING END. 1. (L.) The inner end of a heading 
at a short distance from which there is a depression or 
lum in the seam, which has become more or less filled 
with water, causing the ventilation to be cut off from 
the lack (2). 

2. (Lei.) A Geordie. 

STOMP. 1. (M.) To set a prop or sprag with one end 
let into a slight hole cut out of the floor or roof to 
receive it. 

2. A short wooden plug fixed in the roof, to which 
lines are hung, or to serve as a bench-mark for 

STONE. 1. A term commonly used for sandstone, 
post (2), or almost any rock of a stony character. 



2. Ironstone, which see. 

STONE COAL. Anthracite, in lumps. Also certain 
other very hard varieties of coal. 

STONEHEAD. 1. A heading driven in stone, bind, 
measures, &c. 

2. (N.) The first hard stratum met with underlying 

STONEMAN (N.). *0ne who is employed in driving 
a stonehead, or who rips, timbers, and repairs roads. 

STONE MINE (S.). An ironstone pit or working. 

STONE TUBBING. Water-tight stone wallitig of a 
shaft, jointed and fastened at the back with cement. 

STONE WOKK (S.). Driving of drifts or galleries in 
measures. See Stonehead (1). 

STOOK (N.). A pillar of coal about four yards 
square, being the last portion of a full-sized pillar to be 
worked away in board and pillar workings. 

STOOK AND FEATHEK. A wedge for breaking down 
coal, worked by hydraulic power, the pressure being 
applied at the extreme inner end of the drilled 

STOOL (D.). To sit, which see. 

STOOLS (F. D.). Sigillarise, viz. the fossil form of 
the stem of a tree, which grew during the Coal 
period, occasionally met with (probably in situ) in 

STOOP. 1. (S.) See Ranee. 
2. (M.) A prop or puncheon. 



STOOP AND EOOM (S.). A system of working coal 
very similar to pillar and stall (Fig. 122). 

Fig. 122. 



STOOPING (S.). Working away the stoops (1). 

STOOP KOADS (S.). Koads driven in the solid or 
whole coal on the stoop and room system. 

STOPPAGES. Deductions from miners' wages, such as 
rent, candles, blacksmith's work, field club, &c. 

STOPPER (S. S.). See Stopping. 

STOPPING. A solid stone, brick, or clay wall built 
right across a thirl or any other description of road or 
entrance to a worked-out place. They prevent the 
access of air to goaves, and cause it to circulate through 
and further into the mine; are often plastered with 
lime on the intake side and packed at the back with 
sand, slack, 'burnt stuff, or rubbish. See Dam, Signs. 

STOP TRUCKS (S. W.). Scotches. 

STOW. To pack away rubbish into goaves, old 
roads, &c. 

STOW-BOARD (N.). A "board or heading in which 
debris is stowed. 

STOWSES (N.). A windlass or wallow. 

R 2 


STRAIGHT BIT. A flat or ordinary chisel for "boring. 

STRAIGHT COAL (S. S.). An excavation made in the 
Thick coal, having the solid coal left on three sides of it. 

working coal somewhat similar to, board and pillar. 
Straight ends are drifts or headings from 4 feet 6 inches 
to 6 feet in width. Walls are pillars 30 feet wide. 

getting coal by headings or narrow work. See Course, 
Fig. 44. 

STRAPS (M.). Old iron way rails put up between 
the coal face and the front rank of props, in long-wall 
stalls, for supporting a tender roof. 

STRAW. A fine straw filled with gunpowder, and 
used as a fuse. 

STREBBAU (Pr.). The long-wall system, which see. 

STRET. 1. (N. S.) See Straight Work 

2. (M.) Solid, close, compact: e. g. gobbed stret, 
packed stret, &c. 

STRETCHER (Y.). A prop or spray. 

STRIKE. 1. The line at right angles to the dip (3) ; 
a level course. 

2. To meet with, or hit a fault, hollows, &c. 

STRIKE JOINTS (U. S. A). Joints in strata parallel 
to the strike (1). 

STRIKING DEALS. Planks fixed in a sloping direc- 
tion just within the mouth of a shaft, to guide the bowk 
to the surface. 

STRIP (M.) To get coal, &c., alongside a fault, 
barrier, hollows, &c. 


STEIPPING (Y.). A web of coal worked off all along 
the face of a stall. 

STRONG. A word having reference to the character 
of a bind or metal, meaning that the argillaceous is 
largely mixed with the arenaceous or siliceous material. 

STRUCK (N.). Level full; strickle measure. 

STRUM (N.). A kind of iron sieve placed round the 
suction pipe of a pump, for preventing stones or other 
rubbish passing into the pump. 

STRUVE VENTILATOR. A pneumatic apparatus in- 
vented by a Mr. Struve, consisting of two vessels, 
something like gas-holders, which are moved up and 
down in water. By this means the air is sucked out 
of the mine as required. See Ventilator. 

STUFF. 1. Coals and slack, the produce of the mine. 

2. (Sh.) See Bind. 

STUMP (Pa.). The block of solid coal at the entrance 
to a breast, having a narrow roadway on either side. 

STUMPING (L.). A kind of pillar and stall plan of 
getting coal. 

STYTHE. Carbonic acid gas. A gas commonly given 
off from old workings, and one found to result from the 
breathing of men and horses, the burning of candles 
and lamp?, and from the explosion of gunpowder used 
in blasting. Shallow and badly ventilated mines pro- 
duce stytlie. See After-damp and Slack-damp. 

SUB (M.). Meaning subsist ; money or wages paid 
on account. 

SUCK. See Back-lash. 

SULPHUR (S. S.). Old term for fire-damp, which see. 


SUMP or SUMPH. 1. The bottom of shaft below the 
lowest inset. 

2. A portion of the shaft bottom of a sinking pit sunk 
down lower than the other, forming a kind of dish into 
which the water collects, and which is always allowed to 
be the deepest part. 

3. (N.) A portion of a length of a broken working, 
or of a jud. 

BUMPER. A shot placed in or very near to the centre 
of the bottom of a sinking pit. 

SUMPT (S. S.). See Sump. 

SURFEIT (N.). Choke-damp. 

SURGE. To slip accidentally. 

SWABSTICK. A short wooden rod bruised into a kind 
of stumpy brush at one end, for cleaning out a drilled 

SWAD. See Dant. 

SWAG (L.). Subsidence or weighting of the roof. 

SWALLOW HOLES (L.). See Sinks. 

SWAMP. A depression or natural hollow in a seam. 
See Lum. 

SWAPE (N.). A great oar by which keels are steered. 

SWAYING OF A BANK (Y.). An expression commonly 
made use of in South Yorkshire, which means that a 
lank (4) is undergoing disturbance in the roof, due to 
weight (1, 2). 

SWEAL. 1. See Gutter. 

2. A candle is said to sweal when the grease runs 
down, owing to its burning in a strong current of air or 
being improperly carried or fixed. 


SWEAT (M.). The roof of a mine is said to sweat 
when drops of water are formed upon it, due to the 
heating of the waste or goaf. Sweating is generally 
the first indication of & fire-stink. 

SWEEP-HEAD PICK A pick the form of the head of 
which is made curved instead of elbowed or anchored, as 
other kinds are termed. 

SWEET. Free from fire-damp or other gases, or from 

SWELL. A kind of fault. See Horses. 

S WELLY, also SWALLY, also SW^LLY (N.). A thick- 
ening out of a seam of coal over a limited area. 

SWILLIES (Y.). Detached portions of coal strata 
forming small basins, say not more than one mile in 

SWINE-BACK (S. W.). See Horses. 

SWING. The arc or curve described by the point of 
a pick or maundril when being used by a holer or in 
cutting coal ; called the swing of the pick. 

SWINGING BONT or BANT (M.). Before the intro- 
duction of cages and conductors, the skips of coal, &c., 
and men were raised and lowered swinging loose in the 
shafts. Very shallow mines are still worked in this 
manner. The word bont -means land, a rope or chain. 

SWOM STUFF. An old term for certain alluvial 
deposits met with in coal measures. 

SIPHON or SIPHON-PIPE. A simple, very effective, 
and economical mode of conveying water in a mine 
over a hill, or from one lodge to another, from a higher 


to a lower level. It takes the form of an iron pipe 
(w. i. tubes are perhaps the most suitable), the vertical 
height of which must not exceed 28 or 30 feet between 
the water to be run off and the summit of the hill, and 
the length of the discharge end must exceed in height 
that of the suction end, or the siphon will not work. 


TACK. 1. (N.) See Spurns. 

2. (Som.) A wooden scaffold put into a pit-shaft for 
temporary purposes. 

TACKLE. The ropes, chains, detaching hooks, cages 
or kibbles, and other apparatus for raising coal, &c., in 

TACKLERS or TUCKLERS (Lei.). Small chains put 
round loaded corves, to keep the coal from falling 

TACKLER SKIP (S. S.). A kind of box in which men 
used to ride in a shaft, used also for carrying minerals. 
See Paddy Pan. 

TACKS (N.). The rock walls or sides surrounding a 
number of boreholes (2) which in driving stone heading (1) 
in fiery mines are drilled in the head-end or face, and 
the tacks between them are forced out or cut away 
without resorting to blasting. 

TACKSMAN (S.). The lessee of a colliery. 

TAGUE. An iron plate fitted on one side with a 
semicircular projection or rib, and two other short 


curved pieces, suited to the gauge of the tram rails, by 
which the wheels of the trams are guided from the 
plate on to the rails. See 
Fig. 123. Fig ' 123 - 

TAIL BACK. When fire- 
damp ignites at a furnace or 
by other means, and the 
flame is elongated or creeps 
backwards against the cur- 
rent of air, and possibly causes an explosion of a large 
body of gas, it is said to tail lack into the workings. 

TAIL CRAB. A crab for overhauling and belaying 
the tail rope (3) in pumping gear. 

TAIL IN (M.). To run out or terminate a length of 
holing stints at a buttock or other particular point along 
the stall face, or (if commencing to open-off stalls) from 
the side of a heading. 

TAILLES CHANSANTES (F.). Coal workings where 
the strata lie horizontal or nearly so. 

TAILLES MONTANTES (F.). Workings to the rise or 
in steep seams. 

TAIL-PIPE. The suction of a pump. 

TAIL HOPE. 1. A round steel or iron wire rope 
working in conjunction with, and being an appendage 
to, a main rope in the system of underground haulage, 
where the inclination of the ways is only slight. By 
the tail rope the empty set is drawn inbye'. They are 
much used in branch dip-ways or slants, in which 
system they are drawn inbye by the weight of the 
empties or by horses, engine-power of course being 
applied to bring the full set back, or outbye. 


2. A round wire rope attached to cages as a balance. 
See Koepe System. 

3. A round hemp rope used for moving pumps in 

with a single road or line of rails, and generally applied 
under the following circumstances. When the average 
gradient of the wagon-way is not sufficient to cause the 
empty set to draw a single rope in after it ; when the 
gradient dipping outbye is not sufficient to establish a 
self-acting inclined-plane system ; or when the gradient 
for the full tubs is insufficient to enable the train to 
draw a single rope after it. The full set is drawn out- 
bye with a main rope, and the empty set is hauled inbye 
with a tail rope, both ends of the set being attached to 
a rope. The engine has two drums, one for each rope, 
one always running loose whilst the other is in gear. 
The tail rope is carried upon small sheaves or rollers, 
either on the floor or towards the roof. The speed of 
the set does not usually exceed 8 or 10 miles per hour. 

TAKE. 1. The extent or area of a lease of mineral 
property often several thousand acres. 
2. (L.) To show or reveal gas. 
TAKE OUT (C.). To crop out. 
TAKEE-OFF (Y.). See Puller-o/. 

TAKE THE AIR. To make experiments with the 
anemometer, or by other means to ascertain the amount 
of ventilation passing through a mine. See Water 

TAKING. A Take. 


TAKING OF PROPS (L.). Drawing the timber in the 
wastes of workings. 

TALE (Som.). A day's work or a day's output of 

TALLY. A mark or number placed by a collier (1) 
upon every tub of coals loaded and sent out of his 
working place. They are usually little bits of tin having 
a number stamped upon them, and hung upon the tub 
by a short piece of string. By counting the number of 
these tallies when taken off the tubs at surface, and 
ascertaining the average weight of coal in each tub, the 
quantity of coals sent out of each stall is arrived at. 

TALLY-SHOUTEE. One who shouts out the numbers 
on the tallies to the weigher. 

TAMP. To fill up a borehole (2) above the charge 
with some strongly-resistant substance, such as shale or 
dirt pounded up small, and rammed hard upon the 
powder before firing off the shot. 

TAMPING. The stuff used to tamp with. " See 

TANGERS (S. W.). Timbers fixed in a particular 
manner for supporting the sides of headings in shifting 
or very soft ground. 

TAP. 1. To cut or bore into old workings for the 
purpose of liberating accumulations of gas or water. 
2. To win coal in a new district. 

TAPPING THE HOLLOWS. A common expression, 
meaning allowing water or gas or both to flow out of 
disused ivorkings (often under a great pressure) ; an 


operation requiring great caution, and occasionally 
attended with risk. 

T CHISEL. A boring tool with its cutting edge made 
in the form of the letter T, but a little curved, T. 

TEEM, sometimes TEM. To tib rubbish, &c., down a 
spoil-bank. See Dump. 

TEEMING TROUGH (L.). A cistern into which the 
water is pumped from a mine. 

TEETH-WORK (S.). Signifies working coal end on, 
which see. 

TELEGRAPHS (Pa.). Shoots which convey coal from 
screens (1) to pockets at breakers. 

TEMPER SCREW (Pa.). See Stirrup. 

TEN (N.). A certain weight of coal agreed upon 
between lessor and lessee, upon which a royalty is paid 
at so much per ten of round and so much per ten of 
small. A ten varies between 48 and 50 tons, or 
18J Newcastle chaldrons of 53 cwts. 

TENTAIL KENT (K) A rent or royalty paid by a 
lessee upon every ten of coals which are worked in 
excess of the minimum or certain rent. 

TENTER. A man who has the control or working of 
an engine or jig, or who looks after the horses in a 

THICK COALS or THICK SEAMS. Coal seams of 
greater thickness than (say) 8 or 10 feet (sometimes met 
with as much as 130 feet), or those which are worked in 
two or more stages or lifts (3). The Thick coal of South 
Staffordshire is about 28 or 30 feet thick. 


THICKNESS (of a fault). It is measured by the line 
a & (Fig. 77). See Hade. 

THILL (N.). See Floor. 

THIN OUT. A coal or other seam of mineral is said 
to thin out when it decreases in thickness so as to 
become unworkable at a profit. 

THING. 1. (N. S.) A straight facing from floor to 
roof, and often many yards in length. 
2. (M.) A fault slip. 

THIN SEAMS, THIN COAL. Coal seams (say) less than 
3 feet in thickness. 

THIRL or THIRLING. Sometimes Thol&nd Ihurl. 

1. See Cross-hole. 

2. (Lei.) To cut away the last web of coals, &c., 
separating two headings or other workings. 

THREAD. 1. (M.) See Cleat. 

2. (M.) A more or less straight line of stall faces, 
having no cuttings, loose ends, or fast ends or steps. 

THROUGH AND THROUGH (S. W.). The system of 
getting or cutting bituminous coals without regard to 
the size of the lumps. 

THROUGH COAL (S. W.). See Altogether Coal. 

THROUGHER (S.). A thirl (1) put through between 
two headings which are up-stoop. 

THROW. 1. (Y.) A fault of dislocation. 
2. The vertical distance between the two fractured 
ends of a bed of coal, &c., at a fault. See Hade. 
THROWN. Faulted, broken up by & fault. 
THRUST. Creep due to weight. When the floor is 


harder than the roof, the subsidence of the latter causes 
a crushing down of pillars. 

THWARTING (Som.). A short branch (1) driven 
between two or more veins where they are nearly 

TIE-BACK. A beam serving a similar purpose as a 
fend-off beam, but fixed at the opposite side of the shaft 
or inclined road. 

TIGER. See Nipping Fork. 

TIGES DE BONDAGE (F.). Soring rods. 

TILL (I.). Shale. 

TILLER. See Bracehead, but made in a rather 
different form, and usually of iron. 

TIMBER. 1. Pitwood, e. g. Props, bars, sprays, 
lagging, &c. 

2. To set, fix, or place timber (1) in a mine. 

TIMBERER. One who sets (5) and draws props, puts 
up bars and lacing in the roadways and workings. 

TIME. Hours of work performed by day men, la- 
bourers, &c. 

TIN CAN SAFETY LAMP. A Davy lamp placed 
inside a tin can or cylinder having a glass in front, 
air-holes near the bottom, and open-topped; thus 
transforming an instrument of great danger in a rapid 
current of air into one of great security. 

TINKER (D.). Laminated carbonaceous shale. 

TIP. A platform upon which a pair of iron tram 
rails, fixed upon an axle and attached to a lever, are 



bolted down, for emptying tubs into wagons, boats, &c. 
See Fig. 124. 

Fig. 124. 

TIPPER or TIPPLER. An apparatus for emptying 
tubs of coal on to screens (1). The tub is placed in the 
tippler, turned upside down, and brought back empty 
to its original position, with a minimum of manual 
labour. It is constructed principally of wrought iron, 
and usually fitted with a brake. See Fig. 125. 

Fig. 125. 

TIRR. See Overburden. 
TOE. See Spurn. 

TOKEX. 1. (S. W.) A thin bed of coal, &c., indi- 
cating a thicker seam at no great distance. 
2. See Tatty. 


TOLL (Ch.). Eoyalty on rock salt. 

TOOM (N.). Empty. 

TOP. 1. See Eoof. 

2. See Cap (I) or Blue Cap. 

TOP HEADS (S. S.). Passages driven in the upper 
part of the Thick coal for draining off the gas ; first 
adopted by one James Eyan about the year 1808. 

TOPIT. A kind of bracehead, but much smaller, 
which is screwed on to the top of boring rods when 
withdrawing them from the hole (2). It is attached to 
a rope worked from & jack-roll. 

TOPPLE (S. W.) from TOP-HOLE. A working place 
driven to the rise of the main levels. 

TOPPLY (S.). The uppermost layers of a bed of coal 
left for a roof. 

TOPS. See Top. 

TORRENTS. Beds of quicksand met with below the 
chalk marl in the Anzin coal-field, in France. 

TOT (N.). A measure of gunpowder used in 

TOUCH. See Fuze. 

TOUGH (Sh.). Grey, plastic clay. 

TOUT VENANT (Belg.). Coal as landed on lank (1), 
previous to screening (1) and sorting. 

Tow. 1. (Lei.) Dark, tough, earthy clay or shale. 

2. (S.) A winding rope of hemp. 

TRACK (Pa.). Underground railways or tramways. 
TRAILER (N.). See Putter. 
TRAIN. See Journey. 



TRAIN BOATS (T.) A number of compartments 
hinged together in a simple manner admitting of free 
articulation, in which coals are carried on canals or 
rivers from the mines to the shipping ports. The train 
may either be propelled or towed. When towed, as 
many as 30 compartments are linked together, but 
when propelled the train consists of 10 compartments 
steered by means of wire ropes along the sides, these 
ropes being actuated by steam power. Each compart- 
ment has a capacity of from 35 to 40 tons. 

TRAIN BOY. A lad who rides upon the train, to 
attend to the rope attachments, signal in case of de- 
railment of tubs, &c. 

TRAM. 1. See Box, Corf, Tub, Sleep. In South 
Wales trams constructed wholly of wrought iron or 
steel are much used in the steam-coal collieries. They 
weigh about 9 cwt. empty, and have a carrying 
capacity of 25 cwt See Fig. 126. 

Fig. 126. 

2. To haul or push trams (1) about in a mine. 

TRAMMER. See Haulier, Putter. 

TRAMMING. See Haulage. 

TRAM-PLATE. Cast-iron plates of [_ section, weighing 
about 12 Ibs. to the yard, upon which wagons and 
trams run. See Tram-road. 


TEAM-ROAD. A road laid with tram rails or plates. 
So called after one Benjamin Outram, of Little Eton, 
in Derbyshire, who in 1800 used stones for carrying 
the ends of the metal plates or edge rails. The name 
Outram was subsequently contracted into Tram, hence 
tramway, trams, &c. 

TRAM-ROPE. A hauling-rope to which the trams are 
attached by a clip or chain, either singly or in sets. 
Bound steel ropes are always used. 

TRAP. 1. (S.) A steep heading along which men 

2. (B.) See Lid. 

3. (Som.) A fault of dislocation. 

4. See Grappel. 

5. See Whin. 

TRAP DOOR. A small door, kept locked, fixed in a 
stopping or holt, for giving access to firemen and certain 
others to the return air-ways, dams, or other disused 
places in a mine. 

TRAP-DOWN (B.). A fault which is a down-throw 

TRAP DYKE. A fault (not necessarily accompanied 
by a displacement of the strata) in which the spaces 
between the fractured edges of the beds are filled up 
by a thick wall of igneous rock called trap (5) or whin. 
Frequently met with in the collieries of the North of 
England and Scotland. The word Trap is derived from 
the Swedish Trappa, a stair. 

TRAPPER (N.). A small boy employed underground 


in opening and shutting doors during the passage of 
tubs and horses. 

TRAPS (S.). Travelling roads for miners in Edge 
Coals driven on the slope of the seam. 

TRAP-UP (B.). A fault which is an up-throw one. 

TRAUNTER (M.). A sprag. See Tront. 

TRAVAIL A COL TORDU. (F.). See Holing. 

TRAVELLING KOAD. An underground passage or 
way used expressly, though not always exclusively, for 
men to travel along to and from their working places. 

TREE. 1. See Leg (1), Puncheon. 
2. A pump-tree, which see. 

TREE UP (S.). To set up props or trees (1) in the 

TREPAN. 1. (F.) A boring chisel of the ordinary 

2. The boring head or tool used in the Kind-Chaudron 
system of sinking shafts. It consists essentially of a 
horizontal wrought-iron bar, to the underside of which 
are attached steeled teeth, so placed, that as the bar is 
rotated round the central axis of the pit, each tooth in 
falling with the bar through the requisite length of the 
stroke, which is from 10 to 20 inches, cuts for itself an 
annular portion of the bottom of the shaft. A large 
and a small trepan are used : the smaller one first bores 
out a hole from 4 to 6 feet in diameter, according to 
the required size of the shaft, in advance of the full 
size of the pit, into which the debris falls. The trepans 
are suspended by long wooden rods, and for a shaft of a 
diameter of say 15 feet, the larger one will weigh 

s 2 



Fig. 127. 

about 20 tons, and the smaller say 11 tons. In ordinary 
strata the average daily advance of the boring will be 
about 3 feet. Fig. 127 is a 
large trepan. 

TRIG. A sprag used for 
stopping or putting the brake 
on trams, wagons, &c. 

TRIMMER. See Pricker (3). 

TRIMMERS (N., S. W.). 
Men who fill up the holds of 
vessels (colliers (2) ) with the 
coals discharged into them 
from staithes. 

TRIP. See Kick -up or 

TRIPLET (N.). See Tipper. 

TROLLEY. 1. A Tram. 

2. (B.) A kind of Lum, or basin-shaped depression 
in strata. 

TROMMEL. To separate coal into various sizes by 
discharging them with the least possible breakage. 

TROMPE. AVater-blast apparatus for producing ven- 
tilation by the fall of water down a pit-shaft. It con- 
sisted of a pipe, which the water enters in a funnel- 
shaped stream, and regulates the discharge of water; 
the air enters chiefly through holes just below ; the 
water breaking on a block is forced through the air-pipe 
or trunk. 

TRONT (M.). A long sprag fixed diagonally to the 
face of the coal wall. 


TROUBLE. A Fault. 

TROW (Lei.). A rectangular wooden pipe made in 
lengths of 12 or 14 feet, and from 3 to 12 inches square 
inside, for conveying the water feeders down the side of 
a shaft to the garlands (1). Used also occasionally for 
ventilating a trial heading, staple, or other nook-and- 
corner in the workings. 

TROUSSE COLLETEE (F.). A narrow wedging crib 
placed beneath an ordinary one. 

TROUSSE PICOTEE. An ordinary wedging crib. 

shaped fault, or, more correctly, 
a mass of rock, coal, &c., let 
down in between two faults, 
which faults, however, are not 
necessarily of equal throw (2). 
See Fig. 128. 

TRUCK. See Tram. 

TRUMPET LAMP (N.). Miner's term for a Muesder 
or Belgian safety-lamp. 

TRUMPETING (S. S.). See Brattice. Fig. 27 brick. 

TRUNCHEON (Som.). A sleeper for underground 

TRUNK. 1. (M.) A wooden box or sledge or sled in 
which the debris is conveyed from a heading of very 
small sectional area, or up a staple. 

2. (B.) A wooden pipe or box for conveying air in 
the workings. 

3. (Y.) See Kibble. 

TRUNK PUMPING-ENGINE. One which commands the 


drainage of underground waters over a considerable 
area of mines, being a substitute for a number of 
smaller and independent pumps. 

TRUNT (N. S.). A heeding driven on a level. 

TRYING THE LAMP. The examination of the flame 
of a safety lamp for the purpose of forming a judgment 
as to the quantity of fire-damp mixed with the air. 
When fire-damp forms 1 part out of 13 of air, the 
mixture becomes explosive ; when 9 to 10 parts of air 
to 1 of gas, the explosive force is greatest : 5 parts of 
air to 1 of gas causes the most feeble explosion. 

TUB. 1. See Box, Corf, Tram. 
2. A complete length of metal or timber tubbing from 
and including the wedging crib upwards. 

TUBBED BACK. Springs or feeders of water met 
with in sinking pit-shafts are said to be tubbed lack when 
tubbing has been put in to keep the water from getting 
into the mine. 

TUBBING. Cast-iron and sometimes timber lining or 
ivalling of a pit-shaft to keep back springs of water 
from flowing into a mine. See Plank tubbing. Of 
metal tubbing there are three kinds employed, viz. 

1. Ordinary outside-flanged tubbing, put in in seg- 
ments and wedged up water-tight. 

2. Inside screwed tubbing put in in rings (1) and 
segments bolted together and wedged, either built up 
from a wedging crib or lowered from the surface as a 
cylinder through water-bearing strata to the stone-head 

3. Complete rings or cylinders built up one above 



another at surface as they are lowered into the pit, 
bolted together at the joints, which have inside flanges. 
See Fig. 129, showing the three systems in plan as 
well as in section. 

Cast-iron tubbing first used in 1792, at Wallsend. 

Fig. 129. 


TUBBING PLATES. Cast-iron segments forming por- 
tion of a ring of tubbing. See Fig. 129, 1 and 2, a a ; 
also enlarged views, Fig. 130. Generally from 10 to 12 

Fig. 130. 


plates form a ring (1). Thickness of the metal from 
1 to 2 inches, according to the pressure of water. 

TUBBING WEDGES. Small wooden wedges of pitch 
pine about 4 inches in length, 1^ inches in width, and 
i inch in thickness at the thick end. They are 


hammered in between the joints of lulling plates until 
no more can be made to enter, thus stopping back 
every drop of water from the shaft. 

TUBING. The lining of boreholes (1) with wrought- 
iron tubes to keep the sides from running in. 


TUB-WAY (N.). Tram-rails, sleepers, &c. 

TUCKLEES (Lei.). Short chains formerly used for 
raising and lowering men in a shaft. Three men gene- 
rally sat in them at one time. See Bant, Tacklers. 

TUGGEB (B.). A short chain by which boys draw 
tubs along. 

TUGGEE BOY (B.). One who draws small tubs (1) or 
sleds about underground by means of a tugger. Called 

TUMBLEE. 1. (N.) A stop, scotch, or catch, affixed 
to each deck of a cage for keeping the tubs in place. 

2. (S.) See Tipper. 

3. (Som.) See Kneeler. 

TUMBLING TOMS. Tippers that turn completely 

TUNNA (Sw.). See Bowh, Kibble. 

TUNNEL (L.). See Crut. 

TUEN. 1. The hours during which coals, &c., are 
being raised from the mine. 

2. See Shift. 

3. To draw or wind (3) coals up a shaft or up an 
inclined plane to the surface. 

4. Curved tram rails laid round a corner or turn, 
often made of cast iron. 



5. (S.) To drive headings to form stoops. 

TUKN AGAIN (N. S.). A change in the direction of 
the dip of the strata. 

TURN BARREL (M.). See Jack-roll 

TURNING. Drilling a shot-hole by hand. 

TURNING OUT (S. S.). Bringing coals to the skips (1). 

TURN OUT. A siding or pass-by upon an under- 
ground rolley-way. 

TURN PULLEY (M.). A pulley wheel fixed at the 
inbye end of an endless or tail-rope hauling plane, round 
which the rope returns. It may be fixed either verti- 
cally or horizontally, and is usually from 4 to 6 feet in 
diameter. See Lurry (1), Fig. 94. 

TURN-STAKES. See Stowses. 

TURNTABLE. A cast-iron disc or small horizontal 
platform revolving on a vertical axis, and supported 
upon small wheels, upon which tubs or trams are turned 
round upon the pit lank. 

TWIBILL. A strong pick used for stone-work, with an 
eye generally rectangular. 

TWIN BOY (B.). A small 
boy employed underground 
to push trams along a twin- 

TWIN -WAY (B.). Two 
branch roads set away, one 
on either side, out of a main 
road to the face of the 
stalls, through which trams are pushed by twin boys. 
See plan, Fig. 131. 

Fig. 131. 


Two (S.). A cage-i\\\. of men. 

TWO-THROWS. When in sinking, a depth of about 
12 feet has been reached, and the debris has to be raised 
to surface by two lifts or throws with the shovel (one 
man working above another). At this point the em- 
ployment of a hand windlass becomes necessary. 

TYMP. See Cap (2), Lid. Usually about 12 or 15 
inches in length. 

TYPES (S.). See Lypes. 


U. C. Upcast shaft. 

UDGED (D.). Loose, weak, liable to fall, sounding 
hollow, or unsound. A roof or a piece of side is said to 
knock udged when it produces a dead, hollow, unsafe 
sound, upon being knocked upon with a hammer, &c. 

UMBRELLA. See Bonnet. 

UNDERCAST. An air course or wind road carried 
underneath a wagon way or other road by constructing 
a kind of bridge made airtight, or by driving a heading 

Fig. 132. 

in solid coal, &c., beneath the floor, sinking or sloping 
down at either end. See Fig. 132. 
UNDERCLAY. A bed of fireclay, clunch, or other 


more or less clayey stratum lying immediately beneath 
a seam of coal, and met with as forming the floor of 
almost every bed of coal. Many geologists consider 
underclays to have been the soil or surface upon which 
the vegetation, now converted into coal, grew, flourished, 
and died, as they contain the fossil remains of great 
numbers of what are thought to have been the roots of 
plants, &c. 

UNDERCLIFF (S. W.). Argillaceous shale forming 
the^oor of many coal seams in this coal-field. 

UNDERCUT. To hole (1) or Jcirve. 

UNDEREARTH (F. D.). A hard bastard fireclay 
forming the floor of a seam of coal. 

UNDEREDGE STONE (F. D.). The floor of an iron- 
stone mine. 

UNDER-GETTINGS. See Shorts (2). 

UNDERGOING. See Holing, Kirving. 

UNDER-LEVEL (01.). Winning (1) the ironstone by 
driving drifts into the hill-sides, &c., instead of sinking 

UNDERLOOKER (L.). One who has the care and 
superintendence of the colliers or miners and of the 
workings, who receives his orders from the manager, and 
to whom the overmen and deputies report upon the state 
of the mine. 

UNDERPINNING. Building up the walling of a 'pit- 
shaft to join that above it*. 

UNDERPLY (S.). A band or division of the upper 
portion of a thick seam of coal. 

UNDER-ROPE. See S-rope. 


UNDER-SEAMS (S.). Lower or deeper coal seams. 

UNDER VENTILATION. Too little air circulating in 
a mine or working-place therein. 

UNDERVIEWER (N.). See Underlooker. 

UNGOTTEN. See Unwrought. 

UNHOLED (Y.). Boardgates or other headings which 
are not driven through or thirled into the adjoining 

UNWATER. To pump mines, or districts in mines, 

UNWROUGHT or UNWORKED. Coal or other mineral 
which has not been mined or worked away. 

UP. 1. A stall or heading is said to be up when it is 
driven or worked up to a certain line (a fault, hollows, 
boundary, &c.), beyond which nothing further is to be 

2. On the lank (1) or on the surface. 

UP-BROW (L.). An inclined plane worked to the 

UPCAST. The pit-shaft through which the return air 
ascends and is got rid of. See Signs. 

UP-HILL. A hoard or wicket. 

UP-LEAP (M.). A fault which appears as an up- 
throw. See Fault, Fig. 70 (1). From c to d is an up- 

UP-OVER CRIB. A wedging crib placed on the top 
of a length of tubbing, to tub (3) off the water in a certain 

UPSET (S.). A holt hole or thirl (1) put through 
between two levels in edge coals. 


UP-STANDING (N.). The condition of a goaf when 
such portions of the pillars are worked away as still to 
leave the roof supported. 

UP-STOOP (S.). When a heading is driven to a point 
at which another should be put in or meet it at right 
angles out of a parallel heading so as to form a stoop, 
the first-named heading is called up-stoop. The headings 
or rooms marked with the letter a in Fig. 122 (see Stoop 
and Room) are up-stoop. 

UP-THROW. See Up-leap. 


VACUUM. The method of producing ventilation by 
exhausting the air from the mine. See Fan. 

VEAL (S.). A tank or water-barrel placed upon a 
cage for emptying the sump. 

VEE (M.). The junction of two underground road- 
ways meeting in the form of a V. 

VEERER (Som.). An old word for Banksman. 

VEES, VEEZ, and VIESE (S.). A kind of soft earth 
in a fissure or upon the sides of a dyke. See also 

VEIN (S. W.). A seam of coal. 

VEISES (S.). Joints in the coal strata. 

VENT or VENT HOLE. A small passage made with 
a needle through the tamping, which is used for ad- 
mitting a squib, to enable the charge to be ignited. 


VENTILATING PRESSURE. The power or force re- 


quired to overcome the friction of the air in mines. 
This is found to increase and decrease in exactly the 
same proportion that the area or extent of the rubbing 
surface exposed to the air increases or decreases. The 
rubbing surface depends upon the perimeter of the air- 
ways and their length. See Drag (1). 

VENTILATION. 1. The atmospheric air circulating 
in a mine. 

2. The art or method of producing, distributing, 
maintaining, conducting, and regulating a constant cur- 
rent or flow of atmospheric air in the shafts, levels, 
inclines, staples, engine- and boiler-houses, stables, 
returns, flues, edges of goaves, of old workings, &c., so as 
to dilute, and as far as possible render harmless, the 
noxious gases given off in the mine, and in that state to 
convey them into the atmosphere at the surface. See 
Natural Ventilation, Furnace, Steam Jet, Fan. 

VENTILATOR. A mechanical apparatus for producing 
a current of air underground. 

There are about ten different types at work, all of 
them being on the exhausting principle. They may be 
divided into two clearly and radically distinct classes, 
the first consisting of the Guibal, Kammel, Waddle, 
and Schiele Ventilators, which are centrifugal fans, 
and act by reason of the partial vacuum they are able 
to produce; and the second consisting of machines 
known as varying-capacity ventilators, and which act in 
a similar manner to an air-pump. They are known as 
the Nixon, Struve, Lemielle, Cooke, Hoot, and Goffint 
Ventilators (see Fig. 133, which gives all the above- 
mentioned ventilators in side elevation, with the excep- 


Fig. 133. 








tions of the Lemielle and the Goffint, which are in 
plan. The centrifugal ventilators are chiefly con- 
structed of wrought iron or of steel, with cast metal 
central bosses, and are made up to 46 feet in diameter 
(Schiele up to 14 feet 6 inches). Lemielle's machine 
consists of a vertical cylinder, within which revolves a 
second cylinder or drum, also vertical, the axis of 
which is placed eccentrically to the outer one. Upon 
this cylinder are hinged doors, which act upon the air 
in a somewhat similar manner to what the feathering 
float-boards adopted in steamer paddle-wheels do upon 
the water. 

Cooke's Ventilator consists of two horizontal drums 
mounted eccentrically upon a shaft : each drum as it 
revolves moves almost in contact with a cylindrical 
casing. A vibrating arm or shutter is hung by the 
upper edge, and the lower edge is kept closely in 
contact with the surface of the revolving eccentric 

Boot's Ventilator is a rotary displacement machine, 
discharging the air in four distinct volumes during 
each revolution. It consists of two rotary pistons 
revolving in a casing. They are constructed of wrought 
iron and timber, and adjustable packing blocks are pro- 
vided at each end of the ventilator chamber to prevent 
slipping of the air. 

The Nixon Ventilator consists of an enormous 
horizontal double-acting air-pump, fitted with rect- 
angular pistons running to and fro upon rails. Upon 
the fronts and backs of the chambers are hung a 
number of rectangular valves or flaps, through which 
ingress and egress is given to the air. 


Struve's Machine consists of two vertical air- 
pistons called aerometers, constructed of wrought iron, 
which reciprocate vertically in annular tanks filled with 
water. The inlet and outlet of the air is regulated by 
rectangular valves in much the same way as in the 
Nixon Ventilator. 

The Goffint Ventilator (at Liege, Belgium) consists 
of a horizontal double-acting piston-pump like that of 
Nixon, but differing in construction from that machine. 

VIEWER or COAL VIEWER. The general manager 
or mining engineer of one or more collieries, who has 
control of the whole of the underground works, and 
also generally of those upon the surface. Underground 
surveys and plans are generally made and kept up by 
him, and the Manager acts under his authority and 
directions. A word not much used now, and is giving 
place to Mining Engineer and Agent. 

VISETTE (R). See Slope or Incline. 

VORHAUER (Pr.). This word means "Old man of 
the stall." He corresponds to the first man or ~butty 
collier of English mines. 

VUGHY ROCK. A stratum of cellular structure, or 
one containing many cavities. 


WAD COIL. A tool for readily extracting a pebble 
or a broken tool from the bottom of a lore-hole (2), con- 
sisting of two spiral steel blades arranged something 
like a corkscrew. See Spiral Worm. 

WAD-HOOK. See Wad Coil, Spiral Worm. 



WAFF (S.). See Brush (1), Dadding. 
WAFTING (M.). See Brush (1). 

WAGEMAN (Lei.). A collier who is paid by the day 
for performing a fixed amount of work, e. g. blowing. 
See Blow (1). 

WAGON, sometimes WAGGON. See Box, Corf, Hutch, 
Skip (1), Tram, Tub (1). 

WAGONER (N. S.). A man or boy who goes with a 
horse hauling tubs underground. 

WAGON- WAY (N.). An underground engine-plane or 

WALLERS (N.). Boys who pick out the bats and 
other rubbish from coal wagons that have fallen 
through the screens (1) unobserved. 

WAITERS-ON. Men employed at the top of a sinking 
pit to work the running platform and steady the kibbles, 

WALL. 1. The face (1) of a long-wall working or 
stall, commonly called the coal-wall. 

2. (N.) A rib of solid coal between two boards. 

WALL ["To the Wall"] (N.). A term signifying 
breadth, in reference to the size of pillars in the system 
of working known as Pillar and Stall. 

WALL BARS. Prop Wood usually cut flat to fix 
against the roof, close up to the working face, where 
the roof is liable to break along the line of face (1). 

WALL CUTTING. Cutting, shearing, and blasting oif 
the sides of a sinking pit, preparatory to putting in 
tubbing, coffering, or walling. 


WALLING. 1. The brick or stone lining of pit-shafts. 
See Steining, 

2. (D.) Stacking or setting up ironstone, &c., in 
heaps, preparatory to its being measured or weighed off. 

WALLING CRIB. Oak cribs or curbs upon which 
walling (1) is built. They are put in every 6 to 10 
yards, according to the nature of the measures being 
sunk through. 

WALLING STAGE. A movable wooden scaffold sus- 
pended from a crab on the surface, upon which the 
workmen stand when walling (1) and tubbing are being 
put in, in a shaft. 

WALLOW (M.). See Stowses. 

WALL PLATE (Pa.). Strong timbers or buntons 
wedged firmly back against the strata, and forming a 
kind of walling (1) of a pit-snaft. 

WALLS (S.). Short working faces or stalls (also 
headings 6ft. in width) from 12 to 20 yards wide. 

speaking, an excellent description of household coal 
originally produced at a colliery near Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, near to the eastern termination of the great 
Koinan wall, and near the sea. Many first-class house 
coals are now termed Wallsends, though they have no 
connection with the place of that name. 

WANT (S.). A clean rent or fissure in strata unac- 
companied by dislocation. 

WAPPING (Lei.). A roughly-made rope or band of 
hemp or spun yarn. 

WAEGUES (F.). See Horse-gin and Gin. 

T 2 


WARK-BATCH (Som.). See Spoil-lank. 

WARNERS. Apparatus consisting of a variety of 
delicately-constructed machines actuated by chemical, 
physical, electrical, and mechanical properties, for in- 
dicating the presence of small quantities of fire-damp, 
heat, &c., in mines; At present most of these ingenious 
contrivances are more suited to the laboratory than for 
practical application underground. 

WARNING LAMP. A safety lamp fitted with certain 
delicate apparatus for indicating very small proportions 
of fire-damp in the atmosphere of a mine. As small a 
quantity as 0'03 per cent, can be by this means 

WARP (Y.). Blueish-brown, finely-laminated tough 
clay with pebbles. 

WARRANT (L.). Synonymous with Glunch, Pounson, 

Glunch, &G. 

WASH (N.). Drift, clay, stones, &c. Probably 
ancient river courses or glacier grooves which have 
furrowed and scooped out the surface in past ages. See 

WASH FAULT. A portion of a seam of coal replaced 
by shale or sandstone. See Fault, Fig. 70 (2) ; also see 
Low (2). 

and appliances erected on the surface at a colliery, 
generally in connection with coke ovens, for extracting, 
by washing with water, the impurities mixed with the 



coal-dust or small slack. The principle upon which the 
process is performed is that of gravitation or pre- 

A common form of washing apparatus consists of a 
series of long, gently-sloping wooden troughs or open- 
topped, flat-bottomed pipes, with appliances for col- 
lecting the washed coal v Streams of water are caused 
to flow along these troughs, carrying with them the 
coal-dust, which parts with its impurities (stone, shale, 

Fig. 134. 

&c.), as they soon fall by reason of their greater specific 
gravity, and the coal passes off into settling-tanks, the 
water if necessary being pumped back and used over and 
over again. 

Another form of machine, which is much more com- 
pact, consists of a brick hopper, constructed below the 
surface level, into which wagons discharge the coal to 
be washed. An endless chain of buckets, actuated by 


an engine, raises the stuff and empties it into iron 
tanks, wherein the process of cleaning is performed. 
Out of these a second endless chain of buckets raises 
the washed and semi-dried coal and tips it over and 
down a shoot into wagons for removal to coke ovens, 
a third series of buckets disposing of the washed-out 
rubbish from the base of the thanks into trams or tubs 
for removal to spoil-bank. (See Fig. 134). See Wet 

WASTE. 1. A more or less empty space between two 
packs. See Goaf. 

2. (N.) Very small coal or slack. 

3. (N.) A Return Air-way. 

WASTE COAL. Coal obtained from out of a 
waste (1). 

WASTEMAN (M.). One who looks after and keeps 
clean the airways of a mine, and keeps the wax 
dams in proper condition. He is generally an oldish 
collier who has had much experience. 

WATCHERS (Lei.). Experienced colliers butties 
who take it in turns to go down the pit and examine 
the whole of the workings along with a deputy every 

WATER. Next to fire-damp, this is the most trouble- 
some and dangerous element met with in mines. It 
may, nevertheless, under favourable conditions, be 
turned to great use in assisting to drain those portions 
of the workings which are situated to the dip of the 
shafts or adits, through the medium. of the hydraulic 
pumping-engine and the siphon. 

Below a depth of from (say) 900 to 1200 feet it is 


seldom found in any quantity, but salt water has been 
met with at 2790 feet below the surface in a coal-pit. 
The largest and strongest springs and feeders occur 
within a few hundred feet of the surface, and as many 
as 12,000 gallons per minute have had to be contended 
with in sinking shafts in the county of Durham. 

Brine is occasionally present in coal seams : e. g. at 
Moira, in Leicestershire, the water pumped from 730 
feet in depth out of the " main " coal seam contains no 
less than 3700 grains of chloride of sodium per gallon. 
In order to keep water out of pit-shafts, several methods 
of lining them are adopted, viz. Tubbing, Coffering, 
Kind-Chaudron system of sinking, and pumping ; and to 
exclude it from the underground workings and passages 
a system of Pillar and Stall working (which allows a 
portion of the coal to be extracted, and preserves the 
roof intact, and gives rise to no weighting or subsidence 
of the cover containing the water) must either be fol- 
lowed, or it must be raised by pumps or in tanks, or 
passed off by adits. 

WATER-BALANCE MACHINE (S.W.). An antiquated 
method of raising minerals in a pit-shaft by water 
power. The principle of the apparatus consists in a 
bucket of water, which was filled at the surface, and by 
its descent raised a tram of 20 cwt. or so of coal, the 
water being run off at the pit bottom each run or 
wind (3). 

WATER BARREL. 1. A wrought-iron tank or cistern 
in which the water is raised from the sump or from a 
lodge in the side of the shaft by the winding engine. 

2. An iron or wooden tank or box mounted upon 


four wheels, running on the underground tramways, and 
hauled either by engine power or by horses to the 
shaft bottom, where the water is discharged into the 

WATER BLAST. The sudden escape of pent-up air in 
rise workings under considerable pressure from a head 
of water which has accumulated in the lower 

WATER CARTRIDGE. Cartridges of explosive sub- 
stances for blasting down coal in the workings. The 
case containing the powder, tonite, &c., is surrounded 
by an outer one of water, which is employed to destroy 
the flame produced when the shot is fired, thereby les- 
sening the chance of an explosion should gas be present 
in the place (I). 

WATER CURB. See Garland (1). 

WATERED. Containing much water full of springs 
or feeders : e. g. heavily watered mines, heavily watered 
measures, &c. 

WATER ENGINE (D.). A pumping-engine. 

WATER GAUGE. An instrument for measuring the 
draff or friction of air in mines. It generally consists 
of a glass tube, bent into the form of the letter U, with 
a scale of inches and parts, by which the difference 
between the height of the water in one tube and that in 
the other is measured, this difference being due to the 
difference of pressure of the air in the intake and 

WATER HAMMER. The hammering noise caused by 
the intermittent escape of gas through water in mines. 


WATER LEAF (S.). See Top ply. 

WATER LEVEL. An underground passage or head (1) 
driven very nearly dead-level or on the strike (1), for the 
purpose of draining off the water. 

WATER LOAD (S. W.). The head, or pressure per 
square inch, of a column of water in pumps, &c. 

WATER LODGE. See Lodge. 

WATER-PACKER (Pa.). A kind of cup-leather ar- 
rangement fitted to the tubing of a borehole (1) in 
watery ground, to keep back the water. 

WAX (Lei.). Soft or puddled clay used for dams (I) 
or stoppings, and in which the colliers stick and carry 
about their candles in the mine. 

WAX DAM (Lei.). A wall or dam (1) of clay. 

WAXING (Lei.). The operation of plastering a waste 
stack with wax. See Stack out. 

WAX WALL (Lei.). A clay wall about ten inches in 
thickness built up from floor to roof alongside a gob 
road a few feet within the goaf, to keep back or prevent 
fire-stinks, &c. 

WAY. 1. (N. M.) Any underground passage or 
heading driven more or less on the level of the coal, 
along which the produce of the mine is conveyed either 
by horses or by engine power. See Gate, Road (1), 

2. The rails, sleepers, chairs, keys, &c., upon which 
tubs or corves run. 

WAY DIRT (Lei.). The slack, dust (2), and odd 
lumps of coal which fall from the tubs upon the roads 
on their journey from the working places to the shafts. 


It is collected during the night and sent to lank (1), 
and consumed under the boilers. 

WAY END. See' Gate End. In long-wall workings 
the colliers generally keep a supply of prop-wood, a tool 
and candle box, and other requisites for carrying on 
their work, and generally take their bait or snap just 
within the way end. 

WAY GATE. See Gate. 

WAY HEAD (M.). The end of a way or gate next to 
the face. 

WAY LEAVE. 1. A rent or royalty paid by the 
owner or lessee of a mine for conveying minerals belong- 
ing to one person through the property of another 
person. It is usually fixed at so much per ton, but 
sometimes, though rarely, depending upon distance 
conveyed underground and up the shafts. 

2. (N.) The right of making and maintaining 
colliery railways through private property which may 
intervene between collieries and staithes. 

WEATHER. To fall or crumble down by exposure to 
the atmosphere. Certain rocks of the coal measures, 
such as fireclay, bind, &c., 
weather very rapidly. Fi - 135< 

WEB (M.). The face 
(1) or wall of a long -wall 
stall in course of being 
holed and broken down : 
for removal. The web 
varies in thickness (ac- 
cording to the height of the seam) from 2 or 3 to 
7 feet. Fig. 135 shows a cross-section of a long- 


wall stall with a web of coals after drawing (2) the 

WEDDING (D.). The accidental meeting or collision 
between a loaded and an empty corf in a pit-shaft 
working swinging bont. Formerly it was not an un- 
common thing for the full corf or skip to come up to 
surface with the empty corf entangled with it. 

WEDGING CRIB. A curb or crib of cast iron upon 
which tubbing is built up and wedged tightly to, in order 
to stop back all water. Wedging cribs are usually about 
6 inches thick (though cast hollow), and from 14 to 24 
inches broad. More than one are sometimes put in, 
one on the top of another. See Fig. 136. 

Fig. 136. 
TiMing . . 

Wedging Crib . , 
Wedging Crib . . 

Walling .. ., 

WEDGIN T G DOWN. Breaking down the coal at the 
face (1) with hammers and wedges instead of by 

WEDGING OUT. Cropping or thinning out. See 
Fig. 70 (7). 

WEDGE KING. See Wedging Crib. 

WEELDBONS (F. D.). Ancient ironstone workings. 

WEEP. See Bleed. 

WEIGH (S. W.). A weight of 10 tons of coal, &c. 

WEIGHER. A man who takes account of the weight 


of the contents of every tub, or of a certain proportion 
of the tubs of coal, &c., as they leave the cage at lank 
(1), or who weighs the coal, &c., in railway wagons, 
carts, boats, &c. 

WEIGHING. The crushing or falling in of the roof 
more or less rapidly. 

WEIGHMAN. See Weigher. 

WEIGHT. 1. A settling or subsidence of the roof, 
due to the working away of the coal seam. Weights 
are commonly of very heavy nature, and make great 
havoc with the pit-props and with the stalls. 

2. The gradual and regular settlement of the roof 
and cover, taking place as the excavation of the seam of 
coal, &c., goes forward, which by proper management 
in the working of the coal, and attention to the goaf, 
may generally be utilised in assisting in breaking down 
the coal in long-wall faces ; in other words, the weight 
enables the coal when holed, to get itself. When, in the 
course of clearing out a considerable area of a seam of 
coal, &c., and leaving no posts or pillars of solid coal to 
support the roof, in commencing to open off workings, a 
weight (1) takes place. Such weight is called the first 
weight, because it is the first crushing down of the roof, 
&c., of any magnitude that has occurred since begin- 
ning to form a goaf. With first-weights generally 
comes much firedamp, as well as much difficulty in 
keeping the working places safe to work in, owing to 
falls. See Web, Fig. 135, showing the serviceable 
action of weight upon a long -wall working face. 

3. The number of hundredweights (cwts.) which are 
reckoned as one ton, as between coal-masters and 


workmen (hewers, trammers, lanksmen, &c.). In days 
gone by, as many as 25 to 30 cwt. were allowed to the 
ton, to compensate for dirt, &c., sent out of the pit 
along with the coal. This was called a long ton. 

WEIGHTING. Undergoing disturbance due to weight 
(1). Commonly known as being on the weight. 

WEIZE. A band or ring of spun yarn, rope, gutta- 
percha, lead, &c., put in between the flanges of pipes 
before bolting them together, in order to make a water- 
tight joint. 

WET SEPARATION. The various systems of cleaning 
coal at surface by washing, the principle of them con- 
sisting in that the various fragments of shale or dirt (1) 
are, by reason of their specific gravity, effectually 
separated from the coal. 

WETTERAUFSEHER (Pr.). A man set aside for the 
special purpose of attending to the ventilation. He 
carefully examines the mine before the other workmen 
enter, and reports himself to the steiger. 

WETTERMAN (Pr.). A trustworthy collier (1), who is 
head man in a stall or other working place. 

WETTER SOHLE (Pr.). See Air Level. 

WEY. A certain weight of coals upon which a 
royalty is paid : e. g. 10 tons at Is. per ton. 

WHEEL BRAE (S.). A flat or landing on the top of a 


WHEEL-HOUSE (B.). A shed for protecting the horse- 
gin on the surface. 

WHIM. A winding (1) drum, &c., worked by a horse. 


WHIMS EY. An old word for the hoisting apparatus 
at a mine, now known as the winding engine, which 

WHIN. 1. A very hard, compact, dark-coloured, 
intrusive, igneous rock, composed of about 50 per cent, 
of silica, and having a sp. gr. of about 3, with a dull 
conchoidal fracture. 

2. (S. N.) Any very hard resisting rock coming in 
the way of miners. 

WHIN DYKE. A fault or fissure filled with whin and 
the debris of other rocks, sometimes accompanied by a 
dislocation of the strata. The Cockfield Fell Whin Dyke 
is probably the largest in Great Britain. It runs in 
almost a straight line, from near Carlisle on the west, to 
the east coas.t a few miles south of Whitby in Yorkshire. 
Whin dykes attain a thickness of as much as 200 feet 
in some places. See also Dyke, Trap. 

WHIN-FLOAT (S.). A kind of greenstone, basalt, or 
trap, occurring in coal measures. 

WHIN GAW (S.). Synonymous with Whin Dyke. 
WHINSTONE (N.). See Whin (1 and 2). 
WHIPSY-DERRY. See Derrick. 

WHITE-DAMP. Carbonic oxide (0. 57 C. 43). A gas 
occasionally met with in coal-mines, which, although it 
will support combustion and is inflammable, quickly 
destroys life. 

WHITE EOCK (S. S.). Intrusive dykes of Doleritic 
rocks in the coal measures : in external appearance it 
closely resembles sandstone. 


WHOLE or WHOLE MINE (N.). That portion of a 
coal seam being worked by driving headings into it 
only, or the state of the mine before bringing lack the 
pillars, or what is called working the broken, com- 
mences. See Barrier System (Fig. 10) ; also see First 

WHOLE CRADLE (N.). A platform or scaffold of 
nearly the same diameter as the pit-shaft, and hung 
upon chains attached to a crab-rope from the surface. 

WHOLE FLAT (N.). A panel or district of whole. 

WHOLE STALLS (S. W.). Two or more stalls having 
their faces in line or on a thread with one another. 

WHURR. The buzzing noise made by the vanes of a 

WICHET (N. W.). A working place in the shape of 
a wide heading or board (1), sometimes 60 or 70 feet in 

WICKET (N. W.). See Wichet. 

WICKET WORK (N. W.). A kind of pillar and stall 
system of working a seam of coal, with pillars up to 
15 yards and stalls up to 24 yards wide. A plan (2) of 
this description of workings would much resemble 
Fig. 113 (see Single Eoad Stall), the chief difference" 
being that two roadways are generally carried up each 

WIDE WORK (Y.). A South Yorkshire system (now 
nearly obsolete) of working coal. Sets of short stalls or 
banks (4), 7 or 8 yards in width, forming a line of faces 
about 60 yards, were carried to the rise, about 3 or 4 



feet of coal being left between each lank, the main 
road pillars being subsequently extracted. See Plan, 
Fig. 137. 

Fig. 137. 

WILD-FIRE. An old term used by colliers for fire- 


WIMBLE (N.). A kind of auger and scoop combined, 
for extracting the debris from lore-holes (1). 

WIN. 1. To sink a shaft or drive a drift to a work- 
able seam of coal, ironstone, &c., in such a manner as to 
enable you to effectually prosecute the working of it ; 
or for the purpose of opening out a district in a mine, 
which, previously to winning the mineral, was cut off by 
a fault or by some other barrier. 

2. (S.) Won, found, proved, (I) tapped, (2) sunk 
to, &c. 

WINCH. A kind of windlass or crab for coiling ropes 

WIND. 1. A hand- windlass or jack-roll. 

2. The atmospheric air circulating in a mine. 

3. To raise coals, &c., by means of a winding-engine. 


4. A steam-engine used purposely for lowering and 
raising men in an engine pit or pumping-shaft. 

5. A single journey of a cage from top to bottom of a 
shaft, or vice versa. 

WINDBORE. See Sliding Windbore, but made with- 
out the inner telescopic arrangement. 

WIND-GAUGE. An anemometer for testing the velocity 
of the wind (2) in mines. 

WINDING. 1. The operation of raising by means of 
a steam-engine, with ropes and cages, the produce of the 

2. (M.) Any underground road used expressly for 
ventilating purposes. 

WINDING ENGINE. The apparatus fixed within a 
few yards of the mouth of a shaft for raising the 
minerals from the bottom, or from various levels, to pit 
top. It usually takes the form of a steam-engine, which 
first came into use for this purpose about the year 1763 
at Hartley Colliery. 

The modern winding engine consists of a pair of 
steam cylinders of equal diameter and stroke, placed 
either vertically or horizontal, the connecting rods 
being coupled direct through cranks at right angles to 
the main shaft, upon which the drum (1) is constructed, 
and which also carries the brake rim. 

The following table gives the principal dimensions, 
particulars of work performed by, and other statistics 
in connection with a few of the most powerful winding 
appliances in the world : 














& t> t> 







* ir 







^ CO 









1 + 8 









"S u 



fl3 r^ 

S 10 



















{ 0. 10 













*> CO 










o o 














"S ^ 

jjj s 




s 1 ^ 

"" Tjl 1O 







= r 












<N 00 



1 1 









1 : 








* 1 








^ d 

o a 
















.2 > t- 









g <* 








m . 










O ^ 


^ ^ 







o y a! 







's 2 
cj d 



G> O 




i I- 
w b^ 












'~ A T'^ V T 


. * 


>^-^_ s 




o 3 

cc 5 


g ! ' 




-S .s 




s : ^ 




I i 








w" S S 

s s 

^ s 

^ Tl 

^ ?. 

> S 


c ' 



me and 










^ 'bic 




^c p 





x ~-v 



^v ' 


* +- 








t~t n 







Most large winding engines are fitted with steam 
brakes, some also with steam or hydraulic reversing 
gear, and with automatic cut-off or steam regulating 
gear. See Water Balance, Koepe System, Drum (1), 
Conical Drum. 

WINDING ROPES. The ropes by which a cage, chair, 
bowk, kibble, trunk (3), &c., are raised and lowered in a 
pit-shaft. They are constructed of three different 
materials, viz. steel, iron, and hemp or manilla, and in 
two forms round and flat. The former are sometimes 
made taper when of great length, the thicker end being 
of course that nearest or fastened to the drum (1). 

The best quality of steel-wire rope, known as plough 
quality, costs about 5?. per cwt. Referring to the table 
of winding engine^ above, it will be seen that in Nos. 4 
and 7 instances the weight of the winding rope is in 
excess of the load (cage, tubs, and mineral) raised. 

WINDING SHAFT OR PIT. The pit-shaft used chiefly 
for winding (1) purposes. 

WIND METHOD. That system of separating coal into 
various sizes, and extracting the dirt (1) from it, which 
in principle depends upon the specific gravity or size 
of the coal, &c., and the strength of the current of air 
directed upon it, which is employed to effect such 

WIND ROAD. See Winding (2). 
WIND WAY. See Winding (2). 
WING-BORE (S.). A side or flank lore-hole (3). 

WINNING. A sinking pit, a new coal, ironstone, clay, 
shale, or other mine of stratified minerals. 



WINNING HEADWAYS (N.). Heads (1) driven in the 
coal seam at right angles to drifts (4). 

WIKE (W.). A hauling rope. 

WISKET (L.). A light basket, weighing about 25 Ibs., 
used for carrying coals, &c., up a shaft. 

WITCHET (N. W.). See Wichet. 

WON. In mining language means proved, sunk to, 
and tested. Coal is won when it is proved and a 
position attained so that it can be worked and conveyed 
to bank (1). Coal may be won either by levels, by 
drifts, by headings to the rise, or by headings to the deep. 

WOOD. Signifies pit-props, bars, sprags, chocks, 
lagging, &c., which are all used in various ways for 
supporting the roof and sides of underground workings 
and ways. The cost of wooding or timbering in a col- 
liery ranges from say 2d. to I0d. or Is. per ton, according 
as the roof is a good or a bad one. 

The most suitable kinds of wood for mining purposes 
are : 

For props, yellow or Norway pine. 
bars, larch, ash, elm, and fir. 
sprags, ash and fir. 
chocks, any hard and tough wood. 
lagging, any tough and durable 
odds and ends. 

WOOD CHAIN (S. S.). A chain used 
for raising the minerals up the pit-shaft, 
composed of five links of iron in width, 
with small blocks of wood filling up the spaces in the 
links. See sketch, Fig. 138. 

WOOD COAL. See Board Coal. 

Fig. 138. 


WOODERS (Y.). See Timber ers. 

WOOD EINGER. See Einger and Dog and Chain. 

WORK (3L). 1. A stall or working place. 

2. Meaning get (2), in the sense of whether a coal 
gets or works easily or with difficulty. 

3. When during the operation of holing or cutting 
coal a crackling or bursting sound is caused, the coal is 
said to work Also when the roof shows signs of giving 
way, and cracks with a noise, it is said to work. 

4. To carry on the various operations connected with 
the mining of coal, &c. 

5. To get, cut away, or excavate and remove any 
bed or seam, or part thereof, of coal, ironstone, or 
other mine, whether underground or in open work. 

6. (S. S.) A side of work. 

WORKABLE. 1. A seam of coal is generally called a 
workable coal when (if of good quality) its thickness 
exceeds 18 or 20 inches. It may perhaps also be said 
that all mines of coal, &c., to a depth of 4000 feet, are 

2. Any seam or rake of ironstone that can be profit- 
ably mined. 

WORK Box (Lei.). See Box. 

WORKED OUT. A bed of coal, &c., a pit, or a lift 
(10), is called worked out when all the available mineral 
has been extracted. 

WORKING BARREL. The pump tree or cylinder in 
which the 'bucket moves up and down. It is usual to 
make it a little less in diameter than the ordinary pipes 
or trees (1). It is bored out in a lathe, and if the water 


to be pumped is very corrosive or ochrey, is lined with 

WORKING BEAM. See Brake-staff. 

WORKING COST. The cost per ton of producing 
coal, &c., and loading it into wagons, boats, &c. It 
includes all expenses in getting, haulage, "banking, sur- 
face labour, management, sales, timber, stores, royalties, 
way leaves, rates and taxes, insurance, colliery consump- 
tion, bad debts, loss in wagons and stocks, repairs, &c., 
interest on capital, replacement of machinery, &e. 

WORKING FACE. See Face (1). 

WORKING FURNACE. A furnace supplied with 
fresh air from the downcast pit. 

WORKING HOME. Getting or working out a seam 
of coal, &c., from the boundary or far end of the pit (2) 
towards the pit bottom, thus leaving behind all goaves, 
fire-stinks, &c. 

WORKING ON AIR. When the holes in a snore-piece 
are not completely covered with water, and air is 
sucked up with the water, the pumps are said to be 
working on air. 

WORKING PLACE. The actual place in a mine at 
which the working of the coal, &c. [either by driving 
headings or by stall work], is going on : viz. a head end 
or at a working face. 

WORKING OUT. Getting coal, &c., from the shafts 
outwards, or in the direction of the boundaiy of the 
colliery. The opposite to working home. 

WORKINGS. 1. The portions of a seam of coal, &c. 
worked away, which, of course, includes all roads, ways, 


levels, dips, airways, &c., whether in use or not, together 
with the stalls, headings, goaves, staples, &c. The 
deepest coal workings in existence are said to be 3511 
feet at Gilly Colliery, in Belgium. 

2. The quantity, tonnage, or output of minerals 
during a certain period from a certain lease, or a 
district in a pit. See Get (2). 

WORM or WORM COIL. A tool, something similar 
to a wad hook, used for loosening tough clays at the 
bottom of lore-holes (2). See Wad Coil . 

WREATHS (Lei). Four short pieces of hemp rope 
placed round the legs of a horse or pony and fastened 
together above its back, by which it was formerly 
lowered into or brought up out of a pit-shaft. 

WRECK. See Bore-meal. 

WRENCH. See Key. 

WROUGHT. Coal, &c., worked or gotten. 

WYE (C.). The beam-end connection above the 
pump-rods of a winding and pumping engine. 


YARDAGE. Cutting coal, &c., by the yard or fathom. 
In many districts a price per ton on the coals is paid, 
in addition to so much per yard. 

YARD-STICK. An ash walking-stick, 3 feet in length 
(having a notch or other mark put upon it at every 
foot), which a manager or underviewer carries with 
him in the pit, with which he roughly measures any 
lengths of work done and other distances whenever 


occasion arises, and with which he chastises unruly 

YARD WORK (F. D.). Synonymous with yardage. 

YARK (D.). To jerk a rope or other appliance used 
for lifting or drawing. 

YED (Lei.). See Head (1). 

YIELD. 1. Pillars of coal are said to yield when 
they commence to give way or crush. 

2. The proportion of a coal seam, &c., actually sent 
to lank (1). ' 

YOKES. Short sawn timbers placed across Hats for 
steadying pump trees. See Chogs, Fig. 40. 


ZONE. In coal-mining phraseology, this word 
signifies a certain series of coal seams, with their accom- 
panying shales, &c., which contain, for example, much 
fire-damp, called a fiery zone, or, if much water, a watery 
zone. As a rule, the fiery zone begins immediately 
below the upper or water-zone, which does not usually 
descend below (say) 600 feet. 






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THE success which has attended the publication of ' SPONS' DICTIONARY OF 
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Abacus, Counters, Speed 
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Agricultural Implements 
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Calculus, Differential and 



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Chimney Shafts. 

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the practical work of 
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Gas, Manufacture of. 

Hammers, Steam and 
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Pneumatic Transmis- 



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Rock Drills. 

Rolling Stock. 

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Stone Machinery. 


Well Sinking. 


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8 5