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GOOD 



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Roads 



TYPtOP 
,i.:CIVILl2&D 
luij.. ^ SOCIETY. 



V°L.6 



DECEMBER. 1894, 




N°-6, 



Good Roads make good people, 
and good people, properly in- 
structed, make good roads, 
Therefore, with all thy getting 
get information. We have it 
$1.00 per year. 



CO/ST tAITS 

ROADS AND CARRIAGES, 

By Sterling Elliott. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN ON IDLERS. 

HOW THE ROAD QUESTION LOOKS TO 

A MINISTER, 

By Rev. Chas. A. Crane. 

MACADAM ROADS ON THE PRAIRIE, 

By Horace S. Kauffman. 

REPORT OF CARRIAGE BUILDERS' 

ROAD COMMITTEE, 

By C. F. Kimball. 

ROAD RESOLUTIONS OF CARRIAGE 

BUILDERS' NATIONAL ASS'N. 

HOW TO GET A FLYING START ON 

THE ROAD, 

By E. J. Pennington. 

A COLORED STORY FOR WHITE PEOPLE, 

By Frank Weller. 

ANOTHER PLAN FOR RAISING MONEY, 

By J. M. Marty. 

OPENING OF A CHESTNUT BURR. 




5T&R.L1N0 Elliott 

. /^ai\&ijir\o Erdlto? 
l2PecirlSr'6ostS'n. 



blisKpd 

by TNf 

LEACjUE OPAMfRlCANVVflKLMEN; 

Entered at Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-class mail matter. 



(Copyrighted 1894.) 




The New "G. & J." 
DOUBLE LOCKING EDGE TIRE 



FOR WOOD RIM, 



See where the "double locking" arrangement comes in? 

The flanges or locking edges of the tire cover fit into the recessed 
rim same as in the steel rim, while the walls or sides of the mid- 
dle depression form the secondary locking edge and remove a 
considerable portion of the strain from the edges of the rim. 
Thus it is possible to use with ' G. & J." Tires a wood rim of a 
smaller section and greater strength than any other wood rim in 
the market. 

Good scheme, isn't it? 

STILL GREATER STRENGTH 

Is guaranteed by the use of the New Nipple Washer ("G. & J." 
patent) which is used in "G. & J." Wood Rims for 1895. This 
washer constitutes the greatest wood rim improvement yet 
brought out since the introduction of wood rims. 

This washer will be fully described and illustrated in a sub- 
sequent issue. In the meantime, any maker will supply them. 

FIGURE ON "G. & J." TIRES FOR 1895-INSIST UPON IT. 



GORMULLY & JEFFERY MFG. CO., 



S5 Madison St., 
' CHICAGO, 

29 Union St.. 
COVENTRY, ENG 



174 Columbus Ave., 
BOSTON. 



1.^25 14th St., N.W. 
WASHINGTON. 



Cor. 57th St. and Broadwav. 
NEW RORK. 
419-421 Flatbush Ave., Detroit Bicycle Co., 

BROOKI^YN. 201 Woodward Ave., DETROIT, MICH. 



Mention "Good Roads.' 



Good Roads. 

VL. 
An Illustrated Monthly Magazine Devoted to the 
Improvement of the Public Roads 
and Streets. 



VOIvUME SIX. 
JUIvY TO DECEMBER, il 



Published by the 

I.KAGUH; OF ame;rican whe;e;lmen, 

12 Pearl Street, Boston, Mass. 



Copyright, 1894, by The I^eague of American Wheelmen. 



l)«u, 143" ^ v^ 



I 



INDEX. 



\fl^ .^^^ i^r 



Advertisement, An .Sterling Elliott 49 

Asbury Park Baby Show. Sterling Elliott 108 

Attractiveness of Good Roads Gov . Smith of New Hampshire.. 137 

Asbury Park Good Roads Convention Miss Bertie Knight 138 

A Colored Story for White People Frank Weller 335 

'•Bloomer Costume," True History of the Member of Mrs. Bloomer's family 221 

California, Good Road Movement in Gov. H. H. Markham 13 

Cincinnati, What Street Improvements Have Done for 

Michael O. Heintz 35 

Cj'cling Robert Bruce 45 

Chas. ©ickens' Description of an Italian Road 46 

Chestnut Burr, Opening of a 56, 114, 170, 230, 290, 346 

Colorado Roads and Scenery Edward B. Light 69 

Cheap vs. Good Roads Gov. Brown of Maryland 124 

Culvert, An Improved W. O. Noyes 148 

County Roads, The Home Building of D. W. Leivis 258 

Drainage of Roads, The W. H. Breithaupt 32 

Dry Roads 107 

Doctor's Story, A Sterling Elliott Ill 

Domestic Science Sterling Elliott 277 

Ethics, Journalistic Sterling Elliott 3 

Expense of Good Roads Col. D. W. McClung 178 

Extract from Speech by Gen. Roy Stone 224 

Free Mail Delivery, Rural John M. Stahl 86 

Free Mail Delivery for the- Country Col. Pope 89 

Farmers, National C;ongress of 102 

Florida East Coast, Down the F. W. Haivthorne 237 

Frontispiece 255 

Good Road Movement in California Gov. H. H. Markham 13 

Good Roads Convention, The 41 

Good Roads Bicycle Tournament Sterling Elliott 100 

Good Roads and the Tariff... Sterling Elliott 119 

Good Roads, Attraetireness of Gov Smith of Neiu Hampshire.. 137 

Good Roads the Civilizer Horatio Grain 286 

How They Did It m Bergen Couatj', New Jersey 

M. T. Richardson 105 



Page. 
History and Cosntruction of Our Highways, and Who Should Build Them 

Hon.JSr. G.Spalding 126 

Highways, The History and Construction of, and Who Should Build Them 

Hon. N. G. Spalding 126 

Home Building of Country Roads, The D. W. Lewis 258 

How Good Roads Pay for Themselves Prof. I. D. Warfield 278 

How It Looks to a Minister Rev. Chas. A. Crane 325 

How To Get a Flying Start on the Road E.J. Pennington 332 

Italian Road, Chas. Dicken's Description of an 46 

Institution, An Old Time Julia H. Emery 156 

Improved Methods Wanted Sterling Elliott 235 

Improved Methods Wanted Gov. Greenhalge of Massachusetts 250 

Journalistic Ethics Sterling Elliott 3 

League Members Only, For Sterling Elliott 52 

League, An Open Letter to the Sterling Elliott 91 

League Membership, How To Increase It Henry Crowther 282 

Minnehaha, The Home of A. B. Choate 63 

Montana, The Treasure State F. H. Ray 180 

Montana, The Roads of A, M. Ryan 186 

Montana, Mining and Metallurgy in F. W. Traphagen 190 

Montana, PubUcEdutation in C. C. Wylie 198 

Montana, Map of 205 

Montana From an Agricultural Standpoint .Prof. S. M. Emery 207 

Macadam Roads in a Prairie Country Horace G. Kauffman 316 

National Roads Conference, The 39 

New Use for Religion Sterling Elliott 43 

National Good Roads Conference, The Sterling Elliott 97 

Our Copyright, What ft Means Sterling Elliott 123 

Pope, Col. Albert A. (frontispiece) Sterling Elliott 94 

Plan To Increase the Circulation of Currency, and Make Better the Roads of 

the Country Simon Schriver 132 

Popular Road-Making Does Not Always Make Popular Roads 

J. D. Ellswortn 149 

Politics vs. Good Roads Burton H. Allbee 166 

Political Party. The League of American Wheelmen as a 

Sterling Elliott 175 

Philadelphia, Streets of Chas. V. D'Ossone 261 

Pathmaster, The 284 

Plan for Raising Road Monej- J. M. Marty 313 

Prairie Country, Macadam Roads in a Horace G. Kauffman 316 

Rainmaking, A Remarkably Successful Attempt at 5 

Road Building Project, A Most Remarkable 12 

Road, The Universal Chas. E. Duryea 23 

Roads, The Drainage of W. H. Breithaupt 32 



Page. 

Religion, A New Use for Sterling Elliott 43 

Road Problems Sterling Elliott 61 

Rural Free Mail Delivery John M. Stahl 86 

Rhode Island, Road Question in Gov. D. Russell Brown 93 

Real Estate, A Remarkable Rise in Sterling Elliott 96 

Road of the Future, The W. L. S. Bayley 130 

Road Governor, A Levi Knight Fuller 153 

Roadside Wilderness, The C. M. Plumb 159 

"Roadlets" W. L. S. Bayley 275 

Roads and Carriages Sterling Elliott 295 

Report of Carriage Builders' Road Committee . .C F. Kimball 298 

Road Speech to Carriage Builders Sterling Elliott 310 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich Geo. A. Cady 6 

Sign Which Ought To Be Duplicated Many Times, a 48 

Studio Notes... Stavison 50, 260 

Sprinkling Country Roads, Advantages Gained by 80 

September Menu 164 

Side Paths C. T. Raymond 263 

Speed of Horses as Affected by the Condition of the Road 

Budd Doble 273 

Telford, Thomas (frontispiece) Sterling Elliott 29 

Tariff, Good Roads and the Sterling Elliott 119 

Tax Land Value Only J. W. Wells 139 

Tar Heel Trail, The .....Bill Nye .- 144 

The League of American Wheelmen as a Political Party 

Sterling Elliott 175 

Tires and Track C. F. Kimball 307 

Universal Road, The Chas. E. Duryea 23 

Venezia "Le Bert" 251 

Wagon Road, How a Woman Built a Edward W. Perry 17, 140, 270 

Who Should Repair the Road That Is Opposite a Man's Farm? 

Gov. Reynolds of Delaware 30 

What Street Improvements Have Done for Cincinnati 

Michael G. Reintz 35 

Why People Should Build Their Own Roads ....Gov. C. Matthews of Indiana... 90 

Wide Tire Information Wanted Sterling Elliott 163 

Why Boys Leave Home Sterling Elliott 227 

Wide Tire Resolutions of National Carriage Builders' Association 309 

White^People, A Colored Story for Frank Weller 335 




THOMAS TELFORD. 



GOOID Ro^lDB, 



Vol. 6. 



July, 1894. 



No. I. 




JOURNALISTIC ETHICS. 

HEN the editor of this magazine 
was yet a little boy he remem- 
bers being told by someone 
that it had been, in olden 
times, considered proper to do 
unto others as you would have 
others do unto you. 

This thing was recommended 
in good faith and seemed to 
have the backing of sundry 
reputable people. Even now 
we cannot restrain a belief that 
such a plan for doing things might have its advantages. In 
some respects, however, it is like the adoption of wide tires or 
the proposed twenty-four hour clock dial : a first rate thing if 
everybody would do it, but not without its drawbacks when 
attempted by a minority. 

' ' Do others or they will do you ' ' has been mentioned as 
among the modern interpretations of antique morality. It is 
hardly probable, however, that any considerable percentage of 
our people would care to admit that they were guided by other 
than the golden rule. 

The publisher of a paper or magazine very naturally wants 
his publication to appear original and interesting, not simply 
original mind you, but also interesting, for if any editor were 
to print all that is sent to him he could make a most original, 
and in some cases startling, periodical. 

The time-honored jokes about the paste pot and shears are 
to a large extent " fiction founded on fact." 

That it is decidedly wrong to steal a man's coat, no one 
would dispute, not even the unfortunate fellow who sometimes 
does it. But when it comes to umbrellas mankind takes sides, 
though we are proud to be able to state that something more 
than half are disposed to consider the acquiring of another's 
umbrella by foul means, a misdemeanor. 

Of course what the future will bring no man can tell but so 
long as there are two sides to the umbrella question. Good 



4 JOURNALISTIC ETHICS. 

Roads ($i.oo per year) proposes to be on the side of the man 
who buys the umbrella and pays for it, providing of course, that 
the seller is in good standing. 

If even one of man's material goods may be taken without 
shocking the popular sense, how easy it is to overlook the 
appropriation of ideas and forms of words. 

The inventor of an improved device may shout until he is 
gray (if indeed he wasn't gra}^ in the first place) over that which 
doesn't happen to hit the popular fanc}', even though it ought 
to, and the public (i. e. you and I) doesn't care a rap whether 
his children have pie or not, but let him produce a new and 
valuable result which does take and which everybody wants, 
then see how many rush into his arms and offer to pay tribute ? 
Well everybody doesn't, and if he gets a momument even after 
it's too late for him to enjoy it, the expense isn't always borne 
by those who are most benefited. 

Good Roads wants to credit the author of whatever it uses, 
and by the same token Good Roads would like to have credit 
for what is taken from it. 

"We are always pleased to see matter which originally 
appeared in this Magazine copied by others, even though the 
credit consists in inserting between two sentences in the body 
of the article the words " says Good Roads." 

We have on several occasions seen Good Roads' articles 
which had been rewritten so as to partially disguise the fact 
that they were not found on that particular doorstep. 

A large percentage of our exchanges, however, are very 
kind both as to giving us notices and in crediting matter which 
they copy. 

It often happens that it is not possible to tell who is entitled 
to the credit of a given thing. This is especially true of para- 
graphs, jokes and verses, which are not originally printed next 
the margin. If Good Roads goes wrong in these matters we are 
always glad to be "called back." 

In the May number we used an illustrated definition "going 
into the hands of a receiver," and credited it to one of the 
cycling papers. We since learn that it originated with the St. 
Louis paper. Farm Machinery. 

Anything appearing in Good Roads and not credited, is 
supposed to have originated here. We hope our exchanges 
will give us the benefit of the doubt, if there is one, and we 
will earnestly try to "do unto others as we would that they 
should do unto us." 

" study conscience more than thou wouldst fame; 
Though both be good, the latter yet is worst, 
And ever is iU got, without the first." 

Ben Jonson. 



A REMARKABI.Y SUCCKSSFUI. ATTEMPT AT 
RAIN-MAKING. 

AN EFFORT IN THE HEBRIDES ISEANDS THAT WAS BRIMFUI. 
OF SUCCESS. 

Ivieutenant Boyle T. Somerville, of the English Navy, who 
lived many j^ears in the Hebrides Islands, tells the following 
interesting tale regarding the work of a professional native 
rainmaker. Toward the end of the year, just after 3^am plant- 
ing, there came an unusual period of drought, so that an inland 
tribe in the island of Ambr^^m went to its rainmaker and 
demanded his immediate attention thereto. 

He at once set to work to weave a sort of hurdle of the 
branches and leaves of a tree famed for its rain producing 
qualities, which, being finished, was placed, with proper incan- 
tations, at the bottom of what should have been a water hole 
in the now parched bed of the mountain torrent. There it was 
then held ia place with stones. Down came the rain ; nor did 
it cease for 48 hours, by which time it had become too much of 
a good thing. Soon the rain-producing hurdle was quite 10 
feet under water in the seething torrent, and the people, much 
to their dismay, saw that their yams and the surrounding earth 
were beginning to wash awa^^ down the hillsides. 

The lieutenant continues : "Now mark what comes of fool- 
ing with the elements ! No man of the hill country was able 
to dive to the bottom of the water hole to pull up the hurdle 
with its weight of stones, so the merciless rain still held on. 
At last the shore natives, accustomed to swimming and diving, 
heard what the matter was, and some of them coming to the 
assistance, the compeller of the elements was recovered from 
its watery bed and — the rain stopped ! " 

It is such a coincidence as this, happening perhaps once in 
a decade, which causes this people, now thoroughl}^ Christian- 
ized, to refuse to give up their rain doctors, although all other 
outward forms of rank superstition appear to have been freel}^ 
abandoned. — Lotiisville Couricr-Jonrnal . 



NO MAN WHO WORRIES IS HAPPY. 

When my drafts come back from the haughty banks, 

" Protested " in cold black type, 
I have one reason for hearty thanks, 

I can always "draw on" my pipe. 

—N. V. IForld. 



SAUIvT STE. MARIE, MICH. 

A SMART I.ITTI,E CITY BY THE INT^AND SEA. 
By Geo. A. Cady. 




THE location of Sault de, 
Ste. Marie is on the 
rapids where, on the 
St. Mary's River, 
the rocky bottom of 
Lake Superior crops out, spill- 
ing its crystal waters over 
into their passage-way on 
down to lyake Huron, sixty 
miles below. Lake Superior 
is 15 miles above the falls. 
The early history of the Sault 
as a military post. Missionary 
station (1668) and camping 
ground of the Ojibwa, Ottawa 
and some other Indian tribes, 
when engaged in fishing, are 
familiar facts to every student 
of the history of the North- 
geo. a. Cady. wcst. The Ojibwas were 

named by the French explor- 
er, Sauteux, because the Indians made their home at the Sault. 
Its commercial importance and growth have taken place largely 
in the past dozen years. 

Before the first ship canal and locks were constructed, the 
village of Sault Ste. Marie possessed no especial importance 
bej^ond lying at the head of navigation from the lower lakes. 
In that early day before the wealth of the upper Michigan 
Peninsula in iron, copper and lumber, and the broad wheat belt 
of the West had been developed, what little commerce passed 
the Sault was by a portage around the rapids, and thence it was 
carried by a few small craft up to and across Eake Superior. 

We know from tradition and from such early writers on this 
region as the scholarly Alexander Henry, as well as from 
Indians now living, that the shore opposite the rapids has, time 
out of mind, been a favorite spot for the Indian fishermen. Indeed, 
their right to camp there, convenient to the rapids, has been 
carefully reserved in Indian treaties until recent times ; and so 
it is that the Ojibwa Indian with his birch-bark canoe has long 
been an historical figure on the rapids. 



SAULT STE. MARIE. 




The Soo as Seen From Chandlbk's Hill. 

White fish were in an early day very abundant at these 
rapids, and were then taken as now with a dip-net of peculiar 
construction, seen nowhere else unless perhaps, in the hands of 
native salmon fishermen on the Columbia river. 

Schoolcraft is supposed to have drawn his inspiration from 
these waters and scenes when he wrote the lines attributed to 
him ; and voiced a common notion about a white fish diet: — 

"And oft' the sweet morsel 

Up-poised on the knife, 
Excites a bland smile 

From, the blooming young wife; 
Nor dreams she a sea-fish 

One moment compares, 
But is thinking the while 

Not of fish, but of heirs." 

The demands of modern trafiic making necessary three 
canals with locks at this point, one on the Canadian and two 
on the American side, besides two large water-power canals 
projected on the respective sides of the river have conspired to 
make the beautiful rapids and the Indian fisherman, who still 
plies his dexterous net in those ' ' laughing waters ' ' an antique 
back-ground for the bustling Soo. It was the Sault — it is 
now the Soo ; the two spellings indicate the change from the 
dreamy past of two centuries ago to the nervous present. 

The Sault is fast fading away. The cunning engineer has 
run his lines, has said how many yards of earth must go; and so 
it has come to pass that some of the most beautiful of her 
wooded shores and islands have perished, as it were, in a da}^ 
eaten up by the leviathan dredge — where before, little silver 
streams har" stolen away from the parent river and only came 



SAULT STE. MARIE. 




Indians Fishing in the Kapids. 

back after many crooked wanderings among the outcropping 
isles and boulders. Where now are all those rustic bridges — 
those winding paths overhung with verdure, those bird-songs, 
those speckled flashes leaping to the bait — all that labj'rinth 
of beauty and of murmuring waters ? The ceaseless thunder 
and the dash of the main rapids beating itself into spray, alone 
remain. Trees are razed to the ground; streams are choked 
to death with spoil rock ; the song bird has no where to rest his 
wing ; the fairy bits of earth, once beautiful gems that only 
flowing waters can make so beautiful, are a waste of up-turned 
rock; and we have instead yawning depths in the earth where 
the dynamite boom affrights with its repeated thunderous peals, 
that echo and re-echo away among the hills. The true lover 
of nature weeps at what civilization has wrought. 




Spring Scene Above the Great Locks. 



SAULT STE. MARIE. 





Indian Mail Carriers with Dog Train. 

Turning to the present and the future, nature has made the 
Soo a city of great possibilities. First to challenge attention is 
her undeveloped water power with eighteen feet of fall within 
a half mile, at the rapids; and all I^ake Superior for a mill-pond. 
Lake Superior is fifteen miles above, but that distance represents 
a fall of only i-io of a foot. 

The greatest fresh water commerce in the world pays tribute 
at her door as it passes through her locks, already the largest 
in the world; while her third locks now building to replace, but 
on a grander scale, the old or first locks of 1855, will be ready 
for use in 1895 or 1896. In 1893 the total number of registered 
and unregistered craft passing the canal of 188 1 was 966, carry- 
ing upwards of 10,000,000 tons of freight and more than 18,000 
passengers. The valuation of these vessels was upwards of 
forty-one millions of dollars, and their freight earnings more 
than nine millions of dollars. 

Her pure water supply from lyake Superior's basin of Pots- 
dam sandstone is soft and sweet, and claimed to be unsurpassed 
for fine paper manufacture. 

The transmitting possibilities of electricity combined with 
cheap water power is destined at no distant day to enlarge her 
borders and make her the Mecca of the manufacturer. The 
water power is already utilized to a limited amount of horse 
power, for domestic and public lighting, and for street car and 
other mechanical propulsion. Those mighty waters rushing to 
the lower level can be harnessed to do a prodigious work on 
shore. 

Her shipping facilities by rail and water are unsurpassed, as 
she lies in the direct path of both sorts of commerce from the 
interior both ways to the sea-boards. 

She is a delightful summer resort, and her bracing ozone 
needs only to be once known to be ever after prized as a nerve 



SAULT STE. MA IRE. 




The Old Lock of 1855. 



tonic and invigorator. Her neighboring forests and streams are 
the delight of the sportsman, and August camping parties are a 
feature of the social and family life of her eight thousand mixed 
population. 

Her trade in ice, fresh meats, milk, and fresh and salted fish 
is each year increasing with the lake marine ; some of the largest 
vessel interests have opened supply depots here from which to 
victual and equip their large fleets on their trips between the 
lower and upper lakes. This is no small factor in the Soo's 
increasing trade, and will continue after the government works 
are all finished. The farming interests around the Soo are fast 
developing up to the opportunities, and will help to fill her with 
the products that are so much in demand. 




t^t^~. 



Locks of 1881, Showing Vessels Being Lowered 



SAULT STE. MARIE. 






Interior of the Present Locks. Pumped Dry for Repairs. 

The State of Michigan has legislated wisely fcr the lake 
cities in the enlightened policy of artificial fish culture — which 
is nowhere more appreciated than by those engaged in Lake 
Superior and Lake Huron fisheries, which so largely use the Soo 
as a base of supplies. The planting of fish artificially hatched 
is a demonstrated success, and the increase in the adult supply 
is said by fisherman to be very marked. 

In time the city can and will be a city of macadam streets, 
material for which lies about in large boulders. She needs 
resolutely to abandon as utterly worthless her past plan of 
spending taxpayers' dollars on dirt roads; and continue the 
crushed stone pavement so well begun. Her present good roads 
are those traversed hy the propellers. 








New Locks in Process of Construction. 



A MOST RKMARKABIvE ROAD BUII^DING PROJECT. 

PROBABIyY the most daring venture in the way of earth 
road construction that the world has been introduced to, 
is the proposed highway across the Irish Sea, and con- 
necting Torcor Point at the North of Ireland with Great 
Britain at Deas Point, Scotland. 

This stupendous sample of modern road engineering will be 
14 1-2 miles long and 300 feet wide at the top. The most 
remarkable feature about it is that the filling for a part of the 
distance will be fully 400 feet deep. 

The wash of the sea will make it necessary to have the 
bottom of the embankment upwards of a mile wide. As this 
road crosses the North Channel where the current is very strong 
it is proposed to build into the embankment several power 
houses through which the water may pass, and act upon water 
wheels thus furnishing a large amount of power which can be 
transmitted by electricity to both the countries which are to be 
connected by this important wagon road. 

It is proposed to run a double track across the artificial 
isthmus, on which electric cars may be operated by the force of 
the current. (The current of water acting through the electric 
current.) 

That this is a most unique and extraordinary scheme no one 
will deny. It seems exttemely practical, however, being only a 
question of money, with a possible doubt as to whether there is 
enough free soil in Ireland to build that end of it. 

If this thing is done, and there is no good reason for saying 
that it will not be, we may next expect to hear of a dirt road 
across the English Channel. Those who have crossed it on 
shipboard in rough weather will understand the advantages of 
a good solid road "built from the ground up." Imagine a 
traveller crossing the English Channel while calmly seated in a 
parlor car and enjoying meanwhile the full possession of his 
faculties (and his dinner.) It is entirely within the possibilities 
and those who are in good health and not too old will probably 
live to see it. 




Gov. H. H. Markham. 



GOOD ROAD MOVEMENT IN CAEIFORNIA. 

BY GOVERNOR H. H. MARKHAM. 

THE good roads movement 
is of recent origin in 
California. Previous to 
the past year but two 
counties had given at- 
tention to road economics as 
now understood, and even in 
these counties the activity 
was confined to that class of 
roads known as gravelled 
highways, and which do not 
stand first among roads. 

The State is one of vast 
proportions. Its extent is so 
great, its soil conditions, its 
altitudes, temperature, and 
geological formations so pe- 
culiar, that it may well be 
said that no general system 
of road construction or road 
laws can well be made appli- 
cable to all sections of the State. 

For these reasons among others, our road legislation has 
never been satisfactory. We are now, however, operating 
under a law that is a closer approach to the ideal than any we 
had prior to last year, because it moves on the principle that 
that government is best which is brought closest to the people. 
Under this law it is quite possible for the people of any section 
to set up a system suited to their local conditions and needs. 
Under it they can vote almost any expenditure they choose for 
road purposes, and for any system that most impresses them. 

Good road material is plentiful in the foot-hill and coast 
counties, as a rule, but excepting gravel which cannot be classed 
as among the best, is, as a rule, scarce in the valley sections, 
involving a considerable cost for hauling. 

Early in the summer of last 3'ear, (1893,) the Sacramento 
County Humane Society resolved to set the good road move- 
ment in motion in California. A committee of that society 
called upon me and laid bare the plans for a State Road Con- 
vention and the necessary prefator}^ education of public 
thought in that direction. I reflected upon these plans and 
found them so far in harmony with my own views of beginning 



14 ROAD MO VEMENT IN CALIFORNIA. 

the good work, that Executive consent was given to the use of 
the name of the office in commendation of the scheme. I signed 
an endorsement therefore for the call of a convention; and agreed 
to appoint the delegates at large. 

The society then moved upon the press of the State and se- 
cured the publication of numerous articles upon road economics. 
These were fruitful of much good and in a remarkably brief 
time the whole people were engaged in a debate as to roads, 
ways and means, etc., precisely as had been anticipated and 
desired. 

The next step, was to sound the several county surveyors as 
to their views on road questions and their willingness to gather 
and contribute certain statistics relative to road conditions and 
expenditures in their counties that the same might be laid 
before the convention. For clearly the people of California up 
to that time were unaware that they were pursuing a road prac- 
tice far more costly than one that would give them permanent 
good roads. At least the few who realized the wastefulness of 
the prevalent system, had failed to make much of an impression 
upon the public mind in that direction. 

Most of the surveyors fell in with the plan heartily, and 
such a showing of bad economic and physical conditions resulted 
as amazed the people. For instance, in one of the largest fruit- 
growing counties it was shown, in the ten years next before 1893, 
more money had been expended on road work, by some thou- 
sands of dollars than would have built 300 miles of permanent 
macadam sixteen-foot road, and have paid for maintenance of 
the same for the ten years, interest on the aggregate sum at 5 
per cent, per annum and have provided a sinking fund to dis- 
charge the principal in five-year payments, in twenty or twenty- 
five years, while all the time the county would have enjoyed 
the benefits accruing from the improved roads. Yet the sur- 
veyor reported that in that county in 1 893 there ' ' was not one 
mile of road worthy to be called good," and that all the high- 
ways the county had could be duplicated for a small sum, say 
$25,000 or even a third less. 

Presently the Humane Society reported to me that the 
Supervisors of Sacramento County had appropriated $100 to 
enable the Convention call to be issued, that the Wheelmen's 
Association had contributed $50 to the same end, and that 
Sacramento citizens had pledged themselves to raise all other 
money necessary to carry on the proposed convention. 

The "Call" then issued, and I signed it gladly, and named 
twenty citizens who were interested in road matters to serve as 
delegates at large. Other delegates were chosen by Granges, 
Alliances, Supervisors, and commercial, municipal and scien- 
tific bodies; all surveyors and road engineers were added, 
officials of agricultural bodies, members of Boards of Super- 
visors and others. 



ROAD MO VEMENT IN CALIFORNIA. 15 

So soon as our call issued, the press with remarkable unan- 
imity endorsed it. I have yet to hear of a single print that did 
not approve the scheme. The people received the proposition 
most kindly, and the convention came together in September, 
in the Capitol, as fine a body of representative citizens as I 
have seen. 

I cannot go into the details of the proceedings. It must 
suffice to say that it was in session two da5^s and that it planted 
the seed which is to give us ultimately a good road system all 
over the State, perhaps not an ideal one, but one that will, ten 
years hence, make us wonder why for forty years we have put 
up with present conditions. 

We in California are now thoroughly impressed with the 
fact that good roads mean advanced civilization, better condi- 
tions of society, economic and better living, ease of transpor- 
tation, saving of time — the most precious of capital — and the 
broadening of the invitation to live rural lives instead of flock- 
ing into cities and towns. We daily realize that all the bless- 
ings that flow from firm, humane, smooth, rapid, well-kept 
highways elsewhere, will here, under our favoring skies and in 
our mild climate, be greatly augmented. 

The convention made itself a permanent body. It elected 
an executive committee and an educational committee. It 
declared in favor of wide tires, macadam roadways, narrower 
roads, through or main trunk lines, and indicated a disposion to 
favor later on a system of State highways. On that point, how- 
ever, there is a great difference of opinion. Most Califomians, 
it is believed, think that self-helpfulness will be best conserved 
by putting road construction upon counties alone, since there 
are sections in our State where first-class roads never will be 
constructed, and which nevertheless pay into our common fund 
considerable sums of monej^ as in the upper timber and some 
mining regions for instance. 

The convention was about evenly divided in advising the 
issue of bonds to procure means to build good road systems at 
once. The Grange and Alliance men, as a rule, fought all bond 
and all debt-creating propositions, though admitting that the 
present annual expense under the uneconomic old-fashioned 
system of road districts, and dirt and gravel roads, undrained 
and ill-constructed, is far more than the interest on a sum 
necessary to construct permanent roads that may be kept in 
repair at low cost, and that in addition the sum expended under 
the present system will in a given group of years, say twenty, 
exceed the interest and the principal of a sum sufficient to con- 
struct and mantain good modern roads. 

As a result of that convention there has been more practical 
information desseminated among the people on the road eco- 
nomics question in the last ten months than in the whole pre- 



1 6 ROAD MOVEMENT IN CALIFORNIA. 

ceding years of our State history. One county has acted 
already, borrowed a quarter of a million dollars and gone to 
work to construct permanent roads. In all the counties there 
has been agitation, public and other debates, lectures and 
Grange discussions on the subject of which they knew little 
before. Prejudices against road engineers have disappeared, 
scientific road-building has gained a hearing, essaj^s on road 
building, have filled the papers and magazines, and on all sides 
there is an enlightenment and the gradual disappearance of 
ignorance and old-time prejudices. 

I am entitled to little credit for this move as compared with 
the Hon. J. A. Woodson of Sacramento, who was my most 
intelligent advisor and one of the most active promotors of the 
whole scheme. 

The outlook is very hopeful for the State in the matter of 
roads. When the present uncertainty that paralyzes industry, 
trade and production disappears, the agitation will be renewed, 
and the friends of good roads have reason to believe that there 
will be remarkable activit}- throughout the State in the matter 
of permanent road construction. Alread}'- the President of the 
Committee is preparing his call for reconvening that body. 

We need good roads because of our great distances, rainless 
months and sparse population. As it is, we are crippled badly 
in transportation of products for want of even passable roads. 
We are taxed enormously for bad roads because of long hauls, 
broad tracks, small population and climatic peculiarities. So 
too we find, that those we would have come amongst us are 
repulsed by our road conditions and will not be convinced that 
behind our poor highways lie rich possibilities, which if told, 
would sound like romantic tales. The)^ are accustomed to 
judge communities hy their highwa)'S, and to expect only 
poverty, laziness and unthrft, behind ragged, ill-kept, dusty, 
rutted and at some seasons impassable roads. 

We are becoming a horticultural State pre-eminentl}^ and 
fruit carriage to market for shipment is of first importance to us, 
and in it good smooth roads mean larger gains. We are 
a tourist State and good drives are a necessity to us. We are 
an agricultural State with lands richer than fabulous mines and 
capable of supporting five millions of people easil3^ But we 
cannot sell lands to people who cannot approach them except 
with the greatest discomfort. These are but a few of the 
reasons peculiar to California that assure us that our people 
will not let the good road agitation die out. As a rule the 
people here are not in favor of National appropriation for road 
purposes. It is not deemed a proper function of Federal 
government. All such work is State work and should be 
State work alone, in order to encourage self-helpfulness. 



HOW A WOMAN BUII.T A WAGON ROAD. 

BY EDWARD W. PERRY. 

{Continued from June Xumbcr.) 

1 I ^ELIv, we began work as quickly as possible, that we 
ill might get teams and men while the roads were so 
VJ^ bad that they could not haul hay or grain to market, 
and the fields were so soft that they could do no work 
in them. We opened our big gate and invited every- 
body to freely use our new road, as soon as our macadam was 
completed as far as the gravel ridge. We built a good bridge 
across the creek, and on a level with the top of the gravel. 
Then we spread the gravel upon the old highway beyond the 
place where my land ended and we had to leave the fiields. 

Folk who used the new road were loud in praising it ; but a 
few weeks afterward some of them called us fools for throwing 
away so much money on a private road, that there would be no 
need of using, except during a few weeks of each year. It was 
considerably longer than the straight road through the bottom, 
anyway. These fellows had already forgotten how they had 
been for weeks cut off from market, and, thanks to our work, 
they had delivered their grain almost as early as we had. You 
see, the road on the higher ground had dried out long before that 
in the bottom had, and our macadam and gravel carried them 
around the mud and helped them out mightily — for which some 
were grateful, while there was need of using our road. 

We had a company organized by that time. Brown, the 
banker, was president, and Keene, the hard-headed old farmer, 
was vice-president. That gave a solid appearance, financially, 
and also inspired confidence in the minds of farmers, for, how- 
ever jealous some of them may have been of him, they knew 
from experience that he was a very shrewd and careful manager. 

Then we went at work on the land owners near the line of 
the proposed improvement, and with the business men in town. 
Only one or two of the merchants would buy stock ; the rest 
simply laughed at us. 

' ' How will that stock ever pay us anything? What dividend 
will you promise us ? When will we get something out of the 
thing? " they asked. And when we explained that good roads 
would bring in more trade they laughed at us again. 

"We get all the trade there is, now ; and your road making 
isn't going to raise more wheat, or corn, or hogs, is it ? It will 
not make the farmers buy more goods of us, will it ? If you 
could get a charter, and collect tolls, then we might take stock 
in the thing ; but the legislature will never give a charter for a 
toll road." 



i8 GOOD ROADS. 

There was nothing for it but to bide our time, and hope for 
a change for the better. We argued, whenever we had a chance, 
that the county should issue bonds, and go into the general 
improvement of its roads. We tried to show that the saving in 
the wear of wagons, harnesses and horses, in time, in feed and 
in other ways would alone pa}^ the whole cost, and more ; and 
then people said that we were getting tired of the job, and 
wanted to saddle it on the county. 

Wife and Kate managed to have some of the more prominent 
people, the merchants, bankers and manufacturers, come out to 
tea, or to luncheons, pretty often that summer, and the young 
editor of the liveliest of our county papers came oftener than many 
of the others. One result was that he had a good deal of matter 
in his paper that year about roads. Another result was — but 
that is another story, which our Grace and the editor may pre- 
fer to tell for themselves. 

Meantime the wives and daughters of others interested fol- 
lowed MoUie's example, and we who lived along that five miles 
saw the gayest summer ever known on that stretch; for there 
were tea parties, and dinners, and picnics and other gatherings 
without number. It became a regular custom for the town folk 
to drive out in the evening, even when there was no formal 
gathering. My wife worked hard, Kate helped efficiently, 
Grace took new delight in helping to entertain, and even poor 
little Nelly Sullivan began to come out of her shell, to lend a 
hand. Meeting so many young people helped her forget the 
lover she had lost by the mud. 

While the roads were dry, hard and tolerably smooth and 
dusty, our road improvement scheme seemed dead, so far as the 
farmers and most of the merchants were concerned. The 
farmers wouldn't drive over our stone road. It was too far 
around, and it would hurt the horses' feet to go so much on 
hard stone; and they weren't going to help pack solid a private 
road, that might be shut against them as soon as it had worn 
smooth. If we wanted a stone road, why we might make it for 
ourselves; they weren't going to lame their horses to help make 
our road, for nothing. 

These matters came to our ears, of course, and while some 
of us could laugh at this exhibition of human nature, they 
vexed the women. Molty is a rather level headed woman, but 
even she became vexed b}^ the stupidity of our neighbors. 

" I shall, urge that the road be closed against all who are 
not stockholders," she declared. And she did, but we patiently 
awaited our time. 

There was a dry, cold winter, with plenty of snow and good 
sleighing, and the outsiders laughed at us more than ever. But 
spring opened early and very warm. The snow went in three 
or four days, then there were frequent rains, and the roads were 



GOOD ROADS. 19 

a sight to behold. Then the folk who could manage to reach 
our gate at all turned in there confidently expecting to use the 
stone road from there to town. The}' found the gate closed, 
and had to come to the house to beg permission to open it. 
They were always welcomed, and if there were women in the 
party they were warmed and fed. Of course there was much 
discussion of the wretched condition of the roads, and, when the 
interest seemed greatest we would give them copies of the 
county paper in which there was sure to be some argument in 
favor of road improvement. We would gladly have given other 
matter of the kind, but then there were no such beautifully 
illustrated publications as we can get now, about good roads. 

When March was nearly gone most of the folk who came 
that way had been given an opportunity to read some of the 
gospel of good roads. If they hadn't read it, it was no fault of 
ours. After that, when one asked for permission to drive 
through our fields we would tell him that he should step into 
the bank and buy a few shares of our stock. A very few did so, 
but most merely promised to think about it. By that time the 
mud was hub deep in all the dirt roads. 

Then Molly suggested that we should bring some certifi- 
cates of stock to the house, and close the gate against all who 
had not bought at least one share. 

Well! It would have done you good to see them squirm. 

" It's an outrage, a robber}^! I won't pay it! It's an 
infernal shame to treat neighbors so! " more than one declared. 

" Ver}^ well; sorry you think so, but those are the rules. 
And there's the public road, down in the bottom. We haven't 
taken it up; in fact we haven't done a thing to it." 

Not only was it a fact that we had not done anything to the 
old road, but it was also a fact that no one else had done any- 
thing to it, within a year or more. It happened just as wife and 
I had figured — the pathmaster had supposed that as our new 
road had been opened to the public freely, it would remain 
open. So he did no work on what was always the worst bit of 
road in our district, if not the whole county; therefore it was in 
a horrible condition, as you maj^ suppose. 

Of course several people refused to buy shares, and tried to 
drive through the bottom. Not one tried that a second time. 
At last one man who had used our road the preceding spring, 
and had afterward been offensively jocose about our folly, drove 
up with a load of ha3^ for which he could have got $20 thatda}^, 
if it had been in town. 

" Hello, your gate's locked!" he cried to me with pretence 
of surprise. 

" So I see," I replied. "It is closed to all except stock- 
holders of our road company. But that needn't trouble you 
any; you can become a stockholder easily enough." 



20 GOOD ROADS. 

"Oh, all right. I'll see 3'ou about it when I come back. 
I'll have some monej^ after I sell this ha}\" 

" Yes, of course ; but don't you think it will pay 5'ou better 
to buy a share or two now% than it will to try and drag that load 
through that muddy bottom ? ' ' 

" D'ye mean t' tell me y' wont let me go through 'thout I 
pay for't?" he harshly demanded. 

" No indeed! What I say is that j'ou shall be free to go 
over this road as much as you wish, as soon as you shall have 
paid for five shares of our stock, on the same terms as we let 
other folk have — one dollar down, and one dollar each month 
for nine months." 

" I'll see your road in tophet first. I won't pay any sech 
money fer th' use of j^our old road." But, saj^ now, you're 
only joking, ye know. I'll buy a share or two as soon as I come 
back from town." 

" When will you come back ; you don't live on this road, 
you know? ' ' 

" Why, I'm comin' right back, 'f course." 

" Well, I'll do this, as it is you. You go the old road this 
time, and when you come back I will let jom have ten shares at 
a bargain ; five dollars apiece down, and the rest in six months. 
It ma}^ be against our rules, but I'll risk it." 

" You go to the devil with your rules, and your stock too, 
you and yoMX whole cut-throat gang," and he gathered up his 
lines and chirrupped to his horses. 

"Hold on," I called. "I'll make one more offer." 

He stopped his team suddenlj^ enough to show that he was 
most willing to hear the offer. 

" It is hardly fair to let a man drive down into that bottom 
with such a load as you have there. I tell 3-0U fairly, 5'ou can 
not get through with it. It is all a good team can do to pull a 
light wagon in that mud. Rather than see you lose a load of 
hay that is worth twenty dollars I'll make a last offer." 

" Well, spit her out! " he cried impatientl}^ as I hesitated 
as though considering. 

" It is this. You shall have the privilege of using our road, 
that is always hard and dry, smooth and level, as much as you 
wish and at 2lUj time, for your own teams. All you need to do 
is to pa3' me spot cash for twenty shares — two hundred dollars, 
you know." 

" You go to ! " he shouted. " I'll show you that ye'll 

have to open yer infernal road, 'f there's any law in the land," 
and he drove down the hill cursing loudlj^ as he went. 

That load of ha}' blocked the mud road for two weeks, and 
as it was at the culvert no one could have gone around it, if he 
had tried. But no one did try, for the story spread and those 
who wanted to use our road paid for stock, and those who didn't 
either went over some other road or stayed at home. 



GOOD ROADS. 21 

Of course all this made lots of talk, and we came in for a deal 
of abuse ; but the stock sold, and that was what we wanted. Of 
course the abuse hurt my wife a little, and the children were 
furious about it ; but Molly laughed her vexation off, and told 
the youngsters that: 

' ' Those people are only crying becavise their medicine is 
bitter, as I think I have known some children to do. They 
will be much better when they feel its good effects, and will 
forgive the doctor ; as some children I know have forgiven the 
mother who administered medicine to them." 

About that time the president of the bank that was not 
especially friendly to us, went to Tom Burns — Tom was secre- 
tary of our company you know — and said to him : 

' ' What does your company intend to do in the way of road 
improvement this year ? ' ' 

"I really can't say," replied Tom. " The matter hasn't 
been decided yet. Why?" 

" Well, to be frank with you, I thought that it would be a 
good thing to macadamize Decatur avenue ? ' ' 

"Yes, it would," replied Tom cordiall}^ " lyCt me see, 
5^ou have considerable property along that street, haven't you?" 

The banker laughed. 

" I may as well come down to business, Tom. How much 
will it cost me to induce your company to carrj^ its improvement 
over to that avenue, and to put in a good macadam on it ? It is 
only five blocks from the direct line of your road, and is not 
really out of your way in coming to the business part of town." 

"You will have to buy some of our stock; I don't know 
how much." 

" Very well. I am willing to take a pretty good block. I 
think I can sell some of it to others who owri property on 
Decatur Avenue. Willing to risk it anyway." 

Tom came out that evening, and told us about the conver- 
sation with the banker. 

' ' Why not let him pay for what shares he wants by deeding 
lots to the company?" asked Molly. "If the improvement 
increases the value of the propertj^ as much as we believe it will, 
the company will do well; if it does not raise the value, the 
banker will not have lost his money. Why shouldn't the com- 
pany buy other land that way? Then it will have at least a 
good chance to make those dividends that people have worried 
about." 

Two weeks later the Progress published this item: 

' ' The Good Roads Company has been quietly picking up 
the best lots on Decutur avenue. The president of the First 
National Bank has this week transferred lots worth ten thou- 
sand dollars, and taken shares of that company in full payment. 
One need not be very sharp to see that this indicates that the 



22 GOOD ROADS. 

early improvement of Decatur avenue will take place. Property 
along that street is rising rapidly in value since this transaction 
became known. 

" It is a significant fact that the shrewdest of our business 
men, like the president of the First National, are quietly pick- 
ing up the stock of the Good Roads Company; and that those 
who have exchanged land for that stock were shareholders 
before, is another significant fact. Of course they have inside 
information, and so know what the profits of the stock will be." 

In its next issue The Progress announced that: 

' ' The Good Roads Company has bought the northeast 
quarter of section 12, two miles from the village limits, and 
beside their macadamized road. The company will lay the plot 
out with gracefully curving streets, everj'^ one of which will be 
at once laid with telford pavement. In other ways the place 
will be beautified and made as parklike as possible. A number 
of dwellings will be built during the coming summer on some of 
the most eligible of the sites on the forty. 

' ' In this enterprise will be seen an evidence of the benefits 
of good roads. Without the macadam road which connects this 
quarter section with the streets of our beautiful and thriving vil- 
lage, no one would have dared to undertake to make homes 
so far from the busy centre of town; but that road makes it 
quite easy to ride in vehicle or on bicycle from one's ofiice to 
his home in the country. The drawback is that one will have 
to ride or drive through our streets to reach the macadam. We 
feel sure, however, that the time will come when our streets 
will be as even and firm, as clean and dry in bad weather, and 
as free from dust in dry weather, as that five miles of country 
road has been during the last year. ' ' 

These articles brought many offers for stock. People were 
full of curiosity about the plans of the company, but we told 
little or nothing of our purposes, and made no promises. In 
fact there may have seemed to be a trifle of mystery about it ; 
but the shares sold none the less freel)^ because of that. 

{To be Continued in August Number.) 



THE UNIVERSAL ROAD. 

BY CHAS. E. DURYEA. 




F 



m^- 




Chas. E. Duryea. 



kROM the dawn of history 
to the present, civiliza- 
tion and roadways have 
been linked together. 
Whether landwaj^s or 
waterways, whether traversed 
b3" ships or slaves, canal-boats 
or camels, canoes or C5'clers, 
the progress of an}^ country 
has been reflected by its S5^s- 
tem of roads. 

Previous to the harnessing 
of steam, water-ways formed 
the great arteries, and so de- 
pendent were the people on 
them that it maj^ be said with 
truth, that civilization was a 
matter of shore-line, and few 
large cities exist to-da}' with- 
out water communication. 
With the railroad and 
steam power came the development of large areas previousl}^ 
valueless ; while every day, tracks and equipment are made 
better and faster, and ocean steamers larger and swifter, to meet 
the needs of a civilization that grasps every chance for progress. 
Recognizing these facts, no prophet is needed to call atten- 
tion to a medium enveloping the earth, free to all, and capable 
of not only supporting the traveller but of propelling him under 
certain conditions ; or to predict that it will soon be mastered 
and made to serve as a roadway. 

Waterways are limited in number, often inaccessibl}' placed, 
often too wide for convenience, too shallow, narrow or rocky 
for use ; landways are turned from their course or rendered less 
valuable, by hills, swamps, rocks, streams and minor obstruc- 
tions too numerous to mention ; but the air reaches ever5'where 
and offers straight lines free from obstructions, with smooth 
riding at high speed and at low cost. As a roadway it would 
seem to be ideal. By its use the whole earth and sky would be 
our playground. The fljnng machine would do more to civilize 
and Christianize the world than hosts of missionaries can now do, 
for both Darkest Africa and the North Pole would be near at 
hand. 



24 THE UNIVERSAL ROAD. 

While we agitate the good roads question let us not forget 
the universal roadway that lies all around us. 

"But," ask the hard-headed practical man, " can it be used, 
and if so, how? " 




Perspective View of the Proposed Duryea Flying School. 

Note— The artist has shown this as located directly over a church spire. We would 
suggest, however, that a haystack would be more comfortable to look at,'and would, 
no doubt, be a greater inducement to pupils.— [Ed.] 

It can be used. Scientists and engineers who have given 
the subject thorough study are unanimous on this point. 

Nor is the " how " any longer a question. The aeroplane is 
the machine to use; the soaring bird, the model to copy. 



THE UNIVERSAL ROAD. 25 

We can build the aeroplane, light, strong, and inexpensive; 
we can equip it with gasoline vapor explosion motors, so power- 
ful in proportion to their weight, that when provided with a 
proper screw propellor they can lift themselves bodily into the 
air or drag many times their weight, supported by the aeroplane, 
through the air at high speed. 

These things we know. Many experiments by various 
experimentors have proven them. 

" But," asks the doubter, " can we manage such a machine 
if we had it? " The answer is, with practice, yes. 

Practice and practice alone is the one thing lacking. The 
lack of skill in the management of our experiments is the sole 
cause of failure in our attempts at flying to-da3^ 

We can acquire the necessary practice. This is not the 
statement of an enthusiastic theorist but a statement of fact. 
The proof is, it has been done. During the past summer Mr. 
O. Ivilienthal, of BerHn, has been practicing with aeroplanes of 
his own construction and with fully successful results in that he 
starts, soars and alights in an easy, safe and pleasant manner 
and with his machine under full control. He performs every 
evolution of the soaring bird except that of continuous flight at 
will. 

He began by jumping from small heights supported by an 
aeroplane modeled after the crow's outline, and continued his 
practice with this till able to manage a larger one. 

His present method is to run down a hillside against the 
wind till he has acquired speed, then raise the front edge of the 
plane and soar out over the valley, gradually settling down and 
finally alighting, easily and safely. Often a gust of wind has 
carried him higher than the point of starting, and flights of 1000 
feet or more have been accomplished, thus proving conclusively 
that an aeroplane can be managed successfully. 

He is now constructing a larger aeroplane with motor and 
expects to accomplish continuous flight at will before another 
winter. His present apparatus weighs 44 pounds and spreads 
about 160 square feet of surface, which is too small for the 175 
pound man using it. Further, Mr. ly. is well up towards fifty 
years of age, and so has passed the time of life when men are 
most active. If his life is spared there is little doubt about his 
succeeding in his attempt. He is not only experimenting on 
the right track, but has shown a most praiseworthy judgment 
and persistence and deserves success. 

The problem, however, is too great to depend on one man 
alone, or even on a few. 

America should come to the front in this matter. Let ener- 
getic 3^oung men form a soaring club, build an aeroplane and 
practice with it till thoroughly proficient. Let them equip it 
with motor and note the results. Their increased activity, their 



26 THE UNIVERSAL ROAD. 

combined experience and their many minds will bring results 
not to be expected from any one man. 

They will meet with more or less ridicule from short-sighted 
people, irregular and gusty winds will cause slow progress, 
improvements in the form of the apparatus will take time, but 
progress will be made and the sport of making i coo-foot jumps 
on the wind ought to far exceed that of sky-jumping with its 
record of 120-odd feet, or kindred sport. For those who are not 
willing to practice as did Mr. ly., an easier method may be had, 
although more costlj--. lyCt the aeroplane be provided with a 
propeller driven by foot-power or some form of motor, and sus- 
pended by a single rope under a captive balloon. This method 
of suspension would leave one perfectly free to travel in circles 
and "figure eights," and so learn to balance and guide the 
machine in perfect safet5^ 

After learning to manage properly when in the air, the start- 
ing and alighting can be learned by practice on the ground, as 
did Mr. L. 

If foot-power is insufhcient, electricity or compressed air 
could be carried to the machine from the ground by the way of 
the ballon and supporting rope. This method permits the use 
of as great a power as ma3^ be desired, for as long as needed, 
without the costly and light motor and generator needed for free 
work. As skill increases, less power will doubtless be required 
until, on selected days, we may find athletes soaring on the wind 
at will as do the birds without the use of any driving power. 
Success would seem most sure, however, with a machine 
arranged to use foot-power at least, for doubtless the machine 
may need help through an edd^^ of air as does the bird which 
flaps occasionall}'. 

The time is ripe for practice, the sport will be magnificent, 
success will surely follow. Who will start the first soaring club 
and be first to use our universal roadway ? 



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28 SKY ROADS. 

the earth, is in all cases slower, as, of course, the relative 
motion of the air and the apparatus governs the speed. The 
relative velocity attained is felt by the strength of the breeze 
striking the face while flying. A convenient device would be 
a little indicator pressure gauge in the front of the apparatus, 
on which we could constantly read the relative speed of the air. 
This would not involve any appreciable increase in the resist- 
ance. 

Although the wind compels us to resort to various extraor- 
dinary manoeuvres, it also furnishes us an opportunity for testing 
the real value and scope of sailing flight. By our calculations, 
based on experiments with arched surfaces on a small scale 
during windy weather, extended and prolonged sailing flight 
can be explained without further trouble. With wings of a 
proper form and position, the wind needs only to reach the 
necessary strength in order to keep the experimenter from fall- 
ing. Even with light winds of 4-5 m. velocity per second (9 to 
1 1 miles per hour) , we can with some little practice glide along 
at the slight angle of 6© to 80 , as is shown in the line b f. 
****** 

The greatest velocity of the wind at which I dared to start 
was about 7-8 m. per second (9 to 11 miles per hour). In these 
flights I often had a very interesting though not dangerous 
struggle with the wind, in which I sometimes came to a state 
of absolute rest, and was suspended in the air at one point for 
several seconds, almost exactly as the falcons of the Rhino w 
Mountains are. Sometimes I was suddenly lifted from such a 
position of rest many meters in a vertical direction, so that I 
became alarmed lest the wind should carry me off altogether. 
As, however, I never ventured out except when such gusts 
were exceptional, I was always able to continue my flight and 
to land safely. The line b g shows a wavy course, brought 
about by gusts, during which I rose to the height of my point 
of starting. 

There can be no doubt, in my opinion, that by perfecting 
our present apparatus, and by acquiring greater skill in using 
it, we shall achieve still more favorable results with it, and 
finally succeed in taking long sails even in rather strong 
winds. Even without considering the chances of such con- 
tinued sailing without effort, the results already obtained pro- 
vide us with data as to the energy to be expended if horizontal 
flight is to be prolonged by mechanical means. 



THOMAS TElvFORD. 

(FRONTISPIECE.) 

1 I ^HEN Macadam demonstrated the fact that broken 

III stone was superior to gravel as a surface for road- 

^J^ ways, he had done but a part of the important work 

of laying out for future generations, a general plan 

upon which roads should be constructed. However 

good an}^ structure may be, it cannot endure without a suitable 

foundation and this is just as true of a road as it is of a building. 

Thomas Telford was a firm believer in the value of a good 
foundation for roads, and as a justification of his faith, it is 
interesting to note that all the best stone roads of to-day are 
built with a " Telford foundation." 

Telford's father was a shepherd, but he thought best to have 
" Tom " follow some other line, accordingly he was " bound" 
to a stone mason, and in spite of the fact that he did at times 
try to write poetry, he was a faithful apprentice and at the age 
of twenty-two years he was considered a competent workman 
and began working as a journeyman at Langholm, Scotland, 
his wages being paid at the rate of eighteen pence per day. He 
afterward took jobs of stone work on his own account, such as 
grave stones and "ornamental door heads," and even some 
modest houses. 

He afterward went to London where he should find more 
room to grow. There he worked as a hewer of stone on various 
important buildings and finally at the Portsmouth Dockyard, 
until, as he expressed it in a letter to a friend, "My proceedings 
are entirely approved by the commissioners and officers here — 
so much so, that they would sooner go by my advice than my 
master's, which is a dangerous point, being difficult to keep 
their good graces as well as his." When the Portsmouth work 
was finished, Telford took up surveying and afterward became 
an engineer, giving especial attention to bridges and roads. He 
also appreciated (as many of our modern roadmakers do not) 
the importance of perfect drainage. It was his custom to put a 
cross-drain under the road every hundred feet, and opening into 
the side ditches at both ends. 

Thomas Telford died in 1834, at the age of 77, and during 
his life accomplished an immense amount of practical engineer- 
ing work. 



WHO SHOUI.D REPAIR THE ROAD THAT IS OPPO- 
SITE A MAN'S FARM? 



BY GOVERNOR REYNOLDS OF DELAWARE. 




/T\ 



Gov. R. J. Reynolds. 



Y observation is that 
the fewer persons 
engaged in a work 
the greater respon- 
sibihty, and conse- 
quently the work will be done 
'fVT. ^ W ^^1 better and much more eco- 

W jiL....^H nomically. If all roads could 

be worked by the parties own- 
ing the adjoining or adjacent 
farms, our public roads would, 
I think, be the better for 
it. For instance, I own a 
farm on which I now live, 
through which there runs 
three-fourths of a mile of pub- 
lic road. This road is worked 
b}^ a man six miles away, 
who never sees it more than 
a few times a year. If I 
worked this road I would see 
it every day and when a place wore out in my road I would 
send a load of clay or stone immediately and apply the stitch 
that saves nine. Besides, the same spirit of pride that induces 
me to keep my fencing in good repair and my headroes free 
from bushes and briars would induce me to keep my road in 
good, condition. There would spring up a rivalry among the 
farmers as to who keeps the best road. I am a farmer myself 
and know a farmer desires to excel his neighbor in fine fruit 
trees, wheat fields, and grass lots. At country stores of even- 
ings the general discussion is who in the neighborhood has the 
nicest farm and has the best kept fields and fences, and my 
theory would add : ' ' Who has the best road in the commu- 
nity ? ' ' and farmers would have a double incentive to keep 
their roads in thorough repair. I would let each county assess 
and collect all money for road purposes — controlled by State 
legislation, and appropriate said money to the farmers in pro- 
portion as they have roads. I would have a committee to look 
after the roads and report adversely on all farmers who failed 
to keep their roads in repair and withhold their appropriation 



WHO SHOULD REPAIR THE ROAD. 31 

until their work is done and well done. Again, a farmer who 
has wet land can drain his farm and the roads with the same 
expense, and save money by the operation. In fact the time 
would soon come when a farmer and his wife and children 
would be judged by the condition in which his public road is 
kept, and if his road is not kept in good repair all would know 
just where the responsibility lays, and by reporting him to the 
committee, have his appropriation withheld until his road is put 
in thorough condition. 



Men would be saints if they loved God as they love women. 
— Thomas. 

We laugh before we are happy, lest we should die without 
having laughed — La Bruye?'e. 

* * * * 

Experience is the keen knife that hurts, while it removes 
the cataract that blinds. — De Finod. 

* * * * 

How many women would laugh at the funerals of their hus- 
bands if it were not the custom to weep. — De Finod. 



It is not the weathercock that changes ; it is the wind. 
-C. Desmoiilins. 



Our happiness is but an unhappiness more or less consoled. 
— Ducts. 



I cannot see why women are so desirous of imitating men. 
I could understand the wish to be a boa constrictor, a lion or 
an elephant : but a man ! That surpasses my comprehension. 
— T. Sautier. 



THE DRAINAGE OF ROADS. 

BY W. H. BREITHAUPT, BERLIN, ONTARIO. 






i^ 



\ 



f 




PROPERLY built road 
consists of two dis- 
tinct parts : the road 
bed, and the compar- 
atively thin wearing 
surface. The former con- 
stitutes the foundation of the 
*- road, and should, like the 

i, '■'^~~' foundation of any structure, 

t"\ . be practically permanent. 

I _ .J Provision for thorough 

drainage is one of the most 
vital essentials in good road 
,„^^^ construction. No road, how- 

k^ ii^^^m ever well made otherwise, can 

; ^j W % endure, or give good service, 

if it allows water, the most 
potent of all road destroying 
w. H. BREITHAUPT. agents, to collect and remain 

on it. Separate provision 
must generally be made for 
sub-surface and surface drainage. Sub-surface drainage has 
for its object the keeping dry of the road-bed by the removal of 
underground water. Surfacing placed on a wet, undrained 
road-bed, liable to destruction by both water and frost, will 
always be troublesome and expensive to maintain. Surface 
drainage provides for the prompt removal of all water falling on 
the surface of the road. 

Natural soils are of the following classes: Silicious, sandy 
or gravelly ; argillaceous, clayey ; calcareous, containing lime ; 
rock, swamps, and morasses. Silicious and calcareous soils, 
sandy loams and rock, are not retentive of water, and, there- 
fore, require no underdrains. Clayey soils and marls retain 
water, are difficult to compact, and are verj^ unstable under the 
action of water and frost. Sub-drainage of these soils, in a 
road-bed, is effected by transverse drains, or by longitudinal 
drains with occasional transverse outlets to the side ditches. 
Transverse drains should be placed, not at right angles to the 
centre line of the road, but in the form of an inverted V, with 
the apex directed up grade. These V's should be 15 to 25 feet 
apart, depending on the wetness of the soil. They require a 
fall of about i inch in 5 feet. Their outlets from the side of the 



DRAINAGE OF ROADS. 33 

road-bed should be blind drains, extending back 3 or 4 feet. 
These blind drains may be of field stone — selecting such as are 
not too much rounded — laid to line. 

Subsoil drains are best made of unglazed circular tile, not 
less than 3 inches in diameter, with joints made by means of 
short sections of larger pipe, forming loosely fitting collars. 
They should be laid to a depth of 18 inches below sub-grade, 
which is the top of the road-bed, before the wearing surface is 
put on. A good longitudinal sub-drain may be made by dig- 
ging a trench 18 inches deep along the centre line of the road- 
bed, laying flat stones along the bottom so that a continuous 
opening, a practical box drain, is formed, and then filling the 
trench to sub-grade with loose stones. Transverse outlets from 
a longitudinal sub-drain, can generaily be spaced several hun- 
dred feet apart. There must always be an outlet at every 
change of grade. 

Surface drainage is effected by having ditches, gutters, or 
closed drains, at the side of the road, and having the road sur- 
face constantly maintained of such form that the water will 
rapidly drain off. The surface should have a regular fall to the 
sides, uninterrupted by hollows or ruts. A centre rise, com- 
paratively small toward what was formerly considered neces- 
sary, is sufficient. The transverse contour of the surface should 
be either a section of a circle, or a parabolic curve. The latter 
is to be preferred on account of its greater convexity at the 
sides of the road. A straight slope from the centre outward 
should not be used, as it will wear hollow, and the road will 
then retain water. For gravel surfacing the rise at the centre 
of the road should be one fiftieth of the width, for broken stone 
one sixtieth, giving for a road 16 feet wide 3.8 and 3.2 inches 
respectively, of centre rise. When hollows or ruts appear they 
should be filled with gravel or broken stone, whichever the 
road metal used in the wearing surface may be. It is bad 
practice to cut a gutter from a hole to drain it to the side of the 
road. Filling in is the proper course, whether the hole is dry 
or contains mud. The bottoms of the side ditches should be 2 
or 3 feet below the top of the finished road, giving them a 
depth, below the surface immediately along them, of about 18 
inches. Their sides should have a wide flow, so as to prevent 
all danger of caving in. They are given such cross-section and 
fall as to rapidly carrj^ away all water coming to them. Where 
open ditches are objectionable paved gutters, of depth of 6 
inches to 8 inches only, may take their place. Or a loose stone 
drain, like the one described for use as a longitudinal sub-drain, 
may be used. 

Ditches on inclines on which the velocity of water, after 
heavy rainfalls, would be greater than the nature of the soil 
can withstand, are improved by having weirs built across them 



34 DRAINAGE OF ROADS. 

at intervals. These weirs are of stone, in sufficient quantity, 
laid dry. They arrest the flow of the water, and so prevent 
destructive scour of the ditches. A velocity of 30 feet a min- 
ute is not detrimental ; 40 feet per minute will move coarse 
sand ; 60 feet per minute will move gravel ; 1 20 feet per minute 
will move round pebbles, and 180 feet per minute will move 
angular stones i 3-4 inches thick. 

Special care is required to provide sufficient section in cul- 
verts for the water which they are to pass. Too small a culvert 
will bank the water, and flood the roadway. On the other 
hand if the culvert is too large the cost of construction is 
unnecessarily increased. The cross section of a culvert depends 
on the maximum rate of rainfall on, and the condition of the 
soil of, the watershed the culvert drains ; on the form of the 
mouth and inclination of the bed of the culvert ; on whether it 
is permissable to bank up the water and discharge under head ; 
etc. Culverts are made of wood, brick, stone and vitrified 
sewer pipe. Wood is perishable and not to be recommended. 
Brick or stone should be used where a large opening is 
required. For a smaller one, sewer pipe makes an efficient 
culvert. If one pipe is inadequate, two laid side by side can be 
used. The ends of the pipe at the side of the road-bed should 
rest in masonry retaining walls. 

Gutters, ditches and culverts should be kept clear of weeds 
and rubbish at all seasons of the year. They should be espe- 
cially gone over in the spring as soon as melting of the snow 
permits, and again before the fall rains. 



An exchange truthfully says 
that the human race is divided 
into two clases — those who go 
ahead and do something, and 
those who sit still and enquire 
why it was not done the other 
way. 



WHAT STREET IMPROVEMENTS HAVE DONE FOR 
CINCINNATI. 

BY MICHAKL G. HKINTZ. 





Michael G. Heintz. 



owes the 
situation to 
period. Geolo 
discovered that 
immense formations of ice 
bearing down from the North 
created the terraces, and moulded 
the hills upon which Cincinnati 
is built. But however enchant- 
ing and picturesque such a loca- 
tion may be, it presents practical 
difRculties in the laying out of an 
extended system of city streets. 
Thoroughfares must be shortened 
and directions changed, inclined 
planes built and viaducts erected, 
in order to make the streets and 
avenues conform to the natural 
surface. These difficulties have 
been gradually overcome, until to-day Cincinnatians may well 
feel proud of her sj^stem of streets and street paving. 

Previous to 1885, the city streets were paved mostly with 
boulders, some few with wooden blocks, while the suburban 
avenues were made of macadam, or perhaps were unimproved. 
On April 25, 1885, the Ohio Legislature passed a bill which has 
been called "The P'our Million Dollar Paving Law." This 
law authorized the Board of Public Works of the city to pave 
the streets, avenues, and highways, with granite block, asphalt 
pavement, or other material. The board was given the neces- 
sary power to change grades to conform to the improvements, 
and to compel the making of sewer, water, and gas connections. 
The act further provided the method of advertising for bids for 
the work, the way in which the contracts should be let, and the 
manner of payment to the contractor after the completion of the 
improvement. It is unnecessary to discuss those features of 
the law. 

In order to provide a fund for the street improvement, the 
city was authorized to issue bonds in the amount of $2,000,000 
in the name of the city and paj^able in not less than ten years 



36 STREETS OF CINCINNATI. 

and not more than twenty years from the date of the issue, 
bearing interest at five per cent, per annum. It was provided 
that one-half of the cost of the improvement was to be paid by 
the city at large, out of the funds arising from the sale of the 
bonds, and the other half of the cost was to be assessed upon 
the parcels of land abounding and abutting upon the streets 
improved. Thus while a bond issue of only $2,000,000 was 
made, a fund of $4,000,000 was created, and the act became 
known in common parlance as "The Four Million Dollar Pav- 
ing Law." 

Much opposition to the bill developed while it was pending 
before the lyCgislature. The bond issue was opposed because 
it would increase the burden of municipal taxation. The Ham- 
ilton County Court House had been burned during the riot of 
1884, and a new and costl}^ Court House was then being 
erected. The unprecedented floods in the Ohio river during 
1884 and 1885 had submerged the lower business part of the 
city called "the bottoms" or first terrace, and had done incal- 
culable damage to property and trade. Conservative tax payers 
argued that their misfortunes were already so great that a 
$2,000,000 obligation would be unbearable. On the other hand 
there was a large proportion of energetic business men who 
believed that it was of prime importance to pave the city streets 
at once, and that the increased tax would be met by an equal 
or greater increase in the values of real estate, in rent, and in 
the volume of business. The Legislature adopted the latter 
view, and the bill became a law. From that time on the grind 
of the crusher, the splash of the concrete mixer, and the blow 
of the rammer became familiar sounds in the streets of the city. 
The following table taken from the annual report of Hon. 
August Hermann, President of the Board of Administration, 
which has succeeded the Board of Public Works, shows the 
amounts expended and the number of miles of improvements 
made during the term from 1886 to 1893 inclusive : 







Number 


of Miles of Granite, 


Year. 


Amounts Expended. 


Asphalt, and Brick Paving. 


1886 


$197,443-84 




10.00 


1887 


$213,673.06 




21.50 


1888 


fo55, 589-70 




34.00 


T889 


$254,758.68 




35- 00 


1890 


$212,079.18 




39-44 


189I 


$210,131.85 




■42.78 


1892 


$219,699.23 




55-87 


1893 


$526,672.50 




70.60 



1894 — The estimated cost of street work projected for the 
year 1894 is $1,500,000. 



STREETS OF CINCINNATI. 37 

Of the 70.60 miles of improved streets, 14.64 miles are of 
brick, 13.78 miles of asphalt, and 42.18 miles of granite. The 
mileage and character of streets in the city other than the 
granite, brick, and asphalt is as follows : 

Boulder, - - - - 86.36 miles. 

Macadam, - - - - 129.12 " 

Macadam roads, - - - 5.91 " 

L/imestone, - . - - 11.00 " 

Wooden, - - - - 1.57 " 

The "bottoms," or that part of the city in which the bulk 
of the wholesale trade is conducted, extends along the Ohio 
river, and is about 2000 feet in width. It is traversed by Water, 
Front, Second, Pearl and Third streets, running parallel to the 
river, and all of which are paved with granite. In the upper 
part of the city granite and asphalt alternate. Race and Plum 
streets are the onlj^ through streets having no car tracks, and 
they are both paved with asphalt and afford splendid drivew^ays. 
The whole city is surrounded by a ridge of picturesque hills, 
crowned with suburbs, famous for their beautiful shaded ave- 
nues and magnificent residences. Some few of the suburban 
avenues are paved with brick or asphalt, but most of them are 
of smooth, well-kept macadam foundation. 

Figures might be given to show the enhancement of real 
estate values throughout the city, and especiall)^ along the im- 
proved highways, but it is unnecessar>^ Suffice it to sa}^ that 
within a year or two after the enactment of the law some of the 
very taxpayers who had most strenuously opposed its passage 
were petitioning the Board of Public Works to improve streets 
upon which their propert}' abutted. The spirit of improvement 
among owners of buildings has followed and kept pace with the 
street improvements. It was no unusual sight to see the owner 
of an old building begin to tear it down just as soon as the 
blockade in front of his premises, caused b}^ the pavers, had 
been removed. Of course, drivers of vehicles select good 
streets, and often go out of their way to drive over a well-paved 
thoroughfare. It is more strange, but none the less true, that 
pedestrians seem to have the same inclinations, and prefer to 
travel over sidewalks adjacent to an asphalt street. Streets on 
which few^ stores have been located have been improved with 
asphalt, and immediatel}' property owners have begun to re- 
model their residences by putting in new fronts and metamor- 
phosing their homes into stores. The results are that values 
increase, rents go up, business prospers, and mone^' paid as 
taxes to redeem the bonds becomes the capital of the real estate 
owner and the business man. 

Most of the streets built under the provisions of the pave- 
ment law of 1885 have been constructed under the supervision 



38 STREETS OE CINCINNATI. 

of Mr. H.J. Stanley, the present efficient City Engineer. The 
contractors, with whom he has had to deal during the progress 
of the work, universally recognize his efficiency and ability, and 
the citizens rest assured that their interests are carefully 
guarded. The board under which Mr. Stanley serves consists 
of four members, appointed by the Mayor, and is non-partisan. 
Mr. August Hermann, President of the Board, is the Committee 
in charge of the Engineer's department, which embraces all 
engineering, surveying, supervising, platting, record work and 
the construction of streets, sewers, bridges and sidewalks. 

Besides the improvement of the streets, many of the alleys 
are to be paved with brick on a concrete base. The brick 
pavement will furnish an excellent roadway and make it an 
easy matter to keep the alleys clean. 

The improvement of the sidewalks of the city has kept pace 
with the other improvements. During 1894 about 280,000 
square feet of artificial stone sidewalks have been laid, and con- 
tracts for the same kind of walks have been let for the entire 
city. House numbers have been changed on the plan of one 
hundred numbers to the block, and the names of streets, on 
enameled iron signs with white letters on a blue background, 
have been attached to house corners at the intersections. In 
these various ways travel and transportation in and about the 
citj^ has been greath^ facilitated, and Cincinnati has assumed 
the appearance of a beautiful bride dressed for the marriage 
ceremony. 



'IT IS NOT GOOD THAT MAN SHOULD BE 
ALONE." 

A bachelor, old and cranky. 

Was sitting alone in his room ; 
His toes with gout were aching, 

And his face was o'erspread with gloom. 

No little one's shouts disturbed him, 

From noises the house was free, 
In fact from attic to cellar 

Was quiet as quiet could be. 

No medical aid was lacking ; 

The servants answered his ring, 
Respectfully heard his orders, 

And supplied him with everything. 

But still there was something wanting, 
Something he couldn't command ; 

The kindly vi^ords of compassion, 
The touch of a gentle hand. 

And he said, as his brow grew darker. 
And he rang for the hireling nurse, 

" Well, marriage may be a failure, 
But this is a blamed sight worse ! " 

— Boston Courief . 



THE NATIONAIv ROADS CONFERENCE. 



r 

* 


1 


, '* 


^ ' 


•i 




^Al 




«^ 



TO BE HELD AT ASBURY PARK, N. J., JUI^Y 5 AND 6. 

A Few Words by Gen. Roy Stone, the Government Engineer in charge of Road Inguiry. 

IT was a happy thought of 
the New Jersey Road 
Improvement Associa- 
tion to propose a con- 
ference of all the kindred 
organizations and friends of 
good roads generally, to be 
held at the seaside in July, 
coincident with the meeting 
of the National Editorial 
Convention. 

The motive, purpose and 
plan of the gathering are well 
set fortli by the Secretary of 
the association in a letter to a 
State Commissioner of Agri- 
culture, as follows : 

' ' The conference is for the 
purpose of promoting organ- 
ization for road improvement 
where such organization 
does not already exist ; for 
strengthening the hands of 
existing organizations, and 
for the gathering and diffusion of general information on the 
subject of road improvement. 

" We, in New Jersey, have reaped the benefit of good organ- 
ization and its results in practical legislation. Several of our 
counties have now complete road systems, and road building by 
State aid is fairly inaugurated. Full details of our experience 
will be communicated to the conference by those who have 
administered the State Aid law and those who have benefited 
by it. 

"This is not to be a convention of delegates, but a confer- 
ence of Road Associations, State, county and municipal author- 
ities, corporations and individuals concerned in road improve- 
ment. 

"We are in communication with Boards of Trade, Agri- 
cultural Societies, Wheelmen's Associations, Wagon and Car- 
riage Builders, Manufacturers of Road Machinery, as well as 
Civil Engineers, Road Overseers and Supervisors of Roads, and 



Gen. Roy Stone. 



40 NATIONAL ROAD CONFERENCE. 

many citizens interested in but not officially connected with 
road improvement. 

' ' We meet to interchange views and to give and get all the 
information we can to promote the cause of road improvement. 
Manufacturers of Road Machinery will be present with their 
plants to crush rock and lay down roads, materials for which 
will be furnished by the municipality. 

' ' We trust your Bureau of Agriculture and your State will 
be represented. 

"The National Editorial Convention meets here July 2 to 6, 
and delegates to the Road Conference, or those wishing to 
attend it, can arrange to represent newspapers, and thus get 
reduced railroad fare. 

' ' Hotel accommodations will also be furnished at greatly 
reduced rates." 

The call was endorsed at once by the National League for 
Good Roads, the Maryland and New York State Leagues, and 
subsequently by many other bodies and officials. The Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, seeing an opportunit}^ in such an occasion 
to prosecute with advantage the inquir>^ with which Congress 
has charged him regarding the whole subject of road improve- 
ment, has exerted himself to promote the progress of the affair, 
and in general all the varied interests concerned are working 
together for its success. 

The practical advantages possible to be gained are shown by 
the fact that the recent visit of the New York Legislative and 
Supervisors' Committees to the State Aid Road Districts of 
New Jersey resulted in the immediate passage by the New York 
Assembly of a liberal State Aid bill by a vote of four to one, 
which bill only failed by accident to become a law. 

When, instead of two States, twenty or thirty come together 
to recount their successes and failures and compare their re- 
spective methods, it is impossible to estimate the outcome in 
benefits. 

The Chicago Convention in 1892 resulted in organizing the 
National League and many State and local Leagues which are 
now active forces in the work of road improvement ; the Wash- 
ington Convention in 1893, among other servdces, procured the 
Government Inquiry, which is already bearing valuable fruit. 
The seaside gathering in 1894 promises greatly to exceed the 
others in numbers and in the definite value of its work. Actual 
road improvement is now progressing in many States, and a 
selection of the fittest from among the many plans in iise is a 
consummation devoutly to be wished. If it should be reached 
through this conference the occasion will be one to be remem- 
bered in the histor}^ of the country. 



THE GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 

TO BE HKI.D AT ASBURY PARK JULY 5TH AND 6TH. 

The United States Department of Agriculture has sent out 
20,000 bulletins to road associations and editors throughout the 
country calling attention to the Good Roads convention at 
Asbury Park July 5 and 6. A portion of the bulletin is devoted 
to a letter signed by E. G. Harrison, Secretary of the New Jer- 
sey State Road Improvement Association, in which he asks all 
road associations to further the movement, which cannot fail to 
result in ultimate good. The replies received thus far indicate 
the general interest taken in the convention, and there is every 
reason for believing that the affair will be well attended. On 
Tuesday a communication was received from Kimball & Co., 
large carriage manufacturers of Chicago, in which they say 
that the Carriage Manufacturers' Association of America will 
be largely represented at the convention. 

The League of American Wheelmen will also be well repre- 
sented. The New Jersey Division of the Highway Improve- 
ment Association has sent out notices to all cycling papers ask- 
ing them to publish all timely news pertaining to the conven- 
tion. Sterling Elliott, Chairman of the National Improvement 
of Highways Association, has been invited to be here with the 
other members of the committee. 

Gen. Roy Stone, head of the Road Inquiry Department at 
Washington, was in town last night conferring with Mr. E. G. 
Harrison and several members of the Citizens' Committee rela- 
tive to the proposed July conference. Gen. Stone said that the 
scheme was growing in interest, and he predicted that the con- 
vention would be the largest and most instructive of the kind 
ever held. For the manufacturers of road machinery, the 
switch or spur that runs into Mr. Bradley's pipe yard, between 
Fourth and Fifth avenues, will be utilized as the place for un- 
loading the cars. Here, also, stone crushers will be at work. 
The stone will then be hauled where needed, and sections of 
road built. A circular letter has been prepared by Mr. Har- 
rison, and next week copies will be sent to leading editors, 
boards of trade, grange associations and kindred organizations 
throughout the country. — From a large niunber of Exchanges. 



THE THOMPSON VILI.K PRESS CIvAIMS THAT THESE EPITAPHS 
ARE "curious," in WHICH, NO DOUBT, THE READER 
WILIv AGREE, BUT WE ARE NOT TOI.D WHERE THEY 
ORIGINATED. 

Regardless of cost and regardless of pains, 
This stone is erected to mark the remains 
Of wife No. I of T. Patrick Malone, 
And wife No. 2 helped to pay for the stone. 



It was a little burro that Peter used to drive ; 
There were six little children, but now there are five ; 
For Peter teased the burro while playing on a hummock, 
And the horrid critter kicked him in the pit of his stomach. 



There was a man called Elon Smith, 
Who once lived hereabouts. 

But he is dead and buried here — 
That fact nobody doubts. 

He lived a long and checkered life 

And left a short and freckled wife. 



This is the grave of Orsemus Tate, 

Who died on good terms with the church and the state. 

They attribute his death to something he ate. 

From which he demised at a subsequent date. 

Of his virtues his friends delighted to prate. 

But his vices his enemies chose to debate. 

When Orsemus arrives at the beautiful gate 

He will find his name, with the elect, on the slate. 

He died at the age of seventy-eight. 



Beneath this green grass He was a tailor by trade. 

Sleeps Annabel Gilder. And his habits were loose. 

She was a fair lass. And at forty-two summers 

But kerosene killed her. He gave up the goose. 

* * * * 

The kindling she soaked ..^ i- x 1. o • 

And the c^l she ignited. Here hes Jacob Smuggms, 

It was the last fire ^ ^^}^^ thought him a knave 

Annabel ever lighted. He Jied when alive, 

° Now he lies m his grave. 



A NKW USE FOR RELIGION. 

We have recently received a 9 x 1 2 circular printed in large 
type, which we reproduce below, thinking it might be of interest 
to the readers of Good Roads. 

Our artist who was ill last month (and that was the reason 
why the office boy was employed to make the June Calendar 
heading) is all right now and gives a picture of the minister as 
he appeared on that memorable Sunday to which the circular 
refers. 

We omit the names, for even if it should become proper for 
a bicycle maker to use the ' ' livery of heaven ' ' to advertise his 
goods, it will not be the policy of Good Roads to be " an acces- 
sory before the fact." -n-^i. 



WHEELMEN ATTENTION ! 

You are invited to a Special Service 

NEXT SUNDAY, JUNE loth. 

At II o'clock, in Church. 

The Pastor, Rev. , has prepared an appropriate 

discourse to Bicycle Riders. 

THE WHEEI. COMPANY BAND 

WILL BE IN ATTENDANCE. 

A responsible party will take charge of the wheels as soon 
as they arrive at the church door. 

(As representing the highest degree of excellence in 

the manufacture of bicycles, two wheels will be used 

in the pulpit by the pastor to illustrate points in his ser- 
mon. One, our I,adies' Model No. lo, of which the largest 
dealer in New England says: "It is the handsomest wheel 
made;" and the other, our Gentlemen's Road Wheel, Model 
G— not only the strongest— bearing 2 |o pounds weight with 
ease and safety — but the lightest, easiest running, and 
fleetest, as the records of recent meets will show. 



Wheel Company. 



In view of the rivalry between bic3^cle makers and the keen 
search for advertising novelties, we are not surprised that even 
the sanctity of the pulpit was considered as a possible advertis- 
ing medium. And w^e are not surprised that a progressive 



44 A NEW USE FOR RELIGION. 

preacher should utilize so popular and practical a subject as the 
bicycle to illustrate things spiritual. While his desire to 
attract and interest wheelmen was most commendable. In fact, 
if the present progress of the bicycle continues, the preacher of 
1898 must interest wheelmen and wheelwomen or put up his 
shutters. 

In view of the above things which did not surprise us, the 
reader must have inferred that something did, and it was this : 
that an}' minister would have lent himself, not to mention the 
dignit}' of his pulpit and position, to so unnecessary and 
uncalled for a proceeding as the advertising of any man's goods 
at and during divine service. 

A continuation of this thing to its legitimate conclusion 
might lead to something like the following: 

SPECIAL ATTENTION! 

GREAT ATTRACTION AT THE COLUMBIA CHURCH. 

Wheelmen, don't miss this the opportunity of 3'our lives. 

The Rev. Eb'ptic Geer will preach a specially powerful ser- 
mon on the importance of higher speed. During the sermon he 
will explain how he won the hundred 3^ard championship on 
Bradstreet's track, and while the organist is letting the air out 
of the bellows to the tune of " Nearer My God to Thee," Rev. 
Mr. Geer will ride around the pulpit on a Victor Light Road- 
ster having G. & J. tires. 

Services will be opened by the reading of a chapter from 
Good Roads Magazine, entitled " What doth it profit a man to 
build a good road and then spoil it with narrow tires." 

The h3ann books used on this occasion are from the well- 
known publishing house of Sharper Brothers, and the preacher 
will wear throughout the service a pair of green silk suspenders 
furnished b}- the well-known outfitters whose card will be found 
in each pew. The ushers will wear knit sweaters made by 
Holmes and the ladies of the choir will appear for the first time 
in Bloomer costume. The effect will be striking especially when 
they sing that good old hymn beginning 

"Just as I am without one plea, 
* O Lord I give myself to Thee." 



CYCLING. 

ROBERT BRUCEISMS. 



Wheelmen going abroad for the summer should take with 
them their code of Puritan principles; and remember as they 
return that the paf/i of dtity lies through the Custom House. 



IN PHILADELPHIA. 

' ' I see that they are coaching from New York to Philadel- 
phia." 

" Yes, but I don't see as Philadelphia needs any ' coaching' 
from New York or any other city." 

* * * * 

AN ADDRESS WANTED. 

Scorcher — "I dreamed the other night that a member of 
an Illinois Cycle Club challenged me to a ten-mile race." 
McSpeeder — "Of course 3^ou will accept. ' ' 
Scorcher — " The only difficulty is that I didn't dream his 
name and address. How can I find out where to send my ac- 
ceptance of this challenge ? ' ' 

* * * * 

A TRAGEDY, 

There is a Methodist minister in one of the sparsely settled 
regions of the far West, who preaches on the Sabbath at two 
different towns several miles apart, and not many months ago 
he began to make the distance by wheel. On his third trip he 
was murdered. The case was investigated b)^ the coroner, and 
an eye witness of the tragedy was called to testify. 

" How did it happen ? " enquired the official. 

" Well, you see, he stopped Jim Smith, the cow-puncher of 
the Montezuma Ranch and asked him if he was prepared to 
die." The murderer was unanimously acquitted b}^ a jur>^ of 
his fellows. 



STOLE THE RIDE. 
A young Chicago man was very weary after a long da^-'s 
work and started home on foot because no street cars went his 
wa}^. En route he saw a wheel leaning up against a telegraph 
pole. The weary walker mounted that wheel and rode home. 
Not many days afterwards the thief was discovered and arrested. 
When the case came up in court, the lawyer for the defence 
argued that his client had stolen the ride and not the wheel. 
The jury agreed and the culprit was acquitted. Here is a tip 
for others who are caught with borrowed bicj'cles in their 
possession. 



CHAS. DICKENS' DESCRIPTION OF A CERTAIN 
ITAEIAN ROAD. 

ON reading the following interesting pen picture of an 
actual road, written by so able an author, we naturally 
wished that we might have a picture of it. We have 
photographs of about as bad roads as could well be 
imagined, but are glad to say that no American road 
so far heard from is equal in point of roughness to the one 
described by Mr. Dickens. We present, however, a picture, 
which, in the absence of something worse, will do fairly well. 
It is a regularly traveled thoroughfare and is within a mile of 
a town of 1 ,000 inhabitants. It is not necessar)^ to locate it 
nearer than to say that it is in the central part of the United 
States. 




View of an American Road that Almost "Beats the Dickens." 

Of the Italian Road, Charles Dickens says : 

"But the road, the road down which the marble comes, 
however immense the blocks, the genius of the country, and 
the spirit of its institutions; pave that road, repair it, watch it, 
keep it going ! Conceive a channel of water running over a 
rocky bed, beset with great heaps of stone of all shapes and 
sizes, winding down the middle of this valley ; and that being 
the road — because it was the road five hundred years ago ! 
Imagine the clumsy carts of five hundred years ago being used 
to this hour, and drawn, as they used to be, five hundred years 



AN ITALIAN ROAD. 47 

ago, by oxen, whose ancestors were worn to death five hundred 
years ago, as their unhappy descendants are now, in twelve 
months, by the suffering and agony of this cruel work ! Two 
pair, four pair, ten pair, twenty pair, to one block, according to 
its size; down it must come, this way. In their struggling 
from stone to stone, with their enormous loads behind them, 
they die frequently upon the spot ; and not they alone ; for 
their passionate drivers, sometimes tumbling down in their 
energy, are crushed to death beneath the wheels. But it was 
good five hundred years ago, and it must be good now ; and a 
railroad down one of these steeps (the easiest thing in the 
world) would be flat blasphemy. 

When we stood aside, to see one of these cars drawn by 
only a pair of oxen (for it had but one small block of marble on 
it), coming down, I hailed, in my heart, the man who sat upon 
the heavy yoke, to keep it on the neck of the poor beasts — who 
faced backward, not before him — as the very Devil of true 
despotism. He had a great rod in his hand, with an iron 
point ; and when they could plough and force their way through 
the loose bed of the torrent no longer, and came to a stop, he 
poked it into their bodies, beat it on their heads, screwed it 
round and round in their nostrils, got them on a yard or two, 
in the madness of intense pain ; repeated all these persuasions, 
with increased intensity of purpose, when they stopped again ; 
got them on, once more ; forced and goaded them to a more 
abrupt point of the descent ; and when their writhing and 
smarting, and the weight behind them, bore them plunging 
down the precipice in a cloud of scattered water, whirled his 
rod above his head, and gave a great whoop and hallo, as if he 
had achieved something, and had no idea that they might 
shake him off, and blindly mash his brains upon the road in 
the noontide of his triumph. 

Standing in one of the many studii of Carrara, that after- 
noon — for it is a great workshop, full of beautifully finished 
copies of marble, of almost every figure, group, and bust, we 
know — it seemed, at first, so strange to me that those exqui- 
site shapes, replete with grace, and thought, and delicate re- 
pose, should grow out of all this toil, and sweat, and torture ! 
But I soon found a parallel to it, and an explanation of it, in 
every virtue that springs up in miserable ground, and every 
good thing that has its birth in sorrow and distress. And, 
looking out of the sculptor's great window, upon the marble 
mountains, all red and glowing in the decline of day, but stern 
and solemn to the last, I thought, my God ! how many quarries 
of human hearts and souls, capable of far more beautiful results, 
are left shut up and mouldering away ; while pleasure-travellers 
through life, avert their faces as they pass, and shudder at the 
gloom and ruggedness that conceal them ! ' ' 



A SIGN WHICH OUGHT TO BE DUPLICATED 
MANY TIMES. 







N one of the writer's excursions into the country, this 
sensible advice was noticed painted in large black letters 
on a white board, and posted at the four corners of a 
country road : 



DONT ALL DRWt 

m THE SAME 

TRACK! 




Sensible, wasn't it ? If each succeeding driver followed the same 
path as the preceding, the road will be worn into ruts and ren- 
dered less desirable as a highway. The road in question didn't 
have any ruts, but was evenly worn. Isn't it the same with 
the individual ? If he follow the old, beaten track, in a little 
while he will find himself narrowed down into a rut from which 
it is difiicult, if not impossible, to escape. Don't get into a rut ! 
Strike out on new lines ! Try new methods of doing the same 
old jobs, as well as new lines of work ! Be wide-awake, and the 
road will grow smoother and better as 3'ou advance in life, 
instead of being filled with ruts ! — Rural New Yorker. 



If pigs have to live on frozen 
dishwater they should have the 
privilege of squealing. 




AN ADVERTISEMENT. 

SHE Editor of 
Good Roads 
is very be- 
nevolently in- 
clined. He 
was appealed to some 
months ago to con- 
tribute of his apparel 
for the comfort of 
divers and sundry 
"sufferers" by name unknown to the deponent. 

A hasty search of his apartment disclosed a pair of shoes, 
not new by any means, but still it was thought they might do 
very niceh' for some one who otherwise had none. (We might 
explain that thej^ were summer shoes and not the kind which 
the artist has shown.) The shoes were forwarded and the 
giver ' 'put in' ' a very contented winter in the proud consciousness 
that some unknown " sufferer " was enabled, through his gen- 
erosit5^.to indulge in the luxur)^ of footwear. 

At the time of the above donation, the Editor of Good Roads 
($i.oo per year) had also a pair of nezv summer shoes which, 
(owing to his wearing rubber boots in the winter) were not 
wanted until this spring, and on the first hot day they were 
wanted. It took but a moment to discover the horrible fact 
that one of the new shoes had been sent to the ' ' sufferer, ' ' and 
that he had received but half of the pair which was intended 
for him. 

Now the return of the well shoe is not asked, but if the 
present possessor of the other poorly matched pair will call at 
the Good Roads ofRce (No. 12 Pearl street, Boston), he will 
hear something to his advantage. He may have the good ones 
on the sole condition that he return the other old one, so that 
we may match up a pair to last us this summer. Please act 
promptly in the matter as we want to go to the Editorial and 
Good Roads Convention at Asbury Park, July 2 and 6 inclusive. 



The charities that soothe and 
heal and bless are scattered at 
the feet of man. — Wordsworth. 



STUDIO NOTES. 

A VETERAN TOURIST ON ENGLAND'S MACADAM. 
By Stamson. 

IT was my habit while on a cycling tour in England, one 
summer, to start and stop when it best suited me, and as I 
preferred to ride in the cool and best part of the day, 
generally started out about six A. M. ; that was two hours 
or more before you could get breakfast at any hotel, and I 
would ride delightfully till about eight, passing through several 
towns or villages, before caring for the morning meal. Often 
you could find coffee houses open soon after six, when in factory 
towns, to afford early breakfasts for the workingmen, so the 
cycling tourist need not fear he will go hungry, for there is no 
need to. 

One morning the wheel carried me into Stains, one of those 
quiet old towns, so silent at eight that one would think it either 
Sunday, or that the place was deserted. Seeing a sign invit- 
ing cycling patronage, I entered, after putting the wheel where 
I could see it from the dining room, and be sure no boy would 
experiment with it at my cost. Even as late as it was, no break- 
fast was ready, and I asked for any cold meats handy. The 
landlady very soon brought on a bit of cold roast duck, with 
bread, butter, jam and tea, having been as she said "eaten 
out" the night before. 

The cold lunch cost me 2S. 6d., about twice as much as it 
would at a coffee house, and it gave me to understand that 
where one wants to studj^ economy on a tour, it does not pay to 
stop at high-toned places advertising for the shillings of wheel- 
men. 

The high tariff and style vs. something to show for your money, 
was evidently plaj^ed upon some cyclers I met one day just out 
of Buxton, who were so angry at their treatment that they felt 
it their dut}^ to warn me to keep away from the hotel they had 
just left where they were charged 3s. 6d. each for lodging, all in 
one big room up next the roof. This was another house that 
advertised for the patronage of cyclists, as I had seen by its 
posters on rocks and trees. Thanking the men for their dis- 
interested kindness, I looked at that house as I passed, and 
fancied I saw the sky bed room they had just paid so well for. 

One can ride comfortably^ over there at a cost close to one 
dollar a day for meals and lodging, if he is not in the four-dollar- 
a-day set, and manages right. 

And as for roads, they were so much superior to those of 
New England in general, that when I heard complaints, and 
any one grumbling at their muddiness or dust, it wearied me 



STUDIO NOTES. 



51 



more than did leagues of riding on them. English macadam 
roads are not only made properly, but kept up in good condi- 
tion. I frequently saw and tried to talk with the solitary man 
by the roadside who was breaking stone, or repairing the fine 
road surface wherever it showed the least need of it. I said 
"tried to talk with them," but that was about as far as it went, 
for they were generally so dumb as to scarcely understand any- 
thing at all. 

At one place in North Wales I found some so-called repairs 
where the coarse broken stone was merely ' ' fired ' ' upon the 
road, and left in a criminally careless way for Providence and 
the traffic to wear down, which it probably has never done. 

That was much like too much of our own home ways of 
doing things that I felt quite at home, and in another place I 
fell, quite home-like, over some boulders on a descending bit of 
Welsh land. It takes an American to appreciate England's 
goed roads, for at home he is so used to bad ones that his joy 
is unending over there. 




" Things are seldom what they seem ; " 
May have done in olden times, 

For a poet who was green . 

And rather push-ed for truthful rhymes. 

But now the world is wiser grown. 

We loot for facts, not idly dream. 
Behold the pair as herewith shown : 

These things are always what they seem. 



FOR IvKAGUE MEMBERS ONLY. 

The following explains itself, (or at least comes so near it 
that we think it safe to let it go as it is.) 

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN. 
Be it known: that in order to hasten the joyful day when the 

GOOD ROADS MAGAZINE 

Should earn the money to pay its own bills, it was thought best, as a means to that end 
to ask those who were to receive the publication regularly, to pay for it. 

The teeming brain of its editor conceived the happy idea that those most promi- 
nent in the organization to which Good Roads belongs, were the ones who should be 
first called upon to subscribe. He accordingly wrote to those high in League authority, 
and asked them to " ante." With a single exception they did so. That notable excep- 
tion was the treasurer, IV. M. Brewster, familiarly known among the boys as '' Pop." 

Well knowing Mr. B's promptness and usual interest in League matters, we cannot 
believe that he would have failed to subscribe for Good Roads except on account of 
lack of funds. This conclusion has touched 'our" heart, and we accordingly start 
this subscription paper for the purpose of furnishing Mr. Brewster with Good Roads 
for one year. In order to do this, it will be necessary to find ten men who will sub- 
scribe five cents each. Will you kindly put your stamps in enclosed envelope and 
forward to some " friend of the cause " who will in turn do the same. 

And we would ask that the tenth man return the paper and stamps, together with 
any comments, to Good Roads Office, 12 Pearl Street, Boston. The greatest promptness 
is desirable, as Mr. Brewster cannot hope to enjoy the exquisite pleasure of receiving 
Good Roads until the amount of fifty cents is raised. 

Brethren, who is there among you who would refuse to assist a man so deserving? 



NAME. 


remarks. 


Sterling Elliott, 


5 


Cents. 


"Blessed are they that mourn for they shall be 
comforted." 


Abbot Bassett, 


5 


Cents. 


"Blessed are they who freeze for they shall be 
blanketed." 


D. J. Post. 


5 


Cents. 


" Blessed are they who give freely for the League 
is in need." 


Louis a. Tracy, 


5 


Cents. 


" Blessed are they who put their trust in the 
League for its ' trust or bust.' " 


Geo. Collister, 


5 


Cents. 


" Cast thy bread upon the waters, &c., &c.," 


Will. P. S.wle, 


5 


Cents. 


" Blessed are they who cough up, for ' Pop ' is in 

need." 
"A fool and his money are soon parted." 


C. R. OVERM.\N, 


5 


Cents. 


Billy Herrick, 


5 


Cents. 


" Do unto others as you would be willing to ask 
them to do unto you." 


D. J. C.-VNARY, 


5 


Cents. 


"To ray old friend 'Pop,' I willingly and cheer- 
fully part with my little five-spot." 


W. C. Marion, Jr., 


3 


Cents. 


"Ijes simply put in me nickel and say nothen. 



On being shown this ' ' touching ' ' evidence of the esteem in 
which he is held by his fellows, Mr. Brewster was deeply moved. 
In fact he was moved from Ouincy to St. Joseph, and yet he 
gives evidence of being in his right mind for he seems to realize 
that sooner or later he will meet the "contributors " who have 
so kindly lent their generous aid, and while each of them has 



FOR LEAGUE MEMBERS ONLY. . 53 

"put up " but five cents, he can hardly hope to " stand them 
off ' ' with anything so inexpensive as beer. 

Our intentions were good, but we can see now that although 
we succeeded in gathering 50 cents from others to pay Mr. B's 
subscription, it might have been the height of economy for him 
to pay it himself. But he didn't know about this thing in time 
to stop it. 

The following letter looks like an honest effort to show grati- 
itude without the advantage of being able to feel it. 

St. Joseph, Mo., June 5th, 1894. 
Dear Elliott :— 

No man is poor who has friends such as these; I ought to, and I think I do, appreci- 
ate thein; but, just the same I have a well defined impression in my mind, which grows 
stronger, — (the impression, not the mind) — with each recurring moment — that these 
contributions, given so willingly, not to say cheerfully, will sooner or later be heard 
from again. 

Indeed, one of the contributors with more candor than tact perhaps, boldly 
announces that in his case at least, it is "casting bread upon the waters" and he 
is not a person that ordinarily has any use for waters either. 

of course, I shall always enjoy reading the Magazine, because I can never dose 
without thinking of those noble hearts to whose generosity I am indebted for it, and 
when I think of the good fellows who came to my rescue, in my hour of need, I shall 
not overlook the Abou Ben Adhem of the lot. 

Gratefully yours, 

W. M. Brewster. 



CAN HB READ ENGLISH? AND 
DOES HE READ GOOD ROADS? 
Two years ago a city in Iowa elected to 
the office of city engineer a man who had, 
for six years, worked in the sash factory 
at f 1.25 per day. This year they elected a 
tailor, who is said to be little better, ex- 
cept that he can speak TS.ngMsh.— Munici- 
pal Engineering. 



The Atchison Globe says there are lots 
of wives in the world who never know 
that their husbands are "jovial and whole- 
souled" except when they see it in the 
papers. It may further be remarked that 
there is often a great difference in the 
personal appearance of the "best girl" 
after she becomes a wife. 

And that brings to mind a 
very pertinent remark made by 
Carlyle ' 'There is more religion 
in not contending, than there 
is in those things we contend 
about." 




Day 


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Lengthofj 



Day. j SEVENTH A JulVi 1894 ^ MONTH 

M. •' ' 



A 50 



As you sow, so shall j^ou reap. 

Borrowed garments never fit well. [it. 

Confession of a fault makes half amends for 

Deliberate slowly, execute promptly. 

Experience is the mother of science. 

First deserv^e, then desire. 

Good Roads make quick markets. 

He doubles his gift who gives in time. 

It is a long road that has no turning. 

Judge not of men or things at first sight. 

Kindness is lost upon an ungrateful man. 

Let the cobbler stick to his last. 

Man}' words will not fill the bushel. 

Nothing is impossible to a willing mind. 

Open rebuke is better than secret hatred. 

Procrastination makes bad roads. 

Quit not certainty for hope. 

Ratify promises by performances. 

Silence does seldom anj^ harm. 

Talking alone will not build roads, [effort. 

Universal prosperit}^ comes from universal 

Valor is worth little without discretion. 

Where the king sits is the head of the table. 

Xport mud, import gravel. 

You should subscribe for Good Roads. 

Zealously work for improvement 

& don't forget it. 

Now sow turnip seed. 

You can't " sow turnips " as 

You are advised by other almanacs. 

Good Roads for August mailed to-morrow. 



LEAGUE OF AMERICAN WHEELMEN. 

Organized 1880 

A voluntary organization having for its object the systematic 
improvement of the public roads, and the protection of 
wheelmen against unjust legislation. The present officers 
of the League are as follows : 

President.— CH. AS. H. I,USCOMB, 280 Broadway, New York. 

First Vice-President.— A. C. WIIvIvISON, 47 Baltimore Street, Cumberland, Md. 

Second Vice-Presideni.—G'EO. A. PERKINS, 15 Court Square, Boston, Mass. 

Secretary.— ABBOT BASSETT, 12 Pearl Street, Boston, Mass. 

Treasurer.— W . M. BREWSTER, 411 Francis Street, St. Joseph, Mo. 



GOOD ROADS MAGAZINE. 

Published on the first of every month by the League of American Wheelmen. 

Devoted to Highway Improvement. 

Sterling Elliott, Managing Editor. 

Publication Office, 12 PEARL STREET, - - - - BOSTON, MASS. 

Correspondence relating to advertising only 
should be addressed to 167 Oliver Street. 

Entered at Boston Post Office as second-class matter. 



S2 

- 05 

= E 



Please send Good Roads for _year- 

To 



Street- 



Town- 



Amt. enclosed County- 



winning with State. 



Opeijiog of Zi Cbejtput Burr. 



A NEW PARLIAMENTARY RULE 
"And now," said the new secretary, 
" yez may all rize, an' whin I call the roll 
ivry wan who is prisint may sit down ; all 
the rist remain sthandin'." 

— Ehnira Gazette. 



CONCERNING WHISKEY. 
Where will the increased whiskey tax 
come from? We can tell you where some 
of it will come from. Go down to that 
drunkard's house, where a thin wife is 
starving to death and where little chil- 
dren are shivering before a chill grate, 
and that's where part of it will come from. 
— Business Educatioi. 

The above sounds very touch- 
ing, and as far as it goes, is 
true. But is an increased tax 
on whiskey such a bad thing 
for the drunkard ? 

We assume that in the case 
referred to, the man spends all 
his wages for liquor. Drink- 
ing interferes with his earning 
capacit}^ at least down to the 
point where he has no earning 
capacity, and as it is the quan- 
tity of whiskey that kills him, 
the less he can buy for his 
money the better off he is. 

The poor man doesn't buy 
much champagne and who 
shall say that it is because he 
doesn't like it ? If the price 
of whiskey was placed high 
enough there wouldn't be so 
many "thin starving wives," 
because those husbands being 
forced to drink water might in 
time get used to it and like it. 



BROAD TIRES 

On heavily laden vehicles are both essen- 
tial and beneficial, but the right of the 
State to prescribe the size of tires is cer- 
tainly questionable. — Exckaiige. 

IF THAT SORT OF REASONING 

W.\S CORRECT HOW WOULD 

THIS DO? 

Muddy boots on rough boys 
are very damaging to a parlor 
carpet, but the right of the 
housewife to keep them off 
from it is certainl}^ question- 
able. 



WHO SAID HE WAS .-" 
A tea-kettle can only sing when it is 
filled with water. But man, proud m.an, 
is no tea-kettle.— ^-rcAan^e. 



for the reason of this see 
"road building as a 

study" in JUNE NUMBER. 

The difference between a babe in arms 
and a woman trying to do her own house- 
work is that one cries and fusses while 
the other fries and cusses. 



An Irishman on visiting a cemetery, 
noticed on a tombstone the following in- 
scription : "Sacred to the memory of a 
lawyer and an honest man." "By the 
powers," said Mike, "that's a strange 
custom, to bury two men in one grave? " 

The above reminds us of an 
Irishman (all the witty things 
are said by that nationality,) 
who saw the old inscription, 
"Not dead but sleeping." "By 
heavens," said he, " If I was 
dead I wouldn't be ashamed to 
own it." 




If the style of advertising referred to on page 43 should 
become popular, Good Roads submits the above as being 
still more permanent and impressive. We sincerely hope that 
neither the pulpit nor the tomb will be prostituted to the base 
uses of "trade " as a regular thing, but should the tendency 
be in that direction. Good Roads ($1.00 per j^ear) claims 
priority for above suggestion. 




COL. ALBERT A. POPE. 



Good Ro^I3B. 



Vol. 6. August, 1894. No. 3. 

SOME ROAD PROBLEMS. 

IT is compartively an easy matter for a community having 
plenty of money, and plent}^ of good rock, and situated on 
high gravelly soil, to enjoy all the blessings arising from 
good roads, for it is but a question of the taking hold of a 
work, the importance of which is now so well understood. 
To such communities. Good Roads ($1.00 per year) would say: 
" Go ahead and you will be all right, for it goes without saying 
that people having money and a high gravelly soil, must have 
also intelligence enough to employ such means as will insure 
the careful and judicious spending of their appropriations to the 
end that their improvements will actually improve. 

The first requisite in the building of a road would seem, to 
the superficial observer, to be money. 

Surprising as it might appear, it does not cost anything to 
build and maintain good roads, indeed there is in many cases, an 
actual profit in doing it. To be sure all the work done must be 
paid for, but taking a long range view of it, there is no expense 
attending the maintenance of a good road. This applies more 
forcibly, however, to such localities as are fairly well populated 
and have within reach, suitable road material. 

Speakers and writers on road reform are apt to refer to the 
"old system under which the farmer 'worked out' his road 
tax." Would that we could truly call that the "old" system 
in the sense that it is no more. But unfortunately it is the 
present mode of doing things in many parts of this otherwise 
progressive country. 

Assuming that the farmer's time is worth something as is 
also the time of his ox ; and assuming as we may safely, that 
if he wasn't working on the road he would be doing some use- 
ful thing which he better understands, it follows that the road 
tax can be paid in cash as well as to have it ' ' worked out ' ' and 
with no hardship to the farmer. 

Then have the road built properly, under competent super- 
intendence and with money borrowed at a low rate of interest, 
as it always could be by the State. Take the tax money and 
use it to pay interest on the bonds and you will have enough 
left to provide a sinking fund which at the end of say twenty 
years will wipe out the debt. Meanwhile you have had 
good roads to use. 



62 . SOME ROAD PROBLEMS. 

This is a good time to say that in the spring while the roads 
are bottomless the farmer can't do much on the farm, while 
with good hard stone roads he could haul his stuff to market at 
a time when the prices are high and thus be a gainer in two 
ways at a season of the year when at present he can do little 
else than play checkers. 

In those parts of the country where stone do not abound and 
the most available road material is prairie mud, the first, best 
and cheapest relief is to use wide tires. Next, put in under- 
drains and keep the road well shaped up. Such a road prop- 
erly looked after comes very near being right for sparsely 
settled prairie country, and during a large part of the year is 
good enough for anybody, but it is absolutely necessary to use 

WIDK TIRES 

and what is more it is profitable to the user in that he can haul 
double the corn out of the field that he could have hauled with 
narrow tires and he can get to town with a very much larger 
load, even when he is the only user of wide tires over that road, 
and as soon as the flat footed wagons become general, it is not 
necessary to spend one-half the amount in keeping up even a 
common dirt road. 

DRAINAGE. 

With proper drainage and wide tires, a long step is taken in 
the direction of going to town in the spring and fall. Few locali- 
ties are so low that drainage is not practical, and even in the 
lowest "bottoms" a road properly raised, with suitable side- 
ditches and cross tiles will be in good shape most of the time, but 
no such road can stand narrow tires. 

Get proper highways as soon as possible, but get wide tires ^ 

NOW. 

The meanest road is made better, 

A fair road is much improved, 

A soft road is kept smooth, 

A good road is left so, 

A hard road is made harder, 

A smooth road is made smoother, 

A rough road is leveled. 

And all roads last longer, 

I^arger loads can be hauled, 

Ivarger bank accounts may be maintained, 

Better profits for the farmer, 

Better prices for the consumer. 

Better nature will prevail, and 

Better citizens are made 

By the use of 

WIDE TIRES. 
Therefore get wide tires first and good roads will be easier 
of attainment. 



THE HOME OF MINNEHAHA. 

BY A. B. CHOATE. 

President Minnesota Road Improvement Association. 



T 



^f 




^HAT which we call a 
rose, by any other name 
would not smell as 
sweet, and there are 
other names which have 
many things bound up in 
them quite as important as 
the odor of a rose, which 
would be lost by change of 
name. Such are many Min- 
nesota names. It was only 
about thirty years after the 
Indians released the title of 
the land, that the West Hotel, 
one of the finest in the United 
States, was built in Minne- 
apolis upon the land so re- 
cently occupied by the In- 

to-day in Minnesota, every 

grade of civilization, from the 

half savage Indians in the woods, to the refined and educated 

inhabitants of large cities, who compare favorably with those of 

any city or State in the Union. 

A squaw, sitting in a primitively built wigwam, making her- 
self a dress on a sewing machine, is a novel sight, which may 
be seen in Minnesota, and which illustrates the influence of 
civilization upon the Indians. 

On the other hand, the influence of the Indians upon the 
development of the State is manifest by the Indian names which 
have been given to its cities, rivers and lakes. 

The name Minnesota is made up of two Sioux words : 
Minne which means " water," and Sota meaning " cloudy." 

There are 10,000 lakes in Minnesota, so clear and crystal- 
like that passing clouds casts their reflections upon the surface 
of their waters like pretty faces in a mirror ; which it is said, 
gave rise to the name Minnesota or ' ' cloudy water. ' ' 

This is so pretty an explanation that it seems too bad to 
spoil it with the truth, but an explanation more in harmony 
with the un-poetic character of the Indians is, that the Minne- 
sota River which runs through a rich, black soil, is cloudy and 



64 



THE HOME OE MINNEHAHA. 




Two Views of Lake Minnetonka. 

This beautiful lake is 200 miles in circumference, and is one of the most delightful 
summer resorts in the country. 

Hotel Lafayette is shown here in the background, though it really occupies a place 
in the front rank of hotels. 




THE HOME OF MINNEHAHA 





#■" 



4.^ 



"Laughing Water ' 
As seen from the lower level. 



muddy, and the Indians called it Minnesota, and the name was 
borrowed by the white settlers for the name of the State. 

There are no mountains in the State, but just enough rug- 
gedness of surface to break the monotony and make some of the 
prettiest waterfalls in the world, among which is Minnehaha 
Falls, " laughing water," immortalized by Longfellow. Since 
Longfellow wrote of the fair Indian maiden, " Minnehaha," the 
city of Minneapolis has come into existence and included within 
its limits the renowned Falls of Minnehaha. A park has been 
laid out with the Falls for a sparkling center-piece. There is a 
deep, cool gorge leading from the Falls to the Mississippi River, 
where lovers walk and talk in unconscious commemoration of 
the wooing of Minnehaha b}^ the young Hiawatha. 

Lake Minnetonka (big water) looks, on the map, like an 
irregular ink blot. This lake with its 200 miles of tortuous 
shore line, wooded islands and clear water, full of fish, is the 
the most popular summer resort in the State. Situated 15 miles 
west of Minneapolis, it is connected with the city by four lines 
of railroad, and several fairly good wagon roads. 

Large hotels supply all the wants of fashionable tourists, 
while the shores of the lakes are lined with pretty summer cot- 
tages of all colors, which peep out from among the trees at the 
pleasure parties which ride upon the lake in all manner of 
water-craft. 



66 



THE HOME OF MINNEHAHA. 




Minnehaha From Above. 
Any one who has seen this bit of nature, can readily .understand how Longfellow 



inspired to write the famous poem " Hiawatha." 



THE HOME OE MINNEHAHA. 



67 





A Bit of Minnesota Sceneey Which Longfellow Probably Didn't See. 

No prettier picture was ever painted, nor brighter colors 
ever used, than may be seen from a boat on Lake Minnetonka, 
in the fall of the year after Jack Frost has applied his brush to 
the abundant foliage about the lake. But Minnetonka is only 
one specimen of 10,000 lakes in Minnesota which together with 
the large forests, ocean-like prairies and balmy summer weather 
makes Minnesota one large, delightful summer resort. 

One of the oldest cities in Minnesota is Winona, the Indian 
word for (eldest daughter.) Winona is a beautiful city situated 
among the highest bluffs in the State between lake Winona and 
the Mississippi River. From a cyclists standpoint, Winona is 
the gayest city in the State. She boasts the only cycle track in 
the State, sidewalk riding is there legalized by ordinance, 
cyclists hold office, and hold the fort generally, and those who 
do not like it, do well to practice economy, by holding the 
breath they would waste in complaining. 

Shakopee and Chaska, the names of two neighboring vil- 
lages, recall two well-known Indian chiefs, while a lake but a 
few miles distant, bears the Indian name of Minnewashta (good 
water,) and Kandiyohi lake, and county by same name, which 
is the Indian name for a kind of fish, indicate the abundance of 
the game of which the red men are so fond. 

Enough has been said to show that in Minnesota, at least, 
there is something in names, but it must not be supposed that 
Minnesota is entirely given over to Indian romance and summer 
tourists. 



68 THE HOME OF MINNEHAHA. 

"Care to our coffin adds a nail no doubt ; 
And every grin so merry draws one out." 

The lighter, sportive side of Minnesota serves to draw out 
the nails driven by the cares of business, for Minnesota is not 
lacking in business. Minn-esota is one of the largest States in 
the Union; she has the largest flouring mills in the world ; has 
the largest logging and lumbering companies in the world, and 
added to this, the State has recently found itself to be the owner 
in fee of rich mineral lands which rendered a direct income to 
the State treasury of $184,528.95 in the year of 1892, which 
from present indications is but a faint foreshadowing of the 
wealth to be realized from this source in the future. 

" By wisdom wealth is won, 

But riches purchased wisdom, yet for none." 

With all her natural wealth and beauty, Minnesota has not 
shown great wisdom on the subject of road improvement. Thfe 
leading business men of the State, including the best farmers, 
are ready for an advanced step in the road reform movement, 
but the average farmer is inclined to be suspicious of everything 
indorsed by the city men and the daily papers, so that in this 
State it is simply a question of how long it will take to remove 
prejudice, and educate the obstructionists to the wisdom and 
importance of the reform, now heartily indorsed by our leading 
men. This educational work is being done as rapidlv as cir- 
cumstances will permit. 



COLORADO ROADS AND SCENERY. 




BY EDWARD B. I^IGHT. 

Secretary Denver Chamber of Commerce. 

IN the April Number of 
Good Roads I had the 
pleasure of accompany- 
ing your readers from 
their New England 
homes westward 2,000 miles 
to Denver. 

After sight-seeing for a few 
days in that city, we took a 
hurried trip through the 
State, at which time I prom- 
ised to review in another ar- 
ticle the country we passed 
through. 

Anxious to learn more of 
Colorado, soon after the 
League Meeting has ad- 
journed, we mount our wheels 
for a ride through the coun- 
try. Turning our faces north- 
ward, we follow the right 
bank of the South Platte river, 19 miles, over smooth roads to 
Brighton, where our friend Houghton insists that we dismount 
at his creamer}^ and refresh ourselves with a glass of buttermilk 
from sweet cream, milked at the ranches since 4 a. m. 

We hurriedly mount, as we are eager for the ride before us 
over as good a natural road as was ever ridden by wheelmen, 
and the one on which 25-mile annual road races are run. We 
fly past golden fields of wheat and green alfalfa, and witness the 
second cutting of this crop now in process. We pass historic 
Fort Lupton too rapidly to recall the scenes of early settlers as 
they greeted the Flag in 1859 and i860, after weeks of anxious 
travel across the plains on foot, and by teams, in constant fear 
of an attack by Indians. But to-day we are as children, 
quickly forgetting the past, hopefully anticipating the future. 
Just ahead is 

PLATTEVILLK, 

a small village surrounded with an ideal farming community, 
happy and prosperous, and in possession of what many people 
of the arid regions are praying for — abundance of water. 



Edward B. Light. 



70 



COLORADO SCENERY. 




Black Hawk, the Place Where Gold was First Discovered in Colorado. 



On we spin and soon cross the Platte river and pass Evans, 
a pretty town on our right, named for Hon. John Evans, who 
was appointed Governor of Colorado by President Eincoln in an 
early day, and whose energy and keen sagacity secured to 
Denver her first railroad, the Denver Pacific, in sight of which 
we have ridden all the morning. As we pass the limits of the 
town and raise the gentle hill, we sight 

GREELEY, TWO MILES DISTANT. 

Those born prior to the forties will remember Horace 
Greeley's trip and letters when he crossed the American desert, 
en route with others for " Pikes Peak or Bust." The reported 
gold mines of Colorado were then a question of National 
importance, and Greeley determined in the interests of the 
readers of the " Tribune " to investigate their richness. Over 
land he went, travelling day and night, writing letters and 
making speeches by the way, and finally bought a salted Gilpin 
County gold mine which some wags sold him for the fun of 
the thing. Colorado owes Horace Greeley an unpaid debt for 
his constant friendship and those valuable letters, which 
interested thousands, and turned back the tide of those who 
were homeward bound because of false rumors. 

Upon Greeley's return to New York, " Father Meeker," as 
familiarly known in Colorodo, decided to organize a colony and 
locate at the foot hills on the great American desert. When he 
advertised for colonists, Greeley sent for him to come to his 
office, where they met for the first time, and Meeker unfolded 
his plans for the Greeley Colony. After they had been fully 
explained, Greeley said: "Meeker; I will endorse your 
scheme and back-it with the Tribune if you will go in for 



COLORADO SCENERY. 



71 




Manitou Depot, Pikes Peak Railroad. 



NO RUM. AND NO FENCES. 

Adopting these principles, Greeley, the most successful 
colony in Colorado, was founded, and is probably the most 
prosperous town of 5,000 inhabitants in the United States to-day. 
The original fence surrounding the colony was 80 miles long, 
inside of which no fence was built. As the colony grew, the 
ranches extended beyond this fence. Then a county Herd 
Ivaw was enacted. That wise provision saved the citizens a 
great and useless expense. 

r^ The hospitable Greeleyites will insist that after our 52 miles 
ride, we shall spend the night with them, and enjoy the 
undefiled air of a strictly temperance rural town. As we 
wander about the well shaded streets, on each side of which 
runs a small irrigating ditch, our attention is attracted by the 
stone jail with its door ajar and one hinge broken, suggestive of 
the difference between " No rum, no jails," and " Free rum, 
full jails." 

In addition to their numerous grammar and high schools, 
here is located the State Normal School, a very substantial 
building, well adapted for its uses and well patronized. Greeley 
is situated in Cash 'La Poudre Valley, near the junction of the 
Platte river. It is the centre of a magnificent farming area. 
Ten miles to the north is the progressive agricultural town of 
Eaton, named for the Ex- Governor, the great ditch builder and 
farmer of Colorado. 

Governor Eaton is one of our pioneers who can show a good 
record since the time when he freighted his young wife across 



72 



COLORADO SCENERY. 




'^M<^ 




High Bridgf. 



The Railroad Which Crosses this Bridge is the Same One 
Which Passes Under it at the Left. 



the plains on a "prairie schooner," drawn by ox teams, in 
1859. He has been good to himself and helped many a worthy 
man to his feet. If he is at home, we run the risk of a reception 
at his house and an invitation to ride over his broad acres. 

Few have not heard of or eaten Greeley potatoes, the 
demand for which gradually increases, from Chicago, Cleveland, 
Buffalo, Boston, New York and Providence. I^ast year 4,000 
car loads or 80,000,000 pounds were shipped to the Eastern 
States. Other crops grow equally as well, but the great demand 
for Greeley's superior potatoes, affords in the growth of the 
tuber, better returns than can be obtained from any other crop. 

Early next morning we fide westward directly toward the 
mountains, passing up the broad, fertile valley of Cash Ea 
Poudre, which I have often thought had not its equal in the 
Union for attractiveness and agricultural resources. More pro- 
ductive farms the sun does not shine upon than we shall pass 
on our way to 

FORT COIvLINS. 

What has been said of Greeley applies with equal force to 
this enterprising town, but as it lies 26 miles nearer the moun- 
tains, it has the commercial advantage of a larger mountain 
trade and the quarries in the foothills, from which hundreds of 
car-loads of building stone are annually sent to Denver, Omaha, 
Kansas City and elsewhere. Here we take dinner, after which 
we must ride out to the Agricultural College, and see the 
perfection of experimental crops growing in this latitude. We 



COLORADO SCENERY. 



73 




Longs Peak, Where Snow in August is a Regular Thing. 

must glance at the certificate of first prize for the best acre of 
wheat grown in the world, and which was captured by this Col- 
lege farm, and hangs upon its wall. The certificate was 
awarded by the Rural New Yorker about 1872, when it offered 
a premium of $500 for the best acre of wheat the world could 
produce. 

We now set our face toward Denver and soon reach 

LOVELAND. 

Riding over gocd roads parallel with the mountains, which 
are about twelve miles distant. This village of 1,000 inhab- 
itants was located a few years since in the centre of farmer 
Barne's wheat field. Colorado's agricultural resources are not 
generally known, and I must give you here a few statistics, 
which will bear investigation and comparison with older States. 

We now have cultivated lands (irrigated) 2,000,000 acres; 
cultivated lands (non irrigated) 1,000,000 acres; hay lands 
(non irrigated) 1,000,000 acres; her agricultural products, 
including her live stock, according to the latest revised and 
most conservative statistics for the year 1893, amounted to 
upwards of $76,000,000. Strangers to Colorado suppose her 
chief resources are gold and silver, v hich amounts annually to 
only one-third of her agricultural products. Twenty' years ago, 
Farmer Barne raised yearly more wheat than many counties 
in the great agricultural States of Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, 
Ohio and! Indiana. 

A part of our excursion will remain here over night ; the 
remainder will distribute themselves between the towns of 



74 



COLORADO SCENERY 




EsTES Park. 



BERTHOUD AND LONGMONT. 

The latter is an enterprising village of 2,500 inhabitants, sup- 
ported mainl}^ by an agricultural community, and situated on 
the St. Vrain River. This town was settled by a colony from 
Chicago soon after the settlement of Greeley. Both of these 
towns were settled before Denver was known. 

All lovers of mountain scenery, having a few days' time at 
their disposal must turn west from here, and make a flying trip 
to Estes Park, the most beautiful and inviting of all Colorado 
parks, but not the largest. It is only six miles wide by 
ten miles long, through which several streams, filled with 
" speckled beauties," so much sought for by skilled anglers. 
At the south end of the Park rises lyongs Peak in all its majesty 
and grandeur, with a sentinel on either side nearly equal its 
height. The altitude of the Park is 7,500 feet. 

We leave our wheels at the hotel and drive up to Lamb's 
Ranch, where we spend the night at an elevation of 10,000 feet. 

At sun-rise the next morning, mounted on horsebacli, with 
an experienced guide in the lead, we ride up to timber line, 
where we picket our horses and commence the climb of the 
Boulder P'ields, necessitating much courage and determination, 
as these boulders are angular rocks of solid granite, and run in 
size from a chicken coop to a modern dwelling. In the centre 
of this Boulder Field, we pass the slab recording the death of 
Carrie Welton of Connecticut, who a few years since unwisely 
insisted upon the guide accompanying her to the Peak too late 
in the season. When returning they were caught in a severe 
gale and blinding snow storm. After suffering, as only one can 
suffer, when surrounded by that intense loneliness, stung by 



COLORADO SCENERY. 



75 




the pangs of cold and cravings of hunger, her life was sacrificed. 
The trusty guide, for hours, made supernatural efforts to carry 
her over those almost impassable rocks, until at her request he 
left her, to bring a rescuing party from the ranch, which upon 
arrival, found life extinct. 

Following the guide we pass through an opening called the 
"key hole," and emerge beside an unwelcome precipice. We 
carefully pick our way along the brink, which requires all our 
nerve and resolution, but yet is not as tiresome as the loose 
sand and broken rock, rising at an incline of 45 degrees, just 
beyond. By perseverance and an occasional rest, we are enabled 
to reach that ugly precipice on our right, and by' using both 
hands and feet, we make the summit, where we stand speech- 
less with wonder and admiration. Hard as it was, we would 
make the same heroic effort a hundred times were it necessary, 
to witness the grand scene before us. 

Nearly 8,000 feet below is Estes Park, enshrined in all its 
beauty. To the northwest is North Park, the sportsman's 
Paradise ; to the west is Middle Park, and Hot Sulphur Springs; 
to the south. South Park. Beyond these peaks we see the range 
for a distance of over 200 miles. "With the aid of our glasses 
we discern Gray's Peak, Mount Lincoln, Mount Evans, Pikes 
Peak and Old Ouray in Marshall Pass, some of which are 200 
miles distant. What a scene it is ; what an ocean of mountain 
billows, in contrast to which we turn to the east and see an 
ocean of plains. The one as quiet as the peaceful sea in a calm. 
The other as tempestuous as the tossing billows. 



76 



COLORADO SCENERY. 




Grays Teak, Sixty Milks From Denver. 

Never was time more valuable than now ; so much to be 
seen. Such a picture to paint in our minds so that it may never 
fade. Think of making this impression indellibly upon one's 
mind, covering this panoramic view of 200 miles in either direc- 
tion of plains, valleys, parks, and mountains, of growing fields 
of wheat, and far distant cities, of snow capped mountains, of 
magnificent forests and crystal streams. 

Again and again we sweep the horizon and study a land- 
scape, no painter can paint, no speech can express. Before 




Pikes Peak. 



COLORADO SCENERY 



77 




A Carload of Wheelmen Reluctantly Returning From Pikes Peak. 



returning we must look at the souvenir deposits of visitors. 
Here is a shingle by Major Powell, who with William N. Byers 
were the first to make the ascent in 1868. Here is Anna 
Dickinson's card, the first woman to ascend the peak, also of 
the party who climbed the Peak in 1878. to witness the total 
eclipse, together with thousands of visitors' cards. 

The top of the Peak is level, covering a few acres, and we 
wonder that a house has not been built there for the accommo- 
dation of those who might wish to remain over night and see 
the sun rise. Before returning we must take one look over the 
crater wall, which has a perpendicular descent of 3,000 feet. 
How nervously we approach the edge, step by step, until our 
strength fails us and we can go no farther. 

Trembling with fear, we return from this stupendous scene, 
bewildered with mixed feelings of pleasure and fear. Before 
making the descent, we take a final view, the like of which we 
shall never again see. We retrace our steps, and having passed 
the most dangerous places, courage is restored and we reach 
the Park after nightfall so tired, and with such a longing for 
our couch, but with the feeling that we would sacrifice anything 
reasonable rather than denj^ ourselves to Ivongs Peak, but hav- 
ing once made it, nothing would tempt us to climb it again. 

After a da^^ or two's rest, sight-seeing and fishing in the 
Park, we return to lyyons, and follow the foot hills to Boulder, 
leaving Longmont to our left. This enterprising town is a mix- 
ture of agricultural, mining, manufacturing and intelligence. 
A few miles west are some of our richest gold mines. Boulder 



78 COLORADO SCENERY 



Scene on a Colorado "Elevated Road." 

Valley is one of the oldest and richest farming communities. 
Across the Boulder River, which during the late freshet was a 
Niagara, but now a quiet and peaceful stream only a few yards 
wide, is situated the State University, so favorably known 
among the educational institutions of the great West. From 
Boulder we go to lyafayette and lyouisville, where we are sur- 
prised as we ride across the level plains, to learn that from 
beneath us comes nearly all the coal mined in Northern Col- 
orado, for the supply of Denver, Kansas and Nebraska. These 
barren plains, which appear to have no value, when irrigated 
and cultivated, produce bountifully on the surface, but from the 
veins of coal beneath are taken greater treasures, often yielding 
in royalty $2,000 per acre for coal mined. 

Instead of returning to Denver direct, we must go by the 
way of 

GOLDEN 

and see its smelters, its manufacturing plants and the State 
School of Mines. This little town of one thousand inhabitants 
was the capital of the State, when Denver was a straggling 
settlement. Here Horace Greeley saw the first attempt at 
agriculture in 1859, made by D. K. Wall, who came across the 
plains wdth his plow and seeds, and made more money from 
growing crops the first few years, than did the miners from their 
mines. 

We have now a run of 15 miles over gentl}" descending and 
inviting roads to Denver. In our run of a little over 200 miles, 



COL OR ADO SCENER Y. 



79 



we have covered but a 
small portion of the State. 
I have not the space to tell 
you of Monument on the 
Divide and her annual po- 
tato bake, of Rocky Ford 
in the Arkansas Valley, 
surrounded by an immense 
tract of exceedingly fer- 
tile country, or of her "an- 
nual water melon day," 
at which time are contrib- 
uted car loads of 

WATER MELONS, 
besides fruit and other 
eatables for the masses 
who gather from the sur- 
rounding cities and States 
to celebrate the day with 
her. Nor of the San Ivuis 
Valley, where at an eleva- 
tion of 8,000 feet, luxuri- 
antly grows every product 
of the farm, except corn, 
which is retarded by the 
cold nights ; nor of Delta 
and Montrose counties, 
where the very perfection 
of fruit is annually grown, 
not a failure having been 
known in the harvesting 
of a crop since the coun- 
try was settled; nor of that magnificent Valley of the Grand, 
thus named because grand in extent, grand in resources, grand 
in scenery and grand in climate. 

Althougli I have not space to describe these very interesting, 
and in man}^ respects, totally different communities, I must urge 
you if possible, to take time and see them all, as you can by 
leisurely travelling on the cars, for which round trip tickets will 
be sold to wheelmen during the meet, at special prices. 




Mother Gruxdv. 

(So named because of the profile seen 

in the overhanging rock.) 



THE ADVANTAGES GAINED BY SPRINKLING 
COUNTRY ROADS. 

READ BEFORE THE GOOD ROAD CONVENTION HELD IN SAN 
FRAMCISCO, CAE., MAY, 1 894, BY A. GREENINGER, MEMBER 
OF THE BOARD OF SUPERVISORS OF SANTA CEARA COUNTY. 

Mr. P7'esident and Gentlemen of the Convention : 

A FEW days ago I was notified that I was expected to say 
something to you on the subject of sprinkHng public highways. 
The notice was too brief to enable me to prepare such a paper 
as should be presented on this important branch of the subject 
for the discussion of which we are here assembled. The impel- 
ling cause for assigning to me this topic is, probably, found in 
the fact that I have the honor of being a representative of the 
only county in the State and, perhaps, in the Union, that has, 
for any considerable length of time established and used a gen- 
eral system of watering countr}^ roads. It is now sixteen years 
since Santa Clara County made the first experiment in this 
direction ; but the inauguration of the system dates back only 
about eight years. That it has been successful as regards 
comfort, convenience, and economy, is proved by the demands 
of the taxpayers for a still further extension of the system. The 
first impression produced b}'- the suggestion of watering public 
highways is that of convenience and comfort. At the first blush 
it has the appearance of a luxury too expensive to be indulged 
in by communities of ordinar}^ resources. Santa Clara County 
has demonstrated that it is scarcely less economical than com- 
fortable. I do not expect to enlighten the convention as to 
theories of road sprinkling. You are familiar with them. I 
understand that it is information as to the practical application 
of those theories that, is desired and, to accomplish that object 
I can do no better than to detail to you the experience of Santa 
Clara County in this direction. 

Many 3-ears ago the road connecting the city of San Jose 
and town of Santa Clara, the historic ' 'Alameda, ' ' was sprinkled; 
but the first real effort toward watering outside roads in 
that county was made on the public highway leading south 
from the city of San Jose and known as the Monterey road. 
Three miles distant from the city is located the principal ceme- 
tery of the county, and it was for the convenience of the people 
visiting that place that the road was sprinkled. It is the main 
traveled thoroughfare leading to the southern county limits. 
The three miles of sprinkled road to the cemetery gave the 
property owners, farther out, an opportunity to compare the 
sprinkled with the unsprinkled highway. The result was an 



SPRINKLING COUNTRY ROADS. 8i 

arrangement with the supervisors by which the system was ex- 
tended two miles farther, the property owners making up a 
subscription to pay for the water plant and the county paying 
out of the Road Fund, the expense of applying the water. 
Soon afterwards another section was added, and then another, 
and then came applications from owners of property on other 
roads for like service, and the system has grown until now there 
are about 200 miles of the country road in Santa Clara County 
watered at the public expense, and the system is being extended 
as rapidly as water can be procured for the purpose. 

The supervisors have ascertained that the only problem to 
be solved is that of obtaining water and, in the solution of this 
problem, they have been compelled to employ several methods. 
In some instances they have sunk wells at convenient intervals, 
raising the water directly into the wagons by means of a horse- 
power attachment driven by the teams employed to haul the 
vehicles. In other cases they have purchased water from the 
compan}^ whose mains extend from the southwestern foot-hills 
to San Jose. The mains are tapped and stand pipes erected 
from which the wagons are filled. The price paid to the com- 
pan}^ for water is 12 1-2 cents per 1000 gallons. In other 
instances the water is raised from wells b}^ pumps operated by 
engines, into a large tank at a central station and thence dis- 
tributed by pipes to smaller tanks at convenient intervals, and 
from which the wagons are filled. 

In still other instances creeks on the high grounds are 
tapped, the water conveyed by pipes to supply tanks along the 
road at lower levels. In some cases water is taken from arte- 
sian wells, either directly into the wagons or raised by hydraulic 
rams into tanks. Hydraulic rams are also employed to lift the 
water from creeks where opportunity affords. 

As to the cost under the several methods, I present the 
actual figures as they appear on the records. In other counties 
the expense might be less or greater according to the natural 
facilities presented : 

FIRST. 

As to a watering station where the water is lifted by horse- 
power directly into the wagon : 

sinking' lo-inch well 60 feet at Si. 75 per foot ?io5 00 

Horse-power 175 00 

Centrifugal pump 75 00 

Setting up pump, etc 5000 

Total S405 00 

The wagons used hold 800 gallons and deliver the water 
over a surface 20 feet wide, or they can be regulated to any less 
width. The wagons cost $250 each and are furnished by the 



82 SPRINKLING COUNTRY ROADS. 

county. The county also pays a driver, who furnishes his own 
team, $70 per month. One wagon and team will go over five 
miles of road, practically twice a day. The stations under this 
method are one mile apart. The team that hauls the wagon is 
also used to operate the horse-power. It requires about ten 
minutes to fill the wagon, and fiteen minutes to distribute the 
load and return to the station. 



Where the water is raised into a central tank and thence led 
by pipes into smaller distributing tanks. In this case the pump 
is operated by gasoline engines of from 4 to 8 horse-power, 
according to the distance through which the water is to be 
lifted. 

Sinking twin ii-iuch wells and pit for pump f 250 00 

Centrifugal pump 75 00 

Setting up pump 50 00 

Engine complete, about 700 00 

20,000 gallon tank and frame 383 00 



Total I1458 00 

A station of this capacity, properly located, will furnish 
water for ten miles of road, sprinkling the same practically 
twice per day. To accomplish this there should be fourteen 
distributing tanks of a capacity of 5,000 gallons each, with pipe 
and connections, the expense of which will be: 

For pipe and laying same S6,ooo oo 

Fourteen 5,000 gallon tanks at §110 1.540 00 

Making a total for the system of $8,998, or about $900 per mile. 
There must be added to this the cost of gasoline for the engine 
and $2 per day for an engineer. Under this system the loading 
stations are closer together, the wagons can be loaded more 
rapidly than by horse-power and more water can be distributed 
on the roads per day. This must be set against the greater 
cost (A the central system. The expense for wagon and driver 
is the same as by the other methods. 



Where the water can be taken from creeks or other sources 
of natural suppl)^ at a sufiicient altitude to permit of its being 
carried bj^ gravitation to tanks at proper intervals along the 
road to be sprinkled. Where this can be done the expense of 
the central station, including well, engine, central tank, etc., is 
avoided. The expense for distributing tanks, pipe aud con- 
nections will be about the same. It will be seen that the 
principal cost of any system of watering roads is the expense 
of producing water. In Santa Clara county this expense has 



SPRINKLING COUNTRY ROADS. 83 

amounted to about $130,000; but, as it has been distributed 
through a period of about eight years, the tax has not been 
onerous. It is generally conceded that good roads are as 
profitable to the cities and towns in which they center and other 
portions of the county, as to the particular communities through 
which they pass. Recognizing this principal, the legislature of 
1 89 1, while reorganizing the general road law, placed therein a 
provision authorizing boards of supervisors to pay for water 
supply, machinery and plants for sprinkling roads, out of the 
general fund. This has enabled the county of Santa Clara to 
advance her system to its present state of efficiency, without 
any material increase in the rate of taxation for road purposes. 
It will enable most of the other counties to do as much. 

The foregoing is a brief statement of the expense of sprink- 
ling roads in the county which I have the honor to represent. 
It is proper that a statement of the benefits that accrue should 
also be represented. These benefits cannot always be estimated 
in dollars and cents ; but they are of such a character as will be 
appreciated by every intelligent mind. Every person who has 
had experience in the country districts of California knows the 
horrors of traveling the ordinary country road during the long, 
dry summer season — the roadway, cut up into innumerable 
ruts and chuck-holes and covered to a depth of four to ten 
inches with dust ground into an impalpable powder, ^ which 
rises in clouds at every motion of horse or vehicle, filling the 
mouth, nose, eyes and ears, and penetrating even to the lungs, 
covering the perspiring horses with a plaster of mud ; obstruct- 
ing the feet of animals and the wheels of vehicles ; permeating 
and befouling the clothing and covering with nastiness every- 
thing not hermetically sealed. We all know the trouble and 
expense entailed by the efforts to protect our persons, our teams 
and our loads from this insufferable nuisance. A trip to town, 
even from a distance of only three or four miles, necessitates 
elaborate preparation for the encounter with the dust, and, 
even, with the greatest precautions, a general cleansing opera- 
tion must be performed before we are presentable in public. 
With our public highways properly sprinkled, this nuisance is 
entirely abated and travel over our country roads becomes a 
pleasure. In Santa Clara county a journey to town demands 
no elaborate and troublesome preparation for an encounter with 
the dust. The horses travel without inconvenience, the cloth- 
ing is not soiled, the lungs are not injured nor are the eyes and 
ears offended. The load in your wagon arrives at its destina- 
tion as immaculate as when it commenced the journey and the 
feeling of cleanliness that pervades your person gives you a 
sense of comfort worth more than all the tax you pay to estab- 
lish and maintain the road sprinkling system. 

The flying dust is not the only nuisance abated by the effi- 



84 SPRINKLING COUNTRY ROADS. 

cient sprinkling of the public highways. The ruts and chuck 
holes, so wearing on animals and vehicles, disappear and the 
smooth road bed that is substituted saves many a dollar to the 
taxpayer in the way of wagon repairs and horse flesh. The 
cost of transportation by wagons depends largely on the charac- 
ter and condition of the roads over which the hauling is done. 
This proposition is well illustrated in Santa Clara County. Be- 
fore the roads were generally sprinkled it was estimated that an 
ordinary good team would haul a load of from one to two tons. 
Over the sprinkled roads the load is from tw^o to four tons. 
Then the cost of hauling for, say, ten miles, was estimated at 
$2 per ton and upward, according to circumstances. Now it is 
about $1 per ton. The latter estimate is made from actual 
prices paid for hauling fruit; $i per ton being the amount 
allowed the seller for hauling when the point of delivery does 
not exceed ten miles in distance from the orchard. In this con- 
nection it is but fair to state that sprinkled roads are probably 
of more value to a fruit growing county than to a community 
devoted to other interests. Fruit demands careful and clean 
transportation. On roads not sprinkled, it requires vehicles 
with an elaborate system of springs and of costly construction 
to prevent bruising, while the most careful covering will scarcely 
exclude the dust. Nor can such large loads be hauled. On the 
sprinkled road there is almost no accumulation of dust, while a 
simple and inexpensive arrangement of springs, on an ordinary 
farm wagon, insures a delivery in good order. This means an 
absolute saving to the fruit grower of more money than he pays 
toward the expense of sprinkling the roads. Another benefit, 
and one that is by no means insignificant, comes to the property 
owner, the taxpayer and the community generally, from 
sprinkled roads. They attract settlers and capital, and increase 
the value of property along their routes. People are willing to 
pay a considerable higher price for land situated on a sprinkled 
road and, in many instances, intending purchasers make this a 
sine qua non. The convention will I hope, pardon me if I seem 
to intrude Santa Clara County too prominently into the discus- 
sion of a subject w^hich is of interest to the whole State ; but, as 
I understand, the convention wants facts and not theories. I 
am obliged to draw these facts from the only county that has a 
general system of road sprinkling in practical operation for any 
considerable length of time. 

I do not wish to be understood that sprinkling will of itself 
make good roads. The road bed must first be made smooth and 
the ruts and chuck holes leveled up. Otherwise the water will 
stand in the depressions and greatly aggravate the evil. But 
when once the road bed is made level, and the water properly 
applied, the cost of maintaining it in that condition is but a 
trifle in comparison with that on unsprinkled roads. In addi- 



SPRINKLING COUNTRY ROADS. 85 

tioii to the fact that the water aids materially to prevent the 
roadway from breaking up under heavy and continuous use, it 
places it in such a condition that fractures can be mended as 
soon as they appear. This is not possible on unsprinkled roads. 
In the latter case attempts to fill depressions in the dry season 
are worse than useless. But, in a public highway that is packed 
and moist from a judicious application of water, a few shovelfuls 
of gravel or broken rock will prove to be the ' ' stitch in time 
that saves nine." 

As to the manner in which the water should be applied. On 
narrow roadways the 18-foot throw from the wagons will be of 
sufficient width for all purposes if deposited in the middle of the 
roadway. On wide roads the water should be first applied to 
one side and then the other, giving a lap in the centre. This 
gives a thorough and uniform wetting, the centre of the road- 
way, on which there is usually the most travel, getting the 
most water. 

The statements of the facts on a subject of this importance 
must necessarily be incomplete in the limited time that can be 
afforded here. The proof of the pudding is said to be in the 
eating. Santa Clara county is but a short distance from where 
we now are and we cordially invite you to visit us, and by 
actual inspection, satisfy yourselves as to the great advantage 
of this method of maintaining and improving public roads. 
We invite you to make this visit now and, if your honorable 
body will also appoint San Jose as the place of holding the next 
annual meeting of the convention, we will esteem it a great 
honor. 



A NOSE OUT OF JOINT. 

We've got a baby at our house, 

A perfect little fright ; 
I think that is the reason 

It came so late at night. 
His ej'es keep shutting all the time, 

His head is awful bare; 
And he makes so many faces, 

It gives me quite a scare. 

Mamma says he is beautiful. 

Her precious, darling boy. 
Papa calls him his jewel bright, 

His life, his light, his joy, 
I used to have so many names, 

I can't remember all. 
But since that red-faced baby came, 

I'm plain Saniautha Hall. 

— .^>7<:' York Merauy. 



RURAL FREE MAIL DELIVERY. 



BY JOHN M. STAHIv. 

Secretary of the Farmers' National Congress, and Editor of the Far, 



Call, Quiiicy. III. 




T 



John M. Stahl. 



^HE farmer is not near so 
unintelligent as is sup- 
posed by those people 
who get their ideas of 
him from Pitck's cari- 
catures. 

My acquaintance among 
farmers is greater than among 
city people, yet I know of 
more city business men that 
have been swindled by means 
of ' ' salted ' ' mines or worth- 
less stocks, than farmers that 
have been robbed by light- 
ning rod men or pretended 
purchasers of farms. 

There are some very igno- 
rant and prejudiced farmers, 
as there are some very igno- 
rant and prejudiced miners or 
moulders ; and I have met 
some lawyers, physicians and ministers that could only "talk 
shop," because they knew nothing else. 

It is a gratifying evidence of the good sense and unusual 
penetration of the wheelmen that in general they have treated 
the farmer with all the respect that he has deserved. Though 
doubtless often provoked by his indifference or hostility to road 
improvement, they have neither sneered at nor patronized him. 
There are some farmers who are satisfied with the roads that 
we have. This shows that some farmers stand in sore need of 
great enlightenment. There are very many more farmers who 
much desire good roads, but do not think that they can be made 
at bearable cost. This shows that very many farmers need 
enlightenment on road making. 

In this the farmers are not alone. By far the greatest 
obstacle in the way of good roads is the general ignorance of 
how to make them, hi this country. Roads can hardly be con- 
structed at a cost of $7,000 to $10,000 per mile when the con- 
tiguous farm land sells for $25 to $75 per acre, with improve- 
ments. It is true that we must use more money on our 
highwaj^s ; but much more than this must we stop wasting 



RURAL FREE MAIL DELIVERY. 87 

money on our highways. There are roads that are a disgrace 
to civihzation that would be tolerable if the money that has 
been expended on them during the past twenty years had been 
wisel)' employed. We must have more money for roads ; but 
even more must we have better methods. And this, again, 
shows the need of enlightenment. 

This is neither mar^^ellous nor shameful. In general, it may 
be said that the greatest need always of a people ruling them- 
selves is more and better knowledge. The schoolhouse is, as 
is often asserted, the bulwark of our liberties. The press is the 
force that serves the guns. 

In no other way can intelligence in the rural districts be 
more effectually or economically increased than by extending 
into them free mail delivery. This would multiply the papers 
and letters received on the farms and in the villages. Especially 
would it greatl}^ multipl}^ the number of daily papers taken by 
the farmers. Not only the cause of road improvement, but all 
philanthropic movements and wide reforms, would be far 
advanced by the greater intelligence, the closer touch with the 
world, and the readier apprehension of rural people due to dail}^ 
mail communication with the great centres of human activity, 
bringing into the rural home letters and periodicals, especially 
daily papers. 

Cit}^ people have in this an interest that should preclude their 
indifference. The general influence and the reflex action would 
be momentous ; and as for direct result it may be said that 
merchants, manufacturers, produce commissionmen, publishers, 
lawyers, doctors and bankers are as much interested in getting 
their letters and papers promptly to their correspondents and 
subscribers as their correspondents and subscribers are in 
receiving letters and papers promptly. 

Rural free mail deliverj^ is but a matter of justice. Rural 
people pay their full share of taxes, and should not be griev- 
ously discriminated against in mail facilities. 

It is not proposed to add much to the cost of the post-office 
department.* The tests made by Mr. Wanamaker showed 
that rural free mail delivery would soon increase to such an 
extent the volume of rural mail that the rural free delivery 
would pay for itself. Analogous reasoning brings us inevitabl}^ 
to the same point. When Rowland Hill first advocated penny 

*The resolutions adopted at the last meeting- of the Farmers' National Congress 
read as follows ; 

RURAL FREE MAIL DELIVERY. 

Whereas. It has been proved bj' actual test that free mail delivery can be 
extended to the villages and the more thickly settled farming communities with but 
little if any increase in the net expense of the post office department, therefore 

Resolved, That we are heartily in favor of rural free mail delivery, and we hereby 
call upon the Congress of the United States and the post-ofKce department to extend the 



88 RURAL FREE MAIL DELIVERY. 

postage he was supposed to be crazy ; but when cheap postage 
became a fact, it was soon found to be the more economical. In 
our own country, the reduction of letter postage to six, to four, 
and then to two cents an ounce, the several reductions in news- 
paper postage to publishers to a cent a pound, and the various 
reductions in the postage on other classes of mail matter, have 
been followed in every case by an increase in the volume of the 
mail that has soon compensated for the lessened postage rate. 
Probably for a time rural free mail delivery would increase the 
cost of the post-office department, but there are now many mail 
routes in the more sparsely settled regions that do not near pay 
the cost of transporting them, and no one questions the justice 
or expedienc)^ of maintaining them. In truth, the mail has 
become so essential in business and to decent living that every 
person living under our enlightened government should have 
good mail facilities, though the post-office department showed a 
considerable deficit. That department certainly benefits us as 
much as the Department of War or the Navy ; and there is no 
better reason why it should be self-supporting than they. 

Rural free mail delivery would be valuable as an object 
lesson, as a demonstration. To it there is only one objection 
urged — the cost. This is the one objection urged against road 
improvement. Twent}^ years ago, yes, only ten years ago, the 
papers in the bustling, enterprising cities of the second and 
third classes were filled with indignant letters and alarming 
editorials about street paving. It was vehemently declared, 
and frequently believed, that these cities could not endure the 
costs of paving their streets with granite, or brick, or cedar 
blocks ; and to pave streets by the special assessment of abut- 
ting property was declared to be confiscation that would be 
fought in the courts to the bitter end. But the streets were 
paved ; the cost was found to be bearable, and street paving was 
found to be a good and profitable investment. So, when rural 
free mail delivery is tried, it will be found, not only that the 
cost is bearable, but that it is a good investment, bearing a 
greater income than four or six per cent, per annum. And then 
one step more — the most expensive — but when we have a fair 
start in real road improvement it will be shown that the cost can 
be made bearable and that good roads are profitable. 

free delivery of mail into the country as fast as the same can be done without an oner- 
ous increase in the expense of the department. 

Resolved, That there should not be any lowering of the present rate of letter 
postage until mail is delivered at least three times a week throughout all townships 
having a population of ten or more to the square mile. 

The resolutions were introduced by Mr. Stahl, and were adopted by a unanimous 
vote. On motion of Mr. Savage, of Pennsylvania, seconded by Hon. Daniel Needham, of 
Massachusetts, Gen. Burkell, of Mississippi, and others. The vote was taken standing 
to make it all the more emphatic. 



RURAL FREE MAIL DELIVERY. 89 

The routes of rural free mail delivery must be good roads, 
hence that delivery will bring the National Government into 
contact with road improvement. 



COIvONEIv POPE ON FREE MAIIv DEEIVERY FOR 
THE COUNTRY. 

SHE great importance of improving the mail facilities of the 
country cannot be overestimated or exaggerated. 
The Post Office Department has already made some 
experiments on this line, especially in the smaller towns 
and villages, and the general results have proven the 
practicability of greatly extending free delivery. It is, how- 
ever, true that anything like universal free delivery will have to 
be postponed until there are better means of communication 
through the sparsely settled districts. 

I believe that the department should follow up this matter 
and that proper mail delivery should keep pace with, if not a 
little in advance of, the improvements of highways. 

Anything which will bring the country people in closer con- 
tact with the centres of civilization is worthy of consideration 
and will be of mutual advantage to all classes of our citizens. 
In improvements of this nature the strictly financial side of the 
question should be made of secondary consideration. In other 
words, the general benefits of free delivery should outweigh the 
actual money returns, as shown in the local post office accounts, 
and for this reason the Post Office Department should be 
manged with the view of securing the greatest benefits to the 
greatest number of people rather than with the idea of its 
paying expenses or making money. 



WHY PEOPLE SHOUIvD BUILD THEIR OWN ROADS. 
BY GOV. CLAUDE MATTHEWS ( of Indiana.) 




F' 




Gov. Claude Matthews. 



^UDEY recognizing the ne- 
cessity and importance of 
good roads, I have felt 
much interest in the move- 
ment to accomplish this 
purpose. The vast importance 
of this cannot be overestimated, 
affecting as it especially does 
the internal commerce of a Na- 
tion of seventy millions of peo- 
ple. . It seems singular that to 
any person of ordinary intelli- 
gence there should be the neces- 
sity of argument to convince 
him of the utility and benefit. 
Your persistent efforts through, 
and the splendid articles in, the 
Good Roads Magazine are fast 
doing this. I am not in favor 
of a work of this kind being undertaken by the General Govern- 
ment — not by States — but rather by Counties and Townships. 
My chief objection to aid from the General Government, is 
owing to the paternal feature of such enterprises, and the 
injustice to an overwhelming majority of interests and the 
people, that could not share directly in the benefits accruing. 

The building of good roads should be done by the people 
directly benefited by the improvements — and wholly interested 
in the cost and care. For several j^ears we have been operating 
in this State under a law providing for the construction of free 
gravel and macadamized roads. Where the material for this is 
readily accessible, such roads have been rapidly built, until now 
in such sect:ions of our State all the principal roads are graveled 
and the people are turning their attention to the by-roads or 
less important ones. I believe these roads will receive more 
care — a greater proprietary interest being felt, from the people 
who were taxed for their construction. 

It is so easy to establish a dangerous and perplexing prece- 
dent from a seemingly innocent step — that it would be difficult 
to see where aid by the General Government in this direction 
might lead to. 



AN OPEN LETTER TO THE LEAGUE. 

FROM STERI.ING EI.I.IOTT., 

IT is not too early and never can be, to discuss things which 
might be of use to the League of American Wheelmen. 
There are two important things which I feel sure ought to 
be done at the next regular meeting of the National 
Assembly, and to that end I hereby give notice that I shall 
offer amendments to the constitution and by-laws which will 
enable the assembly to take such action as it desires to on each 
of these questions : 

BICYCIvB RACING 

is becoming a thing of such extensive and complicated propor- 
tions that it is not, in my opinion, proper that the League 
should continue to handle it on just the same basis as heretofore. 

The labor performed by the Racing Board is getting to be 
something appalling. I believe that there are many mercantile 
and manufacturing establishments which do a hundred thousand 
dollars' worth of business in a year and which do not have nearly 
so extensive a correspondence as Mr. Raymond is now taking 
care of for no compensation. I congratulate the League on 
having found this man Raymond, but it is not likely that he will 
continue indefinitely, and the supply of such men is by no 
means large. 

Although Mr. Raymond and the other members of his board 
work for nothing, it still costs the League about $1,500 per 
annum to pay the expense of maintaining a racing board. 

The advisability of taking care of racing interests I do not 
care to debate, but will assume for the purposes of this argu- 
ment that it is as important as anything that the League of 
American Wheelmen has on hand. 

A proper tribunal backed by the power and influence of the 
League can control racing, but there is no reason why the League 
should pay the bills. Racing men and race promoters should 
pay for the work which they, and they alone incur. 

In view of the large number of sanctions and other favors 
which are granted by the Racing Board the fee for each one 
would be small. It would not be enough in any individual 
case to lessen the number of necessajy requests and it would 
shut out a great many things which are asked for simply 
because they cost nothing and which are not really wanted. 

If Mr. Raymond or some other man is willing to do his part 
of the work for nothing, it might be poor business policy for the 
League to pay anybody for doing it, but I predict that the time 
is not far away when it may be necessary to pay someone for 



92 AN OPEN LETTER. 

being chairman of the Racing Board, but in any event, the 
expense whatever- it is should be borne by those who get the 
direct benefit. 

" RENEWAI, SEASON." 

The average man in his normal everyday condition does not 
always see the importance of joining the I/Cague of American 
Wheelmen any more than he sees the importance of subscribing 
for Good Roads ($i.oo per year) or of paying his pew rent. 
Now when through any influence whatever a man gets to the 
point of being willing to subscribe for Good Roads, why we 
just take his money and let him in on the ground floor and he will 
get the full benefit of his subscription (12 numbers.) But many 
a man has got to the joining point when the Ivcague of Ameri- 
can Wheelmen renewal season was over, and his friend, the 
missionary, could but admit the disadvantage of joining then. 
And by the time the renewal season comes again he may for 
some reason conclude not to join. In other words, the longer 
the time in which a man may join the more apt the I^eague is 
to get him for a member. 

Eight or nine months of the year the Secretary can get along 
with a comparatively small force, all that is done is done by 
people who are experienced; each in their particular line and 
things go smoothly and well, then comes that relic of an interest- 
ing past the " renewal season," and things get into a feverish 
and abnormal state, new people must be hired, work, even 
though it be done with comparatively few errors cannot be 
done to advantage. The Secretary has to go into the nights of 
labor (how's that) and I have even had him decline to go to 

church with me because he was so tired from the work of 

Saturday night. 

I^et a member pay his or her annual fee and let that pay- 
ment extend the membership for a year from that date whether 
it be June or January. It is not only as easy to do it that way 
but it is much easier and cheaper and as can be clearly shown, 
it would help to increase the membership and lessen both the 
cost of running the office and the chances of error. Why not 
do it ? Those in favor will please go to the Assembly and vote 
for it. 

Those opposed please write at once to Good Roads Office, 
No. 12 Pearl Street, Boston, Mass. 




Gov. D. Russell Brown. 



ROAD QUESTION IN RHODE ISLAND. 

BY GOV. D. RUSSELI. BROWN. 

IN Rhode Island there is 
evidently a strongly in- 
creasing sentiment favor- 
able to the construction 
and repair of our high- 
ways under the central au- 
thority of the State. We 
have no county government 
and the roads are now built 
and maintained by the cities 
and towns without concerted 
action. While a few towns 
during the past five years 
have made great advances in 
the direction of better roads, 
the general result of the 
present system is no more 
satisfactory here than it is in 
other States. 
A commission has for two years been engaged in investigat- 
ing the condition of our highways. It has authority to report a 
system of road improvement. Differences of opinion among the 
commissioners and the legislative complications of the past year 
have delayed the presentation of a report. I am, however, 
hopeful that the next General Assembly which has a republican 
majority in both branches, will consider the question and that 
the State will soon undertake the control of its main highways. 
I do not mean to intimate that the question is in any sense a 
political one with us, but rather to suggest that it is easier to 
obtain the necessary legislation when both branches of the 
General Assembly are controlled by the same party. 

The most powerful obstacle which we, who are interested in 
the crusade for good roads, have to overcome, is the intense 
jealousy of the towns of any infringment of their rights, and the 
fear that they may be caller" upon to contribute toward 
improvements which may prove more largely beneficial to the 
cities. 

I am confident, however, that within the next few years this 
subject will receive in Rhode Island the consideration it 
deserves. Good highways will add greatly to the natural 
attraction of the State's many summer resorts, and will bring 
the farmers in closer connection with their markets in the thickly 
settled manufacturing villages. My predecessors have kept the 
question before the people, and if no definite step should be 
taken during my term of office, those who come after will not 
permit the cause of good roads to suffer. It cannot be displaced 
from among the vital questions of State polic3^ 



COIv. AI.BBRT A. P.OPE. 

(frontispikce.) 

IN writing the story of famous men it is customary to mention 
the important, and we might say indispensable, fact of their 
having been born, supplemented by the date on which 
it occurred. 

On account of his extreme youth (and probably on this 
account alone) Colonel Pope's birth was not attended with any 
unusual circumstances. Though from that time on, his simi- 
larity to the average boy and man became much less marked. 

It is said, that poets are born and not made, and this is no 
less true in many other lines, beside the lines which are in- 
tended to rhyme with each other. 

At the age when most boys are playing marbles the Colonel 
(which was to be) devoted himself to laying the foundations for 
his future success as a business man. 

When he had reached the ninth year of his childhood, he 
accepted the responsible position of pilot on board of a horse 
which was employed to haul a corn cultivator in Brookline, 
Mass. The old gentleman who "held" the cultivator says : 
"that the horse's course under the guidance of the embryo 
bicycle magnate was straightforward and that he was kept 
moving. 

The mercantile instinct which developed to such rare pro- 
portions later, was ver}^ much in evidence even at the tender 
age of twelve years, when he did quite a business in the buying 
and selling of garden produce and employed other children to 
help him. It is remembered that he never allowed any part of 
the stock to decay on his hands, and that he usually sold it for 
something more than it cost him. 

Imagine a boy of nineteen years acting in the responsible 
capacity of second lieutenant of a military company in actual 
service at the front, and yet that was Albert A, Pope in 1862. 

He took active part in many important battles includ- 
ing those of South Mountain, Antietam, Sulphur Springs, 
PVedericksburgh, Vicksburgh, Jackson, Miss., Knoxville, 
Petersburgh, and Poplar- Springs Church. 

March 13th, 1865 (at the age of twenty-one years), he was 
bre vetted Major " for gallant conduct at the battle of Freder- 
icksburgh, Va.," and lyieutemant-Colonel " for gallant conduct 
at the battles of Knoxville, Poplar Springs Church and in front 
of Petersburg," 

" Peace hath her victories 
No less renowned than war." 

and when the war had ceased Col. Pope returned to Boston, 



col: a. a. pope. 95 

where he soon . started himself in the business of selling shoe 
manufacturers' supplies. ' 

Shortly after the bicycle appeared in England, the far-seeing 
Colonel came to believe that ' ' there was something in it ' ' and 
with hip usual promptness, took steps to introduce the new con- 
veyance into this countr3^ 

After looking carefully into the subject, he imported a few 
machines in 1877, and in 1878 gave the first order for bicycles 
to be made in America. It was for fifty machines, and was 
given to the Weed Sewing Machine Company of Hartford, 
Connecticut. (That companj^'s plant has since been purchased 
and greatly enlarged by the Pope Manufacturing Compan3^) 

Col. Albert A. Pope occupies an important and decidedly 
unique position in the business world. He is not only presi- 
dent (in fact as well as in name) of what is without doubt. the 
largest and most successful bicycle manufacturing concern in 
the world, but he is prominently connected with many other 
important enterprises. 

Probably no one man now living, has done so much toward 
road improvement as has Col. Pope. He has spent his money 
freely and given a great deal of time and energy to the cause. 

The L/cague of American Wheelmen may attribute much of 
its success in that direction to the active and earnest co-opera- 
tion of the great bicycle manufacturer. He gave at one time, 
$6,000 to the Massachusetts Institute of Technologj^ to be used 
in establishing a department of road engineering. The mon- 
ster petition presented to Congress last December, asking 
that the Government establish a Road Department (which has 
since been done) was originated by, and circulated at the 
personal expense of Col. Pope. This petition was a most 
remarkable one, it was nearly four- fifths of a mile long and 
contained the signatures of one hundred and fifty thousand busi- 
ness men, including the governors of seventeen states. 

Col. Pope combines in his make up many of the more desira- 
ble qualities of both the lion and the lamb, he is a fighter of the 
most persistent kind, and yet he has the heart of a woman. He 
is one of the great kings of commerce, though in his private 
life he exhibits traits of tenderness which are as commend- 
able as they are rare. 

He is a generous and philanthropic man and many thou- 
sands of dollars are given annually by him in charities of which 
the world knows nothing. He is loved by all who know him 
best, always looked up to and admired by his friends, and 
treated by his enemies with profound respect. He has been of 
much value to tiie world in man}'' ways, but will, no doubt, be 
remembered longest for the great work he has done to stimulate 
and extend the cause of highway improvement. 







A RKMARKABIvE RISE IN REAI, ESTATE. 

IN extending the great boulevard system for which Boston is 
becoming famous, a very peculiar and interesting freak of 
the usually stable and quiet earth has been developed. 

Just beyond Cottage Farm and near the Boston & Albany 
Railroad, it was necessary to fill with gravel a depression 
on the line of the Commonwealth Avenue extension. 

Although this land was lower than that on either side, it was 
not a swamp, and was not, to look at it before the " eruption " 
a piece of real estate which would have been expected to 
behave in the unseemly and unusual manner shown above. 

One night alter the grade was completed and the contractor 
was dreaming what he would do with the money he was to get 
for it, the underlying soil, which, so far as the neighbors know, 
had not moved in ten thousand years, became uneasy and 
oppressed under the heavy load of gravel that had been placed 
upon it, and being mostly loam, and feeling, as loam usually 
does, that it should be on the top of the gravel and not under it, 
this, 17,000 cubic yards of " upper stratum," proceeded to crawl 
out from under the grading of ' ' sub stratum ' ' which man in his 
imperious style had placed over it. 

In crawling it went out under a private estate shown at the 
right of the picture and caused about a quarter of an acre of 
good farming country to rear up into the air from four to nine 
feet, and now the owner of the farm wants "damages" (as 
though he hadn't enough already.) He didn't mind having 
the price of his land raised by the boulevard, but when it came 
to having the land itself raised he didn't like it. 

It will be an interesting question for the court to decide and 
if it takes as long as some of the legal questions do, that land 
which slid out from under the boulevard, may conclude later 
not to stay under the farm. The Editor of Good Roads 
($1.00 per year) is watching it daily to see what it will do next. 



THE NATIONAL GOOD ROADS CONFERENCE 

AET at Asbury Park on July 5 at 9 o'clock A. M. in the 
Westminster Presbyterian church. 
The ever popular Gov. Fuller of Vermont was 
chosen Chairman, and E. C. Harrison, Postmaster of 
Asbury Park, Secretary. 

Some appropriate remarks by Chairmam Fuller opened the 
meeting, which was mainly devoted to talks by representatives 
of various States and Territories. These various speeches told 
what had been done by the States represented, in the matter of 
road improvement, and all showed that the subject was a live 
one and that most of the' States are taking some action looking 
in the right direction. 

Vermont, said the governor, now has all road taxes paid in 
cash, and but one road commissioner for each town. State 
Board of Commissioners holds meetings each winter, and 
invites farmers to bring bags containing samples of the soil, 
gravel, etc., in different localities. Layers of these various 
forms of earth are placed together in proper proportions and 
used as object lessons to illustrate the lectures. 

Gov. Werts of New Jersey could not be present, but he was 
ablj^ represented by Edward Burroughs who has had so much 
to do with New Jersey road improvement. He said that 
although Gov. Werts was full of enthusiasm on the road ques- 
tion he was glad to see that we had with us a governor who 
was Fuller. He thought that as the Government expended so 
much money in the improvement of streams which were often 
nothing more than rivulets it was vastly more important that 
some money should be used to improve the roads, and he sug- 
gested that the money raised from taxes on whiskey and to- 
bacco be applied to highway improvement. 

At this point a delegation of 50 New Jersey farmers came 
into the church and the Chairman made them welcome, while 
seats were provided for them in the front pews. 

Gen. Roy Stone said that the United States Secretary of 
Agriculture was very sorry not to have been able to be present, 
but he was with us in spirit. 

Gen. Stone, whose position as head of the Government 
Office of Road Inquiry makes his statements valuable, says that 
there are about 500,000,000 tons of freight hauled over roads 
annually in the United States, and he estimates that at least 
60 per cent, of the present cost of doing it is due to the bad 
condition of roads. 

In many cases the value of a farm has been increased $20 
per acre by improving the roads over which its products must 
be hauled to market. 



98 GOOD ROADS CONFERENCE. 

He further stated that the loss from poor roads in this 
country would aggregate no less than $623,000,000 j^early. 

Mayor Clute of Schenectady, N. Y., referred to the great 
variety of roads in that State. He spoke of the great import- 
ance of proper drainage and crowning of the centre of country 
roads. Education is needed among the farmers. They should 
be taught to do the work properly. He cited instances where 
abutters had been literally forced to have good roads and now 
wouldn't be put back to the old condition for twice amount of 
the expenditure. 

D. E. De Hart of the north side Board of Trade, New York 
City, told of a case in his district where it cost the city $50 to 
inspect a certain street and finally decide to fix it, and the 
actual cost of doing the job was but $5.00. 

At another time a committee was investigating a bad piece 
of road to see whether they should report a bill for its improve- 
ment. The carriage containing the committee got stuck in the 
mud, with the result that the report was favorable to a new 
road. (Another instance of the advantages of an object lesson.) 

Prof. J. Holmes, State Geologist of North Carolina, stated 
that out of 90 counties in his State, 40 have no rock, and many 
of them have no gravel, and that they had no educated road 
engineers. Many of the best cirizens there are waking up to 
the importance of roads and good results are expected. 

Col. Tipton said that the convicts are worked on the roads 
of North Carolina and with good effect. He told of a road 
over which two bales of cotton had been hauled with difficulty, 
and on being made as it should be the same team could haul 
ten bales. 

Martin Dodge, President State Road Commission of Ohio, 
talked of his plan for building steel roads. An elaborate arti- 
cle by him on that subject may be found in May, 1894, number 
of this magazine. 

Mr. Collins, of Minneapolis, said that the farmers in Min- 
nesota wanted better roads, the only question was how they 
were to be paid for. He didn't think the farmers of his part of 
the country were in very bad shape and that good roads were 
sure to come. 

Mr. Darling, of the Commercial Club of St. Paul, said that 
club could be counted on to back up whatever the conference 
did. He said that a convention of farmers in his State once 
passed a resolution to the effect that they would not build roads 
for the benefit of " bicycle dudes." 

Mr. Rhown, of Philadelphia, said he was surprised and 
pleased to note the interest taken b}^ nearly everybody in the 
road question, but he saw room for still further work, for 
instance, he said, " I saw a load of corn stuck in the mud on a 
down grade in front of my house last spring." 



GOOD ROADS CONFERENCE. 99 

Halstead Smith, of Rome, Pa., said that under the system 
in vogue in his section every male person (ministers excepted) 
who has two legs must work 15 days each year on the road. 
Convicts to the number of 44 are also employed in road 
building. 

An interesting fact in connection with the above was that in 
the last 12 years the taxable property in the State had doubled 
in value. 

Mr. White, of Florida, said that Jacksonville was the most 
prosperous town in the country, that it had an aggressive Board 
of Trade and was bonded for $250,000 for street and road 
improvement. 

Wharton Smith, of Maryland, whose baldness had been 
alluded to by some one, excused it on the ground that he was 
born so. He said his State was famous for infamous roads. 
He thought as we now had an " Arbor Day " it might be well 
to have a ' ' Road Day " to be devoted to road discussions and 
suggestions. 

Isaac B. Potter, of New York, said that this country had 
the poorest roads in the world, and that the best were to be 
found in France. He advocated a "campaign of education." 
He stated that he had personally made extensive investigations 
into the subject of foreign roads and had now in his possession 
much valuable data which was obtained during his trip. 

Geo. A. Perkins, of Massachusetts, gave an interesting 
description of the working of the Massachusetts road laws and 
also of the Massachusetts Highway Commission, of which he is 
chairman. 

The success of this conference warranted its members in 
voting to perpetuate it by annual meetings of a similar charac- 
ter. In view of existing bodies it was not thought best to 
make this in an}^ sense an organization, but rather what its 
name implies, a " conference," which may consist of delegates 
from State organizations and in fact anybody who is interested 
in the road work. 

A Central Committee was elected, consisting of 
Hon. Ivevi K. P'uller, Governor of Vermont, Chairman; Gen- 
eral Roy Stone, Department of Agriculture, Washington, 
D. C, Secretary, and Col. Edward H. Thayer, editor of The 
Age, Clinton, Iowa. 

An Advisory Committee consisting of one member from 
each State and Territory was also provided for. 

A practical working exhibition of road machines was made 
during the two afternoons of the conference. Two rock crush- 
ing plants with elevators, screens, bins, etc. One steam road 
roller and one horse roller. Three road scrapers, together with 
wagons, carts, etc. As a whole the conference was interesting 
and instructive and promises to be even more so at its next 
annual meeting. 



GOOD ROADS BICYCIvE TOURNAMENT, 

TO BE HEI.D AT ASBURY PARK, THURSDAY, FRIDAY AND 
SATURDAY, AUGUST 30 AND 3 1 AND SEPTEMBER I. 

THIS is a series of bicycle races which will be of the most 
exciting and interesting kind; all of the big racing men 
will be there. (The term "big" as applied to world 
beaters is no longer exactly the thing, since the mile 
record is now held by one of the smallest men on the 
track.) Those who go to Asbury Park to see exciting races 
between the fastest men will not be disappointed. 

In that feature the Good Roads tournament will slightly 
resemble other large and successful race meets. 

It has, however, a character which is all its own, and which 
is winning for it an unusually large share of public approval 
and support. 

The entire proceeds are to go to the Good Roads Depart- 
ment of the League . The use of the grounds and track has 
been given freely by the Asbury Park Athletic Association. 
The prizes, most of them, if not all, are being donated by com- 
panies and individuals, so that the success already assured for 
the tournament cannot help netting a neat sum, which will go 
toward the carrying on of the road work of the E. A. W. 

Bicycle manufacturers and others have not been called on 
this year to help support the Good Roads end of the Eeague, 
and should they now be asked to do something in the way of 
prizes for this tournament, we feel sure that they will contribute 
handsomely and consider it the laying up of treasures which 
will surely return to them many fold. 

The lyeague is not "in need," as has been stated, but it is 
in a perfectly solvent condition and is getting better all the 
time. It is not a question of getting along, — we can do that in 
good style, — but the more we have to do with the more work can 
be done. 

A very interesting feature of this tournament is that the 
League takes no chances, pays no part of the expenses, and 
then gets all of the profits. 

The idea of doing such a thing originated with " Senator " 
Morgan, of the American Wheelman, whose hustling abilities 
are well known to all who are in the bicycle swim. 

He asked the League to take a direct part in the promotion 
of the scheme. It was decided, and we believe wisely, that 
the League of American Wheelmen as an organization should 
not take an active part in such a tournament. 

But the "Senator ' ' was not a man to be discouraged when he 
had once decided to do this thing. The question arose at once 



GOOD ROADS TOURNAMENT. loi 

how can the American Wheelman afford to do all the work 
and give the League all the profits? The answer is easy. The 
"Senator's" paper will get considerable advertising out of it, and 
advertising is another name for profit. Good Roads ($i.ooper 
year) believes that advertising is a good thing, and any man 
should be entitled to all the advertising he pays for, and further- 
more that any concern which does what the Avterican Wheel- 
man is doing for this Good Roadstournament is paying for all 
the advertising it can get out of it. 

The most active man in the details of this affair is 

W. M. PERRETT, 

who is known all over the country as the ' ' champion clerk of 
the course." He is now a member of the America7i Wheelman 
staff and Secretary of the Good Roads Tournament. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Isaac B. Potter, former editor of Good Roads. 

H. ly.Saltonstall, Business Manager of American Wheehnan. 

W.J. Morgan, Editor American Wheelman. 

ADVISORY COMMITTEE. 

Chas. H. Luscomb, President L. A. W. 

Howard E. Raymond, Chairman National Racing Board. 

Sterling Elliott, Editor Good Roads ($i.oo per year). 

All communications should be sent to W. M. Perrett, 
American Wheelman office, 23 Park Row, New York. 

P. S. — All subscriptions to Good Roads magazine should 
be sent to 12 Pearl street, Boston, Mass. 




poeiticae item. 

" He has about decided to run 
and is in the hands of his friends." 



FARMERS' NATIONAL CONGRESS. 

THERE is one farmers' organization that has been steadily 
in favor of good roads. It is the Farmers' National 
Congress. It is composed of Delegates appointed by the 
Governors of the several States — one delegate from each 
Congressional district and two at large from each State. 
Each agricultural experiment station and each State Board of 
Agriculture is entitled to send a delegate, also. The delegates 
appointed by the governors are men of prominence, ability and 
influence, hence the Congress has great influence among 
farmers and with the Congress of the United States. The 
Chicago Daily limes recently stated that the Farmers' National 
Congress had more to do than any other agency with the inser- 
tion of the item in the post-office appropriation bill providing 
for tests of rural free mail delivery. The Farmers' National 
Congress is not so well known as some farmers' organizations, 
it is not so notorious, because it is not a political organization 
and it has not advocated two per cent, loans, sub-treasuries or 
the abolition of the national banking system ; but it has the 
respectful attention of Senators and Congressmen. At each of 
its last six meetings more than thirty States have been repre- 
sented. Its president is Hon. B. F. Clayton, of Iowa, its vice- 
president is Major G. M. Ryals, of Georgia ; and its secretary 
is Hon. John M. Stahl, of Illinois. In 1891, it met at Sedalia, 
Mo., and Mr. Stahl made an address on "Transportation of 
Farm Products," in which he pointed out the advantages of 
good roads. A resolution in favor of road improvement, pre- 
sented by him was adopted. In 1892, the Congress met at 
Lincoln, Neb. Mr. Stahl spoke on ' ' Highway Transportation, ' ' 
and his resolution in favor of highway improvement was 
adopted. In 1893, the Congress met at Savannah, Georgia. 
Mr. Stahl again made one of the formal addresses before the 
Congress, in the course of which he said: 

' ' While the railway charges seven times as much as the 
waterway, the highway charges twenty times as much as the 
railway. The greatest obstacle to good roads is our ignorance 
of how to make them at bearable cost. As chairman of the 
Committee of Education of the Illinois Highway Improvement 
Association, I have found, that as for experimental knowledge 
of hard roadmaking in our State, we have none. Recognizing 
the great profit there would be in judicious road improvement, 
this Congress should pronounce in its favor ; but it should also 
demand the establishment of highway experiment stations, that 
the people's money may not be wasted." 

Again the Congress adopted a resolution strongly favoring 
road improvement and calling upon State Legislatures to enact 
needed legislation. The next meeting of the Congress will be 
at Parkersburg, West Virginia, October 3-6, next. 




THE AUSTIN ROCK CRUSHER. 



SHE frame of the Austin crusher is made of one solid 
piece, heavily flanged, which renders it rigid and prac- 
tically unbreakable. 

The crushing movement of the jaws is obtained by an 
application of the toggle joint principle, the most power- 
ful principle known for securing great power coupled with 
speed. The application of this principle in the Austin Crusher 
is different from that of any other crusher in distinctive features, 
whereby the capacity is increased, power necessary to run it 
lessened, life of the crusher prolonged, and the cost for repairs 
reduced to a minimum. 

The whole jaw does not, as on other crushers, move back- 
wards and forwards, as a pendulum, and on each recurrent 
stroke, crush with its whole surface ; but moves with a divided 
motion, as it would were it pivoted to a moving centre, always 
either advancing at the top while receding at the bottom or 
advancing at the bottom while receding at the top. Herein 
lies the secret of the Austin's wonderful efficiency. It is 
always crushin-g, continuously and unintermittently, the whole 
power of the machine is being applied to some part of the jaw, 
and some part of the jaw is always crushing stone. 

This remarkable movement is obtained b}^ the shaft to 
which the swinging jaw is pivoted, moving horizontally in 
slots, and the combined oscillating and vibrating movement 



I04 AUSTIN ROCK CRUSHER. 

resulting. On account ot this motion of the machine with 
steadiness, the jaws operating on the stone continuously, there 
is but little jar, and the working is as smooth as could be 
expected in a machine which has to do such severe and pecul- 
iar work as the crushing of rock. 

We saw one of these machines working at the Good Roads 
Conference in Asbury Park and were much impressed with the 
ravenous appetite which it seemed to have for trap rock. 

One who has lived much in boarding houses could not help 
appreciating the cheerful and enthusiastic manner in which 
this steam actuated set of molars chewed up whatever was put 
into its mouth, and what was equally interesting, it never said 
a word. 



WHAT DO I.AWYERS GET PAID FOR ANYWAY? 

I've been list'nin' to them lawyers in the courthouse where they 

meet. 
An' I've come to the conclusion that I'm most completely beat. 
Fust one fellar riz to argy, an' he boldly waded in. 
As he dressed the tremblin' pris'ner in a coat o' deep-dyed sin. 

Why he painted him all over in a hue o' blackest crime, 
An' he smeared his reputation with the thickest kind o' grime, 
Tell I found myself a wond'rin' in a misty waj^ and dim. 
How the Ivord had come to fashion sich an awful man as him. 

Then the other lawyer started, an' with brimmin', tearful eyes. 
Said his client was a martyr that was brought to sacrifice ; 
An' he gave to that same pris'ner every blessed human grace. 
Tell I saw the light o' virtue fairly shinin' from his face. 

Then I own 'at I was puzzled how sich things could rightly be; 
An' this aggervatin' question seems to keep a puzzlin' me; 
So, will some one please inform me, an' this myst'ry unroll — 
How an angel an' a devil can possess the self-same soul? 

— The Green Bag. 



HOW THEY DID IT 
(in bkrgen county, new jersey.) 

By M. T. Richardson. 

Editor of Good Roads: 

rOUR letter of the 19th ult. was received in due time, 
inviting information as to the progress of the good road 
movement in my locaHty, (Ridgewood, Bergen County, 
New Jersey.) 

The year of the great bhzzard, (1888,) Ridgewood 
township, largely made up of New York business men, after 
considerable opposition, secured an appropriation of a thousand 
dollars for macadam on the principle street. 

The township Committee purchased blue limestone from the 
Hudson River region and simpl}^ spread it on the road, depend- 
ing upon the public to ride over and roll it down. 

For weeks people drove on the sides of the road rather than 
travel over the broken stone. Finally in a fit of desperation the 
township Committee covered the stone with about two inches of 
gravel. Then the people were willing to ride over it, and it 
was soon in good condition. 

It formed an excellent roadbed, which has lasted up to the 
present time in fairly good condition, although it was never 
rolled except with the wheels of vehicles. 

The next year an appropriotion of $1,500 was voted for 
macadam and the amount was expended on the same street in 
about the same manner. The following year $2,000 was secured 
and the year following $2,000 more. 

These different object lessons awoke the people to the neces- 
sity for a systematic treatment of the roads of the township and 
a proposition to bond the township for $30,000 was carried by a 
large majority. 

The writer happened to be chairman of the township Com- 
mittee the year this $30,000 was expended and hence is in a 
position to assert, that at the present time Ridgewood has some 
of the best roads in Bergen County, built largely from a species 
of hard granite from Bloomingdale near Pompton. 

A great deal has been learned concerning road construction 
since Ridgewood first started in with its thousand dollar 
appropriation. 

The second year of our experiment, a small crusher company 
was started in the town and the macadam for two years was laid 
by this company and rolled with a two-horse, three ton roller. 

"When we came to the $30,000 appropriation the writer 
insisted upon the work being done with a steam roller. He was 



io6 HOW THEY DID IT. 

told by contractors in the city of Paterson that just as good work 
could be done with a good two-horse roller, but an inspection 
of the Paterson and Passaic roads by the Ridgewood Committee 
did not bear out the statements of the contractors. 

Ridgewood adopted the steam roller and the contractors who 
secured the job were forced to buy a new 12 -ton roller to do the 
work. They had never had occasion to use anj^thing but a 
horse roller before. Now nearly all roads in this vicinity are 
built with steam rollers, as the people are able to see the 
difference. 

Ridgewood' s example of road building proved to be con- 
tagious. The adjoining township of Saddle River woke up and 
bonded for $90,000. Then followed Orvil on the north with 
$30,000 and Midland on the east is now considering the ques- 
tion of bonding for $50,000. 

Where six years ago there was not a foot of macadam in the 
western part of Bergen County, there are now miles and miles of 
beautiful macadamized roads, which it is not only the delight of 
the city folks to ride over, but of great practical value to the 
farming community, which has long since realized the benefits 
to be derived from good roads. 

Farmers, who years ago found it impossible to pull more 
than a moderate load into Paterson with two stout horses going 
at a walk all way, can now take all they can pile on their 
wagons and in many cases can trot their horses comfortably. 



It is difiicult to saj^ whether thfere is more truth than poetry in 
this, there is much of both. 

You may talk about your editors who sit in easy chairs 
And try to boss the whole machine and put on lots of airs, 
And seek to make the people think it's what they have to say 
That keeps the business on the move and makes the paper pay ; 
But don't you ever think it, for the whole truth simply is 
The editor's not in it with that huge conceit of his 
Tor there's only one essential in the whole newspaper plan — 
Success depends alone upon the advertising man. 

The men who edit telegraph and write the local stuff 
Within the little fields they fill may answer well enough ; 
The sporting and dramatic men and small fry such as those, 
Who gobble all the passes and who visit all the shows ; 
And likewise, too, the poets who insist they must rehearse 
The simple things they have to say in blind and halting verse, 
They, one and all, have understood since papers first began 
That they were mere assistants to the advertising man. 

'Tis true the advertising man has naught to do but talk. 

Yet he's the one who, after all, permits the ghost to walk, 

For while the editors their pens in trashy stuff engage. 

He toils on something worth the while — the advertising page. 

And if you'll but investigate sufficiently you'll find 

He works more men and hours than the others all combined, 

To him belongs the victor's crown — this brave catch-as-catch-can, 

Keen, money-getting, business-booming advertising man. 

— Nixon Waterman in Chicago Journal. 



DRY ROADS. 

HOW TO HAVE THEM. 

^\ POSITIVE idea positively set, a rest for the weary. 

l\ Col. D. W. McClung's May Number dry road, is a good 
fY road. " Practice is nine-tenths " and practice backs the 
J Colonel's every word. 

If the road is shaped up right, and the loose stones off, 
and iron sluice pipe set for proper drainage, and the roadbed 
rolled down hard with an ordinary farm roller, the water will 
run off from, instead of soaking into the road and then it is dry 
and good. Surprising what a few iron sluice pipes and a day's 
work with a farm roller will do. 

Get your road shaped up and iron sluice pipe set so a rider 
or driver never knows where a sluice is, roll it down and you 
have a hard dry road that is a thing of beauty and a joy for- 
ever at an expense, that is nearly " nil." 

— O1.D Road Master. 

HIS SECOND WIFE. 

As story-writers often say : " Once on a time there lived a man," 
Who got it in his head that he was built on a superior plan. 
He fancied that to him belonged the best of all there was in life, 
And everybody bowed to him until — he got his second wife, 

And then— 

Ah, then! 
He climbed from off his pedestal and she was seated there instead. 
And like a rooster soundly whipped he found his greatness all had fled; 
The sky that had been fair and bright was hidden by a somber cloud : 
"I can't see why," he'd often say, "a mortal spirit should be proud." 

His first wife toiled and slaved for him while he ruled like a petty king : 
She'd spare and save and make and mend, and wait on him and fetch and bring. 
But by and by she weary grew, and left this sorry world of strife — 
He mourned her absence ninety days before he got his second wife. 

And then — 

Ah, then ! 
He learned a simple truth or two, but, oh! the irony of fate 
That brings us what we ought to know so well a little bit to late. 
He found that when he should have smiled he often gave a chilling frown, 
And did not prize the golden light until, alas ! the sun went down. 

How often did he say that when his days on earth had all been spent; 
Whatever wealth he left should then be used to build his monument ! 
That was before his first wife died, but when his final summons came 
He left his second wife a will and everything was in her name. 

And then — 

Ah, then ! 
She put him in a plain pine box and buried him where land was cheap. 
And she'd so much to think about she really hadn't time to weep. 
She took a trip to Europe with the wealth his first wife toiled to save. 
And all the widow's weeds there were grew six feet high above his grave. 

—Nixon Waterman, zw Chicago Journal. 




u/ 



ASBURY PARK BABY SHOW. 

HETHER or not the tariff is a local issue, as has been 
alleged, it is certain that the annual exhibition of 
babies at Asbury Park is not only a local issue but 
is the 



EVENT OF THE SEASON. 

The Good Roads Conference was held while the Asbury 
citizen went about his usual duties. 

The editorial convention was but a mere incident. 

The Fourth of July races drew 5000 people to the grounds 
without diminishing perceptibly the appearance of the streets 
and avenues of that beautiful city. 

The fireworks on the evening of the national anniversary 
were well attended, but still here and there were to be found 
people who seemed to be following some regular business. But 
on the morning of the 

BABY SHOW 

What a change was there in the atmosphere of Asbury Park. 
The listless, tired out citizen of the day previous was suddenly 
seized with a new style of locomotion, and had in his or her eye 
a strangely luminous anxiety, while the usually active and 
stall fed summer boarder was observed to be engaged in the act 
of thoughtfully thinking of some definite thing, and all were 
looking and walking in the direction of the ocean. 



AS BURY PARK BABY SHOW. 109 

The editor of Good Roads ($1.00 per year) being a stran- 
ger within the city's gates and noticing the unusual excitement, 
asked a policeman "what was up." His answer was short 
enough, but the look that went with it was expressive even for 
an Asbury Park copper. He looked as though not certain 
whether he was being made the possible victim of a joke, or 
whether he had struck a real backwoodsman. He gave the 
benefit of the doubt, however, and said "Baby Show" in a 
tone which clearly indicated his opinion of so absurd a question. 

There was no trouble in locating the centre of attraction ; 
in fact it would have been difficult to go in any other direction. 

On what a Chicago friend was pleased to term the ' ' Lake 
front" we found a large portion of the inhabitants of New Jer- 
sey, but it was impossible to see what they were looking at, 
owing to the density of the crowd. At one end of the pier was 
a sign which stated that ' ' The pavilion was for representatives 
of the press only." Good Roads is printed on a press in view 
of which it seemed proper that its representative should sit in 
the pavilion. A short talk with the doorkeeper took the place 
of the otherwise necessary badge, and Good Roads was placed 
in view of the long stretch of board walk over which was soon 
to take place the greatest show that the season affords. 

We learned from an old resident that when this baby parade 
was started, back in the sixties, it was provided that prizes 
should be given for the handsomest babies. He remarked inci- 
dentally that none of the original promoters of the scheme are 
now living. This, however, may be only a logical result of 
perfectly natural causes. 

The prizes now are given for the best decorated baby car- 
riages without reference to the occupant. It is said that when 
the personal appearance of the infants was what must be passed 
upon it was difficult to get judges, finally it became impossible, 
hence the change. 

THB PARADK 

Consisted for the most part of baby carriages decorated in 
various degrees of elegance, and occupied in each case by the 
sweetest little youngster in town. (This last statement may do 
in a report of this kind, but you can see how the judges might 
have to be more explicit.) The line was over half a mile in 
length and showed in a startling and not unpleasant manner 
how tastes differ. A beautifully and very expensively trimmed 
carriage contained a young bab}^ whose face was entirely unpro- 
tected from the blazing sun. Another was so loaded down 
with decorations that the tiny passenger was nearly smothered 
for lack of ventilation. 

A majority of these exhibits were evidently from those to 
whom fortune had been kind, yet there was also seen the gaunt 



no AS BURY PARK BABY SHOW. 

hand of poverty. A few little cabs from which the shine of 
varnish had long since vanished, cabs which had in their time 
done duty for more favored babes, and which now had been 
turned over, let us hope gratuitously, to little ones who other- 
wise could not have known such a luxury. A few green leaves 
with here and there a penny flag showed as did also the light 
step of the neat but cheaply clad mother-nurse, that the spirit 
of baby day was by no means a matter of worldly goods but 
was born of that independent patriotism which makes of the 
American citizen what it will. 

Who can predict the relative social and commercial relations 
of those two classes of little folks for the next 50 years ? No 
one, and herein lies the charm of our American plan of doing 
things. 

The feature which most impressed Good Roads was the 
little patrol wagon shown at the head of this story. W. H. 
Stauffer, the photographer of Asbury Park is not only at the 
head in his line, but he is an all round good fellow and ever 
ready to help anything or anybody connected with the League 
of American Wheelmen; so it was an easy matter to secure his 
assistance in getting the photograph. 

The picture is a good one, but it lacks the effect that was 
so interesting in the driving through the streets of these tots, 
the clanging of the little gong, the impressive dignity of the 
driver as well as the twent}^ inch mite who stood as straight as 
an arrow on the tailboard. A remarkable thing about these 
boys is that they are brothers aged three, five, and seven years 
and that their birthdays come on the same day. Their names 
are Francis, James, and George Ross, of Asbury Park. 

The dignified little " cop " who is holding the goat is a son 
of the ma3'or of Asburj^ Park. With his red "sideboards," 
he formed a very striking headlight to the parade. 



Dogmatism is puppyism 
^rown up. — Ex. 




A' 



AfDOCTOR'S STORY. 



REPUTABLEIiphysician who i.isually;gets 
a job whenever there ,is any sickness in 
the Good Roads family, and who has had 
in his time many experiences, has a way of 
relating them to his patients, that no doubt at 
times benefits them fullj' as much as medicine 
can. 

Many of the world's greatest men have con- 
sidered laughter among the healing agencies, 
and have claimed that every laugh adds to the 
human life. If this thing is true, (and the 
columns of Good Roads (Si.oo per year) are 
not open to the man who would disprove it), then 
why should not a physician employ various forms 
of jollity to assist in the relief of his patients. 

But to the story: Dr. was being particularly hard worked, not 

because Newton is an unhealthful place, but because he is a popular doctor, 
and on one of these busy days, nearly exhausted in body and mind, he sought 
the rest which only sleep could give. It was after midnight when his slate 
was cleared of orders, and he literally tumbled into bed, soon to be given up 
to dreams of whatever kind a doctor is subject to. About 2 o'clock the tele- 
phone bell reminded him that he was still of the earth earthy, and with that 
feeling of which the reader needs no explanation, he dragged his weary 
frame out of bed and took hold of the telephone. "H-e-1-l-o-!" and his drowsy 
ear caught the voice of an excited female at the other end: 

"Hello! Hello! is that Dr. ? Oh, doctor, my baby is crying the 

whole time, and I can't do anything to stop him." 
Doctor. " Possibly a pin may be pricking it." 

E. F. "Oh dear, no! I am sure there isn't. I have looked her all over 
carefully." 

Doc. " Well, it may be hungry. When did j'ou last feed him? Won't she 
eat anything ? 

E. F. " I fed her last about 7 o'clock." 

Doc. "Well, try it, perhaps she needs food." And the exhausted M. D. 
fell back and prayed for more charity, pending the receipt of which he once 
more fell into that " downy sleep which is death's 
counterfeit." He dreamed that he had reached the 
pearly streets and was scurrj-ing here and there to 
escape a scattered throng of anxious mothers who 
were rushing on him from all directions and having 
their arms full of crying babies ; at last, when hope 
of escape had left his dreaming soul, and dark 
dispair had claimed him for its own, he heard 
what seemed to be the wild clanging of the gong 
on a police patrol wagon ; visions of a station house 
paved with whooping cough and measles, soon 
gave way to a dim awakening, and the doctor 
realized that it was the telephone bell. With feel- 
ings that would not look well in print, he managed 
to get hold of the instrument of torture, and in 
response to his haggard "hello," he again heard 
the voice of the excited mother, but this time the 
excitement was of a different kind, and this is what 
she said : 

" Oh! say doctor: that was what was the matter." 




AUGUST 



August is the hottest month, 

And has the hottest days. 
It also has the hottest weeks, 

And hotentotest ways. 

The August heat is hotter 
Than the hottest heat we kno\ 

If there's any other heat so hot 
We never want it so. 



Good Brother Moody tells us 
Of a somewhat hotter place, 

From which escape is only had 
By means of saving grace. 

If the great hereafter 

By weeks and months is rated, 
The man who dies in August 

Is in luck to be cremated. 



of 
Year. 

213 
214 

215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 
225 
226 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 
232 
233 
234 
235 
236 

237 
238 

239 
240 
241 
242 
243 



Day 

of 
Month. 


Day 

of 
Week. 


Lengthof 

Day. 
H. M. 


EIGHTH A August, 1894 A MONTH 


1 


w. 


14 


27 


God help the rich the poor can Deg. 


2 


Th. 


14 


24 


Of two evils choose the least. 


3 


Fr. 


14 


22 


Old friends are best. 


4 


Sa. 


14 


20 


Doing nothing is doing ill. 


5 


S. 


14 


18 


Subscribe for Good Roads. 


6 


M. 


14 


16 


Reckless youth makes rueful age. 


7 


Tu. 


14 


13 


One ounce of discretion is worth a pound of 


8 


W. 


14 


II 


Anger dieth quickly with a good man. [wit. 


9 


Th. 


14 


09 


Dilligence is the mistress of success. 


10 


Fr. 


14 


06 


Strike while the iron is hot. 


n 


Sa. 


14 


04 


One Dollar Per Year. 


12 


S. 


14 


02 


Modesty is the handmaid of virtue. 


13 


M. 


13 


59 


A full purse never lacks friends. 


14 


Tu. 


13 


57 


Good council is above all price. 


15 


W. 


13 


54 


A little leak will sink a great ship. 


16 


Th. 


13 


52 


Zoology ignores the human hog. 


17 


Fr. 


13 


49 


|n a calm sea every man is a pilot. 


18 


Sa. 


13 47 


Nsver quit certainty for hope. 


19 


S. 


13 


44^ 


Experience is the mother of science. 


20 


M. 


13 


42 


League Members 50 cts. 


21 


Tu. 


13 


39 


Better be alone than in bad company. 


22 


W. 


13 


36 


One never loses by doing a good turn. 


23 


Th. 


13 


•33 


Seldom seen, soon forgotten. 


24 


Fr. 


13 


30 


Think of ease, but work on. 


25 


Sa. 


13 


28 


One eye witness beats ten hearsays. 


26 


S. 


13 


25 


None know the weight of another's burden. 


27 


M. 


13 


23 


12 Pearl Street, Boston. 


28 


Tu. 


13 


20 


Many hands make light work. 


29 


W. 


13 


17 


A bad workman blames his tools. 


30 


Th. 


13 


15 


Start the good roads work and then 


31 


Fr. 


13 


12 


Stand by it till finished. 



LEAGUE OF AMERICAN WHEELMEN. 

Organized 1880 

A voluntary organization having for its object the systematic 
improvement of the public roads, and the protection of 
wheelmen against unjust legislation. The present officers 
of the lycague are as follows : 

President.— CRKS. H. LUSCOMB, 280 Broadway, New York. 

First Vice-President.— A.. C. WII^IvISON, 47 Baltimore Street, Cumberland, Md. 

Second Vice-President.— G'HO. A. PERKINS, 15 Court Square, Boston, Mass. 

Secretarj'.—A'B'BOT BASSETT, 12 Pearl Street, Boston, Mass. 

Treasurer.— W. M. BREWSTER, 4" Francis Street, St. Joseph, Mo. 



GOOD ROADS MAGAZINE. 

Published on the first of every month by the League of American Wheelmen. 
Devoted to Highway Improvement. 

Ste;ri,ing K1.1.10TT, Managing Editor. 

Publication Office, 12 PEARL STREET, - - - BOSTON, MASS. 

Correspondence relating to advertising only 
should be addressed to 167 Oliver Street. 

Entered at Boston Post Office as second-class matter. 



Please send Good Roads for year- 

To 



Street- 



Town- 



Amt. enclosed County- 



Beginning with State. 



Opeijii?? of a Cbejtput Burr. 




THE CONNECTING EINK. 

We criticised the artist for 
showing t7vo connecting links, 
only one being ordered, but he 
insists that the ' ' link ' ' is the 
small part in the centre. Can 
any of our readers settle the 
question ? 



IT S AN lEE WIND, &C. 

The practical workings of 
anarchy, stimulate the demand 
for arnica. 



A PAIR 

OF I 6th century jokes. 

A young peasant who 
thought himself very smart, 
saw an old woman driving 
some asses along a country 
road. 

"Good morrow! mother of 
asses," said he. 

"Good morrow, m^^ son," 
said she. 



"Ah!" said a conceited 
young parson, "I have this 
morning been preaching to a 
congregation of asses." 

" Then that must have been 
why you called them my be- 
loved brethren," said his de- 
voted wife. 



GEOGRAPHICAL NEARNESS 
NOT AEE THAT IS REQUIRED. 

To have your sweetheart far awav, 
It makes existence dark and drear; 

But it is worse — alackaday — 
To have her distant when she's near. 
— Unknown Exchange. 



RUM, RHEUMATISM AND RE- 
CRIMINATION. 

" Since you take me to task so roundly 
for my failings," said the physician, some- 
what nettled, "let me ask why you don't 
restrain your son. He gambles, drinks, 
and plays tjie races." 

"Ah, yes," said the clergyman with a 
sigh. "We don't seem to exert much in- 
fluence over our own families, do we? By 
the way. Doctor, pleaes convey my warm- 
est sympathies to your wife and say to 
her I am sorry she is still unable to find 
any relief from her rheumatism." 

— Unknown Exchange. 



THAT'S ONE REASON WHY WE 
ARE POOR. 

Mj- son, if you are flush, associate with 
the well-to-do, for they are not likely to 
borrow; but if you are broke, keep on 
good t«rms with the poor, for the3' are 
more willing to lend. — Puck 



PERHAPS HE WENT UP THE 
OTHER WAEK. 
A little four-year-old created a ripple by 
remarking to the teacher of her Svmday- 
school class: "Our dog's dead, and I'll 
bet the angels were scared when they 
saw him coming up the walk. He is so 
cross to strangers." — Zion's Herald. 



HOW CAN THEY QUARREE OVER 
WHAT THEY HAVEn'T GOT. 
Sunday-school Teacher — "What are the 

heathens ? " 
Bright Boy — "Heathens are people who 

don't quarrel over religion." 

— Good News. 





In view of the interest being- taken in flying: machines (Good Roads, Si.oo per 
year), makes the above suggestion. The bicycle is all right on a good road, and the 
air over a bad road is smooth enough for flying purposes. Why not combine the two 
modes of travel? Good Roads would like a partner with large capital (which he 
could spare) for the development of this brilliant idea. 




GOV. LEVI K, FULLER. 

Of Vermont. 



Good Ro^ds. 



Vol. 6. September, 1894. No. 3. 



GOOD ROADS AND THE TARIFF. 

DURING a recent visit to Washington the writer occupied 
a sleeping-room next to one of the hotel parlors, which 
parlor was being used for some sort of an informal meet- 
ing, and contained a number of gentlemen who were 
having a pleasant time, drinking ice water and talking 
over the political situation. 

They seemed the best of friends and were in a very frank 
and talkati^ mood. There was a rather loosely fitting door 
between the parlor and sleeping-room and to avoid hearing 
much of the conversation it would have been necessary for me 
to cover up my ears ; in view of the warm weather, however, it 
was not difficult to decide between courtesy and comfort. 

Although I heard no names I soon gathered from the talk 
that at least three of the occupants of the parlor were members 
of Congress and the others, perhaps five or six, were friends 
' ' from home ' ' who were in Washington for a visit, and inci- 
dentally for the purpose of seeing what could be done toward 
fixing up various items in the tariff bill, which was pending and 
had been for several months. 

One of the visitors who was evidently interested either in the 
mining or selling of coal, said, "of course to put coal on the 
free list would, for the time, be a rather bad thing for us and 
no doubt lessen our profits, but we must admit that for those who 
use coal, which means everybody, it would be a good thing to 
have the price of so necessary an article made as low as possi- 
ble. If the coal miner of Nova Scotia can supply coal to New 
England cheaper than we of Pennsylvania can do it, I see no 
reason why our countrymen in that part of the States should 
not have the benefit. 

"Then do I understand you," said a man whom I took to 
be a member of Congress from the district of the first speaker, 
' ' that you would like to have me vote for free coal? ' ' 

" Certainly ! so far as I am concerned, I, as a consistent and 
Christian Churchman cannot advocate a thing simply because it 
would be to my personal advantage, so long as it is obvious to 
me that it would be to the direct disadvantage of many others." 

A third speaker who was a manufacturer of something the 
name of which I did not hear, said : 



I20 GOOD ROADS AND THE TARIFF. 

" My product is protected by a duty of nearly fifty per cent. 
To be sure, I have made some money that I could not have 
made in open competition with foreign goods, but I don't mind 
admitting to 3^ou that there is another side to it. The money 
we make, over and above what the goods might be sold for, 
comes out of somebody who is being taxed as much as the price 
is higher, for the purpose of making me wealthy. I enjoyed it 
for a time, but as I get older and have to realize the end of 
things, I am beginning to wonder whether after all, the satisfac- 
tion which comes with the possession of wealth is not considera- 
bly modified by the thought that we have not rendered a full 
equivalent." 

' ' But how about the wages paid to your workmen, have they 
not been kept at a higher figure on account of a protective 
tariff," said another of the party. "Well," said the manufac- 
turer, "I have been in business now for over forty years, have 
employed a very large number of men, and of course have seen 
many 'strikes, lockouts, boycotts, &c.,' and throu^ it all we 
have done just what all other manufacturers have done. We 
have paid for labor just as we have paid for material, viz: what- 
ever we had to pay to get it and no more. If the demand for 
workmen was brisk and our men could go elsewhere and get 
more than we were paying them, we simply had to meet the 
advanced price or let them go, and when the demand for labor 
was light and we could hire more men than we could use, we 
never thought of raising our scale of wages, but on the con- 
trary a continuation of those conditions always means a cut 
down." 

' ' But when on account of a protective tariff your goods were 
in demand at an advanced price did you not at once increase 
the pay of your emploj^ees ? ' ' asked a mild voiced gentleman 
.who had not before joined in the talk. 

' ' No manufacturer voluntarily pays more than the market 
price for anything, if he did, his rating would not, for long, war- 
rant any extended credit. We have made a great deal of talk 
about "American wages for American workingmen," but I 
don't mind telling you, though it seems strange that it should 
be necessary to tell anybody, that a manufacturer cares nothing 
for his help beyond what he may be able to make out of them. 
Of course he may seem to be generous and furnish them with 
pleasant quarters, give them special excursions, &c., but do 
you think for a minute that it is because he loves them person- 
ally ? Why should he have a warm personal feeling for a work- 
man of quite ordinary intelligence and who is a total stranger to 
him, whose name or face he does not even know, when he will 
despise with an undying hatred his business rival who may be 
his equal in every respect ? Business! my boy! business." 

" But you give as a reason when asking for a high tariff 



GOOD ROADS AND 7 HE TARIFF. 121 

that you want to see the American workman get good pay." 

" Why certainly! How else could we hope to get his vote ? 
You don't hear us talking that sort of stuff just a/?£'r election do 
you ? ' ' 

' ' How about the argument that cheap foreign goods would 
be of no use to the American workman if he can earn no money 
with which to buy them? " came from the M. C. 

"Well, as you have stated it, it is unanswerable, but who 
says the American workman would have no money, even under 
free trade ? ' ' 

' ' Who says it ? Why every protectionist says it. ' ' 

"I have no doubt, and many seem to believe it. Why I 
used to say it myself. I talked it for years after I knew better, 
but it was, and is, profitable to me to have people think so, 
though, as I said before, I am beginning to feel ashamed of it. 

A country which consumes, as our does, nearly all that it 
produces, and which has resources superior to any country in 
the world, and an acreage equal to all the rest of civilized 
Christendom, does not longer need a protective tariff. 

Free trade, or a low tariff for revenue, if accomplished at 
once, would of course bring temporary distress on some of our 
people (a comparatively few), but doesn't the Bible say that " it 
is better that one of our members should perish than that our 
whole body should be cast into hell fire? ' ' At this point a rap 
was heard on the outer door and another Member of Congress 
was admitted. 

After the usual salutations the new comer said: 

" Gentlemen I have just come from a caucus at which both 
of the great political parties were well represented. The result 
of the meeting was that we decided unanimously to go into the 
Capitol building to-morrow with the earnest determination to do 
something at once. 

To waive all selfishness and personal feeling. 

To ignore the lobby. 

To vote with our conscience instead of against it. 

To concede to each other enough points to insure a perfectly 
just, fair and Christianlike tariff, based on the most good to the 
greatest number. 

We have decided to bury all sectional hatred. 

To forget all party prejudice and simply take a broad view 
of things and do right. 

We further agreed unanimously that the most burdensome 
tariff at present paid by the American people, is paid solely on 
account of bad roads, and that we will at once, both individually 
and as a body do all that may properly be done to hasten the 
day of Good Roads. 

We have concluded that in the past we, as Congressmen, have 
spent too much of our constituents' time and mone^^ in wrangl- 



122 GOOD ROADS AND THE TARIFF. 

ing about selfish and local matters and that in the future^we 
will ' ' 

Bang. Bang. Bang. 

" Seven o'clock, sah ! " 

And the Good Roads man woke up. 



THE OLD COUNTRY ROAD. , 

Where did it come from and where did it go ? 
That was the question that puzzled me so, 
As we waded the dust of the highway that flowed 
By the farm like a river — the old country road. 

We stood with our hair sticking- up through the crown 
Of our hat, as the people weut up and went down, 
And -we wished in our hearts as eyes fairly glowed 
We could find where it came from — the old country road. 

We remember the pedler who came with his pack, 
Adown the old highway and never went back ; 
And we wondered what things he had seen as he strode 
From some fabulous place up the old country road. 

We remember the stage driver's look of delight, 

And the crack of his whip as he whirled into sight. 

And we thought we could read in each glance he bestowed, 

A tale of strange life up the old country road. 

The movers came by like a ship in full sail. 
With a rudder behind in the shape of a pail. 
With a rolicking crew and a cow that was towed 
With a rope on her horns, down the old country road. 

And the gypsies — how well we remember the week 
They camped bj- the old covered bridge on the creek; 
How the neighbors quit work and the crops were unhoed, 
Till the wagons drove off down the old country road. 

Oh, the top of the hill was the rim of the world, 
And the dust of the summer that over it curled 
Was the curtain that hid from our sight the abode 
Of the fairies that lived up the old country road. 

The old countrj' road ! I can see it still flow 
Down the hill of my dreams, as it did long ago, 
And I wish even now that I could lay off my load 
And rest by the side of the old country road. 

— Ladies Home Journal. 



WHAT OUR COPYRIGHT MEANS. 

A\ COUNTRY editor writes to say that he would like to 

fj reprint an article which he finds in Good Roads but as 

f\ it is copyrighted he " didn't dare to do it." We appre- 

J ciate and applaud the spirit of fairness which prompted 

this conscientious editor to stay his hand, ere he plucked 

the fairy flower referred to. Such careful regard for the rights 

(copyrights) of another is not less to be commended because 

there is so little of it to commend that we are liable to get out of 

practice. 

Good Roads ($i.oo per year) is copyrighted, not to prevent 
the use of its matter, but only to obtain credit for such use. 

We are not only willing, but particularly anxious that our 
exchanges should make use of as much Good Roads matter as 
they will, only asking that proper credit be given. 

A western farm paper recently went so far as this : 

' ' The following article is taken from Good Roads Maga- 
zine, published by the lycague of American Wheelmen, at 
Number 12 Pearl Street, Boston, Mass., $1.00 per year, Sterling 
Elliott, Managing Editor." 

The other extreme is like this : 

" There are many towns in which the majority of the voters 
are not in favor of building good roads, yet in most places there 
is at least some one responsible man whose heart and head are 
both right, and these men (sometimes there are several) are 
doing what they can to overcome the obstacles which stand in 
the way of voting the necessary money, says Good Roads for 
May." We are even satisfied with this style of credit, when it 
pleases the editor to do it that way. 

The Ivcague of American Wheelmen is running Good 
Roads for the purpose of helping along the Road Movement, 
and for no other reason. The more road matter is published, 
from whatever source, the better it is for the cause, and the 
more successful will be that thing for which we are working. 

It is said that corporations have no souls, this however, does 
not apply to the Ivcague of American Wheelmen. It has a soul, 
not one of those intangible and hard-to-get-hold- of souls that 
we hear so much about, but a real useful, live soul, which is 
firmly attached to a very robust and progressive body. 
"we want better roads." 

We are doing all we can to get them. 

We are getting them. 

The procession moves. 

We are in it. 

Are you ? 

And if not, why ? 

$1.00 per year will keep your name enrolled among those 
who are ' ' with us. ' ' 



CHEAP VS. GOOD ROADS. 

BY GOV. IROWN OF MARYLAND. 




E 



'HE improvement of roaas 

and the laws to properly 

construct and maintain 

the same in the most 

economical manner, are 

being discussed through the 

press, road conventions, and 

road leagues in all parts of the 

United States. 

This agitation of the subject 
must lead to important changes 
in our road systems, and event- 
ually to the general improve- 
ment of the roads of our State 
and country. 

Under the system in vogue in 
Maryland large sums are annu- 
ally expended without adequate 
benefits. In most instances, 
partly from the want of scientific 
knowledge on the part of many of the supervisors, and in nearly 
all cases for want of sufficient funds to enable the supervisor to 
properly grade, pave and improve the roads. 

The first difficulty can be easily overcome by enacting 
general or local laws, thereby placing the control of the roads 
in the hands of competent roar" engineers. But the great 
obstacle in the way, is to provide for the heavy cost attending 
the improvements desired. 

Therefore it has been suggested that the State co-operate by 
creating a road loan to mature in fifteen years, so as distribute 
the burdens of taxation. 

Then there comes the question as to whether the tax payers 
of the flat and sandy sections of the State (where road improve- 
ment is not so material) would be willing to co-operate in the 
issuing of the State loan to be redeemed by general taxation. 

All of these questions and many others naturally come into 
the discussion. 

A further suggestion has been made that the statutes of the 
State be so amended as to place all the roads under the super- 
vision of a competent State engineer. 

And further, that the local laws of the counties of the 
State be so amended as to assess benefits and award damages 



CHEAP VS. GOOD ROADS. 125 

to the property holders through whose property the roads of the 
State pass. 

Experience and observation have taught the citizens of the 
State that lack of foresight has been too frequently displaj^ed in 
the opening of the country roads, especially through the rolling 
and mountainous sections of the State. It has been too fre- 
quently the custom to follow the boundary lines of farms, and 
thereby always increasing the length of the road, and in 
instances adding immensely to the grade. This is accounted 
for by the fact that the Commissioners who are authorized to 
open the roads do not wish to do damage to the land owners along 
the line of the proposed opening, and hence the custom has 
been to follow most any route that the owners of the property 
would donate, rather than to make a direct road from point to 
point regardless of the ownership and any slight damage that 
might attend the same. 

Road making is an art which can properly be applied only 
by those who have been especially trained in the theory and 
practice. 

It is evident that the people of the State are much interested 
in this question ; and recognize that the general improvement 
of the road system would result in increasing the taxable basis 
of the State, by the general enhancement of the property values 
in the rural districts, and further, by the general advantages 
gained in many directions by good roads. 



SHIS IS AN ADVERTISEMENT and we 
put it here because we consider this a 
good position. We wouldn't sell this 
space to an outside advertiser, and we 
wouldn't use it ourselves except for a 
most worthy object. 

But those volumes of Good Roads which we 
are just having bound are very neat. The 
whole set to July ist, (twenty-nine numbers) 
are handsomely bound in cloth, five volumes, for 
one dollar per volume. Just the thing for a 
public or private library. In fact, a library 
without them, would be sadly incomplete so far 
as road literature is concerned. 



THE HISTORY AND CONSTRUCTION OF OUR HIGH- 
WAYS, AND WHO SHOULD BUIIvD THEM. 

BY HON. N. G. SPALDING. 

Commissioner Appointed by Gov. Flower to prepare the New York State Highway Manual. 



IT has been well said that the 
condition of the highways 
of any country forms the 
true index of its civilization. 
Savages have no high- 
wa3^s, they follow trails through 
forest and fen. Marked trees 
and mule paths point out the 
way to the semi-barbarian. The 
wild Arab follows the footprints 
of camels left in the sands of the 
great desert. But advancing 
civilization always brings im- 
provement to highways. 

The ancient Carthagenians 
made clearings for the transpor- 
tation of troops and military 
supplies — but well-defined roads 
did not exist until the golden 




N. G. Spalding. 



age of the Roman Empire. 

In no one thing does Roman civilization appear to a greater 
advantage than in the durable and massive structure of her 
highways. Among these roads the most important was the 
"Appian-Way." This famous road extended from Rome to 
Brandusium, a distance of three hundred and fifty miles, and 
marks the transition between barbarous and civilized Rome. It 
was constructed by digging two parallel trenches two or three 
feet in depth, at the bottom of which were placed two layers of 
flat stones in mortar. Then came a course of pebbles or con- 
crete. Over this were placed large, flat blocks of smooth lava 
well joined together, and though two thousand years have 
passed since its construction, yet ruins of its splendid viaducts 
are still extant. Traces of these old Roman highways are still 
found in England and other parts of Europe. But the fall of 
the Empire brought an end to road improvement. 

During the Medieval age the highways of Europe were 
wretched indeed, and became practically useless. Macaulay 
says, "that in the fifteenth century, the royal coaches, even in 
sight of London, have often stuck fast in the mud." 



WHO SHOULD BUILD THEM. 127 

But with the revival of art and literature, some attention 
began to be paid again to highway construction and improve- 
ment. In the sixteenth century, a law was passed in England 
for the appointment of two Commissioners of Highways in each 
parish, with authority to compel the people to work on the high- 
waj^s. This was the origin of our present system of " working 
the roads," and I have thought if it " worked " no better than 
it does at the present time, it was a signal failure. 

The first modern scientific plan of road construction, how- 
ever, was devised by Thomas Telford, a Scotch engineer, who 
lived about the middle of the eighteenth century. This plan 
was really a copy of the old Appian-Way. It consisted in dig- 
ging a trench from thirteen to eighteen feet in width, and from 
twelve to eighteen inches deep. At the bottom was placed in 
cement or pitch a layer of flat stone. Above this were two lay- 
ers of pebbles. On each side of the trench were placed flat 
stones set on edge and rising to the surface of the road, which 
acted as curbstones to keep the whole mass in position. The 
smaller pebbles were placed on top and then thoroughly rolled. 
Telford supervised the construction of a road after this plan 
extending from lyondon into the North of England, a distance of 
nearly one thousand miles. This is known as the Telford Road, 
and is even now pointed to with pride by all Englishmen. 

The Macadam road superseded the Telford. John Loudon 
Macadam, the inventor, was also a Scotchman and died as late 
as 1836. He repudiated the Telford theory that the road 
needed a stone foundation, which has led to a valuable revolu- 
tion in road construction. He maintained that the soil itself — 
mother earth — when properly drained, formed a sufiicient sup- 
port for the heaviest loads. He drained the roadbed thoroughly, 
rounded it well, and then covered it with a surface of not less 
than seven inches in thickness of small crushed stone not to 
exceed the size of a walnut. 

Macadam was the first to discover that stone broken into 
small segments would concentrate into a solid mass under 
pressure, and form a durable surface. This was a great 
improvement in road construction, as it did away with the 
expensive stone foundations of the Telford road and the old 
Appian-Way. 

The popularity of this road soon became wide-spread ; over 
twenty thousand miles of it being built in England alone the 
next ten years. 

It is now generally conceded that the stone road on the 
Macadam plan — that is a well drained bed, covered with 
small, uniformly broken stone to the depth of from six to eight 
inches, well pressed with heavy rollers — is the best and cheapest 
road that can be built on our great thoroughfares. 

The French boulevards are mainly constructed on this plan. 



128 WHO SHOULD BUILD THEM. 

The famous roads of Staten Island and of Union County, New- 
Jersey, are built on the Macadam plan. Many thousands of 
miles of this kind of road are already constructed in the United 
States. 

It is therefore evident that the time is rapidly approaching 
when this system of road making will become universal for all 
the great thoroughfares of the nation. 

But while discussing the importance of the two best systems 
of highways, it must be borne in mind that the cost of these 
roads is such as to preclude their general introduction into the 
great agricultural districts of the country. They may and 
should be utilized for the great thoroughfares leading to our 
cities, it is true — but they cannot be introduced into the more 
sparsely populated districts. A cheaper plan must therefore be 
substituted — what shall this be? My answer is the gravel road. 
The cost of a well constructed Telford road is from ten to twelve 
thousand dollars per mile, while the Macadam road cannot be 
constructed for less than seven thousand dollars per mile. But 
a well constructed gravel road can be built for from five hundred 
to one thousand dollars per mile. We cannot too earnestly 
press the importance of thorough drainage. Were I asked 
what is the first requisite for a good road, my answer would be 
drainage. Were I asked for the second or third requisites, my 
answer would be in every case, drainage. 

lyCt our country roads be thoroughly drained on the Macadam 
plan with a well defined ditch on each side, then covered with 
gravel from six to eight inches in thickness, well rolled, and we 
have a road on which a king might be proud to travel. It is 
not a few beautiful speedwa3^s laid out through the several 
States at a fabulous cost, but it is the ten thousand cross-roads 
where the people live, that need improvement. This is the 
problem to solve ! How shall these roads be built ? By the 
nation? We answer no. Colonel Pope deserves much praise 
for the zeal he has manifested in road improvement, and for the 
monster petition he rolled into Washington, asking for a govern- 
ment department ' ' for the purpose of promoting knowledge in 
the art of constructing and maintaining roads." 

We need no national highways. |Henry Clay once said, 
' ' the States should be connected ' with a cordon of national 
highways.' " But this was uttered fifty years ago. We had 
no railroads then. But now the iron rail forms the cordon that 
binds the States together, crossing and recrossing at every 
angle. They now form our Appian-Ways. They are the 
Telford roads of commerce, and therefore supersede the neces- 
sity of national highways. The traction on the rail has reached 
its minimum. A mill per mile per ton is the actual cost, while 
the traction on the best Macadam or Telford road is such as to 
make the cost from five to ten cents per mile; competition is 
therefore out out of the question. 



JV//0 SHOULD BUILD THEM. 129 

We have one million and five hundred thousand miles of 
roads in these United States. To Macadamize or Telfordize 
these roads at national expense is preposterous. It would beg- 
gar the nation ! Not even Coxey's whole army could accom- 
plish this herculean work in a thousand years. 

Shall we build these roads solely by the aid of the State ? 
We are confronted with the same objections. In the State of 
New York there are one hundred and twenty thousand miles of 
public highway. It may well be asked if the State is to 
Macadamize these roads, from what source is this vast expendi- 
ture to be derived? Where are we to begin ? When shall we 
end ? And what generation will see it completed ? 

Our road improvement to be made a success must be local- 
ized. It must be brought into sympathy with the people. The 
county is therefore the largest unit of territory that can be suc- 
cessfully worked. 

With a competent engineer in each county, under the direc- 
tion of the Board of Supervisors of the towns, who shall have 
the supervision of the county and town roads, with our road 
tax paid in cash, and ever}^ pathmaster and commissioner of 
highways amenable to the engineer, our highways would be 
improved under a system of self government where the people 
will have a voice in the improvement of the roads and the 
expenditure of the funds, and efficiency and intelligent manage- 
ment must be the result. 

We have nearly fifty thousand pathmasters in this State. 
Under the supervision of the proposed County Engineer let 
only thirty rods of first-class gravel or Macadam road be built 
each year, and an aggregate of five thousand miles a year of 
first-class road would be constructed without an extra dollar's 
cost to the State. Here rests the solution of our problem. 

It is urged by the advocates of national and State aid, that 
Europe surpasses America in the grandeur and magnificence of 
her highways. But with this system of local self government 
and intelligent management of our highways, in a few years 
America would surpass Europe, not in a few costly speedways, 
built by her tyrant kings in past generations with the cheap toil 
of her pauperized peasants, but in the beauty and symmetry of 
her ten thousand cross-roads running from the farms of her 
free people to the markets, built for the people, by the people, 
and with the people's money, and no additional expenditure of 
the public funds. 



THE ROAD OF THE FUTURE. 

BY W. Iv. S. BAYLKY, C. E., CHICAGO. 




D 



h- S. Bayley. 



ISCI.AIMING any inten- 
tion to animadvert upon 
the practice of imitation 
as illustrated by the cus- 
tom, almost universal, of 
building as others have built, 
notably in adopting the methods 
of Macadam and Telford ; I yet 
do not see my way clear to avoid 
exposures of the really fatal er- 
rors of the one, or the half-way 
re-adjustments of the other. 

Telford saw that when Mac- 
adam crushed stratified stone he 
exposed the material to almost 
certain death by the inevitable 
shocks of traffic ; thus accentu- 
ating chemical action; the effect 
of which, on limestone in par- 
it, dry it, powder it and blow it 
inch of surface in each twelve 
months ; so that he (Telford) used broken stone for his founda- 
tions of yet too small a cubical area: or, to illustrate — Mac- 
adam considered crumbs as proper road food, while Telford 
thought that half-loaves were better for sustaining road life, 
while we of to-day know that nothing short of the whole loaf, 
will furnish a true support for roadway traffic. 

In the line of limestone we are understood to mean that nothing 
smaller than wall rubble will be self-sustaining, and if not 
self-sustaining how can it be sustained ? 

The art imitative appears to have been co-existent with 
the present life of the world; the beautiful, the poetic and 
truthful effusions of those whose duty it was to write of the 
present period of the earth's history, have so often received 
scientific endorsements that it is safe to say that about 6,000 
years have passed since this old wanderer in space was re-hab- 
ilitated and made fit for the existence of man, who, finding suit- 
able conditions for his reasonable comfort, came. It is not 
strange that when the gates of Paradise clanged behind the 
guilty but not unpardonable couple, it became the mournful 
duty of Adam to build a road for the unshod but dainty feet of 
the deposed queen mother. 



ticular, was to crush it, grind 
away at the rate of one-half 



ROAD OF THE FUTURE. 131 

Taking our stand at or near that gate and at that time, we 
note that man's character and habits were of a high or low 
degree, in accord with his environments. This is to say com- 
plete isolation made, and will make a brute of him; while a 
higher and better life is insured by social contact. The view 
that we get is through a vast cornucopia whose apex was near 
the Garden of Eden, and whose length is, to date, 6,000 years. 

It is the law of our being, that whatever is required, is pro- 
duced ; hence primitive man had little need of good roads. 
They are the essential elements of an advanced civilization ; so 
that whether in Babylon or Peru roads were builded, not so 
much for commercial as for social effects. 

In imitating, it is essential that we thereby improve upon 
the pattern, else advancements are lost. 

We are, in our professional life as road makers, imitating 
the two English engineers, but not with, I fear, the wisdom 
which would have been theirs, if in the order of life's providences 
they had been allowed to live on and on to our time. If such a; 
miracle could have been. Macadam would not have killed lime- 
stone by crushing; neither would Telford have insisted upon 
geometrical shapes. In condemning the practice of crushing 
soft, stratified rock, we as distinctly intend to recommend for 
foundation purposes, a combination of concrete made of Portland 
cement and quartzite, under a pressure closely analogous to the 
power of gravity which builds worlds. We say quartzite and 
purposely discard granites because of a disintegrating parasite 
known as mica which never did and never will, affiliate to pro- 
duce a perfect concrete. 

Of ways, means and methods by which we are to be saved 
from ourselves, there is no accentuating cause so great as the 
turning of the wheels. God bless the wheelman and his physi- 
cal requirements. He must have a road as nice and clean as 
the proverbial kitchen floor. 

The signs of the good road zodiac appear to, in fact do, 
determine that he shall have the road he wants. 



If thou bear thy cross willingly it will 
bear thee. If thou bearest it unwillingly 
thou increasest thy load, and yet thou 
must bear it. — Kempis. 



A PIvAN TO INCREASE THE CIRCULATION OF CUR- 
RENCY, AND MAKE BETTER THE ROADS 
OF THE COUNTRY. 



BY SIMON SCHRIVER. 






T 



HE people of the country 
are desirous that there 
shall be an increase of 
money in circulation — 
and in the absence of any 
thing better, have largely advo- 
cated an unlimited coinage of 
silver, that certificates may be 
put in circulation against it. 
There is no doubt but they are 
right on the question of more 
T' ^^^ •«■'..- monej^ for the population is in- 

^^gflMi|l|||^HHnn|||. creasing while the paper money 

||^^|HPIIIIIIIH|^^^B|^^^ is growing less, except as cer- 
^^^m^ J^^^^^^U^^M, tificates have been issued in 
||^|^___j|(HH||mm^ payment for silver. 

Unlimited coinage of silver is 
Simon SCHRIVER. ^ dangerous expedient, and 

would be disastrous if long con- 
tinued. If something better can be devised, it will be hailed 
with satisfaction by the people of the country. Reflecting on 
this fact, it has occurred to me that relief can come, and in a 
way with which the great majority of the people will acquiesce. 
As the question of good roads is becoming so prominent 
before the people of the countrj^, this cause could be pro- 
moted by the suggestions that I shall offer. I would recom- 
mend a National Convention (and the Congress could resolve 
itself into such convention) , representing by one or more dele- 
gates every Congressional District of the entire country, to dis- 
cuss and decide upon the necessary amount of money to be put 
in circulation to conveniently do the business of the country — 
naming the fullest amount without being redundant. 

It has been said bj^ prominent men who have given thought 
to this question that the people require $50 per capita. 

This seems to be large, and that $30 might be sufficient. 
Assume that the latter sum be agreed upon, that would equal 
about two thousand millions of dollars for the entire countr3^ 
I believe the majority of the people would favor this amount. 
If the people by their representatives so decide, the General 



BETTER ROADS, MORE MONEY. 133 

Government can with propriety issue the money. And having 
done so, I would have the Government by loan apportion it 
among the different States in proportion to population, and take 
from each State a bond at four per cent, interest for the amount 
of its loan. I would have the State in the same way divide the 
money with the counties according to population, and take the 
bond of the county at four per cent interest. Would next have 
the county divide with the towns giving each $30 per head, and 
take the bond of the town at same rate of four per cent. The 
proper officer of the town, say Loan Commissioner, should loan 
this money to the freeholders of his town that could give suf- 
ficient and approved security at the above rate of interest. The 
whole to be done to agree with a prescribed form furnished by the 
State for the loan and securit^^ of this fund. I would have the Com- 
missioner on receiving interest on this loan, deposit the same in 
bank, take a certificate of deposit and forward to the County 
Treasurer; who, on receiving certificates from the several towns 
in the county, would deposit the same in bank, take a certifi- 
cate for the amount, and send to the State Comptroller ; who, on 
receiving certificates from all the counties in the State, would 
also make a deposit, and for their sum would send a certificate 
to the General Government, which, on receiving it would give 
credit to the State for the same, and would then return it to the 
State with a coiipon that would be evidence that the interest had 
been paid — such coupon to be filed as the voucher. 

The Comptroller would surrender the certificate to bank, and 
take up the certificates of all the counties of the State, and to 
each Treasurer respectively would send back the one received 
from him together with the coupon as above. The County 
Treasurer would return to the bank the certificate it gave him, 
and take up those against the towns of his County* and return to 
the lyoan Commissioner of each town respectively, its certificate 
and coupon. 

The Commissioner would next present the certificate to his 
bank, and at the same time draw his check for the amount pay- 
able to the order of the Commissioner of Highways, who would 
use the. money for making good roads in the town in which this 
interest had been paid. The clerical labor for the Government, 
State Comptroller, and County Treasurer would be very light, 
as they would handle it as a whole. 

The greatest labor would fall upon the Commissioner in 
making the final loan, and there would be required the greatest 
care for its security. 

That the Government might be assured that the object of 
the loan had been carried out, is the reason for the prescribed 
form of deposit from town, county and State — and such require- 
ment will mak,e it obligatory upon each town to raise promptly 
its interest, or take from its tax levy, if but temporarily. As the 



134 BETTER ROADS. MORE MONEY. 

interest is to be used in making good roads, I would make it as 
high as the loan would bear — hence not less than 4 per cent. 

As it would result in a benefit to the public the loan would 
be given the preference, and would be applied for by all that 
are debtors, and better roads would be the result. As a conse- 
quence of this Government issue the banks would have no cir- 
culation, but would do business on their capital and deposits. 
This large sum would of course become deposits of the banks. 
There are many things might be said as to the manner of pro- 
cedure, but the main thing is to make the loan, and at as high 
rate as can be, and to use the interest for the making of good 
roads. That there might be no conflict as to where this money 
should be expended, I would have the State prescribe the 
direction of its use. I think it should be first used from the 
populous village in each town in the direction of the shire town 
of the county; and from each shire town on the most direct road 
toward the capital of the State. As two thousand millions of 
dollars is $30 per head for the population of the country, the 
amount of interest would be eight}^ millions a year, and would 
build 20,000 miles of road at $4,000 per mile, and without tax ; 
and would be paid by the borrowers of this money at two-thirds 
the usual rate, saving to the debtors forty millions of dollars, 
besides having $80,000,000 expended in making better the roads, 
and all in one year ivithout tax, and to be repeated year after 
year. To this may be added work for 400,000 men at $1.50 per 
day for six months at twenty-two days each. 

This plan can certainly do no injustice to anyone, and is to 
be commended for that reason, and from the fact that the bene- 
ficial effects upon the business of the country would be simply 
immense ; and would greatly relieve and lessen present debtors, 
and immensely stimulate the industrial activities of the country. 
As the country's wealth is measured by the days work its prop- 
erty represents, the resultant increase of real property would 
soon make it without an equal in wealth among the nations of 
the earth. 

Having made better the roads to the extent mentioned above, 
if it were considered not rapid enough, it might be increased, 
say as much again, b}' dividing the cost with the town, county, 
and State, each paying one-third, and at same cost per mile 
would build in each year 40,000 miles with an inappreciable 
local tax, besides giving employment to 800,000 men for six 
months in each year, making an expenditure of $160,000,000, 
half of which in labor and expense would be done as never has 
been done before, ivithout tax, and with no injustice to anyone. 
As to the constitutionality of a loan for such purposes there can 
be no doubt, as the founders of the Government, and the spirit 
of the Constitution, have contemplated a national expenditure 
to make suitable the roads for postal and military purposes. To 



BETTER ROADS, MORE MONEY. 135 

make this a national question, and to reduce road making to 
contract work under the most approved method, would correct 
the loose and slovenl}^ way in which the highways of the country 
have been worked. The interest on New York's proportion (fifty 
millions) of this loan might be used for the construction of 
rapid transit, and continue to be used until the work was com- 
pleted ; together with necessary issue of construction bonds by 
the city, with a provision for their redemption after the work 
was finished of the two millions a year, besides the net earnings of 
the road until the bonds were extinguished, which would give 
the road to the city zvithout debt and without tax; besides giving 
an immense amount of work to the laborers of the city and 
others who would furnish the materials for its construction. 

There can be no doubt but that the Government can with 
propriety make such loan to a State, and take the State's bond, 
for there would be no partisanship in it, and could cause no 
centralization of power ; but would simply be a condition by 
which the State would hold the same relation after as before to 
the General Government. The practical work could not be carried 
on by the General Government successfully, for there would be 
too much detail, and for other reasons; besides, this should be the 
work of localities. This scheme is a plan without tax, except in 
a small way to the town which accepts the loan. Such town 
will be required to loan and collect, and to keep this fund intact, 
and the assesed real and personal estate of the town shall be 
liable to the county; the county to the State ; and the State to 
the General Government. This fund may be perpetual, or a 
time fixed for its payment, or left to be determined by future 
legislation, I would have this issue redeemable in gold on 
demand, and acceptable for all dues public and private, includ- 
ing duties on imports ; which would tend to make the gold of 
the country gravitate toward the National Treasury. 

I would make any collusion between two or more persons, 
which would indicate a purpose to embarrass the Government, a 
misdemeanor, with a proper penalty for the offence. As the 
Government is the people ; and as this loan would be at the 
request of the people, by their representatives delegated for the 
purpose — for the benefit of the people, there would be no self- 
embarrassment by individuals presenting this money for redemp- 
tion in gold; but gold would chieflj^ be required to pay foreign 
indebtedness when the balance of trade was against us. The 
issue of such loan would so revive industries and business as to 
make our securities advance, and foreign creditors would 
regard them the most desirable investment of any in the world, 
and cause gold to flow in this direction. 

Time passes rapidly — can we comprehend the result of this 
plan for ten years ? It would build a road equivelant in miles 
of eight times around the world, and without tax or debt. 



136 BETTER ROADS. MORE MONEY. 

This plan is further to be commended for the reason that in it 
there is no class legislation — there are no exactions from the 
rich for the benefit of the poor, but it is simply a national act 
for the public good. 

Any individual benefit will be simph' incidental, and yet 
individual benefits will be very great among both debtors and 
laborers, and no wrong will be done to creditors. To view 
the question in a philanthropic as well as business sense, it 
becomes our duty to legislate to alleviate the hardships of the 
debtors, especially when by so doing we are not unjust to the 
creditors. As it is an axiom that to give increased employment 
to the working people at full pay will bring relief to such as 
may be in debt ; so will financial aid to the business world 
redound to the commonweal of the whole people. 

It might be well to further consider the loaning of this money 
by accepting bonds of a public indebtedness that have been 
issued for sanitary purposes ; or for public water works ; or for 
the building of schoolhouses ; or for other public benefits that 
have been or may be created in the town that has accepted this 
loan, and whose bonds are not less than^our per cent interest. 

As the amount of money at present in circulation must 
be considered in this plan, I would suggest, that after the 
amount required has been determined upon, that there be as 
much less issued as shall be equal to the amount at present in 
circulation. Or, if the aforementioned amount be agreed upon 
and issued and found to be excessive, that the excess in present 
circulation be retired as rapidly as practicable. The public 
understanding these facts, their business affairs would shape 
themselves accordingly. While I w^ould recommend that the 
interest on this loan should be entirely used in making good 
roads ; still it might, be expedient not to make it mandatory, 
but that each State, or locality, should decide for itself the kind 
of public improvement it would make. There could be no 
anxiet}^ for this fund beyond locality of final loan, for when the 
Loan Commissioner gives public notice that he has sent to the 
County Treasurer his certificate, and presently announces the 
return of the certificate, the people of the county are satisfied 
that the purpose of the Government has been carried out. 



ATTRACTIVENESS OF GOOD ROADS. 



BY GOV. SMITH OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 




T 



It 



Gov. John B. Smith. 



^HE question of Good Roads 
is a very important one 
before the American peo- 
ple to-day,, and this in it- 
self is an encouragement, 
is certainly an important 
question, and we feel it is es- 
pecially so in New Hampshire. 
I have taken a considerable 
interest in the subject and have 
recommended it to our I^egisla- 
ture, and commend it to our 
people on all suitable occasions. 
Nothing would be of more 
advantage to our own State, and 
to our communities than the 
improvement of our highways. 
One-fourth of one per cent, of 
the assessed valuation is ex- 
pended upon our public roads — 
twice that amount ought to be devoted to that purpose. Our 
towns and municipalities could well afford to incur debt for the 
immediate improvement of the leading highways. One such in 
each town should be made a model of its kind. The benefit to 
accrue from Good Roads is incalculable, increasing the pleasure 
and comfort of the people — adding largely to value of village 
and rural estates. Strangers are attracted to our State by the 
beauties of her natural scenery — which is God's work — Good 
Roads, the work of man — would be an added attraction of no 
small consequence. 

These transient residents — the summer visitors — would be 
induced to come in larger numbers and prolong their stay. The 
farmers especially would be benefited. A great saving in 
expense of transportation of farm products to market and rail- 
road would result. A saving of wear and tear of harness, and 
cart and carriage, and a mercy to beasts of burden. 

Eet us keep this question continually before the people. We 
welcome your Good Roads Magazine. Let the good work 
begin and let it go on. Every wheelman is a believer in Good 
Roads and we are sure of his alliance and help. 




ASBURY PARK GOOD ROADS CONVENTION. 

BY MISS BERTIE KNIGHT. 

A«^K--fe>, ^N^ Y papa being appointed by the Gov- 

ernment as Stenographer at the 
Convention for Good Roads at 
Asbury Park, took mamma and I 
with him. 

' ' ' ' ' ' We started July 3d. Papa, Uncle Charley 

and my cousin Cecil rode down on their 

wheels, and mamma and I went on the 4:35 

BEATRICE E. KNioHT. sxpress train fro.m Broad street and reached 

II Years Young. Asbury 6:30, as our train was delayed half an 

hour bjr an accident ; the train ran over an 

Italian woman who was just returning from her day's work of 

picking berries. She was not on the track that the train was 

on, but stood on the one next to it waiting for the train to pass, 

but just as the train got to her it switched off on the very track 

she was on and instantly killed her. 

We spent a ver}^ pleasant Fourth, and on the evening of the 
Fifth we went with papa to the Convention, at Westminster 
Church, but it looked to me more like a theatre than a church. 
We did not stay verj^ long as we w^ere tired, but we stayed long 
enough to hear the Governor of Vermont make the opening 
address, in which he spoke about what they were doing to make 
good roads. Then a gentlemen from Kentucky began to tell 
about the roads down there, but I did not understand it and got 
so sleepy that mamma and I went to the hotel. 

On Friday afternoon they closed the Convention resolving to 
get the people all over the United States to make good roads. 

After they had closed the Convention papa and his friend 
Mr. Elliott came to the hotel and took mamma and I to see 
them make a road. The stone crusher in which the stones are 
crushed is worked by something which looks a little like a 
steam engine, the stones are put into something like a nut 
cracker, only a great deal larger, and are crushed into small 
pieces which fall into what looks like little carts going around 
like the chain on a bicycle, and empty the stones into a sifter, 
and they drop from there into a dump wagon which scatters 
them along the road, and the roller then rolls them down. When 
we saw the roller Mr. Elliott told me to put my foot on the 
ground and let it roll over my foot. I told him if he would put 
his foot under first I would mine afterwards, but he didn't, so I 
didn't have to. 



ASBURV PARK ROADS CONVENTION. 139 

After we had seen all we wanted of the road making we went 
in an electric launch, and we went under four low bridges; when 
we went under them we had to put our heads way down and 
have the awning pulled down over us. 

On Saturday, July 6th, there was a baby parade and Mr. 
Elliott being with us we got seats on the Editorial Stand and 
had a fine view of it. 

The roads at Asbury Park are very good; I had my safety 
with me and rode quite a good deal. 

We returned home on the 9:05 train in the evening, and as 
we were going to the depot we saw the Boat Carnival which 
was very prett5\ 



TAX EAND VALUE ONEY. 

Editor of Good Roads: 

I KNOW of a place on Eong Island, where a new highway 
was opened through woodland, with the result that the wild 
land adjoining it has more than doubled in value. Land 
which previously could be bought for ten dollars an acre is 
now worth twenty-five dollars, and yet it will not be 
^assessed a pennj' more until it is improved. The man that 
clears and builds will be punished by a heavy tax and the 
assessor can see him with both eyes — but the double value of 
the wild land is wholly invisible to him. So the way of the 
improver is made doubly hard — first by the increased purchase 
price, then by the heavy tax — while the same discrimination 
helps the useless speculator to hold his land idle at a profit. 
The expense of improving roads should be taken from the place 
where the benefit goes, namely, the land value. It always 
increases the price of land, but nothing else. Crops are not 
higher in price, and wages are not higher, but the land value is 
increased. It is wrong that the speculator should pocket what 
the farmer earns. Tax land value onl3^ 

J. H. WEI.LS, Biooklyn, N. Y. 



HOW A WOMAN BUILT A WAGON ROAD. 

BY EDWARD W. PERRY. 

{Continued from July Number.) 

DDN'T imagine that we heard no adverse criticism. People 
who lived beyond the direct influence of our improve- 
ments sneered, and predicted failure, and called us 
visionary; and that drew out retort, argument and 
emphasis at times, from those who felt compelled to 
defend themselves from imputation, that they had made fools of 
themselves by giving up good money for worthless stock ; and 
so our new stockholders became ardent missionaries in the 
cause. 

The village trustees made no great difficulty about letting 
us have the privilege of macadamizing the Avenue, at our 
own cost ; but it is a fact that some tried to fight even that 
proposition. 

With the money we got from sales of stock we improved 
Decatur avenue, as far as we had lots beside it. Then the 
Company stopped work. There was a difficulty, you see, about 
deciding which of several streets we should follow to reach the 
railroad station and the court house. That question was 
unsettled for some time, although there were folk enough who 
undertook to decide it for us. The liveliness of their interest 
grew into a discussion that was pretty hot. 

Before the matter was settled, several men who did business 
on the streets which might be used, discovered that they would 
like to become owners of a few shares of stock of the Good 
Roads Company; and they also learned that none of that stock 
was for sale in small lots. The Company had possession of all 
small lots which were not fully paid for, and they could not be 
sold. But it had a large block or two which might be sold, if 
enough were bid for it. 

" How much do you want for the stock ? " they asked. 

The figure named was enough to pay for the whole cost of 
putting a good telford from Decatur avenue to the station. 

Then they were mad. We were trampling on the rights of 
the people ; we were grasping monopolists, greedy capitalists, 
who were cunningly getting control of the best streets in town ; 
the people should at once wrest from us the streets we had 
stolen ; they should not only take from us the control of those 
streets, but should also compel us to give up the miles of main 
thoroughfare we had gobbled ; the village should control and 
improve its own streets, and the county should do the same 



GOOD ROADS. 141 

with the couiitr}^ roads. Before election the village was in a 
ferment over the question. 

Meantime we had macadamized streets, and built half-a- 
dozen pretty cottages on Section Twelve, and people were living 
where a few months before there were only an old orchard 
and a mudd)^ cornfield. Some of our village shareholders had 
ventured to buy an acre each, and to build neat homes on the 
opposite forty, beside our road. They had no stone streets on 
their property, but would get to them in time. 

One of those men rode to and from his business on a bic3'cle, 
and that led others into getting wheels. They got more fun 
out of the new road than we older folk had got in all the years 
w^e had used them. At last some of the more daring of the 
girls ventured to ride, and were gossipped about pretty sharply. 
That stirred up other girls, and before fall half-a-dozen had got 
into the habit of making up parties w^hich rode out to one place 
or another on our road. Of course every one of them was an 
ardent advocate of good roads ; but their elders, who had to pay 
for the wheels, didn't see the beauties of the improvement. 

When the mud of winter came, the townships wanted to find 
out what we would ask for the road that lay along the top of 
my gravel ridge. They couldn't condemn it, you see, because 
the old road laj^ there, where it had been for years in use, and 
and there w^as no doubt that it could be macadamized and so 
made a good road, if the townships saw fit to do the work. But 
our Company couldn't see its way to selling its road. People 
were quite welcome to use it, however, on condition that all 
who owned land and hauled produce from beyond the end of 
the road, should paj^ for a share or more of our stock, each 
year. Transient passengers were more than welcome to use it 
freely. 

Well, that raised a howl from all the farmers and small 
merchants living beyond our road. The Good Roads Company 
had put up a mean job to rob them. Kver5'-body who wanted to 
go to town with a load must bleed for the benefit of an infernal 
monopoly. We were collecting tolls illegally, while pretending 
to sell shares. The making of a part of the stone road through 
private propert}^ was only a scheme to keep people off of good 
roads that should belong to the people — did belong to them if 
they only had their rights. The}^ even consulted lawyers to 
see if they couldn't compel us to throw open our gates, and 
allow them to go over our propert3% and were laughed at. And 
every time one of the kickers rode over the only good road he 
or she had ever seen,, he or she had as good an object lesson as 
we could give. 

People came dragging wearily through miles of mud canals, 
that winter and spring, to strike our macadam. Most of them 
would stop to saj^ a good word to us, and assure us that they 



142 • GOOD ROADS. 

would vote for road improvement. They were usually invited 
to come in and warm themselves, and if there were women 
along, they had some refreshment, if no more than a cup of tea 
or coffee. • I needn't tell you that my wife had more influence 
over them than all the rest of us together — she has the happiest 
faculty for catching an opponent, and when she has caught him 
he is the bound slave of her cause before he knows it. It's her 
tact. 

A week or two before election we flooded the county with 
copies of the county paper that was with us. It was well filled 
with arguments, statistics and other matter favoring road 
improvement. The thing had become a question of local 
politics, as it will in time become a factor in our national 
politics. 

On election day we had speakers on the courthouse steps, ad- 
dressing the people in favor of our scheme for having the county 
undertake the work of general improvement of the highways. 
Mj' wife and Kate sat in our light wagon in the edge of the 
crowd, watching affairs, when the speaking had been running 
all our way for half an hour. Then Molly sent a bo}^ for me. 

"There is old Mr. Swain," said she, "wants to say some- 
thing. Don't you think that it would be well to let him make 
a speech ? " 

" Which means that 3'ou think that it would be a good plan. 
But I don't know that I agree with you." 

" I think that it would. He is so excited, and so eager to 
attack the road improvement, that he will be almost sure to say 
things so extreme that the}" will turn people our way." 

Well, you know, that we think a great deal of Molly's opin- 
ions. So I suggested the idea to the speaker. 

" But I've said all I wish to say now," he declared, without 
an instant of hesitation. " I propose to give the other side a 
hearing, that is, if there is an3^one here who thinks that there's 
anything worth sajang on the other side. Here's Mr. Swain ; 
perhaps he will favor us ? " 

"Yes, Swain, Swain!" the crowd shouted. " lyCt's hear 
from a man who's on th^ other side." 

Mr. Swain had been for many years superintendent of Sun- 
day schools, bible-classes and other associations of the kind, so 
had no hesitancy. 

" I'm dead agin this hull scheme," he cried, after talking a 
few minutes and becoming well warmed to the subject. " Yes, 
I call it a scheme. It's an unrighteous robbery of the taxpayers. 
It is an imposition, an' plundering of the poor tiller of the soil. 
Ef ye vote them bonds ye '11 bring ruin on every farmer in the 
county. They'd better jes' give their Ian' away at onct. 

"And what is this hull thing but a scheme — that's what I 
call it, a scheme — to put money into the pockets of the rich, at 



GOOD ROADS. 143 

the expense of hard workin' folks, who live by the sweat of 
their brow as they was commanded by Scripter. They pretend 
to be philanthropists, and get a lot of women who'd better be 
'tendin' to their children, to help rope in other folk. And they 
work up a big hurrah 'mong a lot of boys that goes straddlin' 
around the country, doubled up on spider-web wheels, like a 
lot of monkeys doubled over a bellyache, when they ought t' be 
sot to work hoein' corn, like I was when I was a boy. 'F you 
fathers don't look out you'll see your girls flyin' about the roads 
on them indecent things, an' meddlin' with politics an' business 
that belongs to men. They'd ought to tend to things at home, 
and not keep a lot of gals to do the work, while they gad 
around." 

I looked at my wife, to see how she enjoyed this flow of elo- 
quence that she had been the cause of loosing. She looked 
indignant and determined. 

" Yes, fellow citizens," continued our orator, "I tell ye that 
if you don't vote against this iniquity, ye might as well give 
away your homes, your farms that ye've worked so hard for. 
They won't be worth the taxes, 'f these here bonds is voted. 
For one I'd be willin' to sell for half what my farm's worth 
to-day." 

" What' 11 you take for your quarter section, Swain?" 
demanded Tom Burns. 

" Yes, what'll you sell yer farm for, 'f things is so mighty 
bad? " cried one of the hearers derisivel^^ 
"I'll take — I'd sell the hull quarter for — for — " 

" Spit it out, man! " 

" Show yer pluck, Swain! Don't let 'em bluff ye! " 

" Yes, let's see how much ye think the bonds will hurt ye!" 

" He's a humbug! He don't dare to speak up! He wants 
more than he did a year ago for his place: that shows what he 
is! " yelled the crowd. 

"Yes, I dare to speak right out," shouted Swain desper- 
ately. " I'll sell the hull for fifty dollars an acre — a hundred 
an' sixty acres of good Ian' only a mile from the town, for fifty 
dollars an acre. An' it was worth a hundred dollars before 
they begun this wicked scheme for saddlin' poor folks with 
debt they can't ever pay off. That proves what I think." 

" That's what he calls giving away his land," cried some 
one. " That's being ruined by improvements! " 

" It's all a bluff. He don't mean a word of it. He'd crawl 
into his shell fast enough, 'f anybody 'd make him an offer of 
the price!" 

"He doesn't mean a word of it," shouted another. "I 
know him. I've heard him preach charity in the Sunday-school, 
and we all know he'd snake the skin off a cast iron dog, 'f the 
owner wasn't lookin'." 

(To be Continued.) 



THE TAR HEElv TRAII.. 

BY BIIvI, NYE. 




T 



e;dgar W. Nye. 



HE prize medal was cheer- 
fully awarded to the writer 
last year, at Chicago, by 
a competent committee, 
for the most picturesque 
display of roads. I do not say 
this boastfully, but because it 
may encourage others to make 
a similar collection. 

Western North Carolina is 
very mountainous and therefore 
a beautiful countrj^, the soil in 
most instances being a cheerful 
red, similar to the shade adopted 
for second-hand cook stoves. 
These vermillion roads wrap 
themselves around the moun- 
tains of Buncombe County in 
graceful sweeps, or pour in 
Venetian red cascades over the ridges and hog-backs of 
Catawba County. 

Many of these roads liquify and run over the farms, or slip 
down into the fields during a shower, and remain there to be 
called for. I have two stray roads still on my estate that lodged 
there after a long wet spell in April. 

The methods of building and repairing roads here are not 
adopted elsewhere, except along the shores of Eake Victoria 
Nyanza in South Africa. When the roads are too wet, large 
irregular stones, ranging from the size of Daniel Webster's head 
to that of the pee wee egg, are placed in this mud where they 
disappear, yet "may be noticed plainly by riding over them. 

Each )^ear, in the country region, the adults are called 
together by the road master for the purpose of sampling each 
other's tobacco, and making mud pies along the highway. The 
bed of the road is sunken several feet below the level of the sea, 
and then plowed up and made mellow like an onion bed. Where 
it is desired to deflect a stream of rain across the bed on a side- 
hill, instead of putting in a culvert, the tar heel scientist con- 
structs a soft, wet ridge diagonally across the road, which 
resembles the new-made grave of a pathmaster, but unfort- 
unately it is not. 

The loss on rolling stock here is easily 33 1-3 per cent., for I 
have kept an accurate account of it for three years, during 



THE TAR HEEL TRAIL. 



145 



which time my wag- 
ons have been re- 
newed, lyandaus 
and Victorias are not 
used much here, but 
a hickory crotch is at- 
tached to an axle- 
tree of some hard and 
tenaciouswood; apair 
of cast off wheels from 
the wreck of a four- 
wheel wagon com- 
pletes the trap, unless 
one should be high- 
spirited and want a 
box, in which case, a 
common quail trap is 
nailed on the axle. I 
enclose herew ith a 
photograph of a ma- 
chine suited to these 
roads. It was taken 
two years ago and 
shows the wagon 
looking west. 

Naturally the resi- 
dent here is content 
with things as he finds 
them — or as they find 
him. If a wood tick 
or a Buncombe Coun- 
ty flea should attack a 
man who was born 
here, the man heaves a sigh, scratches the place, and says to the 
insect without passion, "Well there! I hope now your satisfied." 
It is the same with the roads. If a chuck hole gets formed 
in the road and squirts a yellow stream into his whiskers, he 
waits till his whiskers dry and then he is ready for another 
dose. He also raises whiskers of a color which matches the 
clay, and so it is not noticed. 

The corduroy road was also originated in this country. 
After several generations of corduroy, it is found that most of 
the people here are entirely destitute of kidneys, these features 
having been shaken loose and lost after many years of riding 
on corduroy roads. 

But the material for making roads heie is good. In fact, 
that is about all that it is good for. The stone is not good for 
building, and the soil is not capable of even raising a dis- 




The Best Bridge in North Carolina, and is owned 
jointly, by Mr. Nye and the R. & D. R. R. 



146 



IHF. TAR HEEL TRAIL. 




Bill Nye nsuallj' hires a Hall, but this is one 
of the hauls he cau't hire. 




^^ 



This shows Mr. Nye in the act of putting 
up samples of roads, in milk cans, to 
be sent 'with his road exhibit, to 
Chicago. 

and this battle crv alone shall 



turbance. lyast year I put 
$103.85 into seeds, and $150 
into a gardener. I also hired 

- the ground plowed, and hired 
a night watchman to put 
ear-muffs on the ears of my 
sweet corn when the July 
frost struck the mountains, 
and yet my flageolet string 
beans cost me $1 per dozen, 
and the accursed garden 
prevented my son's gradua- 
tion at the John Hopkins 
place. 

The roads are in a sad 
plight after a long rain, and 
look like a neglected candy 
pull. I feel very sadly this 
condition of affairs, for 
where the climate is so 
healthful that people under 
1 1 5 years of age attract no 
attention, it seems a sin to 
take our pullets to market 
aboard a roan heifer. We 
have a glorious climate the 
year round, and the people 
come here from the four 
corners of the earth to get 
rid of their tubercles ; but 
the roads are so rough that 
one has to hold in his 
broader principles with one 
hand and his appendicitis 
with the other for miles at a 

time. If Congress 

but that's out of the question 
when Congress has been in 
perpetual session for a year, 
and has developed nothing 
but paresis. We must go 
to the polls this year, and 
the next, and the next, with 
Good Roads at the top of 
our ticket,, and live or die, 
elect only those men who 
promise us upon their sacred 
honor that this platform 

win. 



THE TAR HEEL TR/JL 



'47 




Bill Nye's shooting- box on the left. The fountain i.s ju 



1st common water. 







Birth-place of Bill Nj'e's coachman (who is practicallj- a self-made man). 



148 



THE 7AR HEEL TRAH. 




"Landaus and Victorias are not used much^here." 

I'm not much of a politician, but we had better stop send- 
ing bibles to other nations until we have something to show for 
roads aside from a long cow trail of dead horses, bleached bones 
and turkey buzzards outlining a loud smelling quagmire that a 
barbarian and a cannibal would scorn to use as a war path. 



AN IMPROVED CUIvVERT. 
Editor of Good Roads: 



SEND you a sketch of a 
culvert, in cross-section. 
The object of making a 
culvert in this shape is to 
confine the water to a nar- 
row space, that it may rise in 
the basin that is usually found 
on the upper side of the road, 
thus causing depth, volume 
and force, to carry through the culvert any sediment that may 
have accumulated in it, and also to prevent the water from 
freezing in winter. In use it proves to be a success. 

Respectfully yours, 

W. O. NoYES, Derby, N. H. 




POPUIvAR ROAD-MAKING DOES NOT AIRWAYS 
MAKE POPUIvAR ROADS. 

BY J. D. ELLSWORTH. 




P 



J. D. Ellsworth. 



^OPUIvAR roads are apt to 
be good roads, but un- 
fortunately popular road 
making is not so certain 
to be good road-making. 
But even in roads themselves 
popularity cannot be relied upon 
unless it is enlightened and di- 
rected. From the earliest times 
there have been two historic 
roads, one straight and narrow 
and the other broad and destruc- 
tive. There can be no question 
about the comparative excel- 
lence of these traveled ways, but 
even at the end of this 19th cen- 
tury it is hard to say which is 
the more popular. This only 
shows that popularity is some- 
thing that cannot be absolutely trusted. 

The most interesting road I ever traveled was the worst. It 
was in Colorado, from the railroad town of Granite to the min- 
ing town of Aspen. It was forty miles long and went over 
Independence Pass above timber line. 

The road started innocently enough across a bit of plain, and 
up through the foot-hills by the beautiful twin lakes. There 
were rather deep ruts in the alluvial soil, but there seemed no 
reason why the stage driver should strap himself to his seat. 
The way lead up through a broken place in the mountains and 
began to be exciting. The grade was rather heavier than 
modern engineering would suggest, and eight feet seemed some- 
what narrow when the left hand gutter was a roaring torrent 
200 feet below. 

The road for ten miles was composed of sand, gravel, mud, 
stones, and muck holes, that kept the stage swaying from side 
to side and made the four horses pant. 

The bridges over the deep chasms were made of round poles, 
sometimes covered with trodden earth, and sometimes left peril- 
ously loose. There were sections of corduroy and other sections 
made of bushes through which the stage plunged like a ship 
at sea. 



I50 



POPULAR ROAD MAKING. 




The mud increased until 
after fifteen miles were cov- 
ered, the horses splashed 
through ponds of water, 
then snow and ice took the 
place of the mud, and a four- 
horse sleigh took the place 
of the rocking stage coach. 
The grade was terrific and 
along the sides of the road 
were the carcasses of horses, 
mules and donkeys that had 
fallen by the way. A zigzag 
track led up to the crest of 
the pass and looking up, one 
could see section above sec- 
tion of the road clogged with 
horses, mules and sledges, 
and hear a great cracking 
of whips and a constant re- 
verberation of wild oaths. 

An agent of the Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals would never have 
survived that sight, and the 
western side of the pass was 
worse. There were the 
wrecks of the four-horse 
sledges that had slipped off the road, and then rolled down 
the snowy mountain side until caught by a tree and smashed. 
There were dead animals every mile of the way, and a constant 
procession of live ones that wished they were dead. The 
destruction of vehicles was tremendous, and even pack animals 
that had no wheels to drag, laid down and died under their loads. 
The cost of that road was enormous, not only in wagons and 
draught animals but in machinery and expensive merchandise 
that was broken and destroyed. I saw the wreck of a piano 
that had gone over the pass, and a load of show cases and mir- 
rors that did not have a handful of glass in them. 

Not only were the freight rates very high, but goods were 
sometimes two months on the road and subject to all kinds of 
damage. That road has now been deserted and two railroads 
take its place, but it shows graphically what an expensive road 
a poor road is. 

Good roads don't grow, they are made. There are few spots 
on the surface of the earth where the shearing process of a mov- 
ing wheel does not make the passage of other wheels more 
difficuh. 



An ]6xtra Good Sample of a Mountain Road. 

Pictures of the Worst Ones cannot be 

made as there is no Place for 

the Photographer to Stand. 



POPULAR ROAD MAKING. 151 

On the great American Desert the roads are merely tracks in 
the sand, which are cut down deeper and deeper. Another 
traveled way is started parallel to the first ; then others until 
sometimes there are a dozen tracks across the sandy plain, 
equally slow and discouraging, with the usual fringe of horse's 
bones. The eastern ends of these roads are over the fertile 
prairies of the Middle States. At rare times they are easily 
traveled, but there are long seasons when the mud is up to the 
hubs of the wheels. 

The poorest roads I ever saw were in Illinois, where the 
fertile, black soil is of great depth. There is usually no mate- 
rial by the roadside for good road-making, and so the road- 
makers scrape the loam up in the centre in the vain hope that 
the water will drain out of it. When the mud is at its worst, 
wagons are abandoned in the middle of the road, and in small 
cities I have seen boats dragged through the street instead of 
trucks or express wagons. 

After a January thaw the mud sometimes freezes as it is cut 
up. Then the roads are abandoned, except in cases of greatest 
necessity, which make the racking of wagons and the lameing 
of horses of little importance. 

I have seen hundreds of loads of gravel spread upon Illinois 
roads only to sink into the mud and vanish forever. The 
richest farms in the country border these roads, but poorer 
farms on better roads would give more profit. 

These roads are not popular, however, but they are the 
result of popular road-making. Popular road-making is ram- 
pant all over the country, in the level regions where there is 
mud and sand and in the hilly regions where there are ruts, 
stones, and steep grades. 

Most road makers have one idea that is good as far as it goes. 
They believe in heaping the material of the road-bed in the centre 
and sloping off toward the gutters. There are cases where 
this is done successfully but not where the material is loam or 
worn out surfacing. In these latter cases the road is made 
muddier and dustier than it was before. The perfect road has 
not only a crowned surface but a crowned foundation. 

One of the great reasons why popular roads are so rare and 
popular road-making is so futile, is the belief that road-making 
is a simple thing which anybody can do without knowledge or 
experience. The value of experts has only recently been 
appreciated. Road-making is becoming a science, and road 
engineers are learning to take the materials at hand and make 
roads that will withstand rain, frost and ordinary wear. Such 
roads will be missionaries to convert the people to scientific 
road-making. 

Massachusetts has some of the most popular as well as some 
of the most unpopular roads in the country. The Jerusalem 



152 POPULAR ROAD MAKING. 

road has long been famous, but it is only one of the splendid 
roads near Boston. 

The other extreme is seen in the sand roads on the Cape 
where the ruts are twelve and fourteen inches deep, and in the 
rough, steep roads in the western part of the State. 

There is no excuse for Massachusetts. It is one of the oldest 
and richest Commonwealths, and it has all the materials for 
making the best roads in the world. It is so thickly settled 
that the initial expense of good roads will be scarcely felt, while 
the saving in repairs and the return in other ways are increased 
in proportion to the population. 

The State would have had good roads long ago but for the 
popularity of poor road-making, which like the popularity of 
foul air in some countries and the popularity of dirt in others, 
is one of those perverted fancies that cannot be explained. 



SAMPI.E COPIES OF GOOD ROADS 
FREE. We are always glad to send 
out copies of Good Roads on request. 
If you have a friend (or a dozen friends) 
to whom you think this magazine might 
be of interest, please send us the names and 

we will do send the samples. 

It often happens that these sample copies 
are received by people whose names are fur- 
nished us as above, and in a few instances we 
have been calmly informed that if we sent the 
Magazine in the hope that it would be paid 
for we might be disappointed. 

To all who receive Good Roads, we would 
say, that we keep no open accounts; all sub- 
scriptions in order to be entered on our books 
must be accompanied by the cash, ($i.oo per 
year, lycague members, 50 cents.) Sample 
copies are sent free. Of course we would like 
to have you for a subscriber, but the accept- 
ance of the Magazine, when sent, incurs no 
responsibility on your part. 



"A ROAD GOVERNOR." 

IvKVI KNIGHT FULI.KR OF VERMONT. 

OUR Frontispiece in this issue shows the face of a man who, 
while occupying a high position, is known to all who 
have come in contact with him, as a practical, everyday, 
useful citizen. 

Although a republican he is essentially democratic, in 
the broader sense of that word. He is about fifty-three years of 
age and has a very interesting history. 

At the age of thirteen he left home to seek his fortune, with 
but a silver ' ' quarter ' ' in his pocket ; coming to Brattleboro, 
Vt., he worked at the printer's trade, attended the village 
High school, and learned telegraphy, thus laying the founda- 
tion of his knowledge of electricity, for he is recorded in 
Warren's Astronomy as the discoverer of the effect of the 
Aurora Borealis upon telegraph wires. 

He early developed an aptitude for mechanics; winning, 
when only sixteen, a premium at the Windham (Vt.) County 
Fair, for a steam-engine improvement exhibited there by him- 
self, he also building his own engine. 

Going to Boston to further perfect himself in his chosen line 
of study, he served a three years' apprenticeship there as a 
machinist, taking at the same time a scientific course of study 
at the evening schools of the Roxbury Institute; also being the 
night telegraph operator of the Merchants Exchange. 

Returning to Brattleboro, in i860, though but nineteen, he 
became the machinist and mechanical engineer of the Estey 
Organ Works, was made a member of the firm in 1866; later 
superintendent of manufacturing, and now for more than twenty 
years has been the Vice-President of the Estey Organ Company. 

He organized in 1874 and, until inaugurated Governor, com- 
manded the Fuller I^ight Battery, Vermont National Guard. 

In educational matters. Governor Fuller has always taken a 
deep interest ; he is President of the Board of Trustees of the 
Vermont Academy, at Saxtons River, Vt. 

He is a self-made American citizen of the best type, an 
untiring worker, a genial, kind, considerate friend, as he is a 
public spirited and high-minded Christian gentleman. 

In person. Governor Fuller is tall and commanding, of mili- 
tary style and figure, his moustache and goatee now growing 
white, his strongly marked intelligent face attracting attention 
anywhere as that of a man of strength, of character and note. 

He married Abby, daughter of Deacon Jacob Estey, May 3, 
1865. Mrs. Fuller is a lady possessing many of the strong and 



154 



A ROAD GOVERNOR. 



famous qualities of her distinguished father, and is the centre 
of a wide circle of loving friends. 

Governor Fuller has long been known as an active factor in the 
Good Roads movement. And when the Good Roads Conference 
was called to order at Asbury Park, last July, the " Governor " 
was nominated for Chairman by half of the delegates, and his 
nomination was seconded by the other half, so there was hardly 
any need of a vote. 

At the close of the proceedings a Central Committee was 
elected to take in hand the matter of further conferences, and 
very naturally all hands wanted Governor Fuller to be Chair- 
man of that Committee, and although he attempted to escape, 
' ' it was so ordered. ' ' 

The two other members of the Committee are General Roy 
Stone of Washington, D. C, and Colonel E. H. Thayer, of 
•Clinton, Iowa. 




View of High street, Brattleboro, Vt., looking toward Main 
street and showing three stages of macadam road building. 

The foreground shows the rolled foundation, and coarse, 
broken stone being dumped upon it. Governor Fuller and the 
Road Commissioner are shown standing upon the first layer of 
rough stone. Just beyond these gentlemen, you will notice the 
second or intermediate layer of crushed stone, and still farther 
along is the top dressing of fine rock. 



A ROAD GOVERNOR. 



155 



Among the many good things in the line of roads which are 
being carried out in Vermont, we think one of the best is the 
careful manner in which these three layers of stone are placed 
and rolled. 

The difference between a new macadam road and an old one, 
is first shown in the appearance of large pieces of stone coming to 
the surface. This unpleasant condition of things may be pre- 
vented, or at least materially postponed, by a proper grading of 
the different courses, and what is just as important, the thorough 
rolling of each layer before the next is applied. 




View on High Street, Brattleboro, Vt., looking from Main Street, showing teams 
haulingr crushed stone, and road roUer at work. Governor FuUer is seen near the 
centre of the picture in consultation with Road Commissioner Earaes. 



We envy not the blind man's lot, 
His days are dark as night ; 

And yet we find, that to his mind, 
All things are " out of sight." 




AN OLD TIME INSTITUTION. 



JULIA H. EMERY. 

^\ MONO the unique features of Montana, sufficiently inter- 

f 1 esting to attract the attention of any ' ' pilgrim ' ' or 

g\ " tenderfoot," visiting the State, is an Institution of the 

J olden days, that has played its part as an important 

factor in the civilization and upbuilding of the western 

world, but which is being rapidly driven into "innocuous 

desuetude," by 'the unerring stroke of the far reaching lash, 

wielded by the hand of progress. 

White Sulphur Springs, Montana, lays claim to this relic of 
bygone days. The tourist and health seeker, who come to 
renew their youth by drinking of, and bathing in the clear 
mineral waters of the thirteen hot springs — from which the 
beautiful mountain girt town derives its name — not infrequently 
have their attention directed to this curiosity, which is no less 
than a bull trail team, composed of eighteen head of as fine 
fat animals as one often has opportunity to see ; even in this 
country noted for its fine-bred, well-conditioned stock. 

This bull trail team, is the property of Messrs. Reed & Saxton. 
It was formerly used in transporting bullion (how appropriate) , 
from the Cumberland mine to Livingston, Montana ; at the 
present time it is engaged in hauling stone from a quarry a 



AN OLD TIME INSTITUTION. 157 

short distance from the town ; forty thousand pounds of stone 
being an average load. The driver seems to be an expert in 
the use of the whip ; whose sharp crack awakens the mountain 
echoes, like the report of a rifle. A sound apparently under- 
stood by the docile animals, which patiently await their turn to 
be unyoked after the day's labor, after which they quietly dis- 
perse, finding food for themselves upon the range without farther 
trouble or expense to their owners. 

The hardy adventurer of pioneer days, lured westward by 
oft times delusive hopes, that each territory would prove an 
Eldorado, where croesus like, they need but touch an object to 
find it at once transformed to gold, soon proved conclusively 
that in crossing the plains the cud-chewing ox was far better 
adapted for hauling freight than either the horse or the mule ; 
not only that oxen could endure more and harder labor, while 
requiring less, and not so good a quality of food, but were also 
less liable to be stolen by the Indians, who coveted every horse 
that came under their eyes, often killing the owner of a pair of 
horses or mules for the team, when a pedestrian or an ox driver 
would have been allowed to pursue his way unmolested. 

The old manner of freighting, as late as 1864, was to use one 
yoke of oxen to a wagon, with a single driver to manage three 
separate teams, but in 1865, when the Sutherlin Brothers, now 
residents of White Sulphur Springs, and editors of the Rocky 
Mountain Husbandman, were freighting across the plains, some 
of their oxen became disabled or died, and they were driven by 
necessity, the mother of invention, to originate a trail team. 
This they did by coupling several wagons together ; to the 
forward wagon they attached the cattle. The scheme worked 
so well when perfected that it was almost universally adopted 
by freighters, and thus was introduced what has ever since been 
known as the "trail team." 

In looking over the wide sunlit park land of Montana, dotted 
by comfortable home-like ranches, where bunches of cattle, 
bands of horses and herds of sheep, wander unmolested over 
the long undulating flower-strewn hills, feeding upon the luxu- 
riant native grasses, or drinking from the cold, snow-fed moun- 
tain streams that wind in sinuous curves through the meadows, 
the peaceful stillness only broken by the shrill whistle of the 
locomotive as it emerges from the deep canyons, or ascends like 
a breathing sentient creature to lofty, cloud-crowned heights ; it 
is hard to even imagine that there ever could have been a time 
in the near past when hostile Indians lurked behind each rock 
and beetling crag, waiting in cowardly ambuscade to fall upon 
the unwary traveler. 

There was a time when eight dollars was paid for hauling 
every hundred pounds of freight, and miners were glad to pur- 
chase poor bread baked in primitive ovens at fifty cents per 



158 



AN OLD TIME INSTITUTION. 



loaf, or procure butter and cheese from Buffalo Bill — who with 
the assistance of his wife ran a dairy — at from one dollar fifty 
to one dollar seventy-five cents per pound, and delighted to 
obtain it at almost any price. 

A time, in fact, so unlike the present picture of Montana, 
that there is little left to tell the story of trial, bloodshed, man's 
heroic bravery, and woman's fortitude; but in the soft eyes of 
the old bull trail team, as through a clear cut lens, I read the 
story of the past, painted in blood and toned by woman's tears, 
and recognize that almost in another generation, the stirring 
times that mark the birth and infancy of Montana will be 
among the things forgotten, buried deep with the old-time 
institution, the last of the bull trail teams whose very exist- 
ence will be blotted out from memory by the effacing hands of 
electricity and steam. 




THE RISING SON. 

A personal reminiscence. 



the; roadside WIIvDERNESS. 
c. m. plumb of oakivand, cal. 




C. M Plumb. 



5 HE most unattractive, 
and to a reflective 
mind, the most de- 
pressing, rural spec- 
tacle is the ugly weed- 
grown space between the 
.wagon tracks and the tilla- 
ble land on either side of 
country roadways. The 
space usually includes a 
double line of dilapidated 
and decaying rail fence, 
along the length and within 
the corners of which, flour- 
ishes a rank growth of this- 
tles and every pestilent weed 
known to the locality. Here 
shiftlessness runs riot. Here 
lurks an enemy whose pres- 
ence is costly to the farmer 
at best, and is a constant 
menace of dangers, to an unknown extent. 

Wayside beauties along country roads are exceptional, when 
they ought to be universal. And the}^ are so dependent upon 
the luxuriance of useless and noxious verdure, that — if the 
Irishism is permissible — the greater the beauty, the more fla- 
grant the blemish. 

The traveler is compelled to discount the charms of the land- 
scape, and the fertility and verdure on either side, by a perpet- 
ual foreground of waste and desolation, or the rankness of a 
growth which is even more unsatisfactory, rude and displeasing. 
The term wilderness is not misapplied, for here, indeed, 
though narrow, and winding past millions of home entrances, 
is a "region uncultivated and uninhabited by human beings." 
If it possess any other state or quality than that of ' ' being wild 
and disorderly," the exception only serves to illustrate the rule. 
Is not the almost universally neglected condition of these 
roadside spaces a sufficient reason why the country fails to be 
ever and always inviting, and proves so often unartistic and 
repellant;? May not some means exist whereby this universal 
blemish can be removed from perpetual sight, and instead the 
country highway be haade ' ' a thing of beauty, ' ' invariably a 
source of satisfaction and delight ? 



i6o 



THE ROADSIDE WILDERNESS. 




Look on This Picturi 



IjWe have little accurate data from which to determine the 
length of our country thoroughfares. In those States where 
regular township divisions prevail, the estimate is from forty- 
two to forty-eight miles of road for each township of thirty-six 
square miles. It will be quite safe to adopt the basis of one 
mile of roadway to each square mile of area. If then we elimi- 
nate one-fourth of this extent, for exceptionally wide avenues 
and approaches to towns, the estimate gives for the 2,800,000 
square miles of the United States a total length of country 
highways of two viillion miles ! Only think of it ! 

The county of Contra Costa, Cal., which has inaugurated a 
plan for naming all country roads, is now measuring the length 
of its 120 different roadways. The distance will exceed 600 
miles for its 800 square miles of area, which corresponds with 
the above estimate, and yet is doubtless below the general 
average. 

Though the accurate length of country roads is usually 
unmeasured, and their depths are often unsounded, the widths 
are well known, and are generally sixty or sixty-six feet. Take 
the lesser figure as the rule, and our national roadways occupy 
a space of sixty feet wide by two million miles in length, or an 
area of more than fourteen million acres, relinquished by the 
farmer for passage and transportation ! 

Is there any sufiicient reason why sixty feet should be with- 
held from tillage for purposes which really occupy only eighteen 



THE ROADSIDE WILDERNESS. 



i6t 




Then on That." — Shakespeare. 



or twenty feet ? Whatever space is not actually required for 
the uses of traffic, or purposes of necessary side drainage, ought 
to be available for cultivation, for neglected land is not only 
useless but becomes a source of danger in fostering the growth 
of noxious weeds, and in dry sections, of greater peril from fire. 
Is not thirty feet ample width for the uses of ordinary road- 
ways ? If so, the country suffers the loss of two strips of land 
fifteen feet in width, and two million miles long, or over seven 
million acres, or eleven thousand squares miles of accessible 
land — enough for a new State between Vermont and Maryland 
in size. 

I have purposely avoided the consideration of the cost of 
maintaining four million miles of roadside fencing, which the 
extension of the no-fence law, and the awakening sense of the 
public are rendering unnecessary. Why, because each farmer 
has a cow to pasture he should, instead of fencing in his grazing 
animals, deem it necessary to fence out from all his land, the 
quiet traveler by highway, is one of those problems that long 
usage hardly suffices to explain. 

One need not be reminded of the exceeding attractiveness 
of driveways through beautiful wooded parks or blooming 
orchards. Nor of the pleasure found in passing along the 
better class of farm roads, past well-tilled gardens and fields. 
Could we but dispense with the useless, costly and inartistic 



1 62 THE RAODSIDE WILDERNESS. 

road fences, and devote to cultivation the waste places of this 
lengthy wilderness, how agreeable to the higher taste, the 
esthetic sense, would be the change. The ordinary traveler, 
escaping the present barricade of desolation and disorder, is 
invited within the charmed precincts of cultivation, luxuriance 
and thrift. Country farmers would begin to vie with each other 
in efforts to make yet more pleasing the borders of thorough- 
fares passing their lands. Here would be found their finest 
shade and most luxuriant fruit trees, their richest vines and 
largest vegetables. 

I have chosen a random shot at the unkempt roadside 
of to-day, and another, like a vast multitude which might be 
found, to illustrate faintly the limitless possibilities this new 
plan opens up to the nation of Grangers. 

The considerations which urge the improvement are (i) 
economy, (2) safety and (3) beauty. How possible it is to 
redeem these waste places, to abate this nuisance and remove 
this peril. The cheerless wilderness which now greets the eye, 
may be transformed into the most picturesque, inviting and 
hopeful of all rural charms. 



EIvECTROTYPES OF GOOD ROADS 
CUTS. We frequently receive letters 
from other publishers, asking to be al- 
lowed the use of cuts which have ap- 
peared in Good Roads. 
We are especially glad to accommodate all 
who ask such favors, and the only way we can 
do it, is to not allow the original to go out of 
our possession, as we often have a number of 
calls for the same cut at about the same time. 
We furnish copper-faced and wood-backed 
electros of any cut used by this Magazine as 
follows : 20 cents for one square inch, and four 
cents for each additional square inch. Half 
tones same price as line drawings. Measure- 
ments must not call for less than one-half inch. 
For instance; if a cut measures more than 
three inches either way we would call it three 
and a half inches, if over three and a half it 
would be measured as four inches. 

Cash must come with all orders. We keep 
only a cash book. 



WIDE TIRE INFORMATION WANTED. 

COOD ROADS magazine is very much interested in this 
important question of tires. 
There is so much to be gained, and so little to be lost 
by the adoption of broader tires that we are much pleased 
to note the increasing interest taken by progressive 
farmers. 

On hard roads the wide tire is not so obviously important, 
yet we believe that there is no road or pavement so well made 
but that its life would be prolonged by improved rolling stock. 

Soft roads, /. (?., those made on sand or loam, are never, ex- 
cept when frozen, able to stand narrow tires. If the farmers 
and others engaged in teaming were asked to increase the width 
of wheel tires simply to save the roads, it would be greatly to 
the teamster's interest to do it, though the reason might not 
always be apparent to the man who wants to see immediate 
results. 

The fact is, however, that the wide tire, unlike a majority 
of investments, begins paying dividends the first day. The 
farmer who could with difficulty get out of his potato, patch 
yesterday with twenty bushels, can, today, with the new tires, 
haul at least forty bushels, and if the road to town is like the 
average country road, the same ratio will hold good on that 
trip, so that, important as is the benefit to the load, the benefit 
to the farmer who benefits the roads, is even greater. 

Good Roads is having frequent inquiries about wide tires 
and wide tire laws, some of which we can answer and many of 
which we are obliged to defer. 

We have subscribers in every State and Territory. 

It is not probable that any thing is being done in the United 
States in the line of broader tires that is not known to some 
reader of this magazine. 

Please let us know what you know, don't think that we 
already do know it ; even if we do, no harm will be done. 

If you know any thing interesting on the subject please tell 
it to 12 Pearl Street, Boston, and receive our hearty thanks. 



It is better to sacrifice one's love of sarcasm than to indulge 
it at the expense of a friend. — Unclaimed. 



SEPTEMBER MENU. 

GOV. BROWN of Maryland, believes that roads should be 
run over the best route, all things considered, and that it 
is better to pay damages to an occasional land owner, than to 
make too long or too steep a road, and further, he says a great 
deal of money is being wasted in Maryland by unintelligent 
work. In which Maryland is not unlike all the other States. 



MR. SPAUEDING'S initials are N. G., but Mr. Spaulding 
isn't. Not by a long shot. He knows a few things about 
roads. He believes in drainage, and local work done by local 
workman, but under proper and competent supervision. 



LS. BAYEEY a prominent C. E. of Chicago doesn't think 
• that either Macadam or Telford reached the acme of 
perfection in their respective systems of road building, and takes 
occasion to tell why he thinks so. 



SIMON SCHRIVER of Johnstown, N. Y., has a plan that 
looks too good to be true. He believes that it is possible to 
have plenty of money, and good roads at the same time, and 
without really costing anybody a cent. Read what he says 
and tell us what you think. 



GOV. SMITH of New Hampshire believes in the wheelmen 
and thinks they have done and are doing good work for 
roads, (long live Gov. Smith) . He further says that the natu- 
ral beauties of a State are all right as far as they go — but good 
roads are needed to make the job complete. 



TO some worthy young man who may, a dozen years hence, 
be looking for a pretty slick wife, we recommend little 
Miss Knight, of Newark. Read her story of Asbury Park. 



BII^E NYE is a very observing man and of course, as he has 
traveled a great deal, he has observed roads. He tells us 
about the roads near his farm in North Carolina. If we had 
not the most child-like confidence in William's truthfulness, it 
would be easy to believe that he has overdrawn it. 



SEPTEMBER MENU. 165 

BURTON H. AIvIyBKE strikes a responsive chord when he 
says that Politics and Road management should be 
divorced. The dictionary gives two definitions of politics : 
ist, "the science of government," 2nd, "the management of 
a political party." We fear that the first definition is fast 
becoming obsolete. 

* * * * 

JD. Ely Iv'S WORTH has traveled much in the wild mount- 
• ainous regions of the west. Read what he says about 
mountain trails. 

* * * * 

CM. PIvUMB has set forth the advantages of a neat and 
• attractive roadside as well as a good road. He sug- 
gests that owners of cattle should fence them in, instead of ask- 
ing everybody else to fence them out. 



JULIA H. EMERY tells interestingly of the old time "bull 
train " which, like the buffalo, was once a common thing 
in the west. 



TOO MANY HAVE TO CRY, WHO DON' T 
GET PAID FOR IT. 

It was a haughty lawyer 

Of Elizabeth, N. J., 
Who sought upon a witness 

To vent his spleen one day. 

The witness quickly answered 
With caustic wit and chaff. 

And soon against the lawyer 
Had raised a hearty laugh. 

lyoud laughed the judge and jury, 

The others louder yet, 
Except the ancient crier. 

Who kept his features set. 

Until to him the lawyer 
Called in his sneering way : 

"How is it, Mr. Perkins, 
You do not laugh to-day ? " 

Then quoth the solemn Perkins 

(And never winked an eye): 
" I am not paid to laugh, sir ; 
I'm only paid to cry ! " 
—Gustav Kobbe, in Harper's Bazaar. 



POLITICS VS. GOOD ROADS. 




BY BURTON H. ALLBEE, 
Editor Springfield (Mass.) Homestead. 

*I 'HE divorce of politics from 
ff\ the good roads move- 
\^ ment must come soon, or 
a large proportion of the 
work already done will 
be useless, and much of that ,to 
be done in the future will be a 
reward for heelers and follow- 
ers. 

Spoils and spoilsmen are not 
wanted in, or with, this move- 
ment. Good roads and street 
improvements are beyond poli- 
tics. Both are something in 
which men of all parties or no 
party can interest themselves 
BURTON H u.i F.I I without thought of partisanship. 

The politician who demands the 
positions occasioned b)-- road or street improvement is a traitor 
to the best interests of his county or city and should be promptly 
turned down by his party associates. 

No man or body of men ever undertook the improvement of 
streets or roads anywhere in the country, without meeting the 
opposition of ward or county politicians. Skilled labor is 
seldom found in the ranks of the political helpers who constitute 
the most willing assistants of the boss. They are generally a 
lazy, shiftless crew who are looking for soft places accompanied 
by large pay. They have found it in the street departments of 
the cities, because until within a few years no skilled labor 
was expected or required. 

It is time now to write "hands off" on the department's outer 
gate and insist that the order be obeyed. There is no reason 
why a politician who has been active in manipulating party 
caucuses or in securing the election of certain gentlemen to 
the council or board of aldermen, should be rewarded by the 
superintendency of streets, with full authority to expend the 
people's mone}^ in the one department of any city government 
which most vitally touches all the people. Yes, there is a 
reason ; one, too, which has been most influential in the past ; 
reward for party service. Men unskilled in road building, 
except, perhaps, in the proper placing of a bar, have been 
appointed to these positions to Sf end millions of dollars of the 



POLITICS VS. GOOD ROADS. 167 

people's money ; and what is the result ? A road system which 
is a disgrace to the progress and civilization of America ; a road 
system which cuts the farmers' profits in two and compels every 
person who ever goes anywhere to pay tribute to the political 
boss. It is worth something that a few are beginning to see 
the effect. It will be worth infinitely more when enough see it 
to compel the employment of skilled labor and proper con- 
struction. 

Politics in city governments lead unskilled and bungling 
boards of supervisors to assume the authority, and arrogantly 
direct a skilled superintendent what to do, even when that 
superintendent has spent years in learning the art of construct- 
ing proper streets. Politics will cause these same supervisors 
to improve some side street which ends against a bank, and 
upon which scarcely a dozen teams pass a day, while main 
arteries, connecting important parts of the city are left beds of 
mud, or banks of sand. Politics will cause such boards of 
supervdsors to allow one man on a street to violate city ordi- 
nances and even State laws in setting a different variety of 
curbing, and make a walk a different width, and then these 
same politics will lead these supervisors to say that they will 
investigate, and if anything is wrong it shall be corrected. As 
if a whole street of respectable residents would petition the 
supervisors for redress if there wasn't anj^thing wrong. 

One can tell those cities in which politics rule the street 
department. There are occasional stretches of good streets, but 
they are quite as likely to be in one part of the city as another. 
There has never been any comprehensive scheme of improve- 
ments adopted. A street has been paved here, and part of one 
there. One man uses brown stone for curbing when the coun- 
cil ordered granite, and a State law permits no deviation from 
the orders of the board of works. Gravel is used because some 
ward heeler has it to sell, where macadam is the only proper 
material. Crushed stone is brought in by a certain railroad 
company at a higher price than another would ask for the same 
service, because, perforce, the first railroad company assisted in 
the election of supervisors, superintendent or mayor. 

Nothing is ever done as it should be ; nothing ever will be 
done as it should be until politics and street improvement go in 
different directions and a plain, straightforward business policy 
of street improvement and construction prevails. To accomplish 
this, the matter must be shown to the people in its true light, 
which has not yet been done. Good Roads is the Magazine to 
take up this crusade and compel attention by its insistence upon 
these facts. 



,;, »;, yj. 



SEPTEA\BER 



Thirty days hath September, 
April, June aud November, 
February has twenty-eight alone, 
All the rest have thirty-one; 
Excepting leap year,— that's the time 
When Februray's days are twenty-nine. 



Thirty dayes hath November, 
Aprill, June and September, 
February hath xxviii alone, 
And all the rest have xxxi. 



-Richard Grafton: Chronicles of Ensrland. 



-The Return from Parnassus. (I^ondon, 1606.). 

Thirty days hat,h September, 
April, June and November; 
All the rest have thirty-one, 
Kxcepting February alone. 
Which hath but twenty-eight, in fine. 
Till leap year gives it twenty-nine. 

—Common in the New England States. 



Fourth, eleventh, ninth and .sixth, 
Thirty days to each affix; 
Every other thirty-one 
Except the second month alone. 
—Common in Chester Co., Penn., 
[among the Friends. 



Day 


Day 


Day 


Lengthof 


of 


of 


of 


Day. 


Year. 


Month. 


Week. 


H. M. 


244 


1 


Sa. 


13 09 


245 


2 


S. 


13 07 


246 


3 


M. 


13 04 


247 


4 


Tu. 


13 01 


248 


5 


W. 


12 58 


249 


6 


Th. 


12 55 


250 


7 


Fr. 


12 52 


251 


8 


Sa. 


12 49 


252 


9 


S. 


12 46 


253 


10 


M. 


12 44 


254 


11 


Tu. 


12 41 


255 


12 


W. 


12 38 


256 


13 


Th. 


12 35 


257 


14 


Fr. 


12 33 


258 


15 


Sa. 


12 30 


259 


16 


S. 


12 27 


260 


17 


M. 


12 24 


261 


18 


Tu. 


12 22 


262 


19 


W. 


12 19 


263 


20 


Th. 


12 16 


264 


21 


Fr. 


12 13 


265 


22 


Sa. 


12 10 


266 


23 


S. 


12 07 


267 


24 


M. 


12 04 


268 


25 


Tu. 


12 01 


269 


26 


W. 


12 58 


270 


27 


Th. 


II 56 


271 


28 


Fr. 


II 53 


272 


29 


Sa. 


II 50 


273 


30 


S. 


II 48 



NINTH 



September, 1894 



A MONTH 



1585, Roanoke Island settled by the British. 

The original settlers starved to death. 

They also had absolute protection. 

but there may have been no connection 

Between these two facts. 

16 15, tobacco first raised in United States. 

Cah! It's nasty stuff ; don't eat it. 

1687, first printing press started 

in Philadelphia, by Wm. Bradford. 

God bless William Bradford. 

Frank Egan is feeding the press. 

Now pluck green corn. 

It takes a plucky man to chew it. 

1750, first theatrical performance in Boston. 

Now Boston has eighteen theatres. 

But only one Good Roads Magazine. 

Are you a subscriber ? 

1636, Harvard College was founded. 

Yale didn't start until 1701. 

But it seems to " get there just the same." 

Especially in foot-ball. 

Farmers should see that the boarders begin 

Even if the coffee doesn't. [to settle. 

Don't let hogs run in the road. 

(i. e.) not four-legged hogs. [Balboa. 

15 13, Pacific Ocean discovered by V. N. de 

Who CO u/d7t' ^ discover a big thing like that. 

Now get ready for October Good Roads. 

$1.00 per year. 

12 Pearl street. 



LEAGUE OF AMERICAN WHEELMEN. 

Organized 1880. ..'.'.. 

A voluntary organization having for its object the systematic 
improvement of the public roads, and the protection of 
wheelmen against unjust legislation. The present officers 
of the L^eague are as follows : 

President.— CH.AS. H. I^USCOMB, 280 Broadway, New York. 

First Vice-President.— A.. C. WILIylSON, 47 Baltimore Street, Cumberland, Md. 

Second Vice-President.— O'EO. A. PERKINS, 15 Court Square, Boston, Mass. 

Secretary.— A^BOT BASSETT, 12 Pearl Street, Boston, Mass. 

Treasurer.— W. M. BREWSTER, 411 Francis Street, St. Joseph, Mo. 



GOOD ROADS MAGAZINE. 

Published on the first of every month by the League of American Wheelmen. 
Devoted to Highway Improvement. 

Sterling Elliott, Managing- Editor. 

Publication Office, 12 PEARL STREET, - - - BOSTON, MASS. 

Correspondence relating to advertising only 
should be addressed to 167 Oliver Street. 

Entered at Boston Post Office as second-class matter. 



o._j 



Please send Good Roads for . year. 

To. 



Street 


Town 


Amt. enclosed 
Beginning with 


Countv 

State 



Opeoipg of a Cbejtput Burr. 




A pi,EA roR bette;r roads. 

BY ROBERT BRUCE. 



A country parson started on his way 

To meet his flock upon the Sabbath Day; 

O'er roads of endless mud and clay and 
sand 

He drove with quivering lip and faltering 
hand ; 

Though ponds and streams almost ob- 
scured the track, 

The parson couldn't think of turning back. 

He reached a hole whose sides he could 
not see, 

And wondered what its hidden depth could 
be; 

He saw the fearful danger lurking there, 

Then stopped a moment and spoke out 
this prayer: 

"I venture now where beasts and men 
Have gone and ne'er were seen again; 
Where wagons loaded to their fill 
With fruit of orchard, field and hill; 
And going to my native town 
Have sunk with all their cargoes down ; 
And now beneath the earth they lie 
Far from the gaze of hnman eye, 
There in that endless hole to be 
Through time and through eternity. 

Now I, in duty's name alone. 

Am risking all I am and own ; 

I hope my little church to reach, 

And in Thy name to sing and preach ; 

But if perchance, I here should fall 

And never reach the church at all, 

O lyOrd, my hope, my solid rock. 

Preserve, I pray, ray little flock ; 

And let these weary, aged feet 

Tread, through the ages. Heaven's street! 



IT WAS STRANGK. 

Hubby, (walking the floor at two a. m.) 
" I'd just like to know why this baby per- 
sists in staying awake every night ? " 

Wif ey — " Really, I can't imagine. I 
never have any trouble keeping him 
asleep in the daytime. — Answers. 



I.OVK VS. LOGIC. 

The stately steamer plowed its way 
thrpugh the blue waves of Lake Michigan. 

"Oh, Horace!" moaned the young bride, 
who a moment before had paced the deck 
with smiling face and love-lit eye, the 
happiest of the happy, "I feel so queer! 
I,et me lean on your shoulder," 

"Oh, dearest, don't do that ! " exclaimed 
Horace, hastily. "I^ean over the side of 
the steamer." — Chicago Tribune. 



A turkey stood in a cranberry swamp. 

And sang till his throat was sore ; 
For all day long he sang this song : 
" We shall meet on that beautiful shore.' 
— Pen and Scissors. 



WHO S CONVINCED. 

It takes us half our lives to learn that 
mankind are fools, and the other half to 
be convinced that we are one of them. — Ex 



He is apt to be with the one he 
thinks is " out of sight." 

How doth the naughty, naughty man 
Improve each moonlight night. 

By making love to one sweet girl 
While the other is out of sight. — Ex. 



The farther probably appre- 
ciated this when he paid 
his bill. 

A little girl visiting Niagara with her 
father, and seeing the foam at the foot of 
the falls, exclaimed: "Pa, how much soap 
it must take to make such suds ! " — Ex. 




ONE OF (W. W.) WATTS' HIMS. 






ga, 
'""%\ 




■""W-m 



X 




GEN. ROY STONE. 

Chief of the Government Department of Road Inquiry, 
Washington, D. C. 



Good Ro^os. 

Vol. 6. October, 1894. No. 4. 

THE LEAGUE OF AMERICAN WHEElvMEN AS A 
POLITICAL PARTY. 

IN the old da3'S, when Noah Webster made his first dictionary, 
"Politics" probably was the "science of government," at 
least out of respect for the memorj'- of Mr. Webster we 
will assume that he correctly reported the accepted defini- 
tion of his time. 

The change which time has wrought, however, is more than 
perceptible. Good Roads (which, by the way, is still 
furnished to yearly subscribers at the ruinously low price of 
$1.00), has come to the conclusion that "Politics," as under- 
stood to-day, means 

The science of getting there. 

"The science of government" being considered subse. 
quently, in some cases, and not at all in others. 

If a few drops of ink are placed in a spring of crystal 
water the whole is tinged and made to look unfit to drink. So a 
few unworthy men, in our State and national politics, cast a 
sickly hue over the ninet}^ and nine who are, perhaps, magnifi- 
cent specimens of unselfish manhood. 

A prominent State Governor recently said to Good Roads 
during a conversation on this subject : " However high-minded 
and worthy a man may be, and however anxious to serve his 
country for his country's good, he cannot do so unless he can 
■first obtain the opportunity, through an election to the proper 
office, and it is in elections where the questionable practices are 
most liable to occur. ' ' 

The office seldom seeks the man, onh' because the man 
doesn't hold still long enough to be sought. 

One of the first things learned b}- the young politician is, 
that to be elected he must have votes, and to obtain votes it is 
necessary to cause a desire, in the mind of the voter, for the 
election of the votee. 

If the voter wants the town to appropriate some money to 
improve the road in front of his farm, he is not very likely to 
vote for the election of an official who is known to be opposed 
to such an appropriation. 

And by the same token the aspiring politician is naturall}^ 
anxious to please as many voters as possible, so as to get in a 
position to ser\'e the country which he loves so well. 



176 L. A. W. A POLITICAL PARTY. 

Whatever may be said on the right and wrong of these 
things, we all must have observed that the earth is inhabited 
by human animals, each of whom has an ever present appetite 
actively engaged in craving something. 

The lycague of American Wheelmen, firmly grounded as it 
is in the hearts of an appreciative people, will undoubtedly live 
to see the perfection of all things, including, of course, roads, 
but we, its present members, in order to have results during 
our lives must make good use of such materials as we have at 
hand, not forgetting that the millennium, should it ever arrive, 
will be just as welcome as though we had sat and waited for it. 

Good Roads believes in political "deals," but only the 
kind which may be made publicly. 

If the lycague wanted something which could benefit only 
wheelmen, it would be perfectly justified in using its power in 
every honorable way to obtain it. Hou^ much better is it then, 
that the I^eague's influence be used to obtain that which 
benefits others even more than itself. 

League members everj^where are justified in asking the 
candidate how he stands on the road question. Don't be satis- 
fied to know that he "isn't opposed " to road legislation. 

Neither is a horse opposed to it. 

The world has too many men who are ' ' not opposed ' ' to 
anything. 

A man who is earnestly opposed and can tell why, is to be 
desired above the inert automaton whose blood circulates only 
by gravity. The one will act, the other is dead wood occupy- 
ing room that might better be vacant. 

political parties mean nothing 

except as they do something. 

If you vote for any man because he is a Republican or a 
Democrat, and for no other reason, you are not availing yourself 
of the highest privilege of American citizenship. 

Protection, Free Trade, Prohibition, or whatever, cannot 
affect the other question. 

The more a man wants to protect American industries, the 
more he wants good roads. If he wants free trade, good 
roads will make it still freer. If he wants prohibition, he must 
remove the thing which is most likely to drive men to drink, viz : 

BAD ROADS. 

When properly organized, the strongest party in existence 
is the Good Roads party, because in such a party there is no 
good reason for differences of opinion. 

Men are bound to differ and dispute on all questions where 
there is the slightest chance for argument, but in the matter of 



L. A. IV. A POLITICAL PARTY. i^-j 

improved hihgways it is only a question of how to do it. And 
that will soon be reduced to an exact science. 

JOIN THE L. A. W. 
and you will feel that you belong to a party with an aim, than 
which the world never saw a worthier. 

Unless some unforeseen and remarkable blunder is made, 
the Ivcague of iVmerican Wheelmen will stand firmly on its 
own legs long after there isn't a Republican or a Democrat on 
the face of the earth. 



ONE TOUCH OF NATURE. 

By the bed the old man waiting, sat in vigil sad and tender, 

Where his aged wife lay dying ; and the twilight shadows brown, 

Slowly from the wall and window chased the sunset's golden splendor, 

Going down. 

"Is it night? " she whispered, waking (for her spirit seemed to hover, 

I/OSt between the next world's sunrise and the bedtime cares of this). 
And the old man, weak and tearful, trembling as he bent above her. 
Answered, " 'Tis." 

" Are the children in? " she asked him. Could he tell her? All the treasures 

Of their household lay in silence many years beneath the snow ; 
But her heart was with them living, back among her toils and pleasures, 
Ivong ago. 

And again she called at dew-fall in the sweet summer weather, 

" Where is little Charley, father ? Frank and Robert — have they come ? " 
"They are safe," the old man faltered, "all the children are together. 
Safe at home." 

Then he murmured gentle soothings, but his grief grew strong and stronger, 

'Till it choked and stilled him a* he held and kissed her wrinkled hand, 
For her soul, far out of hearing, could his fondest words no longer 
Understand. 

There was stillness on the pillow — and the old man listened lonely — 
'Till they led him from the chamber, with the burden on his breast, 
For the wife of seventy years, his manhood's early love and only. 
Lay at rest. 

" Fare-you-well ! " he sobbed, " my Sarah ; you will meet the babes before me : 

'Tis a little while, for neither can the parting long abide. 
And you ^vill come and call me soon, I know — and heaven will restore me 
To your side." 

It was even so. The Spring-time in the steps of winter treading, 

Scarcely shed its orchard blossoms ere the old man closed his eyes. 

And they buried him by Sarah, and they had their " diamond wedding " 

In the skies. 

— Tlieron Brown in Farinini> World. 



EXPENSE OF GOOD ROADS. 

BY COI.. D. W. M'CI.UNG. 

IN almost every article about improving our highwaj^s, there 
is the same commendation of the object, the same disposi- 
tion to dwell upon the comfort and profit if that object can 
be realized, but then comes, with a lament and an apology, 
a positive prohibition of progress by calling attention to 
the enormous and intolerable expense. 

This inverted climax is reachecl by aggregating in one vast 
sum the cost of furnishing an entire State or count}^, or even a 
township, with durable roads properly constructed. This 
method of computation will kill any enterprise. The farmer 
who counts only the cost will never sow any wheat. To a man 
who knows nothing but the cost of bread and butter, it would 
be impossible to feed the people of the United States for one 
year. If all the social drinking in the United States had to be 
done at a gulp and paid for upon a signal, it would not only kill 
all the drinkers, but for the time would make an unheard of 
stringenc}^ in monetarj^ affairs. To get 900,000,000 of dollars 
readj^ all at once to make payment in money or currency would 
drain the banks to their reserves, and empty the pocket books 
of the people. Things are not done that way. 

Expenditures are made from year to year, as accumulations 
create ability. The burden is adjusted so that like the pressure 
of the atmosphere it is never felt, and if known is onl}^ known 
as a blessing. 

But the principal fact in this connection is that there need 
not be an increase of expenses, but there should be a wiser use 
of the expenditures that are annually made. Not heavier tax- 
ation, or an increase in corporate and municipal debts, is the 
first aim; but permanent work, so that each year's work may 
join and supplement the work of the previous year. If any 
one will take the pains to calculate the amount ordinarily 
expended upon our roads to make them nothing the better, but 
rather the worse, and to disappear before storm and flood and 
frost of the next winter and spring, he will find that the sum in 
almost any of our older States rises into the millions. And 
this wasteful expenditure has been repeated year after year for 
two or three generations, and bids fair to be repeated for gener- 
ations to come. The waste already amounts probably to a sum 
equal to all our public debts, and out of it all we have few 
miles of really good roads. 

No, the problem of first consideration is not how to raise 
more money, but rather to expend what we do raise so that the 
work may be satisfactory and permanent. 



EXPENSE OF GOOD ROADS. 179 

Our roads would now be in better and more serviceable con- 
dition if all the public work had been done to secure properly 
constructed road beds, without metalling — road beds of clay, 
thoroughly under-drained, with sufficient sluices, either of iron 
pipe or of clay tile, protected at the openings with masonry, 
the clay crowned so as to free the road from water, well com- 
pacted with the roller, and the roads so located that no grade 
need be more than three feet to the hundred. If we had such 
road beds, they would be as permanent as any structure made 
by the hands of man. The material will not decay. It will 
bear up any load that horses can pull. It is smooth, firm and 
elastic. 

When the time might come to put on metal — to complete 
the structure by putting on the roof — the metal would remain 
until worn to powder by the wheels and hoofs passing over it. 
Over such road beds, a coating of macadam three inches thick, 
broken, spread and rolled according to Macadam's rule, would 
be quite sufficient for any ordinary country road. Where 
travel is very heavy, a greater depth of metal might be required, 
but the writer knows of a road which bears a heavy traffic, cut 
in a hillside, that has but five inches of broken stone. It 
stands and wears, year after year, always smooth and dry. 
But it was thoroughly constructed and drained before stone 
was placed upon it, under the direction of an engineer with 
competent knowledge and good common sense. 



This little girl must have been reading Printers^ Ink. 

lyittle Bessie's papa 

Is an advertising man 

Who talks his business everywhere, 

Everywhere he can. 

Little Bessie heard him, 
Heard him talking ads. 
And became a loyal convert 
To that theory of her dad's. 

And like her good papa, 
Believed that anything desired, 
Could be had by advertising 
When properly inspired. 

One day there came a babe, 
To fill the house with joy, 
A great big bouncing babj% 
A ten-pound baby boj'. 

And when Bessie saw her brother, 
As she tip-toed on the mat 
And saw the babe, she said, " Mamma, 
Did you advertise for that ? " 

— Printers' Ink. 



MONTANA, THE TREASURE STATE. 



BY F. H. RAY. 




eESS than four years a State 
Montana, because of her 
contributions to this na- 
tion's wealth (six hun- 
dred million dollars 
from mining alone), her area, 
her magnificent scenery, and 
the widespread misconceptions 
regarding her climate and re- 
sources, has valid claims to the 
attention of Good Roads ($i.oo 
per year) readers. The inter- 
est that attaches to all new coun- 
tries invests this territory set- 
tled so recently (1862), and 
are even now considered by 
K. H. Ray. many otherwise well informed 

persons, as arid waste, where 
temperatures of 50 below zero originate, and the dwellers divide 
their energies between mining and Indian warfare. 

It is the purpose of the accompanying articles to dispel 
these false views, and to interest with facts, narrated by com- 
petent observers, in close touch with the subjects they treat. 
Thanks are due F. Jay Haynes, official photographer Northern 
Pacific Railroad, St. Paul; A. M. Moore, Hamilton; W. S. 
Hawes, Anaconda; Emil D. Keller, Gen. Geo. O. Eaton, 
Helena ; and O. D. O'Donnell, of Billings, for photos furnished. 
Although leading all States in copper production, having to 
her credit 164,000,000 pounds in 1892, and about the same in 
1893, being over one-half the total for the United States, the 
inhabitants are not "brassy." Their charateristics are those 
common to pioneers elsewhere : tireless energy, buoyant 
courage, breadth of mind and largeness of heart, in keeping with 
vast area and inspiring scenery. An assumption of exclusive, 
superior wisdom as manifested by some eastern writers in dis- 
cussing the silver and other questions is foreign to western men; 
their intimate contact with representatives of various localities 
begetting a cosmopolitan spirit. The abundant sunshine com- 
mon to the " Silver States " does not evaporate intelligence, nor 
warp judgment transplanted from the East. Economic or polit- 
ical views advocated by a Rocky Mountain editor or senator are 
quite as likel)^ to be correct as those emanating from rich New 



MONTANA. THE TREASURE STATE. i8i 




A Montana Load of Montana I,o(;s. 
Property of Harper Bros. The load contained 10,310 feet, and was hauled by four hor.ses. 



York or erudite Boston, and to portray a group of western 
gentlemen as "Enemies of Public Welfare" (vide Harpers' 
"Weekly) was grossly libelous. In pleasing contrast, however, 
is tlie policy of " Review of Reviews." 

The East would engender less sectional feeling if she kept 
in mind that the West is peopled by easterners who have 
added to their emigrant knowledge, varied western experiences. 

It is a significant fact that ranking third in area, 145,310 
square miles, Montana is the most sparsely populated State, 
(132,159 — 1890 census), and yet va. per capita wealth $3,429, she 
equals the States of Ohio, Michigan and Illinois combined ; dis- 
tancing by $965 the second State, Idaho, and overtopping the 
richest State east of the Mississippi River, Rhode Island, 
($1,454) by $1,975 or 235 per cent. Emphasis is added to this 
by the census office returns of per capita real estate mortgage 



1 8 2 MO NT A NA , THE TREA S URE STATE. 




"Land - Locked" Salmon Trout. 
Caught by Gen. Geo. O. Eatou. The largest one weighed ii 1-2 pounds. 

indebtedness, which is $66 for Montana, against New York, 
$268, Colorado $206, Massachusetts, $144, Pennsylvania, $117, 
Rhode Island, $ro6, Connecticut, $107. Viewed from a stand- 
point of ratio between the debt and the true value of all taxed 
real estate, Montana again makes the excellent showing of 4.78 
percent., while Massachusetts is 19.32 percent.. New York, 
30.62 per cent., Pennsylvania, 18.91 per cent., and Connecticut 
16.44 per cent. 

What has produced this per capita plethoric purse? Mining 
(see page 190) is the greatest single, but not the sole cause. 
Cattle, sheep and horses have contributed much. What agri- 
culture ivill yield is indicated by Prof. Emerj^ (see article). 
In sheep raising and wool producing, Montana ranks fifth 
State, the returns for taxation last year footing over 2,250,000 
sheep with an estimated wool clip of 17,500,000 pounds. 



MONTANA, THE TREASURE STATE. 183 



Marcus Daly's Horse Raxch at Hamilton, Mont. 

Of late, sheep are provided shelter and food in severe weather, 
but range cattle are not sheltered, nor fed from stacks; they feed 
the year round on wild grasses that cure standing. The total 
assessed Ndlvi^ of all live stock in 1893, was $25,000,000, which 
was fully 25 per cent, below actual values. 

Obviously the climate is favorable, or such development of 
stock interests would be impossible. It is noteworthy that Mr. 
Marcus Daly's horse ranch at Hamilton (in Bitter Root Valley) , 
is second only to the celebrated breeding farm of the late 
Leland Stanford; also that the winnings for 1893 of Mr. Daly's 
running horses were $76,612.50. Budd Doble paid merited 
tribute to the nutritious value of Montana blue joint hay by 
shipping it to his Indiana training stable. 

A topographical glance at Montana reveals an average alti- 
tude, according to Prof. Gannett's Hayden Survey, of 4.905 
feet, being 2.260 feet less than the following States: Colorado, 
7.000 feet; Wyoming, 6.400 feet; New Mexico, 5.660 feet; 
Nevada, 5.600 feet. 

The eastern portion comparatively level, the central contain- 
ing the main divide of the Rockies, and the western region also 
mountainous. Bach of these three genereral divisions differs 
some as to the climate and productions. Heading in the main 
divide are several large streams, the tributaries of which literally 
vein the State. Only one large lake, Flathead, with its 318 
square miles and soundings of one thousand feet that did not 
touch bottom. 

Landscapes west of the main divide remind one of New 
England. Verdure abounds, fruits thrive, lumbering is 
extensive, irrigation is often dispensed with. Hunters and 
fishermen are in paradise. 

Snow-capped mountains, especially in the central part, 
besides their aesthetic value, serv^e the useful purpose of con- 
gealed water supply to innumerable rivulets. 



MONTANA. J HE TREASURE SI ATE. 




Great Falls, Mont. 
Smelters' refinery aud electrolytic plant in background. 

He who would accurately forecast Montana's future must 
consider her numerous waterfalls, and the rapidly increasing 
application of electricity as motive power, in addition to 
immense coal deposits and abundant raw material for manu- 
facture. Unite these with the agricultural advantages, the 
inviting climate, and no accutely prophetic vision is required to 
see the inevitabl)^ marvelous industrial development. 

GREAT FAI.LS, THE LARGEST WATER POWER 
IN THIS COUNTRY. 

Compared with the largest water powers of the East and 
that of Minneapolis, Minn., the Great Falls, Mont., power 
stands as follows : 



Holyoke, Mass., 
lyawrence, Mass., 
lyowell, Mass., 
Manchester, N. H., - 
Minneapolis, Minn., - 



HORSE POWER. 

12,260 
10,999 

11.845 
12,000 
52,000 



MONTANA, THE TREASURE S7ATE. 



185 




Flat Head Lake. 

Average for 12 montlis developed and unde- 
veloped ------ 

Great Falls developed horse power - 
Great Falls undeveloped horse power 

Total Great Falls undeveloped and devel- 
oped, average for 12 months 

Great Falls excess of power over all of above 
compared water powers 



99,104 

268,102 
168,998 



The proposed development of Niagara Falls water power, 
'by means of tnnnel, as claimed, will realize 120,000 horse 
power. The total of the above Eastern water powers, includ- 
ing Niagara Falls and Minneapolis, is 219,104, while the excess 
of Great Falls over all these is 48,998. 

(The view and data relating to Great Falls are from Mr. 
Jerry Collins' article in Northwest Magazine, January, 1894.) 



THE ROADS OF MONTANA. 



BY A. M. RYAN. 
Professor of Engineering. 




/n' 



ONTANA is a land of 
magnificent distances 
and magnificent dis- 
tances suggest long 
journeys. A glance 
at the map will disclose the fact 
that the country is not covered 
with a net-work of railroads ; 
but notwithstanding this draw- 
back there probably is no State 
east of the Rocky Mountains 
where the average travel per 
capita is as large as it is in 
Montana. Until within a com- 
paratively few years there was 
not a mile of railroad track 
A.M.RYAN within the State lines; but the 

building of the Northern Pacific 
and the Great Northern trans-continental lines, resulted in the 
building of about twenty-eight branch roads, and it is now possi- 
ble to enter the State from four trans-continental roads. With 
a population averaging less than one person per square mile, 
railroads in Montana are a luxury which require miles of high- 
way travel for many to attain. Fortunately we are blessed with 
good natural roads, and hundreds of miles of the original trails 
made by the early day emigrant and freighter remain to-day in 
use, practically unchanged. As may be expected in a large 
State like Montana, covering about 145,000 miles, we have 
almost every condition of soil. On the plains and in the valleys 
we find for the most part a mixture of loam and clay with more 
or less sand ; this mixture, as might be expected, makes a disa- 
greeable mud when thoroughly wet, but it sheds the water 
easily when not cut up, and as a rule it is under-drained by a 
gravel deposit. 

Water, the great enemy of roads, does not annoy the Montana 
traveller very much, as the precipitation over most of the State 
only amounts to from twelve to sixteen inches per year, and 
most of this comes down as snow. The presence of snow does 
not, however, necessarily mean mud during the thawing season, 
for we are blessed with what are known as ' ' Chinook ' ' winds ; 
these winds are warm and dry and their effect is to evaporate 



ROADS OF MONTANA. 



187 




"Jim" Mitchel's Team 
Stuck on a down grade with a load of mining machinery. 

the water sometimes as fast as the snow melts. After the light 
spring rains the soil bakes hard and often remains that way 
until the following spring. These conditions make our roads 
perhaps rather dusty, but otherwise as good as could be expected, 
and travelling a pleasure instead of an affliction. The effect of 
the presence of alkali is to convert the road when wet into a 
place which would set the manager of a skating rink wild with 
delight on account of its slippery ness ; this, together with the 
presence of badger and gopher holes, play an important part in 
the trials of the Montana traveller. One of the exceptions to 
the rule is the beautiful and fertile Gallatin Valley, with its 
rich ? black loam ; the large percentage of organic matter 
present in this soil makes the Valley a splendid place for crops, 
but a wretched place for roads. The large rainfall of this sec- 
tion, almost sufficient to render irrigation unnecessary, further 
increases the difficulties of the highway traveller. Indeed we 
must confess that we have frequently seen the time when the 



ROADS OF MONTANA. 




[The photo sent by Prcf. Knuti \va> 11..I -uol nh.u-li Uj makr a lialltuuc cut, so we 
substituted the above, which i.-. much tlie .-.aiuc kind u( a luad.— L',i:.j 

delight of the bad roads camera fiend would approximate to 
ecstasy . 

In the spring our mountain streams bring down large quan- 
tities of water, which frequently overflows their banks and 
leaves but little of the roads in their vicinity; at such times only 
a daring and skillful driver can expect to travel far in this 
neighborhood. 

The cut on this page shows a place where almost the entire 
road is replaced by a stream over the hubs in depth at places ; 
here and there patches of the original road bed show up like 
islands in a river. 

Our mountain roads have been for the most part constructed 
for the benefit of the miners and lumbermen ; the grades, holes 
and slants of some of these specimens would turn the hair of an 
inexperienced, timid traveller, gray in a few hours. Indeed the 
skill of many of the freighters and the drivers of ore wagons in 
handling their heavy vehicles, with several spans of horses 
attached, is wonderful. Fatal accidents are of very frequent 
occurrence on these narrow, ill-kept thoroughfares, and the 
marvel is that they are not more frequent, especially when one 
considers the half-wild condition of our horses. 

For the bicycler our State has many charms ; if we miss the 
smooth macadam of the East we have a dirt road which is 



ROADS OF MONTANA. 



189 



usually almost as good, and we have in addition an unrivalled 
climate ; if we live in a valley, the mountains, which like the 
seas are ever changing in appearance, lend a charm which goes 
a long w^ay towards compensating for the absence of half-way 
houses, characteristic of our popular eastern driveways. 




'.k^- 



'^'M. 



4 ^^f:-'f^ -':'■-' ' 



"MosELY's" Team Hauling Coal Through Cattle Canyon. 

We congratulate Mr. Mosely on his being thrown in contact 
with scenery of such a high order. 

During his daily rides he must often wonder 

" Who spoke creation into birth, 
Arch'd the broad heavens, and spread the rolling earth? 
Who form'd a pathway for the obedient sun, 
And bade the seasons in their circles run ? 
Who fill'd the air, the forest, and the flood. 
And gave man all for comfort, or for good ! " 



MINING AND METALLURGY IN MONTANA. 




PROF. F. \V. TRAPHAGEN. 



BY F. W. TRAPHAGEN. 

Professor of Chemistry and MetaIlitro;y, Montana Agricultural College. 

OOIvD, the first metal mined 
in Montana, was dis- 
covered on Gold Creek 
by Granville and James 
Stuart, and their asso- 
ciates, in 1859. Bannack, the 
first seat of territorial govern- 
ment, was the earliest camp of 
an3^ considerable size, but the 
Grasshopper ' ' diggins ' ' of this 
place were shortly eclipsed by 
the very rich placers of Alder 
Gulch about Virginia City, from 
which many millions of dollars 
worth of gold was shipped. Al- 
der Gulch in its turn was nearly 
depopulated, and thus the his- 
tory of placer mining ' ' repeats 
itself." There is something very pathetic in the appearance of 
one of these almost deserted mining towns. The many unoc- 
cupied houses, most of them doorless and windowless, the gen- 
eral air of quiet that is the inactivity of death rather than of rest, 
mingles clearly in one's mind with the thought of what must 
have existed only a short time before. The dwellers in these 
old "camps" are now chiefly Chinamen, who by hard work, 
long hours and persevering energy are making money by wash- 
ing over the gravel left by the white man, as too poor to work. 
The invariable reply of the Mongolian to ' ' How much you 
make, John? " is " Fo' bittee day." Fifty cents a day. 

The obtaining of gold from placers (the term applied to 
auriferous gravel deposits), is very simple. 

The various localities are "prospected" by "panning," 
which consists of the separation of the gold from the dirt by the 
use of a gold pan ; the gold remaining, while the lighter 
materials are washed awaj^ by the rotary motion given the pan. 
"Pay dirt" being found, the operations take place on a larger 
scale. "Long tons," "rockers," etc. giving wa^^ to the 
powerful hydraulic giants which throw jets of water six inches 
in diameter and sometimes under as much as two hundred feet 
of pressure, against the banks, fifty, sixty and ninety feet high, 
tearing them down with ease, and washing away large boulders 



MINING IN MONTANA. 



191 




Placer Mining, Jefferson Bar. 



as chips of wood are carried in ordinarj^ streams. The very high 
specific gravity of gold causes it to resist the carrying power of 
the water, and it is deposited in the first of the sluice boxes of 
which there may be many miles. From these sluice boxes the 
gold is easily obtained in the weekly " clean up." 

To my mind the most interesting property in Montana is the 
old Atlantic Cable mine back of Anaconda. Originally located 
as a quartz claim b}' two sailors who had been on the Great 
Eastern cable laying trip, it lay idle, so far as the under-ground 
working was concerned, until after its development as a placer 
claim. After several hundred thousand dollars had been washed 
from the surface by the usual methods of placer mining, the 
under-ground working proceeded, and about two millions of 
dollars were taken out. The ore was so rich that a regular 
system of searching the men as they left the mines was insti- 
tuted to prevent the carrying off of many dollars' worth of the 
precious metal. Pieces weighing a few pounds, ranging in 
value from ten to several thousand dollars, were frequently 
found. 

One of the richest silver mines of the world is the celebrated 
Granite Mountain, which has thus far paid over twelve million 
dollars in dividends. 

Its neighbor the Bi-metallic is on the same vein and promises 
to pay dividends equally high. 

A sample of ore from this mine was exhibited at the Colum- 
bian Exposition, which was one of the finest specimens in the 
whole mining building. It weighed over two tons, illustrated 



MINING IN MONTANA. 




Granitk Mountain Mine. Dividends Paid, J12, 120,000. 

ribbon vein structure beautifully, showing plentiful markings of 
ruby silver, and gave as the result of the assay of a sample bor- 
ing 937 ounces of silver per ton. Ore containing twenty ounces 
per ton, or even less, can be worked under favorable conditions, 
one of which is a price considerably better than sixty-two cents 
an ounce for silver. At the present price (sixty-two cents), 
only exceptional mines can work at all, and few, if any, make 
profit. 

Silver is separated from its ore principally by milling, which 
may be of two kinds. Free milling which is applied to ores in 
which the silver exists in its native state, or as chlorides, etc., 
when the ore is crushed fine and ground with quicksilver for a 
considerable time ; the silver uniting with the quicksilver forms 
a heavy amalgam from which the " tailings " — the desilverized 
ore, is separated by water. The amalgam, after straining 
through duck bags, is heated in a retort, when the quicksilver 
is driven off, to be condensed and used again, the silver being 
left behind, as a spongy mass. This is melted down and cast 
into bars for shipment to the refinery. The only essential 
difference in the treatment of the free silver ores and the base 
ores, is that the latter must first be heated, or " roasted " to a 
high temperature with common salt, which changes the silver 
into chloride, when it is treated as the free ores are. 

Montana stands pre-eminent as a copper producer ; her 
output in 1892 being over fifty per cent, of the amount mined in 
the entire United States, and nearly thirty-five per cent, more 
than the product of Michigan in the same period. All of this 
copper is mined in the city of Butte, and the producing mines 
are all in a circle of not more than a half-mile radius. 



MINING IN MONTANA. 



193 




Interior of Bald Butte Mine, Deer Lodge County, Mont. 

It is very doubtful if there be any one who can name all the 
different copper mines in this small., area. One cannot put his 
foot down in Butte except upon a mining location, and a glance at 
the county map gives the impression of a thoroughl}- pasted bill 
board, each poster a mine. 

Many veins forty feet in thickness are known and even one 
hundred feet is not unusual. Much of this ore is of the highest 
grade ; some of it containing sixty per cent, of copper, and 
nearly all of it contains silver also. 

The smelter capacity for the treatment of these ores is 
upwards of five thousand tons daily ; the Anaconda works 
alone being able to treat more than three thousand tons a day. 
These works are probably the largest in the world and are 
located twenty-eight miles from Butte. 

At present one hundred and twenty cars of ore carrying 
thirty tons each, are shipped to Anaconda daily, where the 



194 



MINING IN MONTANA. 




Sixty Stamp Mill. Empire, (Lrwis & Clark Co.) 



works were located, as an abundant supply of water could be 
obtained. 

Several of the companies have their smelters and refineries 
at Great Falls, one hundred and seventy-one miles from Butte, 
taking advantage of the tremendous water power of the Missouri 
River at that point. The copper of the Butte ores is combined 
with sulphur, iron and silica, and separated by smelting. 

The ore is first roasted to get rid of most of the sulphur and 
to oxidize the iron so that it will unite with the silica to form 
slag in the subsequent operation. 

This roasting was formerly done in case of the richer ore's, 
by piling the ore in coarser pieces on just sufiicient wood to 
ignite the sulphur in the ore. After it was burning the heat 
was regulated by covering with fine ore, thus limiting the sup- 
ply of air; but the city council passed resolutions prohibiting 
roasting in piles. Since then, the coarse ore has all been 
treated in stalls, the smoke being conducted by tall chimneys, 
high in the air, before being liberated. The lower grades of ore 
are first concentrated — that is separated from the material con- 
taining no copper, advantage being taken of differences in spe- 
cific weight. Excellent results are obtained in the concentra- 
tors here, the "tailings" rarely containing a considerable 
fraction of one per cent, of copper. 



MINING IN MONTANA. 



195 




Vanner Room of the Sixty Stamp Mill, Empire. 

These copper concentrates are roasted in Bruckner cylinders, 
which are revolving cylinders through which a fire plays, or in 
some automatic furnace like the O'Hara or Spence, or in the 
long hearth furnace, where the ore is put into the rear of the 
furnace and slowly pushed forward to the hotter parts by the 
workmen. It is evident there must be tremendous quantities of 
sulphurous oxide produced in these roasting processes and it 
certainly amounts to hundreds of tons daily. In the East this 
would possess great value for the production of sulphuric acid, 
but because of high transportation charges to market, it is here 
only a nuisance, and the problem is how to get rid of it with as 
little annoyance to the people of Butte as possible. Butte is a 
city without a tree, and few signs of any sort or verdure, in con- 
sequence of the smoke. One of the largest items of expense to 
the mining companies is the problem of the disposal of this 
objectionable gas. 

Experts have been consulted from all parts of the world ; 
they have visited Butte and attacked the puzzle without suc- 
cess. At Anaconda enormous stacks one hundred and twenty- 
five feet high, and fourteen to sixteen feet internal diameter, 
are built on top of a high hill. Connection is made with the 
furnaces b}^ flues large enough for a railroad train to run 
through, ten b}- fourteen feet interior dimensions, and six hun- 
dred feet long. 



1,96 MINING IN MONTANA. 

After the ore is roasted it is heated in a furnace to a high 
temperature, limestone being sometimes added to form a fusible 
slag, with the silica and iron, which is thrown away or cast 
into large bricks which are extensively used for building pur- 
poses. 

The other product is called matte and contains usually from 
fifty-five to sixty-five per cent, of copper with varying amounts 
of sulphur and iron. This matte is melted and treated in a 
converter somewhat similar to the Bessemer converter used in 
steel making. A stream of air is blown through the molten 
matte ; when the sulphur bums away the iron is oxidized and 
unites with the silica in the converter lining, and the metallic 
copper remaining is cast into bars. This copper is impure, con- 
taining about one per cent, of other elements. But when it is 
purified by the electric refining process it is so pure as to be 
ranked equal if not superior to the highest grade of copper from 
other sources. 

Montana was the first State in the Union to use the Manhes 
or ' ' Bessemer ' ' processes and it is abreast with all other locali- 
ties in its successful application of electrolytic refining methods. 

Foreign capital has found a fertile field for investment in 
Montana mining properties, English companies owning the 
Drum lyummon, Elkhorn, Golden lycaf, etc., while the Lexing- 
ton is owned by a French syndicate. 

Nearly all the cities of our country hold interests in proper- 
ties in this State — notably Boston, with its Boston and Montana, 
Butte and Boston and Boston and Colorado, Montana proper- 
ties. St. Louis capitalists have derived immense returns from 
their investments in the Granite Mountain, Bi-Metallic, Hope, 
Combination, and other properties about Philipsburg. 

The coal of the State bids fair to become one of the most 
important of its resources. The use of our own coal is slowly 
gaining headway often against considerable prejudice, and 
coke made from Montana coal has been successfully used under 
the most trying conditions, and fulfilled all requirements. 

With our immense beds of iron ore, our coal and our lime- 
stone, it is only a question of time when we shall produce our 
own iron and steel. 

The value of the gold, silver, copper, lead and coal produced 
in 1892 amounted to about $47,000,000. The amount of divi- 
dends paid by Montana mines to date is considerably above 
$28,000,000. This is exclusive of profits of close corporations 
and of placer mines, both of which are very great. 

The Anaconda Company gives to the Assessor of Silver Bow 
County as the last year's 7iet proceeds from its mines the sum of 
$2,800,000. This is one of the close corporations. 

The value of the gold mined in the State up to the end of 
1893 was $189,794,568.00 and of silver $198,844,187.00. Cer- 



MINING IN MONTANA, 197 

tainly over four /ncndred million dollars in the precious metals 
represents the total output of Montana to date. 

About 560,000 to7is of copper have been produced, which at 
the low price of ten cents a pound would amount to $1 12,000,000 
Add to these values, the value of the lead, of the coal, of the 
gems, and other mineral products and Montana thus far must 
have yielded over six hundred million dollars to her miners. 

There is so much of interest that might be written, connected 
with mining in Montana, that it is difficult to decide just what 
to leave out, but I cannot conclude without some reference to 
the bearing of good roads upon the mining here. For years, 
wood, salt and other supplies necessary for mine and mill were 
hauled up a very steep grade from Philipsburg to Granite at an 
enormous expense. Then wire rope tramways were constructed 
from the mine to Rumsey, a point to which the railroad was 
run. Shortly after the completion of these improvements the 
old mill on the hill was abandoned. When the Bi-Metallic mill 
was constructed instead of being placed at the mine, it was 
built at Clark, some miles distant, so that the mill and mine 
might be independent of the roads. 

While the tramway was built primarily to convey the ore 
from mine to mill, all, or nearly all, of the hauling of other 
freight is done by the railroad to the mill* and by the tramcars 
from the mill to the mine. I have no doubt that with a good 
system of roads all the difficulties experienced here might be 
avoided. 

Because of an insufficient water supply at the mine, the mill 
of the Champion Mining Companj^ was located at Deer Lodge, 
thirteen miles below the mine. In dry weather the teams haul- 
ing the ore, consisting of six horses and "lead and trail" 
wagons would carry about nine tons each, and return to the 
mine the same day. In rainy weather the same number of 
horses would require a full day to bring little more than one ton 
of ore in one wagon, the result being that whenever a rainy 
spell lasted a week the mill was obliged to shut down for lack 
of ore; throwing men out of employment for the time, at both 
mine and mill, and causing considerable loss to the manage- 
ment. The moral is obvious. 



PUBLIC EDUCATION IN MONTANA. 




C. C. WYI.IE. 



BY C. C. WYI.IE. 

Chief Clerk State Board of Education. 

^ I 'O such readers of Good 
tr\ Roads as may not be 

\^ familiar with the public 
school system of Mon- 
tana, a brief analj^sis of it 
may be interesting. 

The general supervision of the 
public schools of the State is 
vested in a State Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, who is 
elected by popular vote at the 
general elections and holds of- 
fice for four years. His duties 
are similar to those required to 
be performed by State Superin- 
tendents in other States. 

County superintendents have 
supervisory control over the 
schools in their respective counties. They are elected for a 
term of two years. Women are eligible to hold this office, as 
well as any school district ofiice. Out of the twenty-one county 
superintendents in this State, thirteen are females, five married 
and eight unmarried. Experience amply justifies the statement 
that they are fully as competent and capable to perform the 
duties of this office as are their co-laborers of the opposite sex. 
Their duties are manifold and often arduous. It is required of 
every county superintendent that he visit each school in his 
county at least once a j^ear. When it is remembered that many 
of the counties in this State contain between ten thousand and 
twenty thousand square miles each — exclusive of Custer 
County, which is larger than the combined area of the five 
States of New Hampshire Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island and Connecticut — that the population in many portions 
is sparse, and school districts scattered over an area of hundreds 
of miles, something of the difficulties that attend the proper dis- 
.charge of the duties of the office may be better understood. 
But, however hard the task of reaching some of these districts 
is, it is a fact that they are never missed. And many of them 
are visited by the superintendent two and three times a year. 
This is made possible by the fact that most of the farthest 
isolated districts have schools conducted during the summer 



EDUCA TION IN MONTANA. 



199 




A Montana School House. 



200 ED UCA TION IN MO NT A NA . 

months. No more pleasant outing can anywhere be found than 
that afforded by a three or four weeks' trip with horse and 
bugg3' during the months of May, June, July, August or 
September over mountains and valleys, through picturesque 
canyons, and beside swiftly-flowing and crystal-clear streams. 
And this is one of the pleasant experiences of ever}^ county 
superintendent in Montana. Well-graded wagon roads, hard as 
pavement and consequently free from mud, and connecting all 
important points, render travel safe and easy. 

A more direct control of the public schools is exercised by 
boards of trustees. In all country districts, and in all towns 
having a population of less than one thousand, these boards are 
composed of three members each. One member is elected by 
popular vote of the district each year, and holds office for three 
years. In cities having a population in excess of one thousand 
the board consists of seven members, elected by the voters of 
the district. 

For the support of the common schools of Montana,, funds 
are derived from the following sources : 

1 . A county school tax levied in each county by the board 
of count}' commissioners. This tax cannot be less than two 
mills nor more than five mills on the dollar on all taxable 
property. It is apportioned to each district in proportion to the 
school census, children between the ages of six and twenty-one 
years. 

2. District taxes ; voted b)^ special meeting for some 
specific object. 

3. All fines and penalties arising from a breach of the penal 
laws of the State. 

4. All moneys arising from the sale of town lots which are 
a part of the school lands or any other State lands. 

5. Moneys arising from unappropriated county road tax. 

6. The interest on the principal of all moneys arising from 
the sale of all school lands granted by the Congress of the 
United States. 

The lands referred to under the last division consist of the 
sixteenth and thirt3^-sixth sections in every township in the 
State. As yet, the greater portion of these lands are unsurveyed 
and therefore not marketable. When Montana's immense area 
of 146,000 square miles shall have all been surveyed, the grand 
heritage of her common schools will aggregate the stupendous 
sum of five million acres. The provisions of the Enabling Act 
of Congress, approved Februar}^ 22d, 1889, prohibit the sale of 
these lands at a price less than ten dollars per acre. In case 
the land is so situated as not to command this price, it may be 
leased for a period of five years. Only since July ist, 1891, 
have the surveyed portions of these lands been on the market 
for sale or leasing. But the interest which has already accrued 



ED UCA TION IN MONTA NA. 201 

is a substantial contribution to the school fund, and as the 
amount surely and rapidly increases, we can hopefully look for- 
ward to a time in the not far distant future, when this fund alone 
will place the common schools of Montana upon a solid and 
sufficient financial basis. 

The people of Montana believe in education. They submit 
cheerfully to voluntary taxation for the support of schools. And 
while this in many instances is a burden heavy to bear, it is 
borne willingly because of the abiding faith in the heart of every 
citizen, that money so expended must bring blessings to the 
home, purify society, and elevate the standard of citizenship 
among our people. The improvement made in our schools has 
kept pace with business activities in all lines. A steady increase 
is being made each year in the number of school districts, in 
the average length of school in days, in the average daily 
attendance, school buildings, appliances and apparatus. .Not 
the least of the many factors contributing to the success of our 
schools is the character of the teachers. I think Montana can 
justly claim that in a majority of her schools are teachers posses- 
ing as thorough qualifications for their profession as can be 
found in any State. A large proportion of them are College or 
Normal graduates who have been induced to come here because 
of the higher wages paid. 

I quote below some figures from the Report of the Commis- 
sioner of Education for 1890-91 which will serve to show the 
enviable position Montana occupies among her sister States in 
the matter of public education: 

Amount raised for each child of the school population, 

Massachitsetts $16.44 

Illinois 11.70 

District of Columbia 14.54 

Iowa 12.31 

Wyoming 1S.04 

Colorado 23.87 

Nevada 18.43 

Washington 1444 

California 17.75 

Montana 16.02 

I have selected the above ten States because they stand 
highest. Montana stands sixth on the list while North Caro- 
lina reaches the lowest limit, with $1.24. 

Total amount expended per pupil in attendance : 

Massachusetts >3o.7o 

District of Columbia 31.04 

Minnesota 32.96 

Wyoming 45-34 

Colorado 4345 

Arizona 38. 6S 

Nevada 31.89 

Washington 47-76 

California 35-39 

Montana 47-76 



202 ED UCA TION IN MONTANA . 

Of the above ten States which stand at the head, Montana 
and Washington lead with the same figures. The lowest limit 
is reached at fo.03, and the figures belong to South Carolina. It 
should be borne in mind while scanning the above statistics, 
that more than 96 per cent, of the funds for the support of the 
common schools in this State are derived through direct, or 
voluntary-, taxation, while in all other States save three, a large 
proportion of these funds is raised from State taxes and a per- 
manent school fund. 

In the expenditure per capita of the population Montana is 
excelled only by Colorado, Washington and California. Here 
is the comparison : 

Colorado J4.0S 

Washington f.03 

California 4.29 

Montana 3.S7 

But let US compare these same States in the matter of deri- 
vation of funds. Quoting again from the Commissioner's 
Report we find the following : 

Percentage of the total receipts derived from 

Per Funds and Rents State Taxes IvOcal Taxes Other Sources 

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. 

Colorado 5.2 68.04 2604 

Washington 3.5 78.5 18.0 

California 4.4 47.3 46.4 1.9 

Montana 96. i 3.9 

It is a claim that can be sustained from the records that the 
people of Montana tax themselves more heavily, and provide 
more liberally for the education of their children in public 
schools, than any State or Territory in the Union. 

In this connection I wish to emphasize the standing and 
importance of some of our high schools. Those deserving of 
special mention are, Helena, Butte, Bozeman, Anaconda, 
Missoula and Great Falls. Each of these schools is provided 
with a full corps of as good teachers as money will procure, 
with costly buildings and complete appliances for doing effective 
work. The high school building in the first named city was 
completed at a cost of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 
Many of the ward buildings cost in the neighborhood of twenty 
thousand dollars each. Butte's high school building cost one 
hundred twenty-five thousand dollars, with many ward build- 
ings aggregating one hundred and fifty thousand more. Boze- 
man with four thousand population, has a high school building 
costing fifty thousand dollars, and one ward building worth 
fifteen thousand dollars. Missoula has one hundred thousand 
dollars invested in school houses. Anaconda fifty thousand 
dollars. Helena pays forty- three teachers for nine months each 



ED UCA TION IN MONT A NA . 203 

year ; Butte has eighty-one in her corps. The wages paid these 
teachers will average as high as those paid for like work any- 
where in the United States. 

Our S3^stem of public schools, so generously supported by 
the suffrages of the people, gives promise of expanding its bene- 
fits immeasureably, through the growth in wealth and popula- 
tion which will afford better opportunities for its successful 
operation. 

The Legislative Assembly of 1893 established a State Uni- 
versity, Agricultural College, State School of Mines and Deaf 
and Dumb School. These were distributed over the State, the 
cities presenting the most favorable conditions for their location 
proving successful. These are Missoula, Dillon, Bozeman, 
Butte, Boulder. These institutions are under the general con- 
trol of the State Board of Education. This Board is composed 
of eleven members. The Governor, Superintendent of Public 
Instruction and Attorney General are ex-officio members. The 
other eight are appointed by the Governor and confirmed by 
the Senate. 

The lycgislature voted fifteen thousand dollars to each of 
these institutions, but owing to the Constitutional limit of taxa- 
tion having been reached before these appropriations were made, 
the money has never become available. It is expected the 
lyegislature to convene next January will make ample provision 
for opening and putting in full operation all the State Educa- 
tional Institutions. The Agricultural College is more fortunate 
than the others in that it receives an annual appropriation from 
the Government. This money, however, can only be used to 
defray the running expenses of the College. Therefore build- 
ings had to be rented. With a full complement of professors 
and instructors the College opened its doors for the first term 
September 15th, 1893. The year just closed has probably been 
unparalleled in the history of Agricultural Colleges. Opening 
under exceptionally unfavorable conditions, in the centre of a 
State of immense area and sparse settlement, it soon won its 
way into popular favor through the tireless and energetic efforts 
of its faculty and board of managers, and at the close of the first 
six months of its existence had enrolled and in daily attendance, 
one hundred and forty students. The College is an object of 
pride to every citizen in Montana. Its future success is already 
assured. 

The Organic Act of Congress approved February 22d, 1889, 
made the following gifts of land to the State of Montana for 
educational purposes : 

For a School of Mines, 100,000 acres. 

For a State Normal School, 100,000 acres. 

For a State Agricultural College, 140,000 acres. 

For a Deaf and Dumb School, 50,000 acres. 



204 ED UCA TION IN MO NT A NA . 

In 1881, the United States gave to Montana seventy-two 
sections of public land for University purposes. This makes 
the total donations for educational purposes, 436,080 acres. 
Under the present law this land cannot be sold for less than ten 
dollars per acre. About one-half of the amount has been 
selected. This land, for the most part, is the choicest in the 
State. It has been selected only after careful inspection by the 
State lyand Agent. Much of it will command more than ten 
dollars per acre, while that which cannot now be disposed of 
will be held in reserve for future needs. 

From the gradual sale and leasing of this vast quantity of 
land will come a revenue that will sustain the higher schools of 
learning in this State through the years to come, and place them 
on a par with the best in the land. 



AND HIS NAME WAS IvEGION. 

They built a fine church at his very door — 

He wasn't in it ; 
They brought him a scheme for relieving the 
poor, 

, He wasn't in it. 
Let them work for themselves as he had done, 
They wouldn't ask help of any one 
If they hadn't wasted each golden minute- 
He wasn't in it. 

So he passed the poor with a haughty tread- 
He wasn't in it. 

And he scorned the good with averted head — 
He wasn't in it. 

When men in the halls of virtue met. 

He saw their goodness without regret ; 

Too high the mark for him to win it — 
He wasn't in it. 

A carriage crept down ihe street one day — 

He was in it. 
The funeral trappings made display — 

He was in it. 
St. Peter received him with book and bell : 
" My friend, you have purchased a ticket to — 

well, 
Your elevator goes down in a minute ! " 

He was in it. 

— Exchatige. 




MAP OF MONTANA. 




Virginia City, Munt. Population 1893, 700. 




Indians' Annual Watermelon Feast. 




A Road ix 'Hell's Gap," Montana. 

MONTANA FROM AN AGRICUIvTURAL 
STANDPOINT. 



BY PROF S. M. EMERY. 

Director Experimrnt Station .yfontaita Agrtciiltiiral Society. 

1 I fWV should Montana be placed in range of the index- 

I I I finger upon the guide post, pointing toward those 

V^^ States presenting greatest attractions to persons 

most interested in Agricultural pursuits, and not in 

Agricultural pursuits alone but in climatic effects and 

all conditions governing and conducive to the best physical, 

moral and financial interests of the homeseeker ? 

And at what cross roads should this guide post, with its 
large hand of fellowship, be placed, outside of the columns 
of railway advertisements formulated in the light of the fact 



208 



MONTANA AGRICULTURE. 




Harvesting Barley on Manhattan Farm. 
This farm contains 13,000 acres. 

that the American Public is a traveler, and if he travel, why 
not by flaming headlines and scenic pictures induce him to 
' ' choose our route ?" 

These are two pertinent questions, only to be answered by 
careful investigation and inquiry into the almost boundless pos- 
sibilities of Montana's resources as compared with those of 
other States. 

When the immortal Horace Greeley, with that honesty of 
purpose that so strongly characterized his nature, directed the 
young man ' ' To Go West ' ' he had little conception of the 
magnitude of that field. The agricultural West of his day, 
comprising what is now known as the Mississippi Valley, which 
is no more to be compared to the broad new West of the Rocky 
Mountain region than is the Chicago River, with its sluggish 
impure waters, to the bold an sparkling mountain stream leap- 
ing forth from the living rock. 

Theory is one thing ; practice is another. What can the 
home seeker reasonably count upon finding in Montana ? First 
and most important, government lands are still to be obtained, 
subject to Homestead or Desert land entry, or to be purchased 
outright at very low figures from the N. P. R. R. Though by 
far the better way is to buy lands already improved, from the 



MONTANA AGRICULTURE. 209 




-■^^- 



I^OADiNG Wool at Great Falls, Mont. 

original settler, who not infrequently is willing to part with a 
portion of the vast territorj^ of tillable land he has already ac- 
quired. In the latter plan it is all important to secure with the 
land a valid water right, sufficient in quantity to irrigate the 
entire tract. 

In no part of the United States, with a single exception, are 
to be found more fertile lands than in Montana, while at the 
same time they may be purchased to-day at a cheaper rate than 
in any other irrigable State. 

A close estimate based on crop reports collated from cards of 
enquiry sent to every land owner in Gallatin County, Montana, 
in the fall of 1893, showed the average per acre of 

Oats to Idc - - - 54 3-5 bushels, 
Wheat to be - - - 32 1-2 " 
Barley to be - - - 44 1-3 " 
Potatoes to be - - - 2638-9 " 
reducing these yields to a percental comparison with the crops 
of the United States as shown by the reports of the Department 
of Agriculture, we note that the yield in excess of the United 
States is 

Oats, ----- 233 per cent. 
Wheat, - - - - 284 " '• 



MONTANA AGRICULTURE. 




1 HRESHiNG Barley (Manhattan Farm). 



Barley, _ . . . 141 per cent. 

Potatoes, - - - - 375 " " 
or in other words the oat grower of Gallatin county, Montana, 
finds his single acre to be as productive as 21-3 acres in the 
average of other States. The wheat acre equaling 2.8 acres, 
the barley the equivalent to 1.4 acres, while the potato planter 
notes that his acre yields an amount only to be produced on 
3.75 acres in the average States. 

These figures are demonstrable by the published reports of 
the Government and documents on file in the office of the writer. 

A summary of the Department of Agriculture made up from 
the estimate of 25,000 Northwestern farmers, and 4,000 experts 
from the Department place the average cost price per acre of 
wheat at $11.69 and the cost of an acre of wheat in Wisconsin 
at $12.93. In this estimate the land rent is about $3.00 per 
acre. The cost of wheat production in India per acre is $10.14 
where grown without irrigation, and when water was used the 
additional cost was $2.12 per acre making the cost per bushel 
for India wheat 93.8 cents. 

The average yield of wheat of the United States for the ten 
years ending with 1890, was twelve bushels per acre. Remem- 
bering the ruling price of wheat and considering the yield, it 



MONTANA AGRICUL TURE. 



prsgaa ^ab ' .' ■,* !■, 




;&^.:: -J 




Mowing Second Crop of Alfalfa. 
Hesper farm, near Billing's, Mont. 



can be plainly seen that this crop has been produced at a loss, 
and that when the occasion will permit, those who have been 
growing the crops under such disadvantageous circumstances, 
will turn their attention to other and more profitable agricul- 
tural pursuits, and this work be performed on land that is better 
adapted naturally to the crop, and the natural fertility of which 
can be maintained by the system of irrigation. 

The United States has been one of the most potential in 
supplying the markets of the world with the staff of life : Its 
granary may be said to be on wheels ; beginning with the 
Genesee Valley of New York and the fertile lands of the 
Western Reserve, it has been shifted, first to the Ohio Valley 
and Indiana, thence to Illinois and Missouri, next to Minne- 
sota, Wisconsin and the Dakotas, and the fertility of the soil in 
all these States, has been sadly depleted by the process of wheat 
culture, and slowly but surely has its production been discon- 
tinued in the eastern States. 

The signs of the times indicate unerringly that the immedi- 
ate future export supply of wheat will be grown in what was 
formerly considered as the Great American Desert, or the 
Rocky Mountain States. 



212 MONTANA AGRICULTURE. 

The application of water in the process of irrigation does not 
cost to exceed $i.oo per acre. This being the case, why should 
not the relative value of such, lands be in proportion to its 
superior productive capacity? 

The practice of irrigation in America was first adopted by 
Mexicans and Pueblo Indians, who, laboring in equatorial 
regions, under the fervid rays of a tropical sun, were compelled 
to devise some method by which to counteract the absence of 
rainfall, and insure an equable distribution of water over their 
parched fields, in order to preserve and mature the crops neces- 
sary to their maintenance. 

The first impression of irrigation gained from these people 
by the invading Europeans, was that it was a laborious and 
painstaking duty, involving too great an outlay of time and 
strength to conduct to advantage, and these erroneous ideas 
still prevailed in the minds of the whites of the United States 
until the developments of the gold diggings on the Pacific slope, 
alluring by their fitful gleams, the adventurous spirits of the 
Kast, who came in hoards like the seven-year locust, devouring 
everything in their way and still demanding more food. This 
demand soon created a market for the products of the soil, when 
the laborer ofttimes found his richest mine to be his vegetable 
garden and other crops. These crops were entirely dependent 
upon the use of water. So, Brother Jonathan, preferring in this 
case to borrow instead of to invent, introduced the Mexican 
method of irrigation into the United States. Under this system 
the profits attending the cultivation of the soil, by the first 
occupying the field, were simply enormous and when to the 
industries already established, were added the successful 
growing of fruits, especially those of the Citrus family, land 
immediately came into demand, and in a country where, per- 
haps originally were the greatest difficulties to overcome, owing 
to the scarcity of water, irrigation became a permanent and 
certain success, changing the arid wastes of sand into a vast 
vineyard interspersed by orchards of orange, apricot and peach. 

Unfortunately in the very face of such rich and sure returns 
from irrigation, the ranchman coming from the East filled with 
preconceived ideas of the necessity of regular rainfall, and sub- 
mitting to the drought and ruined crops as a dispensation of 
Providence chose to keep the imperative need for the use of 
water, as an indispensible condition to successful cultivation, in 
the background or to admit it only under protest as an inevita- 
ble evil, not seeming to realize that the very reverse was the 
case, and that he held God's best boon to man, water, harnessed 
in his hand, obedient at his command, to distribute itself over 
the thirsty land, whispering of growth and increase to each 
little seed lying dormant in the fertile earth waiting for the 
message of the moist, cool drops before springing into life, to 
clothe the fields in living green. 



MO NT A SA A CRfCl 7. 77 'RK. 2 1 3 



. _ -..^L^:.,lF 


j. 


'f ••■.<:;£■'■:'; --^ 


^^3#!^^iiS '^ 


r 



Stackixc Ali'alfa (Hi-:si'KR Far.m). 

And such water! gushing from the very heart of the moun- 
tain, bursting through its ribs of adamant, cutting channels in the 
living rock, flowing over massive boulders, around which it 
swirls and seethes and churns itself into boiling rapids, or 
dashes into foaming cataracts, freed from all impurities, down 
the canon to level plains below. 

None can ever fully comprehend the meaning of pure water 
until familiar with these mountain streams, which owe their 
existence either directly to melting snows whose rills and rivu- 
lets unite to form a mountain torrent, or to subteranean springs 
fed from the same source, whose waters, percolating through 
rifts in the rock, have been garnered up in the innermost recesses 
of the mountains, forming great reservoirs, until overflowing 
their bounds they find egress through the first crevice, and well- 
ing up joyfully out into the light and the air, again become 
sparkling brooks, whose ice cold waters are the home of the 
grayling and mountain trout. 

Such a stream, as it finds its way through the canon, is one 
of Nature's most exquisite poems and a source of unending de- 
light, to him who with clearer eyes can read aright, the sub- 
limity of the mountains towering thousands of feet to join the 
clouds, their stern, aggressive grandeur, softened and toned by 



214 MONTANA AGRICULTURE. 

the dark green of the solemn pines ; the musical ripple of the 
water all appeal powerfully to the sensibilities and awake the 
good, that no matter how dormant is to be found in the heart of 
every man, while to one already living in unison with nature 
must come actual inspiration, and he readily understands why 
the Master went up into the mountain to pray. 

I once inquired of a pioneer, a man of much more than ordi- 
nary mentality, and who had spent some thirty years or more in 
or about the mountains, pursuing the various occupations of 
miner, rancher and large sheepman, how it was possible to 
account for the unusual intelligence and mental development of 
many of the " old timers " of Montana. After a moment's re- 
flection, with a glance toward the mountain range that bounded 
his ranch, he replied, "I have often asked myself the same 
question, and I can only account for it by the elevating effect of 
these grand old mountains upon the mind of men." He had 
voiced my own conclusion formed long before. 

The most desirable locations for residence purposes are in 
close proximity to the mountains, whereby one not only secures 
a more equable temperature throughout the year, but is able to 
more easily utilize the waters of streams originating among the 
hills; with such streams it is seldom needful to provide reser- 
voirs or dams. The compact banks of snow, accumulated from 
the winter storms, furnish by their gradual melting, under the 
rays of the hot sun of June and July, a regular water supply at 
the season when the need is the greatest. 

Ditches that carry water sufficient for a half dozen farms, of 
say looo acres, as a rule can be constructed for from $2,000 to 
$5,000 in good ground, the cost averaging about $5.00 per acre 
of the lands to be irrigated. Except in rock work or in cross- 
ing ravines, the work is practically accomplished by means of 
the plow, the ditcher or the scraper, and little actual shovel work 
is necessary. 

Machinery that has accomplished such wonders in all direc- 
tions, has done its part towards rendering easy the work of the 
engineer in the construction of ditches and canals. The invest- 
ment once made, as a rule is a permanent one. The careful 
engineer will conduct the w^ater from point to point with as little 
fall as is possible, so as to avoid cutting the soil by the abnor- 
mal rush of w^ater attendant upon too rapid a descent. 

The estimate of a conser^^ative engineer placed the cost of 
conducting water upon the great plateau of the Missouri in 
Northern Montana at from $5.00 to $8.00 per acre, not only on 
isolated tracts but on areas running into millions of acres. The 
need of irrigation will not average over twice per season. 

Aside from the application of moisture to growing crops, it 
is also a fertilizer of no mean qualit}^ acting as a solvent to 
release the chemical properties of the manures. The excessive 



MO NT A NA A GRICUL TURF. 



215 





1 


1 4- i. ^ 


i^^4. 


^^ 


1 


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miimii 


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IP 


fe Mv-.-f-li 


IHHH 


m. 


^:I 




^H 



^rr% 



sP^^ 



lil> 






14,213 Feet of lyOGS Hauled by Kendall Bros. 
(See Ray's Article.) 

hardness of the soil from drought in the autumn not infre- 
quently prevents the use of the plow by the Eastern farmer ; 
the rancher employing irrigation, finding his acres too much 
baked, has only to apply water until the softened soil responds 
in the happiest manner to the use of both plow and cultivator. 

A characteristic of grain grown under irrigation is that the 
development of straw does not interfere with the production of 
grain or seed, but both are matured simultaneously. How 
often have we heard the expression in the Hast, "the grain 
will not amount to much, the straw is too rank," or " the straw 
is not so rank and we can reasonably expect a heavy crop of 
grain." When grain begins to head, the application of water 
multiplies the grain cells and also increases the size of the plant. 
The office of the moisture, when grain is undergoing the pro- 
cess of filling, is to plumb the kernels and add to their weight 
from 25 per cent, to 50 per cent. ; grain grown by irrigation is 
never sold by the bushel but by the pound. There would be 
no justice in selling a bushel of oats, the standard weight of 
which is 32 lbs. for the price of 32 lbs. when it is more likely to 
weigh 40 lbs. to 42 lbs. or sometimes 48 lbs. to the struck 
bushel. Nor is this increase confined to cereals alone ; the 
same is true of the abnormal development of grasses, of vege- 
tables and of fruit. 

Chemical analysis of hard spring fife wheat grown in Galla- 
tin Co., Montana, compared with the best samples of Dakota 
number one hard, showed that the Montana grain contained 



2i6 MONTANA AGRICULTURE. 

2 1-2 per cent, more gluten than the Dakota wheat, taking into 
consideration that the content of gluten in the Dakota sample 
was 14.37 per cent., and that of the Montana sample 16.87 P^r 
cent., it will be seen that the latter so far as the relative amount 
of gluten was concerned was 17 per cent, better than that grown 
in a non-irrigable country. 

After conducting for fourteen years a nursery in the Missis- 
sippi valley, where we set as high as three quarters of a million 
of root-grafts per annum, I will here state, that never again 
would I be willing to undertake to conduct such a business in a 
section where irrigation could not be employed, and the same 
principles applicable to the production of trees for market obtain 
in orchard management. Seventy-five per cent, of the injury 
to fruit orchards and small fruit plantations, in the region \y\n<g 
west of the Atlantic States, north of the Ohio and east of the 
Mississippi rivers can be directly traced to a lack of moisture 
in the fall. ' 

In sections where irrigation is practiced immediately prior 
to the advent of freezing weather, it is the custom to thoroughly 
soak the orchard soil, thus effectually preventing injury from 
root freezing. This renders it possible to grow much more ten- 
der varieties than can be propagated in the above-mentioned 
regions, thus securing a much superior quality of fruit. 

The great stretch of country adjacent to the Rock}^ mount- 
ains offers the most favorable conditions to the home seeker. 
These conditions, however, have been so exaggerated and un- 
derestimated that one desiring correct information has had 
small opportunity to ascertain the plain unvarnished truth ; to 
be sure there are many winter da}^s when the mercury falls as 
low as in the latitude of Minnesota, but such weather is of short 
duration, being invariably broken by currents of warm air, 
commonly called " Chinooks," which rush in from the Pacific 
coast, and by their influence raise the temperature to spring 
heat, literally licking up the snow and absorbing the moisture. 

An incident will illustrate ; one December evening in 1892, 
the writer went into camp, near the " Snowey " range of 
Mountains, in Central Montana, a violent wind storm arose 
during the night, lasting the next day ; this was followed by a 
considerable decline in temperature. The second night about 
eight inches of snow fell ; for three days this remained intact. 
About nightfall the fourth day a ' ' Chinook ' ' wind began and 
within twenty-four hours the snow was " non est inventus," 
and incredible as it may seem there remained no appearance of 
moisture. 

During the winter of '92 and '93, with the exception of two 
weeks of very severe weather, the mean average temperature of 
Montana was higher than that of St. Augustine, Fla.; remem- 
bering that this winter was the coldest of the past seventeen, it 



MO NT A NA A GRICUL Ti ^RE. 



217 




A Cowboy Residenck. 



may be readily understood that this climate cannot be rigorous. 

The period of rainfall is short, covering as a rule the 
months of May, June and July, and with the exception of light 
snow fall (heavier in the mountainous sections) , the remainder 
of the year is usually dry, permitting the regular conduct of all 
farming operations, out-door labor and amusements ; no floods 
or washouts, with their attendant train of discomfort and 
disaster to bring discouragement to the farmers and the citizens 
at large. 

To the Eastern man, accustomed to the natural precipitation 
of moisture throughout the year, a long, dry season may seem 
somewhat objectionable. 

Forming his opinions from the windows of a moving train, 
he views the vast sun-burned area stretching between the East- 
ern and Western sea board, and fails to understand the com- 
pensations offered by a climate where one need never add, " if 
it does not rain," in the formation of plans; what appears to 
the uninitiated as only parched herbage, "sere and brown," is 
in reality the choicest of forage containing in most condensed 
form all the elements of nutrition best adapted to the wants of 
the immense herds of cattle and bands of horses and sheep 
that find abundant subsistence in these great winter pastures, 
without the expense of hay harvest, and, with the exception of 
sheep, requiring no shelter from the inclemency of the weather, 
such as would be absolutely essential in Eastern States, yet 
making their appearance in the spring in quite as good order as 
the Eastern herds that forage in the fields for a living and are 
sheltered regularly. 



2i8 MONTANA AGRICULTURE. 

There is perhaps no greater mistake, nor one harder to 
eradicate from the minds of Eastern men, than the erroneous 
impression that it is a misfortune to be dependent upon the 
artificial use of water to promote vegetation ( provided the 
source of the water supply be abundant ) , and that a country 
practicing irrigation should be shunned. 

A story told by Carter H. Harrison ( and one of his very 
best ) was of an old timer in Illinois, who had formerly lived in 
New Jersey. Being on the witness stand under oath, in an 
important law suit, he was asked the question as to his age, the 
reply to the question was, "thirty-five years." The prosecut- 
ing attorney, an old acquaintance, knowing him to be about 60 
years of age, at the least, asked, " How long have you lived in 
Illinois?" " Thirty-five years, " was the repl)^ "Where did 
you live before coming to Illinois?" "In New Jersey." 
" How long did you live there?" "Twenty-five years." 
" Well," said the attorney, " 25 and 35 make 60 do they not ; I 
should say you were 60 years old, how is that? " " Oh," was 
the ready reply, "the years that I spent in New Jersey were 
thrown away ; I do not count them." 

And so it is with the man who attempts to till the soil in a 
section of country wholly dependent upon rainfall for the 
growth of vegetation, the time spent is largely lost time, and 
an existence in the miasmatic States of the Mississippi Vallej^ 
" don't count" to the man who has once dwelt within reach of 
the protecting shadows of the grand old Rockies. 

What of the natural highways of Montana, over which 
hundreds of thousands of bushels of barley and oats found 
their way to the railways to be transported to the Eastern con- 
sumer in '93, and of the roads leading to the timbered 
mountain sides, from which the settler will supply his needs for 
lumber for buildings and fencing as well as fuel, or to the vast 
coal measures, that crop out on all the mountain ranges, pro- 
viding warmth and comfort \>y an inexhaustible fuel suppl)^. 
To this I would answer by first calling attention to the phenom- 
enal drives made with Montana horses ; when the fact was first 
brought to my attention that it was no uncommon thing for 
horses to cover 40, 45, 50, 75, or in emergencies even 100 miles 
in 24 hours, I naturally inferred the fast time made was owing 
to the superior constitution and make up of the mountain horse. 
While this was measurably true, much is due to the quality of 
the natural highways ; an opinion confirmed by wheelmen, 
who, not infrequently, make from 100 to 115 miles per day, 
over roads as they come. 

As a rule, the roads are natural gravel ways, hardened and 
impacted by millions of tons of freight, passed over them in 
ante-railway days ; and also by the hoofs of countless herds and 
flocks that have traversed them on the way to the ranges and 
markets. 



MON 7: 4NA A GRIC I 'L TURE. 



19 




Cowboys Branding Cattlk. 



Here again the comparatively dry seasons, following the 
spring rains, is a potent factor in the preservation of good 
roads, which grow daily better by continued use ; an item not 
to be despised or overlooked in the selection of a home. 

Enough has already been said to convince the most skep- 
tical that in Montana are to be found all the requirements of 
the practical agriculturist and stock raiser, and that only thrift, 
energy and ambition are needed to develop her vast and varied 
industries. 

Montana has been called the " Silver State." The moun- 
tains are rich with paying ore, only waiting to be brought into 
near proximity to reduction works. This labor will demand 
armies of miners to open up this boundless source of wealth, 
and these in turn will demand other armies of food producers 
in the valleys to supply their wants, while the resources of the 
flocks and herds will be taxed for the same purpose. Already 
extensive woolen mills have been established within the State. 
These manufacturers, being on the ground, are enabled to 
secure their pick of the wool clip, said to be of the finest 
quality that is produced in the United States. 

Nor is it to the agriculturist and miner, the stockman and 
capitalist alone that Montana appeals ; the numberless hot 
springs, medicated by mineral deposits, scattered throughout 
the State, and the pure, ozonized air, furnish the invalid and 
weary brain worker with the very elixir of life, sun distilled, 
while the aesthetic lover of natural scenery, or enthusiastic 
geologist or angler and sportsman find each day new beauties 
unfolded to the eye, as he follows the course of wooded streams. 



220 MONTANA AGRICULTURE. 

deep into lofty canyons, whose battlemented walls have been 
hewn by the waters, sculptured by the winds, painted by the 
lichens and dyed by the oxides; along such waterways a perfect 
tangle of berry bearing bushes may be found — red, yellow and 
black currants, gooseberries and raspberries, while clinging to 
the mountain side a little higher up grow service berries and 
huckle berries, the latter comprising two sorts, which are ripe 
from the middle of July until frost. 

Fur bearing animals large and small, find their habitat 
among the rocks and caves, and where the canyons widen out 
into high mountain parks or astonish one by deep, cool lakes 
almost among the clouds, and half hidden b/" glades of ever- 
greens, are to be found the haunts of elk and deer and whirring 
mountain grouse. 

Space nor time do not permit to enumerate the wonders to 
be found by the specimen hunter in the way of fossil remains of 
prehistoric creatures. Whole ledges are filled with petrifac- 
tions, while at other points rubies, sapphires and agatized 
woods reward the seeker ; in fact, so varied and prolific are the 
attractions offered by Montana, that the rich man or the poor 
man alike have but to enter in, whether with the geologist's 
pick or the agriculturist's shovel, feeling perfectly assured that 
he cannot fail to unearth the treasure best suited to his needs. 



OR IN OTHER WORDS, KEEP SAWING WOOD. 

If you strike a thorn or rose, 

Keep a-g^oin' ! 
If it hails, or if it snows. 

Keep a-goin' ! 
'Tain't no use to sit an' whine 
When the fish ain't on j'our line ; 
Bait your hook an' keep on tryin' ! 

Keep a-goin' ! 

When the weather kills your crop, 

Keep a-goin' ! 
When you tumble from the top, 

Keep a-goin' ! 
S'pose you're out o' every dime? 
Gittin' broke ain't any crime : 
Tell the world you're feelin' prime? 

Keep a-g-oin' ! 

When it looks like all is up, 

Keep a-goin' ! 
Drain the sweetness from the cup. 

Keep a-goin' ! 
See the wild birds on the wing ! 
Hear the bells that sweetly ring ! 
When you feel like sighin' — sing ! 

Keep a-goin' ! 
—Frank Iv. Stanton in Atlanta Constitution. 



TRUE HISTORY OF THE "BLOOMER COSTUME." 

BY A MEMBER OF MRS. BLOOMER'S FAMILY. 




LMELIA BLOOMER. 



IN January or February, 185 1, 
an article appeared editor- 
ially in the Seneca County 
Cottrier, Seneca Falls, N. 
Y., on "Female Attire," 
in which the writer showed up 
the inconvenience, discomfort 
and unhealthfulness of woman's 
dress, and advocated a change 
to Turkish trousers and a skirt 
reaching to the knee, or a little 
below. 

At this time Mrs. Bloomer 
was publishing a monthly paper, 
in Seneca Falls, "Devoted to 
the Interest of Women " — tem- 
perance and women's rights 
being the leading subjects. As 
the editor of the Courier was opposed to The Lily on the 
women's rights question, this article of his gave Mrs. Bloomer 
an opportunity to score him one on having gone so far beyond 
her as to advocate women wearing trousers ; and in her next 
issue she noticed him and his proposed stjde in a half serious, 
half playful article of some length. He took up the subject 
again the week following and expressed surprise that Mrs. 
Bloomer should treat so important a matter with levity. She 
replied to him more seriously than before, fully endorsing and 
approving his views on the subject of women's costumes. 

About this time, and when the readers of The Lily and 
Courier were interested and excited over the discussion of the 
dress question, Elizabeth Smith Miller, daughter of Hon. 
Garrit Smith, of Peterboro, N. Y., appeared on the streets of 
Seneca Falls dressed in short skirt and full Turkish trousers. 
She was on a visit to her cousin, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who 
was then a resident of Seneca Falls. Mrs. Miller had been 
wearing this costume, at home and abroad, some two or three 
months, though nothing had been said about it and no notice 
taken of it by the papers. 

A few days after Mrs. Miller's arrival, Mrs. Stanton came 
out in a dress made in Mrs. Miller's style. She walked the 
streets in a skirt that came a little below the knees, and trousers 
of the same material — black satin. Having taken part in the 
discussion of the dress question, it seemed proper that Mrs. 



222 TRUE HIS TOR Y OF BLO OMERS. 

Bloomer should practice as she preached, and as the Courier 
man advised, and so in a few days she too donned the new 
costume, and in the next issue of her paper announced that 
fact to her readers. At the outset she probably had no idea of 
fully adopting the costume — no thought of setting a fashion — 
no thought that her action would create an excitement through- 
out the civilized world and give to the style her name. This 
was all the work of the press. Mrs. B. stood amazed at the 
furore she had unwittingly caused. The New York Tribtine 
was the first to notice the matter. Other papers caught it up 
and handed it about. " Bloomerism," " Bloomerites " and 
"Bloomers" were the headings of many an article, item and 
squib, and finally some one — she never knew to whom she was 
indebted for the honor — wrote of the " Bloomer costume," and 
the name has continued to cling to the short skirt and trousers, 
in spite of Mrs. Bloomer repeatedly disclaiming all right to it 
and giving Mrs. Miller as the originator, or at least the first to 
wear such dress in public. Although Mrs. Bloomer was the 
first to call attention to the dress through her paper, and one of 
the first to wear it, and in this way deserves the credit of it, it 
is not probable that either she or Mrs. Stanton would ever have 
donned the style had not Mrs. Miller come a visitor to Seneca 
Falls j ust at this time and when the matter of a change in 
woman's costume was being discussed by the papers of that 
village. 

As soon as it became known that the editor of The Lily was 
wearing such dress, letters came to her from all over the 
country making inquiries about the dress and asking for pat- 
terns. Her subscription ran up amazingly, into thousands, 
and the good woman's rights doctrine was thus scattered from 
Maine to California and from Canada to Florida. Without 
such intent on her part she had gotten herself into a position 
from which she could not recede, if she had desired to do so. 
She therefore continued to wear the style on all occasions, at 
home and abroad, at church and on the lecture platform, at 
fashionable parties and in her business ofiice. She found the 
dress comfortable, light, easy and convenient and well adapted 
to the needs of her busy life. She was pleased with it and had 
no desire to lay it aside, and so would not let ridicule or censure 
of the press move her. For six or eight years, so long as she 
continued in active life and until the papers -had ceased writing 
squibs at her expense, she wore no other costume. 

During this time she was, to some extent, in the lecture 
field, visiting and lecturing in all the principal cities of the 
North on temperance and women's suffrage, but at no time, on 
any occasion, alluding to her costume. She felt as much at 
ease, apparently, as if she had been arrayed in the fashionable 
draggle skirts. In all her travels she met with nothing dis- 



77? UE HIS TOR Y OF BL O OMERS. 2 2 3 

agreeable or unpleasant, but was always treated with respect 
and attention by both press and people, wherever she appeared. 
The press gave flattering notices of her lectures. She felt that 
if the dress drew the crowds that came to hear her, it was well. 
They heard the message she brought them and it has borne 
abundant fruit. 

The Lily had many contributions on the subject of dress so 
that question was for some time kept before its readers. Mrs. 
Stanton was a frequent contributor and ably defended the style. 
She was an enthusiastic admirer of it and often declared she 
would never wear any other. But after wearing it on all occa- 
sions for two or three years, she yielded to the pressure brought 
to bear upon her by her father and other friends, and returned 
to long skirts. Elizabeth Miller, after several years, again 
donned the prevailing style. Lucy Stone, of the Woma?i's 
Journal, adopted the short dress and wore it for several years, 
on the lecture platform and elsewhere, and was married in it, 
but she, too, with advancing years saw fit to return to long 
skirts. 

The advocates of women's rights felt that the dress was 
drawing attention from what they considered of far greater 
importance, the question of woman's right to better education, 
to a wider field of employment, to better remuneration for her 
labor and to the ballot for the protection of her rights. In 
some minds the short dress and woman's rights were insep- 
arably connected. With the reformers the dress was but an 
incident, and they were not willing to sacrifice greater questions 
to it. The enfranchisement of woman was the question of the 
hour. For it they labored and still labor. 

For a time the ' ' Bloomer costume ' ' seemed to promise a 
quite general adoption, without any effort on the part of the 
wearers of it. Mrs. Bloomer was overrun with letters from 
women from all over the country begging for patterns and 
description of the dress. Woman seemed anxious to cast off 
the burthen of heavy skirts, and many for a time adopted the 
short skirt and trousers. But they could not bear up against 
the ridicule and caricature of the press, which in some instances 
assailed it unmercifully, and so they hugged the chains that 
bound them and continued the heavy draggling skirts. 



An editor's reputed, as everybody knows, 

To go free into circuses and other kinds of shows. 

The ordinary mortal "puts down " fifty cents in " stuff,'' 

The editor pays nothing, ( but a two dollar puff.) 

Good Roads ($1.00 per year). 



EXTRACT FROM SPEECH OF GEN. ROY STONE 

BEFORE THE BOARD OF FREEHOLDERS IN MORRIS COUNTY, N. J. 

ICONGRATUEATE you upon the good work which you 
have started in this county. You are pushing the county 
to the forefront by adopting at once a resolution to go to 

the full limit of your power in the building of stone roads. 

And if you are able to take instruction from other counties, 
and particularly from counties outside your State, j^ou will 
possibly take the lead of all the counties of j^our own State and 
be in the forefront of progress in the United States. 

The question of good roads is being worked out differently 
in different places. The object of my work is to bring the 
results of the work in one section to the knowledge of those in 
other sections. 

We find that there is a vast amount of road building going 
on in the United States, and the best roads that I have found 
are the cheapest roads. That is surprising, but it is encourag- 
ing. The building of roads began with an expenditure of 
$10,000 per mile, and those roads to-day are not giving as much 
satisfaction as some of the roads built for $2,000 per mile. 

I should estimate the cost of building macadam roads in 
this country at from $2,000 to $2,500 per mile, but for that 
amount I think you could build excellent roads. And you will 
be able to build roads in this county without feeling the burden 
at all. Your county taxes will not be increased, because you 
will bring in enough foreign capital to increase the valuation of 
property as fast as you increase 3^our taxation. The final result 
will be to diminish taxation. The result in the townships will 
be heavy taxes at first, as they have to pay one-third of the 
expenses down, or within a year or so, but they will get all this 
back in not having to repair the roads, which become county 
roads and are kept in repair by the county. The townships by 
paying sa^^ $700 per mile will save $50 per mile which they now 
pay annually for repairs — equal to a 7 per cent, investment. 

Now as to methods of construction. Get 3^our locations 
right first. It will be necessary for your engineer to lay out 
better locations for many of your roads. It would be folly to 
spend two or three thousand dollars on a section of road and 
then find out that it was in the wrong place, when finished. 
And if an individual loses by being thrown off the highway 
or by having the road cut through his farm, the county will 
have the power to compensate him out of the county funds. 

You are somewhat hampered by the law under which you 
are working, which compels you to build a road twelve feet 
wide in the middle of the way. That is a serious drawback. 



EXTRACT FROM SPEECH. 225 

but you can easily get the law amended. In a country district 
you don't need a road twelve feet wide. You need only a 
single track of stone road. You will do better with an earth 
road eight or nine feet wide and a single track macadam road 
alongside of it, or have a single track macadam in the middle 
and an earth road on each side of it. That is being done now 
in Michigan, North Carolina, Ohio and Georgia, and in Canan- 
daigua. New York. They have built satisfactory roads with 
one track of macadam and a shoulder of earth on each side for 
$900 per mile. An earth road is better than a stone road when 
it is good, but when they are side by side you have a good road 
all the time. And this will only cost you about half as much, 
and the cost of repairs will be much less than half. 

The wear on a stone road is almost entirely in dry weather. 
The stone becomes loosened on the surface, and if one stone 
becomes loose the next one does also, and so on. The loose 
stone becomes crushed very soon and the dust is washed or 
blown away. If a stone road is not used in dry weather your 
repairs will be almost nothing for a good many years. 

There was great apprehension, in the beginning, of trouble 
in passing teams on this road, but you won't experience any 
difficulty in that respect. The two tracks merge into each 
other, so that the junction cannot be seen ; and, moreover, your 
earth road, never being used when it is wet, is always hard 
enough to turn out upon it, and it may be months before two 
teams will need to pass at the same place in the road ; so it is 
never cut up by turning out. 

Upon the question of the cost of these roads in this county, 
I should think, with the amount of surface stone I see about 
here, that you could build as cheaply as any section of the 
country, though you may have to bring material by rail from 
the trap rock hills in neighboring counties to surface the roads. 
I would put a good depth of common country stone, I should 
say about nine inches, all broken ; and then about three inches 
of a better class of material on the surface. The difficulty 
with macadam roads in many places is that they are built of 
material that does not stand the wear. It wants a very uniform 
material for the surface, so that the road will wear down evenly 
and smoothly. 

I would plough up the whole surface of the road, and on 
the side where you want the earth road remove all the stones 
and put most of the dirt on that side. Where you want the 
stone road, remove the dirt and roll it thoroughly and make it 
hard, laying tile drains if there are wet places. Then drop in 
three or four inches of broken stone and then three or four 
inches of finer stone, making it finer and finer, and place 
screenings on the top. The roads would be left in the contrac- 
tors' hands for nine or ten months after building, so that they 



226 EXTRACT FROM SPEECH. 

can stand the test of a winter and spring ; and then he can fix 
up any bad places in the roads before turning them over to the 
county. 

If you adopt this system you will be able probably to build 
IOC or 150 miles more of road for the same money, and the 
roads will give better satisfaction. 

We do not know exactly the cost of keeping these roads in 
repair, as we have not yet had the experience upon this class 
of roads ; but for the first four or five years the cost would be 
trifling. There is no question but that it will be less than the 
cost of keeping earth roads in repair. I do not think that you 
will need to spend over $30 per mile on repairing your roads for 
the next ten years. 

If you adopt this system of roads people will want to come 
here and see roads that are built according to the most modem 
ideas, and find how they are liked and how the people stand 
the taxation. I am interested in having you adopt the best 
system, because your county is so located that I can use it as a 
show place to exhibit the best and cheapest roads and so pro- 
mote road improvement all over the United States. 




"Working Overtime." 
(Something that the average road maker doesn't do.) 



WHY BOYS IvEAVE HOME. 




T 



^HERE are many reasons 
of course, but they near- 
ly all may be summed 
up in the one homely 
expresiion of Josh Bil- 
lings : 

"A boy leaves home, usu- 
ally, because his father bears 
too hard on the grindstone 
when he turns the crank. ' ' 

It is a well established 
axiom that all motion in na- 
ture follows the line of least 
resistance, and this is espe- 
cially true of boys. 

The writer once heard an 
argument by a learned col- 
lege professor, who claimed 
that there were recorded 
many instances where men had gone directly opposite to the 
line of least resistance, and in submitting to all sorts of perse- 
cution had attained the rather dubious distinction of being 
martyrs. 

A thoughtful examination of any such case, however, will 
show that there was within the man an obstacle in the person 
of his conscience, which made it impossible for him to act in 
the direction supposed by others to be easiest. 

A boy who has felt the hurt of hunger, longs to be placed 
where he may have enough to eat, and too often his ambition 
stops at his stomach. The boy whose physical wants have 
been well met, longs for other enjoyment than what he has. 
His father becomes in his eyes "the old man," and his young 
heart is sometimes touched with pity at the lack of ' ' the gov- 
ernor's" ability to enjoy life. 

To be sure he has to go through the trifling formality of 
asking the "old un " for money, but that doesn't worry him. 
So commonplace an occupation as making money has no 
charms as compared with the society of the " boys." 
I never feel like blaming a boy for anything. 
He is born ; he can't help that. 

He has certain hereditary tendencies born in him, and he 
can't help that. 

Up to a certain age the wise parent holds him resposible for 
nothing. And then comes discipline and education. The 



228 w/jTv boys lea ve home. 

youngster of a few months reaches confidently after the moon, 
and yet doesn't seem at all disappointed at not being able to 
get it. 

Instinct is responsible for very little, education for all else. 

The ill-behaved child gets many a spanking which justly 
belongs to its parent. 

"The boy stood on the burning deck." Why? Because 
he had confidence in his father. 

The boy "runs away" from home because he lacks confi- 
dence in the "old man." 

Who is to blame for this? Surely not the boy. Faith, or 
the want of it, is dependent on outside conditions. 

In youth thej' sheltered me 
And I'll protect them now, 

should be the watchword of every young man who has parents. 

They may be homely and old-fashioned, they may not like 
pointed shoes or cigarettes, but don't forget that they knew 
enough to come in out of the rain at a time when you didn't. 

Want of respect for parents stamps a man to his disadvan- 
tage, but this does not absolve the parents from the necessity 
of being respectable. 

" Children have more need of models than of critics.'' 

One of the highest aims that any man may have is to so 
conduct his life that when it stops his children will be truly 
sorr5^ 




"It Goes Without Saying. 



I.EAVES HAVE THEIR TIME TO PALL. 
AND THIS IS THE TIME. 



Day 


Day 


Day 


Lengthof 


of 


of 


of 


Day. 


Year. 


Month. 


Week. 


H. M. 


274 


1 


M. 


II 45 


275 


2 


Tu. 


II 42 


276 


3 


W. 


II 38 


277 


4 


Th. 


II 35 


278 


5 


Fr. 


II 33 


279 


6 


Sa. 


II 30 


280 


7 


S. 


II 27 


281 


8 


M. 


II 25 


282 


9 


Tu. 


II 22 


283 


10 


W. 


II 19 


284 


11 


Th. 


II 16 


285 


12 


Fr. 


II 13 


286 


13 


Sa. 


II II 


287 


14 


S. 


II 8 


288 


15 


M. 


II 5 


289 


16 


Tu. 


II 2 


290 


17 


W. 


10 59 


291 


18 


Th. 


10 57 


292 


19 


Fr. 


10 54 


293 


20 


Sa. 


10 51 


294 


21 


S. 


10 49 


295 


22 


M. 


10 46 


296 


23 


Tu. 


10 43 


297 


24 


W. 


10 40 


298 


25 


Th. 


10 38 


299 


26 


Fr. 


10 35 


300 


27 


Sa. 


10 32 


301 


28 


S. 


10 30 


302 


29 


M. 


10 28 


303 


30 


Tu. 


10 25 


304 


31 


W. 


10 22 



TENTH 



.October, i 894 



MONTH 



1765. 



British troops arrived in Boston, 1768 

They were warmly received, 

but it's all right now, 

and we are on visiting terms. 

Battle of the Thames, 18 13. 

Good Roads decided on, 1891. 

First Colonial Congress at New York 

The next was at Philadelphia, 1774. 

Once in nine years is often enough ; 

ten would be better, 

and there should be a "time limit." 

Columbus discovered San Salvador, 1492. 

We are glad he did. [I^. A. W. 

The Indians would never have had an 

And they didn't need roads. 

President lyincoln called for 300,000 men, 

Those were rough times. [1863. 

The I^eague wasn't born then. [1781. 

Surrender of Cornwallis and 7,000 troops, 

Florida was purchased of Spain, 1820; 

it is now purchased every winter by 

northern visitors, 

who leave it where it is and go home in 

the spring. 

Tobasco, in Mexico, bombarded by 

It was a hot fight. [Perry, 

Good Roads for November 

will be a " dandy." 

Have you sent in your name ? 

The price is $1.00 per year. 

The address, Boston. 



Com. 
1846. 



Opeoipg of a Cbejtput Burr. 



YOU CAN ALWAYS TELL WHAT 

IS THE MATTER WITH 

A GOAT. 

" Come here my little son, ani see, 
What God has given you and me ; 

A tiny baby, fair and sweet. 

With dimpled hands and cunning: feet. 

It won't be long ere he can play 
And frolic with you every day." 

But Johnnie sadly shook his head— 

The tear-drops fell upon his coat- 
Then sobbing audibly he said : 
" I'd rather had a billy goat." 

— Square and Compass. 



FULLER WAS A NATURAL 
POLITICIAN. 

Thomas Fuller defined ' 'pol- 
icy" to consist in serving God 
in such a manner as not to 
offend the devil. 



LET us HOPE THAT IT WAS A 
GOOD MATCH. 

Philanthropist— " Why are you crying 
so, my child? " 

Little Girl—" Please, sir, me mudder 
sent me wid five cents fer to git bread 
wid, and I lost it in that there dark alley. 
I shall have a terrible thrashin'." 

Philanthropist— " Well, well' my poor 
child, dry your tears. Here is a match. 
Perhaps you may be able to find it." 

— St. Louts Humorist. 



AND YET HE IS ALLOWED TO 
VOTE. 
A tale-bearer is a lower order 
of creation than a tail-wearer. 
—Ex. 



An exchange propounds the 
following question : 

"If Bob Ingersoll insists that there is 
no hell, will he please state what becomes 
of a man that takes a paper for three or 
four years without paj'ing for it and then 
tells the postmaster to inform the pub- 
lisher he don't want it?"— (Vi;r (Cat.) 
Press. 

Such a man couldn't appre- 
ciate Hell if he should go there. 
And the publisher who would 
be a party to such a condition 
of things certainly need have 
no fear of post mortem fire, for 
he is too green to burn. 

What's the matter with the 
Good Roads' plan — $i.oo per 
year hi advance. 



How doth the L. A. W., 
Improve each country road, 

And help the busy farmer 
To double up his load. 



HOW ABOUT THIS, 
GOV. FULLER ? 

While lycwis Sanctuary of 
Hinesburg, Vt., was returning 
home from Burlington the other 
day his horse sank into the 
mud and was soon almost lost 
to view. He took a rail from 
a fence, put it under the ani- 
mal's head and thereby kept 
his head up until a farmer's 
team drew the horse to firm 
ground. — Ex. 



"A TALE OF TWO CITIES." 



This represents the great bronze 
statue of William Penn, which 
Philadelphia is to put on the top 
of its new city hall. 




This represents the statue that 
Chicago would probably have had 
made under the same circum- 
stances. 




JUDGE THAYER. 

Member of the National Central Road Committee. 



Good Ro^os. 

Vol. 6. November, 1894. No. 5. 

IMPROVED METHODS WANTED. 

r\ NOTHER world's record gone ! 

I J And the subservient lightning snaps the news from one 
iji end of the world to the other. 
J What about it ? 

Well ! An expensive and carefully trained horse on 
an expensive and carefully graded track has succeeded, under 
the pilotage of an expensive and carefully experienced driver, 
in going once around the track in one-fourth of a second less 
time than any previous c. t. h. had been able to do it. 

Good Roads wouldn't try to make out that it was not 
important — this record breaking — because maybe it is. But 
suppose Bill Jones was able to haul a load of pumpkins to town 
in one-half hour less time than ever before? Wouldn't the 
causes which made such a record possible be interesting ? 
Because if Bill could do it, everybody else could, and sooner or 
later the price of pumpkin pie and other necessaries would show 
a corresponding decline in that town. 

And if in f/iat town, why not in every town ? 

Suppose some horse should succeed in going a mile as fast 
as a bicycle rider can do it. (An exceedingly remote possi- 
bility, by the way.) It would of course be interesting, t. e., in 
the line of fun, but what doth it profit a horse to go a mile, 
even between the two ends of one short minute, if the road 
between the track and the barn where he lives is paved with 
various kinds of stuff through which the same horse couldn't 
go a mile in less than five minutes, and even then at the risk of 
spoiling the buggy ? 

The man who can ' ' make two blades of grass grow where 
only one grew before ' ' has got his little niche in the temple of 
fame all right : even if the fellow who takes the grass to market 
does get the pay for it. But the higher position — what we 
might call the top niche — the exalted place from which its 
occupant can pick chestnuts and throw them down on the head 
of the grass sharp — the real top — where what's his name said 
there was " always room," is reserved for the man who can 
discover some sort of a liquid which may be poured on to a soft, 
sandy road, and which will soak into the earth about a foot, 
then stop soaking and begin to harden, until that upper stratum 
is a good, solid, waterproof surface, all in one piece and free 
from cracks or cussedness. 

There is, no doubt, at this moment a large number of 
inventors who are engaged in the very interesting occupation 



236 IMPROVED METHODS WANTED. 

of making, for instance, a clock that will run a tiundred years 
with once winding, or, it may be, some labor-saving (?) 
machine which takes more men to run it than could do the 
same work without it. 

Why can't some of this talent, which our country exudes 
at every pore, be prevailed upon to take up the self-healing 
road question, and not only earn the gratitude of "millions yet 
unborn," but also earn something of a much more getatable 
nature. 

Another very profitable field in which the wandering human 
mind might well look for a job, is street sprinkling. You know 
how they do it now. 

Why should a street be sprinkled several times a day instead 
of once a year? 

Good Roads has tried the experiment of using a solution of 
water and glycerine, and a section of dusty street was kept 
moist for weeks last summer with but once sprinkling, but the 
objection to this is its expense. Cannot something be con- 
cocted which would do the business for less money ? 

Something of that sort would be desirable for sprinkling 
railroads, and in that case the problem is a still easier one, 
owing to the fact that the dust once ' ' laid ' ' is not constantly 
being ground up by the action of wheels as on the wagon road. 

The average inventor doesn't see anything in the road to 
attract him, but let him reconsider. There is to-day a great 
opportunity for profitable work on the roads and pavements. 
Not alone the everyday practical work of making roads, that 
of course is most important of all, but experimental work to 
the end that roads and wagons may be better adapted to each 
other than at present. 

One thing especially needs looking after. We believe that 
between the future wagon and the future road there must be 
interposed something of an elastic nature. The pounding of 
a solid metal tire upon the solid surface of a stone road is not 
the best thing that we shall ever see. Of course it is a million 
times preferable to mud, and we may consider it a very desirable 
thing to work for, because it is the best thing we know, and 
probably is the best thing the present generation will see exten- 
sively used. 

Then it may be that the stone road and an elastic wagon 
tire will constitute the proper combination of the future. Much 
is being done in that direction now and with a very promising 
outlook. 

lyCt the ninety and nine keep at work as they are, in the 
building of roads on the most approved plans, and the process 
of evolution, under the persistent perseverance of the one 
hundredth man, will in time produce a road and vehicle which 
will so harmonize with each other that it will no longer be a 
case of the destroyer and the destroyed. 



DOWN THE FLORIDA BAST COAST. 

BY F. W. HAWTHORNE. 




/> 



F. W. Hawthorne. 



S a general thing the soil 
of eastern and penin- 
sular Florida is sandy, 
and in consequence the 
streets in the smaller 
towns, the suburban drives and 
the country thoroughfares 
( ' ' dirt roads ' ' the country- 
folk call them) are heavy and 
unsuited to rapid locomotion of 
any kind. But there are com- 
pensating advantages, too, for 
the face of the country is almost 
flat, ledges or rock formations 
of any kind are extremely rare, 
and the soil is easily worked. 
So road building is cheap. 

And the cities and larger 
towns are rapidly taking advan- 
tage of these natural conditions 
so favorable to good roads. On the low, flat islands lying near 
the mouth of the St. Johns River, there are still many millions 
of bushels of oyster shells, although two or three generations 
of men have been digging away at the deposits ; while up and 
down the East Coast — from the mouth of the St. Johns to the 
waters of Biscay ue Bay, a distance of over four hundred miles 
— the shell heaps of a prehistoric people provide an inex- 
haustible supply of one of the best materials known for the 
making of good roads. 

In the region of Gainsville, near the centre of the State, 
there are deposits of a peculiar limestone which crushes easily, 
and which, when it has assimilated with the sand of the road- 
ways by exposure to rain and sun, makes a smooth, hard sur- 
face most excellent alike for riding, driving or wheeling, and 
very durable. 

Along the shores of Black Creek, one of the many navigable 
tributaries of the St. Johns River, there are thousands of acres 
of marl which, upon exposure to the elements, hardens and 
becomes as compact and durable as stone. It can be handled 
with shovels as easily as sand, and immense quantities of it are 
now being brought down the creek on lighters and scows, and 
being utilized for paving purposes in Jacksonville and other 



238 DOWN THE FLORIDA BAST COAST 




A Road Scene in New Smyrna, Fla. 



DOWN THE FLORIDA EAST COAST 239 




A Florida Century Plant. 



places in the State. At one point on Black Creek, a high knoll 
or promontory rises abruptly from the bank and is composed 
almost wholly of this peculiar marl ; for ages past the action of 
the rain and the sun has so exposed the side of it next to the 
water, that its surface is almost perpendicular and is as hard as 
flint. The height above the level of the creek is about eighty 
feet, and the water beside it is of an unknown depth — so deep 
that the lines of the local water-men have never yet reached its 
bottom. 

The city of Jacksonville, the northern terminus of the Jack- 
sonville, St. Augustine and Indian River Railway, and the 
entrepot of the State of Florida, is making extensive use of 
shell, Gainesville rock and Black-Creek marl in the improve- 
ment of the streets and outlying drives, while for paving, the 
best vitrified brick is being employed. The work is going 
forward rapidly, and by the beginning of the summer of 1895 
the metropolis will have nearly thirty miles of paved streets 
and smooth, hard drives. The municipal authorities have 
abandoned entirely the use of cypress blocks for paving, its 
short life making repairs and relaying too frequent and too 
expensive. 

It is estimated that there are fully five hundred wheels of 
all sorts owned in Jacksonville and in daily use there, and it is 
one of the most noted points in the South for fine horses and 
beautiful private and public turnouts. 

As the train pauses for a minute or two on the graceful iron 
railway bridge of the Kast Coast I^ine, the traveler gets the 



240 DOWN THE FLORIDA EAST COAST. 




COCOANUT AVENUE, LAKE WORTH, FLA. 



DOWN THE FLORIDA EAST COAST. 



241 




The "Front Door" of Hotel Ponce De I,eon, St. Augustine, Fla. 



finest view of Jacksonville to be had at any point on the river. 
The city lies in a broad bend of the St. Johns, where it sweeps 
abruptly around a point, changing its course from north to east. 
Jacksonville's water-front is nearly five miles in extent, the 
greater portion of its business area bordering this crescent. 
One dislikes to leave this beautiful picture of a busy, throbbing 
city, washed by the waters of the placid St. Johns, glinting in 
the warm sunlight of a January morning ; but this is only a 
foretaste of the feast. The real pictures lie beyond — hung in 
most effective succession from the quaint old city of the Span- 
iards far down the famous East Coast country to where the 
peninsula loses itself amid the coral isles in the confusion of 
the blending waters of ocean and gulf. 

A wheelman would hardly be in his element in the country 
between Jacksonville and St. Augustine, and a carriage drive 
could not be taken without some drawbacks and inconveniences. 
Yet time was when this stretch of thirty-eight miles was trav- 
ersed by a fairly good stage road, on the direct route from 
Tallahassee, the capital, to old Fort Marion, and in "the good 
old days before the war ' ' this was accounted one of the finest 
highways in the State. Traces of the ancient roadway may be 
seen there now, but the most ordinary "dirt roads" of the 
country are probably superior to what it was in its palmiest 
days. 

Nowadays we glide from the metropolis to the Ancient City 
in sixty minutes in a luxurious parlor car, alighting at an 
imposing railway station, from which broad avenues of the 



242 DOWN THE FLORIDA EAST COAST. 




Pineapple Plantation, Eden, Fla. 



DOWN THE FLORIDA EAST COAST. 243 

smoothest asphalt, at once the delight of the Jehu and the 
glory of the wheelman, lead up to the heart of the city — to the 
Alameda, a bit of old Spain reproduced in the palatial Hotel 
Ponce de Ivcon, the Alcazar, the Cordova and other stately 
structures, to the sea-wall, along which lovers loiter — the 
picturesque sort, high born, well bred and finely groomed — and 
barefoot boys lie lazily watching their ' ' bobs ' ' for the nibble 
of a trout or bass ; to the quaint cathedral ; to the narrow, 
crooked streets from across whose low balconies the Castilian 
lover in the old days could kiss the hand of his senorita ; to old 
Fort Marion, bearing easily the burden of its three hundred 
years ; and finally to St. Francis Barracks and to Alicia Hospi- 
tal, where a charity as unostentatious as it is broad and benefi- 
cient is dispensed unsparingly to Christian and heathen alike. 

It is a marvellous city — a bit of the Old World lifted over 
into the New ; the people, the pastimes, the gaiety of northern 
Newport deposited in a garden of the semi-tropics. All the 
world knows St. Augustine, and how one man has transformed 
it into a matchless winter resort, at once stately in its architec- 
ture and faultless in its adornment, while still preserving the 
most picturesque features of the oldest city in the United States. 
It was ten years ago that Henry M. Flagler looked upon it and 
learned to love it, and then lavished his wealth upon it ; and 
the many thousands of health and pleasure seekers from all 
quarters of the globe, who now make annual pilgrimages to it, 
all breathe words of admiration for him who conceived it, and 
of thankfulness that they are alive in his day and generation to 
enjoy it all. 

From this scene of magnificence let us turn to the country 
again. If we would go down the famous Bast Coast, we may 
zigzag by rail to Palatka, and thence to Ormond-on-the-Halifax. 
As we spin westward across St. John's County, our track lies 
through stately forests of pine and cypress, crossed and 
recrossed by good country roads and dotted with thrifty farms. 
In the sparsely-peopled portions of it cattle raising is a profit- 
able industry, and the crack of the cowboy's whip is a sound 
familiar to every ear. In almost all the farm yards there are 
long trellises for the support of scuppernong grape vines, which 
grow easily here without much attention. The scuppernong is 
a native of Florida where it flourishes in several varieties, but 
in no section more thriftily than in St. John's County. The 
white and the purple varieties are the most common, and both 
make an excellent wine. In and about the little settlement of 
Moultrie, which is nearer the coast and only about five miles 
from St. Augustine, there are many vineyards where the best 
varieties of table grapes are raised in large quantities for the 
northern markets, the "White Niagara" being the most prolific 
and profitable. These grapes ripen and are marketed late in 



244 nOlVN THE FLORIDA EAST COAST 






m^:,mm: 







Drive at Ormonde-on-the-Halifax. 



DOWN THE FLORIDA EAST COAST. 245 

June and early in July, when the northern, eastern and western 
markets are practically barren of native fruits ; the Florida 
grapes arrive there just in time to command high prices, the 
earliest shipments often bringing $1.50 and $2.00 per pound. 
The average price for the season of four or five weeks is about 
15 cents. The fast freight service of the J., St. A. & I. R. 
Railway affords such quick transportation that the fruit always 
reaches market in good condition and brings the best prices. 
The industry is growing rapidly, and a wine company has 
recently been organized to utilize the surplus crop. 

From Palatka the course is southwest to Ormond in a line 
almost as straight as an arrow, and the scenery and industries 
along the route are much the same as those on the westward 
journey from St. Augustine. Ormond lies on both sides of the 
Halifax River, which is really a long estuary fed by the waters 
of the Atlantic and running parallel with it. Along the river 
the scenery is beautiful, the shores being bordered by luxuriant 
growths of palms, palmettos, oleanders and magnolias, and the 
water generally as smooth as a mill pond. A long bridge 
connects the east with the west portion of the town, and from 
the latter, street cars run across the narrow peninsula to the 
ssa. There are fine, hard, shell roads all about both portions of 
the village, and this makes driving and riding popular diver- 
sions for the guests of the Hotel Ormond, who number many 
thousands from December to May. Wheeling is common, too, 
both on the shell roads and on the beach, for the latter is as 
hard as a floor and at low water nearly a hundred feet wide. 

To mention surf bathing in mid-winter may make a North- 
erner shiver, but here at Ormond Beach, as well as at other 
East Coast resorts, a not uncommon sight in January is scores 
of men, women and children in gaily colored costumes disport- 
ing themselves upon the sand and in the surf, for the tempera- 
ture of the ocean is often higher than that of the atmosphere. 
A register of 72 to 78 degrees is the average for January and 
February. 

"We may go by rail down the river to Daytona, drive there 
through the picturesque hammock, or skim the surface of the 
Halifax in sailboat or launch. It is a clean, well-kept, thrifty- 
looking town, the green lawns contrasting prettily with the 
white-shelled streets. There are many bicycles owned in 
Daytona, and in the winter season here the cottage and hotel 
population swells the number of the wheels close up to a hun- 
dred. Passengers on the trains that pass through Daytona 
aever fail to note the young men and women, in ftn de siecle 
wheeling costumes, who come spinning down the avenue to get 
the morning newspapers and the mail, and then loiter about the 
station till the mild excitement of "meeting the train" has 
passed off. 



246 DOWN THE FLORIDA EAS7 COAST. 




' IvOVERS' Retreat," Rockledge, Fla. 



DOWN THE FLORIDA EAST COAST. 247 

At New Smyrna the traveler may tarry to see the town and 
then drive out to the ruins of the old sugar mill, for many years 
supposed to have been built by Turnbull and his colony of 
Minorcans, in 1767, but now believed by many antiquarians to 
be the remains of an old Spanish chapel and mission erected by 
men who had accompanied Columbus on his second voyage to 
this country in 1496. 

A few miles south of here the railway skirts the upper 
waters of the far-famed Indian River for a distance of nearly 
twelve miles, and as we approach Titusville we get excellent 
views of it — looking at this point much like a great inland sea. 
I^ike the Halifax and the Hillsborough above it, the Indian 
River is not, strictly speaking, a river at all. It is a great 
salt-water sound, from a mile to five miles in width, and paral- 
leling the sea for a distance of over one hundred and fifty miles. 
A narrow peninsula separates it from the ocean, and in this 
there are several inlets admitting the passage of light-draft 
boats. The river traverses a most picturesque portion of the 
semi-tropics, where the foliage, the bloom and the fruits give a 
warm coloring to the scenery, and makes the air heavy with an 
invigorating fragrance. All the towns along its banks are 
great resorts for tourists in winter-time — Titusville, Cocoa, 
Rock Ivcdge, Melbourne, Fort Pierce and Jensen all being 
provided with fine hotels. The quiet loveliness of this placid 
river has inspired one of its visitors to call it " a streak of silver 
sea," and in a letter after his first visit he thus describes it : 

"It is this glittering chain of linked bays and coves and 
sunny sounds, this sun-kissed line of sapphire waters, that 
make the Indian River country the Riviera of America. It is 
this ' streak of silver sea ' that lends its ever-changing love- 
liness to the palm-clad shores, and gives its benison of beauty 
to the ever present blessing of its balmy air. It is this ' streak 
of silver sea,' reclining in the rosy arms of an ever-youthful 
June, decked in her robe of flowers and emerald leaves and 
her cap of sunny skies, that makes the Indian River country a 
poem of pleasure. It is this glad marriage of land and water 
that makes it the paradise it is. And the vision of this new 
and better Riviera of America, perfected by the toiling hands 
of men and further beautified by woman's presence, that I see 
before me now. The pillars that shall support this completed 
paradise are already being set in the ground. They are men 
and women of intelligence and culture coming from the North 
and from the West. In my vision I see this ' streak of silver 
sea,' garlanded on either side with homes where wealth and its 
heritage of beauty live, with Moorish mansions and tasteful 
cottages, with new and grander Ponce de Leons with their 
lawn-gardens extending from river to ocean, with villages and 
their country club-houses, where recreation shall mean 



248 nOlVN THE FLORIDA EAST COAST. 




"There was an old darkey 
And his name was Uncle Ned, 



And This Shows His Florida Residence. 



nOPl^JV THE FLORIDA EAST COAST. 249 

re-creation and not be another name for its idle lounging, and 
where the arts taught shall be homo-culture as well as horticul- 
ture I see before me on this highway of the seas, 

on this pathway of smiling waters, a new and a better carnival 
of Venice, with the rising of every. sun." 

If the Indian River sets the poetic traveler to dreaming, 
then what shall be said of Lake Worth, that paradise of the 
semi-tropics lying only a few miles south of it ? Over a decade 
ago its surpassing beauties and the peculiar charm of its 
climate drew to it men of wealth and leisure, whose magnificent 
winter villas began to fulfil this poetic prophecy even before it 
was made, and the extension of the Flagler Railroad to the 
lake, and the building of the Hotel Royal Poinciana are influ- 
ences which are fast making the vision a reality. 

I^ake Worth has been called ' ' the plump little sister of the 
Indian River, ' ' and in point of fact it is really only another link 
in the chain of East Coast estuaries. It is twenty-two miles in 
length, and has an average width of about a mile. Its waters 
are often only four and one-half or five feet deep, and in other 
places you can pay out from eight to ten fathoms of line perpen- 
dicularly before striking the hard coquina bottom. The 
peninsula which separates it from the sea is generally about 
half a mile in width. At Palm Beach, about midway of the 
lake on its east shore, there are many beautiful winter villas, 
bordered by a succession of sea walls nearly four miles in 
length. These villa sites stretch from east to west, from sea to 
lake, and in and around them are thousands of the most 
beautiful cocoanut palms that ever graced a scene in the tropics. 
And in their midst, like a diamond rising from a setting of 
emeralds, is the Royal Poinciana. 

Here we must tarry. We are at the terminus of the rail- 
way. We are in a little oasis of the tropics set accidentally in 
the heart of the semi-tropics. Its scenery and its unequalled 
climate are almost beyond word-painting, and we shall be 
extremely lucky if their charms unchain and let us get away 
before the end of a month. 



IvOvely indeed the mimic works of art. 
But Nature's works far lovelier. 

— Cowper. 



MASSACHUSETTS' GOVERNOR WANTS IMPROVED 
ROADS. 



y 



B" 




FREnERICK T. Greenhalge, 
Governor of Massachusetts. 



ROAD, durable and con- 
venient roads, the great 
and important avenues 
o f internal commerce, 
are the natural outcome 
of advancing civilization. The 
development of street railroads 
and the desire for physical cul- 
ture and pleasure, as demon- 
strated by the increasing inter- 
est in the use of the bicycle, by 
the cultivation of horsemanship 
and by the growing apprecia- 
tion of rational pedestrianism, 
afford abundant evidence of the 
importance of good highways. 
Towns and counties are con- 
nected by roads, and all our 
citizens, regardless of classifica- 
tion, are free to enjoy the privi- 
leges they offer. The highways are the property of no man or 
set of men, but on the contrary are open to all persons who see 
fit to use them in a decent and orderly manner. 

Our public highways, so called, are main thoroughfares 
used not only locally, but to a large extent for through travel, 
and consequently the maintenance of them becomes a question 
of general interest. Such being the case, I believe the aim of 
the Commonwealth should be to contribute as liberally as 
possible to the construction and care of highways. Further- 
more, it is important that we should constantly make progress 
in the method of building roads, not only for the sake of better 
State highways, but also for the purpose of giving advice and 
instruction to county and municipal road surveyors. 

At present there appears to be a great waste of energy and 
substance in patching up road beds. The tendency in most 
towns is to expend their annual road appropriation in half 
repairing a large amount of highways, without ever construct- 
ing even a small amount of really first-class road. 

We have already made a beginning in the direction indi- 
cated, and I consider it of great importance that the problem 
should be more carefully studied, and that such legislation shall 
be enacted as will contribute to a broader and more comprehen- 
sive development of all of our public highways. 



VENEZIA. 



BY " ivK be;rt." 

A Valuable Hint to Bicycle Inventors 




T 



Dr. Geo. Trebe 



^HBRE is at least one place 
on this fair globe where 
such an idea as dirt roads 
would be laughed and 
jeered at. In fact, you 
could not give away copies of 
this magazine for waste paper.* 
At the same time this locality 
boasts of the finest roads of the 
world. I am speaking of Venice, 
the queen city of Italy, and the 
cynosure of centuries. As you 
^'^Bl^ Jik well know, Venice is situated 

^jgSB JMBji^ on the Adriatic Sea, along the 

■^Bh ' .i^^^^Hli ^^^^ coast of Italy. The sea 

^^^B .^H^H forms a bay at this point and is 

^ -^MH^^^^ subdivided into numerous small 

islands, forming a sort of delta. 
These islands are of irregular 
shape, and most of them are 
about the size of two or three of our blocks. Upon these 
islands is built the City of Venice, and as a consequence her 
streets are canals which extend from doorstep to doorstep. 
Here we have then the ideal street, which is smooth, without 
dust and always in repair. Of course locomotion is restricted 
to boats, but these can be varied as to style so as to satisfy the 
most fastidious taste. 

Since the water bicycle has not proven a glowing success 
as yet, we find no such vehicles here ; but it might be well for 
inventors of such machines to turn their attention in that direc- 
tion, as there is a large field for experiment and profit. Prob- 
ably tandems would meet with greater success than bicycles, as 
the lordly Venetian has an eye to profit and would sacrifice 
pleasure to gain. A tandem, however, would fill the bill, as he 
could ferry passengers along at a pleasant gait and make a 
little pocket money besides. 

There is an oddity and peculiar charm about the city of 
Venice which strikes the new comer at once, and, if he be a 
student of history will vividly recall to his mind historical facts 



* We dislike to believe this last statement, and must ask the doctor to either 
prove it or apologize. — Ed. 




A Street Which Never Needs Sprinkling. 



of the dark ages which have made Venice immortal. 

The chief of the hundred or more Venetian islands is the 
Isola de Rialto ( island of the deep stream ) , which also gives its 
name to the famous bridge, the Rialto. The Grand Canal 
winds through the city in a double curve, dividing it into two 
unequal parts and is the main thoroughfare — a marine " Broad- 
way." There are 146 smaller canals, or m, which form the 
highways and byways of this interesting city. There are, 
indeed, streets, properly so called, and by means of these, 
together with the narrow paths along the banks of canals and 
the 378 bridges, one can walk from one end of Venice to the 
other, if he does not lose his way ; but for all ordinary purposes 



VENICE. 



253 




m- 




A Venezian Street Corner. 

of travel and traffic the canal is the highway and the gondola is 
the vehicle. 

Visitors to the World's Fair last year obtained a fair idea of 
this strange craft — the gondola. It is a long, narrow boat 
with both ends turned up, like the old "turnip" skate, the 
central part of the boat being covered after the fashion of a 
swell coupe. The gondolier stands at the stern of the boat and 
propels it with a single long oar, to which he imparts a twisting 
motion together with a slight sweep. The effect upon the 
water is similar to that produced by a screw, and as a result the 
boat is propelled quite rapidly. These gondoliers are a caste 
by themselves, the craft being transmitted from father to son! 
They are swarthy, robust-built specimens of humanity, ever 
polite and accommodating and always looking for a tip. This 
latter tip is, in fact, their main support, as they are usually 
employed by the day at a not very munificent wage. 

This is the proper way to see Venice : Hire a gondola by 
the day, and, if yoMx pocketbook allow it, a guide, and as you 
sit in your gondola, propelled in that sleepy, soothing way, 
which is characteristic of no other craft, you may listen to the 



254 



VENICE. 



soft voice of the guide as lie^points out the places of interest 
and history. You may perhaps fall into a day dream and 
imagine yourself back to the reigns of the cruel Doges and the 
Council of Ten ; you may dream of the art which was born and 
reared in Venice, and the men who made her history famous. 
And if you are a wheelman, you will envy the Venetian for his 
gondola and for his beautiful streets. 




This I^ast Cut Is American Rather Than Venezian. 



[It occurs to us that if the style of street which prevails in 
Venice is really a good thing, as Dr. Trebel seems to think, 
and Americans desire to adopt that style, there are places in 
this country where, in the spring, a little dredging would pro- 
vide us with the regular Venezian streets. In fact a good, 
broad-tired gondola would run here in some places withotit the 
dredging. — Ed.] 



FRONTISPIECE. 

JUDGE E. H. THAYER, editor and chief proprietor of 
the Clinto7i (Iowa) Mor7iing Age, was born at Windham, 
Maine, Nov. 27, 1832, educated in that State, attended 
the district school at Orno, graduating from the East 
Corinth Academy in 1850. That year he started for 
Portland, Oregon, although at that time Greeley had not given 
young men that excellent advice ' ' to buy a Hoe press and go 
West." At Albany he took passage on a canal boat for 
Buffalo, thence by lake boat to Cleveland, where he was taken 
sick, preventing his continuing his journey. 

He remained in Cleveland three years reading law in the 
office of Bolton, Kelley & Griswold, attending lectures in the 
Medical College, and doing local work on the Herald and Plai7i 
Dealer, newspapers of that city. While in Cleveland the sub- 
ject of this sketch learned short hand writing, being one of the 
very few persons in the country who at that time was able to 
report speeches verbatim. In the political campaign of 1852 
he reported speeches made by Stephen A. Douglas, L^ewis Cass, 
Horace Greeley, Sam Houston and other distinguished gentle- 
men. He reported the speech of General Scott which was 
made in that city, in which occurred the noted phrases " sweet 
German accent" and "rich Irish brogue." He accompanied 
the party that escorted General Scott to the Blue Eick Springs, 
reporting the speeches made on the route of that celebrated 
chieftain. He also reported several speeches made by Louis 
Kossuth, the Hungarian patriot. 

In the spring of 1853, Mr. Thayer was admitted to the bar, 
passing the very thorough examination at that time made 
imperative by law, his certificate authorizing him to practice his 
profession in all the courts of the State. In May of that year 
he started further West, spending a week or two in Chicago, 
but not settling there because he thought the future prospects 
of that city were not up to his notions of what western towns 
were destined to become. By railroad he went to Freeport, 
Illinois, thence by stage to Savannah, on the Mississippi River, 
and down the river by boat to Muscatine, Iowa, where he com- 
menced the practice of law. In 1854 he was elected county 
attorney on the Democratic ticket. In 1856 he was elected 
county judge of Muscatine County, and re-elected in 1858, both 
times as a Democrat. In 1858 he married Miss Delia E. Payne, 
of Westport, New York, who during their 36 years of married 
life has been a most valuable helpmate to him. In i860 he was 
elected by the Democratic State Convention a delegate to the 
Charleston convention, being made the Iowa member of the 



256 FRONTISPIECE. 

Committee on Permanent Organization, before which committee 
the first fight was made between the Douglas and Breckenridge 
factions. In that convention Judge Thayer voted 56 times for 
Stephen A. Douglas for candidate as president. The conven- 
tion, without selecting a candidate, adjourned to Baltimore, 
where on the first ballot Judge Douglas was placed in nomina- 
tion. In 1862 Judge Thayer was the Democratic candidate for 
Congress, but was defeated by Hiram Price. 

During his residence in Muscatine, Judge Thayer was 
engaged in the newspaper business, and in 1868 he moved to 
Clinton, where he established The Age, which paper he has 
since continued to edit and manage. He at once took a promi- 
nent part in advocating the construction of railroads, was 
director in several railroad companies, president of the Iowa 
Southwestern Road, building a portion of that road and then 
operating it. He has been active through his paper in urging 
capital to establish manufactures in Iowa, has been a leader in 
championing the educational interests of the State, a persistent 
advocate of 

GOOD ROADS, 

his work in that direction running through a period of twenty 
years. He has made the beet sugar industry a study and is a 
firm believer in the practicability of growing sugar beet and 
manufacturing beet sugar in Iowa. 

In 1875 Judge Thayer was elected a member of the lower 
house of the general assembly of Iowa, and the following year 
he was appointed by Governor Kirk wood, a trustee of the State 
Normal School, assisting in the establishment of that institu- 
tion, holding the office of president of the board for several years, 
resigning in 1885 to accept the office of postmaster of Clinton, 
.which, unsolicited, was tendered him by President Cleveland. 
In 1876 he was chosen a delegate to the Democratic National 
Convention which met at St. Louis, taking an active part in 
securing the nomination of Samuel Tilden. In 1884 he was 
elected delegate at large to the Democratic National Conven- 
tion held at Chicago, was selected as the Iowa member of the 
platform committee and did yeoman service in formulating the 
tariff plank. 

Besides his active advocacy of good roads in the Daily Age, 
he inaugurated a movement for a good roads co7ivention, which 
met at Des Moines in August, 1892. This was one of the 
largest assemblies, outside of political gatherings, ever held in 
the State ; every county and nearly every city and town sending 
delegates. He was elected chairman of the convention, making 
an address upon the subject of good roads, and subsequently, 
when the permanent organization known as the ' ' Iowa Road 
Improvement Association" was organized, he was elected the 
president, which position he holds at the present time. 



FRONTISPIECE. 257 

In October, 1892, the first national convention to consider 
the subject of good roads met in Music Hall, Chicago. This 
convention, made successful by the untiring efforts of General 
Stone, was presided over by Judge Thayer, and subsequently, 
when the National League of Good Roads was organized, he 
was made chairman of the executive committee, which office 
he now holds. In January, 1893, he read a paper on "Good 
Roads" before a convention of the National League for Good 
Roads, held at Washington, D. C. In May, 1893, he addressed 
the Iowa Bankers' Association at their annual meeting, taking 
for his subject " Good Roads and How They Effect Our Finan- 
cial Condition." In October, 1893, he delivered two addresses 
in Chicago ; one before the American Bankers' Association, at 
their annual meeting, being assigned the subject, " The Con- 
struction of Good Roads as a Matter of Finance, and the other 
before the "Good Roads Congress of the World's Columbian 
Exposition," his topic being, "A New Departure ! " 

He is an earnest worker in behalf of ' ' Good Roads, ' ' embrac- 
ing every opportunity to publicly discuss the question, being 
firmly convinced that the outcome of the universal agitation of 
the subject will be the establishment of a general system of 
good road construction which will lead to the grandest results. 



Gratitude is the memory of the heart. — Massien. 



Jealousy is the homage that inferiority pays to merit. 
Mme. de Pusisieii. 



Do you appreciate the work the L. A. W. is doing for high- 
way improvement ? 



THE HOME BUILDING OF COUNTRY ROADS. 

BY AN OLD ROADMASTER (d. W. LEWIS) , SHERRUCK, N. Y. 

I^/EW YORK STATE has beneficient road regulations 
|\| under which her roads to-day are rapidly improving, and 
I 1 in many localities are getting to a standard of excellence 
I unequalled by some cities where there are large sums of 

money annually expended. Witness Fifth Avenue drive 
in the City of New York, east of Central Park, and contrast it 
with even an average of country roads through the State. 

The building and care of roads by the localities themselves, 
the right of abutting property owners to the centre line of the 
road, subject to an easement for public purposes, and the moral 
responsibility involved by such ownership, have important social 
aspects. 

The making and care of a road under present local methods 
is founded upon road district patriotism. Its mechanism 
involves Godlike doing for others ; while the slough holes, pit fall 
sluices and stone ' ' jounces ' ' from the stony heart of an unkempt 
road, epitomize practical infidelity. Broad ideas, willing hands, 
and love of one's neighbor as one's self are supplementary to 
good neighborhood road building; these given, needed appliances 
will be forthcoming, and the perfect road emerge from pre- 
existent imperfections. In short, spirit controls matter, and 
' ' what . spirit ye are of ' ' will determine the character of the 
roads in any locality. 

If the spirit is for the road, then one of the first necessities 
is a good four-wheel road machine. These machines are 
usually bought by the districts themselves, in which case it is 
customary for three or more districts to club together for joint 
use and ownership. The pay for these machines is usually 
made in instalments covering from three to five years — the 
districts paying one-half of their assessments on account of 
their road machines, and working out the other half on the 
roads. In some instances the towns have bought the machines 
outright, which is not so desirable, however, as for the districts 
to own them. 

It has been the custom for towns to build all bridges larger 
than a six-foot span, an-', for tli town to supply plank and aid 
in building sluices leq- .ring less than a six-foot span. Towns 
are now beginning to t ly cast iron water service pipe for all 
sluices and supply them to the road districts for use. Such 
pipe is generally from 3-8 to 3-4 inch thick, which, imbedded in 
the ground, stands the weight of heavy loads, even in muddy 
going, and will last for all time. Being round they are less 
liable to catch the road scrapers when working the road, and 



BUILDING OF COUNTRY ROADS. 259 

all annoyance and expense of rebuilding and replanking sluices 
is done away with and the road is at all times entirely smooth 
and comfortable. Such iron pipe in carload lots can be bought 
at from i 1-8 to i 1-4 cents per pound — making the cost of a 
12-foot, 4-inch iron sluice $2.67. 

Width of road must depend upon conditions. Just wide 
enough and none to spare, and well taken care of, is better, but 
the road should be worked sufl&ciently wide so that teams are 
not compelled to travel in the same ruts in muddy weather, and 
should be so crowned and flatted in the centre as to avoid water 
running in the tracks. Keep runways on sides of roads open 
and iron sluice pipes clear, to prevent the road bed from washing 
out, and the road itself cleared from loose stone. Such a road 
once well formed needs but very little care to keep it in condi- 
tion — but that little is required. 

Put the teams on road building and road working cheerfully, 
for what they do saves double their labor to the team itself in 
the course of the year, and the man gets his pay for the u^ork 
done, three or four times over in the lessened wear and tear of 
himself and of vehicles, and the distilling dew of the commenda- 
tion of his brother man who passeth that way, repays it over 
again in the currency of the gods. 

To remove rocks and such like obstructions, dynamite will 
be found very useful and cheap. Its use is simple and with 
ordinary care not dangerotcs. It costs but ten cents per pound. 
On dugways and sidehills use the road worker on the upper 
side only ; drain the road bed with iron sluice pipe, at proper 
intervals, and leave the lower side for a path. 

One day's working with Jack Frost when he lets loose in 
the spring, and again when he commences "journey work " in 
the fall, is worth two days without him in summer time. 



THIS COUIvD HAPPEN ONLY IN BOSTON. 

Two teamsters came into collision in the street with their 
vehicles. 

First Teamster — My dear sir, I'm very sorry for this acci- 
dent. Will you kindly excuse me? 

Second Teamster — Pray do not mention it, my dear sir. 
The fault was as much mine as yours. 

After getting their wagons clear of each other they bow 
politely, and with a pleasant "good day" proceed about their 
business. — Boston Courier. 



STUDIO NOTES. 



BY STAMSON. 



DID it ever occur to you, dear reader, that those who are 
the best able financially, do the least, usually, in road 
making and improving ? I know plenty of men who 
could each pay for a mile of brick or stone road past 
their premises, and never need to wink at the cost, but 
they would all the same, and are in too many cases the hardest 
kickers against any permanent road work that will benefit the 
masses. 

Better roads in and about Stamford has been the writer's 
hobby for a dozen years past, and during that time he has used 
up small barrels of ink in the columns of the daily and weekly 
papers, and he thinks that some of his seed has borne fruit, for 
our out-of-town roads actually get gravel now, where they used 
to get only gutter scrapings and sods. 

This is quite encouraging, for road users out of the city, 
but inside, our streets are nearly as bad as in the dark ages, 
before cycling came to wake up the average man to a sense of 
the needlessly bad condition the streets were in. jj 

Thousands of dollars are yearly thrown away upon tem- 
porary top- dressings of stone and gravel that barely last six 
weeks before mud and ruts appear. 

In view of the indifferent roads and streets of this country, 
it is no less than wonderful how cycling has progressed, up to 
the present, and how brave and determined, especially the 

_, ladies, have been, for many of them 

began riding on the old hard tires 
of lyang Syne. 

Miss May Munson, who was the 
pioneer lady cycler of this section, 
and has been for years an advo- 
cate of good roads, having pushed 
solid tired cycles over all sorts of so- 
called roads in Connecticut and 
York State, is in a position to 
appreciate modern wheels and our 
slightly better roads. 

Among the improvements about 
here is the work now under way, of 
cutting down Breakneck hill, a dan- 
gerous one just out of the city west- 
Miss MAY M0NSON. ward by south. 





STREETS OF PHIIvADEIvPHIA. 

CHAS. V. D'OSSONE. 

^\ FTER several years of agitation on the subject, an earnest 
fj commencement was made in the early part of last year 
^\ to improve the condition and character of the streets of 
J Philadelphia by taking up the ancient and highly 

unsatisfactory cobblestone, which had long been a 
reproach to our city, and substituting the smooth and sightly 
asphalt in streets where travel is light, and Belgian blocks in 
the sections having a great amount of heavy hauling. Hun- 
dreds of miles of improved paving has been laid, with the work 
still in rapid progress, and which will continue until the good, 
old City of Brotherly Eove will have an additional source of 
pride in being one of the best paved cities in the world. 

The advent of the trolley has been largely instrumental in 
bringing about this glorious result, as the street car companies 
entered into an agreement with the city to lay the best pave- 
ment, from curb to curb, for the privilege of substituting the 
electric for the horse power. 

The agreement has been faithfully kept by the companies, 
with no appearance of disposition on their part to slight the 
work, either in the quality of material used or in the methods of 
putting it down. It is pertinent to add in this connection that 
the street car companies are obliged by City ordinance to keep 
in repair, between the curbs, the streets which their lines 
traverse. The work has been done heretofore in but a half- 
hearted manner, and to get the companies to live up to their 
obligations has always been a source of considerable trouble 
for the city authorities. 

That the people of the city are eager for good roads is 
evidenced by the lively interest they take, and the pressure 
they bring to bear on their Representatives in City Council for 
a continuance of the good work in streets not occupied by 
passenger railways, and vast sums of money have been appro- 
priated for that purpose. The city will soon commence the 
construction of a subway to do away with the remaining grade 
crossings of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, on Penn- 
sylvania avenue, from Broad street to Fairmount Park, a 
distance of over a mile, in the course of which about fifteen 
dangerous crossings will be done away with. The cost will be 
about $6,000,000, half of which sum will be borne by the rail- 
road company, and the balance by the city. All this is not 
only in the direction of good roads, but safe ones as well. 

The city has this year arranged to spend about thirty-five 



262 STREETS OF PHILADELPHIA. 

millions of dollars in permanent improvements. A goodly- 
share of this immense sum will be expended in improved drain- 
age and good roads. The city is fully committed to this policy, 
and is not likely to stop until every street and alley in the city 
has a pavement that will require nothing more than a good 
brushing to keep it in a clean and healthful condition. 

One very noticeable result of the street improvement is the 
great increase in bicycle riding. Broad street, Philadelphia's 
grand boulevard which bisects the city from north to south ; 
broad, as its name implies, and as straight as an arrow, is fairly 
alive in the evening with wheelmen. The pedestrian must 
preserve a good lookout to avoid being run down by some of 
them who possess a propensity for racing. There have been so 
many narrow escapes from this cause that it will probably lead 
to some necessary restrictions as to speed, with mounted police- 
men to enforce them. 

I was a witness a few nights ago to an encounter between a 
small-sized dog and a wheel going at a rapid rate, in which the 
dog came out a little ahead. The front wheel went entirely 
over him, and brought both wheel and rider to earth. The dog 
was able to rush off howling terrifically, while it took the rider 
some time to get into a condition to limp painfully and sorrow- 
fully away, dragging his wheel with him ; both being subjects 
for repairs. 

This may seem like a departure from the subject of good 
roads, but it is incidental to it, nevertheless, as on poor roads 
the wheel does not make such headlong speed as to be danger- 
ous, and such accidents are not so likely to occur. 

I do not think the increase in the number of bicycles sold is 
likely to injuriously affect the sale of carriages, for the reason 
that the bicycle is the vehicle of those who cannot afford to 
purchase and maintain a horse and carriage. I am more 
inclined to believe that it produces a beneficial effect by stimu- 
lating a love of motion, of getting around and seeing things. 
Therefore, when the bike rider, in course of time, tires of the 
necessary effort in propelling a wheel, and of exposure to sun 
and the unexpected shower that wheelmen occasionally experi- 
ence, the next step for those who can afford it will be the horse 
and buggy. 



" Close: His Features" Is Good. 

The work for good roads done by the L,. A. W. is 
alone worth the price of every wheelman's support of 
the organization. Let him who decries the old league 
close his features and think. — Michigan Cyclist. 



SIDE PATHS. 

BY C. T. RAYMOND, 
President Side Path League. 

I I HEEIvMEN universally believe in the " Good Roads " 

Iff movement and are doing their share in every section 

III to hasten the era when good roads shall be universal. 

VJL/ I'he wheelmen of Niagara County, N, Y., are no 

exception and we gladly welcome every law which 

tends to give us better roads. But while we are waiting for 

the action of the State, and the County Board of Supervisors, 

and the farmers we are quietly building some good roads of 

our own, which we call "side paths," and it is because we 

believe that many wheelmen in other sections are circumstanced 

in the same manner that we are, that we call attention to the 

work we are doing. 

Our movement started in I^ockport, and up to the present 
time has been confined to that locality and the immediate vicin- 
ity, so that in describing what has been done, we must look at 
it from a lyockport point of view. 

lyockport is the centre and county seat of Niagara County. 
Twelve miles to the north lie the blue waters of Eake Ontario ; 
twenty miles to the west Niagara's mighty cataract thunders 
ceaselessly ; twenty-seven miles southwest lies Buffalo, the 
queen city of the lakes, with its beautiful parks and boulevards. 
These are the points to which the wheelmen of IvOckport would 
naturally go for pleasure and recreation. But, alas ! The 
roads to these points are the worst in the county. The roads to 
the Falls and to Buffalo are clay — sticky and muddy in the 
spring and fall, and rough and rutty in summer — while the 
roads north to any points on Eake Ontario are very sandy. 

Even if the $10,000,000 road bill had passed the Legislature 
a few years ago, providing for the construction of two main 
roads in every country, it would not have helped us to reach 
the lake, and the almost unanimous votes passed by the farmers' 
clubs throughout the county, against the adoption of the 
county road law passed in '93, showed us that we had little 
reason to expect any results from that measure for a long time 
to come. 

There has existed in this county for generations, along some 
of the roads, natural side paths, and along these we have been 
able to skim at all times with little exertion, no matter how 
sandy or muddy the road has been. The pleasure derived from 
the use of these natural side paths induced a few of us to 
believe that by organization and systematic work, we should be 
able to build side paths along the bad roads where none existed, 




Beginning of Path Between Lockport and Alcott, N. Y. 
Built by the Side Path I,eague. President Raymond in foreground. 

and to connect the stretches already existing, into one complete 
system. We have been at work for the past two years, and the 
results accomplished begin to speak for themselves. 

The money so far has been secured by membership dues of 
one dollar per year, subscriptions, and entertainments. Bach 
year we have had a subscription list of twenty men at five 
dollars apiece, while some have given much larger sums, and 
the bulk of the four hundred dollars expended to date has been 
raised in that way. We ought also to acknowledge that at the 
start we received some help from both the Pope Mfg. Co. and 
the Overman Wheel Co., but these are the only manufacturers 
who have ever assisted us. 

The first stretch of road we have attempted to cover is the 
twelve mile stretch running to Olcott — the nearest point on 
Lake Ontario. The first two miles of this road leading north 
from the city limits is a toll road and is what they call macadam 
in this county, but it would make Macadam turn over in his 
grave. 

It consists of stones of all sizes thrown on loosely and left 
for the wagons using the road to roll them down into shape. 
As farmers in this county use narrow tires, the result is that 
the road is a series of deep ruts and ridges, and none of the 
ridges are wide enough for a wheel to run on comfortably. 



SIDE PA THS. 265 

Beyond the toll road, the road is very sandy, and in dry weather 
it is next to impossible to push a wheel through it, while in wet 
weather, owing to the centre most of the way being lower than 
the edges of the road, it becomes a sea of mud. 

We have covered the toll section with a fine wide cinder 
side path, and we are now pushing our work along the sandy 
sections. 

The specifications for building a side path are very similar 
to the specifications for a road, and these have been given many 
times in Good Roads. We have kept a ditch between our 
path and the road at all points. This prevents farmers from 
driving over on to the path when the road is bad. Wherever 
the land is low or wet we have made an embankment suffi- 
ciently high to be above any flood or freshet. We have pro- 
vided vitrified tile pipe at all points where there is a natural 
drainage from the fields to the main ditch between the path and 
the road. This pipe runs from four to twelve inches in diam- 
eter, and at one point where a considerable stream runs in 
spring we have laid two twelve inch pipes side \>y side. It 
would be well to enclose the ends of the pipes in a loose stone 
wall or in a regular masoned wall. If the pipe is allowed to 
project beyond the sides of the path for any distance it is apt to 
get broken, while if it is brought just even with the edge the 
dirt is apt to wash down and fill up the pipe after a time, espe- 
cially the four-inch tile. 

Where the path runs along a side hill sloping down to the 
road, it should be provided with a shallow ditch on the upper 
side with three-inch tiles running under the path every twenty- 
five or thirty feet, to carry the rain from the slope under the 
path, otherwise a gully will occasionally be washed out in the 
path. In constructing a path, any dirt may be used. Sand, 
clay, loam or anything handy. Generally enough dirt can be 
dug out of the ditch to raise the path as high as will be neces- 
sary. The path should be thrown up five feet wide, and if the 
room and money will permit, six feet will be better. We use a 
tight string between two stakes on each side of the path to 
secure the level, and after the dirt has been thrown up until the 
path is the right height and width and substantially level, it 
is rolled with a heavy roller. The roller we have is 26-inch 
face and weighs a ton and a half, but the proper roller to use 
would be one with 4-foot face made with a parabolic curve one 
inch at the centre. This would make the path one inch high 
at the centre, which is ample to drain off any rain on so narrow 
a path. After the path has been graded and rolled it requires 
to be surfaced, but we have not had long enough or extensive 
enough experience to be an authority on this point. We can 
say, however, that the surfacing should be at least two inches 
thick at the centre and it may taper off to one inch at the side ; 



266 



SIDE PA THS. 




Cinder Side Path Through Swamp Near Odd Fellows' Home. 
This was filled over three feet in places, so as to be above high water in spring. 



but if clay is used in grading the path, the surface should be 
thicker than if sand or loam is used. Otherwise the clay will 
work up through in the spring and make the path soft and 
sticky, and if it is walked on much, or if cattle are driven over 
it, it will get rough and remain rough, until dry weather and 
travel on the path wears it down smooth again. 

The surface may be cinder, gravel or crushed stone. In 
many places there are beds of shale which will make a good 
surfacing material. Anthracite cinders will not make a good 
path unless they are crushed fine before being laid. Gravel 
should be screened. We use a screen with one inch mesh, but 
probably a screen with one and a half inch mesh would give 
very satisfactory results. We have not used any crushed stone 
yet, but hope to experiment with it during the coming year. 
The cost of maintenance and keeping in repair will be a very 
small item after a path is once properly constructed. If the 
roller is run over in the spring, while the ground is wet and 
soft, it will keep the path smooth and level, and the centre 
higher than the sides during the entire season. The weeds 
and grass along the sides should be cut down or scraped off 
two or three times during the season, but one man can do many 
miles of this work in the course of a week. 

The cost of a path will depend on the amount of grading 



SIDE PA THS. 267 

that has to be done, the distance the surfacing material will 
require to be hauled, the number of stones, trees and natural 
obstacles that have to be removed, and the amount of tile pipe 
required for draining. 

Our first stretch was built through a swamp, and it required 
hundreds of loads of stone before we could put on any dirt for 
grading purposes. This stretch was not over one-eighth of a 
mile, and cost about one hundred and twenty-five dollars. 

Such a stretch of work will seldom be required, and there is 
no other piece as difficult along the entire twelve miles to 
Olcott. We have contracted for a section this summer on the 
basis of one dollar per rod, which would figure three hundred 
and twenty dollars per mile. This is for a fair average piece of 
road, and paths would not cost anywhere in this county over 
that sum per mile on the average. Good paths can probably 
be built complete for two hundred dollars per mile if the work 
could be undertaken on a sufficiently large scale to warrant the 
employment of machinery like the new era grader, steam 
rollers, and scientific supervision. Such work can not, how- 
ever, be undertaken by a small local body of wheelmen, and 
suggestions for undertaking side path work on a larger and 
more extensive scale will be reserved for the next article. 

Mr. Dodge, in May number of Good Roads, says, "a won- 
derful means of transportation has appeared, in the form of the 
bicycle, which is destined to give us the cheapest means of 
transportation of anything that can be devised for the transpor- 
tation of a single passenger ; and, in constructing a system of 
roads, some reference should be had to the uses of this new 
machine." That is correct, and, as bicycles already far out- 
number carriages in many localities, and as the number is 
rapidly increasing, it is proper to consider whether in construct- 
ing roads it is not better to provide a separate road or path for 
the use of wheelmen. 

On country roads you will find horses and carriages, animals 
of various kinds, and men, women and children all moving 
along and using the road indiscriminately. But, as the city 
spreads out, and the country road becomes a part of the town, 
the number of pedestrians increases, as well as the number of 
horses, and a separate road or side walk is demanded and con- 
structed for the exclusive use of the pedestrians. 

Now this separate walk is demanded, not so much because 
the increase in the number of horses and carriages has made 
the road too dangerous, as it is because the foot passenger 
needs a road which will always be hard, smooth and free from 
mud, even in rainy weather. 

It is exactly the same with wheelmen. When our numbers 
were few, the road was good enough, but now our number is 
myriad and we need a road of our own which shall always be 



268 



SIDE PA THS. 




SiDE Path Along Lake Avenue, Corner Niagara Road. 
Built by the Side Path League. Grounds of the Home for the Friendless on the left. 



dry, smooth and hard, and may be used as comfortably in rainy 
weather as in dry. 

The best road made is subject to the grinding action of 
heavy iron shod wheels, and constantly cut up by the action of 
iron shod hoofs. It is also the constant receptacle of manure 
and dirt of many kinds. The result is that, no matter how 
carefully a road is built nor how frequently it is repaired, in 
country districts where the inhabitants can't give it the con- 
stant and skilled attention that a park road receives, it is 
bound to get into a condition in which it is not suitable for the 
use of wheelmen in wet weather, and it cannot be made as satis- 
factory as a good side path even in dry weather. 

A side path four feet wide is ample for all purposes on 
ordinary roads, and wheelmen can pass each other and pedes- 
trians on a path of this width. A path properly drained, 
graded and leveled is always dry enough to ride with comfort 
even during a rainstorm, and it never tends to get dusty, 
muddy or rutty. It is easy to turn the rain off, even on a hill, 
from a path only four feet wide, if it is provided, as it should 
be, with a ditch on each side of it. The number of people who 
use wheels in the country is rapidly increasing. Women and 
children are using them as well as the men. When a system 
of sidepaths is once established it will add much to the comfort 



SIDE PA THS. 269 

of country life, and it will bring the city and country closer 
together. Children who now plod miles to school through mud 
and dust, will then go to school on their wheels in one-fifth the 
time and with one-tenth of the exertion, while the women can 
jump on their wheels and run to a neighbors on any little 
errand a hundred times where they now go to their neighbors 
once. Men can go a considerable distance on their wheels and 
get back in less time than it would take to harness a horse ; 
while, within a radius of ten or twelve miles, they could go to 
town evenings to attend evening classes, lectures, clubs, enter- 
tainments, or any of the many other attractions which make 
town life so much more attractive than country life. 

Of course the above is all trite, and applies equally well to 
districts which secure improved roads, but the point desired to 
be made in these articles is that side paths, which will better 
serve the purposes of wheelmen than the best roads made, can 
be obtained with one-twentieth the expense of a good road, 
they can be maintained at a very small fraction of the expense 
of maintaining an improved road, and they can be secured in a 
very short time if a proper and systematic effort is put forth in 
this direction. 

The Niagara County Side Path League has been working 
for two years on a sample stretch of side path which will be 
twelve miles long when completed. 



TRUE HAPPINESS DEPENDS NOT SO MUCH ON 
WHAT WE HAVE, AS HOW WE LIKE IT. 

The prince passed by. A careless boy, 

As he watched him ride away, 
Thought, "O, for a taste of the boundless joy 

Where the prince must feast each day," 
And a great hope burned in his youthful heart 
To sometime play in a prince's part. 

The prince passed by ; his heart was sad 
With a thousand cares oppressed; 

" To be once more like that happy lad 
And freed from this deep unrest, 

I'd give all the sorry hopes of men ; 

Alas ! that youth comes not again." 

— Nixon IVaterman in Chicago Journal. 



HOW A WOMAN BUIIvT A WAGON ROAD. 

BY BDWARD W. PERRY. 

(Conchided.) 

"Yes I do mean every word on't! " cried the badgered 
Swain, who was tender about his Sunday-school business. "lyCt 
any man come up with five hundred dollars good and lawful 
money of these United States, to bind the bargain, this minute, 
and I'll take it fast enough. I'll show ye whether I'm blufiin,' 
as ye call it. I'll take the money, and he can take the farm." 

" I'll take that offer; here's your money — five hundred dol- 
lars good and lawful money of the United States," answered 
Burns who had been whispering with his prospective mother- 
in-law. 

He thrust the crisp bills into the hand of Swain, whose 
fingers instinctively closed over them. The man stood staring 
at the money until the shouts and laughter of the crowd 
aroused him from his stupefaction. He looked around on the 
faces of the people, then ran down the steps and marched away 
to the office of his lawyer. 

In high good humor the crowd went to the polls, confident 
of complete success. But when we got there we found another 
kind of an antagonist to meet. We saw in a moment that there 
was work cut out for us. A big crowd was listening to Clinton 
Sturges, a rich farmer, who had long been one of the best of our 
county supervisors, and now aspired to a seat in legislature. 

" Mankind passed through its stone age!" he cried in his 
pleasant, sonorous tones. " It has seen its bronze age, we are 
in the midst of and nearly through the iron age, and now a few 
selfish men want to fasten upon us a bond-age. Beware of 
delivering yourselves, bound hand and foot, to these schemers. 
I beg you to pause before you fetter yourselves — before you 
take upon your already overburdened shoulders a load which 
you may never be able to shake ofi: — a grievous cross which you 
will have to pass on to your children ; to those innocent ones 
who to-day have no power to lift their voices in protest against 
this wrong. They look to you, their heaven appointed guar- 
dians, to protect them from designing men. Will you prove 
recreant to this sacred trust ? ' ' 

' ' Who are the men who are misleading you in this matter ? 
They are those who fatten on the interest paid by hard working 
farmers. They ask you to issue bonds to pay for stone roads — 
fancy pavements that they cannot deny are better than the 
costly pavements of the biggest city in all the land. They have 
the audacity to tell you plainly that they stand ready to buy 



GOOD ROADS. 271 

these bonds ; and they will pay for them with the very money 
taken from the toiling farmer and the mechanic, for interest on 
the mortgages these capitalists hold on their dearly bought and 
dearly loved homes." 

"And what means have they used to bring this about? They 
have bought the influence of the press, and it prints columns of 
stuff to mislead the readers. They have a following of boys who 
would look far better helping their fathers in the shop or in the 
field, than they ever look perched on their bicycles, 'doubled 
over like monkeys with a stomachache,' as an honest friend of 
the people described them to-day. And they have gone so far 
as to deceive some women into using their influence to secure 
votes for this iniquitous measure. Think of it. Taking women 
from the sacred duties of home, to enter the foul arena of schem- 
ing politics. And these men dare to tell you that this chatter 
of misguided women, and clack of boys, and paid advertising of 
a venal press is public opinion, and voices a popular demand 
for the improvement of our highways! 

" I have grown up from boyhood right here among you. 
For thirty years I have hauled the product of my farm over the 
very roads which these men ask you to spend thousands of hard 
earned dollars on ; and I make no complaint of that road ; I do 
not say that our pathmaster doesn't know his business ; I do 
not accuse him and the supervisors of neglecting the duty they 
are pledged to perform ; I do not demand that you taxpayers 
shall pay for making a pavement as smooth and level and dry as 
a house floor, that I may haul my corn, and hay, and hogs to 
market in a silk lined carriage. These roads were good enough 
for my father and his father before him. They are better now 
than those level-headed men ever saw them ; and shall I say 
that they didn't know how to make a good road suited to their 
needs ? 

' ' Who are the men who ask you farmers and mechanics to 
bond yourselves and your children ? They are the money 
lenders, the merchants and the lawyers ; they are the doctors 
and even the school teachers. Do they go into the fields and 
shops and earn an honest living, or do they sit in cushioned 
chairs and shaded ofiices, while the eyes of the artisan and of 
the farmer smart with the sweat that pours from their brows ? 

' ' These who ask you to vote for bonds are they who leave 
their offices in the middle of the afternoon, to drive with their 
dainty wives or sweethearts — and must have stone roads, 
smooth, and level, and broad, to ride over. There must be no 
mud, nor dust, nor rut, lest the delicate fabrics of dress and 
carriage, or the shining coats of the fast nags should be soiled, 
or the drivers should be jolted. And they ask yoii to pay for 
all this luxury. 

' ' They pretend that the making of such highways would be 



272 GOOD ROADS. 

a prodigious public good ; but they took care to make the best 
part of their stone road on private property, and leave untouched 
half a mile of the worst mud hole in the county. And then 
they compelled you to buy stock that has never paid a cent of 
dividend, and never will pay a dollar. 

' ' Will you blindly pledge yourself to pay for a costly fad of 
bicycling boys and weak minded women, for a money-making 
scheme of sharp men who want their property made valuable at 
public cost ? Will you enslave your children ? Can it be pos- 
sible that you will voluntarily enter into lifelong bondage ? I 
plead now in your interest, as I am ever ready to work for your 
interest. ' ' 

Brown, the banker, arose and said in his calm, deliberate 
manner : 

" My friends, you have known me many years. You have 
known the men who have been the chief movers in this road 
improvement scheme. You know the lady whose brain con- 
ceived, whose influence started, whose advice has largely 
guided their work. I need say no more on that point, to 
remove any possible suspicion as to the honesty, the unsel- 
fishness of their purpose. 

"I am not here to pose as a philanthropist. I went into 
this work for the profit there is in it. I want you to go into it 
for the profit there is in it. I shall get a good profit. I don't 
object to saying that I have made a rather good thing out of it 
already, and shall make much more. We ask all the people of 
the county to share those gains. I feel warranted in saying 
that the Goods Roads Company is willing to take bonds of the 
county for all the money actually spent by us in making 
improved roads — and many of you know by experinece how 
great those improvements are. We give you our services for 
nothing other than the benefits which we, with the rest, will 
receive from that improvement." 

" How about the road through Ward's farm ? " 

" We will give that to the county, in exchange for the old 
right of way," I answered. 

Well, we worked hard that day ; and they voted us down. 
Molly and I rode home tired and disappointed, and the children 
were despairing. 

" I^et's have a good supper and sleep upon the matter," 
said Molly. "We'll feel better to-morrow; and to-day is not 
the end of time." 

But it took two years of hard work to get the people to vote 
those bonds and begin a systematic improvement of their high- 
ways ; and the fight was not ended then. 



THE SPEED OF HORSES AS AFFECTED BY THE 
CONDITION OF THE ROADS. 

BY BUDD DOBI^K, 



The famous horsemai. 




D 



URING the 30 years 
m y experience a s 



of 



BUDD DOBLE. 



trainer and driver o f 
horses, I have had forced 
upon me, often in a very 
disagreeable manner, the fact 
that speed is dependent to a 
very considerable degree upon 
the condition of the surface over 
which the horse travels. The 
difference between the surface 
of the best trotting track, in its 
best condition, and that of the 
worst track when ready for use, 
is not a difference which the 
average road maker could see ; 
and yet there might be a differ- 
ence [of several seconds in the 
time which a horse could make 
over the two tracks. Take two 
conditions of the same track : there are differences which even 
track experts cannot always define, and which may be sufiicient 
to astonish the world with a new record, otherwise unattainable 
at that moment. 

If these well known, though not always well understood, 
differences in the surface of tracks {all of which look perfect to 
the inexperie7iced eye) , effect the speed of a horse so materially, 
what shall we say of those differences in the condition of roads 
and streets, which are so obvious to all. Much has been 
written on the subject of how heavy loads a team can haul over 
different kinds of roads, but little attention has been paid (in 
print, at least), to the speed at which these loads may be 
hauled. 

Several questions effect the speed at which a teamster may 
drive over a rough road. Spring wagons are better than rigid 
ones, but in either case many kinds of merchandise are liable 
to injury if jolted or shaken up too much. The careful driver 
must also look out for the welfare of his wagon, if he would 
get out of it a profitable amount of use. 

To the care of his load and wagon, is added the constant 



274 . BAD ROADS VS. SPEED. 

lookout lest the horses stumble over loose stones, or get injured 
by a blow from the ' ' pole ' ' when one of the front wheels strikes 
an unusual obstruction. 

If the imperfections of a road limited the speed of travel 
simply to the physical ability of the horses, it would be bad 
enough. But it is even worse than that, since both the safety 
of the wagon and its freight demand a moderate speed. 

And at the slowest speed on a rough road, more injury will 
result to rolling stock than would be possible on a perfectly 
smooth road, even though the speed in the latter case might be 
excessive. 

One having a taste for statistics could easily figure up an 
enormous loss which is being suffered, directly and indirectly, 
by everybody, on account of the fact that nearly all overland 
hauling costs more than it should. Not alone because too light 
loads are carried, but because too much time is consumed in 
doing it. 

I am glad to observe the great amount of work that is being 
done toward the making of better roads. 

The constant agitation of the subject by the L/cague of 
American Wheelmen, through its Good Roads magazine, and 
in other ways, is bound to bring results in the future even more 
far reaching than those practical benefits which it has secured 
in the past. 



The following is very old, but it will always be appropriate 
at about this season of the political year : 

"Father! who travels the road so late? " 

" Hush ! my child, 'tis the candidate ; 

Fit example for human woes ; 

Early he comes and late he goes. 

He greets the woman with courtly grace ; 

He kisses the baby's dirty face ; 

He calls to the fence the farmer at work; 

He bores the merchant, he bores the clerk ; 

The blacksmith, while his anvil rings, 

He greets, and this is the song he sings : 

' Howdy ! howdy ! how d'ye do ? 

How is your wife, and how are you? 

Ah ! it fits my fist as no other can, 

The horny hand of the workingman.' " 



M 



"ROADI.ETS." 

BY W. L. S. BAYLEY. 

KN may come and men may go, but some bad roads bid 
fair to be bad forever. 



IF our right to internal improvements by the general govern- 
ment are already embodied in our organic law, working 
enactments are decidedly in order ; and if the Constitution does 
not so provide, it cannot be too quickly changed. 

* * * * 

THE government roads that, through Mr. Clay's efforts, were 
built so long ago, are to-day good roads. Give us more 
of them. 



EXAMINE carefully the foundations of any quarry, then go 
and build roads likewise. 



T 



HE action of sand is quite analagousto the action of water — 
both must be confined to make a satisfactory foundation. 



ASUCCESSFUIv government for the people, and by the 
people, implies that there are brainy men who can build 
good roads economically. Extravagance should be set down 
upon ; for if it is not, it will kill the good road's goose that 
would otherwise lay the golden egg. 



CUPIDITY is the canker worm that too often prevents the 
building of good roads. 



DON'T use convict labor in building roads. Convicts are 
justly crushed and must not directly or indirectly compete 
with honest labor. 



ENNUI is one of the most powerful causes of ill health. 
Hast ever thought that the companion of your youth, now 
silently sleeping in yonder churchyard on the hill, would to-day 
be with you to advise and assist, but for the absence of social 
conditions that good roads only can bring ? 



276 '' ROADLETSr 

DOING a thing yourself to insure its being well done does 
not apply to the construction of good roads any more 
than it does to the building of ocean "grey hounds." 



DBAIvIyY, friends, your narrow tires tire us. 



SIXTY per cent, of all public school funds are wasted, because 
good teachers, like good road builders, are bom and not 
made. 



STREAMS cannot rise higher than their source ; hence, how 
can the legislator, whose accoucheur is a ward heeler, be 
expected to wisely assist in the making of laws so essential to 
the public weal as are those for the building of good roads ? 

* * * * 

KEEP free from extremes. A great institution of learning 
in the Keystone State gave a $400 prize for a model (?) 
road essay whereia the writer indicated that side ditches should 
be 48 inches deep. 



WE insist that the general government should not personally 
build the public roads, but may loan its credit on first, 
not second, mortgage bonds, as in the case of the construction 
of the transcontinental roads in 1862. 



An Interesting News Item. 

The annual road repairing farce is now on the stage. 
The loose soil and sod is dug out of the gutters and 
thrown into the middle of the highways for the rain to 
wash away. For a hundred years this thing has gone 
on, hence it is apparent why the roads of 1894 are no 
better than those of x-jc^/^.— Several Exchanges. 




DOMESTIC SCIENCE 

AS APPI^IED TO THE BED BUG. 

FAMILIARITY may 

breed contempt, as we 

know it too often does, 

among men and 

women, but familiarity 

with the Chnex Lcdnlarius , 

or common American bed 

bug, tends to breed anything 

but contempt. 

This earnest little insect is 
one of the things for which the tidy housewife searches indus- 
triously and yet hopes that she may never find. 
"^' Whatever else may be said of him, we must admit that the 
b. b. is steady and painstaking, and he is always to be 
depended upon. 

Once having discovered his whereabouts, you know just 
where to find him. 

He is of a neighborly turn and always strives to keep in 
touch with those he has learned to like. 

Some people seem not to be in S5^mpathy with all of God's 
little creatures, and they often cruelly persecute and say mean 
things about the subject of this article. Personally we do not 
approve of the too common feeling which is shown toward 
" Cimex.'" We believe that his right to live is clearly estab- 
lished : it is a case of the survival of the fittest. Large, full- 
sized people have been known to move away and leave the 
house in possession of these ever ready, and seldom wanted, 
"wingless" insects, several hundred of whom wouldn't weigh 
an ounce. 

In fact we doubt if any one has ever been able to get an 
ounce of bed bugs on the scales at one time. 

The new Standard Dictionary gives the following definition : 

''Bed-bug : — A cosmopolitan, blood sucking, wingless, de- 
pressed bug of reddish brown color and vile odor, infesting 
houses and especially beds. Its salivarj^ glands secrete an 
irritant, alkaline substance. The cockroach is the natural 
enemy of the bed bug, and destroys large numbers." 

The principal object of this is to help the cockroach, so far 
as we may, to regain the love and confidence of those people 
who have come to regard him as an unwelcome tenant at will. 

The cockroach lives mostly in the kitchen, his object prob- 
ably being to get ahead of the other boarders. 



278 ''HE GE TS THERE JUST THE SAME. ' ' 

He knows a good thing when he sees it, and is as likely to 
see it as anyone in* the house. 

It is related of Thos. Edison that he once fixed some strips 
of zinc on the wall of his room so that cockroaches in walking 
over them would get electricity in their feet, and that he 
" killed large numbers of them m this way." We don't want 
to believe this of Mr. E. So useful a life as his should not go 
on the permanent records until it is cleansed of this foul blot, 
and we hope that Mr. Edison will either deny the statement or 
show some mitigating circumstances. 

Whenever you find a cockroach in your bedroom, speak 
kindly to him. He is looking for the " Cimex ledulariusy 
You may think his call unnecessary, but don't be too sure ; his 
physical limitations enable him to make a much more extended 
seach than you can ; he is willing to do it, and it don't cost 
much to keep him. 

He will do less harm in a kitchen than the average servant 
girl will, and he never asks for an evening out. 

The privilege of entertaining his company under the sink is 
an inexpensive concession for you to make. He doesn't burn 
any unnecessary gas, and is always in before nine o'clock. In 
exchange for this small outlay on your part, you get protection : 
protection of a desirable sort, protection while you sleep that 
calm, refreshing sleep which 

' ' Knits up the ravelled sleeve of care.^'' 

And when in the early evening you tuck the little ones 
snugly in their trundle bed, you can sing to them in the 
delightful words of Dr. Watts ( of I^ouisville ) : 

Hush, my dears, lie stiU and slumber. 

The faithful cockroach guards thy bed. 
Destroying bed bugs, without number. 

Gently crawling round thy head. 



A Phii^adkIvPhia Be;ar That Wasn't So SivOw. 

City Man (to hunter) — Lije, you've heard a great 
many tough hunting stories. Which do you think is 
the toughest yarn you ever heard ? 

I^ije — I don't remember of hearin' no such tough 
yarn as you speak of. Tell you what really did 
happen down here, though, 'bout a year ago. A man 
shot a bear in the head, and just the minute the bear 
felt the ball he turned right round. He turned so 
quick that the ball hit the man and killed him after 
passing through the bear. — Philadelphia Post. 



HOW GOOD ROADS PAY FOR THEMSKIvVES. 

BY PROF. I. D. WARFIEIvD. 

^r^VERY judicious improvement in the establishment of 
• • ^ roads and bridges increases the value of land, 

1^ enhances the price of commodities and augments the 

^^^ wealth of our country," came down to us from 
DeWitt Clinton, of New York, and Professor Gillespie, 
of Union College, author of an exhaustive treatise upon roads, 
utters these startling words : 

' ' The common roads of our country ( United States ) are 
inferior to those of any other civilized country. Their faults are 
those of direction, of slope, of shape, of surface and of deficiency 
generally in all the attributes of good roads." 

Both sentiments grow in value as they ring down the corri- 
dors of time. We begin now to consider a question which is 
to occupy our thoughts till better lights are along the line of 
improvement. 

Improved machinery has added over five millions of acres 
to the cultivated area of farming lands since 1870, and improved 
roads are necessary to relieve the blockade of freight transpor- 
tation. Millions of dollars are yearly lost to farmers because 
they are not able, on account of the impassible condition of our 
leading outlets, to sell their produce when the markets com- 
mand the best prices. 

If the money which had been yearly levied for the repair 
and making of roads, had been directed toward macadamizing, 
hundreds of miles of good roads would have been our inheri- 
tance instead of our now lamentable outcry for relief. 

There are many lessons for us in the records of history. 
Two thousand years ago the Romans, then occupying England, 
built roads worthy of inspection. Having marked out parallel 
furrows, they removed the earth and upon the hard pan were 
then put two courses of large, flat stones, laid in mortar. Next 
came a concrete of broken stone with quick lime, pounded with 
a rammer. The third course was broken bricks, tiles and 
and pottery mixed with lime. Into this mass were imbedded 
the large blocks of stone which formed the pavement. These 
were so perfectly fitted their joints were scarcely seen. 

The entire thickness of the four strata was about three feet. 
If the road passed over marshy ground, the foundation stones 
rested on a frame work of timber. On each side of the road 
were paved foot paths and parapets with stones at regular inter- 
vals for mounting on horseback, whilst milestones marked the 
distance to all parts of the empire. 

Our early settlers in America, to escape the miasma of an 



28o GOOD ROADS. 

undeveloped country, built residences upon hills, retaining the 
roads leading to them as their general highways. We have 
been forced for years to climb hills, when, by going around, 
perfect levels, with attendant comfort and speed, might have 
been secured. 

A curved road exceeds a perfectly straight one only about 
150 yards in a distance of ten miles. Upon a straight and level 
road a horse can both safely and rapidly draw his load, whilst 
upon a hilly one he must diminish his speed in ascending and 
descending, carrying but a part of a load at best. 

Scientific experience has developed the following rule : 

The horizontal length of a road may be increased by hveuty 
times the perpendicular height which is to be saved ; that is, to 
escape a hill one hundred feet high we may extend its length 
two thousand feet, modified by friction in both cases. 

A road that rises one hundred feet in the thousand compels 
the actual lifting up of one-twentieth of the whole load just 
one hundred feet. By going around that hill we not only 
remedy this, but save half the cost of carriage. 

The dynomometer has conclusively shown that a horse can 
draw three times as much upon a broken stone road as over a 
a gravel one. This two-thirds expense of carriage, if properly 
considered, would return an annual interest sufficient to meet a 
permanent investment for such improvements. Again, if wheat 
sell at 95 cents a bushel in the city, and it cost us on bad roads 
fully 20 cents to get it to market, and by improved roads we 
can reduce that expense to 8 cents, there remains 12 cents per 
bushel from which we may claim an actual gain. Suppose, 
again, a toll of 2 cents will pay a dividend upon the improve- 
ment, we still have a gain of 10 cents a bushel. 

So, a straight line is not always the shortest distance be- 
tween two points, but the old adage — " the longest way around 
is the shortest way home." 

L,et us look at some figures in proof of this assertion. 

Physics again establishes the fact that resistance of gravity 
due to inclination is equal to the whole weight multiplied by 
the height of the plane and divided by its lengh. 

Thus, if the inclination be one in twenty, the resistance will 
be one-twentieth of its weight. The ordinary friction on a 
level road is one-fortieth, which, added to the above, gives 
three-fortieths, gravity being two-thirds of the whole. Upon a 
rough road, half as good, gravity will be one-half, since it 
absolutely is always the same upon the same level, but relatively 
is less upon a rough road. 

The advantages then of improvement are these. Taking 
the actual average of friction as one-twentieth of the weight 
and the average power of a horse, though never definitely 
settled, at' Watts' estimate of 33,000 pounds raised one foot in 
one minute, or 100 pounds for ten hours a day at the rate of 



GOOD ROADS. 281 

three miles per hour, it would require on a road of fifteen miles 
to bear an annual burden of 25,000 tons, an annual expense in 
horse power of over $1800. Reducing now, by macadamizing 
the surface friction to one-fiftieth, only 10,000 horse power is 
required, a saving of over $11,000 in expense of carriage, 
which, capitalized at six per cent., would create a fund of 
$185,000 to be expended in the improvements, which, at a mod- 
erate expense of $2,500 per mile, would give seventy-five miles 
of road over which our annual saving may thus be extended, 
thus creating a new fund for further improvement. The modes 
of raising such funds will be reserved for future papers. 

I^et us consider now if it will pay to go round our hills 
rather than over them. Take one a mile long with an ascent 
of one in ten and descending with the same slope. A level 
road may be secured by going one mile farther. Upon this 
new road there will be no inclination to be overcome. The 
force of draught from friction is over eight hundred days of a 
horse and the force of draught from gravity will take fifteen 
hundred more. As there will be no inclination, but one mile 
more in distance, a saving of nearly $1,000 will be made, suffi- 
cient to build the mile of new road, or invested would give a 
fund of $15,000 for our three-mile route. 

Again, improved roads increase traffic, speed and develop- 
ment — all adding to the freight travel, and therefore, to the 
income of the road. This last proposition has been thoroughly 
tested in a county of New Jersey, lying within sight of a great 
city. 

Some forty miles of Telford road, costing about $40,000, 
were built in '89 and '90 from trap rock. The money was 
obtained on bonds of the county. Along the line of this road 
land has increased from 50 to 300 per cent. It has paid for 
itself already in the development of real estate. One and a 
half millions of dollars in one year have been added to the tax- 
able basis in a section covering only one-half of the county. 
This increase will pay the yearly interest on the cost, leaving 
surplus enough to discharge the entire bonded debt as it falls 
due. 

Those who hesitate to indorse the bonded debt system, be- 
cause it will be leaving a debt of great magnitude to our 
children, may herein learn that the debt has really been trans- 
formed into an inheritance that will cause our children to rise 
up and bless us. 

Once more, if we cannot overcome these objections, let the 
commissioners of each county, of each State, make the entire 
appropriations for road improvements from now, henceforth and 
forever, only available for purchasing and putting down 
permanent stone roads in sections requiring immediate improve- 
ments, and in fifty years the problem will have been satisfac- 
torily solved. 



HOW TO INCREASE THE IvEAGUE MEMBERSHIP. 

BY HBNRY CROWTHER. 




FOR years this has been one 
of the problems fronting 
the officers of the Eeague 
of American Wheelmen, 
and its solution is no 
nearer a final and authoritative 
settlement than when it first 
agitated the minds of the incep- 
tors of the organization. 

And yet it ought not to be a 
very difficult question. 

Given, on the one hand, a 
governing body of men, like the 
Executive Committee, the Na- 
tional Assembly, the Chief Con- 
suls, and so on down through 
Henry crowther. the ramifications of the local 

and district officials and League 
clubs ; and on the other the vast army of wheelmen, growing 
by hundreds day by day — given these two factors and it would 
seem but a short gulf to be bridged by concerted and thor- 
oughly systematized effort. 

There's the rub — thoroughly systematized effort. 
For the sporadic and intermittent methods that obtain 
to-day in the majority of our divisions will not accomplish the 
purpose. Work — hard, earnest, unremitting work, is what we 
must have ; but it must be work that is no less well defined and 
organized, than arduous — and this last is a prerequisite ; never 
lay a field fallow to the hand of the husbandman that required 
a greater expenditure of labor. 

But upon what lines shall this work be carried on? 
It will, I think, be universally admitted that the average 
man ( and it has not yet been discovered that the average 
wheelman is built on a different plan from the ordinary citizen ) 
in nowise attempts to conceal his anxiety to know what he gets 
out of anything he is solicited to "go into," whether it be a 
real estate deal, stock- jobbing operation, secret society or bene- 
ficial or fraternal organization — and justly so. The quid pro 
quo obtains in all our dealings from the cradle to the grave. 
We give — and we get; and although we have it upon high 
authority that "It is more blessed to give than to receive," yet 
until the millenium comes, man will probably continue to look 
for an equivalent. During a period extending over something 
like ten years of League work my experience has almost 



HOW TO INCREASE THE LEAGUE. 283 

invariably been — with so few exceptions that they only prove 
the rule — that the first question broached by a rider, when 
requested to join the ly. A. W., is, "What do I get out of it? " 
And, mind you, he is usually quite deaf to any sentimental 
arguments. The benefits of fellowship with the thirty-odd 
thousand of us who go to make up the elect have no weight 
with him. He wants — and justly so, again — to see paid down 
to him in hand the material benefits ; the visible and outward 
signs of those things for which he puts up his dollar per annum 
(Good Roads 50 cents extra) and for which he even fails to 
consider the oblong bit of pasteboard bearing the magical name 
of our venerable secretary quite an equivalent. 

This being the case, what is to do ? 

Why, give it to him, of course. 

Herein lies, in a nutshell, the secret of that future growth 
of the organization which can make the I^eague of American 
Wheelmen that power in the land which it can become under 
properly directed effort ; and that this is no mere visionary 
theory is proven by the experience of several of the larger 
divisions. Massachusetts, to-day, leads the lycague list by 
thousands only because she has made it an invariable rule to 
give something to her members regularly, and the annual 
spring and fall meets invariably demonstrate by the hundreds 
who are brought into the fold at each of these events that the 
advantages of free participation in the balls, smokers, excur- 
sions and races are thoroughly appreciated and taken advantage 
of. Pennsylvania owes no small measure of her growth to the 
fine road books which are furnished to her members free (in 
Massachusetts the same rule prevails), in addition to the 
weekly paper which each one of them receives. And here is 
one of the points which should be emphasized and studied by 
every chief consul and national and division officers ; there is 
no more potent factor for recruiting and holding your member- 
ship than a good weekly paper. The power which lies in this 
apparently insignificant little matter is only too surely evi- 
denced by the heavy falling off in membership when it was 
decided to discontinue sending the Bulletin to every member of 
the I^eague who did not pay the subscription price. I once 
believed in an optional subscription ; I do so no longer. Every 
member should be reached by the official organ — nay, every 
member must be reached by a weekly paper if his division 
officers are to continue in touch with him. Finally, I am one 
of those who believe that the ly. A. W. should and will publish 
its own paper, and that it should be as good as the best ; and 
when that time comes those who guide the destinies of the 
organization will wonder what their predecessors ever meant by 
refusing to recognize one of the simplest and best methods of 
answering the conundrum we have had with us for so many 
years — How To Increase the League Membership. 



THE PATHMASTER. 

{^After J. Fenn. Cooper.^ 

THE pathmaster or highway overseer is a study. His hard- 
worked and lazy fat horses are studies. They work not 
in the crevices or natural depressions of the earth's sur- 
face but dwell long on the hillside and the ridge top. 
The President of this great free country is nowhere. 
The pathmaster is everywhere. The fruits of his labor are to 
be seen on every side (road side) . He works on opposite prin- 
ciples to every theory and established scientific fact. He 
holloweth out the hollow and heighteneth the heighth. Water 
he concludes must run up hill. His work is indeed an example, 
not to be followed — neither are his highways. His duties are 
manifold but may be summed up in substance as that of making 
good roads bad and bad roads worse. 

He goes forth in the early morn (usually at eight or nine 
o'clock) and finds beside the wayside a motley crew of thin, 
overworked men and a number of lazy, fat horses, ready and 
willing to do his bidding. His eagle eye, dulled a little 
perhaps by the bright sun and flying dust, taketh in the situa- 
tion. It seeth before it a smooth piece of highway, long the 
envy of his neighbor, but the pride and joy of the stranger who 
journeyeth over it. For forty 3^ears or more man and beast 
have traveled over it and no ugly plow furrows have ever 
ruffled its smooth green slopes and gentle level surface ; alas ! 
now so soon to be no more. 

The pathmaster, having cheerfully or rheumatically (as the 
occasion may warrant) greeted each and every member of his 
little band, straightway orders them to "strike out" and 
"plow deep " and "scrape high " and before the sun has flown 
many " moons " across the sky, the wondrous work is complete 
and he and his men (having first carefully tethered each lazy, 
fat horse to a fair bundle of hay) lie down in the shade of the 
nearby willow bushes not to die (as might be supposed) but 
to rest. In their rapture of the grandness of the monument 
they have just raised (to their future disgrace) they overlook 
even the nimble mosquito who is doing his best to extract the 
balance of their zeal not already spent in their laborious effort 
to overthrow the laws of nature. 

They emphasize and dwell long upon the artistic ridge of 
earth they have just reared toward the sky. They laugh while 
nature weeps. They realize now, perhaps for the first time, 
that they have chosen the wrong calling in life. That hunked- 
up mass of clodden mud, heaped like a camel's back in the 
centre and with its water-pits on the side, arouses their enthu- 
siasm as well as the imprecations of the wayfarer. 



THE PA TH MASTER. 285 

The pathmaster undertakes also to see that his highways, 
like the path of life, shall be crooked and narrow, very narrow 
in fact ; it is presumably the following out of this principle 
which causes him to scrape an extra load of slush on top of a 
ridge and draw one out of the hole beside it. 

The foresight of this mighty man is great, a great deal more 
so than his aftersight. He is not gratified with a thirst for 
blood, but pants for glory — and he gets it — from the public 
that must travel over the road of his making. He is an origi- 
nal designer and his work speaks for itself. 

The young man who starts out at dusk when the sun glints 
across the treetops for the last time and wraps the earth in 
warm colors, smiles, and steps into his new Concord buggy, for 
he is going to take Melinda out for a spin, " by forests and 
everglades fair, over laughing brooks and log bridges." 

The smile, however, soon dies away and furrows of care are 
gathering on his usually serene countenance. Why this 
sudden change ? Oh, that is easy to tell; he is just passing 
over the grand byways founded that day by his highness, the 
pathmaster. He has already exhausted two vocabularies of 
light words, and his hair is in danger of turning gray, as he 
reaches the end of the road and turns up the lane that leads to 
Melinda's home. 

His boyhood smile returns, and his Melinda thinks he looks 
as calm and complacent as if he had just come from his Sunday 
School. But woe unto him ! For he seeks new highways, 
where, he says to his enamored, " The old roads still exist and 
we can whirr and spin with pleasure." Alas, for human ambi- 
tions, his hopes are soon blasted. It is dark, a sudden thump, 
and he strikes his head through his Concord top, just in time to 
hear some one ahead call out, " Gee me half road there." He 
trembles for well he divines that here on top of this hill the 
great general who has been superintending those hard-worked 
men and lazy, fat horses has undertaken to elevate, not alone 
the hill top, but also the unwary passer-by, but necessity knows 
no law — half road must be given. The result is evident — a 
side slide — a new Concord buggy upside down ; his Melinda 
and himself nowhere, if not in a well. 

Hereafter this young man and Melinda exercise on foot and 
rest in a hammock. 

There is only one thing more to be done for the pathmaster 
and that is to grant him a Government pension, not for the 
work he has done, but for the designs he may have on the 
future (and allow the work to go no further) . 



GOOD ROADS THE CIVIIvIZKR. 

BY HORATIO CRANK. 

THE Railroad commissions, organized under State law to 
restrain railroads from over-charge, if they have consti- 
tutional existence within limitations, still cannot do a 
great deal to satisfy the complaints as to freight over- 
charges by rail. 

Railroads are costly contrivances, and are maintained at 
large expense. Suppose the country districts were gridironed 
with fine dirt roads, then the farmer could drive his team with 
produce to near markets with ease, and even long distances, if 
convenient places of accommodation at reasonable rates are 
maintained. 

The country has been neglected because we, as a people, 
have felt that from its extent and productiveness it could be 
left to take care of itself, and the farmer from his natural train- 
ing in economy encouraged this view by resenting any city 
man's ideas as to " how to do it." 

Whoever has slept from twenty to forty miles out from New 
York or Philadelphia, in the neighboring burgh of New Jersey, 
may have listened, as he lay disturbed at night by the tramp- 
ling of the horses, hauling wagon loads of truck to market. 
The truckers want and must have good roads, and as the cities 
grow larger, and the farm areas grow smaller, the truckers will 
increase like the other armies of peace, and good roads will 
wind and curve through the country, until the inevitable 
gridiron of fine dirt roads begins to develop, and the impetus 
started will continue ; and the country districts will rise in 
power and wealth, and become once more as attractive as of old. 

Modern taste will not go back to old systems of country 
living. 

The backwoods will do for adventure, or in which to fell 
the timber for farms, or till the virgin plains; but the country 
as a whole wants more of country air in the cities, and of city 
comforts in the country, and the good road is the civilizer that 
will soonest make this interchange of blessings possible. 

When the country was new and the cities small, culture 
pioneered, charmed with the glory awaiting success. Cities 
like magic grew, and the farmer became the banker and 
remained the farmer still. He was a legislator and a farmer 
still ; but the country district has not kept pace with city devel- 
opment, chiefly from the want of good roads, and the country 
can easily account for loss in population and in calibre as to 
culture, while the cities acquire the best the country affords. 

A good road means a fine breed of horses and money in the 



ROADS THE CIVILIZER. 287 

breeding of them. It means a ready exchange within the 
country districts, of country produce. 

It means the ability to at any moment deliver produce or 
seek a market for it by team. 

It means the lordly independence of the farmer because 
it promotes barter. 

It means making the country attractive to visitors, who 
will seek retired nooks for quiet, assured of delightful drives in 
getting there. 

It means in the country parts a freer, more delightful inter- 
change of social life. 

It means happiness and joy where now reigns the dreary 
monotony that kills. 

Then the old-fashioned taverns may come back without the 
old-fashioned drinking, for they may be places of social inter- 
change, where country statesmen, still in the green state, may 
put up their teams and enjoy the contest of talk and brighten 
their wits for higher triumphs. 

Dirt roads will solve the monopoly of the railroads. The 
farmer will cluster about busy centres, content with smaller 
farms. Busy centres, therefore, will increase. A back country 
that is handsomely accessible is the very life of the busy centre, 
and its support. 

Then railroad managers, in order to maintain their expen- 
sive equipment of men and material, will so conduct their roads, 
with a view to local traffic, as to tickle the farmer with a victory 
never before achieved. 

Railroads are desirable, but they are most desirable and at 
their best when they serve the people best, at a fair profit to 
the corporation, and this can soonest and best be compelled 
when the country is gridironed with the best dirt roads known 
to modem means and to modern experience. 



IvCt us respect white hair, especially our own. — Petit Senn. 



Let us also respect the absence of hair. — Good Roads. 



NOVEMBBR 

is the time to do several things. 

One of the more important of which is to see that the roads 
are properly graded, and the holes, where water is likely to 
stand, filled up and got ready for frost. Also see that the 
drains are thoroughly cleared out. 

All stables and sheds, where livestock is to be wintered, 
should be made tight and warm. The man who is kind to 
dumb animals will stand more than an even chance both here 
and hereafter. 



Day 

of 

Year. 


Day 

of 
Month. 


Week. 


Lengthof 

Day. 
H. M. 


ELEVENTH A NOYeiflkr, 1894 A MONTH 


305 


1 


Th. 


ID 20 


Hunger is the best sauce. 


306 


2 


Fr. 


10 17 


Out of debt, out of danger. 


307 


3 


Sa. 


10 15 


Wide will wear, but narrow will tear. 


308 


4 


S. 


10 12 


Good Roads, 


309 


5 


M. 


10 10 


$1.00 per year. 


310 


6 


Tu. 


10 08 


|f you like it, say so. 


311 


7 


W. 


10 05 


Sorrow will pay no debt. 


312 


8 


Th. 


10 02 


To I/cague members 


313 


9 


Fr. 


10 GO 


half price. 


314 


10 


Sa. 


9 58 


You know the address. 


315 


11 


S. 


9 56 


Of two evils choose neither. 


316 


12 


M. 


9 53 


U niversally wanted : Good Roads. 


317 


13 


Tu. 


9 51 


Rome was not built in a day. 


318 


14 


W. 


9 49 


But it was started 


319 


15 


Th. 


9 46 


in a day. 


320 


16 


Fr. 


9 44 


Riches are not all there is. 


321 


17 


Sa. 


9 43 


He who is contented is happy. 


322 


18 


S. 


9 41 


Eat what you need and stop. 


323 


19 


M. 


9 39 


Utility first, beauty afterward. 


324 


20 


Tu. 


9 37 


M ake your toil a pleasure 


325 


21 


W. 


9 35 


And don't complain. 


326 


22 


Th. 


9 33 


Truth needs no prop. 


327 


23 


Fr. 


9 31 


It can stand alone. 


328 


24 


Sa. 


9 29 


Seeing is believing. 


329 


25 


S. 


9 27 


Much would have more and lost all. 


330 


26 


M. 


9 26 


Checks, 


331 


27 


Tu. 


9 24 


Bills, 


332 


28 


W. 


9 23 


Silver, 


333 


29 


Th. 


9 21 


Money orders, 


334 


30 


Fr. 


9 20 


It is all the same to us. 



LEAGUE OF AMERICAN WHEELMEN. 

Organized 1880. ..... 

A voluntary organization having for its object the systematic 
improvement of the public roads, and the protection of 
wheelmen against unjust legislation. The present officers 
of the League are as follows : 

President.— CRKS. H. lyUSCOMB, 280 Broadway, New York. 

First Vice-President.— i^. C. WIIvI,ISON, 47 Baltimore Street, Cumberland, Md. 

Second Vice-President.— O'B.O. A. PERKINS, 15 Court Square, Boston, Mass. 

Secretary.— ^.'R'&OT BASSETT, 46 Van Buren Street, Chicago. 

Treasurer.— V^. M. BREWSTER, 411 Francis Street, St. Joseph, Mo. 



GOOD ROADS MAGAZINE. 

Published on the first of every month by the League of American Wheelmen. 

Devoted to Highway Improvement. 

STERI.ING Bi<i.iOTT, Managing Editor. 

Publication Office, 12 PEARL STREET, - - - BOSTON, MASS. 

Correspondence relating to advertising only 
should be addressed to 167 Oliver Street. 

Entered at Boston Post Office as second-class matter. 



1 

§1 


Pleas 

Amt 
Begii 


e send Good Roads for 
To 


vear 





Street 




il 


Town 






enclosed County 
ining with State 





Opepipg of Zi Cbejtput Burr. 



IIvIv-BIiHAVKD bicycle; riders 
PI.EASK TAKE NOTICE. 
Anybody can see through 
people who make spectacles of 
themselves. 



MOST OP THEM ARE FULL OF 
BOOTJACKS. 

lyittle Dot — Mama says th' 
cat is full of 'lectricity. 

Ivittle Dick— Of course. Put 
your ear down on 'er an' you 
can hear the trolley. — News. 



WAS THIS BASSETT? 

He had just worked up to a three-minute 
gait, 
When at this interesting^ juncture 
His rear wheel tackled a rusty nail — 
And the wind blew through the punc- 
ture. 

— Bearings. 



HOW ABOUT Good Roads at 

ONLY |l.OO PER YEAR. 

Isaacstein — I sells you dot 
coat, mine frent, for elefen 
tollars. You take him along ? 

Customer — I thought you 
didn't do business on Satur- 
day, Isaacstein? 

Isaacstein (in low, reverent 
tones) — Mine frent, to sell you 
dot coat for elefen tollars was 
not peesness ; dot vos sharity. 
— Ex. 



AN ADVERTISEMENT TAKEN 
FROM AN UNDERTAKERS' 
JOURNAL. 

Go to John Smith's for your 
coffins and undertaker's sup- 
plies. I will furnish hearse 
free to those who buy cofl&ns 
of me. I am not out of the 
coffin business, neither do I 
expect to be till I need one for 
myself. Give me a trial. I 
sell cheaper than any house in 
the West, besides I sell on 
easy terms if necessary. 



Another undertaker in Kan- 
sas City, with a rare idea of 
business, advertises : 

' ' You kick the bucket ; we 
do the rest." 

And yet the deceased is 
supposed to be entitled to the 
rest — eternal rest. — Ex. 



ANOTHER EPITAPH. 

" To the memory of Mary Kent ; 
Reader prepare to follow me." 

To which a wicked man 
added in pencil. 

" How can we fellow Mary Kent 
Unless we know the way she went? " 

Some people are unwilling 
to assume anything. 




A LOVE STORY IN FIVE CHAPTERS. 



CHAPTER I. 



At first the bashful lover 
Interviews the modest maid, 





CHAPTER II. 



But Cupid 
However great 



And nearer then they 

hover, 
Though both are half 

afraid. 




always triumphs, 
the cost, 



CHAPTER III. 



Which sometimes is 

apparent 
In a very early frost. 



Whatever wealth time may pro- 
vide, 
Like every spoony pair. 
At first they'll be quite satisfied 
With just a single chair. 




CHAPTER IV. 




CHAPTER V. 




C. F. KIMBALL, 

Chicago, III. 

Chairman Road Committee Carriage Builders' National Association. 



Good Ro^ob. 



Vol. 6. December, 1894. No. 6. 

ROADS AND CARRIAGES. 

By Sterling; Elliott. 

THESE two subjects are as closely related as are the two 
subjects of bread and butter. Yes, even mucli more so, 
for without the road the carriage would be useless. 
Of course the road was a necessity before the wheeled 
vehicle was known. In olden times freight was trans- 
ported upon the back of an ass ; now the hauling is done on 
wheels by horses, and it is the ass who spends his time arguing 
against the extensive building of better roads. 

Railroad companies do not consider the subject of building 
locomotive boilers in which to generate steam, except in con- 
nection with the engines which are to utilize that steam. No 
more do they build any part of a road ; bed, ties or rails with- 
out considering to the fullest extent the use to which it is to be 
put, and the rolling stock which is to be run over it. 

One of the commonest and best understood principles in 
human experience is that all co-operating agencies should be 
devised with a view to results which may be expected; not from 
either one alone, but from the combination. 

Although this is an axiom so familiar to all when applied to 
other matters, it is too apt to be overlooked, or at least not 
sufficiently regarded, when the subject of roads and vehicles 
comes up ; in fact the two are rarely planned or built by the 
same men. 

The public ownership of roads and the pj'ivate ownership of 
vehicles unfortunately prevents that close scrutiny of results 
which would be inevitable if both the tracks and the rolling 
stock belonged to one organization. 

Imagine, if you please, two wagon roads running between 
two distant points and each owned by a shrewd, intelligent 
business man, and suppose that these two wagon roads were the 
only means of communication between those two places ; that 
these two men who owned the roads also owned all the horses 
and wagons, and thus had a monopoly of all the hauling of 
both freight and passengers from one place to the other, but 
that people who furnished the freight were free to patronize 
whichever road they pleased. 

IF YOU ARE READING THIS MAGAZINE WE WILL ASSUME THAT YOU ARE STILL 



296 



GOOD ROADS. 





CflANNING M. BRITTON, 

New York. 
President C. B. N. A. 
(Brewster & Co., of Broome St.) 



Henry C. McI,ear, 

Wilmington, Del. 

Secretary C. B. N. A. 

(Mcl^ear & Kendall.) 



In order to make this comparison, we must assume that 
these two road owners do not form a trust, or pool their interests 
in any way, but remain in actual competition. 

The shipper of freight wants his goods transported as 
rapidly as possible and with the least injury. If he is to become 
a passenger, he will demand comfort and speed. He will also 
take into account the amount which he must pay for this 
service. 

The owners of the roads and teams would at once begin to 
regard their entire outfit as a "plant," and in order to compete 
with each other would be obliged to make such improvements 
as would not only give satisfaction to the customer, but at the 
same time be profitable to themselves. 

No business can go on without in some fashion paying- a 
profit. If a certain improvement in wagons made it possible to 
haul more load with the same motive power, or to travel faster 
with the same load, such an improvement would at once be 
seriously considered. If the new wagon injured the road more 
than the old one, it would simply be a question of whether the 
advantages were enough to warrant the increased cost of keep- 
ing up the track. 

Or, suppose some change in wagons, as for instance, a broad 
tire, should make the wear on the road materially less without 
increasing the draft, the shrewd owner of both the road and the 
wagons would at once consider whether he would not be justi- 
fied in the adoption of such tires. And surely the improvement 
would not have to go begging if it were demonstrated that it 



ON THE EARTH, BECAUSE OUR PRESENT MAILING LISTS DO NOT INCLUDE ANY 



GOOD ROADS. 



297 





G. W. Ogden, 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

(G. W. Ogden & Co.) 



F, D. C. HiNCHMAN, 

Detroit, Mich. 
(Prest. Detroit White Lead Works. 



would save in draft as well as in road repairing. Add to this 
the fact that in purchasing new wagons, as teamsters often have 
to, they need pay no more for broad tires than for narrow ones, 
and the question of which to buy would seem to need for its 
settlement only an understanding of the facts. 

Assuming that the roads and vehicles which co-operate to 
accomplish what we call transportation, do have a direct and 
definite relation to each other, it is a most interesting and hope- 
ful symptom when we see the carriage builders taking up the 
subject of road improvement. All the more intelligent makers 
of vehicles have as individuals been interested in the road ques- 
tion for years, but really effective work on any public reform 
is only accomplished by organized effort. 

The Carriage Builders' National Association is now in its 
twenty-third year and is one of the best managed and most 
harmonious organizations in this or any other country. During 
the present year it has started out to do in its organized capac- 
ity what many of its members have long believed in, and so far 
as possible have used their influence to accomplish. 

The executive council of National Carriage Builders' Asso- 
ciation has appointed a road committee, consisting of forty- 
seven members, located in twenty-four States. These are all 
practical business men, most of them being the heads of the 
concerns with which they are connected. The chairman is Mr. 
C. F. Kimball, of Chicago, who is well known as a builder of 
the very finest vehicles and a man whose reputation needs no 
commendation from Good Roads. We take pleasure in using 
his face as the subject for our frontispiece this month and we 



OTHER LOCATIONS. IF OUR ASSUMPTION AS TO YOUR WHEREABOUTS IS 



298 



GOOD ROADS. 





' W. T. Jones, 
Carthage, N. C. 
(Prest. Tyson & Jones Buggy Co.) 



T. J. MCMURRAY, 

Marion, Ohio. 
(Prest. McMurray & Fisher Sulky Co.) 



are able to show portraits of many other, members of his com- 
mittee. We made an earnest effort to get them all, but this 
was not possible. 

At the recent meeting of the carriage builders in Philadel- 
phia, Chairman Kimball made the follo.wing report : 

' ' Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Conve^ition : — The 
subject of good roads was first brought to the attention of this 
association at the convention at Syracuse, in 1889, when an 
address was presented by Col. Albert A. Pope, of Boston, who 
has been prominent for years in this matter, and by his tireless 
energy has accomplished much good. At that time the asso- 
ciation was heartily in sympathy with the movement, but was 
somewhat appalled at the task of transforming a million miles, 
or more, of bad roads into good ones, involving, as it did, a 
complete reversal of old systems, new legislation in all of the 
States, and in many of these States changes even in their Con- 
stitutions. But the movement was then started, and we had 
our minds turned toward this important matter, and one of such 
value to our business. Since then, at the annual meetings of 
this association, this question has come up from time to time, 
but no real action has ever been taken upon it. 

' ' At the last meeting of the Executive Committe of this 
association, a committee was appointed to report at this meeting 
on the subject of good roads. Our committee is a large one, 
comprising, so far as possible, one or more gentlemen from each 
State represented in the association, and right here I wish to 
say that there is evidently much interest taken by the members 



CORRECT, THEN YOU MUST BE ALIVE, PHYSICALLY AT LEAST, AND HENCE YOU 



GOOD ROADS. 



299 





» 


..A. --=:^ 




J. A. Lancaster, 

Merrimac, Mass. 

(J. A. I^ancaster & Co.) 



Iv. M. French, 
Plainfield, N. J. 
(Carriages, etc.) 



of this committee in the subject, replies having been received 
from almost every member of this large committee of forty-six 
gentlemen, and the great majority of them have taken much 
time and trouble to collect the latest information on this subject 
in their respective States, and the committee feels that your 
interest in this matter is so great that you will pardon a rather 
long report. 

"In the outset, we find the conditions existing in this 
country very different from those in older countries. In the 
Old World, from the earliest days, good roads were a necessity 
for military purposes, and in England good roads were known 
from the time of Caesar's conquest, and portions of them are still 
in existence, a tribute to the thoroughness of their construction. 
Next came the mail coach, and the traffic between cities was 
largely by road. I^astly, the railroad superseded other means 
of transportation, and yet the countries of the Old World still 
appreciate the great necessity of good roads as feeders to their 
railroads, and contributing also to increased prosperity and 
intelligence among the rural classes. In this country in early 
days most of our settlements were along the Atlantic and by 
the great rivers, and while in the Old World the railroad fol- 
lowed civilization, here it may be said to have preceded it, 
naturally to the neglect of our roads and highways. To-day 
the United States has more miles of railroad than all the East- 
ern Hemisphere, and we can well afford to turn our attention to 
the subject of our highways. This is a subject in which we 
are all interested, rich and poor alike. The great railroads 
should contribute largely to these great feeders of their systems, 



MUST CONSUME MORE OR LESS OF THE NECESSARIES OF LIFE. THESE THINGS 



300 



GOOD'rROADS. 





, Wm. Glesenkamp, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
(C. West & Co.) 



Willis E. Miller, 

New Haven, Ct. 

(Prop. Mt. Carmel Axle Works. 



and the rural classes should be brought to appreciate the advan- 
tages of good roads, for with good roads the farmers can easily 
take their produce to market, and they must learn that it costs 
less to transport commodities across the continent by rail or 
from continent to continent by water than it does over a single 
mile of, some of our common roads during nearly one-half the 
year. It is a matter of record that a few years since, in Spring- 
field, 111., the price of hay went up to $30 a ton, and the market 
was supplied by railroad from outside the State, while on farms 
a few miles from the city, hay was plenty at $10 a ton, but com- 
pletely embargoed by the mud. Numerous instances of this 
kind could be cited, but we will now call your attention to the 
present condition of the good roads movement. 

' ' The first general gathering of persons interested in this 
movement was in Chicago, in October, 1892, and comprised 
delegates from all the existing State organizations for road 
improvement, from many boards of trade and agriculture and 
farmers' clubs, the wheelmen's league and the Carriage Build- 
ers' National Association, besides many individual leaders in 
the general movement. All were enthusiastic in their approval 
of this great movement and eager to have some work done. 
The outcome of this gathering was the formation of the ' Na- 
tional lycague for Good Roads,' and the following winter a 
convention was held in Washington with more than one-half of 
the States in the Union represented. 

" During the winter of 1892 and 1893 Congress appropriated 
$10,000, specifying in their appropriation as follows : 



WHICH YOU EAT, USE AND WEAR YOU MUST HAVE TO BUY, AND IF YOU DON'T 



GOOD ROADS. 



301 





lyOuis McCall, 

St. Louis, Mo. 

(McCall & Haase Carriage Co.) 



J. W. Henney, 

Freeport, 111. 

(Henney Buggy Co.) 



' To enable the Secretary of Agriculture to make inquiries 
in regard to the systems of road management throughout the 
United States, to make investigations in regard to the best 
methods of road-making and prepare publications on this sub- 
ject suitable for distribution, and to enable him to assist the 
agricultural colleges and experiment stations in disseminating 
information on this subject.' 

" Gen. Roy Stone was appointed as such special agent and 
engineer, and by his able management and energy has already 
accomplished much good. Sixteen States have passed new- 
road laws, more or less radical in their nature, and one has 
amended its Constitution to permit the adoption of such laws. 
These States are : California, Indiana, Massachusetts, Michi- 
gan, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North 
Dakota, Oregon, Tennessee, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, 
Kentucky, North Carolina, and in every one of these States the 
departure from the old system has been marked, doing away 
as far as possible with the old method of working out road 
taxes by so many daj^s' labor on the roads. When the farmers 
gather together without definite knowledge of what they wish 
to accomplish, the supervisors under whom they work do not 
care to show power over their neighbors, and the result is a 
general interchange of gossip and very little work done. 

" Indiana has some good laws on gravel roads, and during 
the last few years great improvements have been made. The 
Parry Manufacturing Co., of Indianapolis, has issued a very 
instructive map showing the whole State of Indiana, and just 



BUY, PLEASE LET GOOD ROADS KNOW HOW YOU GET THEM. IF YOU DO BUY 



GOOD ROADS. 





,C. H. Stratton, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

(C. H. Stratton Carriage Co.) 



Ferdinand F. French, 

Boston, Mass. 

(The French Carriage Co.) 



where good roads exist, something that we wish could be done 
in every State, and in this way the people could plainly see how 
few or many good roads they have, and encourage them to 
bring pressure to bear upon the Legislatures for action. 

" Pennsylvania has not made many new laws, but there is 
now a law being prepared on this subject to be presented at the 
next meeting of the Legislature, and from many reports 
received we learn that there is an increased interest among 
many of the counties and much work is being done. 

" Delaware has no State laws on this subject, but the people 
are becoming alive to the subject, and many improvements are 
being made. 

"Wisconsin enacted some good road laws in 1893, doing 
away with the labor tax. Now all taxes are to be paid in 
money, and good results have followed. 

"West Virginia. — Here the people are interested in the 
question, and we learn from the member of our commiteee in 
that State that some action can soon be expected. 

" Georgia. — A road conference was recently held in Atlanta, 
and while no laws are in operation, such laws are soon to be 
expected, and the State officials are deeply interested, and the 
people are awake to the advantages of good roads. 

" Colorado. — This State has no special laws on the subject 
of improving their highways, their natural roads being, as a 
rule, as good as the improved roads in the East. The character 
of the soil is sandy loam, and is such that the roads dry very 
readily by absorption and evaporation. 



THEM, YOU MUST PAY THE MARKET PRICE. ARE YOU AWARE THAT THIS 



GOOD ROADS. 



303 





Geo. W. Joyce, 

Washington, D. C. 

(Andrew J. Joyce's Sons.) 



Thomas M. Sechler, 

Moline, 111. 

(V. Pres. D. M. Sechler Carriage Co.) 



"North. Carolina. — This State is making a rapid advance- 
ment in the matter of good roads. On the twelfth of last month 
a largely- attended State Conference was held at Charlotte. The 
member of oui committee from this State is also prominently 
interested, and reports, that the people are awake to the advan- 
tages of good roads. Under laws recently enacted, county 
commissioners have full control of all expenditures, and all jail 
prisoners and State prisoners for a term of less than five years, 
and vagrants, are available for highway work, and Court may 
sentence convicts to hard labor on the public road for not 
exceeding ten years, 

" Illinois has no special laws on this subject, but such laws 
are now being prepared. The State ofiicials are interested, and 
we may look for some definite action at the next session of the 
IvCgislature. This State will find it difficult to compete with 
many of the other States in the matter of good roads, for, while 
its soil is rich and fertile, there will be great difiiculty in many 
parts of the State in securing a proper foundation for roads ; 
but the railroad companies have offered to transport stone at 
nearly a nominal figure for this purpose, and the people are 
beginning to realize how good roads would benefit them in 
every way. 

' ' Michigan has a county road system, and while the reports 
carefully prepared by the members of our committee from that 
State, from over one hundred different points, all agree that 
there have been improvements made in the last few years, yet 
all object to the system still in vogue there of the road taxes 
being worked out by farmers, which, they say, is onlj^ useful 



PRICE, WHATEVER IT MAY BE, IS VERY MATERIALLY EFFECTED BY THE 



304 



GOOD ROADS. 





nTom Connolly, 

Dubuque, Iowa. 

(Carriage Manufacturer.) 



John G. Hess, 

Hagerstown, Md. 

(Prest. Hess Mfg. Co.) 



as a neighborhood reunion, and that the work is supervised by 
too many cheap politicians instead of practical road builders. 

"Maine and Connecticut have no road laws, and both of 
these States have the same complaint as others where there is a 
labor tax to be worked out by the farmers. Many improve- 
ments are reported, however, in and about large cities and 
towns. 

" New Hampshire has county road laws and good natural 
roads, but like the other States suffers from the labor taxes. 

" New York. — A State road law was proposed a few years 
since, known as the Richardson bill, whereby the cities would 
pay three-fourths of the cost of State road construction ; but, 
strange as it may seem, it was defeated by the farmer element. 
There are, however, many good township roads, especially 
about Canandaigua, which may serve as a model of utility and 
low cost. It was hoped that good results would come from the 
Optional County Road Law, passed last winter by the strong 
efforts of Governor Flower, but the results have not been satis- 
factory, as board after board of supervisors have rejected it. 
The State also appropriated $15,000 for the purpose of trying 
convict labor on the roads. The results have been most satis- 
factory. One of our members has a communication on this 
point. 

" Iowa has no particular laws on the subject of good roads. 
A certain per cent of road tax is levied each year, a small por- 
tion of which is payable in cash for repairing bridges and such 
work, and the remainder is worked out by the farmers under 



CONDITION OF THE HIGHWAYS? BUT OF COURSE YOU ARE AWARE OF IT. 



GOOD ROADS. 



305 





H. A. Lanman, 

Columbus, Ohio. 

(Prest. Columbus Bolt Works.) 



J. e;. Crandall, 

Providence, R. I. 

(Carriage Manufacturer.) 



the guidance of a road supervisor. The supervisor often does 
not own any real estate, and is generally entirely ignorant of 
road construction, so with the farmers in working out their 
taxes it is generally a " go as you please." There is a marked 
difference in the condition of the roads, however, of late years, 
as the farmers are waking up to the benefits of good roads. 

" The two States that are the most advanced in the matter 
are Massachusetts and New Jersey. Massachusetts has, under 
the law of June 10, 1893, a highway commission of three com- 
petent persons, appointed by the Governor ; then there are also 
the usual boards of road commissioners in each town, and when 
they request a road to become a State highway, upon presenta- 
tion of such request, the Board of Highway Commissioners 
refer the matter to the IvCgislature for their adoption. The road 
is then built and owned by the State. The custom of each man 
working out his road tax is obsolete in this State. The tax is 
a money one, and the work is done by competent men. The 
I^egislature of 1894 made an addition to the previous law, 
whereby it is proposed to have two or more roads running east 
and west the whole length of the State on the customary and 
natural lines of travel, taking the existing county and town 
highways and placing them wholly or in part under such con- 
trol, and so improving them as to form a continuous line of 
travel over a splendid road from one end of the State to the 
other. At first the farmers opposed such action, but now they 
understand the advantage of having a good road running by 
" their place," and are coming into sympathy with the work. 
Among all the States that have taken action in this matter, 



EXTENSIVE EFFORTS ARE BEING MADE TO IMPROVE THE ROADS. MUCH HAS 



3o6 



GOOD ROADS. 








^ W. C. Dalzell, 
So. Egremont, Mass. 
(Prest. Dalzell Axle Co.) 



Wm. G. Hoffman, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Wagon Manufacturer.) 



New Jersey seems to have the best plan. Their laws are 
known as the New Jersey I^ocal Option and Co-operation Plan. 
This plan in detail is as follows : 

" The law provides that ' whenever there shall be presented 
to the Board of Chosen Freeholders of any county a petition 
signed by the owners of at least two-thirds of the land and real 
estate fronting or bordering on anj^ public road or section of 
road in such county, not being less than one mile in length, 
praying the board to cause such road or section to be improved 
under this act, and setting forth that they are willing that the 
peculiar benefits conferred on the lands fronting or bordering 
on said road or section shall be assessed thereon in proportion 
to the benefits conferred, to an amount not exceeding ten per 
centum of the entire cost of the improvement, it shall be the 
duty of the board to cause such improvements to be made ; 
provided, that the estimated cost of all improvements made 
under this act in any county, in any one year, shall not exceed 
one-half of one per centum of the rateables of such county for 
the last preceding year. 

' And be it enacted, that one-third of the cost of all roads 
constructed in this State under this act shall be paid for out of 
the State treasury ; provided, that the amount so paid shall not 
in any one year exceed the sum of $75,000 ; if one-third of said 
cost shall exceed said sum, the said $75,000 shall be appor- 
tioned by the Governor and the President of the State Board of 
Agriculture amongst the counties of the State in proportion to 
the cost of road constructed therein for such year, as shown by 

BEEN DONE, MUCH MORE MUST BE DONE. THE LEAGUE OF AMERICAN 



GOOD ROADS. 



307 





John M. Smith, 

Atlanta, Ga. 

(Carriage Manufacturer.) 



N. Robertson, 

Denver, Col. 

(Prest. Robertson & Doll Carriage Co.) 



the statement of costs filed in the office of the President of the 
State Board of Agriculture.' 

' ' Too much cannot be said of the good effects of this law. 
It does not require the education of the whole count}^ to start 
the work, and the object lessons with which it is filling the 
State are fast completing the general education of the people on 
the road question. It helps those who help themselves in a 
practical fashion, and no locality can be jealous of the work 
given to others, as the same help is offered to all. 

' ' In summing up the conditions of the laws in our various 
States on this subject, your committee recommends the adop- 
tion of road laws similar to those in vogue in Massachusetts 
and New Jersey — the doing away with the working out of 
taxes on the road, and that the work be done by men under the 
direct employ and supervision of competent road engineers. 
This opens up a vast field for the employment of convict or 
unemployed labor and vagrants, as may seem expedient to each 
State. The road tax to be paid in cash, and that due regard 
be had to the fact that in many counties the taxes are already 
very heavy, and that this work should proceed slowly, and not 
by too rapid strides and too high taxes, and thus gain the ill 
will of the farmers and other taxpayers. 

" Another subject collateral with good roads and highways, 
and within the province of this committee, is the subject of 
wide tires on traffic vehicles. Your committee are almost 
unanimous and strongly in favor of wide tires for all trafiic 
vehicles, not only that it is an economy in power of hauling, 



WHEELMEN HAS ACCOMPLISHED A GREAT DEAL IN THE WAY OF ROAD 



3o8 



GOOD ROADS. 





V F. T. Clymer, 
Wilmington, Del. 
(Prest.F.T. Clymer Co.) 



S. R. Bailey, 
Amesbury, Mass. 
(S. R. Bailey & Co.) 



but also tends to improve the highways. Many instances 
'might be cited, but there are none better than the experiment 
made by the Studebaker Bros. Manufacturing Co., the results 
of which are detailed in the Good Roads magazine for March, 
1893, as follows : 

' These experiments prove that across fields a three-inch tire 
has an advantage over a one and a half inch of one-eighth in 
starting a load, and one-seventh in pulling it after starting. 
This advantage, together with the lessened liability to cut 
through and kill the grass of newly-seeded fields, must gradu- 
ally lead to the introduction of wide tires for farm wagons, and 
when used on farms they will be used on roads. The test also 
showed an advantage in starting a load on hard road of one- 
sixth in favor of the three-inch tire over the one and a half 
inch, and a small advantage in favor of a four-inch over a one 
and a half inch in starting and hauling over sandy and gravell)^ 
roads, but a slight disadvantage in the wide tire on muddy road 
and block pavement. ' 

' ' Your committee would also call j^our attention to the 
question of varying tracks. For man}^ 3^ears this association 
has been on record in the matter of uniform tracks throughout 
the States, but your committee are of the opinion that where 
good roads are once built they can be maintained and kept in 
order more satisfactorily at far less expense if the traffic 
vehicles have wide tires and vary in track. All the evidence 
on this subject goes to show that vehicles with wide tires and 
varying tracks improve the roads instead of cutting them up 
and making ruts. 

AGITATION, IT IS STILL AT WORK. YOTJ ARE RECEIVING SOME BENEFIT FROM 



GOOD ROADS. 



309 





H. D. Johnson, 

South Bend, Ind. 

(Studebaker Bros. Mfg. Co.) 



D. E. Clapp, 

Auburn, N. Y. 

(E. D. Clapp Mfg. Co.) 



' ' In conclusion your committee beg to present for your dis- 
cussion and action the following resolutions : 

Whereas, The Carriage Builders' National Association of the United States, 
assembled at their twenty-second annual convention in Philadelphia, on the 17th day of 
October, 1894, having listened to the report of their committee on the subject of good 
roads, wide tires and varying tracks for vehicles, and after full discussion of the same, 
it is hereby 

Resolved, That as carriage builders we are vitally interested in the subject of good 
roads in the United States, and do hereby extend to the National League of Good Roads 
and the League of American Wheelmen the assurance of our heany co-operation. 

Resolved, That the secretary of this association be instructed to issue in pamphlet 
form a summary of the best road laws in this country, and the results of same, so far 
as known, with cast of roads and methods of construction in various parts of the 
country, and mail a copy of same to the governors and other State officials of each 
state, and a copy to each member of this association, who, it is hoped, will urge upon 
their local officials immediate action. 

Resolved, That, as an association, we urge upon the different States the passage of 
laws requiring wide tires on all heavy traffic vehicles, the width of tire to depend upon 
the weight of vehicle and usual load, and due regard being paid to the nature of the 
soil. 

Resolved, That, as fast as the condition of the roads in this country \vill permit, we 
recommend the use of vehicles of varying tracks, and feel that we will then create 
vehicles that will be road-makers instead of road-destroyers. 

' ' In the course of the discussion that followed the reading 
of the report, Mr. Studebaker said : ' I believe there is no ques- 
tion before the American people to-day that is of more interest 
to the welfare of the farmer, the manufacturer and the mer- 
chant than this question of good roads. [Applause.] There 
is no heavier tax paid by the farmer than the tax of bad roads. 
I know it is a very sensitive question to place before the farmer, 
to ask him to be taxed for the improvement of roads. We 
know that it is a sensitive question to ask the people in our 
cities to improve the streets, but after the streets are once 
improved there are very few but what would be willing to pay 
double what it cost rather than to have them removed." 



THAT WORK ; WE ARE GLAD THAT YOU ARE. DO YOIT BELONG TO THE LEAGUE ? 



3IO 



GOOD ROADS. 





W. E. Weld, Jr., 
New Haven, Ct. 
and Treas. Boston Buckboard 
and Carriage Co.) 



J. D. DORT, 

Flint, Miclj. 
(Prest. Flint Road Cart Co.) 



After a number of members had expressed similar views, at 
the invitation of the president, Sterling Elliott, editor of Good 
Roads, spoke as follows : 

"The teamster objects to \>€\.n% forced \.o use wide tires, 
because he says he pays taxes to make good roads and he 
doesn't want to be made to do it any other way. It is true that 
a wide tire is not quite an advantage in wet weather on a clay 
road, as the mud sticks to the tire and makes it pull a little 
harder. It is true that it pulls slightly harder on a stone pave- 
ment ; but it is also true that it makes an immense difference to 
the pavement whether the wheel and its load rest on one stone 
or two. Where the stone is broken the narrow tire sinks into 
the hole, and as it becomes deeper the wheel strikes with accel- 
erated force, making the hole larger and larger and deeper and 
deeper, while a wide tire will perhaps bridge the hole and be 
prevented from sinking into it as the narrow tire does. 

" The teamster says, when he makes his objection to the pas- 
sage of wide tire laws, ' I am in business to make monej^ and 
not to make roads.' This objection on his part is a very strong 
argument — I might say, a conclusive argument — to prove that 
the wide tire does make roads, though such an argument is 
hardly needed at this date. 

' ' Assuming that it takes more power under some conditions to 
haul a wagon having broad tires, it will always be noted that it 
is on roads which are not traveled universally by wide tires. 
If they were, even this objection could not be made. 

" And, after all, who should do most toward improving the 



ARE YOU A SUBSCRIBER TO GOOD ROADS ? IF WOT, MAY WE HAVE YOU ON OUR 



GOOD ROADS. 



311 





Zenas Thompson, 

Portland, Me. 

(Zenas Thompson & Bro.) 



W. F. Bennett, 
Greenland, N. H. 
(Carriage Dealer.) 



highways, the people who make direct use of them, or the 
people who do not ? The teamster objects to doing more than 
his share toward road improvement. I freely admit that no 
man should do more than his share, but I do claim that the 
teamster's share is more than that of a man who does not 
directly make use of the roads. 

" I don't think you ought to force a man to use wide tires at 
first, but should make it an object for him to do it. The Michi- 
gan people have done a right good thing. 

''\ do think if you pay a man a premium in the form of a 
reduced tax, for using wide tires, or by a little additional tax 
on his wagon with narrow tires, you will succeed in obtaining 
the desired point and he will not know that he is being viade to 
use the wide tire, and you will succeed better with this method 
than if you attempt to force him to adopt it. 

" Now, about roads. The drainage of roads is the most 
important thing. Take a road made of prairie mud, built 
where they can have no stone or gravel. If it is made with 
proper drainage, so that the surface is kept free from standing 
water, it makes a pretty good road. It is the best road when it 
is dry, and a good road all the time. It should be made and 
repaired by an expert. The farmer knows that he cannot build 
wagons for himself ; he goes to you gentlemen if he wants a 
wagon ; but he thinks he can build roads, because the road is 
made of dirt, and he thinks he understands dirt, and that he 
can certainly make roads with it. 

' ' lyCt him pay his taxes in money and have the roads built 
by somebody who knows how to build them. It is a most 
important fact that much better roads can be built with the 



ROLL ? DO YOF NOT WANT TO HELP ALONG THIS GOOD WORK ? ONE DOLLAR 



312 GOOD ROADS. 

money that is now spent, and without increasing the cost a cent. 
What they want is to be educated how to do it. 

"Instead of trying to build a mile of road 24 feet wide, 
build two miles 12 feet wide, or still more, 8 feet wide. A dirt 
road is best when it is dry. A stone road is best when it is 
wet ; a stone road wears best when wet, and a dirt road wears 
best when dry. The road might be built of stone on one side 
and dirt on the other, the stone road being on the right-hand 
side, so that the wagons would use it when loaded and going to 
market, and the dirt road on the way back. 

"Now, in connection with the wheelmen, I think I may 
say, without any discourtesy to you, that he is not appreciated 
by you gentlemen. Of course there are many boys, hoodlums, 
and others, who at times tend to bring the wheelmen into bad 
repute, but we are now taking in a more dignified class of men, 
and are going to offer a resolution at the next meeting of our 
Association to the effect that no wheelman who breaks the 
ordinances or regulations of any community shall be entitled to 
retain his membership in the L^eague of American Wheelmen. 
We have thirty-five members to one of you, but I will admit, 
for the sake of politeness, that it takes thirty-five of us to equal 
one of you. [lyaughter.] And I will ask you to do me the 
courtesy to believe that we are at least as iniporta7it as anybody 
on the question of good roads. We have spent $40,000 in 
money, and have the only magazine devoted to that subject, 
and it is published at a loss, simply because we are extending 
it so far and fast that it can't pay ; we don't want it to pay, but 
are doing it in the interest of good roads. We are going to 
keep up the work, and we hope j^ou will look on the wheelman 
as kindly as you can. 

' ' I want to tell you that it was the wheelmen who started 
the good road movement, for the reason that the carriage men 
didn't know about it ; the horse knew about it, but couldn't 
talk. As soon as man began to be his own horse, he realized 
the power it took and commenced to make a fuss about it, and 
he saw other wheelmen, who agreed with him, and they com- 
menced to organize and we are now doing more for good roads 
than anybody else is or has been doing. 

"Now that you carriage builders have started in earnest, 
we want to ask you, in all justice, to join with us for better 
highways, strengthening each others' hands in every way pos- 
sible. One of your members (Mr. Emerson) said to me, 
' Good roads make good people,' and good people are what we 
want. That is the idea exactly. Good roads not only make 
good people, but they enable good people to earn good money 
with which to buy good carriages." 

\ For additional portraits a7id names of members of carriage builders road committee 
see page s^S-] 

SENT TO NUMBER TWELVE PEARL STREET, BOSTON, WILL GET THIS MAGAZINE 



ANOTHER PLAN FOR RAISING ROAD MONEY. 

BY J. M. MARTY. 

|» I OTHING can be said in favor of our mud roads, nothing 
|\| in favor of the system by which they are kept ; it is as 
I 1 old as it is ineffectual, as clumsy as it is disgraceful. 
I Gotten up in the first place as a make-shift, it is a 

make-shift to-day, filling here a bad hole with worse 
dirt, putting a new board upon a rotten stringer some other 
place. 

Good road building is a science, a trade and an art com- 
bined ; worthy of the attention and ambition of the best intelli- 
gence in the land, and as useful and as much needed as 
anything we may think of. All that has been done in that 
direction is small in comparison with the tremendous task before 
us, for this and the coming generations. No single corpora- 
tion, no city, county nor even state alone can monopolize this 
great work ; it is of national importance, and a national duty. 

Why cannot road building be made a branch of stud}^ at 
West Point and Annapolis? Turn the swords into plowshares, 
lay aside the uniforms, and send the coming warriors over our 
plains in the more useful and profitable garb of road builders. 
It takes more than a farmer's or a politician's training to 
properly lay out a public road, to drain it, and cover it properly 
with suitable material; nor is the material the same everywhere; 
it may be good gravel, it may be hard rock, all limestone or 
part limestone. 

Whatever considerations of distance from quarries and pits 
may demand, above all, it is a question of money in the first 
place, and a question of judicious distribution of such roads in 
the second place. It is the money question which is the most 
important and difficult in the road problem, the point which 
causes all of our patching and tinkering, and deeper mud every 
year. As our government is supposed to be for the greatest 
good of the greatest number, and as half (at least) of the pop- 
ulation of the United States are directly or indirectly suffering 
from our road system, and' have a right to be heard, and to be 
helped, why not ask Congress to take the road question in its 
hand, about in this shape : 

Eet the United States issue money of common or special 
green, gray or yellow back shape, to the amount of say twenty 
dollars for each inhabitant of the country ; to be issued in not 
less than six, not more than twenty years, equal amounts every 
year ; then come to the towns, cities, villages, counties, and 

FOR ONE YEAR. WE HAVE ON HAND A FEW SETS OF BACK NUMBERS, BOTH 



314 PLAN FOR RAISING ROAD MONEY. 

make the following offer : That they shall receive their respec- 
tive quota from the Government, viz., twenty dollars for each 
inhabitant, provided, that each town, city or county shall raise 
an equal amount of money with which to build macadam or 
gravel roads of suitable width on such lines as may be deter- 
mined by United States engineers, acting with county and town 
commissioners, which lines should form a continuous network 
through the county at nearly regular distances apart. These 
roads to be built under the management of United States engi- 
neers, who should, in conjunction with the local authorities, 
spend the money for that purpose, beginning where better roads 
are most needed. 

Should more than one-sixth of the towns apply the first 
year, preference to be given to first applicants, and the balance 
to take their turn as soon as the next allowance became due. 
Thus would the work be spread over a longer period, and 
investments in hauling, crushing and quarrying machinery be 
made easier and more profitable. 

It costs from five hundred to five thousand dollars a mile to 
put the roads in good shape, and it would take a large sum of 
money to do it. But is there a work or enterprise to-day that 
would prove a greater blessing ? 

It cost many times as much to free four millions of colored 
people. And this would practically set twenty millions of white 
folks out of the slough of despondency on the paved road to 
success. 

Kingdoms in extent have been given to railroads, millions 
of dollars beside, and still their toll is heavy. 

Why not call on the nation, of which we are a part, to give 
us our portion of what belongs to us ? One hundred and fifty 
millions a year in good paper, with the honor and word of a 
great prosperous nation to back it, spent for a grand, noble and 
peaceful and paying investment, certainly never would lower 
our credit nor burden the treasury. 

Think of the struggle for life thirty years ago, and with all 
the mistakes, misfortunes and dark days, money came forth, 
millions after millions, to be spent in war, to be shot away, 
burned, destroyed. 

Now we onl}^ ask for what is intended to stay ; every dollar 
to pay highest interest in freeing us from the bondage of mud 
and consequent idleness. 

There can be no doubt as to the constitutionality of the 
Government's help, no doubt as to our right to be heard, nor as 
to power and ability of the Government to carry it out. 

But the patient suffering countryman must be heard from, 
again and again, and louder every time. More than silver 

BOUND AND UNBOUND. THIS COMPLETE FILE OF GOOD ROADS CONTAINS ABOUT 



PLAN FOR RAISING ROAD MONEY. 315 

dollars and warehouse schemes we need good roads, and if 
incidentally prices should come to a standstill, it would be a 
blessing to a man who has a mortgage to pay. 

If "Black Beauty" were in the United States, quite likely 
another chapter would have been added to the book ; her com- 
plaints about roads. 

Money so issued by the Government could be converted into 
low interest bearing bonds, after a certain lapse of time from 
the issue ; this would counteract any deluge of fiat money, and 
would besides bring the money thus issued in greater demand. 

We have at present no issues at hand in our public life that 
coriipare with the magnitude, the necessity and far-reaching 
benefis of this road question. 

It touches all alike, from the richest railroad king to the 
cheapest laborer, and is worthy of the attention of the grangers, 
the Alliance, and any other farmer's or mechanic's political or 
social body. The people need it, are entitled to it, but it needs 
a systematic pushing, first to find what they really want, and 
then to learn how to get it. But the men who will accomplish 
it will rank as benefactors second to none. 



IF the owner of a skating rink has a right to say what sort of 
skates shall be used in it. 
If the owner of a billiard table has a right to say what 
shots shall not be made on it. 

In fact, if any owner has a right to control the property 
owned, then the government of a certain area, as, for instance, 
a State, has a right to say what use shall be made of the roads 
which it must maintain. 

It is not a privilege, it is the duty of a State government to 
see to it that its highways are not misused. 



ALL OF IMPORTAWCE WHICH HAS BEEN SAID ON THE SUBJECT OE HIGHWAY 



THE FEASIBII.ITY OF MACADAM^ROADS IN 
PRAIRIE COUNTRY. 

BY HORACK G. KAUFFMAN. 




T 



H. G. KAUFFMAN. 



^HAT eminent American 
statesman and patriot, 
Henry Clay, was travel- 
ing one springtime from 
his home in Kentucky to 
Philadelphia. When nearing 
the end of his journey, and 
while riding with the driver on 
the box of a stage coach that 
was speeding along a macadam 
road, he suddenly found himself 
thrown from his seat and rolling 
several times over along the 
side of the track, caused by the 
overturning of the stage from 
the horses shying at an unfa- 
miliar object. None of the 
passengers received bodily in- 
jury, but Clay was more or less 
covered with the fine particles of the stone of the road bed. 
Shaking and brushing these away, he remarked to a fellow 
passenger, ' ' This is an instance of Clay of Kentucky being 
mixed with limestone of Pennsylvania." 

Instead of journeying eastward, if in those days Clay ever 
came north at the same season of the year, over the highways 
of Illinois (and I shall suppose for my purpose that he did) his 
experience was doubtless different. The stage in all proba- 
bility did not upset. There was a mishap, though, but of a 
more simple kind — the stage stuck fast in the mud. After the 
whole day had dragged its slow length along, without the 
horses getting out of a walk, just at nightfall, in a lonely spot, 
the wheels went down ?iea7^er the hub, the horses stopped, and 
there they were. 

Then when the passengers got out, the horses, relieved of 
their load, tugged away and raised the wheels from their miry 
depths, the extent of which by that time each passenger was 
experiencing for himself. Clay of Kentucky was again mixed 
with the material of the road bed, which in that case was not 
particles of Illinois limestone, but the black, pasty mud of 
Illinois soil. There was plenty of limestone at the nearest 



REFORM SINCE 1888. WE ALSO KEEP IN STOCK A VERY FINE TEMPORARY 



MACADAM ROADS ON THE PRAIRIE. 317 

quarry, a mile away, but the road was wholly and wofully 
without it. 

It is true that as far back as 1850 Illinois was a compara- 
tively new State, and improvements of all kinds were in their 
infancy, but after nearly a half century, during which phenom- 
enal progress has been made in so many directions, our com- 
mon roads are just the same that they were in the early days. 
Each year our experiences on our highways are precisely those 
of the early settlers. In the summer and fall our roads are 
excellent ; in the winter and spring they are among the worst 
in the world. In the words of Mr. Brown, master of the 
Connecticut State Grange, " The}^ are imaginary pathways 
composed for the most part of fearfully realistic quagmires, 
washouts, thank-ye-marms and profanity." 

I make frequent drives to Oregon from the east edge of Mt. 
Morris. When roads are good, I often get over the distance of 
five and one-half miles in thirty minutes. When roads are bad 
it takes from an hour to an hour and a half. Several years 
since while in the East, I drove over a hilly but good Macadam 
road a distance of nine miles in March, when the weather was 
cold and dry ; returning a week later when there had been 
rains and the dirt roads were soft. The time occupied in going 
was one hour and a quarter ; the time in returning one hour 
and a half. Such is the difference between a dirt road and a 
macadam road in the one item of time. Now, when to the 
saving of time there is added the saving in wear and tear of 
horse, harness and vehicle (as well as in the sweetness of 
temper of the driver) together with the satisfaction that comes 
from a brisk trot instead of a slow walk, the ability at any time 
to draw a full load instead of a half one, and in general the 
easy communication on every day of the year between homes 
in the country and between town and country, whether for 
purposes of trade or social pleasure. When these are some of 
the things that distinguish the two kinds of highways, it goes 
without question that everybody desires macadam roads. 

No, not everyone. A man I know, born and brought up in 
Illinois and who had never traveled on any but dirt roads, 
spent a month in the East not long since, and while there did 
some driving on a macadam road of the first class. He did not 
like that kind of road, he said. It was too solid, and it was 
noisy. Fortunately few are so sensitive. 

Yes, the expression of opinion is practically unanimous in 
Illinois, as well as elsewhere, that permanent roads are very 
desirable. But those of us who say, "Let us go ahead and 
make them" are met with the objection that they are expen- 
sive. We are reminded that material cannot be had along the 

BINDER FOR GOOD ROADS. IT WILL HOLD TWELVE COPIES AND WE SEND IT ON 



3i8 MACADAM ROADS ON THE PRAIRIE. 

roadside and in adjoining fields as it can be in the East. It is 
probable, the objectors say, that here and there in Illinois, 
where the supplies of stone are more numerous and abundant 
than they usually are on the prairies, macadam roads can be 
made. But not extensively, because for most of the road 
making the stone is so far away that the necessary expense of 
hauling them long distances would be so great as to make the 
project impracticable. The most we can do, they say, is to 
macadamize for a few rods here and there at the worst places, 
but as to a system of hard roads, that belongs to the category of 
the impossible. It will do to dream over. It is Utopian and 
Sir Thomas Moore did not write of Illinois; "If it be ever 
realized the time will be when seasons are never late, when 
crops never fail and when farmers are millionaires." 

The matter of expense is an important and a necessary one 
to consider. And as to that, is there any system of road making 
that could possibly be more expensive than our present one ? 
What have we to show for the money and labor that have been 
put upon our highwaj^s for the past twenty-five years ? Abso- 
lutely nothing, unless it be that in some instances the roads are 
worse since they have been " worked " than they were before. 
Whatever is done one year must be done over the next and 
should be repeated oftener. 

The meagre benefits are soon gone and so is the money. 

To this direct loss must be added the indirect, but just as 
real losses already referred to, viz., suspended traffic, half 
loads, wear and tear, double time, etc., and when all are con- 
sidered, if a committee of engineers were appointed to bring 
forward the most costly system of roads that they could devise, 
it may be seriously questioned whether they could improve on 
what we now have. Midas alone could have with reason 
adopted such an extravagant plan. 

Isaac B. Potter in an able article in the Century Magazine 
for April, 1892, says, "Measured by every rule of economy, 
public or private, these common roads of the United States are 
not only the worst in the civilized world, but in labor and 
money we are spending more to carry on a so-called system of 
inefiicient and shiftless maintenance, than would be sufiicientto 
keep in proper repair double the length of high class roads 
under the methods pursued by France, Italy and other Euro- 
pean States." 

Now, while it is clear that macadam or telford roads are in 
the long run less expensive, the making of them does require 
considerable outlay. Fortunately the agitation for better roads 
for this county (Ogle) has reached a point where we are begin- 
ning to know just what macadamizing will cost. The experi- 
ments made in some of the townships during the past year, a 

RECEIPT OF SEVENTY-FIVE CENTS. 



MACADAM ROADS ON THE PRAIRIE. 319 

report of which has been made to the Secretary of the Institute, 
give just the facts needed. In Mt. Monis township 80 rods 
were macadamized. When the width of the track was 16 feet 
and the depth of stone at the middle was 12 inches, crushed 
stone being used in all cases, the cost was $5 per rod. Perhaps 
this is not far wrong, one way or the other, from what the cost 
will usually be. At that rate the outlay will be $1600 per mile. 
That is a good deal less than the figures sometimes given by 
writers on the subject. 

Taking that amount as the probable average cost in Ogle 
County, it is entirely and easily feasible for some of the town- 
ships, and within reach, I believe, of most of them, to make 
each year from a half-mile to a mile of macadam road, that, 
with slight repairs, will last a century, and accomplish it with 
little or no increase of present taxes, provided two things are 
done. 

First. Give up making dirt roads. At least after the road 
has been once graded, let that suffice. After that the absence 
of the grades will be neither noticed nor felt by any one, unless 
it be the road overseer, or perhaps the ' ' able bodied substi- 
tute," who in the convalescent condition in which he often 
appears, may like Othello, "find his occupation gone." I 
drive over stretches of road that have not, to my knowledge, 
been touched by a grader for five years, and they are essentially 
just as good and just as bad as other parts of the same road 
where the grader has been used every other year. The money 
thus saved can be made part of the fund for macadamizing. It 
will not be a large sum but it will keep. 

Second. Instead of having the road tax "worked out," 
have it all paid in money. Vote on that next April in town- 
ships that have the labor system and carry the election, not by 
but for cash. It is conceded by all who have had anything to 
do with it, that the system of working out the tax is unreliable, 
inefficient and costly. The matter should be strictly a business 
affair. But there is a numerous kind of taxpayer that does not 
view the matter in that light. He does not think of himself as 
working for pay, but rather as bestowing his services upon his 
country. He works accordingly. His composure of manner 
is equalled only by his deliberation of movement. The latter 
is especially noticeable. He seems to have taken for his guid- 
ance the motto of the Spanish Americans in certain of the 
South American States, viz., "-He that makes haste dies; he 
that does not make haste, dies also." The situation readily 
lends itself to oft-repeated chats with his fellows, among whom 
are those of like leisurely ways with himself. Together the3^ 
lighten the eight hours of toil (?) with now a jolly tale that sees 

" Laughter holding both his sides," 
GOOD ROADS HAS RECENTLY RECEIVED A LETTER FROM AN ADMIRING 



320 MACADAM ROADS ON THE PRAIRIE. 

and now a lengthy argument on the tariff, proving conclusively 
that the tariff is a tax and equally conclusively that it is not. 

And so the day passes. 

Those who would render adequate service, can't go ahead 
alone, and besides are often hindered by a lack of knowledge of 
the work in hand. Frequently the road overseer knows no 
more than the others and, despite a belief to the contrary, to 
make properly even a dirt road requires a particular knowledge 
of what to do and how to do it. Of course this is true to a far 
greater degree in the construction of macadam roads. 

In the apt words of J. M. Olin, Esq., of Madison, Wis., in 
an address before the State Agricultural Society, "A good 
road is not made by accident, nor maintained by ignorance." 

As a business investment the labor system probably never 
pays over fifty cents on the dollar, and as a rule not that much. 
Says Attorney Olin, " One of the commissioners appointed by 
Gov. Winans, of Michigan, to report a plan of road legislation 
for that State, a man who, for twenty-five years had been a 
highway commissioner in his town, which for ten years has 
collected its road tax in money, said in a recent letter : 

' I would much prefer twenty-five cents in cash to the aver- 
age day's highway labor, as it has been and is being performed 
in this State.' " 

"The late Gov. Hovey," says M. Studebaker, "in his last 
message, estimated that between two and three millions of 
dollars in money and labor had been expended upon the roads 
of the State during the year ending October, 1890. The 
amount was sufficient to build six or seven hundred miles of 
substantial macadam roads, of a nature, with light repairs, to 
last a hundred years. Instead of such an enduring improve- 
ment to show for this great outlay, for the most part the work 
done was more appropriate for the preparation of an onion bed. 

It would be better for a country to build five miles of good 
macadam road each year and let the remainder of the roads 
alone, than to continue the course usually followed." 

It must be remembered that under the labor system as pro- 
vided for by our statute, all of the tax for road purposes levied 
by the commissioner of highways on property lying within the 
limits of an incorporated village goes to the village authorities 
for streets, whereas under the cash system only one-half so 
levied is paid over to the village. The latter way is right. 
Every village is directly benefited by good roads in the sur- 
rounding country , upon which it depends in large measure for 
its business. 

One of the commissioners of Hardin County, Ohio, which 
has constructed a system of macadam roads under a late law, 

READER WHO SAYS HE THINKS WE ARE DOING A GREAT WORK AND HE 



MACADAM ROADS ON THE PRAIRIE. 321 

wrote of the value to his town of Kenton of good roads in a 
letter to Mr. Olin as follows : 

"During one day in January last, when the weather had 
been a little open and soft for some days, I had occasion to go 
over to the county seat of the adjoining county of Wyandotte, 
Upper Sandusky. I found the entire town and surrounding 
country stuck in the mud. Not half a dozen teams to be seen 
on the street during the day ; business of every description at a 
standstill, and business men said to me that this was a fair 
sample of what they had experienced for more than two weeks, 
and they rightly and clearly attributed it all to the want of 
improved roads. 

Upon my return home in the evening, I found it had been 
a busy day in Kenton and a great many farmers had been to 
town. One of our police officers had taken the trouble to count 
the conveyances at two o'clock hitched in and around the 
business part of the town. They numbered over six hundred. 
This demonstrated pretty clearly that pikes will tell. 

Putting together the money wasted in making dirt roads, 
and all the money obtained from having the road tax paid in 
cash, excepting what must go for bridges, will give a fund in 
every township that will build the major part of a mile of good 
macadam road, and in some of the townships a full mile. That 
is enough to be appreciated even the first year, small though it 
is, and continued year after year, according to a system, will in 
a reasonable time, gradually but surely, result in macadamizing 
the roads of heaviest travel. That is a "consummation 
devoutly to be wished," and we shall have something to show 
for the money expended. 

I imagine, however, that the small beginning will have 
larger and quicker results. After the first few miles of perma- 
nent roads are made and all the people see for themselves what 
such roads will do for them, they will like the investment so 
well that the fund for it will be increased and the good work 
pushed more rapidly. Then in less time than would now seem 
probable, each township will be crossed from north to south and 
east to west by at least one macadam road, with others soon to 
follow, until all the principal highways, together with their 
feeders, form a system of excellent hard roads. 

In some localities a start has been made. This is true at 
Rockford, and notably so at Dixon. When the same may be 
said of every localitj^ and the matter has gone forward to a 
completed system, then some future student of economic ques- 
tions will doubtless say of the great State of Illinois what is 
now said of France, viz. : "The road sj^stem of France has 
been of equal value to the country, as a means of raising the 
value of lands, * * * with the railways. 

PROCEEDS TO PAT US ON THE BACK (METAPHORICALLY, OF COURSE) IW A 



322 



MACADAM ROADS ON THE PRAIRIE. 



It is the opinion of well-informed Frenchmen who have 
made a study of economic problems, that the superb roads of 
France have been one of the most steady and potent contribu- 
tions to the material development and marvelous financial 
elasticity of the country. The far-reaching and splendidly 
maintained road system has distinctly favored the success of the 
small landed proprietors, and in their prosperity and the ensuing 
distribution of wealth lies the key to the secret of the wonder- 
ful vitality and solid prosperity of the French nation." 




A COMMERCIAIv 
QUOTATION. 

' ' Is there anything in this 
for me ? ' ' 

This is a question which 
most men are apt to think, 
even if they do not ask it. 

In working for improved 
roads we need use no argu- 
ment other than that it is 
directly profitable to have 
them. Sentiment is all right 
in its place, but the building 
of roads is strictly business 
and need be considered in no 
other light. 



MANNER TO MAKE US WONDER WHETHER AFTER ALL WE EARE NOT TOO GOOD 



GOOD ROADS. 



323 




Geo. W. Hoover, 

York, Pa. 

(Vehicle Manufacturer.) 



We sincerely hope that 
all Iv. A. W. members 
who are in earnest on 
the subject of wide tires 
and road improvement 
will become acquainted, 
if they are not already, 
with the members of the 
Carriage Builders' Road 
Committee who live 
nearest to them, and in 
all matters of impor- 
tance let us co-operate 
so that the greatest re- 
sults may be obtained, 
with the least possible 
waste of energy. 



If any road or tire legisla- 
tion is contemplated in your 
locality, be very careful to 
see that all who are interested 
on the right side of it are 
brought together so as to 
work in harmony. Carriage 
builders willing to lend a 
hand should confer with local 
I<. A. W. Consul, who will 
be anxious to meet them more 
than half way. Don't forget 
that every vote counts more 
than one, since the man who 
is interested enough to vote 
is very apt also to talk, and 
may influence still others. 




W. T. Lewis, 

Racine, Wis. 

(Prest. MitcheU & Lewis Co.) 



FOR THIS CRUEL WORLD. HIS HEART GOES OUT TO US IN A MOST NEIGHBORLY 



324 



GOOD ROADS. 





C. W. Shipley, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

(Vice Prest. and Sec. Sechler & Co.) 



James H. Birch, Jr., 

Burlington, N. J. 

(Carriage Manufacturer.) 



"■^4 
/j^^ 



S. K. Herr, 
Westminster, Md. 



Members of Carriage Builders National Association Road 
Committee whose photographs we were unable to obtain in time 
for this issue : 



Geo. IvOoms, LouisviUe, Kv. 
G. W. Hedrick, Dayton, Ohio. 
D. M. Parry, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Chas. J. Richter, New York, N. Y. 
Wm. W. Ogden, Newark, N. J. 
Wm. H. Walborn,-St. Paris, Ohio. 



J. C. Adams, Baltimore, Md. 
Andrew Reitz, Wheeling, W. Va. 
Henry Tine, Danbury, Conn. 
H. C. Larrabee, Binghaniton, N. Y. 
W. A. Rech, Philadelphia, Penn. 
J. W. Renwick, 39 Wooster St., New York, N. Y. 



MANNER, AND HE CLOSES HIS VERY TOUCHING LETTER BY "TOUCHING" US FOR 



HOW IT IvOOKS TO A MINISTER. 

BY REV. CHAS. A. CRANE, 

Of Colorado Springs, Col., (formerly of Danville. III.) 

"In the days of Shamg-ar, the son of Anath, in the days of Jael, the highways 
were unoccupied and the travelers walked through hyways."— Judges V., VI. 




Rev. Chas. a. Crane. 



I I ISTORY repeats itself. 
^1 ' ' The days of Shamgar 
r I and of Jael ' ' when ' ' the 
I highways were unoccu- 

' pied and the travelers 

walked through byways ' ' come 
upon Illinois every winter. 

In his wonderfully suggestive 
discourse on ' ' The Day of 
Roads," from the text just 
quoted, Horace Bushnell elabo- 
rated, as only his skill can, the 
idea that roads are the best evi- 
dences of civilization. " If a 
people have no roads they are 
savages. ' ' 

Is he a savage 



Does this apply to the American farmer ? 
half the year ? 

Bushnell goes on to suggest that ' ' If law is weak and 
society insecure, men should spend their strength, not in open- 
ing roads, but in closing them as so many avenues of danger. 

" Or, if you inquire after commerce, look at the roads; for 
roads are the ducts of trade. If you wish to know whether 
society is stagnant, learning scholastic, religion a dead formal- 
ity, you may learn something by going into universities and 
libraries ; something also by the work that is doing on cathe- 
drals and churches, or in them ; but quite as much by looking 
at the roads. For if there is any motion in society, the road, 
which is the symbol of motion, will indicate the fact. 

So if there is any kind of advancement going on, if new 
ideas are abroad, new hopes rising, then you will see it by the 
roads that are building. 

Nothing makes an inroad without making a road. All 
creative action, whether in government, industry, thought or 
religion creates roads." 

More than 150 years ago, Field Marshall George Wade 
superintended the construction of those roads which led to the 
civilization of the Highlands. "Had you seen those roads 



A FREE COPY OF THE MAGAZINE FOR A YEAR, AND ASKS IT ON THE GROUOT) 



326 A MINISTER'S VIEW OE IT. 

before they were made you'd have lifted up your hands and 
blessed General -Wade," sung an Irishman in quarters at Fort 
William, alluding in reality to the tracks which had previously 
existed in the same lines and which were roads all but the 
making. 

Following Wade, came Macadam, who added a word to the 
English language and earned for himself the tribute of a grate- 
ful remembrance as a great public benefactor. 

Telford, another Scotchman, improved the macadam road 
by suggesting a causewayed sub- structure as a basis for the 
small stones used in the macadam process. Great Britain thus 
presented the field in which the modern hard road passed its 
infancy and youth. Centuries before this the Romans made 
roads in Great Britain, but the^^ generally fell into decay. In 
1825 A. D., one of the earliest road laws enacted directed that 
all trees and shrubs within 200 feet of roads between market 
towns should be cut down to protect travelers from robbers. 
(Though I do not advocate it publicly, I am privately in favor 
of a closely woven barbed wire fence being stretched along our 
public highways a like distance from the road, behind which 
shall be safely kept all dogs and " road-hogs.") 

I've said enough to show you that the energetic, world- 
conquering Anglo-Saxon in the tight little island, knew and 
appreciated the importance of good roads and developed them 
with that same liberal and enterprising spirit that has also made 
the seas the highways for his commerce, and the harvests of 
almost every country pay tribute to his shops and factories. 

If, as Bushnell, the philosopher, says, roads are indicative 
of a people, what is indicated b}'- the roads of Illinois? The 
Arkansas Traveler's roof is suggested. In fair weather it 
needed no repairs, in foul weather it could get none. 

These soft roads of ours that paste great cushions of mud 
upon the wheel, doubtless furnished the idea to the inventor of 
cushion tires. 

A party of young people once left Springfield in an omnibus, 
when the mud was bottomless, to go two miles into the country 
to attend a wedding. The 'bus rolled and heaved and tossed 
like a tug in a stormy sea, until two of the party actually be- 
came seasick. Not a solitary jolt or jar relieved the sickening 
swing and sway, as the four horse team struggled along 
through that sea of mud. Some one with a like experience, 
who " had sailed the ocean blue," as he compared the sea of 
mud to the "sea of waters salt" must have named the old 
fashioned " mover's wagon " the prairie " schooner." 

The present state of affairs, sad as it is, is not altogether 
sad, being relieved by an aspect of humor which grows upon 
one -as the subject is studied. 

THAT HE IS VERY DEEPLY INTERESTED IN THE SUBJECT OF GOOD ROADS AND 



A MINISTER'S VIEW OF IT. 327 

The crab-like and illogical process of reasoning, which in 
the early days of our state compelled the man who had no 
cattle to build a fence to keep the cattle of others away, is also 
displayed in striking conspicuity by the hibernating country- 
men, who, because of bad roads, locks himself up at home half 
the year, and persuades himself he can't help himself because 
he's so poor. 

In order to get the proper perspective and true proportions 
of this picture, look at it for a moment. 

The cattle bred and fed in Illinois are the finest in the world. 
The swine cannot be excelled even in the roast pig dream of 
Charles I^amb. Our horses are the pride of every people. Our 
vehicles from omnibus to bicycle are the best and most perfect 
the cunning skill of artesans can frame. But with all these 
cattle, horses, swine, mules and vehicles in the superlative de- 
gree of perfection, we suffer an embargo of block paste to gum 
our endless lanes six months of the year. 

We are wide-awake and ingenious people, no doubt. The 
march of progress has nowhere struck wilder applause or 
excited more frantic approbation than here where the inventive 
genuisof man, laureled with a thousand triumphs, still wallows 
in the mud of its own sufferance. See how these soft roads fit 
in the picture. 

Every machine for travel has been brought to the highest 
notch of perfection ; our draft horses and roadsters alike have 
been bred to the highest degree ; our wheels roll on frictionless 
balls ; the skill of the mechanic, the skill of the artist vie with 
each other in the symmetry and glittering finish of our vehicles, 
but with all these triumphs of science, our roads are worse than 
they were when we tore them from the hands of nature with a 
subsoil plow and a two-horse scoop-shovel scraper. 

It is as if some modern Beau Brummel should array himself 
in shining tile, immaculate linen, and faultless broadcloth, and 
then walk forth barefooted to work the virgin mud between his 
toes. 

Strangely incongruous indeed these primitive, longitudinal 
mud-holes, filling the lanes between well-kept farms, and ruin- 
ing the streets of wealthy county seats and towns of no mean 
proportions. 

Every means of travel has been perfected save the very one 
that intimidates every traveler who dares pursue a journey in 
bad weather — the roads. 

Our system of making country roads is like healing a wound 
by tearing it open. Eest our heavy rainfall, our narrow- tired 
wheels and our quickly alternating frosts and thaws fail to keep 
the tarry surface of the roads well churned and mixed, the able- 

TmWKS "HE MIGHT BE ABLE TO DO US SOME GOOD." WOW OF COURSE WE 



328 A MINISTER'S VIEW OF IT. 

bodied men turn out under the supervisor and spend two days 
of the fall in destroying every possible chance of good roads 
till summer comes again. 

Thus, the prison bars of the farmer are strengthened, so that 
he may now rest assured that he and his are well locked up till 
the baking and healing heats of summer remedy the outrages 
he has committed on nature. 

To say we are too poor to help this state of affairs is to smite 
facts in the face, and hold up our stinginess before the ridicule 
of the world. The thin, reluctant soil of France and England, 
which has to be manufactured almost every 3^ear, can yet sup- 
port a thrifty race which builds and keeps such roads as would 
cause the average lUinoisian to almost die of envy. 

To complain of poverty when poorer countries far surpass 
us in good roads is enough to make the generous and juicy 
loam of Illinois cry out with righteous wrath. Why, we only 
have to scratch it a little, when the bounty of our fields leaps 
forth to fatten warehouse, granary and bank account. We 
have never really cultivated our Illinois soil, barely cultivated 
its aquaintance, and yet no harvests are like unto ours in quan- 
tity and quality. The very richness of our land, and the 
abundance of our never failing crops, are eloquent persuasion 
to weave a network of hard roads all over the State, from Free- 
port to Cairo, from Danville to Quincy. 

The following authoritative presentation furnishes enough 
facts to make even the most miserly farmer in a hurry to bring 
to pass substantial reform in the building of roads. 

" In many respects we have greater need of hard surfaced 
roads than has either France or England. Our rainfall is con- 
siderably heavier than theirs, and our dirt roads for weeks at a 
time are half as deep as they are wide. Farm trafiic is sus- 
pended and horses are kept in idleness. 

' ' Official statistics show that there are something over 
16,000,000 horses and mules on the farms of the United States, 
and at a moderate estimate of 25 cents per day as the cost of 
feed for each animal, we see that it costs the farmers of this 
country about $4,000,000 per day for this item alone. Less 
than 20 per cent, of these animals would be sufficient to do all 
the hauling of farm produce carried on in this county even if 
the main roads were put in first-class condition, but, not to hope 
too strongly for the attainment of distant things, let us suppose 
that such an improvement be projected as would render unnec- 
essary only one-eighth of the total number of the draft animals 
now employed. This would reduce the entire number by a 
little over two million, and would effect a saving each day of 
about 14,000 tons of hay and 750,000 bushels of oats, which, 

APPRECIATE A FRIEND AMD WE LIKE TO BE TOLD THAT WE ARE WELL ALOITG 



A MINISTER'S VIEW OF IT. 329 

reduced to a money value, equals $300,000 per day, or about 
$110,000,000 per year. 

"Add to this the value of the animals, $140,000,000, and 
we have a total of $250,000,000 saved for the first year. Of 
course these figures do not represent the real loss entailed to 
our farmers by the use of dirt roads. That loss is beyond com- 
putation ; but in whatever way the computation is directed, 
and wherever the loss is susceptible of calculation, the same 
startling exhibit is bound to appear. A*tecent careful count 
shows over 300 abandoned farms in the fertile and populous 
State of New Jersey." 

Railroads are not run for fun. They are purely business, 
and because they are purely business, the best road-beds pos- 
sible are made. Good road-beds mean nearness to market and 
despatch in business. They mean this no more in the case of 
railroads than in the case of wagon roads, in proportion to the 
traffic. 

Mr. Potter, the former editor of Good Roads, points out 
forcibly that ' ' we are hauling over our common roads enough 
produce, in one form or another, to supply a freighting business 
for 150,000 miles of railroads, using more than 1,000,000 horses, 
and earning a traffic income in 1890 of nearly $1,000,000,000." 
I/Ct us suppose that the traffic over the common roads were 
carried on in the same way as that over the railroads ; that is to 
say, that great corporations operate over them lines of wagons, 
which collected the produce of the farms and carried it to the 
nearest market towns. Our country roads would be subjected 
to a revolutionary improvement within a year. 

The road system of France has been of far greater value to 
the country as a means of raising the value of lands, and of 
putting the small peasant proprietors in easy communication 
with their markets than have the railways. It is the opinion 
of well-informed Frenchmen, who have made a practical study 
of economic problems, that the superb roads of France have 
been one of the most steady and potent contributions to the 
material development and marvelous financial elasticity of the 
country. The far-reaching and splendidly maintained road 
system has distinctly favored the success of the small landed 
proprietors, and in their prosperity and the ensuing distribution 
of wealth lies the key to the secret of the wonderful financial 
vitality and solid prosperity of the French nation. 

The experience of New Jersey teaches the same easy lesson 
in economics. There, macadamized roads built by funds bor- 
rowed upon bonds have once again demonstrated the truth of 
the old saying that " the best is the cheapest." 

' ' The property in these counties has appreciated in value 

ON THE RIGHT TRACK. IT IS VERY PLEASANT TO KNOW THAT OUR EFFORTS 



330 A MINISTERS VIEW OF IT. 

iav more than the cost of the roads, and that not only in the 
case of sales and exchange, but upon tax levy. The actual 
increase in land values, caused by the improved road, meets the 
increased taxes requisite to pay the interest upon the bonds 
issued for the improvements." 

Thus disappears the old bugbear ' ' poverty ' ' that has 
throttled many a wise, prudent and economical enterprise. 

There is also a social question wrapped up in this problem 
of hard roads at which we may only glance in closing. 

The boys, most of them, want to leave the farm. 

Who blames them ? 

Thurlow Weed once said, " I remember how happy I was 
in being able to borrow a book after a two-mile tramp through 
the snow, shoeless, my feet swaddled in the remnants of an old 
rag carpet." 

The boy on the farm is built on the same social architectural 
plan as are the rest of us. In the seed time and harvest he 
works so hard his social nature almost starves but for the 
crumbs of sociability he gathers from the hired hands, but when 
the surcease from his labor comes, he longs to see and talk and 
visit with new acquaintances, not too familiar. All the social 
instinct demands a chance to get around and see people, and 
become used to affairs and men. 

He will struggle through miles of mud and darkness to get 
to a meeting house where a few tallow candles make the gloom 
and the crowd visible, and then go home happy and light 
hearted because the intolerable routine and lonesomeness of the 
mud-bound home have been broken up by a bath of refresh- 
ment, wherein his social faculties have all been revived and 
quickened. This social instinct is greater and deeper and 
stronger than a mere fancy to meet his best girl — greater and 
deeper and stronger than the gregarious instinct that gathers 
wolves into packs, cattle into drives, birds into flocks and fish 
into schools. It is that same instinct that holds men by thou- 
sands in our great cities to suffer the pangs of poverty and the 
ravages of vice rather than turn out into the verdant country 
where plenty waits to be wooed by the hands of honest labor. 

Put hard roads through every country side and you add the 
comforts of the town to the comforts of the country, and you 
make the sociabilities of the city possible to the homes that 
have all too long, through mistaken ideas of economy, been 
lonely, unsocial and forbidding. 

If the unspeakable mud embargo could be permanently 
raised in Illinois, so that the boys and the girls, married and 
single, old and young, who live on the farms, could with forty 
fold more ease visit and be visited, the horror and haunting 

HAVE TENDED TO CHEER BUT KOT INEBRIATE SOME WORTHY SOUL, AND YET 



A MINISTER'S VIEW OF IT. 331 

solitude of farm life "would fold their tents like the Arabs and 
as silently steal away." 

I strongly hope that the same official conservatism of anti- 
quated absurdities may not stand in the way of present day 
progress that balked John Palmer of Bath in his effort to secure 
a system of fast mail coaches in England. Although he clearly 
showed that the improvements would economize time and 
public money, he was set down as a half- crazed enthusiast. 
The postoffice authorities were against him to a man, and even 
those who saw and admitted his data prophesied sure failure. 
The enlightened judgment of Pitt, however, came to his assist- 
ance, and Palmer's plan for fast coaches materialized, and the 
public quickly endorsed it. 

In view of the experiments made by the Postoffice Depart- 
ment in free delivery for the rural districts, let this convention 
memorialize Congress to take steps looking to the perfection of 
those highways along which the mails must travel. lyCt us 
point out to the postmaster general that if he would immortal- 
ize himself, he has but to become the successful champion of a 
national policy that will put a permanent hard road under ever}^ 
hoof that bears the United States mails. 



MISDIRECTED EFFORT. 

^\ N artist has written the Eord's Prayer with a 
\_J^ diamond on glass so microscopic as only to 
|i cover the Sooth part of an inch. 
I Is the unhallowed statement intended to 

advertise the Eord's Prayer or the artist, or 
the glass, or the diamond, or the fact that all the 
fools are not dead yet ? If a man wrote the prayer 
on the rim of his hat, and tried to live up to it, 
there would be some sense in it. If a man wrote 
the prayer in big letters on his office window there 
would be some reason in it, but to write it on a 
piece of glass the Sooth part of an inch ! 

When I see a fellow, 

Write such things on glass, 
I know he owns a diamond, 

And his father owns an ass. 

— Australian Agricttltiirist. 



THE THINGS WHICH CAUSE THE MOST REAL EXUBERAWCE AT 12 PEARL STREET 



HOW TO GET A " FI^YING START" ON THE ROAD. 

BY E. J. PENNINGTON. 

^\ S far back as the beginning of the Christian era, human- 
fj ity has been looking for some method by which man 
I 1 could soar through the atmosphere. Many attempts 
J have been made in various directions in the hope that 

by careful observation we should be able to accomplish 
the art. At the time aeronautics were first thought of, locomo- 
tion on land and water was still crude, and was considered by 
people of those times a difficult problem. So much so that the 
idea of soaring in mid-air was not to be seriously considered. 

The subject of rapid transit is one which has interested the 
more intelligent class of people for many years. In looking 
back over the means of transportation which have been used, 
we find that in designing machines to travel over the surface of 
the earth we have no trace of any successful experiments in 
conveying either freight or passengers, where the mechanism of 
animal locomotion has been copied. For instance, the locomo- 
tive was not built with legs and feet to operate as do those of 
the horse, but a mechanical appliance suitable for the purpose 
was constructed. This device was not only able to make the 
speed of the swiftest animal for a short time, but could continue 
at a greater speed than has ever been attained by any animal, 
and is capable of keeping it up for many hours at a time. 

Again, we take the matter of water navigation. Boats were 
built to travel upon the surface of the water, being partially 
submerged but not wholly under the surface as is the fish, their 
paddle wheels and propellers giving altogether a different 
movement from that of the fish, or even the duck or other water 
fowl, which more nearly resembles the action of the boat than 
does the fish. I mention these illustrations to show that it need 
not be necessary in the matter of mechanical flight to follow the 
same style of motion as that used by the bird. In order to 
improve upon the action of animals, we must have instruments 
which have been invented for our special use. Therefore, we 
can readily see that in order to accomplish mechanical flight, 
man must not only have specially adapted mechanism, but that 
it may be necessary to have this mechanism entirely different 
from that used by the flying bird. 

It is quite natural and proper to study the different move- 
ments of fowls, beginning carefully with their starting and 
stopping and many other of their movements, and I do not 
doubt that a man may be able to fasten an aero-plane to himself 

ARE SUBSCRIPTIONS ACCOMPANIED BY CASH OR SOMETHING EQUALLY USEFUL. 



HOW TO GET A FLYING START. 333 

and to soar while using gravity to propel him along a gradual 
decline, or a current of air strong enough might raise him as it 
does the sailing bird. 

We are capable of swimming in the water, yet the fish far 
surpasses our speed. We may run over the land with our feet, 
yet animals of the same weight will distance us ; but we cannot 
fly at all, so that in order to imitate the bird we must look to 
the use of a mechanical appliance. A constant current of air 
cannot be depended upon, and something more practical must 
be obtained. It was quite feasible for a man to swim many 
years ago, but this art was first attained by long practice. If 
we will remember that it requires for a human being a year to 
learn to walk, and people have been walking since man was 
created, we will realize that in order to fly man must not only 
have a special machine made, but he must learn how to use it. 

The riding of a bicycle to-day is very common, and we are 
apt to wonder that this grand art was not brought about many 
years ago. There is no doubt in my mind that the bicycle will 
be the means of bringing a machine suitable for navigating the 
air. I do not mean to say that we would care to sail more than 
a few inches, or at the best more than a few feet from the 
ground, until we became experts with the bicycle flying 
machine. However, in order to accomplish this evolution, 
good roads and a first-class surface are very essential. 

This matter of flying, however, can be brought about in a 
short time. It will require a great deal of practice, which may 
be carried on without danger to the operator, as the flights will 
start at a low rate of speed, propelling the machine faster and 
faster until the bicycle and rider have attained sufficient speed 
so that the pressure^of the air under the aero-plane will be suffi- 
cient to raise him and his mechanism one or two inches from 
the ground ; the power which has been transmitted to the 
bicycle will be shifted to the flying machine, and the energy of 
the operator will be used to drive the propellor which pulls the 
machine along through the air. When the operator wishes to 
descend, he pitches himself a little forward and the wheels of 
the bicycle come in contact with the ground, and the speed is 
gradually decreased as would be done in the riding of a regular 
safety. 

This kind of experimenting should be tried on smooth roads 
where there would be no danger to the operator, as it is not 
convenient 10 go to a hill, or to have a tower built to jump from to 
obtain a start ; nor would the waiting for a current of air strong 
enough, be practical. It is quite necessary to have an apparatus 
which can be started in all kinds of weather and run with 
safety. 

THERE IS MUCH JOY IN THE GOOD ROADS OFFICE OVER THE RECEIPT OF A 



334 HOW TO GET A FLYING START. 

Please bear in mind that when I speak of a craft of this 
kind I do not mean an air ship. There is as much difference 
between a flying machine and an air ship as there is between a 
bicycle and an ocean steamer. 

It is a fact that in proportion to our weight we have more 
strength than a fowl. In flying we cannot jump from the 
ground as does the smaller class of birds, neither can we strap 
wings on to ourselves and flap them with the rapidity of the 
bumble-bee whose body is many times larger than the surface 
of the wing. Therefore, to accomplish these results, a first- 
class light built bicycle with an aero-plane made of steel tubing 
covered with a thin sheet of aluminum, and having a propellei 
to be revolved by means of a connection with the sprocket 
wheels, or better, if a greater speed is desired, to have the pro- 
peller driven by a small engine. However, this is not essential. 

Such an apparatus as this would give humanity a simple 
and efficient flying machine, with which, by practice, the 
operator may attain flight and will be no more fatiguing than 
the riding of a bicycle, and in fact, with the same amount of 
power developed, a much higher rate of speed will be attained. 
It will be found much easier to learn than the riding of a uni- 
cycle. The requirements of balancing to be similar, however, 
to the art of balancing on the bicycle, which is a very essential 
step toward mechanical flight. 

It is a well known fact that the wild duck will fly many 
times further than an animal of its same weight can make by 
traveling over the surface of the ground. Nature has provided 
fowls with the necessary qualifications for starting and stopping; 
there is no need of a preparation of certain ways and means for 
them to have a point for starting and stoppijig. The fish of the 
sea do not require a harbor or landing place where they might 
stop. Still, we find many millions of dollars spent in building 
harbors and break-waters so that vessels which navigate the 
same waters may have a safe harbor. 

With the flying machine the one essential point is to have a 
sufficiency of good roads and smooth surfaces so that there may 
be a starting and stopping place along any highway. _ In all 
matters of rapid transit, the fact of starting and attaining a 
given speed requires many times more power than is necessary 
to maintain the speed after once established. Therefore the 
getting of a bicycle under a good headway on the surface 
requires more effort than to keep the apparatus going after it 
has once raised from the surface. Again, the matter of landing 
is a very important one, and there is no method by which a 
flying machine may stop with safety, unless it is by means of a 
bicycle, so that if the aero-craft was attaining a speed of forty 
miles an hour sailing a few inches from the ground, a gradual 
descent of a few degrees would bring the wheels in contact with 
the ground, and the machine would soon stop as stated above. 



*A COIvORED STORY FOR WHITE PEOPLE. 

BY FRANK WELLKR. 

OlyD Zeke sat on the top rail of the "snake " fence separat- 
ing the little plot of ground containing his cabin and 
"gyarden," as he was wont to specify the small ten by 
ten foot patch of potato vines back of the cabin, from 
the main road. 

Zeke was discouraged; you could see in the broad, black, 
character-portraying countenance that something was weighing 
heavily on his mind. He sighed deeply and often. He moved 
restlessly on the not any too comfortable roosting place he had 
selected for the scene of his meditations, and poked the handful 
of ' ' home grown ' ' into the bowl of his cob pipe with his long 
forefinger in such an absent-minded and unscientific manner as 
to make its proper igniting and smoking a matter of no little 
doubt — for there is fully as much science required in properly 
" loading " a pipe as in properly loading a gun. 

He slowly and moodily drew a match from the pocket of his 
tattered vest, scratched it, and holding pipe and match in posi- 
tion tried to draw on the pipe. It refused to draw, and in 
consequence the match went out. He took the pipe from 
between his lips, looked at it — sighed, and placed it in his 
pocket. Even his old and tried friend had refused him comfort 
in his hour of need. 

"Hit do beat d' dickens," he muttered at last, regarding 
with apparent all-absorbing interest the movements of an 
eccentric lady-bug on the ground below — ' ' Hit do beat d' 
dickens d' way d' ole ooman do hang onto huh onreasonable 
reasonin' " And after delivering himself of this somewhat 
anomalous opinion he relapsed into his former gloomy rfiusing. 

Thirty years before, Zeke, then a strapping awkward speci- 
men of North Carolina colored manhood, had taken upon him- 
self the responsibilities of married life. Attired in their wed- 
ding garments, he and his newly-made bride had received the 
hearty congratulations of their many friends, and settled down 
to a practical realization of their changed condition. 

Shortly after the ceremony, anxious to escape from the 
crowded room in which with many a jest and laugh the guests 
were regaling themselves upon the bounteously spread wedding 
supper, Zeke had found a seat under a spreading oak tree in 

* [This story has no direct connection with the road question, but it touches in a 
very tender way the human side of life, and cannot help exerting a beneficial influence 
on the thoughtful reader. " Good roads make good people," and such stories as this 
have the same tendency. — Kc] 

STANDARD AMERICAN DOLLAR, BECAUSE WE ALWAYS KNOW HOW WE CAW DO 



336 A COLORED STORY 

front of the house. He had hardly seated himself, however, 
when a horse was driven up and a young man alighted, threw 
the reins over the horse's head and proceeded to the nearest 
tree, which happened to be the one under which Zeke had 
sought seclusion, for the purpose of hitching the animal. 
Zeke's color and the color of his clothes prevented his being 
immediately perceived, and indeed, he might have evaded 
meeting the new guest, had he wished ; but no sooner did he 
catch sight of the young man's face than he arose to greet him. 
It proved to be the son of a neighboring planter, and a great 
favorite of the groom. Stepping out into the bright moonlight, 
Zeke exclaimed : 

"Howdy, Mars Harry? Gimme d' bridle; I'll hitch 'im." 

" Hello there, Zeke," replied the new comer with a hearty 
grasp of the hand. "My! how you scared me. How comes 
it you're not in the house ? Get scared out ? ' ' 

"Dass 'bout hit," replied the groom with a grin; "I ain' 
used to so many people — en my ! how dey kin eat ! ' ' 

" Mars Harry " relinquished his hold on the bridle and pro- 
ceeded to the seat which Zeke had just vacated. 

" Well, well ! so you're married are you, old boy? " said he, 
as Zeke having made fast the handsome animal rejoined him 
under the tree. 

' ' Dass w'at d' preacher said, — en he ort to know, I reckon, ' ' 
replied the happy man with a grin, seating himself on the 
grass. 

" He ought to know," acquiesed the young man, " but say, 
Zeke," — he tilted his wide-brimmed hat back on his handsome 
head, threw one leg over the other and clasping his knee in his 
hands leaned back against the tree trunk, " Tell me now ; what 
did you marry that girl for? Why, it wasn't two weeks ago 
you said you wouldn't marry anybody for the whole world." 

" W'ad /want wid d' whole worl' ? " the man inquired, eva- 
sively ; " heap sight mo'n I kin han'le now to take keer ob d' 
half acre ob c'on en d' mules." 

"No, that won't do." The j^oung man shook his head 
decidedly. " You've got some reason for it ; now, out with it. 
I won't tell on you." 

The colored man glanced upward at the frank, handsome 
face above him, and then down at the pebble he was abstract- 
edly attempting to dislodge from its resting place in the ground, 
with a small stick. He continued punching at the pebble in 
silence for some time, while the young man above watched him 
with an amused smile. It was his constant delight — this study 
of human nature on the lowly plane of the man at his feet, and 
he was content to remain silent until the slowly working mind 
reached its conclusion. 

GOOD WITH IT. BUT THE MAW WHO GETS NEAREST TO THE EDITORIAL HEART 



FOR WHITE PEOPLE. 337 

At last the colored man gave a more decided poke at the 
pebble and with a short laugh threw the stick away from him. 

" Wy, Mars Harry" he began slowly — 

"Well, go on ; I'm listening." 

" Yo' wan' to know w'y I mar'd d' gal? " 

The young man settled himself into a more comfortable 
position against the tree. 

"That's it." 

"Well den," replied the other, "I done it fo' science." 

' ' For — what ? " in a puzzled tone . 

"Yaas, fo' science," lepeated the negro. "She 'n me's 
alius been 'sputin' 'bout science ev' sence I knowed huh, and I 
sez, sez I, d' bess way to make er ooman change huh 'pinion 
'bout ert'ing is to marry huh, sez I — en dassw'y I done mar'd 
huh." 

" Well, what kind of science? What's the dispute about? " 
asked the young man, his interest becoming more and more 
excited by this unexpected answer. 

The negro stood up before him and after a cautious glance 
about him to discover any chance hidden auditor, replied : 

" Well, Mars Harry, hit's juss diss way. D' gal's got huh 
mine sot on de fack 'at d' sun moobes eroun' d' worl' laik 
diss," illustrating with both hands. 

" I see." 

"Kn / say," continued the negro, "'at d' worl' moobes 
eroun' d' sun, laik diss " — again illustrating. 

"And that's where the dispute comes in ? " 

The negro nodded. " Dass w'here it comes, en dass w'y I 
mar'd huh ; toe git dat noshun outen huh haid." 

' ' And, ' ' suggested the young man, ' ' that's why she married 
you — to get your notion out of your head." 

The colored man's jaw fell, and he thoughtfully scratched 
his ear. 

"Hit do look kinder dat-a-way, don' hit?" he replied at 
length with a chuckle; "hit shorely do look dat-a-way. Won- 
nah w'y I didn' t'ink ab dat befo' ? " 

"Too busy with your own scheme," replied the other 
shortly. 

" Well, I must go. I'll step in and speak to the bride a 
minute first, though. Good night. And I wish you luck with 
your scientific studies." And he left the negro to his own 
thoughts and emotions. 

Yes, that was thirty years ago. Thirty long years; in 
which time Zeke and his wife had raised their little family — 
had seen the helpless mites of humanity develop into strong 
men and women. Six of them; two of whom now lay forever 

IS THE ONE WHO SAYS WHAT HE THINKS, WHATEVER IT IS, AND SAYS IT 



338 A COLORED STORY 

at rest at the foot of the great mountain overlooking and guard- 
ing the valley in which the little cabin stood, all that the old 
couple had to offer as sacrifices at the altar of the lyost Cause. 
The remaining four children were now well married, and their 
little ones gladdened and brought sunshine into the hearts of 
the old people. 

But, although Zeke's wife had proven herself a helpmeet 
beyond the shadow of reproach, still one thing rankled in the 
heart of the husband. Try as he would ; argue as deeply and 
wisely as he could, aided by his thirty years' experience, he 
had not as yet succeeded in convincing her of the error of her 
reasoning on the great scientific subject of the relative position 
of this terrestrial globe to the source of all heat and light. 

In fact, Zeke was even further from the goal than ever, for 
had not his wife within the month past produced the big family 
Bible and pointing triumphantly to the thirteenth verse, tenth 
chapter of Joshua, demanded of him a reasoning that could 
overthrow thaO. 

" Dah 'tis in d' Good Book," she exultingly exclaimed. 
"Right befo' yo' eyes man. A^(?2^' whay's yo' argyment gone 
to, hey? Does yo' wan' toe set yo'self up ergin d' Good Book? 
Bettah be keerful how yo' han'les d' mattah, ole man. Tell yo' 
d' sun do moobe, er how'd ole Joshua stop it? No suh, dass er 
seddled p'int, en I ain' goin' ter argify ergin no sich ignunt ole 
nigger whad don' know no mo'n ter 'spute d' Good Book." 

To tell the truth, this argument had caused the old man 
considerable uneasiness as to his position regarding the matter, 
but he had become so used to reasoning against his wife's 
former theories that even this, supported though it be by the 
supreme authorit)^ of the "Good Book," was placed, for the 
time being, in the same category as the rest. Zeke intended 
looking this matter up sometime, but until he had so done, and 
had proven by investigation its truth, he purposed following the 
course he had followed for so many years, in hopes that his 
wife would yet be brought, in spite of her determination, to 
cease further argument, to see the matter in the same light as 
he did. 

And so, on this balmy spring evening, his dejected attitude 
— his discouraged state of mind — proceeded from the same 
source as in days gone by. His attempt to reopen the argu- 
ment had been met by the old lady's simply pointing signifi- 
cantl}^ to the brass-clasped old Bible, and an absolute refusal to 
continue the argument. 

The sun had long ago disappeared behind the heavily 
wooded mountain before him, leaving the valley in peaceful 
twilight. The many catydids and crickets were tuning up their 

COURTEOUSLY AND WITH THE TRUE SPIRIT OF HELPFULNESS, AND CLOSES BY 



FOR WHITE PEOPLE. 339 

little instruments preparatory to taking part in the grand 
chorus of Nature, and Zeke's rheumatic old limbs warned him 
of the danger of further exposure to the night air ; so with a 
parting sigh, and a half muttered, "Well, I hope it will come 
out all right, but I wisht it would hurry up," he slowly entered 
the cabin. 

The next day, bright and early, the old couple, carrying 
out a pre-arranged programme started up the mountain side to 
spend the day in search of herbs. They each carried a basket, 
which was to serve the double purpose of conveying their lunch 
in the morning, and afterwards the result of their day's search. 

Towards evening the old couple became separated, Zeke 
having left his wife and proceeded to a certain locality known 
to produce a particular species of the root they were in search 
of. He soon found the spot and collected the needed quantity. 
Then he retraced his steps, intending to rejoin his wife and 
descend the mountain, as the long-drawn shadows on the leaf- 
covered ground warned him of the approach of night. 

He pressed forward, and on turning a corner of a large-sized 
mound, caused by the falling of a mighty oak, perceived his 
wife. She was sitting with folded arms on the half-rotted 
trunk of a prostrate tree, silent and motionless, her back 
towards him as he approached, the now filled basket at her feet, 
gazing with childish awe at the magnificent coloring lent to the 
landscape by the slowly setting sun. 

He softly approached and stood behind her. 

It was a scene well calculated to cause these simple-minded 
lovers of nature and nature's God to admire and wonder. 

Before them, at the base of the great mountain, lay the 
valley, silent and restful. Beyond, the slightly rolling expanse 
continued as far as eye could see. To the left the mighty river 
sparkled as it pushed ever onward, supplying moisture to the 
sponge-like soil. A few fleecy, vaporish clouds passed before 
the slowly disappearing sun, now painting the whole scene a 
blood red, now a golden yellow, tinging tree top and mountain 
side with the glory of the living God. And the breezes as they 
passed lightly from mountain top to mountain top whispered 
softly, — 

" The Ivord is in his holy temple. IvCt all the earth keep 
silence before him ' ' — and all was silent. 

The old couple gazed at this wondrously beautiful scene for 
a long time ; at last a big, loving hand was laid tenderly on the 
old lady's shoulder, and a deep voice half whispered : 

" Ain' it gran' ! " 

A small, wrinkled hand stole softly up and clasped the 
larger one, and she answered simply : 

SAYING, " I ENCLOSE $1.00, FOR WHICH PLEASE PUT ME ON YOUR LIST FOR A 



340 A COLORED STORY 

"lyook- laik whad d' Good Book sez 'bout d' glory ob God 
bein' ober all t'ings." 

Then they arose to descend. All at once the old man 
turned around and stood facing the brilliant sight. She halted 
also, and watched him curiously. He remained in that position 
until gently reminded by his wife of the long journey before 
them. Then he turned towards her, and with a voice quiver- 
ing with emotion addressed her : 

"Chlarissy," said he, " fo' mo'n thutty yeahs I've been 
'sputin' wid yo' 'bout d' sun's moobin. I's tried d' bess I 
could toe change yo' mine, en eben tried toe t'ink d' Good 
Book wuz mistaken — but now it seem laik d' w'ole t'ing is 
open befo' me. Seem laik d' voice kem outen d' clouds toe 
tell me ob my mistake. Yes, honey," he continued solemnly, 
"yo's right; de sun do moobe.* I ain' got not'n mo' toe say 
'bout hit." 

She placed her basket on the ground, drew a long breath, 
and laying her hand on his arm replied : 

"Zeke, do yo' know w'hat I wuz t'inkin' ob w'en yo' kem 
up toe me ? " 

"T'inkin' ob d' sunset, wasn't yo', honey? " he returned. 

"No, Zeke," she said slowly, "I wuz watchin' d' sun go 
down, en wonnah'in' w'y yo' didn' see it d' way I did — en all 
at onct d' worl' begun to moobe up — I could see it jus' ez plain 
ez day. De worl' moobe up, an' de sun stood still — en I seen 
dat w'at yo' wuz sayin' all 'dese yeahs wuz right; de worl' do 
moobe." 

" Now ain' dat disgustin'," exclaimed the old man. "Seem 
laik me'n yo'd nebber 'gree on d' mattah. W'y we ain' no 
bettah off den we wuz befo' — onless — " he suddenly turned 
again to the now almost vanished sun and watched it intently 
until it had dropped from sight. The next instant he had 
thrown his old hat from his head and was executing a genuine 
hoe-down on the grass, flinging his arms about, and laughing 
like one gone mad. 

The old lady drew back in amazement as she watched the 
strange and undignified conduct of her aged spouse. 

" G-r-e-a-t King!" she exclaimed, "what'n d' worl's d' 
mattah wiv d' man ? Is yo' tekken leabe ob yo' senses? Quit 
dat jumpin' eroun' 'fo' anybody sees yo' — en yo' a gran 'f adder 
ob nine chillun ! Quit dat now ! ' ' 

But he still continued the strange dancing ; it seemed as 
though pent-up Nature had at last found a channel of relief, and 
was loth to relinquish her hold on the old man. 

At last, however, he calmed down, and panting from the 
great exertion he grasped her arm. 

YEAR." HOW IS THE ROAD MOVEMENT IN YOUR TOWN? IS IT GOING ALONG ? 



hOR WHITE PEOPLE. 341 

"T'ankd' I^o'd," he cried; "bressd' lyO'd, it's cum ! D' 
trouble's ober now fo' good, ole lady. No mo' 'sputin', no mo' 
argifyin', it's all juss ez plain ez day !" 

" Wat's ez plain ez day ? " inquired the puzzled woman. 

"Juss ez plain ez day," reiterated he. " Cant yo' see, 
honey? Don' yo' see? W'y, we're do/e right. Bressd' I^o'd 
fo' dis happy day ! " 

"Wat is it? " She too had caught the infection from the 
old man's excited demeanor. " I don' und'stan'. Wat is it?'" 

" Wy don' yo' see? De worl' do moobe, e7t so do d' sun. 
Don' yo' see ? Dey bofe moobe, en hyah we'se been makin' 
two ole fools ob ou'selbes argyin' en 'sputin' 'bout juss 'zackly 
w'at we bofe knowed to be d' troof. Don' yo' see? " 

She made no reply, but as he anxiously scanned her face, 
he read there the glorious truth. She did see ; she did under- 
stand, and their troubles were at an end forever. 

Then, in the rapidly falling twilight they began the descent 
of the mountain. Carefully he helped her down the winding, 
half-made path ; tenderly he placed himself in advance of her, 
carrying both baskets, and trying each suspiciously weak look- 
ing footing with his own weight before allowing her to proceed; 
and his merry laugh echoed among the silent trees as in days 
of old, when the great question was then but a matter of jest, 
and had not assumed the serious aspect of later years. 

At last they reached the base and came out upon the road. 
Before crossing it, they turned to the left, and a walk of a few 
feet brought them to a carefully trimmed bower, in the centre 
of which were two long, narrow mounds — the resting place of 
their first born. 

A rose bush in full bloom grew at the head of each. The 
old lady entered the enclosure, and plucking a flower from each 
— a red and a white rose — came out and carefully pinned them 
to the lapel of his old coat. 

Then, clasped in each other's arms, they left the place, 
crossed the road and entered the cabin, realizing for the first 
time in their lives the truth of that beautiful sentiment : 

' ' There is more religion in not contending, than there is in 
anything we contend about." 



IF so, LET us KNOW ABOUT IT — SEND US A LITTLE STORY. IF IT ISN'T GOING 



ABRAHAM I.INCOI.N ON IDI.ERS. 

\ INDER date of December 24, 1848, Abraham lyincoln ad- 
/ I dressed the appended letter to his half-brother Johnson, 
^J in response to the latter's latest request for lucre — 
$So in this instance. The National Baptist reproduced 
the document because of its perennial quality of 
"wisdom in worldly matters." "We gladly lend our aid toward 
extending its publicity to a new generation : 

" At the various times when I have helped you a little you 
have said to me : ' We can get along very well now ; ' but in a 
short time I find you in the same difficulty again. Now, this 
can only happen by some defect in your conduct. What the 
defect is, I think I know. You are not lazy, and still you are 
an idler. I doubt whether, since I saw you, you have done a 
good whole day's work in any one day. You do not very much 
dislike to work, and still you do not work much, merely be- 
cause it does not seem to you that you could get much for it. 
The habit of uselessly wasting time is the whole difficulty, and 
it is vastly important to you, and still more to the children, 
that you should break this habit. It is more important to 
them because they have longer to live and can keep out of an 
idle habit before they age in it, easier than they can get out 
after they are in. 

You are now in need of some ready money, and what I pro- 
pose to you is that you shall go to work ' tooth and nail ' for 
somebody who will give you money for it. lyCt father and the 
boys have charge of things at home — prepare for a crop and 
make a crop — and you will go to work for the best money 
wages that you can get, or in discharge of any debt you owe. 
And to secure you a fair reward for your labor, I now promise 
you that for every dollar you will, between now and the first of 
May, get for your labor, either in money or on your own in- 
debtedness, I will give you one other dollar. By this, if you 
hire yourself at ten dollars a month, from me you will get ten 
dollars more, making twenty dollars a month for your work. 
In this I do not mean you shall go off to St. Louis, or the lead 
mines, or the gold mines of California, but I mean for you to go 
at it for the best wages you can get close at home — in Coles 
County. 

Now, if you will do this, you will soon be out of debt, and, 
what is better, you will have a habit that will keep you from 
getting into debt again. But if I should now clear you out, 
next year you will be just as deep in as ever. You say you 
would almost give your place in heaven for seventy or eighty 

ALONG, PERHAPS WE CAN DO SOMETHING WHICH WILL TEND TO HELP IT. DO 



LINCOLN ON IDLERS. 343 

dollars. Then you value your place in heaven very cheap, for 
I am sure you can, with the offer I make you, get the seventy 
or eighty dollars with four or five months' work. You say if I 
furnish you the money you will deed me the land, and if you 
don't pay the money back you will deliver possession. Non- 
sense ! If you cannot now live with the land, how will you 
then live without it? You have always been kind to me, and I 
do not now mean to be unkind to you. On the contrary, if you 
will but follow my advice, you will find it worth more than 
eighty times eighty dollars to you." 

POLITICALLY FRIGHTENED. 

BY LIZZIE M. HADIvEY. 

" I'll tell you something," says little Belle, 
" If you're certain, sure, you'll never tell. 

" Well, then," whispers the little maid, 
" My papa, a great, big man, 's afraid." 

"Oh, isn't that funny enough?" laughed Sue, 
" Your papa's afraid, and mine is too. 

' ' Not of bears or tigers or bumble-bees ; 

It's something a thousand times worse than these. 

" It's a terrible thing, that goes up and down 
Through every city, village and town. 
' ' And my papa says he almost knows 
That things will be ruined wherever it goes. 

" Yes, isn't it dreadful?" said Belle with a sigh. 
" It will swear, and papa says, steal and lie. 

" I s'pect it has horns and cloven feet ; 
And, Sue ! what do you s'pose it will eat?" 

Then closer together drew each little maid. 
Looking about as if half afraid 

They might see this thing with cloven feet. 
And find it liked little girls to eat. 

And then they fancied they heard it roar, 
As it gobbled them up and cried for more. 

" Oh, its name," cries Belle, " is so dreadful, too ; 
Does your papa call it ' Republican,' Sue ?" 

Sue shakes her head. " Oh, it can't be that. 
For my papa calls it a 'Democrat.'" 

— Boston Journal 

YOUR COUNTY OFFICIALS ACT AS THOUGH THEY WERE ALIVE TO THE 



DECEMBGR 

is a good time to take account of stock. 

To see what we have done during the closing year, to note 
the mistakes we have made, and pass the usual resolutions for 
the year to come. 

Good Roads has done all this, and now asks its readers for 
their verdict. 

Those who criticise us in the proper spirit we esteem as 
valuable friends. We want to hear from you. 

The only suggestion which you might want to make and 
which we could not consider, would be an increase in the price. 
We are bound to be philanthropists and must steadfastly refuse 
to take more than $i.oo per year. Nor can the address be 
changed. It is 12 Pearl street, Boston, Mass. 



Day 


Day 


Day 


Lengthof 


of 


of 


of 


Day. 


Year. 


Month. 


Week. 


H. M. 


335 


1 


Sa. 


9 19 


336 


2 


S. 


9 17 


337 


3 


M. 


9 16 


338 


4 


Tu. 


9 15 


339 


5 


W. 


9 14 


340 


6 


Th. 


9 13 


341 


7 


Fr. 


9 12 


342 


8 


Sa. 


9 II 


343 


9 


S. 


9 10 


344 


10 


M. 


9 09 


345 


11 


Tu. 


9 08 


346 


12 


W. 


9 07 


347 


13 


Th. 


9 07 


348 


14 


Fr. 


9 06 


349 


15 


Sa. 


9 06 


350 


16 


S. 


9 05 


351 


17 


M. 


9 05 


352 


18 


Tu. 


9 05 


353 


19 


W. 


9 04 


354 


20 


Th. 


9 04 


355 


21 


Fr. 


9 04 


356 


22 


Sa. 


9 04 


357 


23 


S. 


9 04 


358 


24 


M. 


9 05 


359 


25 


Tu. 


9 05 


360 


26 


W. 


9 05 


361 


27 


Th. 


9 06 


362 


28 


Fr. 


9 06 


363 


29 


Sa. 


9 06 


364 


30 


S. 


9 07 


365 


31 


M. 


9 08 



TWELFTH 



A December, 1894 



MONTH 



FARMERS CALENDAR. 

Now the harvest is past, it is time to 
prepare for winter. Secure the fruit and 
vegetables in the cellar before freezing 
weather comes. 

Never cut your wood ' ' from hand to 
mouth," as the old saying goes, but have 
a good pile ahead ; then if you should be 
sick a day, your wife will not have to go 
out and chop wood before she can make 
you a little gruel. See that the sleds are 
in good repair before the snow comes ; also 
other implements you may wish to use 
during the winter. No doubt you will 
have time to meditate and to read, espe- 
cially during the long winter evenings. 
See that your sons and daughters have 
social entertainment, and do not be afraid 
to play a game or two with them in the 
evening; it will make you feel younger, and 
lead the children to love their home, and 
perhaps keep them from evil companions. 

Settle all your accounts, if possible, this 
month, so as to begin the new year with a 
clean page ; you will feel much happier 
than to be in debt, even if you have to live 
a little closer in consequence. Be thankful 
for what success you have attained during 
the past year, and resolve to do still better 
in the future. 



IMPORTANCE OF BETTER GOING ? DO THE FARMERS OF YOUR SECTION OBJECT 



LEAGUE OF AMERICAN WHEELMEN. 

Organized 1880 

A voluntary organization having for its object the systematic 
improvement of the public roads, and the protection of 
wheelmen against unjust legislation. The present officers 
of the I/Cague are as follows : 

President.— CU AS. H. I.USCOMB, 280 Broadway, New York. 

Ftrsi Vice-President.— A. C. WII,I,ISON, 47 Baltimore Street, Cumberland, Md. 

Second Vice-President.— Q%0. A. P:eRKINS, 15 Court Square, Boston, Mass. 

Secretary.— K'KhOt BASSKTT, 46 Van Buren Street, Chicago. 

Treasurer.— W . M. BREWSTER, 411 Francis Street, St. Joseph, Mo. 



GOOD ROADS MAGAZINE. 

Published on the first of every month by the League of American Wheelmen. 
Devoted to Highway Improvement. 

StkrIvING KIvIvIOTT, Managing Editor. 

Publication Office, 12 PEARL STREET, - - - BOSTON, MASS. 

Correspondence relating to advertising only 
should be addressed to 167 Oliver Street. 

Entered at Boston Post Office as second-class matter. 



'o I 



Please send Good Roads for year. 

To_ 



Street 


Town 


Amt. enclosed 
Beginning with 


County 

State 



TO GIVING UP THEIR OLD ROAD REPAIRING HOLIDAY ? WE WANT TO KNOW ALL 



Opepirjg of a Cbejtout Burr. 



HE MAY AI,SO HAVE BEEN THE 
LARGEST DWARE. 

A Western editor prides him- 
self upon being the owner of 
the smallest diamond in the 
world. — Hatchet. 



A NEW RHYME FOR 
"CHAREEY." 

NOTHING STRANGE. 

' Oh, my love she is so sweet ! " 
Exclaims her ardent Charley. 

'She seems sweet enough to eat ! " 
Which she does quite regularly. 

—Judge. 



NEITHER DOES THE MAN WHO 
IS TRYING TO SEEEP. 
A cat with its fur ruffled 
doesn't feel fur-straight. — 
Texas Sifting s. 



EDUCATIONAL. 

(WILD AND WOOLLY.) 

" Hold up your hands," the teacher cried. 
And would have added this beside, 
" You who have been to school at all," 
For young: and old and large and small 
Had gathered there from "near and wide. 
It was not easy to divide 
The motley throng, so to decide. 
He raised his voice in sudien call, 
" Hold up your hands ! " 

Some [children screamed, while others 

tried 
Beneath the furniture to hide ; 
But one game infant, near the wall, 
Pulled forth a "gun" and yelled "By gol ! 
/haint no tender-footed snide ; 
Hold yx-pyour hands ! " 
—J. E. V. Cook in "A Patch of Pansies." 



ANOTHER ONE ON THE MUCH 
ABUSED GAS COMPANY. 

" I have sent for you," said 
the man of the house, "be- 
cause these pipes need looking 
after. There's a leak some- 
where, and a big lot of gas is 
going to waste . " " N-no , " 
replied the gas company's em- 
ploye, meditatively; " mebby 
there's a leak, but there ain't 
any gas goin' to waste. It is 
all goin' through the meter." 
— Ujiidentified . 



A ROAD WITH TOO MANY 
DIMENSIONS. 

Uncle Corners — Finished 
s'vayin' the road to Pucker- 
brush yit? 

N. Gineer — Ye-ep. 

Uncle Corners — What do 
5'ou make it ? 

N. Gineer — Four miles long, 
four rods wide and four feet 
deep. — Puck. 

IT OUGHT TO HAVE BEEN 
BROKEN UP IF SHE HAD 
HER HAT ON AT ALE. 

A Denver theatrical perform- 
ance was broken up the other 
night because a lady in the 
audience had her hat on wrong 
side front. — Hatchet. 



THESE THINGS. IF YOU HAVE ANY ITEMS OF INTEREST RELATING TO THE ROAD 




^\ DIALOGUE which may be of interest to purchasers of 
i\ bicycles : 

jr\ Dignified Customer: I would like to look at your 

I hearses. 

^ {Salesman recently graduated from the bicycle trade) : 
Yes sir, we can show you the finest line ever put on the market. 
Step right this way, please. We hold all the records from one 
hundred yards to five miles. Nancy Hanks, Alix, Directum, 
and all the great horses haul our 

D. C. {horrified) : What! 

Salesma7i : As I was saying all the famous trotters and 
pacers use our sulkies and 

D. C. : Sulkies ? What has that to do with it ? I am talk- 
ing about hearses. 

Salesman : Well, you see the material is the same ; they are 
a little heavier, that's all. But they are made by our skilled 
workmen, than which there are no better, audit stands to reason 
that the concern which can get the most sulky records must 
know most about building all other vehicles, because, don't 
3^ou see 

But the dignified customer's time was worth something and 
he had gone. 

QUESTION PLEASE SEND THEM TO GOOD ROADS, 12 PEARL STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 



BICYCLING 
iAZORL-D. 



Founded 1877. 




^ 
^ 



* 



"LARGEST PAID 
CIRCULATION. 



To Advertisers: 



THE BICYCLING WORLD is one of the bes1 
mediums for general advertising ever published. 
The circulation is over 20,000 pei week. Bound 
to bring RESULTS. Bound to give Satisfaction. 
Try it and you will be convinced. Rates reason- 
able. Apply for same. 



Subscription $1.00 per Year. 



Agents Wanted Everywhere 



WHEELAVAN C©., 



167 Oliver Street, 



Boston, Mass. 



Mention Good Roads. 



NEW YORK TIRES ARE FAST. 

The Lightest and Strongest in the World. 



Are Winning Races at all Important Meets, but as a Practical Tire 
for all round Road Use, Note what a Prominent Wheelman says. 

MR. RICHARD NELSON, New York Athletic Club, writes: 

" Since I had your light road tires attached to my 
' Hickory ' I have fully realized what it means to ride 
a true pneumatic. I have ridden it over one thousand 
miles, making almost daily trips to Travers Island, and 
it is certainly doing great service." 

If other Light tires are giving you trouble try ours. 



New YorH Tire Co., 

23 Warren Street, New York. 

Eastern Agents for the Plymouth Wooden Rim. All Sizes in Stock. 

Mention Good Roads. 



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Mention "Gcx)d Roads." 



TALLY THREE! 



K BIG DETXL^ 

The Dunlop Tire 



Will be furnished hereafter 



Op sterling Bicycle? 

At the Same Price as Cheaper Tires. 

... IT IS THE .. . 

ONLY DETACHABLE TIRE 



.Recommended by 



THE STERLING CYCLE WORKS, 



504-506 West Fourteenth St., 
NEW YORK CITY. 



American Dunlop Tire Co., 

CANADIAN BRANCH: 36 and 38 Lombard St., Toronto. 



TALLY FOUR! 



y 



ANOTHER BIG DEAL 

The Dunlop Tire 



Will be furnished hereafter on 



Stearns Bicycles 



... IT IS THE .. . 

ONLY DETACHABLE TIRE 

^ TTrrmnnirTirlril by 

E. C. STEARNS & CO 



American Dunlop Tire Co., 

CANADIAN BRANCH: 36 and 38 Lombard St., Toronto. 



504-506 West Fourteenth St., 
NEW YORK CITY. 



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"The FARREL" 



(Blake Pattern) 



5TOME BREAKER. 

Screens, Elevators and Complete Crushing Plants. 

The Standard for 25 years and BEST to-day. 

—FARREL FOUNDRY & MACHINE CO. — 

EARLE C. BACON, Engineer, Havemeyer Building, New York. 

New England Agents, - - S. C. NIGHTINGALE & . CHILDS, 134 Pearl Street, Boston. 

Complete Macadam Road Building Plants. il°eltVrinki!nt ^a^onraid^swe^ep^^^^^^ 

Drills, etc. Horse and Steam Road Rollers, Engines and Boilers. Competent Engineer furnished for 
locating- and advising-. Send for Catalogvie. Mention Good Roads. 



GATES ROCK BREAKER 




IMACADAM IS the BEST and CHEAPEST ROAD METAL 
IT IS PRODUCED AT LOWEST COST IN THE 

GATES BREAKER. 

King Darragh Concentrator, Connersville Blowers. 
[Address for Catalogues and Plans 

GATES IRON WORKS, 

1136 Liberty Street, 237 Franl<lin Street, 

NEW YORK. BOSTON. 

50 F S. Clinton Street, Chicago, U. S. A. 



Stone Crusher and Engine 




The WILLIAMS 

Patent Steel Stone Crusher. 

Built portable for Township, Village and Con- 
tractors' use, or for quarry -work. 
We also manufacture 

PORTABLE ENGINES, 
SCREENS and ELEVATORS. 



For full particulars, address 

St. JolinsYille Agricultural W'ks 



ST. JOHNSVILLE, N. Y. 



Mention Good Roads. 



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WILLIAM^ 

difference between 



Williams 



SHAVING 
STICK 



and any other kind — 
I as between a coarse — common laundry soap and the 
choicest toilet article. 



When next you buy a Shaving Stick — INSIST that your Druggist give you 
[WILLIAMS'—. The only one in beautiful leatherette case — the only stick in the | 
world — making a lather that wrill not dry on the face while shaving. 



London Office : 64 Gt. Russell St. 



The J. B. WILLIAMS CO , 

Glastonbury, Ct., U. S. A. 




\^(«^«- 



Served EXCLUSIVELY at the WORLD'S FAIR. 



Mention "Good Roads.' 



THE FARMER'S HANDY WAGON. 



Width oi Tire, 6 in. 
Height of Bolster, 
30 In. 




Thisisjnstthe 
wagon for your 
^=^ farm, whether it 
be wet, sandy or 
side hill. Send ns yoftr address on a 
postal card, and we will mail you free 
a hook of photographs, showing how the 
farmers in every State in the Union are using this wagon. 

>Vc wish you or your son for our aseat, to take orders in your 
neighborhood. Apply for agency, and we will show you how you 
can make money and not interfer" T^ith your farm work. 



A BEAUTIFUL 
BOOK FREE. 



1402 



Write to The FARMER'S Handy Wagon Co. 

MASONIC TEMPLE, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, OR FLORENCE. ALABAMA^ 

Mention Good Roads. 



DOUBLE 

BREECH loader! 

$5.00. 
RIFLES $1.75 
WATCHES 



GUNS 



BICYCLES $15 

All kinds cheaper than elar- 
where. Before jou buy send 
stamp for 60 paee cataloeue. 

POWELL* CLEMENT CO. 

l«G.'nainSt„Cinciniiati,0, 



DEER PARK. 

On the Crest of the Alleghenies. 



To those contemplating a trip to the mountains 
in search of health and pleasure, Deer Park on the 
crest of th« Alleg-heny Mountains, 3,000 feet above 
the sea level, offers such varied attractions as a 
delightful atmosphere during both daj' and night, 
pure water, smooth, winding roads through the 
mountains and valleys, and the most picturesque 
scenery in the Allegheny range. The hotel is 
equipped with all adjuncts conducive to the 
entertainment, pleasure and comfort of its guests. 

The surrounding grounds, as well as the hotel, 
are lighted with electricity. Six miles distant on 
the same monntain summit is Oakland, the twin 
resort of Deer Park, and equally as well equipped 
for the entertainment and accommodations of its 
patrons. Both hotels are upon the main line of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, have the advantages 
of its splendid Vestibuled I^imited Express trains 
between the East and West. Season excursion 
tickets, good for return passage until October 31st, 
will be placed on sale at greatly reduced rates at 
all principal ticket offices throughout the country. 
One way tickets, reading from St. Louis, IvOuis- 
ville, Cincinnati, Columbus, Chicago, and any 
point on the B. & O. system to Washington, Balti- 
more, Philadelphia, or New York, or vice versa, 
are good to stop off at either Deer Park, Mountain 
Ivake Park or Oakland, and the time limit will be 
extended by agents at either resort upon applica- 
tion, to cover the period of the holder's visit. 

The season at these popular resorts commences 
June 23d. 

For full information as to hotel rates, rooms, 
etc., address 

George D. DeShields, Manager. 
Deer Park, or Oakland, Garrett County, Md. 



^J>^ East iHDiA ® 
STICK 



For Sale by all Cycle Dealers. 



Prince Wells, 



LOUISVILLE, KY. 



Sole Iroporter. 



Mention Good Roads.' 



BE 5URE YOU ARE RIGHT 

... When You Purchase ... 

ROAD ^VAKl^^G avachinery 




In times of close competition when there are so 
vnany machines offered as the best it is easy to 
make a mistake. A good rule to work by is to pur- 
chase only from firms of known responsibility who 
cannot afford to sell an inferior article. For sixteen 
years we have been furnishing the best machinery 
for making and repairing roads. 

Our reputation is established. Our goods are 
guaranteed. We make and sell 

ROCK CRUSHERS, ROAD ROLLERS, ROAD 
GRADERS, WHEEL and DRAG SCRAPERS 
and ROAD PLOWS 

If in need of any goods in this line send for our 
Catalogue, get our prices and 



The Champion Steel Rock Crusher, 



Address: 



THEN GO AHEAD 



American Road Machine Company, 

K^nnett 5qu2vrc, Pzv. $ 

"Brennan" Breaker the Best 

CRUSHES FASTER. 
/ LESS REPAIRS. 

USES LESS POWER. 

/ Capacities, 8 to 150 TONS per HOUR. 

'yodng-brennan crusher CO., 

42 Cortlandt St., New Yorl< City. 

Please mention "Good roads." 

'M 0. S. KELLEY CO., ^i^ 
STEAM ROAD ROLLERS 

Steam Asphalt Rollers 

TAR 

HEATING TANKS. 





STREET CONTRACTORS' SUPPLIES. 
Please mention Good Roads. 




^^-^ 



WILL SELL ON QUALITY 



NOT ON PRICE. 



EAGLE WHEELS for 1895 

Weigbts, 17 to 23 lbs. 

EAGLE AGENTS. 
FIRST IN THE FIELD; NEVER GET LEFT. 



We are getting out the hand- 
somest Catalogue ever issued. 
Send your name and address, 
accompanied by lo cents in 
stamps, and mention Good 
Roads. 



THE EAGLE BICYCLE MFG. CO. 

TORRINCTON, CONN. 




HY-LO Cba^pgcable Gear 



(trade mark) 

makes hill climbing easy on the same principle that long 
levers lift easier than short ones. 

Our book tells how. Write or call. 

LOUIS ROSENFELD & CO. * 20 Warren St.. New York. 

Mention "Good Road? 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE ON APPLICATION. 



MENTION "GOOD ROADS." 







When you need Good Bridges, you cannot do better than buy from the WROUGHT 
IRON BRIDGE COMPANY— experience large and varied; manufacturing facilities— 
none superior ! Reputation for good work established. 

Address, WROUGHT IRON BRIDGE CO., Canton, Ohio. 




FOR 



AS AN ADVERTISING MEDIUM 






Pavcroent A\anufacturers 
Road Ensiinc^rs .... 
Carriasie A\aKers .... 
G^perzil Advertising . . 






Cannot be Excelled. Rates very Reasonable. Apply to 



GOOD ROADS, IC? Oliver Sr<5<?t, Boston. 



THE HARRISBDRG DOUBLE ENGINE ROAD ROLLER ^i^MsandM 

Tons Weight 



NOT ONLY A ROLLER BITT A ROAD MACHINE. 




Not How Cheap, but How Good. Now in use in nearly one hundred cities and towns in United States. 
Send for Illustrated Catalogue. Manufactured by HARRISBURG FOUNDRY &. MACHINE WORKS. Harrisburg, Pa. 

Selling Agents, W. R. FIv£;miNG & CO., New York and New E;ngland. New York Office, Mairand 
Express Bldg. Boston Office, 620 Atlantic Avenue, Walter W. Jones, Manager. F. e;. BAILE;y, Philadel- 
p1nR,24 So. 7tli Street, Builders' Exchange. H. E. BALDWIN, Cincinnati, Perin Bldg., 5th and Race Sts. 

"Pioneer'' Steam Road Roller 

...For Making... 

MACADAMIZED, 
ASPHALT 




CONCRETE ROADS 



Highest Recommendations 

from parties having 

them in use. 

THIS ROLLER IS ALSO A GOOD LAWN ROLLER. 

ADDRESS: 



We Make Road iVlaking 
Tools of all kinds. 

149-163 WILLIAM ST. 



PIONEER IRON WORKS, 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



Mention Good Roads- 



Good Rollers 



p- Good Roads 



Send for catalogue before buying, and we think we can 
convince you that we can furnish you the best Steam^Road 
Roller yet built. 

BUFFALO PITTS 

Double Cylinder Engine Steam Road Rollers. 




SIZES, 10, 12 1-2 and 15 TONS. 

^|_JY is the BUFFALO PITTS the most satisfactory ROAD ROLLER for Cities, 
^^■^~" Towns, Contractors and Individuals to buy? 

BECAUSE it is 

The only Double Cylinder Road Roller Using a Governor. 

The only Double Cylinder Road Roller with Two Speeds. 

The only Double Cylinder Road Roller which can be used as a Stationary Engine. 

The only Double Cylinder Road Roller with Rocking Grates and Dumping Ash PanlOperated 

from Platform of Engine. 
The Latest, Most Powerful, and Best Road Roller Yet Manufactured. 

Send for Descriptive Catalogue and mention "Good Roads." 



PITTS AGRICULTURAL WORKS, BUFFALO; N..Y. 



ASPHALT PAVEMENTS. 

The Barber Asphalt Paving Co. 

16,000,000 Yards Genuine /^^^^ 8,000,000 Yards, or More 
Trinidad Asplialt Pave- ^^hT^^ Than One-Half of wMcli, 
ment Laid in the H^™""*"!'!! was Laid hy 




United States, fcw This Company. 



No. I, BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

Received the Highest Awards at the World's Columbian Exposition, 
Chicago, 1893 : 

1st. "Asphalt and Asphaltic Cements"; 2d, "Trinidad Asphalt Pavements"; 
3d. "Machinery and Processes." 

Mention Good Roads. 




There Are No Better 
SADDLES Than 

HUNT SADDLES. 



HUNT MFG. CO., Westboro, Mass. 



Mention "Good Roads.' 



The Union 5p^cial, 

Ridden by A. W. W Evans, of New Brunswick, N. J. 



TAKES TinE PRIZE AND THIRD PLACE 



In the 100-Mile Road Raceof the Atalanta 
Wheelmen from New York to Princeton 
and return. 
... Get in the Procession and Win. 



I . ... 



For Further Information Address 



UNION CYCLE MFG. CO., 



259 Golurobus Avenue, Boston, A\2^ss. 



Branches, Philadelphia and Chicago. 



Mention Good Roads. 




niGtl CLASS 

ENGRAVERS 
OF DRAWINGS 
IN LINE OR WASH 



The Mlusfralions 
inlhii Publication 
were made b^ us 



Construction and Improvement of 

ROADS and PAOTENTS 

A SPECIALTY. 

A. T. BYRNE, 

Civil Engineer and 361 Fulton Street, 

Surveyor BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Mention "Good Roads." 



F. A, DUNHAM, CiYil Engineer 

And Expert in Road and Street Improvements. 

Engineer of the famous Union Co. N. J. Road Sys- 
tem, and the Pioneer Brick Pavements in Western 
New York Cities. Consulting Engineer in the de- 
sign and construction of sevrerage systems and 
General Municipal Improvements. Particular 
attention given to the laying out and permanent 
improvement of County Roads. 

Main-Office. 109 Park Avenue-' PLAINFIELD, N.J. 



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