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I 9 lis . 

PREFACE. /. / 

This Gazetteer has been prepared on the plan prescribed by 
Government according to which statistics have been rele- 
gated as far as possible to a separate Appendix which is to 
be revised decennially. The original ' District Manual ' was 
written by Mr. H. Morris of the Madras Civil Service in 

I have gratefully to return thanks for help from many 
quarters. The account of the early history has been almost 
entirely based on information supplied by Rai Bahadur 
V. Venkayya, m.a., the Government Epigraphist, whose 
kindness in reading and correcting my drafts and answer- 
ing my questions I cannot too warmly acknowledge. The 
District officials have all given me their ready and cordial 
assistance, and so have many non-official residents of the 
district. I wish particularly to express my obligations to the 
Revs. J. H. Harper, J. Cain and A. Gangloff, to Messrs. 
E. B. Elwin, I.C.S., H. Lafiamme, C. Mildred, G. F. F. 
Foulkes, M. G. K. Waite, J. F. Marshall, M. Woodhouse, 
W. J. M. Inkster, L. D. Buchanan, H. J. Allen, F. Armitage, 
A. C. Pranatartihara Aiyar, R. Venkata Rao and V. Partha- 
saradhi Chetti and to Capt. M. N. Chaudhuri, I. M.S. All 
these gentlemen have helped me with the records at their 
disposal or with their personal experience ; and they have 
supplied a large portion of the material found in this Gazet- 
teer. I have also to thank Mr. J. A. Gumming, I.C.S., for 
reading through the proofs and for many valuable sugges- 

F. R. H. 



Chapter pages 

I. Physical Description ... ... 1-16 

II. Political History ... ... ... ... ... 17-37 

III. The People 38-67 

IV. Agriculture and Irrigation... ... ... ... 68-91 

V. Forests ... ... ... ... ... ... Q2-101 

VI. Occupations AND Trade ... ... 102-123 

VII. Means of Communication ... ... 124-134 

VIII. Rainfall AND Seasons ... ... 135-147 

IX. Public Health ... ... ... ... ... 148-152 

X. Education ... ... ... ... ... ... 153-159 

XI. Land Revenue Administration ... ... ... 160-180 

XII. Salt, Abkari and Miscellaneous Revenue 181-187 

XIII. Administration of Justice ... ... ... ... 188-195 

XIV. Local Self-Government ... ... ... ... 196-199 

XV. Gazetteer — 

Amalapuram Taluk ... ... ... ... ... 200-206 

Cocanada Taluk ... ... ... ... ... 207-216 

Nagaram Taluk ... ... ... ... ... 217-220 

Peddapuram Taluk ... ... ... .>. ... 221-226 

Pithapuram Division ... ... ... ... ... 227-239 

Rajahmundry Taluk ... ... ... ... ... 240-248 

Ramachandrapuram Taluk ... ... ... ... 249-254 

Tuni Division ... ... ... ... ... ... 255-257 

Bhadrachalam Taluk ... ... ... ... ... 258-265 

Chodavaram Division ... ... ... ... ... 266-277 

Polavaram Division ... ... ... ... ... 278-283 

Yellavaram Division ... ... ... ... ... 284-288 

Index 289-302 




General DESCRIPTION (page i) — Chief towns (2) — Etymology of the name- 
Natural divisions (3). Hills— The Ghats. Rivers (4)— The Godavari — 
Its sanctity (6) — Its islands and encroachments — The season of its floods 
(7) — Its tributaries — The Yeleru, Soils (8). Geology — Physical changes 
now in progress (9). Minerals (10) — Coal — The Gauridevipeta field — 
Bedadanuru — Gold (11) — Iron — Graphite — Mica — Building stone — Rock- 
crystals, garnets, sapphires. Climate — Rainfall — Temperature (12) — 
Wind and weather. Flora. Fauna (13) — Cattle— Buffaloes — Sheep and 
goats (14) — Cattle-breeding — Feeding methods— Cattle diseases — Cattle 
fairs (15)— Game— Fish — Native sportsmen (16) ... ... ... ... 1-16 



Early History (page 17)— Asoka's conquest, 260 B.C. — The Andhras, down 
to 200 A. D. (18) — The Pallavas, about 200-615 A.D. — The Chalukyas — 
Their conquest of Vengi, about 615 (19)— Separation of the Eastern and 
Western Chalukyas, about 630 — Hiuen Tsiang's description of the former 
(20) — Eastern Chalukya rule, 630-999- -Chola conquest, 999 — Kulottunga 
Chola I (21) — He obtains the Chola and Vengi thrones, 1070 — His viceroys 
in Vengi — His death in 1119 and the decline of the Cholas (22)— The 
Velanandu chieftains, twelfth century (23) — The Kona chiefs of the delta 
— Local chiefs of Ellore, Nadendla, etc, — The Kakatiyas of Warangal 
conquer Kistna about 1200 (24) — And Godavari about 1300— Pratapa 
Rudra's viceroys — Temporary Musalman conquest of the district, 1323 (25) 
— The Korukonda Reddis, 1325-95 — The Reddis of Kondavid, 1344-1422 
— The Rajahmundry Reddis, 1422-50 (26) — The Gajapatis of Orissa take 
the district, 1450 — But cede part of it to the Muhammadans, 1470 — The 
latter ousted, 1489 (27) — Conquest by Vijayanagar, 1 515— Musalman 
conquest of Kistna, 1540 — And of Godavari, 1571 (28). Muhammadan 
Period — Weakness of their rule — Aurangzeb establishes his authority, 
1687 (29) — The Subadar of the Deccan becomes independent, 1724 — The 
Northern Circars ceded to the French, 1753 (30)— Their difficulties there — 
Eussy at length obtains possession, 1757 (31) — Forde's expedition against 
the French, 1758 — His victory at Condore — The country cleared of the 
French (32) — Cession of the Northern Circars to the English, 1765 (33). 
English Period (34) — Early administration — Disturbances of the peace — 
In 1785-go (34)— In 1790-1800— Quieter times thereafter (36)— Subba 
Reddi's rebellion, 1858 — Outbreaks in Rampa 17-37 





General Characteristics (page 38)— Density of the population— Its growth 
— Parent-tongue — Religions. The Jains (38). The Musalmans. The 
Christians — American Evangelical Lutheran Mission — The Canadian 
Baptist Mission (40) — The Church Missionary Society (41) — The Roman 
Catholic Mission (42). The Hindus — Villages— Houses (43)— Dress (44) 
— Food (44) — Amusements — Superstitions (46)— Village, caste, and family 
gods (47) — Marriage rules and ceremonies (49) — Funerals (50). Prin- 
cipal Castes — Telugu Brahmans (51) — Razus (53)— Komatis (54) — Kapus 
(55) — Kammas — Perikes (56) — Idigas (57) — Gamallas — Kamabattus (58) 
— Sanis— Malas — Madigas (60) — Koyas — Hill Reddis (66) 38-67 



Wet Cultivation (page 68)— Paddy; its seasons — Its varieties — Rain-fed 
paddy (69)— Sowing 7'ersiis transplantation — Methods of raising seedlings — 
Preparation of fields (70) — Transplantation and care of the crop — Second- 
crop cultivation (71) — Third crops — Agricultural maxims — Wet crops 
other than paddy (72) — Rotations — Cultivation of sugar-cane — Jaggery- 
making (74) — Ratooning — Varieties of sugar-cane — Recent sugar-cane 
disease and the Samalkot experimental farm (75). Dry Cultivation (76) 
— Seasons, etc. — Cultivation (77)— Cholam — Tobacco (77) —Improvement 
of the leaf — Shifting cultivation in the Agency— Storage of grain (79). 
Irrigation — Protected area. Thk Godavari Anicut — Origin of the idea 
(So) — First estimates — The site and design (81) — Progress of construction 
(82) — Subsequent difiiculties (83) — Alterations since effected (84) — Distri- 
butarv works (85) — The Gannavaram aqueduct (86) — Completion of 
distributaries (87) — Financial results of the scheme — Possible extensions 
of it (88) — Its administration. Other Irrigation Sources (89) — Minor 
channels and tanks— Wells— Artesian wells (90). Economic Condition 
OF Agriculturists 68-91 



Early Operations (page 92)— Progress'of reservation. Settlement (93)— 
Proprietary rights -Susceptibilities of the jungle tribes (04)— P6r/z< cultiva- 
tion. Administration (95)— In Rampa— In the rest of the Agency (96) 
— River transit rules (97)— Fire-protection — Artificial reproduction (97); 
casuarina— Mangrove Introduction of exotics, etc. General Charac- 
ter OF the Forests— On the coast— In the uplands (99) — In Polavaram 
and Yellavaram— In Rampa (100)— In Bhadrichalam— Timber and the 
market for it (loi)— Minor forest produce— Forest revenue 92-101 




Arts and Industries (page 102) — Silk-weavers — Cotton-weavers (103) ; 
their numbers — Their methods — Tape-weaving (104) — Gunny-weaving — 
Cotton-dyeing — Chintz-stamping (105) — Mats and tattis — Metal-work — 
Painting (106) — Pith-work— Musical instruments — Wood and stone carving 
— Ropes (107) — Oils — Tanning — Shoes (108) — Baskets — Bangles — Pottery 
(109) — Country sugar - Mercury — House-building (no) — Printing-presses 
—Rice-mills — Indigo factories — Ship-building— Dowlaishweram workshops 
— District Board Workshops at Cocanada (in)— Samalkot distillery and 
sugar-factory — Dummagudem lace (112). Trade — Markets — Grain-deal- 
ing — Exports — Imports (113) — Trade of Cocanada— The harbour — Port 
conservancy (114) — European business houses at Cocanada (115) — 
European Chamber of Commerce— Steamers visiting the port — Amount of 
trade — Character of trade (116). Weights and Measures (117) — 
Goldsmiths' weights — Commercial weights — Measures of capacity (118) — 
Miscellaneous commercial notations (120)— Lineal measures — Land 
measures (121) — Measures of time (122) — Local monetary terms ... ... 102-123 



Roads — (page 124)— Their length and condition— Quarries — Maintenance, 
establishment and allotments (125) — Bridges — Ferries (126). Water 
Carriage (127)— The rivers — Upper Godavari project (128)— Navigable 
canals (129) ; their history — Expenditure and traffic (130) — Nature of 
traffic (131) — Conflicting interests of irrigation and navigation (132). 
Madras Railway. Accommodation for travellers (133)— 
Bungalows — Chattrams ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 124-134 



Rainfall (page 135). Famine (136) — The conditions existing —Famine 
in 1791 (137)— The ' Guntiir famine' of 1833 (138) — Distress in 
1835-38 (139) — Disasters of 1839-41 (140)— Improvement resulting from 
the anicut — Scarcity in the Agency, 1897. Inundations by the sea 
(141) — About 1706 — In 1787 (142) — Its extent and effects — The accom- 
panying hurricane (143) — The landholders' losses — Inundation of 1839. 
Cyclones (144). Floods- In 1614 (X4<;)— In 1875, 1878, 1882,1883 
and 1884— Great flood of 1886— Floods of 1887 and 1892 (146)— Of 1895- 

96— Of 1900 (147) 135-147 



Prey.\lent Ijiskases (page 148) — Malaria ; in the Agency — In the uplands 
(149) — In the delta — Cholera— Small-pox (150) — Other diseases— Sanita- 
tion. Medical In.stitutions (151) — Public hospitals and dispensaries 
— Mission institutions — Institutions in Cocanada— Rajahmundry hospital 
(152^ 148-152 





Census Statistics (page 153)— By taluks — By religions. Educational 
Institutions — Early beginnings — Schools now existing (154) — The 
Government college, Rajahmundry — The Government training college, 
Rajahraundry (156) — The Pithapuram Raja's College (157) ... 153-159 



Early History (page 160) -The zamindars — Their administration (i6i)— The 
havili land — Committee of Circuit, 1785-87 (162) — Settlement with the 
zamindars in 1879 (163)— Abolition °f ^^^ Chiefs and Councils, 1794 — 
Collectors of the ;^c^;^7^ land. The Permanent Settlement, 1802-03 
(164) — Its failure (165) — Its effect on the ryots (166)— Special Commis- 
sioner appointed, 1S43 (167). Ryotwari Settlements — Before 1865 — 
Settlement of 1865-66 (169) — Its scope (170) — Grouping of villages — 
Classification of soils— Standard crops, grain outturns, commutation prices 
— Cultivation expenses and money rates (171) — Financial results — Water- 
rate in the delta (172) — The existing settlement ; its scope — Reclassifica- 
tion of delta soils — Water-rate problems (173) — Settlement of wild tracts 
(174) —Financial results — Bhadrachalam taluk — Proprietary rights (175) — 
Fixing of the peshkash — Settlement of 1890 in Bhadrachalam (176) — 
Agency tracts and rented villages (177). District and Divisional 
Limits (178). Village Establishments— Re-organized in 1866 — 
Revised in 18S5 (179). INAMS (180) 160-180 



Salt (page 181) — The systems of administration — Methods of manufacture 
(182) — Markets — Salt for Vanam — Fish-curing yards (183) — Contraband 
salt-earth.- Abkaki and Opium — Arrack— Arrack in the Agency (184) — 
Toddy (185)— Toddy in the Agency — Foreign liquor — Opium and hemp- 
drugs— In the Agency (186). Customs — Land-customs — Sea-customs 
(187). Income-tax. Stamps 181-187 



Early Methods (page 188) — Under native rule — Under the Chiefs and 
Councils. The Present System (189) — In the plains— In the Agency. 
Civil Justice (191)— Existing Courts — Amount of litigation — Registra- 
tion. Criminal Justice — The various Courts — Crime (192) — The 
Vanadis or Nakkalas — Other criminal classes (193). Police (194) — 
Former systems— The existing force. Jails (195) ... ••• •■• ... 188-195 





The Local Boards (page 196) — The Unions (197) — Finances of the Boards. 
The Two Municipalities — Cocanada municipality — Kajahmundry 
municipality (198) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 196-199 



Amalapuram taluk (page 200) — Amalapuram (201) — Ambajipcta — Ayinavalli 
(202) — Banddrulanka — Bendamiirlanka — Gannavaram — Kesanakuriu (203) 
— Mandapalli Muramalla — Palivela — Peruru (204) — Rali (205) — Vadapalli 
— Vanapalli — Vyagresvarapuram (206). Cocanada Taluk (207) — 
Bhimavaram— Chollangi (208)— Cocanada — Coringa (210) — Gollapalaiyam 
(212) — Injaram — Nilapalli (213) — Samalkot — Sarpavaram (214) — Tallarevu 
(215) — Yanam Nagaram Taluk (217) — Aniarvedi — Jagannapeta (218) 
— Kadali (219) — Nagaram — Rajavolu — Sivakodu — Tatipaka (220). Pedda- 
PURAM Taluk (221) — Annavaram — DhiramalUipuram — Tagammapeta 
(222) — Kandrakota — Ivattipudi — Kirlampudi — Peddapuram — ■ Prattipadu 
(224) — Ragampeta (225) — Ratigampeta — Talh'iru — Totapalli — Viravaram 
(226) — Yelesvaram. Pithapuram Division (227) — Chandurti — Kotta- 
palli (232) — Mulapeta — Pithapuram (233) — Ponnada (239) — Uppada. 
Rajahaiundry Taluk (240) — Dowlaishweram — Gokavaram (242) — 
Korukonda — Kottapalli (243) — Rajahmundry. Ramachandrapuram 
Taluk (249) — Bikkavolu — Draksharamam (250)— Gangavaram (252) — 
Kotipalli — Maredipaka (253) — Ramachandrapuram — Ramaghatt;ilu — 
Vegayammapeta (254). TuNi Division (255)— Bendapiidi — Hamsavaram 
(256) — Kottapalli — Talliiru —Tatipaka — Tetagunta — Tuni. Bhadra- 
CHALAM Taluk (258) — Bhadrachalam (259) — Dummagudem (262) — 
Gundala — Kumarasvamigudem (263) — Kunnavaram — Parnasala — Rekapalle 
— SriRamagiri (265). Chodavaram Division (266)— Bandapalli— Biram- 
palli (267) — Boduh'iru — Bolagonda — Chavala — Chiduguru — Chodavaram 
(268) — Chopakonda — Dandangi - Dorachintalapalem — Geddada — Kakuru — 
Kondamodalu (269) — Kundada — Marrivada —Musurumilli (270) — Xedunuru 
— Nimmalapalem -Palem Pamuleru -Peta -Rampa — Sirigindalapadu(276) 
— Tadepalli — Tunmiru (277)— Vadapalli — Velagapalli — Valamiiru— Vemula- 
konda, Polavaram Division (278) — Gangolu Gutala — Jangareddi- 
giidem (279) — Pata Pattisam — Polavaram (2S0) Taduvayi (283). Yella- 
VARAM Division (284)— Addaligela— Anigeru (285)— Dutcharti— Gurtedu 
(286) — Jaddangi — Rota (287) — Mohanapuram — Nellipudi— Pandrapole — 
Ramavaram — Virabhadrapuram (288) .. ... ... ... ... ... 200-288 




General description — Chief towns — Etymology of the name— Natural 
divisions. HiLLS — The Ghats. Rivers— The G6davari-Its sanctity- 
Its islands and encroachments — The season of its floods — Its tributaries 

The Yeleru, Soils. Geology — Physical changes now in progress. 

Minerals— Coal — The Gauridevipeta field — Bedadanuru — Gold — Iron 

Graphite— Mica - Building stone— Kock-crystals, garnets, sapphires. Cli- 
mate — Rainfall — Temperature— Wind and weather. Flora. Fauna 

Cattle— Buffaloes— Sheep and goats — Cattle-breeding— Feeding methods- 
Cattle diseases— Cattle fairs — Game — Fish — Native sportsmen. 

The Godavari district lies on the north-east coast of the 
Madras Presidency. It has an area of 5,634 square miles and 
extends from 16° 20' to 18° 4' N. and from 80° 52' to 82^ 36' E. 
It is bounded on the north-east by Vizagapatam, on the north 
by the same district and the Bastar State of the Central 
Provinces, and on the west and south-west by the Godavari 
river, which separates it from the Nizam's Dominions and 
Kistna. The district, however, extends across this river at one 
point to include the Polavaram division. Godavari is roughly 
triangular in shape, its base being formed by the line of the 
coast from the western mouth of the Godavari river to the 
Vizagapatam border, one side by the Godavari river itself, 
and the other by the irregular frontier of Vizagapatam and the 
Central Provinces. 

The district is made up of ten taluks and two deputy 
tahsildars' divisions ; namely, the taluks of Nagaram,^ Amala- 
puram, Ramachandrapuram and Cocanada, which make up 
the fertile delta of the Godavari river; the upland taluks of 

^ Nagaram taluk is also commonly known as the Tatipaka siina (' country ') 
from the village of that name within it, and Amalapuram taluk as the Kona sim(f 
('the end country'). 







Chief towns. 

of the name. 

Rajahmundry and Peddapuram ; ^ the hilly divisions of 
Yellavaram, Chodavaram and Polavaram ; the taluk of 
Bhadrachalam beyond the Eastern Ghats ; and the two zamin- 
dari deputy tahsildars' divisions of Pithapuram and Tuni in 
the north-eastern corner of the district, the former of which 
resembles in character the upland taluks and the latter the 
three hilly divisions. Statistical particulars of each of these 
areas will be found in the separate Appendix to this volume, 
and some account of each and of its chief towns and villages 
is given in Chapter XV below. Yellavaram, Chodavaram, 
Polavaram and Bhadrachalam are tracts covered with hill 
and jungle and inhabited by uncivilized tribes to whom it is 
inexpedient to apply the whole of the ordinary law of the 
land. Under the Scheduled Districts Act of 1874, these have 
been formed (see p. 190) into an Agency in which civil justice 
is administered under special rules and the Collector has 
special powers in his capacity of ' Government Agent.' They 
are consequently always known as ' the Agency ' or ' the 
Agency tracts.' 

The capital of the district is the busy seaport and 
municipality of Cocanada, and with the exception of Nagaram 
taluk and Yellavaram division, the head-quarters of the 
various taluks and divisions are the towns or villages from 
which they are named- The head-quarters of Nagaram taluk 
is Rajavolu (Razole) ; and of Yellavaram, Addatigela. 
Besides the tahsildars' stations, both Samalkot in the Coca- 
nada taluk and Dowlaishweram near Rajahmundry are towns 
of importance and interest. 

Many places in the delta, such as Coringa, Georgepet, 
Nilapalli, and Injaram in the Cocanada taluk and Bendamur- 
lanka in Amalapuram, were notable ports or settlements of 
the East India Company at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century. All these have now sunk into insignificance. The 
little village of Chandurti in the Pithapuram division has 
given its name, under the distorted form of Condore,^ to the 
decisive battle by which the sovereignty of the whole of the 
Northern Circars was wrested by the British from the French. 
Yanam in the Cocanada taluk is one of the few French 
settlements in India. 

Godavari takes its name from the great river which forms 
its western boundary and the delta of which is its richest and 
most fertile portion. Rai Bahadur V. Venkayya, M.A., the 

' The parts of Cocanada and Peddapuram taluks and of the Pithapuram 
division which are watered by the Yeleru river are often spoken of as Porlunadu. 
Cf. Chapter XV, p. 221. 

2 See below Chapter II, p. 31 and Chapter XV, p. 227. 




Government Epigraphist, considers that the word means cHAP. i. 
literally either 'streams giving water' (sometimes in old general 
writings abbreviated to Goda or ' giving water ') or ' streams descr p- 
giving kine.' Another Sanskrit authority ^ interprets the 
word in a somewhat similar way as meaning ' the best (vari) 
[of those that] give water ' ; and adds the alternative ' the 
chief [of those that] give heaven ' with reference to the sancti- 
fying power of the river. The local and popular etymology 
of the name says that it means ' the expiation for killing a 
cow,' and a well-known story relates how the rishi Gautama 
brought the Godavari to the district to expiate the sin of 
having killed a cow in a moment of anger. Kovvurin Yerna- 
gudem taluk, Kistna district, the name of which is said to 
mean * the village of the cow,' is pointed out as the place 
where the cow was slain and the water was first made to flow. 

The district consists of four very dissimilar natural 
divisions ; namely (beginning in the north-west), the undu- divisions. 
lating taluk of Bhadrachalam above the Eastern Ghats; the 
hilly agency divisions which really form a part of that range ; 
the upland taluks which divide the agency hills from the low 
lands of the delta ; and the delta of the Godavari itself. 

The delta presents a vast expanse of rice fields dotted 
with gardens of plantains, betel and cocoanut and with 
innumerable palmyras; the uplands form a gently undulating 
and fairly wooded plain ; the Agency consists of broken, 
forest-clad hills ; and the Bhadrachalam taluk above the 
ghats resembles the uplands except that its undulations are 
sharper and its woods much more dense. It is broken up by 
the clusters of the Bodugiidem and Rekapalle hills, which are 
not unlike the ghats themselves. 

The only hills in the district are the Eastern Ghats, which 
rise by gentle gradations from the level of the coast. The -Yhe Ghats 
scenery of these mountains, particularly in the neighbourhood 
of the Godavari river, is exceedingly picturesque. Their sides 
are clothed with luxuriant forests, interspersed with bamboo 
and a thick undergrowth of forest shrubs. Their highest 
point is Dumkonda, 4,478 feet, and another prominent peak 
stands to the south of the fine gorge through which the 
Godavari passes them, and is called Papikonda or Bison Hill. 
A hill in the range which runs from that peak across the river 
into the Polavaram division is locally known as Biraiya 
Konda, and is regarded as the haunt of a demon called 
Biraiya who is worshipped by the native navigators of the 

* The Sabdalialpadnima by Sir Rajah Radha Kantha Deva (Calcutta, i8S6). 
^ See below p. 5. 



CHAP. I. Among the great rivers of India the Godavari takes rank 

Rivers. next after the Ganges and Indus. It runs nearly across the 

Pjjg peninsula, its course is 900 miles long, and it receives the 

iodavari. drainage from 115,000 square miles, an area greater than that 

of England and Scotland combined. Its maximum discharge 

is calculated to be one and a half million cubic feet per 

second, more than 200 times that of the Thames at Staines 

and about three times that of the Nile at Cairo.^ 

It rises at Trimbak, a village about seventy miles north- 
east of Bombay and only fifty miles from the Arabian Sea. 
The place traditionally regarded as the source of the river is 
a reservoir on a hill behind the village. This is approached 
by a flight of 690 stone steps, and the water trickles into it 
drop by drop from the lips of a carven image, shrouded by a 
canopy of stone.^ From thence the river flows in a south- 
easterly direction until, after it has completed a course of 650 
miles, it receives from the north at Sironcha the waters of 
the Wardha, the Painganga and the Wainganga united in 
the single noble stream of the Pranhita, From this point the 
river has some 200 miles to run to the Bay of Bengal. It is 
soon joined by the Indravati, also from the north, and before 
long skirts the Bhadrachalam taluk of this district. A few 
miles below the Bhadrachalam border is the Dummagudem 
anicut, almost the sole relic of the great scheme conceived by 
Sir Arthur Cotton {see p. 80) for the navigation of the upper 
waters of the river. Next the beautiful Saveri (or Sabari) 
flows in from the north, skirting the edge of the forest-clad 
Rekapalle hills. From there the Eastern Ghats come into 
view, some 2,500 feet in average height, bounding the whole 
horizon and towering above the lesser and detached hills that 
flank the river. 

The Godavari has by this time assumed imposing 
proportions, being generally a mile, and sometimes two and a 
half miles, broad. After its junction with the Saveri, however, 
its bed is suddenly contracted by spurs of the ghats till at 
length it forces a passage between them, penetrating by an 
almost precipitous gorge to the very heart of the range- The 
scenery of this gorge is famous for its beauty. The steep 
wooded slopes of the mountains which overhang it approach 
at one place to within 200 yards of each other; and they 
constantly recede and advance and form a succession of 
beautiful little lakes from which there is apparently no 
outlet. Here and there a faint line of smoke indicates the 

^ The Engineering Works of the Godavari Delta, by Mr. G. T. Walch 
(Madras, 1896), p. i. 

- Hunter's Imperial Gazetteer. 


existence of a Koya or Reddi village, but the hills are very CHAP. I. 
sparsely inhabited. Rivers. 

In flood time the water flows with terrific force. ' Through 
the gorge,' writes Dr. King, 'the pent-up waters tear their way 
with, I have been told, a surface so strangely concave on the 
cross section that adventurous boatmen glide along the bottom 
of a trough whose sides rise up to a good height and hide 
away the immediate banks; and out of this gorge away 
towards the open country of the Godavari district the river 
has such a fall that the sensation produced on the mind of the 
traveller is said to be that of sliding down an inclined plane.' ^ 
Native boatmen are much afraid of navigating the river at 
such times ; and none of them, of whatever creed, omit to 
break a number of cocoanuts at the mouth of the gorge to 
appease the dangerous demon Biraiya already mentioned, 
who will dash on a rock or drown in a whirlpool the navigator 
who omits this homage. So great is the action of the stream 
during floods that the rocky bed has been scoured out to 
depths popularly supposed to be unfathomable, but which 
really vary normally from lODto nearly 200 feet. High floods 
rise quite 50 feet above the normal level, so that the gorge 
then encloses a torrent of waters from 150 to 250 feet in 

After passing this point and entering the open country, the 
river widens out and flows by the old zamindari strongholds 
of Polavaram and Gutala and the picturesque and sacred 
islands of Mahanandi'svaram and Pattisam."* At Rajahmundry 
it is nearly two miles wide, and some five miles further down, 
at Dowlaishweram, at the head of the delta, it is crossed by 
the celebrated anicut which renders its waters at last avail- 
able for irrigation. At this point the river is nearly four 
miles broad, though about a third of this width is taken up 
by three islands, and the spot is more fully described in 
Chapter IV. At Dowlaishweram the Godavari divides into 
two main streams— the eastern or Gautami Godavari flowing 
past Injaram, the little French settlement of Yanam, and 
Nilapalli, and entering the sea near Point Godavari, and the 
western or Vasishta Godavari flowing nearly due south and 
entering the sea at Point Narasapur. A few miles above this 
latter mouth another large branch, the Vainateyam, breaks off 
to the east of the Vnsishta Godavari (forming the island of 
Nagaram between itself and the latter river) and reaches the 

^ Memoirs, Geol. Surv., India, xviii, pt. 3, 5. 

* Mr. G. T. Walch in The Engineering Works of the Godavari Delta 
(Madras, 1896), p. I. 

^ See Chapter XV, p. 279. 



Its sanctity. 

Its islands 


sea near Bendamurlanka. The three factories of the old East 
India Company at Injaram, Bendamurlanka and Madapollam 
were situated near these three principal mouths of the 
Godavari. Part of Madapollam village has been swept away 
by the river. 

Seven traditional mouths are recognized as sacred by 
Hindus. The holy waters of the Godavari are said to have 
been brought from the head of Siva ^ by the saint Gautama, 
and the seven branches by which it is traditionally supposed 
to have reached the sea are said lo have been made by seven 
great risJiis. The mouths of these are considered especially 
holy, and to bathe in the sea at any one of them is considered 
an act of great religious efficacy. It is customary for the pious 
(especially childless persons desirous of offspring) to make a 
pilgrimage to each in turn and bathe there, thus performing 
the sapta-sdgara-ydtrd or ' pilgrimage of the seven confluences.' 
The Vainateyam is not one of these traditional mouths, but is 
supposed to have been created afterwards by a rishi of that 
name who stole a part of the Vasishta for the purpose." The 
traditional seven are the Kasyapa or Tulya (the Tulya Bhaga 
drain), the Atri (the Coringa river), the Gautami, the Bharadvaja, 
the Visvamitra or Kausika, the Jamadagni and the Vasishta. 
The Bharadvaja, Visvamitra and Jamadagni no longer exist ; 
but pilgrims bathe in the sea at the spots where they are 
supposed to have been.'' Several other sacred bathing-places 
in the delta are noticed in Chapter XV. The most important 
of them is Kotipalli in the Ramachandrapuram taluk. But a 
bath in the river anywhere along its course has great sancti- 
fying virtue. Every thirteenth year this virtue is supposed 
to be much increased, and the piishkaram festival which then 
takes place is performed all along the stream in recognition 
of the fact. 

Several islands of a permanent character stand in various 
parts of the Godavari ; but the river constantly forms new 
temporary islands and modifies old ones. Islands liable to 
these changes are called laiikas. They are rendered extraordi- 
narily fertile by the silt deposited upon them by the river, and 
the rich tobacco grown on them is known as laiika tobacco- 
Other physical changes are produced by the force of the 
stream. Its encroachments upon the banks are noticeable in 

^ Another account says they were brought from the Ganges. The Godavari 
is frecjuently spoken of by the name of the Ganges in ancient writings. 

* See Chapter XV, p. 202. 

^ The traditional Bharadvaja mouih is located at Tirtalamondi, a hamlet of 
Guttinadevi, and the Kausika mouth in Ramesvaram, a hamlet of Samantakurru, 
both in the Amalapuram taluk. 


more than one place. At Tallapudi above Rajahmundry it CHAP. i. 
presses hard against the right bank, which is in many places Rivers. 
cut down precipitously by the action of the stream, and 
Tallapudi and other villages, which used to be some distance 
from the river, now stand on its bank. In 167Q the encroach- 
ments of the river at Narasapur on the Vasishta Godavari 
forced many of the English merchants to leave their houses.^ 

The greater portion of the area drained by the Godavari The season of 
receives more rain in the south-west than in the north-east I's floods. 
monsoon, and it is during the former, therefore, that the river 
brings down most water. It begins to rise at Dowlaishweram 
some ten days after the south-west rains set in at Bombay — 
usually about the middle of June — and it is almost always 
high till October. The season for floods is then over; but 
during the next two months or so occasional freshes are caused 
by the north-east monsoon rains. When these have ceased 
the river gets lower and lower, till about the middle of May 
(its lowest stage) its discharge is at times as little as 1,500 cubic 
feet per second. 

The navigation on the river and on the delta canals is 
referred to in Chapter VII. 

Two tributaries of the Godavari flow through this district- Its 
The Saveri rises in the hills in the Vizagapatam Agency, and ^"^^^"^s. 
afterwards runs in a south-westerly course, forming for some 
distance the boundary between that tract and the Bastar State. 
It receives several tributaries on the way, and, at the point 
where Bastar, Vizagapatam and Godavari meet, is joined by 
the Sileru river from the hills of Jeypore. The latter forms for 
many miles the boundary between the Rampa country of 
this district and the Jeypore zamindari. The united waters of 
these two rivers are much used for floating timber from the 
Rekapalle hills, which are enclosed between the Saveri and 
the Godavari. 

One or two insignificant streams run down from the north xhe Yeieru. 
into the Godavari, and from the Tuni hills into the sea; but 
the only other noteworthy river in the district is the Yeieru. 
This is formed by the union of three streams which take their 
rise in the hills of Rampa, Golgonda and Jaddangi respectively 
and unite a little to the north-east of Yellavaram. It flows 
through Peddapuram taluk to a point a little above Viravaram, 
where it again separates into several streams. The western- 
most of these continues its course, still under the name of the 
parent stream, along the boundary of Pithapuram division into 
Cocanada taluk; passes under the Samalkot canal, which 

' Journa' of the tour of the Agent of Fort St. George to Madapollam in 1679. 







crosses it by an aqueduct near 'that town, and finally drops 
into the Bikkavolu drain and the Cocanada tidal creek, and so 
into the Cocanada bay. Meanwhile the two other branches 
have both flowed into the Pithapuram division, where, united 
again under the name of the Gorikanadi, they distribute their 
waters to numerous works of irrigation, and finally reach the 
sea near Uppada. 

The following table gives the clsssification of the soils in 
the Government land in the district excluding the taluk of 
Bhadrachalam, which has not yet been settled by the Madras 
Government : — 


of area classified 

which is 1 

Taluk or division. 


rea classifi 
[in sq. mil 





ed ferru- 





i^ —J 


« < 1 






• •• 



















6 19 


1 1 '53 







28-36 ! 71-21 


Total. Plains ... 

Agency (excluding Bhadra- 
















1 0000 

Polavaram ... 





Yellavaram ... 

Total, Agency 






I -26 



Grand total ... 








It will be seen that the delta taluks are mainly covered with 
alluvial soil, though there are sandy areas along their coasts, 
while the uplands are chiefly made up of red ferruginous earths 
varied by small areas of the black regar. 

The ultimate foundation of the country above the ghacs,^ as 
of most of peninsular India, is gneiss. Various other kinds of 
rock of less but varying antiquity have been superimposed 
upon different parts of the district. The gneiss is usually 

^ The geological formation of the country above the ghats is described in 
some detail by Dr. W King in the Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, 
xviii, pt. 3, and that of the area below the hills in Memoirs^ xvi, pt. 3. 


uppermost throughout Bhadrachalam, Chodavaram and the CHAP. I. 
eastern portion of Polavaram, and, in the form of what is Geology. 
called Bezwada gneiss, throughout Yellavaram and much of 
Tuni as well as in the north of Rajahmundry and Peddapuram 

After the gneiss, the next most ancient formation is three 
groups of the Lower Gondwana rocks. The Talchir group is 
found in very small and scattered tracts in the Nizam's 
Dominions and also near Dummagudem, between Dumma- 
gudem and Bhadrachalam, and between Bhadrachalam and 
Rekapalle; the Kamthi group stretches all along the river on 
the Hyderabad side, but only reaches into this district at the 
south-western corner of the Polavaram division ; and the 
Barakar group occurs in small and scattered areas in two 
places in the district, namely Bedadamiru in the south-west 
corner of Polavaram, and Gauridevipeta sixteen miles down 
the river from Bhadrachalam. This group is of particular 
interest, because coal is found in it.^ 

Among still more recent geological formations, a few small 
outcrops of the older Tirupati sandstones occur between the 
gneiss and the alluvium of Peddapuram and Tuni. A broad 
belt of the Cuddalore sandstone also stretches, like an island 
in the middle of the alluvium, from Rajahmundry to Samalkot 
with a narrow strip of Deccan trap and some isolated patches 
of gneiss on its north-western edge. The whole of the rest of 
the district is formed of fluviatile alluvium. This occupies 
nearly the whole of the delta, and above the ghats stretches 
in some places a long way from the river on either side. 

At some remote period the great plain which is now physical 
covered with alluvial soils must have been occupied by the changes now 
sea, the sandstone ' island ' between Rajahmundry and ^" Progress. 
Samalkot must have been an island in fact, and the salt water 
must have stretched to the edge of the northern hills. This 
plain was gradually raised above tidal level by the deltaic 
deposits of the Godavari and the minor streams in the north- 
east of the district, and the process still continues. It is 
particularly noticeable in the constant extension of the shore 
round Point Godavari and the gradual silting up of Coringa 
bay. In Pliny's time the village of Coringa, now miles 
inland, stood apparently upon a cape, and even within the 
memory of man great changes have taken place. The map 
of 1842 had to be much modified in 1891 and already needs 
further alteration. A spit of land is extending to the north 
from the old Point Godavari at an estimated rate of one 

^ See below p. IQ. 




The Gauri- 



CHAP. I. mile in 20 years and is gradually enclosing the Coringa bay; 
Geology, and the anchorage in the bay is said to be shallowing at the 
~ ■ rate of a foot every ten years. But a compensating process of 
erosion is taking place elsewhere. At Uppada on the Pitha- 
puram coast the land has been much encroached upon by the 
sea. Since 1900 over fifty yards have been swept away and 
the process must have been going on for many years. A ruin 
about half a mile out at sea still catches the fishermen's nets, 
and children hunt the beach at spring tides for coins which 
are occasionally washed up from what must be a submerged 

As above remarked, there are two places in the district 
where the coal-bearing Barakar strata are found, viz., near 
Bedadanuru in Polavaram division, and at Gauridevipeta in 
the Bhadrachalam taluk. 

The Gauridevipeta field was first reported on in 1871 by 
Mr. W. T. Blanford, who summarized the position as follows : ^ 
'Just below Bhadrachalam the Godavari traverses a small 
field of Barakar rocks about seven miles across from east to 
west and five miles, where broadest, from north to south. The 
whole area is about 24 square miles, the greater portion of 
which lies on the right bank of the river in the Nizam's 
territory. The portion of this field on the north (left) bank of 
the river has been thoroughly explored by boring and some 
coal has been found, but the quality is altogether inferior and 
the quantity small, the seams being thin and much mixed with 
shale.' An attempt to work this field was made by the 
Godavari Coal Company, Limited, in 1891. The operations 
were not successful, as coal was not found in paying quanti- 
ties, and soon after the commencement of the work a fault was 
encountered which made it impossible to recover the seam. 
The seam, moreover, was of poor quality and contained a 
quantity of shale." It is thought possible that better and 
more plentiful supplies might be found on the southern bank 
of the river. 
Bedadanuru. The Bedadanuru field'' is the most southerly outcrop of 

Barakar rocks known in the Madras Presidency. It was once 
hoped that good coal would be found there, and extensive 
borings were undertaken under the superintendence of the 
Executive Engineer at Dummagudem in 1874 ; but these 
resulted only in the discovery of some thin seams of very poor 
coaly shales, and the exploration was abandoned. The field 

^ Records, Geol. Surv., India, iv, 59 fol'. 

2 Information kindly supplied by Messrs. Binny & Co., Madras, the agents 
of the Company. 

See Memoirs, Geol. Surv., India, xviii, pt. 3, 29, 45. 



is about five and a quarter square miles in extent and is 
situated near the head waters of a large feeder of the Yerra 
Kalwa with the small village of Bedadanuru in its midst. 
Further prospecting was undertaken about six years ago. 
Some eight square miles near the village were thoroughly 
explored by borings, but the only discovery was a one-inch 

The existence of gold in the bed of the Godavari is men- 
tioned in several works published about the beginning of the 
last century. The Gazetteer of the Central Provinces ^ says 
that the metal used to be washed at the point where the Kinar- 
sani river falls into the Godavari just below Bhadrachalam. 
Local enquiries at Bhadrachalam vaguely substantiate the 
former existence of the industry there. 

Iron is smelted from scattered ore in several villages in the 
Bhadrachalam taluk. 

Graphite or plumbago is distributed in small quantities 
among the gneissic rocks in the north-west of the district, 
notably near Velagapalli and Yerrametla in the Chodavaram 
division and at Gullapudi in Polavaram. The South Indian 
Export Company has been prospecting recently at the last- 
named place. The Godavari Coal Company possesses a 
graphite mine at Pedakonda in Bhadrachalam taluk, and has 
prospected for the mineral in several parts of the surrounding 
country. Outcrops are said to be plentiful and the samples 
obtained to be of fair quality but not so good as those from 
Ceylon. A good average quality fetches from £13 to £15 per 
ton in the London market at present.^ 

Mica is said to exist in parts of the Agency and is being 
prospected for near Polavaram by the South Indian Export 

Good building stone is obtained from the different sand- 
stone and trap groups in the alluvial plains of the Godavari. 
A locality particularly mentioned by Dr. King is Peddapuram. 
A little cutstone is also obtained in the Chodavaram division. 

Very pure rock-crj'^stal, inferior garnets and some sapphires 
occur in the neighbourhood of Bhadrachalam. The crystals 
are kept as curiosities or used in native medicines. The 
garnets are said to be found in the beds of the Godavari and 
Kinarsani rivers, especially near Gauridevipeta. 

Detailed statistics of the rainfall in Godavari are given in 
Chapter VIII below. The average annual fall for the district 
is 40*26 inches. 








Rock crys- 
tals, garnets, 



Nagpur, 1870, 506. 

Information furnished by Messrs. Binny & Co., Madras. 





Wind and 






'^ a 
to o 



2 'H 



5 S 


> S 

> s 













March .. 




April ... 










81 -0 

88- r 
















81 -9 






The year ... 







The only station in the district at which systematic 

meteorological observations 
(other than the registration 
of rainfall) are made is 
Cocanada. There a daily 
record of the temperature is 
kept, and the results are 
telegraphed to the Meteoro- 
logical Reporter at Madras. 
The marginal statement 
gives the average maxima 
and minima and the mean 
for each month in degrees 
Fahrenheit deduced from 
the figures of a series of 
years. It will be seen that 
the weather is very hot 
from April to June and that 
the mean temperature does 
not fall below 80 degrees till after October. The climate 
in December and January is cool, the average maximum 
temperature not exceeding 81 degrees and the average 
mxinimum being as low as 65. Along the coast the effect of 
the heat is much enhanced by the dampness of the air. The 
hill tracts and the country above the ghats are both cooler 
and drier than Cocanada. 

Light north-easterly breezes in January and February, 
the driest months of the year, are followed in March and April 
by light south and south-east winds which blow during the 
day but die down at sunset. This south breeze is called by 
the natives payirn gdli, or the * crop wind.' By May the wind, 
which is still light, has veered round to the south-west, but 
north-westerly squalls frequently occur, generally in the early 
part of the night, and sometimes blow with great violence. 
The south-west monsoon arrives in June and continues for 
some three months. In September and October land and sea 
breezes alternate, and the weather becomes calm and sultry 
as the north-east monsoon approaches. The latter sets in 
with light or moderate currents of air about the beginning of 
November, and brings bright and cool weather with it. 
Cyclones (see Chapter VIII) are apt to occur in this month. 
In December the wind blows from the east during the day and 
from the north during the night. The latter is called the hill 
(konda) wind. 

The botany of Godavari is interesting from several points 
of view. The physical geography of the district permits the 




existence of several distinct floras, while the residence of the 
great Indian botanist, Roxburgh, at Samalkot has caused the 
native plants to be more carefully studied than elsewhere. 
The irrigated delta teems with weeds of cultivation, the 
uplands yield the plants of the dry scrub forest, while the hill 
tracts of Rampa present an entirely different series. The latter 
are most easily studied where the Godavari pierces the back- 
bone of the Eastern Ghats, and the deep ravines near Bison Hill 
afford the nearest approach to a moist evergreen forest to be 
met with in this part of India. Among the interesting plants of 
the Godavari gorges may be noted the beautiful blue Barleria 
strigosa, Oldenlandia nudicaulis, Sauropiis quadrangularis, 
Baiihinia Vahlii, Euphorbia elcgcms and Payllanthiis suhcrosiis. 
Bordering the stream and in the rapids Euphorbia Lawii 
appears to be at home, while on the banks such exotic ferns 
as Ltiffa echinata and Melilotus parviflora may be found. 
Many Godavari plants are illustrated and described in the 
magnificent Coromandel Plants prepared by Roxburgh while he 
was Carnatic Botanist to the Hon. East India Company.^ 

Five kinds of cattle are locally recognized ; viz., the desavdli Fauna. 
(or country), the paratnati (western), the turpu (eastern), the ^" ^' 
Koya and the Sugali. The desavdli are found both in the 
plains and in the Agency ; in the latter they are called also 
gommu (riverside) cattle and are generally stronger than in 
the plains. The western cattle are easily recognized by their 
peculiar and plentiful branding and by the shortness of their 
horns. They are not found in the Agency and are imported 
in small numbers from Nellore and Guntiir. The cows give 
better milk than the country animals. The eastern cattle 
come from Vizagapatam, but are apparently merely animals 
bought as calves from Guntur and Nellore and reared in that 
district. The Koya cattle are inferior animals raised by the 
hill tribe of that name. The Sugali breed are brought by 
Sugalis (Lambadis) of the Nizam's Dominions to this district 
and are especially common in the Rajahmundry and Rama- 
chandrapuram taluks. These Sugalis are wandering traders 
and use the cattle to transport forest produce from the upper 
reaches of the river and to carry grain for the ryots. 

Four kinds of buffaloes occur in the district. In the plains Buffaloes. 
* country buffaloes ' and ' eastern buffaloes ' from Vizagapatam 
district are the usual breeds. They are much alike in 
appearance. A larger kind, called the Bobbili or Gauvada 
buffalo, is less common. In Bhadrachalam a fine animal 

1 This paragraph was written by Mr. C. A. Barber (the Government Botanist) 
for the Imperial Gazetteer. 





Sheep and 




called the northern (iittarddi) buffalo is used. It generally 
has white patches on the forehead and just above the hoofs. 

There are three kinds of sheep ; namely, the country sheep, 
which give milk, manure and meat, but bear no wool ; the 
kidam sheep, which are valued for their wool but are rare ; and 
the sima (foreign) sheep, which have long tails, give no wool, 
and seem only to occur in Tuni. 

Of goats the ' large ' or ' country ' kind and the ' small ' 
or ' Kdnchi ' breed are distinguished. The latter are also 
called the ' Calcutta ' breed. They yield richer and more 
wholesome milk and are more prolific than the former. Some 
care is taken about the breeding of both sheep and goats. 
Most of the males are sold for meat, and only one or two 
superior animals are kept for breeding purposes. 

Two local practices are of considerable importance to the 
improvement of the cattle. In almost every village a really 
good bull or two is set free to roam among the herds, and in 
the Agency the owners of cattle often set apart a superior 
animal, called the vittanain (seed) bull, to be used exclusively 
for crossing purposes. In many parts of the district, also, 
people castrate the inferior bulls. 

Cattle are usually fed on paddy straw in the plains and 
cholam straw in the Agency. In the central delta and in 
Rajahmundry taluk they are also given sunn hemp (janumii), 
which is much grown there. In Amalapuram, where grazing 
is especially scarce, they are fed on rice husk, horse-gram and 
gingelly oil-cake. When the crops are on the ground and 
there is no particular work for the cattle, i.e., from August 
to December, they are sent from the plains to graze in the 
forests in the Yellavaram and Chodavaram hills. The 
Pithapuram ryots drive theirs to Tuni. The Amalapuram 
and Nagaram ryots do not as a rule send their animals away 
owing to the trouble of getting them across the rivers. The 
Bhadrachalam ryots drive theirs in the hot weather to Bastar 
and the Jeypore zamindari, where the grazing is better. The 
Polavaram forests are resorted to by the cattle of the Kistna 

Cattle mortality is said to be heavy in the delta (especially 
in the central delta and Ramachandrapuram), where fodder is 
scarce, the animals are crowded and the ground is saturated 
with moisture. ' They suffer from the absence of grazing 
and deficient food at one time and from feeding on rank, 
quickly-grown herbage at others.' ^ 

' Mr Benson in G.O. No. 28, Revenue, dated nth January li 
See also p. 13 of the same G.O. 

p. 15- 


The chief diseases in the district are foot and mouth CHAP. I. 
disease fgdllit), anthrax (domnia), rinderpest (peddajddyam), Fauna. 

fever (kurama) and siigalirdgani or malignant sore throat. 

Eruptions all over the body, an occasional symptom of rinder- 
pest, are called by the natives kinka. Cattle are said to be 
not infrequently poisoned by Madigas, who then eat their 
flesh and take their hides. 

Generally speaking, the cattle are bought by merchants and Cattle fairs, 
ryots at the large weekly fairs at Tummapala (in Vizagapatam 
district), Pithapuram, Draksharamam (in Ramachandra- 
puram), Ambajipeta (in Amalapuram) and PalokoUu in the 
Kistna district. Merchants go the round of these markets 
with their herds until they are all sold. The Pithapuram and 
Draksharamam cattle fairs are famous. Sometimes drovers 
take their cattle round the country and sell them to the ryots 
in their own villages. This is what is usually done by the 
Sugalis, who seem never to frequent the markets. 

Big game is plentiful in the hills of the Agency and less so Game, 
in the uplands of Tuni and Peddapuram. Tigers and 
panthers are numerous ; bears are fairly common ; bison 
(gaur) occur; nilgai have been shot in the Bhadrachalam 
taluk ; sambur, spotted deer, jungle sheep, black-buck and 
pig are all common. Dholes (wild dogs) are found in 
Bhadrachalam and Polavaram. Small game exists in great 
abundance. Good snipe-shooting is to be had in the 
neighbourhood of Rajahmundry and in many other spots. 
Wild geese, duck and teal, are common on the river and its 
lankas, and the two latter swarm on many jhils and tanks and 
on the sea at the mouth of the creeks between Cocanada and 
Coringa, whence they fly inland to feed at night. Partridge, 
peafowl, jungle-fowl and the smaller quail are all fairly 
common. The larger quail, florican and sand-grouse are more 
rarely met with. Other uncommon birds found in the district 
are the imperial pigeon, pied mina, and bhimardj. Hares and 
partridges are captured in quantities by native shikaris, the 
former with nets, the latter with the help of decoy birds. 
Crocodiles are found in the upper Godavari in large numbers 
and people are afraid to enter the deep parts of the river even 
as far down as Rajahmundry. 

Mahseer occur in the Godavari, Saveri and Pannileru Yish. 
rivers. The large sable fish (clupea palasah or hilsa) are 
netted in very large quantities near the Dowlaishweram 
anient, when they come up the river to spawn. Fine carp 
and labeo are caught near Polavaram and in the tanks, as the 
villagers will not allow the drinking-water tanks to be netted. 
The fishing in the tidal water near Cocanada and Coringa is 






said to be particularly good. A fine fish which the natives 
call pundikuppa and which runs up to lOO lb. comes up the 
creeks. The mango fish and the mullet may also be caught in 
large quantities near the sea. 

Yerukalas are the commonest shikari caste. Idigas, Kapus, 
Razus, Musalmans and Malas also shoot. Nakkalas hunt 
jackals and foxes for food. In Bhadrachalam and Polavaram 
the Koyas, Reddis and Mutrachas are keen sportsmen. Some 
of the methods employed are interesting, if the accounts given 
by the natives are to be credited. Jackals and foxes are 
killed with assegais of split bamboo ; antelope are caught by 
sending out a tame buck with nooses on his horns which 
entangle the wild ones when they try to eject him; some 
animals are shot from behind a trained cow which conceals 
the sportsman and provides a rest for his gun ; and spring 
guns are sometimes placed in the tracks of game. Birds are 
caught in nooses placed near the cage of a decoy ; and by 
limed twigs baited with worms. Waterfowl are driven, by a 
man concealed behind a trained cow, over a net spread under 








Early History — As6ka's conquest, 260 B.C. — The Andhras, down to 200 
A.D. — The I'allavas, about 200-615 ■'^•D. — The Chalukyas — Their conquest 
of Vengi, about 615 - Separation of the Eastern and Western Chalukyas, 
about 630 — Hiuen Tsiang's description of the former — Eastern Chalukya 
rule, 63C-999 -Chola conquest, 999 — Kulottunga Chola I — He obtains the 
Chola and Vengi thrones, 1070 — His viceroys in Vengi — His death in 11 19 
and the decline of the Cholas — The Velanandu chieftains, twelfth century — 
The Kona chiefs of the delta — ^Local chiefs of EUore, Nadendla, etc. — The 
Kakatiyas of Warangal conquer Kistna about 1200 — And Godavari about 
1300— Pratapa Rudra's viceroys — Temporary Musalman conquest of the 
district, 1323 — The Korukonda Reddis, 1325-95 — The Reddis of Kondavid, 
1344-1422 — The Rajahmundry Reddis, 1422-50 — The Gajapatis ofOrissa 
take the district, 1450 — But cede part of it to the Muhammadans, 1470 — 
The latter ousted, 1489 — Conquest by Vijayanagar, 1515 — Musalman con- 
quest of Kistna, 1540— And of Godavari, 1571. Muhammadan Period — 
Weakness of their rule— Aurangzeb establishes his authority, 1687 — The 
Subadar of the Deccan becomes independent, 1724 — The Northern Circars 
ceded to the French, 1753 — Their difificulties there — Bussy at length obtains 
possession, 1757 — P'orde's expedition against the French, 1 758 — His victory 
at Condore — The country cleared of the French — Cession of the Northern 
Circars to the English, 1765. English Period -Early administration — 
Disturbances of the peace — In 1785-90— In 1790-1800 — Quieter times 
thereafter - Subba Reddi's rebellion, 1858 — Outbreaks in Kampa. 

The earliest historical mention of the Godavari district occurs CHAP. II. 
in the inscriptions of Asoka, the Buddhist ruler of the great Early 
Maurj^an empire, the capital of which was at Pataliputra, the istor\. 
modern Patna, In 260 B.C.^ this monarch conquered the king- Asoka's 
dom of Kalinga (a tract of varying extent which may be taken ^o^^^^^*^' 260 
to have comprised the country between the Mahanadi river on 
the north and the Godavari on the south) and he claims also 
to have subdued the Andhras, a dynasty whose sway 
apparently extended as far north as the Godavari river. 
Asoka was the great apostle of the Buddhist religion, which 
he extended far and wide in India, and the magnificent 
Buddhist remains at Amaravati on the Kistna river are proof 
that the faith he espoused obtained a strong hold in country 
even further south than the Godavari. They contain an 
inscription in the Mauryan character. 

' Indian Antiquary, xx, 247. 





The Andhras, 
down to 200 

The Pallavas, 
about 200- 
615 A.D. 


But his conquest of the Andhras by no means terminated 
the existence of that dynasty. For long after his reign they 
retained, and probably increased, their power in this district, 
Pliny mentions them as a strong people with 30 fortified cities, 
100,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry and 1,000 elephants. Their 
conquests extended far to the north, and even to the western 
coast of the peninsula, for one of their earlier kings, Simuka, 
covered the walls of a large cave at Nanaghat (50 miles north- 
west of Poona) with inscriptions recording his sacrifices ; and 
his successors have left evidence by their coins and in their 
inscriptions in the cave temples at Nasik, Karle and Kanheri 
that they extended their power to Malwa and the borders of 
Gujarat. Towards the south their dominions included parts 
of Mysore. Their capital was at first at Srikakulam on the 
Kistna, nineteen miles west of Masulipatam, but was after- 
wards removed to Dharanikota, near Amaravati. From coins, 
inscriptions and other material have been ascertained the 
names and dates of kings of the line who ruled from about 
IIO to 220 A.D. 

The next power to appear upon the scene were the Pallavas. 
This race, like others of the invaders of the south, perhaps 
passed into central India from the north-west during the 
second century A.D. In an inscription, the Andhra king 
Gotamiputra ( 1 72-202 A.D.) boasts that he defeated them, but 
they shortly afterwards subdued the Andhras and extended 
their empire as far south as Conjeeveram and the borders of 
the Tanjore country, and as far to the north-east as the 
frontiers of Orissa- Records of them are few and far between ; 
but the absence of inscriptions of the Andhras after about the 
year 218 and the discovery at Mayidavolu and Kondamudi (in 
the Guntiir district) of two Pallava records which on palaso- 
graphical grounds may be assigned to the end of the second 
century, go to show that their conquest of the Andhras 
occurred about that period. Moreover inscriptions of two 
kings named Attivarman and Prithivimiila, who were also 
apparently Pallava rulers, have been found in the Godavari 
district and seem to belong to a slightly later period. In the 
fourth century, the Allahabad inscription mentioned on p. 233 
refers to a chief of Pithapuram who was apparently a Pallava. 
Whether these Pallavas were independent monarchs or merely 
local feudatories of the main Pallava empire, the capital of 
which was at Conjeeveram, cannot be stated with certainty. 

About the beginning of the seventh century, the Chalukyas, 
who were also invaders from the north-west and who possessed 
a large empire in central and western India the capital of 
which was Badami in the Bombay Presidency, came into 



prominence. An unusually distinct picture of them is drawn 
by the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang, who visited India 
between the years 629 and 644 A.D. : 

' This disposition of the people is honest and simple ; they are 
tall of stature and of a stern, vindictive character. To their bene- 
factors they are grateful, to their enemies relentless. If they are 
insulted, they will risk their lives to avenge themselves. If they are 
asked to help one in distress, they will forget themselves in their haste 
to render assistance. If they are going to seek revenge they first 
give their enemy warning ; then, each being armed, they attack each 
other with spears. When one turns to flee, the other pursues him, 
but they do not kill a man who submits. If a general losses a battle, 
they do not inflict punishment, but present him with woman's clothes, 
and so he is driven to seek death for himself. The country provides 
for a band of champions to the number of several hundred. When 
about to engage in conflict they intoxicate themselves with wine, and 
then one man with lance in hand will meet ten thousand and 
challenge them to fight. If one of these champions meets a man and 
kills him, the laws of the country do not punish him. Every time 
they go forth they beat drums before them. Moreover they make 
drunk many hundred head of elephants ; and, taking thera out to 
fight, and after themselves drinking wine, they rush forward in mass 
and trample everything down so that no enemy can stand before them. 
The king in consequence of his possessing these men and elephants 
treats his neighbours with contempt. He is of the Kshatriya caste 
and his name is Pulakesi.' ^ 

The monarch here referred to (Pulakesin II, 609-42) 
extended his conquests throughout the Godavari district and 
into Vizagapatam, drove the Pallavas to the walls of Conjee- 
veram and threatened the country of the Cholas of Tanjore. 

His conquest of Godavari is detailed in a stone inscription 
at Aihole (in the Bombay Presidency) in which he mentions 
the reduction of Pithapuram and EUore.^ It took place about 
615 A.D. 

During his absence on this campaign, Pulakesin had made 
his younger brother Vishnuvardhana I his regent at his capital 
of Badami, and on his return he deputed him to govern the 
country he had recently conquered. By 632 Vishnuvardhana 
had established himself in these new territories as an inde- 
pendent sovereign of the kingdom of ' Vengi,' the capital of 
which was at Pedda Vegi near Ellore and which included the 
Godavari district, and there he founded the Eastern Chalukya 
dynasty, which held that country for at least five centuries 




conquest of 
Vengi, about 

Separation of 
the Eastern 
and Western 
about 630. 

* Bombay Gazetteer (1896), i, pt. 2, 353. 
" Indian Antiquary, xx, 94. 






of the 

rule, 630-999. 



and remained throughout distinct from, and independent of, 
the Western Chalukyas. 

Hiuen Tsiang visited this kingdom also. He describes it as 
being nearly 1,000 miles in circuit and its capital as some seven 
miles round, but the country was thinly populated — possibly 
owing to its recent conquest. The once numerous Buddhist 
convents were in ruins and deserted, for, though the Andhras 
and Pallavas had been Buddhists or Jains, the Eastern 
Chalukyas were Vaishnavites by creed. 

The genealogy and some of the acts of the Eastern 
Chalukya kings of Vengi are given with great chronological 
distinctness in the various grants of the dynasty that have come 
down to us.^ In the early part of the eighth century Udaya- 
chandra, the general of the Pallava king Nandivarman, claims 
that he subdued the Eastern Chalukya king Vishnuvardhana 
III (709-46) ; ^ but this reconquest by the ancient owners of the 
country seems to have been short-lived. Vijayaditya II 
(799-843) had to defend himself against his neighbours on the 
west, the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (90 miles west by south of 
Hyderabad), who had subdued and taken the place of the 
Western Chalukyas. What was the result of the fighting is 
not clear. Vijayaditya II relates how ' during twelve years 
by day and by night he fought a hundred and eight battles 
with the armies of the Gangas (probably the Mysore Gangas) 
and the Rattas ' {i.e., the Rashtrakutas) ; but his Rashtrakuta 
contemporary, Govinda III, boasts that he ordered the king of 
Vengi into his presence and made him assist in building and 
fortifying a city. 

At the end of the tenth century, the mighty Rajaraja I, who 
had laid the foundations of a great Chola empire with its 
capital at Tanjore, conquered the Eastern Chalukya country. 
He seems to have appointed a prince of the fallen line 
(Saktivarman, 999-IOII) as king (or perhaps feudatory) in 
Vengi. ^ This man's brother and successor, Vimaladitya 
(1011-22),^ though he had married a Chola princess, appar- 
ently attempted to throw off his allegiance, for Rajaraja's son 
Rajendra Chola (1011-14) again invaded the Vengi country 
and advanced as far as the hill called Mahendragiri in 
Ganjam, where he planted a pillar of victory. Vimaladitya 
was not deposed, however, and was succeeded by his son 

* Indian Antiqury, xx, 93 ff. and 266 ff. 

^ South Indian Inscriptions, ii, 364. 

" Epigraphia Indica, vi, 349. 

"• There is some doubt about the duration of his reign, for though the dates 
of his and his successor's accession are given as in the text, his reign is generally 
represented as having only lasted seven years. 



Rajaraja (1022-62), who also married a princess of the Chola 
royal house. This king fixed his capital at Rajahmundry, 
and it was during his reign that the Mahabharata was 
translated into Telugu.* 

His son Kulottunga was afterwards the famous Kulottunga 
Chola I, who, though belonging on his father's side to the 
ancient line of Vengi, claimed to succeed to the Chola throne 
at Tanjore through his mother and his grandmother, and 
ultimately founded a new Chola dynasty in the south. While 
heir-apparent to the Vengi throne he distinguished himself by 
capturing elephants and defeating a king, but when his father 
Rajaraja died he was ousted from the succession by his 
paternal uncle Vijayaditya VII. 

The latter's rule appears to have been disturbed by 
invasion. The Western Chalukya kingdom had revived after 
the fall of the Rashtrakutas, and its great monarch Vikrama- 
ditya VI (whose capital was at Kalyani, north-west of 
Hyderabad) was by this time harassing both the Chola and 
the Vengi countries. He twice invaded the latter,^ but was, 
however, defeated by the Chola king, who re-established his 
authority in Vengi and restored Vijayaditya VII to his throne 
there.' ' His elephants drank the water of the Godavari. 
He crossed even Kalingam, and beyond it despatched for 
battle his invincible army as far as the further end of 
Chakrakotta. He reconquered the good country of Vengai 
and bestowed it on Vijayaditya, whose broad hands held 
weapons of war and who had taken refuge at his lotus feet.' ^ 

About 1069 the then Chola king died, and his son secured 
the throne with the help of the Western Chalukya king 
Vikramaditya VI. The Kulottunga already mentioned 
claimed, however, to succeed as both grandson and adopted 
son of a former Chola ruler. He took up arms, slew the new 
king, and entered on a fierce conflict with Vikramaditya VI. 
The accounts given by the two monarchs of the events which 
followed are widely different ; but victory finally rested with 
Kulottunga, who made himself king of the Chola country 
and overlord of Vengi, and ruled till II18 with the title of 
Kulottunga Chola I. 

He magnanimously allowed his uncle Vijayaditya VII, 
who had before supplanted him, to continue in charge of 

^ Ep. Ind., V, 31. He is well known to local tradition to this day under the 
name Rajaraja Narendra. Cf. Mackenzie MSS., Local Records, ii, 231 ; xix 
75 ; and Ix, 24. 

^ S. Ind. Inset"., iii, 37. 

=* Dr. Hultzsch in S. Ind. Inscr., iii, 128. 

■• His inscription quoted in the Government Epigraphist's report for 189S. 



Chola I. 

He obtains 
the Chola 
and Vengi 

His viceroys 
in Vengi. 





His death in 
I rig and the 
decline of the 

Vengi, and appears to have treated him with cordiality. 
When this man died in 1077, Kulottunga appointed his own 
second son, Rajaraja II, as viceroy of Vengi. The latter 
seems to have been uncomfortable and insecure in his 
position. An inscription of this date says that finding ' a 
kingdom not such a pleasure as the worship of the illustrious 
feet of the elders, he returned to his parents, after having 
ruled over Vengi for one year.' ' He was replaced (1078) by 
his younger brother Vira Choda, ' the brave prince, the 
incarnation of valour,' who ' joyfully put on the tiara of the 
world.' This prince was superseded in 1084 by Kulottunga's 
eldest son Rajaraja Choda Ganga, but was reinstated in 
1088-89 and continued to rule till at least 1092-93. He was 
then succeeded by another and better known brother, Vikrama 
Chola, who ruled the Vengi country till about 1 1 18. The 
reasons for these constant changes are nowhere stated ; but it 
would appear that Kulottunga placed no great reliance on his 
sons' loyalty to himself. 

The only event of importance in this period is the conquest 
of Kalinga which was achieved by Kulottunga some time 
before 1095-96. Kalinga was feudatory to Vengi and had 
withheld tribute for two years. Vikrama Chola also claims 
to have effected this victory, and it was perhaps achieved 
during his viceroyalty. He governed the Vengi country for 
some 20 years, and in III8 he was called to the south to 
become co-regent with, and shortly afterwards the successor 
of, Kulottunga, who seems to have died in that or the follow- 
ing year. On his departure a certain Choda, the son of 
Gonka, was appointed as viceroy of Vengi, and was even 
honoured with adoption into Kulottunga's family. His 
descendants (see below) long played a prominent part in the 
history of the district. 

The Chola supremacy in Vengi was at this point disturbed 
for a few years by the aged Western Chalukya king Vikrama- 
ditya VI, who took advantage of the departure of Vikrama 
Chola and the death of his old enemy Kulottunga to invade 
this northern province of theirs. Their viceroy Choda sub- 
mitted to him, and from II20 to 1 124 Vikramaditya was 
undisputed king of Vengi. His rule cannot have lasted long, 
as inscriptions of Vikrama Chola, dated I127 and II35 
respectively, occur in Kistna. After the latter of these years, 
however, neither he nor his successors took an active part in 
the government of Vengi. Occupied with their own troubles 
in the south, the Cholas gradually lost their influence in that 
province, and, though they were recognized as overlords by 

S. Ind. Inscr., i.% 60. 



the various petty rulers who now divided the country, even 
down to a time when their power in Tanjore was shattered, 
they had little, if any, real influence in Vengi after the death 
of Vikrama Chola. 

Of these petty rulers, the most important (and apparently 
the admitted suzerains over the others) were the Velanandu 
family, to which belonged that Choda who was adopted into 
Kulottunga's family and left as viceroy of Vengi when 
Vikrama Chola went in Ill8 to join his father in the south. 
Velanandu is said ^ to be ' an old name for the Chandhavolu 
country ' {i.e., the western part of the Kistna delta), where the 
family appear to have been long established and to have 
ruled as feudatories of the Eastern Chalukyas. Choda's 
father, Gonka I, seems to have ruled ' the Andhra country ' 
under Kulottunga I, and is mentioned in an inscription at 
Chebrolu in the Kistna district dated 1076. A cousin of his 
named Vedura was a minister of Kulottunga's son Vi'ra Choda 
when viceroy of Vengi ; and, in recognition of his services 
against ' a Pandyan king,' was given by his master the over- 
lordship of the country between the Kistna and the Godavari. 
It was however under Choda that the Velanandu family first 
attained the position of viceroys of the Vengi country. He 
and his successors wielded considerable power. Choda, as 
has been seen, bowed the neck to Vikramaditya VI, but his 
son Gonka II (alias Kulottunga Choda Gonka) claims to have 
ruled from Kalahasti in North Arcot to Ganjam. The queen 
of the latter's grandson, Gonka in (1137-56), covered with gold 
the idol at Simhachalam near Vizagapatam. The family 
seems to have been suppressed by the Kakatiyas of Warangal, 
in what is now the Nizam's Dominions, who forced their way 
into the country south of the Godavari at the beginning of 
the thirteenth century. The last of them who is known to 
history was Prithisvara, the son of Gonka in, who ruled from 
II63 to at least I186. 

Meanwhile another family, the Haihiya chiefs of ' the 
Kona country,' were in power in the delta of the Godavari. 
The delta taluk of Amalapuram is still known as the Kona 
country. These people were apparently hereditary chieftains 
subordinate to the Vengi viceroys and the Velanandu family. 
Their inscriptions in this district range from I128 to 1206. 

Other local rulers were the chiefs of Nadendla in the 
Kistna district, who seem to have recognized the authority of 
the Velanandu line and have left inscriptions ranging from 

^ Ep. Ind., iv,33. and Manual of the Kistna district, 214. The Velinadu 
Smarta Telugu Brahmans have a tradition that Velanandu is a name for the 
country near Kondavid. See Chapter III, p, 52. 




The Vela- 
nandu chief- 
tains, twelfth 

The Kona 
chiefs of the 

Local chiefs 
of Ellore, 





The Kaka- 
tiyas of 
about 1200. 


about 1300. 


I130 to 1232; the chieftains of Ellore, whose records date 
from 1139-40 to I2II-I2; a family whose inscriptions are 
found in several places in the delta, who claim descent from 
the Eastern Chalukya king Amma I (918-25) and the best 
known of whom is Mallapa III who seems to have ruled from 
I173 to at least 1223 ; and Annala Reddi of Korukonda (in 
Rajahmundry taluk), who is stated in one of the Mackenzie 
MSS. to have ruled over the greater part of the lowlands of 
district ' for a long time ' till he was ' succeeded ' {i.e., ousted) 
by king Pratapa Rudra of the Kakatiya line of Warangal. 

These Kakatiya kings had by now begun to lay the founda- 
tions of their empire on the ruins of the western Chalukya 
kingdom. As early as 1 162 their king Rudra Deva boasted ^ 
that he had conquered the whole country as far as Srisailam 
(in Kurnool) in the south, and up to the salt sea on the east. 
The first indubitable inscription of the dynasty found in the 
Vengi country is one of Rudra Deva's son Ganapati at 
Chebrolu (in the Kistna district) dated 1213-14; -and that 
this king overcame the Velanandu chieftains is indicated by 
the existence of an inscription of his at Chandhavolu, their 

When the Kakatiyas first crossed the Godavari is doubtful. 
An inscription at Draksharamam mentions king Ganapati 
(1213-53), but it is fragmentary and undated, and may belong 
to the time of his successor ; and the first record in this 
district which can be unhesitatingly ascribed to the dynasty 
is one of Pratapa Rudra, dated 1317, at Palivela in the 
Amalapuram taluk. Ferishta moreover speaks of the king of 
Rajahmundry as an independent prince in 1295.'^ It would 
thus seem that the Kakatiyas did not cross the Godavari till 
some time after their conquest of Vengi proper, and that this 
district did not fall under their dominion until the end of the 
thirteenth century. 

One of the Mackenzie MSS.^ which (where it can be 
checked) agrees in its facts and dates with local inscriptions 
and is thus presumably trustworthy, throws an interesting 
side-light on Pratapa Rudra's rule of the district. His local 
viceroys were two brothers named Pedda Malla Razu and 
Chinna Malla Razu, who held their court with great pomp 
and luxury at Bendapiidi in the Tuni division. They were 
most oppressive in their rule, and a long list is given of the 
enormities they perpetrated. Finally, in 1322-23, Pratapa 

^ Ind. Antiq-, xi, 9 ff. 

- Ep. Ind., V, 143. 

^ Scott's Ferishta Introduction, p. sii. 

* Wilson's Catalogue, p. 396, 8, 3, 



Rudra had himself to interfere, since ' the cultivators refused 
to follow their occupation and fled the country.' The MS. 
describes at length the rules he then laid down for the 
revenue administration of the province. The two viceroys 
eventually fell foul of the ' Raja of Cuttack ' (the Ganga king 
of Kalinga), Pedda Malla Razu having kidnapped the bride of 
one of that potentate's relatives as she was passing through 
the district. The Ganga king sent an expedition to revenge 
the affront; and, after a long siege, Bendapudi was taken 
and the two brothers were captured and beheaded. 

The Mughal emperor of Delhi had long been jealous of 
the growing power of the Kakatiyas. In 1303 he had un- 
successfully attempted to crush their kingdom; in 1310 his 
general Malik Kafur captured Warangal, but Pratapa Rudra 
soon recovered his independence ; but in 1323 the Delhi heir- 
apparent, Muhammad Tughlak, took the town again and 
carried off its king to Delhi. 

Muhammad Tughlak seems to have penetrated as far as 
Rajahmundry itself, for an inscription, dated 1324, on a 
mosque there describes its erection by him in that year. The 
tide of Muhammadan invasion receded almost at once, but 
from this point the influence of the kings of Warangal in the 
Telugu country disappears, and Vengi was ruled by the 
Reddi chiefs of Korukonda, Kondavid and Rajahmundry. 

A history of the Korukonda Reddis is given in the 
Mackenzie MS. already quoted. The founder of the line was 
Kona or Kuna Reddi, ' a good Sudra,' who built the fort at 
Korukonda and made the place into a big town. His son 
Mummidi Reddi succeeded him, and (along with his two 
brothers) is said to have ruled as far as Tatipaka (either the 
village of that name in Nagaram island or its namesake in 
Tuni division) and to have founded one of the Korukonda 
temples in 1353. Mummidi Reddi was followed by his son 
Kuna Reddi, and he by his two brothers Anna Reddi and 
Katama Reddi, one after the other. Their reigns are said to 
have lasted 40 years. The latter was succeeded by his son 
Mummidi Nayak, by whom another of the Korukonda temples 
was repaired in 1394-95. 

The Reddis of Kondavid were Sudra cultivators ; but the 
family seems to have been in the service of the kings of 
Warangal and no doubt derived the beginnings of its power 
from this circumstance. They apparently ruled side by side 
with the Korukonda Reddis, for the inscriptions of the two 
overlap. Their earliest extant record is dated in 1344. Their 
original capital was at Addanki in Guntur, but they subse- 
quently moved to Kondavid. The founder of the dynasty 



conquest of 
the district, 

The Koru- 

The Reddis 
of Kondavid, 





The Rajah- 

The Gajapa- 
tis of Orissa 
take the 

But cede part 
of it to the 

was Vema, the son of Prola, who boasts that he conquered 
Raichur and defeated certain kings, calls himself ' the lion to 
the elephant which was the Pandyan king ' (whatever that 
may mean), and was a great patron of Telugu and Tamil 
literature. Of his successors, two are stated to have fought 
against the Musalmans and three were men of letters. His 
grandson Kumaragiri placed his minister and brother-in-law, 
Kataya Vema, in charge of the eastern portion of his domi- 
nions and made Rajahmundry the capital thereof. Kataya 
Vema's dates range from 1385 to 1422 and an inscription of 
his occurs in the Simhachalam temple in Vizagapatam. 

On the death of Kataya Vema, one AUada the son of 
Dodda Reddi obtained (it is not clear how) the throne of 
Rajahmundry, and founded a new, though short-lived, dynasty. 
His inscriptions appear as early as 1415-17 in the delta (at 
Palakollu, Palivela, and Draksharamam) and he is repre- 
sented therein as being the friend or servant of Kataya Vema, 
whose enemies he claims to have ' uprooted.' His military 
operations were extensive. He says that he ' befriended' the 
Gajapati of Orissa and the king of Karnata {i.e., the king of 
Vijayanagar, in the Bellary district) who was allied with the 
Gajapati, and defeated a Musalman general called Alpa 
Khan. He also claims to have defeated the Reddis of 
Kondavid. His sons Allaya Vema and Virabhadra ruled 
jointly ; and members of the family are mentioned in the 
Draksharamam inscriptions until as late as 144/- 

In 1434 the Gajapati dynasty of Orissa was founded by 
Kapilesvara, the minister of the last Ganga king of that 
country.^ Kapilesvara had shortly before been in alliance 
with the Rajahmundry Reddis and the Vijayanagar king 
against the Muhammadans, but he none the less obtained the 
assistance of the Bahmani king of Kulbarga, then the most 
powerful Musalman chief in the Deccan, in establishing 
himself in his new position. By 1454 he was recognized as 
suzerain as far south as Kondavid, and a minister of his was 
ruling at Rajahmundry in 1458 ; so, though the details of the 
conquest are unknown, he had apparently seized the whole of 
this district. 

In 1470, however, his successor Purushottama applied to 
the Bahmani king of Kulbarga, for lielp against a rival 
claimant, and was forced to cede to that ruler, as the price of 
his assistance, the districts of Rajahmundry and Kondapalle in 
Kistna. The Hindu inhabitants of Kondapalle, however, soon 
afterwards revolted, murdered the Muhammadan governor, 

'■Babu Man Mohan Chakravarti's paper in J.A.S.B,, Ixix, pt. i, No. 2. 



and called for help from Purushottama, who accordingly 
came and besieged Rajahmundry. A Musalman army relieved 
that place, and about 1478 the Kulbarga king Muhammad 
took terrible vengeance on the Orissa country and forced 
Purushottama to purchase his withdrawal by a present of 
valuable elephants. Kondapalle was retaken, its temple 
destroyed (the Brahman priests being massacred), and a 
mosque erected on the site. The Kulbarga king remained 
three years at Rajahmundry, expelling or reducing refractory 
zamindars and establishing military posts. He appointed 
one Malik Ahmed as his viceroy, and at the end of 1480 left 
the district to prosecute his conquests in the south. 

A few years afterwards, however, the -Kulbarga kingdom 
was dismembered by revolutions which resulted in the 
formation of the three Muhammadan kingdoms of Bijapur, 
Ahmadnagar and Golconda in the years 1489, 1490 and 1512 
respectively ; and the kings of Orissa recovered this district. 

In 1515, Krishna Deva, the greatest of the kings of the 
Hindu empire of Vijayanagar, the capital of which was at 
Hampe in the Bellary district, and which was now at the 
zenith of its power, marched northwards in great strength. 
He took the strong fort of Udayagiri in Nellore after a siege 
of a year and a half, and then invested Kondavid. The king 
of Orissa, Pratapa Rudra, came south to relieve the latter 
place, and Krishna Deva quitted the siege and advanced to 
meet him. The two armies came face to face at ' a large river 
of salt water crossed by a ford ' (presumably the Kistna), and 
Krishna Deva offered to retire six miles so that his adversary 
might cross the river unmolested and they might then fight 
on equal terms. Receiving no reply, he forded the river him- 
self in the face of the Orissan army, losing heavily in the 
operation ; engaged the enemy on the other side; and won a 
complete victory. He took Kondapalle after a siege of three 
months, escaladed Kondavid (capturing there the wife and 
son of the Orissan king and many of his nobles) and then 
advanced as far north as Potniiru in the Vizagapatam district, 
where he set up a pillar of victory. From this place he 
despatched several challenges to Pratapa Rudra, daring him 
to come and fight, and when these met with no response he 
eventually returned south to his own capital. He subse- 
quently sent back Pratapa Rudra's queen and married his 

Before many years had passed the Muhammadans again 
attacked the country. The invader this time was the first king 
of the new dynasty of Golconda, Qutb Shah (1512-43), and 
the cause of the war was the assistance given by the house 



The latter 
ousted, 1489. 


by Vijaya- 
nagar, 1 51 5. 

conquest of 
Kistna, 154O. 





And of 




Weakness of 
their rule. 

, of Orissa to a rebellious feudatory of Golconda. The large 
forces of the Hindus were routed by the fanatical courage of 
the Musalmans, who took Kondapalle and won a battle in the 
neighbourhood of Rajahmundry. The king of Orissa sued 

/ for peace, and consented to surrender to Golconda the whole 
of the territory between the Kistna and Godavari rivers. 

Meanwhile domestic revolutions had weakened the king- 
dom of Orissa. Two sons of Pratapa Rudra succeeded him 
one after the other, and ruled for a year or two till they were 
both murdered in 1541-42 by a minister named Govinda Deva, 
who took the kingdom for himself.^ He and his sons ruled 
till 1559-60, when a Telugu named Harichandana raised a 
revolt, killed two of the sons of the usurper, and himself ruled 
till 1571, when the kingdom fell finally into the hands of the 
Muhammadan kings of Golconda. 

This conquest had not been effected without severe fight- 
ing. The Hindu Raja of Kondavid attacked the Musalman 
garrison of Kondapalle, and the chief of Rajahmundry, one 
Vidiadri, who was apparently ^ a prince of the house of Orissa, 
laid siege to Ellore, which was also held by the Muhamma- 
dans. The latter was signally defeated and fled to Rajah- 
mundry. The Golconda troops laid waste the country round 
that town and were then called away (1564) to assist the 
other Musalman kings of the Deccan in the joint attack on 
Vijayanagar which resulted in the overthrow of that empire 
in the great battle of Talikota, north of the Kistna river, in 
1565. That decisive campaign won, Golconda's conquest of 
Godavari soon recommenced. The forts of Peddapuram and 
Rajanagaram (from which reinforcements and provisions 
were being sent to Rajahmundry) were first taken, the latter 
with difficulty because of the narrowness of the paths and the 
thickness of the jungles which had to be traversed. Rajah- 
mundry was then attacked. The Hindus were defeated in a 
desperate battle outside the walls (though they broke thp left 
wing of the invader's army) and the fort was then invested 
for four months, when it surrendered- This took place in 
1571-72. The Muhammadans then marched north, reducing 
the fortified places on the way, and finally conquered all the 
country of Orissa as far as Chicacole in Ganjam. 

Their control of their new possessions was apparently 
far from firm, and disorders and outbreaks were continual. 
The Reddis of the hills, for example, plundered Ellore and 

* Mr. Chakravarti's paper already quoted. 

2 Grant's Political Survey of the Northern Circars, appended to the Fifth 
Report on the affairs of the East India Co. (1812), Madras reprint of 1883. 
p. 142. 


Nidadavolu, and for some time kept up a desultory resistance CHAP. ii. 
against the forces sent to suppress them. When attacked, Muham- 
they dispersed, only to reassemble in difficult passes and period. 

ravines, and it was with difficulty that tranquillity was 

restored. A standing militia appears to have been main- 
tained ; but its efforts to keep order were not always successful, 
and its exactions from the inhabitants increased the miseries 
of the country. 

It was during the Golconda rule that the earliest English 
settlements on this coast were made. Masulipatam was first 
visited in 1611 and the factory at Madapollam near Narasapur 
(also in Kistna) was founded about 1678. Of the settlements 
in this district, that at Injaram near Yanam was established 
in 1708, and that at Bendamurlanka in 1751. The Dutch had 
several important outposts in the neighbourhood, but the only 
one in this district was Jagannathapuram, now a part of 
Cocanada. The French started a factory at Yanam about 
1750. None of these outposts had at this time any influence 
worth mentioning on the history of the district, and it is 
sufficient for the present to chronicle the fact of their 

Meanwhile, in 1686, Aurangzeb, emperor of Delhi, marched Aurangzeb 
to reduce the south of India to his authority. In the next year ^fs^ authority 
he overthrew (among others) the kingdom of Golconda, and 1687. '; 

the country passed under the direct rule of Delhi. He 
appointed to rule his new territories a viceroy who was known 
as the Subadar of the Deccan (and later as the Nizam of 
Hyderabad) and resided first at Aurangabad and afterwards 
at Hyderabad. The subadari consisted of 22 provinces, of 
which Rajahmundry and Chicacole were two. With the 
provinces of Kondapalle, Ellore and Gunturthey formed what 
were known as ' the Northern Circars,' a name which still / 
survives. The system (or want of system) of administration I 
remained unchanged, and disorders continued as freely as/ 

In 1724 the Subadar of the Deccan (Nizam), who had long The Subadar 
been virtually independent of Delhi, became so in fact, and of the Deccan 
appointed his own nominees as Nawabs of the provinces independent 
under him. Rustum Khan was appointed to Rajahmundry 1724- 
and is still known to local tradition as Haji Hussain. 

The country was in great disorder. Zamindars, or farmers 
of the revenue, had generally availed themselves of the late 
political disturbances to usurp the rights and feeble authority 
of their Muhammadan superintendents. They defrauded the 
public treasury and squeezed with an iron hand the husband- 
man and manufacturer. The new ruler set himself to suppress 

36 godavarL 

bHAP. II. them. ' Those who escaped the sword were proclaimed aS 
MuHAM- traitors ; and, a reward being offered for their own with 
Period their adherents' heads, a sufficient number was soon collected 

to erect two shocking pyramidical monuments, called kiilla- 

miiidr, near each of the provincial capitals.' ^ Temporary 
dmins were for a time appointed in place of the refractory 
zamindars to collect the revenue ; but the indolence and 
depravity of the ruling nation soon made it necessary to 
revert to the ancient system, and new zamindars were 
appointed. These quickly became guilty of the same outrages 
as their predecessors ; and in later years their descendants 
caused constant disorders throughout the Northern Circars. 
The Northern In 1748 the Subadar of the Deccan died ; and a great 
to'the'^ French Struggle followed for his place. The events of this contest 
1753- relate less to the history of Godavari than to that of the 

southern districts, and it is sufficient to note here that the 
French and English (who were now powers of importance) 
each took different sides, and that after many vicissitudes 
Salabat Jang became Subadar in 1751 through the influence 
and aid of the former. In his gratitude for their help, Salabat 
Jang ceded the Kondavid country to them in 1752 and four of 
the Northern Circars (not Guntur) in 1753. They had already 
(in 1750) been granted Masulipatam and the adjacent country ; 
and Bussy, the French general, sent M. Moracin, the officer in 
charge at Masulipatam, instructions to take over the newly 
ceded territory. 
Their Jafar Ali, governor of Chicacole, was however in no way 

difficulties disposed to surrender his position quietly to the French, and 
conspired with the Raja of Vizianagram, the most powerful 
of the renter-chiefs who had come into existence during the 
Musalman rule, to oppose M. Moracin's entry. The latter 
seduced the Raja from the compact by offering to lease him 
the Rajahmundry and Chicacole circars at a rate much below 
their value, and Jafar Ali then called in the aid of the 
Marathas of Nagpore, who crossed the ghats with a large 
force, devastated both circars from end to end, and regained 
their own country by way of EUore with an immense booty. 

In July 1754 Bussy went in person to Masulipatam and 
Rajahmundry and restored order there. Some of the trouble- 
some zamindars were dismissed ; efforts were made to ascertain 
the real revenue collections made by these renters and on this 
datum to found an adequate assessment ; and they were 
required to maintain a sibbandi, or militia, of 12,000 men to 
keep the public peace, collect the rents, and, when called upon, 
to repel invasion. 

1 Grant's Political Survey, etc., 143. 



Soon afterwards, however, relations between Biissy and 
the Nizam became strained, at last an open breach occurred, 
and for six weeks in 1756 the former had to entrench himself 
near Hyderabad against the latter's troops. 

He was eventually relieved by reinforcements from Masuli- 
patam and taken back into favour, and at the end of 1756 he 
went to Rajahmundry with a strong force to re-establish his 
fallen authority in the Circars. Aided by the Raja of Vizia- 
nagram, he soon reduced the country to obedience; and a 
force from Rajahmundry took the three English factories at 
Madapollam,Bendamurlanka andlnjaram. Except for twenty 
men at the last-named, these places had no garrisons, and 
resistance was out of the question. 

In January 1758 Bussy returned to Hyderabad, and in July 
he was summoned by Lally, the new Governor of Pondicherry, 
to proceed south, with all the troops that could be spared, to 
assist in the operations against Madras. His departure was 
a fatal blow to the fortunes of the French, who within ten 
months were driven out of the Circars. 

Almost as soon as he had gone, the new Raja of Vizia- 
nagram, who was dissatisfied with the arrangements made by 
the French at the time of his predecessor's decease, seized 
Vizagapatam, hoisted the English flag there and made 
overtures to the English in Calcutta and Madras, offering to 
render them every assistance in his power if they would send 
an expedition to invade the Northern Circars.^ Clive, who 
was then at Calcutta, determined, despite the unanimous 
opposition of his Council, to fall in with the Raja's proposals ; 
an expedition was at once arranged; and the command of it 
was conferred on Colonel Forde. His force consisted of 500 
Europeans, including artillerymen, 2,000 sepoys and lOO 
lascars. It reached Vizagapatam in October 1758, marched 
thence in November, effected a junction with the levies of the 
Raja of Vizianagram, and then proceeded southwards into 
this district. 

The French had assembled in force at Rajahmundry and 
moved thence to Gollaprolu, a few miles north-east of Pitha- 
puram. Their force consisted of 500 Europeans, 6,000 sepoys 
and a great many local troops, of whom 500 were cavalry. 
The whole was under the command of the Marquis de Conflans, 
Bussy's successor. The opposing forces came in sight of each 
other at Gollaprolu on December 3rd. Nearly a week elapsed 
before they joined battle ; but at length on the Qth a most 




Bussy at 

against the 
French, 1758. 

His victory 
at Condore. 

Ornae's history (Madras, 1861), ii, 355. 






The country 
cleared of 
the French. 

decisive action was fought near the little village of Condore 
(Chandurti) a few miles north of Gollaprolu. The result was 
a complete victory for the English, the French losing all 
their baggage and ammunition and nearly all their artillery 
and retreating in confusion to Rajahmundry. The battle is 
described in more detail in Chapter XV. 

Forde at once sent forward a force of 1,500 sepoys to 
occupy Rajahmundry ; and the garrison there, imagining that 
the whole of the English force was upon them, abandoned the 
fort on lOth December and retired to the south. Forde again 
advanced on January 28th and reached Ellore on February 
6th. Thence he detached a force to occupy the French 
factory at Narasapur, which was abandoned on its approach. 

De Conflans had retired to Masulipatam, and at his earnest 
request the Subadar of the Deccan, Salabat Jang, marched to 
assist him down the valley of the Kistna. On the 6th March 
Forde appeared before Masulipatam and, after a month's 
siege, carried that fort by a brilliant assault. On the 14th 
May 1759 he concluded a treaty with Salabat Jang (who was 
so awed by his successes and harassed by disputes with a 
brother that he made no attempt to assist the French) by 
which the country round Masulipatam and Nizampatam was 
ceded as'inam' to the English, and the Subadar promised 
to renounce all friendship with the French and prohibit them 
from ever again settling in the Circars.^ By this treaty the 
whole of the country north of the Godavari returned again to 
the dominions of the Subadar of the Deccan. 

The district was not at once cleared of the French. A 
small force of about 250 Europeans and 2,000 sepoys had 
remained between Masulipatam and Rajahmundry to cut off 
the supplies of the English troops from that direction. This 
proceeded to Rajahmundry, where only a very small garrison 
had been left, and compelled the place to surrender. Soon 
afterwards, however, it left the district with the object of 
joining Salabat Jang. 

M. Moracin, who had been sent from the south with rein- 
forcements for Masulipatam before its fall was known, landed 
on November llth at Cocanada (which was still in the posses- 
sion of the Dutch) and endeavoured to foment disturbance by 
intriguing with Jagapati Razu, a cousin of the Vizianagram 
Raja, who had assisted the French in the recent campaign and 
was still under arms. His efforts were unsuccessful, and he 
soon re-embarked and sailed for Pondicherry. 

^ Aitchison's Treaties, etc. (1892), viii, 278. 



In December of the same year a small French force of 50 
Europeans and 100 sepoys landed at Cocanada with the 
object of entering into negotiations with this same Jagapati 
Razu. By this time the English army at Masulipatam, now 
under the command of Captain Fischer, had commenced its 
return march. Learning on his arrival at Rajahmundry of 
the presence of the French at Cocanada, Fischer proceeded 
thither at once and found the enemy posted in a village two 
miles from the Dutch fort. They fled at once inside the fort 
and eventually surrendered, and thenceforth no French forces 
set foot in the district. 

The country north of the Godavari was now nominally 
subject to the Nizam, but he was too busy with other affairs 
to attend to its administration, and the consequence was that 
' for seven succeeding years, the completest anarchy recorded 
in the history of Hindustan prevailed over all the Northern 
Circars. The forms, nay even the remembrance, of civil 
government seemed to be wholly lost.' ^ The provinces had 
been leased to one Hussain Ali Khan, but his authority was 
little more than nominal, and an English force despatched to 
establish it was interrupted by the invasion of the Carnatic 
by the Subadar. A small body of 200 sepoys and twelve 
artillerymen under Lieutenant (afterwards Sir Henry) Cosby 
did, however, reach Rajahmundry, was instrumental in saving 
Hussain Ali from a conspiracy formed by a disappointed 
rival to seize the town, and remained there till the Northern 
Circars were eventually ceded to the English. 

This event occurred in 1765. Lord Clive, who had 
returned to India, entered into negotiations regarding the 
cession, and on August 12, 1765, received a grant of the 
Circars from the emperor of Delhi. The Madras Government 
hesitated to avail themselves at once of this grant of country 
which the Subadar of the Deccan considered to be his own 
property, alleging that there was no immediate necessity for 
taking possession, since Hussain Ali Khan had already 
collected the revenues and but little more could be obtained 
that year. In the following March, however, they published 
the emperor's firman and sent General Calliaud to take 
possession. The Nizam threatened to retaliate by invading 
the Carnatic ; and Calliaud was ordered to meet him at 
Hyderabad and negotiate a cession from him. The result 
was a treaty dated November 12, 1766, whereby the whole of 
the Northern Circars with the exception of Guntiir (which 
was not ceded till 1788) was handed over to the English. The 




Cession of 
the Northern 
Circars to the 

Grant's Political Survey, etc., 146. 







ances of the 

In 1785-90. 

latter on their side engaged to pay the Subadar a tribute of 
nine lakhs of rupees per annum, and to furnish him with 
military assistance whenever required. The treaty made no 
mention of the previous free grant of the country by the 

Almost immediately afterwards the Subadar faithlessly 
joined Haidar Ali of Mysore against the British ; but the 
success of the latter nation in the south and an invasion of 
his country from Bengal brought him to his senses ; and, by a 
second treaty dated February 23, 1768, the tribute was reduced 
and the imperial grant was acknowledged. Tribute continued 
to be paid until as late as 1823, when it was capitalized by 
the payment of a lump sum of Rs. 1,66,66,666.' 

The country was not at once administered directly by the 
English, but was leased out to native renters. The Godavari 
district continued to be under Hussain Ali Khan. His lease 
expired in 1769, and then the system of Provincial Chiefs and 
Councils described in Chapter XI was introduced, this district 
being placed under the Chief and Council of Masulipatam. 

It only remains to refer to the various disturbances of the 
peace by the rebellions of zamindars or the outbreaks {fituris, 
as they are locally called) of hill tribes which have occurred 
since the English occupation. The powerful zamindars of 
Pithapuram, Polavaram and Peddapuram occupied most of the 
centre and north of the district, while beyond them ruled the 
untamed mansabdars of Rampa, Totapalli and Jaddangi. At 
first, the latter recognized no authority whatever; while the 
former maintained large bodies of troops and did much as 
they liked. Constant attempts were made to reduce the 
power of both, but for a long time in vain. ' It has been the 
object,' wrote the Board of Revenue in 1794, ' of every new 
settlement with the zamindars to endeavour to reduce their 
military force, and a clause has been inserted in their 
cabooliats binding them to keep up only such sibbendy 
(militia) as may be indispensably necessary for the purpose 
of collection and (in some situations near the hills) for 
protection ; but a clause so vague and indefinite, it may 
easily be supposed, has never met the smallest attention from 
the zamindars.' Considerable difficulty was consequently 
experienced in keeping the hill men and the zamindars from 
breaking the peace. 

The first disturbance appears to have occurred in 1785, 
and was due to disputes about the division and management 
of the property belonging to three brothers who owned, 

1 Aitchison's Treaties, etc. (1892), viii, 269. 


respectively, the zamindaris of Gutala, Polavaram and Kotta- chap. ii. 
palli. A hill zamindar of Nagavaram took a part in the English 
quarrel and opened hostilities by capturing Gutala in 1785. Pekkjd. 
Troops had to be moved up to restore order, and some fighting 
took place. Somewhat similar disorders occurred in 1786, 
1787 and 1790, and are described in more detail in the account 
of Polavaram in Chapter XV. 

These troubles were really in the nature of a family i» 1790 1800, 
quarrel, and only incidentally involved resistance to Govern- 
ment. In 1794 Collectors replaced the Chiefs in Council, and 
since a famine had depopulated the country, the revenue due 
by the zamindars had been raised, and Government had 
resolved to be more stringent in the collection of its dues than 
hitherto, these new officers met with considerable opposition 
in the discharge of their duties. Difficulties in Peddapuram 
and Pithapuram were solved without bloodshed ; but the 
renters of Mogalturru estate (near Narasapur in Kistna 
district) raised a serious outbreak. 

This property had been administered by Government since 
1787, and a petty insurrection occurred there in 1791. At the 
end of that year it had been resumed by Government and 
leased out to renters. These people would not pay their dues, 
and were imprisoned and sent to Conjeeveram. They 
escaped thence and made their way to Hyderabad territory, 
their families also flying from Mogalturru to Bhadrachalam. 
The zamindar of that place and the amildar at Kammamet in 
Hyderabad assisted the fugitives, who succeeded in collecting 
a force of 2,000 peons and making an incursion into the 
district in July 1795. They marched by way of Yernagudem 
to Mogalturru. The Collector was nearly surprised in his 
house; and was unable to attempt an armed resistance. The 
party, however, behaved with great moderation, committed 
no excesses whatever, and, on being assured by the Collector 
that a memorial of what they considered their wrongs would 
be forwarded to the Board of Revenue, returned to Bhadra- 
chalam. Little further came of this disturbance ; the 
memorial was dismissed, and the malcontents (who continued 
at Bhadrachalam) made no further incursion. In September 
of the same year some of their peons attacked Chagallu, on 
the other side of the river facing Rajahmundry, but were 
easily dispersed. A petty disturbance was also created in 
1798 by a revenue defaulter who had fled the country along 
with the Mogalturru renters. He proceeded with 200 or 300 
pikemen as far as Undi (near Bhimavaram), where he brutally 
murdered the tanahdar; but he retreated into Hyderabad 
territory on the arrival of troops. 




Quieter times 


Outbreaks in 

The most serious outbreak of this period occurred in the 
Gutala and Polavaram estates, and involved something in the 
nature of a campaign. It is described in the account of 
Polavaram in Chapter XV. 

After the permanent settlement, things quieted down, and 
there have been few important outbreaks since. The pressure 
of that settlement and the enforcement of decrees against 
defaulting zamindars occasionally caused disturbances. It is 
to these that Munro refers in his minute of 1822 quoted in 
Chapter XL ' We are every day liable,' he wrote, ' to be 
dragged into a petty warfare among unhealthy hills, where an 
enemy is hardly ever seen, where numbers of valuable lives 
are lost by the climate, and where we often lose but never 
gain reputation.' He deplored the want of respect and 
loyalty to Government in the province, which he ascribed to 
the prevalence of the zamindari system. It was no doubt 
largely due to the gradual downfall of that system that the 
increased peace and order of the country were due, 

A petty disturbance took place in 1858 among the hills 
north of Yernagudem, which is of interest as having been 
indirectly connected with the Mutiny. It originated in a 
private dispute among some hill chiefs about a woman ; but 
the leader of the affair, Subba Reddi, pleaded that he had 
heard that Nana Sahib was advancing with his victorious army 
and that ' whoever did most against the English would be 
rewarded most.' At the head of a large body of Koyas he 
killed the village magistrate of Buttayagudem, who kept as 
his mistress a rich widow whom Subba Reddi wanted to 
marry to his son, plundered some villages, and successfully 
resisted a body of 60 or 70 peons led against him by the Head 
Assistant Magistrate. Two companies of Sappers and Miners 
were sent to Yernagudem and thence marched against the 
rebels. The only place where they made a stand was Jilu- 
gumilli (Polavaram taluk) but their resistance was brief and 
they dispersed into the jungle. They were pursued by a 
force of armed peons embodied for the purpose, and Subba 
Reddi and seven other ringleaders were ultimately captured 
and hanged. 

The Rampa country was a continual source of trouble. 
The disturbances there were not generally in the nature of a 
revolt against supposed oppression, since no revenue was 
collected in the country till towards the end of the century. 
They were either plundering raids or internal feuds. Govern- 
ment became involved in the latter by championing the 
mansabdar against his muttadars, and it was his abuse of 
this support which ultimately led to the Rampa rebellion of 


1879 and the removal of the mansabdar. The chief disturb- CHAf^ 11. 
ances which occurred were the mansabdar's incursion of 1813 English 
into the plains; the trouble consequent on his expulsion in 
1840 ; the resistance to him in 1858 and 1862, and the ' Rampa 
rebellion 'of 1879. These are briefly described in the account 
of Rampa in Chapter XV. 







Density of 
the popula- 

Its growth. 



The Jains. 

General Characteristics— Density of the population— Its growth— Parent- 
tongue— Religions. The Jains. The Musalmans. The Christians— 
American Evangelical Lutheran Mission — The Canadian Baptist Mission— 
The Church Missionary Society — The Roman Catholic Mission. The 
Hlndus — Villages — Houses — Dress — Food — Amusements — Superstitions — 
Village, caste, and family gods — Marriage rules and ceremonies — Funerals. 
Principal Castes — Telugu Brahmans — Razus- — Komatis — Kapus — Kammas 
— Perikes — Idigas — Gamallas — Karnabattus — Sanis — Malas — Madigas — Koyas 
—Hill Reddis. 

The Godavari district contained, in IQOI, 1,445,961 inhabit- 
ants, or 257 to the square mile. The density of the population 
in the various taluks and divisions varies greatly. In the 
Agency as a whole it averages only 51 persons to the square 
mile, while in the rest of the district it is as high as 516, In 
the Chodavaram and Yellavaram divisions of the Agency the 
figure is less than 35, but in Polavaram it rises to 103. Out- 
side the Agency, the rich delta taluks of Nagaram, Cocanada 
and Ramachandrapuram are the most thickly populated, while 
Peddapuram and Tuni come at the bottom of the list. 

The population increased by ten per cent, in the decade 
1891-1901, against an average of seven per cent, in the Presi- 
dency as a whole. Much of this was due to the extraordinary 
amount of emigration from Vizagapatam which has occurred. 
The greatest proportional increase was in Cocanada, where it 
was as high as l6'5 per cent., in Bhadrachalam, 15 per cent, 
and in Rajahmundry, 14 per cent. The relative advance was 
smallest in Pithapuram, Tuni and Peddapuram. 

The prevailing language of the district is Telugu, which is 
spoken by 96 per cent, of the people. Hindustani is the 
homespeech of I '4 per cent, of them, and the small remainder 
talk Uriya, Yerukala, Marathi, and Koya, the vernacular of 
the hill tribe of that name. 

The large majority of the people (1,411,573) are Hindus or 
Animists. Only 24,646 of them are Musalmans and only 
5,497 Christians. There are hardly any Jains. Musalmans 
are found in the largest numbers in Rajahmundry, Cocanada 
and Amalapuram, and are fewest in Tuni and the Agency. 
Christians are commonest in Rajahmundry and Cocanada, the 
head-quarters of the chief missionary bodies. 

As already noted in Chapter II, the district was once ruled 
by the Buddhist emperor Asoka and perhaps remained 



Buddhist in religion until the middle of the seventh century. 
A number of Buddhist or Jain remains survive in it. The 
village of Ariyavattam in Cocanada taluk is sometimes called 
Jain-padu (' the Jain ruins ') and contains several large but 
rude images of figures sitting cross-legged in the traditional 
attitude of contemplation. These are not now 'worshipped, 
but images of a similar nature in the streets of Pithapuram are 
still worshipped by Hindus there under the name of sanydsi 
devulii (' ascetic gods '), and are honoured with a festival in 
times of drought. At Neduniiru in the Amalapuram taluk are 
other images of this king which are said to be the largest in 
the district, and yet other similar relics are found at Kazuliiru, 
Yendamuru and Sila in Cocanada taluk, Jalliiru in Pithapuram 
division, Atreyapuram in Amalapuram, Tatipaka in Nagaram, 
and Draksharamam in Ramachandrapuram taluk. There 
are also many large revetted wells in the Nagaram and 
Amalapuram taluks which for some obscure reason are called 
' Jain wells.' 

The relations of the Musalmans with their Hindu 
neighbours are on the whole friendly ; though petty disputes 
sometimes arise at festival times, when the processions or 
observances of the one offend the other. Followers of the 
faith are generally engaged in menial work or petty trade, and 
few of them are wealthy. They have no local places of 
pilgrimage, though the Muhammadans of Draksharamam in 
Ramachandrapuram taluk say that the darga of their local 
saint was once regularly visited by the pious of the district. 
A few of the mixed class called Dudekus occur. They are 
said to be the descendants of converts from Hinduism, and, 
though they profess the Muhammadan religion, most of them 
speak only Telugu, wear the Hindu cloth and not the trousers 
or the kilt (lunji) of the Muhammadans, and adopt Hindu 
names. They cannot intermarry with other Musalmans and 
are looked down upon because they are musicians and 

There are four Christian missions in the district; namely, 
the Roman Catholics and the Canadian Baptist Mission with 
their head-quarters at Cocanada, the American Evangelical 
Lutheran Mission of Rajahmundry, and the Church Missionary 
Society, which wc-ks a small ' district ' from Dummagudem 
in Bhadrachalam taluk. 

The American Evangelical Lutheran Mission was founded 
by the North German Mission Society in 1844. The first 
missionary sent out was the Rev. L. M. Valette. He selected 
Rajahmundry as his head-quarters and took up his residence 
there in 1844. Soon afterwards, in consequence of the 

The Jains. 








The Canadian 



unsettled condition of things in Germany and financial 
embarrassment in the church, the North German Mission 
Society found itself unable to support the mission ; and in 
1851 transferred the care of it to the General Synod of the 
American Lutheran Church, which was working in the Kistna 
district with head-quarters at Guntiir. 

Owing to the difficulties regarding both men and means 
occasioned by the American Civil War, the General Synod 
found it impossible to carry on the work at all its stations ; 
and in 1870 the mission was transferred to the General 
Council of the American Lutheran Church, by whom it is now 

Six European missionaries and six ladies are now working 
in this district. The ' field ' visited by them' includes large 
portions of all the low country taluks except Nagaram, 
Cocanada and Tuni, and also the northern portion of Kistna, 
whence come the majority of the converts. Statistics of the 
work in this district alone are not available, but altogether 
the mission has now some 250 congregations and a baptized 
membership of nearly 12,000, manages a number of schools, 
and is educating some 5,800 boys in primary classes. Of its 
schools, the girls' and boys' central schools at Rajahmundry 
(the latter of which contains 1 50 pupils) are considerable 
institutions with substantial buildings, and the high schools 
at Rajahmundry and Peddapuram contain 350 and 540 boys 
respectively on their rolls. The mission is now erecting 
buildings for a new central boys' school and seminary at 
Rajahmundry and a hostel for the accommodation of 200 boys 
the estimated cost of which is Rs. 6o,000, and has also decided 
to put up new accommodation for the Peddapuram high 
school. The mission also supports a large dispensary ^ and a 
small hospital at Rajahmundry, and the erection of a new 
hospital building there, at a cost of Rs, 6o,000 has been 
sanctioned by the American Board which controls its affairs. 
The mission has nine churches in the district, ten bungalows 
and 154 school houses. Its total expenditure on education in 
1904 was over Rs. 20,000, and on medical institutions nearly 
Rs. 5,000. The mission is in charge of the Rev. J. H. Harper, 
who has kindly furnished the above information. 

The Canadian Baptist Mission owes its origin to the Revs, 
Thomas Gabriel and John McLaurin, D,D,, who started work 
in Cocanada in 1869. The present mission premises in that 
town were acquired in 1876. A station was established at 
Tuni in 1878, a seminary for training school-masters and 

1 See Chapter IX, p, 151, 





preachers at Samalkot in 1882, and stations at Peddapuram 
in 1891 and Eamachandrapuram in 1893. 

The mission's ' field ' in this district includes the whole of 

Cocanada and Tuni divisions and parts of the Pithapuram 
division and the Ramachandrapuram, Rajahmundry and 
Peddapuram taluks. Its European staff includes six mission- 
aries, all of whom are ordained and five of whom are assisted 
by their wives, and nine unmarried lady missionaries. One 
of the missionaries possesses full medical qualifications and 
two of the ladies are trained nurses. The mission possesses 
2,400 adherents and 24 churches, five of the latter being 
substantial buildings. 

It also undertakes educational and philanthropic work. Its 
educational institutions include 35 day schools with an 
average attendance of 450 boys and 425 girls, 88 Sunday 
schools with 2,000 pupils, free primary boarding schools for 
boys at Ramachandrapuram and Tuni (preparatory for the 
Samalkot seminary), a free lower secondary boarding school 
for girls at Cocanada, the Timpany Memorial high school at 
Cocanada and the Samalkot seminary. The high school was 
founded in memory of the Rev. A. V. Timpany, who was in 
charge of the mission from 1879 till 1885, when he died of 
cholera, and receives European boys and girls (the latter as 
boarders) and a few native girls. The Samalkot seminary 
comprises a theological school, a training school for primary 
teachers, a lower secondary school and a primary school, 
and its pupils number about a hundred. The mission has 
also a small industrial school with some twenty pupils at 
Cocanada. The total expenditure of the mission on education 
in 1903, including the salaries of the missionaries engaged 
solely in that work, amounted to Rs. 25,580. 

The philanthropic institutions of the mission include the 
Kellock Leper Home, the Phillips Memorial Home, and the 
hospital and dispensary at Ramachandrapuram ; and a 
hospital is being built at Pithapuram. The two Homes are 
referred to in Chapter IX. The mission publishes a weekly 
newspaper in Telugu and maintains a public reading room at 
Cocanada. The Rev. H. F. Laflamme has been good enough 
to furnish this information regarding its work. 

The mission at Dummagiidem was started through the The Church 
influence of Sir Arthur Cotton, and work was first begun there °^^^^y- 
by his brother-in-law, the late Major-General Haig, R.E.,^ 
when in charge of the Upper Godavari navigation works (see 
p. 128), and at the cost of the engineers on that project. The 
mission is now under the Church Missionary Society. No 

^ The builder of the Gannavaram aqueduct; see p. 86, 





The Roman 





European missionaries resided regularly at Dummagudem till 
1874, but since then, with an interval from 1879 to 1882, the 
Rev. J. Cain has been stationed there. The field of the 
mission is practically confined to the Bhadrachalam taluk, and 
the work lies mainly among the Koyas and Malas. The 
converts number 900, and the mission maintains at Dumma- 
gudem a dispensary, a lower secondary boys' school, a girls' 
day school and boys' and girls' boarding schools, besides 
seventeen day schools in other parts of the district. The lace- 
work done by the converts at Dummagudem is referred to 
in Chapter VI. 

The Roman Catholic Mission was started about 50 years 
ago by French priests of Savoy belonging to the mission of 
St. Francis of Sales. It is included in the Diocese of Vizaga- 
patam. The convent in Yanam was built by Bishop Neyret 
in 1850, the church at Cocanada in 1854 by Bishop Tissot, 
and the church at Yanam in 1859. Chapels have been 
erected at Samalkot, Dowlaishweram and Rajahmundry. Two 
European priests are working in the district at Cocanada and 
Rajahmundry. The Roman Catholic congregation numbers 
some 900, of whom about one-third are Europeans and Eura- 
sians and most of the others Tamils. Want of funds has 
hampered attempts to convert the Telugus. 

The mission owns a handsome convent at Cocanada which 
is in charge of seven European Sisters, is used as a lower 
secondary school, and gives instruction to some eighty or 
ninety European and Eurasian girls, about half of whom are 
boarders. The convent at Yanam is used as a Hindu girls' 
school and teaches some 150 pupils ; and the mission 
manages a boys' lower primary school at Cocanada and a 
small dispensary at the same town. 

The very large majority of the population of the district 
are Hindus or Animists, and these require more lengthy treat- 
ment. The Animists, those who reverence animistic deities, 
and not the gods of the Hindu pantheon, are almost all found 
in the Agency. An attempt will first be made to describe 
the salient features of the religious and social life of the 
Hindus of the low country (customs in the Agency are referred 
to in the accounts below of the Koyas and hill Reddis) and 
then to give some description of the castes which are charac- 
teristic of the district or occur in it in unusual numbers. 

The villages of the district, unlike those in the Deccan, 
were seldom fortified, and consequently (except in the delta) 
the houses are not closely crowded together, but are built with 
plenty of room between them, like those in southern villages. 




The lowest castes are required to live in separate quarters ; CHAP. III. 
but the Rrahmans, unlike those of the south, do not mind The 
dwelling side by side with Siidras and do not always have 
their own distinct streets. 

The houses seldom have terraced roofs, and are generally Houses, 
thatched with palmyra leaves. Tiles are common in towns, 
but much less so outside them. Under the roof a terrace or 
ceiling of mud is often made with the double object of serving 
as a loft or store-house, and of protecting the house itself if the 
roof gets on fire. The walls of houses are generally of mud. 
Brick and stone are comparatively rare. In the Agency the 
walls are generally of split bamboo, sometimes smeared with 
mud. Outside the big towns, houses of two storeys are rare. 

Among all but the lowest classes, houses are very usually 
built on one of two type plans, called respectively the chdvadi 
illu or ' hall house,' and the manduva illu or ' courtyard house,' 
also called the ' f ourroom plan.' The two figures below will 
give an idea of how each is arranged: — 

Manduva house. 

Chdvadi house. 




1 1 

isackyard and ca 



1 i 

Kitchen. Verandah. 


— o 




— 05 


i 1 


to sky. 

J L 


1 1 






Both have narrow pials in front. The essential difference 
is that in the chdvadi illu the door leads into a long broad hall 
(chdvadi) which stretches from the front of the house to the 
back, with rooms at the sides ; whereas in the other the hall is 
a narrow passage running from one side of the house to the 
other, from which a door leads into a courtyard, open in the 
centre but surrounded by verandahs out of which the rooms 
open. The latter kind is most commonly used by the higher 







or richer classes, and resembles the typical house of the 
southern country in having an opening (manduva) in the middle 
of the courtyard to let in light. The kitchen is usually located 
if possible in the western part of the house, but even if it is 
not, it is still called the ' west room' (padamati illu). The 
front steps of the houses are usually decorated with lines of 
powdered chunam, the lower parts of the doorposts with the 
usual saffron and kunkumam in honour of Lakshmi, and the 
sides of the pials and walls with white spots made with 
chunam and water. 

The dress of the Hindus presents no very special peculi- 
arities. Little boys of the higher castes usually wear short 
breeches or drawers as their only garments, and those of the 
poorer classes nothing but the languti or piece-cloth. Little 
girls of the two classes wear respectively a petticoat and 
bodice, and a bit of cloth wound round their waists. Ortho- 
dox married Brahman men tie their waist-cloths in the usual 
complicated manner called panchakachcham. Others of the 
upper classes tie them, as elsewhere, once or twice round the 
waist and then pass the upper front fold between their legs 
and tuck it in at the back. The favourite colour for the cloth 
is red. Malas and Madigas ordinarily wear only a languti. 
The women usually dress in white cloths. Dancing-girls 
wear petticoats and bodices, and bodices are common among 
other castes also. The women's cloths are nearly always of 
cotton ; silk is a rarity. Brahman women, as elsewhere, pass 
between their legs the outer front fold of the part which goes 
round their waists, and tuck it into their waists behind. 
Women working in the fields tuck their garments between 
their legs and then pull them up as high as they can. The 
women of most subdivisions of the Brahmans, and also those 
of the Komatis, Kamsalas and Perikes, wear the cloth over 
the left shoulder instead of the right. 

The men do not usually shave the whole of their heads 
except one top-knot, as in the south, but often cut their hair 
like Europeans. Telugu Brahmans differ from their Tamil 
caste-fellows in frequently wearing moustaches. 

Tattooing is very common as an adornment among the 
women, and two or three straight lines are sometimes tattooed 
across painful swellings, to act as a blister. The ponna chettu 
(the favourite tree of Krishna) is a popular ornamental pattern, 
and Rama's feet and the chank and chakram of Vishnu are 
also common. 

The ordinary food-grain of the district is rice. Even out- 
side the delta, in such upland parts as Tuni and Pithapuram, 


rice is commonly eaten, though it is often mixed with cambu CHAP. ill. 
(^anti) and ragi (tsodi). In the Agency, cholam (jonna) is The 

the commonest food. Brahmans, Kamsalas, and the Gavara Hindus. 
and Lingadhari Komatis are apparently the only castes 
which do not eat meat. Malas and Madigas will eat beef 
and carrion, and Nakkalas are fond of jackal. A good many 
castes will eat hare, which elsewhere is often considered 

The labouring classes have three meals a day, at 8 A.M., 
midday, and 8 P.M. ; orthodox Brahmans two meals, at about 
II A.M., and 8 P.M. ; while officials and the richer people eat at 
10 A.M., 3 P.M., and 8 P.M., and often have early coffee as well 
at about ^ A.M. But coffee is much less drunk in this district 
tlian in the south. Smoking, on the contrary, is a habit with 
all except the orthodox Brahmans. Even the women of many 
castes smoke, and little boys and girls may also often be 
seen with cheroots in their mouths. Opium is freely eaten 
by most classes, especially, it is said, as a prophylactic against 
fever. It is also considered an excellent tonic for children 
and the aged.^ 

The boys of the district play much the same kinds of Amusements. 
games as in the south. They fly kites and play at marbles, 
tipcat (gonibilla), a kind of rounders (banthulu), a sort of 
blind man's buff and many other games. Girls and women 
of the higher castes have quieter indoor pastimes, such as 
tossing up and catching tamarind seeds, and various games 
with cowries on a board. Men have no outdoor sports, but 
play cards and chess- A popular local card-game is called 
dasdvatdri. This is played with a pack of 120 cards, con- 
taining ten suits of twelve cards each. Each suit consists of a 
king, a vizier and ten plain cards and is called after, and 
marked with the image of, one of the ten incarnations 
(avatdrs) of Vishnu. In half the suits the higher plain cards 
take the lower, as in English cards, and in the other half the 
opposite is the case. A trump card is turned up and the 
tricks are won in much the same way as at Bridge. All 
except the higher classes are devoted to cock-fighting. 
Boatmen going down the river often take their cocks with 
them to pit them against the birds of the villages on the way. 
Puppet shows are very common. The puppets are concealed 
from the audience by a sheet on to which their shadows are 
thrown by a light behind them. 

1 The two common medicines of the district are nulla mandti (' black 
medicine,' j.e., opium) and tella niacin (' white medicine,' i.e., a preparation of 
mercury). These are everywhere known and frequently used. The latter is a 
laxative. The former has a contrary effect. 

CHAP. Ill 


The superstitions of the people are legion. A few typica 1 
examples may be given. If an owl perches on a house, it 

Hindus. brings ill luck to the inmates. A crow cawing on the roof of 
— ~. a house indicates the arrival of a guest. Bad omens include 

upers 1 ion. |^g^j^g questioned regarding business on which one is setting 
out, or, directly after leaving the house, catching sight of one 
Brahman, two Sudras, a widow, oil, a snake, a shikari, or a 
sanyasi. Good omens are hearing a bell ring, a cannon go 
off, the braying of an ass, the cry of a Brahmani kite, or, on 
first leaving the house, seeing a married woman, a corpse, 
flowers, water or a toddy pot. Talismans are commonly worn. 
A usual kind is a flat piece of metal with a figure of Hanuman 
on it. Another, made of leather with the skin of a lizard got 
from a Madiga stitched into it, is hung round the shoulders of 
weak and sickly children. Women and houses are supposed 
often to be possessed of devils, whom only a professional 
sorcerer can exorcise. Yerukala women are in great request 
as exorcists. In cases of illness supposed to be due to the ill 
will of a god or spirit, three handfuls of rice are carried round 
the invalid, and are then placed in a winnowing fan, which 
is held by both the patient and the sorceress. The latter then 
scans the former's face, professes to be able to read there 
the name of the offended spirit, and advises as to the propi- 
tiation to be made. In the Agency, belief in witchcraft is 
exceptionally strong, and almost every ill is thought to be 
due to the person's being bewitched. The old raja of Cherla, 
just across the border, was especially afraid of witches and 
wizards, and before the British occupation of the taluk an 
easy method of ridding oneself of an enemy there was to 
accuse him of practising the black art. The raja immediately 
seized and hanged him.^ 

Childbirth is surrounded by a number of superstitions. A 
pregnant woman should not see an eclipse, or her child will 
be born deformed. The pains of childbirth are relieved by 
turning the face of the bull god in a Saivite temple away 
from the emblem of Siva, or by the woman's touching a ring 
made of a mixture of gold, silver, copper, lead and iron by a 
fasting blacksmith on the day of an eclipse. A child whose 
first tooth comes in the upper jaw is supposed to foreshadow 
evil to its maternal uncle ; and may not be seen by that 
relative till he has neutralized the omen by seeing the 
reflection of the child in a bowl of oil and broken a cocoanut. 
Similarly, as elsewhere, a girl who has attained maturity in an 
inauspicious hour may not be looked at by her husband until 
they have seen each other's reflections in a bowl of oil. Some 

^ Rev. Mr. Cain in the Indian Antiquary, v, 303. 


dreams are supposed to foretell events. Thus it is a good CHAP. ni. 
thing to dream of being bitten by a cobra, especially if the The 
bite drew blood. Hindl-s. 

It is believed that a barren tree will bear if a naked man 
cuts a piece off it on the day of an eclipse ; that the nesting 
of a clay-building fly in a house foretells the birth of a child; 
that the appearance of a swarm of ants or a blood-sucker in 
the house foreshadows some benefit; that a child which 
sneezes on a winnowing fan or on the door-frame will meet 
with misfortune unless balls of boiled rice-flour are thrown 
over it; and that a man who sneezes during his meals, 
especially at night, will also be unlucky unless water is 
sprinkled over his face and he is made to pronounce his own 
name and that of his birth-place and his patron deity. People 
who have lost two children and expect to have a third 
generally beg small pieces of gold from their neighbours with 
which they make a gold ornament to put in the nose of the 
new-born baby. The child is called, if a boy, Pullayya or 
Pentayya, and if a girl, either Pullamma or Pentamma, 
meaning respectively ' used up leaf-plates ' or ' refuse.' The 
idea is to propitiate by due humility the nemesis of the power 
whose enmity has caused the death of the previous children, 
and is common in other districts. 

Scarcity of rain is dealt with in various ways. It is con- 
sidered very efficacious if the Brahmans take in procession 
round the village an image of Varuna (the god of rain) made 
of mud from the bank of a river or tank. Another method is 
to pour 1,000 pots of water over the lingam in the Siva temple. 
Malas tie a live frog to a mortar and put on the top of the 
latter a mud figure representing Gontiyalamma, the mother of 
the Pandava brothers. They then take these objects in 
procession, singing ' Mother frog, playing in water, pour rain 
by pots full.' The villagers of other castes then come and 
pour water over the Malas. 

Besides the orthodox gods of the Hindu pantheon, three Village, 
other classes of supernatural beings are commonly worship- fauinv^?ods 
ped. These are the village goddesses referred to below, who 
are essentially local in character ; the caste deities, who 
are objects of special reverence among special castes ; and 
the family deities, namely the vinidii, or soul of some dead 
bachelor of the family, and the per ant am or spirit of some 
woman outlived by her husband, who have been accorded 
apotheosis because they appeared in a dream to some 
member of the family and announced that they had been 
made immortal. 


CHAP. III. The village deities are always female, and usually can 

The only be propitiated by the shedding of blood. They are not, 

H indu s. however, merely malevolent, but will confer benefits on those 
whom they favour. Some of the most common of them are 
Nukalamma, Paradesamma, Neralamma, Mallamma, Pole- 
ramma, Muthyalamma, Peddintamma, Somalamma, Banga- 
ramma, Mavullamma, and Talupulamma. Wherever one of 
them is established, her brother, who always goes by the 
name of Poturazu, is also worshipped. Some of them have 
a reputation far beyond the local limits of their villages, and 
are visited by pilgrims from distant places. Nukalamma of 
Kandrakota in Peddapuram taluk, Mavullamma of Maredi- 
paka in Ramachandrapuram and Somalamma of Rajah- 
mundry are famous almost throughout the district. These 
village goddesses are ordinarily worshipped only on the 
occasion of their annual festival. A buffalo and a number 
of sheep and fowls are then sacrificed to them. The fowls 
are killed at the four corners of the village; the buffalo is 
slain at about midnight on the last day of the festival, its 
blood is collected in a pot, and grain of various kinds is put 
into it. The blood is left in the temple in front of the 
goddess, and a day or two later the prospects of the harvest 
are foretold from the degree to which the various kinds of 
grain have sprouted. 

Among the deities who are worshipped by special castes 
are Kanyakamma, the goddess of the Komatis, referred to 
later, the Kattumai (who is also sometimes called Kattu- 
mahesvarudu) of the Gamallas and Idigas, the Gontiyalamma 
(the mother of the Pandava brothers) of the Malas, the 
Kamsalas' Kamakshi-amma, the Karnabattus' Somesvara, 
and the Madigas' Matangiralu. Brahman families also often 
have 'some favourite deity whom they worship in preference 
to all others. 

Maridamma, who in many respects corresponds to the 
Mariamma of the south, is purely malevolent in character 
and is not in the habit of conferring benefits. She brings 
disease upon the villages, but can be induced by becoming 
worship to hold her hand. She is offered animal sacrifices 
whenever serious sickness visits a village. Sometimes a small 
car is made to which pigs and fowls are tied and which is 
then dragged through the village. Every household pours 
offerings of rice, etc., upon it and it is at last left outside the 
village limits to symbolise the departure of the goddess. The 
animals are taken away by the Malas and Madigas.^ 

^ A somewhat similar ceremony is mentioned in the Bellary Gazetteer, 60. 


Before proceeding to refer to the principal castes of the CHAP. iii. 

district it will be convenient to refer to some general aspects The 

of the rules and ceremonies which prevail at marriages and indus. 

funerals among the non-Brahman castes of the low country. Marriage 

Most of these castes are split into endogamous sub- ^^^^^ '^"^ 
... . . J. . ceremonies, 

divisions, marriage outside of which is forbidden, and some 

have also exogamous sections of these subdivisions, marriage 

outside which is compulsory. The latter are known as inti 

pcruliiy or 'house-names.' The most suitable bride for a man 

is usually thought to be his maternal uncle's daughter, and 

in some castes he is compelled to marry her unless she be 

deformed or mentally deficient. This rule is called mena- 

rikam. Divorce and the re-marriage of widows and divorcees 

are not allowed by Brahmans or the castes which copy 

Brahman ways. The same may be said of the practice of 

paying a bride-price. 

There are three stages in the ordinary marriage. First a 
formal betrothal, secondly the wedding which makes the 
couple man and wife, and lastly a nuptial ceremony when 
they begin to live together. 

The betrothal usually takes place in the bride's house, 
and is a formal ceremony at which pdnsupdri is exchanged, 
the bridegroom is given new clothing (sdpu), or some other 
token of the undertaking is granted. 

The wedding sometimes takes place in the bride's house 
and sometimes in the bridegroom's. It generally occurs after 
dark and usually occupies only one day, but among the 
Brahmans and some higher castes it lasts for three or five 
clays. In the latter cases the marriage-badge (tali or sata- 
mdnain) referred to below is tied round the bride's neck on 
the first day, and the saffron threads removed from the wrists 
of the happy pair on the last. On the day previous to the 
wedding the bridegroom's party goes to the bride's house 
with presents of fruit, etc., and a new cloth for her. Some 
married woman of the party then ties a saffron-coloured thread 
(hondu) round the neck of the bride, the ceremony being 
called praddnam. Sometimes this is clone on the night of the 
wedding. On this night the couple are seated side by side, 
their toe-nails are solemnly cut by a barber man and woman, 
the bridegroom's front hair is clipped, and they both put on 
new clothes. Next the bride worships a rice mortar represent- 
ing Gauri, the wife of Siva, and her parents make obeisance 
to the bridegroom. The pair then tie saffron threads (kanka- 
iiam) round each others' wrists, put a little cummin on each 
others' heads, and do reverence to the tdli, which the bride- 
groom ties round the bride's neck. They next pour rice 
mixed with ghee and milk on each others' heads Ca ceremony 







called talamhrdlu and signifying a solemn vow of fidelity) 
and the bridegroom places his foot on the bride's. This and 
the tying of the Izanlzanam are the binding parts of the 
ceremony. The star Arundhati (popularly called Aranjoti) is 
pointed out to the bride as typical of chastity, and the couple 
do worship to some coloured pots (aviredi) representing the 
gods. The relatives give presents of money (katnam) to the 
bride, which are not supposed to be retained, but are returned 
to the givers on the first convenient occasion. The final rites 
are performed next morning, or in some castes on the third or 
fifth day. The bridegroom ties a string of black glass beads 
round the bride's neck, and the saffron threads are removed 
from the couple's wrists. They then are given a pot of water 
coloured with chunam and saffron in which a ring and some 
other ornaments have been placed, and they scramble for the 
ornaments, like children hunting in a bran pie. 

The nuptial rites, which are simple, are performed on a 
separate occasion, since days auspicious for weddings are not 
suitable for them. 

The ceremonies at the re-marriage of a widow are, as else- 
where, much shorter. The bridegroom merely goes to her 
house, ties the tali, and takes her to his house the same night. 

The dead are usually burnt, but children are buried and 
some simple rite is performed, such as the pouring of milk, 
either alone or mixed with rice or oil and ghee, on the grave. 
The ceremonies at the funerals of adults are much the same 
in all non-Brahman castes. The body is bathed and is 
borne to the burning-ground on a bier. The Malas and 
Madigas carry it in their arms in a sitting posture. The 
corpse is set down three times on the road while rice is placed 
at the four corners of the bier. When it has been placed on 
the pyre, the son of the deceased walks thrice round it with a 
pot of water in which three holes have been made, and lights 
the pyre with face averted. The relatives then go home and 
worship a lamp. Further ceremonies are performed on the 
eleventh day afterwards (called the pedda dinam or ' great 
day ') and on some day between the second and fifth after it, 
which is called the chinna dinam or ' small day.' On the 
latter the bones and ashes are collected and are offered a ball 
of cooked rice. The party then returns home and feasts. 

Statistics of the numerous castes which occur in the 
Godavari district will be found in the separate Appendix to 
this volume. Space prevents reference to the whole of them, 
and most of them, indeed, are common to the whole of the 
Telugu country and their ways do not differ in this district 
from those of their caste-fellows elsewhere. 



The six most numerous communities (taking them in the chap. III. 
order of their strength) are the Kapus, the landowning class ; Principal 

the Malas, outcaste agricultural labourers ; the Idigas, who 

draw toddy; the Madigas, outcaste workers in leather; the 
Kammas, who are closely connected with the Kapus and 
resemble them in their social customs; and the Telugu- 
speaking Brahmans. 

All these are shortly referred to below, and, in addition, 
some notes are given regarding a few communities which 
occur in greater strength in this district than in any other; 
namely, the Razus, who claim to be Kshatriyas; the Komatis, 
traders and money-lenders ; the Perikes, who are cultivators ; 
the Gamallas, an offshoot from the Idigas ; the Karnabattu, 
weavers ; the Sanis, many of whose women are dancing- 
girls ; and the two hill tribes of the Koyas and the hill 

Of all of these castes the Brahmans take the highest 
social position, and they may be first referred to. 

Telugu-speaking Brahmans are unusually numerous in Teiugu 
Godavari. Some of them, though their home-speech is Teiugu, Brahmans. 
appear to have a Tamil or Canarese origin. Among the 
former are the Konasima Brahmans of Amalapuram taluk, 
who have a tradition (see p. 204) that they came from near 
Kumbakonam in Tanjore district ; the Aramas, who are few 
and scattered ; and the Divilis, who are to be found chiefly in 
Pithapuram taluk. The Teiugu Brahmans proper, also called 
Andhras, are a linguistic division of the Dravidas, one of the 
two great classes (Dravida and Cauda) into which all Brah- 
mans in this Presidency are divided. They are popularly 
subdivided into the following sectarian, territorial and 
occupational groups : — 

f Tengalais. 
' Vaishnavites. -| Nambis. 

[ Golconda Vyaparis. 

Velinadu ... 


Smartas ...1 Murikinadu. 
Tambala Piijari. 


Niyogi or Aru- 
vela Niyogi, 
-{ Pujari. 







It will be seen that the primary division is sectarian, into 
Vaishnavites and Smartas. Among the former there are none 
of the Vadagalais, the rival sect to the Tengalais ; Nambis 
are priests in the temples ; and the origin of the name 
Golconda Vyaparis (' traders ') is not clear. 

Among the Smartas, the Velinadus say they came from 
' the Vidarbha country near Kondavidu ' ; the Veginadus claim 
to have come from the Vengi country in the neighbourhood 
of Ellore ; the Telaganyas give their original home as the 
Trilingam country, which they locate between Srisailam in 
Kurnool, Kalahasti in North Arcot, and Draksharamam in 
this district; the Kasileyas state that they belong to the 
Kosala country, or Orissa ; the Murikinadus say that they 
come from ' the Maladamo country in the north ' ; the Kaku- 
manus are perhaps connected with the village of that name 
in the Kistna district; and the Kalingas are evidently con- 
nected with the ancient country of that name referred to in 
the last chapter. The Tambala Pujaris are an occupational 
subdivision, who officiate as priests in the Saivite temples 
and correspond to the Tamil Gurukkals. The Karnakammas 
say their real name is Kama Rukkumus and is derived from 
their adherence to the Rig Veda. The Prathamasakhas 
('people of the first division') profess to owe their name 
to the fact that they follow that division of the Yajur Veda. 
They also go by the name of the 'mid-day Paraiyans,' the 
story being that they labour under a curse which makes 
them Paraiyans for an hour at midday. The Velinadus and 
Telaganyas are further subdivided into the well-known occu- 
pational groups of Vaidikis (or priests) and Niyogis (or 
secularists), and the former have also a third group, namely, 
the Pujaris. Karnakammas are split into Vaidikis and 
Vyaparis, or traders. The name Aruvela Niyogi by which 
the Velinadu Niyogis are known is said to be due to the fact 
that this section numbered just 6,000 persons when it split 
off from the Vaidikis. Its members have three sectarian 
subdivisions ; namely Smartas, Lingadharis (who favour 
Lingayat practices) and Golconda Vyaparis, who have gone 
over to the Vaishnavite creed. Some of these Smartas have 
taken to Vaidiki occupations, though Niyogis by descent, and 
are called Paddatis. With a few unimportant exceptions 
these numerous subdivisions of the Telugu Brahmans will eat 
together but will not intermarry. 

Though in the study of the Vedas and the observance of 
the more important ceremonies of the caste the Telugu Brah- 
mans are not inferior to their castemen in the southern districts, 
they are less scrupulous in several minor matters. They 


will smoke, for example, and eat opium. They perhaps, also, CHAP. iii. 
have less influence in religious and social matters over other Principal 
castes than in the south. The lower classes do not make them C aste s. 
the ready namaskdram obeisance which is usual in Tanjore, for 
example, nor is there the same anxiety to follow their social 
and domestic ceremonies. Nor do the Telugu Brahmans hold 
themselves as severely aloof from the upper non-Brahman 
castes as in the south. It has already been^ mentioned that 
they seldom live in separate quarters in the villages, and they 
will give a respectable non-Brahman food in any part of 
their houses except the kitchen, a piece of latitude which 
would be most unusual in Tanjore. 

Attached to the caste is the beggar community called 
Vipravinodis (' amusers of Brahmans'), who are professional 
sorcerers and jugglers who decline to perform unless some 
Brahman is present, and subsist chiefly on alms begged from 
the members of that caste. Several unconvincing tales are 
told to account for this odd connection between two such 
widely differing classes but, as will be seen immediately, 
several other castes in this district have beggar communities 
attached particularly to them and in some cases these are 
declared to consist of their illegitimate descendants. 

The Razus also stand high in the social scale. They are Razus. 
numerous in the Amalapuram and Ramachandrapuram taluks, 
and there is a large colony of them in Tuni town. They say 
they are Kshatriyas, wear the sacred thread, keep their 
womenkind strictly gosha, have Brahmanical gotras, decline 
to eat with other non-Brahmans, and are divided into the three 
clans of Siirya (sun), Chandra (moon), and Machi (fish) 
Razus, of whom the first claim to be descended from the 
kings of Oudh, of the same lineage as Rama ; the second, 
from the kings of Hastinapura, of the same line as the 
Pandavas ; and the third from Hanuman and a mermaid. 
These subdivisions may eat together, and among the zamin- 
dars the first two intermarry. The solar line is the commonest 
in this district. Written contracts of marriage are exchanged ; 
the wedding is performed in the bride's house ; at the 
praddnam ceremony no hondu (safl'ron thread) is tied round 
the bride's neck; the bridegroom has to wear a sword 
throughout the marriage ceremonies, and he is paraded round 
the village with it before they begin ; and the saffron thread 
(kaiikanani) which is tied round the wrists of the couple is of 
wool and cotton instead of cotton alone. 

The Razus are chiefly employed in cultivation. Their 
turbans are made to bunch out at the left side above the ear, 
and one end of them hangs down behind. They do not shave 






any part of their heads and allow long locks to hang down 
in front of their ears. 

The beggar community attached to them are the Bhatrazus, 
who were originally their court bards and panegyrists, but now 
beg from other castes as well and have less special claim 
upon them than formerly. These people are no<"orious for 
their importunity and their gift for lampooning those who 
refuse them alms, and they trade upon the fact. 

The Komatis are the great trading and money-lending 
caste of the Telugu country, and are not popular. They call 
themselves Vaisyas, wear the sacred thread, claim to have 102 
' gotras,' and of late years some of them have adopted Vedic 
rites at their marriages and funerals in place of the Puranic 
rites which are traditional with them. But on the other hand 
their gotras are not Brahmanical and they follow the Dravid- 
ian rule of menarikam in their marriages. In this district they 
are subdivided into the Gavaras, Kalingas, and Traivar- 
nikas (' third-caste-men '), who neither intermarry nor dine 
together, and the last of whom differ from the others in the 
strictness of their observance of Brahmanical ways. The 
Gavaras are by far the most numerous. 

Their caste goddess, Kanyakamma or Kanyaka Parames- 
vari already mentioned, is said to be a deification of a beautiful 
Komati girl named Vasavamma who belonged to Penugonda 
in Kistna. The Eastern Chalukya king Vishnuvardhana 
wanted to marry her, her caste-people objected and were 
persecuted accordingly, and at last she burnt herself alive to 
end the trouble. The headmen of 102 families, the ancestors 
of the present ' gotras,' sacrificed themselves with her. She 
has many temples, but the chief is at her native village of 
Penugonda. The fines collected at caste panchayats are 
even now sent to this. 

Of the 102 ' gotras ' some at least are totemistic, which is 
another argument against the twice-born origin of the caste. 
They are derived from the names of plants, and to this day 
the members of these gotras may not touch their eponymous 
plants, and even involuntary contact with them involves 
ceremonial pollution which must be removed by a bath. 
Some of these are given in the report on the Madras census 
of 1901, p. 162. The same volume gives authorities for the 
custom among Komatis (which is strenuously denied by them) 
requiring them to give betel and nut to a Madiga before a 
wedding is performed in the caste. The practice is said to 
be dying out or to be usually veiled by the Komati giving the 
Madiga some cobbling work to do and handing him the betel 
and nut with the amount of his bill. Members of the caste 



who admit an obscure connection with these Madigas explain CHAP. ill. 
it by saying that the latter protected them during their trouble Principal 
with Vishnuvardhana. Some of the Velamas somewhat astes. 

similarly arrange that a Mala couple shall be married just 
before a wedding in their own houses, and even find the 
funds. The Rev. J. Cain says that with the Bhadrachalam 
Velamas it is a Palli couple that is thus first married. 
Velamas explain the story by saying that a Mala once allowed 
a Velama to sacrifice him to propitiate the goddess who 
guards hidden treasure, and that the custom is kept up out of 
gratitude for the discovery of the treasure which resulted. 
Among some classes of Komatis the women do the cooking 
while in a state of nudity. Those who admit the practice 
say that it is done for cleanliness' sake, lest the touch of an 
impure garment should defile the food. 

Attached to the Komatis are two begging castes called 
Viramushtis and Mailaris. They are said by the Komatis to 
have been the messengers in their dealings with Vishnu- 
vardhana, and, at the last, to have delayed the advent of the 
king till the holocaust was over. The Viramushtis are 
wrestlers and bards, and the Mailaris carry round an image 
of Kanyakamma and sing songs in her praise. 

The Kapus or Reddis, by far the most numerous of the Kapus. 
castes of the district, are landowners by occupation and are 
among the most respected of the non-Brahman bodies. 
Closely connected with them are the Velamas, the Telagas, 
the Vantarlu and the Kammas referred to below ; and all 
four of these are probably offshoots of the great Kapu clan. 
They will usually eat with Kapus even now, but they do not 
intermarry with them or with one another, and in several 
instances peculiarities of dress or customs have arisen. The 
Vantarlus, for example, arrange their top-knot further for- 
ward, and more to the left, than the others ; tie their cloths 
differently ; dress their women in petticoats and keep them 

It is said that in some districts the Kapus have totemistic Kammas, 
subdivisions, but these do not appear to exist in Godavari. 
Their marriages are usually celebrated in the bride's house; 
the women of the bridegroom's family do "^not attend ; 
and on the last day of the ceremony the couple pretend to 
plough and sow, a custom which exists among some of the 
Telugu castes who have emigrated to the Tanjore and 
Trichinopoly districts. 

The Kammas are a cultivating caste closely akin to, and 
probably a subdivision of, the Kapus. Some of them say 
they were originally Kshatriyas, but were persecuted by a 
king because one of them called him a bastard, and therefore 






sought refuge with the Kapus an(^ adopted the customs of 
their protectors. Others of them say that they are descended 
from the same ancestor as the Velamas and some of the 
Kapus and that the subdivisions in these castes are the same 
as in their own. Like the Kapus, they are generally cultivat- 
ors, and their social position and characteristics are similar. 

In this district, Kammas are subdivided into the Kavitis, 
Eredis, Gampas or Gudas, Uggams and Rachas, who eat in 
each others' houses and intermarry. The names have a 
totemistic flavour, but according to local accounts are derived 
from curious household customs, generally from traditional 
methods of carrying water. Thus the Kavitis ordinarily will 
not carry water except in pots on a Mvidi ; the Eredis except 
on a pack-bullock ; the Uggams except in pots held in the 
hand and not borne on their hips or heads; and the Rachas 
except in pot carried by two persons. The Gampa women, 
when they first go to their husbands' houses, take the 
customary presents in baskets, gampa or guda. It is said that 
these practices are generally observed to the present day. 
The Kaviti and Uggam women are said to wear their cloths 
over the right shoulder and the Eredi and Gampa women 
over the left. The Eredi and Uggam women are said to be 
strictly gosha. The Kammas, support a special beggar caste, 
namely the Pichchiguntas. These beg only of Kammas, 
Velamas and certain Kapus. 

The Perikes are a small cultivating caste who are 
particularly numerous in Godavari. The name means a 
gunny-bag, and the caste were originally gunny-bag weavers. 
Those in this district are now mostly cultivators (the Pisu 
Perikes, who still weave gunny, are said not to belong to the 
caste proper, who call themselves Racha Perikes) but the 
gunny-bag plays a part in their traditions and ceremonies. 
They are perhaps commonest in the Prattipadu subdivision 
of Peddapuram taluk and the southern villages of Tuni. 
Their social position is similar to that of the Kapus and 
Kammas, whom they resemble generally in character and 
customs. Like some of the Kammas, they claim to be of 
Kshatriya stock, and say they are of the lineage of Parasu 
Rama but were driven out by him for kidnapping his sister 
while pretending to be gunny-weavers. They say they were 
brought into this country by the king Nala mentioned in the 
Mahabharata in gratitude for their having taken care of his 
wife Damayanti when he quitted her during his misfortunes, 
Perikes support the begging caste of the Varugu Bhattas, 
who, they say, helped them in their exile, and to whom they 
gave a sanad authorizing them to demand alms. These 
people go round the Perike houses for their dues every year. 






The Perike marriage ceremonies are peculiar. On the day 
of the wedding the bride and groom are made to fast, as are 
three male relatives whom they call siiribhaktas. At the 
marriage the couple sit on a gunny-bag, and another gunny, 
on which a representation of the god Mailar is drawn or 
painted, is spread before them. A figure of the same god is 
drawn on two pots, and these, and also a third pot, are filled 
with rice and dholl which are then cooked by two married 
women of the party. The food is then offered to Mailar. 
Next the three suribhaktas take lOl cotton threads, fasten them 
together, and tie seven knots in them. Bride and bridegroom 
are then given cloths which have been partly immersed in 
water coloured with saffron and chunam, and they and the 
suribhaktas are fed with the rice and dholl cooked in the three 
pots. The couple are then taken round the village in proces- 
sion, and on their return the knotted cotton threads are tied 
round the bride's neck instead of a tali. 

The Idigas or Indras are very numerous in Godavari. 
They are the Telugu toddy-drawing caste. They are com-' 
monly called Chettis (Chcttigdndlu) in this district, but the name 
Indra is used in the north-east divisions and Idiga in the 
central delta. They claim to be descended from Vyasa, the 
traditional compiler of the Mahabharata. They are still 
largely employed in toddy-drawing (though some are cultiva- 
tors) and consequently occupy a low position in the social 
scale. In some districts, it is said, they bury their dead, 
prohibit the consumption of alcohol and have endogamous 
subdivisions, but these things are not so in this district. Some 
are Saivites and some Vaishnavites, but these are allowed 
to intermarry. 

Two of their marriage ceremonies are peculiar. The 
couple walk three times round four upright sticks placed so as 
to make a small square and connected with each other by 
cotton threads, and then the bridegroom cuts the cotton with 
a knife. They also make two cakes of rice flour, ghee and 
sugar, one of which is eaten by themselves and the other by 
their relatives. 

The Idigas' special god is Kattumai, to whom they annu- 
ally sacrifice fowls on New Year's Day, and daily offer a few 
drops of toddy from the first pot taken from the tree. 

The Gamallas are ordinarily supposed to be Idigas who Gamaiias 
have bettered themselves and separated from that caste. The 
more wealthy of them are toddy and arrack shop-keepers, but 
the poorer members of the caste draw toddy like the Idigas. 
Both classes worship the Idiga deity Kattumai. They 
support a begging caste called Yeniitis or Gavuda Jettis. 








The Karnabattus are almost entirely confined to the 
Godavari district, and are weavers by occupation. They 
forbid the re-marriage of widows, but eat even pork. They 
bury their dead in a sitting posture. Their caste headman is 
called sendpati ' leader of an army.' Their special deity is 
Somesvara, whom they unite to worship on the new-moon day 
of Pushyam (January-February). The god is represented by 
a mud idol made for the occasion. The pi'ijdri throws flowers 
over it in token of adoration and then sits before it with 
his hands outstretched and his mouth closed until one of the 
flowers falls into his hands. 

The Sanis are a small caste of dancing-girls and prosti- 
tutes. In this district this class of women is made up of 
six perfectly distinct castes which are in danger of being 
confused ; namely, the Sanis proper, the Bogams, the Dommara 
Sanis, the Turaka Sanis, the Mangala Bogams, and the 
Madiga Bogams. Of these, the Bogams claim to be superior 
and will not dance in the presence of, or after a performance 
by, any of the others. The Sanis do not admit this claim, but 
they do not mind dancing after the Bogams or in their 
presence. All the other classes are admittedly inferior to the 
Sanis and the Bogams. The Madiga Bogams only dance 
before, and consort with, Madigas and Malas. The Dommara 
Sanis, Turaka Sanis and Mangala Bogams will consort with 
any of the non-polluting castes. 

The Sani women are not exclusively devoted to their tradi- 
tional profession. Some of them marry the men of the caste 
and live respectably at home with them. The men moreover 
do not. as in the dancing castes of the south, assist in the 
dancing (as by playing the accompaniments or forming a 
chorus), but are cultivators and petty traders. Bogam men, 
however, follow the southern custom. The Sanis, like the 
dancing-girl castes of the south, keep up their numbers by the 
adoption and even purchase of girls of other castes, such as 
Kapus, Kammas and Idigas. They do service in the temples, 
but they are not required to be formally dedicated or married 
to the god, as in the Tamil country. Those of them who are 
to become prostitutes are usually married to a sword on 
attaining maturity. 

The Malas are the great agricultural labourer class and are 
very numerous in the district. They are split into four endoga- 
mous subdivisions, the Kantes, the Boyas or Sadur Boyas, the 
Payikis and the Mala Dasaris. Kupe, Arava (Tamil) and 
Bruda (' marsh ') are also given as subdivisions. The Mala 
Dasaris are the caste priests and the Payikis are sweepers by 
occupation. The former are admittedly superior to the rest 
of the caste and the latter are generally regarded as inferior. 


None of the subdivisions intermarry or eat in each others' chap, hi, 
houses. Mahis eat beef and are consequently almost at the Principal 
bottom of the social scale. They are not allowed to enter the C.vstes 
Hindu temples ; no other caste (not even excluding the Madi- 
gas) will eat in their houses ; and they pollute all Sudra castes 
by touching them or entering their houses, and a Brahman by 
even approaching him. Even the Madigas pretend to be 
polluted if a Mala enters their houses ; but the Malas return 
the compliment. The ordinary barbers will not work for 
Malas and they either shave each othei- or have their own 
barbers. The ordinary washermen will wash their clothes if 
these have first been given a preliminary soaking. A peculiar 
ceremony at their weddings (which is also observed by the 
Madigas) consists in burying handfuls of different kinds of 
grain, and sacrificing a fowl over the spot. 

They have their own beggar castes, namely the Mashtigas, 
who are gymnasts, the Pambalas, who are musicians, and the 
Katikapus, who are jugglers. Round Tuni the jungle tribe 
there called Chentzus are also included among the Mala 

Their special caste deity is Gontiyalamma, the mother of 
the five Pandava brethern. They say (it is not an edifying 
story) that Bhima, one of the five, threatened to kill his mother, 
who accordingly took refuge under an avircdi pot (the painted 
pot used at weddings) in a Mala house. For this, she was 
solemnly cursed by her sons, who said she should remain a 
Mala woman for ever. In commemoration of this story, a 
handful of growing paddy is pulled up every year at the 
Dasara, and eight days later the earth adhering to its roots is 
mixed with saffron and milk, made into an image of the 
goddess, and hidden under an avircdi pot. For the next six 
months this image is worshipped every Sunday by all the 
villagers in turn, and on the Sivaratri night it is taken in 
procession round the village, accompanied by all the Malas 
bearing pots of rice and other food carried in a kdvidi, and is 
finally thrown with much ceremony into a river or tank. This 
rite is supposed to mean that the ^goddess is the daughter of 
the caste, that she has lived with them six months, and that 
they are now solemnly sending her back with suitably gifts 
(the rice, etc) to her husband. A common form of religious 
vow among Malas is to promise to send a cloth and a cow 
with the goddess on the last day of the rite, the gifts being 
afterwards presented to a married daughter. The part played 
by the image of Gontiyalamma in the Malas' rain-making 
ceremonies has already (p. 47) been described. Both Malas 
and Madigas hold a feast in honour of their ancestors at 
Pongal — an uncommon rite. 


CHAP. III. The Madigas are a numerous caste whose traditional 
Principal occupations are tanning and shoe-making. Some of them say 

■ they are the descendants of a saint or demi-god called 

Madigas. Jambha-muni and a woman called Puramasi who disturbed 

the saint in his contemplation and became his wife. 

They are subdivided into the occupational classes of 
Madiga Dasaris (priests), Madiga Payikis (sweepers), the 
Kommalas (who blow horns) and the ordinary Madigas who 
follow the traditional callings of tanning and shoe-making. 
These will not dine together or intermarry. The last of them 
is by far the most numerous. The Dasaris are considered 
socially the highest, and the Payikis the lowest, of the sub- 

Madigas are much despised by other castes because they 
are leather-workers and eat beef and even carrion, and they 
take much the same low social position as the Malas. Their 
curious connection with the Komatis has been mentioned in 
the account of that caste above. Their marriage and other 
ceremonies are very similar to those of the Malas. Their 
special caste goddess is Matangi, who they say was defeated 
by Parasu Rama and concealed herself from him under the 
' tanning-pot in a Madiga's house. At Pongal they worship 
their tanning-pots, as representing the goddess, with offerings 
of fowls and liquor. 

The begging castes specially attached to the Madigas 
are the Dekkalas, Mastidis and Tappitas or Bagavatas. Of 
these the Dekkalas are musicians who sing the praises of 
their patron's ancestors, the Mastidis are gymnasts, and the 
Tappitas are the same as the Madiga Bogams, and are the 
dancers and prostitutes of the caste, 

:6yas. The Koyas ar© a caste of jungle men found in the country 

on either side of the Godavari from the point where the 
Indravati joins it down to the apex of the delta. They occur as 
far south as Kammamet in the Nizam's Dominions, and on the 
north they stretch far into the Bastar State. The Rev. J. Cain 
of Dummagudem, who has lived among them for thirty years 
and published several accounts of their ways, and who has 
been kind enough to supply information embodied below, 
estimates that they form one-fourth of the inhabitants of 
Bhadrachalam taluk, but only a small portion of the popula- 
tion of Chodavaram. They are also common in Bastar and 
theMalkanagiri taluk of Vizagapatam. In the case of a tribe 
spread over such a large extent of such wild country it is 
difficult to be sure that statements regarding customs are 
universally applicable. What follows applies primarily to 
the Koyas of Polavaram and Bhadrachalam taluks and the 




south of Bastar State.' It has been stated ^ that the Koyas are chap. III. 
a section of the great Goncl tribe, but in this district they have Principal 
no theory of their origin except that they are descended from 
Bhima, one of the five Pandava brothers. By the people of 
the plains they are called Koya Doralu, or ' Koya lords.' 
Their language, called Koya, is Dravidian and bears anologies 
to Tamil and Telugu. Most of the men, however, can speak 
Telugu, though the women know little but their own verna- 
cular. The highland, or kiitta, Koyas, who live in the uplands 
of Bastar, are distinct from the riverside, or gommii, Koyas 
with whom we are concerned. The latter say they were 
driven down from the Bastar plateau some two hundred years 
ago by the former. They are rather despised by the high- 
landers, who call them rascals ( mdyalotilu) and they acknowl- 
edge their inferiority by sending the kutta Koyas gifts on 
festal occasions. The tribe is also split up into occupational 
endogamous subdivisions, among whom are the Kammaras 
(blacksmiths), Musaras (brass-workers), Dolis (professional 
beggars), Pattidis (cultivators and beggars), Oddis (supe- 
rior priests), Kaka and the Matta Koyas, and the Racha 
or Dora Koyas. These last are by far the most numerous 
subdivision and consider themselves superior to all the others 
except the Oddis. Some of the others are apparently not true 
Koyas at all. The Dolis are Malas from the plains, and 
definite traditions regarding the reception into the tribe, 
many generations ago, of the Kakas (who were Kapus) 
and the Mattas (who were Gollas) have been published by 
Mr. Cain, A contrary process is exemplified by the Basa 
Gollas, who were once Koyas. 

Exogamous divisions called ^«^/«5 occur in the tribe. Among 
them are Miido ('third'), Nalo ('fourth') or Paredi, Aido 
(' fifth ') or Rayibanda, Aro (' sixth '), Nutamuppayo (' 130th '), 
and Peramboya. In some places the members of the Mtido, 
Ndlo, and Aido gattas are said to be recognizable by the 
difi'erence in the marks they occasionally wear on their fore- 
heads, a spot, a horizontal line and a perpendicular line 
respectively being used by them. The Aro gatta, however, 
also uses the perpendicular line. 

The Koyas are looked upon with a certain respect by the 
Hindus of the plains, but are held to pollute a Brahman by 

' Information regarding the caste will be found in the Rev. J. Cain's articles 
m Indian Antiquary, v, 301, 357; viii, 33, 219; and x, 259 ; the Christian 
College Magazine, v (old series), 3529 and vi (old series), 274-80 : the Census 
Reports of 1S71 and 1S91 (paragraph 406 and page 227 respectively) ; Taylor's 
Catalogue Raisonnc of Oriental MSS., iii, 464 ; and the Rev. Stephen Hislop's 
Aboriginal Tribes of the Central Provinces (Nagpore, 1866), 4, 

- Aboriginal Tribes of the Central Provinces, 4. 



Principal touch and the better non-Brahmans by entering their kitchens. 
Castes. ^^^^ ^^^ Koyas, like other hill tribes, have no respect at all 
for Brahmans or other Hindus merely on account of their 

The Koyas proper are chiefly engaged in agriculture. 
Their character is a curious medley. They excite admiration 
by their truthfulness; pity by their love of strong drink, 
listlessness and want of thrift; surprise by their simplicity, 
and their combination of timidity and self-importance ; and 
aversion by their uncanny superstitions. Their truthfulness 
is proverbial, though it is said to be less characteristic than 
of yore, and they never break their word. Their intemperate 
ways are largely due to the commonness of the ippa (Bassia 
latifolia) tree, from the flowers of which strong spirit is easily 
distilled, and are most noticeable when this is in blossom. 
Their listlessness has often been remarked. " To the officer 
enquiring after khahar of game the reply is invariably ledu 
(' nothing ') ; while if approached on the subject of the utiliza- 
tion of their labour, they passively obstruct all progress by 
their exasperating reply of repii (' to-morrow')." Their reckless 
and primitive modes of agriculture will be described in 
Chapters IV and V. Their ignorance and simplicity are 
attested by numerous stories. One, vouched for by Mr. Cain, 
.' relates how some of them, being despatched with a basket of 

fruit and a note describing its contents, and being warned that 
the note would betray any pilfering, first buried the note ' so 
that it could not see,' then abstracted some of the fruit, after- 
wards disinterred the note and delivered it and the basket, 
and were quite at a loss, when charged with the theft, to know 
how the note could have learnt about it. They are terribly 
victimized by traders and money-lenders from the low country, 
who take advantage of their guilelessness to cheat them in 
every conceivable way. Their timidity has on occasion driven 
them to seek refuge in the jungle on the appearance of a 
stranger in clean clothes, but, on the other hand, they expect 
(and receive) a considerable measure of respect from low- 
landers whom they encounter. They are perfectly aware that 
their title ' Dora ' means ' lord,' and they insist on being given 
it. They tolerate the address ' uncle ' (mama) from their 
neighbours of other castes ; but they do not like being called 
Koyas. When so addressed they have sometimes replied 
' whose throat have I cut ? ' playing on the word koya, which 
means to ' slice ' or ' cut the throat.' When driven to extremes 
they are capable of much courage. Blood feuds have only 
recently become uncommon in British territory and in 1876 
flourished greatly in the Bastar State. 


Of the Hindu religion the Koyas know nothing. They CHAP. in. 
worship deities of their own. Some of them have adopted Principal 

the village goddesses of the plains, such as Kondalamma and . 

Bairamma (near Polavaram), Maisamma and Poleramma (near 
Bhadrachalam) and Muthyalamma and her brother Poturazu. 
Mr. Cain says that Muthyalamma is specially reverenced as 
the goddess of disease, and as equivalent to the Maridamma 
of the plains. Other Koyas adhere to the worship of the 
animistic deities of the hills and forests, the konda devatulu. 
Palamuni, Nilamuni and Korrarazu, the god of tigers, are 
three of these. Mr. Cain also mentions Kommalamma and a 
fearsome female devil called Pida, who is propitiated in 
December with curious rites. The Pandava brothers (especi- 
ally Bhima), and the wild-dogs who are supposed to be their 
messengers, are also worshipped. Human sacrifices, made 
sometimes to a dread deity called Mamili, were not unknown 
in former days. Writing in 1876, Mr. Cain said that there 
was strong reason to believe that two men had been sacrificed 
that year not far from Dummagiidem, and that there was no 
doubt that in Bastar strangers were kidnapped and secretly 
offered up every year. During the Rampa outbreak of 1879-80 
several constables and others were openly sacrificed by the 
rebels.^ Mr. Cain says that a langiir (white-faced monkey) was 
ordinarily substituted for the human victim, under the name 
of kurommapotu (' a male with small beasts '), as an offering to 
appease the deity. 

Most peculiar objects of reverence are the velpus, a name 
which Mr. Cain says is the Koya for * god.' They consist of 
small pieces of metal, generally iron and less than a foot in 
length, which are kept in a hollow bamboo deposited in some 
wild and unfrequented spot. They are guarded with great 
secrecy by those in charge of them and are only shown to the 
principal worshippers on the rare occasions when they are 
taken out to be adored. The Koyas are very reticent about 
them. Mr. Cain says there is one supreme velpu which is 
recognized as the highest by the whole Koya tribe and kept 
hidden in the depths of Bastar. There are also velpus for each 
gatta and for each family. The former are considered superior 
to the latter and are less ^frequently brought out of their 
retreats. One of them called Lakkala (or Lakka) Ramu, 
which belongs either to the Aro or Peramboya gatta, is con- 
sidered more potent than the others. It is ornamented with 
eyes of gold and silver and is kept in a cave near Sitanaga- 
ram, not far from Parnasala in Bhadrachalam taluk. The 

1 For a description by an eye-witness, see G.O. No. 2275, Judicial, dated 4th 
September 1879. 



CHAP, III. others are deposited in different places in the Bastar State. 
Principal They all have names of their own, but are also known by the 
' generic term Adama Razu. 

Both the gat t a and family velpus are worshipped only by 
members of the sept or family to which they appertain. They 
are taken round the country at intervals to receive the rever- 
ence and gifts of their adherents. The former are brought 
out once in every three or four years, especially during wide- 
spread sickness, failure of crops or cattle-disease. The velpu 
is washed, and a flag is then planted beside it. An animal 
(generally a young bullock) is stabbed under the left shoulder, 
the blood is sprinkled over the deity, and the animal is next 
killed, and its liver is cut out and offered to the deity. A 
feast, which sometimes lasts for two days, takes place and the 
velpu is then put back in its hiding-place. The flag is taken 
round the villages where members of the gatta or family 
reside, and these make a feast and offer gifts. The flag of a 
family velpu is a large three-cornered red cloth on which are 
stitched a number of figures roughly cut out of bits of cloth 
of other colours to represent various ancestors. Whenever any 
important male member of the family dies, a new figure is 
added to commemorate his services. 

Like other hill tribes, the Koyas are firm believers in the 
black art and the power of wizards. In some parts whenever 
any one falls ill the professional sorcerer (veszugddu) is con- 
sulted, and he reads both the cause and the remedy in a leaf- 
platter of rice which he carries thrice round the invalid. 
Whenever a man dies he is supposed to have been the victim 
of some sorcerer instigated by an enemy. An enquiry is then 
held as to who is guilty. Some male member of the family, 
generally the nephew of the deceased, throws coloured rice 
over the corpse as it lies stretched on the bed, pronouncing 
as he does so the names of all the known sorcerers who live 
in the neighbourhood. It is even now solemnly asserted that 
when the name of the wizard responsible is pronounced the 
bed gets up and moves towards the house or village where 
he resides. Suspected wizards have to clear themselves by 
undergoing the ordeal of dipping their hands in boiling oil or 
water. Sometimes they flee in terroj" rather than attempt this 
Reputed wizards and witches are held in the greatest abhor- 
rence ; and one of the old complaints against British rule was 
that it prevented these people from being put to death. Mr. 
Cain mentions a case in which a Koya was compelled (in 1876) 
to murder a woman of his family because she was thought to 
be a witch, 



The Koyas appear to have few festivals now. Formerly 
those who lived near Dummagiidem used to celebrate one 
whenever any crop was ripening. They still keep a feast for 
jonna kotta, ' the new cholam ' harvest. The rites seem to vary. 
Mr. Cain says that a fowl is killed and its blood sprinkled 
on a stone. In some places the victim is a sheep, and it 
and the first fruits are offered to the local gods and to 
ancestors. The mango kotta and sdmai kotta are also important. 
Once a year is celebrated a feast similar to the well-known 
Chaitra Saturnalia in the Vizagapatam Agency, whereat all 
the men go out and beat for game and those who return empty- 
handed are pelted with mud and filth by the women and not 
allowed to enter the village that night. This is called the 
Bhudevi Pandigai, or festival of the earth goddess. In times 
of drought a festival to Bhima, which lasts five days, is held. 
When rain appears, the Koyas sacrifice a cow or pig to their 
patron. Dancing plays an important part at all these feasts 
and also at marriages. The men put on head-dresses of 
straw into which buffalo-horns are stuck, and accompany 
themselves with a kind of chant. 

In Polavaram and Bhadrachalam, Koya villages are divided 
into groups, sometimes called samutus, over each of which is 
an hereditary head called the samutu dora or yetimani. 

If a Koya youth is refused by the maiden of his choice he 
generally carries her off by force. But a boy can reserve a 
girl baby for himself by giving the mother a pot and a cloth 
for the baby to lie upon, and then she may not be carried off. 
Widows and divorced women may remarry. The wedding 
takes place in the bridegroom's house and lasts five days. 
A tali and a saffron-coloured thread are tied round the neck 
of the girl. If the marriage was effected by capture, matters 
are much simplified. The girl is made to kneel, the boy 
stoops over her, and water is poured over both of them. The 
boy then ties a saffron-coloured thread round her neck and 
the ceremony is over. Girls who consort with a man of low 
caste are purified by having their tongues branded with a hot 
golden needle and by being made to pass through seven 
arches of palmyra leaves, which are afterwards btirnt. 

The Koyas generally burn their dead, but infants are 
buried. Mr. Cain says babies less than a month old are 
buried close to the house, so that the rain dropping from the 
eaves may fall upon the grave and cause fertility in the 
parents. When a Koya dies, a cow or bullock is slaughtered 
and the tail is cut off and put in the dead person's hand. The 
liver is said to be sometimes put in his mouth. His widow's 
tali is always placed there, and when a married woman dies 
her tali is put in her mouth, The pyre of a man is lighted by 




CHAP. III. his nephew, and of a woman by her son. After the body is 
Principal burnt, the ashes are made into balls and deposited in a hole 

at the side of the road, which is covered with a slab. Many 

Koyas place a perpendicular stone about three feet high, like 
the head-stone of a tomb, over the slab. No pollution is 
observed by those attending the funeral. The beef of the 
animal slain at the beginning of the rites provides a feast, 
and the whole party returns home and makes merry. On the 
eighth day a pot'full of water is placed in the dead man 's nouse 
for him to drink, and is watched by his nephew. Next morn- 
ing another cow is slaughtered and the tail and a ball of 
cooked rice are offered to the soul at the burning-ground. 
Mr. Cain says that when a man passes an old friend's tomb- 
stone he will often place a little tobacco on it, remarking that 
the deceased liked the herb when alive and will probably be 
glad of it now. 

The same authority states that the only conception of a 
future state among the Koyas is that the dead wander about 
the jungle in the form oi pisdchas or ghosts. The Rev. F. W. N. 
Alexander however says that some of them believe that there 
is a heaven, a great fort full of good things to eat, and a hell 
in which an iron crow continually gnaws the flesh of the 
wicked. People who are neither good enough for heaven nor 
bad enough for hell are born again in their former family. 
^ Children with hare-lips, moles, etc., are often identified as 

reincarnations of deceased relations. 

Koya villages are small and are usually inhabited solely 
by people of the tribe. Any outsiders live in a separate 
quarter. The houses are made of bamboo with a thatch of 
grass or palmyra. The Koyas are very restless ; and families 
change frequently from one village to another. Before 
moving, they consult the omens to see whether the change 
will be auspicious or not. Sometimes the hatching of a clutch 
of eggs provides the answer ; or four grains of four kinds of 
seed (representing the prosperity of men, cattle, sheep and 
land) are put on a heap of ashes under a man's bed, any 
movement among them during the night being a bad omen. 

TattooiiTg is common. It is considered very important for 
the soul in the next world that the body should have been 
adequately tattooed. 
Hill Reddis. The hill Reddis (or Konda Reddis) area caste of jungle 

men having some characteristics in common with the Koyas. 
They appear to be found only in the Rekapalle country, the 
hills in the north of the Polavaram division and in Rampa, 
and still further north. They usually talk a -rough Telugu, 
clipping their words so that it is often difficult to understand 


them ; but it is said that some of them speak Koya. They CHAP. ill. 
are of slighter build than the Koyas and their villages are Principal 
even smaller. They will not eat in the house of a Koya. Castes. 

They call themselves by various high-sounding titles, 
such as Pandava Reddis, Raja Reddis and Reddis of the solar 
race (siirya vamsa), and do not like the simple name Konda 
Reddi. They recognize no endogamous subdivisions, but 
have exogamous septs. In character they resemble the 
Koyas, but are less simple and stupid and in former years were 
much given to crime. They live by shifting (podii) cultivation. 
They do not eat beef, but will partake of pork. 

They profess to be both Saivites and Vaishnavites and 
occasionally employ Brahman priests at their funerals ; and 
yet they worship the Pandavas, the spirits of the hills (or, as 
they call them, ' the sons of Racha'), their ancestors (including 
women who have died before their husbands) and the deities 
Muthyalamma and her brother Poturazu, Saralamma and 
Unamalamma. The last three are found in almost every 
village. Other deities are Doddiganga, who is the protector 
of cattle and is worshipped when the herds are driven into 
the forests to graze, and Desaganga (or Paraganga), who 
takes the place of the Maridamma of the plains and the 
Muthyalamma of the Koyas as goddess of cholera and small- 
pox. The shrine of Saralamma of Pedakonda (eight miles 
east of Rekapalle) is a place of pilgrimage, and so is Bison 
Hill (Papikonda), where an important Reddi festival is held 
every seven or eight years in honour of the Pandava brothers, 
and a huge pig fattened for the occasion is killed and eaten. 
The Reddis, like the Koyas, also observe the harvest festivals. 
They are very superstitious, believing firmly in sorcery and 
calling in wizards in time of illness. Their villages are formed 
into groups like those of the Koyas and the hereditary 
headmen over these are called by different names, such 
as dora, muttaddr, vaniapedda and kulapdtradu. Headmen of 
villages are known as Pettamdars. They recognize, though 
they do not frequently practise, marriage by capture. If a 
parent wishes to show his dislike for a match, he absents 
himself when the suitor's party calls and sends a bundle of 
cold rice after them when they have departed. 

Children are buried. Vaishnavite Reddis burn their adult 
dead, while the Saivites bury them. Satanis officiate as 
priests to the former and Jangams to the latter. The pyre is 
kindled by the eldest male of the famil}' and a feast is held 
on the fifth day after the funeral. The dead are believed to 
be born again into their former families. 






Paddy, its 

Its varieties. 

Wet Cultivation— Paddy ; its seasons— Its varieties — Rain-fed paddy— Sowing 
versus transplantation— Methods of raising seedlings — Preparation of fields- 
Transplantation and care of the crop— Second-crop cultivation — Third crops 

Agricultural maxims — Wet crops other than paddy — Rotations — Cultivation 

of sugar-cane — laggery-making — Ratooning — Varieties of sugar-cane — Recent 
sugar-cane disease and the Samalkot experimental farm. Dry Cultivation 
—Seasons, etc. — Cultivation — Cholam — Tobacco— Improvement of the leaf — 
Shifting cultivation in the Agency— Storage of grain. Irrigation — Pro- 
tected area. The Godavari Anicut— Origin of the idea— First estimates — 
The site and design— Progress of construction — Subsequent difficulties — 
Alterations since effected — Distributary works — The Gannavaram aqueduct — 
Completion of distributaries— Financial results of the scheme — Possible 
extensions of it — Its administration. Other Irrigation Sources— Minor 
channels and tanks— Wells- Artesian wells. Economic Condition of 

The immense area irrigated from the Godavari anicut has 
naturally resulted in paddy being the most important crop in 
the district. The seasons for growing it in Bhadrachalam 
(where, however, very little is raised) differ from those else- 
where. In Bhadrachalam a short crop (pinna vari) is raised 
between May and August and a longer one (pedda vari) 
between August and January ; while in the rest of the district 
the first (and chief) crop is grown between June and December 
and the second (if any) between January or February and 
April or May. The first crop season is called either the 
sdrava {,' white') season, from the fact that white paddy is 
grown in it, or the tolakari (' early ') season ; and the second 
is known as the ^rt/amrC black ') season, because black paddy 
is grown then, the sitakattii ('cold ') season, since the crop is 
sown in January, or the vdsangi (' hot ') season, because it is 
reaped in May. 

Except in the delta and Bhadrachalam, two wet crops are 
seldom raised on the same land, but a dry crop is raised when 
the paddy has been harvested. This dry crop season is called 
the payini or apfirdlii season. 

Many varieties of paddy are grown in the district. The 
ryots divide them according to two main principles of classi- 
fication ; namely, the time a variety takes to mature— whether 
it is long (pedda) or short (pinna or punasa) — and its colour— 
whether ' white ' or ' black.' The varieties raised in the delta 


taluks, with their unfailing irrigation, naturally differ from CHAP. iv. 
those grown in the uplands of Peddapuram and Tuni, and both Wet 
differ again from the favourite species in the different climate ^^^^loj^"^" 

of Bhadrachalam. Apparently none of the white kinds are * 

ever grown without irrigation ; but on the other hand many 
varieties of black paddy are raised on wet lands. The most 
valuable and most popular species of all are called atrakadalii 
and akkullu, both of which are long white varieties. They are 
grown all over the district and have several sub-species. 
They require more water than the rest, but resist floods better. 
The kind known a.s, praydga (again long and white) is also 
very hardy, resisting droughts and floods equally well. The 
least valuable is the short white rasangi paddy, which is worth 
Rs. 10 less per garce than the atrakadalii and akkullu. Though 
most prolific, it is very indigestible. A kind of intoxicating 
liquor is extracted from it. 

Rain-fed paddy is raised on lankas, superior dry land or Rain-fed 
high-level wet land. Only certain kinds of paddy will P*^^'^)'- 
flourish in this way, and the outturn is naturally smaller than 
on irrigated land. The seed is sown broadcast without 
preliminary soaking when the early showers fall in June. 
Weeds are removed twice with a weeder (tollika) some two or 
three weeks after sowing and again a fortnight or a month 
later. In the upland taluks the ryots weed with what is called 
a gorru, a log of wood provided with iron or wooden teeth and 
drawn by cattle. The crop is ordinarily harvested in Septem- 
ber or October, but the shorter Bhadrachalam crop is reaped 
in August. 

Except in the case of this rain-fed crop, paddy is seldom Sowing 
sown broadcast, but is transplanted from seed-beds. In f^''^"^ , 

r> . , IT-. Ti 1 ' transplanta- 

Rajahmundry, Polavaram, Pithapuram and Tuni sowing is of tion. 
necessity resorted to in the case of the very deep wet fields 
in which, owing to their low level, it is impossible to control the 
depth of the water in the manner necessary with transplanted 
seedlings. In these fieMs a special kind of paddy, called 
kdsari, is sown (unsoaked) in May before the rains or floods 
are received, the field having been ploughed when dry. This 
variety does not mind being submerged. Broadcast sowing 
is also sometimes adopted by ryots who cannot afford the 
expense of transplantation, but this is generally looked upon 
as bad farming. 

There appear to be four recognized methods of raising Methods of 
paddy in seed-beds, which are known as kareddkii, mettapa- raising 
dunii, mokkdkii and diikdkii. In the case of the two former, the '"^^* 

beds are ploughed when quite dry, before water comes down the 





of fields. 

tion and care 
of the crop. 

channels; while with the two latter they are not cultivated 
until they have been well soaked. The two former methods 
are very similar, the only noteworthy difference between them 
apparently being that in the kareddkn system an inch of 
water is let in directly the grain is sown and is drained off 
an hour later, while in the mettapadunu method the seed is 
sown after rain and the land allowed to get quite dry again 
before any water is let on to it. Similarly the mokkdku and 
dukdkii systems closely resemble one another except that with 
the former the seed is soaked and allowed to sprout before 
being sown. The cultivation of the seed-beds when dry is 
far more popular than the rival method, and the dukdkii 
system seems to be confined to Cocanada taluk and the 
mokkdku chiefly to Nagaram and Amalapuram. 

The fields are first levelled with a crowbar (geddapdra) or a 
pickaxe (guddali), various kinds of manure (chiefly the dung of 
sheep and cattle penned on the field, village sweepings, ashes, 
and oil-cake — green manuring is rare) are next applied, and 
then the field is irrigated and ploughed. On heavy soils (as 
near Ramachandrapuram) the ploughing is done after rain 
and before flooding, lest the plough-cattle should sink too 
deeply into the soil. Ploughing is always done at intervals, 
so that the soil gets thoroughly aerated, but as it does not 
begin until floods come down the river, the intervals are short. 
The parts of the fields near the ridges, which the plough cannot 
get at properly, are dug up with mamiittis. The field is 
levelled with a plank called the patti, drawn by hand or by 
bullocks. In Bhadrachalam a log of wood with iron teeth 
(bnruda gorru) is used. 

The seedlings are transplanted in July or August. The 
usual rule governing the irrigation of them is to give them a 
span's depth of water until the ears are formed and then to 
allow the field to dry up. The water is changed periodically in 
order to obtain a fresh supply of silt and to wash away alkaline 
matter. In Amalapuram, however, as much as a foot of 
water is let in after the first fortnight, while in the middle of 
September the field is drained and left dry for the fortnight 
known as the iittarn kdrti because it is believed that worms 
which eat the stalks are generated in the water during that 
period. ' 

Weeding is done one or two months after transplantation. 
In Amalapuram taluk manures of various kinds, such as 
gingelly, cocoanut and castor cake and a kind of fish called 
chengudi royyi are powdered and thrown broadcast over the 
fields three weeks after transplantation. 





Second crop 

The second wet crop does not follow as close on the first 
as in Tanjore. In the latter district the ryots get seedlings 
ready for transplantation in the seed-bed before the harvest 
of the first crop is over, whereas in Godavari it is believed 
that seedlings will not thrive until the warm ' corn wind ' 
(payini gdlij, which is expected in December, sets in from the 
south. The first crop is harvested in November or December, 
and seedlings for the second crop are sown in December or 
January and are ready for transplantation in February and 
March. The preparation of the field for the second crop is a 
somewhat perfunctory operation. Levelling is generally 
omitted; and, in Amalapuram, manuring is generally omitted 
also. The kinds of paddy most commonly used (outside 
Bhadrachalam) are called garika sannain and ddlava. 

Where the second crop is a dry crop, it is generally green, 
black, Bengal, or horse-gram, gingelly, or sunn hemp. Beans 
(amimulu), ragi and onions are also raised. Except Bengal 
gram, gingelly, ragi and onions, these are generally sown a 
week before the harvest of the wet crop and left to take care 
of themselves. For Bengal gram and gingelly, the field is 
ploughed and the seed is covered by dragging a green, leafy 
branch (kampa) across it, or, in sandy soil by ploughing it in. 
Ragi and onions are transplanted into plots about two yards 
square, made after the field has been ploughed without water 
five or six times in the course of a week, and are watered a 
week after transplanting and thereafter once a month. 

Both cambu and gingelly are not infrequently grown as Third crops. 
a third crop, sometimes called the piindsa crop. In Tuni 
(perhaps -elsewhere also) they are put down at the beginning 
of the first wet-crop season on the chance of the rains being 
late or insufficient and it being therefore impossible to grow a 
wet crop at the proper time, if at all. If the rains come while 
the crop is on the ground, it is either ploughed up to make 
room for the paddy, or, if nearly ripe, is left to mature, the 
paddy transplantation being delayed accordingly. 

In Rajahmundry and Ramachandrapuram third crops are 
sometimes secured by growing a short wet crop between June 
and September, followed by a dry crop harvested by January, 
and then by a short paddy crop of the garika sannam, ddlava 
or rdjahlwgala varieties, which is harvested in May. 

The Godavari ryots divide the six months from June to 
December into twelve kdrtis of about a fortnight each, called 
by the names of various stars. To each of these periods some 
agricultural operation or other is considered particularly 
appropriate. Even the Koyas and hill Reddis, for example, 






Wet crops 
other than 


Cultivation of 

believe that the best time for sowing paddy is the mrigasira, 
kcirti, which begins about the end of the first week in June ; 
the am'irddhd Mrti (the latter part of December) is a name of 
happy augury, suggesting the harvest and the fulfilment of 
ryot's hopes; thunder on the first day of the magha kdrti is 
the happiest possible omen for the future, and ' will make 
even a pole on a fort wall grow'; and so on. On the day 
before harvest the ryots run round their fields thrice repeating 
the name of the village goddess and crying out that she has 
given them a good crop. They then cut three handfuls of 
ears to represent the goddess and sacrifice fowls to them. 
When measuring the first heap of paddy of the first harvest 
of the year, they pour boiled rice-flour over it to propitiate the 

Next to paddy, the irrigated crops chiefly grown are sugar- 
cane, betel, turmeric and plantains. Cocoanut and areca 
palms are also largely raised in Amalapuram and Nagaram 
taluks, and are occasionally irrigated. Sugar-cane is grown 
everywhere except in the Agency and the Tuni division, 
but is commonest in Peddapuram, Ramachandrapuram, 
Cocanada, Nagaram and Rajahmundry taluks. Betel on wet 
lands appears to be almost confined to Ramachandrapuram 
and Nagaram taluks and turmeric to Peddapuram, Rajah- 
mundry and Amalapuram, in which last it is raised without 
irrigation. Plantains are found chiefly in Ramachandra- 
puram, Amalapuram and Nagaram. In Rajahmundry and 
elsewhere a kind of sweet potato ( mddap(dam dumpa) is much 

As elsewhere, paddy is frequently grown year after year 
on the same land. When other crops are cultivated, a definite 
rotation is observed, but this differs widely in different parts. 
The ryots of Peddapuram and Pithapuram, for example, 
consider that an interval of two years is sufficient between 
two crops of sugar-cane, while those of Cocanada, Rajah- 
mundry and Amalapuram say that four years is necessary, 
and those of Ramachandrapuram and Nagaram from six to 
eight years. 

In the cultivation of sugar-cane, the ground is sometimes 
broken up with a plough and sometimes with a crowbar. 
When a plough is used, the field is first well manured (in 
December or January) and then ploughed (without being 
flooded) from five to ten times. The ryots say the soil should 
be brought into such a soft and powdery condition that the 
footprints of the birds should be easily seen in it, and that a 
chatty full of water should neither spill nor break when 
dropped on to it. The field, still unirrigated, is next divided 




into small plots (spaces being left for the channels which are chap, iv 
to be dug later on) either with a hoe or a plough. 

The crowbar method of preparing the ground is partly 
adopted for the sake of economy, and so in this system 
manuring is also generally dispensed with. The jaggery 
which results is inferior, but the difference in the cost of 
cultivation is said to more than counterbalance this drawback. 
The land is dug up with the crowbar in January, and the 
clods are left to weather for ten days, when they are broken 
up and roughly powdered. The soil is not rendered suffici- 
ently fine to be formed into plots without water, and the field 
has to be flooded. 

Before planting the cuttings of sugar-cane the field is 
watered till it attains ' the consistency of cooked ragi ' (anibali 
padiinu) and then (in February or March) the cuttings are 
thrown on the ground and one end of them is pressed gently 
in with the foot. The tops are usually considered to make 
the best cuttings, but the rest of the cane is often used. The 
cuttings are kept in the shade for a fortnight before planting. 

Regarding the irrigation of the crop, practice varies. In 
Peddapuram, for example, the field is flooded once a fortnight 
and then drained immediately. In Ramachandrapuram and 
Cocanada it is watered once a week, without draining off the 
water for six months ; and then allowed to dry up as the rainy 
season approaches. The Peddapuram system is the better, 
since stagnant water injures the roots of the cane.^ Two 
months after being planted, the crop is manured round the 
roots with castor cake, green gram husk, bats ' dung, or mud 
from the village site.- In some places green gram is sown in 
the field and dug in as a green manure. Three weedings are 
made with a hoe (tolika) at intervals of a fortnight. When 
the crop has been about two months on the ground the plots 
are broken up and the irrigation trenches are dug, the soil 
from them being thrown round the roots of the cane. About 
four months after planting, the leaves are twisted round the 
canes to prevent them from cracking or being dried up by the 
sun, and to check the growth of weakening lateral shoots. 
In the fifth month the canes are supported by bamboos. The 
crop is cut in February with a bill-hook (pota katti) and made 
into jaggery the same day. 

The canes are crushed in iron mills, and the juice is boiled 
for about two and a half or three hours with chunam (a piece 

^ Papers printed with G.(X No. 1 193, Revenue, dated 30tb December 1901, 
p. 24. Cf. G.O. No. 1020, Reventie, dated 14th September 1904, p. 31. 

2 The ' saltpetre earth ' of Mr. Benson's report, G.O. No. 28, Revenue, dated 
Ilth January 1884, pp. 7, 14. 







Varieties ct 
sugar-cane. - 

of chunam the size of a tennis ball is added to every pan of 
eight pots, or l68 seers, of juice), until it reaches such a 
consistency that it will no longer drip from the finger. It is 
then put into a pot and well stirred, and afterwards poured on 
to a bamboo mat to set. Some of the ryots say that an acre 
of land generally yields 15 candies of jaggery worth Rs. 300, 
and that the cultivator makes a clear profit of Rs. 100. 

Ratooning is usual. The ratooned crop is ready to cut in 
ten months. It is inferior to the first, but the saving in the 
cost of cultivation is considerable.^ Sometimes a third crop 
is cut. 

Previous to the building of the Dowlaishweram anicut the 
cane grown in Godavari was a thin, white, reed-like variety, 
similar to, if not identical with, the canes of Ganjam, South 
Arcot, Trichinopoly and other districts, which was called the 
desavdli or ' country ' cane. Its hard rind enabled it to resist 
the attacks of jackals, so that it was possible to grow it at a 
distance from the villages ; it did not require much water; 
and the jaggery it gave was small in quantity, though very 
sweet and white. When the anicut was made, softer, larger 
and more juicy canes were introduced. The sinm variety, a 
stout dark kind sometimes called the Mauritius cane, was 
introduced about 1870 by Messrs. Cotton and Rundall for 
their factory near Rajavolu (Razole), but the history of the 
other species is obscure. 

At the present time the kinds grown are desavdli or 
' country,' bonthakarri or Bombay, erra or sannakarri, keli, 
hontha or hontha ndmalii, )id)naln or sdra, mogili and pdlahontha 
(which seem to be only found in Ramachandrapuram taluk), 
and vdlu, confined to Peddapuram. The Bombay or bontha- 
karri is very similar to, and possibly identical with, the sima; 
its jaggery is poor and of a purple colour. The erra, or 
sannakarri variety is a thin, dark cane producing similar 
jaggery. The keli is a white cane with a cracked bark giving 
watery juice which wants more boiling than usual. The 
bontha or bontlui ndmalu is a stout, striped cane, but the jaggery 
it gives is said to be very inferior- The ndmalu is a thin, 
striped variety, also producing a bad jaggery. The mogili is 
a very thick kind with knots at short intervals ; its jaggery is 

' The advantages of ratooning are still the subject of careful experiment at 
the Samalkot experimental farm. G.O. No. 1020, Revenue, dated 14th 
September 1904, p. 29. 

Much of what follows has l)een taken from the report of Mr. C. A. Barber, 
the Government BcHanist, in (i.O. No. 1193, Revenue, dated ^cth Deceml ei 
1901, pp. 21 foil. 


again like that of the Bombay cane, but it gives much juice chap. iv. 
and has hitherto shown a considerable immunity from disease. Wet 

The pdlahontha is a soft cane which is sold for chewing. The ^'^^^q^^' 

vdlii is like the 'country ' cane, but a little thinner; and the 

juice is a little more watery and requires longer boiling. The 
mogili, ' country ' and pdlahontha canes grow only about six or 
seven feet high. The rest run up to nine feet. 

About the end of the last century an obscure disease Kecent 

decimated the sugar-cane in the district. In March 1900 dSs^'^'^ 

Government introduced cuttings from Hospet in Bellary, and the 

where disease was rare, but this did little good. The Govern- Samaikot 

° experimental 

ment Botanist, Mr. C. A. Barber, was accordingly deputed to farm, 
make a thorough investigation of the crops and the disease, 
and his report, dated 24th April 1901, threw much light on the 
subject and suggested the starting of a Government agricul- 
tural station at which the matter might be further studied. 
The station was opened in 1902 at Samalkot. It has been 
recently decided that it shall be a permanent institution. 

The diseases of the sugar-cane in the district are described 
in Mr. Barber's first report. The moth borer, the ravages of 
which do such an infinity of harm in the West Indies and no 
small damage in Ganjam, is responsible for very little of the 
evil ; perhaps owing to the scattered cultivation of the cane, 
or the system of tying the leaves round the stem, or the 
existence of its antagonist the haria Barberi fungus. The 
' small borer,' or scolytid beetle, and the ' red smut,' or Collcto- 
trichiim falcatnm fungus, are the greatest enemies of the 
Godavari canes. These two pests go hand in handj and it 
cannot as yet be said which prepares the cane for the ravages 
of the other. The fungus manifests itself inside the cane in 
'well marked blotches with a characteristic white centre.' 
It can attach itself to any abrasion on the surface of the cane, 
even to the scar left by a fallen leaf, and thence makes its 
entry into the tissues of the plant. It is very slow in its 
progress. The conidia of the fungus are found at the base of 
the black tufts of hair in the holes left by old dead roots, and 
as an incrustation on the surface of the dead and dried up 
canes below the origin of the leaf. If a cane infested with 
the ' small borer' is opened, the surface is found to be covered 
with a mass of small dark beetles about one-twelfth of an 
inch in length, which are seen busily emerging from and 
re-entering their small burrows. A strong vinous odour of 
fermented juice fills the air, and the infested canes are 
entirely useless for sugar. The evil acts very quickly. In 
the West Indian islands whole fields have been completely 
destroyed by it. 







Seasons, etc. 

The infection of the fungus can be carried by the air; but 
it seems likely that water, either flowing from infected fields 
or into which diseased canes and refuse have been thrown, is 
the chief agent for its diffusion. The water-logged condition 
of the ground, the lack of rotation, and the consequent exhaus- 
tion of the soil, are among other contributing causes. 

A number of interesting results bearing upon defects in the 
present methods of sugar-cane cultivation have been obtained 
at the Samalkot farm by employing different manures, growing 
different varieties and raising selected canes under different 
systems. These are detailed in G.O. No. 1020, Revenue, dated 
14th September 1904, pp. 20 ff. The chief conclusions arrived 
at are briefly : (l) that it is important to tread in the cuttings 
properly, (2) that they should be planted in rows so as to 
facilitate weeding, supervision and irrigation, (3) that they are 
best put out in trenches, (4) that the use of a rake to supple- 
ment two thorough weedings with the tolika would be easier 
and much less expensive than the use of the tolika throughout, 
(5) that green dressing is good, but that the plants usually 
employed by the ryots are leguminous and suffer from insect 
and other pests, and (6) that the use of cane trash as a mulch 
in the first instance and its burial in the fields after the canals 
are reopened has several advantages. 

Other matters are under investigation ; among them the 
best number of cuttings per acre, the quantityof water required, 
the abolition of the expensive bamboo supports, the advantages 
of ratooning, and the improvement of the methods of making 

The commonest dry crops are gingelly (nugn or nuvvu), 
cholam ( jonna), horse-gram (ulava), ragi (tsodi), green gram 
(pesara), sunn hemp ( jannmu), castor (dmtida), cambu (gantc), 
black gram (mimunii), tobacco (pogdkii), and Bengal gram 
(salaga or saiiaga). Gingelly, horse-gram and ragi are most 
widely grown in Peddapuram and Rajahmundry. Cholam is 
chiefly raised in Bhadrachalam in the Agency, in all the 
upland taluks and in Amalapuram in the delta. Castor is 
popular in Polavaram; cambu in Peddapuram; Bengal gram 
in Amalapuram, Peddapuram and Ramachandrapuram ; and 
sunn hemp in Amalapuram, Nagaram and Cocanada. Tobacco 
grows best in the Godavari lankas and in Yellavaram. 

The two seasons of dry cultivation are known respectively 
as the tolakari or piindsn pant a and the sitakattu or payini pant a. 
The former begins any time between May and July inclusive, 
and the latter between the beginning of September and the 
middle of December. With local exceptions, ragi, gingelly 
and cambu are grown in the first season ; and horse-gram, 






ragi ; dhall with ragi, 
beans (annmulu) with 
korra. The principal 

cholam, castor, and black, green and Bengal gram in the 
second. No regular rotations are observed. In Bhadra- 
chalam the ryots say vaguely that they vary the crop when it 
begins to fail for want of a change. In Peddapuram, Tuni, 
Amalapuram and Polavaram they profess to change the crop 
every year and say that castor and Bengal gram require 
intervals of three and seven years respectively before they 
are repeated on the same land. 

The place of rotation is to some extent taken by mixing 
the crops, a system which is usual everywhere. Typical and 
common combinations are horse-gram or black gram with 

samai or gingelly ; black |gram and 
cholam ; and cambu with samai or 
advantage of the system is that it 
economises space, a small or slow-growing crop being raised 
in the intervals between spreading or quickly-maturing plants. 

In the delta and the Agency, manuring is rare; but it is Cultivation 
frequent elsewhere. Ragi, tobacco and gingelly are thought 
to require it more than other crops. Fields are ploughed ' 
from four to six times, but twice is considered enough for 
horse-gram. Tobacco and onions seem to be always trans- 
planted and cambu and ragi generally so. The seedlings are 
laid in a furrow and covered by ploughing another furrow 
alongside the first. Most of the other dry crops are sown 
broadcast, but castor and Bengal gram are sown seed by 
seed in a furrow, and in places a drill is used. The seed is 
covered by dragging a leafy 
ploughing again. Weeding of 

There appear to be four kinds of cholam in this district, 
namely two varieties (the mudda and the ralla) of yellow 
( parJm) c\\o\'dm, white cholam (tella jonna or man joniia), and 
' hill cholam ' (konda jo>i/iaJ. The white variety is peculiar to 
Bhadrachalam and the ' hill cholam ' to podii cultivation. 
Yellow cholam is generally sown mixed with green gram. 
The seed is covered as usual. Six or eight weeks afterwards 
the field is lightly ploughed, which is believed to strengthen 
the young plants. In Polavaram the ryots first weed the crop 
and loosen the soil with a gorni, a log of wood provided with 
iron or wooden teeth, which is drawn by bullocks. The crop 
is sown in October or November and is on the ground for 
three or four months. 

There are two varieties of tobacco — lanka and pati. The Tobacco 
former, which is much the superior, is grown on the alluvial 
soils of the lankas and banks of the Godavari, which require 
no manure owing to their being covered with silt by the river 

branch across the field or 
any kind appears to be the 





every year. The latter is raised in fields near the villages. 
The crop is always transplanted. The seed is sown in 
seed-beds in the piibba kdrti (first half of September) and 
transplantation takes place after the iittara kdrti (at the end 
of that month), when the floods in the river have subsided, 
and sometimes as late as December. Great care is taken in 
the preparation of the seed-beds, the land being ploughed 
many times and plantifuUy manured with cattle-dung and 
ashes. Sheep-dung is usually considered hot and injurious, 
but is employed in Nagaram. Before sowing, the seed is 
mixed in the proportion of one to sixteen with sand, so as to 
enable it to be thinly scattered. It is sometimes soaked and 
kept for four or five days (like paddy) in a damp place until 
it germinates. The seed-bed is kept moist by daily (or even 
more frequent) sprinklings of water, and is also weeded 
almost daily. When the seedlings are from one and a half 
to two and a half months old they are transplanted at inter- 
vals from half a yard to a yard apart. They are frequently 
watered for three or four weeks, but not after that. The 
plants blossom in some six or eight weeks, and then their 
buds and tops are cut off to strengthen the eight or ten leaves' 
which remain. All lateral shoots are also cut off from time 
to time and so, at length, are the bottom two or three of the 
eight or ten leaves. 

The crop is on the ground for five and a half months from 
the time it is sown. It is harvested at midday ; and the leaves 
are left in the sun for two hours and then hung from strings 
in the shade for a fortnight. They are next pressed under 
weights for a month, after which water is sprinkled on them 
and they are fit for use. 

Attempts are being made to improve the quality of the 
tobacco grown in the district. Messrs. T. H. Barry & Co. of 
Cocanada have established a tobacco factory in that town 
and foreign seed has been imported by Government for 
experimental cultivation in the lankas leased to Mr. T. H. 
Barry. The chief defect of the existing tobacco is the exces- 
sive thickness and dark colour of the leaf. It is sold in 
other parts of India and Burma and, to a limited extent, in 
Mauritius, Bourbon and London. 

The majority of the hill Reddis and the Koyas in the 
Agency carry on shifting cultivation, called /?r;V///, by burning 
clearings in the forests. The conflict between their interests 
and those of forest reservation are referred to in Chapter V. 
Two methods prevail : the ordinary (or chalaka) podii, and the 
hill (or koinla) podii. The former consists in cultivating 
certain recognized clearings for a year or two at a time, 

liauiacUuudrapuialu Si.if 







allowing the forest to grow again for a few years, and then qhap. IV 
again burning and i:ultivating them ; while under the latter dry 
the clearing is not returned to for a much longer period and Cultiva- 

is sometimes deserted for ever. The latter is in fashion in ' 

the more hilly and wilder parts, while the former is a step 
towards civilization. 

In February or March the jungle trees and bushes are cut 
down and spread evenly over the portion to be cultivated ; 
and, when the hot weather comes on, they are burnt. The 
ashes act as a manure, and the cultivators also think that the 
mere heat of the burning makes the ground productive. The 
land is ploughed once or twice in chalaka podus before and 
after sowing, but not at all in konda podus. The seed is 
sown in June in the mrigasira kdrti. Hill cholam and samai 
are the commonest crops. The former is dibbled into the 

Grain is usually stored in regular granaries (kottii) or in storage of 
thatched bamboo receptacles built on a raised foundation and grain, 
called gddi. These are not found in Bhadrachalam or the 
central delta, where the piiri (a high, round receptacle made 
of twisted straw) is used. Grain is also stored, as elsewhere, 
in pits. 

The chief irrigation source of the district is the Godavari, 
the channels from which protect 240,800 acres in all seasons. 
Some 4,600 acres of this are in Rajahmundry, and the rest area 
in the delta taluks of Ramachandrapuram, Cocanada, Amala- 
puram and Nagaram. Tanks and channels from smaller 
rivers safeguard 31,800 acres in all seasons and 53,800 acres 
in ordinary seasons. Wells irrigate a very small area. Only 
in Amalapuram taluk does the extent protected by them rise 
above TOO acres. 

The Godavari water is rendered available by the great 
anicut at Dowlaishweram and the immense system of canals 
and channels leading off from it. Those in this district are 
shown in the accompanying map, and there are yet others in 

This anicut was the first of any real magnitude to be built 
by Europeans in this Presidency (the Cauvery system was an 
elaboration of native enterprize) and is one of the greatest 
triumphs of engineering skill in all India. Its history is of 
the greatest interest. Not only were the physical difficulties 
encountered in damming up so huge a river enormous, but 
the opposition of those who doubted the possibility and 
financial prospects of the work had to be overcome. Both 
were met by the engineers in charge of the project with 
indomitable perseverance and fortitude. 








Origin of the 



The project consists of a dam across the Godavari at 
Dowlaishweram (where the river is nearly four miles wide) 
and a net work of canals covering almost every part of the 
delta. ^ Some of these canals are navigable, and the traffic 
along them is referred to in Chapter VII. The conception of 
the scheme was due to the genius of Sir Arthur Cotton. The 
idea of an anicut across the river originated - as far back as 
1789 with Mr. Topping, an astronomer in the service of the 
Madras Government who was appointed to survey the coast 
of the district in that year. It was revived in 1844 by Sir 
Henry Montgomery,"' who had been appointed (see p. 167) 
Special Commissioner to report on the best means of improving 
the then unhappy condition of the district. As a result of 
his recommendations. Sir Arthur (then Captain) Cotton of the 
Madras Engineers was ordered in 1845 to report profession- 
ally on the possibility of building an anicut on the river. He 
pronounced in favour of the idea ; his representations were 
earnestly backed by the then Governor of Madras, the Marquis 
of^Tweeddale ; and the Court of Directors, in a despatch dated 
December 23rd, 1846, sanctioned the project. 

Sir Arthur Cotton's first idea had been to build a dam 
above Rajahmundry similar to the two anicuts on the 
Coleroon which had been recently constructed under his 
supervision. But he eventually recommended that the work 
should be constructed just below Dowlaishweram, at the head 
of the delta. The breadth of the river was much greater 
there than above Rajahmundry, but a great portion of the 
width was occupied by islands, and the site had the great 
advantage of being close to a hill of coarse, strong sandstone 
'of a degree of hardness exactly suited to the case; neither 
too hard to be expensive in working nor yet soft enough to 
be unfit for the purpose.' Round this hill, also, lay several 
hundred thousand tons of broken stone, the accumulations of 
years of native quarryings, which would be of great value for 
rubble work. The cost of constructing the anicut itself Sir 
Arthur estimated at only 4% lakhs, and that of the subsidiary 
works as 7^^ lakhs, or only twelve lakhs in all. At the same 
time he indulged in the most sanguine hopes of increased 
irrigation and revenue, and of a rich return upon this 
'absurdly small' sum. It will be seen immediately that he 
very greatly under-estimated the cost of both dam and project. 

^ The following brief sketch has been for the most part abstracted from the 
graphic account, in The Engineering works of the Godavari delta, by 
Mr. G. T. Walch, late Chief Engineer for Irrigation, Madras, published by the 
Government Press in 1896. 

- Urst report of the Public Works Commission at .Madras, 1852, ]). 100. 

^ His report dated i8th March 1844, para. 40. 

Dowlaishweram branch 


Rali branch 


Maddiir branch 

... 516 

Vijesvaram branch 



The breadth of the Godavari at the point selected for the CHAP. IV. 
dam is rather over 3f miles ; but of this more than a third is tub 
occupied by three islands and the head of the central delta, Godavari 

, . . r I iAr.^-1 ANICUT. 

which separate the river into four channels. About a mile 

from the Dowlaishweram (or eastern) bank of the river is the The site 
island known as the Pichika-lanka, nearly 800 yards broad, ""^^ design, 
the branches flowing on either side of which are known as the 
Dowlaishweram and Rali branches respectively. Next beyond 
the Rali branch comes the head of the central delta, known as 
the Bobbarlanka, which is about 470 yards wide. Then comes 
a narrow channel called the Maddur branch ; next the Maddiir 
lanka, about 630 yards broad ; and, lastly, the fourth, or 
Vijesvaram, branch of the river. The lengths of the sections 
of the dam over each of the four branches, exclusive of under- 
sluices and wings, were as given in the margin. It will be 

Yards, seen that the total length of 
the work was about 4,000 
yards. It was intended to be 
12 feet high and connected 
with embankments on the 
different islands 2,455 yards in length. 

The river bed was of pure sand and the islands were thin 
alluvial deposits thereon, while floods upwards of 25 feet in 
depth swept one and a half millions of cubic feet of water 
past the place every second. The problem how to bring the 
river under the necessary control at such a site was thus no 
easy one. 

The actual design of the dam was modified more than 
once ; and none of the sections across the various branches is 
precisely similar to any other. The original plans provided 
for a narrow crest with a vertical drop for the water on to a 
cut-stone floor behind, the section being very similar to that 
of the Upper Anient on the Coleroon. Before work began, 
however, Sir Arthur adopted a very different design with a 
broad crest and a long sloping apron behind it of rubble 
masonry covered with cut-stone. The great advantage of this 
was that it required much less cut-stone work, for skilled 
masons were exceedingly scarce. It was not adhered to 
universally, different modifications being introduced in each 
of the four sections, but the general principle of a long rough- 
stone apron was retained in all. This had a very serious 
drawback, the full effect of which its designer did not first 
appreciate. Water rushing down such a sloping apron sets 
up reverse under-currents which tend to scour holes in the 
river bed and so undermine the foundation of the work. It was 
soon found that a further extension of the apron by a long 







Progress of 

rough-Stone talus was necessary, and at the present time it 
is from three to six times as wide as it originally was, and 
its thickness has been greatly increased by the enormous 
quantities of stone thrown in to make good the sinkage which 
has from time to time taken place. In the first twenty years 
of the anicut's existence over 500,000 tons of stone were used 
for this purpose, and vast quantities more have been used 
since. Nowadays very little is required, and that only at 
certain places. 

Another considerable change in the original design was 
the adoption of the plan of founding the anicut on the sand 
confined between its face wall and the retaining wall at the 
toe of the apron, instead of upon a mass of loosely deposited 
stone. The Rali branch alone was constructed on the latter 
method and its foundations were the only ones which gave 
any trouble. They allowed the water to pass through in great 

Three sets of under-sluices of fifteen vents each were built, 
one near the head-sluice of each of the main canals of the 
three sections of the delta. Three locks were also built, one 
at the head of each of those canals. Three head-sluices were 
also ultimately necessary. 

The sanction of the Court of Directors to the execution of 
the work was received early in 1847. In April of that year 
operations were vigorously commenced. A detachment of 
Sappers and Miners was posted to Dowlaishweram, and a 
Sub-Collector (Mr. H. Forbes) was appointed to superintend 
the recruitment and payment of labourers and to procure the 
necessary supplies. His exertions (it may here be noted) 
were more than once acknowledged to have contributed 
largely to the success of the work (Sir Arthur said ' his vigorous 
and active measures have roused this district to a degree that 
could not have been expected') and he was specially thanked 
in the Government order reviewing the completion of the 
project. Before July had arrived, as many as 10,200 labourers, 
500 carpenters and the same number of smiths had been 
collected to put in hand preliminary preparations. Boats 
were built, railway waggons constructed, the quarry opened 
and two double lines of rail ran from it to different points on 
the river banks, and the embankments on the islands put in 

In the working season of 1848 the actual construction of 
the dam was begun, and the Dowlaishweram and Maddur 
sections were both built to the height of nine feet, and good 
deal of work was also done to the Dowlaishweram and 
Vijesvaram sluices. In the middle of 1848 Sir Arthur Cotton 




had to go Home on leave ' exhausted by unremitting work and chap. IV 
anxiety ' ; and for the next two years his place was taken by ^The 
Captain (afterwards General) C. A. Orr, R.E., who had from Godavari 
the first been his most successful lieutenant and to whom much 
of the credit for the completion of the undertaking is due. 

Next year (1849) the whole of the Vijesvaram section was 
built to a height of nine feet under circumstances of great 
difficulty. The work could not be begun until February lOth 
owing to want of funds. During its progress a sudden rise in 
the river breached it, and extensive temporary dams had to be 
erected to turn the river away from it. It was completed by 
the end of May. The season's operations also included the 
repair of 80 yards of the Maddur section, the raising of the 
whole section by one and a half feet, the completion of the 
head and under-sluices and locks both at Dowlaishweram and 
Vijesvaram, of the under-sluice and wing walls of the Rail 
section and of about 50 yards at each end of this section, and 
the lengthening of the Dowlaishweram section by some 250 

At the beginning of the following year (1850) the only 
outlet for the whole stream of the Godavari was down the Rali 
branch, the section across which alone remained to be com- 
pleted. A temporary dam of loose stone had been made 
across this in 1848 and strengthened in 1849 to prevent the 
stream from cutting too deep a channel in the bed of the river ; 
but the water escaped both through and over this, and it 
became necessary to make it water-tight and high enough to 
turn the stream down the Dowlaishweram and Vijesvaram 
branches, and through the head and under-sluices in them. 
This would have been no easy matter at any time, but now 
considerably more water than usual was passing down owing 
to heavy rain in Hyderabad and Nagpore. 

An exciting struggle with the river ensued. In February 
about 50 yards of the temporary dam was swept away, and 
no sooner was the damage repaired than 80 yards more was 
washed down stream. This branch was nearly closed when 
the river asserted itself and widened it to 80 yards again, 
surging through the narrow opening between 20 and 30 feet 
deep. With immense difficulty this breach was at length 
closed and the river turned aside on the 23rd April, and before 
the end of the next month the Rali section was completed to 
a height of loi feet. The head-sluice and lock on this section 
were built the same year, and the great anicut was thus at 
last an accomplished fact. 

Though the battle was now won, the difficulties were far 

from over. On the 9th June 1850 the river began to rise 








since eftected. 

Steadily, It was passed through the Dowlaishweram and 
Rail under-sluices, but the apron behind the latter was only 
25 feet wide, and on the l/th June it began to sink. The 
sluices were .'closed and an attempt was made to replace the 
apron'; ^when suddenly the great head of water forced the 
sand from beneath the foundation of the sluices into the 
hollow formed by the sinking of the apron, and a portion of 
the sluices fell in. Seven out of fourteen piers collapsed ; but 
fortunately the massive masonry formed a dam preventing any 
great rush of water and gave time for measures to be taken to 
check the extension of the damage. 

In the working season of 1851 and the early part of 1852 
these under-sluices were rebuilt and the finishing touches were 
put to the anicut and head-works. Their virtual completion 
may be considered to have been achieved by March 31st, 1852. 
Large repairs and alterations in the dam have been carried 
out since its first construction. The constant additions to the 
rough-stone aprons have already been alluded to, and another 
important improvement has been the raising of the crest of 
the work. Even before it was finished in 1852, its height was 
found insufficient to secure an adequate supply of water to the 
canals at all seasons ; and cast-iron grooved posts, fitted with 
horizontal planks to hold up when necessary an additional 
two feet of water, were fixed along its crest. This was still 
insufficient ; and between 1862 and 1867 the masonry itself 
was raised two feet at a cost of nearly three lakhs, and the 
iron posts and planks were replaced on the top of the new 
work. In 1897-99 the crest was raised an additional nine 
inches with Portland cement concrete, and on this were fitted 
self-acting cast-iron shutters, two feet high, which fall auto- 
matically when the water rises to six inches above their tops. 
The only serious accident to the anicut itself happened 
in 1857. On the 14th November of that year, when the 
season for floods was over and the water was comparatively 
low, the eastern end of the Maddur branch suddenly subsided 
into a deep scour-hole below it, and a breach was formed 
through which the river poured with such depth and volume 
that it was impossible to stop it. The disaster was met by 
damming up the river (with great difficulty) some way above 
the anicut and then rebuilding the fallen portion. The 
operation cost half a lakh. 

The three sets of head-locks, head-sluices and under- 
sluices, have all been altered or replaced at various times, 
and of the original constructions only one head-sluice and 
the three sets of under-sluices now survive. The original 
Vijesvaram head-lock was destroyed in the floods of 1852. It 



was rebuilt next year, but was eventually converted into 
sluices ; and the present head-lock was built in 1891. The 
original Vijesvaram head-sluices fell in 1853 ; were rebuilt in 
1854; and are still in use. The central delta head-sluices fell 
in 1878 in a high flood, and great difficulty was experienced 
in preventing damage to the canal below. The head-lock 
beside them became so shaky that in 1889-90 it was replaced 
by a new one. Of the eastern delta works, the head-lock 
toppled over in 1886, when there was 14/^ feet of water on the 
anient. It carried the lock gates with it and left a gap into 
the canal fifteen feet wide, through which the water poured. 
The river continued to rise, and in two days reached the then 
unprecedented height of 17 feet above the anicut, so that the 
breach was only stopped with great difficulty. A new lock 
in a rather better position was built next year and opened 
on Jubilee day. 

A gradually increasing shoal which has been forming on 
the left side of the Godavari river above the Dowlaishweram 
branch of the anicut has been for some time past a source 
of anxiety and of inconvenience to navigation. The old 
Dowlaishweram under-sluices not being sufficiently powerful 
to arrest the progress of this shoal towards the head-sluice, it 
was considered necessary to build more powerful substitutes 
for them. An estimate was sanctioned in 1903 and the work 
is now in progress. The new under-sluices are to consist of 
ten vents 20 feet wide and 10 feet high, regulated by iron lift 
shutters and with their sill four feet below that of the head- 
sluice. The shutters are to be in two tiers — the upper 
measuring 20 feet by 6 feet and the lower 20 feet by 4 feet — 
are to be constructed of half inch plates stiffened with rolled 
steel beams I2 feet by 6 feet, and are to be worked by chain 
gearing arrangements. 

Simultaneously with the construction of the head-works, 
arrangements were made for carrying to the various parts of 
the delta the water they rendered available. Even before the 
building of the anicut, certain portions of the delta had been 
irrigated. Sir Henry Montgomery's report of 1846 already 
mentioned deplored the neglect with which the then existing 
channels had been treated, and Sir Arthur Cotton described 
them as partial works of small extent not kept in an effective 
state. They were merely inundation channels, the heads of 
which were 12 or 1 5 feet above the deep bed of the river, and 
they received a supply only during floods, or for about 50 days 
in the year. Some of them lay on the western side of the 
river in the present Kistna district ; the central delta contained 
none worth mention : but on the eastern side of the river four 











The Ganna- 



considerable channels were in existence. One of these, called 
the Tulya Bhaga, led off from near the site of the anicut and 
ran in a fairly straight line to Cocanada, terminating in the 
salt creek there. In 1846 a branch was taken from it to 
Samalkot from near Dowlaishweram. These two channels 
were connected with the head-works of the eastern delta. 

At the end of 1849 a start was made with the new 
distributary works, sanction being obtained to the cutting of 
the main canals in the eastern and central deltas, the first of 
which (see the map) leads along the river bank nearly as far 
as Yanam and the second runs past Rali. In April 1851 the 
western delta main canal (now in the Kistna district) was 
sanctioned, and in February 1852 considerable extensions of 
the eastern main canal and large distributary works in the 
central delta, including the great Gannavaram aqueduct, were 
agreed to. 

This aqueduct carries a large canal across a branch of the 
Godavari to the Nagaram island, which is surrounded by the 
sea and two arms of the river and to which water can only be 
taken in this way. The aqueduct may be roughly described 
as an arched bridge of brick thrown across the branch of the 
river, upon which, in the place where the roadway of an ordi- 
nary bridge is laid, runs a channel from 22 to 24 feet broad 
and some four feet deep. Its total length between abutments 
is 2,248 feet, and it consists of 49 arches with 40 feet waterway 
and 48 piers 6 feet thick. Ordinarily, the water of the branch 
of the river across which it is thrown flows through the arches 
of the aqueduct, but in times of high flood it completely 
submerges the whole work and pours over the top of it. It 
was impossible to make the aqueduct higher, because of the 
expense and danger involved in raising the embankments of 
the channels connected with it to a corresponding height 
above the level of the surrounding country. The work had 
therefore to be made of sufficient strength to resist floods 
sweeping over it. 

The most noteworthy fact about the work is the wonderfully 
short period within which it was built. The estimate was 
submitted by Sir Arthur Cotton in August 1851 but was not 
sanctioned till February 14th 1852. It was considered of para- 
mount importance to finish the work before the floods of that 
year came down, and, to effect this, extraordinary efforts were 
necessary. Between the first preparation of the materials for 
the work and the completion of all its 49 arches only four 
months elapsed, and in another four it was ready for its work. 
' In any part of the world,' says Mr. Walch in his book already 
cited, ' this would have been a noteworthy achievement ; in an 





of distriliu- 

out-of-the-way part of the Madras Presidency, where 
machinery was almost unobtainable and most of the skilled 
labour had to be trained as the work went on, it was an 
extraordinary feat.' The construction was under the charge 
of Lieutenant (afterwards General) G. T. Haig, R.E., and his 
energy and skill are commended in the highest terms by Sir 
Arthur Cotton : 'That a single officer with two or three over- 
seers should have managed about 5,000 workmen, and with 
the help of only one or two efficient workmen, is one of the 
most surprising things I have met with. Every time I visited 
the work I was astonished at the energy and admirable 
arrangement of this young officer. I cannot say less than that 
I think him the most effective officer I have ever had attached 
to me, I have never yet seen such energy displayed by any 
other man.' It is, in truth, difficult to realize, as one views this 
imposing work, that it was actually completed in one working 

Money for further extensions of the distributary works was Completion 
at first grudged by Government, who were sceptical of the 
prospects of the scheme and aghast at the enormous excess 
over the original estimates of expenditure which had been 
incurred. ' The records teem with remonstrances from Colonel 
Cotton and with * minutes,' ' notes ' and letters by Governors, 
Members of Council, Boards and Secretaries, now wrathful and 
now penned more in sorrow than in anger, on the subject of 
the surprises which Colonel Cotton was springing on them in 
his demands for what they considered unexpected develop- 
ments of the original scheme, or to cover expenditure incurred 
on work which had not been sanctioned or had been much 
altered or largely exceeded in execution. . . . On the one 
hand was the enthusiast whose genius and special knowledge 
enabled him to see clearly that what he proposed to do was 
in the best interests of Government as well as of the people, 
and who was impatient of delay ; on the other hand were the 
controlling powers who held the purse strings and whose dutv 
it was to check too hurried an advance along a path the issue 
from which to them was obscure.' ^ It was not till 1853 that 
the success of the project became so apparent that funds were 
granted readily for its development. From that time onwards 
the canals and channels were rapidly pushed forward. At 
the present time there are in the Godavari district (not 
counting the works in Kistna, on the western bank of the river) 
287 miles of canal (nearly all of which are navigable) and 
1,047 miles of distributaries. 

1 Mr. Walch, op. cit., p. 89. 




results of the 

of it. 

Its admin- 

The total capital outlay on the whole scheme up to the end 
of 1904-05 is returned as Rs. 1,36,93,000, the gross receipts of 
that year at Rs. 35,58,000, the annual working expenses at 
Rs. 9,10,000, and the net revenue at Rs. 26,48,000 or 19*34 Per 
cent, on the capital outlay. The benefits and increase of 
wealth which the project has conferred upon the people of the 
district are incalculable. The misery it has prevented may be 
gauged from a perusal of Chapter VIII below, where the 
ghastly sufferings from famine which the people endured 
before its construction are faintly indicated. 

Mr. Walch considers that ' it may be assumed that there is 
land available for an extension of irrigation of at least 100,000 
acres ; exclusive of the considerable areas in the Coringa and 
Polaram islands, to both of which anicut water could be taken 
without any very serious engineering difficulty ; to the former 
by a tunnel or articulated pipes and to the latter by an 
aqueduct across the Vriddha Gautami.' Whether, however, 
sufficient water can be rendered available for any such exten- 
sion is another matter. For some three months in every year 
vastly more water comes down the river than is required for 
the area at present irrigated, and this excess pours uselessly 
over the anicut and down to the sea. But in almost every 
season the period of superabundance is followed by one of 
scarcity, the water barely sufficing for the present area of 
wet crops. Either therefore the ' duty ' of the water must be 
increased (no easy matter) or some method of storage must 
be resorted to. It has been suggested ^ that reservoirs 
might perhaps be formed on the Saveri or one of its larger 

The administration of the irrigation works of the central 
and eastern deltas in this district involves the maintenance 
of a large establishment. An Executive Engineer and two 
Assistant Engineers are in charge of them exclusively, the 
rest of the district being administered by another Executive 
Engineer with an Assistant Engineer subordinate to him ; and 
under their orders are the anicut superintendent and sub- 
overseers, who supervise the distribution of the water, the 
conservancy establishment in charge of the locks and river 
embankments, and the navigation establishment referred to in 
Chapter VII. A new division for the conservancy of the river 
bed is being organized. 

The embankments give much trouble in times of high 
freshes, and the country is not yet adequately protected from 
the effects of abnormal floods. In 1886, 1892 and 1900 the 

^ Mr. II. E. Clerk's Preliminary Report for the Irrigation Commission 
(1902), 3, 50- 


embankments breached and serious inundations were caused. CHAP. IV. 
Most of them have been raised since 1900. Drainage, though Other 
not so burning a question as in the Tanjore delta, is a matter ^sourSs.^ 

of great difficulty near the coast, where the fall of the land is 

very gradual. Large tracts there are liable to be flooded by 
a heavy north-east monsoon. 

As above remarked, the district contains 31,800 acres pro- Mionr 
tected in all seasons by minor channels and tanks, and 533oo ["jj^^jj'g"^'^ ^""^ 
acres safeguarded in ordinary seasons. Of this extent, the 
greater part lies in Rajahmundry (20,300 and 27,300 acres 
respectively) and Peddapuram (18,400 acres in ordinary 
seasons). In Polavaram, Cocanada and Bhadrachalam only 
2,800 acres, 1,300 acres and lOO acres respectively are pro- 
tected by these sources in all seasons, and in ordinary seasons 
2,800 acres in Yellavaram, TOO acres in Chodavaram and an 
additional 1,700 acres in Polavaram. Tanks occur in all these 
tracts. The largest in the district is at Lingamparti in 
Peddapuram taluk, which irrigates 4,686 acres. Other con- 
siderable reservoirs are the Kottapalli tank (970 acres), the 
Kapavaram tank (823 acres), and the Ganapavaram tank 
(686 acres), all in Rajahmundry. The only considerable 
minor channels are those from the Yeleru, which irrigate 
some 8,000 acres in Peddapuram taluk and a further extent in 
the Pithapuram zamindari. A small area in Peddapuram is 
also irrigated from the Ravutulapudi stream. 

Irrigation from wells is very rare in the uplands and the Wells. 
Agency, and the only taluk in the district in which over lOO 
acres is so watered is Amalapuram. Cheap temporary wells 
are sunk in small numbers in parts of Peddapuram, Tuni, 
Cocanada and Ramachandrapuram. In the two latter they 
are only used for about two months in each year, average 
12 feet in depth, and hold some six feet of water. In Cocanada 
they are called doriivu wells. In Tuni they last much longer 
and more labour is expended on them. On the Yalesvaram 
river shallow wells are dug which last for five or six years. 
It is only in Nagaram and Amalapuram taluks that permanent 
revetted wells are found. They are very large, from 18 to 
24 feet deep, hold from six to twelve feet of water, are revetted 
with bricks and are said to be very ancient- They are some- 
times called ' Jain ' wells, and are supposed to date from the 
days when the Jain faith prevailed in the country; * in 
Amalapuram they are sometimes called ' Reddis' wells.' 
They are largely used for the irrigation of areca and cocoanut 
palm plantations, and the supply in them is said to be practi- 
cally perennial. The ordinary water-lift employed in the 

' See Chapter III, p, 39. 










OF Agricui.- 


central delta is the kapila or motu worked by bullocks, but 
the picottah (called tokkiidii yetham) is usual elsewhere. 

A peculiarity of the district is its artesian wells. The 
existence of an artesian supply was accidentally discovered 
while digging an ordinary well in the railway-station com- 
pound at Samalkot in 1892-93, the water being encountered at 
a depth of about eighty feet. Since then several other artesian 
wells have been sunk ; namely, a second in the station com- 
pound, two in 1904 in the sugar refinery at the same place 
(water being reached at some lio feet), and a fifth in the 
railway-station yard at Cocanada Port, where the water was 
nearly 300 feet below ground level. Artesian water has 
also been found on the Polavaram and Yernagudem border 
during the recent explorations for coal in that neighbourhood 
but borings at Pithapuram have been unsuccessful. 

In the zamindaris the ryots have usually no admitted occu- 
pancy right. They pay money rents fixed each year. In the 
Agency, the tenants of the muttadars are apparently protected 
from 'rack-renting and eviction by the scarcity of cultivators 
and the consequent desire of each landholder to keep those 
he has. 

In Government land, fields are frequently sub-let by the 
pattadars, the consideration being either a share of the actual 
crop (samgoru) or, much more commonly, a fixed payment in 
money or grain called sist. 

The sharing system seems to be chiefly restricted to inferior 
wet land, and under it the crop is everywhere divided equally 
between the landholder and the tenant. The latter usually 
finds the seed, the cattle and the labour, but in Rhadrachalam 
a landholder will often let his permanent farm-servants culti- 
vate a piece of his land with his cattle and seed on condition 
of receiving half the crop resulting. 

Fixed rents are only paid in grain in the case of wet land. 
Grain rents are usually rather lower than money rents, as 
there is less chance of evading payment of them. The tenant, 
as before, finds seed, cattle and labour ; but in Pithapuram a 
variant called the backyard (peradii) system prevails under 
which the landholder lends the cattle. Agricultural labourers 
are either farm-servants engaged by the year (pdlikdpu) or 
coolies hired by the day or job. The former usually engage 
themselves for the whole year to some landholder, who then 
has the exclusive right to their services. Accounts are settled, 
and fresh engagements made, on the eleventh day of the bright 
fortnight of the month Ashadha (July-August), which is well 
known throughout the district under the name of 'the initial 
ekadasi' {toll ekddasi). Then, as the proverb significantly 


says, ' the pdlikdpus are companions to their master's sons-in- CHAP. IV. 

law,' they remind him of his petty tyrannies during the past Economic 
It 1 ^1 1 f iu • „ 4. Condition 

year and haggle over the renewal oi their agreements. ^^ agricul- 

The rates of wages for pdlikdpus, which are always fixed turists. 
by the year and (except in Bhadrachalam) in paddy, vary, " 

when commuted into money at the usual rate of 10 kunchams 
per rupee, from Rs. 24 (or one anna a day) in Polavaram 
to Rs. 60 (two annas, eight pies a day) in Peddapuram, 
Pithapuram, Rajahmundry and Ramachandrapuram. These 
labourers are also given a small varying quantity of straw and 
unthreshed paddy at the end of the year, a new cloth, some 
tobacco and a palmyra tree, or, if the master has no palmyras, 
a gift of one rupee. They also get advances of their wages 
free of interest. In Amalapuram various different customs 
prevail. These rates of wages are said to have increased by 
one-third or one-half in the last ten or fifteen years. Payment 
is usually made at the end of the year. 

The day labourer is paid from two to four annas a day, 
women getting half these rates. The rates of wages were 
only about half these sums a few years ago. Labour, however, 
is not really scarce. The great immigration from Vizagapatam 
(p. 38) has done much to supplement it, and there is no 
' labour problem ' as in some places, the Tanjore delta, for 
example. The rates of interest on loans are much the same as 
usual, 12 to 24 per cent, being common. Loans are often 
made on the security of standing crops on the condition that 
they shall be sold to the sowcar at less than the market price, 
an arrangement which is known as Xhe jatti ?,ysX&ra. 




Early Operations — Progress of reservation. Settlement— Proprietary 
rights — Susceptibilities of the jungle inhes—Podu cultivation. Adminis- 
tration — In Rampa— In the rest of the Agency — River transit rules— 
Fire-protection — Artificial reproduction ; casuarina — Mangrove— Introduc- 
tion of exotics, etc. General Character of the Forests— On the 
coast— In the uplands — In Polavaram and Yellavaram— In Rampa — In 
Bhadrachalam — Timber and the market for it — Minor forest produce — 
Forest revenue. 

CHAP. V. The best forests in the district are those in the Agency, and 
Early trade in their timber, facilitated as it is by the waterway 

Operations, provided by the Godavari river, has flourished from the 
earliest times. The Committee of Circuit (see p. 162) refer 
to it as far back as 1786 and it was still in existence when 
the Government recently began forest conservancy. The 
Bhadrachalam and Rekapalle country was the chief centre. 
Dealers from the plains employed theKoyasand hill Reddis 
to cut timber at so much a log, or bamboos at so much a 
thousand, and to drag them to the riverside, where they were 
made into rafts and floated down stream ^ to the markets 
nearer the coast. 

Progress of Forest conservancy was first begun in the Bhadrachalam 

reservation, taluk, which was transferred to the district from the Central 
Provinces in 1874. Soon after the transfer, the Madras Gov- 
ernment threw open its forests to exploitation on the permit 
system, and annually netted a very fair revenue from them.^ 
In 1876-77 reserves amounting to 138 square miles (subse- 
quently reduced to 68 square miles) were selected in the taluk 
by Mr. Boileau, the Deputy Conservator of Forests who had 
been sent to the district for the purpose ; but the hill tribes 
were permitted to cut whatever wood they chose for their own 
use, and complaints were frequently made that they sold 
timber and other produce to outside dealers. Although only 
four guards were sanctioned for the protection of these 
reserves, yet the average annual revenue between 1874 ^nd 
1882 was Rs. 21,000, while the expenditure averaged only 
Rs. 3,800. In the latter of these two years Mr. Boileau 
reported very unfavourably on the condition of the forests ; 
and Dr. (afterwards Sir Dietrich) Brandis, who was then 

1 B.P. No. 1992 (Forest No. 372), dated 7lh July 1885, p. II. 
^ B.P. Forest No. 222, dated 30lh July 1902. 





in Madras advising the Government regarding its future forest 
policy, recommended that conservancy in this takik should 
be abandoned unless Government was prepared to introduce 
the Forest Act and to sanction the reservation of large 
compact blocks, capable of subsequent extension, and stated 
that it was the unanimous opinion of the local officers that 
grazing, fires, indiscriminate cutting and the clearings made 
by the hill men for their shifting cultivation were ruining the 

The Government accordingly directed Mr. J. S. Gamble, 
the Conservator of the Northern Division, to inspect the taluk 
and report on Sir Dietrich Brandis' proposals, and his detailed 
account of the forests ^ finally dispelled any doubt as to their 
importance. Mr. Gamble rearranged Mr. Boileau's reserves 
and proposed new ones which brought up the forest area to 
530 square miles. Most of this tract was notified under the 
Forest Act between 1889 and 1891 ; but the large Rekapalle 
hills reserve of 93,500 acres was not notified till 1896. 

Reservation was soon begun in other taluks also. By 1893 
large areas had been notified in the Peddapuram taluk and 
Yellavaram division, but the major portion of the large 
Polavaram forests were not reserved till 1899, and it was not 
until 1901 that the forests of the district as a whole attained 
their present proportions. 

The marginal figures show in square miles the area of the 

reserves and reserved land in 
each taluk or division and in 
the district as a whole. They 
do not include Rampa, which 
though containing large areas 
of jungle, has for political 
reasons been excluded from 

the operations, and yet it will 

be noticed that 737 square miles of the total of 942 square 
miles is situated in the agency divisions. 

The rights of Government over the forests in the Agency 
have been established in different ways in different tracts. 
In Rampa, the muttadars at one time claimed the right to ^Proprietary 
lease out the forests, and large quantities of timber were 
removed by the lessees they appointed. But it was eventually 
ruled that Government stood in the exact place of the former 
mansabdar of Rampa and that consequently neither the 
muttadars nor the mokhasadars had any right to lease out the 
jungle or fell timber for sale, and that the Rampa forests were 


... 13 


... 460 


... 86 




... Ill 


••• 34 


... 166 

Godavari district 

... 942 



Printed in B.P. No. 1992 (Forest No, 372), dated 7th July 1885. 





lities of the 
jungle tribes. 

Podu cultiva- 

the property of the State/ As however these subordinate 
proprietors had hitherto been enjoying a considerable forest 
revenue of which it seemed harsh to deprive them absolutely, 
it was resolved in December 1892 to pay them an annual 
allowance amounting to half the net average of this revenue 
during the previous three years, on the understanding that 
they would assist Government in the future administration of 
the forest. In the Yellavaram and Polavaram divisions, no 
such difficulty occurred in settling the rights of proprietors. 

In the Bhadrachalam taluk the Government of the Central 
Provinces had adopted, in their permanent settlement with 
the zamindars, a policy regarding forests which differs from 
that traditional in this Presidency. The forests and waste 
lands in zamindari estates were not handed over to the zamin- 
dars, but, after a liberal deduction from them (called the dupati 
land) had been made round each village to allow for the 
possible extension of cultivation, were declared to be State 

Reservation was complicated not only by claims to the 
proprietary ownership of the forests, but also by the unusual 
habits and susceptibilities of the hill tribes who dwelt among 
them. These people, though possessing few sustainable 
rights over the jungle, had from time immemorial enjoyed and 
abused a general freedom to fell or burn whatever growth 
they chose. The Koyas and hill Reddis lived in villages 
situated on the borders of, and even within, the proposed 
reserves, and for political reasons great care was considered 
necessary in dealing with them. Dissatisfaction with the new 
forest rules in Rekapalle was apparently the reason which had 
led the Koyas of that taluk to join in the Rampa rebellion of 

Both the Koyas and the Reddis lived by the shifting (podu) 
cultivation described in the last chapter (p. 78), making 
clearings in the heart of the forest by felling and burning the 
trees, cultivating them for a year or two until their first 
fertility was exhausted, and then moving on to new ground. 
Not only were acres of valuable forest thus felled, but the fires 
lit for burning these patches spread over enormous areas. On 
the other hand, reservation, to be thorough, necessitated the 
exclusion of this class of cultivation from the reserved blocks 
and meant a considerable curtailment of the old privileges of 
the hill men, who had been accustomed to wander and burn 
wherever they liked. 

* See B.P., Forest No. 128, dated 6th March 1890 and G.O. No. 1280, 
Revenue, dated 21st December 1892. 

* See Chapter XI, p. 176. 





In the earlier stages of the forest settlement in Polavaram 
and Yellavaram the officers in charge of the Agency held 
that reservation had been too wholesale and that the allow- 
ance of jungle left in the neighbourhood of villages to provide 
for the extension or rotation of cultivation and for the supply 
of timber for implements and other domestic purposes was 
inadequate. Mr. (now Sir A. T.) Arundel, then a Member of 
the Board of Revenue, consequently visited the district in 
October 1893 ^i^d enquired into the matter on the spot. He 
came to the conclusion that the habits of the hill men had 
not received adequate consideration, and it was accordingly 
ordered that the Assistant Agent and the District Forest 
Officer should personally investigate the complaints and see 
that equitable claims were satisfied. Without laying down 
hard-and-fast rules it was indicated that podus which had 
long been abandoned and were covered with jungle need not 
necessarily be excluded from reservation, but that well- 
recognized podiis should be excluded and handed over to the 
cultivators; and that for the rotation and extension of culti- 
vation a sufficient extent (eight times the existing area 
annually under cultivation as a maximum) should be set aside. 

In Bhadrachalam the settlement was completed without 
controversy. The hill men of that taluk had long been 
accustomed to the idea of reservation, and considerable 
leniency was shown in the provision of areas for cultivation. 
It is however only in the last few years that podu cultivation 
in the reserves there has been completely stopped. 

In Rampa, the scene of a violent rebellion as recently as 
1879, it was considered better not to run any risk of arousing 
discontent by attempts at reservation, and the forests there 
were never demarcated at all. They are still administered 
on a system different from that followed in the rest of the 

The susceptibilities of the hill men led to cautious systems 
of forest administration throughout the Agency, all orders 
being issued through the Agent or his Special Assistant, but In Rampa 
in Rampa the methods adopted were quite distinct. The 
country was exempted from the operation of all but section 26 
of Chapter III, and Chapters V, VII, IX and X of the Forest 
Act. These rendered it possible to regulate the cutting and 
transit of timber, and special rules were drawn up regarding 
those matters. The people were allowed to cut timber for 
their own use except tamarind, jack, ippa, soap-nut, gall-nut 
and mango trees ; but any one desirous of exporting any wood 
had to take out a permit before doing so, to pay certain fees, 
and to cart it by one or other of certain prescribed routes, 






In the rest of 
the Agenc)'. 

along which inspection tanahs under the management of the 
Forest department were placed to check the exports with the 
permits. These regulations still remain in force. 

Minor forest produce for their own use may be collected by 
the Rampa people free of all charge; but on any which is 
exported, seigniorage is levied generally at the weekly markets 
outside Rampa where the produce is brought for sale, and 
from the traders and not from the hill men. The same proce- 
dure is adopted in the case of minor produce brought out of 
the Yellavaram division. 

The Rampa people are also allowed to graze their own 
cattle in the forest free. But owners of foreign cattle driven 
to Rampa to graze have to take out permits and pay fees,^ and 
the cattle have to be produced for check at the tanah speci- 
fied in the permit. In 1900-OI the forest revenue from all 
these sources amounted to Rs. 5,500; in 1901-02 to Rs. 9,400; 
in 1902-03 to Rs. 10,800 ; and in 1903-04 to Rs. 6,700. 

In the Agency outside the Rampa country the forests are 
either wholly or partially reserved. In the latter, timber, as 
in Rampa, may be felled for agricultural and domestic 
purposes free, except that certain trees must not be touched. 
In Polavaram nineteen species have been thus excepted, in 
Yellavaram fifteen, and in Bhadrachalam nine ; while in this 
last taluk Koyas and hill Reddis are allowed to fell any trees 
except teak and Diospyros melanoxylon. In unsurveyed 
villages any trees may be felled to prepare land for perma- 
nent cultivation and any except certain species (specified in 
each division) to clear it for podii. In surveyed villages the 
rules usual elsewhere are in force. 

Minor produce (except rela and tangcdu bark, for which 
permits are required) may be gathered free for domestic use 
in this class of forests in Yellavaram, and in Bhadrachalam 
by Koyas and hill Reddis. Seigniorage is collected, as in 
Rampa, at the weekly markets from the traders on any which 
is collected for export. In Polavaram the revenue is collected 
on the permit system in both classes of forest. 

The grazing rules differ in the different divisions of the 
Agency ; but in all of them Koyas and Reddis are allowed to 
graze their cattle free, and in all of them except Bhadrachalam 
(whither cattle are seldom driven on account of its remoteness 

^ This system was not insticuled till 1899, when it was found that the hill 
muttadars were levying fees of this kind without authority. See the correspond- 
ence in B.Ps., Forest Nos. 318, dated 28th July 1897 and 264, dated 22nd June 
1899. For the subsequent raising of the fees see B.Ps., Forest Nos. 89, dated ist 
March 1901 and 19, dated 28th January 1904. 



foreign cattle are charged full rates. People other than 
Koyas and Reddis are charged one-quarter the full rates in 
Bhadrachalam, one-half in Polavaram and one anna a head 
in Yellavaram. 

The game rules are in force in the Papikonda hill (Bison 
hill) reserve of the Polavaram division, in order to protect the 
bison there, which are rapidly disappearing. It is in contem- 
plation to extend the rules in course of time to the adjoining 
Kopalli and Kovvada blocks. 

The Godavari (and, in a lesser degree, the Saveri) are 
important waterways for floating timber from forests belong- 
ing to other administrations. Native States, zamindars, and 
private individuals outside the district. But they also flow 
for many miles through the forests of this Collectorate, and 
this renders much care necessary to prevent them from being 
used for the illicit removal of tim'ber from the forests of this 
district under the pretence that it comes from elsewhere. 
Inspection tanahs have accordingly been established at which 
all timber floated down these rivers is checked. Timber 
brought from forests other than those in this district belonging 
to Government has to be covered by vouchers signed by the 
owners of the forests or responsible authorities, and the wood 
is checked with these. 

Fire-protection, always a difficult problem, is rendered 
doubly troublesome in the Agency owing to the prevalence 
of the habit of smoking and the existence of podu cultivation 
close alongside the reserves. Formerly patrols used to be 
employed during the fire-season, but during the past two 
years the money allotted for fire-protection has been spent in 
inducing the hill folk themselves to co-operate in checking 
fires, annual rewards being granted to the people of villages 
the reserves next which escaped damage from this cause. 
Villages are allotted certain limits within which they are 
expected to check fires by cutting lines, appointing patrols, 
and observing and enforcing prohibitions against burning 
podus within 100 yards of any forest boundary line, burning 
the grass under ippa trees to facilitate the collection of the 
flowers when they fall, and throwing down live cheroot ends. 
If within the limits thus fixed a fire occurs, the villagers 
concerned lose their reward. The plan has met with a fair 
measure of success. 

The only artificial reproduction of forests which has been 
attempted is in the casuarina plantations near the coast. 
Two large blocks of this tree exist, in which over 85 acres are 
annually planted up. In the Kandikuppa block, in which the 
rotation has been fixed at fifteen years, the planting is at 



River transit 


Artificial re- 
production ; 






of exotics, 



On the coast. 

intervals of six feet by six, the object being to produce long, 
straight poles for the river protection works of the Public 
Works department. In the Bendamurlanka block, where the 
rotation is ten years, the seedlings are put out at an interval 
of nine feet by nine. In both areas thinnings are made after 
the fifth year to admit light to induce increase in girth ; and 
in both of them the method of reproduction employed is clear 
felling and replanting. 

The artificial regeneration of the mangrove has been 
undertaken during the past three years in the Coringa reserve, 
a valuable swamp forest about twelve miles from the 
important fire wood market at Cocanada. Natural reproduc- 
tion is hindered by the unsuitability of the ground under the 
trees, which, being raised year after year by silt, becomes 
hard and dry during the season (the north-east monsoon) 
when the seed falls, and allows the seed to be carried away 
by the tide before it can take root. The higher and drier 
portions give very little hope of ever being restocked with 
anything except inferior species of tilla (ExccEcaria Agallocha) 
which coppices freely. The mangrove itself gives poor result 
from coppicing, and consequently, in the lower and softer 
portions of the swamp, sowing and dibbling have been largely 
resorted to. The seed is sown broad cast wherever the sea 
recedes enough to leave the ground bare and the latter is soft 
enough for the seed to sink in ; while where the surface is 
hard or permanently covered by water, the slower and more 
costly method of dibbling in the seed is followed. About 600 
acres have been sown in three years at an average cost of 
twelve and a half annas per acre. 

Experiments made with exotics and foreign varieties have 
not given satisfactory results. Log-wood plants raised from 
seed imported from Jamaica have been put down in the 
Coringa swamp forests in different localities, but without 
Success. Attempts have also been made to re-stock elevated 
parts of the same marsh with dry-land species, but owing to 
want of rain the result was very disheartening. In the Pegha 
reserve in Bhadrachalam taluk some 25 acres; were sown with 
teak seed from Coimbatore in August 1903, but a year later 
only 500 seedlings were to be found. 

The character of the forests of the district naturally differs 
widely in different localities. Along the tidal creeks of the 
Godavari river near the coast runs a mangrove jungle which 
extends southwards from Coringa for a distance of about 35 
miles with an average width of five miles. About one-third 
of this area belongs to zamindars and the rest to Government. 
The zamindari portion is mere scrub jungle, having been 



repeatedly cut over, and much of it is a waste plain contain- 
ing no growth whatever. The Government portion is the main 
source of the fuel-supply of Cocanada. The species found in 
this forest consist chiefly of four varieties of Aviceiniias, and 
of Rhizophorce, JEgiceras, Lumnitzeras, Ceriops, and other 
inferior trees. Ceriops Candolleana yields a bark {' gedara 
bark') which the villagers use for colouring fishing-nets. 
The barks of the other mangrove species, although said to be 
good tanning materials, are not used as such, probably 
because they contain a large percentage of colouring matter. 
The forest is useful only for the fuel it yields. 

Mangrove wood is inferior as fuel to the ordinary upland 
jungle species, but Liimnitzera racemosa (though scarce) is 
extremely hard and burns excellently, and the Ceriops shrub 
burns even when green if the bark is removed. Sonneratia 
apetala (kalingi) is a soft wood which is useful in brick-kilns 
when newly cut, but rapidly rots. The worst fuel of all is the 
tilla, a pithy wood full of an acrid juice which smokes more 
than it burns. 

Besides these natural jungles, the coast forests comprise 
the two large plantations of casuarina already mentioned, 
which yield firewood and poles or piles for the river-protection 
works of the Public Works department. The Kandikuppa 
plantation (532 acres in extent and only partially planted 
at present) lies on the coast about 30 miles from Cocanada 
and has direct water communication with that town. The 
Bendamurlanka block (470 acres in extent) is 30 miles 
further down the coast, and is nearly planted up, but has only 
indirect and tortuous water communication with Cocanada. 

Proceeding northward from the coast, scattered blocks of 
forest are met with in the Rajahmundry and Peddapuram 
ranges. These chiefly contain wood fit only for fuel, though 
stunted specimens of timber-yielding trees are scattered here 
and there and provide small timber for building huts and so 
forth. Among these latter are Terminalia to/nentosa, Diospyros 
melanoxylon, Pterocarpiis Marsnpiion, Anogeissns latifolia, Lager- 
stroemia parviflora, Adina cordifolia, Chloroxylon Swietenia, Lebe- 
dieropsis orbicularis, Soymida febrifiiga, and a sprinkling of 
young Xylia dolabriformis and some patches of bamboo. 

The forests of Polavaram and Yellavaram are of a better 
character. In Yellavaram there are 47 square miles of good 
forest in which fairly large timber (three to five feet in girth) 
is found, and some 96 square miles containing trees (one 
and half to three feet in girth) providing timber of a smaller 
kind. The principal timber species are the Xylia, Terminalia, 





In the 

In Polavaram 
and Yella- 







In Rampa* 

In Bhadra- 

Pterocarpus, Anogeissus, Chloroxylon, LagerstrcBtnia and Adina 
already mentioned as occurring further south. In the Pola- 
varam division, besides the above, teak (which never occurs 
in Yellavaram) is also met with. It may be said generally, 
however, that although these forests contain large timber 
trees, these are usually either unsound or situated in inacces- 
sible places. The bulk of the crop consists of small growth 
which, owing to its distance from a market, is valueless either 
as fuel or timber. 

The chief fruit-trees are the tamarind, gall-nut and ippa, 
and these forests also contain a quantity of the thin kind of 
bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictiis) which is largely used for 
sugar-cane props. 

The Rampa forests, being unreserved, have been less 
studied than the others. They are in a worse condition than 
those of Yellavaram and Polavaram, since unrestricted 
fellings are permitted for podu cultivation, and their remote- 
ness renders the extraction of any timber both difficult and 
costly. Small quantities are removed on permits by con- 
sumers on their borders, and the bamboos in them, which 
include quantities of both Bamhusa and Dendrocalamus, are 
also utilized similarly. 

The forests in Bhadrachalam may be divided into (l) the 
Rekapalle or Xylia range, (2) the Marrigiidem or teak range, 
and (3) the Bhadrachalam range, of which three-quarters 
consists mainly of teak and one-quarter of Hardwickia hinata. 
Besides these predominant and more valuable species, large 
quantities of other timber trees are found, among which are the 
Termiiiaia, Pterocarpus, Adina, Anogeissus and Lagerstrcemia 
already mentioned above, and likewise Dalbergia latifolia and 
Terminallia Arjuna. In the Bhadrachalam and Marrigudem 
ranges, the teak, Xylia and Hardwickia are either comparatively 
young oj unsound, the best trees having been felled in past 
years. The same is true of the less valuable species. 

The best forest left is that in the inaccessible Rekapalle 
hills. For this a working plan' has been recently framed. 
The examination of the growth made in connection with this 
showed that over a fifth (sometimes nearly one-half) of the 
crop consisted of Xylia, that Hardwickia was very rare, that, 
among the inferior timber trees Lehedieropsis orbicularis was 
prominent, and that the rest of the forest was mainly made up 
of the trees already mentioned as prevalent in this part of 
the district, together with Albizzia odoraiissima and A. procera. 

^ See B.P., Forest No. 222, dated 30th July 1903. 



The finest stock is found on the plateaus and in elevated 
situations generally, and the size of the trees increases as one 
goes northwards; but the growth along the western edge and 
near enclosures has greatly deteriorated from having been 
subjected to excessive podii cultivation. Great difficulty is 
experienced in putting the working plan into practice, owing 
to the difficulty in extracting the produce from the more 
remote parts of these hills. 

At present the Bhadrachalam forests give no large timber. 
Teak is rarely obtained in logs more than 30 inches in girth 
and 25 feet long, and even then is crooked, unsound, knotty 
and fibrous, and, except for boat-building, is unable to compete 
in the markets with Burma teak. That from Marrigudem, 
however, is prettily grained and suitable for furniture. 
Tertninnlia tomentosa (nalla maddi) is procurable in about the 
same sizes and is useful for building ; Dalhergia latifolia 
(iruguduchava) is usually in shorter logs and is poor, unsound 
in the centre, and chiefly employed for furniture; and t^tero- 
carpus Marsupium (yegisij is procurable from 10 to 1 5 feet in 
length and from 4 to 5 feet in girth and is much used for 
planking, ceiling-boards and the like. 

The chief markets for timber are Rajahmundry and 
Cocanada. Of these, the first is much the more important, 
and the timber is taken thence to Cocanada, Bezwada, 
Masulipatam and Ellore, as well as to smaller depots at 
Narasapur, Amalapuram and Ramachandrapuram. 

The bulk of the marketable minor forest produce comes 
from the Rampa and Yellavaram forests, Bhadrachalam and 
Polavaram producing very little. Tamarind, gall-nuts, mix 
vomica, honey, wax, soap-nut, sikdy, platter leaves and skins and 
horns are the chief items, and the bulk of the revenue under 
this head is derived from tamarind and gall-nuts. The chief 
markets are again at Rajahmundry and Cocanada, whence 
the produce is distributed to many parts of India, Ceylon and 
Europe. Large quantities of nux vomica and gall-nuts are 
sent to London and Hamburg ; wax goes to London, Colombo, 
Calcutta and Bombay ; horns to London and France ; skins 
to Madras ; and sikdy to Madras, Cuddalore and Tuticorin. 
Most of the other produce is consumed locally. 

The total revenue from the forests of the district amounted 
in 1904-05 to nearly two lakhs, of which Rs. 56,000 were 
derived from the sale of bamboos, Rs. 43,000 from minor 
forest produce, Rs, 35,000 from timber, Rs. 27,000 from fire- 
wood and charcoal, and Rs. l6,000 from grazing-fees and the 
sale of grass for fodder. 





Timber and 
the market 
for it. 

Minor forest 






Arts and 


Arts and Industries — Silk-weavers — Cotton-weavers ; their numbers — Their 
methods — Tape-weaving — Gunny-weaving — Cotton-dyeing — Chintz-stamping 
— Mats and tattis — Metal-work — Painting — Pith-work — Musical instruments 
— Wood and stone carving — Ropes — Oils — Tanning — Shoes — Baskets — 
Bangles — Pottery — Country sugar - Mercury — House-building — Printing- 
presses — Rice-mills — Indigo factories — Ship-building— Do wlaishweram work- 
shops — District Board Workshops at Cocanada— Samalkot distillery and 
sugar-factory — Dummagiidem lace. Trade — Markets — Grain-dealing — 

Exports — Imports — Trade of Cocanada — The harbour — Port conser\-ancy — 
European business houses at Cocanada — European Chamber of Commerce — 
Steamers visiting the port — Amount of trade — Character of trade. 
Weights and Measures — Goldsmiths' weights — Commercial weights — 
Measures of capacity — Miscellaneous commercial notations— Lineal measures 
— Land measures — Measures of time — Local monetary terms. 

As in other districts, agriculture and the tending of flocks 
and herds employ the very large majority of the population. 
This is especially the case in the Agency. Precise statistics 
are not available for the district as it stands at present, as 
the census of 1901 was taken before its limits were altered. 
Agricultural methods have been referred to in Chapter IV 
above, and the breeds of cattle and sheep in Chapter I. Of 
the arts and industries, weaving employs a larger number of 
hands than any other. 

The weaving of silk is done on only the smallest scale. 
Silk borders are often given to cotton cloths, but the pure silk 
cloths worn in the district are imported. The best come from 
Benares and Calcutta, but commoner kinds are brought from 
Ganjam and elsewhere by local merchants and pedlars. 
Silk is rarely employed for ordinary wear, but is very 
commonly used by the higher castes for what are called madi 
cloths, that is, the ceremonially pure garments which are worn 
at home at meal times. The only silk fabrics made locally 
are the turbans and kerchiefs made by a few Devangas and 
Karnabattus at Peddapuram. These seldom sell for more 
than Rs- 10. The silk is obtained from Calcutta and Bombay 
and is dyed locally with violet, red, green and yellow aniline 
dyes. These colours are popular; and, since the cloths are 
not often washed, the fugitive character of the aniline pig- 
ment does not matter. This industry is a small one, and does 
not appear to be increasing. 




Arts and 


Though silk-weaving is rare, the manufacture of cotton 
cloths is largely carried on. Almost every other village in 
the plains contains a few weavers, and a fair number of them 
possess a large contingent. In Rajahmundry some 400 house- 
holds are so employed, in Jagannapeta (Nagaram taluk) 300, 
and in Tuni, Peddapuram, Bandarulanka (Amalapuram), 
Uppada and Kottapalli (Pithapuram division) about 200 
households. Four other villages each contain 100 weavers ; 
and in about twenty other places the number of the craft is 
considerable. In the days of the East India Company, the 
exportation of cloth from the district was very large. Some 
seven lakhs of rupees were paid annually by the Company 
for local fabrics, and in some years the figure rose above ten 
lakhs, and in one year touched fourteen. The abolition of 
the Company's cloth trade had a most prejudicial effect on 
the weaving industry, and so on the prosperity of the district 
as a whole. The value of the piece-goods exported in 1825-26 
was over fourteen lakhs ; in 1842-43 it was less than two. In 
the import of cotton fabrics from Europe which followed, 
Godavari shared to a much less extent than some other 
districts. English calicoes and longcloths are not now more 
popular there than the country fabrics, nor cheaper, and the 
use of them is very limited. 

Most of the locally-woven cloths are white, and a visitor Their 
from the south cannot fail to be struck with the rarity of inethods. 
colour in the dress of the women. The men's cloths are 
often red, but the dye is applied after, and not before, the 
weaving. Of recent years the manufacture of coloured cotton 
tartans (lungis) for Muhammadans has been taken up by 
some of the weavers in a few centres. The white cloths worn 
by the women sometimes have coloured borders, but these are 
generally of the simplest kinds. They are very rarely of silk, 
but not uncommonly of ' lace,' that is, gold or silver thread ; 
and the borders at the ends are sometimes embroidered with 
simple patterns in lace. This class of work is done at 
Uppada, Kottapalli and Mulapeta in Pithapuram, at Totara- 
mudi in Amalapuram and by a few weavers in Tuni and 

The texture of the local work is often exceedingly fine. 
In Kottapalli and Mulapeta the weavers use counts as high as 
200s, and lOOs, 130s and 150s are employed in a good many 
places. The Kottapalli and Mulapeta fabrics are locally 
called Uppada cloths, and under that name are well known 
as far south as Tanjore, and are said to be sent even to 
Calcutta and Bombay. Their prices run up to Rs. 10. 




Arts and 


u caving. 


There is hardly anything worthy of mention in the 
methods of the local weavers. These are extraordinarily 
simple everywhere, and form a remarkable contrast to the 
complications entailed by the more elaborate work done in 
the great weaving centres of the south. Where special 
patterns are embroidered on the loom, the warp is given the 
necessary changes by the laborious method of picking out 
with the hand, at each passing of the shuttle, the threads 
which have to be lowered or raised. The great majority of 
the weavers are Devangas by caste. In Kottapalli and 
Mulapeta Pattu Sales monopolize the work ; while there are a 
few Padma Sales in Cocanada taluk, some Sales in Samalkot 
and Peddapuram, and some Karnabattus in the last-named 

Tape for the cots so universally used in the district is 
largely manufactured, both in a number of scattered villages 
and in the Rajahmundry jail. It is woven from white cotton, 
and is of from half an inch to three inches in breadth. The 
work is usually done by Devangas, but in the central delta 
Bogams (the dancing-girl caste), and elsewhere a few men of 
the Singam sub-caste of the Sales are also engaged in it. 

Gunny-bags are woven from hemp by a few Perikes in 
Vangalapudi and Singavaram in the Rajahmundry taluk. 

The dyed cloths for men already mentioned are sold in 
quantities in the district and are also exported by the 
Cocanada merchants to Bombay, Calcutta and Rangoon. 
The places best known for this dyeing industry are Golla- 
palaiyam (in Cocanada taluk), where some 70 men are 
employed, and Cocanada and Samalkot, where the number of 
workers is about 30. Most of them are Kapus, and the next 
most largely represented caste are the Tsakalas, or washer- 
men. A few Rangaris and Velamas also assist. None of 
them weave the cloths themselves. 

The most popular colours are red, dark blue, and pink, or 
' rose ' as it is called. There are three shades of red, two of 
blue, and several of pink. Aniline and alizarine dyes, 
bought in packets or casks, are always used. In Cocanada 
chay-root (siriveru) was employed until recently for red, but 
was abandoned because it involved more trouble and expense 
than the imported dyes. Black is still made sometimes with 
iron filings. 

The methods of dyeing are much the same as elsewhere, 
the cloth being treated with oil emulsified with the ashes of 
certain pungent plants, soaked in a mordant (generally a 
solution of gall-nuts or alum) and then boiled in a pot of dye 



to which the dried leaves of sundry jungle shrubs, believed CHAP. vi. 
to brighten the colour, have been added. Arts xhd 

The same castes which do this dyeing also engage in the ^^^^^f^'^^- 
stamping of chintzes. Only two colours, red and dark blue. Chintz. 
are used- The former is made with imported dyes and the *^^'"P^°e- 
latter sometimes from iron or from copper sulphate. The 
processes are again the same as elsewhere. The pattern 
desired is stamped with a pattern-block which is pressed on 
a pad soaked in a mixture of alum and gum. The fabric is 
afterwards immersed in boiling dye and then washed in clean 
water. The dye only takes where the alum mordant has 
affected the cloth, and washes out of the other parts. Some- 
times the whole cloth is soaked in the mordant and then 
stamped with the dye itself. White spots on a coloured 
ground are produced as follows: The spots are stamped 
on the cloth with a pattern-block dipped in hot wax, and the 
whole cloth is then dipped into the dye-tub. The dye does 
not act where the cloth is protected by the wax spots, and the 
parts under these latter come out white. The wax is then 
removed by boiling the cloth. 

Mats of grass are seldom made, the small demand being Mats and 
supplied from Madras and Bastar State. Plaited mats of '^"'^' 
palmyra, date and cocoanut leaves, and of split bamboo, are 
largely manufactured. Those of cocoanut leaves are chiefly 
made in the central delta, and the others everywhere in the 
plains. The date mats are generally used for packing, the 
cocoanut mats for tattis, and the palmyra mats for covering 
floors or, by the lower classes, for sleeping on. The first are 
made by Idigas and Yerukalas ; the second by Malas ; and 
the last by Madigas and (more rarely) by Idigas ; split bamboo 
work is done by Medaras. 

Some 25 Malas weave kas-kas tattis at Samalkot. These 
are made of a scented grass called vettt verii, found in some of 
the tank beds, and supply the local demand at Rajahmundry 
and Cocanada. 

Metal vessels for household use are only manufactured Metai-Mork. 
on a very small scale. Kamsalas have a monopoly of the 
industry, which is stagnant, if not declining. Brass or bell- 
metal vessels are made by a few families in Cocanada, Golla- 
mamidada (in Cocanada taluk), Tuni, Ragampeta (in Pedda- 
puram taluk), Pithapuram, Dowlaishweram, Rajahmundry and 
Peddapuram. At Marripiidi in the Peddapuram taluk ten or 
twelve men make bells of bell-metal. Copper is worked only 
by the Kamsalas of Cocanada. Vessels of lead and silver are 
made in that town and Amalapuram ; and lead vessels by a 
few men in Rajahmundry and Peddapuram. Metal-work of 




Arts and 




Wood and 



all sorts is imported in large quantities from the Vizagapatam 
district, especially from Anakapalle and Yellamanchili, and 
hawked for sale at all the important festivals. 

Of the local manufactures, the brass-work of Peddapuram 
and the bell-metal work of Pithapuram and Rajahmundry are 
of good quality and well known. The bell-metal vessels are 
always cast, but the brass ones are made of three or more 
pieces soldered together. The lead-work is cast at Rajah- 
mundry, but everywhere else both lead and silver vessels are 
hammered out of one piece. 

Besides the manufacture of household vessels, a little 
ornamental metal-work is done at Rajahmundry, Cocanada, 
and Peddapuram. At the two former places brass and copper 
armour and canopies are made for idols, and at Peddapuram 
and Dowlaishweram idols of copper are made. In both cases 
the work is first cast, and then finished with the chisel. 

A little painting of a rude kind is done in the district. At 
Gollapalaiyam (eight miles south-south-west of Cocanada) a 
family of Kapus paint Hindu gods on curtains and punkah 
frills with a good deal of skill. Their only tool is a short 
sharp stick with a piece of cloth tied near the end; the point 
is used for drawing the outlines and the cloth for applying 
the colours, which are imported from Europe. Their work 
was considered worthy of being sent to the Delhi Durbar 
Exhibition, and they say that it is in demand in China, 
whither it is exported from Yanam. Two Muchis execute 
frescoes on walls at Rajahmundry, and one of them paints on 
cloth. A Muchi of Antarvedi in Nagaram taluk also paints 
figures on cloth gummed on to wood. 

A little inferior pith-work is done by a few Muhammadans 
at Nagaram and Jagannapeta. They make flowers and 
images out of sola pith. 

Tamburas and vinas are made (by one Kamsala at each 
place) at Pithapuram and Rajahmundry, and also at Rajavolu, 
Sivakodu and Tatipaka in Nagaram taluk. The sounding- 
boards are carved out of solid blocks of wood. Teak and 
jack are used, but preferably the latter. The work done at 
Sivakodu is good. 

Wood-carving of excellent quality is done in a number of 
places. In almost all considerable villages there are a few 
Muchis or Kamsalas who can carve furniture and door-frames, 
and make the vdhanams, or carved platforms on which gods 
are carried. The work at Cocanada, Draksharamam, Rajah- 
mundry, Dowlaishweram and Sivakodu is especially note- 


A few stone-carvers are to be found at Rajahmundry, CHAP. VI. 
Jegurupadu in the same taluk, Venkatayyapalaiyam in Rama- Arts and 

chandrapuram, and Vubalanka in Amalapuram. They chiefly 

make images of the gods. The Jegurupadu work is well 
known in most parts of the district. 

Ropes are made from the fibre of the cocoanut and palmyra Ropes, 
palms and the sunn hemp and ' jute ' (gogu) plants. The 
coir ropes are mostly made in the central delta, especially at 
Bendamurlanka, Ambajipeta and Peruru. Large amounts of 
hemp, palmyra and date fibre are also sent to Europe from 

Very large quantities of gingelly, castor and cocoanut oils Oils. 
are manufactured. The castor oil is generally made in iron 
mills in regular factories. There are twelve or thirteen of 
such factories at Cocanada, four or five at Rajahmundry and 
Peddapuram, and others at Pithapuram, Tuni and Dowlaish- 
weram. Gingelly oil is made in a factory at Tuni ; but every- 
where else both it and cocoanut oil are made in the ordinary 
wooden mills. These are much smaller than those of the 
southern districts, are put up in the back-yards of houses, and 
are worked by a single bullock which is usually blindfolded 
to prevent its getting giddy from going round in such a small 
circle. Cocoanut oil is made in large quantities at Ambaji- 
peta, Bodasakurru, Peruru and Munjavarapukottu in the 
Amalapuram taluk. The oil-making castes are the Telukulas 
(who correspond to the Vaniyans of the south), Kapus and 
Idigas. Gingelly oil is commonly used for cooking and oil 
baths, cocoanut oil for the same purposes (especially in the 
central delta) and as a hair-oil, and castor oil for lighting. 
This last is being ousted by kerosine, and considerable quan- 
tities of it are exported. Castor and cocoanut cake are used 
as manures, especially for sugar-cane, and the former is 
exported to Cochin and Colombo for use on tea and coffee 
estates. Gingelly cake is given to cattle and is also used in 
curries. Curry made with it is a favourite dish with both rich 
and poor and is even off'ered to the village goddesses. 

Coarse leather for the manufacture of country shoes is made Tanning. 
by the Madigas all over the low country. Their method of 
tanning it is very elementary. The hides and skins are 
soaked in a solution of chunam to remove the hair, then in 
clean water for a day, next for ten days in a decoction of the 
bark of the babul (Acacia arabica) tree, and finally they are 
stitched into bags, which are filled with babul bark and 
soaked for a week in water. 

In Rajahmundry three tanneries, owned by Labbais from 
the Tamil country, work in a less primitive fashion. The 




Arts and 




hides and skins are first soaked in clean water for a night, 
then in chunam and water for twelve days so that the hair 
may be easily scraped off, next in clean water for two 
days, then for two more days in chunam and water, next 
in a decoction of tangedu (Cassia auriailata) bark for a fort- 
night, and finally in a solution of gall-nut for three days. 
They are then rubbed with gingelly oil and are smoothened 
by being scraped with a blunt copper tool. Most of the 
leather thus produced is exported to Madras. 

Rough shoes of home-tanned leather are made by Madigas 
in almost all the low-country villages. Those produced in 
Siripalli in the Amalapuram taluk are well known. Sana- 
palli-lanka in the same taluk had formerly a name for this 
industry. Good boots and slippers, excellent native shoes 
and Muhammadan slippers (saddvu) are i manufactured in 
several centres. The common work is done by Madigas, and 
the better class by Miichis, who ornament the Muhammadan 
slippers with elaborate designs in silk and bits of metal. The 
handiwork of the latter is exported to Hyderabad and Ran- 
goon through the local Muhammadan merchants. Cocanada 
and Rajahmundry are the chief centres of the industry, but 
the work at Peddapuram is good, and some is done at Samal- 
kot, Tuni, Pithapuram and Dowlaishweram. Good boots 
and slippers are also made at the Rajahmundry jail. 

Baskets are made from date fibre, palmyra leaves and 
split bamboo by Yerukalas, Madigas and Medaras respect- 
ively, and from rattan by Yerukalas in parts of Pithapuram 

Black ' glass ' bangles are made in several villages, notably 
by a few Linga Balijas in Sitarampuram and Hamsavaram in 
the Tuni division and at Ragampeta in Peddapuram and by 
some Kapus in Duppalapudi in Rajahmundry. At Ragampeta 
the Linga Balijas also blow simple flasks or retorts of this 
' glass,' which are used in making sublimate of mercury (see 
below) in the neighbouring village of Jagammapeta. The 
' glass ' is imported from Nellore or Madras, and is manufac- 
tured by lixiviating alkaline earth, allowing the salts to crys- 
tallize out in the sun, and heating them in a crucible for some 
hours with flint and bits of broken bangles. The vitreous 
mass so produced is melted in this district in circular furnaces 
and the bangles are made by taking a small quantity of the 
molten ' glass ' on the point of an iron rod, which is then 
twirled rapidly round until the glass assumes a roughly 
annular shape. This ring is transferred, while still glowing, 
to a heated conical clay mould, which the workman twists 
rapidly round with one hand while with the other he shapes 




Arts and 


the ring into a bangle with a tool resembling an ordi- 
nary awl. The finished article is often decorated with a 

coating of lac, and into this are sometimes stuck bits of 

tinsel or looking-glass. Better class bangles are all imported, 
many of them from Bombay. 

Ordinary earthen pots are made everywhere, and a few Pottery, 
potters at Rajahmundry make good water-bottles (gujas) out 
of a mixture of white alkaline earth (suddamannu) and ordinary 
potter's clay. The earth is said to be brought by Gollas from 
a village called Punyakshetram in the same taluk. 

At Rajahmundry a few families of Devangas make sugar- Country 
candy and soft sugar. White crj'stallized sugar is made in 
the Deccan Sugar and Abkari Company's factory at Samalkot 
referred to below. Natives of the district are said to have 
some prejudice against this sugar because it is clarified with 
bone charcoal, but the prejudice disappears if it is converted 
into sugar-candy or soft sugar (hura). The ' factory sugar ' is 
therefore boiled in water, with the addition of a little milk, 
until it attains a treacly consistency, and is then poured into 
shallow plates, where it is left for ten days. It crystallizes in 
these into sugar-candy, and the liquid which remains among 
the crystals is again boiled with the addition of a little water, 
and is then well stirred with a wooden instrument until it 
turns into soft sugar. A precisely similar industry exists at 
Hindupur in Anantapur district, and no doubt elsewhere. 

Some five or six persons, mostly Devangas, make white 
sublimate of mercury at Jagammapeta in the Peddapuram 
taluk. Four variellies are made, namely hasmam (a white 
crust), a white solid substance called kdrpuram, and a red 
powder of two kinds, one called sindiiram and the other 
shadgimam. The hasmam is made by heating salt and quick- 
silver in the proportion of one to five for fifteen or sixteen hours, 
with a pot inverted over the mixture. The fumes form a crust 
on the inverted pot, which is the basmam. This is then put in 
retorts of bangle ' glass ' which are coated with mud, and 
heated for the same period, when it turns into kdrpuram. 
Sinduram is obtained by mixing quicksilver, sulphur, and 
ardhalam (mineral arsenic) in the proportion of one, one-half, 
and one thirty-second, and heating them for one and a half 
hours. The resultant matter is pounded in a mortar, and 
then heated in a retort like the hasmam. For sliadgu/iam, 
quicksilver and sulphur are taken in the proportion of two to 
one and are pounded in a mortar; the mixture is then heated 
in a retort like the hasmam, only for a longer period. The 
quicksilver is got from Bombay and Calcutta. The existence 
of a large supply of cheap wood fuel in the neighbourhood is 





Arts and 









a great advantage in this industry, and is not improbably the 
cause of its existence here. 

The art of house-building is much studied in the district. 
In every large town there are professional architects. Those 
of Rajahmundry and Dowlaishweram are well known and are 
employed in all the low-country taluks. 

There are five printing-presses at Cocanada and the same 
number at Rajahmundry. Except two of those at Cocanada, 
namely the Sujana Ranjani press and Messrs. Hall, Wilson 
& Co.'s press, both of which employ about 25 men, these 
are very small affairs. In the former of the two, vernacular 
books and two Telugu periodicals, one weekly and one 
monthly, are printed ; and the latter carries on a general 
business. Another monthly Telugu newspaper is printed at 
another press at Cocanada, and two more at Rajahmundry. 
At the latter town a weekly and a fortnightly paper are 
printed in English. 

Several large rice-husking mills are at work in the district. 
The most important is that owned by the Coringa Rice Mills 
Company at Georgepet near Coringa, which employs a hun- 
dred men. There are also three more in Cocanada and four 
in Rajahmundry, two of which are not now working Another 
at Amalapuram has also stopped work for the present. The 
mills buy the paddy outright and export the husked rice, and 
do not husk paddy for payment, as is sometimes done. 

There are several indigo factories in the Amalapuram 
taluk, of which seven employ 30 men or more in the 
season. Those at Velanakapalli and Ayinavalli employ 75 
and 150 hands respectively. 

At one time a large ship-building industry was carried on 
in Tallarevu on the Coringa river. Some two generations 
ago, it is said, about a hundred big ships used to be built, and 
four times that number repaired, every year ; and boats came 
for repairs even from Negapatam and Chittagong. What 
with the increasing use of steam, and the silting up of the 
Corirga river, the industry is now almost dead. As recently 
as 25 years ago, it is said, ten or fifteen sea-going boats were 
built every year and some fifty repaired, but in 1903 only five 
were built, in 1904 only one, and in 1905 none at all, while only 
two ships were repaired in 1903 and in 1904. The boats built 
and repaired were native brigs of a hundred tons or so. 

Of the enterprises managed by European capital, the most 
important are the Public Works workshops at Dowlaish- 
weram, which comprise a foundry, and carpenters', fitters' and 
smiths' shops. They employ a daily average of 145 men, and 



during the calendar year 1904 turned out work to the value of 
Rs. 1,63,600. The output consists chiefly of wood and iron- 
work and furniture for buildings constructed by the depart- 
ment; wooden and iron punts and staff boats for use on the 
canals ; repairs to steamers and other floating plant ; lock gates, 
sluice shutters and gearings ; and repairs to engine boilers 
and machinery belonging to the department-. The shops also 
undertake work for other departments, municipalities, and 
private persons. These are charged ten per cent, on the cost 
of the raw materials plus fifteen per cent, on the total cost 
of the work. 

The District Board also has workshops of its own. These 
are at Cocanada, and the work done in them consists of such 
items as the construction of iron and wooden ferry boats 
and ballacuts, small iron bridges, doors and windows, office 
furniture and iron sheds for markets (of which latter a large 
number have been made), and of repairs to tools and plant, 
including the steam road-rollers and the two steam ferry- 
steamers owned by the District Board. The shops are in 
charge of an overseer, subject to the control of the District 
Board Engineer, and all the hands are temporary men on daily 
wages. The value of the work turned out in 1903-04 was 
approximately Rs. 30,000, inclusive of materials. 

An important industrial undertaking exists at Samalkot in 
the works of the Deccan Sugar and Abkari Company, Limited, 
established in I897 and at present under the management of 
Messrs. Parry & Co., Madras. Excellent plant and buildings 
have been erected about half a mile south-west of the railway- 
station, and the capital of the company is ten lakhs. The 
manufacture of both refined sugar and spirit is carried on, and 
about 400 men are employed daily. Sugar is extracted from 
jaggery by the usual process, and the final residue molasses 
form the staple material of the distillery. Both palmyra and 
cane jaggery are used, the bulk of them being obtained in 
this and the surrounding districts. Three kinds of sugar are 
manufactured ; namely, a white granulated, a soft, and a 
brown sugar, and the total output in 1903 was 8,6oo tons. In 
the distillery two stills and a rectificator are in use, and the 
usual method of spirit manufacture is employed. During 
1903, 198,000 gallons of proof spirit were manufactured. 
Arrack is supplied from the distillery to this district and 
Kistna, Nellore and Cuddapah, for the supply of which the 
company hold the contract. Two artesian wells have been 
recently sunk in the company's compound.^ 


Arts and 

Board work- 
shops at 

distillery and 

I See Chapter IV, p, 90. 




Arts and 

giidem lace. 





The wife of the Rev, J. Cain, the missionary at Dumma- 
gudem, has started a lace-work industry at that station which 
is known even outside India. Lace-making was originally 
taught at the Church Missionary Society's boarding-school 
for girls ; and during the famine of 1896-97 Mrs. Cain 
encouraged the young women who had learnt the art in the 
school to take it up as a means of livelihood. From that time 
forth, the industry spread among the wives of the natives 
round, and there are now 1 10 workers, most of whom are 
Christians. Mrs. Cain pays them for their work (Rs. 70 or 
Rs. 80 a week are expended in wages) and sells it in 
India, England and Australia. The lace is not the ' pillow 
lace ' made elsewhere in South India, but what is called 
' darned net work,' which somewhat resembles Limerick lace 
in appearance. 

Fairs or markets are common in Godavari. There are as 
many as 40 under the control of the taluk boards, and the 
right of collecting the usual fees at them sold in 19O4-05 for 
over Rs. 2i,6oo. Those which fetched the highest bids were 
the great cattle-markets at Draksharamam and Pithapuram, 
which were leased for Rs. 3,165 and Rs. 2,500 respectively; 
the Tuni market, which fetched Rs. 2,010 ; and the Ambajipeta 
cattle-market, which sold for Rs. 1,625. The markets which 
chiefly serve the Agency are those of Yelesvaram in Pedda- 
puram taluk and G6kavaram in Rajahmundry. To these resort 
the petty traders who have direct dealings with the hill men 
in the interior, and, to some extent, the hill men themselves. 

There are one or two centres in each taluk in which live the 
local merchants who collect grain from the ryots and either 
export it themselves or sell it to other and larger merchants. 
The money-lenders are generally also^ grain dealers, as their 
loans are often paid in kind. A common system, known as 
jatti, is that by which a ryot borrows money on the security of 
his crops and undertakes to sell these when harvested to the 
money-lender at less than the market price. Another usual 
arrangement, called the vdrakam or pattiihadi system, is for a 
ryot to keep a sort of running account with the money-lender, 
getting small loans from time to time and clearing off the 
debt, principal and interest, at harvest. Here, again, the 
grain is sold at less than the market price, the difference 
being about ten rupees per garce. The ryot is also expected 
to graze his creditor's cattle and to supply him with vegetables 
when called upon. 

Almost the only noteworthy article of export from 
Godavari is its surplus agricultural produce, but a fair 
quantity of the locally woven, dyed, or stamped cotton goods 


are sold outside the district, and so are the hides and skins chap. vi. 
from the tanneries of Rajahmundry. The distillery and Tuade. 
sugar-factory at Samalkot also sends large quantities of its 
sugar and arrack to other parts of India. Of the agricultural 
products exported, rice is the largest item. Pulses, oils, 
fibres of various kinds and hemp are also shipped in great 

The chief imports into the district include metal vessels, imporis. 
kerosine oil, iron. European and other piece-goods, leather 
and cattle. 

The only considerable seaport in Godavari is the flourish- Trade of 
ing town of Cocanada, which serves not only the district o'^^"^ 
itself, but its neighbours to the north and south and an 
extensive hinterland which includes parts of the Nizam's 

The port of Cocanada is situated in the south-west corner The harbour. 
of Coringa bay, a large but shallow sheet of water, five miles 
by five in extent, lying at the northernmost angle of the delta. 
The bay is something the shape of a horse-shoe and is only 
open from the north-east. The most northerly mouth of the 
Godavari flows into it on the south, where it is gradually 
silting it up, and the everlengthening arm of Cape Godavari, 
which is estimated to be advancing seawards at the rate of a 
mile in 20 years, encloses it on the east. The rapid shallowing 
of the bay has rendered it necessary for large ships to anchor 
five miles from the shore to the north-east of Cocanada town, 
but the anchorage is well-protected and exceptionally safe. 

Goods have to be landed in cargo boats, but the channel 
leading from the anchorage to the harbour itself is deep 
enough to allow boats of lOO tons burden, and drawing as 
much as five feet of water, to reach Cocanada at certain states 
of the tide. The harbour consists of a tidal creek which 
receives the surplus of the Cocanada and Samalkot canals 
and the discharge of the Bikkavolu drain and the Yeleru 
river, which together enter the Samalkot branch of the creek 
just below the last lock of the Samalkot canal. The harbour 
shows a tendency to silt owing to deposits brought from 
above; and its mouth is also with difficulty kept clear of the 
sand and mud which is swept into the Coringa bay from the 
Godavari on the south, from a drainage creek entering the bay 
just to the north of the harbour, and in stormy weather, from 
the open sea on the north-east. Two dredgers are therefore 
kept constantly at work, and it has also been found necessary 
to extend the mouth of the harbour by long groins. The 
harbour is revetted from the bridge leading to Jaganriatha- 
puram, and the revetment is continued along the groins, its 


CHAP. VI. total length being 3,68o yards on the north and 3,780 yards on 
Trade. the south side. Of this extent 2,700 yards of revetment and 
87 yards of groin on the north and 2,500 and 260 yards of 
revetment and groin respectively on the south had been 
erected as early as 1855; and the groins were extended 
considerably in 1887 and very largely about 1893. The chief 
difficulty is experienced from the mud creek which, as just 
mentioned, flows into the bay just north of the harbour mouth. 
Its course and mouth have altered with the foreshore, going 
further and further towards the east. This is the result of its 
own action combined with the construction of the groins. 
The northern wall crosses its mouth, with the result that the 
silt it brings down has formed a solid sand bank along the 
groin. This bank has extended with each extension of the 
groin and now threatens to choke the harbour's mouth. The 
groins have been given a turn to the north to endeavour to 
counteract this tendency, but without success. Further means 
of dealing with the difficulty are now being considered. 

The port had originally four light-houses and two port 
lights. The latter still stand on the ends of the two groins, 
but two of the former are no longer in use. The light-house 
at Cocanada itself has not been used since 1877 (though it has 
been left standing as a landmark) and the Hope Island light- 
house, on what was once the most north-easterly extremity of 
the delta, was abandoned in 1902. There are now revolving 
lights at Vakalapudi, some five miles to the north of Cocanada, 
and on the Sacramento shoal, over twenty miles south of the 
present Point Godavari, to warn vessels off the point and 
Port Cocanada possesses a Port Officer, and he and his 

conservancy, establishment are paid in the usual way from port funds 
chiefly derived from dues on vessels visiting the place. 
'Landing and shipping dues' are also collected from the 
local merchants at certain fixed rates on all cargo landed and 
shipped ; and this money, with the rent of certain ground 
within port limits, is devoted, as elsewhere, to meeting all 
expenditure involved in the improvement of the port, such as 
the maintenance of dredgers, groins and the foreshore. The 
fund so constituted is administered primarily by the Cocanada 
Port Conservancy Board, of which the chairman is the 
Collector and the vice-chairman one of the members of the 
European Chamber of Commerce. This body fixes the rates 
of dues to be paid, looks after the ordinary measures of port 
conservancy, and initiates measures for the improvement of 
the port. Its expenditure is, as usual, under the control of the 
Presidency Port Officer and ultimately of Government. 





houses at 

Chamber of 

Several of the leading mercantile houses in the Presidency 
have agents in Cocanada (among them Messrs. Ralli Bros., 
Messrs. Gordon, Woodroffe & Co., Messrs. Volkart Bros., 
Messrs. Wilson & Co., Messrs. Ripley & Co. and Messrs. Best 
& Co.) and in addition the place is the head-quarters of 
several other substantial European firms, who are engaged in 
general trade and own local undertakings of various kinds. 
Messrs. Simson & Co. own a rice-mill and act as agents for 
the Asiatic Steam Navigation Company ; Messrs. Hall, 
Wilson & Co. are agents for the British India line and were 
part-owners and local managers of the Oriental Salt Company, 
which until recently was working the salt-factory at Jagan- 
nathapuram ; Messrs. Innes & Co. are managers of the Coringa 
Rice Mills Company ; and Messrs. Barry & Co. have a cheroot- 
factory where cheroots are made for export to Burma. There 
are also a great number of native m.erchants in the town. 
Indeed the mercantile importance of the place is so consider- 
able that the Bank of Madras has a branch there under a 
European Agent, and both native and European Chambers of 
Commerce have been constituted. 

The European chamber at Cocanada was established as 
long ago as 1868. Representatives of the leading European 
firms and the local Agent of the Bank of Madras are members. 
Its objects are ' to watch over and protect the interests of 
trade, to collect information on matters bearing thereon, to 
communicate with authorities and individuals upon the 
removal of grievances and abuses, to decide on matters of 
customs and usage . . . and to form a code of practice 
whereby the transaction of business may be facilitated,' and 
it has displayed much activity in all these directions. The 
practice of annually printing its chief proceedings, which was 
inaugurated in 1903, is to be continued. The native Chamber 
of Commerce is theoretically quite independent of the other; 
but generally the two bodies work hand in hand. 

The port is visited by the British India steamers, as many 
as six or seven of which often call in a week ; by the Asiatic visiting the 
Steam Navigation Company's boats, two of which call every ^"'^'" 
fortnight ; and by the Clan Line steamers, three or four of 
which come every month. The Austrian Lloyd steamers and 
those of a Venetian company call occasionally. 

In 1902-03 (see the figures in the separate Appendix to Amount of 
this volume) the total value of the export trade of Cocanada '^ade. 
amounted, in round figures, to Rs. i, 22,80,000 and that of 
the imports to Rs. 25,10,000, making up a total trade of 
Rs. 1,47,90,000 or £986,000. In the statistics of that year the 
port takes the fifth place among those of this Presidency — 





Character of 

being passed only by Madras (total trade 1,406 lakhs), 
Tuticorin (388 lakhs), Cochin (320 lakhs) and Calicut (192 
lakhs) — and the twelfth place among the ports of British 
India. ^ The trade has naturally varied considerably in 
different years ; but in only three out of the 2/ immediately 
preceding 1902 03 did it rise above 200 lakhs in total value. 
These were 1889-90 (201 lakhs), 1896-97 (216 lakhs) and 
1892-93 (239 lakhs). In 1878-79 it fell below 75 lakhs, but in 
no other year was the figure less than lOO lakhs. In 1903-04 
the imports were valued at Rs. 38,73,000 and the exports at 
Rs. 1,67,31,000, making a total of Rs. 2,06,04,000. The exports 
have always been largely in excess of the imports. The 
proportion in 1903-04 is fairly typical of other years. 

In that year, out of a total export trade of 167 lakhs, goods 
to the value of 84 lakhs were sent to ports outside India 
(including Burma) and the rest to Indian ports ; of the latter, 
II lakhs went to the ports of this Presidency. The foreign 
export trade has generally been equal to or larger than the 
Indian export trade, and often much larger. The trade with 
the rest of the Presidency has always been small, and it has 
very largely decreased in the last seven years, probably 
owing to the competition of the railway. 

In 1903-04 the foreign imports made up rather more than 
half of the total import trade ; but the figures of that year are 
rather exceptional, as the imports from abroad are usually 
nothing like so large as those from India and Burma. In 
former years the imports from other ports in this Presidency 
were considerable and averaged in value about one quarter of 
the total imports ; but, like the exports to other places in 
the Presidency, they have much decreased in the last six 

Of a total foreign export trade in 1903-04 of Rs. 84,04,000, 
the exports of cotton were valued at Rs. 33,93,000 ; of rice and 
paddy (chiefly the latter) at Rs. 29,90,000; and of oil-seeds 
(castor and gingelly) at Rs. 9,25,000. Thus these commodities 
made up 73 out of the total of 84 lakhs. Food-grains 
accounted for Rs. 2,02,000, oil-cake for Rs. 1,69,000, fibre - for 
brushes for Rs. 1,56,000, and castor oil for Rs. 97,000. The 
cotton is chiefly sent to France (Rs. 9,06,000), Holland 
(Rs. 6,42,000) and Britain (Rs. 3,32,000) as well as to several 
other European countries and Japan. Rice and paddy is 

> The larger ports outside this Presidency were Bombay (11,172 lakhs'), 
Calcutta (10,381 lakhs), Rangoon (2,868 lakhs), Karachi (1,929 lakhs), Moul- 
mein (440 lakhs\ Chittagong (283 lakhs) and Akyab (240 lakhs). 

2 Chiefly palmyra fibre extracted from the thick stem of the leaf. This item 
has much increased in the last year or two. 



chiefly taken by Ceylon (Rs. 8,67,000), Reunion (Rs. 6,63,000) 
the Straits Settlements (Rs. 5,23,000), Mauritius (Rs. 4,88,000) 
and Japan (Rs, 2,76,000). Gingelly oil goes chiefly to Ceylon 
and France, and castor oil to Britain and Russia. The fibres 
and the oil-cake go almost entirely to Ceylon. An import- 
ant item is tobacco, which is sent unmanufactured in large 
quantities to Burma to be made up into cheroots. 

Nearly the whole of the foreign import trade of 1903-04 
was made up of unrefined sugar (Rs. 9,69,000), kerosine oil 
(Rs. 7,47,000) and various kinds of metal and metalware 
(Rs. 1,40,000). The sugar all came from Java, and the kerosine 
oil from Russia (Rs. 3,32,000), the United States (Rs. 2,6l,000) 
and Sumatra (Rs. 1,53,000). The metalware was chiefly from 
the United Kingdom. 

The coastwise import trade is small. The largest items 
were gunny-bags from Calcutta (nearly five lakhs), cotton 
twist and yarn principally from Bombay (some three lakhs), 
kerosine oil chiefly from Rangoon (two and a half lakhs), 
ground-nut oil from Madras ports and cotton piece-goods from 
Bombay (each about a lakh), and cocoanut oil, also from 
Madras ports, Rs. 84,000. 

The coastwise export trade included thirty-six lakhs' worth 
of grain and pulse of various sorts, of which five-sixths was 
rice and the greater part was sent to Bombay. Nearly sixteen 
lakhs' worth of tobacco leaf was sent to Burma, and gingelly 
worth nine lakhs (of which two-thirds went to Burma) and 
castor seeds worth two lakhs (nearly all of which went to 
Calcutta) were other considerable items. 

Outside the remoter parts of the Agency, where regular 
tables are little used, the following are the ordinary weights 
and measures in the district. The table employed by gold- 
smiths is generally : — 

4 ^'/^ai'Wi' (grains of paddy) ... = i 

2 pcdikas ... ... ... = I 

2 addigas ... ... ... = i 

30 chinnanis ... ... ... = i 





tola (180 grains.) 

The ordinary table of commercial weights is as follows: — 

2 p am pus 
2 yebulams 
2 padalams 

2 visses 
4 yetiedus 
20 maunds 

I ycbulam. 

I padaJatn, 

I viss ( = 5 seers, or 120 

I yettedu. 

I maund (of 25 lb.). 
I putti (or candy). 












Measures of 

In Polavaram, between the maund and the putti, come the 
yediimu of 5 maunds, and the pa)idiimu of 10 maunds. These 
words are respectively corruptions of aidii tumulu, ' five turns ' 
and padi tumulu, ' ten turns.' Wholesale merchants also buy 
and sell in terms of bags (basthas) supposed to weigh l66 lb. 

Oil and ghee are sold retail by weight in the shops, and 
wholesale or retail by measure by the Telukulas and Gollas ; 
milk and curds always by measure ; long chillies by weight, 
and short ones by measure, though at Rajahmundry and 
Polavaram both kinds are said to be sold by weight. Jaggery 
and tamarind are described in kantlams in addition to the 
above weights ; one kantlam being equivalent to nine maunds 
everywhere in the district except at Peddapuram, where it is 
ten and a half maunds. Tape is sold by weight in terms of 
yettus and its submultiples (half, quarter, etc.). Fuel in large 
towns is sold by the following table : — 

5 maunds ... ... = i Mvadi, y'edumu or pattii, 

4 kdvadis ... ... = i putti. 

Weights below a pattu are described in submultiples of 
that weight. 

The table used in Bhadrachalam is quite different. That 
taluk is situated above the Ghats, and no doubt the influ- 
ence of the Nizam's Dominions and the Central Provinces 
predominates. The weights are :— 
2 chataks 
2 pavu sirs 
2 ardha sirs 

5 seers 
8 visses 
2o maunds 

I pavu sir. 

I ardha sir (= \ seer). 

I seer (= 24 tolas). 

I viss. 

I maund. 

I putti. 

Peculiar to this taluk is the selling of oil retail by weight. 
At Polavaram a balance resembling the Danish steel-yard is 
used. One end of a longish stick is marked with notches 
denoting different weights. The article to be weighed is hung 
from this end of it, and the stick and article are lifted by a 
string loop which fits into the notches and is tried in one after 
the other of them until the stick hangs horizontally. The 
notch in which the loop then lies indicates the weight of the 

The following table of measures is recognized, with one or 
two exceptions, in all the taluks outside the Agency : — 
5 tolas weight of rice ... = i gidda. 

4 giddas ... ... ... = I sola. 

2 solas ... ... ... = I tavva. 



2 tawas ... ... ... = I manika or seer (holds 80 

tolas weight of rice). 

2 manikas ... ... ... = i adda. 

2 addas ... ... ... = i kunchatn (320 tolas 

weight of rice). 
20 kunchams ... ... = i yediimu or kdvadi. 

2 yedufnus ... ... = i pandumu. 

2 pandumus ... ... = i palle-putti (= 80 kun- 

l\ palle-puttis ... ... = i garce {garisa) of 600 

kunchams or 192,000 
tolas weight of rice. 

The palle-putti of 80 kunchams is only found in the north-east 
of the district, i.e., in Cocanada, Peddapuram, Pithapuram and 
Tuni. In the other parts of the district the malaka putti of 200 
kunchams (three of which go to the garce) is used, but not the 
yedumu or pandumu. 

In Polavaram the measures used are — 

5 tolas weight c 




I gidda. 

8 glddas 


I taw a. 

8 tawas ... 


I kuticham (of 320 tolas 
weight of rice). 



I tiimu. 

4 tiimus 


I goticdu. 

5 goncdus or 20 




1 putti of 200 kunchams. 

3 puttis 

I garce of 600 kunchams or 
192,000 tolas weight 
of rice. 

In Bhadrachalam the scale recognized is- 

10 tolas weight of rice 

4 giddas 
2 solas 

2 tawas 

10 tawas 

2 kunchams 
2 irusas 

5 tumudus ... 
2 yi'dumus ... 
2 pandumus 

I gidda. 

I .'.vVrt. 

I /rtZ'z/rt or seer (holding 80 

tolas weight of rice). 
I nuuilka (of 160 tolas 

weight of rice). 
I kuncham (of 800 tolas 

weight of rice). 
I irusa. 
I tumudu. 
I y{'dumu. 
I pandumu. 
1 ////// (of 80 kunchams or 

640,000 tolas weight 












It will be noticed that the Bhadrachalam gidda and tavva 
are twice as large as those elsewhere, and the Bhadrachalam 
kuncham two and a half times as large. 

Ghee and oil, as already stated, are sold wholesale by 
measure. The largest measure used for oil is the kuncham, and 
for ghee the seer. Butter-milk and curd are measured in 
small pots called miDithas. It is the practice in this district to 
set milk for curd in a number of these small pots, instead of 
in one large pot as is done in some southern districts, and the 
pots are sold separately. There are four usual sizes of them ; 
namely, the quarter anna, half anna, three-quarter anna and 
anna munthas, so called according to the price (and so the 
capacity) of each. An anna miintha holds about half a seer. 
Milk is sold by the seer and its submultiples. Large quantities 
of milk are sometimes spoken of in terms of the kadava or 
kdvadi, which hold 20 and 40 seers respectively. Popular 
phrases to denote capacity are the closed handful, called 
guppedu or pidikedu, the open handful or chdredu, and the double 
handful or dosed 11. 

Fruits {e.g., mangoes, plantains, cocoanuts and guavas), 
palmyra leaves, and dung cakes are sold by ' hands,' one hand 
or cheyyi being equivalent to five. Twenty cheyyis make one 
salaga, and for every salaga one cheyyi extra is thrown in as 
kosani or ' for luck.' Kosarn means ' bargaining.' Betel leaves 
are sold wholesale by the nwda. This is a varying quantity 
equivalent generally to 200 or 300 leaves according to their 
thickness. It is supposed to be the quantity that can be held 
in the two hands, when the hands are pressed together at the 
wrist, as when catching a cricket ball. The leaves are sold 
retail by the katta, which contains lOO leaves. 

The old native scale of measures is in use alongside with 
the English inch, foot and yard. The native scale is :— 

I angida ... ... ... = the breadth of a man's 

thumb, or f inch. 
... ... = I y'tt/zfl (span). 

= I mura (cubit). 
= I hara (fathom). 
= I kbss {7\ miles). 
1= I nmada (about nine 
6 kosscs ... ... ... = 1 majlH (march, or halt- 

ing place ; about i;; 

Besides these, there are the betta, or the breadth of four 
fingers placed together, and the loditha, or half span, made by 
















extending the thumb and forefinger as far apart as possible. 
The bcira is the distance between the tips of the fingers of the 
two hands when the arms are both stretched out horizontally 
to their greatest extent. In describing heights and depths 
above five feet or so, natives always use the terms niluvii and 
ara (half) niliivu. The niluvu is equivalent to the height of an 
average adult person. In the Agency chalaka and mancha, 
which (see below) are really square measures, are used to 
denote distances. They each represent about JO yards. 

Some of these measures of length are used much more 
frequently than the English standards. Thus Xhe jdna a-nd. 
the miira are very commonly used for measuring cloth, and 
the miira and bdra for measuring ropes. Again the koss and 
the dmada are in very common use for long distances, and the 
majili is not rare. 

Acres and cents are only of recent introduction, and are Land 
less familiar to the natives than the English lineal feet and ""^^sures 
inches. The native table of land measures is the same 
throughout the district except in Tuni, Bhadrachalam, Yella- 
varam, Chodavaram and the wilder parts of Polavaram, and 
is based on the quantity of seed required to cultivate a given 
area of land. Thus a mdnadu is the quantity of land that can 
be sown with a mdnika or seer of seed, and is equivalent to 
about two and half cents. An addedu is five cents, a kunchedu 
ten cents, an iddiimu neresa is an acre, an yedumu two acres, a 
pandumu four acres, and a putti eight acres. A different and 
vaguer terminology is used in Tuni. There wet land is spoken 
of in terms of the out turn of paddy — or in ' garces ' ; and dry 
land in terms of the number of days it would take a pair of 
bullocks to plough it — namely in yellu or ploughs. Thus one 
yeru or 'plough ' of dry land is the quantity of land that a 
pair of bullocks can plough in one day, or about half an acre. 
A ' garce ' of wet land is said to be about two acres. 

There appears to be no precise table of land measure known 
in Bhadrachalam, perhaps because there is no need for one 
among the inhabitants of those uncivilized parts. The 
zamindars' accounts are said to be kept in acres and cents. 
In the wilder tracts of this taluk and of Polavaram, and 
throughout the Agency, areas are described in terms of 
chalakas, maiichas and kattipodu. 7l/a«c//a is the raised bamboo 
platform put up in the middle of a field, on which the watcher 
sits to scare away birds and animals. The term is used to 
describe the amount of land which can be commanded by one 
watcher, or about two acres. The chalaka is the same as the 
mancha in extent. It literally means ' a piece.' Kattipodu has a 
reference to podu cultivation, and denotes as much land as 







of time. 

Local mone- 
tary terms. 

I gadlya (or 24 minutes.) 
I ganta (or English hour). 
I jamu (or watch). 

can be cleared in one day by one katti or billhook. This 
extent is said to be about an acre. 

English minutes and hours are well understood and are 
used equally with the native measures of time. The latter 
are : — 

60 vigadiyas ... 
2 2 gadlyas 
3 gafitas 

Of these, the vigadiya is rarely, if ever, used, the term 
being only known to the educated. Periods shorter than 
twenty-four minutes are generally expressed in English 
minutes or in terms of fractions of the gadiya. 

In telling the time of day or night a native calculates the 
number of gadiyas ov jdmiis that have elapsed since 6 A.M., or 
6 P.M., as the case may be. Thus 7 12 o'clock, whether A.M. 
or P.M., would be ' three gadiyas,' and 9 o'clock would be ' one 
jdmu ' or ' seven and a half gadiyas.' 

There are also, however, in this as in every other district, 
a number of expressions in common use which denote various 
times of the day. Those which occur most frequently here 
are ' the rising of the star Venus ' (tsiikka podichetappudu), 
which is of course variable ; ' the time when the first cock 
crows ' (3 A.M.) ; ' the time when the second cock crows ' 
(4 A.M.) ; ' the time to begin ploughing ' (6 A.M.) ; ' cock-crow 
time'; ' the time to sprinkle cow-dung-water' and ' the time 
to make butter-milk,' both of which indicate 6 A.M.; 'the 
time to milk the cows ' (7 A.M.) ; ' the shepherds' breakfast 
time ' (9 or 10 A.M.); 'the time to let the cattle out to graze,' 
which is very variable ; ' the time when the feet burn ' 
(midday) ; muppoddu vela, ' when three jdmtis have passed ' 
(about 3 P.M.) ; ' time to begin cooking' (4 P.M.); ' sanda jdtnu,' 
about three hours after nightfall, from sanda, evening ; and 
' the thief time ' or midnight. A variation of the last, found 
in the Agency, is ' the time when the cock crows at the thief.' 
The Agency people also use the phrase jdva vein, or ' kanji 
time.' for 10 A.M. or breakfast time ; and sometimes call it 
muntlia vela, or 'porringer time,' from the vessel in which 
they eat it. 

Besides the ordinary currency, cowries (gavvalu) are very 
commonly used in making small purchases throughout the low 
country, except in Pithapuram and Tuni. They are imported 
from Bombay and sold by weight. Ninety-six cowries make 
one three-pie piece ; but there are a number of terms denoting 
smaller numbers. Thus 4 cowries = I punjam ; 3 pimjams = 
I toli ; 2 tolis = I dammidi (three-quarters of a pie); 2 dammi- 
dis = egdni (or 1 5^ pies); 2 egdnis — I dabbu, kdni, or kott a 



ddbbu, which are the ordinary names for a three-pie piece. 
The value of a cowry, punjam and toli are not absolutely 
constant, but vary slightly with the market price of cowries. 
The dahhu is also a term of varying application. In Pitha- 
puram, Tuni, and the Agency it means four pies, and is 
synonymous with a pdta dabbu (' old dabbu ')• In this case an 
egdrii means two pies and a dammidi one pie ; but the kdni and 
the kotta dabbu (' new dabbu ') still denote three pies. 

For sums above an anna a variety of curious terms are 
used. Thus, 

4 koi^a dabbus ... ... = 

2 annas ... ... ... = 

2 bedas ... ... ... = 

16 pata dabbus ... ... = 

2 pavulas ... ... = 

3 pavulas ... ... = 

I pdvu ... ... ... = 

I mdda ... ... ... = 

I vardha (pagoda) or punjl=. 
I pulivardha ... ... = 

I vanda ... ... ... = 

I anna. 
I beda. 
I pdvula or dulam (:=4 annas). 

tankamu (or 5 as. 4 ps.). 
half rupee or chavulam. 
niuppavula (12 annas), 
r rupees. 

... = 100 rupees. 

In Tuni, and perhaps elsewhere, the didam (4 annas), 
chavidam (8 annas), pdvu (rupee), mdda (2 rupees) and punji, 
or pagoda of 4 rupees, are used to denote percentages. Thus 
if a man wants to say he is giving 6%, 12^, 25 or 50 per cent, 
he will say he is giving a dulam (one-sixteenth of a pagoda), 
chavulam (one-eighth), a pdvu (one-quarter) or a ?ndda (one-half) 
respectively. No doubt the use of the pagoda as a unit of 
reference is the cause of the name pdvu for a rupee, the word 
literally meaning * a quarter.' 

In Bhadrachalam, besides the usual British Indian coins, 
those of the Nizam's Dominions are also in common use. 







Their lenj 
and condi 


Roads — Their length and condition — Quarries — Maintenance, establishment and 
allotments — Bridges — Ferries. Water Carriage — The rivers— Upper Goda- 
vari project — Navigable canals; their history — Expenditure and traffic — 
Nature of traffic — Conflicting interests of irrigation and navigation. Madras 
Railway. Accommodation for travellers— Bungalows — Chattrams. 

CHAP. VII. There are just under 850 miles of road in the Godavari 
Roads. district, most of which are shaded by fine avenues. Of these, 
580 miles are metalled or gravelled, chiefly the former. The 
long lead from the quarries which has in most cases to be 
paid for, makes it the best economy to carry the best material 
available, and latterly gravel has for that reason been dis- 
carded. The rest of the roads are repaired with earth and 
sand. Nearly four-fifths of these earth roads are in the Agency 
divisions of Polavaram and Bhadrachalam, the former of 
which possesses less than thirty, and the latter only six, 
miles of metalled road. On a good metalled road a cart will 
carry 1,500 lb. at about two miles an hour; on an earth road 
the load is about 1,000 lb. and the distance traversed in an 
hour about one and a half miles. The metalled roads in the 
uplands are generally good, and so are some of those in the 
delta ; but the latter have great difhculties to contend with. 
They have usually to be made on a rich alluvial soil saturated 
by irrigation water for many months in the year, and the lead 
for metal is nearly always long, and in some cases amounts 
to as many as 40 miles. The numerous navigable canals 
enable this metal to be transported at less cost than usual, 
but it often has to be carted by road for four, five and even 
six miles from the canal-side depots to the places where it is 
required. Moreover, floods occasionally submerge the country 
and do a great deal of damage, and against these it is 
impossible to provide entirely except at enormous expense. 
Finally the material available is not of the best, being only 
laterite of fair quality. 

Quarries. The metal used in the delta is obtained from the laterite 

quarries of Kadayam and Samalkot. The uplands are as well 
supplied with quarries as most other districts, and some of 
those recently opened yield very good metal. Ordinarily the 
only material available is laterite and sandstone of poor 



and allot- 

On the earth roads a hard surface crust is made by mixing CHAP. VII. 
sand and earth with water and then tamping the mixture with Roads. 
rammers. On the metalled roads the consolidation is done by Maintenance, 
the District Board's two six-ton steam rollers or by hand rollers 
of from two to three tons. Material is supplied, and generally 
spread, by contract, but the latter work is not popular and is 
only taken up as a necessary adjunct of a contract to supply. 
Petty repairs are done departmentally. Road maistries are 
posted to every sixteen miles of road and daily labour is 
obtained when necessary. Gang coolies are not employed. 
Avenue coolies are entertained to tend the nurseries and the 
young trees by the road-sides. The superior establishment 
consists of the District Board Engineer, two Assistant 
Engineers, five overseers and nine sub-overseers. 

The usual grant for the maintenance of the roads is some 
Rs. 85,000. The minimum and maximum allotments per mile 
are Rs. 50 and Rs. 300 respectively ; and the average for 
metalled roads is about Rs. 1 10. The above figures include 
Bhadrachalam ; but that taluk has since been excluded from 
the operation of the Local Boards Act, and in future its roads 
will be managed by the Divisional Officer at Bhadrachalam. 

In the delta there are few bridges. This fact, and the 
reason for it, are referred to as follows by Mr. Walch ^ : — 

'There is probably no artificial irrigation and navigation 
system, except perhaps the neighbouring one of the Kistna, in 
which the provision of bridges per mile of canal and channel 
is so small as in the Godavari delta.^ This has arisen from 
the fact that when the works were commenced, and for long 
after, there was not a single made road in the delta, and 
the people were accustomed to wade through the streams 
and water-courses which crossed their path-ways, or when 
the water was too deep for wading to use dug-outs or rafts 
. . . . Bridges have however been provided over the tail- 
bays of almost all the locks, and of late years a few have 
been constructed at other places at the expense, or partly so, 
of local funds.' 

Matters have been considerably improved recently. In the 
delta, on the main roads, bridges have now been built over all 
waterways except the actual branches of the Godavari. The 
minor roads, however, have received much less attention. 

Outside the delta, also, some fine bridges have been built 
in recent years. Of these, that at Yerravaram, which carries 


• The Engineerin^i works of the Godavari Delta (Madras, 1896), p. 135. 

* A very remarkable contrast is presented by the Tanjore delta, where fine 
bridges are very plentiful. 

126 GODAVARl. 

CHAP. VII, the great northern trunk-road over the Yelera river, was 
KoADs. constructed by the late Mr. P. H. Brown, M.I.C.E., District Board 
Engineer,^ and was opened for traffic in 1887. It consists 
of sixteen spans of 32 feet with segmental brick arches on 
first-class coursed rubble piers and abutments. The bridge 
over the Tuni river at Tuni, on the same road and at the north- 
eastern extremity of the district, has ten spans of 30 feet. It 
was built over 30 years ago by the Public Works department. 
A fine bascule bridge crosses the Godavari at Coringa. It is 
an iron construction 250 feet long with a 50-foot drawbridge 
in the middle, and is built on solid iron piles four to five 
inches in diameter and screwed down to from 30 to 45 feet 
below mean sea level. This also was designed and erected 
(in 1901) by Mr, Brown. The drawbridge consists of two 
bascules which when raised afford an opening of 50 feet for 
sailing ships. There has been no difficulty in passing through 
it the largest ships which can enter the river, which run up to 
500 to 600 tons. As originally constructed, it took eight men 
to open and close the bascules, but recent improvements 
designed and carried out by the present District Board Engi- 
neer Mr. C. J. Lowry, enable each span to be easily opened 
and closed by one man- The flooring is of steel trough plates 
except over the drawbridge, which is floored with teak. 

The only bridge across the Godavari is that at Rajah- 
mundry which carries the Madras Railway and is described 
below. Foot passengers are allowed to cross it. There is no 
separate footway, but it is floored and provided with a hand- 
rail, and there are refuges on every pier where people can 
wait for a train to pass. 

Ferries. The deficiency of bridges both over the Godavari and over 

the many channels in the delta is supplied by ferries. The 
three steam ferry-boats which at present ply on the Godavari 
are referred to below. Besides these there are 34 ferries 
under the control of the local boards, and eight more in the 
Bhadrachalam taluk. The local fund ferries are equipped 
with boats constructed by the local boards or by the Public 
Works department ; the former contributing half the cost in 
the case of all natural waterways. Of these boats, fourteen 
are first-class, and the same number second-class, iron 
ballacuts.^ A ballacut is a platform with hand-rails laid on 

' To this officer, who was the first District Board Engineer and held that post 
from 1880 to 1901, the district owes the construction of most of its roads and of 
many minor bridges, as well as the planting of miles of fine avenues. He also 
erected the building now occupied by the branch of the Bank of Madras and St. 
Thomas' Church in Cocanada, as well as a number of other public buildings, 

2 Telugu balla, a plank and kattu, to tie ; hence *a platform.' 



a broad-beamed punt, and is ordinarily of sufficient length CHAP. vii. 
and breadth to take a cart and its bullocks. The bigger river Roads. 

ferry-boats are large flats which will hold three or four carts 

with their bullocks. Long boats are used at some of the lesser 
ferries, and rafts laid on hollowed-out palmyra trunks (called 
sangadis) at a few insignificant ones. The round boats made 
of hides stretched over a bamboo framework which are 
used on some of the rivers of the Presidency {e.g., the 
Tungabhadra, Cauvery and Bhavani) are not employed in this 
district. Across narrow waterways the boats are propelled 
by poles, or, more rarely, are pulled across with the help of 
a rope tied from bank to bank. For crossing the wider and 
deeper channels, oars or (as sometimes on the Godavari itself) 
sails are used. 

Thirty-four of the local fund ferries are leased out by 
auction by the taluk boards concerned to contractors, who are 
allowed to charge certain fixed fees. In 1904-05 the sums paid 
for the right to work these ferries amounted in round figures 
to Rs. 23,300. The eight ferries of Bhadrachalam fetched 
some Rs. 700 in the same year. The ferry across the 
Vasishta Godavari at Kotipalli was leased for Rs. 4,020 and 
that across the Vainateyam at Bodasakurru for Rs. 2,300. All 
the steam ferries were sold for large amounts. 

All the other local fund ferries are allowed to be used 
by the public free of charge. They are managed by the 
villagers, who arrange for some one to work each of them 
and remunerate him themselves. For some of them the boat 
or ballacut is supplied by the District Board, and in that 
case the village headman is held responsible for its proper 

The Godavari river is largely used as a waterway. The 
fhree steam ferry-boats mentioned above do much passenger 
traffic. One of them, a stern-wheel boat with compound 
engines, plies between Rajavolu (Razole) and Narasapur ; 
another, a large boat with an upper deck, of the usual river- 
steamer type, travels between Rajahmundry, Dowlaishweram, 
Bobbarlanka, Vijesvaram and Kovvur ; and the third, another 
stern-wheeler, touches at all the ferry stations on both sides 
of the Godavari between Rajahmundry and Polavaram and 
has recently been run experimentally as far up as Kunna- 
varam, to provide communication with Bhadrachalam' These 
boats are worked by crews paid by the District Board, but 
are generally managed by contractors who find the fuel, etc., 

The rivers. 

1 These are Kovviir, Arikarevala, Kumaradevam, Tallapudi, Sitanagaram 
and Gutala, 


CHAP. VII. take the passengers' fees, and pay rent tc the District Board. 
Water They are inspected by the District Board Engineer from 

■ time to time to ensure that they are maintained in a safe and 

proper condition. The Public Works department has one or 
two steamers at Dowlaishweram which are used by officials 
for inspections or journeys on the river. 

A great deal of goods and passenger traffic is also carried 
on the river in native sailing-boats. These are generally 
' dhonis,' which run up to 35 tons capacity. They go up by 
the Dummagudem canal referred to below when there is 
enough water in the river and the canal is open (usually 
from June to January), and travel a long way above Dumma- 
gudem. Going up stream they sail when the wind is 
favourable, and, when it is not, pole or, when possible, 
tow. Coming down stream they either sail or row, or drift 
with the current, rowing just enough to keep on steerage 
way. Rafts of timber (see below) come down the Upper 
Godavari from December to May. 
Upper The project of opening up the navigation of the Upper 

Godavari Godavari was first urged on the attention of Government in 

project. ° 

1851. A vast amount of money was expended on it ; but it 
was eventually pronounced too expensive to be remunerative, 
and was abandoned. 

Sir Arthur Cotton, a vigorous advocate and promoter of 
water carriage, was the first to broach the subject. He 
hoped that it might be possible to provide 'still-water steam 
navigation from the sea to Berar,' which would be, he said, 
'the cheapest line of communication in the world.' It was 
decided in 1853 to investigate the project; and careful and 
repeated examinations of the river were carried out.^ The 
great difficulty to be overcome was the existence of three 
remarkable barriers of rock, forming rapids which are only 
navigable during floods. The first of these, which is nine 
miles long, begins near Dummagudem, at a distance of 143 
miles from the sea ; the second at Enchampalli, just below 
the junction with the Indravati and 220 miles from the river's 
mouth ; and the third, called the Dewalamurry barrier, at a 
point 310 miles from the sea. These barriers excepted, it was 
estimated that there was sufficient water in the river during 
nine months in the year for steamers drawing from two to four 
feet of water, according to the state of the river. The fall of 
the river is moderate; and during half the year the current 
was estimated to be only a mile and a half per hour, and rarely 

' Among the fruits of these is Lieut. F.T. Haig's Report on tlie Navigability 
of the River Godavery (Madras, 1S56), which contains ehiborate plans and 
diagrams and a fund of information on the ways of the river. 


to rise above three miles an hour. It was proposed to evade CHAP. vii. 
the obstruction caused by the barriers by cutting canals water 
provided with locks along the side of the river past the Carriage. 
impassable points. 

The project was warmly accepted by Government, arid, on 
their strong recommendation, was sanctioned by the Court of 
Directors. It was however never completed. The estimated 
cost of the whole scheme, which was designed to render the 
river navigable for 473 miles above the anient for four or five 
months of the year, and to open out to traffic 300 miles of its 
tributaries, was £292,000. Up to 1861 £20,000 had been laid 
out in preliminary surveys, etc. In 1863, when Sir Richard 
Temple inspected the works, no less than £700,000 had been 
spent. He recommended that the works at the first and second 
barriers and up to the foot of the third barrier should be 
proceeded with at an estimated cost of £255,000, so that 
navigation might be opened so far; but in October 1871, at 
the request of the Government of India, the whole scheme 
was abandoned on the ground that it involved an expenditure 
which did not give promise of any adequate return.^ 

It has never been revived. There is a fine lock and anicut 
at Dummagudem and a canal (two miles in length) which is 
still used. Cargo boats can as a rule pass through it between 
June and January, and small boats throughout the year, 
except when it is closed for repairs. At the second barrier 
at Enchampalli, are a partly-completed anicut and the remains 
of unfinished locks and excavations. The Dummagudem 
works were damaged in the flood of 1900, and estimates, 
amounting to Rs. 1,26,800, for repairing them were sanctioned 
in 1905 and are now being carried out. It would be a great 
help to navigation if the canal there could be carried down 
to Bhadrachalam ; but the work would be difficult and costly, 
as the excavation would be largely in solid rock. 

When the Godavari anicut was being built, it was Navigable 
proposed that the canals taking off from it should be so con- '^^".ais; 

, , 1 ,1 r • • 1, their historv, 

structed that they would serve tor navigation as well as 
irrigation. Mr. Walch writes as follows on the subject - : — 

"Even when sending in his first general estimate with his second 
report ' Major Cotton had said that one of the results to be expected 
from the works which he contemplated would be that ' a complete 

^ Statement exhibiting the Material and Moral Progress of India during 

1872-73. P 79- 

2 Chapter XI of The Engineering works of the Goddz'a ri /^elta (Ma.dTa.s, 

5 Dated April 17th, 1S45. 



CHAP. VII. system of internal navigation intersecting the whole delta would be 
Water established throughout the year.' And besides the ' head-locks ' the 
Carriage, gg^ij^ate included a provision of one Ukh for ' sluices, locks, and 
other small masonry works.' The smallness of this provision, which 
could not have been intended for more than half-a-dozen i or so of 
even the small and inexpensive locks originally proposed, shows that 
there was but a very imperfect perception on the part of Major 
Cotton himself of what would be required to make the main irrigation 
arteries of the system into really efficient lines of communication. 
It is not therefore to be wondered at that when the detailed estimates 
for the various canals came in with large sums set down for locks and 
special arrangements for navigation, the Government should have 
regarded the provisions for that purpose as almost a new development 
of the original intentions to which sanction had been given. The 
Governor of the day, Sir Henry Pottinger, even went so far as to 
' say I cannot shut my eyes to the fact that this is an entirely novel 
scheme which, so far as I recollect, had no existence in the original 
project for an anicut across the Godavari.' 

" But Colonel Cotton was determined that his chief canals should 
be made navigable ..... and so he went on with steady 
insistence, loyally backed up by the officers who followed him on the 
delta works, till at last opposition to his views on the subject was 
broken down, and there are now in the Godavari system alone nearly 
500 miles of canals which, besides carrying water for irrigation, are 
excellent lines of communication. Nor is this all ; from the Godavari 
system, navigation can at three places pass into the Kistna system 
with its 300 miles of navigable canals, and from it again into the 
Buckingham Canal, which runs along the coast for 196 miles from the 
end of the Kistna system to Madras, and for 65 miles further south. 
From Cocanada to the south end of the Buckingham Canal the length 
of canal navigation is 450 miles. 

" There cannot be the slightest doubt that the provision for cheap 
carriage, not only in and about the district itself but also to the 
neighbouring districts and to an excellent sea-port, contributed 
largely to the rapidity with which the Godavari irrigation developed 
and the district sprang into prosperity. In this way the cost of the 
works specially required for navigation has been repaid over and 
over again, quite irrespective of the direct returns from boat licenses, 
tolls and so on." 
Expenditure The development of canal traffic has indeed been enor- 

and traffic. ^^^^^^ g.^. j^^^^mr CottoH wfote in 1852, 'I should not be 
surprised if, after a few years, the district be M^ell managed 
and the canals kept in good order, the traffic were to average 

^ In his letter No. 184, dated 3rd August 1849, Captain Orr gives the number 
required as 10. There are now 54, exclusive of head-locks. 



50 tons a day.' The traffic in 1 893 94 amounted to 393,725 chap. vil. 
tons, or over 1,000 tons a day ; and by 1902-03 it had risen to Water 
576,643 tons, or nearly 1,680 tons a day, that is, more than Carriage. 
33 times as much as that anticipated by the founder of the 
canal system. 

It was not till 1863 that tolls were levied for the use of the 
canals. Nowadays a considerable annual income is derived 
from them. The total receipts in iqo2-03 ^ were Rs. 85,600 
and the total maintenance charges Rs. 63,900, leaving a net 
profit of Rs. 21,700. A navigation establishment (chiefly lock 
superintendents) costing Rs. 448 per mensem is kept up for 
the central and eastern deltas belonging to this district. In 
1902-03 fees were paid on 458,000 tons of displacement ; and 
cargoes worth 230 lakhs and over 345,000 passengers were 
transported on the canals. Timber rafts with a displacement 
of nearly 119,000 tons also used these waterways. 

The passenger traffic is carried in what are called rddhdri Nature of 
boats, long covered craft holding from 40 to 70 passengers 
and entirely owned and directed by private enterprise. They 
are towed by regular staffs of coolies paid monthly wages 
and posted at stages of from ten to twelve miles in length. 
These boats also carry produce, and are patronized for this 
purpose when time is an object, as their pace averages 
three miles an hour. They all start from Rajahmundry or 
Dowlaishweram, and they constitute a regular boat service. 

The cargo boats are numerous and range from 7 to 40 tons 
displacement. They all carry sails. Their charges for cargo 
are about four pies a ton a mile on the average. They are 
worked by crews of two or three men and one or two small 
boys, who tow, pole, or row the boats as convenient. On still 
water they can sail five miles an hour. Otherwise their pace 
is about three miles an hour down stream and one and a half 
up stream. 

The timber rafts consist mostly of logs and bamboos from 
the forests of the Upper Godavari, which are lashed together 
and floated down between December and May for export. 
Bamboos come down in December, but timber not until 
January. Of a total transported tonnage of 118,632 tons, only 
418 tons were taken up stream. 

The canals are used to a small extent by house-boats. 
These are nearly all Government boats employed by officials, 
but there are one or two private house-boats also. The only 

^ These, and except where otherwise stated the following, figures are for the 
whole delta system, including the part in Kistna district. 





interests of 
irrigation and 


Steamers on the canals at present are the inspection boats of 
the Public Works department. Mr. Walch ^ says that : — 

' The introduction of steam power for the transportation of freight 
along the canals has often been considered, and it has to some extent 
been tried without success. It cannot compete with manual labour 
unless that becomes far less plentiful and cheap than it now is, and 
unless canals along the chief lines of communication be maintained 
along their whole lengths and at all points to a depth greater than is 
now the case. That steam or perhaps electricity will eventually 
supersede towing coolies on the Godavari canals is most probable, 
but this will not be for many a long day.' 

The combination of irrigation and navigation in these 
canals is not entirely without its drawbacks. Their require- 
ments are necessarily to some extent conflicting. 

' For irrigation, large quantities of water and consequently ot silt 
have to be taken into a canal, and therefore the slope of the surface 
must be considerable ; for navigation the less water taken into the 
canal the better, and its surface should have no slope. For irrigation, 
there are times when the canal should be kept low so that large 
quantities of water may not have to be passed into the drainages 
when they are already filled by rain-water ; for navigation the canal 
should always be kept up to its full level. For irrigation, even when 
the river or other source of supply is low, it is often necessary to go 
on letting as much water as possible out of the canal to supply crops, 
thereby reducing the level and the depth in the canal, especially at 
its end ; for navigation at such times the water should be kept in the 
canal so as to maintain as nearly as possible its full depth.' 

These difficulties have been experienced in the Godavari 
system. On the EUore canal, which is the through line of 
communication to the Kistna river system, the silting was 
found to impede traffic, and the necessity of keeping enough 
water in the canal for navigation caused much tempting 
extension of irrigation to be abandoned. These facts were 
adduced in l888 as arguments for the necessity of lightening 
that canal of some of its traffic and in support of a proposal 
for a railway between the Kistna and Godavari rivers — a 
proposal which has since developed into the North-east line 
of the Madras Railway. As far as the present district is 
concerned, navigation is always subordinated to irrigation, 
and though every attempt is made to keep the canals full, 
navigation has to take its chance when water is scarce. 

The only railway which traverses the district is that which 
was originally called the East Coast Railway but is now 

op, cit., p. 152. 



known officially as the North-east line of the Madras Railway. 
It enters the district from the south at Rajahmundry over a 
fine bridge across the Godavari, and, skirting the north- 
western edge of the delta, finally runs from Samalkot parallel 
with the coast till it passes out of the district at Tuni. From 
Samalkot a branch runs to Cocanada, the inhabitants of 
which have always protested vigorously against the chief 
commercial centre on the section being thus left off the main 
line. The bridge over the Godavari at Rajahmundry is one 
of the finest in the Presidency. It is built of steel girders 
laid on masonry piers which are sunk from 48 to as much 
as 100 feet below low water level and stand over 44 feet above 
that level. It has a total length of no less than 9,000 feet, or 
over 1 5^ miles, between abutments, and consists of 56 spans 
of 150 feet each. It was opened to goods traffic in 1900. 
The railway was opened from Rajahmundry to Waltair (in 
the Vizagapatam district) in 1893 and the Cocanada branch 
in the same year. 

In 1904 there were altogether IIO travellers' bungalows in 
the district, of which 79 were maintained from local funds, 
21 by the Forest department, and ten by the Public Works 
department. A detailed list is given in the separate Appendix. 
Of the local fund bungalows, nine were in Bhadrachalam 
taluk, and, since the Local Boards Act has been recently 
withdrawn from operation in that tract, are now managed by 
the Revenue department. Those maintained by the Forest 
department are designed primarily for the use of its own 
officers, but are also available for private individuals on pay- 
ment of fees. Nineteen of them are in Bhadrachalam. That 
taluk contains 29 rest-houses in all, and Chodavaram eleven. 
These buildings are necessarily numerous in the Agency, 
where only short marches are possible and tents can only be 
carried with difficulty. Tuni and Pithapuram divisions only 
contain three and four bungalows respectively. The accom- 
modation in the travellers' bungalows ranges from furnished 
and terraced buildings to empty thatched sheds, the latter 
predominating. With a few exceptions, the local fund 
bungalows are of an inferior type. 

There are eight endowed chattrams under the management 
of the local boards, six of which have considerable incomes. 
Their total annual revenues are some Rs. l8,000. They were 
all bequeathed by private individuals to the taluk boards. 
The largest is the Nallacheruvu choultry in Peddapuram taluk, 
the income of which is Rs. 5,500. There, and at two other 
large institutions at Peddapuram and Kottipudi, people of all 

CHAP. vii. 






CHAP. VII. castes are fed. At two other considerable chattrams Brah- 
AccoMMODA- mans are fed. Three insignificant choultries are maintained 
TRA\Ei°^ by the municipality at Rajahmundry. 
LERs. Private chattrams appear to exist in large numbers^ in this 

district, and they are much less exclusively devoted to the 
needs of Brahmans than is the case in some places. Indeed 
at several of them food (though not accommodation) is 
provided even for Malas. At many of them all Sudra castes 
are fed. Most of them, it seems, are supported by private 
liberality without regular endowments. Some are of a con- 
siderable size. Those at Cocanada (maintained by a Komati), 
Samalkot (by a rich Reddi merchant), Pithapuram (by the 
zamindar) and Kotipalli (by the Polavaram proprietor) are 
worthy of particular mention. The largest of all is supported 
by a Komati at Rajahmundry. Another large one in that 
town, called the <:^««^« ('subscription ') choultry, is kept up 
- • by subscriptions from the local merchants, who set aside 
a percentage of their daily profits for the purpose. 

' The Collector's office estimates the number of these institutions at 71. 




Rainfall. Famine — The conditions existing —Famine in 1791— The ' Guntur 
famine' of 1833 — Distress in 1835-38 — Disasters of 1839-41 — Improvement 
resulting from the anicut — Scarcity in the Agency, 1897. Inundations by 
THE sea — About 1706 — In 1787 — Its extent and effects — The accompanying 
hurricane — The landholders' losses — Inundation of 1839. Cyclones. 
Floods — In 1614— In 1S75, 1878, 1882, 1883 and 1884— Great flood of 
1886— Floods of 1887 and 1892— Of 1895-96— Of 1900. 

The following table shows the average rainfall in certain CHAP. viii. 
seasons of the year in the various taluks and in the district as Ra infa ll. 
a whole. The seasons selected correspond roughly with what 
may be called the dry weather, the hot weather, the south- 
west monsoon and the north-east monsoon. The figures 
shown are the averages of a series of years. As will be seen, 
records have been kept at most of the stations for more than 
thirty years. Those where figures for only a few years are 
available have been entered separately and not included in 
the district average : — 


2 *-■ 1 1 
■" ii 1 1 








1 — > 


° 1 



1 870- 1 903 


2-36 21-98 

i5'6o 40-87 




1-95 21-09 

18-67 42-29 

Pithapurani ... 

Pithapurani ... 

1870- 1903 




11-36 34-46 i 



1870 1903 




10-70 35-79 



1 870 -1 903 




10-52 36-80 

Prattipadu ... 



2-90 ; 23-96 

979 37"62 





2-49 23-82 

12 03 39-01 



1870 IQ03 


2-42 ; 24-71 






1870- 1903 


2-22 25-42 



Kottapeta ... 











I 29 










319 2664 

956 40-18 1 



1 875 -1 903 

I 01 




43 '39 



I 8 70- I 903 






Polavaram ... 

Polavaram ... 
Average for 











40-26 I 

the district. 









Yellavaram ... 

Addatigela ... 












It will be noticed that the first three months of the year are 
practically rainless. April is almost as dry. In May, showers 
herald in the south-west monsoon, which begins in the middle 
of June and brings nearly two-thirds of the total yearly fall. 
It is naturally heavier in the Bhadrachalam taluk beyond the 
Ghats than in the rest of the district. Conversely, the north- 
east monsoon is hardly felt in that taluk. The latter current 
is much weaker in this district than in many other parts of 
the east coast. The rain it brings generally consists of a very 
heavy downpour on its first arrival, and after the 15th 
November rain worth mentioning rarely appears. The delta 
benefits more from this north-east monsoon than the uplands ; 
whereas the latter get more rain in the hot weather than the 
former. The annual average fall for the whole district (40*26 
inches) is moderately high for this Presidency. In only eight 
other districts is the amount greater. Vizagapatam on the 
north gets rather more rain, and Ganjam a good deal more ; 
but Kistna on the south receives much less. 

The highest fall on record is that at Chodavaram in 1893, 
which amounted to 86'02 inches. Twenty-two inches fell in 
September, over twelve in June, August and October, and 
over nine more in July and November. In the same year 
Ss'Ss inches of rain were registered at Amalapuram. The 
lowest fall recorded for any station is 13*40 inches at Tuni in 
1876. No rain was received from January to April or from 
October to December, inclusive, in that year. 

The major part of the district is, humanly speaking, safe 
from anything in the nature of a famine. The Godavari 
draws its water from vast and distant tracts and is not 
affected by any local failure of rain ; and from the time that 
the anicut first made this river's supplies regularly available 
for cultivation, the delta has never felt the want of water. In 
the upland and hill tracts, however, the crops are precarious, 
and in the Agency the danger is aggravated by the improvi- 
dence of the inhabitants. The people there, on the other 
hand, are accustomed to eking out a livelihood in bad seasons 
on toddy, gruel made from the pulp of tamarind, jack and 
mango seeds, and jungle roots. The delta produces vast 
quantities more food than is required for the subsistence of its 
own inhabitants, and also provides a constant field for labour ; 
so that no one in the uplands need ever starve for want of 
work if he will make up his mind to travel so far. 

Before the construction of the anicut, however, the whole 
district suffered cruelly on several occasions from terrible 
famines due to drought. It was the recollection and the 



effects of these visitations which suggested the idea of chap. Vlli. 
constructing the anient^ and induced the Government to face famine. 

the expense which that project involved. Inundations from 

the sea have also caused much loss of life and property in the 
past, and so have cyclones, though no serious damage caused 
by either has been experienced for many years ; and a fourth 
variety of natural disaster to which the delta is particularly 
subject is floods in the Godavari river, which have not only 
been common in past years, but even nowadays, in spite of 
the utmost efforts, frequently cause considerable loss and 
hardship. The various occasions on which serious disaster or 
suffering has been experienced from these four different 
causes will now be shortly referred to. 

Except for vague references by native historians, there is. Famine in 
as usual, no record of the famines which doubtless occurred i79i- 
before the days of British occupation. The first visitation of 
which particulars survive is that which desolated the Northern 
Circars in 1791-92. In January of the latter year the Board of 
Revenue said that the extreme drought had caused a large 
diminution of revenue and that ' though every alleviation in 
our power has been afforded by the suspension of duties on 
grain as well as on all necessaries of life, and every exertion 
is making by the Collectors to discover and distribute for the 
general consumption such grain as may be hoarded up by 
individuals for their private advantage, yet many of the 
poorer class of inhabitants are perishing from want.' Appli- 
cation was made to the Government to sanction the importation 
of rice from Bengal, and ' every effort seems to have been 
made by Government and individuals for affording temporary 
means of subsistence to the poorer class of people,' but in 
April 1792 the sufferings of the inhabitants still continued 
* with little prospect of immediate relief.' Numbers had died 
and numbers more had emigrated; and the Board feared 
that the decrease of population and cultivation would long 
be felt. 

At that time a large sum was due to pensioners in the 
zamindaris of Masulipatam ; and Government ordered that 
any balance of this which remained unclaimed at the end of a 
month from the date of notice to that effect, should be devoted 
to relieving distress. Over 35,000 pagodas (Rs. 1,40,000)^ 
were applied to this purpose, and the children of the poorer 
families were collected and fed at the public expense. Large 
remissions were also granted to the zamindars and extensions 
of their leases were sanctioned. 

^ See Chapter IV, p. 80. 

' It is assumed that the pagoda was the local pagoda of four rupees. 




The ' Guntur 
famine ' of 

The famine appears to have lasted from November I/QOto 
November 1792.^ Its effect on the people was terrible. It was 
computed that one-fourth of them either emigrated or fell 
victims to starvation." 

In 1833 a succession of unfavourable seasons culminated 
in the great ' Guntur famine.' Though this did not affect 
Godavari so severely as the neighbouring district of Guntur 
after which it was named (where * it covered the country with 
human bones from Ongole to Masulipatam ' ^) yet so deeply 
did the remembrance of it enter into the hearts of the people 
that it afterwards became an era from which they reckoned 
dates. The author of the original Manual of this district, who 
knew the country well, says '^ 'I have frequently asked a man 
his age, and he has been unable to state it ; but he was quite 
ready to answer the question how old were you at the time 
of the Great Famine ? ' 

The hardships appear to have begun with a hurricane in 
May 1832, which ' destroyed much produce stored, a large 
number of cattle, and many cocoa, palmyra and betel nut 
trees.' ^ This was followed by a failure of rain in western 
India and a consequent lack of freshes in the Godavari, so 
that the paddy crop usually grown along the banks of that 
river was lost. A temporary rise of the river in the early part 
of the season had induced the ryots to commence this cultiva- 
tion ; and their disappointment was thus the more bitter. 
Godavari, however, did not suffer either so soon or so severely 
as the districts to the south of the river. As late as April 
1833 the Collector was able to report that though a great 
influx of distressed people had taken place from Masulipatam 
and Guntur, and great distress prevailed on account of the 
high price of grain ; yet ' the miserable creatures that 
everywhere meet the eye are principally other than the local 

But from that time forward matters gradually became 
worse. The contributions cheerfully given by the wealthier 
Europeans and natives were quite inadequate to the needs of 
the case. From March 1833 to the end of July private sub- 
scriptions enabled about 3,000 people to be fed every day, and 
it was hoped that a good monsoon might render Government 
relief unnecessary. But these hopes were disappointed, and 
assistance had at length to be demanded from the State. 

^ Mr. Benson's Statistical Atlas (Madras, 1895), p. 62. 
2 General reports of the Board of Revenue (Madras, 1871), ii, 130, 143, 145 
iii, 2, 22, 31, 53, 73. 

^ Statistical Atlas, p. 84. 

* P. 288. 

» Sir Henry Montgomery's report, dated i8th March 1844, para. 30, 



Relief-works, chiefly the digging of tanks, were opened in CHAP. vill. 

August, but gratuitous relief was prohibited, and many of the Famine. 

higher castes preferred to starve rather than demean them- 

selves by doing earth-work. The relief afforded seems in 

any case to have been quite inadequate to the distress. 

Thousands of persons emigrated to Madras and to other more 

fortunate districts. 'A stream of pilgrims flowed night and 

day towards the south .... The great northern road 

soon became one long graveyard. It was often most difficult 

to distinguish between the dying and the dead.' ^ Young 

girls were sold and sent away to Hyderabad; the scarcity of 

water added the torments of thirst to those of hunger; and 

grain could not be transported without armed escorts, since 

the villagers turned out en masse when they heard of the 

approach of grain merchants with a convoy of food, and tried 

to obtain possession of it by force. Happily the famine did 

not last more than a year, and seems to have come to an end 

before the beginning of 1834. 

The two following seasons were favourable, but there was Distress in 
a general failure of the monsoons between 1835 and 1838. In ^ ^^'^ ' 
the first of these years the early rains were deficient and yet 
many of the crops were destroyed by inundations ; in the 
next there was continued drought, and in 1837-38 the early 
showers again failed and the later rainfall was excessive.^ 
The year 1838-39 is described in the report of Sir Henry 
Montgomery, who based his statements ' on his own observa- 
tions, and enquiries from persons of all classes, confirmed by 
the periodical reports of the different Collectors,' as one of 
' extreme distress little less than famine, equal if not exceed- 
ing in calamities that of 1832-33.' This however seems to 
have been an over-statement of the case. Want of sufficient 
rain ruined the ' white ' paddy crop ; and though in December 
a few showers saved the cholam harvest near Rajahmundry, 
in the north of the district that crop was lost too. Small 
relief-works (the deepening of tanks) were started by private 
philanthropy in Rajahmundry ; and these were taken over by 
Government in February 1839, in which month 450 persons 
were daily employed upon them. Relief-works were also 
started at Samalkot in March. In June, good rain put a stop 
to the sufferings of the people. Altogether only Rs. 6,156 
were spent on public relief, so the scarcity appears to have 
been far from severe. Two factors united to prevent more 
serious results : the area affected was not large, and the price 
of grain was kept down by liberal importations by sea. 

^ District Manual, p. 289. 

2 Sir Henry Montgomery's report already quoted, para. 30. 




Disasters of 

from the 

Scarcity in 
the Agency, 

The season of 1839-40 began propitiously ; but towards the 
middle of the year the district was visited by the disastrous 
cyclone and inundation referred to below. In 1840-41 ' the 
early rains were again wanting, the north-east monsoon 
failed, and sickness was prevalent.' 

This unfortunate cycle had thus lasted twelve years, and 
Sir Henry Montgomery summed up the case by saying that of 
these twelve ' five were marked by peculiar distress and three 
were bad.' The population, which in 1821 had amounted to 
738,308, had decreased by 1839-40 to 533,836. Godavari fell 
into a state even more miserable than that of the Northern 
Circars generally at that time, and at length Sir Henry 
Montgomery was deputed to take charge of the district as 
Special Commissioner ^ and to report what could be done to 
raise it from its lamentable state of depression. His report, 
as has already (p. 80) been seen, resulted in the construction 
of the anicut at Dowlaish weram, which changed the whole face 
of the delta and delivered it from any future fear of famine. 
No general distress has been experienced since it was built. 
Even the great famine of 1876-78 did not seriously affect this 
district, and men and cattle fled to it then in large numbers 
from the famine-stricken tracts in Kurnool, Bellary and 

In 1896-98 failure of the monsoons caused a good deal of 
suffering throughout the Agency, especially in Bhadrachalam 
and Polavaram. Indeed the jungle people were perhaps 
harder hit by this famine than by that of 1833. The Rev. 
J. Cain of Dummagudem describes a conversation with an old 
man who remembered the latter, and who compared the two 
by saying, ' There were fewer of us then, and the forests had 
not been cut down, and there were plenty of roots.' 

In 1896 Bhadrachalam and Yellavaram suffered from short 
rainfall, but a remission of 50 per cent, of the dry assessment 
was sufficient to enable the ryots to last out till the end of the 
year 1896-97, and no relief was necessary. 

Things were much worse in the following year. The south- 
west monsoon stopped on the l8th June, and distress amount- 
ing to famine in Bhadrachalam, and verging upon famine in 
Polavaram, was the result. Yellavaram and Chodavaram 
had rather more rain, and in these all that was needed was to 
assist for a short time a few aged or infirm people, who could 
not support themselves and had no one to maintain them. In 
Polavaram and Bhadrachalam it was necessary to open 

^ See Chapter XI, p, 167. 

2 B.P. (Rev. Sett., L.R. and Agri.), No. 431, dated 12th March 1896, p. 12. 


relief-works. Matters were made worse by the fact that, acting chap. viii. 
on a general belief (encouraged by the astrologers) that Famine. 
three whole years of famine were impending, the sowcars 
refused to give the hill people the usual advances on the 
security of their crops upon which they generally subsist in 
the interval between sowing and harvest. 

Relief-works were opened, but, except in Bhadrachalam, 
the hill men absolutely refused to come to them. In Polavaram 
they preferred to help themselves in their own lawless manner 
by plundering their richer neighbours. Collecting in gangs, 
they looted no less than 39 villages in seven days; and, as 
the local police were afraid to act, order was not restored till 
the District Superintendent of Police arrived with the Reserve, 
and marched a number of the rioters off to prison. The 
villagers had not resisted the robbers, so no blood had been 
spilt, but it was estimated that property worth Rs. 10,000 had 
been stolen during these riots. Meanwhile in Bhadrachalam 
works were opened in May 1897 and a fair number of Koyas 
attended them. 

Gratuitous relief was given on a large scale in this taluk, 
but to a less extent in the rest of the Agency where either the 
distress was not so acute, or the hill men had helped them- 
selves by robbery. In Bhadrachalam nearly Rs. 12,000 were 
distributed in this way, and nearly Rs. 17,000 were spent from 
charitable funds when the distress was at an end in buying 
seed-grain, cattle, etc. and selling them at low rates to the 
impoverished people to enable them to start cultivating again. 

It was not in the Agency alone that the pinch of these 
years was felt. Test works had to be opened in Rajahmun- 
dry and Cocanada taluks and in EUore, then a part of this 
district; and nearly Rs. 7,000 were spent on works in these 
three areas. A little gratuitous relief was also given in 
Rajahmundry, and a poor-house was established at Cocanada. 

Inundations of the coast by the sea occurred fairly fre- inunda- 
quently in former times, and Mr. Topping, the astronomer, tions by 
when making enquiries about them in 1789, found that they ^"^ ^^^' 
were so well known as to have a definite name, being called 

The earliest of which any record survives occurred in About 1706. 
December about the year 1706, but all that is known of it is 
derived from the oral testimony of a very old man some 
eighty-three years later. The wind had been blowing very 
hard from the east for two days and the sea burst upon the 

' Selections from the Records of the Madras Government, No. XIX 
(Madras, 1855), 23. 



tions BY 


In 1787. 

Its extent 
and effects. 

land during the night. A few lives were lost in the neigh- 
bourhood of Coringa, innumerable trees were blown down, 
the paddy was ruined, the springs of fresh-water were spoiled 
and quantities of salt were deposited upon the flooded ground.^ 

The next inundation which occurred was that of May 
20, 1787. This was so extraordinary in its violence that it 
was commonly supposed to have been due to an earthquake, 
but Mr. Topping ~ ascribed it firstly to a ' violent and long- 
continued gale ^ from the North-East at a time when the South- 
West Monsoon should prevail, and had actually set in many 
weeks previous to it, checking the Northerly current and 
forcing the waters back upon the coast ' ; secondly to ' the 
configuration of the coast itself, peculiarly favourable to 
such an accident at such a crisis,' in particular ' the sudden 
projection of Point Gardewar (Godavari) and the situation of 
Coringa in the recess or cul-de-sac of a bay ' ; and finally to 
the fact that the inundation occurred at the spring tides 
of the new moon. ' In short there happened at that fatal 
juncture a union of almost every cause that could have a 
tendency to elevate the waters of the Sea.' 

Pitiable details of the havoc wrought by this hurricane and 
flood are to be found in the correspondence from the then 
Chief and Council of Masulipatam.^ Coringa island and the 
country near Injaram were flooded, and so was Narasapur. 
The hurricane raged with increasing violence from the l6th 
of May onwards. On the 20th ' about ten in the morning,' 
writes the Resident of Injaram on the 22nd and 23rd May ; — 

' The sea rushed in upon us and inundated everything. On the 
morning of the 21st everything was desolation. The whole town of 
Coringa and all the little villages about, with the inhabitants, (were) 
carried away. Nellapillee is in not much better state. As yet I cannot 
ascertain what loss the Hon'ble Company may have sustained ; but 
I suppose it is in proportion to the loss of individuals, which in fact 

amounts to everything we possessed The poor black 

people are now running up and down crying and lamenting the loss 
of relations from the inundation The springs and wells all around 
are choked with salt water, and we have only to depend on the heav- 
ens for a supplv of fresh water. Cattle, grain and everything carried 
away. . . I now request in the most earnest manner that you will 
with the utmost despatch send to this place by don/s or any other sea 
conveyance what quantity of grain you may be able to collect. 

^ Selections from the Records of the Madras Government, No. XIX 
(Madras, 1855), 23. 
2 Ibid., p. 29. 

' This blew for six days without intermission. 
* See Extracts from the Public Consultations, i^p. 1152-59 and 1202-10. 




The remaining part of the black inhabitants, who escaped from the CH.\P. VIII. 
inundationof the sea, are now dying by dozens for want of food ; and, Inunda- 
if wedo not receive supplies very soon, very soon there will not be a 
native alive in the Nillapillce havelly.' 

His letters also contain a distressing account'of the suffer- 
ings of the European men and women in the place, all of 
whom, however, escaped with their lives. Five hundred bags 
of rice and other provisions were despatched to Injaram from 
Madras before the end of the month, and this terminated the 
immediate sufferings of the natives. Further down the coast, 
the inundation was much less felt ; and the reports from 
Narasapur complain less of it than of the hurricane. 

This hurricane not only wrecked a great number of ships The accom- 
along the coast but was also felt far inland. As far north as P^">;'"S 

'^ hurricane. 

Yernagudem (now in the Kistna district) the camp of a 
detachment of sepoys was completely wrecked. ' The trees 
under which the tents were, fell upon them and tore them to 
pieces,' writes an officer on IVlay 23rd. 'With the greatest 
exertion the ammunition was saved. The men were flying 
about like footballs endeavouring to find the village. Lieuten- 
ant Cuningham and I very nearly lost our lives in the 
same attempt. . . When we reached the village (we) found 
nothing but the walls of the houses and the greatest misery 
among the inhabitants.' A similar story is told of the effects 
of the storm at Samalkot. ' This dreadful hurricane has not 
left a roof standing even to the Commanding Officer's house. 
A range of barracks for two battalions, the guard-room and 
several other buildings are level with the ground.' So great 
was the force of the wind that near Yernagudem scarcely a 
tree was left standing, and at Narasapur for some time no one 
could stand upright. 

The zamindars suffered very considerably from this visit- The land- 
ation, but they seem all to have much overstated their losses holders' 
in order to support extravagant demands for remissions of 
revenue, and the real amount of these seems never to have 
been even approximately ascertained. An officer who was 
directed to enquire into their extent in this district assessed 
them at over sixteen lakhs ; but his data were of a very doubt- 
ful character, and both the Council of Masulipatam and the 
Board of Revenue considered his estimate 'entirely inadmis- 
sible.' In the end no remissions were given, but forbearance 
was shown in the collection of the kists. 

In 1839 a cyclone raged all along the coast from Vizaga- Inundation 
patam to Narasapur- It was accompanied by a tidal wave ° ' ^^" 
which burst upon the shore and inundated Cocanada and 
Coringa. Much of the shipping was driven on shore, some of 



CHAP. VIII. ^Y^Q wrecked vessels being carried, it was said, four miles 
INUNDA- inland. The loss of life and property was very great. The 
merchants' storehouses at Coringa and Injaram were ruined ; 
cattle and crops were destroyed; large tracts of land were 
rendered unfit for cultivation by the salt water ; and the tanks 
and wells were rendered brackish from the same cause. The 
force of the wind was also most destructive. Very many of the 
native houses in Samalkot were blown down, all the European 
houses except two were unroofed, and even in Rajahmundry 
some of the houses were nearly dismantled by the violence of 
the storm. 

Since then no serious inundations from the sea have 
occurred in this district. The destructive tidal wave which 
desolated Masulipatam just a quarter of a century later did 
not affect Godavari. 

Cyclones. The -inundations just described were usually accompanied 

(if not caused) by violent storms, and some of these were 
doubtless cyclonic in nature. In more recent times, four 
cyclones occurred in the ten years preceding 1878, all in the 
months between September and December. In November and 
December 1878, two others arrived which caused the sea to 
rise dangerously at Cocanada, destroyed a good deal of culti- 
vation there, submerged some of the huts near the creek, blew 
down a number of mud houses and trees, and killed many 
cattle. In October 1904 a cyclone swept across the whole 
country levelling many trees in the Agency and thousands of 
cocoa and areca palms in the coast taluks. So universal was 
the damage to plantain gardens that plantains had actually 
to be imported from Tanjore. Since that year no violent 
cyclone has visited the district, but the barometer is always 
carefully watched in the months (September-December) when 
they are most to be expected. 

Floods, The fury of the Godavari in full flood has always excited 

the wonder of those who have seen it. The irresistible torrent 
which pours through the deep gorges in the hills through 
which it forces its way has been referred to on p. 5. Sir Henry 
Montgomery, when pressing for the construction of an anicut 
across the river, could not deny that ' the Godavari, when 
filled as it was in the early part of the present season (1843-44), 
is a fearful stream, overflowing the country through which it 
passes and carrying before it all impediments to its course.' 
Before the anicut was built and attempts to control the river 
were begun, destructive floods seem to have been constant, 
and even now, as has been more than once said, they occur 
every now and again, 


The earliest of which any record is extant happened in and CHAP. viii. 
about Narasapur in 1614. The account of an English mer- Floods. 
chant, quoted in Sir H. Montgomery's report, says : ' In August ^^ jg 
there happened a greater overflow than had been seen in 
twenty-nine years. The whole Salt Hills, Towns, and Rice 
were drove away and many thousand men and cattle were 
drowned; the Water rising three Yards above the high way.' 

The damage done by floods in later years to various parts In 1875, 1878, 
of the anicut system has already been briefly noticed in amUSS^^^ 
Chapter IV. '^' 

The flood of July 1875, 'the greatest fresh that has occur- 
red in the Godavery since the extraordinary floods of 1862 and 
1863,' did no great damage to the crops, though there were 
three breaches in the embankment of the Vasishta Godavari. 

That of August 1878, however, breached the head-sluice of 
the Bobbarlanka canal and submerged a large extent of land 
in the Amalapuram taluk. That taluk was ' mostly flooded and 
was at one time in imminent danger, so much so that it was 
considered advisable to remove the people to the high lands. 
But the timely action taken by the Department of Public 
Works saved the people and their property.' The crops 
sufl'ered much less than was expected, and only Rs. 8,000 had 
to be remitted. 

In June 1882 a destructive flood in the river inundated a 
large tract of country in Amalapuram and Nagaram, and did 
much harm to villages and crops. In Nagaram six villages 
were entirely, and eight partly, submerged. On the Kistna 
side of the river the damage was even greater. The engi- 
neers again exerted themselves to the utmost to save life and 
property, and the loss of crop was not very large. 

In August 1883 a breach in the Vasishta Godavari caused 
considerable damage to the crops in Narasapur. 

A dangerous flood occurred in the Gautami Godavari in 
August 1884. Some 300 houses valued at Rs. 11,500 were 
washed away ; other property worth Rs. l8,200 was destroyed 
in the villages of Pillanka and Mallavaram in the Ramachan- 
drapuram taluk ; and 23 villages were submerged between 
the river and the Injaram canal. The damage to crops was 
estimated at Rs. 30,000, and serious breaches were made in the 
Kotipalli road. 

The highest flood on record occurred in August 1886. The ^/^g^^g""'^ 
river was 14*5 feet deep on the anicut on the night of the 19th. 
By noon of the 20th it had risen to l6'2, and by 5 A.M. on the 
2lst to l6'9 feet, above the anicut, or iH feet higher than any 
previously recorded flood. By 10 that night it had fallen to 
l6'5, by 6 A.M. on the 22nd to 16, and to I4'6 on the following 



CHAP. vill. morning. The outer wall of the Dowlaishweram lock was 
Floods. carried away, and a breach 250 yards long was made in the 
bank of the main canal, which resulted in the whole of the 
south-eastern corner of the Rajahmundry taluk being sub- 
merged. Many breaches also occurred in the central delta, 
the worst being in the Gannavaram canal, and whole tracts of 
country were under water. Fortunately, the inhabitants, with 
very few exceptions, succeeded in making their escape to 
natural eminences and the river and canal banks. The river 
also breached its bank near Polavaram, flooded Polavaram, 
and did a great deal of damage there and in Tallapudi and 
♦ some other villages. 

The loss of crop was again nothing like so great as at one 
time seemed likely. It was estimated that the damage in 
Amalapuram and Ramachandrapuram was Rs. 48,000, and 
that houses in those taluks and Rajahmundry had suffered to 
about the same extent. In the district as it was then con- 
stituted Rs. 16,500 of land revenue and Rs. 45,000 of water-tax 
were remitted, and damage estimated at Rs. 15,000 was done 
to the flood-banks, canals and channels. 

Floods of jn July of the next year a high flood lasted for about twelve 

1892.^" days. The river was 1 5'8 feet above the anicut on the 19th. 

A number of breaches occurred in the left bank of the Vasishta 
and a large one in the Vainateyam, and some 2,200 acres of 
wet crop were lost. This was mostly replanted again and the 
remission of revenue on account of the submersion of crops 
amounted to only Rs. 6,400. 

On October 3rd, 1891, the river attained the unparalleled 
height of l6"9 feet above the anicut ; but no breaches occurred. 
A flood of only 12*9 feet in September of the following year 
breached the Cocanada and Samalkot canals (the latter in 
thirteen places) as well as the river flood-banks above the 
anicut. Scarcely any harm was done to the crops; but the 
budget allotment for repairs to the delta works had to be 
increased by Rs. 30,000, chiefly on account of the repairs 
rendered necessary on the Samalkot canal. 

Of 1895-96. The crops in Amalapuram and Ramachandrapuram suffered 

from floods in 1895; but this was owing to excessive local 
rainfall, and not to the action of the river. Twenty inches of 
rain fell in 24 hours in Amalapuram on the 6th September, 
Remissions of revenue amounting to Rs. 10,000 were granted 
for submersion in these and the Rajahmundry taluks, and 
roads and trees suffered much more than the crops. 

More serious damage was done by the river next year. 
Rising to I3"8 feet above the anicut on the 2nd August, the 
water made a large number of breaches in the canal and river 


banks, and rising again to 137 on the l6th much increased CHAP. viii. 
the harm already done. Floods. 

The last of this long list of calamities occurred in 1900. of 1900. 
Before daylight on the 14th August the river overtopped the 
lock and canal banks at Dummagudem and completely flooded 
out that village, driving the inhabitants to the higher ground 
and drowning a few women and children. It breached its 
bank near the Vijesvaram anicut and did great damage to the 
works of the western delta in the present Kistna district ; and 
the central delta was inundated through numerous breaches 
in the Gautami, Vasishta and Vainateyam. Little harm was 
done to the eastern delta, though parts of Rajahmundry taluk 
were inundated by a breach in the flood-bank. The repairs 
to the breaches had not been finished before a slightly higher 
flood on the 22nd September (l5'8 feet over the anicut) opened 
many of them again. The damage done to the delta and 
Dummagudem works was estimated at Rs. 10 lakhs. Only 
about Rs. 40,000 had to be remitted for submerged crop in the 
present district. The taluk worst affected was Amalapuram, 
where 4,000 houses were destroyed and some 70,000 acres of 
land were more or less damaged. 






Malaria ; in 
the Agency. 

Prevalent Diseases — Malaria ; in the Agency — In the uplands — In the delta — 
Cholera — Small-pox — Other diseases — Sanitation. Medical Institutions 
— Public hospitals and dispensaries — Mission institutions— Institutions in 
Cocanada— Rajahmundry hospital 

The most noticeable of the diseases which afflict the district 
is malaria. This is worst in the Agency. The Ghats there 
are densely wooded and the valleys are filled with a tangle of 
damp jungle, so that during the rains the country is eminently 
suited to the propagation of the malaria-bearing mosquito. 
Beyond the Ghats, the lower parts of Bhadrachalam appear 
to be equally malarious, the villages along the valley of the 
Saveri river and those lying between it and the Rekapalle hills 
being the worst parts of the taluk. 

Even the Koyas, who have resided for untold generations 
in the Agency, are not immune to malaria. The disease is said 
to be chronic among them, and its effects are particularly 
noticeable in the case of the children. People from the 
plains suffer far more severely, however; and from the earliest 
times up to the present day the country has retained a most 
unenviable reputation for its unhealthiness. The Board of 
Revenue referred to its 'putrid fever' as far back as 1794 ; 
and of the party of 25 men who were recently engaged in 
inspecting the forests of Rekapalle preparatory to the pre- 
paration of the working-plan for their exploitation, almost all 
subsequently suffered from low fever of a malignant and 
lingering type, several were dangerously ill, and as many as 
one-fourth died. It is characteristic of this malaria that it 
does not as a rule show itself when the victim is in the hill 
country, but appears in all its virulence as soon as he descends 
to the plains. One explanation of this fact avers that the 
system is braced to resist the disease by the cooler air of 
the hills, but as soon as the patient reaches the hotter plains 
becomes relaxed, and allows the latent malaria to obtain the 
upper hand. The agency malaria is generally said to be more 
prevalent in the cold than in the hot weather, but no season 
of the year is free from it. 



The upland taluks adjoining the Agency also suffer, though CHAP. IX. 
to a much less extent, from malarial fever. In 1869-70, before Prevalent 
the advent of the theory that all malaria is conveyed by the Diseases. 
anopheles mosquito, elaborate enquiries were made as to the In the 
prevalence and causes of the disease in these parts of the dis- "P^*^'*^- 
trict, and the Sanitary Commissioner arrived at the conclusion 
that the fever in the plains was due to the northerly winds 
which sweep over the malarious forests of the hill tracts. He 
pointed out that the taluks which were most open to breezes 
from the sea had the least fever, while those which were most 
exposed to wind blowing across unhealthy jungles had the 
highest ratios of sickness and death from malaria. 

The question had also been raised at that time whether the ^°^ 'he delta. 
great increase of irrigation under the recently-constructed 
anicut was in any way responsible for the insalubrity of the 
district. It was known that in some places (the Punjab, for 
example) irrigation was invariably accompanied by malaria. 
Enquiries were therefore directed at the same time to the 
elucidation of this point. The conclusion arrived at was 
that the irrigation had had no effect upon the prevalence of 
malaria. The result of five years' registration of vital statis- 
tics ' demonstrates in a very clear manner that the intensity of 
fever in any taluk has no relation to the extent of irrigation of 
the land, but is solely due to its geographical position and its 
exposure to malarious winds during the north-east monsoon.' 
The irrigated taluks were in fact found to suffer in very vary- 
ing degrees. For five years the death-rate in Ramachandra- 
puram taluk had been II'9 per thousand, while in Amala- 
puram and Narasapur it was 6'5 and 4*6 per thousand respect- 
ively. The difference was attributed entirely to the position 
of the taluks, the former being exposed to winds from the north, 
while the latter are swept by sea-breezes.^ Theories regard- 
ing the dissemination of malaria have doubtless changed 
since those days, and vital statistics in rural areas are seldom 
sufficiently accurate to afford a firm foundation for debatable 
propositions ; but the fact remains that the delta taluks (unlike 
irrigated areas in some places in this Presidency — the valley 
of the Tungabhadra, for example) are not greatly subject to 
malaria and are, in fact, the part of the district in which it is 
least prevalent. 

Cholera, however, is endemic throughout the delta. It is Cholera, 
chiefly conveyed from place to place along the lines of com- 
munication, that is, by the movement of persons affected with 

1 Proceedings of the Madras Government, Public Department, June 14, 
nd G,0. No. 143, dated 30th December 1872. 










it, and by the irrigation channels, which are used for drinking 
purposes. At times the disease has broken out in a very 
serious manner. In 1892 as many as 13,600 persons died of it 
in the Godavari district as then constituted, and in 1878, 1879 
and 1889 its victims numbered between nine and ten thousand. 
But such visitations have been rare ; and, though in nearly 
every one of the last 35 years cholera has claimed some victims, 
the number of these has, as a rule, been less than that even in 
less populous districts. It exceeded one thousand in 17 of the 
32 years between 1871 and 1902 inclusive, but on only four 
occasions was it higher than in any other district. 

The ravages of small-pox have on the whole been less 
serious than those of cholera, but on more than one occasion 
they have been very grave. In 1878 over l8,000 persons died 
of the disease in the district as then constituted, and in 1884 
over 11,300. In six of the 32 years between 1871 and 1902 
more deaths occurred from small-pox in this district than in 
any other ; in fifteen of these years the mortality exceeded 
one thousand ; and in only one year did it fall below one 

A serious epidemic of the disease broke out in the delta 
taluks and the Tuni division in 1900, and after that compul- 
sory vaccination was extended to a number of the unions. It 
is now in force in the municipalities of Rajahmundry and 
Cocanada and the unions of Dowlaishweram, Amalapuram, 
Kottapeta, Peddapuram, Ramachandrapuram, Pithapuram and 

Certain other less virulent diseases are common in Goda- 
vari. Dysentery and diarrhoea are frequent, but perhaps not 
more so than elsewhere. Elephantiasis and hydrocele are also 
prevalent, and the town of Peddapuram has a bad name for 
the former. Guinea-worm is rare. A few cases of black-water 
fever have occurred in the Bhadrachalam taluk. A peculiarity 
of the district is the prevalence of beri-beri, the Telugu name 
for which is iibbu vayuvii. Though endemic in many loca- 
lities, it is frequently epidemic, and it is commonest along the 
coast. It is said to confine its attacks to males and to be most 
frequent among the middle-aged. 

A good deal has been done in the municipalities to 
improve sanitation, and with satisfactory results. In rural 
villages, as in other districts, matters are still backward and 
even the state of the unions leaves much to be desired. The 
difficulties are greatest in the delta, where the pressure of 
cultivation leaves little waste land round the village sites and 
the population is thickest. Drinking-water is also usually 



obtained there from the irrigation canals, which are liable 
to pollution. The water-works recently constructed in 
Cocanada municipality are referred to in Chapter XIV. 

The public medical institutions in the district comprise 
seven hospitals and seventeen dispensaries. Of these, two 
hospitals and a dispensary are maintained by the munici- 
palities, and the rest by the local boards. Statistics regarding 
all of them will be found in the separate Appendix to this 

Besides the above, the missions maintain several medical 
institutions. The American Lutheran Mission at Rajah- 
mundry keeps up a dispensary for women and children in 
which some 3,000 cases are treated annually. Connected 
with the dispensary is a small hospital, and the erection of a 
larger one has been resolved upon. The Canadian Baptist 
Mission manages, and in part maintains, the Kellock Home 
for lepers at Ramachandrapuram, which was founded in 1899 
by the liberality of Mrs. Kellock, the widow of Dr. Kellock, a 
Canadian Baptist. At the end of 1904 the patients attending 
it numbered 94. It contains three large wards for men and a 
smaller one for women, and is owned, and largely supported, 
by the Mission to Lepers in the East. At a distance of a mile 
from it, is the Phillips Memorial Home for the untainted 
children of the lepers, which was erected from the subscrip- 
tions of the children attending Sunday schools in Great Britain 
in memory of the first Secretary of the Indian Sunday School 
Union. The Canadian Baptist Mission also has a dispensary 
at Ramachandrapuram, and is erecting at Pithapuram a 
hospital to contain 21 beds. 

The medical institutions in Cocanada town comprise a 
hospital, a branch dispensary and a dispensary for women 
and children. 

The first of these is situated in the suburb of Jagannatha- 
puram. It was founded in 1856 and has 32 beds for male, and 
14 for female, patients ; in the out-patient department is aVoom 
with six beds set apart for Europeans. The main block is 
well ventilated and lighted ; but there are no caste, or special 
contagious, wards. The hospital is jointly maintained from 
Provincial, local, and municipal funds. It is in charge of a 
Commissioned Medical Officer aided by an Assistant Surgeon 
and two hospital assistants, and is under the general control 
of the municipal council. 

The branch dispensary in the same town was founded in 
1888 and is maintained by the municipality. It treats over 
20,000 patients annually. The building, was erected in 
memory of M.R.Ry. Kommireddi Narasinga Rao by his son. 




hospitals and 


in Cocanada. 






The dispensary for women and children at Cocanada was 
established in 1895 ^nd the attendance is over 11,000 annually. 
Its expenditure is nearly all met from local funds and it is 
under the control of the District Board. 

The Rajahmundry hospital has been in existence since 
1854. It contains twenty beds for men and twelve for women. 
The attendance is larger than that at any other medical 
institution in the district, and compares favourably with the 
figures for most of the mufassal institutions in the Presidency. 
Its expenditure is met from municipal and local funds ; it 
possesses an invested capital of Rs. 5,560; is under the 
general control of the municipality ; and is managed by a 
Civil Surgeon and two hospital assistants. 




Census Statistics— By taluks— By religions. Educational Institutions 
— Early beginnings— Schools now existing — The Government college, Rajah- 
mundry— The Government training college, Rajahmundry — The Pithapuram 
Raja's college. 

Seventy-seven in every thousand of the male, and 7 per 
mille of the female, population of the district can read and 
write. The figures are greatly reduced by the inclusion of the 
Agency, where education is at a discount and only 30 per 
mille of the males and three per mille of the other sex are 
literate. Excluding this tract, they come to 83 and 8 per mille 
of the two sexes respectively, or about equal to the average 
in the plains of the east coast districts taken as a whole. 
Taking the statistics for the taluks separately, it is found that 
the highest figures in the lowlands are those of Rajahmundry 
(105 and 15) and Cocanada (103 and 12), while the lowest are 
those of Peddapuram, namely 51 and 3. In the Agency all 
the figures are very low, but Bhadrachalam and Polavaram 
take a far higher position than Chodavaram and Yellavaram. 
In this last only II per mille of the males and I per mille of the 
females can read and write. 

If the statistics of literacy among the adherents of the 
chief religions are examined, it will be found that both the 
Muhammadans and Christians are far better educated than the 
Hindus. Among the Hindus, the literate persons per mille of 
the male and female population, respectively, number 74 and 
6; among the Musalmans, 180 and 20 ; and among the 
Christians, 400 and 317. It will be noticed that these last are 
the only people whose girls have received an education in any 
way equal to that given to the boys. 

Godavari was the pioneer among the Madras districts in 
educational matters. As far back as 1826 the Collector, 
Mr. Bayard, under instructions from Government, established 
schools at both Rajahmundry and Cocanada ; but these were 
both abolished after a short life of ten years. In 1854, the 
year when the Court of Directors issued its memorable des- 
patch about education, Mr. George Noble Taylor, who was 
the Sub-Collector of the district as it then existed, and 



By taluks. 

By religinos. 








Schools now 

The Govern- 
ment college. 

resided at Narasapur, formed a society at that town for the 
purpose of advancing education, and established schools in 
Narasapur (the nucleus of the existing Noble high school) and 
three others of the chief towns of his charge, all of which 
were supported by local subscriptions. His system spread 
throughout his subdivision, largely owing to the interest taken 
in the matter by the ryots themselves. Attracted by the 
novelty of the institutions already established, they applied to 
Mr. Taylor to open primary vernacular schools in a number 
of villages, and proposed to defray the cost by a fixed annual 
addition to the revenue demand of each village at the time of 
the annual settlement, which should form a permanent fund 
to be applied solely to educational purposes. The movement 
was brought to the notice of Sir Walter Elliott, then Com- 
missioner ^ of the Northern Circars, who recommended it 
warmly to the attention of Government ; and a scheme was 
ultimately sanctioned by which this addition to the revenue 
demand was levied in the three taluks of Mogalturru, Tanuku 
and Undi (all now in the Kistna district) and schools were 
maintained from the proceeds.- 

The higher educational institutions now in existence in 
the district comprise three colleges (namely the Government 
arts and training colleges at Rajahmundry and the Pitha- 
puram Raja's college at Cocanada) ; seven upper secondary 
schools for boys ; and 53 lower secondary schools, of which 
eighteen provide ordinary instruction for boys, fifteen similar 
instruction for girls, and twenty are Sanskrit schools for 
boys. There is only one district in the Presidency (Tanjore) 
in which there are more colleges, and only four where there 
are more lower secondary schools. The number of pupils 
under instruction in these two grades, and also in the upper 
secondary schools, is also very much above the average. 
Primary education, on the other hand, both in the number of 
institutions and of pupils, is considerably below the average 
of other districts. Detailed statistics regarding the subject 
will be found in the separate Appendix to this volume. 

The most important educational institution in the district is 
the Government college at Rajahmundry. This was originally 
established by Government in 1853 as a Zilla school for impart- 
ing instruction to the children of the four districts of the 
Northern Circars up to the present secondary standard. In 
1868 it was raised to the rank of a Provincial school, but owing 

^ See Chapter XT, p. 169. 

2 The correspondence will be found in Selections from the Records of the 
Madras Qoyernment No. XXV U 



to various unfortunate circumstances it remained in effect a 
Zilla school till 1873, when an F.A. class was started. A 
B.A. class was formed in 1877 and the Provincial school 
became a first-grade college. It is now one of the three first- 
grade colleges in the Presidency which are Government 
institutions, the other two being the Presidency college and 
the college at Kumbakonam. The high-school classes were 
discontinued in 1885. The college was affiliated to the 
University in 1891 in mathematics, physical science and 
mental and moral philosophy. 

The institution is entirely supported from fees and 
Provincial funds. It is managed by a European Principal 
(an officer of the Indian Educational Service), who is under the 
control of the Director of Public Instruction, and its assistant 
staff consists of three lecturers, all officers of the Provincial 
Educational Service, six assistant lecturers, three munshis for 
Telugu, Sanskrit and Hindustani, and a gymnastic instructor. 
A carpentry class is also attached to it, where the students 
work out of college hours under the guidance of a qualified 
mechanic. Its total strength is about 230, of whom some 160 
are reading in the F.A., and 70 in the B.A., classes. The fees 
are Rs. 40 each term for the B.A. course, and Rs. 32 for the 
F.A. Over 200 of the boys are Brahmans. 

A hostel, rented from private persons, is attached to the 
college, and in this Brahman students are boarded and 
lodged. It is under the direct control of the Principal, 
assisted by a Superintendent and two members of the college 
committee, and has a manager who attends to the details of 
its working. The boarding fees vary from Rs. 7 to Rs. 9 a 
month, according to the market price of rations, and the 
building accommodates fifty boys. Arrangements are being 
made for the construction in the college compound of a hostel 
for all classes. The students in the college come from the 
four districts of the Northern Circars, but the majority belong 
to Godavari. 

The college is endowed with three annual prizes founded 
in honour of, and called after, respectively, the late Mr. 
B. H. Young, formerly Executive Engineer of the district, and 
two former head-lecturers of the college, the late M.R.Rys. 
Sundara Rao and Subrahmanya Aiyar. Two scholarships 
are given by M.R.Ry. G. V. Subbarayadu Sastri, at present 
Assistant Inspector of -Schools, Guntiir Division, in memory 
of the late M.R.Ry. B. Gavara Razu, B.A., of this college, after 
whom they are named. Their value is respectively Rs. 60 
and Rs. 30 per annum, and they are given, on the result of 




CHAP. X. a competitive examination held every alternate year, to 
Educa- necessitous students of the Junior B.A. and Junior F.A. classes 

t[onal respectively. 
Institu- f J 

TioNs. The training college at Rajahmundry was originally 

Ihe Govern- established as an elementary normal school by the Godavari 
ment training District Board in 1883. Its status was raised in 1890 to that 
college, q|- ^ second-grade normal school. In 1892 it was taken over 

mundry. by Government and in February 1894 it was raised to 

collegiate rank with the Union high school, transferred to 
Government by the managing committee, as its practising 
school. In May 1904 it was affiliated to the University of 
Madras for the degree of Licentiate in Teaching. Its aim is 
twofold : to supply the educational institutions of the Northern 
Circars and Ceded Districts (Cuddapah excepted) with 
trained Telugu teachers, the want of whom has long been 
a bar to education in those districts ; and to work (as a 
practising school) a large and efficient high school at Rajah- 
mundry with classes as large as the needs of the town and 
the neighbourhood require. 

The college is maintained from Provincial funds and the 
general management is in the hands of the Principal of the 
Rajahmundry college. The teaching staff consists of a Vice- 
Principal — a member of the Provincial Educational Service — 
eleven Licentiates in Teaching, two matriculates, a drawing- 
master, an agricultural instructor (who holds a diploma in 
agriculture), two pandits and a gymnastic instructor. 

When transferring the Union high school to Government 
with all its properties, the managing committee also handed 
over a site, measuring two and a third acres, purchased by 
them in the heart of the town. On this, the Government 
began in 1897 to construct a building at a cost of about 
Rs. 65,000 ; and, on its completion in 1899, it was occupied by 
the training college classes, which had been before located 
partly in the arts college and partly in a rented building. 
With a view to providing a recreation ground for the boys of 
the practising school and the students of the training college, 
and to secure healthy surroundings for the latter, the author- 
ities negotiated with the Rajahmundry municipality for the 
acquisition of the whole of the Potter's tank, situated in front 
of the college, and in 1895 submitted proposals for its acqui- 
sition. The scheme however fell through then owing to its 
prohibitive cost. In 1901 the subject was re-opened ; and in 
the following year a portion of the Potter's tank and the 
house-sites in front of the college were acquired, and this 
area was reclaimed and enclosed within a compound wall at 



a cost of about Rs. 18,500. In 1902 proposals estimated to chap. x. 
cost Rs. 12,000 were submitted for the extension of the build- educa- 
ing at its northern end and the carrying out of certain inst^tu- 
alterations in the existing structure. These were sanctioned, tions. 
and the work is now proceeding. No hostel is attached to 
this college. The fees in the practising section range from 
Rs. 19-6 to Rs. 7-6 a term, and the rates of stipends to 
students under training from Rs. 5 to Rs. 15. 

The arts college possesses certain endowments for the 
benefit of Muhammadan students ; and when it contains no 
boys of that faith who are eligible for these, they are given to 
Muhammadan pupils in the practising section. They consist 
of two ' Yeomiah scholarships,' each of the annual value of 
Rs. 46, constituted from the funds of an ancient yeomiah 
which lapsed to Government. The interest on Rs. 7,200, 
being the amount of a boarding-house fund collected by the 
late Saiyid Ali Sahib Bahadur, a retired Deputy Collector, 
supplemented by a grant from Government, is also devoted 
to forming Muhammadan scholarships open to poor Muham- 
madan pupils, and ranging in value from Rs. 3 to Rs. 7 per 
mensem according to the class in which the pupil is reading. 

The Pithapuram Raja's college at Cocanada was founded The Pitha- 
in 1852, as a general English and vernacular school, through P^^^^^ Raja's 
the exertions of the then Collector, Mr. Prendergast, and 
his sheristadar, M.R.Ry. Tulasinga Chettiyar. It depended 
entirely on private subscriptions, gradually declined, and 
ultimately collapsed for a time in 1862. In the following 
year, however, through the efforts of the Collector, Mr. Purvis, 
whose bust is now placed in a prominent position in the 
northern block of buildings in memory of his interest in the 
institution, the school was resuscitated and was formally 
re-opened on the 28th October 1863. Government made a 
monthly contribution of Rs. 70 towards its expenses, and the 
late Raja of Pithapuram, who had been one of its earliest 
pupils, added a further sum of Rs. lOO a month. 

It was located in a rented building till 1865, when the 
increasing attendance rendered it necessary to provide better 
quarters for it. The late Raja of Pithapuram again showed 
his interest in the promotion of education by presenting the 
institution with a munificent endowment of Rs. 28,000, the 
extensive and valuable site which it now owns, and a sum of 
Rs. 3,700 for the building and its furniture. Further contribu- 
tions were collected and a building grant of Rs. 5,000 was 
obtained from Government, and with these and the Raja's 
donation the northern block of buildings was constructed. 





This was soon found insufficient, and shortly afterwards 
the western block was erected and was called the ' Linton 
Memorial School ' in memory of the late Mr. Linton, an 
Assistant Collector who had evinced great interest in the 
welfare of the institution. This block cost Rs. 7,000, of which 
one half was contributed by Government and the other by 
the public. 

The necessity of additional buildings was felt again in 
1882, and a two-storied house was erected at a cost of 
Rs. 12,000, of which a moiety was contributed by the late 
M.R.Ry. Pydah Ramakrishnayya, another of the earliest 
students of the school, and a moiety by Government. The 
building was opened by the then Governor, Sir Mountstuart 
Grant Duff, on March 3rd, 1883. 

In 1897 a hall was constructed from college funds, at a 
cost of Rs. 6,000, and in IQ02 a hostel was completed at a cost 
of Rs. 7,550, of which Rs. 2,500 was given by Government. 
The latter is divided into two blocks (containing six rooms 
each) which are called respectively the Brodie and Sweet 
Homes, after Messrs. V. A. Brodie and H. Sweet, a Collector 
and a Superintendent of Police of the district who took much 
interest in the improvement of the college. 

The school taught up to the ' middle school standard ' 
(corresponding to the present lower secondary course) till 
1866, when it was raised to the matriculation standard. In 
January 1884 the school committee opened an F.A. class, and 
the institution was duly affiliated to the Madras University and 
styled the ' Pithapur Raja's College ' in honour of its liberal 
patron. In order to place the institution on a satisfactory 
financial basis, the committee registered itself on the 29th 
August 1892 under the Indian Companies Act under the name 
of ' The Pithapur Raja's College, Limited.' 

The institution is managed by a council of which the 
Collector of the district, the Chairman of the municipal 
council, a representative of the Raja of Pithapuram, the 
Inspector of Schools and the Principal of the college are ex- 
officio members. A separate committee of seven disposes of all 
matters not expressly reserved for the decision of the council. 
The college is supported mainly by school fees, which in 
1903-04 amounted to nearly Rs. 15,000. Other important 
items of income are the interest (Rs. 1,400) on certain Govern- 
ment pro-notes and a mortgage loan of Rs. 400 ; and a 
monthly grant from Government of Rs. 90. The college is 
generally self-supporting, but is sometimes worked at a small 
loss. The deficit in 1903-04, for example, was Rs. 370. 



The establishment consists of a Principal and sixteen 
assistant masters ; two Sanskrit, and two Telugu, pandits ; 
two gymnastic instructors ; and copy, drawing and music 
masters. The attendance, according to recent figures, 
amounts to 487, of whom 39 are reading in the senior, and 
twelve in the junior, F.A. class. The fees paid vary, according 
to the class in which the boy is reading, from Rs. 60 per 
annum for the F.A. classes to Rs. 14 for the first class. The 
boys come mostly from the adjacent taluks of Cocanada, 
Ramachandrapuram, Peddapuram and Pithapuram. The 
hostel buildings completed in 1902 will accommodate 24 boys, 
who pay twelve annas each per mensem for the use of them. 
They have not yet boarded there, but a kitchen has recently 
been built at a cost of Rs. 1,000 to enable them to do so. 

Liberal scholarships are given in the college. They 
amount in all to Rs. 492 a year and vary from Rs. 40 to Rs. 5 
per annum according to the class to which they are open. 
They are tenable for terms varying from two to four years, 
and are awarded by competitive examinations. They are only 
open to boys who are too poor to prosecute their studies 
without pecuniary help ; and entrance to the examinations is 
also subject to certain age limits. 









Early History — The zamindars — Their administration— The /laz*?'/? land — Com- 
mittee of Circuit, 1785-87 — Settlement with the zamindars in 1789— Abolition 
of the Chiefs and Councils, 1794— Collectors of the havili land. The 
Permanent Settlement, 1^02-03— Its failure— Its effect on the ryots — 
Special Commissioner appointed, 1843. Ryotwari Settlements — Before 
1865 — Settlement of 1865-66— Its scope— (Jrouping of villages — Classifica- 
tion of soils — Standard crops, grain outturns, commutation prices — Cultivation 
expenses and money rates — Financial results — Water-rate in the delta — The 
existing settlement ; its scope — Reclassification of delta soils — Water-rate 
problems — Settlement of wild tracts — Financial results — }5hadrachalam taluk — 
Proprietary rights — Fixing of the peshkash — Settlement of 1890 in Bhadra- 
chalam— Agency tracts and rented villages. District and Divisional 
Limits. Vill.vge Establishments — Ke-organized in 1866 — Revised in 

1885. INAMS. 

As has already been mentioned on p. 34 above, the district, 
when it was at length definitely acquired in 1768, was not at 
once administered directly by the Company but was leased out 
to native renters called zamindars, over whom was a head 
renter named Hussain Ali Khan. The latter's lease expired 
in 1769 and the newly-acquired territory was then placed 
under the direct administration of the servants of the Company. 
The agents of the old factories and their subordinates were 
converted into Provincial Chiefs and Councils, and the 
Rajahmundry and Ellore Circars were put under the Chief 
and Council of Masulipatam, who for the next 25 years 
controlled the entire political, civil and revenue administration. 
They found that the land of the district was of two classes ; 
namely, the havili (' havelly ') land, which consisted of house- 
hold estates, situated round the chief towns, which had been 
appropriated by the Musalmans to the upkeep of their 
numerous garrisons and establishments and administered 
directly by them ; and the zamindari land, the collection of 
the revenue in which was leased out on a commission to 

These zamindars, in theory, were merely agents of the 
Musalmans,^ created for the sole purpose of collecting the 

* See Higginbotham's reprint (Madras, 1883) of the Fifth Report on the 
ajfairs of the East India Company (1812) and Mr. Grant's Political Survey 
of the Northern Circars appended thereto, both of which have been freely 
utilized in the following pages. 



revenue. Theoretically, they were removable at pleasure ; but CHAP. xi. 
they were generally permitted to remain for generation after Early 
generation in possession of their estates. They were often Hi stor y. 
charged with the raising of local troops, who were conse- 
quently devoted to them, and during the lax administration 
of the later years of Musalman rule they had become so 
powerful that they had usurped hereditary rights and come 
to regard themselves as the legal owners of the soil. They 
maintained the semblance of state, residing in mud forts in 
which their palaces were situated, moving abroad only on 
elephants or in gorgeous palanquins, and being accompanied 
on their excursions by a rabble of armed peons and a posse 
of relatives and followers mounted on horses or borne in 
palanquins. Their practice was to exact by force or fraud all 
the revenue they could, to pay a certain fixed sum to the 
Government, and to appropriate the balance themselves. The 
Chief and Council of Masulipatam treated these zamindars as 
the owners of their estates, subject to the payment of a money 
peshkash to Government which was settled from time to time 
on what was called the ;«(7/«/// jamabandi, i.e., a customary sum 
assessed on no scientific basis. The havili land was kept 
under direct management as in the time of the Musalmans. 

The zamindars undoubtedly oppressed their ryots. The 
' ancient established custom ' of collecting the revenue in the 
zamindari land was by a division of the crop (dsard), but 
in practice several different modes were adopted by the 
zamindars.^ In some cases the crop was shared; in others, 
particularly on the more fertile soils producing paddy, there 
was a fixed rent ; and garden land, or land producing tobacco, 
cotton, betel, sugar-cane, oilseeds, palmyra or fruit trees, was 
assessed on special principles. Where the paddy crop was 
divided between the zamindar and the ryot, the division was 
theoretically supposed to leave the cultivator 40, 50 or 60 per 
cent, of the crop, the higher rates being allowed to Brahmans 
and other favoured classes. But as a matter of fact the 
cultivator's share rarely exceeded 20 or 25 per cent. The 
fixed rents were also maintained at an oppressively high 

The havili land appears to have been managed on a some- The /iaf»7f 
what similar system, a renter being substituted for a zamindar. 
Division of the crop was more common, but arbitrary 
assessments called sist and malavati were in some places 
substituted in its stead. Here again however it was the 

Their admin- 


^ See the reports of 1786 and 1787 of the Committee of Circuit referred to 



CHAP. XI. practice rather than the theory which was of essential 
Early importance to the ryot. In the division of crops the propor- 

■ tions theoretically allowed to the cultivator were the same as 

in the case of paddy in zamindari land ; but ' many after 
collections were made, and the renter usually exacted a higher 
price for his proportion than that of the market, which reduces 
the ryot's share to a fourth or even a fifth part of the produce.' 
The cultivators, in fact, were as much under the thumb of the 
renters as of the zamindars. They had no right in the soil, 
and the renter let the land to the highest bidder. Bad as was 
the condition of the zamindari ryots, their fields were better 
cultivated than the havili farms immediately dependent on the 
Committee The Chief and Council at Masulipatam did little or nothing 

1785-S7' ' to check this maladministration and oppression, and in 1775 
the Court of Directors, aware of the evils of the existing 
system, and anxious both to protect the ryots and to secure a 
more adequate revenue from the zamindars, ordered that a 
Committee of Circuit, to be composed of five Members of the 
Council of Fort St. George, should be appointed 'to inquire 
into the state of the Northern Circars by ascertaining with all 
possible exactness the produce of the country, the number of 
inhabitants, . . . the gross amount of the revenues, the 
articles from which they arose, the mode by which they were 
collected and the charges of collection.' The Directors further 
ordered that enquiries should be made into the military 
strength and financial position of the zamindars ; and inti- 
mated, that, while not desirous of depriving these latter of 
their revenue, they were determined to protect the ryots from 
violence and oppression. 

Hardly, however, had this Committee begun its labours 
than its work was interrupted by the intervention of the new 
Governor of Madras, Sir Thomas Rumbold, who in 1778 
decided to summon the zamindars to Madras and himself make 
a settlement with them there. The arrangement made accord- 
ingly was for five years at a rate 12^ per cent, above the 
* mdmul jamabandi,' i.e., the amounts the zamindars had 
hitherto been paying. 

Sir Thomas Rumbold ceased to be Governor in 1780 and in 
1783 the Committee of Circuit was reappointed. It conducted 
a lengthy enquiry into the resources of the district and the 
other points referred to in its instructions, and its reports on 
the havili and zamindari lands dated respectively December 
18, 1786 and February 15, 1787 contain a full and valuable 

1 Circuit Committee's Report, dated February 15, 1787, para. 4j. 


description of the country. The immediate effect of its CHAP. XI. 
enquiry was that the increment of 12%. per cent, imposed by Early 
Sir Thomas Rumbold on the zamindars was confirmed, and in i stor y. 
1786 his settlement was extended for a period of three years 
till 1789; so that it was actually in force for eleven years. 

In I^SgtheChief and Council reported that a just assessment Seuiement 
on the zamindaris would be two-thirds of their gross revenue. ^Vmiadars in 
The Board of Revenue (which had been established in 1786) 1789. 
and the Government agreed, and a settlement was made 
on these terms except in the case of the zamindari of Pitha- 
puram, the lease of which had not expired and which was 
then being administered by renters. 

In 1791, however, famine devastated the country,^ the 
zamindars fell into arrears, large remissions were granted them, 
and their settlements were extended from three to five years 
wherever the shorter of these terms had been fixed. 

The Chief and Council at Masulipatam had distinguished Abolition of 
themselves during this trying time neither by their knowledge ^^^^ Co\mdis 
of the conditions of their charge, nor by their loyalty to 1794. 
superior authority ; the reports of the Committee of Circuit 
had also proved the inefficiency of their administration; and 
in 1794 they and the other Chiefs and Councils in the Northern 
Circars were abolished, and the country was divided into 
Collectorates. At first, three Collectorates were formed with 
head-quarters at Cocanada, Rajahmundry and Mogalturru, 
now in Kistna; but shortly afterwards the greater part of the 
present district was placed under one Collector at Rajahmun- 
d,vy and was named the Rajahmundry district. 

Collectors had already been appointed in 1787 for the Collectors of 
management of the havili land. Till 1792 they were independ- |||^^^'''^" ''' 
ent of the Chiefs in Council, but from that year till 1794 
were subordinated to them. They introduced much-needed 
improvements, reducing the size of the areas leased to renters, 
and in some cases dealing directly with the ryots by sharing 
the actual crop with them in fixed proportions without the 
intervention of middlemen. The latter practice, though a 
great improvement on the system it succeeded, had many 
drawbacks, as it involved, among other things, the mainten- 
ance of a large establishment of native officers who generally 
combined with the inhabitants to defraud the State. 

From 1794, land which fell under the immediate manage- 
ment of Government was leased out in appropriate farms 
on joint rents to the leading ryots, the rents being fixed 

1 See Chapter VIII, p. 137. 


1 64 






in grain and commuted into money at the market price or the 
average price for a number of years. This plan, however, 
still left much to be desired, since no precautions were taken 
to prevent the head ryots from oppressing their poorer neigh- 
bours — the besetting evil of all joint rent systems. Moreover 
the famine of 1791 had denuded the country of cultivators, and 
though much land had thus gone out of cultivation the ryots 
had to pay for it just as if it had yielded a crop. 

Meanwhile the Court of Directors and the Government of 
India had been pressing the Madras Government to introduce 
permanent settlement which had been adopted in Bengal in 
1793 and which was supposed to provide a solution of the 
vexed questions of the amounts which the zamindars should 
receive from their ryots and should pay to Government. The 
system was introduced in the Rajahmundry district in 1802-03. 
The estates of the existing zamindars were confirmed to them 
in perpetuity on a peshkash which was generally fixed at 
two-thirds of the average gross collections of land revenue in 
preceding years, the period of calculation varying from eight 
to thirteen years according as accounts were available. The 
havili land was divided into proprietary estates (or 'muttas') 
of convenient size yielding from Rs. 3,500 to Rs. 17,500, and 
these were sold in public auction to the highest bidders on 
permanent tenure subject to the payment of a peshkash 
calculated on the best available data. In both cases the 
rights of the under-tenants were protected by a legislative 
enactment (Regulation XXX of 1802) which enforced the 
grant of pattas and the observance of customary rights. The 
land-customs, salt, abkari and other miscellaneous sources 
of revenue, which had been included in former assessments, 
were resumed by Government and excluded from the assets 
of the new estates. 

Twenty-seven muttas and thirteen ancient zamindaris 
were thus formed. Two other small zamindaris ^ were subse- 
quently added to this number. The hilly and thinly populated 
estates of Rampa, Totapalli, and Jaddangi, whose owners 
were called mansabdars and whose revenues were trifling, 
were not brought under the permanent settlement like the 
other parts of the district, and their existence was in fact 
almost ignored. 

The greater part of the district was included in the 
Peddapuram estate, which was assessed with a peshkash of 
nearly seven lakhs. Large areas were also included in the 

Vilasa, and Jampalli and Bantumilli. 



Pithapuram, Polavaram and Kota Ramachandrapuram zamin- chap. xi. 
daris, which were assessed respectively at two and a half The 
lakhs, one lakh, and one and a quarter lakhs. The other settle- 
properties were inconsiderable in extent. There were in all ment. 
fourteen ancient zamindaris and twelve muttas in those parts 
of the present Godavari district which were then included in 
the district of Rajahmundry.^ 

The Pithapuram zamindari is the only large property which 
retains anything like its old proportions. Much of the Pedda- 
puram estate has been bought in by Government for arrears, 
and what remains of it has been divided into nine small 
zamindaris which altogether pay a peshkash of less than one 
and a half lakhs. The whole of the Kota Ramachandrapuram 
estate was bought in by Government in 1846, and Polavaram 
has been reduced by sales for arrears to a petty estate paying 
a peshkash of less than Rs. 7,000. The other properties have 
suffered similarly from sales and subdivisions. Excluding the 
agency hill muttas and Bhadrachalam, eighteen zamindaris 
and eleven muttas are still in existence. 

This permanent settlement was a dismal failure. Both the its failure. 
ancient zamindaris and the newly-created proprietary estates 
were speedily involved in financial difficulties. In the case 
of the former this appears to have been less the eff'ect of 
over-assessment than of extravagance and mismanagement. 
Indeed the most lightly-assessed of them all was the first to 
collapse. The newly-created proprietors not only imitated 
the extravagance of the ancient zamindars, but had also to 
struggle against over-assessment. Their estates quickly began 
to be put up to sale in satisfaction of arrears of peshkash, and 
usually passed at first into the hands of speculators who event- 
ually came to the same end. In 1813-14 the first of them 
was purchased on behalf of Government at auction by the 
Collector, and thenceforward, as the figures in the margin 

show,* an ever-increasing 
No. of Government 




area came, by the same 
process, under the direct 
administration of Govern- 
ment. Though the proprie- 
tary estates were the first 
to fall, several of the an- 
cient zamindaris eventually 
shared their fate. 

1 These figures exclude Bhadrachalam and parts of Yellavaram, which were 
not added to the district till later. The figures of peshkash include areas which 
have since been handed over to Kistna, and are only roughly correct. 

1 66 




Its effect on 
the ryots. 

The political results of the permanent settlement were 
equally disastrous. In l822, Sir Thomas Munro, then Governor 
of Madras, examined in a characteristic minute the causes of 
the frequent disturbances of the peace which occurred, and 
attributed much of the disorder to the attempts of Government 
to enforce the rights of traders and other speculators who had 
lent money to the zamindars and proprietors on the security 
of their estates. He wrote : — 

' They are not dishonoured, they think, by their possessions 
falHng into the hands of Government, but they consider themselves 
disgraced by seeing the abodes of their ancestors become the prop- 
erty of a low trader. As the Regulations now stand, we must, when- 
ever a sowcar obtains a decree against a zamindar for a part or the 
whole of the zamindari, support him by force both in getting and 
maintaining possession of it ; and hence we are every day liable to be 
dragged into a petty warfare among unhealthy hills, where an enemy is 
hardly ever seen, where numbers of valuable lives are lost from the 
climate, and where we often lose but never gain reputation.' ' 

He was emphatically of opinion, none the less, that the 
great hope for the future lay in the gradual extension of the 
area of the Government land. 'No zamindari once forfeited 
for rebellion should ever be restored. All estates falling in 
should invariably be kept and annexed to the Circar lands.' 

Nor did the permanent settlement bring peace and plenty 
to the cultivators. Few of the zamindars interested them- 
selves personally in the management of their estates; they 
entrusted everything to the care of managers, whose policy it 
was to render their masters entirely dependent on them and 
to prevent their interfering in the administration. There was 
no system of management ; the only object was to extort from 
the ryots the utmost possible amount of revenue. A second 
middleman was often introduced by renting villages annually 
or for a term of years, preference being given to such proposals 
as ensured the highest amount of rent and afforded security 
for its punctual payment, and little regard being had to the 
class of persons tendering or the influence rack-rents must 
have on the resources of the villages. In adverse seasons all 
that could be taken of the ryots' produce was claimed on the 
part of the zamindar, and in ordinary years the demand 
purposely exceeded their means. The deficiencies of bad 
years were made up in good ones, and in both the ryot was 
left only a bare subsistence. 

The inherent evils of this system were soon exaggerated by 
a succession of natural calamities which is described in more 

^ Arbuthnot's Munro (London, i8Si), i, zv- 


detail in Chapter VIII. An unfavourable season in 1831-32' chap. xi. 
culminating in a destructive hurricane in May of the latter The 
year, was followed by the disastrous famine of 1833 ; the Permanent 
three years 1835-38 were far from prosperous, the scarcity in ment. 
the last of them almost amounting to famine ; in 1839 a — 

cyclone did great damage all along the coast and far inland ; 
while the season of 1840-41 was almost equally calamitous. 
Moreover a great decline in the weaving trade had taken 
place owing to the abolition of the Government factories. 
The value of piece-goods exported decreased from 14 lakhs in 
1825 to less than 2 lakhs in 1842. Numbers of people were 
thus thrown out of work. 

The impoverishment of the district and the decline in its Special 
revenue at length, in 1843, led Government to send Sir Henry Commis- 
Montgomery, Bart., an able member of the Civil Service, to ap°pohited 
make enquiries. His report, dated March 18, 1844, dealt fully 1843. 
with the evils of the existing system. He attributed them 
chiefly to the inefficient management of the zamindars and 
proprietors, and the consequent rack-renting and impoverish- 
ment of the villages. He also lamented the want of adequate 
means of irrigation — especially the neglect of the Godavari 
water — and the disrepair of the existing works ; and his 
report led to the enquiries which ultimately resulted in the 
construction of the great anient at Dowlaishweram and the 
transformation of the delta of the Godavari consequent 

The most important part of his report, however, was that R\ot\vari 
devoted to a consideration of the revenue policy which should Settle- 
be adopted in the constantly increasing area which, as has 

been seen, was coming under the direct administration of 

The first villages which came (in 1813-14) into Govern- 
ment hands were rented out to the principal inhabitants 
jointly, on the system approved by the Board of Revenue in 
1794. In 1817 that plan was relinquished, and for a number 
of years the Government land was administered under the 
dsard system of sharing the crops or the visahadi system of 
annual or periodical rents. In both cases the settlement was 
made with the ryots directly and without the intervention of 
a middleman ; and the Collector was only authorized to rent 
the villages in the event of the inhabitants refusing to come 
to reasonable terms. 

The dsard or sharing system was simply the conversion 
into money of the Government share, ascertained by estimate 
or by actual measurement of the grain, of the actual crop 

Before 1865. 





harvested each year. It was apparently almost universal 
on wet land. Its drawbacks, as already mentioned, were 
that it involved the entertainment of a large native staff 
who cheated the Government and bullied the ryots- 

Under the visabadi system, which was generally applied 
to dry land, the assessment on the village as a whole was 
fixed annually by the Collector with reference to the probable 
prospects of the harvest, but was frequently revised at the 
jamabandi in accordance with the actual state of the season. 
This lump assessment was distributed among the different 
fields by the ryots themselves, individual agreements being 
taken by the Collector from each ryot for the rent apportioned 
to his holding. 

The fairness of this distribution was in theory maintained 
by the introduction of the peculiar system of ' challenging,' 
under which any ryot who considered that his own holding 
was over-assessed and that of his neighbour too leniently 
rated could demand that the latter should be made over to 
him at an increased rate which he named. If the ryot in 
possession consented to pay the enhanced demand he could 
retain the land, and in that case a proportionate reduction 
was made in the assessment of the fields held by the ryot 
who challenged. If, however, the ryot in possession refused 
to agree to the increased rate, he was compelled to give up 
the land to the challenger, who took it on the higher terms he 
had himself named. 

This challenging necessarily rendered occupation insecure, 
and it moreover failed to meet every case of unfairness, since 
the unit of challenging was the entire holding and not a 
particular field ; and a small ryot whose one or two fields 
were over-assessed could not afford to challenge a wealthy 
cultivator with a large holding, however sure he might be 
that the latter was too leniently rated. 'Accordingly,' wrote 
the Collector in 1825, ' the substantial ryots invariably con- 
trived that their own lands should be lightly assessed and the 
burden thrown on those of the poorer ryots.' 

This apportionment of the lump village assessment among 
the different holdings was made either annually or period- 
ically. If the latter, it was generally accompanied by a redis- 
tribution of the fields among the various villagers every three, 
four or five years (according to the custom of each village), 
somewhat in the same way as under the karaiyidu form of the 
mirasi tenure in Tanjore, of which relics even now survive. 
This was done chiefly to prevent the land held by the smaller 
ryots from being exhausted by continual poor farming, but 



Ryot WAR I 

also to counteract the frequent changes of possession rendered CHAP. xi. 
possible by the challenging system. 

The visahadi leases did not work satisfactorily. Arrears 
usually accumulated owing to the inability of the poorer 
classes to pay their rents, and then alterations were made 
in the total amount of the lump assessment ; but apparently 
nothing was done to render its incidence more fair. 

Both the dsard and the visabadi systems therefore had their 
drawbacks, and more than one Collector proposed a return to 
the renting methods. This was indeed authorized in 1839, 
though it was not actually carried out. 

Sir Henry Montgomery's report of 1844 already referred 
to recorded the opinion that the only satisfactory way of 
dealing with the Government land was by a survey and 
scientific settlement. Meanwhile, as a temporary measure, 
he advocated a system of joint village rents, and this was 
introduced a year or two later and remained in force for some 
20 years. The challenging system, curiously enough, was 
retained, and the main modifications introduced were the 
abolition of the dsard system and the insistence of the joint 
responsibility of the village community as a whole for the 
default of any of its members. Sir Henry Montgomery's 
view was that these joint village rents would afford protection 
to the poorer ryots in so far as their interests were mixed up 
with those of the richer, and he was also anxious to remove 
the obnoxious interference of Government servants which was 
an essential part of the dsard system, and had also grown 
up round the visabadi system owing to the ryots being 
unable themselves to arrange the apportionment of the lump 
assessments among the different holdings. 

Meanwhile notable changes had been effected in the 
administration of the district. In 1849 a Special Commis- 
sioner with the powers of a Board of Revenue was appointed 
to the charge of it, and the post was continued until 1855. In 
1859 the Rajahmundry, Masulipatam and Guntur Collect- 
orates were formed into the two districts of Godavari (with 
Cocanada as head-quarters) and Kistna, the boundary 
between which followed the course of the Upputeru and 
Tamaleru rivers. The anicut across the Godavari had also 
been completed in 1853. 

Proposals for the first scientific settlement of the taluks Settlement of 
comprising the new Godavari district were submitted by 1865-66. 
Mr. R. E. Master, Deputy Director of Revenue Settlement, in 
two schemes, one in i860 dealing with the western delta, and 
the other in 1861 relating to the rest of the district.^ The two 

1 Printed in No XXII of the Selections from the Madras Records. 





Its scope. 

Grouping of 

of soils. 


crops, grain 

schemes, with certain modifications, were introduced in 
1862-63 and 1866-67 respectively. 

It was not considered desirable, to survey or settle the 
whole of the villages belonging to Government. The scheme 
did not deal with 148 Government villages in the Agency and 
elsewhere in which patches of land were only cleared for 
temporary cultivation and abandoned after a year or two for 
fresh ones. These were left to be settled from year to year. 
Waste land, even in surveyed villages, was often left unclassi- 
fied on the ground that it was not likely to be soon occupied ; 
and many of the lankas in the Godavari were omitted from the 
scheme, because their limits were continually fluctuating, and 
were ordered to be leased out annually by auction— a system 
which still obtains. 

The remaining area was divided into the ' upland ' and the 
'delta,' according as it lay outside or within the influence of 
the Godavari irrigation. In each of these tracts the villages 
were grouped into classes with reference to their general 
fertility and the quality of their irrigation sources. All the 
delta land was classed as dry, a uniform water-rate of Rs. 3 
per acre being imposed on irrigated fields in addition to the 
dry assessment. 

The soils were grouped into fourteen classes,^ the arenace- 
ous series amounting to four per cent, of the whole, the 
alluvial to six, the red ferruginous varieties to 29 and the regar 
to 59 per cent. There was also an exceptional class, making 
up two per cent, of the whole, in which were placed the lankas 
in the G6davari and the land irrigated by the Yeleru river in 
Peddapuram taluk. 

The grain values of each of the ' sorts ' into which these 
classes were subdivided were ascertained by experiment. 
The crops taken as the standard for each class were as 
under : — 



Delta land and upland dry. 

land under the 







Black 1 
paddy. J 



White paddy. 

From the grain values, a deduction was made of one-sixth in 
the delta and one-fourth in the uplands to allow for vicissitudes 

^ K.l'. (Kev. Sett.), No, 43, dated 12th May 1896, p. 6. 




* Grain. 

per garce. 

White paddy 


Black paddy . 


Cambu ,. 


Kagi ... 


Horse. gram 

... 96 



Rs. 20 

per tnaiind 





of season and unprofitable areas. Commutation prices were 
calculated from the prices of past years and independent 
enquiries, and worked out as shown 
in the margin.* The ultimate grain 
values were reduced to money in 
accordance with the commutation 
prices, and the gross annual money 
value per acre of each soil was fixed 
by taking the average of the money 
equivalents of the grain values of each 
kind of standard crop. For the special 
class of land under the Yeleru river 
the calculations were made on the 
assumption that sugar-cane would be 
cultivated once in four years and paddy in the others, the 
aggregate outturn being estimated for four years and the 
average for one year taken from this. 

Deductions were next made for cultivation expenses, the 
expenses per acre on each class of soil 
being taken as the average cost of culti- 
vating an acre with each of the standard 
crops. The result worked out in ordinary 
cases to between Rs. 5-8-O and Rs. 2 per 
acre, but in the case of tobacco it came 
to Rs. 35, and in that of sugar-cane to 
Rs. 95, per acre. Both the gross and 
the net value of each ' sort ' of soil having 
thus been ascertained, rates of assess- 
ment per acre were framed. The share 
of Government generally approximated 
to half the net produce. The rates 
arrived at were modified in their appli- 
cation to actual fields according to 
the classification of the villages already 
referred to, the same soils paying less in 
villages which were classed low in the 
In the end, the eighteen rates for dry land 

and fourteen for wet shown in the margin * were arrived at. 

The first three of the former applied only to the exceptional 

soils in the lankas, etc. 

The result of the settlement was an increase in the revenue 
demand amounting, on the whole, to four lakhs, or 23 per cent., 
over the figures of 1859-60, though there was a decrease in 
the dry upland villages. In the area which at present makes 
up the district, the approximate increase in the delta land 
amounted to Rs. 99,000, or 12 per cent., and in the upland 


* Dry 



















































scale of fertility. 

expenses and 
money rates. 






in the delta. 

The existing 
settlement ; 
its scope. 

tion of delta 

wet land to Rs. 41,000, while in the upland dry land the 
decrease was Rs. 14,000. The net increase in this tract was 
thus some Rs. 1,26,000. The water-rate in the delta was 
raised almost immediately (1865) from Rs. 3 to Rs. 4 per acre, 
and eventually in 1894 to Rs. 5 ; and this resulted in a further 

This separate water-rate on regularly irrigated wet land 
was quite exceptional, the method usual in other districts 
being to charge such land a consolidated wet assessment. It 
was introduced under the orders of the then Secretary of 
State, Sir Charles Wood. His idea appears to have been 
that, though Government was selling the water, it had no 
concern with the use made of it, and was only required to fix 
a ' fair commercial value ' for it. But to some land the water 
was worth much more than to others (since fields which grew 
excellent dry crops did not always do well when irrigated), 
and in effect the greatest inequalities of assessment grew 
up among the delta fields.' These considerations led the 
Government to reclassify the delta land when the present 
settlement was introduced. 

The settlement continued in force for 30 years and in 1896 
proposals for its revision were made. The chief factors 
calling for consideration ^ were the enormous increase in 
prices (they had more than doubled in most cases), and the 
great improvement in means of communication, which had 
occnrred since the last settlement. The anomalies caused by 
the vater-rate system in the delta also called loudly for 
removal. ' In the uplands no reclassification of soils was con- 
sidered necessary, and the chief change was an all round 
enhancement of the existing rates by one-third, so that 
Government might share in the profits resulting from the 
great increase in prices. 

In the delta, however, both wet and dry land soils were 
reclassified and a consolidated wet assessment was substi- 
tuted for the existing dry assessment plus water-rate. 

In reclassifying these soils three series (alluvial, regar and 
arenaceous) were adopted, the first containing two classes 
and each of the two latter three. Each class was subdivided 
into ' sorts.' The standard crops taken for wet and dry land 
were white and black paddy respectively. For the former 
the grain outturns which had been arrived at for the same 
classes of soils in Tanjore were adopted ; they were rather 

* See G.O.No. 623, Rev., dated 27th August 1894 and B.P. (Rev. Sett.), 
No. 16, dated 29lh January 1895, p. i. 

2 See the exhaustive report in B.P. (Rev. Sett.), No. 43, dated 12th March 



less than those worked out at the first settlement. For black 
paddy the outturns adopted were also rather below those cal- 
culated at the earlier settlement. For vicissitudes of season 
and unprofitable areas allowances of 10 per cent, were made 
in wet, and 20 per cent, in dry, land. The delta crops never 
fail and the ryots there obtain very high prices for their crops 
in famine years ; but their assessment was not enhanced on 
that account. The estimated cost of cultivation was raised, 
the maxima for wet and dry crops being Rs. 14 and Rs. 8 
against Rs, 5-8-0 and Rs. 4 respectively under the old settle- 
ment. The commutation prices were taken at Rs. 118 and 
Rs. 96 per garce for black and white paddy respectively. 
The average prices of the last twenty non-famine years were 
actually much higher than these figures, but fifteen per cent, 
was deducted from the averages to allow for merchants' 
profits. Half the net annual money value of the outturn of 
each field as thus ascertained was taken as the Government 
share and rounded off to the nearest standard rate of assess- 
ment. The result was the marginally- 
noted * fourteen rates for dry, and twelve 
rates for wet, lands. The two highest 
dry rates were only applied to lanka 
or padiigai (river bank) lands, which are 
of exceptional fertility- For purposes of 
dry assessment, the villages were divided 
into two groups with reference to their 
means of communication and their proxi- 
mity to markets ; while wet land was 
grouped in blocks (irrespective of village 
boundaries) into four ' classes ' with 
reference to the quality of the irrigation 
and drainage. When the rates of assess- 
ment were applied to particular fields, 
they were modified according to the groups and classes in 
which the fields were included. 

The general result of the settlement was that in the whole 
of the Godavari delta — including those portions since trans- 
ferred to Kistna district — there was a gross increase in the 
assessment of Rs. 2,35,000, or eight per cent. 

The change from the system of water-rate to a consoli- 
dated wet assessment caused some difficulties. The first 
doubt which arose was as to what land should be assessed as 
wet and what as dry, since under the former system the ryot 
had been able to please himself as to whether he would grow 
dry crops or wet. It was eventually decided that all land which 
had been continuously under wet cultivation for the five years 


Ryot WAR I 












































of wild tracts. 





1893-99 (but excepting 1895-96), or from which Government 
water could not be excluded, should be classed as wet. The 
next question was what water-rate should be imposed on the 
remaining delta fields when they were irrigated. In the case 
of this land the option of using or refusing the water was 
continued, and, in consideration of this concession, the water- 
rate was fixed at one rupee per acre more than the difference 
between the wet and dry assessment. No land was classed 
as permanent double-crop land. The charge for a second 
crop on wet land was fixed at half the wet assessment, and 
specific rules were made for the charges for irrigated dry 
crops and second wet crops on dry land. 

The levy of water-rate in zamindari and inam land occa- 
sioned some discussion. A ruling of the High Court had 
raised a doubt as to the right of Government to levy the rate 
on land of these two classes from which water could not be 
excluded, and this had to be removed by legislation (Act V of 
1900) ; and the rate was eventually fixed at the old uniform 
figure of Rs. 5 per acre. 

Besides reassessing the areas dealt with at the former 
settlement, the existing settlement assessed to revenue many 
villages which either did not then belong to Government or 
had been left out of account owing to their jungly nature. 
Some 41 proprietary villages had been resumed by Govern- 
ment^ since the original settlement, and many jungle villages 
had so far advanced in civilization as to justify their assess- 
ment. The large areas of waste land in the surveyed villages 
of the upland taluks, which at the original settlement had 
been left unassessed on the ground that they were not likely 
to be brought under cultivation within a reasonable period, 
were now brought into line with the fields adjoining them- 

On the whole, then, 320,000 acres which had been settled 
in 1866 and assessed at Rs. 11,38,000 were charged Rs. 
18,36,000 in the new settlement of 1900 ; 19,000 acres which 
had come newly under cultivation between the two settle- 
ments, and had been provisionally assessed at Rs. l6,000, were 
now charged Rs. 23,000 ; and some 42,000 acres were assessed 
for the first time in 1900 at Rs. 34,000. 

The existing taluk of Bhadrachalam beyond the Ghats 
became British territory in i860, and till 1874 was adminis- 
tered as part of the Upper Godavari district of the Central 
Provinces. It is made up of the old Bhadrachalam and 
Rekapalle taluks. In 1874 it was decided, in view of its 
racial and geographical affinities to the Godavari district of 

^ Thirty -seven villages of the Totapalli estate in 1881 and four of the Rampa 
estate in 1882. 



this Presidency, to transfer the taluk to this latter. Its revenue chap. xi. 
history is therefore distinct from that of the rest of the Ryotwari 
district. S-J-; 

Bhadrachalam is a portion of a large zamindari estate - — 

which is said to have been in the possession of the present ^jgh?"^'^'^-^ 
family since 1324, and the rest of which remained, at the time 
of the cession in i860, a part of the Nizam's Dominions. The 
possession of the property by the present owners has on 
several occasions been seriously, though not permanently, 
interrupted by feuds with a rival family. Rekapalle, which 
was formerly a separate taluk but is now embodied in Bhad- 
rachalam, was leased out in 1815 by the proprietors of the 
latter estate to renters who subsequently set at nought their 
authority and even rose in arms against them. These people 
were accordingly registered as inferior proprietors at the 
settlement which followed the cession in i860. Another class 
of inferior proprietors were the ' Doras,' to whom the owners 
of the estate had been wont to rent out certain areas on short 
leases on a commission of from 20 to 40 per cent, of the gross 
produce. Their position was also defined at the settlement. 

Besides fixing the position of the superior and inferior 
proprietors, this settlement also determined the status of the 
ryots. Some of these possessed varying degrees of occupancy 
right in the soil,^ but the rest were tenants-at-will. The occu- 
pancy rights conferred ranged from a conditional right (in the 
case of those who had held their land for twelve years) to 
an absolute right, and in all cases the proprietors were prohi- 
bited from raising the ryots' rents during the currency of the 

The assessment of the peshkash to be paid by the pro- Fixing of the 
prietors was calculated by regular settlement operations. The '^^ 
villages were grouped for purposes of assessment into chuks 
(subdivisions) with reference to their fertility and locality, and 
the land was surveyed and the soils classified field by field. 
The rental which each class of soil in each chiik might be 
assumed to be able to pay was then calculated with reference 
to the money rents actually paid dunng the last five years, and 
to the value of rents paid in kind. Of the assumed rental 
thus arrived at, one half was taken as the peshkash. 

The Doras above referred to had to pay the superior 
proprietors the whole of the peshkash so fixed on each village, 
together with road and school cesses each amounting to two 
per cent, on the peshkash, a dak cess of a half per cent., and 

^ These are clearly set out in the papers printed with Ci.O. No. 122, Revenue, 
dated 29th January 1SS5, pp. 4 and 5. 





of 1890 in 

a tribute of from 10 to 40 per cent, called malikhdua. The 
amount and description of rent due from the cultivators to the 
proprietors was also prescribed, even in the case of the 
tenants-at-will upon whom no permanent arrangement was 
binding. Waste lands and forests were declared to belong 
to Government, after a liberal deduction of waste (from 100 
to 200 per cent, of the cultivated area and called the dupati 
land) had been set apart round each village for the extension 
of cultivation, firewood and grazing purposes. The abkari 
revenue was also resumed, and the rani of Bhadrachalam was 
granted a deduction of Rs. 4,428 from her peshkash as com- 
pensation for the loss she suffered through the resumption of 
this and the forests. This settlement was thus altogether 
different in principle from those carried out in zamindaris in 
this Presidency. 

Besides the occupied proprietary tracts, the country con- 
tained a vast extent of waste land and small area of occupied 
land the proprietary right in which was vested in Government. 
The latter consisted of a number of small and neglected 
villages in the heart of the forest, in which only shifting 
cultivation ( podu) was practised. The ryots in these were given 
occupancy rights over all fields which they could prove to 
have been continuously held by them, and a small assessment 
— apparently four annas on the extent culturable with one 
axe, about three acres — was levied. 

After Bhadrachalam became part of the Godavari district, 
the question of its re-settlement arose. The original settle- 
ment had been far less favourable to the proprietor than those 
carried out in this Presidency, and the proprietor pressed for 
a reduction of his peshkash and the restoration of his former 
rights to the revenue from abkari and the forests. The 
general lines upon which the re-settlement should proceed 
were ultimately laid down in 1885 ; but it was not carried out 
till 1888-89 nor introduced till 1890. The inferior tenures were 
not interfered with — indeed ryots with provisional occupancy 
tenures were granted absolute occupancy rights. The average 
rates on Government wet and dry land were put at 8 annas 
and 4 annas respectively, and cultivation is now measured up 
annually. The peshkash was fixed at two-thirds of the various 
superior and inferior proprietors' assets, ascertained by a scru- 
tiny of their accounts, subject to the proviso that no curtailment 
exceeding 15 per cent, should be effected in any proprietor's 
income. The abkari and forest revenue were again retained 
in the hands of Government, but as an act of grace an 
allowance of Rs. 4,000 a year was made to the zamindar of 
Bhadrachalam as compensation therefor, the deduction from 



the rani's peshkash above referred to having lapsed at her 
death. The cost of the village establishment was deducted 
from the assets on which the peshkash was calculated. The 
malikfidnas were fixed at a uniform rate of 10 per cent, on 
the peshkash. The road and other cesses were continued and 
formed into a fund called the Bhadrachalam Road Fund, 
which was to be administered by the Collector. 

The net result of this settlement was a loss to Government 
of just over Rs. 1,000 annually. 

The present Agency tracts of Godavari consist of the 
whole of the old mansabs (estates) of Rampa and Jaddangi, 
the more hilly parts of the old Peddapuram and Polavaram 
zamindaris, the Dutcharti and Guditeru muttas of the Golgonda 
Agency transferred from Vizagapatam in i881 and the 
Bhadrachalam taluk transferred from the Central Provinces. 
As has already been seen, the mansabs were disregarded, as 
being unimportant, both at the permanent settlement in 
1802-03, and at the settlement of 1861--66, and since that time 
they have all been resumed in circumstances described in the 
account of each in Chapter XV ; the land which formerly 
belonged to the two zamindaris of Peddapuram and Polava- 
ram is held either by muttadars or direct from Government ; 
and the revenue system in Bhadrachalam has just been 

The Government villages, generally speaking, have not 
been surveyed or settled, but are rented out from year to year 
to the highest suitable bidder, who is debarred by the terms 
of his annual patta from raising the rents of the ryots. The 
auction is merely a form, as there is seldom any competition. 
Some of these villages are being surveyed and it is proposed 
to introduce an experimental settlement direct with the ryots 
on the basis of existing rents. The muttadars pay a small 
quit-rent. They hold their land ^ on a service tenure of the 
same nature as that of the former mansabdar (i.e., kdvalgdri 
or watch and ward) for any breach of which they are answer- 
able to the Government. The holders of the muttas trans- 
ferred from Vizagapatam are on somewhat similar ground, 
their tenure being conditioned for service and defeasible at 
the will of Government. Government can remove them and 
can appoint whom they choose as their successors. The 
Agency also includes a few mokhasa villages granted by 
Government on favourable terms for services performed — 
generally during the Rampa rebellion. 



tracts and 

^ G.O. No. 103, Revenue, dated 3rd February 1S90 









in 1866. 

It has already been mentioned that the area which now 
makes up the Godavari district was originally placed under 
the Chief and Council at Masulipatam ; was divided in 17Q4 
into the Collectorates of Cocanada and Rajahmundry ; was 
included in 1802 in the new Rajahmundry district ; formed 
part of the Godavari district first formed in 1859; and was 
increased by the addition of Bhadrachalam taluk in 1874 and 
two muttas of Golgonda Agency in 1881. 

The district thus constituted increased enormously in 
wealth, population and importance when the irrigation from 
the Godavari anicut took full effect, and became a heavier 
charge than one Collector could efficiently administer. 
Accordingly in 1904 the portion of it which lay south and 
west of the Godavari river (with the single exception of the 
Polavaram division) was transferred to the Kistna district, 
which latter in its turn was lightened by the formation of the 
new district of Guntur. The existing divisional charges are 
as under : — 



Area in 



Rajahmundry (Sub-Collector) ... 

Bhadrachalam Agency (Head 

Assistant Collector). 
Polavaram Agency (European 

Deputy Collector). 
Peddapuram (Deputy Collector), 

Head-quarter (Cocanada) Deputy 

Rajahmundry, Amala- 

puram, Nagaram. 

Polavaram, Yella- 
varam, Chodavaram. 

Peddapuram, Rama- 

Cocanada, Pithapuram, 

Total ... 











It was not till 1866 that the village establishments of 
the district were thoroughly re-organized on modern lines. At 
that time the village servants were paid partly by certain 
customary fees and partly by the profits of the cultivation of 
inam lands granted them free of assessment. The customary 
fees had been collected with, and included in, the old joint- 
rent settlements ; and then deducted under the head of 
ordinary remissions and disbursed to the village servants 
entitled to them. At the settlement of 1862-67 these fees were 
not included in the assessments fixed upon the land, and the 
Government expressly reserved the power to levy a regular 
cess for the proper remuneration of the village officers. It 


was decided in 1866^ that this cess should be levied under the chap. xi. 
recent Village Service Cess Act of 1864 at the rate of 8 pies in Village 
every rupee of the land revenue on Government lands and of establish- 

water-rate on inams. It was ordered that the inam lands which ' 

had up to then formed part of the remuneration of the village 
servants should be enfranchised (i.e., surrendered to the then 
holders) at a quit-rent of five-eighths of the land revenue assess- 
ment which would have been charged upon them had they not 
been inams. The proceeds of the cess and the quit-rents on 
the inams were set aside to constitute a fund (since abolished) 
for the future payment of the village establishments. 

Before these changes were introduced, the existing estab- 
lishments were revised. The number of villages was greatly 
reduced by clubbing small ones with larger ones adjoining, 
and the establishments were greatly modified, being in every 
case much reduced, A munsif, a karnam, a talaiyari (called 
in this district a nayak) and one or more vettis (according to the 
amount of the revenue demand) were allowed to each village ; 
an additional talaiyari was sanctioned for 29 large villages ; 
and nirgantis (distributors of irrigation water) were largely 
increased in number, but were only employed for tanks in 
upland villages in which the ryots applied for them, and 
were not allowed in delta villages. The payment of munsifs 
and karnams varied, with the revenue demand of the village, 
from Rs, l/^ to Rs. 12, and from Rs. 5 to Rs. 20 a month, 
respectively. The lower rates for munsifs (Rs. ij^, Rs. 2, 
Rs. 3 and Rs. 4) were confined to villages where the revenue 
demand was small and the work of the headman consequently 
light. The pay of the talaiyaris, nirgantis and vettis was 
fixed at a uniform rate of Rs. 4 a month. The old village 
shroffs were abolished. 

Village barbers and Chamars (leather-workers) had also 
been formerly remunerated with land inams. These were not 
enfranchised, but were left to their holders to be enjoyed as 
service inams on condition that the holders rendered to the 
villagers the services, as barbers and leather-workers, which 
had been customarily required of them. Specific services 
were usually specially paid for in grain by the villagers, and 
these payments formed an addition to the income obtained 
from the inams. 

In 1885 a new scheme of village establishments was Revised 
sanctioned. The essential alterations effected by this were ^" *^^5- 
the increase of the munsifs' pay and the appointment of 
monigars to help them ; the appointment of assistant 

^ See G.O. No, 1237, Revenue, dated 23rd May 1866, and also Nos. 963, 
dated 29th June 1870, and 1097, dated 26th July 1885. 






karnams ; a moderate increase in the number of the talaiyaris 
and nirgantis and a decrease in that of the vettis ; and the 
payment of those village officers in whole inam villages and 
zamindaris who did work for Government. Villages were 
graded into six classes, and the pay of munsifs and karnams 
varied between Rs. 5 and Rs. I2 and Rs. 8 and Rs. 20 respect- 
ively. In some cases the munsifs were paid as much as 
Rs. 15. The number of villages was altered by regrouping 
and by making provision for some resumed villages in the 
Rampa and Totapalli mansabs, and the net result was that 
the total was reduced by ten. Subsequent to the reforms of 
1885 the number of monigars was slightly reduced by regroup- 
ing; ^ and finally in 1898 '' the minimum pay of karnams was 
raised to Rs. 8. 

In Government villages in Bhadrachalam an establishment 
of headmen (patels), karnams (patwaris) and talaiyaris is paid 
from a fund constituted from a deduction of one anna in the 
rupee on the land revenue collections in those villages. 

The inams of the district were settled by the Inam Commis- 
sioner between i860 and 1870. One peculiar class of inam 
then dealt with was the ferry inams, which had been granted 
to remunerate the boatmen who worked ferries on the 
Godavari. The enfranchisement at a quit-rent of two-thirds 
of the assessment, of such of these as had been rendered 
unnecessary by other ferrying agency was ordered in 1865.^ 
Ferry inams still exist, notably in zamindari villages. As has 
been said, the village service inams in Government villages 
were enfranchised at a quit-rent of five-eighths of the assess- 
ment, and the inams of the quasi-private servants of the 
villagers in such villages — the barbers and the chucklers — 
were not interfered with.* 

Since 1902 a special ofificer has been engaged upon the 
enfranchisement of the village service inams proper in the 
proprietary estates. The principles followed differ in two 
important particulars from those adopted in the case of village 
service inams in ryotwari villages. The enfranchisement is 
at a quit-rent equal to the full assessment leviable on such 
lands, instead of at five-eighths of this amount ; and the 
enfranchised lands are liable to re-assessment at the re- 
settlement of the district. The work is practically completed 
and the revised village establishments nearly all introduced. 

^ G.O. No. 691, Revenue, dated 25th August 1890. 
2 G.O. No. 207, Revenue, dated 15th April 1898. 
^ Proceedings of Government, dated 21st February 1865, para. 21. 
^ Seethe correspondence ending with G.O. No. 541, Revenue, dated 3rd 
April 1872. 



Salt— The systems of administration - Methods of manufacture — Markets — Salt 
for Vanam — Fish-curing yards — Contraband sail-earth. Abkari and Opium 
—Arrack —Arrack in the Agency — Toddy- Toddy in the Agency — Foreign 
li(luor — Opium and hemp-drugs — In the Agency. Customs — Land-customs 
— Sea-customs. Income-tax. Stamps. 

Three systems of administering the Government salt mon- chap. XI. 

opoly are in force in the Godavari district ; namely, the excise Salt. 

system, the monopoly system and the modified excise system. _, — 
TT, ^ ^ r ^ ,,--r • , r The systcms 

Under the first of these, which is in force in the factory at of adminis- 

Jagannathapuram (Jagannaikpur) and the major part of that at tration. 
Penuguduru (these are the only two factories in the district), 
the salt is manufactured by licensees who are allowed, subject 
to certain restrictions, to make any quantity they choose, and 
dispose of it how and when they like, after they have paid to 
Government the excise duty on it, plus a small cess per maund 
to cover interest on the capital cost of permanent works con- 
nected with storage and manufacture which have been carried 
out by Government. This system was introduced into the dis- 
trict in 1885-86. It has two drawbacks ; namely, that the quan- 
tity manufactured by the licensees may be inadequate to the 
demand, and that by manipulating the market the licensees 
(or outside capitalists) may unduly raise the price of salt. 
The former of these disadvantages is met by the provision of 
penalties for neglect to manufacture, and the latter by the 
retention of a part of the Penugudiiru factory under the old 
monopoly system, the second of the two systems above 
referred to. 

Under this, the pans are worked by license-holders who 
are required to hand over all the salt they make to Govern- 
ment, and are paid for it a stated rate per garce called the 
kudivdram (' cultivator's share ') which is calculated to cover 
all expenses of manufacture and leave the license-holder a 
reasonable profit. 

Of late years the third of the above systems, the modified 
excise system, has been introduced in an extension of the 
Penuguduru factory- Under this, the Board of Revenue 
announce, before the manufacturing season begins, what 
quantity (if any) Government is prepared to buy, and the 
licensees are bound to make and deliver this quantity. 









Jagannathapuram, excise 
Penugudiiru, excise ... 
Do. , monopoly 
Do. , modified excise 

Acres Cents. 

127 8 

669 Sj 

77 8 

8S 18 

Salt for 

Having done so, they are allowed to manufacture on their 
own account in the same manner as under the excise system. 
The figures in the margin show the extent in the two 

factories which is worked 
under each of these three 
systems. The Jaganna- 
thapuram factory is with- 
'n Cocanada municipality 
and that at Penuguduru is near that town. In both of them, 
the salt is made by the ordinary methods. The pans are 
supplied with brine from channels connecting with the sea or 
tidal creeks, and not from brinepits- At Jagannathapuram a 
steam pump is used for lifting the brine, and, at Penuguduru, 
picottahs. The soil at Penuguduru is nearly all of a clayey 
description, and is sandy in only a very few parts. The result 
is that the salt made there is dark in colour and rather dirty. 
That made at Jagannathapuram is also darker than usual. 
In both places, however, the quality is good and the salt has 
the commercial advantage of being rather light, which, since 
salt is bought wholesale at the factories by weight and retailed 
in the bazaars by measure, renders it popular with the dealers. 
The Jagannathapuram factory used to be worked entirely by 
the Oriental Salt Company, Limited, which endeavoured, by 
the use of certain patent processes, to purify the local product 
so as to enable it to compete in the Calcutta market with 
'Liverpool ' salt. The attempt failed and the company was 
voluntarily wound up at the end of 1904. The factory is now 
worked, under a lease running for 20 years from January 
1889, by Messrs. Hall, Wilson & Co., who have been recog- 
nized as receivers on behalf of the debenture-holders in the 

The salt made in the two factories is largely consumed 
within the district itself. Out of 780,000 maunds of salt 
manufactured there in 1905-06, nearly half was consumed 
within it. The balance was sent to Vizagapatam, Kistna, the 
Central Provinces and Orissa. The exports by sea used 
formerly to include large quantities sent to Rangoon ; but in 
recent years cheap salt, mostly from Germany, has reached 
that town and reduced prices to a stage which leaves no 
profit on this trade. When the stock of Bombay salt is short, 
salt is sometimes exported from Cocanada to Calcutta, In 
1903-04 about 126,000 maunds were sent there; but this figure 
is quite exceptional, and the exports by sea rarely exceed 
50,000 maunds in all- 

The supply of salt to the French Settlement of Yanam is 
governed by the rules which apply to the other French 


Settlements in this Presidency. Under a treaty of 1815 CHAP. xil. 
between France and England, modified by two subsequent Salt. 
conventions entered into in 1818 and 1837 between the Govern- 
ments of Madras and the French Possessions,^ it was agreed 
that the French, in consideration of an annual payment, should 
undertake to manufacture no salt in their territories, that the 
Madras Government should supply them with such salt as they 
required ' for domestic use and consumption ' at cost price, 
and that they should retail this ' at nearly the same price ' as 
it fetches in adjoining British territory. 

In Godavari, as elsewhere, fish-curing yards have been Fish-curing 
established in which salt is sold at a little over cost price for ^^' ^' 
use in the curing of fish caught in the sea. There are four of 
these; namely, at Coringa, Gudarugunta (near Cocanada), 
Uppada (near Pithapuram) and Konappapeta, further north up 
the coast. At least three-quarters of the fish cured are small. 
The larger kinds chiefly include mango fish, sharks and 
skates. The demand for salted fish is great and exceeds the 
supply, though the method of curing is primitive if not inade- 
quate. Prices, however, are kept down by the merchants, who 
make the fishermen advances and so have them in their power. 

Salt-earth is at present declared to be contraband only in Contraband 
the Pithapuram and Tuni divisions, certain villages in the 
Totapalli zamindari in Peddapuram taluk, the Cocanada and 
Nagaram taluks, and the Amalapuram taluk less the division 
under the deputy tahsildar of Kottapeta. Elsewhere the 
saline soils are neither plentiful enough nor rich enough in 
salt to constitute a danger to the revenue. The Salt Act is 
not in force in the Agency, but no saline earths exist there 
and the supply of salt is all obtained from the low country. 
No saltpetre is made in the district, either crude or refined. 
The abkari revenue consists of that derived from arrack, abka'ri and 
toddy, foreign liquor and hemp-drugs. Statistics regarding Opium. 
each of these items, and also concerning opium, will be found 
in the separate Appendix. 

The arrack revenue is managed on what is known as the Arrack, 
contract distillery supply system, under which the contract 
for the exclusive privilege of the manufacture and supply of 
country spirit in the district is disposed of by tender, an 
excise duty is levied on the spirit issued from the contractor's 
distillery or warehouse, and the right of retail sale in licensed 
shops is sold separately by auction every year. Wholesale 
vend depots are opened by the contractor at places fixed by 
the Collector, and the number of retail shops is definitely 
limited. The rates at which the spirit should be sold to the 

1 The first two of these papers are printed in extenso in Aitchison's 
Treaties, etc. (1892), viii, 214-22. 

1 84 



Abkari and 

Arrack in 


retail vendors are fixed by Government and embodied in the 
terms of the contract. The contract is held at present by 
Messrs. Parry & Co., Managers of the Deccan Sugar and 
Abkari Co.'s distillery at Samalkot,^ who make the spirit at 
that distillery from molasses. 

The consumption of arrack in Godavari, when compared 
with that in other districts in which the still-head duty is the 
same (Rs. 4-6 per gallon of proof spirit), is moderate. In 
1903-04 the average incidence of the arrack revenue per head 
of population in the district as formerly constituted was 
as. 2-7 against as. 3-11 in the then Kistna district, as. 2-1 in 
Nellore, and 3 annas in the Presidency as a whole. 

Up to [900 the arrack consumed in the district was made 
from toddy and on the out-still system. The change to the 
spirit made from molasses in the distillery, which was dearer 
than the other and had a less popular flavour, caused a fall in 
the consumption and revenue (which however was more than 
counterbalanced by a rise in the revenue from toddy) and also 
offered a strong temptation to illicit distillation. The con- 
sumption of the molasses arrack, however, is now steadily 
increasing, and it would seem that the vigilance of the 
protective staff of the Salt and Abkari department has resulted 
in the transition from the one system to the other being safely 
tided over. 

In the Agency, the arrack revenue is differently adminis- 
tered. Three systems are in force ; namely, the ordinary 
excise system, the nominal fee system, and the out-still and 
shop system. 

The Abkari Act I of 1886 has been extended to 47 villages 
in Yellavaram, Chodavaram and Polavaram — chiefly the more 
civilized villages near the plains — and the excise system has 
been introduced into 30 of these — two in Yellavaram, four in 
Chodavaram and 24 in Polavaram. 

In the rest of the Agency only the old Abkari Act (III of 
^864) is in operation, and the abkari administration is in the 
hands of the Revenue officials. Outside Chodavaram, the 
second of the two systems above mentioned is in force in the 
Koya and Reddi villages, the inhabitants of which are allowed 
to make arrack for their own consumption on payment of a 
nominal fee of two annas a head per annum for every male 
over fourteen years of age. The rules require that the village 
headman should take out the license and make and supply 
arrack to the Koya and Reddi residents, but in practice no 
actual license is granted. In Chodavaram little abkari 
revenue is derived from the muttas, since a toddy tax (chiguni- 
pannu) is supposed to be included in the quit-rent levied from 

' See Chapter VI, p. iii. 


the muttadars ; but the out-still system is in force in some of 
the muttas. 

In all parts of the Agency in which neither of the afore- 
mentioned systems is in force, the arrack revenue is managed 
on the out-still system, whereby the right both to make and to 
sell arrack in licensed premises is sold annually by auction. 

In Bhadrachalam the arrack is distilled from the flowers of 
the ippa (Bassia latifolia) tree, but elsewhere in the Agency 
from toddy. 

In the plains, the toddy revenue is now managed on the 
usual tree-tax system, under which a tax is levied on every 
tree tapped and the right to open retail shops is sold every 
year to the highest bidder. The toddy is nearly all drawn 
from date and palmyra palms, the number of each of these 
which is tapped being about equal. Date toddy is used from 
October to the end of January and from July to September, 
when palmyra toddy is scarce. The toddy-drawers are 
generally of the Idiga and Gamalla castes. 

A fair number of trees are tapped for sweet juice in the 
delta taluks, since the demand for jaggery at the Samalkot 
distillery and sugar factory is very large. Many more are 
tapped in the western delta lately transferred to the Kistna 
district. Licenses have to be taken out for tapping for sweet 
juice. The low price of jaggery formerly retarded the 
industry ; but recently (probably owing to the effect of the 
countervailing duties on sugar) the price has risen from Rs. 14 
per candy of 500 lb. to Rs. 21 or Rs. 22, and this may result in 
an extension of sweet-juice tapping. The tappers, however, 
are very usually in debt to capitalists from whom they have 
received advances, and are perhaps not likely to benefit much 

In the Agency, the tree-tax system is in force in the 30 
villages already mentioned where the excise system of arrack 
administration has been introduced, but elsewhere no separate 
revenue is derived from toddy. Toddy is drawn by the hill 
people from date, palmyra and sago (Caryota iircns) palm trees. 

Six taverns have been opened in Rajahmundry and Coca- 
nada for the sale of foreign liquor to be consumed on the 
premises. The right to sell in them is disposed of annually 
by auction. In the Agency, a few shops have been opened on 
payment of fixed fees. 

The sale of opium, preparations of the hemp plant and 
poppy-heads is controlled under the system usual elsewhere. 
Supplies are obtained from the Government storehouses. 
There is an opium storehouse at Rajahmundry, the only one 
in the Presidency outside Madras. Licenses for wholesale 


Abkari and 



Toddy in the 


Opium and 
hemp -drugs. 




Abkaki and 

In the 


vend depots are issued by the Collector on payment of a fee 
of Rs. 15 per annum, and retail shops are sold annually by 
auction. The retail price of opium is fixed by Government at 
2^ tolas for a rupee. 

The amount of opium consumed is very large. In the old 
Godavari district the average consumption per head of the 
population in 1903-04 was '619 tola against *o82 tola in the 
Presidency as a whole, and the incidence of the revenue was 
2 as. 2 ps. per head against 4 ps. for the whole Presidency. It 
has been suggested that smuggling to Burma (most difficult to 
prevent) is responsible for much of this abnormal consumption. 
Parcels of opium sent by post from this district were seized 
in Rangoon in 1902-03 and previous years, and the many 
emigrants who goto Rangoon from Cocanada are believed to 
smuggle the drug with them. The Rangoon authorities have 
been particularly on the alert recently. Another explanation 
is that opium is used in the district as a prophylactic against 
malaria ; but against this is the fact that the drug is not 
consumed more largely in the malarious than in the healthy 


The consumption of hemp-drugs per head of the population 
is smaller in Godavari than usual. In 1903-04 the incidence 
of revenue in the old Godavari district per head per annum 
was one pie against two pies in the Presidency as a whole. 

In the Agency, the villages to which Act I of 1886 has been 
applied are supplied with ganja from two shops in Polavaram 
which get their stock from the plains. Elsewhere there are 
no restrictions on the cultivation of ganja ; but as a fact it is 
little grown or consumed. There are a few opium shops. 
They are supplied from Rajahmundry and are managed in 
the ordinary manner, but by the Revenue department instead 
of by the abkari authorities. 

Under native rule, and even in the early years of British 
administration, land-customs were levied at frequent stations 
along the main lines of communication, and had the most 
baneful effects upon trade. In their report of 1787, the Circuit 
Committee ^ wrote :— 

' Numerous chowkis are placed on all the roads, where, besides the 
zamindars' dues, many russooms are exacted, which is the cause of 
much vexation and inconvenience to the trader. The enormous 
duties exacted on teak deserve particular notice. From Polavaram 
to Yanam they amount to 200 per cent. That carried by the Narasa- 
pur liranch pays 250 per cent, at nine places. Hence teak timber is 
frequently brought from Pegu at a cheaper rate than can be afforded 
by the merchants who trade in this article to Rekapalle,' 

1 See Chapter XI, p. 162. 


The only land-customs now collected are those on goods CHAP. XTI. 
passing into the district from the French Settlement of Customs. 
Yanam. These are levied at two stations (chowkis) estab- 
lished at Nilapalli and Injaram, on the east and west 
frontiers of the Yanam Settlement. The tariff of rates in 
force is the same as that for sea-borne imports from foreign 
countries. The only articles which are ever charged an 
export duty in this Presidency are paddy and rice ; and by 
an arrangement entered into many years ago the export of 
these to Yanam, in quantities sufficient for the consumption of 
its inhabitants, is permitted free of duty. 

There is only one considerable port in the district, that of Sea-customs. 
Cocanada, and there a regular sea-customs etablishment is 
maintained. Coringa is also open to foreign trade, but the 
business done is very small. The sea-customs work is super- 
vised by the ordinary establishment of the Salt, Abkari and 
Customs department. The small sub-ports of Uppada and 
Bendamurlanka are open only to coasting trade. 

The Income-tax Act does not apply to the Agency tracts. Income-tax. 
Figures for the rest of the district will be found in the 
separate Appendix to this volume. The incidence of the tax 
per head of the population in the present district in the trien- 
nium ending 1904-05 was as high as one anna six pies, 
against 10/^ pies in the mufassal districts as a whole. Madura 
and the exceptional case of the Nilgiris were the only areas 
in which the figure was higher. Of the various taluks, the 
incidence was highest in Tuni, Cocanada and Rajahmundry, 
and lowest in Pithapuram and Ramachandrapuram. The 
great wealth of the delta taluks comes from agricultural 
pursuits, the income from which is not liable to tax, and the 
incidence in several of these is low. 

The revenue from stamps is very large in proportion to the Stamps. 
population, the receipts per mille of the inhabitants from 
judicial stamps being higher in only two other districts and 
those from non-judicial stamps in only four others. Of the 
total stamp revenue, by far the largest amount is paid by the 
Cocanada and Rajahmundry taluks, owing no doubt to the 
existence of the Judge's and Sub-Judge's courts at their 
head-quarters. Considerable contributions are also made by 
Amalapuram and Peddapuram, and, to a less extent, by 
Ramachandrapuram. In the Agency, the revenue from 
stamps is exceedingly small, especially in Yellavaram and 
Chodavaram. The Collector (and, during his absence from 
head-quarters, the Treasury Deputy Collector) have been 
empowered to affix impressed labels to documents presented 
by the public. 






Under native 

Under the 
Chiefs and 

Early Methods — Under native rule — Under the Chiefs and Councils. The 
Present System — In the plains — In the Agency. Civil Justice — Exist- 
ing Courts— Amount of litigation — Registration. Criminal Justice — The 
various Courts — Crime — The Yanadis or Nakkalas — Other criminal classes. 
Police — J'ormer systems— The existing force, jails. 

Under native rule, and also in the early days of British 
administration, the regular courts of justice were few. The 
Committee of Circuits,^ in its report of December 1/86, 
describes as follows the system which was in force: — 

' During the Mogul Government there were courts of justice 
established at Rajahmundry and Ellore, where Kazis administered 
justice according to Muhammadan law. The Foujidars - reserved 
to themselves the infliction of capital punishments and the determina- 
tion on causes of considerable property. There was also at each 
place a Cutval (kotwal) with an establishment of peons to superintend 
the police, and a Nurkee whose duty it was to regulate the price of 

' Of these nothing but the names remain, and the inhabitants are 
without any Courts of Justice. Trifling disputes are settled by the 
Karnams and head inhabitants. Matters of greater consequence are 
referred to the Renter or the Chief and Council ; but the distance at 
which some of the farms are from the seat of Government renders an 
appeal to the latter troublesome and expensive. For heinous crimes 
(which are seldom perpetrated) the only imprisonment at present 
inflicted by cur Government is confinement of the culprit's person.' 

In the early days of British rule the only civil court having 
any jurisdiction within the district was that of the Chief and 
Council at Masulipatam, and the activities of this were con- 
fined almost exclusively to the limits of Masulipatam town 
and factory. ' Of criminal jurisdiction there was none. 
There was no law providing for the infliction of death or 
any other penalty. . . . The Chiefs in Council had very 
little authority in their districts ; and of course every zamin- 
dar could interfere in the direct administration of justice.' 
A brief but vivid picture of the lawlessness which naturally 

1 See Chapter XI, p. 162. 

^ I.e.y The Faujdars, sometimes called also Nawabs, who were in charge of 
each of the five Northern Circars. 



resulted from this state of things is afforded by a contempo- 
rary account of the condition in 1789 of the port of Coringa, 
then a busy place. There, owing to the number of ships and 
sailors that visited the port and the ' general want of police,' 
fighting, thefts and murder were common. ' When any 
wrong is done the injured party has no one of sufficient 
authority to apply to for redress. Every one here is judge 
of his own cause. The Honorable Company's Resident lives 
at Comprapollam (Sunkarpalaiyam near Injaram), eight miles 
off ; and when applied to on such occasions urges want of 
due authority to remedy abuses and to take cognizance of 
offences.' ^ 

The beginning of the last century witnessed a salutary 
change in the state of things. The supine Chiefs and 
Councils had been replaced in 1794 by Collectors ; and in 
1802 Lord Cornwallis' system of judicial administration was 
introduced into this Presidency and a Zilla Court was estab- 
lished at Rajahmundry. It was subordinate to a peripatetic 
Provincial Court at Masulipatam, the judges of which used to 
come on circuit from time to time and hold criminal sessions. 
In the same year (1802) native commissioners were appointed 
to hear petty civil suits. A few years later they received the 
designation of district munsifs, which, though their powers 
have been much increased, they still bear. In 1827 Auxiliary 
Courts were established and native judges (later called 
Principal Sudder Amins) were appointed with extensive 
authority. In 1843 the Zilla and Provincial Courts were 
abolished and a Civil and a Subordinate Court were created 
in their stead at Rajahmundry. The latter was abolished in 
1859; but in 1873, when the existing District Courts Act 
became law, the name of Subordinate Courts was given, as 
elsewhere, to the courts of the Principal Sudder Amins, and 
the chief court in the district was designated the District 
and Sessions Court. The Sub-Court at Rajahmundry was 
temporarily abolished in 1877. 

In the Agency, both civil and criminal justice are 
differently administered- This tract consists of the deputy 
tahsildars' divisions of Polavaram, Yellavaram and Choda- 
varam and the taluk of Bhadrachalam, all of which are 
remote tracts covered with hill and jungle, sparsely provided 
with communications, shunned by the dwellers in the plains, 
and inhabited by backward tribes who are most illiterate 
and ignorant of the ways of the world, and yet ready to go 
out on the warpath if once any of their many peculiar 



In the 

In the 

'■ Selections from the Records of tlic Madras Govcrnvient (Madras, 1855), 
xix, 24. 


CHAP. XIII. susceptibilities are wounded. In country, and to people, such 
"^"^ as these, much of the ordinary law of the land is unsuited, 

SvsTEM. and a special system has consequently been introduced. 

A precedent existed in the case of the Agencies of Vizaga- 
patam and Ganjam, In consequence of the unceasing 
turbulence in them which led at length to the appointment, 
in 1832, of a Special Commissioner, with special powers, to 
restore order, these two tracts were excluded, by Act XXIV 
of 1839, from the operation of much of the ordinary law and 
were placed under the direct administration of the Collectors 
of those districts, who were endowed with special and extra- 
ordinary powers within them in their capacity as ' Agents to 
the Governor.' 

A similar method of administration was extended to the 
greater part of the present Godavari Agency in 1879, advant- 
age being taken of the Scheduled Districts Act (India Act 
XIV of 1874) to constitute an Agency in the then Bhadrachalam 
and Rekapalle taluks, which make up the present Bhadra- 
chalam taluk, and 'the Rampa country,' which is practically 
the present Chodavaram division. 

The Agency thus formed has been three times extended ; 
namely, in 1881, when the muttas of Dutcharti and Guditeru 
(now in Yellavaram division) were transferred to it from the 
Vizagapatam Agency ; in 1883,^ when the villages of the 
resumed mansab of Jaddangi and large portions of the 
Polavaram division were added ; and in 1891,- when the Pola- 
varam and Yellavaram divisions attained substantially their 
present shape. 

In the Agency thus constituted the Collector of the district, 
in his capacity as Government Agent, is both District 
Magistrate and District and Sessions Judge; the tahsildar 
and deputy tahsildars have minor civil jurisdiction within 
their respective charges, corresponding (with certain modifi- 
cations) to that of district munsifs ; and the Agency Deputy 
Collector of Polavaram and the Divisional Officer at Bhadra- 
chalam, in their capacity as Assistant Agents, hear appeals 
from them and have powers similar to those of Subordinate 
Judges. The tahsildars and deputy tahsildars (and the taluk 
sarishtadar at Bhadrachalam) are second-class magistrates, 
and the Divisional Officers, as elsewhere, are first-clags 
magistrates ; but appeals from the decisions of the latter 
lie to the Collector as Agency Sessions Judge. The village 
munsifs have the ordinary crimmal, but no civil, powers. The 

■■■ See notification in the Gazette of India for 1883, i, 265. 
2 See notification in the Gazette of India for 1891, i, 248. 


procedure in civil suits is not governed by the usual Civil chap. Xlii. 

Procedure Code, but by a simpler set of rules framed under The 

section 6 of the Scheduled Districts Act. Rules under this sysTj^y 

same enactment have also been drawn up for the guidance of 

the Agent in other branches of the administration. 

Outside the Agency, the civil tribunals of the district are Civil 


of the usual four grades ; namely, the courts of village and Existing 
district munsifs, the Sub-Court and the District Court. Courts. 

District munsifs' courts have been established at Rajah- 
mundry, Cocanada, Peddapuram and Amalapuram. That at 
Amalapuram has a heavier file than any of the others. 

The Sub-Court is stationed at Cocanada. It was estab- 
lished in 1874. Another Sub-Court was in existence at 
Rajahmundry for a few months in 1895 ; began regularly 
working there in 1903 ; but was abolished in 1905. 

The District Court is held at Rajahmundry. Before the 
district was reduced in size by the transfer to Kistna of the 
taluks south of the Godavari, the file of this court was very 
heavy. In 1902 the number of suits instituted in, and of 
appeals disposed of by, it was greater than in any other 
District Court in the Presidency. 

As in other wealthy districts, the amount of litigation in Amount of 
Godavari is great. In 1902, in the district as then constituted ^^^g^^^'o'^- 
but excluding the Agency, more suits were instituted per unit 
of the population than in any other in the Presidency excepting 
Tanjore, North Malabar and Tinnevelly. In the Agency, on 
the other hand, litigation is rarer than in any other tract in 
Madras except the Agencies of Vizagapatam and Ganjam. 

The registration of assurances is effected in the usual Registration, 
manner. A District Registrar is stationed at Cocanada and 
sixteen sub-registrars are located at Rajahmundry ; at Amala- 
puram, Kottapeta and Mummidivaram in Amalapuram taluk ; 
at Razole in Nagaram ; at Peddapuram and Prattipadu in 
Peddapuram ; at Ramachandrapuram, Draksharamam, Alamur 
and Bikkavolu in Ramachandrapuram; at Cocanada and 
Coringa in Cocanada taluk ; and at Polavaram, Pithapuram 
and Tuni. There are no sub-registrars in the Chodavaram or 
Yellavaram Agency tracts but in Bhadrachalam the Registra- 
tion Act was extended to certain villages in 1906 and the 
taluk sheristadar acts as sub-registrar. 

The criminal tribunals are of the same classes as elsewhere. Criminal 
The village magistrates have the usual powers, both within Justice. 
and outside the Agency. Bench Courts, invested with third- The various 

•=■ -' ' . Courts. 

class powers to try offences under the Towns Nuisances Act, 
the Municipalities Act and the conservancy clauses of the 






The Yanadis 
or Nakkalas, 

Police Act, have been established at Rajahmundry and 
Cocanada. The latter also tries cases of assault and volun- 
tarily causing hurt under the Penal Code. 

All the tahsildars and deputy tahsildars in the district have 
second-class magisterial powers, but in Amalapuram, Coca- 
nada, Peddapuram, Rajahmundry and Ramachandrapuram 
there are stationary sub-magistrates, and the tahsildars of 
these taluks hear few cases. At Bhadrachalam, also, there is 
a second-class magistrate in addition to the tahsildar. Deputy 
tahsildars with second-class magisterial powers are stationed 
at Kottapeta in Amalapuram taluk, Coringa in Cocanada taluk, 
Prattipadu in Peddapuram taluk and Alamur in Ramachan- 
drapuram and independent deputy tahsildars with similar 
authority at Pithapuram and Tuni. As elsewhere, appeals 
from the second-class magistrates, and practically the whole of 
the first-class cases arising in the district, are decided by the 
Divisional Officers, who are severally stationed at Cocanada, 
Peddapuram, Rajahmundry, Polavaram, and Bhadrachalam. 
The District Magistrate and the Sessions Judge have the 
usual jurisdiction, except that, as already mentioned, the 
latter has no powers in the Agency, his place in that area 
being taken by the District Magistrate. 

Godavari occupies a rather unenviable position among the 
Madras districts in respect of the total amount of registered 
crime which occurs within it, but a very large proportion of 
the offences committed are common thefts, and another con- 
siderable percentage are simple house-breakings. In crime 
of the graver kinds — robberies, dacoities and murders — its 
position is not exceptional, and indeed dacoities are rare 
outside Polavaram. 

The nearest approach to a criminal tribe is afforded by the 
Yanadis or Nakkalas. These people are called indifferently 
by either of these two names, though they themselves resent 
the appellation Nakkala. This word seems to be derived 
from nakka, a jackal, since the tribe is expert in catching these 
animals and eats them. The Nakkalas are generally of slight 
physique, dark of complexion and very dirty in their habits. 
At Pithapuram there are some of them who are more strongly 
built and perhaps spring from a different strain. On the 
register of criminal gangs kept by the police there are at the 
present time 114 men, 121 women and 236 children belonging 
to this caste. The most troublesome sections of them are 
those in the Ramachandrapuram and Peddapuram taluks. 

The Nakkalas are by nature wanderers and dwellers in 
fields and scrub jungle, who make a scanty living by catching 
jackals, hares, rats and tortoises, by gathering honey, and by 





finding the caches of grain stored up by field-mice. To 
people with such slender means of subsistence the gains of 
petty pilfering offer a strong temptation ; but the Nakkalas 
seldom commit any of the bolder kinds of crime, though now 
and again they have been known to rise to burglary, more 
rarely to robbery, and sometimes even to dacoity. Of late 
years most of them have settled down permanently in villages. 
They live in very small huts made of palmyra-leaves. They 
add to their earnings from their hereditary occupations the 
wages to be earned by light cooly work in the villages, and 
are consequently looked upon by the rest of the community 
as rather an acquisition when cheap labour is in demand. 
They are sometimes employed as horse-keepers by subordi- 
nate officials ; and their women are very useful as sweepers, 
since, though they are exceedingly dirty in their persons, they 
are not considered to carry ceremonial pollution. If treated 
well, they live in this hand-to-mouth fashion and 'give no 
trouble to the authorities, and their present unfortunate noto- 
riety as a criminal tribe is largely due to the performances of 
one notorious gang of them in Ramachandrapuram taluk. 
This gang, led first by one well-known criminal and later by 
another, consisted of about fifteen men and lived an entirely 
nomadic life, subsisting on the proceeds of its thefts and 
burglaries. It has now been broken up, ten of its members 
being in jail (most of them on long sentences) and the others, 
with one exception, being in hiding ; and probably the crimi- 
nal propensities of the Nakkalas will henceforth be less in 

Three other classes of people, namely, some of the Malas, Other 
the 'Pachayappas,' and the 'Peddinti Gollas,' have pronounced criminal 
criminal tendencies. Two small sets of Malas in the central 
delta (one in the limits of Kottapeta station, and the other in 
those of Nagaram station) have a decided turn for burglary. 
A number of convictions are on record against them. The 
Pachayappas consist of six wandering gangs, containing 68 
registered male members, who are constantly on the move 
and are under police supervision. They originally came from 
the direction of Guntiir. They ostensibly live by begging, 
but there is little doubt that the proceeds of crime contribute 
to maintain the men in the robust condition they exhibit and 
to support the crowd of children who belong to them. Cases 
are from time to time established against them, and some of 
them have been convicted of burglary and theft. The Ped- 
dinti Gollas comprise four gangs who appeared in the district 
in 1902. They are said to have come from Kurnool, and to 








The existing 

have committed a large dacoity in Kistna. Only thirteen 
male members of these now remain. 

Up to the time of the permanent settlement in l802, such 
police as existed were under the orders of the renters and 
zamindars, and were in some cases remunerated by grants 
of land on favourable tenure. In the larger towns kotwals 
with separate establishments were maintained. At the per- 
manent settlement, the zamindars' control over the police was 
withdrawn, and Government assumed the responsibility of 
enforcing law and order. In the hill country, which was 
excluded from the permanent settlement, the muttadars were, 
however, still expected to keep order within their muttas, 
and this responsibility is even now insisted upon. The 
muttadars of Chodavaram and Yellavaram are bound by 
their sanads to ' afford every assistance to the Sircar in main- 
taining quiet and order, by giving timely information of any 
disturbance or offence against the laws, and apprehending 
and delivering up to the authorities robbers, rebels and other 
bad characters.' ^ As a matter of fact they perform this 
service indifferently, and are of little use in suppressing or 
detecting crime. 

The existing police force, which like that in other districts 
was constituted by Act XXIV of 1859, is in charge of a District 
Superintendent stationed at Rajahmundry, aided by an 
Assistant Superintendent at Bhadrachalam who has immediate 
control over the police in the Agency. 

Statistics of the force, and of its distribution among the 
various taluks, will be found in the separate Appendix. A 
reserve about one hundred strong under an inspector and two 
sergeants is maintained at Rajahmundry, and consists of 
picked men, better armed and drilled than the others, who are 
qualified to deal with disturbances. As a rule the inspectors' 
divisions are included within the limits of only one taluk or 
revenue division, but a few unimportant exceptions occur. 
Dowlaishweram in Rajahmundry taluk, for example, is includ- 
ed in the limits of the Alamur station, and Pithapuram lies 
entirely in the Siiriyaraopeta (Cocanada) police division. 

Besides the regular police, there are 477 talaiyaris or rural 
constables, who, as in other districts, are required to afford 
help to the police, especially by reporting the presence of 
suspects within their villages and the occurrence of crime, and 
by aiding in the detection of offences committed within their 
limits. They are reported to be of little real assistance. 

^ See Chapter XI, p. 177. 


At Chodavaram is located the Special Hill Reserve, who CHAP, xiil 
are armed with Martini-Henry rifles and are kept up primarily Police. 
to cope with any overt disturbances which may occur in the 
wild Agency country. They number about 40 men, are in 
charge of the divisional inspector, and perform the ordinary 
duties of the station. 

At Rajahmundry is one of the eight Central Jails of the Jails 
Presidency. It was established in 1864, is constructed on the 
radiating principle, and will hold 1,089 criminal, and 20 civil, 
prisoners. Cellular accommodation has been provided for 400 
convicts, and the rest are kept in wards. The convicts are 
employed in a variety of industries, manufacturing, among 
other articles, carpets, coarse woollen blankets, sandals, tin 
and brass work, furniture of various kinds, and fabrics woven 
from cotton, such as sheeting, rugs, table-cloths, napkins, 
etc. Fly shuttles are used in some of the looms. They enable 
double the ordinary quantity of work to be accomplished, but 
have not yet been rendered suitable for the finer fabrics. 

Thirteen sub-jails exist in the district ; namely, one at 
each of the taluk head-quarters and at the deputy tahsil- 
dars' stations of Alamur (Ramachandrapuram taluk), Kotta- 
peta (Amalapuram), Prattipadu (Peddapuram), Pithapuram, 
Tuni and Polavaram. These have accommodation for 1 86 
prisoners in all. 





The Local 

The Local Boards— The Unions — Finances of the Boards. The Two Muni- 
cipalities — Cocanada municipality — Rajahmundry municipality. 

Outside the two municipalities of Cocanada and Rajah- 
mundry referred to below, and excluding Bhadrachalam taluk 
in the Agency, local affairs (roads, hospitals, schools and 
sanitation) are in the hands of the District Board and four 
taluk boards subordinate to it. The areas in charge of these 
latter have been changed from time to time, and the most 
recent alteration was effected in April 1905. The four boards 
are now those of Cocanada, in charge of the Cocanada taluk 
and the Pithapuram and Tuni divisions ; Peddapuram, with 
jurisdiction over the taluks of Peddapuram and Ramachandra- 
puram ; Rajahmundry, comprising the Rajahmundry, Amala- 
puram and Nagaram taluks ; and Polavaram, which adminis- 
ters matters in the Agency divisions of Polavaram, Choda- 
varam and Yellavaram. 

Prior to 1902 none of the Agency tracts were included 
within the operation of the Local Boards Act, and the roads, 
educational and medical institutions, and sanitation within 
them were in charge of the Revenue authorities, aided by 
advice from the Public Works and other expert departments. 
In 1902 the whole of the Agency as it then existed was 
brought under the Act ; but in 19O5 ' Bhadrachalam was with- 
drawn again from its operation and is to be managed hence- 
forth on the same system as was in force before 1902. The 
taluk is remote, thinly-populated and covered with jungle ; and 
the income derivable within it from the ordinary sources of 
taxation provided for by the Local Boards Act is quite insuffi- 
cient to meet the expenditure which is necessary. Heavy 
contributions towards its local needs have consequently always 
been made from Provincial funds. The same state of things 
exists in the three Agency divisions which make up the charge 
of the present Polavaram taluk board, and a similar contri- 
bution to its exchequer has been necessary to save it from 

^ See G.O. No. 227 L., dated 27th February 1905. 



Fifteen of the larger towns in the district have been consti- 
tuted unions with the usual powers and functions. These are 
Dowlaishweram, Amalapuram and Kottapeta under the 
Rajahmundry taluk board; Peddapuram, Jagapatinagaram, 
Yelesvaram, Jaggampeta, Ramachandrapuram, Drakshara- 
mam, Mandapeta and Bikkavolu under the Peddapuram board ; 
and Gollamamidada, Samalkot, Pithapuram and Tuni under 
the taluk board of Cocanada. The chief item in their receipts 
is (as elsewhere) the house-tax, which is everywhere levied at 
the maximum rates. The average tax per house for 1905-06 
is estimated to work out to As. I2-L 

The separate Appendix to this volume contains statistics 
of the receipts and expenditure of the various local boards. 
The chief source of income is, as usual, the land cess, which 
is levied at the ordinary rate of one anna in every rupee of the 
land assessment. The chief item of expenditure is the upkeep 
of the roads and the medical and educational institutions. 
These have already been referred to in Chapters VII, IX, and 
X respectively. 

The only two municipal towns are Cocanada and Rajah- 
mundry. In the separate Appendix appear particulars of the 
receipts and expenditure of their councils. 

Cocanada was one of the municipalities established under 
the first regular municipal act (Madras Act X of 1865) and the 
council was constituted in 1866. It now consists of twenty 
members of whom eight are nominated and twelve elected. 
The privilege of electing its own chairman was conferred 
upon the council in 1886, was withdrawn in 1893, but was 
restored again in 1897. The appointment of a paid secretary 
was sanctioned in 1899. He is selected by the municipal 
council subject to the approval of Government. 

Several considerable permanent improvements have been 
effected in the town by the municipality. First in importance 
come the Victoria water-works, which were completed in June 
1903. The water is obtained from the Samalkot canal, and a 
large reservoir to contain two months' supply has been exca- 
vated in the water-works premises. The scheme was designed 
to supply 400,000 gallons of water per diem (at the rate of 10 
gallons per head of the population of the town) and the supply 
is expected to be perennial. The water is drawn from the 
reservoir just mentioned through filter beds into a second 
reservoir, and is thence distributed throughout the town by 
cast-iron pipes and fountains. Three Worthington engines 
of 10 horse power each are employed in the works. The cost 
of the scheme was estimated at Rs. 4,66,200, but actually 


The Local 

The Unions, 

Finances of 
the Boards. 

The Two 






The Two 

dry munici- 

amounted to only Rs. 4,44,800. Of this sum Rs. 1,44,500 were 
lent by Government. The scheme was carried out by the 
Public Works department. 

Other permanent improvements effected by the council are 
the construction, at an outlay of Rs. 18,137, of the bridge across 
the Yeleru ; the revetting of the harbour creek for a length of 
some 270 yards at a cost of Rs. 8,000 in 1902-03 and the recla- 
mation and laying out of a considerable strip of ground 
formerly covered by the creek ; the building of three public 
markets, the two larger of which cost Rs. 15,000; and the 
erection of two slaughter-houses costing Rs. 4,000 and of three 
municipal school-houses at an average cost of some Rs. 1,500 
apiece. The clock tower near the bridge was constructed by 
a private gentleman some 20 years ago, but the municipality 
contributed Rs. 1,000 to its erection and it now has charge of 
the building. 

No drainage scheme has yet been prepared for Cocanada, 
but a portion of the town is served by the main sewer leading 
into the harbour creek which was constructed by the Public 
Works department at a cost of Rs. 10,000 out of Provincial 
funds some years ago. Some smaller branch drains lead into 
this, and the municipality has kept both these and the main 
sewer in repair at considerable cost. 

The council's chief contributions to the medical and educa- 
tional institutions within the town include the aiding of ten 
primary schools, the management of a lower secondary and 
twelve more primary schools, and the upkeep of a hospital 
and dispensary. 

The municipality at Rajahmundry was also founded 
in 1866. The council originally consisted of ten members, 
but since 1895 the number has been eighteen. The right of 
electing some of the members was granted in 1884, and 
twelve councillors and the chairman are now appointed by 
election. A paid secretary was first entertained in 1897-98. 
He is selected by the council, subject to the approval of 

Very few permanent improvements of any magnitude 
have been executed by the municipality. Drinking-water is 
obtained from the Godavari river and the Kambala tank, and 
nothing of note has been done from municipal funds to 
improve the supply. Similarly no considerable improvement 
in the drainage has been eifected or worked out. Three 
markets have been constructed and two slaughter-houses. A 
choultry founded in 1873 by Mr. H. Morris, a former Judge, 
and called by his name was completed by the municipality 


in 1874 at a cost of Rs. 1,500, A rest-house for homeless chaP- XIV. 
poor has been constructed at an outlay of Rs. 500, and The two 
additions are being made to it in order to accommodate lepers Municipali- 

" ^ TIES- 

and persons suffering from other incurable diseases. 

The council has partly supported the hospital in the town 
since 1871, and keeps up four upper primary, four lower pri- 
mary, and one lower secondary school. It also maintains the 
Morris choultry, two other small institutions called the 
Kambham and Durbha choultries, and a travellers' bungalow. 
Government have sanctioned Rs. l6,000 for revetting the 
river bank to prevent further erosion, which was becoming 
alarming, and a bund to protect the town from inundation 
during heavy floods is in contemplation. 




Amai.apuram Taluk — Ainalapuram — Ambajipeta— Ayinavalli — Band^rulanka — 
Bendamurlanka — Gaiinavaram — Kesanakurru — Mandapalli — Muramalla — 
Palivela— Peniru — Rali — Vadapalli — Vanapalli — Vyagresvarapuram. CocA- 
Nada taluk— Bhimavaram— Chollangi — Cocanada — Coringa — Gollapalai- 
yam — Injaram — Nilapalli — Samalkot — Sarpavaram — Tallarevu — Yanam. 
N AGAR AM TALUK— Antarvedi — Jagannapeta— Kadali — Nagaram— Rajavolu— 
Sivakodu — Tatipaka. PeddapuRam taluk — Annavaram — Dharamallapuram 
— Jagammapeta — Kandrakota — Kattipudi — Kirlampiidi — Peddapuram — 
Prattipadu — Ragampeta — Rangampeta — Talluru — Totapalli — Viravaram — 
Yelesvaram. Pithapuram division — Chandurti — Koitapalli — Mulapeta — 
Pithapuram — Ponnada — Uppada. Rajahmundry taluk — Dowlaishweram — 
Gokavaram — Korukonda — Kottapalli — Rajahmundry. Ramachandrapuram 
TALUK — Bikkavolu — Draksharamam — Gangavaram — Kotipalli— Maredipaka 

— Ramachandrapuram— Ramaghattalu — Vegayammapeta. TuNi division — 
Eendapiidi — Hamsavaram — Kottapalli — Talluru — Tatipaka — Tetagunta — 
Tuni. Bhadrachalam taluk — Bhadrachalam — Dummagudem — Gundala 

— Kumarasvamigudem — Kunnavaram — Parnasala — Rekapalle — Sri Ramagiri. 
Chodavaram division — Bandapalli — Birampalli — Boduluru — Bolagonda — 
Chavala — Chidugiiru— Chodavaram — Chopakonda — Dandangi — Dorachinta- 
lapalem— Geddada — Kakuru— Kondamodalu — Kundada — Marrivada — Musu- 
rumilli — Nadunuru — Nimmalapalem — Palem -Pamuleru — Peta — Rampa — 
Sirigindalapadu— Tadapelli — Tunnuru — Vadapalli — Velagapalli — Valamuru 
— Vemulakonda. PoLAVARAM DIVISION — Gangolu - Giitala — Jangareddi- 
giidem — Pata Pattisam — Polavaram — Taduvayi. Yellavaram division — 
Addatigela — Anigeru — Dutcharti — Gurtedu — Jaddangi — Kota — Mohana- 
puram — Nelipudi — Pandrapole — Ramavaram — N'irabhadrapuram. 


CHAP. XV. AMALAPURAM taluk is a triangular island enclosed between 

Amalapu- the Vasishta, Vainateyam and Gautami^ branches of the 

^^ Godavari and the sea. With the smaller Nagaram island, 

which is similarly bounded, it comprises the whole of the 

central delta of the Godavari river. Statistics regarding it 

will be found in the separate Appendix to this volume. It is 

the most populous taluk in the district and the density of its 

inhabitants to the square mile (548) is well above the average 

of the plain taluks. Most of the wet land is irrigated by the 

central delta canal, but the area under wells, though not 

considerable, is far greater than in any other taluk Jn the 

district.^ Of the classified area, 87 per cent, is made up of 

1 See Chapter IV, p. 89. 



alluvial earth and the rest of arenaceous soils. The average CHAP. XV. 
rainfall is the highest in the district, namely 44'88 inches in amala- 
the year. pukam. 

The taluk is an agricultural area, and boasts few^ other 
industries. Devangas weave white cloths in fair quantities in 
several villages, but the industry has greatly declined since 
the days when Bendamurlanka was a busy port and one 
of the outlets for the great trade of the East India Company 
in cotton piece-goods. A large cattle-fair, known beyond the 
district, takes place at Ambajipeta. A number of places 
of local religious interest exist; but only two of these, namely 
Vanapalli and Vadapalli, are known much beyond the limits 
of the taluk. Periiru is the home of a class of Brahmans who 
have immigrated from the Tamil country and are called Kona 
Sima Dravidas. Relics of the Jains are found at Nedunuru 
and Atreyapuram ; and the large wells so common in the taluk 
are popularly ascribed to the followers of that creed. 

Amalapuram, the head-quarters of the taluk and a union, Amaiapuram. 
is situated on the main canal of the central delta 38 miles 
south-east of Rajahmundry. Population 9,510. It contains 
the offices of a tahsildar, sub-registrar, stationary sub-magis- 
trate and district munsif, a travellers' bungalow, a coronation 
rest-house for natives, a local fund hospital (founded 1880) and 
high school, and a police-station. 

Popular legends say that Amalapuram was the capital of 
the king of Panchala, the father-in-law of the Pandava 
brothers ; and the taluk is known throughout the district as 
the ' Panchala country.' Another name for it is the Kona Sima, 
or the ' end country. ' The town contains two temples of local 
repute. One was built for an idol of Venkatasvami which 
was found there some years ago by a man of the place, who, 
as usual, stated that he was told of its existence in a dream ; 
the other is a shrine to the serpent god, Subbarayudu, the 
festival at which, held in Margasiram (December-January) 
is fairly attended. A little weaving of white cloths goes on, 
counts as fine as 150s being used for the best work, and a 
little wood-carving of a good class. 

Ambajipeta : A hamlet of Machavaram (poi)ulation 5)66l) Ambajipeta. 
which lies five miles west by north of Amalapuram. Contains 
a police-station and is famous for its large cattle-fair, which 
is held every Wednesday and is visited even by buyers from 
other districts. The place is a centre for the manufacture of 
cocoanut ropes and oil, and a large number of general traders 
live there. 









Ayinavalli : Eight miles north of Amalapuram, population 
3,363. Its temple to the belly-god Siddhi Vinayaka is well 
known to the people of this and adjoining districts, and vows 
are frequently made therein, scarcely a day passing when 
pilgrims do not visit it to discharge their obligations by 
breaking cocoanuts before the god. The temple is supposed 
to have been built to propitiate the belly-god by Daksha, the 
father-in-law of Siva, before he performed the famous ydgafn 
at Draksharamam referred to in the account of that place on 
p. 250 below. " Ayinavalli is also well known to natives as the 
birth-place of two famous Sanskrit pandits, Bulusu Achayya 
and his son Papayya Sastri, who died not long ago. 

It has a hamlet called Muktesvaram ('the place of 
beatitude') or Kshana Muktesvaram (' the place of instan- 
taneous beatitude ') and the names are accounted for by a 
local legend. The wife of a sage, says this story, was 
seduced by some celestial being and cursed in consequence 
by her husband. She purified herself by a bath in the 
Godavari and took to a life of contemplation. Rama, when 
returning from Lanka, took compassion on her forlorn state 
and persuaded Siva to give her mtikti or beatitude, 

Bandarulanka : Four miles west by north of Amalapuram. 
Population 2,796. The village is known for the manufacture 
of excellent white cloths. Some 200 Devanga houses are 
engaged in the industry, and use thread of the finer counts, 
up to 130s. 

Bendamiirlanka : Twelve miles by road south-south-west 
of Amalapuram. It is a hamlet of Komaragiripatnam (popu- 
lation 5,757) and contains a police-station, a travellers' 
bungalow and a vernacular lower secondary school for girls. 
It is situated at the mouth of the Vainateyam branch of the 
Godavari, and was selected as the site of an English factory 
in 1751. This was seized without resistance by Bussy in 1757, 
but was recovered after the battle of Condore, It was once 
an important centre for the trade with Europe in cotton 
piece-goods. Bendamiirlanka is still technically a port ; but 
has no harbour and has not been visited by any ships for a 
long time. 

Gannavaram : Nine miles west by north of Amalapuram. 
Population 2,101. Contains a small market and a travellers' 
bungalow. It gives its name to the fine aqueduct which crosses 
the Vainateyam Godavari there and is described in Chapter 
IV. According to the local legend, it was at Gannavaram 
that the sage Vainateya stole some of the water of the Vasishta 
Godavari to make the river of his own which goes by his 



name. The sage Vasishta cursed the Vainateyam, and a bath chap. xv. 
in it is only sanctifying if taken on a Sunday. The lingam Amala- 

in the Siva temple is said to have been brought from the ; 

Nerbudda river by the kite Garuda, and the supposed marks 
of the bird's claws are pointed out on it. 

Kesanakurru : Eleven miles north-east of Amalapuram in a Kesanakurru. 
straight line. Population 3,556. A bath in its tank is supposed 
to confer religious merit. The sage Vyasa, who (see p. 250) 
is said to have founded Draksharamam, once, say the local 
legends, intended to establish a second Benares at Kesana- 
kurru ; but heard a voice saying ' Kasi nakuru,' ' do not make 
a Benares.' He accordingly founded Draksharamam instead; 
but Kesanakurru was named after the words of the divine 
warning, which have since become corrupted to their present 

Mandapalli : Fourteen miles north-west of Amalapuram. Mandapaiii. 
Population 542. The god at the Siva temple here, Mande- 
svara, is bathed in oil every Saturday ; and a common form of 
vow consists in a promise to provide the oil for this bath. 
Saturdays coinciding with the second day before full-moon 
day are particularly propitious for the fulfilment of this vow- 

Muramalla : Thirteen miles north-east of Amalapuram. Muramaiia. 
Population 1,448. The Siva temple here is visited by nume- 
rous pilgrims, and the usual vow taken by the devout is a 
promise to celebrate the marriage of the god. Hardly a day, 
it is said, passes without this ceremony being performed ; and 
there is a proverb to the effect that at Muramalla there is a 
marriage every day and the garlands are always green. The 
temple is rich, and is said to have been founded and endowed 
' about 500 years ago ' by the widow of a Kona Sima Dravida 

Palivela : Twelve miles north-west of Amalapuram. Popu- PaliTela. 
lation 7,509- The Koppesvara temple here contains a number 
of inscriptions, some of which have been copied by the Gov- 
ernment Epigraphist (Nos. 498 to 505 of 1893). The oldest 
records a gift by a minister of one of the Velanandu family 
and is dated 1 172 A.D. None of the others are earlier than 
the fourteenth century. One on the east wall of the shrine 
belongs to the time of the great Kakatiya king Pratapa Rudra, 
and is dated in 1317, or not long before his fall.^ The nandi 
in front of the temple is popularly declared to have been 
mutilated by order of Aurangzeb. 

In former times dancing-girls used to sleep three nights at 
the commencement of their career in the inner shrine, so as to 

'^ See Government Epigraphist's Annual Report for 1894, pp. 22 and 23. 






be embraced by the god. But one of them, it is said, dis- 
appeared one night, and the practice has ceased. The funeral 
pyre of every girl of the dancing-girl (Sani) caste dying in 
the village should be lit with fire brought from the temple. 
The same practice is found in the Srirangam temple near 

Palivela forms part of the union of Kottapeta (population 
10,369), in which Vadapalaiyam and Kammareddipalaiyam 
are also included. Kottapeta contains the offices of a sub- 
registrar, a deputy-tahsildar and sub-magistrate, a local fund 
dispensary (founded 1892), a police-station, a small market, 
and an English lower secondary school for boys The travel- 
lers' bungalow is in Palivela itself. 

Pcrtiru : Five miles south-west of Amalapuram. Popula- 
tion 5,864. Contains a Sanskrit school. The place is note- 
worthy as being the home of a colony of Tamil Brahmans, 
called Kona Sima Dravidas, who came, at some date un- 
known, from Valangiman near Kumbakonam in Tanjore 
district. The story of their emigration is recounted (with 
impossible details) in the village itself and is also known 
in Madras. They no longer speak Tamil, but their village, 
both in appearance and in general arrangement, is so like 
a village of the south that it is popularly declared that if 
a Tanjore man could be suddenly transported thither and 
set down in the middle of it, he would think he was in his 
native country. 

The original emigrants are said to have been fifteen 
families of twelve gotras, seven of which belonged to the 
Vadama, and five to the Brahacharnam, subdivision of the 
Tamil Brahmans. 

They first settled at Rali, but difficulties arising, they 
eventually obtained from a raja a grant of as much land as an 
elephant could traverse in a given space of time. Thus they 
secured possession of the village of Peruru. They increased 
and multiplied, and many of them emigrated to Ganjam and 
Vizagapatam, where they call themselves ' Peruru Dravi- 
das.' They are not popular in the district, and stories in 
disparagement of them are common. The part they play in 
the festival at Antarvedi in Nagaram taluk is referred to 
in the account of that place below. 

Peruru, like Amalapuram, is connected by legend with the 
Mahabharata, for it is believed that the tank in the hamlet of 
Chindadu Garuvu is the identical sheet of water in which 
Arjuna saw the reflection of the flying fish which he shot in 
order to win the hand of Draupadi. A bath in this tank on 


the four Sundays succeeding the New Year's day is considered chap. xv. 
to have a sanctifying effect. amala- 

Numbers of large and ancient revetted wells exist in the __ll' 

village, and are known as the Reddis' wells. The story goes 
that a Brahman who had the philosopher's stone was murdered 
by a Reddi, and that his ghost haunted the murderer and 
gave him no peace until he built a number of large wells at 
which it might quench its thirst. 

The village is a centre of the export of cocoanuts and 
cocoaunt oil. One family of Muchis does some good wood- 

Rali : Twenty miles north-west of Amalapuram, population Raii. 
4,045. Contains a travellers' bungalow. A section of the 
Dowlaishweram anicut was originally called the Rali anient, 
and the name occurs frequently in the early accounts of the 
work. The village was once the head-quarters of a taluk. It 
is also said to have been one of the first halting-places of the 
Kona Sima Dravida Brahmans just referred to. There is a 
' Tamil street ' (Arava vidi) in it even now. The image of 
Vishnu in the local temple is represented as half male and 
half female, and the legend connects this fact with the well- 
known story of how the asuras and devatas churned the sea to 
obtain the nectar of immortality. When the nectar rose to 
the top, Vishnu appeared in the form of a beautiful woman, 
so a'fe to divert the attention of the asuras, was seen by Siva 
and was pursued by him as far as Rali. 

Vadapalli : Three miles north by east of Rali. Population Vadapaiii. 
915. It is well known for its temple to Venkata or Venkanna, 
which is considered by the people of this neighbourhood to be 
almost as sacred as the famous shrine of the same god at 
Tirupati in North Arcot. The festival to commemorate the 
marriage of the deity lasts for five days in Chaitra (April- 
May), is very largely attended, and is a great occasion for the 
performance of vows. 

Vanapalli : Eight miles north-north-west of Amalapuram. Vanapaiii. 
Population 4,686. A large festival in honour ,of the village 
goddess Pallalamma takes place there every year. Marvel- 
lous stories are told about this deity : the size and age of her 
image alter according to the size and age of the worshipper ; 
it sweats profusely and its clothes have to be wrung out every 
morning; ' an engineer officer' (name unknown) was turned 
blind some 40 years ago for entertaining the idea of demolish- 
ing the temple to make room for a canal ; and the stone jackal 
in the shrine is one which used to defile the holy precincts 
every night, and was petrified in consequence. 






At the great festival, which lasts for a week in the month 
of Chaitra (April-May), a hook-swinging takes place, but now- 
adays the man is swung in a basket, or by a hook run through 
his belt. The festival is a great occasion with the jungle 
' Chentzus,' who go there to celebrate their marriages and 
settle their caste disputes. 

Vyagrcsvarapuram : Ten miles north-north-west of Ama- 
lapuram. A hamlet of Pulletikurru, the population of which 
is 3,516. The name means ' the place of the tiger god.' It is 
explained by a legend to the effect that a Brahman, being 
pursued by a tiger, climbed a sacred bilva tree ; and thence 
addressed the animal with mantrams and prayers, which so 
affected its feelings that it turned into the stone lingam which 
is still worshipped under the name of Vyagresvara. 

A fairly large festival takes place in the village on the 
Sankranti {i.e. Pongal) day, when some fifteen of the neigh- 
bouring gods come to visit this deity. 




COCANADA lies on the coast north of the Godavari, and all chap. xv. 
but the northern portion of it is included within the delta of Coc-vnada. 
that river. Over 86 per cent, of the soil is consequently 
alluvial, and most of it is irrigated. Statistics regarding these 
and other points will be found in the separate Appendix. 
The taluk is one of the most densely populated in the district 
and the average revenue payable on each holding is over 
Rs. 40, or higher than in any other. 

Most of the taluk belongs to Pithapuram zamindari. It is 
well supplied with means of communication. The Madras 
Railway crosses the north of it, and a branch runs through the 
heart of it to its head-quarters, the busy sea-port of Cocanada. 
This town and the old port of Coringa are connected with the 
interior by good waterways. Roads are plentiful and, on the 
whole, good. Trade is consequently large, and many import- 
ant firms are located at Cocanada, but industries are few. 
Rice-milling at Cocanada and sugar-refining at Samalkot 
are the only considerable undertakings, and the indigenous 
industries are of an elementary kind. Coarse weaving goes 
on at several places ; chintzes are largely stamped at GoUa- 
palaiyam, Cocanada and Samalkot ; and metal vessels are 
made at Cocanada, Gollamamidada and Peddada. The 
taluk contains several temples of no small local reputation. 
These are referred to below. 

Bhimavaram is now a portion of Samalkot, but it has a Bhimavaram. 
character of its own. The full name of the place as given in 
inscriptions is Chalukya Bhimavaram. Under the Mughals it 
appears to have been called Mruthyujanagar.^ The Bhime- 
svara temple is locally famous both for its architectural beauty 
and for its sanctity. It possesses a huge lingam which is said 
to be similar to those in Draksharamam (in the Ramachandra- 
puram taluk), Amaravati (or Amara-rama) in the Guntur 
district, Palakollu (also called Kshira-rama) in the Kistna 
district and ' Kumara-rama/ a place not identified. The story 
goes that the god Subrahmanya killed a demon named 
Tarakasura who was wearing a huge lingam round his neck, 
and that this was broken into five pieces, one of which fell at 
each of these villages. The place is sacred on this account, 
and a bath in the Bhimagundum tank in front of the temple 
is believed to confer holiness. 

^ Mackenzie MSS., Local Records, i, pp. 496-98, 


CHAP. XV. There are a number of ancient inscriptions in both the 

CocANADA. Bhimesvara and Narayanasvami temples in the village. 
Thirty of these have been copied by the Government Epigra- 
phist (Nos. 460 to 489 of 1893). Some others, mostly of a 
private nature, are given in one of the Mackenzie MSS.^ The 
most ancient is one among the former dated 1087 A.D. A 
few of them mention members of the Reddi dynasty. The 
Mackenzie MS. gives what purports to be a copy of a copper- 
plate grant of Katama Vema Reddi to the Narayanasvami 
temple dated 1393 A.D. 
Choilangi. Chollangi : Lies six miles south of Cocanada, near the 

coast, and on one of the traditional seven holy mouths of the 
Godavari. It is the first place visited by those who are making 
the 'pilgrimage of the seven mouths.'^ The branch of the 
river which has its mouth here is said to have been brought 
down by the sage Tulya, and is accordingly called the Tulya- 
sagara-sangam. It is really nothing but the Tulya Bhaga 
drain. The village is otherwise quite insignificant, and its 
population is only 577. 

Cocanada, Cocanada, the head-quarters of the taluk and district, is 

a municipality of 48,096 inhabitants and one of the busiest 
sea-ports in the Presidency- It is situated on the western side 
of the Coringa bay, and is connected by a branch with the 
North-east line of the Madras Pailway. Its trade has been 
referred to in some detail on pp. 1 13-7- It is the head-quarters 
of the Collector (the Judge resides at Rajahmundry), the 
District Forest Officer, Local Fund Engineer, Assistant 
Commissioner of Salt, Abkari and Customs, District Medical 
and Sanitary Officer, District Registrar, head-quarters Divi- 
sional Officer (either a Deputy Collector or an Assistant 
Collector) and Government Chaplain, and of the Port Officer 
in charge of the harbour and port. The minor officials 
stationed there are the tahsildar, district munsif and stationary 
sub-magistrate. The place is also the head-quarters of a 
company of the East Coast Rifle Volunteers, and contains a 
municipal hospital (founded 1856), a dispensary (founded 1888), 
a women and children's dispensary (founded 1895), two police- 
stations, a travellers' bungalow, a large private choultry, a 
private native rest-house, the Pithapuram Raja's college, an 
English lower secondary school for boys, and two English, 
and four vernacular, lower secondary schools for girls. Its 
medical and educational institutions have been referred to 
in Chapters IX and X respectively, and the doings of its 

^ Local Records, ii, 213-30. 
2 See Chapter I, p. 6. 


municipal council in Chapter XIV. The salt factories in the CHAP. XV. 
suburb of Jagannathapuram and Penuguduru are mentioned Cocanada. 
in Chapter XII. The town is situated in the Pithapuram 

Jagannathapuram, which lies south of the harbour, is the 
only part of the place which possesses any historical interest. 
It was the site of a Dutch Factory which, with Bimlipatam 
in Vizagapatam and PalakoUu in Kistna, were ' represented to 
be held under Fermans granted by the Nizam and confirmed 
by the Mogul or Emperor of Delhi, bearing various dates from 
A.D. 1628 to A.D. 1713 and by a Cowle granted by Hajee 
Houssun in A.D. 1734 and A.D. 1752 by Jaffur Ally Khan. 
The two last mentioned persons were Naibs or deputies of the 
Nizam in the Circars. The Dutch are stated to have first 
occupied these factories about the year A.D. 1628.' ^ Their 
factory included the dependent villages of Gollapalem and 
Gundavaram and they had a mint, at which were made the 
coins issued from Bimlipatam.^ 

In 1781 war broke out between the English and the Dutch, 
and the settlements of the latter on the Coromandel coast were 
seized. Jagannathapuram was in that year ' a place of some 
consequence. The factory house, fortified I believe,^ and all 
the public buildings were demolished in that year.'* 

In 1784 peace was declared, and their factories were 
handed back to the Dutch in the following year. During the 
wars of the French Revolution (1789-95) the settlements were 
again captured by the English, but were once more handed 
back in 1818 by a convention of 1814. They were finally 
made over to the English Company in 1825, with the other 
Dutch possessions in India, under the operation of a treaty of 
1824 between Holland and England. 

The Dutch factory played a small part in the campaign of 
1758-59 by which the Northern Circars were taken by the 
English from the French. French officers wounded at the 
battle of Condore were permitted to go to Jagannathapuram 
on parole. In 1759 a small force of Frenchmen landed at 
Cocanada to intrigue with Jagapati Razu at Samalkot ; but, as 
has been mentioned in Chapter II, they were driven by the 
English to take refuge, in the Dutch fort, and their surrender 
was enforced under protest from the Dutch. 

' Hodgson's report on the Dutch Settlements, quoted in Mr. Rea's Monu- 
mental remains of the Dutch East India Co. (Madras, 1897), 52. 

* Mr. Rea's book, 65, 66. 

^ Apparently by rude ramparts of earth, Pinkerton's Collection of Travels, 

xi> 303- 

* Hodgson's report. , 






The first impetus to the town of Cocanada was given by 
the silting up of Coringa bay and the consequent decline of 
Coringa as a port and dockyard. Cocanada gradually took 
its place. A second impulse was given during the American 
Civil War (l86l), when the town suddenly rose into great 
importance as a place of shipment for the cotton pressed at 

Cocanada is the head-quarters of the Canadian Baptist 
Mission and contains a Roman Catholic church and convent. 
In the Protestant church is perhaps the finest organ in the 
Presidency outside Madras City. It was built from private 
subscriptions, of which a large portion was given by Messrs. 
Simson Bros., about twenty years ago. A cemetery near the 
Collector's house contains some old European tombs, the 
earliest of which is dated 1825 and a list of which is in the 
Collector's office. In the Jagannathapuram cemetery are 
many more graves, the oldest of which is a monument to a 
Dutch family the members of which were buried between 
1775 and 1778, From the latter of these years up to 1859 the 
churchyard does not seem to have been used, but from that 
year onwards the burials have been numerous. 

Of the industrial concerns in the town, the Local Fund 
workshops (near the Collector's office) have been referred to 
in Chapter VI. The town also contains three rice mills and 
five printing presses. Of the latter, only two (one called the 
Sujana Ranjani press and one managed by Messrs. Hall, 
Wilson & Co.) are of any importance. The latter prints 
general matter and the former Telugu books, and a weekly 
newspaper and a monthly magazine called respectively the 
Ravi and Savitri. In another press a monthly magazine 
called Sarasvati is printed. There are also about a dozen 
native factories which each employ several handpresses for 
making castor oil. 

The vernacular name of the town, Kakinada, is supposed to 
have some connection with the phenomenal number of crows 
which live in it. A merchant recently opened his rice 
godowns to trap these marauding birds, and then, closing the 
doors, had the intruders killed. No fewer than 978 were 
accounted for in one morning in this way, but without sensible 
diminution of the nuisance. 

Coringa (vernacular Korangi) : Nearly ten miles south of 
Cocanada. Population 4,258. It contains a travellers' bunga- 
low, a native rest-house, a police-station and the offices of a 
deputy tahsildar who is also a sub-registrar. It was once 
one of the greatest ports and ship-building centres on this 
coast ; but, owing to the silting up of the channel which leads 


to it, it is now of no commercial importance. Coringa appears chap. xv. 

in Pliny's pages as the name of a cape, but the village is now Cocanada. 

several miles from the sea. It was for long the residence of 

British merchants, but little now remains to call them to mind. 

There are a few old tombs in the graveyard — some dating 

back to l8l6^ — and portions of a few bungalows survive. 

One forms the present deputy tahsildar's office. Two others, 

one of which must have been a fine building, belonged to a 

certain Mr. Graham, whose name is still well known. The 

latest date in the churchyard is 1857, and apparently English 

merchants did not live in the place long after that. 

An interesting account of the town as it was in its 
busiest days was given by Mr. Topping, an astronomer in the 
service of the Madras Government, who visited it in 1789. 
He deplored in particular the want of police, which he said 
were badly needed owing to the number of ships — English, 
French, Dutch and Portuguese — that anchored in the road 
and the many disorderly people that landed from them. 
' Nothing is more common,' he said, ' than night broils and 
frays among people under the influence of intoxication. 
Frequent thefts and even attempts to assassinate happened 
during my short stay, which induced me to apply for a guard 
of sepoys, to protect myself and the Company's property 
from violence and rapine.' A curious contrast, this, to the 
quiet country village of to-day ! 

It appears that the present town of Coringa, which is on 
the east of the river, was ' built ' about 1759 by Mr. Westcot, 
a resident of Injaram ; while what is known as ' old Coringa,' 
on the western bank, is older than this." The bulk of the 
inhabitants and the deputy tahsildar live in the former, but 
there are a few good houses in the latter. The village suffered 
severely from the hurricane of 1839, and has twice (in 1787 
and 1832) been nearly swept away by tidal waves. The old 
village was also damaged by the tidal wave of 1706. 

The place is indeed a shadow of its former self. Its sea- 
borne trade was valued in 1877-78 at Rs. 8,22,000, and in 
1880-81 at Rs. 3,20,000 ; but by 1884-85 it had fallen to 
Rs. 33,000 ; and since 1898-99 it has ceased altogether. 

Moreover the neighbouring village of Tallarevu has now 
monopolised the ship-building that was formerly the pride of 
Coringa. In l802 Mr. Ebenezer Roebuck, a private gentleman 
residing at Coringa, constructed at a great cost a dock near 

^ See the list in the Collector's office. 

* Selections from the Records of the Madras Government (Madras, 
1855), xix, p. 24. 







the old town capacious enough to receive any ship of the 
Royal Navy not drawing more than fourteen feet. H.M.S. 
Albatross and other ships were repaired in this. It was 155 
feet long, and its breadth was 51 feet at the bottom, and 
76 feet at the^top. The masonry at the bottom was five feet 
thick. It used to be pumped dry, after a ship had been 
admitted, by two steam engines in a few hours. Now it is 
choked to the level of the ground with earth, and nothing is 
to be seen of it but the tops of the brick walls surrounding 
it. No one seems to remember its being used. Till quite 
recently, however, ships were repaired in mud docks at old 

The silting up of the port has progressed very rapidly in 
recent years. Between 1806 and 1861 the anchorage for big 
ships had to be moved five or six miles to the north. At the 
beginning of the last century a frigate drawing thirteen and 
a half feet was got over the bar ; and a report to Government 
written in 1805 records the opinion that ' any ship not drawing 
more than twelve and a half feet of water may easily enter 
the mouth of the river in two springs at any time of the 
year.' Nowadays, however, it is only with great difficulty 
that a ship drawing six feet can be got over the bar, and it 
takes a month to warp a vessel of that size up the river. 

Coringa is of some religious importance, since the neigh- 
bouring village of Masakapalli is one of the places at which 
pilgrims bathe when performing the sapta-sdgara-ydtrd or 
' pilgrimage of the seven mouths,' already referred to. The 
river Coringa is said to have been brought to the sea by the 
sage Atri, and the bathing place is called the Atreya-sagara- 
sangam. It is also believed that the demon Maricha, who 
was sent by Ravana in the form of a golden deer to Rama, 
when he and Sita were at Parnasala, was killed by Rama at 
this place. Rama is supposed to have founded the Siva 
temple of Korangesvarasvami. 

Gollapalaiyam (eight miles south-south-west of Cocanada, 
population 1,817) is of interest as the home of the cloth- 
painting described in Chapter VI. Some seventy households 
are also engaged in the stamping and dyeing of chintzes, and 
a little weaving of fair quality is carried on. There are some 
Jain remains in the neighbouring village of Ariyavattam.^ 

Injaram : A zamindari village near Yanam, fifteen miles 
south by west of Cocanada. Population 2,042. A factory, 
an offshoot of the settlement at Vizagapatam, was founded 

*■ For others, see Chapter III. p. 39. 


there by the East India Company in 1708, was soon after- CHAP. XV. 

wards abandoned, but was re-established in 1722. It was Cocanada. 

captured by the French under Bussy in 1757 — the garrison 

numbered only twenty men and no resistance was offered — 

but it was ceded by the Nizam to the English in 1759 

after the battle of Condore. It continued as a mercantile 

establishment of the East India Company till 1829. Its two 

great qualifications as a factory were that it was situated 

near one of the principal mouths of the Godavari and that 

very good cloth was made there. Indeed Captain Hamilton, 

who visited India at the beginning of the eighteenth century, 

stated that it produced the best and finest longcloth in all 

India. With the abolition of the Company's factory the 

prosperity of Injaram declined. It has now no sea-borne 

trade whatever. No traces, it is said, exist of the European 


Injaram is the head-quarters of a small zamindari estate 
containing three villages and paying a peshkash of Rs. 2,832. 
It was part of the old Peddapuram zamindari and was 
acquired by sale by the present holders' family in 1845. 

Nilapalli : An old sea-port near Yanam, on the eastern NUapaiii. 
bank of the Coringa river where it joins the Gautami Goda- 
vari. Its population is 3,936 and it contains a vernacular 
lower secondary school for girls. The Company established 
a factory here in 1751, but it was captured by Bussy in 1757. 
A quantity of good cloth was formerly manufactured in the 
neighbourhood, and a considerable sea-borne trade existed ; 
but now the place is of little importance commercially and 
has no sea-borne trade at all. In it are the remains of several 
old bungalows once occupied by English merchants, and four 
English tombs ranging in date from 1807 to 1865. 

Its hamlet of Georgepet, which was clearly so named by 
Englishmen, contains a large mill belonging to the Coringa 
Rice Mills Company, where about one hundred men are 
employed and which is in charge of two European superin- 
tendents. The rice is sent in boats to be shipped from 
Cocanada. The mill is said to have been started by a French 
engineer from Karaikkal in 1854. Before that time the 
buildings are said to have been used as an indigo factory. 

Nilapalli is the only remaining village of the old Nilapalli 
proprietary mutta (created in 1802-03) which formerly con- 
tained nine other villages and paid a peshkash of Rs. 6,300. 
The peshkash is now only Rs. 480. 

Samalkot (vernacular Clidmdrlakdta): Seven miles north of Samalkot/ 
Cocanada, and the junction between the branch line from 



CHAP. XV. that place and the North-east line of the Madras Railway. 

CocANADA. It is connected by canal with both Rajahmundry and Coca- 
nada. Its population was 16,015 in 1901. It contains a 
police-station, a small market, a travellers' bungalow and a 
fine private choultry near the railway-station. Its educational 
institutions comprise the Canadian Baptist Mission seminary,^ 
a vernacular lower secondary school for girls and a Sanskrit 
school. The town is a union, and comprises the villages of 
Bhimavaram and Jaggammagaripeta. 

Samalkot is included in the Pithapuram estate, was the 
original residence of the family of sirdars who founded that 
property, was apparently the first capital of the zamindari, 
was deserted in favour of Pithapuram for a time, but became 
the capital once more in the eighteenth century. Its fort 
was the scene of some exciting by-play in the great drama 
enacted by the English, French and Muhammadans in 1759, 
and seems to have more than once changed hands. Further 
particulars will be found in the account of Pithapuram below. 
In the latter half of the eighteenth century the place was 
made a sanitarium for the British troops in the district. Bar- 
racks were built in 1/86, and it was at that time ' the principal 
garrison of the English in the Circarof Rajahmundry.'^ The 
fort was demolished in 1838 and the place was abandoned as 
a military station in 1868. Owing however to the Rampa 
disturbances of 1879, two companies under a British officer 
were afterwards stationed there, and they were only with- 
drawn in 1893. Samalkot is now of some commercial 
importance owing to the establishment within it, in 1899, of 
the large sugar-refinery and distillery which is described in 
Chapter VI. A large number of Devangas in the town weave 
plain cotton cloths, and a few make cotton cloths with lace 
borders. A little chintz-stamping and dyeing, and manu- 
facture of kas-kas tattis also goes on. A Government 
experimental agricultural f arm ^ was started in the place 
in 1902 and has recentl}' been made into a permanent 

Sarpavaram. Sarpavarani (snake town) lies 4^4 miles north of Cocanada 

and contains 1, 681 inhabitants. It is locally famous for its 
sanctity. The temple is known by the name of Narada 
Kshetram after the rishi Narada, who is supposed to have 

* See Chapter III, p. 41. 

-' Grant's Political Survey of the 'Northern Circars appended to the Fifth 
J?eport of the Select Committee on the affairs of the East India Co., 1812 
(Madras reprint, 1883), p. 215. 

3 See Chapter IV, p. 75. 





founded it. This sage was turned into a woman by Vishnu 
and married a Pithapuram Raja who was killed in battle 
with all his children. Thereupon Vishnu pitied him and 
turned him back into a man. Both transformations were 
effected by bathing in tanks at Sarpavaram, the former in 
the Narada Gundam, the latter in the Muktika Sarasu tank. 
To bathe in the Narada Gundam is considered a holy act. 
The name of the town is locally said to be derived from 
the fact that it was in this place that, as the Mahabharata 
relates, Parikshit the son of Arjuna was bitten by a snake 
and died. His son performed the sarpa ydgain (serpent 
sacrifice) to effect the destruction of all those reptiles, but 
one snake was spared by Indra's mercy. 

The temple is a plain building of no beauty. A late Raja 
of Pithapuram built its gopuram at a great cost. Eight 
inscriptions in it (Nos. 452-59 of 1893) have been copied by the 
Government Epigraphist. The oldest of these, on a pillar in 
the mantapam in front of it, is in Tamil and is dated in the 
46th year of Kulottunga Chola Deva — apparently Kulottunga I 
(A.D. 1070-1118)— or 1 1 16 A.D. One, dated A.D. 1414, is a 
record of Vema Reddi, and several others of the early part of 
the thirteenth century are grants of a Vishnuvardhana Maha- 
raja, who is probably the same person as the local chieftain 
Mallapa III. 

Tallarcvu: Two miles south of Coringa on the east bank Tallarevu 
of the river of that name. This village, like so many on this 
river, appears to have once been an important trading centre. 
It is now only interesting as the scene of a small indigenous 
ship-building industry. 

Yanam (French, Yanaon) is a small French Settlement 
which is entirely surrounded by British territory. It is situated 
about twelve miles from the mouth of the Gautami Godavari, 
at the point where the Coringa river branches off from the 
main stream. The Settlement extends along the banks of 
these rivers for seven or eight miles, and its area is returned 
at 2,258 acres. Besides Yanam, it includes the four hamlets 
of Adivipalem, Kanakalapeta, Mettakuru, and Kursammapeta. 
Its population in 1901 was 5,005 against 5,327 in 1891. The 
town contains a few handsome European buildings, including 
a fine church : and there is a spacious walled parade on the 
south side facing the Godavari. 

Yanam is a comparatively modern town, and was not in 
existence in 1706. The French established a factory there 
about 1750, and the place was formally ceded to them in 1752. 
It shared the vicissitudes of their other possessions on this 



CHAP. XV. coast; and from 1793 onwards, save for a short period in 
CocANADA. 1802-03, was in the occupation of the English till the treaties 
of 1815 restored it to its former owners. It was then finally 
handed back in 1817. In 1839 the town was laid waste by 
a hurricane which was accompanied by an inundation of 
the sea. 

Subject to the control of the Governor of the French 
Possessions at Pondicherry, Yanam is administered by an 
official called the Administrateiir who is assisted by a local 
elective Council of six members. The Admijiistrateur is the 
head of the magistracy and police and president of the 
criminal court. Local affairs are managed by a communal 
council, also elective, of twelve members. Two free schools, 
one for boys and the other for girls, having an attendance of 
202 and 248 respectively, are maintained in the town. The 
area of cultivated land in the Settlement in 1903 was 664 
hectares or about 1,000 acres. Land is held in absolute owner- 
ship subject to the payment of an assessment of Rs. 37-8 per 
candy (about 4^^ acres) for cultivated land, and Rs. 5 for 
pasture land. Water is supplied free of cost from the British 
canal which passes through Yanam. Little trade is now 
carried on at the place, and in 1903 the exports were valued 
at only Rs. 22,300 and the imports at Rs. 53,625. The sea- 
borne trade is carried northwards down the Coringa river into 
the Cocanada bay, as the mouth of the Gautami Godavari is 
much silted up. 

The special arrangements connected with customs and salt 
which are necessitated by the existence of the Settlement are 
referred to in Chapter XII above. 



Nagaram taluk consists of the small island of that name chap. xv. 
which lies in the south-west corner of the delta and is Nagaram. 
surrounded by the Vainateyam and Vasishta branches of the — 

Godavari and by the sea on the east. It is sometimes known 
as the Tatipaka Sima (' country '), after the village of that 
name within it. It is called after the unimportant village of 
Nagaram, but its head-quarters is Rajavclu. Till October 1st 
1904 it was part of the Narasapur taluk, and the usual statis- 
tics are not always available for it. Certain figures appear in 
the separate Appendix, however. It is now the charge of a 
temporary tahsildar. It is the smallest and the most densely 
peopled taluk in the district. It is particularly fertile and is 
irrigated entirely by means of the great Gannavaram aqueduct 
referred to on p. 86. 

Nagaram contains an important centre of pilgrimage in the 
Vaishnavite temple at Antarvedi, and several other places 
of religious interest. A fair amount of weaving is done in 
Jagannapeta, Mori, Sivakodu and Tatipaka ; and the work 
of the first of these is well known. Tatipaka has a certain 
historical interest. 

The whole of the taluk belongs to Government with the 
exception of Lankala Gannavaram village, which forms a 
part of the Palivela thdna of the Pithapuram estate, and the 
whole inam village of Gudumulakhandrika. This originally 
belonged to the old Peddapuram zamindari, was purchased at 
a sale for arrears, and, after one more sale, was left by will to 
the late zamindar of Pithapuram. 

Antarvedi : Lies in the south-west corner of the taluk at Antarvedi. 
the mouth of the Vasishta Godavari. Population 6,583. It is 
the last and the most important of the sacred bathing-places 
comprised in the sapta-sdgara-ydtrd already referred to, and has 
other distinct claims to sanctity which are widely recognized. 
The god of the place is Lakshminarasimha-svami, an incar- 
nation of Vishnu, who at the prayer of the sage Vasishta and 
with the help of a local goddess killed another giant called 
Rakta Vilochana. The local goddess' name was Asvarudamba 
or Gurralakka ; a small stone image of her, mounted on a horse, 
is to be seen in the village. Lakshminarasimha-svami was 
entreated by Vasishta to remain in the locality, and he 
accordingly concealed himself in an ant-hill, where the exist- 
ing image of him was found. This was originally enshrined 





in a shed by a shepherd, who had miraculously discovered it 
by the extraordinary insight of one of his cows ; and one of 
its earliest devotees was a Sri Vaishnavite pilgrim who spent 
his life worshipping it, and from whom the Sri Vaishnavites 
of Antarvedi claim to be descended. The present temple, as 
is mentioned in an inscription within it, was built in 1823 by 
a pious Palli of Bendamurlanka. 

A well-known festival occurs in the village in Makha (Feb- 
ruary-March), and at this the marriage of the god is celebrated. 
It lasts about a week, and is the largest in the district, as 
many as 8o,000 people sometimes attending it. The car is 
dragged round on the second day ; and on the last the god is 
taken down to the sea-shore, where his bronze quoit (chakram) 
is laid on the head of each of the pilgrims, who afterwards 
bathe in the sea. 

A curious feature of this festival is the importance accorded 
thereat to the Kona Sima Dravidas of Peruru mentioned in the 
account of that place above. When the marriage of the god 
is performed they represent his bride's relations, and they are 
also allowed to go to considerable lengths in making fun of 
the Sri Vaishnavite Brahmans of Antarvedi, who are the 
leading religious party in the place and represent the god 
himself at the marriage. On the last day but one of the 
festival they put on Vaishnavite sect-marks and sing abusive 
songs about the Vaishnavites, who show no resentment. The 
reason for all this is said to be the fact that long ago the 
chakram of the god was lost in the sea, and that one of the 
Tamil Brahmans of Peruru earned the everlasting gratitude 
of the people of Antarvedi by getting it back by the use of 
powerful charms (mantrams). It is even believed that the car 
cannot be drawn without the help of one of these privileged 
persons. It is solemnly asserted that ' in the year Vijaya ' 
(1893-94) the villagers could not move the car in spite of all 
their efforts, because no one from Peruru was pulling. Some 
men from there were sought out and prevailed upon to touch 
the ropes, and the car at once started ; and nowadays they 
take care to have some one from Peruru to help pull. The 
temple is a handsome building with a number of gopurams, 
but it is not of any great size. It is endowed with some 800 
acres of land and receives an annual tasdik allowance of 
about Rs. 3,000. 

Antarvedi is of no industrial importance. The painting 
done there is referred to in Chapter VI. 

Jagannapeta : Four miles north-north-east of Rajavolu. 
Hamlet of Mogalikuduru, the population of which is 2,524. The 
place is noted for its weaving, which, though now said to be 



declining, still employs some 300 families of Devangas. CHAP. XV. 
They weave white cotton turbans and cloths, ornamented Nagaram. 
with cotton or lace borders and sometimes with simple 
embroidery. They work with counts as fine as 150s, and 
their fabrics are noted for the closeness of the weaving. 

Kadali : Three and a half miles east-south-east of Raja- Kadaii. 
volu. Population 3,687. Contains a small local fund market. 
The god of the place is named Kapotisvaradu and is said to 
have been first recognized by a certain hermit, who, with his 
wife, used to worship him in the form of a kapota bird. One 
day the hermit was mistaken by a shikari for a real bird and 
shot while at his prayers- He fell into the pool called the 
Kapota gimdnm at this place, and his wife flung herself in 
after him. It is considered a holy act to bathe in this pool 
on Sundays. 

The village is known as 'the place of the five K's ' (Kakdra 
panchakam), from five names of local importance which begin 
with that letter; namely, those of the god, of the village itself 
and of three families (the Kadambri family of Niyogi 
Brahmans, the Kasibhatlu family of Vaidiki Brahmans, 
and the Katika-reddi family of Kapus) which are largely 
represented in the village. 

Nagaram : Five miles north-east of Rajavolu. Population Nagaram. 
2,241, of whom about a quarter are Muhammadans. Contains 
a police-station and a small local fund market. It was presum- 
ably once of importance, as for at least the last 120 years it 
has given its name to the Nagaram island, but now, except 
that it does a certain amount of local trade, it possesses hardly 
any features of interest. It contains the remains of an old 
fort which is said to have been built by the Muhammadans.^ 

Rajavolu (commonly called Razole by Europeans) has Rajavolu. 
been the head-quarters of the Nagaram taluk since it was 
split off from Narasapur in 1904. It contains 2,553 inhabit- 
ants, a police-station, a sub-registrar's office, 'a local fund 
dispensary (opened in 1881) and a local fund choultry. 

Sivakodu : Two miles south-east of Rajavolu. Population Sivakodu. 
3,541. Contains a travellers' bungalow and an English lower 
secondary school for boys. The Siva temple, like that at 
Ramesvaram still further south-east, is supposed to have been 
built by Rama on his return from Ceylon in expiation of his 
sin of killing king Ravana, who was a Brahman. It is 
supposed to be the very last one he made for this purpose, 
and to have completed the crore (koti) of temples the construc- 
tion of which was needed to cleanse him thoroughly of his 

^ Sewell's Lists of Antiquities, i, 41. 


CHAP. XV. sin. The name Sivakodu is supposed to mean * the crore of 

Nagaram. Siva ' and to be derived from this fact. 

There are about 50 Devangas in the village who weave 
plain cloths, using thread of counts as fine as 150s. A local 
carpenter carves wooden figures, bed-steads and door-frames 
well, and also makes musical instruments of fair quality. 
Tatipaka. Tatipaka : Three miles north-north-east of Rajavolu- 

Population 2,838. A small local fund market is held there. 
In one of the streets is a Jain image, buried up to its neck, 
the head of which is more than life size. Several large wells 
in the neighbourhood are called ' Jain wells.' The place is 
a centre of trade and of the jaggery industry. Some 50 
Devanga families weave plain cloths. 

Tatipaka seems at one time to have been a place of some 
importance, since the local name for the Nagaram island 
(Tatipaka Sima) is derived from it. It is referred to in the 
accounts of the Muhammadan invasion of 1 562-64. It was 
then held by a powerful zamindar, Narasinga Rao, and was 
strongly fortified and protected by a deep moat. The 
Muhammadans were detained a month in front of the walls 
and were finally driven to raise the siege. The place was 
attacked next year when the rains were over, and was then 




PEDDAPURAM taluk lies in the north-east of the district, south 
of the Yellavaram Agency and west of Pithapuram andTuni. 
The northern part of it is very like the Agency in character, 
and isi in particular, exceedingly malarious. The greater 
part of the taluk, as well as the Pithapuram country, is known 
to the natives as the Porlunadu. Very little of Peddapuram 
is irrigated. More than half the wet area is under the Yeleru 
river, and over 4,600 acres under the large Lingamparti 
tank. Eighty per cent, of the soil is red ferruginous, eleven 
per cent, black regar, and only six per cent, alluvial. The 
average rainfall is 36'8o inches a year. The comparative 
barrenness of the taluk results in many contrasts to the delta 
tracts : the incidence of the land revenue, for example, is only 
Rs. I-13-7 per head ; the density of the population (331 per 
square mile) is unusually low for this district ; education is 
more backward than in any other taluk on the plains; and 
only 5 per cent, of the male population can read and write. 

Of the few industries in the taluk, the most important 
is the manufacture of jaggery, which is exported in large 
quantites to the refinery at Samalkot. 

The taluk was originally a part of the large zamindari of 
Peddapuram, the history of which is sketched below. It is 
now nearly all Government land. The small estates of 
Kirlampudi, Viravaram, Dontamuru and Rayavaram, one 
village of the Pithapuram zamindari and the Jagammapeta 
estate are the only areas that are still zamindari land. 

Annavaram : Twenty-five miles north-east of Peddapuram. 
Population 605. Possesses a small choultry and a temple of 
some local fame. The latter contains an image of Satya 
Narayanasvami which was discovered on a hill near by as 
the result of a vision seen in a dream by a local Brahman, 
and many people, especially those desirous of children, go on 
pilgrimages to it. 

Dharamallapuram : Forty miles north by east of Pedda- 
puram among the hills. Population 86. Contains the ruins 
of an old mud fort, oval in shape and half a mile in diameter, 
which is declared by local tradition to have been built by 
Bussy after his expedition against Bobbili. 














Jagammapeta : Eight miles north-west of Peddapuram ; 
population 4,638. Chief village of a union which also com- 
prises Kotturu, Ragampeta and Ramavaram. Contains a 
police-station, two travellers' bungalows (one for natives and 
the other for Europeans), a small choultry, a small local fund 
market, and a lower secondary school for boys. The sub- 
limate of mercury made in it is referred to in Chapter VI. 
One or two Kamsalas make brass vessels. 

Jagammapeta is the chief village of the zamindari of the 
same name, which consists of 28 villages and pays a pesh- 
kash of Rs. 33,062. Along with the Dontamuru estate (one 
village, peshkash Rs. 3,267) and the Rayavaram estate (two 
villages, peshkash Rs. 1,998) this zamindari was purchased 
from the Peddapuram estate by the Raja of Pithapuram. He 
gave them to a certain Rao Venkata Rao, and the present 
holder is the widow of the latter's grandson. 

Kandrakota, six miles north of Peddapuram, population 
2,664, is celebrated for its festival to the village goddess 
Nukalamma, which lasts for a month and end with the last 
new-moon day before the Telugu New Year's Day in March 
or April. Many pilgrims visit the place on this occasion and 
vows of many kinds are made to the goddess, generally, it is 
said, to secure alleviation from disease. A buffalo is 
sacrificed, a wound being first made in its throat and the 
blood caught in a pot, and its head being then cut off. 

Kattipudi : Seventeen and a half miles north-east of 
Peddapuram. Population 1,470. Contains a police-station, a 
travellers' bungalow and a large choultry with an income of 
Rs. 3,000 from land bequeathed to the taluk board, which is 
devoted to feeding travellers of all classes. 

Kirlampudi : Nine miles north-north-east of Peddapuram. 
Population 4,316. Has a small market. Is included in the 
Jagapatinagaram union. Chief village of a small estate, 
consisting of ten villages paying a peshkash of Rs. 23,186, 
which was purchased from the old Peddapuram zamindari at 
a sale for arrears. It has changed hands since then and is 
now held in shares by two brothers. One share has been 
sold to the Maharaja of Bobbili. 

Peddapuram, the head-quarters of the taluk, lies three 
miles from Samalkot railway-station and contains a popula- 
tion of 12,609. In it are the offices of a Deputy Collector, a 
tahsildar, a district munsif, a sub-registrar, and a stationary 
sub-magistrate, and also a local fund dispensary (established 
1881), a fair-sized market, a police-station and a fine taluk 
board choultry where Brahmans and Sudras are fed. This 



last is endowed with an income of Rs. 3,400 from land, and CHAP. xv. 
was bequeathed to the taluk board. The town also contains ^f °^f; 
a high school belonging to the American mission and a 
vernacular lower secondary school for girls. 

It was for nearly three centuries the capital of a great 
zamindari estate which seems at one time to have extended 
from north of Totapalli to Nagaram island. About 1785 it 
' comprised nearly one-half of the whole Circar of Rajahmun- 
dry, both in extent and value, and contained 585 villages.' ^ 

The old zamindars of Peddapuram are said to be descended 
from Vachchavaya Musali, the perfidious minister of Vidiadri, 
the last Gajapati ruler of Rajahmundry, whose treachery is 
said to have been one of the factors which facilitated the 
Muhammadan conquest in 1571. The line of descent was 
unbroken till 1734, when the estate was apparently in the 
hands of a woman, the zamindarni Vachchavaya Ragamma 
who was defeated near Peddapuram by the Muhammadans 
for joining in the rebellion of the chiefs of Ellore, Mogalturru 
and Pithapuram. ^ The Muhammadan general then enticed 
the sons of Ragamma into his camp and tortured them to 
death ' by drizzling on them hot-boiled oil with brushes.' ^ 
Ragamma burnt herself alive when she heard the news. 
' Challa Peddy, a faithful servant, made haste to the palace 
and took permission from the Ranee to set the palace on fire 
to prevent the ladies being maltreated by the barbarous 
soldiers of the Sirlushkar.' * Her grandson was sent for safety 
to Vizianagram. In 1749 the family was re-established by 
the amildar, Nimat AH, who for a bribe of Rs. 90,000 appointed 
one Rayappa Razu, a grandson of Ragamma, as zamindar. 
Rayappa Razu, like most of the other zamindars, hated the 
Vizianagram Raja and so opposed the English in their 
advance in 1758. He was either killed at Condore,' or was 
deposed by Ananda Razu of Vizianagram in the following 
year, and his son Timma Razu, then a boy only seven years 
old, succeeded to the estate. Timma Razu ruled till 1/97 ^nd 
was followed by Raya Jagapati Razu, with whom the perma- 
nent settlement was made. He died in 1804 without issue, 
and left the estate to a minor child adopted by him.**' 

1 Grant's Political Survey of the Northern Circars already several times 

2 See p. 235. 

•* MS. history of Pithapuram (Cocaiiada, i8Si), p. 30. 
■» Ibid. 

5 Grant's Political Survey. 
^ Selections from the Records of the Godavari district (Cocanada, 1891) ; Mr. 

Hodgson's report, dated 23rd November 1805, para. 3. 



CHA-P. XV. The estate was eventually sold for arrears of revenue in 
pedda- 1847. Much of it is now Government property, but parts of it 
puRAjvi. went to make up nine small estates which are still in existence. 
These are : Kottam, Viravaram, Kirlampudi, Dontamuru, 
Jagammapeta, Rayavaram, Gollaprolu, Palivela and Injaram. 
The ancient line of zamindars still maintain something of 
their former position in the Kottam zamindari, which was 
split off from that of Peddapuram in 1810. 

Peddapuram town is an important centre of the jaggery 
trade and sends large quantities- of that commodity to the 
factory at Samalkot. A little silk-weaving is also carried on 
there ; some 200 households are employed in weaving cotton 
cloths with lace borders ; a few families stamp and dye cotton 
cloths ; a fair amount of metal-work is done ; and a little good 
shoe-making. The town has a bad name for elephantiasis. 

The ditch and parts of the walls of the old fort are still to 
be seen. It was built of stone, was oval in shape and about 
three-quarters of a mile across. The land inside the walls is 
now under cultivation. 

A hill in the neighbourhood, called the Pdndavulametta (' the 
Pandavas' hill '), contains a cave which is supposed to be the 
mouth of an underground passage leading to Rajahmundry. 
It is popularly supposed that the Pandavas used to haunt this 
hillock and goto Rajahmundry through this passage, 
rrattipadu. Prattipadu : Eleven miles north-north-east of Peddapuram, 

Population 2,100. Contains the offices of a sub-registrar and 
a deputy tahsildar, a police-station and a native travellers' 
bungalow. It is the chief village of the Jagapatinagaram 
union which comprises also Kirlampudi, Simhadripuram, Jaga- 
patinagaram, Chillangi, Ramakrishnapuram and Velanka, 
and the total population of which amounts to 11,329. It enjoys 
considerable local celebrity owing to its possession of an idol 
of Ramalingasvami, which was recently found on a neigh- 
bouring hill by a Kamsala who had been told in a dream that 
it was there. A cobra is said to have been shading the idol 
with its hood. About two miles from Prattipadu on the road 
to Jagammapeta are two idols under a cluster of trees which 
are known in the neighbourhood as Pathalamma (the foot 
goddess). These are visited by large numbers of pilgrims 
who in satisfaction of vows sacrifice fowls and animals to the 
goddess and hang up the victims' heads in front of her. A 
number of stories are told about the malignant powers of this 
goddess : a Local Fund Engineer (name not specified) who 
ventured to cut down one of the trees near by some twenty 
years ago was thrown from his horse in consequence ; another 


man who committed the same offence was at once seized with CHAP. XV. 
fever and died within the week ; and some ryots of Yerra- Pedda- 

varam who removed one of the idols to their village were * 

struck with blindness. 

Ragampeta : Eight miles north-west of Peddapuram ; Ragam- 
population 865. Is included in the Jagammapeta union. Some P^'^- 
ten Linga Balijas make bangles and ' glass ' bottles here, an 
industry not common in this district. Brass vessels are made 
by a few Kamsalas. 

Rangampcta : Ten miles west of Peddapuram, population Rangam- 
2,017. Contains a large choultry called the Nallacheruvu P^ta. 
choultry (from the tank on the bank of which it is situated) 
which has an income of Rs. 5,500 from land, and in which 
travellers of all classes are fed. There is a travellers' 
bungalow close to it. 

Talluru : Eleven miles north-west of Peddapuram; popula- Talluru. 
tion 1,768, Is called Taidoor in old maps. The present Vaish- 
navite temple in the village is said to have been originally 
built above a rock-cut cave, by a saint called Bhargava, as a 
shrine to Siva. The local chief, a Dudeku named Sitab Khan, 
who was a Saivite, was afterwards converted to the Vaishna- 
vite faith by the famous Ramanujachari, and in consequence 
overthrew the Saivite lingams (which now lie buried in a 
mound known as the lingala dibba) and turned the temple into 
a Vaishnava place of worship. 

Totapalli, eighteen miles north-east of Peddapuram, popu- Totapalli. 
lation 94, was the former capital of one of the three ancient 
mansabdaris of the Godavari district. The original holder of 
this was a mokhasadar under the zamindar of Peddapuram, 
who was bound to pay his suzerain a quit-rent of 1,000 
pagodas a year and attend on him when required with a body 
of 700 peons. It was this military service which caused him 
to be denominated a mansabdar.^ 

His estate comprised lOO villages, of which 37 were held by 
inferior mokhasadars." Mr. Grant (writing about 1785) speaks 
of the property as a ' region of tigers,' and mentions that in 
1771, at the instigation of the Peddapuram zamindar, ' this 
little territory, with the sacrifice of almost the whole detach- 
ment to the unhealthiness of the climate, was reduced by the 
English to pay a future tribute to the zamindar.' ^ As this 
quit-rent was not punctually paid, the Peddapuram zamindar 
in later times resumed certain of the Totapalli villages. The 

1 G.O. No. 559, Judicial, dated 19th March 1881. 
* G.O, No. 2425, Judicial, dated 23rd Novemljer 1881, 
' Political Survey of the Northern Circars, 214. 









quit-rent of 1,000 pagodas on the property was one of the 
assets of the Peddapuram zamindari on which the peshkash 
payable to the Company was assessed at the permanent 
settlement. That settlement did not recognize the mansabdar 
save as a subordinate of the Peddapuram zamindar, nor deal 
with him direct. In 1847 the Peddapuram zamindari was sold 
for arrears of peshkash and bought in on behalf of Govern- 
ment, and from that date the feudal service of the mansabdar 
was due to Government and was occasionally demanded. In 
1859 a money payment of Rs. 6,500 per annum, being one- 
fourth of the assumed rental of the villages, was substituted 
for this service. The estate thus became an unenfranchised 
inam from which no service was required. Subsequently the 
mansabdar ran into debt and alienated a number of his 
villages. Government accordingly decided in iBSl ' to assess 
the whole estate fully and take it under their own manage- 
ment, and, while remitting the demand fixed in substitution 
of the former military service, to pay the mansabdar annually 
the difference between the estimated cost of that service and 
the estimated value of the estate, or Rs. 19,500. The ruins of 
the mansabdar's fort still exist in Totapalli. It was built of 
mud and stone, was oval in shape, and covered some 200 acres. 
The land inside it is now under cultivation. 

Viravaram : Eight miles north of Peddapuram. The chief 
village of a small estate which previously formed part of the 
Peddapuram zamindari and was purchased at a sale for arrears 
by a certain Rao Bhanayyamma, from whom the present 
holder has inherited it. It contains eleven villages and pays 
a peshkash of Rs. 26,759. 

Yelesvaram : Fifteen miles north of Peddapuram on the 
border of the Yellavaram division. Population 5,180. It is the 
chief village of a union which also includes Appanapalaiyam, 
Rayavaram, Lingamparti and Narayanapatnam, and the 
population of which is 8,531. The village contains a local 
fund dispensary (established 1882), a travellers' bungalow and 
a local fund market. This last is much used by the hill tribes, 
and the village has been appropriately called ' the gate of the 
Agency.' It is the scene of a large festival in honour of the 
village goddess Nukalamma in Vaisaka (May-June), which is 
also largely attended by the agency people. 

• G.O. No. 559, Judicial, dated 19th March 1881. 






The Pithapuram division lies along the coast, north of the chap. XV. 
Godavari delta, and, except Nagaram, is the smallest in the 
district. Most of it is included in the Pithapuram zamindari. 
Though it adjoins the delta, where the rainfall is heavy, it 
receives only 34'46 inches annually on an average, the lowest 
figure in the district. Part of it, however, benefits from 
the excellent irrigation provided by the Yeleru river. The 
head-quarter town is of much historical and archsological 
interest. Good weaving is done at Mulapeta, Uppada 
and Kottapalli, and excellent bronze-work at Pithapuram. 
Chandurti was the scene of the great battle of ' Condore.' 

Chandurti: Seven miles north by east of Pithapuram. 
Population 1,087. It is called Condore by Orme, and has 
given this name to the decisive battle which took place near 
it on the ninth of December 1758, which resulted in the 
wresting of the sovereignty of the Northern Circars from the 
French by the English. The battle is described in detail by 
Orme,^ and in somewhat different terms by Cambridge'-^ and 
Malleson.-' A very precise local tradition survives in the 
village to this day as to the locality in which it was fought, 
and old swords, bullets, cannon-balls, remains of pewter 
vessels, and elephants' bones have been found in quantities 
in the neighbourhood by the villagers while cultivating their 
fields. The account given by Orme is more detailed than the 
others and agrees more closely with the local tradition. 

When the English under Colonel Forde entered the 
Pithapuram division they found the French under M. Conflans 
encamped at GoUaprolu,* some four miles north-east of 
Pithapuram on the main road. This was on December 3rd. 
The French force consisted of 500 Europeans, 500 native 
cavalry, 6,000 sepoys and a great number of local levies.^ 

* Orme (Madras, 1861), ii, 378 ff. 
' The IVar in India (London, 1761), 204 ff. 

* Decisive battles of India, 80-87. 

* Cambridge says 'near Tallapool' {i.e., Tatiparti) ; and local tradition 
places the French camp at the now deserted village of Vodulapenta. The latter 
may refer to the temporary occupation of that village by the P^ench on the 
morning of the battle. 

« Orme says • a great number of the troops of the country, of which 500 were 
horse and 6,000 sepoys ; ' Cambridge says ' 8,000 sepoys and a great many of the 
country powers.' 





They had had 36 pieces of cannon and some mortars, in fact, 
' many more pieces of cannon than they could use at once.' 
The English force consisted of 470 Europeans and 1,900 
sepoys ; while their ally, the Raja of Vizianagram, had with 
him ' SOO paltry horse and 5,000 foot, some with awkward 
firearms, the rest with pikes and bows,' as well as a small 
force of 40 Europeans in charge of four guns, who, in the 
event, proved of more assistance than all the rest put 

The French did not move from GoUaprolu, and on the 
sixth the English occupied Chebrolu, which was also on the 
main road and lay about three miles north of GoUaprolu. 
For the next thr-ee days the two armies remained in their 
respective camps ; but on the early morning of the tenth 
they both made a movement. Forde desiring to draw the 
enemy from their camp to a general action, and to lead them 
to ground where their cavalry would not be of much assist- 
ance to them, marched off at 4 A.M., followed at some distance 
by the Vizianagram forces, who were not ready to start at the 
proper time, and at about eight in the morning took posses- 
sion of Chandurti, which lay some two miles north-west of 
Chebrolu and well off the road. Meanwhile Conflans had 
been induced by an intelligent deserter, who had told him 
that the English force was raw and undisciplined and who 
had noticed a spot from which their camp could be com- 
manded, to send off six guns the same night to cannonade 
Chebrolu ; and he followed with the rest of his army and 
artillery to support them. The advance detachment of the 
French army came across the Vizianagram troops as they 
were leaving Chebrolu about daybreak, and fired upon them 
for some little time, but apparently without doing much harm. 
When Conflans came up he imagined that the English 
intended to take possession of the now deserted village of 
Vodulapenta, which lay midway between GoUaprolu and 
Chandurti and some two miles nearly due west of Chebrolu, 
and would have afforded them a strong advanced post in 
any attack upon GoUaprolu. He at once marched across 
the plain to prevent this, and had no difficulty in doing it, as 
Forde remained at Chandurti, two miles north of Vodula- 
penta, resolved ' to regulate his future movements by the 
enemy's.' Conflans imputed this inactivity to fear, and 
supposing that, with the advanced post in the enemy's hands, 
the English would now return to their camp at Chebrolu, he 
hurried forward to cut them off. Forde, nothing loth, 
advanced to meet him about nine o'clock, and the two armies 
came face to face about a mile south-south-west of Chandurti. 


The spot which tradition identifies as the scene of the battle cHAP. XV 
which followed is locally known as Angleyulapadu, ' the Pitha- 
place of the English,' and is at present covered by a small pi^Ram- 
tope of babul trees. It is a little to the east and north of a 
small pool which lies about equidistant from Chandurti and 
Vannipudi, is due east of the latter, and about one and a half 
miles north-north-east of Tatiparti--^ 

Orme gives the following account of the battle which 
ensued : — 

* The French Battalion of Europeans was in the centre of the line, 
with 13 field-pieces, divided on their flanks, the horse, 500, were on 
the left of the battalion ; 3,000 sepoys formed the right wing, and the 
same number the left, and with each wing were five or six pieces 
of cumbrous cannon. The English army drew up with their Euro- 
peans in the centre, the six field-pieces divided on their flanks ; the 
1,800 sepoys were likewise equally divided on the wings. Colonel 
Forde placed no reliance on the Rajah's infantry or horse, and ordered 
them to form aloof, and extend on each flank of the sepoys : all this 
rabble kept behind, but the renegade Europeans under Bristol, who 
managed the four field-pieces belonging to the Rajah, advanced, and 
formed with the division of artillery" on the left of the English 
battalion. The line having had time, were in exact order, and had 
advanced a mile in front of the village of Condore [Chandurti J, 
during which, the enemy cannonaded hotly from all their guns. At 
length the impetuosity of the enemy's approach, who came on, out- 
marching their cannon, obliged the English line to halt for action ; 
and it chanced that the whole of their battalion stopped near and 
opposite to a field of Indian corn, which was grown so tall that it 
entirely intercepted them from the enemy ; but the sepoys on the 
wings were free in the plain on each hand. For what reason is not 
known, Colonel Forde had ordered his sepoys to furl their colours, 
which, besides the principal flag, are several small banners to a 
company, and to let them lay on the ground during the action. 

The sepoys and horse of the enemy's wings greatly outstretched 
the wings of the English line, and came on each in a curve to gain 
their flanks ; the French battalion in the centre, instead of advancing 
parallel to where by the wings they might judge the centre of the 
English line would be, inclined obliquely to the right, which brought 
them beyond the field of Indian corn, opposite to the English sepoys 
on the left wing ; whom from their red jackets,^ and the want of their 
usual banners, they from the first approach mistook for the English 
battalion ; respecting them as such, they halted to dress their ranks 

1 Mr. B. McCormack, Kn^nnecr of the I'ithapuram estate, has kindly given 
much assistance in locating the site. 

- They were from Bengal and wore red ; the Madras sepoys' tunics were 
usually white. 


CHAP. XV. before they engaged, and then began to fire in platoons advancing, 
PiTHA- but at the distance of 200 yards. Nevertheless, this was sufficient; 
puRANi. |-Qj. ^j^g sepoys, seeing themselves attacked without cover by Europeans 
in front, and the horse and multitude of the enemy's sepoys gaining 
their rear, or coming down on their flank, scarcely preserved courage 
to give their fire, hurried, scattered, and without command ; and then 
immediately broke and ran away to shelter themselves in the village 
of Chambole (Chebrolu), and were followed by the nearest of the 
enemy's horse. This success was greater than even the confidence of 
the enemy expected ; and several platoons of the French battalion 
were setting off to pursue them likewise, when they saw a line of men 
with shouldered arms marching fast and firm from behind the field of 
Indian corn across their way, to occupy the ground which the sepoys 
had abandoned. 

Colonel Forde had been with the sepoys before their flight, 
encouraging them to resolution ; but saw, by the usual symptoms of 
trepidation, that they would not stand the shock, which prepared him 
to order the judicious movement which the officers were now per- 
forming with so much steadiness and spirit. Captain Adnet, 
commanding on the left, led the line, and as soon as the last files 
were got clear of the corn the word was given, when the whole 
halted, and faced at once in full front of the enemy. This motion 
was quickly executed ; for the foremost man had not more than 300 
yards to march, and the field-pieces were left behind. During this 
short interval, the French battalion were endeavouring with much 
bustle to get into order again ; for some of their platoons had advanced 
a considerable distance before others ; and thus the fire of the 
English line commenced before the enemy's was ready ; it was given 
in divisions, that is, the whole battalion divided into five, and began 
from Captain Adnet's on the left, which was within pistol shot, and 
brought down half the enemy's grenadiers ; the fire ran on, and before 
the time came for Adnet's division to repeat theirs, the whole of the 
enemy's line were in confusion, and went about running fast to 
regain their guns, which they had left half a mile behind them on 
the plain. 

The ardour of the English battalion to pursue was so great, that 
Colonel Forde judged it best to indulge it in the instant, although not 
certain of the success of the sepoys on the right, but concluding that 
the enemy's sepoys who were to attack them, would not continue long, 
if they saw their Europeans completely routed. The order was given 
for the battalion to march on in following divisions, the left leading. 
Nothing could repress their eagerness. All marched too fast to keep 
their rank, excepting the fourth division commanded by Captain 
Yorke, who to have a reserve for the whole battalion, if broken, as 
the enemy had been, by their own impetuosity, obliged his men to 
advance in strict order. The French battalion rallied at their guns, 
which were 13 in number, spread in different brigades, or sets, as 



they chanced to stand when left by the troops advancing to the 
action. This artillery began to fire as soon as the ground was clear 
of their own troops, and killed some men, which only quickened the 
approach of the divisions to close in with the guns, of which several 
'fired when the first division was within pistol shot, and Adnet fell 
mortally wounded ; but his men rushing on drove the enemy from the 
guns they attacked, and the other divisions following with the same 
spirit, obliged them to abandon all the others. 

The day, if not completely victorious, was at least secured from 
reverse by the possession of all the enemy's field artillery fit for quick 
firing ; but their camp [at Gollaprolu], to which they were retiring, 
still remained to be attacked ; and Colonel Forde halted until joined 
by his sepoys, and, if they would come, by the Rajah's troops. 

The sepoys and horse of the enemy's right wing were in their 
turn panick-struck by the fire of the English battalion routing their 
own, and all turned to gain the rear of the guns, keeping aloof to the 
left of the English divisions ; and then went off again with the 
French battalion to the camp. Their left wing of sepoys behaved 
better, advancing to the use of musketry against the English sepoys 
of the left, with whom the battalion, when filing off to oppose the 
French, left the three field-pieces of their right ; and the sepoys, 
encouraged by this assistance, the ardour of the Europeons marching 
off, and the spirit of their own commander Captain Knox, maintained 
their ground, facing and firing in various directions behind the banks 
of the rice fields in which they had drawn up. The enemy's wing 
nevertheless continued the distant fire, until they saw their battalion of 
Europeans quitting their guns, and the sepoys and horse of the right 
retreating with them to the camp; when they went off likewise; 
stretching round to the left of the English battalion halting at the 
guns, and keeping out of their reach. Captain Knox then advanced 
to join the battalion with his own sepoys, and the six field-pieces, and 
had collected most of the fugitives of the other wing. Messages had 
been continually sent to the Raja's horse to advance, but they could 
not be prevailed upon to quit the shelter of a large tank,i at this time 
dry, in which they, his foot, and himself in the midst of them, had 
remained cowering from the beginning of the action. 

As soon as the sepoys joined, and all the necessary dispositions 
were made, which took an hour, Colonel Forde advanced to attack the 
enemy's camp ; but, not to retard the march, left the field-pieces to 
follow. A deep hollow way passed along the skirt of the camp, 
behind which appeared a considerable number of Europeans regularly 
drawn up, as if to defend the passage of the hollow way, and several 
shot were fired from heavy cannon planted to defend the approach. 
Just as the English troops came near, and the first division of the 
Europeans stept out to give their fire, the field-pieces were arrived 



» The Chandurti t^nk. 







within shot ; on which all the enemy went to the right-about, aban- 
doned their camp, and retreated, seemingly every man as he listed, in 
the utmost confusion ; but the English battalion crossing after them, 
many threw down their arms, and surrendered themselves prisoners. 
Mr. Conflans had previously sent away four of the smallest field- 
pieces • and the money of the military chest, laden for expedition on 
two camels. The spoil of the field and camp was 30 pieces of cannon, 
most of which were brass ; 50 tumbrels, and other carriages laden 
with ammunition; seven mortars from thirteen to eight inches, with a 
large provision of shells ; 1,000 draught bullocks and all the tents of 
the French battalion. Three of their officers were killed in the field, 
and three died of their wounds the same evening ; 70 of their rank 
and file were likewise killed, or mortally wounded : six officers and 50 
rank and file were taken prisoners, and the same number of wounded 
were supposed to have escaped. Of the English battalion. Captain 
Adnet and 15 rank and file were killed ; Mr. Macguire, the paymaster, 
and Mr. Johnstone, the commissary, who joined the grenadiers, two 
officers, and 20 of the rank and file were wounded ; the sepoys had 
100 killed and more wounded. No victory could be more complete ; 
Mr. Conflans, the commander of the French army, changing horses, 
arrived on the full gallop at Rajahmundrum before midnight, although 
the distance is 40 miles from the field on which the battle was 
lost ; the troops took various routes, but most of them towards 

Kottapalli : Five miles east-south-east of Pithapuram, 
Population 1,203. Good muslins are woven here by 200 house- 
holds of Pattu Sales. The work is referred to in Chapter VI. 

Mulapeta : Seven miles east of Pithapuram. Population 
2,002, About 100 households of Pattu Sales weave good 
cotton cloths in the village. The Mondi Jaganna temple there 
is widely known. There are two gods and a goddess in the 
temple, namely Bala Rama, Jagannatha, and his sister 
Subadra. All the images are of wood and are without hands 
or feet and are therefore called mondi, or ' crippled '. Whence 
the name of the temple. Popular tradition says the images 
were washed ashore in the village. It is said that the idols in 
the great Jagannatha temple at Puri in Orissa are changed 
once a year, the old ones being thrown into the sea, and that 
these are a set of the old ones from that place. In Phalguna 
(March-April) a five-days' festival takes place at the temple 
and the pilgrims bathe in the sea on the newmoon day. It is 
declared that married women of the lower classes who are 
desirous of children are permitted, without discredit attaching 
to them, to indulge in promiscuous intercourse at this feast, 
and respectable people consequently resent being asked 
whether they attended it. A curious feature of the worship is 



that suppliants do not clasp their hands before the deities in CHAP. XV. 
the conventional Hindu form of reverence, but salaam to them Pithv- 

as in the Muhammadan fashion of greeting. Nor do they [ ' 

address the usual praises to them, but actually insult them 
with the most vulgar abuse. No reasons are forthcoming 
for these customs. 

Pithapuram : A union of 13,220 inhabitants. The head- Pithdpuram, 
quarters of the great Pithapuram zamindari, of a deputy 
tahsildar and of a sub-registrar. It contains a police-station, 
a large choultry maintained by the Raja, another kept up from 
local funds, a local fund hospital (founded 1879), an upper 
secondary school for boys, an English loMrer secondary school 
for boys, a Government lower secondary school for girls and 
a large cattle market. The Raja owns a bungalow near the 
station which is generally placed at the disposal of travellers. 
Close by are his experimental farm and veterinary dispensary, 

Pithapuram is mentioned as a sovereign city in very early Its antiquity. 
times. In the Allahabad pillar inscription of the Gupta king 
Samudragupta, which belongs to the middle of the fourth 
century A.D., the chieftain Mahendra of Pistapuram is 
mentioned along with the kings of Conjeeveram and Vengi. 
He was almost undoubtedly a Pallava chief and a semi- 
independent feudatory of the Pallava king Vishnugopa of 
Conjeeveram. Again ' the strong fortress of Pishtapura ' is 
one of the places mentioned in the Aihole inscription of the 
Eastern Chalukya emperor Pulakesin II as having been subdued 
by him when he conquered the Vengi country. But from this 
period onwards a wide gap occurs in the history of the place. 
Inscriptions ranging from 1 186 to 1391 A.D. and belonging to 
the Velanandu chiefs, the Konas, Mallapa's Eastern Chalukya 
line, and Reddi kings are found in it ; but they throw no light 
on its history. 

In comparatively modern times Pithapuram reappears as 
the head-quarters of an important zamindari. Mr. Grant, in 
his Political Survey of the Nortliern Circars already quoted, states 
that the ancestors of the Raja of this estate were established 
as renters of part of it as early as 1 571, but that the family 
was involved in the general proscription of Indian landholders 
under the rule of Rustum Khan until in 1749 one of its 
members obtained a sanad for the zamindari from the amildar 
Nimat Ali. 

A detailed history of the estate has recently been published History of the 
at Cocanada by order of the Raja. Up to the end of the ^^^^^P""^^"^ 
eighteenth century, this consists entirely of a translation of one 
of the Mackenzie MSS. The dates and names (especially the 
former) in this are evidently confused, but it may be relied on 






Origin of the 



Grant of the 
circa 1684. 

where it refers to events in the latter half of the eighteenth 
century. Further materials for a historical sketch of the 
estate are provided by the appointments and title-deeds given 
to the family by successive Muhammadan rulers which are 
still preserved in its archives, and by an old genealogical tree 
kept there. 

The family is of the Velama stock and its ordinary titles 
(like those of the Kalahasti zamindars) are Rao or Raya- 
Nimgar. It claims descent from one Anupotama Nayudu, 
about whom some remarkable stories are told. His existence 
is proved by orders of the Bahmani kings — one of Ala-ud-din 
(1435-58) dated 1454, 'pardoning him for his misbehaviour' 
and granting him and his brother Madhava certain lands, and 
the other by the son of Muhammad Shah II (1463-82) dated 
1464-65 and confirming or modifying the former grant — but 
these do not connect him with Pithapuram. The grants 
confer villages in the Nizam's Dominions, and the former 
directs him to come to the court of the Sultan. The 'mis- 
behaviour ' perhaps consisted of the exploits (mentioned in 
the MS. history) of his son, who collected a large army and 
conquered forts in the west, which were afterwards held by 
the family as a jaghir. The names of two of these forts are 
given in the MS. as Kailasa and Metukur, and a Metukur 
is mentioned in the grant. Anupotama's brother, Madhava 
Nayudu, is said in the MS. to have founded the family of 
Venkatagiri in Nellore. The family were afterwards ousted 
from their jaghir by ' some Delhi sirdars ', but one of them, 
Ranga Rao (of the third generation after Anupotama 
Nayudu), won back Metukur and Kailasa by force of arms and 
his son and grandson ruled them more or less independently. 
The sons of the latter were ousted again and served the 
king of Golconda as sirdars. This must have been about 
the end of the sixteenth century. 

It is from Madhava Rao, one of these sirdars, that the 
Pithapuram family is descended. His sons ' lived for a long 
time at Samalkot,' and one of them, Tenugu Rao, was 
appointed Sirdar of the Rajahmundry Circar at the head of 
4,000 troops with Anaparti (in Ramachandrapuram taluk) as 
a jaghir.' He is said to have been appointed by king Abu 
Hassan of Golconda (1672-88), who was undoubtedly well 
disposed to his family. He had seven sons. One of them, 
Jaga Rao, was made a sirdar over 350 men and the letter of 

1- The Pithapuram MS. professes to quote an inscription from Anaparti 
confirming this appointment, and dated 1598. But this date must be too early, 
and the list of Muhammadan rulers in the Rajahmundry MS. referred to below 
does not support the appointment. 


appointment, dated 1676-77, is still kept at Pithapuram. Both CHAP. XV. 
the MS. history and the genealogical tree agree in saying Pitha- 

that the nucleus of the present zamindari of Pithapuram was * 

given to another son named Ramachandra Rao ; the former 
ascribes the gift to king Abu Hassan, but the latter gives the 
date as 1647. The sanad then granted is not forthcoming, 
but the MS. gives what purports to be a copy of it. Accord- 
ing to this, the grant included the ' pergunnas ' of Cocanada, 
Selapaka (7 miles south of Cocanada) and Porlunadu {i.e., 
apparently, Pithapuram).^ Samalkot and two other villages 
were also given as mokhasa. 

The MS. goes on to describe the fortunes of Tenugu Rao's 
children in some detail. Two more of his sons, Krishna Rao 
and Rangasayi Rao, were intimates of king Abu Hassan, 
being particularly good chess-players. The latter killed 
himself in the presence of the king rather than survive the 
insults which that ruler, being out of humour, one day heaped 
upon him. 

Various descendants of the seven sons of Tenugu Rao held i^ebeliion of 
the estate for some years. One of them, Venkata Krishna j^^^q^j /^^s? 
Raya-Nimgar, at length obtained an exemption from the 
payment of peshkash and 'ruled over the estate as if it were 
independent.' Certain zamindars of the country having 
failed to pay their revenues, an expedition was sent by the 
Muhammadans under Rustum Khan,^ the subordinate of 
Anwar-ud-din, about 1733 to suppress them. The zamindars 
of Mogalturru and Ellore were defeated at EUore and called 
in the help of Venkata Krishna Raya-Nimgar and the zamin- 
darni of Peddapuram. The united forces of the zamindars 
fought the Muhammadans twice near Peddapuram, but were 
defeated and driven into exile. The Raja of Pithapuram 
' lived for some time among the hills of Totapalli on predatory 
excursions.' His cousin Bachchanna was captured with the 
remnants of the army by Rustum Khan and he and his 
followers were beheaded at Pithapuram. 

Venkata Krishna Raya himself is said in the MS. to have m^ restora- 
died of jungle fever in Totapalli. But this is apparently tion about 
wrong. The genealogical tree makes him rule till 1759, and ^'^^°' 
his existence in 1754-55 is proved by nine Muhammadan 

^ Porlunadu is nowadays used to designate those parts of the Cocanada, 
Peddapuram and Pithapuram country which are watered by the Yeleru. The word • 
is locally explained to mean ' the land of floods,' horn porlu, ' to overflow.' 

2 Called in the MS. ' Haji Hussain,' but evidently identical with Rustum 
Khan. The Rajahmundry MS. represents him as Nawab of Rajahmundry from 
1730 to 1737, and Mr. Grant (p. 208) gives the date of the defeat of the Mogal- 
turru zamindar as 1733. 





The estate 
the Anglo- 
French war. 


grants to him, ranging from 1749-50 to 1754-55, which are 
still kept at Pithapuram.^ His estates and jaghirs were 
apparentl)' regranted to him in the first of these years by 
Nimat Ali, who was Nawab of Rajahmundry from 1749-50 to 
1751-52. The gap between 1734, when he was defeated by 
the Musalmans, and 1749, when he was restored, is hard to 
fill, Anwar-ud-din had quieted the country, and the people 
were ' in enjoyment of peace of mind and freedom from pre- 
datory incursions.' Rustum Khan had been killed by his own 
son, Nur-ud-din, and the latter was beheaded by Anwar-ud- 
din. But whether Venkata Krishna Raya was allowed to 
return to his estate before 1749 and, if not, who ruled the 
property in the interim, is not clear. 

The authorities do not say what happened to the estate 
while the French held the Northern Circars, but when the 
Vizianagram Raja induced the English to invade the country 
in 1758-59, the Pithapuram zamindar, like the other chiefs of 
this district, suspected that he wished to extend his dominions 
at their expense, and accordingly opposed the invasion. He 
apparently took no part in the battle of Condore ; but hearing 
that the English were advancing against Samalkot with the 
Vizianagram Raja he obtained the help of the Dutch of 
Cocanada to resist them. The MS. says that the Samalkot 
fort held out for three months, but then submitted. Very 
shortly afterwards, however, the French landed some troops 
at Cocanada and these were received into the fort at Samalkot, 
and were joined there by Jagapati Razu, a relative and enemy 
of the Vizianagram Raja. This coalition fought an action at 
Undur with the Vizianagram forces, but was defeated. 
Samalkot was re-taken by the English and the French were 
driven to Cocanada. All this must have taken place in 1759. 
The Raja of Pithapuram took refuge in Raghavapuram, but, 
on the death of the Vizianagram Raja soon afterwards of 
small-pox, he returned to Pithapuram. 

Meanwhile the Nizam had again become possessed of the 
district, and about 1761 the zamindar was re-established in 
his property. 

Who held the property during the next few years is not 
clear, and there seems to have been some fighting over the 
successions. In 1765 the then Raja, Kumara Mahipati, died, 
and his uncle Niladri succeeded. He seems to have been a 
man of character and to have taken a strong line in the 
disturbances of the preceding years. 

1 Four of these Ijear the seal of the Mughal emperor Ahmad Shdh (1748-54) 
and one of Alamgir II (1754-59)- 



The next zamindar of any interest is Kumara Venkata 
Mahipati Rao ^ (1786-93), of whom we are told that he ' did 
away with the peshkash and ruled over the estate as if he 
were an independent ruler without any disturbance and in 
the enjoyment of the greatest delights.' This was too much 
for the 'Nawab of Masulipatam ' (the Chief of the English 
Council there) who summoned the zamindar to appear before 
him. The zamindar started for Masulipatam ; but on his way 
he halted at Nallacheruvu and uttered the following native 
soliloquy: 'It is not proper to proceed any further; for if the 
Nawab were to question me why I did not remit the peshkash 
and I could not give him satisfactory answer; then it would 
be very difficult to say what steps the Nawab might take.' 
So he retired to the hills by way of Rampa where, ' the 
climate of the place being unsuited ' to him, he was attacked 
by jungle fever and * died prematurely there.' 

The story is confirmed by the general report of the Board 
of Revenue of that day. The Board recommended that the 
late zamindar's young cousin, Venkata Niladri, should succeed 
him, and it was with this man that the permanent settlement 
was made in 1803. From his death, which occurred in 1828, 
till 1841 the estate was under the Court of Wards ; and it was 
again under management from 1850 till 1861, when it was 
handed over to the then owner Venkata Mahipati Gangadhara 
Rama Rao with a balance of four lakhs. This zamindar died 
in 1890, and, with a brief interval, the estate continued under 
the Court of Wards until October 1906, when it was handed 
over to its present proprietor. 

The estate is a remarkably fine one. In the early years of 
British administration it was no doubt overshadowed by the 
more important zamindari of Peddapuram ; but while the 
latter has ceased to exist Pithapuram has greatly extended. 
Not only does it now comprise nearly the whole of the 
Pithapuram division and the Cocanada taluk, but it also owns 
fourteen villages in Amalapuram, twelve in Tuni, nine in 
Rajahmundry, eight in Ramachandrapuram and four in 
Chodavaram, as well as others in North Arcot and other 
districts. Its total area is 383 square miles and its income in 
1903-04 was Rs. 9,14,000, and the peshkash Rs. 2,44,000. 

For purposes of administration the estate is divided into 
six thdnas, each under a thdnaddr. The cultivators have no 
admitted occupancy right in their holdings, though they 
have shown a tendency to claim this, and until recently what 



The estate at 

^ This is the Mahipati mentioned by the Committee of Circuit, 1787. 





The town. 

is known as the vantavdradi system of land tenure has been 
enforced by the estate. This is, in eifect, the joint-rent 
system in vogue in ryotwari lands prior to l856 and described 
in Chapter XI. It included the ' challenging ' there referred 
to. This undesirable method was practically abandoned 
under the Court of Wards. Rentals were fixed, whenever 
complaints were made about them, by holding a kind of public 
auction and giving the land to the man who offered the 
highest figure. When once thus settled, they were not altered 
until the holding changed hands by succession or otherwise, 
and the successful bidder was not interfered with in his 
possession. The estate has now been surveyed ; and it may 
be hoped that the Raja will introduce a regular settlement on 
the basis of the survey. 

The town of Pithapuram is one of the least attractive 
places imaginable. The streets are narrow, winding, uneven 
and dusty, and the houses are poor in appearance. The 
Raja's residence is in striking contrast, being an imposing 
building of great size. 

The town possesses some religious and archaeological 
interest. It is known throughout the Northern Circars as a 
place of pilgrimage. The particular point of sanctity is the 
pdda gaya pool in front of the Kukkutesvara-svami temple. 
According to the legend, a giant named Gayasura, who was 
so big that when he lay down his body stretched from Gaya 
to Pithapuram, once ruled southern India. He was killed by 
Siva while his feet were resting in Pithapuram near this pool. 
The pool is accordingly called the pdda (' foot ') gaya. The 
local Hindus speak of three gayas, where different parts of the 
dead giant were found. One of these is the place of that 
name in Bengal, and it is held throughout this district that 
any one who bathes there ought also to bathe in the pdda gaya 
pool at Pithapuram. Three large images of Buddhist or Jain 
origin, sitting cross-legged in the usual contemplative attitude, 
stand at the side of one of the main streets of the town. 
They are known as sanydsi deviiln ('ascetic gods') and a 
festival is held in honour of them in times of drought ; by 
which means, it is supposed, they are induced to send rain. 
Four interesting inscriptions have been found in the Kunti- 
madhava temple. These give some historical information 
and the genealogies of three lines of chieftains who ruled in 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.^ A small mosque in the 
bazaar street has evidently been built with the materials of 

^ See Government Epigraphist's annual report for 1S94, pp. 2 fl"., and 
inscriptions Nos. 490 to 493 of 1893. 



an old Hindu shrine. It is locally supposed that the pillars chap. XV. 
came from the Kuntimadhava temple. There are some Pitha- 
inscriptions on the pillars. puram. 

One of the largest cattle markets in the district takes place 
in the town every Saturday. The sale of the right to collect 
the fees at this fetches over Rs. 3,000 annually. The excellent 
bell-metal work done in the place is referred to in Chapter 
VI. About fifty households of Devangas weave plain but fine 
cloths and about the same number of Senapatis make coarser 

Ponnada : Lies near the sea coast eight miles east by Ponnada. 
north of Pithapuram. Population 2,927. Its ancient import- 
ance is attested by the fact that three spots in Pithapuram 
town, namely, one of the fort gates, a well, and a cattle-stand, 
bear its name. A building erected round a banyan tree in the 
village is held sacred both by the Muhammadans and the 
Hindus of the locality. The legend says that long ago a 
Muhammadan widow wished to be buried with her husband, 
was prevented, but was permitted to live in this building, 
which was erected over his tomb. After her death the 
entrances to the building were closed. 

Uppada : Seven miles east-south-east of Pithapuram ; Uppada. 
population 3,912. Contains a police-station. The travellers' 
bungalow recently collapsed owing to the encroachments of 
the sea. It is noted for its muslins, which are known through- 
out a large part of the Presidency. They are referred to 
in Chapter VI. About 200 Devangas are engaged in this 

The village gives its name to a small zamindari estate with 
an income of Rs. 2,700 and a peshkash of Rs. 660. This was 
given by the late Raja of Pithapuram to his sister. 

The erosion of the coast and the existence of a submerged 
town here have been referred to in Chapter I. 






RAJAHMUNDRY taluk lies along the left bank of the Godavari 
just above the head of the delta. Most of it is not a particu- 
larly fertile upland, and as much as 71 per cent, of the soil is 
ferruginous. Nearly all the rest is regar. The taluk is irri- 
gated chiefly by tanks, of which 28 of fair size are in charge 
of the Public Works department. The largest are those at 
Kottapalli (ayacut 970 acres) and Kapavaram (823 acres). 
Rice is the most widely grown crop, but the areas under 
tobacco and castor are considerable. Nine per cent, of the 
cultivable land is unoccupied, and the incidence of the land 
revenue per head is only Rs. I-IO-II. The number of educa- 
tional institutions in Rajahmundry town results in the people 
being more literate than in any other taluk, and over ten per 
cent, of the male population can read and write. The 
industries of Rajahmundry town and Dowlaishweram are 
referred to below. At Rajanagaram and Kateru a fair amount 
of weaving is done, at Duppalapudi black bangles are made 
by twenty Kapus, and the stone-carving of Jegurupadu is well 
known. Large taluk board chattrams have been established 
at Rajanagaram and Dowlaishweram. 

Nearly the whole of the taluk is Government land. It 
includes nine villages of the Pithapuram zamindari and also 
nine other small proprietary estates, but of these latter 
all but one consist of only one village. The exception is 
Vangalapudi, which comprises three villages. 

Dowlaishweram : Four and a half miles south of Rajah- 
mundry. Population 10,304. It appears to have been a place 
of importance during the early struggles between the Hindus 
and Muhammadans and is now widely known as the site of 
Sir Arthur Cotton's great anient across the Godavari, referred 
to in Chapter IV, is the head-quarters of two Executive 
Engineers, and contains the Public Works department's 
workshops mentioned in Chapter VI. The town is a union 
and contains a local fund dispensary (established 1892), a 
large local fund choultry, a fair-sized market, an English 
lower secondary school for boys, and a Sanskrit school. The 
choultry (called, after the house-name of the donor, the 
Kruttivantivari choultry) is endowed with land bringing in an 
income of Rs. 2,100 annually, and was bequeathed to the taluk 
board. The income is devoted to feeding Brahmans. There 



area small European church and cemetery in the village. CHAP. xv. 
What looks like a town wall and is pierced by the road Rajah- 
entering the place is really only the bank of the old railway 
constructed to bring materials from the quarry to the river for 
the building of the anicut. 

Dowlaishweram possesses considerable religious interest 
for Hindus. The name Dowlaishweram is derived from that 
of the neighbouring hill Daulagiri. There, it is said, a saint 
named Narada used to live ; and he is credited with the 
foundation of the Vaishnavite temple of Janardhanasvami on 
the hill, as well as of many other shrines to the same god in 
the villages on the river bank in this and the Ramachandra- 
puram taluk. That in Dowlaishweram has an annual festival 
lasting six days in February or March. A cave on the side 
of the hill is supposed to be the mouth of a subterranean 
passage leading to Benares. In it is a stone image called 
Konda Nivdsudii or Santdna Gopdlasvdmi, which is visited by 
women who desire to have children. The temple of Anjaneya 
contains two rdvi trees said to have been planted by Rama 
and Si'ta respectively ; and there are two footsteps in the rock 
there which are supposed to be those of these two deities. 
Dowlaishweram is in consequence sometimes called Rdma 
pdda kshetram, ' the holy place of Rama's feet.' The sanctity 
of the village is also enhanced by the fact that it is the last 
place at which the waters of the Godavari flow down united 
and undiminished, and by a fanciful legend that 108 Siva 
temples lie buried somewhere or other in the neighbourhood. 
The result is that Dowlaishweram is one of the holiest of the 
bathing-places along this holy river, and is thronged by 
pilgrims during the piishkaram festival.^ 

A feast to the village goddess Mutyalamma is held in the 
village once every three years. A buffalo is sacrificed and 
afterwards votive offerings of pots of buttermilk are presented 
to the goddess, she is taken outside the village, and the pots 
are emptied there. The head of the buffalo and a pot of its 
blood are also carried round the village by a Mala, and a pig 
is sacrificed in an unusual and cruel manner. It is buried up 
to its neck and cattle are driven over it until it is trampled to 
death. This is supposed to ensure the health of men and 
cattle in the ensuing year. 

A few industries flourish in the place. Two Kamsalas 
make brass and bronze vessels, and about 25 persons of 
various castes do really good wood-carving. The place is 
also known for its architects, who are said to be employed 

^ See Chapter I, p. 6. 







throughout the plain taluks of the district when houses are 

Gokavaram : Nineteen miles north-north-east of Rajah- 
mundry. Population 2,425. Contains a local fund rest-house 
and a large weekly market to which the hill people bring the 
produce of the Rampa country for sale. 

Korukonda : Eleven miles north-north-east of Rajah- 
mundry. Population 3,952. Contains a police-station. A 
travellers' bungalow is kept up in the neighbouring village of 
Gonagudem. A pilgrimage to the temple of Narasimhasvami 
at Korukonda is supposed to be of unrivalled efficacy in 
granting offspring to childless women, and the place is often 
thronged with suppliants of this class. Rumour avers that 
the Brahmans of the place take a personal and direct share 
in ensuring that their prayers shall not be fruitless, and 
the belief has passed into a proverb. A festival which lasts 
for fifteen days takes place at the temple in the months of 
January and February. 

Korukonda and its neighbour Koti ^ appear once to have 
been of some political importance. One of the Mackenzie 
MSS. which deals with the ancient history of the district - 
gives some account of their early fortunes. It says that Koti 
and lOl Siva temples were founded by king Rajaraja of the 
Eastern Chalukya line, who reigned from 1022 to 1063 and is 
prominent in the traditional history of Rajahmundry, and 
that about two hundred years later a fort was built in Koti by 
an early Reddi chief named Annala Deva. The MS. goes on 
to quote a local inscription of 1322-23, apparently still in 
existence at the end of the eighteenth century, which recorded 
the revenue arrangements made in the village by the Kakatiya 
king, Pratapa Rudra, who reigned till 1324. The Korukonda 
fort was built some time afterwards by Kuna Reddi, ' a good 
Sudra who became ruler of the adjoining country,' and who 
governed wisely and well. He was succeeded by his son 
Mummidi Reddi, one of whose servants erected the Lakshmi- 
narasimha temple. The date of this event is given both in 
the MS. and in an inscription quoted by Mr. Sewell as 1353.' 
Mummidi Reddi's three immediate successors ruled for the 
next 40 years. One of them rebuilt the Ranganathasvami 
temple in 1394-95 A.D. 

^ Said to be short for Kotilingam {' a crore of lingams ') and to be derived 
from the number of Saivite emblems about the place. 

^ Local Records, vol. ii, p. 231 and vol. xix, p. 75. See also Chapter II, 
p. 25. 

' Lists 0/ Antiquities, i, 21. The MS. only gives the cycle ye^r. 


From this point until Muhammadan times are reached, the chap. xv. 
MS. is silent, but it gives details of the lessees of the place Rajah- 
under the Musalmans, The fort was apparently destroyed m undr y. 
by the vigorous and cruel Rustum Khan (1730-37) referred 
to on pp. 29-30. Its ruins are still to be seen, and there is 
another ruined fortress at Koti. On the Pandava hill west 
of Korukonda are two rock-cut caves. The MS. says that the 
Pandavas lived in them during their exile. 

Kottapalli : Twenty-two miles north-north-east of Rajah- Kottaoaiii 
mundry. Population 3,900. Contains a travellers' bungalow 
and a large tank which irrigates some 970 acres. The village 
gave its name to one of the ' pergunnas ' of the old Polavaram 
zamindari. For many years this was divided from the rest of 
that estate and managed by a diwan ; but in 1781 it was 
reannexed to it and shortly afterwards was placed under 
Narasimha, a brother of the Polavaram zamindar. During 
the fighting in 1785 at Gutala, described in the account of 
Polavaram, two usurpers wrested Kottapalli from Narasimha 
and the Government troops had to interfere. They captured 
the place and put Narasimha over it once more. He stood 
aloof from the disturbance of 1790 referred to in the account 
of Polavaram, but joined in the more considerable rebellion 
of Mangapati at the close of the century. Kottapalli was 
then occupied by a company of sepoys to keep the hill people 
of Rampa in check, and the young zamindar was ultimately 
captured and deposed. His estate was then again united 
with Polavaram. It was however once more separated from 
it afterwards, and its 36 villages were sold in 1808 for arrears 
of revenue. The purchaser himself fell into arrears in 1829, 
and the estate was attached and remained under management 
till 1841, in which year it was put up to auction and purchased 
by Government. The village now belongs to Government. 
It was formerly the head-quarters of a deputy tahsildar. 

Rajahmundry, the head-quarters of the taluk, stands on Rajah- 
the left bank of the Godavari at the head of the great railway "^"""^"^y- 
bridge (see p. 133) which carries the Madras Railway across 
that river. It is a municipality of 36,408 inhabitants, and the 
second most important town in the district. 

The earliest mention of Rajahmundry in any extant 
literature is in the introduction to the Telugu translation of 
the Mahabharata, which was composed by Nannayabhatta in 
the reign of the Eastern Chalukya king Rajaraja (1022-62) 
who is known to popular tradition as Rajaraja Narendra. In 
this the town is called Rajamahendrapattanam (' the city of 
Rajamahendra ') and is referred to as the capital of the Eastern 





Chalukya kingdom and ' the central gem of the Vengi country.' 
Rajamahendra was a title borne by two of Rajaraja's predeces- 
sors, namely, Amma I (918-25) and Amma 11 (945-70), and the 
town was perhaps founded by and called after one or other of 
these kings. But one of the Mackenzie MSS. attributes its 
foundation to an earlier king named Vijayaditya Mahendra. 

The extension of the Eastern Chalukya dominions into the 
kingdom of Kalinga on the north must have rendered Rajah- 
mundry an important strategical point. It is described in 
comparatively recent times as ' the barrier and key to the 
Vizagapatam country'.^ On the downfall of the Kakatiya 
dynasty of Warangal before the armies of the Muhammadans 
in 1323, the conquerors made their way as far as Rajahmundry, 
and the ' Royal masjid ' there contains an inscription dated 
1323-24 which mentions Muhammad Tughlak of Delhi. Local 
tradition says that this building was formerly a Hindu temple 
and was converted to its present use by these Musalmans- 

Rajahmundry next comes into prominence as the capital 
of one of the lines of Reddi kings. ^ Its first independent 
sovereign of that line has left inscriptions in it the dates of 
which range from 1385 to 1422. By 1458-59 a minister of 
the Gajapati king Kapilesvara was ruling at Rajahmundry ; 
and in 1470-71 the town was captured by the armies of the 
Muhammadan Sultan of Kulbarga. About 1478 the Hindus 
revolted and the Muhammadan garrison was besieged and 
perhaps reduced. The Vijayanagar chieftain Narasimha 
seems to have occupied the town at this time and to have been 
driven thence by a relieving force from Kulbarga. In any 
case the Muhammadans soon recaptured Rajahmundry and 
king Muhammad of Kulbarga made the town his head-quarters 
for some three years (1478-80). 

Soon after, during the dissensions among the Musalman 
powers in the Deccan, Rajahmundry was taken by the king of 
Orissa. About 1515, however, the town was captured by 
Krishna Deva, the king of Vijayanagar, in the course of his 
campaign against the Orissa dynasty. 

By 1543 Rajahmundry was the frontier town of the Orissa 
country and lay on the borders of the new Muhammadan 
conquests south and west of the Godavari river. It was ruled 
by a prince of the Gajapati house, one Vidiadri, who seems to 
have affected independence. He was ill-advised enough to 
join in an attack upon his Muhammadan neighbours some time 
between 1550 and 1564, and paid a heavy penalty. Defeated in 

* Cambridge's War in India (London, 1761), 207. 
« Ep. Ind., iv, 319. 



the field, he was shut up in Rajahmunclry. The Muhammadan chap. xv. 
powers of the Deccan then combined to deal a death-blow Rajah- 
to the Vijayanagar kingdom, and he obtained a short respite. 
But on the return of the Musalman invaders he was again 
defeated outside the walls of Rajahmundry. At their first 
onset in this battle his troops broke the right wing of the 
enemy, but, on their reserve coming up, the fugitives rallied 
and drove their assailants inside the fort. Vidiadri was 
besieged there for four months, and at last (1571-72) was 
compelled to surrender. The fire of the heavy artillery of 
the Musalmans had made a breach nearly fifty paces in length 
in the curtain of the fort, and further resistance seemed useless. 
Vidiadri was permitted to go unharmed and Rajahmundry 
was never again a Hindu possession. 

The neighbourhood was the scene of a stubborn battle a 
few years later, when the Muhammadan governor defeated the 
insurgent raja of Kasimkota. The fate of the day hung long 
in the balance and victory was only secured by a charge of 
Muhammadan cavalry which had turned the flank of the 
Hindu army. 

On the disruption of Aurangzeb's empire, Rajahmundry 
became the head-quarters of a Nawabship of the province of 
Golconda. The names of the Nawabs, and indeed of all the 
Musalman governors of the town from is/'J to 1769, are given 
in the Mackenzie MS. referred to above. 

After the cession of the Northern Circars to the French in 
1753, Rajahmundry, on account of its central position, was 
chosen by Bussy as his head-quarters in preference to Masuli- 
patam. It remained the French capital till the English 
invasion of 1758. On the evening after the battle of Condore, 
a force of 1,500 sepoys was sent on by Colonel Forde to occupy 
the town. They arrived on the following evening (December 
lOth 1758) and found the French, who imagined the whole 
English force to be upon them, in the act of evacuating the 
fort. One boat laden with several Europeans was in the 
middle of the Godavari river, and some others with a few 
small field-pieces had just reached the opposite bank, when 
the English arrived. The English sepoys opened ifire on them 
from the walls of the fort, and this deterred them from carrying 
off their guns, or remaining in the vicinity. Fifteen French- 
men were taken prisoners in the fort, and also a quantity of 
ammunition and stores. The town was shortly afterwards, 
however, retaken by the French. When Colonel Forde 
advanced southwards against Masulipatam in February 1759, 
only a small garrison, some sick and wounded, and some 


CHAP. XV. treasure had been left there ; and a detached French force 
Rajah- made a dash for the place and easily captured it. The 

* Commandant had only just time to send his treasure to 

Cocanada and his able-bodied men in retreat towards Vizaga- 
patam before the French arrived. The latter, however, did 
not attempt to hold the place. 

During the few years thereafter in which the district was 
again in the hands of the Nizam, Rajahmundry was the head- 
quarters of his local representative, Hussain Ali Khan. The 
latter's position was precario is, and an English force of 200 
sepoys and twelve artillery men under Lieutenant (afterwards 
Sir Henry) Cosby was sent to Rajahmundry to support him. 
Two rival claimants were at that time competing for the 
position of Nawab. A near relative of one of them was 
commandant of the fort at Rajahmundry, and had 500 Araos, 
ready for any mischief, under him. He had entered into a 
conspiracy to take the town and hold it for his relative, but 
his design was defeated by the vigour and promptitude of 
Cosby, who, despite the insignificance of his force, took him 
prisoner. Reinforcements were soon received from Masuli- 
patam, and Cosby maintained his position at Rajahmundry 
till the country was ceded to the English. 

Though Masulipatam then became the centre of the 
administration, troops appear to have been stationed at 
Rajahmundry for many years. When, in 1794, the Chief and 
Council at Masulipatam were replaced by Collectors, one of 
the latter was stationed at Rajahmundry. When the ' Rajah- 
mundry district ' was constituted, the Collector did not live in 
the town which gave his charge its name, though from the 
very first this had contained the court of the Zilla Judge 
appointed in l802,^ and it was not until 1867 that even the 
Sub-Collector was stationed there. The Sub-Collector, the 
District and Sessions Judge and the District Superintendent 
of Police are stationed there now. The place moreover 
contains the usual taluk offices, a sub-registrar and a district 
munsif. It is the head-quarters of the American Evangelical 
Lutheran Mission, which keeps up a high school there, a 
station of the Roman Catholic Mission, and contains several 
Christian churches and two European cemeteries. The older 
of the latter is near the old Civil Court, and the tombs in it 
go back to 1771. The other contains a large number of graves 
dating from 1862 down to the present day. 

The town also contains two travellers' bungalows, one 
belonging to the municipal council and the other to the taluk 

1 Chapter XIII, p. 189. 


board ; several private chattrams, two of which are import- chap. xv. 
ant institutions ; two police-stations, a police school and a Rajah- 
large Special Police Reserve; a municipal hospital and a ^'" ndr y. 
mission dispensary; a first-grade college, a training college, 
two high schools, three English lower secondary schools for 
boys, one English and three vernacular lower secondary 
schools for girls, and a Sanskrit school. The choultries are 
referred to in Chapter VII, the chief medical and educational 
institutions in Chapters IX and X respectively and the 
municipal council and its doings in Chapter XIV. 

Rajahmundry is not only of interest historically and as an 
administrative centre, but is also of importance to Hindus 
from a religious point of view. It is held that all pilgrims 
going from this district to Benares should also visit Rajah- 
mundry, and most of these people bathe in the river there on 
their way back from the holy city. They also observe the 
curious custom of emptying half the contents of the pots of 
Ganges water they bring back with them into the Godavari, 
and fill them up again from the latter river. It is believed 
that if this is not done, the Ganges water will quickly dry up in 
the pot. The sanctifying effect of a bath in the Godavari at 
Rajahmundry is placed so high that'people come by train all 
the way from Madras for the purpose, often going back the 
next day. The bathing place is called the Kotilingam (' crore 
of lingams ') ghat. The name is explained by a story that 
the Brahman sages at one time wanted to make the place as 
sacred as Benares, where there are supposed to be a crore of 
lingams, and therefore set themselves to found the same 
number here in a single night. Unfortunately the day 
dawned before the last one was made. The lingams are 
supposed to lie buried in the bed of the Godavari opposite 
the ghat. The river is held to be particularly sacred at 
Rajahmundry (and Dowlaishweram) because, like the Cauvery 
above the delta, it is still undiminished by division into 
many branches. It is called the Aganda (' entire ') Godavari, 
just as the other is called the Aganda Cauvery. The Rajah- 
mundry ghat is one of the centres of the great pushkaram 
festival, which takes place once in thirteen years.^ 

The place is also noted for the worship of a very widely 
known village goddess called Chamalamma, whose image 
reposes under a tree about a mile away. A fortnight's 
festival in her honour is celebrated in the last month of the 
Telugu year (March-April), and at this a mud pot which her 
spirit is supposed to enter is taken round the town every day 

I See Chapter I, p. 6, 


CHAP. XV. and worshipped. Various peculiar rites are performed at the 
Rajah- festival. The buffalo which is sacrificed is not killed outright ; 
MUNDRY. 1^^^^ ^ wound is first made in its neck and a potful of its 
blood is collected. A hook-swinging is conducted, but a 
sheep is the victim, and not a man, and it is swung by a rope 
tied round its body. The ordinary offerings of sheep, fowls, 
buffaloes, etc., are also made in fulfilment of vows. Another 
local deity is called Kannamma Perantalu (' housewife 
Kannamma '). She was a Reddi woman. She, her husband, 
and her six sons all died on one day of cholera about 40 
years ago, and her soul appeared to one of her relatives and 
said she had been deified. Ever since then she has been 
worshipped by all the non-Brahman Hindus of the place, 
who offer her sheep, fowls, cloths, etc. Her shrine is an 
unpretentious tiled house. 

The industries of the place are of some note. Some 400 
households of Devangas weave coloured cloths for men and 
women, and some of them can do simple embroidery. A few 
Rangaris stamp chintzes^ and some thirty Kamsalas make 
vessels of brass, bell-metal and lead. One or two Muchis 
are said to paint with skill, and thirty Kamsala and Odde 
carpenters do excellent wood-carving. Three fair-sized tan- 
neries, managed by Labbais, are at work, and good shoes 
are made by Madigas and Godaras. A few potters make 
good gujas. 




RaMACHANDRAPURAM taluk lies along the left bank of the 
Gautami Godavari just below the head of the delta. 

Almost all its soil (91 per cent.) is alluvial, it is irrigated 
by the Godavari water, nearly the whole of it is cultivated, 
and the density of its population is second only to that of 
Nagaram island. Paddy is naturally the chief crop, but 
tobacco is grown in fair quantities, and the area under sugar- 
cane is greater than in any other taluk in the district. 
Detailed statistics regarding the crops and other matters will 
be found in the separate Appendix. 

Local industries are few. Kotipalli and Draksharamam 
are sacred places, and tne temple in the latter contains many 
ancient inscriptions. 

Nearly the whole of the taluk is now Government land. 
Eight villages belong to the Pithapuram zamindari, eight 
others to the Vegayammapeta estate, and five more each 
make up a small estate. 

Bikkavolu : Nine miles north of Ramachandrapuram. 
Population 7,994. It is a union, and containts a sub- 
registrar's office and a small local fund market. Two Miichi 
wood-carvers do good work. The village is said in one of 
the Mackenzie MSS.^ to have been the capital of the earlier 
Eastern Chalukya kings before they moved to Rajahmundry. 
It is said to contain extensive ruins and some deserted 

The place is now famous as a centre of snake-worship. 
The snake-god Subbarayadu has a three days' festival there in 
the sasliti (sixth day) following the new moon in Margasira 
(December-January), which goes by the name of the Sub- 
hardyadi sashti. People attend this in the hope of obtaining 
relief from small bodily ailments (such as boils and pains in 
the ears, eyes, etc.) and in order to get children. Childless 
women spend a night fasting in the temple clothed in a 
particular kind of cloth (called ndgula kokalii) in which the 
colours are mixed in a peculiar way. All castes appear to 
resort to the temple for the purpose. In former times a cobra 
was supposed to come out and show itself on one of the days 
of the festival. 

1 Wilson's, Catalogue, p. 397, No. 12, 4. 
- Sewell's Lists, i, 25. 









Draksharamam : Four miles south by east of Rama- 
chandrapuram ; population 11,213. Contains a private 
chattram for feeding Brahmans, a police-station, a sub- 
registrar's office and a large cattle-market. The union of which 
it is the chief village also includes Velamapalaiyam, Totapeta, 
Jagannayakulapalaiyam and Vegayammapeta. Two Muchi 
wood-carvers do particularly good work, and a little weaving 
of tape and cloths is carried on. 

The village is noted for its fine temple and for its sanctity. 
Its name is said to be more correctly ' Daksharama ' and to 
mean ' the Garden of Daksha.' According to the well-known 
story in the Sivapurdiiam, this Daksha was a Brahman, the 
father-in-law of Siva. Thinking that he had not been 
properly treated by that god, he performed a ydgam (sacrifice) 
without inviting him to be present. His daughter attended 
uninvited, he treated her discourteously, and she accordingly 
plunged into the fire of the sacrifice. Siva burst into a sweat 
on hearing the news, and from this perspiration was born 
Virabhadra, who went and killed Daksha. Orthodox 
Brahmans will not perform a ydgam inside the village, as it is 
held to be an ill-omened place. 

The real centre of the religious interest of Draksharamam 
is the temple of Bhimesvara-svami, It contains a particularly 
big lingam, some fourteen or fifteen feet high. This is 
supposed to be part of a lingam which broke into five pieces 
and fell at five holy places, namely at Bhimavaram or Bhima- 
rama in Cocanada, Palakollu or Kshira-rama in Kistna, 
Amaravati or Amara-rama in the Guntur district, and 
Kumara-rama, which is not identified. It is supposed to have 
been erected by the sun and worshipped by the seven sages 
who made the seven mouths of the Godavari.^ So it is 
sufficiently holy. The seven sages are supposed to have each 
brought water from their respective rivers underground to 
the tank at Draksharamam, which is called the sapta 
Goddvari, ' seven Godavaris,' There is a sacred bathing ghat 
in this tank which confers in a condensed form all the 
sanctity which is to be obtained by separate baths in each 
of the seven rivers. 

Like many other holy places in this and other districts, 
the town is called the southern Benares. It is supposed to 
have been founded by the sage Vyasa, and a rdvi tree and a 
lingam planted by him are still shown. So great is its 
sanctity that a night's halt in it is believed by some to render 

I Chapter I, p. 6. 



future births unnecessary. A festival is held in honour of chap. xv. 
the god every Makha (February-March), and lasts for five rXmachan- 
days beginning on the eleventh day after the new moon day. drapuram. 

The temple is a rather handsome two-storeyed building. 
Its erection is ascribed by popular tradition to an unknown 
Chola king. In the porch round the shrine in the upper storey 
are black granite Chalukyan pillars, a great rarity in this 
district. The lower porch is also of black granite. On the 
northern side of the temple a figure of a Jain tirthankara, 
sitting cross-legged, is carved on a stone slab. The stone 
Naudi (bull) and Hanuman in the temple have had their 
heads knocked off, and it is said that this was done by the 
Maratha marauders ^ when hunting for treasure. In the 
temple is a curious well, the mouth of which is the shape of 
a strung bow. It is called the nidra tirtam, and a bath in it 
is holy. The lingam at the side of the western gate is 
supposed to go to Benares everj' night. 

The temple has an annual allowance of Rs. 1,000 from 
Government, and some of the servants in it have inam lands. 
But it is a large building and is not in particularly good 
repair. It contains a great number of ancient inscriptions. 
No less than 271 of these have been transcribed by the 
Government Epigraphist (Nos. 181 to 451 of 1893). The 
earliest appears to be No. 185, which is dated in A.D. I055» or 
during the reign of the Rajaraja whose capital was at Rajah- 
mundry. The latest appears to be No. 426, which belongs to 
the Reddis' times, and is dated in the year corresponding to 
1447 A.D. 

Draksharamam is sacred to Muhammadans also. The 
mosque and tomb of a saint called Saiyid Shah Bhaji Aulia are 
much revered by the Muhammadans of the neighbourhood, who 
are often buried within their precincts. This saint is said to 
have been a contemporary of the famous Mira Sahib of Nagore 
near Negapatam, and, like that rather shadowy personality, 
to have lived some five hundred years ago. He was born, it 
is said, at 'Gardez,' near Medina, and visited Draksharamam 
with four disciples. Being hungry, the visitors slaughtered 
the bull belonging to a math of the local Saivite priests. In 
the disputes which ensued the comparative holiness of the 
Muhammadan saint and the Saivite head-priest was called in 
question ; and to test the matter a lingam was thrown into a 
pond (the Lingdla cheruvii) and each was told to charm it back 
again. The saint succeeded, was given the math to live in, 
and turned it into a mosque. A very similar tale is related 

^ See Chapter II, p. 30. 







of the Babayya darga at Penukonda.^ The saint had a 
daughter, and her descendants are still living. They are 
said to receive an endowment from the Nizam of Hyderabad. 
In former times a festival of some importance used to be 
held at the mosque, but of recent years it has ceased to be 

Two Dutch tombs stand in the village on what is called 
the Ollandu dibha ('the Holland mound'). They are dated 
1675 and 1728 respectively and are covered with the 
sculptured slabs which are characteristic of Dutch tombs in 
this Presidency. 

Gangavaram : Seven miles south of Ramachandrapuram. 
Population 1,532. The name is supposed to mean * Ganges 
blessing ; ' and to explain it a legend has been invented to the 
effect that the Gautami Godavari blessed the Ganges at this 
place. Defiled by the sins of the many wicked people who 
bathed in her, the latter river used to come every day in the 
form of a crow to be purified by the Gautami, and used to 
return in the form of a hamsa bird. At last the Gautami took 
pity on her and blessed her, and now she can purify herself. 

Kotipalli : Nine and three-quarter miles south of Rama- 
chandrapuram. Population 2,476. It contains a travellers' 
bungalow and a large private choultry maintained by the 
proprietor of Polavaram, at which travellers are fed. Tape 
and kusa mats are manufactured on a small scale in the 
village. Its correct name seems to be Kodipaili, which 
Dr. Macleane translates ' border village,' apparently from the 
Tamil kodi. It is also sometimes called Kotipali, which means 
' a crore of benefits ' and is explained by the assertion that 
the value of a good deed done there is' increased one crore- 
fold by the sanctity of the place. The place is in fact held 
very sacred by Hindus. A bath in the Godavari here has 
virtue to expiate the most terrible of sins, even incest with a 
mother, and the bathing-ghat is called mdtrigamandghahdri 
for this reason. A story is told of a Brahman who inadvert- 
ently committed this sin, and was in consequence turned into 
a leper until he bathed here. 

The temple is dedicated to Somesvara, 'the moon god,' 
and is supposed to have been built by him to expiate his sin 
of having seduced the wife of his teacher Brahaspati. The 
injured husband cursed the moon and caused it to loose its 
brightness. In the same precincts is a shrine to Kotisvaradu, 
' the god of crores.' This was built, it is declared, by Indra 

' Anantapur District Gazetteer, 193. 





to atone for his seduction of the wife of Gautama. The 
erring god brought ' crores of waters' underground to the 
Godavari at this place ; andt he deity of the temple took his 
name from this act. There is a local festival there every year 
on the Sivaratri day. The great piishkaram festival held once 
in every thirteen years is celebrated here with great eclat. 

Kotipalli forms a proprietary estate which pays a peshkash 
of Rs. 5,831. It belongs to the Raja of Vizianagram. 

Marcdipaka : Seven miles west by north of Ramachandra- Maredipaka 
puram. Population 1,005. Some Singams do a little tape- 
weaving there. After Kandrakota in Peddapuram taluk, this 
is the greatest centre for the worship of the village deities in 
the district. The goddess of this village is called Mavul- 
lamma. She was originally a mortal maiden who was 
persecuted by her mother. Unable to bear the latter's cruelty, 
she hid in a cave by a mango tree, and disappeared for ever. 
Some days later she was seen in a dream by her parents, and 
informed them that she had become one with the divine, and 
must henceforth be worshipped as a goddess. This has been 
done, and the priests at her temple are supposed to belong to 
her family. The annual festival in her honour, which lasts 
for a fortnight, attracts many pilgrims. One peculiar feature 
of the ceremonies is that the blood of the sacrificed buffalo 
is left in the temple all night, with various kinds of grain 
scattered around it, and the door secured and sealed. In the 
morning, it is said, a foot-step is seen in the temple, and some 
of the grain is found thrown into the pot. This is considered 
to afford a forecast of the coming season ; those grains being 
expected to do well which are found in the pot. 

Ramachandrapuram : Head-quarters of the taluk, and 
once the chief village of a large ancient zamindari which was 
eventually bought in by Government. The place is a union 
of 10,692 inhabitants, the other component villages being 
Pasalapudi and Mutsumilli, and contains a travellers' bunga- 
low, a local fund rest-house for natives, a police-station, an 
English lower secondary school for boys and a local fund 
hospital founded in 1876. A tahsildar, stationary sub-magis- 
trate and sub-registrar are stationed there. Some 25 Devanga 
households weave cloths of a fair quality. The village is a 
centre of trade in local produce. 

Ramaghattalu : Four miles east of Kotipalli. It is a 
hamlet of the village of Masakapalli, the population of which 
is 2,244. It contains one of the many temples supposed to 
have been founded by Rama to expiate the sin of having 
killed the Brahman king Ravana. Rama's foot-steps are said 





CHAP. xV. 



to be visible on a rock there. A bath at this place on the 
Sundays in the month of Makham (February-March) is 
considered holy. 

Vegayammapcta : Five miles south-south-east of Rama- 
chandrapuram and part of Draksharamam union. Population 
2,004. Contains a lower secondary school for boys. It is the 
chief village of an ancient zamindari, which comprises ten 
villages and pays a peshkash of Rs. 8,055. The present 
holder says that the estate was originally given by'Haidar 
Badshah '—apparently the Nizam of Hyderabad — to one of his 
ancestors for his literary ability. It was permanently settled 
in 1802 on a peshkash of Rs. 8,750. The estate was dimin- 
ished by a partition in 1809, and in 1879 a suit about it went 
up as far as the Privy Council. The present zamindarni says 
that she is the eleventh in descent from the original founder. 



TUNI division lies in the north-east corner of the district. It CHAP. XV. 
is the most sparsely populated tract in the district outside the Tuni. 
Agency, and education is very backw^ard in it. 

It is a hilly tract and contains little irrigated land. One 
large tank waters nearly 2,000 acres near Hamsavaram, and 
a few channels take off from the Tandananadi river. The 
local rainfall averages only 35*79 inches, which is low for this 
district. The incidence of land revenue per head of the 
population is only seven and a half annas. The weaving at 
Tuni is as good as is to be found anywhere in the district, and 
a considerable manufacture of oil is carried on at the same 
place. Bangles are made at Hamsavaram and Kottapalli. 

The division contains the whole of the Kottam or Tuni 
estate and twelve villages belonging to the Pithapuram 

Bendaptidi : Twelve and a half miles south-west of Tuni. Bendapudi. 
Population 1,477. It contains the ruins of what must at one 
time have been a very large fort. Old copper coins (and, 
more rarely, gold ones) are found there after rain. People 
believe that the philosopher's stone (parsavedi) is also to be 
found there. The ruins include many dilapidated temples. 
Popular legend ascribes the building of the fort to the 
Kakatiya king Pratapa Rudra, and the same a(;count of it is 
given in one of the Mackenzie MSS.^ called the ' Korukonda 
kyfeat' which gives a description of that place. The fort at 
Bendapudi is said in this to have been founded by two 
brothers, Pedda Malla Razu and Chinna Malla Razu, who 
ruled the country under Pratapa Rudra. They were an 
effeminate and tyrannical couple, if the account is to be 
credited. They drew upon themselves the vengeance of the 
king of Cuttack by abducting the bride of one of his relatives, 
who was passing through the district. An. army came from 
Cuttack to exact vengeance, and the fort was besieged. It fell 
after a siege of six years, the water-supplies being cut off. 
The affair is described in some detail in the manuscript. 

In the hamlet of Tirupati Agraharam is a temple to Venka- 
tesvarasvami, in honour of which a five days' festival is held 
every year in Chaitra (April-May). This is largely attended 
and is well known to people living north of Cocanada, 

* Wilson's Catalogue, 396, 8 (3). 











Hamsavaram : Six miles south-south-west of Tuni. Popu- 
lation 1,909- Lime is collected there in large quantities and 
taken to Tuni to be burnt, and glass bangles are made there. 

Kottapalli : Nine miles south-west of Tuni. Also called 
Ayyapparazu Kottapalli. Population 2,449. There is a mound 
by the roadside near the village, which is known as the tomb 
of one Mala Bucchamma, a Mala woman who is said to have 
burnt herself to death many years ago, no one knows why. 
People of all castes make prayers and vows at this tomb. 
In the hamlet of Sitarampuram glass bangles are made. 

Talluru : Two miles west-north-west of Tuni, Population 
248. A cave in a hill there contains the image of Talupu- 
lamma (' door mother '), a goddess very much revered in this 
division. The adjoining valley is called Talupulamma lova. 
From the hill a perennial spring flows down into the jungle. 
This is a very favourite bathing-place, and the local people 
pretend that they do not know where the stream goes to. 
They declare that the torrent shrinks or widens in pro- 
portion to the number of people bathing in it ! The goddess 
is especially appealed to in time of drought, her favourite 
days being Tuesdays, Thursdays and Sundays. She is 
worshipped with the usual animal sacrifices. 

Tatipaka: Six miles north-north-west of Tuni. Also called 
Tatipaka-Jagannathanagaram, Population, 346. A tomb there 
is called the gundam (pit) of Lakshmamma, a woman who is 
supposed to have committed sati at this spot. It is reverenced 
by the people of the locality, and a small festival is held there 
in February or March. 

Tetagunta : Seven and a half miles south-west of Tuni. 
Population 2,600. A hill there called the Parnasdla konda is 
supposed to have been inhabited by the Pandava brothers. 
It contains a large cave about a hundred yards in length and 
consisting of two compartments. 

Tuni: Head-quarters of the division, and the chief town 
of the Tuni or Kottam estate. Besides the offices of the deputy 
tahsildar and a sub-registrar, the town contains a police- 
station, a travellers' bungalow, a private choultry for feeding 
Brahmans and Sudras, a large local fund market, a local fund 
dispensary (established 1879), and the zamindar's high school 
for boys. It has been constituted a union and has a population 
of 8,842. Good weaving of the same kind and quality as in 
Uppada is done there by about 200 Devangas ; a few Kapus 
do simple dyeing and chintz-stamping; five or six black- 
smiths make ordinary household vessels of brass ; a large 
manufacture of castor and [gingelly oil is carried on, and 


there are two factories for the purpose ; and the place is a chap, xv, 
considerable trading centre. Tuni. 

The Kottam estate is interesting as being the only remnant 
of the old Peddapuram zamindari which remains in the hands 
of the original family. It was created in 1810. A claim was 
advanced in that year to the zamindari of Peddapuram by a 
relation of the then zamindar ; and, in settlement of that 
claim, the Kottam estate, till then a portion of the Peddapuram 
zamindari, was severed from the rest of the property and made 
over to the claimant's father, Vatsavaya Siirappa Razu. The 
two estates were once again for a short time under the same 
proprietor. In 1838 one Surya Narayana, grandson of 
Vatsavaya Surappa Razu, was recognized as proprietor of the 
Kottam mitta and soon afterwards succeeded also to the 
Peddapuram zamindari ; but the latter estate had been held 
for but a short time by him when it was sold for arrears of 
revenue. The present zamindar. Raja Vatsavaya Venkata 
Simhadri Jagapati Razu, is the second son of Surya Narayana, 
and succeeded to the estate after the death of his elder 
brother in 1879. He is now (1906) fifty-two years old. The 
property consists of 38 villages situated within a radius of 
twelve miles of Tuni. It pays a peshkash of Rs. 26,219. 







BHADRACHALAM taluk runs along the left bank of the Goda- 
vari above the Ghats, by which it is cut off from the rest of 
the district. It is intersected by the Saveri, an important 
tributary joining the Godavari at Kunnavaram. Owing to its 
position beyond the Ghats its climatic conditions are rather 
different from those of most of the district. The variations 
in temperature are greater, and the rainfall, which is almost 
all brought by the south-west monsoon, is 43 '39 inches at 
Bhadrachalam, a high record for this district, and probably 
much greater in other parts of the taluk. The officer who 
drew up the working-plans for the Rekapalle forests inferred 
'from an examination of the undergrowth and the general 
factors of that locality that 70 inches would be a closer 
estimate ' of the annual rainfall among them. The taluk is 
for the most part covered with low hills and forest. Some 
high hills rise to the west of the Saveri river adjoining the 
Ghats, and a smaller cluster stands some way from the 
Godavari and to the east of the Saveri near Bodugudem in 
the centre of the taluk. The whole of the taluk is malarious, 
especially the villages along and to the east of the Saveri 
river, but the scope for irrigation is considerable, and with 
more energetic ryots and a better land system cultivation 
might be largely extended. 

Cholam is the staple crop of the country, though paddy 
and a little tobacco are grown along the river banks. The 
taluk appears to contain no indigenous industries whatever. 
The lace-work of the Dummagudem mission is referred to in 
Chapter VI. 

The taluk is of interest in several unusual directions. The 
curious Koya people (see p. 60) make up a large proportion of 
its inhabitants ; its revenue system, inherited from the Central 
Provinces administration, is in most respects (p. 174) unusual 
in this Presidency ; coal has been mined for at Gauridevipeta 
(sixteen miles east of Bhadrachalam), albeit (p. 10) without 
much success, and plumbago has been worked at Pedakonda ; 
garnets, rock-crystal, sapphires and gold are found ; the 
country possesses many legendary associations with the story 
told in the Ramayana of Ravana's stealing Sita, the wife of 
Rama ; and in it, from fifteen miles below Bhadrachalam 



to four miles north of Dummagudem, are a number of 
rude stone monuments. No weapons have yet been found 
in these, but they contain half-burnt pottery, charred 
bones, and beads of ivory and glass. From the position of 
skeletons around them it would appear that human sacrifices 
accompanied the funeral ceremonies.^ Forts ascribed to the 
Reddi dynasty are found at Nallapalli, four miles north-east 
of Dummagudem, and at Vaddigiidem near Rekapalle. There 
are also the remains of a fine stone fort at Devarapalli, nine 
miles east of Bhadrachalam ; but it was largely demolished 
by the engineers engaged in the Upper Godavari navigation 

As is mentioned in Chapter XI, the zamindar of Bhadra- 
chalam has a semi-proprietary right over the whole of the 
taluk. Beneath him, but still recognized by Government, are 
a number of other proprietors of larger or smaller estates. The 
only one of these which is of any size is Rekapalle, which 
was for some time independent of its suzerain, and the history 
of which is sketched below. The others only contain a village 
or two apiece. The largest are those of Nandigama, which 
contains ten villages and pays a peshkash of Rs. 1,308, and 
Tripurapantavidu, with seven villages and a peshkash of 
Rs. 1,195. No other inferior proprietor pays as much as 
Rs. 400 peshkash. 

Bhadrachalam : Head-quarters of the taluk and of the 
Head Assistant Collector. Population 1,783. It is the chief 
town of the zamindari of the same name. The original holder 
of this is said to have been one Anapa Ashwa Rao, who 
received it in free jaghir from the Emperor of Delhi in A.D. 
1324 on condition of keeping up a body of 500 foot for service, 
and it is stated that the property has remained almost ever 
since in the families of the founder or his kinsmen. The taluk 
formed part of a large estate which is called by Captain 
Glasfurd ^the Hussanabad Sankaragiri zamindari, and is also 
spoken of as the Palavancha estate, from the town of that 
name in the Nizam's Dominions in which a large portion of 
it lay. The zamindar of Bhadrachalam is zamindar of 
Palavancha also. 

In 1769 one of the Nizam's officers put the then zamindar 
to death and took the estate under management till his own 
death in 1778, when it reverted to the founder's family. In 
1809 an adoption, said to have been the first in the family, 
was made. This was the cause of a great deal of disturbance 



1 Sewell's Lists, i, 20. 

•^ See his settlemeat report oq this taluk (Nagpur, 1869), para. 41. 


CHAP. XV. and even bloodshed. The adopting zamindar belonged to the 
Bhadra- Damara Ashwa Rao family, and selected as his heir a boy of 
CHALAM. ^j^g Kundemulla family. This choice was resented and 
resisted by another family, called by Captain Glasfurd the 
Setpilly Ashwa Raos, who thought one of their members 
ought to have been selected. The struggle between the 
members of these families went on for more than forty years. 
The Setpillys were at first victorious ; but their representative 
made a raid into British territory and was taken prisoner and 
carried off to Hyderabad in l8ll. The Damara adoptee was 
now appointed zamindar by the Nizam ; but he was so harassed 
by the Setpillys that in 1819 a European officer (Mr. Ralph) 
was sent with a body of local troops to Palavancha, where he 
remained to keep order for three years. The Nizam soon 
intervened again, this time granting a small portion of the 
estate to the Setpillys and one village to the Damaras, and 
taking the rest under his own management. The Setpillys 
defied the local authorities in 1844 and seized the greatej- part 
of the estate ; but their representative died in 1851 ; and, after 
a little disturbance and some negotiation the property was 
handed over finally to the Damaras on a decision being passed 
in their favour (in 1852) by an influential panchayat of 
zamindars. The Damara appointed in 1852 was succeeded by 
his mother in 1859, who was followed before her death in 1874 
by her daughter's son, Parthasarathi Appa Rao, who is the 
present zamindar. The estate at one time (see p. 175) also 
included the present Rekapalle zamindari. 

Until the taluk was handed over to the British Government 
by the Nizam in l86otheBhadrachalam zamindar always kept 
up a troop of Rohillas, who received very little pay for their 
services and lived chiefly by looting the country round. The 
taluk was divided into ten saniutiis, each of which theoretically 
contained twenty-five Koya villages and each of which had 
to supply for a month, without pay orbatta, a hundred Koyas 
to carry burdens, fetch supplies, etc., for the Rohillas, and a 
hundred Madigas to act as horse-keepers- The whole country 
appears to have been at the mercy of these undisciplined 
Rohillas. 'All was grist,' writes Mr. Cain,^ 'that came to 
their mill, even the clothes of the poor Koi women, who were 
frequently stripped and then regarded as objects of ridicule. 
The Kois have frequently told me that they never could lie 
down to rest at night without feeling that before morning 
their slumbers might be rudely disturbed, their houses burnt 
and their property carried off. As a rule they hid their grain 

^ Ind. Ant., v, 303. 



in caves and holes of large trees .... The last great CHAP. XV. 
plundering took place in 1859 not far from Parnasala.' Bhadra- 

The present position of the Bhadrachalam zamindar is in 
many respects unlike that of most other zamindars in this 
Presidency owing to his estate having been first settled by 
the Central Provinces Government. The point is referred to 
in Chapter XI. 

Bhadrachalam is considered a holy spot, since Rama is 
supposed to have lived there for some time after the abduc- 
tion of Sita. The name means 'the hill of Bhadra,' and is 
said to be derived from the fact that a saint of that name was 
living there at the time of Rama's sojourn. Rama promised 
to return when he had found Sita, and did so after many years, 
and gave the saint salvation. The temple in the village, 
which is built on the top of a small hillock and is not remark- 
able architecturally, is supported by an endowment from the 
treasury of the Nizam of Hyderabad, which amounts to 
Rs. 19,000 a year but small sums from which are diverted to 
the upkeep of the temple at Parnasala and those in Hyderabad 
territory at Motigadda and Viruvandi opposite Chintalagudem 
and Turubaka in this taluk. Legend says that the first 
beginnings of the Bhadrachalam shrine were made by a 
hairdgi who took up his abode there, built a small temple and 
carved a rude image of Rama. More authenticated history 
commences about 1725, when Rama Das, an official of the 
Nizam's government, was sent to collect the revenues of this 
taluk. Instead of transmitting the money, he spent it in 
enlarging the shrine and building the gopuram- His superiors 
at last objected to this, and sent a number of Rohillas who 
carried him to Hyderabad, where he died after an imprisonment 
of twelve years. Tradition, however, declares that he was 
miraculously ransomed by Rama and Lakshmana (who 
appeared before the then Nizam in person) and returned to 
Bhadrachalam, where he disappeared and became one with 
the god. His adventures are the subject of a book of Telugu 
poems, called the Rama Das kirtana, which is widely known 
throughout the country. The poems in this are often sung by 
the Telugu bards {bhdgavatas) who are in such favour at social 
gatherings throughout south India. 

Rama Das was succeeded in his office by a certain Tumu 
Lakshminarasimha Rao who, wiser than his predecessor, 
annually despatched part of the tribute and devoted the rest 
to finishing the work the latter had begun. He also com- 
menced another temple. While he was thus engaged a wealthy 
man from Madras, named Varadarama Das, brought two lakhs 



CHAP. XV. of rupees to Bhadrachalam and agreed to help him to complete 
Bhadra- the work. Before this could be done, however, the Nizam's 
c HALA M. government, dissatisfied with the small amount of revenue 
received, sent a number of sowars to take Lakshminarasimha 
Rao to Hyderabad. He bribed the sowars to give him a 
little grace, promising to follow them shortly to Hyderabad. 
The rich man from Madras died soon after their departure ; 
and Lakshminarasimha Rao embarked on rafts to cross the 
river, taking with him the dead man, his widow and mother, 
his own mother and a number of servants- Half way across 
he threw the corpse into the river and plunged in himself, 
followed by the widow, her mother-in-law and most of their 

The Nizam originally endowed the temple with a lakh of 
rupees, but the endowment was gradually reduced till in 
1840-41 it was fixed at Rs. 19,125, for which a sanad was 
given. An important festival takes place at the temple in the 
month of Chaitra (March-April) and is said to be attended by 
as many as 20,000 people from all parts of India, in spite of 
the difficulties of the journey thither. A common object of 
the pilgrimage is to obtain children ; the childless women 
sleep behind the temple and draw an augury of the future 
from their dreams. 

Dummagudem : Thirteen miles north of Bhadrachalam. 
Population 2,556. It was the head-quarters of the old Upper 
Godavari Navigation project referred to in Chapter VII. 
Operations on this were discontinued in 1871, but while they 
were in progress Dummagudem was a busy town. It is now 
an insignificant village. The anient is in good condition and 
a large lock stands close to the village and a canal runs 
parallel with the river there for two miles. The lock is in 
fair condition, but was much damaged by the floods of 1900. 
The village is also the head-quarters of the Church Missionary 
Society in the district (see p. 41) and the centre (p. 112) of a 
lace-making industry fostered by this. A number of roughly 
carved idols have been dug up near the place. 
Gundaia. Gundala : Four and a half miles east of Bhadrachalam. 

Population 359. This (like Sarpavaram in the Cocanada taluk) 
is said to be the place where king Janamejaya, the son of 
Parikshit, performed the sacrifice described in the Maha- 
bharata because his father had been bitten by a snake. A 
hot spring in the bed of the Godavari near by is pointed out 
as the pit {giindam) where the sacrifice was performed. 
Pilgrims to Bhadrachalam bathe in this, and the name 
Gundala is supposed to be derived from it. 




Kumarasvamigudem : Twenty-six miles south-east of chap. xv. 
Bhadrachalam. Population 1 10. Contains a very old and Bhadra- 
sacred temple to Kumarasvami, son of Siva. He was devoted chalam. 
to the fair sex more than was seemly, and his father cured Kumara- 
him by contriving that any woman he looked upon should at svamigiidem. 
once assume the shape of his mother, Parvati. The first 
occasion on which this happened was at Kumarasvamigudem, 
and Kumarasvami induced Siva to direct that a bath in the 
Godavari at that spot should have great sanctifying virtue. 
The temple has no income and is very much out of repair. 

Kunravaram: Stands at the junction of the Saveri and Kunnavaram. 
Godavari rivers; population 1,107. Formerly the station of 
the Special Assistant Agent and now the head-quarters of the 
District Forest Officer, Upper Godavari. It is an important 
point for the river-borne trade, as it is beyond the Ghats 
and the unbridged Saveri and carts can travel from it to 

Parnasala : Twenty-two miles by road north of Bhadra- Pamasaia. 
chalam. Population 276. It is widely believed in the district 
that this is the spot on the banks of the Godavari described 
in the Ramayana where Ravana carried off Sita. 

In a stream bed near the village the people show the stone 
on which Sita is supposed to have sat while bathing. Certain 
marks on a rock resemble foot-prints, and these are therefore 
called Sita's foot-prints, and are revered accordingly. On 
another rock are yellow stains which are attributed to the 
yellow dye from Sita's clothes when they were laid out to dry, 
or, according to another account, to the saffron she used to 
adorn herself withal. The black stain left by Rama's sash 
when put out to dry is also shown on another rock. The 
Nalugu gutta hill on the opposite side of the river is supposed 
to have been formed by an accumulation of nalugu (a kind of 
soap) left by Sita after her daily bath. Behind the Vishnu 
temple is a hollow which is pointed out as the exact place 
where Sita was seized ; some of the earth is said to have 
been carried off with her. There is also a Siva temple in the 
neighbourhood where, it is said, Ravana used to pretend to 
worship, disguised as a mendicant. 

A small festival is held at Parnasala in Chaitra (March- 
April) at the same time as the Bhadrachalam festival, and 
those who visit the latter place go on to Parnasala. 

Rekapalle : Twenty-eight miles east-south-east of Bhadra- Rekapaile. 
chalam, and below the junction of the Godavari and Saveri 
rivers. Population 617. The name means 'wing village' 
and is explained as referring to the abduction of Sita which 



CHAP. XV. tradition locates in this taluk. It is supposed that the wings 
Bhadra- of the bird Jatayu, who tried to oppose Ravana's flight but 

CHALAM. ^^g j.jjjg^j ^y j^.^^ jgjj j^g^g^ 

Rekapalle is still important as the chief village of the most 
considerable of the inferior proprietors of this part of the 
country. The Rekapalle estate formed only a part of the 
large possessions of the Ashwa Raos of Palavancha and 
Bhadrachalam referred to in the account of the latter place 
above, and it was leased in 1574 to a family of Korukonda 
(in Rajahmundry taluk) who enjoyed it for nearly two and a 
half centuries. In 1814 the then holder was murdered by his 
four diwans, who seem to have enjoyed the estate thereafter 
either jointly or successively. Three of the four having died, 
the survivor, Venkayya, became for a time the sole proprie- 
tor; but in 1857 he was compelled to hand over a portion of 
the estate, then known as the Marrigudem taluk, to one 
Rajaji, the son of one of his deceased accomplices. Rajaji 
misconducted himself, and his share was given over to the 
Bhadrachalam zamindar's direct control by the Central Pro- 
vinces Government in 1862. The present proprietor of 
Rekapalle is the son of Venkayya. The relations of the 
inferior to the superior proprietors in this taluk are referred to 
in Chapter XL Rekapalle was formerly the head-quarters of 
a taluk which comprised that part of the Bhadrachalam taluk 
which lies to the east of a line running due north from a point 
a little to the east of Gaurldevipeta. 

This country joined in the Rampa rebellion of 1879, and at 
one time gave a great deal of trouble to the authorities. The 
causes of the rising were quite difl'erent from those which 
operated in Rampa. Under the Central Provinces administra- 
tion, podii cultivation had been almost unrestricted, and the 
assessment on it had been only four annas an axe. The 
Madras Government almost trebled the assessment, excluded 
the cultivators from certain tracts, and levied a tax on the 
felling of certain species of reserved trees. These new taxes 
and restrictions were considered a grievance, and it was for 
this reason that the Rampa leaders found adherents in the 
Rekapalle country. On the tenth of July some Rampa 
insurgents under Ambul Reddi, aided by a number of 
Rekapalle people, attacked the Vaddigudem police-station. 
They were driven back, and a party of armed police was 
directed to proceed up to the river from Rajahmundry in 
a steamer and launch. The steamer which was without a 
guard or arms, incautiously went on ahead, was attacked a 
little above the gorge, and was taken by the insurgents. A 



force of 125 sepoys was then sent up the river, the Godavari 
and Saveri were patrolled by steamers, and posts were 
established along their banks. By September the people had 
resumed their ordinary occupations and quiet was restored. 
The Rekapalle country was again disturbed by an incursion 
of Tamman Dora in October 1880. He looted a few defence- 
less villages, but his stay in this quarter did not last long. 

Sri Ramagiri (' holy Rama's hill ') lies forty-four miles 
south by east of Bhadrachalam. It is supposed to have been 
here that the bird Jatayu, who had tried to hinder Ravana's 
abduction of Sita but been mortally wounded in the attempt, 
told the news of the abduction with his dying breath to Rama 
as he passed that way. The grateful Rama performed the 
funeral rites of the faithful bird at Sri Ramagiri. The god is 
known as Kulasa (' the joyful ') Rama, because he here had 
news of his lost wife ; while the Rama at Parnasala is Soka 
(' the sorrowful '), because his bereavement occurred there. 
The temple is supported by the zamindar of Rekapalle, who 
devotes to its maintenance the net income derived from the 
village of Kunnavaram, which ordinarily amounts to about 
Rs. 800 a year. 

The neighbouring hill called Vali Sugriva is so named 
from the legend that it was there that Rama obtained further 
news of Sita from Sugriva, the brother of Vali and king of the 



Sri Ramagiri. 








The Chodavaram division comprises most of what was in 
former times known as 'the Rampa country,' from the village 
of that name which stands just north of Chodavaram village. 
Its history is sketched in the account of Rampa below. 
Almost all the division is occupied by the Eastern Ghats, and 
four-fifths of it consists of forest. The density of the popula- 
tion is as low as 32 persons to the square mile. There is only 
one metalled road in the division, namely that from the head- 
quarters to Rajahmundry, but the road from the former to 
Devipatam is partially maintained. 

Only one village in the division is on ryotwari tenure, four 
are held as mokhasas direct from Government, 50 belong to 
zamindaris, and the rest, some 300 in number, consists of hill 
muttas held on the kdval tenure referred to in Chapter XL 
The zamindari villages are said to have belonged long ago 
to some Reddi chiefs called the Reddi Razus, and to have 
been sold by them, apparently before the permanent settle- 
ment of 1802-03, to various lowland zamindars. At present 
20 villages belong to the Polavaram estate, four to Pithapuram, 
and two to Gutala ; while the independent estates of Dandangi 
and Toyyeru and the disputed mokhasa estate of Konda- 
modalu contain respectively twelve, eight and four villages. 
The hill muttas are 24 in number and often have a separate 
history of their own. A brief description of them will be 
found below. 

As there is only one Government village in the division, 
the ordinary statistics of soils and cultivation are not avail- 
able. The chief crops are said to be paddy, pulses, ragi, 
cambu and maize. In the hills, podu cultivation is the rule. 

Bandapalli : Four miles east-north-east of Chodavaram. 
Population 223. It is the head village of a hill mutta compris- 
ing thirteen villages. In the fitiiri of 1840 the then muttadar 
and his eldest son took a prominent part among the 
insurgents. A reward was offered for their capture, but they 
disappeared and were never seen again. The mansabdar of 
Rampa, on coming into power in 1848, annexed the mutta on 
the plea that there were no heirs to it, though the vanished 
muttadar had left an infant son. In the settlement of 1879, 
made by Mr. Sullivan at the end of the Rampa rebellion, this 
son was given a sanad and his quit-rent was fixed at Rs. 42. 


Birampalli : Head village of a hill mutta of eleven villages. CHAP. xv. 
Lies seven miles south-east of Chodavaram, and contains l66 Choda- 
inhabitants. The people of this mutta joined the rebellion varam. 
of 1879; but they seem to have been driven to this act by the Birampalli. 
rapacity of a renter to whom the muttadar had sub-let the 
property. This renter admitted having made Rs. 300 a year 
out of it, though the quit-rent was only Rs. 40. At the 
settlement of 1879 no punishment was imposed upon the 
people for having joined the late rebellion, as it was conceded 
that they had some excuse for their action, but the muttadar 
was deposed for maladministration and the property was 
given to his brother on a quit-rent of Rs, 42. 

Boduliiru ; Head village of a hill mutta of the Rampa Boduluru. 
country, containing 36 villages and paying a quit-rent of 
Rs. 60. It lies 25 miles north by west of Chodavaram, and 
contains 90 inhabitants. The muttadar joined in the Rampa 
rebellion, and had not 'come in ' at the time of Mr. Sullivan's 
settlement. His quit-rent was accordingly raised from Rs. 40 
to Rs. 60. 

Bolagonda: Head village of a hill mutta; lies eight miles Bolagonda. 
north-east of Chodavaram ; population 2l8. The mansabdar 
of Rampa obtained possession of this estate in 1867 by means 
of a forged document purporting to be a deed of resignation 
by the muttadar. He obtained an income of Rs. 306 out of 
the property, though the quit-rent was only Rs. 40. The 
mutta was restored in 1 879 to its former owner, but as he had 
joined in the fituri of 1858, and in the 1879 rebellion had 
been constantly seen with the notorious Tamman Dora and 
only escaped arrest owing to the absence of direct evidence 
to connect him with the atrocities committed, his quit-rent 
was raised to Rs. 60, and the mutta was reduced by granting 
the village of Vadapalli as a reward to a loyal munsif. 

Chavala : An uninhabited village forty-two miles north Chavaia. 
by west of Chodavaram, Gives its name to a hill mutta, 
though the chief village of this is now Jajilanka, population 
23. The mutta contains 13 villages and pays a quit-rent of 
Rs. 50. The muttadar joined in the Rampa rebellion and 
had not ' come in ' at the time of Mr. Sullivan's settlement. 

Chidugiiru : Uninhabited village ten miles north-west of Chiduguru. 
Chodavaram, which gives its name to a hill mutta containing 
36 villages and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 40, the chief village 
of which is Badagunta. For participation in the rising of 
1838-40, the then muttadar was hanged and was succeeded 
by his brother. In 1872, the Rampa mansabdar took posses- 
sion of the property on the plea that it had been relinquished 







CHAP. XV. by the owner, but in 1879 a descendant of the man who had 
been hanged was appointed muttadar. 

Chodavaram : Head-quarters of the division. Population 
377. It contains a local fund dispensary (established in 
1902), and a police-station garrisoned by a Special Hill 
Reserve 40 strong, The siege it underwent at the beginning 
of the 1879 rebellion is briefly described in the account of 
Rampa below. Chodavaram was strongly held by troops 
throughout the greater part of the rebellion. It is situated on 
one side of an extensive plateau. 

Chopakonda : Eight miles south-west of Chodavaram. 
Population 67. Chief place in a hill mutta paying a quit-rent 
of Rs. 21 and containing six villages. In 1849 the mansabdar 
of Rampa obtained possession of this on the ground that the 
muttadar has disappeared, and by a village settlement 
obtained an income of Rs. 1 16 per annum from it. In 1879 the 
real muttadar, who had been alive all the time and was well 
known to the hill people, was restored. 

Dandangi : Twelve miles south-south-west of Chodavaram. 
Population 161. Is the head-quarter village of a zamindari 
estate consisting of ten villages and paying a peshkash of 
Rs. 565. The estate forms part of a property of 26 villages 
which was sold by the Reddi Razus, apparently before the 
permanent settlement, to the then zamindar of Nuzvi'd. 
This passed by sale in later years to the ancestors of the 
present owners of the Gutala zamindari, and from them (some 
time before 1855) to the ancestors of the present zamindars of 

Dorachintalapalcm : Fourteen miles north-east of Choda- 
varam. Population 27. Gives its name to a hill mutta of 
fourteen villages the chief place in which is Narasapuram. 
In 1871 the then muttadar died without legitimate issue and 
the mansabdar of R.ampa at once annexed the property. An 
illegitimate son of the late owner accordingly took a promi- 
nent part in the rebellion of 1879 ; and would not come in at the 
time of the settlement. The villagers were allowed to elect 
one of their own number as muttadar, and the quit-rent was 
raised from Rs. 50 to Rs. 70. 

Gcddada : Four miles north-west of Chodavaram. Popu- 
lation 275. Chief village of a hill mutta of the old Rampa 
estate, containing nine villages and paying a rent of Rs. 21. 

Kakiiru : Twenty-eight miles north of Chodavaram. 
Population 78. Chief village of a hill mutta of the Rampa 
country, which pays a quit-rent of Rs. 40 and contains eight 
villages. The muttadar joined in the Rampa rebellion and 






had not come in at the time of Mr. Sullivan's settlement. 
His mutta was settled by Mr. Carmichael in 1881. 

Kondamodalu : Twenty-seven miles west of Chodavaram. 
Population 332. The head-quarters of a mokhasa estate at 
the entrance to the gorge on the Godavari. The present 
owner is the grandson of the Linga Reddi who assisted 
Government in the Rampa rebellion. 

'The Government are aware,' wrote Mr. Sullivan in 1879, 
* that Linga Reddi has from the very commencement of the 
rising shown himself a most loyal adherent of the Govern- 
ment. Not only has he supplied information and messengers, 
but he has brought into the field 50 or 60 well-trained 
matchlockmen who have been of great use as scouts and 
envoys. With his following he himself on more than one 
occasion accompanied parties of troops and police . 
and has done everything he could to render assistance. It 
was he who at the commencement of the outbreak surprised 
and brought in Jangam Pulicanta Sambiah.' 

His services were rewarded by the grant, as a mokhasa, of 
the village of Ravilanka, which is held on the condition 
that the grantee attends the Collector with peons when 
required to do so,^ and pays a quit-rent of Rs. 300. Linga 
Reddi had previously, in 1858, been granted an allowance of 
Rs. 50 a month to compensate him for the withdrawal of his 
right of collecting fees on goods passing up and down the 
Godavari. This grant is conditional on good behaviour. 
Linga Reddi had just then earned the gratitude of Govern- 
ment by holding aloof from the fitiiri of his partner Subba 

Kondamodalu comprises four villages and pays Rs. 1 10 
annually to the zamindarof Polavaram. Its precise relations 
with the latter are at present the subject of a law suit. 

Kundada : Eighteen miles north-west by north of Choda- 
varam. Population 1 29. Chief village of a hill mutta 
belonging to the old Rampa estate, containing eight villages 
and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 21. The muttadar was loyal 
during the 1879 rebellion, and his village was plundered and 
burnt by the insurgents. 

Marrivada : Three miles east of Chodavaram, which gives 
its name to a hill mutta containing three villages of the old 
Rampa mutta. This was granted to the family of one Karam 
Dhulu Dora, who during the first few months of the Rampa 
rebellion was of the greatest service to the authorities. ' He 

A G.O. No. 2297, Judicial, dated iith November 1881. 
' G.O. No. 1240, Revenue, dated lith September 1858. 












Pal em. 




was always with me,' wrote the Sub-Collector, ' giving such 
assistance as guide, etc., as was in his power.' The grant 
imposed a quit-rent of Rs. 15, but not the service conditions 
attached to most of the other hill muttas. This same family 
were also given, free of rent, the mokhasa village of Dari- 
madugula in the Bandapalli mutta, which had formerly been 
their property but had been taken from them by the 
mansabdar of Rampa. 

Musurumilli : Five miles south of Chodavaram. Popula- 
tion 188. Is the chief place in a hill mutta of 18 villages. 
The people of this behaved well during the 1879 rebellion, 
and it was settled on the old quit-rent of Rs. 42. 

Nedunuru : An uninhabited village nine miles north-west 
of Chodavaram which gives its name to a hill mutta of the 
Rampa country, the chief place in which is Devarapalli and 
which pays a quit-rent of Rs. 42 and contains eleven villages. 
The muttadar joined in the Rampa rebellion and had not 
come in at the time of Mr. Sullivan's settlement. The mutta 
was settled in 1886. 

Nimmalapalcm : Twelve miles north-east of Chodavaram. 
Population 170. A mokhasa village which the present holder 
says was given to his ancestor about 1858 by the muttadar of 
Geddada, to whom he was related. It was confirmed free of 
quit-rent in the possession of the holder at the settlement 
of 1879. 

Palem : Six miles south-west of Chodavaram. Population 
319. Gives its name to a hill mutta containing nine villages 
and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 21. See also Velagapalli. 

Pamuleru : Twenty-four miles north by west of Choda- 
varam. Population 15. Gives its name to a hill mutta of the 
old Rampa country, containing eleven villages and paying a 
quit-rent of Rs. 40, the chief place in which is Kutruvada. 
This surrendered to the Rampa mansabdar about 1874, and 
was sub-let by him to an outsider who was arrested as a 
ringleader in the rebellion of 1879. In the settlement of that 
year, however, no one else was willing to take the property and 
it was given to his son on a quit-rent of Rs. 50. The quit-rent 
was reduced to Rs. 40 again about ten years ago. 

Pcta : Twenty miles south of Chodavaram. Population 
728. Chief place in a small zamindari estate containing two 
villages and paying a peshkash of Rs. 546, Its history, 
miitato nomine, is precisely the same as that of the Dandangi 

Rampa : A little hill village just north of Chodavaram. 
Population 177. Near it, beside a waterfall about 25 feet 




high, is a shrine formed of three huge boulders, two of which CHAP. XV. 
make a kind of roof, and fitted with a doorway and one 
side-wall of cut stone. The water of the fall pours conti- 
nually between the boulders. A rough lingam and other holy 
emblems have been carved out of the rock. 

Rampa was once the chief place in the small mutta of the 
same name and the residence of its muttadar. This man was 
chieftain over the whole of the old Rampa country and 
controlled the other muttadars there, and the rebellion in 
this which occurred in 1879 and is referred to below was ip 
consequence called ' the Rampa rebellion.' ' 

In the earliest records which mention him, the zamindar, 
mansabdar, or raja of Rampa is described as an independent 
ruler. Mr. Grant, in his Political Survey of the Northern Circars 
already several times referred to, calls him as independent as 
the raja of Bastar ; and the Committee of Circuit, writing in 
1787, said that, though the zamindari of Rampa belonged to 
the Circar of Rajahmunclry, yet neither the Company nor 
the Nizam's government received any tribute from it. 
' The country,' said this body, 'is represented to be extremely 
mountainous and full of jungle, the natives rude and unculti- 
vated, frequently making incursions on the adjacent countries* 
plundering the villages during the harvest, and driving off 
the cattle.' 

At the time of the permanent settlement of 1802-03 the 
Rampa country was as entirely disregarded as if it had not 
existed, and no settlement of any part of it was made. During 
the disorders which arose in this district early in the nine- 
teenth century, the mansabdar, Rambhupati Devu, descended 
with an armed force from the hills and took forcible possession 
of some villages in the plains. He was driven out of these and 
submitted, offering to acknowledge ' for ever the sovereignty 
of the Company-' 

Then (1813) for the first time a settlement was made with 
him. The villages he had taken were restored to him as 
mokhasas and, along with his ancestral possessions in the 
hills, were confirmed to him free of peshkash on condition 
that he maintained order in them and prevented incursions 
into the low country.- He appears to have leased his villages 
to certain subordinate hill chiefs or muttadars, whom he 

' The following give accounts of the early history of Kampa, the causes of 
the rebellion and its course : G.Os., Judl., Nos. 1036, dated 5th May 1879; 755, 
dated 3rd April 1879; ^^'^ 109, dated l6th January 1880. Also the report of 
Mr. D.F. Carmichael, when Special Commissioner, dated November ist, 1881; 
and the Presidency Administration Reports for 1879-80 and 1880-81. 

' G.O. No. 1036, Judicial, dated 5th May 1879, appendix, p. 11. 





required to keep order in their own charges and from whom 
he received an income of Rs. 8,750 per annum.' These were 
the ancestors of the present muttadars. 

He died in 1835 leaving a daughter and an illegitimate son 
named Sri Madhuvati Rambhupati Devu, and the former was 
recognized by the muttadars as heiress to the zamindari. She 
declined to marry, declaring her intention of following the 
example of a former zamindarni of the country who had 
remained unwedded all her life.^ Some time afterwards, 
however, her chastity was suspected, and she and her brother, 
both of whom were apparently detested, were driven out of 
the country. 

They were maintained by the Government, and in l840the 
estate was placed under the Court of Wards. Grave disturb- 
ances followed (a police force was cut up in 1840) ^ but by 
1845 the more turbulent of the muttadars had been appre- 
hended or driven to flight. The zamindarni surrendered the 
estate in favour of her illegitimate brother* ; and in 1848, after 
protracted negotiations, the muttadars agreed to accept this 
man as mansabdar and to perform their old police duties, on 
condition that their united quit-rents should not exceed 
Rs. 1,000 and that the mansabdar should never attempt to 
exact more from them. 

The mansabdar agreed to this, but quickly broke his 
promise. His confiscations of muttas and oppressions of the 
people resulted in risings against his authority in 1858 and 
1861 ; and such was the hatred he inspired that when, in 1862, 
he attempted to go and reside in his property an insurrection 
arose which had to be put down by a strong force of police. 
He continued his depredations, however, and by 1879 had 
succeeded in getting eight muttas into his own enjoyment, 
had doubled the quit-rent in several others, and was deriving 
a considerable revenue from taxes on fuel and grazing and 
other unauthorized cesses. 

He succeeded in doing this largely by making it appear, 
sometimes by disgraceful devices, that all his actions had the 
sanction of Government ; and unfortunately the officers of 
Government neither adequately realized what was going on 
in his country nor made sufficient endeavours to protect the 
muttadars.^ They forgot that the agreement of 1848 was 
made under the authority of Government ; and some of the 

' G.O. No. 109, Judicial, dated i6th January 1880, p. 75. 

2 G O. No. 1036, Judicial, dated 5th May 1879, appendix, p. 3. 

' Ibid., appendix, p. 5. 

* Ibid., p. II. 

^ G.O. No. 109, Judicial, dated i6th January 1880, p. 8, 



muttadars who complained of the mansabdar's exactions were CHAP. XV. 
referred to the Civil Courts, though the hill men are notorious Choda- 

for their dread of the plains. The growing discontent among ' 

the people was increased by new abkari regulations prevent- 
ing the drawing of toddy for domestic purposes and leasing 
the toddy revenue to renters. These renters demanded that 
the muttadars should pay fees (called chigiirupannu) for the 
right to tap toddy, and the mansabdar threatened to levy an 
additional tax, called /nodalupannu, at the rate of one-half or 
two-thirds of the chigiirupannu. 

This was the last straw, and was the immediate cause 
of the ' Rampa rebellion ' of 1879. The unpopularity of the 
police, who had assisted in introducing the new toddy rules 
and also oppressed the people on their own account, was a 
contributory cause. The people said that * they could not 
stand all the taxes that were being imposed ; that three years 
ago came the chigiirupannu ; that this year the mansabdar was 
dtvc\3.nd\ng modalupannu ; that the constables were extorting 
fowls ; and that, as they could not live, they might as well 
kill the constables and die.' ^ The operation of the civil law 
of the country was an additional grievance. Traders from 
the low country had taken advantage of the simplicity of the 
hill men, ' who would much sooner walk into a tiger's den 
than put in an appearance in the Rajahmundry court,' to 
make unfair contracts with them, and then, if these were not 
fulfilled according to the traders' own interpretation, to file 
suits against them, obtain ex parte decrees, and distrain as 
much of their property as they could lay hands on. In satis- 
faction of a debt of Rs. 5, cattle and produce worth Rs. lOO 
had. been sometimes carried off in this manner, and sometimes, 
it was said, the formality of a suit was dispensed with, and 
the trader, accompanied by a friend personating an officer of 
the court, made the distraint without any authority whatever. 
The hill people laid the blame for all this injustice on Govern- 
ment and Government rules and regulations, and thought that 
their only remedy lay in rising against the authorities. 

On the 9th March 1879 the police inspector of Rampa 
reported that there was reason to apprehend a disturbance. 
The Collector had gone to Bhadrachalam, so the Sub-Collector 
and Superintendent of Police set out for the hills with a small 
body of police. At Gokavaram they met one of the muttadars 
who was suspected of disaffection, but he tried to allay their 
suspicions and accompanied them to Chodavaram. The next 
day, however, two policemen were stopped near that place by 

' G.O, No. 109, Judicial, dated i6th January 1880, p. 10. 




a body of armed men, and news was received of the capture 
by some insurgents of a body of police near Boduluru. Early 
on the 13th March a large party of hill men came close to 
Chodavaram and stated their grievances to the Sub-Collector, 
who went out unarmed to meet them. He attempted to reassure 
them and they expressed themselves satisfied ; but a few 
minutes later they called out that they could not trust the 
Sircar's promises, and began firing on the camp. No particular 
harm was done by their fire, but the Sub-Collector's party, 
which consisted of 39 police of all ranks with 32 carbines, 
was now cut off. They had no difficulty in holding out at 
Chodavaram until reinforcements came up, and by the 17th 
the force in the village amounted to 149 men. Some 400 
officers and men of the 39th Native Infantry had also been 
landed at Cocanada on the l6th and were moving up the 
country. Meanwhile, however, at Rampa two captured con- 
stables were solemnly sacrificed before the chief shrine by the 
insurgents, the leaders of the latter announced that rebellion 
was their only hope, and the whole of the Rampa country was 
speedily ablaze. 

In the next month (April) the disturbance spread to the 
Golgonda hills of Vizagapatam, and in July to the Rekapalle 
country in Bhadrachalam; but the causes of the disaffection 
there (which are mentioned in the accounts of Rekapalle and 
Dutcharti) were essentially different from those operating in 
Rampa itself. 

The disturbed area now comprised over 5)000 square miles 
of wooded and hilly country. The operations of the troops 
were much hampered by the nature of the ground, and the 
malcontents took advantage of their superior knowledge of 
the country to maintain a harassing guerilla warfare, avoid- 
ing all direct encounters with the troops, but attacking isolated 
police-stations and burning or looting the villages of those 
who assisted the authorities. Troops were hastened up to 
the country, and by the end of 1879 the Government forces 
included, besides several hundred police drafted from neigh- 
bouring districts, as many as six regiments of Madras Infantry, 
two companies of Sappers and Miners, and a squadron 
of cavalry and a wing of infantry from the Hyderabad 

The chief leaders of the insurgents were four notorious 
characters named Chandrayya, Sirdar Jangam Pulicanta 
Sambayya, Tamman Dora, and Ambul Reddi of Boduluru. 
The second of these was arrested as early as April 29th, 1879. 
Chandrayya, however, scored many successes in the 



Yellavaram division at the beginning of May, and succeeded 
in burning Addatigela police-station. He was nearly captured 
in the middle of that month, but in June he shut up a party of 
police under a European officer for some days in Addatigela. 
The spread of the disaffection to Rekapalle and Dutcharti, 
and the fear that the hill tribes of Polavaram division might 
join the insurgents, led to strenuous efforts on the part 
of the authorities, and troops were moved up from all sides. 
The northern and eastern frontiers of the Rampa country 
were occupied by strong detachments of sepoys, and military 
posts were established along the banks of the Godavari and 
Saveri. At the same time Mr. Sullivan, First Member of the 
Board of Revenue, was appointed (in July 1879) to visit the 
district and ascertain the real causes of the trouble and 
suggest remedies for it. The steps he took, which included 
the deposition of the mansabdar and a promise that the 
muttadars should thenceforth deal directly with Government, 
did much to allay the excitement, and before the end of 
August 1879 as many as 70 of Chandrayya's men had been 
'captured, and Rampa was comparatively quiet. 

Rekapalle was also pacified about the same time, and the 
apprehended rising in Polavaram did not take place. The 
remaining rebels were now driven north to the hills of Gol- 
gonda and Jeypore. Ambul Reddi was captured in Novem- 
ber 1879 and Chandrayya was killed in February 1880. Their 
removal broke the back of the trouble. Disturbances went on 
in a desultory fashion in the Vizagapatam district, and in 
October 1880 Tamman Dora made a brief incursion into that 
part of the country. But by November 1880 quiet was finally 
and everywhere restored. 

The most deadly foe of the police and troops engaged in 
suppressing the outbreak had been the malaria which infests 
this part of the country. At the end of the March 1880, out of 
2,400 men employed, no less than 590 were on the sick list. 
Many deaths occurred,and in many other cases those attacked 
were months before they completely recovered. 

The mansabdar of Rampa, as has been said, was deposed. 
As the Government order put it, ' for gross misconduct and 
oppression the Government have cancelled absolutely and for 
ever the mansabdari tenure of Rampa and the mokhasa tenure 
of the villages of the plain.' The mutta held by the mansab- 
dar was also cancelled, and he himself was detained as a State 
prisoner at Berhampore. Most of the muttadars were either 
reappointed or replaced, and their position was defined. As 
early as September 1879 Mr. Sullivan had held a durbar at 





CHAP. XV. which the new sanads were distributed. With four excep- 
Choda- tions, the settlement was made with the muttadar actually in 
VARAM. undisputed possession or, where the mutta had been annexed 
by the mansabdar, with the heir of the former muttadar. In 
arranging the terms of the tenure of each mutta, the loyalty 
or disloyalty of its owner in the recent disturbances was 
considered and the quit-rent was raised or reduced in accord- 
ance therewith. Generally, however, the muttas were granted 
on the same terms as in 1848. The sanads contained two 
conditions ; firstly, that a stipulated annual quit-rent, including 
an abkari tax and a local fund cess, should be paid annually 
to Government ; and, secondly, that the muttadar should 
conduct himself loyally and peaceably, and should give every 
assistance to the Government in maintaining quiet and order. 
A warning was added that if the muttadar failed in his duties 
his mutta was liable to be resumed. The decision of Govern- 
ment as to the rights of the muttadars over the forests will be 
found in Chapter V. 

The Rampa mutta had always been in the personal enjoy- 
ment of the mansabdar, and was resumed by Government. It 
had formerly consisted of thirteen villages. Ten of these, 
with the title of muttadar of Rampai were given to the munsif 
of Chodavaram, who had given the greatest assistance to 
Government throughout the outbreak, had been their channel 
of communication with the muttadars, had obtained informa- 
tion regarding the movements of the rebels, and had got 
together a body of armed men to co-operate with the police 
and the troops. The grant was made free of quit-rent, and 
was conditional on the grantee's being of good behaviour, 
paying the local fund cess, and presenting to the Collector 
every year, in token of his allegiance, a bow and three arrows. 
The other three villages of the Rampa mutta were given to the 
muttadar of Marrivada, who had also shown his loyalty during 
the rebellion. 

Sirigindalapadu : One mile south-east of Chodavaram. 
Population 75. The village used to belong to the Bandapalli 
mutta ; but at the settlement of 1879 it was given at the request 
of the muttadar to a relative of his, who was going to assist 
him in the management of the mutta, and who had shown 
himself loyal in the recent rebellion. It pays no quit-rent. 

Tadapelii. Tadapclli : Fourteen miles north-west by north of Choda- 

varam. Population 466. Chief village of a hill mutta contain- 
ing nine villages. The quit-rent fixed in 1848 was Rs. 40, but 
it was illegally raised by the mansabdar to Rs. lOO in 1862. 
The muttadar did not take part in the insurrection of 1879 





but many of his people did, and he himself not only assisted 

the insurgents with supplies but also concealed himself from 

the officers of Government and gave them no help whatever- varan 

In consideration of the fact however that his mutta is an 

isolated and rugged tract, right in the path taken by the rebels 

in their raids, it was considered at the settlement of 1879 that 

his conduct was more due to fear of the rebels than disloyalty 

to Government, and his quit-rent was only raised to Rs. 63. 

Tunnuru : Ten miles north-west of Chodavaram. Popula- Tunnuru. 
tion 80, Gives its name to a hill mutta containing 16 villages 
and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 35. This was returned as 
deserted at the settlement of Rampa in 1848, but by 1879 it 
had been reoccupied, and a sanad was accordingly given to a 
descendant of a former muttadar. 

Vadapalli : Twelve miles south-west of Chodavaram. 
Population 193. It was given to an ancestor of the present 
holder by Government in recognition of his services in the 
Rampa rebellion, on a quit-rent of Rs. 15. 

Vclagapalli : Eight miles south-south-west of Chodavaram. 
Population 50. The chief place in a mutta containing six 
villages and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 21. In 1848 it also 
included the Palem mutta; but at the settlement of 1879 it 
was found that these had been divided, and separate sanads 
were accordingly given to the respective owners in that year. 

Valamuru: Twenty miles west-north-west of Chodavaram. 
Population 35. Gives its name to a mutta containing 22 
villages and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 42. This was one of the 
old Rampa muttas, but behaved well in the 1879 rebellion. 
At the settlement of that year there was a dispute about the 
succession which is described in Mr. Sullivan's report. 

Vemulakonda : Ten miles north-west of Chodavaram. 
Population 95. Chief place in a mutta containing ten villages 
and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 26. The then muttadar joined 
in the rebellion of 1858, but the people took no part in the 
rising of 1879. 







CHAP. XV. The Polavaram division is the south-westernmost portion of 
PoLAVARAM. the Godavari Agency, and is the only part of the district 
which lies on the right bank of the river. The density of its 
population {103 to the square mile) is far above that of any 
of the other agency tracts. At the permanent settlement of 
1802-03 it was all included in the Polavaram estate. At 
present only 24 of its villages are zamindari land, of which 
twelve belong to the so-called Polavaram and Pattisam estates, 
which are really one property in the possession of the present 
Polavaram proprietor ; five belong to the Gutala estate and 
four to the estate of Gangolu ; and one village belongs to each 
of the muttas of Bayyanagiidem, Billumilli and Jangareddi- 
gudem, which three form one estate. The fortunes of these 
various properties are referred to below. 

Polavaram is more fertile and more civilized than the 
other parts of the Agency. On the west and south it is as flat 
as the adjacent Yernagudem taluk, though more covered with 
jungle. It possesses no industries worth mention. The 
attempts made to discover coal at Bedadanuru, the mica and 
plumbago of the division, and the chances of finding gold 
in its south-west corner, are referred to in Chapter I. 

The Pattisam and Taduvayi temples are well known in the 
surrounding country. 
Gang6lu. Gangolu : Eight miles west-south-west of Polavaram. 

Population 1,784. Its hamlet Hukumpeta is the head-quarters 
of a zamindari which was acquired from the Gutala estate by 
purchase about 40 years ago, and is still held by the descend- 
ants of the purchasers. It comprises four villages and pays a 
peshkash of Rs. 1,240. 
Gutala. Gutala : Five miles south of Polavaram. Population 

3,300. Contains a vernacular lower secondary school for boys 
and a Sanskrit school. It was once the chief place of one 
of the ' pergunnas ' of the ancient Polavaram zamindari, and 
its history is sketched in the account of this latter below. In 
the circumstances there narrated, it was put up to auction in 
1810. In 1812 and 1813 it was sold for arrears of revenue, and 
in 1827 it passed by private sale to one Maniyam Venkata- 
ratnam, an ancestor of the present holder. Since then various 
purchases and sales have much modified the extent of the 



Pata Patti- 

estate. The most important of these were the purchase of 74 CHAP. xv. 
hamlets of the old Nagavaram mutta and the sale of the Polavaram. 
Gangolu mutta some 40 years ago. The estate now comprises 
five villages in the Polavaram division (including Nagavaram 
and its hamlets) and five villages elsewhere. It pays a 
peshkash of Rs. 6,721. 

Jangareddigiidem : Thirty miles south-west of Polavaram. Jangareddi- 
Population 1,918. Head-quarters of a small estate consisting S^"^^"- 
of this village, Billumilli and Bayyanagiidem, and paying a 
peshkash of Rs. 3,008. In 1832 Jangareddigiidem was sub- 
divided from the Polavaram estate in circumstances referred 
to in the account of that property below. It was subsequently 
bought (along with the other two villages) by the grandfather 
of the present holder some 50 years ago. 

Pata Pattisam : A hamlet of this, called Pattisam Nidhi, 
forms a picturesque and rocky island in the Godavari, three 
miles south of Polavaram. The population of the whole 
village is 2,002. It is called Pata (old) Pattisam to distinguish 
it from Kotta (new) Pattisam, a hamlet of Gutala. A division 
of the old Polavaram estate, containing five villages and 
paying a peshkash of Rs, 5,209, is called the Pattisam 
division, but this was never held separately from Polavaram 

The village is the scene of a well attended festival at 
Sivaratri. The local sthala piirdnam says that the Pattisam 
hill went to the Himalayas to attend a conference of 
mountains, but, not being shown proper consideration, left the 
others and went and did penance by itself. By means of this 
penance it induced the Siva of the Himalayas to leave that 
range and come to Pattisam, where he now resides in the 
Virabhadra temple. This temple also contains two stone 
images of women, called Aniswari and Puniswari, one of 
whom is represented as being in childbed. These are much 
worshipped by childless women desirous of offspring. The 
suppliant places her foot on a platform in front of the figures, 
and vows that if a child like a pearl or like coral is born to 
her, she will present a pearl or a piece of coral to the images. 
In another part of the same temple are figures of Durga and 
Mahishasuramardhani, the form adopted by the goddess 
Parvati when she killed the demon Mahishasura. Sheep and 
fowls are sacrificed before these idols, though they are inside 
the precincts of the temple. The spilling of blood is not as a 
rule permitted inside Brahmanical shrines. The Virabhadra 
temple has two villages attached to it, which bring in an 
annual income of about Rs. 2,000. 






Another sacred place on the Pattisam island is the 
Bhadrakaligundam, a pit in the bed of the river which is 
a favourite bathing-place. The Mahanandisvaram temple 
on another small island four miles up the river is also 
fairly well known. It is supposed to be the residence of the 
bull (nandi) which belongs to the Pattisam temple. It has 
one agrahdram village as an endowment, and this brings in 
Rs. 800 a year. On the island is a cave which is popularly 
supposed to be the entrance of an underground passage to 

Polavaram : Head-quarters of the Agency Deputy Collector 
(who, however, is temporarily located at Rajahmundry) and 
the deputy tahsildar. Population 4,455. It also contains the 
office of a sub-registrar, a local fund dispensary (established 
by Government in 1880), a police-station, a travellers' bunga- 
low, a Government girls' school and an English lower 
secondary school for boys. It was formerly the chief place 
in the important zamindari of the same name, which formerly 
embraced the whole of this division and much of Yernagiidem 
and Rajahmundry taluks, but now comprises only twelve 
villages paying a peshkash of Rs. 6,713. 

This estate was long under the independent rule of an 
ancient Hindu family who derived their authority from the 
Gajapati kings of Orissa, and are said to have been descended 
from that line. Little is known of the estate previous to the 
British occupation of the country, but the names of three of 
its zamindars, Venkatapati, Jagannatha, and Venkatarama, 
have been preserved. It was then divided into the three 
estates of Polavaram, Gutala and Kottapalli, and subordinate 
to it was the small hill zamindari of Nagavaram. 

In 1780 the zamindar, Lakshminarayana Devu, died leaving 
three sons named Mangapati Devu, Narasimha Devu and 
Vijayagopala Devu, of whom the last was the only son of his 
second wife. Mangapati was the eldest of the three and 
succeeded to the zamindari. In 1781 Kottapalli, which had 
been temporarily in charge of another holder, was restored to 
the estate, and Mangapati was thus in possession of all three 
of the subdivisions of the property. As he was a minor, his 
diwan managed the estate for him. This man was the brother 
of Vijayagopala's mother, and he induced the Chief at 
Masulipatam to recommend (1782) that the estate should 
be divided into three so as to make a provision for each of 
the three brothers. This was done, and Polavaram fell 
to Mangapati, Gutala to Vijayagopala, and Kottapalli to 


In 1785 Dasu Reddi, the zamindar of Nagavaram, pretend- chap, xv 
ing that Vijayagopala's diwan was not managing the Gutala polavakam. 

estate properly, captured that town and took the young Raja 

and his mother prisoners. He was perhaps egged on to do 
this by Mangapati, between whom and Vijayagopala's 
mother there was no love lost. A force of seven companies 
of sepoys marched up to liberate the prisoners and restore 
order. The Nagavaram zamindar then moved his prisoners 
to his own estate and the English force accordingly marched 
as far as Anantapalli. The zamindar then returned to 
Gutala, and the English force, supposing he would release 
the prisoners, retired. He still however refused to do so, and 
Gutala was accordingly captured. Two sepoys were wounded 
and about eighty peons killed and wounded on both sides 
during the attack. Dasu Reddi was sent to Masulipatam and 
Vijayagopala was restored to Gutala. 

Similar disturbances took place in 1786-87, when the hill 
people, who were mostly adherents of Dasu Reddi's, were 
driven out of the Company's territory by a detachment of 
sepoys. In 1788 peace was for the time restored, and the 
jealousy between the branches of the Polavaram family 
appeased, by placing the whole of the estate under one diwan. 

This diwan managed the property efficiently till his death 
in 1790. A successor was then appointed with the apparent 
consent of the three brothers. The mother of Vijayagopala 
refused however to acquiesce in the new arrangement, and 
made herself supreme in Gutala. The Company's troops 
marched up to Gutala to bring her to order, and when they 
arrived she was discovered with her son in a room in the 
palace in which were two large open vessels of gunpowder. 
She threatened that if she was touched she would destroy 
herself and all that were near, and the Company's officer 
prudently retired. The lady was ultimately pacified, and 
surrendered quietly. She was taken to Masulipatam, Vijaya- 
gopala was detained at Rajahmundry, and Mangapati was 
recognized as zamindar of the united estates of Gutala and 
Polavaram. Narasimha remained in charge of Kottapalli. 

Thus far the disturbances in the estate had been due to 
private family feuds rather than to disloyalty to Government. 
The firmer revenue administration of the new Collectors 
appointed in 1794 however caused a real rebellion of the 
whole family. Mangapati gave a great deal of trouble to the 
authorities, failing to pay his peshkash and withholding the 
accounts which were necessary to ascertain how far he had 
suffered from the recent famine and what remissions should be 
granted him on that account. So obstinate was he, that the 



CHAP. XV. Board of Revenue directed that he should be taken prisoner. 
He was accordingly seized and confined and his estate 
attached; but he was afterwards liberated on his agreeing 
to discharge the arrears in two years, to give security for the 
current revenue as it fell due, and to make an immediate 
payment of sixteen thousand pagodas. 

At this juncture Vijayagopala escaped from Rajahmundry 
and took refuge with Linga Reddi, a hill chief whose estate 
lay on the east bank of the Godavari above Polavaram. He 
was induced by his host and a fugitive revenue defaulter 
(who had plundered Undi in 1798) to join them in a rebellion, 
and their combined parties commenced a jituri by plundering 
two villages in the Polavaram estate. 

His brother's revolt encouraged Mangapati to give further 
trouble about his revenue. He claimed indulgence, which 
was refused. He promised to pay, but still delayed. His 
conduct became refractory and turbulent ; and he made an 
exorbitant claim for a remission of over fifty thousand 
pagodas, and showed that he was prepared to back this up 
by force. Negotiations ensued while both the zamindar and 
the Government collected their forces for the expected 
struggle. The zamindar's demand was finally refused, and a 
military detachment moved rapidly up the country and 
captured Polavaram. The zamindar however escaped, and 
the principal object of the officer in command, who had 
hoped to end the affair by seizing his person, was frustrated. 
A reward was offered for his apprehension and the country 
was placed under martial law. Mangapati first fled to the 
Nizam's Dominions, but returned when the coast was clear. 
A carefully planned attempt to capture him at Siruvaka (21 
miles north of Polavaram) was unsuccessful, but he fled and 
was apparently never heard of again. It is supposed he took 
refuge in the Rampa country. 

Meanwhile the outbreak started by Linga Reddi and 
Vijayagopala had been joined by the Rampa people, and 
sepoys had to be stationed both atKottapalli and Indukurpeta 
to keep them in check. In August iSoo they attacked 
Indukurpeta, from which they were easily beaten back, and 
three days later a band of insurgents advanced as far as 
Purushottapatnam opposite Polavaram ; and, within sight of 
the troops stationed there, seized the boats on that side of the 
river so as to cut off communication. Vijayagopala, whose 
heart had never apparently been in the rebellion, however 
surrendered; Narasimha, the zamindar of Kottapalli, who 
had also joined in the outbreak, was captured; and peace 
was gradually restored. The Polavaram estate was given 


to a cousin named Lakshminarayana Devu, with whom the CHAP. XV. 
permanent settlement was made.^ Polavaram. 

Since that time subdivisions and revenue sales have played 
havoc with this ancient property. The first alteration in its 
limits occurred in 1808, when, in consequence of the accrual 
of large arrears of revenue, it was divided into the three 
muttas of Giitala, Polavaram and Kottapalli, and the last of 
these (comprising 39 villages) was sold in auction. Giitala 
and Polavaram remained under the old family, but next year 
the zamindar (Narasimha Devu) broke into rebellion and they 
were both put up to auction, and the ancient line of the 
Polavaram zamindars came to an end. 

The Polavaram mutta, of portions of which the present 
Polavaram is made up, was purchased at this sale by one 
Bavayamma. In 1812 it was sold again for arrears and was 
purchased by Bahu Balendra Razu, and in the following year 
it was sold yet once more and was bought by Kocharla Kota 
Jaggayya, an ancestor of the present zamindar. On his death 
in 1832, the estate was subdivided by Government and given 
to different members of the family, and the only parts of it 
which remained to Ramachandra Venkatakrishna Rao, the 
son of Jaggayya and the grandfather of the present zamindar, 
were the two properties of Polavaram and Pattisam which 
(with the addition of the Nallamillipadu estate purchased by 
the proprietrix who held the property from 1858 to 1888) from 
the present zamindari. Of the other portions which were 
subdivided off in 1832, the only village which has not since 
been purchased by Government is the Jangareddigiidem 
already referred to above. The Polavaram estate was under 
the Court of Wards in the years 1832-35, 1846-54 and 1856-58. 

Polavaram village contains some tombs which are locally 
stated to be those of European soldiers who fell in the fituri 
of Mangapati Devu at the end of the eighteenth century. 
They bear no inscriptions. Another grim relic of the old 
disorders in these parts which existed here till recently was 
the gallows on which Subba Reddi and Kommi Reddi, the 
ringleaders of the fituri of 1858, were hanged. This was 
carried away by the floods of 1900. 

Taduvayi : Thirty-seven miles west by south of Polavaram. Taduvayi. 
Population 1,627. It is well known in this part of the country 
for its Siva temple, to which many pilgrims go at Sivaratri. 
The village contains a travellers' bungalow. 

1 This account of these disturbances has been abridged from Mr, Morris' 
description in the original District Manual. The authorities on which he relied, 
which consist of MS. official records and printed reports, are quoted by him on 
p. 275 thereof. 



CHAP. XV. The Yellavaram division of the Agency occupies the north- 
Yella- easternmost corner of the district. The whole of it is hilly, 
\ARANi. though considerable areas of level land lie among the hills, 
and, except for fifteen villages adjoining the plains, is 
covered by forest ; it is also very malarious ; the soil is poor 
and in the summer months water is always scarce ; there are 
only 24 miles of metalled road in the whole of it ; and the 
inhabitants are mostly Koyas and hill Reddis. Consequently 
it is very backward and sparsely populated, and contains 
only 31 persons to the square mile. Some little irrigation 
is provided by a few tanks. The chief cereals are paddy, 
pulses and oil-seeds ; but the hill men depend mostly on the 
produce of the tamarind trees, which grow to a great size. 
There are no industries worthy of the name in the division, 
except a very little basket making. There are five weekly 

Large areas which formerly belonged to the old Jaddangi 
estate are now Government land, but considerable tracts are 
held by the various hill muttadars referred to below. Round 
Jaddangi considerable tracts of forest have been reserved and 
the Forest department has opened up these with roads. 
Addatigeia. Addatigela : Head-quarters of the division. Population 

459. Contains a police-station, a travellers' bungalow, a local 
fund dispensary (established 1901) and one of the four weekly 
markets of the division. It is an insignificant place and 
little suited to be the head-quarters of a division, being 
unhealthy and surrounded with jungle. 

The village was the scene of some stirring events during 
the Rampa rebellion referred to in the account of Rampa 
above. Almost the first act of the insurgent leader Chand- 
rayya was to burn down the police-station there. This 
occurred at the end of April 1879. The station was rebuilt 
and re-garrisoned, but in June was again attacked by Chand- 
rayya. On the twelfth of that month some police under a 
European officer were attacked by Chandrayya in this 
neighbourhood, kept under fire for four and a half hours, and 
finally driven to take refuge in the station. There they were 
attacked three days later. They had to unroof the thatched 
station buildings for fear of fire ; a reinforcement of 20 men 
sent to their rescue was driven back by Chandrayya ; and a 


sortie of theirs was also repulsed by him. Detachments were CHAF. XV. 
then hurried up from various quarters, and the station was Yella- 
relieved (without opposition) on the 25th of June. varam. 

Anigeru : Two miles north-east of Addatigela. Popula- Anigeru. 
tion 211. Is the chief village of a mutta consisting of six 
villages and paying a quit-rent of Rs. 80. The muttadar's 
family is descended from the old mansabdar of Jaddangi 
who (see the account of that place below) was deposed in 
1846. His infant son had in later years immense influence 
with hill people ; and at the time of the Rampa rebellion he 
exerted it entirely in the favour of Government and materially 
to their advantage. It was decided to reward him by giving 
him the six villages of this mutta. They had formerly 
belonged to Dutcharti ; but the holder of that mutta had not 
behaved well in the disturbances, and deserved no considera- 
tion. The grantee was succeeded by his son in 1887 and the 
latter was followed by his mother, who died in 1904. 

Dutcharti : Ten miles nearly north of Addatigela ; popula- Dutcharti, 
tion 308. It is the chief village of the hill mutta of the same 
name which pays a quit-rent of Rs. 1,200. Till 1881 this was 
a part of the Golgonda taluk of Vizagapatam district. It was 
originally held on service tenure under the old Golgonda 
zamindar. His estate was sold for arrears and bought in by 
Government in 1837 ; and the muttadars under him thus 
became direct holders under Government on a service tenure. 

This seriously lowered their status, as they were directly 
subject to the surveillance of the Collector's native dmin ; 
and several disturbances followed.^ 

At the time of the outbreak of the Rampa rebellion of 
1879 in this district the Golgonda muttadars had no such 
grievances against Government as existed in Rampa ; but 
they still fretted against the restrictions which had been 
placed upon their powers, and the more daring spirits among 
them were moved by solicitations from across the border, by 
a hunger for loot, and by a desire to pay ofi" old scores against 
the police. 

The chief of the malcontents was Chekka Venkan Dora, 
muttadar of Dutcharti, whose grandfather had been manager 
of that mutta, and, on the death of his master without issue, 
had obtained a sanad for it himself. The first outbreak was 
caused by the action of one Dwarabandham Chandrayya, 
a man of some substance, who afterwards became one of 
the chief leaders of the rebellion. His house was searched, 

1 These are referred to in the account of Golgonda taluk in the Vizagapatam 







during his absence, by the police in connection with a dacoity. 
Furious that such a thing should have been done when only 
his womenfolk were present, he collected all the budmashes 
in the surrounding villages, descended into Dutcharti and 
burnt the police-station of Addatigela. This was at the end 
of April 1879. Numerous parties of insurgents who were 
beating up recruits, flying for shelter, or levying black-mail 
now resorted to this country ; and, though no further open 
outrages were committed, troops had to be sent up into 
these hills. 

Chekka Venkan Dora, muttadar of Dutcharti, had avoided 
any overt act of rebellion. But it was the belief of all the 
officers, civil and military, who served in those hills, that he 
had encouraged Chandrayya on the understanding that his 
own villages should be spared from plunder. It was beyond 
doubt both that his villages were not plundered and that he 
could, if he liked, have crushed the outbreak there and pre- 
vented the destruction of Addatigela. When, therefore, the 
rebellion was over, it was decided to remove Chekka Venkan 
Dora from his mutta. His brother, the present muttadar, was 
appointed in 1881. At the same time the six villages which 
now constitute the mutta of Anigeru (g.v.) were taken from 
Dutcharti to reward the loyalty of another influential hill 
chief. The muttas of Dutcharti and Guditeru, which were 
thought to be more accessible to the officers of this district, 
were also transferred from the Vizagapatam to the Godavari 
Agency in the same year.-^ 

Gurtedu, or Guditeru, is a village of 300 inhabitants and 
containing a travellers' bungalow, which gives its name to a 
mutta in the extreme north-east of the division. Like Dut- 
charti, it formed till 1881 a part of the Golgonda taluk of the 
Vizagapatam district. It pays Rs. 70 quit-rent. It is quite 
isolated from the rest of the Yellavaram division by the Dum- 
konda hill and can only be reached by the Yeduvampula pass 
through the Vizagapatam district or from Chodavaram via 
Boduluru. Horses cannot get across this pass, and elephants 
have to be lightly laden. Along it may be seen the remains 
of the sangars built by the hill men during the Rampa 

Jaddangi : Nine miles east by north of Addatigela ; popu- 
lation 537 ; contains a travellers' bungalow. Was once the 
head-quarters of a mansab which was formerly held on service 

^ Notification No. 217, Judicial, dated 29ih June 1881. For these troubles 
in Golgonda, see the minute, dated November ist, 18S1, of Mr. D. F. Carmichael, 
Member of Council, who was appointed as Special Commissioner to arrange 
a seltlemenl. 




tenure under the old zamindar of Peddapuram. When that CHAP. XV. 
zamindari fell into the hands of Government, the muttadar Yella- 
held on the same tenure directly under the new owners. He varam. 
rebelled in 1845 and the mutta was accordingly resumed. It 
contained 80 villages. 

At Jaddangi is held one of the few markets in Yellavaram. 
Near the village is a cave containing the image of the well- 
known Brahman saint Mandavya Mahamuni, who is supposed 
by the local people to have lived in the cave. The river 
Maderu is said to have been called after him. 

Kota : Twelve miles north-north-west of Addatigela. 
Population 105. Contains a police-station, and is the chief 
village of the hill mutta of the same name, but is a petty 
collection of huts. It is said to have originally formed a part 
of the Rampa mansabdar's estate, under which it was prop- 
erly held on service tenure. Under the muttadar there are 
five sub-muttas ; namely, those of Yerragonda, Yarlagedda, 
Pasaraginni, Nulakamaddi, and Samagedda. Of these the 
first named pays a kattubadi to the muttadar of Rs. 80 a 
year, and the others each Rs. 50. The muttadar himself pays 
Government an annual quit-rent of Rs. 210. 

The police-station seems to have been taken by the insur- 
gents at the commencement of the Rampa rebellion, and an 
attempt made on March 17th 1879 by a force of police to reach 
and hold it was unsuccessful. It was however soon re-occupied, 
and resisted several attacks during April. It is now the most 
unpopular station in the district. 

Mohanapuram : Seven miles north-west of Addatigela. 
Population 138. It is the chief village of a hill mutta which 
was formerly under the mansabdar of Rampa, and since 1879 
has been held on service tenure direct from Government. 
The quit-rent is Rs. 25. 

Ncllipiidi : Twenty miles south-south-west of Addatigela. 
Population 835. Contains a travellers' bungalow and a weekly 
market. The village is held on mokhasa tenure. It was given 
to the father of the late mokhasadar, who died in 1906, in 
recognition of his services to Government. The village was 
formerly part of the Rampa mansabdar's property. The 
(juit-rent is Rs. 350. 

Pandrapole : Eight miles north-west of Addatigela. Popu- 
lation 87. Another of the old Rampa muttas. The father of 
the present muttadar, who is also the muttadar of Kota, was 
confirmed in possession in 1879 on a quit-rent of Rs. 70. 

Ramavaram : Seventeen miles north-west of Addatigela and Ramavaram. 
included in the Kota mutta. Contains a travellers' bungalow. 
Qn a hill near this village is a small cave in which are four 









idols. From the rock above hang stalactites from which water 
drips on to the figures below. The temple of Visvanatha in 
this village is worshipped by the Saivites in the neighbouring 
hills every Sivaratri. The god is considered especially potent 
in granting prayers for children. 

Virabhadrapuram : Three and a half miles east by south of 
Addatigela; population 225. On the Devudu Pinjari hill close 
by is a small cave in which is an idol called Virabhadrasvami. 
This is worshipped every Sivaratri by the neighbouring hill 



Abkari revenue, 183-185. 

Abu riassan, 234, 235. 

Adama Razu, 64. 

AdJiinki, 25. 

Adda,tigela, 135, 275, 284. 

Adivipalem, 215. 

Administration, of land revenue, 160-180 ; 
of salt, abkari, etc., revenue, 181-187; 
of justice, 188-195. 

Adnet, Captain, 230, 231, 232. 

Agency tracts, described, 2 ; Musalmans 
tew in, 38 ; houses in, 43 ; food in, 45, 
136 ; witchcraft believed in, 46 ; shift- 
ing cultivation in, jS ; forests in, 92- 
lOl 'passim ; rest-houses in, 133 ; 
scarcity in, 140 ; cyclone in, 144 ; 
malaria in, 148; education in, 153 ; 
revenue system of, 174-8; extent of, 
177 ; Salt Act not extended to, 183 ; 
arrack revenue in, 184 ; liquor shops in, 
185; toddy revenue in, 185; opium 
and hemp drugs in, 186 ; Income-tax 
Act not extended to, 187; stamp revenue 
in, 187; administration of justice in, 
189; alterations in the limits of, 190 ; 
litigation in, 191 ; local boards in, 196, 

Agricultural farm, 75, 76, 233. 

Agriculture, 68-79. 

Agriculturists, economic condition of, 90. 

Aihole inscription, 19, 233. 

Alamiir, 135, 191, 192. 

Ala-ud-din (^Bahmani king), 234. 

Alexander, Rev. F. W. N ., 66. 

Allada Reddi, 26. 

Allahabad inscription, 18, 233. 

Allaya Vema Reddi, 26. 

Alluvium of the delta, 9. 

Alpa Khan, 26. 

Amalapuram taluk, 200-206. 

Amalapuram town, timber depflt at, lOI ; 
lead and silver work at, 105 ; ri^e mill 
in, no; rainfall at, 135; vaccination 
compulsory in, 150; district munsif at, 
191 ; sub-registrar in, 191 ; union, 197 ; 
described, 201. 

Amaravati, 17, 207, 250. 

Ambajipeta, 15, 107, 112, 201. 

Ambul Reddi, 264, 274, 275. 

American Evangelical Lutheran Mission, 
39. 223. 

Amma I, 24, 244. 

Amma II, 244. 

Amusements, 45, 64, 67. 


Anakapalle, 106. 
Anantapalli, 281. 
Anapa Ashwa Rao, 259. 
Anaparti, 234. 

Andhra Brahmans, 51. 

Andhras, 17, 18. 

Angleyulapadu, 229. 

Anicuts on the Godavari, 79-89, 262. 

Anigeru, village and mutta, 285, 286. 

Animists, 42. 

Anna Reddi, 24, 25, 242. 

Annavaram, 221. 

Antarvedi, 106, 217. 

Antelope, 16. 

Anupotama Nayudu, 234. 

■A^nwar-ud-din, 235, 236. 

Appanapalaiyam, 226. 

Arama Brahmans, 51. 
Areca palms, 72, 89. 
Arikarevala, 127. 

Ariyavattam, 39, 212. 
Arrack, 113, 183. 
Artesian wells, 90, in. 
Arts and industries, 102-112. 
Arundel, Sir A. T., 95. 

Asard system of revenue, 167. 

Asiatic Steam Navigation Company, 115. 

Asoka inscriptions, 17. 

Atreyapuram, 39, 201. 
Attivarman, Fallava king, 18. 
Aurangzeb, 29, 203. 
Austrian Lloyd steamers,' 115. 
Avenues, 124. 
Ayinavalli, no, 202. 
Ayyaparazu-Kottapalli, 256. 


Bachchanna, 235. 

Badagunta village, 267. 

Bagavalas, 60. 

Bahu Balendra Razu, 283. 

Ballacuts, 126. 

Bamboo, 5, 105, 108, 131. 

Bandapalli mutta, 266, 

Bandarulanka, 103, 202. 

Bangle-making, 108, 225, 240, 255. 

Bank of Madras, 115 

Bantumilli estate, 164. 

Baptist Mission, 40, 151, 210, 214. 

Barakar rocks, 9. 

Barber, Mr. C. A., 75. 

Barry & k.o., Messrs. T. H., ■j'6, 115. 



Basa GoUas, 6l. 

Baskets, io8, 284. 

Bassia lati/olia, 62. 

Baslar slate, 60-62, 63, 105. 

Bathing places, 6. 

Bavayamma, 283. 

Bayard, Mr., 153. 

Bayyanagudem, 279. 

Bears, 15, 71, 77. 

Bedadanuru, 9, 10. 

Bell-metal work, 105. 

Bench courts, 191. 

Bendamurlanka, mouth uf the Godavari 
near, 6 ; English factory at, 29 ; taken 
by the French, 31 ; forest block, 98, 
99 ; rope made at, 107 ; coasting trade 
of, 187 ; E.I. Co.'s trade at, 201 ; de- 
scriVjed, 202 ; temple built by a Palli of, 

Bendapudi, 24, 25, 255. 

Bengal gram, 71, 76, 77. 

Beri-beri, 150. 

Best & Co., Messrs., 115 

Betel, 3, 72. 

Bezwada, 9, lOl. 

Bhadrachalam estate, 259. 

Bhadrachalam taluk, Christian mission in, 
42 ; paddy seasons in, 68 ; forests in, 
92, 94, 95? 100 ; weights and measures 
in, 1 1 8- 1 19, 121 ; ferries in, I2t, 127 ; 
travellers" bungalows in, 133; fever in, 
150 ; settlement of, 174-177 ; Registra- 
tion Act extended to, 191 ; Local Boards 
Act withdrawn from, 196; described, 

Bhadrachalam town, gold and rock crys- 
tals found near, 11 ; Mogalturru family 
fled to, 35 ; rainfall at, 135 ; Assistant 
Superintendent of Police at, 194 ; 
described, 259. 

Bhadrakaligundam, 280. 

Bhanayyamma, 226. 

Bhatrazus, 54. 

Bhimanij, 15. 

Bhimavaram, 207, 214, 250. 

Bikkavolu, drain, 8, 113; village, 191, 
197, 249. 

Billumilli, 279. 

Bimlipatam, 209. 

Biraiya, 3, 5. 

15iraiya Konda, 3. 

Birampalli mutta, 267. 

Bison. 15. 

Bison Hill, 3, 13, 67, 97. 

Black-buck, 15. 

Black-gram, 71, 76, 77. 

Black-water fever, 150. 

Blanford, Mr. W. T., 10. 

Blood feuds among Ivoyas, 62. 

Boats, 127, 131. 

Bobbarlanka, 81, 127. 

Bobbarlanka canal, 145. 

Bobbili, Maharaja of, 222. 

Bodasakurru, 107, 127. 

Bodugudem hills, 3, 258. 

Boduluru village and mutta, 267, 274, 286. 

Bo gams, 58, 104. 

Boileau, Mr., 92. 

Bolagonda mutta, 267. 

Botany, 12. 

Boundaries of the district, i. 

Brahmans, dress of, 44 ; food of, 45 ; de- 
scribed, 51 ; number of students among, 
155 ; Tamil section of, 204. 

Brandis, Sir D., 92. 

Brass work, 105, 222, 225. 

Bride price, 49. 

Bridges, 125, 243. 

British India Steam Navigation Company, 

Brodie, Mr. V. A., 158. 
Brown, Mr. J'. H., 126. 
Buckingham canal, 130. 
Buddhism, 17, 20. 
Buffaloes, 13 ; sacrifice of, 48, 222, 241, 

248, 253. 
Building stone, 11. 
Bulusu Achayya, 202. 
Burma, 186. 
Bussy, M., Northern Circars ceded to, 30 ; 

takes Bendamurlanka, 202; Nilapalli 

and Injaram, 213; fort built by, 221 ; 

at Rajahmundry, 245. 
Buttayagiidem, 36. 

Cain, Rev. J , 42, 55, 60, 140, 260. 

Cain, Mrs., J., 1 12. 

Calliaud, General, 33. 

Cambu, 45, 71, 76, 77. 

Caaadian Baptist Mission, 40, 151, 210, 

Cape Coringa, 211. 
Cape Godavari, 113. 
Carmichael, Mr., 269. 
Carpentry, 155. 

Caryota iircKS. See Sago Palm 
Caste deities, 47, 
Castes, 50-67, 192-194. 
Castor, 76, 77, 107, 116. 
Casuarina plantations, 98, 99. 
Cattle, 13, 14, 15; fairs for, 15, 117, 201, 

Cemeteries at Cocanada, 210 ; Coringa, 

211 ; Dowlaishweram, 241 ; Drakshari- 

mam, 252; Nilapalli, 213; Polavaram, 

283 ; and Rajahmundrv, 246. 
Ceriops Candolleana, 99. 
Chagallu, 35. 
Challa Peddy, 223. 
Chaiukya Bhimavaram, 207. 
Chalukyas, 18-20, 249. 
Chamarlakota, 214. 
Chambers of Commerce, 114. 
Cha idhavolu, 23, 24. 
Chandrayya, 274. 275, 284, 285. 
Chandurti, 32, 227. 
Chattrams, 133, 19S, 199, 240. 
Chavala mutta, 267. 



Chebrolu, 23, 24, 228 230. 

Chekka Venkan Dora, 2t>5» 286. 

Chenlzus, 59, 206. 

Cherla Raja, 46. 

Cheroot factory, 115. 

Chettis, 57. 

Chiduguru mutta, 267. 

Chi^urupauHH, 185, 272, 273. 

Chillangi, 224. 

Chindadu Garuvu, 204. 

Chinna Malla Razu, 24, 255. 

Chintz-stamping, 105 ; in Cocanada taUik, 
207 ; Gollapalaiyam, 212 ; Samalkot, 
214; Peddapuram, 224; Rajahmundry, 
248 ; Tuni, 256. 

Choda, 22, 23. 

Chodavaram division, 266, 277. 

Chodavaram town, rainfall at, 135 ; special 
Hill Police Reserve at, 125 ; described, 
268 ; attack on, 273 ; grant to the 
munsif of, 276 ; pass from, 286. 

Cholarn, 45, 76, 77, 79. 

Cholas, 19, 20. 

Cholera, 149. 

ChoUangi, 208. 

Chopakonda mutta, 26S. 

Choultries, 133, 198, 199, 240. 

Chowkis, 187. 

Christiaa Missions, 39, 151, 246. 

Christians, 39, 153. 

Church Missionary Society, 41, 262. 

Clan Line Steamers, 115. 

Climate, il. 

Clive Lord, 31, 33. 

Coal, 9, 10. 

Cocanada canal, 113, 146. 

Cocanada taluk, 207-216. 

Cocanada taluk board, 196. 

Cocanada town, meteorological observa- 
tions made at, 12; fishing near, 16; 
Dutch factory at, 29 ; French forces in, 
32, 33 ; Christian missions in, 41, 42 ; 
tobacco-factory in, 78 ; salt creek at, 
85 ; artesian well in, 90 ; firewood 
market in, 98, 99 ; timber market in, 
lOl ; cotton dyeing in, 104 ; metal work 
in, 105, 106, 207 ; wood-carving at, 106; 
oil factories in, 107 ; rope exported 
from, 107; shoe-making in, 108 ; print- 
ing presses in, no ; rice mills in, no ; 
workshops in. III ; trade of, 1 13, 213 ; 
harbour at, 113; navigation system 
from, 130 ; chaltram at, 134 ; rainfall 
at, 135 ; poor-house at, 141 ; tidal wave 
in, 143 ; cyclone at, 144 ; vaccination 
compulsory in, 150 ; medical institutions 
in, 151 ; school first established at, 
153 ; college at, 157 ; Collector's head- 
quarters at, 163; salt factory in, 181, 
182 ; fish-curing near, 183 ; taverns in, 
185 ; port of, 187 ; courts in, 191 ; 
district and sub-registrars in, 191 ; 
bench court at, 192 ; municipality, 197 ; 
chintz stamping in, 207 ; described, 
208-210 ; granted to Pithapuram 

family, 235 ; Dutch at, 236 ; French 
driven to, 236. 

Cock-fighting, 45. 

Cocoanut palm, 3, 72, 89, 205 ; fibre 
ropes, 107, 201 ; leaf mats, 105 ; oil, 
107, 117, 205 ; oil-cake, 107. 

Coir ropes, 107. 

Colleges, 154-159. 

Commercial weights, 117. 

Committee of circuit, 162, 188. 

Comprapollam, 189. 

Condore, battle of, 31, 209, 223, 227-232. 

Contlans, Manjuis de, 31, 227, 228, 232. 

Conjeeveram, 18, 19, 35. 

Contract distillery supply system, 183. 

Copper work, 105. 

Coringa island, 88. 

Coringa Rice Mills Co., no, 115, 213. 

Coringa river, 6. 

Coringa town, fishing near, 16 ; forest 
reserve near, 98 ; bascule bridge at, 126 ; 
rainfall at, 135 ; inundations by the sea 
at, 142 ; tidal wave in, 143 ; fish curing 
at, 1S3 ; foreign trade of, 187; lawless- 
ness (in 1789) in, 189; sub-registrar at, 
191 ; deputy tahsildar at, 192 ; decline 
of the port of, 210 ; described, 210. 

Cosby, Sir Henry, 33, 246. 

Cotton, dyeing of, 104; weaving of, 103; 
trade in, 116, 117, 210. See also Weav- 

Cotton, Sir Arthur, 41, 80, 86, 128. 

Cotton and Randall, Messrs., 74. 

Courts, 189, 191. 

Cows, 13. 

Crime, 67, 192. 

Crocodiles, 15. 

Cuddalore sandstone, 9. 

Cultivation expenses, 171, 173. 

Cunningham, Lieutenant, 143. 

Customs, 186, 187. 

Cut-stone, 1 1. 

Cyclones, 12, 144. 


Daksha, sacrifice of, 202. 

Dalber^ia laiifolia, 100, lOl. 

Dancing, 65. 

Dancing girls, 44, 58, 203, 204, 

Dandangi estate, 268. 

Darimadugiila, 270. 

Dasu Reddi, 281. 

Date palm, 105, 108, 185. 

Daulagiri, 24I. 

Deccan Sugar and Abkari Co., 109, m, 

Deer, spotted, 15. 
Dekkalas, 60. 

Delhi Durbar Exhibition, ro6. 
Density of the population, 38. 
Deputy tahsildars, 192. 
Devangas, 102, 104, 109. 
Devarapalli, 259, 270. 
Devudu Pinjari hill, 288. 



Dewalamurry barrier, 128. 

Dhall, ^^. 

Dharamallapuram, 221. 

Dharanikota, 18. 

Dholes, 15. 

Diseases, 48, 63, 67, 148-150. 

Dispensaries, 151, 152. 

Distillery and sugar factory at Samalkot, 
III, 184, 185. 

District Board, 196. 

District Court, 191. 

District munsifs, 189, 191. 

Divili Brahmans, 51. 

Divisional charges, 178. 

Divorce, 49. 

Dogs, wild, 15. 

Donlamuru estate, 222, 224. 

Dorachintalapalem miitta, 268. 

Doras, 175. 

Double crop land, 174. 

Dowlaishvveram anient, 15, 74, 79, 146. 

Dowlaishweram tosvn, description of the 
Godavari at, 5 ; Roman Catholic chapel 
at, 42 ; metal work at, 105 ; wood- 
carving at, 106 ; idols made at, 106 ; 
oil factories in, 107 ; shoe-making in, 
108; workshops at, no; architects in, 
no ; boat service to, 127, 131 ; vaccina- 
tion compulsory in, 150 ; police station 
for, 194; union, 197; described, 240. 

Drainage, 198. 

Draksharamam, cattle fair at, 1 5, 1 17; 
inscription at, 24, 26 ; Jain relics in, 
39 ; mosque at, 39 ; wood-carving at, 
106 ; sub-registrar in, 191 ; union, 197 ; 
huge lingam at, 207 ; described, 250. 

Drawing. 159. 

Dress, 44. 

Dry cultivation, 76-79. 

Duck, 15. 

Di'idekus, 39. 

Dumkonda hill, 3, 286. 

Dummagudeni anicut, 4, 129, I47. 

Dummagiidem canal, 12S, 129. 

Dummagudem village, formation of rocks 
near, 9, 128 ; Christian mission at, 41, 
42 ; human sacrifices near, 63 ; Koya 
festival near, 65; lace work at, 112; 
described, 262. 

Dupati \7\.-aA^ 94, 176. 

Duppalapudi, 108, 240. 

Dutch, the, 29, 209, 236, 252, 

Dutcharli mutta, 285. 

Earth goddess, festival of, 65. 

Earth-salt, 183. 

East Coast Railway, 132. 

Economic condition of agriculturists, 90. 

Education, 153-159. 

Elephantiasis, 150, 224. 

Elliott, Sir Walter, 154. 

Ellore canal, 132. 

Ellore, reduced by Pulakesin, II, 19 ; 
chieftains of, 24 ; siege of, 28 ; 
plundered by Ifdl Keddis, 28 ; Marathas 
march through, 30 ; attacked by Colonel 
Forde, 32 ; timber sent to, loi ; Musal- 
man court at, 188 ; defeat of the 
zamindar of, 235. 

Enchampalli, 128, 129. 

Excise system of salt administration, 181. 

Exports, 1 12, 182. 

Factories, at Cocanada, 210 ; of the East 
India Company, 212, 213. 

Family deities, 47. 

Famines, 136-141, 163, 164, 167. 

Farm (agricultural), at Samalkot, 214. 

Fauna, 13. 

Ferishta, 24. 

Ferries, 126. 

Ferry inams, 180. 

Fire protection in forests, 97. 

Fischer, Captain, 32. 

Fish, 15. 

Fish-curing yards, 183. 

Fishing-nets, 99. 

Fitiiris, 34-37. 

Floods, 7, 144-147, 167. 

Flora, 12. 

Floncan, 15. 

Food, 45. 

Forbes, JVIr. IE, 82. 

Forde, Col., 31, 227-231, 245. 

Foreign liquor, 185. 

Forests, 92-101, 

Forts at Bandapudi, 255; Devarapalli, 
259 ; Dharamallapuram, 221 ; Koru- 
konda, 25; Nagaram, 219 ; Nallapalli, 
259 ; Peddapuram, 224; Totapalli, 226; 
and Vaddigiidem, 259. 

Foxes, 16. 

French, the, 29, 30, 31. 

Fruit trees, 100. 

Funerals, 50. 

Gabriel, Rev, Thomas, 40. 

Gajapatis of Orissa, 26. 

Gall-nuts, loi, 

Gamallas, 48, 57, iS5, 

Gamble, iMr. J. S., 93. 

Game, 15. 

Game rules, 97. 

Ganapati (Kakatiya), 24, 

Ganapavaram tank, 89. 

Gangavaram, 252. 

Gangolu mutta, 27S. 

Ganja, 186. 

Gannavaram aqueduct, 86 ; canal, 146 ; 

village, 202. 
Garnets, li. 
Gaur, 15. 
Gauridevipeta, 9, 10, II. 



Gaulami Godavari river, 5, 6, 145, 147. 
Gavara Razu, M.R.Ry. B., 155. 
Gavuda Jettis, 57. 
Gedara bark, 99. 
Geddada mutta, 268, 270. 
Geese, wild, 15, 
Geolog>', 8-10. 
Georgepet, no, 213. 
Gingelly, 71, 76, ^^, 107, 116. 
Glasfurd, Captain, 260. 
Glass, bangles, 108 ; bottles, 225. 
Gneiss, 8. 
Goats, 14. 
Godaras, 248. 

Godavari Coal Co., Ltd., 10, 11. 
Godavari river, origin of the name of, 
I ; described, 4-7 ; small game and 
fish in, 15 ; irrigation from, 79 ; timber 
floated down, 97 ; bridges over, 126, 
243 ; ferries across, 126, 127 ; sanctity 
of, 247. 
Gokavaram, 112, 242, 273. 
Gold, II. 

Goldsmiths' weights, 117. 
Gollamamidada, 105, 197, 207. 
Gollapalaiyam, 104, 106, 207, 212. 
Gollapalem, 209. 

GoUaprolu, 31, 224, 227, 228, 231. 
GoUas, 109, 193. 

Gonagudem, 242. 

Gondwana rocks, Lower, 9. 

Gonka I, 22, 

Gonka II, 23. 

Gonka III, 23. 

Gordon, Woodroffe & Co., Messrs., 115. 

Gorikanadi river, 8. 

Gotamiputra, 18. 

Goverrmient Agent, 190. 

Govinda III, 20. 

Govinda Deva, 28. 

Graham, Mr., 211. 

Grain, stores of, 79 ; trade in, 112. 

Grant, Mr., 225, 233. 

Grant Duff, Sir M. E., 158. 

Graphite, il. 

Green gram, 71, 76, 77. 

Ground-nut oil, 117. 

Gudarugunta, 183. 

Guditeru, village and mutta, 286. 

Gudumulakhandrika, 217. 

Guinea-worm, 150. 

Gullapudi, II. 

Gundala, 262. 

Gundavaram, 209. 

Gunny-bag, 56, 104, 117. 

Guntur famine, 138. 

Gurtedu, village and mutta, 286. 

Gutala, estate, 55, 278, 280 ; village, 5, 
127, 281. 

Gutinadevi, 6 note. 


Haidar Ali, 34. 

Haig, Major-General, 41, 87. 


Haihiya chiefs, 23. 

Hajee Houssum, 209. 

Haji Hussain, 29, 

Hall, Wilson & Co., Messrs.. 115, iSa, 

Hamilton, Captain, 213. 
Hamsavaram, ro8, 255, 256. 
Hardwickia biMata^ lOO. 
Hares, 15, 45. 
Harichandana, 28. 
Harper, Rev. J. H., 40. 
Havelly land, 160. 
Havili land, i6o, 161, 163. 
Hemp-drugs, 185, 186. 
Hides and skins, 107, 113. 
Hill cholam, 79. 
Hill Reddis, 66, 94, 96, 97. 
Hills, 3. 

Hindus, 42-67, 153. 
History of the district, 17-37. 
Hiuen Tsiang, 19, 20. 
Hook-swinging, 205, 248. 
Hope Island, 114. 
Horse-gram, 71, 76, ^^. 
Hospitals, 151. 
House-boats, 131. 
House-building, no. 
House-tax, 197. 
Houses, 43. 
Hukumpeta, 278. 
Human sacrifices, 63 
Hurricanes, 143, 211, 216. 
Hussain Ali Khan, 33, 160, 246. 
Hussanabad Sankaragiri zamindari, 259. 


Idigas, shikaris, 16 ; caste goddess of, 48 ; 
described, 57 ; mats made by, 105 ; oil- 
making of, 107 ; profession of, 185. 

Imports, 1x3. 

Inams, 179, 180. 

Income-tax, 187. 

indigo factories, no, 213. 

Indras, 57. 

Indravati river, 4. 

Indukiirpeta, 282. 

Industries, 102-U2, 210. 

Injaram estate, 213, 224. 

Injarani village, on the Gautami Gudavari, 
5, 6 ; English factory at, 29 ; taken by 
the French, 31 ; inundation by the sea 
at, 142 ; loss by floods in, 144; land 
cumstoms station at, 187; described, 212. 

Innes & Co., Messrs., 115. 

Inscriptions at Aihole, 19, 233 ; Allahabad, 
18, 233 ; Amaravati, 17 ; A itarvedi, 
218 ; Bhimavaram, 208 ; Chandhavolu, 
24 ; Chebrolu, 23, 24 ; Draksharamam, 
24, 26, 251 ; Nanaghat, 18 ; PalakoUu, 
26 ; Palivela, 24, 26, 203 ; Pitha- 
puram, 233, 238 ; Rajahmundry, 25, 
244; Sarpavaram, 215; and Simha- 
chalam, 26. 



Inscriptions of AUada Reddi, 26 ; As6ka, 
17 • Attivannan, 18 ; Ganapati, 24 ; 
Gotamiputra, 18 ; Kataya Vema Reddi, 
26 308, 215 ; Kul6ttunga I, 215 ; Mal- 
lappa 111, 215 ; Pratapa Rudra, 24, 203 ; 
Prithiviniula, 18 ; Pulakesin II, 19, 233 ; 
Raiaraja (Chalukya), 251 ; Samudra- 
gupta 233 ; Yishnuvardhana Maharaja, 
215 • of Andhras, 18 ; Chalukyas, 233 ; 
Haihiyas, 23 ; Kakatiyas, 203 ; Konas, 
233 • Nadendlas, 23 ; Pallavas, 18 ; 
Reddis, 208, 233, 244, 251 ; Velanandu 
chiefs, 203, 233. 

IhU peridn, 49. 

Inundations by the sea, 141- 

Ippa tree, 62, 185. 

Iron, II. 

Irrigation, 79-9°, 132. I49 

Islands in the Godavari river, 6. 

Jackals, 16, 45. . ^ o 

Jaddangi, estate and village, 164, 2S4, 

285, 286. 
Jafar Ali, 30. 
Jatfur Ally Khan, 209. 
Jaga RaoNayudu, 234. 
Jagammapeta union, 108, 109, 222, 225 ; 

zamindari, 222. 224. 
Jagannaikpur. See Jagannathapuram. 
Jagannapela, 103, 106, 217, 218. 
Tagannatha of Polavaram, 2b0. 
jagannathapuram, Dutch factory at, 29; 

hospital at, 151; salt factory, 181, 

182 ; hamlet of Cocanada, 209 ; cemetery 

at, 210. 
Jagannayakulapalaiyam, 250. 
lagapati Razu, 32, 33, 209, 236 
"jagapatinagaram union, 197. 222, 224. 
"jaggammagaripela, 214. 
Jaggamptta, 197. 
Jaggery, 74. i^S. 220, 224. 
Tails, 195. 
Iain wells, 30, 80. 

jains, 38 ; relics of, 39. 201, 212, 220, 2^S. 
jajilanka village, 267. 
Jalluru, 39. 
Tampalli estate, 164. 
jangam Pulicanla Sambayya, Sirdar, 209, 

274- Q 

Jangareddigudeni estate, 279, 26^. 
/a«"V system, 91, 112. 
Jegurup^du, 1C7, 240. 
jilugumilli, 36 
Johnstone, Mr , V32. 
joint rent system, 163, 167, 169. 
Jungle-fowl, 15. 
Jungle sheep, 15. 

justice, administration of, ib^-195. 
Jute ropes, IC7. 


Kadali, 219. 

Kadayam, laterite (luarnes of, 124. 

Kailasa fort, 234. 

Kakara panchakain^ 219. 

Kakatiyas of VVarangal, 23, 24. 203. 

Kakinada, 210. 

Kakiiru mutta, 268. 

Kalinga kingdom, 17, 22. 

Kalingi wood, 99. 

Kammamet, 35 

Kammareddipalaiyam, 204. 

Kammas, 55. 

Kamsalas, their dress, 44 ; food, 45 ; caste 
goddess, 48 ; metal-work, 1C5, 222, 225, 
241, 248 ; wood-carving, 106 ; and 
musical instruments, 106. 

Kamlhi rocks, 9. 

Kanakalapeta, 215. 

Kandikuppa, forest block, 07, 99. 

Kandrakota, 48, 222, 253. 

Kapavaram tank, 89, 240. 

Kapilesvara, 26, 244. 

Kapus, shikaris, 16 ; described, 55 ; cotton 
dyed by, 104 ; painting of, 106 ; oil- 
making of, 107 ; bangles made by, 108, 
240 ; dyeing and chintz-stamping of, 

Karam Dhulu Dhora, 269. 

Karnabattus, 48, 58, 102, 104. 

Kas-kas tatties, 214. 

Katama Reddi, 25. 

Kataya Vema Reddi, 26, 208. 

Kateru, 240. 

Katikapus, 59. 

Kattipudi, 222. 

Kazuliiru, 39. 

Kellock Leper Home, 151. 

Kerosine oil, 107, 113, 117 

Kesanakurru, 203. 

Kinarsani river, 1 1 . 

King, Dr, 5, 11. 

Kirlamptidi, 222, 224. 

Kistna canal system, 130. 

Knox, Captain, 231. 

Kocharla Kota Jaggayya, 283. 

Komaragiripatnam, 202. 

Komatis, 44, 45, 48, 54. 

Kommi Reddi, 283. 

K6n-i Reddi, 25. 

Kona Sima, i note, 201. 

Kona Sima Dravidas, 204, 205, 21S. 

Konappapeta, 183. 

Konas, 233. 

Konda Reddis, 66. 

Kondamodalu estate, 269. 

Kondamudi, 18. 

Kondapalle, 26, 27, 28. 

Kondavid, 25, 26, 27, 28. 

Kopalli forest block, 97. 

Korra, Tj. 

Korukonda, 24, 25, 242, 264. 

Kota, village and mutta, 287. 

Kota Ramachandrapuram estate, 165. 

Koti, 242. 

Kotipalli estate, 253, 280* village, 6, 127, 
134, 252. 

Kotta Paitisam, 279. 



Kottam estate, 224, 256. 

Koitapalli village, in I'ithapuram division, 
103, 104, 232 ; in Kajahmundry taluk, 
35, 8q, 240, 243, 282 ; in Tuni division, 
255, 256. 

Kottapeta, rainfall at, 135 ; vaccination 
compulsory in, 150; sub-registrar at, 
191 ; deputy tahsildar at, 192 ; union, 
197, 204. 

Kottipudi, 133. 

Kottiiru, 222. 

Kotwiils, 194. 

Kovvada forest block, 97. 

Kovvur, 3, 127. 

Koyas, cattle raised by, 13 ; keen sports- 
men, 16 ; assisted Subba Reddi, 36 ; 
described, 60 ; forest privileges of, 94, 96, 
97 ; not immune from malaria, 14S ; 
arrack manufacture of, 184. 

Krishna Deva Raya, 27, 244. 

Krishna Rao Nayudu, 235. 

Kshana Muktesvaram, 202. 

Kiuiivaram, in salt factories, iSi. 

Kulottunga Choda Gonka, 23. 

Kulottunga Choia I, 21, 215. 

Kumara Mahipati, 236. 

Kumara rama, 250. 

Kumara Venkata Mahipati Rao, 237. 

Ivumaradevam, 127. 

Kumaragiri Reddi, 26. 

Kumarasvamigudem, 263. 

Kuna Reddi, 25, 242. 

Kunavaram, 127, 258, 263, 265. 

Kundada mutta, 269. 

Kursammapeta, 215. 

Kutruvada, 270. 

Labbais, 107, 248. 
Lace work, 112. 
Laflamme, Rev, H. F., 41. 
Lakshminarasimha Rao, Tumu, 261, 262. 
Lakshminarayana Devu (two persons), 280, 

Lally, Count de, 31. 
Lambadis, cattle brought by, r3. 
Land-cess, 197. 
Land-customs, 186, 187. 
Land measures, 120. 
Land Revenue Administration, 160-180. 
Languages spoken, 38. 
Lankala tiannavaram, 217. 
Lankas,6, 15, 78, 170, 173. 
Laterite, 124. 
Lead vessels, 105. 
Lepers, 151, 199. 
Lighthouse, 114. 
Lime, 256. 

Lineal measures, 120. 
Linga Balijas, 108, 225. 
Linga Reddi (two persons), 269, 282. 
Lingam parti, 89, 226. 
Lingams, 207. 



Linton Memorial Schuo 

Litjuid measures, 118. 

Liquor, 69 

Litigation in the district, 191 

Local Boards, 196. 

Local self-governnienl, 196. 

Log-wood plants, 98. 

Lowry, Mr. C, J., 126. 

Lumnilzera racemosa, 99. 

Lutheran Mission, 39, 151, 


Macguire, Mr., 232. 

Machavaram, 201. 

Mackenzie AISS., 24, 25, 233. 

Madapollam, 6, 29, 31. 

Maddiir lanka, 81. 

Maderu river, 287. 

Madhava Nayudu, 234. 

Madhuvati Rambhupati Devu, Sri, 271. 

Madigas, cattle poisoned by, 15 ; dress of, 

44 ; food of, 45 ; caste goddess of, 48 ; 
take away animals ofl'ered to Mari- 
damma, 48 ; funeral rites of, 50 ; their 
connection with Komatis, 54 ; customs 
of, 59; described, 60 ; mats made by, 
105 ; leather work of, 107, 108 ; liaskets 
made by, 108 ; shoes made by, 248. 

Madras Railway, 132. 

Magazines, pulilished at Cocanada, 210. 

Mahanandisvaram, 5, 280. 

Mahendra, chieftain of Pistapuram, 233. 

Mahendragiri, 20. 

Mahseer, 15. 

Mailaris, 55. 

Mala Kucchamma, 256. 

Malaria, 148, 186, 275. 

Malas, shikaris, 16 ; their dress, 44 ; food, 

45 ; rain-making practices, 47 ; and 
caste goddess, 48 ; take away animals 
offered to Maridamma, 48 ; funeral rites 
of, 50 ; their connection with Velamas, 
55 ; described, 58 ; mats and catties 
made by, 105 ; crime of, 193 ; share in 
buffalo sacrifice at Dowlaishweram, 241. 

Malavati, 161. 

Malik Ahmed, 27. 

Malik Kafur, 25. 

MdlikhdHa, I76, 177. 

Mallapa III, 24, 215. 

Mallavaram, 145. 

Mandapalli, 203. 

Mandapeta, 197. 

Mangapati Devu, 243, 280, 281, 282. 

Mangrove, 98, 99. 

Mansabdars, 164, 225. 

Manures, 70, 73, yj, j?,, 107. 

Marathas, 30. 

Maredipaka, 48, 253. 

Markets, 1 17, 182, 198. 

Marriage rules and ceremonies, 49, 

Marriage by capture, 65, 67. 

Marrigudem, forests, 100 ; taluk, 264. 



Marripudi, 105. 

Marrivada mutta, 269, 276. 

Masakapalli, 212, 253. 

Mashtigas, 59. 

Master, Mr. K. E., 169. 

Mastidis, 60. 

Masulipatam, English settlement at, 29 ; 
taken by Colonel Forde, 32 ; chief and 
council of, 34 ; timber sent to, loi ; 
early British court at, 188 ; later Pro- 
vincial court at, 189 ; Polavaram zamin- 
darni confined in, 2S1, 

Mats, 105, 252. 

Mayidavolu, 18. 

McLaurin, Rev. John, 40. 

Means of communication, 124-134. 

Measures and weights, 1 17-123. 

Medaras, mats made by, 105, X08. 

Medical institutions, 151. 

Menarikam, 49. 

Mercury, 109. 

Metal work, 105, 207, 224, 241, 248. 

Mettakuru, 215. 

Metukiir, 234. 

Mica, II. 

Mina, pied, 15. 

Minerals, 10. 

Minor forest produce, 96, lOi. 

Mint (Dutch) at Bimlipatam, 209. 

Modal pica null; 273, 

Mogalikuduru, 218. 

Mogalturru, 35, 163, 235. 

Mohanapuram, 287. 

Molasses, arrack made from, 1S4. 

Monetary terms, 122. 

Money rates, 171, 173. 

Monopoly svstem of salt administration, 

Montgomery, Sir Henry, 80, 140, 167. 

Moracin, M., 30, 32. 

Mori, 217. 

Morris, Mr. H., 198. 

Mosques, 238, 244, 251. 

Motigadda, 261. 

Mruthyujanagar, 207. 

Muchis, wood-carving of, 106, 205, 249, 
250; painting of, 106, 248 ; leather work 
of, I08» 

Muhammad Shah of Kulbarga, 27, 234, 

Muhammad Tughlak, 25, 244. 

Muhammadaas. • See Musalmans. 

Muktesvaram, 202. 

Mulapeta, 103, I04, 227, 232. 

Mummidi Nayak, 25. 

Mummidi Reddi, 25, 242. 

Mummidivaram, 135, IQI. 

Munjavarajnikottu, 107. 

Munro, Sir Thomas, 166. 

Muramalla, 203. 

Musalmans, shikaris, 16; their conquest 
of the district, 25, 26, 27 ; rule of, 28-34 ; 
described, 39 ; weaving of cloths for, 
103 ; pith-work of, 106 ; education 
among, 153 ; endowments for, 157 ; 

administration of justice during the rule 

of, 18S 
Music, 159. 

Musical instruments, 106, 220 
Musurumilli mutta, 270. 
Mutrachas, 1 6. 
Mutsumilii, 253. 

Muttadar system in the Agency, 177. 
Muttas, 164. 


Nadendia, chiefs of, 23. 

Nagaram, island, 5, 217-220 ; taiuk, 217- 
220 ; village, 106, 219. 

Nagavaram mutta, 35, 279, 280. 

Nakkalas, 16, 45, 192. 

Nailacheruvu, 237. 

Naliacheruvu choultry, 133, 225. 

Nallamillipadu estate, 283. 

Nallapalli, 259. 

Nalugu gutta hill, 263. 

Nanaghat, 18. 

NandidX Palivela, 203. 

Nandigama estate, 259. 

Nandivarman, 20. 

Nannayabhatta, 243. 

Narasapur, encroachments of the Goda- 
vari at, 7 ; English factory near, 29 ; 
taken by Colonel Forde, 32 ; timber 
depot at, loi ; steam boat service to, 127 ; 
floods in, 142, 143, I45 ; head-quarters 
of the Sub-Collector, 153 ; school estab- 
lished at, 154. 

Narasapuram village, 268. 

Narasimha Devu, 243, 2S0, 28 1, 282. 

Narasimha of Vijayanagar, 244. 

Narasinga Rao, Kommireddi, 152, 

Narasinga Rao of Tatipaka, 220. 

Narayanapatnam, 226. 

Natural divisions, 3. 

Navigable canals, 129. 

Nawabs of Rajahmundry, 245. 

Nedunuru, mutta, 270 ; village, 39, 201. 

Nellipudi, 287. 

Nerbudda river, 203. 

Newspaper, 210, 

Neyret, Bishop, 42. 

Nidadavolu, 29. 

Niladri of i'ithajjuram, 236. 

Nilapalli mutta, 213 ; village, 5, 187, 213. 

Nilgai, 15. 

Nimat Ali, 223, 233, 236. 

Nimmalapalem village, 270. 

Nizam of Hyderabad, 29. 

Noble High School, 154. 

Northern Circars, 29, 33. 

Nulakamaddi, 287. 

Nur-ud-din, 236. 


Occupations, 102-112. 

Oddes, wood-carving of, 248. 

Oil manufacture, 107, 201, 210, 255, 256. 



Onions, 71, ^^. 

Opium, 45, 185, 186. 

Ordeals, 64. ' 

Oriental Salt Co., 115, 1S2. 

Ornamental metal work, 106. 

Orr, General C. A., 83. 

Pachayappas, 193. 

Paddy, 68-72, 116, 187. 

Padma Sales, 104. 

Painganga river, 4. 

Painting, 106, 24S. 

Palakollu, cattle fair at, 15; inscriptions 
at, 26 ; huge lingam in, 207 ; Dutch 
factory in, 209 ; shrine at, 250. 

Paiavancha estate, 259. 

Palem mutta, 270, 277. 

Palivela, estate, 217, 224 ; village, 24, 26, 

Pal lavas, iS, 233. 

Pallis, 55, 218. 

Palmyras, 3, 1015, 107, l~8, 1S5. 

Pambalas, 59. 

Pamuleru mutta, 270. 

Panchala country, 201. 

Pdndavulanietta, 224. 

Pandrapole, 287. 

Panniltru, 15. 

Panthers, 15. 

Papayya Sastri, 202. 

Papikonda, 3, 67, 97. 

Parent tongue, 38. 

Parnasala, 212, 261, 263. 

Parry & Co., Messrs., iii, 184. 

Parthasarathi Appa Rao, 260. 

Partridge, 15. 

Pasalajjudi 253. 

Pasaraginni, 287. 

Pata Pattisam estate, 279. 

Pattisam, 5. 

Pattisam Nidhi island, 279. 

Pattu Sales, 104, 232. 

Paitudadi s,yst(tm, 112. 

Peapowl, 15. 

Pedakonda, 11, 67, 258 

Pedda Malla Razu, 24, 255. 

Pedda Vegi, 19. 

Peddada, 207. 

Peddapuram estate, 164, 165, 222, 223. 

Peddapuram taluk, 221-226. 

Peddapuram taluk board, 196. 

Peddapuram town, building stone at, 11 ; 
taken by the Musalmans, 28 ; Lutheran, 
Mission High School at, 40 ; Baptist 
Mission at, 41 ; weawing at, 102, 103, 
104 ; metal work at, 105, 106 ; oil 
factories in, 107 ; shoe-making in, 108 ; 
chattram at, 133 ; rainfall at, 135 ; 
elephantiasis in, 150 ; vaccination 
compulsory in, 150; district munsif and 
sub-registrar in, 191 ; union, 197 ; 
described, 222 ; fighting near, 235. 

Peddinti Gollas, 193. 

Pegha forest reserve, 98. 

Penugonda, 54. 

Penuguduru, 181, 182. 

People, 38-67. 

Perikes, 44, 56, 104. 

Permanent settlement, 36, 164-167. 

Peruru, 107, 204. 

Peta estate, 270. 

Phillips Memorial Home, 151. 

Physical description, 1-16. 

Pichchiguntas, 56. 

Pichika-lanka 81. 

Pig, 15, 241. 

pigeon, imperial, 15. 

Pillanka, 145. 

Pistapuram, 233. 

Pith work, 106. 

Pithapuram division, 227-239. 

Pithapuram estate, chief of, 18 ; college 
supported from, 157-159; administered 
by renters, 163 ; history of, 165 ; 
villages purchased by the Raja of, 222 ; 
described, 233 8. 

Pithapuram town, cattle fair at, 15 ; 
reduced by Pulakesin H, 19; Jain 
relics in, 39 ; metal work at, 105, 106 ; 
musical instruments made at, 106 ; oil 
factories in, 107 ; shoemaking in, 108 ; 
cattle market at, 112 ; chattram in, 134 ; 
rainfall at, 135 ; vaccination compulsory 
in, 150 ; mission hospital at, 151 ; Raja's 
college at, 157 159; fish-curing near, 
183 ; sub-registrar at, 191 ; deputy 
tahsildar at, 192 ; Nakkalas of, 192 ; 
police station for, 194 ; union, 197 ; 
described, 233, 238-239, 

Plantains, 3, 72. 

Pliny, 9, 18, 211. 

Plumbago, li, 258. 

Podti cultivation, 78, 94, 264. 

Point Godavari, 5, 9. 

Point Narasapur, 5. 

Polaram island, 88. 

Polavaram division, 278-283. 

Polavaram estate, 35, 164, 165, 252, 280 

Polavaram taluk board, 196. 

Polavaram town, Godavari river flows by, 
5 ; fish caught near, 15 ; steam boat to, 
127 ; rainfall at, 135 ; floods in, 146 ; 
ganja shops in, 186 ; sub-registrar in, 
191 ; described, 280-283 ; capture of, 

Police, 194, 211. 

Ponnada, 239. 

Popvdation, 38-67. 

Porlunadu, 221, 235. 

Port Conservancy Board, 1 14. 

Potnuru, 27. 

Potters, 248. 

Potter's tank at Rajahmundry, 156. 

Pottery, 109. 

Pottinger, Sir Henry, 130. 

Pranhita river, 4. 

Pratapa Rudra, 24, 27, 203, 242, 255. 



Prattipadu, 135, 191, I92, 224. 

Prendergast, Mr., 157. 

Prices, 171, 172, 173. 

Principal Sudder Amins, 189. 

Printing-presses, no, 210. 

Prithisvara, 23. 

Pritbivimula, Pallava king, iS. 

Proprietary estates, 164. 

Pterocarpus Marsiipium, 99, 100, loi. 

Public health, 148, 152. 

Pulakesin II, 19, 233. 

Pulletikurru, 206, 

Punyakshetram, 109. 

Puppet shows, 45. 

Purushottama Gajapati, 26. 

Purushottapatnam, 282. 

Purvis, Mr., 157. 

Pushkaram festival, 6, 24 1. 

Quail, 15. 

Qutb Shah of Golconda, 27. 


Ragampeta, 105, 108, 222, 225. 

Raghavapuram, 236. 

Ragi, 45, 71, 76, n- 

Raichur, 26. 

Railway, 132 

Rainfall, 135. 

Raja Vatsavaya Venkata Simhadri 
Jagapati Razu, 257. 

Rajahmundry district, 1 63. 

Rajahmundry taluk, 24O-248. 

Rajahmundry taluk board, 196. 

Rajahmundry town, width of the Godavari 
at, 5 ; snipe-shooting near, 1 5 ; Chalukya 
caiiital, 21 ; independence of the king of, 
24 ; Muhammad TuL^hlak's expedition 
against, 25 ; Reddi chiefs of, 25 ; capital 
of Kondavid Reddis, 26 ; under the 
Gajapatis of Orissa, 26 ; ceded to the 
Bahmani king, 26 ; Muhammad Shah's 
stay at, 27 ; fighting with the Musalmans 
near, 28 ; the French at, 31, 32, 232 ; 
occupied by Colonel Forde, 32 ; English 
force posted at, 33 ; its Christian 
missions, 39, 40, 42 ; village goddess, 48 ; 
timber market, loi ; weaving, 103, 104 ; 
Jail, 104, ic8, 195 ; metal work, 105, 
106 ; wood and stone carving, 106 ; 
musical instruments, 106 ; painting, 106 ; 
tanneries, 107 ; oil-factories, 107 ; shoe- 
making, 108 ; sugar-candy and soft 
sugar, 109 ; giijas, 109 ; rice mills, 
IIO; architects, iio; and printing 
presses, lio; Godavari bridge at, 126, 
133 ; boat service to, 127, 131 ; chattrams 
in, 134 ; rainfall at, 135 ; storm at, 144 ; 
vaccination compulsory in, 150 ; hospital 
and dispensary at, 151, 152 ; school first 

established at, 153 ; colleges in, 154- 
157; Collector's head-quarter at, 163; 
taverns in, 185 ; opium storehouse at, 
185 ; Musalman court at, 188 ; zilla court 
established at, 189 ; existing civil courts 
in, 189, 191 ; sub-re;? istrar at, 191 ; 
bench court at, 192 ; Superintendeiit of 
Police at, 194 ; police reserve at, 194 ; 
municipality, 198 ; described, 243 ; 
armed police sent during Rampa 
rebellion from, 264; Vijayagopala 
detained at, 281 ; and escaped from, 

Rajaji, 264. 

Rajanagaram, 28, 240. 

Rajaraja I, 20. 

Rajaraja II, 22. 

Rajaraja (Chalukya), 21, 242, 243, 2i;i. 

Rajaraja Choda Ganga, 22. 

Rajaraja Narendra, 244. 

Rajavolu, sugar factory near, 74 ; musical 
instruments made at, 106 ; steam boat to 
Narasapur from, 127 ; rainfall at, 135 ; 
sub-registrar in, 191 ; described, 219. 

Rajendra Chola, 20. 

Rali, anicut, 205 ; village, 86, 204, 205. 

Ralli Bros., Messrs., 115. 

Ralph, Mr., 260. 

Rama Das, 261. 

Ramachandra Rao Nayudu, 235. 

Ramachandra Venkatakrishna Rao, 283. 

Ramachandrapuram taluk, 249-254. 

Ramachanclrapuram town. Baptist mission 
at, 41 ; timber depot at, loi ; rainfall 
^■t, 135 ; vaccination compulsory in, 
150 ; mission dispensary and leper home 
at, 151 ; sub. registrar in, 191 ; union, 
197 ; described, 253. 

Ramaghattalu, 253. 

Ramakrishnapuram, 224. 

Ramakrishnayya, M.R.Ry. Pydah, 158. 

Ramavaram, 222, 287. 

Rambhupati Uevu, 271. 

Ramesvaram, 6 note. 

Rampa disturbances, nature (.f, 36 ; fight- 
ing near Kota during, 227 ; Rekapalle 
proprietor joined in, 264 ; described, 
273 ; fighting near Addatigela, 284 ; and 
in Dutcharti estate, 285 ; help rendered 
by Anigeru muttadar during, 285. 

Rampa estate, 164, 174, 242, 271. 

Rampa forests, 93, 95, 100. 

Rampa village, 270. 

Ranga Rao Nayudu, 234. 

Rangampeta, 225. 

Rangaris, 104, 248. 

Rangasayi Rao Nayudu, 235. 

Rangoon, 182. 

Rashtraki'itas of Miilkhed, 20, 21. 

Rattan baskets, 108. 

Riivilanka, 269. 

Ravutalapudi stream, 89. 

Ka3'a Jagapati Razu, 223. 
Rayapjia Razu, 223. 
Rayavaram estate, 222, 224, 226. 



Razole. See Rajavolu. 

Razus, 16, 53. 

Reddi dynasty, 25, 208, 233, 244, 251. 

Reddis' wells, 89, 205. 

Reddis (Kapus), 55. 

Reddis (Hill), 16, 28, 66, 184. 

Registration, 191. 

Rekapalle estate, 260, 264. 

Rekapaile hills, 3, 4, 7, 100. 

Rekapalle village, 264. 

Religions, 153. 

Reserved forests, 93. 

Revenue administration, 24, 160-1S0. 

Revenue settlements, 160-177. 

Rice, 44, 113, 116, 187. 

Rice mills, no, 210. 

Ripley & Co., Messrs., 115. 

River transit rules, 97. 

Rivers, 4-8. 

Road fund, 177. 

Roads, 124-127. 

Rock-crjstals, il. 

Rock-cut caves, 243. 

Roebuck, Mr, Ebenezer, 2II. 

Rohillas, 260. 

Roman Catholics, 42, 210. 

Ropes, 107. 

Roxburgh, 13. 

Kudra Deva, 24. 

Rumbold, Sir Thomas, 162. 

Rustum Khan, 29, 233, 235, 236, 243. 

Ryotwari settlements, 167-174. 

Sabari river, 4. 

Sacramento shoal, II4. 

Sago palm, toddy drawn from, 185. 

Saiyid Ali Sahib Bahadur, 157. 

Saiyid Shah Bhaji Aulia, tomb of, 251. 

Saktivarman, 2 3. 

Salabat Jang, 30, 32. 

Sales, 104. 

Sail, 181-183. 

Saltpetre, 183. 

Samagedda, 287. 

Samai, -JT , 79. 

Samalkot canal, 7,85, 113, 146, 197. 

Samalkot town, Roxburgh resided at, 13 ; 
its Baptist Mission, 41 ; Roman Catholic 
chapel, 42 ; agricultural farm, 75, 76; 
artesian well, 90 ; cotton dyeing, IC4 ; 
weaving, 104 ; tattis, 105 ; shoe-making, 
108 ; sugar factory and distillery, 109, 
III, 184, 185 ; and laterite quarries, 
124 ; branch railway to Cocanada from, 
133 ; chattram in, 134 ; relief-works 
started in, 139 ; storm in, 143, 144 : 
union, 197 ; chintz-stamping in, 207 ; 
Bhimavaram hamlet of, 207 ; the French 
intrigue with Jagapati Razu at, 209 ; 
described, 214 ; its connection with the 
Pithapuram famil)', 234, 235 ; taken 
from the Pithapuram Raja, 236. 

Samantakurni, 6 note. 

Sanibur, 15. 

Samudragujita, inscription of, 233. 

Sanads, for the Rampa muttadars, 275. 

Sanapalli-lanka, 108. 

Sand -grouse, 15. 

Sandstone, 11, 124. 

Sanis, 58, 204. 

Sanitarium, at Samalkot, 214. 

Sanitation, 150. 

Sapphires, 11. 

Sa'pta-sagara-ydtrd, 6, 212, 217. 

Sarpavaram, 214. 

Saveri river, described, 7 ; fish in, 15 ; 
timber Hoated down, 97 ; malaria in the 
valley of, 148 ; intersects the Bhadra- 
chalam taluk, 258. 

Schools, 154. 

Sea-customs, 187. 

Seasons, unfavourable, 167. 

Second-crop cultivation, 71. 

Selapaka, 235. 

Senapatis, 239. 

Serpent god, 201. 

Serpent sacrifice, 215. 

Settlement of Land Revenue, 160-177. 

Sheep, 14. 

Shifting cultivation, 78. 

Shikaris, 16. 

Ship-building, no, 211, 215. 

Shoes, 108, 224, 248. 

Sila, 39. 

Sileru river, 7. 

Silk-weaving, 102, 224. 

Silver vessels, 105. 

Simhachalam temple, 23, 26. 

Simhadripuram, 224. 

Simson & Co., Messrs., 115, 210. 

Simuka, Andhra king, 18. 

Singam Sales, 104, 253. 

Singavaram, 104. 

Sirigindalapridu mutta, 276. 

Siripalli, 108. 

Sironcha, 4. 

Siruvaka, 282. 

Sist, 161. 

Sitab Khan, 225. 

Sitanagaram, 63, 127. 

Sitarampuram, 108, 256. 

Sivakodu, ic6, 135, 217, 220. 

Small-pox, 150. 

Smoking, 45. 

Snake-worship, 249. 

Snipe, 15. 

Soils, 8, 170, 172. 

Sottwratia apetala, 99. 

South Indian Export Co., il. 

Sri Ramagiri, 265. 

Sri Vaishnavites, 21S. 

Srikakulam, 18. 

Srirangam temple, 204. 

Srisailam, 24. 

Stamps, 187. 

Steam ferr)' boats, 127. 

Steamers, 115. 



Slone-carving, lo6, 240. 

Stone monuments, 258. 

Sub-jails, 195. 

Sub-registrars, 191. 

Subadar of the Deccan, 29. 

Subba Reddi, 36, 283. 

Subbarayadu Sastri, M.R Ry. G. V., 155. 

Subrahmanya Ayyar, M.R.Ry., 155. 

Sugalis, 13, 15. 

Sugar, 109, 113, 117. 

Sugar-candy, 109. 

Sugar-cane, 72-76, 171. 

Sullivan, Mr., 266-ZTJ passim. 

Sundara Rao, M.R.Ry., 155. 

Sunkarpalaiyam, 189. 

Sunn hemp, 14, 71, 76, 1C7. 

Superstitions, 46. 

Survey and settlement of the district, 

Siirya Narayana Razu, 256. 
Sweet, Mr. H., 158. 
Sweet juice, 185. 
Sweet potato, 72. 

Tadapelli mutta, 276. 

Taduvayi, 283. 

Tahsildars, 192. 

Taidoor, 225. 

Talaiyaris, 194. 

Talchir rocks, 9. 

Talikota, battle of, 28. 

Talismans, 46. 

Tallapudi, 7, 127, 146. 

Tallarevu, no, 211, 215. 

Talluru, 225, 256. 

Taluk boards, 196. 

Taluks in the district, i. 

Tamarind, loi, 284. 

Tamman Dora, 265, 274, 275. 

Tanks, 89. 

Tanning, 107, 248. 

Tape-weaving, 104. 

Tappitas, 60. 

Tatipaka, in Nagaram island, 25, 39, 106, 

217, 220 ; in Tuni division, 25, 256. 
Tatipaka siina, i note, 217, 220. 
Tatiparli, 227 note, 229. 
Taitis, 105. 
Tattooing, 44, 66. 
Taylor, Mr. G. N., 153, 154. 
Teak, 100, loi. 
Teal, 15. 
Telagas, 55. 
Telukulas, 107. 
Temperature, 12. 
Temple, Sir Richard, 129. 
Tenugu Rao, 234. 
7 erwiiialia, 99, 100, lOI. 
Tetagunta, 256. 
Tidal creek at Cocanada, 113. 
Tidal waves, I43, 21 1. 
Tigers, 15. 

Tilla wood, 99. 

Timber-floating, 7. 

Timber rafts, 92, 128, 131. 

Time measures, 122. 

Timma Razu, 223. 

Timpany, Rev. A. V., 41. 

Tirtalamondi, 6 note. 

Tirupati, 205. 

Tirupati Agraharam, 255. 

Tirupati sandstones, 9. 

Tissot, Bishop, 42. 

Tobacco, grown on the iankas, 6 ; cultiva- 
tion of, 76, JJ, 78 ; export of, 1 17 ; 
cultivation expenses of, 1 71. 

Toddy, 184, 185. 

Toddv-drawers, 57, 1S5. 

Tolls,' 131. 

Topping, Mr., 80, 141, 142, 211. 

Totapafli, 164, 174, 225, 235. 

Totapeta, 250. 

Totaramudi, 103. 

Totemisni, 54, 55, 56. 

Towns, chief, 2. 

Trade, 112-I17, 182, 211, 216, 

Trap, 9, II. 

Travellers' bungalows, 133. 

Tree-tax system, 185. 

Tributaries of the Godavari river, 7. 

Tripurapantavidu estate, 259. 

Troops at Samalkot, 214. 

Tsakalas, 104. 

Tulasinga Chettiyar, M.R.Ry., 157. 

Tulya Bhaga drain, 6, 86, 208. 

Tummapala, 15. 

Tuni division, 255-257 ; estate, 256 ; 
river, 126. 

Tuni town, Baptist Mission at, 40, 41 ; 
Razus in, 53 ; its weaving, 103 ; metal 
work, 105 ; oil factories, 107 ; shoe- 
making, 108; cattle market, II2| 
bridge, 126 ; and rainfall, 135 ; vaccina- 
tion compulsory in, 150; sub-registrar 
at, 191 ; deputy tahsildar at, 192 ; 
union, 197 ; described, 256. 

Tunnuru mutta, 277. 

Turmeric, 72. 

Tweeddale, Marquis of, So. 


Udayachandra, 20. 

Udayagiri, 27. 

Undi, 35, 282. 

Undur, 236. 

Unions, 150, 197. 

Uppada estate, 239. 

Uppada village, mouth of the Veleru near, 
8 ; encroachment of the sea at, 10 ; 
weaving at, 103, 227 ; fish-curing at, 
183 ; coasting trade of, 187 ; described, 


Uppetia, 141. 

Upper Godavari Project, 12S. 



Vaccination, 150. 

Vachchavaya ^Jusali, 223. 

V'achchavaya Rajamma, 223. 

Vadapalaiyam, 204. 

Vadapalli (Amalapuram taluk), 205. 

Vadapalli (Chodavarani di\isi(jii), 267, 277. 

Vaddigudeni, 25Q, 264. 

\'ainatt:yam Godavari river, described, 5, 
6 ; ferry acro^^s, 127 ; Hoods in, 146, 
147 ; origin of name, 202, 203. 

Vakalapudi, 114. 

Valamuru niutta, 277. 

\'alangiman, 204. 

Valette, Rev. L. M., 39. 

Vali Sugriva hill, 265. 

Viinapalli, 205. 

Vangalapudi, 104. 

Vannipudi, 229. 

Vantarlus, 55. 

Vantavaradi system, 238. 

Varadarama Das, 261. 

Varakam system, 112. 

Varugu Bhattas, 56. 

Vasishta Godavari river, described, 5, 6 ; 
ferries across, 127 ; floods in, 145, 146, 
147 ; Vainateyam Godavari formed from, 

Vatsavaya Surappa Razn, 256. 

Vedura, 23. 

Vegayammapeta, 250, 253. 

Velagapalli, 1 1, 277. 

Velamapalaiyam, 250. 

Velamas, 55, 104. 

Velanakapalli, no. 

Velaniindu family, 23, 24, 203, 233. 

Velanka, 224. 

Velpus, 62,. 

Vema Reddi, 26, 215. 

Vemulakonda mutta, 277. 

Vengi, 19, 233. 

Venkata Krishna Raya Nimgar, 235. 
Venkata Mahipati Gangadhara Rama Rao, 


Venkata Niladri of Pithapuram, 237. 
Venkata Rao, 222. 
Venkatagiri Zamindari, 234. 
Venkatapati of Polavaram, 280. 
Venkatarama of Polavaram, 28c. 
Venkataratnam, Maniyani, 278. 
Venkatayyapalaiyam, 107. 
Venkayya of Rekapalle, 264. 
Venkayya, Kai Bahadur V., 2. 
Veterinary dispensary, 233. 
Vidiadri Gajapati of Rajahmundry, 28, 

223, 244. 
Vijayaditya Mahendra, 244. 
Vijayaditya II, 2C. 
Vijayaditya VII, 21 
Vijayagopala Devu, 280, 281, 282. 
Vijayanagar kingdom, 27. 
Vijesvaram, 127, 147. 
Vikrama Chola, 22. 
Vikramaditya VI, 21, 22. 

Vilasa estate, 164. 

Village deiiies, 47, 48, 63, 67 ; at Antar- 
vedi, 217 ; Dowlaishweram, 241 ; Kan- 
drakota, 222 ; Maredipaka, 253 ; I'ralli- 
padu, 224 ; Rajahmundry, 247 ; Talliiru, 
256; Talipaka, 256; Vanapalli, 205; 
and V'elesvaram, 226, 

Village establishments, 1 78-180. 

Village magistrates, 191, 

Village service inams, 179, 180. 

Villages, 42, 66, 67. 

Vimaladilya, 20. 

Vipravinodis, 53. 

Vira Chola, 22. 

Virabhadra Reddi, 26. 

Virabhadrapuram, 288. 

Viramushtis, 55. 

Viravaram, 7, 224, 226. 

Viruvandi, 261. 

V'lsabadi system of revenue, 167. 

Vishnugopa of Conjeeveram, 233. 

Vishnu vardhana (two Eastern Chalukya 
kings), 19, 20, 54, 55. 

Vishnuvardhana Maharaja, 215 

Vizagapatam, 31. 

Vizianagram, Raja of, 30, 31, 253. 

Vodulapenta, 227 note, 228. 

Volkart Bros., Messrs., 115. 

Volunteers, company at Cocanada, 208. 

Vows, among Malas, 59 ; at Annavaram, 
221; Ayinavilli, 202; Bhadrachalam , 
262 ; Bikkavolu, 249 ; Kandrakota, 222; 
Korukonda, 242 ; Kottapalli, 256 ; Man- 
dapalli, 203 ; Muramalla, 203 ; Pata 
Pattisam, 279; Prattipadu, 224; Rajah- 
mundry, 248 ; Ramavaram, 288 ; and 
Talluru, 256. 

Vriddha Gautami, 88. 

Vubalanka, 107. 

Vyagresvarapuram, 206. 


Wages, 91. 

Wainganga river, 4, 

Walch, Mr., 86, 125, 129. 

Warangal, 25. See also Kakatiyas. 

Wardha river, 4. 

Water carriage, 127. 

Wa;er-rate in the delta, 172, 173. 

Weaving, 102-104; in Amalapuram, 201 ; 
Bandarula,d-;a, 202 ; Cocanada taluk, 
207 ; Draksharamam, 250 ; Gollapalai- 
yam, 212; Jagannapeta, 217; Kotipalli, 
252 ; Kottapalli, 232; Maredipaka, 253 ; 
Nagaram taluk, 217 ; Peddapuram, 
224; Pithapuram, 239; Rajahmundry 
taluk, 240 ; Rajahmundry, 248; Rama- 
chandrapuram, 253 ; Samalkot, 214 ; 
Sivakodu, 220 ; Tatipaka, 220 ; Tuni, 
255, 256 ; and Uppada, 239. 

Weights and measures, 1 17-123. 

Wells, 79, 89, 200, 201, 204. 

Westcot, Mr., 211. 

Wet cultivation, 68-76. 



Widow re-marriage, 49. 

Wilson & Co., Messrs., 115. 

Wind, 12. 

Witchcraft, 64, 67. 

Wood, Sir Charles, 172, 

Wood-carving, 106 ; at Amalapuram, 201 ; 

Bikkavolu, 25c; Dowlaishweram, 241 ; 

Draksharamam, 250 ; Periiru, 205 ; 

Kajahnumdry, 248 ; and Sivakodu, 220. 
Working plans for forests, 100. 

Xylia forests, 100. 

Yanadis, 192. 

Vanam, on the Gautami (lodavari, 5 ; 
French factory at, 29 ; Roman Catholic 
mission at 42 ; canal to, 86 ; salt for, 
182 ; land-customs on goods from, 187 ; 
described, 215. 

Yanaon, ^15. 

Yarlagedda, 287. 

Yeduvampula pass, 286. 

Yeleru river, described, 7 ; irrigation from, 

89,^170, 171 ; mouth of, II3; bridge 

over, 126, 198 
Yeiesvaram, 112, 197, 226. 
Yellaman chili, 106. 
\'ellavaram division, 284-288. 
Yellavaram village, 7. 
\'endamuru, 39. 
Yeniitis, 57. 

Yeomiah scholarships, 157. 
Yernagiidem, 35, 36, 143. 
Yerra Kalwa, 11. 
Yerragonda, 287. 
Yerrametla, II. 
Yerravaram, 125, 225. 
Yerukalas, 6, 46, 105, 108. 
Yorke, Captain, 230. 
Young, Mr. B. PL, 155. 

Zamindari land, 160. 
Zamindars, 29, 30, 34, 160, 164. 


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