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Full text of "Good roads"

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Af\illu3rr(^te^ iT\or\tkly 
mdfe^zirxc'bcvbr^b to 

^^fke impro\/emer 
o/[kc'>*t><jb|i'c ro<^bb 
d^wb yreeb 







' ' Tliat farmers should be relieved of 
a portion of the burden of maintaining 
the public roads is a reasonable demand 
and is heartily concurred in by the best 
citizens." 

//on. Edivard Btirrougb. 





CONTENTS 



TEMATIC PLAN NEEDED. 
Elliott F. Shei-akd. 

AY BRIDGES— Continued. 

John X. Ostrom. 

SYSTEM OF UNION COUNTY. 
Concluded. 

F. A. Dunham, C. E. 

THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN ROAD 
IMPROVEMENT-Concluded. 

James owkn, C. E. 



THE ROCK-CRUSHER PLANTS OF AMERICA. 
AT THE CROSSING. 



League 




A FEW IMPORTANT LINES TO YOU FROM 
THE EDITOR. 

CALENDAR. 

EDITOR'S TABLE. 
QUERIFS AND ANSWERS. 



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il\[\L B.POTTLK 

CATION Office c 

K BviLPiNO MliU'VoivK 

Published 

BY THE. * "^^5^^^ 

Improvement Bureai^ ^' 






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Mm 



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Does it sell? 



Well, 

We should say 

it did ! 



Why 

wouldn't it 

sell? 






WITH 
PNEUMATIC TIRES 



One of our Agents writes; 

" I have no hesitation in placing it upon the market 
with the full guarantee, that it is equal to any wheel 

on earth. 
Our Quincy Agent writes ; 

"We have just received the Majestic sign. It is like 
the wheel, very fine." __^ 

It's made from the best Credenda Steel Tubing, and Steel Drop Forgings, 
that can't be excelled, and the Machinery and Tools used are the finest in the 
world. A Bicycle of as high grade as is possible to build, and yet sold for 
^^^.OO with Pneumatic Tires. 

Hulbert Bros. & Co. 



26 West 23d Street 



New York 



1^ 



Good Roads. 



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cyf/7 Illustrated ^oiithlv Maga:(hie, Devoted to the ^l^A;^ 
Improvement of the Tublic Roads 
and Streets. 



VOLUME FOUR, 
J U L Y T (J DECEMBER, i S 9 3 



Published by the 

Roads Improvement Bureau of the League of Amickican Whefi.mf.n, 

Potter BiiilUing, New York. 



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Copyriffht, 1S93, 



The League of American Wheelmen. 



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INDEX 



Pas;e. 

A Systematic Plan Needed ■ Col. FJliotI F. SkepaiuL . . . i 

American Road Improvement, The Birthplace dk. .James Owen, C. A'. .19 

At the Crossing 33 

A Query and a Reminder Co/. 'J Itos. /'! Cooke 51 

A Useful Law 202 

A Fifty Horse Truck 220 

A New "T^ngland Lochinvar EUzabefh Mor^au 244 

Alleys, Improvement of 252 

Bridges, Highway J^^^"^ ^'^'- Ost7-oiu, C. F.. . .3, S2, 107, 154, 203, 265 

Birthplace ok American Road Improvement, The. .James Owen, i'.E. .19 
Boys and Girls on the Farm, How to Keep the. .Hon. E. H. Thayer . .46 

Borrowed Wri' 94, 136. 1S4, 232, 278 

Book Reviews iSi, 22S, 274 

Calendar i'\ 90, 12S, 177, 225, 270 

Contra Costa Road Plan, The. .A. L. Bancroft and C. M. Plumb . .95, 157 
Contract Notes 132, 231, 277 

Drainage, Road /. /. W. Billingsley 222 

Editor's Takle, The 37. 91- 130, 17S, 22f), 271 

Empire State, Facts and Suggestions for the../. A. C. Wright. ..233 

Flushing, Road Work at 137, 192 

Facts and Suggestions for the Empire State../. A. C. ]]^riglit . ..233 

German Highways Hon. /ohnson Brig/iam . . . .^^ 

Good Roads in Iowa Henry Wallace 64 

Good Roads and the National Government 122 

Highway Bridijes Jolui N. Ostrom, C. F. . .3, S2, 107, 154, 203, 265 

How to Keep the Boys and Girls on the Farm. .Hon. E. H. Thayer . .46 

Highways, German Hon. Johnson Brz'gham . . . .^^ 

Hkjiiways and Highway Bridges, Location, Construction and 

Maintenance of Public. . . , ; William Steyh, C. E 72 

How to Fold .a.n Umbrell.a 124 

How to Raise the Money 209 

"Improvement of Alleys 252 

Iowa, Public Roads in Gove))ior Bdies 41 

Location, Construction and Maintenance of Public Highways 

AND Highway Bridges William Steyh, C. E 72 

Macadam and Telford Roads Isaac B. Potter . . 1 14, 163, 212 



Page 
News and Cumment i 7y, 229, 272 

Public Roads in Iowa Governor Boies 41 

Practical Road Reform in Iowa Harvey Inghatn 68 

Public Hic.hways and Highway Bridi;es, Location, Construction 

AND Maintenance of Williajn Steyh, C. E 72 

Profit and Loss to the Farmer Hon. N. G. Spalding 185 

Queries and Answers 38, 92, 131, 182, 230 

Query and a Reminder, A .Col. Thos. F. Cooke 51 

Question in Iowa, The G. L. Gregory 60 

Road System of Union County, The . . . .F. A. Dunham, C. E 9 

Rock-Crusher Plants of America, The 28, 147 

Roads in Iowa, Good Henry Wallace 64 

Road Reform in Iowa, Practicai Harvey Ingham . . . 68 

Recent Patents 93, 134, 276 

Roads, Macadam and Telford Isaac B. Potter . ..114, 163, 212 

" Reciprocity " and How it Works The Editor 126 

Road Improvement Fund for '93, The 129 

Road Work at Flushing 137, 192 

Road Drainage /. /. fF. Billingsley 222 

Street Improvement in Waterbury, Conn 170 

The Road System of Union County F. A. Dunham, C. E g 

The Birthplace of American Road Improvement. .y«7;zi?j Cro^«, C.E 19 

The Rock-Crusher Plan.ts of America 28, 147 

To My Fellow-Members of the L. A. W 35, 89 

The Editor's Table 37. 91, 130. 17S. 226, 271 

The Question in Iowa G. L. Gregory 60 

The Views of an Old Settler James Yuill 78 

The Contra Costa Road Plan, .A. L. Bancroft atidC. M. Plumb ..'.}^, 157 

The Road Improvement Fund for '93 129 

The Open Steeplechase , 175 

To Raise the Money, How 209 

The Good Old Road ElizahetJi Bui lard 251 

The Question of Check Reins 261 

The Road Department at Washington 263 

Union County, The Road System of F. A. Dunham, C. E. g 

Views of an Old Settler, The James Yuill 78 

We Cannot Afford Not To Hon. William larrabee . . . .44 

Waterbury, Conn., Street Improvement in. . . . 1 70 



GOOJJ F^OADS. 



Vol. 4. 



July, 1893. 



Xo. I. 



A SYSTEMATIC PLAN NHEDED. 

Bv Colonel Elliott F. Slwpard, late Editor of the Neic York 

"'Mail and Express."* 

To every thoughtful American who has had an opportunity 
to compare the deplorable condition of our highways 
with the smooth, easy- riding, paved or macadamized 
roads in other civilized countries, the comparison must be in 
the last degree uncomfortable, not to say odious. I have long 

believed that to every person 
having a substantial interest in 
the development of this coun- 
try, a material advantage would 
accrue if our highways were to 
be improved, and I am heartily 
glad that we are ridding our- 
selves of the absurd impression 
that good roads yield their ben- 
efits to only the owners and. 
users of private conveyances. 

Of coursfe it is true enough 
that by the improvement of 
American roads our owners of 
carriages would enjoy more 
comfortable driving than the 
present country roads afford ; 
but the fact is being impressed 
upon us wdth added force from 
day to day, that good roads would lighten the burden of the 
farmer by giving him an easy and ready access to his market, 
and would, besides shortening the time consumed in making 
the trip, enable him to haul a much heavier load than his team 
can handle under present conditions. There would be a decided 
saving in these matters as well as in wear and tear of farm 
vehicles and farm animals, and, by the use of improved roads, 
the American farmer would speedily realize this improvement 
to be of greater value, many times over, than the trifling increase 
of his taxes, occasioned by the construction of better roads. 

*The stidden and almost trag:ic death of C"l. Phepard. which occtirred but a few 
days ago from the effects of an anaesthetic, has called forth the widest expression of 
sympatliy and rciiret. His positive character and straightforward method of expres- 
sion stamped him as a man of rare force; and while these qualities embittered his 
enemies and i.is critics, they combined with a singular generosity and kindness of 
heart to endear him to his countless friends and readers. The short article here 
presented from the pen of Col. Shepard was received by Goon Roads on the day of 
his death, and it probably comprises the last lines indited Viy him on any public 
question. ' t 




^ 



COL. lit^LlOri F. SHEPARD. 



2 A SYSTEMATIC PLAN NEEDED. 

It is unnecessary to refer at length to the traveling wayfarer 
and to the comfort and facility which a good road affords him 
in the progress of his travel, nor need I more than suggest the 
added comfort of the wheelman and the pedestrian who seek 
the fresh, pure air of the country in their trips for health and 
pleasure. 

The one prominent essential to the attainment of road re- 
form, and indeed of every other reform of similar magnitude 
in this country, is organization. A favoring public opinion 
must first be developed and directed in the cnannel which tends 
to the most certain and lasting success. ' To a large degree, I 
am glad to say, this educational work has been accomplished. 
Public sentiment having been attained ii tavor of the improve- 
ment, the next requirement is a well settled plan to carry it out. 
Personally, I ain not yet prepared to say that I should favor 
the levy of a state tax to accomplish this work in whole or in 
part. The benefits would primarily be local, though, as I have 
said, the general public would in some measure share them. 

My own thought is that a non-partisan, non-salaried com- 
mission should be appointed by the Governor from among men 
of undoubted experience in this matter, and that such a com- 
mission should be charged with the work of solving the road 
problem and deciding what plan of work and what amendment 
of the road law are most likely to result in an extended im- 
provement of our country roads, without an undue burden upon 
the people and with the greatest promise of permanent good to 
the commonwealth at large. Much would, of course, depend 
upon the selection of the commissioners; but if the places were 
without salaries, the professional spoilsmen would not seek 
them, and those citizens who earnesly favor the reform would 
naturally be preferred for the appointment. A commission 
thus organized, and clothed with authority to carefully examine 
the subject and the conditions presented by different sections 
of the state, might well include in its report such a comprehen- 
sive digestion and treatment of the subject, that most of the 
conflicting theories and plans now advanced would be dispelled 
or harmonized, and such deductions made as would leave the 
subject in shape to be intelligently considered and the proper 
remedy wrought out. 

We want good roads. We must have such roads, and the 
sooner the subject is practically considered by competent men, 
the sooner will the reform movement bear substantial fruit. 



" I AM in favor of a move all along the line — to have all 
bicycle makers lend a hand in the matter of road improvement. 
The majority ought not to be allowed to profit by the contribu- 
tions of a few." — A. W. Overman [Pj-cside/ii Overman Wheel Co.). 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 

By John N. Ostrom, 

{Mem. ^mcr. Sac. C. H.; Mem. H^estein Soc. C. H. 

III. 

4 

-^^ ( Conthiued. ) 

TEMPORARY FOUNDATIONS PERISHABLE PERMANENT FOUNDATIONS; 

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION — -SOUNDINGS ; IMPORTANCE OF 

CAREFUL WORK FIRM FOUNDATION INSISTED UPON COFFER 

dams; how to make them in a simple AND SUBSTANTIAL 
WAY. 

WK have now devoted to the subject of temporary founda- 
tions all the attention to which its importance fairly 
entitles it, for I may as well say, here and now, that 
since crib work, pilino; and frame-bents are as short-lived as 
timber in its most unprotected state, it rarely pays to put them 
in, except in cases of washouts, where a, crossing must be had 
at once, or where the town is so sparingly settled that money 
for first-class work cannot be raised. In the former case, after 
construction, it is well to leave the job as long as it is safe be- 
fore taking it down, in order to get as nearly as possible the 
worth of the material ; for it is generally considered bad business 
policy to throw away a tool when only partly worn out, if it still 
does all the work we have on hand ; and in the latter case, within 
the life of one makeshift (say ten years), the population will, 
more than likely, have increased so that a first-class bridge is 
within the bounds of possibility. Then it should go in without 
perad venture, for if constructed to stay for all time, the 
maintenance or annual repairs account is reduced to a mini- 
mum, and this is what every business man wants. 

Permanent Foundations — With permanent foundations we 
enter a more serious field, and one in which the novice will 
soon come to grief if he attempts anything of magnitude, rely- 
ing simply on his good practical turn of mind, whatever that 
may include, and rejecting with ill-concealed contempt scien- 
tific laws in general and graduate engineers in particular; for 
if, with his authority and ignorance, comes a bump of bull- 
headed courage, as is often the case, he may invent something 
which will cost his town much money to replace or patch up, 
even if loss of life does not follow. When we are sick we call 
in the services of the best doctor in the town, and why should 
we not ask assistance from an engineer when we wish to build 
a strong, permanent and substantial bridge? Some men, it is 



4 



/// GJf WAY BRrn GES. 




true, keep a "doctor book," and study up the pill business on 
the amateur plan, and if you wish to follow the same course in 
obtaining a knowledge of bridge construction, the present 
treatise gives you the desired opportvmity. 

To begin with, permanent foundations must go below water 
(except in comparatively rare cases where rock crops out, or 
where the rock is so near the surface as to be exposed in periods 

of low water), and we 
inust accordingly find 
some way of keeping the 
water out while we are 
at work on the founda- 
tion, or devise a plan for 
carrying on the construc- 
tion by working from 
above the surface, with 
tools which are made to 
act under water, in any 
desired inanner. In the 
former class come coffer 
dams and caissons; and 
in the latter, sawing off 
piles under water and 
sinking thereon masonry 
or iron cylinders; and 
clam shell dredging in- 
side of iron cylinders, which sink continually as work goes 
on at the bottom, until a solid bed is reached. Such cylinders 
are always kept just above water at the top, by building on 
sections one after another. 

Taking up now the first subdivision, the coffer dam. This 
maybe called a box-like structure, having four sides impervious 
to water and lacking both top and bottom. When sunk 
to the solid bed where we wish to begin our masonry, 
the top should be about two feet above water, so that a slight 
rise in the stream resulting from ordinary rains will not over- 
flow it. When pumped out, we have a dry room, so to speak, 
to work in, and into which we can lower men and materials and 
build up the masonry above water line before taking out the 
dam. With these o-eneral remarks I will follow with a detailed 
description of a special case of construction, and this will be the 
kind distinguished by two rectangular walls of sheet piling 
about two and a half feet apart, filled with "puddle" clay or 
earth through which water will not readily pass, and surround- 
ing the space where our masonry is to be built. Let us suppose 
this to be a pier in water, having an average depth of about 
four feet. Sheet piling is a row of planks sharpened at one end 
and driven vertically into the ground edge to edge, forming a 






Figure i6. 

Showing form of sheet-piling inade of planks 
set edge to edge as it commonly appears when 
driven in a mud bottom. 



HIGHWA Y BKIDGES. 5 

partition or wall; and "puddle" is nothinj^ more or less than clay 
or other .earth through which water passes very slowly, if at all. 
Soundings. — Before laying- out the work and ordering the 
necessary materials, we must carefully ascertain the depth of 
water and also the character of the bottom, which determines 
the depth to which our excavation must extend before we reach 
solid bottom. For this purpose, sounding rods of gas pipe or 
pieces of water pipe like that used for artesian wells may be 
driven into the ground at the four corners of our proposed pier, 




^OCK 



Figure 17. 

Showing method of '" stepping off" a sloping rock at bottom of 
stream to prepare foundation for pier or abutment. The original sur- 
face of rock is shown by dotted line above the steps. The br(-)ken lines 
running from top to bottom ot figure (nearlv vertical) show outline of 
pier or abutment which is to rest on the rock bottom after mud and 
rock-slope are removed by use of coffer dam. 

and when this is done we can easily determine the depth of 
hard bottom below the water surface. For example, if we find 
four feet of water and two feet of earth, and below the two feet 
of earth a hard substance which the rods will not penetrate, we 
are then reasonably sure that we will have to go six feet below 
water line with our foundation. If one of our corner sounding 
rods drives deeper than the others, the depth of this rod will be 
the depth of the excavation, as it is generally advisable, in case 
of slanting rock beds, to begin at the lowest point and level off 
a horizontal floor equal to the width and length of the pier (at 
its base), although, if the rock dips or slants very much, it saves 
labor to "step off" the excavation like a stairwa}^, as shown in 
the illustration (Fig. 17). But sounding is likely to be very un- 
certain in its results and we may be easily misled and have to 



6 HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 

change our plans after we learn the real facts. For example, 
one of onr corner rods may strike a bowlder, while all the other 
rods may go several feet deeper. In this case we should natur- 
ally fall into error, but it would do us no discredit. 

Iviportauce of a Good Foundation. — Before entering into the 
details of the coffer dam, let us impress upon our minds the im- 
portance of an absolutely firm foundation. A poor bridge on a 
good foundation may fall and leave the foundation intact; but a 
poor foundation may collapse in time of flood and carry off with 
it a good bridge. It is the old story about the wise inan who 




Figure i8. 

Showing manner of constructing frames fur coffer dam. In this case 
the frames are inade of timber eight inches by eight inches in size. The 
inner frame is eight feet wide by twenty-two feel long, inside measure- 
ment. Tlie luuer frame is lifteen feet wide by twenty-nine feet Umg, 
iV/i'/ii't' measurement. 'J'he pieces of eacli frame aie bolted together at 
corners with bolts five-eighths of an inch in diameter, and the mUer and 
inner frames are fastened together by ten iron rods one inch in diam- 
eter. Suitable nuts and washers are used with all bolts and ruds. Two 
pairs of these frames (exactly alike) are used in each coffer dam. 

built his house upon a rock, and if we take up that famous par- 
able and substitute the word "bridge" for "house" we shall 
have a proper text for our annual bridge-contract sermon. If 
the foundation is built, as is too often the case, when the water 
is not down to the lowest known level, and if the careless prac- 
tice is followed, of throwing in logs or brush and laying up 
rough masonry on top, the first dry season will invite the be- 
ginning of trouble, for in dry times the water will sink below 
the top of the timbers, which will then rot out very quickly. 
When this happens the masonry will settle and crack and we 
cannot afford to build a good bridge on it. And so the old 
foundation must come out and if we use a wooden grillage or 
floor again for the masonry, we must put the top of it at least 
two feet below the lowest water known to the oldest inhabitant. 
Then it will last forever. 




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S /// G Fin \4 V BR IDGES. 

Coffer Dams. — Now let us build the cofferdam in four feet of 
water, with two feet of earth overlying a horizontal bed of rock ; 
and let the length and width of the pier to be constructed be six 
feet and twenty feet respectively. The proper method for de- 
termining the dimensions of the pier will be given in due time. 
First we build a pair of rectangular frames or bands out of eight- 
inch by eight-inch timber of any cheap variety, one eight feet 
wide and twenty-two feet long, inside to inside face, and the 
■other fifteen feet wide and twenty-nine feet long inside to 
inside. To do this we "halve" the ends together and fasten 
with one five-eighths bolt and two two-inch washers. Then we 
place the smaller frame exactly in the centre of the larger one 
and bore holes for ten rods one inch in diameter, as shown in 
the illustration (Fig. i8). To do this the frame should be 
laid out on ways or skids extending down into the water as for 
launching boats. After the rods are driven in place and 
screwed up tightly, with a four-inch washer under each nut, we 
lay temporary short planks at the corners as shown in the 
picture (Fig. 19), to hold rock for sinking, and we then launch 
the frames and tow into position like a raft, anchoring with a 
line to each shore, or with stakes driven at the four sides. 
Having previously cut sixteen two-inch by eight-inch planks, 
eight feet long, and sharpened them, chisel shape, as shown in 
the drawings (Figs. 16 and 19), for a reason which will appear 
presently, we raise them at the corners and spike in a vertical 
position, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 19) to the outside of 
the smaller and inside of thelarger frames, the points projecting 
one foot below the bottom of frame. Now we bring loose rock 
and pile on the temporary platform, sinking the whole mass 
until the points of the plank or sheet piles strike the bottom ; 
after which we drive them down until the bottoms of the 
frames strike the ground, thus holding the whole work se- 
curely from drifting. 

We will now build a second pair of frames exactly like the 
first, except that no rock platform is wanted, and when these 
frames are ready, we float them out to the point where the first 
pair of frames is submerged. 

( To be Continued. ) 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads'' wants the name and post-office 
<tddress [^plainly written^ of every civil engineer, surveyor, county officer 
and road officer in the United States. Also the natnes atid addresses 
of prominent citizens who are interested in the mo2ie?ncnt for better 
roads. We ask each reader to aid in making tip this list. Send as 
promptly as possible and specify each man's official position. 



THc RUAU SYSTEM Oi" UNION COUNTY. 

{Concluded.) 
By F. A. DiDiham, C E. , Engineer in Charge. 

AFTER the rolling of the telford had been completed the first 
course of macadam, which consisted of trap rock broken 
to pass throiioh a two-inch ring", was spread to a depth of 
two inches, and as soon as a reasonable length had been covered, 
a blinding of trap rock screenings was applied and the whole 
thoroughly rolled. After a sufficient length had been thus 
treated, the second course, consisting of trap rock broken to 
pass through a one and one-half inch ring, was spread to a 
depth of two inches. Rolling was then resumed, steam rollers 
weighing ten tons being used on some of the roads. Trap rock 
screenings were sparingly applied while the pavement was 
kept well watered by sprinkling carts. 

A comparison of the results obtained by the use of rollers 
varying in weight from five to ten tons convmces me that a 
more satisfactory consolidation is generally obtained with a 
roller weighing about six tons, on a length of five feet, than can 
be obtained with a roller weighing ten tons, or more, as the 
tendency of the latter seems to be to crush, rather than consoli- 
date the stones. 

This is especially so where the foundation is solid and un- 
yielding, as is the case where telford is used. 

Instructions were given that no greater cpiantity of screen- 
ings should be used than was absolutely necessary to bind the 
materials of the pavement. All depressions caused by the 
rolling were brought up to grade with small stones, and the 
rolling and watering continued under the direction of the in- 
spector, until the materials had been firmly consolidated and 
thoroughly bonded together, and the surface of the pavement was 
smooth, true to grade, and of the curvature and crown required. 

While it was necessary at each stage in the progress of the 
construction of the road, to have the work rigidly inspected by 
competent men, in order to secure the use of suitable materials 
and see that they were properly applied, the final rolling and 
finishing of the wearing surface of the pavement required the 
services of an expert in road building. 

Mr. David Bowden, the general superintendent of construc- 
tion, was well fitted by his previous large experience on road 
construction in Scotland to take charge of this very important 
work, and the smooth, hard surface which has been so much 
admired on the Union County roads proves that the selection 
of Mr. Bowden was a judicious one. 



lo THE ROAD SYSTEM OE UNION COUNTY. 

After passing the inspection of the engineer, the road was 
examined by the Board of Chosen Freeholders as a com- 
mittee of the whole, and if satisfactory, the work was accepted 
and paid for, as per the final certificate of the engineer. Ten 
per cent, of the total amount was withheld for a period of one 
year from date of acceptance, during which time the contractor 
was required to keep the road in repair. After the expiration 
of that time, the amount retained was paid to the contractor, 
providing the road was then in proper condition, which fact was 
determined by the engineer's certificate of final acceptance. 




Cross-Section of Drain. 

If the contractor neglected to make these repairs when re- 
quired, the work was done by the engineer, and the expense 
incurred by him in putting the pavement in order was deducted 
from the ten per cent, above referred to. The nature of these 
repairs is described under the head of "Maintenance. " 

The entire work was done under the immediate direction of 
the engineer and his assistants, who were kept busy in going 
over the different roads, directing the construction, and setting 
the necessary grade stakes in advance of the work of grading 
and laying the pavement. 

There was also an inspector for each road, whose duty it 
was to watch the materials and workmanship, and see that they 
complied in every respect with the specifications. 



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12 THE ROAD SYSTEM OE UNION COUNTY. 

In addition to the careful superintendence and inspection: 
just mentioned, the work of the contractors had to undergo the- 
keen scrutiny of the members of the Board of Chosen Free- 
holders. 

A committee of five members of the board was appointed, 
for the roads of each township, and early and late the members- 
of these committees could be seen upon the roads watching the 
progress of the work, consulting with the engineer upon the 
many questions arising from time to time, and devising ways- 
and means for overcoming the difficulties. 

The liearty co-operation of the members of the board, and 
their unfailing support, afforded the engineer and his inspectors- 
in enforcing the provisions of the specifications, are gratefully 
acknowledged by the writer. 




Section ^showin^ Method of 
Protecting Gutters ^* <S/opes in ^.^ndCuts 

The Board of Chosen Freeholders for 1890-91, during whose- 
term of office the greater part of the work on the county roads- 
was done, was constituted as follows : 

Officers: Director, J. Frank Hubbard; clerk, Charles E. 
Reed; Collector, E. M. Wood; County Attorney, C. D. Ward;; 
engineer, F. A. Dunham. Members: Clark Township, Wm. 
J. Thompson; Cranford Township, Geo. W. Littell; Elizabeth, 
Wm. W. Russell, Wm. H. Trahon, John C. Bender, Daniel O. 
Sullivan; FanwQod Township, George Kyte; Linden Town- 
ship, William T. West; New Providence Township, Bradford. 
Jones; Plainfield, J. Frank Hubbard, A. Vanderbeek; Rahway, 
William Howard, George Wright; Springfield Township, J. 
Martin Roll ; Suminit Township, William H. Briant ; Union. 
Township, George W. Doty; Westfield Township, James T. 
Pierson. 

The membership of the preceding board (1889-90) was the- 
same excepting that the township of Cranford was represented 
by Mr. P. D. Van Saun, and the city of Elizabeth by Messrs. 
John J. Donahue, Robert G. Houston, Frank Kleinhans and 
Charles D. Whaley. 



T4 THE ROAD SYSTEM OF UNION COUNTY. 

Public Opinion. — During the construction of these roads, some- 
opposition was manifested and very animated discussions were 
indulged in through the columns of the press; the objectors 
questioning among other things the necessity of using telford 
foundation, the advantage of the layer of clay, the wisdom of 
the proposed method of taxation, etc. 

Residents in the towns advocated that part or all of the cost 
of the improved roads should properly be assessed upon the 
abutting owners, and not upon the county at large, while the 
farmers thought that any additional taxation upon them, would 
be burdensome.* 

The completion of the work seems to have ended all these 
complaints, even in regard to taxation, while property has 
steadily increased in value in the vicinity of the roads. New 
buildings are being erected, three new villages having already 
sprung into existence between Elizabeth and Plainfield, and 
another between Elizabeth and Rahway ; it seems probable 
that in a short time there will be a continuous settlement be- 
tween all the towns along the line of these roads. 

Perhaps the most appreciative patrons of the new pavements, 
are the cyclists, who know how to prize a road that is always in 
good condition for their use, as the mud roads which our farm- 
ers are contented to wade through are practically useless for 
bicycles much of the time. 

The world certainly owes a debt of gratitude to the mighty 
army of wheelmen for their untiring efforts in promoting the 
work of road improvements, even though they reap a large 
share of the resulting benefits themselves. 

Future Construction. — The roads already built may be con- 
sidered as main trunk lines, and it is probable that not many 
more of this class will be required, but there is urgent need 
for the construction or improvement of a great number of 
minor or lateral roads. 

On these roads a much less expensive pavement than that 
just described would answer every purpose. 

The stones now lying on the farms aryd in walls along the 
roads, would supply a suitable material for the foundation, if 
broken to the proper size ; no rounded field stones should be 
allowed in the pavement, but all should be of an angular, cubi- 
cal shape to prevent their working through the macadam stone 
to the surface. 

The wearing surface should be of trap rock as in the main 
roads, applied and finished in the same manner as before de- 
scribed. 

If the work on these lateral or local roads is done under 
careful and competent supervision, with particular attention to 

*NOTE. — The Act under which these roads were improved provides that one-third 
of the expense shall be paid by the cities, towns, townships or borous:hs in which such 
improvements were made, in addition to its share of the remaining two-thirds. 




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THE ROAD SYSTEM OF UNION COUNTY. 



grade, drainage, etc. , they would be sure to give entire satis- 
faction, and their cost would be so moderate (probably about 
half that of the pavement with telford foundation) that the re- 
maining roads in the county could all be improved in the near 
future. 




•ScAie. ^ 



Cross -Section. 



I I I I I 



^ 



^T=Fr 



feet 



Partial Cross Section of Bkidge, Showing Arrangement of 
Materials. Union County Road System. 

Maintenance.- — Only second in importance to the construction 
of good roads, is the provision to be made for their maintenance 
and repair. It cannot be expected that the smooth hard 
surface which is so attractive on the Union County roads can 
be preserved unless it is cared for in an intelligent and sys- 
tematic manner. 

I believe that we are laying as good pavements in this coun- 
try (though far too few of them) as most of those in the old 
world which are so frequently cited as models for our imitation, 
but the methods in use there for keeping the pavements in good 
order are far superior to ours, if indeed we may be said to have 
any. 



THE ROAD SYSTEM OE UNION COUNTY. 



17 



It has been said that a good telford-macadam road, properly 
repaired at the proper time, would last almost forever, as the 
Avearing surface is gradually renewed while the road is in use. 
On the other hand, if the pavement consists of stone blocks, 
these must be entirely replaced at heavy cost when worn out, 
thus causing a complete blockade of the road during recon- 
struction. 

In maintaining a system of roads such as we have described, 
a regular force should be organized to do the work systemati- 
cally, removing all dirt, rubbish and droppings at frequent 
intervals of time, as these increase the wear of the pavement 
if left on the road. 










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Section showing Brick Arches. 



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feet. 



Partial Section of Bridge Work Showing Brick Arches, I Beams, 
Concrete and Asphalt. Union County Road System. 



A constant supervision should be exercised, and all ruts and 
depressions filled as soon as possible after they develop; the 
time when such work can be most effectively done being in 
damp weather and in the spring of the year. These repairs 
should not be left to ordinary laborers, but should be made by 
men trained to the work. 

All slopes -which are liable to slide and fill the gutters, 
should be protected by turfing or otherwise. And when it is 
found that the sliding is caused by springs which keep the 
bank continually wet and soft, the water may be intercepted 
by laying agricultural drain tiles under the surface of the 
slope, from the springs in the bank to the gutter of the road. 

The engineer should take especial care that the gutters are 
always kept open for the free flow of water, as great injury is 
often done to macadam roads by neglecting this precaution, 
sometimes forcing the water to run -over the pavement in the 
middle of the road. 

As the surface of the road gradually wears down, it can be 
replaced in sections, half the width at a time, in such manner 
as to interfere but verv little with the travel over the road. 



i8 THE ROAD SYSTEM OF UNION COUNTY. 

This occasional renewal, in connection with the systematic 
repairs above mentioned, will give us that indispensable re- 
quisite to progress and prosperity — a system of good roads 
which are never allowed to get out of repair. 

The amount of work which will be required to maintain any 
pavement in good order, and especially one constructed of 
macadam, depends very much upon the width of the wheel 
tires passing over it, the ordinary narrow tires tending to cut 
into the pavement and form ruts. Tires proportioned in width 
to the loads which they have to carry do excellent service as 
rollers, continually compressing the pavement, especially when 
the length of axles is varied in the different classes of vehicles ; 
where patches of road are being repaired, the consolidating 
effect of this rolling action is very valuable. 

It has been demanded by some that the use of broad tires 
should be made compulsory, but it would seem that the method 
recently adopted in New Jersey of allowing a reduction in taxes 
to the amount of fifty cents for each wheel equipped with a 
wide tire, would bring this desirable reformation about with 
the least possible opposition. 

While Union County's roads may not entitle her to the 
highest place in the scale of civilization, her fame has gone 
abroad throughout the land. Instead of her former unenviable 
notoriety of being presented by the grand jury on account of 
impassable highways. Union County is now mentioned in the 
latest geographies as being noted for her good roads. 

Being the first county to take action under the new law, she 
has been able to show, by practical results, the benefits to be 
derived from such improvements. 

It is to be hoped that these roads may soon become so com- 
mon that it will no longer be necessary to explain their con- 
struction, nor advocate their desirability ; when no road shall 
be considered worthy of the name, which is not solidly con- 
structed of stone, on which the heaviest loads may be trans- 
ported in any state of the weather and at all seasons of the 
year. 



IMPORTANT. — "Good Roads" 7aa/its the name and post office 
address {plainly written) of every civil engineer, surveyor, county officer 
and road officer in the United States. Also the names and addresses of 
prominent citizens who are interested in the movement for better roads. 
We ask each reader to aid in making up this list. Send as promptly as 
possible and specify each man's official position. 



*' Good Roads is keeping up the good work, and in its last 
number has some excellent advice and plenty of modern in- 
stances to show how roads can and cannot be preserved. " — 
Pittsburgh {Pa. ) Press. 



THE BIKTHPl.ACH OF AMERICAN ROAi:) IMI^ROVEMENT. 

( Concluded. ) 

A HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE CELHBKATHl) ROADS 
OF ESSEX COUNTY, N. J. 

7?r J Limes Owen, C. E. , Engineer in Charge. 

THERE are, I believe, eig-hteen tniles of paved streets within 
the municipality, and the Orange streets have a reputa- 
tion all over the United States. Adjoining- Orange City, 
and to the east of it, is the thriving township of East Orange 
which, commencing its improvements soon after the city of 
Orange (about 1871), has steadily improved its streets year after 
year after the same plan and system of Orange, viz., twelve-inch 
telford from curb to curb, assessed and collected in the same 
manner, till about twenty-two miles of excellent samples of road 
construction gladden the eye of the visitor to the town and give 
great consolation and comfort to the dwellers therein. East 
Orange is the beau ideal of suburban development. An unusual 
wealthy and intelligent population, with unusual ideas of proper 
development have transposed a swampy wilderness into an ex- 
quisite aggregation of fine streets, charming houses and care- 
fully nurtured gardens and lawns. 

The township of West Orange, lying to the west of tlie city, 
with its main population located on the easterly slope of the 
Orange Mountains, started about 1S72, but adopted a different 
plan of construction and a different mode of payment than its 
contemporaries in road work. Its population being more 
sparsely scattered, and its mountainous character necessitating 
steeper grades, a reduction in depth from twelve to ten inches 
was effected without detriment. The idea of road development 
mainly for travel and not for the local benefit of the property, 
necessitated the improvement only of the twenty feet in the 
centre, as in the county practice, and the cost was made a 
general tax on the township at large, instead of being placed 
on the particular property benefitted. So on this basis West 
Orange spent $250,000 to improve about ten miles of road, and 
then stopped, and from 1876 to date has built no more, and has 
merely concentrated its energies in extinguishing the debt then 
incurred, now happily nearly done. The construction of these 
roads gave a marked stimulus to the town, and the trustees of 
Llewellyn Park, feeling and appreciating the eft'orts made, supple- 
mented these efforts by improving their own roads within their 
own limits at their own expense, aft'ording an opportunity to 
the lover of nature to appreciate at all times of the year the 



:20 



A M ERICA N R OA D IMPR O VEMEN T. 




The Essex County Road System. 

View of South Oransje Avenue on Westerly Slope of First Mountain. 
A picture of a telford road surface in early Spring. From photograph. 



charms and beauties of the unknown and comparatively little 
appreciated demesne of Llewellyn Park. With an area of 700 
acres, little less than Central Park, with a combination of na- 
ture's efforts and man's direction, g-uided by the genius of Has- 
kell, Llewellyn Park affords an example of artistic develop- 
ment, hardly appreciated by any but a close student of the rural 
and picturesque. Nature seems to prevail in all its aggressive- 
ness, yet in the conflict between the persistent efforts of nature 
to create and man's aggressiveness to destroy, art in the form of 
castellated tower or Elizabethan turret raises its immortal 
structures to fill the gap that chaos might otherwise seek to 
usurp. A close student of nature, a critical student of art and 
a worshipper of the infinite may all find in Llewellyn Park 
themes for reflection, objects of consolation and subjects for 
contemplation, and probably nowhere else in such abundance. 
With the culmination of the effort of West Orange and sub- 
sequent panicky times of 1876 and 1880, road improvements in 
Essex County, wath the exception of ploughing the gutters and 
scraping them into the middle of the road, remained at a standstill 
for years, and, we may say, for many years. The cause of this 
inertia at the present time seems somewhat inexplicable, but 
from 1880 to 1885 absolutely no effort other than what has been 



AMERICAN ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 



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View of 



The Essi:x ("mix ty Road System. 
Bloomfield Avenue, Montclair, near the 
?.Ir. Seelye Benedict, From photograph. 



residence of 



described seems to have been made. About 18S5, Montclair, a 
growing commimity, began to appreciate what Orange and East 
Orange were doing and started a mild and moderate movement 
in road improvement by appropriating $5,000 for buildmg 
hard roads within its limits. Previous to this, abortive at- 
tempts had been made to try and make good roads with gravel. 
Of course, comparing the gravel with aboriginal mud it was a 
success; but comparing gravel with the roads of East Orange or 
the county road running through its main street it was a com- 
plete failure, and the people of Montclair, not wishing to play 
second fiddle to East Orange, asked their authorities to give them 
the best there was in road construction, and that at once. AVith 
that idea, $5,000 didn't go very^ far, and so the appropriation 
was increased to $15,000, and year by year, with that appro- 
priation, ]\Iontclair has been able to keep itself within the race 
for improvement, but far from being at the head. Where East 
Orange or Orange paved from curb to curb, Montclair put in a 
width of sixteen feet, instead of assessing the cost on the prop- 
erty benefitted. ]\Iontclair had an annual grab-bag, in which 
everybody strained for a slice, growled when they didn't get it. 
and chuckled when it came their way. The result, however. 
has been that Monclair has about eighteen miles of first-class, 
telford roads, that, as far as they go, will compare favorably- 



22 



AMERICAN ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 



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with the county roads and the roads of Orange 
and East Orange. The sentiment in Mont- 
clair, however, is in favor of having the best 
there is, and in the course of years, Montclair 
will have as complete a system as any of her 
neighbors. 

Bloomfield Township, adjacent to Mont- 
clair, came tagging along behind, first with 
its gravel samples that experienced the same 
fate as Montclair. Then with mild appro- 
priations for hard roads. Bloomfield, how- 
ever, differed from Montclair in the practice 
of construction, for whereas Montclair had 
decided to build telford roads eight inches 
deep, Bloomfield succumbed to the idea of 
spreading the pavement over a large area as 
thin as it could be made. The consequence 
is, that in the Spring of the year, patches 
occasionally disappear. Other stretches re- 
veal a marked tendency to turn upside down, 
and the balance develops itself into ruts deep 
but not loud. The bad effects of stretching 
appropriations and building their roads may 
be seen in all their glory in parts of Bloom- 
field. Some sections adopted the wiser 
policy of having deeper roads with corres- 
pondingly better results, and it is safe to 
predict that with the intelligence known to 
exist paramount in its influences, the errors 
of the past will be seen and a new course for 
the future adopted. Bloomfield Township 
raises now $i8,ooo per annum for road 
construction, an appropriation that is un- 
doubtedly liberal. 

The village of South Orange, about 1876, 
started a few local improvements in road con- 
struction and has been doing moderately ever 
since. Its practice, however, has been varied. 
On one part it has telfordized the streets in a 
substantial manner, in other parts it has 
merely dumped and spread broken stone 
to keep carriages and wagons from being 
mired in Winter and make the community 
bad tempered in Summer. 

South Orange township has seemingly 
brought its stone by the ton, dumped it by 
the yard and spread it by the foot, without 
any systematic effort at road construction, 
but it seems merely to have made an attempt 
to be up with the times, and have hard roads. 



AMJ'.R/CAX ROAD I M J' RO]- J'.M /■IX 'J' 



23 



and the same mic^ht be said with equal justice of Clinton 
Township. 

Mil burn Township, in its governmental capacity, has done 
little better than to buy dump and spread its broken stone 
wherever it listeth. Curiously enough, however, right in its 
midst in the picturesque regicjn of Short Hills, individual enter- 
prise has developed a complete and imiform system of road 
construction. Why the example so proper and worthy to be 
followed was not followed is one of those things which no one 

seems able to find out. 

The two rural townships 
of the county, viz., Living- 
stone and Caldwell, have sig- 
nalized their existence by 
almost absolutely no road 
improvement of their own. 
Livingstone has not a foot of 
improved road within its 
limits. Caldwell Township 
had four miles of the county 
road within its limits, and 
two years ago appropriated 
and raised $10,000 for local 
development. The effort, 
however, broke its back. A 
combination was made at the 
Spring election to spend all 
the money in one direction. 
The combination was success- 
ful and the money was so 
spent. Caldwell then split 
itself into three separate 
communities and each is now trying to work out its salvation in 
its own way with what success the future can alone determine. 
This comprises the list of municipalties in Essex County, 
with the exception of Bellville, Franklin in the north eastern 
corner of the county and the city of Newark itself. 

The townships above mentioned started on a different plan 
from the others and each bonded itself for $50,000 and improved 
the roads as far as the money would go. Bellville built almost 
all her roads of telford, with undoubted good results. Franklin 
was not so radical and stretched the roads and lessened the 
depth to make the money go farther with a corresponding in- 
crease in the repair account. The roads of both townships are, 
however, in satisfactory condition and are good specimens of 
road development at moderate cost. 

The attempts at road improvement in the city of Newark, 
outside the realms of the accepted city practice of street pave- 
ments, cannot be considered a supreme success. At the time of 




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Cross Sec:tion of Tii.e Drain, showing 

METHOD OF CONSTKUCTION FOLI.OWEH 

IN MAKING Essex County Roads. 



24 AMERICAN ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 

the first efforts of the Essex Road Board the city authorities 
started in to supplement the board work with similar accommo- 
dation in the city. Whether politics, or the weather, or a lack of 
appreciation of what was right and proper interfered, it is hard 
to give an opinion, suffice it to say that the results were not a 
success and public opinion put a veto to the city's further 
operations in that direction. The county authorities finished 
up the system in the city of Newark, and as far as macadam- 
telford pavements are concerned the city authorities take no 
further action, nor have they taken any action in twenty years. 
This probably concludes the resume of Essex County's efforts 
at road construction, and it may be in order here to allude to the 
advancement made in the art, if it may be so called, of road 
building, the natural sequence of this advancement being 
enumerated in the lowering of the price of the work and in 
the increase of ease and facility of doing it. The prices origi- 
nally paid, say about 1872, for telford pavement, was from $2.00 
to $3.25 a square yard twelve inches thick. This has been 
gradually reduced by the improvements in drilling and blast- 
ing, by increased perfection in the stone breaker, and last of all 
by increased knowledge in the laying and building the road 
itself, to an average price of $ i . 00 per Imeal foot for an eight-inch 
telford road sixteen feet wide, or 56 cents per square yard, 
which, proportioned to a depth of twelve inches, would be 84 
cents per square yard, showing a reduction in a period of twenty 
years, due to perfection in machinery and increased perfection 
of how to do the work, from $2.00 to 84 cents. The probability 
is that a further reduction in price is not to be expected and the 
prices now in vogue may be accepted as standard, subject ta 
modifications by varying local conditions. 

As almost all road work is municipal work, and as the bills 
for such work must be footed by the taxpayer, the comparative 
methods of assessing the taxpayer are interesting and instructive. 
The original Essex Road Board act provided that the cost of 
opening and widening the avenues should be assessed on the 
propert}^ the cost of construction should be paid one-half by 
the county and the other half by the city or township through 
which the road passes. The general county act now in practice 
in other counties provides that two-thirds of the cost of con- 
struction shall be placed upon the county and one-third upon 
the local municipality. The city of Orange, the township of 
West Orange and in fact the village of South Orange assessed 
the cost of the improvement on the property benefitted. The 
city of Newark does the same. The township of Bellville, 
Franklin, West Orange have bonded themselves for their roads, 
the bonds to be paid by the townships at large, and the other 
townships have done their work, whatever it may have been,, 
from their annual appropriations raised and collected each year. 



AMERICAN JWAJJ 1 M I'KOVEMENT. 



25 



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The varying- success in each community 
is due not so much to the way of raising 
the money as to the way of spending it; 
false economy being- obvious in many 
cases. 

To the people of Essex Countv it 
would seem like the repetition of a 
twice-told tale to dilate on the ad- 
vantages of good roads to any com- 
munity. To the tramp an occasional 
dinner is a subject of congratulation, 
to the epicure a dinner other than that 
suitable to his palate would be spurned ; 
so it is with roads : a road once acquired 
is an accepted fact, and the discomforts 
and weariness of former deprivations are 
forgotten and are passed into the realms 
of the past. The improvement to 
health, the accession to comfort, the 
advantage of appearance are all ac- 
knowledged facts that pass unheeded in 
the pressure of other emotions; but with 
all these comforting accessories the 
increment of the dollar hardly fails to 
excite emotion in any human breast, 
and it is interesting to give a few 
thoug-hts to the dolfar interest in road 
improvement. They cost dollars to 
improve, but they yield gratefully 
manifold dollars in their climax, and 
to that end a few figures and deductions 
may be of moment and interest. 

In looking over the valuations of the 
different municipalities of Essex County 
for the last twenty-five years, there are 
paramount issues regulating- the values 
above and beyond any local questions 
of either development and growth. 
For instance, from 1867 to 1S75 was a 
period of large increase of valuations. 
From 1S75 to 18S0 was a period of de- 
cisive shrinkage in valuations. From 
18S0 to date, there has been a steady 
increase in valuations due to a steady 
increase in population and wealth. 

As the road improvements of the 
Essex Public Road Board w^ere begun 
years before and continued throuoh 



2 6 AMERICAN ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 

the panic, no absolute information as to definite increase of 
valuations can be deduced. 

If, however, search is made for the increase of valuation 
due to local improvement of roads, strong arguments can be 
adduced in the favor of such improvement. For instance, the 
city of Orange began its road improvement in 1868, and has 
continued it up to date, and is so doing. Its valuation has 
increased from three millions in 1867 to seven and a half mill- 
ions in 1892, while South Orange, its neighbor, with only a 
moderate road improvement, has increased from one million 
eight hundred thousand, in 1870, to three millions, in 1892, and 
Clinton Township, a neighbor to South Orange, with no road 
improvements of moment, had a valuation of one million seven 
hundred thousand, in 1870, and has only a valuation of one 
million seven hundred thousand to-day. Belleville Township, 
that had a valuation in 1875 of one million three hundred 
thousand dollars, had the same valuation in 1890. After its 
system of roads had been completed, its valuation immediately 
rose to one million five hundred and eighty thousand dollars. 

The township of Franklin had a valuation in 1875, just after 
its creation, of seven hundred and sixty-five thousand dollars, 
which was reduced in 1890 to six hundred thousand dollars 
due to the abandonment of large mill properties; but after its 
system of roads was completed its valuation jumped to seven 
hundred thousand dollars. 

The township of Montclair, with a valuation in 1870 of one 
million seven hundred thousand dollars, slowly increased to two 
millions and a half from 1885 to date. It has steadily con- 
structed its system of roads, and its valuation now is over five 
million dollars. The township of West Orange that completed 
and finished its roads between 1870 and 1875, increased in val- 
uation from two million three hundred thousand in 1870 to 
three millions in 1875; in 1892 it is three millions still. The 
township of Livingstone, with absolutely no road improvement 
at all, had a valuation of five hundred and thirty-five thousand 
dollars in 1867, and had a valuation in 1892 of five hundred and 
ninet3^-five thousand dollars, practically no increase in twenty- 
five years. 

From these figures the palpable fact crops forth that com- 
munities that have steadily and persistently built roads for a 
period of years have steadily increased in valuation ; that com- 
munities that have not built roads have not increased in value ; 
that where communities built roads and stopped, the increase of 
valuation stopped when they ceased building roads, and that 
communities that had their values stationary for a period of 
years experienced an immediate increase in the construction 
and completion of their system of roads. 



AMERICAN ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 27 

The foregoing- remarks give a fair idea of the road improve- 
ments in Essex County from 1868 to date, and when it is stated 
that over 200 miles of aboriginal mud have been reclaimed for 
usefulness, and made ways of pleasantness, what there is to do 
may with Essex County be safely left to the future. The enter- 
prise and intelligence that has lifted the community so far out 
of the mire, will never allow the entertainment of the idea of 
either stoppage where they are or reversion to where they were. 
It has not been the idea of the writer of this paper to allude 
more than incidentally to the purely engineering cpiestions in 
road construction. His idea is, that that department of road 
construction should be properly left to the engineer's profession, 
for digestion, controversy and study. The main question in 
the future development of road construction of the United 
States is to educate the people into a desire to have good roads 
and a willingness to pay for them. That being assumed, no 
question will arise as to the capacity of the engineers of this 
country to do as they have done in all other branches of develop- 
ment and improvement, deliver the goods. 



IMPORTANT. — '' Good Roads'' wan/s the name and post-office 
address [plainly written) of every civil engineer, surveyor, county officer 
and road officer in the United States. Also the Jianics and addresses 
of prominent citizens who are interested in the movement for better 
roads. IVe ask each reader to aid in making up this list. Send as 
promptly as possible, and specify each man s official position. 



" I SAVE all my copies of Good Roads, and value them so 
much that I would not like to part with them. I enclose $1 
toward helping along the good work." — L. A. IF. joid, Alle- 
gheny City, Pa. 



"I ENCLOSE $2, and will send you the addresses of leading 
town and road officers residing in surrounding towns, and in 
this way will do all I can to help you. Hoping that you will 
continue to work for the good cause, I am, yours fraternally. 
Otto T. Marowsky, Wilmerding, Pa." 



" I ENCLOSE $1 to help the cause. I read my copy of Good 
Roads and send it to a friend who is interested. ' — Howard 
Drake, Easton, Pa., L. A. W. jp,264. 



" I SUBSCRIBED for GooD RoADS thrt)ugh }'()ur agent at 
Southington, .Conn., last Spring and have been very much 
interested in its teaching. What are your club rates to agents ? 
If satisfactory, I will see what I can do by way of getting sub- 
scriptions." — E. C. May, North Woodstock, Conn. 



THE ROCK-CRUSHER PLANTS OF AMERICA. 

WHERE AND HOW STONE IS PREPARED FOR MACADAM AND 

TELFORD ROADS. 

A DESCRIPTION of a model rock-crushing' plant has longf been 
promised by Good Roads to its readers, and a description of 
the splendid roads of New Jersey, where so many thousands 
of tons of this material has been used would indeed be incom- 
plete without it. New Jersey is the home of basalt, popularly 
known as trap rock. It is chiefly found in the famous Palisades, 




,_i^/jfX&MA..:.fin§. , c^:J?!^ZSfL. 



View of Portion of Quarry. 

Showing broken trap rock thrown out by blasting and car used for 
hauling to crusher. Works of New Jersey Trap Rock Company, 
vSecaucus, N. J. From photograph. 

whose majestic walls enclose the lower Hudson, and in the 
Orange Mountains, a range parallel to the first named, and 
about ten miles distant, as well as at Bound Brook, and at 
Rocky Hill, near Princeton. The Hudson River quarries are 
the oldest and best known, and their product has been used 
in building the fine boulevards in New York City and vicinity 
for a number of 5'ears ; but for the last two decades the Orange 
Mountain quarries have been used to construct the splendid 
system of stone roads in the Oranges and generally through 
Essex County. The trap rock of all parts of inland New Jer- 
sey is softer and more disintegrated than the solid clear blue 
ledge rock of the Palisades, besides being easier to break and 
consequently binding more readily in the road, though for these 



28 



30 THE ROCK-CRUSHER PLANTS OF AMERICA. 

reasons it necessarily wears out sooner. The average crushing 
strength of Hudson River trap is 20,000 lbs. per cubic inch, 
while that of the inland trap about 16,000 to 18,000 lbs. The 
plant of the New Jersey Trap Rock Company, to which 
reference is more specially made in this sketch, is situated on 
the Hackensack River, at Snake Hill, Hudson County, N. J,, 
near the Seacaucus station of the Delaware, Lackawanna and 
Western Railroad. Snake Hill is an off-shoot of the Palisade 
Mountain and is about one mile distant therefrom. The rock 
in this hill is similar to the Hudson River trap, though some- 
what harder, testing to an average crushing strength of 22,000 
lbs. per cubic inch (Fairbank's test.) The New York standard 
for Hudson River trap is 20,000 lbs. per cubic inch. Snake 
Hill varies in height from fifty to two hundred feet and the 
quarry face as now opened is about five hundred feet in length. 
The. face of a quarry should be about perpendicular in order to 
be worked economically. The rock is blasted off in "benches" 
of about fifteen feet in depth, commencing at the top of the 
hill, and in doing this holes are drilled by the most approved 
steam drills for about fifteen feet in depth, and about twenty or 
thirty feet apart, about ten to fifteen feet back from the face of 
the ledge. The holes are then loaded with dynamite or other 
powerful explosive and exploded by means of an electric bat- 
tery; this work of blasting, for reasons of safety as well as 
economy, being done during the dinner hour when the quarry 
is clear of men. The force of the explosion shatters perhaps a 
thousand or two tons of rock which is thrown out on the level 
rock base or platform at the foot of the ledge, the shattered 
pieces varying from one inch to two or three feet in largest 
diameter. Pieces under sixteen inches in diameter are ready 
for the crusher; but the larger ones are sledged by large steel 
hammers weighing about twenty lbs. each. Considerable skill 
is re'quired in this sledging, and the most competent sledgers 
get the highest wages paid in the quarry. A novice might 
hammer for an hour on a single piece of rock without success, 
while a skilled sledger would split it at a single blow. Much 
judgment is required in determining the grain of the rock and 
knowing where it is most likely to yield to the shock of a blow. 
Enough rock is blown down at a blast to furnish from three to 
six days' supply for the crusher. The rock when ready for the 
crusher is loaded into cars holding each about a cubic yard and 
running on a small track from the quarry to the crusher, the 
power being supplied by a cable and drum run by a steam en- 
gine which pulls the loaded car to the crusher and dumps its 
load by a. simple automatic arrangement into the hopper or 
mouth of the crusher. It takes less than one minute to draw 
a car up, dump it, and return it by gravity to the quarry. 



THE ROC K-C RUSHER PLANTS OF AMERICA. 31 




Ff.f-:dix(i the Crusher. 

View showinij men throwing trap rock into top of big Gates crusher 
of New Jersey Trap Rock Co. The stone is brought from the quarry in 
cars hauled on the track by cable, as shown in the picture. On reaching 
the steep incline above the crusher, the load is dumped aiUoniatically 
and falls through the opening between the tracks, dropping upon a 
rough plank "slide" along which it passes to the mouth of the crusher. 
Here it is picked up by the laborers and thrown into the crusher, whence 
it passes to screen as described in the test. 

The hopper uf a No. 6 Gates crusher can hold over a cubic 
yard of stone, and the larg'c head, gyrating- within the circular 
jaw, is set out of its centre and breaks up a cubic yard of rock 
in less than two minutes. The rock thus broken into various 



32 THE ROCK-CRUSHER PLANTS OF AMERICA. 

sizes, varying from dust up to three inches in diameter, is dis- 
charged into buckets set on an endless belt which carries the 
loaded buckets up to the top of the plant, where it is discharged 
into a steel screen in the form of a cylinder about three feet in 
diameter and fifteen feet long. This screen is set at an angle 
with the floor, being lower on the outlet end, and, as the stone 
enters the "up hill end" of the screen, the latter turns on its 
long axis and which causes the stone to descend along the in- 
terior of the" revolving surface, toward the outlet or lower end. 
The screen is composed of three sections, the first containing 
holes five-eighths of an inch in diameter; thissection allows the 
dust and fine stone less than five-eighths of an inch to go 
through its network ; the next section is composed of holes two 
inches in diameter, which drops out the inch and a half stone, 
and the third section has holes of three inches through which 
fall the two and a half inch stone. Stones larger than two and 
a half inches pass through and are called rejections or "tail- 
ings " and these are returned to a No. 4 Gates crusher situated 
conveniently near to the larger machine and are crushed again, 
after which they are passed once more through the screen which 
distributes them finally into the several bins acording to their 
sizes. As may be already inferred, there are several large 
bins into which the various sizes run, and from these bins the 
broken stone is carried by chutes into the scows ready for trans- 
portation. The capacity of the plant is about 350 cubic yards 
per day of ten hours. The former practice of setting up small 
crushers wherever there happens to be a large piece of work 
and temporarily supplying it with stone has given way to the 
modern way of producing the stone in large quantities at a few 
central and well selected places where special machinery is ar- 
ranged for the quick handling of both the large stone and the 
finished product. The stone is thus produced at lower prices 
and so conveniently that by comparison the old way is found to 
be expensive and cumbersome. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads" wants the name and post-office 
address [plainly mritteri) of every civil engineer.^ surveyor.^ county officer 
and road officer in the United States. Also the names and addresses 
of prominent citizens who are interested in the movement for better 
roads. We ask each reader to aid in making up this list. Send as 
promptly as possible and specify each man's official position. 



"I HEARTILY cndorsc Good Roads and wish I could af- 
ford to send it to about a dozen men who are writing in our 
county papers in opposition to the enclosed bill, which we have 
worked through our County Farmers Association and State Far- 
mers Association." — Wm. L. Amos, Eallston, Md. 




AT THE CROSSING. 

HE slush was deep; the mairlen i)aused 

Upon its very brink. 
It seemed to her the time had eome 

For her to stop and think. 



The leap was wide, her skirts were tight , 

She could not compass it 
She knew ; and so she promptly jjaused 

To cogitate a bit. 

She paused upon the very brink 

And poised herself in air. 
A witching beauty in distress, 

Fresh, dainty, plump and fair. 
Most anxiously she looked across 

To where — alas ! so far, 





'AL.\s! so FAR, THOUGH NEAR. 



"PAUSED UPON ITS VERY BRINK." 

Though near— she saw appn )acliing her 
The lone half-hourly car. 

Stirred by the sight, she seized her skirts 

And with a dainty grace 
She raised them modestly, while I 

Stood with averted face. 
She started, just as if to jump. 

Then paused upon the brink. 
Apparently, as if she felt 

It time again to think. 



AT THE CROSSING. 



The ear bore down, the driver stojjped, 

But still with skirts in air 
She stood, a picture of distress 

And hesitant despair. 
The slush and water were so deep, 

The puddle was so wide. 
She didn't see how she could reach 

The car beyond the tide. 




"a picture of distress and 
hesitant despair." 



And so she paused and poised herself 
Upon the brink. Meanwhile 

The driver of the car looked on 
With an indulgent smile. 

And then he started, with this 
Remark to flood her cup : 

"Just wait there long enough, niiss,and 

The sun will dry it up." 

—SehuhuL 




'SHE SEIZED HER SKIRTS." 




JUST WAIT THERE LONG ENOUGH. MISS, 
AND THE SUN WILL DRV IT UP." 



TO MY FELLOW-MEMBERS OF THE L. A. W. 




>iie)nbers are all conviucfd 

of Good Roads sent to 

tliat Nifj/iber to extend the 



Let us consider a 



For fifteen months we have 
been collecting' the names and 
addresses of thousands of road 
officers, county and town officers, 
prominent citizens, merchants, 
farmers and officers of trade- 
societies and granges in every 
state of the Union. 

These are the men who should 
read (iooD KoxDSand 7vhose support 
must be won before the public roads 
can be i//iproved. 

For fifteen months we have 
been sending Good Rciads maga- 
zine to thousands of members of 
the L. A. W. The number sent 
to League members during the 
present month will be about 
3j,ooo. 
These 
of the need of better roads and ei'ery copy 
a League nu'udwr is wasted, unless used by 
7vork. 

You and I are both League members 
proposition. 

If you will sign and send to me a postal card giving me authority 
to send your copies of Good Roads to different persons selected 
within your state (whose names and addresses I take from lists in 
this office), they will be distribtited in the best possible manner, 
without expense or trouble to you, with some possible benefit to the 
magazine and with the greatest certainty of good results for 
THE Movement. 

If you prefer to keep these magazines and are yet willing to aid 
our enlarged circulation, send me the sum of fifty cents (or any 
larger sum that you may see fit to contribute), towards subscrip- 
tions for road officers and other officials in your state. For each 
fifty cents received Gotd Roads will send the magazine for twelve 
months to road officers in the state where the contributor resides. 

I make this proposition, (i), to insure an enlarged circulation for 
Good Roads and to extend its influence ; (2), to relieve many League 
members from the expense and trouble of sending the magazine by 
mail to other persons from month to month. (The postage on each 
copy posted by subscribers will be about three cents during the 
coming year or thirty-six cents for the entire year, not counting cost 
of wrappers and time and trouble of mailing). 

We intend to place GOOD ROADS in the hands of 100,000 
READERS each month during the present year, and to print 

AND distribute THOUSANDS OF PRACTICAL PAMPHLETS ON ROAD- 
MAKING IN EVERY STATE OF THE UNION. WE WANT YOUR AID NOW. 






Fraternally yours, 

Isaac B. Potter. 









LAY 

OF 

YEAR 

184 

r86 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 

193 

195 
196 

197 

198 

199 

200 

20 I 

202 

203 

204 

205 

206 

207 

208 

209 

2 10 

2 I I 

212 

213 



DAY 


DAY 


LENGTH OF 


OF 


OF 


DAY. 


WEEK 

Sa. 


MONTH 
1 


H. M. 


15 14 


S. 


2 


15 13 


M. 


3 


15 12 


Tu. 


4 


15 II 


W. 


5 


IS 10 


Th. 


6 


15 9 


Fr. 


7 


15 8 


Sa. 


8 


15 6 


S. 


9 


15 6 


M. 


10 


15 5 


Tu. 


II 


IS 3 


W. 


12 


15 2 


rh. 


13 


15 


Fr. 


14 


14 59 


Sa. 


15 


14 58 


S. 


16 


14 56 


M. 


17 


14 54 


Tu. 


18 


'4 53 


W. 


19 


14 52 


Th. 


20 


14 50 


Fr. 


21 


14 48 


Sa. 


22 


14 46 


S. 


23 


14 45 


M. 


24 


14 43 


Tu. 


25 


14 41 


W. 


26 


14 39 


Th. 


27 


14 37 


Fr. 


28 


14 35 


Sa. 


29 


14 32 


S. 


30 


14 30 


M. 


31 


14 28 



SEVENTH :: :: JUlV ♦ 1 8Q3 =• " MONTH 

Battle of &ett7sl)urg, 1863, It was a liot day in various ways, 

Lay In your stock ot Din-wlieels (Get 'ei wltli wide tires) 

Join tlie League ; You'll Mye anotlier reason to celeMe. 

Sliowery. Slioot your lianger ; raise Cain and 

Read tlie Declaration of Independence. It will 

lalie you Mow wMt you're here for. 

Dry and liot. Work out your road tax ; but 

Don't work too Mrd. It isn't tlie fasMon, 

Go to cliurcli. Study tlie text " Tlie fasMon of tliis world 

passetli away," Cooler. 

Jolin Quincy Adams lioru, 1767. 

Battle of Boyne, 1690 (and annually ever since). 

Rufns Clioate died, 1858. 

Very warm. Sort out your seed cucumliers. 

Legal lialf-lioliday. Take your lioarders to tie Mil game. 

Go to cliurcli. Study tlie text " Amend 

your ways and your doings." 

Papal infalliliility declared, 1870. 

Giliraltar captured, 1704, Great rock for macadam. 

Rainy. Read GOOD ROADS and send it to your neiglilior. 

Burns died, 1796, "Oli wad some power tlie giftie gie us 

To see oursels as otliers see us." 

Printing invented, 1440. Slioot more fire-crackers. 

Bolivar born, 1783 (not Patsy), 

Dog-days begin. Buy a cage for Towser's nose. 

Fulton born, 1765, Very warm, 

Narrow wbeel tires invented, B, C, 8942. Tbey've 

Made a beap ot trouble. Hot, 

Buy a bicycle and take a comfortable ride. 

Go to cburcb. Don't snore, 

Franz Liszt died, 1886. 36 



FEATURES 



X^ 



THAT IS, FEATURES OF SPECIAL MERIT ARE WHAT 
MAKE ONE BICYCLE STAND PRE-EMINENTLY ABOVE 



XX 



POSSESSES MORE OF THESE 
THAN ANY OTHER. WRITE 



FOR CATALOGUE. 



XX 




^^ 



XX 



XX 



■pflg .,.,.,.,l,lllllllllllllk 

McIntosh=Huntington Co. 

Olholesale HafdmaPe ^^ Bieyeles 

CLEVELAND, O. 



BIGELOW & DOWSE, Boston, Mass. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR THE SUNOL 
IN NEW ENGLAND 



THE KING BRIDGE CO., 



BRIDGES. 



CIiEVEItflJll), OHIO. 



VIADUCTS. 



IRON AND STEEL EYE BARS, GIRDERS AND STRUCTURAL WORK FOR BUILDINGS. 

PLANS. ESTIMATES AND SURVEYS FREE OF COST. 



/ 




BRIDGE OVER THE OHIO RIVER. BETWEEN CINCINNATI, O., AND NEWPORT, KYj 
Designed and Built by THE KING BRIDGE CO. * 

•r Caktilbysk Channel Spah, ^m Pxst. TvvaIi X^motm or B&moB, a»i4 






D£scRiPT) ve 



CiiRCi J 



Hot"a necessity ifYou ak£ in TH^ KA81T 
YoJ SHOULD SeHd feR A 

' i(»o Fifth Rve., N^wYoRKCirv 





«W. S. BULL 



B. D. HARRIS 



Buffalo Cycle Works 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

High Grade 
Bicycles : : 

The "BUFFALO" Racer 
Scorcher and Light Roadster 



Pneumatic Sulky Wheels a Specialty 

OFFICE AND WORKS 

Kensington, '♦ Erie " R. R. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

H. C. MARTIN & CO. 

CONTROLLING ENTIRE OUTPUT FOR '93 

588 Hain Street, = - BUFFALO, N. Y. 



l.EGISTESED 

Model A, HUSTLER, for 

fast work, actual weight, 
25 27 and 29 lbs. 

Model B, Roadster for hard 
riders, actual weight 35 lbs. 

Model C, Roadster for ladies, 
heavy riders, act'l weight, 
85 lbs. 

Model D, Roadster comb'n 
for general use, actual 
weight, 40 lbs. 

Model E, Special 
FEATHERWEIGHT, 
ladies', actual weight, 25, 
27 and 29 lbs. 

Model F, Tricycle for either 
sex. 

Our experience covers 
©uarter of a Centura 

devoted entirely to cycle 
construction and tells a tale. 
We commenced with the 
wooden Velocipede in Eng- 
land. Afterwards built and 
used on the roads nearly 
twenty years since, inch 
ordinarys, weighing but 27 
and 28 pounds, naturally 
placing us in a position to 
give to the American riders 
»- ■ ,^ in 1884 the first Tandem to 
^^(^^^ carry lady and gentleman 
^ and in 1886 the First and 
only praotleal Lady's 
Bicycle, which was a 
DA RT weighing only 32 lbs. 

DARTS and LIGHTWEIGHTS are SYNONYMOUS. 

SMITII WHEEI^ MFG. CO. 

42-50 ^W. 67tli St., New York 
921 H Street, X. W. Virasbingtoii, D. C. 

Ai^ents need them to complete any line. Send for lists. 




GOOD ROADS EVERYWHERE 
■ ■ FREE OF COST .. • 

to Riders of Featherweight Helical Tube Premiers. These Roads involve 
no legislation, taxes, contracts, malaria or convict labor. If they need repair, 
which is seldom, you can do it yourself. And we will guarantee them to 
enable you to ride a 25-pound Helical Premier anywhere, with safety, ease 
and speed. Send two 2-cent stamps for 5 photographs of Helical Tubing 
and Good Roads 

PREMIER CYCLE CO., NEW YORK 




The folly of reckless driving seems never 
to be fully impressed upon a municipal com- 
munity until the city hospitals are half 
filled with suffering victims who have in- 
nocently attempted to-cross the path of some 
flying streak of humanity who pumps his 
pedals or whacks his nag at break-neck 
speed along a quiet thoroughfare. In the 
cities of New York and Brooklyn this 
nuisance has lately become so conspicuous 
as to excite public indignation and impel 
the enforcement of an ordinance which has 
hitherto been substantially ignored. On 
Eighth Avenue, and along the "Western 
Boulevard, in New York, many serious acci- 
dents have occurred within the last month 
due to reckless riding by hoodlum wheel- 
men, who rent their wheels for an hour's 
ride and then go rushing up and down the 
avenue as if bent on the impossible task of 
making a hot axle by a vigorous turning of 
the wheels. 



Ix Brooklyn, and especially along the 
Ocean Boulevard, a beautiful driveway, 
designed primarily as a popular thorough- 
fare for all riders and drivers, the number 
of four minute nags has so increased and 
the passion for racing has so transformed 
this beautiful avenue from the use for which 
it was properly and originally intended, that 
it is largely avoided by people of quiet 
tastes and has become a sort of aldermanic 
race course. If the arrests that have been 
recently made in both these cities do not 
tend to abate this nuisance of fast riding, a 
new law and a more vigorous remedy will 
be quite in order. 



One of the most useful handbooks on road 
improvement that has been issued for many 
years is included in a public document 
issued in pamphlet form by the North 
Carolina Geological Survey under the 
direction of J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 



andknown as " Bulletin Number 4." While 
it contains matter which is specially related 
to the geological conditifHis found in North 
Carolina, it has much good reading upon 
the general subject of improved roads, 
besides being copiously illustrated through- 
out. Mr. Holmes is to be congratulated 
upon the excellent character of his work. 



TirE road manual oE the State of New 
York, provided for by recent act of the 
legislature, and now in coiu'se of completion 
by 1 lo.i. N. G. Spalding, will be issued with- 
in the next sixty days. The work will con- 
tain the road laws of the state, besides a 
general treatise on the practical methods of 
road makinir and will be fuUv illustrated. 



The next number of Good Ro..\ds will be 
an Iowa edition. It will contain articles by 
Governor B-iies, Ex-Governor Larrabee, 
Hon. E. H. Thayer, President of the Iowa 
State Road Improvement Association; Col. 
Thomas F. Cooke, Chairman of the Road 
Improvement Committee of the Iowa Divis- 
ion, L. A. W., a'ld other prominent citizens 
of that state. The illustrations, as well as 
the text, will fittingly represent the condition 
of the Iowa roads, and pertinent suggestions 
will be set f irth for the improvement of 
Iowa laws and Iowa methods of road making. 



A RECENT number of Bradstreef s con. 
tainsam.ist exhaustive and valuable con- 
tribution to the good roads literature of the 
countrv, and one which speaks volumes for 
the practical and comprehensive methods of 
i'.s brainy editor, Mr. Albert C. Stevens. 
Looking at the questitju from the commercial 
standpoint, j\Ir. Stevens sent a large number 
of letters of inquiry to reliable citizens 
resi lingm the important towns of the Union 
in which information was asked for, concern- 
ing the condition of the surrounding roads 
and the effect of bad roads upon trade, 
banking, land values, etc. The replies to 
these qaesiions have been collected and 
arranged in most admirable form and, as 
publish:?d in Bradstreef s, they tell a most 
convincing story in favor of better roads. 
It is altogether doubtful if any man or any 
journal has done more for the improvement 
of American roads than that of which Mr. 
Steven's pen gives evidence through the 
columns of Bradstreef s. 37 



UERIES 



%'. 



m 



\^' 



// -y-C >B, ^^ 



N3WEf^ 



" F. S." (Akron, Ohio).— It would be im- 
proper to attempt to answer your question 
in this department. You had better write 
to the manufacturer. 



" V. T. " (Middletown, Conn.)— Write to the 
Secretary of State at Albany, N. Y. , and 
state your wants to him. 



"Horseman" (Los Angeles, Cal.) — A port- 
able engine, suitable for driving a stone 
crusher, can be had for almost any price 
ranging from eight hundred dollars upwards. 
It will be better to get an engine having 
power somewhat greater than that actually 
required to run your crusher and you will 
find this to be true economy. 



" M. M." (Wilmington, Del.) — A good 
draught horse weighing, say twelve hundred 
pounds, will exert, on an average, a draught 
or pull of one hundred pounds at a speed of 
twoandahalf miles per hour, or an equivalent 
of 13,200,000 foot jjounds per day of ten 
hours; the road being smooth and level. 
The tractive power increases verj^ rapidly 
with every increase of speed. 



' ' R AMBLER"(Tallahassee, Fla. ) — The manu- 
facture of artificial stone has attained much 
perfection, and we regard this material as 
equal to any known substance for the mak- 
ing of sidewalks. It can be seen in any of 
our large cities and gives much satisfaction 
wherever used. 



"X. C."(Fordham,N.Y.)— Portland cement 
proper is not an American product, but is 
manufactured abroad by various firms and 
imported into the United States in large 
quantities. It is generally required by spec- 
ifications for first-class and important works,' 
but offers no considerable advantage over 
the domestic product in the construction of 
common masonry, concrete, etc. 



, "H. R. B." (Sandusky, Ohio).— The sample 
you sent is not a limestone in the sense 



that it could be employed in the making of 
quick -lime. It appears to be a hard dolo- 
mite, and the amount of limestone it con- 
tains will not materially affect its quality as 
a road metaling stone in macadam a-nd tel- 
ford construction. We should say it is well 
adapted for that purpose. 



" Founder" (Brooklyn, N. Y.) — Your city 
has something over 280 miles of cobble- 
stone pavements according to latest reports 
received at this office. 



" F. R." (Bridgeport, Conn.) — The number 
of cubic yards of broken stone which each 
mile of roadway will require, as per widths 
stated in your question, would be as follows: 
If the depth of stone is four inches, an eight- 
foot roadway would require 645 yards per 
mile ; a twelve-foot roadway, 968 yards and 
a sixteen-foot roadway, 1,290 yards. If the 
depth of the stone in the roadway is to be 
six inches, an eight-foot roadway Avill re- 
quire 968 yards ; a twelve-foot roadway, 
1,452 yards and a sixteen-foot roadway, 1,935 
yards. 



"F. T. S." (Plattsburgh, N. Y.)— Mr. Os- 
trom's article on highway bridges will run 
through several numbers of Good Roads, 
and will probably be published in pamphlet 
form, with some possible revision. No 
price has been fixed for this article in separ- 
ate form, but due announcement will be 
made on this point when the time of pub- 
licatisn is decided upon. 



"Breaker" (Wilkesbarre, Pa.) — i. The 
Gospel of Good Roads is out of print, all 
former editions having been exhausted. It 
has not been decided whether a new edition 
will appear. 2. Rev. Louis A. Pope, whose 
article on convict labor appeared recently in 
Good Roads, is a brother of Col. Albert A. 
Pope. 38 



TO MY FELLOW-MEMBERS OF THE L. A. W. 




For fifteen months we have 
been collecting the names and 
addresses of thousands of road 
officers, county and town officers, 
prominent citizens, merchants, 
farmers and officers of trade- 
societies and granges in every 
state of the Union. 

Thrse are the men luJw sJwiiId 
read Good Roai)S<^?//c/ whose support 
must he won he/ore the public roads 
can I'c improved. 

For fifteen months we have 
been sending Good Roads maga- 
zine to thousands of members of 
the L. A. W. The number sent 
to League members during the 
present month will be aboiit 
35,000. 

P'hese members are all convinced 
of the need of better roads and every copy of Good R(jads sent to 
a League member is wasted, unless used by that member to extend the 
work. 

You and I are both League members. Let us consider a 
proposition. 

If you will sign and send to me a postal card giving me authority 
to send your copies of Good Roads to different persons selected 
within your state (whose names and addresses I take from lists in 
this office), they will be distributed in the best possible manner, 
without e:xpense or trouble to yovi, with some possible benefit to the 
magazine and with the greatest certainty of good results for 

THE MOVEMENT. 

If you prefer to keep these magazines and are yet willing to aid 
our enlarged circulation, send me the sum of fifty cents (or any 
larger sura that you may see fit to contribute), towards subscrip- 
tions for road officers and other officials in your state. For each 
fifty cents received Good Roads ivill send the vuigazine for twelve 
tnojiths to road officers in the state where the contributor resides. 

I make this proposition, (i), to insure an enlarged circulation for 
Good Roads and to extend its influence ; (2), to relieve many Leagne 
members from the expense and trouble of sending the magazine by 
mail to other persons from month to month. (The postage on each 
copy posted by subscribers will be about three cents during the 
coming year or thirty-six cents for the entire year, not counting cost 
of wrappers and time and trouble of mailing). 

We intend to place GOOD ROADS in the hands of 100,000 
READERS EACH month during the present year, and to print 

and distribute thousands of PRACTICAL PAMPHLETS ON ROAD- 
MAKING IN EVERY STATE OF THE UNION. WE WANT YOUR AID NOW. 

To Tfvu^ /L^«-«.< t^ ff^^ ^^ fi«..A€'^ ^-/^ ^1^ "t^iid^ Fratcmallv vours 
-W. ^ ^ 'r;:£::i«: /^t^rr/ SL- Jt^^^ Isaac B. Potter. 







DAY 

OF 

YEAR 

214 
216 

2 I 7 
218 
219 
220 
22 I 
222 
223 
224 
225 
226 
227 
228 
229 



230 



232 

234 

235 
236 

237 

238 

239 
240 
241 
242 

243 
244 



DAY 


DAY 


LENGTH OF 


OF 


OF 


DAY. 


WEEK 

Tu. 


MONTH 
1 


H, M. 


14 26 


)N. 


2 


14 24 


Th. 


3 


14 22 


Fr. 


4 


14 20 


Sa. 


5 


14 17 


S. 


6 


14 15 


M. 


7 


14 13 


Tu. 


8 


14 10 


W. 


9 


14 8 


Th. 


10 


14 6 


Fr. 


II 


14 3 


Sa. 


12 


14 I 


S. 


13 


13 58 


M. 


14 


13 55 


Tu. 


15 


13 53 


W. 


16 


13 50 


Th. 


17 


13 48 


Fr. 


18 


13 45 


Sa. 


19 


^3 43 


S. 


20 


13 40 


M. 


21 


13 38 


Tu. 


22 


13 35 


W. 


23 


13 3^ 


Th. 


24 


13 30 


Fr. 


25 


13 27 


Sa. 


26 


13 24 


S. 


27 


13 21 


M. 


28 


13 18 


Tu. 


29 


13 15 


W. 


30 


13 13 


Th. 


31 


13 10 



EIGHTH :: :: j^U(^U5t . 1893 



MONTH 



Picnic season. Don't mix your ice creai and ciicnmliers, 

NaDolson made Consul, 1802. We lionor liim for tlie roads lie made. 

Colnmlins sailed, 1492. Our Dolicenien canie later. 

Hot. Giliraltar taken, 1704. Twas a great swipe of road material. 

First Latin Bilile printed, 1462. Sliowery. 

Atlantic Calile laid, 1866. Ditto eggs. 

Steam Road Roller invented, 18—; it wonld lie clieap 

at twice the cost, Riots in Kilkenny, 1858. Passing strange. 

First Steamlioat on tlie Seine, 1803, 

Very warm. Take it easy. 

Rain. Count your cMckius; tlieyll all lie at lome, 

Town paper out to-day. Don't send $2,50 to tlie man 

wlio advertises gold watclies. He is very Md, 

Printing Invented, 1437. Very warm. Tramps aliound. 

den. HuH surrendered. 1812. 

Ben. Jonson died, 1637. 

17,000 farmers lost in Iowa mud. 1891. 

Some of 'em were dug out and resuscitated. 

Guerriere captured, 1812. 

Beni. Harrison liorn, 1833. 

WasHay. Put tlie tnli on the sliady side of Hie house. 

Clear the way to the ice house and 

put a ventHator in your hat. Fierce weather. 

Bw look out for thunder storms, 

Cannon first used, 1346. They didn't know it was August, 

Battle ol Dresden. 1813. Send GOOD ROADS to your path-master, 

Sunday. Give the minister a vacation. 

Great Britain aholished slavery, 1833, 

Showery. Norway and Denmark reunited, 1450. 

Second Battle ot BuH Run, 1862. 

John Bunyan died, 1688. The slough remains. 




PIT0R§lABl^ 




On one point at least our good friends in 
Iowa who have contributed to this number 
of Good Roads are substantially agreed. 
They assert with one accord that no matter 
in what direction the work of improvement 
may take itself, the first essential require- 
ment in the betterment of Iowa's public 
roads is drainage. They speak from the 
boolc of experience and their experience is 
like that of every American who is familiar 
with the general condition of American 
country roads. But there is an exasper- 
ating stickiness about the black mud of the 
Iowa prairie that makes it peculiarly hateful 
to the farmer and hurtful to his business. 
Mud is the simple product of earth and 
water. The dirt remains; the water comes 
and goes. Its coming cannot be prevented 
and the one way out of the difficulty is to 
hasten its going as rapidly as possible. By 
no other means can a dirt road be made pas- 
sable or a macadam road be made perma- 
nent in Iowa, tlian by drying out this 
moisture from the soil within a reasonable 
time after its fall. The solution of this 
problem is happily one that involves no 
great expense if gone about in an intelligent 
way. Iowa supplies an endless quantity of 
clay suitable for making drain tile and there 
is no good reason why the people of that 
state should not produce drain tile as 
cheaply as it can be had any wliere else in the 
world. In adopting a system of drainage 
for the public roads of Iowa, the first thing 
to be feared is the tendency of separate 
towns and counties to work independently 
of each other and to conduct tlieir plans for 
drainage in such a way as to destroy all 
connection and all harmony of action as be- 
tween the separate communities. How can 
this best be avoided ? 

While waiting for a better suggestion, 
Good Roaus ventures the following: 

I. That a line of levels be run over the 
centre line of each important country road 
in the state, its elevation carefully noted at 
regular intervals, and bench marks estab- 
lished at convenient places along these 



highways. These levels should refer to 
the same datum plane which, for con- 
venience, should be the level of the sea. 
By this means the relative heights of the 
different main roads, and of all separate 
portions of the main roads throughout the 
state can be ascertained and recorded with- 
out great trouble. An engineer in each 
county can take care of the work within the 
limits of that county at a moderate expense ; 
it being possible in most parts of the state 
for an engineer to take levels on from six 
to ten miles of road in a single day. These 
levels can be approximately checked as 
the work proceeds by reference to the bench 
marks of the various railroad companies 
employed in the construction of the rail- 
roads. The levels, once established, would 
give a very clear idea of the topography of 
the road system of the state, and would in- 
dicate how the roads of a given section 
might best be drained, and in what manner 
the different drainage areas should be con- 
nected, if at all. They would also supply 
reliable data from which to determine sizes 
of pipes and tile to be used, direction of 
grades and other problems which arise in 
providing for the drainage of any extended 
territory. 

2. A Ime of drain tile should be laid down 
(generally in the centre) in every important 
highway. . It should have an inner diameter 
of not less than six inches; not that a 
diameter of six inches is necessary to carry 
the drainage water, but because the six 
inch pipe is less likely to become clogged, 
and because it permits the entrance of warm 
air in the spring and hastens the thawing of 
the frost and the drying of the soil beneath 
it, 

Iowa has a State Road Improvement As- 
sociation which includes within its member- 
ship many able and influential citizens. 

The state has also a Society of Civil En- 
gineers and Surveyors whose practical 
knowledge on the points suggested will en- 
able them to supply many excellent sugges- 
tions. 




G^*o(r""^^ftsJ*^ 



NjWEf^ 



" A. J." (Canton, Ohio). — For the purpose of 
the rough estimate you propose, it will not 
be necessary to make an accurate measure- 
ment of the distance. You can ascertain 
the distance approximately by walking over 
the proposed line at a uniform rate of speed 
and counting 3'our steps. Do not attempt 
to make each step three feet in length, but 
assume your natural style of walking and 
count the steps, as you proceed, recording 
each one hundred or each one thousand as 
you go along. Then by means of a chain 
or other accurate measure, lay off say five 
hundred feet in a straight line, and walk over 
this in your natural manner, counting the 
steps as you go along. Then five hundred 
divided by the number of your steps taken 
in traveling five hundred feet will give you 
the average length of your step. Multiply 
the average length of step by the number 
of steps you have taken in going the longest 
distance, and the result will be the number 
of feet traveled. Divide this number by 
5,280 and the quotient will represent the 
distance in miles and fractions of a mile. 



on receipt of your full name and address. 
It is too voluminous to be inserted here. 



" M. MoREY " (Covington, Ky.) — To find the 
weight of a grindstone square the diameter 
(in inches), multiply by the thickness (in 
inches), then multiply by decimal .06363. 
For example: If your grindstone is four 
feet (48 inches) in diameter, and six inches 
thick, you square forty-eight and obtain 
2,304 as a product. Multiply this sum by 
six (the thickness of the stone) and obtain 
13,824 as a second product. Multiply this 
product by .06363 and obtain 879.62 pounds, 
the weight of the stone. This result is of 
course not exact in all cases, since grind- 
stones vary in weight according to the 
quality and texture of the stone, but the re- 
sult is sufficidntlycloseforpractical purposes. 



"R. M." (Rome, N. Y.)— There is no 
ready way of distinguishing the difference 
between a macadam and telford road from 
a mere inspection of the surface, as the 
tipper or finishing layers of both these kinds 
of roadway are made with the same ma- 
terial and generally in the same manner, 
and therefore present substantially the same 
appearance. The main difference lies in 
the construction of the bottom la^^er. Read 
article " Macadam and Telford Roads" ap- 
pearing from time to time in the pages of 
this magazine. 



"vSvlvester" (Nashville, Tenn.) — Back 
numbers of Good Roads will be supplied 
at 20 cents each and bound volumes at $1.00 
each. Each bound volume contains six 
numbers of the magazine. 



"G. S. R." (Duluth, Minn.)— Charcoal 
roads have been built cheaply and success- 
fully in timber countries where other material 
is scarce and are said to be durable, free 
from dust and mud and to offer a surface of 
good tractive qualities to passing vehicles. 
The timber is cut and laid in single pile, 
lengthwise along the centre of the roadway, 
the highest point of the pile being at the 
centre and about six feet high above the 
ground. Sods are cut along the two sides 
of the roadway, being taken out in such 
manner as to form two drainage ditches. 
The sod is carefully laid on the wood so as 
to cover it and the wood is then burned to 
a charcoal condition in the same manner 
that charcoal is burned for commercial pur- 
poses. When properly charred the piles are 
leveled off to answer the form of the pro- 
posed roadway and then opened to trafific. 



"X." (Hagerstown, Md.) — The exact in- 
formation you seek is included in dealers' 
catalogues, of which we will send you copy 



"H. L. W." (Trenton, N. J.)— You can 
]3robably obtain a pamphlet copy of the New 
Jersey road law by applying to the Secretary 
of State in voiu" citv. 



RECENT PATENTS. 

In this department >ve shall print from time to time brief descriptive notes of 
recent patented inventions relating- to roads, streets, drainage, bridges and ivheeled 
vehicles. 




MACHINE FOR MAKIXG AXD REPAIRIXC; ROADS. 
Morton G. Bunnell, Chicasro, 111., assignor to Frederick 
C. Austin, same place. Tlie combination of the stop on the 
shitting rear axle with the cross-bar engaged by said stop. 




GUTTER-TILE. GEORnE A. BEDfioOD, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
assignor of one-half to James C. Mullen, same place. Tlie 
process of making gutter-tiles and other conduits, which 
process consists in adding salt to the mass, and when the 
latter is dried, saturating it with crude petroleum. 




B RIDGE. Joseph W. Balkt, Patentee, Kew York, N. Y. 
In a suspension bridge a cautalever t;irder to siiifen the 
road'ied, towers resting upon said cantalevcrs, a suspen- 
si )n cable supported by said towers and anchored to said 
girder, suspenders between said girder and the suspension 
cable, tension cables between the towers and the canta- 
levers, i he can tale vers with the towers and also the anchor- 
ages being capable of receding from and approaching to 
each other according to changes in temperature. 




STREET-SWEEPER. Charles II. La Due, Xew York. 
N. Y. The combination, in a sweeping and sprinklintr ajv 
paratus, of a rotary broom, a receiver for the sweepinsrs. 
having perforations in its bottom, means to invert the re- 
ceiver, a bucket-frame encircling the receiver, and a valve 
f(>r closing the perforations. 




EARTH-GRADER. John Elliott, Latour Mo, An earth 
excavating and gradinir machine, comprising a suitable 
wheeled frame, a revolnble power double crank shaft geared 
to one of the wheels of the fra'ue, a revoluble double crauk 
shaft mounted in the rear end of the frame, a trough or 
scoop supported longitudinallv of the frame, and extend- 
ing obliquely upward and rearwardlv therein, and a pair of 
parallel bars pivotally supported by the crank-shaft sections, 
and adapted to move" successively iu the scoop. 39 




THE ELEVATOR BOY. 

An up-tc-daLe directory of all that's in the block, 
And everything that's going on, he knows it like a 

clock; 
He knows the fair typewriter girls, the blonde on 

floor eleven, 
The red haired one who works on four, the brown 

eyed one on seven. 
He knows that Jenkins comes at eight and Johnson 

goes at ten. 
Of everything and every one he knows the why 

and when, 
If 3-ou've detective work to do 'twould pa)' you to 

employ 
That knowing individual — the elevator boy. 

He's somewhat hidden from the world, its favors 
and its frowns. 

Although he's where he ever sees a lot of ups and 
downs. 

From early morn till late at night he's always on 
the wing. 

Shut in his little iron cage, suspended by a string, 

And nothing pleases him so much as now and then 
to get 

A fifteen minutes lay-off while he smokes a cigar- 
ette; 

For just such simple things as that are oases of joy 

That glad the desert duty of the elevator boy. 

It tickles him tremendously to get somebody in 

Whose nerves are very sensitive, and then just 
let 'er spin. 

And every time he has to stop, by some peculiar 
quirk. 

Produce " that tired feeling " by a sort of seasick 
jerk ; 

But, notwithstanding all his tricks, there's no one 
else 5'ou'll find, 

Who does one-half as much as he to elevate man- 
kind ; 

And when we think how much there is his patience 
to annoy. 

We quite forgive the antics of the elevator boy. 



A JUVENILE EDISON. 

Mrs. Wayback — That weather vane that 
peddler sold you ain't worth shucks. It 
don't point toward the wind at all. It points 
just the other way. 

]\Ir. Wayback — By jinks, that's so. Th' 
wind is from the South, and that tin rooster 
points North, sure as guns. 

Little Son — I'll tell you how to fix it, pop. 
Take it down and cut it into the shape of a 
cow. Cows always turn tail to the wind. 
— Good News. 



BOUND TO PLEASE. 

Stage Manager — Mr. Heavy, you will take 
the part of ^{lonzo. 

Mr. Heavy — I have never seen this play. 
Do you think I can please the audience in 
that part ? 

Stage Manager — Immensely. You die in 
the first act.— iV. Y. Weekly. 



THE CITY GOVERNMENT'S CRITERION. 

Citizen — The streets of New York are in 
a disgraceful condition. 

Official— Tut! Tut! They are nahthin' 
teh the bog roads of Oireland. — Puck. 



NO GOOD. 

First Colored Gamester — I've got free 
kings. 

Second Ditto — Dey's no good. 

" Watcher got?" 

" A razor." — Binghaniloji Leader. 



FOREIGN TRAVEL IMPROVES. 

Successful Farmer — Son George got some 
sense durin' that foreign tour anyhow. 

Wife — I hain't seen it. 

"I have. You know he spent a good 
while in Lunnon, as he calls it?" 

"Yes, an I'd like to know what good it 
did." 

" Use y'r eyes, Miranda. He learned to 
turn up his pants w'en it rains." — Neiu 
York Weekly. 



INFORMATION WANTED. 
Mrs. Gay — Mary, did I see you kissing 
my husband this morning? 

Mary — At what time? — Boston Budget. 



DANGEROUS ECONOMY. 

Ipstein (on the 13th flight) — Vy you skib 
efery steb, mine son?" 

Mine Son — So I not wear my shoes out, 
fadder. 

Ipstein — Vatch oud you don'd splid your 
pants. — Puck. 



Good Roads 



Vol. 4. 



Aufifust, 1893. 



Xo. 2. 




Hon. Horace Boies, Governor of Iowa. 



PUBLIC ROADS IN IOWA. 



Bv Hon. Harare' Boies. Gove 



nior. 



THE common roads of Iowa are excellent in perfect weather. 
In bad weather they are about as bad as can be found 
anywhere. This is the price we pay for a soil of unsur- 
passed fertility. 

Nature gave us the soil. ]\Iay we also have g-ood roads at 
all times? If we had unlimited means the question could be 
easily answered. 

Money in sufficient quantity, judiciously expended, would 
make good roads in almost any country, especially so in this where 
grades are usually easy. But we have not the monev with 
which to build good roads everywhere. 



42 



PUBLIC ROADS IN IOWA. 




An Iowa Road in Spring. 
"This is the price we pay for a soil of unsurpassed fertility." 



Compared with the number of our people and their abiHty 
to pay taxes we have a very large mileage of public highways, 
no part of which can be entirely neglected, and our road taxes 
collected and expended as they heretofore have been are barely 
sufficient to keep most of these highways which must be used, 
in a passable condition. 

It is doubtful whether our people are yet ready to submit to 
additional burdens in the shape of highway taxes. What then 
can be done ? 

This is the practical question. 

All will concede that if our road taxes were paid in money, 
and judiciously expended under the direction of experts skilled 
in the art of making roads, much more could be accomplished 
than is now done ; but it is doubtful whether there would 
be general assent to a plan which would require the payment 
of all road taxes in money. 

Still it is apparent that any system which will result in the 
permanent improvement of our highways absolutely requires a 
cash fund with which to begin, and the oversight of persons 
skilled in the art of making roads. Such persons cannot usually 
be found within the road districts, and if found could not afford 
to spend their time for the compensation allowed a road super- 
visor. But upon smooth dry land, devoid of engineering 



PUBLIC ROADS IX JOWA. 43 

difficulties of all kinds, anyone can construct a highway that 
will be reasonably passable at any season of the year, and this 
part of the work, covering' much the greater part of the mileage, 
could, in my judgment, be left in charge of local supervisors 
and worked oiit as is now done. 

It is perhaps reasonable to assume that this would absorb 
one-half of the road taxes now levied, and this share could be 
paid in work if so desired. The remainder of the road tax and 
all of the bridge tax, if we are to improve upon our present S3'stem, 
must be paid in cash with the Spring installment of taxes. This 
would supply a cash fund, the first essential to a change in our 
system. 

Then, in every county at least, a competent engineer would 
be required to formulate plans for the construction of roads at 
all points of dif^culty, and this work, in my judgment, should 
be let to the lowest bidder for cash, his pay to depend upon the 
certificate of the engineer that he had completed the work 
according to the plan submitted. 

The first object to be attained in the construction of our 
highways is a foundation as nearly perfect as practicable. To 
accomplish this in bad places will require an extensive and 
sometimes complicated system of drainage. None but compe- 
tent engineers can prepare the plans for this, and it will be 
necessary to confer on the counties or road districts the power 
of eminent domain so that adjoining lands may be condemned 
to enable the district to perfect these system.s of drainage. 

All bridges should be built under the supervision of the en- 
gineer, and all money collected for road taxes should be 
expended in the district in which if is collected. 

In this way we could at once begin the proper construction 
of a permanent foundation for our wagon roads, which would, in 
my judgment, without additional expense, save the salary of an 
engineer, greatly improve the present condition of our high- 
ways and at the same time prepare them for gravel or macadam 
when the coimtry is old enough and rich enotigh to complete 
the work of converting them into perfect roads. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads'' wants the name and post-oj^ce 
address [plainly written) of every civil engineer., surveyor, county ojficer 
a-nd road officer in the United States. Also the names and addresses 
of prominent citizens w/io are interested in^ the movement for better 
roads. We ask each reader to aid in mahing up this list. Send as 
promptly as possible and specif y each man's official position. 



" Your magazine is doing a 'power of good,' and as an en- 
gineer, I wish every property owner in our county would read 
it." — R. A. Blandford^ Supervisin;^ P/iginccr^ Sa7'a////ah., Ga. 



WE CANNOT AFFORD NOT TO. 



Br Hon. l^^illiaiii Larrahcc, Ex-Governor of Iowa. 

ALL agree as to the desirability of having good roads. The 
question for tis to determine is whether we can afford lo 
make the investment necessary to obtain them. At first 
thought many would say that the cost is likely to be so great 
that we cannot afford it, when, upon a careful consideration of the 
subject, the same persons will conclude that w-e cannot afford not 

to do it. An examination of the 
matter shows that we have the 
facilities and that it will be a great 
saving for us to expend the labor 
and the money necessary for this 
purpose, rather than suffer the 
heavy losses that we are compelled 
to suffer by depending upon the 
poor roads that we now use. 

If the taxpayer will compute the 
full amoimt of taxes which he now 
pays, directly traceable to bad 
roads, he will be astonished to find 
that oftentimes he pays from three 
to five, and even ten times the 
amount that he would be required 
to pay in order to secure good 
roads. There would be a great 
saving in expense of horses, har- 
ness, wagons, teamsters and, in 
time, in a thousand other ways. Producers would be en- 
abled to take advantage of a good market. It is altogether 
probable that with good roads, from $5,000,000 to $10,000,000 
would be saved annually to the farmers of Iowa in the market- 
ing of their produce. 

With well built roads, farms adjoining them would soon 
double or treble in value. This has been the case in all other 
countries where such roads have been built. 

The tendency of population is now toward the cities. With 
improved roads the reverse would be the rule, and there would 
be a flow of people to the country who would take their capital 
with them. The work of the school and the church would be more 
efficient; social intercourse would be quickened and life in 
the country would be made more cheerful and the best of re- 
sults socially, morally and economically, would follow. ^^ 




Hon. William Larrabee. 



Jf£ CANNOT AFFORD NOT TO. 45 

Nearly all of the money expended in making" good roads 
would be spent at home and many advantages would be derived 
from it. A great many farmers who do not now find full em- 
ployment could be given work. The money paid to them 
would circulate rapidly and would stimulate other industries. 

It is a penny wise and pound foolish policy for the people 
of Iowa not to make good roads. Let every community try 
the experiment of making one piece of good road, and it is 
safe to predict that the work will be continued. In all that is 
good, Iowa affords the best, and is well entitled to the best, and 
especially to the best roads. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads" ivauis the name and post-office 
address [['lainlywritten) 0/ every civil engineer, surveyor, county officer 
and road officer in the United States. Also the names and addresses 
of prominent citizens who are interested in the moventent for better 
roads. ITe ash each reader to aid in making up this list. Send as 
promptly as fossi/de, a /nl specify each man's official position. 



" The inovement for good roads is evidently gaining great 
headway. You and your colleagues are doing a grand work of 
which you may well be proud, and the whole country is tumb- 
ling to you as fast as it can. You can marshal the hosts and 
set all at work in the good cause." — A. Preston Duiilap, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



'i"> ' 



'■'Good Roads is devoted to articles and illustrations on 
roads and road making which those interested in the question 
will find entertaining and instructive reading." — Daily Ledger, 
New Albany, Ind. 



Iowa has a smaller \)ev cent, of illiteracy than any other 
state in the Union. 



Iowa is 200 miles wide by 400 miles long. There is not 
another area of equal size on the globe that has so little waste 
land, there being practically none in Iowa. 



The State of Iowa has no debt of any kind. 



The new Iowa capitol is pronounced by judges to be one of 
the finest public buildings in the United States. It was built 
at a cost of nearly $3,000,000. 



The total value of the agricultural products for Iowa for 
1S92 was $407, 2 10,467. 



HOW TO KEEP THE BOYS AND GIRLS ON THE FARM. 

"By Hon. E. H. Thayer, 

President Iowa State Road Improvement Association, and Editor of the 

"Clinton Daily Age." 

IT is not presumed that all the boys and girls raised on the 
farm will stay there during their natural lives. If there 
was the disposition to do so, the problem would be how to 
induce them to go to town and live. Farmers' sons and 
daughters have their places in making up the life, activity and 
prosperity of the cities. But the large and continuously grow- 
ing exodus from the farms works an injury to both country and 
town. When farming was the most profitable, the boys and 
girls did a fair share of the farm work. When the ambitious 
lads and lasses leave the farm for the city, their places must be 
filled with hired help, requiring quite a proportion of the 
income from the surplus crops to be paid to strangers. The 
difference between hired help and the assistance rendered by 
the members of the family represent in the average of cases the 
profitableness of farming. 

The question as to how a fair per cent, of the boys and girls 
can be made contented on the farm has been a serious one for 
years. It is growing more serious because such changes are 
contagious, spreading rapidly and usually by reason of the 
return visits of the young people to the old home on the farm, 
after becoming accustomed to city life. 

May it not be possible that Good Roads and the wheel came 
in at an opportune time when all other attempted solutions of 
the question fail to solve it, and furnish an answer worth 
testing ? 

If the boys and girls brought up on the farm can obtain all 
the pleasiires and advantages offered by the city, and at the same 
time make the farm their home, where at convenient times they 
can help do the work, would not a large portion of the discon- 
tent which pervades farm life be dissipated ? Closely investi- 
gate the prime cause which takes the young man or young 
lady from the farm, and it will be found that it is less dissatis- 
faction with farm life than the fascination of city life. 

The son is encouraged to go to town a portion of one or two 
years to take a course of study in a commercial college, or to 
attend the high school, and the daughter goes to stay tem- 
porarily to take music and drawing lessons, or to master some 
other accomplishment. They go from home, not because the 
city life is preferable, but because it is much more convenient, 

46 



To KEEP BO YS AND GIRLS ON THE FARM. 47 



^ 



%^-? 



, *f, 




^ /Nfi/^K /Vlt/: ^j 



The Iowa Farmer's Isolation. 

"The inconvenience they are put to * * leads them to adopt the 
city as their permanent residence. Scene on Iowa country road, from 
photograph taken in Spring of 1893. 



or rather, to obtain the advantages they seek, it is really essen- 
tial. The stay in the city of portions of one or two seasons 
does not so much wean them from country homes as it wonts 
them to city life. The inconvenience they are put to that they 
may frequently visit their home in the country, in and of itself 
leads them to adopt the city as their permanent residence. 
Were the conditions such that they could easily, cheaply and 
speedily run from the town to the coimtry, and from the country 
to the town, they would be able to enjoy all the comforts, pleas- 
ures and advantages of both city and country life. 

It is as much the farmer's duty, and no one is quicker to 
admit it than himself, to permit his children opportunities to 
mingle with the world, as it is to feed, clothe, shelter and ed- 
ucate them. Many do this. The majority do not. The facili- 
ties and opportunities to visit the neighboring farms, near 
and distant, and to go to town when there is something espec- 
ially attractive going on, should be made pleasant and easy. 

The great educator is human nattu'e. The leaves of that 
book open wide and broad only when people come in contact 
with one another. To seek to even half close the book in 
places where God's sunlight shines the clearest, and where the 
air of heaven is the purest, is a crime against nature. God 



48 TO KEEP BOYS AND GJKLS OK THE EARAT. 

made the country, man made the town. That human nature 
which counts the most in Hfe comes to him or her who makes 
the largest draft on the works of both God and man. Anything 
and everything the city and country can do to bring the two 
closer together should not be neglected. 

When the country is brought so near the town that the 
farmer's son and daughter can with ease and little expense 
attend the high school in the village and the evening lectures, 
concerts and such entertainments as are common in large 
towns, and which afford both instruction and amusement, and 
when they respond to invitations to parties and social gather- 
ings, and still make the farm their home, and in turn entertain 
at their country home their city associates, as well as the young 
people of the neighborhood, then will the fascinations and 
charms of the town fail to draw the boys and girls permanently 
from the farm. Some will come to town because the town 
wants them and has places for them. Some will then stay on 
the farm because the farm needs them, and because the environ- 
ments are to their liking and pleasure. 

While I do not claim that good roads such as the public 
mind is now considering, with the bicycle in general use, will 
accomplish all the grand and lasting blessings I have pictured, 
yet I believe rapid strides, each one of which will count a revel- 
ation to those who have not given these two phases of the 
subject much consideration, will be made in the right direction 
as the result of successful expertments on the line I have in- 
dicated. 

Good, permanent roads, made so as to be passable for a full 
wagon load every day in the year, would bring to the farm 
that was not more than ten or twelve miles from the market 
town, all the advantages the town offers to its own inhabitants. 
This class of roads built, the drive to town, with the excellent 
roadsters now comm.on on nearly every farm in the fairly well 
settled portions of the land, need not at the outside require 
more than an hour's time to make it. 

Now comes the objection that these frequent visits of the 
boys and girls to town — if frequent enough to bring the town 
and country closely together — would necessitate the use of the 
team when needed on the farm. Here comes in the wheel to 
solve one of the serious problems which so often vexes and 
annoys the farmer. The team can go right on with its work 
and the son or daughter can take the bicycle or safety and as 
quickly and pleasantly and less tiresomely than by any other 
conveyance make the ride to and from town. 

There is soinething exhilerating arid health -giving about a 
ride on the wheel which charms and fascinates the rider. There 
is a naturalness about the exercise which some day will give 
the wheel as enthusiastic devotees among the occupants of the 



TO KEEP BOYS AND GIRLS ON THE EARM. 49 




■ t.y-"-:. . • •■■■.' _ ^ . ■_ a:. '- : > 1 

A Di-:i,i(;ii iFUL Contrast. 

View of country road in the State of New York (between White Plains 
and Port Chester). From photograph. 

farm as are counted now among the residents of the city. The 
wheel is popular in the city not only among- the young people 
but the middle aged. It would become as popular in the 
country and serve the people as w-ell, and in fact more profit- 
ably than the people of the city, if the roads would only admit 
of its use. The good roads and the wheel would keep the 
servants on the farm by assuring them that at a slight cost 
they could make frequent visits to town, especially evenings, 
Sundays and holidays. 

The question of how to procure hired help and keep it on 
the farm is one that perplexes and harrasses the farmer at all 
seasons of the year, and especially when work is crowding. It 
is the farmer's experience that hired help must be permitted to 
make occasional visits to the village or the county seat or the 
local metropolis, or it will leave without notice. ^Vhen the 
roads are the worst or the teams the busiest the help becomes 
the most anxious to go to town. With mud roads which prevail 
the greater part of the year, one full day and oftentimes two 
are consumed in making the round trip, and the time lost by 
both man and team falls entirely iipon the farmer. With good, 
hard, permanent roads the trip could be made after supper and 
return in time for bed, with the evening spent in town. 

It is a mistaken idea that the wheel is used mainly for sport 
and pleasure and by people who desire to idle away a passing 
hour. In the city it is one of the most useful and economical 



50 TO KEEP BOYS AND GIRLS ON THE FARM. 

means of transacting" business known. As a rule it is more 
convenient, more desirable and more satisfactory than the 
telephone or street car. It is preferable to the horse and buggy 
even were the cost the same. Its advantages in the country 
would outnumber its benefits in the city, were the conditions 
for using it as practicable on the roads of the country as on the 
roads of the city. It may not plough nor will it plant, but the 
farmer knows very well and needs never to be reminded of it, 
that in these days of rapid progression it is not all of farm life 
to sow and reap. 

It must be admitted on all sides that there should be a 
closer and more intimate relationship existing between the city 
and the country. Not because the country can be benefitted 
thereby any more than the city, but because each needs the 
civilizing influences of the other. That imaginary line that 
separates the city from the country and which ofttimes assumes 
the density of the Chinese wall, should be obliterated. There 
is no place for it. If ever there was, the march of events has 
run against it and demands its removal. To-day there is a 
refinement in the country which will not lose any of its lustre 
by contact with the city. There is a culture in the city which 
can rub against the country and take on a brighter polish. 

Good roads, I believe, are bound to be the chief factor in 
taking down the fence which time and a mistaken notion of the 
most practical and natural things in life, have constructed. The 
annual saving to both producer and consumer — the amoimt of 
this saving being what is every year contributed to mud and 
which is a complete loss and of no corresponding gain to any 
one, and is a sum that the most careful calculation by the best 
posted experts on statistics must fall short of the actual figures 
— will be sufficient to remove most of the barriers which a 
century has been active in creating between the city and the 
country, and make the home on the farm as attractive and as 
desirable for the happiness, comfort and advantage of the rising 
generation as the home in the city. For a long period of years 
distance counted by the time to travel it rather than by the 
miles it measures, has made strangers where there should only 
be intimate associations. 

The rapid and convenient transit which good roads will 
insure may become the great leveler and remove all obstruc- 
tions to the view, so that city and country may so blend and 
mingle that one cannot tell where city life begins or country 
life ends. Then will the problem of how to keep the boys and 
girls on the farm be solved. 



The Iowa climate is just cold enough to insure the best de- 
velopment of her citizens. 



A QUERY AND A REMINDFR. 



'By Col. Tbos. F. Cooke, 

Chairman, Com. on Improvement of Highways, Iowa T)iviston, L. A. IV. 

ONE would infer from the trend of nearly all the articles on 
the improvement of highways, that telford or macadam 
roads are the only solution of the question. If this is a 
fact, there is a large part of Iowa which can hope for no im- 
provement for many years to come. 

The conditions here in Kossuth are typical of many 

of the prairie counties of the 
state. There is not a stone 
quarry in its territory, which 
lacks but a few square miles 
of being as large as the State 
of Rhode Island, nor have we, 
in fact, any stone, excepting 
• the few bowlders or " nigtrer 
heads " deposited here during 
the glacial epoch. These are 
worth from $9 to $io per cord 
of 128 cubic feet, delivered in 
-<^ 4^_ I ^^ X, ^^y of our towns, for building 

"^-^ purposes. The nearest quarry 
is twenty-eight miles away, in 
a direct line, and three times 
that distance by shortest rail 
route. This stone is worth $9 
per cord of 100 cubic feet, 
f. o. b. at Algona, the countv 
seat. To these prices must be 
added the cost of crushing and placing the stone where wanted. 
If the people hesitate about macadamizing in those places 
where they have abundance of good stone for almost nothing, 
are not stone roads rather out of the question for us ? 

Let us see what we do have that will make roads. We find 
the surface a rich black loam, with enough sand to make it 
warm, from six to twenty-four inches deep. Just the finest soil 
in the world for raising our great staples; but we know by long 
and sad experience that it is not an ideal road metal, when ivet. 
Next, and immediately beneath the black loam, are several 
feet of yellovV clay, with occasional pockets of gravel or sand, 
and under this, at varying depths, a thick stratum of blue clay. 
There is not enough gravel to "go around," and, so far, we have 
foimd, when tried for road purposes, it disappears in the soft 




Col. Thos. F. Cooke. 



5i 



52 



A QUERY AND A REMINDER. 




■iSf. 



■iP^ 



ein/fcx ef^.c, -^'i. (•/?(■ 



An Iowa Prairie Roao in Wet Weather. 

■'The sod is then cut through by heavy loads on narrow tires, and 
we soon have a slough of despair, instead of a road." From photograph 
taken in Spring of 1893. 

loam during a long wet period. It is universally remarked 
that our best roads, at all times, are those where the natural 
drainage is good and the soil has never been disturbed. I 
believe there is no finer road in the world than our prairie 
tracks, which have had just enough travel to roll down the 
bumps, either for wheeling, driving or traffic. The sod is 
then elastic, responds quickly to pressure, and comes the 
nearest to being a natural "pneumatic tire" of anything I 
know. But this is all changed under continued travel in 
wet weather. The sod is then cut through by heavy loads on 
narrow tires, and we soon have a slough of despair, instead of 
a road. Another thing, our roads dry up quickly under the 
combined influence of sun and winds, a single day often doing 
the work. 

I think that we are agreed that we need, first, thorough 
dramage, and perhaps of the next importance are wagons with 
wider tires and front axles shorter than the rear. No one 
denies that the latter would be a great help if all would use 
them. That is the difficulty; to make the reform so general 
that we shall have no narrow tires under loads. 

Now, what we want are some hints from men ^i'/io knotv (and 
there must be such men) as to how best to perfect our drainage ; 
how best to secure the use of wider tires, and how best to do 



A QUERY AND A REMIXDER. 



53 



other things which can be clone, under the existing circum- 
stances, to give i:s perinanent good roads, good all the year 
round, if possible. We want practical help and not theories 
and generalities that would evolve the tearing up and making 
over of all our conditions. Can and will this need be supplied ? 
That is the query. 




A Load in the Wrong Place. 

From photog:raph of a wagon wheel taken on Main Street, Bloomfield, 
Idwa, by W. J. Steckel. 



The work must all be done over to make a decent highway. 
With such object lessons before them, taxpayers may well 
hesitate before extending the system. Who can blame them 
for feeling that, except in a very wet time, they would prefer 
the natural road-bed without the macadam and its attendant 
cost, ruts and dust ? 

Practical plans must be de^*ised and put in force to main- 
tain each piece of good road that is laid down. We must make 
a business of it. Writers should give it more prominence and 
insist that when a community has made up its mind to build 
good roads, they can only make them permanent by constant 
and skillful repair of each slight defect as soon as developed. 
It is worse than Tiselcss to do one without the other. 



54 A QUERY AND A REMINDER. 

Now for the reminder. Of all the works of man, roads are 
subject to the greatest wear and tear. They have not only the 
elements but the constant and tremendous blows of loaded ve- 
hicles to contend with. They cannot viaintain themselves. 

If eternal vigilance is the price of liberty, eternal repairs 
are the price of good roads. Of nothing else is it so true that 
" a stitch in time saves nine." 

The people need as much or more education on these points 
than they do on the benefits gained by building good roads. It 
must be forced home to them, again and again, line upon line, 
and precept upon precept. 

I can show you a city in this state which a few years ago 
macadamized the main roads leading out in the country for 
some miles. To-day those roads are little else than a con- 
tinuous series of ruts, say six inches apart and from two to six 
inches deep, covered in Summer with at least two inches of fine 
dust composed of pulverized limestone and droppings. A 
driv^e over one of these roads is like encountering a sand storm 
in the desert and one emerges covered inside and out with an 
impalpable powder and looking like the fabled miller, who lived 
in the mill. It is ruinous to everything but the wayside drink- 
ing places which line the route. So much dust must needs be 
often washed down. 



IMPORTANT. — '' Good Roads" quants the Tianie and post-office 
address {plainly written) of every civil engineer, surveyor, county officer 
and road officer in the United States. Also the names and addresses of 
prominent citizens who are interested in the movement for better roads. 
We ask each reader to aid in making up this list. Send as pronptly as 
possible and specify each man's official position. 



There were 8,405 miles of railroad in the State of Iowa, 
January i, 1892. 



November i, 1892, there was 775 creameries and 109 cheese 
factories in Iowa. 



There were 160,112,931 pounds of butter produced in Iowa 
durir g the year 1892, which at twelve cents per pound would 
be worth $32,022,386. 



Iowa packers killed 695,303 hogs during 1892. 



Many of the cities and counties of Iowa have no bonded or 
floating debt. 



GERMAN HIGHWAYS. 



of the scene is also 



AN lOWAN'S OBSERVATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS. 
By Hon. Jobuson BrigJiani, 

U. S. Const'.l at <^ix la Chapellc, Gciiiiany. 

LOOKING down from the heig'hts of Lousberg, or St. vSalvator, 
upon the beautiful valley stretching far to the north and 
east of Aix la Chapelle, or from the old fortifications to 
the south and east of the city, one is strongly impressed with 
the uniformity and directness of the roadways radiating from 
the centre of trade and manufacture. The picturesqueness 

greatly enhanced by these tree-lined tho- 
roughfares. 

During the rainy season in 
Rhenish Prussia, I took many 
long walks and drives, chiefly 
walks, in various directions, 
from the city of Aix la Chapelle 
or Aachen. Wearying of in- 
door confinement, it was my 
pleasure after a long rain, to 
accept each gleam or even 
promise of sunshine, as an in- 
vitation to the country. A 
street-car ride and a few min- 
utes' walk would take me well 
out beyond the city's walls. 
With thick soled shoes or low 
rubbers, and an umbrella for an 
emergency, these pedestrian 
tours could have been extended 
indefinitely, regardless of the 
inevitable rain, without discom- 
fort, so far as the condition of 
the roadway could affect one's mental or physical state. In 
all that season of myriad showers and not a few heavy rains, 
there was never a whole day at a time when the pedestrian, the 
wheelman or the equestrian need have remained at home 
because of the condition of the roads. 

In all that time there never was a day when the thrifty 
German farmers about Aachen were prevented by bad roads 
from hauling their heavy loads of hay and straw to the citv. 
Morning after morning from my bed, well back from a second 
story window, looking out upon narrow Camphansbad Strasse, 




Hon. Johnson Bkigham. 



55 



S6 



GERMAN HIGH W A YS. 




I could see the tops of these great loads of hay and straw care- 
fully covered with canvas tied down at the corners, as the 
enormous carts rumbled along o\xr the pavement on their way 
to the hay-market, and each cart invariably drawn by only a 
single horse. 

Until I had traversed the routes taken by these vehicles, I 
could not quite comprehend how a single horse could ever 
reach the city, struggling under such a load. I then found 
upon the principal roads leading to the city the same paving 
everywhere used in Aachen, and that this pavement was com- 
posed of square blocks of sandstone wherever the roadway was 

provided for burden- 
bearing wagons. Along- 
side this paving is a well- 
macadamized carriage 
driveway, upon which 
wheelmen and pedestri- 
ans have almost as 
smooth a plane to tra- 
verse as they can find 
anywhere on the numer- 
ous promenades in the 
new portions of A i x . 
Upon the less frequented 
roads which are unpaved, 
but macadamized, the 
broad wheeled carts 
move with less difficulty than in the city. Their wide tires 
make little more impression upon the macadam than to pack it 
down more firmly. Along the sides of these roads, wherever 
there is any probability of excessive wear or of washing, small 
piles of stone are seen, awaiting the future emergency. 

The German highway is the product of centuries. The gol- 
den yellow, gray and brown soils of this region were, in their 
time, quite as impassable in the wet season as is now the rich 
black soil of Iowa. The main traveled roads are wards of the 
state and are called " Staats-Strassen. " The cross-roads and 
all others are maintained by cities and villages, and are called 
" Land-Strassen." All are thoroughly worked, the Staats- 
Strassen with as much care as are the streets in our western 
cities. Yes, in certain Iowa cities which I might name, there 
are main streets which are allowed to remain from Fall till 
Spring in a condition that would not be tolerated in Germany 
for a single week as a country cross-road, much less as a 

state road. 

This product of the centuries is full of historical interest. I 
will not attempt to follow, or even epitomize the history of 
German road making. An outline sketch must suffice. In the 



A Load of Hay in Germany. 

This load was hauled twenty-two miles over 
country roads. For shorter distances a single 
horse is used to haul loads of immense size. 
Drawn from photograph. 



GERM AX HlGirWA VS. 



D / 



old time, when the barons of the Rhine, the Mosel, the Elbe 
and the IVIain gathered their retainers about them under their 
castle walls upon heights well-nigh inaccessible ; when forest, 
field and river provided liberal sustenance for the long wunter 
season, the secret of successful road building, as of castle build- 
ing, was to attain the greatest safety and security for the least 
outlay of effort. To the German barons and knights of old the 




Jefferson Street, Otiumwa, Iowa. 

"A condition that would not be tolerated as a country cross-road in 

Germany for a single week." 



impassable road in Winter, the period of comparative inaction, 
was an unmixed blessing, for it was their protection ; and, too, 
it kept their retainers together wdien otherwise they would 
wander off and spend much of their time in the towns and so 
become demoralized. The pious and unambitious tradesmen in 
the neighboring towns accepted the situation uncomplainingly, 
for they knew this outside trade w^ould keep till Spring, since it 
couldn't get awav. But later, vassals found fighting no longer 
profitable, and discovered that it paid them to quit the moun- 
tain side and to sow and plant in the rich valleys. Tradesmen in 
the villages and cities, looking upon more inviting fields for 



58 



GERMAN HIGIIWA YS. 



— J" ' 'Ift-W '"'' "^ip^ "■ 






exchange, in time reached out after the farmers' trade in Winter 
as in Summer. They found the rainy season might also be 
made profitable. The only barrier was the mud. When two 
classes of people begin to reach out one after the other, they 
are not long coming together. Then began the era of road 
making which was to bring country and town together in 
mutually profitable relations. This movement made possible 
the conditions which now enable Germany and the neighboring 
kingdoms of Belgium and Holland to sustain the densest rural 
population in the world. 

During the middle ages, there was, as there is now, or was 
till recently, among our own people in the west, little unity of 
thought and less actual co-operation in this matter of road 
building. The first duties imposed by German authorities were 
called Safeguard Duties. These were willingly paid, for they 
imposed upon the authorities an obligation to protect travelers. 

Armed knights were wont 
to accompany travelers 
through forests and 
thinly settled districts. 
When, later, these escorts 
were dispensed with, the 
duty, with the name, was 
retained, and the money 
so raised was expended in 
improving the condition of 
the highways. 

As in many portions of 
our own country, the cor- 
duroy road was the first 
form taken by the move- 
mentfor makinghighways. 
This movement, of incalculable value to the Germany of 
to-day and of all coming time, received a strong impetus from 
the first successful attempt at a unification of the German 
states. In time, the policy of the more progressive states be- 
came general. In few words, that policy is this: The cities 
and parishes are responsible for the streets, alleys and road- 
ways within their limits, and wholly contributary thereto ; the 
state is responsible for all thoroughfares in general, not 
local use. 

As in older portions of the United States, notably New 
York, the state roads of Germany were, before the advent of 
railroads, of supreme importance to the state. With armed 
neutrality the policy of all the great powers of Europe, the 
state roads of Germany were indispensable for the quick mobili- 
zation of troops from one frontier to another. Until the pres- 
ent utilization of the railway, these roads were in constant use 







Breaking Stone for the Road. 
A familiar roadside scene in Germany. 



GERMAN HIGHWAYS. 59 

for the hauling of farm products to the great centres of popu- 
lation, and of manufactured and imported articles from city 
to city. 

The beginning of the eighteenth century witnessed the 
division of main roads from the common or local roads and from 
that date began the third and present era of road making, the 
substitution of rock, gravel and sand for the corduroy. Every 
important highway in the empire is now giaded, macadamized 
road, with massive stone culverts, with a ditch on each side, 
which, wherever there is danger of washing, is also paved and 
with a line of trees upon either side. Many of these roads are 
partly paved, in order to better protect the road from heavy 
hauling. Every slope is protected, either by masonry or by 
turf, as the condition seems to require. Dangerous portions of 
the roadway are guarded by stone posts. They are connected 
wherever necessary by railings of iron or wood. 

The grades of German roads are legally established, as are 
those in our American cities. The roadway is of imiform 
width and consistency, thereby eliminating most of the dis- 
agreeable surprises and accidents which make hauling, driving 
and cycling decidedly imcertain ventures on most of our west- 
ern roads. 

Once well built, these roads are kept in repair at compara- 
tively small expense. The work of repairing is chiefly the 
replacing with broken stone of losses from washing, dust and 
travel. 

Thus by suggestive comparison, rather than exhortation, 
have J endeavored to fulfil the promise long since made to aid 
as best I could the good movement so auspiciously begun in 
Iowa and other western states and vigorously and resultfully 
assisted by Good Roads.* Governor Altgeld of Illinois recently 
said : " The time is about come for mud roads to go. " Mav the 
next Governor of Iowa, with the positiveness of a reasonable 
certainty, be able to declare to the next legislature of Iowa, 
" the mud road must go!" 

*I desire to acknowledge obligution not only to Consul Black of Nureniberij, but 
also to Consul-General Mason of Frankfort and ex-Consul Merritt of Chemnitz, for 
information obtained from their able reports of 1891, relative to German highwavs. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads" ica/its the na/ne and post-office 
address [plaiiity written) of every civil engineer, surveyor, county officer 
and road officer in the United States. Also the names and addresses 
of prominent citizens who are interested in the niove/ncnt for better 
roads. JFe ask each reader to aid in making up this list. Send as 
promptly as possible and specify each man's official position. 



Filling the lungs with the dry, bracing air of the Iowa 
prairies is like drinking a glass of good old wine, but better. 



THE QUESTION IN IOWA. 
'By G. L. Gregory. 

THE Iowa farmer, wide-awake and progressive enough in 
the matter of improving his farm, machinery, buildings, 
stock, etc., is wofully backward in reaHzing and assert- 
ing his right to have better highways. 

For several months in the year the farmer and his family 
are as far removed from his neighbors and the towns as if he 



m 



mv Mi 






>-»jyt--? 







" No Bottom." 

Abandoned wagon in Marshalltown, Iowa, two blocks from the business 
centre. From photograph by W. C. Wallace, taken May i, 1893. 

lived on a desert island in the Pacific Ocean, instead of in one 
of the best states in the Union. 

Last Spring during the wet weather I was in an Iowa town 
that boasts of 12,000 inhabitants, good schools, water works, 
gas and street car system, streets well paved with brick; in 
fact, everything that a go-ahead American town should have, 
but, despite all this, I saw two fine horses, hitched to an empty 
wagon, stuck in the mud on the main business street in town. 
"Why, "you exclaim, "how could a team mire on a paved 
street?" The absurdity of the thing struck me at once, but a 
little investicfation showed that the mud had been carried on to 
the paving from the adjacent unpaved streets and country 
roads. 

One coal dealer, more enterprising than his competitors, 
rigged a small box on two wheels and with this South African 
vehicle went floundering through the quagmire, delivering the 



60 











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62 



THE Q UES TION IN IOWA. 



immense amount of half a ton at a time and at a cost (of 
delivery), of $i.oo a ton, whereas, had the streets been in proper 
shape, the coal could have been delivered at a maximum price 
of 25 cents a ton. ^ 




"A Bicycle Trip through Iowa is a Succession of Discomforts." 

Scene from photograph, showing a wheehnan resident of Auburn, Ind., 

on prairie road in Spring of 1892. 

Another illustration : a pair of heavy draught -horses, hooked 
to an empty wagon, were moving slowly along a country road, 
and as they came to a road crossing they sank deeper and 
deeper into the mucous mass, and had a Mississippi River pilot, 
with his lead and tallow, been on the front of the wagon tongue, 
he would have sung out, " Mark-twain, Quarter-twain, No bot- 
tom; " this last as the horses reached the centre of the slough, 
where they actually could not touch bottom, but were supported 
by the mud under their breast and by the harness; for the 
wagon bed, resting on the mud, acted as a buoy. 



TffE QUESTION IN IOWA. 63 

Those two horses, in that two mile trip, received more 
strains, bruises and other damages than they would have re- 
ceived in a month pulling- a heavy load over good roads. 

A bicycle trip through Iowa is a succession of discomforts; 
in the Spring the mud renders such a trip impossible; in the 
Summer the roads, having no foundation, become a perfect 
sand-bar, through which the wheel slips in all directions, giv- 
ing the daring rider many a fall, while the wind whirls the dust 
about bis devoted head, filling his eyes, nose and ears, prevent- 
ing his opening his mouth to even call down blessings on the 
man that made the roads. 

The Fall riding is the best ; but woe be he who wanders far 
from home, for the least rain ruins the roads for a week, the 
soft dirt absorbing the moisture readily and the wagons cut- 
ting ruts that make cycling a torment. 

We are not dead, only sleeping, and one by one the sound 
of the clarion is calling the hosts to battle arrav; committees 
are meeting and discussing the c^uestion; the legislature will 
have a chance to consider the matter; farmers, mechanics, busi- 
ness men, wheelmen and teamsters are debating ways and means, 
but in the meantime we all look forward with dread to the com- 
ing Winter with its "January thaw " and the Spring rains, bring- 
ing miles of impassable roads, stagnating business or causing a 
dead loss in what little is done. 

Tariff may or may not be a tax, but poor roads we knoiu to be a 
tax on the farmer's mind, morals, pocket-book, stock and vehi- 
cles; a tax that tears down but does not build up, and if one- 
half of this wear and tear were put on the roads every year in a 
judicious manner we should see an improvement that would be 
wonderful. 

By the word "judicious," I do not mean the present method 
of "working poll tax," where each man does as little as he can, 
but contract work, done on business principles. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads'' wants the name and post-office 
address (^plainly lun'tten) of every civil engineer.^ surveyor, county officer 
and road officer in the United States. Also the names and addresses 
of promittent citizens who are interested in the nurvement for better 
roads. We ask each reader to aid in making up this list. Send as 
promptly as possible and specify each man's official position. 



Iowa has room and great opportunities for live farmers and 
manufacturers. 



Fuel, both coal and wood, is plentiful in bnva. 



" In all that is good Iowa affords the best. 



GOOD ROADS IN IOWA. 



Br Henry Wallace, Editor "Iowa Homestead. " 

THE problem of securing' permanently good roads in Iowa is 
hedged round with many difficulties. 
First, the land being laid off in sections, each one mile 
square, and the roads being located almost universally on sec- 
tion lines for the convenience of the farmers, no attention what- 
ever has been paid to securing easy gradients with a view of 

decreasing the cost of transport- 
ation. No matter what the na- 
ture of the ground, unless by 
reason of streams, lakes or high 
bluffs where a road is altogether 
impracticable, it is placed on the 
section lines. Roads of this char- 
acter are purely local, affording 
an outlet for the farms adjoining, 
and the utmost that is attempted 
is to make them passable when 
roads better located are ordinarily 
Qood. It follows from this that 
ni the newer sections the road 
system of the state is constantly 
becoming worse, and for two 
reasons ; the roads themselves are 
more difficult to travel, and the 
distance from point to point, by 
reason of the necessity of turning square corners, increases with 
the settlement of the country. The best roads Iowa ever had 
were made before the public roads were located. In those prim- 
itive days travelers took either the valleys or the ridges, gen- 
erally the latter, and enjoyed roads reasonably level and un- 
disturbed by injudicious improvement by supervisors who lack 
the conception of either what a good road ought to be or how 
to make one. As an instance of the lengthening of the roads 
we might give the following: A county seat is located, as many 
county seats are, in the centre of the county. A thriving town 
springs up in the corner of the county, made up of sixteen 
townships, each six miles square. The distance from the 
county seat to this town on an air line is nearly seventeen miles. 
Counting the meanderings necessary to secure the best line, 
it would be in the neighborhood of twenty, whereas when the 
country is fully improved and the roads located on section 
lines, it is twenty-four. 6^ 




HiiN'KV Wallaci;. 



GOOD ROADS IN lOlVA. 65 




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The First NECiissiiY is Goun Drainage. 
" All that depraves a country road in Iowa and renders it horrible to 
contemplate * * is uncontrolled water." 

It is quite true that but few of these roads on section lines 
are anything more than outlets to the farms adjoining; farmers 
in going to town selcctingthose roads that have the best bridges, 
the best gradients and fewest mud holes. Any system there- 
fore that will give good roads to the state must provide first, 
either for makinsf direct roads that save distance between the 
leading towns, or for improving in some permanent way the 
roads which custom and travel have made the leading ones. 
To obviate the difficulties that have grown out of this cus- 
tom of placing roads on section lines will involve very great 
expense, as no farmer without remuneration will allow his 
farm to be crossed diagonally by a public highway, no matter 
what the advantages may be to the public. 

The second difficulty in securing good roads, such as are 
common in old settled countries and in the older states, lies in 
the absence of suitable material for covering the road-bed. 
There are comparatively few gravel deposits in the state; and 
while a large section of the state is abundantly supplied with 
rock, and particularly the rocks peculiar to the carboniferous 
formation, these lie at from ten to fiftv feet under the surface 
of the prairie and are exposed only along the streams. It is 
only in certain localities, therefore, that material can be found 
for making macadam roads. 



66 GOOD ROADS IN IOWA. 

The third difficulty in securing good roads is the independ- 
ence of the Iowa farmer, the tenacity with which he clings to 
that which is, and the suspicion with which he regards any 
scheme that involves a large expenditure of money, of which 
he is expected to contribute the greater portion. He has 
figured up the cost of macadam, of gravel and paving and has 
concluded that the lowest cost at which the roads generally 
advocated could be furnished would involve him hopelessly in 
debt, if not bankrupt him entirely. The more the citizen, or 
the man of the city, talks to him about the necessity of mac- 
adamized roads, of which he is to bear the expense, the more 
resolutely he sets himself against any proposition to macad- 
amize the road on the line of his farm, and concludes with 
Hamlet, 

" 'Tis better to endure the ills we have 
Than fly to others that we know not of." 

As an illustration of this we need only to point to the fact 
that on two successive Saturdays in March of the present year, 
road meetings were held in the city of Des Moines, each 
attended by a large number of farmers, the second adjourning 
sine die after passing a resolution that no improvement of the 
roads was necessary. Had a proposition been offered to unite 
the city and the adjoining townships in one district for road 
purposes, and to tax the city as well as the country for the 
main lines of roads leading out of the city, it no doubt would 
have carried. Would such a proposition have been more than 
just? 

What then can be done for good roads in Iowa? While 
macadamized and gravel roads are yet far in the distance ex- 
cept in limited localities near the large cities, there is very 
much that can be done, and that, too, without any expense 
beyond that already incurred, and that should be done at once. 
There is no better road in the world than an Iowa dirt road 
when it is good. It is smooth, it is easy on the horse, even if 
sometimes dusty, and its continuance in this state of grace 
varies with the years, sometimes six months, sometimes ten. 
All that depraves a country road in Iowa and renders it hor- 
rible to contemplate and a source of profanity, both internal 
and external, is uncontrolled water. Speaking not now of 
country roads leading to cities, where there is a great deal of 
heavy hauling, but of the roads for country use, all that is 
needed to make a road that will be excellent from six to ten 
months in a year, averaging about nine, is to keep the water 
from rising up under it, and provide a way for the rain to run 
ofif as it falls. The under waters are found where roads cross 
or follow sloughs. The wet spots, where the most hideous 
mudholes occur, are on the edges or sides of these sloughs, and 



GOOD ROADS IN JOWA. 67 

are caused by the rain soaking- down through the upper fertile 
soil, and striking a vein of hardpan or impervious clay, and must 
therefore come out laterally. The remedy for this is i;nder 
drainage, either with tile or with rock, laid either under the 
road-bed or alongside of it so as to catch the water before 
it reaches the bed. We have seen many of the very worst and 
most impassable mudholes rendered dry and placed in excel- 
lent condition in all seasons of the year, with an expenditure 
of not over five dollars in labor and material. After these wet 
spots and seepy places have been removed in the manner above 
suggested, the road-bed should be thoroughl}' ploughed, har- 
rowed and rolled until it is reduced to the finest possible tilth, 
then graded so as to allow the water to run off as it falls, and, 
as often as ruts are forined by passing teams in wet weather, 
gone over with a road-grader when it becomes dry and kept in 
a smooth, well-rounded, oval shape. To secure this treatment 
of roads, two things must be done : provision must be made in 
the laws of the state that will allow the supervisor, or whoever 
is in authority, to find drainage through adjoining lands, 
wherever necessary, under the law of eminent domain. Un- 
less this is done, narrow-minded land-owners will effectually 
prevent by unwise opposition any effective road drainage 
and hence any permanent road improvement. Again, it is 
essential that the road districts be greatly enlarged to at 
least half a township, and better still, a whole township, and 
the management of the roads placed in the hands of a com- 
petent, practical civil engineer; either a man who has spent 
years in acquiring scientific knowledge or some practical farmer 
who has good horse sense, an eye that is about as accurate as a 
full set of instruments under ordinary handling and a honest 
pride in seeing good roads in his township. It is needless to 
say that this supervision will require all taxes, whether land- 
tax or poll-taxes to be paid in cash, and the men who work the 
roads, whether they be farmers or not, required to do a da}''s 
work for a day's pay in cash. 

This S5"stem will involve no greater outlay than "is now 
expended, will provide superb roads the greater part of the 
year and passable roads all the year except, as before stated, 
near large cities or mines, where, in addition to the above, 
some covering is necessary, and will prepare the way for the 
good roads of the future. 



Iowa lands are the best in the world and can be bought at 
from $16 to $20 per acre. Improved farms sell at from $25 to 
$75. No other land can be bought at those figures so near the 
great markets, with all the advantages of schools, churches and 
the other blessings of an intelligent and happy people. 



PRACTICAL ROAD REFORM IN IOWA. 



'Bv Harvey 1 ugh am. Editor of the " Upper Des Moines. " 

THE difficulty with road reform, as with all other reforms, is 
to get it down out of the clouds. Thousands of ordinary 
men can make good roads in their minds, but it requires 
practical statesmanship of high order to suggest a single detail 
of actual change which the people can be led to actually try, 
and which can be demonstrated to have produced actually bene- 
ficial results. The ordinary range 
of change in any direction is 
limited where popular habit or 
custom is affected. Road reform 
will come by degrees and in 
details. The first effect of 
visionary suggestions, if not the 
permanent effect, is to solidify 
public sentiment against any 
change whatever, so it happens 
that after a lengthy discussion of 
macadamized roads and other 
like systems in the new prairie 
country of Iowa, where at pres- 
ent the primary stage of locating 
highways has scarcely been 
passed, at least one farmers 
convention has resolved that the 
roads are good enough as they 
are, and one speaker expressed 
a popular sentiment when he said 
"we don't want any eastern bicycle fellers, orone-hoss lawyers 
with patent leather boots, to tell us how to fix the roads that 
we use," and yet the same farmers convention, if not aggress- 
ively united against what seemed to them extravagant and 
fanciful schemes, would probably have confessed that some 
change might have been made for the better, and undoubtedly 
could be led to make such changes by a judicious attack upon 
the most conspicuous evils of the existing system. 

In Kossuth County there would be as strong a prejudice 
against fanciful suggestions of road reform as in any county in 
the state, and yet important changes of method, adopted by the 
board of county supervisors in the interests of practical reform, 
have been accepted without dissent, and resolutions adopted by 
representative farmers, at a meeting called by the local grange 
to discuss the subject, instead of expressing resentment at sug- 




Harvey Ingham. 



6S 



PRACTICAL ROAD REFORM IN IOWA. 69 

5^estions of changes, welcomed the discussion and incorporated 
a plan of action which promises results in the way of better 
roads in the near future. As this plan is one easily adopted, 
and practical for Iowa, it perhaps deserves a place amon.:^- the 
suggestions which Good Roads has for improvement. 

Kossuth is in all respects a type of the newer section of the 
state, with the largest territory of any county in the state, and 
with what, in an older section, would be considered a scattered 
population. During the past twenty years, the problem here, 
as all over the northwest, has been how, with a small revenue, 
to keep enough creeks bridged and low places graded to allow 
all people to get to the market and to the school-house, but 
within the past few years the problein of permanent highways 
has become more pressing. As population has increased, 
fences have forced travel to the beaten lines, and wet spells 
have made mud holes more impassable, and with this problem 
has grown the conviction that some concentration of effort is 
needed which cannot be secured so long as each road district 
works out its taxes in small puttering repairs, which generally 
do not outlast the season. But with this conviction has also 
arisen a suspicion that collecting the road tax all in cash, and 
allowing it to be expended by contract under any manage- 
ment, however competent, would mean a few highly finished 
highways with a great many neglected and impassable roads, 
which perhaps might pass any voter's door and not be reached 
in many years. The question then in Kossuth, as in every 
northwestern county, is how to do some work of permanent 
value without losing sight of that temporary work which is 
still needed and will be needed for many years. The board of 
county supervisors have answered this question with some reso- 
lutions and official actions which will, so far as their authority 
extends, we believe, bear fruit. Their authority here covers, 
of course, only the three mill bridge tax, which, properly speak- 
ing, is levied for bridge purposes, but which overruns the 
demands upon it, and has been Uited in heavy grades and the 
more important drains. This surplus has in the past years, by 
the estimate of the chairman of the board, done more road work 
of a permanent nature than the whole five mill township tax. 

The rules adopted by the board for the expenditure of this 
fund may be briefly summarized : 

No grade shall be begun until all surface water has been 
drained off. 

A contract for makino- all drains in the county has been let 
to one man, open ditches six feet wide and three feet deep at 
40 cents a rod, and three feet wide by three feet deep at 20 
cents. 

All grading has been let to one contractor at the price of \i 
cents per yard for all dirt moved 200 feet or less, one cent more 



7° 



PRACTICAL ROAD REFORM IN IOWA. 



for each i oo feet up to i , ooo feet, and i ^ cents more beyond that. 

All grades and ditclies are to be begun after they have been 
surveyed and specifications drawn by a competent engineer. 

All bridges are to be of oak throughout, the contract for 
these also being let to one firm at the price of $5 a running foot. 




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A Problem for both Town and Country. 

Scene in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, at corner of First Avenue and Second 
Street (west). Principal avenue in the city on west side of the river, 
and only one block from the bridge. (From photograph by Geo. P. 
Coldren, 1892.) 

All contractors are to put up sufficient bonds to insure the 
county, and all are to be held to a strict observance o£ the plans 
and specifications. 

It will be seen from these outlines that in so far as the 
county expends any money, it is by contract at very low cost 
for the work. It will also be seen that the money is to be used 
in removing the chief obstacles to good roads in this section, 
viz. : lack of drainage. There are no better roads in the world 
than the black loam roads of northern Iowa in dry weather, and 
there will never be a better road in northern Iowa than black 
loam well graded, thoroughly drained and kept in reasonable re- 
pair, and there will never be a good road of any kind in northern 
Iowa, until drainage — surface drainage at present — is secured. 
"We regard drainage as the first step in the direction of good 
roads " is the sum and substance of the resolutions and discus- 
sion at the meeting called by the Algona Grange. 



rRACriCAL KDAD kJU'OKM IX JOWA. 71 

But tlie board of supervisors has control of but three mills 
of the taxlevied for roads, while live mills is levied and worked 
out by the townships, besides the poll taxes. The question is, 
how shall this tax, amounting in Kossuth to nearly three times 
the bridge tax, be collected and expended so as to add some- 
thing to permanent improvements as well as to temporary 
patching up of temporary but necessary roads. This was an- 
swered by the Algona Grange ineeting in the following resolution: 

" Resolved, that this meeting favors the collection of two 
mills of the road tax in cash, to be collected by the county and 
to be expended under the direction of the board of supervisors." 

This resolution is in accordance with the conditions of the 
existing Iowa law, except that it allows two mills of the five to 
be collected in cash for use by the county board, whereas the 
law allows but one. With this slight modification the existing 
law of the state is sufficient to provide for a practical solution 
of the road question, the three mill tax left to the townships 
with the poll tax is enough or more than enough for such re- 
pairs as are necessary; is a safeguard to those who fear that 
good roads mean a few expensive improvements, and a great 
number of very bad cow paths, and, being worked out after the 
old fashion, arranges for only a partial payment in cash and a 
trial of the system before its permanent adoption. On the 
other hand what improvements would not the remaining two 
mills, expended as provided by the county board, be the means 
of in every township! With that two mill tax expended in 
money by contract in good drainage, and the work done by the 
townships with the remaining three mill tax, would, in the esti- 
mation of conservative men, result in more than all that is now 
done wdth the entire tax in every township in northern Iowa. 
This plan is practicable, shocks no long standing prejudice, 
attempts no Don Quixotic reform, opens the way for the ulti- 
mate payment of all taxes in cash and the letting of all work 
by contract, is a moderate step in advance, and leads directly 
to the accomplishment of all that is now possible in the newer 
portions of the state. 

The present law whereby the townships may leave one mill 
of their tax to be collected and used by the county board, is 
largely the work of ex-Senator C. C. Chubb, who as chairman 
of the present board of supervisors of Kossuth County, is devot- 
ing his time to this question of road reform. If the coming- 
legislature will add one mill more, and allow the board to col- 
lect two mills, the plan will be tried by at least some townships 
in this county, and will, we believe, result very speedily in 
such materia] advance in methods of road making, as to com- 
mend itself to the people. 

Its success means the speedy collection cf all road taxes in 
money, the letting of all work by contract and thd construction 
of all roads under the supervision of competent engineeis. 



LOCATION, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF 
PUBLIC HIGHWAYS AND HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 

'By William Steyh, C. E., 

City Engineer of "Burlington, Iowa, and President of Iowa Society of Civil 

Engineers and Surveyors. 

IN a section of country which is not broken up by deep ravines 
or traversed by numerous water courses, the road should 
be laid out in as straight a line as practicable, preferably 
along- a section or township line, which will save cost of" con- 
struction and time in travel ; but when these conditions are 

reversed, it may be found more 
economical, as well as more con- 
venient, to go around a hill instead 
of through or over it, and there- 
fore the location should be made 
with due care and skill, by the 
same rule that is followed in the 
location of a railroad. 

After the road has been located 
and correctly platted, levels should 
be run over the line and grades 
established, the width of roadway 
determined, provisions made for 
surface drainage by the proper 
location and construction of cul- 
verts or drains, besides under or 
sub-drainage where necessary. 
The question of sub-drainage is 
of special importance, as no road, 
no matter of what material or 
how well constructed, will give satisfaction unless the sub-soil, 
under its foundation, is free from spring or ground water; 
since this, if not conducted away by proper and sufficient 
drainage, will keep the road-bed soft and spongy, especially in 
the Spring after the frost goes out and during continuous wet 
weather. 

Having completed the foregoing preliminaries, the grading 
or preparation of the road-bed should be proceeded with in the 
following manner: 



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William Steyh, C. E. 



The earth for 



making 



the 



embankments, which is either 
taken from the side ditches or from such places in the road 
where the original surface of the ground is above the grade of 
the road, shauld be deposited in layers of not exceeding one 



72 



HIGHWAYS ANJ) JJIGIIWAY /; RIDGES. 73 

foot in depth, rollinj^ each layer repeatedly with a roller of 
sufficient weight, until it becomes firm and unyielding-, so that 
it will not settle or shrink after the road metal has been put 
into place. If no roller is available the earth road-bed should 
be subjected to considerable travel, before the final wearing- 
surface is put down. This latter method, however, does not 
give as satisfactory results as the former, since the traffic will 
not pack the material uniformly, and, as the use of a roller is 
very essential in making the wearing surface of a road compact 
and firm, it should in no case be dispensed with, where per- 
manent road improvement is aimed at. 

A road graded in the manner just described will prove verv 
satisfactory for a moderate traffic even during the wet seasons, 
if the necessary care is bestowed on it at the proper time, by 
filling up the ruts and smoothing down bumps, and this can be 
done quickly and economically with a good road machine, such 
as are in use in many of the western states. 

For heavier traffic, such as will be brought on main roads 
leading from one city or town to another, a more permanent 
roadway is required, and these roads should be covered with 
material better suited to withstand the action of wheels as well 
as the weather than is a common dirt road. 

To obtain such a road, different materials and methods may 
be employed, of which I will name the following as the most 
common in Europe and also in some of the eastern states in 
this country. 

Macadamized roads were first introduced by a Scotch road- 
maker by the name of John L. Macadam (hence the name of 
the system), who in 1816 made a roadway of a layer of small 
fragments of stone, which he placed directly on the earth road- 
bed. Some fifteen vears later an English engineer bv the 
name of Thomas Telford introduced a system somewhat dif- 
ferent from that of Mr. Macadam, by first placing a layer of 
large and irregular sized stone on the earth road-bed to act as 
a foundation for the surface layer, which consisted of small 
broken stone of the same general description as that used by 
Mr. Macadam. 

Of the two systems the telford is preferable, insuring a 
more firm foundation than the other, especially if the sub-soil 
under the roadway should be soft, and for this reason it has 
been adopted by most road engineers of the present day. 

A roadway that will answer the requirements of a country 
road in this part of the countr}', may be constructed under the 
following specifications : 

Width of Roadivay. — A roadway fifteen feet wide will be 
ample to accommodate all the travel that is likely to be brought 
on it, and as the increase in width will increase the cost, no 
road should be improved wuder than necessary. Along each 



74 HIGHWA YS AND HIGHWA Y BRIDGES. 

side of this central roadway, a strip ten feet wide should be 
graded, so that its outer edge will be about six inches lower 
than its inner edge or the one nearest the central roadway, so 
that surface water during a heavy shower will be drained into 
the side ditches as quickly as possible. 

These ten foot strips can be used as driveways for light 
vehicles during the Summer season when the earth is dry and 
hard, and the outer edges of the strips may be used for storing 
road metal, so as to have it convenient when needed for 
repair. 

Preparation of the Road-bed. — The earth bed on which the 
foundation course is to rest, should be excavated to a depth of 
nine inches below the top of the finished roadway, conforming 
very closely to the contour of the same, being four inches 
higher in the centre than at the sides, representing a true seg- 
ment of a circle; it shall then be thoroughly and repeatedly 
rolled with a roller weighing not less than one ton per lineal 
foot of face of roller, until compact and firm; all depressions 
which may appear during the process of rolling being filled 
with suitable material and the whole brought to a uniform and 
unyielding surface. 

Foundation Course. — After the road-bed has been prepared in 
the foregoing manner, a layer of stone, six inches in depth, 
shall be set by hand, their broadest edge down and crosswise 
with the road. No stone to be less than three inches thick, 
six inches long and six inches deep, nor more than six inches 
thick, fifteen inches long and six inches deep, all projecting 
points on top to be broken off to a uniform surface and all voids 
filled with small stones or quarry spawls.* 

Along each side of the roadway a row of stones, six inches 
thick, nine inches deep and not less than twelve inches long 
shall be set, true to a line at their outer edge, and their tops 
made to correspond to the grade of the finished roadway. 
These stones are to act as curbing to protect the surface layer 
of broken stone from being pressed outwardly by the action of 
passing vehicles. 

Should the sub-soil under the road-bed be retentive or 
spongy, drain tile should be laid along each side of the road- 
bed about six inches below the base of the fottndation course 
and connected with the side ditches at proper intervals, to carry 
off any water which may find its way through the paving 
material. 

Surface Layer. — On the foundation course should be placed 
a layer of broken stone three inches in depth, no stone of which 
should exceed two and one-half inches in any diameter ; on this 
course of broken stone should be spread a layer of sand or firm 

*The proper form of stones for foundation course and method of laying are very 
clearlv shown by illustrations in the article contributed by Mr. F. A. Dunham, C. E., 
in the'June number of GOOD Roads. 



JUG J/ ir AYS .L\l) JIIGHM'AY BRIDGES. 75 

gravel to a uniform deptli of from one and one-half to two 
inches, after which the surface should be thoroughly rolled 
until compact and firm. If neither sand nor gravel is available, 
a thin layer of clay may be used as binding material; this, how- 
ever, should be used very sparingly, as otherwise it will tend 
to make the road muddy or dusty, according to the condition 
of the weather. In places where sufficient deposits of gravel 
exist, the same can be used in place of the broken stone for 
wearing surface, or the entire road-bed may be constructed of 
gravel, if no larger stone for the foundations can be had at a 
reasonable price. 

The selection of material for road purposes will always 
largely depend on what can be found nearest home, and if 
proper judgment and care are exercised, satisfactory results 
may be obtained. 

Maintenance of Public HigJnuays. — After a road is once im- 
proved, it must not be assumed that it will forever remain in a 
first-class condition without paying any further attention to it 
than to have a semi-annual gathering of old men and young 
boys of the road district to work (?) out their respective road 
taxes under the supervision of the road supervisor. 

On the contrary it will require a good deal of care, and un- 
less needed repairs are made at the proper time, the new road 
may not prove as great an improvement as was expected. 
Parties who have traveled in Europe tell us about the splendid 
hiehwavs of that countrv, but the fine condition of those roads 
are not due alone to a superior quq^lity of material, or to a fault- 
less method of construction, but largely to the constant care 
bestowed upon them by a force of men specially trained and 
employed for this purpose. . From the foregoing it will be seen 
that if we want to have good roads continually, we must abol- 
ish our present road system, and adopt such methods as will 
give satisfactory results. 

Highway Bridges. — Highway bridges are connecting links be- 
tween highways and for this reason should be considered a part 
of them. Their location should be made with the iitmost care, 
having in view the selection of the most suitable place for 
crossing a stream, as also the securing of a solid foundation at 
the least expense. After the necessary preliminaries have been 
completed, plans and specifications should be prepared by 
some one who has been specially trained for such work, and 
under no circumstances should a contractor be asked or allowed 
to furnish his own plans and specifications when tendering his 
proposal for the construction of a highway bridge, though this 
is the prevailing custom in many of the western states and par- 
ticularly in our immediate vicinity. There are sometimes froin 
six to twelve bidders at a bridge letting, each one with a sep- 
arate set of plans and specifications, and one will sometimes 



76 



HIGHWAYS AND HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 



hand in proposals on two or three different plans in order to 
be more certain of securing the job. After all the proposals 
have been opened and the various plans and specifications 
looked over by the board of supervisors, they will in the 
majority of cases award the contract to the lowest bidder, 
who may furnish a structure that will prove dear at any price. 

As to how the bridge is put up no one can expect the aver- 
age supervisor to spend his time in watching the work, nor is it 
probable that he would be able to determine whether the work 
and the material were in strict accordance with the specifica- 
tions as furnished by the contractor. 













A Country Road in Fr.\nce. 

These roads are divided into sections and each section placed in 
charge of a man who lives in the neighborhood and v/ho is held re- 
sponsible for its good condition at all times. The result is that the road 
surface is maintained constantly in a clean, smooth and hard condition. 

The maintenance of highway bridges is another item which 
does not receive the necessary attention, for want of proper 
talent to look after and examine these structures from time to 
time, which, if carefully done, would prevent numerous acci- 
dents caused by the collapse of highway bridges. 

Supervision of Highways and Highway Bridges. — All highways 
and bridges in a county should be under the general super- 
vision of a county highway commissioner, who should be 
fitted for this office by special training. He should have power 
to appoint all road district supervisors, of which there should 
be one in every township, whose duty should be to superintend 
all road improvements and road repairs in his district, as also 
the construction of bridges in the absence of the commissioner. 
All work to be done by contract or day labor if found expedient 
to do so. 



HI GNU A YS AA'D HJGHW'A J ' J^RIDGF.S. 7 7 

Road Improvements; Ho7v Paid For. — This is a difficult 
question to solve and it will require a long and careful study V) 
arrive at a just and equitable solution of the problem. 

Some parties want the state to bear the whole or the greater 
part of the expense, while others maintain that inasmuch as the 
general government is paying- for the river and harbor improve- 
ments, why should it not also pay for the improvement of the 
public highways? It would be a great blessing if either of the 
above propositions could be carried out, which would give us 
this desired improvement free of charge ; but let us remember 
that it will require many millions to build the highways in this 
country and neither the state nor the general government 
would have the necessary means to accomplish so vast an under- 
taking, without calling on the people to replenish the empty 
treasury by either direct taxation or otherwise. We some- 
times read in an article written by som.e one who has studied 
the question of road improvement in Europe, that the govern- 
ment pays for the construction and maintenance of the so- 
called state roads (which, by the way, are magnificent, to which 
I can testify from personal observation, having been born and 
raised in a town through which one of these roads passed) ; but 
when we consider the fact that the cost for these splendid im- 
provements is collected from the people in monthly install- 
ments by direct taxation, the question who pays for these 
improvements is not hard to answer. Having proved conclu- 
sively who pays for the road improvements in Europe, let us 
now consider the question of who should pay for them in this 
country. There can be but one answer, viz: all who are bene- 
fited by the improvement. The following may serve as an out- 
line to distribute the cost fairly and justly: 

All lands adjoining an improvement should be assessed an 
amount equal to one-fourth the entire cost, pro rating the same 
per acre upon the land directly benefited, and not per foot front, as 
is customary with city improvements. The other three-fourths 
of the cost to be paid out of the road fund of the county. 
Then if the state would pay a certain sum per mile as a pre- 
mium, to stimulate road improvements, and if in the course of 
time we should have our mail delivered at every farm house, 
the general government would contribute toward maintaining 
good roads, and the burden to the individual as well as the 
county would be lightened correspondingly. 

The assessment against the adjoining property is recom- 
mended on the ground that such property will increase in 
value, by reason of improved facilities to reach the markets and 
for the further reason that it would tend to prevent showing 
favoritism in selecting the road to be improved, as might be the 
case if the whole expense was paid by the county. 



THE VIEWS OF AN OLD SETTLER. 




"By James Yiiill. 

WAY back in the early history of Iowa, 
when Des Moines was a trading- post 
and Iowa City the capital; when busi- 
ness was largely barter and very little 
money was in circulation ; before our 
railroad system had an existence, and 
farmers, to get what money was .abso- 
lutely necessary, hauled their wheat 
one hundred miles to a river town for 
40 cents a bushel, half in cash ; — when 
this was the condition of the state, cer- 
tain road laws were enacted which are 
substantially the laws of to-day. Not 
many changes have been made (nor have the few changes been 
always in the line of improvement), and it may be doubted if 
laws more suited to the condition of the country at that time 
could have been devised. 

The tax for road purposes was levied by the township trus- 
tees and was generally paid in labor, for, although the trustees 
could levy a one mill assessment in cash, it was not often done, 
the small amount of money required for scrapers and road 
plank being obtained from the tax on non-resident landholders. 
Here, then, was a tax payable in what the early settler could 
most easily spare, his labor^ and collected when farm work was 
not pressing; and when it would do the roads most good, in 
May and June (the law requiring two-thirds of the tax to be ex- 
pended on the roads before the first of July). If any tax can 
be popular this was, and it fairly met the requirements of the 
new country. 

That these laws, unquestionably good when adopted, should 
now prove inadequate, is owing to the changed conditions of 
farming and changes in the law itself. In the older settled 
countries wheat growing is abandoned, and the great increase 
in corn raising requires all the labor of the farm, to be con- 
stantly in the fields from corn planting to harvest, and that pro- 
vision of the law which required two-thirds of the road tax to 
be expended before the first of July, has long been eliminated ; 
consequently road work is now largely done in September, 
when the soil is too dry to pack, the result being a dust heap in 
dry weather and a mortar bed in wet. Owing to these changes 
road work is not now as efiicient as it once was, and a change 
by which better roads can be secured seems absolutely neces- 
sary, yg 



THE VIEW'S OF A A OLD SF/l'TLKR. 



79 




"&l>fMefi'£tfi..iiK, ji-iks (ff/. 



.!^»".«.siiu^' 



"AHeapok Du.si in Dk\ Weaihek and a Mokiak Bed in Wet." 
Scene on a country road in Iowa. From photograph taken in the Spring of 1802. 

Admittino- that a chanoe in the road law is needed and a 
better system of road management imperative; the vital ques- 
tion is, to what extent should our road laws be amended, and 
how can good roads be secured with least cost to the public, 
and at the earliest possible time. It has been suggested that 
the national government should assist in solving this road prob- 
lem, and had the nation's funds continued so plentiful that the 
surplus was a troublesome element, we might urge upon Con- 
gress the duty of helping to make good roads ; but the condi- 
tion of the national treasury gives no promise of assistance from 
that source in the near future. 

Can the state aid in road improvement? Possibly the next 
General Assembly may appoint a commissioner to devise some 
scheme of road improvement and report to its successor. But 
the state has no funds for such a purpose. It can pass no 
special law imposing a road tax, and any general law would be 
vigorously opposed by the newer and least opulent counties. 
But road improvement need not be delayed; the necessary 
machinery is at hand. Each county has now a board of super- 
visors who have partial control of the roads with entire con- 
trol over their establishment or abandonment. This board pro- 
vides for the building of all bridges, can expend surplus bridge 
funds on the roads, and can levy a limited tax for this improve- 
ment. Would it not be the most economical plan and attended 



THE VIEWS OF AN OLD SETTLER. 




'The Nkckssi 1 \- 



FOR Road lMPK<)\i:;.Mh;.\ r 
Apparent Every Day." 



IS Becoming Mure 



Load of a few hundred pounds hauled over Iowa county road in 
muddy season. From photograph. 

with least friction to abolish entirely the present township 
system, require the road tax to be paid in money and ex- 
pended under the direction of the county supervisors, placing- 
the entire control over the roads with them? All the legisla- 
tion necessary would be to empower the board to levy five mills 
for county road fund, insteadof one, which is now the limit. This 
plan would work a salutary change in road construction without 
necessarily creating new offices or greatly increasing the duties 
of present office holders. It will abolish the present divided 
control over the roads and place responsibility for their con- 
dition with a tangible body; it will do away with the office of 
road supervisor, which qiuilified persons do not care to accept, 
and which men utterly unfit so often fill. 

Road work would be done mainly by contract, and at the 
right time to make it efficient, comprehensive measures for 
grading and drainage would be carried out, and these, imder 
present conditions, are impossible. The construction of per- 
manent roads would be commenced and gradually extended, as 
more than one-half of the tax collected could be devoted to 
that object. 

While this proposed change in the law and the methods 
of road making would most certainly lead to great improve- 
ment, it need not increase taxation. Payment of the road tax 
in money which would have been intolerable when no market 



THE VIEWS OE AN OLD SETTLER. 8i 

existed for farm products, is now as easily made in money as in 
labor. Farmers can employ their time to better advantage in 
their corn fields than on the roads, at least in the season when 
road work should be done. Among its other advantages a stop 
will be put to the location of roads where not obviously needed. 
At nearly every session, part of the time of county boards is taken 
up with applications for change of old roads or location of new 
ones. Fewer roads would be changed or granted if the county 
was required to maintain them. Bridges are erected by the 
county, the road districts putting in the approaches, which is 
often so imperfectly done that the first high water takes them 
out, and compels the lengthening of the bridge. 

The necessity for road improvement is becoming more ap- 
parent every day. In early times, when roads were very bad, 
people could refrain from using them. Our towns were not 
then so dependent on the country for daily supplies, and could 
stand a state of siege for some time ; but now a blockade of the 
roads leading to a town for twenty-four hours is productive of 
great inconvenience and even positive suffering. Milk, hay, 
fuel and many other articles are required daily and a stoppage 
of the supply is severely felt. 

That the remedy here proposed offers the best solution of 
our difficulties, may not be accepted by all; but it is one that 
can be adopted most easily. Placing the roads under control 
of the supervisors is only an enlargement of their present 
duties and not an imposition of new ones with which they are 
not familiar. Nor need it interfere with state management ; for 
should any movement for that object be successful, it will 
doubtless have the approbation of the farmers of tl*e state who 
look upon some of the proposed measures with distrust and who 
are afraid that many of the schemes mean increased taxa- 
tion, without corresponding benefits. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads'' wants the name and post-office 
address [plainly written) of every civil engineer., surveyor., county officer 
and road officer in the United States. Also the names and addresses of 
prominent citizens who are interested in the movement for better roads. 
We ask each reader to aid in making np this list. Send as promptly as 
possible and specify each man s official position. 

There are 509,830 scholars enrolled in the public schools of 
the State of Iowa. For their accommodation 13,275 school 
houses have been built, valued at $13,800, 153. 



If the L. A. W. ever is at loss for a first class American 
motto that will endear them to the people and incidently send 
the League's name thundering down the ages, let them inscribe 
on their banner "Good Roads." — Wheelmen's Gazette. 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 

lil. 
( Coniiniied. ) 
^ By John N. Oslroni, C. R., 

{Mem. ^mer. Soc. C. E.; Mem. IVesteni Soc. C. E. 

THEN the second pair of frames must be hoisted over the 
planks sticking up in the water, lowered down to the sur- 
face again (the smallerframe inside and the larger frame 
outside of plank) and spiked in position like the first case. If 
the hoisting is difficult the top frames may be put together on 
the surface of the water in the positions wanted, by wading in 
the water or working from a raft. The top frames being now 
in place and securely spiked to the sixteen planks which are 
themselves spiked to the bottom frames, the short planks and 
rocks or bowlders (used for sinking the bottom frames) are no 
longer necessary, and since they will interfere with our work 
of driving the sheet-piling they should now be removed. This 
can easily be done by pushing tlie rocks or bowlders outward 
from the short plank platforms, so that the rocks or bowlders 
will fall outside the outer frame and beyond the possibility of 
further interfering with our work. When once relieved of this 
weight, the short planks will rise to the surface where they can 
be collected and laid aside. After the second or top pair of 
frames has been put in place we drive down a continuous line 
of plank similiar to those already spiked to the frame, and when 
this is done we have two walls of sheet piling two and one-half 
feet apart, extending clear around an inner space twenty-two 
feet long and eight feet wide. The plank being all sharpened 
to a chisel point, and always driven with the sharp edge next to 
the last one down, draw together tightly, unless a rock or old 
log is struck ; but although this close contact is desirable it is 
not altogether essential, for the office of the piling is not to hold 
water in this kind of a dam, as you will presently see. As in 
the present example rock is two feet under the surface, the 
water four feet deep and the piles eight feet long, they will all 
project above the water two feet when driven, except the six- 
teen nailed ones at the corners, and these will each project three 
feet. 

Puddling. — We are now ready to puddle the two and a half 
foot space between the inner and outer walls of sheet piling, and 
as the water is four feet deep, we shall have to borrow earth from 
th e banks. If there were not more than a foot of water, our sho vel- 
ers should dig directly from the river bed enough earth to fill the 

82 







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84 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 



puddle-space to a height above water. As the filling proceeds 
we tamp or pack it until it fills the space to the tops of the 
sheet piling, after which this compact earth will prevent any- 
injurious percolation of water from the outside. 

We have now completed our coffer dam and are ready to 
pump out the inner space which it encloses. This can be done 
with an ordinary well pump or cistern pump or we can bail out 
with pails. In ordinary cases this is not a serious undertaking; 
but where the bottom is coarse gravel or sand we must expect 
to employ a powerful steam pump to keep the inside of the dam 
dry, and when such a case is suspected our best plan is to let 
the contract for the foundation to a responsible and experienced 
contractor. 




ROCK 



ROf.K 



Figure 21. 

Showing partial interior and section of coffer dam. The sheet piling 
has been driven ; the interior pumped (or bailed) out, and the men 
shown in the picture are at work digging out the mud which covers the 
rock bottom. The mud is thrown into the " puddle " space between the 
rows of sheet piling or beyond the outer walls of the dam into the stream. 

Cleaning Out tJie Interior. — When we have pumped out the 
space inside of the coffer dam, we send down men to shovel out 
the mud at the bottom and throw it away over into the stream. 
When the earth begins to cave in on the inside at the foot of the 
sheet piling, we must drive dovv^n the inside line of piling and go 
on with the excavation. The sixteen nailed plank at the corners 
cannot be driven, but this fact js of no consequence, since the 
cavity behind one plank in a place does no harm. For the lower 
half of the excavation it v/ill be necessary to lay a temporary 
platform about four feet wide on the lower frame, upon which 
a top man or a "dry man " stands and throws earth over into the 
stream, while a bottom man or "wet man" throws the earth 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 85 

from the bottom up to the platform as shown in the illustration 
(Fig. 21.). As the names imply, the dry man has dry feet and 
the wet man wet feet, because the latter generally stands in 
water from six inches to a foot in depth and rarely has tight 
boots; but he gets extra pay for this and rarely grumbles, 

A coffer dam of this kind will stand a swift current and quite 
a heavy freshet without giving way, and it can be easily built 
in ten feet of water by workmen of ordinary intelligence who 
are not afraid of gettmg wet; but they will need proper super- 
intendence and it is presumed that you may be able to insure 
this after reading the foregoing description and making your- 
self familiar with the accompanying pictures. 





\ 


-■- -' 


y ^- *' 

/ y - ^ 

^ .' y 






ABUTMENT. 

Figure 22. 




/ 



Showing: outline plan of abutment and coffer dam built on marshy 
ground with water on all sides ; a condition which makes it necessary to 
have the puddle wall of the coffer dam entirely surround the work as 
shown in the figure. 

Coffer Dam for Abutmenls. — -But we must build abutments as 
well as peirs, and when the same type of coffer dam is desired 
in making an abutment, there are generally two governing con- 
ditions of the bridge site which fix the details of construction : 

1. The shore is low, flat and marshy, in which event the 
dam will probably require four puddled sides, and will differ 
from the coffer-dam pier already described only in being larger, 
in order to enclose the angling wing walls and therefore trap- 
ezoidal in shape, /. ^. , having front and back walls parallel and 
sides angling up and down stream — and not rectangular, or 
right-angled, at the four corners. (See Fig. 22.) 

2. The bank is firm and high so that only the front face and 
the two wings need be puddled, the back side simply having a 
light wall to hold the bank from sliding into the excavation. 

In the first case there is likely to be water on all sides and 
the conditions are so much like those for the pier already de- 
scribed that I pass it without further comment than to advise 
reading over again the last chapter. To illustrate the second 
case, we will build a coffer dam for an abutment by the side of 
a high bank of clay or other material through which the water 
will not readily find its way. 



86 



HIGH J J ^A Y BR ID GES. 



Form of Abutment. — We must first decide what the shape of 
our abutment is to be. If the shore is rocky or firm clay, so that 
the current cannot cut in behind the masonry, the wing walls 
may be U shape, that is at right angles to the front or main wall. 
Let us now understand clearly what a wing wall is. It serves 
the double purpose of preventing the current from cutting in 
behind the abutment proper, and it also holds the earth, which 
is hauled in and dumped behind the abutment to form a roadway 
or " approach " from the original bank to the end of the bridge; 
and were it not for these wing walls the earth roadway approach 



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A BUTMENT 



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Figure 23. 
Showing outline plan of "U shape " abutment built fronting a firm 
bank of earth. The double lines of sheet pilintj with puddle filling' ex- 
tends around three sides only. The back of the coffer dam (shown by 
the sinsie dotted line) consists of a light wall of sheet piling to prevent 
bank from caving in. The same method of construction is shown, 
perhaps more clearly, in Fig. 24. 

would be in danger of continually sliding down at the sides into 
the stream. To continue, the U shaped wing wall being 
shorter than the inclined one, it will require less earth to fill 
in behind it, and we should, therefore, adopt the U shape where 
the bank permits its construction ; but in the work which we 
are now about to do we find it necessary to construct a long 
slanting wing on the up-stream end of the abutment to keep out 
the current, and, for the sake of uniformity, we will make 
the lower side exactly like it. I may say in this connection 
that wing walls are generally made symmetrical; but sometimes 
the bank has a peculiar shape and character, and in such cases 
the lower wing may be made much shorter than the upper one, 
or left off entirely ; for example, where the main wall is built 
skewed to the direction of the shore so that all the fill comes in 
behind the up stream end of the abutment making a long sub- 
stantial wing necessary, or where the up stream side is earth 
and the down stream side is rock. 

With these preliminary remarks, we now begin construc- 
tion of cur coffer dam. Having previously fixed the size of our 
required abutment we stake out a space surrounding it, at least 



HTGHWAY BRIDGES. 



87 



one foot outside the timber oriUaq^e or bottom course of masonry, 
if grillage is not t:sed. The interior front line of the dam 
we will make parallel to the front face of the abutment, and 
the interior side lines of the dam we will lay out parallel 10 the 
two wings of the abutment. The back line of the coffer dam 
should be parallel to the front and clearing the extreme inside 
or back points of each wing at the lowest point of grillage or 
other foundation course. This will give enough elbow room 
for the workmen unless piles are to be driven inside the dam 
and sawed off, in which case the clear space between the outer 
points of the base of the foundation and inside wall of the coffer 
dam should not be less than two feet- but as this extra width 
means extra cost in lumber and 

greater expense for excavation, ._,-~-v^^ 

the retaining wall should be kept 
as close to the ^ --' 







Figure 24. 
Showing cufter 
dam for abut- 
ment built 
against a firm 
high bank; only 
the front and 
wings of the dam are puddled, and the back of the dam is composed of only a light 
wall to prevent the bank from caving into the abutment space where the masonry is 
to be built. 



foundation line as possible. By making the sides of the coffer 
dam parallel to the wings of the abutment, considerable material 
is saved; but the dam is sometimes made with square corners 
in the belief that it can be more easily constructed. 

Framing. — Now let us proceed with our work. In the pier 
coffer dam we used eight-inch by eight-inch timbers, one pair 
of frames being near the top of the sheet piling and the other, 
when in place, rested on the bottom of the stream. In the same 
manner we shall use two pairs of frames (an upper and a lower 
pair) for our abutment coffer dam ; but these double frames 
will be only three-sided, because the side next to the bank will 
not contain "puddle" and will only require a sort of temporary 
retaining wall of plank or sheet piling to prevent the bank from 
caving in while we are at work. We begin by deciding the 
exact position which our frames are to have when in place, and 



83 iUGJUVA V BRIDGES. 

having done this we dig two trenches in the bank on the up 
stream ends of the frames, extending diagonally into the bank 
about two feet, and at about the same depth as the bed of the 
stream, as we find this to be along the front side of the dam. 
Then in the same manner we dig two other trenches in the bank 
at the down stream end of the frames, extending diagonally 
down stream into the bank and on a level with the up stream 
trenches. These trenches are to contain the back ends of the 
bottom frame or bands, and when the trenches are ready we 
frame together two three-sided bands, which can be very con- 
veniently done by laying timbers on "false work " directly over 
the trenches or pits, halving them at the corner connections, 
bolting the corners with five-eighths inch bolts and tying the two 
frames tosfether with three one-inch rods on the front and two 
on each wing, so that the space between the two frames will 
be two feet ten inches from inside to inside faces all around. 
This space will be reduced to two feet six inches in the clear 
when the two lines or courses of two-inch sheet piling are driven 
in place. 

Having completed the bottom trenches and the bottom 
frames we are ready to sink the latter in place, and before doing 
this we spike on two-inch by eight-inch planks, eight feet long 
at the four angles or corners and at the four ends in exactly the 
same way adopted in making our pier coffer dam which will 
again be made clear by referring to Figs. 19 and 20 ; these 
eight planks being sharpened chisel shape at the lower end and 
the sharpened end projecting one foot below the bottom face of 
the bands with each plank "plumb " or at right angles to the 

^^^"^®^- ( To be Continued. ) 



IMPORTANT. — ''Good Roads" wants the natne a^id post-office 
address (^plainly avritten) of every civil engineer, surveyor, county officer 
and road officer in the United States. Also the names and addresses of 
prominent citizens who ewe interested in the movement for better roads. 
We ask each reader to aid in making tip this list. Send as promptly as 
possible and specif y each ma?i's official position. 



Last year Hon. A. C. Tupper, State Dairy Commissioner 
for Iowa, delivered an address at Des Moines in which he said : 

" The amount of butter shipped out of the state last year 
was 81,774,661 pounds. This shows a falling off in shipments 
this year of 10,211,548 pounds. This is explained by the fact 
that during the year and early summer months the country 
roads were nearly impassable on account of washouts and mud, 
and the farmers could not get their butter to market. In addi- 
tion to this the wet pastures impoverished the milk of the cows. " 

At twenty cents a pound this would amount to a loss in a 
single year of $2,042,329 on this item of farm produce alone, 
a sum sufficient to build many miles of permanent highways. 



Good Roads 



Vol. 4. 



September, 1893. 



IVo. 3. 




■■'**i=s^«^. 



E 



The Old Way. 



THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN.* 

HOW THE ROADS AND THE COUNTRY HOUSES ARE NUMBERED 

IN CONTRA COSTA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. AN ADMIRABLE SYSTEM 

DESCRIBED BY ITS ORIGINATORS, 

A. L. Bancroft and C. M. Plumb. 
I 

VER since the clays in Da- 
mascus, when the Lord 
sent Ananias into the 
street, which is called 
Straight, to inquire for one 
Saul of Tarsus, and how much 
longer we have no means of 
knowing, the people of the 
city have had an advantage 
over those of the country in 
being able to find, and direct 
others how to find, exact lo- 
calities. In the citv, streets 
are named and houses are numbered, and system and order 
prevail. In the country neither is done and chaos rviles. 

The ten-block system of numbering houses along country 
roads, and the systematic plan of ?iaiiiii!g all of the roads of the 
country, which forms a 
necessary adjunct to it, is an 
attempt to place the country 
fully upon an equality with 
the city in these respects. 

While the ten-block sys- 
tem, considered in its close 
meaning, refers only to the 
manner of numbering resi- 
dences, etc., along the thor- 
oughfares of the country, 
taken in connection with the 
other features which neces- 
sarily and naturally accompany it, the preparation for establish- 
ing it includes the arranging of the roads in suitable lengths 

*A Short Exphination.— The roads of an entire county are arranged in as lon.ar 
lengths as practicable and are all named. They are then measured, commencing: at 
the county seat, or at the end nearest to it, and each mile is divided into ten equal 
pirts or imaginary blocks, liaving frontage only. Two numbers are assigned to each 
block; one to each frontage, the odd ones upori the left and the even ones upon the 
right — ten blocks to a mile ; twentv numbers to a mile. Any house having an entrance 
in a block has the number of that block. The number for all but the first house in a 
block is followed by a distinguishing letter ; 742, 742a, 742;!', etc. Divide the even num- 
bers by two and point off one decimal and the distance in miles and tenths, from the 
commencement of the road, is shown. y; 



.^^^ i 






k 










^-■vi^, 






The New Way. 



96 



THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 



for applying names, the selection of pleasing and appropriate 
names, the measuring and blocking off of the roads, numbering 
the country-house entrances, erecting guide boards and the 
publishing of a country directory which will show the location 
of a country resident with as much exactness, and make it as 
easy to find any country residence, as it is at present to find a 
residence when knowing the street and number in the city. 

The naming of country places, the advertising or the busi- 
ness specialty of the countryman follow in the same line of 



Nyi!^& 



,tia)Ei'o^ 



;No^ 



Irrorn^''" 



concord .0-^^^ 
Clayton le.sM- ^^ 

Oe^kla.Tid 18.3M ' 



I'fiea 






it^r^Hi 



iamo.:>;cfflaiv^ 






'•"«S2)L 



1 



tltV9(>fi JUv9fcft 



Pacheco s.mmnim 

10.6 M 



1 

rural advancement, as well as the more material improvement 
of the roads themselves, and the free delivery of mail matter, 
telegrams, and a country express or package delivery in con- 
nection with the postal service. 

While the ten-block system supplies the one deficiency 
which at present makes this line of rural advancement im- 
possible, the different steps will be considered in the order 
which would naturally be followed in establishing the complete 
plan. 

The scheme was developed while working upon these lines 
in the interests of Contra Costa County, somewhat more than 
two years ago. While at the outset the needs and requirements 
of Contra Costa were the particular situation to be met, it soon 
became evident that the plan was needed fully as much and 
would be fully as useful in other country localities as at home, 
and the study has been from early in the work of its develop- 
ment to formulate a plan which would be generally useful in 
all country sections. The aim has been to develop a plan, sys- 
tematic throughout, and to have a good reason for each step 



THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 



97 




taken; to not only find a 
way to do a thing but to 
find the best way to accom- 
plish it. Hundreds of 
papers have published ac- 
counts of it, and almost in- 
variably to commend it. 
As the few attempts at 
criticism have not weak- 
ened it a particle, it ap- 
pears to be safe to consider 
that its merits are strong- 
enough to justify putting 
the plan into actual oper- 
ation. 

Contra Costa has adopted 
the plan officially, and the 
work of establishing it is 
now under way. It is fre- 
quently spoken of as the 
Contra Costa plan. 

Listing the Roads. — Be- 
fore the houses along the 
country roads can be num- 
bered with any degree of 
satisfaction or usefulness, 
the situation must be given 
a shape very different from 
the one existing at present. 
The roads must be named, 
and previous to that being 



done. 



thought 



and study 



must be given to each 
stretch of road to be known 
by the same name. 

The first step, therefore, 
would be to arrange the 
roads into lengths, make 
a descriptive list of them 
and for convenience of ref- 
erence, number them in 
the list. 

This work is, or should 
be, a county affair; should 
include the entire county, 
and the county seat is the 
natin-al centre of the sys- 
tem. 



98 THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 

The roads should be arranged in as long- lengths 
as practicable. So long as a road runs in a general direction, 
or even if it deflects somewhat to either side, provided the 
angles are not too abrupt, the same name should be continued 
through towns, across streams, over ridges and around moun- 
tains along its entire length. 

In order that system and order may govern throughout this 
plan, and that the course of the roads be not such that the lines will 
cross in all directions, they should all commence at the county 
seat or at the end nearest to it. 

The roads should be listed commencing with those departing 
from the county seat northerly, and work around in a circle 
towards the east, south, west and back again to the north. The 
roads branching from these and their branches follow. 

Selecting Names. — In naming the roads the things to be 
avoided are perhaps even more important than the things to be 
done. The namic of neither terminus is taken, for the reason 
that it would be appropriate only when traveling towards it. 
If both termini are taken it becomes more of a description than 
a name. The name of no living resident upon the road should 
be taken, for while it might be pleasing to the one whose name 
was so selected, it would hardly be so to any one else. The 
possessive case should be avoided. It is awkward to write and 
is apt to be incorrectly done. 

Names should be selected from among the landscape sur- 
roundings of the locality; from the historical associations or 
legends of the place ; from its botanical or geological features. 
An average county is likely to have many more roads than can 
be given pleasing names from these classes. Other names can 
be selected from the names of statesmen, army and naval 
officers, battle fields, naval vessels, forest trees, etc. 

The name should be short, easily spelled and pronounced. 
Two-word names are better than three or more. 

In Contra Costa there are 130 roads on the list. Some of 
the names particularly appropriate are Alpha Way, the first on 
the list. Contra Costa Highway, which extends from Martinez 
south completely across the county. It is probably the most 
prominent road in the county, and the word highway is not 
used in any other road name. Alhambra Way runs through the 
valley of that name ; Franklin Road through Franklin Canyon ; 
Visto Rio along the banks of and overlooking the river. Teal 
Local, TuleRoad, Plover Connex and Pacheco Exit are located 
near the river and tide lands. Camino Diablo is near the base 
of Mount Diablo. Solano Way extends in the direction of Solano 
County. Summer Road is a better road in Summer than during 
the wet season. Zig Zag Way speaks for itself. Concord Lateral 
extends out from the town of Concord, like the lateral branch 
of a tree. Via Concordia is a branch of Concord Lateral and 



THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 



99 



is located near the town of Concord. Lime Ridg-e crossing is 
expressive. Mountain drive leads to the summit of Mount Diablo. 
Golden Gate Way extends from Walnut Creek to the county line 
towards Oakland, and ends in view of the Golden Gate. Walnut 
Way lies for a part of its length by the side of the stream of 
Walnut Creek and has numerous native California walnut trees 
upon it. La Grange was the name of Lafayette's country 
home and De Kalb accompanied him upon his expedition to 
America during revolutionary times. The roads bearing- these 
two names are located near the town of Lafayette. Camino 
JPablo commences at the town of San Pablo and extends up 
San Pablo Creek through San Pablo Canyon, etc. 

There appears to be a decided convenience, if not a neces- 
sity, to have certain kinds of roads distinguishable at once by 
their names. Therefore, three words, local, connex and exit, 
have been used to definitely indicate three different classes of 
roads. 

A local as used in Contra Costa is a road having no outlet, 
' a neighborhood road. It will frequently be convenient for the 
traveler to know before starting on a local that he must return 
by the same way. A connex is a short road having no branches 
and useful principally in connecting other more prominent 
roads. An exit has no outlet except an exit by water. Silva 
local, Sava connex and Granger exit are samples of these 
names. 

Unless work of this kind is governed by well-defined lines it 
is apt to take some Cjuite incongruous shapes. While one of 
the central counties of the state, which is far in advance of 
other counties in the attention given to road matters, the 
names of some of her roads as they stand upon the official reg- 
ister are open to criticism. vSuch names as the following are to 
be found, viz: Hess and Battle road: possibly, like the Via 

Appi in Rome, named for the 
contractors who built it. Where 
such names as John Heinlen's 
cart road, T. B. Jamison's cart 
road and Julius Martin's public 
cart road (five words) come froin 
it is difticultto conjecture. Why 
were thev not called ox cart or 
dump-cart roads, and thus make 
the names artistic? 

The following are more de- 
scriptions than names: Saratoga 
and Los Gatos road, Alviso and 
San Jose turnpike andMoimtain 
View and Alviso road. Bay View Schoolhouse road is another 
long one. And here are some doubled-barrel ones: Prospect 
or Babb road, Willow Extension or Settle road, and Lincoln 






',..Wu..^ 



Ss 



K 



1l\ 







L 



The Hai.f-Mile Mark on a Picket 
Fence. 



loo THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 

avenue or Mount Hamilton road. These, however, may have 
been intended more for official convenience than for public use. 

Measuring and Blocking the Road. — When the C|uestion of 
measuring was up, for consideration, the first thing was an 
obstacle to be overcome. Where should the country road begin? 
AVhere is the dividing line between town and country? At the 
corporation limits? This country is new; towns grow; such a 
point would not be permanent; the whole structure, while it 
might be perfect at the outset, could not stand but would 
crumble to dust. The difficulty is overcome in this w^ay: By 
breaking through the frontier and going to some fixed central 
point and measuring from that, letting the town numbers 
govern within the town limits and the country numbers com- 
mence when the limits of the town are reached; the first and all 
other country numbers depending upon the distance from the 
starting point. 

Still keeping in mind that this is a county scheme, the 
County Court House, the centre of county affairs, is the proper 
central point for all the measurement to begin. There- 
fore, for all roads touching the county seat the exact point where 
the measurement commences is the middle of the street di- 
rectly in front of the main entrance to the Court House. From 
this point proceed by the nearest and most direct route to and 
out upon the road to be measured. 

For all roads not touching the county seat the measurement 
commences where the middle line of the road intersects the 
middle line of the road from which it departs. All roads, ex- 
cept locals and exits, end at the connecting road where the mid- 
dle line of each form the junction. 

With this system the town may grow into a city and take up 
miles of the country roads, and the remaining numbers along 
them will still be as applicable as they are at the commence- 
ment. Continuing the road name and the road measurement 
directly through the country towns, letting the town numbers 
govern within the town limits and it completely overcomes 
this difficulty at these points. 

Each mile is divided into ten ec^ual parts of imaginary 
blocks having frontage only, two frontages to each block, one 
upon each side of the road. The length of the blocks being 
one-tenth of a mile can also be expressed, without fractions, by 
five hundred and twenty-eight feet one hundred and seventy- 
six yards thirty-two rods, or eight chains. 

The measurement is continued uninterruptedly along the 
entire length of the road. Two numbers are assigned to each 
block, one to each frontage, the odd ones upon the left and the 
even ones upon the right. 

Numbering the Country Houses and Farm Entrances. — All 
houses or farms having entrances upon a block bear the number 
of that block. Where there are more entrances than one upon 



THE CONTRA COS 7' A ROAD PLAN. 



lOI 



the same block, which will not frequently occur, all but tlie 
first are given in connection with the number, a distinguishing 
letter — 982, 982 a, 982 b, etc By this system, should there be 
an entrance every twenty feet on both sides of the road, over 
500 to the mile, a number with a letter would still be available 
for each one. On the other hand, if no house occurred for 
miles, ox if at any time afterward houses should be erected 
along the roads, a number would always be ready for them. 
Thus it will be seen the work is permanent, that new houses 
being built at any time upon a road will not interfere with the 
houses already numbered, and there is always a number ready 
for the new one. The only confusion that could possibly exist 
would be when the early houses in a block were located near 

the end of the block and 



i2i®120 




Thk Mile Mark on a Board Fence. 



lettered accordingly, and the 
later buildings be located 
nearer the commencement 
of the block. The dis- 
tinguishing letters would not 
then come in their regular 
order, and it is not abso- 
lutely necessary that they 
should so come; but if re- 
vision of these letters should 
be considered advisable, it 
would he but for one block 
and it would not in any way interfere with any of the others. 
The numbers would in no case require changing. 

Guide Roadi\ Road Marks and House A^ umbers. — As will be 
seen by a glance at the illustration of the guide board used in 
connection with this plan, while it contains all the information 
usually found on such aids to the stranger groping his way 
through the wilderness, it also contains some others. 

The first and most prominent line contains the name of the 
road in letters sufficiently large to be easily read some distance 
away. The number upon the left of the same line is not the 
number of the road in the list of roads, but of the block within 
which the particular guide-board is located. It will thus always 
be a landmark which will enable the stranger to establish his 
location. (See cut of Guide Board on Page 90 ) 

The stranger, or even the local resident, knowing the name 
of a road, would naturally like to know something more about 
it. Where does the road begin ; where does it end. and how 
long is It i* The second line in quite small letters answers these 
inc^uiries. It is not intended to be legible from the middle of 
the road, but by approaching it the traveler can obtain the de- 
sired information. As the distances along the roads under 
the ten-block system are derived from the numbers — house, 



102 THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 

entrance and block numbers all being the same — the 
length of the road is indicated upon the guide-boards in this 
way, and not by expressing it in miles and fractions. 

The information contained in the third and following lines 
is that which is ordmarily found upon country guide boards, 
the distances, mostly being to places not upon the same road as 
the one upon w^hich the guide board is located, are given in 
miles, and as the whole system is a decmial one the fractions 
are in tenths. 

The guide boards themselves are made of galvanized iron 
sufhciently thick to withstand a charge of shot from the new 
gun of the small boy or young hoodlum. The boards are bent 
at right angles so as to be flat against two faces of the post and 
the edges are turned back from the face of the board to give it 
rigidity. The ground of the board should be painted with 
luminous pamt, which would enable the wording to be read at 
night. The posts should be of good dense 6x6 redwood, ten 
feet long; the part going into the ground coated with coal tar, 
and the part above the ground painted with two good coats of 
paint. The guide boards and numbers should be protected by 
ordinance of the board of supervisors and by a feeling of pride 
and interested ownership being instilled into the hearts of chil- 
dren, both at home and at school, so that they would protect 
them the same as they would their own family or personal prop- 
erty of any other kind. 

Along the roads, upon the fence or other object, when suit- 
able and well enough preserved to warrant it, are fastened 
strips or sheets of galvanized boiler iron, with marks to show 
the exact point of division between the blocks, with the block 
numbers upon either side of the marks. Three colors are 
uniformly used — one to indicate the mile points, a different 
one the half-mile points, and a third the block divisions at 
neither of these points. At the end of the full mile the full 
circle enclosing a letter X; X, ten — ten blocks — is used. At 
the end of the half-mile, a half circle is used; it encloses half 
of the X, making a V, which indicates half of the ten, or five — 
five blocks. Thus the story is told m several different ways, 
and if it is told truthfully all should agree. 

Along some roads very few objects will be found upon which 
It would be suitable to attach the iron plates containing the 
block numbers. Upon such roads trees and telegraph poles 
can be utilized whether they are located exactly upon the line 
between two blocks or not. The number of the block in which 
the object is located can be given in full size figures, and under- 
neath smaller figures can be used to show the distance and 
direction to the dividing line. Of course, by going to the ex- 
pense of planting posts or stone shafts specially for the pur- 
pose of supporting the numbers, they could be placed in their 
exact positions. 



THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 103 

The distance being so readily and easily calculated from the 
block numbers these marks answer every purpose of mile 
stones. 

Houses or entrance numbers are required to be not less than 
three inches nor more than four inches in height and they are 
recommended to be of the same material as other road marks, 
galvanized boiler iron. It goes without saying that they should 
be neat and durable. 

In England it is a universal custom to give names to the 
suburban and country places. It is a pleasmg one and should 
be encouraged. It would be appropriate to post the name of 
the place in connection with the house number. Or the owner's 
name or any business specialty m which he might be engaged 
could be given. Thus the countryman would have a doorplate 
or business advertisement or a combination of the two at his 
entrance, which would increase his appreciation for and valua- 
tion of his home and surroundings. 

Country Directories. — The roads being named and the houses 
numbered, a directory of the residents can be made with as 
much exactness and definiteness as is now possible of city 
people. 

By limiting the words indicating town or city thoroughfares 
to the twelve following, viz. : Alley, avenue, boulevard, court, 
park, place, plaza, promenade, row, square, street and terrace, 
and using road, way, highway, local, connex, camino, via, 
drive, exit, etc., etc., and all others for the country, a directory 
for an entire county for both town and country residents can 
be made under one alphabetical arrangement and definite in- 
formation can be given regarding all. For instance, if John 
Jones is given as 68 Contra Costa Highway, Martinez, it will be 
understood that he lives out on the highway, the location being 
indicated by the number, and receives his mail at Martinez. If 
his brother, George Jones, is entered as 16 Ferry Street, 
Martinez, it will be known that that town is where he obtains 
his mail and also that he lives in the town. 

The Ten-block System. — It will thus be seen that the ten-block 
system embodies the following features, viz. : Listmg and 
naming the roads in as long lengths as practicable; measuring 
and blocking them off into ten equal parts or imaginary blocks 
to each mile; assigning two numbers to each block, one to each 
frontage upon each side of the road. Any house having an ■ 
entrance from a block has the number of its block. 

The Advantages of the System. — ^The advantages of this system 
are numerous and great. Some of the more important ones 
are here recapitulated: The work is permanent, as much so as 
the roads themselves. Numbers are always ready for new 
houses which may be built upon a country road at any time, to 
any extent, without in any way disarranging the existing 




I04 THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 

numbers. It is equally applicable whether the houses 
are twenty feet apart or twenty miles apart, and 
every number indicates distance. It is adapted to 
and useful in all kinds of country, whether flat or 
mountainous, and whether the roads are straight or 
crooked. Growing towns or new towns springing up 
along the line of a road do not in the slightest degree 
interfere with or disarrange the system. The 
measurement being continuous and the numbers 
being dependent upon the distance from the starting 
part of the road, it matters not what part of the road 
is absorbed by the towns, the numbers remaining 
upon the country part of the road are as applicable 
and useful as though the succession of the numbers 
Block divis- -^vas unbroken. For country distances the mile is 
Telegraph the unit of measurement. The countryman thinks 
POLE. ^^ miles. These country house numbers indicate 

distances from which the miles can be calculated almost in- 
stantly. Divide the house number by two and point off one 
decimal and the distance in miles and tenths is shown. In the 
case of odd numbers add one to complete the block, divide by 
two and point off a decimal. Thus the number 981 and 982 
opposite, both indicate 49. 1 miles from the commencement of 
the road. With the aid of a key map and key, taking up no 
more room in the pocket than a railway time table, the distance 
from any house number to any other house number in a county, 
no matter where located, can be calculated in about one minute. 
Strangers can be directed and receive directions so that they 
can find the desired location without loss of time or asking a 
question. A directory of country localities can be made which 
will be as full and definite as those at present published for 
city use, or addresses can be given in the poll list of voters, 
which would be useful to some extent. 

It will facilitate the official business between the county- 
seat and the country. Road work can be more readily and 
accurately described. The fees of jurymen, witnesses and 
county officials can be quickly calculated. An official road 
register can be kept which will direct to the book and page 
where all official actions taken by the Board of Supervisors, 
pertaining to the named road, can be found. The producer of 
country commodities can the more readily advertise his products 
and find a purchaser and the seller should be benefitted there- 
by, while the would-be purchaser could the more easily find 
what he desires. 

With the ten-block system in use it becomes feasible to 
establish mail delivery routes along the routes where they will 
accommodate the greatest number of people. Wayside mail 
boxes should be located along these roads and be known by 



THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 105 

the name of road and number of block in which located, sucli 
as mail box 14, Ogontz road, for instance. In these boxes 
could be deposited the mail not only for the people living' 
directly npon the roads, but also for those living within acces- 
sible distance npon either side. The boxes should have two 
compartments, one for the incoming mail and also one for the 
outgoing mail, both of which could be visited by the country 
postman as he passes along the roads sounding his bugle, thus 
giving notice to all within hearing that the postman was 
passing. 

The influence npon the roads themselves will be important, 
for with people living upon named roads and where the houses 
are numbered and the identity of the occupants known, the 
tendency will be to make a better appearance. The intercourse 
between the town and the country, as well as between the 
country people themselves, will be easier and more frequent. 
As a result of all this the country will be a pleasanter place in 
which to live. 

The Present Situation in Contra Costa. — A committee of 
citizens worked a year upon developing the system, shaping the 
system and preparing an ordinance. It was upon the basis 
that the expense should be paid out of the public treasury. It 
did not pass. Six months later it was presented again upon 
the basis that the measuring and blocking-off of the roads be 
done at private expense, and wdien or as so done, the county 
would, at public expense, erect and maintain suitable guide- 
boards. With this modification the ordinance was passed and 
the roads are now all named. Enough money has been 
pledged to establish the system over a few hundred miles of 
roads in the central part of the county, and work upon it has 
already been commenced. 

A permanent committee of three citizens is charged with the 
duty of proposing names for new roads, seeing that the field 
work is properly done, etc. It is hoped that after the work 
done at private expense shall have been in actual nse for a time, 
the Board of Supervisors will order the remaining part of 
the count)^ completed at public expense. 

Establishing the System. — While the ten-block system is an in- 
teresting theory with which to tickle the imagination, there is 
but little doubt that it will be found even more pleasing and 
useful in active operation. 

Although the originator of this scheme could not at the out- 
set see any fatal defects in it, for the first six months or a year 
that it was before the public, he did not have entire confidence 
that others might not consider it of no value. Now that it has 
passed under the scrutiny of so many writers and interested 
people without serious defects having been pointed out, he is 
becoming more confident and feels that it is a plan that is safe 



]o6 THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 

to put in actual operation generally, the more extensively the 
better. 

In order to establish it committee work is required, and a 
few good rnen should be found to undertake the service. It 
will require good, interested, persistent work. The committee 
must be brought into existence by the powers that be, the 
Board of Supervisors, or emanate from the people. 

Unless the supervisors would be willing to appoint such a 
committee at the outset, one public meeting, well planned in 
advance, to which all interested should be invited, where the 
subject would be discussed, should be sufficient. At such a 
meeting a committee could be elected with powers to fill 
vacancies, or even to add to their numbers, and take all action 
necessary to give the movement shape, and present it to the 
Board of Supervisors for their action. A committee of five 
would be large enough and then the most of the work would 
probably be done by two or three of their number. 

This is a public work and should be done at public expense, 
and the Board of Supervisors should be asked to order it so 
done, and for their entire county. 

In Contra Costa the first meetings were held two and a half 
years ago in the Oak Grove schoolhouse in Ignacio valley at 
the base of Mt. Diablo. Following the meetings in this school- 
house others were held in other school districts and then two 
others were held at Martinez, the county seat. At the latter of 
these the whole matter was referred to a permanent committee 
of five with power to act, and they now have something to 
show for the time spent upon it. 

The work in the field of putting the system into actual 
operation has not been touched upon in this paper, but as sister 
counties arrive at that point they count upon all the assistance 
that the pioneer work which is being done by Contra Costa will 
enable her to give. 

A. L. Bancroft. 

Bound iwlwnes of " Good Roads " {Jiandsoniely bound in seal brown 
clotJi and gilt) can now be supplied at $i per volume. Each volume 
contains six numbers of " Good Roads." The first three volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price is lower than that charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the country, and is fixed at $i to 
enable each reader to obtain at nominal cost a handsome and useful 
work. Address " Good Roads," Potter Building, New York. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads" wants the name and post-ofiice 
address (^plainly written) of every civil engineer, surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the natnes 
ajid addresses of prominent citizens who are interested in the movement 
for better roads. We ask each reader to aid in making up this list. 
Send as promptly as possible and specif y each man s official position. 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 
By John N. Os/roiii. C. E. . 

Mem. Amcr. Soc. C. H. ; Metii. IVcslcni Soc. C. E. 
( Continued. ) 

IV. 

COFFER DAM FOR ABUTMENTS; DESCRIPTION CONTINUED SHORE 

PITS , HOW LOCATED LEVELING THE BOTTOM HOW TO 

DRIVE SHEET PILING A CHEAPER FORM OF COFFER DAM FOR 

SHALLOW STREAMS ; DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING. 

WE must be sure to fasten these planks, inside of the outer 
and outside of the inner band, because the space 
between is to be filled with earth puddle and this will 
crowd the planks against the bands which are kept from 
spreading by the one-inch tie rods. We now remove the false 
work or blocking on which the frames were put together and 
lower the united frame to the surface of the water so that 
the back ends of the frame timbers will be in position exactly 
over the pits or trenches. The next operation is to sink the 
frame, and this we do by piling rocks or gravel on temporary 
platforms lying across the frames at the angles and the ends, 
following the same method used in sinking the frames of the 
pier coffer dam. 

Bear in mind that the trenches for the lower bands should 
be as low as the bed of the stream v.diere the front timber rests, 
so that the frame will lie horizontal or level, and in most cases 
we shall have no trouble to make the necessary excavation vcith 
a long handled shovel or a hoe. It may sometimes be necessary 
for the workmen to stand in the water up to the armpits, but 
if they object to this at first, half a dollar a day added to their 
wages will generally tempt them to the work. 

Now we inust dig trenches for the ends of the top bands, 
which should also extend into the bank about two feet along the 
water line. The top trenches are stepped back from the bot- 
tom ones according to the slope of the bank, and of course we 
shall have to make the wings of our top bands or frames cor- 
respondingly longer. 

Top Frame. — Our next work is to construct the top bands into 
a compact frame of the same width and angles as the submerged 
one, and differing from it only in the longer wing-sticks made 
necessary by' the recedmg bank, as it slopes upwards and away 
from us. To do this we will lay the ways or sills of our false 
work extending outward into the water, with one end of each 

107 



io8 



HIGHWA V BRIDGES. 



way or sill resting on shore and the outer end on a temporary- 
post driven down to the water line, to prevent sinking, and cover 
them with a few planks at convenient places to stand on; a form 
of construction which may be used for both top and bottom 
frames and may be removed by simply slipping the outer ends 
from the posts and floating to one side when we wish to sink 
the bottom frame, or to remove entirely. 

After screwing up our 
top frame with five- 
eighths inch bolts and 
one-inch tie rods, the 
same as in the bottom 
frame, we 
spike i t 




Figure 25. 
Showing pits in bank (or "shore 
pits") for receiving the ends of 
timbers in coffer dam frames. 
The four "bands" composing 
the upper and lower frames are 
shown in the picture to illustrate 
the relation, in form, size and position, which the pits sustain to the frames. 

where it lies to the eight sheet piles, sticking out of the water 
as before mentioned, taking pains to keep the plank inside of 
the outer and outside of the inner band with reference to the 
shore for a reason already explained. 

Sheet Piling. — Now we begin and drive down our sheet piling 
along the faces of the bands and filling the spaces between the 
eight plank already in position, until two continuous walls are 
fonned two feet six inches apart in the clear. As we come to the 
rocks and temporary flooring on the bottom band, we fish them out 
in any convenient manner or shove them to one side out of the 
way and if the water is not more than three feet deep the best 
way is to send in men who can generally be found on every job 
willing even to duck their heads tmder water in extreme cases 
for a little extra time or wages. After the sheeting is securely 
driven as described above, we set our shovels at work on the 
banks and fill the two and a half foot space with earth to the 
top, keeping it tamped down as compactly as possible, and in 
horizontal layers. The wings can be partly filled by shoveling 
directly from the shore; but it will be necessary to build tem- 
porary plank barrow tracks to wheel out for the front fill, 



HIGHWA Y BRIDGES. 



109 




< 




unless the water is at a low stage, in which case the shovelers can 
get inside and throw over the excavated material, using it for 
puddle, which is an evident saving of labor and expenses. 

As the excavation goes down and the earth begins to cave 
in along the inner and lower edge of the dam, we drive down 
the inner line of sheeting and go on with the work. If we have 
to sink to any considerable depth, say four feet, 
we may have to drive down the outer row; but 
this is not generally necessary. 

Length of Sheet Piling and How Spliced. — I will 
here repeat what I have before stated, that the 
length of the sheet piling depends on the depth 
of the excavation, and allowance should be 
made to have the top ends, when fully driven, 
project two feet above average water line to 
provide for ordinary rises. All this can be 
determined by sounding with iron bars before 
work begins on the coffer dam. But we are 
likely to sometimes make a mistake in our 
soundings, and in places find that our sheeting 
is too short. When this happens we splice on a 
piece of the same size plank at the top and drive 
down to the proper depth, an operation which 
is not at all difficult. Note that the splice 
should be a "butt joint" with a piece like the 
pile plank about one foot long nailed over it 
inside and out. 

Shore Pits. — In sinking the pit on the shore 
side the earth may begin to slide on us, and in 
this event we must drive down a single line of 
two-inch sheet piling and support it with an eight 
by eight inch band near the top ; and if the bank 
is soft we shall need a band also at the bottom. 
If we strike rock at one corner we sink the balance of the 
pit until the surface of the rock is exposed throughout the 
whole interior of the coffer dam, and then level it off clear 
across, or step it stair shape, as before explained. In case blast- 
ing is necessary we use the lightest charges possible to do the 
work, as it is important not to shatter the rock any more than 
absolutely necessary. I have seen cases where, by careless 
blasting, seams were opened up much deeper than desirable, caus- 
ing great deal of extra work to level off ; and a hole mav easily 
be blown in the dam by heedless blasting. It is a prudent pre- 
caution, and one often practiced to-day in city blasting at least, 
to cover the charge with heavy paper boards about one inch 
thick and three feet square. This effectually prevents the rock 
from flying, thereby reducing the danger of accident and lia- 
bility of damage. 



kW" 



■/ 



.A-. 



Figure 26. 

"Butt joint" 
method ofsplicing 
a sheet-pile. 



1 1 o HIGH IV A Y BR IB GES. 

Leveling the Bottom and Protecting Against ' ' Scouring. — When 
our excavation reaches a bed of hard clay two feet or 
more thick, we may safely level off the surface and build on it, 
as the current will not cut into it unless very much contracted in 
width, which is not likely to happen in most cases. I may say 
in further explanation of this fact, which it will be well to re- 
member, that if we were to build a dam from opposite sides of 
a stream and not quite join it in the middle, as the same water 
must necessarily flow onward, the stream would begin to rise 
at the top and ' ' dig " at the bottom until there was room enough 
to get through, and if the edges of the dam did not give way, 
the bottom would scour out for a good many feet, even through 
solid rock. The world-renowned Eads applied this principle 
in his work of deepening the great Mississippi, and used what 
are termed ''jetties" to force the river to cut a deep navigable 
channel. A familiar example of cutting through solid rock is 
the whirlpool gorge below Niagara Falls, where all the water of 
our great lakes flows through a narrow, rocky passage, so deep 
that it has never been successfully sounded : but this is owing 
to the swift current which makes it impossible to sink a line, 
and not because it is beyond the depth of a plummet. In firm 
sand or gravel we should go down at least three feet below the 
bed of the stream, for almost any freshet is liable to dig as deep 
as this, unless the foundation is protected along the front side 
with heavy field bowlders or broken stone, familiarly known as 
' ' rip rap ; " but I may add that if scouring is prevented the beds re- 
ferred to will make imyielding foundations for any class of 
masonry we are likely to need. If we strike quicksand of any 
considerable depth, so that our sheet piling cannot readily be 
driven through it, we must stop at once and drive piles for our 
foundation as the best way out of the difficulty, although this is al- 
ways expensive work compared to ordinary forms of construction. 

By referring to the various pictures relating to the puddled 
coffer dam for our pier, in connection with the description given 
above, I think the method of constructing the coffer dam for 
abutment will be clearly fixed in your mind. 

A Simple Way to Drive Sheet Filing. — Perhaps this is as 
good an opportunity as any to tell you how to drive 
sheet piling. In simple cases, where the water is shallow, 
we can use an axe or a maul; but when it is necessary 
to drive to a depth of two feet or more, a heavier hammer 
must be used ; and while there are machines provided for this 
purpose similar to the ordinary pile driver, they are not always 
easy to secure, and I am confident that I can recommend a 
home-made contrivance which is always on hand, and never 
gets out of repair. This is the method of construction. When 
the top or bottom frames of either pier or abutment dam are in 
position ready for the sheet piling, we build a temporary bent 
similar to the one described for our washout repair job in a 



HIGHWA V BRIDGES. 



Ill 



former chapter. (See Fig. lo.) In order to lay it out we measure 
down from the upper surface of our top band and find, for ex- 
ample, that it is four feet to the bed of the stream, and this depth 
will fix the heig-htof our bent, since we want it to support a tem- 
porary platform, one end of which rests upon it and the other 
on the band. For a cap we take a piece of eight-inch by eight- 
inch timber, say sixteen feet long, and saw off legs or posts of the 
same size, four feet in length. With this material and a couple 




Figure 27. 
Showing simple but effective method of driving sheet piling where 
the axe or maul will not drive to sufficient depth. Tlie movable "bent " 
at the right of the picture is shifted from time to time as the work pro- 
ceeds, and a temporary plank platform is supported at one end by the 
bent, and at the other end by the Upper outer band of the cofferdam. 
A heavy timber is used in driving, and the manner of doing the work 
is easily understood from the picture and the descriptive text. 

of two-inch planks for braces, we build a bent, without a mud- 
sill, as already described; and it will be well to refer again, at 
this point, to the text in the former chapter. The bent when 
finished will be eight inches higher than the top band, but 
this is to allow possible settlement of the bent from a light 
load, and to prevent this settlement to an undue extent the 
post feet of the bent are left square. When fimished, float the 
bent out by the side of the dam where the sheeting is to be 
driven and "up end" it so that it will stand parallel to the 
frame and about fourteen feet distant from it. Then lay across 
a couple of two-inch plank sixteen feet long, from the outer 
band to the bent, placing one plank on each side of the first 
sheet pile to be driven, spacing the plank about two feet apart 
and spiking them temporarily at both ends, forming a com- 
bined platform and brace. Now if we have a piece of square 
twelve-inch by twelve-inch timber, twenty feet long, we float it 
out under the platform and hoist up between the two planks, 
till one end rests on the bent and the other on the top of the 
sheet pile to be driven. This beam is nothing more nor less than 



112 



HIGHWA V BRIDGES. 



our hammer, as we shall presently see. Now we place two 
men on each side of the beam at the end near the sheet pile 
and standing" on the planks shoulder to shoulder. By raising- 
the end of the hammer beam and allowing it to drop suddenly 
on the head of the pile it is driven rapidly into the ground and 
may be continued to any depth which ordinary soft wood pil- 
ing lumber will stand without splitting. As pile after pile is 
driven edge to edge, slide along two other platform planks, 
spacing them always on opposite sides of the hammer-beam 
and about two feet apart. It is not necessary to spike them if 
the first two put in place are left in position. When the whole 
length of the temporary bent has been traversed, it may be 
shifted with little trouble until both lines of sheet piling- are 
driven clear around. Let me add that the effectiveness of this 
temporary pile driver can scarcely ^.-tassss-'s — - 

be overestimated for temporary --"T^^-^^^^^'' 

work, as by run- . --- -«iwf:"^^^'KV i^ 



n 1 n g simultane 




FICtURE 28. 

Showing 
cheap and 
simple form 
of construction of coffer 
dam for slutfgish and 
s h a I 1 <i vv streams. A 
single wall of double lapped sheet piling- is used, the planks bemg driven snugly to- 
gether so as to l-:eep out the water and render a puddle wall unnecessary. 

ously double gangs of eight men to a beam on the outer ends 
of three leg bents, I have driver them firm enough to carry 
heavy railroad trains without serious settlement. 

A Cheaper Form of Coffer Dam for Shallow Streams. — The 
puddle coffer dam which we have now described at consider- 
able length, while economical and substantial for water 
up to at least ten feet in depth, is unnecessarily expensive for 
shoals where the current is slight and heavy rises unusual or 
unknown. To meet this demand I will give you another form 
of construction, where a single wall of double lapped sheet 
piling is used, being so closely driven together as to be sub- 
stantially water tight and therefore not requiring earth puddle. 
It will be seen at once that the lumber used must be free from 
knot holes and cracks, which were permissable in the other 
form, and this will add to the expense somewhat; but on the 
other hand only one eight-inch by eight-inch band is required, 



HIGirWA Y BRTDGRS. 1 1 3 

the iron tire rods are omitted and tlie handling of puddle 
material is avoided; so that the net saving in expense is ctjn- 
siderable. As an example we will again take a pier; and we 
will sink it in two feet of water, through two feet of gravel, to 
a bed of hard clay two feet thick. Let the size of the pier at 
the base be six feet wide and twenty feet long, outside to out- 
side, and of the encircling dam eight feet wide and twenty-two 
feet long in the clear (inside), as in the original case already 
described. Since it is four feet from water line to the clay bed, 
and, as a rise of eighteen inches may possibly take place during 
the progress of the work, we v/ill need piling plank seven feet 
long. This allows of driving six inches into the clay, and leaves 
six inches projection above the imaginary flood line, which is 
little enough precaution. I may add that the piles should be 
driven slightly into the clay since we are going through a gravel 
bed and have no puddle wall outside, so that if the sharpened 
points of the sheeting simply touched the clay, the water would 
gush through in troublesome quantities. To begin with, we will 
order fourteen feet plank for our piling, as these are a "stock 
size," and may be cut in half to correct length without waste. 
Let me also add that two inch by eight inch is a convenient size, 
although wider ones will do if more readily procured, and wider 
ones will sometimes offer an advantage by lessening the 
number of cracks, but the wider plank has also the disadvan- 
tage in being more likely to split in driving, besides being more 
difficult to find in a sound condition. Please note here quite an 
important point, /. ^. , as the courses " break joints, " the plank 
should all be of the same width to bring the crack between 
each two piles in the centre of the opposite or lapping one. 

To begin construction, we frame together our eight-inch by 
eight-inch band, by halving the corners and bolting the halved 
corners with five-eighths inch bolts; and we may as well do this 
in the water in the position wanted since the water is shallow; 
but the boring and halving can perhaps be better done on shore 
before the sticks are launched. While our frame is being 
finished other workinen should build a couple of movable plat- 
forms like a four-legged bench to stand on in driving the piling. 
The dimensions are not very important, but the top may as 
well be two planks, two inches by twelve inches by fourteen 
feet long, the legs two inches by four inches, flared out at the 
bottom to four feet, and of a length to make the bench four 
feet high. Caps under the plank of the same sized material as 
posts, and braces out of inch boards will complete the platforms. 
A sketch showing this platform will appear in a subsequent 
page. They can be shifted easily along the sides of the dam, 
and will not float in the depth of water given, both desirable 
conditions for economy, since it is not necessary to drive posts 
for a staging clear around the pier, and anchorage is not needed. 

( To be Continued. ) 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 

'By Isaac B. Potter. 

( Continued. ) 

Excavation for Macadam Roadway. — Let us suppose that all 
our grading has been completed, that the hills have been cut 
down and the hollows filled till the line of our roadway rises 
and falls only by moderate grades ; that the earth work required 
by these changes has become fairly settled and consolidated, 




Figure as. 

Showing manner of staking out lines for macadam work on ordi- 
nary country road. The bottom of proposed excavation is shown by the 
broken line joining the three stakes in the foreground. 

and that we have set our stone crusher at work grinding out the 
little cubes and wedges of stone which are to form the body of 
the macadam roadway. 

We must now turn our attention to the opening of a bed or 
excavation to receive this material and this, in most cases, is a 
very simple task. We begin by fixing the centre line of the 
roadway, and having determined this by necessary measure- 
ments, we indicate the centre line by driving a row of spikes or 
iron bolts about twenty-five feet apart. (The distance apart of 
these bolts had better be uniform, so that they can be easily 
found by measuring from one to another.) The spikes or bolts 
should be driven down a little below the surface, so as to avoid 
the chance of stumbling by horses. As the work progresses we 
can set up wooden stakes for temporary use at the points where 
these irons are driven in the ground. We now lay off the width 

114 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



115 



of the macadam roadway proper by measuring half this width 
from the centre stakes or bolts in each direction toward the 
sides and drive a line of side stakes, say twenty-five feet apart 
along on either side of the proposed macadam roadway. These 
two lines will fix the outer sides of the excavation. 

The depth of the excavation will depend, of course, on the 
thickness of the macadam material to be used. If this thick- 
ness is to be six inches (and if well constructed this will be 
sufficient for all ordinary country roads) the excavation should 
be six inches deep below the grade line of the finished surface. 
This rule is not absolute, but is sufficiently accurate for all 
ordinary purposes. If the ground is moderately firm, the 
sides of the excavation should be nearly perpendicular and the 
bottom of the excavation should have a slight downward slope 




^?:%7t^^Jl|^ 




Figure 23. 
Another form of excavation for macadam roadway. The excavation 
is extended outward on each side to catch and carry off the surface 
water from the surface of the road when completed. In staking out this 
work, as many lines of stakes may be used as the road maker finds most 
convenient, and these will depend on the width of the proposed road. 

from centre to sides corresponding in some degree with the 
slope of the finished roadway. This will be about one-half inch 
.fall to each foot in width of the roadway. If the earth is of a 
soft, sandy, yielding nature, the broken stone of the macadam 
roadway will be easily ground off at the edge of the excavation 
and pressed into the soft earth by the wheels of passing wagons, 
and to prevent this it will be best to excavate along the outer 
edge to a somewhat greater depth than six inches, and in this 
manner form a shallow trench in which can be placed a line of 
field stone or bowlders to sustain the road metal in place and 
prevent its becoming pressed into the earth at the roadside. 

In Fig. 22 are shown three lines of stakes driven along an 
ordinary country road to indicate the centre and side lines of 
an excavation for macadam road. In ordinary cases this width 
need not exceed fifteen or sixteen feet, as already stated in a 
former chapter. (See Chapter II.) 

In staking out this work it must not be forgotten that side 
drains should also be provided for, and where it is inconvenient 
or impossible to make suitable side ditches, it is best to extend 
the surface for several feet beyond the limits of the macadam 
material on each side, giving it a downward and outward slope 
toward the sides of the road and ending with an abrupt shoulder 













Figure 24. 

Before roUina:. Portion of excavation for macadam roadway, show- 
ing loose, soft earth bottom into which angular stones are easily pressed, 
as shown in Fig. 10. 






''■•''.'■'\ii'^',»7E-^ ^^■^■i7,.p.;:r:;^r "i ;,,. 




Figure 25. 

After rolling. Portion of excavation for macadam roadway, show- 
ing earth firmly compacted by heavy roller, insuring a more substantial 
and lasting roadway and preventing waste of material. 




Figure 26. 

Showing macadam material (broken stone) laid on rolled earth bot-- 
torn. The firmly compacted earth sustains the angular stones and pre- 
vents their being pressed into the soil by passing loads. Contrast this 
figure with Fig. 10. 



116 



MACADAM AN J) TELFORD ROADS. 



"7 



at the lowest point of the excavation as shown in Fig". 23. By 
examining this figure it will be seen that the space for macadam 
is indicated by the dotted lines, while the space outside the 
dotted lines on each side is intended to carry the drainage 
water down to the lowest point, w^here the excavation ends at 
the two sides of the roadway. By this method of construction 
it is intended to carry the water along the outer edges of the 
excavation to some convenient outlet. Whether this method 
is followed, or the more simple method already indicated in 
Fig. 22, must depend upon the judgment of the road maker in 
each case. 




The Hakrisburg Double Engine Ste.^m Road-Roller. 



As to the work of excavation, only a brief suggestion need 
be made. It will often be found convenient to use ploughs in 
doing this work, but if ploughs are used, care must betaken not 
to plough too deeply, and it is commonly required by engineers 
that this ploughing shall not extend beyond such depth as will 
bring it within three or four inches of the bottom of the road- 
way. The remaining few inches can be taken out by means of 
picks and shovels without disturbing the earth below. 

From what I have here written regarding the excavation for 
a macadam roadway, the reader will understand that the bottom 
of the excavation is to correspond in form to the finished sur- 
face and a reference to the several figures accompanying the 
text will make clear any form of construction which the words 
have not fully described. 

If you have found that the soil is wet and greatly in need of 
drainage, it may be policy to put down a line of artificial drain 
in the centre of the roadway and if this is to be done, it should, 
of course, be carried on and completed before the broken stone 




OS 

w 

o 

6 
o 



M 

hi 
w 

o 
a, 

Q 
2; 

> 



MACADAM AND TRLI'ORD ROADS. 



119 



or "road metal" is pur. in place. The manner of constructing 
sub-drains has already been explained. 

Rolling the Earth Foundation. — To construct a good macadam 
roadway — and by this I mean to make one that is permanent, 
solid and smooth, without an undue or wasteful expenditure of 
money and labor — I regard the use of a good roller as indispen- 
sable. It may be said that Macadam did not recommend roll- 
ing, but rollers were not known in his day and he depended 




The Springfield Steam Road-Roller. 

upon the wheels of passing wagons to do the same work of con- 
solidating the roadway that is now done more quickly, thoroughly 
and uniformly than was ever accomplished by any method 
known to Macadam or the road philosophers of his day. 

And first of all the earth foundation upon which the broken 
stone is to rest, should be well rolled. It cannot be rolled too 
hard or too solidly. Xo matter what may be the appearance of 
the earth bottom after the excavation is completed, it is more 
than likely to contain many soft spots which can be brought to 
light very quickly by the passage of a hea\w roller. 

If the m.aterial is very soft and • ' mealy "it may be best to be- 
gin the process of rolling with a moderately light roller and some- 
times the rolling will be hastened and made more effective bv 
sprinkling the earth, though this cannot be practised in all 
kinds of soils. 

In rolling the earth bottom it is generally best to begin at the 
sides of the excavation and work toward the centre; that is. 



I 20 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



begin by rolling along the outer edge of the excavation from end 
to end, and on the second passage of the roller let it move along 
parallel with the first course of the roller and slightly "lap" 
the portion already rolled. When we have reached a point 
near the centre of the road we begin on the other side of the 
excavation and repeat the operation, finally finishing at the 

centre. Rolling is sometimes 
omitted when the soil is of a 
hard, gravelly nature, or 
when a stiff clay is found, 
which presents a firm surface ; 
but whatever be the nature 
of the soil, the use of a heavy 
roller will generally develop 
weak spots, the presence of 
which would not otherwise 
have been suspected. This 
fact may be demonstrated by 
passing a heavy steam roller 
over the earth foundation 
after excavation has been 
made for the macadam road- 
way. It will be found that 
the passage of the roller over 
what appeared to be a well graded surface of compact material, 
will develop a series of humps, holes and undulations, utterly 
destroying the uniformity of the grade in places, and revealing 
many soft and weak places which are wholly unfit to sustain a 




WHEFI 01 WW SI KINC 1 II I I) Ste\m RO\D 

ROLLLR, Showing Sfikl^. in Place. 




Horse Roller (American Road Machine Co., Kennett Square, Pa.) 

permanent stone roadway and the wagons which are to pass 
over it. These holes and hollows should of course be filled 
with good, firm material and the rolling process continued un- 
til the road-bed becomes uniform in grade and thoroughly 
compact. In soft soils and in places where a steam roller may 
not be easily sustained or worked to advantage, it is best to be- 
gin the rolling with a light roller and one of large diameter. 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



12 I 



but the rolling should be completed by the application of as 
heavy a machine as possible and the surface made as solid and 
unyielding as the nature of the material will permit. 

Rollers. — We should use a steam roller if possible. It can be 
purchased of any weight, from five to twenty tons, though 
steam rollers having a weight of from ten to twenty tons are 
most commonly used. For all ordinary country roads a roller of 
ten tons in weight is about right. vSteam rollers cost from 




Reversible Horse Roller. (F. C. Austin MANUFACTURiNr, Companv, 

Chicago, III.) 



Those most suitable for macadam work range 

a steam 



The cost of running 



$2,000 upwards 

in prices from $3,500 upwards 
roller per day varies from $3 to $5 according to the locality 
where used, the price of labor, fuel, etc. There are several 
excellent steam rollers in the American market, among the 
most prominent of which are the Harrisburg Double Engine 
Roller, manufactured by the Harrisburg Foundry and Machine 
Works (Harrisburg, Pa.), Aveling & Porter's Steam Roller, 
manufactured in England (W. C. Oastler, Agent, 43 Exchange 
Place, New York, N. Y. ) and the Springfield Steam Road 
Roller, manufactured bv The O. vS. Kellv Companv (Spring- 
field, Ohio.) 

(^To Ih' Continued.^ 



GOOD ROADS AND THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT. 

ANY criticism running to the effect that the title just written 
sug-g-ests the anomalous condition of the cart before the 
horse, maybe met by the answer that on this point there 
is a variety of opinions. But however that may be decided, it 
is quite true that the Government at Washington is beginning 
to turn its attention to the importance of improved roads 
throughout the country, and to say that this result is mainly 
due to the persistent and intelligent effort of Colonel Albert A. 
Pope is to render simple justice to one of the most zealous and 
successful workers of the century. 

At the last session of Congress, the appropriation bill con- 
tinued a clause as follows : 

"To enable the Secretary of Agriculture to make inquires 
in regard to the systems of road management throughout the 
United States, to make investigations in regard to the best 
method of road making, to prepare publications on this sub- 
ject suitable for distribution, and to enable him to assist the 
agricultural colleges and experimental stations in disseminating 
information on this subject, ten thousand dollars." 

It is stated on good authority that the present Secretary of 
Agriculture is warmly interested in the subject of improved 
roads, and the Department of Agriculture will take up the in- 
vestigation of the best methods of road making and make prepa- 
rations to publish useful road matter for distribution. 

In addition to this the United States Senate Committee on 
Agriculture and Forestry is making investigation into the 
agricultural interests of the United States, and upon this com- 
mittee should be impressed that potent cause of the depres- 
sion in agricultural interests which is foundin the wretched condi- 
tion of roads in the farming districts. Communications on this 
point may be sent to the committee or to any of its several 
members. Such communications should be as free as possible 
from theories, arguments and suggestions. The things most 
nf eded are facts. If your district supplies facts which go to 
show damage to farming industries by reason of deep mud in 
Spring and Fall, send these facts in terse, straightforward lan- 
guage to any member of the committee (better to the one who 
represents your state, if possible). He will draw his proper 
conclusions and prepare such arguments as may best sustain 
them in his committee work. The members of the committee 
and their post-office address are as follows : 

Senators, James C. George, Chairman, Carrollton, Miss., 
William B. Bate, Nashville, Tenn. ; Matt. W. Ranson, Weldon, 
K. C. ; Wm. Alfred Peffer, Topeka, Kas. : William N. Roach, 



GOOD A'OADS AA'D XA'J'IOXAL GOVERA^MElVT. 123 

IsTorth Dakota; James McMillan, Detroit, Mich.; William D. 
Washburn, Minneapolis, Minn. ; Redfield Proctor, Proctor, Vt., 
and Henry C. Hansborough, Devils Lake, N. D. 

Upon each member of this committee should be urged the 
great importance of an investigation into the subject of the 
common roads and their relation to the agricultural and com- 
mercial interests of the country. To this work each intelligent 
reader of Good Roads should commit his energies. 



Bound volumes of " Good Roads " {Jiaudsojiiely bound in seal bro7i<n 
•cloth and gilt) can no7u be supplied at $1 per volu/ne. Each volume 
■contains six nitinbers of " Good Roads. " The first three volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price is hnuer than that c}iari:;ed bv any 
■other magazine of similar size in the country, and is fixed at $r to 
■enable each reader to obtain at nouiinal cost a handsome and useful 
-uioi'k. Address " Good Roads," Rotter Building, New York. 



IMPORTANT. — '' Good Roads" wants the name and post-office 
■address {^plainly written) of every civil engineer, surveyor, contractor., 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the names 
and addresses of frominent citizens wJto are interested in the movement 
J^or better roads. We ask each reader to aid in making up this list. 
Send as pronptly as possible and specify each man s official position. 



Good Roads for May has excellent papers on ''Highway 
Bridges," by John N. Ostrom, C. E. ; "Road Law in Switzer- 
land," by Edgar R. Dawson, M. E. ; "Cleaning Asphalt Pave- 
ments;" " Brooklyn Cobblestones," etc. (New York: League 
Roads Iinprovement Bureau.) — Detroit Free Press. 



"I HAVE been sending my Good Roads (after reading) all 
along- the proposed line of telford roads across the State of 
New Jersey. I think the farmers of South Jersey are begin- 
ning- to get their eyes open or want their wheels out of the sand 
by the way they are coming forward with subscriptions, and I 
hope the good cause will continue. Yours for loetter roads, 
E. J. Hunt, Philadelphia, Pa." 



"I consider the publication of Good Roads magazine of 
■more importance to the Leagi;e than anything we have ever 
•done." — A. B. Choate, Chief Consul of Minnesota. 



HOW TO FOLD AN UMBRELLA. 




No. I. 



A GOOD road and a good 
umbrella are rare 
friends in wet weather ; 
but when the rain has ceased 
and the umbrella becomes a 
burden instead of a conven- 
ience, it is well enough to 
know how to fold it neatly 
and compactly, so as to be as 
little in the way as possible. 

How many uiubrellas do 
we see that are folded to look 
like hugh gingham cornuco- 
pias, giving annoyance to 
their owners, and supplying 
a subject for ridicule to every 
one who sees them. Good 
Roads is indebted to Messrs. 
Raymond & Company, pub- 
lishers of RaymomVs Monthly^ for the following concise direc- 
tions as to " How to Fold an Umbrella." 

Grasp the handle of the umbrella with the hand and hold it 

in a vertical position with the point of the umbrella downward. 

Shake out the cloth till no 

part of it is confined between 

the ribs, but all hangs free as 

in the illustration marked 

"No. I." Now place the 

dome or top of the umbrella 

in the palm of the left hand, 

as shown in the picture 

" No. 2," with the fingers of 

the left hand closed to form 

a circle. With the right 

hand, palm down, grasp the 

tips of the ribs, and while 

tightly grasping them, turn 

the umbrella from you with 

the right hand, at the same 

time turning the left hand 

toward you with a downward 

motion toward the handle, the 

distance traversed by the left 

hand being, say an inch for each half turn of the umbrella. At 

the end of each turn of the umbrella, hold it firmly with the left 




No. 



124 



ffOlV TO FOLD A IV UMBRELLA. 



I 2 : 




Bap. 



hand, while with the right you take a fresh grasp at the same 
place as before, and thus continue turning until the left hand 
reaches the right. When the strap is secured the umbrella will 




Gf)Oi). 



be perfectly smooth, with every fold neat and snug, and the tips 
will have their place in an orderly circle close to the handle. 



Bound volumes of " Good Roads " {Jiandsoinely bound in seal broiun 
cloth and gilt) can now be supplied at $i per volume. Each vohime 
contains six numbers of " Good Boads." 77ie first three volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price^ is lower than thai charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the country, and is fixed at S-f to 
enable each reader to obtain at nomitial cost a handsome and useful 
work. Address " Good Boads," Totter Building, Neiv York. 



IMFOBTANT.—'' Good Boads" wa?its the name and post-ofifice 
address [plainly 7vritten) of every civil engineer, surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the names 
and addresses of prominent citizens 7vho are interested in the nurvenient 
for better roads. We ask each reader to aid in making up this list. 
Send as promptly as possible and specif y each man's official position. 



From this day on for some months, at least, every person in 
the country not bed-ridden, will usually be in a state of mind 
to bid good-speed to the grand movement which has been initi- 
ated for bettering the public roads. There is ample opporttmity 
for every one to become sufficiently mud-ridden to dispose him 
to send to all his influential friends a copy of the new magazine. 
Good Roads, (New York) — which will contribute at once 
to ameliorate the afflictions of such travelers as himself. The 
publication is handsome, bright, able and cheap. — Electricity 
a)id Bailroading. 



"An excellent number of Good Roads came to me 
last week. How bravely the work goes on and how thank- 



ful we all should be for the 
Elizabeth Bullard, Bridgeport, Conn. 



growing 



interest shown." — 



rr 

77 




0/6 TcrC'Ct^cy y - a-t^P ^<ru/ ^ /uhtr-f-^^ 



I HAD a dream. I dreamed that forty thousand wheelmen sat 
in the shade of a high fence which surrounded a race track. 
They were making loud speeches and mild wagers on the 
races about to take place on the other side of the fence. Then 
the day grew suddenly dark, and a black cloud came over them. 
There was lightning and the loud noise of thunder. From out 
of the cloud came a hugh spectre, with the visage of John L. 
Macadam and the muscle of John L. Sullivan. The spectre 
grasped the forty thousand wheelmen and shook them fiercely till 
their legs and arms waved wildly and aimlessly in the air, and 
from out of their pockets flew forty thousand copies of Good- 
Roads. Then the spectre quickly dropped the forty thousand 
wheelmen on the other side of the high fence and went its way 
into the cloud again. (This is the sort of reciprocity that visits, 
the man who neglects his duty. ) 

Then came forty thousand knock-kneed and hungry-eyed 
path masters, and they gathered up the forty thousand copies. 
of Good Roads, and smiled and went their way. 

And straightway the roads were drained and smoothed and 
made hard, and while the wheelmen within abused the referee, 
and raced and strove among themselves for nickel plated coal 
scuttles and silk suspenders, the public roads were made 
perfect and glorified all the land. I awoke. Alas, it was only 
a dream ! 

The man who gets something for nothing rarely appreciates 
it. Good Roads goes to each member of the League of 
American wheelmen, not to convince him that we need better 
roads, but to enable him to convince others, and to encourage. 
a general movement for better roads. If 3'ou accept the obliga- 
tion which your League membership imposes, you will send 
each copy of Good Roads received by you, to some prominent 
citizen in your town who is interested in the improvement of 
roads, and ask him to subscribe for the magazine. You will 
bring it to the attention of your local editor. You will send to 
the editor of Good Roads a list of the contractors, town and 
county officers, civil engineers and road commissioners in your- 
neighborhood with their post-office addresses. 

If you cannot do this, you will at least send a postal card to 
the editor directing him to send your copy of Good Roads to 
some road officer in your state whom he may select from lists in 
his office, 12^ 



' ' RECIPROCITY " ;—AND BO W IT J I OTA'S. 1 2 7 

If you have the courag-e to do a simple duty, do this. Then 
will the march of improvement go on, and then will the public 
Toads be improved. This will be the reciprocal benefit which 
your work and influence will bring about. 



'^r.cyV<f 







Bound volumes of " Good Toads " [liaiidsomely bound in seal broivn 
■tloth and gilt) can now be supplied at $1 per vohnne. Each volume 
contains six numbers of " Good Toads." The first three volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price is hnver than that charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the country., and is fixed at $ i to 
enable each reader to obtain at nominal cost a handsome and useful 
work. Address " Good Toads f Totter Building., A^eia York. 



IMTOTTANT. — '' Good Toads'' wants the name and post-ofiice 
address {plainly written^ of every civil engineer., surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the names 
and addresses of prominent citizens who are interested in the movement 
for better roads. JVe ask each reader to aid in fnaking up this list. 
Send as promptly as possible and specify each man's official position. 



Throughout the country economical road improvement 
would save $250,000,000 per year in the transportation of farm 
products alone. There would be other financial gains. By per- 
mitting the farmer to market a good part of his surplus during 
the Winter and early Spring, instead of his being compelled to 
market it nearly all while field work is possible, two million of 
the twenty million draft animals in the country could be dis- 
pensed with, and these two million animals are worth $170,- 
000,000, while to feed them for one year costs $100,000,000. 

Among other advantages of good roads over poor ones are 
that heavier loads can be drawn, and drawn faster, and the dif- 
ference in the selling price of produce, if carried in a wagon 
over a smooth road for one hour, and the same produce carried 
over a rough road for three hours is the difference, oftentimes, 
between profit and loss. — Declaration of National Farmer's Con- 
gress at Tincoln., N'cb. , JVovember, i8<p2. 




Siis&^\^^>-iy-^- 




»ijv 



'rMi 










DAY 

OF 

YEAR 



DAY 

OF 

WEEK 



245 Fr. 

246 Sa. 



247 
248 
249 
250 

251 
252 

253 

254 

255 
256 

257 
258 

259 
260 

261 

262 

263 

264 

265 

266 

267 

268 

269 

270 

"271 

272 

273 

274 



S. 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

Fr. 

Sa. 

S. 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

Fr. 

Sa. 

S. 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

Fr. 

Sa. 

S. 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

Fr. 

Sa. 



DAY 
OF 



I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 



LENGTH OF 



3 7 
3 5 



59 

57 

54 

51 
48 

46 

43 
40 

37 
35 
31 

28 

25 

23 

20 

17 
14 
1 1 

9 
6 

J 

o 

58 

54 

51 

48 

46 



NINTH . . 56pt^^t^^f" . 1893 • ■ MONTH 



Fly-lime is waning. Tlie nimWe insecl rises lale. 

Nopoleon 111. surrendered. 1870. 

14111 Sunday after Trinity. Tlie minister's yacatiou is over. 

Rainy. Now cliase potato liugs. 

First U. S. Congress, 1774. A frepent and trontilesome crowd. 

ADPle juice discovered in tlie year 1;— Mt 

it ta](8s time to make aple-iack. 

Colle stones invented, 6. C. 12299. Never patented. 

Utali made a territory, 1850. 

Warm. Send your fat liogs to tlie County fair. 

Send 'em In a wagon and Ifeep 'em out of tlie lud. 

Baltimore liomMrded, 1814. And our flag is still mere, 

Heavy rain. Stay in tlie house and sort eggs for martet. 

&en. Scott entered Mexico, 1847. 

Postal Convention at Berne, '74. Good roads mean free nostal defy. 

Falirenlieit died, 1736. His tliermometer 

liegins in tlie middle and works liotli ways. 

Treaty at Aix-la-CliaDelle. 1748. 

[J. S. Constitution adopted, 1787. It gives every man the 

riglit to improve Ms road. Rainy. 

Strauss died, 1849. 

lormonism founded, 1827, and confounded later. ■ 

Harvest moon. Autumn tiegins. Cats lively at night. 

Husking time. Keep your eye peeled lor red-ears. 

Cooler niglits. Sit closer and drive slowly. 

Pliiladelpliia taken, 1777. But it is there now. 

First passenger railroad in England, 1825. 

The farmers opposed it, and our grandfathers 

said it would tiring ruin, riot, Bankruptcy, ire, 

disease, disaster and death. Oh my ! 



THE ROAD IMPROVEMENT FUND FOR '93. 

WK take up again our list of acknowledgments of amounts received 
from friends and members of the League. The vacation season has 
had its effect and responses have been somewhat slow, but we are confident 
that the coming months will bring new life and added interest to the 
League work for better roads and that the fund will be swelled accordingly. 
The following amounts have been received to date. Further sums received 
will be acknowledged in future numbers of Goou Roads. 



FROM FRIENDS OF THE L. A. W. 



A. H. Overman, (President Overman 
Wheel Co.) Si,ooo.oo 



J. A. C. Wright, Rochester, N. Y 

Hart Cycle Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. K. Morris, Philadelphia, Pa 

A. G. Elliott, Philadelphia, Pa 

J. H. Halt, Philadelphia, I'a 



liO.UU 

lU.OO 

1.00 

1.00 

.50 



F. >I. Wells, Bensonhurst, N. V 

Alfrona Cyclers, Algoiia. Iowa. .. 
Five Business Men, Soiitli Milfdrd, 

F. A. Allen, Cinnamiu.soii, N. .) 

Kadford Wheelmen, Itadfonl, Va.. 



Iml. 



.* 0..iO 

16.00 

1.2.5 

2.00 

4.00 



FROM L. A. W. MEMBERS. 



Previously acknowledged $ 607.4.3 

H. A. K.eliey, Haltiniore, Md 10.00 

W. E. Byerly, Cambridge, Mass 5.00 

L. Kobson, Maiden, Mass 5.00 

J. H. Roberts, Atlantic City, N.J 5.00 

W. H. Staver, Freeport, III 2 (lO 

J. F. Hall, Hartford, Conn 2.00 

E. S. Cavlord, New Haven, Conn 2.00 

C. E. Urbwn, Erie, Pa 2.00 

A. C. Middlelou, Canidcu, N. J 2.00 

C. Leeuhouts, Milwaukee, Wis 2.00 

Anonymous, OskaJoosa, Iowa 2 oo 

W. Richter, TrentdU, N.J 1 00 

F. L. Harris, Harrisonburg, Va 1 00 

I. S. Barnett, Louisville, Ky 1 .uO 

M.J. Gilbert, St. Louis, Mo 1.00 

S. M. Whitelaw, Savannah, (in I.UO 

H. H. Thorp, Cincinnati, Ohio 1.00 

E. A. Le Sui'ur, Ottawa, Canada 1.00 

O. G. Benjamin, Friendship, N. Y l.oo 

J. W. Kniglit, Racine, Wis l.oo 

L. H. Kauitz, Muskegon, Mich 1.00 

F. H. Ray, Helena, Mont l.oo 

S. H. Rowland, Marengo, Iowa l.ou 

S. Hopkins, Providence, R. I l.oo 

W. G.Sa.xton, Canton, Ohio 1 ou 

J. C. Worknm, Cleveland, Ohio 1.00 

D. J. Griitith, Orrville, Ohio 1 00 

J. Ritchie, Boston, Mass l.oo 

G. A. Hutchin.son, Dorchester, Mass 1 00 

C. H. Veeder, Lynn, Mass 1.00, 

W. H. Booth, ciiicago. 111 1.00 

C. D. Hoard, Chicago, 111 1.00 

E. P. Rauscher, Chicago, HI l.oii 

S. Zeigler. Chicago, III l.oo 

W. A. Connelly, Danvide, 111 1.00 

E. O. Towue. i'ekin. 111 l.CO 

E. D. Coxa, Rodgers Park, 111 1.00 

C. A. Prater, Tavlorville, 111 l.oo 

H. J. Law, Fort "Wavne, Ind 1.00 

C. W, Spicer, New York City I.IO 

G. E. Chapin, Ithaca, N. Y' 1.00 

H. O. E. Ernst, Philadelphia, Pa l.oo 

G. E. Gale, Galeton, Pa l.oo 

Anonymous, N. X. Y., Elizabeth, N. J.. . l.oo 

¥. Spencer, Orange, N. J l.oo 

W. (i. Langstroth, Newark, N. J 1.00 

J. E. Wolfe, New York City 1.00 

C. E. Clayton, Stillnian Valley, 111 l.OO 

G. M. Lincoln, Malone, N. Y I.OO 

D. Uavis, Lockport, N. Y 1.00 

E. Lewis, Youngstown, Ohio l.oo 

P. P.rown, Wrentham, Mass l.oo 

O. Morton, Peekskill, N. Y" l.oo 

1.00 



M. 
O. 
T. 



E. S. Tucker, AVinchcndon. Mass 

O. X. Seely, Cincinnati, Ohio 

J. R. Rensley, Chicago, III 

C. P. Shaw, Esmont, Va 

T. E. Watmough, Frankford, Pa 

E. E. Southworth, Scranton, ]'a 

N. E. Arnold, Grenoble, Pa.. 

C. R. Fountain, South Bethlehem, I'a.. 

E. M. Wood, Worcester, Ma.ss 

F. Balliet, Lockpi irt, N Y 

\V. H. Kingston, Philadelphia, I'a 

Anonymous, Philadelpliia, I'a 

R. F. Foster, Columbus, Ohio 

C. S. Houston, Covington, Ky 

W. (J. Roome, Jersey City, N. J 

R. E. Nathan, New York City 

B. 11. Ruckel, I'.loomsburg, i'a 

N. Hodge, Riverside, Cal 

E. Anderson, Peru, III 

T. Hacher, I )ay ton, ( )hio 

E. O. Brown, Toledo, Oliio 

^V. C. Rice, Yellow Springs, Ohio 

C. M. Howe, Boston. Mass 

L. A.W.MemI)er.223«, Iiorchester, Mas 

W. H. Skelton, Tavlorville, 111 

W. I). Morlan, Walnut, III 

J. A. Wiley, Hartford, Conn 

J. I). Woodbridge, New Haven, Comi.. 

J. J. Zinnnerman, P.altiniore, Md 

Anonymous, Brockport, N. V, 

(i. T. Stebltins, Brooklyn, N Y 

W. MacKenzie, Brooklyn, N. Y 

R. Green, Flatbush, N. Y 

Rev. J. E. King, Newljurg, N. Y 

S. A. Taylor, Colchester, t omi 

T. H. Ile'imhofer, Findlay, Ohio 

J. F. Hinckley, Findlay. Ohio 

Anonymous, Youngstown, ( iliio 

Anonymous, .\nn Arbor, Mich 

C.H.Thompson, Brattleboro Vt 

Anonymous, Portsmouth. N. 11 

Vj. p. Suutu, Chattanooga, Teun 

W. F. Friuk, Greenland, N. H 

F. E. Hu Bois, West Randolph, Vt 

W. Kramer, St. Louis, Mo 

A. W Collin, P.ostoii, .Mass 

L. Mosher, Binghamton, N. Y 

E. II. (iowen, Sanford, Maine 

T. F. Trenor, San F'rancisco. Cal 

L. B. Baker, 5Ieiiekaunee, Wis 

Anouvmous, St Louis, ;\Io 

J. F. i'.acon, North Cainbridue, .Mass. . . 
Anonymous, Westliell, .Mass 



i;l,056.25 



$1.00 
1.00 
.7 5 
.75 
.50 
.50 
.50 
..50 
..50 
..50 
.50 
..50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
..50 
.50 
..50 
.50 
.50 
..50 
.50 
..50 
.50 
..',0 
..50 
.50 
.50 
..50 
..50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.511 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
..50 
.50 
50 
.50 
..50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.25 
.25 



E. M. Stevens, I'a.xtou. 111. 



Total from L. A. W. llembers $ 016.93 



RECAPITULATION. 



From Friends of the L. A. W. 



.$1,056.25 From L. A. W. Members $G16.93 



(irami Total f 1.67.3.1.>^ 



JQq 








PIT0R§TAB1^ 



In a recent number of Good Roads we 
published a somewhat extended and care- 
fully tabulated statement of tests made by 
Messrs. Studebaker Brothers of South Bend, 
Ind., for the purpose of determining the 
tractive force required to haul wagons hav- 
ing wheel-tires of various widths, over dirt 
roads. The results arrived at by these ex- 
periments are of no small value, and should 
be impressed upon every farmer and every 
merchant whose business entails the hauling 
of merchandise. But there is another point 
to be considered in the matter of wheel- 
tires; for, not only does the use of the wide 
tire increase the capacity of the horse for 
hauling heavy loads, but the road surface 
itself is vastly protected and often greatly 
improved-by the use of wheel-tires properly 
proportioned to the sizes of the vehicles 
which pass over it. Every dirt road be- 
comes harder and smoother by rolling, and 
in our own country the rural highways be- 
come fairly smooth, if at all, only when the 
season has advanced well into the Summer 
months. The reason of this is mainly be- 
cause these roads sustain a traffic carried on 
ridiculously narrow tires which cut and mix 
and mangle the surface during the wet 
seasons and serve as "rollers" only when 
the last drop of moisture has been taken 
out by the fierce heat of July and August. 
Meanwhile an immense loss has been sus- 
tained by the public in the expenditure of 
extra force, delays, break-downs and fail- 
ures to connect. To cure this persistent 
narrow tire nuisance, legislation is plainly 
needed. In some of the states laws have 
been already passed, prescribing a minimum 
width for tires used on heavy vehicles, and 
the example set by these states should be 
widely emulated. It may not be within the 
power of every state to provide at once for 
the general and systematic improvement of 
its roads ; but it is easily and logically certain 
that each state cannot too quickly forbid this 
popular folly of making good roads ba 1 and 
bad roads worse by the indiscriminate use 



of narrow wheel-tires. The Fall rains are 
soon coming. Let each reader study this 
subject for himself. 

Guide posts and mile stones are lament- 
ably scarce in every state of the Union. 
They are required by law to be erected in 
most of the states and the duty of perform- 
ing this important work belongs to the over- 
seers of highways or " pathmasters " of the 
several towns. It need scarcely be said 
here that this duty is conspicuously ne- 
glected and that thousands of befuddled 
travelers who traverse the country roads by 
night and by day are compelled to wander 
about and often to go miles astray unless, 
good luck and marvelous guessing lead them, 
to select the right course from a dozen or 
more which run in as many different direc- 
tions. The main difficulty is that most of 
these pathmasters are incompetent, short- 
term p-jtty officials who are wholly ignorant 
of their lawful duties, while a probable 
majority are unfit to undertake them in any 
event. There is a provision of law in many 
of the states, for the compulsory erection of 
suitable guide-posts and a penalty is pre- 
scribed for all road officials who neglect 
this work. The enforcement of these laws, 
in a few hundred cases would work a bene- 
ficent improvement. 

And while this subject of guide-posts is 
in hand it is worth while to examine the- 
Contra-Costa system recently adopted in 
California. By this system the roads are 
named, marked and measured and it be- 
comes an easy and simple task not only to- 
determine the right direction in each case, 
but to locate the residence of each person 
living on the line of any give a route. The 
plan seems to have been so admirably con- 
ceived and so well worked out that it has. 
become quite as easy to prepare a directory 
of farm residents as it is to prepare a. 
directory of people who live along the 
streets of an incorporated town. It may be 
that the Contra-Costa system is not the best 
that can be devised, but it is infinitely in 
advance of any other scheme thus far pro- 
jected within the United States, and de- 
serves the attention of road reformers in all 
parts of the country. 13a. 



CUroaght Iron Bridge Co. 

C??rSTON, OHIO. 



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• • Best Hisibvay Bridges. • • 

PLANS AND ESTIMATES FREE. WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



THE KING BRIDGE CO., 



BRIDGES. 



CIiEVEIiflllO, OHIO. 



VIADUCTS. 



IRON AND STEEL EYE BARS, GIRDERS AND STRUCTURAL WORK FOR BUILDINGS. 

PLANS, ESTIMATES AND SURVEYS FREE OF COST. 




BRIDGE OVER THE OHIO RIVER, BETWEEN CINCINNATI, O., AND NEWPORT, KY. 

Dksignkii ami Buii.T BV THE KING BRIDGE CO. 



Length of Cantilever Channel Span, 520 Feet. Total Length oe Bridge, 2916 Feet. 



Largest Manufacturers of ROAD and GRADING 
IMPLEMENTS in the World 

Western Wheeled Scraper Co. 

OF AURORA, ILL. 

Manufacturers of Popular and 
Celebrated Western Reversible 
Road Machines; the Perfect West= 
crn Wheeled Scrapers; Western 
Double Bottom Drag Scrapers ; 
Elevating Grader and Wagon Load- 
ers; the New and Improved Rock 
Crusher; Wheelbarrows, Dump 
Carts, etc. 



Gen'l Office & "Works 




Before iilacingorders for 
any of the goods named, 
write to the above address 
for illustrated eatalognes 
and prices. Terms liberal. 




Over SEVEN THOUSAND of the WESTERN REVERSIBLE ROAD MACHINES now in use. 







"S. S." (Montgomery, Ala.)— Both the 
samples you send are unfit for use in the 
construction of a isermanent road. They 
are soft, easily fractured and of a schistose, 
flaky nature. Much better samples can be 
had from your neighborhood. 



" C. Carhov" (Coxsackie, N. Y.) — A brick- 
layer who has a helper to keep him con- 
stantly supplied with brick and mortar, will 
lay about 1,500 brick in common hoiise wall 
work; in neater outdoor face work, about 
1 , 200 per day and in massive work where 
less care is required, a good bricklayer will 
average 2,000 per day. A bricklayer's hod 
usually contains about 20 bricks when full. 



"Jerrold" (Memphis, Tenn.) — The use 
of iron fillings, borings, etc. , in the construc- 
tion of stone pavements, is not generally 
followed, though it has been recommended 
by old writers. It was asserted before an 
English Parliamentary Committee eighty 
years ago, that a mixture of borings or clip- 
pings of iron or small scraps of hoop-iron 
with the gravel used in filling the joints of 
stone pavements, would have the effect of 
creating an oxide of iron and form the gravel 
into a species of "rock." You may often 
notice this tendency when cast iron pipes 
are taken from the ground after being ex- 
posed to contact with moist earth for a long 
period. The gravel adheres very tenaciously 
to the pipe and seems almost as hard as the 
iron itself. 



"H. S." (Harrisburg, Pa.) — BuiTalo stands 
at the head of American cities in the tise of 
asphalt pavements and they have been used 
in that city with great satisfaction. Buff^alo 
has about eighty-five miles of streets paved 
with asphalt; Washington about fifty; Phila- 
delphia about twenty-five; Omaha about 
sixteen. The cost of construction ranges 
from $2.50 to $4.50 per square yard and the 
constructing company generally agrees to 



maintain its work in good condition fcjr a 
certain term of years; this cost of mainten- 
ance being included in the price ])aid for 
construction. 



"Asa K." (Buffalo, N. Y.) — You will rarely 
find the weight of snow per cubic foot stated 
in technical tables, for the reason that snow 
varies most widely in respect of its weight; 
it having been found that a cubic foot of 
snow in one instance will weigh about ten 
times as much as another cubic foot taken 
under diffei'ent conditions; for example, a 
cubic foot of fresh fallen snow may weigh 
upwards of thirty pounds, if of a heavy, 
damp and solid nature ; while another cubic 
foot of light, "dry" snow has been found to 
weigh less than three pounds. 



"C. Z. P." (New Britain, Conn.)— Mr. 
Ostrom's article will probably be issued in 
separate form after its completion as a serial 
contribution to Good Roads. We cannot 
now fix the time nor state what will be the 
cost or method of distribution. 



"M. C. C." (Oakland, Cal. ) — Road makers 
do not quite agree as to the method of ap- 
plying a binding material to the road metal 
in the construction of macadam roads, nor 
do they agree in their opinions regarding 
the use of rollers. It is doubtless best in 
most cases to roll the macadam layers so 
that all the pieces of metal will be forced 
into as close contact as possible before apply- 
ing any binding material; for if the binding- 
material be applied before rolling, it will 
find its way between the surfaces of the 
broken stones and prevent their being- 
brought into close contact with each other. 
It is generally conceded that sand is an ex- 
cellent binding- material, but all binders of a 
hard, gritty nature must be rolled more 
thoroughly and with a heavier roller than if 
soft loam is used. 





ofJTRACT Motes 




ROADS AND STREETS. 

OHIO.— Tiffin.— Paving- will be done on North 
Washington Street from the north end of the river 
bridge to the north line of West Davis Street. 

Saline.— It is contemplated to make improve- 
ments in several of the streets of this place during 
the year. 

Delphos — A contract for one mile of macadam- 
ized street has been awarded in this town. Width 
of the street is forty feet. 

YOUNGSTOWN. — Glenwood Avenue will be 
drained, graded and otherwise improved, the con- 
tract having been let at a cost of $6,oq8. 

Toledo. — The following streets are to be paved 
with vitrified brick: Sixteenth, Galena, Oakwood 
Avenue and Lincoln Aveniie. Ten roadways are 
also to be improved in a similar manner, and any 
further information may be received of the clerk 
of the city, Mr. Sylvester Lamb. 

Columbus. — Several streets are to be paved with 
stone, brick or asphalt, by vote of the council. 

Elmwood Place.— Four streets are to be graded 
and macadamized, and bids are being received for 
the work. 

NORWALK. — Bids are being received for new 
pavement on Linwood Avenue. Address City 
Clerk. 
Vitrified brick is to be laid on Wood Street. 
IOWA.— Keokuk.— Bids are asked for the work 
of macadamizing Twelfth Street between Seymour 
and Grand Avenues with 5 inch rough macadam, 
5 Inch fine macadam and 2 inch gravel. Further 
information may be had of tlie city engineer. 

MARYLAND.— Baltimore.— Two streets, Har- 
rison and East Lexington, are to be paved with 
brick. 

Hagerstown. — The principal streets of this 
place are to be paved with vitrified brick. 

INDIANA.— Cravvfordsville.— It is under dis- 
cussion of the common council as to the advisability 
of buying a steam road roller for use in compacting 
freshly graveled roads. 

New Albany. — Improvements are to be made in 
the following streets of this city: those between 
Spring and Elm, West and Thomas, East Eleventh 
and Fifteenth, and Oak and Sycamore Streets. 

Elkhart. — The streets of this place have been 
gravelled and rolled with a seven ton roller with 
very satisfactory results. 

NEW YORK.— LOCKWOOD.— The common coun- 
cil have voted to make improvements in Mulberry 
Street, about one mile long. Work will probably 
be begun at an early date. 

Schenectady.— Block asphalt is to be used to 
pave Jaj' Street, and the work will be begun the 
early part of next year. 

Johnstown.— It is agitated to make improve 
ments in some of the streets of this village. 






■^ 



\ 



Horn ellsville.— The contract for improving 
Main Street has been awarded to Homer & Co. 
of Olean, N. Y., at a cost of $55,216. 

Herkimer.— Asphalt is to be used in paving 
Mary Street. 

ILLINOIS.— Streator.— Improvements are to 
be made in this city as follows: 44,740 lineal feet of 
stone curbing, 86,495 square yards of brick paving 
and 26,958 cubic yards of grading, all at an esti- 
mated cost of $175,314. 

Galesburg. — Bick & Glann have been awarded 
the contract for one mile of brick pavement. 

SOUTH DAKOTA.— D EADWOOD .— Charles^ 
Wall, Lee, Main, Sherman and Pine Streets are 
to be graded, curbed, drained and macadamized, 
by resolution of the city council. Work will prob- 
ably be commenced at once. 

PENNSYLVANIA.— Franklin.— About 246,000 
brick were used in the improvement of streets of 
this place, under the supervision of City Engineer 
Kennendale. Brick has been laid for pavements 
to the extent of one thousand feet. 

The city is also now under contract for 800 feet 
of street paving with brick, the contract having 
been awarded at 98 cents per square yard. 

Greenseurg, — Two streets are to have asphalt 
or flagstone pavements, and Park Avenue is to be 
paved on that part connecting North Maple and 
Walnut Streets. 

Williamsport.— West Third Street is to be 
paved with brick. 

OREGON.— Portland.— Bids will probably be 
asked soon for paving twenty-four blocks of East 
Burnside Street with 5-inch plank, requiring about 
1,500,000 feet of lumber for the work. 

NEBRASKA.— Omaha.— A vitrified brick pave- 
ment will be laid in Howard Street. 

NEW JERSY.— Elizabeth.— The following im- 
provements are to be made in this city: Morris 
Avenue is to be regulated and macadamized from 
the Essex County Line, through Summit Township 
to the Passaic River; Newark Avenue to be regu- 
lated and paved with macadam from the easterly 
curb line of Broad Street to the Essex County Line; 
Springfield Avenue to be macadamized from Mor- 
ris Avenue to the Essex County Line, and the 
Edgar Road to be regulated and paved with tel- 
ford-macadam from Grove Street to Stiles Street. 
The total amount of telford-macadam pavement 
to be used on these streets will be about 49,490 
square yards. 

SEWERS. 

ILLINOIS.— Moline.— About 7,000 feet of sewers 
will be laid this Fall. 

Litchfield. — It has been decided to build a 
brick sewer in this place to cost about $12,000. 

Galesburg. — Bick & Glann have been awarded 
the contract for four thousand lineal feet of vitri- 
fied brick sewers. 132 



CONTKACl' XOTJ'IS. 



133 



Chicago. — Bids ha\-e been asked for several new 
sewers in this cit^-. 

INDIANA.— RiCHMONU. — A brick sewer 5,co<j 
feet long is to be built this Summer in this city, 
and plans of the work will soon be completed. 

OHIO.— WOOSTER. — The city clerk has received 
bids for the laying of a 12-inch clay sewer on Bealle 
Avenue, from Liberty to University Streets. 

NEW YORK.— SCHENECT.\DV.— An outlet sewer 
about 7,000 feet long is to be built to take the sew- 
age from the upper part of the city, and will 
empty into the river below the city. 

Saranac Lake. — It is proposed to lay a sewer- 
age system to cost about $40,000. 

Binghamton. — Contracts for two pipe sewers 
"were let w^ithin the past few weeks to E. A. 
Matthews, one for $923 on Seminary Avenue and 
the other for $487 on Gifford Street. 

H.averstraw. — A sewerage system is to be 
"built, and plans have been approved of by the 
State Board of Health. Bids will probably be 
asked for in a short time. 

LOCKPORT. — An extensive system of sewers will 
te constructed for which plans have already been 
prepared. The work comprises 1,800 feet 15 to 10- 
inch pipe, average cut eight feet. Work will be 
tjegun at an early date. 

MICHIGAN.— St. Joseph.— a sewerage system 
is to be built, contract for which has been let to 
Denier & Scott of Port Huron at a cost of $16,477.90. 
This work is to be finished by November i, and 
is to include 50 catch-basins and 50 man-holes. 

Detroit. — A contract has been awarded for a 
public sewer on Lothrop Avenue. 

Another sewer is to be built on Pallister Avenue 
from Woodward Avenue to Russell Street. 

NEBRASK.V. — Kearney.— 3,500 feet of 6 and 8 
inch sewers are to be laid. 

CONNECTICUT.— NOKWALK.— A sewer is to be 
laid in Ann Street, and further information may 
be had of the City Engineer. 

MAINE.— Hallowell.— Work is to be com- 
menced at once on the new sewer from the foot of 
Central Street to the foot of Temple Street. 

IOWA. — Lyons. — A 12-inch pipe sewer is to be 
constructed here. 

Ottumwa. — The Street Committee is superin- 
tending the construction of a 4-foot brick sewer. 

WISCONSIN.— Marinette.— It is probable that 
a system of sewers will be laid in this town, and 
bids have been asked for the work. 

JANESVILLE. — Plans have been adopted for a sew 
erage system and estimates will now be prepared 
by the City Engineer. 



NEW PIAMPSHIRE.— Portsmouth.— Plans will 
be prepared shortly for a system of sewers, and it 
is proposed to issue bonds for the work of 
construction. 

MASSACHUSETTS.— Milton.— The plans for a 
sewerage system have been directed to be pre- 
pared by G. A. Kimball of Boston. 

BRIDGES. 
MAINE. — Calais. — It has been voted by the city 
government to erect a free bridge across the St. 
Croix river, at an estimated cost of $40,000. 

VIRGINIA.— Atlantic City.— A bridge is to be 
built on Second Street by vote of the city council 
and it has appropriated the sura of $17,000 for 
that purpose. 

WASHINGTON.— Tacoma.— It is contemplated 
to build abridge from Eleventh Street across the 
tide flats, and plans, specifications, etc., are now 
being prepared. 

OHIO. — Aberdeen. — Bids have been asked for 
the construction of two truss bridges in Hanson 
township. 

INDIANA.— Americus.— The new steel wagon 
bridge to be built here will be 400 feet long, divided 
into two spans of 200 feet each, with one pier in 
the river. The contract has been awarded to the 
Lafayette Bridge Co., at $28,600. 

NEW YORK.-Syracuse.-A new iron bridge with 
abutments which is to be built over Onandaga Creek 
on South Avenue, will be 60 feet span, with 34 feet 
of roadway and 13 feet of sidewalk space on either 
side. 

KANSAS. — Leavenworth.— Bids have been re- 
ceived for three bridges, one near Neelj- station, 
and two on the road commencing at the De Soto 
road and running east 80 rods. 

ILLINOIS. — Matoon. — It is contemplated by the 
commissioners of highways to erect a large steel 
bridge in Paradise township. 

C.arlyle. — Bids have been asked for the work of 
erecting an iron bridge over the Kaskaskia River, 
about two miles south of this city. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE.— Concord.— The estimated 
cost of the proposed new iron bridge over the 
Marrimack River at Bridge Street, is about $io,i3oo. 
Work will probably be begun at an early date. 

KENTUCKY.— Louisville.— It is proposed to 
erect two new drawbridges over the Louisville and 
Portland Canal, and bids will be received for the 
work until September 12. 

ARKANSAS.— Little Rock.— A public highway 
bridge is to be built here over the Arkansas River, 
and proposals are asked for the work. 



RECENT PATENTS. 



In this department we shall print Croni time to time brief descriptive notes of 
recent patented inventions relatini? to roads, streets, drainage, bridges and wheeled 
vehicles. 




TROCESS OP TRR.VTIXO SEWAGE. James J. TOWERS, 
Patentee, Brooklyn, N. Y. Tlie iiietliod of treating sewage, 
wliicb consists iu causing the sewage to move forward 
through suitiil)Ie conduits, introducing disinfectants at the 
liead of the conduit, also substances forming with the sew- 
age, compounds insoluble in water, removing the floating 
and sedimentary u)atter, simultaneously treating the entire 
body of sewage with a disinfectant or germ destroying gas, 
and finally treating the water separated out by means of 
liquid disinfectants. 





PAVEMENT. EL-CiP:N-E Roinxsox, Patentee, Petroit, Mich. 
Filed .luly 21, 1S02. A combined biict and asphaltum pave- 
ment coiislructed by arranging the bricks therefor upon a 
suitable resisting foundation, and combining therewith a 
coating of hot lii|uid asphaltum in such manner that the 
said coating becomes incorporated in the brick and the 
interstices, and forms a resisting surface, incorporating 
therewith, before cooling, inert material to increase the 
durability. 



CART. Arthuk C. Pihts and John O'Makr.v, Patentees, 
New York, N. Y. In a dump cart in combination, the body, 
the shafts, the axles, a bed secured to the axles and a slid- 
ing frame secured to the body and shaft, whereby the body ; 
is slid back by backing the horse. 




ROAn-MACHIXE. John E. Waij.is, Patentee, Pasingstoke, 
England. A machine for pecking or loosening the snrface of 
roads and similar hard surfaces, consisting of one or more 
pecks or picking tools operated by the pistonsof fluid press- 
ure cylindei s or e([uivalent means so as to act jiercussively 
or witli blows upon the Si'.id surface, the said pecks or pick- 
ing tools being jointed and free to turn on a pivot at right 
angles to their axes and mounted on wheels so as to travel 
over the road while they operate thereon. 

METHOD OP MANUFACTDKING GYPSUM COMPOSI- 
TIONS. MEi.vr\ H. Cm-RCH, Patentee, Grand Rapids, 
'SlU-W. The uielhodorprocessof conil)iningcalcined gypsum 
and a retarder, wliich consists in evenly feeding together 
and mixing the gypsum in dry pulverized condition with 
the retarder iu liquid form, whereby a dry composition is 
produced. 




SWEEPER FOR RAILRO.VD-TRACKS. George E. Flem- 
ing;, Patentee, Elgin, 111. In a car, the comtunation of a 
car axle supported upt)n wheels and provided with a gear 
wheel; with a frame constructed with two side bars pro- 
vided with exterior trunnions or journals held in opposite 
bearings in the frame or body of s lid car, of an axle jour- 
naled in bearings iu said side bars, and provided with a 
sprocket wheel and carrying rigidlv upon the exterior ex- 
tensions of its journals circular brushes ; and of a rear axle 
JDurnaled iu bearings in the opposite ends of said side bars 
and provided with a sprocket wheel, and a gear wheel ca- 
pable of meshing with the gearwheel upon the axle of the 
wheels : a sprocket chain enuaging said to sprocket wheels; 
and means of rocking said frame, so as to raise and lower 
said brushes and bring said gear wheels into and out of en- 
gagement. 



Shaving 




AS A DAILY COMFORT-BRINGING 

EXERCISE 

SHAVING 

CAN BE MADE THE REFRESHING 
ENJOYABLE PART OF THE 
MORNING TOILET 

The soft, creamy lather produced by 
WILLIAMS' SHAVING STICK is SO 
cooling, so softening to the beard, so 
comforting to the face that it is an 
actual pleasure to apply it. 



WILLIAMS' 



V LLLIAMS' Shaving Stick. 

BE SURE YOU GET 

Each stick enclosed in a beautiful case, strong, compact, attractive. Ask your Druggist 

for WILLIAMS'. If he does not have it, do not let him foist some inferior 

substitute upon you, but send 25 cents in stamps to us and receive a 

genuine WILLIAMS' SHAVING STICK, by return mail, 

postpaid. Address 

The J. B. WILLIAMS CO., Glastonbury. Ct., U. S. A. 

For over Half a Century makers of Fine Shaving Soaps 



U 



>••»- 



Built to Ride" 



GIVES YOU A FULL DESCRIPTION OF THE 



■iiiniK' 




'"illillii" 



ToMo Bicgcle Go. 



TOLEDO, OHIO. 



€i 



Devuptless 



fy 



-® s«*>- 




1893 MODEL 



New /*\ail 



Stra-igbt Dizinjorj*! Prarpe 
Strictly Hijb GrA<le 
AH Drop Porgirjjs 

M. & W. Style Pneumatics, • • SI 26.00 
Dunlop Detachable " . . - 136.0t 

No Finer Wheel Made. Send for Catalo^iM 



MANUFACTURERS 



Wrr). ReEvd & Sops 

107 Washington Street 

BOSTON 




' ' Papa says to 
please send for his 
bicycle and put on 
a pair of those new 

DUNLOP TIRES 

and won't you 
please put a set 
on my doll y's 
coach ? All the 
sawdust is shaking 
out of her legs." 



The Dunlops are the best foi 
every pu rpose. They cost a 
little more, but 



HiiierlGaii Dumop Tire Goiqpaiiji 

160 KlKXH AVENUK 
NKW YORK 




FOR_ 



LADIES AND GENTLEMEN 



LIGHT 
STRONG 
DURABLE 
HANDSOME 

EASY RUNNING 
SAFE ^ ^ 



.MADE BY 



Hickory Wheel Co, 

Newton, Mass. 



THE TELEQR/in PNEUn/ITIC: TIRE 




TELEKIPI CYCLES 



GIVES LESS TROUBLE AND BETTER SERVICE 
THAN ANY OTHER MADE .*. *.' .'. 

fitted with Telegram Tires are 

without a pe er in the Cycle line. 
FOR PRICES AND INFORMATION, ADDRESS 

i. E. VAN VLEGK, o. s. flgem mm cycles 

Write for Catalogue jio Broadway, N. Y. City 

THE TIRE PROBLEM SOLVED No wires to kink, no paste, na 
^ wirehooks. One minute for com- 

plete deflation, removal of inner tube and re-inflation. 



RECKN'I' /'.I I'EN'J'S. 



135 




ELECTRIC STREET-RAILWAY SWEEPER. John W. 
FowLEK and John llurrox, Patentees, Brooklyn, N. Y., said 
Hutton assifiuor to the Lewis it Fowler Manufacturing 
Company, same place, lu a sweeper lor street-railways, 
the combination with a revolviuK broom having an axial 
shaft, of a countershaft parallel thereto, a power transmit- 
ting chain and sprocket-wlieels connecting said shafts, 
tension-preserving guide-bars at the ends of the broom- 
shaft having main portions in the form of arcs with radii 
the centre of which is at said countershaft, and a raising 
and depressing rock-shaft which is likewise parallel to said 
broom-shatt and has rigid arms engaging with the respect- 
ive ends of the broom-shaft. 




GAPa!A(iE VESSEL. Ceorge B. Sweger, Pr.tentec, 
Chicago, I.l. Ill a garljage vessel, the c<iniljination of a 
inain port ion for holding the garbage provided with a series 
of holes in its bottom, a lower portion adapicil to inclose 
the lower end of the main portion fur a shoi t distance, the 
two porlions titling togeilier easily and licing separalilt' 
from each oiher and one portion being provided with lugs 
to regulite llie distance which the main portion enters the 
lower portion, the whole, or either portion, being adapted 
to be moved from pi icc to plai e. 






'J 




EXCAVATING OR DREDGING MACHINE. JOHN HeaS- 

TON, Topolobampo. Me.vico, and Ephkai.u C. Sooy, Kansas 
City, Mo., I'atcniees. In an excavating machine having 
I raveling excavator Ijuckets, tlie combination with the 
longitudinal iranie supporting said buckets of a transverse 
movable platform, at one end of said frame, and an inter- 
mediate vibratory support for said end upon said platform, 
and a carriage beam supporting the other end of said frame 
havingtraction wheels in line with each other at each end 
of said beam supports for said beam, connected with said 
traction wheels, one of said supports being adjustat)Iv con- 
nected with said beam and a lever connected with the end 
of said beam, and tulcrumed upon the other support. 




STREET-SPRINKLER. GoriHOLn Laxgek, Patentee, 
St. Louis, -Mo., a<sigii»)r to 11. G. Stieoel, Jr. and A. C. 
Stiebel, same place. A street sprinkler consisting of a tank 
having an outlet pipe at the bottom thereof, a regulating 
valve in s lid pipe, a conveyor-cylindercommunicatinL'- with 
said outlri pipe, a spiral conveyor within sa'd cylinder, 
outlet openings leading from tlie'convevor-cvlinder'having- 
a combined se<'ti,.iial area le-s iliaii r'la't of Ilie inin open- 
ings to the cylinder, and a spriukUng device connected 
with said outlet openings. 




ROWED 







A ROMANCE SPOILED. 

Two lovers went to the baseball game 

One afternoon in May. 
He was a " crank;'' she never had seen 

Professional players play. 

He faithfully tried to explain it all, 

She tried to understand; 
But the more he talked, the less she knew, 

Why he thought the game was "grand." 

He cheered, he danced, he yelled "Hi, hi!" 

She calmly looked about; 
And if anyone made a three-base hit, 

She asked if the man was out. 

She tried her best to keep the score, 

But when the game was done 
He found that whenever a foul was hit 

She had given the man a run. 

It dampened his ardor to hear her say, 

" Why doesn't the umpire bat?" 
And each question she asked diminished his love. 

Though he wouldn't have owned to that. 

Till at last she asked in her guileless way, 

" Which nine is playing now?" 
He broke the engagement then and there, 

And now they don't even bow. 



A MAN OF ADDRESS. 

Mamie Willkiss — Don't you think Mr. 
Whirlsfare is a man of the most charming 
manners and address ? 

Young Vanderloin — I don't know about 
his manners, but he gave me his address, 
and it's too absurd for anything. Think of 
it: "Chicago, The Earth."— /"//r^/f-. 



DID JOB USE SLANG ? 

Job has usually been considered a pure 
and godly man, untainted by anything 
but boils throughout his whole existence. 
Job, however, must have been somewhat of 
a sport, else he never would have been 
guilty of using some of the slang phrases 
accredited to him. For instance, when his 
three friends, Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar, 
came to visit him at the time of his sore 
affliction, John opened his mouth and said: 
" Ye are the people." Job could never had 
learned that phrase at any other place than 
a baseball game or a horse trot. 



DOG-WISDOM. 

The shaggy dog was sitting near the open kennel 

door. 
With a family of puppies that amount to just 

four; 
And precepts made for canines in ancient times 

were told ; 
" Hold up your head 'mongst little curs, with big 

ones be not bold; 
With trampish unknown creatures don't engage 

in any fights; 
Get w^here you can't be hit when e'er you bay the 

moon at nights. ' 
And this be sure to bear in mind — don't let your 

memory flag ; 
The dog-catcher '11 get yo-a if you 

Haven't 
Got 

A tag." 



WANTED IT KEPT CONFIDENTIAL. 

" Why did you strike the operator, Mc- 
Caffrey?" 

" Bekase, your Honor, Oi ahsked him to 
sind a confidential teligraf to me woife, and 
the blaggyard read it." — A^. ]'. Herald. 



A CATCH TO IT. 

A middle-aged woman called at an insur- 
ance ofifice on Griswold Street, a day or two 
ago, to announce that she wanted to insiu-e 
her house. 

" For how much?" asked the agent. 

"Oh, about $500." 

"Very weU. \'\\ come up and inves- 
tigate." 

" I don't know much about insurance," 
she said. 

" It's very plain, madam." 

" If I'm insured for $500, and the house 
burns up, I get the money, do I?" 

"Certainly." 

" And they don't ask who set it afire?" 

" Oh, but we do. We shall want to know 
all about it." 

"Then you needn'tcome up," she said, as 
she rose to go. " I heard there was some 
catch about it somewhere, and now I see 
where it is." — Detroit Free Press. 



Good Koads 



Vol. 4. 



October, 1893. 



Xo. 4. 



ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 

WHAT ONE VILLAGE HAS DONE TO IMPROVE ITS STREETS AND 

SUBURBAN ROADS RURAL MUD-WAYS TRANSFORMED INTO 

SPLENDID ROADS AND BEAUTIFUL AVENUES THE STORY OF A 

WORK UNDERTAKEN AND CARRIED OUT ON AN INTELLIGENT 

PLAN WHAT GOOD ROADS WILL DO TO ENHANCE VALUES, 

ATTRACT POPULATION AND MAKE LIFE WORTH LIVING. 



/ 



FLUSHING is about ten miles from New York as the crow 
flies. It is essentially a village of homes, and in the 
spirit of the saying that home is what we make it, the 
good people of Flushing have, within a few years, transformed 
an unpretentious and almost unattractive hamlet into a clean, 
delightful and prosperous town. From a commercial stand- 
■^.^..^.■. ' ;- ^■.-.,,.^,,^ point Flushing has few natural 

advantages, nor does she aspire 
to undue heights in the attain- 
ment of trade and manufacture. 
Some of her streets are busy 
\ enough to be sure; but her 
steady trade is largely between 
her own citizens and with the 
country in her immediate vicin- 
• ity. To what, then, is her 
development due ? 

The "road history" of that 
locality is similar to that of 
inany others. For years muddy, 
temper-destoying and purse 
reducing roads and streets held 
the people in bondage, and not 
until they realized that their 
interests would be seriously 
jeopardized unless they followed 
the example of more ambitious towns, was the first step taken 
in the line of improvement. 

But Flushing contains a population of keen witted and 
intelligent people who quickly realized that a man's coming and 
going necessitates travel beyond the limits of his immediate 
dooryard, and to these people is due the fullest credit for the 
persistent policy which has brought so many benefits to their 




^-W 



G. A. ROULLIER, C. E. 

Engineer in Charge. 



beautiful village. 



137 







mmm§^ 












ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 



"39 



In 1890 an appropriation of $40,000 was made for the pur- 
pose of improving the village streets. This work, to which we 
shall refer more fully further on, was barely completed when 
the benefits derived from it became so manifest that an addi- 
tional appropriation of $70,000 was called for by public petition. 
Simultaneously the farmers, who had to pass over these im- 
proved streets on their way to market, and who in their journey 
over the outlying roads had to use " tow teams," realized in a 
practical way the loss they were sustaining annually through 















Ma 11^^'^ -^ 



Before Improvement. 
Surface of Flushing and Jamaica road before macadamizing. From photograph. 

the miserable condition of the roads in the farming districts. A 
movement was therefore started for the improvement of certain 
of these highways. The Flushing and Jamaica road was 
selected for treatment and ]\Ir. G. A. Roullier, INIem. Am. Soc. 
C. E., who had charge of the Flushing street improvements, 
was commissioned wath fullest authority to plan and execute 
the work as he might deem best. 

This highway, through its miserable condition, having been 
practically shunned by all drivers for a long time, little or no 
attention had been given to it. It was hub deep in stony sand 
in Summer and almost impassable in the Spring. The grading 
previously attempted at different points had consisted in the 



140 



ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 




• >-^-,-i.#\^ 
.j"*^'^^'--- 



View on Flushing and Jamaica Road, Near Station O, Before Improvement. 

Drawn from photograph. 

usual "intelligent " reduction in the height of rises without the 
slighest decrease in the steepness of the inclines. In doing 
this, certain vexing conditions had been created that it was 
found difficult to overcome without injury to the interests of the 
property owners at those points. A number of steep grades ex- 
isted along the road, all of which, with one exception, were re- 
duced to within the usually accepted limits. The exception 
noted consisted in an eight per cent, grade which, owing to the 
surrounding conditions, could not be brought below six feet in 
a hundred. 

As a matter of permanent economy to the town and in view 
of the probable extension of the improved road system calling 
for the more or less constant use of steam rollers, it was de- 
cided to do away with all timber bridges and culverts and sub- 
stitute therefor strong and permanent masonry arches. 

The excessive amount of absolutely necessary incidental 
work along the road rendered it imperative that the cost of the 
roadway proper be reduced to the minimum consistent with 
eood service, else the total cost would be such as to check the 
development of further road improvement in the vicinity. 
Heavy traffic over the road not being probable, although the 
volume of traffic was likely to be large, it was decided to 



ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 



141 






} 











View near Station O when Improvement was Partly Completed. 
Drawn from photograph. 

construct a plain macadam roadway eighteen feet wide without 
artificial foundation, of the same style as those being- built in 
the Village of Flushing. 

Before laying the road metal, the bottom, after having been 
roughly shaped, was rolled with a steam roller until all settling 
ceased, after which it was brought to the exact form desired 
and re-rolled if necessary. Wherever the soil proved spongy 
or othewise unsuitable as a foundation, it was removed to such 
depth as was deemed necessary and the space filled wuth clean 
sandy earth. At a few points where shifting bottoms were en- 
countered a layer of about three inches of tailings was laid, 
rolled to a bearing and bound with sand. The bottom was 
formed with straight lines from sides to centre, the latter hav- 
ing an elevation of four inches over the former. 

Over the surface thus prepared the road metal was spread 
by being broadcast from shovels so as to thoroughly mix the 
sizes. The metal was trap rock ranging in size from one inch 
to two inches and was laid to a thickness of seven inches at the 
crown of the road and at a point midway between the centre 
and sides, and four and a half inches at the sides. 

A ten-ton steam roller was then passed over the material 
until all the "creeping" of the stone ceased, after which the 
binding material, in the shape of clean coarse sand, was applied 
gradually as the rolling progressed and was thoroughly washed 



142 



ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 




CuniNG DOWN Old Grade— Flush in (■ and Jamaica Road. 

in ; after which coarse screenings were added in small quanti- 
ties and the rolling- and sprinkling continued until the water 
flushed freely before the roller. Over this surface a thin layer 
of sand was cast and after being allowed to dry the road was 
opened to travel. 

The high price of Hudson River broken stone in that local- 
ity and the distance of this particular piece of work from tide 
water would have rendered the work very costly. It was de- 
cided to utilize the trap rock that exists in large quantities in 
bowlder form along the road. 

To that end a stone crushing plant was erected at a point 
about midway on the line of the work and a very satisfactory 
quality of material was secured. Considerable care had to be 
exercised to keep out of the crusher material other than trap, 
owing to the difficulty in distinguishing certain soft stones from 
trap while in the bowlder form. With a little experience, how- 
ever, on the part of the men, and careful culling both at the 
points where stones were gathered and at the crusher, the 
difficulty was reduced to a minimum. 

Owing to the long distances to which water had to be led 
before being discharged into streams it become necessary to 
provide deep and wide channels along the road. To insure the 
permanency of these channels it was deemed advisable not to 



ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 



143 




Reducing Grade at Fouakty's Cut— Flushing and Jamaica Rhah. 



leave the bridging, at private entrances, to the property owners. 
Pfpe culverts, graded as to size according to the requirements 
in each instance, were therefore laid at all such points, thereby 
ensuring uniformity of treatment and adequate water way in 
all cases. 

As soon as the road has been completed by the contractor it 
will be placed imder the care of Mr. Roullier as engineer in 
charge of the first road division of Queens County. It will 
then receive, as nearly as practicable under the circumstances, 
the same treatment as the streets of the Village of Flushing 
are receiving nnder his management. 

The streets of that village constructed in the majority of 
cases with but four inches of road metal spread on the earth 
bed, treated as previously described, have now been in use over 
two years. Several of these streets have been subjected tem- 
porarily to extremely heavy traffic, traffic for which they were 
not intended, and without the slightest injury. Neither were 
they affected in the least by the extremely severe Winter of 
1892-3. 

These roads have no top dressing other than a thin layer 
of coarse sand which is renewed as it wears away. Special at- 
tention is given to the drainage of the surface and the road 
beds are frequently cleaned. Depressions, wherever they do 
occur, are attended to at once; the surface is loosened by pick- 
ing and only enough stone is spread to fairly fill the depression ; 



144 



ROAD WORK AT FL USHING. 




FOGARTY's Cut, after Completion of Work— Flushing and Jamaica Road. 

the patch is then covered with coarse sand and screenings. 
These streets being regularly sprinkled, the drivers of sprink- 
ling wagons are directed to wet the repaired spots freely and 
under the action of traffic, consolidation is speedily effected, 
hence repairs are possible even during the dryest seasons. But 
very little such patching has been necessary so far. Sweeping 
of the road surfaces is done as occasion requires, a Barnard 
Castle two-horse sweeper being used. By careful attention to 
the roads the amount of material to be removed from the streets 
after each sweeping is extremely small. On the main thorough- 
fares where the traffic is heavy it has been found more econom- 
ical and beneficial to keep men in constant attendance who each 
clean a section of street daily, the material being readily removed 
by one cart passing from one section to the other. 

All the improved streets are patrolled almost every day and 
such attention given to thern as they may require. If mud 
accumulates in some shaded spot it is removed; sand is strewn 
on spots that are too bare ; stone is added wherever needed. 
It is found that one man with a horse and cart can readily take 
■care of about five miles of streets ; this exclusive of course of 
the periodical cleanings done by the horse sweeper and gang- of 
men as above mentioned. The system of permanent mainte- 
nance above outlined may be somewhat more costly than that 
of periodical maintenance, but the result is a more uniformly 
satisfactory condition of road bed. 







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146 



ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 




jf^^ft^ 



£.i^ii 



Hauling Macadam Road Metat. from the Crusher — Flushing 

AND Jamaica Road. 

Reference has previously been made to sand as a binding- 
material. No claim is made that it makes a better or more 
lasting road than screenings. It has one advantage, and that is 
that it makes a somewhat cleaner road and one that dries more 
quickly. In Flushing, sand is considerably cheaper than screen- 
ings, a purely local advantage which induced its use. 

The advantages derived from these improved streets cannot 
be better exemplified than by the fact that property situated 
on the lines of the /r^/d?^^^/ improvements can be more readily 
sold or rented and at better prices than that on less fortunate 
thoroughfares, whereas a still greater difference exists with 
property located on streets already improved. 

( To be concluded next month. ) 




General Vikw of Quarry. 

The stone is blasted out from the face of the rock ledge, and, after 
being sledged to convenient sizes, is carried on cars over the convey- 
ing tracks which lead to the crusher house. 



THE ROCK-CRUSHER PLANTS OF AMERICA. 

WHERE AND HOW STONE IS PREPARED FOR MACADAM AND 

TELFORD ROADS. 

II. 

ONE of the largest and best equipped crusher plants in the 
United States, if not in the world, is situated in Dutchess 
County, New York, about eight miles south of Poughkeep- 
sie. On the estate which formerly belonged to Governor De Witt 
Clinton, who conceived and put in force the great project for 
the construction of the Erie Canal, the rock-ribbed shores of 
the Hudson have been laid bare and a crusher-plant erected 
which, for equipment and capacity, is well-nigh unrivalled. It 
is doubtful, indeed, if a better combination of favoring condi- 
tions could be anywhere found. With an ample wharf in a 
good harbor, with water of sufficient depth to float the largest 
vessels, and with a great railroad passing literally through its 
dooryard, the Hudson River Stone Supply Company can send 
its product from the clean ledges of its quarry on the shore 
tumbling through the great crushers, and by a continuous oper- 
ation carry it through the separating screens into the great bins 
and from these into holds of vessels arriving at the w^harf, or 
into the cars waiting in the shadow of its great bins to receive 
their cargoes. 



THE ROCK-CRUSHER PLANTS OE AMERICA. 149 




ScKh-EN Number Two. 
The screen is set on a lon,e:itiidinal incline and, as the stone passes 
through, it is "sifted" through the different sections of the screen, thus 
separating the different sizes. 

To every visitor this great crusher-plant has a captivating- 
interest, and to most people it is rare novelty into the bargain. 
About four hundred feet back from the Hudson River and 
running parallel with it, is exposed a large bluff of hard, blue 
stone of a peculiar quality and proven by experience to be 
splendidly adapted to the construction of roads. For a distance 
of about eight hundred feet along this bluff, the quarry has 
been opened to a height of about fifty feet, the face of the 
quarry being divided into three bents. To remove the stone, 
blasting is of course necessary, and after blasting with dyna- 
mite of high force, the stone is sledged into rough pieces of 
about twelve to fourteen inches in largest diameter, so 
that a laborer can conveniently lift and throw each piece upon 
one of the platform cars which run on the diverging tracks from 
the crusher house to different points along the face of the 
quarry. 

Arriving at the crusher house each car is carried on its 
track to the mouth of an immense Gates number eight crusher, 
where, by an automatic arrangement, it immediately empties 
its load into the crusher, after which it is hauled out to give 
place to the next car. This large crusher is one of the most 
interesting features of the works. It weighs fifty-two tons 
and has a crushing capacity of two hundred tons of stone per 
hour. It is a really impressive sight to stand above the mouth 
of this great machine and see the ease with which, by its 



I50 THE ROCK-CRUSHER PLANTS OF AMERICA. 




Inner Top View of Storage Bins. 

Upon the left is seen the railroad ; upon the right, the river. The 
cable railroad passes over the tops of the bins and thus enables the cars 
to deliver their loads at the required point. 

immense power, it seems to grind into small bits the great masses 
of hard, tough bowlders which are fed into its capacious maw. 

As the broken stone passes beyond the "breaking cone" of 
the crusher, it is found to vary somewhat in the sizes of the 
broken pieces, and to secure its proper assortment it is passed 
first through a large rotary screen having two-inch holes, and 
all material passing this screen is carried by a conveyer belt to 
the screen house where it again passes, by an ingenious arrange- 
ment, through several screens "tf different sizes, having holes 
ranging from one-quarter inchjti^ : wo and one-half inches in diam- 
eter. This operation results, of course, in the separating of 
the various sized pieces of stone, each having its special use in 
the construction of road work, concrete, etc. From the assort- 
ing screens the various sizes are carried by different belts to 
their respective bins and afterward conveyed by cars to storage 
bins, as will hereafter be more fully mentioned. 

The storage bins are located along a narrow strip between 
the river and the tracks of the New York Central and Hudson 
River Railroad Company, so that delivery can be made to boats 
at the wharf or to cars upon the tracks with equal facility. Of 
course a considerable quantity of stone passes the num.ber eight 
crusher which is too large for the screen holes, and all such 
pieces must accordingly be broken to a smaller size. To effect 
this work two large number six crushers are erected below the 
number eight crusher, and into these are carried all stones not 



Till': ROCK-CRUSHER PLANTS OF AMERICA. 151 




Outer Top View of Storage Bins. 
Showing track of cable road used in conveying stone after screening. ^ 

passing- the screens. After passing through the number six 
crusher, the stone is screened, assorted and conveyed by belts 
and elevators to its proper bins as before described. 

In one of the accompanying illustrations is shown screen 
number two with three-quarter inch, one inch and one and one- 
half inch holes. 

When the product is finally separated by passing through 
the various screens and dumped into the separate temporary 
bins, it is taken out by grip-cable cars having- a capacity of 
about two tons each, and carri>^d along tracks running- over the 
tops of the storage bins, into ' vhich the product is dumped, 
each size having its respective bin. These cars run at a rate of 
about six hundred feet per minute and so admirably has the 
mechanical equipment of the plant been constructed, that only 
about one minute is required in the loading- of each car. Two 
cars are constantly employed in carrjing material to the storage 
bins, notwithstanding the fact that a large amount of the pro- 
duct is carried direct to these bins by a number of swivel chutes 
without the -use of the grip cars, though the latter are found 
well adapted to aid in the handling of various sized stone. 

The storage bins are about four hundred feet long, each bin 
being twenty feet wide and forty feet high. In addition to 
these bins the company has erected storage platforms along the 
river dock, and to facilitate the loading of either cars or vessels 
chutes have been supplied. In the illustration on page 152. 
may be seen one of these loading chutes extending outward 
from the bins on the river side. It includes a belt thirtv-six 



152 THE J^OCK-CRUSHER PLANTS OE AMERICA. 




Loading Chute for Vessels. 

The broken stone is carried from the bin at the left by means of a 
36-inch belt, over a series of rollers and dropped into the vessel from 
the end of the chute. 

inches wide, supported upon rollers and running the full length 
of the storage bins, from either of which stone is carried to the 
chute and by its action dumped into the vessels waiting to 
receive it. 

The loading capacity of these belts is about three tons per 
hour. The water along the wharf is about twenty-five feet 
deep and vessels of deep draught can easily load at all seasons 
of the year. The loading of cars is done in a similar manner. 
Over four thousand carloads of ballast were taken from these 
works last year by the New York Central and Hudson River 
Railroad Company and its officials are said to regard the stone 
obtained here as the best ballast stone obtainable. 

The power required for the operation of this plant is sup- 
plied by a three hundred and fifty horse power Hamilton Cor- 
liss engine, and a supplementary power is supplied by a one 
hundred horse power engine used mostly to drive the shipping 
machinery. 

Of course the constant application of power and the con- 
tinued use of tools, machinery and appurtenances entail wear 
and tear, and to provide against breakdowns, a special equip- 
ment is required. The company therefore maintains its car- 
penter shop and machine shops, the latter having an excellent 
outfit of lathes, drilling machines, traveling cranes, hammers 
and special machinery for handling and repairing the heavy 
pieces of the massive crushers. 

The entire plant is admirably planned with a view to econ- 
omy in the production of broken stone, and although two hun- 



THE ROCK-CRUSHER PLANTS OF AMERICA. 153 

dred men are employed, it is interesting to state that the stone 
is hai:idled entirely by machinery from the time when it reaches 
the crusher until it is finally delivered into the boats or cars. 

' It is certainly a noteworthy fact that the progress of inven- 
tion has kept pace with the ideas of highway improvement, 
and the erection of such plants enables us to make both better 
and cheaper roadways from a superior material. As an indus- 
try we commend its promotors as a factor to highway improve- 
ments and good roads. We commend it to our readers as well 
worthy of patronage. 



Bound volumes of " Good Roads " {Jiandsoiiielx hound in seal brown 
^loth and gilt) can now be supplied at $1 per volume. Each volume 
contains six ?iumbers of " Good Roads. " The first three vohunes are 
ready for distribution. This price is lower than that charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the country .^ and is fixed at $1 to 
€)iable each reader to obtain at nominal cost a handsome and useful 
work. Address " Good Roads f Potter Building .^ New York. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads'' wants the name and post-office 
address {^plainly written) of every civil engifteer., surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the names 
and addresses of prominent citizens who are interested in the movement 
for better roads. We ask each reader to aid in snaking up this list. 
Send as pronptly as possible and specify each mans official position. 



It affords us great pleasure to call the attention of the 
readers of the Husbandman to a magazine published in New 
York, entitled Good Roads. It is a work devoted entirely 
to the improvement of our highways, and should be in the 
hands of every road commissioner in the country, and the best 
investment to which two dollars of the district highway fund 
could be devoted would be for a year's subscription of 
Good Roads for the use of the road commissioners. — The 
Husbandman. 



Good Roads is scholarly and intellectual in tone, and 
wealthy in illustrations. 

We would call our readers' attention to this magazine, which 
treats so comprehensively the subject of good roads, those con- 
necting links of civilization. — The Sentinel ( Whitman, Mass.) 



I RECEIVE each issue of Good Roads regularly, and pro- 
nounce it one of the best papers that comes to my notice. It 
surely promotes a very worthy cause and I have reason to be- 
lieve it is having the desired effect. — JV. K. Bush, Detroit^ 
Mich (Z. A. W., N0.S226). 




HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 
"By John N. Ostrom, C. E. 

Mem. Amer. Soc. C. E.; {Mem. IVesteni Soc. C. E. 

( Continued. ) 

HAVING our frame in position and a platform on opposite 
sides of one of the eight-inch by eight-inch band sticks, 
we put a man on each, facing each other, one with an 
ordinary maul like that used for driving fence posts, and one 
to place the sheet pile in position and to hold it there while it 
is being driven. These men begin at one corner of the frame 

and drive down the sheet- 
ing along the outer face of 
the band, setting the planks 
edge to edge in each row 
and arranging them so that 
the outer row breaks joints 
with the inner. While this" 
driving is going on we start 
another man spiking the 
driven plank to the band, for 
it will be impossible to drive 
the piling exactly in contact with each other, face to face and 
edge to edge, and the cracks will therefore leak if the planks 
are not drawn up snugly together by fifty penny spike, two in each 
outer plank. We must not, however, begin spiking until we 
are sure that the sheeting is driven down into the clay at least 
six inches, for we cannot readily sink them lower after once 
securly spiked into one piece. After closing the double lapped 
wall securely all around, we send into the enclosure as many 
men as we have pails for, and bail out the water by throwing 
directly over into the stream. If we have had good workmen 
driving the piling the dam will be tight enough so that the 
water can be readily lowered at once and kept down to a few 
inches in depth ; but if there are bad cracks, we shall have to 
calk them with stiff clay or old rags or pine wedges, or some 
other convenient substance which will sto|:i, water. Perhaps 
dry pine wedges are as good as anything, since they are easy 
to make and when driven in on the inside and broken off flush 
with the plank they swell immediately and stick too tightly to 
be forced out by an ordinary depth or head of water such as we 
are dealing with in the present case. After lowering the water 



Figure 29. 
Form of rough bench used by workmen build- 
ing coffer dams in shallow streams. 



to within six inches or so of the 



gravel 



bottom, we start our 



154 



HIGHWA V BRIDGES. 



155 



shovelers at work and throw the material over directly into the 
stream. This will not be very heavy work at the outset; but 
as the excavation nears the bottom it will be difficult to throw 
a shovelful over the top of the sheeting, and it will then be 
advisable to lay a temporary platform about four feet wide 
resting on the eight-inch by eight-inch band timbers crosswise, 




Figure 30. 

Men at work driving and spiking sheet piling in building coffer dam 
in shallow stream. Detailed description is set forth in the accompany- 
ing text. 

upon which the gravel is shoveled from the bottom, and from 
which it is in turn thrown into the stream as described and 
illustrated in an earlier chapter which it will be well to refer to 
now. (See Fig. 21, Chapter III). 

In case we wish to build this type of dam for an abutment 
on a low, soft shore, we shall have to construct four tight walls 
differing from those of the pier dam only in form and dimen- 
sions. The abutment dam will have greater width and slant- 
ing sides, as already described, and when the shore is bluff so 
that only three waterproof sides are needed, the construction is 
so simple that E will outline it only in a general way. 

After staking out the proper dimensions, we dig trenches 
for the ends of the wing timbers of our eight-inch by eight- 
inch, three-sided band, so that they will project into the bank 
at the water line about two feet. Then we lower the ends of 
the wing timbers into these trenches and drive a couple of 
sheet piles on the outside of the front or outer timber to hold 
the band in position. Then we complete the sheeting by driving 
a double row of two-inch plank breaking joints in the centre of 
each plank. When we come to shovel out the interior, the 



156 HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 

bank may break and slide into the excavation. If this occurs we 
shall be obliged to drive a single line of two-inch planks on the 
back side and support them at the top with an eight-inch by 
eight-inch band on the inside, but you are already familiar with 
the way of doing this, if you remember the original text on this 
subject, and if you do not, it will be well to refer to it now, 
before reading further. 

Bailing out an abutment dam is generally a much simpler 
operation than for a pier, since the water is usually shallower 
and there are only three built walls to leak through in place of 
four, so that we can usually finish the job ready for the masonry 
in a few hours. 

( To be Continued. ) 



Bound volumes of ' ' Good Roads ' ' {Jiandsomely bound in seal brown 
cloth and gilt) can now be supplied at $1 per volume. Each volume 
contains six numbers of " Good Roads." The first three volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price is lower than that charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the country., and is fixed at $1 to 
enable each reader to obtain at nominal cost a handsome and useful 
work. Address " Good Roads," Potter Building, New York. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads" wants the name and post-office 
address [plaitily written) of every civil engineer, surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the ?iames 
and addresses of pro)ninent citizens wJio are interested in the movement 
for better roads. We ask each reader to aid in making up this list. 
Send as promptly as possible and specif y each mans official position. 



The hiistling monthly magazine whose title, Good Roads, 
is the oft repeated wish of every wheelman, is making a success 
of its "push fund," to extend the work for improved roads. 
We are glad to see that Syracuse is thawing out, for three of 
her wheelmen actually contributed $2.50 towards the April fund 
of $1,229.50. If you've not lost those pasteboards, gentlemen, 
it wouldn't be a bad scheme to beat Buffalo's $5 and Roches- 
ter's $3.50. — TVi^ Athlete. 



That illustrated monthly magazine. Good Roads, published 
in the Potter Building, New York, at $2 a year, is doing an ex- 
cellent educational work. — Saw- Mill Gazette. 



Good Roads is a publication that is doing good work in the 
interest of better roads. — Duluth Daily News. 



THE CONTRA COSTA ROAU PLAN. 

HOW THE ROADS ARE NAMED AND THE COUNTRY HOUSES NUM- 
BERED IN CONTRA COSTA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA AN ADMI- 
RABLE SYSTEM DESCRIBED BY ITS ORIGINATORS, 

A. L. Bancroft and C. M. Plumb. 
Second Paper. 

AN orderly method of procedure has hitherto been singularly 
wanting- in all that relates to the construction, manage- 
ment and repair of country roads. From the first initi- 
ative petition by two or more freeholders, to the last load of 
stone dumped into an undrained mud-hole, each successive step 
seems to have been taken in utter disregard of what preceded, 
and what must follow. Little wonder is it, then, that the result 
has been costly and unsatisfactory. 

The current discussion of road improvement — fruitful as it 
must be of good results — seems also often to lack this essen- 
tial element of right beginning and orderly procedure. It 
goes without saying that before the reconstruction of a given 
road can be wisely considered, the bounds of that road and its 
designation must be either known or assumed. Consult the 
records of most counties, and it will be found that existing 
highways are known b}' imperfect, unsystematic and mislead- 
ing names and numbers. 

The cumbrous and distasteful names of both termini, when 
a road chances to have a village at either end, is the best desig- 
nation we find prevailing. Often each separate section, a mile 
or two in length, is known by a road number, detached, arbi- 
trary and confusing, representing simply the serial number of 
the resolution by which the given section of road was accepted 
as a public highway. A glance at a map before me shows that 
these numbers reach as high as 2,500, when the numbers of 
continuous roads cannot be more than one-tenth as many. 
Here too I find that sino-le roads — and not longf ones — have as 
many and widely separated road numbers for contiguous por- 
tions as the following, and in the order named: 544, 397, 938 
and 653, 2,045, 2,019, and again, 1,408, 1,643, 2,015, 2,037. 
What possible mode of designation could be more imsatisfactory 
and misleading? 

' Country roads have one advantage over city streets. There 
is less frequent occasion for disturbing the surface, to under- 
lay gas, water or sewers pipes, or for other purposes. Pre- 
sumably, a well-constructed country road need not be disturbed 

157 



158 THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 

while it lasts, provided proper attention has been paid to grad- 
ients and drainage. Here then is good reason for well consid- 
ered methods in all steps taken for construction and repair. 
Temporary considerations may well be overlooked, and a 
studious regard be had to avoid any error or fault. 

It would be anomalous indeed for a municipality to order 
the grading and paving of a street before it had a name and 
accurate description upon the city ^records. Yet few counties, 
in their action touching road improvement, have commenced 
by naming and describing their roads. The only systematic 
basis for any general mode of improvement must be an enum- 
eration and m.easurement of roads. Recognizing this law as 
imperative, one county has taken the proper initiative, and 
happily so proceeded as to place on record a model for other 
counties. 

This orderly system, for naming and measuring country 
roads, has taken the name of the county where it originated, 
and is known as " The Contra Costa Road Plan." 

This county, as its name indicates, lies upon the "opposite 
shore" from San Francisco, Cal., and has a wide water 
frontage, an area of San Joaquin Valley land, and Mt. Diablo 
with its sister ranges of high hills. Lying between these are 
many fertile, healthful and picturesque little valleys, sheltered 
alike from the coast winds and interior heat. The road prob- 
lem is an important one here, especially so because much of 
the area of the county would, with good roads, be within two 
or three hours of the City of Oakland and a market. Lack of 
railroad development has kept the county back, and it has a 
population of only 13,500 with an area of 450,000 acres. 

To point out as briefly and clearly as possible the essential 
features of the Contra Costa plan is the purpose of this article. 
It embraces the following distinct purposes : 

1. To systematically list, or record, the roads of the county. 
This, of course, includes an adequate description. 

2. To give to each separate road a name. 

3. To measure and subdivide the roads according to the 
"Ten Block System." 

4. To erect suitable and permanent guide boards. 

5. To provide for posting and maintaining farm entrance 
numbers. 

These several purposes accomplished, it is clear that the 
following results will be more or less perfectly secured : 

1. A complete and orderly county road record. 

2. A basis for an accurate county directory. 

3. Provision for a free postal delivery, whenever the Post 
Office Department shall undertake it. 

4. An adjustment of local responsibility for road defects, 
and 



THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 159 

5. A systematic foundation for reconstruction, maintenance, 
and repair of roadways, and it is to be hoped an equitable dis- 
tribution of the cost. 

First. A record and description of the roads of a county it 
may be said is a very simple and easy matter. Try it and see. 
Easy and simple it ought to appear when once completed ac- 
cording to a well-defined system, and the measurement of all 
roads gives accurate bounds. But it is not easy with no agreed 
point to start from, no particular direction to take, no accepted 
order, and no rule as to continuity and extent. 

The Contra Costa plan seeks to formulate the necessary 
steps of procedure. The ordinance passed by the Board of 
Supervisors states that the roads of the county are listed accord- 
ing to the following rule : 

" Rule. — Commence on the east side of a line extendina: due 
north from the county seat and w^ork around in a circle to the 
east, south, west, and back again to the north, always facing 
outwards and working from the county seat outwards and al- 
ways from the left to the right. List first those roads touching 
the county seat; next the first left hand branch roads and any 
left hand branches of these. Continue with the right hand 
branches. Follow with the remaining trunk roads and their 
branches, left hand branches first, right hand branches next, 
omitting nothing on the left until the entire circuit has been 
made and the roads of the county are all listed." 

Under this method the first circuit includes five roads leading 
from Martinez, the county seat, which is situated upon the 
northerly water front of the county. These are Alpha Way, 
Contra Costa Highway, Alhambra Way, Franklin Road and 
Vista Rio. 

The second circuit commences with the branches of No. 2, 
No, I having no branches, the left hand roads being numbered 
first. 

The description in the original list necessarily refers to the 
nearest farm owners, or towns, to properly locate the road. 
When all roads are numbered the description of the guide 
boards will be ample, referring to the block numbers at begin- 
ning and ending the direction and length. 

Under this head it should be added that one name is applied 
to as long a distance of continuous road as possible, for the sake 
of convenience and simplicity. By joint action between coun- 
ties the same name may apply to a road crossing several 
counties. 

Second — The Naming of Roads. Here it is quite possible to 
bring the system into disrepute by an imwise selection, and as 
well to commend it by employing as far as possible names of 
local significance, and always those that are pleasing to the eye 
and ear. 



i6o THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 

Three negative rules were observed by the Contra Costa 
Road Naming Committee, as follows: 

I. Omit the name of either terminus of a road, as inappro- 
priate for both directions. 

2. Omit the names of residents for obvious reasons. 

3. Avoid as designating terms those generally in use in 
cities and towns, that it may be readily determined whether 
with a given post office address, the person lives in town or 
the country. Hence they discarded the terms alley, avenue, 
boulevard, court, passage, place, promenade, park, row, square, 
street and terrace as those in common use in cities and towns. 

The positive rules adopted were as follows : 

1. A " Local " is a road having but one outlet, usually a pri- 
vate road. 

2. " Connex " is a short road, connecting two other roads, 
and having no branches. 

3. An " Exit " is a road having one outlet, or terminus, at 
a water front or landing. 

To show that it is not impossible to avoid monotony in 
nomenclature, it may be said that the 130 members in the 
Contra Costa list contain thirty-two to which the term road is 
applied. Of locals there are thirty-three, connexes sixteen, 
exits four. The termination "way" is used nineteen times, 
"Camino," the Spanish for road, five times, paso and via 
three times each, and the Volapuk terminal " veg " is employed 
three times. That is, one road is named "Flumaveg" (river 
road), one " Glenaveg " (grain road) and one " Pomaveg " 
(fruit way). 

Vista, drive, circuit and the German "weg, " are each used 
twice, while crescent, crossing, lateral and highway appear 
once each as designating terms in place of " road. " 

The euphony of these terms in combination has been secured 
by their wide distribution over the county, and by the adoption 
of pleasing, and as far as possible, appropriate local names in 
addition. For example: " Golden Gate Way " is an important 
road leading to the county line towards the bay of San Fran- 
cisco, opposite the Golden Gate. 

" Camino Diablo " is a road skirting the foot of Mt. Diablo; 
"Granger Exit," a grain road leading to a river landing; 
"Black Diamond Way," a coal mine road; " Paso Corto, " a 
short pass; "Paso Alto," a high pass; "Dover Circuit," a 
road leaving and returning to the same road ; " Zig-zag Way, " 
a very circuitous road, etc., etc. 

The following names of trees are employed. Acorn, Almond, 
Filbert, Hazel, Laurel, Locust, Madrone, Orange, Walnut and 
White Oak. Names of local significance as follows : Alhambra, 
Briones, Colorado, Dry Creek, Happy Valley, Iron House 
Kirker Pass, Lone Tree, Las Tampas, Meganos, Lauterwasser, 
Pleasant Hill, Tassajaro, Vine Hill, etc. 



THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD FLAN. i6i 

3. The measurement of roads. 

The Contra Costa ordinance after prescribing names for all 
accepted roads, recommending others for private roads, and 
providing for the listing of new roads as they may be opened, 
proceeds to define "road measuring and numbering." This 
measurement is according to the " ten block system," originated 
by Mr. A. L. Bancroft, a resident of Ignacio Valley in this 
county. This method consists simply of dividing the length of 
each road into imaginary blocks one-tenth of a mile or 528 feet 
each. Two numbers are allotted to each block, the odd numbers 
to the left, the even ones to the right. 

Each house within a given block has the number of that 
block. In case they are nearer together than ten to the mile 
those following the first will add the letters a, b, c, etc., to 
the number. The distance to any house can be readily deter- 
mined by dividing the block number by two and pointing off 
one decimal. The result is the distance in miles and tenths 
from the commencement of the road. In case of odd numbers, 
add one before dividing. 

The ordinance provides that the measurements shall be 
along the surface line of the road, as near the middle of the 
roadway as practicable. This gives the actual travelled dis- 
tance. 

The block numbers to be marked, or painted, upon the 
fences or roadside objects. 

This work of measurement could obviously be ordered by 
the county at once. In this instance it is provided that the 
citizens shall take the lead, and whenever the residents upon 
any road shall have it measured and blocked, the county will 
erect guide boards, and require the maintenance of house 
numbers. 

4. Guide Boards. — These are to be of iron, not less than No. 
16, galvanized and painted, bent at right angles to fix a 6 x 6 
redwood post, and have two arms each 15 x 24 inches, except 
for local roads where one arm 6 x 15 is permitted. The style of 
lettering is also provided for. 

5. House Numbers. — Every householder upon such measured 
road is required within thirty days to post, and thereafter main- 
tain at the entrance, the correct number of his residence, in 
well proportioned figures not less than three nor more than 
four inches in length. He may also attach, in a tasteful man- 
ner, his name and business. 

Provision is made for a county road map and book of 
records to contain under the proper headings a digest of all 
official action relating to each road in the count}'. The meas- 
urements may include a record of altitudes, when deemed advis- 
able. The entire work and choice of names to be under the 
supervision of a committee of three serving without pay. 



i62 THE CONTRA COSTA ROAD PLAN. 

The ordinance has already gone into effect, and steps are 
now being- taken for the measurement and blocking by the 
citizens of the leading roads of the county. 

The thoroughness of detail, and evident care with which 
each provision has been made, speak well for the devotion of 
those engaged in the work, and will recommend the plan to all 
who make it a study. 

If it were possible to imagine this plan to have been adopted 
by every county, one can see how the work of road improve- 
ment now felt with such pressing force, would be facilitated. 
It may be hoped that wherever good roads are desired atten- 
tion will be given to the "Contra Costa Plan," as a hopeful and 
helpful preliminary step. 

C. M. Plumb. 



Boimd volumes of " Good Roads " {Jiandsoniely bound in seal brown 
cloth and gilt) can noiv be supplied at $i per vohune. Each volume 
contains six ?mmbers of " Good Roads." The first three volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price is lower than that charged by any 
other magazi?ie of similar size in the country, and is fixed at ^7 to 
enable each reader to obtain at nominal cost a handsome and useful 
work. Address " Good Roads,'' Potter Building, New York. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads'' wants the name and post-office 
address [plaiftly written) of every civil engineer, surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the natnes 
and addresses of prominent citizens who are interested in the movement 
for better roads. We ask each reader to aid in making up this list. 
Send as promptly as possible and specif y each mans official position. 



u 



I AM willing to do all in my power to help the improve- 
ment of public roads and streets. If you can furnish me with 
a list of L. A. W. members in Camden, I will make it my busi- 
ness to see them personally and learn if they are willing to 
contribute a small sum each to help the good cause along. If 
one or two members in each town would do this, we might 
soon realize a handsome sum." — A. C. Middleton, Camden, N. J. 



"I HAVE to-day received from Mr. Van Nort six copies of 
the ' Gospel of Good Roads ' and have sent to the editor of the 
Avoca Argus and the Pittsburg Gazette one each. I have also 
secured four wheelmen for the League. Will distribute balance 
of Good Roads among road supervisors and township auditors 
here, where they will do some good, I think. I am for the 
L. A. W and Good Roads. Very truly yours, Joh7i R. Wilson^ 
Dure, Pa." 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 

By Isiiac B. Potter. 
{Continued. ) 

MUCH practical information on the subject of rollers and 
rolling may be obtained from the manufacturers and 
from the catalogues which they publish. I give the 
names of three reliable concerns whose machines have stood 
the test of time. As between these three machines, road 
makers show a wide diversity of preference, and it will be 
sufficient to say here that they are all good and that no serious 
error will be made in the selection of any one of them. 

A peculiar advantage offered by a steam roller over a 
horse roller, aside from its capacity for doing better work, is 
found in the fact that the wheels of steam rollers are usually 
supplied with spikes, which are removable, and which, when 
in place, project from the outer surface of the wheels and are 
used with great effect in picking up old roads whenever it is 
necessary to repair or replace a portion of the macadam 
surface. 

A ten-ton steam roller will carry from four hundred to four 
hundred and fifty pounds of coal, from one hundred and thirty 
to one hundred and fifty gallons of water and is capable of as- 
cending a grade of from fifteen to twenty feet in one hundred 
while rolling loose road metal. 

Notwithstanding the superior merits of steam rollers for 
general use in the construction of macadam roads, the horse 
roller is by no means to be despised, and when properly 
handled may be made to do fairly good work. Many road build- 
ers use them by preference and many miles of excellent 
roads have been made where no other form of roller was 
employed. 

Indeed, some experienced road makers contend that the 
steam roller possesses no material advantage over a good horse 
roller ; that it is not so well adapted to the rolling of foundations ; 
that it tends to frighten horses; that the diameter of the roller 
is not well proportioned to the work which it is designed to ac- 
complish; that it tends to crush the softer limestones and other 
road metal, and that it is inconvenient to handle on steep 
grades. The writer is unwilling to subscribe to these objec- 
tions, which he believes to be largely imaginary, and having 
already admitted that horse rollers can be made "to attain very 
fair results in the making of a macadam road, he feels com- 
pelled to say that where the choice of a road roller is not 

163 



164 



MACADAAf AND TELFORD ROADS. 



controlled by the 
question of first cost, 
and where any con- 
siderable length of 
road is to be con- 
structed and main- 
tained, a steam roller 
of from ten to fifteen 
tons in weight is 
vastly superior to any 
horse roller yet de- 
vised, and should be 
preferred without 
hesitation. On the 
other hand, where 
the amount of inoney 
to be expended is 
limited to a small 
sum and the work to 
be undertaken is not 
important, a good 
horse roller may be 
made to answer every 
purpose. Horse 
rollers generally cost 
(list price) about $100 
for each ton of weight 
and are placed in the 
market by several 
reputable houses, 
among which I will 
inention the F. C. 
Austin Manufactur- 
ing Company (Chi- 
cago, 111.), the Ameri- 
can Road Machine 
Company (Kennett 
Square, Pa.) and the 
Gates Iron Works 
(Chicago, 111.) Good 
horse rollers vary in 
weight from two 
eight tons. It 
generally useless 
weighing less than two tons, while a horse 

roller exceefling eight tons in weight is difficult to handle 

except under favorable conditions. 




to 
is 
to 



employ a roller „^.^.-...j. 



MAC A J) AM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



165 



IV. 

BREAKING STONE FOR MACADAM ROADS VARIETIES OF STONE • 

HAND BROKEN VS. MACHINE BROKEN STONE FORMS AND 

SIZES TO BE USED STONE CRUSHERS WHAT A STONE 

CRUSHER COSTS AND WHAT IT WILL DO — SCREENING THE 

STONE SPREADING STONE ON THE ROADWAY BINDING 

MATERIAL. 

An important item in the making of a macadam road is 
the obtaining of broken stone of suitable quality and size. It 
should have careful consideration, since it relates to the wearing 
surface of the roadway, and upon the quality of the stone used 








Ideal Shapes and Sizes. 

Rough, cubical piece-, of stone broken by hand. These are the 
shapes and sizes Which road-makers seek to obtain; but they are rarely 
found in the every day stone-heap. 

will largely depend the life of the macadam crust and its 
smoothness. A hard stone should be used; not hard in the 
sense that it is brittle, for many brittle stones are quite unfit 
for use as road metal, but rather stone of a tough texture such 
as will resist the abrasion of wheel tires and the crushing force 
of heavy loads. 

Trap Rock is generally regarded as excellent. As commonly 
found, it breaks in the crusher with a loud, snapping noise 
which suggests great resistance, and if properly handled, it is 
easily broken by machinery to a fairly uniform size. 

Limestones are both good and bad. The softer limestones 
wear rapidly, form a road on which mud quickly collects, and 
roads of softer limestone yield readily to the action of the 
weather. The upland or mountain limestones, on the other 
hand, are frequently well adapted for use as road metal. They 
bind quickly and make a smooth and durable roadway. The 
rubbing and wearing of limestones form a dust which, when 
wet, becomes a sort of mortar, filling the little spaces between 



i66 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



the pieces of stone and consolidating the entire roadway into s 
soHd and sometimes into a durable crust. Some of the best 
limestones are found in the Devonian and the older Silurian 
rocks. 

Granite is generally inferior because of excessive brittleness 
due to the feldspar contained in it ; but Syenitic granite often 
makes an excellent road rnetal. 

Sandstones are generally inferior; but some sandstones con- 
tain iron, which hardens and toughens them, and in these excep- 
tional cases sandstones may be used to advantage. 




Real Shapes and Sizes. 

Irregular pieces of machine-broken stone drawn from actual speci- 
mens taken at random from a stone heap. These pieces, by their rough 
surfaces, show the impossibility of obtaining straight Imes of fracture 
or regular shaped pieces by the ordinary process of crushing stone for 
road making. 

Field Stone and River Stone. The construction of a macadam, 
road in any given locality generally involves the use of mate- 
rial found near at hand, and where a local quarry does not 
exist, field stone and stone gathered from the beds of rivers 
and small streams may be made to serve every purpose. Many 
of the stones and bowlders thus obtained are of trap rock, and 
in general it may be said that all hard field stones and river 
stones if broken to a proper size, will make fairly good and. 
sometimes very excellent road metal. No elaborate test is re- 
quired to determine the hardness of any given specimen. A 
steel hammer in the hands of anintelligent workman will reveal 
in a general way the relative degree of toughness of two or 
more pieces of rock. Field stone and river stone offer an ad- 
ditional advantage in that they are quickly handled, are gen- 
erally of convenient size, and are more readily broken either 
by hand or by machine than most varieties of rock which are 
quarried in the usual way. 

Breaking the Stone. It is a simple task to break stone for 
macadam roadways, and by the aid of modern inventions it cart 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



167 




Feeding the Crusher. 

Breaking ordinary field stone with a 

" jaw" crusher. 



be done cheaply and quickly. Hand broken stone is fairly 
out of date and is rarely used in America where any consider- 
able amount of work is to be imdertaken. Stone may ,be 
broken by hand at different points along the roadside where 
repairs are needed from time to time, and by criminals con- 
fined in penal institutions who could not be otherwise profitably 
employed; but the extra cost of production by this method for- 
bids its being- carried on where extended work is undertaken. 

Hand broken stone is gen- 
erally more uniform in size, 
more ne a rl y cubical in 
shape and has sharper 
angles than that broken 
by machine and is undoubt- 
edly superior to the ma- 
chine made road metal ; but 
the latter, when properly 
assorted or screened, has 
been found to meet every 
requirement. In breaking 
by hand two steel-faced 
hammers of different 
weights are used. One, 
weighing from five to six pounds, is used for sledging the 
bowlders and large pieces into smaller sizes, and the 
other, a small steel-faced hammer weighing about one pound 
and having a strong flexible handle, is used for breakimr the 
stones into proper size for use on the road. In breaking by hand 
a skilled laborer will break from one-half a cubic yard to three 
or four cubic yards per day, according to the skill of the work- 
man and the toughness of the stone. Of the toughest stone 
one-half a cubic yard will sometimes supply a full day's work; 
but ordinarily stones will be broken at the rate of one to one 
and one-half cubic yards per day. 

Limestones break somewhat more readily, and may be 
turned out at the rate of two cubic yards per day, while field 
stone and river stone, when found in convenient sizes, can be 
broken by hand at the rate of two and one-half to four cubic 
yards per day. 

Stone Breaking by Machinery. — American stone crushers are 
now used in all parts of the civilized world. They present a 
considerable variety in design, size, cost and capacity. A good 
crusher driven by eight horse power will turn out from forty 
to eighty cubic yards of two inch stone per day of ten hours, 
and will cost from four hundred dollars upward, according to 
quality. To familiarize the reader with the appearance and 
method of breaking of several American stone crushers the 
writer has introduced the accompanying illustrations aiid 
tables. 



i68 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



In their essential parts stone crushers are either provided 
with jaws between which the stones are crushed through the 
action of power applied to the movable jaw, as shown in 
the sectional view (Fig. 27), or ihey are pi-ovided with a 




circular "breaking head " working within an outer shell and 
supplied with corrugations as shown in Figs. 28 and 29. In 
the selection of a stone crusher, it is most important to deal 
with a responsible manufacturer whose reputation will impel 
him to make good any inherent defects which the machine may 



MAC An AM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



169 



develop, and it is generally safe to consult a responsible house 
in deciding" size of machine to be used, power required to run 




■^ Fulcruin. 



■« Least Motion of Head. 



Greatest Motion of Head. 







Power Applied Here. 
Figure 2S. 

Criit;hin,cj head for rotary crusher, 
showing corrucrations. (Gates Iron 
W(jrks, Chicago.) 



Figure 27. 
Sectional view of Champion Rock Crusher. 



it and other points upon which infor- 
mation may be desired. 

Stone crushers are made either 
stationary or portable, according to 
the needs of the purchaser, and 
for country road work it is some- 
times very desirable to have a port- 
able crusher to facilitate its easy 
transfer from one part of the town 
to another. The same portable engine . 
that is used in threshing, sawing wood 
and other operations requiring the use 
nntai section of shell and of Steam power may be used in run- 

her head, Gates crusher. • , ii,-, -i.. 

nmg a stone crusher, but at is best to 
remember that a crusher will do its best and most economical- . 
work when run by a machine having a horse power somewhat 
in excess of the power actually required. 

( To he continued. ) 




Figukp: 20 



Horizo 
crus 



"Yours of April 12, just came, and I am well satisfied 
with the distribution of your magazine in Scarsdale town so far. 
It seems to have done good, already stirring up the inhabitants 
to mend the poor roads before in existence, and may be counted 
upon in due time to make first class macadamized roads. " — 
" The Florence,'' East iSth Street, Ne-w York Citx. 



STREET liMPROVEMENT IN WATERBURY, CONN. 

BY the kindness of Mr. Robert A. Cairns, City Engineer of 
Waterbury, Conn., we are able to present this month two 
full page views showing the marked contrast presented 
by two separate portions of Meadow Street in that city, both 
being taken on the same day. 

Of these pictures INIr. Cairns says: "The accompanying 
views of Meadow Street were taken within an hour of each 
other. There had been a heavy shower a day or two before. 
The paved portion was quite dry at the time the photograph 
was taken, while the unpaved portion, which is immediately 
north of the point at which the Vv^ork of paving was stopped, 
was very muddy and partly covered with water. Both portions 
of the street are subject to a heavy traffic. A glance at these 
two pictures is sufficient to forcibly impress one with the ad- 
vantages of a substantial street surface carefully graded." 

In his official report to the Board of Road and Sewer Com- 
missioners Mr. Cairns makes interesting reference to the kinds 
of pavement appropriate to different classes of street traffic and 
shows a practical and progressive knowledge of these subjects 
which makes his report well worthy of perusal. A brief 
quotation in this connection will be appropriate. Mr. Cairns 
says: 

^^ Brick Favement. — I desire to call the attention of your hon- 
orable board to the subject of brick pavement. This form of 
block is growing rapidly in public favor. Much is claimed for 
it, and the claims seem to be justified by the experience of the 
cities which have used it longest. The material used is by no 
means ordinary bricks, that term being a misnomer. It is 
usually the product of shales, a species of soft rock, ground fine 
by special machinery and then heated to the point of vitrif action, 
/. ,?,, almost to the melting point. The result is a block the 
shape of a building brick, though usually somewhat larger, ex- 
trc^.rnely hard and tough, and comparing favorably with the best 
granite blocks in resistance to abrasion. It is non-absorbent, 
lays with close joints, and is sufficiently gritty to afford a foot- 
hold for horses. It is claimed that it does not wear smooth, like 
many kinds of stone. It is very much more quiet than our 
granite block pavement. Since this pavement has so many 
advantages and has made for itself so satisfactory a record, I 
would suggest the propriety of asking the Common Council for 
a small appropriation sufficient to pave a block or two, so that 
we may have a home illustration of its value. 

^'■Broken Stone. — Early in the Spring it was decided to set up 
the stone crusher at the West Cheshire station on the line of the 




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^ TREE T JMPRO VEMEN 1 ' IN VVA TERB URV. 173 

Meriden, Waterbury and Connecticut River Railroad. A side 
track was graded through solid rock, the stone crusher was re- 
moved from the city yard to West Cheshire and set in position, 
elevators, bins and steam plant provided, all under the imme- 
diate direction of the street inspector, and at last the city of 
Waterbury found itself equipped to surface its streets with trap 
rock. The ledge at West Cheshire is extensive and affords an 
excellent quality of trap rock, than which nothing more suitable 
for broken stone roads can be found. The city is to be con- 
gratulated upon obtaining such excellent material so near 
at hand. 

"During the Autumn a strip was laid down on West Main 
Street, from Exchange Place to Church Street, to a depth of 
from twelve to seven inches, and another on East Main Street, 
from Cherry Street to Welton Street, to a depth of from seven 
inches to five inches. This work should be continued as rapidly 
as possible. With further experience and careful management 
the cost ought to be reduced considerably, allowing us to im- 
prove many of our streets at a moderate expense. 

"Permit me once more to urge upon your attention the wis- 
dom of a careful discrimination between the various forms of 
pavements as to their adaptability to var3ang conditions. And 
especially I desire at this initial stage in the use of broken stone 
to remind you of its limitations. If used in proper localities it 
makes an admirable street surface. If used under heavy travel 
it will make a poor record. Both Hartford and New Haven 
have given broken stone a thorough trial, laying it in the most 
painstaking manner, and now in both cities their engineers and 
other officials are on record as objecting to its use on streets 
which sustain a heavy traffic. The objections made to it on 
such streets are : First, its lack of durability, soon wearing into 
ruts and becoming expensive for repairs. Second, the dif- 
ficulty and expense of restoring it after it has been taken up for 
the making of house connections. Third, the mud which 
forms on it in wet weather and more especially the injurious 
dust in dry, windy weather. Fourth, the trouble of keep- 
ing it clean, as it has to be swept carefully for fear of l(X)sening 
up the particles of stone. 

"Let us profit by these lessons expensively learned by other 
cities, and not imagine that we have discovered in broken stone 
surface hardening the ideal pavement for every possible con- 
dition. We have twenty miles of street, which can be wisely 
covered with broken stone. We have at least four miles on 
which some form of block pavement would be more economi- 
cally and satisfactorily employed." 




THE OPEN STEEPLECHASE. 

Had ridden over hurdles up the country once or 
twice, 

By the side of Snowy River with a horse they 
called the Ace, 

And we brought him down to Sydney, and our rider, 
Jimmy Rice, 

Got a fall and broke his shoulder, so they nabbed 
me in a trice. 

Me that never wore the colors, for the Open 
Steeplechase! 

"Make the running," said the trainer, "it's your 
only chance whatever, 

Make it hot from start to finish, for the old black 
horse can stay ; 

And just think of how they'll take it when they hear 

on Snowy River, 
That the country boy was plucky, and the country 

horse was clever. 
You must ride for old Monaro and the mountain 

boys to-day." 

V Are you ready ?" said the starter, as we held the horses back 
All a-blazing with impatience, with excitement all aglow ; 
And before us like a ribbon stretched the steeplechasing track, 
And the sun rays glinted brightly on the chestnut and the black, 
As the starter's words came slowly : ' ' Are — you — ready — Go ! " 

Well, I scarcely knew we'd started, I was stupid-like with wonder, 

Till the field closed up beside me and a jump appeared ahead. 
And we charged it all together and it fairly whistled under. 
For we flew it like a hurdle, not a baulk and not a blunder, 
And then some were pulled behind me and the rest shot out and 
led. 



So fffe ran for half the distance, 
. and I'm making no pretences 
When I tell you I was feeling 
very nervous like and queer, "^ 
For those jockeys rode like demons, 
you would think they'd lost ^ 
their senses. 
If you saw them rush their horses 
: at those rasping five-foot 
fences,. 
And in place of making running 
I was falling to the rear. 




MAKE THE RUNNING,' " SAID THE TRAINER, 
"'IT'S YOUR ONLY CHANCE WHATEVER,'" 



n* 



THE OPEN STEEPLECHASE. 



175 



^ W 



i^>^ 



i:?-:.. 



^|.'? 



/■ „*. 




^, \i\^^^,A-. 



"before us like a ribbon STREICHED the STEEFLK.CHAdlNG TRACK." 

Till a chap came racing jjast me on a horse they called the Quiver, 
And, said he, " My country joker, are you going to give it best ? 

Are you frightened of the fences, does their stoutness make you shiver? 

Have they took to breeding cowards by the side of Snowy River ? 
Are there riders on Monaro?" but I never heard the rest. 

For I drove the Ace and sent him just as fast as he could pace it 
At the big black line of timber stretching fair across the track, 
.And he shot beside the Quiver. " Now," says I, "my boy, we'll race it. 
You can come with Snowy River if you're only game to face it; 
Let us mend the pace a little and we'll see who cries a crack." 

Then we raced away together, and we left the others standing. 

And the people howled and shouted as we settled down to ride ; 
For I clung beside the Quiver; at his taking-off and landing 
I could watch his scarlet nostrils and his mighty ribs expanding. 

And the Ace stretched out in earnest, and we held him stride for 
stride. 







V\'v' 



jl'fjr ^< . 



•"•now," " SAYS I, "'MY BOY, WE'LL RACE IT.' 



But the pace was so terrific 

that they soon ran out 

their tether. 
They were rolling in their 

galop, they were fairly 

blown and beat, 
But they both were game as 

pebbles, neither one would 

show the feather. 
And we rushed them at their 

fences and they cleared 

them both together: 
Nearly every lime they 

clouted, but they somehovr 

kept their feet. 



I 76 



THE OPEN STEEPLECHASE. 



Then the last jump rose before us, and 

they faced it game as ever, 
We were both at spur and whip-cord, 

fetching blood at ev'ry bound. 
And above the people's cheering and 

the cries of "Ace! " and " Quiver!" 
I could hear the trainer shouting, " One 

more run for Snowy River!" 
Then we struck the jump together, 

and came smashing to the ground. 




"the ace stood'stili and waited." 




'AND HE shook MY HAND AND TCLD ME 



Well, the Quiver ran to blazes, but 

the Ace stood still and waited, 
Stood and waited like a statue while 

I scrambled on his back ; 
There was no one next or near me, 

for the field were fairly slated. 
And I cantered home a winner with 

my shoulder dislocated, 
While the man that rode the Quiver 

followed limping down the track. 

And he shook my hand and told me 
that in all his days he never 
Met a man who rode more gamely 
and our last set-to was prime, 
And we wired them at Monaro how 

we chanced to beat the Quiver. 
And they sent us back an answer, 
' ' Good old sort from Snowy 
River, 
Send us word each race you start 
in, and we'll back you every 
time!" 

— Selected. 



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DAY 


DAY 


DAY 


LENGTH OF 


OF 


OF 


OF 


DAY. 


YEAR 
276 


WEEK 

s. 

M. 


MONTH 
1 

2 


H. M. 


II 43 
II 40 

II 37 

II 35 
II 32 

IT 29 

1 1 27 


277 


Tu. 


3 


278 


W. 


4 


279 
280 


Th. 
Fr. 


5 
6 


281 


Sa. 


7 


282 


S. 


8 


1 

II 2X 


283 


M. 


9 




I I 20 


284 


Tu. 


10 


II iS 


285 


W. 


II 


II IK 


286 


Th. 


12 


II 12 


287 


Fr. 


13 


II 9 
IT 6 


288 


8a. 


14 


289 


S. 


15 


1 1 3 


290 


M. 


16 


1 1 I 


291 


Tu. 


17 


10 58 


292 


W. 


18 


10 56 


293 


Th. 


19 


'o 53 


294 


Fr. 


20 


10 50 


295 


Sa. 


21 


10 47 


296 


S. 


22 


10 45 


297 


M. 


23 


10 42 


298 


Tu. 


24 


10 39 


299 


W. 


25 


10 ^6 


300 


Th. 


26 


10 34 


301 


Fr. 


27 


10 32 


302 


Sa. 


28 


10 29 


303 


S. 


29 


10 26 


304 


M. 


30 


10 24 


305 


Tu. 


31 


10 21 



TENTH . . October ♦ '893 . . MONTH 



Octolier, Willi Its coat of many colors, 
Is tlie Josepli of tlie twelve lirotlier lontlis," 
Rainy, See tlie tououet of umlirellas 
ill tlie slioD wiiKlow, Revive your galoshes, 
Sauer Irani invpiitffl, 1601, It does its own advertising. 
Tlie cider waxetli liard. Better \m\' olf 
Foe died, 1849, Talent vs. Rum, witli tlie usual result ■ 
Rienzi assassinated, 1354, 

Tlie gentle woodcoclf ciiirnetL lolinny get your gun, 
Now liarvest your corn. 
Don't liide tlie red ears, 

Columlius landed, 1492, He never knew wliere lie was at. 
Horse spectacles Urst used. 1892, 
Every American liorse needs two pairs to avoid tlie mud. 
Napolfon arrived at SI HElnia, 1815. 
lolin Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry, '59, 
He liad pluclf, principle and a liad iudsment, 
Wednesday, a lucky day. Buy a stone crustier 
Politicians on tlie warpatli, Iirst-class liars 
imported free of duty. Rainy, 
Clear and Cool, Frosty nights, 
Coml) your wig and go to churcli. Fly-time waneth. 
Reliellion in Ireland. 1641, Tliey pulled tlie Wacktliorn, roots and all 
William Fenn landed, 1682, He dickered aud prospered. 
Chancer died, 1400. He never heard ol Boston. 
First Congress adiourned, 1774. A splendid example. 
Dismal nights. Put anotter padlock on your hen coop. 
Tweed arrested, 1871, 

Keeley motor invented, 18—, It is used chiefly for making gestures. 
Election comes next week. 
The country is sale. Read GOOD ROADS. 



The recent act of the New York Legisla- 
ture, providing for the publication of the ex- 
isting highway laws of that state in a sepa- 
rate volume, supplies an example which other 
states might emulate to their profit and ad- 
vantage. It may not be stated with safety 
that many of these states have road laws 
which should be long perpetuated, but it 
would be well to have what we have in con- 
venient form, so that in the light of latter 
day road knowledge we may see wherein 
they have failed and in what respect they 
need to be amended. 



There are nine blithesome and chipper 
" chosen freeholders " in Monmouth County, 
New Jersey, who are vehemently opposed 
to the improvement of the roads of that 
county. Some of these men have opinions 
of a feeble and rudimentary sort ; others are 
imbued with the kind of indifference that 
has kept Monmouth County at the tail end 
of progress for the last half century and 
still others reflect the opinions of their moss- 
back constituents, whose hand-to-mouth ex- 
istence has narrowed them so completely 
that public improvement is a term not known 
in their vocabulary. You will find them, in 
the softer seasons of the year, decoying 
snipe toward the muzzle of a cheap shotgun 
in the mud flats of Hop Brook or angling 
for slimy bullheads in the sluggish eddies of 
Manalapan Creek — a sort of occupation that 
makes them believe that mud has its pecu- 
liar use and its special functions in the econ- 
omy of nature. To be sure, a mud road is 
not always a thing of convenience, even to 
them ; but who does not know that the sand 
roads of Monmouth County are infinitely 
cleaner than the soft mud of the creek bot- 
toms, and why, therefore, is not sand the 
ne plus ultra of all road making material? 
Prove this, good friends of Monmouth 
County, to the shiftless, thriftless denizens 
of the mud sections of your county and to 
the punk-headed "chosen freeholders" 
whom they have chosen to represent them. 



It is a happy and hopeful indication that 
the prominent engineering schools of Amer- 
ica are giving closer attention to the study 
of practical methods of road making. When 
we consider the fact that thousands of engi- 
neers in European countries are given con- 
stant and lucrative employment in the 
construction and care of streets and roads, 
and that a similar field of engineering work 
is likely to be opened in this country within 
the near future, it is evidence of good fore- 
sight on the part of our American colleges 
that their technical instructors are giving 
more emphasis to thij branch of practical 
work. 



Panicky times are giving way to the dawn 
of confidence. Money is coming out of its 
hiding place, trade is taking to itself a new 
energy and the wheels of business are be- 
ginning to revolve with a speed which 
promises to take us comfortably through 
what has been predicted to be a hard winter. 
Looking back now at the turbulent months 
through which we have just passed, it is 
difficult to ascribe any adequate reason for 
the business panic which beset the country 
and quite as difficult to find a cause for its 
existence. We may talk of the frailties of 
the silver law, but not even our best finan- 
ciers have more than a hazy and indefinite 
idea that silver had anything to do with our 
business troubles, while every statistical ex- 
hibit bearing upon the question, shows that 
still less can the depression of trade and 
manufacture be ascribed to the existing 
tariff charges on imports. It seems to have 
been a sort of contagion which addled the 
noddles of thousands of business men who 
are usually credited with common sense — 
an infectious scare which began in a flurry 
and ended in a stampede. There is business 
enough to be done in the country and plenty 
of money to pay for it. Let us keep the 
past behind us and go ahead to the attain- 
ment of better things. ,78 



Gov. Fuller of Vermont has appointed 
a state highway commission in accordance 
with a joint resolution adopted by the last 
legislature, approved November 22, 1892, 
consisting of Col. Geo. W. Hooker of Brattle- 
boro; Prof. J. William Votey, U. V. AL, 
Burlington; Hon. Oscar L. Hinds of High- 
gate. Col. Hooker is well known as an 
expert in the matter of good roads ; Prof. 
Votey is a professor of engineering in the 
University of Vermont, and is an authority 
on the subject; and INIr. Hinds was chair- 
man of the house committee on highways 
and the author of the present highway law. 
The resolution provides that this commission 
shall make an examination of the highways 
system of the state, and report thereon to 
the next legislature as they may deem ex- 
pedient; the report to be printed in pamph- 
let form not later than July i, 1894. This 
commission is one of the most important 
appointed by the governor, and its workings 
will be of great interest as well as advantage 
to the state. 



Some of the New Jersey turnpike com- 
panies are becoming unduly sensitive. 
They have threatened the arrest of a corres- 
pondent cf Good Roaus residing in Camden 
unless he ceases to take photographs of their 
miserable highways. These gentlemen 
may take notice that the people of the 
Camden neighborhood will be fully in- 
formed of their rights and of the obligations 
of the turnpike companies under their 
charters. Meanwhile, if necessary, these 
roads will be photographed from one end to 
the other, threats of arrest to the contrary 
notwithstanding. 



A SHORT time ago Mr. Charles M. Water- 
man, who runs the wagon express between 
Albany and Schenectady, N. Y., while on 
his trip between these cities with a load of 
about 1,400 pounds drawn by two horses, 
came to a dead standstill in one of the deep, 
soft spots which abound in Albany County 
(this is one of the spots that compelled some 



of the Albany County farmers- to telegraph 
to Albany last Winter to ask for the post- 
ponement of a legislative bill for improved 
roads, till the mud should dry up, so they 
might get down to the Capitol and oppose 
it). Mr. Waterman had to unload his entire 
cargo and carry it piece by piece over the 
entire distance of 200 feet, after which his 
team managed to struggle through with the 
empty wagon, and Mr. Waterman finally 
succeeded in putting his load back into the 
wagon and moving along on his journey. 
This is the old stage road, and should be 
one of the best in the world, but for many 
years has been entirely neglected and is now 
in a deplorable state. Mr. Waterman says 
that road has cost him more work, wear, 
tear and trouble than the road taxes would 
amount to on all the farms in Albany 
County. 

Bad roads lead to profanity ; they make 
men swear. Bad roads lead to intemper- 
ance; men think it is necessary to fortify 
the inner man with a few drinks to enable 
them to stand a long journey through the 
mud. Bad roads lead to cruelty ; the kind- 
est hearted driver often has to stimulate a 
willing team with the lash. Bad roads lead 
to poverty ; the wear and tear on wagons, 
harness and animals knock off a large per 
cent, of profit. ^//o/jwr 'Times. 



At the last session of the Vermont legis- 
lature, provision was made for a state and 
town road commission and the State Board 
of Agriculture was requested to introduce 
the road improvement question as a pn)mi- 
nent subject for discussion in its society 
work during^ the Winter. A letter received 
from Hon. C. ]\I. Winslow, Secretarv of 
State Board of Agriculture, says: "This 
discussion has been carried on in every 
county and now, to still further aid the 
work, I am preparing a road bulletin to 
scatter through the state and to serve as a 
guide and aid to the road commissioners ui 
each town." 

17P 



i8o 



NEWS AND COMMENT. 



The Asbury Park Wheelmen have ex- 
pended several hundred dollars in sending 
magazines, newspapers and circulars about 
roads to Monmouth County farmers. Al- 
most every week some fresh reminder is 
mailed to the men who should be more 
interested in the subject than any other 
class in the community. — Asbury Park 
Journal. , 



has set January i as the date for this or- 
dinance to go into effect. 



The " good roads " day and exhibit which 
Mr. Robinson, Secretary, gave at the Inter- 
State Fair, at Elmira, N. Y., was a great 
success and awakened much interest ; 10,000 
people present, including 500 highway com- 
missioners. 



City Editor Irving B. Adams of the 
Radford (Virginia) News has been making 
a desperate fight for an appropriation for 
local improvements and is having some suc- 
cess through the active aid of the Virginia 
-wheelmen. 



This from Iowa: A strange and fatal 
■disease has broken out among the horses in 
the mud girt regions of Pocahontas and 
surrounding counties. "Mud fever" it is 
called, and its effect is to stiffen a horse's 
legs so the animal finally becomes unable to 
move. The symptoms are very much like 
Tlieumatism, and it is thought the excess of 
mud is the cause of the disease. Many 
horses have died from iLs effects. 



In order to "protect the new brick pave- 
ment now being laid in Des Moines, the 
city council recently passed an ordinance 
regulating the width of wagon, carriage and 
cart tires used in the city. In case of four 
wheeled vehicles for loads of tiiree thousand 
to six thousand pounds, including weight of 
wagon, the tires must not be under three 
inches in width ; six thousand to nine thous- 
and, not less than four inches^ and above 
nine thousand pounds, 'One inch of tire must 
be added for every two thousand pounds or 
fraction. Like T.egulations are made for 
two wheeled vehicles. It is thought that 
pavement will be much better preserved by 
virtue of these regulations. The council 



Through the efforts of the York County 
Wheelmen of Riddef ord, Me. , the Saco City 
council lately took up the street improve- < 
ment question in an active and effective 
way. The road improvement committee of 
the club began operations by presenting a 
strong communication to the city council urg- 
ing the purchase of a steam roller, crusher 
and drill. A resolution to purchase the nec- 
essary machinery was introduced, and this 
was supplemented by a petition signed by 
all the leading business men of the city, 
asking for these improvements. Negotia- 
tions are now under way for the purchase 
of a steam roller and crusher and a special 
committee is about to be appointed to con- 
summate this purchase. The York County 
Wheelmen, having their club rooms located 
in Biddeford, include a large membership 
made up from influential citizens residing in 
both cities. The club wields an influence 
socially and politically that is bound to count 
for good in the progress of improvements 
in York County, and one that supplies a 
potent example for cycling clubs in other 
cities. 



Harvey M. Sigafoos, a milkman residing 
near Carpenterville, N. Y., while driving 
on the public highways leading to Phillips- 
burg recently had his arm broken by the 
upsetting of his wagon, which he alleges 
was caused by the bad condition of the 
public road. Mr. Sigafoos has employed 
ex-Judge Silas M. DeWitt of Phillipsburg 
to bring suit against the Greenwich town- 
ship authorities for $1,500 damages. The 
suit will be a test case. 



Mr. F. a. Dunham, engineer of the Union 
County, N. J., roads, has been consulted by 
authorities of Dubuque, Madison, Saginaw 
and other western cities regarding the cost 
of methods of construction of improved 
roads, and a recent copy of the Saginaw 
Courier Hera/ d contsdns an extended refer- 
ence of the Union County roads with infor- 
mation gained from Mr. Dunham during his 
business in that city. 



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1 






A Treatise on Highway Construction. 
By Austin T. Byrne, C. E. (New York : John 
Wiley & Sons). A handsomely bound and 
fully illustrated book of nearly seven hundred 
pages. We welcome Mr. Byrne's book as a 
valuable contribution to the literature of 
American road making. Like most modern 
attempts of this class, Mr. Byrne's work is 
largely a compilation; but he has shown 
rare skill in the selection and arrangement 
of his materials, and the result warrants us 
in saying that we know of no work on this 
subject which is so well calculated to supply 
needed information on a great variety of 
details, all of which are pertinent to the 
general subject. The first eight chapters 
are devoted to the subject of pavements; 
the author then takes up the subject of 
foundations, resistance to traction, location 
of country roads, width and transverse con- 
tour, earth work, drainage and culverts, 
bridges, retaining walls, protection works, 
tunnels, fencing, city streets, foot paths, 
curbs, gutters, reconstruction and improve- 
ment of country roads, maintenance, trees, 
staking out work, specifications and con- 
tracts, implements and prices. The book is 
copiously illustrated by 249 figures and 
illustrations. It should have a place in the 
library of every civil engineer who seeks to 
be informed on the subject to which it 
relates. 



and readable way, while the technical sugges- 
tions are such as the practical, common- 
sense reader may accept and approve with- 
out reserve. Besides the subjects of loca- 
tion, construction, repairs, shade trees, foot 
paths, crosswalks, bridges, etc., which are 
treated in separate chapters, Mr. Potter has 
added to the importance of his book by 
supplying a good number of interesting 
pages on the history, importance and signi- 
ficance of rotids ; purposes for which high- 
ways may be used; use of highways by 
adjoining owners; enjoyment of the road; 
highway officers, and the valae and import- 
ance of good roads, to which last subject a 
separate chapter is given, with due credit 
to Colonel Albert A. Pope from whose ex- 
cellent addresses the author has largely 
drawn. 



The Road and the Roadside. By Burton 
Willis Potter, M. A. (Little, Brown & Co., 
Boston, Mass.) A book for the general 
reader and one which everybody may read 
to advantage. In a neatly bound and 
handsomely printed octavo volume of 250 
pages Mr. Potter presents the third edition 
of his interesting work, with a modest pref- 
ace in which the author announces his 
attempt to give "a comprehensive survey 
of the law, and other matters relating to 
highways which the ordinary reader is most 
anxious to know something about." 'This 
object has been well attained. The law of 
the road and of vehicles is stripped of dry 
legal terms and is stated in an interesting 



Highways of Massachusetts; Official 
Report of George S. Perkins, W. E. McClin- 
tock and N. S. Shaler, State Commissioners 
of Highways of the State of Massachusetts. 
(Wright & Potter Printing Co., State 
Printers, Boston, Mass.) We regard this 
book as beyond question the most important 
public document printed by the State of 
Massachusetts for fifty years. The work of 
the commissioners has been admirably 
done. The commissioners appointed by 
Governor Russell were well selected, -ind 
their reputation for energy and ability have 
been fully sustained in the preparation of 
this volume. It is as full of practical infor- 
mation as an egg is full of meat. The book 
is of convenient size (^38 pages) and it seems 
to have been the aim of the commissioners 
to include in one small volume all necessary 
practical information for the construction of 
better roads and better road systems in the 
State of Massachusetts. The tables con- 
tained in the last 100 pages of the book are of 
great value and show that the highway com- 
missioners of Massachusetts have done tlreir 
work with a thoroughness and zeal which is 
not too often found in the conduct of public 
affairs. The book ought to be in the hands 
of every citizen of the state. iSi 



m 



UEHIES 



u":^ 



D 



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" Ex-Member." — A copy of the new High- 
way Manual of the State of New York can 
be obtained by addressing Honorable N. G. 
Spalding, Schodack Landing, N. Y. The 
manual is bound in cloth and contains about 
360 pages. We do not know what price has 
been fixed for it. 



" S. Sherman." — Lay a tile, brick or stone 
drain (having an interior diameter of not 
less than two inches) along the centre line 
of your foot-path, keeping it below the frost 
line, and fill the trench above the drain with 
porous material like coarse sand or gravel, 
to quicken the drainage. This treatment 
will doubtless dispel the annoyance result 
ing fi'om the surrounding wet, clayey soils 
of which you complain. 



" Alderman." — No exact rule is followed 
in the cities of America in regulating the 
distances between adjacent street gas lamps, 
nor is this condition likely to be improved, 
since the custom of lighting the streets by 
gas is giving way to a large extent to the 
introduction of electric lights. In fixing the 
distance apart of any two street lamps, it 
should 'be borne in mind that the intensity of 
the light is directly proportioned to the il- 
luminating power of its source and inversely 
proportioned to the square of the distance 
of the light (if unrefiected) from the point in 
question. Mr. Boulnois, author of "The 
Municipal and .Sanitary Engineer's Hand- 
book" and City Engineer of Liverpool, Eng- 
land, states that the rule has been adopted in 
Great Britain that public street lamps burn- 
ing five cubic feet per hour of fifteen candle 
gas, should not be placed at a greater distance 
than 70 yards apart, the average distance in 
most English towns being about 50 yards. 



" E, C, C. E." — Under the conditions you 
name it is perhaps best to use concrete in 
making your drains and culverts, though it 
cannot be used to advantage nor economic- 
ally for drains of small dimensions. Gil- 
more recommends the following formula: 



I measure of Rosendale (or any equivalent) 
cement ; i measure of slaked lime_in powder ; 
4 to 4)4. measures of clean, sharp sand, 9 to 
10 measures of pebbles, small fragments of 
stone or brick, oyster shells, or a mixture of 
them all. AVhen Portland cement of stand- 
ard quality is used, the following formula is 
given: i barrel of Portland cement, as 
packed for market; i barrel common lime, 
producing 2^4!" to 2}i slaked lime powder; 9 
to 10 barrels of sand; 15 to 17 barrels of 
coarse material. From your letter we judge 
that you fully understand the technical 
method of making a continuous culvert by 
the use of concrete. 



"Blooker" (Toronto, Can.) — Wood pave- 
ments have been known to last for many 
years in European cities without serious de- 
cay. In one case a term about nineteen, 
years is reported as the limit. In our own. 
country the life of wood pavements is gen- 
erally much shorter, and in many cities both, 
in America and abroad, they are not re- 
garded with great favor. In order to insure 
a good wood pavement, it must be thor- 
oughly seasoned, dried, treated with some 
good preservative and laid on a good foun- 
dation and finally protected from the ravages 
of the weather. All these precautions are 
generally too appalling for the average con- 
tractor and American wood pavements have 
suffered in consequence. 



"HoosiER." — The best material for a 
cycling suit is a matter about which there is. 
some variety of opinion. For both appear- 
ance and durability we regard the regular 
League cloth as having no superior. It was- 
selected by a competent committee after ex- 
amining and testing many excellent samples 
and has given good satisfaction to all League 
members who have adopted it. The cost of 
the suit entire is $14.50. The separate gar- 
ments cost as follows: Coat, $S; knicker- 
bockers, $5.25; cap, $1.25. You can obtain 
a sample of the cloth by addressing the 
official tailors, Browning, King & Company, 
406 Broome Street, New York, N. Y. iSi 




Stands- 



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OR . , . 

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FOR 1893 




WEIGHTS OF ROAD MACHINES, 29, 33, 35 AND 40 POUNDS 



HIGHEST GRADE THROUGHOUT 



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Jamesvllle, N. Y. 



Wan'ed 




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PLANS AND ESTIMATES FREE. WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOOUEo 

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Pronounced by Engineers the FINEST MATERIAL in the World 
for ROAD MAKING 

Stands crushing test of 22,000 lbs. per cubic inch 

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QUERIES AND ANSWERS. 



183 



"S. V. O." (Canajoharie, N. Y.)— "Jas- 
perite " is a sort of ar ti ficial pavement formed 
by first laying a foundation of broken stone. 
over which is placed a layer of concrete 
(made of Portland cement and quartzite). 
The concrete is thoroughly mixed and ram- 
med in place, and is divided into blocks 
about a yard square by strips of tarred 
paper. 

» 

"O. U. M." (Cincinnati, ("^hio) —The cost 
of street work in different cities varies 
greatly; depending of course upon the 
amount of work done, its quality, cost of 
materials, price of labor and other items. 
In your city it has been estimated that the 
average cost per head of population for con- 
struction and repairs is $2.8S and for street 
cleaning 62 cents. In New York, for con- 
struction and repairs 68 cents, and for 
cleaning 71 cents. In Chicago the figures 
are $3.18 and 8 cents, respectively. In 
Washington, $2.50 and 31 cents. 



"A. A." (Dover, Del.)— The warping of 
which you complain is probably due to a 
want of judgment in cutting the lumber. 
Consult an intelligent carpenter and have 
the wood cut so as to properly intersect the 
grain. He can instruct you better and more 
clearly than you can be aided through 
printed suggestions. 

" Canford." — The use of iron gratings 
around the roots of shade trees has not be- 
come general in this country and we know 
of no city in America where they have been 
extensively adopted. They are, of course, 
in some degree ornamental, but this is the 
least of their virtues. Unlike the flagstone 
pavements which are commonly laid quite 
close to the trunks of shade trees, these iron 
gratings permit the entrance of water into 
the ground about and above the roots of the 
trees and thus nourish and stimulate their 
growth. The gratings are easily removed, 
and where young trees are planted this is 
often a desirable feature, since it permits of 
the necessary digging, loosening the soil, 
fertilizing and other attention which a young 
tree frequently requires. They are used 
quite extensively in Pans and in some other 
European cities. 



of no place in America where it is in opera- 
tion, nor have we any knowledge that it 
possesses any advantage over the stone 
breakers of home manufacture, much less 
the advantages that you mention. American 
stone crashers not only stand at the head in 
this country, l^ut are actually preferred by 
many engineers in both Englandand France. 



"Tangled Spokes." — Your first question 
is not entirely clear. If measured in inches, 
the amount of "flat" which a pneumatic 
tire will have at its point of contact with 
the road surface may be determined in a 
line across the wheel base or in the line of 
the direction of the wheel, and will depend 
on the diameter of the tire, the weight of 
both machine and rider, the character of the 
surface on which it rests and perhaps other 
factors which may not be here mentioned. 
In general, the best rule is this: Inflate your 
tires to such a pressure that when the rider 
is mounted and the wheel resting on a hard, 
smooth surface, the "flat" of the tires will 
be just perceptible. This is the best rule to 
follow for all around riding. For racing, 
the tires should be, of course, inflated to a 
higher tension. 

2. No. 

3. Yes, a wheel geared to rS x 2S-|— 8 (a 63- 
inch gear) can be changed to a 72-inch gear 
by substituting a seven-toothed sprocket for 
the eight-toothed sprocket given in the 
formula. The computation will then be 
J 8x28^-7, equals 72-inch gear. 



"M. C. T."— The " Newall & Archer" 
stone breaker is an English machine and is 
not much used in this country. We know 



" O. O." — I. The town officers have no 
right to extend any part of their bridge 
structure or its foundations beyond the line 
of the roadway on either side. You are un- 
doubtedly entitled to recover damages for 
any encroachment on your property in the 
building of the bridge you mention. 

2. There is no provision either in the 
statute or in the common law which requires 
any landowner to erect a fence along the 
line of the highway, and where no fence is 
erected any unlawful entrance by man or 
beast upon the property of another is no less 
a trespass than if a fence had been erected. 

3. The road officers of your town are not 

required to "work" and improve the entire 
width of the roadway between its extreme 
boundaries. All that can be reasonably de- 
manded of them is that they shall keep in 
good condition a sufficient width of road- 
way to serve the traveling public. 




^ffK!''^'^ 



ROWED 




THE RAVIN. 

Once upon a Monday dreary- 
She was working: weak and weary, 
Down upon her marrows mopping, 
Mopping up the kitchen floor. 
While the mop went flipping flapping, 
Suddenly she heard a tapping, 
Tapping at the kitchen door. 
" 'Tis some visitor," she muttered, " tapping at the 

kitchen door; 
Gracious, Peter, what a bore." 
Up she jumped, and nearly swearing, 
Hastily began preparing 
To appear as women wish to when their callers 

look them o'er — 
Yanked her apron off and slung it 
O'er the greasy gown she wore. 
Then she opened wide the door— and found a 

sawed-off boy who wanted to know if she didn't 

want some fresh buitered popcorn. 



At a large banquet of Irish judges and 
lawyers, two of them sat down before a 
dish containing only one small fish. One 
of them drew the fish toward himself, 
remarking : 

" This is a fast day for me." 

The other speared the fish with hi^ fork, 
and transferred it to his own plate, saying 
to his pious neighbor : 

" Jasus! do you think no one has a sowl 
to be saved but yourself?" 



A FATHER had been lecturing his young 
hopeful upon the evils of staying out late at 
night and getting up late in the morning. 

" You will never amount to anything," he 
continued, "unless you turn over a new 
leaf. Remember that the early bird catches 
the worm." 

" How about the worm, father?" inquired 
the young man. " Wasn't he rather foolish 
to get up so early?" 

"My son," replied the father solemnly, 
"that worm hadn't been to bed all night; 
he was on his way home." 



A WISE PROVIDENCE. 

' Say, Uncle Moses, how did de Lavv-d 
make de berry fust man ?" 

" How did de Lawd make de fust man ? 
W'y, he done made him out ob de earf, 
out ob de mud; dat's how he made him." 

" Den w'y doan' he make 'em out o' mud_ 
any mo' ?" 

"'Cause de Lawd doan' nebber do noffin' 
extrabagant, my chile. Land ain't as cheap 
as it was 'fo' de wah; and den, too, fust 
t'ing, you know, some white pusson ud buy 
up all the mud and put a stop to de poperla- 
tion, and den whar'd we be? Dar ain't no- 
good talkin' 'bout it, honey; de Lawd am. 
de best jedge ob how to go about his own- 
business." — Pen and Scissors. 



Teacher — Spell "slippers," Johnny. 
Johnny — S-1-a-p-p-e-r-s. 
Teacher — That spells "Slappers." 
Johnny — Same thing. — Harper s Bazar. 



A STATE SECRET. 

One of the New York City enumerators 
for the district embracing a certain portion 
of baxter Street "elates the following experi- 
ence: 

Pulling the bell of a low brick house it is 
answered by a shrewd looking foreigner to 
whom are put the usual questions. 

" What is your name ?" 

" Moses Lavinsky, aus Posen in Poland.'" 

' ' Are you married ? " 

"Yes, six years. Mine wife's name is 
Rachel and I have nine children." 

" Your business ?" 

" I am a second hand clothing dealer." 

' ' What is your religion ? " 

The man stared blankly at the enumerator 
for a moment and then turning he called 
inside : 

" Ra-a-chel, I tells him all I am, but he 
vants to know my religion." 

Something is said in response in a strange 
tongue, when Moses, with a twinkle in his 
eye, bends down to the census-taker : 

" Don't gif itavay; Tm a Qu-va-ker." — 
Philadelphia Times. is* 



Good Roads 



Vol. 4. 



IVovember, 1893. 



No. 5. 



PROFIT AND LOSS TO THE FARMER. 

HOW THE CONDITION OF THE COUNTRY ROAD AP^FECTS HIS PROS- 
PERITY. GOOD ROADS AN INVESTMENT, BAD ROADS A TAX. 

Bv Hon. N. G. Spalding, 

Commissioner appointed by Governor Flower 0/ U^ew York to prepare a State 
Highway Manual; State Lecturer of the Farmers Union League. 

SUCCESSFUL farming depends more upon good roads than is 
generally supposed. The balance between the cost of 
production and the market values of his farm products is 
the margin of profit to the farmer. To increase this profit, 
then, it is necessary either to lower the cost of production or 

raise the market value. It 
does not lie in the power of 
the farmer to raise the market 
value ; he must therefore de- 
pend upon the decreased cost 
of production for his increased 
profits. In this lies the farmer's 
success or failure. 

Why does not farming pay 
as it should? is a question often 
asked, and may be answered 
as resulting mainly from two 
causes: First, a want of just 
legislation; second, a want of 
skill on the part of the farmer 
himself. All legislation that 
admits of unjust taxation 
or excessive freight rates on 
any of our transportation lines, 
has its evil effect upon the net 
profits to the farmer. The 
truth of this statement is generally admitted. An extensive 
discussion of this subject is, however, outside of the present 
line of thought. It is also beyond our limits to give in detail 
the losses that must accrue to the farmer by unskillful manage- 
ment. But the losses that must result from poor roads is a 
legitimate field for our present discussion, and cannot be inves- 
tigated too minutely. ^85 




Hon. N. G. Sp.\ldi\g. 



iS6 



PROFIT AND LOSS TO THE FARMER. 




Profit and Loss to the Farmer. 
" As he rides and drives over them he is heard to heap violent abuse 
upon their terrible condition; but he never weighs in his mind their 
effect upon the success of his business." 

The farmer is slow to perceive the influence which the con- 
dition of the highways has upon his individual prosperity. As 
he rides and drives over them he is heard to heap violent abuse 
upon their terrible condition, but he never weighs in his mind the 
effect they have upon the success of his business. He doesn't 
enjoy the ruts and hollows, mud sinks and sloughs, but he only 
thinks of them as affecting his happiness and is too apt to 
regard a smooth, well kept road as an extravagence which only 
the rich can afford. 

A little careful thought, however, upon the subject, will 
clearly show him that good roads are a benefit to him finan- 
cially, and must increase the profits of the farm and thereby 
add to the actual value of his holdings. Most farmers ship 
their produce in the Fall and Spring. After the expense of har- 
vesting the farmer is usually " short." He needs mone}^ to pay 
off his extra help and to meet his coming tax, and, worse than 
all, money for interest on his ever abiding mortgage.. All these 
demands come in the Fall, when the roads are bad. But he 
cannot delay — the money must be ready at any sacrifice. The 
roads are hardly passable and he must therefore content him- 
self with small loads, slow transit, extra teams and help. All 
this means great additional expense, and an increased cost of 
production, which in many instances reduces his margin of 
profit to almost nothing. In the Spring the same thing must 
be repeated. He has a small surplus after wintering his stock, 



PROFIT AND LOSS TO THE FARMER. 



187 




Four Horses and a Half-loaukd Wagon. 

" On the averag'e poor road the farmer can draw but two loads (daily) 
and only a little more than half the weight for each load." Scene on road 
entering village in fertile and populous farming section of America. 



which must be sent to market before the Spring work begins. 
Another siege of mud at another extra cost. It is an old say- 
ing that, " it is the last straw that breaks the camel's back," 
and these miserable roads often become the ■ fatal straw that 
breaks the farmer's back. Between unjust taxation, exorbitant 
freight rates, poor farming and impassable roads, the unfortu- 
nate farmer often sinks into irretrievable bankruptcy. 

To illustrate more fully this cost of poor roads to the farmer 
we will suppose that he is in possession of a farm of one him- 
dred and twenty acres located at least three miles from the 
market. On a good road he can draw four loads of one ton and 
a half each, or six tons to market daily. On the average poor 
road he can draw but two loads and only a little niore than 
half the weight for each load, or only two tons per day. It 
would then require three teams and three men to do the same 
amount of hauling on the poor road that one man and one team 
could do on the good road. A farmer should ship from a farm 
of one hundred and twenty acres under a good state of cultiva- 
tion, at least one hundred and fifty tons annually. To haul 
this produce from the farm to market on a good road would 
require, at six tons a day, twenty-five days. Allowing three 
dollars a day for the team and man the cost of this transporta- 
tion would be seventy-five dollars. Upon an average poor road 



i88 



PROFIT AND LOSS TO THE FARMER. 








5^A. i_ 
TllL CHIh,P DUKDEN OF THE FARMER a TASK. 

"The social effect of good roads upon country life cannot be over- 
estimated. Bad roads often render social intercourse almost impossible." 
Scene on country road, showing deep mud and ruts. 

it would take seventy-five days for one team and a man to haul 
this produce, which at three dollars a day would amount to two 
hundred and twenty-five dollars. It would, then, cost one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars more to carry the annual products of this 
farm over a poor road than over a good road. Here is where 
the money goes. The good road, therefore, saves the farmer 
just that amount, which would pay the interest on an indebted- 
ness of over three thousand dollars ($3,000) at five per cent. ; 
or in other words it would add $3,000 to the value of his farm. 
Poor roads, then, are instrumental in decreasing the farmer's 
profits. This amount is an actual loss, which should be guarded 
against, and which can be prevented by a proper consideration 
of the needs of the highways. 

Not only do poor roads decrease the profits of the farmer, 
but they also reduce the value of the farm. All values are 
determined by the amount of profit. On 'change there are no 
ideal values. The first question always asked is, what rate of 
interest will the investment pay? If the value of the stock of a 
certain railroad is fixed at a certain amount and its net earnings 
only pay three per cent, interest on this estimate, its actual 
value decreases to fifty cents on a dollar. So a farm may be 



PROFIT AND LOSS TO THE FARMER. 



1S9 




The Profit of a Good Road. 
"The good road, therefore, saves the farmer just the amount that 
would pay the interest on an indebtedness of $3,000 at five percent., or in 
other words, it would add $3,000 to the value of his farm." View of 
improved country road in town of Harrison, N. Y. 

estimated as worth $10,000, but if it only produces enough 
to pay three per cent, on this vahie, its actual value instantly 
drops to $5,000, We will suppose then that poor roads have 
increased the cost of transportation of the products of the farm 
to the market, thereby lessening the amoimt of profit, as the 
amount of profit is thus lessened in the same proportion as the 
value of the farm decreased. 

Having thus discussed the loss to the farmer occasioned by 
poor roads, we will now glance at the profits that may accrue to 
him by the maintenance of good roads. Anything that makes 
the country attractive enhances the value of country property. 
It is said that the beautiful roads in Belgium, extending for 
miles into the country from the city of Brussels, have nearly 
doubled the value of the little holdings of the people along 
those roads. Because of the excellence of these smooth high- 
ways, the horse, in many instances, has given way to the 
bicycle, and artisans of all trades, both men and women, think 
it no hardship to live five or even ten miles from their business, 
so easy is it with their artificial horses to glide over these roads 
to business centres. 

The magnificent boulevards projected by the first Napoleon 
and completed by Napoleon III., it is said, have already paid 



ipo PROFIT AND LOSS TO THE FARMER. 

for their construction by the increased vahie of the farm lands 
through which they have extended. 

On Staten Island the splendid macadam roads that have cost 
millions of dollars by direct tax on land values have so added to 
the actual value of those lands that the tax is not considered 
burdensome. By the construction of these roads and because 
of its proximity to New York City, the farm lands of the island 
have been taken up by persons residing in New York City who 
have built for themselves beautiful suburban homes. All this 
has been to the great advantage of the Staten Island farmer. 

The social effect of good roads upon country life cannot be 
over-estimated. The improvement of our highways would do. 
away with much of the difficulty of visiting in our rural dis- 
tricts. Bad roads often render social intercourse almost impos- 
sible. The evening is dark, there are no 'side paths or lamp 
posts along the way, the roads are almost impassable with mud 
or drifted snow, and as the family look out toward the light in 
the window of their neighbor's house, the gush of social life 
that a moiuent before was moving in full tide is now checked 
by these many difficulties. Life in the country, otherwise full 
of happiness, now sinks into a tam-e existence, all for the want of 
a pleasant highway connecting the homes of adjoining neighbors. 

There can be no doubt that poor roads have much to do 
with the small attendance at our public schools. The country 
boy and girl obtain the greater part of their education in early 
life. After the age of fifteen the children are busily engaged 
in the care of the farm or the dairy. During the late Fall and 
Winter when work upon the farm is at a standstill, there is an 
opportunity given for school attendance. But this is at the time 
when our public Righways are at their worst and the two or 
three miles between the farm and school house are traveled 
with the greatest difficulty. Were our highways in a proper 
condition the number of days of school attendance by these 
children would be more than doubled, and the preliminary 
education of the farmers' sons and daughters would be made to 
equal that of their city cousins, and a good common school 
education might be obtained where now even an ordinary 
intelligence is lacking. 

Church attendance would also be greatly increased if our 
roads were uniformly good. During half the year the pleasure 
of church attendance is denied because of almost impassable 
highways. The Sabbath in the country becomes, therefore, a 
day of languor, devoid of religious thought, with no care for 
religious teaching, instead of a day devoted to moral develop- 
ment and Christian attainments. 

Our vital statistics show that a larger percentage of farmers 
and especially of farmers' wives become insane than any other 
class, and that the ratio of this insanity is increased in proportion 



PROFIT AND LOSS TO THE FARMER. 191 

as the parties are isolated from society. This ought not 
to be. The occupation of a farmer is not a disagreeable one, it 
is full of interest. Nature has a thousand charms for him that 
no other occupation would provide. But this condition results 
from his self-imposed isolation caused in many instances by 
neglected and impassable highways. In the old dungeons of a 
more barbarous age, prisoners after a few years nearly all be- 
come demented. A complete separation from human sympathy 
and social intercourse was the cause of this insanity. This con- 
dition of things was only a little worse, however, than that often 
produced upon the farmer by impassable highways. 

Open up the avenues of intercourse with schools, churches 
and society by improved roads and increased facilities for con- 
tact with our fellow men, and country life, otherwise beautiful 
and attractive, would become, indeed, what it should be, an 
approach to our original Eden. 



Bound voliDiies of " Good Roads " {Jiandsomely bound in seal brown 
cloth and gilt) can no7v be supplied at $ i per volume. Each volume 
contains six numbers of " Good Roads." The first three volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price is lower than that charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the country., and is fixed at Si to 
enable each reader to obtain at nominal cost a handsome and useful 
work. Address '''' Good Roads," Potter Building., New York. 



IMPORTANT. — '' Good Roads" wants the name and post-offtce 
address [plainly written^ of every civil engineer., surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the names 
and addresses of prominent citizens who are interested in the movement 
for better roads. We ask each reader to aid in making up this list. 
Send as pronptly as possible and specify each man's ofiicial position. 



" I WRITE to thank vou for League road literature sent me 
some time since and which I have used to good advantage. I 
was able to carry, in town meeting on Monday last, a resolution 
providing for a committee to look up the cost and advisability 
of macadamizing our county roads, about six and one-third 
miles, and to formulate plans for borrowing the money and 
provide for payment of the same. * * * Success to you 
in your efforts to further this branch of the L. A. W. — the one 
in which wheelmen ought to take the most pride." — George L. 
Pichards, Afarion, Mass. 



"Still achieving, still pursuing " its noble mission, Good 
Roads abounds in forceful sermons from striking texts and 
illustrates by unanswerable arguments. — Daily Post [Houston, 
Texas). 



ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 

( Concluded. ) 

IT is beyond question that many people have been attracted" 
to the place simply by the pleasant appearance and the more 
comfortable condition of the streets. The aspect of the place 
has materially changed; where jaunty and elegant turnouts 
were a rarity they now abound ; scenes of life and activity pre- 
vail at all times in places that were of necessity shunned during 
the early Spring and Fall. The improved appearance of the 
streets has induced a corresponding amount of care in the treat- 
ment of the abutting property on the part of the owner or 
occupant, the result of which is an increased demand for prop- 
erty at increased rates. 

A word now as to the methods of work adopted by Mr. 
Roullier in the care and maintenance of the village streets 
under his charge. 

The macadamized streets in the Village of Flushing are 
constructed with but four inches of metal at the crown of the 
road. 

No foundation is provided other than the usual compacting 
of the graded earth surface by rolling, and substituting suit- 
able material where fine shifting sand or soft clay is encount- 
ered. 

All rolling is done with a ten-ton steam roller. 

Trap rock and granite are used according to the importance 
of the thoroughfare. This material is bound with sharp sand 
and screenings. Special attention is given to the rolling. 

The maintenance of these roads has been extremely inex- 
pensive and consists in sweeping, and in maintaining a thin 
wearing surface by the occasional spreading of a small amount 
of gravelly sand. 

One man with a horse and cart has no difficulty in looking 
after about five miles of roadway except after heavy storms, 
when serious washes occur ; then an additional force is sent 
out. The sweeping referred to is done by a special gang fur- 
nished with a Barnard Castle two-horse sweeper and a sprink- 
ling cart. The sweeping is done according to the requirements- 
of the several streets. 

The duties of the man looking after the roadways consist 
in passing at least once each day over every macadamized street, 
picking up stones or earth that may have fallen from passing 
carts, and sanding bare spots ; if at the completion of his tour 
he has time to spare he cleans up any accumulation of dust or 
mud that can always be found in places sheltered from the 
wind. ,g. 



ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 



193 





J 



Old Tumble-down Culvert— Flushing and Jamaica Road. 

If a rut or depression is found the roadway is picked loose, 
the necessary quantity of small macadam is spread over the 
depression and covered with a layer of screenings and sand, 
providing the rut or depression is not of sufficient magnitude 
to warrant the use of the steam roller. If the roller can be 
used the section to be repaired is spiked up with the roller, the 
metal re-spread and as much new metal as may be necessary 
added; the whole is then rolled down as in the case of a new 
road. . 

Sprinkling is found to be a very valuable adjunct to main- 
tenance, as it preserves the roads in good condition, diminishing 
materially the cost of maintenance, besides doing away with 
dust, etc. 

It must be borne in mind that in constructing road beds of 
this class, theoretical accuracy as to details must be followed 
else the result will be disastrous. 

The cost of these roads has been fifty-four (54) cents per 
square yard, including shaping of roadway, taking up and re- 
laying cross-walks; also paved gutters wherever necessary, 
maintaining the roller and in fact all disbursements connected 



194 



ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 




New Stone Culvert— Flushing and Jamaica Road. 

with the work. The material (road metal) cost $1.55 and $1.75 
per cubic yard, according to kind, delivered alongside of dock. 

These roads have been most satisfactory so far, this thin 
metalling having proven itself capable of sustaining an amount 
of trafhc totally unexpected. 

Some of these roads were accidently submitted for several 
months during the early Spring to extremely heavy traffic, un- 
expectedly diverted over them through the reconstruction of a 
bridge, without showing the slightest weakness. 

The object in advocating the construction of such roadways 
was to establish the fact that good roadways could be con- 
structed in the side streets of suburban towns at a low cost, and 
that good roads did not in all cases mean an enormous expendi- 
ture as is the popular belief, a belief that has been engendered 
and fostered by the construction of heavy road beds without 
reference to the character of the local traffic. 

The trials made in Flushing have proven conclusively that 
the methods of construction usually adopted for secondary 
roads are unnecessarily expensive and that the amounts ex- 
pended on such roads could be distributed over a greater length 
of roadway with better advantage to the taxpayer and to the 
public and thereby to a certain extent remove the great bar, 
expense, to the general construction of good roads 



ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 



,195 




Old Plank Culvert— Flushixg amd Jamaica Road. 

The stones shown in the picture were laid on the planks to prevent their 
floating away in times of high water. 

The reader who desires to know more of the technical 
methods employed in the making of the Flushing and Jamaica 
road is referred to page 205 of Vol. i of Good Roads (April, 
1892), where complete specifications of this work appeared. In 
a general way, and briefly, it may be well to include here a few 
practical hints suggested by Engineer Roullier, as applicable 
to the construction work of macadam roads in most parts of 
the country. They are as follows: 

Cross-section. — The cross-section should have sufficient lateral 
fall to readily shed the water and yet permit a vehicle to com- 
fortably pass over any portion of the roadway. The narrower 
the roadway the more essential is this, as excessive steepness in 
cross-section concentrates the traffic on the apex of the carriage- 
way, and however well constructed a road bed maybe, the con- 
stant pounding of the horses hoofs at one point and the con- 
tinuous cutting by the wheels at another will cause loosening 
of the road metal in the one instance and rutting in the other. 

About one-half inch to the foot is all the lateral fall that is 
necessary to obtain good results as to the drainage withot:t in- 
terfering with traffic. To properly round or shape the cross- 
section many rules have been given that all secure the same 
results. The following is simply and easily retained : Divide 



196 



ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 




ViTKiKUJD Pipe Delivered at Roadside, for use in Side Drains at 
Farm Road Crossings. 

the half roadway into say three equal parts ; then starting from 
the centre, fall o. 03 of a foot per foot for one-third of the dis- 
tance; 0.04 per foot on the middle third; 0.05 on the side sec- 
tion. In extremely broad roadways it is advisable to increase 
the number of sections in the half roadway and to commence 
with a lighter fall per foot, running say 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05. 
On narrower roadways, 18 feet or less in width, one inter- 
mediate point alone is necessary, the fall being made 0.04 and 
0.05 per foot from the centre. 

The form of cross-section is not always optional : the longi- 
tudinal grade controls it very materially. The section should 
be so proportioned that water will not have a tendency to fol- 
low the axis of the road, but should be shed into the side 
gutters as rapidly as possible. 

It will be seen from the above that establishing a proper sec- 
tion on a road is not as simple a matter as it might at first 
appear, and that the section bears a most important relation to 
the life of the road and its future condition. 



ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 



197 




AFTER Improvement. 

Surface of Flushing: and Jamaica road after macadamizing-. From 
photograph. The same piece of road, as it appeared before improve- 
ment is shown on page 140 (October Number). 

Side Ditching. — The water having been promptly removed 
from the surface of the road by means of a suitable cross- 
section, it becomes necessary to provide for its flow along the 
sides. The shape and size of each side channel is controlled by 
the amount of water to be provided for, the distance it has to 
be carried before being discharged into a stream, the nature of 
the soil, etc. It is frequently found that the water must be 
carried long distances before being discharged ; this involves 
the construction of wide and deep channels suitably paved or 
rip-rapped on all steep grades. When, in connection with this, 
the soil is apt to retain water it is advisable to place the bottom 
of the ditches below the bottom of the roadway, and in this way 
to secure constant drainage. Care should be taken to provide 
outlets for the water from under the road to the ditches. These 
provisions are essential at the junction of two descending 
grades. Shallow gutters are advisable only in localities where 
the water can be disposed of at frequent intervals, and where 
accumulation of large volumes is not possible. 
-■ Size flf Stone. — The size of the road metal should be con- 
trolled by the amount and kind of traffic that the road will have 
to carry. Stones from two to two and a half inches will gen- 
erally give the best results for " all around roads." Many en- 
gineers prefer to have clear stone of one size, superposing 
smaller sizes as they approach the surface. In other cases it is 



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ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 



199 







■^ ^i. 











Rollers and Sprinklers at Work on Flushing Sikeet. 
The broken stone in the foreground is loose macadam mad metal 
spread in place preparatory to rolling. The broken stone on the street 
in the rear of the rollers has been rolled to a firm surface and sand 
thrown on top and rolled, and the sand is now being '"washed in " by 
the sprinklers. 

preferred to have the sizes mixed when thrown into the road 
bed. In the latter instance the great difficulty is in securing 
stones mixed in the proper proportions. There is generally a 
tendency to have an excess of material that will prove detri- 
mental to the strength of the road. Even if the sizes are 
properly proportioned extreme care must be taken to thoroughly 
mix them. If this is properly done excellent results are ob- 
tained. When there is difficulty in obtaining material properly 
mixed and proportioned as to sizes it is advisable to use stones 
of uniform size, superposing the sizes as above mentioned. 
Flat or flaky stones are not suitable for good road work. They 
should be roughly cubical in shape with well-defined edges. It 
is frequently supposed that a moderately smooth road cannot 
be made with large stones say 2)^2 inches in diameter, and for 
that reason boards of commissioners frequently insist on roads 
being built with material altogether too light for the purpose 
intended. With due care and proper treatment a comparatively 
smooth surface can be secured with even coarse material, a 
surface that will be far more lasting than the smoother one ob- 
tained with a finer metal. The dumping of stone in heaps on 




Finishing the Surface. 
Rolling in binding material and compacting the surface of macadam 

roadway at Flushing. 




Applying the Binding Material. 
Brooming and washing in sand "filler" or binding material on Flushing street. 



ROAD WORK AT FLUSHING. 201 

the roadway and spreading with rakes from the heap should 
not be allowed; the road bed thus obtained is of unequal den- 
sity and under the roller it produces a bumpy irregular surface. 
The material in all cases should not be broadcast from shovels 
whether it be of uniform size or not. 

Binding Material. — Clay, sand or gravel, screenings and slag 
are used for binding the stone. Slag is obtainable only in cer- 
tain localities; clay will give a quick result without much roll- 
ing; but roads made with clay binder are apt to be very dusty, 
as the clay comes to the surface in fine impalpable dust. With- 
out entering into the controversy as to the merits or demerits 
of clay as a binder, its use in thin road beds without artificial 
foundations will give very poor results. For this particular 
class of work a hard binding material is essential ; screenings 
and sand or fine gravel will give the best results if properly 
treated. 

Rollers. — In using hard binding material a steam roller is 
essential for speedy results ; on a clay bound road a lighter 
roller will answer. For general purposes rollers weighing ten 
or twelve tons are the most advisable. Rollers weighing more 
than twelve tons are difficult to handle when taken ofi; hard 
roads, as is likely to occur in any districts where roads are in 
'construction. Theoretically the twenty-ton roller is all right; 
practically, it is not. 

Bound volumes of " Good Roads" {^handsomely bound in seal brown 
cloth and gilt) can noxo be supplied at $1 per volume. Each volume 
contains six numbers of " Good Roads. " The first three volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price is lower than that charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the country .^ and is fixed at Si to 
CTiable each reader to obtain at nominal cost a handsome and useful 
work. Address " Good Roads," Totter Building, Netv York. 



IMTORTANT. — " Good Roads" wants the name and post-ofiixe 
address {^plainly written) of every civil engineer, surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and rottd officer in the United States. Also the names 
and addresses of prominent citizens who are interested in the moveme/it 
for better roads. IVe ask each reader to aid in making up this list. 
Send as promptly as possible and specify each mans official position. 



"The interest in good roads has grown wonderfully the past 
Summer in this section, and our people are disposed to avail 
themselves of the new law passed at the last session of our 
legislature. Bids have been called for ten miles of macadam 
road, to be completed about December 15. This is the first 
effort at systematic road building in Middlesex County. I know 
your magazine can do good work in arousing our people to 
action along this line." — H, G. Barker, JVciv Brunswick, X. J. 



A USEFUL LAW. 

THE following is the text of the law passed recently by the 
New York legislature and providing for the publication 
and distribution of a "road manual" among the road 
officers of that state : 

The People of the State of New York^ represented in Senate and 
Assembly, do enact as folloivs : 

Section i. The governor shall designate some proper person 
to prepare and publish on or before July one, eighteen hundred 
and ninety-three, a compilation of the highway laws of this 
state, defining the powers and duties of highway officers and 
resident taxpayers. Such manual shall also contain diagrams 
and practical suggestions and directions for grading and build- 
ing roads, maintaining and improving the same, and removing 
obstructions therefrom; aud also practical suggestions in regard 
to tree culture, and the laying out "of lawns along highways. 
The state engineer and surveyor shall cause to be prepared and 
furnish such maps, diagrams and other drawings as the governor 
shall require for such compilation. Such compilation shall not 
be published until approved by the governor. 

§ 2. The person so designated to prepare and publish such 
compilation shall forward to each town clerk as many copies 
thereof as are required for distribution by this section. Each 
town clerk, immediately upon the receipt of such manuals, shall 
retain one for his office and distribute free of charge one copy 
to each commissioner of highways and overseer of highways in 
his town, and the cost thereof, which shall not exceed fifty cents 
per copy, shall be a town charge, and shall be audited and al- 
lowed as other town charges at the next meeting of the town 
board. Such manuals shall remain the property of the town, 
and upon the expiration of the term of officfe of each commis- 
sioner and overseer of highways shall be turned over by him to 
the town clerk, who shall deliver the same to the successors in 
office of such commissioners and overseers. The cost of such 
manuals to all other persons shall not exceed seventy-five cents 
a copy. 

§ 3. Each supervisor shall, on or before March fifteen, 
eighteen hundred and ninety-four, pay to the person designated 
by the governor to compile such manual the amount due for the 
books forwarded to him. Froin the moneys so received, the 
compiler shall pay the cost of preparing and publishing such 
compilation. 

§ 4. This act shall take effect immediately. 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 

^r John N. Ostroni . C. E. 

Mem. Anier. Soc, C. H.; Mem. IVestcnt Soc, C. E. 

V. - 

ANOTHER FORM BETTER ADAPTED FOR SWIFT STREAMS THE 

BOX COFFER DAM OR CAISSON ; HOW CONSTRUCTED PLANKS 

OF UNIFORM THICKNESS SHOULD BE USED CAISSON SHOULD 

BE BUILT ON SHORE AND ABOVE THE ABUTMENT OR PIER- 
SITE DIRECTIONS FOR FLOATING INTO POSITION PUMPING 

OUT THE CAISSON STOPPING LEAKS AND CREVICES AT THE 

LOWER EDGE COARSE BAGS FILLED WII H CEMENT MIXTURE; 

HOW PREPARED AND HOW USED EXCAVATING THE INTERIOR 

AND LOWERING CAISSON INTO PLACE. 

Another Form for Swift Streams. — Thus far our contrivances, 
as described, for excluding water from the working- space 
in which to construct masonry foundations, have been such as 
may be constructed "piecemeal," so to speak, by building 
around the enclosure, like a tight plank fence on the exact 
spot where the enclosure or dam is needed for use; but it 
sometimes happens that another form is, better suited for a 
particular locality, and I will now begin the preliminary outline 
by saying that this form is a strong four-sided box, without top 
or bottom, which is built on shore on ways, launched like a 
boat, towed into position and sunk to the bottom by piling 
heavy rock on top platforms at the ends. After this the in- 
terior is pumped out and excavators are set at work inside the 
box, on the stream bed, digging around under the edge of 
the box which, as it is undermined, sinks from the heavy rock 
load, and the earth which presses against the outside keeps the 
water from rushing in. This is a form of construction particu- 
larly adapted for very swift currents, where it would be difficult 
to successfully drive sheet piling, since being put together on 
shore in a compact mass it cfin be towed and anchored at will 
like a scow; but some contractors prefer it in nearly all cases, 
believing it to be on the whole cheaper than any other. One 
serious objection to it is that it cannot readily be removed after 
the masonry is finished, since it is spiked together as solidly as 
the wall of a grain elevator, and it is desirable in most cases to 
remove every piece of temporary woodwork around completed 
foundations, so that the channel of the stream will not be 
any inore contracted than is absolutely necessary, since each 
contraction, as I have already explained, causes the current to 



2 04 



HIGHWA V BRIDGES. 



cut deeper between obstructions, and it is also best to remove it 
in order that no unnecessary structures shall be left to catch 
flood trash and form a heavy jam. 

With this introduction, I will begin a detailed description 
of our new form of coffer dam which is sometimes called a 
caisson, since it resembles in its side walls and in the manner of 
undermining" the lower edge, a form by that name. A caisson 
proper, however, is generally supplied with a water-tight and air- 
tight roof, and after being sunk in deep water, workmen are 
sent from the surface down into the caisson through an iron 
tube having a contrivance called an air-lock, which regulates 
pumping in and letting out compressed air ; and by increasing 
and decreasing the air pressure the water is forced out of or let 
into the working chamber on the river bottom at will. 




Figure 31. 

Box coffer dam or caisson built on shore and ready to be launched. 
In the figure a portion of the side of the box has been broken away to 
show double planking and method of lapping seams and joints to pre- 
vent leaks. 

Box Coffer Dam or Caisson. — Let us take for our example 
a bridge site where there is a very swift current four feet 
deep, running over a flat shale rock bottom, and let the size 
of the footing or bottom course of the masonry pier which we 
are about to build be six feet wide and twenty feet long. To 
fit this, the size of our caisson on the inside shall be eight 
feet wide and twenty-two feet long, thus giving a clear space 
of one foot for elbow room on all sides. Now observe that 
while in former cases our side planking was vertical, in the 
present instance it is horizontal or parallel with the surface of 
the water, and note also that the planking is now backed up or 
stiffened by vertical posts or ribs and not by horizontal bands. 
To figure up for the height of box, we first allow two feet pro- 
jection above water, to provide for light freshets; then we have 
four feet depth of water and the strong probability of being 
obliged to cut into the soft shale rock one foot to get a uniform 
bearing surface, and so we will fix the depth of our box or 



HIGinVA Y BRIDGES. 



20: 



caisson at seven feet. We first take some cheap variety of soft 

wood and cut cig^ht posts, six inches 
by six inches by seven feet long, and 
enough two-inch planks to cover the 
sides and ends, making two courses, 
lap jointed in the centre of each 
plank. Now we set up the eight 
posts on four ways at the water's 
edge, spaced so that the posts will be 
seven feet apart up and down stream, 
and the back row eight feet behind 
the front one. Then we lay down 
on edge a lower line of plank, clear 
around the four sides, and spike 
securely to each post with two lifty 
penny spike. We continue this 
operation until we reach the top, 
breaking joints with the outer course, 
which is spiked firmly to the inner, 
plank after plank, in order to make 
the wall as nearly water-tight as 
possible; and this is not a difficult 
operation if the lumber is sound and 
of uniform thickness. 

Planks should be of Uniform lliick- 
ness. — Let us bear in mind, however, 
that if the planks run thick and thin, 
the two layers will not fit snugly to- 
gether and water will be likely to 
find an easy opening, making a lot 
of calking necessary; and this should 
be avoided because it is unnecessary 
to any considerable extent, if good 
material is put together by careful 
workmen. 

After the walls are built we cut 
out four sticks six inches by six 
inches by eight feet long, and place 
two of them between the feet of the 
four middle posts reaching crosswise 
from side to side and lying on top of 
the bottom ways and two between 
the top ends of the same posts, toe- 
nailing all the sticks or struts in 
question lightly to the posts. The 
object of these struts is to prevent the water pressure from 
bulging in the sides of the caisson ; but after it is in place and 
the masonry begun, the struts must be removed as fast as the 




Figure 32. 
Showing: bad effect of using- 
pkinks of different thicknesses 
in building: a water-tight coffer 
dam or caisson. 



2o6 



HIGHWA Y BRIDGES. 



work reaches them, and for this reason they are only tempo- 
rarily spiked, so that they may be easily taken out. Our caisson 
is now done, and the next operation is to launch and float it to 
the desired location. 




u- 



FlGURE 33. 
Floating caisson into position. The caisson has been built on shore 
at a point well above the bridge-site and, after being launched, is now- 
floated down stream by the current, and brought to its exact final posi- 
tion by means of the two lines running to the opposite shores and man- 
aged \>y workmen as described in the text. 

Caisson should be Built on Shore Up Stream from the Pier Site.— 
It is always important to lay our ways on the shore a con- 
siderable distance above the location selected for the pier so 
that the caisson may be floated down by the current, for, if we 
ever attempt to tow this clumsy, cutnbersome box tip stream in a 
strong- current I tell you now we shall have our hands full. By 
laying- our ways and building our caisson some distance above 
the pier site, we can, when the caisson is finally afloat, fasten 
two lines to it, one of which is carried across the stream and 
snubbed around a tree or stump, and the other fastened in a 
similar manner near the ways, and then by slacking the line on 
this side and holding on with the opposite one, the current will 
swing the caisson out of the centre of the stream. After it is 
far enough we can hold it by snubbing up on the loose line just 
as a steamer is checked and stopped by a snubbing post at a 
dock. If the caisson is still too far up stream we can slacken 
both lines and let it float down a little until we get it in just the 
right position. Then we put a strong timber platform across 
the two ends and load down each platform with about half a 
cord of the rock or stone which is to be used in constructing the 
pier. 

This will generally hold the caisson and prevent its sliding 
down stream with the current ; but it is well to hold on with 
the lines till the box is settled a little in the bottom of the 
stream. 

Pumping Out the Interior. — Our next operation is to pump 
out the interior, and this may not be an easy task, since the bot- 
tom is of rock and the lower edge of the caisson will probably 
not fit closely all around. If it does not, and the water comes 
in as fast as we can bail it out, we proceed as follows : We 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 



207 



make a thick pasty mixtuu?e of equal parts of cement and sand 
(which should by this time be on hand for the masonry work), 
with only just enough water to fairly moisten the whole mass, 
and when this is done we shovel it into any loose meshed bags 
which we can procure for this kind of work. Coarse gunny 




• Figure 34. 

Pumping out the box coffer dam or caisson. The box has been 
floated into position as shown in Fig^. 3^; the bottom edge is securely- 
protected against leaks by the bags of cement mixture laid closely 
against the box as shown above, and the work of pumping or bailing out 
the interior can now be carried on. 

bags will serve this purpose admirably. We must take partic- 
ular notice not to use too much water and thus get the paste 
too thin, as it will then be of little or no use. The best way is 
to turn over the sand and cement while dry with shovels 
and then add water with a sprinkling pot and turn over again. 
After filling the bags and tying them up securely we lower them 
into the water and deposit them snugly along the outside of the 
caisson so as to completely cover the cracks and openings be- 
tween the caisson and the rock bottom, lapping every bag upon 
its neighbor. If the current is very swift, we shall have to 
fasten a strong cord of some convenient kind to each bag and 
tie it to a nail on the outside of the caisson until all the bags 
are lapped in place. Now the mixture of cement and sand 
will pass a little through the meshes of the bags and as the 
paste hardens it will become joined together into one mass; 
and as the cement has the property of increasing and holding 
its hardness under water the ciirrent will not wash it away 
materially and the bottom crack will therefore be securely 
stopped. 

Now we are ready to pump out or bail out our caisson, and 
send down the men to level off the bottom. Being shale rock, 
it is easily cleaved up with a pick, and shoveled into piles in the 
centre of the inner space from which it is thrown upon tempo- 
rary platforms overhead and then froin the platforms into the 
stream as directed in an earlier chapter relating to earth 
excavation. 

Excavating Interior and Lowering Caisson. — There is one im- 
portant point to be remembered in sinking a caisson, and that 



2o8 HIGHWA V BRIDGES. 

is that as the lower edge, or cutting edge, as it is called, is under- 
mined, its weight in connection with the rock load sinks it 
down gradually. For this reason great care must be taken not 
to get one side or edge cut out faster than the others, for in 
such an event the cassion will settle out of plumb and in most 
cases this is a difficult matter to rectify. The workmen should 
dig under the lower edge far enough out to leave a pit which 
will clear the outer edge as it settles and there should be as 
many workmen as can stand all around, so that the material 
can be rapidly moved back into a pile at the centre. Then as 
the caisson settles, this pile can be shoveled out ; and by repeat- 
ing the operation, the side walls will always be kept vertical. 
After we are down about a foot into the shale rock, we level off 
the bottom and make it ready for the masonry, and as the stone 
work will thus rest in a rock pocket or trench, it can never be 
slid off by heavy ice pressure, as has sometimes happened where 
piers were simply built upon the original smooth bc^ttom. 

In case the bottom is earth instead of rock, no cement bags 
will be needed to close the crack at the bottom, as the cutting 
edge will always sink into the mud, the pressure of which 
against the sides will be sufficient to keep out the water. 
Neither will rock weighing be necessary in most cases, since 
the weight of the earth, as it is thrown upon the temporary 
platforms, is sufficient to settle the caisson. 

While the form of coffer dam or caisson just described is 
well adapted for the example taken, it is not applicable for 
abutments in most cases, owing to the slanting shore bank, 
unless the site is first excavated on the back side of the abut- 
ment site to the same level as the stream bed on the front, so 
that the cassion will start with plumb sides ; and this work can 
be avoided by using sheet-piling which is a clear saving in 
labor; but if it is desirable to locate' an abutment on a low level 
bank, the box caisson may be used if any special reason makes 
it desirable. 

The details of construction in such a case will be substan- 
tially like those for the pier caisson just described, excepting 
that it must be wider and longer to take in the wings, and rep- 
etition of the cext is therefore unnecessary. 

( To be continued. ) 



Bound twlumes of " Good Roads'.' {^handsomely bound in seal brow ft 
cloth and gilt) can notu be supplied at $i per volume. Each iwlume 
contains six numbers of " Good Roads.'' The first three volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price is lower than that charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the country .^ and is fixed at $i to 
enable each reader to obtain at nortiinal cost a handsome and useful 
work. Address " Good Roads," Potter Building., New York. 



HOW TO RAISE THE MONEY. 

GOOD Roads has received a communication from Col. Albert 
A. Pope of Boston which goes squarely to the root of 
the difficulty and suggests a practical and equitable 
way of raising funds for the improvement of the public roads 
without taxing the savings and the earned incomes of the mer- 
chant and the farmer, and without imposing' any burden upon 
the property which any living citizen has acquired by reason 
of his own industry or well directed investments. 
.^ Colonel Pope has shown an untiring energy in his warfare 
for better roads and has proposed many practical schemes for 
their improvement, but whatever plan may be suggested, the 
question of expense is the first and most important thing to be 
considered, and in the light that it suggests a practical, and 
what is likely to be a popular solution of this problem, we re- 
gard Colonel Pope's latest suggestion as the most valuable one 
he has yet made public. He writes as follows: 

Dear Sir: During the pastyearthousandsof editorial articles 
on the subject of the betterment of the highways have appeared 
in the newspapers of the country. The great value and impor- 
tance of good roads no intelligent person questions, but how to 
raise money to obtain them is a difficult problem about which 
opinions widely differ. 

I beg leave to suggest a plan which I believe to be the least 
burdensome and the most effectual and equitable for providing 
good roads. Let each state establish a graduated succession tax 
on legacies and inheritances. Such a tax mioht be arranged 
as follows: on all estates valued at $ro,ooo up to $1,000,000, 
one per cent. ; on estates over $1,000,000 and up to $5,000,000, 
one per cent, on the first $1,000,000, two per cent, on the re- 
mainder; on estates of over $5,000,000 up to $10,000,000, one 
per cent, on the first $1,000,000, two per cent, on over that sum 
up to $5,000,000, and three per cent, on $5,000,000 to $10,000,- 
000, this general principle of one per cent, increase every addi- 
tional $5 , 000, 000 to be the fixed rate of inheritance and legacy tax. 
For example, on an estate valued at $20,000,000 the tax 
would be as follows : 

$1,000,000, i^, $ 10,000 

4,000,000, 2^, 80,000 

5,000,000, 3^, 150,000 

5,000,000, 4^, 200,000 

5,000,000, 5^, 250,000 



$20,000,000 $690,000 

John Stuart Mill expresses the views held by the ablest 
students of social science when he says: " Inheritance and 



2og 



2 10 HOJV TO RAISE THE MONEY. 

legacies exceeding a certain amount are highly proper subjects for 
taxation, and the revenue from these should be made as great as 
it can be made without giving rise to evasions by donation dur- 
ing life, or concealment of property, such as it would be impos- 
sible adequately to check. The principle of graduation, that is, 
of levying a larger percentage on a large sum, though its appli- 
cation to general taxation would be in my opinion objectionable, 
seems to me both just and expedient as applied to legacy and 
inheritance duties." 

England, in 1780, established a tax on legacies, and in 1853 
the succession tax law was enacted. 

In the United States a collateral succession tax law went 
into force in 1864, but that act has since been repealed in 
common with other internal revenue laws. 

In New York there is a collateral succession tax law of $5 
per hundred dollars. This tax yielded in 1890, $1,117,637, and 
it is estimated that at least $2,000,000 will be received from this 
source by the state during the present year. A similar law in 
Pennsylvania brought to the State Treasury in 1891 the sum of 
$1,227,302. The collateral succession law reaches compara- 
tively few estates because this tax is simply on the devolution 
of property on other than direct descendants or progenitors. 

Thus the law adopted by Connecticut in January, 1889, is 
as follows: "All property conveyed by will or by death of in- 
testate to other than to father, mother, husband, wife, lineal 
descendant, adopted child, the lineal descendant of any adopted 
child, the wife or widow of a son, the husband of the daughter 
of descendant, or some charitable purpose, or purpose strictly 
public, five per cent, of its value above the sum of $1,000, for 
the use of the state. "• 

The Massachusetts law of 1891 is substantially the same 
with the exception that the amount taxed is $10,000 and over. 
The rate is five per cent, and charitable, religious, and educa- 
tional bequests are exempt. 

The succession tax that I have proposed will not fall on the 
poor. Those whose estates amount to $10,000 can well afford 
to give $100 to the state in return for all the protection of its 
laws which has enabled wealth to be accumulated and enjoyed. 

The succession tax is founded on the broadest principles of 
equity. I maintain that the wealth possessed by every individ- 
ual has been created directly or indirectly by the help of others, 
and therefore he owes to others, or generally speaking, to the 
public, obligations which he ought to repay. 

This is particularly true in the United States. Every citizen, 
whether he be rich or poor, is equal in the eye of the law and 
has behind him for the protection of his rights the entire power 
of the nation. It is therefore no more than just that every 
person who accumulates property should pay for the protection 
that the state secures to him and his possessions. 



HO IV TO RAISE THE MONEY. 211 

If each state were to establish a tax on legacies and inherit- 
ances such as just proposed and devote the money so obtained 
to the construction and maintenance of roads, in a few years 
the older and more populous states would be ]^rovided with 
roads equal to those of England, France and Switzerland, and 
good roads, when rightly constructed, can be maintained at 
comparatively small cost; and as the wealth of the states in- 
creased the succession tax would furnish sufficient revenue to 
meet all the expenses of the state after paying for the mainte- 
nance of roads, thus relieving the people from all direct taxation 
for state purposes. 

The advantages of the succession tax are now being brought 
very prominently before the people. In Massachusetts the 
recently adopted platforms of both the Republican and the 
Democratic parties have planks recommending the adoption of 
the direct succession tax on inheritances and legacies. 

It is my intention to publish a pamphlet on the subject of 
the succession tax primarily as a means of constructing and 
maintaining roads and for its ultimate object the abolishment 
of direct taxation. 

Very truly yours, 

Albert A. Pope. 



Bound volumes of " Good Roads " [liaudsomely bound in seal bro7vii 
cloth and gilt) can noiv be supplied at $1 per volume. Each volume 
contains six numbers of " Good Roads.'' The first three volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price is lower than thai charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the count/y, and is fixed at ■$! to 
enable each reader to obtain at nominal cost a handsome and useful 
work. Address " Good Roads,'' Potter Building, A'eic York. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads" wants the name and post-ofiice 
address [plainly written) of every civil engineer., surveyor, contractor, 
county opTicer and road ojficer in the United States. Also the names 
and addresses of prominent citizens ivho are interested in the movement 
for better roads. JJ'e ask each reader to aid in making up this list. 
Send as promptly as possible and specify each man's offtcial position. 



" If the League of American Wheelmen accomplishes no 
other good, the public will still have it to thank for the interest 
it is awaking in the subject of roads, and the publication, through 
its Road Improvement Bureau, of the magazine. Good Roads, of 
which Isaac B. Potter, of New York, is editor, and whose office 
of publication is in the Potte ; Building, in that city. Just now 
this magazine is of very great value in Missouri." — C. L. 1') in 
Kansas City ( Mo. ) Journal. 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 
Bv Isaac- B. Potter. 

IV. • 

( Continued. ) 

IN the selection of a crusher certain prominent facts should 
control the purchaser, to enable him to obtain such a 
machine and to operate it in such a manner as will tend to 
the production of good work at a minimum price. It is 

generally understood that, 
from the nature of the work 
required, a stone crusher, in 
its working parts, exerts 
prodigious power; but the 
fact is too often forgotten 
that all machinery is perish- 
able and that an overworked 
crusher like an overv/orked 
man is likely to break down 
in the midst of an important 
task. All reputable manu- 
facturers supply machines 
in which the parts subjected 
to the greatest strain and 
wear are of hardened and 
Figure 30. tempered steel, and such 

TheGates(Rotary)Rock Breaker (Gates Iron machines, if fairly treated, 
Works, Chicago, 111.) .,, . ' -, -^ , ' 

Will give good results and 
good satisfaction to the buyer. To obtain the best results from 
any crusher it should be 
regularly and constantly 
' ' fed " while in operation^ 
and have its wearing- 
parts renewed whenever 
they break or show signs 
of excessive w^ear, and it 
should moreover be run by 
power somewhat in excess 
of that actually required. 
This matter of power is 
-an important one and one 
in which actual cheapness 
is the poorest economy. 
If, for example, an engine 
of eight horse power is 
just sufficient to run a 





FIGQRE 31. 

The Brennan Rock Breaker. (The Young-Brennan 

Crusher Co., New York.) 



crusher of a given capacity, the work will be done and the 
crusher operated with varying speed and with a jerky motion. 



IJACADAM ANJ) TELFORJ) ROADS. 



213 



while an engine of twelve horse power will do the work with 
an ease and nniformity of motion which always proves the 
existence of reserve power, saves the machinery and renders 
more satisfactory results. When we consider, in addition to 
these facts, that the smaller engine costs about $500 and the 
larger one only about $140 more (list price),* the extra expense 
should offer no barrier to the purchase of the larger engine. 
The following tables (already referred to in a preceding page), 
%v^Q the regular published information regarding machinery 
used in the production of broken stone or macadam road 
metal. 

THE GATES CRUSHER (CHICAGO, ILL.) 



Size. 



O. 
I, 
2. 

3. 

4. 

5- 
6. 
8, 



Weight 
Pounds. 



3,100 
5,500 
7,800 
13.500 
20,000 
27,000 
36,000 
89,000 



Capacity 
Tons per Hour. 



2 to 

4 " 

6 " 

10 " 

15 " 

25 " 

30 " 

100 " 



4 
8 
12 
20 
30 
40 
60 

150 



Ilorse-power 
Required. 



4 

8 
12 to 
20 " 
30 " 
40 " 

CO " 

125 " 



15 
30 
40 
50 
60 
150 



Price. 



S 400 
600 
800 
1,200 
1,900 
2.500 
3,500 
7,000 



THE FARRELL AM) MARSDEN CRUSHER (aNSOMA, CoNN. ) 



No. 


Receiving: 
Capacity. 


Approximate 

Product of 2 inch 

Stone per Hour. 


Approximate 
Weight. 


Horse- 
power. 


Price. 


3 

4 

5 

6 

8 


10 X 4 in. 
10 X 7 " 
15 X 9 " 
15 X 10 " 
20 X 10 " 


3 cubic yards 

5 

8 " 

9 " 
10 ■' 


4 900 lb*?. 

7,800 •• 
14,500 " 
15,000 " 
] 7,000 " 


6 
12 

15 
15 
20 


$ 275 
500 

750 

800 

1,050 



THE BRENNAN crusher (nEW YORK CLIV.) 



No. 


Receiving 
Capacity. 


Approximate 
Product of 2 inch 
Stone per Hour. 


Approximate 
Weight. 


Horse-power. 


I 




14 X 48 in. 

12 X 37 " 

10 X 25 " 

8 X 25 " 

7 X 20 '• 

8 X 2 J " 


40 cubic yards 
25 '• ' " 
15 " 
12 " 

I :: :: 


50,000 lbs. 

32,000 " 
16,000 '' 
13,000 " 
10,000 '■ 
7,000 '■ 


55 
40 
30 
20 


3 

4 


R 

6 


15 

8 







*A substantial discount from list prices (generally ranging from twenty per cent, 
upwards) is generally allowed to the buyer. 



2 14 MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 

THE CHAMPION CRUSHER (kENNETT SQUARE, PA.) 



No. 


Size or Re- 
ceiving Ca- 
pacity of 
Jaws. 


Product per 

Hour inTons 

to 2 inch 

Gauge. 


Weight Ap- 
proximated. 


Speed. 


Driving 
Pulleys, Di- 
ameter and 
Face. 


Horse-powet 
Required. 


3 

4 


7 X 13 in. 
9X 15 " 


TO to 1 5 tons 

I2"l8 " 


5,000 
8,000 


1 80 rev. 
160 " 


44 X 8 
44 X 8 


10 
12 



a stone crusher and engine for use in an 



In the selection of 
ordinary country town, a machine capable of producing- from 
ten to twenty tons of broken stone per hour (broken to pass 




Figure 32.— Champion Rock Crusher and Screen. 
(American Road Machine Co., Kennett Square, Pa.) 

through a two-inch ring) will generally answer, and to run 
such a machine it is best to select an engine of ample size and 
to consult the manufacturers before making a proposed pur- 
chase. Roughly, it may be estimated that such a machine will 
cost from $700 to $1,200 (list price), and the cost of an engine 
to run it will vary from $500 to $1,000 according to make and 
quality. These figures are intended to serve as a mere approxi- 
mation. Prices vary with the times, and a particular machine 
will sometimes cost less by reason of special conditions which 
the manufacturer is always ready to explain. 

Screening the Stone. — As the stone come from the breaker the 
pieces will be found to show a considerable variety in size, and 
by many practical road makers it is regarded as best that these 
sizes should be assorted and separated, since each has its 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



215 



particular use. To do this work by hand would be troublesome 
and expensive, and screens are generally employed for that 
purpose. Screens are not absolutely necessary, and many 
road makers do not use them ; but they insure uniformity in 




Figure 33. 
Pieces of inacadam road metal taken at random from heap of broken 
stone and " fitted " together by hand as closely as possible, showing 
impossibility of closely compacting broken stone without the use of a 
binding material. 

size of pieces, and uniformity means in many cases superior 
wear, smoothness and economy. Most of the screens in com- 
mon use to-day are of the rotary kind. One of these is shown 
on page 168 (October number), where it appears that the 
product of the crusher falls directly into the rotary screen 
which revolves on an inclined axis and empties the separate 
pieces into small bins below the crusher. A better form for 
many purposes is shown in the accompanying picture on page 
214, in which the stone is carried by an elevator to the screen and 
by the screen emptied into separate bins according to the 
respective sizes. From the bins it is easily loaded into wagons 
and hauled to any desired point along the line of the work. 

Screens, when accompanying the stone breaker, generally 
add a little though not much to the original cost and are well 
worth the extra expense. 

Sizes of Broken Stone. — To what size should the stone be 
broken? To answer this question, each case should be consid- 
ered by itself. It will depend upon the quality of the stone, 
the amount of traffic to which the road will be subjected and to 
some extent upon the manner in which the stone is put in place. 
If a hard tough stone is employed it may be broken into rough 
cubes or pieces of about ij-i inches in largest face dimension. 



2 l6 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



and when oroken to such a size, tne product of the crusher may 
generally be used to good advantage without the trouble of 
screening, since dust, "tailings" and fine stuff do not accumu- 
late in large quantities in the breaking of the tougher stone. 




FiGUKb; 34. _ 

Broken Stone layer (macadam "road metal ") spread loosely on com- 
pact earth sub-^rade, showing open spaces in body of the layer and 
rough angular surface at the top. This illustrates the need of rolling 
and the use (jf a binding material to fill the open spaces and insure a 
compact structure. 

If only moderate traffic is to be provided for, the harder 
lime stones may be broken so the pieces will pass through a 
two-inch ring, though sizes running from two and one-quarter 
to two and one-half inches will insure a more durable roadway, 
and if a steam roller is i:sed in compacting the m.etal it will be 
brought to a smooth surface without much trouble. A road- 
way is always made stronger by the use of stone broken to a 
substantial size (not, however, exceeding two and one-half 
inches), but to insure this strength and a proper consolidation 
of the roadway thorough rolling must not be omitted. It should 
be remembered also that a greater expense is incurred in break- 
ing stone to the smaller sizes, and that such sizes generally offer 
no special advantage beyond the fact that they consolidate a 
little more readily. As a rule it maybe said, that to adhere 
closely to a size running from two and one-quarter to two and 
one-half inches in largest face dimension, and to use care in 
excluding too large a proportion of small stuff as well as all 
pieces of excessive size, will insure a satisfactory and durable 
macadam road. Macadam insisted that a piece of road metal 
shoidd not exceed six ounces in weight. Telford, in many 
cases, placed the limit at eight ounces, and stones of these 
weights will measure about one and one-half inches and two 
and one-half inches respectively, in largest dimension, if 
roughly cubical in form. It is not of course. practicable to in- 
struct an ordinary laborer as to these exact sizes in such a way 
as to insure rapid and satisfactory assortment of materials; but 
it may be said generally that no workman should be allowed to 



MJC.lD.IAf AND 7'F.lJ'OK-n ROADS. 



2 I 



put in the stone heap any piece of road metal which is too 
large to be contained in his nicnith. 

Spreading Stone on the Koadiuay. — After the excavation to con- 
tain the road metal has been completed and thoroughly rolled 
as recommended in a former chapter, the broken stone should 




I'^KHRF. 35. 

Partially rolled macadam layer. By the action of a heavy roller the 
stones shown in Fig. 34 have been settled and pressed into closer con- 
tact and the spaces are partially tilled by washing: and rolling in a coarse 
sand " binder." 

be put on in one or more layers. It may be hauled from the 
crusher in two- wheeled carts or in ordinary farm wagons, and 
should be spread broadcast with sliovels so as to insure a 
thorough mixing of the various sized pieces and, if necessary, 
raked until the la3'er is of proper thickness. For a roadway 
sixteen feet wide it will be best to make the thickness of the 
layer about two inches thicker at the centre of the roadway 
than at the extreme edges, because the wear will be most ex- 
cessive at the centre and the extra thickness will not only pro- 
vide for this, but will also serve to give the finished roadway a 
proper crown, and thus insure good drainage. If the final 
thickness of the compacted roadway is to be four inches, one 
layer W'ill be suiScia»it, and when put on loosely from the cartsit 
should be about seven inches thick at the centre and about five 
inches thick at the sides. If the final thickness is to be six 
inches it is generally best to put on two lavers, each having a 
thickness of about five inches at the centre and about three and 
one-half inches each at the sides, and in case two separate layers 
are to be put on care should be taken to thoroughly roll and 
bind the bottom laver before the second layer is applied. 

To insure greater accuracy in fixing the thickness of layers 
of road metal at different points across the width of the exca- 
vation, it is generally best to use "grade stakes, " which are 
ordinary wooden stakes driven at equal distances apart along 
the centre of the roadway (say twentv-five feet), while a similar 
line of stakes is also driven one eicher side at points about 
equally distant between the centre and the side. After the 
stakes are driven, the height of the macadam layer as it will be 
at each stake, is marked on tb.e side of the stake, after which a 



2l8 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



piece of stout twine is drawn from one stake to another at the 
exact height of the top of the macadam layer. The workmen 
will then find it an easy task to spread the broken stone to the 
height of the grade lines and thus insure uniformity of work. 
A reference to Fig. 37 will make clear the manner of using 



these o-rade stakes. 




Figure 36. 

Portion of completed macadam roadway. The stones shown in Pigs. 
34 and 31; have been rolled into the closer contact, and the regular top 
surface made smooth by the action of the heavy roller; the open spaces 
have been filled by the washing and rolling in a coarse sand binding 
material and the roadway is now firm, smooth and solid. 

For all ordinary country roads a final thickness of six inches 
is enough, and if good workmanship and careful attention to 
repairs could be relied upon, a thickness of four inches would 
in most cases be sufficient. Toaidtheroad makerin calculating 
the amount of broken stone to be used in the construction of a 
roadway the following table has been prepared : 

NUMBER OF CUBIC Y.-VRDS OF BROKEN STONE REQUIRED PER MILE 

OF ROAD. 



Depth of Stone in 
Inches. 



4 
6 
8 

10 
12 

14 
16 





Width of Macadam 


Roadway in Feet. 


8 
645 


16 


24 


30 


32 


40 


48 


1,290 


1,935 


2,421 


2,580 


3,225 


3-870 


968 


1,935 


2,903 


3-632 


3,872 


4,840 


5,808 


1,290 


2,580 


3,870 


4-842 


5,160 


6,450 


7-740 


1,613 


3-225 


4,838 


6-053 


6,452 


8,065 


9-678 


1,935 


3,870 


5,805 


7.263 


7,740 


9-675 


11,610 


2,258 


4,515 


6,773 


8,474 


9,032 


il,2go 


13-5^8 


2,580 


5,160 


7-740 


9-684 


10,320 


12,900 


15,480 



60 



4,842 
7,264 
9,684 
12,106 
14,526 
16,948 
19.368 



The Use of Binding Material. — If we examine a dozen pieces 
of stone taken at random from a heap of road metal as it 
comes from the crusher we shall find them to be of most 
irregular shapes and generally lacking uniformity in size. It 
will be impossible to lay these stones closely in contact with 
each other so as to exclude voids, or fill the several spaces 
between their irregular faces and angles. No single piece will 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



219 



fit closely against another throughout their several edges or 
surfaces. When dumped into a loose heap upon the ground 
the spaces between the separate stones make up a large aggre- 
gate, and no amount of rolling will bring these stones so closely 
in contact as to materially reduce these spaces. If we take a 
water-tight box containing exactly two cubic feet and fill it 



'„>>"■ -^:\ 'j^-' "/(ilii: ^.' '^■^^-^'^^'I'^i'^ ?^^^a'c^ 



'■^S^^vr^^a. \ ^r^ .._i:'. 




sSSlX . j^7. 










Figure 37. 
Showing- method of using Rrade stakes in putting down layers of 
road metal in the making of a macadam road. The lines of stout twine 
stretched between the stakes show the exact height to which the work- 
men are to spread the broken stone before rolling. 

evenly with broken macadam road metal, we shall find that 
about one cubic foot of water can be poured into the box with- 
out overflowing the top, thus showing that only about one- half 
of the space contained in the box is filled by the pieces of 
stone. To illustrate this fact in another way, it has been deter- 
mined that a cubic yard of solid stone weighs about two and 
one-quarter tons, while a cubic yard of broken macadam road 
metal made from the same stone wuU weigh only about one- 
half this amount or one and one-eighth tons. It follows, then, 
that in order to insure a solid roadway and to fill this large 
proportion of voids or interstices between the different pieces 
of broken stone, some finer material must be introduced into 
the structure of the roadway, and this material is usually 
called a binder, or by some road makers a "filler." 

There used to be much contention regarding the use of 
binding material in the making of a macadam road, but it is 
now conceded by nearly all practical and experienced road 
makers both in Europe and America, that the use of a bindmg 
material is essential to the proper construction of a good 
macadam road. It adds to its solidity, insures tightness by 
closing all of the spaces between the loose irregular stone, 
and binds together the macadam crust in a way that gives it 
firmness, elasticity and durability. 

( To be co/itiiiut'J. ) 




A FIFTY HORSE TRUCK. 



OVER on the " east side," in the City of New York, and not 
far from the piers and wharves of the East River, 
there stands a truck in the public street, where by suf- 
ferance of the authorities it is permitted to remain simply 
because no barn within the territorial jurisdiction of the city 
fathers is big" enough^to receive it. In these days of immense 
structures in wood, metal and stone, when the foundries and ' 
machine shops are from day to day surpassing" each other in 
turning ov:t ponderous castings and cumbersome machincy, 
and quarrymen and architects are striving to outdo each other 
in the use of large pieces of granite and marble, the demand 
for large trucks has become somewhat emphatic, and to meet 
this demand Messrs. Willian B. Smith & Sons, of 52 Corlears 
Street, contracted with J. A. Shephard & Sons to build a truck 
of sufficient strength and size to answer the heaviest demands 
of city trucking. Mr. Shephard, when questioned about 
"Thunder" (as the new truck has been called), explained the 
need of such a conveyance and suggested that the single fact 



A FIFTY HORSE TRUCK. 221 

that the cable for one of the new cable railways in New York 
weighs sixty tons and has to be trucked through the streets 
would alone justify the construction of "Thunder." 

"We built this truck on the street," said Mr. Shephard, 
"simply because there was not space enough in the shop to 
contain it, and we had to obtain a special permit from the city 
to construct it in the middle of the carriage-way in front (;f our 
place." 

The principal dimensions of "Thunder" are as follows: 
The main beams are sixteen by fourteen inches in thickness; 
tires are nine inches wide and one and one-half inches thick, 
and in bending them a $10,000 tire bending machine was used, 
being the largest of its kind in the United States and weighing- 
two and a half tons. The extreme length of the truck is forty 
feet, the extreme width nine feet and the wheels weigh three 
thousand pounds each. The hub is twenty-four inches in 
diameter and the nut at the end of the axle is six inches 
between opposite faces. The pole is six and one-half inches 
thick, the axle has the same thickness as the pole and the entire 
vehicle weighs about seven tons. Without a load it requires 
six horses to move it, and when carrying its maximum burden 
it will take about fifty horses to draw it through the streets. 
Many wagon builders from different parts of the country have 
examined "Thunder " and concurred in calling it what it is — 
the sjiant of the trucking business. 



" The League of American Wheelmen are at the head of all 
agitators and are doing a great service in thoroughly arousing 
the people to the importance of good roads. * * Their magazine, 
Good Roads, devoted to road improvement, ably edited by 
Isaac B. Potter, and published in the City of New York, with 
a monthly circulation of over 70,000 is doing a great work in 
preparing the public mind for this needed reform." — Official 
Highway Manual of ilic State of A^ew York. 



Bound volumes of " Good Roads " {Jiandsoniely bound in seal brown 
cloth and gilt) can now be supplied at $1 per volunie. F.ach volume 
contains six numbers of " Good /■loads." The fiist three volumes are 
ready for distribution. This p) ice is lower than thai charged by any 
other niagazine of similar size in. the country.^ a/id is fixed at $ i to 
enable each reader to obtain, at nominal cost a handsome and useful 
7i.'ork. Address " Good Jioads," P' otter Building, Ji^e'w York. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads" a'ants the name and post-opfice 
address (^plainly written) of every civil engineer., surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the names 
ami addresses op prominent citizens icho are interested in the movement 
por better roads. We ask each i- coder to aid in. making up this list. 
Send as promptly as possi/de and specif v each /nan's official position. 



ROAD DRAINAGE. 

By J. J. W. Billingsley, Editor of '"Ihe Drainage Journal." 

AMONG those who have given the subject of road improve- 
ment careful attention there is a settled conviction that 
the good condition of any road depends upon a system 
of thorough drainage. A system which embraces not only the 
removal of the storm water which falls upon the surface of the 
road and the land adjoining, but also the water which filters 
through the ground. The latter, if allowed to percolate into 
and through the subsoil underlying the roadbed, will render the 
travelway soft and springy, often affecting the compacted sur- 
face of the road so as to cause it to break up, or in other words, 
"the bottom drops out." 

In fact, the basis of all road improvement in this country, is 
the thorough drainage of the road surface and the foundations 
of the roadbed. 

In the experiments which have been made in road drainage 
by laying one or two lines of tile drains along the sides and 
parallel with the road, the result has been so satisfy; ctory that 
some persons have become enthused with this method of road 
improvement and conclude that in it there is a remedy for all 
the defects which may be encountered. 

But we are convinced that the best improvement of our 
highways will combine at least three essential features which 
are: 

First. A road embankment of sufficient height to be at 
least above overflow from extraordinary rainfalls and sufficiently 
crowning to shed the water readily and wide enough to ac- 
commodate the travel and not of greater width. 

Second. That the road shall h'ave open ditches on each side 
of sufficient capacity to carry all flood water from the roadway 
and from the lands adjoining into the nearest water course. 
The surface or open ditches should have such a perfect grade 
that no water will find a lodgment along the line of the road 
on either side. 

Third. That two lines of tile drains be placed parallel with 
the road, one on each side, at the base of the embankment. 

The underdrains should be laid at the depth of three or 
more feet. The size of the tile will depend on the length of 
the drain and the fall, but it is probable that they should not be 
less than four inches in diameter in any case, and as much 
larger as the needs may require. 

The three essential features named embrace two systems, 
one the removal of the surface water speedily and effectually, 
the other the removal of the water of saturation remainin'j- 



ROAD DRAINAGE. 223 

after the removal of surface water and the preveniion of the 
flow of soil water under the roadbed. 

The underdrains should have a uniform descent or g-rade to 
some natural stream or outlet where the water discharged will 
flow away freely and at no time back up in the drain. 

Tlie crowning of the road should be sufficient to cause the 
water falling upon the surface of the road to flow readily to 
the side ditches. If it fails to flow away and remains in the 
ruts and depressions it will increase the amount of mud and 
the inconvenience of travel. Roads in such a condition should 
have road machines passed over them as often as necessary to 
make the surface level. 

It is a mistaken idea that an underdrain laid in the middle 
of the road will drain the surface of the road. The travel and 
the action of the water falling upon the road will so effectually 
puddle the surface that no water on the road will find its way 
down to the drain thus laid. To the contrary, the horse tracks 
and ruts will hold water like earthen vessels, until it is 
removed by evaporation or otherwise. 

Roads graded and drained as proposed will cost from four 
to five hundred dollars per mile, but when done they will be 
good roads for eleven months and commendably passable the 
remainder of the year, with a little timely repair. 

Where gravel and stone are not to be had at a reasonable cost 
we know of no improvement so satisfactory in all respects as 
the road well graded and sufficiently drained. 

Where gravel or broken stone can be had, it will be found 
that the thorough drainage of the road, as proposed, will save 
half the gravel or stone that would otherwise be required to 
make a good road. 

A dry foundation to build upon is the most important factor 
in road construction. 

Tile drains may be used to intercept water percolating 
through the earth of the higher ground adjacent and likely to 
interfere with the road, or springs or seepy places under the 
roadbed may be drained out with tile so as not to interfere with 
the embankment. 

It may be found advisable at some points along the line of 
the drains to fill in above the tile with gravel or sand a few 
feet, so that surface water may pass down freely into the under- 
drain to prevent its accumulation where it is likely to affect the 
road embankment. 

After a road has been put in good condition and thoroughly 
rmderdrained nothing need be done except a little timely 
repair in the way of keeping the surface smooth and the open 
ditches free from any drift accumulation. 

Road drainage has passed the experimental stage. The 
benefits have been fully proven. The success of the improve- 
ments depends only upon the thoroughness of the work. 



224 ROAD DRAINAGE. 

A few suggestions as to the construction of the tmderdrains 
may be helpful in this connection. One of the most important 
features of a good drain is a desirable grade, one free from 
depressions below or rises above a true grade line. These 
conditions, it has been remarked, are never secured without 
effort, — slight depressions will fill with silt sooner or later, and 
so far destroy the efficiency of the drain. 

The tile should be laid in a trench carefully fitted for them, 
and so carefully settled in their bed that the filling of the ditch 
will not displace them and the joints should be closely joined, 
and if any difficulty is experienced from quicksand the covering 
of the joints with clay will prevent any trouble from this 
source. 

In conclusion we remark that no more important duty lies 
before us to-day, the effect of which will be more widely felt, 
than that of giving material aid and to otherwise encourage the 
permanent improvement of our public highways. 



Bound volumes of " Good Roads " {handsomely bound in seal brown 
cloth and gilt) can now be supplied at $i per volume. Each volume 
contains six numbers of " Good Roads. " The first three volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price is lower than that charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the country .^ and is fixed at $i to 
enable each reader to obtain at nominal cost a handsome and j/seful 
work. Address " Good Roads," Rotter Building, Neiv York. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads'' wants the name and post-ofiice 
address [plainly written) of every civil engineer, surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the fiames 
and addresses of prominent citizens who are interested in the movement 
for better roads. IVe ask each reader to aid in making tip this list. 
Send as promptly as possible and specify each man's official position. 



Mr. a. J. Cassatt was made a road supervisor in Mont- 
gomer}'' County several years ago, and he demonstrated to the 
people of his section how a good road could be built and main- 
tained for far less than the old system and pay for itself in a 
few years. It is hard to get people to understand this or 
awaken public opinion to a realization of its truth until they 
realize as they did in Pennsylvania, that the loss on one crop 
of hay alone through bad roads amounted to $1,500,000. 
Added to which was a loss in horse and man power and in wear 
and tear of harness and wagons. — The Rider and Driver. 




DAY 

OF 

YEAR 

306 


PAY 

OF 

WEEK 

w. 


DAY 

OF 

MONTH 

1 


LENGTH OF 

DAY. 

H. M. 

10 19 


ELEVENTH . [^OUCfT^bCr ♦ 1^93 • MONTH 


BrigM and cool. Politicians rise early, 


307 


Th. 


2 


10 


16 


Erie Canal compleled, 1825, It was a successM dig 


308 


Fr. 


3 


10 


13 


for Msiness ; M was net Milt 1)7 gncss. 


309 


Sa. 


4 


10 


1 1 


Thanksgiving apDroaclietli, Uitm roost Mgli. 


3TO 


S. 


5 


10 


9 


(Jen. Butler Horn, 1818. Brave, Brainy Ben, 


311 


M. 


6 


10 


6 


Behold the genial Candidate and watcli his hrassy smile. 


312 


Tu. 


7 


10 


4 


Election Day, Vote lor good reads. 


3^3 


W. 


8 


10 





Behold aein the Candidate, He knows yon not. 


314 


Th. 


9 


10 





Prince of Wales Im, 1841; since forgiven. 


315 


Fr. 


10 


9 


57 


Martin Luther horn, 1483, He raised thnnder. 


316 


Sa. 


II 


9 


55 


Gather yonr piiniDkics while yen may. 


317 


S. 


12 


9 


53 


Colder. Go to church and wear your feather duster. 


3^8 


M. 


13 


9 


51 


Don't water your milk. It will freeze. 


319 


Tu. 


14 


9 


4S 


Valkme goes into winter parters. Don't mention it. 


320 


W. 


15 


9 


46 


Brazil made a reDuhlic, 1889. 


321 


Th. 


16 


9 


44 


Rainy. Likewise very muddy. A farmer's wagon 


322 


Fr. 


17 


9 


41 


will not float. His Summer road is now an 


3^3 


Sa. 


18 


9 


39 


Autumn poultice. More rain. 


324 


S. 


19 


9 


3S 


Ventilate your furs and gird on your chest protector. 


325 


M. 


20 


9 


36 


Washing day. Boil soap and ahuse the neighhors. 


326 


Tu. 


21 


9 


34 


Great match race hetween the Kew Yat smallpox and 


T --> 'T 

j)-7 


W. 


22 


9 


^ 


the Brooklyn deadly trolley. '93. It was a dead heat. 


32S 


Th. 


23 


9 


30 


Th'ksgiving Day. Let Congress he thankful that lynch law is ahoMed. 


329 


Fr. 


24 


9 


28 


John Knox died, 1572. His theology has heen pruned. 


330 


Sa. 


25 


9 


27 


Farm work languishes. Take up a collection 


331 


S. 


26 


9 


26 


and huy a stona crusher. It will crack 


33^ 


M. 


27 


9 


24 


jokes for you all Winter. 


333 


Tu. 


28 


9 


22 


Washington Irving died, 1859. 


334 


W. 


29 


9 


20 


Ohio admitted, 1802. 


335 


Th. 


30 


9 


19 


Foothall season ends. The cripples meditate, Read Good Roads. 



The roads question is finding its way into 
politics. It has a legitimate place there 
because it is a political question. When a 
man is elected to public office he is pre- 
sumed to transact the business of his state, 
county or town with the same care and 
prudence that a sensible man would exer- 
cise in the conduct of his personal affairs. 
Every town is a corporation and every town 
officer is a director in that corporation, and 
directly responsible for the proper manage- 
ment of the corporate business in which all 
the stock-holders, to wit, the citizens, are 
concerned. . It is now becoming a subject 
of inquiry whether a town officer who per- 
mits his constituents to drag themselves 
through miles of mire for six months in the 
year without directing his official energy to 
cure the miserable waste and business 
paralysis which such difficulties of travel 
entail, is worthy of the confidence and sup- 
port of an intelligent voter. In many towns 
in the Eastern states the one pertinent 
question which candidates for office are now 
called upon to answer is, "What is your 
position on the roads question?" In Brooklyn 
the issue on this point is specially promi- 
nent. The people of that city are becoming 
heartily sick of a municipal government 
which has resisted improvement, squan- 
dered the public money and brought benefit 
to nobody outside the particular ring which 
has so long controlled public affairs in that 
city. The people have paid liberally and 
have only asked for some results in return 
for their money. It is now a neck-and-neck 
fight between the people and the ring, and 
the air is full of promises that may be dis- 
counted per cent, per cent. Every man 
should be judged by his record alone, for 

" When the devil was sick the devil a saint would 
be; 
But when the devil got well the devil a saint was 
he." 



acquired the wide popularity to which its ex- 
cellent qualities entitle it. It is doubtful, 
indeed, if a better form of pavement has 
ever been devised, and it is not a little singu- 
lar that many of our cities are slow to 
appreciate this fact. It has every quality of 
a good pavement; will stand wear and 
heavy traffic much better than is generally 
supposed, and from a sanitary point of view 
is undeniably the best form of pavement 
known. The method of laying asphalt has 
been so perfected that asphalt paving com- 
panies do not hesitate to back their con- 
tracts with any reasonable guaranty, while 
the experience of cities like Buffalo and 
Washington, where many miles of this pave- 
ment have been in use for several years, 
fully warranto the praise bestowed upon it 
by the people who know it best. 



The citizens of Kingston, N. Y., are about 
to organize an Ulster County Road Improve- 
ment Society. There is no better indication 
of the growing popularity of the movement 
for better roads than the forming cf local 
associations to push the movement forward. 
A few county societies, each with the proper 
equipment for good work at home and all 
working in harmony, will soon bring state 
aid and that kind of state supervision which 
insures uniform improvement throughout 
the whole commonwealth. 



The use of asphalt in American cities, 
while gradually increasing, has not yet 



A WORD to clubs and associations. It is 
more than likely that your state legislature 
during the coming Winter will contain a 
representative from your district who will 
be influenced by the sentiments of the voters 
whom he represents, and that his action for 
or against any proposed law for the im- 
provement of roads . and streets will be 
determined by the wishes of his constitu- 
ents. Every club or association having an 
interest in the improvement of the public 
roads and streets, should have a committee 
charged with the duty of informing itself 
upon all questions of legislation relating to 
these matters, and when once a good bill is 
under way, a rousing resolution adopted at a 
stated meeting, and a few personal letters 
sent to the representative, will do much to 
stiffen his attitude and make him a worker 
for the attainment of an object which other- 
wise he might treat with indifference. 
Try it. 226 



Odroaght Iron Bridge Co. 

CKNTON. OHIO. 



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Best Hisibvay Bridges. • • 



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THE EDITOR'S TABLE. 



227 



It is a matter of some surprise that the 
L. A. W. uniform is not more generally 
worn by League members. It was selected 
by a committee of experts after examining 
a number of the best samples obtainable, 
and a contract was finally made for the 
manufacture of a handsome special cloth 
and buttons to be used exclusively in the 
making of League suits. In texture, appear- 
ance and wearing quality this cloth is vastly 
superior to nine-tenths of the materials from 
which cycling suits are made by tailors in 
all parts of the country. A reliable firm has 
been contracted with to supply uniforms to 
League members at so reasonable a figure 
that no valid excuse can exist for selecting 
another cloth or pattern. We believe that 
the general adoption of the League uniform 
would do much to foster a fraternal feeling 
among the members of our large association, 
and it should be the duty of each member 
to furnish himself with one of these uni- 
forms and wear it on all appropriate occa- 
sions. Let us do everything to keep the 
L. A. W. more prominently before the 
public. Nine-tenths of the world judge by 
appearances. 



Every live town is asking itself the ques- 
tion " How much will it cost? " The intelli- 
gent farm.ers who would like to build and 
maintain hard smooth macadam roads on 
the principal thoroughfares running from 
farm to market are only deterred by the 
bugbear of increasing taxes, which, after 
all, is only a straw-stuffed boogie with a 
jacko' lantern top-noddle that has no capac- 
ity for doing harm to the man who will 
make himself acquainted with its makeup. 
Thousands of fertile and populous towns 
are filled with people who have no idea how 
cheaply road-making machinery can be 
bought, and how easily and rapidly it can 
be made to convert mud roads into smooth 
and durable highways. Let us suppose a 
case. The assessed valuation of property in 
a given town is $6,000,000. A good substan- 
tial stone crusher capable of turning out 
from 100 to 200 tons of broken stone per 
day can be bought for $1,000. A twenty 
horse power engine, mounted on wheels, 
will furnish an abundant power to run it. 
Cost of engine, $750. Cost of a steam roller, 
$3,500. Total cost of engine, crusher and 
roller, $5,250. To raise this sura it would be 
necessary to levy a tax of only seven-eighths 
of a mill on each dollar of valuation, or 



eighty-seven and one-half cents on each 
thousand dollars. If we omit the steam 
roller from the above items (the roller being 
often more properly a county charge, as it 
may be used in separate towns), the amount 
of this small tax would be reduced one- 
half and will amount to forty-three and 
three-quarter cents per thousand dollars. 
No possible exjDenditure of public moneys 
will yield one-tenth the same benefit to a 
country town that will be obtained by the 
improvement of its roads, and not even the 
school fund can be spent to advantage until 
the roads are made good enough to make 
regular school attendance possible on the 
part of pupils. We suggest to every reader 
who desires the improvement of roads in 
his town to ascertain from the assessor's 
books (which are always open) the amount 
of taxable property in his town and to make 
a little computation for the benefit of him- 
self and his neighbors. 



Congress has no sooner ended the agony 

of the silver question than it begins to amuse 

itself and terrify the business men of the 

country by a proposition to overhaul the 

existing tariff rates and establish a new 

schedule. It is, of course, unlikely that 

any actual move will be made .toward the 

consummation of such a result for several 

months to come ; but in the interval of doubt 

and dread thousands of importers will rest 

on their oars and hesitate to buy, in view of 

the chance of a falling market on imported 

goods, while manufacturers will follow a 

general policy of retrenchment and turn 
out only such goods as are needed to fill 
an immediate demand. All this will go on 
while a few hundred rainbow-chasing theo- 
rists are nagging Congress to abolish the 
present tariff laws and substitute others 
which will please them and displease a few 
hundred other theorists whose agility and 
determination will then be put in play to 
bring about another tariff summersault and 
so on ad infinitttin. The cost to the coun.ry 
of all this tariff tinkering no human being 
can estimate. It destroys confidence, clouds 
the future, discounts every man's efforts for 
success and makes us the laughing-stock of 
other nations. No schedule of tariff rates 
was ever yet devised that was wholly good 
or entirely bad, and the present schedule 
can only be fully and fairly tested by the 
test of time. If Congress could adjourn for 
five years, go home, wear plain clothes, 
weld iron and dig esculent roots till they 
learned the lessons of honest labor, a good 
many of the problems about which politi- 
cians are working one another's destruction 
would evolve their own solution. 







The Railroad Question. By Hon. Will- 
iam Larrabee, ex-Governor of Iowa. (The 
Schulte Publishing Co., Chicago.) "A his- 
torical and practical treatise on railroads 
and remedies for their abuses." This quota- 
tion from the title page expresses in one 
brief sentence the character of the work 
which ex-Governor Larrabee has under- 
taken in this little book. The railroad 
question is not an inviting one to the every- 
day reader whose mind finds greater delight 
in the treatment of lighter subjects, but it 
is no less a question Vvdiich intimately con- 
cerns us all, for, through reckless legislation 
and a failure to adopt adequate remedies, 
there is no object for which the public has 
paid so much and from which it has received 
so little as the establishment and mainte- 
nance of railroad corporations. It may be 
said by some people that ex-Governor Lar- 
rabee has been more or less pronounced in 
his opposition to the railroads, but the fact 
remains that he has always been a careful 
and apparently a conscientious student of 
the railroad question, and in exposing some 
of the abuses to which the railroad system 
has committed itself, he renders a service 
from which the public may derive great 
benefit. The present work is comprised in 
a neat octavo volume of nearly five hundred 
pages, comprising fourteen chapters supple- 
mented by tables and statistics of excellent 
value. The author treats of the history of 
transportation and of railroads in the United 
States and elsewhere ; devotes four chapters 
to the consideration of monopolies, railroad 
abuses, stock inflations and combinations, 
and then, after treating of the influence of 
railroads in politics and literature, he devotes 
several chapters to the discussion of railroad 
matters in Iowa, the Inter-State Commerce 
Act and the Rate Question, giving to his 
final chapter the title " Remedies," in which 
various abuses are summarized and sug- 
gestions urged for their cure. Altogether 
ex-Governor Larrabee' s book shows much 
thought and ability in ^jreparation and is 
well worthy of perusal. 



Houses and Cottages. (D. S. Hopkins, 
architect. Grand Rapids, Mich.) Book No. 6 
of Mr. Hopkin's admirable series is before 
us for review. It is richly illustrated; is 
printed on handsomely calandered paper of 
good weight and contains fifty-eight designs 
and descriptions of houses and cottages 
costing from $150 to $1,500. A man's 
manners, habits and education are probably 
as much influenced by his surroundings as 
by his companions, and while the author's in- 
tent is evidently not to encourage "amateur 
architecture," he has succeeded in placing 
before his readers a collection of beautiful 
and practical designs for moderate priced 
homes, in which the interior arrangements 
appear to be well thought out and the cost 
of each structure fairly estimated. To the 
reader who contemplates the building of a 
cosy and attractive home at moderate price 
we believe that a careful study of Mr. Hop- 
kins "Houses and Cottages" will prove of 
special value. The price is $ i . 



Brick for Street Pavements. By M. D. 
Burke, C. E. (Robert Clarke & Co., Cincin- 
nati, O.) An octavo pamphlet of eighty-six 
pages made up largely from reports made 
to municipal authorities in Avondale, O., 
where the author was employed in his pro- 
fessional engineering work. The work is 
largely technical in its character and 
describes a series of tests made in deter- 
mining the quality and composition of 
various paving bricks submitted, although a 
large number of pages are devoted to dis- 
cussing the probable durability of brick 
pavements, municipal methods, pavements 
in general, what should be required by 
specifications, where brick should be used 
for street pavements, maintenance and 
sizes of paving brick. Mr. Burke's pamph- 
let is filled with valuable information and is 
well worth the attention of any reader who 
seeks to be informed upon the subject of 
brick pavements. gag 



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Bound Volumes of ''Good Roads'' 

Handsome cloth and gilt binding-. Volumes' I, II and 
III now ready. The price is not for profit, but to 
extend our work. Sent postpaid to any address, for 

One Dollar per Volume 




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sawdust is shaking 
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Wheelmen. All sizes and styles of wheels in stock 
and 20 to 50 per cent, saved on many patterns. Easy 
payments it desired. No matter what you want in 
the cycle line it will pay you to write to us. Our 
Superior Inducementd bring us orders from every- 
where. Send for catalogue and bargain list free. 

lOUSE, peZHBD & CO., 177 G Street, Peoria, III. 

Manufacturers, Importers and Jobbers 



fpniaiiGBlcpit^smKywueeis 

WITH BALL BEARINGS 




We make nothinf 
but Wheels. Over B 
years' experience. 

N. Y. Protection 
Strip Pneumatic 
Tires with rims t« 
match, supplied tci 
the trade. 

Write us for what 
you want." 

Lfl.W£ST0|(&60. 

Jamesvllle, N. Y. 

Coaoa I 



John F. Huckel, of New York, has suc- 
ceeded to the advertising management of 
Good Roads and is now the accredited ad- 
vertising agent of the L. A. W. Bureau of 
Publication. 



We are indebted to the A)iicrican ^Igf'- 
cultiirisf for the use of t\v(j engravings 
appearing on page 95 of our September 
issue. By inadvertence acknowledgment 
was omitted at the proper time. 



THEcommon council of Bridgeport, Conn., 
has taken steps to investigate the subject of 
better street pavements, and a committee 
will soon report with recommendations re- 
garding the relative qualities of street pave- 
ments, other than macadam and stone 
blocks. No small share of credit for the 
stirring interest manifested by the Bridge- 
port authorities is due to the persistent 
work of Calhoun Latham of that city, late 
Chief Consul of the Connecticut Division 
L. A. W. 



The state road convention which recently 
met at Sacrainento, Cal., accomplished great 
good, inasmuch as those in attendance 
claimed that they would go away full of 
food for thought and made wiser by the 
conference, which set in motion good road 
agitation. 

The committee on resolutions presented 
the following report: 

1. Favoring engineering supervision of 
roads in each county, a state road bureau 
or commission, to advise and direct road 
construction that chief roads should be built 
by the state. 

2. That each county should have engi- 
neering supervision of roads. 

3. That the question of bonds for road 
construction be deemed local and not a sub- 
ject for the conventions. 

4. That a broad tire sj'stem be advised 
according to weight carried. 



5. That the contract system for main- 
tenance of county roads is wise and sh'.'uld 
be encouraged. 

6. That the ten block system fjf number- 
ing roads be approved. 

7. That the League of American Wheel- 
men should be thanked for its warfare 
against bad roads. 

8. That chief roads should be general 
charges upon the whole county, and road 
districts should be abolished. 

9. That sj^rinkling of roads is essential to 
their preservation. 

10. That the convention consider in what 
jjortion of the state, if any, the new road 
law is satisfactory, 

11. That management of public roads 
should be taken out of local politics. 

12. That an executive committee be 
chos-en to prepare a road bill for the next 
legislature, in accordance with the sugges- 
tion of the convention. Such bill to be 
submitted to organize a plan of action, col- 
lect statistics and devise methods for con- 
struction, improvement and maintenance 
of public roads in the state. 



A Califorma paper makes announcement 
of the ingenious and forcible way adopted 
by Mr. J. P. Monroe of Eureka in that 
state for keeping prominent the good roads 
question. "J. P. Monroe is busily engaged 
in fitting up and arranging his new bottling 
works on D Street, near Third. An ice 
house has been built and steaming apparatus 
has been put in and when the workmen get 
through it will be the most complete es- 
tablishment of the kind in North California. 
]\Ir. Monroe, being an enthusiast on the 
subject of public improvements, particularly 
good roads and streets, has resolved to call 
his establishment the ' Good Roads Bottline 
Company ' and all his various bottled bev- 
erages will bear a label on which is inscribed 
' Good Roads.' He thinks that, having the 
subject before them so often, the voters of 
the county will educate themselves on the 
subject and vote for it at the proper time." 



229 







UE'^ 'J^NjWEf^Tj) 




'^;.-'ft 



"D. B. M." — Belgian pavement, so called, 
was never covered by a patent so far as we 
have knowledge. It is a common form of 
stone block pavement, which derives its 
name from the fact that it was used for 
many years in Belgium before the use of 
stone pavements became general in this 
country. 



"I. C." — Asphalt pavement is generally 
regarded as superior to brick, and for city 
pavements we regard it as superior to any 
other pavement in use. We expect to pub- 
lish a series of articles on city pavements 
during the coming year and the whole ques- 
tion will then be fully treated. 



"Professor." — The number of farm 
horses exceeding two years of age in the 
State of New York was about 700,000, ac- 
cording to last official reports. It is impos- 
sible to give the exact cost of feeding and 
caring for these horses, but it probably ex- 
ceeds $150,000 per day, or about $55,000,000 
per year. 



" M. E. C."— The report of the Massachu- 
setts Highway Commission was printed by 
Wright & Potter Printing Company (state 
printers), at 18 Post Office Square, Boston. 
You can doubtless obtain a copy by address- 
ing a letter to the Massachusetts Highway 
Commission, No. 3 Pemberton Square, 
Boston. 



" Member." — " Grillage " is a sort of raft 
or network of timber, or timber and brush, 
generally laid on a soft earth or marshy 
bottom and used to sustain and distribute 
the weight of a super-incumbent structure. 
Grillage is frequently laid between the piling 
(and sometimes upon it) in the construction 
of railroad and other enbankments across a 
stretch of marsh. It is made in a consider- 
able variety of ways and we have not suffi- 
cient space to describe them here. You will 



' ^«<^^^^ 



find an extended description in any good 
work on civil engineering. 



"Citizen." — The failure of asphalt pave, 
ment in the case you describe is probably 
due to the fact that the concrete foundation 
contained too great a quantity of moisture 
when the asphalt surface was put on. If 
the specifications provided by your city en- 
gineer had been scrupulously followed there 
is no reason why this defect should have 
appeared. 



"Fossil."— We are not sufficiently informed 
in agricultural matters to advise you with 
confidence as to the treatment of "apple- 
scab;" but the following spraying mixtures 
are highly recommended by the Pennsylva- 
nia State Board of Agriculture and they are 
reported to have been used with excellent 
success. I. Ammoniacal carbonate of cop- 
per. Dissolve six ounces of carbonate of 
copper in two quarts of commercial aqua 
ammonia and dilute with fifty gallons of 
water. 2. Modified eau celeste. Dissolve 
two pounds of carbonate of copper in one 
gallon of hot water; dissolve two and one- 
half pounds of carbonate of soda in the 
same amount of hot water. When thoroughly 
cooled add one quart of commercial aqua 
ammonia and dilute with thirty gallons of 
water. 3. Dilute Bordeaux mixture. Dis- 
solve four pounds of sulphate of copper in 
two gallons of hot water; dilute with water 
sufficient to cool it; slack four pounds of 
quick lime and add enough water to the lime 
to make it a thick, smooth paste ; strain this 
in the sulphate of copper solution and add 
enough water to make the mixture up to 
fifty gallons. As an insecticide paris green 
was added to this mixture. The cost of 
materials and labor to spray one hundred 
apple trees for one season has been found 
to be as follows: For number one, $22.55; 
for number two, $23. 75 and for number three, 
$15.10. The Ohio Agricultural Experiment 
Station reports great success in the use of 
these mixtures. 230 



New Jersey Trap Rock Company 

BROKEN STONE •/ .-. •. 



FOR 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS 

:: :: CONCRETE, SCREENINGS, Etc. :: :: 

Pronounced by Engineers the FINEST MATERIAL in the World 
for ROAD MAKING 

Stands crushing test of 22,000 lbs. per cubic inch 

Quarry, Snake Hill, Seacaucus Station, D. L. «& W. R. It 
Office, No. I Montgomery Street, Jersey City 



Opposite Pennsylvania R. R. Station 



Telephone, 284 Jersey City 



Construction and Improvement of 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

A SPECrALTY 
A. T. BYRNE 

Civil Engineer and 361 Fulton St. 

T y— — Brooklyn, N.Y. 



WILLIAM S. BACOT, C. E., Mem. Am. Soc. C. E. 

Engineer of County Roads 

RICHMOND CO., Staten Island, N. Y. 

■rvoiALTixs Water-Works, Sewerage, ImproTementi of 9.—i6m 

Offices: 

145 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, and STAPLETON, S. I. 



DOUBLE 

Breech-loader 

S6.00. 
RIFLES Si.oo 
WATCHES 



GUNS 



BICYCLES $15 

All kiiida ciif aper Lliau elM.'- 
whfre. Before ynu buy, 
Rend stamp for catalogue to 

POWELL & CLEMENT CO. 

100 Main St.,Cinrvpnati,0. 



METOWEE RIVER SEMINARY. fni^'.^Jf^^ 

student if send stamp, name Good Roads. Net run for profit ; 
free tuition; opportunity surprises. 88th year. gJO.iiuu bldp. 
All branches, col., bus., telegraph, etc. No one need lac'k ednca. 

NORTH GRANVILLE, N. Y. 



P. A. DUNHAA\» Civil Eogin^^r 

AND Expert in Road and Street Improvements. 

Engineer in Charge of the following Works : 
The Famous Union Co., N. J., Road System ; Street 
Improvements, Hasbrouck Heights, N. J.; Street 
Paving and Sevv^erage, Sewickley, Pa.; Street 
Improvements, Olean, N. Y. Is City Engineer of 
Plainfield, N. J , and Dunkirk, N. Y. Correspondence 
Solicited. Main Office, No. 7 Park Ave., Plainfield, N. J. 



jfliwES c. woNDEHs, Qi^ii Enaineer, 

BELLEFONTAINE, O. D ' 

Highwavs and Municipal Work, Plans, Estimates, 
Specifications, Superintendence. Correspondence 
invited. 



$t65 BICYCLE ^'^i^^. ^^tr 



liL'un used. l'"ur sale I'c'iy cheap. 
Box iit.^, New York Citv. 



Address P. O. 



38oun5 IDchimeg of **(5ooD IRoa^S " 

$1.00 



WILL BE SENT . 
POST PAID FOR 



TO ANY ADDRESS 



FOREIGN AND AMERICAN OTOLING PAPERS, i 

PERIODICALS, UAM> BOOKS AND ROAD BOOEt | 

TOR SALE. Bend for List. \ 

FLETCHER <fe CO., 48 E. Tan Bnren St., OUoac* < 



HlafFen Seharf Asphalt Paving Go, 

Genuine Trinidad Asphalt Pavements 



For Streets, Sidewalks, Driveways 



rh« standard Pavement for . 

CHEAPNESS . . 

HEALTH . . . 
( DURABILITY . . 
9 SMOOTHNESS and 

SAFETY . . . 



-^ 



IT ENHANCES THE VALUE OF PROPERTY MORI 
THAN ANY OTHER PAVEMENT 

Principal Office : 

81 Fultoi? St., fiew YorH 



SEND FOR CIRCULARS AND ESTIMATES. MENTION GOOD ROADS" 



me Sicilian Bspnalt Pavliio Go. 



CONTRACTORS FOII 



SICILIAN ANo GERMAN ROCK 
ASPHALT STREET PAVEMENTS 



TRINIDAD " LAKE" ASPHALT 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



LIMMER ROCK ASPHALT 
FLOORS, PAVEMENTS AND ROOFS 

FOR BREWERIES, ICE HOUSES, 
WAREHOUSES, CELLARS, STABLES, 
YARDS, SIDEWALKS, ETC. -" 



ZINSSER'S PATENT 
TION FOR WALLS OF 
HOUSES, ETC. 



INSULA- 
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DEALERS IN 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN tROCK ASPHALTS FOR 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



SICILIAN, LIMMER AND VORWOHLE ROCK 
ASPHALT MASTIC 



CRUDE AND REFINED TRINIDAD ASPHALT 



For Estimates and full information apply to 

Tie Sicilian Asplialt Paving Co., Times Bnilding, N. Y. 
G. L.BOSWORTH €r CO. 

AGENTS FOR . . . 

Coroprcssecl ^spb^lt 

^ Fzvvipg BlocKs 

For Streets ■ 

-■KJTHING BETTER MADE, SANITARY, NOISELESS, THE 
EASIEST STREET TO KEEP CLEAN, CAN BE TAKEN 
UP AND RELAID AT VERY LITTLE EXPENSE. 
EVERY CITY CAN HAVE ITS OWN LABORERS PUT 
THEM DOWN. SEND FOR PRICES TO . . . 

6. L. Bojwortb Sr Co. 

HolyoKe, A*\2vss- 



• • 



• • 



• • 



THe Slaiiflarfl Pavemem of Hmerica 

Tbe Beirber 
Aspb^^lt 
PeiVipg Co. 

has now laid nearly 6,000,000 square 
yards of genuine Trinidad Asphalt pave- 
ment in 33 cities of the United States. 
Wherever the pavement has been laid it 
has come to stay, and has never been dis- 
placed in favor of any other material. It is 
smooth, durable, clean, noiseless and safe. 



y^^^^^ 


GENERAL OFFICES 


yisJy^^^^^^^^H^Bk 


LE DROIT BUILDING 




WASHINGTON, D. C. 


^ff THE VyUI 




»standard\^H 


Washington building 


9 PAVEMENT p| 


1 BROADWAY 


3|"^0Fr" Mf 


NewYork, N. Y. 


^AMERICA./^W 




wr^ 


Nearly 6,000,000 Sq. Yds. or 


435 lineal miles in use and 


laid by this Company. 



PATENTS. 

SPECIALTIES for expert work: fletallur^cal 
Inventions and Interference Causes. 

We report without charge whether your Iih 
▼ention is patentable. Send for our new book^ 
"Patent Practice." 

CHAMPION & CHAMPION, 
7>a£lflc Building:, Washington, D. C 

AVOID GREASE AND DIRT by oiling your machine wltt 
the best and neatest oil can in the world, the "Perfect Pocket 
Oiler." Does not leak. Regulates supply of oil to a tdcttf 
Price 85 cents each, handsomely nickel plated. 




OUSUMAN & DENIBON, 1718 »th Ayenue, X. T. 



•<«#€>.. 




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^ 



1 1 ri n 1 1 1 • 1 1 1 1 1 1 u I 



llliaillMlHllllllllllMII>ll>IIIIUIIIIIIIIIinlUlll|>.IUl>>ll>ll<fM|U|Ji|>.|. ■.<■•■>. •..■lt|..|.>l 



OINTRACT 





'^W 



ROADS AND STREETS. 

ILLINOIS.— Aurora.— Cedar blocks and brick 
paving will be commenced early next Spring in 
this place, when bids will be asked for. 

Si'RINGFIELD. — The quantities of materials used 
in the new pavement on East Adams Street were 
as follows: 1,375,000 bricks, 1,700 loads of cinders 
and 1,355 loads of sand, the cost being over $20,000. 
This is now one of the best and most substantial 
streets in this city. 

OHIO.— ("INCINN'ATI — Brick paving isto be done 
on Haywood Street, from Colerain Avenue to 
Fourth Avenue. Bids have been asked for. 

Three hundred feet of Liberty Street are being 
improved, the material used being granite. Bids 
have been asked for. 

CiRCLEViLi.E.— Improvement is to be made in 
the Mackey Ford Road, No. 20, lying between the 
Ohio Canal and the Scioto River, and proposals 
were asked for recently. 

Defiance.— Bids were asked for the work of 
street improvement on Perry and Deatrick Streets, 
from Worthington Street to the northerly line of 
the track of the B. & O. Railroad in this city. 

NEW YORK.— Watertown-.— During the next 
year this town will spend about $iS,ooo in improv- 
ing its streets. 

MAINE.— ROCKLAXD.— A large contract for pav- 
ing, and setting the curbing for brick walks, has 
been awarded to Elijah Norton of Cushing. The 
contract included 2,500 square yards of work. 

INDIANA.— Lafavette.— Bids were recently 
received for the work of improving Ferry Street, 
from Second to Fourth Streets, said work to be 
done acciirding to specifications. 

Crown Point. — Next year it isproposed to pave 
with cedar blocks about a mile and a half of the 
streets of this city. Those named for improvement 
are Joliet, Ridge and possibly East and North 
Streets. 



SEWERS. 

MISSOURI.— Kansas City. —It is contemplated 
to build a sewer in District 132, the cost of which 
will be about $23,000. 

MASSACHUSETTS. — HOLVOKE.— The City 
Treasurer and Finance Committee have been in- 
structed to issue sewer bonds for $100,000; the 
bonds being for twenty years at four per cent, 
yearly interest. 

INDIANA.— Frankfort.— Plans for a new sew- 
erage system have been made. The contract will 
cover twenty-two miles of sanitary sewers froin 
twenty-four to twent^'-eight inches in diameter, 
and the probable cost will be $135,000. 

MICHIGAN.— Port Huron.— About fifteen hun- 
dred feet ot pipe sewer will be built in this city, 
and bids will be asked for the work. 

WISCONSIN —Racine. —Contracts have been 
let for sewers to the amount of over $10,000. 



Waukesha. — David Johnson and Nicholas Dev- 
ereaux have been given the contract for laying 
6,000 feet of new sewers in this place. 

KANSAS.— Toi'EKA —It is proposed to build^ 
new sewerage extensions, and plans are being 
prepared. Bids will probably be asked for after 
the preparatory work of estimation, etc., has been 
completed. 

BRIDGES. 

OHIO.— Indianapolis.— The contract for build- 
ing the new bridge over White River at Kentucky 
Avenue in this city was awarded the Wrought 
Iron Bridge Company of Canton. The whole work 
will cost about $60,760. 

Cincinnati.— The longest cantilever bridge in 
the world is to be built here, which will have a 
sheer span of 1,800 feet and be 60 feet wide. 

ILLINOIS.— Bedford.— A large bridge is being 
built across the Platte Branch. 

Galesburg. — Contracts were lately awarded for 
the building of four highway bridges across Cedar 
Fork Creek at North Kellogg, North Prairie, North 
Broad and West Main Streets, at a price complete 
of $2,6oo each. 

TEX.A.S. — Galveston. — The longest wagon 
bridge in the world is that across the Bay at this 
cit\-, recently built at a cost of $200,000. 

MISSOURI.— Kansas City.— A competent en- 
gineer will be appointed to superintend the erec- 
tion of the new bridge at Bluflf Street, which isto 
cost $24,000. 

MISSISSIPPI. —New Orleans. -One of the 
finest bridges in the world will be that over the 
Mississippi at this city, and which is to take three 
years to build. 

PENNSYLVANIA.— Willia.msport.— The con- 
tract for a new bridge across Lycoming Creek, 
near Ralston, has been awarded to the Croton 
Bridge Company of New York. This bridge is to 
be 100 feet in length and will cost $4,000. 

Sh.\ron. — .\ new iron bridge is to be built across 
the Shenango and will be iSo feet long. Bids have 
been asked for. 

Indiana. — Contract for the stonework of the 
new county bridge over the Little Mahoning has 
been given. 

Johnstown.— A bridge is to be erected across 
Chest Creek at Patton which will cost over $1,400. 
Contract has been awarded to the Massillon Bridge 
Company of Massillon, Ohio. 

MINNESOTA.— Lanesboro.— A new iron wagon 
bridge has been built at this place. 

ARKANSAS.— Pulaski County.— Proposals 
were recently asked for the work of constructing 
a highway bridge across the Arkansas River. 

MONTANA.— Livingston.— Bids have been 
asked for constructing a wagon bridge across the 
Yellowstone River, near this place, bids to be on 
both iron and combination bridges, with iron 
tubular and crib piers. 231 



II.'ILO 




ROVED 




1 HE ENTERPRISING POET, 

Once I knew a little poet, 

Who might every day be seen, 

Grinding- roundelaj'S or sonnets 

For a monthly magazine. 

Christmas lays he wrote in April, 

Patriotic odes in Fall, 

And he tangled np the seasons 

In a manner to appall ; 

And himself he quite confounded, 

Till, entirely out of tune. 

He was sunstruck in midwinter, 

And then frozen to death in June. 



NOTHING TO LEARN. 

A boarding house in this city advertised 
for a hall boy. Among a host of applicants 
was a raw-boned, lanky youth, who rang 
the door bell, and was met by the landlady 
herself. 

"Want a boy?" he asked, shifting from 
one foot to the other. 

"Yes," said the landlady, taking an in- 
ventory of the applicant. 

' ' House run by a missus ? " 

"Yes." 

"Be you she?" 

"Yes." 

" And you want a boy to tend door, run 
errands, trot to the grocery, sit in a cold 
Iiall, say you're out sixty times a day and 
Ivcep agents and tin peddlers and kids offen 
til' steps?" 

' ' Yes," said the astonished woman, "that's 
just what I want." 

" Much money in it ?" queried the boy. 

"Two dollars and fifty cents a week. 

"Promises or cash down?" 

"You get your money regularly if you 
earn it." 

"I'm your huckleberry, missus. Wot 
kin I dew first — start out on a collectin' 
tower, or make the fires in the sick board- 
ers' rooms, or watch out for the fellow that 
is going to slide his trunk out 'ithout payin' 
his board?" 



"Look here," said the landlady, "you 
know too much. I guess we can't make a 
trade." 

"All right, mum. If sperience and know- 
how don't go for something, I ain't in it. 
But you'll be sorry, mum, when the butcher 
comes around with his last year's bill. 
I'm a pacifyer of the first water, but you 
don't—" 

She hired him. — Boston Traveller. 



WHAT HE SAID. 

" You told me that the horse was fast, 

And always, full of pepper; 
I find him lazy and outclassed 

By a very common stepper." 

" But see, dear sir, you quite mistake; 

He's always trim in fettle; 
And I said simply: ' Keep him shod 

To find him on his metal.' " 

— Chicago Record. 



Irate Father — The idea of a son of mine 
disgracing me by being arrested for drunk- 
enness and disorderly conduct ! What did 
the judge say to you ? 

Penitent Son — Why — er — he appeared to 
know you. He said, " Well, one can't blame 
the boy so much; he's a chip off the old 
block." And he let me off with a reprimand. 



MR. 



COL- 



MEDDERGRASS INSTRUCTS A 
LEGIAN. 

"Hello, Hayseed!" called out a rude 
young freshman to Farmer Meddergrass. 

"Young man," replied the farmer, "you 
attend that college on the hill there, don't 
you?" 

"Yes." 

" Then let me tell you something that is 
not taught there: It is unpardonably in- 
correct to speak of hayseed. That is some- 
thing which does not exist. Hay is dried 
grass, and the proper term is grass seed. 
Just remember that. — Burtiham atid Phil- 
lips Fashion Review. 232 



Good Roads 



Vol. 4. 



December, 1893. 



No. 6. 



FACTS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THE EMPIRE STATE. 

By J. A. C. Wright, 

Secretary, New York State League for Good Roads. 

THE roads of Western New York are similar to those in other 
parts of the state, with the exception perhaps of Monroe 
County, which, from the point of view of the roadmaker, 
may be called the "bad lands," though she occupies in the rich- 
ness of her producing capacity 
the unique position of the first 
county of the state, and the 
second of the Union. The 
roads of Genesee County, as 
appears by the statement of 
Mr. Clark, are good by reason 
of natural gravel deposits in 
her territory. The roads of 
Livingston County are also 
fairly good, largely because the 
well-known Wadsworth family, 
with their large holdings and 
the manifest interest which have 
made them always popular 
landlords, have given a con- 
tinuity of purpose and applied 
intelligence to road building in 
the county, which would result 
in other counties from an 
improved system. These two 
counties have an assessed valuation each of about twenty-five 
millions, have no large town population and the roads bear the 
traffic of a rather more than well-to-do rural county, and the 
disadvantages of the present form of roadmaking does not 
stand out in startling relief. In IMonroe County, however, the 
conditions are different. In its centre is the fourth city of the 
state, a large centre of wealth and commerce. The surround- 
ing territory is a veritable garden, not only in the variety and 
richness of its products, but in its landscape features, and these 
products are mostly of a kind requiring quick delivery and 

233 




J. A. C. Wright. 



234 



FACTS AND SUGGESTIONS 



gentle transportation. Over the main roads to and from the 
city, there is a constant stream of heavy traffic, and it is with 
these main roads that the farmer who works out his road tax 
wrestles in all hopelessness with a task requiring the intelligent 




^i»v 



^^^Mi^w^^^m^^^ 






\\-- '' 



%;■ 



^•J- 



■■/;'- 







c^^t^'/! '■' 



J- 



W t V k 




Danger Marks in a Thriving County. 
View of East Avenue, between Rochester and Pittsford, N. Y., show- 
ing deep mud and "no-bottom" spot m the farmer's thoroughfare. 
Drawn from a photograph taken April ii, 1893. 

supervision of a road expert and the employment of labor and 
material beyond his ability to give. Because of the richness 
of her soil scarcely any road-making material adjoins the roads, 
and the road itself is one broad sea of mud a large portion of 
the year. It should be an easy journey of little over an hour 
to the bounds of the county — but instead it is hours long, and 
the market produce has to leave the farm often nearer mid- 
night than daybreak. The citizens of Rochester are imbued 



FOR THE EM FIRE STATE. 



235 






























re- ^>->^ i;^Vl '-i?^- ■- f 









'^?S 






A MUDWAY IN A DUGWAV. 

View of a portion of "cut" on Penfi^ld Road, about three miles from 
Roches'er, N. Y, shciwint,^ deep mud on important farm road. Drawn 
from photograjjh taken April, 1S93. 

with a commercial spirit, and the energy with whicli the}' 
prosecnte all ventures tending to their material welfare, has 
given them almost a world-wide reputation ; and yet as regards 
the primary transportation of her local products, as regards the 
main arteries of traflic and intercourse between this great heart 
— the city and its supporting limbs, the agricultural districts — 
she leaves the matter entirely to the farmer by the very con- 
dition existing, shut in from a freer intercourse that would 
broaden him and make his perceptions quicker, to furnish as 
best he may roads in which the community interest is start- 
lingly dominant. 



2x6 FACTS AND SUGGESTIONS 



Over a year ago I called the attention of the Board of Super- 
visors to the fact that for one per cent, of our valuation, which 
is now one hundred and fifty millions, we could build a system 
of arterial, county roads, forming" hard, smooth ways at all 
times of the year, radiating from the city to the boimds of the 
county, and connecting it and all the considerable villages and 
towns; my idea was that all the main roads should be mapped 
out and included as county roads, first for general care and 
repair, secondly wdth the purpose of building these up, or the 
more important ones, into new made telford roads similar to 
those constructed in Union County, N. J., costing there 
about $10,000 a mile — or other permanent construction suit- 
able. The county road, its feasibility, benefits and popularity 
are there a demonstrated fact. My idea being analogous to rail- 
roads, we should build a permanent roadway at an initial cost, 
bonded, which cost should be carried, and leave to the 
increased valuation and wealth brought in the creation of a 
sinking fund, which would ultimately wipe out the principal; 
and that analogous to railroads, these roads, which should be 
taken in charge for care and repair, or as soon as built up in 
permanent construction, should be divided into sections and 
placed under single systematic supervision ; only that such sys- 
tem being more elastic than railroads, could employ local help 
and material ; for instance, the farmer could use the stone from 
his field, his team and his labor in the building, and when such 
roads were built, some intelligent farmer could be made fore- 
man of a section contiguous to his farm, and his care would 
tell when under the direction of a road expert. I also indicated 
that as an original, financial proposition, the cost of such roads 
carried at four per cent, would be a tax rated at forty cents on 
every thousand of assessed valuation, being only two dollars 
per year on a farm assessed as high as five thousand dollars, 
and that it was upon the main roads the richer farms lay; that 
the back farms were valued less, would pay a smaller per cent, 
therefore of the cost of these roads, and that their owners, how- 
ever, must sooner or later strike these good roads on their way 
to the town. 

Governor Flower, in his last message, has shown that the 
average expenditure in the counties is $54,000 per j-ear upon 
their roads ; sufficient under an improved system to build and 
care for 150 miles of macadamized road in each. In Monroe 
County it is $88,000 (much more than the carrying charge of 
200 miles of good road), and though I have no figures to prove 
it, I believe the major part of that sum is spent upon these main 
roads, which are the worst. The lesser roads compare favor- 
ably with those of other counties. Monroe County stands out, 
then, conspicuous, evidencing great natural advantages, which 
only emphasize the necessity for man's co-operation in availing 



FOR THE EMPIRE STATE. 



23; 




■ — Vtt 



5iV \ 












^.iss*"/ 










J 



A Warning to Travelers. 
Monroe Road, about four and one-half miles from Rochester, N. Y., 
showing impassable spot where farmers are compelled to turn out from 
the traveled roadway. Drawn from photograph taken on April, 1S93. 

himself of them, and that the farmer alone cannot furnish 
roads that have the requirements of a more than purely local 
trafific, nor is it right that he should. To some degree this is 
true of all. 

What is needed now is not details of construction, nor differ- 
ing plans for differing roads, specifications, knowledge of the 
material deposits, or anything of the sort; these are the 
province of the engineer and roadmaker, when directed to 
proceed ; the thing needed is an improved system of roadmaking., and 
one in which the urban population shall share with the farmer 
in the burden of road building, and shall thus give the needed 
aid to the agricultural sections now suffering from continued 



238 FACTS AND SUGGESTIONS 

depression. It isn't the tariff, it isn't poor crops nor dear money, 
nor Western competition, but it is chiefly the want of good roads 
that is depopulating the rural districts and narrowing the 
farmer's horizon and lowering his standards. In one town in 
Otsego County the proportion of insanity among farmers is 
about seventeen per cent., the result of isolation and unrelieved 
toil ; and yet it is a pleasant enough place in Summer, when the 
roads are good. Isolation begets narrowness, and narrowness 
begets suspicion. And so the farming class fear and oppose 
those who, with a clearer intelligence, offer a better system and 
bear them gifts. 

The county system in Monroe means that the farmer would 
only pay about twenty-five per cent, of the cost, and we may 
go to him and say: "My friend, 5'ou should not oppose us. 
You have been building all the roads and it isn't fair. Let us 
build the roads, and they will be better roads than you ever 
saw, and you will pay but a slight proportion of their cost ; land 
values will increase, life will be fuller and transportations 
cheaper and easier for all, and especially for you." In every 
county it means assistance more or less. With state roads this 
gift to the farmer is yet more liberal, as it has been estimated 
that he will pay but seven per cent, of the cost of these. As 
suggested, I believe in the county system as the best solution 
of the road problem. There is no requirement, military or 
strategic, for great stretches of roads, and the railroads care 
for tlie civil business in the long hauls. The county is the 
ultimate unit in road building; in this the community interest 
is practically complete. It is to and from the county seat, the 
town and the railroad station that all road traffic goes. The 
area and expenditure is sufficient to secure best engineering 
skill and road material, and tmder county management the 
needs of each locality can be better served and more intelli- 
gently, and its operations more carefully guarded. Under 
county systems, too, each county may enjoy the advantages of 
its environment or suffer for their lack. 

Though the county system may thus be an ultimate unit, 
it seems to me that it would be right and proper that the state 
should take an initiative in road building by building, as 
recommended by Governor Hill and proposed by the Richard- 
son bill, one road each way through every county. It would 
represent the state's share in road improvement and the initial 
impetus to a complete highway system, would place the 
improved road under view in each communit}', be more com- 
prehensive than contemporaneous local action, and serve local 
needs as fully as the same roads built by the counties — at no 
more cost, lets in most cases to the county itself. Supplement 
these state roads wiih county systems, under a county road act, 
permissive as to the maxiinnm expenditure and improvement, and 



FOR THE EMPIRE STATE. 



^39 



1"-, 






*' 'ii'i/'IM 







A Soft Road and a Hard Pull. 
Scene on road between Rochester, Fairport and Pitt^ford \' V 
from photograph taken in April, 1893. An expenditure equal ti. one per 
cent, ot the assessed valuation in iNIonroe Countv wouUl build and 
maintain a system ot" arterial countv roads, forming hard smooth wavs 
at all tmies of the year, and connecting Rochester \viih all the principal 
villages and towns within the county limits. 

obligatory as to a niiiiii)iuiii annual expenditure and improvement,- 
thus giving- the greatest possible freedom legitimate to the 
richer counties in good road-making, and at the same time 
compelling general progress throughout the state without over- 
burdening the poorer counties. It will be seen upon reflection, 
that Monroe County, for instance, may build telford roads to 
her profit; the counties like Genesee and Livingston can build 
a gravel road, costing perhaps about twentv-five hundred 
dollars a mile; and other counties still less advantageously 
situated, can build but few miles of improved roads at'li time. 



240 



FACTS AND SUGGESTIONS 







v'aijirc >.itEjJElElTj«Ejm!M%j^ =^ 




The Slovenly Results of the Labor Tax. 
Scene on Monroe Avenue, four miles from Rochester, showing 
undrained and badly graded roadway with deep mud. A team that can 
barely haul a single ton through this mud, can easily draw three tons to 
market over a good macadam road. Drawn from photograph taken in 
April, 1893. 

Without new-made roads, unified, scientific management having 
continuity of purpose, will keep their roads, and by the mere 
fact of injecting into their management expert or scientific 
care, they will become good at the same expenditure now 
wasted upon them. 

And if the county system shall include all the roads in 
which there is a dominant community interest, then there will 
be left out of such state and county systems only the lesser 
highways bearing a local traffic, and if the town be made a 
unit and its road tax payable in money to its highway com- 
missioners, they can with the assistance of the state and county 
engineers and expert road-makers, and the example furnished, 
easily superintend and improve these lesser roads bearing a 
light local traffic. 

Thus somewhat in the nature of a partnership, and perhaps 
to be looked upon as a contract or agreement, we have a 



FOR TIJJ-: EMPIRE STATE. 



241 



complete system, solving the question of road improvement and 
eventually leading to good roads throughout the state, in which 
there is a balancing of mutual interests and a counter-balancing 
of conflicting interests. 

I believe the county organization to be the keystone in 
systematic organization and agitation for this reason : the 
township is too small for this, as in road building, and the state 
too large to include a thorough system and full appreciation 
of local interests. If we are to conduct a campaign of educa- 
tion, it must be similar to political methods, and the county is 




A Merciful Man Regardeth the Life of His Beast. 

Scene on country road, showing the difficulties of travel due to deep 

sand and neglected repairs. Drawn from photograph. 

the unit for a thorough canvass, and in each county are those 
who know, or think they know, their county very well and 
are familiar with the local leaders, who within its bounds 
mould public thought and action, and it is at the county 
seat the urban or town and rural population have joint 
interests and come together. Another suggestion of mine 
adopted, was that the state and county leagues might take the 
initiative in road agitation and improvement, and act independ- 
ently. The county secretary is expected to be the directing 
head of such central organization, with the town and school 
district leagues subsidiary thereto. His duties will not be par- 
ticularly onerous; will require rather a certain amount of exec- 
utive ability and some leisure time, and he will be appointed 
by the state board, and his place of business will be the bureau 
of information and be the centre for the county. It is expected 
that he will gather together those in the county who are for 
good roads, as the active force and represent the sowers of the 
seed. He can address the boards of trade, the bicycle clubs, 
the farmers' grange, the road horsemen, the carriage makers, 
the agricultural societies, the real estate exchange and other 
bodies, who should be interested in the movement and willing 
to assist and get them to join. With others he may drive out 
about his county and start the subsidiary town and local school 



2 42 FACTS AND SUGGESTIONS 

district leagues, bringing the rural population into direct con- 
tact and interest with the work; he should secure through his 
county organization, if possible, sufficient means to distribute 
the valuable magazine. Good Roads, which I understand can by 
arrangement be ordered in numbers at reduced rates, through 
the county, having it come to supervisors, highway commis- 
sioners, country hotels and town libraries, and selected individ- 
uals; and through him the League weekly, w4icn published, can 
also be distributed, and special literature, suitable to the local 
situation, obtained at cost. In other words, he should have a 
mailing list of one hundred or one thousand, according to the 
means obtained, to further the spread of the League and increase 
the road reform sentiment. Later on, in order to conduct a 
proper campaign of education, he should arrange for meetings 
where the subject of road-making could be taken up in ahomely 
and attractive w^ay, illuminated by lantern-slide reproductions 
of roads good and bad. Undoubtedly there are in each county 
young men accustomed to speak on their feet, who would do 
this if interested in the subject, gladly, for the credit attached; 
and arrangements could be made through headquarters for 
photographic slides to be used in ordinary lanterns. And at 
these meetings he could also make use of literature and speakers, 
if necessary, furnished by the National League. 

The New York State Board is practically formed, and I have 
taken upon myself the work of being its acting secretary. We 
are in correspondence endeavoring to secure county secretaries 
in every county of the state, and we should be glad to be 
addressed by all interested in the subject, and with a view to 
appointing secretaries in those countries not already cared for. 
So soon as appointed, it is the intention of the New York State 
Board to meet at some central place with the county secretaries, 
and there agree upon som.e definite plan for the spread of the 
League, increase of the road reform sentiment, and unite if pos- 
sible upon some comprehensive scheme of state, county and 
local action inroad improvement, and for furthering legislation 
upon definite lines so far as possible. Monroe County, for 
instance, if desiring county roads, cannot obtain from the Leg- 
islature a general county road act, should the other counties 
oppose. No legislation will be passed at Albany without a fav- 
oring public opinion back of it. Organization will effect this, 
and we believe that the work of this organization in New York 
State will be put upon an effective, practical working basis. 

It will be thus seen that this National League for Good Roads, 
which is national only in its organization, is the best scheme 
yet devised for furthering road agitation, and is upon the broad- 
est and most elastic basis, permitting the utmost license of home 
rule and local action, and yet giving that strength wdiich comes 
from national association, spurs each locality to more aggressive 



FOR THE J'lM/'IRE STATE. 243 

action, in order that it may be in the lead, and permits of each 
state to assimilate any idea or plan sug-gested or practiced in 
other states, and over all and assisting all is the National League, 
in which they are combined and in full membership; and the 
point about this League is that it is not a bicycle, road-horse, 
or any other class association, though these have done good 
work, but it is one with which they may all co-operate, 
and which any citizen may freely join. It has no ulterior pur- 
poses, and it seeks only the public weal. It asks co-operation 
and assistance from all, and with such hearty co-operation on 
the part of all, resting upon the intelligence of her people, her 
material and varied resources, it is believed that through such 
organization New York State may ])ut herself in the lead and 
be the banner state in a well-thought-out and applied scheme of 
road improvement. And if her state board is supported as it 
should be, some well-digested plan should evolve itself, which 
they may have the executive ability to carry through . 

If the names associated with this movement are not those 
engaged in practical, every-day business life, it can only be 
said that these reputed unserious ones have shown a willingness 
to give their time, attention and means to a great cause — basic 
to the common welfare, and of more direct value to those 
engaged in business and transportation, but too occupied therein 
to put their shoulders to the broad felloed wheel rolling the 
way for the good roads. For those who have thus given their 
time and their means, it can be said in serving their state and 
their kind they are but following in the footsteps of their ances- 
tors. Somewhere that exquisite, cynical genius, Rudyard Kip- 
ling, remarks in likening the man of to-day to the tribal man: 

" Still we let our business slide (as we drop the half-dressed hide), 
Just to show a fellow savage how to work." 

It is with such philanthrophy, founded on the fellowship of 
man, that the record of the ages' progress is built up. 



Bound volumes of " Good Roads " {liandsoinely bound in seal brown 
cloth and ^ilt) ca?i noK< be supplied at $l per volume. Each volume 
contains six niunbers of " Good Pioads. " 77/ 1? first three volumes arc 
ready for distribution. This price is loiver than that char^^ed b\ any 
other magazine of similar size in the country., and is fixed at •$/ to 
etiable each reader to obtain at nominal c.st a handsome and useful 
work. Address " Good Roads," Plotter Building, AV^o l^orh. 



IMPORTANT. — '' Good Roads" wants the name and post-office 
address [plainly written^ of every civil engineer., surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the names 
and addresses of proiniiwnt citizens who are interested in the movement 
for better roads. We ask each reader to aid in making up this list. 
Send as promptly as possible and specify each nuin's official position. 



A NEW ENGLAND LOCHINVAR. 
'Bv Elizabeth Morgan, 

Author of '' Life Everlasting," ''Sister Katharine's Damask Rose,' 

Carpenter's Revenge," etc. 



' ' Colone 



ain't never said I wouldn't put my 
road in order, Henry Green," said 
Abel Hazard, grasping the top of 
his rickety gate and looking fiercely 
over it at the young man before 
him, and though the said young 
man was broad shouldered and 
more than usually well developed 
as to his muscles, he looked 
decidedly embarrassed and uncom- 
fortable. 

"Of course," he said, hastily, 
' ' there's no reason why there should 
be any ill feeling about it. I was 
ordered by the town officers to tell 
you how matters stood; that was 
all. They want to try and get the 
roads in a little better condition, if 
they can, and this hill here front 
o' your house is a pretty rough spot. " 
"I guess I knovv's much 'bout it as anybody," interrupted 
Abel Hazard; " I do as much travelin' over it, fust an' last, an' 
if I can Stan' it other folks oughter be able to do the same. 
There's another way round they can always take, if this don't 
suit 'em. I hope you won't resk spilin' your new buggy by 
comin' up my hill agin in a hurry, Henry Green!" 

Henry colored. "I'm not afraid for my buggy, " he answered, 
" but what am I to tell the town officers?" 

"Tell 'em to go to — any place that suits 'em! I ain't goin' 
to stop in the middle o' my plantin' to fix no roads for nobody; 
I'll do it when I get to it, an' hurryin' me won't be no advan- 
tage to nobody. Good evenin' to you, my cows is waitin' to be 
milked ; I can't waste no more time talkin'." 

But, little time as he had to spare, he waited and watched, 
with a grim smile on his face, while Henry Green strode away 
down the rocky hill. 

"Henry want best pleased at havin' to come here quarrelin' 
with me!" he muttered to himself. "But I'm just as well 
satisfied; Cha'lotte can do better'n him, any day." 




«*4 



A NEW ENGLAND LOCHINVAR. 245 

It was going to be no small piece of work to put this road 
in order, Henry thought, as he walked along; it was no wonder 
Mr. Hazard was in no hurry to begin it, for not only was it 
stony and deeply rutted, but it w^as crossed, at intervals, by 
sm.all streams that made it muddy as well, and nearly impass- 
able in wet weather. It was bordered on each side with wet 
green grass, and the low stone walls were hidden by alders and 
wild rose bushes. 

" I wish they'd pitched on somebody else but me to see this 
thing through," he said to himself; but though the rest of the 
selectmen were far from satisfied with the result of his inter- 
view when it was laid before them, the next afternoon, they 
showed no disposition to let Henry off from the duties which 
had devolved upon him. 

"Old Hazard's goin' to do as he always has done," they 
said. " You've got to come down on him sharp; that's the only 
way. We've made you 'sponsible for him." 

" I'd rather you appointed somebody else for the business." 
said Henry, and one of the selectmen laughed. 

" It is kinder hard on Henry, " he said aside. 

' ' Folks say Square Peek's son was dreadful took with 
Cha'lotte, when she was over to Willetsville last month with 
her aunt," said another of the town officials, sharpening a 
pencil, and all the rest looked up in an animated manner, set- 
ting aside the affairs of the district for a little enlivening gossip. 

All but Henry ; he colored hotly and walked to the window, 
but, unless he openly stopped his ears, he was forced to listen. 

"Abel Hazard would be uncommon pleased to get Alvin 
Peek ff^r a son-in-law," said one. 

" Praps he'll mend up his road then, if he expects him to 
come courtin'," said a third. "Things gen'rally work round 
for the best in the end, if you can afford to give 'em time, and 
as for Henry," lowering his voice and looking toward the 
window, " if all accounts is true, he ain't got much to lose, 
whichever w^ay things turns; Cha'lotte's a little flirt if ever 
there was one, an' her father never did set much store by — " 

Here Henry turned from the window and came back to 
them. "If you've got through business for this afternoon," 
he said, "I've some work I want to attend to before night," 
and oil he went without further apology, leaving the selectmen 
to finish their conversation without the restraint of his presence. 

Old Hazard's road was not without its charms for lovers of 
the picturesque, but as Henry made his way up the rough 
pathway that night, he had no eyes for its beauties. The 
words of the selectmen rankled in his breast and imtil some 
things were settled it made little difference to him that the 
yoimg leaves were thick and green on the bushes by the road- 
side, or that violets were in blossom bv the brook that p-uro-led 



246 



A NEW ENGLAND LOCHINVAR. 



so softly in the dark as it slipped down between the stones 
Abel Hazard was sinfully harboring. Shad blossoms and dog- 
wood showed ghostly white through the dusk, frogs were sing- 
ing in the marshes, and whip-poor-wills calling from every tree, 
but Henry was not thinking of them. 




"A GiRi, Stood on ihe SrEf and the Ligh 1 from Behind Her Siioxe Out." 



Abel Hazard did not believe in wasting time and money in 
beautifying his premises. There were a few lilac bushes in his 
front yard, and an old cherry tree by the kitchen door was 
loaded with blossoms. A girl stood on the step beneath it, as 
Henry caiue in at the gate, and the light from behind her 
shown out, touching the cherry boughs over her head. All 
the rest of the house was in darkness. Cha'lotte was listeninfif 



A NEW ENGLAND LOCH INVAR. 247 

to the whip-poor-wills. Suddenly she clapped her nands and 
sprang- forward, fluttering- her apron. 

"Go away !" she cried, "I don't want you singing so near 
the house!" The bird flew away instantly at her request, but 
Henry, standing in the shadow, repeated the cry so cleverly 
that she clapped her hands again, impatiently, with a little rush 
towards him, intended to be terrifying in the extreme. 

"You don't seem in a hospitable mood. Miss Hazard," said 
Henry, stepping before her. "Is this the way you receive your 
friends when they come to visit you ?" 

"If they hide in the dark and pretend to be whip-poor- 
wills! " pouted Cha'lotte. "You've scared me so that I shan't 
get over it all the evening! One hand to shake at a time is 
enough, Mr. Green!" 

"But vou received me with both hands!" said Ilenrv, "I 
shouldn't wish to be backward in return. " 

"I guess there's no danger of your ever losing anything 
through your modesty," said Cha'lotte as they returned to the 
kitchen door. "Did you come to see Pa or me? Because 
Pa's asleep in the front room, and I'm sprinklin' clothes in the 
kitchen." 

"I came to see you," said Henry hastily. " Don't disturb 
him on any account." 

"O, well," said Cha'lotte, giving her guest a chair, and pre- 
paring to resume her labors, "I don't think Pa wants to see 
you, particularly after the way you talked to him last night 
about our road! " 

"I didn't say anything to put him out," said Henry, with 
the tranquility born of an easy conscience. 

"I don't know how much you think it takes to put any body 
out, "said she, putting an elaborately ruffled gown on the board 
before her. 

"It don't take much with some folks," Henry admitted. 
Then he leaned his elbows on the table, and his chin in his 
hand, and looked up at her steadily. "If your father makes up 
his mind to quarrel with me about this, are you going back on 
me, too, Cha'lotte?" 

"I don't know what you mean," opening her eyes inno- 
cently. "If you don't treat Pa well, you can't expect I'll have 
much to say to you ! " 

"I'm not likely to quarrel with him if I can help it," said 
Henry, "but he's the same as told me already not to come any 
more Sunday nights. Are you going to let another fellow visit 
you in my place ?" 

Cha'lotte straightened out her pink ruffles and sprinkled 
them carefully. 

"No other fellow is likely to want to come," she said. 

"Will you let him if he does ?" insisted Henry. 



24S A NEW ENGLAND LOCHINVAR. 

"If my father invites anybody I can't say they shan't come," 
said Cha'lotte with a vagueness that yet was sufficiently 
definite. 

"You could show 'anybody' that they weren't wanted, easy 
enough, I should think." 

"I can't be rude and disagreeable!" 

"Then be amiable and polite by all means, " said Henry, 
rising; "I'll wish you good evening, Miss Hazard." 

"Excuse my offering you a wet hand," said Cha'lotte drop- 
ping the pink gown and turning; "as you're in such a hurry I 
shouldn't wish to hinder you while I dried it." 

Henry's hand closed round the slim pink fingers that were 
extended to him, with no apparent objection to their dampness. 

"I heard somebody say this afternoon that you were a flirt, 
Cha'lotte," he said. 

"And you let them say it! You who pretend to be my 
friend ?" looking up at him with reproachful eyes that were 
somewhat belied by the saucy curve of her lips. 

"How could I prove you were not ? Give me the right and 
I'll knock down anybody who says so in the future! "and 
Henry's voice sounded as if .such a course would be highly 
agreeable to the present state of his feelings. 

" You are too fond of quarreling," said Cha'lotte, with slight 
inconsistency. "First it was Pa, and then it was me, and now 
it is anybody you might happen to meet! " 

"Cha'lotte!" called a harsh voice from an inner room, and 
Cha'lotte turned pale suddenly and shrank closer to Henry's 
side, a movement to which he promptly responded by putting 
his arm round her. 

" Pa's waking up and wants me for something," she said, 
hurriedly. " Perhaps if you didn't want to see him for any- 
thing in particular — " 

"I'll go," said Henry. "But are you afraid of him, 
Cha'lotte? " 

" O, no, of course not, only he is put out to-night and — he 
wouldn't like your coming here — I'm afraid you had better 
go!" But Henry's arm was still around her. 

" You haven't given me leave to fight for you yet," he said. 

" Cha'lotte! " called her father again, this time more wrath- 
fully. "Come here, an' bring the matches — the wind's blowed 
the lamp out! I don't see what you want to leave all the doors 
an' windows standin' open for, any way! " 

" Please go! " implored Cha'lotte. " He'll be out here in a 
moment and catch us ! " 

" Give me your promise first," persisted Henry. " There's 
time enough to answer my question — there's no need of 
words ! " 

lie bent his head low for his answer, and then strode away 



J NEir ENGLAND LOCHIA' V A R. 249 

through the darkness, leaving Cha'lotte with her guilty, burning 
cheeks, to appease her irate father as best she could with a 
box of Lucifer matches. 

But unsatisfactory as this interview had been in some respects, 
Henry was obliged to make the most of it, for it seemed im- 
possible for him to get another, and after two or three attempts, 
in each of which he had failed to see Cha'lotte, and been most 
inhospitably received by her father, who plainly requested him 
to discontinue his visits for the future, Henry, with unshaken 
faith in his little love's constancy, decided to wait a while. 

It was hard to know Alvin Peek was visiting at her house all 
this time, harder still to meet him driving her out with his fast 
horse and fashionable cart, but when his wrath burned hottest 
in his breast, an odor of cherry blossoms would seem to float 
around him, and he would be back in the dim old kitchen, with 
a little wet hand in his own, and shy lips touched his in a 
promise he had sworn to trust. 

Abel Hazard had not put his road in order for the wealthy 
suitor, but the selectmen had let the matter drop, hoping, as 
they said, that he might " come to it, if he was let alone," and 
in the meantime all who could, took the longer road round and 
left " Hazard's Hill " to its owner. 

Just at this crisis Henry suddenly discovered that he would 
have to leave home ; it was very trying, but as he had every 
intention of marrying shortly, he could not well afford to 
neglect his business. 

He made one more unavailing effort to see Cha'lotte, and 
then started on his journey with the stern determination to have 
things settled on a more satisfactory basis on his return. 

He did not expect to be gone more than three days, but in 
spite of his utmost efforts the time extended itself over as many 
weeks. It was useless to think of writing, so he could only 
hope Cha'lotte understood. When at last he reached home, 
late one rainy afternoon, the first thing he saw was Abel 
Hazard standing at the door of the express office. 

"Bad weather for your party to-night, ]Mr. Hazard," the 
expressman was saying, as he handed him out a large parcel. 
"I hope it will clear up for you to-morrow." 

"Well, it ain't very likely weather for a weddin'," Mr. 
Hazard replied, as he paid his bill. " But 'casions o' that sort 
have to take their chances 'long with the rest." 

"A nice time folks'll have gettin' up his hill to-night," the 
expressman remarked to Henry as Abel went out. " I near" 
broke my neck on that road last week and as it's ben rainin' 
every day since, faint likely it's been improvin' much. 

Henry did not wait for further conversation; he turned up 
his coat collar and started for home. His mother was the only 
one to whom he would go for information, and he listened very 



250 A NEW ENGLAND LOCHINVAR. 

quietly while she told him that Cha'lotte was to be married 
next day. 

" Forget her as quick as you can, my son," she concluded. 
"A girl that plays fast and loose in that fashion ain't worth 
grievin' over." 

"I've not begun grieving yet," said Henry with determina- 
tion in his voice, "and there'll be time enough to begin ' for- 
getting* to-morrow. " 

His mother looked frightened. 

" You're not goin' tointerferin' ;?(?w, Henry," she said. "It's 
all the same as if she was married." 

"I'm going to see her to-night," he answered; "then I'll 
know." 

( To be concluded next month. ) 



Good Roads is finely illustrated, and replete with excel- 
lent articles on the subject of improving our public roads. — 
Orange County Farmer. 



Good Roads has an article by General Charles W. Darling 
on "Roads Good and Bad;" another by Edgar R. Dawson, 
M. E., on "Road Law in Switzerland;" still another by Isaac 
B. Potter on "Macadam and Telford Roads," and one by Gor- 
ham Dana, S. B. , on "Paving Bricks and How to Test Them." 
Each article deserves what we have not space to give — a special 
review. We must say, however, that Good Roads removes 
every possible excuse for bad ones, and that in the interest of 
beasts of burden, we feel the greatest sympathy with the cause. 
— Our Animal Friends i^N. F, ) 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads'' wants the name and post-office 
address [plainly written') of every civil engineer., surveyor., contractor., 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the names 
and addresses of prominent citizens luho are interested in the movement 
for letter roads. We ask each reader to aid in making up this list. 
Send as promptly as possible and specify each man s official position. 



Bound volumes of " Good Roads'' {Jiandsomely bound in seal brown 
cloth and gilt) can 7iow be supplied at $ i per volume. Each volume 
contains six nunibcrs of " Good Roads. " The first three volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price is lo7aer than that charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the country.^ and is fixed at $1 to 
enable sach reader to obtain at nominal cost a handsome and useful 
work. Address " Good Roads.," Potter Building, New York. 



^i*.^^ 




The Good 9ld Road 




M»y \(tt^- 



3 















^iiy I 






.~:*y V( 









ly v(*r- 



.■-*y vf 



■^-eA /tft-O 



fl CHRISTMAS SOfJO 

uiiji me Q roab!" quoll} t>)e Qeneral, 

"3lT^b builb li^ell, 1l;)Qt tl^e ages mag sqj 
Of cill roabs 1l^Qt leab to \\)e cit^. 
"(^I^e ' Queen ' is tl^e ^^ppian li^Qg." 

'^jnVQbing ]})e ^orH^man 5 forest. 

Oestroging tt)e ^ortl^man's l}ome, 
O'er t1;e roab of great (^eT]eva\ ^ippius, 

)Mqt'c1} tt)e terrible legions of O^ome. 

"jBuilb li^ell ! -guilb l^ell ! 0) 'Tlomans! 

"guilbing " better tt}Qn ge knol;^," 
for over tl^ot li^onberful CQuseVag 

•^l^e footsteps of angels sl^ali go. 

"0uilb Uieli for gour general, Romans ! 

^nb builb l^ell for tl;e J^ortfjern tt^rongs 
'(^l^at sl;all ]D\)e\m, at iengtl}, ]\)e proub citg, 

3^Venging tl^e hnoli^n li^orlb's li^rongs. 

■guilb It'ell for gour Qeneral, Romans. 

■j^uilbing better for one greater far, 
^0 )ii\)ose crable tl;c roabs of i\)e ages 

^eab, illum'b bg tt^e Christmas star. 

^nb ever t1;e song of \\)e angels 

3ounbs clear ttjrougl} ]\)2 li^orlblg bin ; 

^nb ever tt)c roab of tt;e liaise men 
£eab5 straigl^t to tl}e stable-inn. 

" Qlorg to Qob in tl^e l}igl}est ! " 

^Qng t^e angels at C'^T'istmas tl^en; 
" 5^eace on eartt)," coming, sloli^. 1t)rougt) tt)e ages, 
"Peace on rartb anb goob It'iil to men." 



IMPROVEMENT OF ALLEYS. 

SPECIFICATIONS* REQUIRED BY GENERAL ORDINANCE IN THE CITY 

OF LOUISVILLE, KY. 

ALL alleys shall be graded with a smooth and even surface 
true to the established form and grade as shown on plans. 
In all alleys with centre drainage the slope of the sides 
toward the centre shall not be more than three-fourths of an 
inch to one foot. (See plan. ) In alleys with side drainage the 
centre line of the crown, when paved, shall not be more than 
eight inches above the gutter when laid. (See plan.) 



— 1 — 

in 




Sub-grade of 20-FooT Block Stone Alley; Centre Drainage. 

§ 2. The paving of the carriage way shall be done according 
to one of the three following methods, viz. : with block stone 
paving, bowlder paving, or vitrified brick paving, as herein 
provided. 



ffiiiiiiiiiipiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiipll^ 



h 



iiiiiiiiiiiinii| iii;(iiiiiiiii iiiiiiii!iiiii!ii^^^ 



liiiiiiiii 



ilMIIIIIIIKIIIIIilllli 



lll||||l!ll 



ro 



Plan of eo-Foot Block Stone Alley ; Centre Drainage. 

§ 3. Paving tuith Block Stone. — The paving of alleys with block 
pavement shall be done as follows: A bed of clean, sharp 
paving gravel, six inches deep, shall be placed on the graded 
surface of the alley. On this bed of gravel, and along the 
centre of the alley, there shall be laid a range of gutter flag- 
ging, eighteen inches wide, not less than four feet long, and 
not less than eight inches deep, neatly and evenly hammer- 
dressed, smooth on the top surface, the ends squared and 
evenly dressed, so as to form joints not more than one-eighth 
inch wide ; the sides must be at right angles to the ends, and 
so dressed as to make close joints with the block stone paving. 
The edges, ends, faces and sides of the stone shall be dressed 



*By Charles V. Mehler, City Engineer of Louisville. 



252 



IMPROVEMENT OF ALLEYS. 



253 



straight and square in shape, so as to form good joints, faces 
and beds. The gutter, when formed, shall he true to line and 
grade. All gutter and paving stones shall be laid on their 
natural beds. The paving between the sides and the gutter 



•p//^:; "> 




^...jmm 

Foundation Course 20-FooT Block Stone Alley ; Centre Drainage. 

shall be laid ranging across the alley, square to the line of the 
gutter, and of tmiform thickness in each range. In the paving 
no stone shall be less than six nor more than ten inches in 
thickness, and in depth not less than eight inches. They shall 
be laid smooth and true to grade and form, with joints regu- 
larly and squarely broken. Each stone shall be well rammed 
and bedded as it is laid. On each side of the alley where there 




Section of Completed alley 20-FooT Block Stone ; Centre Drainage. 

are no sidewalks a border range of paving stones, not less than 
twelve inches long, eight inches wide, and not less than eight 
inches deep, shall be laid to sustain the outer edge of the pave- 
ment. (See plan.) After the pavement is laid and inspected, 
it shall be covered with clean, sharp sand or fine gravel, and 
swept until all the joints are well and thoroughly filled. The 
paving shall then be thoroughly rammed with suitable rammers 
until the surface of the alley is smooth and even, and then 
covered with a coating of fine gravel at least two (2) inches 
deep. 




3' 3" 






3'9" 






3' 3 




Sub-grade 15-F00T Block Stone Alley ; Side Drainage. 

§ 4. Bowlder Paving tuith Side Drainage. — The grading shall be 
done as specified in section one of this ordinance. In alleys 
with side gutter drainage the curbing and gutters shall be 
made as specified in sections six and seven of this ordinance. 
After the alley has been graded to the proper section, as shown 
on plan, and has been inspected and approved by the city 
engineer or his assistant, it shall be covered with a bed of good 
bond gravel, subject to the approval of the city engineer or his 
assistant, to be at least twelve (12) inches in depth (see plan). 



254 



IMPROVEMENT OF ALLEYS. 



upon which the bowlders are to be laid true to the section of 
the alley. The bowlders shall be sound, hard and free from 
flaws, and not less than five (5) inches in depth when set in an 
upright position, and the largest not to exceed nine (9) inches, 
and no bowlders shall show an exposed surface exceeding nine 




Plan of 15-F00T Block Stone Alley ; Side Drainage. 

(9) inches in diameter. When required by the engineer or his 
assistant, the bowlders shall be assorted in sizes before being 
hauled to the site of thd work, and all sandstone, limestone, or 
other inferior material shall be rejected. In laying the 
bowlders the largest shall be placed at or next to the gutter, 
and the smallest at or upon the centre of the alley, as shown 




Foundation Course of 15-F00T Block Stone Alley; Side Drainage. 

on plan. All are to be well set and firmly imbedded endwise 
in the gravel, with their largest diameter vertical, and to the 
proper camber or section of the alley. After the bowlders 
have been thus set the spaces between them are to be filled 
with fine gravel, and after being swept clean they are to be 
well rammed with rammers weighing at least fifty (50) pounds. 



,,. GRM,^Ar, 




Section of Completed is-Foot Block Stone Alley ; Side Drainage. 

The surface of the alley is to be covered with a coating of fine 
gravel and again ' swept clean, and the second time rammed 
until the bowlders are firmly secured and forced down even 
and regular to the proper crown, grade and section; again 
covered with gravel and swept clean and rammed the third 



IMPROVEMENT OE ALLEYS. 



255 



time. The surface is then to be covered to tlie depth of two 
(2) inches with clean, fine gravel. (See plan.) 

§ 5. Bowlder Paving wilh Centre Drainage. — In bowlder alleys 
with centre drainage the work shall be done in the following 
manner, viz. : After the sub-grade is completed, as shown on 
plan, a bed of good bond gravel at least twelve (12) inches in 




Side Drainage. 



Sub-grade of 15-F00T Bowlder Alley 

depth shall be placed on the graded surface. (See plan). On 
this bed along the centre of the alley there shall be laid a line 
of flagstone eighteen inches in width, not less than eight (8) 
inches in depth, and not less than four (4) feet in length ; the 
upper surface of the centre flag must be neatly and evenly 





Plan of 15-F00T Bowlder Alley ; Side Drainage. 

hammer-dressed smooth on top surface, the ends squared and 
evenly dressed so as to form joints not exceeding one-eighth of 
an inch in width ; the sides must be at right angles to the ends, 
and so dressed as to make a close joint with the bowlders. The 
cross section of the gutter stone shall be as shown on plan. On 




Foundation Course of is-Foot Bowlder alley ; Side Drainage. 

each side of the bowlder alley, with centre drainage, a curb 
range of stones shall be set not less than four (4) feet long, six 
(6) inches wnde and not less than fifteen (15) inches deep. (See 
plan). All other work to be done as pi-escribed in section four 
of this ordinance. 

§ 6. Curbing. — The curbstone shall be not less than five (5) in- 
ches thick, at least eighteen inches in depth, and not less than four 
(4) feet long. They shall have a full square joint not less than 



256 



IMPROVEMENT OF ALLEYS. 



ten (10) inches deep. The curbstone shall be cut with a draft 
around the top, face and back, and the exposed top and front 
faces shall be neatly dressed by bush-hammer to an even, regu- 
lar face ; the upper face to have the same bevel as the sidewalks, 
the front face to be cut not less than ten (10) inches deep, and the 




Section of Completed 15-F00T Bowlder Alley ; Side Drainage. 

back not less than three (3) inches from the top. The bottom 
of the curbstone shall be parallel with the top, must have a firm, 
uniform bed, and no underpinning will be allowed. The 
remainder of the front face shall be scabbled or dressed evenly 
from the bush-hammer work to the bottom to admit a close 
joint with the shoulder pavement. Curbstones shall be of 




7"' 



d: 



M 



Sub-grade 20- Foot Bowlder Alley ; Centre Drainage. 

good, hard, sound stone, free from flaws, dry seams or cracks. 
There shall be corner curbstones at the intersections of all 
streets and alleys, which shall have a top face of the fourth of 
a circle of eighteen inches radius, dressed to bevel with the 
sidewalk, the front face, back and joints to agree with the 
adjoining curb. All curbstones shall be laid true to line and 






Plan of 20-FooT Bowlder Alley ; Centre Drainage. 

grade. The space between the curb and excavation shall be 
filled with earth. The filling shall be well rammed and work 
done according to plan. 

§ 7. Glitters. — The gutter pavement in bowlder alleys shall be 
flagstone, as shown on plan. Gutter flagging must, in all cases, 
be laid on their natural beds, and be composed of best hard 
limestone, sandstone, or granite, free from seams, frost cracks 
or any other defects, and laid in one course next to the curb as 



IMPROVEMENT OF ALLEYS. 



257 



the plans specify, the dimensions to be not less than four (4) 
feet in length, except where closiers are needed to join up work, 
eighteen (18) inches and fifteen (15) inches in width, laid alter- 
nately (as shown on plan), and from eight (8) to ten (10) inches 




Foundation Course of zo-Foot Bowlder Alley ; Centre Dralmage. 

in depth, laid to correspond with the crown of the alley, break 
joints longitudinally, and be set on beds of clean, sharp gravel 
six (6) inches in depth, uniformly and closely packed. (See 
plans.) The flagging must then be thoroughly rammed and 
covered with sharp sand two (2) inches in depth, which shall be 
thoroughly swept into all the gutter joints before the work is 




Section of Completed 20-FooT Bowlder Alley ; Centre Drainage. 

inspected by the city engineer or his assistant. The upper 
surface of the flagging must be neatly and evenly hammer- 
dressed smooth, and the ends squared and evenly dressed, so as 
to form joints not exceeding one-eighth of an inch in wndth ; 
the sides next to the curb must be at true angles to the ends, 
and so dressed as to make a close, uniform joint with the curb- 
ing, and the opposite side to be parallel with the curbing and 




Sub-grade zo-Foot Vitrified Brick Alley; Centre Drainage. 

dressed square to connect firmly with the street paving, the 
upper surface of the flagging next to the curb to be laid accord- 
ing to grade, as directed by the city engineer or his assistants, 
as indicated on plans. Said flagging must be in every respect 
equal in workmanship and quality to the specimen on exhibi- 
tion at the office of the city engineer. All work shall be done 
according to plans. 

§ 8. Paving with Vitrified Brick. — After the road-bed (prepared 
as required) shall have passed inspection, there shall be spread 
upon said road-bed a layer of broken stone seven (7) inches in 
depth, said stone to be so broken that none shall measure more 



258 



IMPROVEMENT OF ALLEYS. 



than two and one-half (2 3^) inches in any direction, or less than 
one (i) inch in any direction, and shall be free from dirt, trash, 
etc. This layer of broken stone shall then be sprinkled with 
water, and compactly rolled, to the satisfaction of the city 
engineer, with a street roller of not less than five (5) tons 




Plan of 2o-Foot Vitrified Brick Alley; Side Drainage. 

weight ; the sprinkling must be carefully done, so as to only 
dampen the alley sufficiently to procure compactness and bond, 
and not to wet or injure the graded foundation. Upon this 
road-bed, so rolled, shall be spread a layer of clean, sharp sand 
or gravel, equal to the best city pit sand or gravel, of not less 
than three (3) inches in depth (with no gravel stones of more 




Foundation Course 2o-Foot Vitrified Brick Alley ; Centre Drainage. 

than one-half inch in diameter), which shall be evenly spread to 
conform with the cross section of the alley. Upon the bed thus 
prepared, the paving brick are to be laid on edge, at right 
angles to the line of curbs, in a perfectly upright manner, as 
closely and compactly together as possible, and all joints to be 
broken by a lap of at least two (2) inches. The brick must be 




Section of Completed 20-FooT Vitrified Brick Alley ; Centre Drainage 

hard burned paving brick, specially burned for street and alley 
paving, of uniform size, free from flaws, cracks or breaks, and 
equal in all respects to sample to be filed in the office of the 
city engineer by each bidder. No bats or broken brick are to 
be used, except at the curbs, where nothing less than a half 
brick will be used to break joints. The brick must be burned 
throughout to vitrification. After the brick have been laid for 



IMPROVEMENT OF ALLEYS. 



259 



a distance of sixty (60) feet for the first fifty (50) feet shall be 
covered with clean, sharp sand, which shall be swept into all 
interstices, after which the pavement . shall be thoroughly 
rammed with suitable rammers to the true section of the alley. 
After the ramming is completed the joints shall then be thor- 
oughly and completely filled with cement grout, to be made as 
follows: One measure of cement equal to the best quality of 




Suii-GKAUE OF 15-F00T Vitrified Brick Alley ; Side Drainage. 

freshly burned Louisville cement and one measure of clean, 
sharp sand, which shall be thoroughly mixed dry, and then 
made into grout with sufficient water to allow all joints to 
^ become well filled, after which the pavement shall be covered 
with sand one-half inch in depth, and the whole pavement, 
when so completed, shall conform to plans. 




Plan ok 15-F00T Vitrified Brick Alley ; Side Drainage 



§ 9. Materials and Inspection. -\vi reconstruction, all old material 
which is of the proper quality and dimensions shall be used 
again in the new alley, and all new material required is to be 
suppled by the contractor. All old material, including broken 
stone, gravel, curbing, gutter, or crossing stone and iron 
plates, which is declared by the engineer to be unfit for use in 
the new alley, shall be hauled by the Contractor to such streets 
or lots as the engineer may designate, provided the average 
haul does not exceed two thousand feet in length, and all such 
material shall be the property of the city. All earth and other 
refuse material shall be deposited by the contractor in such 
place or places as may be selected by him, provided that no 
nuisance be created thereby. 

§ 10. Inspection of the work shall be made by the engineer, or 
an authorized inspector, during its progress. All stones, bowl- 
ders, brick, gravel or other material, which may be rejected on 
inspection, shall be removed by the contractor without delay. 

§ II. All materials herein specified shall be of the best descrip- 
tion, each in its class. The stone used, whether in curb or 



26o 



IMPROVEMENT OF ALLEYS. 



pavement, shall be of good hard stone. All broken stones used 
in the paving shall be broken and prepared for inspection before 
delivery on the work. 

§ 12. General Provisions. — The contractor shall prosecute his 
work in a prompt and orderly manner, and when required by the 
engineer, shall discharge incompetent employees or workmen. 




^yg^/gl'Rg,KyEJN^.5:;TCC^^^ 




FouNDATio>f Course of 15-P00T Vitrified Brick Alley; Side Drainage. 

§ 13. Should the contractor fail to execute the work in the 
time stipulated, he shall forfeit his contract and be entitled to no 
pay for the work done ; but the time fixed for its completion ma)^ 
on the written recommendation of the city engineer, for causes 
deemed sufficient by him, be extended by resolutions of the 
general council, and the receiving and apportioning of the cost 
of any work by the general council after the time when it 
should have been completed, shall be regarded as an assent to 
the extension of the time named in the contract. 

§ 14. The use of the alley, or any part of it, by individuals or 
the public, shall not entitle the contractor to pay for the work done 
by him, unless it shall be received by resolution of the general 
council. 

§ 15. The contractor shall, at his own expense, keep his work 
in good repair during the twelve (12) months next after its recep- 




SscTiON OF Completed 15-F00T Allev; VrrRiFiED Brick ; Side Drai.\age. 

tion by the general council, and should he, in the opinion of 
the city engineer, be tardy in executing this stipulation, the 
city engineer may have the necessary repairs made at the 
expense of the contractor or his surety. 

§ 16. After the top covering of gravel has remained on the 
alley for sixty (60) days, it shall be removed at the expense of 
the contractor, when required by the city engineer. 

§ 17. If the contractor does not perform his work according to 
this ordinance, the city engineer or his agent will suspend the 
work at once and report the reason for said suspension to the 
mayor and council at the next meeting of the general council. 

§ 18. The work must be done according to the official plans, 
or if the general council shall specify that block stone, bowlder 
or vitrified brick alleys shall be of greater or less width than 
shown on plans attached to this ordinance, said alleys shall be 
constructed according to general designs comprehended in this 
ordinance. 



I 



THE aUESTION OF CHECK REINS. 

X one of the earlier numbers of" Good Roajjs was published 
an interesting and forcible article on "The Folly and 
Cruelty of the Check Rein, " by George G. Angell, of Bos- 
ton, in which the writer set forth, from the standpoint of an 
expert, his opinion that the check rein in common use is a 
hurtful appliance, and one that not only affects the horse in a 

cruel manner, but is actually 
a hinderance to the perform- 
ance of his best work. This 
opinion was strongly forti- 
fied by eminent American 
and foreign authorities, and 
Mr. Angell's article has since 
attracted much attention and 
excited not a little comment. 
Whether or not this com- 
ment has inspired the efforts 
of inventors to devise a means 
of mollifying the evil effects 
of the old form of check rein 
we are unable to say, but a 
combined check and driving- 
rein has been lately devised 
by a resident* of Whitewater, 
Wis., which seems to go so 
far toward solving the diffi- 
culty that we believe an 
explanation of its practical features will interest many of our 
readers. 

In this invention the reins and check line are in one con- 
tinuous piece and, instead of being fastened rigidly to the bit, 
as in the ordinary harness, the rein passes over a light pully 
which works freely at either end of the bit and continuing 
beyond the pulley, finds its fastening at the check-hook as 
shown in the accompanying drawings. That part of the rein 
which runs through the groove of the pulley is made of round, 
tough leather and is about a foot in length ; there being a ring 
at each end of this round portion which prevents its passage 
through the pulley beyond a certain point. Figure i shows 
the horse at rest with slackened rein, and it will be seen by 
exainining this figure that the upward and downward motion of 
the head, as well as the extension of the neck muscles, are 
freely permitted by the "play " of the rein through the pulley 




Figure i. 
Showing loosened rein and horse at ease. 



* Mr. I. Z. Merriam. 



262 



THE QUESTION OF CHECK REINS. 



at the side of the bit. When the driver takes the rein in hand 
and draws it backward to check the horse's speed or to hold him 
at his proper gait, the rein is drawn " taut " till the upper ring 
is brought closely against the bit, and while this position of the 
rein is maintained by the 
strength of the driver the 
shortened check portion of 
the rein keeps the horse's 
head raised as in the case of 
the ordinary check rein, 
while the upper ring stops the 
passage of the check rein 
through the pulley and per- 
mits the driver to exert his 
strength or regulate the 
speed of the horse. This 
position of the check is shown 
in Fig. 2. On hitching the 
horse, the reins, are, of course, 
loosened, and he is thus per- 
mitted to drop his head, thus 
giving him all the ease which 
might be due to an unchecked 
rein, while at the same time, 
the lower ring prevents his 
head from reaching the ground. It is claimed that this appar- 
atus is very effective in handling horses without subjecting them 
to the pain and punishment which are often due to what are 
commonly claimed to be "stylish " forms of harness. It seems 
to be a very comfortable form of bit and check and its humane 
features are well worthy of investigation. 




Figure 2. 

Showing rein drawn "taut" and horse's head 
raised by tension of the check. 



Bound volumes of " Good Roads " {handsomely bound in seal bro7vn 
cloth and gilt) can now be supplied at $1 per volume. Each volume 
contains six numbers of " Good Roads." The first four volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price is lower than that charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the country., and is fixed at $1 to 
enable each reader to obtain at nominal cost a handsome and useful 
work. Address " Good Roads," Rotter Building, New York. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads" wants the name and post-ofiice 
address [plainly written) of every civil engineer., surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the names 
and addresses of prominent citizens tvho are interested in the movement 
for better roads. We ask each reader to aid in making tip this list. 
Send as promptly as possible and specify each man s official position. 



THE ROAD DEPARTMENT AT WASHINGTON. 

THE Road Inquiry Bureau of the Agricultural Department at 
Washington has begun active work and the promise of 
good results is very bright. General Roy Stone has 
assumed the olifice of special agent of the Agricultural Depart- 
ment in charge of this bureau, and is directing his energies to 
pushing the work of its several branches which have separate 
objects, as follows: 

To make inquiries in regard to the systems of road man- 
agement throughout the United States. 

To make investigations in regard to the best methods of 
road making. 

To prepare didactic publications on this subject suitable for 
distribution. 

To assist agricultural colleges and experiment stations in 
disseminating information upon this subject. 

The Road Inquiry Bureau has recently issued and widely 
distributed an official circular which should engage the atten- 
tion of every reader of Good Ro.^ds. It reads as follows: 

U. S. Dei'Artment of Agricilture. 

OFFICE OF ROAD INQl'IRY, WAiiHINGTON, V. C. 

Circular. — The Department of Agriculture, being charged by Congress 
with an inquiry into the systems of road management and the best methods 
of road construction throughout the United States, desires information 
upon the following points: 

1. The practical working of the recent road laws of the various states 
wherever the same have been tested ; the difficulties found in their appli- 
cation, and suggestions for their amendment. 

2. The character and cost of the roads built under these laws, the mate- 
rials used, and the present condition and prospective durability of such 
roads. 

3. The location and character of any superior stone for roads which is 
accessible by railway or water, the cost of quarrying, preparing and load- 
ing the same, the mileage rates of transportation, and any instances of 
reduced or free transportation given by railways for the encouragement of 
road-building. 

4. The same information, so far as applicable, regarding materials nat- 
urally prepared, such as the Paducah and Tishomingo gravels, the Hamil- 
ton sandstones, and the Chickamauga flints. 

5. The results of any experi-nents in the construction of narrow and 
cheap hard roads, or of roads having one track of earth and one of stone 
or gravel, with full particulars as to cost and method of construction. 

6. The result of any practical experience in the use of burnt clay for 
roads. 

7. The cost and benefits of tile drainage of roads as shown by practice. 

8. The best method of constructing a common highway without gravel 
or stone, and with or without under-drainage. 

g. Definite facts as to the enhancement of property values through road 
improvement. 263 



264 THE ROAD DEPARTMENT A T WASHINGTON. 

10. The results of any experiments in the employment of convict labor 
on roads or the preparation of road materials. 

11. The details of all bond issues for road improvement and how, 
where and at what cost the bonds were marketed. 

12. The rates allowed in each state for men and teams in working out 
road taxes, and the actual value of such work as compared with labor paid 
for in cash. 

All communications should be addressed tc " Office of Road 
Inquiry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. " 

Letters have been received at Washington from the gover- 
nors of many states, from officials of nearly every state and 
territory, from railroad officials and from persons interested in 
the general subject of good roads, expressing great interest in 
the work of the department and assuring General Stone of their 
co-operation. A special bulletin will be issued in due time, 
setting forth the information obtained from various points, and 
by this means it is hoped that the movement will be given a 
great impetus. 

"I HAVE been regarded by our farmers as a crank on the 
subject of good roads, but during the last five years of educa- 
tional work have demonstrated by several iniles of first-class 
roads that these farmers can now haul four or five times 
heavier loads than formerl)'. Very much of these improve- 
ments are due to the reading and studying of your work. Mr. 
G. A. Ramspeck, of Decatur, Ga. , has taken my place on the 
county board, and I hope he will subscribe for your magazine, 
as it is really invaluable to any one engaged in road and bridge 
work. There is no other publication in the country that con- 
tains on these important questions what can be found in Goon 
Roads. I wish you godspeed in the noble work." — G. J. 
Hig/iiower, Atlanta, Ga. 



Bound volumes of " Good Roads " {liandsomely bound in seal brown 
cloth and gilt) can no7v be supplied at $i per volume. Each volume 
contains six numbers of " Good Roads." The first four volumes are 
ready for distribution. This price is lower than that charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the country., and is fixed at $i to 
enable each reader to obtain at nominal cost a handsome and useful 
ivork. Address " Good Roads," Potter Building, New York. 



IMPORTANT. — " Good Roads" wants the name and post-ofiice 
address {plainly written) of every civil engineer, surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the names 
and addresses of prominent citizens who are interested in the movement 
for better roads. Jl^e ask each reader to aid in fnaking up this list. 
Send as promptly as possil'le and specify each mans ofiicial position. 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 

By John N. Ostrom. C. E. 

Mi III. zy}iiu-r. Soc, C. E.; Mem. H'c'slrni Soc, C. E. 

VI. 

COFFER-DAMS NOT GENERALLY USED LN VERY DEEP WATER ; REA- 
SONS STATED — lllE CAISSOX PROPER; ITS PRINCIPLES OF 

CONSTRUCTION ILLUSTRATIONS liV SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS 

EXPLANATION OF THE TERM "AN ATMOSPHERE" AS OFTEN 

USED — THE caisson; HOW AND WHERE CONSTRUCTED ITS 

SIZE; THE WORKING CHAMISER ; AIR-SHAFT THE AIR-LOCK 

DESCRIBED HOW IHE CAISSON IS EMPLOYED SINKING THE 

CAISSON; AIR PRESSURE IN THE WORKING CHAMBER; HOW IT 

AFFECTS THE WORKMEN LEVELING IHE BED ROCK AND 

"sealing" IHE AIR-SHAFT. 

WE have now considered several simple and economical 
forms of coffer-dams which may be used in the con- 
struction of permanent foundations, under conditions 
sugj;"ested in the precedinj^- chapters; and although there are 
modihcations of the methods there described as well as other 
and distinct forms, it is believed that they would only confuse 
the tyro, and further reference to them wall therefore be omitted, 
at least for the present. 

As already outlined in the introduction of the subject of 
permanent foundations in the July number, there is a certain 
depth of water below which a coffer-dam cannot be economi- 
cally used because of the great depth and excessive pressure of 
water, which would necessitate a correspondingly large and 
expensive coffer-dam. Sometimes, of course, the necessary 
excavation below the water surface mav be carried on bv 
machinery operated from above the surface, such as "clam 
shell dredging " already referred to, and which will be described 
at length further on ; but it is often necessary to prepare the foun- 
dation by setting laborers actually at work upon the river bed, 
and in such cases, when the water is too deep to emplov the 
coffer-dam, the caisson comes in as a specific means for the 
desired end. A caisson in most cases is rather a pretentious 
affair, and a detailed description of it would be manifestly out 
of place here; but all caissons are constructed on the same 
general principles, and since these principles are simple and 
easily understood, we may perhaps consider here a brief outline 
of these principles with some interest and with possible benefit. 

265 



i66 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 




Figure 35. 



A caisson proper is nothing more or less than a hiigh diving 
bell, which everyone is supposed to know more or less about, 
and consists of three essential parts ; first, the working chamber, 

second, the air-shaft, and 
third, the air-lock. The 
working chamber, as its name 
implies, is the chamber or 
enclosure where the men 
carry on the work of excavat- 
ing at or below the bed of 
the stream, and as it is always 
below the surface of the 
water, the working chamber 
must be both air and water- 
tight. Now, it is a well 
known fact that any bell- 
shaped vessel like a tumbler 
will not sink when inverted 
mouth downward into a pail 
of water; but will maintain 
a very marked buoyancy until 
the water is admitted by tip- 
ping the cup to one side. If 
we doubt the truth of this 
statement, we can ascertain, by a simple experiment, that the 
cup will not only float, but that we shall have to exert a con- 
siderable force to push it to the bottom of the pail. This 
buoyancy is due to the upward pressure of the compressed air 
contained within the tumbler, and we can prove the existence 
of this air in what is apparently a vacant space by means of 
a simple experiment. 

For this experiment it is better to use an ordinary glass 
funnel like that used by druggists, as it will answer our purpose 
somewhat better than a tumbler, which is, however, good 
enough for purposes of illustration. A glass funnel is desirable 
because we can easily see through it, and having once obtained 
it, we place on the surface of the water within the pail a piece 
of white letter paper about the size of an ordinary postage 
stamp. Then, while the piece of paper is floating on the 
surface, we grasp the inverted funnel by the tube or snout with 
the finger held securely over the opening, as shown in Fig. 35. 
We then lower the funnel, mouth downward, into the water so 
that the piece of paper will come directly under the funnel, and 
as we then press the funnel toward the bottom of the pail, the 
paper which we know is floating on the surface of the water, 
does not rise in the funnel, but descends, as shown in Fig. 36, 
until it finally seems to rest on the bottom of the pail. As it is 
thus clearly shown that the water does not rise in the funnel, it 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 



267 



is quite clear that the funnel and tube are filled with air, which 
is prevented from escaping by the pressure of the finger at the 
opening. While the funnel is still pressed downward into the 
water, we can convince ourselves that the funnel contains only 
air and that this air is compressed, by simply removing the 
finger from the end of the tube, while the mouth of the funnel 
is still held below the surface of the water. The released air 
now comes rushing through the tube so rapidly that it gives out 
a hissing sound, while the water immediately begins to rise in 
the funnel from underneath, as shown in P'ig. 38. We shall not 
be able to see the piece of white 
paper under the submerged funnel 
while it is still full of air unless 
we look at it from exactly the 
right position (owing to the refrac- 
tion of light which it is not 
practicable to explain here), but 
by looking closely from various 
positions we shall be able to catch 
sight of it at length. 

Having performed the experi- 
ment, we cannot doubt the fact; 
but we may still wish to know the 
reason for these curious results; 
and, as a simple explanation will 
not take much space, here it is: 
To begin with, the air surrounding the earth extends upwards 
to an altitude of about forty-five miles, and every column 
of air forty-five miles high and exactly one-inch square, all 
the way from top to bottom, weighs 14.7 pounds. The pres- 
sure due to this weight of air is called an atmosphere. How do 
we know that this air column weighs 14.7 pounds? From two 
well known facts involving the principles of the barometer, 
and so-called suction pump. 

In the first instance, if a glass tube a little o\er thirty inches 
in length and closed so as to be perfectly air-tight at one end, 
be filled full of mercury and then inverted with the open end 
downward in a cup of the same dense liquid, the mercury in the 
tube will settle down from the top, imtil the cohmm stands 
thirty inches high above the mercuryin the cup on the average, 
at the level of the sea. (See Fig. 37.) Now if the hole in the 
end of the tube measured exactly one square inch there would 
be just thirty cubic inches of mercury in the column, and as we 
know from actual test on the scales that a cubic inch of mer- 
cury weighs .49 lbs., then thirty cubic inches will weigh thirty 
times .49 or 14.7 lbs. Now, the air pressure on the surface of 
the mercury in the cup just balances the column in the tube, 
and therefore the air column forty-five miles high and one inch 
square weighs 14.7 lbs. 




Figure 36. 



268 



.lUGinVAY BRIDGES. 



In the second case, if the tube were something over thirty- 
four feet long, with one closed end, when filled with water and 
inverted in a vessel of the same substance the water column 
would settle until it reached a height of about thirty-four feet. 
If the cross section of the water pipe were one square inch, as 
in the first case, there would be thirty-four times twelve or 

408 cubic inches in the water 
colum.n ; and as we have ascer- 
tained from the scales that a cubic 
inch weighs .036 lbs., 408 cubic 
inches will weigh 408 times .036 
lbs., or 14. 7 lbs. Therefore, since 
the water column inside is just 
balanced by the lofty air column 
outside, its weight is 14.7 lbs. as 
before, and is technically called 
one atmosphere. 

And while we are on this sub- 
ject, let me tell you how to raise 
a column of water like a water 
spout, so to speak, above the sur- 
rounding surface without touching 
it. To do this we place the in- 
verted funnel in the water again, 
and if we let go of it the funnel 
will gradually sink to the bottom 
while the air goes hissing out at 
the top end, until the funnel is 
completely full of water. Now 
we reach down into the water 
and grasp the nozzle, holding a 
finger tightly over the opening. As we raise the funnel 
gradually out of the water we shall note that the water is 
rising in the inside with it and not remaining at the same level 
as the outside. This is because of the downward pressure 
of the immense air column on the outside which we have 
just mentioned, and if the funnel were long enough we might 
keep on raising it until the top of the water inside were 
thirty-four feet above the surface below in the pail. Above 
this point the water would not rise, and if we pulled the funnel 
a little higher there v.^ould be a clear space above the water 
inside, which is called a vacuum because it is devoid of air, and 
it exerts no pressure on the water beneath it. As soon as your 
finger is removed from the top and orifice, down falls the 
water inside no matter how high the funnel is held, because the 
air pressure has come in at the top, thus destroying the equili- 
brium between the column of water inside the funnel and the 
pressure of air on the surface of water in the pail. On the law 




Figure 37. 



HIGHIVA V BRIDGES. 



269 



just stated depends the action of the so-called suction pump, 
but as we must be careful to note, it is not suction at all, but 
air pressure from the outside against a column of water in a 
vacuum inside. 

Now, to continue the case of 
the inverted funnel held full of air 
at the bottom of the pail ; the air 
is pressing downward on the sur- 
face of the water outside, with 
a pressure as above stated, and as 
this pressure is transmitted equally 
in all directions it extends down 
through the water in the pail, 
under the lower edge of the funnel, 
and up against the confined ' air 
inside. If to this pressure we add 
the weight of a column of water 
one inch square, and reaching 
from the surface at the bottom of 
the funnel to the surface above in 
the pail, you will have the pressure on a square inch of air 
underneath. It is this pressure which forces out the air into 
your face when you remove your finger from the snout of the 
funnel. 

To recapitulate, the bell of the funnel is the working chamber 
of the caisson; the snout is the air-shaft, while the finger which 
closes the orifice answers partially for an air-lock ; and to clear 
up the subject completely, let us consider a simple practical case 
with illustrations. 

( To be continued. ) 




Figure 38. 



IMPORTANT. — '-' Good Roads " wants the najnc and post-office 
address {plainly written) of every civil eni;:^ineer.^ surveyor, contractor, 
county officer and road officer in the United States. Also the names 
and addresses of prominent citizens who are interested in the movement 
for letter roads. IVe ask each reader to aid in jnakiui^ up this list. 
Send as promptly as pos slide and specify each man's official position. 



Bound volumes of ' ' Good Roads ' {handsomely bound in seal brown 
cloth and gilt) can now be supplied at ■$! per volume. Bach volume 
contains six numbers of " Good Roads.'' The first four volumes arc 
readv for distiibution. This price is lower than that charged by any 
other magazine of similar size in the country, and is fixed at $ 1 to 
enable each reader to obtain at nominal cost a handsome and useful 
work. Address " Good A'oads," Bolter Buildim^, iVeic ]'o'rh. 




DAY 

OF 

YEAR 



336 

337 
338 
339 
340 
341 
342 
343 
344 
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346 
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DAY 

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WEEK 

Fr. 

Sa. 

8. 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

Fr. 

Sa. 

S. 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

Fr. 

Sa. 

S. 

M. 



354|Tu. 

355W. 

356Th. 



357 
358 

359 
360 

361 

362 

364 

365 
366 



Fr. 

Sa. 

S. 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

Fr. 

Sa. 

8. 



DAY 
OF 

MONTH 



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LENGTH OF 



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9 



TWELFTH . DeGe(T\ber ♦ 1893 month 



8 Joliii Brown hanged, '59, Jordan is a liard road to travel 

6 Colder. Keg oysters will keep. 

5 Illinois admitted, 1818. 

4 Snow and Heavy wind. Pile on tlie logs and snnggle up. 
Kossutli arrives, '51. 
Look out lor a drop in liicycle prices. 
Warmer. Sow your radisli and cauliflower salad. 
Aliout tMs time tlie tariff Mil will Mtcli out. 

9 Mn Milton Dorn, 1608. 

8 Betold tlie swelling Sunday scliool. There is a 
8 Christmas tree in the distance, 

7 snow and sleet. Don't go to the "lodge," 

6 Battle of Frederickshurg, '62 ; it was a mud campaign. 

6 Almanacs invented, B. C. 205. There is no patent on this one. 
6 deneva Trihunal, 1871. A great day lor settling old scores, 

5 Boston tea party, 1773. 

5 Clear and cold. Congress will now saw the air. 

5 Negro slavery aholished, 1865. 

4 Bayard Taylor died, 1878. 

4 South Carolina seceded, 1860. 

4' Winter hegins. Straw rides in fashion. 

4 Yale College lounded, 1700. They were meek students ol theology, 

4 and were slow in tackle and interlerence. 

5 Heavy snow. Darn your higgest sock and hang it wide open. 

5 Merry Christmas, Suhscrihe tor GOOD ROADS. 

6 Battle of Trenton, 1776. 

6 Kepler horn, 1581. 

7 Iowa admitted, 1846. 

7 Gladstone horn, 1809; Statesman, Philosopher and Iriend of humanity. 

7 New Mexico purchased, 1853. 

8|The old year is gone. Take hold with a new grip. G, R., $2.00. 



g) h 'oi'ltr 



),>!»■ 



iiy 






hV-i/T] 



sl^^ 



PlTeR^lABl^ 



Many towns are beginning to agitate the 
question of buying road machines, rollers 
and stone-breakers. Correct, and again, 
correct. Systematic road work will cost you 
a cent apiece and save you a dollar a head 
for every mother's son in the community; 
and every first-class road machine if worked 
to advantage will save its cost every year in 
shoe leather alone. 



From Mr. F. L. Gillette, of Mount Vernon, 
Mo., comes a complete list of names and 
addresses of county officers in his state. A 
similar list was sent by Mr. Gillette last 
year. As a member of the highway improve- 
ment committee of the Missouri division, 
L. A. W. , Mr. Gillette's work affords an 
example which the committees of other 
states might follow to advantage. The 
county clerks of all the counties in Missouri 
have responded with courtesy and prompt- 
ness to Mr. Gillette's request for names 
included in this list, and in this manner the 
attention of hundreds of county officers hag 
been directed to the active work of the Mis- 
souri division for better roads. Who will send 
the next list? 



The hind sight of election day proves 
several important things. It proves that 
rings and bosses are always vulnerable when 
the great public takes on one of its wakeful 
moods ; that dishonesty in high places is no 
special card of merit to a candidate for 
judicial office; that the waste of public 
money by a rotten city government may 
reach a point where even the majority party 
will rebel against it; that the independent 
voter is the man who really turns the 
scales; that Congress may have monkeyed 
too long with the buzz-saw, and, alas, that 
the country contains a large number of 
voters who lay the blame for every business 
adversity at the threshold of the party in 
power. 



A GOOD many able and observing for- 
eigners have come to America this year to 
visit the great Fair at Chicago and, following 
the rule of custom, have made public their 
impressions of Americans and of the coun- 
try they inhabit. Among these travelers 
was Mr. William T. Stead, of London, 
editor of the Review of Revieius, and he 
tells a portion of his experience in the fol- 
lowing language: 

"We passed through a fiat, rolling country, 
whose houses were of frame, whose roads were 
full of ruts, with the wagons now on the one side 
and then on the other, and no good roadways save 
when frozen in winter, and the cattle were scrawny 
like those in Russia. There were not the houses 
of stone and the smooth, well-kept roads of Eng- 
land and continental Europe." 

We may quarrel as much as we like with 
Mr. Stead's description, but he writes the 
sentiments of every intelligent fore gner who 
comes to these shores, and what he says is, 
from his standpoint, an honest and impar- 
tial statement of facts. Most Americans 
have never seen a good road, and in view 
of the merciless criticism to which our 
slovenly methods of road keeping subject 
us at the hands of foreigners, it is well for 
us to look at both sides of the question 
and, when the opportunity comes to see our- 
selves as others see us, we should be more 
ready to cure the defects for which we are 
ourselves responsible, than to quarrel with 
our English friends who now and then make 
these defects known to us. 



The exhibit of road-making machinery at 
Chicago surpassed in variety, in complete- 
ness and in the number of competitive 
exhibitors, the combined exhibits of all 
preceding " world's fairs." This fact is sig- 
nificant. It shows an increased supply of 
machinery for which a demand has already 
been created, and the increased demand for 
machinery indicates, with substantial clear- 
ness, a widening interest in the movement 
for better roads and streets. So let us stick 
to our text, friends and brothers ; the wheel 
goes round and we shall be on the top side 
in due time. 271 




The Chicago Prairie Farmer is offering 
bicycles as premiums for new subscribers. 
More power to your elbow, friends Periam 
and Brown ! Every bicycle is a missionary 
for better roads. 



When a farmer residing near Masonville, 
N. J. (Burlington County), starts for market 
with his loaded wagon, he employs a third 
horse hitched to the front end of the wagon 
tongue to help his team along through the 
deep mud. On reaching the improved roads 
nearer town, he sends a boy home with the 
extra horse and goes on to market without 
further difficulty. 



They had a fire a few weeks ago at 
Middlesborough, Ky., resulting in the loss 
of a furniture factory and its contents. The 
Middlesborough News of recent date makes 
this interesting comment: "Had the fire 
engine not been delayed by the mud the 
loss would have been but slight and would 
have been entirely covered by insurance. 
As it is, a bad piece of road right in the 
heart of the city was the final cause of the 
utter loss of Middlesborough pioneer manu- 
facturing plant. The managers of the com- 
pany now place their loss at fifteen hun- 
dred dollars over and above the twelve 
hundred dollars of insurance." 



The use of vitrified brick as a material 
for paving does not appear to command the 
uniform success that has been claimed for 
it. The old difficulty caused by the fracture 
and crumbling of soft bricks (which seem to 
get into the work in spite of all efforts to 
exclude them), still remains, and many paved 
roadways which gave promise of prime ex- 
cellence have become defaced by holes and 
patches caused by the breaking of soft 
"vitrified" brick. It may be that the 
experiments of the future will determine a 
way of avoiding this trouble, which thus far 
seems to stand in the way of the general 
adoption of brick as a street pavement. 



There has been shipped from Waupaca 
County, Wisconsin, this season, 3,000 cars of 
potatoes, averaging 600 bushels per car. 
It is estimated that there is still in store 
by dealers and in the farmers' cellars 1,000 
cars, and the starch factory has and will con- 
sume 250,000 bushels more, making 2,650,- 
000 bushels of potatoes, at an average price 
of 50 cents per bushel. Thus it will be seen 
that the farmers of Waupaca County will re- 
ceive for this one product alone not less 
than $1,325,000. Very few potatoes have 
been marketed for the past ten days, the 
condition of the roads making it almost im- 
possible to get a load over them. — Exchange. 



The agitation of the subject of good roads 
is causing many communities to take active 
steps in securing the benefits to be derived 
from their construction. From the Atlantic 
to the Rocky Mountains this good work is 
receiving more attention than at any former 
period in the history of the country, and 
when the public is thoroughly awakened to 
its importance an era of improvement will 
begin, which, from the rapid development 
that will follow, will be thoroughly Ameri- 
can in its character, as no nation undertakes 
such measures of importance with the same 
enthusiastic determination. 
' Townships and counties in both the east- 
ern and western states are preparing to 
submit votes for issuing bonds for road 
purposes. 

In Pennsylvania the citizens of Abington 
Township will vote during this month on the 
proposition to issue $80,000 in bonds to 
macadamize the principal roads in the town- 
ship. In Michigan the Board of Supervisors 
at Alpena will submit a vote at an early date 
for issuing $75,000 in bonds to run fiftyyears, 
to be expended in improving the county 
roads. 

In no section of the country have the roads 
been so badly neglected as in the South, 
but, with the light that is being thrown on 
this important question by the press, it will 
not be slow in adopting such measures as will 
b:ing good roads — Industrial A/n''rica7i. 



NEWS AND COMMENT. 



273 



" The literature of the year should already 
assure us that the waste and disgrace of our 
United States' roads are to be stopped. 
The move is forcible and popular. It has 
its own strong and tastey organ, Goon Roads, 
a magazine beginning in January, 1892. 
Since then the Cetifury and Harper's 
and the CJiristian U>no7i have volunteered 
in the cause which lies on the very hard pan 
of civilization. The press generally seems 
awake and generous to assist a reform that 
must become as popular as it is necessary.'' 
— Up the Hudson. 



Harvev Kanable, mention of whom was 
made last week, has fully decided to remove 
his creamery from Arlington to this place. 
His principal reason for moving is that 
the country surrounding Arlington affords 
such poor roads that he is unable to keej-) 
his creamery in operation more than half 
the year. He thinks that with the pike 
roads leading into Bluffton he can build up 
a good business here and be able to run the 
whole year. He has not yet secured a loca- 
tion, but will come as soon as he can find 
one. We are in receipt of letters from re- 
liable business men in different parts of the 
state recommending the gentleman very 
highly and we feel safe in saying that the 
institution will prove a valuable one to the 
town. — Bluj[J'io)i Neivs. 



In his address to the Grand Jury at the 
opening of the Fall term at White Plains, 
N. Y., October 2, Judge Dykman of the New 
York Supreme Court called the attention of 
the Grand Jury to the condition of the high- 
ways throughout the county. He spoke 
briefly of the advantage of good highways 
to the farmers and general public ; stated 
that it was the duty of the Grand Jury to 
see that the public roads were kept in 
proper repair; condemned the road from 
White Plains to Tarrytown through the rich 
town of Greenburgh ; and advised them to 
bring the matter prominently before the 
public by indictment of oi^icials or other 
persons who were responsible for the con- 
dition of the roads, if such responsibility 
could be fixed or by any means in their 
power. 

County Treasurer Montgomery and 
Chairman H. F. May of the County Board 
of Supervisors are now both earnest ex- 
ponents of a reliable system of hard roads. 



Wednesday afternoon, accompanied by 
their wives, they started to drive to J. H. 
Miller's residence in Wheatland Township to 
attend the marriage of his daughter to 
David Diller. The ceremony was set for 
6.30 P. M., but the Decatur people did not 
see it, and were in fact lucky to reach the 
house at all. It took just about three hours 
to make the trip, and then one of the horses 
was almost completely done for. They got 
to Supervisor Miller's house in time for 
supper, but the wedding had long since 
been over. Yesterday morning Chairman 
May and Treasurer ^Montgomery drove back 
to the city, leaving the ladies to follow by 
rail. The horses were nearly tuckered out 
when they got- back home. Either Mr. 
May or Mr. Montgomery will now make an 
excellent delegate to send to a hard road 
convention.— Decatur {III.) Herald-Des- 
patch. 



The good roads? agitation in CaUfornia is 
encountering the difficulties which are famil- 
iar to its friends in the East, but is making 
gratifying progress. It began, as here, 
with the bicycle-riders, who enlisted the 
friends of draft animals. Last Winter com- 
mittees from wheelmen's associations and 
county humane societies appeared before 
the Legislature for the purpose of securing 
improvements in the road laws. The 
farmers, apprehensive that the work of road- 
building would be taken from them, stoutly 
resisted the reform. A highway improve- 
ment bill was framed which passed the 
House, but it was "side-tracked" in the 
Senate. The agitation was not without 
good results, however. The Governor of 
the state was interested, and in June last 
called a convention of those interested to 
to meet at the State Capital on September 7. 
Full details of the proceedings of this con- 
vention have not yet come to hand. In 
the meanwhile, before the convention met, 
statistics of road conditions were gathered 
from more than thirty counties and tabu- 
lated. It appears that most of the counties 
have spent in yearly taxes on poor roads 
more money than it would have cost to 
build good permanent roads, have paid 
interest on the sum for twenty years, and 
also have provided for a sinking fund to 
discharge the principal at the end of that 
time. 



mmm^m 



— : ; -m ^^ ; .— 

•■••••••••■•• iiiiiiiiiiii- ■ ■ ^k ; * ■■■•■■■■■■■■■■■■•■■■■•■■■■•aiiii 

BOOI^ llK EVIEWS 



w 
I- 



Market Gardening and Farm Notes. 
Experiences and Observations in the Garden 
and Field, of interest to the Amateur Gar- 
dener, Trucker and Farmer. By Burnet 
Landreth. New York: Orange Judd Com- 
pany, 1893. 215 pages, 1 2mo., cloth. Price$i. 
The most useful books are those written 
by men who have had practical knowledge 
of the subjects treated. The author of this 
treatise is one of the foremost practical as 
well as scientific horticulturists in the United 
States, and knows every detail of both gar- 
den and farm work. Although this book is 
entitled Market Gardening, the family gar- 
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needed for home gardening, as well as for 
market crops. A novel feature of the book 
is the calendar of farm and garden opera- 
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those which apply to each of the various 
sections and climates of North America. 
One chapter is devoted to the grass question 
and discusses not only the problem of lawn 
grasses, but also the questions which arise 
concerning the best varieties or mixtures for 
temporary or permanent pastures or mead- 
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will be read with great interest by the ama- 
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the professional market gardener. There 
are detailed plans and descriptions for hot- 
beds, cold frames, and greenhouses. The 
new and growing industry of gardening 
under glass for winter markets is treated in 
a thorough and business-like way. The 
farmers will find the chapters on roots for 
stock feeding, on soils and fertilizers, on im- 
plements and storehouses of special use in 
their daily operations. This timely volume 
is an authority on that kind of gardening 
for market and for home which gives practi- 
cal results. 



Highway Manual of New York. An 
official volume compiled under the provisions 



of Chapter 655 of the Laws of 1893. By 
Honorable N. G. Spalding and the Commis- 
sioners of Statutory Revision of the State of 
New York. (James B. Lyon, printer, Albany, 
N. Y.) On the ninth day of last May Gov- 
ernor Flower of New York approved an Act 
passed by the Legislature, providing for the 
compilation of highway laws of the state, in 
a manual which should also contain "dia- 
grams and practical s'uggestions and direc- 
tions for grading and building roads, main- 
taining and improving the same, and 
removing obstructions therefrom ; and also 
practical suggestions regarding tree culture 
and the laying out of lawns along high- 
ways." The Act also provides that each 
town clerk within the state shall receive as 
many copies of the manual as shall be 
required for distribution, to the several com- 
missioners of highways and officers of high- 
ways in his town. Mr. Spalding, upon 
whom the burden of this work has mainly 
fallen, has completed his labors and a copy 
of the new manual is before us. It is sub- 
stantially bound in cloth and is included in 
359 ps-gss, with a good number of illustra- 
tions. The arrangement is admirable. Part 
one is a compilation of the constitution and 
statutory provisions relating to highways; 
part two is an explanatorj- analysis of the 
statute with forms, and part three, covering 
the last eighty pages of the book, relates to 
practical suggestions on highway construc- 
tion and maintenance. These latter pages 
will supply to the road officers of the State of 
New York a kind and quantity of informa- 
tion which has been sadly needed for many 
years, and the reproduction of the highway 
laws, which have not appeared in sepa- 
rate form for more than a decade, will serve 
to enlighten many officials who have through 
sheer ignorance systematically violated 
them. The greatest credit is due to Mr. 
Spalding for the zeal, industry and good 
judgment which has brought this work so 
promptly through the press, and it is a matter 
of no small wonder that he has supplied so 
creditable a volume in so short a period of 
time. 



CLli^oaght Iron Bwdge Co 



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Best Hisibway Bridsies. ' • 



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PLANS AND ESTIMATES FREE. 



WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



The Hfli^iiisBURG Doable Engine Hoad Holler 



Not only a Roller but a ROAD MACHINE 



10, 12, 15 and 20 
Tons Weight 




*ot How Cheap, but, How Goofl. Now in nse in nearly one hnndred cities and towns In United States. Send for 
Illustrated Catalogue. Manufactured by HARRISBURG FOUNDRY & MACHINE WORKS. HARRISBUR6, PA. 

Selling Agents, W. R. FLEMIXG & CO., New York & New England. New York Office, Mail and Express B'd'.?. Boston Office 
MO Atlantic Avenue. Walter W. Jones, Manager. F. E. BAILEY, Philadelphia, 24 S. 7th Street, Builders' Exchange 
H. E. BALDWIN, Cincinnati, Perin B'd'g, 5th and Race Sts. 



JOHN N. OSTROM 



Member 



Am. Soc. C. E. 

Western Soc. of Engineers 




Bridge 



Engineer 



East Randolph, N. Y. 

Strain Sheets, Estimates, Details 
Inspection, Erection. 

BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE AND SUBSTRUCTURE, 
VIADUCTS, ROOFS, BUILDING MATERIALS AMD 
STEEL RAILS 

Surveys for Locating Substructures 
OF All Kinds Executed Promptly 

Soundings and Borings for Bridges 
AND Other Foundations 

PHOTOGRAPHIC REPORTS 
ON FIELD WORK .... 



J Estimates Furnished to Responsible 
Parties on Application 










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PATEr4T flflD IJVIPHOVED STOGIE BHEflF^ER 

The parpel Foandpy and IVIaehine Go.,i\nsonia, Gonn. 

THE FARREL & MARSDEN CRUSHER, the standard machine for road metal ; with 
or without screen, mounted or unmounted; ten sizes. Write for catalogue 
and list of cities, towns, contractors and individuals using this machine. 

4 S. C. NIGHTINGALE &, CHILDS, 134 PEARL STREET, BOSTON 

5 New England Agents for the Farrel & Marsden Stone Crusher, and Contractors for 

i Complete piacauam toad Buiidii Plants. i»%&K ^^-li^rJz i^etk^tt 

^ Drills, Etc. Horse and Steam Boad Rollers, Engines and Boilers. 

W Competent Engineer furnished for locating and advising. 




Send for Catalogue. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



= 75 



Brick Pavements. By C. P. Chase, City 
Engineei', Clinton, la. (Paving and Munic- 
ipal Engineering, Indianapolis, Ind.) A neat 
little paper-bound book of fifty-odd pages. 
Mr. Chase, the author, is a practical civil engi- 
neer whose experience in the construction 
of brick pavements makes his little book 
worthy of special attention. He truly states 
in his preface that "the imperative neces- 
sity for better streets in our cities, the great 
expense heretofore of such material as jjrom- 
ised reasonable durability, and the attendant 
noise and slipperiness in many cases, and 
the transitory and unwholesome character 
of the cheaper wooden pavements have 
compelled the inhabitants of our cities, who 
have any regard for their purse, their comfort 
or their life, to investigate and seek for a new 
material for pavement." From this neces- 
sity Mr. Chase was led to prepare his 
papers on brick pavements, which now 
appear in this little volume. It includes an 
introductory chapter on the inauguration 
and execution of the work of brick paving, 
in which the preliminary steps and sub- 
sequent work on the part of city officials is 
carefully outlined. Then follows twenty- 
three pages of practical points and informa- 
tion touching the quality and methods best 
worthy of approval, and six illustrations 
are introduced to show the different forms 
of construction. The final pages of the 
book are given up to specifications for grad- 
ing, curbing, guttering and paving. These 
specifications seem to have been carefully 
drawn and are well worth the attention of 
any municipal engineer who contemplates 
the use of a brick pavement. The tables 
contained in Mr. Chase's little book add 
much to its value and are themselves well 
worth the price of the book to any unin- 
formed reader who intends to study the 
subject of brick pavements. Price, $i.oo. 



Twenty Years' Practical E.xperience ok 
Natural Asthalt and Bitumen. By VV. 
H. Delano. (New York: Spon & Chamber- 
lain.) If experience and position may be 
regarded, Mr. Delano is amply qualified to 
treat of the subject imprinted upon the title 
page of this little work. His position as 
general manager of the " Compagnie 
Generaledes Asphaltes de France, Limited," 
under whose direction many miles of asphalt 
pavements have been laid in Europe, has 



given him an intimate knowledge of the 
phenomena and practical results which have 
developed in the use of asphalt pavements 
since their introduction, and this knowledge 
seems to have been well directed in the 
preparation of the book which Messrs. Spon 
& Chamberlain have placed before the 
public. The work is divided into four 
parts, the first referring to nomenclature of 
asphalt and its combinations, the second to 
the uses of asphalt, the third the modes of 
applying asphalt and the fourth to general 
observations in which practical information 
is laid down as to the use of wide tires, the 
use of salt for melting snow; curbs; speed 
of road traffic ; conversion of old roads into 
asphalt roads; imitation of natura' asphalt; 
wear of macadamized roads and other points 
upon which the municipal engineer seeks to 
be informed. The book contains but 
seventy-three pages, is well illustrated and 
will add much to the library of every citizen 
who looks for information regarding the 
best form of street pavement yet introduced. 
We are indebted to the New York Mastic 
Works, 35 Broadway, New York City, for 
this little book which refers to the special 
variety of asphalt pavement of which this 
company has the American agency. 



The Baltimore and (^hio Railroad 
announces that they have placed on sale 
round trip tickets at reduced rates to the 
Winter resorts in Florida aud the South, and 
also to such points of interest as Luray, 
Natural Bridge and Gettysburg. This com- 
pany has also arranged to place on sale 
excursions tickets to San Francisco and other 
points in California on account of the Mid- 
Winter Fair, at unusually low rates. Excur- 
sion tickets are now on sale to Baltimore 
and Washington via the famous Roval Blue 
Line. 

With its vestibuled train service via Wash- 
ington to Cincinnati, St. Louis and Chicago, 
the B. & O. is in the best of condition to 
handle western and southern travel. That 
the line is a popular one, is attested by the 
immense World's Fair business handled 
this Summer. 

Those contemplating a trip west or south 
this Winter, should write to C. P. Craig, 
General Eastern Passenger Agent, 415 
Broadway, New York, for rates and other 
information. 



RECENT PATENTS. 

In this department we shall print from time to time brief descriptive notes of 
recent patented inventions relating to roads, streets, drainage, bridges and wheeled 
vehicles. 



COMPOSITION OF MATTER FOR PAVEMENTS, ETC. 
George S. Lke, Patentee, Hawthorne, N. J., Assignor, by 
mesne assignments, to the East Coast Manufacturing Com- 
pany of New Jersey. A composition for paving and the 
like, consisting of asphaltum, distilled coal-tar, residuum 
of petroleum, disintegrated paper or wood-pulp and air 
slaked lime. 




SIDEWALK OR BUILDING BLOCK. Frank C. Klin- 
DER, Patentee, Sheboygan, Wis. Sidewalk or building 
block, consistmg of a centre of hard-burned brick, and a 
veneer of artificial stone. 



SCRAPER. Henry G. Butler, Kenosha, Wis., assignor 
of one-half to William Butler, same place. A scraper formed 
with a body-portion open at itsforward end, in combination 
with a plough at the open end, comprisinga bar having in its 
forward edge teetli lieveled at their edges to form cutters, 
said bar being bent toward its opposite ends through the 
end-teeth to suitable angles and secured at the bent end- 
portions to the sides of the said body-portion, the bent end- 
portions being beveled from their inner sides outward and 
forming cutters on their forward edges. 




GRADING AND DITCHING MACHINE. Christopher 
B. Taylor, Idaho Falls, Idaho. In a machine of the class 
described, the combination of a main carrier, and a rear 
carrier, said carriers having endless belts on whici are 
cross-bars, the extremities of which carry rollers. 




WAGOX-ROAD. TiCE S. RiDDEL, Eugene, Ore. A truck 
consisting of transverse ties and parallel interposed cord- 
uroy pieces all laid upon the ground, rails spiked to said 
ties so as to break joint with each other and extending over 
the corduroy, and flanges spiked to the rails and breaking 
joint therewith. 




ROAD-ENGINE, William C. Oastler, New York, N. Y. 
The combination with a road engine or steam road roller 
and a transverse bar attached to the rear thereof for draw- 
ing a plough, of brackets inserted in said transverse bar and 
moveable therein to and from positions for carrying the 
plough when not in use. 




STREET-ROLLER. Richard C. Pope, St. Louis, l^ro 
assignor to Edward I. Pope, Moreland, 111. In a street 
roller, the combination of a frame, a roll journaled in the 
frame, an arch secured to the frame, a circle iron or track, 
the brackets by which the circle iron or track is secured to 
the arch, a beam or swinging frame pivoted to the arch, 
and to which the draft tongue is secured, and friction rollers 
secured to the beam° or [swinging frame, and which bear 
upon said track. 



To that Army of Sturdy Riders 



OF 



pioioan & Wrigm Palegl Poeumalic Tires 



You are respectfully requested to send in your 
mileage for the year ending December 31, 1893. 
We wish to properly record your performance 
and incidentally to make 

Our Annual Prize Distribution 

To those who have acquitted themselves most 
meritoriously. 

Your immediate reply will be 

YOUR CHRISTMAS OFFERING TO U5. 

OUR NEW YEAR'S GIFT TO YOU 

(Providing you have earned it) will be: 

First prize, cost value, - $100.00 p^^ the greatest mileage on one iet 

Second prize, Overcoat, - 45.00 of M. & W. Tires during 1893, the 

rr.. . . ^ ^1 o »»/ T- I rider liaving made his own repairs. 

Third prize, i set H. «& W. Tires. I ■ 

First prize, cost value, - $50.00 p^^ the most meritorious single ride. 

Second prize, cost value, 35.00 Distance, weather and character of 

roads to be considered. 



Third prize, i set H. & W. Tires. 



Prize, 


cost value, 


$50.00 


Prize, 


cost value, 


$25.00 


Prize, 


cost value, 


$25.00 



For fastest mile in competition on 
n. & W. Tires. 

For best time made in lo^mile road 
race on M. & W. Tires. 

For best time made in 25 -mile road 
race on M. & W. Tires. 



L. A. W. and C. R. C. of A. Rules to govern all Competitions. 

CONTESTS CLOSE DECEMBER 25, 1893. 

Send in your name, age and weight, name and weight ot "Wheel, and 
have your application attested by a Notary Public. Your compliance 
with the above is earnestly desired. :: :: :: :: :: :: 



MORGAN & WRIGHT, 



331-339 'W. LAKE STREET, 
CHICAGO, ILL. 




THE KING OF RIDERS 

has pinned his faith on 

*'DUNLOP TIRES" 

for over two years, riding- nothing else. 

:: ZIMMERHAN :: 

won over 

" loo First Prizes" 



this year on DUN LOPS. 

They cost a little more, but — 

M Vinoai) Denlop Tire Co. 

504-506 West 14th Street 

NEW YORK 




FOR_ 



LADIES AND GENTLEMEN 



LIGHT 
STRONG 
DURABLE 
HANDSOME 

EASY RUNNING 
SAFE ^ ^ 



MADE BY 



Hickory Wheel Co. 

South Framingham 

Mass. 



Bound Volumes of "Good Roads" 



4^ 



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HANDSOME CLOTH OF GILT BINDING 



Volames I, II, III and IV nooi Heady 



THE PRICE IS NOT FOR PROFIT, BUT 
TO EXTEND OUR WORK .■; ;.■ .■.• 



SEflT POSTPAID TO AJJY ADDRESS pOR 



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£ 




ONE DOLLAR PER VOLUME 



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ONTRACT Motes 

A. 

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^■D 




ROADS AND STREETS. 

WEST \"IRGINIA. — Ciiari.estown. — Brick 
roadways are being put down in this city on an 
extensive scale. 

OHIO.— Garrettsville.— The five miles of new 
macadamized turnpike between this place and 
Hiram are the finest in the northern part of the 
.state. 

Toledo. — Sealed proposals were recently 
received for the work of paving Tecumseh Street 
and East Broadway, with either Medina stone 
blocks, cedar blocks or vitrified brick. A contract 
was also awarded to John Streicher for paving 
Jefferson Street of this city with cedar blocks. 

FosTOKIA.— The Main Street paving contract 
was awarded the Standard Construction Com- 
pany. 

Warrex. — This year twenty-seven miles of 
brick roadways have been laid in this place. 

I\nSSOURI.— St. Louis.— Several streets of this 
city are to be .graded, curbed and paved with 
telford pavement. Bids have been asked for. 

ALABAMA.— Birmingham.— Seven of the prin- 
cipal streets of this city are to be paved witli 
vitrified brick. 

PENNSYLVAXL\.— Readixg.- Vitrified brick 
is also to be used in all the principal streets of this 
city. 

TENNESSEE.— Knox VILLE.— The work of put- 
ting down vitrified brick pavements in seven 
important streets of this city has begun. 

NEW JERSEY.— Trenton*.— The contract for 
macadamizing the Scotch road between this city 
and Ewing (a distance of five miles) has been 
awarded to R. A. Montgomery, of Lambertville, at 
a cost of §50,000. 

East Orange.— Bids have been received for lay- 
ing artificial stone sidewalks in the following 
localities: North side of William Street, north side 
of Fourth Avenue, west side of Burnet Street, 
north side of Carnegie Avenue, and the north and 
south sides of Grove Street. 



SEWERS. 

NEW YORK.— Jamestown.— Contract has been 
let to Rider & Fitzgerald, of Dunkirk, for the work 
of constructing sewers in this town. Cost of the 
work will be $55,666.56. 

Skaneateles. — It is proposed to build a sewer 
iSjOoo feet long and thirty inches in diameter at an 
estimated cost of $15,000. This work will be under 
the supervision of the authorities of Syracuse. 

Syracuse. — It is proposed by the council of this 
city to build new sewers in North Salina Street. 

OHIO.— Cleveland.— It has been resolved by 
the council of this city to have sewers laid in 
Woolsey, Bayne, Beechwood, Maud and Harvard 
Streets and Miles Avenue. 



ToLKiJd.— Bids were received last month by the 
city clerk of this city for the work of constructing 
cylindrical sewers in the following localities : 
iJelaw-are Avenue, Third Street, alley between 
Bartlett Street and Oakwood Avenue and an alley 
between Piatt Street and Oswald Street. 

CONNECTICUT.— Hartford.-A contract has 
recently been awarded !Michael O'Neil for con- 
structing the New Britain Avenue sewer. The 
amount of Mr. O'Neil's bid was $3,650.90. 

ILLINOIS.— Austin.— Bids have been asked for 
laying pipe sewers in Kenilworth Avenue, Harri- 
son Street, Robinson and Cuyler Avenues. 

PENNSYLVANIA. — Pittsburgh. — It is pro- 
posed to build, during the coming Winter, a large 
trunk sewer with lateral connections, on Second 
Avenue and Tecumseh Street. Bids will be asked 
for. 



BRIDGES. 

KENTUCKY. — WEST CoviNGTON. — A steel 

bridge is to be erected at Main .Street, and contract 
has been awarded to Schreiber & Company, of 
Cincinnati. 

MINNESOTA.— Red Wing.— It is proposed to 
build a steel driving bridge across the Mississippi 
River at this place. 

MICHIGAN.— JIANISTEE.— The dimensions of 
the new steel bridge at Smith Street are as follows: 
200-foot steel swing span, 200-foot steel approach, 
and stone foundation. The contract has been 
awarded to the Milwaukee Bridge and Iron 
Works. 

IOWA.— Waterloo.— An iron bridge will be 
erected over Dry Run at the Cedar River F'ark 
road. 

ILLINOIS.— Litchfield.— The contract for the 
work of construction of an iron highway bridge 
across Shoal Creek, two miles from this place, has 
been awarded to the Massilon Bridge Company. 
This bridge will cost $1,098 and be seventy-si.x foot 
span. 

Bruce Township.— The Massilon Bridge Com- 
pany has been given the contract for constructing 
a twenty-foot steel bridge with si.Kteen-foot road- 
way, over Otter Creek. Said contract was awarded 
by the commissioners of highways. 

OHIO.— YOUNGSTOWN.— Bridges are to be con- 
structed over the ]\Iahoning River at South Market 
Street, South Avenue, Spring Common and Brier 
Hill. 

Cleveland. — A bridge has been completed over 
Doad brook, and another is being erected at Water 
Street. 

Larue. — A bridge is being constructed*at this 
place across the Scioto. 

OKLAHOMA.— Guthrie.— A wagon bridge has 
been constructed at the foot of I) Street in this 
town. 2-7 



(II.'IIlO 




REVISED VERSION. 

Man wants but little here below, 
But wants it mighty hard, 

When -he finds he only needs but one 
More spot upon a card. 



—Puck. 



LOVE'S REASON. 

He— I love yoti. 

She — How do you know you do ? 
He — Why — er — because I feel so slumpy 
whenever I think of you. — Picck. 



HIS BENT. 

"That's a bright boy of yours." 
" Do you think so?" 
" I do. Has he any particular bent?" 
"He has. He is bent most of the time 
over a safety bicycle." — New York Press. 



AN EASY ONE. 

Casey was digging a ditch in the street 
in front of his house for the purpose of 
making a connection with the sewer. He 
had a large pile of dirt thrown up in the 
roadway, and he was rapidly increasing it 
when stopped by a policeman. 

" Phat are yez doin there, Casey ?" 

"Don't yer see Oi'm diggin ?" 

" Hov yez a permit to blockade ttie sthrate 
with that pile of dirt?" 

"Oi have not." 

"Thin don't yer know that j^ez have no 
right to put thot dirt there ?" 

"Phat will Oi do wid it, thin?" inquired 
the puzzled Casey. 

"Oh, jist dig another hole an fro it in," 
answered the man of the brass buttons, as 
he sauntered slowly away, swinging his 
club. — Boston Journal. 



THE DEAL FELL THROUGH. 

The owner of a lot on Woodward Avenue, 
beyond the toll-gate, had a call from a 
woman who said she would take the property 
at the price asked if her husband was willing. 
It seemed that he was, and the owner got 
tne abstract and deed ready and waited for 
the woman to appear with the cash. She 
came, but it was not to buy. On the 
contrary, she said. 

" I am sorry to say that we can't take the 
lot." 

" But you like it?" 

" Oh, yes." 

" And your husband is satisfied ?" 

" He is." 

" And you said you had the money ?" 

" I have, sir." 

" Then what is the matter ?" 

" Why, sir, it's the hired girl. She posi- 
tively refuses to wash for us if we go way 
out there, and so the matter is off." — De- 
iroit Free Press. 



IT WAS HER ABSENT-MINDEDNESS. 

" It's your absent-mindedness," he said, 
as he sat by the open window peeling a 
yellow banana. 

" I try to do the best, Harry," replied the 
young wife, the hot tears half choking her 
utterance. " You know your salary is " 

" Yoti knew what my salary was when you 
married me. You said we could live like a 
king and a queen on it, or some such roman- 
tic rubbish." 

"Harry, I never inquired what your 
salary " 

"Well, you might have. But as I say, 
it's your confounded absent-mindedness; 
you're away off." 

With that he hurled the edible jxirtion of 
the banana through the open window. 

Then a look of horror o'erspread his 
countenance, as he beheld only the cold and 
cheerless peel in his uncalloused palm.— 
Pittsburg- Dispotih. 



A 

FAST 

BICYCLE 




.j^fiii 



One on which races are won and records 
are broken must run easil3^ and be staunch 
and reliable in every way. Those are 
points you look for in a road wheel as well 
as in a racer. Ease of runnini^ means less 
exertion, and that means greater speed and 
more comfort :: :: :: :: :: :: 





IGYGIiES 



have, between September, '92, and June i, 
'93, won 

61 First prizes 

35 SECONL> 

17 Third 

8 KIRSX TTlME PRIZES 

and have also made 11 New Records 



THIS IS A RAN4BLER YEAR 

"Better be in it" or do the next best 
thing — have 

G. ^ J. F>M^\J7^7XiriCy TiRes 

fitted to 3^our wheel — the}^ mcdve any bic3^cle 
go. Any maker or dealer Avill furnish them 
on your favorite machine. Insist upon it 

GORMULLY & JEFFERY MFG. CO. 

218-220 N. FRANKLIN STREET, CHICAGO 

174 Columbus Avenue 85 Madison Street 1325 14th Street, N. W., 

BOSTON CHICAGO WASHINGTON 

Broadway and S7th Street 5 and 6 Hartford Street 

NEW YORK COVENTRY, ENG. 



GOOD ROADS 




Qood Road.s are coming sure 

It will take time 

Do not wait for them 

And suffer annoyance and all the jolts and jars ih& 
flesh is heir to 



See that your wheels Q,f^Afil\n Tl i-P^c 

: are fitted with r>eUUOn I IrCS 

The *'Red Un" is the best 



A represents the Envelope, which has a bottom (Ai) coy«ring the spok* 

holes in the rim 
B the outer Air Chamber 
C the inner Air Chamber inflated 

D the Valve leading into inner chamber • 

E E the Wire Bands 
P the Rim 




CJUITABL.E FOR : ; J 

CYCLES 
SULKIES 
BUGGIES 
ROAD WAGONS 
BARRINETTES, Etc 



i 



AMERICAN SEDDONS 
TYRE CO . 

65 Reade Street 
New York 



Cyclists, Oarsp, Bainers 

AND (Id 





GENERALLY, USE 

ANTI- 
STIFF 



TO STRENGTHEN THE 
MUSCLES 

It has a particularly Warm- 

_l ing. Comforting and Stim- 

^ ulating- effect on all Weak 

' or Stiff Muscles: quick in 

action, clean and pleasant 

in use. 

For Sale by Druggists and 
Dealers in Sporting Goods 

E. FOOGEee 4 CO., sole Agents 

26-30 N. William St., N. Y. 



Give her a watch ; 

;i i^(K)d watch, a handsomt- one — but 
don't "go l^rokc " over it. 

FoLirteen-karat L^old. filk'd. or ccjin- 
silvcr, elegantly enslaved: enanul dial 
in modern Arabic numerals ; jeweled 
works : stem-set and stem-winding. 
A gem to look and a pertect time-keei^er. 
It looks like a hundred-doHar \v'atch; 
any one can take genuine pride in its 
looks and its behavior. The new. per- 
fected, quick=winding "Waterbury" 
($4 to $15). 

Nu cheap Swiss watcli can compare 

with it. Your jeweler sells it, in 

many (.iil'lereiit stvles. 

49 



|li>-'ilMii'-''lllllli'-'<jli^'il||||li''il||p^ 



RETV^INCTON 

BICYC 



WRITE FOR 
CATALOGUE 




LIGHT ROADSTER, 32 LBS. ROADSTER, 44 LBS. 

WOMAN'S WHEEL, 42 LBS. PRICES, $140.00 and $145.00 

A VARIETY OF PNEUMATIC TIRES 

t^emington At^ms Co. 

313=315 Broadway, New York City 



lii'-'iillilii'''iill|lii'-'iillllii'-'iillllii'-Mii||iii.-.i^^ 



mde a W;:i\/g>ntg^y 





WAVERLEY SCORCHER, 32 LBS. 



STRICTLY 
HIGH GRADE 






rs 



I '*Our Guarantee" 

\ As so many of our numerous correspondents ask what 

\ "Guarantee goes with the 'Waverley?'" we wish to im- 

. press upon the general public simply this: The " Waverley " 

• is fully warranted to be a strictly high grade machine in every 

: particular. It is built of the best quality of seamless steel 

^ tube. Dropped forgings and tool steel tiiroughout, we guar- 

- antee every part to be perfect, and agree to replace any part 

: that may, witliin a very liberal period, sliow any defect of any 

i kind that is due to an imperfection in either workmanship or 

i material. The " Waverley " goes with this warrant, which is 

: backed by the Indiana Bicycle Co., who own and run the 

\ largest bicycle factory in the world: who are thoroughly re- 

? sponsible, having a paid-in cash capital of One Million Dollars, 

= no part of which is composed of patents at inflated prices, but 

\ is money pure and simple. Who can produce a better 

\ guarantee ? 



iiHiranHMBiiBii 



Equal to any machine made at any price. Fitted 
with Hoosier Double Lace Inner Tube Tires. 



Indiana Bieycle Co. 



Write for Catalogue and 
:: Dealers Terms :; 



Indianapolis, Ind. 



•'■'•'•>i<iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiijiiiii' 




EXAMINE THEM BEFORE 



PLACING YOUR ORDER 



CATALOGUE READY 




IRoaD Ikino 



#.:«( 




H» jF^atberetone & Co* 



:: HDakcrs :: 



I6tb anb Clark Streets anb 



^»w armour avenue, Cbicago, fllL 



IRoat) Queen 



R ALEIGHS 






WON IN 1892 

2,300 PRIZES 



i. 




ZIMMERMAN 
AND th: RALEIGH 



A wonderful test of 
SPEED and QUALITY 



^0^ 



THE RALEIGH CYCLE CO., Ltd 



Bank and Greenwich Streets 



NEW YORK 



The ACnE LUGGASE CARRIER 

^ Every 
Wheelman 
wants one 
_ )j as soon as 
Neat, Simple J^^^^S^^^ ^^^Qsv'he sees it 

Effective 




No 

Buckles ^ff 
to bother 
with 



SMALLEST when closed Pat. ji ne 20. isyy LARGEST when open 



HANDSOMELY NICKF.L- 
PLATED AND POLInHEI") 

Price $1.50 

Apply to your dealei , or 
upon receipt of price, we 
will deliver it tree to any 
address in tlie United 
States. Electros Free. 
Special Prices and In- 
ducements to tile Trade 



Hall Manufacturing Company 

No. 120 Broadway 
New York City. N. Y. 

JOHN H. GRAHAM & CO., General Agents 





1893 MODEL 



New f^AlL 



straight DiAnjon*! Pranje 
'^ Strictly High Oracle 



I 



$125.00 
136.00 



Ail Drop Porgiojs 

M. & W. Style Pneumatics, 
Dunlop Detachable " 

No Finer Wheel Made. Send for CataloKU* 

MANUFACTURIRS 

Wn). Rezvd & Sons 

107 Wzisbington Street 

BOSTON 




FOR 



LADIES AND GENTLEMEN 



LIGHT 
STRONG 
DURABLE 
HANDSOME 

EASY RUNNING 
SAFE ^ ^ 



_MADE BY 



Hickory Wheel Co. 

Newton, Mass. 



AVopaircb Bicycles 

Are the BEST for all kinds of Roads. 
FOUR STYI.es AI,I. I.EADEK.S 




Every part a scientific production from the finest 
material obtainable. We are headquarters for all 
Cycle accessories. Send for our 1893 Catalogue. 
Reliable agents wanted. 

^oparcb Cycle Co. 

/^2,44,46,48,50 &• 52 N H2vl5te«a St. 

CHICAGO 



THE. 



PEST Cycle EN/inELS ^ ^ 

F.O.PlEt^CE & CO. 

170 Fulton Street, New York 



HRE JdRDE BY 



if your local DEALER 
cannot supply them 
SEND direct for 
SAMPLE CARD-^.* 



DRV QUICKUV jAilTH 7K 



PRICES 



Black, - - 
Kuby • • 
Dark Blue, 

" Green, 
Yellow, - - 



BRIULIPCNT GI-OSS 
.35 



.40 



Pale Bine, 
'• Green, 
White. - - 
Cream, - - 
Pink, - - 



I 



By Mail 
.50 5 Cents Additional 

EASY TO APPLY 



" The why is plain as way to parish church." 



^ "JS" w ^ 



Victors are Best 



Because built in the best bicycle factory. 

No other factory builds the entire machine. 

Only skilled labor is employed and finest material 
used. 

Victors have more genuine improvements than 
any other bicycle. 

Victors have a standard value. 

Are Victors this year and every other year. 

Bring more at second-hand than any other. 



* * * * 



Agents for makers who have been distanced in advanced 
bicycle construction ; makers that flourish for a season, 
that are short of improvements and prop up their bicycles 
with wind and purchased records, have reasons for getting 
uneasy. 

This is a Victor Year. 



D-SrERMAN WHEEL GD. 

BOSTON WASEItlGTON DEHVEE SANjFEANCISOO 



9liUiUUUUiUUiiiiUUiUUU£S 



Shaving 




AS A DAILY COMFORT-BRINGING 

EXERCISE 

SHAVING 

CAN BE MADE THE REFRESHING 
ENJOYABLE PART OF THE 
MORNING TOILET 

The soft, creamy lather produced by 
WILLIAMS' SHAVING STICK is so 
cooling, so softening to the beard, so 
comforting to the face that it is an 
actual pleasure to apply it. 



WILLIAMS' 



Williams' Shaving Stick. 

BE SURE YOU GET 

Each stick enclosed in a beautiful case, strong, compact, attractive. Ask your Druggist 

for WILLIAMS'. If he does not have it, do not let him foist some inferior 

substitute upon you, but send 25 cents in stamps to us and receive a 

genuine WILLIAMS' SHAVING STICK, by return mail, 

postpaid. Address 

The J. B. WILLIAMS CO., Glastonbury. Ct., U. S. A. 

For over Half a Century makers of Fme Shavmg Soaps 



44 



>•••- 



Built to Ride" 



GIVES YOU A FULL DESCRIPTION OF THE 



•llll^lll' 




<iill4^lli>' 



Toledo Bioycle Co. 



TOLEDO, OHIO. 



€i 



Devuptless 



9f 



-••••• 



fD 



¥ THE « 
FINEST 
ROADS 



G) 



SPECIALLY PROVIDED 
FOR THE .... 




INTERNATIONAL 

CYCLE MEETING 

:: ON AUGUST 5 TO 12 :: 

THE FIRST BONA=FIDE 

CHAMPIONSHIPS OF THE WORLD 

EVER CONTESTED WILL OCCUR, WITH 

-^ 
ABUNDANT ENTERTAINMENTS 
GRAND RACING 
WORLD'S FAIR ATTRACTIONS 



PHirArn entertains the world 
uniuaAjv_; p^^ J^^^e, purpose 

«p^JyVVV GUARANTEED 
ENTRIES FOR RACES CLOSE WITH 



THE 
PICKED MEN 

OF 
ALL NATIONS 

AS 
COMPETITORS 



H. E. RAYnOND 

245 FLATBUSH AVE. BROOKLYN 

OF WHOM ENTRY BLANKS MAY BE OBTAINED 






kEMiND one of those old league 
signs whieh advised the Cyeling 
Tourists at the top of a 
fine hill that it was 

*'5AFE AND SURE ALL THE WAY" 



GEO, R. B\D>ME\i\i CNCUE CO- 

308-310 West 59th Street, N. Y. 



, Factory 

COLTS' WEST ARMORY, HARTFORD, CONN. 




FOR 1893 



Stands- 



QOOD ROADS 

OR . . . 

BAD ONES 



® 



WEIGHTS OF ROAD MACHINES, 29, 33, 35 AND 40 POUNDS 



HIGHEST GRADE THROUGHOUT 




^ 



LIBERTV OVOL-ES 



55 Liberty Street, 



NEW YORK 



'PneuiQaticBiGpie'^SuiKgWlieeis 

WITH BALL BEARINGS 




We make nothing 
but Wheels. Over 6 
year»* experience. 

N. Y. Protection 
Strip Pneumatic 
Tires with rims to 
match, supplied to 
the trade. 

Write us for what 
you want." 

I.fl.WESTQ)l&CO. 

JamesviUe, N. Y. 

(nIAR STIIAtUtl^ 




THE. M«>6T COMPLETE ENORAVINO E6TABLL5Hr4ENT IN THE COUNTRY 

IT WILL PAY YOU TO 
COMMUNICATE WITH 05 
TO OET PRICED AND 
i>PECIMEN6 op OUR 
WORK 

FMlLWAUKEt 

/ MITCHELLy CHAMBER 

°f= C°riMERCE 5"LD'&6. 




"GOOD ROADS" S^^ 



^^^ 0.S.EXPRE55 BLDG. 
67-89 WASHINGTON 5X^. 




IF YOU WANT A BRIGHT 

• STEADY LIGHT AND ONE • 
^ THAT WILL NOT BE CON- ^ 
\ TINUALLY GOING OUT, ^ 

# USE " 

m m 

Tie Ben Star M llHiininant 

(patent applied for) 

IN YOUR BICYCLE LAflP 

PRICE 50 CENTS 

— i "^ ' i 

^ IF YOU WANT SOMETHING THAT 
5 WILL NOT MAKE YOUR CHAIN DIRTY 
^ AND GREASY, USE 

i Tlie Bed Star Cliain Lutiricant 

!a PRICE 25 CENTS 

2k IF YOU WANT AN OIL THAT WILL 
\ MAKE YOUR MACHINE RUN EASY 
^ USE 

Z Ttie Red Stai LuDricating Oil 

Hade especially for BALL BEARINGS 
PRICE 25 CENTS 

ALL FIRST-CLASS DEALERS KEEP 
OUR GOODS. SAMPLES SENT ON 
RECEIPT OF PRICE 

RED STARMFQ. CO. 

Factory, LONG ISLAND 
2 P. O. Box 1092, New York 




1 KEEP COOL 



inside, outside, and all the way through, 
by d ri nking r^ /-v4- 

rilJvti3 Beer 

This great Temperance drink; 
in as UealtUful, aa U is pleasant. Iry it. 



FOREIGN XSn AMERICAN CYCLING PAPERl, 
PEU10D1CAL.8, UAJHi BOOKS AN1» KOAD BOOKS 
FOR SALE. Send for list. ^ 



JOHN N. OSTROM 



., ( Am. Soc. C. E. 

Member < ,,, c r 

Western Soc. of Engineers 




'"^^^^^^ ^^'mmM-^Mm^ 






Bridg^e 



Engineer 



East Randolph, N. Y. 

Strain Sheets, Estimates, Details 
Inspection, Erection. 

BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE AND SUBSTRUCTURE, 
VIADUCTS, ROOFS, BLILDINQ MATERIALS A\0 
STEEL RAILS 

Surveys for Locating Substructures 
OF All Kinds Executed Promptly 

Soundings and Borings for Bridges 
and Other Foundations 

. . PHOTOGRAPHIC RFPORTS 

ON FIELD WORK .... 

Estimates Furnished to Responsible 
Parties on Application 








PflTEfiT AflD HWPHOVHD STOfiH B^Efll^HH. 

The Farrel \mAn and Idaehiue Go.,flnsonia,GoDii 

THE FARREL & MARSDEN CRUSHER, the standard machine for road metal ; with 
or without screen, mounted or unmounted; ten sizes. Write for catalogue 
and list of cities, towns, contractors and individuals using this machine. 



S. C. NIGHTINGALE & CHILDS, 134 PEARL STREET, BOSTON 

New England Agents for the Farrel & Marsden Stone Crusher, and Contractors for 

Complete piacaflam Boad Bmidino Plants. il^^eTsJifu^K '^ZZ'::i litii%X'.i 

Drills, Etc. Horso aud Stoam Road Kollers, Engines and Boilers. 

Competent Engineer furnished for locating and advising. Send for Catalogue. 





mXrouQht Iron Bridge Co. 

OKNTON, OHIO. 




Best Hi^bVEvy Bridsies. • • 



PLANS AND ESTIMATES FREE. 



WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



steel steam l{oad-Iiollers. Wq^ than 1,600 ]vianufactuped 

— Steam Road-Rollers with compound fhigh 

and low pressure) cylinders. 

Steam Road-Rollers with single (high-pres- 
sure) cyl inder. New and i m pro ved spring 
scrapers, new steering gear, new arrangement of 
driver's foot-plate, etc., etc. 

Incomparably superior in simplicity, work- 
manship, materials and consequent duralsility to 
any imitations. 

At Auburn, N. Y., Boston, Mass., Staten Island, 
N.Y., and numerous other places where imitations 
of Aveling & Porter's Rollers are in use, the most 
unsatisfactory results are reported, and the wear 
and tear and breakages have been greater in 12 
months than with the Aveling Rollers in six years. 
Scores of .similar reports are obtainable, and the 
broken-down imitation machines can be seen by 
anyone interested. 

In the Compound Engine the last vestige of an 
excuse for using two high-pressure cylinder en- 
gines is destroyed, and the wanton and ignorant 
disregard of economy and usefulness by the use of 
double high-pressure cylinders are by the "Com- 
pound " Roller made more manifest than ever. 

— — The Aveling & Porter "Compound" 

Rollers are manufactured in the same substantial and excellent manner as are their usual Single High- 
Pressure Cylinder machines, and all are fitted with patented Spring Scrapers, new and improved Steerage 
Drum, enlarged Driver's Foot-Plate, Steam-Jacketed Cylinder, and Crucible-Steel Gearing entirely without 
feathe7-s — a patented arrangement, the infringement of which subjects both seller and buyer to legal 
proceedings. 

STEAM ROAD-ROLLERS, ROAD LOCOMOTIVES, "BARNARDCASTLE" STREET- 
SWEEPING MACHINES, STREET-SCRAPING MACHINES, STONE CRUSHERS, Etc. 




^ 



-apply to- 



(» 



W.C.OASTLER, 43 Exchange Place, New York 



The HflHHisBOt^G Doable Engine Hoad Holler '°vlt 



Not only a Roller but a ROAD MACHINE 



15 and 20 
Tons Weight 




Not How Cheap, but How fiooi. Now in nse in nearly one linndred cities and towns in United States. Send for 
lllustrafed Catalogue. Maniifacturodhy HARRIS3URG FOUNDRY & MACHINE WORKS. HARRISBURG. PA. 
Selling Agents, W. R. KLEMIXG Jk CO.. New York & New Kna-land. New York Office, Mail and Express B'tlV. Boston O<fl''o 
620 Atlantic Avenue, Walter W. Jones, Manager. F. E. BAILEY, Plinadelphia, 21 S. 7th Street, Builders LicUauge 
II. E. BALDWIN, Cincinnati, Perin B'd'g, 5tli and Race Sts. 




JOHN L. MACADAM 



QUARRIES ON HUDSON RIVER 



' ' Broken Stone wJiicli has united by its own 
angles^ so as to form a solid^ hard surface^ makes 
a proper road. " 

JOHN L. MACADAM 




IverS 






AN 



Ci^ushed Granite 
D Blae Stone :: :: 



Recommended by 

CONTRACTORS ARCHITECTS 
AND ROAD BUILDERS 

GRANITE, STORM KING, N. Y, 



BLUESTONE, STONECO, N. Y. 

NEW YORK OFFICE- ..'iiiiniiii' 

2 CORTLANDT STREET 



By Using the 





Austin SteeJ Street Sweeper 

Lightest running, strongest and most 
efficient. Two horses only. Sweeps -jy^ 
feet. Cleans thoroughly any kind of 
pavement. 



oi^i-^ 



Austin Dump Wagon 

Just the thing for carrying away street 
cleanings. Dumped instantly. Holds i% 
yards. Has steel pan. 



In excavating for 
paved streets the 
New Era Wagon 
Loader will load 
from 500 to 600 
wagons per day. 




.^^^. 



The most com 
plete and best line 
of street building 
and cleaning appli- 
ances in the world. 



^■■c^l^yo 



Chicago Rock Crusher 

Stationary or portable, varying in capacity from 
15 to 200 tons per day. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 



"■ii^^^ 





Austin Steel Reversible 

Road riachine 

Keeps dirt roads in good condition and 
saves money for the town while doing it. 



Austin Reversible Roller 

Lightest draft and most easily handled. 
i^-i. 3. 4. 5, 6 and 7 tons. 



F. G. iHlSTlH IWFG. CO., Chicago, 111. 








A SUGGESTION 

If you want the BEST 
buy the CHAMPION 

Champion 
Rock 
Crusher 

Is strong, durablf-, efficient, port- 
able, cheap and fully guaranteed. 

It is unequalled for making mac- 
adam road metal, railroad ballast 
or for conlractors' use. 

Our Large Illustraled Cata= 
logue is free on application. 

American Road 
Machine Co — 

Kennett Square, Pa. 






m 











IB 



New Jersey Trap Rock Company 

BROKEN STONE -.• .-. . 



FOR 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS 

■ :: :: CONCRETE, SCREENINGS, Etc. :: :: 

Pronounced by Engineers the FINEST MATERIAL in the World 
for ROAD MAKING 

Stands crushing test of 22,000 lbs. per cubic inch 

Quarry, Snal^e Hill, Seacaucus Station, D. L. & W. R. R. 
Office, No. I Montgomery Street, Jersey City 



Opposite Pennsylvania R. R. Station 



Telephone, 284 Jersey C5i^ 



[flamn Seharf Asphalt Paving Go. 



Genuine Trinidad Asphalt Pavements 

For Streets, Sidewalks, Driveways ::::::: 



Tbe Standard Pavement for . 
CHEAPNESS . . 
HEALTH . . . 
DURABILITY . . 
SMOOTHNESS and 
SAFETY . . . 



t 



^ 



IT ENHANCES THE VALUE OF PROPERTY MORE 
THAN ANY OTHER PAVEMENT 



Principa^l Office : 

81 Fulton St., r<ew YorK 

SEND FOR CIRCULARS AND ESTIMATES. MENTION "gOOD ROADS" 



Tde Slcliiaq espitait Paving Go. 



CONTRACTORS FOR 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN ROCK 
ASPHALT STREET PAVEMENTS 



TRINIDAD " LAKE" ASPHALT 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



LIMMER ROCK ASPHALT 
FLOORS, PAVEMENTS AMD ROOFS 

FOR BREWERIES, ICE HOUSES, 
WAREHOUSES, CELLARS, STABLES, 
YARDS, SIDEWALKS, Etc. 



ZINSSER'S PATENT INSULA- 
TION FOR WALLS OF ICE 
HOUSES. ETC. 



DEALERS IN 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN ,ROCK ASPHALTS For 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



SICILIAN, LIMMER AND VORWOHLC ROCK 
ASPHALT MASTIC 



CRUDE AND REFINED TRINIDAD ASPHALT 



For Estimates and full information apply to 

Tie Sicilian Asplialt Paving Co., Times Building J. Y. 



• • 



• • 



• • 



He Siamiarii Pavemem ol amerlc 

Tbe Barber 
Aspba^lt 
Pavipg Co. 



has now laid nearly 6,000,000 squan 
yards of genuine Trinidad Asphalt pave^ 
ment in 33 cities of the United States 
Wherever the pavement has been laid H 
has come to stay, and has never been dis' 
placed in favor of any other material. It b 
smooth, durable, clean, noiseless and safe. 



•^^^^ 


GENERAL OFFICES 


^^^^^ 


LE DROIT BUILDING 


W^ '^^^Bi 


WASHINGTON, D. C. 


r THE >^^ 




standard\^| 


WASHINGTON BUILDiN*- 


PAVEMENT Wf 


1 BROADWAY 


"DDFr" 1^ 


NEW YORK, N. Y 


mzMCk.JS/ 


Nearly 6,000,000 Sq. Ydi. oif 


435 lineal miles in use aa<S 


Uid hr tbi* CsnpAX'A^ 



G. L. BOS WORTH & CO. 

AGENTS FOR . . . 

CornpressccI ^spb^It 
® Pzivipg BlocKs 

For Streets ^ 

NOTHING BETTER MADE, SANITARY, NOISELESS, THE 
EASIEST STREET TO KEEP CLEAN, CAN BE TAKEN 
UP AND RELAID AT VERY LITTLE EXPENSE. 
EVERY CITY CAN HAVE ITS OWN LABORERS PUT 
THEM DOWN. SEND FOR PRICES TO . . . 

G. L. Bo^vortb 6- Co. 
HoIyoKe, A\2iss. 



PATENTS. 

SPECIALTIES for expert work: netallurgicaf 
Inventions and Interference Causes. 

We report without charge whether your in-, 
vention is patentable. Send for our new book, 
"Patent Practice." 

CHAMPION & CHAMPION, 

Pacific Building, Washingrton, D. C. 

AVOID GREASE AXD 1>IRT by oUing your machine with 
the best and neatest oil can In the world, the "Perfect Pocket 
Oiler." Does not leak. Regulates supply of oil to a nicety. 
Price 85 cents each, handsomely nickel plated. 




CLSUMAiS A; l>EJ<I80Jir, 1T8 »th ATenue, N. Y. 




"Brennan" Breaker^ Best 

CRUSHES FASTER 

LESS REPAIRS 

USES LESS POWER 

Capacities, 8 to 150 TONS per HOUR 



Young-Brennan Crusher Co. 

42 Cortlandt Street, New York City 



Gates Rock Breaker 




MACADAM IS THE BEST AND CHEAPEST ROAD METAL 
IT IS PRODUCED AT LOWEST COST IN THE 

GATES BREAKER 



Address for Catalogues and Plans 



Gates Iron Works 



136 Liberty St. 

NKW YORK 



237 Franklin St. 

BOSTON 



r)0 S. Clinton St., Chicago, U. S. A. 



D014^T GET C^VIGHT 

WITH A BREAK IN YOUR TIRE 
AND NOTHING TO MEND IT WITH 
GET OUR . . . 




WHICH CONTAINS EVERYTHING YOU NEED FOR 
REPAIRING. ALWAYS HANDY, FITS THE 
POCKET, AND ABSOLUTELY NECES- 
SARY TO EVERY OWNER OF EVERY 
WHEEL. ■ ■ 

IF YOUR LOCAL DEALERS DO 
NOT KEEP 



Price 

50 c. 

Postage Paid 



The COMPANION 

SEND YOUR ORDER and 50c. TO 

BOSTON mm CEinENT CO. 



200 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 




.Sprincfielp. o.^y^^"^ 
^PRINOFIELD 5TEAn ROAD ROLLERS 



rou N« (• 



UNIFORM AND CONTRACTING DEPARTMENT. 

Browning, King & Co. 



406 TO ^J2 

BROOME STREET 

NEW YORK CITY 



JAS.W.llNGARD.Managaf. 




Contract Prices 

• • • 

Coat, S8.00 

Breeches, . . 5. 25 

Cap, 1.25 



Cloth per yard, .. 2.10 
Coat buttons, (eaclij .05 
Small " " .03 



Ladies' Cloth, 
per yard, . 



1.00 



THE- 



Offieial Tailors 



TO THE- 



SAMPLES OF 



League of Ameriean 
Wheelmen 



REGULATION LEAGUE CLOTH c.n bc<.bt.,ned 



ON APPLICATION TO 



BROWNING, KING & CO., New York 



WATCHjdlPRO 







Credenda 
Bicycles 



are coming to the 
front. Their many 
merits and superior 
running qiuiliiies 
are being recog- 
nized b}' discriminating Wheelmen. 
We ask $115.00 for them, and know- 
well that we gi\e you full value 
for money. They are 






¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 



GOOD AS GOLD 



AND SELL FOR- 



A. G. Spalding & Bros. $115.00 

New York Chicago Philadelphia 



¥ 

t 

¥ 




¥ 



"SUNOL" CAMERAS 




Make as Good Photographs as the higher priced 

Cameras. 

Have All modern Improvements Peitecteil to Date! 

Make a 4 x 5 Picture, using either " DRY PLATES" 
or " CUT FILMS," and cost but one-fifth the price of 
Cameras heretofore offered. 

No. 1. Highly Finished Oak Case $5.00 

No. 2. Covered with Grain Leather ,I*''? 

No. 3. (Folding) Covered with Grain Leather (see cut). 10.00 
The No. 3 Folding " Sunol " is the most modern perfected 
Camera offered to the public. 

"SUNOL" CAMERA CO., 174 Pearl St., New York. 



:: IBlO^^OXyK^^ :: 



Agents 
Warned 




Largest Stock in America 
SYLPHS, RUDGES 
OVERLANDS and 
WESTERN WHEEL 
WORKS' CYCLES 

Ofifer unequalled values and variety to Dealers and 
Wheelmen. All sizes and styles of wheels in stock 
and 20 to 50 per cent, saved on many patterns. Easy 
payments if desired. No matter what you want in 
the cvcle line it will pay you to write to us. Our 
Superior Inducement:} bring us orders from every- 
where. Send for catalogue and bargain list free. 

ROUSE, peZHBD i CO., 177 G Street, Peoria, ill. 

Manufacturers, Importers and Jobbers 



TAKE THE 




GOLD PRIZE 



by photographing bad roads with a 
Kodak. It makes the best pictures; 
is easiest to carry on your bicycle. 

$6.00 TO $75.00 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Eastman Kodak Company 

Rochester, N. Y. 



W' 

Blair's Cameras and Films. 






$ 






,.^s 



SJ 



2iiv'™v*'5Si 



^U 









BCMR'S: GATHER AS 

NOTABLY THE ^W 

imWA-m- KAMARET"^^'> "COLUMBUS 

ARE • LEADERS • 1 N • POPULTVRITY 

BD\1 R'5 • n t?\ IN R5LL5 FdR • ij- TO -1 00 PICTURCS^ 
WITHOUT- RE LOADING -IS THE • RELIABLE KWYi 
?# THE • riLn -THAT • GIVES • SUCCESSFUL • RESULTS 

24^^ • STATE STREET -CHICAGO 



FACTORIES 
BOSTON -nASS. '.»:-PAWTUCKET-R.l. 



*^ 



^ee. 



£?JREXHI5IT-ATTHE 



fAl2> 



Cameras to rent for IVorld's Fair Visitors. Cameras loaded. Negatives developed. Pictures 
Blair's Cameras are positively MORE COMPACT than any Cameras in the 



t^ printed, etc., etc. Blair's Cameras are po 

^^ world of equal capacity. Blair's Films have no joints or seams, never frill, are clean, quick 

j^£^ and uniform. 

^ THE BLAIR CAMERA CO., Manufacturers, 471 Tremont St., Boston ; 4SI Broadway, New 

g York ; 245 State St., Chicago. E. & H. T. ANTHONY & CO., New York, Trade Agents. 

^^ Send stamp for a copy of " IN THE FOOTSTEPS OF COLUMBUS," beautifully illustrated with 



Kamaret photographs taken in Italy and Spain. 



i;s>.Lx 



mmm^^mmmmmmMMmsM^ammm-. 



'-». 












n 

i 

i 



x^iiLv 




Cleanest and Neatest Pocket Oiler in the World. 
Will Not Leak. Handsomely Nickel-l'lated. 

For Bicycles, Guns, Typewriters, Sewing Machines, etc., and 
general use on all small and delicate Machinery. 

BOY flILEB PIFB. CO., '^^J'^S^H.Z'l^r' 



WILLIAM S. BACOT, C. E., Mem. Am. Soc. C E. 
Engineer of County Roads 

RICHMOND CO., Staten Island, N. Y. 

9PKC1AI.TIE8: Water-Works, Sewerage, Improvements of Roads 

Offices: 

145 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, and STAPLETON, S. 1. 



Construction and Improvement of 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

A SPECIALTY 

A. T. BYRNE 

Civil Engineer and 331 Fjltom ST. 
g j,^^ ^ Brooklyn, N.Y. 




FOR . . . 

FORCINGS, RIPIS, CPEND9 
and WELDLESS STEL TOBES 
BOWN'S and PERSY'S 
SPECIHLTIES 

AND IN SHORT EVERYTHING NECESSARY FOR 

Bicycle Building 

ADDRESS . . . 

W. W. WHITTEN 

118=124 So. riain Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



JBounD Dolum ee of **Goo5 IRoabS " 

$1.00 



WILL BE SENT . 
POST PAID FOR 



TO ANY ADDRESS 



jfllHEs c, WONDERS. Qivil EnQineep, 

BELLEFONTAINE, O. O * 

Highways and Municipal Work, Plans, Estimates, 
Specifications, Superintendenc*. Correspondenc* 
iavitcd. 



F. A- DUMHAA^» Civil Eosipe^r 

AND EXi'ERT IN ROAD AND S'lKi-KT I.\I PRO VEM KNTS. 

Engineer in Chartje of the following Works : 
The Famous Union Co., N. J., Road System ; Street 
Improvements, Hasbrouck Heights, N. J.; Street 
Paving and Sewerage, Sewickley, Pa.; Street 
Improvements, Olean, N. Y. Is Ci'ry Engineer ct 
Flainfield, N. J , and Dunkirk, N. Y. Correspondence 
Solicited. Main Office, No. 7 Park Ave., Plalnfield, N. J. 



Miuiuiuiiuiiiiiiiiuiiiii;iii.i'i.uiiiiidii^iuitiiiu;iuatiiiu': 



WHEN YOU WRITE 



TO ONE OF 



OUR ADVERTISERS 



PLEASE MENTION 



GOOD ROADS." 



!iiii;iili«iiim«nm"i'innvmni!l!ll'n!"'iwni'::!m!i»iianiiBinfe 




o 



UR WORLD'S F/IIR SCHEHE 



Price $120.00 PECK &- 5riYDER, 



The Bicycling season is at hand, and you cer- 
lainly want a bicycle that is absolutely high 
grade. 
THE NASSAU ^^ i'-^^t such a wheel, and our 
scheme enables you to get one on easy terms. 
For 

$15.00 DOWN '^^''-' '^^''^^ s^^^ 3'°^ *^"®' ^^'^ ^^ 
eleven months, at §10.00 per month, you own 

the wheel. 
REBATE ^^ $5-oo we will allow you if all pay- 
ments are made within six months. 

126-130 /Hziss&u Street 
Uptovs^n Brzincb > 790 B'\vay 



THE TELEQR/in PNEUn/mC TIRE 




GIVES LESS TROUBLE AND BETTER SERVICE 
THAN ANY OTHER MADE .*, *.* .'. 

fitted with Telegram Tires are 

without a peer in the Cycle line. 



TELEDBBPI GT6LES 



FOR PRICES AND INFORMATION, ADDRESS 

. E. VAN YLECK, U. S. egent Baoian cycles 



Write for Catalogue 



310 Broadway, N. Y. City 

THE TIRE PROBLEM SOLVED No wires to kink, no paste, no 
— — wirehooks. One minute for com- 

plete deflation, removal of inner tube and re-inflation. 



% 

% 
% 
% 
% 
% 

% 
% 

% 

% 



"All's well that ends well," 

But that delightful bicycle ride would not end very well if you had to 
WALK HOME because you had punctured your tire. Even with GOOD ROADS 
yoii would consider it a hardship. 

HOWEVER, if you ride a CLEVELAND BICYCLE, IN CASE OP PUNCT- 
URE the CLEVELAND RIM permits the tire to be removed instantly, and 
permanent repairs made in less than FiVC A^IOUt^S. 

ALU WOULD BE VELI ,^ 

Clevcl2ii7<i No. 4 

Ligbt Ro2i«Jstcr 

Clev^Iai?^ /io. 5 

L-acIics' Wbecl 

Fitted with . . . 

Cle\?el/\nd Thread Tire 

and . . . 

BURWELL Dust Proof 3earia<gs 

Easy running qualities unexcelled with this combination. Catalogue on application. 

H. A. UOZIER & CO., CIcvelan<I, Obio 



% 








Jterliosf Bicycles 

THE HIGHEST GRADE ONLY 

Valuably Points of Advzintagg 

SEWD FOR CATALOGUE 

STOKE5 A\FG. CO. 



Tb« Sterlios Specizil 
Rozid Rftcer 
Track Wl)^«l 

Pr«»s of Vanden Houtbn S Co., 24g Piarl'Streei, NTy 



Brzinches 
DE/H\?ER 
/^ILLWAUKEE yv^Aijufacturcrs 

OFFICE AND SALESROOM . . . 

CHICAGO 



'♦\ 



FEATURES 



jfit^* 



THAT 


IS, 


FEATURES 


OF 


SPECIAL 


MERIT ARE 


WHAT 


MAKE 


ONE BICYCLE 


STAND 


PRE-EMINENTLY 


ABOVE 


ANOTHER 


THE XX 


XX 




XX 


XX XX XX XX 




:: OUR LINE ALSO INCLUDES :: 
THE CRYPTO GEARED ORDINARY 
THE CRYPTO FRONT DRIVING 

SAFETY 
THE KING OF SCORCHERS 
THE QUEEN OF SCORCHERS 



POSSESSES MORE OF THESE 
THAN ANY OTHER. WRITE 



FOR CATALOGUE. 



XX 



The - •■ • '"I'l"' 

McIntosh=Huntington Co 

ttlholesale Harduiare ,P Bieyeles 

CLEVELAND, O. 



BIGELOW 

s 



LOW & DOWSE, Boston, Mass. m 

OLE AGENTS FOR THE SUNOL if^ 

IN NEW ENGLAND F/k 




►^; 



THE KING BRIDGE CO., 



BRIDGES. 



CIiEVEIiflflO, OHIO. 



VIADUCTS. 



IRON AND STEEL EYE BARS, GIRDERS AND STRUCTURAL WORK FOR BUILDINGS. 

PLANS. ESTIMATES AND SURVEYS FREE OF COST. 



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-'"<«Str'. 



BRIDGE OVER THE OHIO RIVER, BETWEEN CINCINNATI, O., AND NEWPORT, KY; 

Designed and Built by TITS KING BRIDGE CO. 



Largest Manufacturers of ROAD and GRADING 
IMPLEMENTS in the World 

Western Wheeled Scraper Go. 

OF AURORA. ILL. 

Manufacturers of Popular and 
Celebrated Western Reversibis 
Road Machines; the Perfect West- 
ern Wheeled Scrapers; Western 
Double Bottom Drag Scrapers ; 
Elevating Grader and Wagon Load- 
ers; the New and Improved Roc.c 
Crusher; Wheelbarrows, Dump 
Carls, etc. 



Gen'l Office Sc Works 




Before placiiigorders for 
any of the goods named, 
write to the above address 
for illiistratpd catalogues 
and prices. Terms liberal. 




Over SEVEN THOUSAND of the WESTERN REVERSIBLE ROAD MACHINES now In use. 



SHAVING 




AS A DAILY COIVIFORT-BRINGING 

EXERCISE 

SHAVING 

CAN BE MADE THE REFRESHING 
ENJOYABLE PART or THE 

i 

MORNING TOILET 

The soft, creamy lather produced by 

WILLIAMS' SHAVING STICK is so 

^ cooling, so softening to the beard, so 

comforting to the face that it is an 

actual pleasure to apply it. 



WILLIAMS' 



V.'iLLiAMs' Shaving Stick. 

BE SURE YOU GET 

Each stick enclosed in a beautiful case, strong, compact, attractive. Ask your Druggist 

for WILLIAMS'. If he does not have it, do not let him foist some inferior 

substitute upon you, but send 25 cents in stamps to us and receive a 

genuine WILLIAMS' SHAVIIMG STICK, by return mail, 

postpaid. Address 

The J. B. WILLIAMS CO., Glastonbury. Ct., U. S. A. 

For over Half a Century makers of Fine Shaving Soaps 



4i 



••••- 



Built to Ride" 



GIVES YOU A FULL DESCRIPTION OF THE 




"Illilll" 



ToMo Bicycle Go. 



TOLEDO, OHIO. 



ii 



Devu^tless 



99 



-o»»« 



GOOD ROADS EVERYWHERE 
. FREE OF COST . . 

to Riders of Featherweight Helical Tube Premiers. These Roads involve 
no legislation, taxes, contracts, malaria or convict labor. If they need repair, 
which is seldom, you can do it yourself. And we will guarantee them to 
enable you to ride a 25-pound Helical Premier anywhere, with safety, ease 
and speed. Send two 2-cent stamps for 5 photographs of Helical Tubing 
and Good Roads 

PREMIER CYCLE CO., NEW YORK 




* ' Papa says to 
please send for his 
bicycle and put on 
a pair of those new 

DUNLOP TIRES 

and won't you 
please put a set 
on my doll y's 
coach ? All the 
sawdust is shaking 
out of her legs." 



The Dunlops are the best foi 
every purpose. They cost a 
little more, but 



flniiiriGaii Duniop Tiie Gompaim 

I60 KiKXH Avenue 

NEW YORK 




FOR. 



LADIES AND GENTLEMEN 



LIGHT 
STRONG 
DURABLE 
HANDSOME 

EASY RUNNING 
5AFE ^ ^ 



.MADE BY 



Hickory Wheel Co. 

Newton, Mass. 



THE TELEQR/in FNEUn/ITIQ TIRE 




GIVES LESS TROUBLE AND BETTER SERVICE 
THAN ANY OTHER MADE .*. *.* .*. 

fitted with Telegram Tires are 

without a peer in the Cycle line. 



TEDIPI CYCLES 



FOR PRICES AND INFORMATION, ADDRESS 

. E. VHN VLEGK, O. S. opt Baglaq Cycles 



Write for Catalogue 



310 Broadway, N. Y. City 

THF TIPP PROBLEM SOLVED No wires to kink, no paste, no 
infc, I IKK KKU PL CiU awt^vc Lr ^^ij.gj^^^^]^g Q„g minute for com- 
plete deflation, removal of inne>- tube and re-inflation. 




REMIND one of those old league 
signs which advised the Cycling 
Tourists at the top of a 
fine hill that it was 

"SAFE AND SURE ALL THE WAY" 



GEO. R. B\IiM«E\i\i CNCUE CO. 

308-310 West 59th Street, N. Y. 



Factory 

COLTS' WEST ARMORY, HARTFORD, CONN. 




FOR 1893 



Stands- 



QOOD ROADS 

OR . . . 

BAD ONES 



^ 



WEIGHTS OF ROAD MACHINES, 29, 33, 35 AND 40 POUNDS 



HIGHEST GRADE THROUGHOUT 




iAZlL-SON, TV^VERS 5d OO. 



® 



TUYKKERS OP 

L-ieeRTV OYOL-ES 



55 Liberty Street, 



NEW YORK 



TpiqatiGBlGpie^8nlRgWlieeis 

WITH BALL BEARINGS 




We make nothingr 
but Wheels. Over 6 
years' experience. 

N. Y. Protection 
Strip Pneumatic 
Tires with rims to 
match, supplied to 
the trade. 

Write us for what 
you want." 

1.H.WEST0II&C0. 

Jamesville, N. Y. 

(niar (TIIAaUtl) 



Qyc 



w 



^ 



DEALE 



N 



245 Columbus Ave. 



SSTON.N^ 



THE M06T COMPLETE ENORAVINO E6TABL16HMENT IN THE COUNTPy 

(T WILL PAY YOU TO 
COMMUMICATE WITH 06 
TO GET PRICE>i) AND 
6PECIMEN5 op OUR 
WORK 

FMILWAUKEE 

/ MITCHELLS CHAMBER 
°FC°MMERCe SlUdS. 




MENTIOM _ _ 

"GOOD R0AD5"S^^ 



(HlCAO^D. 

^*^ 0.S.-EXPRE55 BLDG. 
67-89 WASHINGTON 51> 





IF YOU WANT A BRIGHT 

_ STEADY LIGHT AND ONE • 

Jk THAT WILL NOT BE CON- A 

\ TINUALLY GOING OUT, ^ 

# USE W 

• 9 

TieWsfar Solid IHdihIi 

(patent applied for) 

IN YOUR BICYCLE LAflP 

PRICE 50 CENTS 

#■ •" 

^ IF YOU WANT SOMETHING THAT 
\ WILL NOT MAKE YOUR CHAIN DIRTY 
^ AND GREASY, USE 

TI|e Red Star Ciiain LuBricaiit 

PRICE 25 CENTS 

IF YOU WANT AN OIL THAT WILL 
MAKE YOUR MACHINE RUN EASY 
USE 

me Red Star Lutiricating Oil 

Hade especially for BALL BEARINGS 
PRICE 25 C ENTS 

ALL FIRST-CLASS DEALERS KEEP 
OUR GOODS. SAMPLES SENT ON 
RECEIPT OF PRICE 

RED STARMFQ. CO. 

^ Factory, LONG ISLAND 

^ P. 0. Box 1092, New York 



'^v— • 



,;^> 



-i-ii/. 



^M^" 



r-A(v> 



■f 



ALL THE 
JCOMFORTS 
^ !0F HOMEi 

includes' the great temperance drink 

Hires'Ki 

kit gives New Life to the Old Folks, 
Pleasure to the Parents, 
Health to the Children. 

Good for All— Good All the Tinie.^ 

.A 25 cent package makes Five, 

gallons. He?ureandget^ 

Hires.' 



FOREIGN A>I> AMERICAN OTOLINO PAPERS, 
PERIODICALS, UAISO BOOKS AND ROAD BOOKS 
FOB SALE. Send for List. 

FLETCUER & CO., 48 E. Tan Buren St., OMeac*. 



JOHN N. OSTROM 



Member • 



Am. Soc. C. E. 

Western Soc. of Engineers 




Bridge 



Engineer 



East Randolph, N. Y. 

Strain Sheets, Estimates, Details 
Inspection, Erection. 

BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE AND SUBSTRUCTURE, 
VIADUCTS, ROOFS, BUILDING MATERIALS A\D 
STEEL RAILS 

Surveys for Locating Substructures 
OF All Kinds Executed Promptly 

Soundings and Borings for Bridges 
and Other Foundations 

. . PHOTOGRAPHIC REPORTS 

■ • ON FIE_D WORK .... 



Estimates Furnished to Responsible 
Parties on Application 




The FaFFel fomin and IBaehine Go.,flnsonia,Comi 

THE FARREL & MARSDEN CRUSHER, the standard machine for road metal; with 
or without screen, mounted or unmounted; ten sizes. Write for catalogtie 
And list of cities, towns, contractors and individuals using this machine. 



# s. c 



NIGHTINGALE &. CHILDS, 134 PEARL STREET, BOSTON 

New England Agents for the Farrel & Marsden Stone Crusher, and Contractors for 

Complete inacadain ?oaii Building Plants. it^Xs?^?n\frnt ''^y'liLT::! i:.iti'J.Xci 

Horse aud Stoam Road Kollers, Engines and Boilers. 



Drills, Etc. 

Competent Engineer furnished for locating and advising. 




Send for Catalogue. 




CDroaght Ipon Bridge 

CKNTON, OHIO. 



Co. 



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U 



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o 



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e 
O 



Ul 
J 
GO 
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Z. 

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>est Higbway Bridges. • • 



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PLANS AND ESTIMATES FREE. 



WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



*l. S. BULL 



B. D. HARRIS 



uffalo Cycle Works 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

High Gi^ade 
Bicycles : : 

The "BUFFALO" Racer 
Scorcher and Light Roadster 



Pneumatic Sulky Wheels a Specialty 

OFFICE AND WORKS 

Kensington, " Erie " R. R. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

H. C. MARTIN & CO. 

CONTROLLING ENTIRE OUTPUT FOR '93 

588 Haiti Street, = - BUFFALO, N. Y. 




KEGISTEBEB 

Model A, HrSTrER, for 

fast work, actual weight, 
25, 27 and 29 lbs. 

Model B, Roadster for hard 
riders, actual weight 35 lbs. 

Model C, Roadster for ladies, 
heavy riders, act'l weight, 
35 lbs. 

Model D, Roadster comb'n 
for general use, actual 
weight, 40 lbs. 

Model E, Special 
FEATHERWEIGHT, 
ladies', actual weight, 25, 
27 and 29 lbs. 

Model F, Tricycle for either 
sex. 

Our experience covers 
©uarter of a Centurg 

devoted entirely to cycle 
construction and tells a tale. 
We commenced with the 
wooden Velocipede in Eng- 
land. Afterwards built and 
used on the roads nearly 
twenty years since, inch 
ordinarys, weighing but 27 
and 28 pounds, naturally 
placing us in a position to 
give to the American riders 
- ^ ia 18M the first Tandem to 
^>V \ larry lady and gentleman 
• and in 1886 the First and 
only practical Lady's 
IJicycle, which was a 
DART weighing only 32 lbs. 

DARTS and LIGHTWEIGHTS are SYNONYMOUS. 

SMITH ^WHEEI. MFG. CO. 

42-50 'W. 67tli St., New York 
921 H Street, N. W. "W^ashingrtoii, D.C. 

Agents need them to complete any line. Send for Usts. 




The Hflt^t^isBUt^G Doable Engine Hoad Holler 



Not only a Roller but a ROAD MACHINE 



10, 12, 15 and 20 
Tons Weight 




Not Hotv Chpap, bnt. IIoiv Gnol. Now in u=;e in nparlv one linnrlrprl cities anrl towns in TTniterl States. Send for 
Illustrated rataloKue.ManufarfunMhv HARRISBURG FOUNDRY & MACHINE WORKS. HARRISBURG. PA. 
Selling Afjents, W. K. KI-EMIN'G A- €»., Now York & New Entrland. New York -imce. Mail and Express B'dV. Boston Office 
620 Atlantic Avenue, Walter W. Jones. Manatrer. F. E. BAILEY, rhiladelphia, 21 S. 7th Street, Builders' Exchange 
II. E. BALDWIN, Cincinnati, Perlu E'd'g, 5th and Race Sts. 



■ r^^m 







jOh.n l. macadam 



"■Broken Stone w/iiih It as united by its oic/i 
angles^ so as to Jonn a solid^ hard surface^ makes 



a proper road. 



JOHN L. MACADAM 



Himson giver \\m 

CtT^ashed Gt^anite 



AN 



D Blae Stone :: :: 



Recommended by 

CONTRACTOI^S ARCHITECTS 
AND ROAD BUILDERS 



QUARRIES ON HUDSON RIVER GRANITE, STORM KING, N. Y. 

BLUESTONE, STONECO, N. Y. 

NEW YORK OFFICE •"■i • 

2 CORTLANDT STREET 



Lowest Rates Scenery Unsurpassed 
Unequalled Privileges 

ARE OFFERED TO PARTIES GOING TO 

The World's Fair 



A choice of FIVE ROUTES via the Great White Mountain Notch, the 
Green Mountains, Montreal, Niagara Falls or via Washington. Any desired 
route going or returning between all points 

EAST OR WEST 

Boston, Detroit, CHICAGO, St, Paul, Minneapolis, St. Louis, Kansas 
City, Philadelphia, Washington, Denver, San P'^rancisco and the Pacific 
Coast, via 

The Great Through Line 

The Boston and Maine Railroad 

AND ITS CONNECTIONS 

The Central Vermont R. R. R. W. and O. R. R. 

Grand Trunk Ry. Canadian Pacific Ry. 

Baltimore and Ohio R. R. 

Through Sleepers and Fast Dally Trains between Boston and Chicago 

Only one night on the road 

The only line running Through Sleepers between Boston and St. Paul, 
Minn. Through Sleepers daily between Boston and Philadelphia, Baltimore 
and Washington. All transfers avoided via the Poughkeepsie Bridge Route. 



To the Tourist and Pleasure Seekers 

The Boston and flaine Railroad offers a variety of Summer Resorts not 
reached by any other line, covering as it does the entire Eastern and Northern 
New England, Canada and the Northern Provinces. 

TVip QpQchnT'P '-^^^ North Shore, York Beach, Wells Beach, Kennebeck Port, Old 
liic c»»aaiiuiw Orchard Beach, Bar Harbor, St. Andrews and all Beach and Coast 
•Resorts. 

The L2,kCS Winnpesaukee, Sunapa, Memphremagog, Megantic, St. John, Champlain, 
all the Celebrated Fishing and Hunting Resorts. 

The M0UIlt2.illS White Mountains, Adirondack Mountains, Mt. Kineo, Green Mount- 
ains, all Mountain Resorts of Northern New York and New England. 

Round Trip Tickets at Reduced Rates at principal offices during entire season. 



"Alongshore," '"Lakes and Streams,'' ''Among the Mountains," superbl^ illustrated descriptive 
books, will be sent post-paid on receipt of lo cents each in stamps. Excursion book covering entire system, 
showing routes, rates, hotel and boarding house list, sent free to all applicants. 

For full information regarding routes and rates, apply to any of the principal offices of the Company, 
or address General Passenger Department, Boston. 

W. F. Berry D. J. Flanders 

Gcw'l Traffic Manager. Gen'l Passenger and Ticket Agent. 




Tb« Sterling Specizil 
Road Racer 
TracK Wb^«I 

V«ls:bt 27 Ibj, 



Jtcrliosf Bicycles 

THE HIGHEST GRADE ONLY 

V?vlu2iblg Points of A c lvzvotzvg^ 

SE/SD FOR CATALOGUE 

o^I'^bT' STOKE5 r\^o. CO. 

/^ILLWAUKEE V^2inufa.cturers 

OFFICE AND SALESROOM . . . 

291 Wabasb ^vcnue 



CHICAGO 



1 WANTED t 



NAMES AND ADDRESSES 

(PLAINLY WRITTEN) 

OF EVERY 



SUPERVISOR, CIVIL ENGINEER, SELECTMAN, 

CITY ENGINEER, ROAD COMMISSIONER, 

CONTRACTOR, CHOSEN FREEHOLDER AND LEGISLATOR 

IN THE UNITED STATES. 



SEND US AS MANY OF THESE NAMES AND ADDRESSES AS YOU CAN SCRAPE 

TOGETHER. IT WILL HELP THE CAUSE. 



"GOOD ROADS," 

Potter Building. 

NEW YORK. 




Binders for " Good Roads." 

Keep your magazines firmly and neatly together 
in the form of one book. Convenient and easy to 
handle. Sent (postpaid) at following prices : 

Plain, - - - - 8o cents each. 
"With " Good Roads " in gilt letters, $i.oo each. 
Address 

• "GOOD ROADS," 

POTTER BUILDING, 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



SUGGESTION 





m 



I^you want the BEST 
buy the CHAMPION 

THE Champion 
Rock 
Crusher 

Is strong, durable, efficient, port- 
able, cheap and fully guaranteed. 

It is unequalled for making mac- 
adam road metal, railroad ballast 
or for contractors' use. 

Our Large Illustrated Cata= 
logue is free on application. 

American Road 
Machine Co — 

Kennett Square, Pa. 



■ 













IB 



New Jersey Trap Rock Company 

BROKEN STONE •.• .-. . 



FOR 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS 

:: :: CONCRETE, SCREENINGS, Etc. :: :: 

Pronounced by Engineers the FINEST MATERIAL in the World 
for ROAD MAKING 

Stands crushing test of 22,000 lbs. per cubic inch 

Quarry, Snake Hill, Seacaucus Station, D. L. & W. R. R. 
Office, No. I Montgomery Street, Jersey City 



opposite Pennsylvania R. R. Station 



Telephone, 284 Jersey CJitjp 



{flamD Seharf Asphalt Paving Go. 

Genuine Trinidad Asphalt Pavements 

For Streets, Sidewalks, Driveways ::::::: 



The Standard Pavement for . 

CHEAPNESS . . 

HEALTH . . . 
fr DURABILITY . . 
* SMOOTHNESS and 

SAFETY . . . 



^ 



IT ENHANCES THE VALUE OF PROPERTY MORE 
THAN ANY OTHER PAVEMENT 



Principal Office : 

SI Pultop St., riew YorK 

SEND FOR CIRCULARS AND ESTIMATES. MENTION "gOOD ROADS'" 



THe Slcliiaq Bspiait Paving Go. 



CONTRACTORS FOR 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN ROCK 
ASPHALT STREET PAVEMENTS 



TRINIDAD " LAKE" ASPHALT 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



LIMMER ROCK ASPHALT 
FLOORS, PAVEMENTS AND ROOFS 

FOR BREWERIES, ICE HOUSES, 
WAREHOUSES, CELLARS, STABLES, 
YARDS, SIDEWALKS, Etc. 



ZINSSER'S PATENT 
TION FOR WALLS OF 
HOUSES, ETC. 



INSULA- 
ICE 



DEALERS IN 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN .ROCK ASPHALTS FOR 
street PAVEMENTS 



SICILIAN, LIMMER AND VORWOHLE ROCK 
ASPHALT MASTIC 



CRUDE AND REFINED TRINIDAD ASPHALT 



For Estimates and full information apply to 

Tie Sicilian AspMlt Pamg Co., Times Building, N.Y. 



* c 



• « 



Be Siamiarii Paveinem ot M0 

Tbe B2irber 
Aspb2^1t 
P^^/ir)% Co. 



Luas now laid nearly 6,000,000 squats 
/ards of genuine Trinidad Asphalt pave^ 
anent in 33 cities of the United States 
Wherever the pavement has been laid I? 
lias come to stay, and has never been dis= 
placed in favor of any other material, it b 
4;raooth, durable, clean, noiseless and safe 



SENERAL OFFICES 

LE DROIT BUILDIIM@ 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Washington BuiLOiN? 

1 BROADWAY 
New York, N Y 

Nearly 6,000,000 Sq. Ydu »S 
435 lineal miles in use «ffld 




G. L. BOSWORTH & CO. 



* 



AGENTS FOR . . . 

Cornprcssecl Asphalt 

Paving BlocKs 

For streets * 

nothing better made, sanitary, noiseless, the 

EASIEST street TO KEEP CLEAN, CAN BE TAKEN 
UP AND RELAID AT VERY LITTLE EXPENSE. 
EVERY CITY CAN HAVE ITS OWN LABORERS PUT 
THEM DOWN. SEND FOR PRICES TO . . . 

G. L. Bo^vortb 6* Co. 

HoIyoKc, A\2iss. 



PATENTS. 

SPECIALTIES for expert work: Hetallur^ical 
Inventions and Interference Causes. 

We report witiiout ciiarge whether your In- 
vention is patentable. Send for our new book, 
"Patent Practice." 

CHAMPION & CHAMPION, 

Pacific Building, Washington, D. C, 

AVOID GRKASE AND DIKT by oUinp your machine with 
the best and neatest oil can in the world, the "Perleet Pocket 
Oiler." Does not leak. Retrulat^-s supply ot oil to a nicety. 
Price 85 cents each, handsomely nickel plated. 




ClJisUilAN i DEM80S, 178 9th Avenue, X 




"Brennan" Breaker'^ Best 

CRUSHES FASTER 

LESS REPAIRS 

USES LESS POWER 

Capacities, 8 to 1 50 TONS per HOUR 



Young-Brennan Crusher Co. 

42 Cortlandt Street, New York City 



Gates Rock Breaker 




MACADAM IS THE BEST AND CHEAPEST ROAD METAL 
IT IS PRODUCED AT LOWEST COST IN THE 

GATES BREAKER 



Address for Catalogues and Plans 



Gates Iron Works 



136 Liberty St. 

NEW YORK 



237 Franklin St. 

BOSTON 



50 S. Clinton St., Chicago, U. S. A, 



\)OU''T GET C^V1GHT 

WITH A BREAK IN YOUR TIRE 
AND NOTHING TO MEND IT WITH 
GET OUR . . . 




WHICH CONTAINS EVERYTHING YOU NEED FOR 
REPAIRING. ALWAYS HANDY, FITS THE 
POCKET, AND ABSOLUTELY NECES- 
SARY TO EVERY OWNER OF EVERY 



WHEEL. 



Price 

50 c. 

Postage Paid 



IF YOUR LOCAL DEALERS DO 
NOT KEEP 

The COMPANION 

SEND YOUR ORDER and 50c. TO 

BOSTON mm CEIHENT GO. 



200 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 



m 0. S. KELLY COMPANY, 

SPRINGFIELD, OHIO. 

Steam Road Rollers, Steam Asphalt Rollers, 
Portable Heating Tanks, s treet Contractors' Supplies. 

Location at World's Fair 

Grounds, between Stock 

Pavilion and Agricultural 

Annex, on Road leading to 

Springfield Steam Road Roller. Forestry and Dairy Building. 

IMe^w IllTastrated Catalogue 

Sent Free on Application.. Springfield Steam Asphalt Roller. 





rOBB N* « 



UNIFORM AND CONTRACTING DEPARTMENT. 

Browning, King & Co. 



406 TO 4^/2 

BROOME STREET 

HE" VOBK CITV 

JAS.W.llNGARD.Mintfir. 




Contract Prices 

« I • 

Coat,.. ..' .. $8.00 
Breeches, . . 5.25 

Cap, 1.25 



Cloth per yard, .. 2.10 
Coat buttons, (each) .05 
Small " " .03 



Ladies' Cloth, 
per yard, . . . . 1.00 



THE- 



TO THE 



Official Tailors 

• 



SAMPLES OF 



Leagae of flmeriean 
Wheelmen 



REGULATION LEAGUE CLOTH g"", 



BE OBTAINED 
APPLICATION TO 



BROWNING, KING & CO., New York 



®*^*®*^***^^**^^*'^^^**^*^^*^*^ 



% 

% 



OFFICIAL MAKERS OF SUNDRIES TO THE LEAGUE 
OF AMERICAN WHEELMEN 

Authorized by the E.xecutive Committee 
A. G. SPALDING c5c BROS. 

CAP, League Regulation $1-25 

SHIRTS, League Regulation 2.00 

No. XX Fine Cheviot, for hot weather wear i.oo 

STOCKINGS, Our Celebrated Linen Sole Stocking, League Color .. i.oo 

BELTS, No. X Silk 40 

SHOES, Our New L. A. W. Kangaroo Shoe, hand-made, light, strong, clastic 4.00 

No. I, Canvas, Leather Tiimmings 3-50 

SENT P0ST=PAID ON RECEIPT OF PRICE. 
Send for Catalogue of Knit, Racing and Training Suits. ,^___ 

A, G. Spalding & Bros. 

243 Broadway, New York 
108 Madison Street, Chicago 1032 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia 




















1893 MODEL 



New /^ail 



, Strzkigbt Dia.roon<l Pra.nje 
1^ Strictly Higb Gra.<Ie 
* AJI Drop Porgings 
M. & W. Style Pneumatics, - • $126.00 
Dunlop Detachable " ■ . - 136.00 
No Finer Wheel Made. Send for Cataloeu* 



MANUFACTURERS 



Wro. Read 6- Sops 

107 Wasbingtoi) street 

BOSTOiH 



:: BlOYOXvE^^ :: 



Agents 
Waniefl 




Largest Stock in America 
SYLPHS, RUDQES 
OVERLANDS and 
WESTERN WHEEL 
____ __ _ WORKS' CYCLES 

Offer unequalled values and variety to Dealers and 
Wheelmen. All sizes and styles of wheels in stock 
and 20 to 50 per cent, saved on many patterns. Easy 
payments if desired. No matter what you want in 
the cycle line\t will pay you to write to us. Our 
Superior Inducements bring us orders from every- 
where. Send for catalogue and bargain list free. 

BOOSE, pflZBBD k CO., 177 B Street, Peoria, HI. 

Manufacturers, Importers and Jobbers 



KODAKS 



The Columbus Model Folding Kodaks com- 
bine the desirable features of a complete view 
camera with the compactness of a Kodak. 

Recent Improvements include the iris dia- 
phragm shutter with pneumatic release, double 
swing back and sliding front. Can be used with 
long focus or wide angle lenses. 

Easily adapted to stereoscopic work. Made 

in three sizes ; 4x5, '5 x 7 and 6J x 84. 



Send for 
Catalogue. 



EASTMAN KODAK CO. 

Rochester, N. Y. 




Blair's 

Film 



Blair's Cameras j ^^^^^^ 
and Films ^^^ L-jCIAUCI %j. 

The HAWK-EYE. 4x5. Standard American hand camera. 
Largest sale of :iny combined plate and roll-film camera. Prices, 
from $12.50 to $50. 

The FOLDING HAWK-EYE. 5x7 and 6 1-2x8 1-2. Highest 
grade folding hand cameras extant. $40 to $135. 

The K^MA%ET. 4x5 and 5x7. A great favorite 

with tourists. Uses film in rolls, or attachments for 

plates. $40 to $60. 

The COLUMBUS. 4x5. (For roll film only,) 25 

to 100 exposures. Latest production at 

a popular price, $25. 

•'THE 400." 4x5. Unapproached in 

compactness, style and finish. Only 3 1-2 

in. thick, when folded. Morocco covered 

inside and out. A perfect gem. 





fms never been r&sponsi- 
ble for failures in pho- 
tograph v. 

OUR CHICAOO HOUSE, 

245 State St., is headquarters for 
every tiling relating to Photography. 

Cameras for sale ; 
Cameras to rent ; 
Negatives developed; 
Pictures printed; &c. 

Note our Exhibit, Sec. E, Col. Q 103, 

LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING. 





"'""UZJ^ZiZ-s >^^^,^«>^ B/air' s Film. ^^| 



Film in rolls or v^ith attach- 
ment for plates. $60 and $70. 
Send stamp for a copy of 
"In the Foot.steps of 

Columbus," 



Boston; 451 Broad- lis 



THE BLAIR CAMERA CO., 471 Tremont St. 

way New York ; 245 State St., Chicago. P%''r*^«'^: 

E. & H. T. ANTHONY & CO., New York, Trade Agents. lL^?f!??y^i 



S 






beautifully illustra- 
ted with Kamaret 
photographs taken 
in Italy and Spain. 




\a/E Print "Goo<I Roa.t!s" 
2^n<I Evcrytbing: else 
tbz^t is <3oo<l. 

Vanden Houten &■ Co. 

249 Pca.rl Street, 
ti<t^ YorK. 



WILLIAM S. BACOT, C. E., Mem. Am. Soc. C. E. 
Engineer of County Roads 

RICHMOND CO., Staten Island, N. Y. 

Spkcialtiks; Water-Worka, Sewerage, ImprovementB of Roadi 

Offices: 

145 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, and STAPLETON, S. I. 



Construction and Improvement of 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

A SPECIALTY 
A. T. BYRNE 

Civil Engineer and 361 Fulton St. 

^nn-j— IT Brooklyn, N. Y. 



FORCINGS, Rims, CREDENDd 
and WELDLESS STEEL TOBES 
BOWN'S and PERRY'S 
SPECULTIES 

AND IN SHORT EVERYTHING NECESSARY FOR 

Bicycle Building^ 

s . . . 

W. W. WHITTEN 

118=124 So. riain Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 




ADDRESS 



JBoiinO Dolumes of 



WILL BE SENT 
POST PAID FCR 



: $1.00 

TO ANY ADDRESS 



jfllttEs c, wopERs, Civil Enqineep, 

BELLEFONTAINE, O. 3 ' 

Highways and Municipal Worlt, Plana, Estimaies, 
Specifications, Superintend«no«. Correspondeno* 
iMvitcd. 



F. A. DUMHAni Civil Engineer 

AND Expert in Road and Street Improvements. 

Engineer in Charge of the following Works : 
The Famous Union Co., N. J., Road System ; Street 
Improvements, Hasbrouck Heights, N. J.; Street 
Paving and Sewerage, Sewickley, Pa.; Street 
Improvements, Olean, N. Y. Is City Engineer of 
Plainfield, N. J , and Dunkirk, N. Y. Correspondence 
Solicited. Main Office, No. 7 Park Ave., Plainfield, N. J. 



,lllJliijliUliiiUUiUJUailUlUIIUUlUUUiilMUUUIillWMUUUii>^llLUM^^ 



WHEN YOU WRITE 



TO ONE OF 



OUR ADVERTISERS | 

1 i 

1 I 

I I 

I PLEASE MENTION | 



"good roads." I 



i!i!niiriniiiiipm'iiiniiiiiimiiuiiini!:ni!iw!i)"!PT,!i;r 




o 



UR WORLD'S FAIR SCHEHE 



Price $120.00 PECK €r ^^YDER, 



The Bicycling season is at hand, and von cer- 
tainly want a bicycle that is absolutely high 
grade. 
THE NASSAU ^^ J^^t such a wheel, and our 

scheme enables you to get one on easy terms. 
For 

$15.00 DOWN ''^''-' ^^'''1 sell you one, and in 
eleven months, at §io.oo per month, j'ou own 
the wheel. 

REBATE ot" §5-oo we will allow you if all pay- 
ments are made within six months. 

126-130 /Szvssz^u Street 
Uptovs^p Bra^OCb 1 790 B'Vsra.y 



LEHIGH VALLEY DIVISION 

READING R. R. SYSTEM 

MTV^ERIOT^'S SCENIC ROUXO 



FROM 

New York 
Philadelphia 
Baltimore and 
^^' Washington 



TO 

Rochester 
Buffalo 



Niagara Falls 
Chicago and the West 



VIA THE PICTURESQUE 

Lehigh, Wyoming and Susquehanna Valleys 

WORLD'S FAIR FLYER at 11.30 A. M. 
CHICAGO SPECIAL at 6 P. M. 
WESTERN NIGHT EXPRESS at 8 P. M. 

FROM NEW YORK CITY 
THROUGH PULLMAN SERVICE VIA 

Grand Trunk and Chicago and Grand Trunk 

This route embodies with the service every important feature tending to the safety, 
comfort and pleasure of the traveler. 

Tickets, Pullman accommodations and full particulars can be procured at the following 
offices: Nos. 235, 261, 291, 415, 849, 944, 1140 and 1323 Broadway, 31 East 14th Street, 134 
and 156 East 125th Street, 264 West 125th Street, 143 Bowery and foot of Liberty Street, 
New York City; Corner Broad and Chestnut, 9th and Chestnut, 18 South Fortieth Streets, 
Philadelphia & Reading Depot, 12th and Market Streets, Ninth and Columbia Avenue 
and 3d and Berks Streets, Philadelphia. 

The New York Transfer Co. will call for and check baggage from hotel or residence 
to destination. 

C. Q. HANCOCK A. W. NONNEMACHER 

Gen' I Passenger Agent Assistant Gen' I Passenger Agent 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. SOUTH BETHLEHEM, PA. 

5»r«iis of Vanpen Houtkn & Co., 240 Pearl Street, N^ y. 




j^flDlES DO rlOT HflCE 






and consequently look more to comfort than to speed in the selection 
of a wheel. If a bicycle is speedy there ai'e reasons for it. In 
RAMBLERS it is the easy nmning bearing-s and the comfort pro- 
moting G. & J. PNEUMATIC TIRES. All points considered, the 

LiADlES' t^RpBliEt^, JVIODELi "B" 

is the best and most graceful light bicycle for women in the market 
to-day. It has the same kind of bearings and Non-slipping Corrugated 
Pneumatic Tires as are found in those swift, easy running RAMBLERS 
which have carried winners in most races this year. 

AVhatever make of machine is used, women should insist upon 
having Corrugated Pneumatic Tires fitted to it. Sufc^ slipping is 
da/igerol/s, especially to women, who cannot readily save themselves 
on account of long skirts. Any maker or dealer will furnish these 
tires if vou insist. 

CATALOGUE FREE 

" G. & J. COHHUGflTED PHEUJVIRTIG TIKES DO NOT SliIP " RlAfBLER 

AGENCY 



1 



Got^mally & Jeffery ]VIfg. Co. 

Chicago Boston Washington ^euu York Coventry, Eng. 



^ 



t 



GOOD ROADS 




Good Roads are coming sure 

It will take time 

Do not wait for them 

And suffer annoyance and all the jolts and jars the 
flesh is heir to 

See that your wheels C7^^^^-^ T'S- 

: ; : are fitted with Seddoii Tircs 

The "Red Un" is the best 



A represents the Envelope, which has a bottom ( Ai) cw»«rmg' tbe sipok* 

holes in the rim 
B the outer Air Chamber 
C the inner Air Chamber inflated 
D the Valve leading into inner chamber 
E E the Wire Bands 
P the Rim 




gUlTABUE FOR s » ; 

CYCLES 
SULKIE5 
BUGGIES 
ROAD WAGONS 
BARRINETTES, Etc. 



AMERICAN SEDDONS 
TYRE CO . 

65 Reade Street 
New York 




> 




GENERALLY, USE 

ANTI- 
STIFF 



TO STRENGTHEN THE 
MUSCLES 

It has a particularly Warm- 
ing, Comforting and Stim- 
ulatina: effect on all Weak 
' or Stiff Muscles; quick in 
action, clean and pleasant 
in use. 

For Sale by Druggists and 
Dealers in Sporting Goods 

E FOOGERB 4 CO., soie eoents 

26-30 N. William St., N. Y. 



The risk 

of carrying fine goods is part of the cost. 
Every time you bump a high-priced 
watch it costs you four dollars. Don't 
you realize that you would be better off 
with an every-day watch for the wear 
and tear ? — as an accurate jeweled time- 
piece, and equal in looks with the 
other, can be bought for $15 down to 
$4; the new, quick=winding "Water- 
bury" winds in five seconds. Don't 
forget the name. 



All jewelers keep it: in all styles: 

Gold, filled, ( 1 4-karat,) coin-silver, 

etc. Both ladies' and gentlemen's 

watches. 

33 



THE LEAGUE CYCLE CO. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Beveled 

Gears 
Finely Cut 

and 
Accurately 

Adjusted, 
on Ball 

Bearings 
to take the 

place of 
Chains and 

Sprockets 



THE 




Jleague painless 




30 Union Place, Hartford, Conn. 



mde a WaVfttrlg^y 





WAVERLEY SCORCHER, 32 LBS. 



STRICTLY 
HIGH GRADE 



One JiiDHreH Dollars 



**Our Guarantee" 

As so many of our numerous correspondents ask what 
"Guarantee goes with the ' Waverley? ' " we wish to im- 
press upon the general public simply this: The " Waverley " 
IS fully warranted to be a strictly high grade machine in every 
particular. It is built of the best quality of seamless steel 
tube. Dropped forgings and tool steel throughout, we guar- 
antee every part to be perfect, and agree to replace any part 
that may, within a very liberal period, show any defect of any 
kind that is due to an imperfection in either workmanship or 
material. The " Waverley " goes with this warrant, which is 
backed by the Indiana Bicycle Co., who own and run the 
largest bicycle factory in the world: who are thoroughly re- 
sponsible, having a paid-in cash capital of One Million Dollars, 
no part of which is composed of patents at inflated prices, but 
is money pure and simple. Who can produce a better 
guarantee? 



Equal to any machine made at any price. Fitted 
with Hoosier Double Lace Inner Tube Tires. 



Indiana Bieyele Co. 



Write for Catalogue and 
:: Dealers Terms : 



Indianapolis, Ind. 



mlwa^s on XTop 
— •'■'•'•iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii'' 




EXAMINE THEM BEFORE 



PLACING YOUR ORDER 



CATALOGUE READY :: 




IRoaD Iking 




H^ jfeatberetone d Co. 

16tb anb Claris gtreetg anb 
armour avenue, Cblcaoo, 1IIL 



1RoaD (Slueen 



R ALEIGHS 



WON IN 1892 



f3| 2,300 PRIZES 



■'^ 




ZIMMERMAN 
AND THZ RALEIGH 



A wonderful test of 
SPEED and QUALITY 



4(p 



THE RALEIGH CYCLE CO., Ltd. 



Bank and Greenwich Streets 



NEW YORK 



OPEN 



The ACAVE LUGGASE CARRIER 

j"" Every 
Wheelman 
wants one 

)^ as soon as 
he sees it 

STANLiARD 




Neat, Simple 
Effective 






No 

Buckles 
to bother 
with 




SMALLEST when closed Pat. June 2u, 1893 LARGEST when open 



HANDSOMELY NICKEL- 
PLATED AND POLISHED 

Price $1.50 

Apply to your dealer, or 
upon receipt of price, we 
will deliver it free to any 
address in the United 
States. Electros Free. 



Hall Manufacturing Company 

No. 120 Broadway 
New York City, N. Y. 




dScemenuTthrTr'S; JOHN H. GRAHAM & CO., General Agents 



t THE * 
FINEST 
ROADS 



(^ 




AND THE SMOOTHEST 
TRACK IN AMERICA . 

ARE IN 

CHICAGO 



SPECIALLY PROVIDED 
FOR THE .... 



♦ 



INTERNATIONAL 

CYCLE MEETING 

:: ON AUGUST 5 TO 12 :: 



THE FIRST BONAFIDE 

CHAMPIONSHIPS OF THE WORLD 

EVER CONTESTED WILL OCCUR, WITH 

-^ 

ABUNDANT ENTERTAINMENTS 
GRAND RACING 
WORLD'S FAIR ATTRACTIONS 

PHirArO ENTERTAINS THE WORLD 
l^mv^illJ^ FOR THIS PURPOSE 




HAS BEEN 
GUARANTEED 



ENTRIES FOR RACES CLOSE WITH 



THE 
PICKED MEN 

OF 
ALL NATIONS 

AS 
COMPETITORS 



H. E. RAYAVOND 

BROOKLYN 

OF WHOM ENTRY BLANKS MAY BE OBTAINED T 



«?wnn??!W????????????!!??ni5 




Every agent admits that, with the 
exception of the bicycle he sells, 

Victor Bicycles 



are 



Best. 



Such straws show conclusively the 
way the wind blows. 



OVERMAN WHEEL CO. 



BOSTON, 



Washington; 



DENVER, 



SAN FRANCISCO, 



OFFICE AND FACTORY, 



Chicopee Falls, 



Mass. 



riUUiUOUUiUiUiUiiiiUiUUSC 




THE SPEED OF RAMBLERS 

Proof of wliicli was very much in evidence ia most speed contests of this year, as shown in the list 
of races won and records brotten, is not alone confined to the Rambler Racer, but is 

A CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE 

of all Ramblers. It is due to the principles employed in their construction. Please note that — uiilikf 

other racing machines, which are built so entirely different from the regular road machines of same 
makes as to be unrecognizable — the 

"COPPER RIM RACER" 

is built on the same lines as our regular road machines, only lighter. It goes to show that the prin- 
ciple is right, that the frame is scientifically proportioned, that the G. & J. PNEUMATIC TIRES are 
fast in any form and that Rambler bearings are "speed promoting." 
A RECORD OF 



159 Firsts 
Hi Seconds 



r.-t Thirds 
12 Fourths 



21 First Time Prizes 
9 Second " 



since September last IS VERY GOOD PROOF 

Catalogue of all " Light Runniig Ramblers " free at Rambler agencies. 



GORMULLY 
& JEFFERY 
MFG. CO. 




CHICAGO 
BOSTON 
WASHINGTON 
NEW YORK 

COVENTRY 

ENG. 



Lowest Rates 



TO 



The World's Fair 



And to All Points West and Northwest 



Only $29.60 

Boston to Chicago and Return 

VIA 

The Great Through Line 

The Boston and Maine Railroad 

Central Vermont Railroad 
Grand Trunk Railway 

Chicago and Grand Trunk Railway 

Passing through the Green Mountain Region, Montreal and Toronto 



iven in connection with all 
above route. 



A Free Side Trip to Niagara Falls and Return is g 

£. Worlds i'air Jixcursion i ickets via a 

FAST TRAIN SERVICES 

The Chicago Limited ;?^'^^^ ^^°ft°" (S"- ^^^,y,- station) at 11:30 a. m., arnving in 

2 Chicago at 9:30 r. m. the toUowing day. fclegant Pullman 

Vestibuled Sleepers through without change. 

Fast Express Daily J.^^.^^^ ^ft°n (So. DI^v. station) at 7:30 r ^r., arnving in 

1. ± Chicago at 8:30 a. m. the second morning. Elegant Pullman 

Vestibuled Sleepers through without change. 

Boston City Ticket Office: 214-218 Washington Street. 



To the Tourist and Pleasure Seeker 

The Boston and Maine Railroad and its connections offer a variety of Summer Resorts 
not reached by any other line, reaching as it does the entire Eastern and Northern New 
England, Canada and the Maritime Provinces. 

"All Along Shore," " Lakes and Streams," " Among- the Mountains," superbly illustrated descriptive 
books, will be sent post-paid on receipt of 10 cents each in stamps. E.xcursion book covering- entire system, 
showing routes, rates, hotel and boarding house list, sent free to all applicants. 

For fifU information regarding routes and rates, apply to any of the principal offices of the Company, 
or address General Passenger Department, B. & M. R. R., Boston. 

W. F. Berry D. J. Flanders 

Gen'l Traffic Manager. Gen'l Passenger and Ticket Agent. 





rs 




GENERALLY, USE 

ANTI- 
STIFF 



TO STRENGTHEN THE 
MUSCLES 

It has a particularly Warm- 

I ing. Comforting and Stim- 

^ ulating effect on all Weak 

' or Stiff Muscles; quick in 

action, clean and pleasant 

in use. 

For Sale by Druggists and 
Dealers in Sporting Goods 

E FODGERO & CO., sole agents 

26-30 N. William St., N. Y. 



't'« mule sense 

to pay fifty dollars for. a watch when you 
can get as good for ten dollars or less. 

It is better to be right than to be— left. 



It looks the same, 
Wears the same, 
Acts the same 
As a fifty=tlollar watch. 

You'll never be LEFT 



WITH THE 



Quick=W^inding 

Waterbury 

It is modern. 
It is handsome. 
It is accurate. 

All jewelers sell it. $4 to $1 =;. 
It any jeweler does not keep the Waterbury 
watches, write us. 

WATERBURY WATCH CO., 

Waterburv, Conn. 



THE LEAGUE CYCLE CO. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Beveled 

Gears 
Finely Cut 

and 
Accurately 

Adjusted 
on Ball 

Bearings 
to take the 

place of 
Chains and 

Sprockets 




W ]|eague (ghalnless^afety 



30 Union Place, Hartford, Conn. 



t^ide a 



Waverley 





WAVERLEY SCORCHER, 32 LBS. 



STRICTLY 
HIGH GRADE 






rs 



■vaiiBiimaiiaitsii 



"Our Guarantee*' 

As so many of our numerous correspondents ask what 
" Guarantee goes with the ' Waverley ? ' " we wish to im- 
press upon the general public simply this: The " Waverley " 
is fully warranted to be a strictly high grade machine in every 
particular. It is built of the best quality of seamless steel 
tube. Dropped forgings and tool steel tiiroughout, we guar- 
antee every part to be perfect, and agree to replace any part 
that may, within a very liberal period, show any defect of any 
kind that is due to an imperfection in either workmanship or 
material. The " Waverley " goes with this warrant, which is 
backed by the Indiana Bicycle Co., who own and run the 
largest bicycle factory in the world: who are thoroughly re- 
sponsible, having a paid-in cash capital of One Million Dollars, 
no part of which is composed of patents at inflated prices, but 
is money pure and simple. Who can produce a better 
guarantee ? 



Equal to any machine made at any price. Fitted 
with Hoosier Double Lace Inner Tube Tires. 



Indiana Bicycle Co. 



Write for Catalogue and 
:: Dealers Terms : 



Indianapolis, Ind. 



mlwa^s on XTop 
■■■■'■'"'■niiiilillilllllllllllll|||||||||]||||i' 




EXAMINE THEM BEFORE 



PLACING YOUR ORDER 



CATALOGUE READY : 




IRoaD Ikino 




H. jFeatberetone & Co. 

:: flDakerg :: 

letb an^ Clarfe gtreetg anb 

armour avenue, Cbicaeo, HIL 



IRoat) (Siueen 




A GALAXY OF STARS 



NOW WINNING FAME 
ON 



k'%^%^ 



RALEIQHS 



'^ik>^*^^'*/%-%/%-'V%'%/%.'%'%^^%^w%''%^%''%''V^ 



"ZIMMERMAN on TRAINING" 
50 Cents by flail 



ZIMMERMAN 


WHEELER 


CANTU 


BRECKIPJRIDGE 


BIRD 


CELLIERS 


fJENSINGER 


ALLAN 


DU CROS 


JOHNSON (Charleston) 


HESS 


BUNI 


BAIRD 


BANKER 


LINTON 


WELLS 


JUDGE 


DALFRAV 


MARTIN 


SCOTT 


MEIXL6R 


STEVES 


CLARKE 


ASHINGER 


WILLIS 


KING 


KELLEY 


ROE 


EDWARDS 





P[ iAi^ORD TO THE inZISE IS SWFFIOIENT 

The Raleigh Cycle Co., 



Ltd, 



Bank and Greenwich Sts., New York 



OPEN 



The ACnE LUGGASE CARRIER 

^f Every 
Wheelman 
wants one 
I as soon as 
he sees it 

STAXHAKU 




Neat, Simple 
Effective 






No 

Buckles 
to bother 
with 




SMALLEST when closed 



Pat. June 20, isos 



LARGEST when open 



HANDSOMELY NICKEL- 
PLATED AND POLISHED 

Price $1.50 

Apply to your dealer, or 
upon receipt of price, we 
will deliver it free to any 
address in the United 
States. Electros Free. 
Special Prices and in- 
ducements to the Trade 



Hall Manufacturing Company 

No. 120 Broadway 
New York City, N. Y. 

JOHN H. GRAHAM & CO., General Agents 




LEHIGH VALLEY DIVISION 

READING R. R. SYSTEM 

T^TV^ERIOT^'S SOENIO ROUTE 



FROM 

New York 



Philadelphia 
Baltimore and 
* Washington 



TO 



Rochester 
Buffalo 



Niagara Falls 
Chicago and the West 



VIA THE PICTURESQUE 

Lehigh, Wyoming and Susquehanna Valleys 

WORLD'S FAIR FLYER at 11.30 A. M. 
CHICAGO SPECIAL at 6 P. M. 
WESTERN NIGHT EXPRESS at 8 P. M. 

FROM NEW YORK CITY 
THROUGH PULLMAN SERVICE VIA 

Grand Trunk and Chicago and Grand Trunk 

This route embodies with the service every important feature tending to the safetv, 
comfort and pleasure of the traveler. 

Tickets, Pullman accommodations and full particulars can be procured at the following 
offices: Nos. 235, 261, 291, 415, 849, 944, 1140 and 1323 Broadway, 31 East 14th Street, 134 
and 156 East 125th Street, 264 West 125th Street, 143 Bowery and foot of Liberty Street, 
New York City; Corner Broad and. Chestnut, gth and Chestnut, iS South Fortieth Streets, 
Philadelphia & Reading Depot, 12th and Market Streets, Ninth and Columbia Avenue 
and 3d and Berks Streets, Philadelphia. 

The New York Transfer Co. will call for and check baggage from hotel or residence 
to destination. 

C. Q. HANCOCK A. W. NONNEMACHER 

Qen'l Passenger Agent Assistant Qen'l Passenger Agent 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. SOUTH BETHLEHEM, PA. 



5^????????!!w?wnwnw???w4 




owtoRspain 






on theKoa^ 



DON'T DO II RIDE A VICTOR. 

One maker says of his tire ; 

" By the use of tire tape only * * * and with rubber 
solution, if this is at hand, any rider can make a repair," 
etc. "The mode is described in a new pamphlet," etc. 
"A complete repair kit costs $1.50," etc. 

Another maker says : 

"Remove outer cover; put the tube in water (if you 
can find any) clean the tube, rub on solution, put on patch, 
let it dry, rub on chalk, replace tube," etc. 

Now with VICTORS it's different. Slip out the punct- 
ured inner tube through the hole in the rim, substitute spare 
tube from tool bag (no extra cost), pump in the air and 
your tire is new, and go on your way rejoicing, while the 
other fellow spends an hour repairing, or walks home. 



OVERMAN WHEEL CO. 

BOSTON, WASHINGTON, DENVER, SAN FRANCISCO. 



OFFICE AND FACTORY 



niiicapee Falls^ - - Massachusetts. 





jEMiND one of those old league 
signs which advised the Cycling 
Tourists at the top of a 
fine hill that it was 

-5AFE AND SURE ALL THE WAY" 



GEO. R. B\DV*E\i\i CNCUE CO. 

308-310 West 59th Street, N. Y. 



Factory 

COLTS' WEST ARMORY, HARTFORD, CONN. 




FOR 1893 



Stands- 



® 



GOOD ROADS 

OR . . . 

BAD ONES 



^ 



WEIGHTS OF ROAD MACHINES, 29, 33, 35 AND 40 POUNDS 



HIGHEST GRADE THROUGHOUT 




AA^IL-SON, TVYVERS Sa OO. 



« 



LIBERTY CVCL-eS 



15 Liberty Street. 



NEW YORK 



l>pii)aflGlilGgcie<^SDiK!iWiieeis 

WITH BALL BEARINGS 

We make nothing 
but Wheels. Over 6 
years' experience. 

N. Y. Protection 
Strip Pneumatic 
Tires with rims to 
match, supplied to 
the trade. 

Write us for what 
you want." 

I.H.WE8T0II&CQ. 

Jamesville, N. Y. 




:: :biOY^CIv33^» :: 



AgeDis 
WaDied 




1 



Largest Stock in America 
SYLPHS, RUDQES 
OVERLANDS and 
WESTERN WHEEL 
WORKS' CYCLES 

Offer unequalled values and variety to Dealers and 
Wheelmen. All sizes and styles of wheels in stock 
and 20 to 50 per cent, saved on many patterns. Easy 
payments if desired. No matter what you want in 
the cycle line it will pay you to write to us. Our 
Superior Inducements bring us orders fmm every- 
where. Send for catalogue and bargain list free. 

BOUSE, peZBBD k CO., 177 G Street, Peoria, III. 

Manufacturers, Importers and Jobbers 



The MO-ST (OAVPLETE EWORAViHCi EiT^RL^ THE (OUNTRY , 

I Ml rCHELL BaiLDINO - f\ [[.yi^OKE E^^^AMBER of COMMERCE ffLWi. M 



I Binner Engraving (ou) 



«|\ «|« iix *|\ 



'I* '•> , 'o '»* 'i^ »i» '»■» »»^ 'ix '|\ /«« '»» /|» 'ly fi* 'i* '»» 'o 



> U. S: EKPRESS'ffLDTO -^H ll^ A O * &7-69 WA6WN6™ 6T. | 
Write Jo OsfOR PRICE665PttlMEN6 OpOoRWoRK- ItWiLLPayYoU • MENTION'fioODROAD^r'f 



IF YOU WANT A BRIGHT 
STEADY LIGHT AND ONE 

^ THAT WILL NOT BE CON- ^ 

K TINUALLY GOING OUT, ^ 

^ USE ^ 

• • 

M ¥ Star SolM IlIuM 

(patent applied fob) 

IN vouR BICYCLE LAHP 

_^ PRICE 50 CENTS 

_ _ 

^ IF YOU WANT SOMETHING THAT 
T WILL NOT MAKE YOUR CHAIN DIRTY 
^ AND GREASY, USE 

i Tf|e Red Star Ciiaiii LotiriGaiit 

^ PRICE 25 CENTS 

.^ IF YOU WANT AN OIL THAT WILL 
\ MAKE YOUR MACHINE RUN EASY 

# USE 

^ Tlie Red Star Luliricating Oil 

Hade especially for BALL BEARINGS 
PRICE 25 CENTS 

ALL FIRST-CLASS DEALERS KEEP 
OUR GOODS. SAMPLES SENT ON 
RECEIPT OF PRICE 

RED STARMFG. CO. 

^ Factory, LONG ISLAND ^ 

^ P. O. Box 1092, New York 



W. S. BULL 



B. D. HARRIS 



Buffalo Cycle Works 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

High Gt^ade 
Bicycles : : 

The "BUFFALO" Racer 
Scorcher and Light Roadster 



Pneumatic Sulky Wheels a Specialty 

OFFICE AND WORKS 

Kensins^ton, ♦♦ Erie " R. R. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

H. C. MARTIN & CO. 

CONTROLLING ENTIRE OUTPUT FOR '9S 

b88 riain Street, - - BUFFALO. N. Y. 



JOHN N. OSTROM 



., ( Am. Soc. C. E. 

I Western Soc. of Engineers 




Bridge 



En§:ineer 



East Randolph, N. Y. 

Strain Sheets, Estimates, Details 
Inspection, Erection. 

BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE AND SUBSTRUCTURE, 
VIADUCTS, ROOFS, BUILDING MATERIALS AND 
STEEL RAILS 

Surveys for Locating Substructures 
OF All Kinds Executed Promptly 

Soundings and Borings for Bridges 
and Other Foundations 

PHOTOGRAPHIC REPORTS 
■ ■ ON FIELD WORK .... 



Estimates Furnished to Responsible 
Parties on Application 




PATEflT AND IJWPHOVED STONE fil^EflKE^ 

The fm%\ Foandry and IWaehine Go.,flnsonia,Gonii 

THE FARREL & MARSDEN CRUSHER, the standard machine for road metal ; with 
or without screen, mounted or unmounted, ten sizes. Write for catalogue 
and list of cities, towns, contractors and individuals usinj^ this machine. 



S. C. NIGHTINGALE & CHILDS, 134 PEARL STREET, BOSTON # 

New England Agents for the Parrel & Marsden Stone Crusher, and Contractors for ^ 

Complete macadam aoad Buiidino Plants. iS^p^L^fin^g %':,lTJ:i s'4Set,'te i 

Drills, Etc. Horse and Stoam Boad Hollers, Engines and Boilers. ^ 

Competent Engineer furnished for locating and advising. Send for Catalogue. 








A SUGGESTION 





If you want the BEST 
buy the CHAMPION 

THE Champion 
Rock 
Crusher 

Is strong, durable, efficient, port- 
able, cheap and fully guaranteed. 

It is unequalled for making mac- 
adam road metal, railroad ballast 
or for contractors' use. 

Our Large Illustrated Cata=- 
logue is free on application. 

American Road 
Machine Co. — 

Kennett Square, Pa. 















New Jersey Trap Rock Company 

BROKEN STONE / .-. •. 



FOR 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS 

:: :: CONCRETE, SCREENINGS, Etc. :: :: 

Pronounced by Engineers the FINEST MATERIAL in the World 
for ROAD MAKING 

Stands crushing test of 23,000 lbs. per cubic inch 

Quarry, Snake Hill, Seacaucus Station, D. L. & W. R. R. 
Office, No. I Montgomery Street, Jersey City 



opposite P«nBKv?'^«JiM«. R, R„ Stfttlom 



Tel«phon«.. ^H J»rfi«ir Ony 



The HflHi^isBUHG Doable Engine Hoad Hollep Xl'I 



Not only a Roller but a ROAD MACHINE 

m 



and 20 
Weight 




Kot How Cheap, bnt, Hon- floofl. No-win use in nparlv one linnrlrofl cities and towns in United States. Send for 
Illustrated Catalogue. Maniifaotiired by HARRISBURG FOUNDRY & MACHINE WORKS, HARRISBURG, PA. 
Selling Agents, W. R. FLEMING A- €0., New York & New England. New York Office. Mail and Express B'd'g. Boston Office 
820 Atlantic Avenue, -Walter -W. Jones, Manager. F. E. BAILEY, Philadelphia, 21 S. 7th Street, Builders' Exchange 
H. E. BALD-WIN, Cincinnati, Perin B'd'g, 5th and Race Sts. 




S-' 5^'-' 



JOHN 1 \ Al\1)^M 



' * Broken Stone luliich has united by its own 
angles^ so as to form a solid, hard surface, makes 



a proper road. 



JOHN L. MACADAM 

iSio 



Won tiver Stone Supply Go. 

Oruslnzd Gt^anite 
AND Blae Stone :: :: 

Recommended by 

CONTRACTORS ARCHITECTS 
AND ROAD BUILDERS 



QUARRIES ON HUDSON RIVER GRANITE, STORM KING, N. Y. 

BLUESTONE, STONECO, N. Y. 

NEW YORK OFFICE - ■■miin. 

2 CORTLANDT STREET 



UlamD Sebarf Asphalt Paving Go. 



Genuine Trinidad Asphalt Pavements 



For Streets, Sidewalks, Driveways 



The Standard Pavement for . 
CHEAPNESS . . 
HEALTH . . . 
DURABILITY . . 
SMOOTHNESS and 
SAFETY . . . 



I 



« 



IT ENHANCES THE VALUE OF PROPERTY MORE 
THAN ANY OTHER PAVEMENT 

Pripcipatl Office ' 

81 Fultoi? St., riew YorK 



SEND FOR CIRCULARS AND ESTIMATES. MENTION GOOD ROADS' 



THe SlGllian flspHalt Pavliio Go. 



CONTRACTORS FOR 



SICILIAIM AND GERIVIAN ROCK 
ASPHALT STREET PAVEMENTS 



TRINIDAD " LAKE" ASPHALT 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



LIMMER ROCK ASPHALT 
FLOORS, PAVEMENTS AND ROOFS 

For BREWERIES, ICE HOUSES, 
WAREHOUSES, CELLARS, STABLES, 
YARDS, SIDEWALKS, Etc. 



ZINSSER'S PATENT INSULA- 
TION FOR WALLS OF ICE 
HOUSES, ETC. 



DEALERS IN 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN .ROCK ASPHALTS FOR 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



SICILIAN, LIMMER AND VORWOHLE ROCK 
ASPHALT MASTIC 



CRUDE AND REFINED TRINIDAD ASPHALT 



For Estimates and full information apply to 

Tie Sicilian AspMlt Paving Co., Times Bnildingj. Y. 



• • 



• • 



• • 



TlieSlamlarilPaTeiiiEiitetBuerlci 

Tbe Bzirber 
Aspb^^lt 
Paivipg Co. 

has now laid nearly 6,000,000 squart 
yards of genuine Trinidad Asphalt pave- 
ment in 33 cities of the United States. 
Wherever the pavement has been laid It 
has come to stay, and has never been dis- 
placed in favor of any other material. It Is 
smooth, durable, clean, noiseless and safe. 



GENERAL OFFICES 



^^^^Cf!|^ 


LE DROIT BUILDINtt 


^r \^8k 


WASHINGTON, D. C. 


THE \^^|k 




STANDARP\^W 


WASHINGTON BUILDIN* 


PAVEMENT Wf 


1 BROADWAY 


-3DFC~ Sg 


New YORK. N. Y 


im£mck./Mf 






Nearly 6,000,000 Sq. Yds. M* 


435 lineal miles in um aad 


lAi4 ^r tbia Cmm^mmf. 



G. L. BOSWORTH & CO. 

AGENTS FOR . . . 

Cornprcsse<i ^spb^^It 
® Paviog BIocKs 

For Streets ^ 

MOTHING BETTER MADE, SANITARY, NOISELESS, THE 
EASIEST STREET TO KEEP CLEAN, CAN BE TAKEN 
UP AND RELAID AT VERY LITTLE EXPENSE. 
EVERY CITY CAN HAVE ITS OWN LABORERS PUT 
THEM DOWN. SEND FOR PRICES TO . . . 

G. L. Bo^vortb 6- Co. 
HoIyoHe, A\2iss. 



PATENTS. 

SPECIALTIES for expert work: iletallurfflcaJ 
Inventions and Interference Causes. 

We report without charge whether your ln« 
▼ention is patentable. Send for our new book, 
"Patent Practice." 

CHAMPION & CHAMPION, 

Pacific Building. Washington, D. C. 

AVOID GREASE AND DIRT by oiling your machine with 
the best and neatest oil can in the world, the "Perfect Pocket 
Oiler." Does not leak. Regulates supply of oil to a nicety. 
Price 25 cente each, handsomely nickel plated. 

> 

r- 
OUBHMAN & DENI80N, 178 9th Avenue, X. T. 





Irennan" Breaker^ Best 

CRUSHES FASTER 

LESS REPAIRS 

USES LESS POWER 

Capacities, 8 to 1 50 TONS per HOUR 



Young-Brennan Crusher Co. 

42 Cortlandt Street, New York City 



Gates Rock Breaker 




MACADAM IS THE BEST AMD CHEAPEST ROAD METAL 
IT IS PRODUCED AT LOWEST COST IN THE 

.GATES BREAKER 



Address for Catalogues and Plans 



Gates Iron Works 



136 Liberty St. 

NEW YORK 



237 Franklin St. 

BOSTON 



50 S. Clinton St., Chicago, U. S. A. 



KODAKS 



The Columbus Model Folding Kodaks com- 
bine the desirable features of a complete view 
camera with the compactness of a Kodak. 

Recent Improvements include the iris dia- 
phragm shutter with pneumatic release, double 
swiuLf back and sliding front. Can be used with 
long focus or wide angle lenses. 

Easily adapted to stereoscopic work. Made 

in three sizes . 4 x 5, 5 x 7 and o.l x Si. 



Send for 
Ciitalosrue. 



EASTMAN KODAK CO. 

Rochester, N. Y. 



FOR 




FOBGINGS, BIPIS, GPEND9 
and WELDLESS STEEL TOBES 
BOWN'S and PEBJY'S 
SPECIJLTIES 

AND IN SHORT EVERYTHING NECESSARY FOR 

Bicycle Building* 

s . . . 

W. W. WHITTEN 

118=124 So. riain Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



ADDRESS 



MO.S. KELLY COMPANY, 

SPRINGFIELD, OHIO. 

Steam Road Rollers, Steam Asphalt Rollers, 
Portable Heating Tanks, street Contractors' Supplies. 




Springfield Steam Road Roller. 



Location at World's Fair 
Grounds, between Stock 
Pavilion and Agricultural 
Annex, on Road leading to 
Forestry and Dairy Building. 




IMew Illustrated Catalogue 

Sent Free 011. Application.. Springfield Steam Asphalt Roller. 



ra*a H* «• 



* 
% 
® 
® 
® 
* 






UNIFORM AMD CONTRACTING DEPARTMENT. 

Browning, King & Co, 



406 TO A>^I2 

BROOME STREET 

NEV* YORK CITY 

JAS. W.IINGARD, Maniggr, 



Contract Prices 



Coat, . . 
Breeches, 
Cap, . . 



$8.00 
5.25 
1.25 




Cloth per yard, . . 2.10 
Coat buttons, (each) .05 
Small " " .03 



Ladies' Cloth, 
per yard, . . 



1.00 



THE- 



SAMPLES OF 



Official Tailors 

TO THE -^— • 

League of ftmepieao 

Whfifilmen 



REGULATION LEAGUE CLOTH gr.PPL?l."'o«T<, 

BROWNING, KING & CO., New York 



OFFICIAL MAKERS OF SUNDRIES TO THE LEAGUE 
OF AMERICAN WHEELMEN 

Authorized by the Executive Committee 
A. G. SPALDINQ & BROS. 

CAP, League Regulation $1.25 

SHIRTS, League Regulation 2.00 

No. XX Fine Cheviot, for hot weatiier wear i.oo 

STOCKINGS, Our Celebrated Linen Sole Stocl<ing, League Color .. .. i.oo 

BELTS, No. X Silk 40 

SHOES, Our New L. A. W. Kangaroo Shoe, hand-made, light, strong, elastic 4. CO 

No. I, Canvas, Leather Tiimmings . . . . 3-50 

SENT POST=PAID ON RECEIPT OF PRICE. 
Send for Catalogue of Knit, Racing and Training Suits. _^^_^ 

A. G. Spalding & Bros. 

243 Broadway, New York 
108 Madison Street, Chicago 1032 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia 







Tb« Stcrlios Spccizil 
Roa<i Racer 
Track Wb^^l 



Jtcrlipsf Bicycles 

THE HIGHEST GRADE ONLY 

V2vlu2vbl^ Points of A c lv2vnt2v${^ 

SErtD FOR CATALOGUE 

DENVER '' STOKE5 r^FQ. CO. 

^lUUVAUKEE A\&nuf&cturcrs 

OFFICE AND SALESROOM . . , 

295 Wabasb /VvcQUC 
CHICAGO 



A Business Affait^ 



^ 



UUe apc the PKintefs 

Vandcn jiouten St Co. 

249 PeaPl St., jM. V. 



WILLIAM S. BACOT, C. E., Mem. Am. Soc. C E. 

Engineer of County Roads 

RICHMOND CO., Staten Island, N. Y. 

■pbclaxtiei : Water-Works, Sewerage, ImproTements of Reads 

Offices: 

145 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, and STAPLETON, S. I. 



Construction and Improvement of 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

A SPECIALTY 

A. T. BYRNE 

^vil Engineer and 361 Fulton St. 

a y — - Brooklyn, N. Y. 



aSounP \t)oIume6 of **(3ooD IRoabS" 

$1.00 



WILL BE SENT . 
POST PAID FOR 



TO ANY ADDRESS 



WES G mmns, Civil EnQineer, 

BELLEFONTAINE, O. D ^ 

Highways and Municipal Work, Plan«, Estimates, 
pecificatioms, Sup«rint9nd«no», Corr«»poBd«iM» 



Specificat; 

javitsd 



F. A* DUNHAA\» Civil Engineer 

AND Expert in Road and Street Improvements. 

Engineer in Charge of the following Works : 
The Famous Union Co., N. J., Road System ; Street 
Improvements, Hasbrouck Heights, N. J.; Street 
Paving and Sewerage, Sewickley, Pa.; Street 
Improvements, Olean, N. Y. Is City Engineer of 
Plainfield, N. J., and Dunkirk, N. Y. Correspondence 
Solicited. Main Office, No. 7 Park Ave., Plainfield, N. J. 



FOREICN A»D AMERICAN CYOLFIVG PAPERS, 
PERIODICALS, HAND BOOKS AND ROAD BOOES 
FOR SALE. Send for LUt. 

FLETCHER & CO., 48 E. Tan Buren St.. CUokb* 




Binders for " Good Roads." 

Keep your magazines firmly and neatly together 
in the form of one book. Convenient and easy tc 
handle. Sent (postpaid) at following prices : 

Plain, - - - - 80 cents each. 
With " Good Roads " in gilt letters, $i.oo each. 
Address 

"GOOD ROADS," 

POTTER BUILDING, 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



■:;illl]aill|ii"i""""'""i' """■■ UNiiiMMiiuiMgJiMiaiilljiiiijiiiu limiiiN 



WHEN YOU WRITE 



TO ONE OF 



I OUR ADVERTISERS 



i PLEASE MENTION 



GOOD ROADS." 



iiiiMiiliiiiiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiimMmimiiiiiiiiiiniiiMiiiwiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiMiim^^^^^ 



1 WANTED 1 



NAMES AND ADDRESSES 



(PLAINLY WRITTEN) 

OF EVERY 



SUPERVISOR, CIVIL ENGINEER, SELECTMAN, 

CITY ENGINEER, ROAD COMMISSIONER, 

CONTRACTOR, CHOSEN FREEHOLDER AND LEGISLATOR 

IN THE; UNITKD STATES. 



SEND US AS MANY OF THESE NAMES AND ADDRESSES AS YOU CAN SCRAPE 

TOGETHER. IT WILL HELP THE CAUSE. 



"GOOD ROADS," 

Potter Building. 

NEW YORK. 



Press of Vanden Houten & Co., 249jPearl St., N. Y. 




See it at the World's Fair 

One of the very first 

Q. & J. PNEUriATIC TIRES 

ever turned out. It has been almost constantly in use since 1891, 
over all sorts of roads, and is to-day in Good Condition 



See also the 



Largest Pneamatie Tires Ever |VIade 

A pair of G. & J. Pneumatic Tires, with Corrugated 
Surface, fitted to G. & J. Patent Rims, inflated and " ready 
for use." Size, ten feet in diameter. 



Please note also that 

Rambler Bicycles There Exhibited 

are all regular stock machines, such as can be bought at 
any Rambler Agency, and not especially made for exhibition 

NO SPECIAL MADE, FANCY "PAINT AND PUTTY" NONSENSE 

"STOCK KfllVlBLEHS flHE GOOD ENOUGH" 



CALL AND LEAVE YOUR NAME FOR 1894 CATALOGUE 

GormuUy & Jeffery Mfg. Co. 

Transpoptation Building, Gallepy "F" 

Nos. 18, 19 and 20, World's Fair, Chica§:o 

CHICAGO RETAIL STORE, 85 MADISOM STREET 
CHICAGO BOSTON WASHINGTON NEW YORK LONDON, COVENTRY, EN6. 



■^ 



UNIFORM AND CONTRACTING DEPARTMENT. 

Browning, King & Co. 



40e TO ^12 

BROOME STREET 

Htf VORK CITY 



JAS. W. IINGARD, Mwt(w. 



Contract Prices 



Coat, . . 
Breeches, 
Cap, . . 



$8.00 
6.25 
1.25 




Cloth per yard, .. 2.10 
Coat buttons, (each) .05 
Small " " .03 



Ladies' Cloth, 
per yard, . . . . 1.00 



THE- 



TO THE 



Official Tailors 

• 



SAMPLES OF 



League of flmerieaii 
Whfifitmfit) 



REQULATION LEAGUE CLOTH §r.?puc;T,'oN i 



TO 



BROWNING, KING & CO., New York 



® 

® 

^ 
® 
^ 
® 
® 
^ 
^ 
^ 
^ 
^ 
® 
^ 
^ 
® 
* 
® 
^ 



OFFICIAL MAKERS OF SUNDRIES TO THE LEAGUE 
OF AMERICAN WHEELMEN 

Authorized by the Executive Committee 
A. G. SPALDINO & BROS. 
CAP, League Regulation $1.25 



SHIRTS, League Regulation 

No. XX Fine Cheviot, for hot weather wear 

STOCKINGS, Our Celebrated Linen Sole Stocking, League Color 

BELTS, No. X Silk 

SHOES, Our New L. A. W. Kangaroo Shoe, hand-made, light, strong, elastic 

No. I, Canvas, Leather Tiimmings 

SENT POST=PAID ON RECEIPT OF PRICE. 



2.00 
1. 00 
1.00 
.40 
4.00 
3.50 



Send for Catalogue of Knit, Racing and Training Suits.. 



A. G. Spalding & Bros. 

243 Broadway, New York 
108 Madison Street, Chicago 1032 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia 




* 







A GALAXY OF STARS 



NOW WINNING FAME 
ON ^^^^ 



'%/%%/V%/%^%/%.'%^%'%/%''%/%''%/%.'%/%.'%^V'W%/%^%' 



RALE1GH5 



"♦ZIMMERMAN ON TRAINING" 
50 Cents by flail 



ZIMMERMAN 


WHEELER 


CANTU 


BRECKINRIDGE 


BIRD 


CELLIERS 


BENSINGER 


ALLAN 


DU CROS 


JOHNSON (Charleston) 


HESS 


BUNI 


BAIRD 


BANKER 


LINTON 


WELLS 


JUDGE 


DALIFRAV 


MARTIN 


SCOTT 


MEIXLER 


STEVES 


CLARKE 


ASHINGER 


WILLIS 


KING 


KELLEY 


ROE 


EDWARDS 





7:^ iA£ORD TO THE iA^ISE IS S\JI=FICIENT 

The Raleigh Cycle Co., Ltd 

Bank and Qreenwich Sts., New York 



Hlwa^s on Zo^ 
•'•oilillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll-' 




EXAMINE THEM BEFORE 



PLACING YOUR ORDER 



CATALOGUE READY : 




IRoaD Ikina 




a. jfeatberstone S. Co. 

:: flDaf^erg :: 
letb an^ Clark Streets ant) 



^W armour avenue, Cbica^o, 1IL 



IRoaD (Slueen 




TO STRENGTHEN THE 
MUSCLES 

It has a particularly Warm- 
ing. Comforting and Stim- 
ulatinar effect on all Weak 
or Stiff Muscles; quick in 
action, clean and pleasant 
in use. 

For Sale by Druggists and 
Dealers in Sporting Goods 



E FOOea & CO., Soie Hoents 

36-30 N. William St., N. Y. 



Wei 1= bred watches 

result from noble ancestry, 

early association, discipline, and 
natural selection : They are 
chosen by well-bred people ; 
who prefer taste, elegance, and 
accurate time, rather than dis- 
play and great expense. Expen- 
sive things are seldom the most 
stylish or satisfying. You will 
miss your train or your dinner 
quite as easy and often with a 
hundred-dollar watch, as with 
the new, quick=winding Wat- 
erbury, which is just as hand- 
some, is genuine J, and costs from 
$15 down to $4. 

Jeweled movement ; stem-wind- 
ing and setting ; guaranteed 



case ;— tilled, gold, coin-sil- 
ver, etc. — for business men, 
ladies, and boys. All jewelers. 



39 



5J^^.^Wavepley 





WAVERLEY SCORCHER, 32 LBS. 



STRICTLY 
HIGH GRADE 



One jimHreil Dollars 



**Our Guarantee" 

As so many of our numerous correspondents ask what 
" Guarantee goes with the ' Wavedey ? ' " we wish to im- 
press upon the general public simply this : The ' ' Waverley " 
is fully warranted to be a strictly high grade machine in every 
particular. It is built of the best quality of seamless steel 
tube. Dropped forgings and tool steel throughout, we guar- 
antee every part to be perfect, and agree to replace any part 
that may, within a very liberal period, show any defect of any 
kind that is due to an imperfection in either workmanship or 
material. The " Waverley " goes with this warrant, which is 
backed by the Indiana Bicycle Co., who own and run the 
largest bicycle f;ictory in the wodd : who are thoroughly re- 
sponsible, having a paid-in cash capital of One Million Dollars, 
no part of which is composed of patents at intlated prices, but 
is money pure and simple. Who can produce a better 
guarantee? 



Equal to any machine made at any price. Fitted 
with Hoosier Double Lace Inner Tube Tires. 



Indiana Bicycle Co. 



Write for Catalogue and 
:: Dealers Terms : 



^Indianapolis, Ind. 



»???wwwwfnw???n??nw^ 




VICTOR WAYS. 



YOU DONT 

. . . have to locate the leak 
in a Victor Pneumatic Tire 
before you can effect a repair. 

You don't have to Iup a 
repair shop or hunt up a 
water trough to find the 
bubbles. 



YOU DO 

. . . carry an extra inner 
tube alonor to be used in 
place of "don'ts." 

You pull out the punc- 
tured inner tube and substi- 
tute a whole one. 

You take care of the leak 
another time — at home where 
your repair kit belongs. 



There's No Choice in Pneumatics. 
Victors are Best. 



□VERMiLN WHEEL CD. 

BOSTOH WASHINGTON DENVER SAH FEANOISOO 

Office and Factor7, Chicopes Falls, Mass. 



^iuuuiiuiiuuuuiauiuiucc 



The Hfli^HisBUt^G Doable Engine Hoad Holler '"vlt'^ 



Not only a Roller but a ROAD MACHINE 



and 20 
Weight 




Hot How Cheap, bnt How Goofl. No-win nse in nearly one hundred cities and towns in United States. Send for 
Illustrated Catalogue. Manufactured liy HARRISBUR6 FOUNDRY & MACHINE WORKS. HARRISBUR6. PA. 
Selling Agents, W. K. FI.EMINO & C<»., New York & New Encrland. New York Office. Uailand Express B'd ,i. Boston Office 
610 Atlantic Avenue, Walter W. Jones, Manager. F. E. BAILEY, Philadelphia, 21 S. 7th Street, Builders' Eichanga 
H. E. BALDWIN, Cincinnati, Periu B'd'g, 5th and Race Sts. 




' * Broken Stone 7u/iich has united by its own 
angles, so as to form a solid^ hard surf ace, tnakes 
a proper road." 

fOHN L. Jl/A CA DA M 



iSi6 



Mm itlver stone Supi Go. 

Ct^ashed Gt^anite 
Blue Stone 



AND 









QUARRIES ON HUDSON RIVER 



Recommended by 

CONTRACTORS ARCHITECTS 
AND ROAD BUILDERS 

GRANITE, STORM KING, N. Y. 



BLUESTONE, STONECO, N. Y. 



NEW YORK OFFICE iinini.. 



2 CORTLANDT STREET 



HlamD Seharf Asphalt Paving Go, 

Genuine Trinidad Asphalt Pavements 

For Streets, Sidewalks, Driveways : 



Th« Standard Pavement for . 

CHEAPNESS . . 

HEALTH . . ., 
^ DURABILITY . . 
* SMOOTHNESS and 

SAFETY . . . 



-* 



e 9 • * • • 

IT ENHANCES THE VALUE OF PROPERTY MORB 
THAN ANY OTHF.R PAVEMENT 



Principal Office : 

81 Pultop St., new YorK 

SEND FOR CIRCULARS AND ESTIMATES, MENTION "gOOD ROADS-' 



THe Sicilian BspdaK PavlQO Go. 

#^/^^^/^^%/^ CONTRACTORS FOR 



SICILIAN A,.D GERMAN ROCK 
ASPHALT STREET PAVEMENTS 



TRINIDAD " LAKE" ASPHALT 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



LIMMER ROCK ASPHALT 
FLOORS, PAVEMENTS.no ROOFS 

FOR BREWERIES, ICE HOUSES, 
WAREHOUSES, CELLARS. STABLES, 
YARDS, SIDEWALKS. ETC. 



ZINSSER'S PATENT INSULA- 
TION FOR WALLS OF ICE 
HOUSES, ETC. 



•'%/WW%' 



DEALERS IN 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN .ROCK ASPHALTS 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



FOR 



SICILIAN, LIMMER AND VORWOHLC ROCK 
ASPHALT MASTIC 



CRUDE AND REFINED TRINIDAD ASPHALT 



For Estimates and full information apply to 

me Sicilian AspMlt Paviag Co., Times Building. N. Y. 
G. L. BOS WORTH 6r CO. 

AGENTS FOR . . . 

Coropressecl /Vspb^^It 

® Paviog BlocKs 

For Streets ^ 

MOTHING BETTER MADE, SANITARY, NOISELESS, THE 
EASIEST STREET TO KEEP CLEAN, CAN BE TAKEN 
UP AND RELAID AT VERY LITTLE EXPENSE. 
eVERY CITY CAN HAVE ITS OWN LABORERS PUT 
THEM DOWN. SEND FOR PRICES TO . . . 

G. L. Bo^vortb 6* Co. 
HolyoKe, A\ass. 



• • 



• • 



Be Slaiiflarfl Paveneni of Bmenca 

Tbe Beirber 
Aspb^^It 
PeiVipg Co. 

has now laid nearly 6,000,000 square 
yards of genuine Trinidad Asphalt pave- 
ment in 33 cities of the United States. 
Wherever the pavement has been laid it 
has come to stay, and has never been dis- 
placed in favor of any other material. It is 
smooth, durable, clean, noiseless and safe. 




GENERAL OFFICES 

LE DROIT BUILDING 
washington, o. c. 

Washington Building 
1 broadway 

NewYork, N. Y. 

Nearly 6,ooo,oco Sq. Yds. or 
435 lineal iniles in use and 
laid by this Company. 



PATENTS. 

SPECIALTIES for expert work: rietallur^cail 
Inventions and Interference Causes. 

We report without charge whether your in- 
rention is patentable. Send for our new booic. 
"Patent Practice." 

CHAMPION & CHAMPION, 

Pacific Building. Washing:ton, D. C 

AVOID ORKA8E AN1» lUUT by oilinp your iimcuiim with 
the hestond neatest oil can in the world, the "Perleot I'oc-ket 
Oiler." Does not leak. Re>f<ilate8 supply of oil to a nicety. 
Price 85 cents each, handsomely iiickel plated. 

> 




mj 



1^ 



UUHUMAN & DEM80N, 178 »th Avenue, N. T. 




"Brennan" Breaker^ Best 

CRUSHES FASTER 

LESS REPAIRS 

USES LESS POWER 

Capacities, 8 to 150 TONS per HOUR 



Young-Brennan Crusher Co. 

42 Cortlandt Street, New York City 



Gates Rock Breaker 




MACADAM IS THE BEST AND CHEAPEST ROAD METAL 
IT IS PRODUCED AT LOWEST COST IN THE 

GATES BREAKER 



Address for Catalogues and Plans 



Gates Iron Works 



136 Liberty St. 
^^:w york 



237 Franklin St. 
BOSTON 



50 S. Clinton St., Chicago, U. S. A. 



KODAKS 



The Columbus Model Folding Kodaks com- 
bine the desirable features of a cotnf'Ve view 
camera with the compactness of a Koiak. 

Recent Improvements include the iris dia- 
phragm shutter with pneumatic release, double 
swing back and sliding front. Can be used with 
long focus or wide angle lenses. 

Easily adapted to stereoscopic work. Made 

in three sizes ; 4 x 5, 5 x 7 and 6J x 8i. 



Send for 
Catalogue 



EASTMAN KODAK CO. 

Rochester, N. Y. 



FOR . . , 

\Wm, RIPIS, GPENDS 
and WELDLE8S STEEL TOBES 
BOWN'S and PERSY'S 
SPECIHLTIES 

AND IN SHORT EVERYTHING NECESSARY FOR 

Bicycle Building 

s . . . 

W. W. WHITTEN 

Ii8<-i24 So. riain Street 

PROVIDENCE* R. L 




ADDRESS 



THE O.S. KELLY COMPANY, 

SPRINCFIELD, OHIO. 

Steam Road Rollers, Steam Asphalt Rollers, 
Portable Heating Tanks, street Contrac tors' Supplies, 

Location at World's Fair 

Grounds, between Stock 

Pavilion and Agricultural 

Annex, on Road leading to 

Springfield Steam Road Roller. ''°'^'*''y ""'^ ^^""^ Building. 

Me^w Illustrated Catalogue 

Sent Kree on. Application. Sprmglield Steam Asphalt RcUbr 






The Stcrlins Specizil 

Track Wb^^l 
V«J$bt 27 Ib^o 



Jterlipsf Bicycles 

THE HIGHEST GRADE ONLY 

Vziluevbl^ Points of Advantage 

SEAfD FOR CATALOGUE 

DE^v^r' STOKE5 AVFG. CO. 

AyiULVAUKEE /^\2iOuf&cturers 

OFFICE AND SALESROOM . . . 

295 Wz^bzisb ^venue 

CHICAGO 




VyfE Print "Goo< Ro2i<Is" 
&n<I Everytb«Og else 
tbztt is Good. 

^^ Varj^Jci) Houtcn fir Co. 

249 Pea.rl Street, 
7*i«w^ YorK. 



WILLIAM S. BACOT, C. E., Mem. Am. Soc. C. E. 
Engineer of County Roads 

RICHMOND CO., Staten Island, N. Y. 
MvoiiXTiEg : Water-WorkB, Sewerage, ImproTementg of Road* 

Offices : 
145 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, and STAPLETON, S. I. 



Construction and Improvement of 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

A SPECIALTY 
A. T. BYRXK 

Civil Engineer and 361 FULTON ST. 

* 2 — — Brooklyn, N. Y. 



3Boun5 Dolumeg of 

WILL BE SENT . 
POST PAID FOR 



$1.00 

TO ANY ADDRESS 



jfliwEs G. WONDERS, Qj^jj Enoineep, 

BELLEFONTAINE, O. '«a«" x^»*%jxi»«wi , 

Ilighwavs and Municipal Work, Plans, Estimates, 
Specifications, Superintendence. Correspondence 
invited. 



F. A. DUNHAiAf Civil Eosin^^r 

HMD ExibKT IN Road and Si reet Improvements. 

Eng^ineer in Charge of the following Works : 
The Famous Union Co., K. J , Road System ; Street 
Improvements, Hasbrouck Heights, N. J.; Street 
Paving and Sewerage, Sewickley, Pa.; Street 
Improvements, Olean, N. Y. Is City Engineer of 
Plainfield, K. J , and Dunkirk, N. Y. Correspondence 
Solicited. Main Office, No. 7 Park Ave., Plainfield, N. J, 



FOREIGN A»D AMERICAN CYCLING PAPERS, 
PERIODICALS, HAND BOOKS AND ROAD BOOKS 
FOR SALE. Bend for Li«>t. 

FLETOUER Ji CO., 48 E. Tan Buren St., OUmc*. 




Press of VA.NDt..N Huuten & Co., 249 Pearl St., N. Y. 



Binders for '' Good Roads." 

Keep your magazine.s firmly and neatly together 
in the form of one book. Convenient and easy t© 
handle. Sent (postpaid) at following prices : 

Plain, - - - - 80 cents each. 
With " Good Roads " in gilt letters, $i.oo each. 
Address 

"GOOD ROADS," 

POTTER BUILDING, 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



^'^%/%/%/%/^%/%,9* 



t "Q.& J." HONORED 

^ • AT THE 

I World's Columbian Exposition 

f BEING AWARDED 

I FIVE MEDALS OF MERIT 

t ^ 



ITET^YS: 



On LADIES' RAMBLER BICYCLES 
t On MEN'S RAMBLER BICYCLES 

^ On G. & J. PNEUMATIC TIRES 

# On UNBRAZED BICYCLE FRAME (Lap Brazing) 



On PARABOLIC LAMPS 



"FIVE MEDALS— The LARGEST NUMBER received by any bicycle manufacturer" 



The special committee of examining experts was composed of 

PROFESSOR. THURSTON, of Cornell University 

MR. WILLIAM HOOKER ATWOOD, of New Haven, Conn. 

MR. AKYAiMA, Japanese Commissioner 

HUGH JUHNSON, Commissioner 



j "We always did claim BEST DESIGNS, MATERIALS, WORKMANSHIP" 
t "BEST PNEUMATIC TIRES, BEST ERAME CONSTRUCTION" 



But this does settle it" 



t 
t 



OUR CATALOGUE TELLS ALL ABOUT IT— SEND FOR ONE 



t QORMULLY & JEFFERY MFG. CO. . 

J Makers of I»rize Wlieels and Tires J 

t CHICAGO BOSTON WASHINGTON NEW YORK t 

^ COVENTRY, ENG. J 






^ 

® 
® 

^ 
® 




OFFICIAL MAKERS OF SUNDRIES TO THE LEAGUE 
OF AMERICAN WHEELMEN 

Authorized by the Executive Committee 
A. G. SPALDINQ & BROS. 

CAP, League Regulation $1.25 

SHIRTS, League Regulation .. .. 2.00 

No. XX Fine Cheviot, for hot weather wear i.oo 

STOCKINGS, Our Celebrated Linen Sole Stocking, League Color .. .. i.oo 

BELTS, No. X Silk . .40 

SHOES, Our New L. A. W. Kangaroo Shoe, hand-made, light, strong, elastic 4.00 

No. I, Canvas, Leather Tiimmings 3-50 

SENT POST=PAID ON RECEIPT OF PRICE. 
Send for Catalogue of Knit, Racing and Training Suits 



A. G. Spalding & Bros. 

243 Broadway, New York 
108 Madison Street, Chicago 1032 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia 



UNIFORM AND CONTRACTING DEPARTMENT. 

Browning, King & Co. 



406 TO UJ2 

BROOME STREET 

NEW YORK ClTV 



JAS. W. IINGARD, Muifw. 




Contract Prices 

• • • 

Coat 



Breeches, 
Cap, . . 



$8.00 
6.25 
1.25 



Cloth per yard, .. 2.10 
Coat buttons, (each) .05 
Small " " .03 



Ladies' Cloth, 
per yard, . . 



1.00 



THE- 



Official Tailors 



TO THE- 



SAMPLES OF 



League of flmerieaQ 
Whfiftlmeft 



REGULATION LEAGUE CLOTH gl^f "■'•'" 



ED 



BROWNING, KING & CO., New York 




A GALAXY OF STARS 



NOW WINNING FAME 
ON ^^*»^ 



^^/%,i 



>'%/%.'%/%/%^'%^%/%/%^ 



RALEIGH5 



"ZIMMERMAN ON TRAINING" 
50 Cents by flail 



ZIMMERMAN 


WHEELER 


CANTU 


BRECKINRIDGE 


BIRD 


CELLIERS 


BENSINGER 


ALLAN 


DU CROS 


JOHNSON 


(Charleston) 


HESS 


BUNI 


BAIRD 




BANKER 


LINTON 


WELLS 




JUDGE 


DAUFRAV 


MARTIN 




SCOTT 


MEIXLER 


STEVES 




CLARKE 


ASHINGER 


WILLIS 




KING 


KELLEY 


ROE 




EDWARDS 





K iniORD TO THE iflilSE IS S\^F='FICIENT 

The Raleigh Cycle Co. 

2081 & 2083 Seventh Avenue, New York, 



mde a W;nVg^trtg>y 





WAVERLEY SCORCHER, 32 LBS. 



STRICTLY 
HIGH GRADE 



0d6 JiM Dollars 



fWSIIBIimariBliBliBi IB iiaiiaiiBiiaiiai<*i>* ■••••**■ 

**Our Guarantee" 

As so many of our numerous correspondents ask what 
"Guarantee goes with the 'Waverley?'" we wish to im- 
press upon the general public simply this: The " Waverley " 
is fully warranted to be a strictly high grade machine in every 
particular. It is built of the best quality of seamless steel 
tube. Dropped forgings and tool steel throughout, we guar- 
antee every part to be perfect, and agree to replace any part 
that may, within a very liberal period, show any defect of any 
kind that is due to an imperfection in either workmanship or 
material. The " Waverley " goes with this warrant, which is 
backed by the Indiana Bicycle Co., who own and run the 
largest bicycle factory in the world: who are thoroughly re- 
sponsible, having a paid-in cash capital of One Million Dollars, 
no part of which is composed of patents at inflated prices, but 
is money pure and simple. Who can produce a bettei 
guarantee ? 



Equal to any machine made at any price. Fitted 
with Hoosler Double Lace Inner Tube Tires. 



Write for Catalogue and 
:: Dealers Terms :: 



Indiana Bicyele Co. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 




TO STRENGTHEN THE 
MUSCLES 

It has a particularly Warm- 
ing, Comforting and Stim- 
ulatin.ET effect on all Weak 
"^ or Stiff Muscles; quick in 
action, clean and pleasant 
in use. 

For Sale by Druggists and 
Dealers in Sporting Goods 



E FODGERB & CO., soie eoents 

26-30 N. William St., N. Y. 



The Columbus Model 

Folding KODAKS 

Combine with the compactness of the 
Kodak every feature which advanced 
amateurs desire in a camera. 

Transparent Film. 

Notice. Every packai^^e of film is now 
dated and customers can thus make sure 
of .t^etting fresh film when purchasing. 

Oitr film does not tear or frill ; is 
evenly coated and has no bubbles. 

EASTMAN KODAK CO. 
\ llteiog^e. \ Rochester, N. Y. 

FOBGINGS, BimS, GBEDENOe 
and WELDLESS STEL TOBES 
BOWN'S and PEBSY'S 
SPECIHLTIES 

AND IN SHORT EVERYTHING NECESSARY FOO 

Bicycle Building 

s . . . 

W. W. WHITTEN « 

118-124 So. riain Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 




ADDRESS 




Stands- 



good ROADS 



OR 



BAD ONES 



« 



FOR 1893 



WEIGHTS OF ROAD MACHINES, 29, 33, 35 AND 40 POUNDS 



HIGHEST GRADE THROUGHOUT 




^ 



irtZlL.SeN. TV^VBRS St Co. 

TnSKKERS OP 

L-IBERTV OVOL-ES 



55 Liberty Street 



NEW YORK 



Mi ???? nn??m??????????mv????i^ 




VICTOR ORIQINALITY. 

We built the first Rover type bicycle in America. 

We originated the first and only practical anti-vibratory 
device for small tires — the Victor Spring- Fork. 

We invented the first and only real cushion tire the 
world has ever seen, and its popularity is by no means 
ended. 

We built what is now known to be the best pneumatic 
tire, after a rigid inquiry into the use and requirements of 
of this form of tire. 

We settled upon the removable inner tube as indispen- 
sable. 

We went one better and made it removable throuo^h a 
hole in the rim. 

Riders who have made this " a Victor year" say it is 
the only best method — and they are right. 

There is no likelihood that this matter of removal will 
ever be improved. 

Found on Victors only. 



D VERM AN WHEEL CD. 

BOSTON WASHINGTON DENVEE SAN FEaNOISOO 

Office and Factory, Chicopee Palls, Mass. 



^uiuuaiuuiuiuuiiuuuoii^ 




"Brennan" Breaker^ Best 

CRUSHES FASTER 

LESS REPAIRS 

USES LESS POWER 

Capacities, 8 to 150 TONS per HOUR 



Young-Brennan Crusher Co. 

42 Cortlandt Street, New York City 



Gates Rock Breaker 




MACADAM IS THE BEST AND CHEAPEST ROAD METAL 
IT IS PRODUCED AT LOWEST COST IN THE 

GATES BREAKER 



Address for Catalogues and Plans 



Gates Iron Works 



136 Liberty SL 

NEW YORK 



237 Franklin St. 

• BOSTON 

50 S. Clinton St., Chicago, U. S. A. 



BOOKS 
■■» ■»■■ ■ 



ON ROADS AND STREETS 

Brick for Street Pavements 

(Burke), $0.50 

Highway Construction (Byrne), 5.00 

Hi§:hway Manual (State N. Y.), l.OO 

Move for Better Roads, - - 2.00 

Municipal and Sanitary Eng:ineers' 

Handbook (Buulnois), - - 6.00 

Maintenance of Macadamized 

Roads (Codrington),* - - 3.00 

Road Construction and Mainte- 
nance Cloth, $1.00; Paper. .60 
Road and Roadside ( B. W. Potter ), i .50 

Roads, Streets and Pavements 

(Gillmore), ----- 2.00 

Good Roads (bound volumes) 

per vol., 1.00 

Any book in above list sent postpaid on 
receipt of price. 

GOOD ROADS 

Potter Building; New York City 



THE 0. S. KELLY COMPANY, 

SPRINCFIELD, OHIO, 

Steam Road Rollers, Steam Asphalt Rollers, 

Portable Heating Tanks, street Contractors' Supplies. 

Location at World's Fair 

Grounds, between Stock 

Pavilion and Agricultural 

Annex, on Road leading to 

Springfield Steam Road Roller. Forestry and Dairy Building. 

Ne^vAT Illiastrateci Catalogue 

Sent Free on Application.. Spruiglield Steam Asphalt lullar. 






terling'']^icycles 

THE HIGHEST GRADE ONLY 



Valuable Points of Advantage 



SEND FOR CATALOGUE 




THE STERLING SPECIAL 



STOKES MFG. CO. 

MANUFACTURERS ( RQAD RACER 

Branches Office and Salesroom combination -< 

DENVER ^ TRACK WHEEL 

MILWAUKEE ^93 Wabash Avenue, Chicago weight 27 lbs. 

1 WANTED 1 ~ 



NAME^S AND ADDRESSES 

(PLAINLY WRITTEN) 

OF EVERY 



SUPERVISOR, CIVIL ENGINEER, SELECTMAN, 

CITY ENGINEER, ROAD COMMISSIONER, 

CONTRACTOR, CHOSEN FREEHOLDER AND LEGISLATOR 

IN THE UNIXEO STATES. 



SEND US AS MANY OF THESE NAMES AND ADDRESSES AS YOU CAN SCRAPE 

TOGETHER. IT WILL HELP THE CAUSE. 



"GOOD ROADS," 

Potter Building. 

NEW YORK. 



THEMO-ST feyvvPLETE EWORAYINQ E^TABLI6HMEMT |f1 piE (oUNTRY. 
^ MITCHELL BUILDINO -MILWAOKEE^^^AMBERofCOMMERCEBIDG. 

^ V' ... -'■i:....5l^..,.>''.. .>'r.,..>'<...>V. ..^!'».....^5»...,5^'.; J^....5^J...^V....^V....^lJ...^;^^J^~.^k;^^ 



[ Binner ^graving (oJ 



'I* '1^ 'I* '»^ 'i» '»^ *l> '1^ ^■'i^ 't" <i^ *{* 



■■>»\"V«»"'"'i*" ■>»» >■»» 'V '|V>|» 



• U. S. EXPRE65 BID'Q-^H | (^/^ Q 0**7-69 WA6H1WGT0N 6T \ 

Write To Os foR Price6^5p£cimen5 OeOor Work- ItWill Pay You- Mention'JjoodRoad^:' 



Our Book Department. 



Any book named in the following list will be sent post=paid on receipt of price. 
"Good Roads " will not be responsible for books lost in the mails. Books will be reg= 
istered at the request of any purchaser sending a registration fee of ten cents in 
addition to price of book. 



Highway Coiistrnotioil. r,y Austin T. liymc, 
C. E. Aliaiulsomely liouiid voluiiic in cloth and f^ilt ;Gsri 
pages; fully illustrated and supplied with copious index 
and table of contents. This work is one of the largest 
and most comprehensive treatises on the general sub- 
ject of pavements and road construction. It covers 
the entire Held of eonstructiou work and should have a 
place iu the library of every person interested in the 
improvement of roads and streets. 249 illustrations. 
Price $5. 

Roads, Streets and Pavements. By General 

Q. A. Gillmore (eighth edition). A practical treatise on 
construction. 70 illustrations; liimo. 2.js pages. This 
little book has been long regarded as a standard work 
and will always hold its place among the practical 
booksof the American roadmaker. It contains chap- 
ters on location and drainage of country roads; earth 
work, drainage and transverse form of roadways; road 
coverings; maintenance and repairs of roads; streets 
and street pavements; sidewalks and footpaths; tram- 
ways and street railroads. Price *:i. 

The Maintenance of Macadamized Roads 

By Thomas Codrington, Mem. Inst., C. E., F. G. S., 
formerly general superintendent of county roads for 
South Wales. New edition, 8vo. cloth. The extended 
exnerienco of Mr. Codrington in the making and re- 
pairing of macadam roads and his admiraltle presenta- 
tion of practical rules and suggestions have made him 
a recognized authority on the subject of which this 
book treats. The new edition contains many valuable 
pages not included in the original, and it may now be 
regarded as w^'ll-nigh complete. The separate chapters 
treat of reconstruction of roads, road materials, com- 
position of road coating, draft, wheels and weight on 
them, wear, measure of trallic and wear, consumption 
of materials, spreailing of road materials, sweeping 
and scraping, drainage, watering, repairs lieyoiid ordi- 
nary maintenance, manual labor, proportion of expendi- 
ture on materials and on labor, cost of road mainte- 
nance, road surveyor's duties, repairs by contract, road 
management. Price S«3. 

The Mnnicipal and Sanitary Engineer's 

Handbook. By ll. Percy Boulnois, Mem. Inst., C. K., 
City Engineer of Liverpool. A splendid demy. 8vo. 
volume, in cloth and gilt, second edition revised and 
enlarged. Numerous illustrations. A work which 
should be in the library of every town and city engineer. 
It treats in a most comprehensive way of every subject 
which is likely \o engage the attention of a municipal 
engineer. Its table of contents includes the following 
subjects: the town surveyor, the appointment of sur- 
veyor, the surveyor's duties, traitic, macadamized 



roadua\s, road metal and bi'eaking, roail rolling, 
pi! died iiavements, wood pa\iiig, compressed a>plialt 
roadways, foot paths, curbing and channeling, light- 
ing streets, street naming and numbering, breaking up 
streets, obstructions in street improvement of private 
streets, new streets and buildings, scavenging, sewer- 
age, sewage disposal, sewer ventilation, public con- 
veniences, artisans' and laborers' dwellings, defects in 
dwelling houses, etc., liouse drainage, public pleasure 
grounds and street trees, public abattoirs, markets, 
cemeteries, mortuaries, borrowing under the local gov- 
ernment board, contracts. Price $6. 

Brick for Street Pavement. By .m. d. Burke, 

C. E. An account of tests made of bricks and paving 
blocks, with a brief discussion of street pavements and 
the method of con.structing them. A practical treatise 
iu 8vo. pamphlet form, S6 pages, with valualjle tables. 
The general subject is treated under twenty-one ditfer- 
cnt headings and contains much practical information 
on the subject of brick pavements. Price 50 cents. 

A Move for Better Roads, a series of prize 

essays awarded through the University of Pennsylvania 
by a committee of citizens of Philadelphia, together 
with a synopsis of other contriljutions and a review by 
Secretary Lewis M. Haupt, A. M., C. E., an 8vo. volume 
handsomely bound in cloth, 319 pages. The essays con- 
tained in this book are evidently the result of much care 
and extended study, and several of them are written by 
practical and experienced engineers. There is scarcely 
a subject relating to the general Held of roadmakingto 
which this book does not refer at some length, and it 
aims to instruct its readers how to determine the best 
form of road for each particular locality and how to 
construct roads^ at amininunn of cost and in the most 
suljstantial way. I'rice !Si3. 

The Road and the Roadside. By Burton 

Willis Potter, M.A.; octavo volume iu cloth and gilt, 250 
pages. An interesting book for the general reader; 
contains chapters on history, importance and signifi- 
cance of roads, location, construction, repairs, laws re- 
lating to the laying out of ways, law as to repairs, guide 
posts, drinking troughs and fountains, shade trees, 
parks and commons, public us' of highways, the law 
of the road, equestrians and pedestrians, omnibuses, 
stages and horse cars, foot paths, bicycles and tricycles; 
bridges, sewers and ferries, highway oilicers, etc., etc. 
Price SSI.50. 

Road Construction and 3Iaintenance. 

A series of prize essays reprinted from the Enginetring 
Becord. An excellent little volume, treating of the 
practical side of roadmaking and maintenance; 109 
pages, illustrated. Price, paper, 60 cents: cloth, SI. 



Remit by N. Y. Draft, Postal Order on Registered Letter. 



OOOU RO^US, 

POTTER BUILDING, 

New York, N. Y. 



i 



2M^U 



^here's many a man who will sit down on the 
point of an inverted carpet tack and not 
, show half the speed and energy in jumping 

^ that other men will show in jumping at a chance 
'• to get something for nothing. To both these 
classes (and they pretty nearly comprise the whole reading population) 
we present this chance for a harmless, wholesome and profitable jump. 
There isn't another like it on earth. Read it. 



ouie ci^uiBBrivo i^ist^ 



Name of Publication. 



Art Amateur 

Art Interchange 

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Architectural Review 

American Field 

Cosmopolitan 

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Regular 

Subscription 

Price 



$4.00 
4.00 
6.00 
5.00 
5.00 
2.00 
3.00 
4.00 
2.50 
4.00 
2.00 
5.00 
5.00 
3.00 
3.00 
3.00 
5.00 
3.00 
4.00 
4.00 
2.00 
3.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
2.00 
4.00 
5.00 
5.00 
3.00 
3.50 
5.00 
3.00 
3.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
2.50 
4.00 
3.00 
2.50 
4.00 
5.00 
4.00 
4.00 



OiR Price with 
Good Roads 

ADDED 



$4.00 
4.(0 
6.00 
5.00 
5.00 
2.00 
3.00 
4.00 
2.50 
4.00 
2.00 
5.00 
5.00 
3.00 
3.00 
3.00 
5.00 
3 00 
4.00 
4.(j0 
2.00 
3.00 
4.00 
4.00 



4. 
2. 
4! 
5. 
5. 



.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
3.00 
3.50 
5.00 
3.00 
3.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
2.50 
4.00 
3.00 
2.50 
4.00 
5.00 
4.00 
4.00 




Send Money "by N. Y. 
Draft or Postal Order 



m 



GOOD ROADS 

Potter Building 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Press of Vanden Houten & Co., 249 Pearl St., N. Y. 



•93 MODELS. 

LOVELL DIAMOND CYCLES 

LIGHT, STRONG, DURABLE and EASY RUNNING 

ALL THE LATEST IMPROVEMEJV TS 

OUF 

'93 1Hodels . 
are all fitted 

oiith the . . 

Celebpated . 

Golambia . . 

Pneumatie. . 
Tires . 




t t • 




tt 






FOR LADICS 

Light Roadster; Weight, 31 lbs. - 

•• 36 " - - - 

Ladies'; Weight, 35 lbs. 
Convertible, for Ladies or Gents; Weight, 35 lbs. 
This same line in i 9-16 inch cushion tires, - 



FOR GENTLEMEN 

Price. 



115 00 

115 00 

115 00 

115 00 

105 00 



John Pi Lovell Arms Co., manufacturers 



CrCL.K CATAI<OOVK WmMlS 



BOSTON, MASS. 

AOKKT8 'WA1KTBB 



^ ^7iV^ttV^^}>V^^iV^^^i>V!tVt>VitV»V^9V^ ^ 



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Where is the 

Bicycle 
I Want? 

Right here— the rehable Hart- 
ford—the leading wheel for the 
money— Catalogue free— Hart- 
ford Cycle Co., Hartford, Conn. 



1^ 

¥ 

¥ 

¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 



jl^mimimmimimimmimimimimiimimimmmimm^m^mij^ 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05985 773 8 B.PL. Bindery, 

OCT 1894