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THE following Bibliography aims at giving a complete list 
of the authorities cited in the third edition of The Golden 
Bough. Such a list may be of use to readers who desire 
to have further information on any of the topics dis- 
cussed or alluded to in the text. It has been compiled 
by Messrs. R. & R. Clark's Press Reader from the refer- 
ences in my footnotes to the volumes, and it has been 
revised and corrected by me in proof. The titles of 
works which I have not seen but have cited at second 
hand are distinguished by an asterisk prefixed to them. 
Throughout the book I have endeavoured to indicate the 
distinction clearly by the manner of my citation, but lest 
any ambiguity should remain I have thought it well to 
mark the difference precisely in the Bibliography. In the 
case of Greek and Latin authors the editions which I have 
commonly used are generally noted in the Bibliography ; 
they are for the most part those which I possess in my 
own library and have consulted for the sake of convenience. 
The General Index incorporates the separate indices to 
the volumes, but as some of these, especially in the earlier 
volumes, were somewhat meagre, I have made large additions 
to them in order to bring up the whole to a uniform standard 
and to facilitate the use of the book as a work of reference. 
With this clue in his hand the student, I hope, will be able 
to find his way through the labyrinth of facts. All the 
entries have been made by me, but the arrangement of 


them is in the main due to the Press Reader, whom I 
desire to thank for the diligence and accuracy with which 
he has performed his laborious task. The whole Index has 
been repeatedly revised and freely corrected by me in proof. 
In conclusion it is my duty as well as pleasure to 
thank my publishers, Messrs. Macmillan & Company, for 
the never- failing confidence, courtesy, and liberality with 
which they have treated me during the many years in 
which The Golden Bough has been in progress. From 
first to last they have laid me under no restrictions what- 
ever, but have left me perfectly free to plan and execute 
the work on the scale and in the manner I judged best 
Their patience has been inexhaustible and their courage 
in facing the pecuniary risks unwavering. My printers 
also, Messrs. R. & R. Clark of Edinburgh, have done 
their part to my entire satisfaction ; they have promptly 
responded to every call I have made on them for in- 
creased speed, and with regard to accuracy I will only 
say that in the scrutiny to which 1 have subjected the 
book for the purpose of the Index I have detected many 
errors of my own, but few or none of theirs. Publishers 
and printers can do much to help or hinder an author's 
work. Mine have done everything that could be done to 
render my labours as light and as pleasant as possible. 
I thank them sincerely and gratefully for their help, 
and I reflect with pleasure on the relations of unbroken 
cordiality which have existed between us for more than 
a quarter of a century. 


Z^fk January 1915. 


Pp. v-vl 

Pp. i-i44 

GENERAL INDEX Pp ' I45 " 53 




N.B.\n the following list an asterisk prefixed to the title of a work signifies that the trotk 
in question has not been seen by me (J* G - Frazer), and is known to me only by name or in 
quotations. Works not marked by an asterisk have been consulted in the originals. 

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Wissensch often. 
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Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften xu Berlin. 
Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Bayerischen Akadfmie der Wissenschaften. 
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^Original Spanish Edition published at Seville in 1590. Reprinted 

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Ada Sanctorum. Paris and Rome, 1867. 

Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae. Helsingfors, 1856. 

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if 86 and 1800. London, N.D. 
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Antoninus Diadu menus. 
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Aeschines. Ed. F. Franke. Leipsic, 1863. 
Contra Ctesiphontem. 

Aeschylus. Ed. F. A. Paley. Third Edition. London, 1870. 

Prometheus Vinctus. 
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quoted by R. Munro, Ancient Scottish Lake Dwellings or C ran nogs. 

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The Roman numerals (i., ii., HI, etc.) refer to the volumes ; the Arabic numbers (i, *, 3, etc.) 
refer to the pages. The volumes of the work are cited by the following numerals : 

L m The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings t vol. i. 

= . M voL ii. 

iii. m. Taboo and the Perils of the Soul. 
\v.= The Dying God. 

v.= Adonis, Attis, Osiris, Third Edition, vol. i. 
vi. *= ,, vol. ii. 

vii. = Spirits of the Corn and of the Wild, vol. i. 
viii. = ,, ,, vol. ii. 

ix. = The Scapegoat. 

x. = Balder the Beautiful, vol. i. 
xi. = ,, ., voU ii. 

Aachen, effigy burnt on Ash Wednesday 
at, x. 120, xi. 25 

Aargau, Swiss canton of, the Whitsuntide 
Basket in. ii. 83 ; Lenten fire-custom 
in, x. 119; superstition as to oak- 
mistletoe in, xi. 82 ; mistletoe called 
"thunder-besom" in, xi. 85, 301; 
birth-trees in, xi. 165 

Ab, a Jewish month, equivalent to 
August, i. 14, vii. 259 a. 1 

Ababa, a tribe of the Congo region, 
believe that their souls transmigrate 
at death into animals, viii. 288 sq. 

Ababua, the, of the Congo valley, their 
belief as to falling stars, iv. 65 

Aban, a Persian month, vi. 68 

Abbas Effendi, divine head of the Babites, 
i. 402 

Abbas the Great, Shah of Persia, tempo- 
rary substitute for, iv. 157 

Abbehausen, fever transferred to dog and 
cat at, ix. 51 

Abbeville, huge trunks of oak in the peat- 
bog near, ii. 351 

Abbot of Folly in France, ix. 334 

of Unreason in Scotland, ix. 312, 331 

Abchases of the Caucasus, their cere- 
mony of rain - making, i. 282 . 4 ; 
their worship of the thunder-god, ii. 
370 ; their memorial feasts, iv. 98, 
103 ; their use of effigies as substitutes 
to save the lives of people, viii. 105 ; 
their sacrament of shepherds, viii. 3x3 ; 
their sacrifice of white ox, viii. 313 n. 1 

Abd-Hadad, priestly king of Hierapolis, 

v. 163 . 3 

Abdera, human scapegoats at, ix. 254 
Abdication of kings in favour of their 

infant children, in. 19, 20 ; during the 

reign of their substitutes, iv. 115 ; 

annual, of kings, iv. 148 ; of father 

when his son is grown up, iv. 181 ; 

of the king on the birth of a son, iv. 

190 ; temporary, of chief, viii. 66, 68 
Abduction of souls by demons, iii. 58 sqq. 
Abeghian, Manuk, on the belief of the 

Armenians in demons, ix. 107 sq. ; 

on creeping through cleft trees in 

Armenia, xi. 172 
Abensberg in Bavaria, burning the Easter 

Man at, x. 144 
Alx>okuta, in West Africa, the Alake 

(king) of, iv. 203 ; his head kept and 

delivered to his successor, iv. 203 ; 

use of bull-roarers at, xi. 229 rt. 
Al>er, the Lake of, in Upper Austria, xi. 

Aberdeenshire, All Souls' Day m, vi. 

79 sq. ; harvest customs in, vii. 158 

sqq., 215 sq., x. 12 ; need -fire in, 

x. 296 ; holed rock used by childless 

women in, xi. 187 
Abcrdour, parish of, in Aberdeenshire, 

the cutting of the clyack sheath in, vii. 

158 sqq. 

Aberfeldy, Hallowe'en fires near, x. 232 
Abi-baal, "father of Baal," v. 51 . 
Abi-el, "father of El," v. 51 n.* 




Abi-jah, King, his family, v. 51 *. 9 ; 
41 father of Jehovah," v. 51 . 4 

Abi-melech, " father of a king," v. 51 . 4 

Abi-milk (Abi-melech), king of Tyre, v. 
i6. 6 

Abimelech massacres his seventy 
brothers, v. 51 . 9 

Abingdon in Berkshire, May carols and 
garlands at, ii. 60 

Abipones, the, of South America thought 
it sinful to mention their own names, 
iii. 328 ; the dead not named among 
the, iii. 352; changes in their language 
caused by the fear of naming the dead, 
iii. 360 ; their belief as to meteors, iv. 
63 ; their worship of the Pleiades, \ . 
258 n. 2 , vii. 308 ; ate jaguars to 
become brave, viii. 140 

Abjuration, form of, imposed on Jewish 
converts, ix. 393 

Abnormal mental states accounted in- 
spiration, iii. 248 

Abolition of the kingship at Rome, n. 
289 sqq. 

Abomey, the old capital of Dahomey, 
iv. 40 

Abonsam, an evil spirit on the Gold 
Coast, ix. 132 

Aborigines retained as priests of the local 
gods by conquering races, ii 288 ; of 
Victoria, their custom as to emu fat, 
x. 13 

Abortion, superstition as to woman who 
has procured, in. 153 

Abougit, Father X., b.J. , on the cere- 
mony of the new fire at Jerusalem, x. 


Abraham, his attempted sacrifice of 
Isaac, iv. 177, vi. 219 n. 1 

and Sarah, ii. 114 

, the Pool of, at Ourfa, i. 285 

Abrahams, Israel, on the Purim bonfires, 
ix. 393 .* 

Abruzzi, barren fruit-trees threatened in 
the, ii. 22 ; belief as to falling stars in 
the, iv. 66, 67 ; burning an effigy of 
the Carnival in the, iv. 224 ; seve 
legged effigy of Lent in the, iv. 244 sg. ; 
gossips of St. John in the, v. 245 
*. 9 ; marvellous properties attributed 
to water on St. John's Night in the, v. 
246 ; Easter ceremonies in the, v. 256 ; 
the feast of All Souls in the, vi. 77 sq. ; 
rules as to sowing seed and cutting 
timber in the, vi. i33. 8 ; Epiphany 
in the, ix. 167 . 9 ; new Easter fire 
in the, x. 122 ; water consecrated at 
Easter in the, x. 122 sqq. ; Midsummer 
rites of fire and water in the, x. 209 sq. 

Absalom, his intercourse with bis father's 
concubines, ix. 368 

Absence and recall of the soul, iii. 30 sqq. 

Absites, the, iii. 312 

Absrot, village of Bohemia, precaution 
against witches on Walpurgis Night 
at, ix. 161 

Abstinence, periods of, observed before 
sowing, ii. 98, 105 ; as a charm to 
promote the growth of the seed, ix. 
347 sqq. 

Abstract notions, the personification of, 
not primitive, iv. 253 

Abu 'Ilberecat, a Berber, ii. 153 sq. 

Abu Rabah, resort of childless wives in 
Palestine, v. 78, 79 

Abuse (vituperation), beneficial virtue 
ascribed to, i. 279 sq. 

Abydos, head of Osiris at, vi. n ; the 
favourite burial-place of the Egyp- 
tians, vi. 1 8 sq. ; specially associated 
with Osiris, vi. 18, 197; tombs of the 
ancient Egyptian kings at, vi. 19 ; the 
ritual of, vi. 86 ; hall of the Osirian 
mysteries at, vi. 108 ; representations 
of the Sed festival at, vi. 151 ; inscrip- 
tions at, vi. 153 ; temple of Osiris at, 
vi 198 ; ancient shrine of Osiris at, 
vn 260 n ' 2 

Abyssinia, rain-making in, i. 258 ; rain- 
making priests among tnl>cs on the 
borders of, 11. 2 sq. \ Tigre-speaking 
tribes to the north of, 11. 19 ; fear of 
the evil eye in, in. 116 ; severed hands 
and feet preserved against the resur- 
rection in, in. 281 ; personal names 
concealed in, in 322; the Kamantsof, 
iv. 12 ; sacrifice of first-born children 
among trit>cs on the borders of, iv. 
181 sq. ; the Faleshas of, viu 266 n. 1 

Abyssinian festival of Mascal or the 
Cross, ix. 133 sq 

Acacia, Osiris in the, vi. 1 1 1 ; the heart 
in the flower of the, xi. 135 sq. 

tree, worshipped in Patagonia, ii. 

1 6 ; sacred in Arabia, ii. 42 

Acacia albida, used in kindling fire by 
friction, ii. 210 

catechu, used in kindling fire by 

friction, ii. 249 
Suma, ii. 250 n. 

Academy at Athens, funeral games held 
in the, iv. 96 

Acagchemem trit>e of California, their 
worship of the sacred buzzard, viii 
170 sq. 

Acaill, Hook of, on kings of Ireland, iv. 39 

Acarnanian story of Prince Sunless, x. 21 

Acatay mi/a, festival to make alligator 
pears ripen, ii. 98 

Accession of a Shilluk king, ceremonies 
at the, iv. 23 sq. 

Accoleian family, coins of the, ii. 185 

Accusations of ritual murders brought 
against the Jews, ix. 394 sqq. 



Achaia, subject to earthquakes, v. 202 

Acharaca, cave of Pluto at, v. 205 sg. 

Acharnae, Attic township, Dionysus Ivy 
at, vii. 4 

Achelous and Dcjanira, ii. 161 sg. 

Achern, St. John's fires at, x. 168 

Achilles at the court of Lycomedcs, ii. 
278 ; his hair devoted to the river 
Sperchius, iii. 261 

Achinese, the, of northern Sumatra, their 
observation of the Pleiades, vii. 315 

Achinese fishermen, special vocabulary 
employed by, at sea, in. 409 

Achterneed, in Ross-shire, Heltane cakes 
at, x. 153 

Acilisena, in Armenia, temple and wor- 
ship of Anaitis at, v. 38, ix. 369 n. 

Acireale, in Sicily, Midsummer fires at, 
x. 210 

Acorns as an attribute of Artemis, i. 
38 i*. 1 ; shamans responsible for crop 
of edible, i. 358 ; found in the lake- 
dwellings of liurope, ii. 353 ; as food, 
" 353> 355 S Q- I as fodder for suine, 
354- 356 

Acosta, J. de, early Spanish historian of 
Peru and Mexico, ix. 276 n. 1 ; on the 
Peruvian Mother of the Maize, vn. 171 
sq. ; on the sacramental eating of bread 
among the ancient Mexicans, viii. 86 
sqq. ; on the annual expulsion of culs 
in Peru, ix. 131 n. ; on Aztec custom 
of sacrificing human representatives of 
the gods, ix. 275 *qq. ; on the sacrifice 
of the human representative of Quet- 
zalcoatl, ix. 281 *qq 

Acre, in Syria, residence of the head of 
the Babitcs, i. 402 

Acropolis of Athens, the sacred serpent 
on the, iv. 86 sq. \ Sacred Ploughing 
at foot of the, vn. 108 n.*, 109 n. 1 ; 
annual sacrifice of a goat on the, viii. 

Actium, games celebrated at, vn. 80, 85 

Acts, talxjoed, in. 101 sqq. 

A9vina, an Indian month, iv. 124 

Adad, Syrian king, v. 15; Bab) Ionian 
and Assyrian god of thunder and 
lightning, v. 163 

Adad-Nirari, king of Ass>ria, ix 370 n. 1 

Adair, James, on the self- inflicted 
mortifications of the Creek Indians in 
war, iii. 161 sqq. ; on the refusal of 
American Indians to taste blood, m. 
240 ; on Indian belief in homoeopathic 
magic of animal tlesh, viii. 139 ; on 
American Indian custom of cutting 
out the sinew of the thigh of deer, 
viii. 264 ; his discovery of the Ten 
Lost Tribes in Amei ica, viii. 264 n. 4 

Adaklu, Mount, in West Africa, evils 
sent away to, ix. 135 sq., 206 sq. 

| Adam, man in Lent called, ix. 214 

I and Eve, suggested explanation of 

their aprons of fig-leaves, ix. 259 . 8 

of Bremen, on the thunder -god 

Thor, ii. 364 

Adams, J., on divinity of king of Benin, 
i. 396 

Adaiia in Cilicia, v. 169 . 8 

Adar, a Jewish month, vii. 259 n. l t ix. 
361, 394, 397, 398, 415 

Adder stones among the Celts, x. 15 

Addison, Joseph, on the Italian opera, 
ii. 299 ; on the grotto dei cani at 
Naples, v. 205 n. 1 ; on witchcraft in 
Switzerland, xi. 42 . 2 

Adelaide tribe of South Australia, name- 
sakes of the dead change their names 
in the, in. 355 

Adeh, the, of the Slave Coast, their 
festival of new y^ms, vm. 116 

Aclhar, a Persian month, vi. 68 
i Adivi or forest Gollas of Southern India, 
I seclusion of women at childbirth among 
| the, ni 149 sg. 

Adom-melech or Uri-melech, king of 
Hyblus, v. 14, 17 

A don, a Semitic title, v. 6sg. t 16 sg., 20, 
49 nJ 

Adonai, title of Jehovah, v. 6 sq. 

Adoni, "my lord," Semitic title, v. 7, 
names compounded with, v. 17 

Adom-bezck, king of Jerusalem, v. 17 

Adoni-jah, elder brother of King Solo- 
mon, v. 51 . 2 

Adom-zedek, king of Jerusalem, v. 17 

Adonis at liyblus, i. 30 ; myth of, v. 3 
j,/./. ; Greek \N orship of, v. 6 ; in Greek 
mythology, v. 10 sqq. ; in Syria, v. 
13 sqq. ; -monuments of, v. 29; in 
Cyprus, v. 31 sqg , 49 ; identified with 
Osiris, v. 32 ; mourning for, at Byblus, 
v. 38 ; said to be the fruit of incest, v. 
43 ; his mother Myrrha, v. 43 ; son of 
Theias, v. 43 n.*, 55 . 4 ; the son of 
Cmyras, v. 49 ; the title of the sons 
of Phoenician kings in Cyprus, v. 49 ; 
his violent death, v. 55 ; music in the 
worship of, v 55 ; sacred prostitution 
in the worship of, v. 57 ; inspired 
piophets in worship of, v. 76 ; human 
representatives of, perhaps burnt, v. 
no; doves burned in honour of, 
v. 147 ; personated by priestly kings, 
v. 223 ; the ritual of, v. 223 sqq. \ his 
death and resurrection represented in 
his rites, v. 224 sq. , ix. 398 ; festivals 
of, v. 224 sqq. ; flutes played in the 
laments for, v. 225 . 3 : the ascension 
of, v. 225 ; images of, thrown into the 
sea or springs, v. 225, 227 . 8 , 236 ; 
born from a myrrh-tree, v. 227, vi. no; 
bewailed by Argive women, v. 227 n. \ 



analogy of his rites to Indian and 
European ceremonies, v. 227 ; his 
death and resurrection interpreted as 
representations of the decay and revival 
of vegetation, v. 227 sqq. \ interpreted 
as the sun, v. 228 ; interpreted by the 
ancients as the god of the reaped and 
sprouting corn, v. 229 ; as a corn- 
spirit, v. 230 sqq. ; hunger the root 
of the worship of, v. 231 ; perhaps 
originally a personification of wild 
vegetation, especially grass and trees, 
v. 233 ; the gardens of, v. 236 sqq. ; 
rain -charm in the rites of, v. 237; 
resemblance of his rites to the festival 
of Easter, v. 254 sqq. , 306 ; wor- 
shipped at Bethlehem, v. 257 sqq. ; 
and the planet Venus as the Morning 
Star, v. 258 sq. ; sometimes identified 
with Attis, v. 263 ; swine not eaten 
by worshippers of, v. 265 ; rites of, 
among the Greeks, v. 298 ; lamented 
by women at Byblus, vi. 23 ; and 
Linus, vii. 216, 258 ; at Alexandria, 
vii. 263, ix. 390 ; and the boar, viii. 
22 sq. ; his marriage with Ishtar 
(Aphrodite), ix. 401. See also' I'ammuz 

Adonis and Aphrodite, v. 1 1 sq. , 29, 280, 
XL 294 sq. ; their marriage celebrated 
at Alexandria, v. 224 ; perhaps per- 
sonated by human couples, ix. 386 

and Attis identified with Dionysus, 

vi. 127 . 

, Attis, Osiris, their mythical simi- 
larity, v. 6, vi. 20 x 

and Osiris, similarity between their 
rites, vi. 127 

or Taramuz, ii. 346 ; the summer 

lamentations for, iv. 7 

and Venus (Aphrodite), i. 21, 25, 

40, 41 

, the river, its valley, v. 28 sqq. ; 

annual discoloration of the, v. 30, 225 

Adoption, pretence of birth at. i. 74 sq. 

Adrammelech, burnt sacrifice of children 
to, iv. 171 

Adultery of wife thought to spoil the 
luck of her absent husband, i. 123, 
124 sq., 128 ; supposed to blight the 
fruits of the earth, ii. 107 sg , 114 

Aeacus, the son of Zeus by Aegina, ii. 
278 359 "- 1 ! king of Aegina, the dis- 
persal of his descendants, ii. 278 ; ob- 
tains rain from his father Zeus, ii. 359 

Aedepsus, hot springs of Hercules at, v. 
an sq. 

Aedesius, Sextilius Agesilaus, dedicates 
altar to Attis, v. 275 n. 1 

Aegina, daughter of Asopus and mother 
of Aeacus, ii. 359 .* 

, island, Panhellenian Zeus wor- 
shipped on the peak of, ii. 359 

Aegipan and Hermes, v. 157 

Aegira in Achaia, inspired priestess of 

Karth at, i. 381 sq. 
Aegis t Athena and the, viii. 40, 41 
Aegis thus, the murder of, i. 12 . ; at 
Mycenae, his marriage with the widow 
of his predecessor, ii. 281 

and Agamemnon, ix. 19 

Aegosthena, annual kingship at, i. 46 
Aehan, on impregnation of Judean maid 
by serpent, v. 81 ; on a Babylonian 
king Gilgamus, ix. 372 n. 1 
Aelst, Peter van, painter, xi. 36 
Aenach, Irish fair, iv. 100 w. 1 
Aeneas and the Golden Bough, i. ii, ii. 
379, xi. 285, 293 sq. ; his vision of 
the glories of Rome, ii. 138 ; his dis- 
appearance in a thunderstorm, ii. 181 ; 
worshipped after death as Jupiter 
Indiges, ii. 181 ; and the Game of 
Troy, iv. 76 

and Dido, iii. 312, 313, v. 114 n. 1 

Aeolus, King of the Winds, i. 326 
Aeschines, spurious epistles of, ii. 162 .* 
Aeschylus, on Typhon, v. 156 
Aesculapius brings Hippolytus or Virbius 
to life, i. 20, iv. 214 ; horses dedicated 
by Hippolytus to, i. 21 n. a , viii. 41 .*; 
at Cos, ii. 10 ; in relation to serpents, 
v. 80 sq. ; reputed father of Aratus, 
v. 80 sq. \ his shrines at Sicyon and 
Titane, v. 81 ; his dispute \\ith Her- 
cules, v. 209 sq. ; said to have raised 
Hippolytus from the dead, viii. 41 . 8 ; 
at Pergamus, viu. 85 ; at Epidaurus, 
ix 47 

Aeson and Medea, v. 181 n. } , vm. 143 
Aetna, Latin poem, v. 221 . 4 
Aetohans, the, shod only on one foot, 

ni. 311 

Afars. See Danakils 
Afghanistan, ceremony at the reception 

of strangers in, iii. 108 
Africa, treatment of the navel - string 
and afterbirth in, i 195 sq. ; rise of 
magicians, especially rain-makers, to 
chieftainship and kingship in, i. 342 
sqq. , 352 ; human gods in, i. 392 sqq. \ 
belief in, that sexual crimes disturb 
the course of nature, ii. x 1 1 sq. ; the 
diffusion of round huts in, ii. 227 *.' ; 
corpulence as a beauty in, ii. 297 ; 
rules of life or taboos observed by 
kings in, iii 5 sq., ^ sqq. ; detention of 
souls by sorcerers in, iii. 70 sq. ; fear 
of being photographed in, iii. 97 sq.\ 
cleanliness from superstitious motives 
in, iii. 158 n. 1 ; smith's craft regarded 
as uncanny in, iii. 236 n. 5 ; reluctance 
of people to tell their own names in, 
iii. 339 sq. ; the Bogos of, iii. 337 ; 
names of animals and things tabooed 


in, iii. 400 sq.\ belief as to trans- 
migration of the dead into serpents in, 
iv. 84 ; succession to the soul in, iv. 
200 sq. ; serpents as reincarnations of 
the dead in, v. 82 sqq.\ infant burial 
in, v. 91 sg.\ reincarnation of the 
dead in, v. 91 sq.\ annual festivals 
of the dead in, vi. 66 ; worship of 
dead kings and chiefs in, vi. 160 
sqq. \ supreme gods in, vi. 165, 173 
sq., 174, 186, \Mth . fl , 187 n. 1 , 188 
sq., 190; worship of ancestral spirits 
among the Bantu tribes of, vi. 174 sqq. ; 
inheritance of the kingship under 
mother-kin m, vi. 211 ; cat's cradle 
in, vii. 103 . 1 ; woman's share in 
agriculture among the tribes of, vii. 
\\$ sqq.\ observation of the Pleiades 
by agricultural tribes in, vii. 315 sqq. ; 
sacrifice of first-fruits in, viii. 109^^.; 
belief as to the homoeopathic magic of 
a flesh diet in, viii. 140 \qq ; crocodiles 
respected in, viii. 213 sq.\ sickness 
transferred to animals in, ix. 31 sq.\ 
girls secluded at puberty in, x. 22 
sqq. \ dread and seclusion of women at 
menstruation in, x. 79 sqq \ birth-trees 
in, xi. 1 60 sgg.\ use of bull-roaiers in, 
xi. 229 n. t 232 

Africa, British Central, the tribes of, their 
custom of carrying about fire, n. 259 ; 
the Yaos of, in. 97 sq. t viii. in ; 
customs observed after a death in, m. 
286; the Angom of, iv. 156 n. 2 , vm. 
149 ; the Nyanja -speaking trit>es of, 
vm. 26 ; crops guarded against 
baboons and wild pigs in, viii. 32 ; 
flesh and hearts of lions eaten to make 
eaters brave in, vm. 142 ; parts of brave 
enemies eaten to make the eaters 
brave in, vm. 149 ; theAnyanja of, \. Si 

, British East, the Akikuyu (Kikuyu) 
of, ii. 44, m. 175, 214, vn. 317, ix. 
32, x. 81, xi. 202 sq. ; the Nandi of, 
ii. ii2, iii. 141, 175, 423, vn. 117, 
317, vm. 64, xi. 229 n. ; the Ketosh 
of, iii. 176 ; the En-jrmusi of, vii. 118; 
the Suk of, vii. 118, viii 84, 142, x. 
8 1 ; observation of the Pleiades by 
tribes in, vii. 317 ; the Akamba of, viii. 
113, ix. 122 n. ; ceremony of new fire 
in, x. 135 sq. 

Central, the Banyoro of, i. 348 ; 
the Lendu of, i. 348 ; the Basoga of, 
M. 19, 112; the Bagandaof, ii. 246, 
269, iii. 78. vii. 118 ; the pygmies of, 
ii. 255, iii. 282 ; the M on butt u of, 
ii. 297, iii. 118, vii. 119 ; reception of 
strangers in, iii. 108 ; the Latuka of, iii. 
245, 284 ; the Madi or Moru tribe of, 
iii. 277, viii. 3x4, ix. 217 ; the Wahoko 
of, iii. 278 ; the Wanyoro (Banyoro) 

of, iii. 278 ; the Fors of, iii. 281 ; 
Unyoro in, iii. 291 sy., iv. 34; the 
Akamba of, iii. 353 ; the Nandi of, 
i"- 353 5 the Bahima of, iii. 375, viii. 
288, ix. 32 ; the Niam-Niam of, vii. 
119 ; the Wanyamwesi of, viii. 227 

Africa, East, the Wambugwe of, i. 290, 
342, iv. 65 ; the Wataturu of, i. 342 
sq. t viii. 84; the Wanika of, ii. 12, 
iii. 247 ; the Tanga coast of, ii. 
34 ; the Wakamba of, ii. 46 ; the 
Wabondei of, ii. 47, iii. 272, viii. 142 ; 
the Masai of, ii. 210; the Winam- 
wanga of, ii. 256 n. 1 ; the Wiwa of, 
ii. 256 n. 1 \ the Jaggas of, ii. 259 ; 
the Bogos of, n. 267 n. 4 ; avoidance 
of parents - in - law in, iii. 85 ; the 
Wa - teita of, iii. 98 ; custom of 
elephant - hunters in, iii. 107 ; the 
Nubas of, iii. 132; the Bageshu of, 
iii. 174 ; the Akamba of, iii. 204 ; the 
Akikuyu of, m. 204 ; the Warundi of, 
in. 225 n. ; the Wajagga of, iii. 286, 
290 ; the Barea of, m 337 ; the 
Masai of, iii. 354 ; the Waziguas of, 
in. 400 ; infanticide in, iv. 196 ; the 
Danakils or Afars of, iv. 200 ; the 
Arabs of, vm 164 ; propitiation of 
di\id lions in, vm. 228 ; ceremony of 
the new fire in, x. 135 ; the Swahili 
of, xi. 160 

, German East, viii. 142 ; the 

Wagogo of, i. 343, ni. 186 n. 1 , viii. 
26, 149, 276, ix. 6 ; the Wahehe of, 
iii. 86 n. , vin. 26 ; the Wageia of, 
iii. 177 ; continence of hunters in, iii. 
196 sf. ; the Wadowe of, vii. 118 ; 
the Wahera of, vni. 26 ; the Wajagga 
of, vni. 276, xi. 160 ; the Washamba 
of, ix. 29, xi 183; the Bondeis of, xi. 
263 ; the Wad oc of, xi. 312 

, German South- West, the Ovambo 

of, xi. 183 

, North, magical images in, i. 65 sq. ; 

contagious magic of footprints in, i. 
210 ; the Arabs of, i. 277 ; artificial 
fertilization of fig-trees in, ii. 314; 
charms to render bridegrooms impotent 
in, m. 300 sq. \ festivals of swinging in, 
iv. 284; custom of bathing at Mid- 
summer among the Mohammedan 
peoples of, v. 249 ; cairns in, ix. 21 ; 
Mohammedan reverence for living 
saints in, ix. 22 ; popular cure for 
toothache in, ix. 62; tiibes of, their 
expulsion of demons, ix. no sq.\ Mid- 
summer fires in, x. 213 sqq. 

, South, use of rat's hair as a charm 

in, i. 151 ; the Herero of, i. 209 ; 
stopping rain by means of a rabbit in, 
i. 295; the Bechuanas of, i. 313; 
* ay of retarding the sun in, i. 318 ; th* 


Caffres of, i. 321, iii. 87 ; frightening 
away a storm in, i. 327 ; the Chevas 
of, i. 331 . a ; the Tumbucas of, i. 
331 ." ; chiefs as rain-makers in, i. 
35 *?? > tne Mashona of, i. 393 ; 
the Maraves of, h. 31, ix. 19 ; the 
Ovambo of, ii. 264, iii. 176 ; the Ba- 
Pedi of, iii. 141, 148, 163, 202 ; the 
Ba-Thonga of, iii. 141, 148, 163, 
802 ; Bantu tribes of, iii. 152, viu. 
in, ix. 77 sq. ; seclusion and purifi- 
cation of manslayers in, iii. 174 sq. ; 
disposal of cut hair and nails in, in. 
278 ; magic use of spittle in, iii. 288 ; 
the Makalaka of, iii. 369 ; belief as to 
stepping over persons or things among 
the tribes of, iii. 423 ; the Baronga of, 
iv. 61 ; crops devastated by wild pigs 
in, viii. 32 ; the Matabele of, viii. 70 ; 
Caffre remedy for caterpillars in, vin. 
280 ; heaps of sticks or stones to \\hich 
passers-by add, in, ix. n ; dread of 
demons in, ix. 77 sq,; sacrificial fire 
in, ix. 391 . 4 ; the Thonga of, xi. 297 

Africa, South-East, the Hlubies and 
Swazies of, i. 249 ; the Baronga of, 
i. 267 ; many tribes of, will not cut 
down timber while the corn is green, 
ii. 49; the Bantu tribes of, ii. 210; 
the Barotse of, iii. 107 ; custom of 
infanticide in some tribes of, iv. 183 ; 
flesh of lions and leopaids eaten by 
warriors in, viii. 142 ; rites of initia- 
tion in, vni. 148 ; inoculation of 
warriors in, viii. 159 ; hunters cut out 
right eye of game in, viii. 268 ; prayers 
at cairns in, ix. 29 

, South- West, the Herero of, i. 211 ; 

the Ovambo of, iii. 227, vni. 109 

, West, rain-making in, i. 249 sq. ; 
magical functions of chiefs in, i. 349 
sg. ; the Banjars of, i. 353 ; the Yor- 
ubas of, i. 364, iv. 41, vin. 98 ; rever- 
ence for silk-cotton trees in, n. 14 J^. ; 
kings forced to accept office in, iii. 
17 sq. \ fetish kings in, in. 22 sqq. ; 
traps set for souls by wizards in, 
iii. 70 sq. ; the Bavili of, iii. 78 ; puri- 
fication after a journey in, iii. 112; 
custom as to blood shed on ground in, 
iii. 245, 246 ; hair, nails, and teeth as 
rain -charms in, iii. 271 ; shorn hair 
burnt or buried for fear of witchcraft 
in, iiL 281 ; the Kru negroes of, iii. 
322 sq. ; Human Leopard Societies 
of, iv. 83 ; human sacrifices at king's 
funeral in, iv. 117 ; stories of the type: 
of Beauty and the Beast in, iv. 128 
sq., 130 w. 1 ; sacrificial blood smeared 
on doorways in, iv. 176 n. 1 ; sacred 
men and women in, v. 65 sqq. ; human 
sacrifices in, vi. 99 .* ; human sacri- 

fices for the crops in, vii. 239 ; the 
Kimbunda of, viii. 152; the Beku 
of, viii. 163 ; propitiation of dead 
leopards in, viii. 228 sqq. ; bones of 
sacrificial victims not broken in, viii. 
258 .' 2 ; belief in demons among the 
negroes of, ix. 74 sqq. ; dances at 
sowing in, ix. 234 ; theory of an 
external soul embodied in an animal 
prevalent in, xi. 200 sqq.\ ritual of 
death and resurrection at initiation 
in, xi. 251 sqq. 

African stories of the external soul, xi. 
148 sqq.\ Raiders, xi. 312 sqq. 

hunters, ceremonies of purification 

observed by, iii. 220 sq. 

kings forbidden to see their mothers, 
iii. 86 ; thought to render themselves 
immortal by their sorceries, iv. 9 

tribes, household fires extinguished 

after a death in, ii. 267 n. 4 ; descent 
of property and power to sister's chil- 
dren among, n. 285 ; combination of 
the elective with the hereditary prin- 
ciple in regulating the descent of king- 
ships or chicfbhips among, ii. 292 sqq. \ 
behe\e that their dead kings turn into 
lions, leopards, pythons, etc., iv. 84 

Afterbirth (placenta), |x>rtion of a man's 
spirit supposed to reside in his, i. 
100; contagious magic of, i. 182-201 , 
part of child's spirit in, i. 184 , 
buried under a tree, i. 186, 187, 188, 
194, 195, xi. i6oj?.. 162, 163, 164, 165, 
hung on a tree, i. 186, 187, 189, 190, 
191, 194, 198, 199; thrown into the 
sea, i. 187, 190; regarded as brother 
or sister of child, i. 189, 191, 192, 
193, xi. 162 n.'*\ seat of external 
soul, i. 193 sq., 200 sq. regarded as 
a second child, i. 195, xi. 162 . a ; of 
cows, treatment of the, i. 198 sq.\ re- 
garded as a person's double or twin, vi. 
169 sq. \ of child animated by a ghost 
and sympathetically connected with 
a banana -tree, xi. 162; and navel- 
string regarded as guardian angels of 
the man, xi. 162 n. a ; regarded as a 
guardian spirit, xi. 223 n. 8 See a/so 
Afterbirths and Placenta 

Afterbirths buried in banana groves, v. 
93 ' regarded as twins of the children, 
v. 93 ; Shilluk kings interred where 
their afterbirths arc buried, vi. 162 

Agamemnon, sceptre of, worshipped as 
a god, i. 365 ; said to have reigned in 
his wife's home, Lacedacmon, ii. 279 

and Aegibthus, ix. 19 

Agar Dinka, rain-makers killed among 
the, iv. 33 

Agaric growing on birch- trees, super- 
stitions as to, x. 148 



Agariste, daughter of Clisthenes, the 
wooing of, ii. 307 

Agathias, on the identification of Anaitis 
and Aphrodite, ix. 369 n. 1 ; on Sandes, 
ix. 389 

Agatbocles, his siege of Carthage, iv. 167 

Agbasia, West African god, sacred slaves 
of, v. 79 ; prayers to, vui. 59, 60 

Agdestis, a man -monster in the myth of 
Attis, v. 269 

Age of Magic, i. 235, 237 

Agesi polis, king of Sparta, his conduct 
in an earthquake, v. 196 

Aglu, New Year fires at, x. 217 

Agni, Indian god, viii. 120, ix. 410, x. 
99 *. a ; the fire-god, ii. 230, 249, xi. 
z, 296 ; addressed at marriage, 11. 230 

Agnihotris, Brahman fire-priests, ii. 247 

Agnus cast us strewed by married women 
under their beds at the Thesmophoria, 
vii. 116 . a ; used in ceremony of 
beating, ix. 252, 257 

Agome, in Togoland, ceremonies observed 
by hunters at, vui. 229 

Agraulus. daughter of Cecrops, wor- 
shipped at SaUmis in Cyprus, v. 145, 146 

Agricultural peoples worship the moon, 
vi. 138 sq. 

stage of society, the, viii. 35, 37 

year determined by observation of 

the Pleiades, vii 313 sqq. \ expulsions 
of demons timed to coincide with 
seasons of the, ix. 225 

Agriculture, religious objections to, v. 88 
sqq., vii. 93, 108; in the hands of 
women in the Felew Islands, vi. 206 
sq.\ its tendency to produce a con- 
servative character, vi. 217 sq ; magicjil 
significance of games in primitive, vii. 
92 sqq. \ origin of, vii. 128 sq. ; woman's 
part in primitive, vii. 113 sqq. 

Agincvlture of tke Kabatafans, Xi. 100, 
346 ." 

Agngentum, Emjicdoclcs at, I. 390 ; 
Phalans of, iv. 75 

Agrionia, a festival at Orchomenus, iv. 

Agrippa, king of Judca, his mockery 
at Alexandria, ix. 4x8 

Agrippina, her marriage with Claudius, 
ii. 129 n. 1 

Agu, Mount, in Togo, wind-fetish on, i. 
327 ; fetish priest on, in. 5 

Ague, transferred to trees, ix. 56, 57 sq.\ 
Suffolk cure for, ix. 68 ; Midsummer 
bonfires deemed a cure for, x. 162 ; 
leaps across the Midsummer bonfires 
thought to be a preventive of, x. 174 

Agutainos of the Philippines, customs 
observed by widows among the, iii. 144 

Agweh on the Slave Coast, custom at 


end of mourning at, iii. 986 ; custom 

of widows at, xi. 18 sq. 
Agylla, in Etruria, funeral games at, iv. 95 
Ahasuerus, King, ix. 397, 401 ; the 

Hebrew equivalent of Xerxes, ix. 360 
Ahaz, King, his sacrifice of his children, 

iv. 169 sq. 
Ahlcn, in Munsterland, the Yule log at, 

x. 247 
Ahne-bergen, near Stade, thresher of last 

corn called Corn-pug at, vii. 273 
Ahnnian, the devil of the Persians, x. 95 
Ahts or Nootka Indians of Vancouver 

Island regard the moon as the husband 

of the sun, vi. 139 n. 1 ; seclusion of 

girls at puberty among the, x. 43 sq. 
Ahura Mazda, the supreme being of the 

Persians, x. 95 
Ai San Bushmen, their fire-sticks, ii 

218 tt. 1 

Aijaruc, a Tartar princess, ii. 306 
Am, de 1', French department, leaf-clad 

mummer on May Day in, ii. 81 . s ; 

Lcntui fires in, x. 114 
Aino fisheimen, their ways of making 

ram, i. 288 

- hunters, their custom at killing a 
fox, viii. 267 

- type of animal sacrament, viii. 

\\oinen may not mention their 
husbands' names, iii. 337 

Amos, their contagious magic of footprints, 
i. 212 ; their rain-making, i. 251, 253 ; 
their fear of whirlwinds, i. 331 n. 2 ; their 
ceremony at eating ne\\ millet, viii. 52; 
their custom as to eating the heads of 
otters and the hearts of water-ousels, 
viii. 144 ; their worship of bears, viii. 
1 80 sqq. ; their worship of eagle-owls, 
eagles, and ha\\ks, viii. 199 sq ; thank 
the sword-fish which they kill, vm. 251 ; 
their customs in regard to the first fish 
of the season, viii. 255 sq. ; their pro- 
pitiation of mice, vui. 278 ; their 
ambiguous attitude towards the bear, 
viii 310^. 

_ of Japan, their use of magical 
images, i. 60 ; reluctant to name the 
dead, iii. 353 ; their custom of killing 
bears ceremonially, vm. iBosyq. ; their 
mourning caps, x. 20 ; their use of 
mugwort in exorcism, xi. 60 ; their 
veneration for mistletoe, xi. 79 

_ of Saghahen, pregnant women for- 
bidden to spin among the, i. 114; their 
bear-festivals, viii. 188 sqq. 

Aiora, festival of swinging, at Athens, i. 
46 n. 1 

Air, prohibition to be uncovered In the 
open, iii. 3, 14; thought to be 
poisoned at eclipses, x. 162 . 



Airi, a deity of North -West India, his 
worshippers inspired, v. 170 

Aim, Assyrian month corresponding to 
May, ii. 130 

Aisawa or Isowa, order of saints in 
Morocco, devour live goats, vii. 21 sq. 

Aisne, Midsummer fires in the depart- 
ment of, x. 187 

Ait Sadden, a tribe of Morocco, their 
tug-of-war, ix. 182 

i Warain, a Berber tribe of Morocco, 
their tug-of-war, ix. 178 sq. 

Yusi, a tribe of Morocco, their tug- 
of-war, ix. 182 

Aitan, a Khasi goddess, ix. 173 

Aivilik, the Esquimaux of, i. 121 

Aix, squibs at Midsummer at, x. 193 ; 
Midsummer king at, x. 194, xi. 25 

Aiyar, N. Subramhanya, on Indian 
dancing-girls, v. 63 sqq. 

Ajax and Teucer, names of priestly kings 
ofOlba, v. 14457., 161 

Ajumba hunter, his apologies to the 
hippopotamus which he had killed, 
viii. 235 

Akambaof British East Africa, believe that 
every woman has a spiritual husband 
who fertilizes her, ii. 317 ; continence 
observed by them on journeys and 
while the cattle are at pasture, iii. 204 ; 
their offerings of first-fruits to the 
spirits of the dead, vui. 113; riddles 
asked at circumcision among the, ix. 
122 n. ; seclusion of girls at puberty 
among the, x. 23 

of Central Africa, reluctant to name 
the dead, iii. 353 

Akaw6s, a tribe of Garos, their harvest 
festival, viii. 337 

Akhetaton (Tell-el-Am.irna), the capital 
of Amenophis IV., vi. 123 n. 1 

Akikuyu, the, of British East Africa, 
ceremony of the new birth among the, 
i. 75 sq. t 96 sq., xi. 962 sq. \ worship 
fig-trees, ii. 44 sq. \ worship a snake, and 
marry girls to the snake-god, ii. 150. v. 
67 sq. \ believe that barren women can 
be fertilized by the wild fig-tree, n. 
316 ; purification of manslaycrs among 
the, iii. 175 sq. ; continence observed 
by them on journeys and while the 
cattle are at pasture, iii. 204 ; auricu- 
lar confession among the, iii. 214 ; 
use of scapegoats among the, iii. 214 
sq. ; their women purified after a mis- 
carriage in childbirth, iii. 286 ; their 
treatment of premature and unusual 
births, iii. 286, 287 n.; their belief 
in serpents as reincarnations of the 
dead, v. 82, 85 ; transfer guilt to a 
goat, ix. 33 ; their dread of menstruous 
women, x. 8x. See also Kikuyu 

Akurwa, a village of the Shilluk, hr. 19, . 

23, 24 
Alabama, harvest festival of the Indians 

of, viii. 72 . 8 
Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp, 

Roman version of, xi. 105 
Alafin of Oyo, paramount king of Yoniba 

land, iv. 203 
Alake, the, of Abeokuta, custom of 

cutting off the head of his corpse, iv. 

Alaska, the Esquimaux of, i. 121, 328, 

in. 145, vi. 51, ix. 124, xi. 155 ; the 

Aleuts of, iii. 207 ; the Kaniagmuts of, 

iii. 207 ; the Koniags of, i. 121, vi. 

1 06 ; seclusion of girls at puberty 

among the Indians of, x. 45 sq. 
Alaskan hunters, their respect for dead 

sables and beavers, viii. 238 
islanders mistook the Russians for 

cuttle-fish, viii. 206 
Alastir and the Bare-Stripping Hangman, 

Argyleshire story of, xi. 129 sg. 
Alba, Vestal fire and Vestal virgins at, i. 13 

Longa, the kings of, ii. 178 sqq., 

268 sq. ; perhaps mimicked Latian 
Jupiter, n. 187 

Alban dynasty descended from a Vestal, 
ii. 197 

Hills, i. 2, ii. 178 

kings, iv. 76 

Lake, i. 2 ; tradition of a sub- 
merged city in the, n. 180, 18 1 n. 

League, religious centre of the, ii. 


Mountain, the, ii. 187 sq., 202, 387 

Albania, bloodstones in, i. 165 ; milk- 
stones in, i. 165 ; fear of portraiture 
in, iii. 100 ; expulsion of Kore on 
Easter Eve in, iv. 265, ix. 157 ; mar- 
riage custom in, vi. 246 ; mock 
lamentations for locusts and beetles 
in, viii. 279 ; Midsummer fires in, x. 
212 ; the Yule log in, x. 264 
Albanian custom of beating men and 
beasts in March, ix. 266 

story of the external soul, xi. 104 .* 

Albanians of the Caucasus, did not men- 
tion the names of the dead, iii. 349 ; 
their worship of the moon, v. 73 ; their 
use of human scapegoats, ix. 218 
Albano, ancient necropolis near, ii. 201 
Albert, Lake, Lendu tribe ot, i. 348 

Nyanza, I,ake, the Wahuma of the, 

i. 250 ; crocodiles in the, viii. 213 ; the 
Wakondyo of the, xi. x6a sq. 
Alberti, L., on Caffre purification of 

lion-killer, iii. 220 

Albigenses worshipped each other, i. 407 
Albino sacrificed to river, ii. 158 ; head 
of secret society on the Lower Congo, 
xi. 251 



Albinocs the offspring of the moon, v. 91 

Alblrunf, Arab geographer, on the Per- 
sian festival of the dead, vi. 68 ; on the 
burning of effigies of Ham an at Purira, 
ix. 393 

Alchemy leads up to chemistry, i. 374 

Alcheringa, remote legendary time of the 
Arunta, i. 88, 98, 102 

Ale i blades of Apamea, his vision of the 
Holy Ghost, iv. 5 .* 

Alcidamus wins Barce in a foot-race, ii. 
300 sq. 

Alcman on dew, vi. 137 

Alcmena, her long travail with Hercules, 
iii. 298 sq. 

Alcyonian Lake, Dionysus at the, vii. 15 

Alder branches, sacrificial, viii. 232 

Alders free from mistletoe, xi. 315 

Alectrona, daughter of the Sun, taboos 
observed at her sanctuary in Rhodes, 
viii. 45 

Alen9on, the Boy Bishop at, ix. 337 w. 1 

Aleutian Islands, Atkhans of the, ix. 3 ; 
cairns in the, ix. 16 

. hunter injured by unchastity of 

absent wife or sister, i. 123 

Aleutians, effeminate sorcerers among 
the, vi. 254 

Aleuts of Alaska, seclusion of successful 
whaler among the, iii. 207 

Alexander the Great, his fiery cresset, ii. 
264 ; cuts the Gordian knot, iii. 316 ; 
funeral games in his honour, iv. 95 ; 
expels a king of Paphos, v. 42 ; his 
fabulous birth, v. 81 ; assumes cos- 
tumes of deities, v. 165 ; sacrifices to 
Megarsian Athena, v. 169 . 8 

Alexander Severus, at festival ot Attis, v. 

Alexandria, festival of Adonis at, v. 224, 

ix. 390; the Serapeum at, vi. 119 ., 

217 ; mockery of King Agnppa at, ix. 

Alexandrian calendar, used by Plutarch, 

vi. 84 ; used by Theophanes, ix. 395 .* 
year, the fixed, vi. 28. 92 ; Plutarch's 

use of the, vi. 49 
Alfai, title of rain-making priest among 

the Barea and Kunama, ii. 3 
Alfoors of Buru, names of relations 

tabooed among the, iii. 341 
or Toradjas of Central Celebes, 

their custom at child-birth, iii. 33 ; 

taboos observed by their priest, iii. 

129 ; priest with unshorn hair among 

the, iii. 360 ; riddles among the, ix. 

122 n. ; their custom at the smelting 

of iron, zi. 154 ; their doctrine of the 

plurality of souls, xi. 322. See also 

of Ceram, their high -priest regarded 

as a demigod, i. 400 

Alfoors of Halmahera, name of wife's 
father tabooed among the, iii. 341 ; 
their expulsion of the devil, ix. 

of Minahassa, inspired priest among 

the, i. 382 sq. ; ceremony at house- 
warming among the, iii. 63 sq. \ names 
of relations tabooed among the, iii. 
340 sq. ; their custom as to the first 
rice sowed and reaped, viii. 54 ; 
attempt to deceive demons of sickness, 
viii. 100 

of Poso, in Central Celebes, their 

belief as to demons of trees, ii. 35 ; 
abduction of souls by demons among 
the, iii. 62 sq. ; will not pronounce 
their own names, iii. 332 ; names of 
relations tabooed among the, iii. 340 

Algeds, rain-maker among the, ii. 3 

Algeria, ram-making in, i. 250 ; the 
Aisawa sect in, vii. 22 n. 1 ; fever trans- 
ferred to tortoise in, ix. 31 ; popular 
cure by knocking nails in, ix. 60; 
Midsummer fires in, x. 213 

, the Arabs of, avoid using the proper 

name for lion, iii. 400 ; tale of.iv. 130 n. 1 

Algidus, Mount, its oak forests, ii. 187, 
380 ; a haunt of Diana, ii. 380 

Algiers, the Moors of, light no fires after 
a death, ii. 268 . 

Algonquin Indians caught souls in nets, 
ui 69 sq. 

Algonquins or Algonkins, the, their treat- 
ment of the navel-string, i. 197 ; marry 
their fishing-nets to girls, ii. 147 sq. \ 
their women seek to be impregnated by 
the souls of the dying, iv. 199 

Alice Springs in Central Australia, i. 259, 
xi. 238 ; magical stones at, i. 162 

Aline, Loch, fishing magic on, i. no 

All-healer, name applied to mistletoe, 
xi. 77. 79. 82 

All Saints, Feast of, perhaps substituted 
for an old pagan festival of the dead, 
vi. 82 sq. 

All Saints' Day, November ist, old Celtic 
New Year's Day, x. 225 ; omens on, 
x. 240 ; bonfires on, x. 1*46 ; sheep 
passed through a hoop on, xi. 184 

All Souls, Festival of, iv. 98, vi. 51 sqq. t 
vii. 30, x. 223 sq. t 225 . a ; originally 
a pagan festival of the dead, vi 81 ; 
instituted by Odilo, abbot of Clugny, 
vi. 82 

AH Souls' College, Oxford, the Boy 
Bishop at, ix. 337 

Allallu bird beloved by Ishtar, ix. 371 

Allan, John Hay, on the Hays of Errol, 
xi. 283 

Allandur temple, at St. Thomas s 
Mount, Madras, fire-festival at, zi. 8 .' 

Allatu, Babylonian goddess, v. 9 

I 5 6 


Allerton, the Boy Bishop at, ix. 338 
Allhallow Even, the thirty-first of October, 

Lords of Misrule on, ix. 332 
All-Hallows (All Saints' Day), iii. n, 12 
Allifae in Samniura, baths of Hercules at, 

v. 213 . a 
Alligator pears, Peruvian ceremony to 

make them ripen, ii. 98 
Alligators, souls of dead in, viii. 297 
Allumba, in Central Australia, magic 

tree at, i. 145 sq. 
Almagest, the, vii. 259 n. 1 
Almo, procession to the river, in the rites 

of Attis, v. 273 
Almond causes virgin to conceive, v. 

263 ; the father of all things, v. 

263 sq. 

trees, mistletoe on, xi. 316 

Almora, in Kumaon, ix. 197 

A-Louyi, seclusion of girls at puberty 

among the, x. 28 n. 6 
Alpach, valley in Tyrol, the Wheat-bride 

or Rye-bride at harvest in, vii. 163 
Alpheus, the sacred, ii. 8 
Alqamar, tribe of nomads in Hadramaut, 

their way of stopping ram, i. 252 
Alsace, May-trees in, ii. 64 ; the Little 

May Rose in, ii. 74 ; stuffed goat or 

fox at threshing in, vii. 287, 297 ; Mid- 
summer fires in, x. 169 , cats burnt in 

Easter bonfires in, xi. 40 
Alt Lest, in Silesia, the binder of the last 

sheaf called the Beggar-man at, vn. 231 
-Pillau, in Sam land, harvest custom 

at, vii. 139 

Altars, bloodless, ix. 307 
Altdorf and Weingarten, in Swabia, the 

Carnival Fool on Ash Wednesday at, 

iv. 232 
Althenneberg, in Bavaria, Easter fires 

at, x. 143 sq. 
Altisheim, in Swabia, the last sheaf called 

the Old Woman at, vii. 136 
Altmark, custom with birch branches at 

Whitsuntide in the, ii. 64 ; the May 

Bride at Whitsuntide in the, ii 95 ; the 

He-goat at reaping in the, vii. 287 ; 

Easter bonfires in the, x. 140, 142 
Alum burnt at Midsummer, x. 214 
Alungu, seclusion of girls at puberty 

among the, x. 24 sq. 
Alur, a tribe of the Upper Nile, bury 

their cut hair and nails, iii. 277 sq. ; 

their fear of crocodiles, viii. 214 ; their 

treatment of insanity, x. 64 
Alus, sanctuary of Laphystian Zeus at, 

iv. 161, 164; custom of sacrificing 

princes at, vii. 25 
Alvarado, Pedro de, Spanish general, 

kills a nagual, xi. 2x4 
Alyattes, king of Lydia, v. 133 n. 1 
Alynomus, king of Paphos, v. 43 n. l 

Amadhloxi, Zulu ancestral spirits in ser 
pent form, xi. 211 .* 

Ama-terasu, Japanese goddess of the 
Sun, vii. 212 

Amambwe, a Bantu tribe of Northern 
Rhodesia, believe that their head chief 
at death turns into a lion, vi. 193, viii. 
287 ; seclusion of girls at puberty 
among the, x. 24 sq. 

Amapondo country, cairn to which 
passers-by added stones in the, ix. 
30 . a 

Amasis, king of Egypt, substitutes images 
for human victims, iv. 217; his body 
burnt by Cambyses, v. 176 . a 

Amata, "Beloved," title of Vestals, ii. 

Amata, wife of King Latinus, ii. 197 

Amathus, in Cyprus, Adonis and Mel- 
earth at, v. 32, 117; statue of lion- 
slaying god found at, v. 117 

Amatongo, ancestral spirits (Zulu term), 
v. 74 . 4 , vi. 184, xi. 212 n. 

Amaxosa Caffres propitiate the elephants 
which they kill, viii. 227 

Amazon, Indians at the mouth of the, 
ix. 264 ; ordeals of young men among 
the Indians of the, x. 62 sq. 

Amazons set up a statue of Artemis under 
an oak, i. 38 n l 

of Dahomey ate the hearts of brave 
foes to make themselves brave, vifl. 

Amazulu, their observation of the Pleiades, 
vii. 316 

Ambabai, an Indian goddess, v. 243 

Ambala District, Punjaub, rebirth of chil- 
dren in the, v. 94 

Ambamba, in West Africa, death, re- 
surrection, and new birth in, xi. 256 

Ambarvalia, cattle crowned at the, ii. 
127 . a ; an agricultural festival of 
ancient Italy, ix. 359 

Ambom, in Angola, new fire at, ii. 262 

Amboyna, custom as to children's cast 
teeth in, i. 179 ; rice in bloom treated 
like a pregnant woman in, it. 28 ; cere- 
mony to fertilize clove-trees in, ii. 100 ; 
recovery of lost souls in, iii. 66 sq. ; 
abduction of souls by doctors in, iii. 
73 ; fear to lose the shadow at noon 
in, iii. 87 ; sick people sprinkled with 
pungent spices in, iii. 105 ; new fruits 
offered to the gods in, viii. 123; 
belief in spirits in, ix. 85 ; disease- 
transference in, ix. 187; hair of 
criminals cut in, xi. 158 

Ambras, Midsummer customs at, x. 173 

Amedzowe, the spirit land, viii. 105 

Amei Awa, a Kayan god, vii. 93 
Ame*Iineau, E., discovers the tomb of 
Egyptian King Khent, vi. 21 n. 1 



Amelioration in the character of the gods, 
iv. 136 

Amenophis III., king of Egypt, birth of, 
ii. 131 sqq. ; his birth represented on 
the monuments, iii. 28 

Amenophis IV., king of Egypt, his 
attempt to abolish all gods but the 
sun-god, vi. 123 sqq, 

Ameretat, a Persian archangel, ix. 373 w. 1 

America, treatment of the navel-string 
and afterbirth in, i. 195 sqq. \ the 
breach of England with, i. 216 ; asso- 
ciation of the frog with rain in, i. 292 
.*; reincarnation of the dead in, 
v. 91 ; the moon worshipped by the 
agricultural Indians of tropical, vi. 
138 ; cat's cradle in, vii. 103 n. 1 ; the 
Corn-mother in, vii. 171 sqq. 

, Central, the Pipiles of, ii. 98 ; the 

Indians of, practise continence for the 
sake of the crops, ii. 105 ; the Quiches 
of, viii. 134 ; the Mosquito Indians of, 
viii. 258 . a ; the Mosquito territory 
in, x. 86 

, North, the Natchez of, i. 249 ; the 

Omahasof, i. 249 ; power of medicine- 
men in, i. 356 sqq. ; the Hidatsa 
Indians of, ii. 12 ; Indians of, their 
dread and avoidance of menstruous 
women, iii. 145 sq. t x. 87 sqq. ; 
Indians of, will not eat blood, iii. 
240 ; sticks or stones piled on scenes 
of violent death in, ix. 15 ; Indians 
of, not allowed to sit on bare ground 
in war, x. 5 ; Indians of, seclusion of 
girls at puberty among, x. 41 sqq. ; 
Indians of, stones of the external soul 
among, xi. 151 sq, ; Indians of, re- 
ligious associations among, xi. 267 
sqq. See also North American Indians 
, North- West, contagious magic of 
footprints in, L 210 ; the Chilcotin 
Indians of, i. 312 ; the Loucheux of, 
i. 356 ; artificial elongation of the head 
among the Indian tnl>es of, ii. 298 ; 
the Carrier Indians of, iv. 199 ; the 
Salish Indians of, viii. 80 ; the Tinneh 
Indians of, viii. 80 ; Indian tribes of, 
their masked dances, ix. 375 sqq. ; 
Secret Societies among the Indians of, 
ix, 377 sqq. 

, South, the Guarani of, i. 145 ; the 

Payaguas of, i. 330 ; power of medicine- 
men in, i. 358 sqq. \ the Itonamas of, 
iii. 31 ; custom of swallowing ashes of 
dead kinsfolk in, viii. 156 sq. ; the 
Palenques of, viii. 221 ; seclusion of 
girls at puberty among the Indians of, 
x. 56 sqq. ; effigies of Judas burnt at 
Easter in, x. 128 ; Midsummer fires 
in, x. 212 tf. See also South America 

American Indians, power of medicine- 

men among the, i. 355 sqq. ; driTe 
away the ghosts of the slain, iii. 170 
sq. ; confession of sins among the, 
iii. 215 sq., 216 . a ; personal names 
kept secret among the, iii. 324 sqq., 
327 sq. ; their fear of naming the 
dead, iii. 351 sqq. \ relations of the 
dead change their names among the, 
iii. 357 ; changes in their languages 
caused by fear of naming the dead, iii. 
360 sq. ; their Great Spirit, iv. 3 ; 
women's agricultural work among the, 
vii. 120 sqq. ; their personification of 
maize, vii. 171 sqq. ; do not sharply 
distinguish between animals and men, 
viii. 204 sqq. ; their ceremonies at 
hunting bears, viii. 224 sqq. ; treat 
elans, deer, and elks with ceremonious 
respect, viii. 240 ; cut out the sinew of 
the thigh of deer which they kill, viii. 
264. See also North American Indians 
and South American Indians 

American prairies, skulls of buffaloes 
awaiting resurrection on, viii. 256 

Amestns, wife of Xerxes, her sacrifice of 
children, vi. 220 sq. 

Amethysts thought to keep their wearers 
sober, i. 165 ; in rain-charms, i. 345 

Amiens, "killing the Cat" at harvest 
near, vii. 281 

Amisus, in Pontus, ix. 421 n. 1 

Ammerland, in Oldenburg, cart-wheel 
used as charm against witchcraft in, 

x- 345 - 8 

Ammon, the god, married to the queen 
of Egypt, ii. 130 sqq. ; human wives 
of, ii. 130 sqq., v. 72; regarded as 
the father of Egyptian gods, ii. 131 ; 
costume of, ii. 133 ; king of Egypt 
masqueraded as, ii. 133 ; high priests 
of, their usurpation of regal power, ii. 
134; identified with the sun, vi. 123 ; 
rage of King Amenophis IV. against, 
vi. 124 ; at Thebes in Egypt, ram 
annually sacrificed to, viii. 41, 172 ; 
the Theban, represented with the body 
of a man and the head of a ram, 
viii. 172 sq. 

Ra, king of the gods, ii. 132 

Ammon (country), Hanun, king of, iii. 
273 ; conquered by King David, iii. 


, Milcom, the god of, v. 19 

Ammonite, fossil, regarded as an embodi- 
ment of Vishnu, ii. 26, 27 n. 2 

Amoor River, the Manegres of the, iii. 
323; the Gilyaks of the, v. 278 . 2 , 
viii. 103, 267, ix. 10 1 ; the Goldi of the, 
viii. 103 ; bears in the valley of the, 
viii. 191 ; the Orotchis of the, viii. 197 

Amorgos, the month of Cronion in, ix. 
3S 1 * 



Amorites, their law as to fornication, v. 
37 sg. 

Amoy, fear of tree-spirits in, ii. 14; spirits 
who draw away the souls of children 
at, iii. 59 ; euphemism for fever among 
the Chinese of, iii. 400 ; puppets as 
substitutes among the Chinese of, viii. 

Ampasimene, in Madagascar, viii. 40 n. 

Amphictyon, king of Athens, married the 
daughter of his predecessor, ii. 277 

Amphipolis, death of Brasidas at, iv. 94 

Amphitryo besieges Taphos, xi. 103 

Amsanctus, the valley of, v. 204 sg. 

Amshaspands, Persian archangels, ix. 

373 w- 1 

Amsterdam, "dew-treading" at Whit- 
suntide at, ii. 104 n * 

Amulets, hair and teeth of sacred kings 
preserved as, ii. 6 ; knots used as, in. 
306 sqq. \ rings and bracelets as, iii. 
3x4 J??., x. 92; crowns and wreaths 
as, vi. 242 sg. ; against demons, ix. 95 ; 
as soul-boxes, xi. 155 ; degenerate into 
ornaments, xi. 156 *.'. See also 

Amulius Silvius, his rivalry with Jupiter, 
ii. 1 80 

Amyclae, ancient capital of Lacedaemon, 
Agamemnon buned at, ii. 279 ; in the 
vale of Sparta, v. 313 ; tomb of 
Hyacinth at, v. 314 ; festival of 
Hyacinthia at, ^315 

Amyclas, father of Hyacinth, v. 313 

Anabis, in Egypt, human god at, i. 390 

Anacan, a month of the Gallic calendar, 
. 343 

Anacreon, on Cinyras, .55 

Anacyndaraxes, father of Sardanapalus, 
v. 172 

Anadates, at Zela, ix. 373 n. 1 

Anaitis, Persian goddess, afterwards 
equivalent to Ishtar, i. 16 sg. t ix. 369, 
389 ; identified with Artemis, i. 37 n. 2 ; 
served by prostitutes at Acilisena, in 
Armenia, ii. 282 .*, v. 38, ix. 369 n. 1 ; 
her sanctuary at Zela, ix. 370, 421 n. 1 ; 
associated with the Sacaea, ix. 355, 
368, 369, 402 w. 1 ; identified with 
Aphrodite, ix. 369 n. 1 , 389 

Anammelech, burnt sacrifice of children 
to, iv. 171 

Anansa, tutelary god of Old Calabar, ii. 42 

Anassa, "Queen," title of goddess, v. 


Anatomic of Abuses, ii. 66 

Anazarba or Anazarbus, in Cilicia, the 
olives of, ii. 107 ; Zeus at, v. 167 n. 1 

Ancestor, wooden image of, xi. 155 

-worship among the Bantu peoples, 
ii. 22 z, vi. 176 sqq. ; in relation to fire- 
worship, ii. 221 ; among the Kha&is 

of Assam, vl. 203; combined with 
mother-kin tends to a predominance 
of goddesses over gods in religion, vi 
211 sg. ; in Fiji, xi. 243 sg. 

Ancestors, prayers to, i. 285, 286, 287, 
345 , 352, vii. 105 ; skulls of, in rain- 
charm, i. 285; sacrifices to, i. 290;?., 
339 ; souls of, in trees, ii. 29, 30, 31, 
32, 317 ; represented by sacred fire- 
sticks, ii. 214, 216, 222 sqq. ; dead, 
regarded as mischievous beings, ii. 221 ; 
souls of, in the fire on the hearth, ii. 
232 ; propitiation of, by rubbing their 
skulls, iii. 197 ; names of, bestowed 
on their reincarnations, iii. 368 sq.\ 
reborn in their descendants, iii. 368 
sg. ; propitiation of deceased, v. 46 ; 
images of, viii. 53 ; offerings of first- 
fruits to spints of, viii. HI, 1x2, 1x3, 
1x6, 117, 119, I2X, 123, 124, 125; 
worshipped as guardian spirits, viii. 
121, 123; spirits of, take up their 
abode in their skulls or in images, viii. 
123 ; images of, viii. 124 ; dead, 
worshipped as gods, viii. 125 ; fear of 
the spirits of, ix. 76 sg. 

Ancestral Contest at the Haloa, vii. 61 ; 
j at the Eleusmian Games, vii. 71, 74, 
i 77 ; at the Festival of the Threshuig- 
| floor, vii. 75 

skulls used in magic, i. 163 
- spirits worshipped at the hearth, ii. 
16 sg., 22 x sg. ; cause sickness, in. 53 ; 
sacrifices to, ni. 104, vi. 175, 178 j?., 
I 1 80, 1 8 1 sg. , 1 83 sg. , 1 90 ; on shoulders 
I of medicine-men, v. 74 . 4 ; incarnate 
in serpents, v. 82 sqq., xi. 2x1 ; in 
the form of animals, v. 83 ; wor- 
shipped by the Bantu tribes of Africa, 
vi. 174 sqq. ; prayers to, vi. 175 sg. t 
178 sg. t 183 sg. ; on the father's and 
on the mother's side, the two dis- 
tinguished, vi. 1 80, 181; propitiation of, 
ix. 86. See also Ancestors and Dead 

tree, fire kindled from, ii. 22 1 , 223 sg. 

Anchiale in Cilicia, v. 144 ; monument 
of Sardanapalus at, v. 172 

Ancient deities of vegetation as animals, 
viii. i sqq. 

Ancona, sarcophagus of St. Dasius at, 
ii. 310 n. 1 , ix. 310 

Ancus Marti us, Roman king, said to 
have murdered his predecessor, ii. 
181 .' ; his maternal descent, ii. 
270 n. 4 ; his death, ii. 320 

Andalusia, guisers in, ix. 173 

Andaman Islanders, said to be ignorant 
of the art of making fire, ii. 253 ; 
perhaps first got fire from volcano, ii. 
256 n. 8 ; regard their reflections as 
their souls, iii 92 ; their i'leas as to 
shooting stars, iv. 60 ; boar's fat poured 



on novice at initiation among the, 

viii. 164 
Andaman Islands, mourning custom in 

the, iii. 183 n. ; cat's cradle in the, 

vii. 103 n. 1 
Andania in Messenia, grove of the Great 

Goddesses at, ii. 122 ; mysteries of, 

iii. 227 n. ; sacred men and women at, 

v. 76 . 8 

Anderida, forest of, ii. 7 
Anderson, J. D., on the winds of Assam, 

ix. 176 . 8 
Anderson, Miss, of Barskimming, ix. 

169 . a , x. 171 . 8 
Andes, the Colombian, {.416 
, the Peruvian, net to catch the 

sun in, i. 316 ; the Indians of, their 

thunder-god, ii. 370 ; Indians of, their 

fear of the sea, hi. 10 ; cairns in, to 

which passing Indians add stones, 

ix. 9, 10 ; effigies of Judas burnt at 

Easter in, x. 128 
Andjra, a district of Morocco, magical 

virtue of rain - water in, x. 17 ; 

Midsummer fires in. x. 213 sq. ; Mid- 
summer rites of water in, x. 216 ; 

animals bathed at Midsummer in, 

xi. 31 
Andreas, parish of, in the Isle of Man, 

x. 224, 305, 307 n. 1 
Andree, Dr. Richard, ix. 246 n. 1 ; on 

the Pleiades in primitive calendars, 

vii. 307 
-Eysri, Mrs., on the processions 

and masquerades of the Perchten, ix. 

245 sq., 249 
Andriamasinavalona, a Hova king, 

vicarious sacrifice for, vi. 221 
Andromeda and Perseus, ii 163 
Anemone, the scarlet, sprung from the 

blood of Adonis, v. 226 
Ang Teng, in Burma, sacred fish at, viii. 

Angakok, Esquimaux wizard or sorcerer, 

in. 211, 212 
Angamis (Angami), a Naga tribe of 

Assam, death custom among the, iv. 

13 ; their human sacrifices, vii. 244 ; 

spare butterflies, viii. 291 
Angass, the, of Manipur, their rain-mak- 
ing, i. 252 ; a tribe of the Brahmapootra, 

their custom of stabbing those who die 

a natural death, iv. 13 ; believe that 

the souls of the dead are in butterflies, 

viii 291 
, the, of Northern Nigeria, their 

belief in external human souls lodged 

in animals, xi. 210 
Angel, need-fire revealed by an, x. 


dance, the, viii. 328 

of Death, iv. 177 sq. 

Angel, the Destroying, over Jerusalem, 
v. 24 

man, effigy of, burnt at Midsummer, 

x. 167 

Angelus bell, the, x. no, xi. 47 

Angla, on the Slave Coast, prohibition 
to ride on horseback in, viii. 45 

Angola, the Matiamvo of, iv. 35 

, the Ovakumbi of, i. 318 . ; 
the Mucelis of, ii. 262 ; the Bangalas 
of, ii. 293 ; Humbe in, iii. 6 ; the 
negroes of, speak respectfully of lions, 
iii. 400 ; Cassange in, iv. 56, 203 

Angoni, the, of British Central Africa, their 
way of stopping rain, i. 263 ; their sacri- 
fices for rain and fine weather, i. 291 ; 
drive away the ghosts of the slain, iii. 
174; purification of manslayers among 
the, iii. 176 ; custom observed by 
manslayers among the, iii. 186 n. 1 ; 
ceremony of standing on one leg 
among the, iv. 156 n.' 2 ; sham burial 
to deceive demons among the, viii. 
99 ; eat parts of enemies to acquire 
their qualities, viii. 149 

Angoniland, British Central Africa, rain- 
making in, i. 250; the Nyanja-speaking 
tribes of, viii. 26 ; customs as to girls 
at puberty in, x. 25 sq. \ customs as 
to salt m, x. 27 

Angouleme, poplar burned on St Peter's 
day in, ii. 141 

Angoy, the king of, must have no bodily 
defect, iv. 39 

Angus, belief as to the weaning of chil- 
dren in, vi. 148 ; superstitious remedy 
for the "quarter-ill" in, x. 296 n. 1 

Anhalt, custom at sowing in, i. 139, v. 
239 ; harvest customs in, vii. 226, 233, 
279 ; Easter bonfires in, x. 140 

Anhouri, Egyptian god, the mummy of, 
iv. 4 sq. 

Animal, corn-spirit as an, vii. 270 sqq. ; 
killing the divine, viii. 169 sqq. ; wor- 
shipful, killed once a year and pro- 
menaded from door to door, viii. 322 ; 
bewitched, or part of it, burnt to com- 
pel the witch to appear, x. 303, 305, 
307 sq., 321 sq. ; sickness transferred 
to, xi. 181 ; and man, sympathetic 
relation between, xi. 272 sq. 

embodiments of the corn-spirit, 
on the, vii. 303 sqq. 

enemy of god originally -identical 

with god, vii. 23, viii. 16 sq., 31 

familiars of wizards and witches, 

xi. 196 sq., 201 sq. 

form, god killed in, vii. 22 sq. 

food, supposed acquisition of virtues 

or vices through, viii. 139 
god, two types of the custom cf 

killing the, viii. 312 sq. 



Animal masks worn by Egyptian kings 
and others, ii. 133, iv. 72, viL 260 
sq. ; worn by mummers at Carnival, 
viii. 333 ... 

sacrament, types of, vm. 310 sqq. 

Animals, homoeopathic magic of, i. 150 
sqq. ; association of ideas common to 
the, i. 234 ; rain-making by means of, 
i. 287 sqq. \ spirits of plants in shape 
of, ii. 14 ; injured through their 
shadows, lii. 81 sq. \ propitiation of 
spirits of slain, iii. 190, 204 sq ; 
atonement for slain, iii. 207 ; blood 
of, not allowed to fall on ground, 
iii. 247 ; dangerous, not called by 
their proper names, iii. 396 sqq. ; 
thought to understand human speech, 
iii. 398 sq. , 400 ; sacred to kings, iv. 
82, 84 sqq. ; transformations into, iv. 
82 sqq., xi. 207 ; sacrificed by being 
hanged, v. 289 sq. t 292; and plants, 
edible, savage lamentations for, vi. 43 
sq. ; dead kings and chiefs incarnate 
in, vi. 162, 163 sq. t 173, 193; sacri- 
ficed to prolong the life of kings, vi. 
222 ; torn to pieces and devoured raw 
in religious rites, vii. 17, 18. 19, 20 
sqq. ; regarded as unclean were ori- 
ginally sacred, viii. 24 ; belief in the 
descent of men from, viii. 25 ; spirits 
of ancestors in, viii. 123; language 
of, acquired by eating serpent's flesh, 
viii. 146; resurrection of viii. 2005?., 
256 sqq. ; and men, savages fail to 
distinguish accurately between, viii. 
204 sqq. ; wild, propitiation of, by 
hunters, viii. 204 sqq. ; apologies 
offered by savages to animals for kill- 
ing them, viii. 221 sqq. \ bones of, not 
to be broken, viii. 258 sq. ; bones of, 
not allowed to be gnawed by dogs, 
viii. 259 ; savage faith in the immor- 
tality of, viii. 260 sqq. \ transmigra- 
tion of human souls into, viii. 285 sqq. ; 
two forms of the worship of, via. 311 ; 
processions with sacred, viii. 316 sqq. ; 
transference of evil to, ix. 31 sqq. t 49 
sqq.\ as scapegoats, ix. 31 sqq., 190 
sqq., 208 sqq., 216 sq. \ guardian 
spirits of, ix. 98 ; prayed to, ix. 236 ; 
dances taught by, ix. 237 ; imitated 
in dances, ix. 376, 377, 381, 382; 
burnt alive as a sacrifice in England, 
Wales, and Scotland, x. 300 sqq. ; 
witches transformed into, x. 315 sqq., 
xi. 311 sq. ; bewitched, buried alive, 
x. 324 sqq. ; live, burnt at Spring nncl 
Midsummer festivals, xi. 38 sqq. \ the 
animals perhaps deemed embodiments 
of witches, xi. 41 sq . 43 sq. \ the 
language of, learned by means of fern- 
seed, xi. 66 n.\ external soul in, xL 

196 sqq. \ helpful, in fairy tales. Sei 

Animism, the Buddhist, not a philo- 
sophical theory, ii. 13 sq. ; passing 
into polytheism, ii. 45 ; passing into 
religion, iii. 213 

Aninga, aquatic plant in Brazil, ix. 264 

Anitos, spirits of ancestors, in Luzon, ii. 
30, viii. 124 

Anjea, mythical being, who causes con- 
ception in women, i. xoo, 184, v. 103 

Ankenmilch bohren, to make the need- 
fire, x. 270 n. 

Anklets, as amulets, iii. 315 ; made of 
human sinews, worn by king of Uganda, 
vi. 224 sq. 

Ankole, in Central Africa, the Bah i ma 
of, vi. 190, viii. 288, x. 80 

Anna, sister of Dido, v. 1x4 n. 1 

Anna Kuari, an Oraon goddess, human 
sacrifices to, vii. 244 

Annals of Tiger nach and Ulster, ii. 286 

Annam, rain-making ceremonies in caves 
of, i. 301 sq. ; the Chams of, ii. 159 ; 
dangers apprehended from women in 
childbed in, iii. 155; ceremonies ob- 
served when a whale is washed ashore 
in, iii. 223 ; wild beasts spoken of 
respectfully in, hi. 403 ; natives of, 
their indifference to death, iv. 136 sq ; 
offerings to the dead in spring in, v. 
235 n. 1 ; annual festivals of the dead 
in, vi. 62 sqq. ; inauguration of spring 
by means of an effigy of an ox in, viii. 
13 sq. \ mountaineers of, sacrifice to 
their nets, vm. 240 n. 1 ; demons of 
sickness transferred to fowls in, ix. 
33 ; demon of cholera sent a* ay on 
a raft from, ix. 190 ; explanation of 
human mortality in, ix. 303 ; dread 
of mcnstruous women in, x. 85 ; use 
of wormwood to avert demons in, xi. 
61 *.i 

Annamile tale of a bleeding tree, ii. 33 

Annamites,- their belief as to demons, iii. 
58 ; their way of protecting infants 
from demons, iii. 235 

Annandale, Nelson, as to H. Vnughan 
Stevens, ii. 237 n. 

Anne, Queen, touches for scrofula, L 

Anno, in West Africa, use of magical 
dolls at, i. 71 

Annual abdication of kings, iv. 148 

death and resurrection of Rods, v. 6 

renewal of king's power at Babylon, 

iv. 113 

sacrifice of a sacred animal, viii. 31 

tenure of the kingship, iv. 113 sgq. 

Anodynes based on the principle of 
sympathetic magic, I. 93 sq. 

Anointed, human scapegoat, ix. 918 



Anointing a stone in a rain-charm, i. 305 

stones in order to avert bullets 

from absent warriors, L 130 

Anointment, of weapon which caused 
wound, i. 202 sqq. ; of priests at in- 
stallation, iii. 14 ; as a ceremony of 
consecration, v. 21 n. 2 and 8 , 68, 74 ; 
of sacred stones, custom of, v. 36 ; of 
the body as a means of acquiring 
certain qualities, viii. 162 sqq. 

Anpu and Bata, ancient Egyptian story 
of, xi. 134 sqq. 

Ant-hill, insane people buried in an, x. 

Antaeus, grave of the giant, i. 286 

, king of Libya, and his daughter 

Barce, ii. 300 sq. 

Antagonism of religion to magic, i. 

Antaimorona, the, of Madagascar, their 
chiefs held responsible for failure of 
the crops, i. 354 

Antambahoaka, the, of Madagascar, 
confession of sins among the, iii. 
216 sq. 

Antandroy, the, of Madagascar, their 
custom at circumcision, iii. 227 

Antankarana tribe of Madagascar believe 
that their souls at death pass into 
animals, viii. 290 

Antelope (Antilope leucoryx), ceremony 
after killing a, viii. 244 

Antelopes, soul of a dead king incarnate 
in, vi. 163 

Anthemis nobilis, camomile, gathered at 
Midsummer, xi. 63 

Anthesteria, dramatic death and resur- 
rection of Dionysus perhaps acted at 
the, iv. 32 ; festival of the dead at 
Athens, v. 234 sq., ix. 152 sq.; an 
Athenian festival of Dionysus, com- 
pared with a modern Thradan cele- 
bration of the Carnival, vii. 30 sqq. 

Anthestenon, Attic month, corresponding 
to February, ii. 137, ix. 143 ., 352 

Anthropomorphism of the spirits of 
nature, vii. 212 

Antiaris toxicaria, poison tree, supersti- 
tion of the Kayans as to the, ii. 17 

Antibes, Holy Innocents' Day at, ix. 

336 *? 

Antichrist, expected reign of, iv. 44 sq. 
Antigone, the execution of, ii. 228 n. 6 
Antigonus, King, v. 212 ; deified by the 

Athenians, i. 390, 391 n. 1 
Antilope leucoryx, ceremony of Ewe 

hunter after killing a, viii. 244 
Antimachia in Cos, priest of Hercules 

dressed as woman at, vi. 258 
An ti mores of Madagascar, their chiefs 

held responsible for the operation of 

the laws of nature, i. 354 

Antinmas, the twenty-fourth day after 
Christmas, ix. 167 

And nous, games in honour of> at Man- 
tinea, vii. 80, 85 

Antioch, destroyed by an earthquake, v. 
222 n. 1 ; festival of Adonis at, v. 227, 
2 57 s <7- ! how it was freed from scor- 
pions, viii. 280 sq. 

Antiochus, Greek calendar of, v. 303 *. 8 

Antiquity, of the cultivation of the cereals 
in Europe, vii. 79 ; human scapegoats 
in classical, ix. 229 sqq. 

Antoninus Liberalis, on the birth of 
Hercules, iii. 299 n. 1 

Marcus, plague in his reign, ix. 64 

Antonius Mountain, in Thuringia, Christ- 
mas bonfire on the, x. 265 sq. 

Antrim, harvest customs concerning the 
last corn cut in, vii. 144, 154 sq ; 
" Winning the Churn " in, viL 154 sq. 

Ants, bites of, used in purificatory cere- 
mony, iii. 105 ; eaten to make the eater 
brave, viii. 147 ; superstitious precau- 
tion apamst the ravages of, viii. 276 ; 
jealousy transferred to, ix. 33 ; sting- 
ing people with, ix. 263, x. 61, 62 sq. 

Antwerp, Feast of All Souls in, vi. 70 ; 
wicker giants at, xi. 35 sq. 

Anu, Babylonian god, visit of Ishtar to, 

ix. 399 .! 

^Anubis, Egyptian jackal-headed god, vi. 
15, 18 . s , 22 . a ; represented by a 
masked man, ii. 133 ; finds the body 
of Osiris, vi. 85 ; personated by a 
priest wearing the mask of a dog or a 
jackal, vi. 85 . 8 

Anula tribe of Northern Australia, their 
disposal of foreskins at circumcision, 
i. 95 ; burial customs of the, i. 102 sq. ; 
their way of stopping rain, i. 253 ; 
their mode of making rain, i. 287 sq. ; 
their rites of initiation, xi. 235 

Anyanja of British Central Africa, their 
dread of menstmous women, x. 81 sq. 

Anzikos, the, of West Africa, iii. 271 

Aola, village of Guadalcanar, viii. 126 

Apaches, the, iii. 182, 183, x. 21 ; 
their way of procuring rain, i. 306; 
avoidance of wife's mother among the, 
iii. 85 ; custom observed by them on 
the war-path, iii. 160 ; purify them- 
selves after the slaughter of foes, iii. 
184 ; keep their names from strangers, 
iii. 325, 328 ; propitiated the animal 
gods before hunting deer, antelope, 
or elk, viii. 242 ; use of bull-roarers 
among the, xi. 230 n. 

ApachitaSi heaps of stones in Peru, ix. 9 

Apala cured by Indra in the Rigveda, 
xi. 192 

Apamea in Syria, Alcibiades of, iv. 5 .' ; 
worship of Poseidon at, v. 195 



Ape in homoeopathic magic, i. 156 ; 
a Batta totem, xi. 923. See also Apes 

Apepi, Egyptian fiend, i. 67 

Apes, thought to be related to twins, i. 
265 ; voices of, imitated as a charm, 
ii. 23 ; ceremony of Yuracares after 
killing, viii. 235 sq. 

Aphaca in Syria, sanctuary of Astarte at, 
v. 28, 259 ; meteor as signal for 
festival at, v. 259 

Ap-hi, Abchase god of thunder and light- 
ning, ii. 370 

Aphrodite, represented as mother of 
Demetrius Poliorcetes, i. 391 ; the 
grave of, iv. 4; human sacrifices to, 
iv. 1 66 n.* ; her sacred doves, v. 
33, 147 ; sanctuary of, at Paphos, 
v. 33 sqq. \ the month of, v. 145 ; her 
blood dyes white roses red, v. 226 ; 
name applied to summer, vi. 41 

and Adonis, i. 25, v. n sq. t 29, 
280, ix. 386, xi. 294 sq. ; their mar- 
riage celebrated at Alexandria, v. 224 

Askraia, i. 26 

and Cinyras, v. 48 sq. 

of the Lebanon, the mourning, v. 
29 sq. 

the Oriental, ix. 369 n. 1 

and Pygmalion, v. 49 sq. 

Aphtha or thrush transferred to a frog, 

ix- 50 
Api, female hippopotamus goddess of 

Egypt, . 133 

Apinagos Indians of Brazil, their dances 
and presentation of children to the 
moon, vi. 145 sqq. 

Apis, sacred Egyptian bull, vi. n, 119 ., 
viii. 34 sqq., ix. 217; mourning for 
the death of, v. 225 ; held to be an 
image of the soul of Osiris, vi. 130 ; 
drowned in a holy spring, viii. 36 ; not 
suffered to outlive a certain term of 
years, viii. 173 

Apodtho, the ancestor of all men, iii. 79 

Apollo at Del os, i. 32, 34 sq. t ii. 135 ; 
prophetess of, inspired by laurel, i. 
384, iv. 80 ; image of, in sacred cave 
at Hylae, i. 386 ; at Patara, ii. 135 ; 
purification of, iii. 223 n. 1 ; servitude 
of, iv. 70 n. 1 , 78 ; and the laurel, iv. 
78 sqq. ; at Thebes, iv. 79 ; purged of 
the dragon's blood in the Vale of 
Tern pe, iv. 8z ; dedication of a tithe- 
offering to, iv. 187 .' ; the friend of 
Cinyras, v. 54 ; music in the worship 
of, v. 54 sq. ; his musical contest with 
Marsyas, v. 55, 288 ; reputed father of 
Augustus, v. 8 1 ; purified at Tempe, 
vi. 240 ; temple of, at the Lover's Leap, 
ix. 254 ; temple of, at Cumae, x. 99 ; 
identified with the Celtic Grannus, x. 

Apollo and Artemis, birthdays of, L 32 , 
the birth of, ii. 58 ; their priesthood at 
Ephesus, vi. 243 sq. \ cake with twelve 
knobs offered to, ix. 351 . 8 

at Delphi, hair offered by boys 

at puberty to, i. 28 ; first-fruits offered 
to, i. 32 ; grave of, at Delphi, i. 34, 
35, iv. 4 ; seems to have usurped the 
place of an older god or hero at Delphi 
and Thebes, ii. 88 ; and the Dragon 
at Delphi, iv. 78, 79, 80 sq. , vi. 240 ; 
sacrifices of Croesus to, v. 180 n. 1 

-, the Cataonian, v. 147 .* 
-, the Clarian, iv. 80 .* 

Diradiotes, inspired priestess 
temple of, i. 381 
Erithasean, ii. 121 
the Four-handed, vi. 250 . a 

of the Golden Sword, v. 176 

sumamed Locust and Mildew, viii. 

the Mouse, his temple in the Troad, 

vni 283 

Soranus, xi. 14, 15 n * 

, the Wolf-slayer, vni. 283 sq. 

Apollonui, festival at Delos, i. 32 .* 

, a city in Macedonia, ix. 143 n. 

Apollonius of Tyana, hov\ he rid Antioch 
of scorpions, viii. 280 sq. ; how he rid 
Constantinople of flies, viii. 281 

Apologies offered to trees for cutting 
them down, ii. 18 sq., 30, 36 sq.\ 
for trespass on sacred groves, n. 328 ; 
offered by savages to the animals they 
kill, viii. 215, 217, 218, 221, 222 sqq., 
235 sqq. , 243 

Apotheosis by being burnt alive, v. 179 sq. 

Apoyaos, tribe in Luzon, their human 
sacrifices, vn. 241 

Appam, a town on the Gold Coast, 
family descended from a fish at, iv. 

Appian, on the costume of a priest of 
Isis, vi. 85 . 8 

Apple, offered instead of ram or ox to 
Hercules, viii. 95 . a ; divination by 
a sliced, at Hallowe'en, x. 238 ; and 
candle, biting at, x. 241, 242, 243, 245 

-tree, afterbirth of cow hung in an, 

i. 198 sq. \ straw- man placed on oldest, 
viii. 6 ; as life-index of boy, xi. 165 

-trees, barren women roll under, 

to obtain offspring, ii. 57 ; torches 
thrown at, x. 108 ; mistletoe on, xi. 
315, 316 . 5 

Apples at festival of Diana, i. 14, 16 ; 
forbidden to woi shippers of Cybele 
and Attis, v. 280 n. 1 ; dipping for, at 
Hallowe'en, x. 237, 239, 241, 242, 

43. 4S 

Apricot-trees, mistletoe on, xi. 316 
April, religious rites performed by tnc 



Vestals in, ii. 229 ; the first Sunday 

of, custom observed at Naples on, iv. 

241 ; Siamese festival of the dead in, ix. 

150 ; ceremony of the new fire in, x. 

136 sq. % xi. 3 ; Chinese festival of fire 

in, xi. 3 
April 2nd, annual sacrifice of wild boars 

in Cyprus on, viii. 23 . 3 

15th, sacrifice on, ii. 229, 326 

2ist, date of the Pariha, ii. 325, 

326 ; ceremony performed by the 

Vestals on, viii. 42 
23rd, St George's Day, ii. 75, 76, 

330 W- 

24th, in some places St. George's 

Day, ii. 337, 343 ; the great mondard 
made on, viii. 6 

27th, in popular superstitions of 

Morocco, x. 17 sq. 

3oth, Walpurgis Day, ix. 163 

Apuleius, as to the love -charm of a 

Thessalian witch, iii. 270 ; his story 

of Cupid and Psyche, iv. 131 n. 1 ; on 

the worship of Isis, vi. 119 n. ; on 

a cure for scorpion bite, ix. 50 n. 1 
Aquaeliciwn and Jupiter, ii. 184 n. 
Aquilex, rain-maker, i. 310 w. 4 
Arab belief that a game of ball may 

cause rain, ix. 179 
charm to forget sorrow, i. 150 ; to 

bring back a runaway slave, i. 152 ; 

to ensure birth of strong children, i. 

153 I to fertilize a barren woman, i. 

157 ; of the setting sun, i. 165 sq. \ 

to get good teeth, i. 181 ; to make 

rain, i. 303 
commentator as to the fig and the 

olive, ii. 316 ; on the Koran as to 

knots in magic, iii. 302 

cure by means of knotted thread, 

iii. 304 ; cure for melancholy, ix 4 

legend of king bled to death, ni. 

243 - 7 
love-charm by means of knots, iii. 


mode of cursing an enemy, iii. 312 
name for the scarlet anemone, v. 
sacrifice for rain, i. 289 

women, their custom of muffling 

their faces, iii. 122 ; in North Africa 
give their male children the hearts of 
lions to eat, viii. 142 sq. ; in Morocco, 
their superstitions as to plants at 
Midsummer, xi. 51 

writer on the death of the King of 

the Jinn, iv. 8 ; on talismans against 
locusts and murrain, viii. 281 

Arabia, sacred acacia-tree in, ii. 42 ; 
sticks or stones piled on scenes of 
violent death in, ix. 15 ; use of camel 
s scapegoat for plague in, ix. 33 

Arabia, ancient, taboos observed by in- 
cense-growers in, ii. 106 sq. ; belief as 
to shadows in, iii. 82 ; Sabaea or Sheba 
in, iii. 124 ; tree-spirits in snake form 
in, xi. 44 n. 1 

Arabian, modern, story of the external 
soul, xi. 137 sq. 

Arabian Nights, story of the external 
soul in the, xi. 137 

Arabic treatise on magic, i. 65 ; writer 
on the mourning for Ta-uz (Tammuz) 
in Harran, v. 230 

Arabs believe the soul to be in the 
blood, iii. 241 ; avoid using the 
proper names for lion, leprosy, etc., 
iii. 400 ; ancient, supposed to know 
the language of birds, viii. 146 ; their 
custom as to widows, ix. 35 ; their 
custom in regard to murder, ix. 63 ; 
beat camels to deliver them from jinn, 
ix. 260 

of Algeria, their story of the type 

of Beauty and the Beast, iv. 130 n. 1 

of East Africa, their faith in an 

unguent of lion's fat, vni. 164 

, the heathen, their custom as to a 

boy's cast teeth, i. 181 ; their way of 
procuring rain, i. 303 ; their treat- 
ment of a man stung by a scorpion, 
iii. 95 n. 8 

of Moab, their charm against 

scorpions, i. 153 ; their charm to 
ensure the birth of children, i. 
157 ; their rain-making ceremony, i. 
276 ; their use of shorn hair as a 
hostage, iii. 273 ; preserve their nail- 
parings against the resurrection, iii. 
280 ; resort to the springs of Callir- 
rhoe, v. 215 sq. ; their custom at 
harvest, vi. 48, 96, vii. 138 ; their 
remedies for ailments, vi. 242 

of Morocco, their custom at the 

Great Feast, ix. 265 ; their Midsum- 
mer customs, x. 214 

of North Africa, their rain-charm, 

i. 277 ; jinn invoked by their names 
among the, iii. 390 

Aracan, ix. 117 ; the Mrus of, ix. 12 n. 1 
dances for the crops in, ix. 236 

Arachnaeus, Mount, altars of Zeus and 
Hera on, ii. 360 

Arad, in Hungary, thresher of last corn 
wrapt in a cow's hide at, vii. 291 

Araguaya River in Brazil, iii. 348 

Aran, in the valley of the Garonne, Mid- 
summer fires at, x. 193 

Aran Islands, off Galway, St. Eany'i 
well in the, ii. 161 

Aratus of Sicyon, sacrifices to, i. 105; 
deemed a son of Aesculapius, v. 81 

Araucanians of South America, the, ix. 
12 ; their idea as to toads, i. 292 *.* ; 



their belief that thunder-storms are 
caused by the spirits of the dead, ii. 
183 ; afraid of having their portraits 
taken, iii. 97 ; keep their names secret, 
iii. 324 ; eat fruit of Araucanian pine, 
v. 278 . a See also Aucas 

Araunah, the threshing-floor of, v. 24 

Arawak Indians of British Guiana, mur- 
derers taste the blood of their victims 
among the, viii. 154 sq. ; their explana- 
tion of human mortality, ix. 302 sq. 

Arcadia, the oak forests of, ii. 354 sq. 

Arcadian boys offer their hair to a river, 

i 3i 

custom of beating Pan's image, ix. 


Arcadians ate and eat acoms, ii. 355, 
356; sacrifice to thunder and light- 
ning, v. 157 

Arch to shut out plague, ix. 5 ; creeping 
through, as a cure, ix. 55 ; child after 
an illness passed under an, xi. 192 ; 
young men at initiation passed under 
a leafy, xi. 193 ; triumphal, suggested 
origin of the, xi. 195. See also Arches, 

Archangel, worship of Leschiy in the 
Government of, 11. 125 

Archangels, Persian, ix. 373 n. 1 

Archbishop of Innocents, ix. 334 

Archer (Tirant), effigy of, xi. 36 

Archery, contest of, for a bride, ii. 306 

Arches made over paths at expulsion of 
demons, ix. 113, 120 sq. ; novices at 
initiation passed under arches in Aus- 
tralia, xi. 193 n. 1 See also Arch, 

Archigallus, high-priest of Attis, v. 268, 
2 79 : prophesies, v. 271 n. 

Archways, passing under, as a means of 
escaping evil spirits or sickness, xi. 
179 sqq. See also Arch, Arches 

Arctic origin, alleged, of the Aryans, v. 
229 n. 1 

regions, ceremonies at the reappear- 
ance of the sun in the, ix. 124 sq. t 
125 . 1 

Arcturus, Greek vintage timed by, vii. 
47 . a ; Greek festival before, 51, 52 

Arden, Forest of, ii. 7 

Ardennes, May Day custom in the, ii. 
80 ; Arduinna, goddess of the, ii. 1 26 ; 
effigies of Carnival burned in the, iv. 
926 sq. ; precautions against rats in the, 
viii. 277 ; the King of the Bean in the, 
ix. 314 ; the Eve of Epiphany in the, 
ix. 317 ; bonfires on the first Sunday of 
Lent in the, x. 107 sq. ; the French, 
Lenten fires and customs in, x. 109 
sq. ; Midsummer fires in the, x. 188 ; 
the Yule log in the, x. 253 ; cats burnt 
alive in Lenten bonfires in the, xi. 40 

Ardrishaig, in Argyleshire, the harvest 

Maiden at, vii. 155 sq. 
Arduinna, goddess of the Ardennes, ii. 


Aren palm-tree, superstition as to, ii. 22 
Arenna or Arinna, the Hittite sun-goddess 

of, v. 136, with n. 1 

Arensdorf, custom at sowing in, v. 239 
Ares, men sacred to, iii. 1 1 1 ; the grave 

of, iv. 4 

Argaeus, Mount, in Cappadocia, v. 190;?. 
Argentina and Bolivia, passes of, ix. 9 
Argenton, in Berry, Mid- Lenten custom 

at, iv. 241 sq. 

Argive brides wore false beards, vi. 260 
maidens sacrificed their hair to 

Athena, i. 28 
tradition as to descent of Dionysus 

into Hades, vii. 15 

women bewailed Adonis, v. 227 . 

Argo, tree of which the ship was made, 

xi. 94 n. 1 
Argohs, Eastern! physical features ot, ii. 

Argos, titular kings at, i. 47 n. ; Apollo 

Dir.idiotes at, i. 381 ; Klowery Hera 

at. ii. 143 . 2 ; new fire after a death 

in, ii. 267 n. 4 ; altar of Rainy Zeus at, 

ii. 360 . 8 
Argiis, Hermes tried for the murder of, 

IY. 24 
Argyleshire, locks unlocked at childbirth 

in, in. 296 ; use of knotted threads as 

a cure in, iii. 304 ; last corn cut at 

harvest called the Maiden in, vii. 155 

sq. ; the last corn cut at harvest called 

the Old \Vi!- (Callback] in, vii. 164 
stories of the external soul, xi 127 


Argyrus, temple of Hercules at, x. 99 .* 
Art or totem, mode of determining a 

young man's, i. 99 
Ariadne, Cyprian worship of, vii. 209 .* 

and Dionysus, ii. 138 

and Theseus, iv. 75 
Ariadne's crown, ii. 1 38 

Dance, iv. 75, 77 

Ariccia. the modern descendant of Aricia, 

i. 3. ** 309 

Aricia, sacred grove at, i. 3, viii. 95 ; the 
beggars of, i. 4 ; Orestes at, i. xo 
14 many Manii at," i. 22, viii. 94 sqq. 
its distance from the sanctuary, ii. 2 
the priest of, ix. 273 ; King of the 
Wood at, ix. 409 ; the priest of, and 
the Golden Bough, x. i ; the priest of 
Diana at, i^erhaps a personified Jupiter, 
xi. 302 sq. 

Arician grove, the sacred, i. 20, 22, ii. 
115, ix. 974, 305; horses excluded 
from, i. 20, viii. 40 sqq. ritual of, 
iv. 213; perhaps the scene of * 



common harvest celebration, viii. 44 ; 
said to have been founded by Manias, 
viii. 95 ; the Midsummer festival of fire 
in, xi. 285 ; the priest ot, a personi- 
fication of an oak-spirit, xi. 285. See 
also Nemi 
Arician priesthood, ix. 305 

slope, the, i. 4 . B 

Aries, the constellation, the sun in, ix. 
361 a. 1 , 403 

Arikara Indians, their rule as to breaking 
marrow bones, i. 115 sq. ; their pre- 
paration for war by fasting and lacerat- 
ing themselves, lii. 161 

Ariminum, triumphal arch of Augustus 
at, xi. 194 n. 4 

Aristeas of Proconnesus, his soul as a 
raven, iii. 34 

Aristides, the rhetorician, on first-fruit 
offerings, vii. 56 ; on Eleusiman 
Games, vii. 71 

Anstomenes, Messenian hero, his fabu- 
lous birth, v. 8 1 

Aristophanes, Strepsiades in, i. 285 ; on 
the Spartan envoy, v. 196 . 4 ; on 
Hercules as patron of hot springs, v. 209 

.Aristotelian philosophy, revival of the, 
v. 301 

Aristotle, on death at ebb-tide, i. 167 ; 
on the marriage of the Queen to 
Dionysus, ii. 137 ; his Constitution of 
Athens, ii. 137 n. 1 , vii. 79; on the 
political institutions of Cyprus, v. 
49 a. 7 ; on earthquakes, v. 211 . 3 ; on 
the trial of lifeless objects by the King 
at Athens, viii. 5 w. 1 ; on men of grnms, 
viii. 302 n.; his statement of the prin- 
ciple of the survival of the fittest, viii. 

Arizona, the aridity of, i. 306 ; the 
Moquis of, iii. 228 ; mock human 
sacrifices in, iv. 215; the Pueblo 
Indians of, vii 312 ; and New Mexico, 
use of bull-roarers in, xi. 230 ., 231 

Arjun and Draupadi, ii. 306 

Arkansas Indians, their offerings of first- 
fruits to the Master of Life, viii. 134 

Arkon, in Rtigen, sacred shrine at, ii. 
241 . 4 

Arks, sacred, of the Cherokees, x. 1 1 sq. 

Armadillos not to be shot with poisoned 
arrows, i. 116 

Armengols, in the Pelew Islands, vi. 265 

Armenia, rain-making in, i. 275 sq. t 277, 
282, 985; rain -charm by means of 
pebbles in, i. 305; rain -charms by 
means of rocks in, i. 306 ; the Paul- 
icians of, i. 407; barren fruit-trees 
threatened in, ii. 22 ; new fire after 
a death in, ii. 267 . 4 ; worship of 
Anaitis in, ii. 282 *.*, ix. 369 ft. 1 ; 
acred prostitution of girls before mar- 

riage in, v. 38, 58 ; sticks or stones 
piled on scenes of violent death in, ix. 
15 ; were-wolves in, x, 316 ; sick 
people creep through cleft trees in, xi. 

Armenian charms by means of knots and 
locks, iii. 308 

church, the day of the Virgin in 

the, i. 1 6 ; bonfires at Candlemas in 
the, x. 131 

custom as to extracted teeth, i. 182 

idea of the sun as a \vheel, x. 334 n. 1 

Armenians, their belief that lightning is 
produced by means of flints, ii. 374 ; 
preserve their cut hair and nails and 
extracted teeth for use at the resurrec- 
tion, 111. 280; their festivals of the 
dead, vi. 65 sq. \ their opinion of the 
baleful influence of the moon on 
children, vi. T 48 ; their belief io 
demons, ix. 107 sq. 

Arms of youths punctured to make them 
good hunters, x. 58 

Army under arms, Flamen Dialis for- 
bidden to see, iii. 13 

Arnobius on the Roman custom of keep- 
ing perpetual fires, ii. 260 

Arnold, Matthew, on the English middle 
class, iv. 146 

Arnstadt, witches burnt at, x. 6 

Arran, magical stone in, i. 161 ; the 
need-fire in, x. 293 

Arrepboroi at Athens, the, ii. 199 

Arriaga, J. de, on the Peruvian Maize- 
mothers, Coca -mothers, and Potato- 
mothers, vii. 173 n. 

Arnan, on sacrifices to Artemis, ii. 125 
sq. ; on Attis, v. 282 

Arrows, poisoned, not to be used against 
certain animals, i. 116 ; in homoeo- 
pathic magic, i. 143 ; in contagious 
magic, i. 201, 202 ; fire-tipped, shot 
at sun during an eclipse, i. 311 ; shot 
as a rain-charm, i. 396 ; shot at sacred 
trees as mark of respect, ii. 1 1 ; to keep 
off death, iii. 31 ; invisible, of demons, 
ix. loz, 126 ; used as a love-charm, 
x. 14 

Arsacid house, divinity of Parthian kings 
of the, i. 417 sq. 

Art, sylvan deities in classical, ii. 45 ; 
Demeter and Peisephone in, vii. 43 sq. 

Artaxerxes II., his promotion 01 the 
M orship of Anaitis, ix. 370 

Artemis at Ephesus, i. 7 ; temple dedi- 
cated to her by Xenophon, i. 7 ; the 
Asiatic, i. 7 ; vineyards dedicated to, 
i. 15 ; at Delos, i. 28 ; hair of maidens 
sacrificed to, before marriage, i. 28 
sq. \ birthday of, i. 32, ii. 125; a god- 
dess of the wild life of nature, i. 35 
sq. ; mated with a male coasort, i. 35 



sq. , not originally a virgin goddess, 
i. 35 sg* J the patroness of childbirth, 
i. 37; identified with lewd Asiatic 
goddesses of love and fertility, i. 37 ; 
the birth of, ii. 58 ; sacrifices to, ii. 
125 ; the Huntress, first-fruits of the 
chase offered to, ii. 195 sq. ; wor- 
shipped by the Celts, ii. 125 sq. ; at 
Pwga. v - 35 5 name gi ven b Y Greeks 
to Asiatic Mother Goddesses, v. 169 

A rtemis, Aetolian, her sacred grove among 
the Veneti, i. 27 

and Apollo, birthdays of, i. 32 ; 

the birth of, ii. 58 ; their priesthood at 
Ephesus, vi. 243 

, Brauronian, sacrifice of a goat to, 
viii. 41 . 8 

of Ephesus, i. 7, 37 sq., ii. 128, 
136 ; her image, i. 37 sq. ; in relation 
to the Virgin Mary, i. 38 ft. 1 ; served 
by eunuch priests, v. 269 

the Hanged, v. 291 

and Hippolytus, i. 19 sq., 24 sqq. 
, Laphrian, at Patrae, v. 126 .' 2 

, Munychian, sacrifice to, iv. 166 

ft. 1 ; mock human sacrifice in the 

ritual of, iv. 2x5 sq. 

Parthenos, i. 36 

, Perasian, at Castabala in Cappa- 

docia, v. 115, 167 sqq., xi. 14 

, Sarpedonian, in Cilicia, v. 167, 171 

, Savonian, i. 26 

, the Tauric, human sacrifices to, 

v. 115 

Tauropolis, v. 275 n. 1 
, Wolfish, i. 26 sq. 

Artemisia founds Mausoleum, iv. 94*?.; 

drinks ashes of her husband Mausolus, 

viii. 158 
Artemisia absinthium, wormwood, xl 

58 ft. 1 , 61 n. 1 

laciniata, garlands of, ix. 284 

vulgariSt mugwort, gathered at 

Midsummer, xi. 58 sqq. 
Artemision, a Greek month, vi. 239 n. 1 , 

viii. 8 
Artictis, the bear-cat, associated with the 

spirits of the dead, viii. 294 
Artificers, worship of the, viii. 60 sq. 
Artocarpus intcgrifolia, jack wood burnt 

in exorcism, iv. 216 

Artois, mugwort at Midsummer in, xi. 59 
Arts and crafts, use of spells or incanta- 
tions in. ix. 8 1 
Am Archipelago, riddles propounded 

while a corpse is uncoffined in the, ix. 

I2Z .* 

Islands, custom of not sleeping after 

a death in the, iii. 37, 95 ; children's 
hair deposited on a banana-tree in the, 
iii. 276 ; dog's flesh eaten to make eater 
brave in the, viii. 145 

Arum acaitle, forbidden as food to the 
king of Fernando Po, iii. 291 

Arunta of Central Australia, magical 
ceremonies among the, i. 85 sqq. \ 
custom observed by women during 
operation of subincision, i. 93 sq. ; 
the rain or water totem among the, 
i. 98 ; burial customs of the, i. 102 ; 
cannibalism among the, i. 106 ; their 
treatment of the navel-string, i. 183 ; 
their rain-making ceremonies, i. 259 
sqq. ; their belief as to the ghosts of 
the slain, iii. 177 sq. \ their fear of 
women's blood, iii. 251 ; ceremonies at 
the end of mourning among the, iii. 373 
sq. \ their belief in the reincarnation of 
the dead, v. 99, xoo; their sacred 
pole, x. 7 ; their dread of women at 
menstruation, x. 77 ; legend that the 
ancestors kept their spirits in their 
churinga, xi. 218 . 8 ; rites of initia- 
tion among the, xi. 233 sq. ; initiation 
of medicine-men among the, xi. 238 

Arval Brothers, their holy pots, ii. 203 
sq. ; expiation for bringing an iron tool 
into the sacred grove of the, iii. 226 ; 
their wreaths of corn, v. 44 ., ix. 
232 ; a Roman college of priests 
charged with the performance of rites 
for the crops, vi. 239, ix. 230, 232 ; 
their song, ix. 238. See also Fratrcs 

Aryan custom of leading a bride thrice 
round the hearth of her new home, ii. 
230 ; of counting by nights instead 
of days, ix. 326 . a 

family, custom of putting the old 
and sick to death in several branches 
of the, iv. 14 .*; maniage customs of 
the, vi. 235 

god of the oak and thunder, ii. 356 

sqq. , x. 265 ; god of the sky, ii. 374 sq. 

languages, names for moon and 

month in, ix. 325 

peoples, descent of kingship through 

women among, ii. 280 ; their correction 
of the lunar year, ix. 342 ; stories of 
the external soul among, xi. 97 sqq. 

stock, tree-worship among nil the 

great European families of the, ii. 9 

tribes of Gilgit revere the chili t a 

species of cedar, ii. 49 

Aryans, magical powers ascribed to kings 
among the, i. 366 sqq. ; perpetual fires 
among the, ii. 260 ; female kinship 
among the, ii. 283 sqq. ; importance of 
cattle and milk among the ancient, 
ii. 324 n. 3 ; the primitive, their theory of 
personal names, iii. 319 ; their alleged 
Arctic origin, v. 229 ft. 1 ; annual fes- 
tivals of the dead among the, vi. 67 sqq. 

of Europe, their oak forests and use 



of oak-wood, ii. 372, 378 ; agriculture 
among the early, vii. 129 sq. ; to tern ism 
not proved for the, viii. 4 ; importance 
of the Midsummer festival among the, 
xi. 40 ; the oak the chief sacred tree 
of the, xi. 89 sq. 

Aryans of India, transubstantiation among 
the, viii. 89 sq. 

of the Vedic age, ix. 324 ; their 

calendar, ix. 325, 342 

Aryenis, daughter of Alyattes, v. 133 n. 1 

Asa, a branch of the Masai, how they 
dispose of their cut hair and nails, iii. 

Asaba, on the Lower Niger, chiefs eat 
in privacy at, iii. 118 

Asada, name of a month in Bali, vii. 315 

Asakusa, in Tokiq, expulsion of the devil 
on the last day of the year at, ix. 213 

Ascalon, the goddess Derceto at, v. 34 
. 8 , ix. 370 n. 1 

Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, ii. 197 ; and 
the Game of Troy, iv. 76 

Ascension of Adonis, v. 225 

Day, the May-tree in Saxony on, 

ii. 69 ; annual pardon of a criminal at 
Rouen on, ii. 165, 166, 168, 169, ix. 
215 sq. ; the "Carrying out of Death" 
on, at Braller, iv. 222 w. 1 , 247 sqq. 
cures on Eve of, ix. 54 ; annual ex 
pulsion of the devil on, ix. 214 sq. 
bells rung to make flax grow on, ix 
247 sq. \ parasitic rowan should be 
cut on, xi. 281 

Ascent of Persephone, viii. 17 

Ascetic idealism of the East, ii. 117 

Asceticism not primitive, x. 65 

Aschbach, in Bavaria, the Old Man at 
reaping and threshing at, vii. 219 sq. 

Asclfpias gigantectt man married to, in 
Barar, ii. 57 . 4 

Ash-tree, parings of nails buried under 
an, iii. 276 ; in popular cure, ix. 57 

-trees, children passed through cleft 

ash -trees as a cure for rupture or 
rickets, xi. 168 sqq. 

Wednesday, df ath of Caramantran 

on, iv. 220 ; burial of the Carnival on, 
iv. 221 ; effigies of Carnival or of 
Shrove Tuesday burnt or buried on, 
iv. 226, 228 sqq. t x. 120; effigy of 
the Queen of Lent fashioned on, iv. 
244 ; pea-soup and pigs' bones eaten 
on, vii. 300 

Ashantee, licence accorded to king's 
sisters in, ii. 274 sq. ; royal criminals 
drowned in, iii. 242 sq. ; precaution as 
to the spittle of the king of, iii. 289 ; 
kings of, addressed as "Elephant" 
and "Lion," iv. 86 ; kings of, take one 
of their titles from borri, a venomous 
snake, iv. 86 ; human sacrifices at 

earthquakes in, v. 201 ; kings of, 

annual period of licence in, ix. 226 n. 1 

Ashantees, the, sanctity of the king's 
throne among, i. 365 ; their festivals of 
new yams, viii. 62 sq. ; ate Sir Charles 
McCarthy to acquire his bravery, viii. 

Asherim (singular asherah), sacred poles, 
in Canaan, iv. 169, v. 18, 18 n. 2 , 107, 

Ashes from a pyre used to cause sleep, 
i. 148 ; of serpents in homoeopathic 
magic, i. 152 sq. ; of spiders in homoeo- 
pathic magic, i. 152 ; of wasps in 
homoeopathic magic, i. 152 ; of a blind 
cat in homoeopathic magic, i. 153 ; 
of the dead turned into rain, i. 287 ; 
scattered as a rain - charm, i. 304 ; 
scattered to mpke sunshine, i. 314 ; 
of holy fire rubbed on foreheads of 
warriors, ii. 215 ; of unborn calves 
used in a fertility charm, ii. 229, 326 ; 
sticwn on the head, iii. 112 ; as 
manure, vii. 117 ; of human victims 
scattered on fields, vii. 258 ; of the 
dead swallowed as a mode of com- 
munion with them, viii. 156 sqq. ; in 
divination, x. 243, 244, 245. See also 
Sticks, Charred 

of bonfires put in fowls' nests, x. 
ii2, 338; mixed with seed at sow- 
ing, x. 121 ; increase fertility of fields, 
x. 141, 337 ; make cattle thrive, x. 
141, 338 ; placed in a person's shoes, 
x. 156 ; administered to cattle to make 
them fat, xi. 4 

of dead smeared on mourner, viil 

164 ; disposal of the, x. ii 

of Hallowe'en fires scattered, x. 233 

of holy fires a protection against 

demons, xi. 8, 17 

of human victim scattered \vith 

winnowing-fans, vi. 97, 106, vii. 260, 
262 ; scattered on earth to fertilize it, 
vii. 240 ; scattered on fields, vii. 249, 
250, 251 

of Midsummer fires strewed on fields 

to fertilize them, x. 170, 190, 203 ; a 
protection against conflagration, x. 
174, 196 ; a protection against light- 
ning, x. 187, 188 , a protection against 
thunder, x. 190 ; put by people in their 
shoes, x. 191 sq. ; a cure for consump- 
tion, x. 194 sq. ; rubbed by people on 
their hair or bodies, x. 213, 214, 215 ; 
good for the eyes, x. 214 

of the need-fire strewn on fields to 

protect the crops against vermin, x, 
274 ; used as a medicine, x. 286 

of New Year's fire used to rub sor 

eyes, x. 218 



Ashes of Yule log strewed on fields, x. 
950 ; used to heal swollen glands, z. 

Ashintilly, Spaldingof, bewitched, Hi. 299 

Ashira, the, of West Africa, make fetishes 
out of clipped hair, iii. 271 sq. ; women 
the agricultural labourers among, vii. 
1 20 

Ashtaroth, Babylonian goddess, ix. 3655?. 

Ashtoreth (Astarte), v. z8 . a See 

Ashur, Arab New Year's Day, x. 217, 

Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria, marries 
daughter of Sanda-sarme, v. 144 ; con- 
fused with the legendary Sardanapalus, 
v. 173 sg. t ix. 387 sq. ; carries off the 
bones of the kings of Elam, vi. 103 

Asbwin (Ashvin), Indian month, iv. 55, 
v. 243 

Asia, North-Eastern, the Chuckchees of, 
ii. 225 ; the Koryaks of, ii. 225, iii. 
32 sq. 

, Western, Saturnalia in, ix. 354 


Asia Minor, pontiffs in, i. 47 ; the 
Yourouks of, ii. 43 ; priestly dynasties 
of, v. 140 sg. ; subject to volcanic 
forces, v. 190; subject to earthquakes, 
v. 202 ; the Caunians of, ix. 1 16 ; use 
of human scapegoats by the Greeks of, 
ix. 255 ; rapid diffusion of Christianity 
in, ix. 420 sg. ; the Celts 111, xi. 89 ; 
cure for possession by an evil spirit in, 
xi. 1 86 ; creeping through rifted rocks 
in, xi. 189 

Asiatic goddesses of love and fertility, 
their lewd worship, i. 37 ; served by 
eunuch priests, v. 269 sg. 

Asin, Indian month, iv. 279 

Asongtata, an annual ceremony per- 
formed by the Garos of Assam, ix. 

Asopus, the river, ii. 140, 141, v. 81 

"A-souIing," custom of, in England, 
vl 79 

Aspalis, a form of Artemis, v. 292 

Aspens, fevers transferred to, ix. 57 ; 
mistletoe on, xi. 315 

Aspidiumfilix mas, the male fern, super- 
stitions as to, xi. 66 sq. 

Ass in rain-making ceremony, i. 282 n. 4 ; 
son of a god in the form of an, iv. 
124 sq. \ the crest or totem of a royal 
family, iv. 132, 133 ; in cure for scor- 
pion's bite. ix. 49 sg. ; introduced into 
church at Festival of Fools, ix. 335 sq. ; 
triumphal ride of a buffoon on an, ix. 
402 */. ; child passed under an, as a 
cure for whooping-cough, xi 192 it. 1 
See also Asses 

Assam, viii. 116; the hill tribes of, 

taboos in respect of food observed b) 
headmen and their wives among, iii. 
zz ; taboos observed by warriors 
among, iii. 165 ; concealment of per- 
sonal names among, iii. 323 ; genna in, 
vii. 109 .*; agriculture in, viL 123; 
head-hunting in, vii. 256 

Assam, the Khasis of, i. 194, ii. 114 n. 1 , 
294, v. 46, vi. 202 sqg. t ix. 173. xi. 
146 ; the Garos of, i. 291, viii. 43 .*, 
116, ix. 208 sq. ; the Miris of, ii. 39, 
267 . 4 , vii. 123, viii. 145; the Padams 
of, ii 39 ; the Mundaris of, ii. 46 ; the 
Bodos of, iii. 285 ; the Dhimals of, iii. 
285 ; the Kacha Nagas of, iii. 333 ; 
the Kukis of, iii. 333 ; the Zemis of, 
iii- 333 ! the Tangkul Nagas of, vi. 
57 sqq. , ix. 177; the Nagas of, viii. 
loo, 290, ix. 177 ; the Kochs of, viii. 
xx6; the Kacharis of, ix. 93; the 
Lushais of, ix. 94, xi. 185 sq. ; the 
Tangkuls of, ix. 177 

"Assegai, child of the," iv. 183 

Assembly of the gods at the New Year 
in. Babylon, ix. 356 

Asses crowned at Vesta's festival in 
June, ii. 127 . 8 ; excluded from 
sanctuary of Alectrona, viii. 45 ; trans- 
migration of sinners into, viii. 299, 
308. See also Ass 

and men, redemption of firstling, 

among the Hebrews, iv. 173 

Assiga, tribe of South Nigeria, xi. 204 

Assimilation of rain-maker to water, i. 
260 sgg. ; of Egyptian kings to gods, 
11. 133 ; of victims to gods, vii. 261 
sg. \ of men to their totems or guardian 
animals, viii. 207 sg, ; of human victims 
to trees, ix. 257, 259 .* 

Assiniboins, their propitiation of slain 
bears, viii. 225 

Assinie, West African kingdom, custom 
as to eating the new yams in, viii. 

6 3 
Association of ideas, magic based on a 

misapplication of the, i. 53, 174, 221 

sq. ; common to the animals, i. 234 
Associations, religious, among the Indian 

tribes of North America, xi. 267 sgg. 
Assumption of the Virgin in relation to 

the festival of Diana, i. 14-16, v. 308, 


Assusa, king of Fazoql. iv. 16 sq., 17 n. 1 
Assyria, kings of, their annual homage 

to Marduk, iv. 1x3; festival of Zag- 

muk in, iv. 116; Ashurbanipal, king 

of, ix. 387 sq. 
Assyrian cavalry, v. 25 .* 
eponymate, iv. 116 sq. 
kings took Into their harem the 

daughters of the vanquished princes. 

ix. 368 *.' 



Assyrian monarcbs, conquerors of Baby- 
lonia, ix. 356 

. monuments, illustrative of the arti- 
ficial fertilization of the date-palm, ii. 
25 ., ix. 273 n. 1 

ritual, use of golden axe in, xi. 

8o. 8 

settlers in Israel petition for an 
Israelitish priest, ii. 288 n.' 

Assyrians, their use of knotted cords in 
magic, iii. 303 sq. ; forbidden to men- 
tion the mystic names of their cities, 
iii. 391 ; in Cilicia, v. 173; the ancient, 
their belief in demons, ix. 102 

Astarte or Ishtar, a great Babylonian 
goddess, ix. 365 ; the moon-goddess, 
iv. 92 ; at Byblus, hair offerings to, i. 
30, v. 13 sq. ; her temple at Hierapolis, 
iii. 286 ; and the askeritn, v. 1 8 ; kings 
as priests of, v. 26 ; at Paphos, v. 33 
sqq. ; doves sacred to, v. 147; identi- 
fied with the planet Venus, v. 258 ; of 
the Syrian Hierapolis served by eunuch 
priests, v. 269 sq. ; called by Lucian 
the Assyrian Hera, v. 280 n. 6 ; the 
Heavenly Goddess, v. 303 ; the planet 
Venus her star, vi. 35. See also Ishtar 
- Aphrodite, v. 304 n. 

and Semiramis, ix. 369 sqq. 

Asteria, mother of the Tyrian Hercules 
(Melcarth), v. 112 

Asthma transferred to a mule, ix. 50 

Asti, a Thracian tribe, vii. 26 

Aston, W. G. , on the Japanese word for 
god, iii. 2 . 3 ; on the annual expul- 
sion of demons in Japan, ix. 212 sq. ; 
on Japanese and Chinese ceremonies 
of purification, ix. 213 w. 1 ; on Japanese 
ceremony for averting pestilence, x. 
J 37 S 9> i on the fire-walk in Japan, xi. 

10 H. 1 

Astral spirit of a witch, x. 317 
Astrolabe Bay, in New Guinea, ii. 

2 55 n - l \ precaution as to spittle in, 

iii. 289 
Astronomical considerations determining 

the early Greek caK ndar, iv. 68 sq. 
Astronomy, origin of, vii. 307 
Astyages, king of the Medes, v. 133 . J 
Asuras, the rivals of the Indian gods, 

viii. 120 

Asvattha tree, v. 82 
Aswang, an evil spirit, exorcism of, ix. 

Atai, external soul in the Mota language, 

xi. 197 sq. 

Atalante and her wooers, ii. 301 
Atargatis, Syrian goddess, v. 34 . 8 , 137 ; 

worshipped at Hierapolis - Bam by ce, 

v. 162 sq. ; derivation of the name, v. 

162 ; her husband-god, v. 162 sq. 
Ates, a Phrygian, v. 986 


Ath, in Hainaut, procession of giants at, 


Athamanes of Epirus, women tilled the 
ground among the, vii. 129 

Athamas, king of Alias, vii. 24, 25 ; and 
his children, legend of, iv. 161 sqq. ; 
sentenced to be sacrificed as expiatory 
offering for the country, iv. 162 ; said 
to have reigned at Orchomenus, iv. 
164 ; the dynasty of, v. 287 

Athauasius, on the mourning for Osiris, 
vi. 217 

Athboy, in County Meath, rath near, 
x. 139 

'A then, Cilician goddess, v. 162 

Athena, hair offered by maidens before 
marriage to, i. 28 ; mother of Erich- 
thomus, ii. 199 ; perpetual lamp of, 
in the Erechtheum, ii. 199 ; at Troy, 
Locrian maidens in the sanctuary of, 
ii. 284 ; served by maidens on the 
Acropolis at Athens, iii. 227 n. ; sacri- 
fices to, iv. 166 n. 1 , vii. 56 ; temple 
of, at Snkimis in Cyprus, v. 145 ; and 
hot springs, v. 209, 210 ; and the 
aegis, vin. 40, 41 ; priestess of, uses a 
\\mte umbrella, x. 20 n. 1 

, Magarsian, a Cilician goddess, v. 

169 H. 8 

Sciras, sanctuary of, vi. 238 

Athenaeus, on Celtic and Roman in- 
difference to death, iv. 143 

Athenian boys, race of, at the vintage, 
vi. 238 ; boy carrying an olive-branch 
in procession, vi. 238 

custom of keeping a sacred sei pent 

on the Acropolis, iv. 86 

festival of swinging, iv. 281 

sacrifice of the bouphonia % viii. 4 sqq. 

sacrifices to the Seasons, i. 310 

Athenians decree divine honours to 
Demetrius Poliorcetes and his father 
Antigonus, i. 390 sq. ; prayed to Zeus 
for rain, ii. 359 ; their tribute of youths 
and maidens to Minos, iv. 74 ; their 
superstition as to an eclipse of the 
moon, vi. 141 ; sacrifice to Dionysus 
for the fruits of the land, vii. 4 ; the 
first to receive corn from Demeter, vii. 
54 ; claimed to be the fust to spread 
the knowledge of corn among man- 
kind, vn. 54 sqq. ; sacrifice an apple 
to Hercules, viii. 95 . 2 ; their annual 
festival of the dead at the Anthesteria, 
ix. 152 sqq. ; their use of human scape- 
goats, ix. 253 sq. ; their mode of 
reckoning a day, ix. 326 . s ; their 
religious dramas, ix. 384 ; offer cakes 
to Cronus, x. 153 . 3 

Athens, bairow of Hippolytus at, i. 25 ; 
sacred new -fire brought from Delphi 
to, i. 32 sq. ; King and Queen at, i 


44 sq. \ stone of swearing at, i. 160 ; 
the Etidanemi at, i. 325 ft. 1 ; titular 
king at, ii. i ; marriage of Dionysus 
at, ii. 136 sq. ; sacred marriage of 
Zeus and Hera at, ii. 143 n. 1 ; female 
kinship at, ii. 277 ; sacred spots struck 
by lightning at, ii. 361 ; sacrificial 
hearth of Lightning Zeus at, ii. 361 ; 
kings at, iii. 21 sq.\ ritual of cursing 
at, iii. 75 ; Athena served by maidens 
on the Acropolis at, iii. 227 n. ; Mid- 
summer rites of Adonis at, iv. 7 ; the 
Laurel-bearing Apollo at, iv. 79 .* ; 
funeral games at, iv. 96 ; hand of 
suicide cut off at, iv. 220 n ; sacred 
serpent at, v. 87 ; the Commemora- 
tion of the Dead at, v. 234 ; sacrifice 
of an ox at, v. 296 sg. ; marriage 
custom at, vi. 245 ; Dionysus of the 
Black Goatskin at, vn. 17 ; Queen 
of, married to Dionysus, VH. 30 s<j. ; 
sacred ceremony of ploughing at, vii. 
31 ; the Prytaneum at, vn. 32 ; sanc- 
tuary of Green Demeter at, vii. 42, 
89 . 2 ; first-fruits of the corn sent to, 
vii. 51, 56, 71; called "the Metro- 
polis of the Corn," vii. 58 ; Demeter 
worshipped as Fruit - bearer at, vn. 
63 . 14 ; sanctuary of Earth the 
Nursing - Mother at, vii. 89 . 2 ; 
Sacred Ploughing at, vii. 108 n. 4 , 109 
n. 1 ; annual sacrifice of a goat on the 
Acropolis of, viii. 41 ; ceiemouy at 
killing a wolf at, viii. 221 ; the 
Lyceum at, viii. 283, 284 ; fever 
transferred to pillar at, ix. 53; Cronus 
and the Cronia at, ix. 351 sq. ; cere- 
mony of the new fire at Blaster in, x. 

Atlus, in Normandy, Christmas bonfires 
at, x. 266 

Athletic competitions among harvesters, 
vii. 76 sg. 

Athos, Mount, mistletoe at, xi. 3x9, 
320 . 

Athribis, heart of Osiris at, vi. 1 1 

Athyr, Egyptian month, vi. 8, 41, 49 n. 1 ; 
Osiris murdered on the seventeenth 
day of, vi. 8, 84 ; festival of Osiris in 
the month of, vi. 84 sqq. , 91 

Atkhans, the, of the Aleutian Islands, 
transference of sin to weeds among, ix. 3 

Atkinson, J. C. , on the treatment of the 
placentas of mares, i. 199 

Atlas, Berbers of the Great, ix. 178 

Atlatatonan, Mexican goddess of lepers, 
ix. 292 ; woman annually sacrificed 
in the character of, ix. 292 

Atomic disintegration, viii. 305 

Atonement for slain animals, iii. 907; 
to animals for wrong done to them, 
viii. 310 sq. Set also Expiation 

Atonement, the Jewish day of, ix. 2x0 

Atonga, the, of British Central Africa, 
their custom after a death, iii. 286 ; 
tribe of Lake Nyassa, their theory of 
earthquakes, v. 199 

Atrae, city in Mesopotamia, x. 82 

Atreus, king of Mycenae, ii. 279 

and Thyestes, i. 365 

Attacking the wind, i. 327 sqq. 

Attacks on kings permitted, iv. 22, 48 

Attic months lunar, vii. 52 

Attica, traces of female kinship in, ii. 
284 ; tradition of sexual communism 
in, ii. 284 ; Sacred Ploughings in, iii. 
1 08 ; summer festival of Adonis in, v. 
226; Flouery Dionysus in, vii 4; tune 
of threshing in, viii. 4; the killing of an 
ox formerly a capital crime in, viii. 6 ; 
vintage custom in, viii. 133 

Atticus, his villa on the Quirinal, ii. 
182 n. 1 

Attis, vii. 2, 14, 214 ; priests of Cytele 
called, v. 140, 285, 287 ; sometimes 
identified with Adonis, v. 263; myth 
and ritual of, v. 263 sqq. \ beloved by 
Cybele, v. 263, 282; legends of his death, 
v. 264; his legend at Pessmus, v. 264 ; 
his self- mutilation, v. 264 sq. ; and 
the pine-tree, v. 264, 265, 267, 271, 
277 sq., 285, vi. 98 . B ; his eunuch 
priests, v. 265, 266 ; festival of his 
death and resurrection in March, v. 267 
sqq., 272 sq. , 307 sg. \ violets sprung 
from the blood of, v. 267; the mourning 
for, v. 272 ; bath of bull's blood in the 
rites of, v. 274 sqq ; mysteries of, v. 
274 sq. \ as a god of vegetation, v. 277 
sqq., 279 ; as the Father God, v. 281 
sqq.\ identified with Zeus, v. 282 ; as a 
sky-god, v. 282 sqq.\ emasculation of, 
suggested explanation of myth, v. 283 ; 
his star-spangled cap, v. 284 ; identified 
with Phrygian moon -god Men Tyr- 
annus, v. 284 ; human representatives 
of, v. 285 sqq. \ his relation to 
Lityerses, vn. 255 sq. ; killed by a boar, 

Vlli. 22 

Attis, Adonis, Osiris, their mythical simi- 
larity, v. 6, vi. 20 1 

and Cybele (Mother of the Gods), 

i. 1 8, 21, 40, 41 ; perhaps personated 
by human couples, ix. 386 

Attmoindarons, Indian tribe of Canada, 
their custom of resuscitating the dead 
in their namesakes, iii. 366 sq. 

Attraction and repulsion in the physical 
universe, viii. 303 sqq. 

Atua, Polynesian term for god or 
guardian-spirit, i. 387 n. 1 , viii. 153, 
156; ancestral spirit, iii. 134, 265 

Atys, SOD of Croesus, his death, v. 286 



Atys, early king of Lydia, v. 286 
Aubrey, John, on soul-cakes, vi. 78 ; on 
sin -eating, ix. 43 sq.\ on the Mid- 
summer fires, x. 197 
Aucas (Araucanians), their custom of 
bleeding themselves to relieve fatigue, 
ix. 12. See Araucanians 
Auch, the archbishop of, i. 232 sq. 
Aufkirchen in Bavaria, burning the Easter 

Man at, x. 144 

Augsburg, harvest custom near, vii. 298 
Augur's staff at Rome, iii. 313 
August, procession of wicker giants in, 

xi. 36 
ist, Festival of the Cross on the, 

X. 220 

6th, festival of St. Estapin, xi. 


, the Ides (i3th) of, Diana's day, 

i. 12, 14-17 
1 5th, the day of the Assumption of 

the Virgin, i. 14-16 

1 8th, feast of Florus and Laurus, 

X. 220 

Augustine, on the one God, i. 121 . 1 ; 
on the effeminate priests of the Great 
Mother, v. 298 ; on the henthen origin 
of Christmas, v. 305 ; on the discovery 
of corn by Isis, vi. 116; on Salacia as 
the wife of Neptune, vi. 233 ; on the 
Eleusinian mysteries, vii. 88 ; on 
Roman deities of the corn, vii. 210 

Augustodunum (Autun), worship of Cy- 
bele at, v. 279 

Augustus as a ruler, i. 216 ; granted the 
oak crown, ii. 176 sg. ; reputed a son 
of Apollo, v. 8 1 ; celebrates games at 
Actium, vii. 80; triumphal arch of 
Augustus at Ariminum, xi. 195 . 4 

Aulus Gellius on the influence of the 
moon, vi. 132. See also Gellius 

Ann, or On, King of Sweden, sacrifices 
his sons to save his life, iv. 57, 160 sq. , 
188, vi. 220 

Aunis, Feast of All Souls in, vi. 69 sq. ; 
wonderful herbs gathered on St John's 
Eve in, xi. 45 ; St. John's wort in, 
xi. 55 ; vervain gathered at Mid- 
summer in, xi. 62 . 4 ; four-leaved 
clover at Midsummer in, xi. 63 

and Saintonge, Midsummer fires in, 

x. 192. See Saintonge 

Aunts named after their nieces, iii. 332 

Aunund, King, in Norse legend, viii. 146 

Aurelia Aemilia, a sacred harlot, v. 38 

Aurich, in East Friesland, "cutting the 
hare's tail off' ' at harvest at, vii. 268, 

Auricular confession, iii. 214. See Con- 

Aurohuaca Indians of Colombia, auri- 

1 cular confession among the, iii. 215 sq. t 

Aurora, one of the New Hebrides, rain- 
making by means of a stone in, i. 308 ; 
magic practised on refuse of food in, 
iii. 127 ; tamaniu in, xi. 198 
Aurora Austral is, fear entertained by the 

Kurnai of the, iv. 267 n. 1 
Ausonius, on the Ides of August, i. 12 .' 
Aust, E. , on the marriage of the Roman 

gods, vi. 236 n. 1 

Australia, use of magical images among 
the aborigines of, i. 62 ; cave-paintings 
in, i. 87 n. 1 ; rain-making in, i. 251 
sq., 254-261, 287 sq., 304; dust- 
columns in, thought to be spirits, i. 
33 z s f- i government of old men in 
aboriginal, i. 334 sf. ; influence of 
magicians in aboriginal, i. 334 sqq. 
ceremony obsen *d at approaching the 
camp of another tribe in, iii. 109 ; 
custom of personal cleanliness observed 
from superstitious motives among the 
aborigines of, iii. 158 n. 1 ; names of 
relations tabooed among the aborigines 
of, iii. 345 sg. ; belief as to .the re- 
incarnation of the dead in, v. 99 sqq. ; 
totemism in, viii. 311 ; demons in, 
ix. 74 ; annual expulsion of ghosts in, 
ix. 123 sq.\ dread and seclusion of 
women at menstruation in, x. 76 sqq. ; 
passing under an arch as a rite of 
initiation in, xi. 193 n. 1 ; initiation of 
young men in, xi. 227, 233 sqq.\ use 
of bull-roarers in, xi. 289 n. 3 See 
also Australian aborigines, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Victoria 

, Central, ceremony to promote the 

growth of hair in, i. 83 ; magical 
ceremonies for the supply of food in, 
i. 85 sqq. \ charm to promote the 
growth of beards in, i. 153 sq. \ 
charm to ensure wakefulness in, i. 
154 ; churinga (sacred sticks or 
stones) in, i. 199 ; contagious magic 
of wounds in, i. 204 ; the Arunta of, 
i. 259 ; headmen of the totem clans 
are public magicians in, i 335 ; the 
Kaitish of, ii. 105, iii. 82, iv. 60 ; 
the Warramunga of, ii. 156, ix. 2 ; 
the Urabunna of, ii. 209 ; the tribes of, 
do not let women see men's blood, iii. 
252 n. ; the aboriginal tribes of, make 
no magical use of shorn hair, iii. 268 
n. 1 ; concealment of personal names 
among the aborigines of, iii. 321 sq. ; 
avoidance of the names of the dead 
among the tribes of, iii. 351 ; the 
Luritcha tribe of, iv. 180 n. 1 , viii. 
260 ; magical rites for the revival of 
nature in, iv. 270; the Dieri of, vii. 
106, viii. 151, ix. no; use of a specie* 



of Claytonia as food in, vii. 128 ; the 
aborigines of, their ceremonies for the 
multiplication of kangaroos, viii. 165 ; 
the Tjingilli tribe of, ix. 2 ; pointing 
sticks or bones in, x. 14 . 8 ; its desert 
nature, xi 230 .* 

Australia, Northern, the Anula of, i. 253, 
287 ; the Tjingilli of, i. 288 ; homoeo- 
pathic magic of flesh diet in, viii. 145 

, North -West, fat about heart of 

great warrior eaten to acquire, his 
courage in, viii. 150 sq. 

, South, custom as to the placenta 
in, i. 183 ; the Dieri of, ii. 29 ; the 
Narrinyeri of, iii. 126 sq. t 372, viii. 
259 n. ; the Encounter Bay tribe of, 
iii. 127, 251, 355, 359, 372, vii. 126 ; 
the Booandik tribe of, in. 251, 346 ; 
the Adelaide tribe of, iii. 355 ; the 
Port Lincoln tribe of, iii 365 ; first- 
born children destroyed among some 
tribes of, iv. 180 

, South-Eastern, contagious magic 
of footprints in, i. 207 sg.\ contagious 
magic of bodily impressions among 
the aborigines of, i. 213 ; belief as to 
the connexion of frogs with rain in, i 
292 sq. ; the Theddora and Ngango 
tribes of, viii. 151 ; sex totems among 
the natives of, xi. 214 sqq. 

South - Western, medicine - men 
(doctors) in, i. 336 

, Western, belief as to the placenta 

in, i. 183 ; belief as to water- serpents 
in, ii. 156 ; names of the dead not 
mentioned in, iii. 364 ; native women 
dig for yam roots in, vii. 1 26 sq. ; the 
aborigines of, call certain flowering 
plants "Mothers," vii. 130 

Australian aborigines, magical images 
among the, i. 62 ; ceremonies of 
initiation among the, i. 92 sg</. ; 
contagious magic of teeth among 
the, i. 176; magic of navel-string 
and afterbirth among the, i. 183 
sg. ; magic universally practised but 
religion nearly unknown among the, i. 
234 ; their custom of carrying fire 
with them, ii. 257 ; their conception 
of the soul, iii. 27 ; dread of a \s ife's 
mother among the, iii. 83 sq. ; die 
from effects of imagination, iii. 136; 
their fear of rnenstruous women, iii. 
X 45 i of Queensland burn women's cut 
hair, ni. 282 ; burn women's hair after 
childbirth, iii. 284 ; personal names 
kept secret among the, iii. 320 sqq.\ 
their fear of naming the dead, iii. 349 
sqq. ; namesakes of the dead change 
their names among the, iii. 355 sq. ; 
changes in their languages caused by 
fear of naming the dead, iii. 358 sgg. ; 

their fear of a woman stepping ova 
them, iii. 424; their beliefs as to 
shooting stars, iv. 60 sq. , 64 ; their 
custom of destroying first-born children, 
iv. 179 sq. ; their custom of killing and 
eating children, iv. 180 n. 1 ; infanti- 
cide among the, iv. 187 . ; their 
preparation for marriage, v. 60 ; their 
belief in conception without sexual 
intercourse, v. 99 sqq.\ their cuttings 
for the dead, v. 268 ; division of 
labour between the sexes in regard 
to the collection of food among, vii. 
126 sqq.\ worshipped the Pleiades as 
the givers of rain, vii. 307; their belief 
that the Pleiades were once women, 
vii. 308 n. ; anoint themselves with 
the fat of the dead in order to acquire 
their qualities, viii. 162 sq. ; their 
objection to breaking the bones of the 
native bear, viii. 258 .* ; their custom 
of burning the bones of the animals 
which they eat, viii. 259 n. 1 ; their 
mutilations of the dead, viii. 272 ; their 
totemism the most primitive known to 
us, viii. 3x1 ; said to propitiate the 
kangaroos which they have killed, viii. 
312 . ; their cure for toothache, ix. 
6 ; their belief in demons, ix. 74 

Australian blacks afraid of passing under 
a leaning tree, in. 250 n l 

custom of placing stones in trees, 

i. 318 ; as to blood shed at initiatory 
rites, -rain-making, etc. , ni. 244 
funeral custom, iv. 92 

languages, words for fire and wood 

in, xi. 296 

magic \\rought on cut hair, iii. 269 

medicine- man, his recovery of a 

lost soul, iii. 54 

mode of magically tying up the 

inside of an enemy, in. 303 

tribes, their custom of knocking out 

teeth of boys at initiation, i. 176 

way of detaining the sun, i. 318 ; 

of hastening the descent of the sun, i. 
318 J?. 

Australians, the Central, their ceremony 
for multiplying kangaroos, viii. 165 

Austria, dancing or leaping as a charm 
to make flax grow tall in, i. 138 ; 
gipsy mode of stopping rain in, i. 
295 sq. ; meal offered to the wind 
in, i. 329 n. 6 ; peasants of, their 
belief in the sensitiveness of trees, 
ii. 1 8 ; belief as to stepping over 
a child in, iii. 424 ; leaping over 
Midsummer fires in, v. 251; children 
warned against the Corn -cock in, 
vii. 276 ; mythical Calf in corn in, 
vii. 292 ; cure for warts in, ix. 48 ; 
dances or leaps to make the crept 


grow high in, ix. 238; "Easter Smacks" 
in, ix. 268 sq.\ custom of young 
people beating each other on Holy 
Innocents' Day in, ix. 270 ; weather 
of the twelve months thought to be 
determined by the weather of the 
Twelve Days in, ix. 322 ; weather 
forecasts in, ix. 323 ; the three mythical 
kings on Twelfth Day in, ix. 329 ; 
Midsummer fires in, x. 172 sqq. ; the 
Yule log among the Servians of, x. 262 
sqq. ; fern-seed at Midsummer in, xi. 
65 ; mistletoe used to prevent night- 
mare in, xi. 85 

Austria, Lower, presages as to shadows 
on St. Sylvester's Day in, iii. 88 

, Upper, processions round fields on 

St. George's Day in, ii. 344 ; need-fire 
in, x. 279 

Austrian charm to make fruit-trees bear, 
i. 140 sq. 

Autumn, ceremony of the Esquimaux in 
late, ix. 125 

fires, x. 220 sqq. 

Autun, procession of goddess at, ii. 144 ; 
the Festival of Fools at, ix. 335 

Auvergne, milk bewitched at Correze in, 
iii. 93; Lenten; fires in, x. in sq.\ 
story of a were-wolf in, x. 308 sq. 

Auxerre, the last sheaf called the Corn- 
mother near, vii. 135; "killing the 
Bull " at threshing at, vii. 291 

Auxesia and Damia, female powers of 
fertility at Troezen, i. 39 

Ave Maria bell on Midsummer Eve, xi. 47 

Avebury, Lord, on the distinction be- 
tween religion and magic, i. 225 n. ; 
on substitutes for capital punishment 
in China, iv. 146 n. , 273 

Avengers of blood, ceremony performed 
by, before starting, i. 92 

Aventine, Diana on the, ii. 128 ; oaks 
on the, ii. 185 

Avernus, Lake, and the Golden Bough, 
xi. 285 . 

Aversion of spirits and fairies to iron, iii. 
229, 232 sq. ; to innovation among 
savages, iii. 230 sqq. 

Averting ill-luck at marrying a second, 
third, or fourth wife, n. 57 n. 4 

Avestad, in Sweden, heaps of sticks and 
stones on graves at, ix. 20 sq. 

Avoidance of the wife's mother, iii. 83 
sqq. ; of common words to deceive 
spirits or other beings, iii. 416 sqq. 

"Awakening of Hercules," festival at 
Tyre, v. in 

Awa-nkonde, seclusion of girls at puberty 
among the, x. 28 

11 Awasungu, the house of the," x. 28 

Awe, Loch, vii. 165 ; the Old Wife at 
harvest on, vii. 149 

Awemba, Bantu tribe of Rhodesia, their 
belief in a supreme being, vi. 174 ; their 
worship of ancestral spirits, vi. 175 ; 
their prayers to dead kings before going 
to war, vi. 191 sq. ; woman's part in 
agriculture among the, vii. 115; among 
them murderers mutilate their victims 
in order to disable their ghosts, viii. 
272 sq. 

Awka in South Nigeria, taboos observed 
by priest at, x. 4 

Awujale, title of chief of the Ijebu tribe, 
in South Nigeria, iv. 112 

A \vuna tribes of the Gold Coast, their 
belief as to the sacredness of their 
heads, iii. 257 

Axe, emblem of Hittite god of thunder- 
ing sky, v. 134 ; as divine emblem, v. 
163 ; symbol of Asiatic thunder-god, 
v. 183 ; that slew the ox, trial and 
condemnation 01 the, viii. 5 

, double-headed, symbol of Sandan, 

v. 127 ; carried by Lydian kings, v. 
182 ; a palladium of the Ilerachd 
sovereignty, v. 182 ; figured on coins, 
v. 183 n. 

Axim, on the Gold Coast, annual ex- 
pulsion of the devil at, ix. 131 

Aynmbori, in Dutch New Guinea, 
woman's share in agriculture among 
the Papuans of, vii. 123 

Aymara Indians of Peru and Bolivia, 
their rain-charm by means of frogs, i. 
292 ; afraid of being photographed, 
ni 97 ; their use of a black llama as 
a scapegoat in time of plague, ix. 

Ayrshire, mode of cutting the last corn 

in, vii. 154; "cutting the Hare" at 

harvest in, vii. 279 
Azadtrachta Indica in a rain-charm, i. 


Azazel, a bad angel, in connexion with 
the Jewish scapegoat, ix. 210 n. 4 

Azemmour, in Morocco, cairns reared 
by pilgrims near, ix. 21 ; Midsummer 
fires at, x. 214 

Azores, bonfires and divination on Mid- 
summer Eve in the, x. 208 sq. \ fern- 
seed at Midsummer in the, xi. 66 

Aztec mode of keeping sorcerers from 
houses, iii. 93 

priests, their hair unshorn, iii. 259 

Aztecs, their view of intoxication as in- 
spiration, iii. 249 sq. ; their priests, iii. 
259 ; their festival at end of fifty-two 
years, vii. 310 sq. ; their observation 
of the Pleiades, vii. 310 sq. ; their 
sacred new fire, vii. 310 sq ; eating 
the god among the, viii. 86 sqq. \ their 
custom of sacrificing human representa- 
tives of gods, ix. 275 ; their five supple- 



mentary days, ix. 339 ; their punish- 
ment of witches and wizards, xi. 159 
Azur, the month of March, ix. 403 
Azyingo, Lake, in West Africa, vhi. 235 

Ba-Bwende, a tribe of the Congo, v. 

271 n. 
Ba-Lua, in the Congo region, will not 

pronounce name of their tribe, iii. 330 
-Mbala, a Bantu tribe, woman's 

share in agriculture among the, vii. 119 

-Pedi, the, of South Africa, grave- 
diggers not allowed to handle food 
among, iii. 141 ; women in childbed 
not allowed to handle food, iii. 148 
sq. ; their superstitions as to miscarriage 
in childbed, iii. 153 sq.\ their con- 
tinence in war, iii. 163 ; continence at 
building a new village among the, iii. 
202 ; their belief as to a woman 
stepping over their legs, iii. 424 

Ronga, the, of South Africa, their 

women employ a child under putierty 
to light the potter's kiln, ii. 205. See 

. -Sundi, a tribe of the Congo, v. 
271 n. 

- -Thonga, the, of South Africa, grave- 
diggers not allowed to handle food 
among the, iii. 141 ; women in child- 
bed not allowed to handle food, iii. 
148 sq.\ attribute drought to concealed 
miscarriage in childbed, iii. 154; their 
continence in war, iii. 163 ; continence 
at building a new village among the, 
iii. 202 ; their belief as to a woman 
stepping over their legs, iii. 424. See 
also Thonga 

-Yaka, tribe of the Congo State, 
power of magicians among the, i. 
348 ; custom observed by manslaycrs 
among the, iii. 186 n. 1 ; their use of 
nail -parings in making treaties, iii. 


~ -Yanri, tribe of the Congo State, 
the chief as a magician among the, i. 
348 sq. 

Baal, Semitic god, in relation to Minos 
and Minotaur, iv. 75 ; the prophets 
of, their cutting themselves with knives, 
i. 258 ; human sacrifices to, iv. 167 
tqq., 195, ix. 353, 354; kings claiming 
affinity with, v. 15 ; royal names com- 
pounded with, v. 1 6 ; as the god of 
fertility, v. 26 sq. ; conceived as god 
who fertilizes land by subterranean 
water, v. 159 

and Beltane, x. 149 n. 1 , 150 .*, 


of the Lebanon, v. 32 

and Sandan at Tarsus, v. 142 sq., 


Baal of Tarsus, v. 117 sqq. t 162 *q. 
Baalath or Astarte, v. 26, 34 

and Baal, v. 27 

Gebal, v. 14 

Baalbec (Heliopolis), in Syria, v. 28; the 
ruins at, i. 30 . 8 ; sacred prostitution 
at, v. 37 ; image of Hadad at, v. 

Baalim, the, lords of underground waters, 
n. 159; firstlings and first-fruits 
offered to the, v. 27 ; called lovers, 
v. 75 n. 

Baba or Boba, name given to last sheaf, 
vii. 144 sq. \ "the Old Woman," at 
the Carnival, viii. 332, 333 
Babalawo, a Yoruba priest, ix. 212 
Babar Archipelago, ceremony to obtain 
a child for a barren woman in the, i. 
72 ; chastity and fasting of women 
during absence of warriors in the, i. 
131 ; treatment of the afterbirth in 
the, i. 1 86 ; satui naha at the marriage 
of the Sun and Earth in the, ii. 99 ; 
recovery of lost souls in the, iii. 67 ; 
souls as shadows in the, iii. 78 ; fatigue 
transferred to stones in the, ix. 8 sq. ; 
sickness expelled in a boat from the, 
ix. 187 
Babaruda, girl as rain-maker in Rou- 

mania, i. 273 

Babme take in British Columbia, x. 47 
Ba bites, a Persian sect, their divine head, 

i. 402 

Baboons, their depredations on crops, 

viii. 32 ; sent by evil spirits, ix. no sq. 

Baby, effigy of, used to fertilize women, 

ix. 245, 249 

Babylon, magical images in ancient, i. 
66 sq. ; theocratic despotism of ancient, 
i. 218 ; sanctuary of Bel at, u. 129 sq. ; 
festival of Zagmuk at, iv. no, 113, 115 
sqq. ; festival of the Saraea at, iv. 113 
sqq. t ix. 354 sqq. ; early kings of, wor- 
shipped as gods, v. 15 ; worship of 
Mylitta at, v. 36 ; religious prostitution 
at, v. 58 ; human wives of Marduk at, 
v. 71 ; sanctuary of Serapisat, vu ngn. 
Babylonia, worship of Tarn muz in, v. 6 
sqq. ; the moon-god took precedence 
of the sun-god in ancient, vi. 138 sq. ; 
belief in demons in ancient, ix. 102 sq. ; 
the star-gazers of, ix. 326 ; conquered 
by Assyria, ix. 356 ; the feast of Purim 
i", ix 393 
Babylonian calendar, ix. 398 w. 1 

Genesis, ix. 410 

gods, mortality of the, iv. 5 sq. 

hymns to Tarn muz, v. 9 

kings, divinity of the early, i. 417 

legend of creation, iv. 105 sq. t no 

myth of Marduk and Tiamat, iv. 

1055?., 107 sq. 



Babylonian witches and wizards, their 

use of knotted cords, iii. 303 
Bacchanalia, Purim a Jewish, ix. 363 
Bacchanals of Thrace chew ivy, i. 384 ; 

tore Pentheus in pieces, vi. 98, vii. 24, 

25 ; wore horns, vii. 17 
Bacchic frenzy, iv. 164 ; orgies suppressed 

by Roman Government, v. 301 . a 
Bacchus, his legendary connexion with 

the Athenian festival of swinging, iv. 

281, 283 

or Dionysus, vii. 2. Set Dionysus 

Bacchylides as to Croesus on the pyre, v. 

175 *9- 

Bachofen, J. J. , on Roman kings and 
the Saturnalia, ii. 313 n. 1 ; on the 
Nonae Caprotinae and the Saturnalia, 
ii. 314 n. 1 

Backache at reaping, leaps over the Mid- 
summer bonfire thought to be a pre- 
ventive of, x. 165, 168, 189, 344 sq. \ 
set down to witchcraft, x. 343 . , 345 ; 
at harvest, mugwort a protection 
against, xi. 59 ; creeping through a 
holed stone to prevent backache at 
harvest, xi. 189 

Backbone of Osiris represented by the 
ded pillar, vi. 108 sq. 

Bacon, Francis, on anointing weapon 
that caused wound, i. 202 

Bad Country, the, in Victoria, ceremonies 
observed at entering, iii. 109 sq. 

Badache, double-axe, Midsummer King 
of the, x. 194 

Badagas, the, of the Neilgherry Hills, 
their customs as to sowing and reaping 
the first grain, viii. 55 ; transfer the 
sins of the dead to a buffalo calf, ix. 
36 ; their fire-walk, xi. 8 sq. 

Baddeley, Mr. St. Clair, i. 5 . a 

Baden, homoeopathic magic at sowing 
in, i. 138 ; St. George's Day in, n. 
337 ; Feast of All Souls in, vi. 74 ; 
customs as to the last sheaf at harvest 
in, vii. 283, 292, 298 ; the Corn-goat 
at threshing in, vii. 286; Lenten fire- 
custom in, x. 117 , Easter bonfires in, 
x. 145 ; Midsummer fires in, x. 167 sqq. 

Badham, Rev. Charles ,D. D. , his proposed 
emendation of Euripides, iii. 156 n. 

Badham Court oak, in Gloucestershire, 
xi. 316 

Badi, performer at a tight-rope ceremony 
in India, ix. 197 

Badnyak, Yule log, in Servia, x. 259, 263 

Badnyi Dan, Christmas Eve, in Servia, 
x. 258, 263 

Badonsachen, King of Burma, claims 
divinity, i. 400 

Badumar, in West Africa, ii. 293 

Baduwis, an aboriginal race in the moun- 
tains of Java, seclusion of their heredi- 

tary ruler, iii. 115 sq. ; use no iron in 
husbandry, iii. 232 

Baethgen, F., on goddess 'Hatheh, v. 
162 *.* 

Baffin Land, the Esquimaux of, {.113, iii. 
32 . 2 , 152, 207, 399, viii. 257, ix. 125 

Bag, souls of persons deposited in a, in. 
63 sq. , xi. 142, 153, 155 ; soul of 
dying chief caught in a, iv. 199 

Baganda, the, of Central Africa, their 
belief as to the sterilizing influence of 
barren women, i. 142, ii. 102 ; their 
treatment of the afterbirth and navel- 
string, i. 195 sq. , xi. 162 ; spirits of 
their dead kings preserved in their 
navel-strings and jawbones, i. 196; 
their notion as to whirlwinds, i. 331 
n. 2 ; their incarnate human god of the 
Lake Nyanza, i. 395; their belief in 
the influence of the sexes on vegeta- 
tion, ii. 101 sq. ; their customs in 
regard to twins, ii. 102 sq. \ their fire- 
drill, ii.2io ; their Vestal Virgins, ii. 246; 
their hst of kings, ii. 269 ; their mode 
of fertilizing women by means of 
a wild banana-tree, ii. 318 ; stabbed 
the shadows of enemies, iii. 78 ; their 
superstition as to shadows, iii. 87 ; 
their belief as to women stepping over 
a man's weapons, iii. 423 ; their belief 
as to the state of the spirits of the dead, 
iv. ii ; their worship of the python, 
v. 86; rebirth of the dead among 
the, v. 92 sq. ; their belief in impreg- 
nation by the flower of the banana, 
v. 93 ; their theory of earthquakes, 
v. 199 ; their presentation of infants 
to the new moon, vi. 144, 145 ; cere- 
mony observed by the king at new 
moon, vi. 147 ; their worship of dead 
kings, vi. 167 sqq. ; their veneration 
for the ghosts of dead relations, vi. 
191 n. 1 ; their pantheon, vi. 196; 
human sacrifices offered to prolong the 
life of their kings, vi. 223 sqq. \ woman's 
share in agriculture among the, vii. 
118 ; their ceremony at eating the 
new beans, viii. 64 ; significance of 
stepping over a woman among the, 
viiL 70 n. 1 ; their offerings of first- 
fruits, viii. 113 ; their precaution 
against the ghosts of the elephants 
which they kill, viii. 227 sq. ; dread 
the ghosts of sheep, viii. 231 ; pro- 
pitiate the ghosts of slain buffaloes, 
viii. 231 ; treat ceremonially the first 
fish caught, viii. 252 sq. ; their custom 
of mutilating dead enemies, viii. 271 
sq. ; their transference of plague to a 
plantain-tree, ix. 4 sq. ; their trans- 
ference of sickness to effigies, ix. 7 ; 
their precautions against the ghosts of 



suicides and other unfortunates, ix. 17 
sq. ; throw sticks or grass on graves 
or places of execution of certain 
persons, ix. 18 ; their worship of 
the river Nakiza, ix. 27 ; transfer 
sickness to animals, ix. 32 ; human 
scapegoats among the, ix. 42 ; chil- 
dren live apart from their patents 
among the, x. 23 .- ; seclusion of 
girls at puberty among the, x. 23 sq. \ 
their superstition as to women who do 
not menstruate, x. 24 ; abstain from salt 
in certain cases, x. 27 sq. ; their dread 
of menstruous women, x. 80 sq. See 
also Uganda 

Baganda fishermen, taboos observed by, 
lii. 194 sq. 

Bagba, a wind-fetish, i. 327, iii. 5 

Bagdad, death of the King of the Jinn 
reported at, iv. 8 

Bageshu (Bagishu), the, of Mount Elgon, 
in East Africa, their belief in the re- 
incarnation of the dead, i. 103, v. 92 ; 
seclusion and purification of manslayers 
among, iii. 174 

Bagobos of Mindanao, one of the Philip- 
pines, their human sacrifices at sovung, 
vii. 240 ; their way of detaining the 
soul in the body, iii. 31, 315; never 
utter their own names, 111. 323 sq. ; 
their theory of earthqu.ikes, v. 200 ; 
their custom of hanging and spearing 
human victims, v. 290 sq. ; their pre- 
tence of feeding their agricultural im- 
plements at harvest, viii. 124 

Baharutsis, a Bantu tribe of South Africa, 
their worship of ancestors, vi. 179 

Bahaus. See Kayans 

Bahima of Central Africa, ceremony of 
adoption among the, i. 75 ; custom of 
herdsmen at watering their cattle 
among the, iii. 183 n. ; names of 
their dead kings not mentioned, in. 
375 i their belief as to dead kings and 
chiefs, v. 83 ii. 1 ; their worship of the 
dead, vi. 190 sq. \ their belief in a 
supreme god Lugaba, vi. 190; their 
belief in transmigration, viii. 288 ; 
believe that at death their kings turn 
into lions, and their queens into 
leopards, viii. 288 ; their transference 
of abscesses, ix. 6 ; their use of scape- 
goats to cure disease among their 
cattle, ix. 32 ; their dread of men- 
struous women, x. 80 

of Kiziba, vi. 173 

of the Uganda Protectorate, ix. 6, 32 

Bahnars of Cochin -China, their recall of 
lost souls, iii. 52, 58 sq. 

Bahr-el-Gharal province, the Golos of 
the, i. 318 ; ceremony of the new fire 
in the, x. 134 sq. 

Baiga, aboriginal priest in Mirzapui. 
ix. 27 

Baigas, Dravidian tribe of India, their 
objection to agriculture, v. 89 

Bailey, Mabel, on the May Queen, ii. 
88 n. 1 

Bailly, J. S. , French astronomer, on the 
Arctic origin of the rites of Adonis, 
v. 229 

Bairu, the, of Kiziba, vi. 173 

Baisakh, Indian month (April), iv. 265 

Bakairi, the, of Brazil, call bull-roarers 
" thunder and lightning," xi. 231 sq. 

Bakara, a village of Sumatra, i. 398, 399 

Baker, F. B. , on relic of tree-worship at 
Magnesia, L 386 . a 

Bakers, Roman, required to be chaste, 
ii. 115 sq. , 205 

Baking, continence observed at, iii. 201 

forks, witches ride on, xi. 73, 74 

Bakongs, the, of Borneo, associate the 
souls of the dead with bear-cats and 
other animals, vm. 294 

Baku, on the Caspian, perpetual fires at, 
ii. 256, v. 192 

Bakuba or Bushongo of the Congo, rule 
as to persons ol royal blood among 
the, x. 4. See Bushongo 

Bakundu of the Cameroons, burial custom 
of the, viii. 99 

Balabulan, a person of the Hatta Trinity, 
ix. 88 n. 1 

Bald-headed widow, transference of fever 
to a, ix 38 

Balder, the Norse god, and his lame 
foal, in. 305 n. 1 ; his body burnt, x. 
102; worshipped in Norway, x. 104; 
camomile sacred to, xi. 63 ; burnt 
at Midsummer, xi. 87 ; Midsummer 
sacred to, xi 87 ; a tree spirit or deity 
of vegetation, xi. 88 sq , his invulner- 
ability, xi 94; vshy Balder was thought 
to shine, xi. 293 ; perhaps a real man 
deified, xi. 314 sq. 

and the mistletoe, x. 101 sq. , xi. 

76 sqq , 302 ; interpreted as a mistletoe- 
bearing oak, xi. 93 sq. ; his life or 
death in the mistletoe, xi. 279, 283 

-, the in)th of, x. 101 sqq. ; repro- 
duced in the Midsummer festival of 
Scandinavia, xi. 87 ; perhaps drama- 
tized in ritual, xi. 88 ; Indian parallel 
to, xi. 280 ; African parallels to, xi. 
312 sqq. 

Balder's Balefnes, name formerly given 
to Midsummer bonfires in Sweden, x. 
172, xi. 87 

Grove, x 104, xi. 315 

llatdcrs-brd, Balder's eyelashes, a name 
for camomile, xi. 63 

Baldness a supposed effect of breaking 9 
taboo, iii. 140 



Bale, statuette of the Mexican god Xipe 
at, ix. 291 n. 1 ; Lenten fire-custom in 
the canton of, x. 119 

Balefires, Haider's, at Midsummer in 
Sweden, x. 172 

Bali, inspired mediums in, i. 378 sq. ; 
special forms of speech used in address- 
ing social superiors in, i. 402 n. ; 
the rice personified as husband and 
wife in, vii. 201 sqq. \ observation of 
the Pleiades in, vii. 314 sq. ; propitia- 
tion of mice to induce them to spare 
the fields in, viii. 278 ; belief in demons 
in, ix. 86 ; periodical expulsion of 
demons in, ix. 140 ; filing of teeth in, 
x. 68 . 2 ; birth-trees in, xi. 164 

Balinese, their conduct in an earthquake, 
v. 198 

Balkan Peninsula, the Slavs of the, ii. 
237, 241 ; need-fire in the, x. 281 

Ball, Valentine, on hook -swinging, iv. 

Ball, game of, played as a rite, viii. 76, 
79 ; played as a magical ceremony, 
ix. 179 sq. ; in Normandy, ix. 183 sq.\ 
played to determine the King of Sum- 
mer, x. 195 

-players, homoeopathic charms em- 
ployed by, i. 144, 155 

Balli Atap, the God of the Roof, among 
the Kenyahs, ii. 385 

Rallinasloe, in County Galway, Candle- 
mas custom at, ii. 95 n. 

Balls, gold and silver, to imitate the sun 
and moon, ii. 63 

Bally magauran, in County Cavan, ancient 
idol near, iv. 183 

Ballymote, the Book of, iv. 100 

Ballyvadlea, in Tipperary, woman burnt 
as a witch at, x. 323 sq. 

Bain ago wn Loch, in Lismore, witch-hare 
at, x. 316 

Baloi, mythical beings of the Basutos, 
i. 177; witches and wizards, vi. 104 

Balolo, a sea-slug, ix 141. See also 
Palolo veridis 

Balong of the Cameroons, their external 
souls in animals, xi. 203 

Balquhidder, in Perthshire, the harvest 
Maiden at, vii. 157 ; hill of the fires 
at, x. 149 ; Hallowe'en bonfires at, 
x. 232 

Balsam plants, wild, as representatives 
of the harvest goddess, vii. 207 

Balsamorrhiza sagittata, Nutt. % the sun- 
flower root, superstitions of Thompson 
Indians concerning the, viii. 81 

Balthasar, one of the three mythical kings 
on Twelfth Day, ix. 329 sqq. 

Balum, a mythical being of German New 
Guinea, iii. 306 

Balum, spirits, vii. 104, ix. 83, xi. 242 

Balwe in Westphalia, Burying the Car- 
nival at, iv. 232 
Bam-Margi, Hindoo sect, their use of 

magical images, i. 65 
Bambaras of the Niger, their sacred 

trees, ii. 42 
Bamboo -rat sacrificed for riddance of 

evils, ix. 208 sq. 
Bampton - in - the - Bush in Oxfordshire, 

May garlands at, ii. 62 
Banana, women impregnated by the 

flower of the, v. 93 ; shoots beaten to 

make them grow, ix. 264 
tree, supposed to fertilize barren 

women, ii. 318 ; child's hair deposited 

on a, iii. 276 ; afterbirth of child buried 

under a, xi. 162, 163, 164 
-trees, fruit- bearing, hair deposited 

under, iii. 286 
Bananas, homoeopathic magic at sowing, 

i. 142 ; sown by young children, vii. 

115 ; cultivated by women, vii. 115, 

118 ; cultivated in South America, vii. 

120, 121 ; cultivated in New Bntain, 

vii. 123 ; cultivated in New Guinea, 

vii. 1 23 ; soul of dead man in, viii. 

298 ; mode of fertilizing, ix. 264 ; the 

cause of human moitality, ix. 303 
Banars of Cambodia, their prayers for 

the crops, viii. 33 
Bancroft, H. H., on the external souls 

of the Zapotecs, xi. 212 
Bandages to prevent the escape of the 

soul, iii. 32, 71 

Bandiagara, Mount, in Nigeria, iii. 124 
Bandicoot in rain-making, i. 288 
Bangala, the, of the Upper Congo, 

continence observed by fishers and 

hunters among, iii. 195 sq. ; names of 

fishermen not mentioned among, iii. 

330 sq. ; rebirth of dead among, v. 92 ; 

women's share in agriculture among, 

vii. 119. See also Boloki 
Bangalas of Angola, elective chieftainship 

among the, 11. 293 

Bangerang, an Australian tube, iii. 321 
Bangkok, ix. 150 ; human foundation 

sacrifices at, iii. 90 
Bangweolo, take, custom as to sowing 

on the islands of, vii. 115 
Banished prince, charm to restore a, L 

Banishment of homicide, iv. 69 sq. ; of 

evil spirits, ix. 86 
Banivas of the Orinoco, their scourging 

of girls at puberty, x. 66 sqq. 
Banjars in West Africa punish their king 

for drought or excessive rain, i. 353 
Rinks' Islanders, their ways of making 

sunshine, i. 314 ; their observation of 

the Pleiades, vii. 313 ; their story of 

the origin of death, ix. 304 


Banks' Islands, magical stones in the, i. 
164 ; supernatural power of chiefs in 
the, i. 338 ; ghosts in stones in the, 
iii. 80 ; Vanua Lava in the, iii. 85 ; 
names of relations by marriage tabooed 
in the, iii. 344 sq. \ burial of women 
who have died in childbed in the, viii. 
97 sq. ; fatigue transferred to stones, 
sticks, or leaves in the, ix. 9 

Banksia, used as fuel by Australian 
aborigines, ii. 257 

Banmanas of Senegambia, their custom 
at the death of an infant, ix. 261 sq. 

Banna, a tribe accustomed to strangle 
their first-born children, iv. 181 sq. 

Banner, Macleod's Fairy, i. 368 

Banquets in honour of the spirits of 
disease, ix. 119 

Bantiks of Celebes, their story of the 
type of Beauty and the Beast, iv. 
130 n. 1 

Banting in Sarawak, rules observed by 
women during absence of warriors at, 
i. 127, 128 

Bantu tribes, ancestor- worship among 
the, ii. 221, vi. 174 sqq. ; their small 
regard for the ghosts of women, ii. 
their trchef in serpents as 
reincarnations of the dead, v. 82 sqq. ; 
their worship of dead chiefs or kings, 
vi. 175 sqq., 191 sqq. \ cohabitation of 
husband and wife enjoined as a matter 
of ritual on certain occasions among 
the, viii. 70 n. l 

tribes of Kavirondo, custom ob- 
served by manslayers among the, iii. 
176 sq. ; their belief as to the effect of 
eating a totemic animal, viii. 26 
tribes of South Africa, their ideas 
as to the virulent infection spread by 
a woman who has had a miscarriage, 
iii. 152 sqq. ; their rule as to eating 
the new corn, viii. in ; their fear of 
demons, ix. 77 sq. 

tribes of South- East Africa, their 
fire-drill, ii. 210 sq. 

tribes of West Africa, their belief 

in demons, ix. 74 

Banyai, chieftainship among the, ii. 292 

Banyan-trees revered by the Chinese, 
ii. 14 

Banyoro, the, of Central Africa, foes of 
the Baganda, ix. 42, 194 ; the king as 
rain-maker among, i. 348 ; succession 
to the throne determined by mortal 
combat among, ii. 322 ; their worship 
of serpents, v. 86 n. 1 See also Unyoro 

Baobab-trees thought to be inhabited by 
mischievous spirits, ii. 34 ; worshipped, 
ii. 46 ; goats sacrificed to, ii. 47 

Baoules of the Ivory Coast, extraction of 
chief's soul among the, iii. 70 

Baperis or Malekootoos, a Bechuana 

tribe, their customs as to their totem 

the porcupine, viii. 164 sq. 
Baptism of bull's blood in the rites of 

Cybele, v. 274 sqq. 
Baptist, St. John the, day of, i. 277. 

See St. John 

Bar-rekub, king of Samal, v. 15 sq. 
/tor- tree \Ficits Indica\ married to a 

mango in India, ii. 25 ; sacred in 

India, ii. 43 
Bara, a tribe of Madagascar, names of 

dead kings not pronounced among 

the, iii. 380 

country in Madagascar, fear of 

being photographed in the, iii. 98 
Barabbas and Christ, ix. 417 sqq. 
Baraka, blessed or magical virtue, in 

North Africa, ix. 23 n., x. 216, 218, 

xi. 51 ; of saints, ix. 22 ; of skins of 

sacrificed sheep, ix. 265 
Baram River, in Sarawak, tree-worship 

on the, n. 38 sq. ; in Borneo, magical 

stones on the, iii. 30 
Barar, third marriage deemed unlucky 

in, ii. 57 . 4 
Barat, a ceremony performed in Kumaon, 

ix. 196 

Barber, Rev. Dr. W. T. A , on sub- 
stitutes for capital punishment in 

China, iv. 145 n , 275 
Barbosa, Duarte, on the suicide of the 

kings of Quilacare, iv. 46 sq. 
Barce or Alceis, daughter of Antaeus, 

n. 300 sq. 
Barcelona, ceremony of "Sawing the 

Old Woman " at, iv. 242 
Barclay, Sheriff, on Hallowe'en fires, x. 

Bardney bumpkin, on witch as hare, x. 

Bare -Stripping Hangman, Argyleshire 

story of the, xi. 129 sq. 
Barea, of East Africa, ram-making priest 

among the, ii. 3 ; women will not 

name their husbands, iii. 337 
and Kiinama, their annual festival 

of the dead, vi. 66 

Barenton, the fountain of, used in rain- 
making, i. 306, 307 
Bari, the, of the Upper Nile, rain-makers 

as chiefs among, i. 345, 346 sq. ; Rain 

Kings among, ii. 2 
Barito, the, of Borneo, sacrifice cattle 

instead of human victims, iv. 166 

, river in Borneo, worship of spirits 

on the, ix. 87 

Bark of sacred tree used to make gar- 
ments for pregnant women, ii. 58 

Barker, W. G. M. Jones, on need-fire in 
Yorkshire, x. 986 sq. 



Barking a tree, old German penalty for, 

ii. 9 
Barley forced for festival, v. 240, 241, 

242, 244, 251 sg. ; awarded as a prize 

in the Eleusinian games, vii. 73, 74, 

75 ; oldest cereal cultivated by the 

Aryans, vii. 132 
Bride among the Berbers, vii. 178 


-cow at harvest, vii. 289, 290 

-harvest, time of, in ancient Greece, 

vii. 48, 77 

loaf eaten by human scapegoat 

before being put to death, ix. 255 

-meal and water drunk as a form 

of communion with the Barley-Goddess 
at Eleusis, vii. 161 

mother, the, vii. 131 ; the last 

sheaf called the, vii. 135 
plant, external soul of prince in a, 

xi. 1 02 

seed used to strengthen weakly 

children, vii. 11 

sow at threshing, vii. 298 

water, draught of, as a form of 

communion in the Eleusinian mys- 
teries, vii. 38 

and wheat discovered by Isis, vi. 


wolf in the last sheaf, vii. 271, 273 

Barolongs, a Bantu tribe of South Africa, 
their worship of ancestors, vi. 179 ; 
their custom of inoculation, viii. 1 59 n.* 

Baron, R. , on the reverence for dead 
kings in Madagascar, iii. 380 

Baron, S. , on annual expulsion of demons j 
in Tonquin, ix. 147 sg. 

Baronga, the, of South Africa, their . 
charm against worms, i. 152 ; their 
charm against snake -bite, i. 153; 
their beliefs and customs as to twins, 
i. 267 sq. \ preserve the hair and | 
nails of dead chiefs, iii. 272 ; their 
belief as to the state of the spirits of 
the dead, iv. 10 sq. ; their custom as 
to falling stars, iv. 6 1 ; women's part 
in agriculture among the, vii. 1x4 sq. ; 
their mode of freeing the fields from 
beetles, viii. 280 ; their story of a clan 
whose external souls were in a cat, 
xi. 150 sq. See also Bti-Ronga 

Barotse or Marotse, a Bantu tribe of the 
Zambesi, rain- making among the, i. 
310 *. 7 ; regard their chief as a 
demi-god, i. 392 sg. ; exorcism after 
a funeral among the, iii. 107; their 
belief in a supreme god Niambe, vi. 
193 I their worship of dead kings, vi. 
Z 94 sg, ; woman's part in agriculture 
among the, vii. 115; inoculation among 
the, viii. 159 ; seclusion of girls at 
puberty among the, x. 28, 29 

Barren cattle driven through fire, x. 203, 

fruit-trees threatened in order to 

make them bear fruit, ii. 20 sgg. 

women, charms to procure off- 
spring for, i. 70 sgg. ; sterilizing in- 
fluence ascribed to, i. 142 ; embrace 
a tree to obtain offspring, i. 182 ; 
thought to conceive through eating 
nuts of a palm-tree, ii. 51 ; fertilized 
by trees, ii. 56 sq. t 316 sq. \ thought 
to blight the fruits of the earth, ii. 102 ; 
fertilized by water-spirits, ii. 159 sqq. t 
v. 213 sq., 216; resort to graves in 
order to get children, v. 90 ; entice 
souls of dead children to them, v. 94 ; 
hope to conceive through fertilizing 
influence of vegetables, xi. 51. See 
also Childless 

Barrenness of wo'nen cured by passing 

through holed stone, v. 36, with . 4 ; 

removed by serpent, v. 86 ; children 

murdered as a remedy for, v. 95 
Barricading the road against a ghostly 

pursuer, xi. 176 
11 Barring the fire," i. 231 n.* 
Barnngtonia, offerings made under a, 

in Guadalcanal, viii. 126 
Barros, De, Portuguese historian, on 

custom of regicide at Passier, iv. 51 sq. 
Barrows of Halfdan, vi. 100 
Barsana, in North India, Holi bonfires 

at, xi. 2, 5 
Barsom, bundle of twigs used by Parsee 

priests, v. 191 . a 
Barth, H., on sculptures at Boghaz- 

Keui, v. 133 n. 1 
Bartle Bay, in British New Guinea, 

power of magicians at, i. 338 ; festival 

of the wild mango tree at, x. 7 sqq. 
Barwan, river in Australia, annual ex- 
pulsion of ghosts on the, ix. 123 
Bas Doda, in India, marriage of girls to 

the god at, ii. 149 
Basagala, the, of Central Africa, changes 

in their language caused by their fear 

of naming the dead, ni. 361 
Bashada, a tribe accustomed to strangle 

then first-born children, iv. 181 sq. 
Bashilange, a tribe of the Congo Basin, 

reception of subject chiefs by head 

chief among the, iii. 114 
Bashkirs, their hoi se- races at funerals, 

iv. 97 
Basil, curses at sowing, i. 281 ; the Holy, 

plant worshipped in India, ii. 25 sqq. ; 

pots of, on St. John's Day in Sicily, 

v. 245. See also Tulasi 
Basilai, officials at Olympia, i. 46 n. 4 
Basis, physical, of magic, i. 174 sq. \ for 

the theory of an external soul, i. 201 
Basket, souls gathered into a, iii. 72 



, the, of Central Africa, form 
blood-brotherhood with the trees which 
they fell, ii. 19 sg. ; their punishment 
of the seduction of a virgin, ii. 112 ; 
their abhorrence of incest in cattle, ii. 
us sq. \ their pretended human sacri- 
fice, iv. 2x5 

Basque hunter transformed into bear, xi. 
226, 270 

story of the external soul, xi. 139 

Bassa tribe, of the Cameroons, reputed 
to be magicians, ix. 120 

Bassareus, a title of Dionysus, viii. 282 n. 5 

Bassari, the, of Togoland, their super- 
stition as to the mothers of twins, ii. 
102 n. 1 ; their offerings of new yams, 
viii. 116 

Bassia latifolia worshipped, viii. 119 

Bassus, Roman officer, ix. 309 

Bastar, province of India, treatment of 
witches in, xi. 159 

Bastard, traveller in Madagascar, in. 

, name applied to the last sheaf in 

West Prussia, vii. 150 

Bastian, Adolf, on extinguishing fires 
after a death, ii. 268 ; as to sanctity 
of head in Siam and Burma, iii. 252 
sq. \ on animal sacraments among 
pastoral tribes, viii. 313 ; on the wor- 
ship of nats in Burma, ix. 96 . 8 ; on 
rites of initiation in West Africa, xi. 
256 sq. 

Rasutoland, attempts to regulate the 
calendar in. vn. 116 sq. \ inoculation 
in, viii. 158 sq., 160 

Basutos, use of magical dolls among the, 
i. 71 ; their custom as to extracted 
teeth, i. 177 ; their contagious magic 
of bodily impressions, i 214 ; keep 
all defiled persons from the sight of 
corn, ii. 112 ; their belief as to the 
spirits of waterfalls, ii. 157 ; their cus- 
tom of kindling a new fire after a 
birth, ii. 239 ; abhor the sea, iii. 10 ; 
avoidance of wife's mother among 
the, iii. 85 ; their superstition as to 
reflections in water, iii. 93 ; their 
burial custom, iii. 107 ; their purifica- 
tion of warriors, iii. 172 ; purification 
of cattle among the, iii. 177 ; their 
chiefs buried secretly, vi. 104 ; their 
worship of the dead, vi. 179 sq. ; their 
customs as to the new corn, viii. xxo ; 
their sacrifice of first-fruits, viii. no; 
eat the hearts of brave men to make 
themselves brave, viii. 148 ; their 
custom of placing stones on cairns, 
ix. 30 *.*; their seclusion of girls at 
puberty, x. 31 

Bata and Anpu, ancient Egyptian story 
of, . 134 *qq. 

Bataks or Battas of Sumatra, their theory 
of earthquakes, v. 199 sq. ; their tondi, 
the soul of human beings and of rice, 
vii. 182. See Battas 

Batang Lupar, in Borneo, the Dyaks of, 
their "lying heaps," ix. 14 

-Lupars of Borneo, the foes of the 

Kayans, vii. 96 

Bataraguru, a person of the Batta Trinity, 
v. 199 sq. , ix. 88 n. l 

Batan Sri, a goddess in Lombok, vii. 202 

Hatavia, rain-making by means of a cat 
in, i. 289 

Batchelor, Rev. J., on the Aino cere- 
mony with the new millet, viii. 52 ; on 
the Aino kamui, vm 180 . a ; on the 
bear as a totem or god of the Ainos, 
viii. 1 80, 198 ; on the suckling of 
bears by the Aino worn en, viii. 182 . 2 ; 
on the bear- festivals of the Amos, viii. 
183 sq. ; on the inao of the Amos, viii. 
1 86 n \ on the Aino belief in the 
resurrection of animals, viii. 201 ; his 
purification after visiting an Aino 
grave, ix. 261 

Bath before marriage, intention of, ii. 
162; of ox blood, iv. 35,201 ; in river at 
the rites of Cybcle, v. 273, 274 n. \ of 
bull's blood in the rites of Attis, v. 274 
jy</. ; of image of Cybele perhaps a 
rain -charm, v. 280 

of Aphrodite, v. 280 

of Demeter, v. 280 

of Hera in the river Burrha, v. 280 , 

in the spring of Canathus, v. 280 

Bathing ami washing forbidden to rain- 
doctor when he wishes to prevent rain 
from falling, i. 271, 272 ; bathing as a 
rain-charm, i. 277 S q. ; (washing) as 
a ceremonial purification, m. 141, 142, 
T 5 - '53- l68 - l6 9. 172, 173, 175, 
179. l8 3. I9 2 . 'Q8, 219, 220, 222, 
285, 286 ; forbidden, vn. 94 

on St. John's Day or Kve (Mid- 
summer Day or Eve), v. 246 sqq. \ 
pagan origin of the custom, v. 249 

at Easter, x. 123 ; at Midsummer, 

x. 208, 210, 216, xi. 29 sqq. ; thought 
to be dangerous on Midsummer Day, 
xi. 26 sq. 

Baths of Hercules, v. 2x2 

of Solomon in Moab, v. 2x5 

Baton of Smope, on the Thessalian 
festival Peloria, ix. 350 

Batoo Bedano, an earthquake god in 
Nias, v. 202 

Bats, souls of dead in, viii. 287 ; the 
lives of men in, xi. 215 sq. t 217; 
called men's " brothers," xi. 215, 216, 

Batta magicians exorcize demons bjf 
means of images, viii. 103 



Battambang, a province ol Siam, cere- 
mony to procure ram in, L 299 

Battas or Bataks of Sumatra, magical 
images among the, i. 71 sq.\ their 
belief as to the placenta, i. 193 ; fight 
the storm, i. 330 ; worship a prince 
as a deity, i. 398 sq. \ revere the Sultan 
of Minangkabau, i. 399 ; their sacred 
trees, ii. 41 ; think that fornication 
and incest injure the crops, ii. 108 ; 
their use of rice to prevent the soul 
from wandering, iii. 34 sq. ; their 
recall of lost souls, iii. 45 sqq. ; their 
belief in the transmigration of souls, 
iii. 65 ; afraid of being photographed, 
iii. 99 ; ceremony at the reception of 
a traveller among the, in. 104 ; their 
custom as to eating, m. 116; untie 
things to facilitate childbirth, in. 296 
sq.', names of relations tabooed among 
the, iii. 338 sq. ; use a special language 
in searching for camphor, iii 405 sq. ; 
their personification ol the rice, \n 
196 ; their observation of Orion and 
the Pleiades, vii. 315 ; their ceremonies 
at killing a tiger, vin. 216 sq. ; l>elie\e 
that the souls of the dead often trans- 
migrate into tigers, vin. 293 ; their 
use of swallows as scapegoats, ix. 34 
sq. ; their belief in demons, ix 87 sq ; 
their belief in a Trinity, ix 88 n. 1 ; 
their use of human scapegoats, i\ 213 ; 
their doctrine of the plurality of souls, 
xi. 223 ; their to tern ic system, xi. 224 
sqq. See also Bataks 

Bait el, Andrew, on the kini; of Loango, 
iii. 117 sq. \ on the colour of negro 
children at birth, xi. 251 n. 1 

Battle, purificatory ceremonies after a, 
iii. 165 sqq. ,vi. 251 v ; mock, vm. 75 ; 
annual, among boys m Tuinlco, ix. 


of the gods and giants, v. 157 

of Summer and Winter, iv. 254 


Battle-axe, sacred golden, i. 365 

Battus, king of Gyrene, i. 47 

Baudissin, W. W. Graf von, on Tam- 
muz and Adonis, v. 6 n. 1 ; on Adonis 
as the personification of the spimg 
vegetation, v. 228 . fi ; on summer 
festival of Adonis, v. 232 n. \ on Linus 
song, vii. 216 . 4 

Baumeister, A., on the date of the 
Homeric Hymn to Dcmcter t vii. 35 n. 1 

Bautz, Dr. Joseph, on hell fire, iv. 136 

Bavaria, custom as to cast teeth in, i. 
x ?8 ; greasing the weapon instead of 
the wound which it inflicted, in, i. 204 ; 
green bushes placed at doors of newly- 
married pain in, ii. 56 ; the May- 

pole renewed every few years in, ii. 
70 ; the Walber in, ii. 75 ; drama of 
the Slaying of the Dragon at Furth in, 
ii. 163 sq. ; Whitsuntide mummers in, 
iv. 206 sq. \ carrying out Death in, iv. 
233 sqq. ; dramatic contests between 
Summer and Winter in, iv. 255 sq. ; 
gardens of Adonis in, v. 244 ; Dinkels- 
btthl in, vii. 133 ; Weiden in, vii. 139 ; 
harvest customs in, vii. 147, 148, 150, 
219 sq., 221 sq., 223, 232, 282, 286, 
287, 289, 296, 298, 299 ; the thresher 
of the last corn obliged to "carry the 
Pig " in, vii. 299 ; cure for fever in, 
ix. 49 ; annual expulsion of witches on 
Walpurgis Night in, ix. 159 sq. ; old 
Mrs. Perchta (a mythical old woman) 
in, ix. 240 sq. ; mode of reckon- 
ing the Twelve Days in, ix. 327 ; 
Easter bonfires in, x. 143 sq. ; belief 
as to eclipses in, x. 162 ; Midsummer 
fires in, x 164 sqq. ; leaf-clad mummer 
at Midsummer in, xi. 26 ; the divining- 
rod in, xi. 67 sq. ; peasants' belief as 
to hazel m, xi. 69 n. ; creeping through 
a holed stone or narrow opening in, 
xi 188 sq. 

Bavaria, Rhenish, treatment of the navel- 
stnng in, i. 198 ; homoeopathic treat- 
ment of a broken leg in, i. 205 ; leaf- 
clad mummer at Whitsuntide in, ii. 
8 1 ; gout transferred to willow- bush 
in, ix. 56 

, Upper, the bride-race in, ii. 304 ; 

ceremonies on Ascension Day in 
illagcs of, ix. 215 ; use of mistletoe 
in, xi. 85 . 4 

Bavarian charm at sowing wheat, i. 137; 
to make fruit-trees bear, i. 140 sq. 
farmers will not name the fox, iii. 

39 6 

peasants, their homoeopathic magic 

as to fruit-trees, i. 143 

saying as to crowed legs, iii. 299 

B,wli, the, of Loango, their belief that 
certain unlawful marriages are punished 
by God with drought, ii. 112 ; tamper- 
ing u ith people's shadows among, iii. 
78 ; seclusion of girls at puberty 
among, x. 31 

Bauenda, trite of the Transvaal, their 
chief n rain-maker, i. 351 ; special 
terms used with reference to persons 
of the blood royal among the, i. 401 
. 8 ; blood of princes not to be shed 
among the, iii. 243 ; their custom of 
placing stones in the forks of trees, ix. 
30 . 8 ; the positions of their villages 
hidden, vi. 251 

Bayazid, the Sultan, and his soul, iii. 50 
Bayfield, M. A., on the punishment of 
unfaithful Vestals, ii. 228 . 6 



Beal-nres on Midsummer Eve in York- 
shire, x. 198 

Bealltaine, May Day, iii. n. See 

Bean, sprouting of, in superstitious cere- 
mony, i. 266 ; the budding of a, as an 
omen, ii. 344 

, King of the, ix. 313 sq. t x. 153 
n. 1 ; Queen of the, ix. 313, 315 

clan among the Baganda, ix. 27 

-cock at harvest, vii. 276 

-goat among the beans, vii. 282 

Beans in ceremony performed by parents 
of twins in Peru, i. 266, ii. 102 n. 1 ; 
not to be touched or named by the 
Flamen Dialis, ii. 248, iii. 13 sq. ; 
in magical rite, vii. 9 sq. ; the 
Spirit of, conceived by the Iroquois 
as a woman, vii. 177 ; cultivated 
in Burma, vii. 242 ; ceremony at 
eating the new, viii. 64 ; forbid- 
den as food by Empedocles, viii. 
301 ; thrown about the house at the 
expulsion of demons, ix. 143 sq. ; 
thrown about the house at the expul- 
sion of ghosts, ix. 155 ; divination by, 
on Midsummer Eve, x. 209 

Bear, customs observed by Lapps after 
killing a, iii. 221 ; ambiguous attitude 
of the Ainos towards the, viii. 180 sqq. , 
310 sq. ; importance of the, for people 
of Siberia, viii. 191 ; the corn-spirit 
as a, viii. 325 sqq.; external soul of 
warrior in a, xi. 151; Basque hunter 
transformed into a, xi. 226, 270; simu- 
lated transformation of novice into a, 
xi. 274 sq. See also Bears 

, the Great, constellation, vii. 315 ; 
the soul of Typhon in, iv. 5 

, the polar, taboos concerning, iii. 

-cats, souls of dead in, viii. 294 

clan of the Moquis, descended from 
bears, viii. 178 ; of the Otawa Indians, 
their propitiation of slain bears, viii. 
224 sq. \ of the Niska Indians, xi. 
271, 272 n. 1 

dance of man who pretends to be 

a bear, xi. 274 

dances, viii. 191, 195 

' -festivals of the Ainos, viii. 182 sqq. ; 
of the Gilyaks, viii. 190 sqq ; of the 
Goldi, viii. 197 ; of the Orotchis, viii. 197 

-hunting, continence before, iii. 
197, 198 

- -skin worn by woman dancer, viii. 

Bear's bile and heart eaten to make the 
eater brave, viii. 146 

flesh, a person who has eaten of, 
obliged to abstain from fish for a year, 
viii. 251 

Bear's bean eaten, viii. 146 

" little tongue " removed by Ameri 

can Indian hunters, viii. 269 

liver, as a medicine, viii. 187 sq. 

skin, Lapp women shoot blindfold 

at a, xi. 280 n. 
11 Beard of Volos," vii. 233 
Beard, the first, consecrated, i. 29 
Bearded Venus, in Cyprus, v. 165, vi. 

259 . 8 
"Beardless One, the Ride of the," a 

Persian ceremony, ix. 402 sq. 
Beards, homoeopathic magic to promote 

the growth of, i. 1531^.; not pulled 

out by chiefs and sorcerers, iii. 260 
Bearers to carry royal personages, x. 


Bears sacrificed by the Gilyaks of 
Saghalien, iii. 370 ; not to be called 
by their proper names, iii. 397 sy. , 399, 
402 ; killed ceremonially by the Ainos, 
viii. 1 80 sqq. ; souls of dead in, viii. 
286 sq. ; processions with, in Europe, 
viii. 326 .* 

, slam, propitiated by Kamtchat- 

kans, Ostiaks, Koryaks, Finns, and 
Lapps, viii. 222 sqq. ; by American 
Indians, vm 224 sqq. See also Bear 

Beast, the number of the, iv. 44 

Beasts, sacred Egyptian, offerings to the, 
i. 29 sq. \ sacred, held responsible for 
the course of nature in ancient Egypt, 

i- 354 

Bent hag, the lucky well of, i. 323 
Beating as a mode of purification, ix. 

262, x. 61, 64 sqq. 

the air to drive away demons or 

ghosts, iii. 373, ix. 109, in, 115, 
122, 131, 152, 156, 234 

boys with leg-bone of eagle-hauk, 
viii. 165 n. 2 

cattle to make them fat or fruitful, 

iv. 236 

efligy of ox with rods in China, 

viii. zi sq. 

floors or walls of houses to drive 

away ghosts, iii. 168, 170 

frogs as a rain-charm, i. 292 

girls at puberty, x. 61, 66 sq. 

human scapegoats, ix. 196, 253, 

2 55. 2 5 6 J ?- 2 72 sq. 

a man clad in a cow's hide on last 

day of year, viii. 322 sqq. 

a man's garments instead of the 

man, i. 206 sq. 

people for good luck, vii. 309 ; as 

a mode of conveying good qualities, 
ix. 262 sqq. ; with skins of sacrificial 
victims, ix. 265 ; with green boughs, 
ix. 270 sqq. \ to stimulate the repro- 
ductive powers, ix. 272 
persons, animals, or things to 



deliver them from demons and ghosts, 
ix. 259 sqq. 

Beating with rods in rain-making, i. 
257 sq. 

the sea with rods as a rain-charm, 

i. 301 

Beauce, the great mondard in, viii. 6 ; 
festival of torches in, x. 113 ; story 
of a were-wolf in, x. 309 

Beauce and Perche, ti eatment of the navel- 
string in, i. 198 ; conflagrations sup- 
posed to be extinguished by priests in, 
i. 231 . 8 ; belief as to falling stars in, 
iv. 67 ; fever transferred to an aspen 
in, ix. 57 ; cure for toothache in, ix. 
62 ; Midsummer fires in, x. 188 

Beaufort, F., on perpetual flame in Lycia, 

V. 222 n. 

Beauty and the Beast type of tale, iv. 
125 sqq. 

Beauvais, the Festival of Fools at, ix. 
335 sq. 

Beaver asked to give a new tooth, i. 180; 
the Great, prayers offered by beaver- 
hunters to, viii. 240 

clan of the Carrier Indians, xi. 273 

Beavers, their bones not allowed to be 
gnawed by dogs, viii. 238 sqq. ; their 
blood not allowed to fall on ground, 
viii. 240 

Bechuana charms, i. 150 sq. 

king, cure of, ix. 31 sq. 

Bechuanas, the, of South Africa, their 
homoeopathic charms made from 
animals, i. 150 sq. ; their sacrifice for 
ram, i. 291; their ceremony to cause the 
sun to shine, i. 313; the hack-thorn 
sacred among the, ii. 48 sq ; their puri- 
fication after a journey, hi. 112, 285 ; 
their purification of inanslayers, iii. 172 
sq. , 1 74 ; w ill not tell their stories before 
sunset, iii. 384; think it unlucky to speak 
of the lion by his proper name, in. 
400 ; their fear of meteors, iv 6 1 ; their 
ritual at founding a new to\\n, vi. 249; 
their sacrifice of a blind bull on various 
occasions, vi. 249, 250 sq. ; human 
sacrifices for the crops among the, 
vii. 240 ; their observation of the Ple- 
iades, vii. 316 ; of the Crocodile clan, 
their fear of meeting or seeing a croco- 
dile, viii. 28 ; their ceremonies before 
eating the new fruits, viii. 69 sq. \ the 
Baperis, a tribe of, vni. 164; their 
custom of mutilating an ox after a 
battle, viii. 271 ; their belief as to sym- 
pathetic relation of man to wounded 
crocodile, xi. 210 sq. 

Bad of absent hunter or warrior not to be 
used, i. 123, 127, 128, 129 ; feet of, 
smeared with mud, iii. 14 ; prohibition 
to sleep in a, iii 194. Set also Beds 

Bed-clothes, contagious magic of bodily 
impressions on, i. 213 

Bedding at home not to be raised in the 
absence of hunters, i. 121 

Bede, on the succession of Pictish kings, 
ii. 286 ; on the Feast of All Saints, vi. 83 

Bedouins of East Africa attack whirl- 
winds, i. 331 ; regard an acacia- tree as 
sacred, ii. 42 ; fire-drill of the ancient, 
ii. 209 ; animal festival of the Sinaitic, 
iv. 97 

Bedriacum, the battle of, iv. 140, ix. 416 

Beds of absent hunters, children not to 
play on, i. 123 

Bee, external soul of an ogre in a, xi. 
1 01. See also Bees 

Beech, M. W. H., on serpent-worship 
among the Suk, v. 85 

Beech or fir used to make the Yule log, 
x. 249 

tree in sacred grove of Diana, i. 

40 ; burnt in Lenten bonfire, x. 115 sq. 

-woods of Denmark, n. 351 

Beeches of Latium, n. 188 ; struck by 
lightning, proportion of, xi. 298 sq.; 
free from mistletoe, xi. 315 

Beef and milk not to be eaten at the 
same meal, iii. 292 

Beena marriage, ii. 271 ; in Ceylon, vL 

Beer, continence observed at brewing, 
in 200 ; in relation to Dionysus, vii. 
2 n. 1 ; drunk out of dead king's skull 
as means of inspiration, viii. 150 

Bees on image of Artemis at Ephesus, i. 
37; the King Bees (Essenes) at Ephesus, 
ii. 135 sq. ; the sting of, a popular cure 
for rheumatism, iii. 106 n.' 2 ; trans- 
migration of quiet people into, viii. 
308 ; thought to be killed by men- 
struous women, x. 96 ; ashes of bon- 
fires used to cure ailments of, x. 142 

Beetle, in magic, i. 152 ; external soul 
in a, xi. 138, 140 

Beetles, superstitious precautions against, 
viii. 279, 280 

Befana at Rome and elsewhere, ix. 167 

Begbie, General, v. 62 . 

Begetting novices anew at initiation, 
pretence of, xi. 248 

Beggar, name given to last sheaf, vii. 
231 sq. 

-man, the binder of the last sheaf 
called the, vii. 231 

Behanzin, king of Dahomey, represented 
with the head and body of a fish, iv. 


Behar district of India, virtue ascribed to 
abuse in, i. 279 ; rain-charm by means 
of a stone in, i. 305; "wives of the 
snake " in, ii. 149 ; custom of swinging 
in, iv. 279; bullocks let loose on 


eleventh day of mourning in, be. 37 . 4 ; 
the fire-walk in, xi. 5 

Beheading the King, a Whitsuntide 
pageant in Bohemia, iv. 209 sq. 

Whitsuntide mummers, pretence of, 

iv. 206 sgq. 

Beifuss, German name for raugwort, xi. 
60 . 8 

Bekes, in Hungary, mode of fertilizing 
women in, ix. 264 

Beku, dwarf tribe of West Africa, their 
magical ointment for acquiring the 
power of the dead, viii. 163 sg. 

Bel or Marduk, a Babylonian deity, v. 
71 ; his human wife, ii. 129 sq. ; identi- 
fied with Zeus, ix. 389 ; created the 
world by cleaving the monster Tiamat 
in two, ix. 410 ; the fires of, x. 147, 

157. 158 s f- 

Belep, the, of New Caledonia, their 
charm to disable an enemy, i. 150 

Beleth, John, his Rationale Divinorum 
Officiorum quoted, x. 161 . a 

Belethus, J., on "Easter Smacks," ix. 
270 n. 

Belfast, the last sheaf called Granny near, 
vii. 136 

Belford, in Northumberland, the Yule log 
at, x. 256 

Belgian cure for fever, ix. 56 n. 1 

Belgium, mirrors covered after a death 
in, iii. 95 ; cut hair burnt in, iii. 283 ; 
belief as to stepping over a child 
in, iii. 424 ; belief as to meteors in, 
iv. 67 ; Feast of All Souls in, vi. 70 ; 
fox's tongue a remedy for erysipelas 
in, viii. 270 ; the King of the Bean 
in, ix. 313 ; the three mythical kings 
on Twelfth Day in, ix. 329 ; Lenten 
fires in, x. 107 sq. ; Midsummer fires 
in, x. 194 sq. \ the Yule log in, x. 
249 ; bathing on Midsummer Day in, 
xi. 30 ; divination by flowers on Mid- 
summer Eve in, xi. 53 ; mugwort 
gathered on Si John's Day or Eve in, 
xi. 59 sq.; vervain gathered on St. 
John's Day in, xi. 62; four- leaved 
clover at Midsummer in, xi. 63 ; the 
witches' Sabbath in, xi. 73 

Bell-ringing as a charm to dispel evil 
influences, ii. 343 sg. See Bells 

Bella Coola (Bilqula) Indians of British 
Columbia, their conception of the soul 
as a bird, iii. 34 ; their cannibal rites, 
vii. 20; their masked dances, ix. 376 
.* ; seclusion of girls at puberty among 
the, x. 46 ; custom of mourners among 
the, xi. 174 

Bcllerophon and Pegasus, v. 302 .* 
Belli- Paaro society in West Africa, rites 

of initiation in the, xi. 257 sqq. 
Bellocbroy, enchanter at, x. 290 

Bellona and Mars, vi. 231 

Bells, carried by leaf-clad mummers, ii. 
83, 84 sg. ; worn by father of twins, 
ii. 102 ; rung to drive away witches, 
ii. 127 ; hung en cattle on St. George's 
Day, ii. 332 ; used in exorcism, iii. 
102 ; rung to conjure spirits, iii. 120 ; 
worn as amulets, iii. 235 ; worn by 
mummers, vii. 26, 28, viii. 332, 333, 
ix. 242, 243, 244, 246 sqq., 250 sq. ; 
attached to hobby-horse, viii. 337 sg. ; 
on animal used as scapegoat, ix. 37 ; 
rung to expel demons, ix. 117, 118 ; 
rung as a protection against witches, ix. 
157, 158, 159, 161, 165, 166 ; used in 
the expulsion of evils, ix. 196, 200 ; 
used at the expulsion of demons, ix. 
20 \, 214, 246 sg., 251; worn by 
dancers, ix. 242, 243, 246 sqq., 
250 sq. \ used to exorcize storm fiend, 
ix. 246 ; rung to make grass and flax 
grow, ix. 247 sg. ; golden, worn by 
human representatives of gods in 
Mexico, ix. 278, 280, 284; worn by 
priest in exorcism, x. 5 ; on priest's 
legs, xi. 8 

-, church, silenced in Holy Week, x. 
123, 125 n. 1 \ rung on Midsummer 
Eve, xi. 47 sg. ; rung to drive away 
witches, xi. 73 

Beltana, in South Australia, first-born 
children destroyed among the tribes 
about, iv. 1 80 

Beltane, the Celtic May Day, x. 146 
sqq. \ popularly derived from Baal, x. 
149 n. 1 , 150 n. 1 ; the need-fire at, x. 
293 ; the Yellow Day of, x. 293 ; sheep 
passed through a hoop at, xi. 184 

cakes, x. 148 sq., 150, 152, 153, 

'54. 155 
carline, x. 148, 153 

Eve (the Eve of May Day), pre- 
cautions against witchcraft on, ii. 53 ; 
a witching time, x. 295 

fire, pretence of throwing a man 

into the, x. 148, xi. 25 ; kindled by the 
friction of oak- wood, x. 148, 155, xi. 91 

fires in Scotland, x. 146 sgg. ; in 

Wales, x. 155 sg. ; in Ireland, x. 157 
sq. ; in Nottinghamshire, x. 157 

and Hallowe'en the two chief fire- 
festivals of the British Celts, xi. 40 sg. 

Belty, the parish of, sacred trees in, ii. 


Ben Cruachan on Loch Awe, vii. 149 
Ben-hadad, king of Damascus, v. 15 
Benametapa, the king of, in East Africa, 

x. 135 

Benares, the clod festival at, i. 279 ; 
Hindoo gentleman worshipped as a 
god at, i. 404 ; serpent in likeness of 
Brahman at, iv. 132 



Bcndall, Professor C., v. 229 n. 1 
Beneficent powers of tree-spirits, ii. 
Benefit of clergy, v. 68 
Benefits conferred by magic, i. 218 sq. 
Benfey, Th., on Buddhist animism, ii. 13 ; 
on story of Pururavas and Urvasi, iv. 


Bengal, rain -making in, i. 278, 283, 
284 n. ; the Maghs of, ii. 38 ; mar- 
riage ceremony at the digging of wells 
in, ii. 146 ; the Oraons of, ii. 148, viu. 
117 ; mourners touch a coral ring 
in, iii. 315 ; Bengalee women, their 
euphemisms for snakes and thieves, 
iii. 402 ; kings of, their rule of succes- 
sion, iv. 51 ; the Oraons and Mundas 
of, v. 46, 240, xi. 311 ; the Korwas 
of, vii. 123 ; the Hos of, viii. 117 ; 
seclusion of girls at puberty in, x. 68 ; 
stones of the external soul in, xi. 101 
sq., 1 02 

Bengkali, East Indian island, swinging 
as a religious rite in, iv. 277 sq. 

Bengweolo, Lake, in Central Africa, state 
governed by a queen near, ii. 277 

Beni Ahsen, a tribe in Morocco, their 
Midsummer fires, x. 215 sq. ; their 
precaution at bathing on Midsummer 
Day, XL 31 

Chougran tribe of North Africa, 

their rain-charm by means of a black 
cow, i. 290 

Mgild, a Berber tribe of Morocco, 

their Midsummer fires, x. 215 

Snous, the, of Morocco, their Mid- 
summer rites, x. 216 

Benin, belief as to twins in, i. 265 ; 
rule as to the Queen - mother of, 
iii. 86 ; ceremony at the reception of 
strangers in. iii. 108 ; kings of, not 
allowed to quit their palace, iii. 123 ; 
kings of, put their brothers to death, 
iii. 243 ; human victims crucified at, 
v. 294 n. 3 ; human sacrifices for the 
crops at, vii. 240 ; festival of the new 
yams at, viii. 63 sq. ; time of the 
"grand devils" in, ix. 131 sq. 

, king of, worshipped as a god, i. 

396, 111. 123 ; represented with pan- 
ther's whiskers, iv. 85 sq. \ human 
sacrifices at the burial of a, iv. 
139 sq. 

Bennett, George, on the placenta in New 
Zealand, i. 182 sq. 

Benmsch district of Silesia, custom at 
threshing in the, vii. 148 

Benomotapa, king of, his sacred fire, ii. 

Benson, E. F., on May Day custom in 
Cornwall, ii. 52 

Bent, J. Theodore, discovers ruins of 
Olba, v. ijji ; identifies site of Hiero- 


polis-Castabala, v. 168 n. 1 ; on passing 

sick children through a cleft oak, xi. 

Bentley, Richard, as to the soul on the 

lips, iii. 33 . 8 
Benue River, tributary of the Niger, the 

Jukos of the, iv. 34, viii. 160 ; the 

Igbiras of the, viii. 115 
Benvenuto Cellini, his alleged halo, ii. 

197 . 
Benzoni, G., Italian historian, on Vira- 

cocchie, i. 57 n. 
Bera Pennu, Earth Goddess of the 

Khonds, human sacrifices to, vii. 245 
Berar, sacred groves in, ii. 41 sq. 
Berawans of Sarawak, ceremony of 

adoption among the, i. 74 sq. 
Berber belief as to water at Midsummer, 

xi. 31 

tale, milk-tie in a, xi. 138 n. 1 

Berbers of North Africa, the Barley 

Bride among the, vii. 178 sq. ; their 

Midsummer customs, x. 213 sqq., 219 
Berecynthia, title of Cybele, v. 279 . 4 
BeYenger-Feraud, L. J. B. , on the Festival 

of Fools, ix. 334 sq. 
Berenice and Ptolemy, annual festival in 

their honour, vi. 35 n. 1 
Bergell, in the Grisons, bells rung to 

make the grass grow at, ix. 247 
Bergen, Midsummer bonfires at, x. 171 
Bergkirchen, horse-races after harvest at, 

vii. 7& 
Bergslagsharad, in Sweden, the Yule 

Goat at, viii. 327 
Bering Strait, the Esquimaux of, i. 9, 70, 

hi. 96, 205, 206, 228, 328, 371, 399, 

viii. 150, 247 
Berkhampstead, in Hertfordshire, ague 

transfened to oaks at, ix. 57 sq. 
Berkshire, May garlands in, ii. 60 
Berleburg, in Westphalia, the Yule log 

at, x. 248 
Berlin, fox's teeth as an amulet in, L 

1 80 ; treatment of the navel-string in, 

i. 198 ; curses for good luck in, i. 281 ; 

insignia of royal family of Hawaii at, 

i. 388 . 8 ; the Ethnological Museum 

at, i. 388 . s , ix. 70 w. 1 ; the divining- 
rod at, xi. 68 
Bern, Midsummer fires in the canton of, 

x. 172 ; the Yule log in the canton of, 

x. 249 ; witches put to death in the 

canton of, xi. 42 . a 
liernara, the harvest Cailleach in, vii. 

1 66 
Berneck, in Upper Franken, custom at 

threshing at, vii. 148 
Bernera, on the west of Lewis, customs 

as to the last corn cut in, vii. 140 sq. 
Bernkastel, on the Moselle, the harvest 

Goat at, vii. 285 




Berosus, Babylonian historian, on the 
festival of the Sacaea, iv. 113 sq. t vii. 
258 j?., ix. 355, 358, 359 

Berries, the first of the season, cere- 
monies before eating, viii. 80 sqq. 

Berry, province of France, ceremony of 
"Sawing the Old Woman" in, iv. 
341 sq. \ the calf at harvest in, vii. 
392; "seeing the Horse" at harvest 
in, vii. 294 ; Lenten fire custom in, x. 
115; Midsummer fires in, x. 189; the 
Yule log in, x. 251 sq. ; four-leaved 
clover at Midsummer in, xi. 63 

Bertat, a people on the Blue Nile, their 
orgiastic annual festivals, iv. 16 . a 

Berwickshire, kirn-dollies of last corn at 
harvest in, vii. 153 sq. 

Bes, grotesque Egyptian god, ii. 133, v. 
118 n. 1 

Besbau, near Luckau, races after harvest 
at, vii. 76 

Besisis of the Malay Peninsula, their 
dread of noon, iii. 87 ; their carnival 
at rice-harvest, ix. 226 n. 1 

Besoms placed crosswise at doors of 
cattle -stalls as a protection against 
witches, ii. 127 

, burning, hurled against witches, ix. 
162 ; flung aloft to make the corn 
grow high, x. 340 ; used to drive away 
witches, xi. 74 

Bessy, one of the mummers on Plough 
Monday, viii. 329, 331 

Bethlehem, worship of Adonis at, v. 257 
sqq. ; fertility of the neighbourhood of, 
v. 257 . s ; the Star of, v. 259, ix. 
330 ; new Easter fire carried to, x. 
130 n. 

Betimor, woman turned into crocodile, 
viii. 2x2 

Betsileo, the, of Madagascar, attribute 
divine powers to their chiefs, i. 397 ; 
lickers of blood and eaters of nail- 
parings among the, iii. 246 ; their 
belief in serpents as reincarnations of 
the dead, v. 83 ; offer the first-fruits 
of all crops to their king, viii. 116 ; 
their belief in the transmigration of 
souls, viii. 289 sq. 

" Between the two Beltane fires," x. 149 

Beul, fire of, need-fire, x. 293 

Bevan, Professor A. A., on the Arab 
fire-drill, ii. 210 .; on magical knots, 
iii. 302 . 4 ; on the change of m to v 
in Semitic, ix. 367 . a ; on a passage 
of Tabari, xi. 83 n. 1 

Beveridge, P. , on the suppression of the 
names of the dead among the aborigines 
of New South Wales, iii. 363 sq. 

Bcverley, the Boy Bishop at, ix. 338 
Beverley, on the initiatory rites of the 
Virginian Indians, xi. 266 sq. 

Bewitched animals burnt alive, x. 300 

sqq. ; buried alive, x. 324 sqq. 

cow, mugwort applied to, xi. 59 

things burnt to compel the witch 

to appear, x. 322 

Bezoar stone in rain -charms, i. 305 
Bghais, a Karen tribe of Burma, their 

annual festival of the dead, vi. 60 sq. 
Bhadon, Indian month, i. 279, v. 243 
Bhagats, mock human sacrifices among 

the, iv. 217 sq. 
Bhagavati, goddess, her shrine at Cran- 

ganore, i. 280 
Bhairava, Hindoo goddess, image of, i. 

65 ; temple of, iv. 219 
Bharbhunjas of the Central Provinces, 

India, marriage custom of the, vi. 262 
Bharias of the Central Provinces, India, 

exchange of costume between men 

and women at marriage among the, 

vi. 260 sq. 
Bhars of India, their use of a scapegoat 

in time of cholera, ix. 190 
Bhils, the, of Central India, worship of 

the peacock among, viii. 29 ; their 

torture of witches, xi. 159 
Bhfmsen or Bhfm Deo, an Indian deity, 

viii. 118 
Bhoolan, the Dhurma Rajah in, i. 410 ; 

heaps of stones or sticks in, ix. 12 ; 

offerings at cairns in, ix. 26 
Bhotiyas of Juhar, their use of a scape- 
goat, ix. 209 
Bhuiyars of Mirzapur will not speak of 

monkeys or l>ears by their proper names 

in the morning, in. 403 ; their dread of 

menstrual pollution, x. 84 
Bhuiyas, the, of North - Eastern India, 

ceremony at the installation of a rajah 

among the, iv. 56 ; fire-walk among 

the, xi. 5 sq. 

Bhujariya, festival in the Central Pro- 
vinces of India, v. 242 
Bhumiya, Himalayan deity, viii. 117, 

nB n. 

Bhut, demon, xi. 312 
Bhutan, demons diverted into images of 

animals in, viii. 103 
Biajas of Borneo, their annual expulsion 

of evils in a little ship, ix. 200 
Biak, island of, precautions against 

strangers in, iii. 104 
Hibili, island off New Guinea, the natives 

reputed to make wind, i. 322 
Bidasari and the golden fish, Malay story 

of, xi. 147 sq. , 220 
Biddulph, J., on custom at wheat-sowing 

in Gilgit, ii. 50 sq. 
Biennial cycle, vii. 87 

festivals, vii. 14, 86 

Biggar, " Burning out the Old Year " at 

ix. 165 


Bikol, in Luzon, demon exorcized by 
beating in, ix. 260 

Bilaspur or Bilaspore, twirling spindles 
forbidden in, while men are in council, 
i. 114; way of stopping rain in, i. 
253 sq. ; iron as an amulet in, iii. 
234 sq. \ women's hair unknotted at 
childbirth in, iii. 298; temporary rajah 
in, iv. 154 ; infant burial in, v. 94 sq. ; 
annual festival of the dead in, vi. 60 ; 
new-born children placed in winnow- 
ing-fans in, vii. 6 sq. ; cairns to which 
passers-by add stones in, ix. 27 .* ; 
the Rajah of, food eaten out of his 
dead hand by a Brahman, ix. 44 sq. 

Bilda, in Algeria, nails knocked into 
olive-tree as a cure at, ix. 60 

Bilqula. See Bella Coola 

Bima, in Celebes, sacred horse at, i. 


district of Sambawa, human 
foundation-sacrifices in, iii. 90 sq. 
Bin-Thuan, the Chams of, ii. 28, viii. 


Binbinga tribe of Northern Australia 
burial customs of the, i. 102 sq. 
cannibalism among the, i. 106 sq. 
their rites of initiation, xi. 234 sq. 
initiation of medicine-man in the, xi. 


Binder of last sheaf represents the Corn- 
mother, vii. 150, 253 ; tied up in straw 
or corn-stalks, vii. 220, 221 ; called the 
Beggar-man, vii. 231 ; called the Wolf, 
vii. 273 sq. \ called Goat, vii. 283 

Binders of corn, contests between, vii. 

136, 137, 138, 2l8 Sq., 220, 221, 222, 


Binding up a cleft stick or tree a mode 

of barricading the road against a 

ghostly pursuer, xi. 176 
Bingfield, the Borewell near, ii. 161 
Binscnschncidert vii. 230 . B 
Binuas of the Malay Peninsula use a 

special language in searching for 

camphor, iii. 405 
Bion, the atheist, his attempts to avert 

death, ii. 191 
Bion, Greek poet, on the scarlet anemone, 

V. 226 ft. 1 

Bir, a tribal hero of the Bhuiyas, xi. 6 

Birbhum district of Bengal, rain-making 
in the, i. 278 

Birch, a protection against witches, ii. 
54 ; crowns of, ii. 64 ; leaves of, girl 
clad in, ii. 80 ; used to kindle need- 
fire, x. 291 

, branches of, on Midsummer Day, 

* Z 77t 196; a protection against 
witchcraft, xi. 185 

a/id plane, fire made by the friction 

Of. X 290 

Birch, sprigs of, a protection against 
witches, ix. 162 ; used to beat people 
with at Easter and Christmas, ix. 269, 

- -tree dressed in woman's clothes, ii. 
64, 141 

trees used to keep off witches, it 

54 55, xi. 20 . ; gout transferred to, 
ix. 56 sq. ; set up at Midsummer, x. 
177 ; mistletoe on, xi. 315 

wreath at Whitsuntide, girls kiss 

each other through a, ii. 93 

Bird, Miss I. L., on the bear-festivals of 
the Ainos, viii. 184 n. 1 

Bird, soul conceived as a, iii. 33 sqq. t 
vii. 181, 182 n. 1 ; soul of a tree 
in a, vi. in n. 1 ; corn -spirit as a, 
vii. 295 sq. ; disease transferred to, 
xi. 187 ; brings first fire to earth, xi. 


- called " the soul of Osiris," vi. no 

- -chief of the Sea Dyaks, ix. 383, 


-lime made from mistletoe, xi. 317 

- of prey, inoculation with a, viii. 

, soul of the rice as a, vii. 182 n. 1 

wife, Dyak story of the, iv. 127 

sq. ; Indian story of, iv. 131 

Birds, ghosts of slam as, iii. 177 sq. ; 
cause headache through clipped hair, 
iii. 270 sq. , 282 ; absent warriors 
called, iii. 330 ; burnt in honour 
of Artemis, v. 126 . 2 ; ancestral spirits 
in, viii. 123 ; tongues of, eaten, viii. 
147 ; souls of dead in, viii. 296; as 
scapegoats, ix. 35 sy., 51 sq. \ external 
souls in, xi. 104, in, 119, 142, 144, 
150 ; carry seed of mistletoe, xi. 316 

, language of, learned by means of 

serpents, i. 158; known to Indian 
king, iv. 123 ; learned by eating 
serpent's flesh, viii. 146 ; learned bv 
tasting dragon's blood, viii. 146 

, migratory, as representatives of a 

divinity, vii. 204 sq. 

of omen, stories of their origin, iv. 

126, 127 sg. 

, while, souls of dead kings in- 
carnate in, vi. 162 

Birk, in Transylvania, the harvest Hare 
at, vii. 280 

Birks, Rev. E. B. , on harvest custom at 
Orwell, v. 237 n; 4 

Birseck, Lenten fires at, x. 119 

Birth of children, magical images to 
ensure the, i. 70 sqq. ; pretence of, 
at adoption, i. 74 sq., at return of 
supposed dead man, i. 75, at circum- 
cision, i. 75 sq. ; a man's fortune 
determined by the day or hour of his, 
i. 1735 from the fire, ii. 195 -W-! new 



fire kindled by friction of wood after 
a, ii. 239 ; from a golden image, iii. 
113; of child on harvest -field, vii. 
150 sq., 209. See also Births and 

Birth, new i. 74 sqq. \ of Brahman 
sacrificer, simulation of, i. 380 sq. ; 
through blood in rites of Attis, v. 
274 sq. ; of Egyptian kings at the Sed 
festival, vi. 153, 155 sq. ; of novices at 
initiation, xi 247, 251, 256, 257, 261 

, premature, iii. 213. See Mis- 

Birth-names of Central American Indians, 
xi. 214 w. 1 

trees in Africa, xi. 160 sqq. ; in 

Europe, xi. 165 

Birthday, Greek custom of sacrificing to 
a dead man on his, i. 105 ; celebration 
in China, i. 169 

of the Sun at the winter solstice, v. 

303 sqq. , x. 246 

Birthdays of Apollo and Artemis, i. 32 

" Birthplace of Rainy Zeus," ii. 360 

Births, premature, how treated by the 
Akikuyu, iii. 286, 286 . 6 

Bisa chiefs reincarnated in pythons, iv. 193 

woman, her mode of so wing bananas, 

vii. 115 

Bisaltae, a Thracian tribe, sanctuary of 
Dionysus among the, vii. 5 

Bisection of the year, Celtic, x. 223 

Bishnois of the Punjaub, infant burial 
among the, v. 94 

Bishop, Mrs. , on cairns in Corea, ix. i x 
n. f ; on the belief in demons in Corea, 
ix. 99 sq. 

Bishop, the Boy, on Holy Innocents' Day, 
ix. 336 sqq. 

of Fools, ix. 312 

of Innocents, ix. 333 

Bismarck Archipelago, iv. 61 ; magical 
powers ascribed to chiefs in the, i. 
340 ; magic practised on refuse of 
food in the, iii. 128 sq.; reluctance to 
mention personal names in the, m. 
329 ; the Melanesians of the, their 
belief in demons, ix. 83 

Bisons, the resurrection of, viii. 256 

Bissagos Islands, natives of, their sacri- 
fices to sacred trees, ii. 16 

Archipelago, precaution as to spittle 

in the, in. 289 

Bistritz district of Transylvania, belief as 
to quail in last corn in the, vii. 295 

Bitch, the last sheaf called the, vii. 272 

Bites of ants used as purificatory cere- 
mony, iii. 105. See Ants 

Bithynia, Arrian of, ii. 126 ; mournful 
song of reapers in, vii. 216 

and Pontus, rapid spread of Chris- 
tianity in, ix. 420 sq. 

Bithynians invoke Attis, v. 282 

Biting bark of tree as mode of transferring 

a malady, ix. 54, 55 

a sword as a charm, i. 160 

Biyars, the, of North -Western India, 

their ceremony of "burning the old 

year," ix. 230 a. 7 
Bizya (modern Viza), capital of old 

Thracian kings, vii. 26, 30 
Black, Dr. J. Sutherland, on the burning 

of Winter at Zurich, iv. 260 sq. 
Black animals in rain -charms, i. 250, 

290 sqq. , ii. 367 ; as scapegoats, ix. 

190, 192, 193 

bull sacrificed to the dead, iv. 95 

cats, witches turn into, ii. 334 

colour in magic, i. 83 ; in rain- 
making ceremonies, i. 269 sq., iii. 154 

Corrie of Ben Breck, the giant of, 

in an Argyleshire tale, xi. 129 sq. 

Demeter, vii. 263 

drink, an emetic, viii. 76 

Forest, Midsummer fires in the, x. 


goat-skin, in relation to Dionysus, 

vii. 17 

god and white god among the 

Slavs, ix. 92 

hair, homoeopathic charm to re- 
store, i. 154 

Isle, Ross-shire, x. 301 

Mountains, in France, ix. 166 ; 

story of sleeping witch in the, iii. 42 

ox in magic, iii. 1 54 ; bath of blood 

of, iv. 20 1 
poplars, mistletoe on, xi. 316, 318 .' 

ram sacrificed to Pelops, ii. 300, 

iv. 92, 104; in magic, in. 154 

-snake clan of the Warramunga, 

v. 100 

spauld, a disease of cattle, cure for, 

x 325 
three-legged horse ridden by witches, 

xi. 74 
victims in rain-making, iii. 154; 

sacrificed to the dead, iv. 92, 95 

and white in relation to human 

scapegoats, ix. 220, 253, 257, 272 

Blackened faces, vii. 287, 291, 299, viii. 
321, 332, ix. 247, 314, 330 ; of actors, 
vii. 27 

Blackening faces of warriors, iii. 163; 
of manslayers, iii. 169, 178, 181, 
186 n. 1 ; of girts at puberty, x. 41, 60 

Blackfoot Indians, taboos observed by 
eagle - trappers among the, i. 1x6; 
taboos observed by the wives and 
children of eagle-hunters among the, 
i. 119 ; their use of skulls as charms, 
i. 149 sq. ; their way of bringing on a 
storm of rain, i. 288 ; their marriage 
of the Sun and Moon, ii. 146 sq. \ 



taboos observed by man who kept the 
sacred pipe among the, iii. 159 . ; 
unwilling to speak their names, iii. 
326 ; their worship of the Pleiades, vii. 
311 ; their propitiation of the eagles 
which they have killed, viii. 236 

Bladders, annual festival of, among the 
Esquimaux, iii. 206 sq., 228 ; of sea- 
beasts returned by the Esquimaux to 
the sea, viii. 247 sqq. 

Bland, J. O. P. , on substitutes for capi- 
tal punishment in China, iv. 274 sq. 

Blankenfelde, in district of Potsdam, 
the Old Man at harvest at, vii. 221 

Blankenheim in the Eifel, the King of 
the Bean at, ix. 313 

Blay, men's clubhouse in the Pelew 
Islands, vi. 265 

Bleeding trees, ii. 18, 20, 33 

Blekinge, Swedish province, the Mid- 
summer Bride and Bridegroom in, ii. 
92, v. 251 

Blemishes, bodily, a ground for putting 
kings to death, iv. 36 sqq. ; physical, 
transferred to witches, x. 160 n. 1 

"Blessers" or sacred kings, iii. 125 n. 

Blessing of maize, game, and fish by 
medicine-men among the Bororos, viii. 
71 sq. 

Blighting effect of illicit love on the fruits 
of the earth, ii. 107 sqq. 

Blind bull sacrificed at the foundation 
of a town, vi. 249 ; sacrificed before 
an army going to war, vi. 250 

cat in homoeopathic magic, i. 153 

Tree, the, i. 147 

Blindfolded reapers, vii. 144, 153 sg. 

Blindness, charm to cause, i. 147 

of Hother, x. 279 . 4 

Block, the Yule, x. 247 

Blocksberg, dance of the witches on the, 
ix. 163 .*; the resort of witches, x. 
171 ; the Mount of the Witches, xi. 74 

Blood shed at circumcision and sub- 
incision, uses of, i. 92, 94 sq. drawn 
from virgin bride, i. 94 ; the flow of, 
arrested by blood-stones, i. 165 ; sym- 
pathetic connexion between wounded 
person and his shed blood, i. 205 ; 
of contracting parties sprinkled en 
their footprints in making a treaty, i. 
211 ; used to imitate rain, i. 256, 
257 sq. ; smeared on regalia, i. 363 ; 
smeared on king's throne, i. 365 ; of 
sacrificial victim, inspiration by suck- 
ing the, i. 381 sq. ; offered to trees, ii. 
'3. !6. 19. 34. 44. 47. 3 6 7 I smeared 
on wood-work of house to appease the 
tree-spirits, ii. 39 ; smeared on house 
as an expiatory rite, ii. 109 n. 1 ; of 
incestuous persons, blighting effects 
attributed to the, ii. no sq. ; smeared 

on new fire-boards, ii. 225 ; smeared 
on sacred trees, ii. 367 ; put on 
doorposts, iii. 15 ; smeared on per- 
son as a purification, iii. 104, 115, 
219 ; of slain, supposed effect of it on 
the slayer, iii. 169 ; drawn from bodies 
of manslayers, iii. 176, 180 ; tabooed, 
iii. 239 sqq. ; not eaten, iii. 240 sq. ; 
soul in the, iii. 240, 241, 247, 250 ; 
of game poured out, iii. 241 ; spilt on 
ground, covered up, iii. 241, 245, 246 ; 
unwillingness to shed, iii. 243, 246 sq. 
received on bodies of kinsfolk, iii. 244 
sq. ; drops of, effaced, iii. 245 sq. , 
horror of, iii. 245 ; spilt, used by 
magicians for evil purposes, iii. 246 ; 
of chief sacred, iii. 248 ; of women, 
dread of, iii. 250 sg. ; fetish priests 
allowed to drink fresh blood, iii. 291 ; 
of sacrifice splashed on door-posts, 
house-posts, etc., iv. 97, 175, 176 w. 1 ; 
remission of sins through the shedding 
of, v. 299 ; used in expiation for 
homicide, v. 299 . 8 ; not to be shed 
in certain sacrifices, vi. 222 . 2 ; of 
sacrificial horse, use made of, viii. 42 ; 
drawn from men as a religious rite, 
viii. 75, 91 sg. ; of men drunk to 
acquire their qualities, viii. 148, 150, 
151, 152 ; as a means of com- 
munion vvith a deity, viii. 316 ; fatigue 
let out with, ix. 12 ; of children used 
to knead a paste, ix. 129 ; drawn from 
ears as penance, ix. 292 ; girls at 
puberty forbidden to see, x. 46 ; drawn 
ft om women who do not menstruate, 
x. 8r 

Blood, bath of ox, iv. 35, 201 ; bath of 
bull's, in the rites of Attis, v. 274 sqg. 

of bear drunk, viii. 146 

of beavers not allowed to fall on 

ground, viii. 240 . 2 

of childbirth, supposed dangerous 

infection of, iii. 152 sqq. ; received on 
heads of friends or slaves, iii. 245 

, the Day of, in the festival of Attis, 

v. 268, 285 

of dragon imparts knowledge of 

language of birds, viii. 146 

, human, strengthening and fertiliz- 
ing virtue attributed to, i. 85 sqq. , 
90 sqq. , 105 ; offered at grave, i. 90 
sq. , 101 ; given to sick people, i. 91 ; 
used to knit men together, i. 92 ; 
used in rain-making ceremonies, i. 256, 
257.^., xi. 232 sq. ; offered to the dead, 
iv. 92 sq., 104; libations of, poured 
on grave of Pelops, iv. 92 ; mixed with 
maize and eaten as a blessed food, 
viii. 91 sq. 

of human victims in rain-making 

ceremonies, iv. 30 ; smeared on faces 



of idols, iv. 185 ; sprinkled on seed, 
vii. 239, 251 ; scattered on field, vii. 
244, 251 
Blood of lambsprinkled on people, viii. 315 

, menstruous, dread of, x. 76 ; 

disastrous effect of seeing, x. 77; 
deemed fatal to cattle, x. 80 ; miracu- 
lous virtue attributed to, x. 82 sq. ; 
medicinal application of, x. 98 n. 1 

of pigs in purificatory rites, ii. 107, 

108, 109, v. 299 n. 2 , ix. 262 

, royal, reluctance to spill, ii. 228 ; not 
to be shed on the ground, lii. 241 sqg. 

of St. John found on St. John's 
wort and other plants at Midsummer, 

56, 57 

of sheep poured on image of god 

as a sin-offering, x. 82 

of slain men tasted by their slayers, 
viii. 154 sqq. 

Blood- brotherhood formed by woodman 
with the tree which he fells, ii. 19 sq. ; 
between men and animals among the 
Fans, xi. 201, 226 n. 1 ; between men 
and animals among the Indians of 
Honduras, XL 214, 226 n. 1 

-covenant, iii. 130, viii. 154 sqq. ; 
by mixture of blood between husband 
and wife, viii. 69. See also Blood- 

- -lickers among the Betsileo, iii. 246 
stones thought to arrest the flow 

of blood, i. 81, 165 
Bloodless altars, ix. 307 
Bloomfield, Professor Maurice, on the 

magical nature of Vedic ritual, i. 229 

River, Queensland, magical effigies 
on the, i. 62 ; namesakes of the dead 
change their names on the, iii. 355 sq. 

Blowing on a fire, forbidden to sacred 
chiefs, iii. 136, 256 ; upon knots, as a 
charm, iii. 302, 304 

of trumpets in the festival of Attis, 
v. 268 

Blows to drive away ghosts, ix. 260 sqq. 

Blue Spring, the, at Syracuse, v. 2x3 n. 1 

Bluk, the bull-frog, i. 292 

Blu-u Kayans of Borneo, iii. 104 ; ex- 
piation for unchastity among the, ii. 
109 sq. 

Blydeuitzigt, in Cape Colony, ix. 16 

Boa-constrictor, purification of man who 
has killed a, iii. 221 sq. ; need of 
appeasing the soul of a, viii. 296 

Boa-constrictors, kings at death turn 
into, iv. 84, XL 212 . ; souls of dead 
in, viii. 289 sq. 

Boanerges, ' ' sons of thunder, " i. 266 n. 1 

Boar, in homoeopathic magic, i. 151 ; 
grunting like a wild, a charm against 
sore feet, ii. 22 sq. ; and Adonis, v. zi, 
viii. 22 sq. ; Attis killed by a, v. 264 ; 

corn-spirit as, vii. 298 sqq. ; the Yule, 
vii. 300 sqq. , 302 sq. See also Boars 
Boar's fat poured on novices at initiation 
in the Andaman Islands, viii. 164 

head mask worn by actor at a 

sowing festival, vii. 95 sq. 

skin, shoes of, worn by a king at 

inauguration, x. 4 

Boars, evil spirits transferred to, ix. 31 ; 
familiar spirits of wizards in, xi. 196 
sq. \ lives of persons bound up with 
those of, xi. 201, 203, 205 ; external 
human souls in, xi. 207 

, wild, hunted in Italy, i. 6 ; in 

ancient Greece, i. 6 . 6 ; not to be 
called by their proper names, iii. 411, 
415 ; annually sacrificed in Cyprus, 
viii. 23 . 8 ; their ravages in the corn, 
viii. 31 sqq. ; eaten to make eater 
brave, viii. 140. See also Swine 

Boas, Dr. Franz, on the taboos observed 
by Esquimaux hunters, iii. 210 sqq. \ 
on the confession of sins, iii. 214 ; 
on the masked dances of the Indians 
of North-Western America, ix. 375 
sq. ; on seclusion of Shuswap girls at 
puberty, x. 53 ; on customs observed 
by mourners among the Bella Coola 
Indians, xi. 174 ; on initiation into 
the wolf society of the Nooika Indians, 
xi. 270 sq. ; on the relation between 
clans and secret societies, xi. 273 n. l 

Boba or Baba, " the Old Woman," name 
given to the last sheaf, vii. 144 sq. , 223 

Bocage of Normandy, rule as to the 
clipping of wool in the, vi. 134 .'; 
" catching the quail," at harvest in the, 
vii. 295 ; games of ball in the, ix. 183 
sq. ; Eve of Twelfth Night in the, ix. 
316 sq. ; weather of the twelve months 
predicted from the Twelve Days in the, 
ix. 323 ; Midsummer fires in the, x. 
185 ; the Yule log in the, x. 252 ; 
torchlight processions on Christmas 
Eve in the, x. 266 

bock, C., on birth-ceremonies in Laos, 
vii. 8 ; on the fear of demons in Laos, 
ix. 97 

Bodia or Bodio, a West African pontiff 
responsible for the fertility of the earth, 
i. 353 ; taboos observed by him, iii. 

if'?-. 3 

Bodies, souls transferred to other, iii. 49 

of the dead, magical uses made of 

the, vi. 100 sqq. \ guarded against 
mutilation, vi. 103 ; thought to be en- 
dowed with magical powers, vi. 103, 
104 sq. 

Bodmin, in Cornwall, Lord of Misrule 
at, ii. 319 n. 1 

Bodos, the, of Assam, mourners shaved 
among the, iii. 285 



Bodroum in Cilicia, ruins of, v. 167 
Body-without-soul in a Ligurian story, 

xi. 107 ; in a German story, xi. n6 

sq. \ in a Breton story, xi. 133 sq. ; 

in a Basque story, xi. 139 
Boedromion, an Attic month, vii. 52, 77, 

viii. 6 n. 
Boemus, Joannes, on the "carrying out 

of Death," iv. 234 ; on the King of 

the Bean, ix. 3x5 n. 
Boeotian festival of the Great Daedala, 

xi. 77*.' 
sacrifice to Hercules, viii. 95 n. 2 

Bogadjim, in German New Guinea, 
belief in wind -making at, i. 322; 
charm to attract fish at, viii. 251 

Boghaz-Keui, Hittite capital, excavations 
of H. Winckler at, v. 125 n. ; situa- 
tion and remains of, v. 128 sqq. ; the 
gods of, v. 128 sqq. \ rock-hewn sculp- 
tures at, v. 129 sqq. 

Bogle, George, envoy to Tibet, his 
account of a Tibetan New Year cere- 
mony, ix. 203 

Bogomiles, a Russian sect, worship each 
other as embodiments of Christ, i. 
407 sq. 

Bogos of East Africa allow no fire in a 
house after a death, ii. 267 n. 4 ; women 
of the, will not mention their husbands' 
names, iii. 337 

Bogota, capital of the Chibchas, i. 416 ; 
rigorous training of the heir to the 
throne of, x. 19 

Bohemia, customs as to children's cast 
teeth in, i. 180; contagious magic of 
footprints in, i. 210 sq. ; Midsummer- 
tree burned in, ii. 66 ; throwing Death 
into the water on the fourth Sunday 
in Lent in, ii. 73 sq ; Whitsuntide 
King in, ii. 85 ; girl called Queen on 
fourth Sunday in Lent in, ii. 87 ; the 
soul as a white bird in, iii. 34 ; belief 
as to stepping over a child in, iii. 424 ; 
belief as to falling stars in, iv. 66 ; 
"burying the Carnival" in, iv. 209; 
Whitsuntide mummers in, iv. 209 
sqq. ; ' Carrying out Death " in, iv. 
8 37 sq. \ bringing in Summer in, iv. 
346 ; May-pole or Midsummer-tree in, 
v. 350 ; Feast of All Souls in, vi. 72 
sq. \ harvest customs in, vii. 138, 145, 
149. 150, 225 sq. t 232, 286, 289 ; fox's 
tongue as amulet in, viii. 270 ; snake's 
tongue cut on St. George's Eve con- 
fers eloquence in, viii. 270 ; custom as 
to mice in, viii. 379, 283 ; the Shrove- 
tide or carnival Bear in, viiL 325 sq. ; 
sticks or stones piled on scenes of 
violent death in, ix. 15 ; precautions 
against witches on Walpurgis Niglit 
in, ix. 161 ; " Easter Smacks" in, ix. 

268, 269 ; the Three Kings of Twelfth 
Day in, ix. 330 sq. \ the Festival of 
Fools in, ix. 336 n. 1 ; water and fire 
consecrated at Easter in, x. 123 sq. ; 
bonfires on May Day in, x. 159 ; 
Midsummer fires in, x. 173 sqq. \ need- 
fire in, x. 278 sq. ; charm to make 
corn grow high in, x. 340 ; offering to 
water-spirits on Midsummer Eve in, 
xi. 28 ; simples gathered on St. John's 
Night in, xi. 49 ; divination by means 
of flowers on Midsummer Eve in, xi. 
52 sq. \ mugwort at Midsummer in, xi. 
59 ; elder-flowers gathered at Mid- 
summer in, xi. 64 ; wild thyme 
gathered on Midsummer Day in, xi. 
64 ; magic bloom of fern-seed at Mid- 
summer m, xi. 66 ; "thunder besoms" 
in, xi. 85 ; fern-seed on St. John's Day 
in, xi. 287, 288 

Bohemia, the Germans of Western, their 
phrase for man who cuts last corn, 
vii. 138 ; their custom at Christmas, 
ix. 270 . Twelfth Day among, ix. 331 

Bohemian belief that serpents get their 
poison annually on St. George's Day, 
ii. 344 . 4 ; cures for fever, ix. 49, 51, 
55 sq. t 58, 59, 63 ; remedy for jaun- 
dice, ix. 52 

charm to make fruit-trees bear, i. 


custom of " Shooting the Witches'* 

on St. Sylvester's Day, ix. 164 

love-charms on St. George's Day, 

ii. 345 sq. 

poachers, their use of vervain, xi. 62 ; 

their use of seeds of fir-cones, xi. 64 

story of the external soul, xi. no 

superstition as to understanding 

the language of animals, viii. 146 

Bohemians, their precautions against 
witches on Walpurgis Night, ii. 55 

Bohlingen, in Baden, the last sheaf called 
the Oats-stallion at, vii. 292 ; the last 
sheaf called the Rye-sow or the Wheat- 
sow at, vii. 298 

Buhmerwald Mountains, the Oats-goat 
at harvest in the, vii. 284 ; annual ex- 
pulsion of witches on Walpurgis Night 
in the, ix. 159 sq. 

Bonus, Midsummer fires in, x. 172 

Bohuslan, in Sweden, prehistoric rock- 
carving at, vii. 129 n. 1 

Hotttts, torches or bonfires on the first 
Sunday in Lent, x. in w. 1 

Boiled flesh tabooed to manslayers, iii. 

meat offered to the Seasons, i. 310 

Boiling bewitched animal or part of it to 
compel witch to appear, x. 321 sg. t 

3 a 3 

a thief's name, iii. 331 



Boiling milk, omens drawn from, xi. 8 

resin, ordeal of, x. 311 

Boils caused by magical stones, I 147 ; 
thought to be caused by eating or 
touching a totemic animal, viii. 25, 
29; crawling under a bramble as a 
cure for, xi. 180 

Bolang Mongondo, a district of Celebes, 
recall of lost soul in, iii. 53 sq. ; disposal 
of child's first hair, iii. 279 ; names of 
relations tabooed in, ill 341 ; rajahs of, 
their names not to be mentioned, iii. 
376 ; custom as to eating the new rice 
in, viii. 54 ; belief in demons in, ix. 85 
sq. \ riddles only asked when there is 
a corpse in the village in, ix. 121 *.' 

Bolbe in Macedonia, lake of, ix. 142 n. 1 

Bolivia, the Moxos Indians of, i. 123 ; 
Aymara Indians of, i. 292, iii. 97, 
ix. 193 ; the Chiriguanos Indians of, 
vi. 143 n. 4 , 145, viii. 140, 286, ix. 
26, 193, x. 56 ; Tarija in, vii. 173 . ; 
the Guarayos of, viii. 157 ; the Pechu- 
yos of, viii. 157 ; the Retoroiios of, viii. 
157 ; the Yuracares Indians of, viii. 
235 sq. , 257, x. 57 sq. \ heaps of stones 
or sticks in, ix. 12 ; sticks or stones 
piled on scenes of violent death in, 
ix. 15 ; Indians of, their offerings at 
cairns, ix. 26 sg. ; fires on St. John's 
Eve in, x. 213 ; La Paz in, xi. 


Boloki, or Bangala, of the Upper Congo, 
their ceremonies at the new moon, vi. 
143; attempt to deceive spirit of dis- 
ease, vi. 262 ; their fear of demons, 
ix. 76 sq. ; birth-plants among the, xi. 
i6isq.\ use of bull-roarers among the, 
xi. 229 n. 

Bombay, belief as to absence of sleeper's 
soul in, iii. 41 ; the Suni Moham- 
medans of, their customs as to mirrois, 
iii. 95 ; burial custom in, viii. 100 

Bomma, King of the Rain at, ii. 2 

Bondeis of German East Africa, rites of 
initiation among the, xi. 263 sg. 

Bonds, no man in bonds allowed in 
house of Flamen Dialis, iii. 14 

Bone used to point with in sorcery, x. 
14 ; of bird (eagle or swan), women at 
menstruation obliged to drink out of, 
x. 45, 48, 49, 50, 73 .*, 90, 92 ; inci- 
dent of, in folk-tales, x. 73 . 8 

of old animals eaten to make the 
eater old, viii. 143 

Bones, departing souls bottled up in 
hollow, iii. 31 ; burnt in the Easter 
bonfires, x. 142 ; burnt in Midsummer 
fires, x. 203 

of animals not allowed to be gnawed 
by dogs, viii. 225, 238 sgq., 243, 259 ; 
preserved in order that the animals 

may come to life again, viii. 256 sqq. ; 
burned or thrown into water, viii. 257 ; 
not to be broken, viii. 258 sq. ; that 
have been eaten as a sacrament treated 
with ceremonious respect, viii. 313 

Bones of the dead, in magic, i. 148, 150 ; 
of dead shamans placed in trees, ii. 32 ; 
their treatment after the decay of the 
flesh, iii. 372 . fi ; disinterred and 
scraped, iii. 373 n. , iv. 96 ; used in 
rain-making ceremonies, v. 22 ; of 
dead kings carried off or destroyed by 
enemies, vi. 103 sq. ; cakes baked in 
the shape of, and eaten as the bones 
of a god, viii. 87 sgg. \ virtues acquired 
by contact with the, viii. 153 sq.\ pre- 
served to facilitate resurrection, viii. 
259 ; of dead enemies destroyed to 
prevent their resurrection, viii. 260 ; 
of dead husbands carried by their 
widows, x. 91 . 4 

of deer not given to the dogs, viii. 

241, 242, 243 

of fish not burned, viii. 250, 251 ; 
thrown into the sea or a river, \ni. 250, 
254 ; not to be broken, viii. 255 

, fossil, source of myths about giants, 

v. 157 sq. 

human, buried as rain-charm, 
287 ; burned as a charm against 
sorcery, ii. 330 ; of bodies uhich have 
teen eaten, special treatment of, iii. 
189 sg. 

, marrow, not to be broken in a hut, 

i. 115^ 

of sacrificial victim not broken, iv. 20 

of salmon not to touch the ground, 

viii. 254 

and skulls of enemies not destroyed, 

viii. 260 

of white whale kept from dogs, 

iii. 206 

Bonfire Day in County Lei trim, x. 203 

Bonfires on St. John's Day (Midsummer 
Day) in Esthonia, iv 280; leaping over, 
iv. 262, ix. 159; on St. John's Eve, 
dances round, v. 245 ; on Walpurgis 
Night to keep off witches, ix. 163; on 
the Eve of Twelfth Day, ix. 316 sqq.\ 
supposed to protect against conflagra- 
tions, x. 107, 108 ; lit by the persons 
last married, x. 107, 109 ; a protection 
against witchcraft, x. 108, 109, 154 ; a 
protection against sickness, x. 108, 
109 ; a protection against sorcery, x. 
156 ; quickening and fertilizing in- 
fluence of, x. 336 sqq.\ omens of 
marriage drawn from, x. 338 sq. ; pro- 
tect fields against hail, x. 344 ; protect 
houses against lightning and conflagra- 
tion, x. 344 ; at festivals in India, xl 
i sgq. See also Files 



Bonfires, Midsummer, ii. 65 ; intended to I 
drive away dragons, x. 161 ; protect ! 
cattle against witchcraft, x. 188 ; ' 
thought to ensure good crops, x. 188, 

Bongo, the, of the Upper Nile, magical 
powers of chiefs among, i. 347 

Boni, Commendatore G. , on the Vestal 
fire, ii. 186 n. 1 

Boni, in Celebes, etiquette at the court 
of the king of, iv. 40 

Boniface, Archbishop of Mainz, x. 270 

Bonnach stone in a Celtic story, xi. 126 

Bonnets, special, worn by women at 
menstruation, iii. 146 

Bonny River, human sacrifices at mouth 
of the, ii. 1 57 sq. 

Bontoc, in Luzon, sacred trees of the 
natives of, ii. 30 ; human sacrifices at 
planting and reaping rice in, vii. 240 

Booandik tribe of South Australia, their 
fear of women's blood, in. 251 ; special 
form of speech used between relations 
by marriage in the, in. 346 sq. 

Boobies, the aborigines of Fernando Po, 
their sacred king, in. 8 sq. 

Boogmese. See Burmese 

Book of Acaill, ancient Irish work, iv. 39 

of the Dead, the ancient Egyptian, 

vi. 13, vii. 215, ix. 103 

of Rewards and Penalties, Chinese 

work, i. 6 1 

of Rights, ancient Irish work, in. 

12 n. 2 

Booth of Orestes, i. 26 

Bor, the ancient Tyana, Hittite monu- 
ment at, v. 122 n. 1 

Bor tribe of Dinka, their rain-maker, 
iv. 32 

Borana Gall as, custom observed by man- 
slayers among the, in. 186 n. 1 

Borans, their custom of sacrificing their 
children to a sky-spirit, iv. 181 

Bordeaux, May-poles at, ii. 69 ; magical 
use of knotted cords at, iii. 299 ; 
"killing the Bull" at threshing near, 
vii. 291 

Bordes, torches carried on the first Sunday 
in Lent, x. in n. 1 

Borewell, the, in Northumberland, re- 
sorted to by barren women, ii. 161 

Borlase, William, on the Cornish custom 
of the Maypole, ii. 67 ; on Midsummer 
fires in Cornwall, x. 199 

Bormus, mournful song of Marian- 
dynian reapers, vii. 216, 264 ; com- 
pared to Lityerses, vii. 257 

Born again, pretence of being, i. 74 sqq. t 
iii. 113. See also Birth, new 

" of an oak or a rock," i. xoo n. 1 

thrice, said of Brahma ns, i. 381 

Borneo, use of magical images in, i. 

59 sq. \ the Dyaks of, i. 73, lil 
52, ix. 14, 383, x. 5, xi. 222 
rules observed by camphor hunters 
in, i. 115; telepathy in war in, i. 
127 ; the Mahakam Dyaks of, i. 159 ; 
treatment of the afterbirth and navel- 
string in, i. 194 ; gongs beaten in 
storms in, i. 328 ; beliefs as to the 
blighting effect of sexual crime in, ii. 
108 sqq. ; the Kenyans of, ii. 385, 
iii. no, 415; hooks to catch souls 
in, iii. 30 ; rice used to prevent 
the soul, conceived as a bird, from 
wandering, in, iii. 35 ; recall of lost 
souls in, ni. 55 sq. \ the Ot Danoms 
of, in. 103 ; precautions against stran- 
gers in, in. 103 sq. ; the Blu-u Kayans 
of, 111. 104 ; exorcism of spirits by 
means of rice in, in. 106 ; the Dusuns of, 
iii. 230, ix. 200 ; Datives of, reluctant to 
name the dead, iii. 353 ; the Malanau 
tribes of, iii. 406 ; the Sakarang Dyaks 
of, iii. 416; the Barito of, iv. 166 
n. 1 ; custom of head-hunting in, v. 
294 sqq. ; effeminate sorcerers in, vi. 
253, 256 ; division of agricultural work 
between the sexes in, vii. 124 ; use of 
puppets as substitutes for living per- 
sons in, viii. 100 sq. ; custom in the 
search for camphor in, vm. 186 n. ; 
the Kalamantans of, viii. 293 sq. ; 
belief in demons in, ix. 87 ; sick- 
ness expelled in a ship from, ix. 
187 ; the Biajas of, ix. 200 ; festivals 
in, x. 13 ; seclusion of girls at puberty 
in, x. 35 sq. ; birth-custom in, xi. 154 
sq. ; trees and plants as life-indices in, 
xi. 164 sq. ; the Madangs of, xi. 175 : 
creeping through a cleft stick after a 
funeral in, xi. 175 sq. ; giving the slip 
to an evil spirit in, xi. 179 sq. 

Borneo, Central, the Kayans of, i. 330, 
n. 17, 109, ni. 47, 99, no, 113, 164, 
239, 260, 286, 406, iv. 218, vn. 92, 
184, viii. 54 sq. t ix. 154 ., 236, 
382 sq., x. 4 sq. t xi. 175 ; agricultural 
communities of, vii. 92 

, Eastern, I'engaroeng in, iv.28o, 281 

, Northern, the Dyaks of, vii. 188 

, South- Eastern, the Dyaks of, iii. 

72 n. 1 

, Western, precautions against fright- 
ening the spirit of the rice in, ii. 28 

Bornu, the Sultan of, hides himself from 
his people, iii. 120 sq. 

Boroma, on the Zambesi, rain-maker 
with unshorn hair at, iii. 259 sq. 

Bororos of Brazil, best singers chosen 
chiefs among the, ii. 298 sq. ; theii 
conception of the soul as a bird, iii. 
34 ; their belief in dreams, iii. 36 ; 
their belief and custom as to meteors, 



iv. 62 sq. ; consecration of maize, 
game, and fish by medicine - men 
among the, viiL 71 sq. \ their identi- 
fication of themselves with parrots, 
viii. 207 sq. \ their use of bull-roarers, 
xi. 230 n. 
Borrow, witches come to, x. 322, 323, 


Borsippa, temple of E-zida at, iv. 1 10 

Bosanquet, Professor R. C. , on the Four- 
handed Apollo, vi. 250 n. 9 

Boscana, Father Gerommo, on the cus- 
toms and superstitions of the Califor- 
nian Indians, vii. 125, viii. 169 

Bosco Sacrv, the grove of Egeria, i. 18 . 4 

Bos man, VV. , on serpent - worship in 
Guinea, v. 67 

Bosnia, hawthorn used as a protection 
against vampyres in, ix. 153 n. 1 ; 
need-fire in, x. 286 ; life-trees of 
children in, xi. 165 

Bosnian Turks, ceremony of adoption 
among the, i. 74 

Bossuet, Bishop, on the Midsummer 
bonfires, x. 182 

Botocudos of Brazil, their reason for eat- 
ing the flesh of their enemies, viii. 1 56 

Bo ties ford, in Lincolnshire, mistletoe 
deemed a remedy for epilepsy at, xi. 83 

Bottle, external soul of queen in a, xi. 138 

Bouche, Abbe", on West African priest- 
esses, v. 66 n. 9 , 69 

Bougainville Straits, the natives of, their 
observation of the Pleiades and Orion's 
belt, vii. 313 ; their expulsion of demons, 
ix. 116; use of bull-roarers in, xi. 
229 n. 

Bough, the Golden, xi. 279 sqq. \ plucked 
by Aeneas, i. xi, ii. 379; and the 
King of the Wood, i. iz, x. i ; the 
plucking of it not a piece of bravado, 
ii. 123 sq. ; grew on an evergreen oak, 
ii. 379 ; a branch of mistletoe, xi. 284 
sqq. t 315 sqq. See also Golden Bough 

Boughs, green, a charm against witches, 
>> 5 2 *55> I2 7- $ ee a ^ so Branches 

Boulia district of Queensland, magical 
pointing bones in the, x. 14 

Bouphonia, "the murder of the ox," 
ritual flight at the, ii. 309 .* ; an 
Athenian sacrifice, viii. 4 sqq. 

Bouphonion, a Greek month, viii. 6 n. 

Bourail, in New Caledonia, ceremony at 
eating the new yams at, viii. 53 

Bourbonnais, the Fox in the corn in, vii. 
396 ; mistletoe a remedy for epilepsy 
in, xi. 83 

Bourbourg, Brasseur de, on Mexican 
human sacrifices in connexion with the 
crops, vii. 237 

Bourdif ailles, bonfires on first Sunday in 
Lent, x. in n. 1 

Bourges, ceremony of M Sawing the Old 
Woman " at Mid-Lent in, iv. 243 

Bourgogne, in Ain, the Fox in the last 
sheaf at, vii. 297 

Bourke, Captain J. G., on the Pimas, iii. 
184 ; on mock human sacrifices in 
Arizona, iv. 215 ; on the totem clans 
of the Zuni, viii. 178 ; on the bull- 
roarer, xi. 231 

Bourlet, A. , on the belief of the Thay in 
spirits, ix. 97 sqq. 

Bouzygai, ' Ox-yokers, " priestly family at 
Eleusis, curses uttered by the, vii. io8sg. 

Bousygios, epithet applied to the Sacred 
Ploughing at Athens, vii. 109 n l 

Bovillae, King of the Sacred Rites at, 
i. 44 n. 1 ; Vejovis at, n. 179 ; the 
Julian family at, 11. 179, 180 n. 

Bowels, novice at initiation supplied by 
spirits with a new set of, xi. 235 sqq. 

Bowes, m Yorkshire, need-fire at, x. 287 

Box, strayed soul caught in, iii. 45, 70, 
76 ; external soul of king in a, xi. 
102, 149 ; external soul of cannibal in 
a, xi. 117. See also Boxes 

-tree, external soul of giant in a, 

*> 'S3 

Boxers at funerals, iv. 97 

Boxes opened in house to facilitate child- 
birth, iii. 296; or arks, sacred, x. n 
sq. See also Box 

Boxing, in the pancratium, vii. 71 .', 
viii. 131 

Boxwood blessed on Palm Sunday, x. 
184, xi. 47 

Boy and girl produce need-fire by friction 
of \\ood, xi. 281 

Bishop on Holy Innocents' Day, 

\\. 336 sqq. 

Boys of living parents in ritual, vi. 236 
sqq. ; dressed us girls to avert the Evil 
Eye, vi. 260 ; marriage customs to 
ensure the birth of, vi. 262 ; at initia- 
tion thought to be swallowed by wizards, 
xi. 233 ; at initiation thought to be 
born again, xi. 246 sqq. 

Brabant, Whitsuntide custom in, ii. 80 ; 
Midsummer fires in, x. 194; St. Peter's 
bonfires in, x. 195 ; wicker giants in, 

xi- 35 

Bracelets as amulets, iii. 55, 315, x. 92 
Bradbury, Professor J. B. , on hemlock 

as an anaphrodisiac, h 139 n. 1 
Bracmar Highlanders, their Hallowe'en 

fires, x. 233 sq. 
Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, the Hindoo 

Trinity, i. 225 

Brahman, the Hindoo creator, x. 95 
Brahman, priest, derivation of name, i. 

229 ; not to blow a fire with hii 

mouth, ii. 241 ; culled "twice bora," 

xi. 276. Sec also Brahmans 



Brahman boys sacrificed, vii. 244 ; for- 
bidden to see the sun, x. 68 . a 

charms by treading on a stone, L 


fire-priests, ii. 247 sqq. 

householder supposed to become a 
deity through sacrifice, i. 380; new 
birth of the, i. 380 sq. 

marriage ceremony, i. 160 

marriage in Southern India, bride 

dressed as a boy at, vi. 260 

student, his cut hair and nails, iii. 

277 ; his observances at end of his 
studentship, x. 20 

teachers, taboos observed by, iii. 

theology, gods at first mortal in, i. 

373 "- 1 

women in rain-making ceremonies, 

i. 283 

Brdhmanas, the magical nature of the 
sacrifices prescribed in the, i. 228 sg. 

Brahmanic ritual at inauguration of a 
king, x. 4 

Brahman ism akin to shamanism, i. 229 ; 
vestiges of, under Mohammedanism, 
ix. 90 n. 1 

Brahman s deemed superior to the gods, 
i. 226 ; morning offerings of the, i. 
314 ; thrice- born, L 381 ; divinity of 
the, i. 403 sg. ; their common and 
secret names, iii. 322 ; the ceremonial 
swinging of, iv. 150, 156 sg. ; on tran- 
substantiation, vni. 89 ; first-fruits of 
sugar-cane given to, viii. 119; sacri- 
ficial custom of the, ix. 25 ; as human 
scapegoats, ix. 42 sg. , 44 sg. ; their 
theory of sacrifice, ix. 410 sg. 

Brahmapootra, head- hunting tribes in 
the valley of the, iv. 13 

Brain, drippings of, used to acquire 
wisdom of dead, viii. 163 sg. 

Brains of enemies eaten to acquire their 
qualities, viii. 152 

Braller in Transylvania, the hanging of 
Carnival at, iv. 230 sg. ; "Canning 
out Death " at, iv. 247 sqq. ; the Harvest- 
cock at, vii. 276 

Bramble, crawling under a, as a cure for 
whooping-cough, etc., xi 180 

Bran ua Faelain, King of Leinster, saved 
by the voluntary death of fifty monks, 
iv. 159 n. 1 

Branch of sacred cedar cut and brought 
home at wheat -sowing, 11. 50 sg. ; of 
hawthorn in bloom on May Day, ii. 
52 ; of oak dipped in a spring as a 
rain-charm, ii. 359 ; lost soul brought 
back in A, iii. 67 

Branches dipped in water as a rain- 
charm, i. 248, 250, 309, ii. 46 sg. ; 
not to be broken or cut in sacred 

groves, ii. 9, 10, 41 sqq. \ stuck in 
fields to ensure rain or an abundant 
crop, ii. 46, 47, 48 ; stuck in flax-fields 
to make the flax grow tall, ii. 86; 
used in exorcism, iii. 109; fatigue trans- 
ferred to, ix. 8 ; sickness transferred 
to, ix. 1 86. See also Bough, Boughs 
Brand, John, on the Harvest Queen, 
vii. 146 ; on the Yule log, x. 247, 

Brandenburg, Mark of, fruit-trees girt 

with straw at Christmas in, ii. 17 ; 

race of bride and bridegroom in, ii. 

303 ; race to a sheaf on harvest-field 

in, vii. 137 ; cure for headache and 

giddiness in, ix. 52, 53 ; cure for 

toothache in, ix. 60 ; simples culled at 

Midsummer in, xi. 48 
Brandons, the Sunday of the, first Sunday 

in Lent, x. no ; torches carried about 

fields and streets, x. m n. 1 
Brands of Midsummer fires a protection 

against lightning, conflagration, and 

spellb, x. 183 ; a protection against 

thunder, x. 191 ; lighted, carried round 

cattle, x 341. See also Sticks, charred 
Brandy, North American Indian theory 

of, viii. 147 
Bras Basah, a village on the Perak river, 

ix 199 
Brasidas, funeral games in his honour 

at Amphipolis, iv. 94 
Brass rings as amulets, iii. 31, 314; 

instruments sounded to frighten away 

demons, ix. 147 
Br.iunrode in the Harz Mountains, 

blaster fires at, x. 142 
Braunsberg, in East Prussia, the Corn- 

goat at harvest at, vii 282 
Brauroma, festival of Brauroman Artemis, 

viii. 41 . 8 
Bray, Mrs., on Devonshire custom of 

1 crying the neck, " vii. 265 sq. 
Brazen serpent, the, viii. 281 
Brazier, walking through a lighted, xi. 


Brazil, the Tupinambas of, i. 142, vii. 122 ; 
contagious magic of footprints in, i. 210; 
the Guayana Indians of, iv. 12 ; ihe 
Apinagos of, vi. 145 ; the Kaua and 
Kobeua Indians of, vii. in, ix. 236, 
381 ; observation of the Pleiades by the 
Indians of, vii. 309 sg. ; the Bororos of, 
viii. 71, 207 sg., xi. 230 .; the Boto- 
cudos of, vni. 156 ; the Passes of, viii. 
157; the Xomanas of, viii. 157 I the 
Chiambioa Indians of, viii. 208 if. 1 ; 
the Tupi Indians of, viii. 272 ; the 
Guarams of, x. 56 ; the Uaupes of, x. 
61 ; effigies of Judas burnt at Easter 
in, x. 128 ; fires of St. John in, x. 
313 ; the Caripunas of, xi. 230 ; the 



Nahuqua of, xi. 930 ; the Bakairi of, 
xi. 231 

Brazil, Indians of, their rule as to ham- 
stringing deer, i. 115 ; their charm to 
strengthen a girl's teeth, i. 153; power 
of medicine-men among the, i. 358 sg. ; 
their explanation of headache, iii. 40 ; 
death from imagination among the, iii. 
136 ; think that wind may be caused 
by reading, iii. 231 ; their indifference 
to death, iv. 138 ; their belief in the 
noxious influence of the moon on 
children, vi. 148 ; play various games 
of cat's cradle, vii. 103 n. l ; women's 
agricultural labours among the, vii. 
122; their belief m the homoeopathic 
magic of animal flesh, vui 139 ; their 
apologies to the ounces which they have 
caught in traps, viii. 235 ; at mouth 
of Amazon, beat themselves with an 
aquatic plant to increase their gener- 
ative force, ix. 264 ; seclusion of girls 
at puberty among the, x. 56, 59 sg. \ 
ordeals undergone by young men 
among the, x. 62 sg. 

, Indians of North-Western, their 
masked dances, vii. 1 1 1 sq. , ix. 236, 38 1 

Bread, leavened, Flamen Dialis forbidden 
to touch, iii. 13 ; fast from, in mourn- 
ing for Attis, v. 272 ; communion, 
baked from first coi n cut, viii 5 1 ; eaten 
sacramen tally as the body of a god, 
viii. 86 sqq. ; unleavened, baked with 
new corn, viii. 136 ; the sacramental 
use of, viii. 167 ; reverence for, x. 13 

Bread-fruit, magical stones to promote 
the growth of, i. 162 sg., 164; cere- 
mony at eating the new, viii. 52 sq. \ 
tree planted over navel-string of child, 
xi. 163 

Breadalbane, use of a scapegoat in, ix. 
209; "hill of the fires" in, x. 149; 
treatment of mad cow in, x. 326 

Breasted, Professor J. H. , on the eye of 
Horus, vi. 121 .*; on Amcnophis IV., 
vi. I23*. 1 ; on the Sed festival, vi. 156 n l 

Breath, holy fire not to be blown upon 
with the, ii. 241 ; of chief sacred, iii. 
236, 256 ; of dying chief caught by his 
successor, iv. 198; not to defile sacred 
flame, v. 191 

' , scoring above the," cutting a 

witch on the forehead, x. 3x5 . 2 

Breathing on a person as a mode of 
purification, iii. 149 

Breconshire, the sin-eater in, ix. 43 

Breech -cloth worn by widow to keep off 
her husband's ghost, iiL 143 

Breezes, magical means of securing, iv. 
a8 7 

Breitenbrunn, the "Charcoal Man" at 
Midsummer at. xi. 26 n. 9 

Brekinjska, in Slavonia, need-fire at, x 

Brenner, J. von, on savage fear of being 

photographed, iii. 99 
Bresse, the Marine in May in, ii. 96 ; 

"cutting off the fox's tail " at harvest 

in, vii. 268 ; the King of the Bean in, 

ix. 315 n. 1 ; Midsummer bonfires in, 

x. 189 

Brest, Midsummer fire-custom at, x. 184 
Bret llorte, Relieving Guard % iv. 66 .5; 

on the Spanish missions in California, 

viii. 171 n. 1 
Breteuil, canton of, Midsummer fires in 

the, x. 187 
Brethren of the Free Spirit, i. 408 

of the Ploughed Fields (Fratres 

An>a/es), a Roman college of priests, 
ii. 122, vi. 239, ix. 232. SeeahoAr\i\\ 

Breton belief that women can be im- 
pregnated by the moon, x. 76 

peasants, their way of getting 
rain, i. 306 sq. ; throw knives at the 
wind, i. 320 

stories of the external soul, xi. 

132 J?. 

superstitions as to the tides, i. 167 

Bretons, their dread of noon, in. 88 
Brewing, continence observed at, ni. 200 
201 sq. ; water to be called by another 
name in, in. 395 

Brezina, in Slavonia, need-fire at, x. 283 
Brhaspati, as a magician, i. 241 
Brian 9 on, in D.iuphme, the Bridegroom 
of the Month of May at, ii. 92 sg. ; " the 
Cat of the ball-skin" at harvest at 
vii. 280 sg. 

Briar-thorn, divination by, x. 242 
Bnbn Indians of Costa Rica, their ideas 
as to the uncleanness of women, iii. 
147, 149 ; seclusion of women at men- 
struation among the, x. 86 
Brick nell, J., on a custom of the Caro- 
lina Indians, iv. 184 sq. 
Bridal pair, the, at Whitsuntide in 
Saxony, ii 91 ; at rice-harvest in Java, 
vii. 200 sg. 

Bride tied to tree at marriage, ii. 57 ; the 
Whitsuntide, a. 89, 96 ; the May, ii. 
95 ; led to or round the hearth at 
marriage, ii. 221, 230, 231 ; races for 
a, ii. 300 sqq. ; contests for a, ii. 305 
sqq. ; fishing-net thrown over, iii. 307 ; 
dressed as a man, vi. 260 ; the last, 
privilege of, ix. 183 ; not allowed to 
tread the earth, x. 5 ; last married, 
made to leap over bonfire, xi. 22 

and bridegroom, the Whitsuntide, 

ii. 91 sq. the Midsummer, in Sweden, 
it. 92, v. 251 ; all knots on their 
garments unloosed, iii. 399 sg. ; carry 



locked locks at marriage, iii. 308 ; I 
mock, at bonfires, x. 109 sq. 

Bride of God, the, in a rain-making cere- 
mony, i. 276 

, name given to last sheaf, vii. 162, 163 

of the Nile, vi. 38 

race among Teutonic peoples, ii. 

303 w- 

Bride, parish of, in the Isle of Man, x. 
306, 307 n. 1 

Bridegroom, the Whitsuntide, ii. 91 ; girt 
with a net, iii. 307; dressed as a 
woman, vi. 260 sq. ; disfigured in order 
to avert the evil eye, vi. 261 ; not to 
touch the ground with his feet, x. 5 

of May, ii. 91, 93, iv. 266 

Bridget's bed on the night before Candle- 
mas in the Highlands of Scotland and 
the Isle of Man, ii. 94 sg. See also 
St. Bridget 

Bridhngton, the Boy Bishop at, ix. 338 

Brie (Isle de France), the May-tree and 
Father May at, ii. 74 sq. , farmer tied 
up in first sheaf at, vii. 221 ; stranger 
tied up in sheaf at harvest at, vii 226 ; 
effigy of giant burnt on Midsummer 
Kve at, xi. 38 

Brigit, a Celtic goddess, ii. 95, 240 sqq ; 
her Christian namesake and successor 
at Kildare, ii. 240 sqq. See also St. 

Brihaspati, Hindoo deity, i. 166, x. 99 . a 

Brinio and Hrimos, in the mysteries of 
Eleusis, ii. 139 

Brincker, Dr. F. H. , on the sacred sticks 
representing ancestors among the 
Herero, ii. 224 .* 

Bringing in Summer, iv. 233, 237, 238, 
246 sqq. 

Briony, wreaths of, at Midsummer, x. 210 

Brisbane River in Queensland, use of 
bull-roarers on the, xi. 233 tqg. 

British Columbia, Indians of, their dislike 
of telling their own names, iii. 328 ; 
respect the animals and plants which 
they eat, vi. 44 ; their address to the 
first fish of the season, viii. 253 ; 
seclusion of girls at puberty among 
the, x. 46 sqq. ; dread and seclusion of 
menstruous women among the, x. 89 
sq. ; rites of initiation among the, xi. 
270 sqq. 

Koskimo Indians of, xi. 229 

, the Kwakiutl of, i. 263, ni. 53. 

188, 386, viii. 220, 250, xi. 152, 186 

, the Shuswap Indians of, i. 265, iii. 

83, 142, viii. 226, 238, x. 53, xi. 174 
. 8 , 276 . 1 , 297 w. 8 

, the Thompson Indians of, i. 132, 

ii. 208, viii. 81, 133, 140, 207, 226, 
268, ix. 154 *., x. 49, 89 sq. t 98 n. 1 , 
xi. 275, 297 

Britomartis and Minos, iv. 73 

Brittany, belief as to death at ebb-tide 
in, i. 167 sq. ; the Veneti of, ii. 353 ; 
belief as to falling stars in, iv. 66 ; 
Burial of Shrove Tuesday or of the 
Carnival in, iv. 229 sq. ; Feast of All 
Souls in, vi. 69 ; belief as to warts 
and the moon in, vi. 149 ; Mother- 
sheaf at harvest in, vii. 135, 209 ; 
custom of sticking pins into a saint's 
image in, ix. 70 ; riddles asked after a 
burial in, ix. 121 sq., n. ; forecasting 
the weather for the year in, ix. 323 
sq. ; Midsummer fires in, x. 183 sqq. ; 
stones thrown into the Midsummer fires 
in, x. 240 ; the Yule log in, x. 253 ; 
mistletoe hung over doors of stables 
and byres in, xi. 287 ; fern-seed used 
by treasure-seekers in, xi. 288 

Brocehande, the w l] d woods of, i. 306 

lirachs, prehistoric ruins, x. 291 

Brnckclmann, C. , on the Assyrian 
eponymate, iv. 116 

Brocken in the Harz mountains, asso- 
ciated with witches, x. 160ft. 1 , 171 .* 

Brodek, in Moravia, drama of Summer 
and Winter at, iv 257 

Rromios, epithet of Dionysus, vii. 2 n. 1 

Bronio, volcano in Java, worshipped, v. 
220 sg. 

Bron/e employed in expiatory rites, iii. 
226 . 6 ; priests to be shaved with, iii. 

Age, in Denmark, ii. 351 ; rock- 
carving of the, in Sweden, vii. 129 n. 1 

knife to cut priest's hair, iii. 14 

ploughs used by Etruscans at found- 
ing cities, iv. 157 

Brooke, Rajah, of Sarawak, viii. 211 ; 
supposed to fertilize the rice-crops, i. 
361 sq. 

Broom, a protective against witchcraft, 
x. 210 

Brooms used to sweep misfortune out of 
house, ix. 5 

Hroomstick in rain-making, i. 275 

Broomsticks, witches ride on, ix. 162, 

Brother of a god, v. 51 ; dead elder, 

worshipped, vi. 175 
and sister not allowed to mention 

ench other's names, iii. 344 
11 Brother" and " sister," titles given by 

men and women to their sex totems, 

xi. 215, 216, 218 
Brotherhood formed with trees by sucking 

their sap, ii. 19 sq. ; of the Green Wolf 

at Jumieges in Normandy, x. 185 sq. 

See also Blood -brotherhood 
Brothers reviled by sisters for good luck, 

i. 279 ; of king put to death on his 

accession, iii. 243 ; childless persons 



named after their younger, iii. 332, 
333; ancient Egyptian story of the 
Two, xi. 134 sqq. 

Brothers and sisters, marriages of, in royal 
families, iv. 193 sq. , v. 44 ; in ancient 
Egypt, vi. 214 sqq. \ their intention 
to keep the property in the family, vi. 
215 sq. 

. -in-law, their names not to be pro- 
nounced, iii. 338, 342, 343, 344, 


Brown, A. R. , as to the Andaman 
Islanders, ii. 354 n. ; on the beliefs 
of the West Australian aborigines as to 
the causes of childbirth, v. 104 sqq. 

Brown, Dr. Burton, on a burial custom 
of the Nagas, viii. 100 it. 8 

Brown, Dr. George, on the magical 
powers ascribed to chiefs in New 
Britain, i. 340 ; on snakes as reincar- 
nations of chiefs, v. 84 ; on the annual 
appearance of the Pablo veridis in the 
Samoan Sea, ix. 142 . J ; on the 
seclusion of girls at puberty in New 
Ireland, x. 32 sqq. ; on external soul 
in Melanesia, xi. 199 

Bruck in Styria, the last sheaf called the 
Corn-mother at, vii. 134 

Bructeri, a German tribe, worship a 
woman, i. 391 

Bruges, Feast of All Souls in, vi. 70 

Brughe, John, his cure for bewitched 
cattle, x. 324 sq. 

Brugsch, H., on Egyptian names for a 
year, vi. 26 n. 1 ; on the Sothic period, 
vi. 37 n. ; on the grave of Osiris at 
Philae, in. in ; on Isis as a personified 
corn-field, vi. 117 

Bruguiere, Mgr., on the fear of demons 
in Siam, ix. 97 ; on the annual ex- 
pulsion of the devil in Siam, ix. 150 sq. 

Brand (or brand), the Christmas, the 
Yule log, x. 257 

Brunhild, Queen of Iceland, the wooing 
of, ii. 306 sq. 

Brunnen, Twelfth Night at, ix. 165 

Brunshaupten, in Mecklenburg, the 
Wheat-wolf at harvest at, vii. 274 

Brunswick, custom at Whitsuntide in, ii. 
56 .* ; May King at Whitsuntide in, 
ii. 84, 85 ; the May Bride at Whitsun- 
tide in, ii. 96; dramatic contest between 
Summer and Winter in, iv. 257 ; 
toothache nailed into a wall or a tree 
in, ix. 62 ; belief as to menstruous 
women in, x. 96 ; Easter bonfires in, 
x. 140 ; need-fire in, x. 277 sq. 

Brushes used in magic, L 132 

Brutus, D. Junius, his mitigation of 
human sacrifices at graves, iv. 143 . 4 

, L. Junius. one of the first consuls, 
ti. 200 ; his feigned imbecility, ii. 291 

Brutus, the assassin, his meeting with 
Cicero, i. 5 

Bryant, Jacob, and Noah's ark, i. 334 

Bubastis, shrine of, at Nemi, i. 5 

Bubui River, in German New Guinea, 
viii. 295 

Buch, Max, on a ceremony of the 
Wotyaks, ii. 146 

Buchan, Hallowe'en fires in, x. 232 sq. 

Buchanan, Francis, on Burmese nats, ix. 
'75 ^q. 

B&chc de Noel, the Yule log, x. 249 

Buckie, names tabooed by fishermen in 
the village of, iii. 395 

Buckthorn, a charm against witches on 
May Day, ii. 54 ; a protection against 
thunderl>olts, ii. 191 n. 1 \ torch of, at 
a Roman marriage, ii. 191 n. 1 ; a pro- 
tection against witches, ii. 191, ix. 
153 n. 1 , 163 ; used in making fire by 
friction, ii. 251 ; chewed to keep off 
ghosts, ix. 153 ; used to beat cattle, 
ix. 266 

Buckwheat cultivated in Burma, vii. 242 

Bucolium at Athens, vii. 30 

Buddha appealed to for rain, i. 251, 299 ; 
image of, whipped in drought, i. 297 
n. 7 ; images of, drenched as a rain- 
charm, i. 308 ; imitated by a king of 
Burma, i. 400 ; thought to be incarnate 
in the Grand Lamas, i. 411 ; images 
of, iii. 253 ; transmigrations of, viii. 
299, 301, ix. 41 ; date of his death, 
viii. 302 n. 1 \ in relation to spirits, ix. 
97 ; offerings to, ix. 150 

and Buddhism, vi. 159 

and the crocodile, Indian story, xi. 

102 . 4 

Footprint of, in Siam, iii. 275 

Buddhas, living, i. 410^. 

Buddhism, Tit>etan form of, iii. 20; 
spiritual declension of, v. 3*0 sq. ; in 
relation to lower religions, ix. 89, 90 
"- 1 ' 94. 95 sqq. ; in Burma, ix. 95 
sq. ; the pope of, ix. 223 

Buddhist animism not a philosophical 
theory, ii. 13 sq. 

Lent, the, ix. 349 sq. 

monk, who sent his soul out of 

himself, ii. 49 sq. 

monks, suicide of, iv. 42 sq. ; cere- 
mony at the funeral of, ix. 175 

priests expel demons, ix. 116 

Buddhists of Ceylon, their propitiation 
of demons, ix. 90 n. 1 ; the Laosians 
of Siam nominal, ix. 97 
Budding of a bean an omen, ii. 344 
Budge, E. A. Wallis, on trinities of 
Egyptian gods, iv. 51.*; on goddess 
Net, v. 282 n. ; on an Egyptian funeral 
rite, vi. 15 it.* ; on Isis, vi. 115 sq. ; on 
the nature of Osiris, vi. 126 *.*: on tb 



solar theory of Osiris, vi. 131 .; on 
the historical reality of Osiris, vi. 160 
n. 1 ; on Khenti-Amenti, vi. 198 . 2 ; 
on human sacrifices in ancient Egypt, 
vii. 259 . 8 ; on the shrines of Osiris, 
vii. 260 . 2 ; on the fear of demons 
among the ancient Egyptians, ix. 103 sg. 

Buduna tribe of West Australia, their 
beliefs as to the birth of children, v. 
104 sg. 

Buechcler, F. , his corruption of the text 
of Petronms, ix. 253 . a 

Buffalo sacrificed for human victim, vii. 
249 ; external souls of a clan in a, xi. 
151 ; a Batta totem, xi. 223 

Buffalo-bull, name given to the las-t sheaf, 
vii. 289 

- calf, sins of dead transferred to a, 
ix. 36 sg. 

- clan in Uganda, x. 3 

- dance to ensure a supply of buffaloes, 
ix. 171 

- Society among the Omahas, i. 249 
Buffaloes not to be mentioned by their 

proper name, iii. 407, 408, 412; 
sacrificed instead of young girls, iv. 
124 ; propitiation of dead, vui. 229, 
231 ; their death bewailed, vin 242 ; 
the resurrection of, vin. 256 ; revered 
by the Tod as, viii. 314 ; as scapegoats, 
ix. 190, 191 ; external human souls 
in, xi. 207, 208 

Buffooneries at the Festival of Fools, ix. 
335 sq. 

Bugmese of Celebes, their homoeopathic 
charm to ensure longevity, i. 158 ; 
their use of the regal in as a remedy for 
plague or dearth, i. 363 ; their belief 
as to the blighting effects of incestuous 
blood, li. no ; their custom of swing- 
ing at harvest, iv. 277 ; ascnte a soul 
to rice, \n. 183 

- sailors, words tabooed to, iii. 413 
Bugis of South Celebes, effeminate priests 

or sorcerers among the, vi. 253 sq. 
Buhl, St. John's fires at, x. 168 
Btthler, G. , on the identity of the names 

Perkunas and Parjanya, ii. 367 . s ; 

on Parjanya, ii. 369 
Building shadows into foundations, iii. 


- of a canoe, continence at the, ni. 202 

- a house, taboos observed after, ii. 
40 ; Malay custom as to shadows in, 
iii. 8 i 

houses, magic art resorted to in, ix. 

a new village, continence at, iii. 
Buir, in district of Cologne, last sheaf 

shaped like wolf at, vii. 274 
Bukaua, the, of German New Guinea, 

tell stories to promote the growth of 
the crops, vii. 103 sq. , 105 ; their 
observation of the Pleiades, vii. 313 ; 
their offerings of first-fruits to the 
spirits of the dead, viii. 124 sg. ; their 
belief in demons, ix. 83 sg. \ girls at 
puberty secluded among the, x. 35 ; 
their rites of initiation, xi. 239 sgg. 

Bukowina, the Ruthenians of, i. 198 ; 
witches on St. George's Day in, ii. 335 

Bu-ku-rt t ceremonial uncleanness, in 
Costa Rica, iii. 147, x. 65 n. 1 , 86 

Bulaa, village in New Guinea, iii. 192 . 5 

Bulawayo, capital of the Matabele, rain- 
making ceremony at, i. 351 ; ceremony 
of the first-fruits at, viii. 70 

Bulebane, in Senegambia, precaution as 
to the spittle of chiefs at, iii. 289 

Button, Mgr., on the rite of blood- 
brotherhood witH an animal, quoted 
by Father H. Tnlles, xi. 202 n. 1 

Bulgaria, ceremony of adoption in, i. 74 ; 
rain-making in, i. 274 ; rolling in the 
dew on St. George's morning in, ii. 
333 1 superstition as to milk and butter 
on St. George's Day in, ii. 339 ; 
building custom in, m. 89 ; marriage 
customs in, vi. 246 ; masquerade at 
Carnival in, viii 333 sg. ; cure for 
fever in, ix. 55 ; the Yule log in, x. 
264 J ; need-fire in, x. 281, 285 ; 
simples and flowers culled on St. John's 
Day in, xi. 50 ; creeping through an 
arch of vines as a cure m, xi. 180 ; 
creeping under the root of a willow as 
a cure for whooping-cough in, xi. 
1 80 sg. See also Bulgarian and Bul- 
-, Simeon, prince of, xi. 156 sq. 

Bulgarian charm for guarding cattle from 
wolves, in. 307 

peasants threaten fruit-trees to make 

them bear fruit, ii. 21 

superstition as to crossed legs, iii. 


women, their charm to hoodwink 
their husbands, i. 149 ; their charm to 
piocure offspring on St. George's Day, 

ii. 344 , f 

Bulgarians, their customs as to the last 
sheaf ut harvest, vii. 146; the Carnival 
among the, viii. 331 sgg. ; their way 
of keeping off ghosts, ix. 153 n. 1 
Bull sacrificed to Poseidon, i. 46 ; blood 
of, drunk by priestess to procure in- 
spiration, i. 381 sq. ; as emblem of a 
thunder-god, ii. 368, v. 134 sgg., 136 ; 
sacrificed to the dead, iii. 227 ; Pasi- 
phae and the, iv. 71 ; as symbol of 
the sun, iv. 71 sq. ; as type of re- 
productive energy, iv. 72 ; the brazen, 
of Phalans, iv. 75; perhaps the 



king's crest at Cnossus, iv. in sq. ; 
said to have guided the Samnites, iv. 
1 86 . 4 ; as emblem of generative 
force, v. 123 ; worshipped by the 
Hittites, v. 123, 132; Hittite god stand- 
ing on a, v. 135 ; as symbol of thunder 
and fertility, v. 163 sq. ; the emblem 
of the Father God, v. 164 ; worshipped 
at Euyuk, v. 164 ; testicles of, used in 
rites of Cybele and Attis, v. 276 ; in 
relation to Dionysus, vu. 16 sq., 31 ; 
corn-spirit as, vii. 288 sqq. , viii. 8 ; 
sacrificed at Zulu festival of first-fruits, 
via. 68 n. 3 ; sacrificed to the dead, viii. 
1x3. See also Bulls 

Bull, black, sacrificed to the dead at 
Plataea, iv. 95 

and cow, represented by masked 

actors, iv. 71 

, live, torn to pieces in rites of 
Dionysus, vii. 15, 17, viii. 16 

, sacrifice of, at Egyptian funeral, 
vi. 15 ; to prolong the life of a king, 
vi. 222 ; to Zeus, the Saviour of the 
City, vi. 238 ; at the foundation of a 
town, vi. 249 ; at MagnesiA, viii. 7 
sq. \ in Mithraic religion, viii. 10 ; at 
festival of new fruits, viii. 68 . 8 ; at 
tomb of dead chief, viii. 113. See 
also Bulls 
, white, sacrificed, ii. 188 sq. ; soul 

of dead king incarnate in a, vi. 164 
Bull-fights and athletic games at festival 
of new fruits, viii. 66 

headed image of the sun, iv. 75, 


roarers .sacred, used in magical cere- 
monies to multiply totems, i. 88 ; used 
to make fine weather, i. 265, with note 4 ; 
sounded to make wind blow, i. 324, xi. 
232 ; whirled at tearing dogs to pieces, 
vii. 19 n. 1 \ whirled to make the crops 
thrive and to multiply game, vii. 104, 
106 sq., no, xi. 230 sq., 232 ; fertiliz- 
ing virtue attributed to, by savages, vn. 
1 06, xi. 230 j$r. ; called the "mother 
of yams," vii. 106 ; swung at Greek 
mysteries, vii. no ; sounded at initia- 
tion of lads, viii. 295, xi. 227, 228 
W-t 2 33 W- 2 4 2 4 T I swung at 
kindling of sacred fire, x. 133 ; sound 
of, thought to resemble thunder, xi. 
228 sqq. ; sounded at festivals of the 
dead, xi. 230 . ; made from trees 
struck by lightning, xi. 231 ; called 
" thunder and lightning," xi. 232 ; 
magical instrument for causing thun- 
der, wind, and rain, xi. 233 ; sound 
of, supposed to be the voice of a 
spirit, xi. 233, 234, 235 ; not to 
be seen by women, xi. 234, 235, 
42 ; called by name which means a 

ghost or spirit of the dead, xi. 242 ; 
called by the same name as the 
monster who swallows lads at initia- 
tion, xi. 242 ; kept in men's club- 
house, xi. 242 ; named after dead 
men, xi. 242 n. 1 
Bull-shaped deities, vii. 3 sqq. 
Bull's blood drunk as means of inspira- 
tion, i. 381 sq. ; as ordeal, i. 382 
n. 1 ; bath of, in the rites of Attis, v. 
274 sq. 

hide, bride seated on a, vi. 246 ; 

cut in strips and pegged down round 
the site of a new town, vi. 249 

skin, body of the dead placed in a, 

vi. 15 . 

Bullets, magical treatment of, i. no ; 
magical modes of averting, i. 130 ; 
blessed by St. Hubert used to shoot 
witches uith, x. 315 sq. 

Bullock, bewitched, burnt to cause the 
witch to appear, x. 303 

Bullocks as scapegoats, ix. 34, 35 

Bulloms, the, of Sierra Leone, their 
observation of the Pleiades, vii. 318 

Bulls sacrificed to water-spirits, ii. 1 57 ; 
husband -god at Hierapolis seated 
on, v. 163 ; sacrificed at caves of 
Pluto, v. 206 ; sacrificed to Perse- 
phone, v. 213 n. 1 ; sacrificed to dead 
chiefs, vi. 191 ; eaten to make eater 
brave, viii. 140 ; as scapegoats in 
Cashmeer, ix. 190 .*; as scapegoats 
in ancient Egypt, ix. 216 sq. 

, sacred, of ancient Egypt, viii 34^. 

Bulnier, J., on concealment of personal 
n.imes among the aborigines of Vic- 
toria, iii. 321 

Bundelcund, stopping rain in, i. 296 

Bundles of sticks representing ancestors, 
ii. 214, 216 

Bunjil Kraura, a wind -maker of the 
Kurnai, i. 324 

Bunsen, Baron C. C J. f on St. Hippo- 
lytus, i. 21 n. 9 

Bunyoro, in Central Africa, scapegoats 
sent to, ix. 195 

Bunzlau, district of Silesia, last sheaf 
made up in shape of ox in, vii. 289 sq. 

BurchanJ, Bishop of Worms, his con- 
demnation of a heathen practice, xi. 

liures, bonfires on the first Sunday in 
Lent, x. no .', in n. 1 

Burford, in Oxfordshire, Midsummer 
giant and dragon at, xi. 37 

Burgebrach in Bavaria, straw-man burnt 
on Ash Wednesday at, iv. 232 

Burghead, the burning of the Clavie at, 
iii. 229 sq. , x. 266 sq. ; the old rampart 
at, x. 267 sq. 

Burghers or Badagas. S*c Badagas 



Burglars, charms employed by, to cause 

sleep, i. 148 sq. 
Burgundians deposed their kings for 

failure of the crops, i. 366 
Burgundy, Firebrand Sunday in, x. 114 ; 

the Yule log in, x. 254 
Burial at flood tide, i. 168 ; alive of 

unfaithful virgins in Rome and Peru, 

ii. 228, 244 ; alive, in other cases, ii. 

228 .* ; at night, iii. 15 ; of the aged, 

iv. ii sq. \ in jars, iv. 12 sq. \ of Shrove 

Tuesday, iv. 228 
of infants, ix. 45 ; to ensure their 

rebirth, iv. 199 sq. t v. 91, 93 sgg. 
under a running stream, ni. 15 ; at 

cross-roads, v. 93 w. 1 ; at Gezer, v. 108 

sq. ; of Osiris in his rites, vi. 88 
of the wren in the Isle of Man, viii. 

318 sg. 
Burial customs, certain, perhaps designed 

to ensure reincarnation, i. 101 sgg. ; 

to prevent the escape of the soul, in. 

Si. 52 

-grounds, magical stones kept in, 

i. 163 ; regarded as holy, ii. 31 ; 
deemed sacred, viii. in 

rites intended to deceive ghosts or 

demons, vm. 97 sqq. 

Burials, customs as to shadows at, iii. 
80 sq. \ fictitious, to divert the atten- 
tion of demons from the real burials, 
viii. 98 sqq. ; passing through narrow 
openings after, xi. 175 sq. , 177 sq. , 
178 sq. 

Buring Une, a Kayan goddess, vii. 93 

Burkitt, Professor F. C. , on Jesus Bar- 
abbas, ix. 420 n. 1 

Burlesques of ecclesiastical ritual, ix. 336 

Burma, magical images in, i. 62 sq. \ 
the Shans of, i. 128, 308; the Karens 
or Karennis of, i. 209, ii. 69, 107, 
iii. 13, 43, 250, 252, 292, iv. 130 ii. 1 , 
vii. 10, 189, xi. 157 ; rain-making by 
means of fish in. i. 288 sq. ; king of, 
claims divinity, i. 400 sq. ; the En of, 
ii. 41 ; Sagaing district of, ii. 46 ; 
Kengtung in, ii. 150 ; the Kachins of, 
ii. 237, iii. 200, viii. 120 ; fire on 
hearth extinguished after a death in, 
ii. 267 n. 4 ; kings of, screened from 
public gaze, iii. 125 sq. ; the Sotih of, 
iii. 237 ; royal princes executed with- 
out bloodshed in, ili. 242 ; the Sgaus 
of, iii. 337 ; names of the kings of, 
not to be pronounced by their sub- 
jects, iii. 375 ; the Bghais of, vi. 60 ; 
securing the rice -soul in, vii. 189 
sqq. ; the Taungthu of, vii. 190 ; the 
Szis of Upper, vii. 203 sq. ; custom of 
threshing rice in, vii. 203 sq. \ head- 
hunting in, vii. 956 ; offering of first- 


fruits to the king of, viii. 116; the 
Chins of, viii. 121 ; ravages of rats in, 
viii. 282 a. 8 ; sacred fish in, viii. 291 ; 
heaps of stones or sticks in, ix. 12 ; 
belief in demons in, ix. 95 sq. \ ex- 
pulsion of demons in, ix. 116 sq. ; the 
tug-of-war in, ix. 175 sq. 

Burmese, their conception of the soul as 
a butterfly, iii. 51 sg. ; their belief as to 
ghosts of men who have died a violent 
death, iii. 90 ; their conduct during an 
earthquake, v. 201 

cure by burying effigy of sick man, 

viii. 103 

custom on return from a funeral, 

iii. 51 

doctrine of nats, ix. 175 

Lent, ix. 349 sg. 

mode of ram-making, i. 284 ; of 

disposing of cut h ir and nails, hi. 277 

recall of lost soul, iii. 51 sq. 

superstitions as to the head, iii. 


Burne, Miss C. S., on Devonshire cus- 
tom of " crying the neck," vii. 266 

, Miss C. S., and Miss G. F. Jack- 
son, on " Souling Day " in Shropshire, 
vi. 78 sg. ; on the fear of witchcraft in 
Shropshire, x. 342 .* 

Burning refuse of food as a magical 
means of causing the eater to fall ill, 
i. 341 ; of sacred trees or poles, ii. 141 
sg. ; of cut hair and nails to prevent 
them being used in sorcery, in. 281 sqq. \ 
of Melcarth, v. no sqq. \ of Sandan 
and Hercules, v. 117 sqq. t 388 sgg.; of 
Cilician gods, v. 170 sq. ; of Sardana- 
palus, v. 172 sqq. ; of Croesus, v. 
174 sqq. ; of a god, v. 188 sg. ; of 
last sheaf of corn, vii. 146 ; of the 
Clavie at Burghead, x. 266 sg. \ of a 
bewitched or part of it to cause 
the witch to appear, x. 303, 305, 307 
sg. ; of human beings in the fires, xi. 
2 1 sgg. ', of live animals at spring and 
Midsummer festivals, xi. 38 sqq. \ the 
animals perhaps deemed embodiments 
of witches, xi. 41 sg., 4j sg. ; of 
human victims annually, xi. 286 . a 

alive as a mode of executing royal 

criminals, ni. 243 ; human victims to 
prolong king's life, vi. 226 ; human 
victims of Fire-god, ix. 301 ; animals 
to stay cattle-plague, x. 300 sqq. 

effigies of the Carnival, iv. 223 

224, 228 sg. , 229 sg. , 232 sg. ; of 
Shrove Tuesday, iv. 227 sqq. \ of 
Winter at Zurich, iv. 260 sq.\ in the 
Midsummer fires, x. 195 

the Easter Man, x. 144 

the Old Wife (Old Woman), 1 ' *. 

116, 120 




Burning the Old Witch, vii. 224 

the Old Year," at Biggar, ix. 165 ; 

among the Biyars of North- Western 
India, ix. 230 . 7 

the Witches (invisible or represented 

by effigies) on May Day in the Isle of 
Man, ii. 54, x. 157, in the Tyrol, ix. 
158 sq. ; on Walpurgis Night in 
Bohemia, ix. 161, x. 159, in Silesia 
and Saxony, ix. 161, x. 160 ; on Twelfth 
Night in Herefordshire, ix. 319 ; on the 
first Sunday in Lent in Luxemburg, 
the Tyrol, and Swabia, x. 116, in 
Switzerland, x. 118 sq. ; on Beltane 
(May Day) in Scotland, x. 154; at 
Hallowe'en in Scotland, x. 232 *q. \ 
"Burning the Witches" name for 
fires of European festivals, xi. 43 

witches (in flesh and blood) among 
the Baganda, ix. 19 ; atLeith, ix. 165 ; 
in Germany, x. 6 ; after shaving them, 
xi. 158 

Burning discs thrown into the air, x. 116 
sq., 119, 143, 165, 1 66, i68jy. , 172 

-glass or mirror, fire kindled by, ii. 
207 it. 1 , 243, 244 n. 1 

wheels rolled down hill, x. 116, 117 

sq., 119, 141, 143, 161, 162 sq., 163 
sq., 166, 173, 174, 201, 328, 334, 
337 *9- 1 rolled over fields at Mid- 
summer to fertili/e them, x. 191, 340, 
sq. ; perhaps to burn witches, x. 345 

Burnings for dead kings of Judah, v. 
177 sq. ; for dead Jewish Rabbis at 
Meiron, v. 178 

Burns, Rolxjrt, on John Barleycorn, v. 
230 sq. \ ' bonny woods and braes " of 
Loudon.x. 207 ; on Hallowe'en, x 234 

Burnt alive, apotheosis by being, v. 179 sq. 

Land of Lydia, v. 193 sq. 

sacrifices to stay cattle -plague in 
England, Wales, and Scotland, x. 
300 sqq. 

Burrha, river, Hera's bath in the, v. 280 

Burs, homoeopathic magic of, i. 144 ; a 
preservative against witchcraft, x. 177 

Buru, East Indian island, sacrifice of girl 
to crocodile in, ii. 152 ; oil made by 
unmarried girls in, iii. 201 ; natives of, 
forbidden to utter their own names, 
iii. 324 ; names of relations tabooed 
among the Alfoors of, iii. 341 ; unlaw- 
ful to use words resembling the names 
of the dead in, iii. 361 ; use of oil as 
a charm in, v. 21 . a ; the natives 
of, ascribe a soul to rice, vii. 183 ; 
11 eating the soul of the rice " in, viii. 
54 ; dog's flesh eaten to make eater 
brave in, viii. 145 ; demons of sickness 
expelled in a proa from, ix. 186 

Buryat shaman, his mode of recovering 
lost souls, Hi. 56 sq. 

Buryats of Siberia place the bones of 
dead shamans in trees, ii. 32 

11 Burying the Carnival," iv. 209, ^20 sqq. 

bewitched animals alive, x. 324 sqq. 

the evil spirit, ix. no 

girls at puberty in the ground, x. 

38 sqq. 

" the sheaf" in Ireland, i. 69 

Bush negroes of Surinam set up two- 
headed idols at entrance of villages, ii. 
385 ; their belief that leprosy is caused 
by eating a certain animal, viii. 26 

Bushes, ailments transferred to, ix. 54, 56 

Bushmen, magical telepathy among the, i. 
123; of the Kalahari desert, their fire 
sticks, ii. 218 n. 1 ; custom as to their 
shadows, iii. 83 ; think it unlucky to 
speak of the lion by his proper name, 
iii. 400 ; their rules of diet based on 
sympathetic magic, viii. 140 sq. ; will 
not let their children eat a jackal's 
heart, viii. 141 ; unable to distinguish 
between animals and men, viii. 206 ; 
will not eat the sinew in the thigh of a 
hare, viii. 266 n. 1 ; throw stones on 
the devil's grave, ix. 16 ; their prayers 
at a cairn, ix. 30 ; their dread of 
menstruous women, x. 79 ; their way 
of warming up the star Sirius, x. 

332 Jy- 

Bushongo, royal persons among the, not 
allowed to set foot on the ground, x. 
4 ; their use of bull-roarers, xi. 229 ; 
their rites of initiation, xi. 364 sqq. 

Busins, an Egyptian city, the house of 
Osiris," in. 390, vii. 260 ; backbone of 
Osiris at, vi. n, 18 ; ritual of Osiris 
at, vi. 86, 87 sq. ; festival of Osiris in 
the month of Khoiak at, vi. 108 ; 
temple of U strain at, vi. 151 

, king of Egypt, his human sacri- 
fices, vii. 259 ; slain by Hercules, vii. 

Busiro, district containing the graves and 

temples of the lungs of Uganda, vi. 

168, 169, 224 
Busk, festival of first-fruits among the 

Creek Indians, viii. 72 
Busoga, pretended human sacrifice in, 

iv. 215 

Bust, double-headed, at Nemi, {.41 sq. 
Bustard totem of the Ingarda, v. 104 
Butea frondosa worshipped, viii. 119 ; 

its flowers offered, ix. 136 
Butlers, Roman, required to be chaste, 

ii. 1x5 J?., 205 
Buto, city in Egypt, Horus and Isis at, 

vi. xo 
Butter, time for making, i. 167 ; stolen 

by witches on May Day ii. 53 ; stolen 

by witches on Walpurgis Night and 

Midsummer Eve, ii. 127 ; thought to 



be improved by the Midsummer fires, 
x. 1 80; bewitched, burnt at a cross- 
road, x. 322 

" Butter-churning," Swiss expression for 
kindling a need-fire, x. 279 

Butterflies, souls of dead in, vi. 164, viii. 
290, 291, 296 sq. ; annual expulsion of, 
ix. 159 n. 1 

Butterfly, the soul as a, iii. 29 n. 1 , 41, 
51 sq. 

of the rice, vii. 190 

Butterfly dance in Brazil, ix. 381 
god in Samoa, viii. 29 

Buttmann, Ph., on Virbius and the King 
of the Wood, i. 40 w. 2 ; on Janus as 
the god of doors, ii. 383 . 8 ; on the 
derivation of janua from Janus t ii. 
384 . 

Buttner, C. G., on the firesticks of the 
Herero, ii. 218 

Button-snake root used as a purgative, 

viii. 73. 75 

Buzzard, the bald-headed, in homoeo- 
pathic magic, i. 155 ; killing the 
sacred, viii. 169 sqq. 

Byblus, hair often ngs to Astarte at, i. 
30 ; Adonis at, v. 13 sqq. ; the kings 
of, v. 14 sqq. \ mourning for Adonis at, 
v. 38 ; religious prostitution at, v. 58 ; 
inspired prophets at, v. 75 sq. ; festival 
of Adonis at, v. 225 ; Osiris and Isis 
at, vi. 9 ; the queen of, vi. 9 ; Osiris 
associated with, vi. 22 sg. t 127; its 
relation to Egypt, vi. 127 n. 1 

Byrne, H. J., on Twelfth Night in Ros- 
common, ix. 321 sq. 

Byron, Lord, and the oak, xi. 166 

Byrsa, origin of the name, vi. 250 

Cabag Head, witches at, i. 135 
Cabbages, charm to make cabbages 

grow, i. 136 sq. ; divination by, at 

Hallowe'en, i. 242 ; threatened by 

Esthonian peasants to make them 

grow, ii. 22. See also Kail 
Cabugatan, in the Philippine Islands, 

the Igorrots of, viii. 292 
Cabunian, Mount, grave of the Creator 

on, iv. 3 

Cachar, the Kookies of, i. 160 .* 
Cacongo, in West Africa, rules observed 

by the king of, iii. 115, 118 
Cactus, taboos observed by the Huichol 

Indians during their search for the 

sacred, i. 123 sq. \ hung at door of 

house where there is a lying-in woman, 

*" iSS 
Cadiz, death at low tide at, i. 167; 

custom of swinging at, iv. 284 
Cadmea, the, at Thebes, named after 

Cadmus, iv. 79 
Cadmus, servitude of, for the slaughter 

of the dragon, iv. 70 n. 1 , 78; the 
slayer of the dragon at Thebes, iv. 
78 sq. \ seeks Europa and founds 
Thebes, iv. 88 ; at Samothrace, iv. 
89 n. 4 ; turned into a snake, v. 86 
sq. ; perhaps personated by the Laurel- 
bearer at Thebes vi. 241 

Cadmus arid Harmonia, their transforma- 
tion into serpents, iv. 84 ; marriage 
of, iv. 88, 89 

, Mount, v. 207 

Cadys, king of Lydia, ii. 281 ; his son 
Sadyattes, v. 183 

Caeculus born from the fire, ii. 197 ; 
son of the fire-god Vulcan, vi. 235 

Caeles Vibenna, an Etruscan, ii. 196 n. 

Caelian hill at Rome, ii. 185, 190 

Caesar, Julius, robs Capitoline Jupiter, 
i. 4 ; his villa at Nemi, i. 5 ; his bene- 
ficent rule, i. 2,'6; on the Hercynian 
forest, ii. 7 ; as to German observation 
of the moon, vi. 141 ; his regulation 
of the calendar, vi. 37, vii. 83 sq. , ix. 
345 ; on the fortification walls of the 
Gauls, x. 267 ; on human sacrifices 
among the Celts of Gaul, xi. 32 

Caesar, Lucius, his villa at Nemi, i. 5 

Caesarea. See Everek 

Caesars, their namederived fromcaesaries, 
n. 180 

Caffre boys at circumcision, customs 
observed by, iii. 156 sq. 

girls, their remedy for a plague of 

caterpillars, viii. 280 

hunters, their ceremonies after 

killing a lion, iii. 220 ; their propitia- 
tion of the elephants which they kill, 
viii. 227 

kings turn at death into boa-con- 
strictors, iv. 84 

villages, women's tracks at, x. 80 

Caffres, their rule as to eating mice, i. 
118 ; corpulence a mark of rank 
among the, ii. 297 ; race for a bride 
among the, ii. 303 ; their superstitions 
as to their shadows, iii. 78 sq , 83, 
87 ; think that the shadows of trees 
are sensitive, iii. 82 ; expiation per- 
formed by man who had killed a boa- 
constrictor among the, iii. 221 sq. \ 
their horror of the pollution of blood, 
iii. 245 sq. \ their custom as to the 
blood of sacrifice, iii. 247 ; their dis- 
posal of their cut hair and nails, iii. 
278 ; their use of knots as a charm on 
a journey, iii. 306 ; their custom of 
boiling a thief's name, iii. 331 ; call 
brides after their future children, iii. 
333; "women's speech" among the, 
iii. 335 sq. ; their purificatory cere* 
monies after a battle, vi. 251 sq. ; 
their festival of new fruits, viii. 64 



tqq. ; inoculation with powdered char- 
coal among the, viii. 159 sq. ; their 
custom of fumigating infants, viii. 
1 66 sq. ; will not eat the sinew of the 
thigh, viii. 266 n. 1 ; their custom of 
adding stones to heaps, ix. n ; their 
prayers at cairns, ix. 30 

Caffres of Natal, their rain -charm by 
means of a black sheep, i. 290 ; their 
festival of first-fruits, viii. 64 sqq. 

of Sofala, their dread of hollow 
things, i. 157 sq. 

of South Africa, ix. 1 1 , 30 ; their way 

of stopping a high wind, i. 321 sq. ; 
their superstition as to shadows, iii. 87 ; 
purified after battle, iii. 172, 174 sq. \ 
their belief and custom as to falling 
stars, iv. 65 ; date their new year by 
observation of the Pleiades, vii. 116, 
315 sq. ; woman's share in agriculture 
among the, vii. 116 ; transfer sick- 
ness from men to goats, ix. 31 ; 
seclusion of girls at puberty among 
the, x. 30 ; use of bull-roarers among 
the, xi. 229 . , 232 

of the Zambesi region believe that 
human souls transmigrate after death 
into animals, viii. 288 sq. 

Cages, girls at puberty confined in, x. 
32 sqq., 44, 45 

Caidu, a Tartar king, ii. 306 

Caiem, the caliph, iv. 8 

Cailleach (Old Wife), name given to last 
corn cut, vii. 140 sqq , 164 sqq. 

bcal-tine, the Beltane carline, x. 


Caingua Indians of Paraguay, their fire 
customs, ii. 258 *q. ; their belief in 
the transmigration of human souls 
into animals, vm. 285 sq. 

Cairns, cut hair buried in, iii. 274 sq. ; 
to which every passer-by adds a 
stone, ix. 9 sqq. \ near shrines of saints, 
ix. 21 ; offerings at, ix. 26 sqq. See 
also Heaps 

Cairnshee, in Kmcardineshire, Mid- 
summer fires on, x. 206 

Cairo, ceremony of cutting the dams at, 
vi. 38, 39 sq. ; the old south gate of, 
ix. 63 ; cure for toothache and head- 
ache at, ix. 63 

Caithness, the cutter of the last sheaf 
called Winter in, vii. 142-; need-fire 
in, x. 290 sqq. 

Cajaboneros Indians of Central America, 
their period of abstinence before sow- 
ing, ii. 105 

Cajanits fndicus, pulse, cultivated by 
the Korwas, vii. 123 

Cake called the Christmas Boar, vii. 
302 sq. ; with coin in it at Carnival, 
omens drawn from, viii. 332 ; on 

Twelfth Night used to determine the 
King, ix. 313 sqq. ; put on horn of ox, 
ix. 318 sq. ; St. Michael's, x. 149, 154 
. 8 ; salt, divination by, x. 238 sq. ; the 
Yule or Christmas, x. 257, 259, 261 
Cakes rolled as a mode of divination on 
St. George's Day, ii. 338 ; in obscene 
shapes, vii. 62 ; in human form, vii. 

149 ; special, baked at threshing, vii. 

150 ; of dough at the Thesmophoria, 
viii. 17 sq. ; as substitutes for animal 
victims, viii. 25 ; in the form of 
animals, viii. 95 . 2 ; sacrificial, baked 
of new barley or rice, viii. 120 ; made 
at Christmas out of last sheaf in form 
of goats, rams, or boars, viii. 328 ; 
special, at New Year, ix. 149 sq. ; 
with twelve knobs offered to Cronus 
and other deities, ix. 351, 351 . 8 ; 
Hallowe'en, x. 238, 241, 245; Beltane, 
x. 148 sq., 150, 152, 153, 154, 155; 
divination by, x. 242, 243 

Calabar, fetish king at, iii. 22 sq. ; soul 
of chief in sacred grove at, xi. 161 ; 
negroes of, their belief in external or 
bush souls lodged in animals, xi. 204 
sqq. , 220, 222 n. 6 ; the fattening-house 
for girls in, xi. 259 

district, heads of chiefs buried 

secretly in the, vi. 104 

, Old, sacred grove of, ii. 42 ; 

annual expulsion of demons at, viii. 
1 08 ; biennial expulsion of demons at, 
ix 203 sq. 

River, iv. 197, ix. 28 

Cilabash, ceremony of breaking the, at 
festival of new fruits, viii. 68 n. 3 

Calabashes, souls shut up in, iii. 72 

Calabria, ceremony of "Sawing the Old 
Woman " in, iv. 241 ; custom of swing- 
ing in, iv. 284 ; Easter custom in, v. 
254 ; murderers taste the blood of 
their victims in, viii. 156 ; annual ex- 
pulsion of witches in, ix. 157 ; holy 
water at Easter in, x 123 

Calah, ancient capital of Assyria, annual 
marriage of the god Nabu at, ii. 130 

Calamities, almost all, set down to witch- 
craft, xi. iq sq. 

Caland, Dr. W. , on the magical nature 
of Vedic ritual, i. 229 

Calauria, Poseidon worshipped in, v. 
203 . a 

Calbe, in the Altmark, the He-goat at 
harvest near, vii. 287 

Calchaquis Indians of Paraguay, their 
way of keeping off death, in. 31 

Calcutta, keys as amulets in, iii. 236 

Cal dwell, Bishop R., on devil-dancers in 
Southern India, i. 382 

Calenberg, holy oak near, ii. 371 

Calendar, regulation of the early, an 



affair of religion, iv. 69, vii. 83 ; the 
natural, vi. 35 ; change in Chinese, x. 
137 ; the reform of the, in relation to 
floral superstitions, xi. 55 n. 1 
Calendar, the Alexandrian, used by 
Plutarch, vi. 84 ; used by Theophanes, 

i*. 395 "- 1 

of the primitive Aryans, ix. 325 

, the Babylonian, ix. 398 . 2 

of the Celts of Gaul, ix. 342 sg. 

, the Coligny, i. 17 . 2 , ix. 342 


, the Coptic, vi 6 . 

, the Egyptian, vi. 24 sqq. ; date of 

its introduction, vi. 36 . 2 

of the Egyptian farmer, vi. 30 sqq. 
of Esne, vi. 49 sq. 

, the ancient Greek, determined by 

astronomical considerations, iv. 68 sg. ; 
regulated by the moon and of little 
use to the husbandman, vii. 52 sq., 

of the Indians of San Juan 

Capistrano in California, vii. 125 sq. 

, the Julian, vi. 93 w. 1 ; used by 

Mohammedans, x. 218 sq. 

of the Maya Indians of Yucatan, 

vi. 29 ., ix. 171 

of the ancient Mexicans, its mode 

of intercalation, vi. 28 n. s 

, the Mohammedan, x. 216 sq., 218 


of Philocalus, v. 303 . 2 , 304 . 8 , 

vi. 95 w. 1 

, the Roman, vii. 83 sq. 

, the Syro- Macedonian, iv. 116 

Calendars, the Roman Rustic, vi. 95 n. 1 ; 
the Pleiades in primitive, vii. 307 sqq. ; 
conflict of, x. 218 

Calendeau, calignau, the Yule-log at 
Marseilles, x. 250 

Calf shod in buskins sacrificed to Diony- 
sus, vii. 33 ; the genitals of, served 
up to man who gave last stroke at 
threshing, vii. 148; killed at haivest, 
vii. 290 ; mythical, in the corn, vii. 
392 ; name applied to bunch of corn 
on harvest-field, vii. 292 ; sacrifice of 
buffalo, viii. 314 ; burnt alive to stop 
a murrain, x. 300 sq. See also Calves 

Calico. Puran, an Indian law-book, i. 
63, iv. 217 

Calicut, rule of succession observed by 
the kings of, iv. 47 sqq. , 206 ; cere- 
monies at sowing in, ix. 235 

California, the Digger Indians of, viii. 

, the Karok Indians of, vi. 47, viii. 

, the Maidu Indians of, i. 122, 357, 

xi. 295, 298 
, the Nishinam tribe of, iii. 338 

California, the Pomos of, ix. 170 sq. 

, the Senal Indians of, xi. 295 

, the Yuki Indians of, i. 133 

Californian Indians, their notion as to 
whirlwinds, i. 331 ; secrecy of per- 
sonal names among the, iii. 3,26 ; 
names of the dead not mentioned 
among the, iii. 352 ; their custom as 
to meteors, iv. 62 ; eat pine nuts, v. 
278 n. 2 ; their annual festivals of the 
dead, vi. 52 sq. \ their notion that the 
owl is the guardian of the ' ' California 
big tree," vi. in n. 1 \ women's work 
among the Indians of San Juan Capi- 
strano, vii. 125 ; their calendar, vii. 
125 sq. ; their custom of killing the 
sacred buzzard, viii. 169 sqq. ; their 
belief in the transmigration of human 
souls into animals, viii. 286 sq. seclu- 
sion of girls at puberty among the, x. 
41 sqq. ; ordeals among the, x. 64 

missions, the Spanish, viii. 171 n. 1 

Caligula, his barges on the lake of Nemi, 

i. 5 , and the priest of Nemi, i. n ; 

and King Agrippa, ix. 418 

Callander, the parish of, Beltane fires in, 

x. 150^7^.; Hallowe'en fires in, x. 231 

Callaway, Rev. Henry, on chiefs as 

medicine -men, i. 350 n. 2 ; on the 

worship of the dead among the Zulus, 

vi. 184 sq. ; on the observation of the 

Pleiades by the Amazulu, vii. 316 

Callias, the Eleusinian Torch-bearer, vii. 

54. 73 - 8 
Callirrhoe, the springs of, in Moab, v. 

214 sqq. 
Callo, a holy spirit among the Gallas, i. 

Calmucks, race for bride among the, ii. 

301 sq. \ divine by shoulder-blades of 

sheep, iii. 229 . 4 See also Kalmucks 
Calotropis gigantea % man married to, in 

Southern India, ii. 57 . 4 

procera, used in kindling fire by 

friction, ii. 209 
Calpurnius Piso, L., on the wife of 

Vulcan, vi. 232 sq. 
Caltanisetta, in Sicily, violence done to 

St. Michael at, i. 300 
Calves, unborn, sacrifice of, viii. 42 ; 

burnt to stop disease in the herds, x. 

301, 306. See also Calf 
Calycadnus River, in Cilicia, v. 167 . a 
Calymnos, a Greek island, superstition 

as to menstruous women in, x. 96 sq. ; 

Midsummer fires in, x. 212 
Camasene and Janus, vi. 235 . 6 
Cambaita, custom of religious suicide at, 

iv. 54 
Cambodia, mode of annulling evil omens 

in, i. 170 sqq. ; custom as to effacing 

impressions of pots in ashes in, i. 314 ; 



the Chams of, i. 280 ; the regalia re- 
garded as a palladium in, i. 365 ; human 
incarnations of gods in, i. 385 sq. ; 
special terms used with reference to per- 
sons of the blood royal in, i. 401 .* ; 
Kings of Fire and Water in, ii. 3 sqq. t 
iii. 17, iv. 14 ; the King of, sends 
presents to the Kings of Fire and Water, 
ii. 5 ; sacred trees in, ii. 46 ; use of 
fire kindled by lightning in, ii. 256 n. l ; 
kings of, not to be touched, iii. 226 ; 
the king of, ceremony at cutting his 
hair, iii. 265 ; kings of, their names 
not to be mentioned, in. 376 ; annual 
temporary king in, iv. 148 sq. \ 
annual festival of the dead in, vi. 61 
sq. ; the Banars of, viii. 33 ; vicarious 
use of effigies to save sick people in, 
viii. 103 ; the Stiens of, viii. 237 ; 
annual expulsion of demons in, ix. 
149 ; palace of the kings of, annually 
purged of devils, ix. 172 ; seclusion of 
girls at puberty in, x. 70 ; ritual at 
cutting a parasitic orchid in, xi. 8x 

Cambodian hunter, homoeopathic magic 
used by, i. 109 sq. 

or Siamese story of the external 

soul, xi. 1 02 

Cambodians, their superstitions as to the 
head, iii. 254 

Cambridge, the May Lady at, ii. 62 ; 
Jack-in-the-Green at, n. 83 n. 1 ; per- 
sonal relics of Kibuka, the war -god 
of the Baganda, preserved at, vi. 1 97 , 
ancient customs in, vii. 146 ; Plough 
Monday in, viii. 330 n. 1 ; Lord of 
Misrule at, ix. 330 

Cambridgeshire, greasing the weapon 
instead of the wound in, i. 203 , 
permanent May-pole in, ii. 71 n. 1 , 
the Straw-bear in, viii. 329 ; Plough 
Monday in, viii. 330 n. 1 ; witch as 
cat in, x. 317 

Cambulac (Peking), Marco Polo as to, 
iii. 243 sq. 

Cam bus o' May, near Ballater, holed 
stone at, xi. 187 

Cambyses, king of Persia, his treatment 
of Amasis, v. 176 . a 

Camden, W., on Irish precautions against 
witches on May Day, ii. 53 ; on custom 
observed by the Irish when they fall, 
iii. 68 

Camel, plague transferred to, ix. 33 

Camel-races in honour of the dead, iv. 

Camels not called by their proper name, 
iii. 402 ; infested by jinn, ix. 260 

Cameron, Hugh E., on the harvest 
Maiden in Inverness-shire, vii. 162 n. 8 

Cameron, V. L., on divinity claimed by 
an African chief, i. 395 

Cameroon negroes, expiation for homi- 
cide among the, v. 299 . a 
Cameroons, chiefs as fetish-men in the, 
i. 349 ; the Ngumbu of the, ii. 210 ; 
the Duala tribe of the, iv. 130 n. 1 ; 
the Bakundu of the, viii. 99 ; expulsion 
of the spirits of disease in the, ix. 120 
sq. ; life of person bound up with tree 
in the, xi. 161 ; theory of the external 
soul in the, xi. 200, 202 sq. 
Camillas, his triumph, ii. 174 n. 2 
Camomile (Anthemis nobihs] burnt in 
Midsummer fire, x. 213 ; sacred to 
Haider, xi. 63 ; gathered at Mid- 
summer, xi. 63 

Camp shifted after a death, iii. 353 
Campbell, Rev. John, on Bechuana super- 
stition as to trees and rain, n. 49 ; on 
refusal of Bechuanas to tell stones 
before sunset, in. 384 ; on Coranna 
treatment of the sick, xi. 192, 192 n. 1 
Campbell, Major - General John, on 
Khond human sacrifices, vii. 248, 250 
Campbell. Rev. J. G., on the Harvest Old 
Wife in the Highlands of Scotland, vii. 
140, 165 sq. ; on d fiscal, x. 151 n. 
Campe, near Stade, the Fox in the corn 

at, vii. 296 

Camphor, taboos observed in search for, 
i. 114 sq.\ telepathy in search for, i. 
124 sq.; special language employed by 
searchers for, iii. 405 sqq. ; custom 
observed in the search for, viii. 186 n. 
Camphor -.trees, ceremonies at cutting 

down, ui. 406 

Campo di Giove, in the Abruzzi, Easter 
candles at, x. 122 

Santo at Pisa, contest between 

angels and devils in the, ix 175 
Camul, custom as to hospitality in, v. 

39 * 

Canaanite kings of Jerusalem, v. 17 
Canaamtes, their custom of burning th'eir 

children in honour of Baal, iv. 168 
Canada, Indians of, their buhrf that winds 
are caused by a fish, i. 320 ; capture 
of souls by wizards among the, iii. 73 ; 
kept their names secret, m. 326 ; their 
ceremony for mitigating the cold of 
winter, iv. 259 sq. ; kept the bones of 
beavers from dogs, viii. 239 sq. ; 
would not eat the embryos of elks from 
fear of offending the mother-elks, viii. 
Canar (Cuenca), in Ecuador, human 

sacrifices at harvest in, vii. 236 
Canarese of South India, their euphemisms 
1 for a tiger, iii. 402 
Canarium nuts, first-fruits of, offered to 

ghosts in Solomon Islands, viti. 126 
Canary Islands, ram-making in the, by 
beating the sea, i. 301 



Canathus, Hera's annual bath in the 
spring of, v. 280 

Cancer, Tropic of, vii. 125 

Candaules, king of Lydia, murdered by 
Gyges, ii. 281 ; descended from Her- 
cules, ii. 282 ; and the double-headed 
axe, v. 182, 183 

Candle sent by Fire King to the King of 
Cambodia, ii. 5 sq. \ virginity tested 
by flame of, ii. 240, x. 139 n. ; the 
Easter or Paschal, x. 121, 122, 125 ; 
divination by the flame of a, at Hallow- 
e'en, x. 229 ; the Yule or Christmas, 
x. 255, 256, 260 ; external soul in a, 
xi. 125 sq. See also Candles 

and apple, biting at, a Hallowe'en 

sport, x. 241, 242, 243, 245 

Candlemas (February 2nd), dances at, to 
make flax grow tall, i. 138 ; Bridget's 
bed on the night before, ii. 94, 242 ; 
pea-soup and pigs' bones eaten at, vii. 
300 ; dances for the crops at, ix. 238 ; 
Lord of Misrule at, ix. 332, 333 ; in 
the Armenian church, bonfires at, x. 
131 ; the Yule log at, x. 256 n. 

candles, x. 264 n. 4 

Candles, Catholic practice of dedicating, 
i. 13 ; magical, used by burglars to cause 
sleep, i. 148, 149 ; made of human 
tallow and used by thieves, i. 236 ; 
lighted, tied to sacred oak, ii 372 ; 
twelve, on Twelfth Night, ix. 321 sq. ; 
burnt at the Feast of Purim, ix. 394 ; 
used to keep off witches, x. 245 

Candy, sugar, in homoeopathic magic, 

i. 157 

Canelos Indians of Ecuador, afraid of 
being photographed, iii. 97 ; their 
belief in the transmigration of human 
souls into jaguars, viii. 285 

Canicular year, a Sothic period, vi. 36 n. 2 

Cannibal banquets of the ancient Mexi- 
cans, viii. 92, ix. 279 H. 1 , 283, 298 

feast, legendary, at the Boeotian 

Orchomenus, iv. 164 

orgies among the Indians of North- 
West America, vii. 18 sqq. 

societies in ancient Greece and 

Africa, iv. 83 ; among the Indians of 
North- West America, vii. 20 sq. 

Spirit among the Haida Indians, 

Vii. 21 

Cannibalism, in Australia, perhaps in- 
tended to ensure the reincarnation of 
the dead, i. 106 sq. ; at hair-cutting in 
Fiji, iii. 264 ; in certain cases perhaps 
intended to form a blood -covenant 
with the dead, viii. 156 

Cannibals, taboos imposed on, among 
the Kwakiutl Indians, iii. 188 sqq. ; a 
secret society of the Kwakiutl Indians, 
vii. 30 

Cannons, toy, as regalia, i. 364 

Canoe, fish offered to, iii. 195 

Canoes, continence observed at building, 

iii. 202 
Canopus, town in Egypt, the decree of, 

vi. 27, 34 .*, 37 ., 88 . a 
Canopus, star, observed by the aborigines 

of Victoria, vii. 308 

and Sinus in Bushman lore, x. 333 

Cantabrian coast of Spain, belief as to 

death at ebb-tide on the, i. 167 
Cantabrians, mother-kin among the, ii. 

Canton, the province of, the Hak-Ka in, 

ix. 144 
, violence done to the rain-god at, 

in time of drought or excessive rain, 

i. 299 
Canute, King of England, his marriage 

with Emma, ii. 82 sq. 
Capaneus and Evadne, v. 177 . 8 
Capart, Jean, on palettes found in 

Egyptian tombs, xi. 155 . 3 
Cape Bedford in Queensland, belief of the 

natives as to the birth of children, v. 102 

Coast Castle, on the Gold Coast, 

annual expulsion of demons at, ix. 

132 W. 

Padron, in Guinea, priestly king 

near, iii. 5 

Vancouver, iii. 228, viii. 249 n. 1 

York Peninsula in Queensland, ex- 
traction of teeth among the natives of, 
i. 99, 100 ; the Gudangs of, iii. 346, 
359 ; seclusion of girls at puberty 
among the natives of, x. 37, 38 

Capena, the Porta, at Rome, i. 18 

Caper-spurge (Euphorbia lathyris) burned 
on May Day as a protection against 
witches, ix. 158 sq. ; identified with 
mythical spriugwort, xi. 69 

Capillary attraction in magic, i. 83 

Capital of column, external soul in, XL 
156 sq. 

Capital punishment among some peoples 
originally a sacrifice, v. 290 n? 

Capitol at Rome, temple of Jupiter on 
the, ii. 174, 176, 184; image of Jupiter 
on the, ii. 175 ; built by Romulus, ii. 
176 ; Jupiter worshipped on the, ii. 
361 ; ceremonies at the rebuilding of 
the, vi. 244 ; the oak of Jupiter OP the, 
xi. 89 

at Cirta, image of Jupiter on the, ii. 


Capitoline hill, Jupiter on the, ii. 184 ; 
hut of Romulus on the, ii. 200 

Cappadocia, volcanic region of, v. 189 
*qq. ; fire-worship in, v. 191 sq. ; the 
fire-walk at Castabala in, xi. 14 

Capri, feast of the Nativity of the Virgin 
in, x. 320 sff. 



Capricorn, Tropic of, vii. 125; time 
when the sun enters the, xi. z 

Caprificatio, ii. 314 ** 

Caprification, the artificial fertilization of 
fig-trees, ix. 257. See Fig-tree 

Caprificus, the wild fig-tree, ii. 314 sq., 
ix. 258 

Caps of clay worn by Australian widows 
in mourning, iii. 182 . a ; worn by 
Aino mourners, x. 20 

Captives killed and eaten, iil 179 sq. \ 
unbound in house of Flamen Dialis, 
iii. 316 

Car Nicobar, charm to make sunshine 
in, i. 314; exorcism in, v. 299 . 2 ; 
annual expulsion of devils in, ix. 201 sq. 

Carabas and Barabbas, ix. 418 sq. 

Caramantran, death of, on Ash Wednes- 
day in Provence, iv. 226 

Carayahis, tribe of Brazilian Indians, 
dialectical differences in the speech of 
men and women among the, 111. 348 sq. 

Carberry Kinncat, king of Ireland, mis- 
fortunes of his reign, i. 367 sq. 

Carcassone, hunting the wren at, viii. 
320 sq. 

Career! , Father S. , on the sacred king of 
the Nubas, iii. 132 n. 1 

Carchemish, Hittite capital on Euphrates, 
v. 123, 137 . 2 , 138 . 

Carchi, a province of Ecuador, All Souls' 
Day in, vi. 80 

Cardiganshire, Hallowe'en in, x 226 

Carew, R., on a Cornish custom, iv. 
ZS4 A. 1 

Caria, Zeus Labrandeus in, v. 182; 
poisonous vapours in, v. 205 sq. 

Carian Chersonese, viii. 85 

Carians, their mournings for Osiris, vi. 
86 n. 1 

Caribou, taboos concerning, iii. 208 

Caribs, war custom of the, i. 134 ; 
difference of language between men 
and women among the, iii. 348 ; their 
worship of the moon in preference to 
the sun, vi. 138 ; woman's share in 
agriculture among the, vii. 120; their 
belief in the homoeopathic magic of 
animal flesh, viii. 139 sq. ; young 
warriors among the, ate the heart of 
a bird of prey to acquire courage, 
viii. 162 ; their theory of the plurality 

Of SOUls, XI. 221 

Carinthia, Green George in, ii. 75, 343 ; 
bride-race in, ii. 304 ; ceremony at the 
installation of a prince of, iv. 154 sq. \ 
harvest custom in, vii. 224 sq. ; new 
fire at Easter in, x. 124 

Caripunas Indians of Brazil, use of bull- 
roarers among the, xi. 230 n. 

Carley, the last bunch of corn at harvest 
in Antrim, vii. 144 

Carlin or Carline, "the Old Woman," 
female figure formed out of the last 
corn cut at harvest, vii. 140 

Carlyle, Thomas, on the execution of the 
astronomer Bailly, v. 229 n. 1 

Carman ( Wexford), the fair of, iv. 100, zoi 

Carmichael, Alexander, on need-fire, x. 
293 sqq. ; on snake-stones, xi. 311 

Carmona, in Andalusia, annual ceremony 
observed by disguised boys at, ix. 173 

Cam Brea, in Cornwall, Midsummer fires 
on, x. 199 

Carna, nymph, won by Janus, ii. 190, 
vi. 235 . 8 

Carnac, in Egypt, temples at, vi. 124 ; 
sculptures at, vi. 154. See also Karnak 

Carnarvonshire, the cutty black sow at 
Hallowe'en in, x. 240 

Carmola, "Sawing the Old Woman" 
at Mid-Lent in, iv. 242 

Carnival, dances at the, to make hemp 
grow tall, i. 137 ; a sort of, at Fazoqi 
on the Blue Nile, iv. 17 ; burying the, 
iv. 209, 220 sqq. ; the burial and re- 
surrection of the, an expression of the 
death and revival of vegetation, iv. 252 ; 
swings taken down at, iv. 287 ; at 
Rome in the rites of Attis, v. 273 ; 
modern Thracian drama at the, vi. 
99 sq. t vii. 26 sqq. t viii. 331 sqq. \ 
similar masquerade in Bulgaria at, 
viii. 333 sq. \ bell-ringing processions 
at the, ix. 247 ; Senseless Thurs- 
day in, ix. 248 ; in relation to the 
Saturnalia, ix. 3x2, 345 sqq. ; effigy 
burnt at end of, x. 120 ; wicker giants 
at the, xi. 35 

and Purim, ix. 394 

or Shrovetide Bear in Bohemia, vui. 

325 V- 

(Shrovetide) Fool," iv. 231 

Cam moor, in Mull, need-fire kindled on, 
x. 289 sq. 

Carnwath, in Cornwall, Midsummer fires 
at, x. 199 

Carolina, Indians of, king's son wounded 
among the, iv. 184 sq. ; their fear of 
harming snakes, viii. 217 

Caroline Islands, treatment of the navel- 
string in the, i. 184 sq. \ Ponape in the, 
i. 401 n. 9 , hi. 25, 259, 362 ; Uap 
(Yap) in the, iii. 193, 227, 282, 290, 
293, vi. 265, x. 36 ; taboos on fibher- 
men in the, iii. 193 ; wizards in the, 
iii. 290 ; traditionary origin of fire in 
the, xi. 295 

Caron's Account of Japan , iii. 4 n. 8 

Carp clan of the Otawa Indians, viii. 
225 n. 1 

Carpathian Mountains, the Huzuls of the, 
i. 113, 137. 280, iii. 270, 314, 396, 
397. viii. 43 *- 1 . 75. * 3 a V- ** 40 : 



Midsummer fires in the, z. 175 ; need- 
fire in the, x. 281 

Carpathus, fear of having one's likeness 
taken iu, iii. 100 ; laying out of corpses 
in, iii. 313 sq. See also Karpathos 
Carpenter, son of, as a human god, i. 

Carpentras in Provence, rain-making at, 
i. 307 

Carpet-snakes, magical ceremony for the 
multiplication of, L 90 

Carpini, de Piano, on funeral customs of 
the Mongols, v. 293 

Carrier Indians of North - Western 
America, their magic to snare martens, 
i. no ; their contagious magic of foot- 
prints, i. 210; their chastity before 
hunting, iii. 197 ; confession of sins 
among the, iii. 215; their belief in 
the reincarnation of the dead, iii. 367 
sq. \ succession to the soul among the, 
iv. 199 ; their regard for the bones of 
martens and beavers, viii. 238 sq. ; 
funeral custom of the, x. i x ; their 
dread and seclusion of menstruous 
women, x. 91 sqq. ; their honorific 
totems, xi. 273 sqq. 

"Carrying out Death," iv. 221, 233 
sqq. , 246 sqq. , ix. 227 sq. , 230, 252 

Carthage, Christians worshipping each 
other at, i. 407 ; legend and worship 
of Dido at, v. 113 sq. ; Hamilcar wor- 
shipped at, v. 116 ; the su/etes of, v. 
x 16 Ti. 1 ; rites of Cybele at, v. 274 . ; 
the effeminate priests of the Great 
Mother at, v. 298 ; legend as to the 
foundation of, vi. 250 

Carthaginian sacrifice of children to 
Moloch, iv. 75 ; to Baal, iv. 167 sq. 

Carver, Captain Jonathan, on the rite 
of death and resurrection among the 
Naudowessies, xi. 267 sq. 

Casablanca in Morocco, ix. 21 ; Mid- 
summer fires at, x. 214 

Casalis, E., on purification of Basuto 
warriors, iii. 172 ; on Zulu serpent- 
worship, v. 84 ; on the worship of the 
dead among the Basutos, vi. 179 sq. 

Cashmeer, the Takhas of, i. 383 ; bulls 
as scapegoats in, ix. 190 . 5 

Cashmeer stories of the external soul, ix. 
100 sq., 138 w. 1 

Caspar, Melchior, and Balthasar, the 
Three Kings of Twelfth Day, ix. 329 
sqq., xi. 68 

Cassange Valley in Angola, the Rangalas 
of the, ii. 293 ; human sacrifice at 
installation of king of, iv. 56 sq. ; 
kings of, their teeth preserved after 
death, iv. 203 

Cassava or manioc cultivated by South 
American Indians, vii. 120 sq., i?2 

Cassel, in France, wicker giants on 
Shrove Tuesday at, xi. 35 

Cassotis, oracular spring at Delphi, iv. 79 

Cassowaries, souls of dead in, viii. 295 ; 
imitated by masked dancers, ix. 382 ; 
men disguised as, in Dukduk cere- 
monies, xi. 247 

Cassowary totem in Mabuiag, viii. 207 

Castabala in Cappadocia, the fire-walk 
at, v. 115, 168, xi. 14 

in Cilicia, worship of Perasian 

Artemis at, v. 167 sqq. 

Castabus, in the Carian Chersonese, 
sanctuary of Hemithea at, viii. 24 
8 S 

Castaly, the oracular spring of, at Delphi, 
iv. 79 

Castel Gandolfo, on the Alban Lake, i. 2 

Castellamare, seven-legged effigy of Lent 
at, iv. 245 

Castel nau, F. de, on the reverence of the 
Apinagos for the moon, vi. 146 sq. 

Castighone a Casauria, in the Abruzzi, 
Midsummer customs at, v. 246, x. 210 

Castilian peasants, their dances in May, 
ix. 280 

Casting the skin supposed to be a mode 
of renewing youth, ix. 302 sqq. 

Castle Ditches, in the Vale of Glamorgan, 
bonfires at, x. 156 

Castor and Pollux thought to attend the 
Spartan kings, i. 49 sq. ; their appear- 
ance in battle, i. 50 

Castor's tune, v. 196 . 8 

Castration, religious, in honour of Cybele, 
ii. 144 sq. ; practised by a modern 
sect in Russia, ii. 145 ; of Cronus and 
Uranus, v. 283 ; of sky-god, suggested 
explanation of, v. 283 ; of priests, sug- 
gested explanation of, v. 283 sq. 

Castres, in Southern France, xi. 187 

Casuarina leptoclada in magic, i. 213 

Cat, blind, in homoeopathic magic, i. 153 ; 
wetted as a rain-charm, i. 262, 289 ; 
black, in rain-charm, i. 291 ; stone re- 
sembling a, used in rain-making, i. 308 
sq. ; corn-spirit as, vii. 280 sq. ; killed 
at harvest, vii. 281 ; fever transferred 
to a, ix. 51 ; a representative of the 
devil, xi. 40 ; story of a clan whose 
souls were all in one, xi. 150 sq. ; a 
Batta totem, xi. 223. See also Cats 

Cat's cradle forbidden to boys among 
the Esquimaux, i. 113 ; as a charm to__ 
arrest the sun, i. 316 sq. t vii. 
as a charm to promote 
the crops, vii. 101, io 
savages, vii. 103 .i / 

tail, name given Af Jast 4tandin? 
n, viii. 268 

Catafalque burnt at j 
Siam, v. 179 


Catalangans of Luzon offer first-fruits to 
the souls of their ancestors, viii. 124 

Catalonia, funeral of Carnival in, iv. 225 

Catania in Sicily, the vineyards of, v. 
194 ; gardens of Adonis at, v. 245 

Catat, Dr. , his difficulty in photograph- 
ing in Madagascar, iii. 98 

Caterpillars, superstitious precautions 
against, viii. 275 sq. , 279, 280 ; bon- 
fires as a protection against, x. 114 

Catgut plant in homoeopathic magic, i. 

Catholic Church, ritual of the, v.. 54 ; 
ceremonies on Good Friday in the, v. 
254, 255 sq.\ institutes feasts of All 
Saints and All Souls, vi. 83 ; enjoins 
continence during Lent, ix. 348 ; con- 
secrates the Midsummer festival to St. 
John the Baptist, x. 181 

custom of dedicating candles, i. 13 ; 
as to partaking of the Eucharist, viii. 
83 ; of eating effigies of the Madonna, 
viii. 94 

Germany, St. Leonhard in, i. 7 

times in Scandinavia, i. 16 

Catlin, George, on the power of medicine- 
men in North America, i. 356 ; on the 
conciliation of the spirits of slain foes, 
iii. 182 

Cato, the Elder, on dedication of Ancian 
grove to Diana, i. 22, 23 ; on expiation 
for thinning a grove, ii. 122 ; on the 
fodder of cattle, ii. 328 n. 1 ; on lucky 
and unlucky trees, ui. 275 . 3 ; on a 
Roman cure for dislocation, xi. 177 

Cats worshipped m Egypt, i. 29 sq. ; 
witches changed into, ii. 334, x. 315 
"- 1 . 3 J 7. 3*8, 319 sq. t xi. 311 sq. \ 
with stumpy tails, reason of, iii. 128 *q. ; 
burnt in bonfires, x. 109, xi. 39 sq ; 
perhaps burnt as witches, xi. 41. See 
also Cat 

Cattle, magical stones for the increase 
of, i. 162 ; Zulu charm to recover 
strayed, i. 212 ; fire tied to tails of, in 
rain-charm, i. 303 ; sacrificed in rain- 
making, i. 350; influence of tree-spirits 
on, ii. 50 sq., 55, 124 sq. crowned, 
s a protection against witchcraft, 11. 
75, 126 sq., 339, 341 ; under the pro- 
tection of woodland spirits, ii. 124 <q.\ 
crowned at the Ambarvalia, ii. 127 . 2 ; 
and milk, importance of, for the early 
Italians, ii. 324 ; Roman personal 
names derived from, ii. 324 n. 1 ; 
driven to pasture for the first time 
on St. George's Day, ii. 331 ; bred 
by the people of the Italian pile vil- 
lages, ii. 353.*; continence observed 
for sake of, ill 204 ; protected against 
wolves by charms, iii. 307 ; sacrificed 
Instead of human beings, iv. 166 n. 1 ; 

driven out to pasture at Whitsuntide, 
iv. 207 n. 1 ; last sheaf given to, vii. 

Z 34 I 55> J 5 8 > l6l > Z 7: (plough 
oxen) Yule or Christmas Boar given 
to the, vii. 301, 302, 303 ; worship 
of, viii. 35, 37 sqq. ; first-fruits offered 
to, viii. 118 ; ceremony for recover- 
ing lost, ix. 14 ; disease of, transferred 
to scapegoats, ix. 32 sq. ; exposed to 
attacks of witches, ix. 162 ; beaten to 
do them good, ix. 266 sq. ; sacrificed 
at holy oak, x. 181 ; protected against 
sorcery by sprigs of mullein, x. 190 ; 
fire carried round, x. 201 , 206 ; driven 
out to pasture in spring and back in 
autumn, x. 223 ; acquire the gift of 
speech on Christmas Eve, x. 254 ; 
driven through the need-fire, x. 270 
sqq. ; killed by fairy darts, x. 303 ; 
lighted brands carried round, x. 341 ; 
thought to benefit by festivals of fire, 
xi. 4, 7 ; fumigated with smoke of Mid- 
summer herbs, xi. 53. See also Cows 

Cattle and sheep driven through, round, 
or between bonfires, ii. 327, x. 108, 
109, 141, 154, 157, 158, 159, 165, 
I 75. i?^, 179, 185, 188, 192, 202, 
203, 204, 285, 301, xi. 8, 9, ii sq., 13 

Cattle disease, the Midsummer fires a 
protection against, x. 176 ; attributed 
to witchcraft, x. 302 sq. t 343. See 
al*o Murrain 

-plague, need - fire kindled as a 

remedy for, x. 270 sqq. ; sacrifice of 
an animal to stay a, x. 300 sqq. 

rearing tnl>cs of South Africa, their 

dread of rnenstruous women, x. 79 sg. 
stall, the, at Athens, ii. 137 

Catullus on Diana, i. 6, 16 ; on self- 
mutilation of a priest of Attis, v. 270 

Caucasus, the Pshaws of the, i. 182 ; the 
Chewsurs of the, i. 282, vi. 65 ; the 
Abchases of the, i. 282 n. 4 , ii. 370, 
vin. 105 ; the Albanians of the, iii. 
349. v. 73, ix. 218 ; the Cheremiss of 
the, iii. 391 ; funeral games among 
the people of the, iv. 97 sq. ; sacraments 
of pastoral trite in the, viii. 313 

Caul, children tiorn uith a, can see spirits 
and are counted lucky, i. 1^7 sq., 199; 
used to fertilize a rice-field, i. 190 sq. ; 
guardian spirit of child thought to re- 
side in its, i. 199 sq. See also Cauls 

Caul-fat extracted by Australian enemies, 
iii. 303 ; human, ruhtad on body as a 
magical ointment, viii. 162 

"Cauld aim," a protective charm, iii. 233 

Cauldron, the magical, which makes the 
old young again, v. 181 

Cauls bought by advocates, i. 199 

Caunians of Asia Minor, their expulsion 
of foreign gods, ix. 116 



Causal sequences in nature, recognition 
of, i. 374 

Cauxanas, Indian tribe of the Amazon, kill 
all their first-born children, iv. 185 sq. 

Cava, preparation and drinking of, viii. 131 

Cavan, County, legendary idol in, iv. 183 

Cave, spirit of, worshipped, i. 302 ; human 
god in, i. 394 sq. ; of Apollo at Hylae, 
i. 386 ; spirit of reindeer in, viii. 245 ; 
initiation of medicine-men by spirits in, 
xi. 237 sqq. See also Caves 

Cave of Cruachan, the " Hell-gate of 
Ireland," x. 226 

Caverns of Demeter, v. 88 

Caves, prehistoric paintings of animals 
in, i. 87 . J ; in which ceremonies for 
producing rain are performed, i. 301 
sq. \ limestone, v. 152 ; in Semitic 
religion, v. 169 n.* See aho Cave 

Cavo, Monte, in the Alban Hills, i. 2 

Cawthorne, in Yorkshire, May garlands 
(hoops) at, ii. 62 sq. 

Caxton, in Cambridgeshire, ii. 71 n. 1 

Cay eh, in Bum, sacrifice of girl to croco- 
dile in, ii. 152 

Cayenne, the Indians of, their belief in 
the transmigration of human souls into 
fish, viii. 285 

Cayor, in Senegal, king of, not allowed 
to cross the river or the sea, iii. 9 

Cayzac, P., on confession among the 
Akikuyu, iii. 214 

Cazembe, the king of, not to be seen 
drinking, iii. 118 

Cazembes, the, of Angola, their dread 
of contact witii their king, in. 132 sq. 

Cecrops, first king of Attica, married the 
daughter of his predecessor, n. 277; 
said to have instituted marriage, ii. 
284 ; half-serpent, half-man, iv. 86 sq. ; 
father of Agraulus, v. 145 ; father of 
Pandion, vii. 70 ; institutes the festival 
of Cronus, ix. 351 

Cedar, sacred, in Gilgit, ii. 49, 50 sq. ; 
smoke of, inhaled as mode of inspira- 
tion, i. 383 sq. 

sprung from the body of Osiris, 

vi. no 

Cedar -bark, ornaments of, worn in 
dances, ix. 376 ; red. used in cere- 
monies of a secret society, xi. 271 

forests of Cilicia, v. 149, 150 n. 1 

tree, girl annually sacrificed to, ii. 

17 ; Osiris interpreted as a cedar- tree 
god, vi. 109 . J 

wood burned as a religious rite, 

ii. 130 

Ceklinj, in Crnagora, divination on St. 

George's morning at, ii. 345 
Celaenae in Phrygia, skin of Marsyas 

shown at, v. 288 ; home of Lityerses, 

vii. 217 

Celebes, the Buginese of, i. 158, iv. 277 ; 
rain - making in, i. 277 ; magical 
virtue of regalia in, i. 362 sqq. ; Loowoo 
in, i. 364 ; fear of offending forest-spirits 
in, ii. 40; hooking souls in, iii. 30; 
the Alfoors of, iii. 33, 129, 260; Bo- 
lang Mongando in, iii. 53, viii. 54, ix. 
i2i n. 3 ; Minahassa in, iii. 63, 99, iv. 
214, vii. 296, viii. 100, 123, 153 ; exor- 
cism of spirits by means of rice in, ill 
1 06 ; propitiation of the souls of slain 
enemies in, iii. 166 ; the Toumbuluh 
tribe of, iii. 295, 298 ; Poso in, iii. 332, 
vii. 236, viii. 244 ; Boni in, iv. 40 ; 
the Hantiks of, iv. 130 n. ; sanctity of 
regalia in, iv. 202 ; the Macassars of, 
iv. 277 ; conduct of the inhabitants in 
an earthquake, v. 200; division of 
agricultural work between the sexes in, 
vii. 124 ; obser ation of the Pleiades in, 
vii. 313 ; customs as to eating the new 
rice in, viii. 54 ; harvest festivals in, 
vin 122 sq. ; kinship of men with 
crocodiles in, viii. 212 ; precautions 
against mice in, viii. 277 sq. \ slicks 
or stones piled on scenes of violent 
death in, ix. 15 ; Macassar in, x. 14 ; 
souls of persons removed for safety 
from their bodies in, xi. 153 sq. 

.Cential, ix. 122 . ; theToradjas of, L 

109, 114, 129, 159, 172, 253, 271, 286, 
303, ii. 39, 113, iii. 62, in, 263, 

340. 373 > yi- 33. vii - l82 a- 1 ! l8 3 
228, 295, viii. 153, ix. 34, 112 . a , 
265, x. 311 sqq. \ Parigi in, i. 188 ; 
the Tolalaki of, i. 188, ii. in, viii. 
152; the Toboongkoos of, i. 189, ii. 
28, 35, iii. 48, 78, iv. 219; the 
Tomon of, i. 189, ii. 29, 35, no, 
vii. 193, 288 ; Poso in, ii. 29, 35, iii. 
411, vii. 194 ; rice strewn on heads of 
warriors after a raid in, iii. 36 ; the 
Tolindoos of, iii. 78 ; the Tolampoos 
of, iii. 319 

, Northern, Minahassa in, L 382, 

vni. 54, ix. in sq. 

, Southern, treatment of the navel- 
string and afterbirth in, i. 189 sq. \ 
ram-charm by means of a cat in, L 
289 ; the Toorat-eyas of, i. 361 ; cus- 
toms at childbirth in, ii. 32, iii. 32, 
245 ; the Macassars and Buginecse of, 
ii. no ; rice strewn on heads of bride- 
grooms and victors in, iii. 35 sq. \ rule 
as to treatment of a prince's corpse 
in, iii. 238 ; marriage custom in, vi 
260 ; birth-trees in, xi. 164 

, West, Bolang Mongondo in, iii. 

341, 376, ix. 85, 121 
Celenderis in Cilicia, v. 41 

Celestial power acquired by inoculation, 
viii. 1 60 sq. 



Celeus, king of Eleusis, vii. 37; and 

Demeter, viii. 334 
Celibacy of holy milkmen, iii. 15, 16; of 

the Vestal Virgins, x. 138 . 
Celtic bisection of the year, x. 223 

calendar of Coligny, i. 17 .* 

divinity akin to Artemis, ii. 126 

festival of the dead, vi. 82 

and Italian languages akin, ii. 189 

population, their superstition as to 

Snake Stones, x. 15 
stories of the external soul, xi. 

126 sqq. 

Vestals, ii. 241 n. 1 

year reckoned from November ist, 
vi. 81 

Celts, their worship of the oak, ii. 9, 
362 sq. , xl 89 ; their worship of the 
Huntress Artemis, ii. 125 sq. \ their 
worship of Arduinna, ii. 126 ; holy 
fires tended by virgins among the, ii. 
240 ; in Asia, ii. 363 ; their theory of 
names, iii. 319 ; their festival of All 
Souls, vi. 8 1 sq. ; their mode of fore- 
casting the weather of the year, ix. 
323 sq. ; their two great fire-festivals on 
the Eve of May Day and Hallowe'en, 
x. 222, 224 

, the British, their chief fire-festivals, 

Beltane and Hallowe'en, xi. 40 sq. 

of Brittany, their use of mistletoe, 

xi. 320 

of Gaul, their harvest festival, i. 
17 ; their indifference to death, iv. 
142 sq. ; their calendar, ix. 342 sqq. \ 
their human sacrifices, xi. 32 sq. ; the 
victims perhaps witches and wizards, 
xi. 41 sq. \ W. Mannhardt's theory of 
the sacrifices, xi. 43 

of Ireland, their belief in the blight- 
ing effect of incest, n. 116 ; their new 
fire on Hallowe'en, x. 139 

of northern Italy, xi. 320 

Celts (prehistoric implements), called 
"thunderbolts," x. 14 sq. 

Cemeteries, cut hair and nails buried in, 
iii. 274 ; fairs held at, iv. 101, 102 

Cenaed, king of the Scots, ii. 286 

Censorinus, on the date of the rising of 
Sirius, vi. 34 n. 1 ; on the octennial 
cycle, vii. 81 . 4 , 82 n. 2 , 86 sq. 

Centipedes not to be called by their 
proper name, iii. 407, 411 

Central Provinces of India, belief as to 
twins in, i. 269 ; use of frogs in rain- 
charms in, i. 293 ; ceremonies observed 
by rearers of silk-worms in the, iii. 
>94 ** ; gardens of Adonis in the, v. 
242 sq. \ custom as to cutting the last 
corn at harvest in the, vii. 222 . 8 ; 
the Parjas of the, viii. 27 sq., 28, 119; 
customs as to first-fruits in the, viii. 

xx8 sq. ; the Gadbas of the, viii. 118 ; 
the Mannewars of the, viii. 119 ; 
the Nahals of the, viii. 119; cholera 
expelled by means of chickens in the, 
ix. 190 ; cure for fever in the, xi. 190 

Ceos, Greek island of, funeral customs 
in, i. 105 ; the rising of Sirius observed 
in, vi. 35 n. 1 ; rule as to the pollution 
of death in, vi. 227 ; sick children 
passed through a cleft oak in, xi. 172 

Ceram, i. 125 ; treatment of the navel- 
string in, i. 187 ; rain-making in, i. 
248 ; Alfoors of, their veneration for 
their high-priest, i. 400 ; expiation for 
unchastity in, ii. 109 n. 1 ; rule as to 
girl scratching herself in, iii. 146 n. 1 ; 
fear of women's blood in, in. 251 ; 
men do not crop their hair in, iii. 260 ; 
division of agricultural work between 
the sexes in, vii. 124 ; ceremony at 
eating the new rice in, viii. 54 ; offer- 
ings of first-fruits to ancestors in, viii. 
123 ; kinship of men with crocodiles 
in, viii. 212 ; sicknesses expelled in 
a ship from, ix. 185 ; sickness trans- 
ferred to branches m, ix. 186 ; seclusion 
of girls at puberty in, x. 36 ; belief that 
strength of young people is in their 
hair in, xi. 158 ; rites of initiation to the 
Kakian association in, xi. 249 sqq. 

Ceramicus, the, at Athens, graves of 
warriors in, iv. 96 

Cereal deity, vm. 52, 83 

Cereals cultivated in ancient Egypt, vi. 
30 ; in Europe, antiquity of the culti- 
vation of, vn. 79 ; cultivated by the 
early Aryans, vn. 132 

Ceremonial purity observed in war, iii. 
157. See Purity, Chastity, Continence 

Ceremonies at cutting down haunted trees, 
n. 34 sqq. ; at the reception of strangers, 
iii. 102 sqq. ; at entering a strange land, 
iii. logsqq.; after slaughter of panthers, 
lions, bears, serpents, etc. , iii. 2x9 sqq. \ 
at haircutting, in. 264 sqq. 

, initiatory, of Central Australian 

aborigines, i. 92 sqq. 

, magical, for the multiplication of 

totems, i. 85 sqq. for the regulation 
of the seasons, v. 3 sqq. ; to ensure 
fertility of women, x. 23 sq., 31 

, purificatory, on return from a 

journey, iii. in sqq. 

Ceremony of the Horse at rice-harvest 
among the Garos, viii. 337 sqq. 

Ceres, names of fathers and daughters 
tabooed during the rites of, iii. 337 ; 
married to Orcus, vi. 231 ; corn the 
gift of, vii. 42; the, in France, vii. 
135 ; festival of, vii. 297 n. 6 ; Roman 
sacrifices to, viii. 133 ; first ears of corn 
sacrificed to, viii. 133 



Ceruvlus muntjac, species of deer, sup- 
posed to house the soul of an ancestor, 
viii. 294 

Ceruus equinus, a species of deer, claimed 
as relations by Malanaus in Borneo, 
viii. 294 

Cetchwayo, king of Zululand, iii. 377 

Cetraro in Calabria, Easter custom at, 
x. 123 

Ceylon, deega and beena marriage in, ii. 
271 a. 1 , vi. 215 ; custom of tying a 
knot on a threshing-floor in, in. 308 
sq. ; sanctity of the threshing-floor in, 
viii. no . 4 ; fear of demons in, ix. 
94 sq. ; the king of, and his external 
soul, xi. 1 02 

Chaco, the Gran, Lengua Indians of, i. 
3*3. 330. 359. i. 38, 357. iv. u, 63, 
viii. 245 ; the Guaycurus of, iii. 357, 
vii. 309 ; the Matacos of, x. 58, 59 ; 
the Tobas of, x. 59 ; marriage custom 
of Indians of, x. 75 ; Indians of, their 
treatment of a wound, x. 98 n. 1 

, the Paraguayan, ix. 78, x. 56, 

7S- 8 

Chad wars of the Central Provinces, India, 
expiation for slaughter of totem ic 
animal among the, vm. 28 

Chadwick, Professor H. M , on female 
descent of kingship in Greece and 
Sweden, ii. 278 n. 1 ; on the story of 
Hamlet, ii. 281 w. a ; on the marriage 
of Canute and Emma, ii. 283 n. l \ on 
the festival of October ist, vi. 81 n. 3 ; 
on the dismemberment of Ilalfd.m the 
Black, vi. 100 . 2 ; on a priest dressed 
as a woman, vi. 259 w. 2 ; on a passage 
in the Voluspa, x. 103 n. 

Chaeronea, the sceptre of Agamemnon 
worshipped at, i. 365; the "expulsion 
of hunger " at, ix. 252 

Chain used to expel demons, ix. 260 

Chains, iron, worn as amulets, iii. 235 ; 
clanked as a protection against witches, 
ix. 163 ; clanked in masquerade, ix. 244 

Chait, an Indian month, ii. 149, viii. 

Chaka, the Zulu despot, iv. 36 sq., viii. 
67, xi. 212 n. \ as a diviner, i. 350 

Chaldean priests as to the human wife 
of Hel, ii. 129 sq. 

Chaldeans, magic of, ix. 64 

Chalk, white, bodies of newly initiated 
lads coated with, xi. 241 

Chalk mark on brow a pi otcction against 
a ghost, iii. 1 86 n. 1 

Chalking up crosses as a protection 
against witches, ix. 160, 162, 165 ; on 
Twelfth Night, ix. 314, 315 n., 331 

Chama, town on the Gold Coast, Horse- 
mackerel people at, iv. 129 

Chamar caste in the Punjaub, ix. 196 

Chamba, in India, ceremony at the 
funeral of a Rani of, ix. 45 

Chambers, E. K., on the Festival of 
Fools, ix. 336 n. 1 ; on the Celtic bi- 
section of the year, x. 223 

Chambe*ry, the harvest Wolf near, vii. 
275 ; "the wound of the Ox " at 
harvest near, vii. 288 ; ' ' killing the 
Ox" at threshing at, vii. 291 

Chambezi river in Central Africa, ii. 277 

Chameleon, ceremony at killing a, ix. 28 

Champion at English coronation cere- 
mony, ii. 322 

Chams, the, of Indo-China, their taboos 
in search for eagle- wood, i. 120 ; their 
homoeopathic magic at sowing, i. 144; 
precautions against ghosts among the, 
i. 280 ; their fear of waking the rice at 
mid-day, ii. 28 sq. ; their traditions of 
human victims lacrificed by drowning, 
ii. 159 ; continence at the making of a 
dam among the, in. 202 ; open cattle- 
stalls and unyoke ploughs to aid 
women in childbed, iii. 297 ; use an 
artificial jargon in searching for eagle- 
wood, iii. 404 ; their story of the type 
of Beauty and the Beast, iv. 130 n. 1 ; 
their ceremonies at ploughing, sowing, 
reaping and eating the new rice, viii. 
56 sqq. ; their sacrifices to the "god 
rat," viii. 283; their belief in trans- 
migration, viii. 291 sq. 

Chang, the house of, ancient Chinese 
family, i. 413 

Change in date of Egyptian festivals with 
the adoption of the fixed Alexandrian 
year, vi. 92 sgq. 

of language caused by taboo on the 

names of the dead, iii. 358 sqq. , 375 ; 
caused by taboo on names of chiefs and 
kings, iii. 375, 376 sqq. 

of name to deceive ghosts, iii. 354 

sqq. ; as a cure for ill health, iv. 158 

Changes of shape, magical, vii. 305 

Chants, plaintive, of corn -reapers in 
antiquity, vi. 45 sq. 

"Charcoal Man" at Midsummer, xi. 
26 . 2 

Charente InfeYieure, department of, 
St. John's fires in the, x. 192 

Chariot m ram -charm, i. 309 ; proces- 
sion with god riding in a, ii. 130; 
patient drawn through the yoke of a, 
xi. 192 

and horses dedicated to the sun, i. 

Chariot-race at Olympia, iv. 91, 104 sq. t 

287 ; annual, on the Field of Mars at 

Rome, viii. 42 

races in honour of the dead, iv. 93 

Chariots, epidemics sent away in toy, ix. 

193 sq. ; used by sacred persons, x. 4 . ! 



Charlemagne, x. 270 ; compared to 

Osiris, vi. 199 

Charles I. touches for scrofula, i. 368 
Charles II. touches for scrofula, i. 368 

sq. \ champion at his coronation, ii. 

Charlotte Waters, in Central Australia, 

the Blind Tree at, i. 147 
Charm to protect a town, vi. 249 sqg. 
Charms to ensure long life, i. 168 sq. ; 

to prevent the sun from going down, 

i. 316 sqq. \ to facilitate childbirth, 

iii. 295 sq. See also Amulets, Magic, 


Charon, places of, v. 204, 205 
Charonia, places of Charon, v. 204 
Chasas of Orissa believe that leprosy is 

caused by injuring a totemic animal, 

viii. 26 sq. 
"Chasing the Wild Man out of the 

bush," a Whitsuntide custom, iv. 

208 sq. 
'Chasms of Demeter and Persephone," 

viii. 17 
Chaste young men kindle need-fire, x. 


Chastity observed for sake of alsent 
persons, L 123, 124, 125, 131 ; re- 
quired of rain-doctor, i. 271 ; prac- 
tised to make the crops grow, ii 104 
sqq. ; required of persons who handle 
dishes and food, 11. 115 sq., 205 ; 
Milton on, ii. 118 w. 1 ; as a virtue 
not understood by savages, ii. 118 ; 
observed by sacred men, perhaps the 
husbands of a goddess, ii. 135, 136 ; 
observed by sacred women, ii. 137 ; 
observed by women in making pottery, 
ii. 204 ; required in those who make 
fire by friction, ii. 238 sq. observed 
by women at festival of the corn- 
goddess, v. 43; ordeal of, v. 115 
. 2 ; required in sower of seed, vii. 
115 sq. ; observed by matrons at 
the Thesmophoria, vii. 116 ; required 
in service of sacred serpent, viii. 18 ; 
required of hunter before hunting bears, 
viii. 226 ; associated with abstinence 
from salt, x. 27 sq. See also Continence 

Chateau-Thierry, Midsummer fires at, x. 
187 sq. 

Chateaubriand, his description of the 
Natchez festival, viii. 135 sqq. 

Chatham Islands, birth-trees in the, XL 

Chatti, German tribe, their custom as to 
their hair, iii. 262 

Chauci, a German tribe, on the North 
Sea, ii. 353 

Chauta, Master, prayer for rain to, i. 250 

Ckavandes, bonfires on the first Sunday 
in Lent, z. 109 . a 

Chavantes, Indian tribe of the Tocantini 
River, iv. 12 . 5 

Cheadle, in Staffordshire, the Yule log 
at, x. 256 

Cheese, eaten by human scapegoat before 
being put to death, ix. 255 ; the 
Beltane, kept as a charm against the 
bewitching of milk- produce, x. 154 

Cheese Monday, the Monday of the last 
week in Carnival ..celebrated by Thracian 
and Bulgarian peasants, vii. 26, viii. 333 

Chegilla, food taboos in Congo, iii. 137 

Cheltenham, Jack -in -the -Green at, ii. 
82 sq. 

Chemakum tribe of Washington State, 
prohibition to mention the names of 
the dead in the, hi. 365 

Chemistry, alchemy leads up to, i. 374 

Chemmis in Egypt, temple of Perseus at, 
iii. 312 . 2 

Chine-Dor^ "the gilded oak," in Perche, 
xi. 287 n. 1 

Chen our azah, king of the Maldive 
Islands, ii. 153 

Ghent- Ament (Khenti-Amenti), title of 
Osiris, vi. 87 

Chephren, king of Egypt, his statue, vi. 
21 sq. 

Chepstow oak, in Gloucestershire, mistle- 
toe on the, xi. 316 

Cheremiss, the, of Russia, their sacred 
groves, ii. 44 ; will not fell trees 
while the corn is in bloom, ii. 49 ; 
keep the names of their villages secret, 
iii. 391 ; their custom at eating the 
new corn, viii. 51 ; offer cakes instead 
of horses, viii. 95 . a ; their expulsion 
of Satan, ix. 156; their Midsummer 
festival, x. 181 

Chero, the, of Mirzapur, their contagious 
magic of footprints, i. 209 

Cherokee Indians, their myth of the Old 
Woman of the Corn, vi. 46 sq. \ their 
lamentations after ' ' the first working 
of the corn," vi. 47 ; annual expulsion 
of evils among the, ix. 128. See also 

hunters pray to the eagles they have 

killed, viii. 236 ; ask pardon of the 
deer they kill, viii. 241 

mythology, viii. 204 sq. 

sorcery with spittle, iii. 287 sq. 

Cherokees, homoeopathic magic of plants 
among the, i. 144, 146 sq. ; their 
charms to ensure success in ball* 
playing, i. 144, 155 ; foods avoided by 
the, on homoeopathic principles, i. 155; 
homoeopathic magic of animals among 
the, i. 155 sq t ; their charm to become 
good singers, i. 156; their charm to 
strengthen a child's grip, i. 156 ; their 
mode of averting an evil omeu, i. 179 ; 



their custom as to children's cast 
teeth, i. 180 ; their treatment of the 
navel-string, i. 198 ; their mode of 
averting a storm, i. 321 ; try to deceive 
the spirits of rattlesnakes and eagles, 
iii. 399 ; think that to step over a vine 
blasts it, iii. 424 ; personify maize as 
an Old Woman, vii. 177 ; their way 
of attracting the corn, vii. 190; their 
festival of first-fruits, viii. 72 n. 8 ; their 
belief in the homoeopathic magic of 
the flesh of animals, viii. 139; no clear 
distinction between animals and men 
in their mythology, vm. 204 sq. \ their 
respect for rattlesnakes, viii. 218 sq. \ 
their ceremonies at killing a wolf, 
viii. 220 sg. ; their propitiation of the 
eagles which they have killed, viii. 236 ; 
their custom of removing the hamstring 
of deer, viii. 266 ; their sacred arks, 
x. 1 1 sq. their ideas as to trees struck 
by lightning, xi. 296 sq. 

Cherrmgton, in Warwickshire, the Queen 
of May at, ii. 88 

Cherry-tree, charm to make it bear fruit, 
i. 141 ; wood used for Yule log, x. 

-trees, branches of, used to lieat 

people with in the Christmas holidays, 
ix. 270; torches thrown at, x. 108 

Chersonese, the Thracian, iv. 93 
Chervil-seed burnt in Midsummer -fire, 

x. 213 

Cheshire, May-poles in, ii. 70 sq. ; popular 
cure for rheumatism in, in. 106 n*\ 
All Souls' Day in, vi. 79 ; Plough 
Monday in, viii. 330 w. 1 ; cure for 
thrush in, ix. 50 ; cure for warts in, 
i*. 57 
Chcsnitsa, Christmas cake in Servia, x. 


Chester, Midsummer giants at, xi. 37 
Chet, Indian month (March-April), iv. 265 
Chetang, mountains of, in Tibet, ix. 220 
Chetti worshipped in the Deccan, vii. 7 
Chcvannts, bonfues on the first Sunday 

in Lent, x. 1 1 1 . l 
Chevas of South Africa, their notion as 

to whirlwinds, i. 331 . 8 
Chewsurs of the Caucasus, their rain- 
charm, i. 282 ; taboos observed by 
an annual official among the, iii. 292 
sq. ; their annual Festival of All Souls, 
iv. 98, vi. 65 ; their funeral games, iv. 

Cheyenne Indians, seclusion of girls at 
puberty among the, x. 54 sq. 

women secluded at menstruation, 

x. 89 

Chcyne, Professor T. K. , on the brazen 
serpent, iv. 86 .*; on lament for 
kings of Judah, v. 20 ft. 8 

Chhatarpur, in Bundelcund, ceremony 
for stopping rain at, i. 296 sq. 

Chiambioa Indians of Brazil, their masked 
dances, viii. 208 n. 1 

Chiaromonte in Sicily, Midsummer cus- 
tom at, x. 210 

Chibchas (Muyscas or Mozcas), the, of 
Colombia, their reverence for the 
pontiff of Sogamozo, i. 416 

Chibisa, an African chief, killed by a 
sand-bullet, xi. 314 

Chica or chicha, a native American in- 
toxicant, ii. 105, iii. 250 ii. 1 , x. 57, 58 

Chi-chi Mania, " the Drenched Mother," 
in rain-making, in Armenia, i. 276 

Chicken bones, omens from, ii. 70 

Chickens, sickness transferred to, ix. 
31 ; as scapegoats, ix. 190 

Chicomecohuatl, Mexican goddess of 
maize, vii. 176, ix. 286 n. 1 , 291, 292 j 
girl annually sacrificed in the character 
of, ix. 292 sqq. 

Chicory, the white flower of, opens all 
locks, xi. 71 

Chidley, Cape, spirit of reindeer in cave 
at, viii. 245 

Chief, power of divination possessed by, 
i. 344 ; as priest, ii. 215 sqq. ; ances- 
tral, reincarnate in snakes, v. 84 ; 
the divinity of a, supposed to reside in 
his eyes, viii. 153. See also Chiefs 

Chiefs daughter, ceremonies observed by 
her at puberty, x. 30, 43 

head not to be touched, i. 344 

Chiefs, sorcerers regarded as, in New 
Guinea, i. 337 sq. ; in Melanesia, 
supernatural power of, i. 338 sqq. ; 
evolved out of magicians, especi- 
ally out of rain - makers, in Africa, 
i. 342 sqq. ; magical powers ascribed 
to, i. 349 ; not allowed to leave 
their premises, i. 349 ; punished for 
drought and dearth, i. 352 sqq. \ as 
priests, ii. 215 sq., viii. 126; chosen 
from several families in rotation, ii. 
292 sqq. foods tabooed to, hi. 291, 
292 ; names of, tabooed, iii. 376 sg., 
378 sq. t 381, 382 

, dead, worshipped, vi. 175, 176, 

177, 179, 181 sq., 187; thought to 
control the rain, vi. 188; sacrifices 
to, vi. 191, viii. 113; spirits of, pro- 
phesy through living men and women, 
vi. 192 sq ; spirits of, give rain, viii. 
109 ; deified after death, viii. 125 ; 
souls of, in lions, viii. 287 sq. 

and kings tabooed, iii. 131 sqq. 

in the Pelew Islands, custom of 

slaying, vi. 266 sqq. 

, sacred, viii. 28 ; not allowed to 

leave their enclosures, iii. 124 ; re- 
garded as dangerous, iii. 138 



Chiefs' daughters entrusted with the 
sacred fire among the Herero, ii. 215, 

Chieftainship and kingship in Africa 
fully developed, i. 342 

Chikumbu, a Yao chief, xi. 314 

Chilblains, the Yule log a preventive of, 
x. 250 

Chilcotin Indians of North- West America, 
their ceremony at an eclipse of the sun, 
i. 312, iv. 77 

Child, carried by sower to ensure fertility, 
i. 142 ; under puberty employed by 
Ba-Konga women to light the potter's 
kiln, ii. 205 ; placed in bride's lap as 
a fertility charm, ii. 230 sq. \ born on 
harvest-field, pretence of, vii. 150 sq. 
See also Children 

f- of the assegai," iv. 183 

and father, supposed danger of 

resemblance between, ui. 88 sq. t iv. 
287 (288, in Second Impression) 

Child -stones," where souls of dead 
await rebirth, v. 100 

Child's life bound up with the tree with 
or under which its navel-string or after- 
birth was planted, i. 182, 184, 194 

I. nails bitten off, in. 262 

Well at Oxford, ii. 161 

Childtjed, woman in, thought to control 
the wind, i. 324 ; souls of women 
dying in, live m trees, 11. 31 ; taboos 
on women in, ni. 147 sgq. \ precautions 
taken with women in, iii. 314 ; de- 
ceiving the ghosts of women who have 
died in, vni. 97 sq. 

Childbirth, Diana as goddess of, i. 12, 
ii. 128 ; precautions taken with mothers 
at, in. 32, 33, 233, 234, 239, 245; 
women tabooed at, iii. 145; supposed 
dangerous infection of, m. 147 sqq ; 
confessions of sins to expedite, in. 216 
sq.\ women after, their hair sha\cd and 
burnt, ui 284 ; knots untied at, ni. 294, 
296 sq. , 297 sq. ; homoeopathic magic 
to facilitate, iii. 295 sqq ; primitive 
ignorance of the causes of, v. 106 sq. ; 
customs of women after, x. 20 

Childermas (Holy Innocents' Day), the 
28th day of December, Boy Bishop on, 
336, 337 

Childless couples leap over bonfires to 
procure offspring, x. 214, 338 

persons named after their younger 

brothers, iii. 332, 333 

women divorced, i. 142 ; their 

corpses thrown away, i. 142 , homoeo- 
pathic charm employed by, to ensure 
the birth of children, i. 157 ; expect 
offspring from St. George, v. 78 ; 
resort to Baths of Solomon, v. 78 ; 
receive offspring from serpent, v. 86 ; 

resort to graves in order to secure 
offspring, v. 96 ; resort to hot springs 
in Syria, v. 213 sqq. ; creep through a 
holed stone, xi. 187. See also Barren 

Children thought to be reincarnations of 
the dead, i. 103 sqq. ; taboos observed 
by, in the absence of their fathers, i. 
116, 119, 122, 123, 127,131; homoeo- 
pathic charm to ensure the birth of, i. 
157 ; born with a caul thought to be 
lucky and to see spirits, i. 187 sq., 
199 ; buried to the neck as a rain- 
charm, i. 302 sq. \ dislike of parents 
to have children like themselves, iii. 
88 sq. t iv. 287 (288, in Second Impres- 
sion); young, tabooed, iii. 262, 283; 
parents named after their, iii. 331 sqq. , 
339 ; called the fathers or mothers of 
their first cousins, iii. 332 sq. ; sacri- 
ficed to Moloch, iv. 75 ; sacrificed by 
the Semites, iv. 166 sqq. ; bestowed by 
saints, v. 78 sq. ; given by serpent, v. 
86 ; murdered that their souls may be 
reborn in barren women, v. 95 ; 
sacrificed to volcano in Siao, v. 219 ; 
sacrificed at irrigation channels, vi. 
38 ; sacrificed by the Mexicans for the 
maize, vi. 107; presented to the moon, 
vi 1445^.; guarded against evil spirits, 
vii 6sqq. ; employed toadministerdrugs 
and the poison ordeal , vii 115; employed 
to sou seed, vii. 115 sq. ; sacrificed at 
harvest, vii. 236; blood of, used to knead 
a paste, ix. 129 ; personating spirits, 
ix. 139 ; live apart from their parents 
among the Baganda, x. 23 . a ; passed 
across the Midsummer fires, x. 182, 
189 sq. , 192, 203 ; born feet foremost, 
curative power attributed to, x. 295 ; 
passed through holes in ground or turf 
to cure them, xi 190 sq. See also Child 

of God in Kikuyu, v. 68 

of living parents in ritual, vi. 236 

sqq. ; apparently thought to be en- 
dowed with more vitality than others, 
vl 247 sq. 

, new-born, brought to the spirits 

of the ancestors, ii. 216, 221 ; passed 
through the smoke of a fire, ii. 232 ; 
brought to the hearth, ii. 232 ; placed 
in wmnowing-f.ins, vii. 6 sqq. 

Children's nails not pared, in. 262 sq. 

Chili, sacred cedar among the Aryan 
tribes of Gilgit, ii. 49, 50 sq. 

Chili stone, ceremony of fertilizing goats 
at the, ii. 51 

Chili, the Chilote Indians of, i. 168 ; the 
Araucanians of, i. 292 if. 1 , iii. 97; 
disposal of shorn hair in, iii. 280; 
earthquakes in, v. 202 

Chillingworth, Thomas, passed through 
a cleft ash-tree for rupture, xi. 168 sff. 


Chiloe, the Indians of, keep their names 
secret, iii. 324 

Chilote Indians of Chili, their belief as 
to death at ebb-tide, i. 168 ; their 
magical use of shorn hair, iii. 268 ; 
make magic with the spittle of an 
enemy, iii. 287 

Chimaera, Mount, in Lycia, perpetual 
fire on, v. 221 

Chimche'-gelin, rain-bride, in Armenia, i. 

Chimney, witches fly up the, xi. 74 

Chimney-piece, divination by names on, 
x. 237 

China, homoeopathic magic of city 
sites in, i. 169 sg. ; birthday cele- 
bration in, i. 169 ; trees planted 
on graves in, ii. 31 ; new - born 
children passed through the smoke 
of fire in, ii. 232 n.' 2 ; custom as to 
shadows at funerals in, iii. 80 ; custom 
at an execution in, iii. 171 ; geomancy 
in, iii. 239 ; suicide of Buddhist monks 
in, iv. 42 ; substitutes for corporal 
punishment in, iv. 275 sq. ; ceremony 
at beginning of spring in, viii. 10 
sqq. \ belief in demons in, ix. 99 ; 
men possessed by spirits in, ix. 117; 
annual expulsion of demons in, ix. 
145 sqq. ; annual ceremony of the new 
fire in, x. 136 sq. , xi. 3; were-wolves 
in, x. 310 sq. ; use of fire to bar 
ghosts in, xi. 17 sg. ; spirits of plants 
in snake form in, xi. 44 n. 1 ; use of 
mugwort in, xi. 60. See also Chinese 

, aboriginal tribes of, their use of a 

human scapegoat, ix. 196 ; their 
annual destruction of evils, ix. 202 

, Emperor of, superior to the gods, 

i. 416 sq. ; seldom quitted his palace, 
iii. 125 ; his directions for averting 
the devil, iii. 239 ; his name not to be 
pronounced nor written by his subjects, 
iii 375 S 9' I etiquette at his court, iv. 
40 ; funeral of, v. 294 ; inaugurates 
the ploughing in spring, viii. 14 sg. 

, emperors of, as priests, i. 47 ; held 

responsible for drought, i. 355 

, the Miotse of, ix. 4 

, the Mossos of, ix. 139 

, South and West, the Miao-Kia of, 

ii. 3 1 

, Southern, expulsion of the demons 

of cholera in, ix. 117 sq. ; the Shans 
of, ix. 141 

Chinchvad, human gods at, i. 405 sq. 

Chinese, magical images among the, i. 
60 sg. ; their charms to ensure long 
life, i. 1 68 sq. ; their superstition as to 
placenta (afterbirth), i. 194; their 
belief as to the influence of the dead 
on rain. L 287 ; their modes of com- 


pell ing the rain-god to give rain, i. 
2 97 s <7?' 5 their emperor responsible for 
drought, i. 355 ; their belief in spirits 
of plants, ii. 14; their custom of marry- 
ing a girl to the Yellow River, ii. 152 ; 
kindle a sacred fire by means of a metal 
mirror or burning-glass, ii. 245 n. ; 
their story of a wandering human soul 
and its deserted body, iii. 49 sq. ; 
attribute convulsions to the action of 
demons, iii. 59 ; their use of mirrors 
to frighten demons, iii. 93 n.* ; use 
no knives nor needles after a death, 
iii. 238 ; their belief as to the intimate 
association of names with beings, iii. 390; 
their indifference to death, iv. 144 
sqq. , 273 sqq. ; report a custom of 
devouring first-born children, iv. 180 ; 
their character compared to that of 
the ancient Egyptians, vi. 218 ; their 
use of sieve or winnowing-fan in super- 
stitious rites, vii. 6, 9 sq. ; their cere- 
mony of ploughing, viii. 14 sq. \ their 
theory as to courage, viii. 145 sq. t 
152; their ceremonies of purification 
in spring and autumn, ix. 213 n. 1 ; 
their festival of fire, ix. 359, xi. 3 sqq. ; 
their story of the external soul, xi. 
145 sq. \ their theories as to the human 
soul, xi. 221 

Chinese of Amoy averse to call fever by 
its proper name, iii. 400 ; their use of 
effigies to divert ghostly and other evil 
influences from persons, viii. 104 sq. 

Chinese author on disturbance of earth- 
spirits by agriculture, v. 89 

books, bleeding trees in, ii. 18 

comedies played as a rain-charm, i. 

301 n. 

empire, incarnate human gods to 

the, i. 412 sqq. 

geomancy, i. 170 

New Year, viii. 10 

writers on kings of Corea, i. 355 ; 

as to injury to men and birds through 
their shadows, iii. 79 ; as to blood 
containing the soul, iii. 241 ; profess 
themselves unable to distinguish be- 
tween men and animals, viii. 206 

Chingilli, an Australian tribe, their cus- 
tom of knocking out teeth, i. 99 

Chinigchinich, a Californian god, nil. 

Chinna Kimedy, in India, vii. 247, 249 

Chinook Indians, prohibition to mention 
the names of the dead among the, iii. 
365 ; seclusion of girls at puberty 
among the, x. 43 

Chins, the, of Upper Burma, their offer- 
ings of first-fruits to their ancestors, 
viii. 121 ; their way of keeping off 
cholera, ix. 123 



Chios, titular kings in, i. 45, 46 it. 4 ; 
human beings torn in pieces at the 
rites of Dionysus in, vi. 98 sq. , vii. 24 

Chippeway Indians, magical images 
among the, i. 77 ; their dread and 
seclusion of menstruous women, x 
90 sq. 

Chiquites Indians of Paraguay, their 
belief as to ckica, iii. 250 if. 1 ; their 
fear of dead deer and turtles, viii. 241 ; 
their theory of sickness, xi. 226 if. 1 

Chirbury, in Shropshire, the Yule log at, 

*. S7 

Chiriguanos, the, of South America, their 
preference for a violent death, iv. 12 ; 
their address to the sun, vi. 143 n. 4 ; 
why they will not eat the vicuna, viii. 
140 ; their belief in the transmigration 
of human souls into animals, viii. 286 ; 
their practice of bleeding themselves 
to relieve fatigue, ix. 13 ; seclusion of 
girls at puberty among the, x. 56 

Chiriqui, volcano, v. z8z 

Chirol, (Sir) Valentine, on substitutes for 
capital punishment in China, iv. 274 

Chiron, the centaur, taught Hippolytus 
venery, i. 19 

Ckirouba, festival in Manipur, ix. 40 

Chirus of Manipur, their rain-making by 
means of a crab, i. 289 ; their tug-of- 
war, ix. 177 if, * 

Chisaks, a tribe of Garos, their harvest 
festival, viii. 337 

Chissumpe, the spiritual head of the 
Maraves, i. 393 

Chitariah Gossaih, god of a hill-tribe in 
India, viii. 118 

Chitome* or Chitomte, a pontiff of Congo, 
his perpetual fire, ii. 261 ; regarded as 
a god on earth, iii. 5 sq., 7 ; slam by 
his successor, iv. 14 sq. , 206 

Chitral, devil-driving in, ix. 137 

Chittagong, opening everything in house 
to facilitate childbirth in, iii. 297 ; 
nail knocked into threshold at a burial 
in, ix. 63 if. 4 

Hill Tracts, the Chukmas of the, 

ix. 174 

Chittim (Citium) in Cyprus, Phoenician 
kings at, v. 31 

Chnum of Elephantine, Egyptian god 
identified with the sun, vi. 123 

Choc taws, taboos observed by manslaycrs 
among the, iii. 181 ; their annual fes- 
tival of ;the dead, vi. 53 sq. ; their 
women secluded at menstruation, x, 

Chodoi, in Selangor, ceremony ot bring- 
ing home the soul of the rice at, vii. 

Choerilus, Greek historian, as to the 
epitaph of Sardanapalus, ix. 388 n. 1 

Cholera sent away in animal scapegoats, 

ix. 190, 191 sq. 
, demon of, expelled, ix. 116, 117, 

172; threatened with swords, ix. 123; 

conjured into an image, ix. 172 ; sent 

away on a raft, ix. 190 
- , goddess of, kept off by iron, ill 

234 ; sent away in a little chariot, ix. 194 
Cholones, the, of eastern Peru, their 

custom as to poisoned arrows, i. 116 ; 

their charms against snake-bite, etc., 

i- 153 
Cholula, a city of Mexico, worship of 

Quetzaicoatl at, ix. 281 
Chonga, on the Niger, the king of, keeps 

himself concealed, iii. 121 
Chopping-knife, soul of woman in child- 

birth transferred for safety to a, xi. 

Chorinchen, custom at threshing at, vii. 

Chorion or foetal membrane, Icelandic 

belief as to, i. 199 sq. 
Chota Nagpur in India, ceremonies ob- 

served by rearers of silkworms in, iii. 

194 it. 1 ; the Oraons of, vii. 244 ; stones 

or leaves piled on places where persons 

have been killed by wild beasts in, ix. 

19 ; annual expulsion of disease in, ix. 

139 ; the fire- walk in, xi. 5 
Chouquet, in Normandy, the Green Wolf 

at, x. 185 
Chouville, Le*on, on the King of the 

Bean in France, ix. 315 n. 1 
Chrlais or Jaray, tribe in the mountains 

of Cambodia, their Kings of Fire and 

Water, ii. 3 
Christ, his Nativity, v. 304 sq. ; his 

crucifixion, v. 306 sqq. t ix. 412 sqq. ; 

his resurrection, v. 306, 307 ., 308 

sqq. \ doubts as to his historical reality 

unfounded, v. 311 " " 

and Osiris, vi. 59 
Christbrand, the Yule log, x. 248 
Christenburg Crags, in Northumberland, 

Midsummer fires at, x. 198 
Christian, Captain, his mode of execu- 

tion, iii. 244 
Christian, F. W. , on the prostitution of 

unmarried girls in Yap, vi. 265 sq. 
Christian Church, its treatment of witches, 

xi. 42. See Church 
- festivals displace heathen festivals, 

L 14 sqq., v. 308, vi. 8x sqq. ; the 

great, timed by the Church to coincide 

with old pagan festivals, ix. 328 
Christianity, purifying influence of, v. 

80 ; its conflict with the Mithraic re- 

ligion, v. 302 sqq. ; its success due to 

the personal influence of its founder, 

vi. 159 sq. ; its rapid diffusion in Asia 

Minor, ix. 420 sa. 



Christianity, Latin, its tolerance of 
rustic paganism, ix. 346 

and Buddhism, comparison between 

their history, v. 310 sqq. 

and paganism, their resemblances 

explained as diabolical counterfeits, v. 
302, 309 sq. 

Christians, pretenders to divinity among, 
i. 407 sqq. 

and pagans, their controversy as to 

Easter, v. 309 sq. 

Christ klott, the Yule log, x. 248 

Christmas, custom of swinging at, iv. 
284 ; festival of, borrowed from the 
Mithraic religion, v. 302 sqq. ; the 
heathen origin of, v. 305 ; straw of 
Corn-mother placed in manger of cattle 
at, vii. 134 ; the last sheaf given to 
cattle at, vii. 155, 158, 160 sq. ; boar 
sacrificed at, vii. 302 ; pretence of 
human sacrifice at, vii. 302 ; dances 
to make the flax grow at, viii. 328 ; 
custom of young men and women 
beating each other at, ix. 270 ; an old 
midwinter festival of the sun-god, ix. 
328, x. 246, 331 sq. \ new fire made 
by the friction of wood at, x. 264 ; 
mistletoe gathered at, xi. 291. See 
also Yule 

Christmas Boar among the Esthonians, 
vii. 302 sq. 

cake, x. 257, 259, 261 
candle, the, x. 255, 256, 260 

custom in Poland, vii. 275 ; in 

Sweden, vii. 301 sq. 

Day, hunting the wren on, viii. 319, 
320 ; Mexican festival on, ix. 287 ; 
divination on, ix. 316 ft. 1 ; Old 
(Twelfth Night), ix. 321 

drama in Sweden, viii. 327 sq. 
Eve, fruit-trees girt or tied together 

with straw on, ii. 17, 27 sq. ; barren 
fruit-trees threatened on, ii. 21 ; pre- 
sages as to shadows on, iii. 88 ; 
celebration of, in Oesel, vii. 302 ; 
hunting the wren on, viii. 318, 321 ; 
witches active on, ix. 160; cattle 
acquire the gift of speech on, x. 
254 ; torchlight processions on, x. 266 ; 
trees fumigated with wild thyme on, xi. 
64 ; the fern blooms on, xi. 66 ; witches 
dreaded on, xi. 73 ; sick children passed 
through cleft trees on, xi. 172 

night, fern -seed blooms on, xi. 


pig in Servia, x. 259 

visitor, the, x. 261 sq. t 263, 264 

Christs, Russian sect of the, i. 407 sq. 
Chrudim in Bohemia, effigy of Death 

burnt at, iv. 239 
Chu-en-aten, name assumed by King 

Amenophis IV. of Egypt, vi. 124 

Chu-Tu-shi, a Chinese were-tiger, x 
310 sq. 

Chua-hang or Troc, the caves of, in 
Annam, i. 301 sq. 

Chuckchees or Chukchees of North- 
Eastern Asia, their chief sacrificed in 
time of pestilence, i. 367 .*; sacred fire- 
boards of the, ii. 225 sq. ; divine by the 
shoulder-blades of sheep, iii. 229 . 4 ; 
change the name of the youngest son 
after his mother's death, iii. 358 ; 
voluntary deaths among the, iv. 13 ; 
effeminate sorcerers among the, vi. 
256 sq. ; their ceremony at killing a 
wolf, viii. 221 

Chukmas, a tribe of the Chittagong Hill 
Tracts, the tug-of-war among the, ix. 


Chunar, in Bengal, rain -making cere- 
mony at, i. 283 

Church, the Christian, borrows the 
festival of Christmas from the worship 
of Mjthra, v. 303 sqq. ; its compromise 
with paganism, v. 308 ; its treatment 
of witches, xi. 42. See also Catholic 

Church bells a protection against witch- 
craft, ix. 157, 158 ; on Midsummer 
Eve, custom as to ringing, xi. 47 sq. ; 
rung to drive away witches, xi. 73 

Churches used as places of divination at 
Hallowe'en, x. 229 

Churinga, sacred stick and stones, re- 
sembling bull -roarers, of the Arunta 
and other Central Australian tribes, i. 
88, 199, 335, xi. 218 .', 234 

Churn, last corn cut, vii. 151, 153, 1541?. 

Churn wreathed with rowan on May 
Day, ii. 53 

Churn-dashers ridden by witches, ix. 160 

staff made of rowan as a protec- 
tion against witchcraft, ii. 53, 54 

Churning, precaution against witches in, 

ii. S3 "- 1 
Chuwash, their test of a sacrificial victim, 

i- 385 

Chuzistan, rumour of the death of the 
King of the Jinn in, iv. 8 

Chwolsohn, D., on the worship of 
Haman, ix. 366 n. 1 

Ciallos, intercalary month of Gallic 
calendar, ix. 343 

Cicero invited to meet the assassin Brutus, 
i. 5 ; at Cybistra, v. 122 . 8 ; corre- 
sponds with Cilician king, v. 145 n. a ; 
on the Attic origin of corn, vii. 58 ; 
on transubstantiation, viii. 167 ; on 
the custom of knocking in a nail 
annually, ix. 67 *.* 

Cieza de Leon on the Peruvian Vestals, 
ii. 244 n.\ 245 *. 

Cilicia, male deity of, assimilated to 
Zeus, v. 118 sq. t 144 sgq., 148, 152: 



kings of, their affinity to San dan, v. 
144 ; names of priests in, v. 144 ; 
pirates in, v. 149 ; goddesses in, v. 
161 sqq. \ the burning of gods in, v. 
170 sq. ; the Assyrians in, v. 173 ; 
Tarsus in, ix. 388, 389, 391 

Cilicia, Western or Rugged, described, v. 
148 sqq. ; fossils of, v. 152 sq. 

Cilician Gates, pass of the, v. 120 

Cimbrians, the, take arms against the 
tide, i. 331 . 3 

Ciminian forest, li. 8 

Cincius Alimentus, L., on Maia as the 
wife of Vulcan, vi. 232 

Cinet or sinnet, iii. 69 . s 

Cingalese (Cinglese), their fear of demons, 
ix. 95 ; the tug-of-war among the, ix. 
181. See also Singhalese 

Cingalese remedy by means of devil- 
dancers, ix. 38 

Cinteotl or Centeotl, Mexican goddess of 
maize, vii. 176, ix. 286 w. 1 ; per- 
sonated by a priest, ix. 290 

Cinyrads, dynasty of the, v. 41 sqq. 

Cinyras, the father of Adonis, v. 13, 14, 
49 ; king of Byblus, v. 27 ; founds 
sanctuary of Astarte, v. 28 ; said to 
have instituted religious prostitution, 
v. 41, 50; his daughters, v. 41, 50; 
his riches, v. 42 ; his incest, v. 43 ; 
wooed by Aphrodite, v. 48 sq. mean- 
ing of the name, v. 52 ; the friend of 
Apollo, v. 54 ; legends of his death, 

v - 55 

Ciotat in Provence, bathing at Mid- 
summer at, v. 248 ; Midsummer rites 
of fire and water at, x. 194 

Circassia, custom as to pear-trees in, ii. 
55 sq. ; games in honour of the dead 
in, iv. 98 

Circe, the land of, ii. 188 

Circensian games at Bo v iliac, ii. 180 n. 

Circumambulating fields with lighted 
torches, x. 233 sq. 

Circumcision, pretence of new birth at, 
i. 76, 96 sq. ; among the aborigines of 
Australia, i. 92 sqq. \ uses of blood 
shed at, i. 92, 94 sq. , iii. 244 ; among 
the dwarf tribes of the Gaboon, i. 
95 if. 4 ; suggested origin of, i. 96 sq. ; 
in Central Australia, i. 204, 208, 
iii. 244, xi. 227 sq., 233, 234, 
935 ; among the Ca fires, iii. 156 
sq. \ performed with Hints, not iron, 
iii. 227; of father as a mode of 
redeeming his offspring, iv. 181 ; story 
told by Israelites to explain 1 the 
origin of, iv. 181 ; mimic rite of, iv. 
319 sq. \ exchange of dress between 
men and women at, vi. 363; period 
of seclusion after, determined by the 
appearance of the Pleiades, vii. 3x6 ; 

ceremonies at, in South- East Africa, 

viii. 148 ; custom at, in Celebes, viii. 

153 ; riddles asked at, ix. 122 if. ; 

among the Washamba, xi. 183 ; in 

New Guinea, xi. 240 sq. ; in Fiji, xi. 

243 sq. ; in Rook, xi. 246 ; on the 

Lower Congo, xi. 251, 255 it. 1 
Circumcision Day, the ist of January, 

Pope of Fools on, ix. 334 
Circumlocutions adopted to avoid naming 

the dead, iii. 350, 351, 355 ; caused 

by fear of the dead, iii. 354 ; employed 

by reapers, iii. 412 
Circus, the games of the, ii. 174 
Cirta, image of Jupiter at, ii. 177 
Cithaeron, Mount, bonfire on the top of, 

ii. 140 sq. ; forest of oaks at, iv. 82 ; 

Pentheus torn to pieces on, vii. 25 . 8 
Cities, guardian deities of, evoked by 

enemies, ni. 391 ; Etruscan ceremony 

at the founding of, iv. 157 
Citium (Chittim), in Cyprus', Phoenician 

kings at, v. 31, 50 
Citrus hystrix, the afterbirth hung on a, 

i. 1 86 
Civilization advanced by great conquer- 

ing races, i. 2x8; threatened by an 

underlying stratum of savagery, i. 236 ; 

ancient, undermined by Oriental re- 

ligions and other causes, v. 299 sqq. 
Clach-nathrach, serpent stone, xi. 311 
Clam shell, sacred, of the Omahas, x. ii 
Clan of the Cat, xi. 150 sq. 
Clangour of metal used to dispel demons, 

ix. 233 
Clanking chains as a protection against 

witches, ix. 163 
Clans, paternal arid maternal, of the 

Herero, ii. 217 
Clappers, used instead of church bells in 

Holy Week, x. 125 ; wooden, used in 

China, x. 137 

Clarian Apollo, the, iv. 80 n. 1 
Clark, J. V. H., on the New Year 

festival of the Iroquois, ix. 209 
Clarke, E. D. , on the bride-race among 

the Calmucks, ii. 301 sq. ; on image of 

Demeter at Eleusis, vii. 64 n.' 2 ; on 

the Harvest Queen, vii. 146 sq. ; on 

heaps of sticks or stones on graves 

in Sweden, ix. 20 sq. 
Clashing of metal instruments a protec- 

tion against witchcraft, ix. 158 ; used 

to dispel demons, ix. 233 
Clasping of hands forbidden, iii. 298 
Classificatory system of relationship, xi. 

Claudianus, Lucius Minius, on the god- 
dess of Hieropolis-Castabala, v. 168 

Claudius, the Emperor, shrine of, at Nerni, 
i. 13; trial for incest under, ii. 115; his 
marriage with Agrippina, ii. isg *.*; 



statues of, crowned with oak, ii. 177 . s ; 

his history of Etruria, ii. 196 n. ; on the 

Etruscan origin of Servius Tullius, ii. 

196 . ; on the foreign descent of the 

Roman kings, ii. 270 . 8 ; and the 

rites of Attis, v. 266 ; his execution of 

a Gaulish knight, x. 15 
Claudius Gothicus, the Emperor, v. 266 . 8 
Clavie at Burghead, made without the 

use of a hammer, in. 229 sq. ; the 

burning of the, x. 266 sq. 
Clavigero, F. S., historian of Mexico, 

on the Mexican calendar, vi. 29 n. ; 

on Cinteotl, the Mexican goddess of 

maize, ix. 286 n. 1 
Claws of sea-eagle, charm made from, i. 


Clay, people smeared with white, at 
festival, viii. 75 ; plastered on girls at 
puberty, x. 31 ; bodies of novices 
at initiation smeared with white, xi. 

255 "- 1 . 259 
Clayton, A. C. , on a Badaga funeral, ix. 


Claytonia, a species of, principal vege- 
table food of the aborigines of Central 
Australia, vii. 128 

Cleanliness promoted by contagious 
magic, i. 175, 342 ; fostered by super- 
stition, iii. 130; personal, observed 
in war, iii. 157, 158 n. 1 

Cleansing streets from superstitious 
motive, beneficial effect of, ix. 205 sq. 

Clearing land for cultivation, ceremonies 
to appease the tree spirits at, ii. 36, 
38 sq. 

Cleary, Bridget, burnt as a witch in 
Tipperary, x. 323 sq. 

Cleary, Michael, bums his wife as a witch, 
x. 323 sq. 

Glee, in Lincolnshire, the Yule log at, 
x. 257 

Clee Hills, in Shropshire, fear of witch- 
craft in the, x. 342 . 4 

Cleft stick, passage through a, in con- 
nexion with puberty and circumcision, 
xi. 183 sg. 

Clement of Alexandria on the Eleusinian 
mysteries, vii. 39 

Cleomenes, king of Sparta, and serpents, 
v. 87 

Cleon of Magnesia at Gades, v. 113 

Cleostratus of Tenedos, said to have 
introduced the Greek octennial cycle, 
vii. 8 1 

Clergyman employed to cut first corn at 
harvest, viii. 51 

Cleveland in Yorkshire, treatment of the 
placentas of mares at, i. 199 

Climacteris scant/ens, women's "sister" 
among the Kulin, xi. 216 

Climatic and geographical conditions, 

their effect on national character, vi. 

Clippings of hair, magic wrought through 

iii. 268 sqq. t 275, 277, 278 sq. See 

also Hair 
of nails in popular cures, ix. 57, 58. 

See also Nails 

Clisthenes and Hippoclides, ii. 307 sq. 
Clitus and Dryas, their contest for a 

bride, ii. 307 

and Pallene, ii. 307 

11 Clod festival of the fourth " at Benares, 

i. 279 
Clodd, Edward, on the external soul, xi. 

97 "- 1 

Clog, the Yule, x. 247 

Clonmel, trial for witch-burning at, x. 324 

Clotaire murders his nephews, iii. 259 

Clothes, homoeopathic magic of, i. 157 ; 
magic sympathy between a person and 
his, i. 205-207; of sacred persons 
tabooed, iii. 131. See also Grave- 

Cloths used to catch souls, iii. 46, 47, 48 
52, 53, 61, 64, 67, 75 sq. 

Clotilde, Queen, the murder of her grand 
children, iii. 259 

Cloud-dragon, myth of the, iv. 107 

Clouds imitated by smoke, i. 249 ; imi- 
tation of, in rain-making, i. 249, 256, 
261, 262, 263, 275; imitated by stones, 
i. 256 ; magicians painted in imitation 
of, i. 323 

Clove-trees in blossom treated like preg- 
nant women, ii. 28. See also Cloves 

Clover, time for sowing, i. 167 ; four- 
leaved, a counter-charm for witchcraft, 
x. 316 ; found at Midsummer, xi. 62 sq. 

Cloves, sexual ceremony to make cloves 
grow, n. 100. See also Clove -trees 

Clovis, gift of touching for the evil 
derived from, i. 370 

Clown in spring ceremonies, ii. 82, 89 ; 
at Whitsuntide, ii. 89 ; in processions, 
ix. 244 sq. 

Clubhouses of men in New Guinea, i. 
125, iii. 168, 169 ; in the Caroline 
Islands, iii. 193 ; in the Pclew Islands, 
iii. 193 . a 

Clucking like a hen to recall a truant 
soul, iii. 34, 35, 55, 74. 75 

Clucking-hen, the, at threshing, vii. 277 

Clue of yarn, divination by a, at Hallow- 
e'en, x. 235, 240, 241, 243 

Cluis Dessus and Cluis-Dessous, custom 
of "Sawing the Old Woman" at, iv. 
241 sq. 

Clyack sheaf, vii. 158 sqq. , 215 sq. , viii. 43 

Clyack-kebLack, a cheese at the harvest 
supper in Aberdeenshire, vii. 160 

Clymenus, king of Arcadia, his incest, V. 



Clytaemnestra, a native of Lacedaemon, 
ii. 279 

Cnossus in Crete, sacred marriage of 
Zeus and Hera at, ii. 143 n. 1 \ Minos 
at, iv. 70 sqq. ; the labyrinth at, iv. 75 
sqq. \ the bull perhaps the king's crest 
at, iv. in sq. ; prehistoric palace at, 
v. 34 ; marriage of the Bull- god to the 
Queen at, vii. 31 ; octennial tenure of 
kingship at, vii. 82, 85 

Coal, magical, that turns to gold at 
Midsummer, xi. 60 sq. 

Coast Murring tribe of New South Wales, 
the drama of resurrection exhibited to 
novices at initiation in the, xi. 235 sqq. 

Cobern, effigy burnt on Shrove Tuesday 
at, x. 120 

Coblentz, the Yule log near, x. 248 

Cobra worshipped, i. 383 . 4 ; ceremonies 
after killing a, iii. 222 sq. ; the crest 
of the Maharajah of Nagpur, iv. 
132 ^ 

Cobra-capella, guardian-deity of Issapoo, 
viii. 174 

Coca-mother, among the Peruvians, vii. 

172. 173 . 
Coccus PoLonica and St. John's blood, xi. 


Cochin, Cranganore in, i. 280 

Cochin China, the Chams of, i. 144, ii. 28, 
iii. 202, 297, iv. 130 n. 1 ; the Bahnars 
of, ill 52, 58 ; tigers respected in, iii. 
403, viii. 2x7 ; annual festival of the 
dead in, vi. 65 ; mode of disposing of 
ghosts in, ix. 62 

Cock killed in fight not to be eaten by 
soldiers, i. 117 ; king represented with 
the feathers of a, iv. 85 ; as emblem 
of a priest of Attis, v. 279 ; corn-spirit 
as, vii. 276 sqq. \ killed on harvest 
field, vii. 277 sq. , xi. 280 n. ; effigy of, 
in bonfire, x. in ; external soul of 
ogre in a, xi. 100 

, black, buried on spot where 

epileptic patient fell down, ix. 68 . a ; 
used as counter-charm to witchcraft, 
x. 321 

and hen sacrificed by the Lithuanians 

at harvest, viii. 49 sq. \ or hen, striking 
blindfold at a, xi. 279 n.* 

, red, killed to cure person struck by 
lightning, xi. 298 .* 

, white, buried at boundary, iii. 109 ; 
sacrificed, viii. 117, 118; disease trans- 
ferred to a, ix. 187; as scapegoat, 
ix. 210 *. 4 ; burnt in Midsummer 
bonfire, XL 40. See also Cocks 

Cock-sheaf, vii. 276 

Cock's blood poured on divining-rod, 
xi. 282 

Cockatoos, magical ceremony for the 
multiplication of, i. 89 

Cockchafer, external soul in a golden, 

xi. 140 *' 

Cockchafers, witches as, x. 322 
Cocks as scapegoats, ix. 191 sq. 
Coco- nut, soul of child deposited in a, 

x. 154 sq. 
nuts, magical stones to produce a 

crop of, i. 162 ; sacred and regarded 

as emblems of fertility in Upper India, 

ii- 51 ; gathered by pure youths, iii. 201 
Coco-nut oil made by chaste women, iii. 

201 ; a charm against demons, iii. 201 
nut palm worshipped, ii. 16 ; planted 

over navel-string and afterbirth of child, 

xi. 161, 163, compare xi. 164 ; attracts 

lightning, xi. 299 . 8 

nut trees revered, ii. 12, 16 

Codjour or Cogtour, a priestly king of the 

Nubas, iii. 132 n. 1 , viii. 114 
Codrmgton, Dr. R. H., on the confusion 

of religion and magic in Melanesia, i. 

227 sq. ; on the supernatural powers 

ascribed to chiefs in Melanesia, i. 338 ; 

on mother-kin in Melanesia, vi. 211; 

on the Melanesian conception of the 

external soul, xi. 197 sq. 
Codrus, king of Athens, Ionian kings 

descended from, i. 47 
Coel Cocth, Hallowe'en bonfire, x. 239 
Coffin, nails from a, in magic, i. 210, 


Cogiour. See Codjour 

Cohabitation of husband and wife en- 
joined as a matter of ritual, viii. 69, 
70 n. 1 . See also Intercourse 

Cohen, S. S., x. 128 n. 1 

Coil, sick children passed through a, xi. 
185 sq. 

Coimbatore, dancing-girls at, v. 62 

Coincidence between the Christian and 
the heathen festivals of the divine 
death and resurrection, v. 308 sq. 

Coins from the eyes of corpses, their 
magical virtue, i. 149 ; placed on the 
eyes of corpses, i. 149 . B ; portraits 
of kings not stam^d on, iii. 98 sq. 

Colchis, Phrixus in, iv. 162 

Cold food, festival of the, in China, x. 

weather, charm to bring on, i. 319 ; 

ceremonies to procure, i. 329 n. 1 

Cole, Lieut. -Colonel H. W. G., on a 
custom of the Lushais, xi. 185 sq. 

Colic, a Bahnar cure for, iii. 59 ; popular 
remedies for, x. 17; leaping over bon- 
fires as a preventive of, x. 107, 1951?., 
344 ; attributed to witchcraft, x. 344 

Coligny calendar of Gaul, i. 17 . 8 , ix. 
342 sqq. 

Coll, Dr. Samuel Johnson in the island 
of, viii. 322 ; the Hole Stone in to* 
island of, xi. 187 



Collatinus, L. Tarquinius, one of the 
first consuls, & 288, 290 

Colleda, an old Servian goddess, x. 259 

Collobrieres in Provence, rain-making at, 
i. 307 

Colluinn, custom of beating a cow's hide 
in the Highlands, viii. 323, 324 

Colocasia antiquorum, charm used at 
gathering, ii. 23 

Cologne, Petrarch at, on St. John's Eve, 
v. 247 sq. ; St John's fourteen Mid- 
summer victims at, xi. 27 

Colombia, the Goajiro Indians of, iii. 30 

*$ 3 2 S 35*. x - 34 n ' l t tne Muysca 
Indians of, iii. 121 ; the Aurohuaca 
Indians of, iii. 215 ; rule as to the 
felling of timber in, vi. 136 ; the 
Popayan Indians of, their belief in 
the transmigration of human souls into 
deer, viii. 286 ; Guacheta in, x. 74 

Colophon, the Clarian Apollo at, iv. 
80 . 

Columbia, British, the Indians of, their 
use of magical images to procure 
fish, i. 108 ; taboos imposed on the 
parents of twins among the, i. 262 sqq. \ 
pay compliments to the first fish of the 
season, viii. 253 

, British, the Thompson Indians 

of, i. 132, 181, 197, 253, 288, 293, 
ii. 13, 208, iii. 37, 65, 117, 142, 181, 
278, 399, viii. 81, 133, 140, 207, 226, 
268, ix. 154; the Kwakiutl Indians 
of, i. 197, 201, 263, 324, iii. 53, 76, 
1 88, 386, viii. 250 ; the Tsimshian 
Indians of, i. 262, viii. 254; the 
Nootka Indians of, i. 263, iii. 27, 
146 n. 1 , viii. 225, 251 ; the Lillooet 
Indians of, i. 265 ; the Shuswap In- 
dians of, 1.265, 319, iii. 8 3- 1 4 3 * 146 w. 1 , 
viii. 238 ; the Skungen Indians of, ii. 32 ; 
the Bella Coola Indians of, iii. 34, x. 46, 
xi. 174; the Nass River in, iii. 76 ; the 
Carrier Indians of, iii. 197, 367 ; the 
Tsetsaut Indians of, iii. 198, 260 ; 
the Tinneh or De*n6 Indians of, iii. 
240 ; the Kutonaqa of, iv. 183 ; the 
coast tribes of, their ceremonial canni- 
balism, vii. z 8 sqq. ; the Koskimo of, 
vii. 20 n. ; the Nishga Indians of, 
viii. 106; the Okanaken Indians of, 
viii. 134 

Columbia River, the Indians of, their 
customs in regard to the first salmon 
caught in the season, viii. 255 

Columella, on chastity to be observed by 
those who handle food, ii. 205 ; on 
the date for the fertilization of fig-trees, 
ii. 314; on the fodder of cattle, ii. 
328 n. 1 ; on caprification, ix. 258 

Comana in Cappadocia, v. 136 n. 1 

in Pontus, worship of goddess 

Ma at, v. 39, ix. 421 n. l \ swine not 

allowed to enter, v. 265 n. 1 \ sacred 

harlots at, ix. 370 n. 1 
Comana, the two cities, v. 168 . 6 
Comanches, the, their way of procuring 

rain or sunshine, i. 297 ; changes in 

their language caused by fear of 

naming the dead, iii. 360 
Combat, mortal, for the kingdom, ii 

Combe, in Oxfordshire, May garlands at, 

ii. 62 . a 

Combe d'Ain, x. 114 
Combing the hair forbidden, i. 157, iii. 

14, 159 n., 181, 187, 203, 208, 264; 

thought to cause storms, iii. 271 
Combretum primigcnum, the sacred tree 

of the Herero, ii. 213, 218 
Combs not to be used by wives during 

absence of camphor hunters, i. 125 ; 

in homoeopathic magic, i. 125, 157 ; 

used by girls in their seclusion at 

puberty, iii. 146 n. l \ of sacred persons, 

iii. 256 
Comedies played as a rain-charm, i. 

301 n. 
Comitium, dances of the Salii in the, 

ix. 232 

Commagny, the priory of, i. 307 
Commemoration of the Dead at Athens, 

v. 234 

Comminges, Midsummer fires in, x. 192^. 
Commodus, the Emperor, conspiracy 

against, v. 273 ; addicted to the wor- 
ship of Isis, vi. 118 
Common objects, names of, changed 

when they coincide more or less with 

those of relations, iii. 335, 336, 337, 

339. 339 '?.. 340, 34L 345. 346 1 
changed when they are the names of 
the dead, iii. 358 sqq., 375, or the 
names of chiefs and kihgs, iii. 375, 
376 sqq. 

words tabooed, iii. 392 sqq. 

Communal rights over women, v. 40, 
61 n. 

taboos, vii. 109 . a 

Communion with demons by drinking 
blood, i. 383 ; with deity in Eleusinian 
mysteries, vii. 38, 161 ; with deity 
by eating of new fruits, viii. 83 ; with 
the dead through food, viii. 154 ; with 
the dead by swallowing their ashes, viii. 
156 sqq. \ with deity by eating his body 
and drinking his blood, viii. 325 ; with 
saints, alive or dead, by means of 
stones, ix. 21 sq. 

Communion bread baked from the first 
corn cut, viii. 51 

Communism, tradition of sexual, ii. 284 

Community, welfare of, bound up with 
the life of the divine king, x. x sg. : 



purified in the persons of its repre- 
sentatives, xi. 24 

Comorin, Cape, iv. 46 

Compelling rain -gods to give rain, i. 
396 sqq. 

Compitalia, a Roman festival, effigies 
dedicated at, viii. 94, 96, 107 

Complexity of social phenomena, i. 332 ; 
of religious phenomena, viii. 36 

Compromise of Christianity with pagan- 
ism, parallel with Buddhism, v. 310 

Comrie, well of St. Fillan at, ii. 161 

Con or Cun, a thunder-god of the Indians 
of the Andes, ii. 370 

Conca d'Oro at Palermo, i. 299 

Concealment from superstitious motives 
at eating and drinking, iii. 1 16 sqq. \ 
of the face or person from supersti- 
tious motives, iii. 120 sqq. ; of mis- 
carriage in childbed, supposed effects 
of, iii. 152 sqq., 211, 213; of cut 
hair and nails to prevent them from 
falling into the hands of sorcerers, iii. 
276 sqq. ; of personal names from fear 
of magic, iii. 320 sqq. ; of graves, vi. 
103 sqq. , viii. 98 sqq. 

Conception in women, supposed causes 
of, i. 100, v. 96, 102, 103, 104, 105 ; 
caused by trees, ii. 51, 56^., 316-318 ; 
supposed, without sexual intercourse, 
v. 91, 93 . 2 , 96 sqq., 264, ix. 18 ; 
animals and plants as causes of, in 
women, v. 97 sg. t 104 sq. See also 

Conchucos, the, of Peru, esteemed foxes 
sacred, viii. 258 ar. 1 

Conciliating the spirits of the land, iii. 
zzo sq. 

Conciliation involved in religion, i. 224 ; 
of slain enemies, iii. 1 82 

Concord, temple of, at Rome, i. ii, 
21 *. 2 

Concordia, nurse of St. Hippolytus, i. 
21 . 8 

Concubines, temporary king allowed to 
use the real king's, iv. 114 ; human, 
of the god Ammon, v. 72 ; of a king 
taken by his successor, ix. 368 

Cond, in Normandy, ix. 183 ; bonfires 
on Christmas Eve near, x. 266 

Conder, C. R., on "holy men " in Syria, 
v. 77 if. 4 ; on turning money at the 
new moon, vi 149 . a 

Condor, the bird of the thunder-god, ii. 

Conduct, standard of, shifted from 
natural to supernatural basis, iii. 213 sq. 

Conductivity, electric, of various kinds 
of wood, xL 299 .* 

Condylea in Arcadia, sacred grove of 
Artemis at, v. 291 

Cone, image of Astarte, v. 14 

Cones as emblems of a goddess, v. 34 
sqq., 165, z 66; votive, found in Baby- 
lonia, v. 35 .* 

Confession of the dead, the Egyptian, vi 


of sins, i 266, iii. 114, 191, 195, 

21 x sq., 214 sqq., viii. 69, ix. 31, 36, 
127 ; enjoined as a religious duty 
among the Huichol Indians, i. 124 ; 
originally a magical ceremony, iii. 217; 
the Jewish, over the scapegoat, ix. 210 

Conflagrations, bonfires supposed to 
protect against, x. 107, 108, 140, 142, 
344 ; brands of Midsummer bonfires 
thought to be a protection against, x. 
165, 174, 183, 1 88, 196 ; the Yule log 
a protection against, x. 248 sq. ,250, 
255, 256, 258 ; Midsummer flowers a 
protection against, xi. 48 ; mountain 
arnica a protection against, xi. 58 ; 
oak - mistletoe a protection against, 
xi. 85 

Conflict of calendars, solar and lunar, 
x. 218 

Conflicts, sanguinary, as rain-charms, i 
258 ; annual, at the New Year, old 
intention of, ix. 184 

Confucianism, its success due to the 
personal influence of its founder, vi. 
159 j?. 

Confusion between a man and his totem, 
i. 107 

of magic and religion, i. 226 sq.\ 

in Melanesia, i. 227 sq.\ in ancient 
India, i. 228 sq. ; in ancient Egypt, i. 
230 sq. , in modern Europe, i. 231 sqq. ; 
the confusion not primitive, i. 233 j^. 

Congo Free State, the Ba-Yaka and 
Ba-Yanzi of the, i. 348, iii. 186 n. 1 ; 
the Tofoke of the, vii. 119 

Congo, the French, the Fans of the, xi. 161 

, kingdom or region of, palm-wine 

offered to trees in the, ii. 15 ; custom 
observed by pregnant women in the, 
ii. 58 ; the pontiff Chitom in the, iii. 
5, iv. 14 ; conjuring spirits at meals 
in the, iii. 120 ; food tal>oos in the, 
ni. 137 ; precaution as to the spittle 
of the king of the, iii 289 sq. ; priest 
dressed as a woman in, vi. 254 sq. ; 
images stuck with nails in the, ix. 70 
n. 1 ; birth -trees in the, xi. 161 sq. ; 
theory of the external soul in the, xi. 
200 ; the Bushongo of the, xi. 229 n. ; 
use of bull-roarers in the, xi. 229 n. 

, the Lower, belief in the reincarna- 
tion of the dead among the natives 
of, i. 103 sq. ; superstition as to resem- 
blance between parent and child among 
the tribes of, iii. 89 ; natives of, then 
belief as to stepping over a person 



Hi. 423 sq. \ burial of infants on the, 
v. 91 ; taboos observed by women 
who plant seeds among the tribes of, 
vii. 1 15 sq. \ seclusion of girls at puberty 
on the, x. 31 ; rites of initiation on the, 
xi. 251 sqq. 

Congo, the Upper, Kibanga on, iv. 34 ; 
the Bangala of, vii. 119; the Boloki 
of, xi. 161, 229 it. 

, King of Rain at mouth of the, ii. 2 

Congo negroes, their belief in the abstrac- 
tion of souls by sorcerers, iii. 70 

tribes, recall of stray souls among 

the, iii. 44 sq. 

Congregation de Notre Dame at Paris, 
Childermas at the, ix. 337 

Conibos Indians of the Ucayali River, 
regard thunder as the voice of the 
dead, ii. 183 . 2 ; their theory of 
earthquakes, v. 198 

Conical stone as divine emblem, v. 165, 
1 66. See also Cones 

Conitz, in West Prussia, saying as to 
wind in corn at, vii. 288 

Conjunction of sun and moon, viii. 15 
w. 1 ; a time for marriage, iv. 73 ; time 
chosen for ritual observances, vm. 15 w. 1 

Conjuring spirits at meals, in. 120 

Con naught, taboos observed by the 
ancient kings of, iii. ii sq. ; Mid- 
summer hres in, x. 203 ; cave of 
Cruachan in, x. 226 ; palace of the 
kings of, xi. 127 

Connemara, Midsummer fires in, x. 203 

Conquering races, great, have advanced 
civilization, i. 128 

Conquerors sometimes leave a nominal 
kingship to the conquered, ii. 288 sq. 

Consecration of the sacnficer of Soma in 
Vedic India, iii. 159/7.; of the first- 
born among the IK-brews, iv. 172; 
among the ancient Italians, iv. 187 

Conservation of energy, viii. 262, 303 

"Consort, the divine," ii. 131, 135 

Constance, the Council of, forbade pro- 
cessions with bears and other animals, 
viii. 326 H. S 

, the Lake of, supeistition as to St. 

John's Day on, xi. 26 

Constantino destroys temple of Astarte, 
T. 28 ; suppresses sacred prostitution, 
v. 37 ; removes standard cubit from 
the Serapeum, vi. 2x6 sq. 

Constantinople, accusation of binding the 
winds by magic at, . 325 ; protected 
against flies and gnats, viii. 281 ; 
column at, xi. 157 

Constellations observed by the aborigines 
of Victoria, vii. 308 ; observed by 
savages, vii. 313, 314 sq., 315, 317 

Constitution of Athens, Aristotle's, ii. 
137 .' 

Consuls, the first Roman, ii. 290 
Consulship at Rome, institution of, ii. 

290 sq. 
Consummation of marriage prevented by 

knots and locks, iii. 299 sqg. 
Consumption transferred to bird, ix. 51, 

xi. 187 ; ashes of the Midsummer 

fires a cure for, x. 194 sq. 
Consumptive patients passed through 

holes in stones or rocks, xi. 186 sq. 
Census and Ops, vi 233 . fl 
Contact with sacred things deemed 

dangerous, viii. 27 sqq. ; between 

certain foods in stomach of eater 

forbidden, viii. 83 sqq. , 90 
or contagion in magic, law of, L 

52, 53 
Contagion of death, banishment of the, 

. 37 

Contagious magic, i. 52, 53 sq., 174- 
214, in. 246, 268, 272; of teeth, L 
176-182 ; of navel-string and afterbirth 
(placenta), i. 182-201 ; of wound and 
weapon, i. 201 sqq.\ of footprints, i. 
207-212 ; of other impressions, i. 213 
sq. ; of the man-god, m. 132 

taboos, i. 117 

Contempt of death, iv. 142 sqq. 

Contest for the kingship at Whitsuntide, 
ii. 89 sq. \ for the throne of Egypt, 
traditions of a, vi. 17 sq. 

, Ancestral, at the Eleusinian Games, 

vii. 71, 74, 77 

Contests for a bride, ii. 305 sqq. ; for pos- 
session of the corn-spirit, vii. 74 sq. t 
180 ; between reapers, vii. j\sq., 136, 
140, 141, 142, 144, 152, 153 sq. t 
155, 156, 164 sg. t 219, 253, 273; 
between binders of corn, vii. 136, 

137, 138, 2l8 Sq., 220, 221, 222, 253, 

273 ; between threshers, vii. 147 sgq. t 
218, 219 j?., 221 sq., 223 jy., 253 
, dramatic, between actors repre- 
senting Summer and Winter, iv. 254 

Conti, Nicolo, on religious suicide, iv. 54 
Continence in magical ceremonies, i. 88 ; 
required during the search for the 
sacred cactus, i. 124 ; at rain-making 
ceremonies, i. 257, 259 ; required of 
parents of twins, i. 266 ; practised before 
fertility ceremonies, ii. 98 ; practised 
in order to make the crops grow, ii. 
104 sqq. ; enjoined on people during 
the rounds of sacred pontiff, iii. 5 ; of 
priests, iii. 6, 159 n.\ on eve of period 
of taboo, iii. 1 1 ; observed by those who 
have handled the dead, iii. 141, 143; 
during war, iii. 157. 158 w. 1 , 161, 163, 
164, 165 ; after victory, hi. 166 sqq., 
175, 178, 179, 181 ; by cannibals, iii. 
188 ; by fishers and hunters, iii. 191, 



192, 193, 194, 195. 196, 197. 198. 
207 ; by workers in salt-pans, iii. 200 ; 
at brewing beer, wine, and poison, iii. 
aoo sq. t 901 ;?.; at baking, iii. 201 ; 
at making coco-nut oil, iii. 201 ; at 
building canoes, iii. 202; at house- 
building, iii. 202 ; at making or repair- 
ing dams, iii. 202 ; on trading voyages, 
iii. 203 ; after festivals, iii. 204 ; on 
journeys, iii. 204 ; while cattle are at 
pasture, iii. 204 ; by lion-killers and 
bear-killers, iii. 220, 221 ; before hand- 
ling holy relics, iii. 272 ; by tabooed 
men, iii. 293 ; at consulting an oracle, 
iii. 314 ; at sowing and reaping, vii. 
109 . a ; and fasting observed before 
ploughing and sowing, viii. 14, 15 ; 
at festival of first-fruits, viii. 75 ; com- 
bined with abstinence from salt, viii. 
75. 93- 93 * ' after eating of a god, 
viii. 93 ; at bladder festival of the 
Esquimaux, viii. 248 ; during Lent, 
ix. 348 ; as preparation for walking 
through fire, xi. 3. See also Chastity 

Conty, in France, Lenten fires at, x. 1x3 

Conway, Professor R. S. , on the ety- 
mology of Virbius, ii. 379 . c ; on 
the etymology of Soranus, xi. 15 n. 1 

Conybeare, F. C. , on Christians worship- 
ping each other as Christs, i. 407 .* ; 
on the feminine sex of the Holy Ghost, 
iv. 5 . 

Cook, A. B., i. 40 . 3 and 4 , ii. 307 n. a , 
v. 49 . 8 ; on the slope of Virbius, i. 
4 . 5 ; on circular basement at Nemi, 
i. 13 if. 5 ; on Mamus Egenus, i. 23 n, ; 
on association of horse and wolf, i. 27 
n. 5 ; on double-headed bust at Nemi, i. 
42 n. 1 ; on the name Egeria, ii. 172 n. 3 ; 
on parallelism between Rome and 
Aricia, ii. 173 . 8 ; on personification 
of Zeus by Greek kings, ii. 177 w. 6 ; 
on the Alban kings, ii. 178 .* ; on the 
Alban sow, ii. 187 n. 4 ; on substitu- 
tion of poplar for oak, ii. 220 .* ; on 
the consulship, ii. 290 n. 9 ; on the death 
of Servius Tullius, ii. 321 n. 1 ; on gongs 
at Dodona, ii. 358 n. 4 ; on the oak as 
the tree of Zeus, ii. 359 n. 3 ; on con- 
nexion of the King of the Wood with 
the Silvii, il 379 . 4 ; on Plautus, 
Casina, ii. 379 n. 6 ; on association of 
Diana with the oak, ii. 380 . 4 ; on 
Jupiter-Janus, Juno-Diana, ii. 383 n. 2 ; 
on derivation of janua from Janus, ii. 
384 . 8 ; on Minos and Pasiphae, iv. 
71 n. 8 ; on octennial tenure of Greek 
kingship, iv. 78 . 8 ; on festival of 
Laurel-bearing at Thebes, iv. 79 n. 1 , 
vi. 241 .* ; on sacred oak at Delphi, 
iv. 80; on substitution of laurel for 
oak, iv. 8 1 sg. ; as to a scene on the 

frieze of the Parthenon, iv. 89 .' ; on 
assimilation of Olympic victors to Zeus, 
iv. 90 ; on name of priest of Corycian 
Zeus, v. 155 . 1 ; on death of Romulus, 
vi. 98 . a ; on traces of mother- kin 
in myth and ritual of Hercules, vi. 
259 . 4 ; on use of bells and gongs 
to ban demons in antiquity, ix. 246 
. 8 ; on the oak of Errol, xi. 284 n. 1 

Cook, Captain James, on the Tahitian 
belief in spirits or gods, ix. 80 sq. 

Cook, menstruous women not allowed to, 
x. 80, 82, 84, 90 

Cooking, taboos as to, iii. 1471?., 156, 
165, 169, 178, 185, 193, 194, 198, 
209, 221, 256 

Cooks, Roman, required to be chaste, ii. 
115 sq., 205 

Coomassie, in Ashantee, human sacri- 
fice for earthquake at, v. 201 ; the 
festival of the new yams at, viii. 62 
sqq. \ bones of Sir Charles M'Carthy 
kept as fetishes at, viii. 149 

Cooper, Rev. Sydney, on the harvest 
11 neck" in Cornwall, vii. 262 .* 

Coorgs, the, of Southern India, their 
ceremonies at reaping and eating the 
new rice, viii. 55 sq. 

Cootchie, a demon of the Dieri, expelled 
by medicine-men, ix. no 

Copenhagen, the museum at, ii. 352 ; 
bathing on St. John's Eve at, v. 248 ; 
statue of Demeter at, vn. 43 n. 6 

Copper, unstamped, early Italian money, 
i. 23 

Copper needle, story of man who could 
only be killed by a, xi. 314 

rings as amulets, iii. 315 

River, Esquimaux of the, iii. 184 

Coptic calendar, vi. 6 . 

church forbade use of iron in 

exorcism, iii. 235 ; forbade the tying 
of magic knots, iii. 310 n. ; enjoins 
continence duiing Lent, ix. 348 

Cor-mass, procession of wicker giants at 
Dunkirk, xi. 34 

Cora Indians of Mexico, their magical 
images, i. 55 sq. ; their dance at sow- 
ing, ix. 238 ; their dramatic dances, ix. 

Coral rings as amulets, iii. 315 

Coran, the, in incantations, i. 64 ; verse 
of, recited as a charm, ix. 62. See 
also Koran 

Corannas of South Africa, custom as to 
succession among the, iv. 191 sq. ; their 
children after an illness passed undei 
an arch, xi. 192 

Core, his purification, ii. 116 

Cordia oval is t used in kindling fire by 
friction, ii. 210 

Cords, knotted, in magic, iii. 299, 302, 



3>3 f" 3<>9i' tied tightly round the 
bodies of girls at puberty, x. 92 n. 1 

Corea, offerings to souls of the dead in 
trees in, ii. 31 ; the effigy of the 
king not struck on coins of, iii. 99 ; 
clipped hair burned in, iii. 283 ; 
custom of swinging in, iv. 284 sq. ; 
dance of eunuchs in, v. 270 . 2 ; use 
of effigies to piolong life in, viii. 105 ; 
first-fruits of all crops formerly offered 
to king of, viii. 122 ; bones of tigers 
prized in, as means of inspiring 
courage, viii. 145 ; cairns to which 
each passer-by adds a stone in, ix. 
ii ; offerings at cairns in, ix. 27; 
traps for demons in, ix. 61 sq. \ 
belief in demons in, ix. 99 sq.; spirit 
of disease expelled in, ix. 119 ; annual 
expulsion of demons in, ix. 147 ; the 
tug -of- war in, ix. 177 sq. \ custom 
observed after childbirth by women in, 
x. 20 ; use of torches to ensure good 
crops in, x 340 

, the kings of, held responsible for 

rain and the crops, i. 355 ; formerly 
confined to their palace, iii. 125 ; not 
to be touched with iron, iii. 226 ; their 
names not to be uttered by their sub- 
jects, iii. 376 

Coreans, their belief as to absence of 
soul in sleep, iii. 41 ; their ceremony 
on the fifteenth day of the moon, vi. 
143 ; their annual ceremonies for the 
riddance of evils, ix. 202 sq. 

Corfu, May songs and trees in, ii. 63 sq. 

Corinth, family supposed to control the 
winds at, i. 324 

Corinthians make images of Dionysus out 
of a pine-tree, vii. 4 

Cormac, on Beltane fires, x. 157 

Cormac Mac Art, king of Ireland, iv. 39 

Corn ground by pregnant women, i. 
140 ; defiled persons kept from the, ii. 
112 ; reaped ear of, displayed at 
mysteries of Eleusis, ii. 138 sq. t vii. 38; 
sheaf of, dressed up to represent Death, 
iv. 248 ; water thrown on the last corn 
cut, a rain-charm, v. 237 sq. ; sprouting 
from the dead body of Osiris, vi. 89 ; 
personified as Demeter, vii. 42; the 
various kinds of, called " Demeter's 
fruits," vii. 42 ; first-fruits of, offered 
to Demeter and Persephone at Eleusis, 
vii. 53 sqq. ; first bestowed on the 
Athenians by Demeter, vii. 54 ; personi- 
fied as female, vii. 130 ; wreath of, made 
from last sheaf, vii. 134; double personi- 
fication of, as mother and daughter, vii. 
207 sqq.\ the first corn cut, customs 
connected with, vii. 215 *q. ; patches of 
unreaped, left at harvest, vii. 233 ; iden- 
tification of persons wilh, vii. 252 ; the 

last left standing, the corn-spirit sup- 
posed to be in, vii. 254, 268 ; the new, 
eaten sacramental ly, viii. 48 sqq. ; the first 
cut, used to bake the communion bread, 
viii. 51 ; sanctity of the, viii. no ; 
the last cut, corn-spirit in, viii. 328 ; 
charm to make the corn grow tall, x. 
1 8 ; on the man who brings 
the Yule log, x. 260, 262, 264 ; blazing 
besoms flung aloft to make the corn 
grow high, x. 340 

Corn and grapes, symbols of the god of 
Tarsus, v. 119, 143 ; of the god of 
Ibreez, v. 121 ; figured with double- 
headed axe on Lydian coin, v. 183 

and poppies as symbols of Demeter, 

vii. 43 sq. 

and vine, emblems of the gods of 

Tarsus and Ibreez, v. 160 sq. 

Corn Baby at haivest, vii. 150 sq., 152, 

-bull at threshing, vii. 291 

cat in the corn, viL 280 

cow at reaping, vii. 289 

dog at harvest, vii. 272 

-ears, Queen of the, vii. 146 ; crown 

of, vii. 163, 221, 283 ; wreath of, as 
badge of priestly office, ix. 232 

festivals of the Cora Indians, ix. 381 

flowers, the blue, supposed danger 

of plucking, vii. 272, 282 

foal, the corn-spirit as, vii. 294 

fool at threshing, vii. 148 

-goat, vii. 282, 283, 286, 287 

god, Adonis as a, v. 230 sgq. ; Attis 

as a, v. 279 ; mourned at midsummer, 
vi. 34 ; Osiris as a, vi. 89 sqq. , 96 sqq. 

harvest, the first-fruits of the, 

offered at Lammas, iv. 101 sq. 

horse, the corn-spirit as, vii. 294 

maiden at harvest, vii. 150, 230 ; 

in the Highlands of Scotland, vii. 155 
sqq., 164 sqq. 
- -mallet at threshing, vii. 148 

-man at harvest, vii. 223 ; the goal 

of a women's race, vii. 76 sq. 

mother, the, vii. 150 ; at Eleusis, 

ii. 139 ; in Northern Europe, vii. 131 
sqq.', makes the crops to grow, vii. 
133 ; in last sheaf, vii. 133 sqq. ; 
personated by a woman, vii. 150, 261 ; 
primitive character of the European, 
vii. 170 ; in America, vii. 171 sqq. ; in 
many lands, vii. 171 sqq. \ in canton 
of Zurich, vii. 232 

-pug at threshing, vii. 273 

queen made out of last sheaf, vii. 146 

reapers, songs of the, vii. 214 sqq. 

-reaping in Egypt, Palestine, and 

Greece, date of the, i. 32, v. 231 .* 

sheaf, image of Metsik made of ft, 

ii. SS 



Corn-sieve, severed limbs of Osiris placed 
on a, vi. 97 ; new-born infant placed 
in, vii. 7 ; beaten at ceremony of 
expulsion of poverty, ix. 145. See 
also Winnowing-fan 
-sow at harvest, vii. 271, 298 
-spirit called the Old Man or the 
Old Woman, iv. 253 sq. \ Tammuz or 
Adonis as a, v. 230 sgq. ; propitiation 
of the, perhaps fused with a worship 
of the dead, v. 233 sgq. \ represented 
as a dead old man, vi. 48, 96 ; repre- 
sented by human victims, vi. 97, 106 
sq. ; contests for possession of the, vii. 
74 sq., 180; conceived as old, vii. 136 
sqq. ; in last sheaf threshed, vii. 139, 
147, 168, viii. 48 ; represented in 
duplicate, vii. 139 ; lurks among the 
corn in the barn till driven out by the 
threshing-flail, vii. 147, 274^., 286; 
personal representative of, killed in 
mimicry, vii. 149 sq., 224 sq. ; con- 
ceived as young, vii. 150 sqq. \ as 
Bride and Bridegroom, vn. 162 sqq. ; 
as male and female, vii. 164, viii. 9 ; 
as female, both old and young, vii. 164 
sqq. ; represented by person who cuts, 
binds, or threshes the last corn, vii. 
167 sq., 220 sqq , 236, 253 sq. ; ferti- 
lizing influence of, vii. 168 ; its influ- 
ence on women, vii. 168 ; represented 
by human beings, vii. 168, 2045^., 
viii. 333 ; preserved in last sheaf, vii. 
171 ; conceived by the Iroquois as a 
woman, vii. 177 ; in form of an old 
man, vii. 206 sq. ; conceived either 
as immanent in the corn or as external 
to it, vii. 211 ; in first corn cut, vii. 

215 ; personal representative of, killed 
in mimicry, vii. 216 ; killing the, vn. 

216 sqq. t 223 sqq. ; represented by 
living man, viu 224 ; represented by 
a puppet, vii. 224 ; represented by 
persons wrapt in corn, vii. 225 sq. \ 
represented by a stranger, vii. 225 
sqq. , 230 sq. ; conceived as poor and 
robbed by the reapers, vii. 231 sqq. ; 
slain in his human representatives, vii. 
251 sqq. ; in last standing corn, vii. 
254, 268 ; the neck of the, vii. 268 ; 
beheaded when last corn is cut, vii. 
268 ; the tail of the, vii. 268, 272, 300, 
viii. 10, 43 ; as animal, vii 270 sqq. , 
xi. 43 ; as wolf or dog, vii. 271 sqq. t 
viii. 327 ; as cock, vii. 276 sqq. ; killed 
in form of live cock, vii. 277 sq. ; as 
hare, vii. 279 sq. ; as cat, vii. 280 sq. ; 
as goat, vii. 281 sqq. ; killed as goat, vii. 
284 sq. t 287, viii. 327 sq.\ lame, vii. 
284 ; as bull, cow, or ox, vii. 288 sqq. , 
viii. 6 sqq. , 8, 34; killed in form of bull, 
rii. 290, 291 sq. ; killed at threshing, 

vii. 291 sq. ; in form of calf, vii. 292 ; 
as old and young in form of cow and 
calf, vii. 292 ; as horse or mare, vii. 
292 sqq. ; as a bird, vii. 295 ; as a 
quail, vii. 295 ; as fox, vii. 296^. ; as 
pig (boar, sow), vii. 298 sqq. \ in form of 
boar, vii. 301, viii. 328 ; immanent in 
the last sheaf, vii. 301 ; on the animal 
embodiments of the, vii. 303.?^. ; repre- 
sented by an ox, vm. 9 sqq. \ killed in 
animal form and eaten sacramentally, 
viii. 20 ; reason for killing the, viii. 
138 ; as a bear, viii. 325 sqq. \ repre- 
sented dramatically, viii. 325 ; as ram, 
viii. 328 ; kept through the winter in 
the form of an animal, viii. 328 ; re- 
presented by a man called the Straw- 
bear, viu. 329 ; human representative 
of the, dragged over the fresh furrows, 
viii. 332, 333 ; in last standing corn, 
x. 12 ; human representatives of, put 
to death, xi. 25 

Corn-spirits, male and female, a pair of, 
vii. 286 

-stalks, harvesters wrapt up m, vii. 

220 sqq. 

-steer at reaping last ears of corn, 

vii. 289 

-stuffed effigies of Osiris buried 

with the dead as a symbol of resurrec- 
tion, vi. 90 sq. t 114 

-wolf in corn, vn. 272, 273, 275 

-woman, vii. 230, 233 ; at thresh- 
ing, vii 149 ; among the North 
American Indians, vii. 177 

wreaths as first-fruits, v. 43 ; worn 

by Arval Brethren, v. 44 n. 

Cornaby, Rev. W. A., iv. 273; on 
reported substitutes for capital punish- 
ment in China, iv. 275 sq. 

Corne, near Tusculum, sacred grove of 
Diana at, ii. 190 n. 9 

Cornel branches, men and beasts beaten 
with, for their health, ix. 266 

tree, sacred, in Rome, ii. 10 ; in 

popular remedy, ix. 55 ; la/iness trans- 
ferred to a, ix. 55 ; wood used to kindle 
need-fire, x. 286 

Corners of fields not to be reaped, vii. 

234 W> 
Cornford, F. M., on the Olympic victors 

as personifying the Sun and Moon, 

iv. 91 n. 1 
Cornish customs on May Day, ii. 52, 60, 


Cornouaille, in Brittany, weather fore- 
cast for the year at, ix. 323 sq. 
Cornstalks, festival of the, at Eleusis, 

vii. 63 
Cornutus on the poppy as a symbol of 

Demeter, vii. 44 ; on Persephone ai 

the seed sown, vii. 46 n. 9 



Cornwall, May Day custom as to haw- 
thorn in bloom in, li. 52 ; temporary 
king in, iv. 153^.; custom of "cry- 
ing the neck" in, vii. 266 sq. ; Snake 
Stones in, x. 15, 16 n. 1 \ Midsummer 
fires in, x. 199 sq. ; burnt sacrifices to 
stay cattle disease in, x. 300 sq. ; holed 
stone through which people used to 
creep in, xi. 187 

Coro, province of Venezuela, custom of 
drinking powdered body of dead chief 
in, viii. 157 

Coronation, human sacrifices to prolong 
a king's life at his, vi. 223 

Coronation ceremony in England, chal- 
lenge to mortal combat at, n. 322 

Corp chre, magical clay image in Scot- 
land, i. 68 sq. 

Corporal punishment, voluntary substi- 
tutes for, in China, iv. 275 sq. 

Corporeal relics of dead kings confer 
right to throne, iv. 202 sq. 

Corpse, priest of Earth forbidden to see 
a, x. 4 

"Corpse-praying priest," ix. 45 

Corpses, knots not allowed about, iii. 
310 ; devoured by members of Secret 
Societies, ix. 377 

Corpulence regarded as a distinction and 
beauty, ii. 297 

Corpus Christi Day, the Slaying of the 
Dragon on the Sunday after, ii. 163 ; 
the Pleiades worshipped by the Peru- 
vian Indians on, vii. 310 ; processions 
on, x. 165 

Correze, district of the Auvcrgne, super- 
stition as to reflections in, in. 95 

and Creuse, departments of, St. 
John's fires in the, x. 190 

Corsica, blood-revenge in, ii. 321 ; Mid- 
summer fires in, x. 209 

Corsicans divine by the shoulder- blades 
of sheep, iii. 229 . 4 

Corycian cave, priests of Zeus at the, v. 
145 ; the god of the, v. 152 sqq. ; de- 
scribed, v. 153 sq. ; saffron at the, v. 
187 ; name perhaps derived from 
crocus, v. 187 

Corycus in Cihcia, ruins of, v. 153 

Cos, king of, sacrifices to Hestia, i. 45 ; 
titular kings in, i. 46 n.* ; sanctuary of 
Aesculapius in, ii. zo ; altar of Rainy 
Zeus in, ii. 360 ; traces of mother-kin 
in, vi. 259; Sacied Marriage in, vi. 
259 . 4 ; bridegroom dressed as woman 
in, vi. 260 ; harvest-home in, vii. 47 ; 
image of Demeter in, vii. 47, 61 ; 
Zeus Polieus in, viii. 5 . 9 ; custom 
of beating cattle in March in, ix. 
266 ; effigies of Judas burnt at Easter 
in, x. 130 ; Midsummer fires in, x. 


Cosenza in Calabria, Easter custom at, 
v. 254 

Cosmogonies, primitive, perhaps influ- 
enced by human sacrifices, ix. 409 sqq. 

Cosquin, E., on the book of Esther, ix. 
367 n. 9 ; on helpful animals and ex- 
ternal souls in folk-tales, xi. 133 n. 1 

Cosse de Nau t the Yule log, x. 251 

Costa Rica, the Bnbri Indians of, iii. 
147, x. 86 ; Indians of, their treatment 
of the bones of animals, viii. 259 n. 1 ; 
their customs in fasts, x. 20 ; cere- 
monial uncleanness among the, x. 65 
n. 1 ; the Guatusos of, xi. 230 . 

C6te d'Or, the Fox at reaping in, vii. 296 

Cotton, the Mother of, in the Punjaub, 
vii. 178 ; treatment of first cotton 
picked, viii. 119 

Cotton -bleacher, human god the son of a, 
i. 376 

Cottonwood trees, the shades or spirits 
of, ii. 12 

Cotys, king of Lydia, v. 187 

Coudreau, H. , on the custom of stinging 
with ants among the Indians of French 
Guiana, x. 63 sq. 

Coughs transferred to animals, ix. 51, 52 

Couit-gil, the spirit of a dead person, 
among the aborigines of Victoria, iii. 


Coulommiers, in France, notion as to 
mistletoe at, xi. 316 n. 1 

Counter-charm for witchcraft, "scoring 
above the breath," x. 316 . a 

Couples married within the year obliged 
to dance by torchlight, x. 115, 339 

Coupling ewes and rams, the time for, 
ii. 328, 328 . 4 

Couppe*. Mgr. , on the belief in demons 
in New Britain, ix. 82 

Courage acquired by eating the flesh of 
fierce beasts, viii. 140, 141 sqq. \ 
seated in gall-bladder, viii. 145 sq. ; 
acquired by eating the flesh or drink- 
ing the blood of brave men, viii. 148 

Court etiquette, iv. 39 sq. 

Courtiers required to imitate their 
sovereign, iv. 39 sq. 

Cousins, male and female, not allowed 
to mention each other's names, iii. 344 

Couteau or Knife Indians, viii. 227 n. 

Covenant formed by eating together, iii. 
130 ; formed by mixing the blood of 
the covenanting parties, iii. 130 ; spittle 
used in making a, iii. 290 

Coventry, Midsummer giants at, xi. 37 

Covering up mirrors at a death, iii. 94 sq. 

Cow bewitjhed, iii. 93 ; ceremony of 
rebirth from a golden, iii. 113 ; as 
symbol of the moon, iv. 71 sq. ; image 
of, in the rites of Osiris, vi. 50, 84 : 



Isis represented with the head of a, 
vi. 50 ; thought to be impregnated by 
moonshine, vi. 130 sq. ; in calf treated 
like woman in childbed, vii. 33 ; corn- 
spirit as, vii. 288 sgg. 

Cow, black, in rain-charm, i. 290 

, white, with red ears, used in ex- 
piation, ii. 116 

Cow-goddess Shenty, vi 88 

headed women, statuettes of, found 

at Lycosura, viii. 21 . 4 

Cow's hide, thresher of last corn wrapt 
in, vii. 291 ; custom of beating the, 
on Hogmanay, viii. 322 sgg. 

Cowboy of the king of Unyoro, taboos 
observed by the, iii. 159 n. 

Cows, the afterbirths of, how treated, i. 
198 sq. \ charm to increase the milk of, 
i. 198 sq. ; milked as a rain-charm, i. 
284 ; washed in dew on Midsummer 
morning, ii. 127 ; pregnant, sacrificed 
to the Earth Goddess, ii. 229 ; milked 
through a ring as a precaution against 
witchcraft, iii. 314 sq. ; sacred to Isis, 
vi. 50; milked by women, vii. 118 ; 
the Hindoo worship of, vni. 37 ; and 
their milk, superstitions as to, viii. 84 
ns. 1 and a ; bewitched on Walpurgis 
Night, ix. 162 ; as scapegoats, ix. 193, 
216 ; witches steal milk from, x. 343 ; 
mistletoe given to, xi. 86 ; milked 
through a hole in a branch or a 
"witch's nest," xi. 185 

Coyohuacan, city of Mexico, paste idol 
eaten by warriors in, viii. 91 

Coyote not to be named by children in 
winter, iii. 399 

Crab in rain-charm, i. 289 

Crabs used to extract vicious propensity, 
ix. 34 ; change their skin, ix. 303 

Crackers ignited to expel demons, ix. 
117, 146 sg. ; burnt to frighten ghosts, 
xi. 17, 1 8 

Crackling of grain in fire a sign that the 
dead are eating it, viii. 65 

Cracow, customs as to the last sheaf in 
the district of, vii. 145 ; Midsummer 
fires in the district of, x. 175 

Craig, Captain Wolsey, on unlucky 
marriages in Barar, ii. 57 . 4 

Crane, emblem of longevity, i. 169 n. 1 ; 
dance called the, iv. 75 

Cranes, trumpeting of the, signal for 
ploughing, vii. 45 ; their seasons of 
migration, vii. 45 n. 1 

Cranganore in Cochin, shrine of the 
goddess Bhagavati at, i. 280 

Crannogs or lake-dwellings in the British 
Islands, ii. 352 

Crannon, in Thessaly, rain-making by 
means of a chariot at, i. 309 ; coins 
of, L 309 *.* 

Crassus, Publicius Licinhis, funeral garnet 
in his honour, iv. 96 

Crawfish in homoeopathic magic, i. 156; 
worshipped by Indians of Peru, viii. 

Crawley, E., on the external soul in 
the placenta and navel-string, i. 201 n. 1 

Cream, ceremony for thickening, x. 

Cream-bowl wreathed with hawthorn in 
bloom on May morning, ii. 52 

Creation, myths of, iv. 106 sgg. ; Baby- 
lonian legend of, iv. 106, xxo 

of the world thought to be annually 

repeated, v. 284 ; legends of, influenced 
by human sacrifices, ix. 409 sgg. 

Creator, the grave of the, iv. 3; beheaded, 
ix. 410 ; sacrifices himself daily to create 
the world afresh, ix. 411 

Creek Indians of North America, their 
tradition of the first fire, ii. 256 . a ; 
taboos imposed on lads at initiation 
among the, iii. 156 ; their mortification 
of themselves in war, iii. 161 sqq. ; the 
busk or festival of first-fruits among 
the, viii. 72 sgg. \ their belief in the 
homoeopathic magic of the flesh of 
animals, vni. 139 ; their dread of 
menstruous women, x. 88 

Town, in Guinea, periodic expulsion 

of demons at, ix. 204 n. l 

Creepers, homoeopathic magic of, i. 145 

Creeping through an arch as a cure, ix. 
55 ; through a tunnel as a remedy for 
an epidemic, x. 283 sq. ; through cleft 
trees as cure for various maladies, xi. 
170 sgg. ; through narrow openings in 
order to escape ghostly pursuers, xi. 
177 sqq. 

Crescent -shaped chest in the rites of 
Osiris, vi. 85, 130 

Crests of the Cilician pirates, v. 149 

Cretan festival of Dionysus, vii 14 sq. \ 
of Hermes, ix. 350 

myth of the murder of Dionysus, 

vii. 13 

Crete, milk-stones in, i. 165 ; precinct 
of Dictaean Zeus in, ii. 122 ; sacrifices 
without the use of iron in, iii. 226 
sq. ; grave of Zeus in, iv. 3 ; sacred 
trees and pillars in, v. 107 . a ; ancient 
seat of worship of Demeter, vii. 131. ; 
pig not eaten in, viii. 21 n. 1 

Creuse and Correze, departments of, St. 
John's fires in the, x. 190 

Crevaux, J., on stinging with ants as 
ceremony, iii 105 

Crianlarich, in Strath Fill an, the harvest 
Cailleach at, vii. 166 

Cridcet, soul in form of, iii. 39 n. 1 

Crickets in homoeopathic magic, i. 156 

Cries of reapers, vii. 963 sgg. 


Crimea, the Karaits 01 the, iii. 95 ; the 
Taurians of the, v. 294 

Crimes, sticks or stones piled on the 
scene of, ix. 13 sqq. 

Criminals shaved as a mode of purifica- 
tion, iii. 287 ; sacrificed, iv. 195, ix. 
354, 396 sq. , 408 ; shorn to make 
them confess, xi. 158 sq. 

Cripple or Lame Goat at harvest in Skye, 
vn. 284 

Crnagora, divination on St. George's 
morning in, ii. 345 

Croatia, souls of witches said to pass 
into trees in, ii. 32; Good Friday 
custom in, ix. 268 ; Midsummer fires 
in, x. 178 

Croats of Istria, "Sawing the Old 
Woman " among the, iv. 242 ; their 
belief as to the activity of witches on 
Midsummer Eve, xi. 75 

Crocodile not to be met or seen by 
people of the crocodile clan, viii. 28 ; 
supposed to be born as the twin of a 
human child, viii. 212; clay image of, 
as a protection against mice, viii. 279 ; 
a Batta totem, xi. 223 

Crocodile -catchers, rules observed by, 
viii. 209 sq. 

'- clan of the Dinka, iv. 31 

-shaped hero, in Yam, v. 139 n. 1 

Crocodiles, Malay magic to catch, i. no 
sq. ; girls sacrificed to, ii. 152 ; not 
called by their proper names, iii. 401, 
403, 410, 411, 415 sq. ; ancestral 
spirits in, viii. 123 ; hunted by savages 
for their flesh, viii. 208 . a ; often 
spared by savages out of respect, 
viii. 208 sqq. ; ceremonies observed at 
catching, viii. 209 sqq. ; kinship of men 
with, viii. 212 sq., 214 sq. ; men 
sacrificed to, viii. 213 ; inspned human 
medium of, viii. 213; temple dedicated 
to, viii. 2x3 ; respected in Africa and 
Madagascar, viii. 213 sqq. ; sacred at 
Dix Cove, viii. 287 ; souls of the dead 
in, viii. 289, 290, 291, 295 ; fat of, x. 
14 ; lives of persons bound up with 
those of, xi. 201, 202, 206, 209; ex- 
ternal human souls in, xi. 207, 209 

Croesus, king of Lydia, his war with the 
Persians, ii. 316 ; captures Pteria, v. 
128 ; the burning of, v. ij<\sqq., 179, 
ix. 391 ; his burnt offerings to Apollo 
at Delphi, v. 180 n. 1 ; dedicates golden 
lion at Delphi, v. 184 ; his son Atys, 
v. 286 

Crofts, W. C, on Whitsuntide Bride in 
Norway, ii. 92 n. 4 

Cromarty Firth, words tabooed by fisher- 
men of the, iii. 394 

Cromer, Martin, on the Lithuanian wor- 
ship of fire, ii. 366 rt.* 

Cromm Cruach, a legendary Irish idol, 

iv. 183 
Cronia, a Greek festival resembling the 

Saturnalia, ix. 351 ; at Olympia, ix. 

352 sq. 

Cronion, a Greek month, vi. 238, viii. 7, 
8 n. 1 , ix. 351 . a 

Cronius, Mount, at Olympia, sacrifice at 
the spring equinox on, i. 46 n. 4 

Cronus, an older god in Greece than Zeus, 
ii. 323 ; buried in Sicily, iv. 4 ; his sacri- 
fice of his son, iv. 166, 179 ; his treat- 
ment of his father and children, -iv. 
192 ; his marriage with his sister Rhea, 
iv. 194 ; identified with the Phoenician 
1, v. 1 66 ; castrates his father Uranus 
and is castrated by his son Zeus, v. 283 ; 
name applied to winter, vi. 41 ; and 
the Cronia, ix. 351 sq. ; his sacred hill 
at Olympia, ix. 352 ; and the Golden 
Age, ix. 353 ; and human sacrifice, ix. 

353 st l' 397 1 cakes offered to, x. 153 . 8 
Crook and scourge or flail, the emblems 

of Osiris, vi. 108, 153, compare 20 

Crooke, Rev. Mr. , missionary in Tahu- 
ata, i. 387 n. 1 

Crooke, W., i. 406 n.\ iv. 53 n. 1 , vii. 
234 . a , viii. 56 . s ; on marriage to 
trees in India, ii. 57 n. 4 ; on local 
gods served by aboriginal priests in 
India, ii. 288 n. 1 ; on temporary sub- 
stitutes for the Shah of Persia, iv. 
157 . 5 , 159 n. 1 ; on sacred dancing- 
giils, v. 65 n. 1 1 on Mohammedan 
saints, v. 78 . a ; on infant burial, v. 
93 sq. ; on the custom of the False 
Bride, vi. 262 . 8 ; on Bhumiya, viiL 
118 . ; as to use of spindle in ritual, 
viii. 119 . B 

Crop supposed to be spoilt if a man were 
to name his father and mother, iii. 341 

Crops, dancing and leaping as charms to 
promote the growth of the, i. 137^7., 
ix. 232, 238 sqq. t x. 119, 165, 166, 
166 sq. , 168, 173, 174, 337; inter- 
course of the sexes to promote the 
growth of the, ii. 98 sqq. \ thought to 
be blighted by sexual crime, ii. 107 
sqq. ; swinging for the good of the, 
iv. 156 sq. . 277, 278, 283 ; depend- 
ent on serpent -god, v. 67; games 
to promote the growth of the, v. 
92 sqq. \ tales as a charm to pro- 
mote the growth of the, v. 102,103;?.; 
human victims sacrificed for the, v. 
290 sq. , vii. 236 sqq. \ charms and 
spells for growth of, vii. 100 ; bull- 
roarers sounded to promote the growth 
of the, vii. 104, 106, xi. 232 ; rotation 
of, vii. 1 17 ; vermin the enemies of 
the crops, superstitious devices for de- 
stroying, intimidating, or propitiating, 


viii. 274 sqq. ; supposed to be spoiled 
by menstruous women, x. 79, 96 ; 
leaping over bonfires to ensure good, 
x. 107 ; Midsummer fires thought 
to ensure good, x. 188, 336; torches 
swung by eunuchs to ensure good, x. 

Cross, Days of the, in Esthonia, i. 325 ; 

wind of the, i. 325 
of twisted corn on Candlemas, ii. 


of the Horse," first sheaf called 

the, vii. 294. See also Crosses 

Cross River of Southern Nigeria, Eatin 
on the, i. 349 ; the Indem tribe of the, 
ii. 32 ; sacred chiefs on the, confined 
to their compounds, iii. 124 ; natives 
of the, their offerings of new yams to 
the deities, viii. 115 ; natives of the, 
their lives bound up with those of 
certain animals, xi. 202 sq. , 204 

Cross-road, trap for demon at, ix. 61 ; 
ague nailed down at, ix. 68 sq. 

-roads, in magical rites, ii. 340, 
iii. 59 ; burial at, v. 93 i*. 1 , ix. 10 ; 
things used in purificatory rites de- 
posited at, vii. 9 ; sacrifices at, viii. 
284 ; disease deposited at, ix. 6, 7 ; 
bodies of suicides burnt at, ix. 18 ; 
bodies of parricides to be thrown away 
at, ix. 24 ; fever deposited at, ix. 49 ; 
offerings at, ix. 140 ; ceremonies at, 
ix. 144, 159, 196, x. 24 ; beaten 
as a precaution against witches, ix. 

161 ; witches at, ix. 162, x. 160 n. 1 ; 
Midsummer fires lighted at, x. 172, 
191 ; divination at, x. 229 ; bewitched 
things burnt at, x. 322 

Crossbills in magic, i. 81 sq. 

Crosses cut on stumps of felled trees, ii. 
38 ; of rowan-tree used to protect cows 
from witches, ii. 53, ix. 267 ; chalked on 
doors as a protection against witchcraft, 
> 54. 33i. 335. 336, 339. . 160, 

162 sq., 165 ; made with tar on cattle 
to protect them against evil spirits, ii. 
342 ; painted with tar as charms 
against ghosts and vampyres, ix. 153 
n. 1 ; white, made by the King of the 
Bean, ix. 314, 315 n. ; chalked up on 
Twelfth Night, ix. 331 ; chalked up to 
protect houses and cattle-stalls against 
witches,* x. 160 a. 1 , xi. 74. See also 

Crossing of legs forbidden, iii. 295, 298 sq. 

Crow asked to give a new tooth, i. 181 ; 
soul in form of, iii. 42 n. ; head of, 
eaten to prolong life, viii. 143 ; trans- 
migration of sinner into, viii. 299 ; as 
scapegoat, ix. 193. See also Crow* 

, hooded, sacrifice to, x. 152 
Crow Song, the Greek, viil 322 n. 

Crowdie, a dish of milk and meal, x. 239 

Crown, Ariadne's, ii. 138 

of corn-ears, vii. 163, 221, 283 ; 

worn by Demeter and Persephone, vii. 

43 ; or garland of flowers in Mid- 
summer bonfire, x. 184, 185, 188, 

192. See also Flowers 

, imperial, as palladium, iii. 4 

of laurel, ii. 175, 175 w. 1 , iv. 78, 

80 sqq. 
of oak leaves, ii. 175, 176 sq.> 184, 

iv. 80 sqq. 

of olive at Olympia, iv. 91 

of Roses, festival of the, x. 195 

, the Whitsuntide, ii. 89 sq. See 

also Crowns 
Crown -wearer, priest of Hercules at 

Tarsus, v. 143 
Crowning, festival of the, at Delphi, iv. 

78 sqq. 
Crowning cattle, ii. 75, 339, 341 ; as a 

protection against witchcraft, ii. 126 

*?. 339 

dogs, custom of, i. 14, ii. 125 sq., 

127 sq. 

Crowns, the royal, in ancient Egypt, i. 
364 ; magical virtue of royal, i. 364 
sq. ; of birch at Whitsuntide, ii. 64 ; 
or wreaths, custom of wearing, ii. 127 
. a ; as amulets, vL 242 sq. ; laid 
aside in mourning, etc., vi. 243 . 2 ; 
of figs worn at sacrifice to Saturn 
(Cronus), ix. 253 . 8 ; of maize, ix. 
280. See also Crown 

of Egypt, the White and the Red, 

vi. 21 n. 1 

Crows in magic, i. 83 ; hearts of, eaten 
by diviners, viii. 143. See also Crow 

Cruachan, the palace of the ancient kings 
of Connaught, in. 12 ; pagan cemetery 
at, iv. 101 ; the fair of, iv. 101 ; in 
Connaught, the cave of, x. 226 ; the 
herdsman or king of, Argyleshire 
story of, xi. 127 sqq. 

Crucifixion of Christ, ix. 412 sqq. ; cross- 
bills at the, i. 82 ; tradition as to the 
date of, v. 306 sqq. 

of human victims at Benin, v. 294 

. 8 ; gentile, at the spring equinox, v. 
307 n. 

Crux ansata, the Egyptian symbol of life, 
ii. 133. vi. 89 

"Crying the Mare" at harvest in Hert- 
fordshire, vii. 292 sq. ; in Shropshire, 
vii. 293 

11 the neck," at harvest, vii. 264 sqq. 

Cryptocerus atratus, F., stinging ants, 
used in ordeal by the Mauhes, x. 62 

Crystals, magic of, i 176 sq. ; used in 
rain-making, i. 254, 255, 304, 345, 
346 ; used in divination, iii. 56 ; super 
stitions as to, iv. 64 . 



Ctesias, on the Sacaea, ix. 402 n. 1 

Cubit, the standard, kept in the temple 
of Serapis, vi. 217 

Cublay-Khan, ii. 306 

Cuissard, Ch., on Midsummer fires, x. 
182 sq. 

Cultivation of staple food in the hands of 
women (Pelew Islands), vi. 206 sq. \ 
shifting, vii. 99. See Agriculture 

Cumae, the Sibyl at, x. 99 

Cumanus, inquisitor, xi. 158 

Cumberland, Midsummer fires in, x. 197 

Cumberland inlet, the Esquimaux of, iii. 

Cummin, curses at sowing, i. 281 

Cumont, Professor Franz, on the Saturn- 
alia of the Roman soldiers, iv. 310 ; 
on the taurobohum, v. 275 n. 1 ; on the 
Nativity of the Sun, v. 303 . 8 ; as to 
the parallel between Easter and the 
riles of Attis, v. 310 a. 1 ; on the mar- 
tyrdom of St. Dasius, ix. 308 sq. ; on a. 
form of abjuration imposed on Jewish 
converts, ix. 393 n. 1 

"Cup of offering," viii. 184 

, sacred golden, i. 365 

Cup- and -ball as a charm to hasten the 
return of the sun, i. 317 

Cupid and Psyche, story of, iv. 131 

Cups, special, used by girls at puberty, 
x - So, 53 

Cura, sacred grove of the Wotyaks at, ii. 


Curative powers ascribed to persons born 
feet foremost, x. 295 

Curcho, old Prussian god, viii. 133, 174 n. 

Cures based on principles of homoeopathic 
magic, i. 78 sqq. ; effected by recalling 
the soul, iii. 42 sgg. ; by means of 
knotted cords and threads, iii. 303 sqq. \ 
by swinging, iv. 280 sq., 282; by trans- 
ferring the malady to things, animals, 
or persons, ix. 2 sqq. \ by the expulsion 
of demons, ix. 109 sqq. \ popular, pre- 
scnt>ed by Marcellus of Bordeaux, x. 17 

Curetes, their war-dance, vii. 13 

Curland, Midsummer lestival in, iv. 280 

Curr, E. M. , on the superstition as to 
personal names among the Australian 
aborigines, iii. 320 sg. 

Curses, public, i. 45 ; supposed bene- 
ficial effects of, i. 279 sqq. ; uttered by 
Bouzygai, vii. 108 

Cursing at Athens, ritual of, iii. 75 

an enemy, Arab mode of, iii. 312 

fishermen and hunters for good luck, 
L 280 sg. 

a mist in Switzerland, x. 980 
at sowing, i. 281 

Curtains to conceal kings, iii. 120 sq. 
Curtiss, Professor S. I., on the head of 
the Babites, i. 402 

Curtius, Quintus, on Alexander the 

Great's cresset, ii. 264 n. 1 
Curumbars, a tribe of the Neilgherry 

Hills, viii. 55 

discuses, souls of dead in, viii. 296, 298 
Gushing, Frank H., on the killing of 
sacred turtles among the Zuni, viii. 
175 sqq. 

Custom more constant than myth, viii. 40 
Customs of the Pelew Islanders, vi. 253 

sgg. , 266 sgg. 

Cut hair and nails, disposal of, iii. 267 sqq. 
Cuthar, father of Adonis, v. 13 . a 
Guts made in the body as a mode of ex- 
pelling demons or ghosts, iii. 106 sg. ; 
in bodies of manslayers, iii. 174, 176, 
180; in bodies of slain, iii. 176. See 
also Incisions, Scarification 
Gutting or lacerating the body in honour 
of the dead, iv. 92 sq. , 97 

the hair a purificatory ceremony, iii. 

283 sqq. See also Hair 
Gutting weapons planted in ground to 

repel the demon of smallpox, ix. 122 
Cuttings for the dead, v. 268 
Cuttle-fish presented to Greek infants, L 

156 ; expiation for killing a, iv. 217 
Cuzco, the temple of the Sun at, ii. 243, 
vii. 310 ; its scenery, ix. 128 sq. \ cere- 
mony of the new fire in, x. 132 
Cyaxares, king of the Medes.v. 133 n. , 174 
Cybele, her image carted about at Autun, 
ii. 144 ; the image of, v. 35 n. s ; 
her cymbals and tambourines, v. 
54 ; her lions and turreted crown, v. 
137 ; priests of, called Attis, v. 140 ; 
the Mother of the Gods, v. 263 ; her 
love for Attis, v. 263, 282 ; her worship 
adopted by the Romans, v. 265 ; sacri- 
fice of virility to image of, v. 268 ; 
subterranean chambers of, v. 268 ; 
orgiastic rites of, v. 278 ; a goddess 
of fertility, v. 279 ; worshipped in 
Gaul, v. 279 ; fasts observed by the 
worshippers of, v. 280 ; a friend of 
Marsyas, v. 288 ; effeminate priests of, 
vi. 257, 258 

and Attis, i. 18, 21, 40, 41, v. 280, 

ix. 386 

Gybistra in Cappadocia, v. 120, 122, 124 
Cychreus, king of Salamis, bequeaths 
his kingdom to Telamon, ii. 278 . a ; 
changed at death into a serpent, iv. 87 
Cycle, the octennial, based on an attempt 
to reconcile solar and lunar time, iv. 68 
sg. , vii. 80 sg. ; apparently the period 
of certain kings' reigns in ancient 
Greece, iv. 70 sg. ; octennial festivals 
connected with the, iv. 87 sqq. ; Olym- 
piads originally based on the, iv. 89 
sg., vii. 80; antiquity of the octennial 
cycle in Greece, vii. 81 sq. \ the cycle 



based on religious rather than practical 
considerations, vii. 82 sq. 
Cycle of thirty years (Druidical), xi. 77 

Cycles of sixty years (Boeotian, Indian, 

and Tibetan), xi. 77 n. 1 
Cyclopes, slaughter of the, iv. 78 . 4 
Cymbal, drinking out of a, v. 274 

Cymbals in religious music, v. 52, 54 

and tambourines in worship of 
Cybele, v. 54 

Cyme, titular kings at, i. 46 n. 4 

Cynaetha, in Arcadia, people of, massacre 
committed by the, iii. 188; winter 
festival of Dionysus at, vii. 16 sq. 

Cynopolis, the cemetery of, vi. 90 

Cypresses, sacred, in the sanctuary of 
Aesculapius at Cos, ii. 10 ; in the 
sanctuary of Aesculapius at Titane, v. 

Cypriote syllabary, v. 49 a. 7 

Cyprus, grave of Aphrodite in, iv. 
4 ; Salamis in, iv. z66 n. l ; natural 
riches of, v. 31 ; Phoenicians in 
v. 31 sq. ; Adonis in, v. 31 sqq. 
sacred prostitution in, v. 36, 50, 59 
Melcarth worshipped in, v. 117 
human sacrifices in, v. 145 sq. \ the 
bearded Venus in, vi. 259 a. 3 ; wild 
boars annually sacrificed in, viii. 23 n. 3 

Cyrene, kingship at, i. 47 ; the people 
of, their sacrifice to Saturn (Cronus), 
ix. 253 . 8 

Cyril of Alexandria on the festival of 
Adonis at Alexandria, v. 224 a. a 

Cyrus and Croesus, v. 174 sqq., ix. 391 

Cythuos, Greek island, sickly children 
pushed through a hole in a rock in, 
xi. 189 

Cytisorus, son of Phrixus, iv. 162 

Cyricus, council chamber at, built with- 
out iron, iii. 230 ; worship of the 
Placianian Mother at, v. 274 n. ; bull- 
shaped image of Dionysus at, vii. z6 ; 
vicarious sacrifice at, viii. 95 a. 8 

Czech maidens, love charm practised by, 
on St. George's Eve, ii. 345 sq. 

saying as to the dying, iii. 33 a. 8 

villages of Bohemia, the Shrove- 
tide Bear in the, viii. 326 ; the Three 
Kings of Twelfth Night in, ix. 330 sq. 

Czechs of Bohemia, the Carrying out of 
Death among the, iv. 221 ; the Corn- 
mother among the, vii. 132 sq. ; cull 
simples at Midsummer, xi. 49 

Dabelow, in Mecklenburg, precaution 
against witches on Walpurgis Night 
at, ix. 163 n. 1 

Dacaratha festival in India, iv. 124 

Dacia, hot springs in, v. 2x3 

Dacotas or Sioux, the, their fear of having 
their pictures taken, iii. 96 ; custom 

observed by manslayers among, iii. x8x; 

avoidance of wife's mother among, iii. 

338 ; their belief as to stepping over 

animals, iii. 423 ; their theory of the 

waning moon, vi. 130 ; ate the livers 

of dogs to make them brave, viii. 145 ; 

their belief in the resurrection of dogs, 

viii. 256 sq. \ ritual of death and resur- 
rection among, xi. 268 sq. 
Dad pillar. See Ded pillar 
Daedala, Boeotian festival of the Great, 

ii. 140.1?., xi. 77 a. 1 
Daedalus, the artist, made a dance for 

Ariadne, iv. 71 ; made a hollow cow 

for Pasiphae, iv. 71 

Dag, an early king of the Shilluk, iv. 28 
Dageon, fire kept up during king's life in, 

ii. 261 sq. 
Dagobert, King, privilege granted by him 

to St. Romulus or St. Ouen, ii. 165 
Dah River, in Ashantee, royal criminals 

drowned in, iii. 243 ; annual ablutions 

in the, viii. 63 
Dahomans, their annual festival of the 

dead, vi. 66 
Dahomey, human wives of gods in, ii. 149; 

royal criminals drowned or strangled 

in, iii. 243 ; indifference to death in, 

iv. 138; religious massacres in, iv. 138; 

the Amazons of, viii. 149 
, the king of, iii. 374 ; human 

victims drowned by, ii. 158 ; not 

allowed to behold the sea, iii. 9 ; not 

to be seen eating, iii. 118 
, kings of, their true names kept 

secret, iii. 374 ; their "strong names," 

iii. 374 ; represented partly in human, 

partly in animal forms, iv. 85 ; their 

human sacrifices, vi. 97 a. 7 
, Porto Novo in, annual expulsion 

of demons at, ix 205 
, royal family of, iii. 243 ; related to 

leopards, iv. 85 
Dainyal, diviner or Sibyl, in the Hindoo 

Koosh, i. 383 
Daira or Mahadev Mohammedans in 

Mysore, mock rite of circumcision 

among the, iv. 220 
Dairi, the, or Mikado of Japan, iii. 2, 4. 

See Mikado 

Dairies, sacred, of the Todas, iii. 15 sqq. 
Dairy, mistletoe used to make the dairy 

thrive, xi. 86 
Dairyman, sacred, of the Todas, iii. 15 

sqq. ; his custom as to the pollution of 

death, vi. 228 ; bound to live apart 

from his wife, vi. 229 
Daizan, king of Atrae, his treacherous 

daughter, x. 83 
Dajang, Miss, a personification of the 

rice among the Battas, vii. 196 
Dalai Lama of Lhasa, regarded ai 



living god, i. 411 sq. \ his palace, i. 


Dalarne, the Yule-ram in, viii. 328 
Dalecarlia, observances at turning out the 

cattle to the summer pastures in, ii. 

Dalhousie Castle, the Edgewell Tree at, 

xi. 166 
Dalisandos in Isauria, inscriptions at, vi. 

213 w. 1 
Dallet, Ch. , on the Corean objection to 

put the face of the king on coins, iii. 


Dalmatia, rain-making in, i. 274 ; belief 
as to the souls of trees in, ii. 14 ; the 
Yule log in, x. 263 

Dalsland, in Sweden, observances at 
turning out the cattle to graze in the 
forest in, ii. 341 sq. 

Dalton, Colonel . T. , on mock human 
sacrifices among the Bhagats, iv. 217 
sq. ; on the fear of demons among the 
Oraons, ix. 92 sq. ; on the annual ex- 
pulsion of demons among the Hos of 
North-East India, ix. 136 sq. 

Dalyell, J. G., on Beltane, x. 149 n. 1 

Dama, exorcism of demons of sickness in 
the island of, viii. 101 sq. 

Damara hunters, ceremony observed by, 
iii. 220 

Damaras or Herero, their fire-customs, 
ii. 211 sqq. ; their ceremony on return 
from a journey, iii. 112; their mode 
of killing their cattle, iii. 247. See 
also Herero 

Damascus, Aramean kings of, v. 15 

Damasen, a giant, in a Lydian story, 
slays a serpent, v. 186 

Damatrius, a Greek month, vi. 49 w. 1 , 
vii. 46 

Damba, island in Lake Victoria Nyanza, 
crocodiles sacred in, viii. 213 

Damia and Auxesia, female powers of 
fertility at Troezen, i. 39 

Dams, continence at making or repair- 
ing, iii. 202 ; in Egypt, the cutting of 
the, vi. 31 sq., 37 sq., 39^. 

Damun, in German New Guinea, cere- 
mony of initiation at, xi. 193 

Danae, the story of, her impregnation 
by Zeus, x. 73 sq. 

Danakils or Afars of East Africa, their 
belief as to the rebirth of souls of 
magicians, iv. 200 

Danaus and the suitors of his daughters, 
ii. 301 

Dance at giving of oracles, i. 379; 
executed as tribute by a human god, 
L 394 ; of milkmaids on May-day, ii. 
52 ; to propitiate souls of slain ioes, 
iii. 166; of women on return of war- 
riors, iii. 170 ; at driving ghost into 

grave, iii. 373, 374 ; of youths and 
maidens at Cnossus, iv. 75 sq. of 
eunuchs in Corea, v. 270 . a ; of 
eunuchs at new moon, on the Congo, 
v. 271 n. \ of hermaphrodites in 
Pegu, v. 271 n. \ at harvest supper, vii. 
J 34 I 35 I 4S I of harvesters with or 
round the last sheaf, vii. 135, 141, 145, 
160, 219, 220, 294, 297; of masked 
men before sowing, vii. 186 ; of Dyaks 
to secure soul of rice, vii. 188 sq. ; of 
old women as representatives of the 
corn-goddess, vii. 205 ; Pawnee, before 
human sacrifice, vii. 238 ; round skulls 
of human victims, vii. 241, 242 ; round 
oak and goat-skin at harvest, vii. 288 ; 
of executioners, viii. 63 ; of Zulu king, 
viii. 66, 68, 68 n. 3 ; of Pondo chief at 
festival of new fruits, viii. 67 ; before 
the king at ceremony of first-fruits, 
viii. 70 sq. \ of medicine-man, viii. 72 ; 
at harvest festival of Indians of Ala- 
bama, viii. 72 . a ; of warriors at 
festival of first-fruits, viii. 74 sq. t 
79 ; of men and women, by torch- 
light, at festival of first-fruits, viii. 
79 ; of Dacota warriors, viii. 145 ; of 
Caffre girls after mock funeral of cater- 
pillars, viii. 280 ; at the burial of the 
wren, viii. 319 ; on Twelfth Day, viii. 
321 ; of mummers at Carnival, viii. 333, 
334 ; of mummer wearing a horse- 
headed mask, viii. 338 ; at cairns, ix, 
29 ; to ensure a supply of buffaloes, ix. 
171 ; to cause the grass to grow, ix. 
238 , by men carrying a box and axes 
at Sipi in Northern India, x. 12 ; 
of young women at puberty, xi. 183; 
in the grave at initiation, xi. 237 ; in 
honour of the big or grey wolf, xi. 
276 n. 2 . See also Dances 
" Dance, the Angel," viii. 328 

, Ariadne's, iv. 77 

, the Green Corn, viii. 76 

of King, iii. 123 ; before the ghosts % 

of his ancestor, vi. 192 

, the rattle-snake, to ensure immunity 

from snake-bites, i. 358 

, sacred, at the Sed festival, vi. 154 

Dancers personate spirits, ix. 375 
Dances, for rain, i. 250, 255, 268, 
273, 274, 284, 284 ., iii. 154, 
iv. 32, 62, ix. 236 sq. , 238 ; for 
wind, i. 321 ; as means of inspira- 
tion, i. 408 n. 1 ; round sacred trees, 
" 47i 55 i & t harvest, ii. 48 ; round 
the May-pole, ii. 65, 67, 69, 74 sq. ; 
round bonfires on the Eve of St. John 
(Midsummer Eve), ii. 65 ; performed 
by parents of twins to fertilize gardens, 
ii. 102 ; for a good harvest, it 106 ; 
on graves, ii. 183 .* ; round an oak, 



ii. 371 ; of manslayers, iii. 168 ; -of 
victory, iii. 169, 170, 178, 182 ; at 
sowing, vii. 95, ix. 234 sqq. ; at 
human sacrifices, vii. 246, 247 ; at the 
reappearance of the Pleiades, vii. 307, 
309, 311, 312, 317 ; in imitation of 
totemic animals, viii. 76 ; and pro- 
cessions in connexion with offerings 
of first-fruits, viii. in, 113, 115, 
116, 126, 131, 134 ; of men personi- 
fying deities, viii. 179 ; round dead 
tigers, viii. 216 ; of the Koryak at the 
slaughter of bears or wolves, viii. 223 ; 
in honour of slain leopards, viii. 228 ; 
to amuse the souls of dead sea-beasts, 
viii. 248 ; of the Karoks for salmon, 
viii. 255 ; to make the crops thrive, 
viii. 326, 328, 330 sq., ix. 232 sqq., 
347 ; of mummers on Plough Monday, 
viii. 329 sqq. \ at cairns, ix. 26, 29 ; 
Etruscan, in time of plague at Rome, ix. 
65 ; at harvest, ix. 134 ; at the expulsion 
of demons, ix. 139 ; of the witches, ix. 
x6a ; with burning besoms on fields to 
drive away witches, ix. 163 ; of women 
at expulsion of demons, ix. 200 ; of 
the Salii, ix. 232, 233 ; of the Tara- 
humare Indians of Mexico, ix. 236 sqq. ; 
taught by animals, ix. 237 ; solemn 
Mexican, ix. 279, 285 ; of Castilian 
peasants in May, ix. 280 ; to make 
hemp grow tall, ix. 3x5 ; round bon- 
fires on the Eve of Twelfth Night, 
ix. 317 ; in churches at the Fes- 
tival of Fools, ix. 335, 336 ; accom- 
panying the Boy Bishop, ix. 338 ; as 
dramatic performances of myths, ix. 
375 W- J bestowed on men by spirits, 
ix 375 5 in imitation of animals, ix. 
376, 377, 381, 382 ; of fasting men 
and women at festival, x. 8 sq. \ of 
Duk-duk society, x. n ; of girls at 
puberty, x. 28, 29, 30, 37, 42, 50, 
58, 59 ; round bonfires, x. 108, 109, 
no, in, 114, 116, 120, 131, 142, 
145, 148, 153 sq., 159, 166, 172, 
173. *75t 178, 182, 183, 185, 187, 
188. 189, 191, 193, 194, 195, 198, 
346, xi. 2, 39 ; of novices at initiation, 
xi. 258, 259. See also Dance 
Dances, masked, of the Kayans at the 
festival of sowing, vii. 95 sq.,, in, 
1 86 ; of the Kaua and Kobcua Indians 
of Brazil, vii. xxx sq. ; of the Cham- 
bioa Indians of Brazil, viii. 208 a. 1 ; 
at carnival, viii. 333, 334 ; in 
ritual, of Demeter and Persephone, 
viii. 339; of devil -dancers, ix. 38; 
to promote fertility, ix. 236 ; of 
savages, ix. 374 sqq. ; supposed to 
be derived from guardian spirits, 
ix. 375 sqq. ; to ensure good crops, 

ix. 382 ; 
230 n. 

bull -roarers used at, xi 

Dances, Mexican, viii. 88 ; solemn, ix. 280, 
284, 286, 287, 288, 289 ; of salt- 
makers, ix. 284 

, religious, of dancing girls in India, 

v. 61, 65 ; of inspired novices on the 
Slave Coast, v. 68 ; at festivals of the 
dead, vi. 52, 53, 55, 58, 59 ; at the 
new moon, vi. 142 

of Shrovetide Bear, viii. 325 sq. 

of women while men are away fight- 
ing, i. 131-134 ; at bear-festival, viii. 
185, 186 sq., 191, 195; at catching 
a crocodile, viii. 211 ; at slaughter of 
whales, viii. 232 sq. 

Dancing as a fertility charm, i. 137 sqq., 
ii. 1 06 ; for salmon, viii. 255 ; to 
obtain the favour of the gods, ix. 65, 
236 ; with the fairies at Hallowe'en, 
x. 227 

-girls in India, harlots and wives of 

the gods, v. 6 1 sqq. 

Dandaki, King, and the ascetic, story of, 
ix. 41 sq. 

Dandelions gathered at Midsummer, xi. 


Danes, female descent of the kingship 
among the, ii. 282 sq. 

Danger of being overshadowed by certain 
birds or people, iii. 82 sq. ; supposed, 
of portraits and photographs, iii. 96 
sqq. ; supposed to attend contact with 
divine or sacred persons, such as chiefs 
and kings, iii. 132 sqq., 138 ; appre- 
hended from women in childbed, iii. 
150 sqq. ; thought to attend women 
at menstruation, x. 94 ; apprehended 
from the relation, xi. 277 sq. 

Danger Island, snares set for souls by 
sorcerers in, iii. 69 ; the Pleiades 
worshipped in, vii. 312 

Danh-gbi, python -god, on the Slave 
Coast, v. 66 

Danish magic of footprints, i. 211 

story of a girl who was forbidden 

to see the sun, x. 70 sqq. ; of the 
external soul, xi. 120 sqq. 

Danserosse or danscrcsse, a stone in the 
wood of St Antony near Epmal, x. no 

Danube, worship of Grannus on the, x. 


Danzig, disposal of cut hair at, iii. 276 
sq. \ the siege of, iii. 279 n. 4 ; the last 
sheaf at harvest at, vii. 133, 2x8 sq. ; 
the immortal lady of, x. xoo 

Daphne gnidi urn gathered at Midsummer, 
xi. 51 

Daphnephoria, Greek festival, ii. 63 *. 
See Laurel-bearing 

Daphnis and the magic knots, in Virgil 
iii. 305 


Daphnis, play by Sositheus, vii. 217 
Dapper, O. , on ritual of death and resur- 

rection at initiation in the Belli- Paaro 

society, xi. 257 sqq. 
Daramulun, a mythical being who insti- 

tuted and superintends the initiation of 

lads in Australia, xi. 228, 233, 237 ; 

his voice heard in the sound of the bull- 

roarer, xi. 228. See also Thrumalun 

and Thuremlin 
' Darding Knife," pretence of death and 

resurrection at initiation to the, xi. 274 

Dardistan, custom of swinging in, iv. 

Dards, their belief that a storm follows 

the troubling of a spring, i. 301 
Darfur, power of extinguishing fire 

ascribed to chaste women in, ii. 240 . 3 ; 

tampering with a man's shadow m, iii. 

8 1 ; the sultan of, veils his face, iii. 

120 ; etiquette at the court of the 

sultans of, iv. 39 ; the people of, 

believe the liver to be the seat of the 

soul, viii. 147 sq. 
Dargle Vale, Whitsuntide custom at, ii. 

103 . 8 
Darien, the Indians of, concealment of 

personal names among, iii. 325 
Darius, King, would not pass through a 

gate over which was a tomb, iii. 257 
"Dark "moon and "light "moon, ix. 

140, 141 n. 1 
Darling River, funeral custom of tribes 

on the, i. 90 ; custom as to extracted 

teeth among the tribes of the, i. 176 ; 

the Karamundi nation on the, i. 257 ; 

tributaries of the, iv. 180; the Ualaroi 

of the, xi. 233 
Darma Rajah, Hindoo god, fire-festival 

in honour of, xi. 6 
Darmesteter, James, on the Fravashis, 

vi. 67 n. z ; his theory as to the date 

of the Gat has, vi. 84 . 
Darowen, in Wales, Midsummer fires at, 

X. 201 

Darwin, Charles, and Empedocles, viii. 

306 ; on the cooling of the sun, xi. 

307 n. 1 

Darwin, Sir Francis, on double-headed 
bust at Nemi, i. 42 n. 1 ; on rhamnus 
(buckthorn), ix. 153 n. 1 ; on the Golden 
Bough, xi. 318, 319 . s 

Dashers of churns, witches ride on, xi. 

Ddsi, dancing-girl in India, v. 63 
Dasius, St., martyrdom of, ix. 308 sqq. 

See St. Dasius 
Dassera festival in Nepaul, iii. 316, ix. 

226 n. 1 ] swings and kites at the, iv. 277 
Dastarkon in Cappadocia, Cataonian 

Apollo at, v. 147 *.* 

Date of Chinese festival changed, x. 137 

Date month when date-palms are artifici- 
ally fertilized, ii. 25 

palm, artificial fertilization of the, 

ii. 24 sq. , ix. 272 sq. 

Dates forbidden to worshippers of Cybele 
and Attis, v. 280 

Dathi, king of Ireland, and his Druid, 
x. 228 sq. 

Daughter of a god, v. 51 

of a king, succession to king. 

dom by marriage with a, ii. 271, 277 

-in-law, her name not to be pro- 
nounced, iii. 338; in ritual, viii. iaisg. 

Daughters of chiefs entrusted with the 
sacred fire among the Herero, ii. 215, 

Dauphine*, the Bridegroom of the Month 
of May in, ii. 93 ; the harvest Cat in, 
vii. 280 sq. 

Daura, a Hausa kingdom, sick or infirm 
kings killed in, iv. 35 ; custom of suc- 
cession to the throne in, iv. 201 

David, King, his conquest of Ammon, 
iii. 273, v. 19; and the brazen serpent, 
iv. 86 ; in relation to the old kings ot 
Jerusalem, v. 18 sq. ; his taking of a 
census, v. 24 ; as a harper, v. 52, 
53- 54 

and the King of Moab, iii. 273 

and Saul, v. 21 

Davies, J. Ceredig, as to witches in 

Wales, x. 321 . 2 
Davies, Professor T. Witton, on the date 

of the Book of Esther, ix. 360 . a 
Davis, Mr. R. F., on harvest custom in 

Nottinghamshire, v. 238 . 
Dawkins, R. M., on a carnival custom 

in Thrace, vii. 25 n. 4 , 29 . a 
Dawn of the Day, prayers of adolescent 

girls to the, i. 70, x. 50 sq., 53, 98 n, 1 

, the rosy, in mythology, i. 334 

Dawson, James, on the difference of 

language between husbands and wives 

among the aborigines of Victoria, iii. 

347 sq. ; on the constellations observed 

by the aborigines of Victoria, vii. 308 ; 

on sex totems in Victoria, xi. 216 
Day of Blood in rites of Attis, v. 268, 

of Stones, in Behar and Bengal, i 


Days of the Cross in Esthonia, i. 325 
De Barros, Portuguese historian, on the 

custom of killing kings at Passier, iv. 

De Goeje, M. J., on the rite of stone- 

throwing at Mecca, ix. 24 n. 1 
De Groot, J. J. M. , on the authority of 

the Chinese emperors, i. 416 sq. ; on 


the Chinese belief in tree-spirits, ii. 14; 
on the Chinese theory of names, iii. 390 

De Mortival, Roger, on the Boy Bishop 
at Salisbury, ix. 338 

D'Orbigny, A. , on the division of labour 
between the sexes among the South I 
American Indians, vii. zao j 

De Piano Carpini, on the funeral customs 
of the Mongols, v. 293 

De Ricci, S. , on the Celtic month Equos, 
ix. 343 * 

De Smet, J. , on the sacrifice of a Sioux 
girl, vii. 239 n. 1 

Dea Dia, a Roman goddess of fertility, j 
vi. 239 

Dead, hair offered to the, i. 31 ; pretence 
of new birth at return of supposed dead 
man, i. 75 ; belief of the Central 
Australian aborigines in the reincar- 
nation of the, i. 96 ; homoeopathic 
magic of the, i. 147 sqq. ; prayers and 
offerings to the, i. 163 ; magic blent with 
the worship of the, i. 164 ; making rain 
by means of the, i. 284 sqq. ; the illus- 
trious, represented by masked men, ii. 
178 ; thunder and lightning made by 
the, ii. 183; taboos on persons who 
have handled the, iii. 138 sqq. ; to 
name the dead a serious crime, iii. 
352 ; relations of the, change their 
names from fear of the ghost, iii. 
356 sqq. \ incarnate in their namesakes, 
iii. 365 sqq. ; appear to the living in 
dreams, iii. 368, 374; offerings of 
food to the, iii. 371, 372 n. 6 , ix. 
154 ; deposited on platforms of sticks, 
iii. 372 ; rebirth of the, iv. 70, vii. 
85 ; human blood offered to the, iv. 
92 sq. t 104; incarnate in serpents, 
v. 82 sqq., xi. 211 sq. ; cuttings for 
the, v. 268 ; Osiris king and judge 
of the, vi. 13 sq. ; the Egyptian, 
identified with Osiris, vi. 16 ; magical 
uses made of their bodies, vi. zoo sqq. ; 
the worship of the, founded on the 
theory of the soul, vii. i8z ; the fear 
of the, one of the most powerful factors 
in religious evolution, viii. 36 sq. ; 
buried in the houses, viii. 115 ; bones 
of the, viii. 153 sq. ; mourners rub 
themselves with the fat or putrefying 
juices of the, viii. 162 sq.\ food eaten 
out of the hand of the, ix. 44 sq. ; 
worship of the, based on fear, ix. 98 ; 
ghosts of the, periodically expelled, ix. 
123 sq. ; annual sacrifices in honour 
of the, ix. 148 n. 1 . See a/so Ancestral 

, communion with the, by means of 
food, viii. 154; by swallowing their 
ashes, viii. 156 sqq. 

~, festivals of the, iii. 367, 371, v. 

220, vi. sz sqq., x. 223 s0. t 225 sq. ; 
at end of harvest, viii. izo ; bull- 
roarers sounded at, xi. 230 n. 

Dead, names of, tabooed, iii. 349 sqq. \ 
not borne by the living, iii. 354 

, reincarnation of the, iii. 365 sqq. , 
v. 82 sqq. ; in Central Australia, L 
196 ; in America, v. 91 ; in Africa, 
v. 91 sq. 

, sacrifices to the, i. 163, iii. 15, 88, 

226 sq., iv. 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, xi. 
Z78 ; on their birthdays, i. zo5 

-, souls of the, trees animated by, 
ii. 29 sqq. ; in certain fish, ii. 30 ; 
all malignant, iii. 145 ; associated with 
falling stars, iv. 64 sqq. ; lodged in 
serpents, iv. 84 ; received by their 
relations once a year, vi. 51 sqq. t 
ix. 150 sqq. ; invoked to make the 
crops thrive, vii. 104 ; supposed to 
partake of new grain, viii. 64 ; supposed 
to be in caterpillars, viii. 275 sq. ; 
supposed to be in animals, viii. 285 
sqq. ; disembodied, dreaded, ix. 77 ; 
sit round the Midsummer fire, x. 183, 
184 ; first-fruits offered to, xi. 243. 
See a/sb Dead, spirits of the 

, spirits of the, the savage a slave 

to the, i. 217 ; personated by living 
men, ii. Z78, iii. 371, vi. 52, 53, 58 ; 
in wild fig-trees, ii. 317, viii. 113; 
thought to be incarnate in their name- 
sakes, iii. 365 sqq. ; supposed to in- 
fluence the crops, vii. z4 ; offerings 
to, for the sake of the crops, vii. 228 ; 
give rain, viii. log sq. ; first-fruits 
offered to, viii. 109 sq., in sqq., 115, 
116, 117, zzo, Z2i, 123, 124 sqq. ; 
prayers to, viii. zi2, 113, 124 sq. ; 
omnipresent, in the Philippine Islands, 
ix. 82 ; swarm in the air, in Timor, 
ix. 85 ; purification of mourners in- 
tended to protect them against, ix. 
105 n. l See also Ancestral spirits 

, worship of the, ix. 97 : perhaps 

fused with the propitiation of the corn- 
spirit, v. 233 sqq. ; among the Bantu 
tribes of Africa, vi. 176 sqq. 

Dead body, Flamen Dialis forbidden to 
touch, iii. 14 ; defilement caused by, 
vii. 74 

kings and chiefs in Africa turn into 

lions, leopards, hyaenas, hippopota- 
muses, etc. , iv. 84 ; dead kings in 
Africa worshipped, vi. 160 sqq. 

kings of the Rarotse worshipped. 

vi. 194 sq. ; consulted as oracles, vu 

kings of Egypt worshipped, i. 4z8, 

vi. z6o 
kings of the Shilluk worshipped, 

iv. 24 sq., vi. 161 sqq. ; their spirits 


thought to possess sick people, iv. 25 
sq. \ incarnate in animals, vi. 162, 163 
sq. ; sacrifices offered to, vi. 162, 164, 
166 sq. 

Dead kings of Sofala, annual obsequies 
for, iv. 201 ; consulted as oracles, iv. 
20 1 

kings of Uganda consulted as 

oracles, i. 196, iv. 200 sq., vi. 167, 
171, 172 ; human sacrifices to, vi. 173 

man's hand used in magical cere- 
mony, iv. 267 n. 1 

men believed to beget children, v. 

91, 264 ; mutilated in order to disable 
their ghosts, viii. 271 sqq. 

One, the, name applied to the last 

sheaf, iv. 254 

Sea, v. 23 

Sunday, iv. 239 ; generally the 

fourth Sunday in Lent, iv. 221 ; also 
called Mid-Lent, iv. 222 n. 1 

Deane, Mrs. J. H. , viii. 319 . 2 

Dearth, chiefs and kings punished for, L 

352 w- 

Death, pretence of, in magic, i. 84 ; in- 
fection of, i. 143; at ebb tide, i. 167 
sq. ; puppet called, carried out of 
village, ii. 73 sq. ; kept off by arrows, 
iii. 31 ; mourners forbidden to sleep 
in house after a, iii. 37 ; custom of 
covering up mirrors at a, iii. 94 sq. ; 
from imagination, iii. 135 sqq. \ sharp 
instruments tabooed after a, iii. 237, 

238 ; of the king of the Jinn, iv. 8 ; 
preference for a violent, iv. 9 sqq. \ Euro- 
pean fear of, iv. 135 sq., 146; in- 
difference to, displayed by many races, 
iv. 1^6 sqq. ; the "carrying out" of, 
iv. 221, 233;??., 246 j??., ix. 227 sq., 
230, 252, x. 119 ; conception of, in 
relation to vegetation, iv. 252, 253 sq. \ 
in the corn, iv. 254 ; represented at 
the maize harvest by a child covered 
with maize leaves, iv. 254 ; and revival 
of vegetation, iv. 263 sq. ; in the fire 
as an apotheosis, v. 179 sq. ; the 
pollution of, vi. 227 sqq., viii. 85 . 8 ; 
banishment of the contagion of, ix. 37 ; 
riddles propounded after a, ix. 121 n. \ 
the funeral of, ix. 205 ; savage tales 
of the origin of, ix. 302 sqq. \ "the 
burying of," x. 119; omens of, xi. 
54, 64 ; customs observed by mourners 
after a death in order to escape from 
the ghost, xi. 17 4. sqq. ; identified with 
the sun, xi. 174 n. 1 

, the Angel of, iv. 177 sq. 

, effigy of, feared and abhorred, iv. 

239 sq. ; potency of life attributed to, 
iv. 247 sqq. ; burnt in spring fires, xi. 
21 sq. 

of the Great Pan, iv. 6 sq. 

Death, the Lord of, viii. 103 

, natural, of sacred king or priest, 

supposed fatal consequences of, iii. 6, 
7 ; regarded as a calamity, iv. n sq. 

and resurrection, of Kostrubonko 

at Eastertide, iv. 261 ; annual, of 
gods, v. 6, vii. i, 12 sqq. t 15; oi 
Adonis represented in his rites, v. 
224 sq. ; of Attis, v. 272 sq. , 306 ; 
of Dionysus, v. 302 . 4 , vii. 14 sq. ; 
coincidence between the pagan and 
the Christian festival of the divine, v. 
308 sq. \ of Osiris dramatically repre- 
sented in his rites, vi. 85 sq. ; of Osiris 
interpreted as the decay and growth 
of vegetation, vi. 126 sqq. ; drama 
of, at the Carnival, vii. 27 sq. ; oi 
Eabani, ix. 398 sq. the ritual of, 
in initiatory ceremonies, xi. 225 sqq. ; 
in Australia, xi. 227 sqq. ; in New 
Guinea, xi. 239 sqq. ; in Fiji, xi. 243 
sqq. ; in Rook, xi. 246 ; in New 
Britain, xi. 246 sq. ; in Ceram, xi. 
249 sqq. ; in Africa, xi. 251 sqq. ; in 
North America, xi. 266 sqq. ; traces 
of it elsewhere, xi. 276 sq. 

Debang monastery at Lhasa, ix. 218 

Debden in Essex, May garlands at, ii. 60 

Debregeasia vdutina, used to kindle fire 
by friction, xi. 8 

Debschwitz or Dobschwitz, near Gera, 
the custom of ' ' driving out Death " 
at, iv. 235 

Debt of civilization to savagery, iii. 421 sq. 

Deccan, the Gaolis of the, vii. 7 

Deceiving the spirits of plants and trees, 
ii. 22 sqq. ; demons and ghosts by 
substituting effigies for living persons, 
viii. 94 sqq. 

December, the Saturnalia held in, ii. 
311 . 4 , ix. 306, 307, 345; the twenty- 
fifth of, reckoned the winter solstice 
and the birthday of the Sun, v. 303 sqq. ; 
annual expulsion of demons in, ix. 
145 ; custom of the heathen of Harran 
in, ix. 263 sq. \ the last day of, 
Hogmanay, x. 266 ; the twenty-first, 
St. Thomas's Day, x. 266 

Decle, L., on heaps of sticks or stones 
to which passers-by add, ix. ii n. 1 ; 
on a custom of the kings of Uganda, 
z. 4 n. 1 

Decline of magic with the growth of 
religion, i. 374 

of the civic virtues under the influ- 
ence of Oriental religions, v. 300 sq. 

Ded or tet pillar, the backbone of Osiris, 
vi. 108 sq. 

Dedication of girls to the service of a 
temple, v. 61 sqq. ; of men and women 
in Africa, v. 65 sqq. ; of children to 
gods, v. 79 



Dee, river in Aberdeenshire, holed stone 
in the, used by childless women, v. 36 
if. 4 , xi. 187 

Decga marriage, ii. 271 n. 1 

Deer, magic to attract, i. 109 ; rule as 
to hamstringing, i. 115 ; taboos ob- 
served during the hunting of, i. 122 ; 
imitation of, as a homoeopathic charm, 
i. 155^. ; descent of Kalamants from a, 
iv. 126 sq* sacrificed instead of human 
beings, iv. 166 n. 1 ; flesh of, eaten to 
prolong life or to avoid fever, viii. 143 ; 
not eaten by warriors, viii. 144 ; treated 
with respect by American Indians, viii. 
240 sqq. ; their bones not given to 
dogs, viii. 241, 242, 243 ; Indian 
custom of cutting out the sinew of 
the thighs of, viii. 264 sqq. ; souls of 
dead in, viii. 286, 293 sq. 

and the family of Lachlin, super- 
stition concerning, xi. 284 

Deer clan among the Moquis, viii. 178 

-hoofs in homoeopathic magic, i. 
155 ; used to keep out ghosts, ix. 
154 . 

Deffingen, in Swabia, Midsummer bon- 
fires at, x. z 66 sq. 

Denied hands, Hi. 174. See Hands 

persons not allowed to look at corn, 
ii. 112 

Defoe, Daniel, on the Angel of the 
Plague, v. 24 . a 

Dehon, P. , on witches as cats among the 
Oraons, xi. 312 

Deification of deceased mandarins, i. 4x5 

Deified men, sacrifices of, ix. 409 

Deirel Bahari, paintings at, ii. 131, 133 

Dei seal, deiseil, deisheal, dessil, accord- 
ing to the course of the sun, viii. 323, 
324; the right-hand turn, in the High- 
lands of Scotland, x. 150 n. 1 , 154 

Deities duplicated through dialectical 
differences in their names, ii. 380 sq. 
See Gods 

of vegetation as animals, viii. i sqq. 

Deity, savage conception of, different 
from ours, i. 375 sq. ; communion with, 
viii. 325 

Dejanira wooed by the river Achelous, ii. 
161 sq. 

Delagoa Bay, the Baronga of, L 152, 
267 j?., vii. 114, viii. 280; the Thonga 
of, x. 29 

Delaware Indians, their respect for rattle- 
snakes, viii. 218 ; their remedies for 
sins, ix. 263 ; seclusion of girls at 
puberty among the, x. 54 

Delbruck, B. , on mother-kin among the 
Aryans, ii. 283 . e 

Delena, in British New Guinea, evil 
magic at, i. 213 

Delia, festival at Delos, i. 32 if. 1 

Delian virgins and youths before marriage 
offer their hair on the grave of dead 
maidens, i. 28 

Delirium, supposed cause of, iii. 83 

Delivery, easy, granted to women by 
Diana, i. 12 ; by trees, ii. 57 sq. ; 
charms to ensure women an, x. 49, 50 
sq., 52 ; women creep through a rifted 
rock to obtain an, xi. 189 

Delmenhorst, in Oldenburg, Easter fires 
at, x. 142 

Delos, graves of Hyperborean maidens 
in, i. 28, 33 sqq. ; Apollo and Artemis 
at, i. 28, 32-35 ; new fire brought 
from, i. 32, x. 138 ; the temple at, 
not to be entered after drinking wine, 
iii. 249 . 2 ; Theseus at, iv. 75 ; sacred 
embassy to, vi. 244 ; the calendar of, 
viii. 6 n. ; the Thesmophoria in, viii. 
17 n. 3 

Delphi, Apollo at, i. 28 ; new fire sent 
from, i. 32 sq. \ gold and silver offer- 
ings at, i. 32 it. 1 ; the common hearth 
at, i. 33 ; grave of Apollo at, i. 34 ; 
ceremony performed by the king at, i. 
45 sq. \ slaughter of the python by 
Apollo at, in. 223 n. 1 \ tombs of 
Dionysus and Apollo at, iv. 3 sq. , vii. 
14 ; festival of Crowning at, iv. 78 sqq. \ 
sacred oak at, iv. 80 sq. \ Apollo and 
the Dragon at, vi. 240 ; perpetual fire 
at, xi. 91 n. 7 ; the picture of Orpheus 
at, xi. 294 ; Stheni, near, xi. 317 

Delphic oracle, as to sacrifices to murdered 
Phocaeans, iv. 95 ; on the cause of 
dearth, iv. 162 ; as to first-fruits offered 
at Eleusis, vii. 55, 60 ; on Athens as 
"the Metropolis of the Corn," vii. 58 

Delphinium Ajacis t the flower of Ajax, 
v. 314 if. 1 

Delubrum, ancient explanation of the 
word, viii. 186 n. 

Demeter, her sacred caverns, v. 88 ; 
sacred vaults of, v. 278 ; sorrowing for 
the descent of the Maiden, vi. 41 ; the 
month of, vi. 41 ; mysteries of, at 
Eleusis, vi. 90; at the well, vi. xzz .; 
identified with Isis, vi. 1x7; mother 
of Dionysus by Zeus, vii. 14, 66 ; 
Homeric Hymn to, vii. 35 sqq. , 70 ; 
her search for Persephone, vii. 36, 57 ; 
institutes the Eleusinian mysteries, vii. 
37 ; a personification of the corn, vii. 39, 
40 sq. ; etymology of her name, vii. 40 
if. 3 , 131 ; distinguished from the Earth- 
goddess, vii. 41, 43, 89; associated 
with the threshing-floor, vii. 41 sq., 43, 
47, 61 sq. , 63, 64 sq. \ in art, vii. 43 sq. , 
67 sq. , 88 sq. ; offerings of first-fruits to, 
vii. 46 sqq.\ surnamed Proerosia, vii. 
51 ; bestows corn on the Athenians and 
the Sicilians, vii. 54, 56 sq. ; worshipped 



in Sicily, vii. 56 sqq. \ sacrifices to her at 
sowing, vii. 57 ; associated with seed* 
corn, vii. 58, 90 ; her epithets, vii. 63 
sq. ; her image at Eleusis, vii. 64 ; her 
intrigue with Zeus, vii. 66 ; her love- 
adventure in the furrows of a thrice- 
ploughed fallow-field, vii. 66, 69 ; her 
ancient worship in Crete, vii. 131 ; in 
relation to the pig, viii. 16 sqq. ; horse- 
headed, of Pbigalia, viii. 21, 338; said 
to have eaten the shoulder of Pelops, 
viii. 263 ; rustic prototype of, viii. 334 ; 
her mourning for Persephone, ix. 349 ; 
the torches of, x. 340 n. 1 ; serpents in 
the worship of, xi. 44 n. 
Demeter, Black, vii. 263; of Phigalia, 
viii. 2i 

the Corn Goddess, vii. 41 sqq. , 56 
sqq., 63 sqq., 77 sq. 

the Corn Mother, vii. 53, 58 sq., 

75, 131, 184, viii. 334 

and ears of corn, v. 166 

Eleusinian, at Ephesus, i. 47 

, Green, vii. 42, 63, 89 . a , 263 

and lasion, vii. 208 

and the king's son at Eleusis, v. 180 

and Persephone, vii. 35 sqq. \ their 

myth acted in the mysteries of Eleusis, 
vii. 39, 187 sq. ; resemblance of their 
artistic types, vii. 67 sq. ; their essential 
identity, vii. 90 ; associated with death 
and immortality, vii. 90 sq.\ double 
personification oi the corn as, vii. 208 
sqq. ; masked dance in rites of, viii. 
339 ; represented by maskers wearing 
the heads of animals, viii. 339 

and Poseidon, v. 280 

and the snake of Cychreus, iv. 87 . 5 

, Yellow, vii. 41 sq. 

and Zeus, viii. 9 ; their marriage at 

Eleusis, ii. 138 sq., vii. 65 sqq. 
Demeter's corn, vii. 4* 
Demetrius Poliorcetes deified at Athens, 

i. 390 sq. 
Dernnat, in the Atlas, New Year rites at, 

x. 217, 218 
Democracy to despotism, social revolution 

from, i. 371 

Democritus, on the generation of ser- 
pents, viii. 146 ; on a cure for scorpion 
bite, ix. 50 n. 1 

Demon supposed to attack girls at 
puberty, x. 67 sq. ; festival of fire 
instituted to ban a, xi. 3. See Demons 
Demon- worship, ix. 94, 96. See ako Pro- 

Demonophobia in India, ix. 91 
Demons, communion with, by drinking 
blood, i. 383 ; of trees, ii. 33 sq., 35, 
42 ; abduction of souls by, iii. 58 
sqq.\ of disease expelled by pungent 
spices, pricks, and cuts, iii. 105 sq. \ 

coco-nut oil a protection against, iii. 
201 ; infants exposed to the attacks 
of, iii. 235 ; deceived by substitution 
of effigies for living persons, viii. 96 
sq. \ of disease exorcized by masked 
devil-dancers, ix. 38 ; bunged up, ix. 
6 1 sq.\ omnipresence of, ix. 72 sqq.\ 
thought to cause sickness and disease, 
famine, etc., ix. 92, 94, 95, 100, 102, 
103, 109 sqq. \ propitiation of, ix. 93, 
94, 96, 100 ; religious purification in- 
tended to ward off, ix. 104 ; public ex- 
pulsion of, ix. 109 sqq. ; of cholera, 
ix. 116, 117, 123 ; men disguised as, ix. 
170 sq., 172, 173, 213, 214, 235; con- 
jured into images, ix. 171,172,173,203, 
204, 205 ; decoyed by a pig, ix. 200, 
201 ; put to flight by clangour of metal, 
ix. 233 ; banned by masks, ix. 246 ; 
exorcized by uells, ix. 246 sq., 251; 
attack women at puberty and child- 
birth, x. 24 n. 2 ; expelled at the New 
Year, x. 134 sq.\ abroad on Mid- 
summer Eve, x. 172 ; ashes of holy 
fires a protection against, xi. 8, 17; 
vervain a protection against, xi. 62 ; 
guard treasures, xi. 65. See also 
Devil, Devils, and Evil Spirits 

Demons or ghosts averse to iron, iii. 232 
sqq. ; deceived by dummies, viii. 96 
sqq. \ repelled by gun-shots, viii. 99 

Denderah or Dendereh, inscriptions at, 
vi. iz, 86 sqq., 89, 91, 130 n.\ the 
hall of Osiris at, vi. no; sculptures 
at, vii. 260 

Dendit or Dengdit, "Great Rain," the 
Supreme Being of the Dinkas, iv. 30, 
32, viii. 40 ., 114 w. 2 

Deng or Tinneh Indians, their dread and 
seclusion of menstruous women, x. 91 
sqq.\ the Western, tattooing among 
the, x. 98 n. 1 See also Tinneh 

Den ham Tracts % on need-fire in York- 
shire, x. 287 sq. 

Denmark, precautions against witchcraft 
on Walpurgis Night in, ii. 54 ; Whit- 
sun bride in, ii. 91 sq.', oaks in the 
peat-bogs of, ii. 351 ; the beechwoods 
of, iL 351 ; the Bronze Age in, ii. 351, 
352; the Iron Age in, ii. 352 ; the Stone 
Age in, ii. 352 ; the last sheaf at 
harvest in, vii. 139 J?., 231 ; the Yule 
Boar in, vii. 300 sq. ; fires on St. John's 
Eve in, x. 171 ; passing sick children 
through a hole in the ground in, x. 
190, 191 ; childien passed through a 
cleft oak as a cure for rupture or 
rickets in, xi. 170, 172 

Dennett, R. E., on prince -consorts in 
Loanga, ii. 277 n. 1 

Dedce, a divine spirit in the kingdom of 
Kaffa, i. 410 



Departmental kings of nature, ii. x sqq. 
Deputy, the expedient of dying by, iv. 

56, 160 
Derbyshire, Plough Monday in, viii. 330 

Derceto, the fish goddess of Ascalon, v. 

34 ., ix. 370 n. 1 
Dercylus, on Cadmus and the dragon, iv. 

84 if. 4 
Deny, the oaks of, ii. 242 sq. ; the church 

of, ii. 363 
Dervishes, inspired, i. 386 ; the dancing, 

L 408 n. 1 ; revered in Syria, v. 77 . 4 ; 

of Asia Minor, v. 170 
Descent of people from animals, viii. 25 

of Persephone, vii. 46, viii. 17 

Deslawen, village of Bohemia, expulsion 

of witches on Walpurgis Night at, ix. 

Despotic governments, the first advances 

made to civilization under, i. 218 
Dessil. See Deiseal 
Deucalion at Hierapolis, v. 162 . a 
Deuteronomic redactor, v. 26 n. 1 
Deuteronomy (iv. 17 sq.}, prohibition of 

images of animals, i. 87 n. 1 ; (xxiii. 10, 

u), as to custom in time of war, iii. 

158 n. 1 ; (xii. 31, xviii. 9-12), on the 

sacrifice of children by fire, iv. 168 ; 

(xv. 19 sq. ), on the sanctification of the 

first-born, iv. 173 n. 1 
, publication of, v. 18 .* 
Deutscb-Zepling in Transylvania, rule as 

to sowing in, vi. 133 .* 
Deux-Sevres, department of, Midsummer 

fires in the, x. 191 ; fires on All Saints' 

Day in the, x. 245 sq. 
DevadAsi or D&varati&l, dancing-girl in 

Travancore, v. 63 sq. 
Devil driven away by paper kites, ix. 4 ; 

seen on Midsummer Eve, x. 208 ; his 

partiality for mustard, x. 208 ; brings 

fern-seed on Christmas night, xi. 289 
Devil -dancers, inspired, worshipped as 

deities in Southern India, L 382 ; their 

exorcism of demons, iv. 216 ; conjure 

demons of disease into themselves, ix. 


-driving in Chitral, ix. 137 

Devil's bit, St. John's wort, xi. 55 .* 

Neck, the, ix. 16, 30 

shoestring ( Tephrosia) in homoeo- 
pathic magic, i. 144 

Devils, abduction of souls by, iii. 58 sqq, \ 
personated by men, ix. 235 ; ghosts, 
and hobgoblins abroad on Midsummer 
Eve, x. 902. See Demons 

Devonshire, cries of reapers in, vii. 264 
sqq. ; cure for cough in, ix. 51 ; need- 
fire in, x. 288 ; animals burnt alive as 
a sacrifice in, x. 302 ; belief in witch- 
craft in, x. 302 ; crawling under a 

bramble as a cure for whooping-cough 
in, xi. 180 

Dew, washing in the, on May morning 
to ensure a fine complexion and guard 
against witchcraft, ii. 54, 67 ; gathered 
on Midsummer morning protects cattle 
against witchcraft, ii. 127, xi. 74 ; 
shepherds wash in the, on April aist, 
ii. 327 ; rolling or washing in the, on 
St. George's morning, ii. 333, 339 ; 
protects cattle against witchcraft on 
St. George's morning, ii. 335 ; washing 
or rolling in, on Midsummer Eve or 
Day, as a remedy for diseases of the 
skin, v. 246 sq., 248, x. 208, with n. 1 ; 
a daughter of Zeus and the moon, vi. 


" Dew-treading" in Holland, ii. 104 . 2 

Dharmi or Dharmesh, the Supreme God 
of the Oraons, ix. 92 sq. 

Dhimals, the, of Assam, mourners shaved 
among, iii. 285 

Dhinwar class in North-West India, girls 
of the, married to a god, ii. 149 

Dhurma Rajah, incarnate deity in Bhotan, 
i. 410 

D/ t Aryan root meaning "bright," ii. 

Dia, Roman goddess, her grove on the 
Tiber, ii. 122 

Diabolical counterfeits, resemblances of 
paganism to Christianity explained as, 
v. 302, 309 sq. 

Diagora, elective monarchy in, ii. 293 

Dialectical differences a cause of the 
duplication of deities, ii. 382 sq. 

Diana, as patroness of cattle, i. 7, ii. 
124; as a torch-bearer, i. 12; as 
goddess of childbirth, i. 12, 40, ii. 
128, 378 ; her festival on the i3th of 
August, i. 12, 14 ; in relation to vines 
and fruits, i. 15 sq., ii. 128 ; as a god- 
dess of fertility, i. 40, 120 sqq., ii. 115, 
378; in relation to animals of the 
woods, ii. I2i, 124, 125 sqq. ; associated 
with Silvanus, ii. 121 ; groves sacred 
to, ii. 1 21 ; as the moon, ii. 128 ; on 
the Aventine, ii. 128 ; Mount Algidus 
a haunt of, ii. 380; her temple on 
Mount Tifata, ii. 380 ; a Mother 
Goddess, v. 45 

and Dianus, ii. 376 sqq. , v. 27, 45 

(Jana), a double of Juno, ii. 190 

sq. t 381 sq., xi. 302 . a 

at Nemi, her sanctuary, i. 2 sqg. t 

v. 45 ; as huntress, i. 6 ; priest of, i. 
8 sqq., xi. 315; as Vesta, i. 13, ii. 
380 ; mate of the King of the Wood, 
i. 40, 41, ii. 121, 380 ; as a goddess of 
the oak, ii. 380 

, the Tauric, i. 10 /?.; her bloody 

ritual, i. xi, 24 



Diana and Virbius, i. 19 sqq. t 40 sq. ; 

perhaps annually married at Nemi, 

ii. 129 

Diana's day, I3th of August, iii. 253 
Mirror, the Lake of Nemi, i. i, xi. 

Dianus (Janus), a double of Jupiter, ii. 

190 sq., 381 sq. 

and Diana, ii. 376 sqq. , v. 27, 45 

Diapina, in West Africa, ii. 293 
Diascorca, a species of, eaten by the 

Australian aborigines, vii. 127 . 2 
Diasia, an Athenian festival, cakes shaped 

like animals sacrificed at the, viii. 

95- a 

Dice used in divination, ix. 220 ; played 
at festivals, ix. 350 

Dickens, Charles, Martin Chuxzlewit 
quoted, i. 149 . B ; on death at ebb- 
tide, i. 168 

Dictynna and Minos, iv. 73 

Dido, her magical rites, ni. 312 ; flees 
from Tyre, v. 50 ; her traditional 
death in the fire, v. 114; worshipped 
at Carthage, v. 114 ; meaning of the 
name, v. 114 ft. 1 ; an Avatar of 
Astarte, v. 177 ; how she procured 
the site of Carthage, vi. 250 

Diels, Professor H., on human gods in 
ancient Greece, i. 390 . 2 

Dieppe, fishermen of, their tabooed words, 
iii. 396 

Dieri, the, tribe of Central Australia, their 
magic for the multiplication of carpet- 
snakes and iguanas, i. 90 ; their custom 
as to extracted teeth, i. 177; rain-making 
ceremonies of, i. 255 sqq., xi. 232; 
principal headman of, a medicine- 
man,, i. 336 ; believe certain trees to be 
their fathers transformed, ii. 29 ; use 
of bull-roarers among, vii. 106, xi. 
229 sq. , 232 ; drank blood of slain 
men to make themselves brave, viii. 
151 ; their expulsion of a demon, ix. 
no; their dread of women at men- 
struation, x. 77 

Diet regulated on the principle of homoeo- 
pathic magic, i. 135 ; of kings and 
priests regulated, iii. 291 sqq. 

Dieterich, A., on rebirth, iii. 369 .* 

Difference of language between husbands 
and wives, iii. 347 sq. ; between men 
and women, iii. 348 sq. 

Digger Indians of California, ashes of 
dead smeared on head of mourner 
among the, viii. 164 

Digging the fields, homoeopathic magic 
at, i. 139 

Digging-sticks used by women, vii. 118, 
120, 122, 124, 126, 128 

Dijon, ox killed at harvest near, vii. 290 ; 
Lenten fires at, x. 114 

Diminution of shadow regarded with 
apprehension, iii. 86 sq. 

Dinant, Feast of All Souls in, vi. 70 

Dingelstedt, in district of Erfurt, harvest 
custom at, vii. 221 

Dingle, church of St. Brandon near, xi. 

Dinkas or Denkas, the, of the White 
Nile, iv. 28 sqq. ; magical powers of 
chiefs among, i. 347 ; worship a 
supreme being called Dengdit, iv. 30 ; 
totemism of, iv. 30 sq. ; their rain- 
makers, iv. 31 sqq. \ their rain-makers 
not allowed to die a natural death, iv. 
33 ; their belief in serpents as reincarna- 
tions of the dead, v. 82 sq. ; pour 
milk on graves, v. 87 ; their reverence 
for their cattle, viii. 37 sqq. \ their 
offering of first-fruits, viii. 114 ; their 
use of cows as s apegoats, ix. 193 

Dinkelsblihl in Bavaria, the Corn-mother 
at, vii. 133 

Dinnschencfias or Dinnsenchus, early 
Irish document, iv. 183 . 4 

Dio Chrysostom, as to the soul on the 
lips, iii. 33 ; on fame as a shadow, 
iii. 86 sq. ; on the people of Tarsus, 
v. 118 ; on pyre at Tarsus, v. 126 n. 1 ; 
on the Sacaea, ix. 368, 402 n. 1 ; on 
Sardanapalus, ix. 390 n. 1 ; his account 
of the treatment of the mock king of 
the Sacaea, ix. 414 

Diocles, prince of Eleusis, vii. 37 

Diodorus Siculus, on divine honours ac- 
corded to Hippolytus, i. 25ft. 1 ; on adop- 
tion of Hercules by Hera, i. 74 ; on the 
worship of Egyptian kings, i. 418 . 2 ; 
on Anmlius Silvius, king of Alba, ii. 180; 
on the origin of fire, ii. 256 ft. 1 ; on 
Peleus in Phthia, ii. 278 ft. 4 ; on the 
rules of life observed by Egyptian 
kings, iii. 12 sq. ; on the worship of 
Poseidon in Peloponnese, v. 203 ; 
on the burial of Osiris, vi. 10 sq. ; 
on the rise of the Nile, vi. 31 n. 1 ; 
on the date of harvest in Egypt, vi. 
32 ft. 2 ; on Osiris as a sun-god, vi. 
1 20 ; on the predominance of women 
over men in ancient Egypt, vi. 214 ; 
on worship of Demeter and Perse- 
phone, vii. 56 sqq. ; on the laments of 
the Egyptian reapers, vii. 215 ; on the 
human sacrifices of the Celts, xi. 32 

Diomede, at Troezen, i. 27 ; white 
horses sacrificed to, i. 27 ; sacred grove 
of, i. 27 ; marries the daughter of the 
king of Daunia, ii. 278 sq. ; human 
sacrifices to, iv. 166 ft. 1 , v. 145 

Dionaea, Venus' fly-trap, homoeopathic 
magic of, i. 144 

Dione, wife of Zeus at Dodona, ii. 189 ; 
the old consort of Zeus, ii. 381, 282 



Dionysiac festival oi the opening of the 
wine jars, ix. 351 sq. 

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, on the sim- 
plicity of Roman worship, ii. 202 sq. \ 
on the Etruscans, ii. 287 n. 4 ; on Tar- 
quin the Proud, ii. 291 . 2 

Dionysus, vii. i sqq. mated with Artemis, 
i. 36 ; advises the Edonians to put their 
king Lycurgus to death, i. 366 ; the 
Lenaean festival of, ii. 44 ; marriage of, 
to the Queen of Athens, ii. 136 sq. , vii. 
30 sq. ; in the Marshes, sanctuary of, 
ii. 137 ; as a bull, ii. 137 n. l t v. 123, 
vii. 16 sq. t 31, viii. 3 sqq. \ and Ariadne, 

11. 138 ; his face or body sometimes 
painted red, ii. 175 ; identified with 
ivy, ii. 251 ; in the city, festival of, iii. 
316 ; the tomb of, at Delphi, iv. 3 ; 
human sacrifice consummated by a 
priest of, iv. 163 ; boys sacrificed to, 
iv. 1 66 n. 1 ; with vine and plough- 
man on a coin, v. 166 ; ancient 
interpretation of, v. 194, 213 ; death, 
resurrection, and ascension of, v. 302 
n. 4 , vii. 12 sqq., 32 ; torn in pieces, 
vi. 98, vil 13, 14; and Lycuigus, vi. 
98, vii. 24 ; and Pentheus, vi. 98, vii. 
24 ; human sacrifices to, in Chios, vi. 
98 sq., vii. 24 ; his coarse symbolism, 
vi 113; identified with Osiris, vi. 113, 
vii. 3 ; similarity of the rites of, to 
those of Osiris, vi. 113, 127 ; race of 
boys at vintage from his sanctuary, vi. 
238 ; men dressed as women in the 
rites of, vi. 258 ; the effeminate, vi. 
259 ; god of the vine, vii. 2 sq. ; god 
of trees, vii. 3 sq. ; the Flowery, vii. 
4 ; a god of agriculture and corn, vii. 
5, 29 ; and the winnowing-fan, vii. 5 
sqq., 27, 29; as Zagreus, vii. 12; 
horned, vil 12, 16 ; son of Zeus by 
Persephone, Demeter, or Seniele, vii. 

12, 14 ; the sacred heart of, vii. 13, 
14, 15 ; ritual of, vii. 14 sq. ; his grave 
at Delphi or at Thebes, vii. 14 ; torn 
to pieces at Thebes, vii. 14, 25 ; his 
descent into Hades, vii. 15 ; as god of 
the dead, vii. 16 ; live animals rent in 
rites of, vii. 17, 18, viii. 16 ; as a goat, 
vii. 17 sq., viii. i sqq. ; human sacri- 
fices in his rites, vii. 24 ; his death 
and resurrection perhaps acted at the 
Anthesteria, vii. 32 ; a barbarous deity, 
vii. 34 ; son of Zeus and Demeter, vii. 
66 ; and the bull-roarer, vii. no . 4 ; 
his relations to Pan, Satyrs, and 
Silenuses, viii. i sqq. ; his resurrection 
perhaps enacted in his rites, viii. 16 ; the 
Foxy, viii. 282 ; and the drama, ix. 384 

Dioscorides on mistletoe, xi. 318 n. 1 
Diospolis Parva (How), monument of 
Osiriiat, vi. no 

Diphilus, king of Cyprus, v. 146 

Dipping for apples at Hallowe'en, x. 
37. 239. 24L 242, 245 

Dirk to be called by another name on 
meeting a goblin, iii. 396 

Disappearance of early kings, iv. 28, 31 

Disc, winged, as divine emblem, v. 132 

Discoloration, annual, of the river Adonis, 
v. 30, 225 

Discovery of fire, ii. 255 sqq. \ of the 
body of Osiris, vi. 85 sq. 

Discs, burning, thrown into the air, x. 
116 sq., 119, 143, 165, 1 66, 1 68 sq., 
172, 328, 334 ; burning, perhaps 
directed at witches, x. 345 

Disease, demons of, expelled by pungent 
spices, pricks, and cuts, iii. 105 sq. ; 
transferred to other people, ix. 6 sq. ; 
transferred to tree, ix. 7 ; transferred 
to effigies, ix. 7 ; demons of, exorcized 
by devil-dancers, ix. 38 ; caused by 
ghosts, ix. 85 ; annual expulsion of, 
ix. 139 ; sent away in little ships, ix. 
185 sqq. \ walking through fire as a 
remedy for, xi 7 ; conceived as some- 
thing physical that can be stripped off 
the patient and left behind, xi. 172. 
See also Cures, Demons, Sickness 

of language the supposed source of 

myths, vi. 42 

Disease- makers in Tana, i. 341 sq. 

Diseases thought to be caused by demons, 
ix. 92, 94, 95, ioo, xo2, 103 

of cattle ascribed to witchcraft, x. 

Disenchanting strangers, various modes 

of, iii. 1 02 sqq. 

Disguises to avert the evil eye, vi. 262 ; 
to deceive dangerous spirits, vi. 262 
sq. , 263 sq. 

Dish, external soul of warlock in, xi. 141 
Dishes, effect of eating out of sacred, iii. 
4 ; of sacred persons tabooed, iii. 131 ; 
special, used by girls at puberty, x. 
47, 49. Ste Vessels 
Disintegration, atomic, viii. 305 
Dislike of people to have children like 
themselves, iii. 88 sq., iv. 287 (288 
in Second Impression) 
Dislocation, Roman cure for, xi. 177 
Dismemberment of Osiris, suggested ex- 
planations of, vi. 97, vii. 262 ; of Half- 
dan the Black, king of Norway, vi. ioo, 
102 ; of Segera, a magician of Kiwai, 
vi. 101 ; of kings and magicians, and 
use of their severed limbs to fertilize 
the country, vi. xoi sq. ; of the bodies 
of the dead to prevent their souls 
from becoming dangerous ghosts, vi. 

Displacement of heathen festivals by two 
days in the Christian calendar, i. 14 


Disposal of cut hair and nails, iii. 267 

Ditino, deified dead kings of the Barotse, 

vi. 194 
Dittenberger, W., on the Eleusinian 

games, vii. 77 . 4 
Dittmar, C. von, on the fear of demons 

among the Koryaks, ix. 100 sq. 
Diurnal tenure of the kingship, iv. 118 sq. 
Dius, a Macedonian month, vii. 46 n. z 
Divination from spittle, i. 99 ; by cast- 
ing stones, inspection of entrails, and 
interpretation of dreams, i. 344 ; regalia 
employed as instruments of, i. 363 ; 
various modes of, on May morning to 
discover who should be married first, 
ii. 67 sq. ; by flowers, ii. 345 ; by wells, 
ii. 345 ; as to love on St. George's Day 
among the Slavs, ii. 345 sq. ; by crystals, 
iii. 56 ; by shoulder-blades, iii. 229, 
viii. 234 ; by knotted threads, iii. 304 
a. 5 ; to determine the ancestor Mho is 
reborn in a child, iii. 368 sq. \ by tree 
and water at Delphi, iv. 80 ; at Mid- 
summer, v. 252 sq. t x. 208 sq. ; 
magic dwindles into, vii. no n. , 
x- 336 ; by crocodile - hunter, vni. 
210 ; on Christmas Day, ix. 316 
n. 1 ; on Twelfth Night, ix. 316 ; 
on St. John's Night (Midsummer 
Eve), x. 173, xi. 46 . 3 , 50, 52 sqq., 
61, 64, 67 sqq. ; at Hallowe'en, x. 
225, 228 sqq. ; by stones at Hallow- 
e'en fires, x. 230 sq. , 239, 240 ; by 
stolen kail, x. 234 sq. , 241 ; by clue 
of yarn, x. 235, 240, 241, 243 ; by 
hemp seed, x. 235, 241, 245 ; by 
winnowmg-basket, x. 236 ; by thrown 
shoe, x. 236 ; by wet shirt, x. 236, 
241 ; by white of eggs, x. 236 sq. , 
238 ; by apples in water, x. 237 ; by 
a ring, x. 237 ; by names on chimney- 
piece, x. 237 ; by three plates or 
basins, x. 237 sq., 240, 244; by nuts 
in fire, x. 237, 239, 241, 242, 245; by 
salt cake, or salt herring, x. 238 sq. \ 
by a sliced apple, x. 238 ; by eaves- 
dropping, x. 238, 243, 244 ; by knife, 
x. 241 ; by briar-thorn, x. 242 ; by 
melted lead, x. 242 ; by cabbages, x. 
242 ; by cake at Hallowe'en, x. 242, 
243 ; by ashes, x. 243, 244, 245 ; by 
salt, x. 244 ; by raking a rick, x. 247. 
See also Divining-rod 

Divine animal, killing the, viii. 169 sqq. 

animals as scapegoats, ix. 216 sq., 

226 sq. 

11 consort, the," ii. 131 

. king, the killing of the, iv. 9 sqq. 

kings of the Shilluk, iv. 17 sqq. 

men as scapegoats, ix. 217 sqq.* 

226 sq. 

Divine personages not allowed to touch 
the ground with their feet, x. 2 sqq. ; 
not allowed to see the sun, x. 18 sqq. ; 
suspended for safety between heaven 
and earth, x. 98 sq. 

spirit incarnate in Shilluk kings, 

iv. 21, 26 sq. 

Diviners, ancient, their rules of diet, 

viii. 143 

Divining bones, vi. 180, 181 
rod cut on Midsummer Eve, xi 

67 sqq. ; made of hazel, xi. 67 sq. t 

291 .* ; made of mistletoe in Sweden, 

xi. 69, 291 ; made of four sorts of 

wood, xi. 69 ; made of willow, xi. 

69 n. ; made out of a parasitic rowan, 

xi. 281 sq. 
Divinities, human, bound by many rules, 

iii. 419 sq. \ of the volcano Kirauea, 

v. 217 

Divinity of the Brahmans, i. 403 sq. 
of chief supposed to reside in his 

eyes, viii. 153 
- claimed by Fijian chiefs, i. 389 

of kings, i. 48 sqq , 372 ; in the 

Pacific, i. 386 sqq.; in Africa, i. 392 
sq> , 396 5 among the Hovas, i. 397 ; 
among the Sakkalava, i. 397 sq.; 
among the Malays, i. 398 ; in India, 
i. 403 ; in great historical empires, i. 
415 sqq. ; growth of the conception of 
the, ii. 376 sqq. ; among the Semites, 
v. 15 sqq. ; among the Lydians, v. 
182 sqq. 

Divisibility of life, doctrine of the, xi 

Division of labour in relation to social 

progress, i. 420; between the sexes, 

vii. 129 
Divorce of spiritual from temporal power, 

iii. 17 sqq. 
Diwali, Hindoo feast of lamps, ii. 160, 

ix. 145 
Dix Cove, in Guinea, crocodiles sacred 

at, viii. 287 
Dixmude, in Belgium, feast of All Souls 

at, vi. 70 
Dixon, Roland B. , on the importance of 

shamans among the Maidu, i. 357 
Dixon, Dr. W. E., on hemlock as an 

anaphrodisiac, ii. 139 n. 1 
Djakuns of the Malay Peninsula, their 

mode of making fire, ii. 236 
Djuldjul, girl dressed in leaves and 

flowers at rain-making ceremony, i 


Dobischwald, in Silesia, custom at thresh- 
ing at, vii. 148 ; need-fire at, x. 278 
Dobrizhoffer, Father M. , on the reluctance 

of the Abipones to utter their own 

names, iii. 328 ; on changes of language 

among the Abipones, iii. 360 ; on the 

3 4 6 


respect of the Abipones for the Pleiades, 
v. 258 ." 

Doctrine of lunar sympathy, vi. 140 sqq. 

DM, "beloved," v. 19 . a , 20 .* 

Dodge, Colonel R. I., on exorcism of 
strangers among North American 
Indians, iii. 105 ; on the death of the 
Great Spirit, iv. 3 

Dodola, girl clad in grass and herbs at 
rain-making ceremony, i. 273 

Dodona, oracular spring at, ii. 172 ; 
Zeus at, ii. 177 ; Zeus and Dione at, 
ii. 189 ; bronze gongs at, ii. 358 sq. ; 
Zeus and his oracular oak at, ii. 358, 
xi. 89 sq. 

Dodwell, E., on image of Demeter at 
Eleusis, vii. 64 

Dog, sacrificed to war-god, i. 173 ; used 
in rain-making, i. 302 ; used in stop- 
ping rain, i. 303 ; sacrificed to tree- 
spirit, ii. 36 ; sacrificed on roof of new 
house, ii. 39 ; prohibition to touch or 
name, iii. 13 ; killed instead of king, 
iv. 17 ; corn-spirit as, vii. 271 sqq. \ of 
the harvest, vii. 273 ; feast on flesh 
of, viii. 256 ; Iroquois sacrifice of 
white, viii. 258 n. 1 , ix. 127, 209 ; 
transmigration of sinner into, viii. 299 ; 
sickness transferred to, ix. 33 ; cough 
transferred to, ix. 51 ; fever transferred 
to, ix. 51 ; sacrifice of, in time of 
smallpox, ix. 121 ; as scapegoat, ix. 
209 sq. ; not allowed to enter priest's 
house, x. 4 ; beaten to ensure woman's 
fertility, x. 69 ; charm against the bite 
of a mad, xi. 56 ; a Batta totem, XL 
223. See also Dogs 

, black, sacrificed for rain, i. 291 ; 
used to stop rain, i. 303 

, white, sacrifice of, viii. 258 *. 2 , 

ix. 127, 209 

Dog- demon of epilepsy, ix. 69 . 

-eating Spirit, vii. 21 

Dog Star, red-haired puppies sacrificed 
to the, vii. 261 ; supposed to blight 
the crops, vii 261 ; supposed by the 
ancients to cause the heat of summer, 
x. 332. See Sirius 

Dog's ghost feared by women, viii. 
232 a. 1 

Dogrib Indians will not taste blood, iii. 
241 ; do not pare nails of female chil- 
dren, iii. 263 

Dogs crowned, i. 14, ii. 125*?., 127,1?. ! 
sacrificed at the marriage of Sun and 
Earth, ii. 99 ; witches turn into, ii. 
334 ; sacrificed and hung on trees of 
sacred grove, ii. 365 ; bones of game 
kept from, iii. 206 ; unclean, iii. 206 ; 
tigers called, iii. 402 , devoured in 
religions rites, vii. 19, 20, 21, 22 ; 
their flesh or liver eaten to acquire 

bravery, viii. 145 ; sacrificed at bear- 
feasts, viii. 196, 202 ; not allowed to 
gnaw bones of slain animals, viii. 225, 
238 sqq. , 243, 259 ; bones of deer not 
given to, viii. 241, 242, 243 ; the re- 
surrection of, viii. 256 sq. ; pairing, 
fertilizing virtue of stick which has been 
used to separate, ix. 264 sq. ; imitated 
by dancers, ix. 382. See also Dog, 

Dolac, need-fire at, x. 286 

Doliche in Commagene, Jupiter Doliche- 
nus at, v. 136 

Doll made of last corn at harvest, vii. 
140, 151, 153, 155, 157, 162. See 
also Dolls 

Dollar-bird associated with rain, I 

287 sq. 

Dolls or puppets employed for the re- 
storation of souls to their bodies, iii. 
53 sqq. , 62 sq. See also Doll, Puppets 

Dolmen, sick children passed through a 
hole in a, xi. 188 

Domalde, a Swedish king, sacrificed for 
good seasons, i. 366 sq. 

Domaszewski, Professor A. , on the ritei 
of Attis at Rome, v. 266 .* 

Dominica rosae, the fourth Sunday in 
Lent, iv. 222 n. 1 

Domitian and the oak crown, ii. 177 *. 

Dommartin, Lenten fires at, x. 109 

Domovoy, Russian house-spirit, ii. 
233 n. 1 

Doms of India, their primitive beliefs, ii. 

288 n. 1 

Don Quixote, as to edible acorns, ii. 356 

' ' Donald of the Ear, " magic effigy of, i. 69 

Donar or Thunar, the German thunder 
god, the oak of, ii. 364 

Door, the words for, in Aryan languages, 
ii. 384 ; of house protected against 
fiends, viii. 96 ; certain fish and portions 
of animals not to be brought into house 
through the, viii. 189 sq., 193, 196, 
242 sq., 256 ; separate, for girls at 
puberty, x. 43, 44. See also Doors 

Doorie, hill of, at Burghead, x. 267 

Doorposts, blood of sacrificial victims 
smeared on, iii. 15, iv. 97, 175, 176 it. 1 

Doors, Janus as a god of, ii. 383 sq. ; 
opened to facilitate childbirth, iii. 296, 
297 ; opened to facilitate death, Hi. 
309; separate, used by menstruous 
women, x. 84 

Doorway, to stand or loiter in the, for- 
bidden under certain circumstances, 
i. 114 ; creeping through narrow open- 
ing in, as a cure, xi. 181 sq. 

Dorasques of Panama, their theory of 
earthquakes, v. 201 

Dordrecht. " dew -treading" at Whit 
suntide at, ii. 104 *.* 


Doreh in Dutch New Guinea, ghosts of 

the murdered driven away at, iii. 170 ; 

the tug-of-war at, ix. 178 
Doreh Bay in Dutch New Guinea, i. 125, 

iv. 288 
Dorians, their superstition as to meteors, 

iv. 59 

Dormice, charm against, viii. 381 
Dorpat, rain-making at, i. 248 
Dos Santos, J., on the divinity of African 

kings, i. 392 ; on the method adopted 

by a Cafire king to prolong his life, 

vi. 222 sq. 
Dosadhs, an Indian caste, the fire-walk 

among the, xi. 5 
Dosuma, king of, not allowed to touch 

the ground, x. 3 
Douay, procession of the giants at, xi. 

33 ^ 

Double, the afterbirth or placenta, re- 
garded as a person's double, vi. 169 sq. 

Double-axe, Midsummer king of the, x. 

-headed axe, symbol of Sandan, v. 
127 ; carried by Lydian kings, v. 
182 ; a palladium of the Heraclid 
sovereignty, v. 182 ; figured on coins, 
v. 183 n. 

headed bust at Nemi, i. 41 sq. 

headed eagle, Hittite emblem, v. 

headed fetish among the Bush 

negroes of Surinam, ii. 385 
headed Janus, explanation of, ii. 

384 sq. 
personification of the corn as male 

and female, vii. 163 sq. ; of the corn 

in female form as old and young, vii. 

164 sqq. f 209 sq. ; of the corn as 

mother and daughter, vii. 207 sqq. 
Doubles, spiritual, of men and animals, 

in ancient Egypt, iii. 28 sq. 
Doubs, Montagne de, bonfires on the 

Eve of Twelfth Night in the, ix. 316 
Dough image of god eaten sacramentally, 

viii. 86 sqq. , 90 sq. 
images of animals sacrificed instead 

of the animals, viii. 95 n. 9 
puppets as substitutes for live 

human beings, viii. 101 sq. 
Douglas, Alexander, victim of witchcraft, 

ix. 39 
Dourgne, in Southern France, crawling 

through holed stones near, xi. 187 sq. 
DQUtte", Edmond, on the invocation of 

jinn by their names, iii. 390 ; on sacred , 

prostitution in Morocco, v. 39 . 8 ; 

on the blessed influence (baraka), of j 

Mohammedan saints, ix. 22 i 

Dove, the ceremony of the fiery, at j 

Easter in Florence, x. 126 ; a Batta 

totem, xi. 223 i 

Doves burnt in honour of Adonis, v. 
126 . 9 , 147 ; external soul of magi- 
cians in, xi. 104 ; Aeneas led by doves 
to the Golden Bough, xi. 285, 316 n. 1 
Doves, sacred, of Aphrodite, v. 33 ; of 

Astarte, v. 147, ix. 370 n. 1 
Down, County, "Winning the Churn" 

at harvest m, vii. 154 sq. 
Dowries earned by prostitution, v. 38, 59 
Dracaena tcrminalis, in magic, i. 159 ; 
its leaves used to beat the sick, ix. 265 
Dragon, rain-god represented as, i. 297, 
298 ; or serpent of water, ii. 155 
sqq. ; the Slaying of the, at Furth, ii. 
163 sq. ; effigy of, carried at Ragusa 
on St. George's Day, ii. 164 if. 1 ; 
drama of the slaughter of the, iv. 78 
sqq., 89; myth of the slaughter of 
the, iv. 105 sqq. \ slain by Cadmus at 
Thebes, vi. 241 . at Midsummer, effigy 
of, xi. 37 ; external soul of a queen in 
a, xi. 105 ; of the water-mill, Servian 
story of the, xi. 1 1 1 sqq. 

and Apollo, at Delphi, iv. 78 sqq. t 

vi. 240 

of Rouen, destroyed by St. Remain, 

ii. 164 sqq., 167 

of Tarascon, carried in procession 

on Whitsunday, ii. 170 n. 1 

and Tiger mountains, palace of the 

head of Taoism on the, i. 413 sq. 
Dragon-crest of kings, iv. 105 

divinity of stream prayed to for 

rain, i. 291 sq. 

stone thought to confer sharpness 

of vision, i. 165 n. 8 

Dragon's blood, a protection against 
witchcraft, ii. 164 ; knowledge of the 
language of birds learnt through tast- 
ing, viii. 146 

Dragons, artificial, in rain-making, i. 
297 ; or serpents personated by kings, 
iv. 82 ; driven away by smoke of Mid- 
summer bonfires, x. 161 ; St. Peter's 
fires lighted to drive away, x. 195 
of water, folk-tales of virgins sacri- 
ficed to, ii. 155 
Draguignan, in the department of Var, 

Midsummer fires at, x. 193 
Drama, sacred, of the death and resur- 
rection of Osiris, vi. 85 sq. ; modern 
Thracian, at the Carnival, vii 25 
sqq. ; magical, vii. 187 sq. 
Dramas, magical, to promote vegetation, 
ii. 120 ; for the regulation of the 
seasons, v. 4 sq. ; to ensure good 
crops, vii. 187 sq. 

, sacred, as magical rites, ix. 373 sqq. 

Dramatic contests of actors representing 
Summer and Winter, iv. 254 sqq 
exhibitions sometimes originate in 
magical rites, ii. 142 



Dramatic performance instituted in time 
of plague to appease the god, ix. 65 

representation of the resurrection of 

Osiris in his rites, vi. 85 ; of the corn- 
spirit, viii. 325 

rites practised with magical inten- 
tion, vii. i 

weddings of gods and goddesses, 

ii. lax 

Draupadi or Krishna, the wooing of the 
princess, ii. 306 ; the heroine of the 
Mahabharata, xi. 7 

Dravidian tribes of Northern India for- 
bid a menstruous woman to touch 
house-thatch, i. 179 n. 1 ; their cure 
for epilepsy, ix. 259 sq. 

Drawing on wood or sand forbidden in 
absence of hunters, i. 122 

Dread and seclusion of menstruous 
women, x. 76 sqq. ; dread of witch- 
craft in Europe, x. 342 

Dream, guardian spirit or animal acquired 
in a, xi. 256 sq. 

Dreaming on flowers on Midsummer 
Eve, x. 175. See Dreams 

Dreams, modes of counteracting evil, i. 
172 sq. ; the telling ot, a charm to 
calm a storm, i. 321 ; the interpreta- 
tion of, i. 344 ; absence of soul in, 
iii. 36 sqq. ; belief of savages in the 
reality of, iii. 36 sq. ; omens drawn 
from, Hi. 161, 163, 404, 406 ; spirits 
of the dead appear to the living in, iii. 
368, 374, vi. 162, 190; revelations in, 
iv. 25 ; women visited by a serpent in 
dreams in a sanctuary of Aesculapius, 
v. 80 ; revelations given to sick people 
by Pluto and Persephone in, v. 205 ; 
as causes of attempted transformation 
of men into women, vi. 255 sqq. ; as 
a source of belief in immortality, viii. 
260 sq. ; and their fulfilment in time 
of sickness, ix 121 ; festival of, among 
the Iroquois, ix. 127; oracular, x. 238, 
242 ; of love on Midsummer Eve, xi. 
52, 54; prophetic, on the bloom of the 
oak, xi. 292 ; prophetic, on mistletoe, 
xi. 293 

Dreikonigstag, Twelfth Day in Germany 
and Austria, ix. 329 

Drenching of people with water as a rain- 
charm, i. 250, 251, 269 sq., 272, 273, 
274, 275, 277 sq., ii. 77 ; of trees as 
a rain-charm, ii. 47; of leaf-clad 
mummer as a rain-charm, iv. 211 ; of 
last corn cut with water as a rain- 
charm, v. 237 sq. 

Drinking, modes of, practised by ta- 
booed persons, Hi. 117 sqq., 120, 
143, 146, 147, 148, 160, 182, 183, 
185, 189, 197, 198, 256 ; juices of 
dead kinsfolk, viii. 163 .* 

Drinking out of a king's skull in order 
to be inspired by his spirit, vi. 171 

and eating, taboos on, iii. 116 


Drischila, a threshing cake in West 
Bohemia, vii. 150 

Driver, Professor S. R., on the prae- 
Israelitish inhabitants of Canaan, iv. 
170 . B ; on the consecration of the 
firstling males, iv. 173 n. 1 

1 ' Driving out the Witches" on Walpurgis 
Night in Bohemia, ix. 162 ; on Wal- 
purgis Night in Voigtland, x. 160 ; at 
Midsummer in Switzerland, x. 170, 

Drobede (Draupadi), the heroine of the 
epic Mahabharata, xi. 7 

Dromling, in Brunswick, dramatic con- 
test between Summer and Winter at, 
iv. 257 

Dromling district, in Hanover, need-fire 
in, x 277 

Drops of water in homoeopathic magic, 


Dropsy, ancient Greek mode of prevent- 
ing, i. 78 ; ceremony to prevent, in 
India, i. 79 

Drought, funeral of, a rain-making cere- 
mony, i. 274 ; supposed to be caused 
by unburied dead, i. 287 ; violence 
done to the rain-powers in time of, 
i. 296 sqq. \ magical ceremony for 
causing, i. 313; and dearth, chiefs 
and kings punished for, i. 352 sqq. ; 
rain -makers killed in time of, ii. 2, 3 ; 
supposed to be caused by sexual crime, 
ii. no, in, 113; supposed to be 
caused by a concealed miscarriage, iii. 
153 sq. \ kings answerable for, v. 21 
sq. ; attributed to misconduct of young 
girls, x. 31 

Drowned, souls of the, thought to pass 
into trees, animals, or fish, ii. 30 ; 
in holy spring, the sacred bull Apis, 
viii. 36 

Drowning as a punishment for sexual 
crimes, ii. 109, no, in ; sacrifice by, 
ii. 364 ; as a mode of executing royal 
criminals, iii. 242, 243 

Drowning girls in rivers as sacrifices, ii. 

151 jy- 

human victims as sacrifices to water- 
spirits, ii. 157 sqq. 

Drowo, gods, in the language of the 
Ewe- speaking peoples of West Africa, 
ix. 74 

Druid, purification performed by an Irish, 
ii. 116; etymology of the word, x. 76 w. 1 

Druid's Glass, certain beads called the, 
x. 16 ; prediction, the, x. 229 

Druidical festivals, so-called, of the Scotch 
Highlanders, x. 147, 206; custom at 



burning live animals, xi. 38 ; the 
animals perhaps deemed embodiments 
of witches, xi. 41 sq. , 43 sq. 

Druidical sacrifices, W. Mannhardt's 
theory of the, xi. 43 

Druidism, so-called, remains of, x. 233, 
241 ; and the Christian Church in 
relation to witchcraft, xi. 42 

Druids, Lucan on the, i. 2 it. 1 \ oak and 
mistletoe worshipped by the, ii. 9, 358, 
362, xi. 76 sq. , 301 ; female, ii. 241 n. l ; 
derivation of the name, ii. 363 ; the 
Irish, ii. 363 ; their superstition as 
to "serpents' eggs," x. 15; their 
human sacrifices, xi. 32 sq. \ in rela- 
tion to the Midsummer festival, xi. 33 
sfff-t 45 ; their cycle of thirty years, 
xi. 77 ; catch the mistletoe in a white 
cloth, xi. 293 

of Gaul, their sacrifices of white 

bulls, ii. 189 

of Ireland, their custom of driving 

cattle between two fires at Beltane 
(May Day), x. 157 

Druids' Hill, the, in County Sligo, x. 229 

Drum, eating out of a, as a sacrament in 
the rites of Attis, v. 274 

Drumconrath, near Abbeylcix, in Ire- 
land, cut hair kept against the Day of 
Judgment at, iii. 280 sq. 

Drums, homoeopathic magic at the 
making of, i. 134 sq. \ beaten as a 
charm against a storm, i. 328 ; human 
sacrifice for royal, vi. 223, 225 ; beaten 
to expel demons, ix. in, 113, 116, 
118, 120, 126, 146, 204 

Drunkard, corpse of, in rain-charm, i. 

Dry food eaten, on principle of homoeo- 
pathic magic, i. 114, 144 ; food to be 
eaten by rain-doctor when he wishes 
to avert rain, i. 271 

Dryas, killed by his father King Lycur- 
gus, vii. 24 

and Clitus, their contest for a bride, 

ii. 307 

Drynemctum, " the temple of the oak," 
in Galatia, ii. 363, xi. 89 

Du Chaillu, P. B. , the Ashira dispute for 
the clippings of his hair, iii. 271 sq. 

Du Pratz, Le Page, on the fire-temples 
of the Natchez, ii. 263 ; on the festival 
of the new corn among the Natchez 
Indians, viii. 77 sqq. 

Duala tribe of the Cameroons, their 
story of the type of Beauty and the 
Beast, iv. 130 n. 1 

Duals, a tribe of Garos, their harvest 
festival, viii. 337 

Dublin, Whitsuntide custom near, ii. 
103 ; custom on May Day at, ii. 741 

Dubrajpur, in Bengal, rain-making at, i. 

Dubrowitschi, a Russian village, expul- 
sion of spirit of plague at, ix. 173 

Duchesne, Mgr. L., on the origin of 
Christmas, v. 305 n. 4 ; on the date of 
the Crucifixion, v. 307 

Duck, gripes transferred to a, ix. 50 ; 
baked alive as a sacrifice in Suffolk, 

x 34 
Duck's egg, external soul in a, xi. 109 

sg., 115 sq., 116, 119 sq., 120, 126, 

130, 132 
Ducks and frogs imitated in rain-making, 

and ptarmigan, dramatic contest 

of the, iv. 259 
Dudilaa, a spirit who lives in the sun, 

flesh of pig offered to, ix. 186 
Dudul, boy decked with ferns and 

flowers at rain-making ceremony, i. 

Dugong, magical models of, i. 108 ; 

skulls and bones of, preserved, viii. 

258 . a 
Dugong fishing, taboos in connexion with, 

iii. 192 
Duk-duk, a disguised man representing a 

cassowary, xi. 247 
Duk-duk, secret society of New Britain, 

New Ireland, and Duke of York Island, 

x. n. xi. 246 sq. 
Duke Town, on the Calabar River, 

crocodile animated by soul of chief at, 

xi. 209 
Town, in Guinea, human sacrifices 

to the river at, ii. 158 ; periodic expul- 
sion of demons at, ix. 204 n. 1 
Duke of York Island, xi. 199 n. 2 ; the 

natives of, pay the fish for those which 

they catch, viii. 252 ; Duk-duk society 

in, xi. 347 ; exogamous classes in, 

xi. 248 n. 
Dukkala, in Morocco, New Year customs 

in. x. 218 

Dulyn, the tarn of, on Snowdon, i. 307 
Dumannos, a month of the Gallic 

calendar, ix. 343 
Dumbartonshire, the harvest Maiden in, 

vii. 157^., 218 . a ; harvest custom 

in, vil 268 ; Hallowe'en in, x. 237 . 8 
Dumfriesshire, mode of cutting the last 

standing corn in, vii. 154 
Dummies to avert attention of ghosts or 

demons, viii. 96 sqq. 
" Dumping" people on harvest field, viL 

226 sq. 
Dumplings in human form at threshing, 

vii. 148 ; in form of pigs at harvest 

supper, vii. 299 
Dunbeath, in Caithness, need-fire at, x. 

29 1 



Duncan, Mr., on the ceremonial canni- 
balism of the coast tribes of British 
Columbia, vii. 18 sg. 

Dung-beetle imitated by actor or dancer, 
ix. 381 

Dunkeld, Hallowe'en fires near, x. 232 

Dunkirk, procession of giants on Mid- 
summer Day at, xi. 34 sg. 

Dun vegan, the laird of, supposed to 
attract herring, i. 368 

Duplication of deities, vii. 212 sq., ix. 
405 sg. ; an effect of dialectical differ- 
ences, ii. 382 sg. 

Duran, Diego, Spanish historian of 
Mexico, ix. 295 n. 1 ; on the human 
representative of Xipe, ' the Flayed 
God," ix. 297 ; on the date of the 
festival of the flaying of men, ix. 
300 n. 1 

Durandus, G. (W. Durantis), his Ration- 
ale Divinorum OJiciorum, x. 161 

Durga, image of, in a magical ceremony, 
16 S 

Durham, Miss M. . , on Albanian super- 
stition as to portraits, iii. 100 

Durham, the mell or kirn at harvest in, 
vii. 151 ; Easter candle in the cathedral 
of, x. 122 n. 

Durian-tree threatened in order to make 
it bear fruit, ii. 20 sg. 

Durostorum in Moesia, martyrdom of 
St Dasius at, ii. 310 n. 1 ; celebration 
of the Saturnalia at, ix. 309 

Durrenbuchig, in Baden, the last sheaf 
called Goat at, vii. 283 

Durris, parish of Kincardineshire, Mid- 
summer fires in the, x. 206 sg. 

Durrow, the oaks of, ii. 242 

Dusk of the Evening, prayers of girl at 
puberty to the, x. 53 

Dussaud, Rlnc*, on stones deposited at 
shrines, ix. 22 *. f 

DUsseldorf, Shrove Tuesday custom in 
the district of, x. 120 

Dussera festival in Behar, i. 279 

Dusuns of Borneo, their suspicion of 
novelties, iii. 230 ; their annual ex- 
pulsion of evils, ix. 200 sg. 

Dutch custom at the madder-harvest, vii. 
231 ; names for mistletoe, xi. 319 n. 1 

Dux, in the Tyrol, "striking down the 
dog " at harvest at, vii. 273 

Dwandwes, a Zulu tribe, change of name 
for the sun among the, iii. 376 sg. 

Dwarf-elder at Midsummer detects witch- 
craft, xi. 64 

Dwarf tribes of Central Africa, their cus- 
tom at circumcision, i. 95 . 4 ; said 
not to know how to make fire, ii. 255 

Dyak medicine-men, homoeopathic cure 
effected by, i. 84 ; their use of crystals 
in divination, iii. 56 

Dyak mode of fishing for a lost soul, 
iii. 38 

sorcerer, his use of effigies to heal 

a child, viii. 102 

stories of the type of Beauty and 

the Beast, iv. 1 26 sqq. 

taboos observed in absence of hun- 
ters, i. 120 

warriors shear their hair on then 

return, iii. 261 

Dyaks, the, of Borneo, ceremony to aid 
a woman in childbirth among, i. 
73 sg. ; telepathy in war among, i. 
127 ; their \vay of strengthening their 
souls, i. 1595^.; their ascription of 
souls to trees, ii. 13 ; believe that the 
souls of those who die by accident or 
drowning pass into trees, animals, or 
fish, ii. 30 sg. ; call on tree-spirit to 
quit tree before it is felled, ii. 37 ; 
their custom at felling a jungle, ii. 38 ; 
their belief as to the blighting effects of 
sexual crimes, ii. 1 08 sg. ; their use of 
effigies to heal the sick, iii. 63 n. 9 , viii. 
100 sg. , 102 ; their mode of securing the 
souls of their enemies, iii. 71 sg.; extract 
the souls of captured foes, iii. 72 n. 1 ; 
taboos as to tying knots during 
a woman's pregnancy among, iii. 
294 ; children called the fathers or 
mothers of their first cousins among, 
111. 332 sg. \ names of relations tabooed 
among, iii. 339 sg. ; their belief as to 
the spirit of gold, iii. 409 sg. ; taboos 
observed by, in digging for gold, 
iii. 410 ; sacrifice cattle instead of 
human victims, iv. 166 n. 1 ; practice of 
swinging among their medicine-men, 
iv. 280 sg. ; their whole life dominated 
by religion, vii. 98 ; their ceremonies 
to secure the rice-soul, vii. 188 sg. 
their sun-dial, vii. 314 . 4 ; their use 
of images to deceive demons of plague, 
viii. 100 sq. ; their festival of first-fruits, 
viii. 122 ; will not let warriors eat 
venison lest it make them timid, viii. 
144 ; their unwillingness to kill croco- 
diles, viii. 209 ; their ceremonies at 
killing crocodiles, viii. 209 sgg.\ their 
priestesses, ix. 5 ; their transference of 
evil, ix. 5; their "lying heaps/' ix. 
14 ; their mode of neutralizing bad 
omens, ix. 39 ; their Head Feast, ix. 
383 ; buth-trees among, xi. 164 ; trees 
and plants as life indices among, xi. 
164 sg. ; their doctrine of the plurality 
of souls, xi. 222. See also Sea Dyaks 

of La n dak and Taj an, marriage 

custom of the, x. 5 ; birth-trees among 
the, xi. 164 

of Pinoch, their custom at a birth, 



Dyaks of Poelopetak, their words for soul, 
vii. 182 sq. 

of Sarawak, their belief in the 
power of the Rajah to fertilize the 
rice-crops, i. 361 sq. ; their custom 
at rice harvest and sowing, ii. 48 ; 
story of their descent from a fish, iv. 
126 ; their custom of swinging at har- 
vest feast, iv. 277 ; their observation 
of the Pleiades, vii. 314 ; eat parts of 
slain foes, viii. 152 

, the Sea, or I bans, of Sarawak, viii. 

979 ; rules observed by women among, 
while the men are at war, i. 127 sq. 
their sacred trees, ii. 40 sq.' t their 
sorcerers supposed to hook departing 
souls, iii. 30 ; their modes of recalling 
the soul, iii. 47 sq. t 52 sq. , 55 sq. t 60, 
67 ; taboos observed by head-hunters 
among, iii. 166 sq. ; their propitiation 
of dead omen birds, iv. 126 ; their 
sacrifices during an epidemic, iv. 176 
n. 1 ; their custom of head-hunting, v. 
295 sq. ; the idea of metampsychosis 
among, viii. 294 sq. \ their modes of pro- 
tecting their farms against mice, viii. 
279 ; their festival of departed spirits, 
ix. 154 

Dying at ebb tide, i. 167 sq. \ custom of 
catching the souls of the, iv. 198 sqq. \ 
by deputy, iv. 56, 160 
Dying god as scapegoat, ix. 227 

and Reviving God, vii. x, 33 

and risen god, the, in Western 

Asia, ix. 421 sq. 

Dynder, in Herefordshire, sin-eater at, ix. 43 
Dziewanna, puppet representing the god- 
dess of spring in Polish districts of 
Silesia, iv. 246 

Ea, Babylonian god, v. 9 ; the inventor 
of magic, i. 240 

Eabani, Babylonian hero, his death and 
resurrection, ix. 398 sq. 

Eagle, guardian spirit as, i. 200 ; tree on 
which an eagle has built its nest 
deemed holy, ii. n : the bird of Jove, 
ii. 175 ; soul in form of, iii. 34 ; to 
carry soul to heaven, v. 126 sq. ; sacri- 
fice to, x. 152 

, double-headed, Hittite emblem, v. 

Eagle bone, used to drink out of, x. 45 

clan of the Niskas, xi. 271, 272 n. 1 

hawk totem, L 162 ; legs of boys 

beaten with leg-bone of, to make them 

strong, viii. 165 . 2 ; external soul of 

medicine-man in, xi. 199 
hunters, taboos observed by, i. xx6, 

iii. 198 sq. ; taboos observed by the 

wives and children of, i. 1x9 ; charms 

employed by, i. 149 sq. 

I Eagle-owl worshipped by the Ainos, viii. 
| 199 sq. 

-spirits and buried treasures, x. 218 

wood, telepathy in search for, i. 

120 ; special language employed by 
searchers for, iii. 404 
Eagle's gall in homoeopathic magic, i. 

tongue torn out and worn as 

talisman, viii. 270 

Eagles not called by their proper names, 
iii. 399 ; worshipped by the Ainos, 
viii. 200; propitiation of dead, viii. 

, sacred among the Ostyaks, ii. xx 

Eames, W. , on voluntary substitutes for 
capital punishment in China, iv. 273 

Ear of corn, reaped, displayed to the 
initiates at the Eleusinian mysteries, ii. 
138 sq. , vii. 38 ; emblem of Demeter, 
v. 166 

Ears cleansed by serpents, i. 158 ; stopped 
to prevent the escape of the soul, iii. 
31 ; of sacrificial victims cut off, iv. 97 ; 
of seers licked by serpents, vii. 147 n. 1 ; 
regarded as the seat of intelligence, 
vii. 148 ; of brave men eaten, viii. 
148 ; of dead enemies cut out, viii. 
271 sq. ; blood drawn from, as pen- 
ance, ix. 292 

Earth, inspired priestess of, i. 381 sq. ; 
from a grave, magical uses of, i. 147 
sq. t 150 ; spring festival of the marri- 
age of, ii. 76 sq. , 94 ; conceived by the 
Greeks as the Mother of com, cattle, 
and human beings, ii. 128 if. 4 ; pray- 
ing to Zeus for rain, image of, ii. 
359 ; festival in honour of, iii. 247 ; 
subterranean, sacrifices to, vii. 66 ; 
Lithuanian prayers to the, viii. 49 ; 
the spirit of, worshipped before sowing, 
viii. 120 ; first berries of the season 
offered to the, viii. 133 sq. ; taboos 
observed by the priest of, in Southern 
Nigeria, x. 4 ; prayers to, x. 50 

, the goddess, mother of Typhon, v. 


, Grandmother, the cause of earth- 
quakes, v. 198 

and heaven, between, xi. x sqq. 

, the Mistress of the, ix. 85 

, Mother, v. 27 ; prayed to for rain, 

i. 283 ; festival of, v. 90 ; vicarious 
sacrifices offered to, viii. 105 

, the Nursing-Mother at Athens, vii. 

and sky, myth of their violent 

separation, v. 283 
, the spirit of the, worshipped before 

sowing, viii. 120 
and Sun, marriage of the, ii. 98 sq., 




Earth-demons dreaded by Tibetans, viii. 

god, vii. 69, ix. 28, 61 ; the Egyp- 
tian, ix. 341 

-goddess, sacrifice for rain to, i. 291 
pregnant cows sacrificed to, ii. 229 
annually married to Sun-god, v. 47 sq. 
disturbed by the operations of hus- 
bandry, v. 88 sqq. ; married to Sky- 
god, v. 282, with . a ; distinguished 
from Demeter, vii. 41, 43, 89; in 
Greek art, vii. 89 ; human sacrifices 
offered to, vii. 245, 246, 249, 250 ; first- 
fruits of maize offered to the, viii. 115 ' 

-gods, slaves of the, viii. 61, 62 n. 1 

-mothers, name given to maize- 
spadices growing as twins, vii. 173 n. 

-spirits possess the ore in mines, iii. 
407 . a ; disturbed by agriculture, v. 89 

Earthman, the, representing the god of 
the earth, ix. 6z 

Earthquake god, v. 194 sqq. 

Earthquakes supposed to be caused by 
indulgence in illicit love, ii. in . 8 ; 
attempts to stop, v. 196 sgg. ; Manichean 
theory of, v. 197 

Earthworms eaten by dancing girls, viii. 


Biasing nature, a charm used by robbers, 
vii. 235 

Blast, the ascetic idealism of the, ii. 117 ; 
mother -kin and Mother Goddesses 
in the ancient, vl 2x2 sqq. ; the Wise 
Men of the, ix. 330 sq. 
' Indian evidence of the belief in the 
transmigration of human souls into 
animals, viii. 298 . 8 

East Indian islands, epilepsy transferred 
to leaves in the, ix. 2 ; demons of 
sickness expelled in little ships in the, 
ix. 185 

i Indies, pregnant women forbidden 
to tie knots in the, iii. 294 ; everything 
in house opened to facilitate childbirth 
in the, iii. 297 ; reluctance of persons 
to tell their names in the, iii. 328 ; 
the Rice-mother in the, vii. 180 sqq. ; 
sacrifices of first-fruits in the, viii. 122 
sqq. ; the tug-of-war in the, ix. 177 

Caster, rolling down a slope at, ii. 
103 ; first Sunday after, iv. 249 ; 
custom of swinging on the four 
Sundays before, iv. 284 ; gardens of 
Adonis at, in Sicily, v. 253 sq. ; resem- 
blance of the festival of, to the rites of 
Adonis, v. 254 sqq. , 306 ; the festival 
of, assimilated to the spring festival of 
Attis, v. 306 sqq controversy between 
Christians and pagans as to the origin 
of, v. 309 sq. ; White Russian custom 
at, to preserve the corn from hail, vii. 
300; an old vernal festival of the 

vegetation - god, ix. 328 ; fern - seed 
blooms at, xi. 292 *r. 9 
Easter candle, x. 121, 122, 125 

ceremonies in the New World, x 

127 sq. 

eggs, ix. 269, x. 108, 143, 144 

Eve, in Albania, expulsion of Kore 

on, iv. 265, ix. 157 ; grain of Corn- 
mother scattered among the young 
corn on, vii. 134 ; new fire on, x. 121, 
124, 126, 158 ; the fern blooms at, 
xi. 66 

fires, x. 1 20 sqq. 

Islanders, their modes of killing 

animals, iii. 247 ; their offerings of 
first-fruits, viii. 133 

Man, burning the, x. 144 

Monday, festival of Green George 

on, ii. 76; " Easter Smacks" on, ix. 
268 ; fire-custom on, x. 143 

Mountains, bonfires at Easter on, 

x. 140, 141 

Saturday, barren fruit-trees threat- 
ened on, n. 22 ; new fire on, x. 121, 
122, 124, 127, 128, 130 ; the divining- 
rod baptized on, xi. 69 

" Smacks" in Germany and Austria, 

ix. 268 sq. 

Sunday, vii. 33 ; ceremony observed 

by the gipsies of South-Eastern Europe 
on the evening of, ix. 207 sq. ; red 
eggs on, x. 122 

Tuesday, swinging on, iv. 283 ; 

" Easter Smacks " on, ix. 268, 270 n. 

Eastertide, death and resurrection of 
Kostrubonko at, iv. 261 ; expulsion 
of evils at, in Calabria, ix. 157 

Eater of animals, as epithet of a god, vii. 


<f of the Dead," fabulous Egyptian 

monster, vi. 14 

Eating out of sacred vessels, supposed 
effect of, iii. 4 ; together, covenant 
formed by, iii. 130 ; piece of slain 
man, custom obligatory on the slayer, 
iii. 174 ; the bodies of aged relations, 
custom of, iv. 14 

and drinking, taboos on, iii. 116 

sqq. ; fear of being seen in the act of, 
iii. 117 sqq. 

the god, viii. 48 sqq. ; among the 

Aztecs, viii. 86 sqq. ; reasons for, viii. 

138 sq.i 167 

the soul of the rice, viii. 54 

Eaves, rain-drops from, in magic, i. 253 
Eavesdropping, divination by, x. 238, 

243. 244 

Ebb tide, death at, i. 167 sq. 
Echinadian Islands, death of the Great 

Pan announced at the, iv. 6 
Echternach in Luxemburg, Lenten fire 

custom at, x. 116 


Eck, R. van, on the belief in demons in 
Bali, ix. 86 

Eckstein, Miss L. , on hunting the wren, 
viii. 317 . 2 

Eclipse, ceremonies at an, i. 311 sq. 

of the moon, custom of the Indians 

of the Orinoco at an, i. 311 ; Athenian 
superstition as to an, vi. 141 

of the sun, burning arrows shot 

into the air at an, L 311 ; practice of 
the Kamtchatkans at an, i. 312; prac- 
tice of the Chilcotin Indians at an, i. 
312, iv. 77 

of the sun and moon, belief of the 
Tahitians as to, iv. 73 n.* 

Eclipses attributed to monster biting or 
attacking the sun or moon, i. 311 n. 1 , 
x. 70, 162 n. ; air thought to be 
poisoned at, x. 162 n. 

Ecliptic perhaps mimicked in dances, iv. 


Economic history, the discovery of agri- 
culture the greatest advance in, vii. 129 

progress a condition of intellectual 

progress, i. 218 

Ecstasy induced by smoking, viii. 72 

Ecuador, the Canelos Indians of, iii. 97, 
viii. 285 ; the Saragacos Indians of, 
iii. 152 ; human sacrifices for the crops 
in, vii. 236 ; the Zaparo Indians of, 
viii. 139 

Edbald, king of Kent, married his step- 
mother, ii. 283 

Edda, the prose, story of Balder in, x. 
101 ; the poetic, story of Balder in, x. 

Eddesse, in Hanover, need-fire at, x. 
275 sq. 

Eden, the tree of life in, v. 186 . 4 

Edersleben, Midsummer fire-custom at, 
x. 169 

Edgewell Tree, oak at castle of Dalhousie, 
thought to be linked with the fate of 
the Dalhousie family, xi. 166, 284 

Edom, blood royal apparently traced in 
the female line in, v. 16 . 

, the kings of, take the name of a 
divinity, v. 15 ; their bones burned by 
the Moabites, vi. 104 

Edonians, a Thracian tribe, their king 
Lycurgus put to death to restore 
fertility to the land, i. 366, vi. 98, 99, 
vii. 24 

Edward the Confessor, English kings 
said to derive their power of healing 
scrofula from, i. 370 

Edward VI., his Lord of Misrule, ix. 

332. 334 

Eel-skins in homoeopathic magic, i. 155 
Eels regarded as water-serpents, iv. 84 ; 

souls of dead in, viii. 289, 290, 292 
Eesa, a Somali tribe, their custom of 

I milk-drinking on the morning after a 
marriage, vi. 246 

Effacing impressions from bed-clothes, 
ashes, etc. , from superstitious motives, 
i. 213 sq. 

Effect of geographical and climatic con- 
ditions on national character, vi. 217 ; 
supposed, of killing a totem animal, 
xi. 220 

Effeminate sorcerers or priests, order of, 

vi. 253 W- 

Effigies, substituted for human victims, 
iv. 215, 217 sq., ix. 408; disease 
transferred to, ix. 7 ; demons conjured 
into, ix. 204, 205 ; burnt in bonfires, 
x. 106, 107, 116, 118 sq., 119 sq tt 
121, 122, 159; burnt in the Mid- 
summer fires, x. 167, 172 sg. , 195 ; of 
witches burnt in the fires, x. 342, xi. 
19, 43 ; of human beings burnt in the 
fires, xi. 21 sqq. ; of giants burnt in the 
summer fires, xi. 38. See also Effigy, 
Dolls, Images, Puppets 

of Carnival destroyed, iv. 222 sqq. 

of Death, iv. 233 sg. , 246 sqq. 

of Judas burnt at Easter, x. 121, 

127 sq., 130 sq. 

of Kupalo, Kostroma, and Yarilo 

drowned or buried in Russia, iv. 262 sg. 

of Lent, seven-legged, in Spain and 

Italy, iv. 244 sq. 

of men and women hung at doors 

of houses, viii. 94 ; buried with the 
dead to deceive their ghosts, viii. 97 sq. ; 
used to cure or prevent sickness, viii. 
100 sqq. 

of Osiris, stuffed with corn, buried 

with the dead as a symbol of resurrec- 
tion, vi. 90 sg., 114 

of Shrove Tuesday destroyed, iv. 

227 sqq. 

of Winter burnt at Zurich, iv. 260 sq. 

Effigy, human sacrifices carried out in, 
iv. 217 sqq. ; of an ox broken as a 
spring ceremony in China, viii. 10 sqq. ; 
of man used in exorcizing misfortune, 
ix. 8 ; of baby used to fertilize women, 
ix. 245, 249 ; of absent friend cut in a 
tree, xi. 159 sq. 

Effiks or Agalwa, the, of West Africa, 
their custom of carrying fire, li. 259 ; 
their belief in external or bush bouls, 
xi. 206 

Efiat, human sacrifices offered by the 
fishermen of, ii. 158 

Efugaos, the, of the Philippine Islands, 
suck the brains of dead foes to acquire 
their courage, viii. 152 

Egbas, the, of West Africa, their custom 
of putting their kings to death, iv. 41 

Egede, Hans, on impregnation by the 
moon among the Greenlanders, x. 76 



Egeria, water nymph at Nemi, i. 17-191 
41 ; and Numa, i. 18, ii. 172 sqq. t 
193, 380; perhaps a local form of 
Diana, ii. 171 sq., 267, 380; an oak- 
nymph, ii. 172, 267; the grove of, ii. 


Egerius Baebius or Laevius, Latin dic- 
tator, dedicated the sacred grove at 
Nemi, i. 22 

Egg broken in water, divination by means 
of, x. 208 sq. 

-shells preserved lest chickens should 
die, viii.- 258 . a 

Egghiou, a district of Abyssinia, rain- 
making in, i. 258 

Eggs eaten by sower to make hemp grow 
tall, i. 138 ; of raven in homoeopathic 
magic, i. 154 ; or egg-shells, painted, 
in spring ceremonies, ii. 63, 65; col- 
lected on May Day, ii. 64, 65 ; yellow 
and red, fastened to Midsummer trees, 
ii. 65 ; collected at spring ceremonies, 
ii. 78 ; begged for by singers or 
maskers at Whitsuntide, ii. 81, 84, 85, 
91 sq. ; in purificatory rite, ii. 109 ; 
offered at entering a strange land, iii. 
no; reason for breaking shells of, 
iii. 129 sq. ; reason for not eating, 
viii. 140 ; charm to make hens lay, 
viii. 326 ; charm to ensure plenty of, 
x. 1 12, 338 ; begged for at Midsummer, 
x. 169 ; divination by white of, x. 236 
sq. , 238 ; external souls of fairy beings 
in, xi. 106 sqq. t no, 125, 132 sq. t 
140 sq. 

, Easter, ix. 269, x. 108, 122, 143, 


Egin, in Armenia, rain -making at, i. 
276 ; rain-pebbles at, i. 305 

Egypt, the hawk the symbol of the sun 
and of the king in, iv. 112 ; wives 
of Ammon in, v. 72 ; date of the 
corn -reaping in, v. 231 . 8 ; the 
Nativity of the Sun at the winter 
solstice in, v. 303; in early June, vi. 
31 ; the gods flee into, vii. 18 ; ghosts 
of murdered men nailed into the earth 
in, ix. 63 ; Isis and Osiris in, ix. 386 

, ancient, magical images in, i. 

66, 67 sq. \ theocratic despotism of, 
i. 218 ; power of magicians in, i. 225 ; 
confusion of magic and religion in, 
i. 230 sq. ; ceremonies for the regula- 
tion of the sun in, i. 3x2 ; kings 
blamed for failure of the crops in, i. 
354 ; the sacred beasts held respon- 
sible for the course of nature in, i. 
354 ; the royal crowns in, i. 364 ; 
king of, masquerading as Ammon, ii. 
133 ; sacrifice to the Sun in, iii. 227 n. ; 
mock human sacrifices in, iv. 217 ; 
mother-kin in, vi. 313 sqq. ; human 

sacrifices in, vii. 259 sqq. ; stratifica- 
tion of religion in, viii. 35 ; story of 
the external soul in, xi. 134 sqq. 

Egypt, the Flight into, xi. 69 . 

, kings of, derive their titles from 

the sun-god, i. 418. See Egyptian 

, Lower, the Red Crown of, vi. 21 

if. 1 ; Sais in, vi. 50 

, modern, magicians work enchant- 
ments through the name of God in, 
iii. 390 ; headache nailed into a door 
in, ix. 63 ; belief in the jinn in, ix. 

, Queen of, married to the god 

Ammon, ii. 131 sq. 

, Upper, temporary kings in, iv. 

151 sq. ; the White Crown of, vi. 21 
n. 1 ; new-born babes placed in corn- 
sieves in, vii. 7 

Egyptian calendar, the official, vi. 24 sqq. ; 
date of its introduction, vi. 36 n.' 2 

ceremony to help the sun - god 

against demons, i. 67 sq. 

custom of drowning a girl as a 

sacrifice to the Nile, ii. 151 

deities arranged in trinities, iv. 

5- 8 

doctrine that a woman can con- 
ceive by a god, ii. 135 

farmer, calendar of the, vi. 30 sqq. \ 

his festivals, vi. 32 sqq. 
festivals, their dates shifting, vi. 24 

sq. t 92 sqq.\ readjustment of, vi. 91 

gods, mortality of the ancient, iv. 

4 sqq.\ trinities of pods, iv. 5 n. 9 

influence on Christian doctrine of 

the Trinity, iv. 5 . s 

kings deified in their lifetime, i. 418 

sqq. ; rules of life observed by, iii. 12 
sq. ; flesh diet of, iii. 13, 291 ; drank 
no wine, iii. 249 ; called bulls, iv. 72 ; 
worshipped as gods, v. 52 ; the most 
ancient, buried at Abydos, vi. 19; their 
oath not to correct the vague Egyptian 
year by intercalation, vi. 26 ; perhaps 
formerly slain in the character of 
Osiris, vi. 97 sq., 102; as Osiris, vi. 
151 sqq. ; renew their life by identifying 
themselves with the dead and nsen 
Osiris, vi. 153 sq.\ born again at the 
Sed festival, vi. 153, 155^.; perhaps 
formerly put to denth to prevent their 
bodily and mental decay, vi. 154 sq., 
156 ; their animal masks, vii. 260 ; 
deified, their souls deposited during life 
in portrait statues, xi. 157 

kings and queens, their begetting 

and birth depicted on the monuments, 
ii. 131 sqq. 

magicians, their power of compelling 

the deities, iii. 389 sq. 


Egyptian months, table of, vi. 37 n. 

mothers glad when the holy croco- 
diles devoured their children, iv. 168 

myth of the separation of earth and 

sky, v. 283 n. 8 

priests loathed the sea, Hi. 10; 

abstained from swine's flesh, viii. 24 

reapers, their lamentations and invo- 
cations of Isis, v. 232, vi. 45, 177, 
vii. 215, 261, 263 ; their song or cry, 
vii. 215, 263 

religion, the development of, vi. 122 

sqq.\ dominated by Osiris, vi. 158 sq. 

sacred beasts, offerings to the, i. 

29 sq. 

sovereigns masked as lions, bulls, 

and serpents, iv. 72 n. 1 
standard resembling a placenta, vi. 

156 - z 
tombs, plaques or palettes of schist 

in, XL 155 
type of animal sacrament, viii. 312 

sq., 3M 

women plaster their heads with 

mud in mourning, iii. 182 

year vague, not corrected by inter- 
calation, vi. 24 sq. ; the sacred, began 
with the rising of Sirius, vi. 35 

Egyptians, their worship of sacred beasts, 
i. 29 sq. ; kept their hair unshorn on a 
journey, iii. 261 , their funeral rites a 
copy of those performed over Osiris, vi. 
15 ; their hope of immortality centred 
in Osiris, vi. 15 sq. , 114, 159 ; their dead 
identified with Osiris, vi. 16 ; their 
astronomers acquainted with the true 
length of the solar year, vi. 26, 27, 
37 n. \ their ceremony at the winter 
solstice, vi. 50 ; their sacrifice of red- 
haired men, vi. 97, 106 ; their language 
akin to the Semitic, vi. 161 ; the con- 
servatism of their character, vi. 217 sq. \ 
compared to the Chinese, vi. 218 ; 
worshipped crocodiles, viii. 209 n. ; 
their doctrine of the ka or external 
soul, xi. 157 n. z 

, the ancient, their festival, "the 
nativity of the sun's walking-stick," 
i. 312 ; worshipped men and animals, 
i. 389 sq. ; sycamores worshipped by, 
ii. 15 ; ritual flight at embalming 
among, ii. 309 . a ; their con- 
ception of the soul, iii. 28 sq. ; their 
practice as to souls of the dead, iii. 
68 sq. ; personal names among, in. 
322 ; question of their ethnical affinity, 
vi. 161 ; human sacrifices offered by, 
vii. 259 sq., xi. 286 . 8 ; their religious 
attitude to pigs, .viii. 24 sqq. ; their 
belief in spirits, ix. 103 sq. ; their use of 

bulls as scapegoats, ix. 216 sq. ; the 
five supplementary days of their year, 
ix. 340 sq. 

Eifel Mountains, the King of the Bean in 
the, ix. 313 ; Lenten fires in the, x. 
iissq., 336^.; effigy burnt at Cobern 
in the, x. 120; St. John's fires in the, 
x. 169; the Yule log in the, x. 248; 
Midsummer flowers in the, xi. 48 

Eight days, feast and license of, before 
expulsion of demons, ix. 131 

years, reign of kings apparently 

limited in ancient Greece to, iv. 58, 
70 sqq. ; cycle in ancient Greece, iv. 
68 sqq. , vn. 80 sqq. 

Eighty-one (nine times nine) men make 
need-fire, x. 289, 294, 295 

Eirnine Ban, an Irish abbot, legend of 
his self-sacrifice, iv. 159 n. 1 

Eiresione of ancr nt Greece, ii. 48, 71 

Eisenach, effigy of Death burnt on the 
fourth Sunday of Lent at, iv. 247 ; 
harvest customs near, vii. 231 

Oberland, the Corn-cat in the, vil 


Ekebergia sf. t used in kindling fire by 
friction, ii. 210 

Eket, in North Calabar, sacred lake 
near, xi. 209 

Ekoi, the, of West Africa, their cus- 
tom of mutilating men and women 
at festivals, v. 270 . 2 ; ceremony 
observed by them at crossing a ford, 
ix. 28 ; throw leaves on dead chame- 
leons, ix. 28 ; their belief in external 
or bush souls, xi. 206 sqq. 

El, Phoenician god, v. 13, 16 n. 1 ; identi- 
fied with Cronus, v. 166 

-Bugat, festival of mourning for 
Tammuz in Harran, v. 230 

Ki boron, a Masai clan, may not 

pluck out their beards lest they lose 
their power of making rain, iii. 260 ; 
their respect for serpents as embodi- 
ments of the dead, vin. 288 

Obeid, i. 122 

Elam, the kings of, their bones carried 

off by Ashurbanipal, vi. 103 sq. 
Elamite deities in opposition to Baby Ionian 

deities, ix. 366 ; inscriptions, ix. 367 
Elamites, the hereditary foes of the 

Babylonians, ix. 366 
Elangela, external soul in Fan language, 

xi. 201, 226 n. 1 
Elans treated with respect by American 

Indians, viii. 240 
Elaphebolion, an Athenian month, ix. 

143 . 35i 

Elaphius an Elean month, ix. 352 
Elbe, the river, dangerous on Midsummer 

Day, xi. 26 
Elder brother, his name not to be pro- 

2 5 6 


nounced, iii. 341 ; the sin of marrying 

before an, ix. 3 

Elder, dwarf, in rain-making, i. 273 
bush, cut hair buried under an, 

iii. 275 ; creeping under an, as a 

cure for fever, ix. 55 

-flowers gathered at Midsummer, 
xi. 64 

-tree, cut hair and nails inserted 
in an, iii. 275 sg. \ fever transferred to 
a twig of the, ix. 49 

. -trees sacred among the old Prus- 
sians, ii. 43 

Elders, council of, in savage com- 
munities, i. 216 sg. 

Eldest sons sacrificed for their fathers, 
iv. 161 sqq. 

Elecampane in a popular remedy for 
worms, x. 17 

Elective and hereditary monarchy, com- 
bination of the two, ii 292 sqq. 

kings and hereditary queens, ii. 

Electric conductivity of various kinds of 
wood, xi. 299 n* 

lights on mast-heads, spears, etc., 

ancient superstitions as to, i. 49 sq. 

Electricity, spiritual, royal personages 
charged with, i. 371 

Elephant -hunters, taboos observed by 
wives of absent, L 120, x. 5 ; telepathy 
of, i. 123 ; scarify themselves after 
killing an elephant, iii. 107 ; continence 
of, iii. 196 sq.\ special language em- 
ployed by, iii. 404 ; not to touch the 
earth with their feet, x. 5 

-hunting, inoculation before, viii. 

Elephant's flesh tabooed, i. zz8 sq. \ 
thought to make eater strong, viii. 143 

Elephants not to be called by their 
proper name, iii. 403, 407 ; souls of 
dead transmigrate into, iv. 85, viii. 
289 ; ceremonies observed at the 
slaughter of, viii. 227 sq. , 237 ; lives 
of persons bound up with those of, xi. 
202, 203 ; external human souls in, xi. 

Eleusine grain, cultivated by the Nandi, 
vii. 117 

Eleusinian Games, vii. josgg., no, 180; 
held every four or two years, vii. 70, 
77; victors in the, rewarded with 
measures of barley, vii. 73 ; primarily 
concerned with Demeter and Perse- 
phone as goddesses of the corn, vii. 
74 ; less ancient than the Eleusinian 
mysteries, vii. 87 sq. 

inscription dealing with first-fruits, 
vii. 55 *9- 

mysteries, vii. 35 sqq. ; presided over 
by the king, i. 44 ; sacred marriage of 

Zeus and Demeter in the, ii. 138 sg. t 
vii. 65 sqq. , viii. 9 ; origin of, told in 
the Homeric Hymn to Demeter % vii. 35 
sqq. ; instituted by Demeter, vii. 37 ; 
the myth of Demeter and Perse- 
phone acted at the, vii. 39, 66, 187,17. ' 
date of the celebration of the, vii. 69 
sq. ; said to be instituted by Eumolpus, 
vii. 70 ; great antiquity of the, vii. 
78 sq. \ hope of immortality associated 
with initiation into the, vii. 90 sq. ; 
designed to promote the growth of the 
corn, vii. no sq. ; sacrament of barley- 
meal and water at the, vii. 161 sq. 

Kleusinian priests, their names sacred, 
iii. 382 sq. 

Eleusis, mysteries of, ii. 138 sq. , vii. 35 sqq. ; 
Demeter and the king's son at, v. 180; 
sacrifice of oxen at, v. 292 n. 9 ; mysteries 
of Demeter at, vi. 90; Demeter at, vii. 
36 sg. , viii. 334 ; the Ranan plain at, 
vii. 36, 70, 74, 234, viii. 15 ; offerings 
of first-fruits at, vn. 53 sqq. \ festival 
of the threshing-floor at, vii. 60 sqq. \ 
the Green Festival and the Festival 
of Cornstalks at, vn. 63 ; image of 
Demeter at, vii. 64 ; prayer for rain 
at, vii. 69 ; the rites of, essentially con- 
cerned with the cultivation of the corn, 
vii. 88 ; Varro on the rites of, vn. 88 

Eleuthcrian games at Plataea, vii. 80 

Elfin race averse to iron, in. 232 sq. 

Elgin, medical use of mistletoe in, xi. 84 

Elgon, Mount, ix. 246 ; the Bagishu of, 
i. 103 

Eli, the sons of, their loose conduct, v. 76 

Elijah as a rain-maker, i. 258 . 3 ; patch 
of rye left at harvest for, vn. 233 

Elipandus of Toledo, on the divinity of 
Christians, i. 407 

Elis, titular kings at, i. 46 n. ; Dionysus 
hailed as a bull by the women of, vn. 
17 ; the ivory shoulder of Pelops at, 
viii. 263 sq. 

, law of, ix. 352 .* 

Ehsha prophesies to music, v. 53, 54 ; 
finds water in the desert, v. 53, 75 

Elizabeth, Queen, touches for scrofula, 
i. 368 

Elk, a totem of the Omahas, viii. 25 ; 
treated with respect, viii. 240 ; em- 
bryos of, not eaten, viii. 243 

Elk clan of the Omaha Indians, their 
belief as to effect of touching an elk, 
viii. 29 ; their sacred clam shell, x. xi 

Ellgoth, in Silesia, the King's Race at 
Whitsuntide at, ii. 84 

Elliot, R. H., on Indian indiffeience to 
death, iv. 136 

Ellis, A. B., on Ewe superstition as to 
eating, iii. 116 ; on the supposed 
material connexion between a maa 



and his name, iii. 323 ; on sacred 
prostitution in West Africa, v. 65 sg. , 
69 sq. \ on tattoo marks of priests, v. 
74 .* ; on an ordeal of chastity, v. 


Ellis, William, on the inspiration of 
priests in the Southern Pacific, i. 377 
sq.\ on the observation of the Pleiades 
in the Society Islands, vii. 312 ; on 
f ad it r as in Madagascar, ix. 33 sq. \ on 
Polynesian mythology, ix. 80 

Ellwangen, in Wurtemberg, the Goat at 
threshing at, vii. 287 

Elm wood in the pile-dwellings of the 
Po, ii. 353 ; used to kindle need-fire, 
x. 299 

Elopango, in Mexico, human sacrifices 
at, vii. 237 

Eloquence, homoeopathic charms to en- 
sure, i. 156 

Elpenor, the grave of, on the headland 
of Circe, ii. 188 

Elves, fear of, iii. 283 

Elymais, Nanaea the goddess of, i. 37 . 2 

Emain, in Ireland, annual fair at, iv. 

Macha, in Ireland, pagan cemetery 

at, iv. 101 

Embalming, flight and pursuit of man 
who opened body for purpose of, ii. 
309 . a ; as a means of prolonging 
the life of the soul, iv. 4 ; dead bodies 
ot kings of Uganda embalmed, vi. 168 

Embers of bonfires planted in fields, x. 
117, 121 ; stuck in cabbage gardens, 
x. 174, 175; promote growth of crops, 
* 337- See also Ashes and Sticks, 

of Midsummer fires a protection 

against conflagration, x. 188 ; a pro- 
tection against lightning, x. 190 

Emblica qfficinalis, a sacred tree in 
Northern India, ii. 51 

Embodied evils, expulsion of, ix. 170 j$y. 

Embodiment, human, of the corn-spirit, 
viii. 333 

Emboq Sri, rice-bride in Java, vii. 200 sq. 

Embryos of elk not eaten, viii. 243 

Emcsa, sun-god Heliogabalus at, v. 35 

Emetic as mode of purification, iii. 175, 
245 ; pretended, in auricular con- 
fession, iii. 214 

Emetics used before eating new corn, 
viii. 73, 75 sq., 76, 135 ; sacred, em- 
ployed by the Creek Indians, viii. 74 ; 
as remedies for sins, ix. 263 

Emily plain of Central Australia, xi. 238 

Emin Pasha, on the Monbutto custom 
of lengthening the head, ii. 297 n. 1 \ 
his reception in a village, iii. 108 

Emma, widow of Ethelred and wife of 
Canute, ii. 282 sg. 

Emmenthal, in Switzerland, superstition 
as to Midsummer Day in the, xi. 27 ; 
use of orpine at Midsummer in the, 
xi. 62 n. 

Empcdocles, his claim to divinity, u 
390 ; leaps into the crater of Etna, v. 
181 ; his doctrine of transmigration, 
viii. 300 sqq. ; his resemblance to 
Buddha, viii. 302 ; his theory of the 
material universe like that of Herbert 
Spencer, viii. 303 sqq. ; as a forerunner 
of Darwin, viii. 306 ; his posing as a 
god, viii. 307 

Emperor of China, funeral of an, v. 294 

Emperors of China as priests, i. 47 

Emu -wren, called men's "brother" 
among the Kurnai, xi. 215 n. 1 , 216, 

Emu's flesh eaten to make eater swift- 
footed, viii. 1^5 ; fat not allowed to 
touch the ground, x. 13 

Emus, ceremony for the multiplication 
of, i 85 sq. 

En, the, of Burma, worship the spirit! 
of hills and trees, ii. 41 

En gidon, a Masai clan, i. 343 

En-jemusi, the, of British East Africa, 
women's work among the, vii. 118 

'Kvaylfav distinguished from Bveiv, v. 
316 n. 1 

Enchanters of crops, foods forbidden to, 
vii. 100 

Encheleans or Eel-men in Illyria, iv. 84 

Encounter Bay tribe of South Australia, 
magic practised on refuse of food by, 
iii. 127 ; their fear of women's blood, 
hi. 251 ; namesakes of the dead change 
their names in the, iii. 355 ; changes 
in their vocabulary caused by their 
fear of naming the dead, iii. 359 ; 
names of the recent dead not men- 
tioned in the, iii. 372 ; division of 
work between the sexes in the, vii. 
126 ; their dread of women at men- 
struation, x. 76 

Endle, Rev. S. , on the fear of demons 
among the Kacharis, ix. 93 

Endymion and the Moon, i. 18 ; set his 
sons to race at Olympia, ii. 299 ; the 
sunken sun overtaken by the moon, 
iv. 90 ; his tomb at Olympia, iv. 287 

Enemies, mutilation of dend, viii -71 sq. 

Enemy, animal, of god originally identical 
with god, vii. 23, viii. 16 sq., 31 

, charms to disable an, vi. 252 

Energy, the conservation of, viii. 226 ; 
sanctity and uncleanness, different 
forms of the same mysterious, x. 97 sq. 

Eneti, in Washington State, rain-charm 
at, i. 309 

Englam-Mana, a tribe of New Guinea, 
their mode of making fire, ii. 254 


England, belief as to death at ebb-tide 
in, i. 168 ; custom of anointing the 
weapon instead of the wound in the 
eastern counties of, i. 203 ; green 
branches and flowers on May Day in 
the north of, ii. 60 ; May garlands in, 
ii. 60 sqq. \ the May Queen in, ii. 87 ; 
rolling down a slope on May Day in, 
ii. 103 ; oak and fir in the sunken 
forests and peat -bogs of, ii. 351 ; 
acorns eaten in, ii. 356 ; mirrors 
covered . after a death in, iii. 95 ; 
harvest custom in, v. 237; the Feast 
of All Souls in, vi. 78 sq. ; supersti- 
tions as to the wren in, viii. 317 sq.\ 
mummer called the Straw-bear in, viii. 
328 sq. \ cure for warts in, ix. 48 ; 
the King of the Bean in, ix. 313 , 
fires kindled on the Eve of Twelfth 
Day in, ix. 318 ; the Festival of Fools 
in, ix. 336 n. 1 ; the Boy Bishop in, 
ix. 337 sq. ; belief as to menstruous 
women in, x. 96 n. 1 ; Midsummer 
fires in, x. 196 sqq. ; the Yule log in, 
x. 255 sqq. ; the need-fire in, x. 286 
sqq. ; Midsummer giants in, xi. 36 
sqq. ; divination by orpine at Mid- 
summer in, xi. 6 1 ; fern-seed at Mid- 
summer in, xi. 65 ; the north of, 
mistletoe used to make the dairy thrive 
in, xi. 85 sq. ; birth-trees in, xi. 165 ; 
children passed through cleft ash-trees 
as a cure for rupture or rickets in, xi. 
1 68 sqq. ; oak-mistletoe in, xi. 316 

English cure for whooping-cough, rheu- 
matism, and boils, xi. 180 

custom of undoing locks and bolts 
at a death, iii. 307 

kings touch for scrofula, i. 368 sqq. 

middle class, their clinging to life, 
iv. 146 

superstition as to water- fairies, iii. 

Enigmas, ceremonial use of, ix. 121 *.'. 

See Riddles 

'Ewlupo? paffi\cvc, iv. 70 .* 
Enniskerry, near Dublin, Whit-Monday 

custom observed near, ii. 103 n. 3 
Ennius, on Hora and Quirmus, vi. 233 
Ensanzi, a forest of Central Africa, dead 

Bahima kings carried to, viii. 288 
Ensival, in Belgium, bonfires on the first 

Sunday in Lent at, x. 108 
Entellus monkey, sacrifice of an, ix. 

208 sq. 
Entlebuch in Switzerland, expulsion of 

Posterli at, ix. 2x4 

Entraigues, hunting the wren at, viii. 321 
Entrails of cattle tabooed as food, i. 

119 ; divination by the inspection of, 

i 344 ; external soul in, xi. 146 sq. , 


" Entry of Osiris into the moon," vi. 130 

Enylus, king of By bins, v. 15 n. 

Ephesus, Artemis of, i. 7, 37 sq., ii. 128, 
v. 269 ; titular kings at, i. 47 ; the 
Essenes or King Bees at, ii. 135 sq. ; 
Hecate at, v. 291 ; the priesthood of 
Apollo and Artemis at, vi. 243 sq. ; 
Demeter worshipped at, vii. 63 a. 14 

Ephors, Spartan, bound to observe the 
sky for omens every eighth year, iv. 
58 J?. 

Epic of Kings, Firdusi's, x. 104 

Epicurus, sacrifices offered to, i. 105 

Epidaurus, Aesculapius at, v. 80, ix. 47 ; 
Demeter worshipped at, vii. 63 . 14 

Epidemic, creeping through a tunnel as 
a remedy for an, x. 283 sq. 

Epidemics thought to be caused by 
incest, ii. 108 ; attributed to evil 
spirits, iii. 30 ; sacrifices in times of, 
iv. 176 n. 1 ; attributed to demons, ix. 
in sqq. \ kept off by means of a 
plough, ix. 172 sq. ; sent away in toy 
chariots, ix. 193 sq. 

Epilepsy, supposed cause of, iii. 83 ; 
attributed to possession by a demon, 
iii. 235 ; transferred to leaves, ix. 2 ; 
Highland treatment of, ix. 68 w. 2 ; 
Roman cure for, ix. 68 ; nails used in 
cure for, ix. 68, 330 ; Hindoo cure for, 
ix. 69 . ; cmed by be.itmg, ix. 260; 
amulet a protection against, ix. 331 ; 
yellow mullein a protection against, 
xi. 63 ; mistletoe a cure for, xi. 78, 
83, 84. See also Falling sickness 

Epimcnidcs, the Cretan seer, his i amb- 
ling soul, in. 50 n. 2 

Spinal, " killing the dog" at harvest at, 
vn. 272 sq. ; Lenten fires at, x. 109 

Epiphany, the 6th of January, v. 305 ; 
part of Christmas Boar given to cattle 
on, vii. 302 ; annual expulsion of the 
powers of evil at, ix. 165 sqq. ; the 
King of the Bean on, ix. 313 sqq. 
See also Twelfth Night 

Epirus, the kings of, their bones scattered 
by 104 ; the Athamanes 
of, vii. 129 

Epitherses and the death of the Great 
Pan, iv. 6 

Epithets applied to Demeter, vii. 63 sq. 

E pony mate, the Assyrian, iv. 116 sq. 

Eponymous magistrates, iv 117 n. 1 

Eponyms, annual, as scapegoats, ix. 39 

Equinox, the autumnal, Egyptian festival 
of " the nativity of the sun's walking- 
stick" after the, i. 313 

, the spring (vernal), festival at 

Upsala at, ii. 364 ; Babylonian festival 
of the, iv. no; drama of Summer 
and Winter at, iv. 2*7; custom of 



swinging at, iv. 384 ; resurrection of 
Attis at, v. 273, 307 sq. \ date of 
the Crucifixion assigned to, v. 307 ; 
tradition that the world was created 
at, v. 307 ; human sacrifice offered 
soon after, vii. 239 ; festival of Cronus 
at, ix. 352 ; Persian marriages at, ix. 
406 . 8 

Equos, a Gallic month, ix. 343 n. 

Erech, Babylonian city, Ishtar at, ix. 398, 


Erechtheum, on the Acropolis of Athens, 
perpetual lamp of Athena in the, ii. 
199 ; sacred serpent in, iv. 87, v. 87 

Erechtheus or Erichthonius, and Minerva 
(Athena), i. 21 ; king of Athens, the 
Erechtheum his house, ii. 199 ; in re- 
lation to the sacred serpent on the 
Acropolis, iv. 86 sq., v. 87 ; identified 
with Poseidon, iv. 87 ; voluntary death 
of the daughters of, iv. 192 . 8 ; his 
incest with his daughter, v. 44 n. 1 \ the 
Eleusinian mysteries instituted in the 
reign of, vii. 70 

Eregh (the ancient Cybistra) in Cappa- 
docia, v. 120, 122 

Eresh-Kigal, Babylonian goddess, v. 9 

Erfurt, harvest customs in the district of, 
vii. 136, 221 

Ergamenes, king of Meroe, slays the 
priests, iv. 15 

Erhaid, Professor A., on the martyrdom 
of St. Dasius, ii. 310 n. 1 

Erica-tree, Osiris in the, vi. 9, 108, 109 

Erichthonius, son of the fire-god Heph- 
aestus, ii. 199. See Erechtheus 

Erigone, her suicide by hanging, iv. 28 1 sq. 

and Icarius, first-fruits of vintage 

offered to, viii. 133 

Erin, the king idol of, iv. 183 

Eriphyle, the necklace of, v. 32 . a 

Eriskay, fairies at Hallowe'en in, x. 
226 ; salt cake at Hallowe'en in, x. 
238 sq. 

Erithasean Apollo, sacred trees in the 
sanctuary of, ii. T2i 

Erlangen, the "carrying out of Death" 
in the villages near, iv. 234 

Erman, Professor Adolf, on the con- 
fusion of magic and religion in ancient 
Egypt, i. 230 ; on Anubis at Abydos, 
vi. i8. 8 ; on corn-stuffed effigies of 
Osiris, vi. 91 ; on the development of 
Egyptian religion, vi. 122 . a 

Erme or Ncnneri, gardens of Adonis in 
Sardinia, v. 244 

Errephoroi or Arrephoroi at Athens, ii. 

Errol, the Hays of, their fate bound up 
with oak-mistletoe, xi. 283 sq. 

Error of judging savages by European 
standards, iv. 197 sq. 

Ertingen, in Wurtemberg, the Lazy 
Man on Midsummer Day at, ii. 83 ; 
festival of St. George at, ii. 337 

Erukhan plant (Calotropis gigantca), 
man married to, in India, it 57 n.* 

Eruptions of volcanoes supposed to be 
caused by incest, ii. HI 

Erysipelas, fox's tongue a remedy for, 
viii. 270 

Erzgebirge, Shrovetide custom in the, iv. 
208 sq. ; young men and women beat 
each other with something green at 
Christmas in the, ix. 271 

Esagil or Esagila, temple of Marduk at 
Babylon, iv. 113, ix. 356 

Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, his great 
inscription, iv. 116 

Escouvwn or Scoitvion, the Great and 
the Little, in Belgium, x. 108 

Eshmun, Phoenician deity, v. HI . 

Esne, the festal calendar of, vi. 49 sq. 

Esquiline Hill at Rome, its name derived 
fron> oaks, ii. 185 ; the oak groves of 
the, ii. 320 

Esquimaux, their belief as to the sculpin 
and rain, i. 288 ; play cat's cradle to 
detain the sun, i. 316 sq., vii. 103 
n. l ; play cup-and-ball to hasten the 
return of the sun, i. 317 ; their ways 
of calming the wind, i. 327 sq. ; 
their conception of the soul, iii. 27 ; 
their dread of being photographed, 
iii. 96 ; ceremony at the reception of 
strangers among the, iii. 108 ; avoid 
dishes used by women in childbed, 
iii. 145 ; their ideas as to the danger- 
ous vapour exhaled by lying - in 
women, iii. 152 ; taboos observed by 
hunters among the Esquimaux after 
killing sea-beasts, iii. 205 sq. ; use of 
iron implements tabooed at certain 
times among the, iii. 228 ; taboos 
observed by them after a death, iii. 
237 ; take new names when they are 
old, iii. 319 ; unwilling to tell their 
names, iii. 328 ; namesakes of the 
dead among the, iii. 371 ; their 
belief that animals understand human 
speech, iii. 399 ; suicide among the, 
iv. 43 ; their belief as to falling 
stars, iv. 65 ; their story of the 
type of Beauty and the Beast, iv. 131 
n. ; dramatic contest between Winter 
and Summer among the, iv. 259 ; 
their belief in the resurrection of seals, 
viii. 257 ; careful not to break bones 
of deer, viii. 258 n.* ; their reluctance 
to let dogs gnaw the bones of animals, 
viii. 259 ; their superstition as to 
various meats, x. 13 sq. ; seclusion of 
girls at puberty among the, x. 55 ; 
ceremony of the new fire among the, 



x. 134 ; their custom at eclipses, x. 
162 n. 

Esquimaux of Aivilik and Iglulik, magical 
telepathy among the, i. 121 sg. 

of Alaska, taboos observed by 
women in absence of whalers among 
the, i. 121 ; their annual festival of 
the dead, v. 51 sq. \ their custom at 
killing a fox, viii. 267 ; child's soul 
deposited in a bag among the, xi. 155 

. of Baffin Land, boys forbidden to 
play cat's cradle among the, i. 113; 
their use of a fox in homoeopathic 
magic, i. 151 ; their women in mourn- 
ing may not mention the names of 
animals, iii. 399 ; their custom when a 
boy has killed his first seal, viii. 257 ; 
their expulsion of Sedna, ix. 125 sg. 

or Inuit of Bering Strait, hi. 205 ; 
manslayers among the, i. 9 ; their 
use of magical images, i. 70 ; their 
annual festival of bladders, iii. 206 
sg. ; drank blood of foes to acquire 
their bravery, viii. 150 ; their cere- 
mony of restoring the bladders of 
dead sea-beasts to the sea, vni. 247 
sgg. \ uncleanness of girl at puberty 
among the, viii. 268 n. 4 ; cut the 
sinews of bad dead men to prevent 
their ghosts from walking, viii. 272 ; 
their masquerades, ix. 379 sg. ; their 
belief as to menstruous women, x. 91 
, the Central, dietary rules of, viii. 
84 ; their ceremonious treatment of 
dead sea-beasts, viii. 246 ; the tug-of- 
war among the, ix. 174 

of Hudson Bay, propitiate the spirit 
who controls the reindeer, viii. 245 sg. 

of Labrador, their fear of demons, 
ix. 79 sq. 

. of Point Barrow, Alaska, return 
the bones of seals to the sea, viii. 
258 n, 2 ; their expulsion of the mis- 
chievous spirit Tuna, ix. 124 sg. 

Esquimaux mourners plug their nostrils, 
in. 32 

Essenes or King Bees at Ephesus, i. 
47 ., ii. 135 sg. 

Essex, greasing the weapon instead of 
the wound in, i. 204 ; May garlands 
in, ii. 60 ; hunting the wren in, viii. 320 

Esther, the story of, acted as a comedy 
at Purim, ix. 364 ; her name equiva- 
lent to Ishtar, Astarte, ix. 365 ; fast of, 
ix. 397 sq. 

, the book of, its date and purpose, 
ix. 360 ; its Persian colouring, ix. 362, 
401 ; based on a Babylonian myth, 
ix. 398 ; duplication of the personages 
in, ix. 400 sq. ; the personages un- 
masked, ix. 405 sgg. 

and Mordecai equivalent to Ishtar 

and Marduk, ix. 405 ; the duplicates 

of Vashti and Haman, ix. 405 sq. 
Esther and Vashti, ix. 365 ; temporary 

queens, ix. 401 
Esthonia, the Christmas Boar in, vii. 

302 ; bathing at Midsummer in, xi. 

29 ; flowers gathered for divination and 

magic at Midsummer in, xi. 53 sg. 
Esthoman belief as to the effect of seeing 

women's blood, iii. 251 

celebration of St. John's Day by 

swings and bonfires, iv. 280 

charm to make a wolf disgorge his 

prey, i. 135 

charms to make cabbages thrive, 

i. 136 sq. 

custom of throwing a knife, hat .stick, 

or stone at a whirlwind, i. 329, 330 

fishermen, their use of curses for 

good luck, i. 280 sg. 

mode of strengthening weakly 

children by means of hemp seed, vii. u 

peasants threaten cabbages to make 

them grow, n. 22 ; loth to mention 
wild beasts by their proper names, iii. 
398 ; regulate their sowing and planting 
by the moon, vi. 135 ; their treatment 
of weevils, viii. 274 

reapers slash the wind with their 

sickles, i. 329 ; their belief as to pains 
in the back, vii. 285 

Esthonians, their contagious magic of 
footprints, i. 211, 212 ; their ways of 
raising the wind, i. 323 ; their dread 
of Finnish witches and wizards, i. 
325 ; their sacred trees, ii. 43 ; their 
worship of Metsik, a mischievous 
forest-spirit, ii. 55 ; their folk-tale of a 
tree-elf, n. 71 sgg. ; their custom of 
leading a bride to the hearth, n. 231 ; 
their custom of leading a bride thrice 
round a burning tree, ii. 234 ; St. 
Geoige's Day among the, ii. 330 sgq. ; 
sacrifice under holy trees for the welfare 
of their horses, ii. 332 ; their thunder- 
god Taara, ii. 367 ; oak worshipped 
by the, u. 367 ; their superstition as 
to a water-mill, ni 232 ; refuse to taste 
blood, iii. 240 ; preserve their nail- 
parings againsi the day of judgment, 
iii. 280 ; their belief as to shooting 
stars, iv. 63, 66 sq. ; their custom on 
Shrove Tuesday, iv. 233, 252 sq. ; their 
celebration of St. John's Day, iv. 280 ; 
their ceremony at the new moon, vi. 
143 ; their Christmas Boar, vii. 302 sq. \ 
their mode of transferring bad luck to 
trees, ix. 54 ; their expulsion of the 
devil, ix. 173 ; Midsummer fires among 
the, x. 179 sg. 

of Oesel, their belief as to absence 

of souls from bodies, iii. 41 sq. ; call the 



last sheaf the Rye-boar, vii. 298, 300 ; 

their custom at eating new corn, viii 

51 ; cull St. John's herbs on St. John's 

Day, xi. 49 
Estremadura, acorns as fodder for hogs 

in, ii. 356 
Etatin, on the Cross River, in Southern 

Nigeria, the chief as fetish-man at, i. 

Eteobutads as umbrella-bearers at the 

festival of Scira, x. 20 n. l 
Eteocles and Polynices, their grave at 

Thebes, ii. 33 
Eternal life, initiates born again to, in 

the rites of Cybele and Attis, v. 274^. 
Etesian winds, v. 35 n. 1 
Ethelbald, king of the West Saxons, 

marries his stepmother, ii. 283 
Ethelbert, king of Kent, ii. 283 
Ethel wulf, king of the West Saxons, ii. 283 
Ethical evolution, iii. 218 sq. 
precepts developed out of savage 

taboos, iii. 214 
Ethiopia, priestly kings in, iii. 13 ; shut 

up in their palace, iii. 124 ; chosen for 

their beauty, iv. 38 sq. 
Ethiopian kings of Meroe put to death, 

iv. 15, 38 
Ethiopians, succession to the kingdom 

among the, ii. 296 sq. 
Etiquette at courts of barbarian kings, 

iv. 39 sq. 
Etna, Mount, Typhon buried under, v. 

156, 157 ; the death of Empedocles 

on, v. 181 ; the ashes of, v. 194 ; 

offerings thrown into the craters of, 

v. 221 ; Demeter said to have lit her 

torches at the craters of, vii. 57 
Eton, Midsummer fires at, x. 197 
Eton College, Boy Bishop at, ix. 338 
Etruria, funeral games at Agylla in, iv. 

95 ; actors fetched from, to Rome in 

time of plague, ix. 65 
Etruscan crown, ii. 175 n. 1 

letters, ii. 186, 186 . 4 

wizards, i. 310 

Etruscans, female kinship among the, ii. 

286 sq. ; their alleged Lydian descent, 

ii. 287 ; their ceremony at founding 

cities, iv. 157 
Etymology, its uncertainty as a base for 

mythological theories, viii. 41 n. 
Euboea subject to earthquakes, v. 211 ; 

date of threshing in, v. 232 n. ; harvest 

custom in, v. 238 
Eubuieus, legendary swineherd, brother 

of Triptolemus, viii TO 
Eubulus, sacrifices offered to, at Eleusis, 

vii. 56 

Eucharist partaken of by Catholics fast- 
ing, viii. 83 
Eudanemi at Athens, i. 325 ft. 1 

Eudoxus of Cnidus, Greek astronomer, 
on the Egyptian festivals, vi. 35 . a ; 
corrections of the Greek calendar per- 
haps due to, vii. 81 ; on the utility of 
the pig in ancient Egypt, viii. 30 

Euhemerism, a theory of mythology, ix. 


Euhemerists, ix. 385 

Eukleia, epithet of Artemis, i. 37 . ! 

Euniolpids direct the sacrifices of first- 
fruits, vii. 56 

Eumolpus, prince of Eleusis, vii. 37 ; 
said to have founded the Eleusinian 
mysteries, vii. 70 ; founder of priestly 
Eleusinian family, vii. 73 

Eunuch priests of Ephesian Artemis, i. 
38 ; of the Mother Goddess, v. 206 ; 
in the service of Asiatic goddesses of 
fertility, v. 269 sq. ; in various lands, v. 

270 n. 2 ; of Attis tattooed with pattern 
of ivy, v.*278 , of Cybele, vi. 258 

Eunuchs, dances of, v. 270 . 2 , 271 .; 
dedicated to a goddess in India, v. 

271 . ; sacred, at Hierapolis-Bam- 
byce, their rule as to the pollution of 
death, vi. 272 ; perform a ceremony 
for the fertility of the fields, x. 340 

Euphemisms employed for certain 
animals, iii. 397 sqq. \ for smallpox, 
iii. 400, 410, 411, 416 

Euphorbia antiquorum, cactus, hung at 
door of house where there is a lying-in 
woman, iii. 155 

lafhyris, caper-spurge, sometimes 

identified with the mythical spring- 
wort, xi. 69 

Euphorbus the Trojan, the soul of 
Pythagoras in, viii. 300 

Euphorion of Chalcis, Greek writer, on 
Roman indifference to death, iv. 143, 

Euripides, the Hippolytus of, i. 25 ; on 
Artemis as a midwife, i. 37 ; on the 
dragon at Delphi, iv. 79 ; on the death 
of Pentheus, vi. 98 . 8 ; his account 
of Aegisthus pelting the tomb of Aga- 
memnon with stones, ix. 19 ; his play 
on Meleager, xi. 103 . a 

Europa, a personification of the moon 
conceived as a cow, ii. 88 ; and 
Zeus, iv. 73 ; her wanderings, iv. 89 

Europe, dancing or leaping high as a 
homoeopathic charm to makr crops 
grow high in, i. 137 ; the Hand of 
Glory in, i. 148 sq. \ belief as to death 
at ebb-tide in, i. 167 ; treatment of 
the navel-string and afterbirth in, L 
198^^.; contagious magic of footprints 
in, i. 210 sq. ; confusion of magic and 
religion in modern, i. 231-233 ; llie 
belief in magic in modern, i. 235 sq. ; 
forests of ancient, ii. 7 sq. ; the May- 


tree or May-pole as an instrument of 
fertility in, ii. 51 sq. ; relics of tree- wor- 
ship in modern, ii. 59 sqq. ; Midsummer 
festival in, ii. 272 sq. \ diffusion of 
the oak in, ii. 349 sqq. \ peat-bogs of, 
ii' 350 sqq. ; the lake-dwellings of, ii. 
352 sq. ; fear of having one's likeness 
taken in, iii. 100 ; spitting as a charm 
in, iii. 279 ; belief as to consummation 
of marriage t>eing impeded by knots 
and locks in, iii. 299 ; beliefs as to 
shooting stars in, iv. 66 sqq. \ fear 
of death in, iv. 135 sq., 146 ; custom 
of showing money to the new moon 
in, vi 148 sq. ; barley and wheat 
cultivated in prehistoric, vii. 79 ; trans- 
ference of evil in, ix. 47 sqq. \ faith in 
magic and witchcraft in Christian, ix. 
89 ; annual expulsion of demons and 
witches in, ix. 155 sqq. ; annual ex- 
pulsion of evils in, ix. 207 sq. \ folk- 
custom of "carrying out Death" in, 
ix. 227 sq. \ masquerades in modern, 
ix. 251 sq. ; superstitions as to men- 
struous women in, x. 96 sq. \ the fire- 
festivals of, x. 1 06 sqq. ; great dread 
of witchcraft in, xi. 342 ; birth-trees 
in, xi. 165 ; belief in, that strength 
of witches and \\izards is in their hair, 
xi 158 

Europe, Eastern, great popular festival 
of herdsmen and shepherds on St. 
George's Day in, ii. 330 

, Eastern and Central, custom of 

beating people and cattle in spring in, 
ix. 266 

, mediaeval, belief in demons in, ix. 
105 sq. \ human scapegoats in, ix. 214 

, Northern, human sacrifices in, iv. 
214 ; Corn-mother and Corn-maiden 
in, vii. 131 sqq. 

South- Eastern, rain-making cere- 
monies in, i. 272 sqq. ; superstitions 
as to shadows in, iii. 89 sq. 

European custom as to green bushes on 
May Day, ii. 56 

processions of animals or of men 
disguised as animals, viii. 325 

rule that children's nails should not 
be paired, iii. 262 sq. 

Euros, magical ceremony for the multi- 
plication of, i. 89 ; homoeopathic charm 
to catch, i. 162 

Eurydice, Orpheus and, xi. 294 

Eurylochus rids Aegina of a snake, iv. 
8 7 . 

Eusebius on sacred prostitution, i. 30 n* t 
v. 37 * 73 "- 1 

Euyuk in Cappadocia, Hittite palace at, 
v. 123, 132, 133 n. ; bull worshipped 
at, v. 164 

Evadne and Capaneus, v. 177 .* 

Evans, D. Silvan, on the sin-eater in 
Wales, ix. 44 

Evans, Sebastian, as to a passage in the 
History of the Holy Graal, iv. 122 n. 1 

Eve and Adam, Mr. W. R. Paton's 
theory of, ix. 259 . 8 

Eve, Christmas, the fern blooms on, xi. 

, Easter, in Albania, iv. 265 ; the 

fern blooms on, xi. 66 

, Fingan, in the Isle of Man, x. 266 

of St John (Midsummer Eve), 

Russian ceremony on, iv. 262 

of Samhain (Hallowe'en) in Ireland, 

x. 139 See also Christmas Eve, Easter 
Eve, St. John's Eve, etc. 

Evelyn, John, on Charles II. touching 
for scrofula, i. 369 

Evening Star, Keats' s sonnet to the, i. 
166 ; the goddess of the, ix. 369 n. 1 

Everek (Caesarea), in Asia Minor, creep- 
ing through a rifted rock at, xi. 189 

Evergreen oak, the Golden Bough grew 
on, ii. 379 

trees in Italy, i. 8 

Evessen, in Brunswick, toothache nailed 
into a tree at, ix. 59 sq. 

Evil, the transference of, ix. i sqq. ; 
transferred to other people, ix. 5 sqq. , 
47 sqq. ; transferred to sticks and 
stones, ix. 8 sqq. ; transferred to 
animals, ix. 31 sqq., 49 sqq. \ trans- 
ferred to men, ix. 38 sqq. ; trans- 
ference of, in Europe, ix. 47 sqq. ; 
transferred to inanimate objects, ix. 
53 sq. \ transferred to trees or bushes, 
ix. 54 sqq. See also Evils 

Evil Eye, bad names a protection against 
the, i. 280; dreaded at eating, iii. 116 
sq. ; boys dressed as girls to avert the, 
vi. 260 ; bridegroom disfigured in order 
to avert the, vi. 261 ; disguises to avert 
the, vi. 262 ; preservatives against the, 
viii. 326 .* ; rain-water mixed with 
tar, a protection against the, x. 17. 
See also Eye, the Evil 

spirit, mode of cure for possession 

by an, xi. 186 

spirits transferred from men to 

animals, ix. 31 ; banishment of, ix. 
86 ; driven away at the New Year, x. 
134 sq. ; kept off by fire, x. 282, 285 
sq. ; St. John's herbs a protection 
against, xi. 49; kept off by flowers 
gathered at Midsummer, xi. 53 sq. ; 
creeping through cleft trees to escape 
the pursuit of, xi. 173 sqq. See also 

Evil-Merodach, Babylonian king, ix. 
367 * 

Evils transferred to trees, ix. 54 sqq. ; 
nailed into trees, walls, etc., ix. SQ 



tqq. ; public expulsion of, ix. 109 
sqq., 185 sqq. \ periodic expulsion of. 
ix. 123 sqq., 198 sqq. ; expulsion of 
embodied, ix. 170 sqq. \ expulsion of, 
in a material vehicle, ix. 185 sqq. ; 
expulsion of, timed to coincide with 
some well-marked change of season, 
ix. 224 sq. See also Expulsion 

Evolution of kings out of magicians or 
medicine-men, i. 420 sq. \ industrial, 
from uniformity to diversity of function, 
i. 421 ; political, from democracy to 
despotism, i. 421 ; ethical, iii. 218 sq. ; 
religious, powerful influence of the fear 
of the dead on the course of, viii. 36 sq. 

and dissolution, viii. 305 sq. 

Ewe, white -footed, as scapegoat, ix. 
192 sq. See also Ewes 

Ewe farmers fear to wound the Earth 
goddess, v. 90 

hunters, their contagious magic of 

footprints, i. 212 ; of Togo-land, their 
ceremony after killing an antelope, viij. 

negroes, their festival of new yams, 

viii. 58 sqq. ; their belief as to the spirit- 
land, viii. 105 sq. ; their ceremonies 
after killing leopards, viii. 228 sqq. ; 
feed their nets, viii. 240 n. 1 ; their 
dread of menstruous women, x. 82 

negroes of Guinea worship falling 
stars, iv. 61 sq. 

negroes of the Slave Coast, their 

charm to catch a runaway slave, i. 
317; their reverence for silk -cotton 
trees, ii. 15 ; human wives of gods 
among the, ii. 149 ; taboos observed 
by their kings, iii. 9 ; their belief as 
to spirits entering the body through 
the mouth, iii. 116 ; their kings not to 
be seen eating or drinking, iii. 119 ; 
penance for killing a python among 
the, iii. 222 ; a mother's vow among 
the, iii. 263 ; their belief that a man 
can be injured through his name, iii. 
323 ; rebirth of ancestors among the, 
iii. 369 ; sacred prostitution among the, 
v. 65 sq. ; worship pythons, v. 83 . J ; 
their conception of the rain -god as 
a horseman, viii. 45 ; their belief in 
demons, ix. 74 sqq. 

. negroes of Togo-land, their festival 

in honour of Earth, iii. 247 ; reincar- 
nation of the dead among the, in. 369 ; 
their belief in the marriage of Sky with 
Earth, v. 282 . 2 ; their use of clay 
images as substitutes to save the lives 
of people, viii. 105 sq. ; their worship 
of the Earth, viii. 115 ; their worship 
of goddess Mawu Sodza, viii. 115; 
their propitiation of slain leopards, 
*ild buffaloes, etc., viii. 228 sqq. 

Ewe-speaking negroes deem the heart 
the seat of courage and intellect, viii. 

speaking people of West Africa, 

their contagious magic of footpiints, 
i. 210 ; eat elephant's flesh to become 
strong, viii. 143 

Ewes and rams, the time for coupling, 
ii. 328, 328 . 4 

Exaggerations of anthropological theories, 
i- 333 

Exchange of wives at appearance of the 
Aurora Australis, iv. 267 w. 1 ; of dress 
between men and women in rites, vi. 
259 . 3 ; of dress at marriage, vi. 260 
sqq. ; of dress at circumcision, vi. 263 

Exclusion of strangers, iii. 108 sq., vii. 

94. in 
Excommunication of human scapegoat, 

ix. 254 
Excuses offered by savages to the animals 

they kill, viii. 222 sqq. 
Execution, peculiar modes of, for mem- 
bers of royal families, iii. 241 sqq. ; 

Roman mode of, iv. 144 ; by stoning, 

ix. 24 . a 
Executioners, their precautions against 

the ghosts of their victims, iii. 171 sq. ; 

seclusion and scarification of, iii. i8oj^. ; 

taste the blood of their victims, viii. 155 
Exeter, the Boy Bishop at, ix. 337 
Exile of gods for perjury, iv. 70 i*. 1 
Exodus (xiii. i sq., 12, xxii. 29 sq. % 

xxxiv. 19), on the sanctification of the 

first-born, iv. 172 
Exogamous clans in the Pelew Islands, 

vi. 204 
classes in Duke of York Island, ri. 

248 n. 

Exogamy, ii. 271, iv. 130 
Exorcising harmful influence of strangers, 

iii. 1 02 sqq. 
Exorcism of demons of sickness, iii. 

105 sq. \ of ghosts after a funeral, iii. 

1 06 sq. ; of demons by devil dancers, 
iv. 216 ; by means of music, v. 54 sq. ; 
of devils in Morocco, ix. 63 ; of demons 
in China, ix. 99 ; annual, of the evil 
spirit in Japan, ix. 143 sq. ; of spirits at 
sowing the seed, ix. 235 ; Nicobarese 
ceremony of, ix. 262 ; of evil spirits 
at a funeral ceremony, x. 5 ; and 
ordeals, x. 66 ; at Easter, x. i>3 ; of 
vermin with torches, x. 340 ; use of 
St. John's wort in, xi. 55 ; use of 
mugwort in, xi 60; by vervain, xi. 
62 n. 4 . See also Demons and Ex- 

Exorcists, ix. a sq. t 33 

Expiation by means of blood for sexual 
crimes, ii. 107 sqq. ; for adultery or 
fornication, ii 109 sq. ; for incest, ii 



1 10 j^., 1 1 5, 116, 1 29; 'for violating the 
sanctity of a grove, 11. 122 ; for hear- 
ing thunder, iii. 14; for contact with 
a sacred chief, iii. 133 sq. ; for miscar- 
riage in childbed, iii. 153 sqq. \ for 
bringing an iron tool into the grove of 
the Arval Brothers, iii. 226 ; for 
killing sacred animals, iv. 216 sq. ; for 
suicide by hanging, iv. 282 ; for 
homicide, v. 299 . a ; Roman, for 
prodigies, vi. 244 ; for the defilement 
of the Eleusinian plain, vii. 74 ; for 
agricultural operations, vii. 228 ; for 
sin, ix. 39. See also Atonement and 

Expiatory sacrifices, Greek ritual of, viii. 

Expulsion of evils, ix. 109 sqq. \ the 
direct or immediate and the indirect or 
mediate, ix. 109, 224 ; occasional, ix. 
109 sqq., 185 sqq. \ periodic, ix. 123 
sqq., 198 sgg. \ annual, of demons and 
witches in Europe, ix. 155 sqq., x. 
135 ! of Trows in Shetland, ix. 168 
sq. ; of embodied evils, ix. 170 sqq. ; 
of evils in a material vehicle, ix. 185 
sqq. ; of evils timed to coincide with 
some well-marked change of season, ix. 

224 sq. ; of devils timed to coincide 
with seasons of agricultural year, ix. 

225 ; of hunger at Chaeronea, ix. 252 ; 
of winter, ceremony of the, ix. 404 sq. 

External soul in afterbirth or navel-string, 
i. 200 sq. \ in folk- tales, xi. 95 sqq. ; 
in folk-custom, xi. 153 sqq. ; in inani- 
mate things, xi. 153 sqq. \ in plants, 
xi. 159 sqq. ; in animals, xi. 196 sqq. ; 
kept in totem, xi. 220 sqq. See also 
Souls, external 

Extinction of fires on chiefs death, ii. 
217 ; in village or parish before the 
making of " living fire " or need-fire, 
ii. 237, 238 ; at king's death, ii. 261 
sqg. . 267 ; in houses after any death, 
ii. 267 sq. \ annual, of the sacred fire 
at Rome, ii. 267 ; of common fires 
before the kindling of the need-fire, 
x. 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277 
sq-, 279, 283, 285, 288, 289, 289^., 
291, 291 sq., 292, 294, 297, 298 sq. 
of fires after tree has been kindled by 
lightning, xi. 297 sq. 

Extinguishing fire, power of, ascribed to 
priests, i. 331, and to chaste women, 
ii. 240 .* 

Eye as a symbol of Osiris, vi. 121 ; of 
sacrificial ox cut out, vi. 251 sq. See 
also Eyes 

, the EvH, precautions against the, 
at meals, iii. 1x6 sq. ; boys dressed 
as girls to avert the, vi. 260; bride- 
groom disfigured in order to avert, vi 

261 ; cast on cattle, x. 30*, 303 ; 
oleander a remedy for sickness caused 
by, xi. 51. See also Evil Eye 

Eye of Horus, vi. 17, 121, with .* 

Eyelashes offered to the sun, i. 3x8 

Eyeo, kings of, put to death, iv. 40 sq. 

Eyeos, the, not allowed to behold the 
sea, iii. o. 

Eyes smeared with eagle's gall to make 
them sharp-sighted, i. 154 ; shut at 
prayer, viii. 81 ; of owl eaten to make 
eater see in dark, viii. 144^. ; of men 
eaten, viii 153 ; of falcon used to im- 
part sharpness of sight, viii. 164 ; of 
slaughtered animals cut out, viii. 267 
sqq , 271 ; of dead enemies gouged 
out, viii. 271 sq. ; looking through 
flowers at the Midsummer fire thought 
to be good for the, x. 162, 163, 165 
sq., 171, 174^., 344; ashes or smoke 
of Midsummer fire supposed to benefit 
the, x. 214 sq. ; sore, attributed to 
witchcraft, x. 344 ; mugwort a pro- 
tection against sore, xi. 59 ; of newly 
initiated lads closed, xi. 241 

of the dead, Egyptian ceremony of 

opening the, vi. 15 

Eyre, E. J., on menstruous women in 
Australia, x. 77 

Ezekiel ( viii. i o- 1 2 ) , on idolatrous practices 
of the Israelites, i. 87. J ; (xxxii. 18-32), 
H. Guukel's interpretation of, i. 101 
. 2 ; (xni. \j sqq.}, the hunting of souls 
in, iii. 77 n. 1 ; (xvi. 20 sq. , xx. 25, 26, 
31), on the burnt sacrifice of children, 
iv. 169 a. 8 ; (xx. 25, 26, 31), on the 
sacrifice of the first-born, iv. 171 sq. ; 
(viii. 1 4), on the mourning for Tammuz, 
v. ii, 17, 20; (xxin. 5 sq., 12), on 
the Assyrian cavalry, v. 25 .*; (xxviii. 
14, 16), on the- king of Tyre, v. 114 

E-zirla, the temple of Nabu in Borsippa, 

Face of sleeper not to be painted or dis- 
figured, lest his absent soul should not 
recognize his body, iii. 41 ; of human 
scapegoat painted half white half black, 
ix. 220 

Faces veiled to avert evil influences, iii. 
120 sqg. ; of warriors blackened, iii. 
163 ; of manslayers blackened, iii. 
169 ; of bear-hunters blackened, vii. 
291, 299 ; blackened, vii. 302, viii. 
321, 332, ix. 247, 314, 330; of bear- 
hunters painted red and black, viii. 
226 ; of priests at exorcism reddened 
with paint and blood, ix. 189 

Faditras among the Malagasy, ix. 33 sq. 

Fady, taboo, iii. 327, viii. 46 

' ' Faery dairts " thought to kill cattle, 
x. 303 



Fafnir, the dragon, slain by Sigurd, iii. 

324, viii. 146 
Failles, bonfires on the first Sunday in 

Lent, x. in n. 1 
Fair, great, at Uisnech in County Meath, 

x. 158. See also Fairs 
Fairies thought to be in eddies of wind, i. 

329 ; averse to iron, iii. 229, 232 sq. ; 
let loose at Hallowe'en, x. 224 sqq. ; 
carry off men's wives, x. 227 ; at 
Hallowe'en, dancing with the, x. 227; 
thought to kill cattle by their darts, 
x. 303 ; active on Hallowe'en and 
May Day, xi. 184 . 4 , 185 

Fairs of ancient Ireland, iv. 99 sqq. 
Fairy Banner, Macleod's, i. 368 

changelings, x. 151 n. ; mistletoe 

a protection against, xi. 283 

Faiths of the world, the great, their little 
influence on common men, ix. 89 

Falcon stone, at Errol, in Perthshire, xi. 

Falcon's eyes used to impart sharpness 
of sight, vm. 164 

Falerii, Juno at, ii. 190 . a 

Faleshas, a Jewish sect of Abyssinia, re- 
move the vein from the thighs of 
slaughtered animals, viii. 266 n. 1 

Falkenauer district of Bohemia, custom 
at threshing in the, vii. 149 

Falkenstem chapel of St. Wolfgang, 
creeping through a rifted rock near 
the, xi. 189 

Fallacy of magic not easily detected, i. 
242 sq. ; gradually detected, i. 372 

Falling sickness transferred to fowl, ix. 
52 sq ; nails used in cure for, ix. 68, 

330 ; mistletoe a remedy for, xi. 83, 
84. See also Epilepsy 

star as totem, iv. 61 

stars, superstitions as to, iv. 58 sqq. ; 

associated with the souls of the dead, 

iv. 64 sqq. 
Fallow, thrice -ploughed, vii. 66, 69 ; 

lands allowed to lie, vii. 117, 123 
False Bride, custom of the, vi. 262 n. 2 

graves and coipses to deceive 

demons, viii. 98 sqq. 

Falstaff, the death of, i. 168 

Famenne in Namur, Lenten fires in, x. 

Familiar spirits of wizards in boars, xi. 

196 sq. 
Families, royal, kings chosen from 

several, fi. 292 sqq. 
Famine attributed to the anger of ghosts, 

iv. 103 
Fan country, West Africa, custom of 

throwing branches on heaps in the, ix. 

30 . 3 
negro, his belief as to the effect of 

seeing women's blood, iii. 251 

| Fan tribe of West Africa, chiefs as 
medicine-men in the, i. 349. See also 

Fangola, a potent idol in Nias, viii. 102, 

Fanning away ill luck, vii. 10 

Fans of the French Congo, birth-trees 
among the, xi. 161 

of the Gaboon, their theory of the 

external soul, xi. 200 sqq., 226 it. 1 ; 
guardian spirits acquired in dreams 
among the, xi. 257 

of West Africa, esteem the smith's 

craft sacred, i. 349 ; their rule as to 
eating tortoises, viii. 140 ; their custom 
of adding to heaps of leafy branches, 
ix. 30 n? ; custom at end of mourning 
among the, xi. 18 

Fans in homoeopathic magic, i. 130 sq. 

Fantee country, succession of slaves to 
the kingship in the, ii. 275 

Faosa, a Malagasy month, vii. 9 

Farghana, rain- producing well in, i. 301 

Farinaceous deities, viii. 169 

Farmer, calendar of the Egyptian, vi. 30 
sqq. ; saturnine temperament of the, 
vi. 218 

Farmer's wife, ceremony performed by 
her to promote the rice-crop, ii. 104 ; 
pretence of threshing, vii. 149 sq. 

Farmers, propitiation of vermin by, viii. 
274 sqq. 

Farnell, Dr. L. R., on Artemis as the 
patroness of childbirth, i. 36^. ; on 
Plautus, Casina (ii. 5, 23-29), ii. 379 
n. 6 ; on Greek religious music, v. 55 
ns. 1 and 8 ; on religious prostitution in 
Western Asia, v. 57 a. 1 , 58 n. 2 ; on 
the position of women in ancient re- 
ligion, vi. 212 n. 1 ; on the Flamen 
Dialis, vi. 227 ; on the children of 
living parents in ritual, vi. 236 sq. \ 
on the festival of Laurel-bearing at 
Thebes, vi. 242 n. ; on eunuch priests 
of Cybele, vi. 258 n. 1 ; on Thracian 
origin of Dionysus, vii. 3 n. 1 ; on 
the biennial period of certain Greek 
festivals, vii. 15 w. ; on the resemblance 
of the artistic types of Demeter and 
Persephone, vii. 68 n. 1 ; on Pan, viii. 
2 n. 9 

Farwardajan, a Persian festival of the 
de-ad, vi. 68 

Fashoda, the capital of the Shilluk kings, 
iv. 18, 19, 21, 24 

Faslane, on the Gareloch, Dumbarton- 
shire, last standing corn called the Head 
or Maidenhead at, vii. 158, 268 

Fast from bread in mourning for Attis, 
v. 272 ; in the Eleusinian mysteries, 
vii. 38 ; before eating new fruits, viii. 
73 5 $> i 7$ *? 5 before the festival of the 



Mexican goddess of Maize, ix. 291 sq. ; 
from flesh, eggs, and grease at sowing, 
i*. 347 *- 4 ; at puberty, xi. 222 . 5 
See also Fasts and Fasting 

Fast of Esther" before Punm, ix. 397*7. 

Fasting obligatory on woman daring 
absence of her husband at whale-fishery, 
i. 121 ; as a means of ensuring success 
in hunting, i. 121, 124 ; obligatory 
on women during the absence of 
warriors, i. 131 ; obligatory on all 
people left in camp during absence of 
warriors, iii. 157 2 ; rigorous, of 
warriors before going to war, in. 161 ; 
of warriors as a preparation tor att.ick- 
ing the enemy, iii. 162 ; of executioner 
after discharging his office, iii. 180 ; 
of warriors after killing enemies, iii. 
182, 183 ; of eagle - hunters before 
trapping eagles, in. 199 ; of Catholics 
before partaking of the Eucharist, viu. 
83 ; of men and women at a dancing 
festival, x. 8 sqq. ; of girls at puberty, 
* 561 57. 58, 59, 60, 61, 66 ; of 
women at menstruation, x. 93, 94 ; 
as preparation for gathering magical 
plants, xi. 45, 55 . ! , 58 

and continence observed by parents 
ot twins, i. 266; by Blackfoot pn-st, 
iii. 159 n.\ as preparation for oflke 
among the Peruvian Indians, in. 159 n. \ 
of Indian warriors as preparation for 
war, iii. 163; of whaler* before whaling, 
iii. 191; of hunters before huntins;, ni. 
198 ; before ploughing and sowing, 
vin, 14, 15 

Pastnachtsbar, viii. 325 

Fasts imposed on heirs to thrones in 
South America, x. 19 ; rules observed 
by Indians of Costa Rica during, x 20 

observed by the worshippers of 
Cybele and Attis, v. 280 ; of Isis and 
Cybele, v. 302 n.* See atw Fast and 

Fat, anointing the body with, from 
superstitious motives, viu. 162 sg. t 
164, 165 ; of emu not allowed to 
touch the ground, x. 13, of crocodiles 
and snakes as unguent, x. 14 

Fate of the king's life annually determined 
at a festival, ix. 356, 357 

Father, reborn in his son, iv. 188 tqq., 
287 (288 in Second Impression) ; 
funeral rites performed for a, in the 
fifth month of his wife's pregnancy, iv. 
189 ; named after his son, v. 51 n.*; of ] 
a god, v. 51, 52 ; dead, worshipped, vi. I 
1 75 1 184 *q ' the head of the family 
under a system of ni other-kin, vi. 211 

and child, supposed danger of ' 
resemblance tetween, iii. 88 sq. t iv. 387 i 
(288 in Second Impression) ! 

Father of Heaven, title of the Esthonian 
thunder-god, ii. 367 

and mother, their names not to be 

mentioned, iii. 337, 341 ; names for, 
v. 281 ; as epithets of Roman gods 
and goddesses, vi. 233 sqq. 

Mother, and Son divinities repre- 
sented at Boghaz-Kcui, v. 140 sqq. 

Father-deity of the Hittites, the god of 
the thundering sky, v. 134 sqq. 

God succeeded by his divine son, 

iv. 5; his emblem the bull, v. 164; 
Attis as the, v. 281 sqq. ; often less 
important than Mother Goddess, v. 

-in-law, his name not to be pro- 
nounced by his daughter-in-law, iii. 
335 sqq., 343. 345- 34<> I by his son- 
m-law, in. 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 

343- 344 

Jove and Mother Vesta, ii. 227 sqq. 

-km at Rome, v. 41 

May, loaf-clad mummer, ii. 75, 79 

Sky fertilizes Mother Earth, v. 282 

Fathcihood of -God, the physical, v. 80 


Fathers named after their children, iii. 

33' sqq., 339 
Fatigue transferred to leaves, stones, or 

sucks, ix 8 sqq. \ let out with bloo'J, 

ix. 12 

of the Horse, vu. 294. See also 

Weai mess 

Fattening-house for girls in Cakibar, xi. 


Fattest men chosen kings, ii 297 
Fauna, rustic Roman goiltless, her re- 
lationship to Faunus, vi. 234 
F.iuns, rustic Italian gods, in relation to 

goats, vni. i u/7- 
Faunus, old Roman god, consultation of, 

iii. 314; his relationship to Ktuna or 

the Good Goddess, vi. 234 
Fawckner, Captain James, on the annual 

expulsion of demons m Benin, ix. 

131 sq. 
Fazoql or Fazolglou, on the Blue Nile, 

kmtfs of, put to death, iv. 16 
Fear as a source of religion, ix. 93 ; the 

source of the worship of the dead, ix. 98 

of having a likeness taken, iii. 

96^/7. ; of spirits, taboo on common 
words based on a, iii. 4x6 sqq. ; of 
death entertained by the European 
races, iv. 135 sq., 146; of the dead 
one of the most powerful factors in 
tehgious evolution, \ui. 36 sq. 

Feast. See a/w Festival 

of All Saints on November it, 

perhaps substituted for an old pagan 
festival of the dead, vi. 82 sq. \ insti- 
tuted by Lewis th* Pious, vi. 83 



Feast of All Souls, vi. 51 sqq., x. 223 sq., 
225 . 8 ; the Christian, originally a 
pagan festival of the dead, vi. 81 

of Fire at winter solstice, iv. 215 

of Florus and I^aurus on August 

1 8th, x. 220 

of the Golden Flower at Sardes, v. 


the Great, in Morocco, ix. 180, 
182, 265 

of Lanterns in Japan, vi. 65, ix. 

151 sq. 

of the Nativity of the Virgin, x. 
220 sq. 

of Yams, iii. 123 

Feathers worn by manslayers, iii. 180 ; 
red, of a parrot worn as a protection 
against a ghost, in. 186 n. 1 \ of cock 
mixed with seed-corn, vii. 278; of 
wren, virtue attributed to, viii. 319 

February, annual expulsion of demons 
in, ix. 148 

the ist, St. Bride's Day, ii. 94 sq. 

the 2nd, Candlemas, ii. 94. a 

the 22nd, St. Peter's Day, vii. 


the 24th, the Flight of the King of 

the Sacred Rites on, ii. 308 jy. 

and March, the season of the 

spring sowing in Italy, ix. 346 

Fechenots, fechenottes, Valentines, x. 1 10 

" Feeding the dead," iv. 102 ; in Ceram, 
viii. 123 

Feet, homoeopathic charm to strengthen 
the, i. 151 ; washed, ceremony at re- 
ception of strangers, iii. 108 ; not to 
wet the, iii. 159 ; bare in certain 
magical and religious ceremonies, iii. 
310 sq. See also Foot 

. of enemies eaten, viii. 151 
. first, children born, superstition as 
to, i. 266 ; custom observed at their 
graves, v. 93 ; sticks or grass piled on 
their graves, ix. 18 ; curative power 
attributed to children so born, x. 295 

Fehrle, E., as to the chastity of the 
Vestals, ii. 199 . fi 

Feilenhof, in East Prussia, wolf as corn- 
spirit at, vii. 272 

Felkin, Dr. R. W., on the sacrament of 
a lamb among the Madi or Moru of 
Central Africa, viii. 314^. 

, Dr. R. W., and C. T. Wilson, 

on the worship of the dead kings of 
Uganda, vi. 173 . a 

Fellows, Ch., on flowers in Caria, v. 
187 . 6 

Feloupes of Senegambia, curse their 
fetishes in drought, i. 297 

Female descent of the kingship in Rome, 
ii. 270 sqq. \ in Africa, ii. 274 sqq. ; in 
Greece, ii. 277 sq. ; in Scandinavia, ii. 

I 279 j?.; in Lydia, ii. 281^.; among 
Danes and Saxons, ii. 282 sq. 

Female kinship or mother-kin defined, ii. 
271 ; rule of descent of the throne 
under, ii. 271, vi. 18 ; indifference to 
paternity of kings under, ii. 274 sqq. ; 
at Athens, ii. 277 ; indifference to 
paternity in general under, ii. 283 ; 
among the Aryans, ii. 283 sqq. See 
also Mother-kin 

slaves, licence accorded to them on 

the Nonae Caprotinae, ii. 313 sq. 

Femgericht in Westphalia, ii. 321 

Feminine weakness, infection of, dreaded 
by savages, iii. 164 sq., 202 sq. 

Fen-hall, Frigga weeping in, x. 102 

Feng, king of Denmark, married the 
widow of his predecessor, ii. 281 

and Wiglet, ii. 281, 283 

Fennel, fire carrier 1 in giant, ii. 260 

Fenua, placenta, among the Maoris, i.'iSa 

Ferghana, a province of Turkestan, com- 
bats between champions at the New 
Year in, ix. 184 

Feriae Latinae, iv. 283 

Ferintosh district, in Scotland, dancing 
with the fairies in, x. 227 

Fern growing on a tree, in a popular 
remedy, x. 17; the male (Aspidium 
filix mas), a protection against witch- 
craft, xi. 66 ; blooms on Christmas 
Eve, Easter Eve, and St. John's Day, 
xi. 66; the root detects and foils 
sorcerers, xi. 66 sq. 

owl or goatsucker, sex totem of 

women in Victoria, xi. 217 

-seed gathered on Midsummer Eve, 
magical properties ascribed to, xi. 65 
sqq. ; blooms on Midsummer Eve, xi. 
287 ; reveals treasures in the earth, 
xi. 287 sqq. \ blooms on Christmas 
Night, xi. 288 sq. ; brought by Satan on 
Christmas Night, xi. 289 ; gathered at 
the solstices, Midsummer Eve and 
Christmas, xi. 290 sq. ; procured by 
shooting at the sun on Midsummer 
Day, xi. 291 ; blooms at Easter, xi. 
292 . 2 

Fernando Po, taboos observed by kings 
of, iii. Bsq. t 115, 123, 291 ; thecobra- 
capella worshipped in, viii. 174 

Feronia, Italian goddess, her sanctuary 
at Soracte, iv. 186 . 4 , xi. 14 

Ferrara, synod of, denounces practice cf 
gathering fern-seed, xi. 66 n. 

Ferrers, George, a Lord of Misrule, ix. 

Ferret, in homoeopathic magic, i. 150 

Fertilization of women by a rattle, i. 
347 ; of women by the wild fig-tree, 
ii. 316 ; of women by the wild banana- 
tree, ii. 318 ; of women by mummers, 



ix. 249 ; of barren women by striking 
them with stick which has been used 
to separate pairing dogs, ix. 264 ; of 
mango trees, ceremony for the, x. 10 ; 
of fields with ashes of Midsummer 
fires, x. 170. See also Conception, 

Fertilization, artificial, of the date palm, 
ii. 24 sq. , ix. 272 sq. \ of fig-trees, ii. 314 
sq., vi. 98, ix. 257, 258, 259, 272 sq. 

Fertilizing influence of the corn-spirit, 
vii. 1 68 

power ascribed to the effigy of Death, 

iv. 250 sq. 

virtue attributed to trees, ii. 49 sgg. , 
3x6 sqq. ; attributed to sticks which 
have separated pairing dogs, ix. 264 

Fertility, Artemis the embodiment of, 
i. 35 ; Asiatic goddesses of, i. 37 ; 
the coco-nut regarded as an emblem 
of, ii. 51 ; Diana as a goddess of, 
ii. 120 sqq. ; the thunder -god con- 
ceived as a deity of fertility, ii. 368 
sqq. ; goddess of, served by eunuch 
priests, v. 269 sq. ; Osiris as god of, 
vi. 112 sq. ; supposed to be procured 
through masked dances, ix. 382 

of the ground, thought to be 
promoted by prostitution, v. 39 ; 
promoted by marriage of women to 
serpent, v. 67 ; ceremonies to ensure 
the, viii. 332 sqq. ; magical ceremony 
to promote the, ix. 177 ; processions 
with lighted torches to ensure the, x. 
233 sq. ; supposed to dej>end on the 
number of human beings sacrificed, xi. 
32, 33, 42 sq. 

of women, magical images designed 
to ensure the, i. 70 sqq. ; magical cere- 
monies to ensure the, x. 23 sq., 31 

Ferula com munis, L. , giant fennel, its 
stalks used to carry fire, ii. 260, 260 n. 1 
Festival. See aho Feast 
of All Souls, iv. 98 

of the Assumption of the Virgin, 

August isth, i. 14, 1 6 

of " the awakening of Hercules " at 

Tyre, v. in 
of bladders among the Esquimaux, 

viii. 247 sqq. 

of the cold food in China, shifted in 
the calendar, x. 137 

of the Cornstalks at Eleusis, vii. 63 

of the Cross on ist August, x. 220 
of the Crowning at Delphi, iv. 78 

sq., vi. 241 

of the Dead, x. 223 sq. t 225 sq.\ 
among the Hurons, iii. 367 ; among 
the Esquimaux, iii. 371 ; in Java, 
v. 220. See also Dead 

of Departed Spirits in Sarawak, ix. 

"Festival of dreams" among the Iro- 

quois, ix. 127 
of the Flaying of Men, Mexican, ix. 

296 sqq. 

of Flowers (Anthesteria), v. 234 sq. 

of Fools in France, ix. 334 sqq. \ in 

Germany, Bohemia, and England, ix. 

336 x. 1 

of the Innocents, ix. 336 sqq. 

of Joy (Htlaria) in the rites of Attis, 

v. 273 

of lamps, Hindoo, ix. 145 

of the Laurel-bearing at Thebes, 

iv. 78 sq. , 88 sq. 
of Mascal or the Cross in Abyssinia, 

ix. 133 sq. 

of the Matronalia, ix. 346 

of New Fire, viii. 135 

before Ploughing (Proerosia), at 

Eleusis, vn. 51 sqq. , 60, 108 

of the Sacaea, at Babylon, iv. 113 

W. I*. 354 sqq. 

of Sais, vi. 49 sqq. 

of the Saturnalia, ix. 306 sqq. 

of the Threshing-floor (Haloa) at 

Elcusis, vn. 60 sqq. , 75 ; obscenities in 
the, vii. 62 

of the winter solstice, viii. 90 

Festivals explained by myths, ii. 142 sq. 
of the Egyptian farmer, vi. 32 sqq 
of Osiris, the official, vi. 49 *qq. 
Egyptian readjustment of, vi. 91 sqq 
of new yams, viii. 58 sqq. ; the great 
Chrrstian, timed by the Church to 
coincide with old pagan festivals, ix. 
328 ; ancient Gieck, resembling the 
Saturnalia, ix. 350 sqq. ; popular, 
primitive character of, ix. 404 , of fire 
in Europe, xi. 106 sqq. 

Festus, on a proposed etymology of 
Rome and Romulus, ii. 318 n 3 ; on 
11 the Sacred Spring," iv. 186 ; on the 
Roman custom of knocking a nail into 
a wall, ix. 67 ns. * and 2 

11 Fetching the Wild Man out of the 
Wood," a Whitsuntide custom, iv. 
208 sq. 

Fete des Fous in France, ix. 334 sqq. 

des ftois t Twelfth Day, ix. 329 

Fetish or taboo rajah in Timor, iii. 24 ; 
the great, in West Africa, xi. 256 

Fetish kings in West Africa, iii. 22 sqq. 

Fetishes cursed in drought, i. 297 

Fetishism early in human history, vi. 43 

Feu il let, Madame Octave, on the burning 
of Shrove Tuesday at Saint- Ld, iv. 
228 sq. 

Fever cured by knotted thread, iii. 304 ; 
euphemism for, iii. 400; typhoid, trans- 
ferred to tortoise, ix. 31 ; transferred 
to bald-headed widow, ix. 38 ; Roman 
cure for, ix. 47 ; transferred to 



person by a scrap of paper or a twig, 
ix. 49 ; transferred to a dog, cat, or 
snipe, ix. 51 ; transferred to a pillar, 
ix. 53 ; transferred to a tree or bush, 
ix. 55 sq. , 56, 57, 58, 59 ; nailed into 
a wall, ix. 63 ; driven away by firing- 

. guns, etc., ix. 121; leaping over the 
Midsummer bonfires as a preventive of, 
x. 166, 173, 194 ; Midsummer fires a 
protection against, x. 190 ; need-fire 
kindled to prevent, x. 297 ; cure for, 
in India, by walking through a narrow 
passage, xi. 190 

Fewkes, J. Walter, on the observation of 
the Pleiades among the Pueblo Indians, 
vii. 312 

Fey, devoted, x. 231 

Fez, annual temporary sultan in, iv. 152 
sq. \ orgiastic rites at, vii. 21 ; talis- 
man against scorpions at, viii. 281 ; 
Midsummer custom of throwing water 
on people at, x. 216, xi. 31 

Fictitious burials to divert the attention 
of demons from the real burials, viii. 
98 sqq. 

Fictores Vestalium, fictores Pontificum, 
ii. 204 

Ftcus Jndica (the bar tree) sacred in 
India, h. 43 

rcligiosa (the pipal tree) sacred in 

India, ii. 43 

Ruminalis, the fig-tree under which 

Romulus and Remas were suckled, ii. 

sycomorus, used in kindling fire by 

friction, ii. 210 

Fida. See Whydah 

"Field of the giants," called so from 
great fossil bones, v. 158 

" of God," viii. 14, 15 

of Mars at Rome, viii. 42, 43, 44 

" of secret tillage," vm. 57 

Field-mice, burning torches as a protec- 
tion against, x. 114, 115; and moles 
driven away by torches, xi. 340 

11 speech," a special jargon em- 
ployed by reapers, in. 410 sq., 411 sq. 

Fielding, H., on the Buddhist Lent, ix. 
349 sq. 

Fields, miniature, dedicated to spirits, 
vii. 233 sq. ; cultivated, menstruous 
women not allowed to enter, x. 79 ; 
protected against insects by menstruous 
women, x. 98 n. 1 ; processions with 
torches through, x. 107 sq., no sqq., 
113 sqq., 179, 339 sq. \ protected 
against witches, x. 121 ; made fruitful 
by bonfires, x. 140 ; fertilized by ashes 
of Midsummer fires, x. 170 ; fertilized 
by burning wheel rolled over them, x. 
191, 340 sq. ; protected against hail by 
bonfires, x. 344 

Fiends burnt in fire, ix. 320 

Fierte or shrine of St. Romain at Rouen, 
ii. 167, 168, 170 n. 1 

Fife, custom of "dumping" at harvest 
in, vii. 227 

Fifeshire, the harvest Maiden in, vii. 162 

Fifty-two years, Aztec cycle of, vii. 310 sq. 

Fig, as an article of diet, ii. 315 sq.\ 
artificial fertilization of the, at Rome in 
July, vi. 98 ; Dionysus perhaps associ- 
ated with the artificial fertilization of 
the, vi. 259 ; the wild, human scape- 
goats beaten with branches of, ix. 255. 
See also Figs and Fig-tree 

Fig Dionysus at Lacedaemon, vii. 4 

god perhaps personified by Roman 

kings, h. 319, 322 

leaves, aprons of, worn by Adam 

and Eve, ix. 259 .* 

- -tree of Romulos (Ficus Ruminalis\ % 
ii. 10, 318 

tree, sacred, ii. 44, 99, 249, 250, ix. 

6r ; artificial fertilization (caprificatio\ 
of the, u. 314 J^., ix. 257 sqq., vjz sq. 

-tree, the wild, its milky juice 

sacrificed to Juno Caprotina, ii. 313 ; 
a male, ii. 314.^. ; supposed to fertilize 
women, ii. 316 sq. \ haunted by spirits 
of the dead, ii. 317 ; sacred all over 
Africa and India, ii. 317 w. 1 

trees worshipped by the Akikuyu, 

ii. 44 ; associated with Dionysus, vii. 
4 ; wild, held sacred as the abodes 
of the spirits of the dead, viii. 113; 
personated by human victims, ix. 
257 ; charm to benefit, x. 18 ; sacred 
among the Fans, xi. 161 

Fighting the wind, i. 327 sqq. ; the king, 
right of, iv. 22 

Fights, sanguinary, as a ceremony to 
procure ram, i. 258 ; annual, at the 
New Year, old intention of, ix. 184 ; 
between men and women about their 
sex totems, xi. 215, 217 

Figo, bonfire on the first Sunday in Lent, 
x. in 

Figs, soul-compelling virtue of, iii. 46 ; 
black and white, worn by human 
scapegoats, ix. 253, 257, 272 ; crowns 
of, worn at sacrifice to Saturn (Cronus), 
ix. 253 n. 3 ; eaten by human scapegoat 
before being put to death, ix. 255. 
See also Fig 

Fiji, treatment of the navel -string in, 
i. 184 ; catching the sun in, i. 316 ; 
temporary inspiration of priests in, i. 
378 ; special vocabularies employed 
with reference to divine chiefs in, i. 
402 n. ; War King and Sacred King 
in, iii. 21 ; catching away souls in, 
iii. 69 ; superstitions connected with 
eating in, iii. 117; tabooed persons not 


to handle food in, iii. 134 u. 1 ; taboo 
for handling dead chiefs in, iii. 141 ; 
manslayers tabooed m, iii. 178 sq. ; 
custom at cutting a chief's hair in, iii. 
264 ; shorn hair hid in thatch of house 
in, iii. 277 ; voluntary deaths in, iv. 
ii sq. \ custom of grave-diggers in, 
iv. 1 56 a. 2 ; abdication of father when 
his son is grown up in, iv. 191 ; 
circumcision practised in, iv. 220 ; 
chiefs buried secretly in, vi. 105 ; 
sacrifice of first-fruits in, viii. 125; 
leaves piled on spots where men were 
clubbed to death in, ix. 15 ; annual 
ceremony at appearance of sea-slug in, 
ix. 141 sq. \ brides tattooed in, x. 
34 n. 1 ; the fire-walk in, xi. 10 sq. ; 
birth-trees in, xi. 163 ; the drama of 
death and resurrection exhibited to 
novices at initiation in, xi. 243 sqg. 
Fijian belief as to a whirlwind, i. 

33i n * 

chiefs claim divinity, i. 389 ; sup- 
posed effect of using their dishes or 
clothes, iii. 131 

custom of personal cleanliness, iii. 
158 .' 

god of fruit-trees, v. 90 
Lent, v. 90 

Fijians, gods of the, i. 389 ; their con- 
ception of the soul, in. 29 sq., 92; 
their notion of absence of the soul m 
dreams, iii. 39 sq. ; their custom of 
frightening away ghosts, iii. 170; their 
theory of earthquakes, v. 201 
Filey, in Yorkshire, the Yule log and 

candle at, x. 256 

Financial oppression, Roman, v. 301 . a 
Finchra, mountain in Rum, xi. 284 
Fingan Eve (St. Thomas's Day) in the 

Isle of Man, x. 266 

Finger bitten off as sacrifice, iii. 166 . 2 
Finger-joints, custom of sacrificing, iv. 
219 ; mock sacrifice of, iv. 219 

rings as amulets, iii. 315 

Fingers cut off as a sacrifice, iii. 161 
Finistere, effigy of Carnival at Pontaven 
in, iv. 230 ; the harvest Wolf in, vii. 
275 ; bonfires on St. John's Day in, 
x. 183 

Finland, sacred groves and trees in, ii. 
ii ; cattle protected by the woodland 
spirits in, ii. 124 ; Midsummer fires in, 
x. 1 80 sq. ; fir-tree as life-index in, xi. 
165 sq. 

Gulf of, i. 325 

Finlay, George, on Roman financial 

oppression, v. 301 n. 2 
Finmsch-Ugrian peoples, sacred groves 

of the, ii. 10 sq. 

Finnish hunters do not call animals by 
their proper names, iii. 398 

Finnish witches and wizards thought tc 

cause winds, i. 325 sq. 
Finns, feared as sorcerers, iii. 281 ; 

their propitiation of slain bears, viii. 

223 sq. 

Finow, a Tongan chief, iii. 140 
Finsch Harbour in German New Guinea,' 

Kolem on, i. 338 ; the Papuans of, iii. 

329 ; the Kai tribe inland from, vii. 

99, viii. 296, xi. 239 
Fir used to beat people with at Christmas, 

ix. 270, 271 

or beech used to make the Yule 

log, x. 249 

Fir-branches, prayers of girl at puberty 
to, x. 51 ; at Midsummer, x. 177 ; 
Midsummer mummers clad in, xi. 

-cones, seeds of, gathered on St. 

John's Day, xi. 64 

tree as life-index, xi. 165 sq. 

trees set up at Midsummer, ii. 65 ; 

gout transferred to, ix. 56 ; mistletoe 
on, xi 315, 316 

-wood used to kindle need-lire, x. 

278, 282 

Firdusf s Epic of Kings, x. 104 

Fire in the worship of Diana, i. 12 sq. \ 
power of extinguishing, ascribed to 
priests, i. 231, and to chaste women, 
ii. 240 n 2 ; used to stop rain, i. 252 
sq. ; used in rain-making ceremonies, 
i. 303 *q. ; as a charm to rekindle the 
sun, i. 311, 313; the King of, in 
Cambodia, ii. 3 sqq. ; birth from the, ii. 
*95 W ; the king's, n. 195 sqq. ; 
impregnation of women by, ii. 195 
sqq , 230 sqq., 234, vi. 235 ; kindled 
by the friction of uood, n. 207 sqq. , 
235 W . 2 37 '?-. 2-n, 248 sqq , 258 
sq , 262, 263, 336, 366, 372, viii 127, 
136, 314, x. 132, 133, 135, 136, 137, 
138, 144 sq , 148, 155, 169 sq., 175, 
177, 179. 220, 264, 270 sqq., 335 sq., 
xi 8, 90, 295 ; taken from sacred 
he.irth to found a new village, ii. 216 ; 
custom of extinguishing fire and re- 
kindling it by the friction of wood, ii. 
217, 237 ; kindled from ancestral tree, 
ii. 221, 233 sq. ; on the hearth, souls 
of ancestors in the, ii. 232 ; reasons 
for attributing a procreative virtue to, 
ii. 233 sq. ; made jointly by man and 
woman or toy and girl, ii. 235 sqq. ; 
need- fire made by married men, ii. 
238 ; not to be blown upon with 
the breath, ii. 240, 241, iii. 136, 
viii. 254, x. 133 ; tribes reported to 
be ignorant of the art of kindling, 
ii. 253 sqq. ; people reported to be 
ignorant of the use of, ii. 254 n. 1 ; 
discovery of, by mankind, ii. 255 sqq. : 



kindled by natural causes, ii. 256 ; 
kindled by lightning, beliefs and cus- 
toms concerning, ii. 256 .*, 263, xi. 
297 sq. \ art of making fire by friction, 
how discovered, ii. 256 sq. ; earned 
about by savages, ii. 257 sqq. ; kept 
burning in houses of chiefs and kings, 
ii. 260 sqq. ; extinguished on the death 
of the king, ii. 261 sqq. ; carried before 
king or chief, ii. 263 sq. ; a symbol of 
life, ii. 265 ; leaping over a, ii. 327, 
329 ; sheep driven over, as a purifica- 
tion, ii. 327 ; rule as to removing fire 
from priest's house, iii. 13 ; purification 
by, iii. 108, 109, in, 114, 168, 197, 
v. 115 w. 1 , 179 sqq., xi. 19 ; tabooed, 
iii. 178, 182, 256 sq. ; not to be blown 
upon by sacred chiefs, iii. 256 ; of a 
kiln called by a special name in the 
Outer Hebrides, iii. 395 ; not to be 
called by its proper name, iii. 411 ; 
voluntary death by, iv. 42 sqq. \ Peisian 
reverence for, v. 174 sq. ; death in 
the, as an apotheosis, v. 179 sq. ; not 
given out, vii. 249 ; leaping through, 
as a form of purification, viii. 249 ; 
girls at puberty forbidden to see 
or go near, x. 29, 45, 46 ; men- 
struous women not allowed to touch or 
see, x. 84, 85 ; extinguished at men- 
struation, x. 87 ; in fire-festivals, dif- 
ferent possible explanations of its use, 
x. 112 sq. \ made by flints or by flint 
and steel, x. 121, 124, 126, 127, 745, 
146, 159 ; made by a burning-glass, 
x. 121, 127 ; made by a metal mirror, 
x. 132, 137, 138 n. 6 ; year called a 
fire, x. 137 ; thought to grow weak 
with age, x. 137 ; pretence of throwing 
a man into, x. 148, 186, xi. 25 ; carried 
round houses, corn, cattle, and women 
after child- bearing, x. 151 n. \ used 
to drive away witches and demons at 
Midsummer, x. 170 ; as a protection 
against evil spirits, x. 282, 285 sq. ; 
made by means of a wheel, x. 335 sg. t 
xi. 91 ; as a destructive and purificatory 
agent, x. 341 ; used as a charm to 
produce sunshine, x. 341 sq. ; employed 
as a barrier against ghosts, xi. 17 sqq. ; 
used to burn or ban witches, xi. 19 
sq. ; extinguished by mistletoe, xi. 78, 
84 sq. , 293 ; of oak-wood used to 
detect a murderer, xi. 99, . 4 ; life of 
man bound up with a, xi. 157; con- 
ceived by savages as a property stored 
like sap in trees, xi. 295 ; primitive 
ideas as to the origin of, xi. 295 sq. 
See also Bonfires, Extinction, Fires, 
Need-fire, and New Fire 
Fire, Feast of, at winter solstice, among 
the Indians of Arizona, iv. 215 

Fire, the god of, among the Huichol 
Indians, i. 124, viii. 93 

' of heaven," term applied to Mid- 
summer bonfire, x. 334, 335 

, holy, not to be blown upon with 

the breath, ii. 240, 241 

and lightning averted from houses 

by crossbills, i. 82 

, "living," made by friction of 

wood, n. 237, x. 220 ; a charm 
against witchcraft, ii. 336 

, Mexican god of, ix. 300 ; human 

sacrifices to, ix. 300 sqq. 

, ' ' new , " sent from Delos and Delphi , 

i. 32 sq. t x. 138 ; made by friction in 
rain-charm, i. 290 ; at taking posses- 
sion of new house, ii. 237 sq. ; made 
at Midsummer in Peru, ii. 243, x. 132; 
made at beginning of king's reign, ii. 
262, 267 ; made by friction of wood, 
iii. 286, viii. 65, 74, 78 ; at eating 
new fruits, among the Caffres, viii. 65 ; 
nmonpf the Indians of Alabama, viii. 
72 . a ; among the Creek Indians, 
vin. 74 ; among the Yuchi Indians, 
viii. 75 ; among the Natchez Indians, 
viii. 77, 135 sqq. , at New Year, ix. 
209, x. 134, 135, 138; Chinese festival 
of the, ix. 359, x. 136 sq. ; kindled on 
Easter Saturday, x. 121 sqq. ; at 
Candlemas, x. 131 ; festivals of, x. 131 
sqq. ; among the Peruvians, x. 132 ; 
among the Mexicans, x. 132 ; among 
the Zuni Indians, x. 132 sq.\ among 
the Iroquois, x. 133 sq. \ among the 
Esquimaux, x. 134 ; in Wadai, x. 
134 ; m the Egyptian Sudan, x. 134 ; 
among the Swahili, x. 135 ; in Bena- 
metapa, x. 135 ; among some tribes 
of British Central Africa, x. 135 sq. ; 
among the Todas, x. 136 ; among the 
Nagas, x. 136 ; at Karma in Burma, 
x. 136 ; in Japan, x. 137 sg. ; in 
Lenmos, x. 138 ; at Rome, x. 138 ; 
among the Celts of Ireland, x. 1139 ; 
near Moscow, x. 139 ; made by the 
friction of wood at Christmas, x. 264 

, perpetual, of oak wood at Nov- 
gorod, ii. 365 ; in front of holy oak 
in Prussia, iv. 42 ; in Zoroastrian 
religion, v. 191 ; worshipped, v. 191 
sqq.\ in Cappadocia, v. 191 ; at Juala- 
mukhi, v. 192 ; at Baku, v. 192 ; in 
the temples of dead king, vi. 174 ; 
of oak-bark, viii. 135 ; of oak-wood, 
xi. 285 sq. 

, sacred, annually extinguished at. 

Rome and rekindled by friction of 
wood, i'. 186 n. 1 , 267; in charge, of 
a married pair, ii. 235 ; new, made 
by friction of wood at intervals of 
fifty-two years, vii. 311 ; new, made 



by striking stones together, viii. 75 ; 
kindled by friction of wood, viii. 127, 
314, ix. 391 .*; in the sweating- 
house among the Karok Indians, viii. 
255 ; of king of Uganda, ix. 195 

Fire of St. Lawrence, viii. 318 

i of Vesta at Rome fed with oak- 
wood, ii. 1 86 

, Vestal, at Alba, i. 13 ; at Rome, 
rekindled by the friction of wood, ii. 

and Water, Kings of, in Cambodia, 

ii. 3 sqq. t iv. 14 ; kingships of, hi. 17 

Fire -bearer, the, at Delphi, i. 33 ; of 
Spartan king, ii. 264 

boards, sacred, of the Chuckchees 

and Koryaks, ii. 225 sq. 

customs of the Herero or Da mar as, 
ii. 211 sqq. ; compared to those of the 
Romans, ii. 227 sqq. 

i -drill, the, ii. 207 sqq., 248 sgq., 
958 sg., 263; the kindling of fire by 
it regarded by savages as a form 
of sexual intercourse, ii 208 sgg., 218, 
33' 235 sy. t 239, 249 sq. ; of the 
Herero, ii. 217 sg. ; used to kindle 
need-fire, x. 292 

-festivals of Europe, x. 106 sqq.\ 
interpretation of the, x. 328 sgq., 
xi. 15 sqq. ; at the solstices, x. 331 
sq.\ solar theory of the, x. 331 sqq.\ 
purificatory theory of the, x. 341 
sqq. \ regarded as a protection against 
witchcraft, x. 342 ; the purificatory 
theory of the, more probable than the 
solar theory, xi. 346 ; elsewhere than 
in Europe, xi. i sqq. ; in India, xi. i 
W-- 5 S 99- I in China, xi. 3 sqq. ; 
in Japan, xi. 9 sg. ; in Fiji, xi. TO 
sg. ; in Tahiti, the Marquesas Islands, 
and Trinidad, xi. iz ; in Africa, xi. 
ii sgg. ; in classical antiquity in Cappa- 
docia and Italy, xi. 14 sq. ; their 
relation to Druid ism, xi. 33 sgg., 


-god, married to a human virgin, 

ii. 195 sqq. ; the Indian (Agni), ii. 
249, xi. i, 296 ; the father of 
Romulus, Servius Tullius, and Caecu- 
lus, vi. 235 ; Armenian, x. 131 .* ; 
of the Iroquois, prayers to the, x. 
299 sq. 

-priests in Roman religion, ii. 235 ; 
(Agnihotris] of the Brahmans, ii. 
247 sqq. 

-spirit, annual expulsion of the, ix. 

-sticks of fire-drill regarded as male 
and female, ii. 208 sgg., 235, 238, 
239, 248 sqq., ix. 391 . 4 ; called 
"husband and wife," viii. 65 

-sticks, sacred, ii. 217 sqq. 

Fire-walk, the, of king of Tyre, v. 114 
sg. ; of priestesses at Castabala, v. 168 ; 
in India, Japan, China, Fiji, etc., xi. 
i sgg. \ a remedy for disease, xi. 7 ; 
the meaning of, xi. 15 sgg. 

worship a form of ancestor- worship, 

ii. 221 ; in Cappadocia, India, and on 
the Caspian, v. 191 sg. 

Firebrand, external soul of Meleager in 
a, xi. 103 

Firebrands, the Sunday of the, the first 
Sunday in Lent, x. no, 1x4 

Firefly, soul in form of, 111. 67 
"Fireless and Homeless," a mythical 
giant, viii. 265, 266 

Fires ceremonially extinguished, i. 33, viii 
73, 74, ix. 172 ; kept burning at home 
in absence of hunters, fishers, traders, 
and warriors, i. 120 sg., 125, 128 sg. ; 
lighted to warm absent warriors by 
telepathy, i. 127 ; leaping over, to make 
hemp grow tall, i. 138 ; extinguished 
at death of kings, n. 261 sgg., 267; 
extinguished at any death, ii. 267 sg., 
267 . 4 ; extinguished at driving herds 
out to pasture for the first time in 
spring, n. 341 ; passing between two, 
as a purification, in. 114; to burn the 
witches on the Eve of May Day 
(Walpurgis Night), ix. 163, x. 159^.; 
to burn witches on Twelfth Night, ix. 
319 ; to burn fiends, ix. 320 ; ex- 
tinguished as preliminary to obtaining 
new fire, x. 5 ; annually extinguished 
and relit, x. 132 sgg. \ autumn, x. 
220 sgg. ; the need-fire, x. 269 sgg. 
extinguished before the lighting of the 
need-fire, x. 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 
275, 276, 277 sq., 279, 283, 285, 288, 
289 sg., 290, 291 sg., 292, 294, 297, 
298 sq. \ cattle driven l>etween two 
fires to rid them of varnpyres, x. 
285; of the fire - festivals explained 
as sun-charms, x. 329, 331 sq. \ ex- 
plained as purificatory, x. 329 sg., 
341 sgg. \ the burning of human beings 
in the, xi. 21 sgg. ; the solstitial, 
perhaps sun-charms, xi. 292 ; extin- 
guished and relighted from a flame 
kindled by lightning, xi. 297 sq. See 
also Fire, Bonfires, Need-fire 

, the Beltane, x. 146 sqq. ; cattle 

driven between, x. 157 

, ceremonial, kindled by the friction 

of oak-wood, ii. 372 

, the Easter, x. 120 *qq. 

on the Eve of Twelfth Day, ix. 

316 sqq., x. 107 

, Hallowe'en, x. 222 sg., 230 sgg. 

, the Lenten, x. 106 sqq. 

, Midsummer, x. 160 sqq. ; a pro- 
tection against witches, x. 180 ; sup- 



posed to stop rain, x. 188, 336 ; 
supposed to be a preventive of back- 
ache in reaping, x. 189, 344 sq t ; a 
protection against fever, x. 190 

Fires, Midwinter, x. 246 sqq. 

, perpetual, of Vesta, i. 13 sq. ; in 

Ireland, ii. 340 sqq. ; in Peru and 
Mexico, ii. 243 sqq. \ origin of, ii. 
253 sqq. \ associated with royal dignity, 
ii. 261 sqq. ; of oak-wood, ii. 365, 
366, 372, xi. 91 ; fed with pine-wood, 
xi. 91 . 7 

of St. John in France, x. 183, 188, 

189, 190, 192, 193 

Firing guns to repel demons, viii. 99. 
See Guns 

Firmicus Maternus on the mourning for 
Osiris, v i. 86 ; on use of a pine-tree in 
the rites of Osiris, vi. 108 ; on the 
murder of Dionysus by the Titans, 
vii. 13 ; on Demeter and Persephone, 
vii. 40 . 8 

Firs, sacred grove of, ii. ii, 32 

, Scotch, in the peat-bogs of Europe, 

35i. 352 

First-born, sacrifice of the, among the 
Hebrews, iv. 171 sqq.\ among various 
races, iv. 179 sqq. \ among the Semites, 
v. no ; at Jerusalem, vi. 219 sq. 

born killed and eaten, iv. 179 sq. 

First-born lamb, wool of, used as cure 
for colic, x. 17 

born son never called by his parents 

by his name, lii. 337 

born sons make need-fire, x. 294 ; 

special magical virtue attributed to, 
x. 295 

fruits offered to Apollo at Delos, 

i. 32 ; of the chase dedicated to the 
Huntress Artemis, ii. 125 sq. \ offered 
to sacred pontiffs, iii. 5, 21 ; of the corn 
offered at Lammas, iv. 101 sq. \ offered 
to the dead, iv. 102 ; of the vintage 
offered to Icarius and Erigone, iv. 283 ; 
offered to the Baalim, v. 27 ; offered 
to the Mother of the Gods, v. 280 w. 1 ; 
offered to dead chiefs, vi. 191 ; offered 
to Demeter, vii. 46 sqq. ; sent to 
Athens, vii. 51 ; offered to Demeter 
and Persephone at Eleusis, vii. 53 
sqq. \ offered to gods or spirits, vii. 
235 1. offered to the sun, vii. 237 ; 
primitive reluctance to taste, viii. 6 ; 
sacrament of, viii. 48 sqq. ; offered to 
goddess of agriculture, viii. 56, 58 ; why 
savages scruple to eat the, viii. 82 sq. ; 
sacrifice of, viii. 109 sqq. \ presented 
to the king, viii. 109, 116, 122 ; offered 
to the spirits or souls of the dead, viii. 
109 sq., in sqq., 115, 116, 119, 121, 
123, 1245^., xi. 243 

Firstlings, Hebrew sacrifice of, iv. 172 

I sq. \ Irish sacrifice of, iv. 183 ; offered 
to the Baalim, v. 27 

Fish worshipped in Egypt, i. 30 ; magical 
ceremony for the multiplication of, i. 
90 ; spirits of the dead thought to 
lodge in, i. 105 ; magical images to 
procure, i. 108 ; magical stones to 
ensure a catch of, i. 163 ; in rain- 
charm, i. 288 sq. ; thought to cause 
winds, i. 320 sq. ; souls of dead in 
certain, ii. 30, v. 95 sq., viil 285, 
291, 295; not to be eaten, iii. 10; 
offered by fisherman to his canoe, iii. 
195 ; descent of the Dyaks from a, iv. 
126 ; descent of a totem clan from a, 
iv. 129; sacred, viii. 26; the first 
caught, sacrificed, viii. 132 ; reason 
for not eating, viii. 140 ; treated with 
respect by fishing tribes, viii. 249 sqq. ; 
preachers to, vi". 250 sq. \ invited to 
come and be caught, viii. 250 sq., 312 
n.\ not to be eaten by persons who 
have eaten bear's flesh, viii. 251 ; 
compensated by fishermen, viii. 252 ; 
first of the season, treated cere- 
moniously, viii. 253 sqq. \ frightened 
or killed by proximity of menstruous 
women, x. 77, 93 ; external soul in a, 
xi. 99 sq., 122 sq. ; lives of people 
bound up with, xi. 200, 202, 204, 209 

, bones of, not burned, viii. 250, 

251 ; not to be broken, viii. 255 

, golden, external soul of girl in a, 

xi. 147 sq. 

Fish-traps, magic of, i 109 ; continence 
observed at making, iii. 196, 202 

Fisheries supposed to be spoiled by 
menstruous women, x. 77, 78, go sq., 


Fishermen, their use of iron as a talis- 
man, iii. 233 ; names of, not men- 
tioned, iii. 330 sq. ; words tabooed by, 
hi. 394 sq., 396, 408 sq., 415; their 
superstitions as to herring, viii. 251 sq. 

, Shetland, their use of magical 

images, i. 69 sq. 

Fishermen's magic in the East Indies, i. 
109, 113 

Fishers and hunters cursed for good luck, 
i. 280 sq. ; tabooed, iii. 190 sqq. 

Fishing for a lost soul, iii. 38, 64 

and hunting, homoeopathic magic 

in, i. 1 08 sqq. ; telepathy in, i. 120 

Fishing line, superstitious observances in 
connexion with, iii. 194 sq. 

nets, taboos observed by sacred man 

at the making of, iii. 192 

Fish town, in Guinea, monkeys sacred at, 
viii. 287 

Fison, Rev. Lorimer, i. 389 . 8 , ii. 13 . 1 ; 
on Fijian treatment of navel-string, 



I. 184 ; on Fijian way of detain- 
ing the sun, i. 316; on Fijian belief 
as to whirlwinds, i. 331 . a ; on 
inspiration of priests in Fiji, i. 378 ; 
on the Sacred King and the War King 
of Fiji, iii. 21 ; on the Fijian concep- 
tion of the soul as a mannikin, iii. 30 
ft. 1 ; on Fijian belief as to absence of 
soul in dreams, iii. 40 n. 1 ; on the 
Fijian conception of the soul, iii. 92 
n. 3 ; as to chief's dishes and clothes in 
Fiji, iii. 131 ; on Fijian custom of 
personal cleaniness, iii. 158 n. 1 ; on 
the cutting of a chiefs hair in Fiji, iii. 
264; on custom of grave-diggers in 
Fiji, iv. 156 . 8 ; on Fijian god of 
earthquakes, v. 202 n. ; on secret 
burial of chiefs in Fiji, vi. 105 ; on 
offerings of first-fruits in Fiji, viii. 
125 ; on Fijian religion, xi. 244 ns. 1 ^ 3 , 
246 n. 1 
Fits and convulsions set down to demons, 

i. 59 
Fittleworth, in Sussex, cleft ash -trees 

used for the cure of rupture at, xi. 

169 sq. 
Five days' reign of mock king at the 

Sacaea, iv. 114, ix. 355, 357 ; of 

Semiramis, ix. 369 
days' duration of mock king's reign 

perhaps an intercalary period, ix. 

407 n. 1 

knots in magic, iii. 306 
years, despotic power for period of, 

iv. S3 
Flacourt, De, on dances of women during 

war in Madagascar, i. 131 
Fladda, island of, stone of swearing in, 

i. 161 ; the chapel of, wind-stone in 

the, i. 322 sq. 

Fladdahuan, one ol the Hebrides, i. 322 
Flaget, Mgr. , on a professed incarnation 

of the Son of God, i. 409 n. 3 
Flail, pretence of throttling persons with 

flail at threshing, vii. 149, 150, 230 
or scourge, an emblem of Osiris, vi. 

108, 153 ; for collecting incense, vi. 

109 n. 1 
Flamen, derivation of the name, ii. 235, 

Flamen Dialis, the, ii. 179, 235, 246, 247 ; 

an embodiment of Jupiter, ii. 191 sq. ; 

taboos observed by the, ii. 248, iii. 

'3 *7-. 239. 248, 257, 275, 291, 293, 

315 sq. \ interpreted as a living image 

of Jupiter, iii. 13 ; the widowed, vi. 

227 sqq. \ forbidden to touch a dead 

body, but allowed to attend a funeral, 

vi. 228 ; bound to be married, vi. 

229 ; forbidden to divorce his wife, vi. 

229 ; inaugurates the vintage at Rome, 

viii. 133 

Flamen Dialis and Flaminica, v. 45 sq. , 
vi. 228 ; assisted by boy and girl oi 
living parents, vi. 236 
Virbialis, i. 20 . 8 
- of Vulcan, vi. 232 

Flames of bonfires, omens drawn from, 
x. 159, 165, 336 

Flamingoes, soul of a dead king incarnate 
in, vi. 163 

Flaminica, the, ii. 191, 235 ; rules ob- 
served by the, iii. 14 ; and her husband 
the Flamen Dialis, v. 45 sq., vi. 228, 

Flanders, Midsummer fires in, x. 194 ; 
the Yule log in, x. 249 ; wicker giants 
in, xi. 35 

Flannan Islands off the Lewis, iii. 392 
sq. \ certain words tabooed in the, iii. 

393 S V- 

FUthead Indians. See Sahsh 

Flax, homoeopathic magic at sowing, i. 
136 ; charms to make flax grow tall, i. 
138 .ftp., ii. 86, 164, x. 165, 166, 173, 
174, 176, 180; omens from the growth 
of, v. 244 ; pigs' ribs used to make flax 
grow tall, vii. 300; dances to make 
the flax thrive, vm. 326, 328 ; giddi- 
ness transferred to, ix. 53 ; bells rung 
to make flax grow, ix. 247 sq. ; leap- 
ing over bonfires to make the flax 
grow tall, x. 119, 165, 1 66, 166 sg. t 

173. 174 
Flax crop, prayers and offerings of the 

old Prussians for the, iv. 1 56 ; omens 

of the, drawn from Midsummer bon- 
fires, x. 165 

-mother, near Magdeburg, vii. 133 

pulling, persons wrapt up in flax 

at, vii. 225 
seed used to strengthen weakly 

children, vii. ii ; sown in direction of 

flames of bonfire, x. 140, 337 
Flaying of Men, Mexican festival of the, 

ix. 296 sqq. 

Fleabane as a cure for headache, x. 1 7 
Fleas, leaping over Midsummer fires to 

get rid of, x. 211, 212, 217 
41 Fleece of Zeus," Aids K&8iov t iii. 312 

Flemish cure for ague by transferring it 

to a willow, ix. 56 
Flesh, boiled, not to lie eaten by tabooed 

persons, iii. 185 ; of men eaten to 

acquire their qualities, viii. 148 sqq. 
of human victim eaten, vii. 240, 

244, 251 ; buried in field, vii. 248, 

Flesh diet, restricted or forbidden, iii. 

291 sqq. ; homoeopathic magic of a, 

viii. 138 sqq. 
Fleuriers, in Switzerland, May-bride 

groom at, ii. 91 


Flies, in homoeopathic magic, i. 152 ; 
mock burial of, by Russian girls, on 
the first of September, viii. 279 sg. ; 
charms against, viii. 281 ; souls of 
dead in, vni. 290 sq. 

Flight of the priestly king (Regifugium) 
at Rome, ii. 308 sqq., 311 . 4 , iv. 
213; in religious ritual, ii. 309 . 2 ; 
from the demons of disease, ix. 122 sq. 

into Egypt, the, xi. 69 n. 

of the People at Rome, ii. 319 n. 1 

Flint, holed, a protection against witches, 
ix. 162 

Flint implements supposed to be thunder- 
bolts, ii. 374 

Flints, not iron, cuts in manslayer or 
lion-slayer to be made with, HI. 176 ; 
sharp, circumcision performed with, 
iii. 227 ;