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Good Food; How to Prepare It 



r.EOBfiB E. CORTȴORTB 



GOOD FOOD 

HOW TO PREPARE IT 



The Principles of Cooking, and Nearly Five 
Hundred Carefully Selected Recipes 



By GEORGE E. CORNFORTH 



w * ■ 



REVIEW AND HEBALD PUBLIsili;^_\SSOgiATiON 

Washington, D. C ' ' / , * - ' ,. , 
New York, N. Y. Oshawa, Ontfe/ii>,- Canada 

South Bend, Ind. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Oanada 






! PREFACE 



The lessons herewith presented are not merely on 
cooking, but on the healthful preparation of food so 
that it will be wholesome as well as appetizing. It is 
recognized that there is a very close relation between 
diet and health, diet and efficiency, diet and morals. It 
has been said, " The soul that would soar has often been 
fettered by a pork-and-pancake-fed body.*' It has also 
been well said, *' The woman who thoughtfully selects 
proper food and drink for husband, father, brother, or 
little ones, exerts a far-reaching influence toward clean 
thinking and successful achievement." 

Because this book is on healthful cookery, no use is 
made of certain substances sometimes called *' food ad- 
juncts," which are usually spoken of in connection with 
the food principles — I mean spices and condiments. 
These are not foods ; they are not nutritious ; they do the 
body no good, but do their- little part, along with many 
other things, in bringing on old age and the early break- 
ing down of the vital organs. A Paris physician has 
shown that the acid of vinegar is twice as active as alco- 
hol in producing degeneration of the arteries, and that 
pepper is six times as active. Persons who eat an abun- 
dance of fruit generally find that they do not crave con- 
diments and spices. • . 

. • * • The Author. 



• . •"' Copyright, 192]^ 
ilKVl^c^V;A'^'D 'Hkkalu Prni.ismNc Association 
:' ^, ; ' Washington, D. C. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Intboduction 

v^EBKALS 

Macabom 
Bbeads 
Soups 
Legumks 

Nuts 
Gravies 

MlI.K PROF)r(:TS 

K<iGS .... 

VE(JETABLKS 

Salads 

Vegetarian Sandwich ks 

Fri'its 

Desserts 

Pii':s .... 

Cakes 

C(X>K1ES 

Cake and Ice Fillin(;s 
Frozen Desserts 
Fruit Cannincj 
Jelly Making 
Beverages 
Invalid Cookery . 
Index 



7 
27 
37 
4'^ 
61 
72 
77 
89 
90 
99 
107 

n? 

137 
14:^, 

15;? 

177 
189 
197 
200 
203 
206 
210 
212 
21.') 
219 



\ 



INTRODUCTION 

PRINCIPLES OF COOKING 

It has been said that " eating is a necessity, but cooking is an 
art." Every housewife and mother should be an artist in preparing 
food for her family. She should indeed regard cooking as one of the 
finer arts, to which she can aftord to give nothing less than the best 
that is in her. 

More than that, cooking has come to be a science which should 
be mastered by every one upon whose work depend health, happi- 
ness, even life itself. It is a profession which deserves and demands 
the most careful and thoughtful attention. As the artist expresses 
himself in the picture he paints, and the writer in the story he pens, 
so the artist-mother may express herself through the medium of her 
labor for the benefit of her family. While thus enthusiastically put- 
ting herself into her work, she will gain a pleasure and satisfaction 
from it which will well repay her for her effort. Then, far from 
finding housework a drudgery, her life will be a pleasure not only 
to herself but to her family. While it is frequently true that " those 
persons whom God hath joined together in matrimony, ill-cooked 
joints and badly boiled potatoes have put asunder," the exact opposite 
of this may and should be true. 

A food is a substance which, when taken into the body, supplies 
heat and energy, builds tissue, repairs waste, and regulates body 
processes. 

Cooking is the art of preparing food for the table by the appli- 
cation of heat and by dressing. It prepares food for easier digestion, 
and should change all the food principles, with the exception of fat, 
in a way somewhat similar to the way in which they are changed by 
the process of digestion. Poor cooking often renders food less digest- 
ible, and sometimes results in digestive disturbances, headaches, and 
other ills, and may even be the cause of a craving for strong drink 
and tobacco. 

The objects sought in cooking should be to render food more di- 
gestible, to develop food flavors, to make it more palatable and more 
attractive. 

Water boils at 212° F. Water cannot be made hotter than this 
in an open kettle, therefore it is a waste of fuel to build a hotter 
fire after boiling has begun, in the hope of hastening the cooking. 

Food should be put to cook in boiling water when the food itself 
is to be eaten, and it is desired to retain its fiavor and nutritive 
constituents. It should be put to cook in cold water when it is de- 
sired to draw out the flavor and nutritive elements into the water, as 
in making broths and soups. 



8 GOOD FOOD 

Frying is not a healthful method of cooking, because it coats the 
food with fat, thus sealing it from the action of the digestive juices 
of the mouth and stomach, fat being digested only in the intestine. 
Emulsified fats, or those which mix with water, interfere with the 
digestion of food less than free fats, or those that do not mix with 
water. Fats may be used in moderate quantities in seasoning foods, 
but it is better not to cook fats into foods. 

POINTERS ON BECOMING A SUCCESSFUL COOK 

It has been said that in order to be a success in ajiy line of work, 
one must first be a success in one's own body. This means that he 
must be master of himself. A theoretical and practical knowledge 
of one's line of work is not all that is necessary. Success depends 
upon the character of the person as well as upon his knowledge. 
Even one's disposition may make or mar one's success in life. Po- 
liteness and an attractive manner are recognized as good business 
qualifications. 

These truths apply in the profession of cooking as well as in any 
other, though, sad to say, many cooks develop an unpleasant dispo- 
sition, and forget that politeness should have a place in the kitchen 
as well as in the parlor. 

"The art of cookery is as old as history; its development meas 
ures the development of civilization. More people are engaged in 
cooking during all or a part of their time than in any other occupa- 
tion. On the selection and preparation of food depends, more than 
on any other single factor, the health and consequent happiness and' 
prosperity of mankind." — American School of Home Econom^ics. 

" Practice makes perfect " is an old saying. Whether it is true 
depends upon how the practising is done. If every time we do a 
thing we strive to do it a little better than we did it the last time, we 
may hope to come very close to perfection. We should not be con- 
tented to do a thing as well as some one else does it. '* Do him 
one better." Those who make their mark are not always the ones 
who do things that no one else has done, but those who do things 
better than any one else has done them. Large sums of money are 
sometimes paid for a few minutes' work because the man who does 
the work is an expert in that line, and can do what no one else can 
do, or because he can give an expert opinion which is regarded as 
safe advice. 

There are some qualifications that are particularly necessary in 
cooks. These are neatness, carefulness, accuracy; the possession, 
either by nature or cultivation, of a certain refinement of taste which 
makes one do things daintily and tastily; the ability to think and 
act quickly, to keep many things in mind at once,^ — to tend many 
irons; lo keep his temper, and to be self-possessed, no matter how 
hurr)p(\ he may be. Temper is too good a thing to los^. When one 



INTRODUCTION 9 

loses that, he loses power, as well as the respect of his fellow work- 
ers. If his fellow workers recognize him as an authority upon his 
subject, it will never be necessary for him to " show his authority." 
He must be observant, ready to take suggestions. 

With the recognition of the fact that cooking is a science, the 
idea that a really proficient cook need not measure his ingredients is 
passing away. Of course there are some simple things which may be 
made without taking the trouble to measure exactly, but in the mak- 
ing of other than the simple things, cooks have in the past depended 
upon " luck," which is really the natural result of their good or 
poor work. The materials used in cooking are governed by the laws 
of nature, physical and chemical, which are God's laws, and God has 
so arranged it that under the same conditions the same laws oper- 
ate uniformly; therefore we may be sure that desired results will 
always follow accurate work. This means that if we have a good 
recipe and follow it exactly, we shall get the same results every time. 

Young cooks often fail in the proper seasoning of foods. This 
seems such a minor part of the recipe that the attention is mainly 
given to the principal ingredients, and the seasoning is slighted; but 
when tested by eating, the seasoning is found to be " the making or 
the marring" of the dish. 

Another matter which sometimes escapes the attention of young 
cooks is the necessity of keeping the kitchen neat and clean. The 
preparation of the food seems to engage their whole attention, and 
the kitchen is left to take care of itself, — and it fails to keep itself 
tidy. My mother used to say, " Anybody can clean, but it takes some 
one who is neat to keep clean.'' I have found that the old dictum, 
the only way to conquer dirt is by " eternally keeping at it," is true. 

Many girls have grown up to dislike housework and cooking. One 
reason of their distaste for these tasks is because they have never 
been taught to do them well. We generally like what we do well; 
therefore if we study these tasks as a science with a view to doing 
them in the best possible way, we shall come to enjoy them. 

It is very often not the tasks themselves that are disagreeable, 
but the way they are done. Innumerable inventions have been made 
to simplify other lines of the world's work. A few have been made 
to simplify home duties. We should make use of these, and study 
to discover others. In this study of Domestic Science, young women 
can find as profitable and enjoyable employment as in other lines of 
work, and more profitable if we consider the rewards not only in 
dollars and cents but in human lives. 

FOOD PRINCIPLES 

There are seven so-called " food principles," namely, starch, sugar, 
fat, protein, mineral salts, vitamines, and water. Cellulose, while 
not usually included among the food principles, \a so \Ta^oT\.^.xsX \\\. \\v^. 



10 



GOOD FOOD 



Classification of Foods 



r 



Warmth-and-work Foods 
Carbonaceous 



Starch 



Susrar 



v^ 



Fat 



Buildine: Foods : Protein, Nitrosrenous 



r 



Body Regulators 



Mineral Salts 



< 



Water 



Cellulose, 
Indigestible Mate- 
rial 



Vitamines 



^ 



( Cereals 
I Breads 
"i Lesrumes 
' Some vesretables 

Granulated susrar 

Maple sugar 

Confectionery 

Cakes 

Pies 

Desserts 

Fruits 

Honey 

Cream 

Milk 

Butter 

Olives 

Olive oil 

Salad oil 

Nuts 

Eersrs 

Milk 

liepnmes 

Cereals 

Nuts 

(Flesh foods) 

Bran and germ of cereals 

Fruits 

Vegetables 

Milk 

Eggs 

Legumes 

Nuts 

{Beverages 
Fruits 
Vegetables 
Soups 

iBran of cereals 
Framework of vegeUtbles 
Framework of fruits 

CMilk 
I Eggs 
J Bran 
) Fruits 

I Vegetables, especially 
V raw foods 



INTRODUCTION 11 

diet that it is well to include it among them, so as to provide for it 
in arranging " balanced meals." 

Most foods consist of mixtures of these food principles. In many 
foods some one of these principles predominates. Hence to Increase 
any one of these food principles in the diet, one would use a larger 
quantity of those foods in which the desired food principle predomi- 
nates; or to decrease any one of the food principles, one would avoid 
those foods in which that particular principle predominates. 

The food principles are grouped into classes according to their use 
in the body. They may be grouped first into two classes, one includ- 
ing the substances the body uses for fuel and building material — 
the starch, sugar, fat, and protein; the other including those sub- 
stances without which the body would not have the power to use 
the materials included in the first group, — the substances that keep 
the body in health, and enable it to keep up its vital activities; 
namely, the mineral salts, vitamines, cellulose, and water. 

The first of these two classes is subdivided. The starch, sugar, 
and fat are grouped together as warmth-and-work foods ; for the body 
uses these as sources of heat to keep the body warm and to support 
its activities, just as an engine must burn coal to develop power, 
and in the burning of the coal heat is evolved. These foods are also 
called '* non-nitrogenous." 

The protein stands in a class by itself, and is building food. It 
is this kind of food that the body must have to build itself and keep 
itself in repair. This food principle is spoken of as " nitrogenous." 
Nitrogenous foods can be used in the body as warmth-and-work food, 
but are not an economical source of heat and energy. Their office is 
to build up and to keep in repair that most complicated machine, the 
human body. In that respect this food principle corresponds to the 
metal of which an engine is built. 

About one eighth of our* food should consist of protein, or build- 
ing food; another eighth may consist of fat; and the rest, or three 
fourths, should consist of starch and sugar, mostly starch. 

The accompanying diagram (page 10) shows the classification of 
foods according to the food principle that predominates in each. 

Since our diet should consist so largely of warmth-and-work 
foods, one or two eggs, a glass of milk, a helping of beans, a help- 
ing of cottage cheese, or a few nuts will furnish all the building 
food that is needed at a meal. The rest of the meal may consist 
of warmth-and-work foods and foods that supply bulk. 

The second of the two classes into which we first grouped the 
food principles, includes the mineral salts and vitamines, also water 
and cellulose. 

The mineral salts are needed by the body for building its 
hard tissues, such as bones, teeth, hair, skin, and finger nails, and 
also as regulators of body processes. They are nature's medicines, 
the substances that enable the body to carry on ita N\t«i\ ^.^\.\n\XX^'«» 



12 GOOD FOOD 

and to resist disease. They are of great importance, and the diet 
should be so chosen as not to exclude these. The foods that are 
lacking in mineral salts are white flour and bread, cakes, etc., 
made from it, sugar and sweetened foods, meat, and vegetables that 
have been boiled and the water thrown away. 

The cellulose is not digestible, but is needed in the digestive 
tract for bulk. " The interior of the body needs a daily scrub, as 
well as its exterior," and foods in which indigestible substance pre- 
dominates, act as a broom to sweep out the alimentary tract and 
keep it clean. The foods that are lacking in cellulose are milk, eggs, 
meat, white rice, white flour, and sugar, and foods made from white 
flour and sugar. The foods that supply an abundance of cellulose 
are fruits, vegetables, whole cereals, bran, and flours made from 
whole cereals. 

Vitamines are necessary to promote growth and to protect the 
body from disease. The growth-promoting vitamines are found in 
milk, cream, butter, and green leaves; the disease-preventing vita- 
mines are in bran, whole cereals, vegetables, and fruits. 

Water constitutes about 60 per cent of the body, and is needed to 
form the chief ingredient of all the fluids of the body, to dissolve 
food, to dissolve and carry off waste material, to render the tissues 
soft, and to regulate the heat of the body. 

Condiments are sometimes mentioned as " food adjuncts." They 
are not foods. They benumb the taste, are apt to cause one to over 
eat, are irritating and liable to cause digestive disturbance, and 
may cause a thirst that will demand something stronger than water. 

MEASURING FOOD VALUES 

The unit by which the energy value of food to the body is meas- 
ured is called a " calorie." A calorie is the amount of heat required 
to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree Centi- 
grade, or approximately two quarts of water one degree Fahrenheit. 
A heat unit can be used to measure food values because it is by the 
oxidation of food in the body that the body gets energy out of it. 

1 ounce of protein yields 116 calories. 

1 ounce of carbohydrate yields 116 calories. 

1 ounce of fat yields 264 calories. 

A person weighing 150 pounds and doing light work requires 
food yielding 2,300 calories a day. Of this 10 per cent, or 230 calories, 
should be from protein; 25 to 30 per cent, or 560 to 690 calories, from 
fat ; and the remainder from carbohydrate, or in other words, sugars 
and starches. 

To supply 2,300 calories a day requires, of water-free food, about 
16 ounces, of which 2 ounces should be protein, 2 ounces fat, and 12 
ounces carbohydrate. One eighth of our food should be protein. 

The table on pages 14-16 will enable one to select foods that, while 
affording needed bulk, will also supply the required food principles, 



INTRODUCTION 13 

k Absolute accuracy is not claimed for the figures given. The weights 
assigned to the several measures are the result of only a limited 
\ number of experiments, but it is believed that they are sufficiently 
t accurate for practical purposes. 

■ c 

1 FOOD COMBINATIONS 

In selecting foods we are not to consider calories alone; proper 
combinations are also important, and these we consider for two pur- 
poses: First, that we may eat at the same meal only foods that digest 
well together; second, that we may combine foods in such a way 
as to supply all the food principles in about the right proportion. 

} Foods that digest well together are: 

\ Grains and fruits. 

* Grains and vegetables. 

i Grains and nuts. 

Grains and milk. 

Grains and eggs. 

Grains, fruits, and nuts. 

Grains, vegetables, and nuts. 

Foods that do not digest well together are: 
Fruits and coarse vegetables. 
Milk and sugar in large quantities. 
Mush and milk and sugar. 

A fair combination is milk and fruit. 

Fats in proper amount, and preferably in the forms suggested in 
the table of "Classification of Foods" (page 10), are usually quite 
easily digested; but when fats are used in frying, combinations are 
formed which are exceedingly difficult of digestion. 

To combine foods in such a way as to supply all the needed food 
compounds, we should choose something from each of the different 
classes of food principles; that is, some foods supplying building 
material, some supplying fat, some supplying starch and sugar. And 
be sure that there are included among these, foods that supply cellu- 
lose and mineral elements. 

I will give menus of some poor meals, and tell why they are poor, 
that we may understand the more fully, by contrast, what a good 
meal is. 

Unbalanced or One-sided Meals 

No. 1 

Lentil Soup Baked Beans Cottage Cheese 

Custard Rie Milk 

Such a meal would contain too much building food. \\, \^ ^<i\v- 
centrated, and contains too little bulk and ceUvv\ose. 



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INTRODUCTION 17 

No. 2 

Boiled Rice Potatoes Macaroni 

White Bread Butter 

Cake 

Such a meal would be made up too largely of warmth-and-work 
food. It lacks building food, bulk, and mineral salts. 

No. 3 

. Vegetable Soup Carrots String Beans 

Lettuce Tomatoes 

Strawberries and Cream 

Such a meal would contain too little building food and too little 
warmXh-and-work food. It is too bulky, and i& lacking in nourish- 
ment. It also shows the poor combination of fruits and vegetables. 

To make a balanced meal, it would be necessary to choose some- 
thing from each of these poor meals. It is not necessary to choose 
a large variety in order to supply all the needs of the body. For 
instance, a breakfast consisting only of oatmeal, milk, and prunes 
would contain everything essential to a balanced meal. 

The following are examples of balanced jneals: 

Breakfast i^^-^ 

Oatmeal with Cream or Milk Oifie Kg$ Baked Potato 

Graham Bread Apples 

Dinner 

Baked Beans Potato Fresh Tomato (or Other Vegetable) 
Bread and Butter Apple Pie 

Raw foods contain some substances which are very necessary for 
health, but which are destroyed by cooking. These substances s[^em 
not only to have a beneficial effect upon the general health, but to 
arouse or increase the activity ol!, the digestive juities. For this rea- 
son some raw food should b^-eM^la every day, if not at every meal. 
It is well to eat raw all food that nature has made to be eaten raw, 
such as celery, lettuce, cabbage, nuts, and fruits; and even raw car- 
rots and turnips, chopped fin^e, niake a very appetizing salad, and are 
more easily digested than when cooked. 

'■■■■?«»:■ . ■ ' ■ 

MEASCtirW AND CGMiftlXING INGREBIKNTS 



Accuracy in measuring and in following directions is very essen- 
tial to success in cookery. Failure may often result because one does 
not carry out some little detail in the recipe, or imagines l\v«A. Wv^. 
recipe means somethiiig' it does not say. Dry mater Va.\, a>\c\v ^^ ^^i\\\, 
2 



u 



aOOD FOOD 



meal, and powdered sugar, should be sifted before measuring. A cup 
of dry material ia measured by dipping into the cup wilb a. spoon 
more thac enough to fill the cup, then with a knife cutting off tb« 
material level with the top of the cup. A cup of liquid is all tlie cup 
will hold, not simply as much as can be conveniently carried in the 
cup. If a cup of liquid is to be carried, the cup must be set 
saucer to prevent spilling the liquid. Tin or glass measuring cups 
marked off in quarters and thirds should be used for meaeurlnE, 
ordinary china or porcelain cups, which vary considerably in i 
A tabiespoontul or teaspoonful of dry material Is measured by dip- 
ping up with the spoon more than enough to fill it, then, with a knile, 
cutting the top off level with the edges of the spoon. It ie well to 
have a combination meaeurlug teaspoon that includes a half and a 
quarter teaspoon. Be sure when measuring not to confuse a table- 
spoon with a dessertspoon. 




</ Ihr Hw( Krr»> 



INTRODUCTION 



19 



CX)MPARAT1YE TABLE OF MEASURES AND WEIGHTS 

60 drops equal 1 teaspoon 



2 teaspoons . . 

3 teaspoons . , 
16 tablespoons 

2 cups 

2 pints 

4 quarts 



4( 



1 dessertspoon 
1 tablespoon 
1 cup 
1 pint • 
1 quart 
1 gallon 



1 cup liquid weighs about S ounces 



(( 



APPROXIMATE MEASURES 

2 cups milk equal 

2 cups oil 

2 cups granulated sugar 

3 cups brown sugar 

3^ cups confectioners' sugar 

2% cups beans 

4 cups sifted flour 

3 cups granulated cornmeal 

3^ cups cornstarch 

6 cups rolled oats 

2% cups rice 

If '^tablespoons" is read in the place of 
'table, .the weight is about one ounce. 



pound 



it 1 




(( 


<< 1 




(( 


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<< 1 




tt 


tt 1 




tt 


** 1 




tt 


tt 




tt 


tt 




tt 


tt 




tt 


** cups," 


in 


the above 



TABLES OF PROPORTIONS 

Measurements of teaspoons, tablespoons) And cups are level. 



Thickening Agents 

(Flour should always be sifted before measuring.) 



x 



1 tablespoon flour to one pint liqiiid, for soups. 

4 tablespoons (^ cup) flour, to one pint liquid, for gravies. 

3^ quarts (3^ pbunds) flour to 1 <tuart liquid, for doughs.i.^ 

The thickening power of cornstarch is about twice that of flour. 

4 tablespoons C^ cup) cornstarch to 1 pint milk, for cornstarch 
blancmange. Proportion, 1: S. 

4 tablespoons {% cup) farina to 1 pint milk, for farina blanc- 
mange. Proportion, 1: S. 

8 tablespoons (^ cup) cornstarch or farina to 1 pint liquid, in 
cornstarch or farina fruit mold. Proportion, 1: 4. 

% cup i>earl tapioca to 1 pint water, in tapioca fruit pudding. 
Proportion, 1: 6. 

3 tablespoons sago to 1 pint water or fruit juice, in sago fruit 
pudding or sago fruit mold. Proportion, 1: 10. 

2 eggs to 1 pint milk, for cup custard. 

3 eggs to 1 pint milk, for custard pie. 

U ounce regetmble gelatin (agar-agar) sUtteua ^ ew^^ w^wV^. 



20 GOOD FOOD 

Shortening 

Fats are added to doughs to counteract the adhesive properties 
of the gluten and starch, and to make the product, brittle, tender, 
"short." 

Pastry flour contains more water than bread floury; An4 its glu- 
ten seems to be less adhesive. For this reason less shortening is 
required with pastry flour. 

Pie Crust No. 1: 2 cups (% pound) flour, y^ cup oil, ^ cup water; 
or one fourth as much oil as flour, and one half as much water as oil. 

Pie Crust No. 2: 6 cups flour, 1 cup oil, % cup water; or one sixth 
as much oil as flour, and one eighth as much water as flour. 

Yeast Bread: 1 to 2 tablespoons oil to 1 quart flour. 

Yeast Buns: Vl cup oil to 1 quart flour. 

Flavoring 

SALT '■''■ 

1 teaspoon salt to 3 cups liquid, in soups or gravies^ 

1 teaspoon salt to 3 cups water, for cereals. 

1 teaspoon salt to 1 quart flour, in doughs. 

1 teaspoon salt to 3 cups total volume, in seasoning vegetables. 
^2 teaspoon salt to a 3-egg sponge cake. 

' 1 teaspoon salt to 3 quarts total volume, in des»€?ft8.*' 

1 teaspoon flavoring extract to 1 quart material to be flavored. 

SUGAR 

For frozen desserts, as ice cream and sherbets: 1 c,up sugar to 1 
quart liquid. 

For most puddings and. custards: Yj cup sugar to 1 quart. 

For blancmange and junket: M cup sugar to 1 quart. 

For apple pie: Vj cup sugar to % quart sliced apples, % teaspoon 
salt, 2 tablespoons water. .....: 

For blueberry pie: 1/2 cup sugar, % teaspoon salt, J^ tablespoons 
flour,- to % quart blueberries. 

For rhubarb pie: !• cup sugar, % teaspoon saU> % cupvflour, to 
% quart rhubarb. 

For squash or pumpkin pie: 1 quart milk, ^/1> quart *s%tia»h. or 
pumpkin, % cup sugar, 3 eggs, M» teaspoon salt. 

M I SCELLA N KOU S • . . • 

Cream rice pudding: 1 cup rice to 15 clips thilk, y^ cup sujgar to 
1 quart milk. 1 egg to 1 quart milk. 

Creamy rice pudding: 1 cup rice to 10 cups milk, % cilp sugar to 
1 quart milk, Ms cup raisins to 1 quart milk. ^ 

Tomato bisque: Mi strained tomatoes, *% water; 1 pound peanut 
bjitter to quarts 80up. /, .. " 



IXTRODUCTION . 21 

. ...Cream rice or cream barley soup: 1 measure of rice or barley to 
*dl£ 'ineas'urea of liquid. 

..Tomato inacaroiii soup: y,i strained tomato, % water; 1 pound 
peanut. butter to 8 quarts soup; 1 pound macaroni to 16 quarts soup^ 
gjr i. ounce to 1 quart soup. 

.','.. Bread pudding: 1 quart milk, 2Y2 cups diced bread, % cup sugar, 
1 whole egg and 2 yolks. The two whites for meringue. 

Pop-overs: 1 cup milk, 1 egg, 1 cup sifted flour, Vt teaspoon salt. 

Puffs: 1 cup milk, 1 egg, 1% cups sifted flour, ^^ tedspoon salt. 

Cream pea aoqp or cream corn soup: 1 can peas or corn for 1M.» 
quarts soup. 

Beansovp, split pea soup, or lentil soup: 1 cup dried peas, beans, 
or lentils for 1 quart soup. 

. , Batter and Dough 

. 3- ^measure of flour tp^. 1 measure of liquid makes a pour batter. 
.... 2. nieasures of flour to 1 of liquid n^akes a drpp. better, .... 
S measures pf flour to 1 o£ liquid makes a soft dough, 
4 measures of flour to 1 of liquid makes a stiff dough. 

COOKING PROCESSES 

Cooking is both a science and an art. As a science we have said 
itij^to preparei^food for digestion, — to make such changes In It that 
it will -be. In a proper condition to be acted upon by the digestive 
fluids. It breaks up Its organic structure, as in the softening pro- 
duced In a potato or an apple by baking, In cereals and legumes by 
bolljlng, or In vegetables by boiling or steaming. It produces chem- 
icaf changes, such as the change of starch from insoluble to soluble 
t)y boiling and to dextrin by browning. It destroys living organ- 
isms, or germs (they may be disease germs or the organisms that 
cause food to spoil), as In sterilizing milk, and In cooking fruits and 
Veg^&bled in the process of canning. 

^■' Of cooking as an art it has been said, "The fine art of cookery 
conslste In developing the full natural flavor of the foods themselves 
and in combining them In pleasing ways." 

Under this phase we notice that cooking changes the appearance 
of food. A raw potato does not look very appetizing, but the sight of 
a hot baked potato may " make the mouth water." Cooking develops 
food flavors. The flavor of raw beans does not appeal to us, but one 
enjoys sitting down to a dish of well-baked beans when he is very 
hungry. Cooking also produces changes In temperature. We can 
iwSrve soup hot, or a dessert cold, or even frozen. 

The different methods of applying heat to food are the following: 

Bollinj^. — Cooking food In actively boiling water. Water is 
.said to boil when bubbles of steam rise through the water and break 
at the surface, causing steam to be given off rapVdXy. N^^\.^^ \iQ\\^ 



22 GOOD FOOD 

at 212° F. The loss of heat from the surface of the water in boiling 
is rapid enough to prevent the temperature of the water from going 
above 212° F. No matter how hot the flre, the temperature of boiling 
water in an open or simply covered kettle cannot be made hotter. 
The temperature of water can be made hotter than 212° F. by con- 
fining it under pressure while heat is applied, as is done in a pressure 
canning outfit. For this reason it is a waste of fuel to build a hotter 
fire for the purpose of hastening the cooking process after boiling 
has once begun. 

Simmering. — Slow, steady boiling. 

Stewing. — Long, steady cooking in a small quantity of liquid 
at a temperature a few degrees below the boiling point (160° to 180® 
F.). Cooking in this manner can be conveniently accomplished in a 
double boiler. The principal difference between boiling and stewing 
is that, in boiling, the vegetable alone is eaten, while in stewing, the 
vegetable and the water in which it is cooked are served together. 

Baking. — Cooking in an oven in heated air, by radiation. 
Only foods containing a considerable degree of moisture are adapted 
to this method. Slow oven, 270° to 350° F.; moderate oven, 350° to 
400° F.; quick oven, 400° to 480° F. 

Broiling. — Cooking a small piece of an article of food before 
or over glowing coals or under gas, by radiant heat. 

Roasting. — Cooking a large piece of food material before 
glowing coals. This method was used when the cooking was done by 
open fireplaces. It has now been largely superseded by baking in the 
oven. 

Steaming. — Cooking by steam in a closed vessel with a per- 
forated bottom over boiling water. Temperature, 212° F. Cooking 
in a double boiler may be called dry steaming, the temperature being 
from 192° to 200? F. 

Frying. — Cooking in deep fat at a temperature of from 360<) 
to 400° F., a method not to be recommended from the standpoint of 
wholesomeness. As a rule, fat is rendered less wholesome by cooking. 

Sauteing (pronounced so-tayMng), often called '* frjiiig/*— 

Cooking in a small quantity of fat in a shallow pan. This is worse, 
from a health standpoint, than frying in deep hot fat, because it 
permits more fat to soak into the food. 

Pan-broiling. — Cooking on a hot griddle that has been oiled 
only enough to prevent the food from sticking to it. 

Extracting and Retaining Flavors. — When it is desired to 
extract the nutritive constituents and flavoring matter from any 
food substance, as in making broth, put the food to cook in cold 
water. When it is desired to retain the nutritive elements and flavor 
io the food, put it to cook in boiling water. 



INTRODUCTION 23 

Experiments 

Make the following experiments to determine the effect of hot 
water and of cold water on the different food principles: 

No. 1 

Place a thin slice of stale bread in a moderately heated oven, and 
allpw it to remain, watching it, till thoroughly dry throughout and 
lightly browned. When cool, taste it. Notice that it tastes different 
from untoasted bread. Bread contains a large proportion of starch. 
Heating it till it turns light brown partially changes the starch to 
dextrin, a form of carbohydrate intermediate between starch and 
sugar. Starch foods prepared in this way may be said to be par- 
tially predigested. 

No. 2 

Into a tin cup, or a small agateware or aluminum vessel that holds 
about one-half pint, put one-fourth cup cold water. Then stir into the 
water one-fourth teaspoon cornstarch. Allow it to stand a few mo- 
ments. Notice that the starch does not dissolve in the water, but 
gradually settles to the bottom. Now stir up the starch again, set 
the cup on the stove, and heat it very gradually, stirring contin- 
uously. Notice that when the temperature of the water approaches 
the boiling point, the mixture gradually thickens and becomes clear. 
This is because hot water bursts the starch granules, they dissolve, 
take up water, and swell, forming a pasty mixture. 

No. 3 

Wash the cup and again put into it one-fourth cup cold water. 
Stir into the water one tablespoon sugar. Notice that the sugar 
dissolves slowly. Heat this mixture, and notice that the sugar dis- 
solves rapidly in hot water. No other change in the sugar can be 
detected by the eye by simply boiling. But a very small quantity 
of the sugar is changed to what is called invert sugar, a noncrystal- 
lizing sugar. If boiled with an acid, the sugar gradually becomes 
entirely changed to noncrystallizing sugar. If a large quantity of 
sugar and water is used, sufficient so that it can be tested by a ther- 
mometer as it boils, it will be noticed that as the liquid evaporate^, 
the temperature of the boiling mass rises, and when it reaches a 
little above 300° F., it begins to turn brown, or carmelize. Candy 
makers take advantage of this fact, because the degree of density of 
the sirup is indicated by the temperature. 

When sugar and water are boiled together till the temperature 
is 238° F., the sirup has reached what is called the " soft-ball " stage, 
because when a little of it is dropped into ice water, it forms a soft 
ball; or If a fork is dipped into the sirup and lifted out, the sirup 
forms a " thread " as it drips from the fork. This is the stage to 
which sirup should be boiled in making frosting aiv^ j(^^^^%^. 



24 GOOD FOOD 

At 254° F. the sirup is said to have reached the " hard-ball " stage, 
because when a little of it is dropped into ice water i-t forms a hard 
ball. This is the stage to which sugar is boiled in making caramels. 

At 260° to 275° F. it has reached the " crack stage," because at 
this stage it becomes snappy and brittle when, dropped into ice water. 
This is the stage to which sugar is boiled in making taffy. 

At 290° F. it has reached the "hard crack" stage, at which It 
becomes very hard and brittle when dropped into ice water. This is 
the stage to which sugar is boiled in making peanut candy. 

When boiled above 300° F., the sirup gradually changes color 
from light yellow to brown, then red, and if the cooking continues 
it turns black and smokes. For use in coloring and flavoring, water 
is added to the cooking mass to dissolve it when it reaches the right 
shade. Caramelized sugar of a light-brown color, so dissolved, is used 
in flavoring custards, ice creams, and other desserts. That of a 
dark-red color is used for coloring gravies and soups. 

No. 4 

Into the same cup used in the previous experiment put one-foufUi 
cup cold water, and stir into it one teaspoon vegetable cooking oil. 
Notice that the oil neither dissolves nor mixes with the water, 
but floats on top. Now set the cup on the stove, and heat tiU the 
water boils. Notice that the boiling produces no change in the fttt. 
It does not dissolve nor mix with the water. Fat is not changed at 
the temperature of boiling water, but at higher temperatures the fat 
is decomposed, or split up, into fatty acid and glycerin. 

Different fats decompose at different temperatures. Butter be- 
gins to decompose at about 256° F., and lard at 360°, beef suet at 
440°, cottolene at 450°, refined cottonseed oil and olive oil at 600**. 
Fatty acid is irritating to the system. At 500° F. and above, the 
glycerin is changed into acrolein. This is the substance that gives 
the smarting sensation to the eyes, nose, and throat when fats are 
overheated. It is very irritating to the mucous membrane. It is the 
substance that is produced in the burning of cigarette paper, from 
the glycerin in the paper; and in the smoking of cigarettes more 
harmful results are attributed to the acrolein than to the nicotine In 
the tobacco. 

It will be noticed that butter would be the worst fat to use in 
frying, because it decomposes at the lowest temperature of all fats. 

No. 5 

Again, put into the cup one-fourth cup of cold water. Then stir 
into the water one teaspoon of egg white, which is practically pure 
albumen, or protein food substance. Set the cup on the stove and 
heat gradually. Notice that as the water heats, it becomes cloudy. 
because the egg white in it turns white and hardens; and the hotter 



IXri(ODUCTIO.\ 



25 



the water, the tonpher the egg white becomes. This teachea hb that 
protein food substance is hardened and toughened hy heat; and the 
greater the heat, the tougher the substance becomes. For this reason, 
eSRS and other protein-containing foods are more digestible when 
cooked at a low temperature than when Bubjected to too great a 
degree of heat. 

The experiments with the food elements may he made with test- 
tubes and an alcohol lamp if these are at hand. 




GOOD FOOD 



poRcn 

Ice- 5ox PtioR^ 
WmDCwAciOV&. 




DIIiinG ROOM 



DIAGBAM OF A MODEL KITCBSN 



Hueh labor • 
ine of food. ■!!< 



t the kitchen furniti 



CEREALS 



Cereals are the seeds of cultivated grasses. In them is stored 
the nourishment on which the young plant grows when it begins life. 
This nourishment is stored in a permanent form in which it will not 
easily deteriorate, because it must not decay from harvest time to 
planting time. It is in a dry, concentrated, insoluble form. When 
the seed is planted, it absorbs water; the diastase becomes active, 
and changes the raw, insoluble starch to sugar, which is soluble and 
ready to be used to nourish the young plant. 

THE COOKING OF CEREALS 

In order to prepare cereals for our nourishment, a somewhat sim- 
ilar change must be brought about in them as that by which nature 
prepares them for plant food. This is done by the use of water and 
heat in cooking. The cereal absorbs the water, the heat causes the 
starch to become soluble, or to dissolve in the water, and the heat 
also softens the cellulose framework of the cereal. To render the 
starch soluble requires a comparatively short time, but to soften the 
cellulose thoroughly may require several hours' cooking, according 
to the size of the grain or the fineness to which it has been ground. 

To cook cereals a sufficient length of time, a double boiler is 
necessary. This insures proper cooking of the cereal without scorch- 
ing it, and prevents the pastiness caused by long, active boiling. 

A fireless cooker is ideally adapted to the cooking of cereals. To 
cook some cereals a sufficient length of time necessitates cooking 
them the previous day if they are to be used for breakfast, then 
reheating them in the double boiler in the morning. In a fireless 
cooker the cereal will cook during the night, and be warm for break- 
fast, or require only a short heating. 

That the cooked cereal may always have the proper consistency, 
definite proportions of water and cereal should be used. 

Cream is a sufficient dressing for cereals. They are largely car- 
bohydrate, and to add sugar to them is like carrying coals to New- 
castle. But cream supplies fat, in which cereals are deficient. Eat- 
ing sugar on cereals is like eating sugar on bread and butter. Ce- 
reals digest better if eaten without sugar. Stirring raisins, stoned 
dates, or chopped figs into the cereal before it is served, is better than 
using sugar, with it. It is well to eat something hard, like zwieback, 
with cereals, to encourage mastication; or nuts may be sprinkled 
over the dish of cereal. 

Cereals being so largely starch, their digestion is begun by the 
saliva in the mouth; therefore they should be well masticat*»d. 

^1 



28 GOOD FOOD 

GENERAL RULES J^OR THE PROPORTION OF WATER 

TO GRAIN 

Scotch oatmeal ("steel-cut oatmeal ") and all wheat preparations 
except whole wheat, rolled wheat, and ^Graham flour, require four 
measures of water to one of cereal. 

Whole wheat requires three measures of water to one of cerdat. 

Rolled wheat, rolled oats, and rolled rye require two measures bt 
water to one of cereal. 

Graham flour requires t\yo or three measures of water to One ojf 
flour, according to the quality of the flourl 

Corn preparations (cornmeal, hominy, etc.) and barley require 
five measures of water to one of cereal. 

Rice, when cooked in a double boiler, requires three or four meas- 
ures of water to one of rice,- according to the size and quality of the 
rice. , , _ _ . _ .:-.....■ 

If the grains are cooked in the afternoon and warmed up the ne:3ct 
morning, more water will be required. Fine wheat preparations and 
cornmeal will require six measures of. water to one of cereal. Rolled 
cereals will require three measures of water to one of cereal^ 

Use one teaspoon salt to one and one-half pints water. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS i 

1. Measure both water and cereal with cups of the same size. 

2. Have the water boiling in the inner cup of the double 1)oiIer, 
set directly over the fire, that is, without the outside boiler. 

3. Stir the cereal into the water slowly enough not to stop the 
boiling of the water. 

4. Continue the boiling and stirring till the cereal thickens tlie 
water. 

5. Set the inner cup of the double boiler into the outer cup, which 
contains boiling water. 

6. Do not stir the cereal after this. 

7. Keep the water in the outer boiler boiling for the required 
length of time to cook the cereal. 

Whole grains, especially flaked grains, should not be stirred dur- 
ing cooking, because this will break or crush the grains and produce 
a pasty mass. 

Flaked grains, such as rolled wheat, rolled oats, and rolled rye, 
should not be boiled directly over the fire. To avoid breaking the 
flakes, have the water in both inner and outer parts of the double 
boiler boiling, the former placed inside the latter, and the salt added 
to the water in the inner cup. Carefully stir the flakes into the 
water, put the cover on the kettle, and do not stir again, unless it is 
necessary to lift carefully the flakes in the water. Simply allow 
the cereal to cook the required length of time in the double boiler. 



CEREALS 29 

TIME REQUIRED FOR COOKING CEREALS 

Rice cooked in a double boiler, and fine cereal preparations, one 
hour. 

Rolled oats, rolled wheat, and rolled rye, three to four hours. 
. Cracked wheat, oatmeal, and fine hominy, four to five hours. 

Whole wheat, pearl barley, and coarse hominy, six hours. 

It has been said that wheat contains all the. food principles re- 
quired to nourish the body, in about the right proportion. This is 
true of the proportion of protein and carbohydrate, but not of the 
proportion of fat. Cereals are deficient in fat. This fat, however. Is 
supplied by the foods that are usually eaten with cereals. Neither 
are the mineral salts present in the right proportion. Cereals con- 
tain too much magnesium and too little lime. 

It has been known that white-fiour products do not properly nour- 
ish young children, and it has been supposed that whole-wheat prep- 
arations would keep them in health, but this has been found to be 
untrue. Some other food must be supplied that contains more lime 
and less magnesium. Milk is such a food. Nuts also contain more 
lime than cereals contain. Milk and nuts, therefore, balance cereals 
in making up their deficiency of fat and in giving the proper pro- 
portion of mineral salts. Fruits and new vegetables also contain 
moW lime than magnesium, and for that reason may supplement a 
diet of cereals. 

The benefit to be derived from the use of cereals is due to the 
fact that cereals, used as cereals, are mostly whole-cereal prepara- 
tions, and if white bread is the only food prepared from cereals that 
the person has been eating, benefit might be derived from eating 
preparations of whole cereals. If the person has been in the habit 
of eating bread made from whole cereals, no great benefit Would prob- 
abiy be derived from the addition of breakfast cereals to the diet. 

•Some years ago, when cereals began to be used in the form of 
mush, wholeKjereal preparations were used; but it seems that people 
will have reilned foods, and now there are on the market cereal 
preparations that are no better than white-fiour products, important 
parts of the grain, such as the bran and germ, having been removed, 
^ream of whfeat, for instAnce, would more properly be called " starch 
of wheat." It is nearly as deficient in mineral salts and cellulose 
as is white flour. 

Oats contain the largest proportion of fat and protein. Yellow 
corn comes next in fat content, wheat comes next to oats in protein 
content. Rice contains the smallest proportion of fat and protein. 
Oats digest least easily. Rice digests most easily. The oat grain has 
been tampered with less than other cereals in preparing it for eating. 

The nitrogenous part of wheat, its building food, is called gluten. 
The nitrogenous part of corn is called zein. Zein is different trota 
the protein cwstituents of other cereals. It lacks aom^ ol Wv^ ^xcCvci^ 



30 



GOOD FOOD 



acids, or " building stones " of protein, that are necessary for build- 
ing body protein; as a result of this lack, animals fed no other pro- 
tein food except that contained in corn fail to develop normally. 

The following table shows the chemical composition and food 
value of cereals, based upon Bulletin No. 28 (revised edition). United 
States Department of Agriculture: 

Carbo- Cel- Min- Cal- 
Water Protein Fat hydrate luloae eral oriM 

% % % % % % perci. 

Cracked wheat 10.1 11.1 1.7 75.5 1.7 1.6 104.S 

Oatmeal 7.3 16.1 7.2 67.5 .9 1.9 116J 

Pearl barley 11.5 8.5 1.1 77.8 .3 1.1 1OS.0 

Rice 12.3 8.0 .3 79.0 .2 .4 lOU 

Cornmeal (unbolted) .. 11.6 8.4 4.7 74.0 .0 1.3 1013 

Macaroni 10.3 13.4 .9 74.1 .0 1.3 lOSi 

Beans 12.6 22.5 1.8 59.6 1.4 3.5 100.0 

Walnuts 2.5 16.6 63.4 16.1 2.6 1.4 205.3 

Lean beef 73.6 22.6 2.8 .0 .0 1.3 33.€ 

The food value of beans, walnuts, and lean beef is given here for 
the purpose of comparison. 

It will be seen that the total nutritive value of cereals is about 
three times that of lean beef, about the same as beans, and about 
one half that of nuts. 

Since one ounce of protein or carbohydrate yields 116 caloriM 
and one ounce of fat yields 264 calories, we can reduce the percottt* 
ige value given in the above table to the calorific values shown in 
the following table, by multiplying the per cent of protein and ca^ 
bphydrate by 1.16 and the per cent of fat by 2.64. 

Protein Fat Carbohydrates Tbtal 

Calories Calories Calories Calorto 

Cracked wheat 12.8 4.5 87.6 104.9 

Oatmeal 18.6 19.0 78.3 115i 

Pearl barley 9.9 2.9 90.2 1O3.0 

Rice 8.9 .8 91.6 lOU 

Cornmeal (unbolted) 9.7 12.4 85.8 107J 

Macaroni 15.5 2.4 85.9 10S.8 

Beans 26.1 4.8 69.1 100.^ 

Walnuts 19.3 167.3 18.7 205.3 

Lean beef 26.2 7.4 .0 SIC 

The dry cereals are among the most , concentrated and nutriUooi 
foods, having about 87 per cent nutritive value. They furnish, ii 
round numbers, one hundred calories, or food units, to the ovanob. 
This nourishment is divided as follows: 

Water 10% to 12% 

Protein 10% to 12% 

Carbohydrates 65% to 75% 

rat 0.5% to 8% 

Mineral elements V^ ^i^ Vfc 



CEREALS 31 

RECIPES 

CORNMEAL 
Golden Grains 

2^2 cups water 
^ cup cornmeal 

1 teaspoon salt 

Heat the water to boiling in the inner cup of the double boiler. 
Add the salt. With a batter whip stir the cornmeal into the water. 
Continue stirring until the mixture is thickened, then set the inner 
cup in the outer cup of the double boiler, which contains boiling 
water, and continue cooking one hour. Serve with cream or maple 
sirup. If desired, three-fourths cup of dates that have been washed, 
stoned, and cut into small pieces, may be stirred into the cereal be- 
fore serving, making Golden Grains with Dates. Serve with cream. 

Baked Cornmeal Cubes 

Use two cups water, instead of two and one-half as in the pre- 
ceding recipe. After the cereal has cooked the required length of 
time, turn it into a bread tin that has been wet with cold water. 
After it gets cold, cut around it and remove it from the tin. Slice 
it into one-inch slices, and cut the slices into one-inch cubes. Beat 
two eggs slightly, and add to them two tablespoons of water and a 
few grains of salt. Roll the cubes in fine zwieback crumbs, dip them 
into the egg mixture, then roll them again in the crumbs. Lay the 
cubes on an oiled pan, and bake in a hot oven till nicely browned. 
Serve with maple sirup. 

FLAKES 
Rolled Oats. Rolled Wheat, or Rulled Rye 

2 cups water 

1 cup of the cereal 
% teaspoon salt 

Have the two parts of the double boiler together, with water in 
the outer part, and the two cups of water and the salt in the inner 
part. Let the double boiler sit over the fire until the water in the 
outer part has been boiling five minutes, to heat the water in the 
inner part. Carefully stir the fiakes into the water. Put the cover 
on the kettle, and allow the cereal to cook three hours. Add boiling 
water to the outer kettle as may be necessary during the cooking. 
Serve with cream. 

BARLEY 
Pearl Barley 

% cup pearl barley 
2^2 cups boiling water 
1 teaspoon salt 

Put the barley into a small saucepan. Pour boiling water over it, 
and whip it with a batter whip. Pour oft the ^atftx. 'Povxx wi\si^\^ 



32 GOOD FOOD 

boiling water, whip again, and pour off the water. Repeat the proc- 
ess till the barley is thoroughly clean, and the water that is poured 
off is clear. Put the washed barley, water, and salt into the inner 
part of a double boiler, and put the two parts of the double boiler 
together, with boiling water in the outer part, and continue the 
cooking for five hours, keeping the cover on the inner part of the 
double boiler, of course. Or the barley may be cooked in a fireless 
cooker. If so small a quantity of cereal as this recipe calls for is 
cooked in a fireless cooker, it will be necessary to use heated soap- 
stones in the cooker, or to set the dish containing the cereal in a 
larger dish of boiling water, in order to have a sufficient volume of 
heat to hold the cereal at the cooking temperature for a sufficient 
length of time. Even then it may be well to remove the cereal from 
the cooker and reheat it once during the cooking. Serve with cream. 

To stir raisins into cooked pearl barley makes a palatable blend 
of flavors. Use three-fourths cup to the quantity of cereal given in 
the preceding recipe. 

To cook cracked wheat, whole wheat, Scotch oatmeal, or coarse 
hominy, follow the directions given for cooking pearl barley, varying 
the quantity of water according to the cereal. Stirring figs cut in 
ijmall pieces into cooked Scotch oatmeal makes a very palatable dish. 

MUSH 
Gluten Mush 

1 pint water 
% cup gluten meal 
% teaspoon salt 

Stir the gluten into the boiling salted water and cook till thick. 

Cream Gluten Mush 

1 pint milk or thin cream 
1-2 cup gluten meal 
% teaspoon salt 

Heat the milk in a double boiler. Stir in the gluten, and cook in 
the double boiler till thick. 

Gluten Mush with Dates 

Stone and cut into small pieces enough dates to make .one-half 
cup. and stir them into Gluten Mush. 

RICE 

Rice is nutritious, easily digested, and a fattening food. But in 
the preparation of white rice the outer coating of bran and mineral 
salts is scoured off, then the rice is coated with glucose and talc. 
This puts a gloss on the rice, and also keeps weevils out of it; but it 
robs the rice of important food substances; yet its total nutritive 
value, due to its protein, fat, and carbohydrates, is only slightly leae 
tJ2an that of other cereals. 



CEREALS 33 

The so-called " unpolished rice " is no more nutritious than ordi- 
nary polished rice. It simply does not have the coating of glucose 
and talc. Rice that has not had the outer coating scoured off is called 
" natural brown " rice. It contains all the nutritive constituents of 
the rice. 

Boiled Riee 

% cup rice 
6 cups boiling water 
2 teaspoons salt v 

Put the rice into a small saucepan, pour hot water over it, whip 
with a batter whip, and pour off the water. Pour on more hot water, 
whip again, and pour off the water. Repeat the process till the rice 
is thoroughly clean, and the water that is poured off is clear. 
Have the six cups of water salted and actively boiling over the fire. 
Stir the washed rice into it. Keep the rice actively boiling for 
twenty minutes, stirring occasionally, to prevent its sticking to the 
bottom of the kettle, then turn it into a colander to drain off the 
water. Hold the colander containing the rice under the cold water 
faucet, and run a large quantity of cold water through the rice till 
all the stickiness is washed from the kernels, so that they remain 
separate and distinct. Then, after the rice is thoroughly drained, 
put it into a double boiler to dry and reheat. Do not stir the rice 
while it is reheating, and in dishing it out handle it very carefully 
so as not to break the kernels or cause them to stick together. Serve 
with cream or fruit sauce. 

This is a wasteful method of cooking rice, if the water is thrown 
away, but it is very difficult to cook rice any other way and have the 
kernels separate. The water in which the rice has been boiled may 
be used in making soup, and thus the nourishment it contains is 
saved. 

Natural brown rice requires longer to cook than white rice. It 
should boil twenty-five minutes, or till the kernels are tender. 

Plain Steamed Rice 

% cup rice 
1% cups boiling water 
^2 teaspoon salt 
Wash the rice as directed above. Place the ingredients in a 
double boiler. The water in the outer cup should be boiling. Cook 
one hour. Serve with cream or fruit sauce. 

Creamed Rice 

V* cup rice 
1 cup boiling water 
1 cup milk 
1 teaspoon salt 
Put the washed rice, boiling water, milk, and salt into the inner 
cup of a double boiler, set it in the outer cup, which should contain 
boiling water, and cook one hour. Serve with cream ot 1.tw\\, ^^>\^^, 

3 



« 



34 GOOD FOOD 

Creamy Rice 

% cup rice 

% cup cream 
1% cups milk 
1 teaspoon salt 

Milk alone may be used, or a larger proportion of cream. 

Put the washed rice, cream, milk, and salt into the inner cup of 
a double boiler, set it in the outer cup, and cook two or three hours, 
or till a creamy mass is produced. This really does not need cream 
as a dressing. It may be served as a vegetable without dressing. It 
makes a very appetizing dish when served with half a canned peach 
on top of each helping, and some of the peach juice poured around it. 

Rice and the coarser cereal preparations are enjoyable served 
with a fruit sauce. Nuts may then be sprinkled over the sauce, 
making the ideal combination of fruits, grains, and nuts. 

SAUCES 
Raspberry Sauce 

A fruit sauce that tastes especially good with cereals is raspberry 
sauce. Rub through a strainer fine enough to hold back the seeds, 
sufficient canned raspberries or fresh raspberry sauce, to make one 
cup. 

1 cup raspberry pulp or juice 

1 tablespoon cornstarch 

1 tablespoon water / 

Heat the raspberry pulp to boiling. With a batter whip stir the 
cornstarch and water together, then stir it into the boiling juice. 
Allow it to cook gently for two minutes. 

Rice, whole or cracked wheat, Scotch oatmeal, and pearl barley, 
served with gravy instead of cream, make palatable and nutritious 
dishes for either breakfast or dinner. Cream sauce may be used, 
or one of the gravies to be used with macaroni, recipes for which 
will be given in another section. 

Cream Sauce 

1 cup milk, or part cream 

2 tablespoons flour 

l^^ tablespoons cold water 
% teaspoon salt 

Heat the milk to boiling in a double boiler. Put the flour into 
a bowl, and with a batter whip (not a spoon) stir the flour smooth 
with the cold water. Then, using the batter whip, whip the flour 
mixture in a small stream into the hot milk. Allow it to cook Ave 
minutes. Add the salt. 

Unless one has a fireless cooker, those cereal preparations that 
require long cooking are more suitable to be used in the winter time, 
when no extra fire would be necessary in order to cook them the 
required length of tivae. 



CEREALS 35 

Ormnye Sauce 

1 cup water 

^ cup orange Juice 

^ cup sugar 
1 tablespoon cornstarch 
1 egg yolk, if desired 
A few grains salt 

Stir the cornstarch smooth with a little cold water. Heat the one 
cup of cold water to boiling, and stir into it the cornstarch mixture. 
Let it boil gently two minutes. Add the sugar and salt and the 
grated yellow rind of half an orange. Be careful to grate off only 
the very outside yellow part of the rind. If a richer sauce is desired, 
after thickening the water with the cornstarch stir a little of the 
sauce into the egg yolk and mix well, then stir the egg yolk into the 
sauce; then add the orange juice. 

DEXTRINIZED CEREALS 

In the process of digestion, starch is changed to a form of sugar. 
It is possible partially to accomplish this by cooking. When starch 
is browned, it is changed to a form of carbohydrate intermediate 
between starch and sugar. Cereal foods in which this has been ac- 
complished may be said to be partially predigested. The browning 
also gives a toasted taste to the cereal, which is palatable for a change. 
It is this change in the starch that gives the palatable flavor to the 
crust of bread. 

Browned Rice 

Pour one-half cup rice into a pie tin. Set it in the oven. Stir 
it occasionally till it is of a light-brown or straw color. Then wash 
and cook this browned rice according to the directions for cooking 
Plain Steamed Rice. Browned rice is not pasty and sticky after it 
is cooked, but light and fluffy. Serve with cream or fruit sauce. 
Orange sauce blends nicely with browned- rice. 

Rolled oats may be toasted slightly before cooking, for a change 
from the. plain cer^. 

Zwieback 

Lay slices of bread on a baking pan and put them into a moderate 
oven to dry out and brown lightly throughout the slices. Zwie- 
back is the ideal toast — better tJM^oast made by simply browning 
the outside of a slice of bread ^^^^ving the inside like a slice of 
fresh bread. Another advantagl^^Vzwieback possesses over other 
cereal foods is that it compels ^Rtication, which is necessary for 
the best digestion of cereal foods. And a change is produced in the 
starch by the browning, so that when zwieback is moistened with 
water or any other liquid, it does not become j)asty. 

Zwieback may be eaten plain, or spread with dairy butter, nut 
butter, jelly, or marmalade. Or it may be used 4n making toasts, 
such as the following: 



36 GOOD FOOD 

TOASTS 
Cream Toast 

Put a slice of zwieback into a cereal bowl. Pour over it one-half 
cup of hot cream, and serve at once. 

Cream Gravy Toaat 

Dip a slice of zwieback into hot water to moisten it. Then pour 
over it one-half cup of the cream sauce previously given for use with 
cereals. 

Egg on Toast 

Moisten a slice of zwieback in hot cream or hot water, and place 
a nicely poached egg on it. 

Egg and Celery on Toast 

Cut into dice tender stalks of celery sufficient to make one cup. 
Add this to the cream sauce. Moisten a slicd of zwieback. Cover 
it with the creamed celery, and place a nicely poached egg on top. 

Fruit Toast 

Moisten a slice of zwieback in hot cream or hot water. Place 
it in a cereal dish, and pour over it one-half cup of the raspberry 
sauce given for cereals. Chopped nuts may be sprinkled over the top. 

Blackberry sauce for toast may be made by following the recipe 
for Raspberry Sauce. 

Pear sauce for toast may be made from either canned pears 
or stewed fresh pears. Cut the pears in thin slices. Measure tlie 
juice, heat it to boiling, and thicken it with cornstarch stirred smooth 
with a little cold water, using one tablespoon cornstarch for eseh 
cup of juice. Use a batter whip to stir the starch and cold wattr 
together, then whip the boiling juice with the batter whip while the 
cornstarch mixture is poured in a small stream into it. Put the 
sliced pears into the thickened juice, and allow the whole to remain 
over the stove long enough to heat the pears. 

Peach sauce for toast is prepared in a similar way. 

Blueberry sauce for toast is made by dralMng the juice from 
canned blueberries or fresh stewed blueberries, thickening it. as in 
making pear toast, then putting the berries into the sauce to heat. 

Cherry sauce is made in a similar way, first removing the stones 
from the cherries. _ 

Apple toast, made by servin^tf^apple sauce over slices of zwie- 
back moistened in hot cream ^^^Ht water, tastes especially good 
with chopped blanched almoncl^Pnopped pecans, or chopped wal- 
nuts sprinkled over it. It is then called Nut Apple Toast, or is named 
according to the nuts used, as Almond Apple Toast. 

Croutons 

(To serve with soup) 
Cut stale bread into half-inch dice and toast in the oven till dry 
anr/ nicely browned. 



MACARONI 



Macabom la made from a granular meal, called " semolina," which 
is ground Irom hard, semi translucent varieties or wheat, rich In 
gluten, such aa durum wheat. In the making ol the Bemolina the 
bran of the wheat ia removed, and, by sifting, some of the starchy 
part of the wheat ts eliminated, so that semolina Is richer in gluten 

— the protein part of the wheat, its tlssue-bulldlng food principle 

— than flour made from the same wheat. 

Macaroni has the same high food value in protein and carhohy- 
drate that the semolina, has, but it is just as " impoverished " a food 
in eeliulose and mineral salts as white fiour or white bread or 
white rice, and, like other wheat products, it ia deficient in fat; 
therefore there Is need of combining with it other foods that supply 
what it lacks. Milk and eggs furnish some of the compounds 




Huinnl of DUTi 



lacking in macaroni. The tomato sauce bo often served with it sup- 
plies mineral salts. The cheese with which macaroni is perhaps 
most often prepared is lacking in mineral salts. And macaroni, 
In all the ways in which It la served, is lacking In hulk or cellulose. 

The best macaroni is smooth and elastic, has a creamy color, and 
looks somewhat translucent. It JMeaks with a smooth, glassy frac- 
ture, and does not split when ^fken. The inferior quality that 
contains coloring matter ia rough, has a floury instead of glassy 
appearance, and splits on breaking. 

The method of cooking macaroni is similar to that of boiling 
rice. Macaroni should not be washed or soaked. Washing or soak- 
ing softens the outside of the macaroni, so that the tubes stick 
together, making a pasty mass; while well-coolfed macaroni is slip- 
pery, every piece being whole and separate. II \l seetM, T\'*fiessa.t-i 

TV 



38 OOOD FOOD 

to clean macaroni, it may be wiped with a dry Cloth, but, really, 
macaroni should be as clean when it comes to you as when it is made, 
and should require no cleaning. 

The macaroni should be broken in inch lengths, or the ready-cut 
macaroni may be used, which is more convenient and needs no 
breaking. The macaroni should be put to cook in actively boiling 
salted water, using two quarts of water and three teaspoons of salt 
to each cup of macaroni, and boiled rapidly from twenty minutes to 
one hour, according to the age and size of the macaroni, stirring it 
occasionally so that it will not stick to the bottom of the saucepan. 
When done, the macaroni is soft enough to be easily mashed between 
the thumb and finger. The whole should then be poured in a col- 
ander to drain off the water, and cold water should be run through 
it to prevent the tubes from sticking to one another. 

For those who like it, garlic makes an enjoyable flavoring for 
macaroni. 

While the following recipes call for macaroni, there are a great 
many different shapes and sizes which have different names. Some 
of the names are: Spaghetti, vermicelli, macaroncelli, rigatoni, ziti, 
fettuce. The smaller kinds, like vermicelli, and those shaped like 
seeds, stars, letters, rice, shells, and rings of various small sizes, are 
best adapted for use in soups. Most of the other kinds could be 
substituted for the plain macaroni in the recipes. 

KECIPE8 

Macaroni with Cream Sauce 

Yq cup macaroni 

1 quart water 
1^ teaspoons salt 

Cook the macaroni in boiling salted water according to the gen- 
eral directions given. Prepare the cream sauce as follows: 

2 cups milk, or part cream 
4 tablespoons flour 

% teaspoon salt 

Vj clove garlic, cut fine, if desired 

Put the flour in a small bowl, and with a batter whip stir it 
smooth with three tablespoons ^^milk. Heat the remainder of the 
milk, to which the garlic has ^Pn added, to boiling, in a double 
boiler, then stir the flour mixture into it. Allow it to cook ten 
minutes, add the salt, then stir the cooked macaroni into the sauce. 
Let it remain on the stoye long enough to reheat the macaroni. 



Macaroni with Egrgr Sauce 

Make this like the macaroni with cream sauce, adding one or two 
hard-boiled eggs, chopped, to th^ sauce. 



MACARONI 39 

Baked Macarmii with EggB 

Put the cooked macaroni in alternate layers with sliced hard- 
boiled eggs into a small baking dish, spreading some of the cream 
sauce over each layer. Sprinkle the top with zwieback crumbs, and 
bake till it begins to boil up through. 

Macaroni au Gratin 

% cup macaroni 
1 cup sour cream 

Vi clove garlic, cut fine 

Yj teaspoon salt 
1 egg yolk or one whole egg 

Cook the macaroni according to the general directions. Beat to- 
gether the egg yolk, salt, sour cream, and garlic, and mix it with 
the macaroni after it is cooked and drained. Put it into a small 
baking dish. Sprinkle with zwieback crumbs, and bake till set. 

If a larger quantity is to be made, one egg is sufficient for four 
times this recipe. 

Macaroni au Gratin, with Cottagre Cheese 

% cup macaroni 

Mj cup creamy cottage cheese 

% cup milk 
1 tablespoon vegetable oil, or melted butter substitute 
1^4 teaspoons salt 
1 egg 

Vi clove garlic 

Cook the macaroni according to directions. Stir the cottage 
cheese smooth with the milk. Break the egg in the bowl. Beat the 
egg with a batter whip, then beat the oil into it drop by drop, so as 
to make an emulsion of the oil. Then stir into it the milk-and-cheese 
mixture, the salt, and the garlic. Now mix this with the cooked 
and drained macaroni, pour it in a baking dish, sprinkle with 
crumbs, and bake till set. 

Spaghetti with Tomato Sauce 

VL» cup spaghetti 

1 pint canned tomatoes 

1 small onion, sliced 

2 tablespoons vegetable oil or butter substitute 
2Vj tablespoons flour ff 

1 teaspoon salt 

^2 teaspoon thyme 

% clove garlic 

% bay leaf 

Cook the spaghetti according to directions. • Simmer the tomato, 
onion, garlic, bay leaf, and oil together for fifteen minutes. Stir the 
flour smooth with a little cold water, and stir it into the boiling 



40 GOOD FOOD 

sauce. Allow it to boil five minutes. Rub the sauce through a fine 
strainer, and add the salt and thyme. If the tomato has boiled away 
enough to make the sauce too thick, add water to make it of the 
proper consistency. When the spaghetti is cooked and drained, stir 
it into the tomato sauce, and heat the spaghetti and sauce together. 

Sasred Macaroni 

V2 cup macaroni 

2 tablespoons nut butter 

2 cups hot water 

2% tablespoons flour 
% teaspoon salt 

1 to .11/^ teaspoons sage 
Cook the macaroni according to directions. Put the nut butter 
into .a small saucepan, and with a batter whip stir a little of the 
hot water into it and stir till smooth. Continue stirring in water 
till all the water is used and the whole is perfectly smooth. Put 
it on the stove and heat to boiling, watching it carefully, because it 
is very likely to boil over as soon as it begins to boil. Stir the flour 
smooth with two tablespoons of cold water, and stir it into the 
sauce as soon as it begins to boil. Allow it to cook slowly for five 
minutes, add the salt and sage. When the macaroni is cooked and 
drained, stir it into the sauce, and heat all together. 

Macaroni Baked with Olives 

% cup macaroni 
iy2 cups water 

y^ cup tomatoes 
1 tablespoon oil, or butter substitute 
1 bay leaf 

% teaspoon thyme 
1 small onion, cut flne 
1 teaspoon browned flour 

1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons white flour 
V2 cup sliced olives 

To make the browned flour, sift one pint of flour in a baking pan. 
Set it in the oven, and stir frequently until it is of a dark-brown 
color, about the shade of the shell of a chestnut. Sift this browned 
flour, put it into a glass jar, and keep it for use as needed. 

Cook the macaroni according^to directions. 

Cook together the water, tomato, oil, bay leaf, onion, and browned 
flour for flfteen minutes. Then stir the white flour smooth with two 
tablespoons of cold water, and stir it into the sauce. Let it cook five 
minutes. Then rub the sauce through a strainer flne enough to 
remove the tomato seeds. Add the salt, thyme, and olives. When the 
macaroni is cooked and drained, stir it into this sauce. Put all in 
a baking pan, sprinkle with crumbs, and bake till well heated 
through. 



MACARONI 



41 



Huu-onI iritli NbI TMnaUr Gnvr 

V> cup macaroni 
Vi cup stralDed tomato 
1% cups water 
2 tablespoons nut butter 
2 tablespooDB flour 
% teaspoon salt 
'ut the nut butter in a saucepan, and witb a batter whip stir the 
er Into it, adding the water a little at a time and stirring It 
oth as the water is added. Then stir In the strained tomato, and 
: to boiling. Stir the flour smooth with two tablespoons cold 
°r, and stir It into the boiling sauce. Simmer five minutes. Add 
Bait. Stir the cooked and drained macaroni into the sauce, and 
'At. 




Thanhml to the Clnr 



BREADS 



YEAST BREAD, OR FERMENTED BREAD 

Let it be remembered that white bread is decidedly lacking in 
sllnlose and mineral salts; that so-called " whole-wheat " bread 
kittle better, because most of the so-called whole-wheat flour con- 
InB only about half the bran and none of the germ of the wheat; in 
bet, a law has been passed making it unlawful to call such flour 
whole-wheat flour, and now modiflcations are added to the names of 
BUch flours. I know of one whole-wheat flour, however, that is the 
vrhole wheat, ground to the fineness of flour, and there may be others 
>n the market. The common Graham flour on the market is a mix- 
ture, and does not contain the germ of the wheat; but there are a 
?ew companies making a " straight-ground " wheat meal that answers 
-o the specifications of Sylvester Graham, Bread made from such 
lonr as this is a true " staff of life." 

If bread were made by mixing fiour and water together, and then 
:>aking it in the form of a loaf, the result would be something solid, 
lard to masticate, and unpalatable. For this reason a gas is pro- 
duced in thUkdough, filling it full of holes and making the bread 
light. This gas is produced in the dough by yeast. Yeast cells are 
everywhere j)resent in the air. Yeast is a low form of plant life. 
Ct is this that causes cooked fruit, for example, or fruit juice, when 
exposed to the air, to. " spoil," or ferment. Yeast is closely allied to 
mold. It is yeast that is used in making beer, to cause it to ferment. 
When the beer ferments, the sugar in the mixture is broken up into 
Eilcohol and carbonic acid gas, and a froth rises to the top of the 
Fermenting liquid. This froth is rich in yeast cells. 

The manufacturers of yeast cakes have a method of purifying this 
yeast and getting it into compressed form. In this form especially, 
when dried, the yeast may lie dormant for a considerable time; but 
whenever it is put into a liquid that contains sugar, or starch that 
the yeast can turn to sugar, the yeast starts fermentation if the liquid 
is at a favorable temperature. The yeast cell manufactures sub- 
stances called " ferments," which induce the change from starch to 
sugar, then to alcohol and carbonic acid gas. If fermentation con- 
tinues long enough, acetic acid, or vinegar, is produced from the 
alcohol. The temperature most favorable to fermentation is from 
75° to 80° F. As the temperature lowers, the rapidity of fermen- 
tation decreases; and as the temperature rises, the rapidity of fer- 
mentation increases until a temperature is reached at which the heat 
kills the yeast. 



BREADSi 45 

^ is best to have the temperature in which bread is set to rise 
^low 70° nor above 90° F. If it is desired to hasten the rising 
^^'ead, it is better to use more yeast than to increase the tem- 
ature above 90° F. The carbonic acid gas produced in dough by 
9&t, makes the bread rise; then when the risen dough is baked, 
e result is light bread. If the fermenting process is allowed to 
ntinue too long in the dough, acetic acid is produced, and the bread 
sour. 

Good bread is palatable, light, porous, and crumbly, that is, when 
bbed between the fingers it crumbles instead of rolling into a sticky 
II; also it contains no injurious ingredients, and has not the least 
Dt of sourness. 
It is easier to control the process of bread making and to knead 

bread thoroughly if only a small quantity of dough is made. For 
i reason I will give directions for making one loaf each of white 
ad, whole-wheat bread, and Graham bread, for beginners to prac- 

with. I will also give recipes for larger quantities of bread, to 
used after the process has been mastered and skill has been 
uired. I give the quantity of flour by weight so that when the 
pe is followed exactly, the dough will be of just the right con- 
ency, and a beginner can see and feel just how stiff bread dough 
ht to be. Measuring the fiour is not sufficiently accurate to insure 
ough of the proper consistency. A quart of sifted flour usually 
ghs less than one pound. If it is necessary to measure the flour, 

it, then dip it into the quart measure, and tap the measure 
3ral times to cause the flour to settle and not be so light that 

quart will weigh less than one pound. When very lightly meas- 
d, one quart of sifted flour will not weigh more than twelve or 
rteen ounces. 
A large amount of yeast is called for in these recipes to shorten 

time required for completing the process of making the bread, 
s makes it more convenient for the beginner to watch the whole 
cess. 

RECIPES 

White Bread (one loaf) 

To be baked in a pan 9^^* by i^i by 3 inches, or a pan of equal 
acity. 

1 pound best bread flour, sifted 

1 cup and 1 tablespoon lukewarm water 

1 cake compressed yeast 

IYj teaspoons salt 

1 tablespoon sugar 

3 tablespoons cooking oil 

Put the flour into a mixing bowl. Put the lukewarm water in 
ither dish, crumble the yeast cake into It, and at\T WW \)[\^ ^^^^\. 



46 OOOD FOOD 

is entirely dissolved. Then stir in the sugar, salt, and oil. Turn 
this mixture into the flour, and stir it to a dough with a spoon. Then 
take the dough out onto a bread board, and knead till it is perfectly 
smooth. 

This recipe should make a dough stiff enough so that it will not 
be necessary to use flour on the board to knead the dough. The 
purpose of the kneading is to blend thoroughly all the ingredients, 
thus making the dough of a uniform consistency throughout, and 
to develop the elasticity of the gluten, not to make the dough stiffer. 
The process of kneading is a rolling motion which does not require 
much pressure upon the dough. The dough is drawn toward the 
body with the flnger tips, then rolled away from the body with the 
heels of the hands, with light pressure. The dough is prevented 
from sticking to the board by being kept in motion. Care should 
be taken not to exert sufficient force to break the film on the outside 
of the dough. The process should be continued till the surface of 
the dough looks smooth, no lumps or uneven places showing. I find 
that the best grain is produced in bread by giving the dough a v«7 
thorough kneading when it is first mixed, then not kneading it at 
all after that. 

When the dough is sufficiently kneaded, oil the bowl in which it 
was mixed, if this is large enough to let it rise in; put the dough in 
the bowl, and set it in a warm place to rise. Cover the dough tightly 
with a tin cover or with several thicknesses of cloth to prevent a 
skin from forming over the surface of the dough. (When a larger 
quantity of bread is made, it is well to divide the dough into several 
small pieces and thoroughly knead each piece, then put the dough 
all together to rise. In this way it is possible to give the dough a 
more thorough kneading.) This dough should rise enough to more 
than double its bulk. This will require from two to three hours, 
according to the temperature of the place in which it is set to rise.! 

To determine when it has risen enough, give the top of the dough 
a good hard tap with the back of the fingers. If a hole stubbornly 
sinks into the dough where it was struck, it has risen enough. If it 
remains firm after the blow, it should be allowed to rise more. (K 
the dough sinks very quickly when struck, it has been allowed to rise 
too much, that is, more than it should to produce the best bread.) 

When the dough is sufficiently light, take it out on a bread board, 
give it two or three blows with the fist, fingers downward, to flatten 
it out, fold the right and left sides of the dough in toward the cen- 
ter enough to make the sides overlap a little; then, beginning at the 
end farthest from you. roll the dough up into a hard, tight roll. Place 
the roll in the oiled bread tin, and set it in a warm place to TiaUt 
covering it with two or three thicknesses of cloth. It may requin 
an hour, more or less, to rise. When the dough has risen so that Iti 
highest part is one-fourth inch above the top of the pan, it should 
Ife put into the oven. 



BREADS 47 

When risen sufficiently in the loaf, the dough will respond slowly 
when gently pressed with the finger. When it responds quickly, it 
should be allowed to rise more. It is well to know this test so that 
if one does not know that she has the right amount in the pan to fill 
the pan when properly risen, she can tell by this test when the 
dough is properly risen. In this recipe the amount of dough made 
fits the size of the pan indicated. 

If a loaf is ever allowed to rise too much, it is better to take it 
out on a board and mold it over into a tight roll to rise again. The 
grain of the bread will be much better than if it is baked when risen 
too high. 

The oven should be hot for baking bread. If it is desired to test 

the temperature of the oven, place a piece of white paper in the oven. 

If the paper turns dark brown in five minutes, the oven is of the 

right temperature; if it burns, the oven is too hot; if it is only light 

brown, the oven should be made hotter. The oven should be of such 

a temperature that the bread will have a nice brown crust on all 

sides after one hour's baking. When sufficiently baked, bread gives 

a hollow sound when tapped on the top with the fingers, and a well- 

biaked loaf can be held for a moment upon the bare hand without 

burning. Place the loaf on a bread rack to cool, or across the empty 

bread pan, so that air can circulate all around it. 

Whole-Wheat Bread (one loaf) 

1 pound sifted whole-wheat flour 

IVi cups lukewarm water 

1 cake compressed yeast 

1% teaspoons salt 

1 tablespoon sugar 

3 tablespoons cooking oil 

Follow the directions for making white bread. 

Graham Bread (one loaf) 

This recipe is to be used with a Graham flour or wheat meal that 
is made by simply grinding whole wheat, nothing being removed from 
or added to the meal after grinding. This recipe will not make good 
bread with ordinary. Graham flour. 

1 pound Graham flour that is a real wheat meal 

1 cup lukewarm water 

1 cake compressed yeast 

1^ teaspoons salt 

3 tablespoons molasses 

3 tablespoons cooking oil 

Sift the flour to make it light and break up the lumps. Do not 
throw away the bran. This bread is to contain all the wheat, includ- 
ing the bran and germ of the wheat. Look over the bran that re- 
mains in the sifter to be sure that there is nothing in it lYv^^l ^VvwvV^ 



48 OOOD FOOD 

not go into the bread. Then mix the bran with the flour that hs^ 
been sifted. Crumble the yeast cake Into the lukewarm water, aU^ 
stir till it is completely dissolved. Then stir in the salt, molgisaeB, 
and oil. Turn this mixture into the flour, and stir it to a dough witl* 
a spoon. It should be too soft to knead. Cover it tightly with atiii 
cover or several thicknesses of cloth. Set it in a warm place to rise 
till a hole will sink in the dough when it is struck wilh the backs of 
the fingers. Then take the dough out on a floured board, and mold 
it into a hard roll, according to the instructions given in the direc- 
tions for making white bread. Place the roll in an oiled bread tin 
and set it in a warm place to rise, covered with cloth. When the top 
of the loaf is a little below the top of the pan, it is ready to put into 
the oven. The oven should not be quite so hot for baking this bread 
as for baking white bread, because thjs bread Is more likely to scorch 
on account of the molasses it contains. 

To make this bread without molasses use the following recipe: 

1 pound Graham flour that is real wheat meal 

1 cup and 2 tablespoons lukewarm water 

1 cake compressed yeast 

1^2 teaspoons salt 

3 tablespoons cooking oil 

3 teaspoons sugar 

If ordinary Graham flour must be used in making Graham bread, 
follow the recipe for making white bread, using one-half pound white 
flour and one-half pound Graham flour; or a smaller proportion of 
Graham is sometimes used. Sift the Graham flour, but do not throw 
away the bran; use the bran in the bread. 

In making a larger quantity of bread, it is not necessary to use 
an equally large proportion of yeast. One yeast cake may be used 
with three or four times the amount given in these recipes, but it 
will take longer to make the bread. 

If it is desired that the bread should be lighter, and in this re- 
spect more like baker's bread, when the dough has risen the first 
time punch it down in the middle, and fold in the sides so as to make 
a hard ball. Turn the dough over, and allow it to rise a second time. 
When it has risen the second time, mold it into loaves. 

Walnut Bread 

Use the recipe for whole-wheat bread, putting into the dougl) 
when it is first mixed (that is, mixing them with the flour before the 
liquid is added) three-fourths cup walnut meats, not chopped. 

Fruit Bread 

Use the recipe for whole-wheat bread, putting into the dough 
when it is first mixed one-half cup seedless raisins that have been 
washed an(\ dried. 



BREADS 49 

Date Graham Bread 

^hen the Graham bread dough is ready to mold into a loaf, flat- 
L it into a sheet about three-fourths inch thick. Lay the stoned 
tes over the sheet, roll up, and put in a tin. Let it rise, and bake. 

Rje Meal Bread (two loaves) 

Yj pound rye meal (not rye flour) 
1^2 pounds white bread flour 
2 cups and 2 tablespoons lukewarm water 
1 cake compressed yeast 

1 tablespoon salt 

2 tablespoons sugar 
% cup cooking oil 

Sift the rye meal. Do not throw away the bran, but after look- 
it over, put it with that which is sifted. Sift the white flour. 
: the meal, bran, and flour together. Dissolve the yeast in the 
er, add the salt, sugar, and oil, and mix this liquid with the flour. 
*ad till the dough is smooth. Then proceed as in making white 
Eld. 

YEAST BUNS 

To make buns, one may use any of the recipes given for bread. 

Plain Bun» (about one dozen) 

Allow the dough to rise twice, then divide it into one-and-one- 
f-ounce pieces. With the palms of the hands roll each of these 
;es into a round, tight ball on the bread board. Place the balls 
ut one-eighth of an inch apart on an oiled baking pan, and set 
n in a warm place to rise. Allow them to rise lighter than bread 
tllowed to rise, or till, when pressed with the flnger, the dough 
)onds very weakly, if at all. Have the oven a little hotter for 
ing buns than for baking bread. 

Sweet Bun» (about one dozen) 

1 pound white-bread flour, or whole-wheat flour, or part 

whole-wheat and part white 

1 cup and 2 tablespoons lukewarm water 

1 cake compressed yeast 

1^2 teaspoons salt 

i/i cup sugar 

3 tablespoons cooking oil 

Currant Buns 

1 pound white-bread flour, or whole-wheat flour, or part 

whole-wheat 

1 cup and 2 tablespoons lukewarm water 

1 cake compressed yeast 

1^/2 teaspoons salt 

Mj cup sugar 

3 tablespoons cooking oil 

% cup dried currants 

4 



50 GOOD FOOD 

Look over the currants, and wash them thoroughly. Mix iSieW 
with the liquids, and proceed to make the dough as in making bread. 
Knead thoroughly and proceed as in making plain buns. 

Walnut Buns 

1 pound white-bread flour, or whole-wheat flour, or part 

whole-wheat 

1 cup and 2 tablespoons lukewarm water 

1 cake compressed yeast 

1% teaspoons salt 

% cup sugar 

3 tablespoons cooking oil 

3 ounces or about % cup coarse-chopped walnut meats 

Proceed as in making currant buns. 

Paricer House Rolls 

Use either the recipe for one loaf of white bread (page 45) or for 
Sweet Buns (page 49). After the dough is risen the second time, 
mold it into one-and-one-half -ounce balls, laying the balls out on the 
floured bread board. After all the dough is formed into balls, take 
one of them and flatten by pressing it with the palm of the hand, 
then with the edge of the hand make a crease a little to one side of 
the diameter of the roll. Spread the smaller side with a little oil, 
and fold the larger side over the smaller side. Place, small side 
down, on an oiled baking pan, one-fourth inch apart. Set them in 
a warm place to rise. Do not allow them to rise quite so much as 
other rolls or buns. Bake them when they respond slowly to the 
touch. If they rise too much before baking, they will lose their shape. 

Com Parker House Rolls 

% pound white-bread flour 
l^ pound cornmeal 
1 cup and 1 tablespoon lukewarm water 
1 cake compressed yeast 
1% teaspoons salt 

y^ cup sugar 
3 tablespoons cooking oil 
Mix the flour and cornmeal, then proceed according to the di- 
rection in the preceding recipe. 

Superfine Buns 

1' pound white-bread flour or whole-wheat flour 

1 cup and 2 tablespoons lukewarm water 

1 cake compressed yeast 

1% teaspoons salt 
% cup sugar 

3 tablespoons cooking oil 

1 egg, beaten 
Dissolve the yeast cake in the water. Add the salt, oil, sugar, 
and beaten egg; mix well. Turn this mixture into the flour, and mix 
to a dough. Knead thoroughly, and then proceed as in making buns. 



BREADS 51 

Rolled OaU Rolls 

1 pound sifted whole-wheat flour 
1 cup raw rolled oats 
1% cups lukewarm water 
1 cake compressed yeast 
1^ teaspoons salt 
% cup sugar 
3 tablespoons cooking oil 

Mix flour and rolled oats. Dissolve the yeast cake in the water; 
in the saJt, oil, and sugar. Turn this liquid mixture into the 
r and mix to a dough. Knead thoroughly, then proceed as in 
dng other buns. 

[n recipes where quantities are indicated by both weight and 
isure, the weight is the right amount and is what the measured 
Dtity should weigh. 

Bran Bread (two small loaves) 

1 pint lukewarm water 
1 cake compressed yeast 

% pound sifted pastry flour (3 cups well shaken down) 

^ cup oil 

1 cup brown sugar, pressed down (6 ounces) 

2 teaspoons salt 

3 cups bran measured lightly (4% ounces) 
1 cup raisins 

Dissolve the yeast cake in the water. Stir in the flour and beat 
Set this sponge in a warm place to rise. In about two hours 
lould be very light and full of bubbles. Then beat together the 
ir and oil, and add it and the salt, bran, and raisins (which 
i been washed and boiled in a little water till plump, then 
ned) to the light sponge. Beat well together. This will be a 
batter. Do not add flour or bran to make it as stifC as dough, 
r this batter into two oiled bread tins. Allow the loaves to rise 
it one-eighth inch, then put them in a moderately heated oven 
ake. They should bake about three fourths of an hour. 

Bran Cake 

1 cup lukewarm milk 
1 cake compressed yeast 

h^- pound sifted pastry flour (2 cups well shaken down) 

¥i cup of a lardlike vegetable shortening 
1 cup brown sugar 
1 egg 

1 teaspoon salt 

2 cups bran (3 ounces) 
^ cup raisins 

% cup dried currants 
^t cup broken walnut meats 
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring 



52 GOOD FOOD 

Dissolve the yeast cake in the warm milk, stir in the flour, and 
beat well. Set this sponge in a warm place to rise. Wash the rai- 
sins and currants, boil them in a little water till plump, and drain. 
Beat the shortening with a spoon till it is creamy. Beat the sugar 
into the shortening, and continue the beating till the mixture is light 
and creamy, then add the egg and beat till the mixture is stiff. 
When the sponge is light, beat this mixture into it, and beat in the 
salt and bran. Beat the whole well together, then stir in the raisins, 
currants, and nuts. Pour into an oiled bread tin, and set in a warm 
place to rise. Let it rise about one-half inch. Bake for about ofee 
hour in a slow oven. 

This recipe cannot be made successfully with oil as shortening. 
It requires a hard shortening. There are several lardlike vegetable 
shortenings on the market. Some are made from cottonseed oil, 
some are cocoanut fat. 

« 

No-Soda Bjflcuit 

In the morning set a sponge of: 

1 cup lukewarm skim milk, or whole milk 

1 cake compressed yeast (% cake will do if it is not desired 

to hasten the process) 
10 ounces sifted pastry flour (2^^ cups well shaken down) 

When this sponge is light, add: 

1/4 cup warm oil 

1 teaspoon salt 

2 teaspoons sugar 

4 ounces sifted pastry flour (1 cup well shaken down) 

Mix this very thoroughly. It will be too soft to knead. Set In a 
warm place to rise. When light, take the dough out on a floured 
bread board, roll it out three-fourths inch thick, and cut into biscuit 
with a biscuit cutter. Place the biscuit on an oiled pan, and set 
them in a warm place to rise. Let them rise about one-fourth incb, 
then bake. 

If this dough is to be used for shortcake, use one-third cup of oil, 
and the dough may be baked in a sheet instead of as biscuit, if de- 
sired. Then the sheet is split, and used as baking-powder shortcake 
is used. Or it may be baked as biscuit, and served as individual 
shortcakes. 

Corn Muffins 

1 cup lukewarm skim milk 

1 cake compressed yeast 

1% cups sifted bread flour 

% cup of a lardlike vegetable shortening 

1^ cup sugar 

1 egg 

1% teaspoons salt 

1K» cups cornmeal 



BREADS 



63 



Dissolve the yeast In the warm milk, add the bread flour, and 
«at well. Set in a warm place to rise. Cream together the ehorten- 
ng and the sugar, add the egg, and beat till light and stiC When 
he sponge Is light, add this mixture to it, and also the salt and com- 
neal. Beat well together. Pill muffin pans three fourths full of the 
clxture. Set in a warm place to rise, and allow to rise one-eighth 
neb, then bake. 



' ^cJ-'Al 



Corn HnSna, Btatin BtKoIt. and Rolli 
Dat* HuBni 

Stone and cut in small pieces twelve dates, and stir Into the mufSn 
mixture Just belore It Is put In the pans to rise. Or put one stoned 
late Into each muffin after the batter Is put into the pans. 

JuhnnTcako 

2 cups warm skim milk, or whole milk 
1 cake compressed yeast 
% pound Bitted bread flour, or Graham that Is real wheat 

1 egg 
Ml '^"P warm milk 
% cup sugar 

% cup o( a terdlike vegetable shortening 
4 teaspoons salt 
2^i cups cornmeal 
Make a sponge of the flrat three ingredients. Cream together the 
shortening, sugar, and egg, and add to the sponge after It has become 
light. Also add the milk, salt, and cornmeal, and beat well together. 
This should make a thick batter. Spread in an oiled pan In which 
it will be about three-fourths inch thick (a pan 8 s 12 inches is about 
the right size). Set in a warm place, and allow it to rise atuut 
one-eighth Inch, not more, then bake. 



54 GOOD FOOD 

The sponge for this johnnycake may be set at night, using one- 
fourth yeast cake. 

Boston Brown Bread 

Set a sponge of the following ingredients: 
2 cups lukewarm skim milk 

y^ cake compressed yeast 
1 cup cornmeal 

% cup rye meal or Graham flour (use the bran) 

% cup thoroughly dried bread crumbs 

When this sponge is light, which will be in about three hours, 
add the following to make a dough: 

% cup warm molasses 
1 teaspoon salt 
1 cup thoroughly dried bread crumbs 

I/O cup raisins, washed 

Mix thoroughly, and set in a warm place to rise again. When 
light, stir it down well, then put it in an oiled brown-bread tin, cover 
the tin, and put it at once in the steamer. Steam two hours. 
This is nice made the day before it is to be used, and then warmed 
up by steaming. 

Baked Douffhnuts (sixteen) 

Set a sponge of the following ingredients: 

1 cup lukewarm milk 

1 cake compressed yeast 

10 ounces sifted pastry flour 

When this sponge is light, stir into it: 
^/4 cup sugar 
y,i cup oil 

Allow it to rise again. When light, add: 

Vi cup sugar 

2 beaten eggs 

1 teaspoon salt 

8 ounces sifted pastry flour 

Mix thoroughly. This will be too soft to knead. Set it in a warm 
place to rise. When it is light, knead it together. Take the dough 
out onto a floured board, roll it out three-fourths inch thick, and cut 
with a doughnut cutter. Lay the doughnuts on an oiled pan one 
inch apart, and set in a warm place to rise. Allow them to rise 
about one-eighth inch, not morCy and then bake. Make a sugar sirup 
by dissolving H cup sugar in 1 tablespoon hot water. When the 
doughnuts are baked, brush each one over with the sirup, and roll 
/n granulated sugar, 



BREADS 55 

Onuifa and Cococuint Buns 

1 cup and 2 tablespoons water 
1 cake compressed yeast 

1 pound whole-wheat flour 
% cup shredded cocoanut 

% cup candied orange peel cut into small pieces 

2 egg yolks 
^ cup sugar 

1^ teaspoons salt 

3 tablespoons cooking oil 

Mix flour, cocoanut, and orange peel. Dissolve the yeast in the 
water. Stir in the egg yolks, salt, and oil. Beat well together. Then 
turn this liquid mixture into the flour mixture, knead till the dough 
is smooth, then proceed as in making other buns. 

Crumb Buns 

% pound whole-wheat flour 
1 cup coarse-ground zwieback crumbs 
1 cup and 2 tablespoons lukewarm water 
1 cake compressed yeast 
1 teaspoon salt 

% cup sugar 
3 tablespoons cooking oil 

Mix the crumbs and flour. Dissolve the yeast in the water; add 
the salt, sugar, and oil, and stir this liquid mixture into the flour 
and crumbs. Take out onto a bread board, and knead till the dough 
is smooth and free from lumps,, except the crumbs, then follow the 
usual method in making buns. 

Unless buns of all kinds are kept warm, 75° to 80° F., it would 
be better to mix the dough in the evening. If it is mixed in the 
norning and not kept warm, it will rise so slowly that the buns may 
lot be ready to bake till some time in the night. 

GLUTEN BREAD 

Here are directions by which any one can make gluten bread, 
;or this method does not require gluten flour, which is expensive anff 
cannot be obtained everywhere: 

Preparation of Gluten 

Make a dough of one quart cold water and three and one-half 
luarts sifted good bread flour. Knead the dough well, then allow 
t to stand in cold water from one-half to one hour. Then put the 
lough into water that feels decidedly warm to the hands. Work 
;he dough with the hands in the water. As the water becomes 
nilky, pour it off, and add fresh warm water. Continue to work the 
lough and pour off the water, pouring on fresh water, till the water 
emains clear. You should theu hav^ otx^ wx^ otift'lw^xXjL ^^\v5^§v^ 



56 GOOD FOOD 

of pure gluten, a tough, rubbery substance. Drain this gluten well. 
It is suflacient for one loaf of bread. 

Gluten Bread 

1^4 pounds gluten prepared as above 

2 cakes yeast, dissolved in one tablespoon warm water. 

% teaspoon salt 

^A cup oil 

8 ounces bread flour 

Work well till you have a perfectly smooth dough, then set in a 
warm place to rise. When risen, work it down. Allow it to rise 
again, then mold it into a loaf. Set the loaf in a warm place to rise 
till it is one and one-half times its original size. Then bake it one 
hour. 

This bread, if made from flour which is 10 per cent gluten, will 
be about 20 per cent gluten bread; if made from flour which is 12 
per cent gluten, it will be about 24 per cent gluten. (Bread flour is 
usually from 10 to 12 per cent gluten.) Ordinary bread is from 8 
to 10 per cent gluten. A loaf of bread made according to this recipe 
would contain about six ounces of starch, flve and one-half ounces of 
gluten, two ounces of fat, and the rest water. 

Pure Gluten Biscuit 

Take the pure gluten after it has been obtained by washing tho 
starch from the dough, cut it into pieces, and form them into balls 
about the size of small walnuts. Place these pieces on a baking pan, 
and bake in a slow oven till lightly browned. They will puff up and 
become very light. 

Nut Gluten Biscuit 

Mix with the gluten before it is formed into balls, one fourth as 
much chopped almonds as you have gluten. 

Laxative Gluten Biscuit 

Mix with the gluten one eighth as much wheat bran as you have 
gluten. 

UNFERMEN TED BREADS 

Unfermented breads are breads made light without the use of 
yeast. The Passover cakes of the Israelites are an example of such 
breads. The earliest forms of bread were unfermented, and these 
hard breads are, no doubt, the most wholesome, because they compel 
thorough mastication, and because there are no yeast germs in them 
to start fermentation in the stomach. While the t?rm " unfer- 
mented " may be applied to this kind of bread, this term is also 
applied to soft bread which is made light by some other process than 
fermentatioD. 



BREADS 67 

Commonly, soda or baking powder is used to leaven breads in 
'^hich yeast is not used. I will explain briefly why we do not sanc- 
tion the use of soda, baking powder, or other chemicals in the mak- 
ing of bread and cake. Soda is an alkali, somewhat similar to potash 
Or lye, but not so strong. Lye will eat the skin of the hands. Soda 
has a similar effect upon the lining of the stomach, which is not so 
tough as the skin of the hands. If great care is not taken in using 
soda, some of it will be left in the bread not neutralized by the acid 
with which it is used. But even when the soda is carefully propor- 
tioned to the acid, as it is in baking powder, so that no soda is left 
in the bread, there is still an objectionable chemical residue. 

In making biscuit, cream of tartar and soda are used in the pro- 
portion of two and one-fourth level teaspoons of cream of tartar and 
one level teaspoon of soda to one pint of flour. This will leave in 
the biscuit one hundred flfty grains, or two and one-half level tea- 
spoons of Rochelle salt. Rochelle salt, or any other chemical in 
food, is not food, and cannot be used by the body, but is an irritant, 
irritating the lining of the alimentary tract, the blood vessels, and 
the eliminative organs by which it must be elin^inated. Extra and 
useless work is put upon the eliminative organs, especially those 
whose duty it is to take care of poisons and prevent them from 
injuring the body. 

When soda is used with milk, sodium lactate is left in the bread; 
when it is used with vinegar or molasses, the residue is sodium 
acetate; when soda is used with phosphoric acid, as it is in some 
baking powders, phosphate of lime and soda is left in the bread; 
when soda is used with alum, as it is in other baking powders, 
Glauber salt, or sulphate of soda, and aluminum hydrate are left in 
the bread. All these chemical residues interfere more or less with 
digestion and with the life processes of the body, especially in per- 
sons who are not vigorous and who do not live an active outdoor 
life. 

To make breads light without the use of either yeast or chem- 
icals, air is incorporated into batter breads by beating with a batter 
whip, and into dough breads by beating with a mallet or by knead- 
ing. Such breads are sometimes called " aerated breads." 

It should be remembered that these breads depend for lightness 
entirely upon the process of making them. All the ingredients used 
should be as cold as possible. 

Pop-overs 

1 cup milk 

1 egg * 

^ teaspoon salt 

1 cup sifted bread flour 

Break the egg into a mixing bowl, an4 add the milk and salt. 
Beat with a batter whip enough to mix the milk and egg. Stir In 
the flour and beat till the batter is smooth, ^\i\cYv ^\\\ t^^xj^Vc^ ^^"^^ 



r tJBB or bested gem IroDB, 






egg 



r 2 tablespoona oil, and milk to 



1 cup milk, or part c 
fill the cup 
Vi teaspoon salt 
1 cup Blfted bread flour 
% cup unsifted Graham flour 
Beat together the milk, egg, and salt, add the flour, and beat 
about one minute, till the batter le Tree from lumps. Pour the bat- 
ter Into a quart measure, and turn It Into hot, slightly oiled gea 
Irons, filling them level full. Bake In a hot oven till nicely browned, 
(rom 35 to 40 minutes. 

Whole-wheat gems are made by using whole-wheat flour In tbis 
recipe Instead ot the Graham, or one and three-fourths cups ot whole- 
wheat flour may be used, and no white flour. Rye gems are made 
by using rye flour or meat instead of the Graham. White gems are 
made by using one and three-fourths cups of white flour. For cu^ 
rant gems, mix one-tourth cup of washed and dried currants inlo 
the batter. For nut gems use one-fourth cup of chopped walnuts. 

If It Is desired to have the gems a little finer grained, the white 
may be separated from the yolk of the egg, the remaining ingredients 
beaten together, and the stiffly beaten white folded In last. 




roortna: th* B»W*t W» *• W«*U4, ^t™» 



BREADS 59 

Bran Genu 

2 tablespoons cooking oil 
2 tablespoons molasses 
% cup milk (sufficient milk to fill the cup after the til and 
molasses have been put into the cup) 
1 egg 
% cup wheat bran 
1 cup unsifted Graham flour (or 1 cup bran and 1 cup bread 
flour may be used) 
y2 teaspoon salt 

[n a mixing bowl beat together the milk, egg, oil, molasses, and 
Stir in the bran and flour. Beat thoroughly, then drop into 
oiled gem irons. Bake in a moderate oven till nicely browned, 
se are excellent for constipation. 

Gems Without EggB 

Do not be afraid to try these. They will be light in spite of the 
ier's doubts, if the recipe is followed exactly, making no change 
neasurements. 

1 cup cold water 

1 cup cold milk, or 2 cups either water or milk 

2 cups unsifted Graham flour, whole-wheat, or white flour 
1^ teaspoon salt 

Beat (not stir) the flour into the liquid with a wire whip, wire 
m, or Dover egg beater, sprinkling the flour in slowly with the 
ers. Beat vigorously for two minutes. Pour into hot oiled gem 
8, and bake in a hot oven. These gems will be lighter if the 
;er is allowed to stand for several hours, or overnight, in the re- 
erator. Do not stir the batter in the morning. 

Graham Breakfast Rolls 

% cup unsifted Graham flour 
1^ cups bread flour 
% teaspoon salt 

3 tablespoons butter substitute 
% cup milk (scant) 

Mix the two kinds of flour and the salt. Rub the butter substitute 
» the flour with the hands. Stir in the milk, and work to a dough. 
)ad well till the dough is smooth. This dough should be stiff. 
h the palms of the hands roll the dough over and over on the 
id board until a long roll about three-fourths inch in diameter is 
ned. Cut the roll into two-inch pieces, prick with a fork, and 
ie on a baking pan far enough apart so that they will not touch 
ti other when baking. When done, allow them to cool on the pan 
which they were baked. 

Cream Rolls 

2 cups sifted bread flour 
% teaspoon salt 
% cup thin cream 



60 OOOD FOOD 

Mix the salt with the flour. Stir in the cream. Knead well, and 
proceed as in making Graham rolls. 

Date Rolls 

1^2 cups sifted pastry flour 

l^ cup hard vegetable shortening, such as crisco 

% teaspoon salt. 

% cup milk or water 
Stoned dates 

Mix the dough according to the directions for Graham rolls. 
When well kneaded, roll it out with a rolling-pin into a sheet one- 
eighth inch thick. Cut the sheet into strips two inches wide. Lay 
halves of stoned dates along the middle of these strips. Wet one 
edge of the strip. Then roll the strip sidewise over the dates so as 
to make a long roll about three-fourths inch in diameter having dates 
through its entire length. Cut the roll into two-inch pieces. Bake 
till nicely browned. 

Raisins or strips of flgs may be used instead of the dates. 

Hoe Cake 

1 cup cornmeal 

1 tablespoon pastry flour 

1 cup milk 

14 cup cream 

1 teaspoon salt 

1 egg 

Mix meal, flour, and salt. Heat milk and cream, and when boil- 
ing hot pour over meal. Mix well. Separate the egg, stir the yolk 
into the meal mixture, beat the white stiff, and fold it in last. Drop 
by spoonfuls on an oiled baking pan, and bake in a hot oven about 
twenty minutes. 

Hot Cakes 

% cup fine zwieback crumbs, or thoroughly dried bread 
crumbs 
3 tablespoons flour, or % cup buckwheat flour 

V4, teaspoon salt 
1% cups milk 
1 egg 
Mix the crumbs, flour, and salt. Heat the milk, not to boiling, 
but somewhat hotter than the hand can bear — about 145° F. Pour 
enough of the hot milk over the crumbs to make a rather stiff pour 
batter. Separate the white from the yolk of the egg. Stir the yolk 
into the crumb mixture. Beat the white stiff, and fold- it into the 
mixture last. Cook on a hot, slightly oiled griddle till browned on 
one side, then turn and brown the other side. 



SOUPS 



Meat soups contain very little nourishment. For the sake of 
comparison we will give the food value of a few liquid foods, the 
figures being based upon tables of food values issued by the United 
States Government: - 

('ALORIES PER OUNCE 

Beef soup 8.0 

Beef broth 4.7 

Beef juice ' 7.5 

Beef tea 0.5 

Milk 20.6 

Pea soup 25.9 

Bean soup , 25.1 

Apples 18.4 

Grape juice 23.8 

Apple juice 17.0 

Pea soup and bean soup, having the above nutritive value, are 
made from peas or beans and water, one pound of pieas or beans 
making two quarts of soup. 

The name '' extract " suggests that beef extracts contain the nour- 
ishment of the meat from which they are made; but the fact is they 
contain only the flavoring matter of the meat, and really consist of 
those substances which are the waste products of the life processes. 
These in due course would have been eliminated by the excretory 
organs of the animal if it had lived. In eating beef soups and broths 
we are only introducing into our systems waste products which must 
be eliminated, and thus extra work is put upon our eliminative 
organs. 

It is an interesting fact that vegetable broths are an antidote 
for such waste products as are in beef tea, as they contain substances 
which help the body to throw off these wastes. And at the same time 
they supply real nourishment. The mineral salts contained in veg- 
etable broths and fruit juices may be called " nature's medicines," 
for it is lack of these that allows the body to succumb to many 
illnesses. 

The mineral matter in vegetables readily dissolves in the water 
in which they are cooked, and this water is too valuable to be thrown 
away. Delicious bouillon can be made by simply mixing together 
the water in which different vegetables have been cooked, such as 
string beans, peas, asparagus, spinach, onions, cabba^^, \A\SiAb X^^i^xi^^.. 



62 GOOD FOOD 

potatoes, baked peanuts. To the water a little strained tomato may 
be added, and a little thyme or summer savory may be used for 
seasoning. 

There are on the market vegetable extracts, put up in the same 
form as beef extracts, and vegetable bouillon cubes, which so closely 
resemble meat extract in chemical composition and flavor as almost 
to deceive one into the belief that they contain meat extract. These 
may be used in flavoring vegetable broths. 

We might divide soups into four classes; namely, broths, or thin 
soups; vegetable and tomato soups; cream soups; and legume soups. 
The last named are the most nutritious. 

A good substitute for chicken broth can be made by using the 
broth from green peas, Lima beans, and baked peanuts. Protose 
broth may be used instead of the broth from peanuts. 

Bean Broth 

Thoroughly wash one pint of pea beans, and put them to cook in 
two quarts or more of cold water. Bring them to a boil slowly, and 
simmer gently for several hours, adding boiling water if necessary, 
till the water in which the beans are cooking becomes rich. Drain 
off the water, of which there should be not much more than one pint, 
season with salt, and it is ready to serve. A few grains of thyme 
also may be used for seasoning. 

When properly made, this broth is so rich that when it is cold it 
is jellylike in consistency. It is a nutritious and digestible food for 
persons who must take a liquid diet. 

The beans which are left may be made into a pur6e, and sea- 
soned with salt and cream or vegetable oil or butter substitute; or 
they may be seasoned with salt and two or three tablespoons of oil, 
and baked in a pan in the oven till nicely browned on top. 

Split pea broth is made in a similar manner, and is even more 
delicious than the bean broth. 

Bran Broth 

Bran contains valuable mineral salts of which people deprive 
themselves when their diet consists largely of white-flour products. 
Bran broth is valuable for supplying these substances. 

1 cup wheat bran 

1 slice of onion 

1 small stalk of celery, chopped 

1 small carrot, chopped 

A few drops of caramel 

Put all except the caramel to cook in one quart of cold water, 
and simmer slowly till there is about one pint of broth left. Strain 
through cheesecloth. Add salt and caramel, reheat, and serve. 



SOUPS «s 

Caramel is valuable to keep on hand for coloring and flavoring 
Bonps, gravies, custards, and pudding sauces. It is made as follows: 

Caramd 

Put one cup sugar to cook in one-fourth cup water over a hot 
fire. Keep it boiling, watching it closely, until it has turned a dark- 
brown color, has a caramel odor, and looks almost as if it is scorch- 
ing, but be careful not to scorch it. Have a little boiling water ready, 
and when the sugar has reached the right point, pour the water into 
the caramel, being careful that it does not spatter on you. The water 
will harden some of the caramel. Allow it to cook till the caramel 
dissolves. It should then be an almost black liquid, and is ready for 
use. It may be put into a bottle and will keep indefinitely. 

Spinach or Asparaffiis Cream Broth 

Season with cream and salt, the water in which spinach or aspara- 
^s has been cooked. Serve hot. 

The spinach water should not be too strong, or it will not be 
palatable. It should be diluted with water till it has a mild flavor, 
lust a little spinach water added to gravies or to vegetable soups 
s;ives them a meaty flavor. 

Both spinach water and asparagus water are too valuable to be 
thrown away. 

Vegetable Broth 

This broth is especially valuable for its mineral content, and 
^ill help to maintain the alkalinity of the blood and the vitality of 
the body. 

1 pint finely chopped celery 

1 pint finely chopped carrots 

l^ pint finely chopped turnips 

^ pint finely chopped onions 

'^^ pint tomatoes 

4 sprigs parsley 

1% quarts cold water 

Put the vegetables to cook in the cold water, and heat them 
gradually till just below the boiling point. Keep them at this tem- 
perature for about four hours. This may be accomplished by cook- 
ing in a double boiler. Cooked in this way, no odors are given off, 
and therefore nothing is lost. Drain off the water. This broth may 
be served simply with the addition of salt, or cream may be added, 
which will increase both its palatability and its nutritive value. 

This recipe is only an example. Other combinations of vege- 
tables may be used, adding to them an equal bulk of cold water after 
they are chopped, and proceeding according to directions for this 
recipe. When beets are used with other vegetables, a broth can be 
made that resembles prune juice in flavor. 



(54 GOOD FOOD 

Vegetable Bouillon 

1 cup chopped carrots 

1 cup chopped turnips 

1 cup chopped celery, outside stalks and leaves will do 

1 cup chopped onions 

2 cups strained tomatoes 

1 cup broth from canned or fresh stewed asparagus 

V2 cup broth from canned or fresh boiled spinach 

2i/l» quarts water 

1 teaspoon salt 

Mix all the ingredients, except the salt. Bring to a boil, and 
simmer slowly three or four hours. Turn through d strainer. There 
should be about one pint of broth. Season with the salt. One bay 
leaf may be cooked with the vegetables, if desired, and the broth may 
be seasoned with thyme or summer savory. A tablespoon of nut soup 
stock may be added or a teaspoon of vegex. 



Protose Broth 

V2 pound protose or similar vegetable meat 
1 pint cold water 

U cup broth from canned asparagus or water in which aspar- 
agus has been cooked 

% bay leaf 

% teaspoon celery salt 

% small onion, chopped 

Mash the protose. Put it into the water with the asparagus broth, 
bay leaf, and onion. Bring slowly to boiling, and simmer slowly 
for about two hours. Strain. There should be about one cup of 
broth. Season with salt and a bit of thyme, if desired. Reheat 
and serve. 

Clear Tomato Soup 

1 pint canned tomatoes, or sufficient fresh tomatoes to make 

1 pint when stewed 
1 cup ^ater 
M» onion, sliced 
A bit of bay leaf 
A few grains of summer savory 
A few grains of thyme 
1 teaspoon sugar 
1 teaspoon salt 

Cook all together twenty minutes. Rub through a fine colander. 
Reheat, adding water to make up for what has boiled away. Thicken 
with two tablespoons flour rubbed smooth with a little cold water. 
Affrf one tahleapoon butter or salad oil. 



80UPB 65 

Lemni* and Vecvtmble Soap 

l^ cup dry Lima beans 
2 tablespoons green split peas 
1 cup chopped carrots 

1 cup chopped cabbage 

2 tablespoons chopped celery 
1/4 cup chopped turnips 

2 tablespoons okra (fresh or canned)' 

1 small onion, chopped 
yt cup chopped parsley 

2 quarts water 

1/4 cup unroasted peanut butter or very finely chopped raw 
peanuts 
1 tablespoon salt 

Instead of the raw peanuts or peanut butter, two tablespoons nut 
soup stock or one tablespoon vegex may be used. If these are used, 
the beans and peas may be omitted. 

Wash the beans and peas and put them to cook in the cold water. 
Prepare the vegetables and put them, except the parsley, to cook with 
the peas and beans. Boil slowly five hours. At the end of four 
bours' cooking add the chopped peanuts or the peanut butter thinned 
with hot water. After another hour's cooking add the salt, chopped 
parsley, and boiling water to replace what has boiled away. Serve 
w\th croutons. 

Vesretable Soup 

% of Si carrot 

% of a small turnip 
Small piece of cabbage 
1 stalk of celery 

1 onion 

2 potatoes 

2 quarts water 

2 teaspoons vegetable oil or butter 

% cup nut soup stock 
1 cup strained tomatoes 
1 teaspoon summer savory 
1 tablespoon salt 

Grind the vegetables through a food chopper with the coarse 
cutter. Put to cook in two quarts cold water. Simmer for three 
[lours. Dissolve the soup stock in the tomato, heat it to boiling, and 
add it to the soup. Cook one hour longer. Add the savory and salt, 
and if there is not two quarts, add hot water to make that amount. 

The soup stock may be omitted and one-third cup of split peas 
cooked with the vegetables to take its place. 

The broth from this soup may be used for bouUloiv. 
5 



66 0001) FOOD 

Tomato Bisque 

1 cup strained tomato 

2 cups water 

^ cup peanut butter 
1 teaspoon salt 

Rub the nut butter smooth with the water. Add strained tomato 
and salt, and cook in a double boiler fifteen minutes. 

Tomato Macaroni or Vermicelli Soup 

1 cup Strained tomato 

2 cups water 

4 teaspoons peanut butter 

iy2 tablespoons fine macaroni or vermicelli 

1 teaspoon salt 

Rub the nut butter smooth with the water. Add the tomato and 
salt, and heat in a double boiler. Add the macaroni, and cook from 
thirty to forty minutes. 

To make tomato rice soup, use rice instead of macaroni. 

Barley and Tomato Soup 

iy2 cups tomato 
ly^ cups water 

1 small onion, sliced 

2 tablespoons pearl barley 

^ tablespoon oil or butter substitute 

1 teaspoon salt 

Cook together all the ingredients except the barley for twenty 
minutes. Rub through a fine colander. Add water, if necessary, to 
make three-fourths quart. Put into a double boiler. Add *Jie barley, 
which has been thoroughly washed, and cook four or five hours. 

Cream of Almond Soup 

2 ounces shelled almonds 
1^ cups hot water 

ly^ cups hot milk 
1 teaspoon salt 

Blanch and thoroughly dry the almonds, and grind them through 
a food chopper, using the nut-butter cutter. Rub this almond butter 
smooth with the water. Cook in a double boiler twenty minutes, or 
till the nut butter has thickened the water somewhat. Add the hot 
milk and salt, and heat together a few minutes. 

Cream Chestnut Soup 

To shell the chestnuts, wash them, and cut a slit in the side of 
each one, then boil them for a few minutes. Drain off the water and 
pour cold water over them. The shells and tough skins that cover 
the kernel can then be easily peeled off. 

Boil the peeled chestnuts till tender in a small quantity of water. 
Bub them through a colander. For one cup of the pur^e, use: 



SOUPS 67 

1 cup of the water in which the chestnuts were boiled 

1 pint mill^ 

2 tablespoons oil or butter 

1 tablespoon flour 
1% teaspoons salt 

Heat the milk in a double boiler. Thicken it with the flour 
stirred smooth with a little cold water. Add remaining ingredients. 
Reheat. 

Cream Tomato Soup 

In making cream tomato soup, it is not necessary, as is usually 
supposed, to use soda in order to keep it from curdling. It may be 
made in two ways: First, by using cream; second, by using milk and 
taking sufficient care in making the soup. 

No. 1 

2 cups strained tomato 
1 cup water 

1 cup cream 

2 tablespoons flour 
1^ teaspoons salt 

Grated yellow rind of Mj orange 

Heat tomato and water to boiling. Stir the flour smooth with 
the cream, and whip it into the boiling liquid. Add salt and the 
orange rind, and serve at once. There is so little casein in the cream 
that the soup is not likely to curdle when made this way. 

No. 2 

1 pint strained tomato 
1 pint milk 

3 tablespoons flour 
1^ teaspoons salt 

Heat the tomato to boiling, and thicken it with one and one-half 
tablespoons of the flour stirred smooth with a little cold water. 
Heat the milk in a double boiler, and thicken it with one and one- 
half tablespoons of flour. Add the salt to the tomato. Slowly add 
the thickened tomato to the thickened milk, whipping the milk as 
the tomato is poured in. Remove from the flre, and serve at once. 

This must not be allowed to heat again after the tomato and milk 
are mixed, because it will curdle if they are heated together. 

Tomato Cream Soup 

% quart milk 
1^ tablespoons flour 

% to 1 teaspoon salt 
Tomato juice 

Heat milk in a double boiler. Thicken with the flour rubbed 
smooth with a little cold milk. Whip in suflacient hot tomato juice 
to give the soup a pretty pink color. Add salt, aiv^ ^«\:n^ ^\. wv^<i. 



68 GOOD FOOD 

B«et Cream Soap 

Chop one large beet very fine or grind it through a food chopper, 
taking care not to lose any of the juice. Add to it two and one- 
half cups milk. Steep in a double boiler fifteen or twenty minutes 
or longer after it reaches scalding temperature. Strain out the 
beet, pressing it well to extract all the flavor. Return the soup to 
the double boiler. Reheat, and thicken with one tablespoon of flour 
stirred smooth with a little cold milk. Add salt and one tablespoon 
of oil. 

Cream Celery Soup 

The following method seems to me to be a great improvement 
over the usual method of making cream celery, cream lettuce, cream 
cucumber, and cream corn soups. Stewing lettuce, celery, or cu- 
cumber, as is usually done in making these soups, changes the flavor. 
This method retains more of the flavor of the fresh vegetable: 

2 stalks celery. (Tough outside stalks will do.) 

% quart milk 

1 tablespoon flour 

1 tablespoon oil or butter 

^2 teaspoon salt 

Grind the celery through a food chopper, being sure to save any 
juice that runs out of the chopper. Steep the celery in the milk in 
a double boiler one-half hour. Strain out the celery. Press well to 
extract all the juice. Put the liquid back into the double boiler, and 
heat again to boiling. Thicken with the flour stirred smooth with a 
little cold milk. Stir in oil and salt. 

Cream Lettuce Soup 

Follow directions for cream celery soup, using four large lettuce 
leaves instead of the celery. 

Cream Cucumber Soup 

Follow directions for cream celery soup, using one medium cu- 
cumber instead of the celery. The cucumber need not be peeled. 

Cream Watercress Soup 

Follow directions for cream celery soup, using a few sprigs of 
watercress instead of the celery. 

Cream Corn Soup 

Follow directions for cream celery soup, using one cup com 
scraped from the cob, instead of the celery; and instead of merely 
straining the corn out of the milk after steeping, rub the corn 
through a colander, and use the pulp in the soup. 

Half water may be used in these soups, but they will not be so 
r/c/]. 



SOUPS 69 

Cream Peanut Soap 

1 pint milk, or 1 cup milk and 1 cup water 
1. tablespoon peanut butter 

2 tablespoons shredded cocoanut 
2 teaspoons flour 

% teaspoon salt 

Rub the nut butter smooth with the liquid. Add the cocoanut. 
Steep fifteen or twenty minutes in a double boiler. Strain out the 
cocoanut. Reheat, and thicken with the flour stirred smooth with a 
little cold water. Add salt. 

Nut Chowder 

% cup diced potato 

1 tablespoon diced onion 

V2 tablespoon oil or butter 

% cup water 

1% cups hot milk 

% cup diced nut cheese 

Vo teaspoon salt 

Cook the onion in the oil till tender. Add the water and potato, 
and cook till the potato is tender. Add remaining ingredients. 

Com Chowder 

l<i can corn, or an equal quantity of fresh corn, or 14 cup 
dried corn stewed till tender. (The dried corn makes 
the best chowder.) 
1 cup diced potato 
1 small onion diced, and cooked in Y2 tablespoon oil or 

butter 
1 pint hot milk 
% teaspoon salt 

Cook potato and browned onion in three-fourths cup water till 
the potato is tender. Add remaining ingredients, and heat together 
a few minutes. 

Macaroni Cream Soup 

Fine macaroni, especially nice for use in soups, can be had in 
the shape of rice, seeds, shells, rings, letters, stars, and other shapes. 

1 tablespoon of one of these kinds, or of ordinary macaroni 
broken into small pieces 

% cup potato, chopped fine 

^ cup onion, chopped fine 
1 pint hot milk 

% teaspoon salt 
1 tablespoon chopped parsley 

Cook macaroni, potato, and onion in one pint water till all are 
tender, Add remaining ingredients. 



70 GOOD FOOD 

Yeffetable Oyster Soup 

1 large vegetable oyster 

1 pint milk, or 1 cup milk and 1 cup cream 
% tablespoon flour 

2 tablespoons butter, if cream is not used 
1^ teaspoons salt 

Put the vegetable oyster into boiling water for two minutes, then 
put it into cold water, scrape off the skin, arid cut into small dice. 
Put it to cook in one pint of cold water. Cook slowly till tender. 
Rub half of the oyster through a colander. Then put the water In 
which the oyster was cooked, the diced oyster and the oyster pulp, 
and the milk, or milk and cream, all together in a double boiler. If 
the ingredients do not make one quart, add water to make one quart. 
Heat to boiling, and thicken with the flour stirred smooth with a 
little cold water. Stir in the butter and salt. 

Lentil Soup 

1 ' cup brown lentils 

1 teaspoon flnely chopped onion 

1 tablespoon flour 

2 tablespoons o\\ or butter 
1% teaspoons salt 

Wash the lentils and soak them overnight. In the morning put 
them to cook in cold water, and cook slowly for two or three hours, 
or until thoroughly tender. Rub them through a colander. Brown 
the onion and flour in the oil. Add these and the salt to the lentil 
pur§e, and sufficient hot water to make the soup of the proper con- 
sistency. This should make about one quart of soup. 

The onion, oil, and flour may be omitted, and the soup seasoned 
with cream or milk. 

Split Pea Soup 

1 cup split peas 
1/4 cup peanut butter 
1 potato about the size of a butternut 
1 onion about the size of a walnut 
1^ teaspoons salt 

Wash the peas, and soak them overnight. In the morning 
them to cook in cold water with the peanut butter, the onion, 
the potato, which has been scrubbed and sliced without 
Cook slowly four or five hours till the peas are thoroughly Botti 
The creamy, rich consistency of this soup, as well as of bean 
lentil soups, is obtained by long cooking. If the peas or beai 
lentils are not sufficiently cooked, they will be mealy and will 
to the bottom of the soup. Rub the whole through a colander, 
salt, and enough water to make of the proper consistency, and reheat*- 
TA/s should make about one quart of soup. 




SOUPB 



71 



Tbe peanut butter, potato, and onion may be omitted, and the soup 
seasoned with cream or milk or with one-eighth to one-fourth cup 
of oil or butter. The peas can be cooked In a double boiler almost 
as quickly ae if cooked directly over the stove, and there will be no 
danger of scorch tag them. 

Bean soup can be made by the same recipe, using any kind ot 
dried beans In place of the peas. 

N«hII« 

1 egg 

1 tablespoon cream 

Vi teaspoon salt 

1 cup sifted flour 

Beat the egg with tbe aalt. Add the cream, and beat again; then 
add the flour. Sufficient flour should be added to make a dough as 
stiff as can be kneaded. Roll this dough into a long, nBrro.w strip, 
about one sliteenth of an Inch thick. Sprinkle it with flour, and 
roll Into a long roll, crosswise. Then with a sharp knife cut it Into 
thin strips about one sixteenth of an inch wide. This may be used 
at once by putting It into the boiling soup twenty minutes before It 
is served; or It may be dried, and put away to be used as needed. 

Dunplinn 

2% tablespoons oil 
^ cup boiling water 
^ cup sifted pastry flour 
% teaspoon salt 

2 e^a 

Put oil, water, and salt Into & saucepan. When boiling, throw 
In the dry flour all at once, and stir ttlt a smooth paste is formed. 
Cool this mixture, then beat !n the eggs, one at a time. Drop tea- 
spoons of this paste Into the boiling soup and cook ten minutes or 
longer. 




Cmn 't Tomi 



LEGUMES 



Legumes Is a name given to the bean ramlly, which include! 
various kinds of beans, peas, lentils, and peanuts. The name 
" pulse " is also applied to this class of food substances. Legumes 
differ from other vegetable foods Id that they contain a much larger 
proportion of protein, the nitrogenous food principle, which Is the 
building material, the food substance which composes lean meat. In 
fact, dried legumes contain a larger proportion of this body-building 
material than any other food, not excepting meat. 

The nitrogenous substance of legumes is called " legumln." Its 
resemblance to the casein of milk enables the Chinese to make cheese 
from beans. 

Peas and lentils are more easily digested than beans. Beans 
have a bad reputation, a reputation lor being 'proverbially hard to 
digest, so much so that only persons who are doing the most vigor- 
ous muscular work are supposed to be able to digest them. There 




are three reasons for this reputation: First, beans are almost always 
Insufficiently cooked; second, they are often Improperly masticated, 
leaving the skin which covers them tough and unbroken, in which 
state it Is likely to Interfere with digestion; third, the large amount 
of pork fat usually cooked with them renders them indigestible. 
These facta give us the key to the proper cooking and eating of 
legumes. 

The tendency of beans to produce flatulence may be partly due to 
the tough hulls where the beans are Improperly cooked and Improp- 
erly masticated, and partly to the fact that beans are rich In aulpbnr. 
which gives rise to eulphureted hydrogen gas. Peas contain leu 
sulphur than beans, and lentils still less. The objectlonalile bolU 

72 



LEGUMES 73 

may be sifted out or pulverized by putting the legumes through a 
colander, thus making a pur6e of them; if dry enough, they may be 
baked in the form of a loaf. The legumes are also rich In iron. 

Many cooks believe it is necessary to add soda to beans, to re- 
move some poison or to cause the beans to cook more quickly. A 
reasonable excuse for using soda can be given only when hard water 
is used for cooking them. Hard water contains salts of lime, and 
the legumin of beans is able to unite with It to form an insoluble 
compound. Therefore it is not possible to cook beans properly in 
hard water. The addition of a little soda to the water precipitates 
the lime, and makes it possible to cook the beans in hard water, 
but it is far better to use soft water for cooking beans. Rain water 
is best. 

The following table gives the food value of the dry legumes. As 
we eat them cooked, as stewed beans, peas, or lentils, their food 
value is only about one third as much, and the addition of a little fat 
of some kind for seasoning will make the proportion of fat a little 
higher. 

Food value in calories per ounce of some of the common varieties 
of legumes: 

Protein Fat Carbo. Total 

Soy beans 39.4 42.7 39.1 121.2 

Lima beans 21.0 4.0 76.4 101.4 

Dried peas 28.5 2.7 71.9 103.1 

Chick-peas 14.4 17.7 73.4 105.5 

Lentils 29.8 2.6 68.7 101.1 

Peanuts 29.9 101.9 28.3 160.1 

Peanut butter 34.0 122.8 19.8 176.6 

For comparison we will give the food value of a few other pro- 
tein foods: 

Protein Fat Carbo. Total 

Milk 3.8 10.6 5.8 20.2 

Eggs 15.6 27.7 43.3 

Lean meat 26.2 7.4 33.6 

THE COOKING OF LEGUMES 

From what has already been said about legumes we learn: (1) 
That to prepare them properly for the table they require long, slow 
cooking in soft water, so as to soften all the cellulose which they 
contain; (2) that a wholesome, easily digested fat should be used 
with them; and (3) that, when eaten, they should be thoroughly 
masticated. The legumes, with the exception of the soy bean and 
the peanut, being deficient in fat, really need the addition of some 
kind of fat to make them a' well-balanced food. 

Since one of the objects to be attained in the cooking of the 
legumes is to bring them back as nearly as po^^WA^ \.o XXil^Vc ^^^' 



74 OOOD FOOD 

dition before they were dried, they should be soaked in cold water, 
that they may absorb as much water as possible before they are put 
to cook. 

stewed Beans 

Thoroughly wash one pint of beans. Soak them overnight, then 
drain off the water in which they were soaked, and put them to cook 
in fresh cold water. Bring them to a boil slowly, after which allow 
them to cook slowly from three to five hours, according to the age 
of the beans. Add 2% teaspoons of salt and a little cream or two 
tablespoons of vegetable oil or butter substitute. 

The parboiling of beans is unnecessary so far as wholesomeness 
is concerned. Some persons prefer to parboil them to remove some 
of their strong bean flavor, which they find objectionable. 

Salt should not be added to beans till they are done, as it hard- 
ens the beans and hinders the cooking process. 

Bean Puree 

Allow the beans to cook down dry at the last, then rub through 
a pur^e sieve. Season with salt and rich cream or other fat. 

This pur6e may be pressed into an oiled bread tin and baked, 
when it may be sliced and served with chili sauce, mint sauce, or 
gravy. 

Ribbon Beans 

Make dry pur^e of white beans and of kidney or black beans. 
Season well with salt and rich cream, or a vegetable fat, and press 
in alternate layers In an oiled tin. Bake, slice, and serve with mint 
*»auce. 

Bean Patties 

Seasoned bean pur^e may be shaped into patties, baked in a quick 
oven, and served on creamed macaroni or with chili sauce or tomato 
cream sauce or peanut-butter gravy. 

Baked Beans 

The food value in calories per ounce of beans baked according 
to this recipe is as follows: 

Protein Fat Carbo. Total 

6.3 5.1 17.1 28.5 

Baked Beans — No. 1 

1 pint California pea beans 

2l^ teaspoons salt 

1 tablespoon molasses 

2 tablespoons cooking oil 

Wash the beans and soak them overnight. In the morning drain 
off the water and put them into a bean pot. Add the remaining in- 
gredients, and sufficient boiling water to cover them. Cover the pot 
and bake them in a moderate oven for twelve hours or longer, adding 
boiling water when necessary. 



LEGUMES 75 

Parboiling is unnecessary, but is generally done. The beans will 
be better if they are baked twelve or even twenty-four hours, but 
the heat of the oven must be moderate. 

Other pea beans than the California may be used. Sugar may be 
substituted for the molasses, but the molasses is necessary to give 
the real Boston baked-bean flavor. 

One pint or less of strained tomatoes may be used in place of 
part of the water with which the beans are covered when put to 
bake. 

Baked Beans — No. 2 

Some people prefer to season the beans, after parboiling, with 
oil and salt, omitting the molasses, or using sugar, and then place 
them in a shallow baking pan, cover with hot water, and bake for 
three or four hours, adding boiling water as necessary, having the 
top nicely browned when the beans are done. 

Peas 

Peas may be prepared according to all the recipes given for cook- 
ing beans. They even make an excellent dish baked according to 
the recipe for baked beans. 

Pea Cutlets with Nut Crumbs 

When you have some left-ov^r peas pur^e, pack it in an oiled 
bread tin. The next day it may be removed from the pan and sliced. 
Dip the slices in a mixture of one egg and one tablespoon of water, 
beaten together, then roll them in chopped English walnuts. Place 
them on ah oiled pan, and bake fifteen or twenty minutes in a hot 
oven. Serve with tomato cream sauce. 

Baked Split Peas 

Wash well one pint of green split peas, and soak them overnight. 
In the morning put them into a double boiler and cook till tender. 
They will get tender almost as quickly in a double boiler as -if cooked 
directly over the stove, and there is no danger of scorching them. 
Add to them 2% teaspoons salt, one half cup rich cream or one fourth 
cup vegetable oil. Put them into a baking pan in which they will 
be about two inches deep, with water enough to cover them. Bake 
slowly for one hour or more, till they are thoroughly tender and dry 
and mealy. Serve with cream sauce or tomato sauce. 

^^ Lentils 

Lentils have a stronger flavor than peas or beans, which is not 
generally liked till one has become accustomed to it. But they can 
be made into dishes having a more meaty flavor than the other leg- 
umes. They contain more protein. Their hulls are tough, and while 
the lentils may be cooked in all the ways in which beans are cooked, 
they are better if made into soup, pur§e, or patU^s — ^otcl^ \wtb. \w 



76 GOOD FOOD 

which the hull is removed. In this form they are more easily di- 
gested than peas or beans. 

Lentil cutlets with nut crumbs may be made according to the 
recipe for pea cutlets, and they are even more enjoyable. 

Lentil Timbales 

IV2 cups milk 

% cup very dry lentil pur^e 
2 eggs, beaten 

% teaspoon salt 

If the pur6e is not very dry, l^A cups milk and three-fourths cup 
pur6e may be used. 

Beat the ingredients well together, pour into oiled timbale cups, 
and bake in a pan of water till '* set" Allow the timbales to cool 
a little, then remove from the molds, and serve with walnut gravy. 

Lentil and Rice Cakes 

1 cup dry lentil pur^e 

1 cup cooked rice 

1 tablespoon chopped onion 

1 tablespoon oil 

Salt 

Cook the onion in the oil till •it is light brown, then mix the 
ingredients well together. Season T^ith salt, form into cakes, place 
the cakes on an oiled pan, and heat in a hot oven. Serve with 
brown sauce. 

Peanuts 

Peanuts are legumes, and need cooking in the same way that 
beans are cooked. Roasting them is like %ying them in their own 
fat, for, unlike beans, they contain a large^^mpt of fat, — nearly 
40 per cent. 

Baked Peanuts 

FOOD VALUE IN CALORIES PER OUN 
Protein Fat Carbo. 

12.9 44.4 12.3 

Peanuts are most wholesome baked like beans. IJ^^^iling water 
to blanch, spread in a pan, and dry in a moderatl^Hn. Do not 
brown. Then rub in the hands or a coarse cloth sa^Hind winnow 
in the wind. Soak overnight, then cover with wat^^ season with 
two teaspoons salt to each pint of dry peanuts, and bake In a mod- 
erate oven from 12 to 24 hours. If preferred, add a little tomato 
juice, browned flour, onion, and bay leaf before baking. 




I 



NUTS 



If fruits are the " queens among foods," it seems to me that nuts 
ire the kings. Most nuts are really fruits or parts (seeds) of 
truits, though they are quite different from those products which we 
are accustomed to think of as fruits. They are the hard fruits. 

Nuts may well form a substantial part of the diet, and that is 
the way they ought to be used. They are rich in fat and protein, 
and contain, with the exception of the chestnut and the peanut, very 
little or no starch. They are, next to pure fats, the most concen- 
trated of all foods. They must not be used as the main food supply, 
but merely as an accompaniment of other more bulky foods. If 
we think of them as butter substitutes rather than meat substitutes, 
— and they, with legumes, can well supply the place of both meat 
and butter, — we shall approach more nearly to a proper use of them, 
for no one would think of making butter a main article of diet. 
Nuts are nature's meat and butter, and they do not have to be kept 
In cold storage. Nature herself has sealed up their nourishment 
against the action of the elements. 

All nuts, except chestnuts, being rich in protein and fat, may 
be used as meat substitutes and eaten with carbohydrate foods, as 
bread, potatoes, and fruit, and the less concentrated foods, as green 
(vegetables; while chestnuts, which resemble bread in their compo- 
sition, may be eaten as a vegetable and in combination with. milk, 
;ream, eggs, or other nuts. 

Nuts have a reputation for indigestibility second to nothing but 
-ich pies and puddings, and they are able to sustain this reputation 
Ls they are usually eaten — not well masticated, eaten between meals 
)r late at night or after a hearty meal. But when reduced to a 
inely divided state, either before or during mastication, and eaten 
n reasonable quantities and at proper times, their digestibility has 
>een proved to compare very favorably with that of other common 
!oods, as bread and milk. The fat of nuts eaten thus is one of the 
nost easily digested forms of fat; being in an emulsified state, it 
cannot smear the walls of the stomach nor other foods, thus inter- 
fering with their digestion. There seems to be no foundation for 
:he common belief that salt aids the digestion of nuts, or prevents 
iny distress from eating them. It may, according to the taste of 
some people, add to their palatability. 

Nuts, with the exception of peanuts and chestnuts, require no 
cooking. As with strawberries, cooking impairs tiieVx ^^WcaX^^v^ot^. 



78 OOOD FOOD 

The manufactured nut foods which are on the market may m ^^ke 
a valuable addition to the diet from the standpoint of palatabl '^ity 
and variety, but are more expensive than homemade nut pr^j)a- 
rations. 

It takes only half an ounce of nuts, which would be three Bretzil- 
nut meats, eight pecan meats, three walnut meats, or fourteen 
blanched almonds, to equal one hundred food units of steak, or a 
small piece of steak. 





THE ALMOND 






FOOD VALUE IN CALORIES PER OUNCE 




Protein 


Fat Carbo. 


Total 


24.4 


144.9 20.1 


189.4 



To Blanch Almonds 

Pour boiling water over the nuts, and allow them to stand until 
the skins are loosened. Pour off the hot water and pour on cold 
water to cool them. Pour off the cold water. The kernels can then 
be easily slipped out by pinching with the thumb and finger. Tli* 
nuts should be baked in a warm oven till thoroughly dried ao^ 
brittle but not browned, when they can be easily pulverized, i^ 
which condition they are readily digested. To salt the almond^' 
sprinkle salt over them when they are put into the oven, and 1^* 
them dry with the salt on them. 

Almond Butter 

Grind the blanched and thoroughly dried almonds through a m"* ^ 
butter mill. 

Almond butter, almond paste, and almond cream — made l>^ 
thinning the butter to any desired consistency by the addition o^ 
water — are considered excellent foods for persons suffering wit J' 
diabetes and pulmonary disorders. 

Almond Macaroons — No. 1 

3 egg whites 
1 cup powdered sugar 
V2 pound almond paste 

Rub the sugar and paste together, then add the beaten whites. 
This may be put on oiled paper with a pastry bag and tube, or ma)' 
be dropped in small bits from the tip of a spoon. Bake fifteen 
to twenty minutes in a cool oven. When done, invert the pape*" 
and wet with a cloth wrung out of cold water. The macaroons wiii 
then easily peel off. Before baking, the macaroons may be sprinkle*^ 
fv/tJj almonds which have been blanched and shredded or chopped- 



NUTS 79 

Almond Macaroons — No. 2 

1 egg white 

% cup granulated sugar 
3 ounces finely chopped or ground almonds (first blanched 
and dried) 

Beat the egg white. Gradually beat in the sugar, and beat till 
ery stiff. Add the chopped almonds. Put on oiled paper and bake 
s in preceding recipe. 

Almond Cakes 

Grind blanched and thoroughly dried almonds to a meal, by put- 
ing them through a food chopper with the finest cutter, or by pul- 
ing them through a loosely adjusted nut butter mill. Add a little 
alt and suflftcient cold water to stick the meal together. Form into 
ittle flat cakes, and bake. These make a quite concentrated food, 
nd should not be eaten too freely. 

THE CHESTNUT 

FOOD VALUE IN CALORIES PER OUNCE 
Protein Fat Carbo. Total 

12.4 18.5 86.1 117.0 

To Roast Chestnuts 

Either cut off the tip of the shell or make an incision at the tip 
o prevent the nuts from bursting, and put them into a rather hot 
>ven for ten or twenty minutes, stirring occasionally. 

To Peel Chestnuts 

Wash the nuts, then boil them for a few minutes, drain off the 
Water, and pour cold water over them. The shells and the tough 
skin which covers the kernel can then be easily peeled off. 

- Chestnut Puree 

After the chestnuts are peeled, boil them till tender in as small 
a quantity of water as possible without scorching them, so that the 
water will be nearly evaporated when they are done. Rub through 
a colander, and season with salt and cream. 

Creamed Chestnuts 

Instead of mashing the boiled chestnuts, put them into cream 
sauce. 

Chestnuts in Tomato Sauce 

Put the boiled chestnuts into tomato sauce. 



80 OOOD FOOD 

Baked Chmtnnts 

Put shelled chestnuts into a bean pot. Cover them with the 
from vegetable soup, or with water to which a little Homato 
grated onion, browned flour, oil, salt, thyme, 'and savory hav( 
added, and bake till tender. The chestnuts should be som 
juicy when done. 

THE COCOANUT 

¥OOT) VALUE IN CALORIES FEB OUNCE 

Protein Fat Carbo. Total 

6.7 133.6 32.3 172.6 

Cocoanut Macaroons 

3 egg whites 
1 cup sugar 

% pound prepared shredded cocoanut 
A few grains salt 

Beat the whites. Beat in the sugar, adding it a little at a 
then beat very stiff. Stir in the cocoanut, and form into little 
the size of walnuts. Bake on an oiled pan in a slow oven till 1 
browned. 

FOOD VALUE OF OTHER NUTS IN CALORIES PER OUNCE 

Protein Fat Carbo. 

Filbert or hazelnut 18.1 172.3 15.1 

Hickory nut 17.9 177.9 13.2 

Pecan 12.8 188.0 15.4 

Pine nut (Pignolia) . . . 39.3 130.4 8.0 

Pistachio nut 25.9 142.5 18.9 

Walnut 21.3 170.0 15.1 

Black walnut 32.0 148.6 13.6 

Butternut 32.4 161.6 4.0 

Beechnut 25.4 151.5 15.3 

Brazil nut 19.7 176.4 8.1 

SUBSTANTIAL FOODS MADE FROM NUTS AND LEGUMES 

Bean Meat 

1% cups soy beans 

% cup peanut butter 

% cup water 

2% teaspoons salt 

Wash the beans and soak them overnight. Then grind 
through a food chopper, using the nut butter disk. Mix the g 
beans with the remaining ingredients. Put Into a can and 
three hours, or set in a kettle of water in which the water 
part way to the top of the can, and boil three hours. 



NVT8 81 

Nnt Meat 

2 cups gluten 

1 cup peanut butter 
^ cup water 

2 teaspoons salt 

Obtain the gluten as directed in the recipe for Gluten Stew (page 
15), but do not bake the gluten. Use two cups of the raw gluten. 
Stir the water and salt with the peanut butter, then with the hands 
mix the gluten and peanut butter together. Put into a tin can, and 
steam three hours, or boil in a kettle of water three hours, having 
the water come part way to the top of the can. 

Nut Chee«e 

1 cup peanut butter 

2 cups water 
^ cup flour 

1^ teaspoons salt 

Stir the nut butter smooth with the water, adding the water a 
little at a time. Stir in the flour and salt, put into a tin can that 
has a tightly fitting cover, and steam from three to five hours. Or 
it may be cooked by putting the flUed can into a kettle which con- 
tains boiling water to one half the height of the can, covering the 
kettle, and cooking the required length of time, adding boiling water 
as may be necessary. 

When cold, this is ready for use. It may be eaten like cheese, 
or may be broiled, or baked in tomato, or cut into dice and stewed, 
or stewed with peas, adding a little chopped mint; or it may be 
made into hash with potato, or used in salads or in making sand- 
wich filling. 

Saved Nut Cheese 

1 cup nut butter 

3 cups water * 

2 eggs, beaten 

2 teaspoons salt 

3 teaspoon£i sage 
Va cup cornstarch 

Thin the nut butter with water, add the remaining ingredients 
and mix thoroughly. Cook like nut cheese, or cook in a double 
boiler four hours. Allow it to cool in the double boiler, then cut 
around it with a knife and remove it. This is very nice sliced and 
served cold. 

Walnut Ttaibales 

% cup milk 

^ cup cream 

% teaspoon salt 

% teaspoon celery salt 
1 egg, beaten 
1 cup stale bread crumbs 

^ cup chopped walnuts 

6 



82 GOOD FOOD 

Mix the ingredients well together, put into oiled timbale molds or 
cups, set in a pan of hot water, and bake till set. Serve with peas 
or with peas in cream sauce. 

Walnut Croquettes 

1 pint stale bread crumbs 

y^ cup chopped walnuts 
1 teaspoon salt 
1 teaspoon sage 
1 egg 
Thick cream sauce or milk gravy 

Mix the ingredients, then mix with them enough of the cream 
sauce to make the mixture as soft as can be handled. Fold in the 
stiffly beaten egg white. Shape into croquettes, dip in a mixture 
of one egg yolk and one tablespoon water beaten together, then 
roll in zwieback crumbs. Bake ten or fifteen minutes in a hot oven. 
Serve with brown sauce to which a few peas have been added. 

Walnut Loaf 

1% cups milk 
l^ cup vegetable oil 

1 cup and 2 tablespoons granola or 1^2 cups zwieback crumbs 
% cup chopped walnuts 

2 eggs, beaten 
1 teaspoon salt 

Thoroughly mix the ingredients. Put into an oiled bread tin and 
bake till set. Serve with white sauce to which a few peas have been 
added. 

Com Loaf 

1% cups milk, part cream if desired 

1 cup granola 

% »cup canned corn, or fresh, cooked corn, cut from cob 

2 eggs, beaten 
l^^ teaspoons salt 

Soak granola in milk fifteen minutes, add remaining ingredients. 
Put into oiled bread tin, and bake till set. Serve with cream sauce 
or egg sauce. Zwieback crumbs or cracker crumbs may be used 
instead of the granola, but they do not give so good a fiavor. One- 
half cup of chopped pine nuts makes a palatable addition to this loaf, 
making Corn and Pine Nut Loaf. 

Ripe Olive Loaf 

1 pint milk 

1 large cup granola • 
y* cup chopped ripe olives 

2 eggs, beaten 

1 teaspoon salt 
Soak the granola in the milk fifteen minutes, add remaining 
ingredients, put into oiled bread tin, and bake till set. Serve with 
olive sauce. 



NUTS 83 

LentU and Nut Cakes 

1^ cup lentil pur6e 

lii cup gluten meal, or zwieback crumbs, or very light-brown 

flour 
^ cup chopped walnuts 
V4 cup strained tomato 
1 teaspoon grated carrot 
^^ teaspoon salt 

Combine the" ingredients, form into cakes, and bake for ten 
minutes. 

Nut Scrapple 

Stir into one pint of left-over cornmeal mush, while it is hot, 
one-half cup or more of any kind of chopped nuts. Put into a bread 
tin wet with cold water. When cold, slice and broil on a hot, slightly 
oiled griddle. Serve with jelly. 

Nut Hash 

1 cup chopped nuts 

2 cups chopped cold boiled or baked potato 
l<2 onion, chopped 

1 tablespoon browned flour 

^2 cup cream or strained tomato 

1^ teaspoons salt 

1 teaspoon sage, if desired 

Mix ingredients, put into oiled pan, and heat in oven. One-half 
cup chopped ripe olives added to this makes Nut and Ripe Olive Hash. 

Roast Protose with Dressing 

Cut the protose from a one-pound can in two, lengthwise. Slice 
the halves, but keep the protose together as if it were not sliced. 
Lay the halves, flat side down, on a pan. Mix together the following 
and pour it over the protose: 

1 small onion, chopped 

1% tablespoons browned flour 

3 tablespoons oil 

% teaspoon summer savory 
1 teaspoon salt 
% quart hot water 

Put into the oven to roast, basting frequently, — that is, dipping 
the water up over the protose. After it has cooked one hour, re- 
move it from the oven, pour off the gravy, measure it, and add to 
it sufficient hot water to make the original three-fourths quart. Put 
this gravy on the stove to heat, and when it boils thicken it "with 
one-third cup flour stirred smooth with a little cold water. Pour 
this gravy over the protose, and it is ready to serve. 

Nutcero, meatose, or other similar foods may be used in place 
0' protose. 



84 GOOD FOOD 

DreMlnff 

Soak stale bread in cold water till just moistened though nc=: 
real wet. Place it in a colander to drain, then crumble or pick 
to pieces lightly. To one pint of these moist crumbs add: 

2 tablespoons oil 

^ cup brown gravy 

1 teaspoon sage 

% teaspoon thyme 

^ teaspoon marjoram 

Vi cup chopped parsley 

l^ teaspoon summer savory 

1 teaspoon salt 

Mix ingredients lightly, but do not mash together. Put into ^ 
oiled bread tin. Do not pack down. Bake till well heated throu ^g j] 
To serve, place a spoonful of the dressing on a platter or plate, B.sj 
a slice of protose on the dressing, and pour some gravy over all. 

Timbales of Rice and Olives 

2 cups boiled rice 
2 cups milk 

% cup chopped ripe olives 

2 tablespoons chopped celery or ^4 teaspoon celery salt 
1 teaspoon sage or grated onion 

1 teaspoon salt 

3 eggs, well beaten 

Mix the ingredients. Pour into oiled cups. Set the cups into 
a pan of hot water, and bake till the timbales are firm. Remove 
from the oven, and allow them to stand for a few minutes. Remove 
from the cups, and serve with tomato sauce. 

Nut Meat and Potato Pie 

Use any kind of nut meat for this, — protose, nuttolene, meatose, 
nutcero, or a mixture of these. 

2i/> cups sliced potato 
^ cups sliced onion 

1 cup diced nut meat 

2 teaspoons browned flour 
1 tablespoon oil 

1^2 to 2 teaspoons salt 

1 teaspoon sage, if desired 

Put the potato and onion into sufficient water to cook them. 
Simmer slowly for about an hour, then add the nut meat, the 
browned flour and oil, which have first been mixed together, the 
salt, and sage. Put into a pan in which the mixture will be about 
an inch deep. Cover with pie crust, and bake till crust is done. 

Or no-soda biscuit may be used for a crust, as they make a nicer 
crust for a nut meat pie. Start the dough early in the morning, so 
t/iat It will be ready to roll out and cut into biscuit when the filling 



NUTS 85 

eady to put into the pan. Place the biscuit on top of the filling, 
: allow them to rise before baking. 

Gluten Stew 
TO OBTAIN THE GLUTEN 

Make a dough of one pint of cold water and one and three-fourths 
rts of sifted bread flour. Knead the dough well, then allow it 
stand in cold water one-half hour. Then work the dough with 

hands in the cold water, and the starch will wash out. As the 
;er becomes milky, pour it off, being careful not to lose any of 

gluten, then add fresh cold water. Continue to work the dough 
I pour off the water till the water remains clear. You then have 
amp of gluten. Cut this gluten into pieces the size of a small 
nut, put on an oiled pan, and bake in the oven till nicely browned, 
en the gluten is cold, cut it into small pieces. 

TO MAKE THE STEW 

1 pint diced gluten 
1 pint water 

Stew slowly for three hours, adding boiling water as may be 
essary. Then add: 

1 pint diced potatoes 

1 onion, diced and cooked in a little oil till light brown 

Cook till potatoes are tender. Then add: 

IV2 teaspoons salt, or salt to taste 

M» bay leaf 

2 teaspoons flour stirred smooth with % cup cream 
1 tablespoon chopped parsley 

This may be put into a pan and a pie crust or biscuit crust put 
r it and baked as a pot pie. 



Rice and Egg Timbales 

3V4 cups boiled rice (1 cup raw) 
1 Dint milk 



pint milk 

1 teaspoon salt 

2 eggs, beaten 

Mix the ingredients, pour into oiled cups, and bake in a pan of 
water. Remove from the cups, and serve with peas, parsley 
ce, bread sauce, or tomato sauce. 

Vesretable Pie 

1 cup stewed Lima beans 
1 cup diced carrot 
1 cup diced turnip 
1 cup canned peas 
X* cup canned corn 



86 GOOD FOOD 

Stew the carrot and turnip in a small quantity of water so that 
little water will be left when they are tender. Add to them the 
cooked beans, peas, and corn, two tablespoons cooking oil, milk to 
make of the proper consistency, for pie, and salt to taste. Put into 
a basin, and cover with pie crust, in which several slits have been 
cut; bake the pie till the crust is thoroughly cooked. Serve as the 
main dish at dinner. 

Princess Loaf 

^ 1 cup stale bread crumbs 

1 egg 

1 cup cooked rice, white or browned 
1 cup chopped walnuts 
1 cup cream 

1 teaspoon salt 

Mix ingredients, put into oiled bread tin, and bake. 

Nut Loaf 

3 ounces (about % cup) nut meats, chopped 

2 large potatoes, boiled with skins, then peeled and mashed 
1 hard-boiled egg, chopped 

1 medium-sized onion, chopped 

% piece celery, chopped 

1 tablespoon oil 

3 ounces (about % cup) cracker crumbs 
^^ teaspoon sage 

1 egg, beaten, or the white alone 
Salt to taste 

Mix all together. Form into a loaf, put into a pan, and pour 
into the pan one cup water and two tablespoons oil. Roast one-half 
hour. Serve with jelly or gravy. 



American Chop Suey 

^2 cup onions, chopped and cooked a light brown in oil 
l^ cup celery, cut into small pieces and stewed % hour 
M» cup cooked mushrooms, cut into small pieces 

1 cup boiled rice 
Vji cup brown sauce 

1 teaspoon salt 
1/4 teaspoon thyme 

To make the brown sauce, cook one tablespoon flour in one-half 

tablespoon oil till brown, stir in one-fourth cup of the water in which 

the celery was cooked and two teaspoons of tomato juice. Mix the 

remaining ingredients with this sauce, and heat together in a double 

tfoiler. 



NUTS 87 

ProtOM and Rice Timbales 

1 cup cooked rice 
^ cup milk 
% cup diced protose 

1 tablespoon grated onion 

2 pieces celery, chopped 
1 teaspoon sage 

1 teaspoon salt 

2 eggs, beaten 

Mix ingredients, put into oiled cups, and bake in a pan of water 
till set Remove from the cups, sprinkle with chopped parsley, and 
serve with celery sauce. 

ProUMe Timbales (twelve) 

2 cups stale bread crumbs 

1 cup hot water 

% cup finely chopped walnuts (these may be omitted) 

2 eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately 
% pound of protose 

2 teaspoons' salt 

2% teaspoons sage 

A bit of bay leaf, crushed 

Moisten the bread crumbs with the cup of hot water. Mash the 
protose. Mix all the ingredients except the whites of the eggs. Fold 
in the stiffly beaten whites last. Put into well-oiled cups, and bake 
in a pan of hot water till set. Serve with olive sauce or peas. 

Protose and Rice Croquettes 

1 cup cooked rice 

1 cup protose, mashed 

2 tablespoons chopped onion browned in a little oil 

1 teaspoon salt 
1% teaspoons sage 

Mix the ingredients. Form into long round croquettes, dip into 
beaten egg and water (1 egg and 1 tablespoon water), then roll in 
zwieback crumbs, and lay on an oiled pan. Bake in a hot oven till 
heated through. 

LentU and Dried Olive Hash 

2% cups stewed lentils 

2 potatoes 

1 large onion 

% cup tomato 

Vt cup vegetable oil 
Dried olives sufficient to make % cup when chopped 

To freshen the olives, soak them in cold water, then bring to the 
boiling point and pour off the water. It may be necessary to do 
this twice. Then cut up the olives and stone them. Boil the potatoes 
or use left-over boiled potatoes. Chop the onion, and cook it in the 
oil till it begins to turn yellow. Chop all the ingredients together, 
put into an oiled pan, and bake till brown. 



Clilla Con Cun* 

1 pint cooked Lima beans or kidney beans, without liquid 

1 pint Hoy bean meat, cut into strips 1 Inch long and W Inch 

wide and toasted 

2 onions, chopped and cooked in — 
'2 tablespoons oli. 

1 pint tomatoes 
1 teaspoon salt 

^ teaspoon paprika 

^ of a canned sweet pepper, cut into shreds 

Serve with a border ol 




GRAVIES 

AM^mngm Sauce 

1 pint liquid, part milk, and part water in which asparagus 

was cooked 
y^ cup flour 

2 tablespoons oil or butter substitute 
1 teaspoon salt 

Asparagus tips 

Stir flour smooth with part of the milk. Heat remainder of the 
milk and water to boiling, stir flour mixture into it, and cook till 
thickened. Add butter, salt, and some asparagus tips cut into small 
pieces. 

Brown Sauce 

1 small onion, chopped very fine 

3 tablespoons cooking oil 
% cup flour 

1 pint boiling water 
1 teaspoon salt 

Cook the flour in the oil till it is a medium dark-brown' color. 
Add the chopped onion, and cook till the onion is browned. Then 
stir in the boiling water. Boil one minute. Strain and add salt. 
The flour must be stirred almost constantly while browning, to pre- 
vent scorching. 

Brown Sauce with Vegez 

1 small onion, cut fine '; 

2 tablespoons oil 
% cup flour 

1 pint boiling water 
1 teaspoon vegex 
% teaspoon salt 

Cook the onion in the oil, stirring, till light brown, mix the flour 
with the onion and oil, then stir in the boiling water. Add the 
vegex and salt, and cook two minutes. Strain, if desired, to remove 
the onion. 

ChUi Sauce — No. 1 

1 quart canned tomatoes or the same quantity of fresh 

tomatoes 

2 large onions, finely chopped 
1 tablespoon sugar 

1 teaspoon celery salt 
1 teaspoon salt 

% cup lemon juice 
Rind of % lemon 



90 GOOD FOOD 

Mix all the ingredients except the lemon juice, then cook slowly 
till reduced one half. Cool, add the lemon juice, and it is ready to 
serve. This may be put through a fine colander, and will then be 
more like catsup. 

ChUi Sauce — No. 2 

1% quarts tomatoes 
2 onions, chopped 
2 green sweet peppers, chopped 

2 canned pimientos 
^ cup brown sugar 

-0 bay leaves 
214 teaspoons salt 

Mj teaspoon thyme 

% cup lemon juice 

Cook together for twenty or thirty minutes all the ingredients 
except the lemon juice. Cool, and add the lemon juice. 

Cream Sauce 

1 cup cream 
1 cup milk 
14 cup flour 
1 teaspoon salt 

Heat the milk and cream in a double boiler. Stir the flour smooth 
with a little cold water. When the milk is boiling hot, stir into it 
the flour mixture. Cook five minutes. Add the salt. 

Milk may be used instead of part cream, when it is called White 
Sauce. Add one hard-boiled egg, chopped, to this to make Egg Sauce. 
Add one-fourth cup chopped parsley to make Parsley Sauce. Add 
one-half cup diced celery to make Celery Sauce. Add one-half cup of 
finely chopped onion to make Onion Sauce. For Tomato Cream Sauce, 
add sufficient strained tomato to give the sauce a pretty pink color. 

Brown Cream Sauce 

IV2 cups milk 
^^ cup cream 

3 tablespoons flour 

1 tablespoon browned flour 

1 teaspoon salt 
Stir the brown and white flour smooth with a little of the milk. 
Heat the remaining milk and cream to boiling, stir into it the flour 
mixture, cook till thickened, and add salt. Milk instead of cream 
may be used by adding two tablespoons of butter substitute. 

Nut Tomato Gravy 

1/4 cup strained tomato 
1% cups water 

1 tablespoon peanut butter 

2 tablespoons white flour 

1 tablespoon browned flour 
1 teaspoon salt 



GRAVIES 91 

Dissolve the nut butter in the water, add the tomato and salt, 
and heat to boiling. Stir in the two kinds of flour, which have been 
mixed and stirred smooth with a little cold water. Cook till thick- 
ened. 

Tomato Sauce 

1 pint tomatoes, canned or fresh 
1 small onion, cut fine , 

1 small carrot, sliced 

2 tablespoons oil 
1/4 cup flour 

V2 clove garlic, if desired 
% bay leaf, if desired 
1 teaspoon salt 
% teaspoon thyme 
Simmer the onion, carrot, tomato, garlic, bay leaf, and oil together 
for ten minutes. Stir in the flour, which has been stirred smooth 
with a little cold water. Rub through a flne strainer. Add the salt 
and thyme, and water to thin if too thick. 

Olive Sauce 

iy2 cups water 
14 cup tomato 
1 tablespoon oil 
1 bay leaf 

1 small onion, cut fine 

2 tablespoons browned flour 

1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons white flour 
% cup sliced olives 

Mix together all the ingredients except the white flour and the 
olives, and simmer together for ten minutes, then stir into the 
mixture the white flour, which has been stirred smooth with a little 
cold water. Cook two minutes. Rub through a flne colander or 
strainer. Add the olives, and hot water to thin if it is too thick. 

Cream Tomato Sauce 

1 cup strained tomato 
1 cup water 

1/4 cup flour 

^ cup heavy cream 
1 teaspoon salt 

Heat the tomato and water to boiling. Thicken with the flour 
stirred smooth with the cream. Add the salt. 

Nut Gravy 

1 pint water 

2 tablespoons nut butter 
2 tablespoons flour 

1 teaspoon salt 



92 GOOD FOOD 

Blend nut butter with water, heat to boiling, and thicken -with 
the flour stirred smooth with a little cold water. Add salt. 

Use one tablespoon dark-brown flour with the white flour to make 
Brown Nut Gravy. 

Walnut Gravy 
1 cup milk 

1 cup water • 
1/4 cup flour 

% cup finely chopped walnuts 
% teaspoon salt 

Heat the milk and water in a double boiler. Thicken by adding 
the flour after it has been stirred smooth with a little cold water. 
Add the nuts and salt. 

Mint Sauce 

2 tablespoons chopped fresh mint 

1 tablespoon brown sugar 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 

2 tablespoons boiling water 

Pour boiling water over the mint, add the lemon juice and sugar, 
and let it stand where it will keep warm till the sugar is dissolved. 



" Bktter than gold is a peaceful home, 
Where all the fireside charities come; 
The shrine of love and the heaven of life, 
Hallowed by mother, or sister, or wife. 
However humble the home may be. 
Or tried with sorrows by Heaven's decree, 
The blessings that never were bought or sold, 
And center there, are better than gold." 



MILK PRODUCTS 

We are sometimes asked why we use milk, which is an animal 
product, while we do not use meat. In answer, we would say that 
milk does not contain the waste products of broken-down tissue which 
are produced by the life and activity of the animal, and which con- 
stitute a great objection to the use of meat as food. Milk was made 
to be eaten, and it is the natural food of young animals; but the 
animals themselves, we believe, were not made to be eaten. Cow's 
milk is the natural food of calves, but not the natural food of 
babies; hence it has to be modified to be made into a good food for 
them. It is not a natural food for adults, though many find that 
it agrees with them very well; and in the form of soured milk, it 
may be regarded as a valuable food, the lactic acid seeming to 
exercise a restraining influence upon putrefactive processes in the 
intestines. 

Of course, milk should be obtained from healthy cows, and be 
handled in a sanitary manner; otherwise it will contain disease 
germs, and be open to nearly the same objections as diseased meat. 
In fact, milk from diseased animals, or milk handled in an insan- 
itary manner, is positively dangerous; for it readily conveys the 
germs of tuberuclosis, scarlet fever, diphtheria, and typhoid fever. 

VALUE OF MILK AS A FOOD 

Because it is practically impossible to obtain milk that is clean 
and pure and produced by healthy cows, we cannot esteem milk, 
cream, and butter so highly as we do the foods from the vegetable 
kingdom, which we have been studying; namely, the fruits, grains, 
nuts, and vegetables. " As disease in animals increases, the use of 
milk . . . will become more and more unsafe." — " The Ministry 
of Healing,'* p. 320. And yet milk is of very great importance in 
the diet, on account of the growth-promoting vitamine that it con- 
tains, which is absolutely essential to health and which is lacking 
in meat and most common foods. The principal other foods that 
contain this vitamine are green leaves, such as lettuce, cress, and 
parsley. 

Milk is also valuable for supplying mineral salts, especially lime, 
and also because all its food constituents are so easily . digested 
and assimilated. 

Another fact in favor of milk is that it is not kept in cold 
storage, as meat is, till its protein element is far advanced in decay 
before it is considered fit to eat. 



94 OOOD FOOD 

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MILK 

EXPRESSED IN PER CENT 

Water Protein Fat Carbo. Min. 

Milk 87. 3.3 4. 5. .7 

Cream 74. 2.5 18.5 4.5 .5 

skim milk 90.5 3.4 .3 5.1 .7 

EXPRESSED IN CALORIES PER OUNCE 

Protein Fat Carbo. ^ ToUl 

Milk 3.8 10.6 5.8 20.2 

Cream .' 2.9 48.9 5.2 57.0 

Skim milk 4.0 .8 6.0 10.8 

By referring to the above table, giving the nutritive value of milk, 
we see that half that value is fat and nearly one fifth is protein. 
Remembering that only one tenth of our food needs to be protein, 
we see that milk is one of the foods that may be used to supply the 
place of meat, and should be used with foods that contain more 
carbohydrate. Thus we see that the custom of eating bread with 
milk, which experience has taught us is right, is right scientifically 
also. With the exception of legumes, skim milk is the cheapest 
source of protein. It might with advantage be used more than it Is 
in the diet of persons to whom economy is important. 

The carbohydrate of milk is milk sugar, the least sweet and one 
of the most easily digested of sugars. 

Milk is really water holding in solution a little mineral matter, 
sugar, and albumin, and having suspended in it little globules of fat, 
each held in a minute sack made of casein. These little sacks of 
fat, being lighter than the surrounding liquid, rise to the top in the 
form of cream. 

DlGESTmnuITY OF MILK 

Milk is generally thought of as a liquid food, but it is liquid only 
when sweet. In the stomach it soon curdles. If it were regarded 
as a food, and were eaten instead of drunk, it would digest with much 
less difficulty. The calf and the child get their milk in a fine stream. 
It would be much better for other users of milk if they would take 
it in a similar way, as through a straw. When swallowed in large 
gulps, it forms large, hard curds in the stomach, which the digestive 
juices have difficulty in dissolving. And we shall see that it would 
be even better to allow it to become solid, as in the preparation of 
artificially soured milk, and eat it with a spoon. Sour milk is com- 
monly thought to be spoiled milk, but milk which has simply turned 
sour is a better food than sweet milk. 

Regarding milk as a beverage instead of as a food has a tendency 
to lead to its use after a sufficiency of other food has been taken. 
This may be the reason why some who use it find it indigestible. 
When milk Is taken with bread, as in eating bread and milk, tbe 



MILK PRODUCTS 95 

milk cannot form large, hard curds in the stomach, and persons 
often find they can take It in this combination when if taken alone 
it disagrees. Of course, in eating bread and milk care should be 
taken to masticate the bread sufficiently. 

Milk is thickened, or coagulated, by acid and by rennet. Cheese 
is the casein of milk coagulated by rennet and separated from the 
whey. When first made, it is tough and tasteless. A process of de- 
composition must go on in it to render it tender and to develop flavor 
(it must be allowed to ripen), to make it ''palatable"! There are 
certain bacteria which produce certain flavors in cheese, and these 
different flavored cheeses have been given names according to their 
flavors. In Europe, where cheese making has been reduced to a 
science, any desired kind of cheese is made by introducing into the 
curd when flrst made the bacteria which produce that particular 
kind of cheese. 

When milk sours, the sugar of the milk is turned to lactic acid 
by the lactic acid bacillus, which is always present in milk. The 
growth of this germ is encouraged by warmth and electrical condi- 
tions of the atmosphere. This lactic acid causes the milk to coagu- 
late. Other acids added to milk will produce the same result. The 
curd formed in this way is made into cottage cheese. The acid gives 
to this cheese, when fresh, an agreeable flavor. It is therefore used 
soon after making, and is a wholesome food. 

CARE OF MnjK: 

Milk should be kept in glassware, earthenware, aluminumware, 
or graniteware vessels, not in dishes made of metal upon which any 
acid formed in the milk might act. Milk readily takes up germs 
and absorbs odors. It should therefore not be allowed to stand un- 
covered, nor to remain near anything having a strong odor. And it 
should be kept at as low a temperature as possible. But milk should 
not be 80 tightly covered as to exclude air, for the absence of air 
favors the growth of putrefactive germs. Several layers of cheese- 
cloth may be used as a cover. In fact, it is impossible to be too 
careful in the care of milk and of the dishes in which it is kept. All 
dishes that have contained milk should be thoroughly cleaned before 
milk is again put into them, for just a little of the old milk will 
cause the new to sour. 

In washing milk dishes, rinse them in cold water before putting 
them into hot water, for hot water used flrst would harden the 
albumin and cause it to adhere to the dish, especially in the corners 
and seams. After washing in soapsuds, or water in which washing 
soda has been dissolved, rinse thoroughly to remove all the soap. 
It is well then to place them where the air and the direct rays of 
the sun will have free access to them. 

Cream, of course, contains a larger amount of fat than does milk, 
its richness depending upon the proportion of fat. Based upon the 



96 GOOD FOOD 



I 



figures in the Government bulletin, the food value of cream in cal- 
ories per ounce is as follows: 

Protein Fat Carbo. Total 

2.9 48.9 5.2 57.0 

The fat in milk and cream is in a very finely divided or emulsified 
state, for which reason it is one of the most easily digested forms 
of fat ^ 

STERILIZATION OF MELK 

Unless it is absolutely certain that milk is obtained from per- 
fectly healthy cows and is handled in the most sanitary manner, it is 
unsafe to use it without first sterilizing it. It is certainly far better 
to use only milk from healthy cows, protected in a sanitary manner. 

Sterilizing produces some change in milk by reason of which it 
may be the cause of scurvy in children to whom it is fed. Children 
who must be fed upon sterilized milk may be kept from having 
scurvy by giving them a little orange juice between the feedings 
of milk. Pasteurization is generally recommended instead of steri- 
lization. 

There are persons who find hot milk more easily digested than 
cold, perhaps on account of the stimulating effect of the heat upon 
the stomach. Hot milk should be taken slowly, 'in very small sips. 

ARTIP1CIAL.L.Y PREPARED BUTTERMILK 

Buttermilk has long been recognized as a wholesome food. How- 
ever, it is deprived of the fat of the milk; and from the fact that the 
milk may have been old and germ-laden before the butter was made, 
the buttermilk may not be of the cleanest or most wholesome nature. 
By making use of the germ which causes the souring of milk, an 
artificially prepared buttermilk may be made which is free from 
harmful germs, and which contains all the food constituents of the 
milk. There are various brands of buttermilk tablets on the market 
for use in preparing this milk. 

In this sour-milk preparation the casein of the milk is in the form 
of fine, fiaky curds, which are very easily acted upon by the digestive 
fluids. It cannot form large, hard curds in the stomach. 

RECIPES 

To Pasteurize MUk 

To Pasteurize milk a thermometer is necessary. Heat the milk 
quickly in a double boiler to 140° F., and keep it at that temperature 
for twenty or thirty minutes, then cool it quickly. Milk treated in 
this manner will not cause scurvy, and its flavor is not altered. 



MILK PRODUCTS^ 97 

To Sterilise Milk 

To sterilize milk, heat it quickly in a double boiler, and keep it 
at the boiling point for fifteen or twenty minutes, then cool it 
quickly; or put bottles of milk which have stoppers of sterile cotton, 
in a kettle of cold water, heat to boiling, and keep at the boiling 
point for fifteen or twenty minutes, then cool quickly. Care should 
be taken to place something under the bottles to prevent their resting 
on the bottom of the kettle. 

Yorurt "Buttermilk" 

Pulverize two yogurt tablets and dissolve them in a little cold 
water. Sterilize one quart of milk, and cool it to 110° F. Add a 
few grains of salt and the dissolved tablets. Stir well. Set in a 
warm place where it can be kept at 110° F., from 12 to 24 hours. 
At the end of that time — possibly it might be a little longer or a 
little shorter — it will be thickened. Set it in the refrigerator. 
When cold, whip it with a batter whip till it is creamy. 

When more is required, it is not necessary to use another tablet. 
One-fourth cup of this prepared milk is sufficient to make one gallon 
of yogurt. Proceed as in making the first quart, using the one-fourth 
cup of prepared milk in place of the tablet. It will probably not be 
necessary to allow it to stand much more than four to eight hours 
when made in this way. The new lot should not be prepared from 
the old milk more than three or four times in succession, because 
other germs are sure to get in, which may cause trouble in prop- 
erly preparing it. Yogurt should not be allowed to Stand too long 
in a warm place. If it does, the whey may separate from the curd, 
and the result will be a thin, watery milk instead of a thick, creamy 
substance. Just as soon as the milk thickens, it should be put into 
a cold place. 

This " buttermilk " may be prepared from skim milk, but it will 
not be so thick and rich as when prepared from whole milk. 

Cottaffe Cheese 

The best of cottage cheese may be made from milk prepared ac- 
cording to the foregoing directions. The soured milk should be pre- 
pared in a shallow pan. With a knife cut the lobbered milk into 
two-inch cubes. Set the pan in a moderate oven, and heat the milk 
to just a little above lukewarm. Heating it too hot will make the 
cheese tough, and you will get less cheese. Do not stir the milk. 
This also will lessen the quantity of cheese. When the whey has 
separated, pour the milk into a cheesecloth bag, and hang up to 
drain. Remove from the bag and season with salt and cream. The 
cheese may be formed into balls or cakes if desired. 

Cottage cheese may be made from ordinary sour milk by the 
same process. Soured skim milk may be used. 



9S noon FOOD 

Whinpcd Cmm 

The most convenient way to whip cream is to put it into a talf, 
narrow pitcher or tin can just large enough to allow the egg beater 
to revolve In it. Have the cream cold. Add flavoring, and sugar in 
the proportion of one level tablespoon to one cup of cream, Beai 
till the cream thickene, but do not exjiect It to become as thick as 
butter, because it will begin to turn to butter before it becomes as 
thick as that. Stop whipping while the cream is stilt smooth. It 
beaten loo long, it will curdle and look rough. 

JunkEl 

Junket is prepared by coagulating milk with rennet. Rennet is 
a digeative principle obtained from the lining of a calf's stomach. 
The same ferment is secreted by the human stomach, and whenever 
sweet milk is taken into the stomach, it is very soon turned to 
junket. Junket tablets may be obtained at any druggist's and at 
many grocers'. To prepare junket use the following formula: 

To one quart milk add one-fourth cup sugar, a few grains salt, 
and a little lemon or vanilla flavoring. Heat until lukewarm. Jun- 
ket cannot be prepared from sterilized milk. Add one Junket tablet, 
which has been dis8olved"-ln one tablespoon cold water, turn into 
custard cups at once, and allow to remain in a warm place without 
(disturbing till set, which will tahe but a tew minutes. Then set 
away In a cold place. If allowed to remain warm too long, it may 
sour or the whey may separate. This makes a simple and whole- 
some dessert. ' It is very digestible, because the casein is coagulated 
into a soft curd, and it cannot form large, hard curds in the stomach. 




Prl»-<rinnlnjt HolHliln 



\ 



EGGS 



We are sometimes asked why we eat eggs, but do not eat chicken. 
We believe that the only eggs fit to be used are strictly fresh ones, 
laid by hen» that are fed upon wholesome food, and not upon filth 
and garbage. Eggs have .not been alive, and so do not contain the 
waste products of life; and if they have been produced under the 
conditions named, they contain neither disease germs nor the poison- 
ous products of decomposition. But when we consider the difficulty 
of obtaining such eggs, we must regard ordinary eggs as a more 
questionable source of nourishment than fruits, nuts, grains, and 
vegetables. 

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF EGGS 

KXPKKSSEI) IN PER CENTS 
Water Protein Fat Carbo. Min. 

Whole egg 73.2 13.2 12.0 1.0 

Egg white 86.2 12.3 .2 .6 

Egg yolk 49.5 15.7 33.3 1.1 

FOOD VAI.I'E OK COOKED E(JGS IN CALORIES PER OUNCE 

Protein Fat Carbo. Total 

Whole egg 16.2 31.7 47.9 

Egg white 15.1 .5 15.6 

Egg yolk 18.7 87.9 106.6 

By weighing a number of eggs, I have found that one egg white 
weighs one ounce. Therefore the following is the — 

FOOD VAM'E OF ONE EC.C. WHITE IN CALORIES 

Protein Fat Carbo. Total 

15.1 .55 15.6 

One egg yolk weighs 0.6 ounce; therefore the following is the — 

FOOD VALl'E OF ONE VA'.C, YOLK IN CALORIES 

Protein Fat Carbo. Total 

11.2 52.7 63.9 

FOOD VALl'E OF ONE WHOLE EC.C IN CALORIES 

Protein Fat Carbo. Total 

26.3 53.2 79.5 

By comparing these figures with those given for legumes, and 
remembering the statement that cooked legumes are about one third 
as nutritious as dry ones, it will be seen lYiaV ^?,"?»^ ^^^ wv^ ^\ *Cwfe 



^^ 



100 GOOD FOOD 

most concentrated forms of nitrogenous food, containing considerabl 
fat also. They rank next to meat in this respect. In fact, 
closely resemble meat in nutritive value, being richer in fat an<f 
poorer in protein than medium fat meat. This places them among 
the numerous substitutes for meat. But let us not forget that nuts 
are much higher in nutritive value than any other food except the 
oils and fats. 

These figures show that the white of egg is almost pure albumen, 
one form of protein, or nitrogenous, food containing very little fat; 
while the yolk is rich in fat. The white consists of a solution of 
albumen incased in minute sacks, or cells. When the white is beaten, 
the sacks are broken, and the albumen, being viscous, or sticky, 
catches air, and increases to many times its bulk when unbeaten. 
The beating makes the white of the egg a little more digestible, 
because the sacks are a slight hindrance to the digestion of their 
contents. 

The yolk of the egg contains less water than the white, consider- 
able fat, and a little more nitrogenous matter and mineral matter. 
The fats are in the form of an emulsion, hence very easily digested. 
E}ggs are rich in some of the mineral salts which are most im- 
portant to the body, namely, iron, phosphorus, and lime; and these 
minerals are in organic combination, and prepared for the use of the 
body, while iron and phosphorus in the form of drugs are not so 
organized. Eggs, especially the yolk, are therefore a valuable food 
for anemic and nervous persons, also persons suffering from tuber- 
culosis. But we do not think it advisable to give tuberculosis pa- 
tients such large quantities of eggs that they take a great excess of 
protein. White of egg contains sulphur also, which is the substance 
that discolors silverware. There is no foundation in fact for the 
belief that eggs with dark shells are richer than eggs with light 
shells, for they do not differ in composition. 

Eight or ten eggs are about equal in nutritive value to one pound 
of medium fat meat. Therefore when eggs are cheap, they are a 
cheaper source of nourishment than meat; and when they are mod- 
erate in price, they are about equal to meat in that respect. 



TO DETERMINE THE AGE OP EGGS 

The age of an egg may be determined by placing it in a glass of 
water. If it is fresh, it will lie on its side in the bottom of the 
glass. If it is three weeks old, the large end will be slightly raised. 
If it is three months old, it will stand upright in the water, the small 
end resting on the bottom of the glass. If considerably older than 
this, the egg will float on the top of the water. If the egg has been 
preserved in some way, it will probably be older than this would 
Indicate. 



EGOS 101 

HOW TO PRESERVE EGGS 

Eggs are caused to spoil by germs that make their way through 
the shell, which is porous. The water in the egg also slowly evapo- 
rates with age. To preserve eggs, then, they must be protected from 
germs and from evaporation. The usual method of keeping eggs on 
a large scale is by cold storage. For home use, the best way of 
preserving eggs is by the use of silicate of soda, or water glass. 
Use perfectly fresh, clean eggs, but do not wash them. Pack them in 
a crock, and cover them with a solution of one part silicate of soda 
to ten parts of water that has been boiled and cooled. Put a cover 
on the crock, and set in a cool place. The silicate of soda can be 
obtained at a drug store. Eggs preserved in this way will keep six 
or eight months. The flavor of the eggs is not affected. They will 
be found to be as good as store eggs. If it is desired to boil them, 
the shell should be pierced with a needle. When using a number of 
eggs, always break each separately into a small dish to avoid spoiling 
the whole by any stale egg that might be in the lot. 

TO SEPARATE WHITE FROM YOLK 

To separate the yolk from the white of an egg, break the shell 
gently in the middle either with a knife or by tapping the egg against 
the edge of the dish into which the white is to be put, open slightly, 
and allow the white to run out. Turn the yolk from one* half of the 
shell into the other till all the white has run out. Be sure that not 
a particle of the yolk gets into the white, because this will prevent 
it from beating very stiff. Also be sure that not a particle of oil 
or cream or milk or anything greasy gets into the white, or is in 
the bowl or on the beater; for these will prevent the white from 
stiffening. Also have the white cold. 

Never beat the whites till you are ready to use them, because 
they gradually go back to the unbeaten state, and it is not possible 
to beat them stiff a second time. If you have whites or yolks left 
over, the whites may be kept, unbeaten, in a glass or bowl in the 
refrigerator or in a cold place; and left-over yolks may be kept nicely 
by covering them with water. The water should be poured off when 
the yolks are to be used. 

WEIGHT AND MEASUREMENT OF EGGS 

It is sometimes convenient to know the weight and measure- 
ment of eggs. They are as follows: 

9 eggs weigh about one pound 
5 eggs equal one cup 
9 egg whites equal one cup 
12 egg yolks equal one cv\\^ 



102 GOOD FOOD 

RECIPES 

To Cook Effffs 

To cook an egg so as to have the white most digestible, it should 
be cooked at a temperature that is high enough to coagulate it, but 
not high enough to toughen it. Albumen begins to coagulate at 
145° F. It sets into a jelly at 165° F., and becomes hard and tough 
at the boiling point of water, 212° F.; therefore, to be most digestible, 
eggs should not be boiled nor fried. They should be cooked at a 
temperature below the boiling point of water. 

Dropped or Poached Earars 

Use a basin about six or eight inches across, and from two to 
two and one-half inches deep. Have it full of hot, not boiling 
water, salted with one-half teaspoon of salt to one quart of water. 
Break the eggs into a small dish, then slide them into the water. 
Let them cook till the white is set, then with a small skimmer re- 
move the eggs from the water to a hot dish, or serve them on zwie- 
back that has been dipped in hot cream. Oiled muffin rings may be 
put into the water, and the eggs dropped into them to hold tiiem 
in shape better. Or an egg poacher may be used. Do not try to 
poach eggs in barely enough water to cover them. The water should 
be one and one-half inches deep, or deeper. Dropped eggs may also 
be served on toasted corn flakes, or hash, or in nests of boiled rice 
or mashed potato. 

Effsrs Cooked in the Shell 

Put the eggs into water at 165° F. by the thermometer, and leave 
them five minutes if desired very soft, eight minutes if desired me- 
dium, or longer if desired hard. The white of the egg will be of a 
jelly-like consistency resembling soft custard, in which condition it 
is more easily digested than when raw. If it is desired to keep the 
eggs hot after they are cooked, the temperature of the water should 
be reduced to 145° F., at which temperature they will cook no more. 
To obtain this result without the use of the thermometer, use one 
and one-half cups of water for each egg to be cooked. Have the 
water in a dish in which it will be deep enough to cover all the 
eggs, and which has a tight-fitting cover. Bring the water to a 
boil. Set the dish off the stove. Put the eggs into the water. Put 
the cover on the dish, and allow the eggs to remain in the water from 
five to ten minutes, according to how much it is desired to cook them. 

The yolk of an egg is most digestible when hard and mealy. To 
cook the yolk thus the egg should be boiled about three hours. The 
white may then be made digestible by grinding to a powder through 
a food chopper, using the nut butter cutter, or by rubbing through 
a very fine sieve. Or separate the white from the yolk of the egg, 
and steam or boil the yolk for three hours. 



Slishtly oil au omelet pan. Put into it one-fourth cup cream, 
then break in three eggs. Add one fourth teaspoon salt. Cook 
slowly, stirring and scraping the egg from the bottom of the pan, 
till it Is of a creamy conaiatency. 

To make scrambled eees with tomato, use tomato juice instead 



Add a few grains of salt to the white, which has been separated 
from the yolk before cootiing (he yolk. Beat the white very stifC. 
Pile it in the shape of a nest on a nicely prepared thin slice of toast. 




put the hard-boiled yolk In the 

to brown delicately the top of the white. Or the egg yol 

put into the nest raw instead of bard boiled. 

CrsBm BulHd Egga 

Oil custard cups. Break one or two eggs Into each. Add a few 
grains salt, and one or two tablestioons cream. Set the cups in a i»an 
of water, and bake till the es^s are cooked as much as desired. 
Or instead of baking them, they may be cooked in i 
Ave minutes. 



Beat together one egg, three-fourths eup milk, and one^fourth 
teaspoon salt. Soak thick slices of bread in this mixture. Cook 
on a hot griddle oiled just enough so that the toast will not stick. 
When nicely browned on one side, turn and cook on the other side. 
Serve with maple sirup or honey. 



104 GOOD FOOD 

Swiss Toast 

Swiss toast is simply French toast with jelly spread on it. 

Adelaide Sandwich 

Make two half slices of French toast. Lay one half slice on the 
other with jelly or marmalade between them, and put a spoonful of 
whipped cream on top. 

EffflT Croquettes 

Make a thick white sauce by using one-fourth cup flour to one 
cup milk. Rub hard-boiled eggs through a colander. Add just 
enough of the sauce to the egg to stick it together, not enough to 
make the mixture so soft that it cannot be shaped into croquettes. 
Allow the mixture to get cold. Dip balls of the mixture into beaten 
egg and water (one tablespoonful water to one egg). Roll in zwie- 
back crumbs. Shape in a croquette mold. Bake ten minutes in a 
hot oven. Serve each croquette on a bed of mashed potato, and 
pour tomato sauce over it. 

Egg Timbales 

3 eggs 

2 cups milk 
Y2 teaspoon salt 

Beat the eggs, add the milk and salt, and beat together. Put into 
oiled timbale molds or custard cups. Set in a pan of hot water, 
and bake in a moderate oven till just set. Turn out of the molds, 
and serve surrounded with peas, or with bread sauce or tomato sauce 
or rice tomato sauce, that is, tomato sauce in which a little rice has 
been cooked before thickening it. Or serve the timbales on cream- 
gravy toast. 

A smaller proportion of milk may be used in making the timbales. 
One-fourth cup milk to each egg is sometimes used. 

Plain, or French, Omelet 

4 eggs 

4 tablespoons hot water 
% teaspoon salt 

Break the eggs into a bowl, and beat enough to thoroughly blend 
the yolks and whites, but not enough to make them light. Beat in 
the hot water and salt. Turn into a hot oiled omelet pan. As the 
part of the egg next the pan sets, lift it by running a spatula or 
thin-bladed knife under the edges, and allow the liquid portion to 
run underneath. As soon as all is set. roll the omelet up, beginning 
next the handle of the pan, by tilting the pan and running the 
spatula under the omelet. Allow it to stand a moment over the 
stove to give a delicate brown to the under side, then turn onto a 
hot platter, with the brown side up. Garnish with parsley, and serve 
at once. 

Many variations of this omelet may be made by adding different 
kinds of garnish to the eggs, or by spreading the garnish over the 



r 



EGOS 105 

^OP of the omelet before it is rolled, or by serving it around the 
omelet. I might suggest the following: 

Omelet with Peas or Asparagrus 

Sprinkle nicely seasoned green peas or asparagus tips cut small 
over the omelet before it is rolled, and serve some of the peas or 
asparagus around the omelet. 

Omelet with Croutons 

As soon as the egg mixture is poured into the omelet pan, 
sprinkle on it a few croutons (thorougl^ly toasted 14-inch cubes of 
bread), and proceed as in making the plain omelet. Garnish with 
parsley. 

Com Omelet 

Add two or three tablespoons of canned corn, or stewed new corn, 
or fresh corn grated from the cob, to the egg mixture before it is 
put into the pan. Proceed as in making the plain omelet. Garnish. 

Nut Omelet 

Sprinkle chopped nuts over the omelet before rolling. 

Rice Omelet 

Use boiled rice in place of corn as in corn omelet. 

Olive Omelet 

Use chopped ripe olives in place of rice. Serve ripe olives around 
the omelet on the platter. 

Parsley or Mint Omelet 

Add a little chopped parsley or a tablespoon of finely chopped 
spearmint to the omelet mixture before putting it in the pan. 

Celery Omelet 

Sprinkle a little chopped celery over the omelet before rolling. 
Garnish with tender celery leaves. 

Tomato Omelet 

Use fresh tomatoes cut into dice instead of croutons in omelet 
with croutons. 

Cheese Omelet 

Sprinkle a 'little cottage cheese over the omelet before rolling. 

Oranare Omelet 



[ Peel an orange, taking care to remove all the white portion of 
the rind. Separate the orange into sections. Cut the sections into 

I small pieces. Sprinkle with sugar, and allow to stand one-half hour. 

^ Put some of this orange on the omelet before it is rolled, and serve 
the rest around the omelet on the platter. Garnish with vkar^Ve^, 



} 



auOD FOOD 



J city O 



spread jelly ov 
jelly on the omelet 
parsley. 

FulT Omdct 

.The following is another variety of omelet which it Is a ll!tl« 
more trouble to prepare; but, as one writer says, it makes "a more 
stiowy looking omelet, and one wliich appears larger (or an equal 
number of eggs." 

3 eggs 
Vi teaapooD salt 

1 teaspoon flour 

1 tablespoon cream or cold water 
Separate the yolks from the whites of the eggs. Beat the yolkB 
very stiff (success in making this omelet depends as much upon 
beating the yolks stiff as upon beating (he whites stIfT|. Add flout 
and cream to yolks, and beat again. Add salt to the whites, and \»»X 
till stiff and dry. Save out a little of the white. Fold yolk mixture 
into the whites. Turn into a hot oiled omelet pan. Put the egs 
white which was saved out along the edge of the omelet farthest 
from the handle of the pao. Allow the omelet to set tor a moment 
on the stove, then place in the oven on the grate and bake till riB«i 
and set; if allowed to bake too long, it will shrink. MaKe a crease 
across the center, and fold one half over the other half so that the 
egg white will come between the folds. Slide onto a hot platter, 
garnish with parsley, and serve at once. 

Instead of putting the egg white between the folds of the omelet, 
it may be put on top of the omelet after the omelet is folded, and 
the omelet set In the oven long enough to brown the egg white. 

This omelet may be made with the same variations as the French 
omelet, or may be served with cream, parsley, or tomato 




VEGETABLES 

I»REPARAT10N OF VKGKTABLES 

a culinary standpoint vegetables include roots and tubers, 
oes, carrots, beets, etc.; shoots, stems, leaves, and inflores- 
3 asparagus and celery, spinach and cauliflower; immature 
-ains, and seed receptacles, as green peas, corn, and string 
nd some articles which are really fruits, as the tomato and 

'ollowing is a table of the nutritive values of common vege- 
Their nutritive value may be compared with that of other 
referring to tables previously given. 



FOOD VAI-IK OF VKCKTAIIKKS IN CALOHIKS TKR 0l'.\( K 

Protein Fat Carbo. Total 

2.6 .3 21.3^ 24.2 

eas 8.1 1.3 19.f)- 29.0 

eans 2.6 .8 8.6'' 12.0 

1.3 1.0 10.8^ 13.1 

1.5 .5 9.4'' 11.4 

1.9 .3 1.2" 13.4 

2.4 .8 3.7 6.9 

>tatoes 2.1 1.8 31.8^ 35.7 

1.8 .8 6.5 9.1 

^er 2.1 1.3 5.5 8.9 

Tn 3.6 2.9 22.9" 29.4 

3.8 10.6 5.8 20.2 

1.9 .8 11.5 14.2 

m artichokes 3.0 .5 19.4 22.9 

IS 2.1 .5 3.8 6.4 

1.3 .3 3.8 5.4 

jreen I ima beans ... 4.6 .8 16.9 22.3 

S 1.0 1.1 4.5 6.6 

1.6 1.3 10.4 13.3 

; 1.4 .8 5.9 8.1 

}rs 9 .5 3.8 5.0 

1.8 .5 8.6 10.9 

•ch. * Mostly sugar. ^ Starch. * Sugrar. ^ Pectose. ® Sugar. ^ Starch 
* Sugar. 

this table it will be seen that all these vegetables — except 
i sweet potatoes, green peas, and green corn — have a lower 
I value than milk, that is, there is more water in them than 
in milk. The bulk of this class of vegetables is made up of 
id cellulose or woody fiber. Their dietetic value is due to 
/ors and the mineral matter and cellulose which they cox\- 



108 GOOD FOOD 

tain. They require cooking to break up and soften the cellulose, Bud, 
in some of them, to burst the starch grains, thus rendering tli^ 
starch soluble. 

Green vegetables are best cooked the day they are gathered. If 
this is impossible, one should endeavor to keep them in as fresh a 
condition as possible by putting them in a cool, dark place. 

Vegetables, being valuable largely for their mineral content and 
their flavors, should be cooked in such a manner as not to lose the 
former nor impair the latter. To cook vegetables properly by boiling, 
so as to retain the natural properties, they should be put to cook in 
boiling water, using as little water as possible without burning, be- 
cause water, especially if it is not boiling when the vegetables are 
put in, dissolves the salts and some of the other nutritive material; 
so the less water there remains to be poured off after the cooking, 
the less of these will be lost. 

While the water should be kept boiling, the boiling should not be 
violent. Gentle boiling is best. As long as water is boiling, lU 
temperature cannot be increased. If water must be added during the 
process of cooking, it should be boiling. Vegetables should be cooked 
till they are just done, but no longer. If salt is to be added as sea- 
soning, the best time to add it, generally, is just before the vegetables 
are done. 

RECIPES 

POTATOES 

The ideal in cooking potatoes is to render them as mealy as may 
be, and to lose as little as possible of the nutritive value. A 
mealy potato is more easily digested than bread. Toung potatoes 
contain a larger percentage of protein and are more juicy than ma- 
ture potatoes. This protein, being coagulated by cooking, holds 
together, and the potato is more waxy. For this reason mature pota- 
toes are more wholesome than young ones. 

Baked Potatoes 

Choose medium-sized, smooth potatoes. Wash and scrub them 
with a stiff vegetable brush till they are perfectly clean, clean 
enough so that the skins may be eaten, if desired. If any dirt 
adheres to the skin that a brush will not remove, scrape it off with 
a knife. Dry the potatoes, then bake them in a moderately hot 
oven till they will yield to the pressure of the fingers. Baked pota- 
toes are best served as soon as they are done. 

Boiled Potatoes in Jackets 

Choose potatoes of uniform size, and prepare as for baking. Put 
them into just sufficient boiling water to cook them, and boil till 
they are easily pierced with a fork, but not till they begin to fall to 



VEGETABLES 109 

'08. Drain them thoroughly. Place the kettle on the back of the 
^e, covering the potatoes with a cloth, and allow the potatoes to 
' a few moments. 

Boil«d Potetocs 

Wash the potatoes. Pare them, removing as thin a paring as 
sible, and drop them into cold water. (The skin of new potatoes 
Y be scrubbed or scraped off instead of being pared off.) If the 
itoes are not of uniform size, cut the large ones in two. Follow 
directions for Boiled Potatoes in Jackets. 

Mashed Potatoes 

Prepare the potatoes as for Boiled Potatoes. Boil or steam them 
they can be readily pierced with a fork, but are not overdone, 
^r they have been boiled, drain them thoroughly. Rub them 
mgh a heated colander into a hot dish. Season with salt in the 
>ortion of one teaspoon to three-fourths quart of potato ana suffl- 
t hot cream to make them of the proper consistency. Beat with 
^tato masher till light and creamy. Serve at once. If allowed 
tand, they will become heavy and hard. 

PoUtoee in the Half Shell 

Prepare and bake large potatoes according to the recipe for Baked 
=itoes. When done, cut them in two the longest and broadest 
Carefully scrape out the inside so as not to break the skin. 
> the potato through a colander. Season with salt, hot cream, 
beaten egg white. Beat till light and creamy. Refill the skins. 
;e them in a baking pan, and brown them in the oven^|ftBerve 
>nce. ^^ 

IJottage cheese or a little beaten whole egg, or both, may be 
:en into the potato before refilling the skins, if desired. 

Scalloped Potatoes 

Put layers of sliced raw potatoes in a baking pan, dredging each 
T with fiour. For one quart of potatoes use one pint of milk 

cream (one-fourth or one-third cream). Heat the milk and 
Lm to boiling in a double boiler, dissolve in it two teaspoons salt, 

pour it over the potatoes. Bake till the potatoes are tender and 
ly browned. Instead of milk and cream, all milk may be used, 
1 one or two tablespoons butter substitute. 

PoUto Cakes — No. 1 

1 pint mashed potato (fresh or left over) 

1 egg 

Milk or cream to moisten 

3eat the egg well, and add it to the mashed potato. Add sufficient 
c or cream to make the potato soft enough to be put on an oiled 
in spoonfuls. Bake till nicely browned. 



VEOETABLE8 111 

« 

Potato Cakes — No. 2 

1 pint potato (fresh or left over) 

1 egg 

Milk or cream 

Flour 

Add the well-beaten egg to the potato, and milk enough to make 
the potato just a little softer than in the preceding recipe. Then add 
flour enough to make the potato stiff enough to be formed into cakes 
with the hands, but quite soft. Form into round, flat cakes. Brush 
them over with cream, and bake till nicely browned. When the 
quantity of milk and flour is rightly proportioned, these will remind 
one of soda biscuit. 

Potato Croquettes 

1 pint mashed potato (fresh or left over) 

1 egg - , 

1 tablespoon water 

Milk or cream 

Pinch of salt 

Add the well-beaten egg to the potato, and suflScient milk or 
3reani to make the potato as soft as can be shaped into balls with 
-he hands. (If fresh mashed potato is used, it may not be necessary 
:o add any milk or cream.) Beat one egg with one tablespoon water 
ind a. pinch of salt. Dip a ball of the potato into the egg, then roll 
t in zwieback crumbs. Place the ball in a croquette mold, close the 
nold, and tap the closed end on the table in such a way as to force 
Jle contents into that end. Smooth the open end. Open the mold 
md remove the croquette. Place the croquettes on an oiled pan, 
ind bake fifteen minutes in a hot oven. Serve with cream s^uce or 
sgg sauce made by adding one chopped hard-boiled egg to one pint 
>f cream sauce. 

Creamed Potato Balls 

Pare large potatoes, and drop them into cold water. Then cut 
Mms from them with a potato ball cutter. Steam the balls, or boil 
hem in as little water as possible without scorching, adding salt 
list before they are done, and drain. Serve them in cream sauce. 

The potatoes may be cut into half-inch dice with a knife if desired, 
nstead of cutting them into balls. 

Savory Potatoes 

Slice a small onion in the bottom of a baking pan, then half All 
he pan with sliced raw potatoes. Sprinkle sago over the potatoes. 
Then fill the pan with sliced raw potatoes. For one quart of sliced 
)otatoes use one pint of boiling water. Add to the water two tea- 
ipoons salt and one tablespoon butter, and pour over the potatoes. 
Jake till the potatoes are tender and nicely browned. Left-over 
)aked potatoes are good prepared in this manner. 



112 OOOD FOOD 

stewed Potato 

Run cold boiled or baked potatoes through a food chopper, and 
put them in a double boiler. Add salt and sufficient milk, or psrt 
milk and part cream, to nearly cover the potatoes. Cook in the 
double boiler from one-half hour to one hour. 

Nut French Potatoes 

Cut pared raw potatoes in strips lengthwise. Put one quart of 
them into a baking pan, and pour over them one pint of boiling 
water in which two teaspoons salt and two tablespoons peanut butter 
have been dissolved. Bake till the potatoes are tender and nicely 
browned. 

Sliced Potatoes in Cream 

Put one quart of sliced cold boiled or baked potatoes in a baking 
pan. Pour ov^r them one pint of part milk and part cream, to which 
one teaspoon salt has been added, and bake till well heated through 
and nicely browned on top. 

Mashed Potato Bars 

When you have mashed potato left over, pack it in an oiled 
bread tin. When cold, remove from the tin, keeping it whole. Cut 
it into three-fourths-incn slices and the slices into three-fourths-inch 
bars. Egg and crumb the bars. Place them on an oiled pan and 
bake a few minutes in a hot oven. Serve with cream sauce. 

Lyonnaise Potatoes 

CoQk one chopped onion in a little oil till it begins to turn yellow. 
Sprinkle this onion on the bottom of an oiled baking pan. Put iu 
the pan a layer of diced cold boiled potatoes. Brush them over with 
salted cream or thin cream sauce. Brown in a hot oven. Sprinkle 
with chopped parsley, and serve. 

Browned Potatoes 

Peel rather small potatoes of uniform size. Boil or steam them 
fifteen or twenty minutes or till nearly done. Drain them (if boiled). 
Place them on an oiled baking pan, brush over with salted cream or 
cream sauce, and brown in the oven. Serve with cream sauce. 

Left-over boiled, steamed, or baked potatoes may be sliced into 
an oiled pan, brushed over with cream or cream sauce, and browned 
in the oven. Left-over mashed potato may be packed in an oiled 
bread tin, sliced when cold, put on an oiled pan, brushed with cream. 
and browned in the oven. 

(A flat paint brush is a handy article to have in the kitch«[i to 
use in oiling pans, brushing over potatoes, or buttering bread for 
sandwiches, having the butter warm but not melted.) 



VEGETABLES 113 

Hashed Brown Potatoes 

Chop cold boiled potatoes. Spread a thin layer in the bottom of 
^n oiled pan. Brush over with salted cream or cream sauce, and 
brown in the oven. 

Cream Baked Potatoes 

Use either fresh boiled or left-over boiled or baked potatoes. 
Peel them if baked, and put them in a pan. Add sufficient salted 
cream to nearly cover them. Bake till the cream is nearly absorbed. 

Chipped Potatoes 

Cut potatoes in pieces resembling the sections of an orange. Par- 
tially boil or steam them. Then put them in an oiled baking pan. 
Brush tnem over with salted cream or thin cream sauce, and brown 
them in the oven. 

Potato Birds' Nests 

With a pastry tube, form nests of mashed potato on an oiled 
jaking pan. Brown them in the oven. Fill with hot, seasoned green 
)eas, and serve at once. 

SWEET POTATOES 

Nearly all the directions for the use of Irish potatoes may be 
dlowed in cooking sweet potatoes. 

TURNIPS 

Select solid turnips. Wash and scrub them well. Slice them into 
lalf-inch slices, then pare the slices, paring deep enough to remove 
he white lining just underneath the skin, which is usually bitter. 

Mashed Turnips 

After preparing the turnips as just described, steam them until 
hey are tender or boil in as little water as will cook without scorch- 
ng, having the water boiling when the turnips are put into it. Do 
lot cook too long, for this will turn them dark and give them a 
itrong flavor. Then, if boiled, drain off the water (which will make 
;ood soup stock), and either mash them with a potato masher or 
)ut them through a colander. Season with salt and hot cream or a 
ittle butter. 

Creamed Turnips 

After the turnips are sliced and peeled as directed, cut into half- 
nch dice; or peel the turnips whole, then cut balls from them with 
L vegetable cutter. The turnip which remains after cutting the balls, 
nay be used for mashed turnip or for making soup. Steam the 
lice, or balls, or boil in as little water as will cook without scorching, 
adding salt just before they are done. Drain, if boiled, and put into 
ream sauce. 

8 



114 GOOD FOOD 

CARROTS 

Scrub the carrots well, scrape with a knife to remove the skins, 
and put into cold water. 

Mash«d Carrots 

If the carrots are large, either split or slice them, and follow the 
directions for Mashed Turnips. 

Creamed Carrots 

Follow the directions for Creamed Turnips. 

Carrots with Earg Saace 

Prepare as for Creamed Carrots, adding one chopped hard-boiled 
egg to the cream sauce. 

Carrots with Fine Herbs 

Slice three large carrots and boil them. Chop one small onion, 
and cook in one tablespoon of oil till lightly browned. Add the 
water in which the carrots were cooked, and boil the onion five min- 
utes. Add the carrots and one dessertspoon of chopped parsley, and 
boil three minutes. Remove from the fire, and squeeze in the juice 
of half a lemon. Add salt. Garnish with croutons. 

Carrots Maitre d'Hotel 

Cut the carrots into halves lengthwise, and boil in salted water, 
or steam. Place on an oiled dripping pan. Sprinkle with lemon 
juice, a little sugar, and chopped parsley. Bake till well heated 
through. 

Carrots and Peas 

Prepare as for Creamed Carrots, using with the carrots an equal 
quantity of green peas. This makes a pretty dish, the color of the 
peas and that of the carrots blending well together. 

PARSNIPS 
Browned Parsnips 

After cleaning and scraping the parsnips, cut them lengthwise 
into slices one-fourth inch thick and two and one-half inches long. 
Steam or boil the slices in a small amount of water till nearly ten- 
der. When the parsnips are young, this will require scarcely more 
than ten minutes after they begin to cook. Drain, and put the slices 
in an oiled baking pan. Brush over with salted cream or cream 
sauce. If boiled, pour the water in which they were cooked, of which 
there should be only a small amount, into the pan. Brown in a hot 
oven. 

BEETS 

Beets should be plump, solid, and unshriveled. Before cooking 
they should be washed and scrubbed with a vegetable brush, hut 
should not be scraped or cut; for the skin must not be broken, he- 



VEGETABLES 115 

cause that would allow the sweet Juice to escape. Beets should not 
be pricked with a fork to determine when they are done. When 
sufficiently cooked, they will yield to the pressure of the fingers. 
Young beets can be boiled in one hour, but old ones may require 
three or four hours. 

Baked Beets 

Beets lose the least nourishment in the process of cooking if 
baked. It requires two or three hours to. bake them; they should be 
placed on the grate, like potatoes, and should bake slowly. 

steamed Beets 

The next best way to cook beets is to steam them. 

Boiled Beets 

The beets should be put to cook in boiling water, using as little 
water as will cook without scorching them, and the water should be 
nearly evaporated when they are done. When cooked, put them into 
cold water; then the skins can be easily rubbed off with the fingers. 

After being cooked in any of these ways, the beets may be sliced, 
sprinkled with salt, and served hot, dressed with a little butter sub- 
stitute, one tablespoon to one quart of beets, or they may be served 
hot in lemon Juice, or in equal parts of lemon juice and water. A 
little sugar may be added if desired. Or a cream sauce may be 
poured over the beets Just before they are served. 

Cream Baked Beets 

Slice cooked beets into a baking pan. Pour over them thin cream 
to three fourths the depth of the beets, adding one level teaspoon 
salt to each cup of cream. Bake forty-five minutes. 

Sliced or Chopped Beets with Lemon 

Cover sliced or chopped cold cooked beets 'with diluted lemon 
juice, and allow them to stand one hour or more before serving. 

GREENS 

Greens of all kinds are a class of vegetables from which the food 
substances for which they are valuable may be very easily lost in 
the process of cooking if special pains are not taken to cook them in 
such a manner as not to lose these substances. The easy way to cook 
greens is to boil them in a large quantity of water. There will then 
be no danger of scorching them. But the objection to this method 
is that the large quantity of water dissolves the mineral salts, 
which gives to greens their principal dietetic value, and then the 
water is thrown away. If the greens are to be boiled, no more water 
than is necessary should be used. A better method of cooking greens, 
however, is by steaming. 



116 . GOOD FOOD 



Beet Greens 



Select young beets, and look them over carefully, rejecting any 
imperfect leaves. Do not cut the tops from the beets. Wash thor- 
oughly. After the greens are cooked, drain well, if boiled. Chop 
them, add salt and lemon juice, and a little butter or salad oil; or 
omit the lemon juice and serve with lemon quarters, thus allowing 
each person to suit his taste as to the use of the lemon. 

ONIONS 
Boiled Onions 

Put the onions in water while peeling, and drop into water after 
they are peeled. This will make the task of peeling less disagree- 
able. Put them to cook in a small amount of boiling water, because 
they are very watery, and become more juicy as they cook. Boll till 
just tender, but ngt longer, or they will fall to pieces and become 
dark colored. When partly cooked, add salt and a little butter or 
salad oil. The water in which they were cooked may be thickened 
with a little flour to make a gravy for them, if desired. 

Creamed Onions 

Cook the onions as in the preceding recipe. When tender, drain 
off the water, saving it to be used for soup stock, and pour over them 
a cream sauce. 

ARTICHOKES 

Jerusalem artichokes resemble turnips in that they contain no 
starch, but they are richer in carbohydrates of another nature. 

Creamed Jerusalem Articholces 

Wash the artichokes, scrape them well, and put into salted water 
to prevent discoloring. Put to cook in boiling water to which a 
little milk has been added. Add salt before they are quite done. 
Drain, and pour a cream sauce over them. 

Jerusalem Artichokes in Tomato Sauce 

Prepare and cook the artichokes as in the preceding recipe, then 
pour over them a tomato sauce. 

VEGETABLE OYSTERS, OR SALSIFY 

To prepare for cooking, wash them and boil for three minutes. 
This sets the juices. Then take them, one at a time, on a board, 
and quickly scrape the skin off, dropping them at once into cold 
water. 

stewed Vegetable Oysters 

After preparing the oysters as described, cut them into one-fourth- 
I'nch slices. Put them into a small quantity of boiling water, and 



VEGETABLES 117 

cook till they are tender, adding salt Just before they are done. Then 
add sufficient milk or cream to make a gravy for them. Allow them 
to heat up again, and cook two or three minutes, then thicken with 
a little flour rubbed smooth with cold milk. Serve plain or on nicely 
prepared thin slices of zwieback. 

Scalloped Veffetable Oysters 

Boil the oysters as in the preceding recipe. Let the water be 
nearly evaporated when the oysters are tender. Put layers of the 
oysters in an oiled baking pan, dredging each layer lightly with flour. 
For one quart of the oysters heat one pint of milk and cream (or 
one pint of milk and two tablespoons of butter substitute) to boiling. 
Add two teaspoons salt. Pour it over the oysters, and bake one half 
to three fourths of an hour. 



ASPARAGUS 
Aspararas with Cream Sauce 

Wash the asparagus, and break it as far as it is tender into inch- 
length pieces. Put it to cook in barely enough boiling water to cover 
it, and cook it till just tender, which will require twenty minutes if 
it is young (if it is old, it may require forty-five minutes), adding 
salt a few minutes before it is done. Drain, saving the water for 
soup stock, and pour over it a cream sauce. 

The tough lower portion of the asparagus stalk may be used in 
making soup. 

A^arasruft Tips on Toast 

Wash the asparagus, breaking off the tough portions. Tie it in 
bunches of eight or ten stalks, with the heads even. With a sharp 
knife cut off the lower ends so that the bunches will stand upright, 
leaving the pieces of asparagus about three and one-half inches long, 
then stand them in a kettle containing boiling water, allowing the 
heads to be well out of the water. Cover the kettle tightly. In this 
way the tips will be cooked by the time the less tender portion is 
cooked, and will not be cooked to pieces. Add salt a few minutes 
before the asparagus is done. When it is tender, lift it out of the 
water onto a hot dish, and untie the bunches. Dip nicely prepared 
thin slices of zwieback into the water in which the asparagus was 
boiled. Place each slice on a hot individual platter, put a few stalks 
of the asparagus on each slice of toast, the tips all the same way, 
and pour a little cream sauce over the tips. 

Aaparaffus and Peas 

Prepare asparagus as in the first recipe, using with it an equal 
quantity of green peas. 



118 QOOD FOOD 

CELERY 

Celery is one of the most valued of salad herbs, and one of the 
finest flavorings. Celery is best ^\ien eaten raw, if fresh, crisp, and 
tender, but it should be thoroughly masticated. 

To prepare celery for the table, break the stalks apart, wash and 
clean them thoroughly with a vegetable brush, rejecting any green 
portions and tough stalks. Then put them in ice-cold water for an 
hour before serving. The green portions and tough stalks may be 
used in making soups. 

To keep celery fresh when it is not to be used as soon as pur- 
chased, wrap the bunches in brown paper, sprinkle with cold water, 
wrap in a cloth wrung out of cold water, and put in a cool, dark 
place. 

stewed Celery 

Cut tender stalks of celery into inch-lengths. Put into a stew 
pan, ^nd add enough boiling water to half cover the celery. Put a 
cover on the stewpan, and cook slowly till tender. Add salt and a 
little cream, and when boiling thicken with a little flour stirred 
smooth with cold water. 

Celery on Toast 

Cut tender stalks of celery into pieces about two and one-half 
inches long. Put them into a stewkettle with sufficient boiling water 
to half cover them. Stew till tender, adding salt just before they 
are done, and serve on toast in the manner in which asparagus tips 
on toast are served. 

Celery with Tomato Sauce 

Prepare the celery as directed for Stewed Celery, and serve with 
tomato sauce. 

Cream Celery Toast 

Cut tender stalks of celery into one-fourth-inch pieces, and add 
them to a nice cream sauce. This should be served on thin slices of 
zwieback, which have been slightly moistened in hot water. 

SPINACH 

Spinach should be carefully looked over, the tough stalks and 
imperfect leaves being rejected, and should be washed in several 
waters, the spinach lifted from one pan to another each time it is 
washed, thus allowing the sand to settle to the bottom, to be sure 
that it is entirely free from grit. 

Steaming is the best method of cooking spinach, because it ex- 
tracts less of the mineral matter. One should be sure to have enough 
spinach, as it shrinks to one eighth or one tenth of its original bulk. 



VEGETABLES 119 

Boiled Spinach 

One peck of spinach should be cooked in three-fourths cup of 
water, great care being taken that it does not scorch. When tender, 
drain and press it to extract all the water. Chop it, and season with 
salt and a little butter or salad oil. Use sliced' hard-boiled eggs to 
garnish it, and serve lemon quarters with it, or lemon juice may be 
mixed with the spinach. 

A small amount of the water drained from the spinach may be 
used in vegetable soup or broth; a little of it added to gravy will 
give a meaty taste. 

CABBAGE 
Boiled Cabba«e 

Remove all dried outside leaves, and cut the cabbage into eighths 
or smaller, removing the core. Look it over, wash carefully, and put 
it to cook in a small amount of boiling water. Be careful that it does 
not scorch at first. As it cooks, water is extracted from the cab- 
bage, in which it will cook without scorching. Boil till tender, which 
will require from three fourths of an hour to two hours, according to 
the age of the cabbage. Do not cook it too long, as this will turn it 
dark colored and impair its flavor. Add salt and a little butter or 
salad oil, when it is about three fourths done. Serve with lemon 
quarters or pour lemon juice over it. 

Creamed Cabbaffe 

After cleaning and washing the cabbage, cut it into shreds with 
a large, sharp knife. Steam it or boil it in a small quantity of water 
till tender. Drain off the water; whith may be used for soup stock, 
and pour cream sauce over the cabbage. 

Cabbaffe in Tomato Sauce 

Cook as in the preceding recipe, using tomato sauce instead of 
cream sauce. 

Hot Slaw 

Shred one-half head of cabbage. Put into a stewkettle the fol- 
lowing: 

1 tablespoon salad oil 
3^4 cups water 
% cup lemon juice 
Put in the cabbage and cook till tender. 

CAULIFLOWER 

Cauliflower is botanically allied to cabbage. It is more easily 
digested than most other vegetables. 

Break off the outside leaves, cut the flowerets from the stalks 
about two inches below the top of the floweret. If the flowerets are 
large, divide them. Wash and place it in salted water to dxl^^ wi.\. 



120 GOOD FOOD 

any insects that may be hidden in it. Much the better way to cook 
it is steaming. It should be cooked till it is just tender, which will 
require from twenty to forty minutes. Longer cooking will turn it 
dark colored. 

BoUed Cauliflower 

Use a kettle of such size that when the cauliflower is stood in It 
stem downward it will hold the cauliflower upright. Have in the 
kettle barely enough boiling water to cover the top of the cauliflower. 
Add salt when it is about three fourths cooked. Treated in this 
manner, the delicate top will not cook to pieces before the stalk is 
tender. 

The cauliflower may be served with lemon juice, cream sauce, 
parsley sauce (cream sauce with chopped parsley added), egg sauce, 
or tomato sauce. 

CORN 
Green Com on the Cob 

To prepare corn for cooking, strip off the husks, and use a small 
vegetable brush to remove all the silk. Steaming is the better way 
to cook corn. It should be steamed from flfteen to twenty-flve min- 
utes, according to the size of the kernels and the age of the com. 
To boil it, put it into sufficient boiling water to nearly cover it. 
Cover the kettle tightly and cook from flve to flfteen minutes from 
the time the water begins to boil after putting in the corn. Too 
long cooking hardens the kernels. The older the corn the less it 
may be cooked without hardening. It should be served hot as soon 
as cooked. It may be served in a napkin to keep it hot. 

stewed Com 

After removing the husks and silk, cut the tops from the kernels 
with a sharp knife, then scrape out the pulp. To one pint of pulp 
add one-half cup cream and one-half teaspoon salt. Cook in a double 
boiler three fourths of an hour. Cold cooked corn on the cob may 
be cut from the cob and cooked in this manner, but will require only 
long enough cooking to heat it thoroughly. 

To Use Canned Corn 

Turn the corn from the can into a double boiler. Corn is very 
liable to scorch if heated in a dish set directly over the flre. Season 
with cream and salt, and cook till the corn is well heated through. 

Dried Com 

Left-over corn on the cob may be cut from the cob, spread on a 
pan, and dried in a warm oven or near the stove. When thoroughly 
dry, put into a cheesecloth bag and store in a cool, dry place. To 
cook the dried corn, soak it overnight, then stew slowly till tender, 
and season the same as stewed green corn. 



VEOETABLE8 121 

Com Puddinv 

% quart com, either raw or cooked, cut and scraped from 

the cob 
14 cup milk 
2 eggs, beaten 
% teaspoon salt 
^ cup crumbs of shredded wheat, granose, or rice biscuit, or 

toasted wheat or com flakes or toasted bread or cracker 

crumbs 

Mix the ingredients, put into an oiled pan, and bake till set. 

PEAS 
Stewed Green Peas 

Shell and wash the peas and put to cook in one cup of boiling 
water for each quart of peas. Boil gently till they are tender, 
which will require from twenty to fifty minutes, according to the age 
of the peas. When tender, season with salt and add sufficient cream 
to make as juicy as desired. The juice may b6 thickened with flour. 
If preferred without milk or cream, two tablespoons of butter may 
be used to the quart of peas. The juice may then be thickened or not 
as preferred. A sprig of mint cooked with the peas gives them a 
pleasant flavor. Or a small bunch of parsley, four small onions, and 
the washed leaves of one head of lettuce may be cooked with one 
quart of peas, and removed when the peas are tender. Season. 

Canned Green Peas 

Drain the water from the peas, rinse them well in cold water, 
add fresh hot water, heat, and season li^e fresh peas. 

BEANS 
Shelled Beans or Lima Beans 

Shell and wash the beans. Put to cook in enough boiling water 
to cover well. To have them at their best, beans should be cooked, 
not only until they are just barely tender, when they have a dis- 
agreeable, raw, beany taste, but for two or three hours, when they 
will be rich and delicious, and that peculiarly beany taste will be 
gone. Season with salt and cream or butter. 

Succotash 

This dish is borrowed from the American Indians. The word is 
taken from the Narraganset Indian word rrCsicTcquatash. 

Cook one pint of fresh Lima beans. Cut from the cob sufficient 
corn to make one pint. When the beans are tender, add the corn, 
and cook them together fifteen or twenty minutes. Season with 
cream or butter and salt. Canned corn may be used instead of fresh, 
and stewed dry Lima beans instead of fresh beaiv^. 



122 GOOD FOOD 

Strinjr Beans 

Wash the beans. Break off the stems and points in such a way 
as to pull off the strings from both edges of the pods. If it is de- 
sired to remove the strings more thoroughly, pare both edges of the 
pods. Lay a handful of the beans side by side on a board and cut 
them all at once into three-fourths-inch lengths; or if it is desired 
to have the beans more dainty, split the pods lengthwise, cutting 
through the pod from one side to the other, not from one edge to 
the other; then, instead of cutting the pods square across, cut them 
diagonally into one-and-one-half-inch lengths. Put to cook in sufB- 
cient boiling water to cover, and cook from one to three hours. Sea- 
son with salt and cream, salad oil, or butter. The Juice may be 
thickened with a little flour, if desired. 

Canned String Beans 

Drain the water from the beans. Rinse in cold water. Add fresh 
hot water. Boil for a few minutes, and season the same as fresh 
beans. 

TOMATOES 

Tomatoes are at their best when served fresh as a salad vege- 
table. They may be peeled by pouring scalding water over them, 
allowing them to stand for a moment, then putting them into cold 
water, when the skin can be easily peeled off. After being peeled, 
they should be put into the refrigerator and kept cold till they are 
to be served. They may then be sliced and served on lettuce leaves 
with a lemon quarter or a spoonful of mayonnaise salad dressing on 
each individual dish. Some prefer to peel them without scalding 
them. They should be peeled thin with a sharp knife. They are 
then more firm. They are sometimes served without removing the 
peeling. 

Instead of simply slicing the tomatoes, they may be cut into 
quarters, thirds, sixths, eighths, and these pieces placed side by side 
on an individual dish and garnished with parsley; or the pieces may 
be placed in the shape of a cross, and a spoonful of mayonnaise 
dressing put where the ends meet. 

Another way is to cut a tomato as if you were going to cut it 
into quarters, but only cut three fourths through it. Let the quarters 
fall apart slightly and put a spoonful of mayonnaise dressing in 
the opening. Serve on lettuce. 

Still another way is to put a whole tomato, stem end down, on 
a lettuce leaf or a bed of lettuce, dip a knife in mayonnaise, and cut 
across the top of the tomato; dip the knife again in the mayonnaise, 
and cut at right angles to the first cut, making a cross on the top 
of the tomato. 



VEGETABLES 123 

Stewed Tomatoes 

After peeling the tomatoes, cut them into pieces, put into a stew- 
pan, and cook slowly till tender. Season with one tablespoon of salad 
oil or butter, If desired, and one teaspoon of salt to a pint of tomatoes. 
Canned tomatoes need only to be heated and seasoned. 

Scalloped Tomatoes — No. 1 

To one pint of stewed or canned tomatoes add sufficient stale 
bread crumbs, zwieback crumbs, or cracker crumbs to make rather 
thick, one-half cup cream or two tablespoons salad oil or butter, and 
three-fourths teaspoon salt. Bake twenty minutes. 

Or drain some of the Juice from the tomatoes, season with salt, 
oil, or cream, and a little onion, if desired. Sprinkle some of the 
crumbs on the bottom of a baking pan, cover with tomatoes, and 
sprinkle more crumbs over the top of the tomatoes. Bake till well 
heated through. 

Scalloped Tomatoes — No. 2 

Fill a baking pan with alternate layers of sliced raw tomatoes 
and crumbs, sprinkling a little salt over each layer. Pour one or 
two tablespoons of oil over the top, and bake for an hour or longer. 

Tomatoes Staffed with Com 

Peel solid tomatoes. Cut an opening in the stem end and scoop 
out the inside. Fill the tomatoes with corn cut from the cob and 
seasoned with salt. Put the tomatoes into a baking pan. Put a tea- 
spoon of butter substitute on the corn in each tomato. Bake till 
tomatoes are tender but not broken. Garnish with parsley. 

stuffed Tomatoes 

Peel solid tomatoes and cut a hole in the stem end. Scoop out 
most of the inside. Refill the tomatoes with bread dressing. Put the 
filled tomatoes into a baking pan, and bake till tender but not broken. 

Filling — No. 2 

Add to the bread dressing the pulp scraped from the tomatoes, 
and one beaten egg. 

Filling — No. 3 

Add to the bread dressing one-half cup chopped nut meats. 

Breaded Tomatoes 

To one quart of stewed or canned tomatoes add sufficient stale 
bread cut-in dice to thicken, one teaspoon salt, and two tablespoons 
salad oil or butter. Heat in a double boiler. 



124 GOOD FOOD 

S4UASH 
For the reasoD that squash contalos a large amount of water, 
summer squash Is better steamed an'd winter squash la better steamed 
or baked. It squash le boiled, so little water should be used that It 
will be quite evaporated when the squash Is done. 




EiKIilant and Okn 

and wring It till quite dry. Mash and season with salt and rlcb 
cream. It the squash is older, peel it thin and remove the seeds 
before steaming. 

Baked Squuh 

In selecting winter squash, see that it Is heavy in proportion to 
its size. Wash the squash. Cut In pieces of convenient size to serve. 
Do not peel. Steam or boll till nearly tender. Place the pieces, 
shell down, on a baking pan. Sprinkle with salt and pour a bit of 
cream over each piece. Bake till browned. Serve with cream sauce. 

EGGPLANT 
Bailfd Egniliint 

Cut the eggplant into three-four ths-lnch slices, pare the slices, 
then cut them into three-fourths- 1 neb dice. Cook In boiling salted 
water, to which a little parsley and onion have been added, if desired, 
till tender. Drain and pour over it a tomato sauce or cream saace 
to which a little cottage cheese has been added. 



TEOETABLES ISE 

EnpUnt LjFHiiulu 

Cut the eggi)lant Into dice, as in the preceding roclpe. Chop an 
onion, and cook It in a little oil till it ia llgbUy browned. Put the 
onion and the oil over the bottom of a baking pan. Put In tbe diced 
eggplant, and pour over It a little of the brotb from vegetable Boup. 
Balie till tbe eggplant Is tender. When coolted, aprinlile over It some 
finely chopped parsley. 

8ctllap*A EtttfiAttt 

Dice the eggplant as In tbe last recipe, putting tbe dice into cold 
salted water. Remove from tbls water and cook In salted water till 
tender. Drain off the water. Put the eggplant in a baking pan la 
layers, sprinkling each layer with zwieback or cracker crumbs. Pour 




Ersplant Sliced and a Riiih of B>k«d Esmlant 



over it sufficient rich milk, to each pint of which one-half teaspoon 
salt has been added, to nearly cover it, then bake three fourtba of 
an hour. 

BukMJ EiipUnI 

Slice and peel the eggplant, and put into salted water for one- 
half hour. Drain the slices and dip them in beaten egg to which 
one tablespoon of water baa been added. Roll in crumbs and lay in 
an oiled pan. Pour a little salted cream over them carefully, so as 
not to waak the crumbs from the slicea. Bake in a hot oven till 
tender. Serve with any preferred sauce. 

OKRA 
Okrm ind Tomitocx 
Peel and slice four tomatoes, and stew them one-half hour. Wash 
the okra, cut off the stems and ends of the poda, and thinly slice 
enough to make one quart. Add the okra to the stewed tomatoes. 
and stew for one-half hour longer. Season with salt and cream or 
butter. 



126 GOOD FOOD 

Scalloprd Okra and TonntOH 

Put alternate layers of sliced canned okra and tomatoeB into a 
baking dlsb, sprinkling each layer witb saJt. Coyer each layer with 
boiled rice, adding a (ew drops of oil to each layer. Strew zwieback 
crumbs over the top. Bake fifteen minutes. 



14 cup rice 
% onion, chopped 
1 tablespoon oil 
1^ cups tomatoes 
i)4 teaspoon salt 
^ teaspoon thyme 
1 small bay leaf, crusiied 
1 cup canned okra, or boiled fresh okra 
1 teaspoon flour 
Cook the onion and flour in the oil till browned. Boil the rice 
according to the recipe for boiled rice. Then mix all the Ingredients 
' togetlier, and heat in a double boiler. 




SALADS 



In salads, vegetable oils, which have no inconsiderable dietetic 
value, and for the taking of which many feel an aversion, may be so 
disguised with other wholesome foods, such as fresh vegetables, that 
the whole is made a very palatable food combination of real health- 
giving value, the oil supplying real nourishment, while the other 
ingredients supply substances of medicinal value in the form of acids, 
salts, and vitamines, in combination with pure water. A properly 
prepared salad of the right kind is a far better medicine than any 
emulsion of cod-liver oil. 



PREPARING AND SERVING 

Vegetables and leaves should be fresh, crisp, and tender. Tough 
and bruised parts should be removed. Lettuce, celery, parsley, spin- 
ach, endive, and dandelion should be washed in cold water, allowed to 
stand in ice water till crisp, then drained and put into the refriger- 
ator until serving time, when they should be dried with cheesecloth 
if any water remains on them. It should be remembered that winter 
greens are raised under glass, and should be treated as any other 
hothouse plant. Lettuce is aftected by a change of temperature, and 
will wilt just as quickly as delicate flowers. 

To prepare lettuce for garnishing salads, cut out the tough lower 
part of the midrib of the leaf. Vegetable salads may be garnished 
with lettuce, parsley, beets cut in various shapes, olives, tomatoes 
eat in different ways, nuts, radishes cut in the shape of tulips or in 
slieefl, slices of lemon. 

Fruit salads may be garnished with parsley, lettuce, nuts, sec- 
ileim of orange from which the rind has not been removed, nastur- 
^um leaves and flowers, pansies, sweet peas, or other flowers, and 
smilax. A pretty way to serve a fruit salad is to put it into a sherbet 
glass, set the glass on a small paper doily on a salad plate, and lay 
a wreath of smilax around the glass on the plate. 

To prepare oranges for salad, pare them as you would x>&i*e an 
apple, removing all the white skin on the outside of the orange. Then 
by catting with a sharp knife on each side of the membranes that 
separate the sections, remove the sections free from membrane, then 
cut the sections into small pieces. 

To prepare white grapes for salad, pour boiling water over them, 
let them stand a few moments, then pour off the water and pour cold 
water over them. The skin can then be easily peeled off. Remove 
the seeds also. 



128 OOOD FOOD 

When apple or banana is used in salad, the dressing should be 
made first, and the apple or banana cut into it, so it will not turn 
dark by standing exposed to the air after being cut. 

Salad should always be served cold. Green salad plants lose 
their crispness by standing in the dressing; therefore the dressing 
should be added to green salads just before serving. Left-over cooked 
vegetables may be well utilized in salad. With salads of this kind 
it is well to mix the dressing, and then allow the salad to stand in a 
cold place for an hour before serving, so that the ingredients may 
become seasoned with the dressing. 

The ingredients of a salad should not be carelessly stirred to- 
gether, but should be gently " tossed together " with as little handling 
as possible. Vinegar is a product of decomposition; therefore we 
do not recommend its use. Lemon juice, with whose medicinal qual- 
ities all are acquainted, is to be recommended instead. The dish in 
which the salad is served may be rubbed with a cut onion or with 
the cut end of a clove of garlic, to give a delicate flavor. Some kind 
of hard bread, like crackers, is usually served with salad. 

I do not use olive oil in making salad dressings. Instead, I use 
a salad oil which has no flavor, and flnd that people who think they 
cannot eat salad dressing because the flavor of olive oil is disagree- 
able to them, enjoy my dressing. There are other oils which are 
almost, if not quite, as valuable foods as olive oil, and they are less 
expensive. 

RECIPES 

Mayonnaise Dressinar 

1 egg yolk 

1 teaspoon flour 

1 cup salad oil 

4 tablespoons lemon juice 

1 teaspoon salt 

Put the egg yolk into a bowl. Beat it with an egg beater till it 
begins to thicken, then stir the flour into it. Add a drop or two 
of oil and beat it in, then add a drop or two more and beat it in. 
Continue beating in the oil in this way, adding a few more drops 
at a time after the flrst few additions of oil. When the mixture be- 
comes too thick to beat, thin it with lemon juice, then beat in oil 
again. Continue in this way till all the oil is used. Use enough 
lemon juice to make the dressing of the desired consistency. Lastly, 
beat in the salt. 

• 

If the oil fails to unite with the egg, it will be necessary to begin 
over again, putting another egg yolk into a clean bowl and beating 
the oil-and-egg mixture which failed to unite, drop by drop, into the 
new egg yolk. This dressing will keep two weeks or more if kept 
in a cool place. 



SALADS 129 

French Dressinff 

1^ tablespoons oil 
1% tablespoons lemon juice 
% teaspoon salt 

The ingredients of this dressing may vary. More oil than lemon 
juice may be used, or more lemon juice than oil. Have the oil and 
lemon juice, also the bowl in which the dressing is to be made, very 
cold. With a fork stir the salt into the oil, then beat the lemon 
juice drop by drop into the oil. The oil will turn white, thicken, and 
become creamy. Pour at once over the salad, and serve. If the 
dressing is allowed to stand long before using, it will separate. Use 
only as much of the dressing as the salad will take up, not enough 
so that any will drain out of the salad into the bottom of the bowl 
or onto the plate on which the salad is served. 

Boiled Salad Dressincr 

3 eggs 

H cup oil 

14 cup lemon juice 

^4 cup water 

1 teaspoon celery salt 

1 teaspoon salt 

2 teaspoons suear (this may be omitted) 

i In a double boiler heat all the ingredients except the eggs. Beat 

L the eggs, add to them some of the hot mixture, mix well, then stir 

I the eggs into the hot mixture, and cook, stirring, till the mixture is 

[• of the consistency of thick cream. Too long cooking will cause the 

( mixture to separate and look rough or curdled. 

r 

Nut Salad Dressincr 

1 round tablespoon peanut butter 
^ cup water 

14 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 
l^ cup thick cream 

Rub the nut butter smooth with the water, add the salt, and 
cook till the mixture thickens. Cool, and add the lemon juice. Whip 
the cream, and fold it into the dressing. 

The two preceding dressings, also, may be mixed with whipped 
cream when using. 

Tomato Salad Dressinir 

V2 cup tomato juice 
1 tablespoon lemon juice 
1 teaspoon sugar 

% teaspoon celery salt 
1 tablespoon oil 
1 teaspoon cornstarch 

V4 teaspoon salt 

9 



130 GOOD FOOD 

Heat the tomato juice to boiling, and thicken it with the corn- 
starch, which has been stirred smooth with a little cold water. Add 
remaining ingredients. 

Whipped Cream Dresftinc 

2 tablespoons sugar 

2 tablespoons lemon Juice 

^ cup thick cream 

V^ teaspoon salt 

Mix the lemon Juice, sugar, and salt. Whip the cream, not too 
stiff, then add to it the mixed lemon juice, sugar, and salt. Care 
must be taken not to stir the mixture too much when the acid is 
added. 

Sour Cream Salad Dressinff 

2 tablespoons water 

^ cup lemon Juice 
1 egg 

% teaspoon salt 
1 tablespoon sugar 
1 teaspoon oil 

Beat the egg, add the other ingredients, and cook in a double 
boiler, stirring it till creamy. Cool, and add one-half cup sour 
cream. 

Celery and Walnut Salad 

Cut celery into small dice. Mix mayonnaise with it. Sprinkle 
broken walnut meats over the top. 

Veffetable Salad 

Mix together in any proportion, string beans cut into small pieces, 
shelled beans, green peas, cooked carrots cut into dice, diced celery, 
and chopped olives. Use either mayonnaise or French dressing. 

string Bean Salad 

Cut tender string beans into diamond-shaped pieces, and boil 
them. When cold, mix with them a few olives cut into small pieces, 
celery cut into dice, and a little onion cut fine if liked. Use either 
French or mayonnaise dressing, and sprinkle broken nut meats over 
the top. 

* Potato and Beet Salad 

With a mixture of diced cold cooked potatoes and beets in any 
proportion, use either French or mayonnaise dressing. A little hard- 
cooked egg cut into small pieces and grated onion may be added if 
liked. 

Cucumber and Radiah Salad 

French dressing may be used with diced cucumbers and thinly 
sliced radishes. It may also be used on lettuce, young, tender leaves 
of spinach, endive, cold cooked spinach, and cold cooked dandelions. 



8ALAD8 131 

The best way to prepare lettuce to use with French dressing is to 
shred it. To do this, cut the large leaves once or twice lengthwise, 
then pile several leaves together and roll them up into a tight roll, 
then with a sharp knife cut across the roll, making fine shreds. 
Shake the shreds apart. Remember, in using French dressing with 
this shredded lettuce, to use only as much dressing as the lettuce 
will take up. 

Boiled mayonnaise dressing is sometimes poured, while hot, over 
young, tender raw dandelions, when they are served at once. 

Nut Cheese and Potato Salad 

With equal parts of diced nut cheese and potato use tomato salad 
dressing. Onion may be used with this if liked. 

I am not including onion in many of these recipes, for its flavor 
is disliked by many, but it might be added to nearly all the vege- 
table salads for those who enjoy the flavor. 

Spinach Salad 

Form cold cooked seasoned spinach in the shape of birds' nests. 
Place each nest on a lettuce leaf, in the nests place little eggs made 
[ from cottage cheese. Place a spoonful of mayonnaise on the side of 
^ the nest. 

I Carrot and Pea Salad 

Over equal parts of peas and diced cold cooked carrots use 
mayonnaise dressing. 

Raw Carrot or Turnip Salad 

Very young, tender carrots or turnips wfiich are usually pulled 
up and thrown away when the gardener is " thinning out " his rows, 
may be washed, scraped, and grated, and used as a salad with 
French or mayonnaise dressing. 

Egg Salad 

Cut cold hard-cooked eggs through the center crosswise. Remove 
the halves of the yolks. Cut the half whites into strips lengthwise 
of the egg, making triangular-shaped pieces. Place lettuce leaves on 
individual plates. In the center of each leaf place half an egg yolk, 
and around each yolk place the triangular pieces of white so that 
the sharpest corner of each piece is toward the yolk. Drop bits of 
mayonnaise on the lettuce around the white. 

Celery and Egg Salad 

With one cup diced celery mix the chopped whites of two hard- 
cooked eggs. Add mayonnaise dressing. Place on a bed of lettuce 
leaves. Slice the yolks and arrange them on to^ ol l\v^ «a\^^. 



132 OOOD FOOD 

Staffed Olives 

With a cherry seeder remove the stones from olives. Fill the 
centers with pieces of the heart stalks of celery. Cut the celery off 
even with the ends of the olives. Serve on lettuce with a spoonful 
of mayonnaise. Or the olives may be stuffed with strips of blanched 
almonds. 

stuffed Cherries 

Remove the stones from fresh or canned cherries. Fill the cavi- 
ties with pieces of nuts. Serve on lettuce with mayonnaise which 
has been mixed with a little whipped cream. 

Currant Salad 

Wash and dry stemmed currants. Mix with them mayonnaise to 
which a little whipped cream and sugar have been added. Garnish 
with currants on the stem. 

stuffed Tomato Salad 

Scald and peel firm tomatoes. Cut a hole in the stem end and 
remove the pulp. Fill with diced cucumber mixed with mayonnaise 
or French dressing. Garnish with nasturtium leaves and flowers. Or 
fill the tomato shells with cottage cheese to which chopped pecans 
and chopped celery have been added, and put a spoonful of mayon- 
naise on top of each. Or fill the tomato shells with diced pineapple 
mixed with whipped cream dressing. 

Asparagus Salad 

Place the stalks of cooked asparagus in rings of tomato or cooked 
beet which has been soaked in lemon juice. Place on lettuce leaves. 
Drop spoonfuls of mayonnaise on the tips of the asparagus. 

Ribbon Salad 

Over equal parts of red cabbage and white cabbage, shredded, use 
whipped cream dressing. 

Asparagus Jelly Salad (ten individual molds) 

1^2 cans asparagus (small square cans) 
2 small onions, sliced 

1 bay leaf 

\i ounce vegetable gelatin 

2 hard-boiled egg yolks, chopped 
1/4 cup chopped olives 

1 teaspoon salt 

Cut off three fourths of an inch of the tip of each stalk of aspara- 
gus. Arrange these tips around the sides of ten Jelly molds, llw 
tips in each mold. Cook the rest of the asparagus ten minutes, with 
the onions and bay leaf. Add the vegetable gelatin, previously pre- 



SALADS 133 

pared for cooking, in the usual way (see page 162) by soaking in 
hot water and draining several times. Cook till gelatin is dissolved. 
Rub through a colander. Add the egg yolks, olives, and salt. Care- 
fully put this mixture into the molds so as not to disturb the aspara- 
gus tips. When cold, unmold and serve on lettuce with mayonnaise. 

Tomato Jelly Salad 

% quart tomatoes 

2 bay leaves 

1 onion 

1 teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon celery salt 

li ounce vegetable gelatin 

% cup lemon juice 

Cook the first five ingredients together till reduced one half. Add 
the vegetable gelatin, which has been prepared in the usual way (see 
page 162), and cook until the gelatin is dissolved. Rub through a 
colander, and add the lemon juice. Pour into molds wet with cold 
water. When cold, unmold, and serve on lettuce with mayonnaise 
dressing. 

If desired, add to the jelly, before pouring it into the molds, one 
or two string beans cut into small pieces, two or three olives chopped, 
and one or two hard-cooked egg yolks chopped. 

Cottaffe Cheese and Apple Salad 

Pare an apple, remove the core, and slice the apple crosswise. Dip 
the slices in lemon juice so that they will not discolor. Place them 
on lettuce leaves; on each slice place a ball of cottage cheese seasoned 
with cream and salt, and on top of the cheese put a spoonful of 
mayonnaise. 

Cottace Cheese and Pineapple Salad 

Use slice of pineapple in place of the slice of apple. 

Banana Salad 

Cut a banana into quarters lengthwise, and cut each piece in half. 
Dip the pieces into mayonnaise to which whipped cream has been 
added, then roll the pieces in chopped nuts. Lay the pieces on crisp 
heart leaves of lettuce. 

Autumn Fruit Salad 

Select rosy-cheeked apples, and polish them. Cut a slice from one 
end. Remove the core, then scoop out the inside of the apple, putting 
the pieces into whipped cream dressing. Add to the apple mixture 
a little pineapple cut into small dice. Make funnels out of tender 
lettuce leaves. Press them down into the apples, then fill them with 
the apple mixture. Set the apples on autumn leaver lox ^vc\s.Vs^\v^ 



134 GOOD FOOD 

Grape and Pineapple Salad 

With a mixture of diced pineapple and peeled and stoned white 
grapes use whipped cream dressing. 

Orance, Apple, and Cherry Salad 

Use whipped cream dressing with a mixture of these fruits. 

Grapefruit Salad 

Cut the grapefruit into halves crosswise. Cut around the pulp 
next to the skin. Cut on both sides of the membranes which separate 
the sections. Cut the membrane away from the skin at the stem 
and blossom ends. The membrane may then be removed in one piece, 
leaving the pulp free from membrane in the grapefruit skin. Pour 
a little French dressing over the pulp, and serve. 

Or to the grapefruit may be added peeled and stoned white grapes, 
cut-up orange, and pineapple. Or instead of using the French dress- 
ing, the fruit may be sprinkled with sugar, cherry-juice poured over 
it, and a cherry placed on top. 

Strawberry and Pineapple Salad 

Place in a bowl alternate layers of diced pineapple and straw- 
berries cut into halves, sprinkling each layer with grated maple 
sugar. Sprinkle a little lemon juice over all. 

Date and Apple Salad 

With equal parts of diced apple and stoned dates cut into small 
pieces, use the nut salad dressing. Other combinations which may 
be used with tMs dressing are: Apple and banana, date and banana, 
and fig and orange. Nuts may be sprinkled over these salads. 

Fruit and Nut Salad 

1 cup Strawberries cut into halves 
1 cup pineapple cut into \i-mch dice 

M cup pecan meats sliced 
Juice of 14 lemon 
Maple sugar grated 

Put the fruit and nuts in layers in a glass dish, sprinkling each 
layer with the maple sugar, then pour the lemon juice over the top. 
Shredded cocoanut may be substituted for the pecans. 

Sliced or Chopped Beets with Lemon 

Cover sliced or chopped cold cooked beets with diluted lemon 
juice, and allow them to stand one hour or more before serving. A 
little sugar and salt may be added. 

Beet Salad 

Chop or dice cold cooked beets, and serve with whipped cream 
dressing. 



Chopped hard-boiled eggs or chopped or diced potatoes may be 
added to this aaiad, also chopped celery In seaaon; or it may be 
served with sliced hard-boiled eggs as a garnish. Sprigs ol parsley 
nay be used in garnishing it, or it may be served on lettuce leaves. 

C>bl»« Siiul 

With one pint of shredded cabbage use the whipped cream 
IresBing. 

Chopped Cabbait 

After cleaning and washine the cabbage, chop it floe and mix 
vitta It lemon Juice, clear or diluted, a very little salt and a little 
ugar. 




Cuniiaawn- Solad 

Prepare and cook the cauliflower as directed For steamed or 
boiled cauliflower. When cooked, pour lemon juice over it, and allow 
it to stand in the refrigerator for one hour or longer. Prepare the 
Fallowing dressing: 

Salad Drnslnc 

14 cup sugar 

IVj teaspoons salt 

2 teaspoons flour 
% cup lemon juice 

3 tablespoons oil 
Yolks S eggs 

Beat the yolks, and add to them the sugar and flour. ti\x the 
lemon juice and oil, and beat to boiling, then pour it Into the egg 
o'ltu re, beating it well as in making FroEting. Cook in. a. dflutA^ 



136 OOOD FOOD 

boiler till thick, then cool. Whip one-half cup of thick cream, and 
add to it sufficient of the dressing to give it the desired consistency 
and flavor. Take the cauliflower from the lemon juice, and place it 
on lettuce on a salad plate. Pile the dressing on top of the cauli- 
flower, then arrange on the dressing thin strips of cooked beet which 
have been soaked in lemon juice. Plain cream may be used in place 
of the whipped cream. 

Cucumber Salad 

Cucumbers should be kept on ice or where it is very cold. About 
an hour before they are to be served, they should be peeled, sliced, 
and put into salted ice water or very cold water. They may be 
served on a lettuce leaf with a lemon quarter, or with mayonnaise 
salad dressing. 

Vegetable Oyster Salad 

Wash, scrape, and cut into two-inch lengths four vegetable oys- 
ters. As they are scraped, drop them into water, to which one-fourth 
cup of lemon juice and one teaspoon of flour have been added. This 
will prevent them from turning dark. Cook in boiling water, to 
which two tablespoons of lemon juice and one-half teaspoon of flour, 
stirred smooth with a little cold water, have been • added. When 
tender, drain. When cool, pile on lettuce leaves, and pour mayon 
naise salad dressing over them. 

Waldorf Salad 

1 cup apples cut into small dice 
1 cup celery cut into small dice 

Vt. cup mayonnaise 

% cup heavy cream 
Chopped walnuts or pecans 

Whip the cream, and mix the mayonnaise with it. As the apples 
are diced, put them into the dressing to prevent them from turning 
dark. Add the diced celery and lightly mix together. Serve on let- 
tuce with the chopped nuts sprinkled over the top. A very little 
grated orange rind may be mixed with this salad if the flavor is 
liked. 

Nuttolene and Celery Salad 

1 cup diced nuttolene 
1 cup diced celery 
% cup mayonnaise 

Spread the diced nuttolene on an oiled pan, and toast it in the 
oven till it is a light brown. Let it cool. Then mix with it the 
celery and mayonnaise. 

ProtcMe and Celery Salad 

1 cup diced celery 
V2 cup diced protose 
^^ cup mayonnaise 
Mix ingredients lightly together, and serve on lettuce, 



SANDWICHES 

The bread used in making sandwiches should be fine grained. 
All kinds can be used — white, whole-wheat, Graham, rye, nut, and 
steamed brown bread. The bread should be one day old, as fresher 
bread is less- wholesome and cannot be cut into smooth, thin slices. 

We do not recommend removing the crust from sandwiches, which 
is usually thought necessary; for the crust is the best part of the 
bread. However, if something especially dainty is desired, the crust 
may be removed. In that case the crust should be cut off before the 
bread is buttered. This will avoid wasting butter, and the crust can 
then be dried and made into zwieback crumbs, for which there are 
many uses. 

If it is desired to make the sandwiches especially thin and dainty, 
this can be most easily done by cutting the loaf of bread in two in 
the middle, spreading each cut surface with butter, cutting off a thip 
slice from each buttered end, and putting the two slices together. 
Continuing thus, the slices will all fit together. The butter should 
be creamed, not melted. After the slices have all been buttered, the 
filling can be put in; but for ordinary sandwiches the desired amount 
of bread should first be sliced, the slices being piled together as they 
are cut off, then the slices should be spread with butter and put 
together in pairs. Next spread the filling on one of the slices, and 
press the second slice upon the filling. 

The filling should be something of pronounced flavor, such as 
cottage cheese, ripe olives, jelly, or, if that which is to be used as 
filling has little flavor, something should be used with it to add more 
flavor. 

After the sandwiches are all filled, they may be cut into any de- 
sired shape. Cutting them cornerwise makes a convenient shape, or 
cutting them twice parallel with the edges makes oblong sandwiches. 
Sandwiches are sometimes cut into diamonds, crescents, rounds, and 
other shapes, but this is wasteful, and is done only because the 
person desires to do something different. To make round sandwiches 
the bread can be baked in small round tin cans. 

If the sandwiches are not to be used at once, they should be cov- 
ered with a cloth wrung out of cold water, and set In a cool place to 
keep them moist. 

Like other foods, sandwiches can Ije made more attractive by a 
little attention to garnishing. Lettuce or parsley placed between the 
slices so as to make a pretty green edge around the sandwich, is very 
attractive, Lettuce, parsley, carrot tops, ferns, or other pretty green 



138 GOOD FOOD 

leaves, also flowers, may be used to garnish a plate of sandwiches. 
Sandwiches should be served piled on a plate covered with a doily. 

Baked Bean Sandwiches 

Mash the beans enough to break them up a little, not enough to 
make pur^e of them, because the sandwiches are nicer if there is 
something to chew. Use the beans plain, or season them with lemon 
juice, or spread one slice of the bread with salad dressing. Brown 

bread may be used for these. 

« 

Lentil Sandwiches 

• 

When you have lentils left over, make them into dry pur^e, by 
cooking them down dry and rubbing them through a colander. Sea- 
son the pur^e with salt and a few chopped walnuts, and you have a 
splendid sandwich filling. 

Nut Sandwiches 

Spread peanut butter on one slice of buttered bread, and cover 
with the other slice. Or season the peanut butter with a little lemon 
juice and salt, or a little tomato juice and salt. Or make a mixture 
of chopped nuts of two or three kinds with a little peanut butter, add- 
ing salt to season, and enough oil to make the mixture soft enough 
to spread. Or mix chopped nuts of any kind to a paste with butter, 
and spread on one slice of bread and cover with the other slice. 
Garnish with one or two nut meats pressed on top of each sandwich. 

Jelly Sandwiches 

Spread one slice of buttered bread with jelly, and cover with the 
other slice. Garnish with halves of walnut or pecan meats. 

Nut and Jelly Sandwiches 

Use any kind of chopped nuts, and mix them to a paste with jelly. 
Spread the bread with butter, then for each sandwich spread one 
slice of buttered bread with the paste, and cover with the other slice. 
Graham or brown bread is nice for these. 

Cottace Cheese Sandwiches 

Use cottage cheese seasoned with salt and cream (sour cream 
may be used) as a filling, or mix a little mayonnaise salad dressing 
with the cheese. Rye bread is nice for these. 

Cottage Cheese and Ripe Olive Sandwiches 

Use two parts cottage cheese and one part chopped ripe olives, 
and a little mayonnaise salad dressing. Or use cottage cheese, ripe 
olives, and a little peanut butter, just enough to give a faint flavor, 
using oil* or water to moisten the fllling if necessary. 



8ANDWICHES 139 

Ripe OlWe Sandwiches 

Pit and chop fine a few ripe olives, and mix a little mayonnaise 
with them. Or use chopped ripe olives and chopped nuts; or chopped 
olives, chopped nuts, and mayonnaise; or chopped olives and chopped 
celery. 

Nut and Date, Fie, or Raisin Sandwiclies 

Chop together two parts dates and one part nuts, and use as 
sandwich filling; or use raisins or figs; or use peanut butter with 
chopped dates or figs. 

Peanut Butter and Ripe Olive Sandwiches 

Dilute peanut butter with water to the proper consistency for 
filling. Add chopped ripe olives, and salt to season. 

Cottace Cheese and Walnut Sandwiches 

Use two parts cottage cheese to one part chopped walnuts or 
other nuts. 

Cottace Cheese and Jelly Sandwiches 

Spread one slice of the buttered bread with cottage cheese, and 
the other with jelly. 

Cottaare Cheese and Celery Sandwiches 

Season cottage cheese with salt and cream, and mix finely chopped 
celery with it. 

Egg Sandwiches 

Use scrambled eggs as filling. Spread one slice of the bread with 
mayonnaise if desired, or mix mayonnaise with the egg mixture 
after it gets cold. 

Another good way to prepare eggs for sandwiches is this: 

Cover the bottom of a slightly oiled omelet pan with a thin layer 
of velvet egg mixture, and cook over a moderate heat till it sets in 
a thin sheet, then cut this sheet into pieces of the desired size and 
shape for the sandwiches. 

To make the velvet egg mixture, beat together 

2 eggs 

% cup milk 
A bit of salt 

Chopped ripe olives or chopped nuts, or both, can be add^d to any 
of these egg fillings. 

Fresh Tomato Sandwiches 

Put a thin slice of tomato between two slices of buttered bread; 
or spread one slice of the bread with mayonnaise, or lay a lettuce 
leaf on top of the slice of tomato, and cover with the other slice of 
l?reacl, 



GOOD FOOD , 

e slice of bread with butter, the other with mayonnaise. 



Caltry Sandwich** 

Use chopped celery mixed with mayonnaise aa a flUlng; or 

Rgll«d. «- Dlplnna, Sandwleho 

Trim the slices ot bread, steam them atightlj', spread with butter, 
then roll a slice of the steamed bread around a stick o( crisp celary, 
tie with baby ribbon, and trim oil the celery even with the ends of 
the sandwich. 

Other kinds of rolled sandwiches can be made by spreading any 




kind of fllling on the steamed and buttered slices of bread, rolling 
and tying each with baby ribbon. 

Cncumlwr Sindwichu 

Spread half the slices of bread with butter, the rest with mayon- 
naise, or spread mayonnaise on all the slices. Fare a cold, crisp 
cucumber, cut It Into thin slices lengthwise, cut the slices to the 
length of the slices of bread, place two strips ot cucumber aide by 
side on a buttered slice of bread, and cover with a slice which Is 
spread with mayonnaise. Then cut the sandwich In two between the 
slices of cucumber, making two oblong sandwiches, each having a 
strip of cucumber between the slices, 

Watacrua Sandolchn 

Spread half the slices of bread with butter, the rest with mayoii' 
naiae, and lay sprigs of watercress between the slices, or chop the 
cress fine ami mix It with mayonnaise for filling. 



SANDWICHES 



Appis Sandwiclua 

Pare, quarter, and core nice eating apples, and chop them fine. 
Mix a little mayonnaise aalad dressing with the apples, and use for 
sandwich filling. 



Use a mixtur 



Apple ni CMUn ChHM Sindwlchu 

! ot cottage cheese and chopped apple. 



Hub SandwlciiH 

Trim, toast, and butter three slices oF bread. On one slice spread 
chopped ripe olives with which a little mayonnaise has been mixed. 




Hub a 



ndwiEhH 



Place on this a second slice o( toasted bread. Lay on this a lettuce 
leaf and a thin slice ot tomato. Cover with the third slice of bread. 
Cut eornerwise. Then place on a plate with two ends together ao 
as to form a diamond shape. Garnish with ripe olives, and a bit 
of jelly placed on top of each sandwich. 

PInnpple Sundwichn 

Use thin slices of fresh pineapple between buttered slices of 
bread, or chop the pineapple fine, drain off the lulcs, which may be 
used for some other purpose. Spread one slice of bread with butter, 
the other with mayonnaise, and use the pineapple for filling. 



Use sliced, fresh strawberries between buttered slices of bread. 
A little sugar may be sprinkled on the berries If desired. Other 
IreBh berries may -be used. 



142 OOOD FOOD 

Fresh Peach Sandwiches 

Use sliced fresh peaches for filling. Slices of sponge cake may be 
used for making these sandwiches. No butter is needed on the cake. 

Ribbon Sandwiches 

Use white bread and dark bread. Trim the bread so that the 
slices are all the same size. Spread the slices with butter. Then 
pile four slices one on top of another, using the white and dark 
slices alternately, and using any kind of filling desired between the 
slices. Press well together, then with a very sharp knife cut the pile 
into one-fourth-inch slices, so as to make sandwiches composed of 
alternate strips of white and dark bread, with filling between. 

Three-Layer Sandwiches 

These are attractive made of two slices of white bread with a slice 
of dark bread between, and filling between the slices. Cut into three 
oblong strips, making three sandwiches about as wide as they are 
thick. 

Protose, Meatose, or Nutcero Sandwiches 

Mash the protose and season it with mayonnaise and grated onion, 
and spread it between slices of buttered bread. Or spread thin slices 
of protose with mayonnaise, and place them between slices of but- 
tered bread. A lettuce leaf may be placed on top of the protose. 

Protose and Jelly Sandwiches 

Spread jelly on thin slices of protose, and lay them between slices 
of buttered bread. 

Favorite Sandwiches 

(Mr. J. A. Wahlen) 

Vi pound protose 

3 egg yolks, hard boiled 

2 tablespoons chili sauce, or enough to make of proper 
consistency to spread 

^/4 teaspoon salt 

Vi teaspoon celery salt 

1 teaspoon chopped parsley 

1^2 teaspoon grated onion 

% teaspoon lemon juice 

Cottaffe Cheese and Egg Sandwiches 
(Mr. J. A. Wahlen) 

Equal parts of cottage cheese and chopped hard-cooked egg sea- 
sonerl with a little grated onion and vegex. 



FRUITS 



Fruits are very attractive to the eye as well as to the taste. The 
free use of fruits in the diet takes away unnatural cravings, takes 
away the appetite for tobacco, liquor, condiments, tea, coffee, and 
even meat. 

" The esthetic qualities predominate in fruit rather than the 
strictly nutritive, and we eat them more for the sake of their sweet- 
ness and flavor than for the actual nourishment which they contain." 

FOOD VALUE OF FRUITS IN CALORIES PER OUNCE 

Piotein Fat Carbo. Total 

Apples 5 1.3 16.5 18.3 

Bananas 1.5 1.6 25.7 28.6 

Cranberries 4 1.6 11.5 13.5 

Blueberries 7 ' 1.6 19.2 21.5 

Grapes 1.5 4.2 22.3 28.0 

Grape juice .0 23.8 23.8 

Peaches 8 .3 10.9 12.0 

Plums 1.2 .0 23.3 24.5 

Prunes, raw 2.4 .0 85.0 87.4 

Prunes, cooked 6 .3 25.8 26.7 

Apricots 1.3 .0 15.5 16.8 

Ripe Olives 2.0 68.4 5.0 75.4 

Dates 2.4 7.4 91.0 100.8 

Dried figs 5.0 .8 86.1 91.9 

Raisins 3.0 8.7 88.3 100.0 

Blackberries 1.5 2.6 12.7 16.8 

Grapefruit 9 .5 11.8 13.2 

Muskmelons 7 .0 10.8 11.5 

Watermelons 5 .5 7.8 8.8 

Oranges 9 .b 13.5 14.9 

Lemons 1.2 1.8 9.9 12.9 

Lemon juice .0 11.4 11.4 

Pears 7 1.3 16.4 18.4 

Raspberries, red 1.2 .0 14.6 15.8 

Raspberries, black 2.0 2.6 14.6 19.2 

Strawberries 1.2 1.6 8.5 11.3 

GENERAL COMPOSITION OF FRESH FRUIT 

Water 75.0 to 90.0 per cent 

Protein 5 to 1.5 per cent 

Pat 5 to 1.5 per cent 

Carbohydrates 6.0 to 20.0 per cent 

Cellulose 2.5 per cent 

Mineral matter 5 per cent 



FRUITS 145 

While fruits are rather deficient in nutritive material, their cleans- 
ing and disinfecting properties put them at the head of the list of 
wboleaome foods. No patent medicine can compare with them as 
blood purifiers. Their nutritive constituents are almost wholly car- 
bohydrates, and these carbohydrates are in the form of fruit sugar 
and grape sugar, which are predigested foods, all ready for use in 
the aystem. Fruit juice, such as a glass of orange juice, for instance, 
quickly affords relief, refreshment, and strength to one who is fa- 
tigued, because its true nourishment is quickly taken up by the 
system. 

Fruits aid digestion by reason of the stimulating properties of 
their acids and sweets, also by reason of their flavors. A food which 
is appetizing, which we enjoy, is more readily digested than one 
which is not appetizing. A food which has very little flavor does 
not arouse the stomach to action as does a food of marked flavor. 
Some fruits, like the pineapple, contain a digestive principle some- 
what similar to pepsin, which makes them still greater aids to 
digeBtion. 

Fruits consist essentially of: (1) The cellulose framework, which 
contains the juice; and (2) the juice, which is water holding in solu- 
tion fruit sugar and acids. Th6 acids are either free or in combina- 
tion with minerals in the form of salts. 

The acids of fruits are: Malic, in apples, pears, and peaches; 
citric, in lemons, limes, and oranges; tartaric, in grapes; and pectic, 
which is the jelly-producing substance. Rhubarb, which is really a 
vegetable, contains oxalic acid. The acids of, fruits are digestible, 
being used in the system as sugars are used, and when burned in the 
body, help to render the blood more alkaline. " In some diseases, 
such as scurvy, this property is turned to therapeutic account." 

While fruit juices are very readily taken up by the system, the 
digestibility of fruits themselves depends upon the nature of the 
cellulose, or framework, those fruits whose framework is most deli- 
cate and most easily broken up being most digestible. Unripe fruit 
differs from ripe fruit in that it contains raw starch, which turns to 
sugar in the ripening process. This raw starch, being indigestible 
in the stomach, renders unripe fruit unwholesome. Unripe fruits 
contain more cellulose than ripe, which makes them less digestible, 
and a larger proportion of acids, which, being irritating, frequently 
cause diarrhea and colic. 

All fruits to be eaten raw should be thoroughly cleaned before 
serving. As a rule, fruit, when perfectly ripe, is of greater dietetic 
value eaten raw than when cooked. Unripe fruit requires cooking. 
The utensils used for cooking fruit should be graniteware or alumi- 
num, because fruit acids act upon other metals. Fruit should be pre- 
pared just before cooking, to preserve its flavor and prevent discolor- 
ation. It should be cooked in as small a quantity of water as will 
properly cook it. 
10 



146 OOOD FOOD 

Sugar, when boiled with an acid, turns to glucose, which is only 
about one third as sweet as sugar; therefore it is a matter of econ- 
omy to add sugar to stewed fruit after the fruit is cooked, and the 
sauce will be much more wholesome if only sufficient sugar is added 
to make it palatably, not enough to make it very sweet. It is well 
to cultivate a taste for fresh fruits, and sauces in which there is 
little , sugar, instead of the preserves so commonly eaten. 

Fruits should be stewed or simmered gently, to preserve their 
shape, appearance, and flavor. Such strong flavors as cinnamon, 
clove, nutmeg, and other spices cover up the natural flavors of fruits, 
which the cook's art should preserve as perfect as possible. One fruit, 
however, may be flavored with another, or with the perfume of flow- 
ers, or with nuts. Thus, apple may be flavored with lemon, pine- 
apple, grape, quince, rose, citron, almond, walnut, or cocoanut. 

STRAWBERRIES 
To Prepare for Servins 

Put the berries, a few at a time, into cold water, wash them 
carefully till entirely clean and free from sand, then hull them. 
They should be served very soon after they are prepared. 

Like all other fruits, if one is to reap the full benefits from 
eating them they should be eaten without cream and with little or 
no sugar. (We enjoy picking strawberries and eating them without 
sugar. Why should we insist upon having sugar with them at the 
table?) 

Large, selected strawberries may be served on the stem. They are 
then picked up by the stem with the fingers, dipped into the sugar, 
which may be placed on the side of the dish, and eaten from the 
stem. 

The flavor of pineapple blends well with that of strawberries. A 
diah of strawberries and diced pineapple together is very appetizing. 

Strawberry Foam 

3 egg whites 

^2 tablespoon lemon juice 

% cup sugar 

% cup strawberries cut into fourths 
A few grains salt 

Add the salt to the whites, beat till foamy, add the lemon juice, 
beat till stiff, add the sugar gradually, continuing to beat, and when 
very stiff, fold in the berries. Serve in sherbet glasses with a large 
berry on the stem on top. 

strawberry Float 

1 cup strawberries 

^^ cup sugar 
S egg whites 



FRUITS 147 

Wash, hull, and sweeten the berries to taste, and set them In 
the refrigerator to get cold. Rub them through a colander. Beat 
the egg whites stiff, add the berries and sugar, and beat together 
till it is stiff enough to hold its shape. Serve plain or with cream. 

strawberry Whip — No. 1 

3 egg whites 
% cup sugar 
1 pint strawberries 
A few grains salt 

Rub the berries through a colander. Add the sugar. Put the 
whites into a mixing bowl. Put the berries and sugar in with the 
unbeaten whites. (Do not think there is a mistake in this recipe, 
and beat the whites before adding the berries to them.) Beat all 
together till very stiff, which will require from twenty to thirty 
minutes. When done it should be stiff enough to hold its shape. 

When the ingredients are properly beaten, this recipe will make 
from one and one-half to two quarts; for the whipping makes it very 
light. Serve cold with small cookies or lady Angers. Custard sauce 
may be served with it. 

strawberry Whip — No. 2 

1 pint sweetened, stewed, or canned strawberries 

2 egg whites 
Cornstarch 

Drain the juice from the fruit. Measure the juice, heat to boil- 
ing, and thicken with cornstarch in proportion of one round table- 
spoon cornstarch to one cup juice, stirring the cornstarch smooth 
with a little of the juice saved out for that purpose. Allow it to cool 
while beating the whites. Add the strawberry mixture to the beaten 
whites, and beat till very light and stiff. 

strawberry Shortcal^e 

Make biscuit according to the recipe for No-Soda Biscuit (see p. 
52). Split them, then put crushed and sweetened strawberries be- 
tween and on top of the biscuit. Serve with plain cream or whipped 
cream. 

strawberry Cream Cal^e 

Bake plain cake in layers. Use between and on top of the layers 
the following: 

Filling 

1 cup crushed strawberries 

% cup heavy cream 
Sugar to taste 

Whip the cream and fold it into the sweetened crushed berries. 
Canned berries may be used for this, in which cas^ l\:kfe yqAr.'^ \s» 



148 GOOD FOOD 

drained from the berries, and thickened with one tablespoon of corn- 
starch to the cup of juice. The berries are then added to the juice, 
and the cream is whipped and added to them. 

Diced oranges may be used instead of berries. 

strawberry Cream with Nuts 

1 cup heavy cream 
3 tablespoons strawberry juice 
Juice % lemon 
% cup sugar 

Mix the ingredients and beat till stift. Serve in sherbet glasses. 
Decorate the top with any kind of nuts. 

RASPBERRIES 

Raspberries are sometimes given as an astringent, for which they 
are valuable. 

To Prepare for Servinir 

They should be carefully looked over and examined to remove all 
insects, then washed and drained. They may be served with or 
without sugar and cream. 

Raspberry Whip, Raapberry Shortcake, and Raspberry Cresm 

Substitute raspberries in the recipes for Strawberry Whip, Straw- 
berry Shortcake, and Strawberry Cream. 

BLACKBERRIES 

Blackberries and blackberry juice are given as astringents. They 
are prepared and served like raspberries. 

PINEAPPUS 

The juice of the pineapple contains a digestive principle some- 
what like pepsin; it is also an excellent gargle in diphtheria. 

To Serve Pineapple 

First slice the pineapple, then peel it, remove the eyes, and cut 
into small pieces. Sprinkle with sugar, and allow it to stand In the 
refrigerator one hour or overnight. 

APPLES 
Citron Apples 

Prepare as for plain baked apples, peeling the apples unless the 
skin is tender. Put pieces of chopped citron into the cavities made 
by removing cores, then All the cavities with sugar. Bake slowly 
till the apples are tender, but not broken. Serve hot or cold, with 
cream or whipped cream. 



C*c*«DBt ^pl«a 

Select Qrm apples which will bake without breaking. Peel and 
core tbem, fill the cavities with Bugar. put them Into the baking pan, 
add auBlclent water, and bake till tesder. When done, sprinkle 
sbredded cocoanut over the apples, and return to tbe oven tilt the 
cocoanut 1b lightly browned. 

Walnut or Alaand Appl« 




How to Prapun Pln«spplt 
Gnps AppIm 

Prepare apples as Cor cocoanut' apples. Arrange closely in the 
baking pan. Fill the cavltieB with sugar, and pour grape Juice over 
the apples to one third their height. Bake till the apples are tender. 

Cnnbcrr/ Appln 

ly using sweetened cranberry 



DRIED FRUITS 

Waah the prunes well. Cover them with cold water to two or 
three times the depth of the prunes. Let them stand overnight. In 
the momfng put them to cook In the water in which they soaked, 
letting tbem simmer for about three hours. When done, they will he 
tender, with a thick Juice, and will require no sugar. 

Prunes are mildly laxative. 



150 OOOD FOOD 

Prunes " Cooked " In Cold Water 

The largest varieties of prunes are excellent prepared in this way: 

Wash the prunes well. To one pint of prunes add one quart of 

water. Set them in the refrigerator for forty-eight hours. They will 

then be plump, soft, and delicious, more like fresh, sweet plums, 

and more wholesome than the stewed ones. 

Prune Marmalade 

Stone stewed prunes and rub them through a colander. No sugar 
need be added. 

stuffed Prunes 

Select large-sized prunes, wash well, and soak overnight. Cook 
till tender, but they need not be cooked so long as for stewed prunes 
(or use prunes "cooked" in cold water), remove the stones by cut- 
ting a slit in the side of each prune, and replace the stone by a 
blanched almond. Serve with whipped cream or plain cream. 

The prune juice which is left makes an excellent laxative. 

Prune juice and chopped nuts make a tasty dressing for cereals, 
either the dry cereals and flake foods or mushes. 

steamed Dates 

Carefully look over and wash the dates. Put them into a steamer 
and steam ten or flfteen minutes. Serve hot or cold. 

stuffed Dates 

Carefully look over, wash, and stone the dates. Fill the caTities 
with walnut meats or almonds, or with peanut butter which ha8 been 
salted to taste, or with nicely seasoned cottage cheese, or with pea- 
nut butter into which a little sugar and a few drops of vanilla have 
been mixed. The dates may then be rolled in sugar. 

Date and Cocoanut Caramels 

Mix two parts seeded dates and one part shredded cocoanut. 
Run the mixture through a nut butter mill or a food chopper, using 
the finest cutter. Press into a flat cake and cut into caramels. 

steamed Figs 

Carefully look over and wash the flgs, then steam them for fifteen 
minutes. Figs are a wholesome and nutritious food, and are also 
a valuable laxative. 

Fig Marmalade 

The steamed flgs may be run through a food chopper with the 

finest cutter, or may be put through a nut butter mill, when the 

^e^ds as well as the pulp will be ground to a marmalade. Nuts and 



flge ground together In this way make a palatable and nutritious 
tood, and may be pressed into a cake and cut Into squares. 



Care fully look ov« 
them to cook In cold 



SUwtd Pic 

r and wash the flgg. and cut off the stems. Put 
water, and stew slowly (or halt an hour, or till 

MISCELLANEOUS 



There are some varieties of pears which are too bard to be suit- 
able for eating raw, but are excellent baked. Some varieties are good 
simply washed, put Into a pan with a little water, and. without the 
addition ot sugar, baked till tender. Serve with sugar and cream 
or with whipped cream. 

Ts Pnpiri Gnptfruil for Sctvinc 

Wipe the fruit, and cut It Into halves crosswise'. With a grape- 
fruit knife cut all around the fruit Just Inside the skin, so as to 




IllmtnUnr the Ptcpi 



>f Gnpsfralt for 



separate the pulp from the skin, then cut on both sides ot all the 
membranes which divide the fruit into sections, and then cut next 
the skin on the Inside at the end of the fruit, when the entire mem- 
branous portion may be removed in one piece, leaving the sections 
of pulp in place in the skin, but free from tough portions. The fruit 
is then ready to be served on a fruit plate; or It may be sprinkled 
with sugar and allowed to stand in the refrigerator for ten minutes 
before serving: or a tablespoon of grape Juice may be poured over 
the pulp before it is set away to cool. 

Bak(d Banuiu 

Poel the bananas, put them Into a deep granite pie plate, sprinkle 



GOOD FOOD 

irrant, raspberry, or cranberry Jnfc 

CrunlKrrT Saun 

Carefully look over and waih the cranberrlee. Put three cnp 
cranberrlea to cook In one and one-hair cups boiling water. Str 
tbem till the Hklns burst and the cranberriea are tender, being ear- 
ful that they do not boil over. Rub them through a One colandi 
or strainer to remove the shins and seeds. Then add one cup suga 

Not and Raisin Hamaladt 

Ralalna may be made into marmalade by grinding them tbrout 
a nut butter mill or through an ordinary food chopper with the fli 
cutter. Equal parts of raisins and nuts — walnuts, almonds, pecai 
or pine nuts — ground through the mill together make a very pal 
table and nutritious food. After being put through the mill, t' 
marmalade may be pressed or rolled Into a cake one-half Inch Ihl' 
and cut Into cubes, forming caramels. 



Prepare the peaches Just before serving, because they become d 
colored by standing. Wash, divide, stone, pare, and slice the peachc 
(Notice the order In which the directions are given. !t will be fOUi 
convenient to follow this order In preparing the peaches.) They w 
discolor less qiilcltly If a silver knife is used. Serve very cold wi 
sugar and cream. 




Shirlwl II la Modr 



DESSERTS 



Some persons may feel that desserts which are mixtures of milk 
and sugar should never be made. It is true that " large quantities of 
milk and sugar eaten together are injurious/' and that " sugar, when 
la.rgely used, is more injurious than meat." Others, may feel that if 
SL milk-and-sugar dessert is made with very little sugar, it will be 
comparatively wholesome; while to still others such a dessert would 
ta.8te so insipid that they would rather have no dessert, and would 
feel that if they are going to have a milk-and-sugar dessert, they 
^^ant it sweet enough to be palatable, and would think best to have 
Ruch a dessert only occasionally, and when they do have it, eat spar- 
ingly of it. This would^not be eating large quantities of milk and 
sxigar together. 

Desserts might be classified as follows: Milk desserts without 
^Sgs, custard desserts, fruit desserts, gelatin desserts, sago and tapi- 
oca desserts, steamed puddings. Pies (pages 177-187) and frozen 
ciesserts (pages 203-205) are also classified as desserts. 

RECIPES 

MILK DESSERTS WITHOUT EGGS 
Irish Mo«8 Blancmansre 

1 quart milk 

^ ounce (a small handful) Irish moss 

% cup sugar 

^/4 teaspoon salt 

V2 teaspoon vanilla 

Prepare the moss by soaking and washing it in four changes of 
cold water, allowing it to soak about fifteen minutes the first time 
and five or ten minutes the succeeding times, picking it out of each 
water into the other with the fingers, carefully looking it over, and 
removing any sand or dark spots. 

Put the milk into a double boiler to heat. When boiling hot, put 
the washed moss into the hot milk and cook thirty minutes. The 
milk will not seem much thickened, but it will be solid when cold. 
Strain* through a fine sieve, stirring the moss to allow all the milk 
to drain out. Add the remaining ingredients to the milk. Stir well 
to dissolve the sugar. Pour into a mold wet with cold water or pour 
Into individual molds. When cold, turn out of the molds, and serve 
with cream or with sliced bananas and cream. 

Caramel blancmange may be made by adding to the mixture just 
before pouring it into the molds, sufficient caramel to give it a deli- 
cate brown color and a slightly caramel flavor. 



154 GOOD FOOD 

Creamy Rice Puddinsr 

1 quart rich milk 

% cup rice, scant 

% cup sugar 
Grated yellow rind of Va lemon 
A pinch of salt 

Wash the rice thoroughly by putting it into a dish, pouring hot 
water over it, and whipping it with a batter whip, then pouring off 
the water, repeating the process till the water remains clear. Be 
careful to grate off only the yellow part of the lemon rind. Put all 
the ingredients into a pudding dish. Cover the dish, set in the oven, 
and bake very slowly till the rice is tender. The pudding should be 
stirred occasionally during the cooking. When the pudding is nearly 
done, the cover may be removed to allow the top of the pudding to 
brown. 

Success in making this pudding depends entirely on the baking. 
It should be baked slowly, until the rice is thoroughly tender, but not 
too long; for if baked too long, the pudding will be too dry. It is 
best served the day after it is made, and should be of a rich, creamy 
consistency when cold; some might enjoy it served hot. One-eighth 
package of raisins may be added to the pudding, if desired. 

Farina Blancmange 

1 pint milk 

^/4 cup sugar 

1^ cup farina 
A few grains salt 

Heat the milk with the sugar in a double boiler. Stir in the 
farina and salt, and continue to stir till the milk is thickened and 
the farina does not settle. Cook it in a double boiler one hour, 
then pour it into cups that have been wet with cold water. When 
cold, unmold and serve with cocoanut sauce. 

Cornstarch blancmange is made by substituting cornstarch for the 
farina, and stirring it smooth with a little of the milk saved out 
for that purpose before stirring it into the hot milk. 

Chocolate Blancman^re 

1 pint milk 

Vi cup sugar 
3 tablespoons cornstarch 

Vi cup health cocoa 
1 teaspoon caramel 

^2 teaspoon vanilla 
A few grains salt 

Heat the milk in a double boiler. Mix the sugar, cocoa, corn- 
starch, and salt. Pour the hot milk over this mixture, and mix thor- 
oughly. Then return to the double boiler, add the caramel, and cook 
fifteen minutes, or till thickened. Add the vanilla, and pour into 
cups wet with cold water. When cold, unmold and serve with cream. 



DESSERTS 155 



Junket 



Junket is prepared by coagulating milk with rennet. Rennet is 
a digestive principle obtained from the lining of a calf's stomach. 
The same ferment is secreted by the human stomach, and whenever 
sweet milk is taken into the stomach, it is very soon turned to junket. 
Junket tablets may be obtained at any druggist's and at many 
grocers'. To prepare junket: 

To one quart milk add one-fourth cup sugar, a few grains salt, 
and a little lemon or vanilla flavoring. Heat until lukewarm. Junket 
cannot be prepared from sterilized milk. Add one junket tablet, 
which has been dissolved in one tablespoon cold water. Turn into 
custard cups at once. Allow to remain in a warm place without 
disturbing till set, which will take but a few minutes. Then set 
away in a cold place. If allowed to remain warm too long, it may 
sour, or the whey may separate. 

CUSTARD DESSERTS 

Custard desserts are those in which eggs and milk are used. 
Success in making custard desserts depepds very largely on the care 
taken in cooking them. Too long cooking or too high a tempera- 
ture will make them watery, of a rough\ texture and tough consist- 
ency, while they should be jellylike, tender, smooth, and velvety. 
They must be carefully watched during the cooking process, and re- 
moved from the heat at just the right moment. 

To determine when a baked custard is done, dip a clean silver 
knife into hot water, then run it into the custard. If the knife comes 
out clean, the custard is done; biit if some of the custard clings to 
the knife, the custard should be baked a little longer. To determine 
when a boiled custard is done, dip a clean silver spoon into it. If 
the custard coats or masks the spoon, it is done. 

Much better success will result, and a smaller proportion of eggs 
will be required in making baked custards, if they are baked in cups. 
And a cup custard looks much more dainty and attractive when 
served than a serving dipped with a spoon from a dish of custard. 
The cups or the dish in which the custard is baked should always 
be set in a pan of hot water while baking. 

In the making of custard desserts, whenever it is necessary to 
add eggs to a hot mixture or liquid, the precaution should always be 
observed of beating the eggs and stirring some of the hot mixture 
into the beaten eggs before stirring them into the hot liquid, other- 
wise the eggs will form dumplings in the mixture instead of being 
equally and smoothly distributed throughout. 

A richer and more tender custard is made by using only the 
yolks of the eggs, using the proportion of three egg yolks to two and 
one-half cups milk. The egg whites may then be saved for making 
angel cake or snow pudding. In this way both custard and <i^VL<i ^x.-ws. 



156 OOOD FOOD 

be made from about the same number of eggs that would be used tor 
custard alone when one uses the whole egg. 

I always heat the milk while preparing the other ingredients 
when making baked custards; this shortens the length of time it 
must be kept in mind and watched during the baking. But the milk 
should not be heated too hot or it will cook the eggs when it Is added 
to them, and the eggs should not cook till after the custard is put 
in the oven. 

Maple Cup Custard (Baked) 

2 cups milk 

% cup maple sirup 

2 drops maple flavoring 

3 egg yolks 

% teaspoon vanilla 
A few grains salt 

Warm the milk. Beat the egg yolks; beat into the yolks the sirup, 
flavoring, and salt; then stir into them the heated milk and beat 
well together. Pour into cups; set the cups in a pan of hot water, 
and bake till the custard is just set. 

Cocoanut Cuatard (Boiled) 

2^2 cups milk 

V'2 cup shredded cocoanut 

Vi cup sugar 
3 egg yolks 
A few grains salt 

Steep the cocoanut in the milk in a double boiler twenty minutes. 
Strain the cocoanut out of the hot milk, pressing it well to extract all 
the milk and flavor. Beat the egg yolks, then beat into them the 
sugar and salt. Stir the hot milk into the egg-and-sugar mixture; 
put it into the double boiler and cook, stirring and watching it con- 
stantly, till it just begins to thicken a little or till it just coats a 
spoon dipped into it. Do not expect it to set or to get as thick as 
baked custard; for just before it gets as thick as you expect it to, 
it will get thin. It will seem too thin when it is cooked sufficiently, 
but it will be thicker after it gets cold. 

A little practice is required to enable one to know when to re- 
move a boiled custard from the flre. As soon as the custard is suffi- 
ciently cooked, set the inner cup of the double boiler which contains 
the custard in cold water, and stir the custard till it cools slightly. 
Then pour into cups or into the dish in which it is to be served, 
and set away to get cold. 

Apple Custard 

Into a pudding pan put 1% quarts of pared, quartered, and cored 
apples. Sprinkle over them three-fourths cup sugar and one-fourth 
teaspoon salt. Bake till tender. While the apples are baking, pre- 
pare a custard from the following ingredients: 



DESSERTS 157 

% quart milk 
^ cup sugar 
2 whole eggs and two yolks 
% teaspoon vanilla 
^ teaspoon salt 

Warm the milk. Beat the eggs and yolk» together, then beat the 

sugar into them. Stir into them the hot milk, vanilla, and salt, 

and beat well together. This should be ready when the apples are 

done. Pour this custard over the hot apples, and return to the oven 

to bake just long enough for the custard to set A meringue may 

then be put over the pudding, if desired, by beating the two egg 

whites and folding into them three level tablespoons sugar, spreading 

this on the pudding, and setting it on the grate of the oven long 

enough to color the meringue a light brown. 

Cup Custard (Burnt Orange Flavor) 

Follow the recipe for Maple Cup Custard, using one-fourth cup 
sugar in place of the maple sirup, omit the maple flavoring, and use 
a few drops of caramel to color and flavor, and use the grated rind of 
half an orange instead of the vanilla. 

Grate the orange rind very thin, so as to remove only the colored 
outside part. 

PUDDINGS 
Bread Puddin^r 

1 pint milk 

1^ cups stale bread cut into dice 
% cup sugar 

2 eggs 

% cup stoned dates cut into small pieces 
A few grains salt 

Heat the milk. Add the diced bread to the hot milk. Separate 
the whites from the yolks of the eggs. Beat the yolks. Mix some of 
the hot milk with the beaten yolks, then mix the yolks with the hot 
milk and bread. Add the sugar, salt, and dates. Put into a small 
basin, set the basin in a pan of hot water, and bake till the pudding 
is set. Then beat the egg whites and fold into them three tablespoons 
sugar. Spread this on top of the pudding, and put in the oven to 
brown lightly. Three eggs are sufficient for twice this recipe, using 
two of the whites for meringue. 

Queen of Puddings is made by spreading jelly over the top of the 
bread pudding before putting on the meringue, and putting one fourth 
cup chopped almonds in the pudding instead of the dates. 

Snow Pudding 

1 pint milk 
% cup sugar 

3 tablespoons cornstarch 
^ teaspoon vanilla 

2 egg whites 

A few grains salt 



158 GOOD FOOD 

Save out a little of the milk with which to stir the cornstarcli 
smooth. Heat the rest of the milk, with the sugar and salt, in a 
double boiler; when boiling hot stir into it the cornstarch, which has 
been stirred smooth with the milk saved out for that purpose. Cook 
fifteen minutes. Beat the egg whites stiff. Add the vanilla to the 
cornstarch-and-milk mixture, then beat it into the beaten egg whites. 
Turn into cups wet with cold water. When cold, remove from the 
molds, and serve with custard sauce made with the yolks of the eggs. 

' Orance Puddinir 

4 Florida oranges 

1 pint milk 
^4 cup sugar 

% cup cornstarch 

2 eggs 

A few grains salt 

Pare the oranges, removing all the white skin. Slice the oranges, 
remove the seeds, and cut the slices into dice (a sharp knife will be 
required for this) or separate the oranges into sections, and cut the 
sections into small pieces. Put the diced oranges into a pudding 
dish. 

Save out a little of the milk with which to stir the cornstarch 
smooth. Heat the remainder of the milk, with the sugar, in a double 
boiler. When the milk is boiling hot, stir the cornstarch and milk 
mixture into it, whipping it in, in a small stream. Cook fifteen min- 
utes. Separate the white from the yolk of one of the eggs. Beat 
the whole eggs and the yolk. Stir some of the hot mixture into the 
beaten egg, then stir the egg into the hot mixture. Add the salt. 
Cool partially, then pour over the oranges. Beat the white of the 
egg, fold into it IM? tablespoons sugar. Spread on top of the pud- 
ding and put in the oven to brown lightly. 

Baked Indian Puddinc 

1 quart rich milk 

6 tablespoons cornmeal 

6 tablespoons flour 

^^ cup sugar 

^ cup cold milk 

l^ cup molasses 

y2 cup raisins 

1 egg, beaten 

1/4 teaspoon salt 

1/4 teaspoon ground caraway seed, if desired 

Heat the milk in a double boiler, then stir into it the cornmeal 
and fiour, which have been previously mixed together, and cook, stir- 
ring till the milk is thickened. Then add the other ingredients, mix 
well, and turn into a pudding dish. Set the dish in a pan of water 
in the oven, cover, and bake three hours. At the last the pudding 



DESSERTS 159 

^ay be removed from the water and baked with the cover off to 
^rown the top of the pudding slightly. Serve plain or with cream 
Or whipped cream or with apple juice boiled down with sugar to a 
thick sirup, using two cups sugar to one quart of apple juice. 

Fiff Puddinjr 

2Y2 cups milk 

1 cup fig marmalade 
% cup sugar 

2 eggs 

% cup crumbs of stale bread 
Vq teaspoon salt 
Y2 teaspoon vanilla 

Heat the milk. Make the fig marmalade by putting steamed figs 
through the food chopper. Add the marmalade, sugar, crumbs, salt, 
and vanilla to the hot milk. Beat the yolks of the eggs and add them. 
Mix well. Put into a baking pan in which it will be about 1^ inches 
deep. Set the pan in a pan of hot water, and bake till set. When 
done, beat the two egg whites, fold into them three tablespoons 
sugar, and spread on top of the pudding. Put into the oven and 
brown lightly. 

FRUIT DESSERTS 
Apple Rose Cream 

Quarter and core apples which have red skins, and stew them 
without paring in a very little water. Let them cook down quite 
dry, then rub through a colander. If the apples are of the right kind, 
the pulp will be colored red by the skins. To a pint of the pulp add 
about one-fourth cup sugar, or more if necessary to make it sweet 
enough, a few grains salt, and one-fourth teaspoon rose flavoring. 
Beat the white of one egg very stiff, then beat the apple pulp, a little 
at a time, into the beaten white, and beat till the mixture is light and 
stiff enough to hold its shape. Serve with apple jelly or with cus- 
tard sauce, or with chopped nuts sprinkled over it. 

Brown Betty 

1 quart chopped apples 

1 pint raisins (1 cup would do) 

^ cup sugar 
1 tablespoon lemon juice 

l^ teaspoon salt 
1 cup zwieback crumbs 

Simmer the raisins for fifteen minutes in sufficient water to cover 
them. Drain off the juice and save it. Put half the apples in the 
bottom of a pudding dish; and cover with half the raisins. Sprinkle 
over the raisins half the sugar and half the crumbs. Spread over 
this the rest of the apples; and put the rest of the raisins over the 
top of the apples. Sprinkle on the rest of the sugar and crumbs. Add 



160 GOOD FOOD 

the salt and lemon juice to the water that was drained from th^ 
raisins, and pour it over the top of the pudding. Set the pudding 
in a pan of water, cover, and bake one hour or longer. Remove from 
the pan of water, and bake without the cover long enough to brown 
the top lightly. Serve with cocoanut sauce. 

Prune Whip 

Remove the stones from stewed prunes, and rub a sufficient quan- 
tity through a colander to make one pint of prune pulp. Add one- 
eighth teaspoon salt, one-fourth cup sugar, and one-half teaspoon 
vanilla. Beat two egg whites stiff. Beat the prune pulp into the 
beaten egg whites, and' continue to beat till the mixture is light and 
stlfT. 

For Improved Prune Whip use equal parts of prune pulp and 
raisin pulp. These are made by rubbing stewed raisins or stewed 
prunes through a colander. 

Peaches a la Conde 

Cook in a double boiler one-half cup well-washed rice in three cups 
rich milk or cream with one-half teaspoon salt. This will need to 
be put to cook early, because it will take two hours or more for the 
rice to swell sufficiently to take up all the milk. It should be creamy 
when done. 

While the rice is cooking, prepare the peaches as follows: Pour 
boiling water over them, and let them stand just long enough to 
loosen the skins. Pour off the water and pour cold water over them. 
Cut the peaches into halves. Remove the stones and peel the halves. 
Cook the peaches till tender in scarcely enough water to cover them, 
with sugar to sweeten them a little. Carefully remove them from the 
juice, and thicken the juice with cornstarch stirred smooth with cold 
water, using one tablespoon of cornstarch to each cup of the peach 
juice. 

For each serving put a large spoonful of the rice in a sauce dish. 
Press two halves of peach, cut side in, against opposite sides of the 
rice, and pour some of the thickened juice over the rice. This makes 
a toothsome and wholesome dish. 

PressMi Fruit Puddinr 

Completely cover the bottom of a pudding pan with slices of 
bread. Cover the bread with hot stewed blueberries, sweetened, using 
enough of the berries to moisten the bread well. Put a layer of 
bread on top of the berries. Then cover this with hot berries. Put 
a pan on top of the pudding with a weight on it to press the pudding. 
When cold, cut in squares, and serve with sweetened cream, whipped 
cream, or cocoanut sauce. 



DE88ERT8 161 

Mixed Fruit Dessert 

1 cup Stoned and quartered California grapes (or stoned 

cherries may be used) 

1 cup diced apple 

1 cup diced pineapple 

Y2 cup diced figs 

^ cup pineapple juice or strawberry juice 

y^ cup lemon juice 

Either canned or fresh pineapple may be used. The pineapple 
or strawberry juice may be that which is drained from canned fruit. 
The apples should be mixed with the lemon juice as soon as they are 
cut into dice, to preserve their white color. Carefully mix with them 
the other ingredients, and place the mixture in the refrigerator for 
two hours to allow the flavors to blend. At serving time put the 
fruit into chilled sherbet glasses, and place on top of each a spoonful 
of whipped cream which has been slightly sweetened and flavored 
with vanilla. Or the cream may be piped in the shape of a rosette 
with a pastry tube. 

Fruit Mold 

3 cups raspberry, strawberry, blackberry, or cherry juice 
Sufficient sugar to sweeten to taste 

14 level teaspoon salt 

^ cup cream of wheat 

The juice which is drained from canned fruit may be used for 
this. In this case probably no extra sugar will be needed. 

Heat the fruit juice to boiling in the inner cup of a double boiler 
placed directly over the flre. Whip in the meal, stir till the juice is 
thickened, and then set into the outer cup of the double boiler, which 
contains boiling water, and continue cooking for one hour. Then 
pour into molds wet with cold water, and cool. 

When thoroughly chilled, turn from the molds, and serve with 
cream or whipped cream. 

Blueberry Sponire Pudding 

Into a pudding pan put one quart of blueberries that have been 
looked over and washed. Mix together two-thirds cup sugar, one- 
fourth cup flour, and a few grains salt, and sprinkle over the blue- 
berries. Put into the oven to cook. 

Prepare a plain cake batter, and pour a thin layer of it over the 
hot blueberries. Return to the oven to bake till the cake is cooked 
through. Serve hot with vanilla sauce. 

GELATIN DESSERTS 

We do not recommend the use of animal gelatin, not only because 
It Is an animal product, but because it is made from hoofs and horns, 
and, we are told by persons who ought to know, eyes and other 
organs and parts of the animal which cannot be used for anything 
else. 

}1 



162 GOOD FOOD 

A most satisfactory substitute for animal gelatin is agar, a sea- 
weed that grows in the Japan Sea, also farther south along the 
eastern coast of Asia, and to some extent along the western coast of 
America. 

Agar is really not gelatin, though the name ** vegetable gelatin " 
has been given it because it can be used as a substitute for animal 
gelatin in making desserts. Agar is cellulose, and has no nutritive 
value. The nutritive value of desserts made with agar is due to the 
sugar and fruit juice used in them. It might be stated here that 
animal gelatin also has slight nutritive value. 

Besides making a good substitute for animal gelatin, agar is 
valuable for the relief of constipation. To prepare it for use for 
this purpose, soak about one-half ounce of the agar in about four 
quarts of hot, but not boiling, water for one-half hour. Turn into 
a colander to drain off the water. Then put the agar into a second 
quantity of hot water for fifteen minutes. Drain, and soak the third 
time. Then drain well.. This successive soaking in hot water and 
draining is to remove the spongy smell and taste which the agar has. 

As a help in the relief of constipation, a sauce dish of this soaked 
agar should be eaten at each meal, with little attempt to masticate it. 
Cream or cream and sugar may be eaten with it to add some pala- 
tability to the dish. The gelatin itself not being digested and having 
absorbed considerable water, helps to retain moisture in the contents 
of the digestive tract. Cellulose of any kind in the food eaten, stim- 
ulates the digestive tract to pass the food along. 

Used as gelatin, one ounce of agar solidifies three quarts of liquid, 
while one ounce of animal gelatin solidifies two quarts of liquid. 

To use as gelatin, the agar should be prepared by soaking and 
draining as was described for preparing it for eating. One-fourth cup 
of agar cut fine with the shears equals one-fourth ounce. 

Grapefruit Jelly 

M> cup grapefruit juice 
114 cups water 

1 cup sugar 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 
l^ teaspoon salt 

^4 ounce vegetable gelatin 
1 cup water in which to dissolve the gelatin 

While the gelatin is receiving its preliminary preparation of soak- 
ing and draining, mix together the grapefruit juice, water, sugar, 
lemon juice, and salt. Use a lemon drill to obtain the grapefruit 
juice. Both the grapefruit juice and the lemon juice should be 
strained before using. After draining the last time, boil the gelatin 
in the one cup of water till dissolved, then strain it into the remain- 
ing ingredients. Mix well, and pour into a mold or cups wet with 
cold water. When cold, unmold, and serve with cream, whipped 
cream, vanilla sauce, or lemon custard sauce. 



DESSERTS 163 

ApricoU in Jelly 

ly^ cups dried apricots 

1 cup sugar 

1 tablespoon lemon juice 

y^ teaspoon salt 

% ounce vegetable gelatin 

1 cup water in which to dissolve the gelatin 

Wash the apricots, and let them soak overnight in three cups cold- 
water. In the morning stew till tender in the water in which they 
soaked, which should require only about ten minutes. Drain off the 
juice and measure it. There should be two cups. Add water, if 
necessary, to make that amount. Put the apricots back into the 
juice, and add the sugar, lemon juice, and salt. After preparing the 
gelatin by soaking and draining, boil it in the one cup of water till 
it dissolves, then strain it into the apricots. Put into molds wet 
with cold water. When cold, unmold and serve with whipped cream. 

Oranre Snow Pudding 

2 tablespoons lemon juice (juice of 1 large lemon) 
yi cup orange juice 

1 cup sugar 
14 ounce vegetable gelatin 
% cup water in which to dissolve the gelatin 

3 egg whites 
yi teaspoon salt 

Prepare the gelatin by soaking and draining three times. After 
draining the last time, boil it in the two-thirds cup of water till dis- 
solved. Strain it into the lemon juice, orange juice, sugar, and salt, 
which have been mixed together. Cool till nearly ready to set, then 
beat it into the stiffly beaten egg whites, and continue to beat till 
nearly ready to set again. Then quickly pour into cups wet with 
cold water. When cold, unmold and serve with a custard sauce in 
which the yolks of the eggs are used. This is so tender that in 
unmold ing great care must be taken not to break the desserts. 

Lemon Snow Puddinar 

% cup lemon juice 
1 cup sugar 

1^ ounce vegetable gelatin 
1 cup water in which to dissolve the gelatin 
3 egg whites 

% teaspoon salt 

Mix the lemon juice, sugar, and salt. Prepare the gelatin as usual 
by soaking in hot water and draining. Cook the drained gelatin in 
the cup boiling water. Strain this dissolved gelatin into the mixed 
lemon juice, sugar, and salt. Allow the mixture to cool till nearly 
ready to set, then beat it into the three egg whites which have been 



DE88ERT8 165 

beaten stiff. Continue to beat till the mixture is nearly ready to 
set again, then turn into cups wet with cold water. When cold, un- 
mold and serve with custard sauce in which the yolks of the eggs 
are used. 

Oranffe Jelly 

% cup orange Juice 

% cup cold water 
3 tablespoons lemon juice 

y^ ounce gelatin, cooked in 1 cup water, after it has been 
prepared as usual by soaking and draining 

^ teaspoon salt 

% cup sugar 
Grated rind of 1 orange 

Mix together the orange juice, orange rind, cold water, lemon 
juice, salt, and sugar, and strain into it the dissolved gelatin. Strain 
again to remove the orange rind. Turn into molds wet with cold 
water. When cold, turn from the molds and serve with cocoanut 
sauce. 

Lemon Jelly 

1/4 ounce of gelatin, cooked in one cup water, after it has been 
prepared as usual by soaking and draining 

1 cup sugar 

1^ cups cold water 
^ cup lemon juice 
A few grains salt 

Mix together the sugar, cold water, lemon juice, and salt, and 
strain into it the dissolved gelatin. Turn into molds wet with cold 
water. When cold, turn, from molds and serve with whipped cream 
or lemon custard sauce. 

Mscedoine of Fruit in Jelly 

% ounce gelatin, dissolved in 
% cup boiling water 

2 tablespoons lemon juice (1 large lemon) 
% cup sugar 

1 cup cold water 
% teaspoon salt 

% cup diced banana 

% cup diced apple 

Ve cup diced peaches 

% cup stoned cherries (canned) 

2 tablespoons cherry juice 
% cup diced orange 

(That is, one cup of a mixture of these fruits cut into dice) 
% cup walnut meats (not chopped) 
Pineapple flavor 
Wintergreen flavor 
Red coloring 
A few grains salt 



166 aOOD FOOD 

Prepare the gelatin as usual by soaking in hot water and drain- 
ing, then cook it in the two-thirds cup of boiling water till dissolyed. 
Then strain it into the remaining ingredients, which have been mixed 
together. Stir it enough to be sure to get the gelatin distributed 
throughout the mixture. Add enough pineapple and wintergreen 
to give a delicate flavor, and enough red coloring to give it a pretty 
pink color. Pour into molds wet with cold water. When cold, turn 
from the molds and serve with lemon custard. 

Cereal Coffee Jelly 

1 pint water 

% cup dry cereal coffee 

% cup sugar 

1/4 ounce vegetable gelatin 
A few grains salt 

Prepare the gelatin by soak'ing and draining according to direc- 
tions in previous recipes. Simmer the coffee in the water twenty 
minutes. Strain. Add water to make one pint. When the gelatin 
is drained the third time, put it into the pint of coffee and cook till 
it dissolves. Strain. Add sugar and salt. Pour into individual 
cups wet with cold water. If desired, a stoned date and an English 
walnut meat may be dropped into each cup. When cold, remove from 
the cups and serve with whipped cream or plain cream. 

Grape Jelly 

1% cups grape juice 

3 tablespoons lemon juice 

% cup sugar 

y^ ounce of gelatin, cooked in 

1 cup hot water 
A few grains salt 

Prepare the gelatin as usual, by soaking it in three changes of 
hot water. After it is drained the last time, cook it in the one cup 
hot water till it dissolves, then strain it into the remaining ingre- 
dients, which have been mixed together. Turn it into a mold or Into 
cups wet with cold water. When cold, turn it out of the mold, and 
serve with custard sauce or apple whip. 

Bavarian Cream 

Vi ounce gelatin 

% cup milk 

% cup sugar 

2 egg yolks 

1 6up heavy cream, whipped 
1 teaspoon vanilla 
A few grains salt 

Heat the milk and half of the sugar in a double toiler. Beat the 
two egg yo\k& with the remainder of the sugar and the salt. Add 



DES8EHT8 167 

some of the hot milk to the yolks, then add the yolks to the hot 
milk, and cook till it coats a spoon dipped into it. 

Have gelatin soaked and drained three times. After draining the 
last time, dissolve it in a double boiler without the addition of any 
water. Strain it into the custard mixture, and set aside to cool a 
little. When warm, fold into it the cream and vanilla. Pour into 
molds wet with cold water. When cold, unmold and serve with 
strawberry sauce or raspberry sauce or the crushed fresh fruit 
sweetened. 

strawberry Bavarian Cream 

1 cup fresh strawberries, rubbed through a colander 

^^ cup sugar 

1/4 ounce gelatin, dissolved in a double boiler after the pre- 
liminary soaking and draining 

1/4 teaspoon salt 
1 cup heavy cream 

Strain the dissolved gelatin into the strawberries. Add sugar and 
salt and mix. Whip the cream, and fold it into the strawberry mix- 
ture. Put into molds wet with cold water. Serve with crushed and 
sweetened fresh strawberries. 

Pineapple Bavarian Cream 

1 pint can grated pineapple 

% ounce gelatin 

1/4 cup sugar 

% cup heavy cream 
Juice % lemon 

Prepare the gelatin as usual by soaking it in three changes of hot 
water. After it is drained the last time, put it into a double boiler 
to dissolve without the addition of any water. Add the sugar to the 
pineapple; add the lemon juice to the cream and whip it, not too 
stiff, then fold the pineapple into the whipped cream. Boil the 
gelatin directly over the fire for a moment to be sure it is all dis- 
solved, then strain it into the pineapple mixture, and pour at once 
into sherbet glasses. Decorate the top with triangles of pineapple 
slices with a cherry in the center. 

SAGO AND TAPIOCA DESSERTS 

Blancmanges of all kinds, after being turned into cups, should 
be allowed to stand long enough to become thoroughly chilled and 
set. Otherwise they will be too soft to hold their shape when un- 
molded, and you will think there is a mistake in the recipe. But if 
the blancmange is made stiffer, it is much less palatable. Blanc- 
mange should not be tough and rubbery, but should be of a jellylike 
consistency. 



16S 



OOOD FOOD 



Amnmst Blancunii 

2% cupB milk 
14 cup sugar 
t tableBpooDB arrowroot 
A few grains salt 
Heat two cups of the milk, with tbe sugar and salt, to boiling. 
Stir In the arrowroot rubbed smooth with one-halt cup milk, and 
cook till thickened, then pour Into cnpB wet with cold water. When 




Sate Pnddlni: 

1 quart water 

% cup brown »ago 

% level teaspoon salt 

^ cup sugar 

^ cup dat«a stoned and cut Into small pieces 

\i cup walnuts cut Into small pieces \ 

I tablespoon lemon Juice 

Soak the Gago in one cup of the water for one-halt hour. Heat 
the remainder of tbe water to boiling, and stir Into It the soaked 
. sago, the sugar, and the salt. Cook In a double boiler, stirring occa- 
alonally, till the sago Is transparent, which will require about twenty 



DE88ERT8 16» 

minutes. Th^i stir in the lemon juice, dates, and nuts. Serve either 
warm or cold, with cream or custard sauce. 



% cup brown sago 
3 cups milk 
^ cup sugar 
^ teaspoon salt 
^ teaspoon vanilla 

Mix together all the ingredients except the vanilla, and let stand 
one>luUf hour. Then put to cook in a double boiler. Stir frequently, 
cocAlas ttll the sago is transparent, which will require about one- 
half to tluree-fourths hour. Remove from the fire and stir in the 
vanflla. 'Serve cold in glasses, with a bit of bright jelly or with 
pieces of broken nut meats on top. 

Grmpc S*go 

1% cups water 
1^ cups grape juice 
^ cup sugar 

1 tablespoon lemon juice 
% teaspoon salt 

^ cup brown sago 

Mix together all the ingredients except the sago, and heat to boil- 
ing in a double boiler. Stir in the sago, and stir every two or three 
minutes till the sago does not settle to the bottom, then continue the 
cooking till the sago is transparent, which will require about one- 
half hour. Stir well. Turn into the dish in which it is to be served, 
or into molds wet with cold water. When cold, serve with cream. It 
is better to make this the day before it is to be used, so that it will 
get thoroughly cold and set. This makes a simple and nice dessert 
for Sabbath. 

Tapioca Puddins 

% cup pearl tapioca 

3^/4 cups milk 

^ % cup sugar 

2 eggs 

Grated yellow rind of V. lemon 
y^ teaspoon salt 

Cook the tapioca in two cups of the milk in a double boiler till 
transparent. This will require two or three hours. If the minute 
tapioca is used, it will require less time to cook. When the tapioca 
is transparent, add to it the sugar, salt, and lemon rind. Beat the 
yolks of the eggs; mix with them the rest of the milk, cold, IVi cups; 
then add them to the tapioca.* Mix all well together, pour into a 
baking pan, set the pan in a pan of hot water, and bake till the 
pudding is set. Do not bake too long or the pudding will curdle. 



170 GOOD FOOD 

• 

When done, remove from the oven. Add a few grains of salt to the 
whites of the eggs, beat them stiff, fold into them three tablespoons 
sugar. Spread this on the pudding, and put into the oven to brown 
lightly. 

strawberry or Pineapple Tapioca 

% cup pearl tapioca 

3 cups water 

y^ teaspoon salt 

1 pint diced fresh or canned pineapple or 1 pint fresh 

strawberries 
% cup sugar 

Soak the tapioca in one-half cup water overnight. Heat the re- 
maining two and one-half cups of water to boiling, stir in the soaked 
tapioca and sugar, and cook in a double boiler till transparent, which 
will require from one to two hours. Partially cool, then carefully 
stir in the fruit. Serve cold with cream, whipped Cream, or custard 
sauce. 

Apple Tapioca 

Grated yellow rind of ^ lemon 
% quart pared, quartered, and cored apples 

2 teaspoons lemon Juice 

Vi cup and 2 teaspoons sugar 
% cup tapioca 
2 cups water 
A few grains salt 

Soak the tapioca in the water one hour or overnight. Put it into 
a double boiler, with the salt and the two teaspoons sugar, to cook. 
Stir it frequently and allow it to cook till transparent. This may 
require two hours, unless minute tapioca is used. While the tapioca 
Is cooking, put the prepared apples into the pan in which the pudding 
is to be made, sprinkle over them the lemon juice, lemon rind, and 
one-half cup sugar, and put them into the oven to bake slowly. By 
the time the tapioca is done, they should be beginning to turn pink. 
Then pour the tapioca over the apples, and allow the whole to bake 
long enough for the tapioca and apples to boil up together. 

Fiv Tapioca 

1/4 cup tapioca 
1% cups water 

% cup sugar 
1^/4 cups flg marmalade 

V<2 teaspoon lemon flavoring 

94 teaspoon orange flower water 
A few grains salt 

Soak the tapioca in the water one hour or overnight. Put it into 
a double boiler, add the salt, and cook till transparent. Then stir 
Jn the sugar, flg marmalade, and flavoring. Serve cold with cream. 



DESSERTS 171 

STEAMED PUDDINGS 
Steamed Apple Paddinv, or Apple Dumplinr 

Early in the morning set a sponge of — 
1 cup lukewarm skim milk 
% cake compressed yeast 
2^ cups pastry flour 

Dissolve the yeast in the milk, add the flour, and beat thoroughly. 
When this sponge is light, add the following to make a dough: 

i>4 cup oil 

^ teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon sugar 

1 cup pastry flour 

When the dough is light, roll it out a little less than one-fourth 
inch thick. Cover the dough with sliced apples, and sprinkle brown 
sugar and a few grains of salt over the apples. Roll up into a roll. 
Put into a pudding pan or a large bread tin. Allow to rise for per- 
haps one-half hour in a warm place. Then steam three hours. Serve 
hot, with vanilla sauce. 

In their season fresh blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, or 
cranberries may be used in place of the apples. 

Steamed Nut and Fix Pudding: 

1 pound flgs 
% cup nuts 

2 cups stale bread crumbs 
2 cups rich cream 

% cup sugar 

1 teaspoon salt 
4 eggs 

Chop the flgs and the nuts. Beat the yolks and add the sugar and 
salt to them. Mix bread crumbs, flgs, nuts, cream, and salt; then 
mix in yolks and sugar, and lastly fold in the whites beaten dry. 
Steam four hours. ' 

steamed Fiar Puddingr 

2 cups stale bread crumbs 
2% cups milk 

1% cups chopped flgs 

% cup sugar 
1 egg 

% teaspoon salt 

The bread crumbs can be made by grinding stale bread through a 
food chopper, using the coarsest cutter. I^eft-over end slices of bread 
are good for this. 

Mix together all the ingredients except the egg. Separate the 
egg; mix the yolk with the other ingredients, then beat the white 
stifT and fold it in last. Put into an oiled pudding dish which can 
be covered, or into a brown-bread tin, and steam tlit^e^ \sft>\\%. 



172 GOOD FOOD 

Serve hot with cream, whipped cream, cocoanut sauce, or orange 
sauce. A mild sauce is desirable for a fig pudding. A sauce with 
a pronounced flavor, like a lemon sauce, so disguises the mild flavor 
of the pudding that it is impossible to discover by the flavor what 
kind of pudding is being eaten. 

steamed Nut and Fruit Puddinr 

% cup raisins 

% cup chopped citron 

% cup flnely chopped walnuts 

% cup flnely chopped pecans 
1 pint zwieback crumbs 
1 egg 
1 tablespoon cream or oil 

l^ cup sugar 

1 tablespoon lemon juice 
2^ cups milk 

Mix together the dry ingredients; then stir in the remaining in- 
gredients except the egg; separate the egg and stir in the yolk; then 
beat the white stifT and fold it in last. Steam three hours. Serve 
hot with cherry sauce made by heating to boiling one pint of juice 
from canned cherries, and thickening it with two tablespoons corn- 
starch stirred smooth with a little cold water. 

steamed Fruit Puddinc (one of the best) 

1% cups pared, quartered, and cored apples 
% package seeded raisins 

2 ounces flgs 

% cup seeded dates 

% tablespoon molasses 

% cup hot water 

% cup sugar 

% teaspoon vanilla 

V2 teaspoon salt 

% cup zwieback crumbs 

Chop the fruit, then mix all the ingredients well together. Put 
into a pudding dish, cover, and steam three hours. Serve with rasp- 
berry sauce. 

steamed Indian Puddinc 

1 pint milk 

lA cup cornmeal 
y2 teaspoon salt 

2 teaspoons oil 

1 egg yolk 

2 tablespoons molasses 
2 tablespoons tapioca 

% cup raisins 

Heat one cup of the milk in a double boiler. Add the cornmeal, 
and stir till thickened. Cook ten minutes, then beat the egg yolk and 



DESSERTS 173 

the other cup of milk together, and add to the partly cooked meal, 
also add the remaining ingredients. Allow the mixture to cook in 
the double boiler till thick, then turn into an oiled brown-bread tin. 
Put on the cover, set into a steamer, and steam two or three hours. 
Serve hot with cream or whipped cream, or with boiled apple juice 
made by boiling together one pint apple juice and one-half cup sugar 
till a sirup is formed. 

Diced apples may be used in the pudding instead of the raisins. 

English Plum Puddinv 

^ cup crisco 

2 tablespoons karo sirup 

% cup chopped walnuts 

% cup sugar 

% cup grated bread crumbs 

Vq package raisins 

1/4 package dried currants 
^ cup chopped citron 
2 tablespoons peach juice, cherry juice, or other fruit juice 
1 egg white, beaten 

% cup milk, more or less 
A few grains salt 
Melt the crisco and stir it into the karo sirup. Mix with this all 
the rest of the ingredients except the milk and white of egg; then 
stir in enough milk to make the mixture rather soft. Fold in the 
stiffly beaten egg white. Put into an oiled brown-bread tin or pud- 
ding mold. Cover and steam three hours, or steam in individual 
molds. Unmold and serve with plum pudding sauce. 

steamed Apple Paddinjr 

Line a pudding dish with a thin layer of cooked rice. Fill the 
dish with sliced apples, pour over the apples sugar in the proportion 
of one-half cup sugar to one quart of sliced apples. Add a few grains 
salt and a little grated lemon rind, if desired. Cover with a thin 
layer of rice. Put a cover on the dish and steam the pudding two 
hours. Serve hot with vanilla sauce. 

PUDDING SAUCES 
Custard Sauce — No. 1 

1 cup milk 

2 tablespoons sugar 
2V egg yolks 

^ teaspoon vanilla 
A few grains salt 

Heat the milk, with the sugar, and salt, in a double boiler. When 
hot, beat the egg yolks, stir some of the hot milk into them, then 
stir them into the hot milk, and stir till the mixture thickens slightly, 
and will coat a silver spoon dipped into it. Thla wUl l^V.^ ^^nV^ -56. 



174 GOOD FOOD 

moment. Too long cooking will cause the custard to curdle, and 
spoil it. Just as soon as the custard is sufiQyciently cooked, take it 
from the fire, and set the dish containing it in cold water. Stir 
in the vanilla. 

Custard Sauce — No. 2 

1 cup milk 

2 tablespoons sugar 

1 egg yolk 

2 teaspoons cornstarch 
% teaspoon vanilla 

A few grains salt 

Save out one tablespoon of the milk. Heat the remainder of the 
milk in a double boiler. Mix together the sugar and cornstarch, and 
stir into it the tablespoon of milk and the egg yolk. Stir this mixture 
into the hot milk, and cook till it coats a spoon. 

For Lemon Custard Sauce use the grated yellow part of the rind 
of one-fourth lemon or one-fourth teaspoon lemon flavoring instead 
of the vanilla. 

Cocoanut Sauce 

1 cup milk 

1^ cup shredded cocoanut 

2 tablespoons sugar 

1 tablespoon cornstarch 
A few grains salt 

Save out one tablespoon of the milk with which to stir the corn- 
starch. To the remainder of the milk add the cocoanut, and heat 
together in a double boiler for one-half hour. Strain out the cocoa- 
nut, pressing it well to get out all the milk. Put the milk back into 
the double boiler to reheat. Add the sugar. When boiling hot, stir 
in the cornstarch stirred smooth with the cold milk. Cook five min- 
utes. Add the salt. 

Foamy Sauce 

1 cup milk 

2 tablespoons sugar 

1 tablespoon cornstarch 
1 small egg white 
A few grains salt 

Stir the cornstarch smooth with a little of the milk. Heat the 
remainder of the milk, with the sugar and salt, to boiling in a double 
boiler, and stir in the cornstarch. Allow to cook a few minutes, 
then whip the hot sauce into the stiffly beaten egg white, and return 
the sauce to the double boiler long enough to cook the white of the 
egg, stirring constantly. This will cause the egg white to become 
incorporated with the sauce so that it will not rise to the top after 
the sauce cools, 



DBS8ERT8 ~ 175 

Vanilla Saac* 

2 teaspoons butter substitute 
1% tablespoons flour 

^ cup brown sugar 

% cup water 

% cup milk 

^ teaspoon vanilla 
A few grains salt 

Heat the wafer and the milk. Mix the butter, flour, and sugar, 
ir the hot liquid into this mixture, and stir till it boils. Boil two 
inutes. Add the vanilla and salt. 

Oranre Sauce 

1 cup water 

1% tablespoons cornstarch 

^ cup orange juice 

^ cup sugar 
Grated yellow part of the rind of \i orange 

14 teaspoon vanilla 
A few grains salt 

Stir the cornstarch smooth with a little of the water. Heat the 
mainder of the water to boiling, and stir into it the cornstarch. 
Dil one minute, then stir in the remaining ingredients. If a richer 
lUce is desired, only one tablespoon cornstarch should be used, and 
le egg yolk added last, and the sauce allowed to heat long enough 

thicken slightly by cooking the egg. 

Lemon Sai|ce 

1 small lemon, juice and grated yellow part of the rind 

Vj cup sugar 

ii cup flour 

1 egg yolk 

1% cups hot water 

1 tablespoon butter substitute 
A few grains salt 

Mix the sugar and flour; stir into it the lemon juice and rind 
id the egg yolk. Then stir the hot water into this mixture. Cook 

a double boiler till it thickens. Add the butter substitute and 
It. 

Chocolate Walnut Sauce 

1 cup milk 

2 tablespoons health cocoa 
2 tablespoons sugar 

2 teaspoons cornstarch 

^ teaspoon vanilla 

% cup chopped walnuts 
A few grains salt 



176 OOOD FOOD 

Heat the milk to boiling In a double bailer. Mix together the 
sugar, cocoa, and cornstarch. Stir the hot rollk Into this mixture, 
return to the double boiler, and cooK five minutes. Add the i 
malning Ingredients. 

Plua Puddln* Since 

1 cup sugar 

2 tablespoons cornstarch 
Vi cup crisco 

14 cup karo sirup 
1 teaspoon vanilla 
1 teaspoon lemon flavoring 
1 pint boiling water 
Melt the crisco and stir into it the haro sirup. Mix the cor. 
starch with the sugar, and stir it Into the crisco and sirup. Then 
stir in the boiling water. Let It boll up well, then add the vanilla 
and lemon flavoring. 



Rub one can ot raspberries through a colander or strainer fine 
enough to remove the seeds. Sweeten if necessary, and thicken witli 
cornstarch to the consistency of pudding sauce. Serve the puddins 
hot, with the hot sauce poured over it. 




Tempi In I ProdBC 



PIES 



Pies are generally classed among those articles of diet which are 
most difficult of digestion, and to be avoided by all except persons 
with vigorous digestive powers. The too frequent indulgence in pie 
is supposed to ruin even a vigorous digestion. This is probably true 
when the pies are made with lard; for pork and pork products are 
proverbially difficult of digestion, besides being unwholesome. The 
Bible prohibits the use of animal fat as food, but recommends vege- 
table oil instead. And I am not sure but that pies the crust of which 
is made of a wholesome, easily digested vegetable fat, and in which 
not too much sugar is used, are comparatively wholesome. They are 
at least as much more wholesome than pies made with animal fat 
as vegetable fat is more wholesome than lard. Everybody knows 
that olive oil is considered very wholesome, and even medicinal. 

Even the most wholesome pies, however, can hardly be recom- 
mended to be eaten as freely as bread and sauce, because the large 
proportion of fat cooked with the flour makes the crust so rich that 
it ret^ards digestion somewhat, and the filling of a pie is not palatable 
if not made a little sweeter than stewed fruit is generally made. I 
am only saying that pies made of foods which are recognized as 
pre-eminently wholesome and not made too sweet, may be much more 
wholesome than the pies in common use. 

Of course the most wholesome kind of pie crust is that made with 
cream. Very good crust can be made by the use of cold, rich cream, 
but it is not quite so tender as crust made with a free fat, because 
it does not contain so large a proportion of fat. To a cream crust 
I see no objection from the standpoint of wholesomeness and digesti- 
bility, if the cream used is free from objections. 

GENERAL STATEMENTS AND POINTS TO BE 

REMEMBERED 

Pastry, or winter-wheat, flour, which contains a larger proportion 
of water than spring-wheat flour, should always be used. 

The water used in mixing the pastry should be ice-cold or the 
coldest obtainable. 

The ingredients for the pastry should be put together with as little 
mixing as possible, and should never be kneaded. 

Pie crust made with oil should be mixed with a spoon, not with 
the hands. 

Pastry made with oil must be softer than that made with a hard 
fat, so soft that it cannot be handled in the same way thai t\5A Vj^^^-^ 

12 W\ 



178 GOOD FOOD 

can be handled. More flour must be used on the board and more 
sprinkled on top of the dough when rolling it out. No attempt should 
be made to turn the crust over or to move it. Continue to roll It 
without changing its position until it is of the desired shape and 
thickness. 

Take half the dough and put it in the flour on the board; sprinkle 
flour over the dough, pat it into a ball, then begin to roll it with 
the rolling pin. At first allow the pin to rest only lightly on the 
dough, and roll always toward the edge of the dough, lifting the pin 
up after each motion from the center toward the edge, never rolling 
from the edge toward the center. Keep the edge rolled thinner than 
the center, and make the strokes on such parts of the dough as will 
keep the dough in as nearly a circular form as possible. The crust 
which is trimmed off after the dough is put on the plate may be 
pressed into a ball with the rest of the dough, to be rolled out for 
the top crust. 

The thinner the crust is rolled, the better the pie. No one likes 
a pie in which the crust is the most prominent part. The filling 
should be the prominent part, with something thin, crisp, and dainty 
— scarcely noticeable in any other way — to inclose it. 

To get the crust on the pie plate after it is rolled, run a spatula 
or limber-bladed knife under the crust to loosen it from the board; 
double it over; lay it over one half of the plate, and then unfold it. 
Press it close to the plate in the angle between the side and the bot- 
tom of the plate. If it is to be a one-crust pie, like a custard pie. 
cut the crust about one-half inch beyond the edge of the plate, and 
with floured thumbs and fingers, double and pinch up this portion 
to make a built-up edge. Then, if desired, with the thumb and fore- 
finger of the right hand and the forefinger of the left, scallop the 
edge. 

If the pie is to have two crusts, cut the bottom crust off even 
with the edge of the pie tin. Put the filling into the crust. Roll 
out the rest of the pastry for the top, and cut small holes through 
this crust; these holes may be in the shape of some fancy figure. 
With a small brush wet the edge of the bottom crust with cold water, 
run a spatula under the crust on the board, double it over, and lay 
it over one half of the pie, and unfold it. Press down the edge firmly 
all around the plate, then cut oft* the crust even with the edge of the 
plate. 

To bake the crust of a one-crust pie before putting in the filling, 
lay the crust over the 'bottom of an inverted pie tin, cut the edge off 
even with the edge of the plate, prick holes in the crust, and set in 
the oven to bake. After the crust is baked, remove it from the tin 
and set it inside the plate. 

It is not necessary to oil pie tins. Pies will not stick to the 
plate unless the filling runs under the crust; and if that occurs, oil- 
ing the tin will not prevent the sticking. 



PIES 179 

To make the top of the upper crust flaky, after rolling the crust 
out brush it with oil, using a small paint brush; sift a little flour 
over the oil, and roll it once with the rolling pin; cut holes in the 
crust, and put it on the pie; then, just before putting the pie in the 
oven, run cold water over the top crust. After the pie is baked, 
that top layer of flour will appear as flakes on the top of the crust. 

No spice is needed in pies, as it disguises the real flavor of the 
filling. 

Left-over pastry may be cut into strips . or squares and baked. 
Use like crackers. 

PROPORTIONS FOR FRUIT PIES 

The following are the proportions of fruit, sugar, and flour in 
fruit pies: 

Apple. — % quart sliced tart apples, ^/s teasppon salt, M> cup sugar, 

2 tablespoons water. Some persons add a little flour to apple pies. 
I prefer to omit the flour. 

Blueberry. — % quart berries, lU teaspoon salt, V-> cup sugar, 3 
tablespoons flour. 

Cherry. — % quart stoned cherries, Vh teaspoon salt, Y2 to % cup 
sugar, 3 tablespoons flour. 

Green Currant. — % quart currants, % teaspoon salt, 1 cup sugar, 

3 tablespoons flour. Use currants that are just beginning to turn red. 

Gooseberry. — % quart gooseberries, % teaspoon salt, 1 cup sugar, 
Vi cup flour. 

Peach. — % quart si ice 1 fresh peaches, Vs teaspoon salt. V> cup 
sugar, 2 teaspoons flour, cherry or almond and vanilla flavor. 

Raspbeny. — % quart raspberries, ^^ teaspoon salt, % cup sugar, 
3 tablespoons flour. 

Rhubarb, — % quart thinly sliced rhubarb, Vs teaspoon salt, 1 cup 
sugar, % cup flour. Do not peel the rhubarb. 

Strawberry. — % quart strawberries, Ys teaspoon salt, % cup 
sugar, 3 tablespoons flour. 

Green Tomato. — % quart sliced tomatoes, % teaspoon salt, % 
cup sugar, 2 tablespoons flour. Use tomatoes that are just beginning 
to turn. 

The secret of having apple pies and green tomato pies taste good 
without, any spice is to bake them slowly for one hour or longer. 

The juice will not run out of fruit pies so badly if the sugar, 
flour, and salt are mixed together,^ then mixed with the fruit before 
putting it Into the crust; and the juice will be less likely to boil out 
if the pies are baked slowly from forty-flve minutes to one hour. 
For the same reason, fruit pies should be made in deep i^le tv\3L^, 



180 GOOD FOOD 

The quantities of fruit given are for a medium-sized pie. For 
a very large pie one quart of fruit will be required, and for a smaller 
pie one pint, with the same proportions of other ingredients. 

Another precaution which may be observed in order that the juice 
may not run out, is not to fill the pie tin too full, perhaps using one 
pint of fruit for a medium-sized tin. But pies with a generous quan- 
tity of filling are usually preferred. Bakers' pies are thin, and 
therefore bakers have little trouble with the juice running out. Or 
instead of a whole top crust, put three-fourths-inch strips of crust, 
lattice-fashion, on top of the pie. Juice will not run out of a pie 
made in this way, because the steam can readily escape. 

RECIPES 

Pie Cnut — No. 1 

(Very tender) 

2% cups sifted pastry flour 

^ teaspoon salt 

% cup oil 

% cup cold water 

Put the flour into a mixing bowl; mix the salt with it; turn the 
oil in all at once, and stir with a spoon till the oil and flour are 
about half mixed, not till a dough is formed. Then pour in the 
water, all at once, and stir till the dough is just stuck together. 
Much mixing makes the pie crust tough. Then proceed according to 
directions for rolling out the crust. 

Pie Crust — No. 2 

(A little less tender, but grood) 

2 cups sifted pastry flour 

^ teaspoon salt 

% cup oil 

^ cup cold water 

Put together in the same manner as crust No. 1. 

Notice that the proportion of ingredients in crust No. 1 is one 
flfth as much oil as flour and one half as much water as oil. 

In crust No. 2 the proportion is one sixth as much oil as flour 
and one eighth as much water as flour. 

Apple Cream Pie 

Line a pie tin with crust, building up a scalloped edge. Fill crust 
with pared, quartered, and cored apples, arranging a row around the 
plate at the edge, then working toward the center till the crust Is 
covered. Then arrange a few more quarters on top of this layer. 
Sprinkle over the apples two-thirds cup sugar with which two and 
one-half level teaspoons flour has been mixed. Cover with rich 
cream, and bake till the apples are tender. 






PIES 181 

Apple and Date Pie 

Line a deep pie plate with crust. Put into it a layer of sliced 
tart apples, and cover with a layer of washed, stoned, and sliced 
dates. Pour over all one-third cup sugar and one-eighth teaspoon 
salt, mixed. Cover with top crust, and bake slowly from forty-flve 
minutes to one hour. Serve with cream. 

Cream Pie 

Perhaps this pie may be considered somewhat extravagant, but 
it is unusually good, and may be used for special occasions: 

4 egg yolks 

% cup sugar 

^ cup flour 
2 tablespoons butter substitute 
1 teaspoon vanilla 

1 pint milk 

A few grains salt 

Mix flour, sugar, and salt. Beat the egg yolks, and stir them and 
the butter substitute and vanilla into the flour and sugar. Heat the 
milk to hoilingy and stir it into the egg mixture. Pour into a crust 
which has a built-up edge, and bake till set. Add a few grains salt 
to the whites of the eggs, and beat them stiff. Fold into them one- 
fourth cup sugar, spread this on top of the pie, and set on the oven 
grate to brown delicately. 

Custard Pie 

Custard pie requires a larger proportion of eggs than cup custard. 

1% cups milk 

2 eggs or three yolks 
% teaspoon salt 

3 tablespoons sugar 
1 tablespoon flour 

Grated yellow rind of one lemon 

Beat the eggs and mix with them the sugar, flour, salt, and lemon 
rind. Heat the milk to boiling, and stir it in. Pour into a crust 
cvith a built-up edge, and bake in a hot oven at flrst to cook the 
3rust; afterward decrease the heat, because a custard will separate, 
3r whey, if subjected to too high a temperature. Remove from the 
dven when just set. 

Raisin Cream Pie 

1 pint milk or sour cream 

1% cups raisins, ground through food chopper with flnest 

cutter, measured after grinding 
3 tablespoons sugar 

2 eggs, beaten 

% teaspoon vanilla 
% teaspoon salt 

Heat the milk. Mix together the remaining ingredients, and stir 
in the hot milk. Bake in a crust which has a built-up scalloped ^^e^. 



182 GOOD FOOD 



Prune Pie 

Remove the stones from stewed sweet prunes which have been 
cooked down till there is little juice left. Rub enough of the stoned 
prunes through a colander to make one pint. Add to the marmalade 
a few grains salt, from two to four tablespoons sugar, one-half tea- 
spoon vanilla, and the yolks of two eggs. Mix well. Pour into the 
crust, and bake till set. Spread on the pie a meringue made of the 
whites of the two eggs and three tablespoons sugar. Brown lightly 
in the oven. 

Fruit Mince Pie 

(With the real mince flavor) 

3 quarts chopped apples (the apples may be quartered 
and cored without paring) 

1 pound raisins 
% cup lemon juice 

1% cups grape juice 

1^/4 cups liquid cereal coffee 

3 cups sugar 

1/; cup molasses 
12 ripe olives, stoned and chopped 

2 ounces chopped pine nuts, or pecans {% cup) 
2 ounces chopped walnuts (% cup) 

2 ounces chopped raw peanuts (% cup) 

1 tablespoon salt 

1/4 pound chopped citron 

1 pint stewed prunes, from which the seeds have been 

removed 

Mix all the ingredients, heat slowly, ^nd cook over a very mod- 
erate heat for several hours, stirring occasionally so that the mixture 
will not scorch, till it turns dark in color. It may then be canned 
like any fruit, and kept till needed. 

Some may prefer a little more sugar than this recipe calls for. 

Three kinds of nuts are used because a sufficient quantity of one 
kind would make the flavor too prominent. 

Lemon Pie with Granola Crust 

Crust. — To l^ cup granola add sufficient milk to moisten it 
slightly. Turn it immediately into a pie tin, and with the back 
of a spoon spread and press it evenly over the bottom and sides of 
the tin. Bake until dry. 

Filling. — 

% cup sugar 
14 cup flour 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 

3 eggs 

1% cups hot water 
2 teaspoons oil 
A few grains salt 



PIES 183 

Beat together two egg yolks, and one whole egg, the sugar, flour, 
lemon juice and grated rind, and salt. Add the boiling water. Cook 
in a double boiler until thick. Pour into the baked crust. 

Beat the whites of two eggs stiff, and fold into them three table- 
spoons sugar and spread on top of the pie. Brown lightly in the 
oven. 

Economical Lemon Pie 

1 lemon, juice and grated yellow part of the rind 

^2 cup, less 1 tablespoon, flour 
1% cups boiling water 
1 cup sugar 
1 egg 
A few grains salt 

Mix the flour, sugar, and salt. Stir into it the lemon juice, lemon 
rind, and beaten egg. Then stir the hot water into this mixture, and 
cook till thickened. Allow to cool, then pour into a pie tin lined 
with paste. Cover with a top crust, and bake in a quick oven till 
the crust is cooked. 

Squash Pie 

1 cup dry mashed squash 

2 cups hot milk 

1 egg 

1 tablespoon fine cracker crumbs 

Ys cup sugar 

^2 teaspoon vanilla 

1/4 teaspoon, or less, of almond flavoring 
A few grains salt 

Heat the milk. Mix the cracker crumbs, sugar, and salt, and stir 
them into the squash. Stir in the beaten egg and the flavoring, and 
mix thoroughly, then stir in the hot milk. Stir well together. Pour 
into a crust which has a built-up edge, and bake in a moderate 
oven till set. 

Instead of the vanilla and almond flavoring, one-fourth cup of 
shredded cocoanut may be used. Grind the cocoanut fine by running 
it through a food chopper, then brown It very lightly in the oven, or 
it may be used without browning. 

Pumpkin Pie 

Use the recipe for squash pie, adding one-fourth cup molasses 
and omitting the flavorings. 

Date Pumpkin Pie 

1 pint milk 

1 cup dry steamed pumpkin, measured after being rubbed 
through a sieve 
% cup seeded dates which have been ground through a food 

chopper 
% cup sugar 



18i GOOD FOOD 

1 tablespoon browned flour 

1 egg, beaten (1 egg would be sufficient for twice this 
quantity) 

^^ teaspoon salt 

^ teaspoon powdered caraway seed, if desired 

Heat the milk. Mix the remaining ingredients, then stir the hot 
milk into them and mix thoroughly. Bake in a crust which has a 
built-up edge. 

Farina Cream Pie (two small pies) 

1 quart milk 

^ cup sugar 

% cup farina 
3 eggs 

1 tablespoon butter substitute 
A pinch of salt 

Heat the milk and sugar in a double boiler. Add the farina, and 
stir till it does not settle. Cook one hour. Beat the yolks of the 
eggs, add a little of the hot mixture to them, then stir them into the 
hot mixture. Add the remaining ingredients. Pour into crusts with 
built-up edges, and bake till set. Beat the egg whites stiff. Fold 
Into them one-fourth cup sugar, and spread over the pie. Put into 
the oven to brown lightly. 

Cocoanut Cream Pie 

Bake the crust for this pie on the bottom of an inverted pie tin. 
Remove the crust and put it on the inside of the plate. The crust 
should be pricked before baking, to prevent it from blistering. 

2 cups rich milk 

% cup shredded cocoanut 

% cup sugar 

1/4 cup sifted flour 
2 eggs 
A few grains salt 

Cream Pie Fillinr 

Save out one-fourth cup of the milk with which to stir the flour 
smooth. Steep the cocoanut in the remainder of the milk for one- 
half hour. Strain out the cocoanut, pressing it well to get out all the 
goodness. Measure the milk, and if it is less than the original quan- 
tity (one and three-fourths cups), add milk to make that amount, 
and return it to the double boiler. Add the sugar, and reheat When 
boiling hot, stir Into it the flour, which has been stirred smooth 
with the one-fourth cup cold milk. Allow the mixture to cook ten- 
minutes. Separate the whites from the yolks of the eggs. Beat the 
yolks. Stir into them a little of the hot milk mixture, then stir ths 
yolks into the hot mixture. Cook two minutes. Add the salt. Pa 
into the baked crust. Put a meringue on the pie, made of the white 



PIES 185 

if the eggs and three tablespoons sugar folded into the stiffly beaten 
vhites. This pie is very good made in a granola crust. 

Oranve Pie 

4 tablespoons, cornstarch 
% cup sugar 
2 eggs 

Juice of 1 orange 

Grated yellow portion of % of. the rind of the orange 
1 cup and 2 tablespoons boiling water 
Va tablespoon butter substitute 

1 tablespoon lemon juice 
A few grains salt 

Mix the cornstarch and sugar. Then mix with it the orange 
iuice and rind, the egg yolks, the oil, salt, and lemon juice. Stir In 
;he boiling water, and cook till thickened. Pour into a baked crust. 
Meringue with the whites of the eggs beaten stiff and three table- 
ipoons sugar folded into them. 

Apple Tart 

Crust : 

ly^ cups sifted pastry flour 
1/4 cup oil 

2 tablespoons cold water 
A few grains salt 

Filling : 

1 quart pared, quartered, and cored apples 
Juice and grated yellow rind of % lemon 

% cup sugar 
A few grains salt 

Slice the apples into a basin in which they will be about one 
inch deep. Sprinkle the lemon juice and rind, the sugar, and the 
salt over the apples. Cover with the crust, and bake slowly from 
forty-five minutes to one hour. Serve with cream. 

Cranberry and Raisin Pie 

% cup raisins 

1 cup cranberries 
% cup sugar 

% cup water 

2 tablespoons flour 
1 teaspoon vanilla 
A few grains salt . 

Grind the cranberries and raisins through a food chopper. Stir 
^® flour smooth with a little of the water. Heat the rest of the 
'^^ter to boiling, and stir into it the flour mixture. Add the re- 
**^Jxlng ingredients. Bake in two crusts. 



ISG GOOD FOOD 

Date Cream Pie 

1VL> cups milk 

% cup stoned dates 
1 large egg 

% teaspoon vanilla 
A few grains salt 

Stew the dates in a small amount of water till well softened and 
stewed down dry; rub them through a colander; add the egg 
(beaten), the salt, vanilla, and milk (heated). Pour into a pie tin 
lined with a crust having a built-up edge, and bake till set. 

Chocolate Cream Pie 

1 pint milk 

^4 cup health cocoa 
V2 cup sugar 

3 tablespoons cornstarch 

2 eggs (3 eggs are suflBcient for twice this quantity) 
1 tablespoon butter substitute 

1 tablespoon caramel 

% teaspoon vanilla 
A few grains salt 

Heat the milk in a double boiler. Mix the sugar, cocoa, and corn- 
starch. Stir the hot milk into this mixture. Return to the double 
boiler and cook fifteen minutes. Beat the eggs, stir some of the 
hot mixture into them, then stir them into the hot mixture, and 
cook two minutes. Add remaining ingredients. Pour into baked 
crust. 

To one-half cup heavy cream add one tablespoon sugar and one- 
eighth teaspoon vanilla. Whip the cream and spread it over the pie. 

Cream Puffs 

14 cup cooking oil 
1 cup boiling water 

4 eggs 

1 cup sifted pastry flour 
1 teaspoon salt 

Put the water, oil, and salt in a saucepan on the stove. When 
the mixture boils, throw in the flour all at once, and stir vigorously 
with a batter whip. Cook, stirring till a stiff paste is formed. Re- 
move from the Are, and allow to cool a little; then add the unbeaten 
eggs, one at a time, beating till thoroughly mixed after each egg is 
added. Drop on an oiled pan in pieces about the size of a golf ball, 
one and one-half inches apart. Bake about thirty minutes in a mod- 
erate oven. The cakes must be baked till they are cooked through 
or they will fall when taken from the oven. 

With a knife make an opening in each cake through which to 

fill It. 



PIES 187 

CreAm Fillinr 

2 cups milk 

% cup sugar 

^ cup flour 
2 eggs, beaten 

^ teaspoon vanilla 

^ teaspoon salt 

Put one and one-half cups of the milk into a double boiler to heat. 
Beat the eggs, and add to them the sugar, flour, salt, and the re- 
mainder of the milk. Beat till smooth, then stir this mixture into 
the hot milk.. Cook till thick, stirring frequently. Add the vanilla. 
When cold, fill the cakes with it. 

For chocolate filling, add one-half cup health cocoa, mixing it with 
the flour, and use one-third cup flour. 
For maple fllling, use maple sugar. 
The puffs may be filled with whipped cream. 

Apple or Peach Fritter 

Fill a bread tin half full of sliced apples or peaches. Sprinkle 
over them one-half cup sugar and a few grains salt. Put them into 
the oven to cook. While they are cooking, prepare the following 
batter : 

l^ cup cream (milk will do, but will not make the crust so 
tender) 
1 egg 

y^ cup sifted bread flour 
A few grains salt 

Separate the white from the yolk of the egg. Beat together the 
cream, salt, egg yolk, and flour, till the batter is smooth, then fold 
in the stiffly beaten white of the egg. Dip in this batter very thin 
slices of bread from which the crust has been cut, and lay these 
slices on top of the hot apples, which should be cooked tender by the 
time the batter is prepared. Cut and flt the slices so as completely 
to cover the peaches. If there is any batter left, it may be poured 
over the slices of bread. Put on the bottom of the oven to bake till 
the top is nicely browned. Cut into squares, and serve plain or with 
cream. 

Cottaflre Pudding 

Serve squares of plain cake with hot vanilla sauce poured over 
them, 



188 GOOD FOOD 



The Art of Arts 

Some maids are gifted with the art 

Of painting like the masters; 
To dullest canvas they impart 

The freshness of the pastures. 

While others, with their ready pen, 

Find hours of busy pleasure 
In polished prose, or then, again. 

In light poetic measure. 

Another, like a woodland bird, 

May set the sad world ringing 
With carols sweet as ever heard; 

Here is the art of singing. 

But there's a maid and there's an art 
To which the world is looking, — 

The nearest art unto the heart, — 
The good old art of cooking. 

— Selected, 



€t 



God's Sweetest Gift 

God thought to give the sweetest thing 

In His almighty power 
To Earth; and deeply pondering 

What it should be, one hour 
In fondest joy and love of heart 

Outweighing every other, 
He moved the gates of heaven apart 

And gave to Earth a mother." 



CAKES 



Cakes made without baking powder or soda depend for tbelr 
lightness entirely upon the metkod of making them. The directions 
must be tollowed exactly If Batiefactory reBulta are to be obtained. 

Always have all Ingredients meaeured or wetghed out and ready 




Plain Cake 

3 eggB 
% tea.Bpoan salt 
i^ cup boiling water 
1 cup sugar 
1^ cups pastry flour 
Flavoring 
Break the eggs into a mixing bowl, add the salt. Set the bowl 
in a pan of boiling water. Beat the CRgs with a Dover egg heater 
tin light. Then add one-third cup of boiling water. Beat again till 
light. Then add a little of the sugar, and beat Then add a little 
more Bugar, and beat. Continue adding a little sugar and beating 
till all the sugar is beaten In and the batter ia very attff and light. 
Remove the bow! from the water. Beat In the flavoring, then with 



190 



GOOD FOOD 



a flat wire whip, called a " sensible egg wtilp," fold Id the flour care- 
Cully and with as Tew strokes as poBHlble, not sifting all the flour 
onto the batter at once, but Blftlng on a little flour and folding It In 
with two or three strokes, then sifting on a little more flour, and 
folding again. Continue till all the flour le folded in, but do not fold 
any longer than is necessary to mix In the flour. Pour the batter 
Into the tin, which has a piece ot oiled paper fitted Into the bottom, 
and bake in a moderate oven till a broom straw stuck into the cake 
comes out clean. 

When the cake la removed from the oven, turn it bottom side up 
to cool In the tin, placing something under one edge of the tin to 




Blrllular Cake 



allow the air to circulate under It. This will keep the cake from 
falling. When cold, cut around the edge and remove It from the tin. 

A nut cake may be made from this recipe by putting some ot the 
batter in the bottom of a cake tin, and then sprinkling in some 
coarsely chopped nuts, then adding more cake batter, then more nuts, 
then the rest of the batter. Raisins cut into halves may also he used 
with the nuts. 

This cake may be baked In layers, and various flllings used to 
make layer cakes, such as walnut, flg, maple, cream, strawberry, and 
orange; or it may be baked as cup cake"!, or liaked In a sheet and 
used (or jelly roll. 



CAKES 191 

Two>Enr Cake 

2 eggs 

^ teaspoon salt 

^ cup boiling water 

% cup sugar 
1% cups sifted pastry flour 
Grated yellow part of the rind of 1 lemon 

Put together like Plain Cake. 

The objection is sometimes made to cakes in which soda or baking 
towder is not used and which are made light by beating air into 
hem, that they are dry and unpalatable compared with cakes made 
n the usual way. The reason they seem dry is because they contain 
10 shortening (fat in some form), which is used in cakes of the or- 
linary kind to make them moist and tender. Cakes made light by 
leating depend for their lightness upon air beaten into the eggs 
rhieh are used in them. Fat of any kind added to the eggs will 
Terent them from catching air and becoming light. Therefore short- 
ning cannot be added to such cakes in the usual way. But it Is 
•osailde to add a little oil to cakes of this kind if it is added at the 
ight time and in the right way, and this makes the cake more 
lolst and more tender. 

The following is a recipe for a cake in which a little oil is used: 

Cake Shortened with Oil 

3 eggs 

^ teaspoon salt 

% cup boiling water 
• 1 cup sugar 
1% cups sifted pastry flour 

% cup cooking oil 
Grated yellow rind of 1 lemon 

Break the eggs into an earthenware mixing bowl, and set the bowl 
n a pan of hot water. Add the salt to the eggs, and beat the eggs 
v'ith a Dover egg beater till they become light and stiff. Beat the 
)oiling water into the eggs and beat again till stiff. Gradually 
)eat in .the sugar, adding it a little at a time, and beating well be- 
ween the additions of sugar, and until the batter is stiff and light 
ind nearly fills a one-and-one-half-quart bowl. Beat in the lemon 
I'ind and the oil. 

Now comes the most particular part of the making of the cake 
— the folding in of the flour. It is easy, if care is not taken, to 
work out all the air that has been beaten into the batter, and the 
air is what is depended upon to make the cake light. A flat wire 
whip is the best utensil to use in folding in the flour. Sift a little 
of the flour over the top of the stiffly beaten batter. Fold it in by 
dipping the whip edgewise down at the side of the bowl and lifting 
it up flatwise through the center. When this flour is partly folded in, 
sift on more flour and fold it in in the same way. Continue folding 



192 aooD f'oob 

flour in until all the flour has been uaed, but do not fold a s'trokt 
more than is necessary to get tbe flour completely blended with the 
batter. 

Pour at once Into a cake tin wblcli has a piece of oiled pmwt 
fitted into tbe bottom. Do not oil tbe aides of the tin. Bake In a 
moderate oven till a broom straw run into the cake comea out clean. 
When the cake la taken from the oven, turn It upside down to coot 
in the tin, placing something under the edge of 'the tin so that air 
can circulate under H. Then if the cake falls, it will fall upward 
and be ligbter. When tbe cake Is cool. It can be removed from tlie 
tin by running a knife around the sides of the cake. 

By baking this batter In three pie tins it can be used tor B layer 
cake. It will not be necessary to fit oHe'1 paper to the bottom of the 




Coke Hiking — Bnttm 

tins. Instead, oil the tins, then sprinkle them with fiour. This ill- j 
ter may also be baked In the form of cup cakes, oiling tbe tina and 
sprinkling them with flour to prevent the cake from sticking ti 

MolauH Cnkc 

3 eggs 
% teaspoon salt 
'/j cup sugar 
% cup molasees 
lii cups sifted pastry flour 
2 tablespoons browned flour 
^ cup oil 

Break tbe eggs into a mixing bowi, add the salt, and set the bo*l ] 
In a pan of hot water. Beat the eggs till they are light and stiff. 
Gradually tieat in the sugar and beat till the batter is very still. 
Have the niolasHea heating while the eggs are being beaten. Wkeii | 
the egg and sugar mixture la beaten very stiff, pour the boiling ni 
lasses In a fine stream loto the eggs, and fold It In with a wire folder 
As tbe hot, frothy molasses Is folded in, the batter rises conslderabl;. 
Then beat in the oil. Next fold the white and browned flour Into It's I 
batter according to the directions for folding In the flour In tbe pi* J 



CAKES 193 

ceding recipe. Pour Che mixture Into two small bread tins, into the 
bottom of which oiled paper has been fitted. Bake in a very mod- 
erate oven. Anything made with molasses scorches very easily. The 
cal(e will be nicer if baked as a thin cake than if baked aa a deep 
loaf. 

FraU Cake 

6 ounces sugar (% cup) 
6 eggs 

E ounces flour (1% cups) 
^ cup rich cream 
Ml pound finely chopped walnuts 
% pound raisins cut into pieces 
^ pound citron cut into small pieces 
_ A few grains salt 

[ Separate the while:^ from llie yolks ot the eggs. Beat the yolks 
W stiff and lemuii fiilonil, BfHi in the sugar a little at a time, and 




PoldiDI tlw Flaar into the Batter 

continue beating till the mixture is very stiff. Add the salt to the 
whites, and beat tili stiff and dry. Pour the yolk mixture into the 
whites. Sift on a little, flour, and sprinkle over a few nuts. Fold 
with three or four strokes. Sift on more flour, sprinkle on more nuts 
and some raisins and citron, and fold again. Sift on more flour, 
sprinkle on more nuta, raisins, and citron, and pour over a llttie ot 
tbe cream, then fold again. Continue thus till all the ingredients 
are used, but do not fold one stroke more than is necessary to mix 
the ingredients. Too much folding works the air out and makes 
tbe cake heavy. Pour the mixture into two bread tins, into the 
Iwttam of which oiled paper has been fltted. Bake in a very mod- 
crate oven one hour. 

The citron can be cut up easily if it is steamed a few minutes 
lo soften it. 

Instead ot baking the cake, I prefer to steam it two or three 
bours, and then hake it long enough to dry it off. This cake may 
lie hept a cousiderable length of time. 
J3 



194 GOOD FOOD 

Date Loaf Cake 

(BoHton Cooking School Magazine) 

1 pound stoned dates, not chopped 

1 pound walnut meats, not chopped 

1 cup pastry flour 

% teaspoon salt 

1 cup sugar 

4 eggs 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Put the dates and walnut meats in a mixing bowl, and sift over 
them the flour and salt, after sifting them together. With a spoon 
mix the flour with the nuts and dates. Then add the sugar, mixing 
it in well. Mix in the egg yolks, well beaten, and the vanilla. Then 
very carefully fold in the egg whites beaten dry. Turn into two 
small bread tins, into the bottom of which oiled paper has been 
fitted, and bake in a slow oven one hour. 

Nut Cake 

2 eggs 

^^ cup boiling water 
1 cup sugar 
1^2 cups pastry fiour 

Vj cup chopped walnuts 

l^ teaspoon salt 

Yj teaspoon vanilla 

This cake is put together in the same way as the Plain Cake, 
folding in the fiour and nuts at the same time. 

Blueberry Cake 

3 eggs 

i/{ cup hot water 
1 cup sugar 
1% cups pastry flour 
1^2 cups fresh blueberries sprinkled with flour 

Put together in the same manner as the Plain Cake, folding the 
blueberries in last. 

Angel Cake 

4 egg whites 

1 teaspoon lemon juice 

\<2 cup sugar 

^2 teaspoon vanilla 

% cup sifted pastry flour 
A few grains salt 

Add the salt to the whites, and beat them till frothy. Add the 
lemon juice and continue beating till the eggs are very stiff. Then 
beat in the sugar, adding it a little at a time, and beat till the mix- 
ture is as stiff as the mixture can be made. Beat in the vanilla, then 
carefully fold in the flour. Put into a small angel cake tin, the 
inside of which has been wet with cold water. Bake from forty to 
fifty minutes in a cool oven. When removed from the oven, turn 



CAKES 195 

it upside down to cool in the pan. When cold, run a knife around 
uhe cake to remove it from the pan. 

To make this cake a little more tender two tablespoons of oil 
3an be beaten into the batter just before folding in the flour. 

If this batter is baked in the form of cup cakes and the cakes 
ire frosted and sprinkled with cocoanut, they may be called Angel 
[)akelets. 

Superior Nut Cake 

5 eggs 

1 cup sugar 

1 cup sifted pastry flour 

% cup coarsely chopped walnuts 
Juice one small lemon 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Vj teaspoon salt 

Separate the whites from the yolks of the eggs, beat the yolks 
>tiff, beat into them half the lemon juice. Beat in the sugar, a little 
it a time, and beat till very stiff. Beat in the vanilla. Add the salt 
o the whites, and beat till frothy, then add the other half of the 
emon juice, and beat till stiff and dry. Pour the beaten yolk mix- 
;ure onto the whites; sift over it some flour, and sprinkle over It 
iome nuts, and fold them in. Sift on more flour and sprinkle on 
nore nuts, continuing thus till all the flour and nuts are folded in. 
Pour into a cake tin into the bottom of which oiled paper has been 
Itted, and bake in a moderate oven. 

Chocolate Walnut Cake 

3 eggs 

% teaspoon salt 

% cup boiling water 
1 cup sugar 
1 cup pastry flour 

^^ cup health cocoa 

V2 cup chopped walnuts 
1 teaspoon vanilla 

Make like Plain Cake, folding in the flour, cocoa, and nuts to- 
gether. 

One-third cup of oil may be beaten into the batter just before 
folding in the flour. 

Chocolate Cream ' Layer Cake 

Bake Chocolate Walnut Cake in two layers. Spread whipped 
cream between the layers and on top, and sprinkle with shredded 
cocoanut. 

Caramel Pecan Loaf Cake 

(Mr. J. A. Wahlen) 

3 eggs 
14 cup hot water 
y^ teaspoon s^lt 



196 OOOD FOOD 

1 cup sugar 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

2 cups pastry flour 
^ cup oil 

y^ cup halves of pecan meats 
Caramel to give a delicate color 

Make like Cake Shortened with Oil, beating the caramel into the 
batter just before folding in the flour. 

Frost with icing made by stirring powdered sugar into beaten 
Q&Q white or cream and coloring it with a few drops of caramel. 
Decorate the top with pecan halves. 

Chocolate Fud^e Cake 

(Mr. J. A. Wahlen) 

Cream together one-half cup crisco and one cup sugar. Beat in 
one-half teaspoon salt and two egg yolks. After beating well, add 
three-fourths cup health cocoa, one teaspoon vanilla, one-fourth cup 
milk, and one cup pastry flour. Beat together thoroughly. Then beat 
in one-half cup coarsely chopped nuts. Lastly fold in the two beaten 
egg whites. 

Bake in a pan in which it will be one inch deep (a pan about 
nine inches square). Spread on the cake an icing made of cream 
and powdered sugar. Cut in one-inch squares. 

Jelly Roll 

Bake Cake Shortened with Oil in a sheet three-fourths inch thick, 
lay a sheet of paper on the bread board, and sprinkle it with sugar. 
When the cake is done, turn it upside down on the sugared paper. 
Remove the paper from the bottom of the cake (that is, the oiled 
paper with which the cake pan was lined). Spread jelly on the cake, 
then by taking hold of the paper, roll the cake into a roll and leave 
the paper around it to hold it in shape till it is cold. 

Washington Cream Pie 

Put whipped cream between and on top of layer cake, or use the 
following fllling: 

1^/^ tablespoons cooking oil 

1/^ cup sifted flour 

% cup sugar 

2 cups milk 

2 eggs 

1 teaspoon vanilla 
A few grains salt 

Heat the oil and flour together. Stir into them the milk, which 
has been heated with the sugar. Cook in a double boiler till thick- 
ened. Stir some of the hot mixture into the beaten eggs, then stir 
the eggs into the hot mixture. Cook two minutes. Then add thp 
salt and vanilla, 



COOKIES 

Cookies or Lady Fingers 

6 eggs 

1 cup and 3 tablespoons sugar 
2% cups pastry flour 

% teaspoon salt 
Flavoring 

Break the eggs into a mixing bowl, add the salt, and set the bowl 
in a pan of hot water. Beat the eggs with an egg beater till light. 
Add the sugar, a little at a time, and beat till the batter is as stiff 
as it can be made. Add the flavoring. Fold in the flour. Put the 
batter in a pastry bag which has been wet on the inside with cold 
water. Oil a pan, sprinkle it lightly with flour, and with the bag 
put the batter onto the pan in the form of lady fingers or round 
cookies. Cocoanut or chopped nuts or caraway seed may be sprinkled 
over the cookies, or a raisin may be put in the center of each, just 
before they are baked. 

If a pastry bag is not at hand, the batter may be dropped onto 
the pan with a spoon. 

Nut Cookies 

2 eggs 

IV2 tablespoons boiling water 

3 ounces sugar (scant % cup) 

3 ounces flour (large % cup sifted flour) 
2 cups finely chopped walnuts 

% teaspoon salt 
Flavoring 

Put the ingredients together just the same as for Nut Cake, and 
put on a pan with a pastry bag or a spoon. 

Best Nat Cookies 

4 eggs 

1 cup sugar 

lyy cups pastry flour 

1 cup chopped walnuts 

V2 teaspoon salt 

^ teaspoon vanilla 

Put together like Superior Nut Cake (see page 195), and put ou 
an oiled and floured pan with a pastry ba?, ox «l ^^qovn.. 



198 GOOD FOOD 

Graham Cookies 

yy cup brown sugar 

4 tablei^poons crisco 

1 egg yolk 
^/4 cup milk 

^ teaspoon salt 
% teaspoon vanilla 
1^ cups Graham flour, measured before sifting, using the bran 
after the flour is sifted 

Beat together the sugar and crisco, then beat in the egg yolk, 
salt, and vanilla. Stir in the flour and milk alternately. The dough 
should be so soft that it is diflicult to handle. Sprinkle flour on the 
bread board. Put the dough on the flour, sift a little flour over the 
dough, then pat the dough into a ball. With a rolling pin roll it 
out a little less than one-fourth inch thick, and cut out with a cooky 
cutter. Place on an oiled pan and bake. 

Comacopias 

(Boston Cooking School Magazine) 

3 egg whites 

% cup sugar 

2 egg yolks 
% cup flour 

5/^ teaspoon salt 
y^, teaspoon vanilla 

Add the salt to the whites of the eggs, and beat them till stiff 
and dry. Beat in the sugar, adding it a little at a time. Beat the 
yolks of the eggs till thick and lemon colored, and stir them and the 
flavoring into the whites. Then carefully fold in the flour. 

Oil a baking pan and sprinkle it with flour. Spread the batter 
on the pan in round cakes about four and one-half inches across and 
one-fourth inch thick, leaving room enough between the cakes so that 
they will not touch one another in baking. As soon as they are taken 
from the oven, run a pancake turner under them to take them from 
the pan. Roll each in the shape of a cornucopia, and stick a tooth 
pick into it to hold it in shape till it cools. When cold, take out 
the toothpick and flll with whipped cream. 

Molasses Cookies 

2 eggs 

% cup hot molasses 

1 cup pastry flour 

1/4 teaspoon salt 

% cup fine shredded cocoanut 

Break the eggs into mixing bowl. Set the bowl in hot water, and 
beat the egjgs with an egg beater till stiff. Fold into the beaten eggs 
the hot molasses. Fold in the flour and shredded cocoanut. Put 
on an oiled and floured pai\ >n\1\\ «t ^\ioow or pastry bag, and bake. 



COOKIES 1 99 



Bran Cookies 



% cup brown sugar, pressed down 

% cup crisco 

2 teaspoons molasses 

% cup currants 

14 cup walnut meats, cut fine 

1 egg 

% cup sifted pastry flour, shaken down 

% cup bran 
A few grains salt 

Rub the shortening to a cream. Add the sugar, molasses, and 
salt, and beat till it is light and creamy, then add the egg, and beat 
well. Stir in the flour, bran, nuts, and currants. Oil the hands, and 
form the dough into balls with the hands. Lay the balls on an oiled 
pan, flatten them to a thickness of one-fourth inch, then, bake them. 



Eating Between Meals 

** Eatkng between meals is one of the prevailing evils, especially 
of childhood. It is a dyspepsia-producing habit. If during the proc- 
ess of digestion more food is taken into the stomach, the whole mass 
must be retained until all is digested. By its remaining too long 
in the stomach, germs begin their work, and fermentation and a 
sour stomach are the result. If this habit is indulged, disease is 
inevitable. If children are taught from infancy to take food only at 
regular intervals, this habit is as easy to form as is the one of 
eating six or eight times a day. Water and fruit juice are the only 
things admissible between meals." — ''Home and Health,'' p, 201. 



CAKE ICINGS AND FILLINGS 

Boiled Icing: 

2 egg whites 
1 cup sugar 
1/4 cup water 

Put the sugar and water into a dish which has a closely fitting 
cover, and set it on the stove to boil. Have the egg whites in a 
bowl ready to beat. Boil the sugar and water with the cover off the 
dish till a long, hairlike thread hangs from the spoon when dipped 
into the sirup and lifted, or to 244° F. Set the dish off the stove 
and put the cover on tightly while you beat the whites stiff. Then 
pour the hot sirup in a small stream into the whites, beating con- 
tinuously, and beat till it becomes cool enough and stiff enough to 
spread on the cake without running off. 

If properly made, this will be stiff enough to stay in place, but 
not too stiff to spread smoothly, even if it should take some few min- 
utes to spread it on the cake. 

One et^g white is generally used for one cup of sugar, and the 
sirup boiled to 238° F., but by using two egg whites and boiling the 
sirup a little thicker, an icing is made which will not become too 
hard to spread before it is all spread on the cake. It makes a 
smoother and nicer frosting. 

Ornamental Frosting 

Ornamental frosting is simply the beaten white of eggs and pow- 
dered sugar mixed together, the proportion being about one-fourth 
pound of powdered sugar to one white for the foundation, then more 
sugar is added to make it a little stiff er for the ornamenting. The 
whites of the eggs are beaten, adding a few drops of lemon juice 
when they are partly beaten, then the sifted sugar is added, and the 
mixture is well beaten together. 

If it is desired to put a design on a cake in color, powdered 
sugar may be stirred into a teaspoonful of strawberry juice or cran- 
berry juice till it is stiff enough to hold its shape when put on the 
cake, or powdered sugar may be stirred into the yolk of an egg to 
make a yellow color, or spinach juice may be used to make a green 
color. 

The entire frosting of a cake may be made of fruit juice, such as 
orange, cranberry, strawberry, or pineapple, thickened with powdered 
sugar till it is stiff enough to spread on the cake, or cream and 
powdered sugar may be uaeA. 

200 



CAKE ICINGS AND FILLINGS 201 

Maple Icing 

1% cups maple sirup 

V4 cup granulated sugar 
1 egg wbite 

Boil the sugar and sirup together till a heavy thread is formed 
when a spoon is dipped in the simp and lifted, or to 244° F. Then 
pour it in a fine stream on the beaten egg white, beating the white as 
the sirup is poured in. Set the bowl which contains the mixture on 
a dish of hot water, and beat the mixture thoroughly till the egg 
stiffens somewhat, then spread on the cake. One-half cup of coarse 
chopped nuts may be mixed with the frosting, if desired. Also a 
little vanilla flavoring may be used. 

Filling for Walnut Layer Cake 

1 cup chopped walnuts 

1 cup cream or % cup sour cream 

1 cup sugar 

^ teaspoon salt 

% teaspoon vanilla 

Mix together all the ingredients except the vanilla, and heal to 
boiling in a double boiler. Then boil for a few minutes directly 
over the fire. Beat till cool enough to spread on the cake. Beat in 
the vanilla. 

Fig Filling for Layer Cake 

Fig marmalade is a good filling for layer cake, as it gives soo 1 
flavor. It may be used if the housewife desires; or a filling may bo 
made as follows: 

V2 pound figs, washed, and ground through a food chopper 

Vj cup brown sugar 

V2 cup water 

^/4 cup rice flour or cornstarch 
Juice V2 lemon 
A few grains salt 

Boil the sugar, lemon juice, and water two minutes. Add the flg 
marmalade and salt. Cook in a double boiler so as not to scorch, 
till the flgs are well softened and the mixture thick. Add the rice 
flour, and cook fifteen minutes. When cool, spread the filling on 
the cake. 

Chocolate Frosting 

^4 cup health cocoa 
% cup milk 
1 cup sugar 

Cook together till a thick sirup is made. Beat till cool enough 
to spread on the cake. 



aooi> FOOD 



Chscolatc Nut 



'/j cup cream or milk 

1 cup sugar 

IVj tablespoons health cocoa 

2 tablespoons chopped nuts 
^ teaspoon vanilla 

A (ew grains salt 
Cook all except vanilla till thick, 
a the cake. Beat in the vanilla. 



Beat till cool enough to spread 



Cilu Dwsnilni 

When It Is desired to put a fancy decoration on a cake, the cake 
la flrst covered with a Bmootb frosting, which is allowed to dry. 
This foundation frosting is made of beaten whites of eggs and pow- 
dered sugar beaten together In the proportion of two egg whites to 
one-half pound ot sugar, a few drops of lemon juice being added to 
the whites when they are beaten. When the foundation is hard, the 
design is drawn on it with a pencil. For the ornamenting, a mixture 
o( egg wliites and powdered sugar similar to that used for the foun- 
dation is used, with a little more sugar added so as to make it Btift 
enough to hold its shape. This mixture is put into an ornamenting 
syringe to which tubes of many different shapes can be attached for 
making various ornaments, such as leaves, flowers, stars, scrolls; and 
by following with this tool the lines drawn on the foundation frost- 
ing with a pencil, the desired design is put on the cake. 

Or a cone of heavy paper can be used instead of the syringe in 
making a design of plain lines. 




It the Vt or ■■■ Ornsmcnl 



in Cake Deconitlns 



FROZEN DESSERTS 

Ice Cream 

2% cups thin cream 

^2 cup sugar 
1 teaspoon ice cream powder 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Mix the sugar and ice cream powder, then stir it into the cream. 
Add the vanilla. Freeze. 

Frozen Custard 

. 2^> cups milk 

2 teaspoons cornstarch 
2 eggs 

l^ cup sugar 
1 teaspoon vanilla 

Heat one and one-half cups of the milk in a double boiler. Stir 
into it the cornstarch stirred smooth with a little cold milk. Then 
add the yolks and whites of the eggs, beaten separately, first diluting 
the yolks with some of the hot milk. Remove from the fire, and stir 
in the sugar and vanilla. Let the custard cool, then pour in the rest 
of the milk, or part of it may be cream. Freeze. 

Almond Cream Ice 

1/4 pound blanched and thoroughly dried almonds 
1 pint water 

% cup sugar 
1 teaspoon vanilla 
A few grains salt 

Grind the almonds through a food chopper that has a disk for 
grinding nut butter. Mix the almond paste with the water and salt. 
Cook in a double boiler till creamy. Cool, add the sugar and vanilla, 
arid freeze. 

This is free from the objection that has been made to milk-and- 
sugar mixtures. 

Banana Sherbet 

Yo dozen bananas 
1 cup sugar 
Juice of one orange 

Vs ounce vegetable gelatin 

% cup water in which to dissolve the gelatin 
1 egg white 
Water to make one pint of the dissolved gelatin 



204 GOOD FOOD 

Prepare the gelatin by soaking it in three successive changes of 
hot water, allowing it to stand about one-half hour in each. Peel 
the bananas and rub them through a colander, and add the orange 
juice to them. Boil the sugar in one-half cup of water to 240° F., 
or till it threads, then beat this sirup into the stiffly beaten egg white. 
While the sugar is boiling, dissolve the gelatin, after being drained 
the last time, by boiling it in the one cup of water. Strain and add 
to it sufficient water to make one pint, then stir it into the bananas 
and orange juice. Lastly, fold in the egg white, into which the sirup 
was beaten. Turn into the freezer can, and freeze. 

This is very nice with strawberry sauce served over it, or with 
chopped nuts sprinkled over each helping. 

Cranberry Sherbet 

1 pint cranberries 

% cup water 
1^ cups cold water 
1 scant cup sugar 
1 egg white 

1 teaspoon vanilla, if desired 

Boil the cranberries in the three-fourths cup of water, and rub 
them through a fine strainer. Add to them the one and one-third 
cups of cold water. Boil the sugar in one-fourth cup of water till 
it threads, and beat this sirup into the stiffly beaten egg white, then 
fold this into the cranberry mixture. Add the vanilla, and freeze. 

This is nice served with a raisin sauce, in which case the vanilla 
should be put into the sauce instead of into the sherbet. 

Oransre Sherbet 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 
1 cup orange juice 

1^2 cups water 

% cup sugar 

1 egg 

1^2 tablespoons cornstarch 

Heat the water and sugar to boiling. Stir into it the cornstarch, 
stirred smooth with a little cold water. Beat the egg, stir it into 
the hot mixture after stirring a little of the hot mixture into it. 
Add the lemon juice and the orange juice, and freeze. 

Oransre and Pineapple Sherbet 

% cup pineapple juice 
1^/4 cups orange juice 
1 cup water 
iy2 teaspoons cornstarch 

% cup sugar 
1 egg 
Put together like Orange Sherbet. 



FROZEN DE88ERT8 205 

Peach Sherbet 

1 pint peach pulp 
% cup water 

% cup orange juice 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 

% tablespoon vanilla, if desired 

% cup sugar 
1 egg white, unbeaten 
1 teaspoon vanilla 

To prepare the peach pulp, wash, divide, stone, and pare peaches, 
ind rub them through a colander. Mix with the pulp the remain- 
ing ingredients, and freeze. Using the egg white unbeaten makes 
:he sherbet more creamy and less fluffy. 

Fresh Raspberry Sherbet 

IMs cups raspberry pulp 

% cup brown sugar 
1^2 cups water 
1^2 tablespoons cornstarch 
1 egg 

To prepare the raspberry pulp, look over and wash the rasp- 
berries, and rub them through a strainer fine enough to remove the 
jeeds. Put together like Orange Sherbet. 

strawberry Sherbet 

1 pint strawberry pulp 

1 cup sugar 

1^ cups water 

1^ tablespoons cornstarch 

1 egg 

2 teaspoons vanilla, if desired 

Sherbets made with the whole egg according to these recipes 
more nearly resemble ice cream in consistency than when the beaten 
egg white is used. 

Strawberry sherbet may be served in cantaloupe halve?. 

Tutti-Frutti Ice 

Peel and chop one pint of fruit, and add one-half cup of cold 
water, one-half cup of sugar, and the unbeaten whites of two eggs. 
Mix and freeze. 

Bananas and oranges, or bananas alone, or peaches, or stewed 
apples, or stewed prunes, or stewed dates or figs, or a mixture of 
any two or three of these, may be used for this ice. 



FRUIT CANNING 

The time when fresh fruits, which may be called nature's " health 
foods/' are in season being so short in northern latitudes, it is 
very desirable to preserve them in as nearly a natural state as 
possible. 

Healthful cookery does not include the preserving of foods by 
the use of salt, vinegar, sugar, or chemical preservatives. Any of 
these substances which preserve foods against the attacks of germs, 
preserve them also against the action of the digestive juices. Chem- 
ical preservatives are injurious to health. 

The fermentation and decay of fruits and vegetables are caused 
by germs which are everywhere present. Most of these germs are 
killed by a temperature equal to that of boiling water, if subjected 
to it long enough, and a temperature several degrees below this is 
sufficient to destroy some of them. The secret, then, of canning fruits 
or vegetables is to cook the foods sufficiently long to destroy all germ 
life which they may contain, and to seal them in air-tight receptacles 
while they are so hot that germs cannot live in them. If sealed 
under these conditions, they will keep indefinitely. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS 

If Mason or Lightning jars are used, see that the covers and rub- 
bers are perfect. The jars may be tested by partly filling them with 
water, putting on the cover, and tightening it, and standing them 
bottom upward for a time before using them. If they leak, there is 
some imperfection that must be remedied. It is hardly safe to use 
rubbers a second time. It is better to buy new ones each season 
than to lose the fruit as well as the time spent in canning it. Mason 
jar covers are sometimes damaged in opening the jars, and should 
be carefully examined before they are used a second time. If there 
seems to be any possibility that they will not properly seal the jars, 
they must be rejected. Of course, the jars must be so thoroughly 
washed that they are perfectly clean. 

The fruit selected for canning should be of first quality, fresh, 
sound, ripe, but not overripe. That which is not good enough to 
use fresh will be liable to spoil if it is canned. Graniteware or 
aluminum kettles should be used, and the fruit should be cooked 
gently, but so thoroughly that all germ life in every part of it will 
be killed. This will require from fifteen minutes to one-half hour, 
nrconiing; to the nature and size of the fruit. 

20(i 



FRUIT CANNING 207 

If the canning is properly done, the addition of sugar is not neces- 
sary to make the fruit keep. When enough sugar is used to " pre- 
serve " the fruit, so that it will keep even though imperfectly canned, 
its wholesomeness is spoiled. Only sufficient sugar should be added 
to make it palatable. After the can is sealed, it should be watched 
for a few days to detect any signs of fermentation. If such appear, 
the fruit may be saved by opening the can and boiling its contents. 
It is best to use such fruit at once, as recanning may not preserve it. 

When using foods that have been canned in tin, always remove 
them from the can as soon as it is opened. This precaution may 
prevent serious poisoning. 

The amount of sugar given in the following recipes is only a 
suggestion. Some may like more, others may think it better to use 
less. The less you use, the better. It is well to cultivate a taste for 
fnuit with little sugar. 

RECIPES 

To Can Strawberries 

Select sound, highly colored fruit, use it, if possible, the day it 
is picked. Wash the berries in cold water, lifting them out of the 
water with the hands, thus allowing any sand or grit to settle to 
the bottom of the pan. Hull the berries; and as they are hulled, 
measure them and put them into a graniteware or aluminum kettle 
or pan. Over each quart of berries sprinkle from one-half to three- 
fourths cup of sugar. Allow the berries to stand overnight. 

In the morning drain off the juice, and put it on the stove to heat. 
When it boils, carefully put the berries into it, and boil them gently 
for fifteen minutes or longer, using a graniteware spoon to keep the 
berries under the sirup, and to remove the scum. 

Have the jars perfectly clean. Put the covers in boiling water. Set 
the jars in a pan of hot water on the stove beside the kettle of boiling 
fruit. Dip the rubbers in melted paraffin and put them on the jars. 
Keep the fruit boiling while the jars are being filled. Put a little fruit 
into two or three jars; this will warm them, and they will be less 
liable to break. Then fill one jar till it begins to run over. See that 
there are no seeds or fruit on the rubber. Remove one of the covers 
from the boiling water, and put it on the jar, tightening it securely. 
Set the jar bottom upward to cool, but not on a cold, wet surface 
or in a draft. If you are using Mason jars, tighten the covers fre- 
quently while the fruit is cooling. If a jar leaks, and cannot be 
securely tightened, its contents must be returned to the kettle, boiled, 
and put into another jar. 

When one jar is sealed, fill another, putting a little fruit into 
each jar a few minutes before it is to be filled. There will be more 
juice than is desirable if the fruit is to be used for sauce, so some 
jars may be filled with fruit and others with juice alone. This may 



208 OOOD FOOD 

be done with all kinds of berries, and thus you will have a good 
supply of a variety of fruit juices! 

Canned fruit should be stored in a dark place, or wrapped in 
paper to keep the light from it, as it loses its color if exposed to 
the light. 

To Can Blackberries, Raspberries, and Other Small Fruits 

Carefully pick over and wash the berries. Use from one-third to 
two-thirds cup of sugar to one quart of fruit. Put the fruit to cook 
in a very small quantity of water. Heat slowly, and boil fifteen 
minutes or longer. Then follow the directions for canning straw- 
berries. 

To Can Peaches 

Select sound, ripe peaches. Wash, divide, stone, and pare them, 
putting them into cold water to prevent discoloration. Place the 
fruit in a kettle, sprinkling each layer with sugar, using one-fourth 
to one-half cup to each quart of peaches, or, if preferred, the sugar 
may be omitted. Add a little boiling water, only sufficient to cook 
the fruit. Heat slowly. Boil fifteen minutes or longer, till the 
peaches are tender. Then follow the directions for canning straw- 
berries. 

Pears and apples may be canned in a similar way. 

To Can Plums 

Prick each plum to prevent its bursting. Use from three-fourths 
to one cup of sugar to each quart of fruit, according to the acidity 
of the plums. Follow the directions for canning other fruit. 

To Can Cherries 

Cherries may be put up whole, like plums, or they may be stoned 
first. Use about one-half cup sugar to one quart of fruit. 

To Make Grape Juice 

Use Concord grapes. Pick them from the stems, rejecting im- 
perfect ones. Wash well, and put them into a graniteware or alumi- 
num kettle. To each three quarts of grapes add one quart of hot 
water. Stew till the skins burst and the pulp is well softened, but 
do not cook too long, for that will give the juice a strong flavor. 
Put the grapes into a bag made of two thicknesses of cheesecloth, and 
hang them up to drain. Allow them to hang till all the juice possible 
has been drained out. This may be bottled as first-quality juice. 
Then squeeze the bag to remove the rest of the juice, which may be 
bottled as second quality. 

To bottle .the juice, add to each quart one-third cup sugar. Boil 
the juice five minutes. Have the bottles thoroughly clean. Set them 
in a pan of hot water beside the kettle of juice. Fill the bottles full 
with the boiling juice. Use corks that will fit tightly, and put them 
}n boiling water to soften them. Remove one of the corks from the 



FHUIT CANNING 209 

boiling water, and put it into the mouth of the bottle right on top 
of the juice. As the juice cools and contracts, press the corks down 
into the bottles. When the corks have been pushed in, seal them by 
dipping the end of the bottle into melted sealing wax or paraffin; or 
if the cork can be pushed in a little below the neck of the bottle, 
fill the bottle above the cork with the melted wax. The juice may 
be put into glass jars, as fruit is canned. 

This juice is about equal parts grape juice and water. If desired 
stronger, add one pint of water to three quarts of grapes. If it is 
desired to bottle the juice pure, crush the grapes, and cook them in 
their own juice till well softened. Then proceed as directed for 
cooking the grapes in water. The juice may be bottled without sugar 
or with from one-third to one-half cup of sugar to the quart of juice. 
This juice may be used pure, or it may be diluted as desired. 

One common-sized basket of grapes makes one and one-half quarts 
of grapes when picked from the stems, and is sufficient for about one 
pint of pure juice. 

To Can Tomatoes 

Tomatoes may be canned as fruit is canned. Have the jars per- 
fectly clean. Put the covers into boiling water. Scald, peel, and slice 
the tomatoes. Put them into a kettle and heat them very gradually 
at first, being careful not to scorch them (they may be put into a 
double boiler at first till the juice is well drawn out). Then cook 
them gently but thoroughly for one hour; simply scalding them will 
not do. Set the jars in a pan of hot water on the stove beside the 
kettle of boiling tomatoes. Dip the rubbers in melted paraffin, and 
place them on the jars. Keep the tomatoes boiling while the jars 
are being filled. Fill the jars till they begin to run over. See that 
there are no seeds on the rubbers. Remove one of the covers from 
the boiling water and put it on the jar. Tighten it securely, and 
set the jar away, bottom up, to cool. If you are using Mason jars, 
tighten the covers frequently as the tomatoes cool. 



" Wherever fruit can be grown in abundance, a liberal supply 
should be prepared for winter, by canning or drying. Small fruits, 
such as currants, gooseberries, strawberries, raspberries, and black- 
berries, can be grown to advantage in many places where they are 
but little used, and their cultivation is neglected. For household can- 
ning, glass rather than tin cans, should be used wherever possible." 
— " The Ministry of Healing'' 

" The Lord planted a garden eastward in Eden ; and there he 
put the man whom He had formed. And out of the ground made 
the Lord to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight; and good 
for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden." Gen- 
esis 2: 8, 9. 

14 



JELLY MAKING 

Jklliks contain too much sugar to be wholesome if used in more 
than small quantities. They should be treated as confections rather 
than as foods. The health-giving properties of fruit juices are really 
spoiled when made into jelly. However, it may be permissible to 
make a little of a variety of kinds to be used as a dainty or titbit 
or as an accompaniment of protein foods, which seem to require as 
a sauce something that is stimulating to the stomach; and jellies in 
small quantities may have a peptogenlc effect. 

The property that fruit juices have of setting Into a jelly after 
being boiled, is due to the presence of pectose. The juices of some 
fruits contain a sufficient amount of this substance so that they may 
be made into jelly without the addition of sugar; while others, like 
peaches and cherries, contain so little that they cannot be made into 
a firm jelly even with sugar. Pectose Is a carbohydrate substance 
similar to starch or dextrin. Fruits contain pectose in largest 
amount when just ripe, and their jelly-making qualities deteriorate 
with age; therefore overripe fruit should not be chosen for making 
jelly. The skins and cores of the fruit should be used, because these 
contain a larger proportion of pectose than the flesh of the fruit. 
Jelly can be made from peelings that are left after preparing fruit 
for sauce or canning. 

The purpose of boiling jelly is to allow the moisture to .evaporate, 
so it should be boiled in a granlteware or aluminum kettle large 
enough so that the sirup will be shallow. 

Add the sugar to the juice, heat slowly, and boll to the proper 
density as tested by dropping a little on a cold plate, skimming off 
any froth that rises. 

Apple Jelly 

Wash and quarter or slice nice tart apples, but unless wormy, 
do not remove the cores. Put them into a granlteware or aluminum 
kettle, and add sufficient cold water to come nearly to the top of the 
apples. Cook slowly till the apples are thoroughly softened. Turn 
into a jelly bag and allow to drain. When all the juice has drained 
out that will do so without pressure, measure the juice, use three 
fourths as much sugar as juice, and proceed according to the general 
directions given. The remainder of the juice may be squeezed out 
of the jelly bag, which will make a second-quality jelly. 

It is convenient to test the jelly with a thermometer. When the 
sirup has reached a temperature of 222° F., it is boiled sufficiently. 

210 



JELLY MAKING 



3 cups cranberries 

1 Clip boiling water 

1^ Clips sugar 
Cook the cranberries In the water till tender. Rub tbem tbrougb 
a fine colander. This should make one pint of pulp. Put tbls pulp 
on the stove to beat, and put the sugar Into the oven to heat. When 
the fruit bolls, add the hot sugar to it. Allow it to boil up. Skim 
and pour Into jelly glasses or molds wet In cold water. A clearer 
Jelly may be made by putting the fruit, after It is cooked. Into a 
Jelly bag and allowing the juice to drain out. Measure this juice. 
Use three fourths as much sugar as you have Juice, and proceed as 
before. The pulp which remains may be rubbed through a fine col- 
ander, sweetened, and used as sauee or marmalade. 

Cnrrmnt J«ilT 

Pick over and wash the currants. Put them Into a kettle, crushing 
them to extract sufficient juice to start them cooking. Heat slowly. 
and boil till well softened. Drain and proceed as in making apple 
jelly. 

Raspberry jelly is made in the same way. Equal parts of cur- 
rants and raspberries make a better jelly than either alone. It may 
be necessary to boll this Jelly higher than 222^ F. 




BEVERAGES 



Dbinks should be taken between meals. A large quantity of 
liquid taken at meals dilutes the gastric ju|ee and delays digestion. 
Food should not be " washed down/' for it is then not well masti- 
cated and mixed with the saliva, which is the first digestive fluid. If 
liquid is taken at mealtime, it should be sipped between the mouth- 
fuls of food, which should be chewed until it is reduced to a liquid. 

UNWHOLiESOMK DRINKS 

Iced drinks should not be taken at meals, for they cool the con- 
tents of the stomach to a temperature at which digestion is checked. 
In fact, it is questionable whether iced drinks are ever entirely 
harmless. 

Tea and coffee contain two harmful substances, tannin and caf- 
fein. Tannin has a tanning, or astringent, effect upon the lining of 
the stomach and upon albuminous foods. It interferes with salivary 
and stomach digestion. 

Caffein is one hundred times as deadly a poison as alcohol. This 
will account for the statement made by Dr. D. H. Kress, " Tea is 
worse than beer." 

One pound of average tea contains 252 grains of caffein. Twenty 
grains of caffein is sufficient to kill a man. In one pound of tea 
there is sufficient poison to kill twelve men, two rabbits, and four- 
teen frogs. 

One cup of tea contains from one and one-half to one and three- 
fourths grains of caffein, and three or four grains of tannin. There- 
fore it takes a little more than twelve cups of tea to contain a 
deadly dose of caffein. 

A cup of coffee contains the same amount of caffein and tannin 
as a cup of tea. 

Sleeplessness, stomach trouble, palpitation of the heart, head- 
ache, constipation, nervous disorders, arterial and kidney diseases, 
and liver trouble are some of the diseases caused by the use of tea 
and coffee. 

Tea and coffee blunt the sensibilities and make those who use 
them oblivious of consequences. This is the reason that a cup of 
tea will make a tired woman feel equal to doing a big washing on 
Monday morning. 

Tea is more powerful to keep people awake than opium is to 
put them to sleep. 

212 



BEVERAGES 213 

Dr. Alexander Bryce, in " Modern Theories of Diet," page 152, 
says, " Tea, coffee, and cocoa are nerve poisons, cardiac poisons, and 
cerebral excitants." 

Water is the natural and perfect beverage. The next best drink 
is fruit juice. The nutritive constituents in fruit juices are pre- 
digested, and the mineral salts they contain are medicinal; so that 
fruit juices are not only delicious beverages, but the Creator's 
natural medicines, blood purifiers, and tonics. 

RECIPES 

Cer«al Coffee 

Use one slightly rounded tablespoon of cereal coffee for each cup 
of water. Simmer twenty minutes. It is well to put the coffee In 
a cheesecloth bag, then it is not necessary to strain the coffee. 
Serve with cream and sugar. Care should be taken not to use too 
much sugar with cereal coffee because it spoils its coffee flavor and 
makes it liable to cause biliousness. 

Lemonade 

1/4 lemon 
2 tablespoons sugar 
Cold water 

After squeezing the lemon juice, strain it into a' glass. Add the 
sugar and sufficient cold water to fill the glass. When the sugar is 
dissolved, it is ready to serve. 

Lemonade, Larse Quantity 

1 quart water 

Juice of 3 large or 4 small lemons 
% cup sugar 

If use4 for medicinal purposes, as in fever or in connection with 
treatment to ward off a cold, it would be better to use less sugar. 

Raspberry Nectar 

Juice and grated yellow rind of two lemons 

% cup sugar 

^ cup pineapple juice 
1% cups raspberry juice 

% cup cherry juice (if desired) 
1 quart water 

Allow it to stand one hour, then strain through cheesecloth. 
Serve ice-cold. 

Fruit Nectar 

1 quart water 
Juice of 3 lemons 

% cup currant juice 

V2 cup raspberry juice 

% cup sugar 



214 aoOD POOD 

Boil the sugar with one half the water till it is dissolved. Cool 
and add the fruit juices. Set into the refrigerator till ready to serve. 

strawberry Nectar 

To lemonade add one fourth as much strawberry juice. 

Oransreade 

Juice of 1 orange 
Juice of ^ lemon 
1 to 2 tablespoons sugar 
Cold water to fill glass 

A large variety of nectars can be made by using lemonade as a 
foundation and coloring and flavoring it with various kinds of fruit 
juices. 

Health Cocoa 

1 tablespoon health cocoa 
1 teaspoon sugar 

M> cup boiling water 

¥2 cup milk 
A few grains salt 
A few drops vanilla 

Mix the cocoa, sugar, and salt. Pour over it the boiling water. 
Boil two minutes. Add the milk and vanilla and let it come to the 
scalding point. 



A Voice from the Corn 

" I WAS made to be eaten, not to be drank, 
To be thrashed in a barn, not soaked in a tank; 
I come as a blessing when put in a mill, 
As a blight and a curse when run through a still; 
Make me up into loaves, and your children are fed; 
But made into drink, I will starve them instead. 
In bread I'm a servant, the eater shall rule; 
In drink I'm a master, the drinker a fool. 
Then remember my warning; my strength Til employ,- 
If eaten, to strengthen; if drunk, to destroy." 



INVALID COOKERY 

WiuLK many of the foregoing recipes may be used for the sick, 
such as broths, milk preparations, egg preparations, toasts, breads, 
fruits, and fruit juices, the liquid foods given in this section will be 
found of special value where the more solid foods cannot be taken. 

Special mention should be made of the health-giving properties 
of fruit juices. They are tonics and blood purifiers, and contain 
nourishment all ready for assimilation. There are few if any dis- 
ease germs that can live in pure lemon juice. Apple juice will 
destroy the germs of Asiatic cholera. Blueberry juice will destroy 
the germs of typhoid fever. Other valuable fruit juices are orange 
juice, grape juice, and pineapple juice. 

The diet of the sick should consist of articles which will impose 
only a light tax on the digestive powers, but at the same time they 
should not be lacking in nourishment; and they should be made as 
appetizing and attractive as possible. 

Hot foods should be hot but not too hot, and cold foods should 
be cold but not too cold, when they reach the patient. 

Scrupulous neatness and care are required in cooking for, and 
serving food to, the sick. Some seemingly trivial, careless act may 
be sufficient to take away the little appetite the patient may have. 
The tray on which the food is served should be covered with a clean 
white napkin, and the silverware should be bright. If there are in 
the home dainty china and pretty little glass dishes, this is the time 
to put them to good service. If possible, broth should be served in 
a thin, light cup, partly filled; milk and fruit juices, in a thin, light 
glass. The bread should be sliced thin. The toast should be thin and 
crisp, crackers and ready-cooked cereal foods freshly toasted, the 
fresh fruit cut and arranged in some new and unexpected way. A 
straw placed in a cold drink may make it more palatable. A sprig 
of leaves, a fiower, a quotation from Scripture, or a pretty verse 
may bring pleasure. 

RECIPES 

Oatmeal Gruel 

i/{ cup rolled oats 
1 pint water 
1 pint or more hot milk 
11/4 teaspoons salt 

Add the salt to the water, and bring to a boil in the inner cup 
of a double boiler. Stir in the rolled oats. Boil over the fire two or 



216 GOOD FOOD 

three minutes, then set the inner cup in the outer cup of the double 
boiler which contains boiling water, and continue the cooking for 
three hours or longer. Then rub the oatmeal through a strainer. 
Add hot milk to make of the proper consistency for gruel. 

Barley gruel, cornmeal gruel, or rice gruel may be made by the 
same recipe, using one-third cup pearl barley, one-fourth cup corn- 
meal, or one-fourth cup rice, instead of the rolled oats. And in mak- 
ing cornmeal or rice gruel one hour's cooking of the cereal is suffi- 
cient. It may be necessary to cook the barley four or five hours. 

It may sometimes be desirable to make the gruel entirely of water. 

Barley Water 

'/4 cup pearl barley 
2 quarts cold water 

Thoroughly wash the barley, and let it soak in cold water for 
one hour or longer, then put it to cook in the two quarts of cold 
water. Let it come to a boil, and simmer slowly till reduced to one 
pint of liquid. Strain oH the broth. Season with salt, reheat, and 
serve plain, or seasoned with a little cream. 

One-fourth cup raisins or figs cut into dice may be cooked with 
the barley if desired, or a little lemon rind may be used and the 
broth sweetened with a little sugar. 

Rice Water 

^/4 cup rice 
1 quart cold water 

The so-called ** natural brown " rice, or rice from which the bran 
has not been removed, is best for this. 

Wash the rice thoroughly by whipping it in hot water with a 
batter whip and turning off the water several times, then put the 
rice to cook in the cold water. Heat to boiling, and simmer slowly 
till the liquid is reduced to one pint. Strain off the broth, season 
with salt, and with cream if desired. Reheat and serve. 

Gluten Gruel 

1 pint boiling water 
% cup gluten meal 
^ teaspoon salt 

Stir the gluten into the boiling water, simmer till thickened, and 

add the salt. 

Cream Gluten Gruel 

1 cup boiling water 

1 cup milk or thin cream 

^/4 cup gluten meal 

^ teaspoon salt 

Stir the gluten into the boiling water. Cook till thickened, add 
the milk, and heat to boiling. 



INVALID COOKERY 217 

Toasted Flake Gruel 

Cook one cup of corn flakes or wheat flakes in one cup of water 
till thoroughly softened. Rub through a fine strainer, add a little 
hot cream or milk, and salt to season. 

Hot Malted Milk 

Put one-fourth cup of malted milk in a glass. Moisten it with 
enough hot water to make a smooth paste, then add boiling water 
to fill the glass three fourths full, stirring with a fork till the milk 
is dissolved. 

Hot MUk 

Hot milk that has been freshly heated but not boiled makes a 
nutritious drink for a sick person. 

Albumen Water 

1 egg white 

Vj cup cold water 
A few grains salt 

Beat the egg white till foamy. Add the water, and beat the water 
and white together. Strain through cheesecloth. Add a few grains 
of salt. A little lemon juice may be added if desired. 

Egrirnos: 

2 egg whites 

A few grains salt 

1 teaspoon to 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

2 tablespoons sugar 

1 teaspoon egg yolk 

Add the salt to the whites, and beat them stiff. Beat in the lemon 
juice and sugar. Save out about one tablespoon of the beaten white. 
Beat the egg yolk into the remainder, and put it into a glass. On 
top put the egg white that was saved out. 

Part of the mixture may be colored with any kind of fruit juice, 
as grape, raspberry, blackberry, or orange, if desired. Or a few- 
fresh or stewed raspberries or a little diced orange may be stirred 
into it. The eggnog looks pretty if the ingredients are not thor- 
oughly stirred together, but left so that some of the white and some 
of the yellow and some of the color of the fruit show. 

Cream Efrfrnog: 

2 eggs 

2 tablespoons cream 

A little sugar, if desired 

Beat the whites and yolks separately. Add the cream to the 
yolks. Put most of the beaten white into the glass. Pour the yolk 
mixture over it so that it will run down around the white. Put the 



218 GOOD FOOD 

rest of the white on top. IF the sugar Is used, part of It should be 
beaten into the white and the rest into the yolk mixture. A little 
vanilla flavoring may be added to this If desired. 



^ cup milk (part cream, if c 
2 teaspoons sugar 
4 drops vanilla 
Beat the Ingredients well together 




INDEX 



Albumen water 217 

Almond apples 149 

butter 78 

cakes 79 

cream ice 208 

food value of 78 

macaroons 78, 79 

Almonds, to blanch 78 

Apple butter 187 

dumpling 171 

juice as a srerm destroyer 215 

rose cream 159 

Apples 148, 149 

Apricots in jelly 163 

Artichokes 116 

creamed 1 16 

in tomato sauce 116 

Asiatic cholera, remedy for 215 

AsparasTUs 117 

and peas 117 

sauce 89 

tips on toast 117 

with cream sauce 117 

Bacillus, lactic acid 95 

Bakins: powder 57, 189 

Bananas, baked 151 

Barley, pearl 81 

water 216 

with raisins 82 

Batter and dough 21 

Bavarian cream 166 

pineapple 167 

strawberry 167 

Bean broth 62 

meal 80 

patties 74 

pur^e 74 

Beans 121. 122 

baked 74. 75 

canned string 122 

digestibility of 72 

Lima 121 

ribbon 74 

shelled 121 

soda, use of, in cooking 73 

stewed 74 

string 122 

Beef extracts 61 

Beets 114, 115 

baked 115 

boiled. 115 

cream baked 115 

sliced or chopped with lemon 115, 134 

steamed 115 

Beverages 212-214 

Biscuit, no-8oda 52 

laxative gluten 56 

nut gluten 56 

pure gluten 56 

Blackberries 148 

to can 208 

Blancmange, arrowroot 168 

farina 154 

Blueberries, to can 208 

juice of, a germicide 215 

Bouillon, veg-etebJe 61, 64, 66 



Bread, Boston brown 54 

bran 61 

bran broth 62 

date Graham 49 

fermented 48 

for sandwiches 187 

fruit 48 

gluten 55, 56 

Graham 43, 47 

pudding 157 

rye meal 49 

test of good fermented 45 

unfermented 56-60 

walnut 48 

white 45 

whole-wheat 47 

yeast 43 

Broth, asparagus cream 63 

bean 62 

bran 62 

protose 64 

spinach cream 68 

vegetable 63 

Brown Betty 159 

Building food 10 

Buns, crumb 55 

currant 49 

orange and cocoanut 55 

plain 49 

superfine 50 

sweet 49 

walnut 60 

yeast 49 

Buttermilk artificially prepared. 96, 97 

tablets 96 

Cabbage, boiled 119 

creamed 119 

in tomato sauce 119 

Caffeine 212 

Cake, angel 194 

blueberry 194 

bran 51 

caramel pecan loaf 195 

chocolate cream layer 195 

chocolate fudge 196 

chocolate walnut 195 

date loaf 194 

decorating 202 

filling, fig 201 

filling, walnut lav- r 201 

frosting, chocolate 201 

frosting, ornamental 200 

fruit 193 

icings and fillings 200-202 

icing, boiled 200 

icing, chocolate n-' 202 

icing, maple 201 

jelly roll 196 

molasses 192 

nut 194 

plain 189 

shortened with oil 191 

superior nut 194 

two e^fi 191 

Washingrton cream j>ie 196 

Calories ^rt. 

Canivma ol IrvvWas •lSsR»-1SS^ 



220 



GOOD FOOD 



Caramel 63 

Caramels, date and cocoanut 150 

Carbonaceous foods 10 

Carrots and peas 114 

creamed 114 

mattrc d'hotel 114 

mashed 114 

with esrer sauce 114 

with fine herbs 114 

Cauliflower 119, 120 

boiled 120 

Celery 118 

omelet 105 

on toast 118 

stewed 118 

cream toast 118 

with tomato sauce 118 

Cellulose 9, 10 

Cereal coflfee 213 

Cereals 27-42 

chemical composition of 80 

cookinsT of 27-30 

rules for cookinsr 28 

time required for cookinii: 20 

Cheese, composition of 95 

cottasre. 97 

flavors of 96 

omelet 105 

nut 81 

Cherries, to can 208 

stuffed 132 

Chestnuts, baked ^ . . . 80 

creamed 79 

in tomato sauce 79 

puree 79 

to peel 70 

to roast 79 

Chicken broth, substitute for 62 

Chili con came 88 

Chop suey, American 86 

Chowder, corn 69 

nut 69 

Citron apples 148 

Cocoa, health 224 

Cocoanut, the 80 

apples 149 

macaroons 80 

sauce 174 

Coffee 212 

cereal 213 

Condiments 12 

Cook, pointers for a successful .... 8. 9 

Cookies 197-199 

best nut 197 

bran 199 

cornucopias 198 

Graham 198 

lady finerers 197 

molasses 198 

nut 107 

Cookinsr, methods of 21. 22 

principles of 7. 8 

Corn chowder 69 

dried 120 

loaf 82 

muffins 52 

omelet 105 

^reen, on the cob 120 

padding 121 

stewed 120 

to viae canned .....,,..,..,.,.,. 120 



Cornmeal cubes, baked 81 

srolden Grrains 81 

Cornucopias 198 

Cottaere cheese 97 

puddinsT 187 

Cranberry apples 149 

sauce 151 

sherbet 204 

Cream, composition of 95, 96 

sauce 84 

whipped 98 

Croquettes, egrs: 104 

protose and rice 87 

potato Ill 

Croutons 86 

Cucumbers < 185 

Custard desserts 155-1S7 

apple 156 

cocoanut 156 

cup, burnt oranere flavor 157 

frozen 203 

maple cup 156 

sauce 173, 174 

• 

Date and cocoanut caramels 150 

mufilns 58 

Dates, steamed 150 

stuffed 150 

Dessert, mixed frtiit 161 

apple rose cream 159 

brown Betty 159 

Desserts 153-176 

custard 156-157 

frozen 203-205 

fruit 159-161 

gelatin 161-167 

milk without esrvrs 158-155 

saero and tapioca 167-170 

Doufirhnuts, baked 54 

Dressiner 84, 129 

mayonnaise 128 

sour cream salad 180 

whipped cream 180 

Dressinsrs, olive oil in ^ 128 

Drinks, unwholesome S 212, 218 

when to be taken 212 

Dumplinsrs 71, 171 

Kgg croquettes 104 

nest on toast lOS 

timbales 104 

Eerirnoer 217 

cream 217 

milk 218 

Eersrplant, baked 126 

boiled 124 

lyonnaise 125 

scalloped 125 

Egrgrs 99-106 

cooked in shell 102 

cream baked 10^ 

dropped 102 

how to preserve 101 

nutritive value of 99 

poached 102 

scrambled 108 

to cook 102 

to determine age of 100 

to separate white from yolk .... 101 

NVeXsVv^. KU^ TfV«.««VJLt«TlV«tvl of 101 

"Exp«T\Tcv«tv\,% , . , , , , . *tV%> 



INDEX 



221 



Fats 7. 8, 18 

free 8 

Fermentation 43, 45 

Fig marmalade 150 

tapioca 170 

Fififs.. steamed 150 

stewed 151 

Flakes, oats, wheat, or rye 31 

Flavorinsr 20, 21 

Food, definition of 7 

preservation of 206 

principles in 9. 11, 12 

Foods, amount required 10 

chemical composition of 30 

classification of 10 

combinations of 13 

fermentation of 206 

nitroerenous 11 

non-nitrofirenous 11 

table of calories in 14-16 

French toast 103 

dressing 129 

omelet 104 

Fritter, apple or peach 187 

Frosting, ornamental 200 

Fruit canning 206-209 

jars, selection of 206 

jelly 210 

juices 145 

juices as remedies for diHeases. . . 215 

mold 161 

nectar 213 

Fruits an aid to digestion 145 

composition of 143 

dried 149-151 

nature's health food*; 206 

nutritive value of 143. 145. 146 

preparation of raw 145 

sugar with 146. 207, 210 

Frying 8 

Gelatin desserts 161-167 

Gems, bran 58 

Graham 58 

without eggs 58 

Gluten, preparation of 55. 85 

biscuit, laxative 56 

biscuit, nut 56 

biscuit, pure 56 

bread 56 

gruel 216 

gruel cream 216 

mush 32 

mush with dates 32 

mush, cream 32 

stew 85 

Golden grains 31 

Graham bread 43 

Grape apples 149 

juice, to make 20S 

Grapefruit, to prepare for serving . . 151 
jelly 162 

Gravy, nut 91 

nut tomato 90 

walnut 92 

Greens 115. 116 

beet 116 

Gruel, gluten 216 

cream gluten 216 

oatmeal 215 

^Qsted flake ,. , . . ^11 



Hash, lentil and dried olive 87 

Health cocoa 214 

Hoe cake 60 

Hominy, coarse, to cook 32 

Ice cream 203 

Ice, almond cream 203 

tutti-frutti 205 

Invalid cookery 215-218 

Jelly, making 210, 211 

apple 210 

apricots in 163 

cereal coffee 166 

cranberry 211 

currant 211 

grape 166 

grapefruit 162 

lemon 165 

mac^doine of fruit in 165 

omelet 106 

orange 165 

Johnnycake 53 

Junket 98, 155 

Kitchen, diagram of model 26 

Lady fingers 197 

Legumes 72-76 

cooking of 78, 74 

digestibility of 72 

food value of 73 

Lemonade 213 

Lemon juice, bactericidal properties 215 

sauce 175 

Lentil and nut cakes 83 

and dried olive hash 87 

and rice cakes 76 

timbales 76 

Macaroni, food value of 87 

how to cook 87, 88 

au gratin 89 

au gratin with cottage cheese ... 39 

baked, with eggs 89 

baked with olives 40 

saged 40 

with cream sauce 38 

with egg sauce 38 

with nut tomato gravy 41 

Macaroons, cocoanut 80 

Malted milk, hot 217 

Marmalade, nut and raisin 151 

Mayonnaise dressing 128 

Meals, unbalanced 13, 17 

Meat, food value of 61, 100 

objections to eating 61 

substitutes for 77. 78 

Measuring food values 12. 13 

Measures, tables of 17-19 

Milk products 98-98 

and sugar 153 

care of 95 

hot 217 

hot malted 217 

nutritive value of 98, 94 

sterilization of 96, 97 

to Pasteurize 96 

Mineral salts 9-12 

Muffins, com ^^ 



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INDEX 



223 



Puddinsr, creamy rice 154 

English plum 173 

fits 159 

lemon snow 163 

oranse 158 

orancre snow 163 

pressed fruit 160 

sagro 168 

sauces 173-176 

snow 157 

steamed apple 171. 173 

steamed fls: 171 

•steamed Indian 172 

steamed fruit 172 

steamed nut and fig 171 

steamed nut and fruit 172 

tapioca 169 

Puffs, cream 186 

i^llingr for 187 

Puree, bean 74 

chestnut 79 

Raspberries, to can 208 

to t)repare for servinjf 148 

Respberry cream 148 

nectar 213 

sauce 34 

sherbet 205 

shortcake 148 

whip 148 

Rennet 95 

Rice, boiled 33 

boiled 33 

browned 35 

creamed 33 

creamy 34 

omelet 105 

plain steamed 33 

puddinR. creamy 154 

water 216 

Rolls, cream 59 

Graham breakfast 59 

date 60 

Parker House 50 

Parker House, corn 60 

rolled oats 51 

Sago and tapioca desserts 167-170 

Sasro cream 169 

Krape 169 

Salad dressinj?^ 128-130, 135 

Salad, asparagus 132 

asparaKUs jelly 132 

autumn fruit 13:i 

bananu 133 

beet 134 

beet with lemon 134 

cabbagre 135 

cabbasre, chopped 135 

carrot and pea 131 

cauliflower 135 

celery and egg 131 

celery and walnut 130 

cottage cheese and apple 133 

cottage cheese and pineapple .... 133 

cucumber 135 

cucumber and radish 130 

currant 132 

date and apple 134 

egg 131 

fj'uit anW nut l:V\ 



Salad, grape and pineapple 1-34 ' 

grapefruit 184 

■ nut cheese and potato 131 

nuttolene and celery 136 

olives, stuffed 132 

orange, apple, and cherry 134 

potato and beet 130 

protose and celery 136 

raw carrot or turnip 131 

ribbon 132 

spinach 181 

strawberry and pineapple 134 

string bean 180 

tomato jelly 133 

tomato, stuffed 182 

vesretable 130 

vegetable oyster 185 

Waldorf 136 

Salsify 116, 117 

Salt, proportion used in seasoning 20 

Sandwiches 137-142 

Adelaide 104 

apple 141 

apple and cottage cheese 141 

baked bean 138 

celery 140 

cottage cheese 138 

cottage cheese and celery 139 

cottage cheese and egg 142 

cottage cheese and jelly 139 

cottage cheese and ripe olivij .... 138 

cottage cheese and waln.'.t 139 

cucumber 140 

diploma 140 

egg 139 

favorite 142 

filling for 137 

garnishes for 137 

how to make 137 

hub 141 

jelly 1S>< 

lentil 138 

lettuce 140 

nut 138 

nut and date, fig, or raisin 139 

nut and jelly 138 

peanut butter and ripe olive .... 139 

peach, fresh ] 42 

pineapple 141 

protose, meatose, or nutcero .... 142 

protose and jelly 142 

radish 141 

ribbon 142 

ripe olive 139 

rolled, or diploma 140 

strawberry 141 

three-layer 142 

tomato, fresh 139 

watercress 140 

Sauce, asparagus 89 

brown 89 

brown cream 90 

brown, with vegex 89 

Chili 89. 90 

chocolate walnut 175 

cocoanut 174 

cream 34. 90 

cream tomato 91 

custard 173, 174 

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